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Full text of "Salopia antiqua : or, An enquiry from personal survey into the 'druidical,' military, and other early remains in Shropshire and the north Welsh borders; with observations upon the names of places, and a glossary of words used in the county of Salop"

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PUBLIC LIi::.Ai:^ I 















p n I s I E I) A r T H t: c sirERi^i rv pres *», r.-i m rri n>, n- 











/ a:. . 




Intbodugtion -----. 1 


Abdon Burf - - - - *. - 3 

Clee Burf 21 

The Titterstone 28 

Mitohefffi Fold - - . , . 30 

The Whetetones ---.., 33 

Circle near Shelve - - - - . 39 


Caractacus -------42 

The Supposed Scene of Engagement between the 

two Armies - - - - . 49 



The Chain of Campa erected by Osioriua coiuiidered 65 
The Line of Camps constructed by Caractacus ex- 
amined - - - - . - 70 

Old Oswestry, or Hen Dinas . - . 77 

Caer Caradoc ------ 81 

The Ditches ----.. 83 

Castle HiU 86 

Castle Ring 87 

Bodbuiy Ring 88 

The Wrekin 89 

Tumuli 99 


Wroxeter 115 

Present State of Wroxeter - - - - 129 

The Devil's Causeway - - - - 134 

Rushbury - 149 

Nordy Bank 151 

Norton Camp .-_--- I53 

CaUow HiU 165 

Chesterton ------- 156 


Wall 163 

The Berth . . - . - - 172 

Ebury Camp 177 

Pontesford Hill 179 



Offii'fi Dyke 181 

Burf Cafltle 210 

Cainham Camp ..... 214' 

Hoar Stones 216 

Quatford ...... 222 

Woolataaton 288 

Observations on the Names of Places - 237 

Places in Shropshire mentioned in Domesday Book 284 

A Glossary of Words used in Shropshire - 293 

Topographical Index 623 




Sepulohral Remams on Abdon Burf - - 18 

The Titteratone 24 

MitcheU'B Fold 34 

View in Little Wenlock - - - 88 

Willow Fann 94 

Britiflh Weapons - - - - 96 

Roman Wall, Wroxeter - - - - 132 

Comparatiye Scale of Dykes - - 180 


EARS having elapsed since a great por- 
tion of the present work was written, 
it becomes necessary for me to advert 
to the circumstance by way of ex- 
plaining a seeming incongruity of dates 
that frequently occurs in the following 
pages. During this interval of four or five years, nearly 
two of which the volume has been in the press, a few 
additional illustrations of the earlier portion have occured 
to me, and they will not unsuitably find their place in a 

As applied in its fullest and generally received mean- 
ing, objection may justly be urged against the term 
^Druidical.*'' So far as the word conveys an idea of the 
remains with which it is associated belonging to a par- 
ticular age, it is as correct as any other that could be 
substituted, and as it has been restricted to this sig- 
nification, I have retained it. At the same time, I must 
confess that with the current opinions regarding Druidical 
Remains, and with the theories which would r^er all 
existing vestiges of this epoch to sacrificial and religious 
rites, I have but little sympathy or concurrence. There 
are undoubtedly sufficient reasons for believing that the 


Dmidio Priesthood were accustomed to immolate human 
beings, and that they practised savage and barbarous 
rites that humanity shudders to describe. We are as- 
sured of this by Csesar, whose veracity as an historian 
is unimpeachable, and if he had fiirther informed us that 
those kinds of monuments still existing, some of which 
are probably anterior to the time he wrote, were used by 
the Druids as ^ altars^ whereon they bound their victims, 
and put them to a cruel and lingering death, we should 
readily give credit to his testunony. But on this matter 
he is silent, and we are left to seek out their true in- 
tention in any way we are most able. The tables of 
stone which still remain known to us under the name of 
Cromlechs, can in reality be regarded as nothing else 
than Sepulchres. Some excavations that have recently 
been conducted have set their intention completely out 
of doubt, and arguments that would strive to invest them 
with a different character, must rest solely upon conjecture 
for their support. In addition to facts alluded to in their 
proper place in the following pages, many others of a 
highly interesting kind have lately been communicated to 
me by a friend, who has taken considerable pains to 
investigate this class of monument in the Channel Islands 
where they abound, and his observations have increased 
the conviction, that the object of all existmg Cromlechs 
was simply Sepulchral. They may belong to various times, 
and there may be great difference in the quality of the 
persons who are interred beneath them, but there cannot 
be much dispute, one would think, about the nature or 
intention of the monuments themselves. Reasoning by 
mduction, it appears more than probable that the whole 


serioB of ^ Druidical^ monuments now existing thioughoat 
England and Wales, Enclosures of stones, stone Valla 
(like the stupendous ones on Abdon Burf and the ad- 
jacent Clee Hills,) and Circles of upright stones, (like 
those on the summit of Pen Maen Mawr) are all of the 
same period, and certainly erected with similar intentions. 
The larger Circles or ' Temples ^ as they would conmionly 
be designated, such as Stone Henge, Avebury, Mitchell's 
Fold, &c. might have been used for devotional purposes ; 
imagination would at all events lead us to indulge in such 
an opinion, as it seems not unlikely that the great fields 
of burial surrounding these remarkable monuments, should 
have had some building or temple that was used for re- 
ligious purposes, contiguous to them. It is not unreason- 
able to suppose that these remains were originally ap- 
propriated to sacred uses, in connexion with funeral rites. 
It is known however, because the spade which is an 
incontrovertible discloser of the secrets of the chamel 
house has revealed it, that they were at all events used 
as Cemeteries. There is no difficulty whatever in proving 
that all of the foregoing monuments referred to, had a 
Sepulchral character, but that their intention was also 
devotional, must mainly depend upon conjecture. 

There has been a great deal of useless research wasted, 
and much ingenuity thrown away, in endeavouring to 
shew that the Druids left a number of monuments behind 
ihem, that evinced their knowledge of science, and 
especially of astronomy ; we read, for instance, of Druid- 
ical Gnomons and Bock Basons ! Rocking Stones, cradles 
for baby antiquaries, are adduced, to show their skill in 
mechanics ! all of which are merely natural productions. 


as a careful examination will sufficiently prove. In the 
same way we find their burial places denoted Bardic 
circles ! and any accidental hole or mark that the over- 
laying slab of a Cromlech has received through a series 
of ages, is magnified into some magical perforation 
through which the officiating Priest listened to the cries 
of the dying and drew from them his auguries ; or if the 
mark be on the surface it is inmiediately interpreted to be 
a groove or channel down which the blood of the sufferer 
flowed. It is really tedious to read such fanciful opinions, 
and painful to know that these errors are still upheld. 
A little toil with the spade will readily controvert such 
views, and serve I think to shew that there is nothing 
now existing of a ' Druidical' period, but what resolves 
itself into a remain of an essentially Sepulchral kind. 

The Channel Islands, as a group, are perhaps richer 
and more interesting in ancient stone monuments than any 
other space of ground of the same superficial extent. 
Each island contains many specimens of these rude 
structures, or as they are termed by the Islanders, Pou- 
qudajfs; a term manifestly allusive to the superstitious 
feeling with which they are regarded by the conunon 
people, who are fearful of passing them after nightfall, 
under the apprehension that they are the abode of an 
evil Spirit. (Isl. puH; C. Brit, pwca^ mains daemon. 
Isl. Ug^ sepulchrum. C. Brit, llech^ a hiding-place. S. Goth. 
puke^ diabolus. The Pttg and Puck of Ben Jonson and 
Shakspeare, and the Powke of the Metrical Romancers. 
See Glossary, p. 534.) Several of the Crondechs in these 
Islands have been opened by Mr Lukis, and from a com- 
munication that he has been kind enough to make to me 


on the subject, I am enabled to lay a brief account of 
them before the reader. 

The first that was opened is called the "Grand Autel,'' 
or " L^ Autel des Vardes,^ and stands on the summit of 
a small sandy hill on Kancresse common in the Vale 
Parish, about half a mile from the sea, in the Island of 
Guernsey. It consists of five ponderous Cap-stones rest- 
ing on supports of a considerable size. The whole length 
of the interior is about forty feet, and the breadth about 
fourteen, which gradually diminishes towards the east end. 
After digging through drift-sand to the depth of about 
five feet, the labourers came to a stratum of burnt human 
bones and coarse unbaked pottery. All the bodies ap- 
peared to have been deposited originally with some degree 
of order and care. The surface of the natural soil was 
rudely paved with fiat beach stones; on this pavement 
was a stratum of rolled pebbles, on which were placed the 
human ashes and pottery. Above the burnt bones were 
flat stones similar to those forming the pavement, and 
over these a thick stratum of limpet shells. In some 
cases the urns when nearly perfect, contained the bones; 
but generally the fragment/^ of urns were scattered about, 
and mixed up with the bones. Mullers, stone amulets, 
clay beads, &c. were the chief articles found. The 
Cromlech is surrounded by a Circle of stones. The 
entrance into it is at the east end, which is much 
lower than the west. That this monument was a place 
of Sepulture, is sufficiently evident from these facts. 

The next Cromlech opened by Mr Lukis, ia called 
*'V autel du Tus,'' or "Dehus,'' or "K autel du 
Grand Sarazin,^' near Paradis, about two miles from 

n nfTRODucnoN. 

the *^ Grand Autel,"^ and within view of it, on the east 
side of the same island. Here too we may diBcem, in 
the appelation, ^^Dehiu,** the same Baperstitiona refeiv 
ence as is observable in the general title of Pauqu^layi 
that all of the Cromlechs have obtained. For ^^Dehus^ 
or **Tehus^ etymologically signifies a daemon or vanish- 
ing spirit, from the Celtic and Latin DuritUj which 
means a spectre. (See Glossary, mider Deugb.) This 
Cromlech is irregularly constructed, and appears to have 
had additions made to it at different periods. It is 
remarkable for a distinct chamber added to the north 
side of the entrance, which is at the east end. The 
^ole length of the Cromlech measures about thirty- 
eight feet, and like the other is surrounded by a Circle 
of stones. The operation of digging commenced under 
the large western CapHstone. The earth was found 
much disturbed, and nothing turned up to reward the 
labour, but on working eastward, where the soil had 
been undisturbed for centuries, the results were differ- 
ent. As in the *' Grand AuteF great order was ob- 
servable in the disposition of the bodies, although the 
strata were not so well deflned. Limpet shells were 
found, however, in greater abundance. The nature and 
shape of the urns were different from those found in the 
'^ Grand Autel,^ perhaps indicating another age. Other 
Cromlechs and Kistvaens were successively opened, and 
all of them, more or less, exhibited proofs of having 
been devoted to the same purposes. 

Li the year 1785, a verjr interesting monument 
was discovered on Mont de la Ville. It consisted of 
a single pillar and a Trilithon in alternate succession 

unrBODuenoN. vu 

enclosing a oiroular space. The number of Trilithons 
was six, that at the west end being the Uurgest. At 
the east the entrance was formed like a Cromlech, 
having four large Gap-stones. Perhaps there is not 
any monument existing like it. There are several 
Circles of Trilithons mentioned by Sjoborg in his 
valuable work on Swedish and Norwegian antiquities, 
which resemble it in this particular, though they are 
not separated by pillars. One of these Circles consists 
of seven Trilithons placed at equal intervals, and an- 
other of ten, in the centre of which stands a pillar. 
When the stones were removed, and the summit of 
the Mont de la Ville levelled, burnt human bones, 
coarse unbaked pottery, and stone celts were discovered, 
all of them relics shewing that the area had be^i 
used as a place of Sepulture. 

This very remarkable monument formerly existed in 
the island of Jersey, but it may be seen now at 
Henley in Oxfordshire, where it remains destined per- 
haps to point out to posterity the Vandalism and false 
Uberality that once benighted the islanders of Jersey. 
They presented it to General Conway, who erected it in 
his park. The taste that prompted such a desecration, 
is happily now unknown, and we may hope that many 
a venerable and crumbling vestige of antiquity which a 
few years back was misunderstood and neglected, is by 
the present generation better appreciated, and will be 
better preserved. 

A Cromlech in the parish of Auneville was explored 
by the owner of the property where it stands, in the 
summer of 1839. A representation of it is givoa in 


the^ Arclueologia, Vol. xxviii., fix)in which it appears 
to conost of a single Capnstone, measuring about fifteen 
feet and a half in length, and thirteen in breadth. It 
contained, like those opened by Mr Lukis, in Guernsey, 
burnt human bones, coarse rude pottery, and stone 
celts: and the entrance also was at the east end. 

Another Cromlech may be seen on a promontory 
called the Couperon, which is of a diiferent kind to 
those existing in Jersey, or any of the adjacent islands. 
Tt consists of five Cap-stones and sixteen supports; 
the whole length of the interior being about thirty 
feet and the width two feet and a half. The Crom- 
lech is surrounded, not by a circle, as in the other 
cases, but by a parallelogram of stones; the only in- 
istance of this form at present discovered in the Channel 
Islands. It has not yet been opened. 

There are several Cromlechs in the island of Aldemey, 
some of which were opened by the brother of Mr Lukis 
in the year 1838, and found to contain burnt human 
bones and pottery. 

In the island of Herm there are several stone 
Circles, lying near together, and composed of not more 
than twelve stones. In the centre of each Circle is a 
stone lying prostrate, which may formerly have stood 
erect. Two of these Circles have been partially opened 
by miners in the island, and were found to contain 
burnt himian bones, coarse pottery, and celts. 

The larger Cromlechs opened by Mr Lukis, contained 
bones of men, women, and children, and he inclines 
to consider them as appropriated to a tribe or family. 
Burnt bones of horses and oxen, and also boars'* tusks. 


were found mixed up with the human remains. The 
general character of the pottery was of a ruder kind 
than that figured in Sir Richard Hoare's Ancient Wilt- 
shire. The clay with which some of the urns wai^ 
formed, was extremely coarse. The forms were various ; 
those urns composed of the finer clay being the most 
elegant in shape. They appeared to have been sun- 
dried, and not baked by fire, although some were par- 
tially blackened and coated with ashes, as if they had 
been placed with bodies on the funeral pile. A few 
were ornamented near the rim, the zigzag being the 
most prevalent pattern. The scored lines forming the 
ornament appeared to have been made with a pointed 
instrument, like those found near Wiesbaden (see p. 107); 
and as pointed bone instruments were found with them, 
they may have served that purpose. 

Excepting in one instance no metal was discovered 
in these Cromlechs of the Channel Islands. But in 
that one, called ^' La Roche qui Sonne,'*^ and to which 
more than ordinary superstition is attached by the 
country people, a small brass ring like a spring bracelet 
was found. Of this Cromlech, which is said to havo 
been the largest in the island of Ouemsey, only one 
smaU Cap-stone, resting on two supports, now remains. 
The pottery which it contained was of a finer description 
than that discovered in the other Cromlechs. 

From the fimeral remains of this early period, to 
which it would be hazardous to assign any date, I 
come to the next division of the volume, or that called 
the British period. The age which may be assigned to 
the Military Remains here described, varies from the 


invasioii of the oountry by the Romaiui in the year 
55^ B.C. to their final subjugation of it under Agrioola 
in the year 79> a.d. Thna this portion oomprises an 
attempt to elucidate the art of castrametation and the 
prinoiples of defence which the Britona adopted during 
this interval of nearly a hundred and forty years, the 
time they were struggling to maintein their independ- 
ance. Several of these works lie in secluded districts, 
they are positions taken up on mountunous and nearly 
inaccessible places, and as they are described fix>m per- 
sonal examination for the first time, the investigaticm 
may perhaps contribute in some degree to a more ac- 
curate knowledge of the means of resistance, and of the 
strategetical skill of the Britons than we have hitherto 
possessed. However much I may have been mistaken 
in the conclusions that have been drawn on this sub- 
ject, the reader will, I trust, find no cause to censure 
my observations, when they are confined to an account 
of these respective strongholds as they actually exist. 
With the Ordnance Surveys of the districts in which 
they lie, with a sketch book, a compass, and a mea- 
suring tape, I have successively inspected nearly every 
camp in Shropshire and the Welsh Borders, and from 
subsequently comparing them with each other, and pur- 
suing an analogical examination of the whole, I have 
been induced to fix their formation during the epochs 
under which they are ranged. It was this plan of per- 
sonal examination which led to the first discovery of 
the extraordinary remains on the sunmiit of the Glee 
Hills, and to the subsequent disclosure that they were 
of a Sepulchral character. For when we have to en- 


quire into the nature of antiquitiee that lie out of the 
reach of history and records, it can only be by means 
of induction that we shall obtain the least insist into 
their intention. Etymology may occasionally impart a 
slight ray of light to dispel the obscurity that over- 
shadows them. This is valuable, in union with infer- 
ences drawn from analogy and actual surveys, but not 
of much use without them. When the names of things 
and places are critically investigated, and when tra- 
dition is placed by the side of subjects enveloped in 
darkness, a spark may perchance be struck out that 
will tend to illumine a path of uncertainty : but if we 
add to it a careful scrutiny of the object itself, a dili- 
gent comparison of it with things that bear some re- 
semblance, if we measure them carefully, and analyse 
them by scale, their real conformity will become ap- 
parent, and though after all we may still be unable to 
affix the theta of exact date, yet we may doubtlessly 
classify them with some approximation to correctness. 
It can however only be from obtMuing a greater num- 
ber of Personal Surveys, from possessing more results 
of individual toil, that we shall be enabled to arrange, 
I may almost say, under their proper years, the Earth- 
works and Ante-Norman Fortresses of Great Britain. 
Nor is it a vain hope, that leads us to expect that 
accurate planning of the remaining works and an in- 
spection of the suiTOunding districts may effect it. 

I have examined nearly all of the Camps in War- 
wickshire and the north of Gloucestershire, but they 
appear to have had little, if indeed any connexion, with 
the great chain constructed during the campugn of 


Ostorius. Those I have investigated lie on the summit 
of the Cotswold, which are a broken range of Hills 
dividing the borders of Woroestershire, Warwickshire, 
and Gloucesteishire, into a series of vallies. All of 
these fortified positions are placed on the projecting or 
most prominent point of the respective heights, and in 
just such positions as are most favorable to repel as- 
sailants, as well as to command a view of the curving 
hills on which they are erected. This independant line 
of fortresses may be said to commence with Meon 
Hill in the north, six miles south of Stratford upon 
Avon, and to terminate with Kimsbury Castle, near 
Painswick. If the eminences on which they stand were 
one long undivided range, they would form a succession 
of Camps extending twenty-five miles in a straight line ; 
but the hills gradually grow lower at the northern and 
southern ends, till they entirely merge into the plains. 
If the bearing of these different heights was produced,, 
they would become, to a certain degree, parallel with 
each other. For simplification, I class them according 
to the respective ranges on which they are found. 

At the northern extremity is a camp on Meon Hill, 
an important detached post at the end of the Cotswold 
Hills. It is separated by a plain from the Broadway 
Hills, and seven miles from Farmcombe, a large irregular 
camp near Saintbury, and the first on that range. 
South-east, at Seven Wells Farm, in Camp Field, are 
slight vestiges of two small quadrangular works recently 
pointed out to me by their proprietor Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart. I believe these had no connexion with 
the works already and hereafter to be mentioned, but 


that they were of a later time, and oonstructed when 
the Icknieid Street was formed, which runs close by 
them, bearing here the name of the Saltway. Between 
Weston Subedge and Church Honey-bourn, the same 
road is called Buckle Street; from hence to Alcester, 
the Icknieid Street; thence northwards to Studley, the 
Hayden Way, and then the Icknieid Way as far as 
King^s Norton: between Birmingham and Lichfield it 
bears the name of the Icknieid Street again. In the 
south it joins the Fosse at Bourton on the water, or 
Stow in the Wold. To resume, however, the subject 
of the Gamps on this first line. South of Farmcombe, 
on Shenborough or Shunborough Hill near Stanton, is 
a large semi-elliptical camp with double yalla (un- 
noticed in the Ordnance Survey, No. xliv.). A little 
more to the south, above Hayles wood, is a small 
outpost, forming the last upon this line of entrenchments. 

An isolated eminence, so important as Bredon Hill, 
was of course converted into a strong hold. There are 
two large concentric valla at the north end like those 
at Shenborough and on Qeeve Cloud. It is highly im- 
probable that the Romans should have formed the first, 
and not less so that they should have constructed the 

On Oxenton Hill, south of Bredon, and separated 
from it by the vale of Evesham, is the first fortress of 
the second line of camps. It is an important one, being 
the key to the fertile valley just mentioned, and also to 
that of Dumbleton, more to the east. It is in immediate 
connexion with Dixton Hill, Nottingham Hill, and Cleeve 
Cloud. The works on the four hills constitute the second 


aeries, and they are placed on a lofty barrier that is 
diBtinot from the Broadway Chain or former one. They 
have all double valla, and in form are Bemi-elliptical. 
On Cleeve Cloud there are also three or four circular 
epaulements on the ride and summit of the hill, which 
present some anomaUes deserving attention. 

The camps in the third series commence at Leck- 
hampton Hill, and include one on its summit, one on 
Crickley Hill ; that of Eimsbury Castle, where it is stated 
Roman coins have been found, and a small but very 
strong outpost on Ring Hill near Harefield, on the ex- 
treme south west angle of this extenrive line. The 
country then becomes more varied in its aspect, and no 
intervening position occurs for nearly ten miles southward, 
when the great Roman encampment of Uley Bury forms 
the first link of that chain of fortresses which for reasons 
given in the following pages are attributable to the cam- 
paign of Ostorius. 

The entire absence of rectilinear vallation in the 
three former lines of fortresses, and their wanting also 
that circularity of outline which marked some of the 
fortifications constructed under the later dominion of the 
Romans, lead me to think that none of the Military 
Works in either of these ranges can be safely considered 
to have been constructed by the Romans. Nor does it 
appear probable that the Metatores who laid out the 
right-lined encampments in the south should so uni- 
formly have departed from this custom in all the 
fortifications in the north. 

As the spade has been shewn to be a faithful inter- 
preter of the hidden meaning of Cromlechs and stone 


CiieleB, it has likewise been found equally valuable in 
proving the exact oonfonnity that the foundations of 
Roman buildings in Great Britain bear towards each 
other. If it were more diligently used in examining 
eariy ecdesiastical architecture, the same valuable results 
would no doubt reward the enquirer for his trouble. 
It has been observed, for instance, that the substructure 
of Roman buildings in this country is universally the 
same, wherever they are. The foundation of the city 
waUs of London, and these of several Stationary Camps 
or Fortresses, such as Richborough, &c., shew that the 
first operation was to dig a trench the intended width 
of the wall, about e^hteen inches or two feet deep ; this 
was filled with dry sand, or gravel, or loose stones ; the 
first course of stone was laid on this mass dry also ; but 
above, the work went on in regular courses of masonry with 
mortar as usual. At a distance of about two feet, the 
thickness of the wall was diminished two or three inches 
by a course being bevelled or chamfered thus 
and then canned up verticaUy. The earth was 

raised several feet at the back of the wall, on f^ ' 

the inside, higher than the external level, as I*— 
Vegetius describes. And as the Romans never departed 
from fixed principles of construction in their buildings, 
they as scrupulously adhered to them in the formation 
of their Roads. An attention to these simple facts may 
do much towards ascertaining the precise age to which 
buildings belong where Roman tile are used. 

Having mentioned this much about the nature of 
Roman foundations, I will briefly describe those that 
are Norman, as observable in the very interestiog Oiurch 


of Barrow in Shropehire. Here the foundation is of 
three stages or steps, one receding about six inches 
behind the other, thus [_ from the upper- 
most of which the wall .- rises vertically. 

An examination of the I early English por- 
tion of Cooknoe Church in Northamptonshire has also 
shewn me that the foundations of that age were nuide 
with rough, unhewn materials, set together in dry work, 
for a height of five feet, when, from the top of an earth 
table of hewn stone that was slightly bevelled inwards, 
the walls rose vertically like the others. 

After the earlier portion of the present volume was 
printed, some Roman coins were found on the Wild 
Moors near Kynnersley, the estate of his Grace the 
Duke and Earl of Sutherland, by whose kindness the 
knowledge of their discovery was communicated to me, 
but too late to find an insertion in its appropriate place ; 
I therefore allude to it here. Should any thing of a 
Roman character be discovered hereafter in the same 
locality, it may tend to shew that the circumvallation 
of Wall has connexion with an earlier period than that 
to which I have already assigned it. The coins in 
question belong to the lower empire, and are of that 
kind 80 commonly found in Great Britain. They be- 
long to the reign of Constantino. Some of them have 
on the reverse two soldiers with standards, and the su- 
perscription of "Gloria Exercitvs.'^ Others belonging 
to the same reign, have on the reverse a figure of 
Victory with a shield and standard; on the exergue 
T. R. B. : and a third kind bear on the reverse a wolf 
and representation of Romulus and Remus. 

INTRODircnOlf. XVll 

In the same manner the exiBtence of Oray Ditch 
and St AnBOBMOHin Dtchk became known to me, after 
that diviaicm- of the Volnme was printed, in which nn 
account of them woidd most properly have appeared. 
The former, like the rest that I have examined, seems 
most likely to have been a boundary line. It begins at 
RebelUoii KnoU near Bradwell in Westmoreland, and is 
out through by the Roman road that goes from Lan- 
c^bBter through Eorkby Stephen to Brough, a little be- 
fore it reaches the latter jdace. Its course is north 
west, jmd it is cnly distinguishable iiom the foot of 
Mioklow Hin near BdentfM to BebelHon Ejioll, a dis- 
tance of something more than half a mile. There are 
no decided remains of a Fosse, though appearances of 
one are perceptible on the north side. 

The vicinity of Brough abounds with vestiges of 
Ronum occupation, and well deserves careful exaauna*' 
tien^ both far the camp in its vknmty, on Mam Tor, 
the vaHaticn round Casdeton and that at Brough itself, 
as well as with reference to the present state of a bisnoh 
of ibe Wattling Street that leads over Stidmnoor Forest 
by Maiden Oastte, from Bowes to Broo^ and thence 
tkr Brougham Castle; Doci!ob*s Gatb also seems to be 
a Roman Road, whichr goes deviously over OIossop Moor, 
beginning new Huvst MiH, where it leaves a CM 
Havbomr s noile to the south West, and another Cold 
Haibonr iiwo miles in the same direction, imd then 
runs for ten or twelve mSes to Brough. Batham Oats 
likewise, which traverses Tidswell Moor to Brough, 
appears to be a Roman thoroa^are. 

But lest any evidence should be wanting to shew that 



Dykei were intended for division and not for defensiYe 
lines, the fact of St Adboroug^es Dyche forming the 
boundary of WoroeBtershire and OIouoesterBhire, is ex- 
pressly to the point. St Adborough or Edbniga was the 
Tutelary Sabt of the Abbey of Pershore, and in a decree 
relating to Broadway in WoroeBtershire, temp. Henry VI. 
we find this Dyke alluded to as an ancient boundary in 
these words. '* Et jaoent super Gotteswold, ex parte 
oooidentali cujusdam antiqui fossi, sive fossati, Yocati 
Sktnt Adbobouohbs Dtchb, alias Msrb dtchx.'*^ The 
passage is repeated in the same decree, and sufficiently 
indicates by the alias of Meredyohe (see p. 221. following) 
that it was then, as it is now, a boundary ditch. The 
Dyke itself lies about a mile east of Middle Hill on Seven 
Welb farm, it is much depressed, and partially hidden 
by a wall being built nearly all along its crest. The 
length varies from a quarter to. half a mile. I am in- 
debted to Sir Thomas Phillipps for making me aware 
of its existence, and pointing out the exact course it 

With the Anglo Saxon Period the first part of the 
volume terminates. Whether my researches will here- 
after be carried lower than the Domesday Survey is at 
present uncertain. What has been attempted may be 
said to embrace the History of Shropshire to ihe time 
of the Conquest. Ample materials have been collected 
by Mr Lloyd, which are a good foundation to work upon 
for a Manorial History of the County, and these, if 
they were published by themselves, would be a most 
valuable contribution to our national topography. 

The Olobsabial part of the volume was the root from 


which the rest of it spning. In arranging this portion 
for the press, I laboured under difficulties that have 
probably been experienced by others who have under- 
taken a similar work. It was doubtful what words ought 
to be excluded, and what ought to be admitted. Some 
were current among us that were used with the same 
application in other counties; and hence the objection 
immediately occurred that they were not entitled to in- 
sertion. Where the same word had different meanings 
under the same sound, this argument did not apply, but 
when a word for instance was used by us in a sense like 
to that which it possessed among the Brigantes and Iceni, 
it was difficult to decide whether it ought to find a place 
among the rest. I thought, however, that if Salopians 
had not as much right to call it theirs, as the inhabitants 
of Graven or Norfolk, that at all events, one use of a 
Plrovincial Olossary was to shew to what distance words 
had been carried from the North of Europe, and under 
what modifications they still existed. For we should 
bear in mind that these etymolo^cal affinities are some- 
thing like Erratic Blocks in geology, they serve to shew 
how far the tide of northern languages hem flowed. 

It is not the least remarkable feature in the Dialect 
of Shropshire, that it should have borrowed scarcely any 
words directly from the contiguous territory of Wales, 
and I think this fact may serve to prove that the 
English language as spoken by Salopians in an agricul- 
tural district is marked by extreme accuracy and purity. 
Wales seems to have presented an insurmountable bar^ 
rier. Totally dissimilar in all its form of speech, and 
in its terminations, the Welsh has never incorporated 

zx iirraoDucnoN. 

itaelf In the leaet degree with our provincwKiniui. Even 
in that part of the county roond Osweetry, where an 
intarooiuae with the Principality is greateat, and there 
ia no natural line of demaroation to out off the admix- 
ture of the two languages, they have in no way merged 
into or corrupted each other. There ia nothing like a 
Cambro-Britiflh patoia, or an Angb-Welah idiom ob- 
aervable. The Engliah here is quite as free from 
Welsh expressions as it ia in the centre of the king- 
dom. There is however very perceptible a Welsh ac- 
cent, and this strongly characterises the spee^ of the 
whole of that part of the county which' touches on 
Montgomeryshire, Flintshire, and Denbighshire. It is 
perhaps rather the peculiarity of the natives of Wales 
than of those whose progenitors have been fixed in 
Shropshire. This accent is perceptible from Chirk and 
fUlesmere in the north, to Melveriy and Montford 
Bridge. The Severn probably checked its* further dif- 

The English spoken in the great valley, aa it may be 
called, that extends from Shrewsbury to C3un, bounded 
on the east by Lyth Hill, Pcmsert Hill, and the Stiper* 
stones, and on the west by Montgomeryshire, ia marked 
by a sharpness of pronunciation so very decided, that 
a second dialect, or Bishop^s Castle dialect, may with* 
out hesitation be assigned to this district 

The high recitative with which the natives of the 
Church Stretton valley terminate their sentences, fixes 
a third dialect in that division of Shropshire, which 
commencing also at Shrewsbury, and terminating at 
Ludlow, is bounded by the before-mentioned hills on 


the wert, andi Gondover^ the Lawtey, CSaer Caradoo, 
and Norton Camp on the east. 

A fourth differenoe is observ^le in Corre Dale : com- 
menoing at Wenlook, and gradaaOy merging into the last 
before it reaches Ludlow. The three Clee Hills on the 
south-east, and the extensive limestone range of Wenlock 
Edge, form its boundaries. The early words used in 
this department, and the distinct enunciation of all their 
vowels, so that each letter has its proper sound, lead me 
to consider this as the Attic of the Shropshire dialect. 

In the valley from Ludlow to Bridgenorth, bounded 
by the Clee Burfs to the north, and the Titterstone to 
the south, a thick and drawling method of speaking 
prevails, and continues until it finally degenerates into 
the suppressed articulation that is apparent in Wor- 

A sixth dialect exists, quite diswimilar to all of the 
foregoing, which belongs to the mining district round 
Broseley and Wellington. This is very copious and 
variable; each parish nearly has its peculiar intonation; 
the cadences of Madeley Wood differ fit>m those at 
Jackfield, and the notes of a Dawley Collier are readily 
distinguishable from those of a forgeman at Lilleshall. 

To these remarks it may be added, that there are 
not any words introduced in the present Glossary, which 
the Author has not heard used in the senses in which 
they are explained. 

In justice to Ins own feelings, as well as an acknow- 
ledgment of services whilst the volume has been in the 
Press, he cannot finally dismiss it, without cordially thank- 
ing his friends Lieutenant Colonel Colby, of the Ord- 


nanoe Map Office, Sib Samukl Mctbiok, of Ooodrioh 
Court, Albebt Wat, Esq., Sib Thomam Phillippb, Babt., 
and Sib Hbztbt Dbtdbn, Babt., for their prompt and 
kind aisistanoe whenever he required it. 

^ncettam ^^oti. 


\y '5^ 

BOON BURF m the most elevated 
of those throe ShropaWre mountairiB 
which are usually termed the Bro^*n 
Cleb HiLiJii, or the Cler Hills, 
They are respectively called Ardon 
BuBF, or THE Barf; the Clee Burp, 
and the Tittekstone* The present 
one derives it« distinguishing appel- 
lative of ARr>opf, from having that 
little village at its foot^ It ib dif- 
ficult to say how the name of Evnp 

* H was one of the stations of the grand tri- 
gonometrical survey, and proved by General Mudgo 
to be IBOfi feet above the level of the »ea at lo^ 
water Pat^rson's Roads, edit. 1836. p. GdQ. 

Thomas MyttoR Em^ of Shipton Hall, hav- 
ing heard that a view of the sea was obtained 
from the summit in fine weather by the eugineere 
who conducted the Ordnance survey has endea- 
voured on several occasions to test the accuracy 
of the information, but hitherto owing to the 
haxineas of the weather, without aueeesa. When 
we made our last astient together we again tried 
to discover the ocean by means of a very power- 
ful gla^, but the sky waa not sufliciently dear 
to enable us to see it. Whoever wishes to catch 
a ghmpse of it must look in the direction of the 
Meroey. It will be found by those aoqaunted 

or Barf, as the lower orders cadi it, originated. I am 

inclined to think that it was acquired in consequence of 

the vast wall of stones which surrounds its summit ; in 

the same way as the Glee Burf takes its title, from the 

C. Brit. Buarth^ an enclosure^ Bar^ in C. Brit. Ir. (Tom. 

and Gael, signifies a summit, or the top, but the former 

derivation seems the better, as applying more closely to 

the extraordinary remains which are found upon this 

eminence. On the same principle the remains on Stape- 

ley Hilly hereafter mentioned, are called Mitchell'^b Fold. 

They are of such remote antiquity, so extensive, and 

possessing such a high degree of interest, that it is 

surprising they should hitherto have escaped the attention 

of the topographer and antiquarian. 

The sununit of Abdon Burf is encircled by a Vallum 

ot.M stone, as Basalt is termed by the Salopians, from 

the C. Brit. Oael. Arm. My niger', which encloses from 

twenty to thirty acres. This Vallum is sixty-five feet 

wide at its base on the South East side, and is beyond 

all dispute an artificial construction, inasmuch as there is 

not a stone visible larger than a man would be able to 

lift. Across its crest it is eight feet wide, and twelve 

with the nature of the intenrenine country, that this is the inost 
likely quarter to find it For the It elsh mountains to the left would 
render it impossible for any one to see it on the Welsh coast The 
GlouoesterBhire Hills would impede a view of the Bristol ChanneL 
But no land of any consideraUe eminence obstructs the view on 
the Chediire side. And according to the evidence of an intelligent 
old man who had assisted the engineers employed to make the sur- 
vey, it was in this quarter that the sea was observed. He described 
to us that in the direction of Lirerpool, he saw Uie ships sailing back- 
wards and forwards veiy distinctly. 

> There are two fortresses of the Amdo-Saxon period one near 
BoichurtA, the other just on the outside of Shropshire near Mere call- 
ed the Bbbth, haply in allusion to their being endoeed. An emi- 
nence two miles South of Stourport is called the Bubf. Bubva 
Bawk^ a laige encampment close to JTntff, co. Radn. Bibth HiU^ 
east of Gadbubt Banks in Gloucestershuie. 

' The derivation of this word may be considered sound although 
Mr Muichison tells me that du stone is not invariably black, as a 
loUto basalt exists near Cleobury Mortimer We call it du stone all 
over this range of Shropshire because it is a blade stone. 

feet high above the interior level of the hill. In some 
parte externally it faUs as much as fifty feet, and ex- 
cepting where a modem entrance has been made, and 
made too, with considerable trouble, it is even now a 
barrier arduous to surmount. The enclosed area is of 
an oval form, measuring from North to South one thou- 
sand three hundred and seventeen feet, and at the widest 
point from East to West six hundred and sixty feet. 
A modem wall has been built along part of the North 
East side, as a boundary of property, and a few pits have 
been sunk at different times within the great enclosure 
for the sake of getting coal. 

At the North West point a Carnedd rises eight feet 
above the level of the hill, standing upon a base that is 
sixty feet in diameter. There is an appearance of a 
Carnedd on the East side where a road terminates that 
crosses the enclosure. But as the Vallum was here at 
least the thickness of sixty feet at its base, probably the 
stones have been removed for the purposes of making the 
present road, and whether it was originally a Carnedd or 
not, it is now difiBcult to ascertain. The appearance is 
evidently unnatural, but from what causes we can only 
say from conjecture : there are marks of another Carnedd 
below the Vallum on the same side. The whole of the 
surface of the South end of Abdon Burf is covered with 
blocks of basalt, generally of a small size near the road, 
with one exception which will be alluded to hereafter, but 
as we get neurer to the Southem edge of the Vallum they 
are more ponderous, and lie scattered in greater disorder 
and confusion. These things cannot be accounted for satis- 
factorily by G^olo^sts, although the same marks are 
visible upon the two other Clee Hills; it is manifest 
that all these enclosures are artificial, and that however 
much volcanic agency was exerted at a remote time, it 
had nothing to do with the present appearance of the 
Vallum around each, nor with the Circles which are 

oontftined in their area. Perfa^M, it is needless to say 
tiiiis much, but the idea has been suggested by the bo* 
lief that some people knowing the geological features of 
the hills, without haying seen the remarkable monuments 
existing upon their surface, would refer them at once to 
natural causes, and would conclude that the art and labor 
of man had had nothing to do with their collocation. 

The earliest account we possess of the religious rites 
of the ancient Britons states that their worship was 
*^ Dbuidical.^ Every thing we positively know about 
their ceremonies is derived from Caesar^ and from his 
description we gather that the art and learning of the 
Druids all the world over had its origin in this country. 
In his time those who wished to attain perfect knowledge 
of the Druidical discipline, and learning in general, tra- 
velled hither to acquire it. The Druids expounded refi- 
gion, and ordered all the ceremonies of public and pri- 
vate sacrifices. They were entrusted with the education 
of youth; they decided all controversies and disputes. 
They punished the guilty; rewarded the virtuous, and 
excommunicated from a share in the rites of religion, even 
princes, or nobles who disobeyed their mandates. It is said 
that they learned many verses, and continued their studies 
for twenty years. As their chief doctrine, they taught 
the immortality of the soul. They instructed youth in 
the motions of the stars and heavenly bodies, the mag- 
nitude of the earth, the nature of the world, and the 
dignity and power of the gods. In speaking of Gaul, 
Caesar further says, that they assembled at a particular 
spot at a certain period of the year, and sat there in 
a Muyred place^ and all people who had suits or contro- 
versies resorted thither to have them decided. Such is 
the account which Caesar has transmitted to us of the 
Druids. We learn from it that they were idolaters; 
and there is every reason for believing that their objects 
' De Bello Gallico. lib. vi. c. 13—23. 

of worahip, were identioal with thofle of the followera of 
Baal. Like them they were addicted to the study of 
the heaveoB, and in the aame way they offered up human 
victims to JBaaly JBdy JBehtSy BMnm^ Apollo or the &m. 
After the Romans had conquered Britain they erected 
several altars to Baal^ whidi have at di£Rarent times been 
'discovered. The connexion of Druidism with the name 
of BtMol is well known in the lines of Ausonius, himself 
a Druid, who writes 

Ta BaiocaaoB Sdm Dmidom satns 

Si fiiina non mUit fidem 
Beleni saciatiim duds e templo genus. 

Druidism and idolatry are in fact one and the same 
thing, as will appear from the following summary. 

Hn in Welsh is an epithet which is appUed to' the 
deity ftom its power of pervading all things^ Thus 
Ha Oadam is the same as ApoUo, the Sun^ or B€Mi» 
In the sacred writings Hb or the Hebrew article Hua, 
as. Lowth says on Jerem. xiv. 22. is often equivalent 
to the true and eternal Ood'; the to Airo of Plato' 
when he speaks of the first being, the Self-existent 
Being: the airi^ ot the Septuagint, In mythology 
Hu and Baal are one and the same. They are identi- 
cal with Osmu, or the governor of the esffth^. Osiris 
was a symbol of the sun^ CsBsar says the Oauls 
worshipped Apollo. The Gauls were followers of the 
Druidic rites according to the same authoi*. Upon scnne 
of the coins of Cunobelin, Apollo, or Belus is represented 
playing a lyre. According to Hesychius the Cretans 
called Apollo the Sun^ or 'AjSeXm. Hence Ausonius in 
his address to Phofbicius one of the teachers at Bom> 

deaux says 

Non xetioebOy senem 
Nomine PJuebicium: 
' Davies Celt Researches, p. 164. Owen's Welsh Diet under ^u. 

> Paikhunt's Heb. Lex. p. 155, 6. 

> Higgins Gelt Ihnids, p. 180. 

I Histoire du Ciel, t i. p. 174. lb. p. 67. 
^ Pnfiendorf Religio Gentium Aicttia, p. 21. 

Oai Beleni aditauB 

Nil opis inde tulit. 

8ed tamen, at pladtum, 

Stiipe flatus Drwddtm 

Gentifl Annoricn 

Bardigale Cathednim 

Nati opera obtinoit. 

Commemor. VtoL fiordigal. X. 
HsuooABALua, or as it IB more oommonly found in 
inscriptiona, Alaoabalub was a deity recogniaed as the 
Sun. Sou Alaoabalo Juuua Balbillus Aquila, as an 
ancient monument preaerves the name^ In Hebrew thia 
is Ahgd Baal^ or Deus BatunduSy the Orbicular God, 
for Aiffol, means round. (Hence the A. Saxon utceoffUL 
and HiMOh^ a wheeh^ naiL, &o.') And what does Herodian 
say! that his image was a $kme of immense magnitude, 
with a circular base, terminating in a cone. Surely these 
things su£Sciently prove the intimate connexion of Druid- 
ism with the worship of Baal or the Sun, and will serve 
to explain the frequent recurrence of Cibclbs where we 
find vestiges of a nature that can be referred to a period 
before Christianity was introduced into Great Britain. 

In the remains upon Abdon Burf numerous indica- 
tions are discernible of the foregoing nature. And first 
of all let us examine the Htuatwn. 

It was the practice of the Druids to choose for their 
places of worship, woods, which stood upon the tops of hills, 
and mountains, as more becoming the dignity and sublime 
offices of their devotions, and being nearer as they sup- 
posed, to the habitation of their Gods. Thus we find 
that the devotions and sacrifices of Balaam among the 
Moabites, the idolatrous rites of the Canaanites, and of 
the ancient Gentiles in general, were performed in Hiffi 
Places. In Scripture the High Places are perpetually 
mentioned as devotional, at least when they are not so 

' Selden de Dis Syriis, p. 146. 149. 

' ParkhniBt^ Heb. Lex. p. 513, 514. No fewer than nine uucrip- 
tions in honour c^ Belatucader have been found in Britain. ArchsBoL 
y. X. p. 118. Belatacader has been generally thought identical with 
Mars. (See Baxter's Gloas. sub Yoce.) 

in ooQflequenoe of the true Odd being worahipped there, 
tliey are spoken of aa spots chosen for the observance <^ 
profane and idolatrous practices. In the former instance 
we read of Abram building an altar to the Lord on a 
mounkdn^ east of Bethel^: of Moses commanding the 
people to set up stones on Mount Ebal, when they had 
passed over Jordan* : of God appearing to Solomon when 
he sacrificed at Oibeon*:. nay even of Christ himself as- 
cending a mountain to pray^ : which is supposed to have 
been a ProMUchaj like that mentioned in the Old Tes- 
tament under the designation of a High Place. For 
these High Places are not always condemned, but then 
only, when they were made use of for idolatrous wor- 
ship, or in a perverse way, by erecting altars on them, 
in opposition to that whidi was in the place which Qod 
had chosen. Thus it has been supposed that that was 
a Proseucha in which Joshua set up a pillar under an 
oak in Sechem^. Again, High Places were the scene 
of gross superstition and idolatry, as we gather from the 
heavy denunciations uttered against the wandering Israel- 
ites if they frequented them. They were commanded 
to destroy every vestige of the kind : ** Ye shall utterly 
destroy all the plaeet wherein the nations which ye shall 
possess served their Gods, upon the hiffh motmiaina and 
up<m the iiibi uid under every preen tree : ye shall over- 
throw their altars, and break their piUar$y and bum their 
gro^Dee with fire'.^ When Solomon built an High Place 
for Ghemosh, who is conjectured by some to be Saturn, 
"he did evil in the sight of the Lord;^ and we find it 
enjoined upon the faithful after the building of the Tem- 
ple of Jerusalem not to ^^ sacrifice upon the tope of the 

* Genesis xiL 8. ' Dent xxviL 4. * '1 Kings iiL 4. 
« Luke vL 12. ' Josh. zzIy. 26. ' Dent xiL 23. 

• Higgiiu in quoCtnc thif chapter ooptei Bariaie in infcrring that the name of 
QOgei waa derived ftom the Hebrew pi a roundish heap of itonei. and that the twelve 
•tones here mentioned were disposed in a drcolar fimn. (8ae Celtie Drulda. ^ VO. A.) 

rtooes here mentioned were disposed in a drcolar fimn. (8ae Celtie Druids, ik 233 

" •-- '-^ -— -- -^ -"• *- '- «»«M» of the parishes of Kman, 

,. , , 1 beginning with Xil are tradition 

bting to the Dvui<fa. (See PWkhurst, Hdmw Lexieon, p. IM. edit 1811. Boriaie Aniiq. 

Hsnee^ sap he, comes the oomnoMnd ica in the names of the parishes of JCfl 
■ aUofthoae places beginning with Kil ai 

itenny, KQpakrkks in almost all of thoee places b^ginninf with Kii are traditions re- 

btmg to tlieDvuids. """ ^ -^ ^Jl , .^.•!^-^ 15.. ..^ ,«, «_. 

of ComwaU, p. 19S.) 


mottntainfl, nor to bum inoeiiM upon the AtZIr, under 
oaks and poplan and elms^^ Sudi paMigeB m these 
sufficiently indioate the prevalence and antiquity of erect* 
ing stones, and piOarsj and aUars on high places. 

The next feature in the remains upon Abdon Bnrf^ 
which favors the opinion of their being devoted to Ido- 
latious or Druidical purposes, is the extensive Basaltic 
VaUvm eurrounding its summit. 

It was the custom of the Druids to enclose their sa* 
cred places, sometimes with a fence of pallisades, and 
sometimes with a mound of earth, or stones to keep off 
the proiane, and to prevent all irreverent intrusion upon 
their mysteries. Hermoldus in his Chronicon de Rebus 
Slaviae, says that the Sclavonians prevented all access to 
their groves and fountains, which they considered would 
become desecrated by the entrance of Christians: that 
they worshipped oaks which they surrounded by a fence of 
wicker work^ Tacitus in the Gbrmania relates that it 
was the custom of the early Oermans to consider their 
woods and groves as sacred ; that those spots were conse- 
crated to pious uses, and the holy recess took the name 
of the divinity who filled the place, which sanctuary was 
never permitted to be seen but with reverence and awe'^ 
Agreeable to this was the practice of the earlier inhabit- 
ants of BritaiOf who, according to the same historian, used 
similar customs with the Germans*. They both worship* 

1 Hoeea iy. 13. 

' Hennoldi et Arnold! Chronica SLavorom, in quibiu res SLayisD^ 
fere a tempore Curoli Magni, usque ad Ottonem iy. aeu ad annum 
Chiisii 1219 exponuntur. Lubec». 1669, 4to. As quoted by Borlase 
from the Variorum notes to Tadt de Morib. Germ. 

' Lucoe et nemoia oonsecnint, Deorumque nonunibus appellant 
secietum illud, quod sola reyerentia yident. Uermania, c. ix. 

* Angli et Varini et Eudoses et* Suardones, et Nuithones flumi- 
nibus aut sy lyis muniuntur ; nee quicquam notabili in singulis, nisi 
quod in commune Hertham, id est, Terram matrem, colunt, eamque 
interyenire rebus hominum, inyehi populis, arbitrantur. Est in 
insula Ocean! Castum nemus, dicatumque in eo yehiculum, veste 
contectum : attingere, uni sacerdote oonoessum. lb. c xl. 


ped the Goddew Hertha. A saored grove on the khod 
of Rugen was dedicated to her. There stood her sacred 
chariot covered with a vestment, which was only allowed 
to be touched by the priest; and when the ceremony 
of her worship was over, the chariot with the sacred 
mantle, and if we may believe report, the goddess her- 
self, were purified in a sacred lake. In this act of 
ablution certain slaves officiated, and instantly perished 
in the wator. Hence the terrors of superstition became 
more widely difflised; a religious horror seized every 
mind, and ail were content to venerate the awful mys- 
tery, which no man could see and live'. Similar en* 
closures are observable upon Oraig y dina$ and Ocutett 
DinoB CarHn in MerianeMkire* ; upon Pen Maeu 
Manor*; at Kam Bre, in OamwiU; at the Arbehws 
in Derbyshire*, and also at Trer Drytt in Angle$ea. 
Rowlands states that Trer Dryw is surrounded by an 
immense agger of earth and stones, evidently brought 
from other places, there not being any indication of 
their being taken from the spot. It has only a single 
entrance, and has been supposed to have been the grand 
consistory of the Druidical administration^. The fences 
at Ka/m Bre^ clearly show that the work was not 
originally designed for military purposes, because they 
are low; they must therefore have been intended to 
separate the sacred groves from violation, to prohibit 
not only cattle, but strangers, and all persons profane, 
on all other but holy days, and on holy purposes, from 
entering the consecrated ground. There is also a mound 
of the same kind round the stone cirdes at Abury. The 
like caution was observed, though for much better 

' Servi miniBtRUit ; qnos statim idem lacus haurit. Arcaniu hinc 
terror .Banctaque ignorantia, quid dt illud, quod tantom peritmi 
vident. lb. 

> Pennant's Wales, v. iL p. 121. 

* Archeol. v. iiL p. 360. « lb. v. viL p. 131. 

^ Rowland's Mona Antiqua, p. 92. 

' Borlaae, Antiq. of Cornwall, p. 117. 


reaBCMifl, at Mount Sinai. *^ Thou ahalt set bounds unto 
the people round about, saying, Take heed unto your* 
sehree, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the 
border of it ; whosoever toueheth the mount shall surely 
be put to death. Set bounds unto the mount and 
sanctify it^^ Lucan, in the following lines, testifies to 
the reverential and devout manner with which the Druids 
regarded thdr places of worship. They kept their woods 

LncuB erat loqgo nunquam violatiu ab flsvo. 
And having glanced at the horrid rites which were cele- 
brated in those silent and gloomy recesses where the light 
of heaven could with difficulty penetrate, he finishes his 
fine description by saying, 

Non iUum cnlta populi propiore fi^eqnentant, 
Sed oesBere deis. FbanaL liL 400. 

Thus it seems that the stream of all authorities, to 
which we can refer concerning this people, runs clearly in 
stating that their rites were performed with mysterious 
solemnity. It is in exact conformity with their customs, 
and with vestiges of hill worship still remaining in part, 
that the High Place on Abdon Burf should be screened 
from observation and access by a mound of stone, which 
would serve at the same time to enclose and protect 
their sacred temples and seats of judgement. 

The next characteristic feature of Abdon Burf having 
been the scite of Druidic worship is the interned appear* 
anee of itt endomre. 

Upon entering it we immediately observe several Gib- 
CLEs of stones: some of these stand two or three feet 
above the present surface. They are of three kinds, are 
ranged from North to South in eight parallel rows, 
and are found in a higher or lower degree of perfec- 
tion. The CiBCLEs most frequent are those composed of 
angle stones. Of this kind there are still discernible 
* Exod. xix.12. 


about twenty, which again may be, Moondly, subdivi- 
ded into single stone circles having concentric ones of 
the same kind, and sometimes having more than one 
concentric circle. None of these stones lie more than 
a foot below the present sur&ce, neither are they gene- 
rally fixed and imbedded very firmly in the soil, for 
a slight blow with our workmen^s mattocks stirred them, 
and we turned them over by an easy degree of leverage. 
The third class of circles are composed of stones thrown 
together in double ridges. Of this kind were nearly one 
half of the number. Yet here again was observable a 
difference in another respect, as they wanted the con- 
centric circles which the single stone circles contained. 
The average width of the whole of these circles is 30 feet. 
Occasionally they are connected with eadi other by a row 
of single stones, sometimes they touch, and in one or 
two instances cut each other. For further insight the 
reader is referred to the accompanying plan which may 
serve to make this description more intelligible. 

These vestiges of a remote age greatly resemble the 
works which Borlase describes as existing upon Karn 
Bbb hill in the parish of lUogan^ OamwaU^ with this 
difference, however, that the circles upon the Burf, are 
much more numerous, and there is, moreover, every reason 
for thinking that those were at no time so extensive as 
these in Shropshire. The remains at Kabn Bbe are sur- 
rounded, as these are, by a mound of stones, and as 
they are similar to the instances ahready quoted as exist- 
ing in MerumeAshire^ Oamarwm$hirBy Anglesea and Der- 
byskirsy no doubt can exist but that the original in- 
tention of each, whatever that might have been, was 
precisely the same. 

There are Forty Four Girglbs now apparent^ on the 

* An old man who has lived dose to the Burf all his life in- 
formed me that these circles were nothing like so perfect now as 
he recollected them to have been. 


North side of the road which traverses Abdon Burf. 
These are not equally entire; but the radius of most 
of them is discernible. One cannot help thinking whilst 
viewing such conformity, that they must all belong to 
the same period. Such an uniform arrangement is evi- 
dently intentional, and we know from other examples 
yet existing, that this methodical disposition was usual. 
Thus in the hundred of Penrith^ Cornwall there are four 
circles which have an equal number of stones, nineteen, 
in each : and in the majority of instances of stone mo- 
numents in the same county, Borlase says there is a 
surprising similarity. 

When we endeavour to seek out the object of these 
singular monuments, we enter upon an investigation full 
of difficulty. There is in truth little beyond hypothesis 
from which conclusions may be drawn. The generaUy 
received opinion is that all Circular Monuments were 
originaOy intended for devotional purposes. The circular 
form was best adapted of any for the bystanders to see 
and hear, and if need were, to participate in parts of the 
sacrificial rites. This figure accords best with the magical 
practices to which the Druids are supposed to have been 
addicted; and, moreover, as there was always a Symbol 
of the Deities which the heathens worshipped, expressive 
in some degree of their attributes, such a symbol would 
naturally be seen in their temples. Thus that of Vesta 
was the earth ; and for the same reason the temple of the 
Ooddess Hbrtha who was worshipped by the Druids, 
would take the like form, the two Goddesses being iden- 
tical.' A Circle^ which would also be a figure of the Sun, 
being a symbol extremely simple, would also more easily 
represent the power and universal influence which per- 
vades all space. So among the Egyptians, we see this 

* VestSD Heriha Gennanonun eo convenit, (jaod Term putatur 
esse et tunitam coronam gerit. Puiendorf, Religio Gentium Arcana, 
p. 318. 


figure, or a serpent oontinually used^ It is not impro- 
bable, though in the absence of direct evidence, it must 
be very uncertain, whether Serpent-worship constituted 
part of the Druidical ceremonial. If, however, it did, 
their temples would assume a Serpentine, or Circular form. 
Setting aside this, which it must be confessed is a specu- 
lation more fanciful than substantial, it may be inferred 
from the preceding facts, that circular monuments are 
divisible into two kinds. The first of these consists of 
large upright stones, which are several feet above the 
surface. Of this kind are the monuments at Stone 
Hbnge; Aburt; the Rowlwright; the Hurlers; Stanton 
Drew; Long Meg and her Daughters; Mitchell's Fold, 
&c. There is every reason to consider this kind d&- 
vaHonal. The second, which is usually found with the 
first, though sometimes distinct from it, I consider to be 
wholly sepulchral. 

This has been proved on several occasions in Ireland 
when these circles have been opened. At KiUmiUe, 
near Dtrnffonnon^ Ireland, within a circle of stones on 
the top of the hill, were found Urns'. Borlase quotes 
Wright^s Louthiana which gives an account of Urns 
being found in the interior of similar circles in the 
county of Tyrone. ' In a recent volume of the Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Irish Academy' is an account of a very 
remarkable collection of stone circles and cairns situ- 
ated in the townland of Oarrowmore^ in the parish of 
KUmcboowen^ and about two miles bom the town of 
8Ugo. They are of the class popularly called Druidical 
temples, and have, in every instance, one or more Crom- 
lechs or Kistvaen within them. In some instances the 
circle consists of a single range of stones, in others of 
two concentric ranges, and in a few instances of three 

* Histoire du Ciel ou Ton recherche rorigine de I'ldolatrie^ 
t L p. 63. 

* Philoe. Trans. 1713, p. 264. 

' Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1838, p. 140, 2. 


saoh ranges; and nearly the whole are clustered toge- 
ther in an irregularly circular manner, around a great 
eaim or conical heap of stones, which forms the centre 
of the group. The circles vary much in diameter, 
number and height of stones, and other particulars; 
and the Cromlechs also are of various forms and sizes. 
Many of these monuments are greatly dilapidated ; but 
there are still existing vestiges of about sixty circles 
with Cromlechs, and as it is known that a vast number 
has been totally destroyed by the peasantry, there is 
reason to believe that the collection could not have been 
originally much less than double that number. They 
are all formed of granite boulders, except the covering 
stone and another of the Cromlechs in the great cairn, 
which are of lime stone. 

In all the circles, which have been wholly or in part 
destroyed, human bones, earthem urns, &c. have been 
invariably found, and one circular enclosure, outside the 
group, and of far greater extent than any of the others, 
but evidently of cotemporaneous construction, is filled 
with bones of men and animals. 

Mr Petrie, who describes them states, that this is the 
largest collection of monuments of the kind in the British 
islands, and probably with the exception of those at Car- 
nach in Brittany, the most remarkable in the world. 

From the design observable in their arrangement, 
and uniformity of construction, he considers them all of 
cotemporaneous age; and from the human remains 
found in all of them, he concludes that they are wholly 
of sepulchral origin, and erected as monuments to men 
of various degrees of rank slain in battle, the great 
central cairn being the sepulchre of the chief, and the 
great enclosure outside the group, the burial place of 
the inferior class. Such monuments, he observes, are 
found on all the battle fields recorded in Irish history, 
as the scenes of contest between the Belgian or Fir- 


wig and the Tuatha de Danann colonies, and he con- 
siders these monuments to be the tombs of the Belgians, 
who, after their defeat in the battle of the Southern 
Moy-Turey, had retreated to Cuil-Jorra, and were 
there again defeated, and their king, Eochy, slain in 
crossing the strand of BaUysadare Bay, on whi<di a cairn, 
rising above high water, still marks the spot on which 
he fell. 

As monuments of this class are found not only in 
most countries of Europe, but also in the East, Mr 
Petrie thinks their investigation will form an important 
accessary to the history of the Indo European race, and 
also that such an investigation will probably destroy the 
popular theories of their having been temples and altars 
of the Druids. 

And I am still further led to consider these circles 
of stones as sepulchred from the fact of their existing in 
Sweden, where they are accompanied witii proofs of 
jthis nature that can leave no doubt upon the mind of 
the most sceptical. A glance even at the plates in that 
extremely curious book of Sjoborg^s on Northern Anti- 
quities^ will shew that such monuments could scarcely 
have had any other intention. We see here a collec- 
tion of every variety of them, the chief part, <$ircular. 
Sometimes, however, there is a square enclosure of up- 
right stones with a conical barrow in the centre, which 
has its base surrounded with upright stones; midway be- 
tween this and the summit, the circumference is marked 
with a second ring of upright stones; close at the sum- 
mit, a third belt of upright stones encircles it; and the 
<»rest of the barrow is capped by a cromlech. Another 
variety, haa a circle of upright stones round the base of a 
Carnedd* A third variety, has a circular belt of upright 

* Samlingar For Nordens FoTnalakare^ innehallande Inskrifter, 
Agorer^ Rniner, Verktyg, Ho«ar och Stensattningar i Sverige och 
Norrige. af N. H. Sgoboig. 2 vol. 4to. with 43 plates^ Stockholm^ 1822. 


Btonea round a oonical barrow widdi k mirmoimted bj 
a fdngle long upri^t stone. A fourth yariety, oonsiita 
of a ample eirole of upright itoneB, having two oppo- 
site each other much taller than the rest. A fifth va- 
riety, consists of a oirole of not more than ten stones, 
placed merely on the sorfaee, sometunes they have a 
small avenue of af^roadi to them of four stones on 
each side. A sixth variety, is a hurge circle chiefly 
formed of Stones placed loosdy on the surface, every 
sixth being larger and let deeper into the ground, whilst 
those two North and South are much loftier than the 
rest. A seventh variety, is triangular, with a hig^ stone 
at each comeES and another in the centre. An eighth 
variety, is square. And a ninth, triangular, having the 
three sides curving inward, but without any upri^t 
stones at the an^es. These monuments are met with 
under every circumstance fiivorable to sepulture. They 
are frequently surrounded by Valla and enclosures; 
and are seen contiguous to, and even forming part 
of. Tumuli. 

Upon examining the Southern end of Abdon Burf 
the surface is found to be partially covered with large 
blocks of Basalt, which would be ascribable to natural 
causes, did we not observe among the coniusion, traces 
of three or four circles like those on the other side of 
the road. The first object of importance that meets 
the eye, is a huge block of d& stone, measuring six feet 
four inches long, four feet six inches across, and three 
feet hi^. From its great size the men who ^' work on 
the hill"" call it the Bmf Triekiing. It is not impro- 
baUe. that this word is derived from the S. Ooth. dryg^ 
or tryg^ ingens, gravis. (Verel. in Indie.) driugr, plus 
quam potuit: that is, a mass so ponderous that with 
the utmost difficulty it could be moved. In any other 
locality, or unaccompanied by the appearances already 
adverted to, it would not be considered remarkable, un- 





lett it were for its magnitude. But finding it here, iSuicy 
immediately leads us to think that it wiui plaicM in its 
present situation for some object or other. The most 
likely use for it was the top stone of a ercmiledi: yet 
to shew how perfectly valueless are mere oonjeetutes^ I 
will state that this has been entirely disproved by my 
own operations. The first time I saw the stocfe in 
question, I felt disposed to think it formed part of a 
cromlech; I conceived it might be such, though I was 
not so wedded to my imagination as to pronounce that 
it itctually belonged to that dass. The labor of a couple 
of workmen for an hour or two last autumn, tmdec^ved 
tne, and have left us still to seek out what wAs its 
real use, if it ever luld any. Fo^ having Uftdetmined 
the stone, they came upon such a foundation as dearly 
shewed that it could at no time have been supported 
by upright stones at its angles, as such seputdbral monu- 
ments usuaUy are. 

The whole of the South Western side cf the Idtt 
presents marks of disorder and destruction: the stones 
which are much larger here, than at the other end, 
seem to have tumbled down, rather than to lie scat- 
tered by the influence of natural causes, while there n a 
certain degree of order visible amid the confusion. At 
the extreme point, in a slight hollow, an unhewn stone 
lies prostrate which bears the name of the Oiintr^s Shaft. 
It is ei^t feet ten incAies long, two feet four inches 
square at the base, gradually diminishing to one foot 
eight inches. As has been already remarked, the whole 
of the Southern end of the hill has it« surface much 
disturbed. Two or three Gibcles may be distinctly traced, 
but besides them, every thing is overthrown ind disar- 
ranged. Yet amid the catastrophe, it is not I think 
assuming too much, if we express our conviction thai 
this unhewn stone, or M(im hir was formerly placed up- 
right, and that it served an intention similar to the 



one at Cwm Buehan^ a onail village lying betwixt Bar^ 
mwti and HarUehj cloee by the road side; or like those 
seen ^ured by Boilafle^ and Coxe% ai9 existing in Ciom- 
fPoUy and Monmouthshire. The purpose of these it is 
imagined was devoticmal. Jacob at Bethel,' Joshua at 
Gilgal;* and the Israelites^ beyond Jordan, raised one on 
the banks of that river, as a testimony that they had 
constituted but one nation with their brethren on the 
other side. Rough and unformed stones were considered 
more pure, and fit for sacred uses than those which were 
hewn. Moses directed an altar to be nused to the 
Lord, of rouffh stones ; not of h&wn stones, which he de- 
clared to be polluted. Stome pillars were also erected 
to mark the place ot peculiar sanctity and honor *4 thus 
Abimelech was made kiog by the plain of the pillar 
that was in Sechem^. Adonijah by the stone of Zohe- 
leth^. Jehoash was ^^ crowned king standing by a pil-* 
lar, as the manner was^': and Josiah '^ stood by a 
pillar^ when he was making a solemn covenant with 
Ood. Again, pillara of stone were set up as memoriab 
of the dead. Jacob erected one as a monument upon 
the gnMre of RadiaeP^; and Absdom in his life time 
took and reared up for himself a piUoTy for he said, I 
have no son to keep my name in remembrance; and 
he called the pillar after his own name ; and it is called 
unto this day, Absolom^s Place ^^ 

That the Monouthes which now remain were con- 
nected with objects partly devotional, and partly ^epulr 
ehraleeeum the most probable conjecture. The evidence 
fomished by classical writers tends to establish such aa 

'Antiq. of Cornwall, p. 164. 'ToiirinMoiimontb8hire>v.u.p.323. 

• Genttds, xxxL 46. « Josh. iv. 5— 7. ' lb. xxiL 10. 

*£xod.xz.25. Dent, xxvii. 5. Josh. viii. 31, 32. which com- 
maud waa not given by Moses to Noah as Mr Moore in his Histoiy of 
Ireland intimates, p. 38, bat to the children of Israel 

^Jo8h.zziv.26. M. Kings 1.9. 

Ml. Kings xL 14. Ib.zzin.3. '^^ Genesis, xxxv. 20. 



opinion, whilst the reeearcheB thai have been made in 
Cornwall and Ireland upon the spots where thejr stanid, 
give additional weight to the assumption. 

The neighbouring mountain known under tiie name 
of the dtt IStttf bears most evident signs of having 
been appropriated to the same purposes as Abdon Bdbf, 
and the TrrrEiurroNB. They are all surrounded with a 
Vallum of stones, though in the cases of the Tittbbstonk 
and the Clea Burf, the mound is not by any means so 
high, or formidable, nor are the circles so numerous, and 
distinct. The Vallum runs tolerably cleariy round the 
North side of the Clee Burf,. though it is much do- 
pressed, and there may still be discerned two, or more 
circles in the enclosure, although coal pits have greatly 
defaced its original character. The works upon these 
Uiree eminences are without doubt ascribable to the 
same period, and I believe the like causes gave them 
existence. They must be considered entirely dewtionai 
and sepulchral in their object. 

It is probable that tiiese places, at a very remote 
period, were of considerable fame, and forming as they 
do, the highest, and the first elevations that occur in 


jounieyiiig from th6 Easteift dde of the kingdom tq the 
West, they mariced the distriet with a character of pe- 
culiar sanctity. Sooh vast monuments of Hill wonhip 
must naturally have tended to invest the region in whidi 
they are with a peculiar degree <tf religious celebrity. 
And if there be any value in Etymology, as a subsi- 
diary proof, it may be inferred that the inhabitants of 
this part of Enghmd were in consequence called G>s- 
NAvii, or dwellers in the Soared coftntryy from the Phca- 
nidan, cor a district, and naam holy, pronounced Oomav ; 
the country belonging to the Priesthood, the holy or 
consecrated country. In the same manner as the people 
who occupied the North and West <^ Cornwall^ were 
called Cabnabo^ and the inhabitants of Caithness* Cob- 
NAvii, from the circumstance of these counties being the 
seat of Druidic worship. 

* And these hills seem fonneriy to have traditionally been con- 
sidered sacied: lor Leland nn " Cle Hills be holy in Shropshire. 
Tende Riyer dividethe them nom some |>art of Worcestershire^ but 
from Shropshire by the more parte of the Ripe. 

No great plenty of wood in Cle Hills, yet ther is snffident 
Bmshe Wood. Plenty of Cole Yerth Stone nether exceeding good 
for Lyme, whereof there they make mnche and serve the centre 
abont Cle Hills com within a 3 mod myles of Lndlow. The 
Village of ClebTri standytiie in the Kootes by Est of Cie Hills 7 
myles from La(fiow in the way to Beandelev. There was a castle 
in Qeberie nighe the cfanrche by North. The Plots is yet cawled 
The Castell Dike. There be no Market Townee in Cle HUls. 

The Highest Parte of Cle Hills is cawlyd Tyderstone. In it 
is a fiiyre playne grene, and a fountayne in it There is another 
Hill a 8 miles distant from it canlyd The Browne Cle. There is 
a Chaoe for Deare. There is another cawUyd Caderton's Clee, 
and ther be many Hethe Cokks and a Broket coolyd Mille Brokoet 
sprin^the in it^ and aftar goithe into a Broket called Rhe, and 
Rhe mto Tende by neth Tende Bridse. There be some Bio Shoppe 
to make Yren npon the Ripes or Bankes of M^lbroke, comynj^ out 
of Cadeiton Cls or Casset Wood." Leland's Itineraiy^ vol. liii. foL 


' See the description of a Dmidic temple in the paridi of Far, 
comity of Caithness, in Appendix to the first volume of Pennant's 
Tour in Scotland, p. 347. 

Cl^e trttuttftone* 

fiiLGrr wandering over this mountain in 
the Autumn of 1837 in search of Dru- 
idical remains, my attention was drawn 
to the remarkable position and shape 
of' one of the numerous large stones 
\vhich lie confusedly scattered on the 
North Western side of its surface. 
Upon looking more careiully at the stone in question, 
suspicions gradually arose that one of so singular a oon- 
figuration must belong to the order of such as are usu- 
ally known under the title of Rocking Stones, and im- 
pressed with the idea, I almost unconsciously endeavoured 
to shake it. Having, however, given it a closer inspec- 
tion, I found that to do this, would, under existing cir- 
cumstances be impossible, for several huge masses of 
rock had by time become so closely wedged in betwixt 
its base, and the surrounding blocks, that until they 
were removed, all such efforts would be ineffectual. In 
an over anxiety to start early in the morning to visit 
this elevated spot, I had unfortunately left behind, the 
necessary accompaniments to a field antiquary, tape and 
sketch book, so that I was prevented from dcnng any 
thing more than merely inserting these conjectures 
among my memoranda. As I slowly descended from the 
summit, fancy constantly represented to me the plausi- 
bility of the conjecture, and in the direct ratio to my 
faicreasing distance from the object of speculation, the con- 
viction grew stronger that it really must be a Rogkinq 


Stons. But the period had airived when it was neoea- 
flary for me to leave this part of the country, and with 
feeUngs in which regret and pleasure were curiously 
mingled together, I was compelled to cast a lingering 
look only, upon the peak where so unexpected an object 
of interest had presented itself. 

The idea of a Rocking Stonb hitherto unknown was 
continually uppermost, but I knew it would be in Tain 
to seek for any account that would tend to confirm 
these views, as all our eariy remains in Shropshire have 
singularly escaped the attention of antiquarian enquirers. 
It was only from looking at the subject in connexion 
witii its etymolo^cal bearing, that I could hope to ad- 
duce any confirmation of my views. Upon my return 
home I found, €t at least I fancied I found, in the first 
volume consulted, a proof that the supposition might be 
sustained. For it appeared that the TnTERsroNB itself 
had derived its name from the Islandic titra which sig- 
nifies to tremble^ and there was no longer any room 
left for doubting that this stone, or at least some other 
upon the same eminence, had been the means of dis- 
tinginshing the mountain itself*. At all events it had 
such speciousnefis in the interpretation, that I at once 
determined to revisit the spot at the earliest opportu* 
nity, and place in its original position the TiTTBBsroinB 
properly so called. 

Another season advanced, and I hastened to fulfil 
the resolution. By the kindness of a gentleman who re- 
sided at no great distance from the base of the mountsun, 
I was supplied with some strong labourers, who having 
furnished themselves with mattocks, crow bars and shovels, 
were willing under my directions to restore the TrrTE»- 
STONE to its original balance. 

1 Hence the words titter to shake with laughter, and ioUer. Oa 
Strinet Moor three mfles from Brat^eU in DerbyMre ia a rocking 
atone called the Tottering Stone. 






We made & cheerfol ascent; and the oonversation 
held inth my ample companions, tended in more than 
one instance to enrich the glossarial part of the pre- 
sent Tohune. Passing along the top of Hoab Edge, 
(Salopic^ dictum Whar Idge) I cast a hnrried look 
at the four remarkable Carnedds that dignify its sum- 
mit. ' The columnar form which the rocks assume 
(Ml the Western side were not left unobserved. Look- 
ing, then, in vain, for the ancient Mere Stone on the 
borders of Wilmore Pod^ and finally clambering over 
the rugged and irregular barrier encircling the crest 
of the mountain, we found ourselves before the ob- 
ject of my — theory. But how disheartening a thing 
is it, to stare reality in the face, after the ima^nation 
has been left to itself, and conjured up its facts and 


** Nature wants stuff 
To vie strange forms with fimcy" 

I straightway thought with the poet, and I went so far, 
as to doubt aftar all, whether this cotdd be a Tremblino 
Stone. Such misgivings it must be confessed were un- 
worthy of the occasion, and can only be accounted for 
now, by the belief that they were brought on through 
the first fatigue of the ascent, aided by the fear lest suc- 
eef» should not ultimately crown the expedition. For 
having surveyed the stone a few minutes, and laid out 
the plan of operations which was to be carried on, taking 
care, too, to secure the stone, lest in our zeal to shake, 
it should be overthrown, and rolled down the craggy 
sides of the mountain: having adopted these precautions, 
the labor commenced of breaking away aH those frag- 
ments which had from time to time become detached 
from the surrounding columns of D^ Stone, and destroyed 
its powers of motion. 

After two hours hard toil these exertions were re- 
paid, by having the satisfaction <tf making this huge 


HUMS which mettBures seven feet six by five feet nine, 
easily rook, by the slightest imposition of the hand. 

It will be seen {rom the accompanying representar 
tion that there is but little space betwixt the adjacent 
boulders and the TrmsRsroNB, (for by this title must the 
trembling stone be called hereafter), but it must be borne 
in mind that the TrnvRsroNB rocks in a difliarent direc- 
tion, not between them, for there is no room for it, 
but from East to West. As I had been informed be- 
tween my two visits, that there existed a traditionary 
account of a farmer Bocking Stone on: this eminence, 
which was overthrown by the wilfulness of some wretched 
idlers, I was induced to turn the Tittsbstone round from 
its bahincing centre, and make its side rest against the 
point nearest to it, 

Ne cuiquam glebam, saxomve impune movere 
UUi sit lidtum. 

This, though unavoidably disturbing for a time its powers 
of equipoise and oscillation, is however, the means of 
preserving it for the inspection of the curious hereafter. 
A very gentle degree of leverage, bearing round to the 
South, will again restore it to a proper position and per^ 
feet state of equilibrium; at present it is immoveable. 

Having narrated, perhaps rather too circumstantially, 
my impressions regarding the Titterotonb, it remains for 
me to disabuse the minds of my readers of any erro- 
neous notions they may have upon the subject of Bock- 
ma Stones in general. They have been caUed artificial^ 
and fabled to have been placed in their state of equi- 
poise by incredible skill and labor. But of all the fal- 
lacies which dreaming antiquaries have echoed from age 
to age to mislead their followers this is among the 
greatest. They have been called Druidical Monummte. 
The Druidic Priesthood might possibly have made use 
of them to deceive in some way or other the vulgar, 
just as the celebrated Gygonian Stone mentioned by 


FtoHeaxj Hepheetion^ vtbb employed, mhUk might have 
been stirred by the stalk of an Aaphodel yet not re- 
moved by any fbiee vdiatever from its position, bat 
that they ever pbMed them as they now stand, is in the 
highest d^iree improbable. That they made them sab- 
servient to paiposes of imposition, as a means of oheat- 
ing the volgar, is more than likely; the aotoal position 
of the Stones themselves I believe to be purely fuihirtjd. 
And this will readily appear when we examine with 
earefolness the geologioal strootore of the Titterstone 
and the surroonding blocks. 

The Hill which has taken its name from this adven- 
titious dreomstance is a formation of Basalt, and in 
Basalt perhaps more than in any other rook, there is 
a disposition to disintegrate from exposure to the ef- 
fects of atmosidbere. There is round the North Western 
side of this hill, and also along the greater length <^ 
the Boar Bdg4^ a series of fine columnar Bocks, having 
their Prisms unusually large. Ths Oiant^s Cuair, for 
instance, has its pillars fifteen, or sixteen feet high, 
and intervening lengths of four, five, and six feet be- 
tween the joints. As the extremities of these were more 
exposed to the action of the air, they graduaOy be- 
came loosened at the joints, so that in time they were 
eaten away by the influence of atmospheric agency, and 
either rested for their support on a very small point, 
or became detached from the parent column altogether. 
It is thus that the TrrrxBsroNB Mountain first took its 
name. Nature placed the stone in its state of equilib- 
rium, and the art and craft of a designing Priesthood, 
made use of its singular position to further their designs. 
Or as is the case with the TirrBBsroNS itself, one of the 
nodules through disintegration became detached from the 

I lib. iiL c 3. Stakeley says (Stoneheage Restored^ p. 50) ''It 
Seems this word Gf^gomus is purely Celtic, for Gwingog eapn&es 
moiUans, the rockiiig stone; and dvyon is what the boys with ns 
eall a gig, or little top." Owmi's Welsh Diet has gtohig a motian. 


pillar, and aooidentaDy fallifl^ upon one of its angles, it 
was immediately endowed with the power of rocking^ 
and afterwards became of suffieient oelebrity to giye 
name to the eminence on which it stands. 

The sommit <^ the TrrnsBOTONB is encircled by aa 
agger of loose stones heaped up artificially like those 
upon the other two Clee^ HiUt. The enclosure here is 
by far the largest of the three, but the Vallum is 
inferior to that round Abdon Burf in height, as well 
as breadth. It measures from North to South five 
hundred and sixty yards, and from East to West ra- 
ther more than double the distance, about half a mile. 
Where it is most perfect, which is on the South West 
side, the internal height of the vallum is not more than 
six feet, and the external fifteen. At the East North 
East it is much depressed for the distance of a hun- 
dred paces. It then disappears for a diort distance. 
When we again come to it, it is still lowered, but 
twenty feet across it. The original entrance is twenty 
feet wide, and lies on the South South East side of 
the hiU. 

The object of the works upon these three eminences 
was the same; for though there are but few indications 
of GiBCLES upon the present spot, yet what actually exists 
gives sufficient evidence to lead us to this conclusion. 
I do not see any reason against supposing that these 
remains, and all similar ones, such as enclosures upon 
mountains where Carnes, and Cibglbb, and Cromlechs are 
found, had a twofold intention. They were partly de- 
voted to rdigums^ and partly to sepulchral uses. If we 
look at the present condition of our places of worship, 
we observe both these objects united, and a temple used 
for sacred purposes is generally accompanied by a i^t 
consecrated for the sepulture of the worshippers. The 
same custom in all probability prevailed at the remotest 
period, and though we have no proofs that all these re^ 


mams were alike devoted to relig^oiis ends, yet both 
Cbomlbchs and Cabnss whenever thoroughly examined, 
have indicated a funereal occupation. To what precnae 
object the Cibclbs were destined, it is difficult to say. 
All that we can positively tell about them is, that they 
abound wherever we meet with the two other kinds of 
monuments, so that let their purpose have been what it 
mi^t the three cannot be separated. It seems most 
natural to think that these Cibclbb had either a religious 
or a sepulchral application, or both united. Within the 
enclosure under notice there is additional illustration 
afforded to strengthen such an hypothesis. We see for 
instance, a large Cabnb at the South Ea^ point, and 
another still larger and higher at the West, whilst we re- 
cognise the broken circumferences of three or four Cibcles, 
c(Mupofled of smgle stones, and nearly forty feet in di* 
9meter, in thdr immediate contiguity. There is also a 
singiilar mound two yards high and fifty in breadth, 
nearly upon the loftiest part of the hill. It is not unlike 
Oaer Br An Cattle in Sanered^ figured in Borlase^s Natural 
History of Ciomwall, p. S46, though without the inter- 
nal circle of stones. Originally there must have been 
a vast many other objects <tf the same nature upon the 
TiTTSBSTOifE, which are now covered, and it is to be 
feared that in the course <^ a few years even aU these 
ramains will be effiMsed by an accumulation of tuif . 


finimtivf^ .c^m* 

IxMBDiATKLT At the South Eastern foot 
of Oamdon (a lofty mountain on the 
borders of Shropshire) are three re« 
markable monuments at no great dm- 
tance asunder, whose erection must 
be ascribed to the most remote an* 
tiquity. Two of these are in our own 
county, the slight remains of the third, are a few paces 
out of it, and consequently stand in MotitgtmeryMre. 
In the relative position of these monuments to each other 
there is something very singular, and it would lead an 
imaginative person to consider ihem Draoontic 

If we take the remains near the Mairsh Pod first, 
which have erroneously obtained the designation of Hoar 
Stones^ but which for the sake of correctness I shall dic^ 
continue, and term the Mabsh Pool CmcLB, if we begin 
here, at the North West, and go over Btapehy Hilly 
through MrrcHinx^s Fold, and thence descend to the 
Whbtstonbs which lie at the base of the mountain be- 
fore mentioned, we shall have proceeded in a curved 
or sinuous line for the distance of two miles. In our 
course we have the three monuments in question; at 
one extremity a Cibcle consisting of thirty two upright 
stones ranged round its circumference; at the other ex- 
tremity, the mutilated fragments called the Whbtbtonbs, 
and upon the intervening elevated ground, the larger 
works of Mitchell^s Fold which are rather more than 
midway along the curve. Now in this there is a de- 


gree of roBemblance to what exists at Stanton Drew, 
and Aburt. At the latter place, in fact, the curva- 
ture of the avenue of approach to the great temples 
is precisely similar, whilst the two circles there, are 
surrounded, as this is, with a tallum of earth, having 
its /owe within. It is true that here we no longer see 
the stones on each side forming an avenue of commu* 
nication with ths Body of the SerperU^ or tiie tlvo temples 
upon the high ground, but knowing tiie tendency of 
stones to become obliterated by moss, to sink into the 
soil, or then* chances of destruction from the wicked 
spirit which has always prevailed among ignorant culti- 
vators of the land, who look upon them with no higher 
feelings than utility would inspire, and who recklessly 
make them subservient to the purposes of building some 
miserable dwelling, we shall not be at a loss in account^ 
ing for their deficiency. 

Whether this was ever when in its most complete 
state an Ophite hierogrcm^ must continue unknown to 
ourselves and succeeding ages. That it was designed 
with a religious intention, wiU not admit of a doubt: 
though the precise nature of the solemnities, and the 
objects of adoration the worshippers had before them 
toust still remain veiled in perpetu^ darkness. We know 
that the hierogram of the Sun was a Oirde ; the temples 
of the Sun were Circular . The Arkites adored the per- 
sonified ark of Noah ; their temples were built in the 
form of a Ship. The Ophites adored a Serpent deity ; 
their temples flssnlned the form of a Serpeni. And to 
come more home to our own times and feelings, the 
Christian retains a renmant of the same idea when he 
builds his Churches in the form of a Cbobs ; the Oroa 
being at once the symbol of his creed, and the hiero- 
gram of his God\ 

* OlMervBtions on Dmcontia^ by the Rev. John Bsthont Deane, 
AichsoL YoL xxY. ^ 191. 


That the monumeDtB upon Stapdey HiU were devoted 
to SerpmU worskip is an idea that iniut rest purely f^9o» 
co9^eeture. And after the most diligent sifting, and care* 
fid consideration of this question, we are in possession 
of little beyond it to offer. To a certain degree these 
remains are conformable to those temples which Stukeley 
a century ago, and Mr Deane at the present day, have 
with much erudition and ipgenuity pronounced to be of 
a Drcuxmtian nature. Yet, admitting them to be of 
this kind, we are still unable to fill up the Serpent^s 
form entirely. We have only remaining its Heady the 
Whetstones; its Tuil^ the Mabsh Pool Cmcus; and 
a portion of its Body^ Mitchbll^s Fold, to supply the 
hierogram. The VertebrcBj or Avenue is wanting. K 
with such a deficiency, the enquirer can recognise Dra- 
oHH^iA, he vrill be well repaid for a visit to the dreary 
and impressive region where these mysterious objects are 
scattered. Indulging the reflections of so pleasant a 
theory, he will tread with lighter steps the treacherouE 
surface, and be enabled to bear the want of more sub- 
stantial nourishment than that which ^' chewing the cud 
of sweet or bitter fancies^^ supplies. Should he, while 
seeking for these highly interesting memorials, see a suf- 
fici^it degree of plausibility in this hypothesis to enlist 
credulity iu its favour, 

(Tuxpe nee est tali eredulitaie capi) 
it will tend materially to lessen the distance of a long 
and tedious journey, and beguile his wanderii^ over a 
district that is imusually wild and desolate; while the 
novel and pleasing impressions, which such scenery and 
thoughts stamp upon the imagination, vnll requite him 
for the enduranoe of toil and hunger. 

It is the Soui that sees; the outward eyes 
Present the object, but the Mind descries! 

fCfif Wi^mumtf^ 

OB Whbtbtonbs, or head of this pre^ 
8umed Ophital Templb (for I need 
scarcely say that I can only regard 
such ilieories in the light of agree- 
able fancies), lie at the foot of Oort^ 
don^ upon the Shropshire side. Thc^y 
are so close upon the borders of this 
county as almost to be in it. These three stones were 
formerly placed upright though they now lean, owing to 
the soft and boggy nature of the soil. They stand 
equidistant and assume a circular position. Originally 
they evidently formed part of a circle^ for they stand 
too far apart to have ever been supporters of a Oram- 
Uohy even if their actual bearing with regard to each 
otiier did not forbid the supposition. The highest of 
these is four feet above the surface ; one foot six inches 
in thickness, and three feet In width. Vulgar tradition 
has given them their present title, though without any 
apparent reason, for as they are all of basalt, they would 
be ill adapted to the use the common acceptation of 
their name implies. Can this title refer to any thing 
sacrificial? and be derived from the G. Brit, gwasd «a^fi, 
or blood-stone f It is all supposition, and the utmost 
insight we can obtain is slight and insignificant. Our 
facts are so few, that we are compelled to draw upon 
the imagination, which though it be the most capti- 
vating, is in proportion the most unsafe antiquarian guide. 
Let us see, however, how far etymology will serve us in 


throwing light upon the objects of our enquiry, that is, 
upon these and such as are in their immediate vicinity. 

Stapeley Hill seems properly to derive its name 
from the Islandic Siapi^ Scopulus prominens. In low 
Latin Siaplus means a tomb ; the Salique law uses the 
word thus, ^' Si quis aristatonem, id est, Staplum supra 
hominem mortuum coapulaverit f^ this definition points 
to something tepulchral: and thus we have StapUton^ 
in Salop^ where a large Tumulus was opened a few 
years ago. Another signification would raider it a 
spot where merchandize is pitched, a public place; in 
the Ripuarian laws, ordinances governing the inhabit- 
ants on the shores of the Rhine ten centuries ago at 
least, Sta/d denotes a citadel or royal seat; with what 
stringency these derivations bear upon the existing re- 
mains, the reader must judge. As for Mftchell'^s Fold, 
two surmises may be offered. The first would dissolve 
the word into the A. Sax. middel-fold quasi Mitchell 
fold, or the fold lying betwixt the Whetotones and 
Mabsh Pool Cibcle; the other would connect it with 
the C. Brit, mid^ an enclosure. Comdon, in C. Brit, 
simply signifies a dark projection; in Celt, it signifies 
the crowned mountain, from Com a crown, and don a 
mountain, or Com from Corny a heap of stones, and Bon^ 
on high: alluding to the six Cabnedds on its summit. 
The name of Dysgwylfa underneath ' it, denotes a look- 
out place. Such is the feeble light which etymology 
throws upon the different objects around. With what 
insuperable difficulties then is the subject beset. Let us 
turn from these vain and unsatisfactory speculations and 
describe what we can really see in another quarter. 






At the present day Mitchbll^s Fold oonsiistB of 
fomteeB stones; ten of which are more or less upright, 
and fonr of them lying flat. They are disposed at rm- 
equal distances in an irregular circle, which is ninety 
feet from North to South and eighty-five from East 
to West. When the brief description of it was writ- 
ten, that is found in the Addenda to CamdefCs Briton^ 
ma', none of these stones were prostrate. One at the 
Eastern point only is mentioned as inclining: since 
that period it has fallen. Though there be two or 
three accidental omissions of distance between some of 
the stones, the following measures may be received on 
the whole as conveying an adequate notion of their 
relative position. If we allow three feet for the average 
width of each stone at its base, and place them acord- 
ing to the intervening distance between the eleventh and 
twelfth, five feet apart, it will make the complete circle 
consist of thirty stones. There was formerly an entrance 
on the Eastern side, where the stone of greatest altitude 
now remains'. The adjacent one on the Western side, 

1 This acooimt is as follows. " The greatest diameter is ninety- 
one feet and a half, the shorter eighty-six feet and a half." (These 
measures must hare heen taken from exterior to exterior. Mine 
which were careftilly taken with a hundred foot tape, with the 
aid of an assistant, rary a little from these dimensions.) "There 
Bie fourteen stones remaining, and the yacandes require thirteen 
or fourteen more, a is six feet hieh; o is as high hut leana 
These two stones ore six feet distant.'^ (These refer to the eighth 
and ninth stone in my plan.^ "The next in size is i": (this 
is the fourth stone in my plan); "from whence is a pmpect 
westward hetween two sloping hflls to the cultivated part of the 
Long mountains, which prospect would have heen lost m any other 
situation of the drde." " «r is a stone eiffhtv yaxds distant." (See this 
marked in the plan of the second cirde.; This way is high land 
of Com AUen Foreet." Camden's Britan. p. 634. Unfortunately tbs 
editor does not say when or from whom he received this communi- 
cation. The legend oa the spot was the same then as it is at present. 

'In a letter from Barnes Dncarel, Esq. to his hrother, dated 
SbmoBbwjf, May 11, 1752, and published in Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotevl md the finit mention of these antiquities. He says, ''One 
Mr Whitfield, an eminent Surgeon, and a good scholar, who is a 
man of good fortune in this town, has told me that he had given 
a friend of his a rough draft that he himself took of Me^^lejfi 



now flat, was leaning when Gough received his account 
of it, but when Mr DucarePs informant saw it, the two 
served as sides to a Portal of Entrance, and even had 
one lying across the top. These losses, and most likely 
more important ones unrecorded, have happened to 
MrrcHELL^s Fold within the last eightynsix years, when 
the spot was first described. The decay seems to have 
been gradual, and we are happily spared the pain of 
noticing that it has sufiered through ignorant and wilfiil 
despoilers. A Vattum originally enclosed the whole, evi- 
dent marks of which may be seen on the North West- 
em side. 

If we conmience on the Western side of the circle 
the existing portions of it appear as follow : 

No. 1 is three feet high and four wide: distant from 
2nd twenty-one feet. 
2 is five feet high : distant from 3rd forty feet. 
8 is leaning, but still three feet above surface, 
and ten feet from 4th. 

4 is flat. 

5 is flat. 

6 is four feet above surface. 

7 is much depressed: nine feet from 8th. 

8 is five feet ten inches high, formed Northern 

Fold above two yean ago. As he came home one night, he fell 
in amongst the stones by chance, and thinking it a Druid temple, 
letuzned there the next day to view it, when be was confirmed in 
his opinion; and took the above draft, which he gave to a friend 
to do out neatly. He has promised me a copy of it, if his friend, 
who is a Lawyer, has not thrown it away. I told you in a former 
letter that Kynaston and I are to take a ride to see it when he has 
a little leisore, as we must lie out when we go." Ltteraiy Anec- 
dotes, voL iv. p. 621. 

Again, in June the 8th of the same year, he says '* We shall 
go to Medgley'i Fold shortly. Whitfield says, your upright is pretty 
true. What you call a Portal he calls a Tribunal, says there was 
a stone across your two Portals, like those of Stone Henge, and that 
the stone at eighty yards distance was the altar. Some of the 
little stones on the East are almost overgrown with moss and 
giaoa." lb. p. 623. 


Bide of Portal, 10 fouraided, meaflures two 
feet two incheB on two sides, eight inches, 
and one foot seven inches on other two sides. 
It is six feet from 9th. 
No. 9 was other side of Portal : is prostrate : is thirty 
feet £rom 10th. 

10 IS two feet above surface: is thirty-four feet 

from 11th. 

11 is two feet above surface : is five feet from 12th. 

12 is one foot high. 

13 is large and prostrate: there are marks of one 

having stood between the 13th and 14th stone: 
from 13th stone to 14th is twelve feet. 

14 is two feet above ground, and fifteen feet from 

the. first stone. 

There is a Second Cibcle a. little elevated, and hav- 
kig its centre highest, about seventy paces to the South 
South East, of the great one. This measures seventy- 
two feet from North to ScMitib, and. haa seven stones 
that, vary from two. feet to. one foot in hei^t^ and 
are four feet asunder, which distances make it to con- 
tain thirty stones like the other. On the Eastern verge 
of this circle is- a very large stone two feet above the 
surface. Thi» must be that figured in the Addenda 
to Camden, I imagine. Faint indications appear of 
a Thibd Cibcle to the North East of this, but the 
marks are so slight that nothing satisfactory can be 
made out. 

The whole of this ground is traversed in several 
places by mounds^ which have every appearance of being 
sonstructed at a remote period, and seem to be coeval 
with these remains. One Vallum, for instance, runs for 
halt a mile from North West to South East; it is four 
feet high, and has a ditch upon each ride of it. Were 
there no other reasons for ascribing these monuments 
to a period of the highest antiquity and connecting them 


with services of a reli^ous character, this simple fact 
would of itself tend to shew that these stones were 
erected for a sacred purpose. Thus we find at Aybbubt 
the fo996 is within the VaUwn. And I was informed 
by the late Sir Richard Hoare that from observations 
he had made upon several British works in WiUshire^ ike 
fone within the Vattum invariably dietinffuiehed a reUgiaue 
teori from one tiuxt woe military. At the Arbowr Laum 
in Derbythire, the fosse is within the Vallum'. 

A curious tradition has prevailed for nearly a century, 
and we know not how much earlier, respecting MrrcH- 
BLL^B Fold. It is fabled that in this enclosure ^^the 
Giant used to milk his cow, who is represented as being 
unusually productive, giving as much as was demanded, 
until at length an old crone tried to milk her in a 
riddle, when indignant at the attempt, she ceased to yield 
her usual supply, and wandered, as the story goes, into 
WarwuAshire^ where her subsequent life and actions 
are identified as those of the Dun Cow.'^ 

^ V. Pegge on the Arbour Lows, ArchsDoI. voL viL p. 147. 


Circle near £|ieltir« 

It may consider the Cibglk near Shdve 
as the Northern approach to the more 
important remains on Stapdey Hill. 
It lies in a bop about half a mile to 
the North West of the new turn- 
pike road leading from Mintterley 
to Bishop's Castle. The nearest place 
to this dreary spot that bears a name is the Marsh 
Pod, The stones of this Cibcle are so low that it is 
difficult to see them until you approach within a hun- 
dred yards of the place where they are situated. They 
have obtained a wrong title in tiie Ordnance Survey, 
(No. Lx.) being called Hoar Stonb, which is a rem- 
nant of early ages totally different. When I saw them 
in the year 1838 there were thirty-two single stones 
remaining, which averaged from one foot to two in 
height above the ground, were placed five asunder, and 
disposed in circular order, round a ring measuring from 
East to West seventy-three feet, from North to South 
seventy-five. Nearly in the centre stood a stone con- 
siderably larger than the surrounding ones, being seven 
feet in circumference and four feet high. Originally the 
drcle contained at least four more stones ; the intelli- 
gent old farmer upon whose land they are, whilst as- 
sisting me to measure, supposed the circle when perfect 
to have consisted of forty stones. I could not, however, 
bring them up to more than thirty-six ^ Beginning due 

^ * If there were forty stones at first, the number will oorres^nd 
with the number in the circle near Keswick, and the second circle 



North, we find the finrt five gtonee equidistant. Be- 
tween the fifth stone and the seventh a blank oocurs of 
twelve feet. This will allow room for the seventh stone. 
In like manner the nitUky Ji/iemth, and tkirtietk are 
deficient. All of these stones are not exactly of the 
same size. The sixteenth, seventeenth, twentieth, twenty- 
first, twenty-third and twenty-fourth are larger than the 
rest, being four feet across thehr base, and two feet 
above the surface. The Northern stone. No. 1, is a 
foot high, the others with the foregoing exceptions, vary 
fix>m this height above the seil, to a few inches. 

at Stone Henge, Stokeley, Wood and Waltire make the inner pa- 
rabola of Stme Henge to oonaiat of nineteen stones. Four drdes 
in the Hundred of Penmth, ComwaU, contain also nineteen stones 
each: to mark as has been imagmed the two principal divisioDS of 
the year^ the twelve months, and seven days. (See mrlase, p. 191. 
Higgins' Cdtic Druids, p. 240.) 

Ikitts^ $ertoti. 



IB a fact, pretty generally under- 
stood, that the whole of that part of 
Enghmd, bordering upon the Princi- 
pality, was the chief seat of conflict 
between the Britons and the Romans : 
though it is not so universally known 
that the most prominent eminences 
throughout this district were fortified. There were fre- 
quent hostilities between the Welsh and the Anglo Sax- 
ons, but their defensive works are usually small, mere 
epaulements of a circular form, single ditched; they are 
chiefly known under the name of Rings, whilst on the 
other hand, those belonging to an earUer period are in- 
variably adapted to the nature of the eminence, usuaUy 
isolated, or detached, upon which they are found. By 
far the greater number of these are referable to a much 
earlier period than the foregoing, and must be assigned 
to the Roman era. A great similarity prevails between 
all of them. The most striking feature is the double 
agger of stones surrounding the area of the camp. This 
system grew out of circumstances. The places where we 
meet with such a kind of fortress are chiefly on rocky 
or stony heights, where the materials for its construc- 
tion were at hand. The Romans, on the contrary, whose 
troops were better disciplined than those of the people 
they invaded, kept in the valleys as much as possible; 
they naturally preferred the plain from a fear of being 
entangled in the mountains. There was there an absence 


of the material which the Britons rendered available for 
the purposes of shelter and protection on the heij^ 
above: and consequently, while tiiey formed rampires of 
stcHiesy the Romans in turn built tibeiis of earth. This 
is particnlariy shewn in the entrenchments at N(»dy 
Bank ; Norton Camp ; Brandon Gamp, &c., &c. And 
the reverse is to be seen on the Wrekin; the two 
Cabb Cabadoob; the DrrcHNs; Tonglbt Hill; Bubbough 
Hill; Hbn Dinas, 8sc., &c. 

By far the larger number of these fortifications are 
to be found on those sides of Shropshire^ and Hereford-^ 
shirs^ which trench upon Wales; and this fact serves 
to confirm the account left us by the most impartial of 
Roman Historians, that his countrymen in the Conquest 
of Oreat Britain, met with the greatest resistance in 
this quarter. » 

The transactions of the period have attracted the 
notice of several writers, so that it would be but mere 
repetition to pass them in review again. The subject 
has excited the attention of Antiquaries and Poets, 
and recced almost every degree of illustration, re* 
condite and fanciful, of which it is capable, and there- 
fore I shall not enter into a detailed account of this 
portion of British History. As bearing upon Shropshire 
particularly, it will be sufficient to notice that nearly a 
century after Jtdius Ceesar first landed on the English 
Coast, Aulus Plautius and Vespasian were occupied in 
reducing the country south of the Thames^ for althon^ 
CsBsar nominally conquered Britain, he, in reality, left it 
only with the reputation of having first shewn it to his 
countrymen. These two generals were employed seven years 
in bringing this district into subjection. And they had no 
sooner succeeded, than during a temporary absence the 
adjacent tribes overran the newly conquered country. 

When Ootobiits Scapula, their successor, was ap- 
pointed PropraBtor he found things in great disorder. 



The unsubdued tribes had made war on those in alii- 
anoe with Rome, not supposing that the new general 
would oome out against them at the very moment of 
his arrival, at the beginning of winter, and mih a body 
of troops to whioh he was but reoently appointed. Such, 
however, was the case: for he displayed the. greatest 
promptitude and decision, marching at once with such 
an army as he had, cutting to pieces all those who 
opposed him, pursuing the fugitives, and effectually pre- 
venting their reassembling. Suspicious of the people 
among whom he was acting, he was unwilling to trust 
to a dangerous and uncertain peace; and feeling con-, 
vinced that whilst this would allow rest to the enemy, 
and enable them to recruit their forces, he should be 
less able to contend with them afterwards, he prepared 
to disarm the nations whom there was reason to dis^ 
trust, and to draw round them a. line of Camps betwe^ 
the Avon and the. Severn. 

Those nations who fluctuated betwe^i war and peace 
were immediately awed by his defeating the Iceni. He 
next turned his airms against the Canoi, whose terri- 
tories be completely ravaged. This brought his army 
dose upon the sea; but before he could pursue his wm^ 
quests Southwards he was recalled by a revolt among 
the Bbioantbs. After the slaughter of a few who had 
taken up arms against the Roman power, this tribe pu- 
sillanimously submitted to servitude. But neither severity 
or conciliation had any efifect upon the Silukes, a war- 
like race, who dwelt in the South Western district of 
the Principality, against whom his next operations were 
directed. This tribe, exasperated at the threat of Clau- 
dius that he would utterly exterminate them, as he had 
already done the Sicambri, fought with a degree of 
bravery and determination that checked for a length- 
ened period the progress of the Roman arms. Besides 
trusting to their peculiar ferocity, they reposed great con^ 


fidence in the valour of Caradoo, or Caragtacub, their 
chief. Prudently aviuling himself of his knowledge of 
the countiy so as to make up by this means the undis- 
ciplined state of his troops, he transferred the war in- 
to the country of the Ordovicbs, where being joined by 
those who mistrusted the Roman alliance, he at once 
brought matters to a crisis^ He posted himself upon 

> As the paaaage in Tacitus that refers to these events is of import- 
ance^ I shall place it before the reader. He will immediately see that 
I have not attempted a literal translatiofn, my object haring been to 
confine myself as much as possible to a use of the facts which it 

At in Britannia P. Ostorimn propnetorem tutbids res excepeie, 
effosis in agnim sodomm hostibus, eo violentins, quod novum ducem 
exercitu ignoto, et ccepta hieme^ iturum obviam non rebantur. lUe 
gnarus primis eventibus metnm aut fiduciam gigni, citas oohortes 
rapit: et cesis qui restitenmt^ diagectos consectatus, ne nusus cou- 
globarentur, infensaque et Infida pax non dud non militi requiem 
permitteret; detrahere anna snspectis^ dnctos^ue castris Antonam et 
Sabiinam fluvios cohibere i>arat. Qnod pximi Iceni abnuere, valida 
sensy nee prceliis contnai^ quia societatem nostram volentes aocesserant, 
bisque auctoribus cireumjectiB nationes locum puj^nts delegere septum 
agresti aggere et aditu angusto^ ne pervius equiti foret £a muni- 
menta dux Romanus, quamquam sine robore legionum sodales copiaa 
dnoebaty peirumi)ere aggreditur, et distributis cohortibus, tnrmas 
quoque, peditnm ad munia aocmgit Tunc dato signo perfringnnt 
aggerem, suisque daustris impeditos turbant. At^ue iUi consdentia 
rebellionis^ et obseptis effugiis, multa et claira facmora feoere. Qua 
pugna filius legati M. Ost<mus servati dvis decus meruit. Ceterum 
dade loenorum oompositi qui beHum inter et pacem dubitabant : et 
ductus in Cangos exerdtus. Vastati agri^ prsedae passim actse ; non 
ausis adem hostibus, vd a ex occulto carpere agmen tentaient, pu- 
nito dolo. Jamque ventnm baud procul mari^ <|uod Hibemiam in- 
sulam aspectat; cum orte apud Bngantes discordise retraxere ducem, 
destinationis certum, ne nova moliretur, nisi prioribus firmatis. Et 
•Brigantes quid^n, pauds qui arma oceptabant interfectis, in reliquos 
•data veniay residere. Sihirum gois benlum exerceret, castrisque le- 
siouTun premenda foret. Id quopromptius veniret, colonia Cama- 
fodunum valida vetenmorum maau dedudtur in agroB captives, sub- 
sidium adversus lebelles, et imbuendis sociis ad omda legum. Itum 
inde in Siluras, super propriam ferodam, Caractad virions oonfisos: 
quern muHa ambigna, multa piospera extnlerantyUt ceteros Britan- 
norum imperatores pnemineret. tsed tum astu locorum f rande prior, 
vi mjlitum inferior, transfert helium in Ordovicas, additisque qui 
paoem nostram metuebant, novissimum casum experitur; sumpto ad 
proelium loco, ut aditus, abscessu^, cuncta nobis importuna, et suis 
•m melius essent. Tunc montibus azduis, et si qua clementer acoedi 
poteranii in modum valli saaai prsestruit: et pnefluebat amnis vado 


ft 0pot, to which the approach, and from which the re- 
treat were as advantageous to himself, as unfavourable 
to the enemy. The more accessible parts of the emi- 
nence were surrounded with a rampart of stones, and at 
the base flowed a river with a shifting ford. The lead- 
ers went round to animate and encourage their troops 
before the onset, diminishing their fears, magnifying 
their hopes, and using such incitements as the occasion 
prompted. Caractacus himself passed rapidly from one 
to another along the ranks stationed upon the works, 
ur^g them to remember that the actions of that day 
would be to them either the conmiencement of recovered 
liberty, or of eternal servitude. He recalled to them 
the names of their forefathers who had expelled the 
Dictator Caesar, and by whose valour their own lives 
had been preserved from the axe imd from tribute, and 
their wives and children from pollution. This speech of 
the British Chieftain was answered by an universal ac- 

iDoerto^ catervaqne m^orom pro mmuineiitiB oonstiteniit. Ad hoc 
gentium ductoree ciicumiie, hortari^ finnare aminos, minaendo metn, 
aooendenda spe, aliisque belli indtamentis. jE^umyero Canctacus hnc 
illuc Yolitans, iilum diem, iUam aciem tutabatur out redperaniee Kber- 
tatU, out iervUtUU mtema initiumfore: vocabatque nominA majorum, 
^i dktatorem dBsarem pepuHueni : quorum virtute aaeui a aecurihui 
€t tribuUg, intemeraia oonjugum et Hberarum corpora retmereni. Hcc 
ati^ue talis dicenti, adstiepere vulgua; gentili quiaque leligione ob- 
atnngi, mm teHs, turn fmlneribus cesntros, Obstapeiedt ea^ alacritaa 
dnoem Romanum : simul objectus amms, additum yallnm, imininen- 
tia juga, nihil nisi atrox et propngnatoribus frequens, tenebat. 8ed 
miles prcelium poaoere, cuncta virtute expugnahUia damitaie, pne- 
fecdque ac triboni paiia differentes, ardorem exerdtus incendebant. 
Turn Ostorios, dicumspectis quae impenetnbilia, qnteque pervia, 
dudt infensos, amnemque hand difficulter evadit. Ubi ventum ad 
aggerem, dum missilibns oertabatuTy pins vnlnerom in nos, et plerc- 
que cedes oriebantor. Posteaqoam facta testndine, ludes et infoimes 
saxomm oompages distracte, paique oominus ades, deoedeie Barbari 
in jnga montium. Sed eo quoque irrupeie ferentarius gravisque 
miles: illi telis aasnltantes; hi oonferto gradn, tnrbatis contra Bri- 
tannorum ordinibns, i^ud quoe nulla loricarum galeammve teg- 
mina: et si auxiliaribus resisterent, ^ladiis ac pilis legionariorum ; 
d hue verterent, spathis et hastis anziliomm sternebantur: dara ea 
victoria fiiit, oaptaque uxoze et filia Caractad, fraties quoque in 
deditionem accept!. Tadt Ann. xii. 30—6. 


chunation from the aoldieiy, who bound themaelveB by 
the most golemn forms of their religion never to yield 
to woundfi or weapons. Such determined alacrity struck 
the Roman general with astonishment; whilst the river 
before him, with the rampart and the heights above 
bristled with warriors, presented a fearful scene to en- 
counter. His troops became impatient for the assault, 
crying out that ^^ every thing may be overcome by 
valour,'" whilst the prefects and tribimes uttering the 
same sentiments increased the enthusiasm of the ranks. 

Ostorius having reconnoitered the ground to ascer- 
tain which parts were inaccessible, and which pervious, 
led on his troops, and without difficulty forded the river. 
When they reached the rampart, and only threw their 
darts at a distance, the Romans had great disadvantage, 
but after they had dosed their ranks, and placed their 
shields over their heads so as to protect them whilst 
scaling the rough agger of stones, tearing down the 
rampart, and fighting hand to hand with the enemy, they 
obliged them to seek for safety by flying to the tops of 
the adjoining mountains. The light and heavy armed 
soldiers pursued them thither, the former attacking them 
with their spears, the latter in a body, till at last the 
Britons, without armour or helmets to protect them, 
were thrown into disorder. If they resisted the auxili- 
aries, they were cut to pieces by tiie swords and spears 
of the legionaries; and if they turned against them, they 
were hewn down by the broadswords or pierced by the 
javelins of the auxiliaries. The wife and daughter of 
Caractacus were captured, but the valiant chief himself, 
who had so long been a terror to the Romans, escaped 
to the Brigantes, hoping to find protection under their 
queen, Gartismandua. This wretched woman, however, 
immediately put him in fetters and basely delivered him 
up to their mutual enemy. We are told that the same 
magnanimity that signalised him in prosperity, was 


equally oonspieaoufl in hk misfortunes, shewing that a 
truly great man knows both how to resist and to sub- 
mit. His subsequent fate, and undaunted oondnet when 
brought i)efore his conquerors in the capitol, are events 
identified not merely with the history of Great Britain, 
but associated with every feeling which is noUe and 
exalted in human nature. His name is transmitted to 
posterity without a cAain; and the greenest wreath of 
gloiy that can encircle the brows of any Patriot, will 
seem but withered in the eyes of an impartial enquirer 
when he contrasts it with that bestowed by histoiy 
upon Cabactacds. 



■vi-i'\\. places have been mentioned by 
janitors as the scene of Caractacus^ 
final defeat : but some of them, from 
not having seen the spot they fix upon, 
mid others from being led away by a 
rianie, have, I think, perpetuated a 
yiir^take concerning its true position. 
Before presenting the reader with my own views, I shall 
endeavour to weigh fairly those of preceding writers, by 
which means he will better be able to form a correct 
judgement of what has been advanced. Camden \ who 
had never seen Cabr Caradog, a strongly entrenched 
fort betwixt Knighton and Clun^ draws his information 
from Humiry Lhuyd, a learned antiquary and Welsh 
scholar of his own time, who had visited it. The latter 
writer narrates in what he modestly entitles a Fragment 
of a little Commentary descriptive of Britain^, that whilst 
he was travelling in the retinue of his patron, the Earl 
of Arundel, on the borders of Shropshire, where he had 
ext^isive possessions, he came upon a place strongly for- 
tified by nature and art; it was situated upon the table 

* It b reported in the Principality that Camden never penetrated 
further into North Wales than CoTtoen, where being taken for a spv, 
he was so insulted by the Welsh, that it put a stop to his travels. 
Yorkt^s Royal Tribes of Waleg, p. 102. 

' Gommentarioli Britannicae descriptionis Fragmentum. Auotore 
Humfredo Lhuyd^ Denhyghiense, Camhro Britanno. 12nio. Colonise 
Agripmnse 1572, p. 28. This valuahlc little work seems to have been 
publisned after ^e author s decease. 


laad of ft lofty mountain, and surrounded with a triple 
yallum and very deep ditches : there were three corres- 
ponding gates of entrance placed obliquely towards each 
other, precipices on three, and rivers on two sides; it 
was bounded on the left by the Clun, on the right by 
the TemSj and accessible only on one part. The in- 
habitants informed him that the place was called Gabr 
Cabadog, that is, the Citt of Garadoc, and that for- 
merly great battles had been fought there against a 
certain king named Caractacus, who at last was con* 
quered and taken by his enemies. When, therefore, 
continues my author, I behold this place on the borders 
of the Silures and Ordovices, for it is scarcely two miles 
distant from the castle of Clun^ and moreover find it 
agreeing most exactly with the description of Tacitus^ 
I am bold enough to affirm that nothing is wanting %i 
complete the proof that this must be the identical spot 
where Ostorius contaided with Caractacus, and defeated 

There is so much appearance of probability in this 
account, that any one who had never seen the locality, 
would naturally believe this must be the very spot. 
Added to which, there seems an undesigned plausibOity 
in the tradition itself, deserving notice, inasmuch as it 
existed at a period when knowledge derived from the 
dead languages was far less widely spread than it is at 
the present day: printing had scarcely been invented a 
century before Lhuyd published his book, and in the 
wild and remote district where he gathered his informa- 
tion, the peasantry must have learned the story tra- 
ditionally. It was a point of history upon which it 
cannot be supposed men had then been taught to spe- 
culate. A certain degree of credibility may be attached 
to this legend, and it must be confessed that it ought 
to have some weight in influencing the conclusions that 
are drawn. For the fact of there being camps at two 


otb^r plaoes that bear the sasw name does not tend to 
difiprove the pretenaons of the one before us, unless it 
cin be shewn that mmilar traditions existed there at 
the same early period \ That it was a British entrenob- 
ment, and one t>f those oeou{Hed by the braye defender 
of his country, thare is not the sli j^test reason for doubt- 
ing. Whether its claims, however, are as prominent as 
they have be^i represented will appear upon investi- 
gating the aotoal topography. And, when we trayd 
through the wild and picturesque scenery with whidi 
this part of the country is divenrified, we cannot help 
expressing our surprise that the learned Csnfarian should 
have committed 00 many errars. For so striking a dis- 
crepancy exists between the real and the recorded state 
of the situaticm, that we are driven lo conclude either 
timt Tacitus has exaggerated the importance of the 
river he speaks of as presenting a formidable obstnio- 
tion to the Roman forces, confounding it perhaps with 
the Severn^ fourteen miles distant, or else that our author 
has not seen the precise place the historian mentions. 

In the first place, then, it may be noted that the 
account of what Lhuyd actually saw is not strictly cor- 
rect. The disftance from Caeb Casadoc to Cflun is double 
that at which he sd^s it, and there are two, not three 
gates of entrance into the irregularly oval area of the 
camp. Die ascent to it can scarce^ be deemed pre- 
cipitous, because by the absence of craggy rocks and 
rolling stones, it partakes more of the character of an 
extremely elevated down, than of such a nigged and 
inaccessible eminence as that described. It is certainly 
a veiy fine and commanding position, standing as a cen- 
tre of communieation for all these BoBnsR FoBTRBfiSBs; 
and though pent in among mountains, yet it raises 
its fortified head lar above the nei^bouring summits. 

^ Caer Caradoc, near Churt^ StreUon, and Caer Caradoe near Set* 
Me, HerefifrdMn, {Craddot^) m the Oidnaaoe Siinr^. 


The Eastern side of the camp ia that moat difficult 
of approach, and accordingly on this aide less labour 
has been employed to make it defensible. From the 
North and North Western sides three different fosses 
and valla die away to the others. The entrances were at 
the North Eastern and Western sides. The Clun men- 
tioned by Lhuyd, is a small brook three miles distant 
firom the base of the momitain, too far off, and too 
insignificant to attract notice ; whilst the Teme which 
runs through Knighton ai^ nearly the same distance is 
aIso too inconsiderable a stream to present the least 
obstruction to an invading army. 

Thus then the case stands with regard to Caer Ca- 
RADoc. We see in it an undisputed example of British 
castrametation. Unquestionably it bears the name of the 
British chief, and is associated traditionally with his ex- 
ploits. But beyond this there is no further evidence to 
support its pretensions. The absence of the river at its 
base seems to me quite decisive that it is not a spot 
which can be at all reconciled with the Latin historian'^s 
account of the scene of engagement. 

Aubrey, I believe, was the first individual who spoke 
of CoKWALL* Knoll m connexion with the campaign of 
Ostorius. Bishop Gibson must have derived his know- 
ledge of the place either from Aubrey's Monumenta 
Britannica, or from Dugdale's Visitation of Shropshire 
in 1663^. It is first alluded to by these writers, though 
they all so strangely confound it with Caer Caradoc, 
that it is rather doubtfid whether any of them could have 
seen either of the places. At all events, what they state, 
and the whole that can be gathered from the latest edition 
of Camden, do not put the subject in any new or valu- 
able light. 

' There is a CaanoaU Weod in WUUhire. The present name is 
derived I conceive from the C. Brit, ytgod, sylva, and gwUy vallum. 
(See Remarks under Cockshut.) 

' Camden Britannia, edit Gongh, vol. iii. p. 13. 


General Roy had compiled the greater portion of his 
elaborate work on the Military. Antiquities of the Bomans 
in Great Britain, before he heard of the existence of 
these two hill fortresses. It is^ to be regretted he did not 
penetrate further into the country when he visited it in 
the summer of 1772, for being dissatisfied with the 
claims of both of these positions, his knowledge of mili- 
tary tactics, and his scholarlike attainments would haye 
enabled him to decide where the true one lay. He con- 
sidered that Caer Caradoc in- no respect suited the relation 
of the Roman Historian^ and thai OoxwaU Knott only cor^ 
responded with it in some points^. In the autumn of 1837 I 
visited them both, and the result of my investigation tends 
to the same conclusion. They are both British works of 
defence, but beyond this circumstance, their claims are 
highly problematical. 

CoxwALL Knoll is not in itself so commanding and 
important a position as the Britons usually chose; nei- 
ther is it marked by the acclivities and precipitous 
descents with which they are generaUy chiuracterised. 
It is an oblong eminence, containing about twenty acres, 
of no very great altitude above the surrounding plain, 
girt by double mounds and ditches, which, according to 
constant custom, foHow tiie natural outline and fall of 
the hill. However, there is one peculiarity that makes 
this work remarkable, and totally unlike any other ex- 
ample of castrametation in the whole chain of these 
BoRI^R FoBTs'. 

' Roy, p. 171. 

' The same festuxe is observable, in the lam encampment of 
Hamiltoh Hill, which is not much unlike tne present one in 
shape, though vety considerahly larger, being in fact the most ex- 
tenaiye specimen of castrametation in Engknd. It lies a little 
more than six miles South of Shaftesbury. It is surrounded by 
ihe ditches and is betwixt ^ye and six furlonffs from North to 
South. Hod Hill is about a mile finom the former, the whole 
camp is defended by three ditches, having the highest point, which 
is quadrilateral, enclosed by four other valla. They are two very 
Baagnificent and remarkable examples of early fortincation. 


Here it may not be out of place to remark, that the 
eommon prinoiple of htying out eutrenchmentB waa ex- 
tremdy aimple. A utuation having been fixed upon, 
most commonly very elevated, insulated, and naturally 
advantageous to its possessors, the ground was then en- 
circled with double fosses and valla. These were inva* 
riably adapted to the precise nature of the situation, 
and as often dispensed with, as the locality oflered any 
defence in itself. Yet here, we find a sort of double 
camp, as though one part had grown out of the other. 
Thus the East end is of an inregular semicircular form, 
partly in consequence of the devious outline of the hill 
on its Eastern and Northern sides r the West end, or 
larger part, is a well proporticxied ellipse, separated from 
the other by a fosse of great depth, which seems like 
a natural ravine. It serves now as a boundary line be- 
twixt Herrfordahire and 8hropakir«. The summit of the 
eminence having been planted for several years, it has 
become difficult to trace the works with satisfaction and 
accuracy. As far as I could make them out, double 
ditches went from the Southern to the Northern side of 
the first mentioned division; whilst its Western side had 
the natural fall to which allusion has aliready been made. 
The second division had a double ditch on the South- 
em, and a treble ditch oa ihe Northern side. A pur- 
ling rivulet which precedes the traveller with its music, 
and continually sparkles before his eyes, as he passes 
down the narrow and secluded valley underneath the 
Western base ef the Gaer, runs three quarters of a 
mile from the foot of Coxwall Knoll; but it is here 
a mere brook undeserving of notice. The Teme^ which 
flows nearly the like distance under the opposite banks, 
is little larger; it is> in fact,, so shallow and inconsider- 
able a stream, that, unless iii times of flood, it could 
never have presented the least barrier to marching troops. 
It hurries over a gravelly or stony bottom, in which there 


•re not a dozen plaoee to be found in the oourae of » 
mile, below the overluuiging encampment, where it would 
be impracticable to ford, whilst these places are merely 
holes worn into the bed of the river by the action at 
some extraordinary rush of water. 

We will now examine the military advantages of 
the fort. And as respects these little more need be said: 
for it has afaready heea proved by two writers, who 
have had practical experience in the science of war, to 
possess but few^ Tacitus expressly states that the po- 
sition occupied by the Britons was every way favorable 
to them, and disadvantageous to the Romans^ The 
spot under notice will, therefore, hardly suit his de- 
scription, being perfectly insulated, which would render 
it impracticable for the Britons to secure a retreat. 
And had they been surrounded here by victorious Ro- 
mans, as is suggested by one of the foregoing authori- 
ties, they could not have escaped into the mountams. 
Yet we know they did so; for although their valiant 
chief was subsequently betrayed through the treachery 
of a depraved woman who ruled over the Brigantes, his 
iubjects prosecuted the war for a considerable time after^ 

On the other hand, Coxwall Knoll is but three 
miles from Bbandon Camp, which is evidently a work 
of Roman construction. If it were built at the same 
period, it is not improbable that Ostorius having pene- 
trated thus far into the territory of the Silures would 
entrench himself in this latter position, from whence he 
could best watch the motions of the enemy, and press 
as closely as possible upon their rear. Allowing this to 
have its iuU weight in the argument, it only proves that 
the one is a Roman and the other a British work, which 

^ General Roy and Mr MarchiBcm. 

' Smnpto ad prcslium looo, ut aditus abmxutu, cnncta nobit 
impoTtana, et suis in melius esBent 


no one who has ever examined thefle* two kinds of for- 
tifications will be disposed to deny. 

There is a circumstance, however, of a difierent kind, 
not undeserving attention, which serves to shew that the 
capip of CoxwALL Knoll had suffiared from assault at 
sometime. An intelligent farmer, ^o cultivated land a 
few years ago neariy adjoining the place, shewed to a 
friend of the author's several round stones that had been 
found in the ditches of the encampment. They were 
quite of a difibrent geological character to any in the 
neighbourhood, and therefore decisive as to the point 
that the attacking party brought them with them, and 
did not find them on the spot. Some of them are stated 
to have had a groove ropnd them, as if they had been 
thrown from a mangonel or balista, but these my in- 
formant did not actually see^ It does not appear to 
me that this fact is of itself sufficient to reconcile the 
topographical difference existing between the situation of 
the Camp, and the narrative of Tacitus. And so long 
as this discrepancy continues we must seek further, and 
Qx the engagement at another place'. 

Accordingly, when Mr Murchison was gathering firom 
the geology of this district those new and valuable facts^ 
with which he has since enlightened the scientific worid, 
his attention became naturally drawn to the subject, and 
he immediately perceived the unsuitableness of Coxwall 
Knoll for Garactacus to fix upon it as his chief position. 
He thence argues, that if the battle were fought on 
the North bank of the Teme^ as has hitherto been re- 

1 I feel a pleasure in again recordinff here a sense of mv obliga- 
tions to the Rev. John Rocke^ who fumiuied me with these racts. 

' The Rev. Thomas Dimcumb,. in his Histoiy of Her^fbrdMr^ 
persists in advocating the claims of CoxwaU KnoU, although so much 
argument had been brought against it by General Roy. C^uld this be 
because part of it lay in the county he was describing ? See p. 12 — ^16. 

' These are embodied in a vety magnificent work in two quarto 
volumes, under the title of ''The Silurian Svstem/' that are an eur 
during monument of his perseverance and talent 


puted, it may have commenced at Hollowat Rocks, 
two miles below Knighton in BadnarsAire^ from which 
place the Britons were ultimately driven to Gabr Gara- 
Doc, where their leader was captured. The opinion of 
a gentleman who is better acquainted with the whole of 
this region than any one living, in consequence of having 
personally examined it from one extremity to the other, 
must be deserving of great attention. 

Yet it may be remarked, that if the Teme at Cox- 
wall Knoll was not thought of sufficient importance to 
attract the historian'^s notice, it would present still fewer 
claims two miles higher up, where five tributary streams 
that flow into it in the intervening distance have not joined 
their waters, and consequently, it must there be a much 
liiallower brook. Nor does it seem, in my judgement, 
very probable that the Romans would choose just such 
a place as this to make their attack. They would hardly 
fix themselves under precipitous rocks, (upon which by 
die way there are no vestiges of fortification) when a 
quarter of a mile higher up the current, where Stow 
MiU at present stands, they would have to contend 
against fewer difficulties, by marching their troops up a 
valley. A second objection, applying in an equal degree 
to idl of the foregoing positions, may be urged against 
the Cfeography. 

We are, it is true, in very great uncertainty about 
the exact divisions of territory at this early period. 
There are but few places that can be positivdy identi- 
fied throughout the country with the Itineraries, and it 
is quite impossible to define the precise limits of the 
various tribes of the CoRNAvn, Silurbb and Ordovioeb 
with accuracy. All we really know is, that Deva and 
Urioconium are mentioned by Ptolemy as the chief cities 
of the CoRNAvii, the former of which is Chegter^ the 
latter Wroxeter. The kingdom of Siluria is supposed 
by Cellarius to have contained within it the whole West- 


em angle of 8<mih WoIm^ Btreiohiiig from the Iritk Bea 
to the S&wm^. It was again subdivided betwixt the 
SiLUBBs and the Dembtjb, or inhabitants of Oiiermarihen' 
$kire and Pembroke. The cities of the former are said, 
on the rather doubtful authority of Richard of Ciren- 
cester, to have been Arioonidm, (JZom, according to 
Fosbrooke, or Herrferd^ Camden) ; Magna {Kencheeter) ; 
IscA SiLOBUM (Ccierleon); Gobannium {Aberganenny); and 
Vbnta Silubum {Ca0rwen£)y their capital. To these have 
been added by Antoninus, Burrium (Usk); and Bovium 
(Bewrion). Ptolemy mentions Bvlljrvm. {CaeieU Curt Lie- 
ehrhyd)^ near BuiUh. The same writer places Branoo^ 
NiuM, or the Bravonium and Bravinium of Antoninus 
among the Cornavii, and as there can be no doubt of 
this being Brandon Camp, because it exactly agrees with 
the alledged distances in the Itinerary, it would bring 
the seat of war among the Cobnavii, and remove it al- 
together, both from the Silures and the Ordoviges. 

The utmost insight obtainable into the Boman Oeo- 
graphy of this period, that shall be at the same time 
devoid of speculation, is that Siluria comprises ihe 
district where Bose^ Kencheeter^ Abergavenny^ Caerwent^ 
Caerleon^ and Builth, are situated, and that it extended 
6x>m these places to Cardigan and St Bride's Bay'\ The 
Eastern boundary of the province is solely conjectural, 
only what the fancy of any writer chooses to imagine. 
We have not the least intimation in the authorities of 
the period what constituted the line of demarcation be- 
tween the Silures and the Cornavu, we know not whether 
it was fluvial or mountainous. The former idea is per- 
haps the more preferable, for this reason, that although 
the Teme be but an insignificant river, especially above 
Ludlow^ yet the forenamed places all respectively lie on 

* Cellarii Notitiae Orbis antique : edit. Schwartz^ 4to> 1773. torn. i. 
p. 341, 2, 3. 

' PUnii Nat. HiBt. lib. It. c. 16. 


tbe Wesiem side of it. If the Wj/e be fixed on, JTm- 
eketter will not be oomprehMded within the oountry where 
Raohmrd of Cirencester places it. Let the question of 
these boundAries be settled how it may, it will still be 
difficult to prove that Ck>xwAix E^NOixor Casr Caradoc, 
1ms among the Ordovigbb, and consequently neither of these 
spots can be reconciled with the historian's narrative. 

Under the assumption tiien, that none of the aigu- 
meats adduced by preceding writers bear with sufficient 
force upon the account left us by Tacitus, and that not 
any of his commentators on this transaction have brou^t 
the Roman Oeneral far enough into the country to reach 
the Ordovigbs, we must press onwards to the North, 
under a hope of finding the true site of the battle 
there, premising, however, that the Britons had been 
driven from the district we are now leaving. And that 
it had been debated as it were inch by inch, and most 
severely contested, iluiy be inferred from the numerous 
camps and tumuli whidi still mark its surface through- 
out. We follow these brave warriors 6x>m height to 
height, and see them no sooner expelled from one strong- 
hold than defending another; we behold them retreating, 
disorganised, disabled; with wounds still fresh and bleed- 
ing from recent combat, yet bearing in their bosoms a 
devoted love of country which neither disasters or defeats 
could subdue. The fortune of war is adverse; the place 
of action is changed, but the same courage continues to 
animate the besieged. 

But where must the scene then of this celebrated 
action be fixed! The question is a difficult one to 
settle, and whoever attempts its solution must exercise 
caution. After three different visits into the oountry 
already mentioned, I felt convinced, for the reasons 
already given, that the pretensions of these camps could 
not be maintained, and deeming it with General Roy, not 
improbable that the true locality might be found above 


the banks of the Sewm^ I examined them at the close 
of last autmnn with this object speciaUy in view. 

The fortifications which then appeared to be most 
entitled to attention were those on the Breidden. The 
Severn rolls within a quarter of a mile from the North 
Western base of this magnificent range of hills, and 
upon three of them vestiges of fortifications may be 
still distinctly traced. The one upon which Rodney*8 
Pillar is erected is nearest to the river; this is ^e 
loftiest, and the works upon it are also the strongest^ 
There are entrenchments upon two others, Cefyn y 
Gastell, and Bauslet Hill, which will demand notice 
as being connected with these, but their description 
shall be deferred to a later paragraph. 

My journey hither from Oswestry lay through a 
country replete with memorials of its early history. The 
first place that attracted notice was the picturesquely 
situated little village (^ Lkmymynech^ which has been 
supposed to signify the Village of Miner8\ to which ap- 
pellation it has not perhaps forfeited its claims since the 
days of the Romans. As the traveller journeys akmg 
this beautiful part of the Welsh Borders he will be 
much struck with the bold escarpment of Limestone 
rock overhanging the little hamlet below him, diversi- 
fied as it is by neat white dwellings, and with the rich- 
ness of the empurpled plain that stretches towards the 
BREmDEN on his left. It is in truth a countiy singu- 
larly lovely, possessing every feature that can constitute 

* The Ooo, or Cave at Uanymynechy was a mine worked by the 
Romans. About 1755^ a few minens in search of copper ore^ found 
several skeletons within it. There were culinary utensils^ and a 
number of Roman coins, Antoninus, Faustina, and others, discovered 
near them. One e^eleton had a bracelet of glass beads like those 
Druidical rings called ghin neider, the ova anguinum of Pliny, around 
his left wrist, and a battle axe by his side. Fifteen years after this 
first discovery some other miners found several human bones, and a 
golden bracelet. Camb. Rea. vol. i. p. 265 and 271. 

Two iron pickaxes of the Roman workman have also been found 
here, which are now in ^e Free School Library, Skrembwry, 


a magnifioent landscape. It is no wonder if soldiero 
hitherto accustomed to the more tame and monotonous 
scenery of the country lying betwixt the Avon and the 
Severn, should have felt inspired with fresh hopes of 
conquest when this glorious view broke upon their sight. 
Whether, however, they first beheld it as invaders or 
conquerors we will now proceed to enquire. 

On the South Eastern side of the Brbidden there 
are two walls of stone heaped up after the fashion which 
has BO often been described. They are ^^ dry work^^ and 
evidently artificial. Similar indications appeared on the 
South Western end of the summit, but as it has been 
planted for some time, it was impossible to follow them 
with certainty. Below these two works, which are visi- 
ble for seventy yards firom North to South, the attention 
is drawn to a sudden fall of the hill, which though in 
great measure natural, has been augmented in some de- 
gree by manual labor. It presents a steep face about 
thirty feet high, tiU it terminates at the South West- 
em end, a space of a hundred and sixty yards, or 
thereabouts. The whole of the Northern side of this 
eminence is nearly perpendicular, which will sufficiently 
explain why. no lines of circumvallation ar^ to be seen 
in that quarter. 

Having made a sHght descent from the height just 
mentioned, we come upon a bold conical eminence, nearly 
turfed over, that bears, I believe, the name of the 
Nkw Pieces, on the North Western side of which, are 
remains of two irregularly shaped enclosures. The up- 
per one is nearly quadrilateral, having its sides a hun- 
dred and ten paces long: the lower one is a small 
s^nioircular work shewing indications like the preceding 
one of stone aggera, which go round its South Eastern 
base. Each of these works is constructed with stones piled 
up after the British method. Faint indications of past 
occupancy are distinguishable also in several other places. 


Before reaohing the next positioii) we have to make a 
considerable descent, and then agam to climb up the steep 
sides of an eminence nearly as lofty as the finst, when 
we gain the enclosure upon the top of Cefn y CAnvLL. 
This is a stronghold adapted to the shape of tiie hill; 
it is a hundred and fifty paces wide in the centre, where 
three large stones protrude themselves throu^ the sur- 
face, and about two hundred Icmg. The gorges are at 
the North Elastem and South Western ends. It is sur- 
rounded by a single vallum whose interior slope at the 
parts where it is most perfect, does not exceed six feet 

The remaining post is on the sunmiit of Baubley Hill, 
a mile and a half to the North East of Cefn y Caotbll. 
This yet continues in a very perfect state. The Eastern side 
is BO precipitous, that there is no need of artificial means 
to strengthen it. Its shape resembles the longer half of 
an ellipse, and measures only twenty-five paces across it, 
its length not being double that distance. The opposite 
or Western side has two concentric ditches as it were, 
which have a counterscarp of about ten feet each. 

I have been thus minute in describing these several 
places that the reader may be enabled to form some idea 
of their relative size and importance. With the exception 
of the works at the New Pieces which lie immediately 
under the crest of the Brbiddbn, the two others are so 
far removed that they cannot be considered as forming 
a portion of the whole. Bausley Hill lies almost two 
miles from the rest; it is wholly unconnected with them, 
and like Cefn y Castell must be assigned to a different 
period'. The two fortresses whose claims we have to 
deal with are the BiiEmDBN and the New Pibcbb. 

In assuming that the BREmoEN is the precise lo- 

> In the Elegy of Lomarchus on Cadwallon, king of the Britons, 
the Doet sam that his anny encamped on Havren or the Severn, 'and 
on the farther side of Dygen, which perhaps means one of these po- 
sitions on the Breidderu (See Pugh's TranslatioB of Uywarc Hen. 
p. 113.) ^ ^ 


eality of the retreating olueftaiii''8 last strugjg^e, an objeo- 
tion at once presents itself which is difficult to answer. If 
it can be removed, then this historical question may be 
set for ever at rest. The uncertainty, nay, the utter 
hopelessness of accurately defining boundary lines of Ro- 
man geography has already been alluded to. How is 
it posttble for us to tell exactly where the Silurbs were 
divided from the Cobnavii, or where each of these in 
turn were separated from the Ordoviceb. We only know 
for certain, that some cities which have been mentioned 
belonged to the two former, and that SsGONnuM, Go- 
Noviuif, Varis, and Mbdiolanum belonged to the latter. 
It is probable that the Dee constituted their boundary 
in one part, and the Northern source of the Sewm in 
another, but even then, a vast extent of country is left 
open to be claimed by further conjecture. Deva and 
Urioconium were cities of the CoRNAvn ; and following 
the same species of induction as that just laid down, 
it would seem most likely that the whole extent of 
Champagne country from the Severn and the foot of 
the Welsh Borders up to Ckeeter in the North, belonged 
to the CoRNAvii. Now we know that after Ostorius had 
subjugated the Silurbs he went against the Ordovicbs, 
if, therefore, he had to cross the Severn under the 
Brbiddkn, this would have brought him into the country 
of the CoRNAvii, whilst, if he had been among the Si- 
lurbs or Ordovicbs, as Tacitus infers that he was, the 
river, according to our present knowledge of geography, 
would have been on the wrong side of him to afford 
any obstruction in his attack on the Britons. 

There is still another place, hitherto unnoticed, that 
presents very well founded claims to take pre-eminence 
of all the foregoing. It lies immediately above the 
Western banks of die Severn near Llandinam in JbTofBl- 
gamerj/Mre. Several circumstances concur in leading 
me to think that after all, this place which is called 


CBin Carnbdd may be the true poBition of Caracta- 
cus^ final battle. The geography which has created so 
great a difficulty in solving the question heretofore, 
is now free from any objections. As far as it is pos- 
sible to aecertain from the few data we possess what 
formed the country of the Ordovices, there is every ar- 
gument in favour of considering the whole of the district 
North of this part of the Secern^ as being theirs. The 
river is sufficiently large to have arrested the progress 
of an army, and it must have been crossed before an at-' 
tack could be made upon the spot under notice. There 
are numerous British entrenchments in the vicinity, such 
as DiNAS, Prn t Oaer, Pen y CAerrELL, Pen y Clyn, 
Cefn y GiiOddia, &c., besides the Roman one of Gabr 
SwB, a mile from the base of Cefn Carnedd. 

Cefn Carnedd adapts the figure of its entrench- 
ments to the shape of its own sumnut which is a very 
elongated parallelogram, about five hundred paces long 
and two hundred broad, the angles being rounded. It 
is fortified with a single vallum on the North Western, 
and with a double one on the North Eastern side, from 
which quarter the attack upon its possessors would be 
made. Roman pottery, coins, and other remains have fre- 
quently been found at Caer Sws, whilst two roads con- 
structed by this conqueror further tend to shew that the 
Romans planted themselves here. And what is more 
likely than that having gained a victory on the spot, they 
should choose the scene of their glory, as the one of all 
others most agreeable as a habitation for the colonists! 

I merely throw out these remarks conjecturally, 
hoping that some one who has opportunity may be in- 
duced to examine this last mentioned position more 
carefully than I can now do: and as the place in ques- 
tion lies close on the high road from Shrewdmry to the 
agreeable watering-place of Aherystfcith^ an investigati<m 
may be made without much difficulty. 


PON examining the country North- 
wards of the junction of the Upper 
Avon' with the Severn at TetcksB^ 
bury^ we must immediately be con- 
vinced that the WarwictsAire Avon 
cannot be the river mentioned by 
Tacitus. Throughout the whole of 
Warwickskire^ Staffordshire^ and WorcesterMre^ on the 
Eastern side of the Severn there is a singular deficiency 
of earthworiLS. Several considerable eminences mark 
these counties, positions in themselves so favorable for 
defensive occupation, such for instance as Cle&ve HiU^ 
the Ckn^ and Rowley HiUt, the Liciey, &c. &o« that 
had the inhabitants here been suspected by Ostorius, he 
would not have neglected to av^ himself of the na- 
tural advantages offbred by the country. We do not in 
fact, meet with any vestiges of entrenchments NorUir 
wards of the spot where the two rivers alluded to unite, 
until we reach Brinklow on the Northern borders of 
Warwicbkire^. Whether this extraordinary fortress be 

> The early xeadinff was Auiona, and auppoaed to be the Nen, 
bat as the oouzae of wis river would in no way rait the maroh of 
Ostorins^ it was corrected into Auwma, or the Avon, Several Welsh 
streams have this title^ though none of them are of rafficient im- 
poitanoe to merit attention; either the Upper or the Lcfwer Avon, 
the one flowing through the county of Wartoiek and the other through 
SomerteUkire must be the stream Tacitus alludes to. The Awtoit 
or Teei, is too much to the South. 

' In making this assertiony I however oudbt to say^ that there 
exists a circular encampment on Bsausall Commox, whose area 


of Britwh or Roman construction I will not now en- 
quire, seeing that it lies too remote and isolated, and 
too little connected with any regular line of fortifica- 
tions to be assignable to the period under discussion. 
Proceeding Westward we meet with nothing whatever 
until we reach the centre of Shropshire. The first 
work observed here, is the British stronghold on the 
summit of the Wbekin. It would be needless to follow 
the course of the Setem higher, inasmuch as whatever 
military works exist in this direction, were, (with a few 
exceptions, noticed in another place,) constructed by the 

We are therefore driven to inspect the renuiins 
existing between the Lower Avon and the Severn, and 
the indications presented in this quarter, tend to shew 
pretty evidently that it was this district that Ostorius 
fortified ^ The A^ion rises at Tetbury in Gloucestershirej 

contains about six acres. Looking at the plan of it with which I 
am fitvonred by Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., it is in part double 

Besides this, I have examined a quadrangular camp of mndi 
smaller dimensions at Chesterton on the Fosw, ax miles South 
£ast of Zjeamin^Um; the Roman pretensions of which are indis- 
putable. On one of my visits thither, I brought away some coins 
of the Lower Empire, just turned over by the plough in the vi- 

The small work at Wapekbury, North East of Leamh^Um, 
beffldes lying on the wrong side of the Avon, is too insignificant 
to attract notice. I believe this and the chief of the smaller 
Wdrwidcshire earthworks . to have been possessed by Romanized 

About two miles North of the junction of the Upper Awn with 
the Severn is a quadrangular encampment, apparently Roman, called 
TowBURT Hill; on Bredok Hill, and a little to the East are 
two huge irregular works with a smaller one a mile to the Souths 
these, with one on Oxexton Hill, lie completely detached from 
the great range, and must, I imagine, be unconnected with this 

* Mr Bloxam seems to think that Ostorins's Chain of Gamps 
conHnenoed at Brinkhw, and went hence due South to the Samer- 
eetMre Avon*. My reason for dissenting from his opinion is this. 
Supposing BrhMw to be the Northern Bnk of these fortresses, we 
are compelled to travel as far as Bredok Hill, or Oxevtok Hill 

• AmtaUtt, ifoL W. p. 185. 


and afterwards flows Southwards in a parattd direotion 
with the Sewm till it reaches Bath^ when it bends to 
the North West. In the country lying between these 
two rivers there are numerous encampments, some of 
them of considerable magnitude. The principal one lies 
most Northemly, and from this point we will trace them 

The first position that comes under our notice is 
Ulet Burt, an unusuaQy large camp, in the shape of 
a parallelogram, double ditched, a mile East of Dursley. 
Dbakbstonb Camp on SHneheomb Hilly and Blackbnbubt 
DrrcHss, a small triangular work, on an eminence North 
of WboUan Underedge^ come next in the group. Nine 
miles due South of Ulbt Bubt, on a high ridge of land 
communicating with the preceding, is a small semi-ellip- 
tical work known under the title of Horton CAflrrLB. A 
mile still more Southward, on the same eleyated line, 
we find a spacious, double ditched quadrangular encamp-* 
ment at Little Sodburt. This and Ulbt Burt are the 
chief fortresses in the range. The Eastern side of this 
ridge as far as Langrtdge^ a distance of nineteen miles^ 
is comparatively a plain country, but the Western side 
is for the most part very steep. The chief of the works 
along it are as considerable as any met with in other 
parts of the kingdom, and from these facts it may be 
inferred without dispute to be the ground Ostorius chose 
for his defensive chain. 

Three miles and a half South of Ltttle Sodburt 
Camp, the Turnpike road from PuMechurch to Netdetan 

near CheUenham, the nearest of which places is upwards of forty 
miles in a straight course from Brinkhw, before we meet with an- 
other camp, and from thence to Ravburt Camp upwards of twenty 
miles East of Cireneeater, before we come to a third; this besides 
would carry us quite too £sr to the East How much more then, 
if we go from Brinkhw, to Nadbubt Caxp, as he proposes, on 
the borders of Chefcrd^tin? I put Meon Hill in tnc South of 
WarwidcMre out of the question, because no appearance of ram- 
parts exist on this summit though weapons have been found there. 



pwHCB through an irregular semi-oirottlar camp on the 
top of HiNTDN Hiix ; and two miles East we meet with a 
yery small quadrangular epaulement on Hsbdovn Down. 
Five miles Southwards, inclining a little to the East, we 
oome upon the most extreme link of the diain, at the 
irregularly triangular smgle ditched fortress upon Littlb 
Salisbury Hill, scarcely a mile from the Avon, and not 
two from the city of BnUk; making a distance from 
due North to South of upwards of twenty miles, wheie 
are found eight fortresses^ which lying betwixt the Avon 
and the Sewmy completely agree with the narratiye of 

Approachmg the latter river, numerous vestiges of 
military occupancy occur, but whether assignable to the 
same period I wiU not venture to assert, thou^ I should 
be inclined to consider they were. It is not unlikely 
their object was to check any irruption which the Silubbs 
mi^t make from the opposite shores of Monfn<nUh$hire 
and GlamofyansAire. Be this, however, how it may, 
we find the following, which may additionally tend to 
prove that this was the expected seat of war. 

The first defensive work, commencing at the mouth 
of the ilfw», and journeying Northwards, is Mbrb Bank, 
a high vallum running parallel with this river from the 
banks of the Severn^ till it nearly joins a circular eur 
trenchment close to Henburt. West of the Atony oppo- 
site Cli/ton are two large semi-circular camps, known 
under the titles of Stokm Lbigh Camp, and Boweb or 
Borough Walls. Ooing from hence Westwards, on 
Stoke Leigh Down are two small circular earthworks; 
and two miles still further to the West, are appearances 
of three inconsiderable circumvallations which lie on the 
direct road to the spacious oval fortress of Cadburt 
Gajip dose to Tiekenham, As we travel Northwards 
frx>m this point, the first indication of entrenchments is 
seen at ViNEVARn Break, North of Ohetian, There are 


slight remains petceptible at Oldburt on Sevbrn, whilst 
a large p^itagonal camp in a very perfect state, double 
ditched, lies a Uttle to the North. This is the last strong- 
hold of the Western range we have been tracing. 

Besides the works on the two barriers hitherto men- 
tioned, a few are here and there visible in the inter- 
vening country. They are comparatively undeserving of 
notice, and ought not to be contrasted with those al- 
ready desmbed. Uncertain remains are distinguishable 
at BirroN: there is a smaH oval camp on Bcby Hill, 
South of Wtnterbaum; a small irregular single ditched 
camp caUed the Gaotlb, near Titherinffton ; another at 
Bust Housb, South of DcynUm; a Biuff^ entitled Burt 
Camp^ a mile East of MarskfieU, and vestiges of another 
work a little to the West of it'. 

^ WMbt this sheet Is passing through the press I find in Lyson's 
Acooant of the Roman Antiqnities disoovered at WootMiester, the 
foUowing oonfinnatioii of mv own views, ''It is extremely probable," 
rays he, "that the entrenchments at ITZsy Bwy and on Panuwiek 
InB, and perhaps those also on Broadridge Green and at Little 
Soitmrff, are remains of those gamaons (Roman under Ostorins) or 
at least of their Castra expioratoria, A great number of Roman 
coins, both of the higher and lower empire, have been found within 
the entraicfaments of Vhy Bury and Pahmrick HiU Campe." p. 18. 



scBNDiNa with the Secern North- 
wards from the counties hist 
spoken of, the first encampment 
we find on its Western side, is 
Gadbuht Banks, an irregularly 
four sided camp, eight miles North 
of Gloucester^ and four South East 
of a very large entrenchment on 
MmsuMMBR Hill. This latter one 
is placed upon the ridge gene- 
mlly known under the name of the 
Malvern Hills and is the most South- 
erly of the remarkable works that were 
built upon their summit. A mile fur> 
ther along this line we come to the 
well known fortress of the Hereford- 
8HFBB Beacon. Fifteen miles more 
Northerly on the Abberley Hills we 
reach Woodbury Hnx, the last strong- 
hold of the group. 

These four fortresses which are un- 
uBually large, as well as difficult of 
access, must have been erected by the 
Bntons to check the progress of the 
Romans Westward. The eminences on which they are 
placed, are the most advantageous situations that could 
possibly be occupied, and it does not seem likely that the 
Britons would suffer the enemy to advance into their 


country, withcmUinaldiig a vigorous resistanoe in a quar-< 
ter, where nature herself had done so much to assist them 
in preserving their liberty. They are extremely well 
adapted for the intention they had in view, as they en- 
tirely command Hebbfordshiiub and the Welsh diistrict 
lying East of it: and had the Roman forces landed on 
the shores of Glamofyansiire or entangled themselves 
unwarily in the Forett of Bean in Ghucegterskire, and 
even afterwards escaped out of those difficulties, they 
would in vain have attempted to retreat to their own 
chain of fortresses so long as the Britons remained in 
possession of this most important range. 

And that the first great stand was made here, dis- 
advantageously to our countrymen, can scarcely admit 
of a doubt. Neither of the contending powers imme- 
diately went Northwards; a conclusion we are justified 
in drawing from the fact of so many military works 
existing between this point and the Wye^ whilst there 
are none in the other direction. Wall Hills, near 
Ledbury^ a strong pentagonal work double ditched, and 
an elliptical single ditched camp at Sollbb^s Hope, on 
this river, are the most Southerly fortifications that oc- 
cur. The encampments at Bbinbop, KENCHESTBai, Iving- 
TON, and Blackbuby Hill, by their rectilinear circumval- 
lation appear to be Roman constructions ^ It is doubtful 
what Sutton Walls, Rjsbuby, and a small circular work 
two miles East of Leamintter, were, but most likely 
later works. The magnificent elliptical fortresses of Cboft 
Ambbst and Waplbt, scarcely seven miles asunder, the 
former a little North of Aymesiry, the latter a little 

> There exuts a tradition that Chohtry, situated a mile West of 
LeominHer, was a Roman camp or colony. This tradition receives 
some degree of corroboration from etymology. Cholstry seems to be 
a corruption of CaHra. In ancient writings it is epelled CaeroHruy, 
Le^the City qf (ktruy, perhaps a corruption of Ostorius. Hist of 
Leominster, p. 7. 

Otstkr Hill in HertfwrdshWe, and Oitster Hill in Here- 
/wMire have been supposed to owe their name to the same cause. 


Soath of Prmdeiffn, are undoiibiedly British ereotiom. 
They are the key to Badnonkire and MdUffomeryshire^ 
and before OstoritiB oould adyanoe into these counties, 
which I suspect were occupied by the Obdoviobb, it was 
necessary they should be forced. 

The fortunes of the braye CaractacuS were declining, 
and we are now compelled to tread in his retreating foot- 
steps, and follow him and his yaliant companions from the 
fertile plain of Herefbrdshire to the nigged and naked 
mountains of the boiu)brs. But how shaQ we describe 
the state of his army, defeated as it has been, dimi- 
nished, in part disarmed, writhing under their wounds, 
yet carrying onwards an unrepressed passion to coyer 
recent defeats with yictory? and as they took a last 
glance at the land of their forefathers, eyery feding 
that national affection could infuse must haye inspired 
them with new courage, till they became actually mad- 
dened for fresh opportunities of conflict. The issue 
was too uniformly adyerse, and we behold them gradu* 
idly reduced to a small band, whidi ultimately was 

Cboft Ambbby and Wapley are the most Southern 
of Garactacus^s interior line of camps, which commences 
in the North at Hbn Dinas. The Romans haying gained 
these two, proceeded to secure their conquests in the 
country they had entered, by choosing such positions as 
were ayailable, and which would at the same time en- 
able them to press as closely as possible upon the enemy. 
We thus find them occupying the important post of 
Norton Camp, a large quadrangular work double ditched, 
which commands defiles to the East and West, and 
moreoyer lies yery closely upon the flank of Caractacus 
in his supposed entrenchments upon Bubrough Hill, 
Billings Ring, and (Burt DrroHEs. The strong work 
of Branbon Camp South of Ldntwardine would form 
a counterwork to, or command the stronghold of Cox- 


WALL Knoll, as Nonyr Bank would do to the Doobm 
above SkysiaiL 

From Brandon Camp, it ■eems most likely that Oa- 
toritts made a divendoa of part of his forooB against 
Cau Caraixx) and the DraoBBS, and having diiven out 
the Britons from these elevated posts he left garrisons in 
the ooontry) to prevent their reooeapation. Nobdy Bank 
was intended to hinder their gaming poesesaion of the 
large enclosore on the summit of Jbion Bwfj by hold- 
teg whieh the Britons would command the extensive 
valley running betwixt the sBraten and the TiUenians 
CU$ HUb towKtdB Bridffmunih and Wore&tterMre, whilst 
it would at the same time serve the purpose of keeping 
m dieok the inhabitants of Corw Dak. The works at 
RuBHBumr, were erected for similar reasons, to keep in sub- 
jection tiie inhabitants otJpe Dale, at the head of whidi 
valley it is placed. And we thus find an early military 
way from these garrisoned places to Wroweter. Begin, 
ning at Hcmn Bank it passes through TuffFosD, Orate- 
lOSD, over Roman Bank to Rosbbusv, thence by Oha^ 
wall, where it bears the name of the Dsvil^s Gausbwat, 
(a more particular account of which is given hereafter,) 
Aekm Bomisi; PUoktwDy &a, to the Severn at Wro^ 

The position chosen by Ostorius at WhetSeUm was 
in every respect an important one: and it shevro that 
the gr»it principles of Stbatbot have been the same in 
all ages. It had the command of observation of four 
vaUeys; Cobvb Dalb, Ajpb Dalb, the Stbbhon Vallbt, 
and that leadmg to Brandon Camp, near Lrinhomrdine; \ 

it was a means of securing a safe retreat for the Ro- 
man forces in case they should be driven back, whilst ! 
it would also secure them in the possession of all the 
{Jain as far as LucUow^ and even beyond it. 

It would be imposnUe to mark with accuracy and 
in succeesion, the course of Ostorius^s progress <m the 


Weitem aide. We immeduiieljr gei into the momitaHi- 
OII0 district of Radmankire^ where defensive yestiges are 
very nmneroiiSy «nd scattered over the eminences with- 
out any discernible prindj^e. There are several small 
oircidar worics, epaulements with one ditch, such as 
ToMEN CAsruSy South East of Nmo Radnor; Castjbll 
Cbftnllts; Caxr Oinon; Tomen Bbddcorb near BuUik ; 
the Oaks, a double fortress^ and several small recti- 
linear fortifications on the Mderydd Mountain; othen 
on Gloo Hill; Casilb Bma South of Disooyd; Bubva 
Bank, a mile lowec» &c. &c. Castkll Cwbt LLscHiunm, 
a mile North of BuiUk (Bullbum); Llan du (a penta- 
gonal entrenchment) North of lAawDair Waterdine; two 
Caeb Dm Rings, and two very small quadrangular works 
a little South of them, all five in Clun Forett. Im* 
mediately before entering MotUffomefyshire^ whilst yet in 
Shropshire, we have Castbll Ceftn Fron, a small cir- 
cular work seven miles West of Bury Ditches; Upprai 
Short Ditch, and Lower Short Ditoh; a few circular 
works in the neighbourhood of Kerry; Castle Ring, 
above BaUinghope^ (described more fiiUy hereafter) and 
Castle Ring under the Western side of the Stiperstones; 
Castle Ring, betwixt HysHngton and Church Stoke^ and 
Caer Brb, betwixt Church Stoke and Chirbury^ which 
brings us close to Fiudd Faldwin and Caer Howel 
near Montgomery. 

With the exception of the long oval works of FRmn 
Faldwin and the circular one on Tongley Hill, called 
Bury Ditches, East of Bishop's Ccutle^ which has three 
concentric aggers, none of the works mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph are extensive, a fact proving 
that Radnorshire was not the field of any very severe 

Having driven the troops of Caractacus thus far, 
the Roman general seems to have paused, to allow time 
for the construction of such a camp, as would be suit- 


able both to oontaiti hk foroee, as well as to aeouie the 
territory he had aoquired. The flite waa just each an 
one aa a akilfiil taotioian like Oatorina would be likely 
to chooae. We have obaerved the prudenoe which 
guided him in fixing upon Wietthton Wood or Nobton 
Camp aa a flank defence for the valleys of Corve JDah^ 
Ape Dale^ and the Stretkm Oarge^ and in the present 
ipstanoe his position was selected .as advantageously. 
Caer Fl6b stands above the Eastern banks of the Se-^ 
tern at the confluence of four valleys a mile and a half 
North of Montgomery; one of these takes the course of 
the river to Welshpool^ Llandrinio, and Meherley^ where 
it expands into a vast champagne country: the other 
takes the Eastern side of the Brddden and unites with 
the preceding valley at Cardeston and AJberbwry. Be- 
sides being a key to these two, it is so situated as 
completely to command the whole district as far as 
Bkhop's C€Utle to the South East, and the vale of the 
Secern as high as Newtown to the South West. 

The entrenchments on the Bbeidden, already de- 
scribed, are the nearest British strongholds of import- 
ance to the Roman work at Cabr Flos, but whether 
their construction was prior to this, is, I must con- 
fess, very uncertain. The Britons retreating along the 
mountain heights, as the StreUon HiUs and Long Myndy 
crossing the SHperstonee^ and thence flying to the Long 
Mountain^ in all of which places we find Tumuli, might 
have fixed upon this insulated propugnaculum in their 
extremity, though as the Roman camp of Gaeb Flos 
is on the same side of the river, Ostorius would have 
had no need to ford, as we know he bad, at the spot 
where the decisive engagement happened. As I have 
ahready entered into this question, and expressed my 
reasons for thinking that Ostorius penetrated as high 
up the Severn as Caer Sws, where there is another 
Roman camp placed with a view of commanding the 


vallejrBy for instande, thftt through which the Gamo flows 
from the North West; that timmgh whioh the T<»rwmQ 
flows fSrom the West, and the narrower one through 
whidi the Severn flows from the South, I shall now 
eondude tUa mibjeot, yet not without oflbring a due 
meed of praiie to the military skill he eyinoed from the 
commencement of this important campaign to the de- 
feat of Garactacua, during which he displayed such a 
consummate knowledge of tactics that we are warranted 
in placing him amongst the first of Roman Oenerala. 








om <MiK0trs or ii|l« Biwui- 

|ld Obwbbtrt lies a mile and a half 
from the present town, upon an insu- 
lated eminence that has the tracing 
of an oblong parallelogram. Having 
been planted for a great many years, 
the concentrio ditches are in some 
places considerably obliterated, but 
enough is still visible to excite our surprise at the vast- 
ness of the undertaking. The base of the hill occupies 
at least fifty acres; it gradually tapers towards the plane 
of site which is perfectiy flat, whose area comprehends 
upwards of fifteen. If we make our ascent ftt>m the 
Western side, and leave a small cottage opposite Mount 
Zion to the left, we shaD pass through five lines of 
drcumvallation before we gain the top. Two of these 
entirely encircle the hill; the others do so partiaUy, 
being designed for the peculiar defence of the entrance 
on the Western side, which is less precipitous than the 
other, and consequently required more artificial protec- 

If we enter at the cottage already mentioned, which 
point was one of the original approaches, the other 
being on the opposite side, and follow the drift road 
leading up to the summit, the first vaUum we come 
to is drawn round the base of the hill for a consider- 
able distance: the second has its relief about fifty feet 
above the level of the road which runs along the bot^ 
torn. The parapet is ten feet across, and has a counter- 


soarp of six. Still asoending, we find the adjoining in- 
terior foflse twelve, and the third vaUum six feet wide 
across the parapet, and having a relief of ten feet above 
the ditches on either side. The second and third lines 
lie on each side of the trench we are pursuing. There 
are indications of another vallum, but so indistinct and 
uncertain, owing to the broken nature of the ground 
and the accumulation of vegetable matter, that we wiU 
pass on to the lower vallum and fosse of those two 
that entirely circumscribe the upper part of this ex* 
traordinary fastness* The exterior or fourth vallum, 
is something like fifty feet above the third or the one 
last mentioned. Its counterscarp is ten feet, its width 
across the top six. The fosse, fortuitously I should sup- 
pose, is thirty feet wide. The superior or remaining 
vallum is on much the same scale, having a slight in- 
terior slope towards the enclosed plane of site. But 
the brakes and brushwood being much thicker towards 
the top, it is difficult to ascertain the exact measures, 
and as my observations were unfortunately made after 
heavy rain, the labour of pushing through the long wet 
grass, and tangled thickets was extremely irksome. 

From the foregoing remarks it may be observed that 
this fortified eminence is conformable, so far as regards 
its double ditches, to other posts of acknowledged Bri- 
tish origin: whilst it is dissimilar to them in the depth 
and number of its trenches at the base. In how much 
greater a degree of magnitude and perfection these se- 
veral works appeared at the time of their first forma- 
tion, can only be surmised. But that they were very 
much larger, having their valla more lofty, their fosses 
wider and deeper, the angles of the scarps more acute, 
and the subsidiary lines of circumvallation more extended, 
there is every reason for beUeving. What must have 
been then the labour expended upon the construction 
of tills stronghold, and how great the difficulties a be- 


neging army had to overcome, when they tried to aur- 
mount all ihe military obstacles which it presented f 
Even, at the present day we cannot contemplate such 
gigantic efforts without being impressed with a feeling 
of. astonishment, yet we behold the walls greatly de- 
pressed by the subsidence of the soil, and the <Utches 
partially filled up with matted fem^ and detritus that 
is incessantly slipping down from above. Other causes 
have conspired to alter the original aspect of the for- 
tification. For we are told^ that so long ago as 1767 
as much timber was cut down on the ramparts as sold 
for seventeen thousand pounds. The process of efiace- 
ment is still quietly going on, as the whole of this 
eminence, with the exception of the table land at the 
summit, is covered with wood in various stages of growth. 
After I had twice threaded my passage through the 
thorny intricacies of this sylvan labyrinth, I descended 
to the point where I had commenced the circuit. When 
I looked upwards and endeavoured to follow with the 
eye the prohibitory circle of terraces with their chasms 
underneath, that were partially visible through the dark 
umbrageous foliage, I was forcibly struck with the silent 
majesty of the scene. The chiUy dew of evening was 
falling rapidly around, and admonished me to hasten 
onwards upon my journey, but before I could bend 
my footsteps from the spot, 

A weight of awe, not ea^ to bo borne. 

Fell suddenly upon my Spirit — cast 

From the dread bosom of the unknown past. 

The history of this remarkable work is wrapped in 

complete obscurity. It is called Hen Dinas' or the 

* History of Oswestry, 1815. p. 90. 

■ The primary signification of this word is a fortified hill or 
mount; as we find by Castell Dikas Bban above UangoUen in 
DenbigkMre, and Diir Omwic in CaemarfxmMre, Hence the Ro- 
man terminations of Dinum, Diniutn, and Dunum to the names of 
their cities in Gaul and Britain, and the old English Tune, now 
Dm, Ton, and Town, and the GaeL Ir. Arm. and Com. dun, for 


old oity; and anciently Cakb Ogtbfan, or 0gjfff(mi9 
C€uti6f wbo waa a hero contemporary with King Arthur. 
It haa been aaoribed to Oswald, and Penda, but merely 
on conjectural grounds. I agree with Pennant^ in at- 
tributing it to the Britona; I conceive it must have 
been one of the chain of Caractaoua^s border fortreflBea^ 
which it closely resembles in its main features of con* 

a fortifiad hilL Aeooiding to B«de« dmn means a hei^t in the 
ancient BritiBhy and Clitophon myn it had the same signification 
in the ancient Gaulish* (oee Aimstrong under Dunj and levies 
under Dm,) 

In the nig^y interestinff Ansb Nonnan Ronumoe of Folk Fits 
Warin, with a sight of which I have been jbvouved by Thomas 
Dnfiiis Hardy, Esq., I find Ludbw Castle called Dihan. 
' Pennant's Wales, voL L p. 272. 
^ * Basire ensraved for the Society of Antiquaries, 1703, a round 
shield, a foot diameter, found a foot under ground, within the ana 
of JBTIb dinat. 

euv emaxiot. 

MLS is a hill fortresB of great strength 
fOid importance. There can be no 
doubt of its having been one of the 
chief positions of Caractacns, or Cara- 
ctog. Its situation on so elevated a 
mountain, and the complete insula- 
tion of the mountain itself, bespeak 
who were its former occupants. Every thing tends to 
shew that this is a genuine British entrenchment, and 
unquestionably held by the brave warrior who for so long 
a period repulsed the armies of Ostorius. It forms a 
conspicuous object amongst the Shropshire Hills, and 
is designated by the various names of the Caradoc^ the 
Cwrdoc, the Querdoc, and the Quordoc. Its summit is 
encircled by two ditches having a counterscarp of five 
feet each, and an external slope of fifty. On the 
North Western side, immediately below the outer fosse, 
is a cave still bearing the name of Oaractacuf Cave^ 
which is about five feet high, and capable of holding 
half a dozen people. The Watling Street runs under 
the East side of the Caradoc, and at this part of its 
course it is sixteen feet and a half wide, though its aver- 
age breadth cannot be considered as greater than twelve. 

As is usual with all British fortresses, the present 
one is adapted to the nature of the ground; where the 
fosse terminates, it is occasioned by a rock presenting 
a natural obstacle to it being carried on; this would 
present a more formidable check to assailants, on ac- 


count of its rugged and precipitous character, and thus 
render artificial strength unnecessary. The extreme 
length of the present encampment is three hundred and 
ninety three paces, and its width varies from sixty to 
seventy nine. There seem to have been three gorges, 
or gates of entrance, which are on the East, West, 
and North sides. 

On the whole, the state of this fortification may be 
regarded as extremely perfect. The ditches are gene- 
rally from five to six feet deep, and the escarps and 
counterscarps tolerably complete. This, however, must 
not be considered the original depth of the ditches, as 
I have been informed by an intelligent individual who 
has known the Caradoc for several years, that he re- 
members them much deeper, a fact in accordance with 
the natural tendency of trenches becoming choked up with 
stones continually rolling down from the rocks above, 
or else being filled up by an accumulation of vegetable 


ftle Oiti^tB 

BE a very fine encampment about a 
mile West of the turnpike road, 
leading from WerUock to Ludlow^ 
and a short distance above Larden 
Hall. It encloses nearly eight 
acres, the inner part being four. 
The form is nearly a complete 
circle, like Bury DrrcHEs. It is 
surrounded by inner and outer 
fosses, and two valla. The internal 
E^lope of the inner wall falls on the side 
due East twelve feet, and externally 
twenty-five: across the crest of the 
pjirapet it is six feet broad. The re- 
lii'f of the second vallum rises ten 
fee*! from the fosse, and is at present 
twL^ve feet wide across its parapet: 
externally it falls eight feet: there is 
then a second ditch which is something 
like twelve feet wide. It is however par- 
ttidly obliterated, either in consequence 
of all the mounds and ditches being 
planted over, or through their being 
injured by natural causes. 
These Ditches must formerly have been a post of 
some importance : for they supply a necessary link in 
the chain of British entrenchments which stretch through- 
out the county. The present positicxi is in the im- 


mediate view of Nordt Bank, and within command of 
observation from both the Caebs, Burt Ditches and the 
Wrekin. The original entrance appears to have been at 
the North East rside. There is much difficulty in making 
out these points satisfactorily at present, as the whole 
camp, at least the walls and ditches, are completely ob- 
scured by wood. Were there no other reason for the 
assumption, the fact of a British Urn having been found 
in the immediate neighbourhood, would sanction the idea 
of the whole work being British. A little North West 
of the DrrcHEs is the semblance of a Tumulus, A gen- 
tleman residing in the neighbourhood remembers it more 
prominent than when I first saw it. There were still how- 
ever sufficient indications to lead us to open it\ though 
the labour did not requite us by imparting any new light 
to this subject. After making a cut five feet deep 
from West to East, the workmen came to a black de- 
posit, which led us to suppose that the interment had 
been simple, and by cremation. On a previous occasion, 
by mere accident, an earthen vessel was found whilst 
making a drain about three or four hundred yards South 
East of the encampment. It was formed of a kind of 
red clay, so slightly baked on the outside that it washed 
away when a brush and water were applied to clean 
it. The inside was black and somewhat harder, as 
though it had been baked by making the fire within. 
"Before I saw it,'' says Mr Mytton, "the workmen 
had broken the lower part which was next the surface 
of the ground, but by putting the pieces together the 
form could be made out. It was found with the mouth 
downwards, and contained fragments of bones." For- 
tunately Mr Mytton made a drawing of it at the time, 
a copy of which is presented to the reader. It appears 
precisely of the same kind as those Urns which have 
been generally acknowledged as British, and so repeatedly 
* This was done by the Rev. R. Moore and Thos. Mytton, Esq. 


found in Cornwall and Wiltshire, A Cinerary Urn, 
similar to the one now under discussion, was found in 
the year 1741, in the parish of Gttythian in the for- 
mer county. Like the present one it had its mouth 
downwards, and was filled with human bones. The 
object in placing it thus, was to prevent the moisture 
of the ground above from suddenly rotting them. (See 
this subject fidly entered into by Borlase in his Anti- 
quities of Cornwall, pp. 286, 8co. edit. 1769.) 

Scale two inches to the foot. 

ewtu Kill. 

A8TLE Hill lies a quarter of a mile 
West North West of the church of 
Lebotwood, As far as can be judged 
from existing appearances it seems 
most like on explorcUory mounds though 
of an uncertain age. Probably this 
small eminence, which is in great 
measure a natural elevation, had its height still more 
increased by artificial means. Its summit is about forty 
feet above the subinjacent plain, and the extreme length 
of it at the top two hundred and sixty five. There is 
a considerable fall on the North side, but a very grar 
dual one on the South. There being no traces of 
ditches or mounds around, would lead us to think it 
was originally either a Barrow, or intended for a Bear 
con; yet the name points to something defensive, simi- 
larly to the Castle Binos, near WutantoWy Edgtan^ 
and RcMinghope. Thus, too, we have Castle Dykes in 
Northamptonshire^ and near Buxton in Derbyshire; Castle 
Hill on the Tees^ besides many others. 

A mile and a half Northward of the present spot, 
on the estate of Charles Guest, Esq., are vestiges in 
a meadow below Bank Farm, of a quadrangular en- 
trenchment. An eminence a quarter of a mile further 
North bears the name of Signal Bank. This seems to 
have been a sentineFs position to warn the occupants 
of the camp just mentioned, in the same way as Show 
Bank was for Norton Camp. (See remarks upon these 
words among Observations on the Names of Places.) 



4Ba0tIe Hiiig 

^ ^ -t^ 2'® * Britwh encampment immediately 
above Ratlinghope^ and contains with- 
in its area about an acre and a half. 
The ascent from the West and South 
sides is precipitous, and as being un- 
necessary here, the vallum and fosse 
have been slight r whereas on the 
East side where the ground falls but gently, the works 
have been more elevated. The camp is nearly oval. 
The gorge is at the East. The general height of the 
vallum seems to have been ten feet, and the work is 
encircled by one ditch only. There are indications of 
another camp due South of Castle Rmo, between this 
place and BiUntch Gutter^ and a British trackway ap- 
pears to run between these two places, for the purpose 
of communication between the two positions. 

About a mile to the North of CAsrrLE Ring, just 
above the turnpike road, is a Tumulus, that forms a 
very prominent object in the landscape. From the cir- 
cumstance of Roman coins having been found in empty- 
ing a ditch between the New Leasawes and the TAre^ 
kMty I should feel disposed to pronounce this a Ro- 
man Tumulus. But in this as in all other cases where 
Tumuli have not been opened, we have nothing but con- 
jecture to oflTer. Below CA&rrLs Ring a copper mine has 
recently been opened by the proprietors of the neigh- 
bouring estate. The ore is extremely rich, and it pro- 
mises every prospect of remuneration to its owners, 
the Messrs Hawkins of Ratlinghope, There is a Castle 
Ring near Stanton Moor in Derbyshire^ in the vicinity 
of several Druidic remains, that has a deep ditch and 
double vallum, and is supposed to be British*. 
' See Archseol. vol. vi. p. 113. 

SiAMmtff Vting. 

loDBURY Ring is a fflnall encampment 
on the top of a hiU near Church 
Stretton. It is evidently a British 
position, and obtains its name in part 
from that language. In C. Brit. Body 
signifies a dwellhig: this was a for- 
tified abode of the British, surromided 
by a ditch, or Binff, which is about fortynseven paces from 
West to East, and ninety-five from North to South. 
This will make it ellipticaJ in its figure. There is a 
slight vallum four yards wide to the South South East 
and West sides. The ditch is most perfect on the 
North and East sides where the land adjoining has 
but a slight fall. The camp takes the natural shape 
of the plane of site, and as was usual it is protected by 
a fosse and vallum on those sides where an assault 
would be made with the greatest certainty of success. 
NoRBUBY Ring, near Mindtaum^ if we may judge from 
the Ordnance Map, is similar to it. 




9Pbt mit^in. 

MKN the Wrekin is ascended from the 
South East side, a ditch is crossed 
cry near the summit, which follow- 
ng the course of the eminence, runs 
•li^inctly visible from North East to 
South South West for fifty paces. 

The fosse is very narrow, and does 

not seem when in its most perfect state ever to have 
been deep. Its present width is scarcely three yards. 
Below this rampart was formerly another, which is now in 
great measure obliterated, in consequence of this re- 
markable elevation being planted. A farmer who has 
lived below this side of the Wrekin for upwards of fifty 
years, assures me he remembers the outer vallum and 
fosse more distinct than the one now remaining. 

This entrenchment agrees in so many respects with 
the system of castrametation adopted by Caractacus, that I 
have no hesitation in assigning it to the period. Having 
reached the sununit, we pass through a gate of entrance 
at the North end, which haply in allusion to the fatigue 
bemg over of making the ascent, bears the name of 
Heaven Gate. Although the fall on the North East 
side is very precipitous, yet we find it strengthened by 
a ditch that is still discernible for thirty or forty yards. 
Thcgre is a gorge of six feet clear between the portals 
or sides of Heaven Gate^ and they are about the same 
height above the average level of the table land of 
the hill itself. 

Prooeeding along the top for nearly its whole length 
we oome to a Tumulus, that is about four feet high, 
sixteen paces across its crest, and with a slight in- 
dentation in the middle. About forty paces further we 
meet with another gorge or gate of entrance to the 
enclosure, but unlike the Hea/ten Gate, inasmuch as in- 
stead of resembling its circular base, the portals have 
an oblong form ; they are twenty-five yards long, and 
twelve across, but the same distance asunder, and the 
same hei^t above the surrounding plane of site. These 
are called Hell Oate. This truly interesting British for^ 
tification is gradually becoming indistinct, in consequence 
of the rising plantation. In a very few years eveiy 
trace of it will be quite gone. 

As every association connected with the Wrekin 
must be interesting to a Salopian, I shall endeavour to 
give its Etymology. It is natural to suppose that a 
mountain of such altitude, standing isolated in the midst 
of a vast plain, and visible from various points of a 
radius of seventy miles round it, should form in remote 
times, as we know that it does now, a very remarkable 
landmark. Hence in the Celtic we find that the name 
implies as much; Bre^ which is synonymous with Vre 
or Wre^ signifies a hill; and ten^ the chief, or principal: 
that is, Wre-ken^ the eonyricuous hill. In the Islandic, 
according to Haldorson, Breeka, denotes a hill; Brecku 
hud, eanvexitas supra horizontem, (Verel. in Indie.) 
And in C. Brit. Wrf^ /signifies, according to Pughe, 
^' that is high or rotund*". So that its name is found 
in all respects according with its character. It is called 
by Lomarchus or Llywarf Hen, Ddiklle Vrboon, or the 
high placed city of Wrecon} Nennius mentions Caer 

^ Bohem. wrch, a mountain. 

" The Heroic Elegies of Llywar9 Hen, p. 94. Lluyd savs that 
perhaps it means Wroxcester, Archeol. p. 258. col. 3. The learned 
Baxter supposes tliat the Wrekin took its name from Wraxeter, but 
it is far more likely that the Roman station should have derived 


Ubna(» or Cair Urnahc, whidi has been generally oon* 
oeiTed by antiquaries to mean the city of WroxeUr. 

Baxter supposed that Ubnagh was abbreviated from 
UoT na Uoff^ ad cermeem /kiOiUj and that Veroeanium 
sounded like Uar o eond tii, super 4»qud pfineipe vel 
Sabrind. The Romans, in this instanoe as in others, 
mi^t have Latinised the old British name, by tuning 
Umaek into Urioeanimm. If we examine the word we shall 
see how closely it is connected with the Celtic. In this 
tongue {7r is a primitive, denoting a dwelling-place or 
habitation. Uria in the Basque language means a vil- 
lage or city\ In the forty-first book of Livy, we read 
that the Proconsul Gracchus having vanquished the Gelti- 
berians, entered into a capitulation vnth them, and to 
leave behind him, in /^paifij a monument of his victories, 
he buflt the city of Gracchuris. Strabo informs us that 
OracekwrtBi in Spanish, signifies the city of Gracehtu, 
From this it appears that Uri in Spanish signified a 
city. Ur in Greek has the same meaning. Yurt in 
Tartarian is a horde or habitation of Tartars; and from 
Ur comes the Latin Urbi. Canium, in the present in- 
stance, is a Latinised form of the Celtic Oond^ an em- 
its name from the hill above it. fiee Gloasar. Antiq. Britan. p. 243. 
Nor can I agree with my late friend Mr Blakeway^ in considering 
DdinOe Frecon to be Wroopeter, a position quite at yariance with the 
poet's description. The author of Vulgar Errors, Ancient and Mo- 
dam, says toe Wnkm comes from the Gaelic BnHghe, pronounced 
and written Bre and Bri. Its root is Aighe or Eigh, an hill. G 
in old terms is often chaiiged to C. Thus Blaighe, an hill, is often 
changed to BkdCy as m Biaiadonj written also Bkukdown *. Bregtk»y 
then, in like manner, will change to Breg or Brec; and as B often 
changes to F, and this to W, Sreg and Brec will change to Wreg 
and Wree in old names. We have accordingly ^r^hill, in North- 
umberland, where Wreg means hill, and the same as Wrec or JFrek, 
in the Wrekin. The word In is land, and Wrekin will imply 
what it is, the hill or head land, (p. 66.) Between Uriamium and 
Umach is considerable resemblance, and the former may be derived 
from the latter. 

' See Bullet, Diet. Celt, sub voce. 

• Hiere i» a Blakboown between Hag^taaA KkUUrmimter in WttreetterAire ; and 
a Blakblbv Hill between Sta>%Um and Bury WaUs, in Shromhire. (See obeerratiom on 
the nnneB or placet.) 


bouchiire. The junction of the river Tern (the Tren of 
LomarchuB) with the Severn, close to Wraa^eter^ makes 
the name highly appropriate. Hence UriorOond^ Uri- 
Oand^ Uriconium, the city at the entrance or embouchure 
of the river. From the same source, probably, are the 
names of Condover, and Coctnd, from being placed on a 
large brook which empties itself into the Severn^ at no 
great distance from the latter village. Whether Casr 
Ubnach and Ubiconium are identical can only rest upon 
conjecture. If we dissect the former word, it will seem 
rather to mean the Wrekin than Wboxbter. Thus, in 
the same language, from which our previous conclusions 
have been drawn, Ur sigilifies a habitation or dwelling, 
and Naeh an elevation, or mountain. C/r-noM, the habi- 
tation or position on high, which would lead us to suppose 
that the whole of these Caers meant the Wrekin. Let 
this, however, be how it may, it is quite reasonable to 
imagine that the Britons would make mention of a po- 
sition which is every way so remarkable. Yet it was not 
merely the situation and strength of it that caused them 
to speak of it in the scanty records which have survived 
to the present day. For if we descend the hill on the 
Eastern side we shall fall in with vestiges that at once 
prove it to have been an important military post. 

A small valley at the foot still shews by its name 
of Willow Moor, by its existing Tumuli, and by the 
great quantity of broken weapons that have been found 
there, that the spot was formerly contested. Its appel- 
lation of WiUow is significant. In the termination low, 
direct allusion is made to the Tumuli which render the 
place still remarkable. Xatr, Xa, Loff^ Lo^ according 
to their different pronunciations, signify an eminence or 
elevation. Thus we have fo, high, in old French; loh 
in German; loo in Flemish; and lowe in A. Saxon, de- 
noting a hill or gentle eminence, from the C. British 
llehduy to place, and hence by contraction fatt. And 


what does law mean but a Tumulus or Oravb! The 
A. Sax. hlaetc^ hlaw^ expressly marks as much. And 
thus we have the Arbour Lows in Derbyshire^ still re- 
maining. Brompton in his Chronicle speaks of Bubbe- 
laWj or ffubba's Grave: and there is scarcely a county 
in England in which there is not some spot thus nomi- 
nally consecrated by a Briton'^s or a Saxon^s grave. And, 
even to the present day, the first syllable indicates 
the name of the person interred, and its termina- 
tion, the object of the monument. The names by them- 
selves sufficiently explain themselves; the discoveries 
which are constantly being made fully point out the use 
and origin of these Barrows, whilst at the same time 
they fiimish us with additional arguments for elucidating 
obscure points of Archseology by the assistance of ety- 
mology. This has been very clearly shewn by Sir 
Thomas Phillipps in a paper on the Saxon Names of 
Places, published in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Literature, where writing on this topic, he 
adduces from Domesday Book several instances of places 
possessing names clearly indicative of their origin. Thus 
he cites ^ in counties contiguous to our own, 

Oswaldslow, the grave of Oswald, in Worcestershire. 

Oflfelow, (Ma, in Staffordshire. 

Tamenaslau, Tamena, 

X aT/Csiau, ••• ••• ••• x ava, •«• ••• ••• 

Derunlau, Dering, in Shropshire. 

In Warwickshire there are BrinMow and Kniffhtlow^ two 
places sufficiently memorable; the former being tho largest 
tumulus in the island'; together with the Bartlow Ililk 
in Cambridgeshire^ and a great number m Derbyshire, 
Nor is the term low unusual in our early English 

»p. 3. 

t See an account of this in Mr Bloxam's excellent iUustniiioti «f 
the British and Roman Remains of WarvoidttluTe, pubUnhed in the 
Annalist, toL iv. p. 183. 

I. 9* 

*1 i 


writers: several of th^n employ it to d^iote a Barrow. 
In an dd chronicle cited by Heame, speaking of Hubba^ 
the writer says, ^'And when the Danea fond Hungar and 
Habba deid, thei baren theym to a ntoutUayn ther besyde 
and made upon hym a loffpe and lete call it Hvbbd/ugh}^ 
The metrical romancers continually use the word*. 

We will now see how far present appearances accord 
with these derivations. Willow Moob, Willow Farm, 
or as it is occasionally called the Wsekin Fabm, lies 
on the South East side of the Wrekin^ in a sequestered 
and highly picturesque valley, from which there seems 
at first sight to be no outlet. To this secluded spot 
I frequently wandered when residing in the parish. The 
sylvan beauties of Wenlock Wood and the ErcaU so 
often aUured me to their retreats, that while I write, 
every minute feature of this impressive scenery is vividly 
recalled to the mind'. Having descended the hiU from 
LiUle Werdocky about fifty yards above the gate which 
stands upon the road, a very depressed vallum is passed 
throu^, which is just perceptible for about twenty yards 
on the left hand side, and for about fifty on the right. 
It may be again observed curving towards the Wrekin 
from the North end of a bam for the same distance. 
The land here has been under the plough, so that the 
mound is extremely indistinct. The tenant remembers 
both this and the Twnuli much more conspicuous than 
they are at present. They are in truth now almost 
undiscoverable without his assistance to point out where 
they lie. On the East side of the bam in three dif- 
ferent meadows, are four slight mounds which have 
every sign of being artificial. In a rushy meadow at 

1 Afi quoted by Pegge on the Arbour Lows. ^Jt^haeol. voL viL 
p. 134. 

' For further Ulustratioiis see the Glossarial part of the present 
work under Ludhw, 

^ In the accompanying plate I have endeavoured to present the 
reader with a view of the sceneiy in this little valley, as seen from 
the top of the hill mentioned in the next paragraph. 


t: - : 

. . . i. 


the bottom of the hill, on the left hand aide of the 
road which leads from Little Wenloci to Wellington^ are 
appearances of three more Tumuli: and on the other 
fflde of the road which goes into Wenloek Wood, due 
West of these, are two other Tumuli. 

Th^re are still other reasons for considering these 
mounds sepulchral, which will further appear when it is 
stated that on two occasions in the memory of the 
present generation, remains have been found which 
mark it as a place of military burial. On the former 
occasion, which was more than half a century ago, a 
considerable number of broken weapons were found 
dmilar to those which were met with in the year 1835; 
but beyond this nothing further can be remembered of 
them. From residing in the parish when the last were 
met with I am able to describe from personal observaticm 
the circumstances attending their discovery. Whilst a 
labourer was cutting a drain about a hundred yards from 
the left hand side of the road leading from Little Wen- 
lock to Wellington, by a hedge side separatmg the two 
fields lying between the top and the bottom of the as* 
cent, he suddenly came upon a heap of broken spears. 
They lay piled up together, and were two or three hun- 
dred at least, but nearly all much injured. Among them 
were three or four small whetstonei^ and a eeU^. The 
spear and celt were made of brass, many of the former 

Mt 18 by no means unusual to find whettUmei among funereal 
deposits. In a tumnlus opened at Everley in WUUhire was found 
a whetstone of ftee stone, and a Uue hone. These were used for 
the purpose of sharpening the weapons of the warriois who were 
interred, and probably were usually carried by them for that pur- 

' On ^e use of celts much has been written in the Archieo- 
\opA and elsewhere. My own opinion is entirely with that of my 
highly esteemed friend Sir Samuel Meyrick, wno considers them 
to have been instruments used partly for warlike and partly for 
domestic purposes. They constantly occur among the contents of 
Tumuli, which is alone a presumptive reason for thinking them 
devoted to militaiy uses. See this subject further considered in the 
valuable little volume by Mr Blozam, p. 12. - 




precisely like some of acknowledged British origin that 
have been dug up elsewhere. 

The accompanying plate will shew the nature of 
those that were most perfect, to which I refer the 
reader, that he may better be enabled to understand 
the description. No. 1. A small spear quite plain, 
having a hole on each side of its socket through which 
a rivet was passed to fasten it to the shaft. No. 2. 
This has a sUght chamfer running from the bottom of 
its rivet hole to the lower part of the blade. Round 
the end of it are four ribs by which the string binding 
it to the shaft was kept from slipping. The workman- 
ship is extremely good. Part of the shaft of this was 
still remaining in Uie socket. No. 3. A spear with 
rivet holes very perfect, but without chamfers or ribs. 
No. 4. The bhide of a dagger, probably belonging to 
the handle figured (No. 7). No. 5. A spear head 
with rivet holes. No. 6. This spear is unlike any of 
the others in shape, and when found its edges were 
nearly as sharp as that of a knife. No. 7. The handle 
of a dagger. It seems to have been inlaid, most likely 
;^ with ivory. No. 8. Another spear head, with aper- 

i tures on each side of the shaft socket and ribbed at the 

! base. No. 9. A small celt. Another had its head cham- 

j fered from the bottom of its rivet holes towards the 

[ point. It had two bands or ribs, one close to the 

rivet holes, another at the end. The socket was 
ornamented between the bands with four circles that 
had each as many concentric ones. These had been 
struck with a pair of compasses after the spear was 
cast^ There were four other circular decorations above 
the upper band similar to those betwixt the two, and 
a little zigzag work engraved on each side of the cham- 

> Bnas spear heads have been cast in a mould, and such heads 
within a sheath of wood, have been found in a banow. Axdueol. 
vol. XV. p. Sdi. pi. xxxiv. 









fer, both at the bottom of the blade, and on the blade 
itaelf. Another of a very elegant shape, still sharp, 
had the usual rivet-holes and the ribbing at the end\ 
The rest were merely firagmenta, and it is unnecessary to 
give a representation or further description of them. 

From the fact of similar weapons having be^i found 
in some of the Tumuli opened by Sir Richard Hoare 
in WUMirey though by no means in such large quan- 
tities; from weapons of the like nature having been 
dv^ up in various parts of Ireland^ where we know the 
Romans never made any settlement; from others of the 
same sort having been discovered in Walis^; at Pm^ 
neBe\ and in the neigUbourhood of Vire in Ncrmandg^ 
all of whidi have been dedded on undeniable grounds 
not to be of Roman manu&cture, it follows that these 
also are not the work of our Roman invaders. But by 
whom shall we say that they were made! Latterly it 
htm been the fashion to consider every thing which is 
not Roman as Phoenician, on the supposition that the 
Britons being unable to fabricate their implements of 
warfare, procured them from the early navigators to 
Iheir coasts in exchange for tin. This argument would 
be sufficiently strong if such weapons were peculiar to 
Britain, but it fails when we discover them turned up 
over all parts of Sweden, France, and Germany. Was 
it likely that those extensive kingdoms should have re- 
ceived the instruments of destruction from a country 
so remote as Carthage, from one with which they could 
not have any necessity for traffic, and in the instance 

1 Some of these are in the author's possession. 

' Four ancient weapons were exhibited to the Antiquarian Society 
llaich 23^ 1809^ discovered in a mountain called Cwm 3foeh, in 
the parish of Maentwrog, Merionethshire, figured in the Archeo- 
logisy voL xtL pL 70. No. 3 is like No. 2 of the annexed plate. 

' The weapons found at Pemdfe in the neighbourhood of Ftre, 
and in the Dipartement de la Manehe, were fike those found at 
WiOow Farm. See Mtooires de la SodM des Antiqnaires de Nor- 
mandie, 1827—1828. 


of the latter state, no means of communication ! It is 
highly improbable. There is an absence of any thing like 
proof, nay, of any evidence but mere conjecture; and I 
am disposed to consider them as the workmanship of the 
nations where they are found. And why should they 
not be so! For that these different European nations 
understood the art of smelting, of annealing, and of in- 
laying, is well known, and it is but natural to think they 
were equally well acquainted with the art of casting^ 
Their countries severally possessed the minerals from 
which these implements were made ; neither does it ap> 
pear probable that the Phoenicians should have come 
hither to freight their vessels with the raw material, 
for the very small profit merely, which they could after- 
wards derive from its reproduction in another form. 

* As in fact they were : for moulds for spear, arrow and axe-heads 
have been frequently fonnd both in Britain and Ireland. The dis- 
coveiy in 17S5, on Easterh Moor near Y&rk, of 100 axe-heads, with 
several lumps of metal and a quantity of cinders, may be con^ered 
sufficient testimony that at l^ist the bronze imported into Britain 
was cast into shapes by the inhabitants themselves, (v. ArchsBol. 
voL xiv. pi. iv. vol. xv. pi. xxxiv. CoUectanea de Reb. Hibem. 
vol. X. Borlase, Cornwall, p. 287. Pict. Hist Engl. p. 103, 4.) 



BOUT a century ago some Tumuli 
were opened upon the top of Morf 
by the Rev. Mr Stackhouse, who 
furnished an account of his opera- 
tions to the Royal Society. No 
vestiges of these Tumuli now ap- 
pear, as the land is all under the 
plough. We gather from his own 
account what was the result of his 
labors; but whether it was owing 
to the unskilful manner in which the ex- 
cavation was set about, or to the actual 
piwerty of the Tumulus, nothing of va- 
lue was found. He dug through the 
middle and largest Tumulus from North 
to South, supposing by that method 
that he should cross any body that 
might have been laid there. He dug 
Hcven feet deep, even to the solid rock, 
ithout meeting with any thing re- 
markable, except an iron shell, in shape 
like a small egg, with a round hole at 
one end, but so cankered and decayed 
t)i;it it easily broke into small pieces; 
this he supposed to have been the pommel of a sword. 
Upon the West side was found in a kind of hollow, one 
of the large vertebrae of the loins with its process nearly 
perfect, "but thoroughly petrified'^; and upon further 



search, several portions of bones all alike petrified, bat 
so ^^ disguised ^^ that he could not discover to what part 
of the body they belonged. He afterwards opened one 
of the lesser Tumuli^ and found what he considered to 
be the os sacrum, and many other small pieces of bones 
in a petrified state. He left the other Tumuli unex- 
amined. The middle Tumidtu was about nine yards in 
diameter, and the lesser eight, at its base. 

Midway betwixt the period when Mr Stackhouse 
made these excavations, and the present day, an open- 
ing was out into a Tumulus at Staplvton. The plan 
of operations has not been recorded, but we know 
that all that was discovered in it was a funeral urn, 
formed of clay baked in the sun, which it is thought 
had formerly held the ashes of the person to whose 
memory the barrow was raised. It is worth noticing 
that a coincidence exists in the name of the place where 
this Tumulus was placed, and Stapeley Hill on the 
borders of Montgomeryshire, each of them haply signi- 
ficant of sepulchral remains. 

Upon the sununit of Long Mtnd are a series of 
Tumuli, which if we commence at Ohoulton Lodge, by the 
time we reach Yapsd Bank, we shall have passed six of 
them. The one here and one North West of Rock make 
eight. At the extremity of the eminence are two others 
which bear the name of Robin Hood^b Butts. A few 
years ago that lying to the South East was opened, 
but whether owing to the natural unproductiveness of 
the barrow, or to the interment having been missed 
through the unskilfulness of the labourers who were em- 
ployed, nothing was discovered to repay the investigator 
for his enquiry. It was of an oval form, eight feet 
high, twelve wide, and from twenty to twenty^five feet 
long. It is singular that some Tumuli on the South 
Eastern borders of Dewmshire should have the same 
name. They are conical mounds of earth, like these. 

•< I 



and about sixty feet in diameter, and are eupposed to 
be the tombs of warriors who fell during the con- 
tests between the Saxons and the Danes. One of 
them was opened in the year 1818, but no deposit 
found. These Tumuli, continues my authority, bear 
the characteristic marks of Celtic barrows. Those in 
Shropshire we may, with most reason, ascribe to the 
British Period. In Derbyshire are Cairns known under 
the name of Bobin Hooffs Pricke^ which having been 
opened, were ascertained, from the urns they contained, 
to be British'. 

I shall take this opportunity of stating my belief 
tiiat the Port Wat running along the summit of the 
Long Mynd is an ancient Brfhsh Track Way from 
Castlb Hill near Lebatwood^ to Billino^s Ring, an oval 
entrenchment of two ditches, lying two miles to the 
South East of Biekofs Cattle. The title of Port Way 
is not unusual. There is another Port Wat, a branch 
from Watung Street, in Whittlebury Forest. The Ro- 
man road from Sileheeter to Old Sarum^ which cuts 
another at almost right angles between Andaver and 
Kmgk£s Inham in Hampshire^ and crosses the river 
Test or Anton^ at St Mary Bcwm^ is sometimes called 
the Port Way. So is the Icknield in its progress 
from Streatley to Wantaye^ about Upton and ffaneell 
in Berkshire. The street called Icknield^ where it passes 
Old Sarum, from North East to South West, towards 
Stratford, is always called Port Lane*. There is a 
Po&T Lane between Aylesbury and Dinton in Busking- 
hamshire. At Dinton Roman remains have been found^. 
This lane runs into the Ridge Wat or Icilletov Street 
as it is caUed, near Easi Ilslet in Berkshire, near which 
place the Port Wat runs parallel to it: passing Streat- 

* See Aichaeol. vol. vii. p. IJ^. 

' Warton's Histoiy of Kiddington, 4to. 1816. p. 64. 

^ See AichaeoL vol. x. p. 171. 


LET, Grimes Dyke, and Cold Harbour' Farm, it trends to 
Beacon HiU^ where it is called Ickleton road. Here it 
leaves a Tumulus to the North, and Kinffgton Grow to 
the South East. Just before it reaches Trinff it is 
<;alled the Igknield Wat. The name is derived from 
the A. Sax. port, pramontorium, because it runs along 
an eminence, and is in fact as we should call it, strictly 
speaking, a Highway. It occurs also in the parish of 
Hardwick, Cambridgeshire. 

The Rev. John Rocke is the first Salopian who at* 
tempted to open a Tumulus in a methodical and scien- 
tific manner. The barrow he cut into was unproductive 
of those sepulchral relics which are usually found, but we 
are repaid for the want of internal treasures by the light 
which his succinct and accurate observations have thrown 
upon this subject generally. I am indebted to his friend- 
ship for furnishing the foUowing account of his operations. 

A few yards to the North East of Clunounpord 
Church, (vulgo dictum Lungonas^) is a large circular 
mound, which stands fifteen feet above the average level 
of the subjacent meadow; it is one hundred and three 
feet across its base, and forty-nine across its sumnut. 
From South East to West the diameter is two feet more. 
The sides incline at an angle of twenty-eight degrees'. 

^ There are several Cold Harbours^ in Great Britain, men- 
tioned in the ObeervatioDs upon the Names of Placesj (q. v.) A 
Cold Harbour, and Cold Comfort, lie two miles North ot Dinton. 

' Clunookas. Saxtons Map, 1577. Clungonaz, Ciungunnas, 
Clungonaz, Clungonford. Charts apud Rev. J. Rocke. Celt. Lon^ 
Lun, aqua. Hence London, Laticaster, &c. 

^ Dr Dorow in his account of the excavations made by him near 
Wiesbaden, in the year 1817, (See Opferstatte und Grabhugel der 
Germanen und Homer am Rhein untersucht und dargestelt von Dr 
Wilhelm Dorow; Wiesbaden. 4to. 1826), states that he oonsiderB 
the winter season the most advantageous for making researches of 
this nature. The soil below the frozen surface is more readily worked 
than in summer, and the earthen vessels are always more easily 
preserved. The opening of the barrow itself, I have made trial of, 
says he, in every possible manner, and account the best and most 
simple to be aoooiding to this practice: to begin from the peak of 
the barrow and level it in all directions as far as the outennost 





Mr Rocke made an incision into the barrow from the 
North, by cutting a passage five feet five inches wide, 
which he carried on six feet beyond the centre in a 
Southern direction. At the distance of eight feet from 
the edge, he came upon a soHd mass of ashes, in which 
was found numerous pieces of rude unbaked pottery. 
This cinereal stratum was one inch and a half in thick- 
ness at its commencement, and kept gradually increasing 
as it got nearer the centre of the Ptrb, when it be- 
came four inches thick. Four feet from the edge of 
the ashes, or twelve from the extremity of the barrow, 
a stratum of deep grey coloured mud began, of that 
kind thrown out of fish ponds; it took an undulating 
form, and at the centre of the Tumulus was as much 
as eight feet in thickness. It was highly charged with 
a light coloured matter resembling mushroom spawn, 
which after a few minutes exposure to the air assumed 
a pale Prussian blue colour^ It contained animal mat- 
ter, pieces of charcoal, of unbumt wood, pieces of bone, 
and fragments of sunburnt pottery: the handle of one 
piece had the impression of a man^s thumb on the un- 
der side. Below this stratum was another of a similar 

^edge. Remarkable objects were often found by him on the outer- 
most extremities of the barrow^ perhaps after the interments. The 
same thing occurs in the Wiltshire Darrows, the interment itself 
being frequently on one side. 

Mr Davidson, in his British and Roman remains in the vicinity 
of Axminster, says that the vestiges of ancient earthworks and lines 
of communication, which are in many instances almost effaced b^ 
the united effects of the weather and cultivation, the antiquaiy, if 
he wish for success, should choose a dear wintei^s day for his re- 
searches. The fields are then bare of com, the herbage is short, 
the trees and hedges are divested of their foliage, and the sun being 
low, a broader shadow is cast from any irregumrities of the sur&ce. 
p. 14. 

> In the barrows opened by M ilner in Dorset^ire, was noticed a 
considerable quantity of fine rich black earth, with a certain white 
mouldinesB between the particles, which must have been fetched 
from a considerable distance, and which was invariably strewed 
•over the remains of the dead in these ancient sepultures. rDescrip- 
tion of several barrows opened in Dorsetshire, selections nom the 
Gentleman's Magazine, vol. i. p. 447.) 


kind, inlying however in some degree, inaemudi as it 
waB of a deeper colour, and appeared more highly chai'ged 
with animal matter. BeoideB oontaining bones of oxen 
and large pieces of diarcoal, there were in iliis deposit 
boars* tusks, and two pieces of iron resembling a horse- 
shoe nail; one long and thin like an awl, the other 
like *^ a fratit nail^'". The appearance of this stratifica- 
tion exactly resembled what we see at the present day 
in the iron manufacturing districts: where in the con- 
version of coal into coke, or wood into charcoal, the 
surface of the heap is smothered with damp earth or 
ashes, as a means of making the body retain heat better. 
And it had probably the same use here, being employed 
to prevent the escape of the fire, or any ofiensive smell 
which would arise from burning the bodies. 

At the distance of twenty feet six inches from the 
outside of the barrow, Mr Rocke came upon a heap 
of stones which seems to have encircled the central part 
of the Pyre, and was intended as a fender. It was 
three feet nine inches wide, and one foot eight mches 
high. Underneath it lay the dark mass of charcoal 
before mentioned, which evidently shews that the fender 
was put on as a later work. At this point the richer 
mud was one foot in thickness: midway betwixt this 
part and the centre it increased to one foot four inches. 
The hearth was one inch in thickness at its beginning, 
it was here two, and at the centre four inches. Towards 

* lion nails have been found in some of the WiU^ure bairowa. 
Mr Cunnington opened a mound in Elder VaUeu, but found nothing 
in it but a few aninud bones, a small piece of pottery^ and a wnL 
In one of the barrows in Aahton Valley he found with pieces of 
charred wood, iron nails with flat heads from half an inch to five 
inches long. THoare's Ancient Wiltshire, p. 78.) In 1801 he opened 
a large Tumulus on Cotley Hill in Wiltshire. The only articles he 
discovered were animal bones, iron nails, and broken pottery of 
different sorts. This barrow is surrounded by a circular yallum of 
small elevation, and from the circumstance of the ditch being within 
the bank. Sir Richard Hoare pronounced it to have been original^ 
a work destined for religious purposes. lb. p. 71. 


the oentre there appeared to be two strata ot ashee; 
the lower one wae four inchee thick, the upper one 
three inohes thick, having nine inchee of cUy betwixt 
them. This seemed to have been sunk on the Eastern 
side, as the ashes rose up towards the West. Can we 
infer firom this that there was more than one crema- 
tion! The richest part of the mud was towards the 
centre of the mound; it was there of a deeper cast, 
and fuller of the prussiate of iron. And here it was two 
feet thick above the coal hearth, and about two feet six 
inches below it. Outside the fender, just where the cine- 
real stratum commences, was found great quantities of 
vegetable matter, which seemed to be rushes: this was 
clearly intended to kindle the funereal pile. Some of the 
seeds were shaken out of it, and sown in a hot-house to 
ascertain what they actually were, but they did not grow. 

Having carried on his investigations thus far, Mr 
Rodce reached the centre of the Tumulus, and think- 
ing that he mig^t still have missed some interment, 
he continued the excavation five feet further, and two 
feet loww. He still found the same kind of mud, but 
in a more liquid state, and falling into a basin as 
it were, in the centre of which was a plum-pudding 
stone of a peculiar shape, one foot high and eighteen 
inches long, and fifty pounds weight, that had formerly 
been -supported by a piece of deft oak, which was lying flat 
underneath it. This stone had evidently been set here 
for some purpose or other: but not to mark the place 
where a body had been put, as the ground below it had 
never been moved. 

That this Tumulus is an instance of interment by 

cremation is so clear, that it seems hardly necessary to 

state it^ Through the careful and praiseworthy at- 

^ Theie is reason to think that the rites of crenuttion have been 
practised in Tumnli where we find charred wood^ with fragments of 
numan bones and mde British pottery. As in the instance of JCtn^« 
barrow in WUUhire. Hoare's Ancient Wiltshire, p. 73. 


tention bestowed by Mr Rocke whilst the labourers were 
employed, we gain some insight into the method that 
was adopted in burning the dead at the period when 
this barrow was constructed. We see how the fire was 
kindled, how the bodies were held in through means 
of the stone fender, and how the heat was retained un- 
til they were entirely consumed ^ His trouble was not 
compensated by the discovery of such intrinsically valu- 
able relics as have sometimes attended similar labors 
elsewhere, but he has increased our knowledge on the 
subject of sepulchral remains in a manner that will 
elicit the gratitude of all succeeding antiquaries. 

In the interesting account which Dr Dorow has given 
of his excavations near Wiesbculenj there are several facts 
mentioned that accord with these. Many of his exca- 
vations were fruitless : he met with coals only, which lay 
in strata, and were covered with reddish burnt earth. 
He observed no fixed connexion or order in the position 
of the barrows which he opened. They seem specially 
to have sought for declivities towards the East. There 
frequently lay in barrows, skeletons unbumt, still adorned 
with jewels and ornaments, and close by were found 
burned bones and ashes in urns. It is worthy of obser- 
vation that he found no coins in any barrow in the 
environs of Wiesbaden, although objects therein contained 
were of unquestionable Roman origin. In the first bar- 
row which Dorow opened, on the road to the Platte^ 
in a wood belonging to the town of Wiesbaden, called 
Hebenkies, he ordered the workmen to dig from the 
West side of its extreme edge, towards the middle, and 

* The A. Sax. poem of Beowulf furnishes us with some curious 
particulars relative to the manner in which the obsequies of a Teutonic 
Ilero were celebrated. The principal points were the feast ; the raising 
of a mound ; the burning of the boay ; and the throwing upon the 
pile or into the mound^ jewels, arms, and warlike implements ; the 
sacrifice of hawks, hounds, horses, and even human beings, slaves 
or free men. (See the subject further illustrated in the notes of 
Kemble s Translation of Beowulf. 1837.) 


soon oame upon a layer placed with design, in fashion 
like a wall of field-stones, piled up three feet high and 
two and a half broad, which lay in the direction of the 
middle of the barrow. Following this up for five feet 
he came upon the exterior side of a caldron-shaped 
layer of just the same kind of stones. From this the 
passage, which was filled up with stones as above men- 
tioned, issued. He caused this caldron (kessel) that 
was burdened with an agglomeration of burnt earth, 
stones, pieces of earthen vessels and other substances, to 
be cleared out with every precaution. Directly at the 
ri^t side of the entrance into the caldron he found 
on this side a stone battle-axe, not far from it on the 
left, bones of the upper and lower jaw of a horse. On 
the right near the battle-axe, fragments of ornamented 
urns, and bones of a skull almost as hght as a feather, 
pieces of arm and leg-bones, a man's tooth, and a con- 
siderable quantity of ashes, which are distinguishable in 
barrows from the rest of the soil by their pale yellow 
colour, by their lightness in a dry state, and by their 
feeling soft. The bones lay upon crystals of quartz, 
which were found in very considerable quantities, and 
had suffered more or less from fire. Under these small 
stones was found a polished flint three quarters of an 
inch long and a quarter broad, perhaps a fragment of 
a knife. 

The fragments of urns were now carefully picked out 
from amongst the burnt rubbish and stones, also sherds 
of two burned earthen vessels, which were found by the 
horse's bones. A closer inspection of the sepulchre 
induced the belief that it had been built in the barrow 
with field-stones set wedgewise, in the form of a trough- 
shaped caldron, seven feet diameter and five feet high, 
so that on the West there was left a horizontal aper- 
ture, which at last was filled up with stones. There 
appeared upon this caldron, which shewed no trace of 


taolting over, a cone raiaed up seven feet higher, <tf 
just the Bame field-stones, but the whole was covered 
over with earth a foot thick: in this, immediately at 
the top, were found a great number of metallic rings, 
much covered with vardigris, in part entirely converted 
into it. 

From the iashicm of this burial-place, we are led 
readily to form the supposition, that first the caldron 
was buih up, in order to raise upon it the pile of 
wood for burning the deoeased with his arms and 
his war-horse. The horizontal passage into it seems 
like a vent hole or flue for encouraging the fire. The 
urns placed on the edge of the sepulchre with the orna- 
ments of it, tumbled down into the caldron with the 
ocmsumed pile, and were covered over with the ashes, 
and crushed by the hard and heavy load of the cone 
of stones. 

These objects are totally difierent fi*om the Roman 
remains that are found in this part of the worid, as 
well as the internal appearance of the burial-place itself, 
with the quantity of field-stones piled up; and th^ 
justify our concluding that this was an Aboriginal Oer- 
man grave, and lead to the conjecture that a warrior, 
chieftain, or prince was interred there. 

The Battled Axe weighing two pounds, was two and 
a half inches broad, nine inches long, one inch nine 
lines thick, and was of dark green serpentine. Half of 
that side which lay uppermost was coated over with 
an incrustation half a line thick, of the nature of sand- 
stone, which it was not possible to detach, without 
injuring the serpentine, especially as the coating had 
penetrated at the same time into the pores, that were 
found here and there on the surface of the stone. Ex- 
cepting one small spot besides this, incrustation was not 
found elsewhere on the other half of this side, which 
almost alone is a proof of its having laid a thousand 



years and more in its place. The baAUe-axe in all 
probability served rather for ornament than for actual 
service against the enenqr. The form as weU as the 
workmanship of this piece of arms is pointed out as 
alike excellent. The polish still retained its lustre ; and 
the round aperture pierced through for the handle was 
very singular; it was made vdth the greatest skill, and 
could not have been drilled more beautifully by the best 
woi^ers in metaJ, whilst the lustre of it also was not 
in the least degree inferior. For a wooden handle 
the aperture appeared railier too small, though there 
was no metal to be found which would in all respects 
have served the purpose. The stone battle-axe, more- 
over, may have been placed in the sepulchre as a symbol 
oi Thor the god of war, to denote that the deceased was 
a hero. 

There were found four Ubnb. The Jlnt of these was 
of nnglazed bumi day, eight and a half inches hi^ 
and bdlying out six inches in diameter. The ornaments 
appear to represent fir-cones, and are slightly sketched 
in with a round blunt style, and then worked out v^ith 
a pointed style. The form of the urn was most simi- 
lar to a drinking vessel, and of uncommon occurrence. 
It was originally bhick. The brittleness, softness, and 
weatherbeaten state of the fragments, from which how- 
ever it could have been entirely put together again, shew 
from having lam in the earth a tiiousand and more years, 
by what means this urn may have lost its dark colour. 
The second Ubn was still more similar to a drinkmg ves- 
sel than the foregoing, and had with equal height and 
outrbellying, a greater projection in the brim, and a 
wider corresponding neck. The lump of clay out of 
which this was iashioned was also blackened, and ap» 
peared coarser than the preceding one. Its form and 
decoration was of a simpler and ruder kind. The 
Mrd Ubn was found in more than fifty pieces by the 


side of the horse's bones, but Dr Dorow managed for 
the most part to put it together. It was strikingly 
different in shape from the foregoing one, inafimuch as 
it had a wide oval protuberance of one foot one inch in 
diameter, by one foot high, two handles, and a narrower 
neck opening, of four inches nine lines in diameter, and 
on the whole looked not unlike a water-pot. Its clay 
was of the same goodness as the second urn, and it 
had much resemblance to it in the style of its decora- 
tion. However, the strokes which form the ornaments 
in this were more carelessly drawn, more irregular, less 
deeply impressed, and less sharply defined. This urn 
was of yeUow clay, and appeared burnt harder than 
the foregoing one. The fowrth Urn lay likewise with 
the horse'^s bones, was of a smaller kind than the pre- 
ceding ones, and of very much coarser clay, of ruder 
shape and workmanship. It was four inches eight lines 
high, and instead of the two handles on the protuber- 
ance of six inches diameter, a rudely shaped lump of 
clay projected, in which a hole of two Unes in dia- 
meter was made, probably in order to pass a string 
through. This pot-shaped urn was of a greyish yeUow 
colour and without ornament. Besides these there was 
found the ornamented handle of a fifth Urn of black 

The Horse's bones consisted of a piece of the upper 
jaw-bone with two teeth, and a much larger piece of the 
lower jaw-bone with the first five teeth. On the teeth 
themselves the enamel was perfectly well preserved : the 
bones had suffered more in comparison, but contrasted 
with the human bones were solid. Under these bones 
lay a wrought piece of stag's horn, as Dr Dorow and 
several other persons supposed it to be, not unlike a 

There was found with the human bones an oblong 
but irregular and opaque piece of white quartz, appa-. 


rently a rock-crystal, which in this country occurs only 
among the slates of the Rhine : it was probably laid in 
the grave with some intention, since in several, yet only 
in such as are considered German, quartz stones of the 
same kind have been found. The tasteful and simple 
decoration of the first and second urn was remarkable, 
and may be considered as an argument that Asiatic 
Colonists of a higher degree of civilization migrating 
into these parts, grew savage in the forests and colder 
climate of Germany, and by them these elegant forms 
had been preserved, though the workmanship and ma- 
terial had become coarse. 









nAViN» examined the etymology of 
Wroxpter in a former part of this 
volume \ I shall now place before the 
reader those few facts we possess re- 
lative to its early history. The first 
writer by whom it is mentioned is 
Ptolemy*, who speaks of OmpoKo- 
v'lov as one of the chief cities of the Cornavu. It occurs 
in the second and twelfth Iter of Antoninus, under the 
Latinised form of Uriooonium. The doubtful authority 
of Richard of Cirencester, says that Urioonium was one 
of the largest cities in Britidn'. In his first, second^ 
and thirteenth Iter it is called Virioconium. These 
facts of themselves shew that under the Roman domi- 
nion of Britain it was a place of considerable import- 

The Saxons called it Wreken-ceastbr, which has 
sabsequently been corrupted into Roxaltxr, (Speed''s 
Map, 1646.) Wroxaltkr, (Philos. Trans. 1747, vol. 
xUv, p. 557,) and Wroxbter its present name. 

' Vide, p. 91. 

' Ptolomiei Grec^. apnd Horaley, p. 359. 

* Uriooniam inter Britanniie ci^tates maxumas nomen poseide- 
bat. Ricardi Corinensis de situ Britaimise, lib. L cap. 27. 

^ Gale, in his comment on this second Iter says, " Nomen hujus 
nrbis e Vindilida cum Romanis aquilis ad nos venisse videatur; 
occnmmt enim Virucinates inter <]aataor Vindelicomm gentes ^uaa 
nobis in Alpino trophaeo exhibet Plinins, lib. iii. cap. 20. Britan- 
nicitm vero nomen hnjus urbi fiiit Brec€fn rel Vreoon, quod et 
letinet in vincia mens hodie Wreken appellatus." Anton. Iter. cut& 
Gale, p. 56. 


Baxter says that an ancient tradition existed in hig 
day that the city was burned by the Danes, ^^immissis 
P<u$eribfu de Veroconio monte,^ the meaning whereof 
others may better explain. He suspects these fugitive 
sparrows to have been monks or hermits from the Wre- 
kin^. In later times the mountain was usually termed 
MoNs GiLBERTi, or St Gilbert^s Mountain, from which 
^Saint*" the Gilbertine Monks originated. The earliest 
authority in which I have met with the title of Sr 
Gilbbrt's Hill for the Wrekin is in the highly curious 
Anglo Norman Romance of Fulk Fitz Wuin, where it 
is called Mont Gylrbert'. From the fact of an iron 
seal having been dug up at Wboxeter, upon which wa« 
engraved the head of a prince circled with a Roman dii^ 
dem, and having long hair, wiili the inscription CA TTVT 
S6AVI D€l, Baxter concludes the city had not been 
overthrown by ilie Saxons. He conjectures this head 
to have represented Qffu king of Meroia, on aecount of 
the intermixture of Greek with Latin characters. From 
the i^ace being mentioned at the dose of the seventh 
century in the ChorOgraphy of Ravennas^ as the chief 
city of the Cornavu, he supposes that it flourished till 
the time of the Danes, and that perhaps even here at 
one period the Mercians fixed their capital. And if 
Ddinlle Vreoon, means Wroxeter, and not ilie hill 
fortress of the Wrekin, Uricanium was standing when 
Llywar9 Hen wi-ote his elegy on the death of Cynddylan. 

The Caer Urnach* of Nennius has been conjectured 
to mean Wroxeter, but without sufficient reason^. The 
affix of Ur in TJniconium and in Vnruich being the chief 
argument for the assumption. Baxter imagines that 

^ GloBsarium Antiquitatam Britanmcamm^ p. 243. * p. 2. 
' Vtriconion Comoninorum. Urioconium Comavionun^ (Como- 
yionun Vat MS.) Ravenn. Chorog. 

* Whitaker^ in his Histonr of Manchester, supposea Wroxeter to 
be V Ricon Caer, the city of Kings, vol. L p. lA. 

* See p. 92. 


Ca^r uar na kag signifies cimtcu od eerme^m fiuetwr. 
Its connexion with the Oiant Umaoh, gays he, of 
whom the Welsh fables speak, is too ridiculous to 
excite attention. 

Antiquities of the Roman period have been found 
here at various times. The earliest disooveiy of which 
we have any information is the Sudatory or Hypooaust^ 
that was uncovered in the year 1701. About forty 
perches North of the wall some labourers in digging to 
asc^tain the cause of unfruitfulness of the land there, came 
upon a small square room ^^ walled about and floored un- 
der and over.*^^ It was set with four ranks of small brick 
pillani eight inches square, and laid in a strong sort of 
very fine red clay, each pillar being founded upon a foot 
square quarry of brick; and upon the head of every 
pillar was fixed a large quarry of two feet square, hard 
almost as flint. These pillars were to support a double 
floor, made of very strong mortar, mixed with coarse 
gravel and broken bricks. The first of these floors was 
laid upon the large quarries, and when diy the second 
floor was laid upon it. 

There was a range of tunnel-bricks^ fixed with iron 
cramps up to the wall within, with their lower ends 
level with the under sides of the broad quarries, and 
their upper ends with the surface of the upper floor: 
and every tunnel had alike two opposite mortice-holes, 

* Sir Christopher Wren informed Dr Harwood who oommimi- 
cated an account of this discovery to the Royal Society, that he 
discovered the remains of such another Hypocaust when they were 
laying the foundation of the King's house at Windiegter. 

Mr Christopher Hunter, in a letter to Dr Lyster dated May 15, 
1702, published in Philos. Trans. No. 278, p. 1131, dves an account 
of one dug up in Yorkghirt. Edward Lmyd in his additions to 
Camden notices another discovered at Kaer hyn, co. Caernarvon. 
fie describes and ffives a figure of one of the hollow bricks or 
tnnnek. Another has been found at Hope in Flintshire, and an- 
other at Chester^ besides several other places. 

' These flues are usually the same wherever they occur. The 
eaent ones, from the representation given, are just like some I 
ive seen that were found at Borough HiU, near Ikiventry, 



one on either side, out through for a crosB paaaage to 
disperse the heat amongst them all^ 

In 1747^ a clay mould for forging Roman coin was 
found here, it had on it the head of Julia, the wife 
of SeyeruB, and the inscription Jvua Avovbta. It 
was described in a paper read before the Royal Society 
the same year, together with four others discovered in 
digging sand at Byion^ near Candover*. They were all 

* A description of a Roman Sudatoiy or Hypocaiutnm, found 
at WrojpeUr in Shropshire, 1701, bv Mr John Lyster, (Philosophical 
Transactions, vol. xxv. p. 2226—8.) a representation is given of these 
remains in the volume quoted, and a model of them existed in the 
Library of the Free School, Shrewsbury. 

' According to the account of them in the Philos. Trans, vol. 
xliv. p. 557, tney were as follows : • 

1. Probably the reverse of a Denarius of Sevems. On the 
reverse, Figura velata coram aram sacrificans. Yota Svbckpta. x. 

2. On one side Caput Julis Severi, IVLIA AVGVSTA. On 
the other was the reverse of a Denarius of Severus. Victoria gia- 
diens cum fune superecuto P. M. TR. F. VIII. COS. II. P.P. 

3. A reverse of CaraoEilla. Trophseum de Parthis cum duobus 
captivis assidentibus. PART. MAX. PON. TR. P. V. COS. 

4. Caput JuUtt Severi. IVLIA AVGVSTA. 

These were bought by Gough at the decease of the possessor, 
and are now probably among ms bequests to the Bodleian. 

* I remember, gays the author of this paper, no aooount of any nich Und of roouldt 
being found m other countries exoeptinf some said to be fixmd at Lyofw, but I believe 
more of them have been discovered at different times in England. I have been infimned 
Chat the Barl of Winchelsea had several impressions or moulds of this sort, all joined 
together ade by side, on one flat piece of day as if for the making of many casts at 
onocL They wese all of the Emperor Severus. In the Earl of Pembroke's coueetiao b 
a day mould impressed on both sides like No. 2, one side with the head of Severus, the 
other with a known reverse of that emperor, so that all we know of are nearly of the 
same time. Severus or Caracalla his son and immediate successor. They are seemin^y 
intended for the coinage of money though it is verv difficult to conceive in what man- 
ner they could be employed for that purpose, especially those with an impression on both 
sides, unless we suppose two pieces to have been coined at the same time by the help of 
three moulds, of wnidi this was to be the middle one. If by dispodng these into some 
sort of frame or case, as letter founders do the brass moulds for casting typesL the 
metal could be poured into them. It would certainly be a very easy methoa ot coining, 
as such moulds require little time or expense to make, and might easily be renewed. 
They seem to have been burned or baked suffldently to make them hard, but not so at 
to render them like bricks, whereby they would^have lost their smooth and even surftcef 
which in these is plainly so smooth that wluUever metal should be farmed in them would 
have no appeuitnce like the sand holes by which counterfeit coins are usually detected. 

At l4nnu in the Fourviere, (forum vetus) the quazter mostly inhabited by the Romana, 
moulds of whitish clay baked are frequently found. M. ICahudel has given a memoir on 
thdr use. (Memoires de TAcademie d'Inscriptions, tom. iii. 218. Na ii. 333-.342.) 

They are about an inch in diameter, two lines thick at the edge ; most have iroprealoB 
on both sides. Each mould has a small opening or channd at the edge leading to the 
cavity of the impression, which served to reorive and conduct the metaL When a mim- 
ber of them were laid together, at eaeh end was a mould impressed only on one side^ 
and they were perhaps imbedded in earth to hold them together, as some still ad- 
hered to some of these moulds. They were of the time of Severus, who rerided long at 
Lifontt where Caracalla was bom. An ingot of mixed metal was found with them, the 
verdigris on which, shewed there was more copper than silver. The number and good- 
ness of these moulds led some antiquaries to the supposition that the Romans somciomeB 
cast their silver coin. M. Mahudel adduces various arguments to shew that it was atradw 
and thinks that these moulds were used soldy by fislse ooinerB. 


of the rize of a denarius, a little more than the thick- 
nesB of a halfpenny, with the exception of the former 
one that was double. They were made of a smooth 
pot or rather brick clay that seemed to have been well 
cleaned fiom sand or dirt, and well beat or kneaded, to 
render it fit for taking a fair impression. Oreat num- 
bers of them were found, but for want of care most of 
them were broken in pieces. 

In the year 1762, in a field two hundred yards 
North East of the Old Wall were found three sepul- 
chral stones, that are now preserved in the Free School 
Library at Shrewsbury^ together with a fourth subse- 
quently discovered*. Ab far as type will allow I have 
endeavoured to print their inscriptions in the following 

' These are engraved in Camden^ voL iiL p. 13, and in a small 
privately printed volmne of plates which gives representations of 
some coarse urns found in 1810. 

PMny fpeaks of the detaieinent of coin and the art required to diitinfliiih that iHiidi 
' "" * "^ * ' '" "' ^ Imitations were dnm to well exe- 

from pieces cast in a nnd mould, which 1 . 

eutea that the carious would often give many pieoes of good money for one fklse one. 

Count Caylus took impressions in pewter from these Lyoiw moulds; when they weie 
csseAiUy cleaned he obtained perfect casts; they were of Antoninus Pius, Oeta and Julia, 
«U dacrihed by Coca 

Count Caylus diflbn from Ifahudel as to the use of these moulds, Bacuell L S86, he 
thinks that the Bomana as well as the kings of Egypt, Syria, Judea, Ace, used both moulds 
and the hammer. They seem intended for silver coinaoe, whidi in the reign of Severus 
was debased, and continued more and more so till the tune of Dioderian. After the time 
of Severus coins are mostly of billon— brsss alloyed wldi a tittle silver,— and to foige 
sudi base coin be argues would be hardly worth the coiner's while, and also that the 
mints would Iw more oarelees about the mode of mariting such coin and use the shortest 
and least costly method, namely, the mould, the head might quickly be enjomved in relief 
on a pundieon hard enough to stamp the day. the legend posdbly printed by moveable 
chanM^er^ a eopjecture aidhoriaed by the otmAioon and IranqxisitloQ of letters on medals. 

costly method, namely, the mould, the head might quickly be enjoaved in relief 
idieon hard enough to stamp the day. the legend posdbly printed by moveable 
^ a eopjecture aidhoriaed by the otmAioon and IranqxisitloQ of letters on medals. 
le rufais of the fountain of Nismes were found two bran dies of medals of Au- 
acmved Memoiies de FAcad. des Insc. xiv. lOB. Caylus Becueil L cv. f. 1. See a 
ItoaUnet Cabinet de St Genevieve, p. 117> of Augustus ; in the same collection 
„ -ron of Constantius. 
See in Phil. Trans. voL — No. S34^ an account by Thorssby of day moulds tea casting 

money fimnd at Tkorp in Yorkihire: they were of Severus, his consort Julia, his son 
Caragefla Alexander seveius, his mother, Hammsea. and Dladumcnianus. In the Ashmo- 
lean are matrices of day for casting Roman coins found 167, in the parish of MwriinA 
ca 9tmgr$tL pmscnted 16881 by John Aubrey of Auton PHaee, WUU. Na 93-66 coins. 



No. 1. 

Is a stone four feet ten long and one foot nine inches wide. 




illl GEM 





Marcus . Petronius Luoii . filius . Menenise vixit . annoe 
XXXVIII miles . legionis XIIII gemina' militavit annoe . 
XVIII . Signifer . fiiit. Hio . Sepultus . est. 

' It is said that this l^on was never in Britain, thon^I hare 
been unable to ascertain on what authority it is so stated. Dr Ward 
in his account of this Inscription in the Philos. Trans. voL xlix. 
part i. p. 196, conjectures that Petronius only came for his health 
and died here ! 


No. 2. 

A stone four feet five inohes higfa, by two feet three wide. 
Surmounted at the top by a pine apple betwixt two lions. 

Caiufi . Mannius . Caii . Filius Pollise . Secundus^ . Pol- 
lens Miles Legionis . XX . Annorum . LII . Stipendiarius * 
XXXI. beneficiarius legati* . provinciae hie Sepultus est. 

* SecundfUi an epithet bestowed by his general: this and PoOeaSf 
were titles of honour. 

' Eveiy province had its legati, or Lieutenant Generals, appointed 
by the Consuls. 



No, 3. 
A stone two feet eight inohes high^ and two feet 
three wide, divided into three compartments, one of 
which is blank. The upper part is ornamented by 
the representation of two dolphins, two serpents, and 
a human head. 







CON • 1- 







Diis . Manibus Placida annis . LV cura . agente conjuge ^ 
Diis . Manibus . Deuccus . annis . XV . oura . agente patre'.* 

' I am not pTepared to set before the reader a better interoretation 
than this^ nor bc^d enough to add to it the numerals XXa. as hm 
been done by others, imJplyi^g that Placida was thirty years a wife. 
What has been tortured mto aXX. appears to me notblng more than 
a lone cross ornament at the bottom, like the triplication of a W, 

' Nor do I feel satisfied with the reading of the latter part of this 



No. 4- 
A stond two feet ten high, and two feet wide : 






H S 

TiberiuB ClandiuB Tibertintu Equee Cohortis Thracum 
auxiliorum LVII. Stipendiorum X. hie Sepultus est^ 

In June 1788 veiy considerable remaioB of Roman 
Baths, and Hypooausts* were found, together with coins 

1 Eograved in Camden, vol. iiL p. 23. 

' The nature of these Hypocausta is well examined by Baxter 
in a letter to Harwood, in which he says. 

The Ancients had two sorts of Htfocausta, the one called by 
Cicero Vaporarium, and bj others lAuxmicum, or Sudatw, which was 
a large sweating bath in which were tria vasa ahena, called Calda^ 
rium, Tmdarium, and Frigidarium, from the water contained in 
them. Tne other sort of Hypooatutum is not so distinctly handled by 
Antiquaries, and it was a sort of Forruue, or kiln to heat their winter 
parlonrs or Canatiuncukp Hyberrue. " Erat et DiKtffi sive Coenati- 
nnculs/' says Arsol upon Panvinins, ''sab qua i^pois accendebatnr, 
nnde et eoenatio Ifypocaustom." Cicero in his Epistles mentions 
Ccenaiiones jEttiva et Hyberrue, 

The Terrace floor is called by Vitravius, Testudo, Testudines 
alreorum in <^mmnni hypocausi calefacinntnr. This Hypocausis was 
caUed Aiveus and Fonnax, and the man who tended the flre Farna* 
eater. The TubuU seem to have been contrived to convey away the 
smother, that otherwise would choke the Fomacator, This kind of 
stove seems to be graphically described by P. Statins, in Balneo 
, Hetrusii: 

^ubi languidus imis inerrat 

iEdibus, et tenuem volvunt hypocausta vaporem. 

Of the TerracBy Argol has these words, '' Testudines sunt pavi- 
menta sub quibus Fornax ardet." 

P. S. By the way I take the word SUme to be derived firom M^iUi 
quasi JBstuwam^ there wanting hitherto a probable etymon. 



I if' 



both of the upper and lower Empire, bones of afnimab 
(some of which were burnt), fragments of earthen yessels 
of various sizes, shapes and manufactures, some of them 
black and resembling Etruscan ware, pieces of glass, and 
the whole ground was in fart full of charred substances in 
different strata, with layers of earth between them, seem- 
ing to indicate that the place had suffered from more than 
one conflagration. 

The buildings were carefully surveyed at the time of 
their discoveiy by Mr Telford \ and plans with fiill 
descriptions are giv^i in the Archseologia*. 

The first floor uncovered was paved with tiles cdxteen 
inches long, by twelve wide, and half an inch thick. They 
lay on a bed of mortar a foot thick, under which were 
rubble stones to a considerable depth. Adjoining it on 
the Northern side was a small bath capable of holding four 
persons, supposing them to sit on the steps or seats along 
the Southern side. Through the North side was a hole 
near the bottom. The bottom was paved with tiles, and 
the sides and seats plastered with mortar consisting of 
three layers or coats : the first, or that next the stones, 
was formed of lime and pounded brick without sand; 
the third of the same, but having a greater proportion 
of lime, and a little sand, the surface of this was very 
smooth and veiy hard. 
I Next to this were two Hypocausts about five feet by 

seven. They stood on a floor of mortar, one of them 
tj having six, and the other eight pillars^. Several pieces of 

i painted stucco were found in the first Hypocaust, some 

of which were in stripes of crimson on a yeUow ground, 
some in a decussated cheoquer of the same colors, others 
plain red, and others plain blue. There was also found 
in this place a tile two feet square, pierced wiili many 

* See also the Life of Telford, published by Murray, 1899. 
' VoL ix. p. 323. communicated by the Rev. F. Leighton to 

' Fragments of these still remain in the viUage. 



boles, whioh were wide at the lower (ride, and ended 
afanofit in a point at the upper side. 

There were two other small rooms, two feet by six, and 
two larger ones, respectively five feet, and three feet by 
eij^ which had tesselated floors made of pieces of brick 
one inch and a quarter square, disposed merely in a simple 
ehfioqaer, besides another large tesselated floor nine feet six 
by fourteen: and another Hypocaost twelve feet by twenty. 
Its floor was of mortar upon rubble stones. The pilliuB 
were not uniform in their shape, size or disposition : some 
rows consisted of six, and some of sevm pillars: some pillars 
were shorter than others, and the deficiency was made up 
by tiles, or stones laid upon th^n : some were apparently 
the fragments of large columns of a kind of granite, one 
foot six inches and one foot two in diameter. In one 
comer of this Hypocaust there was a small Bath, with one 
seat or step on two of its sides. The whole of the inside 
was well plastered with mortar. Near this Bath was 
found a piece of leaden i»pe\ not soldered, but hammered 
together, and the seam or juncture was secured by a kind 

^ The Romans worked the Lead Mikes under the Stwerstonef 
at an early period after their gaining the island. This is snewn by 
pigs of IcMod having been found in the neighbourhood. 

A pig of lead was found in the year l7o7 about a foot below the 
sur&ce of the groundi in a piece of land about three miles North 
West of Bishops Castle*. It was 22 inches long; 7 wide at base; 
3 J at top, and 4 J deep. There are two stam^ upon the border that 
runs round ^e rdievo; the letters of which, says the describer, 
are WINPt; as he i^prehends, they stand for Q^iruiuemrorum 
jussu notatum plumbum. This is mere conjecture. It may be ob- 
served as to the first two letters: '' deducebatur oolonia aut per 
triumviros, aut per decemviros, quamvis et qutMjuevircrum, sep- 
temvirorum, vigintivirorum colonisB deducendee huic inde fiat men- 
tiot/' The inscription may be considered as a proof that, in the time 
of Adrian, the mines in Britain were worked solely for the advantage 
of the Emperor, agreeable to what Suetonius says; ''plnrimis etiam 
civitatibus et privatis veteres immunitates, et jus metaUorum ac vecti- 

• This it the one mentioned by Mr Murchiaon in hit SBuzian Syttem, at being to 
the potaeadon of Mr More, near fiitnop'g Cattle. 

A pig of lead in all retpectt similar to this is described in the Library of Enter- 

A pig of lead in all respects shmlar to this is described in the Library of Enter- 
taining Knowledge, the Townley Gallery, vol. iL p. 291, it was ftxmd near Snaibatchy and 
Meaenled to «Se British Museum in 1798L They each bear the inscription IMP. 

t Ocnt Mag. voL M. p. 924. 

% Hatoeeeii Antlq. RomaiK Append. lib. i. 119, and 119. 


of mortar. Probably at the same time a iiriffU and a 
bronze key kept with the antiquities in the Free School 
Lilnrary were found. 

Several other things have at difierent times been 
turned up. Amongst them, an amuletal seal, disoovered 
by some men near the Old Wall while ploughing; in the 
year 1808. The letters are mcised upon a circular 
jadz stone seven eighths of an inch in diameter and a 
quarter thick. It has hitherto baffled the endeavours of 
those who have attempted to explain it* As far as our 
type will allow, the reader may form some idea of it ; the 
letters are carefully engraved^ on ibe originaL 


galla adempta*." And thus also all criminals were condemned either 
to work on the roads or in the mines. ''Moltos honesti ordinis 
deformatos prius stigmatum notis, ad metaOa et munitiones yianim, 
aut ad bestias condemnavitt." However, private adventurers were 
afterwards permitted to work them. Heineccius says, " Restituerant 
deinde iisdem hoc heneficium seqnentes principes, sed ea lese, ut 
certum inde Canonem metalUcum solverent, de quo agit L. 4. C. Theo- 
dosii de Metallar. et ibi lo. Gothofredus." And we are told in the 
Codex what this Canon metatticui was: ''Cuncti, qni per privatomm 
loca saxomm venam laboriosis effossionibus persequentur, dedmas 
fisco, dedmas etiam domino repnesententt." The adventurers were 
to pay a tenth to the crown, and a tenth to the owners of the bind« 
If the mines of this island were in the time of Adrian, worked solely 
for his advantage, it is natural to think that the blocks of metal were, 
at that time, stamped, in order to prevent lead being sold by any but 
the imperial officers. 

^ It is eiu;raved in Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxx. p. 617, and mentioned 
in Beauties of England and Wales, county Salop, p. 191. 

* In Tiberio. c. 40. 

t In CaliguU, c. 97. 

t Codicte, Ub. xL Tft. vl. 3. 


In 1810 several urns were found, and two small tessel- 
ated pavements, besides a quantity of sflver coins ^ These 
by having become dispersed and carried out of the parish, 
have lost their chief value, and it is now difficult to trace 
them. Some years ago a clause existed in the leases of 
of the tenants at Wroxetery that all antiquities found there 
should be rendered to the proprietor of the soil'. Had 
this continually been enforced, its history might have been 
oonfflderably enlarged. As it is, ahnost every thing that 
has been discovered, has been lost, or by falling into hands 
unconnected with the place, these objects have lost their 
local relationship, and thus ceased to have any real worth* 
It is their association with Wroxbteb that can alone 
render such relics of any interest, speaking as to their 
pecuniary value, they actually possess none^. 

* The corns found are still called Diitders, from Denariut (see 
Gloss.) as they were when Honley visited the spot. 

There were other things found in 1818, and 1824. 

■ Lloyd's Ma Hist, of Shropshire. 

' In 1829 Mr Dukes^ Shrew^nmy, presented to the Society of 
Antiqparies, a mannscript aooonnt of Wrojpeter, which contains a 
list <n 201 silver coins, one gold, and four counterfeit ones, found 
there at difierent times. 



H'^KVEK travels along the road from 
iiit^ddwtu to Skrewabury^ cannot &il 
*\ tsorving, close to the highway, as he 
ajiproaches the village of WroxeteTj 
a [.irge ruin of OIH 829^11 stand- 
\!v^ in a field to his left. This is 
till that now remains of the ancient 
Uriconium, a diy formerly so extensive that it covered 
from three to four hundred acres, and even now ves- 
tiges of its circumference may be traced, though indis- 
tinctly it must be confessed, for three miles. A vallum 
and fosse encircled the whole, and as far as I have been 
able to make out, from the depressed and altered state 
to which they have been reduced by the plough, the 
vallum was fifteen feet in height, and the fosse the 
same in width. It appears to have commenced at the 
Severn, not quite a quarter of a mile South of BeU 
Brook; it crosses the turnpike road a few yards North 
West of the fifth milestone, passing over Bell Brook 
and pointing towards Norton, which it leaves a furlong 
and a half to the North. It then goes over the road 
leading from Norton to Wroxeter, and continues East- 
wards till it crosses another road leading to the Horse 
Shoes. I conceive this road that falls into the Watling 
Street at the last mentioned spot to have been the direct 
line of Roman road to the city, though it is now degene- 
rated into a mere lane. From its section with this Une 
of communication it inclines a little to the South, when 




again passing over BeU Broohy it makes a sudden turn 
to the South West, and terminates at the Se^Mm. 

Between the road to Norton and the road to the 
Hone Shoes^ if I mistake not, or else East of the latter, 
on an eminence called Middle Crowe Green^ was the oeme- 
trj of the city, as it is supposed, for at this place were 
found the graTOHstones before mentioned, besides several 
bones, urns. Sec, all evincing that it was a spot of 
sepulture ^ The silver coins found in 1810 were dis- 
covered in a glass vessel with two handles, in the road 
leading from the Horse Shoes toward Wroxeter. 

The fragment of the ancient Uriconium so gene- 
rally known as the €^Ul WSMlf is in all respects a 
genuine example of Ronum construction. It is built 
on just the same principles as Richborouoh^ and 

' An observation has been made in reference to the manner of 
bniying kere^ where the eraves are foimd to be deep and wide, and 
the corpse endoeed in red clay both under and over, and to prevent 
the mixture of other monld with that clav the graces were faced 
on the sides with slates, and then covered with stones^ sometimes 
five or six upon one sepulture. Bones have been fonnd to be in- 
terred after tms manner which contribnted to their preservation for 
some hundreds of years. Teeth have been taken out of the jaw-- 
bones of men, near three inches long and as manv about. Some 
thigh bones have been found of a full yard in length. Several 
urns have been discovered, in the memoiy of man, after digging 
three or fonr feet into the earth, and it is to be noted that as the 
dead bodies here are buried in red day, so are the urns lodged in 
red sand. Uoifd^i MS, 

' The remains at Richborouor Cabtl£ occupy three sides of 
a square, the fourth side having a steep bank, ana a stream at the 
bottom. The walls are eleven feet thick and from twenty to thirty 
in height. The exterior is faced with quarried flints of seven and 
nine courses, and at these distances are two rows of Roman tile, 
not going entirely through the wall. In the whole there are six 
courses of tile as there are at Burgh. The interior of the wall is 
filled up with rubble, mortar, flints, &c. It has buttresses or flank- 
ing walls^ and towers; the latter like those at Bttroh. There is 
so much resemblance between these three Roman works that upon 
comparing together two drawings of my own of the masonry of 
WraapeUr and Ridibonmgh made in 18do, I see no difference ex- 
cept in the space between the two uppermost courses of Roman 
tile. At Richborotigh there are nine courses of quarried flints be- 
tween them, whilst at Wroxeter there are only four courses of 
quarried sand-stone. 



BuBOH* Castles being faced with smaU quarried stones 
six inches by four, with bondings of Roman tile after a 
certain number of courses. What remains is seventy-two 
feet long, and twenty high, the wall itself being three feet 
two inches thick. There are six courses of tile in it, which 
as at RicHBORouGH and Burgh, are pkced edgewise, with 
only mortar between them, having two rows of tile in 
each course. The uppermost course of quarried surface 
consists of four, the three next six, and the fifth from 
the top of the building of eight rows of squai^ stones. 
As these are red sandnstones their face has suflfered 
considerably more than the harder materials have which 
are used by the Romans at the forementioned stations. 
Mr Carte of Leicester^ appears to have been the first 
person who called the attention of antiquaries to this 
interesting specimen of Roman architecture. In 1721 
he gave the Society of Antiquaries an account of *Hhe 
old work with a rude draught.^ ''The main wall now 
standing,^ said he, 'Ms thirty yards long, and the foun- 
dations from it Westward forty yards, so that the whole 
was seventy yards long. The middle arch six yards 

^ I am indebted to the friendship of Albert Way^ Esq. for fur- 
nishing me with an account of Buroh, as well as for some valuable 
assistance on the subject of Wroxeter generally. Mr Way visited 
BuROH Castle in March of the present year when he xnade the 
following notes: 

On the North side which seems to be the highest part, the 
wall is about fourteen feet nine inches above the surfisK^ of the 
ploughed land around. 

The South side is most perfect, beino; furthest from the village 
of Burgh, almost all the flint facing ana much of the tile has be^ 
carried away on the North and East sides to build the church, &c. 

On this South side I found the facing to consist of seven strata 
of squared flint with six strata of tile intervening. 

The former measures about one foot seven indies in height, but 
towards the upper half of the wall two feet, and the fifth stra- 
tum from below the facing consists of five rows of square flints, all 
the others having only four rows. It is not stated however posi* 
tively, that this was uniform all roimd, for, as observed, the facing 
is almost wholly removed in other parts, and time did not allow a 
careful observation of the fragments, fr^m which a more perfect 
account might probably be drawn up. 


high from the ground, but from the floor much higher, 
six yards broad; the other two only four yards broad, 
but of the same height. The hole in the middle arch 
supposed to have been broken through, and so is the 
other. At each end are smooth walls coming out at the 
end of the arches; the foundations answering the main 
wall, and tiie arches ten yards from it. Two rows of 
tfle go through the wall. The stones are laid exactly 
across each other; in the middle, rubbish and pebbles. 
The arches seem covered with the same as the walls. 
Some ragged pieces stand out a yard and a half from 
the wall. It is now ei^t yards from the ground; the 
North side smooth, except some holes as for soaffolds^^^ 
When Mr Lloyd saw the ®lll 081011^ it was twenty 
feet high and a hundred long'. 

The stmtuin of tile oonskdng of thiee tiles^ each with a thick 
layer of cement between each row of tiles, measures in height about 
seven inches and a half, the average thickness of tile being one 
inch and a half. 

The tile is only one row deep, the interior wall being wholly 
rubble. There appear courses of tile on the inner side, but whether 
they range or not with those outside, remains for enquiry. The 
dimensions of the tile as near as oould be ascertained are of the 
usual size. They are of fine well-burnt red clay. Some firagments 
are found with a recurved edge, the use of which is not ascer- 
tained; it has not the appearance of being merelv aoddentaL 

The area endosed is now a ploughed field; tnree walls remain 
almost perfect The West side is wholly open, and ajppears to have 
been defended by a steep bank overhanging the ancient .Estuary, 
now marshy meadow land; but this bank nas been thrown down, 
and it is uncertain whether there was any wall on this side. On 
the opposite side of the wide iEstuary was Caistor another Roman 

The walls were flanked by six rounders of a horse shoe form, 
two at North East and South East angles, two between them, 
and on the North and South sides one, iMth of which have Mien. 
These bastions of solid masonry were faced like the whole of the 
wall, the strata following in regular order like those of the curtain 
wall; but the said bastiotis are not part and parcel of the wall, all 
the lower portion of them being merely applied to the &ce of it, 
but at about the fourth stratum of tile from the bottom, they are 
hid in the main walL This imperfect union having in most in- 
stances given way; it is possible to see and in one case to pass be* 
tween the main wall ana the bastion. 

* Camden, vol. iii. p. 27. * lb. 



Horsley seems to have examined Wboxbter with 
some care. In his comment on the second Iter of An- 
tonine, he says, '^ Urioonium eleven miles in the Itiner- 
ary from BfUuniutny has with good reason been fixed 
at Wroaster. I spent the greatest part of a day with 
much pleasure in viewing that place and the antiquities 
of it. I had seen several medals at ShrewAwry^ most 
of which were found here, and I purchased a few myself 
the people call them Wroxeier-Dindersy probably from 
Denarii. The town has been very large and sjso the 
fortified ground. It is situated on the North or North 
East side of the Secern^ and on the other side of the 
place runs a small rivulet, so that this (as many other 
of the Roman stations) has been situated on a lingula 
near the confluence of a rivulet and a larger river. 
There is a piece of old wall yet standing which has in 
it three regular strata of Roman brick, each stratum 
consisting of the thickness of two bricks. It is about 
eight yards high and about twenty long. The field this 
stands in I thought to be the Prcetorium^ for like Aldr 
borough in Yorkshire^ the whole city seems to have been 
encompassed with a rampart and ditch, above half a 
mile square, the vestiges of which may yet be discerned. 
It encompasses the whole of the fields in which the 
stones, coins and other antiquities are found. I was 
informed that a balneum or sudatory had been disco- 
vered here some years ago, but then was destroyed*.'" 

The annexed plate will shew the reader what ap- 
pearance the ®m SSBaU presented in the year 1838, 
when I last visited it, and made the drawing from which 
it is taken. 

Wroxeter is mentioned in two Iters of Antonine, 

and in three of Richard. It is placed in the second 

Iter of the former betwixt Rutunium and Usaoona, and 

the distance from Rowton Castle and Oaken Gates^ (where 

> Britan. Rom. p. 419^ 




an Hypocaust has been found*) exactly corresponds with 
the numbers in the Itinerary. 

Another great road from it went over the Severn 
through Bravinium (Anton. Iter, xii.) or Brannooenium^ 
(Ric. Corin. Iter, xiii.) which is Brandon Camp near 
LeintuHtrdine^ and so onwards to Ctwr Leon. Great part 
of the way this road bears the name of the Watling 
IStreet. Foundations of a bridge below the Ford were 
visible two or three years back. 

* A third road from Wroxeter passed over the Severn 
due West towards Berrington ffaUy near which place 
the line of road is still called King Street^ leaving the 
small epaulement of the Burgs, a Roman work, to the 
right, going by Hunger Hilly ExFOKo^a Green^ Ascot and 
Lea Cross (where a tesselated pavement was found 
in 1793); from Lea Cross it proceeded to Edge and 
Stoney Stretton where it fell into the road from Rutu- 
NiuM to Caer Flos. 

A fourth road went Northwards, through Newport 
to Chester^ and 

A fifth crossed the Severn and branched out of the 
Watiinff Street near Pi^ford, trending along the Devil^s 
Causeway to Rushbury and Nordy Bank, a more par- 
ticular account of which the reader will find in the 
ensuing chapter. 

> Gent Mag. Feb. 1797. 



has ever been the practice of a 
credulous and ill informed people to 
attribute any works displaying extra- 
ordinary skill and labor in their exe- 
cution, to preternatural agency. In 
accordance with this principle, the 
DetiTs Bridge in Cardiganshire^ the 
DemVs Ditch in Cambridgeshire^ and the Devil^s Cause- 
way* in our own county have severally taken their names. 
It was an easy mode of solving a difficulty when the 
peasantry attempted to account for works which they 
ignorantly gazed upon with superstitious awe. Though 
we are immediately led to question their wisdom in 
drawing such conclusions, it must at the same time, be 
confessed, that they rarely resorted to these explansr 
tions upon imworthy occasions; unconsciously acting on 
the rule laid down by Horace, 

Nee deus intersit nisi dignus yindice nodoB, 
they never referred to Satanic influence circumstances 
of minor importance. It was only when a scene was 
marked by more than usual grandeur, when nature seemed 
convulsed, and a savage and wild aspect was stamped upon 
her form, or else when man had triumphed over great 
difficulties, and displayed wonderful artifice and con- 
trivance in his work, that they called in the aid of 
unearthly powers to account for their origin. 

* Stane Street Causeway, a Roman road which is fahled by 
the lower orders to have been made by the Devil. (Aubrey's Survey, 
vol. iv. p. 187.) 




Mainly in consequence of the imposing appellation 
which Thk Devil^b Caubkwat has obtained, I determined 
at the close of the autumn of 1838 to ascertain by a 
personal inspection, what was the nature of its claims 
to so unusual a title. At an early hour in the morning 
I crossed the Watling Street at Longnor Qreen^ and 
proceeded due East for about a mile and a quarter, up 
a strait narrow lane which had every appearance of having 
been made at a remote time. Before reaching Froddedey 
Lodge^ all traces of it were lost, but as I pressed onwards 
across the wild and open land of Froddesley Park^ I fell 
in with, on the Northern side, some vestiges of an ancient 
paved way. The stones which formed it were disposed 
with too much regularity to have been the work of chance. 
They struck me as singular immediately I saw them, and 
I accordingly followed the direction they took, as far as it 
could be distinguished, which was for a distance of perhaps 
fifty yards. Viewing them in this situation, thus seem- 
ingly isolated, I was unable to connect them with any 
satisfactory conjecture, and could only hope that some 
link would present itself in the course of my ensuing 
investigation, that would serve to unite them, as it after- 
wards did, with the object of my enquiry. 

Upon quitting this undulating and unenclosed ground, 
a lane, which twisted about with a good deal of occasional 
angularity, brought me to the little hamlet of Buckley. 
At this point of jimction I diverged in a South Western 
direction, towards the village of Cardinfftany and instantly 
observed evident signs that the road I had taken was the 
right one. For upon the left was a high artificially formed 
causeway, about the width that such paths usually are, and 
a very bad road below it. There was nothing demomaeal 
it is true, but there seemed an unusual degree of magni- 
tude in the materials with which the causeway was con- 
structed. A little further on, both it and the road were 
upon the same level, and here and there, first upon the 


light, then upon the left, lay large coping stones, that 
seemed placed rather as the boundary of the road, thah 
for curb stones. Occasionally large boulders shewed them- 
selves in the centre or at the sides, but clearly neither 
-washed there by diluvial agency, or fortuitously rolled 
from the slopes above. As I went forwards they became 
more numerous, so that by the time Causeway Wood was 
gained, the road was absolutely laid with them. They 
were placed with the utmost regularity with respect to 
each other, and presented such a systematic appearance, 
that no doubt any longer existed in the mind, that the 
labor of making the road had been performed at a very 
early period. It was clearly artificial, and if I were 
to add the epithet gigantic, it would not be inappropriate. 
The whole partook of vastness: it indicated the genius 
of a great people, and silently seemed to declare that 
it had formerly been a considerable thoroughfare. Who 
that people were, and whither it led, I shall presently 

Viewing the Dbvil^s Causeway at this spot, it looks 
very like the boldest and most shaking pav^, an English- 
man ever jolted over in France or Italy. From Cause- 
way Wood to which it has been traced, to its termination 
two or three hundred yards farther on, the work in 
question is to be seen in its most perfect state, and 
I shall take this opportimity of describing it more 

The Devil^s Causeway is a way, partially at present, but 
originally entirely formed of large blocks of basalt, which 
were procured from the neighbouring sides of the Lawley, 
They vary in superficial size from one to two feet in 
length, and from eight to fifteen inches in breadth, and 
are disposed in their longest direction across the road. 
At first they were placed with extreme regularity, and 
had their face much more even than it now lies. From 
an average of several measures taken in diiferent parts, 


the road aeems originally to have been thirteen feet wide. 
It is edged with roughly hewn flat stones lying upon the 
Borface of the soil, and varying from one to two feet in 
width; they are uniformly one foot in thickness, and stand 
so as to touch each other. The existing inequality of the 
face of the road may be accounted for on reasons which 
it is almost superfluous to mention. Such, for instance, 
as the peculiar nature of the stone itself with which it 
is paved, and its aptness speedily to disintegrate: the 
traffic which it has for a very lengthened period sus- 
tained : the operation of various natural causes which are 
BtiU in action, such as the tendency that heavy bodies 
have to become imperceptibly buried below the surface 
of the ground, together with the spmir of destruction 
which has incessantly actuated man to carry away, and 
break up the materials of which the road is composed. 

Thus far had I proceeded when a suspicion that was 
but faint in the outset of my path, grew more confirmed, 
and I felt assured that the Devil^s Causeway must be an 
old Roman Road. Possessed with this idea I returned 
and examined it under this impression. It was not until 
then, that its resemblance to a Roman road I had tra- 
veUed along a few years previously across the Plain of 
Magnesia', suggested itself, and upon mentally comparing 

^ Upon referrinff to a MS. journal written whilst travelling in 
Asia Minor, I find tiie Roman road in question thus alluded to. 
''In four hours from Smyrna we reached a Caffii called Yakakue. 
Immediately opposite on the South was a grand mountain capped 
with snow, whose outline reminded me of the Wrekin. A very rich 
plain of no great extent lay at its feet We continued ascending 
tor another hour, haying occasionally a view of the sea. Our de- 
scent from this elevation then commenced rather rapidly; the 
scenery became wild and barren. But the ancient Roman road 
formed our constant line of travelling in those parts where our horses 
had most difficulty of footing. Though broken up in places, it 
was generally very perfect After travelling through this rugged 
Alpine region for an hour, we came in sight of the plain of 
Magnesia. It stretched twenty miles before us, and apparently 
the same distance on each side. It was extremely rich; and the 
uniform equality of its surfisice conv^ed an idea of interminable 
extent The town of Magnesia is built on the Southern side, 





the two together, though m different continenta, I was 
muoh struck with their conformity. Nor was this se^ 
cond inspection without value in another respect, for 
upon carefully looking at a small bridge which the cause- 
way traverses close to its termination, there i^peared 
additional indications that both the road and the bridge 
itself must be ascribed to the same age and people. 
Althou^ the conviction that this was a Roman road 
slowly dawned upcm my mind, yet it now presented so 
much resemblance to others of the same dass, that even 
without the superabundant evidence of the architecture 
of the bridge, I could have no scruple in attributing 
its existence to that enterprising nation. And I think 
any one who has ever examined a specimen of their art 
of road making wiU identify the two as singularly alike ^ 

immediately under a mountain which rises precipitously above it 
to a great altitude. The vicinity is renderea interesting in conse- 
quence of being the scene of the consul Sdpio's victory over Aur 
tiochus the Great, the first conquest, and the nrst footing the Romans 
obtained in Asia. •••••• 

Left Magnesia before sunrise the next morning. At half an 
hour's distance, the Hermus was crossed bv a wooden bridge: the 
foundations of the old Roman one were qmte perfect a little above. 
This river which was celebrated by Viigil for beinff turbid with 
gold, is now remarkable for the excellence of its fiw. The Poet 
meant to infer by ''auro turbidus" that its inundations tended to 
enrich and fertilize the plain through which it flowed. We con- 
tinued along the Roman road for a considerable distance, at one time 
using it, at another making slight deviations: ^et continually falling 
in with it again. The extreme r^^ularity with which it is pave^ 
shews that until within the last tew years, all our more modem 
roads were vastly inferior to those constructed by the andents. The 
chaussei of both France and Italy are not worthy to be compared 
with this." After leaving Thyatira I discerned no further traces of it. 
The road of which mention has been made was the line of com- 
munication betwixt Smyrna and Thyatira, at which latter city it 
joined one commencing at Lampsacus, and passing from thence 
to Abydos, Dardanus, Uium, Troas, Antandros, Adrymyttium, Peiga- 
mos. Genua, Tlwatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, TripoUs, and Hierapolis 
it terminated at Laodicea. It was probably formed bv Tiberius Cssar, 
ftfter the earthquake which laid Sardis and the neighbouring cities in 
ruins, as Magnesia was one of those which partook of his munificence. 

' In a very valuable little volume treating upon the British and 
Roman remains in the neighbourhood of Axmintter a similar oaute* 


When we look at the architeoture of the bridge 
we cannot fail to notice three peculiarities. And first, 
the form of the arch. It springs from two centres, and 
asBomes a curve, somewhat resembling a segmental arch, 
but more depressed than any thing Norman, being in 
fact broader, as we see it in Roman examples. Secondly, 
the Youssoirs are alternately parallel-sided, and cuneiform 
or acutely shaped at one end, as though the intention 
of the architect was to make them available in filling up 

way is described that formerly^ existed on the borders of Devonshire 
and Somersetshire, ''This remarkable spedmen of Roman work- 
manship," as it is rightly called, ''whidi is known by the name 
of Morwood's Causeway," must not be passed without particular 
notice, as well on account of its peculiiur construction, as the im- 
portance which has been attached to its title. The spot of ground 
across which it was carried is a part of what is callea Crow Moor, 
and was no doubt then, as it is to the present day, a flat and boggv 
place, yeiy difficult to be kept dry, and consequently impassable 
at that time without such a pavement. The causeway, which now 
no longer exists, was about a quarter of a mile in length, runnin? 
ahnost North and South, in width about fifteen feet, and composed 
of very large flint stones, with which the neighbourhood abounds, 
laid together in a most compact and durable form, having, of course, 
their mi sides uppermost, and resting upon a deep stratum of smaller 
stones and gravel. The work presented an appearance somewhat 
similar to tlmt of the pavement m the London streets, except that 
the materials were of much larger size, and that at every interval 
of about ux feet there was a cavity or channel across it, which ca^ised 
the intermediate portions to assume the shape of low arches, and 
formed a furrow, or gutter, to facilitate the chaining of water from 
the surface. That tms fragment was of Roman construction there 
IB little reason to doubt ; for it remarkably coincides with the plan 
adopted by that people when they were obliged to cany their roads 
across marshy places, as given by Statius. 

Hie primus labor induMue suleos 
Et xcMiodere limites, e t alto 
^otu panitua oavare teirai: 
Mox hauitas alitor replere fo«as 
Et aummo gxemium parare daiao 
Ne mutant tola, ne maligna ndes 
St prmb duUum cubile taxis. 

This interesting relic of Roman art was taken up to form a 
turnpike road at its Southern end, though with much more difficulty 
than had been anticipated, and its materials broken to pieces. The 
name and the outline of its course are all that now remain to point 
out where it existed. The British and Roman remains in the 
vicinity of Amninster, in the county of Devon. By James 
Davidson, London, 1833. p. 71, 2. 






the intentioefi between the segular paraUelnsided Touasoirs; 
and lastly, the whole is put together with concrete^ as 
may readily be detected by taking the trouble to oreep 
underneath the arch, and detaching a piece of it from 
the joints. If we couple the foregoing description of 
the road, with these remarkable characteristics, the 
Roman claims of both are not unsatisfactorily esta- 

Nor is this the whole amoimt of argument which 
may be adduced in support of these opinions. For if it 
should be asked what induced the Romans to carry a 
road of such magnitude through a remote and seques- 
tered yalley, running parallel too as it does, with the 
Watung Street, not more than two miles to the North 
West, it may be replied that the Devil'^s Causeway 
was the direct line of communication from Nordt Bank 
through jTtt^FORD, Cro^^FORD, over Roman Bank to Rush- 
BURT, the Wall under ffeywoody the Latin Vallum; 
leaving the village of Cardinoton like the Hoar Edge 
on the left, each of which places derive their name 
from bordering upon it, (See remarks under Hoar Stone 
and Ford) was the direct line, as is imagined from 
NoRDY Bank, and thence to the station at Rushbury 
by CardingUm^ and Chatwall, (quasi ChaUwaU^ or Chalum 
VaUum^ a halting place, a half-way house, as it actually 
is betwixt the two extremities, (Lat. Chalo. Or. ^oXooi) 
to Buckley, Here one part branched off to the left, and 
went over Froddesley Park^ where vestiges of it still 
appear. It is probable that from hence it took the 
course of the ancient lane to Longnor Green where it 
fell into the Watunq Street, leading from Uricanium 
or Wroxeter, to Branogenium^ or Brawmium^ (Brandon 
Camp, see p. ^5^ 73.) Magna or Magnis^ (Kentchester), 
Gobannium (Abergavenny), ajid Bultrum or Burrium^ 
(Usk). The main road, however, from the Roman sta- 
tion at Rushbury, passed through Buckley; it continued 


in a direct line through Aet<m Bvnnel^ and a mile be- 
yond, it joined the same great road half a mile South 
of the village of PitehFOBD. Its course is here inter- 
rupted for a quarter of a mile, but it is again met with 
in some fields to the East of the general line of com- 
munication. After answering the purpose of a common 
drift road used merely for agricultural convenience for 
about a quarter of a mile, it again joins the road from 
PitehFOBD to Cound. Having crossed Cound Brook it 
proceeds Northerly by Bladk Bam and Growter where 
it crosses the turnpike road from Much Wenhck to 
Shrewtbury : from hence it takes a North Easterly di« 
rection for nearly two miles, when it terminates upon 
a ford immediately under the present village, or ancient 
city of Wroxeteb. 

According to Isidore* the Carthaginians were the 
first people who underwent the labor and expence of 
regularly paving their public roads. From thent the art 
wafl learned by the Romans, who carried it with their 
conquests through the continents of Europe and Asia, as 
much with a view to the advantages arising from easy 
communication with their possessions, as a means of 
keeping the people out of idleness^. The immense sums 
of money expended, and the vast multitudes employed 
in these works, is not their least striking feature. 

When we consider that they extended from the 
most Western side of Spain and B^urbary, to the East- 
em kingdoms of Media and Assyria; and from Oreat 
Britain in the North, through Oaul, Hungary and Scy- 

* Bur in composition is repeatedly found in the names of places on 
the Watling Street, as Burlington, near Sheriff Hayk»; Burcot, 
near Hay Gate; Burway near Church Stretton; Burrow Hill 
Camp near the Craven Arms; Burrinoton near Wigmore; Birley, 
South of Stretford; Birley Hill and Burohill, &c., &c. Can this 
allude to Roman occupation oi; ponnexion ? '' Castellum parvulum, 
quern Burgum vocant.' Vegetius de re Militar. iv. 10. 

• Isidor. Orig. lih. xv. c. 16. 

• Plinii Nat. Hist. lih. xxxvi. c. 12, 


thia, to Arabia, Egypt and Libya in the South, we 
may justly wonder how such stupendous projects oould 
have been completed. We can only, by means of the 
scattered information we possess, assign their aocompliish- 
ment to the belief that the Roman soldiers were not 
permitted to continue indolent in peace, but in con- 
junction with the inhabitants of the vanquished pro- 
vinces, were obliged to labor in the formation of these 
works. The difficulties and hardships they suffered whilst 
performing these labors occasioned heavy complamts, 
which even sometimes broke out into sedition. The 
Roman subjects in the provinces were compelled to assist 
in constructing the roads, and they considered this so 
oppressive that Galgacus^ when eidiorting his coimtry- 
men, the Caledonians, to resist more vigorously the 
Romans under Agricola, reminded them of this grievance 
with which the conquered inhabitants of Britain were 
afflicted. Besides these classes, all criminals were con- 
denmed either to work in the mines or upon the great 
roads of the empire, as our malefactors are employed 
at the present day^. 

Great attention was bestowed upon their preservaticm. 
Their care was an office of high trust, and only con- 
fided to persons of consequence, such as the governors 
of the district, or those who had filled important situa- 
tions in the state. Augustus Caesar was chosen to hold 
the post of surveyor of the roads in the vicinity of Rome, 
as one of peculiar honor; and having undertaken their 
management, to discharge his duties with greater credit, 
he appointed for his deputies those who had passed through 
the prsetorship. Pliny^ in one of his epistles deems it 
a fitting subject of congratulation to his correspondent 

* In Vita Agiicols^ c. 29, Ac 

' MultoB honesti ordinis deformatos prius stinnatuin nokis, ad 
metalla, et munitiones Viamm, ant ad bestias condemnayii. Sueton. 
in Caligula, c. 27. 

» Plinii Epist lib. v. ep. 15. 

IL _ 


Pontius that their mutual friend Comutus TertuIluB 
who had shared the consular dignity with him, should 
have been elevated to this distinguished situation. In 
the same comi^imentary manner Statins^ alludes to his 
friends MarceUus and Plotius Grippus having been elected 
to the same dignity. Nor can we suppose it was less 
highly esteemed in Britain, where the same enterprising 
nation introduced their arms and civilisation. 

The usual method of making a road consisted in first 
laying down a stratum of round rough stones, grouted 
with lime, sand or cement, which was called gkUummj 
or the foundation. The next course was composed of 
rubble, or any kind of refuse, (rudera) or rubbish, (^/o- 
rsa) or gravel, according to the nature of the material 
employed. Upon this was laid the upper coating, which 
consisted of large flat blocks, that varied in size and 
shape, though usually square: they were jointed with 
such nicety that it was difficult to see where one stone 
touched another. They were usually of flint, and had a 
row of curb stones, (marffines) on each side to keep the 
erown or centre of the road {apffer^) uniform and straight. 

The first road formed in Italy was the Via Appia 
which extended from Borne to Capua, It is not only the 
most remarkable in point of priority, having been laid 
down upwards of two thousand years, but also in re- 
spect of its beauty. In some places it is stiU wonder- 
fully well preserved, as I can myself testify from having 
seen it; that part where it crosses the Pontine Marshes 
is admirably perfect, though the work was commenced 
B. c. 309. 

In the year b. o. 241 Caius Aurelius Gotta formed 
the second public way in Italy, and from him it de- 

' Statii Sywar. lib. iv. 

' Agger est media strata eminentia, coaggeratis lapidibns, vel 
glaiea aut silidbus strata; ab a^gexe, id est ooacervatione dicta, 
qiiam historici Viam militarem dicunt. laid. Orig. xv. c ult. Beig. 
torn. L p. 253. 

: i 


rived (he name of the Via Aurbua. It oommenoed at 
Itame^ and paflsaed along the ooaei of Etruria to Pisa, 
Genoa, Nice and Arlsi. At Genoa the Via PofirrauMiA 
connected it with the Via ^Gmilia at Piaeenza, which 
from hence paased through Parma, Beggio, Moiena, Bo- 
logna, Cesena and Riminu And here the Via Muoaa 
\ >• was met by the Via Flaminia, which coasting along 

\ the Adriatic to Ancona paased over to the West through 

I Nocera, Fcligno, Nami, Otriccli and Nepi to Borne. 

Besides these, there were forty-two others of import* 

j I ance whose courses it would be out of place to follow 

here, especially as the subject has been so thoroughly 

\ investigated by a very learned writer, that Utile is left 

for additional illustration ^ 

Yet it may be proper to remark that such magnificent 
undertakings were not confined to Italy. For at the 
close of the last Punic War, b. c. 150, the Romans began 
to extend these advantages to their provinces. They 
commenced them in Spain. In the year b. c. 124, 
Domitius Ahenobardus carried the Via DoMmA through 
Provence and Savoy. Under the reign of the Gsesars 
a road bearing the same name was constructed in Geiv 
many. We next read of the Via Eonatia, that com* 
menced at ApoUonia in Epirtu and terminated at Cgp- 
selas in Thrace^, which was furnished like the Via A^ 
piA, and in fact like all the Roman roads, as we have 
every reason for believing, with Milliaries on the side to 
indicate the distances. Some of the roads, the Via 
Appia, for instance, even had horse-blocks on each side 
to enable the weary and infirm to mount without as* 
sistance. Caius Oracchus was the considerate person who 
introduced both of these conveniences. A Roman Mil* 
liary y^aa discovered some years ago in the neighbour- 

' Histoire des gtands Chemins de TEmpire Romaiii. 2 torn. 4to» 
a Bruxelles. 1736. 
» Strabo, lib. vii. 


hood of Leicetter, It was dug up about two miles from 
the town, and bore upon its face the Emperor Hadrian'^s 
name, and was marked u a Ratis. One discovered a 
few years ago on the road from Cambridge to Hunting- 
don, is now in the vestibule of the University Library. 
Others have been found in the nei^bourhood of Lan- 

As has been already intimated, there were in Italy 
alone fortynseven roads, whose united lengths measured 
13,500 miles, the greater part, if not the whole of which, 
were systematically paved. The number in the provinces 
cannot with any degree of accuracy be ascertained, for 
there must have been several that are not mentioned 
in the Itineraries. That some notion, however, of their 
extent may be formed, I have added together their re- 
spective lengths. They amount to 88296 Roman miles, 
or allowing according to Reynolds^ computation that the 
Roman and the English miles are the same, the whole 
distance is 88296 miles, English measure*. And this 
immense sum is independent of the fifteen British Iters, 
which, according to this commentator upon Antoninus, 
comprehended an extent of 2654 additional miles of 
r^ularly formed road, a surprising sum when it is borne 
in mind that it was for the most part laid down after 
the fashion which prevailed in Italy. Besides these, 
there were several branches of which the early geogra- 
phers have not made any mention. Some of them may 
still be traced in different parts of Europe and Asia 
apart from the great line of acknowledged Roman roads, 
and in secluded and remote districts in our own island. 
I am inclined to think that several old Causeway$ par- 
take of these characteristics, and would prove to be, if 
followed throughout by personal examination and the 

> See one fi^ared and described in Whitaker^s History of Bidi- 
numdihirey voL iL p. 214. 

' Iter Britannianim, or that part of the Itinerary of Antoninus 
which relates to Britain, p. 52. 4to. 1799. 



Ordnance Surveys, genuine constructions of the Roman 
period: those who have opportunities would do well to 
look at them with this view, for in a few years all 
vestiges of the kind may be destroyed. 

It would be an assertion resting too nmoh upon oon^ 
jecture, if it were stated that all our roads in England 
were pated throuphout after the method learned by the 
Romans from the Carthaginians. Such labor and ex- 
pence would be unnecessary in several places, besides 
the difficulty that would exist in getting suitable stones 
to build in this way. In passing through the oolitic dis- 
trict in Northamptonshire^ as one instance out of many 
that may be adduced, the workmen upon the Watuno 
Stbbbt would be unable to procure, unless from a great 
distance, any of those durable materials which are so 
ready at hand in the county of Shropshire. And con- 
sequently, we see the Watung Stbebt road hereabouts, 
very much more worn on its surface, which leads us to 
believe it could never have been formed with such so^ 
lidity, from this want of a hard and firm statumen^ as 
it was on other parts of the line where they were 
easily obtained. Happening to be in the neighbourhood 
of Weedon a short time back, when the London and 
Birmingham Bailteay was just cut through the Watung 
Street near BrockhcM, I had an opportunity of examin- 
ing how this Roman road was laid down. There were 
not the least appearances of stratification, either of ce- 
ment, rubbish, or of any other kind of deposit. It had 
no other marks than those of a common drift road 
that is used for agricultural purposes. When we get 
to the Four Crosses which lie two miles North West 
of Cannock, (and I am constrained to pass over all the 
intermediate distance, from never having examined it,) 
when we get to the Four Crosses, there are vestiges of 
the ancient Pavement; and immediately the road enters 
Shropshire, which it does close to Weston under Lizard, 


a branch leads out to the North, that three miles Air- 
ther on, midway betwixt Woodeote and Newport^ bears 
the name of Pays Lanb. This particular line is seen 
to possess one of the great features of a Roman road, 
namelj, the direct course it takes from one point to 
another. No deviatiotis for the sake of avoidhig hills 
ever occur; when the line was chosen, every natural im- 
pediment, whether it were mountain or morass, yielded 
to the enterprise and labcnr exerted by this great na- 

It may be worth enquiring whether or not this 
road which quits the Watlikg Shieet at Weitan under 
Lizard^ and goes first to Pave Lake, and thence to 
Newport^ be not in fact an early c(»nmunication to 
Chester. For let it be borne in mind, that the direction 
it takes is straight forward to the second Stretton^ from 
the place where it quits the Watling Street. It is not 
improbable, that from Pennocrucium or Penkridge^ the 
Usual line of traffic was by Streiton, Weston under Liz- 
ard^ Pave Lane, Newport, Lane End, Hinstock^ Tern 
HiU^ SandtFOKD^ Whitchurch^ Malpas^ another Stretton, 
thence bending a little to the West to HoU^ ajid thence 
to Chester. This is merely supposition, and is thrown 
out rather as a suggestion, that those who have the 
opportunity may ascertain whether such an idea is de- 
serving the topographer^s further attention. 

In the present corrupt state of the text of Anto- 
ninus it would be useless to seek out the true situation 
of Mediolan^m. It has been placed by Gale and Stuke- 
ley at Metvod ; by Horseley at Market Drayton ; by 
Tilstock at Middle; and by a writer in the Cambrian 
Quarterly, at Shrewsbury^. None of these spots agree 
in the least with the distance in the Itineraries. In the 
same way Rutonii^m has been variously placed at Bowton 
Castley Botetany and Buyton of the Eleven Toume. The 
» Vol. i. p. 62* 



dktanoe from Bawian OatUe to Wroweter agrees with 
the number of milee marked in the Itinerary, and bo 
does RuBHBUBT. The distance from Mediolanum to 
Ubiookium exactly agrees with that from Cabb Fl6s 
to WroxeUr^ and the intervening station of Rutunium, 
or Bawian CoiUe^ to reach which, we pass over Stbktton 
HeeUh, tallies sufficiently to authorise our placing it 
there. But on the other hand, by fixing Mediolanum 
at Cabb Fl6s, all the places between it and Deva 
disagree with the Itinerary numbers. The whole of the 
Iters relating to this district are very obscure, and I 
think it will be hopeless to attempt their illustration, 
until some one presents us with a better text of Anto- 
ninus to work upon. 



OR several reasons it is probable there 
was a Roman station at Rushburt. 
There is not much corroboration of 
this in the name of the place itself, 
though sufficient in that of the con- 
tiguous hamlet of Wall under Hey- 
woody as well as in the title of the 
hill above it, which is called Roman Bank. Gale* fancied 
he saw proof enough, that Rushburt was the Bravinium 
mentioned in the twelfth Iter of Antonine, from the mere 
circumstance of Brwynen in C. Brit, signifying a Rush. 
But as the distance from Uriconium to this place is 
only about half what the Itineraries of Antonine and 
Richard set it at, it is utterly impossible to be the 
Bravinium of the one, or the Brannooenium of the other. 
Qad RuTUNiuM been fixed upon instead, there would 
have been no difficulty in regard to the distance, and 
not much dissimilarity in the sound of the name. 

However, the claims of Rushburt being a Roman 
station are very clearly made out, without having re- 
course to a strained etymology. It lies on a Roman 
road between Wroxeter and Nordt Bank ; the Devil^s 
Caubewat passes through it in a direct line fix)m 
the former place, and terminates at the latter. Roman 
antiquities are said to have been found here^ and 

» Antonini Iter, cure T. Gale, p. 127. 

' My own enquiries after coins were unsuccessful, nor could I 
learn from aged people who had lived here from their youth, that 
any Roman ones had ever been found. Reynolds (v. Iter. Brit, 
p. 460) states that there have. 


there are still some works existing asoribable to the 
same age. 

These consist of an elevated rectilinear mound, sur- 
rounded by a ditch, at present discernible on the North 
and South side, but which seems formerly to have gone 
round the who)e. The exterior slope of the vallum falls 
externally twenty-five feet ; the fosse is twenty-three feet 
wide, and the relief of the mound from the bottom of 
the ditch, twelve. The area of the work is a hundred 
and forty-five feet from East to West, and a hundred 
and thirty-one from North to South, the angles being 
rounded. Indications of other works are seen in a 
meadow South of the Church, as well as on the North 
and East sides, but as the ground has been disturbedi 
they are traceable with difficulty. 



ORDT Bank is a Roman station midway 
betwixt the Clee Burf and the little 
village of Clee St Margaret. It is 
by far the most perfect work of the 
period with which I am acquainted. 
The shape inclines to an oval, though 
the boundary lines are all straight, 
and it may with greater correctness be said to be a 
parallelogram having the angles rounded. From West 
to East it is two hundred and ten paces, and from North 
to South a hundred and forty-four. A single fosse twelve 
feet wide surrounds the whole. From a cutting made 
at the South East end, it is seen that the vallum is 
twenty-six feet wide at its base, and six across its crest. 
The interior slope is twelve feet, the scarp eighteen, and 
the counterscarp six. There are four gorges or open- 
ings due North, the original ones being at the East 
and West. 

The situation of Nokdy Bank was a very important 
one for the Romans to occupy, as it gave them the 
command of Come DaU^ whilst at the same time being 
entrenched here, they lay so close upon the Clee Hill 
valley on the Southern side of the Burf, as in a cer- 
tain degree to command access to that also. 

Had no other reasons been already ^ven for the 
supposition that Abdon Burf was a religious enclosure, 
and not a defensive one, I think the existence of 
this very perfect Roman work inmiediately below it 


would render it probable; for had the Britons been 
in poflsession of the enclosure above, the Romans would 
hardly have placed themselves in an inferior and com- 
manded situation, one that could so readily have been 

It is conceived that the road from WraxeUr^ or the 
Devil^s Causeway, terminated here, passing from Rush- 
BUBT over Roman Bank and thence through Hungerford 
and Tugford. 



oAiAK Camps may be distinguished 
from British and those of a later 
nge, by the reetilinearity of their 
vaUa, and by being most commonly 
encompassed by one ditch only^ 
Of this kind are the following. 
CmmkjCb Camp near Argues^ which, 
though irregular, has its lines straight; C.fiSAR*s Camp 
North of Farnham^ Surrey^ which is sevenHsided, single* 
ditched, and has all its lines straight; Vbspasian^s Camp 
near Ambresbwry^ co. WiU9,\ Weatherburt Castle, 
00. Donetj which has a small quadrangular work in- 
side a larger; Castsll Dinas, South of Talgarth^ co. 
Breconj quadrangular; Abebtscib, East of Brecon^ the 
supposed site of Bannivm, quadrangular; Holme on 
THE Sea; CAisrroB, and Tasbubgh, in the county of Nor- 

> The Roman stations in Britain may be classed as follows. 

First, the fpeat Romanized capitals of the British trib^ or other 
foundations of the Romans themselves^ which were destined to be 
garrisoned by a legion each. These appear, from their outlines and 
other remains, to have occupied forty or fifty acres. 

Next were the ordinary stations of the Itineraiy or Notitia, 
intended for the reception of a cohort in the first, or, as at Bre- 
metoniacum, a numerus in the second. Now from the absence of 
remains at some of these, and the appearances of arts and elegance 
in others, the first appear to have been mere military posts, whilst 
the latter have enjoyed a civiHsed and cultivated population. In 
the latter division, Kibchester, frdm the elegance and abundance 
of its remains, stands eminently conspicuous. But beside these, 
frequently appear small outposts, probably thrown up for temporary 
purposes, and evidently depending upon some of the former; besides 
airy and spacious summer camps on the hills, in the outline of 
wluch the ordinary forms of Roman castrametation were abandoned; 
and of these it may be observed, that while they scarcely ever 
bear the name of caster or Chester, but most commonly that of 
borough, as contradistinguished from that of bury; so uie castra 
hibema, or regularly fortified towns, frequently, as at Overborough 
bear the same appellation without distinction. Whitaker's History 
of Richnumdshire, vol. iL p. 268. 


folk; Chesterton, co. Warwick; Uley Burt; Little 
SoDBURY, CO. Somers,; and Brandon Camp, near LeifU- 
wardine, all quadrangular; besides several others which 
it is needless to enumerate. 

To this list must be added the fine rectilinear 
camp above Whetileion^ which there is every reason 
for considering a Roman woric. 

The advantagebus position of Norton Camp has been 
already adverted to\ It merely remains therefore to 
state that it is a quadrangular work, built on a con- 
siderable eminence, having two valla, the enclosed area 
being about two hundred and twenty paces square. The 
chief entrance is on the Eastern side, and a modem 
one has been made at the North West comer. In 
consequence of the whole of this eminence having heen 
planted, I found it extremely difficult to get a good 
section of the works, but as far as I could make them 
out, the base of the interior vallum was forty feet» 
and the width across its crest twelve. The escarp of 
the interior vallum was twenty feet; width of fosse 
twelve; counterscarp eight. The escarp of exterior val- 
lum was eight feet, breadth of fosse about the same, 
and the width of the crest twelve. There was a very 
rapid natural fall towards the West, where it is nearly 
inaccessible. I imagined that there were other marks 
of vallation on the Eastern side, whei^ the ground is 
not so precipitous, but owing to the rising plantations 
they had become uncertain and indistinct. 

The Watling Street from Uriconium to Bravinium 
runs underneath the Western side, and as the distance 
from Uriconium to Bravinium, in the twelfth Iter of 
Antoninus, and also in the thirteenth of Richard, where 
it bears the name of Brannooenium exactly agrees with 
it, I make no scmple in assigning Bravinium to 
Brandon Camp near Leiwttoardine. 
• » See p. 72. 


rveral plaoee in Shropshire bear this 
ikNsignation, for instance, the pre- 
sent one, which lies betwixt Habberly 
Liml Minsterly ; another which lies 
& little Easterly of the Long Mynd^ 
and a third betwixt Westhope and 
NiiHon Camp. They owe their name 

to their character, Callow^ signifying a spot that is bald, 

or smooth. Thus, A. Sax. caloy calu ; Franc. eh(do ; 

Qerm. kcd; Pers. kal^ calmu^ glaber, depilis. And as 

Milton uses the word, 

Their brood as numerous hatch, from the egg that soon 
Burstiiig with kindly rapture forth diadosecP 
Their oaUow young. 

Paradise Lost, Book yiL y. 420. 

The camp on Callow Hill near MifuUrly is rectangu- 
lar, and surrounded by a fosse four yards wide. This 
form favors the supposition of its having been thrown up 
by the Romans. It is eighty-six paces from East to West, 
and fifty-eight from North West to South East. The 
comers are gently rounded: that at the East North 
East more so thim the rest. The only camp in com- 
mand of observation is Ceftn y Castel on the Breidden. 
The view up the valley of Minsterly from the present 
spot is extremely beautiful, and the neighbourhood pre- 
sents, from its richness in lead mines, many attractions 
for the Geologist to visit it, nor would the Botanist 
find the vicinity undeserving his investigation. 


HE Walls at CHEflrrBRTON are works 
of a defensive kind, placed upon an 
eminence dose to the village, having 
this name. Like most other fort- 
resses that have the semblance of 
being British^ the present one as- 
sumes such a shape as is naturally 
dictated by the form of the ground. The figure of the en- 
closure is irregular, and comprehends about twenty acres. 
The inunediate neighbourhood is alike remarkable 
for the fertility of its soil, and the beauty of its 
scenery. A narrow valley runs round three sides of 
the encampment ; the verdant meadows at its base are 
seamed by a brook well stored with trout, and flanked 
on the North Western side by red sand-stone rocks 
which rise in rugged and romantic forms, a hundred 
feet precipitously above the level of the stream. It is 
just such a spot as an idler would love to loiter in on 
sunny days, or such as a painter would frequent for 
the sake of imparting a feeling of the abrupt, broken 
and picturesque to his canvass. Yet in addition to 
these attractions of soil and situation, the spot is still 
better calculated for protection and defence. T^e earlier 
possessors, who could not have been insensible to these 
manifold advantages, chose it for a military post. Who 
they were, who thus first fixed upon it, it would now 
be impossible to say with certainty. We can only con- 
nect them with conjectural associations, or speak of 
them inferentially from a few existing facts. 


The name of CHESTxitioN at onoe betokens R&man 
oocupation : but the nature of the fortifications bespeak 
a British origin. The evidence, in support of either sup- 
position is pretty equally balanced, incljiiing rather more, 
perhaps, to the aborigines than the invaders. Let us 
dispamonately examine how the claims of each respect- 
ively stand. 

It might have been observed throughout the preced- 
ing pages^ how constantly the Border Camps are found 
adapting themselves to the irregularity of form of the 
elevated points upon which they are placed — ^that their 
sites are usually such as would naturally present for- 
midable obstructions to the besiegers — and that where, 
from circumstances the ground is weak, and an assault 
might be made with most chance of success, there, re- 
eoorse has been had to artificial means to make the 
position strong. The methods invariably resorted to, to 
remedy these deficiencies, are the fosse and vallum ; the 
latter as often having a bold escarp. Very frequently 
two or more ditches are drawn round the quarter most 
obnoxious to attack. In some instances, as for example, 
in that most extraordinary fortress at Old Oswestry, 
there are four or five concentric ditches. Two are the 
oommoner number, and these are observable at the two 
Cabr Cabadocs, (pp. 51, 52, 81,) Craio t BREmnsN, &c., 
all of which erecti<M]8 are indisputably attributable to the 
British. Examining' still closer the method which the 
Britons pursued in constructing their walls of defence, 
it may be seen that they were generally formed of loose 
stones, according to the description that Tacitus has 
left of their mode of building fortifications. 

Now in the example before us, may be detected an- 
adherence to all those general laws which regulated their 
principles of castrametation. For besides the situation, 
being predsely such an one as the British would choose, 
there is moreover a manifest conformity to all their 


nmial lulee of oonstraction. Thus, we find on the West- 
em side of the enclosed area, where the descent is gra- 
dual, and an assault would most probably be made, the 
natural weakness^of the ground is compensated for, by 
having a fosse and vallum drawn round the most preg^ 
nable part of the declivity for upwards of a hundred 
yards. Whilst if we look at the materials with which 
the vallum that surrounds the whole enclosure is formed, 
we find it consisting of pieces of the sand-stone rock 
that forms the geological basis of the hill. These facts 
indirectly t^id to shew that the work is of British origin. 
If we look to Etymology to confirm this supposition, 
we shall find but little aid; yet I think in that little 
there is at least a grain of valuable weight. There are 
two places in the neighbourhood that bespeak some con- 
nexion with the British^ arising in all probability from 
conflicts happening at CnEffrERTON. Stanlow and Kmos- 
Low, indicate something British, so far as we are justi- 
fied in drawing conclusions from the illustrations afforded 
by Etymology. It would seem that these two places 
must have been the sepulture of some Britons who fell 
whilst defending their country. I am not unaware that 
such an idea may be deemed fanciful, but if the argument 
that is borrowed from Etymology be unworthy of our 
notice, then the claims of Chesterton being a Baman 
position, must immediately fall to the ground, for it is 
solely from those reasons that it can have any preten- 
sions whatever. 

When we speak of Chesterton we use a word tiiat 
is of acknowledged Latin origin. This is so universally 
accepted, that wherever the word is located^ we imme- 
diately associate the Romans with the spot. It belongs 
to a Chssterton in Warmdtshirey where Roman coins 
of the lower empire are continually being turned over, 
some of which I have procured there myself. It be- 
longs to Cksttertm in Cambiiidgeskire^ near which there 


is the semi-circukr Roman oamp of Arburt ; (so called, 
because it lies betwixt and oontigaous to two Roman 
roads, the Via Dkvaka and another; see remarks un- 
der Hoar Stones, p. 217) to a Chesterton in OxfordMre^ 
situated nesii' Bicester^ on the Akbman Street; and to 
Chesterton in Somersetshire^ where there is a Roman 
camp. Besides these we have Casterton in Butlandshire; 
Chesterfield in Bedfordshire; Chestefford in Essex^ where 
coins and other Roman antiquities have been discovered. 
Not to mention the various Roman positions of Chester^ 
Cclehester^ Winchester^ Dorchester^ Bochester^ Butchester^ 
Chichester^ Bichester^ Ebehester^ Manchester^ Silchester^ 
Gfodmanehester^ &c., &c. HcJton Chesters^ Walwick Ches- 
ters. Great and Little Chesters^ all derived from Castrum; 
besides the kindred names of Wroxetsr, Worcester^ Al- 
cester, Leicester, &c. Another name, arising from the 
same tongue, and equally favoring the idea of Roman 
colonization, occurs close to the camp itself. The title 
of Stratford, which the brook below has acquired, is de- 
duced on the same authority from Stratum, and occurs 
in very many places where the tide of Roman popula- 
tion has set. We meet with it in our own county at 
the Strettons which lie on the Watlino Street; at 
Stratford Grote near Wista^fvtotiD, and in the adjoining 
one of Herefordshire, at Stratford, a village on the 
Watlino Street, five and a half miles South West of 
Leominster. The term is borrowed from the Latin 
Stemo; as Strata signified paved roads whether it was 
applied to roads in cities or in the country. It has 
the same sense in Lucretius, who writes 

Strataque jam volgi pedibus detrita viarum 

Saxes oonspiciinus. De Natar. i. 322. 

and in Virgil, where the poet describing the building of 

New Carthage, and the wonder of Mneas at the works 

which were in progress, says, 

Mixalar portas^ strepitximquey et ttrata tnortim. — JEjl L 426. 


It is rather singuUr that no antiquities, appertaining to 
either people, should ever have been discovered at Ch£»- 
TEBTON. Thus, all our proofs of it being a Baman for- 
tress are confined to its name, and we can only say in 
its behalf, 


Yet, after all, if we attempt to reconcile these two dis- 
sentient statements, it may be done I think upon fair 
and good grounds. It is not improbable that Chkstbr- 
TON was a position held by both Britons and Itamans, 
Originally it might have been constructed as an out- 
post by the former nation, who were subsequently ex- 
pelled from it when the latter advanced from the line 
of firontier camps which they had formed between the 
Avon and the Severn. 


^n^h^^l^nxon $moti. 


I HE Wall lies five miles North East 
of the town of Weliinffton. It is an 
enclosure of an irregular form con- 
taining within its area thirty acres, 
and accommodating its figure to the 
nature of the rising ground on which 
it stands. This is encircled by a 
vaUum or waU^ (hence its name) nearly the whole of 
which is still perceptible; and altiiough much depressed 
in some parts, its general height is ten feet above the 
level of the interior. The present work, like so many 
others that have been described, has been considerably 
injured by the plough, 

Hec igitur minui, com sint detiita yidemus^ 
and the altitude of its vaUom has in most places m»- 
teriaOy beat affiacted by the operations of agriculture. 
Upon approaching it from the direction of Kinmrdey^ 
there are Beesi two concentric mounds which have an in- 
tervening ditdi about four yards wide. They are visible 
for ft hundred and fijfby paces, and were thrown up for 
the especial protection of the South Western side of 
the strongh(M: and here in all probability existed the 
original gate of entrance. 

Following the course taken by the innermost, or 
third vallum, we find the road that has conducted us 
hitherto, running along the top of it for a few hundred 
paces, tmtil it finally crosses a brook at the North end. 
In some parts the stream is so very shallow that it 


was necessary to use artificial means to render this side 
of the enclosure stronger. So that besides the regular 
surrounding rampart, there are here traceable two other 
concentric ones, similar to those we have just left on the 
Western side. All other parts of this fortification are 
naturally defended by marshy ground. As it is almost 
impassable now, it must of itself have furnished a veiy 
complete defence at the period when the work was oc- 
cupied. Besides the bog, it is surrounded nearly on aU 
sides by a brook that washes the base of the vallum, 
and by some wide and deep water-courses. 

The concentric ditches on the South West and 
North East sides lead us immediately to infer that the 
fortification is not Roman. It lies, moreover, quite too 
distant from the WaUing Street^ or any other Roman 
road for that nation to have made it one of their sta- 
tions, or in fact to have had any connexion with it. 
Evidently, it is later than the period of their dominion; 
and consequently it was not the erection of the forces 
under Caradog. The earthwork of all others it most 
resembles, is the inferior fortress at the Bebth ; yet it is 
in all respects much more extensive than that. There is 
great similitude in both their positions, as they are alike 
surrounded by a morass, and protected by a single fosse. 

It is not improbable that this is one of the places 

mentioned by Lomarchus in his plaintive elegy upon 

Cynddylan. The poet, in his heroic lament, states that 

the British Prince was "pierced through the head by 

Twrc^ (or the Hog,) whilst defending the town of Trm^ 

In another part of the same poem, he says. 

The churches of Baasa afford space to night. 
To the progeny of C^drwyn — 
The graye-house of feir Cynddylan I ^ 

If Cynddylan actually died in defending "Tren the pa- 
trimony of his sire,'*^ the two passages are at variance, 

^ The Heroic Elegies of Llywar^ Hen, translated by William 
Owen. Lond. 1792, p. 86. 


ibr it is highly unlikely that if the British Prinee was 
slain at Tren^ which must have been either upon the 
banks of the river Tern (and of such a spot there are 
no vestiges) or iu the immediate neighbourhood, that 
he should have enriched the churches of Btuta^ or Bos- 
ckureh with his funeral, as that village is at the least, 
fifteen miles from the nearest point of this river. After 
the forces of Cynddylan were driven from the town of 
Tren^ it is veiy likely that they would take refuge either 
at the camp of Eburt Wood (supposing it then existed) 
or else at the Berth; and the Welsh Prince dying 
during the retreat, or immediately his forces gained the 
latter position, he might have been interred at Bcu- 
eiurch. This is, however, assuming a great deal more 
than our facts warrant. All we really know is, that 
there still exist extensive earthworks at Wall; that 
they are of a nature precisely like the defensive con- 
structions of the period when these circumstances are 
alleged to have happened, and that somewhere near 
the Tem^ a sanguinary conflict occurred between the 
British Chief and the Saxons. Whether this event took 
place at the spot in question must be highly uncertain; 
if there be any value in presumptive argument, how- 
ever, we should be led to condude that it did. 

The present one is a .fair occasion to make a few 
renuurks upon the names of those places in Shropshire 
which are mentioned in the Poems of Llywarf Hen, 
the Welsh bard just quoted. He speaks of the rivers 
AvAKRWT, Then, Tbydonwy, Mabcawy, and Havren. 

In parallel windinffs with Avabrwy 

Doth Tren glide into the rough Trydonwy, 

And alflo the stream of Trbn into Marcawy', 

' Usually pronounced Team. This is in accordance with the 
original mode of speaking it, if we may argue its correctness from 
the wajr in which it is roelt in the list of Tenants in Capite in 
Shropshire^ Circa temp. £dw. I. ''Item Abbas tenet viliam de 
TiEBNB." Collect. Topog. vol. L p. 118. 

* Llywap? Hfin, p. 91. 


The Atarrwy may meftn the stream of the Psbrt, wbkh 
rifles at St MarHn\ four miles North of Chwettrj^ and 
empties itself into the Sewmy a little below MontfiMrd 
Bridge. It flows about a mile and a half Sonth West 
of the BsRTH. The Tmn is the Tern ; the Tktdohwt, 
the RoDEN ; Mabcawt, the Memb; and the Hayren, with- 
out dispute, the Sbtern. He also mentions Blwyddbn, 

In parallel windingB with Elwtddzit 
I>Dtk TRVDOifWY unite with Trbn*. 

in another place he says, 

The barrow of Elwydden is it not drenched with rain. 
Tlttre is Maoddyit under it*. 

It is difficult to make out what stream this can be. 
The only other which flows in parallel windings with 
the Boden is Lonoo Brook that springs at Bithop's Qfff^ 
in Btaffordskire. It thence flows close to a spot stiD 
bearing the name of the Gamp, just on the borders of 
the two counties, leaves Kinoes Well and Ellbrton a 
little to the West, and falls into the Mebss at Ohehegnd, 
Most likely it is Ellerton; and in the list of the toiants 
in Capite we meet with a place called Ehoc^dyn^ which 
must be the same. ^^BawUofh et Ebtctrdyn.'^ JSLowUm^ 
and EUardine'. The poet bewails the death of his son 
Gfften at the ford of Morlas. This river has been 
thought to be a brook of that name which runs from 
Sdattyfiy and is crossed four miles North of Otwesiiy; 
it shortly afterwards falls into t}\e river Ceiriog\ But 
the Morlas is quite too insignificant a stream to have 
been memorable, and as there are several others bearing 
the same name, the Morlas commemorated by Lomarchus 
is rightly supposed to be a river contiguous to the poet^s 
own principality, West of the forest of Cdyddon some- 
where in the neighbourhood of Lanca/ster. 

• LlywaT9 HSn, p. 91. ^ lb. p. 101. 
^ Collect Topog. vol. i. p. 118. 

* Hist, of Shrewsbury, vol. i. p. 4. 


Beridee these riven, be introduoeB into hia Elegies 
gome names, whioh there is good cause for thinkiiig, 
identieal with spots in Shropshire. The first we will 
notice is Escal. 

The sod of Ercal is on the ashes of fierce 
MeOy of the progei^ of Morial^ 

There are three places of thb name. Childs Ebcal, 
lying between the river Tern and the Camp before men- 
tioned ; at neither of these are there, however, any ves- 
tiges assignable to this period. The second is Hiqh 
Ercal, a village close upon the banks of the Boden. 
Perhaps this may be the place intended by the Poet ; for 
a mile South of it, about three or four hundred paces 
from the Eastern side of the stream, there is still per- 
ceptible what appears to be a Pond Barrow as it has 
been termed by the late Sir Richard Hoare. It is a 
veiy depressed mound, thirty-six yards wide, and ninety 
long, with the angles rounded, and encircled by a fosse 
six feet deep and twenty-nine wide. The spot is called 
WeiMen Bam, though it does not bear this name in 
the Ordnance Survey, where it is noted as a Camp. If 
it ever was used for any purpose of defence, it was most 
likely a moated house, for it is quite too limited to 
serve the purpose of an entrenchment. The name of 
Weielden would further seem to pomt to something. In 
C. British hwytaw implies to heap together, and it is 
not unlike the present title in sound, while its signlfi- 
cation is similar. 

The third Ercal Hee betwixt WeUingUm and the 
Wrehin. The tumuli at the foot of this well known 
mountain have been already noticed, and as it has al- 
ready been shewn that they probably belong to a much 
eariier period, it is unnecessary to state that they are 
unconnected with the sepulchres of the progeny of Morial. 

* Llywar? Hen, p. 03. 


There are, however, four mounds of a oonioal form lying 
on the brink of the Dabt Pit\ a deep pool of dark water, 
which have eveiy semblance of being artificial erections. 
They lie nearly obscured by wood, amid tangled fern 
and impervious thickets, where only the lover of nature^s 
sylvan gloom, or the ardent fowler is ever likely to pene- 
trate. Their summit is just perceptible from the road 
leading to Willow Farm from Cludddey (vulgo Clockley 
or Clotley')j just where it trends to the Hatch^. There 
is every appearancey I repeat, of these four mounds being 
artificial : the conformity of them to each other is too 
remarkable to induce the belief that they are^'^'inatural. 
The South Western tumulus, if such it may be called, 
rises twenty feet above the ground at its base, and thirty 
above the level of the Dart Pit. The one at the East 
North East side is twelve yards across its base, and 
eighteen long. The North Eastern mound is ten paces 
from the last ; and here it may be remarked that the 
four are very nearly the same height and size, and that 
they stand equidistant round the margin of the pit : the 
latter mound, however, is more pointed than any of the 
others, though the fourth, which stands in the West 
South West side, is rather more elongated than the 
other three. 

Whether these elevations are Tumuli raised over 
^' the ashes of fierce men^ can only be conjectured. They 
stand on the Ercal it is true, but beyond that, we are 
left to rove amid the deductions of fancy. And this 

1 Teutonic, Dofy, Darie, oespes bitnminoBiu, gleba bitominoea, 
oespes fo68itiiu, nigra qnaedam et yisooea gleba qua ignis fovetnr. 

■ In the Forest Perambulation of Shropshire, 28 £dw. I., the 
place bears this name: ''de Clerkenebrugge in Watlingestrete as- 
oendendo per le Stonibrok usque caput ganuni Radulfide Clotlboh." 
Chartular. Abb. St Petri MS. penes Sir T. Phillipps. ''£t Villa 
de Clothleoh." In the list of tenants in Capite m Shropshire, 
Circa temp. £dw. I. printed in the CoUectanea Topographica, vol. i. 
we find the place spelt as it is still pronounced, Clotlsy, see p. 117. 

3 HuntUonegkaeche, in the Forest Perambulation. 


k a region favoiable to its growth, as the reader will 
gather from the following proof that I gleaned on the 
spot. My informant, who had been severely afflicted 
with rfaenmatism, was induced, at the recommendation 
of one of his neighbours, who privately practised phar* 
macy for the injury of his fellow creatures, to come 
hither daily to drink buckbean water to cure his com* 
plaint, but having obeyed the injunction a few times, 
he found himself daily growing worse, and at length 
these drafts from the Dart Pit brought him close to 
death'^s door. He relinquished his potations in time, but 
not before he had fully proved their danger. Of course 
every thing connected with the spot was henceforth more 
vividly impressed on his imagination, and the stories of 
his boyhood were oftener recalled to his memory. He 
told me it had always been considered a place replete with 
horrors: that children would go a long distance round 
lest they should unluckily encounter any of those objects 
which are fabled to walk at the midnight hour. Even 
his grandmother used to hurry past it with her eyes 
shut, '' for fear a should see the sperrets, because the fut 
path was uzed to come that way, un a saiden as how 
sperrets wun laid under the waiter.*" He stated that 
a felon named Kirby, having escaped from the county 
prison, hid himself for several days in the dark recesses 
of the neighbouring woods, and having filed off his fet- 
ters cast them in, as an offering to the deities of the 
water. Nor are these the only legends; for it is re- 
ported the unearthly powers are unappeased, and that 
Rutter's Gho9t still walks abroad in the silence of night 
among these hills, 

To haunt, to startle and way-lay. 
" One Rutter, a cricker," continued my informant, "wuz 
laid here yo minden; un a wuz mighty fond o drink. 
When a cummM whdam at neet a wuz uzed to tak a 
mug un goa into the cellar like, un fach him a drop 


o^drink, un then him an his wife usen to differ, an 
qnarril an aggravait, an a wenten on a thisns till at 
last his wife pizened him. After a wnz dhed the mug 
as a wun nzed to drink out on, oummd down off the 
shilf as nataral as if aM ootohed hont on it wie his two 
honds, im it ud goa and faoh drink out o"* the ciller. 
Tve often heard em talking about it: some o^ Mat- 
thnsses people liyen thire at the time. They saydeo 
as how his sperrit wuz laid T th^ Dary Pit; but I 
dunna knoa whoa laid him : yo onghten to know moor 
about sieh things than me Sir, for yo sin I binna 

To return from this dialectical digression to the sab- 
jects of enquiry. The poet speaks of 

The Whits Town Iwiween Tesn and Traval*. 
and of 

The Whitb Towir between Trbiv and Trodwydd*. 

The WmTB Town is on sufficient reasons supposed 
to be WhiUingUm; and its sitoation between the Tern 
and Roddinffton leads us at once to infer that Trodwydd 
must mean this latter village. Where Traval was, it 
is not BO easy to settle. From Tre signifying a town 
and gwal a wall, in tiie same language in which Llywarp 
H^n writes, (thus Trct-mt the walled town, and GiM 
S&cer the wall of Severus,) it seems evident that it alludes 
to some fortified position. It cannot mean Wall, because 
this stronghold is beyond the Tem^ it must therefore 
be either Ebukt, or Burt Walls, ne«r Hawkstoney most 
likely the latter. Pengwem is sufficiently known to be 
Skrewibwry, The rock of Hydwtth, cannot be Hodnei^ 
because there is not any rock there; it may be some 
eminence in the vicinity, for instance, KensUme^ or Clar- 
tmry Hitt^ or Bury Walls ^ 

» Uvwai^ HSn, p. 87. > lb. 

* I do not think it is Armour Hill : Celt Ar, a rock^ and mer, 
greats high: Ar-mefy 'the high rock' as PendlesUme rwk on the 
He^ytm above Bridgenoith, is called. 


The Hall of Cynddylan is not ea^y this night, 

On the top of the rock of Hydwytb'^ 

Without its lord, without company, without the circling feasts. 

And this supposition is rendered more probable by 
Wegton, a village which lies at the foot of the latter, 
being called in a document of the time of Edward I., 
Weston super Lichefeld^. (See Gloss, under Lichoatb.) 

**The Vallet of Meisib, the celebrated land of 
Bra^vcui^ may perhaps mean the extensive plain through 
which the Sewf^JjiOYm from Welshpool to Shrewsbury; 
and ^Hhe verdant vale of Freuer^, up<» which the 
poet used to gaze from the high-placed city of Wbboon, 
was the fertile vale of the Havren or Severn, from 
Wroxeter to BuUdwas. Digoll was a circular entrench- 
ment still bearing the name of Caer Diool, situated on 
the summit of Cefn Digol, at the South end of the 
Long Mountain, It is also called the Beacon Bing^ 
and was a trigonometrical station*. This spot is men- 
tioned both by Lomarchus in the seventh century, and 
by CynddeDw in the twelfth, which implies that Cefyn 
Digoll was a post generally occupied in the warfare of 
the Britons. Dtgen is most likely to be the BaEmDEN. 

* liywaor^ HSn, p. 77. 

' Camb. and Celt Quart. Mag. voL iv. p. 388. 


C|e ISrrtli* 

HERE is not any reason for doubting 
the authenticity of the poems ascribed 
by Welsh scholars to Llywar9 Hen, 
a poet who lived in the sixth century. 
Nor can their genuineness be im- 
pugned on the score of their mis- 
representing events taking place at 
that period, because the poet was an eye-witness of the 
actions he records. He bore a distinguished part in 
defending his country against the growing power of the 
Saxons, and survived, as the historians tell us, to lament 
the loss of twenty-four sons who fell in the same cause. 
The poet himself was at length obUged to seek for 
shelter in the court of CJynddylan, a prince of Powis, 
whose subsequent misfortunes he describes in one of 
his odes. These heroic elegies throw considerable light 
upon the events of the period, and further enable us 
to fix upon the spot where the bard's regal protector 
was defeated by the Saxons. 

It has been thought by a writer of high reputation 
who has touched upon the passages of these early times, 
that Cynddylan, after his expulsion from Pengwem cirdt 
570, sought out a position somewhere at no great distance 
Northwards. He states there are strong grounds for 
thinking that the spot he fixed upon was in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Baschurch^ because he was 
buried there, and ^^ because Baschurch^ in the reign of 
Edward the Confessor, formed part of the royal de- 


mesne of the crown of England.^ And 'Mt is natural 
to suppose^ as my authority continues, *^that such 
demesne was in Mercia, derived firom the Mercian 
kings; and it is likely that Ofia, in his conquest of 
Western Shropshire, would retain in his own hands all 
the possessions of the native sovereigns of Powis. Thus 
the place is connected by no improbable links with the 
time of Cynddylan.'*^ Amid the great darkness of the 
period, it is difficult to catch even a gleam of light to 
guide us in fixmg upon the actual scene of Cynddylan^s 
defeat. Mr Blakeway conceived it was at the Berth ^ 

^ Pennant says this fortress is called the Bru^^ corruptly 6x>xn 
Burgh, and that it was cast up by Kinred^ King of Mercia^ against the 
invasions of Osred, king of Northumberland, who was slain here in 
battle in 716. This stronghold is composed of two deep ditches and a 
rampart, formed chiefly of stone : the precinct not of any re&nilar 
shape, for the fosses conform to the shape of the hill. Two of the 
comers project naturally^ and form a species of bastion. The en* 
trance vras on the side next the present road. The approach is 
very visible: it crept up the steep sides; divided about midway, 
one branch took to the left and the other to the light. (Paiiuml « 
Journey from Chester to London, pp. 46, 47.) 

It is suggested by the writer just quoted, that the corpse of Osred 
might have been buried under the tumulus at O^dow, I will not 
attempt to disturb that conjecture, seeing how many I have been 
necessitated to offer myself; but I must correct this valuable topo- 
gnpher^s historical mistake. The works were not thrown up by 
Kvnrtdy but by Ceoired, King of Mercia. Cenred, King of Mercia, 
went to Rome in the year 709 according to the Saxon Chronicle 
and Bede, lib. v. c 24, where he died. He was succeeded in his 
kingdom the year he abdicated his throne by Ceoired, who in 716 
fought with Ina at Wbdnesbeorh, which seems to me most likely 
to be where Wednetbuty in SU^ffMMwre now stands. And in ^e 
succeeding year he defeated Oared at Mere. ''Osred vero rex" 
says Heniy Huntingdon, ''belli infortunis juxta Mere pugnana 
interfectus est" Lib. iiii. Cenred was Osred's successor. Sax, Chron. 
ann. 709—716. Fhr. War, p. 266. Matt, Wut, p. 26a 

' If these works at Berth HiU were reallv constructed by the 
Saxons, it shews that they had retained the British svstem of 
eastnunetatbn, but when we look at the fortress of the Berth 
near Baaehurd^ which was built a century and a half earlier, it 
appears to me that the works on Berth HiU must be assigned to 
a period anterior to that agreeing witii our historical data, mr they 
are precisely like, if we may accredit Pennant's account, the en- 
campments of Caractacus' Chain. And herein I have the authoritv- 
of King with me, who' says and proves by two instances adduced. 


My own reMons for diMenting from hk opinion have 
been already given. Setting aside our mutual ccmjeo- 
turea, let ub examine it» present appearanee. It liee a 
mile and a half North East of the village of Basekmrek, 
and takes its name, either from the C. Brit. Berths which 
signifies « WoIm^ tkruH^ tallyii^ with the event for whioh 
it is mimoraUe, or dse from the G. Brit. Bmrtk^ an en- 
doBUie. A small oval Mitrendunent, bearing the name of 
Bebth Hill, lies just out of Shropshire, in the adjoining 
county of Stafardy between Woom and CAapd GharUon^ 
and we find no less than six places with very significant 
names in the immediate contiguity of it. Camp Hill; 
War Hill; Woodbn Dale, evidently Woden Dale; Berbt 
Hill; Sandt Low, and Maer field, or the Watchino field; 
(C. Brit. MiMer). Surely these titles are not accidental. 

The works at the Berth oonsist of two distinct for- 
tresses, lying in a morass, but which are connected with 
each other by an artificially raised causeway, one hundred 
and fifty yiunds long and twelve feet wide, formed with 
vast labor of small stones. Though this traverses the bog 
at present on a level with it, yet it is distinctly marked 
by the yellowness of its herbage, notwithstanding aD the 
draining which the land has undergone. Besides this, 
there is another causeway that tiJLes a sinuous line 
across the bog towards the higher ground at Mmrkm. 
This was the road of general communication with the 
miun land; the other, was merely a passage of inter- 
course between the two camps. They are each of them 
built with stones, brought from a gravel pit, a quarter 
of a mile distant. 

The Upper Work, occupies a circular eminence of 

three acres, and rises about forty-five feet above the 

level of the bnd at its base. It is strengthened on 

that *' Places of this deBcription were not onlv stronglioldB and for- 
trasaes in the early British times, bnt were also deemed capable of 
being such even in much later ages." Mimimenta Antiqna. vol. i. 
p. 26. 


three sideB by a monuM; upcHi the South, or fourth 
mi% by a deep pool of water, covering eight aerei. 
A oo&oentric trenoh and vallum enoirole the whole work : 
in some parts this is still tolerably perfect, chiefly so 
on the North side, but having been formed of stones 
according to the British method of construction, the 
greater portion of it is destroyed, and what remains 
is daily growing less conspicuous, in consequence of the 
materials being used for draining the surrounding wet 
land. The fosse was at first as much as ten feet wide. 
The crest of the vallum is at present about twenty 
feet above the level of the marsh. On the North North 
East side are remains of the original entrance. The 
gorge or gangway is seven feet wida It had a Uywet 
GQ either side, or S(Hne erection which answered the 
same purpose, for there are two great heaps of stones 
still ool the surface, notwithstanding the ^ousands of 
loads that my informant told me had been buried in 
the surrounding bog, or carried away to mend the 
neighbouring roads. The work of destruction was pro- 
ceeding whoi I was on the spot, but happily it will 
take many years still to complete it. A stream runs 
round this side of the work, that cuts off the causeway 
from reaching to the very entrance. There is no doubt 
that this was intentional, and served the purpose of 
preventing all approa<di to the superior fortress, unless 
its inhabitants let down a plank or drawbridge to 
aDow their friends to come over. 

Proceeding along the Causeway for a hundred and 
twenty-five yards we are stopped by a high, thick 
hedge, and obliged to make a little deviation from a 
straight line, so as to fidl in with it again, on the 
other side. Following it for twenty-five yards further, 
we enter the Inferior Work between two slightly ele- 
vated mounds, which formed the original gate o( ad- 


The Infebiob Fortrbbb is of an elliptical form. It 
was defended by a morass on all sides, and even inter- 
sected by a ditch that was supplied with water to render 
all access to it still more difficult. The works on the 
side next the superior fortress are considerably higher 
than those in the other quarters. They are so faint and 
uncertain on the North side of the intersecting ditch^ 
that it is questionable whether this dde of the entrench- 
ment had ever any other defence than the morass, the 
treacherous nature of which, even now, (1838) makes it 
troublesome to cross. It would have been a measure 
easily resorted to, if the Britons, when attacked, had 
dammed up the two streams which now tend to drain 
the bog, and this would at once have converted each 
of these fastnesses into an island. Yet if they had 
confided in the natural advantages alone of their re- 
treat, the protection afforded by the elevated situation 
of the Superior Work, and the marshy ground around 
it, would have rendered their positicm extremely formi- 
dable. In whatever way we look at these two fortifi- 
cations, they cannot fail to strike us as most remarkable 
examples of castrametation for the age when they were 
constructed. They evince a degree of military know- 
ledge that is highly curious and surprising, whilst they 
furnish us with a connecting link in the history of 
martial tactics, that is well deserving the attention of 
the antiquary and the soldier. 

4BliitV9 Camp. 

HAVE already intimated the probability 
of Ebuby Camp being Hhe rock of 
Hwydwyth'' spoken of by Lomarohus, 
and I shall now proceed to give the 
reason for this supposition. There 
is such a scantiness of soil upon this 
eminence, and such an extensive and 
clear development of rock upon its North Eastern side, 
that the name of Ebary rock would still not be un- 
appropriate. It Ues, moreover, in an insulated and 
commanding position, so that the circumstance of it 
being mentioned as a Rock is not unlikely. Setting, 
however, such a speculation aside, I will describe the 
existing appearances. 

Ebcjbt Camp is an oval enclosure, fortified by a single 
fosse and vallum: having at the original entrance at 
the South South Elast end a breach through the mound 
of ten paces in width : a little further on there is an- 
other interruption, two paced wide, but whether both 
these entrances are original, it is difficult to determine. 
One of them is so, undoubtedly, because there is no 
appearance of an entrance on the other side, whilst 
there is a concentric vallum or outwork at this point 
running for fifty paces. The general position of the 
camp is extremely commanding. It has a very strong 
natural defence in the precipitous character of the rock 
at the Nordi East end, as well as in the steep fall at 
the North end. In the centre of the area there are 

. I 


some very large BioneB, whioh fleem bb thou^ they 
might have formed a portion of a eramledk, and w» they 
difl^r from the formation of the hill, they have evidently 
been transported hither. 

We mo0t afldgn this work to the same period as 
THE Wall, which it greatly resembleB in the fnmplicity 
of its oonstniction. 


notttMfotD mm 

HB Camp upon the summit of thia 
eminence is Britiah, and may I think 
be assigned to the year 661, when, 
according to the Saxon Chronicle, 
Cenwalh fought at PorUeabyriff against 
the Welsh. It is a double camp, 
having its ditches and walls in con- 
formity to the nature of the ground. The Hill is 
very steep on all sides, especially towards the East, 
where the declivity is nearly perpendicular. The lower 
camp, which is the Southerly one, is three hundred 
and seventeen yards long, and varies from twenty- five 
to thirty- five in width. The upper and Northerly di- 
vision is the same width, and two hundred and sixty- 
five yards in length. There is an entrance due North 
into the upper one, and one due South into the lower. 
Great similarity exists between these works and those 
at Cainham: though this, from being situated on a 
greater elevation, is naturally much stronger. 

A wake is annually held on Palm Sunday, on the 
top of ^^Pansert UilT as it is termed, under the 
pretence of ^^seekinff for the Golden Arrow.'" I have in 
vain looked for elucidation of this custom, and can 
therefore offer nothing better than mere conjecture as 
to its origin. It may not be improbable that some 
tradition formerly existed of a golden arrow having 
been shot in the encounter between the two contend- 
ing parties in the seventh century, and as Cenwalh 


fought at Easter, it seeniB but likely that Pahn Sunday 
should be a oommemoration-day of the event, and 
that the golden arrow, whether fabled or genuine, 
should on that day especially be sought for. It is 
almost needless to add that the custom is now merely 
a pretext for having a merry making. 




<Ut.i.s IVK'-. \':c..Silo}' llrr'-ioi'iJ^idTKir.Moiitj;^)::"-.-,/.!)^!'^)!^ Flint 

jW| ii l J \ }W\ \ ) l l i l j 



Fit iVii] n':h '''-\"^n'hrifi<^-- 

i. V'-- ' ' •.'k^ '■■■ ' '^hn ■. 

roMJ'AHA'IIVK Sf-.Vl.K nK |>iKK.^ 

1 . . ; : ■•■■ 

. .\:.Y 

AS TOR I'- ^ ■■ X -n 
XiLha.S M ■ * 

etia'0 mvtt. 

FFA having expeUed the Wekh from 
the open country they poflseeeed be- 
tween the Wye and liie Severn^ and 
annexed the Eastem. parts of Wales, 
as far as the former river, to the 
kingdom of Merda, proceeded to 
separate the Britons from his sub- 
jects by a high mound and ditch^ This extended from 
near Treiddyn in Flintshire to the Wye at Bridge 
8oUers in fferefordiMre^ and it may still be traced in 
a very perfect state at various places along this line. 

It does not appear likely that Of& intended his 
work for any other purpose than merely a boundary. 
As a defence, it would have been totally insufficient 
to keep the rebellious Welsh in awe, who had con- 
structed at an earlier period numerous fortifications of so 
strong a nature, that this would have presented scarcely 
any obstruction to their movements. Their extraordinary 
operations in forming the extensive chain of hill-fortresses 

' Ofia, qui yallam magmim inter Britamuam atque Merdam^ 
id est de man naqiie ad mare fiuxre imperavit. Simeon Dnnelm. 
Hist. p. 118. 

Fut in Mercia modemo tempore quidam atrenuus, atque uni- 
veTBiB circa se regibna et leg^onibus finitimis formidolosns lex, 
nomine Ofia; qui vaUmn magmmi inter Britanniam atque Mer- 
dam de mari usque ad mare raoere imperavit. AaseriuB de .ffilfredi 
rebus gestis. £dit. Camden, Fnmcof. 1603^ p. 3. 

As the Welsh CfhroniclerB do not mention either (Mi's Dvke 
or Wa^s IMce as extending so far, I doubt very mn(£ whetner 
thev reallj did so, my reasons for which are riven hereafter. It 
will not escape observation, that 6ne of these nistorians has bor- 
rowed the very words of the o^er. 


bordering upon Wales, forbid' our gupposing them to be 
ignorant of the arts of strategy and castrametation, and 
the valor they uniformly evinced, contradicts the idea 
of their having become in the short interval after the 
Roman invasion, degenerate sons of a warlike race. 

The barrier erected by Otb, is of such a nature, 
that it would be easy for a hostile force to break 
through and even partially destroy it, (as in fact we 
know the Welsh did) by making the assault at those 
parts where it might be left unguarded. Mr Pennant\ 
instead of attributing their incursions after the death 
of Offa, to the greater readineser with which they were 
able to surmount his Dyke, ought rather to have bb- 
signed them to the naturally restless spirit, and the 
invincible love of freedom which that nation have always 
shewn ; instead of attributing them to the more certain 
hope of success with which they were inspired, when 
they found they had no longer to struggle against the 
superior tactics of this martial prince. 

Sanguinary enactments were made for the purpose 
of confining the Welsh on their own side of Oppa's 
Dyke. By a law of Egbert^ the penalty of death was 
incurred by every Welshman who passed it. And by 
another law, made by Harold Harefoot, it was de- 
creed that if a Welshman entered England without 
permission, and was taken on the English side of the 
ditch, his right hand should be cut off by the king^s 

The precise year of its construction is not known, 
but on the authority of the Brut y Saeson and the 
Brut y Twysogion, two Welsh Chronicles, I think it 
may be fixed in or close after the year 784. The first 
of these historical records states* that in the summer 

» North Walea, vol. i. p. 274. 

' DOCLxxxiiiL yr haf y difeithwB y cymre cyvoeth OfiSy ac yna 
y peris OflBei gimeuthur clawd yn derwyn lyngthawa chymre val 
y Dei haws ydaw gwrthnebu y mthyr y dynion; a hwnnw a 


of tfaia year, 'the Welsh laid waste the domimons of 
OBbl And then Qffib eaosed to be made a dyke as a 
limit between hie territories and Wales, as it was easier 
thus to resist the assault of his enemies, and this is 
called Offals Dtkk, (Clawdd Offa^) firom that time 
to the present/ The hitter CSuronicle* expresses it 
mther difierratly : ^ the Christian year 784, Mereia was 
hod waste by the Welsh, and Qflh made a dyke a 
second time neaier to him, that is, one running farther 
to the South East, and leaving room for the territory, 
between the Wye and the Severn, of Elystan Olodrydd, 
one of the five xoyai tribes of Wales.^ 

From another passage in the same authority' we 
are told that in the year 776, the people of Gwbnt 
and MoneANWT rose, and went against Mereia, and 
broke in Oflb^s Dyke even with the ground, and after 
this returned with great spcMl. 

When the people of Mimmtmthihire and C^c^morffan- 
ikire made this imiptiim, they probabfy broke down that 
Dyke which is now known under the name of Wattes 
Dtks, which I conceive was constructed by Ofia also 
nearly twenty years before Offa^ that is, in, or im- 
mediately after 765. 

dwir yn glawd Offii yr hynny hyd hedyw. Brut y Saeson 
(Gluemcle of the Saxons) in Cotton Lib. Qeopat. B. V. P. 136. 
nut xix. A. 

' C. Britt. claudh; Bret daz; Ir. obut; Gael, cfaw; Arm. cleuz, 

* Oed Crist 784 ^ di£feithiwyd y Men gan y Crmiy, ac Ofia 
a wiaeth fflawdd yr ail waith yn nes attaw a eadael Ue gwlad rwng 
€rwy a uafiren lie mae Uwvth Elystan Glodiydd lie ydd aethant 
yn on bum Breninllwytli Cymry. Brat y Twysogion. (Chronide 
of the Princes) from a copy of an ancient MS. nuide in 1764 by 
Geoige WiUiamSy Esqnixe, of Aber Pergwm. 

' Oed Crist 776 y ordes Gwyr Gwent a Morganwy ao a aethant 
am benn y Mers, ac y toirasant Glawdd Ofia yn gynwasted a'r 
ddaear, a gwedi hyni^ dydiwelyd as ymil fawr. lb. 

For these transcripts I am indebtea to the kindness of my 
fnead Sir & Meyriok of Goodrich Court, who has also obligingly 
famished me with some yahiable suggestions lelative to this part 
of Uie subject. 


When we look at Offa's Dtke, even at the preeent 
day, we shall be surprised at the boldness of its eon- 
oeption* It is carried over the summit of lofty moun- 
tains, across morasses, and through places where every 
natural obstruction is presented. These difficulties are, 
however, successively overcome, and we behold its dark 
ridge traversing the mountainous district of the Bordbb 
oouNTBT apparently with as much ease as though the 
engineer had felt himself superior to every natural im- 
pediment which he had to contend with. Those who 
have had opportunities of examining the regular method 
in which Offal's Dtkb is constructed, and of tracing its 
course in the secluded and remote districts through 
which it is carried, must regard it as a very extraor- 
dinary efibrt of human labor and skill. Although it 
was projected by the king of the Mercians, it is highly 
probable that he compelled the Welsh to carry his 
plan into execution, and that he imposed upon the pea- 
santry, through whose country it passed, tiie labor of 
constructing their own boundary line. This he might 
do by way of penalty for their former a^iressions, or 
might else take it as a remission of tribute^ 

In the autumn of 1838 I examined this work in 
several places where it is most complete: and from 
having taken measurements at different parts, I am en- 
abled to state what appear to have been its dimensions 
when first constructed. 

Offals Dyke consists of a trench and a mound, 
the former supplying the means of raising up the 

» Lewis Glvn Cothi, a Welsh Bard of the Pifteenth Centuiy, 
in a poem adcb-eflsed to Griffith ab Howell ab David ab Cadwd- 
lader, of Bachelldrw (now BtuMdre), in the parish of CkurchitUike, 
3f(nUgomerv8hire, urges him to serve under the banners of Edw. IV. 
He reminds him that his mansion stands on Offa's Dyke, and 
that as the Welsh were threatened with still further encroachments, 
he should unsheath his sword in behalf of the nation. Griffith was 
steward of the Manor of Court or Cause^ under the lords who 
dwelt at that castle. Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi, p. 268. 


latter\ The ditch is invariably, throughout its whole 
extent, on the Welah eide, and averages twelve feet in 
width, and six in depth. A vallum or mound of earth 
is thrown up at an angle of forfy-five degrees on the 
En^Ush side of the ditch, whose relief on the Welsh side 
is about fifteen feet in perpendicular height, and its 
width four feet across the top. The vallum is ten feet 
in perpendicular altitude above the average level of the 
adjacent soil on the English side of it. The width of the 
mound and ditch together is fifty-four feet : the base of 
the mound thirty-six, its summit four, and the ditch eleven. 
Although-my measures allow only four feet for the width 
of the top of the vallum, I am inclined to think that 
formerly it was more, as we must allow something for 
the tendency of works like this to slip, and to become 
diminished through the natural depression of the soil. 

The earlier topographical writers who have men- 
tioned Opfa^s Dtks have confounded it with Wattes 
Dtkb, describing them as one and the same work. 
They make Offals Dtkb to commence at the Bristol 
Ciamndi and terminate where Wattes does, at the Dee, 
Pennant was the first writer who attempted to trace 
their courses correctly, but he has not followed them 
out entirely. 

It has be^i laid down by all preceding writers, as 
a fact, that Offals Dvkb commenced in the parish of 
Tiddeniam in Gloucestershire^ that it went from thence 

> Ofia died 794, and it has been sappofled that he was buried 
at Qffchun^ near Leamington, (Camb. Qnart. vol. iy. p. 347.) But 
the Offtieia mendoned by his biographer (Vita Offte Secunds, p. d87), 
as the place where he died is more lively to be Qffbrd Cluny or 
Qfford I/Arcy in the neighbourhood of Bedford, to which town his 
bodv was afterward carried, and interred in a chapel on the banks 
of the Oiue, QffchurA and Qffbhurck Bury, the Bury, as it is 
still caUed, has been examined by me in vain for any traces of works 
earlier than the little church, which belongs in part to the Norman 
period. We recognise Ofia's possessions in those Tillages which are 
still called Qffki^Um, Ovington, Uppington, Uffington, Ovey, Upton, 


iie«r CoiiD Habboub to St BBIAVEu^ aad thenoe to OU0- 
/ord^ ; bat ct this there k no proof. 

Mr Foflbroke Bays that Offals Dtkb k '* known to 
have oommenoed at Tiddmkam in GUau^mienkir^^: but 
how known! When he was himself at /St BruMO&Uy he 
did not see it, bat derived his infonnaticm aeoond-hand 
firom a gentleman who is represented to have often 
eroMed it, and who stated that it ran through a wood 
called the Fmie$ near Bigmteir Bridg0. As there an 
two oamps in the vicinitj, one at Castle Obohasis the 
other South West of Oumbbr^s Babit, it seems to me 
very probable that Mr Fosbroke's informant mistook 
wocoB defensive ditch connected with them, for a portico 
of Offals Dtkb. And this k rendered more likely by 
what he subsequently learned fix)m a gentleman engaged 
in the Ordnance Survey, who informed him (if I on* 
derstand the paragraph rightly), that there was a camp 
in Caswbll Wood within the entrenchment, and that a 
line or mound from thk Camp could be traced nearly 
to a Tumulus <m the West side of the road. 

It will be observed, that each of these assumed 
parts of Offals Dtkb are immediately connected with 
fortifications, and there seems abundant reason for sup- 
posing that they constituted a part of them. Nor does 
there appear to be any necessity for thk artificial 
boundary South of its junction with the Wye at Bridge 
Setters^ the river forming a natural line of demarcation. 
Nor, again, would it have been in any wise needful to 
construct it betwixt 8t Bria/eeh and Tiddenham, as the 
country included betwixt this place and the Severn is 
very narrow and limited in extent. The existence, more- 
over, of a Cold Habboub here in the contiguity of roads 
running with remarkable directness, together with some 
military works, would lead us to infer that most of the 

' Fosbroke's Wye Tour, p. 128. 
* Gent. Mag. vol. ci. p. 682—4. 


defiBOUve femains with vfakh this nearly insulated part of 
Okmcuisnkire abounda, must have been ereoted at an ear^ 
her period, ^pdien, in &€ft^ the Bomana had gained a footing. 

Its line has been presumed by Sir Samuel Meyrick' 
to have gone from henoe to Symond'B Tal, Hunitholm 
Ferry-kou9$j Bryngwyn^ Peneroig^ HeniUm^^ FmnaofUm, 
Walbrooky and Timd Dikh to Bridge SMun^ wh^re it 
crossed the Wye. The Ordnance Survey does not in- 
dicate any trace of it South of Oohfardj nor any what- 
ever NordiwaidSy till it reaches the Wye at Bridge SoUerSy 
either in the name of any place by which the above line 
woold take it, or in a visible track through this part of 
MotmumAakire and HerefcrdMre. These circumstances 
induce me to dissent from the opinions of foregoing 
writers, and lead me readily to beUeve that Ofpa^s 
boumdafy commenced with the mouth of the Wye^ and 
that the river itsdf formed the line of demarcation un- 
til it reached Bridge SoOere^ mx and a half miles North 
West of Herefard where the DrrcH first appears. South- 
ward tA this place we meet with no traces of it, but 
proceeding Northward, they are abundant. 

Commencing then, at this spot, the Dikik is distinctiy 
visible the whole way to Maned Oamage ; it continues in 
the same course, due North, in a tderably perfect state 
for a mile, to Uppkbton, or OJVe Town. No marks 
of it are hence perceptible for six miles. In all pro- 
bability it took the line of the turnpike road, through 
Sameefieldj as far as the Holmes^ dose to which place 
it is met with again. 

Rows DrroH, which is a ditch a mile long, due 
North of Pembridge^ and the same distance from it, 
would bring the Une too much to the North East. This 
therefore, must have been a short defensive, or bound- 
ary ditch unconnected with it, similar to the Ditch 
Baxk under Fron HiU in Badnorshire, or the Ancient 
^ Camb. Quart. Mag. vd. v. p. 273. 


Dyke above Llangynllo^ or the Uppbr and Lowsr Short 
DiTCHBs, in Ohm Fore9t. That these two last are of 
the same period as the great one whose course we are 
piirsomg, IS very probable. It nu^ be presumed they 
are those mentioned as being thrown up during the 
twelve days truce between Oib and Marmodius^ A 
church, erected by the piety of the former prince, ex- 
isted in the days of his biographer, and was called Offe 
Kirk, This church no longer remains; but a couple. of 
miles West of MainsUme^ betwixt the two ditches in 
question, there is some high land called Saeson Bankj 
or Saxon^s Bank^ where Offii^s forces it is imagined were 
stationed, and as another spot in the immediate vicinity 
still retains the name of Church Town HiU, its title, for 
the same reasons, might have originated from the cir- 
cumstance of the church having stood there. 

At the North Western extremity of HerefordMr^ 
Offals Dtkb is again found a little to the South of Lytk- 
hales in a tolerably perfect state. Two miles frorxi KingUm 
it is (nx)6Bed by the turnpike road to Boss. It then takes 
a Northemly direction, skirting the Western side of the 
hill above Bulhek^s Mitt. Its course then grows devious 
and irregular: we find it ascending heights and descending 
into valleys. At Knitt Cfaraway^ where it is veiy perfect, 
it traverses a plain and makes an angle without any appa* 
rent reason. Adapting itself to the natural figure of the 
summit, it runs round the crest of Herrock and descends 
at the Northern end. 

* Veruntamen com nollent vel exerdtus regis Offiae, vel Wallea- 
dimi inde procol reoedere, Rex OiOfa ad cautelam inter ipsos duoe 
exerdtus, commmii assensu iinum foasatum longum nimis et pro- 
ftrndum fffodi, aggere terrestri yersus Wallenses eminenter elevate, 
ne fallafiinm hostiam irruptioiiibiis repentinis preoccaparetur. £t 
at tutius ac quietiiis, divinis obsequiis in tanta solemnitate vacaret, 
unam ibidem construxit eccledolain. Quae omnia, pront temporis 
brevitas exigebat, ante natale Domini, videlicet duodedm diebus, 
licet breviBsimis, sunt completa. Cujus rei ut memoiia peipetuetur, 
fossa ilia Offse didtur, et ecclesia Cffekirk, usque in hodiemum diem 
appellatur. Vita Olfc Seconde, p. 976. 


Just upon entering Rcidnorihire^ it paaeeB under 
DrrcH Hill, to which it most obviously gives the name, 
and upon whose sunmiit there is an oval entrenchment. 
Thence winding round JStenjob Hill and Eeenjob Bank^ 
it leaves the circular work of Castlb Rmo below it to 
the West, and the two rectangular camps of Caeb Din, 
one to the South West, and the other to the North 
East. The course of it now lies nearly straightforward in 
a Northemly direction, till it reaches Kniffktonj a dis- 
tance of six miles, during the greater part of which 
distance it is but little altered or depressed. It may, 
however, be noted that midway between Castlb Ring 
and Kniffitan^ the Dtkb in passing over the top of 
Furrow Hilly curves to the East. It is again found a 
mile on the North West side of Knighton^ or Tbbf-y- 
CLAWDD, ike town upon the Diiehy at tiie point where it 
emeiges from the end of Kindey Wood. 

This brings it into Montgomeryshire, For six miles 
it continues without any interruption, pointing in a di- 
rect line; only two deviations occurring, one, where it 
winds round the hill to the East of Shyborry Orem^ 
the other, two miles farther on, where it makes a slight 
deflection to the left. Just before reaching this spot, it 
leaves a small pentagonal Camp to the right, on the 
summit of Llan-du^ 

Having followed Offals Dykb from Kinsley Wood 

for six miles, all traces of it are then lost for about a 

quarter of a mile. It is again met with after having 

1 In its fonn this earth-work is not unlike Boldixr's Biiro, 
in WUtMre, and Cj[8Aa*8 Camp in Surrey: there is another like 
them at Madmaktoit in Os^fbrdMrey and a fourth example of pen- 
toffonaL eastnunetaihn, though difieiing still from theae^ at Lktcombs 
Basset in Berktkhre, Letcokbs Castls is nearly dicalar, hut 
has a sofiiGient decree of lectilinearity to bring it into the same 
class as the foregomg ones. AU of these worki are ooosidenibly 
larger than the one upon Llav-du. From their great rM;iilaii1y 
of oonstmction, and their conformity in main principles to eadi other^ 
it is most natoral to refer them all to the Roman period. (See 
this subject farther treated upon at p. 153.) 


passed over ButfiM Witmrm^ just where it crosses the 
road leading from NeweaMU to Wiiiooi. Leaving a amafl 
quadrangular camp to the West, it nms along the aide 
ot Bryn-y^araekj descends close to an irregular ovoid 
Camp at Uppis Kkdgk, and proceeds gently curving 
Eastwards to Maimiome. Hence it travenee Ed0mkope 
Hiilj where it is tolerably perfect. Leaving this, it 
, points directly forwanls without any interruption to the 
Blue BM^ about six miles on the tnn^ike road going 
from Bi$hopU Cattis to Mon^ommy. 

A mile farther on it forms the boundary of Bh/top- 
9hir0 and MmUgomtryMre^ until it reaohes the road 
comnranicaiing between the latter town and Ckirbury. 
It is found in a perfect state a mile onwards, bot all 
traces are lost at the DemFe Hoh. Prooeediag NotUh 
wards, it is again fallen in with: for two miles it seems 
to take the course of the turnpike road oonnectiqg 
Mevitgomery with WdAfoal^ from which road it is dis- 
tant merely a few paces. At the first approach it 
makes to Uie road in question it is very perfect for a 
mile. At Nantcribba HaU it passes by a dronlar en- 
trenchment called the Moat, at wUch place it is veiy 
well preserved. Inclining a little to the East, it goes 
(m to Fnm^ where it suddenly bends to the West, and 
then goes nearly in a straight Une to Bottuioion^ 

> Ths fisKon Chsoaiele anno 894^ mcttibns a ooafliet at tins 
epoty between the Danes and the Saxons, the latter being asBiated 
l^ the Welflh. When they were all asBembled they came up 
wkh the amy at BmkUg im gtiun, on the banks of ike Sevecn^ and 
there they beeeiged them ca ewrj side m a feitt e afc When they 
had been encamped <m the two aidea of the river for nuny weeks^ 
Ibe king bemg still detamed by the fleet in the West, in Dmmtkin, 
the Danes were pr ooo ed by hnnser, and they had eaten jneai Mit 
of their hones, and aonie perianed through fiunine. liieii tney 
nuhed out upoa the men who weie postad on the £a8t«n side ot 
Ae river, and fought with them^ and the Christians gained the 
victory, but the Kuig's Thane Oidhelm was stain there, and many 
others of Uie Kind's Thanes; and those (of the beadiens) who es- 
caped were saved by flight 


Tbe river Se0&m at this pkoe serveB instead (rf the ar- 
tifieial bonadavy, and aooordingly there are no mdioa- 
tioDB of tke diteh met with for four or five miles. Bat 
upon crosBiiig the nier at Smfmn Ftwm^ the Dtkb is 
igain fomid. At the distance of a mile and three 
quarters it fonns part of the turnpike road from JUoa- 
drimo to LkmymyneekK At the latter place it skirts 
the bold esoarpment of limestone rock above the vil- 
lage, and then trends a mile Northwards. 

Parallel with two other Dtkis upon this eminenee, 
there is a etupendous rampart of loose stones, accom- 
panied with a deep fosse, lAudk follows the brow of the 
hill, and eBMN>mpasses about one half of its whole ex- 
tent. On its Eastern brow once stood a cromleeh, 
measoring seven feet by six, and about eighteen inches 
thick. It was called by the vulgar Bidd t Cawb, or j 

iks gr0(U Stpukkte: and it was the voice of immemorial j 

tcadhioii, that a giant had buried Us wife under this 
stone, with a g(dden torques about her neck. This re* | 

port caused three bothera, who lived in the neighboor- I 

hood some years bade, to overturn the stone from its ! 

pedestals in searah of the treasore, in which positian it i 

DOW li€B^ 

BCarks <tf Ofpa^s Dtkx are next found near a small 
enoampmsBt to the North West of White Hawu, but 

A namber cf tiie Shrewdmiy Chzcnide describes a nngular 
diaocvenr made at this pteoe in 183& la ^iggmg the foiiiMlalJon 
Iot a sdiool-lioiue, near ibe chnrcb, the workmen b labors were in- 
lerr ttuted by ft[idiiig immenHe quantities of homan drolls huddled 
togemer in haks, with other bones <^ the hsonan frime scatteaed 
around^ to ilie amount of aeveial oart-loads. Ninety skulls were 
token from one hole, and upwards of three hmidred were ranged 
in grisly show in the chuicn. In many the leeth were pemot, 
and most of them exhibited symptoms of havinff belonged to men 
in the prime of life. Still more recently, nearly the last of the 
ssflnffninaiy straggles of the Wdsh for nations! mdependenoe was 
made on this spot 

* A mile from this place we obser^ a sixth PaUa g tmal Camp^ 
called Clawdb Coch approached by Causeway Lane. 

' Camb. Regist. toL i. p. 275. 


its veBtigQ0*ftre agam speedily lost. It leaves TnfmMn 
a little to the right; the turnpike road from Xfai»- 
tkaidr yn Moeinant to Oncettfy crosses it at Pmdre 
Shand near Trefar Clawdd. Henoe it goes over Craiff 
Fardd^ leaving the oval entrenchment of Cobd t Oair 
to the South West, passing a stone of memorial to 
the North East. It leaves OiweOry Rao»<our9e a little 
to the right, and runs on in a direction nearly straight, 
by the Forett^ Cabbg t big, Garsedd W&n^ and 8t Ma/t- 
tifCs Hill to Bnm y Oarihj where it quits Shropshire, 
and enters DetibighBhire^ being traceable for twenly miles, 
in a perfect state, through the former county. 

At Pen isaf glyn there is a breach, which is sup- 
posed to be the place of interment of the English, who 
fell in the battle of Craigwen^ It then goes by Chirk 
CtJuUe^ crosses the Ihe at C^yn y Wem^ skirts the 
park at Wynstay^ and cuts the Buabon road near 7Vr- 
y-fron. It runs parallel and contiguous to the tum- 
pike road from Btioban to Tcmry-dawdd^ and thence to 
Pentre Buehan. At Pen t Oabdden, about two hun- 
dred yards to the left of the Dtke is the circular camp 
of Gabr Din, enclosing about four acres. The inner 
ditch is made of loose stones, with a waU of vast thick- 
ness on the top. Within the area are many vestiges 
of buildings*. From Penire Buehan it proceeds between 
Pku Power and Phu Buckley^ by LUdiaH Farm to 
Brymbo; and finally crossing the river Oegidoy^ and 
passing througih a little valley on the South side of 
Bryn Yarkyn^ to Coed Talwym^ it tenninates three 
quarters of a mile South East of Treiddy% in the parish 
of Mdd m PUntMre\ 

1 Pennant's Wales, vol L p. 274. 

' The lecimenoe of StreeU in this part of DetM^fukhre, betokens 
a connection with the Romans. Thus we find Croea Street, Street 
leaf, Street-f^Dinas, Street-yr-hOftA. 

' Veiy slight vestiges are discernible between 7^ y eyfion and 


It does not appear why this Dyke was not conti- 
nued to the sea^; but most probably Offa imagined 
that the Clwydian Hittsy and the deep valley that lies 
on this side of their base, would serve as a continuance 
of his prohibitory line. He had carried his arms over 
most part of Flintshire^ and vainly thought, that his 
labors would restrain the Cambria/n inroads in one part, 
and his orders prevent any incursions beyond these na- 
tural limits, which he had decreed should be the bound- 
aries of his new conquests. It is, however, important in 
this enquiry, to bear in mind that Offals Dyke is no where 
to be discovered from opposite the village of Hope to the 
coast, a distance of sixteen miles, and that the two Dykes 
appear to become much narrower as if to form a junction. 

Running parallel with the Dyke just described is 
another, known at the present day by the title of 
Wattes Dyke, and which is, I think, the earlier of the 
two'. It is difficult to account for its name. The 
only writer who has hitherto offered any explanation, 
refers it to the C. Brit, gwaed^ signifying blood. But I 
cannot see any connection that it has with such , an 
etymology. The name seems more likely to be taken 
from fftMethy 'the worse\ Hhat is less good\ which 
epithet would distinguish the two Dykes from each other 

* The Monkish ChionicleTB state that Offa's Dykb went from 
sea to sea, which I think highly improbable for the reasons already 
sssigned, reasons farther stren^ened, by the complete silence of 
the Welsh annalists on the subject, who would hardly have omitted 
mentioning so important a fact, had the work been so extensive. 

* Oed Crist 765, y di£feith iwyd Tiroedd y Mors gan y Cymry 
ac y gorfuant ar y Season, ac ai hyspeiliasant* yn ddirvawr, a diaws 
hynny y ffwnaeth Ofia brenhin y Mers y clawdd mawr a elwir dawdd 
CH9a yn derfyn£ft rhwng ^lad Gymru ar Mers, yal y mae fyth yn 
parhau. Brat y Twysogion (Chronicle of the Princes.) 

The Christian era 7^, the lands of Merda were laid waste by the 
Welsh, and they oyerthrew the Saxons, and the^ despoHed them 
exceedingly. On account of that, Offa, King of Merda, made a 
great dyke, called Offa's D^ke, to be a limit between the countiy 
of Wales and Meicia, so they were thus separated. 

• Henoe the SftlopUoi word huspii., to huR7 or ipoU. (See 01o«. nib voce.) 


with peculiar ugnific&ney. Wattes Dyke being the lesaer 
work of the two. By a slight change in its termination, 
the word would become turned into WcfU: as GrWAsrH 
Dyke, or Gtoates Dyke, WaU's Dyke, the in/srior Dyke. 

Upon examining Wattes Dykb in the autumn of 
1838, I was immediately struck with its inferiority 
to Offals. The whole of its course is not more 
than thirtyHseven miles : for the first ten of which^ up 
to Wynstay Park, it is very indistinct, nearly in fact 
supposititious, nor is it of equal magnitude to it, in any 
of tiiose parts which are most perfect. It is bek>w it 
both in the height of the vallum, and the width of the 
fosse. The reUef of the vallum from its crest to the 
bott(Hn of the ditch is eleven feet six inches: width of 
fosse seven feet, whilst the vallum at its top is almost 
pointed. The measures being taken at Pentre Clawdd 
near Mkitaban. If we assign the erection of the former 
one to the year 784, we must fix the date of Watt's 
Dykb on the same authority to the year 765. 

These two great Ditches run side by side for twenty 
miles. In some places they are within a few hundred 
yards of each other; in others they lie asunder, with- 
out any apparent reason, for three miles. The in- 
tervening space has been said to have been neutral 
ground. But this rests on the poetical description of 
Churchyarde in his Worthines of Wales, 

Ofiaes Dyke, that reacheth feire in length: 

All kind of ware, the Danes miffht thether bring. 
It was free ground, and cal'de tne Britaines str^igtlu 
Wat's Dyke likewise, about the same was set, 
Betweene which two, both Danes and Britaines met. 
And tiafficke still, but passing bounds by sleighte. 
The one did take, the other piisner streight. 

Watt'^s Dtkb commences at Mnedmry near Otwestry. 
It is very slight at the first part of its course. The 
Hdyiead road passes through it near Gidloiea tree gate. 
Thence it proceeds, leaving a huge stone of Memorial 


to the right, to Hbn-ddinas, by Pentre Clatodd to Go- 
bawe»y and the site of a small work called Bfythy-Ocutel^ 
where it quits Shropshire and enters DmbighAire; it 
passes by Prys HenUe and Belmont^ crosses the Ceiriog 
between BrynkinaU and Tan y Blew forge^ and the Dee 
below Nant y BeUan; from whence it runs through 
Wynttay Pari^ formerly called WatUtay^ by another 
Penire Olmodd, betwixt Hafed ffauee and the Fielde to 
Erihig^ where there is another fort on its course. From 
the turnpike road North West of Erikig to the Wil- 
demesa MiU Pond at ChcersyU^ about two miles and 
three quarters, it can be followed without difficulty, pass- 
ing to the West of Wrexiam and between Bhoeddu 
and Croes-yneiris. For the next two miles and a quar- 
ter, to the road from Cefyiiry-Bedd to Ohegter scarcely 
a vestige of it remains. It passed over the Alyn^ through 
the township of Llai to Rhydin in the county of Flinty 
above which is Caeb EarnrN, a British position. 

From hence to Hope it is indistinct, but after- 
wards runs very perfectly for ten miles and three quar* 
teiB, to the point where it crosses the turnpike road 
from ffolyweU through Northop to Flint. It is how- 
ever lost in the intermediate distance for a quarter 
of a mile. North of Garreg Llwyd: but after this it 
is found in a very perfect state trending Northwards, 
cutting through the South West comer of Songhton 
Part, and traceable hence for a mile and a half to 
F/ynnon pen y CaeteU. During the whole of this dis- 
tance it is very plain ; and in some parts appears more 
perfect than at any other part along the line. But 
from the crossing at the turnpike road for a distance 
of five miles to a farm called C^n-y-Coed, but little of 
it 18 left to form a continuous line, and from Oefnry- 
Coed to the Abbey, a distance of two miles, with the 
exception of a few yards at the back of BagUU ffall^ 
no part of it is left and its course is unknown. 



It is a singular circumstance, that from the village 
of Hope to BoHugwerk Abbey ^ the Dyke is called Clawdd 
Offa or Offa''s Dyke, a fact which serves to confirm 
my idea of each of these Dykes being constructed by 
the same prince. 

There are two ditches on the extreme West North 
West side of Shropshire, which, judging from their 
present condition and the peculiarity of their situation, 
must have been Defensive Ditches \ The first lies 
about two miles and a half from Mainstone^ and is known 
by the title of the Lower Shobt Ditch : the vallnm of 
each of these works is on the East side of the fosse: 
they run nearly parallel their whole length, which is 
about a mile, and are distant two miles and a half 
from each other. The other ditch under notice, is 
called Upper Short Dftch. There are several Tumuu in 
the neighbourhood, besides militaiy remains of a British 
and Roman character, all deserving attentive observation. 

The plan of Offa's Dyke and the IBfUir^ 9itC|| 
in Cambridgeshire is similar. Yet notwithstanding their 
similarity, they can hardly be compared; for alihou^ 
alike in their sections, they differ materially in the mag- 
nitude of their conception. The plan, in fact, of all 
those ditches which now remain, is the same. It is 
impossible, after the lapse of so many centuries from 
the period of their execution, and in the default of 
positive information on the subject, to say what was their 
precise object. Various conjectures have been formed re- 
specting their origin; all we actually know about most 
of them is, that it was very remote. At present the 
IBCbU'0 IBtttj^ serves for the boundary between the 
dioceses of Norwich and Ely. It might formerly have 
served the twofold purpose of being a defence as well 

' Of this nature too, must be the Aitcient Ditch whidi lies two 
miles to the North of LkmgyrtUo in Radnorshire* It is not veiy per- 
fect, nor was it ever very extensive. In this vicinity, are also several 


as a boundary line. The length of it does not preclude 
the poaeibility of keeping it continually guarded, a pre- 
caution which it would have been impossible to take in 
the ease of Offals Dyke. For whilst this runs across the 
country for upwards of a hundred miles, the ]l9Cbir0 
tBttt^ does not extend farther than eight. But though 
it be inferior to it in length, it surpasses it in height 
and breadth. By comparing the following measure- 
ments, which I made in the autumn of 1837, with those 
abeady given of Opfa'*b Dyke, it will be seen what 
military advantages the one posseses over the other. 
The sectional representations which are given in the 
accompanying plate, will serve to shew at a glance, the 
relative magnitude of the most important of these works. 

On the Eastern side, the 10^11*0 JBit^ is eighteen 
feet above the average level of the subjacent country: 
on the Western, upon which side is the fosse, it is as 
much as thirty feet. The width, taken across the sum- 
mit of this huge mound, is twelve feet. The width of 
the Ditch is twenty feet: it is at present eight feet 
deep, and was originally perhaps two more. The entire 
length of the inclination of the sides of the vallum and 
fosse, are for the former, on the Eastern side, thirty 
feet; on the Western side, forty-six. The slope of the 
Ditch bank on the Western side of the fosse, is seven- 
teen. Judging from sections made at different parts, it 
does not appear to have varied more in its original 
state, than two feet ; and the same may be said of the 
other Ditches. From this it would seem, that any force 
having once obtained possession of the lB^tr0 lBitC9» 
could easily retain it, as well by reason of its precipitous 
character, aided by the depth and width of the fosse 
at its base, as from the circumstance, that an assault 
could not readily be made upon it without observation'. 

< These measures were made nearly midway between Reach, 
viilgo dictum Roach, and the BurweU road from Swqffham, A 


The B(lltt*0 9itt^ runs in a direct line for seven 
miles and a quarter. It commences at B&ach^ and ter^ 
minates at CamoU HaU near DitUm, The course of it 
lies from the North East to the South West. It is 
most perfect for the first mile and a half from Beaek, 
At the end of the first mile from its North Eastern 
extremity, it is cut through by the road which leads 
from Swaffham Prior to Burwdl. From this road it 
goes on in a considerable degree of preservation for a 
mile and three quarters, when it is again cut throu^ 
by another called Rwming Gap^ which communicates 
immediately with the Four mile Race Caune on Neuh 
fnarket HeaJtk. About a quarter of a mile further on, 
Staiklle Gap makes another sectional cut through it; 
and before it reaches the high turnpike road leading 
from Newmarket to Cambridge^ which is about a mile 
distant from this latter gap^ two other sections ar^ made 
through it by Wall Gap^ and Cambridge Gap. It is 
then cut through by the Icknield Street, and becomes 
somewhat diminished, continuing so for upwards of a 
mile, when the road communicating betwixt Newmarket 
and DuUingham, makes a seventh section through it. 
Here it is tolerably perfect till it reaches Stetehwortk 
Park\ where the last cutting is made through it; and 
we find no farther traces of it when we have pursued 
it to Camms HaU. 

The earliest notice made of this extraordinary work 
is by Matthew of Westminster, who states that in the 
year 902, Edward pursued iEthelwald' who had induced 

laborer on the spot described the Dsyil's Ditch to me, as being 
''a rare bit o' work when it was first huUed up," 

* There is an encampment here, which seems from its rectanga- 
larity, to be Roman. 

* Tandem com pneda maxima in offensns com redire dispoa- 
soisset ad propria^ rex £adwardus multo militum stipatns collegio 
su^rveniens, iEtnelwnldum versus East Angliam fiu;ientem inse- 
quitur. £t inter duo fossata Sancti Eaduundi, ilium cum suis 
omnibus ad campestre proelium pneparatum inveniens, facta suis 


the anny in Narihumb&rland and East AngUa to break 
the peace, and fought with him betwixt the two Dykes 
or St Edmuno, where on the part of the Danes were 
dain Eohrio their king, and iGthelwald who had insti- 
gated them to revolt. There was great slaughter on 
both sides, but chiefly on the part of the Danes, though 
they kept possession of the field of battle. Edward, 
however, infested the country with his troops and laid 
it waste from the IBebir^ SitCfl to the Otue, and 
even as far as Narihumberland, 

Canute declared it a prohibitory line in the year 
1021, and commanded that the king^s purveyors should 
not approach nearer than that barrier towards Bury 
8t Edmunds^ where he had richly endowed a monastery 
to expiate in some degree for the death of Edmund, 
who was treacherously murdered by Edric in 1016^ 

I am inclined to think that the other Ditch which 
is alluded to, is that now having the names of Fleam 
Dyke and Bauham Dtke, for they are one and the 
same work, though bearing different titles at each ex- 
tremity. As respects the relative priority of their con- 
struction, it may be inferred that the IBcbir0 9tt^f is 

exhortatioDe, irroit Yiriliter in ipsos. Flores Hist. Matth. West- 
mon. p. 362. 

The A. Sax. Chron. fixes this incazsion in the year 905. See 
Edit Gnme^ p. 117. 

At rex jBdwaidus congregans exercitum quam citios potnit, 
ivit post eos et terzam eonun totam prsedatos est inter Dicum et 
Uaam usque ad paludes in Nordhumbre. Henr. Huntingdon, p. 202. 

Lambarde, speaking of the DeviTs Ditch, says, "Cannt and 
thanncient Chioniclers name it St Edmondea Diche, bycause it was 
made for the oommodite of tiie Monkes of St Edmondes Burye. 
Topog. IMct. p. 240. 

^ The latter yean of Canute's reign were as remarkable for his 
deeds of piety and religious zeal, as its beginnii^ was for the display 
of martial virtues. I confess myself an unbeuever in the opinion 
which some writers have entertained, that he was accessory to 
Edmund's death. In confirmation of which I rely upon the cir- 
cumstantial narratiye left us by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, 
(see p. 208, 9, edit. 1696), and Wilfiam of Mahnesbury, (p. 41.) 
see also Sax. Chron. ann. 1016. 


the earlier work, from its being nearer the coiust. There 
is, however, so much uncertainty about every thing British, 
and so little historical reference can be made to this 
early period, that we have nothing better than our own 
conjectures to furnish illustration. We seek for light 
amid the greatest darkness whilst describing the works 
under notice, and can therefore only offer theories^ in- 
stead of facts to guide the enquirer. His own sagacity 
will lead him readily to detect our fallacies, for fallacies 
must always be inherent to opinions which have no better 
foundation than mere conjecture to rest upon. 

The average line of Fleam Dtke is from North East 
to South West, and it is situated six miles South West 
of the former. It begins at Fen Ditton (Ditch-town) 
and the first appearance of it is at a bam just on the 
Quy side of the village. The present road to Quy from 
Ditton is on the vallum of the dyke, the top of which 
has been thrown into the fosse to make the road suffi- 
ciently broad. Where the Ditton and Quy road joins 
the Neumarhet and Cambridge road, near Quy Water 
and Fen^ we lose it; but &id it again about half a 
mile West of Great Wilbraham^ whence it runs directly 
South, alongside some fenny ground to a point half a 
mile South East of FvJboum^ but this part of the 
vallum is hardly discernible, from having been spread 
upon the land. Near Fulboum it rises in its pristine 
state, and continues in a straight line, uninterrupted, 
unless by the small gaps cut in it South East, to within 
a quarter of a mile of Bakham. Between Fuiboum 
and Dungate it crosses the Icknield Way, near the 
Tumulus at Mutlow Hill. Towards Balsham it has 
been much abraded. Its fosse is on the same side as 
that of the HBttiV^ Bj^tit* This boundary or defence 
extends nine and a quarter miles. 

Both of these Dnx:«Es, I imagine, to have been 
constructed anterior to the Roman invasion of Great 


Britain. The Bdgw made swen in WiUshire^ and Celtio 
or Continental tribes might also have formed these. 
Etymology, which often gives great assistance in clearing 
up what is obscure, does not afford us any light here. 
When resolved into the A. Saxon, Fleam Dyke signifies 
FUglU Dyke. If this imports anything, it looks to the 
expukion of the Mercians hence, after the conflict they 
had sustained ^th the East Anglians and the Danes. 
But we are still left in utter ignorance of what occa- 
sioned the works to be planned. 

In passing, we may remark the singular fact of these 
DrrcHBs, being generally found running parallel to each 
other. Offa's Dyke runs parallel to Watt's Dtke ; 
Fleam Dyke parallel to the l^ttiV^ SttCJI^f whilst 
several of the Wiltshire Ditches are conformable to the 
same rule. Thus, if a straight line be drawn Northward 
from the Southern coast of England, about Dorsetshire 
and Hampshire^ only thirty miles into land, it would cut 
through the curve of no fewer than seven of these bound- 
aries successively circulating one beyond the other. All 
these seven valla describe the most desultory track, but 
proceed in windings nearly parallel ; a proof of their 
reference to each other, and that the Aboriginal Britons 
did not suffer the invaders to advance with any degree 
of precipitation ^ 

A third DrrcH in Cambridgeshire^ is Pampisford Ditch, 
about a mile South of Bourn Bridge^ lying upon de> 
dining ground between Abington Wood and Pampisford^ 
pointing towards Cambridge: towards the middle it has 
been filled up for the Icknield Way to pass over it, 
which shews it to be older than the road. It has no bank 
on either side, and is almost destroyed. It now begins 
on the Icknield Way, between Pampisford an^ Bourn 
Bridge^ running South East by South for about two 
miles towards Hildersham Wood. The vallum has been 
* Warton's HiBtory of KiddinffUm, p.* 73. 


fiqpread on the land, but it was on the same side as that 
of the other Dtkim. It is nearly parallel to Fleam Dyke, 
and distant four miles and a half. This must be the ditch 
mentioned by Camden, as running firom Hinwton East 
towards Horseheatk for five miles together. He probably 
never visited it. This ditch, like Flbam Dykb and the 
fi£lltt*0 JDittl^f extends from the woods to flat soft land. 

Brent Dyke runs North North West and South 
South East. It begins at ^Hhe springs^ in Fcuhnire 
Cotnmon (a fen) and continues up the hill to a spot 
where a track -way (apparently ancient) crosses it. Hence 
it is a stronger work throughout, although much muti- 
lated. It crosses the Icknield Way and a brook at the 
same spot, and from this point is only just traceable 
for the next two miles and a quarter, up the hill to 
Heydon in Enex^ beyond which the country is woody. 
Here all trace of it is lost, and it does not appear ever 
to have extended farther. The ditch has the vallum on 
the same side as the others, namely on the North East, 
or Norfolk side. Its whole course is about three miles 
and three quarters, and is nearly parallel to Pahpisford 
Dyke distant six miles and a quarter. 

The Ordnance Survey points out a iD^U*0 Sfffc^ 
in Noffoli^ beginning on Brandon River and going due 
North visibly for four miles and a half to CranwuA 
Hey9^ leaving Cranwich a quarter of a mile to the West. 
A little above Ccddecote^ eight miles North of the com- 
mencement, it is again perceptible for three miles, run- 
ning to Narborough. The high bank is on the Western side. 

Another iD^ir^ iBfilie in the same county begins 
at HaU Green^ and points for a mile and a half to- 
wards MiUham^ the highest bank being on the Ecui 
ride. This appears to be connected with the road 
through Shereford^ going due North through the park 
to ffolkham, and tenninating at the circular camp of 
Burrow Hill,* to the West of Welb on the Sea. 


There are still other DrrcHBs, both in DmneUhire and 
in Oxfordihire^ whioh ought to be mentioned, and in doing 
so I shall in part make use of the account of the elegant 
historian of Kiddington^ in the latter county, to make 
them familiar to the reader. Combs Dftch, says he, 
is one of the seven Celtic boundaries and abuts at one 
end on the river Alan by Blandford^ and on the other 
on the river Bere^ both in Dorsetshire. Wansdtkb is 
believed to be flanked by the Tees about Andofoer in 
Han^pMre^ and by the Awm near Bristol. In the same 
manner, to mention no more instances, the boundary at 
KiddingUm runs from the borders of the Olymm in BUn- 
heim Park^ yet with many an intricate digression, to the 
Ewfilode^ on the Eastern side of Blandfard Park, A 
Britieh or Celtic rampart, fresh and prominent, runs 
North and South at right angles over the Soman road 
to Farnham Castlb in Surrey^ originally a Roman for- 
tress, bearing on the North to the hamlet of OhiUand 
and the river Ichen^ about five miles from the East gate 
of the city of Winchester K 

Again, Avesditch or Ofpa'^s Ditch in Oxfordshire^ 
was drawn through that county about the year 778 as 
a partition between the Mercian and West Saxon king- 
doms, and may be still traced near Ardley^ Middleton 
Stoney^ Ncrihbrook^ Heyford^ and Kirtleton*. 

Thus far the printed authority. We wiD now come 
to a description of the present state of the ditch in 
question, which I owe to the kindness of Sir Henry 
Dryden, Bart, who visited it this summer. It bears in 
the Ordnance Survey the several names of Ashbank, 
Wattlbbank, and Avesditch. It commences at Plough- 
let Hill, close to Souldem in the county of Oxford^ 
and after trending nearly seven miles with a gentle 
degree of curvature, it terminates a little North of 
KiriUngton. It forms the road from Ploughlet Hill 

* Warton's History of Kiddington, p. 76. • lb. p. 56. 


to FrUteelly and now bears little refiemblanee to a val- 
lum or fosse. At intervals, a slightly raised bank of 
about fourteen feet across, runs parallel at a hundred 
and fifty yards distant on the East side. After leaving 
FritweU it is a road not much used: it is then alto- 
gether lost, but soon found again in a large gorse 
about two miles and three quarters from Ploughlsy 
Hill, betwixt Ardley Castle and Middleian Farm. Two 
or three hundred yards West of the line are some 
^' Remains'\ consisting of a vallum and fosse, running 
North and South for about four hundred and forty 
yards, having the vallum on the East. This vallum 
and fosse terminate abruptly both ways, and there are 
not any indications of their having turned at either end. 
The ground has never been ploughed, but there is no- 
thing to be seen near it, except about forty yards from 
the ditch side, a pentagonal entrenchment with a vallum 
and fosse; the former very much depressed, and the 
latter outwards. 

Soon after this we get again upon Avesditch. For 
some distance it is planted on each side and presents 
little appearance of any thing ancient. In about a mile 
it dwindles into a single track, with green on each side, 
and is slightly raised. The road presently parts from 
it, and the bank is found in a ploughed field about ten 
or eleven feet broad and eighteen inches high. The 
road, or Port Way, again crosses it: at the crossing 
it appears to have been paved. 

The two next pieces are called Ashbank^ (from two 
trees), and here the vallum is about two feet six high, 
and eighteen feet across. My informant could no where 
get the names of Wattlebank or Avesditch recognised 
by the country people. In one part it is called G>loot 
Bank, and that it has been Idrger than it is at present 
may be argued from the fact of its dividing the parishes 
in which Colcot and Middleton Stonsy stand. An old 


person met with on the spot, said that he remembered 
it ''much larger than it is at present; that ail the 
earth of the vallmn was taken from the West side, so 
that from that side it was impossible to look over it; 
that the top of it was seven or eight feet broader, and 
covered with stones, many cart loads of which had been 
taken awayT^ three heaps of these had just been car- 
ried away and were lying near the spot\ 

The frequent recurrence of Ditches in Wiltshir0 leads 
us to the supposition, that some of them must have 
been made to serve the purpose of entrenchments. Of 
this nature, I conceive, are those bearing the name of 
Hamshill DrrcHBS, a little to the North of Wihon: 
those in the immediate vicinity of Casterley Camp to the 
North of Amesbury^ and some others, which an inspec- 
tion of the Maps appended to Hoare's Ancient WiU- 
shirey will indicate at a glance. But the Ditciub which 
are known under the titles of Bokerlet Dftch, Old 
Ditch, Vern Ditch, Grims Ditch, and Wansdyke, were 
constructed with some other object in view. 

Such ditches as run for any considerable distance must 
have been intended for boundary lines, divisions between 
the territories, or lands of neighbouring chiefs; and the 
farther these lines were extended, the more powerful we 
may conceive the people to have been whose kingdoms 
they severed. Stukeley supposes them to have been 
formed by the BelgcB^ as a means of securing the land 
as they successively conquered it from the Britons, for 
as they contested it inch by inch, and fought pro arts 
et focis^ for their temples of SUmehmge and Abury^ these 
barriers were thrown up by the Bdgoe to secure what 
they had gained*. In the instance of Wansdyke, he 
thinks differently, and adduces what is always valuable 
when accompanied by facts, etymology^ to support his 

* See the section in the accompanying plate. 
' Stonehenge, p. 4. 


opinion. Wansdykib is evidently a boundary line. The 
length of it shews as much. It formerly extended 
from the Severn into Berkihire, a distance of ei^ty 
miles. Several traces of it are yet visible in Somet- 
igUhire, Wiltshire^ and Berhhire. Sir Richard Hoare 
traced it from M(iei KncU in SameneUkirey throu^ont 
the whole of Wiltahire^ to 8a/cemake Forett, and has 
given a map of its course, to which those readers are 
referred who desire circumstantial information on the 
subject. From an engraving, in his interesting and truly 
valuable work, the section which illustrates the present 
subject has been copied. Wansdtkb is derived from 
the (7. Brit, ffwahanu^ separare, and this coupled with 
the other fact, confirms the idea of its having been a 
frontier line. The opinion of the late Sir Richard Hoare 
leads us to believe that with the exception of Wanb- 
DVKE, and BoKERLET DiTCH ucar Woodyates^ the WiUMre 
Ditches were lines of communication, covered ways and 
sheltered, leading to British settlements. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Stanwick and 
Foreet in the county of JticAmond^ are some very re- 
markable fortifications, enclosing, by a system of irre- 
gular lines, a larger space of ground than perhaps has 
ever been discovered in any one encampment of any 
period in this island. It appears also to be connected 
with a vast prsetenture, consisting of a rampart and two 
ditches, drawn from the Tees to the SwdUy somewhat 
obliquely, and terminating near Barfarth at the Northern, 
and at Ecuby on the Southern extremity. It is some- 
times called by the inhabitants Scotch, and sometimes 
Rohan Dyke; but it is indisputably neither a work of 
the one nor of the other of these nations. This fact will 
be proved by the following account of the work itself. 

The Soots' Dtkb as it is generally called, though s(»ne-> 
times the Rohan Dtkb, much resembles the Bttlilf0 
iDitd^ on Newmarket Heathy consisting of an high ram- 


part of earth, with a foes on eaoh side, out of which the 
materials have been dug. I say on eaoh side, for the 
two fosses are very conspieuous on Gtitherley MoaVy 
where the work is most entire. A ^ery extensive work, 
however, with which it appears to have had some con- 
nexion, was traced about the year 1723 by Mr John 
Warburton, Stmiene^ Herald^ firom a place called Whed- 
fiUy where it enters England between the rivers North 
Tine and Bead. At Buey Gap the Roman wall cuts 
through it, which is decisive as to the comparative an- 
tiquity of the two works. Soon after, the Soors^ Dtks, 
as it is there called, crosses the South Tine^ and falls 
in with the course of the river Alone^ the banks of 
which being very deep, answer the purpose of an arti- 
ficial fortification, and supply the want of it to the 
head of that valley. At Bcote^ Neck it enters the 
Bishoprick of Durham^ and points towards the head 
of Tee8^ the course of which it is supposed to have 
pursued to WinHone^ and thence to Gatherley Moor^ 
after which it reappears in the township of EaAy^ and 
is seen, so far as I know, no more. 

There is some doubt with respect to its identity 
with the work traced by Mr Warburton out of Scotland^ 
as the two extremities terminate several miles from each 
other, and form a considerable angle. Dr Whitaker 
ccmsiders it to have been one of those gigantic, but 
always inefficient, attempts to preserve the peace be- 
tween two neighbouring and hostOe tribes, to which 
savages have always been fond of resorting. 

That the vast lines about Aldburgh^ Stanwickj and 
Foreei^ are connected with this mighty rampart, though 
they do not absolutely come in contact with it, there 
can be little doubt. The great similarity of the agger 
and foss in both, goes far, in my opinion, to prove 
them, respectively, works of the same people, and per- 
haps of the same age. 


The outline of the works at StcmfHck and Forcei 
approaches to no geometrical figure, nor, though alto- 
gether irregular, has it been directed, so far as Dr 
Whitaker could discover, by any advantage or disadvan- 
tages of ground. The whole is nearly upon a level. 
The whole circuit cannot be less than five miles, nor 
the area less than one thousand acres. 

On the main, my authority concludes, that this stu- 
pendous work formed the enclosure of a British city of 
unknown antiquity, abandoned in all probability, before 
the Romans invaded the Brigantes. There is not a 
vestige of Soman antiquity about the placed 

It is only by comparing analogous facts that we 
can hope to obtain any satisfactory information con- 
cerning their origin and intention. From pursuing this 
method in the present difficulty, we are enabled to draw 
a few conclusions that help us, though in a trifling de- 
gree, to dispel some of the darkness with which the 
subject before us is incumbered. 

The four great Wiltshire Ditches traverse the North- 
em edge of a ridge of hills, and have their bank in- 
variably on the South side, and their ditch on the 
North. From this it is conclusive, that if these were 
Ditches of Defence, they could not have been cast 
up by the British against their invaders, because the 
ditch is on the wrong side. By the like process of ar- 
gument we see that the fosse of Opfa's and of Watt**© 
Dtke is on the Welsh side of each. The fosse of the 
Devil^s Ditch and Fleam Ditch is on the West side 
of each. Wansdyke must have been formed, as Stukely 
says, by the Belgse. It is the last and most North- 
em boundary, and would cover their Southern con- 
quests'. Just as we see that Offals Dtke shut out the 

» Whitaker's Histoiy of Richmondahire, vol. i. pp. 207, 208. 
» Hoare'B Anct Wiltshire, p. 18. 


This enabloB us to draw another inference ; namely, 
that when we see two of these ditches running paraUd 
to each other, the fosse being on the same side of each, 
there are manifest proofs of their being constructed bj 
the same people, and with the like object in view. And 
this again leads me to think that the four Wiltshire 
DUeieSy were the works of the Bdgw^ as we know 
that the two Welsh Ditches were the labor of Offa; 
Watt\ was the earlier of his two, I suspect, and probi^ 
bly not being suffidently extended, the defect was subse- 
qu^itly supplied by forming the longer barrier. And that 
FuEAM Dtkb, the JDttlU*0 JDitt|^» luid Bbent Ditch, 
had the same intention ; if defimsive they were to protect 
the East Anglians against the Mercians, or, looking to 
a much earlier period, the Celtic invaders against the 
Aborigines. On the other hand, if these works are 
regarded solely as frontier lines, there are less diffi- 
culties to encounter; always, however, excepting the 
great iiHoriecd obscurity which overhangs the WiUthire 
and CambriigeMre^ Ditches, a darkness which it is to 
be feared wfll never be dkpelled. We have nothing 
bat conjecture for our guide; fancy must supply the 
^aoe of history, and though it may sound paradoxical, 
yet on a subject enveloped in so much obscurity, the 
most imaginative and ingenious may perhaps turn out 
after all to be the best antiquary. 


Surf Ca«tlr* 

|uRF Castlb IB a 8inall oval entrench- 
ment lying on the Bummit ot ui 
eminence a mile and a half East of 
the village of Quai/ord, It ie na- 
turaUy strong on Uie South, South 
East, and South West adee, but 
lees 80 on the others. With a view 
of counteracting the weakness here, a ditch and vallum 
seem to have be^i formed, as faint traces of them are 
still perceptible. The fosse does not appear ever to 
have been considerable, if we nuijr judge of its breadth 
by present indications, which would make it not ex- 
ceeding twelve feet in width. From the land being 
under the plough, we are unable to state precisely tiie 
original dimensions. Enough only remains to shew that 
a ditch and artificial bank formerly strengthened the 
North East side of the hill upon which this camp 
stands. It enclosed two or three acres, which proves 
at once, that it was never a fortification of any mag- 

Having stated thus much about the present appear- 
ance of BuRF Castle, we must endeavour to ascertain next 
what people constructed it, and this is a point not quite 
so readily settled. The primary meaning of the word 
Burf is, a summit, or point. For this spot, like Abdon 
Burp, is as often called by the peasantry of the dis- 
trict Baff, as Bur/, Barf comes from Bar^ a height 
or hill: thus the C. Brit. Arm. Bret. Irish bar; Gael. 


barr; Dan. bar, naked, without trees, as elevated spots 
usually are, and th»e are numerous synonyms in the 
Eastern languages, either simple or in oon^Kidtion, which 
reoognise the word as implying height of schdo descrip- 
tion or other. In its secondary sense Burf means an 
melo99Hn$: C. Brit, buarth. 

That the Danes shouhl have constructed this forti- 
fication, after they fled before Alfred in the year 896, 
seems at first sight the most reasonable sappoation. 
Yet there are some grounds for thinking that tt is not 
the very fortress wUch is aDuded to by one of the 
historians, wlio describes the occurrences of the period. 
The spot the Danes fixed upon for their winter quarters 
is stated, by all the ohronioleiB who mention the event, 
to have been at OwMrioge, Now Qko^M^ which seems 
to be the place alluded to, lies a mile and a half firom 
BuBF Gastue, and at Quatfatd there do not exist any 
vestiges of a military kind^ which on sufficient evidence, 
can be ccmsidered as of Danish origin. Yet that these 
people formei an mHwwkmeni somewhere in the imme- 
diate vidnity is indisputable, inasmuch as Florence of 
Worcester teUs us, that after having constmoted a for- 
tifioation they passed the winter there^ 

As has been already mentioned, the distance of these 
two places firom each other, gives rise to a difficulty, 
and besides this there is another to be encountered, 
which presents itself in the circumscribed and limited 
dimmsianH of the existing works. They seem scarc^ 
capaUe of acconmsodating a numerous body of people, 
wUeh there is reason for supposing those plunderers 

Again, if we look to the other side of the argument, 

we are unaUe to discover the least traces of defensive 

* Qood xM Paganis innotuit, uxoribiu in East Anglia denno 
ooouKModatu, navibnaque raUdiSy locom qui Quatbrif akaixat, pe- 
destres oeleri fiiga petuniL oonstnictaqiie aibi munitione, hiemem 
iMdem exigmit Flor. WigonL p. 394, edit. 4to. 



occnpation in any other quarter than Burf CAsenx. 
Under these circumstances, I think we are not assmn- 
ing too much, when we state that the weight of evi- 
dence preponderates in favour of Bubp Castle being 
the fortress which is said to have been erected by the 
Danes. And if this view be a correct one, we shaM 
then gain an important piece of knowledge relative to 
the mode of fortification practised by this nation. Re- 
garding, therefore, the specimen of castrametation before 
us, as a Danish Earth-wobk, we see that in comparison 
with similar works which owe their existence to the 
Britons, the Romans, or the SaxMis, the present one is 
inferior in strength and magnitude to nearly every one 
with which we are acquainted. The Danes appear in this 
instance, to have trusted mainly to the remoteness and 
obscurity of their position. The natural advantages of 
situation were few, and they effected but little to in- 
crease them artificially. This may easily be accounted 
for, if we contemplate their diaracter, and the circum- 
stances under which they ravaged the country. They 
were littie better than wandering and restless freebooters, 
who annually infested our coasts, making descents upon 
it whenever opportunities offered. Their army waa pro- 
bably fonned in great part of desperate adventurers, 
who placed more reliance for success upon the tenor 
which their very name excited, than upon the discipline 
of their troops. Such an unorganised body of marauders 
were necessarily unacquainted with the art of castrame- 
tation. Their visits to this country were so hurried, 
and their sojourn so brief, that they had scarcely the 
opportunity, even had they possessed the power, of erect- 
ing any fortifications commensurate with those previously 
existing in the island. It is not surprising, then, that 

" The incessant rovers of the Northern mam" 
as they have been happily called by one of our modem 
poets should have left behind them on the face of the 


ooimtiy, 80 few memorials indicative of their settlement. 
These facts fiilly explain why we rarely meet with mili- 
tary works in Oreat Britain which can upon uncon- 
trovertible grounds be attributed to the Danes ^ 

^ Whether Hun^torwgh HiU, near Northampton, is a Danish 
encampment is veiy uncertfun. Bratton HiU in WUUhire has better 
pretensioiis for being called such, as this has been considered on 
very good grounds to have been the camp into which Alfred intro- 
duced himself in disguise. See Vita iEliredi, p. 33. 

dtAM^m Ctamp 

IE8 about two miles and a half South 
East of Ludlow, on a gentle eminence. 
It is a double camp, fortified by a 
high vallum, and a fosse: the latter 
is only at that end where the two 
camps join. The entrance is at the 
East, and is about six paces wide, 
iere a good section of the vallum is obtained. Its 
base is as much as thirty-four yards wide, and the re- 
lief of the wall rises nearly twenty feet above it. On 
three sides the land falls somewhat precipitously. The 
mound is highest on the Elastem side, where the slope 
is easiest. At the Western end of the Easterly camp 
there are two openings into the other. The top of the 
vallum of both is planted. As might be expected in a 
view from an insulated eminence, the prospect is highly 
beautiful. There is a great similarity between Cainkam 
Camp and the one upon Ponaert Hill. The latter is 
British and it seems reasonable to refer this to the 
same period, for the earth-works here are too exten- 
sive to have been originally built by the Mortimers 
who held the manor. Leland, speaJdng of it, says, 
'^ Kainsham pr Kensham CcuUe^ dene down, stood within 
two miles of Ludloey on a hill top.^ This was evidently 
the site of their castle, but it must have been built sub- 
sequently to the construction of some of the present ram- 
parts — which are far too extensive to have been formed 
by a family, ever powerful as that of the Mortimers was. 


We cannot diacover any thing in the etymology which 
Berves to elucidate the early history of this fortification. 
In C. Brit, and Bret. Cae^ signifies sepes^ daustrum, as 
we should say a boundary, thus the brook which runs 
underneath bears the name of Cay^ and Caynham or 
Cainhani, means the village or hamlet which is the 
boundary — ^The boundary of what? Of Herefordshire 
and Shropshire. 

Soar SbtotMp 0Utt Stome, 
Stone0 of ittemotriaL 

LL those fliiigle fiiones, upright, and 
unhewn, that we meet with in 
di£ferent parts a! Shropshire under 
the name of Hoab Stonies are 
boundary marks. With one ex- 
oeption, however, near the Wkiie 
Grit Lead Mine which has wrong- 
ly acquired this title. It is a 
custom derived from the earliest 
ages to erect single stones by 
way of defining the limits of territory. 
A Hoar Stone is a stone of me^ 
morial, a division between estates and 

As far back as the Patriarchal era 
it was the practice to fix such bound- 
aries of property. Thus we continu- 
ally find allusion made in the Old 
Testament to these artificial barriers. 
Where no natural line of demarcation 
offered itself, the Israelites made a stone 
their boundary ; as in the limits of the 
kingdom of Judah; "and the border 
wont up to the atone of Bohan the son 
of Reuben." Joshua xv. 6. 

The land-marks of the Greeks and Romans were 
similar, and to write on them would occupy a separate 


treatise. The poets abound in aUusion to the limits of 
prsedial possessions. Thus, Viigil, in the twelfth book of 
the iEneid, places one of these huge stones in the hand 
of Tumus, when he struggles with iGneas: having bor- 
iK>wed the idea from the twenty-fiist book of Homer, 
who represents Minerva aasailing Mars in the same way. 

Saxum antiquum, iimens, campo quod forte jaoebat 
Ldines agio positua, htem ut msoemeiet anris. 

And in one of his elegies, Tibullus describing the hap- 
piness of the Satumian age, makes one of the advan- 
tages which the simple people at that day possessed, 
to consist in their equal rights, having neither need of 
doors to their dwellings or boundary marks to their 

Non domua uUa fores habuit; non fixua in agiis. 
Qui regeiet certis finibus arva lapia. 

Lib.!. mog.vLy.43,44. 

Upon looking into the object of Hoab Stones at a much 
later period, we find it still the same. Northern nations 
separated their districts by similar means. They pre- 
vail to the present day in Nubia \ as well as in our 
own country, and still ftdfil their original intention. The 
derivation of the word explains their use. From the 
Oreek downwards, there are synonymous and symphonious 
words in aU European tongues: thus Crr. op<K; Lat. ara; 
Lat. Barb, oraria; Celt. C. Brit, or and oir; Ir. or^ 
ur; Gael, ear^ aird; Arm. harz; Teut. oort; Oerm. 
Fran. Alaman. S. Goth, ort; A. Sax. or, ord^ ara; Ital. 
orlo; Fr. arU; Span, orla^ ora^ limes. Hence our word 
HORIZON, and the heraldic term orfe, for a bordure or 
selvage ; and in monumental architecture, orle the fillet 
encircling the bacinet of a knight. 

In Shropshire several places bear their appellations 
from these causes. Woore, (m Domesday Book Wavre^) 
is a small village lying on the Northern extremity of 

' Hamper on Hoar Stones, Aichsol. vol. xxv. 


Shiopflhire, pent in between ^affordMre and OketUn. 
There 10 the Hoar Edge, (Salopioi dictum Whuure or 
What idge) a very devated range of the TimnuarroNi 
which ninB from it in an Easterly direction, and terves 
as a natural barrier betwixt the (Jain of LwOow and 
WcTcetterMre ; and the Hoar Edge above the DbvilV 

BuRWABTON under Abdon Burf, implies that it is 
Ae town on the burden rf the Bmrf: Burf Hoar Town 
as we should say ; by the same rule as Wabton in Btetf* 
fordMre is so called, from bordering upon the connty of 
Shropshire. Harley also receives its name from beii^ 
flat land (see Glossary under ley) at the bonndaiy, to 
wit, the Ihnestone barrier above it, of WsifLOCK Einca; 
and Hordlet, for the same cause, from being near the 
principality, on the extreme South East of the county; 
and Arley, from touching upon Wcrceetenhire. In the 
immediate vicinity to this village lies Wars Hill Camp, 
a small rectangular work, apparently of the Bomati 
period, but which like Wirswall, (where are discover- 
able faint indications of an entrenchment,) that Ues 
just out of Shropshire, on the confines of Cheshire^ de- 
rives its name from the same source. Farlow also, a 
village on the extreme South Eastern side of Shropshire, 
and Oreton which is contiguous, and Farlow Brook, 
take their name from being on the confines of this 
county and Worcestenhire. Whilst a little more South- 
ward still, is BoRASTON, upon the same barrier. 

The actual Hoar Stones themselves that now enst 
are few. There are two in the neighbourhood of 09- 
weetry^ whether they still mark the boundary of parishes 
I am unable to say. There is every reason for think- 
ing if they have ceased to do so, that formerly they 
were erected for that or a similar purpose. One of 
these lies very near Offals Dyke, and about a mile 
to the South West of the race-course. It gives the 


name to an adjoining farm and is known by the de* 
8ignata<m of Cabbg y bio, or thb pointkd stonb, from its 
indined poBition. It was six feet ten above the but- 
fiice when I saw it in the autumn of 1888, and mea- 
Bured aoroBB the Western face three feet six inches: 
aeroBs the South Eastern snrfaoe, two feet ox, havii^ 
a narrow side m inches across betwixt each of them. 

The second Hoar Stone in this part of the county 
lies a few yards to the right of the MdyhMd road^ a 
mile on the Skrewthury side of Oswetiry. It forms so 
conspicuous an object in trayelling in this direction, 
that it came natundly under my observation when psBS* 
ing by last year. This is called Oabbbo lwtd, or the 
ffrey^ hoary ikme: and such is its present colour: for it 
is of a deep grey at the summit, and its tones gra- 
dually mellow from that, through every degree of silver- 
grey, till it becomes, towards the base, of a rich light 
red. It is of an elongated pentagonal shape, four of its 
sides being ahnost equal, the fifth very narrow. It mea- 
Bures twelve feet six in circumference, and is three 
feet across the centre : the height nearly nine feet. As 
this is a sand-stone, and unlike what is found in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood, it has clearly been carried hither 
from a distance to serve the purpose to which it was 

There is a third Hoab Stonb in this division of Shrop- 
shire, which stands upon the leftrhand side of the same 
turnpike road, nearer to the county town, two miles and 
a half South of West Fdtan. There is also a place called 
HoarstoM lying between Moretan Say and Hattiatone. 

The next Stone of this kind which comes under our 
notice is at a conmderable distance from that part of the 
county in which the preceding memorials are situated. 
Nearly upon the summit of Cflunbury HiU, at the head 
of a slight valley on the Western side, is a large up- 
right stone, of that kind termed by Geologists green 


tione. That this huge masB has been carried here from 
some pbce or other is perfectly evident, beoaase the 
structure of the hill upon which it stands is differ^it 
from it, being that known under the name of lower 
Ludhtt rock. Thus far then the Oeologists can help us. 
But the Antiquarian recognises immediately a boundary 
stone, a Hoab Stonb properly so called, a point at which 
the parishes of dunyunford and dwnbury separate. 

There is a Hoar Stone to the East of Bishofs CtuUe 
close to the castle. In Halei Owen there is a Hoar 
Stone, dividing it from Nortkfield in the county of Wor- 
cestershire^. In the same neighbourhood we have War- 
usT Bank on the edge of either county, and Harborne, 
quasi Hoar bourn, on the verge of Worcestershire and 
Wctrwickshire. The four counties hereabouts run so 
confusedly together, that it is difficult with aU the ad- 
vantages of landmarks and etymology, for any one but 
a parish officer to ascertain them. 

The Horeston is mentioned in the Cartulary of St 
Peter's, SaUop*, '^ Usque le Horeston in Ardlestones 
grene.**^ The Horreston occurs in a Cartulary of Hoffh- 
mon Abbey^ ; in a deed of lands without dat-e at AsUm^ 
near Oswestry, ^^ Et sic directe usque le Horeston m 
Twychenyldd Grener Salop Forest Roll, 26 Edw. I. 
describing Bunde Foreste de Lythewood. Et sic descen- 
dendo usque le Horeston in Ardlestones Grene, ib. de- 
scribing Bunde Haye de Welintan. 

Mere Stones are also boundary marks. I know but 
one in the county of Shropshire, and this is a modem 
erection on the site where an ancient stone, bearing 
this name stood within the last few years. It is near 
Wilmoor Pool, midway betwixt the Titterstone and the 
Hoar Edge. At present it serves to indicate the divi- 

' Hamper in Archaoolog. vol. xxv. p. 65. 
* Penes Sir Thos. Phillipps, fol. 252. 
^ Hamper in Archjeolop. vol. xxv. p. .55. 


sions of two properties, am a stone ftithout a name does 
on the Wrekin. The peculiar designation of Mere 
Stone^ is recognised in some of the Northern languages, 
in which countries its use is similar to what it has 
obtained in ours. Thus we find in the Isl. mart, lauda 
nuBri; Fris. mare; A. Sax. meare; S. Goth, mare; Belg. 
meer; Lapp. mcBrre; Sclav, mera; Dalm. mira; *Pol. 
miara ; Fenn. mw(Brw, terminus ; 6r* fieipwj divido. 

There will not be any difficulty in distinguishing 
between Stones of Memorial, like the foregoing, and 
those geolo^cal phsenomena, known as Ebratic Blocks. 
Where these occur they are seldom found singly and 
upright too, but usually scattered, lying prostrate upon 
the surface, as we see them in a valley between dun- 
bury Hill and Buihop^i Ccutle. Thus the HxniSTDNE near 
Rowley RegU^ on the confines of the county on the 
WoTcettershire side, is a magnificent block of basalt 
standing at the edge of a bold hill, and the Stiper- 
ffTONEs (from the Islandic Steypa, fusio metallorum), are 
a well-known range of hills in Shropshire. 

' The Druids' Altar^ near the Rath of MuUinuut in Irdand, 
served the purpose oriciniilly of a Mbrs Stonb. Campion says 
that JreLmd was diyidea into five parts, between five princes, and 
that ''for better contentation of all sides, they agreed to fix a 
meare-«tone in the middle point of Ireland, to which stone every 
one of their kingdoms should extend." Vide Dublin Penny Jour- 
nal, voL iv. p. §^. 


HE Saxon Chronicle states that the 
Danes built a fortress at Cwatbrioge 
in 896, and with the expectation of 
fin ding some military remains there 
that might safely be ascribed to then 
marauders, I examined the spot at 
the close of last year. It must be 
acknowledged that I had the most sanguine hopes of 
meeting with, at least here, something which might sa- 
tisfactorily be considered a Danish work. But whaterer 
might have existed at the earlier period, had through 
a change of occupants become so altered, that it was 
no longer possible to say with precision what had been 
built by the original possessors. An undisputed speci- 
men therefore of a Danish encampment yet remains to 
be found. My enquiries, however, though unattended 
with success upon the bearing where it was most desired, 
were not without a certain degree of value, as they st- 
abled me immediately both to classify several military 
remains existing in other parts of the county^ and also 
to assign their erection to a definite time. There is sudi 
a manifest resemblance between Quatford, CAflTLE Puir 
VERBATCH, WoousTASTON aud HoLOATE, that I havc now 
no hesitation in considering the four to be erections of 
the same period. 

That the Danes had a settlement at Cwaibricge in 
the year 896, and that Cwaibricge must be understood 
to mean the present village of Quatford, and not Bridge- 
north^ does not admit of the least doubt. 


Aflauming then that this matter of geography is 
settled, I proceed to describe appearances as they were 
in 1888, merely premising in additi<A to the facts which 
will shortly be detailed, that this investigation completely 
sets at rest, in my own mind, any speculations that would 
tend to invest the eaisHnff remains with a Danish character. 

The viDage of Qnatford is most romantically placed 
upon the banks of the Severn, which is here navigable 
for vesseb of Considerable burden. At the back of it 
stretches for some miles an extensive tract of level sandy 
country. In this there are discoverable some works of 
an eariy nature, though they are partially e£GM)ed. They 
consist of BuBT Castlb which lies a mile and a half o^ 
CmESTBirroN, and the nearly undiscemible Tumuli which 
Mr Stackhouse opened about a century ago. Although 
the surrounding country has been described as sandy, it 
is remarkable for bringing its crops to maturity earlier 
than any other land in Shropshire, besides possessing an 
unusual degree of fertility. It is not to be wondered 
at that the Danes, when they retreated through Merda 
before Alfred, upon first seeing the natural advantages 
which the situation possessed, should fix upon it for their 
winter quarters ^ By means of the precipitous and in- 
accessible rock overhanging the river, an assault from 
that quarter would be impossible, or when compelled 
to retreat they had easy access to the water below it, 
which during this season of the year would enable them 
to use any new vessels that they might construct after 
the loss of their fleet near London. And as all our 

' Sed non multo post supenreniente reee Aelfredo, compulsi 
Bunt pagani locum doBexere^ et noctu recodentes per proyinciam 
Merdoram, nou oeaeabanty donee ad yiUam super Sabnuam, que 
QuanUMge dicitur, perrenenmt Matt West p. 348. 

Florenoe of Woroester gives nearly the same versioii of their de- 
fiaat and subsequent settlement ''Ouod ubi Paganis imiotuit, ux- 
oribus in Eastanglia denuo commendatiBy navibusque relictis, locum 
qui Quaibrig didtur, pedestres celeri fuga petunt, constructaque sibi 
munitioney hiemem ibidem exigunt" p. 334. edit 4to. 1692. 


authorities expressly say that they ttintered here, at 
this time the Seyem would readily admit of their new 
vessels being serviceable to return with, if they had 
built them. They departed in the spring^ dispers- 
ing themselves in Eatt AngUa^ and Northwmberlamd. 
That they should have oonstruoted the present place of 
defence during this short visit seems rather improbable, 
because if we may form an adequate idea of its sice 
from the modem vestiges, it would be too small to be 
serviceable to so numerous a force. It is, however^ 
worth examination, whether or not they built and oc- 
cupied the neighbouring entrenchment of Busf Caotus, 
an enquiiy that has been pursued in a former section. 
To return to our description of Quatford; my own 
opinion is, that the fortress erected here by the Danes 
was so completely merged in the works of the Normans 
afterwards, that were we not assured by an impartial 
annalist of its having once existed, it would be very 
problematical, such a Normanesque appearance does 
every thing now wear. About a quarter of a mile be- 
low the village, and upon a rock precipitously overhang- 
ing the river, there are indications of a keep having 
formerly stood'. This rock would be naturally impreg- 

> ^stivo tempore Paganomm exerdtuB, qni apud QuOtbrige hie- 
mayexet^ pars qucdam iEstangliam, pars qusdam Northimbiiain 
petit, ex quibuB nonnulli ibidem remanaenmt, nomuilli vero navibiis 
aoquisitis ssspe dictum flomen Sequanam adienmt. Matt. West. 
p. 334. edit. 4to. 1692. 

' Any one who has been in the habit of examining the existing 
appearances of Norman Castles will inmiediately identify the artifi- 
cial momid on the summit of the rock, as the gromid-work of a 
Norman Keep. The same sort of thinff may be seen at Chwutry 
at this day. On the top of an artificial mount, outside the town, 
formerly stood a Castle that is called by Leland Mado^s Tower, 
which according to Powell was built by Madog ab Meiedydd ab 
Bleddyn in 114Q. English historians fix it at an earlier date, as- 
signing its construction to Alan, a Norman chief upon whom it 
was bestowed soon after the accession of the conqueror. The po- 
sition of the Keep of Cardiff Castk is the same : Pickering CaiUe, 
and Scarborough Caetle in Yorkshire^ part of Coni^Mrough Cakkt part 
of Carinhrook Cagtle in the Isle of Wight, Guildford CaHle in Surrey, 


nable on the side next, the water, as it rises neariy a 
hundred feet in perpendieular altitude above it. As 
the other sides needed protection, they were surrounded 
by a deep ditch out round the base of the mound. Al- 
together unlike any other species of fortification with 
which I am acquainted ; this ditch is cut in a curvilinear 
direction for nearly two hundred yards ihnmgh the solid 
roeij and the marks of the workmen^s tools upon it in 
several places are still distinctly visible. It is tlu:ee yards 
wide at the bottom, and at least four in depth below the 
average level of the meadow above it, whilst the sum-* 
mit of the keep upon the top of the rock is about 
twenty-five feet above the same level. Whai we ex- 
amine this remarkable work more closely, we find that 
it was not merely the natural advantages of soil and 
situation which induced its possessors, subsequent to the 
Danish period, to leoccupy the spot; for as the rods, lies 
immediately above a ford, they strengthened it with a fur- 
ther view of preventing any hostile passage through the 
river. There are faint indications of an inferior keep a 
little nearer the ford, close to the present footpath lead- 
ing to the ferry; this was evidentiy desired for its 
special protection. Another ford a little higher up the 
river still bears the name of Danesfordy probably in 
aUusion to the earliest settlers. 

It seems then that a difficulty which camiot easily 
be got over presents itself, if we regard the existing 
vestiges at QucOford as Danish constructions, arising, as 
was just stated, both from their comparative insignifi- 
cance and from their peculiarly Norman character. Upon 
reading further in the Anglo Saxon annalist, we learn 
that in the year 912, iEthelflsed, the lady of MerciaS 

Narham CaHle in Northumberland, Orfwd Castle in Si/ffolk, and 
Giaere in Normandy, all manifest the same confonnity. 

' Anno £dwaidi regis xviii. Elfleda domlna Mercies buTgam ad 
Seoriaie et bnignm apnd Brugge, posuit et constnixit. Chron. Job. 
Brompton^ p. W3. 



buih a fortified town at Briege. Ab Owatbricge wag so 
particularly mentioned in the former panage, I see no 
reason for torturing the prasent one so aa to make it 
imply that these two places are identical, one and the 
same. It is most natural to suppose they are not, from 
the difference of the name, and to refer it to Briigenwih; 
indeed the deseriptionB of Matthew Westminstw, Flor- 
ence of Worcester, and Simeon of Durham clearly fix 
it there, as QitatfoTd lies upon the wrong side of the 
river to correspond with their account of the eirenra- 

Whilst this view fixes the site of the erected or re- 
stored castle at Bridgenartiy it however encumbers us 
with the necessity of seeking for fresh evidence to prove 
when the keep at Quai/ard and the trench surrounding 
it were made. From the apparently credible account 
which has been recorded of the event that led to the 

^gelfleda Meitdorom domina, secnudo Nonas Mail com ezercita 
ad locum, aui Sceaigate didtiuv venity ibidemque aroem munitam 
ezstruxit; dehinc in oecidentali phga Sabrine numinis, in loco qui 
Brkoe didtor, aliam €ed^iomfU. Flor. Wigor. p. 341. 

Thb veaaage is repeated in the Hiatoiy of Simeon of DuTfaam, 
p. 153. edit Twysden. 

Eodem tempore iSlfleda Meidorum dominay com exerrita mag^no 
t^ud Sfcreoflite veniena, SBdificavit ibi aroem munitam, et m phga 
oocidentaR Sabrin^Jluminis, in loco qui Brigges didtur, aliam re- 
HaumvU. Matt. West p. 367. 

This lady seems to have been remaikable in fleveml wnrs, if 
we may trust the author quoted in the ensuing sentence. He de- 
scribes ner as cifted with smffularly matron-like prudence from her 
ei|ghth year. She left behind her an only daughter, Algiva, whose 
birth caused her so much sufiering that for the forty remaining 
years of her life she refused to accept the embraces of her husband: 
''a viii thoro sese et oommixtione caniali subtraxit, dedignans 
ulterius, animi nobilitate ducta, hiboriosi partus itemm experiri 
doloies." p. 369. 

' I believe that a different opinion is entertained by an intelligent 
gentleman who resides upon the spot, who has paid the local hiatoiy 
of the neighbourhood considerable attention, and that my bite friend 
the Rev. J. B. Blakeway, in his Histoiy of Shrewabury endeavoured 
also to make out Quatford to be the Cwaibriege b(B Safem, as well 
as the Brief of the Saxon Chronicle. I think the passages already 
quoted which must have escaped their notice, wul enable us on 
suffident grounds to distinguish the two places as difierent 


fomidation of the neigfaboaring ohurdi, we may oonelude 
that the oastle was biiiH a few years later^ 

^ItuAfUfri waB one of the nnmeroufl manon granted 
by Uie Conqueror, to Roger de Montgomery. Ab he 
was in the habit of hunting in these parts, the strong 
hold at Qi^yaltfwd might have been erected for his bo* 
oasional reridence when he oame hither to enjoy the 
pleasures of the ohase, and this recreation he pursued 
with great snooess, if we may oonsider the immense 
number of red deer bones and boanT tusks which were 
found in the ditch underneath the keep when it was 
excavated a few years ago by Mr SmaUman, as consti- 
tuting the spoil of his labors. Be this, however, how it 
may, it is quite dear that the keep in question must 
have been erected here within two centuries from the 
time when the Saxon Chronicler affirms Aelfleda rebuilt 
the fortress at Bridpenartk^ inasmuch as the survey, made 
by order of the Conqueror^, speaks of a new kome at 
Quaffbrd; the colony or town is also expressly mentioned 
in the same document, as well as by our countiyman 
Vitalis, who states that Earl Rogers^ son, Robert de 
Belesme, in the year 1098, removed the iidiabitants 
from QwUford to Brugia^ or Bridffenarih* : (that is the 
Saxon Briege which is North of the afore-mentioned Cttai' 
bricffe)y ndiere he built a very strong castle for the pro^ 
tection of the inhabitants. 

History informs us that with Robert de Belesme, 
aD^giance was an easy obligation, and he was induced 

> It is called in Domesday Book (p. 264), Nova doiniia, and as 
the survey of Shropshire was completod by the year 1062, this paa- 
aage must refisr to the newly-erectod castle ; the building of which 
may be fixed between 1067, when Roger de Montgomeiy fiist came 
into England, and the latter date. 

SemHan and SoearpaJte are identical, and refer to a place in 
WcreetUrMre. '* In WvooAy in loco qui ScearHan nominator." FL 
Wiffom. p. 385. 

' Oppidnm de Quatjbrt transtulit, et Brugiam monitSsBimnm 
caatellnm super Sabrinam flnyium oondidit. Otder. VitaL p. 768. 


<M>iiBequently to take these meaaurefl^ for faiB own peracHud 
security ^ The march of Henry against his. rebellious 
subject the surrender of the newly fortified c&Btler after 
a tii^ee weeks^ AegBj ihe descent of tibe king's army 
through the rugged pass of Wenloci Edg€\ and the 
final surrender of Earl Robert at Shrewtbury to the 
yiotorioufl monarch, are fully detailed in the pages <i{ 

^ Ibi nempe Bingiam mnnitiwrimnTn oastmm super Sabiinam flu- 
Tium cDDstraebaty et totis ad resisteiidum TiribtuB aoyiliarihs frustia 
qunrebftt (Ajmo.1102.) Order. Vital p. 806. 

' It will not be out ox j^laoe here to quote the Monk's description 
of 'IhiB paas, as the Yolume in which it is contained is rarely to be met 
with. Kex autem phalanges suas jussit Hund-hpgem pertraoaiiey et 
Scrobesburiam nrbem in monte sitam obsedere, que in temis lateribus 
dztnunlnitur Sabrina flumine. Angli qnippe quendam transitam per 
SHyam Hune^jfe-hem dicunt*, qnem Latim nudum callemty vel yjcmn, 
nuncnpare possont. Via enim per mille passus erat caya, grandlbus 
Saxis aspera, stricta quoque qusB vix duos paritur equitantes capere 
¥alebat; coi opacum nemus eit utraque parte obumbrabat^ in quo 
Sagitarii delitesoebanty et stridolis misulibus vel sagittis prsatereuntes 
subito multabant. Tunc plus quam LX millia i>editum eiant in expe- 
ditione, quibns rex jussit silvam secoribus pmcidere, et ampliflsnnam 
fltratam sibi, et cunctis transeuntibus usque in aetemum prsepuare. 
Regia jussio velociter completa est, Saltuque oomplanato Uitisrimtts 
trames a multitudine adfieqnatus est. (ib. p. 807> &N)8.) An account 
•of these transactions is nuly given in Mr Blakeway's History of 
Shrewsbury, pp. 19—^, with his usual deamess and fidelity. 

When 6u4ldus de Barri travelled from Shrewtbury to Ludlow he 
went up this pass, which stiQ bore the appellation of the bad road. The 
circumstance leads him to relate an an^ote connected with it, and 
this aflso serves to sive us an idea of the humor which prevaOed 
among the educated classes at the period. It happened, inyB the 
Archbishop, id mv time, that a certain Jew journeying towards 
Shrewt^ry with the Archdeacon of the same place whose cogno- 
men was (Peck ?) Peeeatum, ^sin), and a Dean whose name was 
{Dibble?) JMabolus, {or the Devil), hikard the Archdeacon inddent- 
ally remark that his Archdeaconry commenced at this place which 
is termed the bad road, {nuUa platen), and that it terminated at a bad 
end, {^nyUua paemie) Malpas, near Chegter, Turning over in his mind 
the cognomen of Uie Archdeacon and Uie name of the Dean, he 
£M)etiously subjoined, '' It is a marvel to me if mj luck ever carries 
me safely out of this country, seeing that sm is the Archdeacon, 
and the Dean the Devil, a bad road, forsooth, is the beginning of 
the Archdeacom^ and a bad end the termination." Itiner. Camb. 
lib. iL c. Id. p. 877. 

* A. Sax. Aimel, protervus. 

t *« Pitmrie ergo caBU lenilta tanuis. caUo peeorum. pneduiata.** Vur. de Ung. Latin. 
Hence the French ekauuie unlen it be from catcUnu. V. Beigier, vol. ii. p. 14a Menage 
Diet Etyroolog. voL i. p. 361. 


our Monkish historiafi, but ais their investigation scarcely 
accords with the object of the present volume^ I must 
reluctalitly suflfer -them to pass >nrithdut further observa- 

The inferences then that I would establish are these. 
that no remains are now visible at Quaifard which can 
be considered of Damcdi origin : that the castle which 
thh Saxon Chrcmicler and Matthew WeJEttminster state 
as being liuilt or restored by iEthelfleda must have been 
at Bridgenorik; and lastly, that what actually exists at 
Qwxtford must have been the erection of Roger de 
Montgomery^ That the anti Danio character of the spot 
may be still further set out of doubt, we are enabled 
to shew still more clearly its Norman pretensions. 

It has abeady been observed that when matters had 
proceeded to eittremities with Robert de Belesme, He 
deemed it necessary to concentrate his forces, and to 
make a decisive stand agunst the king. To effect this ob- 
ject the better, he transported the inhabitants from Quat- 
fdrd as a means of increasing his strength at his castle 
at Bridffenorth ; and with a view of further rendering the 
former possession of no value, he rased it to the ground. 
History does not mention this circumstance it is true,^ 
^d we can otily gather so much from excavations which 
have been made on the spot at a very recent day. 
These, like all labors of the kind, are* in the highest 
degree valuable, and they call forth the warmest thanks 
from every enlightened searcher after historic truth. We 
are indebted to Mr Smallman of QucOfard Castle^ for 
these additional discoveries, by whose directions the semi- 
cii^nihu" ditdi was cleared out. 

From the information which he obligingly communi- 
cated to me, I learned that the keep, which originally 
stood lipon the high rock overhanging the river, when 
dismantled by Robert de Belesme, must have been 
thrown down the sides of the mound so as to fill up 


the foBse at its base, as the stratification of it from 
West to East clearly shewed. There were found em- 
bedded in the rubbish great quantities of red deer bones, 
and boars^ tusks, two small horse-shoes, and an iron spur, 
that is evidently of Norman character. 

The whole of the land occupied by the original csstte 
comprises two acres. The rent of this land is at pro> 
sent appropriated to defray the charge of ferrying per- 
sons over the river when they attend the parish ehiuch, 
and if my memory does not deceive, the same obliging 
informant assured me that it was bestowed upon the 
church for this express purpose by Adeliza its <»%inal 

The Ghutoh is altogether so interesting and remark- 
able a structure, that it well merits attention. Its 
history, moreover, breathes such an air of lel^ious ro- 
mance that the reader will allow me to wander bom 
the professed object of my vdume, for the sake of m> 
troduoing the legend to his noticed 

After the murder of Malnl, his first wife, Roger de 
Montgomery married Adeliza the daughter of Ebraid 
de Pusey, who was one of the most noUe £unilies in 
France. She was the reverse of his former wife in dis- 
position and character, as she constantly incited her 
husband to deeds of religion and charity, and to a love 
for the monastic orders. Such a temperament was 
easily wrought upon, and we know that in one instance 
the representations of monks did not fail of producing 

For as we learn firom our authority for this history, 
when the Countess first came over to join her husband 
in England, a violent storm arose at sea, and the vessel 
in which she sailed was placed in the most hnminent 
danger of shipwre^A. As providence wiUed on this 
emergency (for so the legend states), a certain priest 
> Order. VitaL pp. 578» 679. 

who was in her retinue, being overcome by too much 
watching, fell asleep, when he beheld in a dream a 
matron standing before him and thus addressing him: 
^'If your mistress and her suite desire to be liberated 
from the instant danger of horrible shipwreck, let her 
make a vow to Ood, and promise fiuthfully to build a 
church in honour of the blessed Mary Magdalene, on 
the spot where it happens that she first meets the Earl 
her husband, and exactly where a hollow oak-tree grows 
by a pigsty."^ The priest having awoke, narrated this 
singular vision to his mistress, who, when she had heard 
it, vowed to perform every thing fiilly, and presently the 
tempest being subdued, she quickly arrived with her re- 
tinue on the wished for shore. 

After travelling for many days from the coast, to* 
wards the hiterbr, she encountered her husband whilst 
hunting at QucUfitrd^ which was then deserted, at the 
very spot where the oakntree that was indicated in the 
viskm, grew. She unmediately solicited the ESarl to 
assist her in carrying into execution the vow she had 
made when under peril of shipwreck, and he as readily 
enabled her to perform it. He further endowed the 
church with ample possessions, and ecclesiastical privi- 

Such is the history given of the causes which led to 
the foundation of the present church at Quatford, and 
if we look at the general narrative, it may be received 
on the main as worthy of belief. That the church is 
of this exact period no one can deny, and so far the 
building corroborates the legend. The church, is in 
fact, a most strikingly interesting specimen of Norman 
architecture, and will amply reward the visitor for its 
examination. Though merely the chancel stands in its 
original state, for the nave has been rebuilt with the 

' These ciicam8tan€e8 are narrated in the Chronicle of John 
firomton^ pp. 988^ 969. edit. Twysden. 


red sand-stone of the country, yet this part nlone is 
deserving attentive inspection. 

- The Chancel is built of caleareous Tufa, which must 
have been brought hither up the Severn out of Glou- 
eeeterdUre^ as the nearest deposit of this formation lies 
at Stroud in that county\ The arch which leads firom 
the body of the church into the dumcel nuikes up for 
its deficiency of ornament by its bold proportions. It 
is of a very simple style, and consists in its mouldings, 
merely, of two flats and two rounds, each of which de- 
crease from the exterior to the inside part of the arch. 
The capitals are perfectly phiin. A low font of the 
same age stands in this part of the church. The bovd 
is one foot four inches hi^ and three feet nine in 
.diameter. It rests upon four clustered legs, and has 
a further support in the centre. The sides of it are 
ornamented with quatre foils inscribed within a circle. 
The entire height is three feet ten. For a Shropshire 
church, this contains an unusually curious specimen of 
baptismal workmanship. There are five flat sepulchral 
slabs which probably cover the remains of the early ec* 
clesiastics who belonged to the building, incised after 
the manner that prevailed in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries : and the whole floor of the building is paved 
with Norman tile. • 

^ I am infbnned by the Rev. John Rocke, that Tranerline 
exista in the wall at the East end of the chaooel of Bredmairdimt 
Church, twelve miles from Hereford, 



I ELONGiNo to the Nonnaa Period are the 
remaiiifl at Woolsiastan, OadU Puher- 
baich\ Quai/ord and ffofyaie^ Those 
at Woobkuian oonsist of a oonical 
mound, about ten feet high, and thirty- 
two acrofls its centre; and another 
mound adjoining it which has a de* 
scent on three sides. This is naturally elevated above the 
adjacent land, and has its height farther increased by 
an artificial raising of six feet, forming a figure in tho 
shape of a parallelogram, which is a hundred paces wide 
from North to East, and a hundred and fifty-twof from 
North to South. If this be the site of a castle, as 
seems most likely, it was either Pieai^s who held TTm- 
tanOune^ under Earl Roger, or that of Nigdhu Medicis 

* Castub Pulvbbbatcb 18 00 piecSady like WooUtatton that it 
18 needleas to describe it more paxticalarlv. 

' HciigaJte stfll retains the name it did in the time of Camden, 
being oraaUy called in the neighbomihood Haugii, or H&waet* It- 
was granted 1^ the Conqueror to Earl Roger, and held under binv 
by Jadgo, a Norman chira, who is mentioned by Ordericus Vitalis, 
as ** quidam Nonnannonun potens miles*." He ne}d SUmtune ( vulgo 
dictum ^aun\ where he had a castle, according to Domesday^ and 
this ¥ras bmlt upon the veiy elevated mount which now forms so 
conspicuous an object The interesting old fium-house that is con- 
tiguous was built two centuries later. The older part consists of 
a semi-drcnlar gable, which was originally a tower. It has the 
narrow lancet window peculiar to early Bnglifth architecture. There 
are yestiges of a moat having surrounded the existing buildings. 
The church, which stands immediately contiguous, has three small 
lancet windows at the East end, and is of the same age and style 
as that at Tvgfbrd and RuMvry. 
Domesday Book, fol. 258. 

♦ Order. VlteL lib. iU. p. 463. t Domesday Book. fol. 25a b. 


who is said in another part of Domesday, to have held 
WittanesUm^ of the king. The works appear to me to 
resemble the remains of a keep and baly, rather than 
a tumulus. 

In a meadow, a few fields distant, contiguous to the 
church of Smethoai^ is a barrow: and there is every 
presumptive reason for supposing that the immediate 
neighbourhood was the scene of some sanguinary con- 
test. It is most natural to infer that it is built over 
the bodies of those who were shun when this neighbour- 
hood was the seat of war between the Britons and the 
Romans. Whilst some labourers were employed in the 
year 18S8 to get clay, a little below the North rade of 
the church-yard, they came upon a vast quantity of 
hmnan bones, that had evidently been deposited hare 
at a very eariy time. In consequence of this spot being 
the burial-place of the shun, it probably acquired a cer- 
tain degree of sanctity, and was looked upon afterwards 
by the vulgar with peculiar veneration. And thus in 
time it became fixed upon {or the site of the present 
Norman church. Instances of this nature are very com- 
mon« They may be observed in our own county at 
Clunffun/ord^ Staphton^ BuMwry^ &c. In HerefordAire 
we see the same thing at KUpeek and ThrweUm; in 
Warmctshire at HonUy; and in Northamptonshire at 
SulgraMy Earls Bartor^ and WoUaston. A rude font 
within the church of Smethcoty and two circular headed 
windows, which are partially obliterated externally, but 
which are in their or^nal state inside, clearly indicate 
the Norman character of this building. 

' Domesdfty Book, foL 200—6. 


wpon ^ 


EiB ensuing observationa are an attempt 
to ascertain how far it be possible 
to illustrate Topoorapht by the aid, 
of Ettmologt; viewing the subject 
at the same time with relation to 
the similarity of position which placea 
occupy that have synonjrmoua names^ 
From the ]»-esent result furnished by thiA speciea of 
enquiry, I am disposed to believe that if. the subject 
were to be more skilfully pursued, iij would tend to 
throw a considerable degree of light upon the darkest 
and most obscure passages of early British History, 
When the names of places are carefully examined with 
reference to their- analogical bearing of locality, and when 
their derivation is investigated, a due will often present 
itself that may direct further researches^ and a glimpse 
even of truth will occasionally disclose itself through the 
subtle mazes of etjrmological conjecture. But in pro- 
portion as the etymologist finds his reveries and deduc- 
tions agreeable, so much the more cautious ought he 
to be of making use of thenu Fpr there is such i^ 
captivating, such a misleading plausibility in all theories 
^iiich are built upon the roots of words, that it is ex- 
tremely difficult tp decide how far the science itself 
ought to bp admitted as an interpreter and guide. The 
exuberant ingenuity of the suggestive Vallancey ^ caused 
severftl to look upon it with distrust, whilst our ^alo^ 
pian author, Baxter, by referring every ^hiug Roman to 


CSambro Britiflh etymology, has Tendered his learned 
work rather Bospicions. Still there appean good reason 
for thinking, if fancy be restrained, that ao applicati(Ni 
of the Celtic, Welah and Northern langoageB to Topo- 
graphy and Archaeology, may of themaelyes ehcidate 
some of those portions upon which we need information. 

It may be noted, for example, that the names of 
oar rivers, mountains, woods and vidleys, are perpetually 
found isBoing from the two former hmgnages. ^e tide 
of Roman ihobouohfaiib may be traced in the names 
of Siratfard, BtraUon, Btr&aOeg^ Streatham, Streiford, 
StreUot^ OaUicai, CM Harhaur, Fordy fcc, &c., which 
exist by the side of Roman roads, for althoogh in 
many cases the roads themselves have become obliter- 
ated by vegetation, or broken up by the plough, yet 
these names still continue, and by their aid their di- 
rection may be safely followed. 

And marks of A. Saxon colonisation may be dis- 
cerned in the various terminations of ftjf, ham^ by, wiek, 
wortkj &c., which prevail throughout the island, moire 
particularly the second of these, on the Eastern side, 
where the Saxons first landed. In proportion as pre- 
fixes and terminations from these sources exist, a fair 
idea may be formed of the comparative antiquity of the 
towns or villages where they respectively occur. No 
one, for instance, would affirm that the finals of ckstier, 
and eester, betokened mere manufacturing townlets of 
twenty years'* growth, neither would they restrict their 
orig^ to the Saxon Period. Nor on the other hand, 
would they class the hagiological nomenclature of several 
towns and parishes in the island, such as Si Alban\ 
St CoMtantine, St Danid'i, St /«m, St Osyti, State Si 
MUborongh^ be, with the BMe Vuet, Paradise Bow$, 
Waterloo Creecents^ and fashionable places of resort which 
have sprung into existence within the memory of the 
present generation. 


In the appellatioDB of variouB Rivebs, the Nen^ Wye^ 
Corny Omifmayy Dee^ &c.; in those of Mountains, the 
WrMn^ Camdon^ Pmrnam Ma/nor^ &c., &o. ; and in 
those of FoBEBTs, such as Mwrf^ Arden^ Dean^ &c.; 
there is seen sufficient proof that their names have thus 
long outlived the oomiption of tongues and the con- 
sumption of time. 

Descending with successive conquerors of the country 
we observe this alteration. The aborigines we may sup- 
pose were habituated to speak of these places generic- 
ally: the succeeding tribes identified them, or rather 
distinguished them from each other, so that what was 
puidy Celtic for watec in the first instance, became 
the name of the stream itself at a later date. In the 
same way the Latins communicated their terms to the 
people whom they subdued. They formed roads or 
streets, which being a method of proceeding barbarous 
nations were previously unacquainted with, it would in 
a proportionate degree excite their surprise. Hence the 
names of places upon these lines of communication are 
so frequently found to be allusive to their situation. 
Below this period tiiere are but few names discoverable 
which mark the possession of the kingdom by its sue- 
cessive invaders, the Danes and the Normans. Our 
maps are disfigured rather by the unmeaning designa- 
HxjfOB that caprice has bestowed upon newly cultivated 
lands, than called after the custom of the earlier pos- 
sessors of the soil, by names indicative of position. 


croN. Cdt. Ae^ hftbitatio ; tOHj ele* 
vatio. A. Sax. Aoy quercun ; tun^ 
pagiis; thufl, Acton Scot, Round 

Al. a terminaticm d^iotingao el^ 
vation. Gelt, o^ oftus ; as in the 
instances of the Ercal, Benthal, 
Posenhal, Hiffh Ercal, Hadnal, 
Shiffiial, Gaoral, Oomal, co» Wor*- 
cesten Pecknal, near Alberbury. 
Ai^TON. The same as Acton. Celt. a«, 
Imbitatio ; t<my elevatio. 
Wheaten Aston; Aston Ejrres; Aston 
m^ar Oswestry ; Aston near \Shiffiial ; 
Woolstaston ; Aston Rogers, and As- 
ton Pigot, m the neighbourhood of 
^V'orthin ; Aston Hill, East of Caurse 
C^istle ; Aston Botterell. 
Bach ; a bottom ; as Dr Whitaker justly 
remarks, a Merono Saxon word. '^ In 
Clent cowbach^ in valle bovina. It 
enters into the composition of several 
local names in the Midland Counties. 
P. Plouhman euss the word. 
Cold Batch, South of Bishop^s Castle; Wellbatch; 
Swinbatch; Batchcot; Beatchcot; Snailbatch; Swin- 
bach, above Adderley; Pulverbatch; Wagbatch; aU 
in the county of Salop. 


Bailey, Celt. i9a/, rupee, elevatio. Q! BalUum. 
Bailey Hill, between Chapel Banhaglog and Llananno, 

CO. Badnor. 
Bailey HiD, near Knighton, co. Radnor. 
Bailey HiU, six miles North West of Sheffield; where 

there are several tumuli, and other remains, (v. Archseol. 

vol. X. p. 466.) 

Bailey Brook, North part of Shropshire. 
Banner Bank, a mile South East of an entrenchment 
called Camp House, betwixt Honily and Haseley, co. 
Warwick. Allied to this are 
Signal Bani, half a mile North of the entrenchments 

upon ihe estate of Charles Ouest, Esq. Bank Farm, 

West of Dorrington. (Vide p. 86.) 
Siaw Bank, a mile North of Norton Gamp. 
SiowbarroWj an eminence betwixt Towbury ffitt Camp, 

and a fortification on Bredon HiU, co. Worcester. 
Standard Hill, co. Sussex ; which is so called, because 

upon this hill, William the Conqueror is said to have 

fixed his standard previous to his conflict with Harold. 
Watekfidd, a mile South of Stratton Borough Castle, 

00. WUts. 
Spyway, six miles East of Maiden Castle, co. Dorset. 
Batdon Road, (the upper or) is a road running in a direct 
line for seven miles, along high land, South of Lam- 
bourn, CO. Berks. 

Beacon; A beacon is generally a very elevated point, 
that would serve both as a place of defence, (and they 
are most commonly fortified), and as a position from 
which an alarm might be spread throughout a chain 
of fortresses. It is supposed that barrows, served this 
two-fold purpose, but I think their height would not 
be sufficient to render them serviceable for such an 

Beacon, a circular camp on Rooky's Hill, North of East 
. Lavant. 



Beacon Batch, a mile North of Wrington, co. Somenet. 

id. a mile South West of Blagdon on Blakedown^ where 

there are eight tmnuli. 
Beacon Hill, two miles West of Castle Frome, eo. 

Beacon Hill, a mile and a half North East of Shepton 

Beacon HiU, a mile North of Bath. 
Beacon Hill, half a mile East <^ Trelledi, eo. Mi»- 

Beacon Hill, West of Wameford, co. Hants. 
Beacon Hill, North East of Ainesbuiy. 
Beacon Hill, on a Roman road. North West of Ospringe. 
Beacon Hill, a fine camp. West of Burgclere, oo. Hants. 
Beacon HiU, between Coddenham and Needham Market. 
Beacon Lane, North, but close to the camp on Hinton 

Hill, near Dyrham, co. Somerset. 
Beacon Heath, two miles South of Lingfield, co. Kent. 
Penn Beacon, East of West Wycomb. 
Shipton Beacon, a small oval encampment East of Brid- 


Hembury Beacon, a small semi-elliptical camp, oo. Corn- 

Famham Beacon, oo. Surrey. 
Michaelstow Beacon, a triple quadrangular work Nwth 

of Michaelstow, co. Cornwall. 
Caer Digol, or the Beaoon Rmo, co. Montgomery. 
Barr Beacon, co. Stafford. 
The Hebefordshibe Beacon. 
Dundon Beacon, a double-elliptical camp ringle-ditdied, 

with a vallum across the middle. East of Compton 

Dundon, co. Somerset. 
Weistbury Beacon, one mile North East of Stoke Bod' 

ney, co. Somerset. Three tumuli. 
Belan, Celt. Bd^ altns. Bdy arx. The derivation and 
meaning of Bal and Bd are thorouj^y investigated in 


the Ordnance Survey of Londonderry. Dublin, 4to. 

1887. pp. 210, 211. 

Belan, NorUi East of Trefeglws, co. Montgomery. 

Belan Bank, South of Kinnerley. 

Belan Bank, under the East side of the Long Mountain; 

Behn, (Upper and Gbeat,) two miles North of Newtown. 

Bklbak*s Hill, a fortress near Willingham, eo. Cam- 
bridge, is supposed to have taken its name from Be- 
lasius a Norman general. (See Lysons^s Cambridge- 
shire, p. 8.) What is the meaning of BaUzefs Cross, 
three miles North of Shepton Mallet, co. Somerset? 

Black, a very common prefix, importing a gentle swell 
or undulation, almost in fact a plain. Teut. Blacky pla- 
nus. Gf«rm. blach/ddf locus campestris. Black, Blake, 
Blaig, and Blag are identical. 
Black Hill, North of Hampton Lucy, co. Warwick. 
Blackthorn Hill, East of Ambrosden, co. Oxford. 
Blakedon Hill, betwixt Leamington and Kenilworth. 
Blakemore Hill, South of Hereford. 
Blakdey Hill, South of Bury Walls, co. Salop. Black- 
well Hill, close to Towcester. 

Blackmoor Hill, five miles South of Melton Mowbray. 
Blackdown Hill, South West of Crewkeme. Id. East 
of Modbury. (See note at p. 288.) 

Bbadblet, Celt, braid; A. Sax. irad^, latus, broad; and 
Celt. Uh^ habitatio ; A. Sax. ley^ leoff, campus. 
Bradeley near Wenlock. Bradeley near Kinlet. Brade- 
ley near Bridgenorth. 
Bradeley near Bilstone, co. Stafford. 
Bradeley, East of Droitwich, co. Worcester. 

Bbsdon ; Celt. Bre^ locus elevatus. (See Remarks under 
Wbekin, at p. 91.) 
Bredon, North of Tewksbury. Bredon Hill; Bredon 

Norton, co. Worcester. 
Bredwardine, oo. Hereford. 
Bredenbury, near Bromyard, oo. Hereford. 


Bullock Road ; it begins at Upton, near Aloonbuiy HiU, 
on the Ermine Street, co. Huntingdon, and ends at 
Bourn, co. Lincoln. It points to the North West for 
a distance of eleven miles, passing two Cold Harbaun^ 
Chesterton and Elton. As it does not pass through 
any village in this part of its course, and runs r^ularly 
purallel with the Ermine Street, at the same distance 
for the last nine miles, it is difficult to see what could 
have been its direct intention. A mile North of its 
juncture with the Elton and Cheeterton Turnpike road, 
it is traceable, I fancy, at Water Newton Lodge, thence 
to Water Newton, and thence to C(uiar and Upton. 
From Upton to Langdike Bueh^ a distance of a mile, 
it is lost, but hence in a very straight line due North 
it is distinctly traceable through West Deeping and 
Thurlby, to Bourn, co. Rutland, for eleven miles, and 
is known for a conmderable distance under the name of 
Kmo Street. From Cador^ co. Northampton, this is 
the direct road to Sleaford, and there is no doubt, I 
think, of its Roman pretensions, from beginning to end. 

Bunkers Hill! 
Bunkers Hill, two miles South of Stourbridge, oo. 
Bunkers Hill, between Moulton and Pitsford, oo. 

Bunkers Hill, East of Evesham. 
Bunkers Hill, two miles North West of Alcester. 
Bunkers Hill, between Catworth and Longstow, oo. 

Bungers HiU, co. Kent. 
Bungers Hill, near Denham, co. Buckingham. 

Bur; very common as a prefix. Celt. A. Sax. buvy 
domus. (See p. 141.) 
Burcot, CO. Rutland. 

Burway; Burley, North West of Ludlow. 
Burton, or Bourton, near Much Wenlock.. 


4 Burton Hastings, co. Warwick. 
Burton Latimer, oo. Northampton. 
Burbach, on the Watling Street, near High Cross. 
Bubt; in its primary signification this word denoted a 
place of defence whether strong by nature or fortified 
by art. Urbes atque castella, says Vegetius, aut n»- 
turfi muniuntur, aut manu. Naturd, aut loco edito 
▼el abrupto, aut circumfiisa mari vel paludibus vel flu- 
minibus. Manu, fossis ac muris. (De Re Militari, lib. 
iv. cap. 2.) From these places of defence being situated 
on eminences, so that the approach to them should 
be more difficult, they obtained the name of Burff9. 
In the first place, from the eminence itself, M. Goth. 
bairg; Franc. Alam. Isl. Gelt. Teut. Belg. Sw. Oerm. 
berg; A. Sax. beorg^ mons, rupes, upon which they 
stood. The mountain hence gave name to the strong- 
hold, which in a secondary sense was denominated a 
Burg^ 6r. nvpyoiy Lat. Burgus (Gastellum parvulum 
quem Burgvm vocant. Veget. De Re Milit.) The 
origin of this word is to be sou^t for among the 
Northern languages. Ptolemy speaks of it as being 
in use among the ancient Germans. The Burgundianet 
are. placed by Pliny among the five principid nations 
of Germany. ^^Germanorum genera quinque, Vindili, 
quorum pars Burgundiones.^ Vindili are the Vandals. 
Some authors suppose the Burgundiones to be de- 
scended from the Scythians. They dwelt under tents 
which were joined together, for the sake of their being 
able to act in concert when suddenly attacked. Hence 
the body was called a Bargy and subsequently through 
lat^r channels came the word Baroughj or an united 
assembly of people, a town. M. Gotili. Baurgs; Celt. 
Btorg; Alam. F. Theot. Sw. Isl. Belg. Germ. A. Sax. 
bwg; S. Gt>th. Dan. Teut. borg; arx munita, civitas. 
Hence the A. Sax. Burh, Buruh^ civitas, borough or 
bury. Byrig^ urbs^ collis, tumulus quivis e terra con- 


gestuB. Byriffon^ Bebyrffean^ sepdire. Which three 
laat A. Sax. worcb oome firom the Northern tongaee 
above quoted. A Bury^ A. Sax. Urgency a place of 
eepulture under a Bwrg or mound, or artifi<rial hiD. 
Numerous phMsea throughout Enghmd terminate in 
Bwryy and near such are ahnoet invariably found some 
ancient camp or earth-woric which gave rise to the 
termination. Charlemagne, when he had conquered the 
SaxouB decreed that the bodies of the Sax<m CihristianB 
should no longer he interred in the tumuli of the Pagans, 
but carried to churches. Ebuby Wood (see p. 177), 
near Haughmond Abbey, and Burt Walls near Hawk- . 
stone, PoNTBSBUBT (see p. 179), Shbbwbbubt and Shaw- 
BUBT, (A. Sax. Mtfo, nemus, and bwrg^ civitas) derived 
their name from the former causes. Shawiwy will 
therefore imply a camp, or place of defence by the 
side of a wood, and marks of its supposed existence 
are perceptible close to the village, in Witkyford Wood, 
Shawbury Park Wood, and in MaUkewi, 6riffin\ Daw- 
8on\ Green\ Hazhs, &c. coppices. In the same man- 
ner Tacitus states the Angli, Varini, Suardones, and 
other inhabitants of ancient Gennany protected them- 
selves, ^^fluminibus aut irfrlvis muninntur.'" (V. de 
Morib. German, cap. 40, p. 680, edit. Var.) A river or 
wood defended them on one or more sides, whilst 
they drew a trench round them on the mde exposed, 
and most obnoxious to attack. Instances of places 
in our own county deriving their appellation from the 
latter source, that is, from the A. Sax. Birffone, a bury 
or tumulus, may be discovered in Rubhbubt (see pp. 
149, 150), where a remain of this nature now exists; 
to one or other of these reasons must be assigned 
the names of Onibury, Oldbury, Sidbury, Beckbuxy, 
Diddlebury, Chirbury, &c., in Shropshire. 

And thus the name of Aldburgh co. York and Norfolk: 
Aldeborough, co. Suffolk; Aldebury, co. Hertford and 


Oxford; Alderbury, oo. Wilts, with Oldbuiy, co. Sa- 
lop, denote their antiquity aa a fortification in general, 
for our Saxon anoestors, who imposed them were no 
antiquariee. The appearance of ancient fortificationfl, 
Roman, British, or of their own progenitors, as Dr 
Whitaker remarks, excited in their minds no distinct 
ideas : they were buighs alike. Thus they denominated 
the Tillage of Aldburgh, co. Richmond, from the vast 
works in or about it, which are indubitably British; 
the Roman Isurium, which in its regukr quadrangular 
walls bore an appearance altogether different fit>m the 
last; and, thirdly, the camps in South Riohmondshire, 
which were probably the workmanship of the earlier 
Saxon. All were Aldbuighs. Buighs, because all 
were fortifications, and Aid, because their origin was 
beyond the recollection of the names. 
Bush. From the frequent recurrence of this word in 
the neighbouriiood ot Roman roads and stations, it 
is highly probable that it is allusive in a measure to 
some occurrence or scene with which the Romans 
were concerned. Perhaps it comes from the Lat. 
Barb, ambuadoy or an ambuscade, a place of surprise 
or ensnarement. Thus we have Bampton in the Buth, 
and Hinton in the Hedges^ in Oxfordshire. Mordbn 
Bush, (S. Goth. Mor^ sylva densior) near Littlington, 
oo. Cambridge, near two Roman roads. Clay Bush 
in the same vicinity, close to Harborouoh Banks in 
Hertfordshire. Prnnt'^s Bush, close to Streatly on a 
Roman road in Hertfordshire. King^s Bush, a mile 
and a half South EUst of Oodmanchester, in the county 
of Huntingdon, upon the Ebminb Strkbt, and Blagk- 
LAND^s Bush on the South West side of the same 
station. At Radnaix Bush, in Warwickshire, are indi- 
cations of an early British settlement. (See Mr Blox- 
am'^s excellent account of the British Antiquities in 
Warwickshire, p. 184). CiiOunssutT Bush, on the Fosse 


Way, a mile and a half Soath of Bbconu. CuoKdo 

BusHBs, on the Roman road from Nutahalling to WiSr 

Chester. Sandt Bush, a mile North of Tilt Bbidob 

Lank, a Roman road ifrom the EaMms STRBsr, North 

of Lincoln to Littborough. Barton Bushes on the 

Roman road from Winchester through Ogboum, St 

George, Chiseld^ &o. 
Butts. Fr. bout; Lat. Barb, butta, extremitas. 

The Bouts, North of Inkberrow, co. Worcester. 

The Butts, near Higley. The Butts, near Norbuiy. 

ludas Butts, between Shrewsbury and Uffington. 

Butts, near Tanworth, oo. Warwick. 
By. a termination. A. Sax. bye, pagus. 
Caldboot, Caldioot, Goldicot; the same in part as C!old 

Harbour; instead of Harbour we have cai, for the 

termination; Celt. A. Sax. eote, domus; C. Brit. cfcU; 

Isl. kat; S. Goth, kite, tuguriolum. Places of this 

name usually lie contiguous to Roman roads or stations. 

Can this word col, or cold, have any connexion with 

the Lat. coUoco or colotdaf 

Coldicot, one mile West of a road from Monmouth to 
Hereford, presumed to have been a Roman communi- 

Caldicot, a mile and a half South of Caerwoit, oo. 
Monmouth, and midway betwixt this Roman station 
and a large semicircular encampment at the month 
of the Severn. 

Caldecote on the Watling Street, South East of 

Caldecot, South West of Stratford and Sandy, (Sa- 
lens) on a Roman way, leading from Hertford through 
Biggleswade to Godmanchester. 

Caldecote, five mQes South East of Biggleswade, be- 
tween the Roman road and Harborongh Banks. 

Caldecote, between the Port Way on the North, and 
the Mare Way on the South ; the Ermine Way 



• two miles to the West, and a Bonum road lead- 
ing to Cambridge, through Barton, from the same 
Street. At Arrington Bridge, on the Ermine Street, eo. 
Cambridge, a road branches off to the West, passes 
through Tadlow and Wrestlingworth, close to Biggles- 
wade, it passes BockI Farm; on the West side of the 
town just below Caldecote Green, it is called ffitt 
Lane^ from whence it proceeds to the small circular 
encampment of Old Warden. In the immediate vi- 
cinity we meet with the well known accompaniments 
to Roman positions, in Warden Street^ Lovm Busk, 
Stanford^ Stanford Bury. 
Caldecote, between the Bullock Road and Ermine 
Street, a mile from either, and five South of Yaxley, 
CO. Huntingdon. 

Caldecot, one mile South of Newport Pagnel; and on 
the same road, betwixt WaUon and Fewny Straifard^ is 
Caleot. This road I imagine must be a Roman line of 
communication from the Watling Street at Fenny Strat- 
ford^ through Newport Pagnel, Olney, four miles North 
of which it leaves a Cold Harbour a mile and a half to 
the East, from thence it proceeds to Wollaston, where 
are traces of an ancient way from hence to iBCHEerBB, 
and iBTHLiNaBOBOuoH, and terminates at Cotton, be- 
twixt Addington and Ringstead, co. Northampton. 
Caldecote Spinny, betwixt Husbands Bosworth and Lut- 
terworth ; on a branch road from the Watling Street, 
which crosses the road from Towcester, through North- 
ampton to Leicester, which I conceive was originally 
a Roman one. There are three or four places by the 
side of this branch road which are compounded with 
Wal. The Mere Road, which begins at Cloudesley 
Busk .on the Fosse, bearing betwixt this place and 
Over Claybrook the appellation of Woodway Lane, 
.whence passmg by CauldweU, Gilmorton^ and Sadding- 
ton, must be an ancient way. 


Galdeooie, South of Uppingham, oo. Rutland. From 

the direct line of the turnpike road here from the 

South, this might have been formerly a Vicinal Way. 

Caldecote, near Upper Shuokborough. Might not the 

direct road from Arbury Banks in the South of the 

CO. of Warwick, have paaied by this place! First 

of all, up the Wklshman^s Road to Boddington, 

thence to Priors Idarston under Beacon Hill, Lower 

Shuckborough, Orandboroug^ Waloate and Lonodown 

Lank, the RmoswAT, where it joined the Wailing 

Street between Crick and Kilsby. 

Galoot, on the Ermine Street, South of Cricklade, 

CO. Gloucester. 

Calcot, midway between the Fosse and Saltway, South 

of Northleaoh, co. Gloucester. 
Calcot, three miles from Shrewsbury on the Welsh 
Pool road. North West of Pa/fsemsni Gate: there is 
every reason for thinking this road to be of Roman 
origin. (See p. 148.) 
Calderwell, on a road that looks as though it were 
of Roman origin, beginning at Cainham Camp, oo. 
Salop; it is seen at Huntingdon, Little Hereford Bridge, 
Skneg Cross, the Ford^ Stratford^ BiAury Camp; be- 
low it we find Venm Chremh^ Venm Woody and Sdtton 
Walls, co. Hereford. This, by a slight corruption, 
becomes Cauldwell, and Caudwell, the latter of which 
words is found at the end of the Gabtbeb RoAn, and is 
of frequent occurrence in several other parts of England. 
Caldt, Caldy Bank; close to three quadrangular camps 

South West of Mainstone, co. Salop. 
Callow. Celt. CW, altus ; A. SaK. eah ; Franc* ckalo, 
eahui. (Vide p. 155.) 

Callow, North of Goodrich Court, co. Hereford. Cal- 
low, South of Hereford. Callow Hill, North West 
of Ledbury. Callow Hill South of Kenderchurch. 
Callow Hill, near the Forest ^f Wyre. 


Callow Hill, West of Little StrettoD. Callow Hill, South 
of Tardebigg, oo. Worcester. CaQow Hill, near Stone- 
field, CO. Oxford. Callow Hill EntrendunentB, North 
West of Blenheim Park, co. Oxford. 
Oallow Hill, Bolam, Northumberland. 
Gallywood Common, near Chelmsford. 

Cant, in composition means the head or top of a thing 
that is winding and circular. Celt, eant^ caput. 
Cantlope Cross, East of Condover. 
Cantem Bank, North of Bridgenorth. 

Causeway. Several roads originally of Roman construc- 
tion have degenerated into this title. Thus, part of 
the Via Dsvana, South East of Cambridge, is called 
Worths Causkwat. The road from Wroxeter to Bush- 
bury CO. Salop, is called in one part the Devil^s 
Cacsswat, (see pp. 134, &c.) Hobkbslet Causeway, three 
miles North of Colchester^ the road leading from Great 
Horkesley to Colchester. Thobley Causeway turns to 
the West out of the PEnDAB Way going from Bishop 
Stortford through Stanstead Montfitchet, Newport, Aud- 
ley End, &o., to Holme on the sea. Bridgend Cause- 
way points from Donnington, oo. Lincoln, to the Ermine 
Street, which it joins at CM Harbour Tumpiie. 

CocKBHUT. This word is of frequent recurrence in many 
counties, a clear indication that it is n6t used with- 
out having been acquired from an early source. One 
would expect to find it easy of explanation in con- 
sequoice of its general acceptance. This, however, 
is not the case. The Celt. Ooi^ elevatus, caput, is 
the nearest approach we can make to the prefix: 
and in the same language Sffod, Tsgod^ silva, is the 
best word which explains the termination. In some 
eases this wiU correspond with the present appearance 
of the places where the word is applied, amongst others 
the following, though it does not hold good in every 
instance here adduced. 


Cookbank, near Adderley, South of Audlem, oo. Stafford. 

Cockflhut, a bank, near Bitterley. Cockahut, between 

. Elleflmere and Middle. 

Cockshnt Bank, near Downton. Cockahut Lane, Broae- 
ley, CO. Salop. 

Cockahoota, near Middleton Scriven. Gockaall, near 
Aaton Botterell. 

Codaal, co. Stafford. 

Cockalade Rough. 

Cockbury Farm, North of Ghdtaiham, on Nottingham 

Cockahut, South of Montgomery* 

Cockahut Wood, one mile North of Uak. Id. one 
mile North of Chepatow. Id. one mile Weat of 
Weat Wycombe. 

Cockahute Fur Fira, North of Wootton Underedge, 
CO. Olouceater. 

Cockahut Hill Farm, South of Droitwich* 

Cockahoot Hill, near Sheffbrd, co. Bedford. 

Cockley Hill, near Thcnford, co. Northampton. 

Cockaheath, Eaat of Skenfrith, co. Monmouth. 

Cockahed and Cockabrook Wood, North Eaat of Keair 
church, CO. Hereford. 

Coxwall Elnoll, near Brampton Brian, co. Radnor. 
Cold. A moat frequent prefix to namea of plaoea in 

thia and other countiea. It aeema to predominate near 

Roman aettlementa. Lat. coUmiaf Thua we have Cold 

Camp, on Woodbury Hilt, a mile and a half North of 

Upper Arley, and Cold Camp, a amall camp two milea 

North of Kidderminater. 
Cold Baopath, near Kingacote, co. Glouceater. 
Cold Batch, South Eaat of Biahop^a Castle. 
Cold Blow, three placea in Pembrokeshire have thia name. 
Cold Camp, North West of the encampment on Wood- 
bury HiU, CO. Worceater. Id. North of Upper Arley, 

CO. Worcester. 


Cold Comfobt, South West of Aloester, co. Warwick, 
and East of Weeton upon Avon. 

Cold Comfobt, four miles North West of Glonoester. 

Cold Kftcbbn, co. Surrey. 

Cold KncnsN Hill, one mile East of Maiden Bradeley, 
oo. Wilts. 

Cold Stockino, near Stokesay, co. Salop, dose to the 
Watling Street. 

Cold End, co. Pembroke. 

Cold Arboub. The former word must not, I conceive, 
be taken in too literal a sense, but with reference to 
a secondary meaning, as cpen^ exposed. M. Gt>th. told; 
S.Ooth. ifcoS; Isl. ialdur^ Franc. Alam. ehaU; Dan. 
laald; Oerm. kdld; Teut. Belg. koude; A. Sax. eeald^ 
frigidus. Arbour or Harbour, must be derived from 
the Franc. Theot. Hereberga^ munimentnm castrense, 
receptaculum exercitus. Teut. Oerm. A^, exercitus; 
Teut. Germ, bergen^ tueri. A. Sax. hereJ>eorgan^ ma- 
nere. Heire-berga^ static militaris. Lat. Barb. Heire-^ 
berga^ Hereburgumy Heribwrgum. Thus, Cold Harbcmr 
indicates an <^n, unenclosed, or unfortified military 
station, and as the term perpetually occurs close upon 
Roman roads, or other lines of early communication, # 
it appears to be a very natural inference, that it 
denotes either a halting place, or the temporary 
quarters of marching troops. From Her may be de- 
duced the prefix JTor, and Ar^ in Harbubt Banks, a 
Roman position near Chipping Warden. 
Abbuby, a Roman station close to Cambridge. 
Habbobouoh Banks, a mUe South of Ashwell, co. 
Hertford, contiguous to the Icknield Street. 
Market Harborough, co. Leicester, where Roman re- 
mains have been found. 
Chaucer uses Herbente and Herbergage^ for lodging. 
Oold Harbour, in the City of London^ is mentioned 
as a tenement as early as the reign of Edw. H. In 


1410, Henry IV. grftnted a homie on thk spot to his 
son, Henry Prince of Wales, by the title of "quod- 
cUun hospitium siye placeam Tooatiun le Oddekerberykr 
See Pennant^s London, p. 805, and Appendix p. 33. 

. Qnery! Whether this be the Coldherbergh mentioned 
in the Minutes of a Council held at Cold Harbour, 
8th of February, 1410. (See Privy Council Proceed- 
ings, Edit. Nicohis, vol. i. pp. 330, 331.) Sur Thomas 
Vaghan died seised of the Manor of Caldeherbergh : 
86th Edw. III. (See Manning and Bray, Hist, of 
Surrey, vol. iii. p. 416.) There is a lane at Cam- 
foerwcJl still called Cold Harbour Lane. 

AUied to this is Hare Street^ so prevalent in Hertford- 
shire and Essex. 

Cold Habboubs, on or near the Akbman Street. 

Cold Harbour, close to Chesterton, co. Oxford, South 

of Middleton Stoney. 
Cold Harbour Farm, two miles South of it, close to 

Brill, CO. Oxford. 
Cold Harbour, one mile East of it, midway between 

Tetbury and Mahnesbury, co. Wilts. 

Cold Habboues, <m or near the Ermine Stbeet. 

Cold Harbour, four miles South East of Cricldade, co. 

Cold Harbour, one mile East of it, between Ware 

and Puckeridge. 

Cold Harbour, North of Ware. 
Cold Harbour, one mile from it, on the Bullock Boad, 

North West of Alconbury, co. Huntingdon. 

Cold Habboub, on the Fosse. 

Cold Harbour, one mile East of it, at IKcheridge^ cd. 


Cold Habbours, on or near the Icknibld Stbset. 
Cold H«rbour Farm, two mfles South East of it, near 

Aldbuiy, CO. Bucking^iam. 
Cdd Harbour, betwixt it and a Roman road, about 

Harborough Banks, near Ashwell, oo. Hertford. 

Cold Hasboubs, on or near the Pobt Way. 

Cold Harbour Farm^ one mile East of Watlingford. 
Cold Harbour Bam, between it and Ickleton Street, 
three miles South East of Wantage. 

Cold Harboubs, on or near the WATLma Street. 
Cold Harbour Farm, close upon it, three miles North 

West of Fenny Stratford* 
Cold Harbour, half a mile East of it, at Dunstable. 
Cold Harbour, (me mile North West of it, at Stret- 

ford, CO. Hereford. 

Cold Harbours, on or near other Romak Roads. 

Cold Harbour, on the road from Wallingford to Thame, 

one mile North of Stadhamptcm, on Ryeoie Lam. 
Cold Harbour, three miles South of Droitwich and one 

mile West of Trmhch Lome. 
Cold Harbour Farm, one mile West of Roman road 

fiom Bicester to Buckingham, between Barton Harts* 

horn, and Cottisford. 
Cold Harbour Farm, North of the preceding, betwixt 

Radston and Whitfield, co. Northatnpton. 
Cold Harbour, on the Roman road near Tempisford, 

CO. Huntingdon. 
Cold Harbour, on Stone Street, South of Dorking. (See 

Camden, vol. i. p. 249.) 
Gold Harbour, between Newington and BobbingUm, 

dose upon Roman road from Dover to Rodiester. 
Odd Hiurbour, on BaAam Downs, Kent, North of the 

Roman road from Dover. 


Cold Harbour, one mile North of Biggleswade. 
Cold Harbour, South of Fordham, eo. Norfolk. 
Cold Harbour, two miles South of Lower Wallop, North 

of Roman road from Winohester to Old Sarum, oo, 

Cold Harbour, near Kingseote, oo. Gloucester. 
Cold Harbour, betwixt Westbury and Bristol, half a 

mile West of the Ridgeway. 
Cold Harbour, one mile South of Eltham and two from 

the Roman road fit>m London through Dartford. 

Cold Harboubs, on or near other $i^opo$6d 
Roman Roads. 

Cold Harbour Farm, four miles North East of Fenny 
Stratford, on a presumed line of ancient road between 
this place and Salford: there are entrenchments to 
the South of the latter place. 

Cold Harbour, half a mile East of the road from Deal 
to Woodnesborough and Richborough Castle. 

Cold Harbour, a road goes due South from Canter- 
bury to Ljrmpne, close to the West of which is Cold 
Harbour. Surely this must be a Roman road fit)m 
the peculiar straightness with which it runs* It seems 
the direct road from Hythe to Canterbury. 

Cold Harbour, between Harrold, co. Bedford, and 01- 
ney, co. Buckingham, one mile West of the former, 
lying contiguous to the road to iBCHBffrsR, South of 
which are faint indications of a Roman Way. 

Cold Harbour, between (Jayhurst and Stoke Goldingtoo, 
CO. Buckingham. 

Cold Harbour, North of Newent, co. Gloucester, on a 
supposed line of Roman road. 

Cold Harbour, one mile North West of Glastonbmy. 

Cold Harbour, West of St Briavels, eo. Gloucester. 

Cold Harbour, immediately under the fine camp of Ulxt 
BuBT, near Dursley, co. Gloucester. 


Cold Harbour, one mile South of Berkfaampstead. 

Cold Harbour, between Watford and Stanmore. 

Cold Harbour, close to Boxford, South. 

Cold Harbour, one mile North of Great Marlow. 

Cold Harbour, South of Hawkeshurst. 

Cold Harbour, between Hitchendon and Oreat Missenden. 

Cold Harbour, one mOe South -East of Worth, co. Surrey. 

Cold Harbour, one mile South of Maldon. 

Cold Harbour, one mile South of Croydon. 

Cold Harbour, one mile South of Bignor. 

Cold Harbour, one mile East of Havant, co. Hants. 

Cold Harbour, one mile North East of road ifrom Seven* 

oaks to Tunbridge, between Upper and Lower Trench. 
Cold Harbour, one mile North of Wrotham. 
Cold Harbour, between Aylesford and Leyboum, close 

to the road from Mudstone to Foots Gray. 
Cold Harbour, between Addington and Beckenham, co. 

Cold Harbour, North of Bampton, co. Devon. 
Cold Harbour, one mile South of Ufculm and six 

North of CoUumpton, co. Devon. 
Cold Harbour, between Westbury and Melksham, co. Wilts. 
Cold Harbour, two miles East of Modbury, co. Devon. 
Cold Harbour, dose to Trowednack, co. Cornwall. 
Cold Harbour, three miles South West of Newark. 
Cold Harbour, two miles South East of Louth. 
Cold Harbour, North West of Purfleet, co. Essex. 
Cold Harbour, South East of Croydon. 
Cold Harbour Farm, one mile South of Deddington, 

CO. Oxford. 
Cold Harbour, one mile South of Hungerford, co. Hants. 

adjoins the Akeman Street at Stretton St Margaret. 
Cold Harbour, a turnpike, four nules North of Fareham, 

CO. Hants. 

Cold Harbour, a turnpike, three miles East of Grant- 
ham, CO. Lineobn. 



Ck>ld Harbour, between Nottingluun and Chiaelhiirst, 
oo. Kent. 

Cold Harbour, on Bailey Hill, near Knighton, eo. Radnor. 

Cold Harbour Pill, one mile and a half South of Caer- 
went, on the Severn. (C. Brit. Pt/, a small inlet of 
the sea, filled by the tide. Celt. Ptff, locus munitus, 
locus super.) 

Cold Harbour Keen, on the Severn, one mile and a 
half West of Berkeley, co. Gloucester. (Celt. rm. 
A. Saxon, tyne^ oursus aquie.) 
CoNKTOABB, CoNioBEB, &c. A vory usual name, which may 

deserve insertion here, as various conjectures have heea 

made on its etymology. It seems however most pro- 
bably nothing more than a corruption of the old word 

Connigrie, a rabbit warren. 

" Parkis warrens et eanniffriee.'" Stat. 13. Bic. H. c. 18. 

" na man take out eunninget out of uthers eunmnffoim. 
Stat. Jac. III. Scot. 1475. See also Stat. Jac. 1. 1424. 
2 Jac. VI. 1679. 

Nash (I think) derives that at Dudley from Cyning a 
King; but the spelling C<mingte is obviously to be 
traced to the old spelling of the word con$y. 
Ccmingea or with fine vitaile. Cbaucbr. 

Cougar, North of Clevedon, co. Somerset. 

Oongre Hill, near Toddington, co. Bedford. 

Coneygree House, South of Etwall, co. Derby. 

Conigree Hill, a circular artificial hill like the preced- 
ing one, close to Bromesberrow, co. Worcester. 

Coningree Wood, two miles North East of Worcester. 

Coneygree Wood, South of Ledbury, co. Hereford. 

Coneygree Lane, near Middle Hill, co. Worcester. » 

Coningree Whitehouse, one mile South of Sutton Coldfield. 

Coneygare Copse, near Quenington, co. Gloucester. 

Coneygore Copse, South of Alfrick, co. Worcester. 

Coneygore Farm, near Alveston, co. Somerset. Coney- 
gore Wood, near Wootton Underedge. 


Coneygore Hill, a mile East of Wincanton. Id. a mile 
South of Dorchester, co. Dorset. 

Coneygore Pill, on the Severn, West of Berkeley, co. 

The Coneygarth, West of Amesbury. A. Sax. geard f 
Cot, Cote, a termination denoting a covered spot, house, 

building or Cottage. Isl. Tout. Oeim. Kot; "Fm.coto; 

Lapp. S. Goth. Kate ; CeH. Gael. A. Sax. cot, C. Brit. 

ewt. Lat. Barb, cota^ tuguriolum, habitatio. 

Places with this termination are not so abundant with 
us as in some other counties. Among instances of it 
however are the following. 

Sibberscot ; C. Brit. Bib^ that tends to encircle. (Owen 
Pugfae.) Ber^ a hill, and cwt^ a cote or herd, an 
enclosure ; that is, an enclosure encircling the hill. 

Arlescot ; C. Brit, arghogz^ a lord or master, and ewt^ 
a dwelling. Arlescot or as it is pronounced AhMt is 
written in the earliest record, where I have found it 
mentioned HduUeeeat ; (Rot. Hundr. temp. Hen. III.) 
in the next reign Herleicote; (Forest Peramb. of Shrop- 
shire, temp. Edw. I.) This is among the numerous 
instances which might be adduced to shew how con- 
stantly the name of the same place varied, especiaDy 
after the Survey. A clear proof that our etymologies 
must be sought for antecedent to the A. Sax. period, 
and those derivations preferred which come from an 
earlier source. 
SxETHooT. There are three places of this name, one 

South of Upton Magna, another West of Hadnall, and 

the other a village ten miles South of Shrewsbury. 

A. Sax. Stnitk, faber, and cot. (Hodiemo nostro ser- 

mone), ''the Smith's Shop.'" 

Picclescot, a small hamlet nine miles South of Shrews- 
bury, near Smethcot. C. Brit. /»to, (pid), parvus 
and cwt. Afterwards PighteTs eoi, or the dwelUng in 
a pyghtel, which Phillips explains to be 'a snudl parcel 



of land enoloaed with a hedge, which in some parte 

of England is commonly called . a pingle.' Lat. Barb. 

PideUum^ PigkkUum^ exigua fundi portio, Sepimento 

conclusa. Du Cange. 
Dimoot ; A. Sax. dim, coUis, and cf^. Besides Waloot, 

Woodcote, Lushcot, Burcot, Swancote, &c. &c. 
Coion, Coion End; all the places of this name that I 

know, and they are numerous, entirely agree with its 

derivation; they are all upon a stream or river, usually 

in the suburbs of a town. Celt. Gael. A. Sax. Cki; 

C. Brit, ewt^ domus ; Celt. o», aqua, fiumen. 
Coton, South East of Condover, above the Severn. 
Coton, betwixt Bridgenorth and Kidderminster. 
Cotton, near Hodnet, a quarter of a mile from the Ten. 
Cotton Hill, suburbs of Shrewsbury, on the Severn. 
Coton End, suburbs of Northampton, on the Nen. 
Coton End, suburbs of Leamington and Warwick, on 

the Avon. 
Coton End, in the village of Cooknoe or Cogoihoe, 

Northamptonshire, where this is penned, is on a small 

stream which falls into the Nen. 
Coton, South of Caldwell, co. Stafford. 
Coton Bam, North of Spaldwick, co. Huntingdon. 
Dane. Th^re seems to me to be better reason for as- 
signing the name of all those spots compounded with 
Dan and Dans^ to Danish connexion, especially when 
the work is found in the vicinity of a camp or fortress, 
than to the A. Sax. Degn^ thanus. Thus near Qitab- 
ford^ on the Severn, (Celt. Cwtt^ habitatio) is Danes- 
ford, and we know that the Danes wintered at Cwat- 
bricge in the year 896. (See p. 222.) 
Danes Well, near the irregular encampment of Bury 

WaUs near Hawkstone. 
Danford, near Claverley. 

Danes Ford, between Stone and Churchill, co. Worcester. 
Danes Bank, North West of Alcester. 


Danes Oreoi, near Martin Hiuingtree, oo. Woroester/ 
Danes Buy, near Welwyn ; Danes End, and Danes 

Furi<»ig, CO. Hertford. 
Dane Hill, North of Ticehuist, oo. Kent; North of 

Folkingham ; one mile South of Deddington, co. Oxford. 

Dane Hill Plantation, two miles South East of Minohin 

Hampton, co. Gloucester. 
Dane Hills, half a mile West of Leicester. 
Dane Holes, South of Market Harborough. Danes 

Holes, Ghadwell and Little Thurrock, Essex. Caverns 

supposed to have been granaries. 
Dane Bottom, near Minchin Hampton. Woeful Dane 

Bottom,. entrenchment South of Stroud, Olouoestershire. 
Dane Street, co. Kent. 
Danes Field, a quadrilateral Camp, South West of 

Great Marlow. 
Dane Mill, South of Broad Hembury, co. Devon. 
Dane Bridge, half a mile East of Much Hadham, Essex. 
Dat House. (See Glossary Sub Voce.) 
This appellation frequently prevails in many counties : I 

shall only notice its recurrence in Shropshire. 
Day House, near Hanwood. Day House, East of 

Market Drayton. Day House Farm, North East 

of Cmdgington. Day House, near Stottesdon. Day 

House Farm, near Wall. 
Does not the name of Dyas, or Dayus, originate in this ! 
Don, Dun. A termination denoting an eminence. Celt. 
Bret. Bas. Gael. A. Sax. Germ. Dun ; C. Brit, dm, collis. 
It forms the names of a great number of places, in those 
counties which were inhabited by the Gymry. Hence the 
DUNUM, DiNUH and DiNiuM of the Romans ; the tune^ don^ 
ion and town of the English. (Owen Pughe.) And hence 
the names of our Shropshire villages, Longdon, Sibdon, 
Stottesdon, &c. Grleedon Hill, Downton, &c. 
DuD. A prefix to names of places, that appears to de- 
note their lying on th^ borders of some particular 


county. Thus Dadmaston nesr Bridgenorth, on the 
borders of Shropflhire, vei^g upon Woroesterahire, 
and Dudleston, North East of Oswestry, on the oon- 
fines of the same county and Denbighshire. Dudstone, 
near Montgomery, on the borders of Montgomeryshire 
and Shropshire. Celt, tuedd^ extremitas, fines! With 
such a derivation the position of Dudley, co. W<»oe6ter, 
agrees. So does Duddington in co. Northampton. Dud- 
cote in Berkshire, hardly suits this conjecture. 

DuNox. The word occurs simply at a spot one mile 
South of Broseley. In a composite form at Dungary, 
betwixt Bangor and Worthenbuiy. Dungey Comer, on 
the borders of Easton Wood, co. Northampton. S. Goth. 
dunge^ parvula ^ylva. 

Dtkks. The chief Dykes in Great Britain are, Offals 
Dyke, Wattes Dtkb, Wansdykb, Grimb* Dtke, Fleam 
Dyke, Brent Dyke, Pampibfobd Dtkb, the Dsvil^s 
Dyke, co. Cambridge, Avebdykk, Upper and Lower 
Short Dyke, and the Devil^s Dykbb, co. Norfolk, de- 
scribed under the first, (q. v.) 

Ford ; final in composition. Celt. Ffordd^ Yia, transituB. 
C. Brit, forz^ a passage, a road, a way. Com. fcrdy id. 
M. fert ; S. Gh>th. foBrt ; Alam. ferii; Germ, farty iter. 
A. Sax. fard^ vadum. From finding this word so ccm- 
tinually on Roman roads, there is no doubt that it is 
allusive to the position of the places where it oconis, 
and that the modem acceptation of the term is only 
employed in its secondary and lowest sense. Nor is a 
word having this termination invariably confined to 
places where water flows, as it is sometimes found where 
there is none at all, as at Bwloh y Fford on the Sabn 
Helen, betwixt Llanfachreth and Trawsfynedd ; and on 
the summit of ffafen Drum Ddu^ co. Brecon, we find 
Carnan Cefyn-y-fordd, three tumuli on the side of the 
Bidgway road, which leads, as I conceive, from Castdx 
CwRT Llbohbhyd, (Bulleum Antonini) to some Roman 


station in Cardigamkire. Thus taking the Watuno 
SniBrr, from Wroxeter to Kenchester, there are on its 
line, Pitchford, Bentley Ford near Longnor Green, 
Frodedey, (quasi Fordidey) Stretford fridge, Halford, 
(anngiinford!) Stretford, (Byford!) and Hereford, a 
little beyond Kenchester. Again by following the Wat- 
ling Street from Richborough to Rowton, seven miles 
West of Shrewsbury, we successively pass through 
Dartford, Glayford, Deptford, in Kent. Shefford Mill, 
Hertfordshire; Fenny Stratford, Stoney Stratford, in 
Buckinghamshire ; Dodford and Watford, Northampt<xi- 
shire; Weeford and (Crateford!) in Staffoiddiire ; 
Stoneyford, Mountford, and Ford in Shropshire. The 
probiU>il]ty of there having been a branch line of Vi- 
cinal way from the Watling Street through Newport to 
Chester, has been intimated in an eariier part of the 
volume, and if its assumed direction be followed from 
Stratford Brook under the walls at CHEflrrsBTON, tiU it 
reaches the borders of Cheshire, it wiU be found run- 
ning Northwards through Whiston, and Tong, after 
which it crosses the Watling Street, at Stoney Ford, 
thence trending by Woodcote and Pave Lane to New- 
port, leaving Forton, a little to the East, when it passes 
by Stanford Hall, Shackeford, Losford, Ashford, Sand- 
ford and Deamford. The recurrence of this termina- 
tion, coupled with other facts which are given in another 
part of the volume, induce me to think that a Roman 
road formerly went from Shrewsbury by Horton Lane, 
iVoa?, Stoney Stretton, Westbury, Worthin, Hailsford 
Brook, Bladdbrd, and Chirbuiy, to Montgomery and 
Caer Fl66. Taking a Northern direction still, another 
road would pass by Little Oxon, Pavement Oate, Welsh- 
man'^8 Ford ; soon after leaving Rowton, it would turn 
> to the South over Stretton Heath, by Hayford, and join 
the road just mentioned, at Westbury. Forden, lies 
also on the direct line between an entrenchment called 


the Moat, above Nant Cribba Hall, and Caer Fcdf. 
I have also stated elsewhere, my reasons for considering 
the works at Rushbury and Nobdy Bank, as Roman. 
On the direct line of communication between these two 
places, we pass over Roman Bank, Blackwood, Hunger- 
ford Plantation, Hungerford, and Tugford, to the latter 
Camp. Ford, a village midway between Ivinoton Cakp 
and RisBURY Camp, oo. Hereford, a little more than a 
mile from either. When the names of places on other 
lines of Roman road are investigated, the same theory 
will apply. For instance. 

On the Ermine Street, there are, Helensford, Aberford, 
Castleford, co. York ; Tuxford, co. Nottingham ; Stam- 
ford, CO. Lincoln ; Coppingfoid, co. Huntingdon ; Bun- 
tingford, Hertford, and Tumford, co. Hertford; and 
Burford, co. Surrey. 

On the IcKNiBLD Street, are Thetford, co. Norfolk; Pam- 
pisford, CO. Cambridge; Ickleford, co. Hertford; Water 
Stratford and Fringford, co. Buckingham ; Gosford and 
Stafford Farm, co. Oxford; Wallingford, Moulsford, 
CO. Berks., going thus through Reading, by Calcot to 

On the Akeman Street, beginning at Godmanchester, 
we leave two Offords, Barford, Tempsford, and Girtford, 
a little to the West; thence to Stanford, Shefford, 
Ickleford, and Lemsford Mills to Hatfield. On that 
branch which runs through Oxfordshire, we have Bar- 
ford Farm and Langford Farm. 

On the IcKNiELD Street or Hayden Way, are Bidford, 
Wixford, and Watford Gap, co. Warwick ; Round Rad- 
ford and Lifford, co. Worcester. 

On the Via Dbvana, which runs from Godmanchester to 
London, there are Hemingford, a little to the North 
East; Shelford, Stapleford, Chesterford, (Great and 
Little,) Orford House, Bishop Stortford, Woodford, 
and Stratford le Bow. 


€hi a Raman Way from Sheflbrd to King^s Lynn, there are 
Langford, oo. Hertford; Thetford, (South of Ely,) and 
Fordham, co. Norfolk. 

On a Soman Way, which branches from the Via Db- 
VANA at Chesterford, and goes to Castle Acre. This 
road is called, betwixt Wangford and Mildenhall, 
Mabewat Hnji, and Pobtwat. 

From Mildenhall it branches in two directions. The left 
passes through Wangford to Brandon^ Mundford, and 
so on to Castle Acre. The right goes to Thetford. 
East of this latter place is another way of Roman 
origin, which is called Peddar Wat, and runs I im- 
agine from Hunstanton on the North West coast of 
Norfolk to Ipswich, through Sedgeford, Castle Acre, 
Stamford Hall, and Bnunford. 

On the FossB there are, Ditdhibrd in Gloucestershire; 
Halford, Stanford, Stoney Ford and Bretford, in 
Warwickshire ; Shaniford in Leicestershire ; Shelford, 
Bridgeford and Langford, iii Nottinghamshire. 

Fordgam Helen Luedhog, at the end of Kraig Yorwyn, 
CO. Merioneth, a Roman road. (Reynolds, p. 449.) 

An inspection of the whole of the county maps of Eng- 
land, where the districts have been carefiilly surveyed, 
would readily enable a person to explain on the same 
principles, nearly all other names of places which ter- 
minate in Ford. Enough is shewn here to prove that 
this word has quite as much connexion with the Roman 
period, as the Strettons, Streatleys, Stratfords, and 
the Chesters, are reported to have. Only one instance 
occurs to me of a direct corruption firom the Latin 
Vaium^ which is Wadet MiH, on the Ebmine Street. 
Feankton. It is difficult to make any thing out satis- 

iaetorily about this prefix. Llywar9 Hen in his Elegy 

4m Cynddylan, says, 

Ni 9ftfiEd Franc tanc o'i ben. 
From his mouth the Frank would not get the word of peace. 


Upon which passage Owen Pughe aaks, did the Framks 
emigrate with the ScutarUy in such numben, as to cause 
the introduction of their name into this island, as a se- 
parate body of people! I confess I am quite unable to 
account for it. 
Frankton, in the suburbs of Shrewsbury. Welsh Fnmk- 
ton. North East of Oswestry. English Frankton, and 
Frankton Gbange, North of Cockshut. 
Gabtbbb Road; South East of Leicester. It runs be- 
tween Great and Little Stratton, which lying close upon 
it, sufficiently indicate its Roman origin. After it reaches 
Cross Barrow Hill, its course is uncertain. It here 
leaves a circular and a square encampment about a mile 
to the North, but seems to point uncertainly to the 
South. I conceive it took its name from the Gelt, ffar^ 
sylva, and tre^ vicus, because it leads to the villages on 
the borders of Rockingham forest. 
GiuvB ; more frequent as a prefix, than a termination. 
M. Goth. Grabay fossa, fovea! 

Gravenor; Bamet^s Graves near Buildwas; Hargrave, 
CO. Salop ; North East End of the Long Mountain. 
Comgreaves, co. Worcester. 
Graveley, co. Cambridge ; Graveley, co. Hertford. 
Graven Hill, one mile South of Bicester, 
Graveney ; Gravesend, co. Kent. 
Ghravenhurst, co. Bedford. 
' Haoley. Celt, haga^ haij Sylva. 
Little Hagley, and Great Hagley, near Presteign, co. 
Radnor. Hagley, co. Worcester. 
Halohton, Hauohton; Celt. Hal^ collis: hatiffj and au; 
M. Goth, hauhj C. Brit, uehaj altus. 
Haughton, near Willey; near Ellesmere; near Shiffiial. 
Halghton, North East of West Felton. Hence Halston. 
Halghtoii (four), North of Ellesmere. 
Haughton Moss, and Haughton Thorn, co. Chester. 
Ham ; a termination implying a dwelling-place. Some- 


timeB a prefix, but mare frequently final Celt. Bret. 
A« Sax. S. Gh>th. Teut. ham ; Germ. Aamm ; Isl. Dan. 
keim; Flem. hmn^ domus, a home as we should say. 
And thus, a kame-stead ; Hemel Hempstead, and Berk- 
hamstead, (A. Sax. bearff^ collis, ham^ habitatio, and 
Steady loous) are names referable to this etymology. 
In Shropshire we have Atcham, corrupted from Atting- 
ham, and this again from Atingeham (Domesday) Gelt. 
Jt, terra, extremitas, fines; inff^ locus angnstus. 
Tbbntham, &c. the seat of his Orace the Duke of 
Sutherland, on the Trent. 
In Norfolk and Suffolk the termination is abundant. 

Hatton. The aflBxee of Hat, Had, Hath, Eath, Eth, 
are all respectively corrupted from Heaik. 

Hawkstonb; there must be some engrafture of the 
A. Sax. here upon the M. Ooth. ha/uh^ altus. The 
C. Brit, has im?, altus. In Sussex, near Lewis is the 
Camp of WhUe Hawk^ both referable to the same 
source, as are most composites in Ox, such as Oxenton 
Hill, North of Cheltenham, &c. 
Hawkridge Hill, co. Somerset. 
Hawks Tor, co. Cornwall. 

Hat ; Celt. Hai ; Isl. heide; Gbrm. hain^ Sylva. Lat. Barb. 

haia ; A. Sax. haga^ agellus. (See Glossary, sub voce.) 

The Hayes near Abberbury. Hampton Hayes, North 

of Worthin. Albion Hayes, near Preston Oobbalds. 

The Hay, betwixt Madeley and Coalport. The Hay, 

near Chetton. Horsehay, South of Wellington. 

Hatden Wat ; the Icknield Street has this name from 
Coughton to Studley, co. Warwick ; betwixt these two 
places it passes along high ground, and as all Roman 
roads were usuaUy elevated above the adjacent soil, it 
perhaps took its name from the Celt. Aa«, terra ele- 
vata supra campum. 

Hope, in composition, denotes a small valley between two 
mountains. Celt. Hope. id. 


Wiih thui agrees the position of Hope Bowdler, Hope- 
aay, Millichope, Birchhope, East of the Stipentone, 
Middlehope, Easthope, Ratlinghope, Hopton, West- 
hope, 00. Salop. 
HuBST ; (See Glossary, sub voce.) 
The Hurst, near Worthin. Mulhurst, North West of 
EInaves Castle, Neves Castle: a name indicative of 
position: noft, neb^ nef in Celt, being the same, and 
all allusive to altitude ; knave and nsvej seem to come 
from this source. Isl. natff: S. Goth. noM, promon- 

Knaves CftsUe, North of Presteign, oo. Radnor. 
Neves Castle, near Buildwas. 

Knaves Castle, on the Watlinq Street, two miles West 
of Etocetum or Wall. 
Lane; several Roman Ways have this appellation, and 
whenever lanes run straight forward for a considerable 
distance and are of uniform width, they bear evident 
symptoms of a remote formation. Thus, the Ermine 
Street in the North part of Rutlandshire is called Hobn 
Lane, and a part of it in Richmondshire Lemino Lane. 
LoNODOWN Lane or the Ridge Wat, comes from the South 
of Warwickshire, and joins the Watling Street near 
Kilsby, CO. Northampton, it runs betwixt WiUoughby 
and Grandborough, Lower Shuckburgh, Boddington, a 
mile below which place it joins the Welsh Road or 
Welshman's Road, and goes thence to Wallow Bank 
and Arbuht Banks. 

Banbury Lane; this is a continuation of the Welshman's 
Fenn Lanes ; run from Manduessedum on the Watling 
Street, through Fenny Drayton to Cadeby. Q! if 
Coal Prr Lanes ; run from the Fosse to the Watling 
Street, near Lutterworth. Q! if Roman. 


HsREFOBD Lank, the Watling Street; South of AymestTj, 
CO. Hereford, is bo called. 

Kycotb Lane, a road miming from Thame to Dorches- 
ter, 00. Oxford, with a Cold Harbour on it. 

Tbench Lane ; South East of Newport, co. Salop ; an- 
other leading from Droitwich, South East to Flyford 
Flavel, CO. Worcester ; and another from the Watling 
Street at Wellington to Newport. 

Lxming Lane ; a name which the Ermine Street has in 
00. Richmond. 

Salteb'*b Lane; a road leading from Cholmondeley 
Chapel to Holt, North of Maiden Castle, co. Chester. 
Salterns Lane, one mile and a half South East of 
Tardebigg, co. Worcester, leading from Besley on 
the Icknield Street. (See Salter's Road, Salter 

Knab Lane is a Roman road running from Ixworth, 
through Bamingham, Gkisthorpe, East Harling, and 
Attleborough, to Norwich. 
Little Wobth; a hamlet, or little village. A. Sax. 

wartk, platea, vicus. (See Worth.) 

Littleworth, in the parish of Little Wenlock. 

Littleworth, North of Norbury, 

Littleworth, near Comfton Wintate, co. Warwick. 

Littleworth, close to Gretton, co. Gloucester. 

Littleworth, West of Aylesbury. 

Littleworth, South West of Biggleswade. 
Let ; A. Sax. %, leoff^ campus. 

Leighton, Leaton, Leegomery, Hadley, Kinnersley, Daw- 
ley, Broseley, Madeley, Astley, Willey, Linley, Nor- 
ley, Caughley, Harley, Henley, Froddesley, Langley, 
Sturchley, Qaverley, Cloverley, Glazeley, Billingaley, 
Minsterley^ Habberley, Tasley, Hughley, Astley, Ruck- 
ley, Henley, Pulley, Bitterley, &c. 
Low. (v. p. 92.) 

.Bedow, Onslow, Whittingdow near Acton Scott, Munn- 


low, Peplow, near Market Drayton, Brandow East of 

Buiy DitcheB. 
Maidkn Caotlb. The appellation of Maiden as applied 
to castles has hitherto been a diffioulty, which those who 
have tried to explain it, have not successfully overcome. 
It has absurdly enough been thought to be a castle 
that was never taken : in this, as in every other name 
of a place where we are able, we must seek for the 
Etymology in the Celtic. Mad, Med^ Mod^ Mct^ and 
Madien^ signify an eminence or elevation ; thus Maidm 
Ccuile^ will mean a castle on a height. As is Maiden 
Bower, near Dunstable; Maiden Bower, betwixt the 
Akeman Street and Staple Barton, oo. Oxford; 
Maiden Castle in Cheshire; Maiden Castle, near Dur^ 
ham; Maiden Castle, near Dorchester; and Maiden 
Castle in Stainmore, Westmoreland. The three last 
of these are Roman works, and I believe the two 
others likewise. That part of the Watling Street (see 
the second Iter of Antoninus) which passes through 
Vcrreda (quasi Ford) or Whelp Castle, in Westmore- 
hmd, to Caer Yorwyn, Magna (that is, C. Brit, mator, 
pronounced wnrr, magnus) or Thiriwall Castle in North- 
umberland, on the Pict^s or Severus^ Wall, is still called 
the Maiden Way. It derived this name either because 
it was a raised road, as the Roman roads generally are, 
or else, which seems more likely, from its passing by 
Maiden Castle in Westmoreland, and by a small fort 
called MxmENHOLD, betwixt Crackenthorp and Kiriiy 
Thorp, on the same line. In either case Maiden Way 
is synonymous with Highway, On the same principles 
may be explained Casr Vorwyn or Caer Varran, by 
the side of the river Tippal on the Maiden Way, in 
Westmoreland. Dolforwyn, a ruined castle, built by 
Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, Cirdi 1065 — 1073, above the 
Severn, between Beriew and Newtown in Montgomery- 
shire, and Cabb Forwtn a large circular entrenchment 


above the river Alwen in Denbighahire. Varuyn or 
Marwyn, aignifieB in C. Brit, a maiden, for the two 
wordfl are identical, as Y is never initial in C. British, 
though often pronounced so, as in the instance above, 
of Vawr for Mawr^ where in such cases the initials 
of the words in their primary sense are either B or 
M, and the Y consonant is governed by one of them. 
Thus Caar Vonoyn, Caer Foncyn^ and Dolfaruyn mean 
Maiden Ciuth^ which again springs out of tiie Celt. 
M€ui^ McMm^ Med^ Mod^ Mor^ (C. Brit. Manoyn)^ and 
Mat: so that the words are synonymous. 
This gives us a clue to the Etymology of Mobf, a 
laige tract of land lying very high, to the East of 
Bridgenorth, which was formerly a forest. 

Mark; as the instances where this name occurs are at 
places above the general level of the surrounding country, 
it is most likely deduced from the A. Sax. mere, ex- 
celsus, summus. (v. pp. 173, 174.) 
Maer Way, a road North West of Maer, and Chapel 
Chorlton, co. Stafford. 
Mare Ridges, South West of Englefield, co. Berks. 
Mare Way Hill, on Roman road, near Eriswell, co. 
Meer Bach Hill, co. Hereford. 

Nkachlby Hill, East, and Nedge Hill, West of Shiffiial, 
CO. Salop. Netchwood, South of Monk Hopton. Celt. 
iMMsA, neck^ altus. 

Neen. Celt, nene^ nant^ and plur. ne&nej rivus: and 
Celt. iMn, altus. It is a choice betwixt the two, as 
either will suit the position of those places where the 
name occurs. NeetUan, Neen Bwtage^ or Upper JV^m,. 
00. Salop, are upon the river Rea. Neen Sollers lies 
a quarter of a mile from it, between this stream and 
Mill Brook. The river Nen, in Northamptonshire, 
hence derives its name. 

Ocl; in composition, denotes a dwelling-place or habi- 

A I 



tation. Gelt, cut, habitatio. It is synonymotui with 

the C. Brit. Ue, a place, spot, or utuation. 

In Shropshire there is Onlton, North East of Newport; 

Choulton, near Billing's Bing; Edgebouhon, near Shaw- 

buiy; Soulton Hall, near Wem; Houleston, North 

of Middle. 

Pan; either simple or in composition. P(in is the same 

as Penj according to BnUet and Baxter, and in Celt. 

and C. Brit, the word means caput, promontorium, as 

it likewise signifies in Hebrew. Any high place will 

therefore be called Pan. Thus there is 

Pancom Stone, close to Shobdon, co. Hereford. 

Pan Castle, a small oval camp dose to Whitchurch. 

Pan Pudding Hill, near Bridgenorth. 

Pans Hill, close to Boarstall, co. Buckingham. 

Panson, near Hanwood, co. Salop. 

Panshington, South West of Hartlebuiy, co. Worcester. 

Penly, near Ellesmera 

Pendlestone Rock, near Bridgenorth. 
PiH Hnji, quasi PinhiUf Celt, pin^ summitas. 
Port Wat ; this is a very usual term for a Roman road, 

and it is highly probable that those lines of communica- 
tion, in all places where it occurs, were originally formed 

by the Romans, and took this name in consequence. 

The Watling Street, near Bur^iill, co. Hereford, has 
a place on it bearing this name. 

North of Kirtlington, co. Oxford, the Portway crosses 
Wattlebank or Avesditch, to Ploughlet Hill. 

Port Way, a Roman road, North East of Andover. 

Port Way, midway betwixt Leominster and Tenbury. 

A little North of Orleton, co. Hereford, there is a 
Port Way, leading from the Ludlow and Leominster 
road, four miles and a half South of the former place, 
down Green Lane to Cboft Ambret Camp. 

There is a Port Way in co. Hants. ; another, oo. Wilts. 
(Archaeol. v. viiL p. 100,) another, co« Norfolk. A 


Toad in Berkshire, East and West of Wantage, is 
oaUed the Port Way, it continues nearly in a direct 
line to Wallingford, and I conceive it to be of Ro- 
man origin. Id. near Aynho, co. Northampton. 

Port Way, betwixt Tanworth, co. Warwick, and the 

. Icknield Street. (See Salteb Street.) 

Port Way, in the parish of Hardwick, co. Cambridge. 

Port Way, on the road from Wangford to Eriswell, 
00. Suffolk; Roman. 

Port Way, two miles South East of Dudley, co. Wor- 
cester, leading by Causeway Chreen, Harbome, and 
SeUy Oak. 

It seems very probable that this is part of a line of 
Roman conununication from the Watling Street below 
Penkridge to Alcester, passing by Crateford, Standi- 
ford, the Ford Houses, Wolverhampton, Cockshut 
Colliery, Sedgeley Beacon, Sedgeley, Cotwall End, 
Dudley, Portway, Causeway Green, Harbome, and 
Selley Oak, where it divided into two branches, one 
going to the West, through Bromsgrove to Droit- 
wich; the other taking the course of some bye-ways 
for ft mile and a half to King^s Norton, at which 
place there is a straight line of road to Forhill, where 
it joins the Icknield Way, coming in directly from 
Alcester, due South. 

Sautbt, Sawtbt Wat; I conceive this began at a more 
important road at Thetford^ three miles South of Ely, 
on the Roman way from Cambridge into Norfolk, 
and went ftt>m hence to Streatham, Wilburton, Had- 
denham, (betwixt here and Earith it is called Had- 
dmham Causeway^) Needingworth, leaving St Ives a 
little to the left, and Houghton. At this place its title 
of Sawtry Way begins, and continues for ten or twelve 
miles, till the road in short, joins the Ermine Street, 
two miles North of Alconbury Hill. A mile beyond 
this point of junction, it reaches Sawlry AU Saints^ 



from which it takes its name : and this again derives 
it from the Celt, sau^ parvus collis, from being placed 
on a superior eminence to the surrounding villages 
above the Fens. The Sawtry Way appears to be 
an early line of communication. 

Shen, Shine; Celt, yscenfij km; Celt, and Ir. kin^ caput. 

Shineton, eo. Salop. 

Shenston, near Chaddesley Corbet, co. Worcester. 

Shenston, co. Stafford. 

To the same etymon nuty be referred Kinlet, Rinver, 
Kinfare/ Elinnardsley, &c. 
Pbddar Wat. There are two Roman roads in the 

county of Norfolk of this name, one of which faUs 

into the other. 

The chief Peddab Wat is ninety-six miles long, com- 
mencing at Stratford le Bow, in Essex, and termi- 
nating at Holme on the Sea, in Norfolk. It runs 
direct from station to station, though at each of 
them there is a certain degree of angularity. From 
its commencement at Stratford le Bow, through Wood- 
ford and Epping, until it reaches Harlow, (where 
Roman remains have been found,) its courise iff very 
devious. From Harlow till its termination, the line 
is direct from town to town and from village to 
village; but the chief bearing varies, until it toudies 
Norfolk, when its direction is quite straight. From 
Harlow it goes to Bishop Stortford and Newport, 
thence to Great Chesterford and Worstead Lodge, at 
which latter place it crosses the Via Dbvana. Cross- 
ing Balsham Dyke, it thence passes through New- 
market, Barton Mill, Lord^s Hut, North of MildenhaD, 
Brandon, Mundford, Hilborough, SwafiPhain, Castle 
Acre, Fring, Sedgeford, and ends at the quadran- 

,gular work of Holme on the Sea. 

The other Peddar Way commences at Ixwoiih, co. 
Suffolk, and passes by Stanton St JohnX between 


East Wieetham and Illingworth to Tottmgton : being 
clearly traceable for thirteen miles. South of Swaff- 
ham it is called the Walsinoham Way, and here it 
unites ^th the preceding Peddab Wat. Qf Peddar 
Way. PedeBtriif Promp. Pahy. Pedde^ calathus; 
Peddar^ calathus piscarius. Ceh. pedd^ pes! Was 
the chief supply of fish for the Romans from the 
Northern seas to London by this road? 
PniUET ; Gelt. Pwl^ locus sylvestris, uliginoBUs, as it was 
temp. Edw. I. 1300, being included in the Forest of 
Lithewood. Polelie, Domesday. PoUerdine, North of 
lUtlingfaope. BuUerdine. Polmere, West of Hanwood. 
Rao; a prefix denoting something small. Celt. Bag^ par- 
vus. BoffleA^ (or the Uttle portion!) near Church Stretton, 
from the preceding root, and lethy pars, and underneath it, 
Bagdon and Ragbakh, If this derivation be sound, and it 
must be confessed it is scarcely satisfactory to the author, 
Ragleth wiU literally mean a comparatively small part 
of the mountains which are seen in this part of Shrop- 
shire. Hehneth which is the next height to the North, 
. signifies the middle hei^t, or rock that is the middle 
hiU between Caer Caradoc, and Ragleth, for Hazier 
Hill is a hill of insignificant altitude. 
RiDDiNGs; can the name of the two places, one near 
Broseley, the other near Ludlow, which are similar, to 
this, be derived from the Celt, and C. Brit. Bhnddy 
ruber, on account of the colour of their soil! It 
.18 ratiier r^narkable that at the former place, the 
colour of the land suddenly changes to this hue. Or 
do they take their name from the A. Sax. hred- 
danj liberare, that is, land cleared of wood, redeemed 
from forests! There is Bidding Woodj near Maer, co. 
Ridge Wat ; so called because it takes its course along 
a rid^ ix devated land. A. Sax. hrieg^ dorsum. Thus 
the Ridgeway in Warwickshire, which begins two miles 



West of Aloester, rpna along some high hmd^ parallel 
with the Hayden Way, past the Arbours^ to Red 
Ditch for seyen miles. For the same reason Ridgeway, 
two nules South West of Powick^ and Ridgeway be- 
tween Stanford Bishop and Mathon, oo. Worcester, 
are so called. And the Ridgeway between Edgeton 
and Castle Ring, co. Shropshire. Rudge Wood near 
Broseley. Rudge Heath on the borders of Shropshire 
and StaflTordshire. Ridgeway joins the Fosse in Leices- 
tershire, North East of Barkby. The Ridgeway Road 
fix)m Pembroke to Tenby. 
Road, see Gartree, Bayden. 

Robin Hood. To this bold out-law are attributed many 
things which the ignorant cannot otherwise explain 
than by referring them to his agency. Thus we have 
among many othe^ things assigned to him throughout 
England, the following: 

Robin Hood^s Chair, NesscUff. Robin Hood^s Butts, on 
Wapley Hill, six miles North East of Kington, co. 
Hereford. Robin Hood^s Butts, co. York. Robin 
Hood'^s Butts, tumuli on the Long Myndd, co. Salop. 
Robin Hood^s Farm, co. Warwick. Robin Hood^s 
Stride, co. Derby. Robins Wood Hill, South of Mat- 
son, CO. Gloucester. Robin Hood and Little John, two 
upright stones near Gunwade Ferry, Peterborough. 
Rush; in composition is most naturally derived from 
the A. Sax. nm?, juncus, implying that the villages 
into which this compound enters are, or at least were, 
upon wet, rushy land. 

Rushmoor, South of Longdon on Tern, co. Salop. 
Rushbury, co. Salop. Rushton, under the Wrekin. 
Rushden South East of Baldock, co. Hertford. 
Rushden, co. Northampton. 
Rushton, Rockingham Forest, co. Nottingham. 
Shelve; simple, and in composition. Ir. seea^j a diflEl 
Gael, sffealbj fragmentum lapidis. Shelve under the 


Stiperstonea. Shelf, near Betton. Leaton Shelf. Shel- 
vodke, near OBwestry. This may suit as the ety- 
mon of our Shropshire names, though I fear it 
is quite inapplicable to some elsewhere, such as Shel- 
ford, CO. Cambridge; Shelton, co. Bedford, and some 
Slrap, Slepb ; the Eslepe of Domesday ; it lies on high 
land South West of Wem. Ir. sliav, sleibh; Oael. 
diabh^ mens. 

Spoon, Spunhill; (A. Sax. spoon^ cremium, femes!) 
Spoonley, near Market Drayton. Spoonbill Wood, 
near Round Acton. Spunhill, South of Ellesmere. Spone- 
bed Hill, near Painswick, co. Gloucester. Spoonley, in 
Wychwood Forest, co. Oxford. Spon Lme, West 
Bromwich, co. Stafford. Spon Lane, betwixt Grendon, 
€0. Leicester and the Watling Street. 
Staple Hill; (for its Etymology see remarks under 
MrrcHELL^s Fold.) 
Staple, CO. Somerset. 

Stapleton, vulgo dictum Steppitan^ co. Salop; id. Cam- 
bridge; id. Gloucester; id. Leicester. 
Stapeley Hill, under Comdon, co. Montgomery. 
Staple Hill, South of Alcester. Staple Hill, North of 

Wellesboume Hastings, co. Warwick. 
Stapleton Hill, North East of Presteign. 
Stapleford Park, near Melton Mowbray. 
Stapleton, the encampment of Richard IIL before the 
battle of Bosworth, South of Market Bosworth. 
Stapleford, co. Salop. 

Stapleford, co. Cambridge; id. Hertford; id. Lincoln; 
id. Nottingham ; id. Wilts. ; id. Essex ; id. East of 
Maer, co. Stafford. 
Stok, Stoke, Stocking; a prefix derived from the A. 
Sax. 8toe, locus; and often final, as Wood Stocky A. 
Sax. Wude StoOy sylvarum locus. 
Stokesay, Stockton. 


Stoke St Milborough, a place celebrated for one of 

Milbiirga'8 Miradefl, (y. Capgravii Legenda Nova.) 

where they are fully related. 
Stocking, near Onibury. 
Stocking^ near Bitterley. 
Stocking, near Stokesay. 
Stocking, North of CHibfford, oo. Hereford. 
Cold Stocking. 
No Stockings, on Roman road, between Casterford, 

and Stretton, co. Rutland. 
Stone, Stonet; this epithet is incticatiye of Roman 
thorou^ifare. The proofs that migHt be quoted are 
very considerable. The following, taken casually, will 
furnish sufficient illustration. 
On the Fosse. Stony Holds, a mile North of Bbno- 

Nis. Stoney Ford, below Stretton on Dunsmore, oo. 

On the Watuno Street. Stoney Stratford, co. Buck- 
ingham. Stoney Ford on Watling Street, oo. Salop. 

Stoney Stretton, betwixt Shrewsbury and Westbuiy. 
Middleton Stoney, co. Oxford. Stoney Oate, one mile 

South East of Leicester, on the Oabtbbb Road. 
Stone Bridge, on the Roman road, betwixt Barton 

and Cambridge. 
Stone Cross, half a mile North of Hoiseheath, by 

which a Roman road passes, co. Cambridge. 
Stonesfield, on the Axeman Street. 
Street; it would be an unnecessary labour to adduce 
all the instances where Streat^ Strety and Strat enter 
into the composition of words on Roman roads, I shall 
therefore confine my remarks to places little known. In 
Kent and Essex ''Streets'^ constantly occur, which I con- 
ceive is owing to the lengthened occupation and colonisa- 
tion of the Romans in these two counties. Habb Stbbet 
is a very frequent name in Essex, and may be referred 
to the A. Sax. here, exercitus. (See Cold Harbour.) 


Obebn SiBSBa;; North of High Wycombe. Near Sand- 
wich. South of Teynliam, on Roman road to Dovor. 
South of Crowhurst. Green Street Green, between 
Famboroagh and Chelsfield, oo. Kent. Green Street, 
on Roman road, between Bishop Stortford and Braugh- 

Kind Street ; near Midlewich, oo. Chester. Condate 
has been placed upon it by some writers, (v. Cam- 
den, Yol. iii. p. 57.) 

Kino Street; another name aOusive to the Roman 
period. Thus we have King Street^ a branch out of 
the Ermine Street, at Castor in Northamptonshire; 
it runs due North, past Ufford, Greatford, and Cab 
Dtke in Rutlandshire to Bourn and Sleaford. (See 
BuLLOGK^s Road.) 

KisQ Street ; the road from the Depot at Shrewsbury, 
to the Wailing Street at Pitchford has this name, 
three miles and a half from the county town, which 
renders it likely that the way is of Roman origin, 
especially when we see it is a vicinal road from the 
Watling Street, to a place that is upon one of its 

Kino Stbbbt; two miles East of Woodcot and Pave 
Lane, co. Salop. 

Monksfath Street; a road in Warwickshire, direct 
from Henley in Arden to Birmingham, bears this name 
for two miles ; when it is changed to Shirley Street. 

Salter Street runs Southwards from Shirley Street 
to Ttbdrn Lane and Tanworth, two miles West of 
which is Portway^ rather more than midway between 
this village and the Icknield Way, co. Warwick. (See 
Salter's Lane.) 

Salter'^s Road, near the Ermine Street, oo. Lincoln; 
it has been supposed to have been used by the 
Romans for bringing salt from Holland over Brigend 
Causey to Leicester, (v. Camden, vol. ii. p. 359.) 

. I 


Under this head may be noticed a Roman road, wbioh 
has, I believe, hitiierto escaped the obsenration of 
topographers. It conmiences at Gloucester, which is 
by the unanimous consent of antiquaries supposed to 
be the Glevum of Antoninus, and terminates at its 
junction with the road which passes by Magna, or 
Kenchester, just above Ode Pyechard. From Glou- 
cester, I conceive the road went to Newent, a mile 
North of which place it leaves a Cold Harbour, to 
the West. Thence to Castle Tump, Dymock, Hose 
Hill, Little Marcle, Cromwell^s Walls, Stretton Gran- 
dison, after which it joins the road above-mentioned 
six miles and a half North East of Hereford. 

Besides this, another undescribed road seems to have 
started from the same city, and have gone North- 
wards, keeping the Malvern HiUs to the West. Six 
miles North of Gloucester we have Harridge or Haiv 
wich Street, on the West ; Stonend, Stonewall, Buig- 
hill, to the East, and Gadburt Banks an irregularly 
quadrilateral single-ditched work, through which the 
road passes. Higher up about a mile, is a Port 
Way ; afterwards we find, close on the left or West- 
ern side, Keys End, and Kaisend Strbef, (Caesar 
Street!) The Rye Street^ Birts Street^ and a mile 
to the right, Roberfs-end Street. On the left.. Wain 
Street^ leading to Rilbury Camp above Ledbury, and 
thus it proceeds, leaving Poolrend Street to the East 
under the Malvern Hills, upon which are two re- 
markable entrenchments, till it reaches Great Mal- 

Silver SrREirr. Not unusual in the two last men- 
tioned counties. Does not this come from the Lat. 
sylvaf just as we say Wood Street at the present 
day! Silver Street, North of Stowmarket. 

Stone Street, co. Hereford. This began at Magna 
Castra or Kenchester, and went to Caer Leon. 


SroNB Strbet, 00. Surrey. This began at Kingston on 
Thames, and. passed through Leatherhead, Dorking, 
OoUey, Slinford, Billinghuist, Pulborough, Cold 
Waltham, Bignor, Cold Harbour, and ended at Chi- 
Stbeet Fobeloo; this branches to the Tforth out of 
the Roman trackway from Caeb Sws. 
SwBKSY ; Celt. Stoiy aqua, fluvius t A. Sax. Swin^ por- 
. eus! as both of the examples will agree with the 
former derivation, it seems capricious to reject it for 
the latter. But it is most probable that these two 
places were Stoinehaygy or enclosures for fattening pigs, 
what we constantly find mentioned in Domesday. 
Sweeny near Oswestry, on a small brook; Swinny, 
near Broseley, on the Severn. 

Ton ; a termination so common that it hardly needs ex- 
planation. It is, however, desirable to ascertain what 
degree of prevalency it has among us, and therefore 
I shaU set down the names of those places where it 

Cardeston (vulgo dictum, Cc^son)^ Withington, Up* 
pington, U£Bngton, Boddington, Wellington, Womer- 
ton. Burton, Leighton, Woolstaston, Edgeton, Kuyton, 
Rowton, Dorrington, Kemberton, Culmington, Ship- 
ton, Ticklerton, Eaton, Eyton, Preston, Shineton, 
Donnington, Chesterton, Burwarton, Middleton, Ac- 
ton, Stretton^ Neenton, Weston, Tibberton, Moreton. 
TooTHiLL, West of Chilworth, co. Hants. 
Toothill, near Rhuddlan. At Criccaeth. Tothill Fields. 
Tothill, two miles North West of Stovmiarket. 
Tothill, CO. Lincoln. This is a peculiar military earth- 
work, consisting of a wide deep ditch about seventy 
yards in length, close by the side of which is a very 
lofty round hill, which to this day retains its ancient 
appellation of Tootehill, and from which the name of 
the village is derived. 


Toothill, fiiifioial Mount, near Cockermouth, Comb. 

Faiiy Toote, co. Dorset. 

Cafitle Tute, near Gleobuiy Mortimer, oo. Salop. 

Tutbury, and perhaps Tettenhall, (Teotaa-heale) co. 

Strictly writing ToothiU means a speculatoiy, from the 
Gael, tata coUicnlus exiguus; or the A. Sax. Mian^ 
eminere. TaiehyUe^ specula. (Catholicon). TatdkylU 
or hey place of lokinge, conspectus, teatrum. (Promp. 
Part.) TaUkyUj Mmtaignette. (Palsgraye.) Hall in 
his Chronide speaks of Tatynge Holes, or pUces of 
look out. Coles, in his Dictionary, has Touiy to look 
out or upon.- Q! does the Toater, or Gad to an 
omnibus, (Celtic eady garde) derive his title in con- 
sequence of being a looker out for passengers, and 
perched on a speculatory behind, or does he take it 
from the Belg. tuyten, to blow a little horn. The 
name is appropriate either way! 
Trench ; a place formerly surrounded, or lying upon, 

a ditch, fosse or trench. Lat. Barb, trancheia, tren^ 

keia; Fr. trenchee^ fossa. 

Trench, (three) North of Ellesmere. 

Trench Lane, Trench Oreen, Trench Farm, South of 

Trench Lane, running from Droitwich to Flyford Fla- 
vel, CO. Worcester. 

Trench Lane, a communication from the Ridgeway 

at Almondesbury to Matford Bridge, co. Gloucester. 

Vallbts; according to its derivation from the C. Brit. 

gwalj it means strictly a place shut in, fenced or 

sheltered, a piece of cultivated ground. 

ValletB, in the North part of the Forest of Wyre. 

Vallets, South of Presteign, co. Radnor. 

Castle Vallet, South of Pilleth, co. Radnor. 

Lye VaOets, East of Hope, under Dinmore, co. Hereford. 

Sallow Vallets, North of Coleford, co. Gloucester. 


Step Vallet Farm, North of Downton Ciistle. 
Wall ; generally in composition, both initial and final, 
denoting a place surrounded with a wallf or agger, 
whether of British or Roman origin. 
Eastwall, Ghatwall, Wall under Heywood, Cotwall, 

Walls Bank, Walton near High Ercall. 
Wabdinb; a termination denoting a village, corrupted 
from Wofihin^ which comes fix)m the A. Sax. Worth, 
platea, vicus, and is used both as a prefix and a 
Shrawardine, Wrockwardine, (see remarks under Wbb- 

Km), Fouswardine near Sidbury, Stanwardine, EUer- 

dine, Pedwardine, Bekwardine, PoDerdine, Ingardine, 

BuUwardine, Llanvair Waterdine. 
Wat; see remarks under Hatden, RmoE, Sawtbt, 

Batdon, Pbddab, Port, &o. 
Wig, Wik; incipient and final. M. Goth. toeUs; Celt. 
Germ, ank ; A. Sax. me, meus. 
Wigwig, near Much Wenlock. 
Wiggin, near St Martin; Wigginton, id. 
Wike, North East of Much Wenlock. The Wike, 

and Wykey Moss, co. Salop. 

Note. — Blaekdavm. A long range of hill North West of 
Honiton Down, at the extremity of which is a small coni- 
cal mount like a beacon, which looks artificial, but is I 
believe not so ; it has however probably been occupied as 
a little fort or speculatory, and is known by the name 
of Morden or Mordle Pen Beacon (Q! Moridunum!) 
The ancient name of this mount or beacon is preserved 
in the adjacent hamlet Blackhorongh or Blackhurgh, 

Blackdown Hill, near Abbotsbury, Dorset. 

Black Gang Chine, Isle of Wight. 

WUutt in Slrop#|irr 

nMRtioiuU ta 


Hundred 0/ 

Hundred qf 




PiM Hill 

























Hundred of 




PiM Hill. 



































Hundred qf 

Hundred tf 


PiM Hill* 
















































Keen Savage 












Preston Gobalds 





WaU Town 















Hundred of 



















Hundred of 



CuLMivoToir or 
Mum SLOW. 













Hundred iif 

















Cound • 





Hundred qf 













Old Caynton 














The Leech, East 
of Chad's Ercall 
















































Hundred qf 







Hundred qf 

Hundred iif 

Elnoelstrui.. Brivbtrkt. 

HoDEirsT or 

North akd 

Odenet. i 

South Bradford. 





















Eaton upon Tern 





















Morton Say 


































Hundred qf 


HoDEiTET QT North and 



South Bradford. 




Acton Reynard 















Hundred of 











Hundred if 

Hundred of 







Cheney Longae- 















PwU-Ue, East of 






Llanvair Water- 

















Hundred qf 














Eardiston, East 
ofWest Felton 




























Hundred <tf 


Edgerly ? 









West Felton 












Hundred 1^ 




Betton, North of 

Hundred of 

M. Drayton 


F&AMCHisE or 


Brockley Moor? 















Chariton HiU 



Cbeswell Grange 























Eyton? Eton 

































Stoke St Mil- 



















Hundred 4(f 
























Upton Mafl^?'V 




Hundred 1^ 





Waten Upton f 









































Hundred CMiaiu or qf, 

















Praton Hall 

















Hundred 9/ 








Hundred qf 










Hundred 0/ 

Hundred iff 
















Hundred qf 

















Cedit enim winaa novitate eztrufla Tetustas 

Semper; et ex aliis aliud repanre neoesBe est; 

Neo quidquam in bamtliniin nee tartan deddat atn* 





^Pbomptdabium Parvulorom Ave Glerioomm. Mantuoript 
in the Library of King^s College, Cambridge. 

* Printed by Richard P^nBon, 
foL 1499. 

* — Wynkyn de Worde, 4to. 1516. 

* Vulgaria Viri Doctiasimi Gulielmi Hormani CsaaariB Bur- 

gensis. Printed by Richard Pynson, fol. 1519. 
*LeBclarciflBement de la langae Franooyse compofle par 

maistre lehan Palsgraue Angloys natyf de Londree 

et gradne de Paris. Printed by lohan HaukynB, 

Lond. foL 1530. 
Cotgrave^B French and English Dictionarie, Lond. 161 1. 
Oloflsaire de la Langae Romane, par Roquefort, S vols. 

8vo. 1808 — 1820. 
Diotionnaire du Vieux langage Francois, par Lacombe, 

2 vols. 8vo. 1766 — 1767. 
Dictionnaire Royal, {ran9ois-anglois, et anglois4Tan9ois, 

par Boyer, 4to. 1783. 
Dictionnaire de la langae Francoise ancienne et modeme, 

de Pierre Riehelet, 3 vols. fol. 1759- 
Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langae Fran9oise, par 

M. Menage, 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1750. 
Dictionnaire de Trevoox, 8 vols. fol. Paris, 1771- 
Dictionnaire de la langae Celtique, par M. Bullet, Besan^ 

con, 3 vols. fol. 1750. 
Dictionnaire de la langae Bretonne, par Louis le Pel* 

letier, fol. Paris, 1752. 


Archffiologia Britannioay by Edward Lhuyd, fol. Oxford, 

Antiqiue Linguae Britanniose ThesaoniB, by the Bev. 

Thomas Richards, 8vo. Dolgelley, 1815. 
ArohflBoIogia Comu-Britannioa, or an Easay to preBonre 

the ancient Gomijsh language, by William Piyce, M.D. 

4to. Sherborne, 1790* 
GIoBsarium Suio-Oothicum, 2 vok. fol. Upeal, 1769- 

Lexicon Lapponicum, 4to. Holmis, 1780. (Dure.) 
Olai V^relii Lidex Linguae veteris Scytho-Scandicae aive 

Oothicae ex vetusti aevi monumentis, maximam partem 

manuficriptifl, collectus atque opera Olai Rudbecki editus 

Upsalae anno M.DCXGL foL 
Lexicon Idandico-Latino-Danicum Biomonis HaldorBonii, 

4to. Hauniae, 1814. 
En Dansk og Engelsk Ord-Bog. A Daniah and En- 

gliflh Dictionary, by Ernst Wolff, 4to. London, 1779- 
^Outzen, Glossarium der Freisischen Sprache^ 4to. Ko- 

penhagen, 1837* 
Alt Friesisches Worterbuch von Tilemann Dothias Wiarda, 

8vo. Aurich, 1786. 
Etymologicum Teutonicae Linguae CorneUi Kiliani, 4to. 

Trajecti Batavorum, 1777* 
Sahlstedt, Dictionarium Suecicum, 4to. Stockholm, 1773. 
Piipai, Dictionarium Latino Hungaricum, 8to. S vob. 

Posonii et Cibinii, 1801. 
A complete Dictionary, English and Dutch, by Wil- 
liam Sewel, 2 vols. 4to. Amsterdam, 1766. 
Winkehnan, Nederduitsch en Fransch Woordenbock, 

Utrecht, 2 vols. ,8vo. 1783. 
Wachteri Glossarium Gtermanicum, fol. Lipsise, 1737- 
Scherzii Glossarium Germanicum Medii ^vi, 2 vols. fol. 

Argentorati, 1781. 
Haltaus Glossarium Germanicum Medii iEvi, foL Lipdie, 



A Gaelic Dictionary, by R. A. Annstrong, M^. 4to. 

London, 1825. 
Diotionarium Sooto-Celticum ; published by the Highland 

Society of Scotland, 2 vols. 4to. 1828. 
* Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by 

John JamicBon, 4 vola. 4to. 1808 — 1825. 
Minaheu^s Guide into eleven tongues, foL l6l7. 
Diotionarium Saxonico et Gothico-Latinum ; Lye et 

Manning, 2 yols. fol. London, 1772. 
Somneri Diotionarium Anglo-Saxonicum, fol. Oxford, 1659. 
Junii Etymologicum Anglicanum, Oxon. fol. 1743. 
Skinneri Etymologicon Linguse Anglicanse, fol. Lond. 1671. 
♦Spelmanni Glossarium Archaiologicum, fol. London, 1687. 
Baxteri Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum, 8yo. 

London, 1783. 
Du Gauge ; Glossarium Manuale ad Scriptores medise et 

infimse latinitatis, Hate, 6 vols. 8vo. 1722. 
Bishop Kennett^s Glossary to explam the oripnal, the 

acceptation, and obsoleteness of words and phrases, 

8vo. London, I8I6. 
Florio's Worlde of Wordes, 4to. London, 1598. 
BaUey'^s English Dictionary, 2 vols. 1735. 
Bullokar's English Expositor, 12mo. 1656. 
An Alvearie or Quadruple Dictionarie, by John Baret, 

foL 1580. 
A Dictionarie in English and Latine for Children, com- 
piled by John Withals, London, 8vo. 16O8. 
Blount's Glossographia, 8vo. 1656. 
GoW English Dictiomuy, 8vo. 1713. 
. Pickering^s Vocabulary of the United States, 8vo. I816. 
Nares^ Glossary, 4to. 1822. 
Phiffips' World of Words, fol. 1696. 
^The Derbyshire Miners^ Glossary, by James Mander, 

Bakewell, 8vo. 1824, 
A Glossary of North Country words, by John Trotter 

Brockett, Newcastle upon Tyne, 8vo. I829. 


The Hallanmhire Glossary, by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, 

London, 8vo. 1829. 
The Dialect of Craven, London, 1828, 2 vols. 
The Miscellaneous Works of Tim Bobbin, Esq. London, 

1818, 8vo. 
An attempt at a Glossary of some words used in Ches- 
hire, by Roger Wilbraham, Esq. London, 1836, l2mo. 
The Vocabuhuy of East Anglia, by the Rev. Thomas 

Forby, London, 1830, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Suffolk Words and Phrases, or an attempt to collect 

the Lingual Localisms of that County, by Edward 

Moor, Woodbridge, 1823, 8vo. 
Observations on some of the Dialects in the West of 

Eng^d, particularly Somersetshire, by James Jen* 

nings, London, 1825, l2mo. 
A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, by a Lady: to 

which is added a Glossary, by J. F. PaJmer, London, 

1837, 8vo. 
Ancient words used in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 

communicated to the Archaselogia by Dr Willan, toI. 

A list of words appended to collections towards the 

History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford, 

by John Duncombe, Hereford, 4to. 18(M. 
Ballads in the Cumberland Dialect, by Robert Ander* 

son, Carlisle, 1824>, 12mo. 
A list of some of the Provincial words of Wiltshire, 

(appended to the third volume of Britton'^s Beauties 

of Wiltshire,) 8vo. London, 1825. 
A Glossary of the Provincialisms in use in the County 

of Sussex, by William Durrant Cooper, Esq. Printed 

for private distribution, 12mo. Brighton, 1836. 
Provincial words used in Herefordshire and some of 

the adjoining Counties, l2mo. London, 1839. 

* Not in the author's coUeetloD. 

undergoes numerous changefi in our 

pronunciation* The most common 
is that where it takes the eound of 
This occurs at the commence- 
ment, middle and end of syllables. 
Ex* applet ^ for apples : pother:, for 
gather : ioteA, for catch : mon^ for 
man : con^ for can : nwttock^ for mat- 
toek : Mo^-doT/^ for May-day ; woy, 
for way: hond, for hand. (Wielire 
Nete Test, Luke xv,) 
When final it la at times converted into 
y >' Ex. Ohinf, for China. It is often 
doubled, as in the words safe, and made; 
the SalopianB here foUowing WicUfian 
authority say saafey and maad£. 

'^ He ftmnd othere men aaaff he may not 
tnake himsilf muf" Tramhtimi of New Tmt, 
Matt, ch, xxYiii, and John ch. x. 

In some words it is omitted altoge- 
ther; as in broad, great, they say brod^^ 
ffrHe^ but in these inetanees final ^ ifl 


Beches and brode okes. 

P. PLonBMAif*8 Fition, 80. 
And streochet hem brode! 

P. Plouhman^s Crede. 
Of heom schon the brodf feld. 
Kyng AKmmnder, y. 1606, also t. 3433, 6126, 6699 ; Sir Amadu, 
T. 862; Qolden Legend, throdie. 
When followed hy g or I it oooaaionally takes the sound 
of 0, and the g^ or l^ is silent, as cofe for calf: hofe 
for half. 

It is turned into e ; Ex. iomA for wash : gMer for gather ; 
Wiclif, Chaucer and our Early English Romances folly 
justify this usage. 

It is omitted in many monosyllabics, and they are thus 
made short, as mot^ for moat. When it would neoes* 
sarily be short if it were not lengthened by final e^ it 
is pertinaciously made short, as, '^He stared me reet 
i' the feace^': fnar^ for mare: tpar^ for spare: car, for 
care : bar^ for bear, and bare : dor, for dare : 

Til bothe hare heredes weie Aor. 

P. Plouhman»95. 
He bar acharpe spere. 
Kyno Alisaundbr, t. 969, also ▼• 988, 2312, &c. &c 
Hon he dar. 

id. T. 6515. 
Hound no best dor him aaeayle. 


When others make it short, we make it long, as in 
the words contrary^ after ^ farmert. 

When long and broad according to general pronuncia- 
tion we give it the sound of ay or eg^ as fegther^ for 

Where it has by custom the sound of short o, we give 
it that of short a, especially in those words where it 
is followed by f», as wander^ auxm's egg par (pear)» 
nxupisk^ &c. 

In words where followed by «, it is pronounced like the 
Scotch at, or eg : thus dastardly, nasty, master, &6. be- 
come daisterdlg, naigtg, maimer. Sir Amadas fomishes 


afli Authority for this use, and Jthb ati exmnple of 
pure Shropdiire language. 

The man dyd as his meygter bad 

Bot sQche a mmt as he ther hade. ▼. 71. 

Au, is often converted into o short, and if followed by 

ghy reoeives the sound of j^ as loff^ for laugh. 

And then the whole quiie hold their hips, and Iqg^ 

Midsummer Nights Dream, Act ii. Sc 1. 

and into a short, aapaneh^ for paunch; toffkt^ for taught. 

A is often used for they : Ex. " Whire bin a T Instead 
of several prepositions, on, ^i#, tn, &o. as, '' a Wednes- 
day'" : a morwe, (Chauoer^s Canterb. TaleSy v. 824), '^ a 
fire^ (id. v. 6308, and Kynff AUsau/nder^ v. 7549, 7552), 
as "o-whoam^'i as "o-bed^ (Chauc. CcMt. TdleSy v. 
5989, 6509, &oO 

It is frequently employed for the verb ham^ as ^^ When 
shan ^e a doneT '^He a got none.'" 

For the pronouns he and ehe^ as ^^ There a comes^. In 
the Metrical Romance of Sur Bevis a is continually used 
for he. It is also, an expletive, as '^a buf" ; for but, 
or Oh I but. It is ap useless particle, constantly placed 
before a gerund. For instance, o-coming, o-doing, a* 
making. In such cases Tyrwhitt thinks it a corruption 
of on. (See his Remarks on ^ Camterbwry Tales^ v. 11884, 
1689.) ^'I go o-fishing^, John xxi. 3: and our best 
grammarians deem it a genuine preposition in such in- 
stances. (See Lowth^s JSnffUsh Grammar^ p. 82 ; Forby^s 
Oloesary^ p. 3.) In composition, in words of Saxon origin, 
it may be considered an abbreviation of at, or of, of on, 
or in; and often only a corruption of the prepositive 
A. Sax. particle pe or y. The former of which pre- 
fixes subsequently became changed into y, as ''yheled 
with lede^. (P. Plouhman.) What force this had at an 
earlier period cannot now with accuracy be determined : 
if it evOT had any power, it is now l<HSt to us, and the 
Towel a which seems to be equally unmeaning is sub- 


Btitnted in its place. In words of Frenoh origin it is 
generally to be deduced from the Latin oi, €id^ and 
occasionally ex. The reader desirous of learning any 
thing additional on these points may consult witii ad- 
vantage, Chalmers^ admirable Glossary to Sir David 
Lyndsay^B works, and the first article in Todd^s edition 
of Johnson^s Dictiomuy. Enough has been said here ; 
especially, as the examples quoted cannot be considerod 
strictty local. 

AoooN, in composition with the name of several places 
in the county, as Aooon Scott; Acoon Retnard; 
AoooN Burnbll; Aooon Pioot; Round Aooon, &o. It 
means the oai4awf^ from A. Sax. eac^ ,ac^ quercns; 
and ^flio, villa. (V. Remarks, at p. 240.) 
Ads, aid, 8. 1. a deep gutter cut across ploughed land. 
I imagine it means simply an aid for the water to escapa 
Isl. cBd; Swed. cteder; Teat, adere; Germ, ader; A. Sax. 
(Bddrey vena. 2. a reach in a river. Ex. ^^ Boden^s od^T, 
'' Preen's ade^, '' Swinny ode'', near Coalport. This sig- 
nification is confined to Bargemen, Owners and B(n^ 
holers, (q. v.) 
Adb, «. to cut a gutter of the above description. Ex. 

^^Adififf down in the follow.'' 
Adlands, 8. more common than Hadlande (which see) : 
those butts in a ploughed field which lie at right an^es 
to the general direction of the others, the part dose 
against the hedges: quasi Headlands, as in fact the 
derivation shews. Isl. Aau/ud; A. Sax. heafod, caput: 
A. Sax. lond, terra. In old deeds termed CapUaKa 
Agri, '' Canonici concesserunt hominibus de Wrechwyke 
duas acraB prati pro capUaKbus suarum croftarum."" 
(Kennet's Paroeh. Antiq. p. 137.) ''A Headland^, 
says this learned topographer, ^^ now commonly called a 
Hadland, whence the Headryoay or HadAoa/g^ 
Afbard, pa/rt* paxb of verb afraid. This can scarcely 
be considered as dialectical. A. Sax. afaared^ territos. 


It is of oonstant recarrence in ' all our early English 
writers. Robert of Glo^ster, aftrd^ afered. King of 
Tats, afert. Kyng Alisaunder, P. Ploohman, Emp. 
Octavian, aferd. Coer de Lion, Oolden Legend, Chau- 
cer, aferde. Chaucer, afered. Coer de Lion, afere^ 
Spenser, affeare. Sbakspeare, ** Be not affeard^ — Temp, 
iii. 2, &c. 

Afore, a(fe. instead of, before; and also thus, ^^ afore 
lung^, for before long. The ancient form. Chaucer. 
A. Sax. wt-foran, ante. 

Aptbb-clap, s. the consequence, issue, result, generally 
received in mahun partem, and this was its significa- 
tion in the time of H^nry VIII. 

From lajnic and £roni colde 
And firom laynning of rappes 
And sache mer-dappes, 

Skblton's Pcmu, edit 1798. p. 84. 

The confater meant to be fiunoua^ like Poggins, that all-to- 

be-aased Valla, Tmpezontiiis, and their dependents, many learned 

Italiana; or might have given a gaeas at some .jpoaBible after- 

dapi, as good as a prognostication of an after-wnter.- Piero^s 

Supererogation, by Gabeiel Haevey, 1693. 

Again, Aoen, prqf. Used by the Comavii in its various 
significations precisely as it is by the Iceni. 1. against. 
Ex. " Tm totally ayw it.'' 2. contiguous. Ex. "Shut 
'em offen the backside o' the house." S. by, towards. 
Ex. " Jpen to morrow ownder." 4. when. Ex. " Affen 
a men's paid for iviry thin it taks a dhell o' money." 

Aox, V. to grow old. Ex. ^^ Ages a pace." A. Sax. a2- 
doffioMy veterascere. 

AooNB, adv. for ago ; an archaism very common at Wen- 
look ; and the worthy Burghers of that loyal town may 
fortify themselves with black-letter authority for their 
use of it. 

And one of theym sayd^ truly we have noo thynge but a rye 
lofe whyche he gane to Ood^ agenst his wyU, bnt iL dayes agone.^^ 
The igfe tf Sayiu Johan, elematyner; Golden Legend. 

Aious, AiGUBT 8. a spangle, the gold or silver tinsel 

ornamenting the dress of a showman or rope dancer* 


Ex. '' He's aiffUd all o'er."" Pbomp. Pabt. aglai, acns. 
Fr. aiguiUMe, Naree, like some others, explains our 
word tiius, ^^ the tag of a point,^ and by this significa- 
tion perverts the sense of his quotation from Spenser: 

Which aU aboTe beBprinckled was Umraghout 
With golden ayguleU, that glistred bright. 
Give him gold enough and many him to a puppet, or an 
aiglet baby. Taming qf the Shrew, L 2. 

All in a woodman's jacket he was dad 
Of Linoolne greene, belayd with ailyer laoe; 
And on his head an hood with agl^ spread. 

Spbnssr's Faerie Queene, ti. iL 6, 

Akkbr, «. an acorn. Ex. ^^ Ghrun to pike up the aktert^: 
''The pigs gween a akkeringy Corve Dale. 

Akkobn, Atchobn, 9. an acorn : the former iambic, the 
latter trochaic in pronunciation. My late friend, Mr 
Roger Wilbraham, {umiahes me in his admirable little 
Glossary of Cheshire words, with the prevalent example 
of our use of this word, which is common to the two 
counties. Ex. ^^ The pigs are gone o^ aitckoming^'' Ld. 
ahum; Dan. aggem; M. Goth, airan; Tent, aeeker; 
Belg. dker ; Germ, accem^ glans. 

All along of; all alunq on; aluno. 1. through, 
owing to, in consequence. Ex. ^^All alung 6" Conng 
Weetony ^^ This comes alung o gween wi^ sich a chap 
as he is.^ 2. uninterruptedly, continuously. Ex* "This^ns 
all almg^ A. Sax. ge-lang^ Tent. geUmgan^ causa cu- 

Alley, «. a taw, or favourite marble: a white aUeg^ is 
one made of alabaster, a chamig alley, one of china. Not 
local. Lat. albuaf 

Amaist, adv. almost. Ex. ^^AnuUst clemmM.**^ Tent. 
Belg. att-meesty Swed. aU^maeet^ ut plurimum. See Maist. 

Amaisteb, «. 1. to teach. Ex. ^Tll amaieter it to 
you.^ I insert this word on the single authority of 
an ingenuous, and apparently honest man, from the 
neighbourhood of Cleobury Mortimer, who assured me* 
he had repeatedly heard it in the above sense. As- 


suining that my simple minded informant is correct, and 

I eee no reason to doubt his testimony, this furnishes an 

additional link to the chain of internal evidence which 

the Vision of Piers Plouhman exhibits in proof of the 

author being a native of our county. Ital. ammaettrare f 


How ich myghte amautren hem to loyye and laboure 
For here Ijrftode. 

P. Plouhman^ 139. 
For we han Mede amaistrid, 

id. 32. biB. 

Ampot, 8. corrupted from hamper; thus, hamper, hand- 
pannier, hand pot, hampot, ampot 
An, 8. an individual, corrupted from one; as often un; 
" a bad an :^ " a tidy unJ*^ Not peculiarly dialectical. 
Anan, nan, a(fe. What! What do you say? an answer 
to an address not perfectly understood. I see no oc- 
casion to seek further for an etymon of this word, than 
what obviously arises from it. It seems to have origi- 
nated simply in one of those common methods in which 
the lower orders delight. Anan^ agan^ offain: that is, 
"say what you spoke before, again.'''' "Again,'' agan^ 
anan^ nan. 
Anent, anbnst, anunst, cute, opposite, over againtt. 
On the score of provinciality this has no right to ad- 
mittance here. Yet for the sake of hazarding a new 
idea on its etymology, I give it insertion. At the head 
of all Glossarists stands Junius, who with vast stores of 
learning to draw from, seems always to give the pre- 
ference to the Greek. That language will do but little 
in the cause of etymological truth sb far as we are con- 
cerned. It has its advocates among the readers of 
classic literature, but yet they can scarcely assert that 
the dialectical owes any thing to that tongue. My pre- 
decessors with a Grecian reverence have assigned the 
present word to evavri. With an humble respect for 
iheir opinion, I am nevertheless disposed to question 



its propriety ; I attribute its origin to Epenthesis, from 
offainH^ agenst^ (Coer de Lion, v. S48, 2048, 2409) and by 
a common method of interchanging n and ^, g and n, as 
signify, into sinrUfy^ it becomes anemt. And, surely, it is 
highly improbable that the common people picked up 
this word from a classic tongue, seeing that in scarcely 
any instance whatever they have enriched their vocabulaiy 
from it. M. Goth. A. Sax. and; Oerm. Franc, an/, 
contra. Maundeville, Wiclif, anentit ; Chaucer, anemt ; 
Lyndsay, anent. 

Anew, ode. enough : inauh is likewise used in the same 
sense. Are they not corruptions of ewmgh f Ex. ^^ Thire 
bin anew on 'em.*" 

Anioh, ado. near. Ex. ^^ Nivir lets no body come amgh 

Anind, Anbend adv, on end, upright. Ex. ^^ Right 
a/nindr " Mr Jones'^s hos reared aneefnd^ bout uprit.*" ' 

Apparn, «. an apron. This does not come from the 

Fr. nofercn^ as Brockett supposes, I presume by 

crasis: nor as the Craven Glossarist opines, from the 

A. Sax. aforan: but from the Armoric apparny an 


Chil in, Dicoon, a deene aperM to take a&d set before me. 

Gammer Gurton's Needie. 

Appon, 8, the village of Abdon, county of Salop. 

Argufy, v. to import, signify, avail. Ex. "Whod ar- 
gufies a haggling a thisun.'" 

Argufication, 8. dispute, investigation. 

Argy, 8. an argument. Ex. "Getting into an argy^' 

Argy, 8, an embankment betwixt Mdverley and Llamg- 
myneoh^ which was constructed as a protection against 
the overflowings of the Severn* It has not, however, 
always this effect, as a considerable quantity of back 
water deluges the country in a flood, owing to a want of 
fall in the bed of the river. This embankment is five 
feet wide across the top, and varies from ten to twenty 


feet in height above the average level of the meadows 
on the water side. We have picked up this very appro- 
priate name from the C. Brit, ardwjf^ government, pro- 

Gad ardmy rhad, er Daw rhi, 

Rhwyr'ar dwvyr rh'ov & DyvL 


Arn, it. to earn. Ex. " Wunna am his mate.'*' Germ. 
amen; Gr. apvvficu^ acquirere. 

Arpit, (Mdf. quick, ready. Ex. ^^ Arpit at his laming, 
saying as how he's so heavy o' hearing.'' If this word 
does not claim affinity with the A. Sax. geam promptus, 
it must be the spurious oflspring of some tripping tongue. 

Abth-staff, 8. a poker used by blacksmiths; this in 
conjunction* with the arth (hearth) shovel, hearth-plaie^ 
and hash^ make up what may be termed a smith's fire 
irons. Earthy Hollyband. 

As, ret. pron. 1. Who, which ; Ex. " Those as liken." 
2. As a redundant particle ; Ex. '^ Saying ae how he 
is an oud mon." 3. As a conjunction, instead of for, 
on, upon, &c. ; Ex. *"*" He'll come whoam as nest Set- 

AsiDEN, ado, oblique, aslant, out of the perpendicular. 
Ex. ^' AH asiden like Martha Rhoden's two-penny dish." 
" AD addmg as hogs fighting" : Baife Proverbs. 

AsiNGs, 8. casings, of which this is an evident depra- 
vation. A. Sax. e/ese^ margo. 

Isycles in evysynoM, 

P. Plouhman. 

Aboal, ASKBR, 8. 9k ucwt *. (Laccrta palustris, Linn.) Gael. 

iue. Ft, aecarahe. 
AssAUT, B. an assault. Ex. ^'Patched trouble for him 

for an oMati^." Fr. aaeaut^ oppugnation, Lacombe. 

Robt. of Brunne. 

Held his atsawte like hard. 

CoBR DB Lion, ▼. 1900, and vr. 3196, 4412, 6636. 
And by luaaut he wan the citee after. 

Chaucer, Knightes Tale, v. 991. 


AssAUT, V, to assault. Ex. ^'^ Atsauted him on the high 

AsflON, in composition signifies the town of ashes, or 
where the ash-trees grow, from A. Sax. ««?, fraxinus, 
and ttm^ villus — and not from the 6r. a<nv* Thus 
we find in Co. Salop, Admaston, Edgtaston, AdbXs- 


LEY Abbots, Bottebal Aston, &c. (V. Remarks at 

p. 240.) 
AsT, part, past of verb ask. Ex. "-4«f him for it.** 
AsTEB, 8. Easter. 
At, prep, invariably used instead of to. Ex. " This 

road ull be daingerous jist now, if a dunna doa sonmiat 

at it.**^ "^A binna yable to doa anythin at him, a 

conna touch him, I tell ya."" 
Athubt, adv athwart, across. Ex. " Commed athurt 

on him.**' A. Sax. thteeor^ thwurh^ perversus : ofar- 

thtoeor, ofer-thtcaer^ Wiclif, Chaucer, overthwart ; Lynd- 

say, overtkort. 

And tmsse it overthwert his mane. 


Atop-on, prep, upon the top of. Ex. " One atop o" the 
tother.'' "^^ o' the house."" 

Attack'd-ed, part, pa^ of verb attack. This vulgarism 
is neither confined to us, nor yet to the cockneys, virho 
may fairly be said to originate the chief corruptions 
of the English language. In Pickering^s book of Ameri- 
camams^ it is stated to be used by the most illiterate 
people in sea-port towns, and sometimes heard in the 
interior among persons of a somewhat higher class. 

Attab, prep, after: ater is not provincial. 

AuD, AULD, ouD, ouLD, odj, old. (Sco Remarks under L.) 

AuKEBT, AUKUT, ddj. awkward. This is a syncopized 
form not unfrequent among us, especially in such words 
as terminate in rcards. (See Toabts.) Ex. ^'A meety 
auha job."" 


AuNDBB, $. the evening: rarely pronounced so^ being 
more usually ownder, (which see). Ray. 

AusB, OBs, V. to^try, essay, attempt, promise favourably. 
Ex. "He auses well saying as how he''s a young un.**^ 
"vltcM at it.*" It has been conjectured to spring out 
of the Lat. audeo: austu. 

AussoN, 8. Alcaston, in the county of Salop. 

AuYE, 8. the helve of an axe. It seems like a vitiation of 
idw (which see.) Yet the Teutonic gives us "hand- 
hauve^ capulus.'*^ 

AvEN, 8. promise, appearance. Ex. " The avm of a fine 
cowt.'*'^ I am indebted for this word to Thomas Mytton, 
Esq. of Shipton Hall, who says he often hears it in his 
neighbourhood. It must be confined entirely to that 
district I imagine, for I have never heard it elsewhere. 
Germ, abentheur^ molimen audax? 

Awhile. 1. Substantively. This very prevalent word 
must be compounded of the verb Aave^ and while ; A. 
Sax. iabban^ habere ; and while spatium temporis. The 
phrase, "I can'^t awhile'"^ therefore simply implies, 
I have not time : while in all instances betoking time : 
thus "stop a while'''', stay, a short, or long time, as 
the case may be : " done awhUe I was away"" : in the 
time of my absence. 2. As a preposition, for until ; Ex. 
" Thee fettle the bosses awhile I come back again from 
the lezzow'' : " Stay awhile I goa thire'^ : the whole 
period of absence being by an ellipsis understood in 
these cases, as though the speaker actually said, "stay 
here during the time of my going and returning.'*^ 3. 
Instead of whilst^ the particle a being redundant. Ex. 
*' AwhUe'^^y or, " awhilst yo bin laazing i' bed i^ th** 
mourning.'*'' The second signification, not very dialecti- 
cal. M. Goth, hweila; Belg. Teut. vnUe^ spatium tem- 
poris; Germ, weil; A. Sax. hwil^ donee. 

Ax, t?. to ask. This word is perhaps universal. Yet 
though now deemed a vulgarism, it is not without good 


claims to a higher title, for at all events it is an ar- 
chaism, and has been learned from our forefathers. Hoc- 
cleve, Chaucer, Sir D. Lyndsay, Bale, Wiclif, B. Jonson, 
and numerous others, use it. A. Sax. txaian ; Oerm. 
eiscon; Belg. eyschm^ interrogare; Ghr. a^iooi, postulo. 

For that I axe is dae, as God me speede. 

HoccLEVE^ (Chaknert' Ghu.) 
Axe not why: for though thou axe me. 

Chaucer, Cant. Takt, y. 3557. 

Thenne Joeephus heynge a stronge man and a lyffht caught the 

Bwerde to him and axed his felowe whether hadde lyuer lyue or 

deye. The lyfe of eaynt James the laeee. Golden Legend, W, de 

Worde, 1612. 

And the Fariaees camen and axiden him. Wiclif*s New TeeL 
Mark c. x. 

And James and Jon Zehedees sones camen to him and aeyden 
Maystir we wolen that what evir we oxen thou do to us. id. 

Ax^D OUT, part, pcui: having the bands of marriage 
published for the third time. 

Ayoh, ahuh, aumph, adv. awry, aslant, on one side. 
Ex. ^'All ayoh.'''' There is at first hearing, a sound 
of provincial vulgarity stamped upon this word. Yet 
upon investigation it turns out to be in perfect aooord- 
ance with the tongue from which our language is chiefly 
derived. Why, then, need we go to a classical one 
for terms to express our ideas, if the Anglo Saxcm is 
copious in terms both appropriate, and expressive! 
A. Sax. atoohy torte. 




Ex. "Goa a bit 

ACKKN TJ. 1. To prevent or retard 
in growth. Ex. " This caud weather 
ull backen the quern.*' 2. To back, 
or push farther behind. Ex. ^^Biicken 
the OSS wunn ''e.'*'' 

Backerlet, €uih. late, as applied to 
seasons and harvest, as '^ a haeierly 
Backerts, <idv^ 1. Backwards. 2. Behind hand. 

'^^ Ba>ekerts in his work.*" 
Backeeteb, eomp. of the foregoing. 
hackerter woot'eT 
BACKsms, 8. by this word the retired premises of a house 
are usually designated. Ex. " Hers gwon o' the ftaci- 
Mefe, herl be back anon.**' 

Backwater, a. water not wanted for turning the wheel of 
a water com mill, what is superabundant and generally 
flows down a channel cut for the peculiar purpose. 
Badger, «. an itinerant dealer in poultry, butter or fruit; 
one who buys up such articles in open market, and re- 
tails them at an exorbitant profit. A. Sax. hycgean^ 
emere. Bullokar. 
Bag, tj. to cut with a bill. Ex. " Bdgging pase**' (peas). 

" Bagging fitches'" (vetches). Teut. veghen^ radere. 
Baggage, 8. a term of contempt applied to a female of 



bad character. Ex. '' Yah ! you nasty imperint hoff- 
gager Isl. hagr^ protervuB. 

Bagging Bill, «. a curved iron instrument used in trim- 
ming hedges, as well as for various agricultural purposes. 
Teut. fieghm^ radere; JaUs^ securicula; G. Brit. hmaU; 
A. Sax. 6iff; Belg. lyl; Dan. H\l; Swed. &t2a, securis. 

Bajonet, b. a bayonet : not a corruption as might appear 
at first hearing the word, but in strict accordance with 
the Swed. bajonett. 

Baolk, «. an impudent woman ; an opprobrious term for 
a depraved female. Teut. bagphden^ porcellus! Fr. bf- 
pueule, terme d'injure populaire, qui se dit d^une femme 
de basse condition qu'^on taxe de betise, et aussi d^iine 
femme folle et impertinente. Ce mot est compost de 
ffumUe^ et de be(^ c^'est-a-dire, ouverte, comme qui diroit, 
une femme qui a toujours la gueule ouverte. Menage. 
Roquefort. The sense in which Salopians use the word 
is precisely that adopted by the French, we say of such 
a character, "Her is sich a lagU!'^ " Voyez oette 
begueule"" cry the French. Richelet. 

Baileht, 8. a bailiff. This is the old form of the word, 
and therefore correct enough : see Tales and Quicie An- 
sweres^ p. 12. RitsonCt Anc. Songs^ p. S7. In the mining 
districts the word is Doricised and pronounced BoHy. 

Backstonb, s. a stone, or plate of iron, correctly speaking 
it should be the former, upon which oat cakes and 
pikelets are baked : though usually made of the latter ma- 
terial, the old name of Bakestone is retained. See Sdec- 
tions of Articles /ram Gentleman's Magazine vol. il. p. SOS. 

Balase, v. to beat, flog X)r whip, to castigate, apply 
punishment to the breech. I believe this to be a ge- 
nuine Shropshire word. The late editor of Warton^s 
History of English Poetry, says, that excepting in the 
pages of Langland he can find no record of it. If this 
be the case, as I believe it is, in reference to its ang^- 
cised form, we are furnished with another reason for 


afiBerting that the author of Piers Plouhman^s Vision 
was a native of our county. The fact will also lead us 
to attribute a high degree of value to provinoial glossa- 
ries, as means of elucidating obscure words and phrases 
in the Earlier English Poets. Dr Whitaker interprets 
Balyt^ a strap, and thus limits its meaning. Notwith- 
standing his restriction of the word, his explanation can 
hardly be deemed unsound, inasmuch as in our use of 
it, the application is confined to corporeal punishment 
with such a material. In the time of Matthew Paris 
balejfae had a different signification, denoting a rod. 
However, whether gtrof^ or rod, in its earlier agnifica- 
tion imports but little, since the verbal form of the word 
represents the act of using either. ^' (Abbas) Vestibus 
igitur spoliatus,^ says the monkish Historian, '^ cum suis 
militibus, similiter indumentis spoliatis, ferens in manu 
viigam quam vulgariter Baleis appellamus, intravit ca- 
pitulum, et confitens culpam suam, quam ut ait, in bello, 
sicut tunc decuit dicere perpetraverat et commiserat, 
k singulis fratribus disciplinas nuda came suscepit.'*^ 
(Matth. Paris, anno 1252.) The word in question is 
thus explained in the Glossary by Watt. '' Baleis^ vir- 
gam quam vulgariter Baleis appellamus a Gallico Baiaye 
scopa. Ita enim et adhuc Norfolcienses mei vocant vir- 
gam majorem et ex pluribus longioribusque viminibus; 
quali utuntur psedagogi severiores in scholis.'** It has 
continued with us down to the present time, merely 
being changed from its nominal to a verbal form : though 
I suspect its circulation is confined to the neighbourhood 
of the Clee Hills. Ex. "Gie him a good balasing^, 
^^ Bakue him weir\ and thus in Piers Plouhman, 

Yut am ich chalenged in chapitel hous as ich a child were, 
And Meysed in the bar era and no breche be twyne. 05. 

Ich putte hvm fente to booke 
Aristotle and other, to arguen ich tauhte 
(trammere for gurles, ich gart furst (to) wryte 
And bet hem with a baleyse, bote yf thei wolde leme. IBl). 


Balamc, 9. to ballast. The old fonn. Bullokar. 

With some gall'd trank, baUae'd with straw and stone. 

Bp. Hallos SaHrei. 

Balatb, «. by prosthesig for blaii^ q. v. 

Baldooot, 8. a water-hen, the ooot, Fuliea altta of Jenyns. 

And they appear like hM oooies, in the nest 

Ktughi of MaUa, 

Balk, «. to disappoint, baffle. Ex. '^ BalPd in his fancy.'" 

Balk, s. 1. a log of timber. Teut. btUck; S. Goth. 
ifwUe; Belg. balk; Swed. bielia; Isl. biaOha; Franc. 
haleo; Fris. Oerm. balhy trabs. 2. a small brass orna- 
ment fixed at the top of a wand, usually carried by 
members of a benefit club. 3. a little piece of land 
where a plough escapes whilst ploughing. Hence as it 
lies fallow has arisen the proverb that ^^a two year 
old bali is as good as a ruck of muck.^ 4. ridges of 
ploughed land. Ex. '^Toert the end o' th' balhr 
Promp. Pabv. BaUe on lond ered. Pakgrave, Baulie 
of lande, separaison. Bullokar recognizes the third 
sense, and Minsheu the first and last. 

Ball-stone, it. 1. a measure of iron-stone which lies near 
the surface. 2. a kind of limestone found near Wenlock. 

Ball-rib, «. that part of pork which lies nearer to the 
neck than a sparenb. 

Ballt, 8. the belly. We seem to retain the earlier pro- 
nunciation from the Teut. balgh; G«rm. Belg. baig^ 
venter. A. Sax. bcelig; C. Brit, hol^ id. 

Ballt, v. to grow distended or become abdominal. Ex. 

" The sow's well baOied:' 

Sym that was halyd lyke a kow. 

The HunUyng ^ the Hare, v. 187. 

Ballyful, «. 1. a litter of pigs. Ex. ^^ A good ballyful 
o"* pigs.**^ 2. repletion, sufficiency. Ex. " A ballyful o' 
mate and drink.''^ 

Ballys, 8. a pair of bellows. Ex. ^^ If the fire unna tind, 
tak the ^a%« to it."'' '^Wos and wos like oud San- 


flom's balfys.'" M. Goth. balff$; Belg. balgh; Germ. 
Tent, balff, uter. 

Bammbl, v. to chastifle ; one of the numerous synonjans 
for manual punishment. The word appears to have 
aflSnity with pommel; the interchange of B and P being 
common. C. Brit, puyo^ ferio. 

Band, to work in the ; pkr. or to write the word as it 
is usually spoken, to work € tK bcn^ signifies the employ- 
ment of a collier when he labours an entire day in 
stocking coals down. Occasionally the phrase runs, 
*•*' worts f tic twm.'^ Tent. Germ, iofkfe, sodalitium, id 
est, omnis multitude, quae communi quodam nexu, sive 
utilitatis, sive jucunditatis, in unam societatem coUigatur. 

Banes, «. the Banns of Marriage. Pbomp. Pabv. Bame 
of a Play or marriage. A. Sax. abcmnan^ publicare. 

Bang, v. 1. to excel. Ex. '^Thisn hamffi yom.^^ 2. to 
slam a door to. Ex. '^ Bcmgi$i^ the dwre^ S. to punish, 
beat, strike. Ex. ^^ Gie hhn a good banffingJ" Isl. S. 
Goth, banpa ; Tent, bangden^ percutio. 

Banger, «. 1. a hard blow. Ex. '^ Fat him a banger uv 
his yed.""^ 2. any thing inordinately large, especially a 
female. Ex. "Molly's a bangerJ'* 

Bank-hook, e. a large fish hook, which derives its name 
from being laid baited in brooks or running water, and 
attached by a line to the bank. 

"Also you may bait many hooks over night with wonns 
and fasten them on the Bank-Mes*' Upon wmch passage is a 
maigioal explication, ^^Bamk Hooks.*' Worlidob's Systema Agri^ 
cuUurcB, fol. 1675. 

Banks Man, e. a collier who remains ^^ on the Bank**^ to 
attend to the coals as soon as drawn to the top of 
the pit: generally called a Bonks Mon. 

Bannering, «. an annual custom of perambulating the 
borders of a parish. On which occasion a number of 
boys headed by the inferior parochial authorities, walk 
round its boundaries, for the purpose of maintaining 


the local jurisdiction and privileges. The practice 
took its origin from a monastic custom that was some- 
what similar. A body of people under a Monk, as 
leader, walked round the outskirts of the Batdeuea^ 
which was a tract of land about a league in circum- 
ference, over which the order had power of punishment, 
or the right of including its inhabitants under their 
bann. (See Du Cange sub Banhuca), Municipal char- 
ters in various cities on the continent recognize this 
power. (See Haltaus Gloss, sub Bann-i^aun). Wachter 
in his invaluable Glossary furnishes us with authority for 
the use of the verb which we employ to describe the 
custom. Germ, bannen^ finibus indudere. Hence bann 
comes to signify the boundary of any place, town or 
parish, as in the Saxon charter of Canute in Spelman, 
ware ure ban rested^ where our territory ceases. Hence 
also come the words, bounds boundaty^ bound-shney &c. 
The reader desirous of further information may advan- 
tageously consult Mons. Menage under BanUeue. 

Bannutb, «• walnuts of a peculiarly large kind. 

Bar, v. to bear. This according to ancient pronunciation 
is spoken without sounding the former vowel. Ex. 
^*- 1 wunna bar no sich tratement.*" See the metrical Ro- 
mance of R. C. de Lion, P. Plouhman, Emperor Oc- 
tavian, v. 95S, 

And whanne Jhesus hadde seyn hem he bar hevy and aeid 
to hem suffre^ &c Wiclif's New Testament, Mark c. x. 

Bare, Bear, s, a mixture of molten iron and sand, 
which lies at the bottom of a furnace. It is veiy 
difficult to draw out, and when this is the case, the 
iron is said to be "*» tlie Bear!''' 

Barfut, adj. by elision from barefoot: bare in its simple 
as well as in its compound form, is invariably pro- 
nounced bar. Germ. Dan. Swed. A. Sax. bar; lel. 
for, nudus. Hence the Germ, barfuss; and the A. 
Sax. barfot^ nudipes. 


Bark hm shins, phr, to knock the skin off the legs by 

kicking or bruising them. A phrase evidently taken 

from barking a tree. The metaphor is at least an old 

one, as I find it in Ane baUat of Matrinumie 'puhlxshed 

in Mr Laing^s highly curious and valuable collection of 

Ancient Pcpular Poetry of Scotland. Swed. barJta ; Teut. 

barcienj decorticare. 

Berding her seUfe to hym a pace. 
She cryed him mersy then 
And pvlled the barke even of hys face 
With her commanndements ten. 

Neist, Sanderson ^tch'd wid a hay-stack. 
And Deaviflon flight wi' the whins; 

Smith Leytle fell out wi' the cobbles. 
And peetd aw the bark off h%» shing. 

AifDBRsoif's Cumberland Ballade, p. ez. 

Barm, s. yeast. Not a dialectical word, yet frequently 

supposed to be so by new inhabitants of the county. 

Com. burm: A. Sax. beorm; Dan. bcermee; Germ, berm; 

Teut. Sicamb. Belg. barm^ fermentum. S. Ooth. berma ; 

Hib. borra^ fsex. 

And sometime make the drink to bear no harm. 

Mideummer Nig^e Dream, 

Babnacles, «. 1 . a formidable pair of iron tweezers which 
are placed upon the nose of an unruly horse, so that he 
may be held quiet whilst shoeing. Minsheu deduces the 
word from gvbernaculum^ quasi bema^vm : quia os equi 
gubemat. Though I am generally averse to seek for ety- 
mologies in a Greek or Latin quarter, believing that 
the humble classes have enriched their vocabulary but in 
a trifling degree from the learned languages, I feel dis- 
posed in the present instance to vary from usual practice, 
and agree with the Lexicographer just cited. His view 
is much more plausible than that taken by Skinner, who 
with reference to the Gr. eTrurroMfVy conceives the word 
corrupted from Bear and Neck. 3. spectacles. This 
sense is a metaphorical usurpation from the former. 
And as epectadee are derived from epecto^ by the same 


prooeflfl we have bemaeleB^ aphseretioally, to use mioh a 
word, from gvbemaeiUwm. Forby says, and no better 
or surer aathority can be cited, that the word is in its 
first sense oorrect, and was in use two centuries ago. 
Babnagk, Babnish, «. a very expressive and well known 
word. It is the one of all others whioh conveys to a 
Salopian ear its own peculiar and forcible meaning. 
Without this in his vocabulary, a farmer would fruit- 
lessly try to describe to his listener the improved ap- 
pearance, the lusty and athletic character of his son 
just slipped out of youth, and entering upon nuwhood. 
Without it, the old domestic would vainly strive to 
describe the impression made on his mind by his 
young master^s altered appearance since he left home 
for school. Would he say he was got fatter, or 
taller! These would be feeble expressicms compared 
with this, which is both more descriptive of his opinion, 
and also more complimentary. ^^ You \m bravely 
hamUhed Measter.*^ Here we have natural defini- 
tion; nay, it may be said there is music in the 
term. Simply applied, it signifies increased in bulk; 
adding corpulency to stature ; filling up by plumpness ; 
or as the Salopians occasionally say, ^*' coming on^ 
But looking at the significancy of the word in its 
more usual extended meaning, it implies the lusty 
bearing of a young fellow, the vigor, strength and 
robustness of his frame : it indicates more than mere 
growth, or fatness in proportion to increased height, 
and conveys, at least it does so to a Shropshire ear, 
the idea in conjunction with this signification, of manli- 
ness and courage ; similar in fact to the acceptation 
it has in the Romance of Florimond, 

Qa'il avait grand pris de Bamage, 
De prouesse et de vasselage. 

But how did we imbibe it ! I suspect its origin is with 
the Latins. According to numerous examples brought 


forwiurd by Du Cange, Baro meaas simply a man. An 
author quoted by him is expressly to the point. 

Baroy batonisy gravis aut aathenticos est vir. 
It is frequently placed in contradistinction to foBmina. 
A. Sax. haem^ denotes both a child and a man. Sp. 
haron ; M. Ooth. Franc. Oerm. Isl. Swed. Dan. lam^ 
though commonly explained by puer^ have an extended 
meaning. Junius assigns the period of Bamage to the 
time of youth first bearing arms, foUovnng the autho- 
rity of Oawane Douglas, who translates jueentus by 
this representative. 

Neqnicqumm oheei&BL jwmU'iUy 
he renders 

The remanent of Trojane hamaget besegeit in vane. 

jEneld, x. 390. 

Barn POOR Savaob, 8. a clodhopper: an agricultural la- 
bourer; in the Worcestershire dialect a chavhbaean. 

Babr, 9. to choose, debar. Must we from the latter 
sense consider it a corruption introduced by the ju- 
veniles, who in playing together use the phrases ^^Bar 
me that,"" "I bar that,^ which import that by thus 
speaking first, they debar any of their playmates from 
the chosen possession! or must it be reputed a pure 
verb, for which authorities are producible from writers 
of the Elizabethan age! The reader shall decide. 

''Only I bar those same whoreson nnlawfid tenns^ steeped 
in cisterns of aqoa-fortis and gunpowder." 

Pierce's Supererojfatkm, 1593. 
Peace, ho! I bar confusion. 

A* You Like It, i. 1. 
Heaven, and fortune, bar me happy hours. 

RidL III. iv. 4. 

Bass, 9. 1. a cushion for kneeling on in church, mat- 
ting manufactured from rushes. 2. a collar for 
cart horses made of the same material. ^' In tri- 
bus coleris, uno basse, cum tribus capistris, emptis 
apud Sterisbrugge.'^ Kenneths Paroch. Antiq. p. 574. 


This flense gives origin to the preceding. (See Du Gauge 
sub Baste.) Isl. Swed. Oenn. batiy philyra. Tent, batty 
cortex. 3, a slaty piece of coal which bums white, 
usually known among Oeologists under the titles of 
Stigmaria, and Cakunites. 

Basset-end, s. that direction of a mine where the coal 
or iron stone inclines upwards, ^ crops out.** The same 
sense prevails among Derbyshire Miners. 

Baste, «. 1. to sew. Tout, betten^ leviter consuere. 
With a thnd boHing my sleTia 


The body of your discourse is sometime guarded with frag- 
mentB, and we guaxds are but slightly boHed on neither. 

Mudi Ado about Nothing, L 1. 

2. to beat, chastise. Ex. ^^Gie him a good laMeing.^ 

Isl. heyskb ; Dan. hegteTf concutio. Swed. basa^ flagellare. 

C. Brit, baeddu ; Brit, bassa ; Gr. fiarevw. Lat. baiuerey 

verberare. Com. Armor, bazata^ to strike with a stick. 

He paid good Robin back and side, 
And baist him up and down. 

Robin Hood: EdU, RUson, vol. i. p. 102. 

And how they scarcely could win home^ 
Their bones were baste so sore. 

id. vol i. p. lid. 

Dro, I think the meat wants that I have. 

Ant. In good time. Sir, what's that? 

Dro. Basting. Comedy of Errors, iL 2. 

Batch, s. 1. as much bread as an oven will conveniently 
hold for bakeiog : a batch of com implies enough for 
one bakeing. Ex. '^ Hers gwon to tak the batek to 
be gron.*" C. Brit, baichy a burden. Palsgrave, Bateke 
of breddsy foumee de pain. Pbomp. Parv. BatekSy or 
baiynge. Bullokar. 

Thou core of envy^ thou crusty batdi of nature. 

TroUus and Cressida, 
This 111 tell ye by the way. 
Maidens when ye leayens lay, 
Crosse your Dow, and your dispatch 
Will be the better for your Batd^ 

Hekkick's Hesperides. 


2. a game, or batch at play : a turn, or bout of drink- 

Batbtaff, 9. a wooden instrument used in washing. 
Pbomp. Pabv. hatstaff^ vexillum. 

Batt, 9. a pat on the back. 

And each of you a good ta< on his neck. 

Dodblxt's CoUectumym.4!Z. 

Bait, «. to beat gently, to tap. Ex. ''^ Batt him on 
the baok.*" If not by metathesis for pat^ it has con- 
nexion with the Germ, hatkvk; C. Brit, lasddu^ and 
A. Sax. leatan^ verberare. 

Battlbtton, 9. a wooden instrument used by washer-women 
in beating linen. Lat. hcOiUum. 

Bauson, adj. swelled, pendant. An epithet applied to 
a hog or sow when their bag or belly hangs down, none 
of the accustomed operations of the knife havii)g«4>een 
performed on the former. Germ, hauch, yenter ; lau9my 
inflare :. havM^ turgidus. Coles has '^ a great hamm^ yen- 
trocnis.**^ Salopians speak of a hamon pig. Nares quotes 
Peace> yon &t hawiony peace. 

Bkant, 17. are not. A. Sax. heOy esse. 

Ye heand dum, and can pronnnce na thing. 

Sir D. Lyndsay's Worksy vol. IL pp. 232, dl5. 

BxABD, «. to trim or cut a hedge at the top, that it 
may grow strong at bottom. In other parts of the 
county the term hreaxt is used. 

BsASTiNGs, Bbastunos, BiBfimNO, 9. the first, milk - giyen 
after the birth of a calf, quasi BreagUng9, says Minsheu. 
The word is not local, being found in Ben Jonson, Bul- 
lokar, Nares and Ash, and is also of general circulation 
in Norfolk, Cheshire, and other counties. Cotgraye 
says that it is accounted dangerous food for calyes for 
three or four days,' but Shropshire fanners dream not 
of such a hazard, anxiously wishing their calyes to 
suck as soon as possible. A pudding made from this 


milk 18 well known for its peouliar richneBS. A. Sax. 
bysting; Germ. Uenst; Belg. Teut. Ueti; oolostmm. 

Bed of Beef, «. an infiarior part of the oow, somethii^ 
cut from the belly. 

Beetle, 8. a large hammer made of wood, and bound 
at each end of the head by a ring of iron. It is 
commonly used for driving wedges in cleaving wood, 
or for agricultural purposes. In a quarto vol. printed 
by Pnrfoote, entitled a Dictionarie for children, the 
word is thus explained: ''a haouner to break the 
cloddes with in the com field.**^ The hedle mentioned 
by Shakspeare, was a formidable implement and re- 
quired more than single strengtii to wield it. A. 
Sax. ijftl^ malleus. Pabgrave, BetyU to bete dothes 
with, battoyr. H^ice also the compounded form of 
a ftathinff beetle. Golden Legend. 

If I do fillip me with a three man beetie, 

2 Benry, IV. i. 2. 

Have I liy^d thus k«g to be knocked o' th' head 
With half a washing beetk. 

BxAUK. and Flstcr. Tamer Tamed, iL 6. 

Beggar, 9. to impoverish. Farmers talk of certain crops 
beggaring their land. 

Bbggably, adj. poor, as applied to land. Ex. ^^ a beg- 
garly bit o' groun.'" 

Begum, Begummies,- Btoom, &c. a profane oath or aeh 
severation corrupted from By ihem^ in allusion to the 
Trinity. It generally stands the first word in a sen- 
tence. When the individual in speaking is either ig^ 
norant of the subject referred to, or unable to answer 
the question propounded, he usually cuts off the en- 
quiry by saying, ^^ Bygvm I dunna knoa.^ 

Behappen, prep, perhaps. Ex. '^ Behappen it ul nun.*" 

Beholden, Beholding, part, poet obliged. Ex. '' I amnod 
beholden to thee yit.**^ 

For Bmtiu' sake, I am beholden to you. 

JuUu9 Casar, iii. 2. 


Ab the world goes, 

Debton aie yeiy alayes to thoee to whom 
They're been bdioidina. 

Bkaum . and Flstch. Laws of Candy, iv, 2. 

Bblb, Beuno, $, a boQ or pustule. A. Sax. hyl^ car- 

Bblike, (uh. perhaps. Ex. ^' Belike yo uima.**^ 

Bell, v. to make a noise, roar, bellow. Ex. '^8top 
your Idling^ as the impatient sometimes say to 
children. Henoe also the phrase, '^ a hettaMng eratur^ 
applied to cattle. IsL heKa ; Teut. A. Sax. hdkm ; 
Cterm. Idlen ; Swed. Icla^ boare. 

BsLLocK, Bullock, and Blvckn, the last pronounced very 
short. 1. to bellow. Ex. '^Yore builds a leUdkin 
cratur.** 2. to roar, cry or blubber. Ex. " Whad 
bin '^e a heUaiin about! Why d'*s na come to thy 

Bkllt Vbnobancb, $. poor small beer. 

Bblt, v. to beat, castigate. This must be an old word 
though its origin is hidden. It is twice employed in 
the copious vituperation of Montgomery. 

Hell sparky scabbed dark ! and thou bark^ I sail heU thee. 

The Flyting, 
Whether thou wilt let heU thy bawee» 
Or kiflB all dofles that stands besides. id, 

BsMmLs, 17. to dirty with mud. Shakspeare chiefly 

uses the word hemoU. — Tom. of tie Shrew, iv. 1. Teut. 

iemuOen, aspergere pulvere. 
Bbnow, adff. by this time. Ex. '^ I thought as how heM 

a bin back again benow.'*^ 
Bknsel, 17. to castigate, chiefly with a stick. Ex. ^^Bensd 

his hide.'" S. Gfoth. hengd; Germ, lengel, fustis. 
Bent, s. 1. a name given to some places in the county, as 

HayUnCs Bewt, &c. from S, the brow of a hill. Ex. 

'* Just o\t the lewt of the hill.^ Isl. henda, curvatura. 

A. Sax. lendan, inclinare. 

And downward from an hill under a bent. 

Chattcbr, Knighteg Tale, 1963. 

M— 2 


We aaw a biuteoiu bene cum orir the bent. 

Sir D. Lyicdsay's Dreme, yoL i. p. 237. 

Qtthat bainiiB are you upon the bent. uL 

Then spake a heme upon the Jfent. 

Pkrct'8 RMiq. L 22. 

Then a lightsome bugle heard he blowe 
Over ihe bente m> brown. 

id L 46. and ii. 76. 

And hence comes the metaphorical application of the 

word, by Shakspeare, 

They fool me to the top of my bent. 

Hamlet, iiL 2. 

3. bent, or bent-grass, " a hay bent,"' the Spiea venii^ 

quasi epioa benii^ of Linnaeus. Bent-grass, sometimes 

signifies a blade of coarse hay or grass. Teut. biniz^ 


He cared not for dint of sword or speere 

No more than for the stroke of straws or bente. 


'' Some in English, much agreeing to the Latine name, call these 
Windle straws. Mow I take this hut to be the Grasse with which 
we in London do usually adome our chimneys in Sommer time; 
and wee commonly call the bundle cf it, handsomely made up 
for our use, by the name of Bents." 

Gerard's Herbai, Edit. 1633. 

These bundles of grass made up for fire-places in the 
time of Gerard, are still in summer-time to be seen 
adorning them in Shropshire houses, but with QuaUfig 
fffuse^ or Quaien^ the Briza of Linnseus. 

Bbos, Bwbb, Bweast, e. the general name for cattle. 
Ex. "The young hwes bin gotten into the Wheat.*** 
" A took reet down for the btoee fawr f th' Abbey 
Forhed,*** i. e. He took right for the beast fair in the 
Abbey Foregate. 

Berrtn, Bbrryino, 8. a burial, fimeral. This is neither 
a corruption, not used as a participle, but the old 
English word. Mr Hunter adopts a reasonable conjec- 
ture, when he says it ought to be derived rather from 
the verb to bear^ than from to bury, A. Sax. beanm : 


M. Ck>th. bairan;^ Alam. beran; Dan. bofn; Belg. beuren^ 
tollere. Hence Barbow : and Bearers. 

MesByngen were sent to Rome 
After the pope^ and he oome aone 

To here terement. 
Whan cudynales heid thia tidynges, 
Thei oome to hir ber}ftng$. 

Sir GowoHTBRy y. 697. 
And saide, ''Gentil haiounl here my cry. 
On me that thou hare mercy. 
And grannte me aoche heryng, 
So fiolith for a kynge." 

Kyno Alisaunder, v. 4621. 
Of his heoryng nothyng no dredith. 

id ▼. 8000. 

Bbslobbbb, 17. to render wet, moist or dirty by spilling 
over the breast* Teut. ledcMeren^ laxum sive flaccidum 

Tho cam Sleathe al hyMtered^ wit to alymed eyen. 

PiBRS Plouhman, 110. 

BflSMOiTKB, o. to stain^ dirty, daub. It is a good old 

word, bnt nearly extinct. There are synonymous terms 

nearly symphonious in the M. Ck>th. S. Ooth. A. Sax. 

and Belg. tongues. The Teut. betmodden^ maculare, 

comes nearest. Kersey. 

Of iiistian he wered a gippon 
Alle beimottered with his nabergeon. 

Chaucbr, Knightei Prolog, 76. 
And eke for she was somdel smoterKdk 
She was as digne as water in a diche. 

Reon' Taie,Y.9d6l, 

Bbsmudgb, 9. to dirty or splash with mud, a corruption 

firom bemwiUch. A. Sax. beamitan^ inquinare. 
Bbyil, 8. a kind of square used by masons and carpenters, 

moveable on a center, that can be set to any angle ; 

hence the expression, ^' the benil on ii^ the angle of it. 
BsyiL, 8 1. to cut to an angle. Ex. ^^'BevU it off.^ 

2. to slope. Ex. '' Lay the road on a bevU^'*'' that is, so 

that the central part be the highest. 
Brzzle, i>/ to drink sottishly. Ex. "Drinking and 

bezzlinff.^ Hence the phrase of a bezzlinp feUow. 



but thflir deep bauSng^ 
Their booie caroow, and their Beere buttering. 

Marston's Sewnd Satire. 

And the swoni bemeel at an ale house t^>. 

Hall's Saitref. 

tb now become 
The shoeing hone of Bwda^e disoouxse. 

Jwk Drum't EntertabimaU. 
Yonden the most hard-fiivoured news walks the streetesy seaTen 
men goeing to their grares that dyed with drinking and bueHng. 

Every Woman's in her Humour, 

BiEflTED, 8. the same as BeaatUngSy q. v. 

BiLB, B. a boil. Ex. ^^As soar (sore) as a bUe^ Al- 
most as invariably pronounced by us, as it is written 
without the o, in all the Early English Poets. 

Brukis^ 6y/t9, blobbis and bleisteris. 

The curekng qf Sir John Rowke. 
Ane byiO new brokin on his thie. 

Sir D. Lykdsat's MonarMe. 

Bin, v. You are ; they are. Ex. ^' They &m bad uns, 
they bin.*" How frequently this ooours in common con- 
versation it is unnecessary to say ; let it be sufficient 
to add, that it is the usual form of salutation among 
the lower orders generally when introduced thus, *^ How 
binna f How Inn yo !^ The reader or hearer who feeb 
disposed to laugh at us for what he fancies to be a 
vulgarism, may learn that we have not superinduced 
the word, if he wiU look to the Franc, and Gemu &{», 
or the A. Sax. heo sum. Besides are there no poetic 
authorities ! 

When that ye bin stabult up. 

The Huntyng of the Hare, v. 109. 
With every thing that pretty Ww. 


Bin, Bino, s. 1. a receptacle for fodder ; part of ^* a bay,^^ 

S. a depository for wine. 3. a com chest. A. Sax. 

binnSy prsesepe. S. Goth. Swed. binge; Dan. binp, 

acervus granorum. 

But now he let'st wear ony gate it will hing. 
And casts himself dowie upo' the com4nng. 

Herd's Seott, Songe, ii. 110. 


Binds, $. shale, stone. Ex. '' The Hue iinds^^ a measure 
well known among miners. 

BiNNA, BiNNOD, BiNNOT, V. third person plural, present 
tense of the preceding ; when used in a negative sense it 
means, are not. 

Bishop, «. to produce artifi<nal marks on a horse's tooth. 

BisHOPBD, pari, pott confirmed. Ex. ^'My lickle un^s gween 

to be bishoped.'" The term has remained with us 

since the days of Langland, I know not how lately other 

counties have picked it up. A. Sax. hieeopod^ confirma- 

tus. Bishopped, Somner. Palsgrave, Byuihoppyng of 

children, confirmation. 

And baptiaede an fruMAmods. 

P. Plouhman^ 300. 

BisHOP^s Foot, pkr. When milk is burned, or as we more 
commonly say, grewd in the pot, it is said the Bishop 
has put his foot in it. The phrase is an old one, and 
as it appears to have been learned in a singular manner 
I shall requote firom the supplement to Jamieson^s Die- 
tiiMiaiy, an apposite illustration that has been found for 
it in Tyndale^s Obedyence of a Chyrsten man. '^ When,"^ 
says this venerable writer, ^^ a thynge speadeth not well, 
we barowe speach and saye, the Biahape hath blessed it, 
because that nothynge speadeth well that they medyll 
with alL If the podech (pottage) be burned to, or 
the mete ouer rosted, we saye, the byshope hath put 
kis/ate in the patte, or the byeehope hath played the cokey 
because the byschoppes bum who they lust and whoso- 
ever displeaseth them.'" 

Bwr, «. art thou. Ex. " How btstf" and " how bist'er 
the second person of the A. Sax. beo ; byst. Alam. Franc. 
Glerm. bi^. 

Brr, s. the broad part of a spade. This may be derived 
metaphorically from the iron biting the ground, in sup- 
port of which idea there are numerous synonyms in 
the Northern languages. The Isl. bit^ acies ferri, and 


biti^ buooea, oome nearer than any other etymon with 
which at present the writer is acquainted. 

Black Bass, s. a measure of coal lying upon Ae FkMons 
(q. V.) 

Black-Bess, s. a beetle, any coleopterous insect. In my 
Entomological pursuits, I have found that the term 
beetb was rarely or ever comprehended ; under the title 
of Blaci-BesSy nearly every species of creeping thing 
or small horror being included. 

Blade, v. to trim or lop off that part of a hedge 
which grows too luxuriantly, to cut off the young 
shoots or blades. Promp. Parv. Bladen^ or take away 
the blades: depampino. 

Blait, Blatb, v. to bleat, or bellow. . Tout, bldm ; A. 
Sax. i&9ton, balare. Dunbar has blait^numAed. 

Blanks and Prizes, s. beans with boiled bacon chopped 
up and mixed together ; the vegetable being termed a 
blanks and the meat a prize. 

Blast, 9. 1. to blow up. Hence the metaphor of blasting 
rocks with gunpowder. 2. as a phrase : to pui on tie 
hkuft ; when an iron furnace is for a brief time quiescent, 
and the liquid ore running out, the hkui is off: to fuse the 
new ^ mine^ it is put on again. Dan. A. Sax. UoBtt ; Id. 
Uou^ ; Teut. blaes ; Germ, blast ; Belg. blaett^ flatus. 

Blast Furnace, 8. an iron fomace worked by bkui. The 
Islandic has blastfjam^ rude ferrum e chbano, which 
shows that the word has not been superinduced. 

Bledder, Blefher, $. a bladder A good old word 
whose adoption is sanctioned by Regal authority. See 
BuFT. Promp. Parv. bledder; A. Sax. bledder; Dan. 
bhere ; Germ. bhUer ; Belg. blader ; Alam. platar ; Id. 
bladra ; C. Brit, pledren^ vesica. 

And found in a freitourei a here on a benche, 
A greet chorl and a giym, erowen as a tonne. 
With a face so &t, as a frill bleddere, 
Blowen bretfiil of breth^ and as a bagee honged. 

P. Plouh man's Crede. 


Blait-mowit bludy ekan, with bledder ehedts, 

Dunbar's ComjdairU. 
Quhat and I fied, than I will biak my bledder. 

Sir D. Lyndsay's SaHre of the Tluree EetatU. 

Blbthbb, «. 1. to Bob, cry. Ex. " Crying and bhtA&rinff,^ 

probably a corruption from bhMering. 2. to talk non- 

aensically. Ex. "A bhtheHng fellow.'' Tent. Maffiaert, 

blatarator. S. Gbth. bladdra; Swed. bladra; Tout. 

bUjBterm^ garrire. 

She taold thee well thou wast a Skellnm^ 
A blethering, blustering, drunken blellum. 

Burn's Poems, iii. 238. 

Blind, adf. abortive, unfruitful. Ex. ^'This blow's a 
blind VLar 

Bund Buzzart, «. a cockchafer. MdcUontAa vulgaris. 

Blind Ball, $, a fungus, such as the Lyccperdan lamtta 
of Linnseus. It is believed that the brown dry powder 
which it contains will affect with blindness, and hence 
the name. 

Blind worm, s, a snake known among Naturalists under 
the designation of the Slow worm, Anguis fragilis. 
An epithet derived from the G. Brit %», pestilens, 
indicative of its noxious bite. Germ. Li^ wurm^ ser- 
pens quidam alatus. (See Wachter sub voce). 

Blissomino, Blassomino, jMTt The former is the correct 
word : the latter its corruption. They have the same 
signification as rutting^ and are applied to ewes in a 
state of eaitvliency. The Cheshire farmers give to it 
an opposite meaning, referring its application to the 
vigor of a ram. Isl. blcsmnaj salax. 

Blob, s, a drop, or globule of any liquid. Ex. '^ The 
swat fell down on his buzzum in great blobs,"" ^^ A 
blob of ink.*" Palsgrave, Bhber upon water, bou- 

Gif thi^ be handillit, they melt away like ane hkb of water. 
Bkllkndknus, Deeeription of Albion. 


Blockinq Axb, 8. an axe from eight to nine pounds in 
weight, used for squaring timber. In the Cniven Dia- 
lect, tkBlodter. Teut. Noeim^ tnmoare. 

Blood Suck, «• a short heavy stick used by farriers to 
strike their lancet when bleeduig a horse. 

Blooms, 8. masses of iron which have passed a second 
time through a furnace, (the cupolo,) and undergone 
the action of the forge hammer. Teut. UoemSy men- 
struum. A. Sax. bloma, metallum. Bulldsar has 
^^ Blotnary^ the first forge through which the iron 
passeth, after it is once melted out of the myne.'*^ 
Bhma f&rri^ Domesday. It is very singular that so 
few notices should occur in the Domesday Survey of 
the mineral productions of the country. No menticm 
whatever of Tvn occurs in that part of the Survey 
which relates to Cornwall. But ircm is mmtioned in 
four places in Somersetshire, and at Ahemiune and 
MercMoai in Herefordshire, and in one place in Glou- 
cestershire, Cheshire and Lincolnshire. Yet no mention 
of any minerak or metals in Shropshire and Staflford- 
shire. The Lead Works menti<med in the Survey are 
ahnost all upon the King's Demesne in Derbyshire. 
Yet that lead was smelted in Shropshire long anterior 
to the compilation of this record is sufficiently noto- 
rious. The iron mines in the Forest of Dean, near 
Gloucester are mentioned by Giraldus: '' Nobilemqne 
Danubiffi Sylvam, quae ferinam ferrique copiam Glo- 
vemise ministrat.*" Itinerar. Comb. lib. i. c. 5. p. 856. 

Blother, Bluther, v. to make a great noise about 
nothing. Ex. '' Whad bin 'e a tk*hering about T See 

Blow, 8. more commonly Blou ; a blossom, flower. 

Blow, 19. to blossom. Ex. " When the pase bin hhwed.^ 

Blow-bellus, 8. a pair of bellows. Ex. '^ Fache the hhw- 
hdim to the fire or yone nivir tind it.^^ 

Blunge, v. to blend, or break whilst in a state of mace- 


ration. A term used by potters. They bhrnge the 
clay, to dissipate all its inherent fixed air, to make 
it pliant, and cohesive in itself. A. Sax. Umdian^ 

BoAB Sao, s. a pig kept as a ' brawn^ for three or four 
years. A. Sax. bar^ aper ; 100, aeger ! 

BoBBEB, 9. a familiar term applied good naturedly to 
any one. Ex. "Well boUer how bin 'eT 

Bobbish, €uif. 1. smart, pert, well. £x. " Pretty boiUsk 
ehr 2. not quite sober, verging upon intoxication. 
Ex. "Oetting on quite boibish.'*^ Fr. bdbancey mag- 
nificence, profusion. Menage derives the word from 
the Lat. pompcmtia. This and the preceding word 
are wrested in their meaning from that which they 
originally had in the ensuing quotations, though evi- 
dently they are of the same complexion. 

YteUe on for BOthe, for al huere Maimo0. 

Ritson's Anc. Song*. 

The Soudan made bobaunce and best 

OcTAYiAir Impsratok. y. 1691. 

For oertamly, I say for no bobance. 

Chaucee, Wifi 0/ Bathe, v. 6161. 

Bout Clout, $. a piece of iron which adjoins the body 

of a ^tumbrer, and its wheels. 
BoisTBB, «. to prop up or support; used also in the 

sense of lying together or thrown up. EIx. ^^ Bolder 

^em up in a ruck anenst the wall.^ 
BourrBB, «. the ^ bed^ of a timber carriage, otherwise 

called the Bauiters. 
BoLTDTG, BouLTiNo, BouTiN, 8. a buudlc of straw. Ex. 

^^Fach a b<nttin 6" straw.^ The two last are varied 

forms of the first word. (See remarks under ou.) Bd 

in many kindred languages signifies what is round ; thus 

in the Qerm. we have the adj. boUy rotundus. Swed. 

boBj sphsBra. Fr. baule. 6r. iroKely^ vertere. 
Bon, Bono, «. a band. The tie used by reapers for 

binding up a sheaf. Tent, bond^ vinculum. 


Caiuiow terven he aeide, oth' syng&i in a churche 
Oth' loke for my cokers, oth' to the carte picthe 
Mowe oth' mowen, oth' make bond to flhevee 
Repe oth' be a repereyve. 

P. Plourman, 76. 

Bone-lazy, dk^*. an elliptical expression appEcable to 

those who are fearful of overworidng themselves. Not 

peculiar to Salopian servants, nor dialectical. 
Boos, i. boughs ; the g is entirely silent. 
BoosET, s. a stall for cattle; tlie trou^ from out of 

which they feed, Pbomp. Pabv. Som; A. Sax. b<mffy 

BoosEY PAfirruRB, 8» the common pasture into which 

cows run. 
Bore, s. an iron mould in which nails are manufactured. 
BoR8EN-BALUED,Bo6EN-BALLiED9|>arf./M»^ ruptured. A. Sax. 

barsteny ruptus. Teut. horsten^ rumpi, and ia^A, venter. 

C. Brit, barsy hernia. Germ, bont^ ruptura. 
Boss, 8. 1. a cushion to kneel upon ; it ought to be iow. 

(q. V.) 2. a tufb of silk. Fr. basse. 

Whoee bridle rang with golden balls and boues brave. 

Spxnsrr's Faerie QtMen«, i. iL 13. 

Boerr, BoBsrr, 9. 1. to burst. Ex. '^ 111 double yon up 
and bosi you."^ 2. to break open. Ex. *^If a dunna 
open it basi the dure.^^ A. Sax. beanian^ rumpere. 
Swed. bosta^ fortius incutiendo aperire velle. Teut. ioMM, 
pulsare. Fr. baueer^ frapper avec force, Roqf. Gloss. 
3. a denunciation; thus, a poor widow who had been 
oppressed by a man whose professional character should 
at least have taught him better notions of charity, 
under the natural excitement which harsh and un- 
christian conduct provokes, said to the vniter, whilst 
mentioning the treatment she had received, ^^ Bott him 
but I gid him a good ragging.^ 

BosT, BoRST, Busrr, s. a loud noise. Ex. *'The bas^ of 
a gun.**' The first of the three is most common, and 

has remained with us since the days of Piers Plouhman. 
Teut. bortieny crepare. 

lasBe booH hit maketh 
To breke a begga/s bagge^ than an yie boonden cofre. 

P. Ploithhan's Fuion, p. 267. 
He spake thise wordes boH. 

Pbt. Lanotoft, Chran. v. 276. 
The Fiensche gunne blowe bo8L 

Rich. Cobr db Lion, t. 5626. 

Oiet boit he gan to blawe. 

Amis and Ahiloun^ y. 1203. 

He cnked boH, and swoxe it na'as not so. 

Chaucer, Reoe's Tak, y. 9d99. 

BoflTEDEN, «. to boast. Ex. ^' They latUden as how they 
ooulden come o^er us.^ (For this practice of termi- 
nating verbs in Ef^ see remarks mider En.) G. Brit. 
boitioy gloriari. The substantive hoti is common in 
the Early Metrical Romances, Chaucer, Sir D. Lind- 
say, &c. 

Alle therjr boHodifn, mnche and lyte, 
Alisaun^res hed of to smyte. 

Kyko Alisauitdxr, y. 2697* 

BoTHAM, 8. the bottom. A. Sax. ba^n, fundus. 

BoTTOHiNG-TooL, 8. a uarTow, concave shovel used by 

BouK, «. 1. a barrel used in coal pits for drawing up 

water. 2. the trunk or body of a tree. S. Goth, bolk ; 

Teut. leucky truncus corporis. 3. the belly. Isl. buir^ 

troncus, corpus. Swed. huk^ venter. 

The dotered blood, for any leche-ciaft 
Corrompeth, and is in his bouke ylaft. 

Chauceb, Kni^Uet Tale, y. 2748. 

4. an upright piece of wood pointed at the lower end 
which falls into the socket of a trough or wooden chan- 
nel though which the water from a pond issues; a 
miniature kind of bolt. 5. the box of a wheel. 
BouN, BwoN, BwoND, part, past bound for, prepared to 
go to. Ex. " Whire bist 'e Aoow for?"*" A. Sax. abwnden^ 


The knights that weren wise 
A forward £Eurt thai bond. 

Sir Tristrxh^ Fjftte, i. r. 

Bout, s. 1. two furrows of ploughed land, one being up, 
the other down the ridge, an about, as it were. Ex. 
^' An eight baui butt,*" that is, sixteen furrows to the 
whole ridge. 2. a set to, or encounter. Ital. batta. 

Se'en boutt and tnina these heroes had. 

Duel of Wharton and Shtart, SwUk Mkutteky. 

3. a turn. 4. a game of pby. 

Ladies that have their toes 
Unplagned with corns, will have a howt with you. 

Romeo and JuUetf L 6. 

BowKRT, 8. a bower ; 1. an arched, bawedy or shady i^cess. 
2. a place ornamented by children with bits of broken 
glass or earthen-ware. 

BowHAWLER, $. a man acting in the place of a horse to 
draw barges or small vessels along the Severn. By 
dissecting this word, we shall find that it comes im- 
mediately from the Belg. boge^ arcus, and halm trahere, 
and whether its component parts were received from 
the Greeks, or as Menage supposes from the Hebrew, I 
am not concerned to enquire. Seeing that men are con- 
stantly following this occupation having a bow of wood 
on their breasts, against the concave side of which 
they press, inserted, as it were, between a b<no and 
its string, the ends of the bow communicating with a 
rope to the mast. 

BowK-iBON, 8, a circular piece of iron which lines the 
interior of a cart or waggon wheel. (See Bouk, supra.) 

Bowl-dish, 8. a large round dish, chiefly used for lava- 
tory purposes; for its derivation see BoLTma. 

Box-BARBOw, 8. a barrow having two sides and carried 
by two men, one at either end, chiefly used by waters 
men to load and unload their freight. 

Bradawl, 8. an awl adapted for brcub. 


Bbads, «. small nails, without heads, used by shoemakers. 

Braqgablb, adj. indifferent, poorly, not much to boast of. 

Bran ^bbi, by metathesis and contraction for Bum them, 

Branduts, s. four wooden arms affixed to the throat of 
a spindle in an oatmeal-mill. A. Sax. hrcmd-red^ sus- 
tentaculum ferreum. 

Bran new, o^'. shining new. It does not come from 
the old English verb to hrcmdith^ which according to 
Minsheu'^s interpretation means, to make to shine or 
glisten by gcjnile moving; but from the Tout. Iran- 
mewD^ a foUibus calens. The same language supplies 
us with tier-nieuto. 

Bran tail, s. the Redstart. MataeiUa phameurue of 

Brash, s. 1. the refuse boughs and branches of fallen 
timber. Oerm. ira8; C. Brit, irau; Teut. broo$eky 
fragilis. 2. a rash, or eruption upon the akin. The 
word is frequently applied to cutaneous disorders inci- 
dental to children, as the nettle-brashj an eruption re- 
sembling that produced by the stinging of nettles. In 
Scotland Broth has a more general signification, and 
means sickness. 

As gin she had taken a sadden frrtusft 
And were about to die. 

The Gay Gou Hawk, SeoU^ MtMtrehy, 

Brassy, adj. impudent. 

He should be a bnuier by lus &ce. 

Henry VIII. y. a 

Brassy faced, a^. impudent looking. Shakspeare meant 

the same when he wrote, 

What a hroMenr-facei varlet art thou. 

Can any fiu» qf Itomb hold longer oat 

Love't Laboui^t Lo9t, v. 2. 

Brat^ s. 1. a coarse pinafore worn by little children. A 
Sax. hraUt^ panniculus. 2. a name given to young child- 
ren, as Mr Wilbraham thinks, from wearing them. 


Brawn, i. a boar. Ex. '' Has a took the imvm yit T 
(See Brockett^B OIobs.) This is not looaL ae ail the 
OloflsarieB nearly have it. I find it lued by Beaumont 
and Fletcher, and repeatedly occurring in Shakgpeare. 
2 ffmuy IV. i. 1. Cariol. iv. 5. Trail, and Orm. i. 3. 
Bick. II. i. 3. 

Percy, and that damn'd brawn 
Dune Mortimer his wife. 

1 Henry TV. ii. 4. 
A blinded pig will make a good brawn to breed on. 

Ray's Prowrbi. 

Brazil, 8. iron pyrites, sulphate of iron. Derbyshire. 

Breast, see Bbard. 

Brevet, i^. to examine, search for. Ex. ''^Brewting 
about.'*^ It implies a degree of restless enquiry. C. 
Brit, ftavaf^ conatus, experimentum. Gr. ir^ipaQ^^ 

Bridoenorth Election, fh/r, ^^ All o^ one side like Bridge- 
north Election,^ Either the popularity of some par- 
ticular Candidate, or the obsolete mode of nomination 
to a seat in the Borou^, have furnished our oommcm 
people with this simile. From the obvious import of 
the phrase, they have drawn a metaphor, and trans- 
ferred its first adaptation to whatever is oblique or 
standing out of the perpendicular. Were they to say 
''all on one side like Bridgenorth Castle,^ the compa^ 
risen would be too literal, but to say that a rick, or 
a house, or any thing moveable is awry, or ''all on 
one side ^ like Bridgenorth Election^ sounds rather 
poetical ! I once heard in the vicinity of London, a 
stage coachman very properly rebuke an unenlightened 
passenger for wresting our simile from its true locality, 
when he said, "all on one side like Redboum fair.*" 

Brief, adj. prevalent, general, common. Ex. " Colds 
are Iriejf about.'" I am disposed to think that this 
is not a legitimate word, but corrupted from rife. 
Often as Shakspeare uses it, there is only one passage 


>¥her8 it approaches the present signification, and there 
the import is by no means in strict accordance with 
the sense we make it bear. 

A thousaiid buaineaBes are brief in hand. 

Kmg Johfiy iv. 3. 

Pickering in his excellent volume upon Americanisms 
tells us that it is much used in New England by the 
illiterate, in speaking of a rumour or report, as well 
as of Epidemic disefUBes. In the Northern States and 
Virginia it has the same application. Baily explains 
the word, ''common or rife,'*'' and neither notice it as 
being antiquated or provincial. Grose places it among 
the provincialisms of the North of England, and re- 
marks, that it is there 'spoken of a contagious dis- 
temper.^ Its admission into his classical collection, will 
at once stamp its vulgarity. 
Bbimjono, part a sow, when Ma/ris ofpetens^ is said to 
be irimminff. A. Sax. bryney ardor. Isl. irmny ardere. 
Teut. irwMtighy lasoivus. Cterm. brwut^ de impetu in 
venerem: inde hirgchbruiut catulitio cervorum. (See 
Waohter.) BuDokar has Brime in our present sense. 
Hence come the adjectives Ireme and hrim. Chaucer 
uses the word in the sense of furious ; Oa/ni. Tales^ v. 
1701, and so does Sir D. Lyndsay and the Early Ro- 

The lionn bremly on them blist. 

YwAiKE Axo Gawiv, v. 3168. 

He come lyke a breme bare. 

Sir Auadab, v. 171. 

Bbimmlb, s. a briar or bramble. Ex. "F th** irimmle 
bush.'*^ A. Sax. bremd^ vepres. 

'' Junp'd into the brimmle bush." 

Bbimstonb B — . The epithet must be derived from the 
foregoing word Brim; though the Teut. hrmnttigk, ar- 
dens desiderio, is not unsuitable. 

Snora, €df, broad. 



Bron, Brampton Brian. Ex. ^' Owon to Bron fawhr.*** 

Broody, adj, a hen wanting to sit. Ex. *^ She^s broodf!^ 
A. Sax. brodige hewM^ gallina incubans. 

Broodle, 9. a hen broodies her chickens when she gathers 
them under her wings to keep them warm. Gterm. 
bruddn ; A. Sax. bredan, fervere. Tout, broedmiy inca- 
bare pullis. 

Brosbley, $. a pipe. Ex. '*• Wmi ^e tak a Bratdef r* 
This is a very common name among smokers in various 
parts of England for a tobacco pipe. For upwards of two 
centuries the little town of Broseley has been the chief 
seat of manufactory for this brittle ware. The vmter 
has seen many broken ones that were fabricated here 
as early as the year 1660, bearing their maker^s name 
stamped upon the spur of the bowl. These when 
dug up in old gardens, or turned over in ploughing, 
are called by the lower classes Faibishes Pipes, (q. ▼.) 
and if we may form a safe judgment from the small- 
ness of their size, men did not formerly consume to- 
bacco so recklessly, or at such a wholesale rate, as 
they do in our time. It is remarkable that a manu- 
factory of this nature should have been placed in such 
a locality, as neither the clay to form them, whidi in 
fact comes from Cornwall, or any article used in their 
manufacture, excepting fuel, is found in the neighbour- 
hood. Under these circumstances fancy leads us to 
believe that the worthy citizens were originally such 
inveterate lovers of the 

Innoouos calioes, et amicam vatibaB herbamj 
Vimque datam folio: et Iseti miracula fhmL 

that they established the manufactory of pipes for their 
own peculiar use, without an eye to commercial inter- 
course with remoter parts, or of creating a trade, which 
was like unto the town, flourishing at one period, but 
is now much decayed! 
Broths, Brother, 8, broth. The former word is recorded 


merely for the sake of noticing the general plurality of 
its use. Ex. "A few h^ha;' "a juggle o' brothr It 
ifl not very provincial. Germ, brat^ frustum: Teut. 
brwden^ in minimas micas frangere. A. Sax. bnut ; Germ. 
brod^ jus. Fr. br(m$t^ which again comes from the Latin 
Bbous, 9, the rough parts of a hedge. Fr. hrcusies, 

This was no bourdone to brown hill 
That gatt betwene the hrwois. 

Symmie and Mi Brviher. 

Bbousb, «. the young shoots of trees. Fr. bro8$e^ broust^ 
▼ergette. Lat. brusius. Cotgr. brougt^ browzwood. 

Bbown Gbobge, 8. a coarse sort of bread. 

Bbown Shblleb, 8. a ripe hazel nut, which readily leaves 
the firuit sheath. 

Bbuk, a. a brook. 

Bbubttoiv, 8, Brookhampton, near Shipton. 

Brummack, 8. a short curved knife set in a wooden han- 
dle used by hedgers, wood cutters, and amateur pruners : 
quasi, a bnxm hook. 

Bbi^mmaoem, 8. a bad sixpence, or coin of any kind that 
is counterfeit. 

Brummagem Brass, 8. 1. some of the copper money 
coined at Birmingham bearing on the reverse a view 
of the Hospital. 2. provincial tokens of Staff(»dshire, 
which about twenty years ago were issued by many 
of the Iron masters. 

Buck, «. 1. to wash linen or coarse cloths with lye. 
As they are never Imcked without the aid of wood 
ashes, the Fr. bu^e helps us in ascertaining whence the 
word is derived. Both the practice, and the word 
denote it was prevalent in the days of Langland, 
Shakspeare, Ben Jonson and Massinger. Palsgrave, 
Bo/uk of clothes, buee. Germ, beuckm ; A. Sax. byken ; 
Fr. baer ; Lat. 6fio, macerare, lixivio. 



And IftTeth hem in the laTandiie^ laboniTi m gemitu meo 

And hauketh hem at hu8 bKst, and beteth hit ofte 

And whit whanne water of hna eyen, worketh hit he white. 

P. Flovkmav, t. 281. 

You were beat meddle in hude^woMng. 

Merry Wwm of Wmdtor, liL d. 

If I were to beat a bade, I can strike no harder. 

Massinobr's Virgin Marifr, 

She washes budct here at home. 

2 iJ«i.VI.iv.2. 

2. to beat, push with the horns. Ex. ''Tak care, or 
hell buck you.'*^ Oenn. bodteHj poehmj comu ferire. 

BuoKiNo, $. "to give a hoise a good buekinf^ means 
having ridden him hard, and brought him into the 
stable thoroughly reeking and splashed. Does the 
phrase arise from the preceding, or from the Isl. 
bucka, subigere! 

Bucking Stone, Buckstone, a. a stone up<m which linen 
is bucked, or beaten with a battlehn^ hiMaff^ or hMd. 

Buffer, «. 1. a foolish, mischievous fellow. 2. a good 
natured form of address. Ex. " How bist oud trnffmrr" 
" A pretty buffnr yo bin T Fr. bouffiard. 

Buffing Knife, 8. an instrument used by Shoemakers 
for scraping the bottoms of soles, so as to make them 
white. Fr. buffiBter, Cotgc. 

Buffle headed, adj. heavy, stupid. Fr. bmfffle: from 
having a large head like an ox, such being reputed by 
Physiognomists as indicative of dullness. Buffalo in 
Italian in one acceptation denotes a man who is stu- 
pid, '^ as we say a gull or loggarhead.'" Florio^s Worlde 
of Wordes. BvU headed is taken in the same sense. 
Ex. ''abuOrheadedchapr 

BuFT, $. 1. to stammer. Fr. buffsr. Cotgr. Bimffar^ ore 
vehementer flare, iopuff as we should say, in either case 
some colloquial impediment exists. 2. to rebound. Teut. 
Fris. Belg. bqffm^ a contractu resilire. This is an an- 
cient and royal word, and is used in the same sense as 


our appIicati(Mi by James V. We say, '^ it bufimi up 
like a blether.'" The royal author writes, 

It baft like any bledder. 

Chme» Kirk m the Green. 

BuFTEB, $, a stammerer. 

BuLCHiNy $, more usually pronounced beUekin ; of limited 
currency. It is common in the dramatic writers (See 
Nares sub voce), for a young bull-calf; always used as 
a diminutive, expressive at the same time of strength. 
We have adopted it as a term for a young child that 
is unusually stout. Ex. '^ Mrs Chose has got a young 

I was at sapper last night with a new-wean'd hnkhm. 

Marston's Dutd^ Courtee, ii. 1. 

BuLLABD, «. a bull herd, or man who takes care of a bull 

when being baited. 
'BvLLDHQ, part, a cow is sud to be ehbuUinp when she 

anxiously expects the bull. G«rm. bulen^ procari. Swed. 

Ma, scortari. 
BuLUNs, •• sloes. The btdlace of Phillips, a word for- 

meriy more in use, unless we have corrupted it. 
Notes, aleis, and bolae. 


Bull knob, «. a bull head. Gobio, Linn. 

BuLURAG, BALLmAo, V. to vituperato in a hectoring, 
contemptuous way. At first hearing it this word sounds 
like a thorough vulgarism, but it is neither this, nor yet 
very dialectical Etymologists have proposed as its root 
the Isl. My divBB, and baul^ maledictio, and raegia^ de- 
ferre, but ragna^ imprecari alicui vindictam deorum, 
seems to approach closer, especially as we hear of 
'* Gieing a mon a good ragging.'^ Shakspeare has. 

What says my huOy rookf 
which seems to be the same word used substantively. 

Bullock, «. to hector, abuse. Ex. ^^ A good buUockmg?^ 
Isl. buUa^ ebuUire. Hence the term buUy. 


Bulls, #. transverse bars of wood into which the heads 
of Harrows are set. 

BuLL^s ETK0, s. a coarse sweetmeat mixed with flour, and 
streaked yarious colours, greedily devoured by children. 

Bull chain, s. a chain which slides up and down a 

Bum, s. a contraction from Bomb bailiff. 

Bum, «. 1. to dun. 2. a mode of punishment practifled 
by schoolboys upon the younger. Com. bomfm^ a blow. 

Bunt, v. to push violently with the head, or horns. 
Perhaps allied to the C. Brit, pwyo^ to beat, or knoek. 

Burl, v. to take such wool from lambs as is dirtied, or 
liable to additional deterioration from their laxity of 

BuBLiNos, 8. the tails and other parts which are taken 
frx>m lambs when sheared. The Fr. baurre^ offered by 
Skinner only applies the signification to ' lockes of wool!.'* 
Cotg. Ours is correctly diverted from the original mean- 
ing under. Burling Wool. 

BuRLiNG-wooL, «. wool which is burled. From its in- 
ferior quality, it is sold at a lower price, chiefly to 
Sadlers, who use it fo^ stuffing. (See Richelet under 
Bimrdlier.) Formerly garments were made of this par- 
ticular kind, which was termed Bourre^ and hence the 
appellation baurraSy for any coarse habit. 

Son habit en surqaanie, 
Honneste et sans yilonie, 
Mais elle ne fiit de bourras. 

Roman db la Rosb. 
Vestue ot une sorquemie 
Qui ne fut mie de bourrax, id. 

Du Cange says that Barra is that which is taken fit>m 

the cloth when under the hands of the dresser, (the 

Burler). Ausonius has made the word classical in 

the following lines. 

At no6 illepidum rudem libellum^ 
Bumuy quisquilias, ineptiasqae, 
Credemus gremio cui fovendum. 


. Serviufl thinks that Burra comes from /3oo9 oi//oa, bovis 
Cauda; SoaUger, that it is an ancient word in the 
Guienne dialect, the greater portion of which nation 
call quisquilise, hirra. Proven, bouras; Langued. 
bowrtuso ; Lat. Barb, bortumm^ bcrra^ baurra. 

Burr, 8. 1. sweet bread. 2. a coarse whetstone, '^ a ruft- 
ber^'*'' from which it is probably contracted. Ex. ^^ A 
Brister ftmr/'' that is, one from Bristol, generally fiat 
on either side. S. the prickly s^ed of the Burdock ; 
LappOy of Liiftiaeus. This sense frequently occurs in 
^lakspeare, Meamre/ar Measure, iv. 3. TroU. and Cress. 
iii. 2. As You Like It^ i. 3. 

Hang o£F, thou cat, thou burr, vile thing let loose. 

Midsummer Nights Dream, iii. 2. 

Buss, s. a kiss. Gterm. buss ; Armor, boueh ; Ir. Gael. 
C. Brit, bus; osculum. Lat. basium. A young lady 
asks for one, according to a well-known conundrum, in 
a single word, circwnbendibuSy Sir, come bend a buss ! 

Buss, «. to kiss. Germ, bussen ; Tent. Belg. boesen ; 
Armor, bowser ; Fr. baiser ; 8p. besar ; Ital. basiarsy 
OBCulari. When the word was used by Shakspeare it 
was of good repute, but in the succeeding reign was 
used only in an impure sense, as we gather from 
this passage in Herrick, quoted by Nares. 

Kissing and bussing differ both in this. 

We busse our wantons, but our wives we kiase. 

Thy knee bussing ihe stones. 

Cariohnus, in. 2. and TVoil, and Cress, iv. 6. 

Burr, s. a certain number of furrows in ploughed land, 
which are separate by regular inclination from those 
contiguous. '' Viginti acras in Heile furlong et buttes 
apud Ymbelowsmere.*" Kennett^s Parochial Antiq. pp. 
186. 187. 402. 

Butter finobrbd, adj. incapable of holding any thing hot, 
as though the mandibles were melted by the heat of 
what they touched. A metaphor similar to that which 


IB employed for designating a person who is not very 
scnipulouB in appropriating to his own benefit^ any 
thing entrusted to his chai^ : '' a sKfpery /ngered fd- 
law r and the light fimgerei gmUrjf^ are epithets as po- 
etical as the roeg-fingered mom. 

Buttered alb, $, ale boiled with lump sugar, butter, and 
spice. Old people recommend the solution as efficadous 
in curing colds. Marston in one of his Satires talks 
about Beer&iuttering, 

Butter-MIT, s. a small tub in which newl^ made butter is 
washed. A. Sax. mito, mensura. 

BumNG iBON, «. an instrument used for peeling bark 
from trees. 

Button, «. 1. a small cake. Ex. ''A gingerbread InA- 
tony 2. a small round mushroom, the bud of a mush- 
room as it were, such as is used for pickling. Bdg. 
botte ; Fr. bouton^ terme de jardiniere. 3. a Imot upon 
the laniards of a barge. Like the Italians we have 
learned from the word those terms of contempt or 
depreciation, '' not worth a button r and ^^ a Brum- 
magem button tickler;*" which latter phrase is applied 
in a Catholic sense to any one who comes from that 
flourishing burgh. BotUmeggiare^ SboiUmarBy to quip, 
scofie, mock. Florio. 

BuTTBicE, 8, an iron instrument used by blacksmiths for 
paring horses^ hoofs. Dan. bryttia^ disecare. Isl. 
britia^ fhistatim scindo. 

A buUrioe, and pincen^ a hammer and naiL 

TussxB, p. 10. 

BuTTY, 8, a companion, fellow labourer. Not veiy pro- 
vincial, for I hear the word in Cheshire and Stafibrd- 
shire. How deficient the vocabularies of those counties 
must be, into which this expressive word is not ad- 
mitted ! In the pure sense of the primitive, it per- 
petually occurs in Chaucer, v. 426. 1S396. &c. in 
Minot^s Poems, R. of Glo'*ster, R. of Brunne, Sir D. 


Lyndsaj, Bitson^s Met. Romanoee, Shakspeare, bo. A. 
Sax. bak; Belg. Teut. boete^ auxilium. 

Trew king, that sittes in trone, 

Unto ihe i tell my tale. 
And unto the i bid a bone 

For thou ert hute of all my bale. 

MiNOT, p. 1. 15. 23. &0. 

I wi9 it 18 no bote. 

Adam Bbl. 

Now he that is M of bale. 

Sir Amadas, v. 186. 

For now this day thou art m v bale 
My boate when thou ahold bee. 
• Robin Hood and Guy of Gisbornb, v. 72. 

BuTTTy «. to cohabit with. Ex. *' Her inna married, 
her buUies.'" M. Goth, botjan^ juvare. Teat, boetm^ 
explere libidinem. 

Buzz, 9. to fill a glass brimful, in defiance of the chance 
that if some is left in the bottle, the drinker must also 
tosB off a second. Thus the phraae ^^ Fll buzz if^ is 
tantamount to a bet of a bumper, that if the glass 
will not hold all that is in the bottle,^he whose turn 
it is to drink next must fill to the brim: or ac- 
cording to the previous rendering, buzzing always 
means to take the last wine out of the bottle. This 
cannot be called a local custom, nor yet a very mo- 
dem one, for Erasmus in his Adagies has, ^'Ex am- 
phitheto bibisti,^ to designate a tippler, which two- 
handled vessel is called by the Dutch sailors buaa. In 
the Lat. of the middle ages Buaa denotes a large 
vessel, (See Du Cange sub voce) : in Teut. buyse sig- 
nifies poculum utrinque ansatum, quod ob magnitudi- 
nem ambabus toUitur ac reponitur manibus : from 
drinldng out of so capacious a measure originated the 
verb buysen^ cothonissare, largiter potare, as well as the 
jovial term of busoi. Menage has Busae and Bussart, 
vdsseaux de vin, courts et gros. The word Buzz is 
a more gentle one for boase^ which comes from the 


same quarter. As the word is recognised by Grose, 
its damcality is established in the Boozin-ien, 
BwiLiNos, 8. boilings. 

Sire, he said, bi God in heuen, 
ThiBe boihuns that baUen seuen. 

The Sbuyn Sacks, v. 2488. 

BwiLE, 8. a boil. Dan. bylcke ; Teut. Belg. bt^le ; Germ. 
bud ; Swed. bula, tuberculum. From hence it appears 
that the more modem and refined pronmiciation of 
6ai7, is a wresting from the legitimate one preserved 
by the vulgar. 

BwiLE, V. to boil. Fr. bowUer. 

BwoN, 8. a bone. Ex. '^ My poor bw<me8 yaaked ag^^ 

or as the more highly educated express themselves, 

^^my poor bones ached again.*^ This interposition of 

a to in words terminating in oim is extremely frequent 

among the vulgar. See further remarks under Gwon. 

His hwme8 thou do grave. 

Sir Amadas, v. 241. 

Then schall howndes, that men may see^ 
^Wastare bwona gnawe. 

id. v. 247. 

By blow, 8. a child illegitimate. 

Bt gorsh, Bt gosh, intery, a profane corruption in both 

instances; in the former from God cra88^ and in the 

latter from Go(P8 house. 
By tail, 8. the right handle of a plough. 



is often transmuted into q^ as in com, 
cord, coil, &c. Salopians respective- 
ly pronounce these words like quem^ 
querd^ qtdle, but in all such cases 
where o follows c, the vowel is 
changed into u. 
Cade-lamb, 8. a young lamb brought 
up by hand or within the house. Fr. ccuid^ a casteling, a 
starveling, one that hath need of much cockering. Gotg. 
Cadblt-rear''d, part, past tenderly brought up, whether 
it be children or chickens. Fr. cadeler. 
Cady, adf, addled, foolish, betra}ring signs of decayed 

intellect. Ex. ^' He^s grown quite eady,'*'' 
Cagmao, s. inferior or bad meat. Ex. ''Kills nothing 
but cagmag,'^ 

Cake, b. a contemptuous appellation for any one. Either 
a chastened form of expression from the A. Sax. coc, 
as, ''a cake of a feller,^^ or else, which seems to me 
more probable, a corruption of the Fr. cag(4^ or caqueuas, 
caeostu^ a race of people who were regarded with great 
aversion, under the idea that they were a remnant of 
the Jews, or as others say, of the Saracens, who were 
infected through each succeeding generation with leprosy. 
They usually followed the occupation of rope-making. 
So strong a prejudice existed against them, that the 


Caiholio BishopB partaking of the popular feeling, or- 
dered that when they came to mass, they Bhould confine 
thenuelvoB to the lower end of the church, and not 
kigs the Pax until all others present had done so, nor, 
under a certain penalty, touch the vessels of the altar. 
In the Registers of the Chancellerie de Bretagne 1475, 
exists an order that the Caqusi should be prevented 
from travelling in the Duchy without having a piece 
of red cloth upon their garments, to apprize people of 
the danger they would incur from coming in contact 
with them. They were placed under various harassing 
restrictions in their intercourse with those around; 
debarred any participation in civil honors; forbidden 
to pursue any craft except that of rope-making, or 
labour in any other way than in cultivating their gaiv 
dens, under the penalty of confiscating all they poft- 
sessed. Some French Antiquaries who have made re- 
searches into the history of this singular race, have 
conjectured that they were descendants of those Sara- 
cens who remained in Qascony after Charles Martel 
defeated Abdirama, and that their lives were spared 
on condition of their becoming Christians. They were 
nevertheless still looked upon with the same aversion. 
Popular odium ascribed to them all the infectious dis- 
eases which are supposed to be engrafted constitutionally 
on Eastern nations. Hence they were shunned for their 
ofibnsive smell, and strong breath. And this was not 
solely out of hatred for the tyranny of the Saracens; 
for tiie Italians urged a reproach similar to this against 
the Lombards, as we read in an epistle addressed to 
Charlemagne by Pope Stephen, who in order to divert 
his marriage with Bertha, daughter of Didier, king of 
the Lombards, represented to him that not only in- 
variably a bad smell accompanied all the race, but 
also, because, as my authority further saith, the Sara- 
cens smell disagreeably, and exhale a rank odour from 


their body. At the dose of the seventeeth century, 
Hevin, a learned advocate in the Parliament of Bre- 
tany, obtained the abrogation of the several enactmraits 
which injuriously affected the Caqueux. It is not my 
present object to enquire into the difference between the 
Ciiffcia and the Caqueuw; the reader curious upon that 
point will find it investigated under those heads in Mo- 
reri, and Menage. But descending io a later time, the 
Cagots of the Pyrennees are usually supposed to be 
similarly afflicted, as the Cretins of the Valais and 
Alps of Switzerland, of whom many are still met with 
at Martigny, Sion and other places on the course of 
the Bhone "through the Canton des Valais and adja- 
cent parts. Previous to the French Revolution these 
poor wretches were very numerous, whole families ex- 
isted among which there was not an individual to be 
found who was not Cretin. They were endued with 
instinct just sufficient to enable them to provide the 
bare means of existence, and the evil became perpe- 
tuated to successive generations. Napoleon took effec- 
tual measures for the remedy of this horrible evil, 
by ordering all the Cretins of the Valais to be con- 
fined in a hospital at Sion, the chief town of the 
Canton, and provided for at the public expence. This 
hospital exists, but the regulations have been subse- 
quently relaxed, and the traveller occasionally encounters 
the fearfid and disgusting figure of a Cretin, especially 
at Martigny. They seem to find the same indulgence 
which has been shewn by various nations to those afilicted 
with fatuity. The Baron von Buch, well known for 
his scientific researches, particularly of a Geological 
nature, devoted a considerable time to the valleys 
adjacent to the Bhone; he observed that in certain 
confined recesses of the hills, hail had never been 
known to fall ; a fact the more remarkable, as in 
those countries the hail is unusally frequent and de- 


struotive. In these particular valleys he noted that 
GretiniBme especially prevailed, and it waa his opinion 
that some atmospheric peculiarity which thus strangely 
prevented the formation of hail, contributed mainly to 
occasion the disease of Cretinisme; it has been sup- 
posed also to be induced like the Goitre which is 
found to accompany it both in the Alps and Pyren- 
nees, by the use of snow-water. It seems highly 
probable that the peculiar circumstances of these people 
have originated a phrase which is invariably applied as 
one of reproach. 

Calf, 8. a term of contempt for any one who is stupid. 
Ex. *' A calf of a fellow.*" Suetonius says that ' the 
Gauls called Servius by this title, on account of his 
stupidity. Besides being classical in its authority, the 
word is in analogy with the Teut. Kalf, homo obesus. 

Gall, «• occasion, necessity. Ex. ^' IVe no call to do it.^ 

Call, v. to abuse, vilify ; the exact terms of reprobation, 
we may presume through delicacy, being omitted by 
the narrator. Ex. '^ She eaUed me all to pieces.'" ^^ She 
called me — ashamed to be heard.^^ The word seems 
allied to the Isl. kalsa, irridere. Yet a Salopian lady'^s 
knowledge of rhetoric would readily lead her to speak 
by a figure, termed an apasicpesis, that is, a form of 
narration or address in which a person breaks off the 
discourse, yet so artfully that the meaning may be con- 
veyed to the hearers without being actually expressed. 

Camerade, 8. a companion. An old word. I find it in 
Dr Bullokar^s Expositor, and therefore it is not a cor- 
ruption of comrade. And its etymology says as much, 
Swed. kamrat; Germ, camerad; Sp. camarada; Fr. 
camerade^ sodalis. Du Cange and others have sup- 
posed that the word takes its origin from soldiers or 
others sleeping together in the same tent or chamber : 
whilst Wachter and another class of investigators assign 
the word to the C. Brit, eymmar^ socius : and this again 


to the Armor, ckam^ simul morari; hence then the 

modem collegiate term chum. 

His camerade that bare him company. 

Grebn's Quip far an Upgtart Courtier, 

Canary, «. 1 . a sovereign, so called from the similarity of 
color. 2. a glass of gin, rum, or any other ardent 
spirits. When men have drank ale till they are tured 
of it, some one amongst the crew of tipplers, proposes, 
"a drop o' canary.'^ 

Canary Bird, giyb a cat a; pAr. a simile betokening 
incredulity or improbability; as it is unlikely in the 
last degree that any possessor of one of these songsters 
should dispose of it to a cat, so when there e^eems 
small chance of gratifying the hopes of a solicitous 
claimant, we draw a metaphor from the bird fancier, 
and say, ''Give a cat a canary bird, ehf^ 

Can bottlb, 8. the bottle tip, long-tailed titmouse. Icarus 
eaudatm, Linn. 

Cancrams, Tantrams, 8. antrims (from which it is changed), 
whims, peevishness, ill-humour. 

Cank, f). to cackle like a goose. A word which manifestly 

derives its origin rather from similarity of sound, an ono- 

matopeia, than deducible from a fixed and regular root. 

And at the cairlis to kekUl, 

PebUg to the Play. 

Cankered, adf. ill-tempered. Ex. ^' The missus is grow^d 

meety cankered like in her temper, oerts as whad a wuz 

used to be.**^ A temper that is cankered, makes its 

possessor a nuisance to all around. 

The beggar answered cankardly, 
I have no money to lend. 

Robin Hood^ toI. i. p. 99. 

Can ye do anything, phr. a challenge to subscribe for 

something to drink. 
Capling, 8. part of a flail; the eye! 
Careyn, «. 1. a ticrm of reproach for a female of doubtAil 

reputation. Ex. " Yah f you nasty cartynT^ " Sich a 


earejfn of a cratur/^ 2. carrion, dead carcases. Isl. har^ 
squalor. Fr. earoigne^ earogne^ charoyne^ cadavre ; de earo 
et de rodmi. Roqf. Gloss. Oi»ci yapdpia^ loca quaedam 
terrarum appeUant, quae ezhalant foedos odores. 

Whether not to hem that ^ynnyden whos earei/nB weren cast 
down in desert 

WiCLir^s New TetL EbinvwU, c iiL 

Carbiaob, $. a belt which carries a whetstone behind 
the mower. 

Case, ^<mj. because. Ex. '* Ctue as how ye sin he wninia 
yable; he wunna yable to do it.""^ 

Cabbltt, Casertlt, (idf. casual, accidental, bad, uncertain. 
Ex. '' CtM0{^y weather.'' Fr. casud; Lat. ea8U9. 

Casp, $. the cross bar at the top of a spade. Randle 
Holmes in his Academy of Armorie, calls it a ITaspe. 
In Cheshire (See Mr Wilbraham's valuable little Glos- 
sary) it is termed a Catp. Shovels are commonly made 
with a T casp^ and spades with a D ea$p. 

Cast, s. a second swarm from a hive of bees in the same 
year. Swed. kcut, abjicere. Sp. ea$trar^ to take a 
hive. Isl. kastj missio. 

Cast, v. 1. to be thwarted, defeated. Ex. ^^ Cati in a 
trial at Soesbury Sizes.'' Palsgrave, ea$t in love, 
amouree. In an Inscription at Rome, relating to the 
success of Claudius in Britain, we find the same phrase 
" ahsque uUa jacturcT. V. Camd. Brit. fol. Lxxix. 2. to 
vomit. Ex. " Cast his stomach." Isl. hjutcL^ evomere. 
3. to be delivered prematurely, as cows or other beasts. 
Ex. '' Cherry has cagt her calf." 

Castkb, 8. a cow who casts her calf. 

CAfirruNG, 8, a calf bom before the usual time. 

Cat and Doo, a game which in some parts of the county^ 
and in other parts of England is called Tip eat. To 
a certain extent it resembles trap-ball^ the ball being 
substituted by a piece of wood which is about six inches 
in length, and one or two in diameter, diminished 


from the middle to each end, in the form of a double 
cone; it is made of box or yew, and when laid on 
the gromid and smartly struck at either end, it will 
rise high enough for the striker to hit it away from 
him as it descends. The Dog is the stick with which it 
is struck. Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, p. 1 10. edit. 
1833, enters into a description of the different methods 
by which the game is played. Nares borrows from the 
Cambridge Phrase Book, '*' to play at cat,"^ cato ligneo 
ludere ; baculo et buxo ludere. (See Sioipple and Trib.) 

Cat-bbain, $. a clayey sort of soil, little softer than stone, 
and not much better ; a rough kind of gravel, ^* roch^. 
Swed. Caigully mica membranacea. 

Cat-oallows, 8. a game played at by children, which con- 
sists in jumping over a stick placed at right angles 
to two others that are fixed in the ground. 

Catshead, 8. a hollow square box made of wood to collect 
wind at the top of a pit shaft, which is conveyed by 
a pipe downwards so as to increase the subterranean 
ventilation. In Derbyshire called a fforsehead. 

Cat-tail, g. Horse tail. Equisetum. Linn. 

Caud, Cowd, (uif. cold. Tout, kaud; M. Goth, kald; A. 
Sax. ceald ; Dan. kacM ; Germ. kaU ; Franc. Alaman. 
eketU ; Belg. kaud^ frigidus. 

Cauimthisel, Code-chisel, Coud-chisel 8. a hard chisel used 
for cutting cold iron. 

Caufs-cot, Cauve-skit, 8. a place where cfClves are kept. 
Evidently vitiated from A. Sax. ciU/^ vitulus; and cote, 
tugurium. Swed. Teut. kcU/; Isl. kcU/r; Germ, cfdb^ 
vitulus. Isl. kata; Teut. kat^ tugurium. 

Cave, 9. 1. to tilt up, as a cart, and consequently to 
empty or to unload it. Ex. " Cave up the tumbrel.'" 2. 
to fall in. Ex. ^' The bank coo^ in,^^ from being eawu, 
hoUow or undermined. 

Ray inserts the former sense amongst words peculiar 
to Cheshire, but Mr Wilbraham disowns the specific 


loeality. Wackier says the root lies in eaw. Oerm. 

catt ; C. Brit, and Armor, eauy cavua. 

Ceout, v. to bark as a cur or cottager's dog. Hence a 

Cbouting-do6, or little Ceoui. $. a sharp, vigilant dog. 

Mr Wilbraham derives the word from Skaut or Kaui^ 

signifying Scottt. But I fancy the word is corrupted 

thus, a Ceouiing dog, a cutinff dog, (which we hear 

the brute called as often as by any other title), a 

ciUe dog, an acute dog; that is, a vigilant and sharp 

dog. Another derivation may be obtained from coBey^ 

a word common in Scotland for a shepherd's dog, as it 

also is in some parts of England. (See Orose). We 

then get the word colting dog ; and according to the 

custom of changing Col into Cow or Cou we at once 

get the form of a Couting or Ceouting dog. That 

this transformation and transposition is not rare, may 

be seen under remarks upon /, and cm. The Pbomp. 

Parv. has KewHnge as cattes. 

Ceout, Cowt, b, a colt. If poetry will protect this word 

from the reproach of vulgarity, there is sanction for its use. 

There was Wattie the Muirland laddie. 
That rides on the honnie grey cowL 

Herd's Scottish Songs, vol. ii. p. 170. 

Chaff, v. to teaze. A low word now, though in better 

repute formerly. Not local. 

Whom as soone as Tytus had heholden he began to choice 
and to be merueylous angry for anguysshe. 

Golden Legend, foL cxzvii. 

Chall, Choul, $. the jaw. Ex. " Hit him in the ckoul."^ 
" Broke his chall bwon.'' " A chaU of bacon."' A. Sax. 
ceolas^ fauces. It was a word formerly in better re- 
pute, and used by the earlier translators of the Bible. 
See Ezek. xxiv. 4. xxxviii. 4. 

Of an ape he caught the ckauk bone. 

BocHASy FaU of Ptineei. 

Chamble, t. to champ; to bite. Ex. ^^ CkanMcM the 
bit.**" Applied to a horse. Fr. ekampayer. 


Charm, $. noise of a gentle kind, sueh as whispering, 
and munnuring, or the low, buzzing, drawling sounds, 
uttered by a body of children whilst learning. Ex. 
"What a charm r A. Sax. cyrm; Arm. C. Brit. 
garm; clamor. 6. Douglas ehirme. Whether we 
adopt these roots or not, and I see no reason for re- 
jecting them, it is quite evident that an intimate 
connexion subsists between our word and others of 
northern origin which have the same import and ten- 
dency. The Teut. karieny which betokens a soft and 
suppressed noise, such as is uttered to sooth children, 
and the Isl. korra^ infanti nsenias canere, fix it as a 
legitimate word, and prove that it is neither superin- 
duced, nor yet tralatitiously usurped from charm^ an 
enchantment; this word being in fact under the sus- 
picion of having been borrowed from the other, by a 
figure of speech known among Rhetoricians under the 
name of Metonymy. The dramatists afford additional 
evid^ice by almost invariably placing the word in such 
a position, that it bears reference exclusively to a 
noise or clamour. 

Go to duirm your tongue. 

Peace, wilful boy, or I will charm your tongue. 

Henry VI. 

Charm your skipping tongue. 

Cynthia's Reveii. 

He is the man must charm you. 

Bartholomew Fair. 

That well could charm his tongue, and time his speech. 

Faery Queen, v. ix. 
Here we our slender pipes may safely charm. 

Shepherds' Calendar, 
Hark! Flora, Faunus, here is melody, 
A charm of birds, and more than ordinary. 

Arrai^ment of Paris, 

What tharm of earliest birds. 

Paradise Lost, iv. 641. 

He touched the strings which made such a charm. 

Pbrcy's ReRq. ii. 170. 

M— 2 


Chartebtmabter, i. a man who, having undertaken to get 
ooals or uron-Btone at a certain price, employs men 
under him. 

Chaotisb, v. 'to give good instruction," forewarn. Ex. 
^'Diden'e ehcuiite him on itP a sense peculiar to 
Corve Dale. 

Chats, 8. small fagots, broken sticks. Ex. '^Pikeing 
up a feow ckaU.^ ''Lotc of lads and fire of dhaU is 
soon in and soon out.*" Ray's Proverbs^ p. 42. Swed. 
butwed^ ligna csesa ad usum in fornacibus. Isl. kUxtr^ 
res rejectanese. A. Sax. eeatt^ res. 

Chattt, adj, small. Ex. '^ Chatty iron-stone."' The deepest 
strata of Ume-stone is called ehattystaney from being small. 

Chaunce Child, «. a child illegitimate. 

Chavin Riddle, $. a large coarse riddle which is worked 
by the hands along a wooden horse, to sift grain from 
the straw and larger kinds of chaff. A vitiation from 
chajffmg-riddk. A. Sax. ceaf^ palea: hriddle^ cribrum. 

Cheath, 8. a sheath. Ex. " A knitting cheath.'" In some 
of the rural and , remote parts of the county the two 
vowels e and a when they come together are very 
distinctly articulated, as in whe-at, she-af, &c. 

Chem, Tehem, 8. a team of horses. 

Chesvit, 8. a cheese-vat. 

Chiooin, inter;, an address to horses, bidding them go 
again, corruptly obtained thus, Chs-fin; gee-gin; ge- 
(igain; go-ngain. 

Childer, 8. Children. The termination plural of A. Sax. 
eUdy infans. Not of frequent occurence in the central 
parts of Shropshire ; chiefly confined to the Hereford- 
shire and Cheshire outskirts. The word repeatedly 
occurs in the Metrical Romance of Amis and Amiloun. 

Full blithe was Sir Amis tho: 

Ac for his chiider him was full wo. 

For fairer ne'r non bom. 
Wei loth him was his diUder to do. 
▼. 2202-^. 2212. 2234. 2271. 2814. 2326. 2369. 2381. &c. &c. 


Childkbbn, Childbrin, i. Children. Though the preced- 
ing word be not general, thia ia, and it is as fre- 
quently met with in the Early English Poets. 

Ther as the diUderin lay. 

Amis and Amiloun. y. 2405. 
And bar her to chylderen euen. 
Up to the sky. 
OcTAviAN Impbrator, V. 101. 197- 301. 307. 720, Ac 

Chill, 9. to warm any kind of liquid in frosty weather. 
Ex. "Will you have your drink trilled T This is a 
very nice distinction between extreme cold, and the 
next degree to it. 

Chimlat, $, a chimney. Ex. " Up i^ th^ ehimlay cornel.'*^ 
There is a vulgar tradition at the curious old man- 
sion of Plush, that the beautiful chimneys there were 
built by a mason whom Judge Leighton had con- 
demned to be hung, but who was reprieved under 
the promise of building for the Judge, " Sich ehimlays 
as had nivir bin sin at no time nod a fore."^ 

Chip o^ the oud block, phr. a phrase denoting family like- 
ness or propensities. Grose. 

Choak Pear, $. a large hard pear, only used for baking. 
Palsgrave, CAoke pear^ estranguillow. 

Chow, 9. to chew. Ex. " H** ^as lost his tith and canna 
chaw."*^ A. Sax. eeowan, ruminare. 

Chow, s. a quid. Ex. "A ehatD 6* bacco."' A. Sax. 
ceowring^ ruminatio. 

Christian, $, it may seem unnecessary to write down a 
word in such common acceptation, and it may justly 
be said to be superfluous, if the notice of it were not 
remarkable for the peculiar distinction which it has 
received : an acceptation, however, not confined to our- 
selves, but in all probability familiar to the lower 
classes throughout England. It is an appellation which 
marks not so much the difference between believer and 
infidel. Christian and Jew, as the distinct characteris- 
tics betwixt man and beast. Thus the owner says of 


his sagacious dog, ^^he knows almost as much as a 
OAristianr or a farmer describes a mischievous pig 
by likening his powers of climbing to those of a man, 
" he will get o'er a style just like any Christian.'*^ Forby 
says it obtains the same usage in Norfolk, and anti- 
cipates me by the following apposite quotation from 

And the boy tliat I gave Falstaff: he had him finom me 
Chrutum; and look if the fat villain have not transformed him 
ape. 2 Hen. IV. ii. 2. 

Or, to illustrate the peculiar application of the word, 
as it was used in the hearing of an esteemed friend, 
who lives honoured amongst all who know him for his 
public spirited conduct, his intelligence and domestic 
virtues, '4 seed a pair o** stotes reared up o' their hind 
legs, and feyght as nataral as two CAristiansr 

Chuck, v. to throw. Ex. " Chuck the ball o'er the waU.*" 
Lat. jacto f Hence the North Country game of chucki^ 
and our own rustic one of chuck farthing. (See this more 
fully described in Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, p. SSG.) 

Ghundering, part, dissatisfied, abusive. Ex. "a eh^mdering 

Churl, $. the wallflower. Cheirawthvs^ Linn. ^^ In the 
Arabicke tongue'*'* writeth Gerard, " it is called Keyri ;^ 
our's is but a trifling deviation from the more learned 

Clack, «. 1. a clapper of a mill. 2. a sucker or valve 
of a pump, a piece of leather which prevents the water 
from falling down ^ the trees'. 

Clam, fj. to ring a bell irregularly, or out of time and 
tune. Ex. '^ Clamming the bells.'*^ Swed. klamma^ com- 
primere modo violento. Klamtning^ pulsatio campanae. 
Teut. klemmen^ pervellere. 

Clam, Clbmm, v. to starve with hunger. Ex. ^^ Maist 
dmmCd for want o' fittle;' " Welly clemm'd:' This 
word has been commented upon by most lexicogr»- 


phers, and cannot therefore be so choice and dialectical 
as Salopians usuaUy account it. From the bowels of 
a hungry man being supposed to be clammed or stuck 
together, it has been derived from words having that 
meaning. S. Goth. Swed. ilamma ; Dan. klemme ; Isl. 
klemma; Teut. Belg. Gterm. Idemmen^ coarctare. Ray, 
Coles, Grose, Nares, Craven Gloss. N. C. Ches. Gloss. 
HaUams. Gloss. Norf. Gloss. Tim Bobbin. Stafford. Heref. 
I cannot eat stones and tniis, say, what will he ckm me and 
my followers? ask him an he will ofem me. 

Bbn Jonson's Poetaster. 
Hard is the choice when the valiant must eat their arms, or 
clem. Every Man out of hie Humour. 

— and yet I, 
Solicitous to encreaae it, when my entrails 
Were ckmm'd with keeping a perpetual fast 
Was deaf to their loud windy cries. 

Massinobr's Roman Actor. 

Clank, r. to make clean, wash and dress, arrange the 
toilet. Ex. ^' I mun gda now and dane mysilf.^ See 
remarks under ea. A. Sax. done; daman^ purificare. 

Clap, 8. Skinner says this word is peculiar to the English, 
and explains it as the lip. Jamieson in his Etymolo- 
gical Dictionary of the Scottish language gives a 
quotation which refers the word to the uvula. '* If, " 
says his authority, ^'a person be thrown dead into 
the water, when the dap of his throat is shut, the 
water cannot enter."" The sense, however, in which 
Salopians use the word, refers it to the tongue, or 
faculty of speech, as " Hand your dap,'" and so we 
find it employed by Chaucer. 

The Reve answerd and saide. Stint thy dappe. 

MiUer'e Prohgue. 

Clap, v. to squat, either to kneel or sit. Ex. ^* CUxpH 

herself down."*^ 
Clat, «. to propagate ridiculous and false tales. Belg. 

Uaddm, maculare. 
Clats, s. idle stories, gossip. Germ, kledc, probrum ; 

kUjBteohereiy garritus, delatio; Teut. klepe, gamilus. 


CtAvn, «. to impose upon, humbug. Ex. ^^He^s got 
guch a tongue, he^U claver ^em out o' any thing.^ (See 

Claw, 9. 1. to snatch or seize with the ohiw. 2. to 
take, to take away violently. Elx. ^^ He clawed hout 
on it.""^ Germ, ktateen^ manus hominum rapacium et 
habendi eupidorum, ob similitudinem cum unguibus 
aquilinis aut milvinis, qui non facile dimittunt pnedam. 
Wachter. A. Sax. clawian^ scalpere. 
For age with steling steps 
Hath dawde me wiUi his crowch. 

Percy's ReUq. vol. L p. 187. 

Clba, Clsy, 8, a claw. A good old word. Minsheu has 
deduced it from the 6r. xf/XaU forfices. 

In hus dees clawen us, and in hys cloches holde. 

P. Plouhman, p. 9. 

Cleach, 9. to snatch hold of. A. Sax. geUBccan^ arripere. 

Cleachino Net, 8. a hand net, with a semicircular hoop 
and a transverse bar ; used by fishermen on the banks 
of the Severn. Heref. 

Clean, <idv. entirely, quite. Universal in this sense, 
though rarely pronounced by the Comavii as now 
written, the former vowel being placed at the end of 
the word. Ex. " Clane gwon.*^^ The A. Sax. dane 
fully justifies our method of pronunciation, and Shaks- 
peare by using the word adverbially furnishes us with 
sufficient authority for doing the same. 

I found my bow ckne cast on one nde. 

Abcham's TosMfhUuMj p. 7. 

Clear and Shear, phr. this is applied to closely and well 
sheared sheep. 

Cleat, v. to strengthen with a plate of iron. Ex. ^^ Put a 
deai on the wheel.'' A. Sax. cUot; C. Brit. dwU^ pitta- 
cium. Fland. Uessen ; Belg. klisse ; M. Ooth. Uaddra; C. 
Brit, chfttiany adherescere. (See Du Cange sub voce CUia.) 

Clent, 9. when grain is cut and begins to harden, or 
when hay, or the straw of ^^lent tillin*\ becomes seasoned 
by the influence of the sun, it is said to cUnt ; and 


as it then begins to aasume a bright appearance, the 
word may be from the Teut. glanUen^ fulgere. 

Clbw, Crew, Crewring, $. a ring at the head of a scythe 
which fastens it to the Sned. (See Sned.) A. Sax. cUaw ; 
Oerm. kleud; Teut. klouwe, glomus. 

CucKET, V. to fasten as with a link over a staple. All 
the English authorities into which I have looked for 
this word derive it from the Fr. and they explain it 
by 'a key\ Where they found this etymology it is 
difficult to conjecture. Cotgrave, Miege, Richelet and 
Menage at all events do not recognize it. Roquefort 
who wrote since these authors, though he mentions the 
word, does not tell us where he picked it up. The 
mistakes of Tyrwhit, Skinner, Johnson, Ash. &c. afford 
me the opportunity of disclaiming for it aU connexion 
with the Gauls, and of giving the Welsh the honor of 
having introduced it into our language. C. Brit, diccied^ 
the latch of a door, the bolt of a door. This derivation 
renders the ensuing passages from P. Plouhman intelli- 
gible, adopt another and they become pleonastic. 
Hue hath a keye and a dykett. 

p. 124. 
— and the dore closea 
Ykeyed and yelykeded. id. 

Promp. Parv. clyket. Chauc. Merch. Tale, v. 9991-6-7. 

Clink, «. a smart blow. Ex. ** Gie him a clink V tV feace.''' 
Teut. klineke^ Colaphus. 

Clinker, «. 1. large nails which turn up over the toes 
of strong shoes, a word corrupted from dinekers. 2. 
a bad sort of coal. 3. cinders from an iron furnace. 

Clip, i?. 1. to embrace. Ex. ^^ Clipped her round the 
neck,^ Shakspeare. 2. to hold together by means of 
a screw or bandage; for instance, a blacksmith will 
put a piece of iron upon a wheel to clip tV, lest it 
fall to pieces. 

A. Sax. ehfppan ; Germ, kleihen ; Or. itXckw. amplecti. 
3. to shear, cut. Swed. Isl. klippa; Dan. klippe^ tondere. 


His meanest gannent that ever hath but eUp'd his body. 


Clipping, 8. as much wool as is cut off one sheep. Isl. 
Idippingr^ pellis tonsa. 

Clip the Church ; There prevails a custom amongst the 
younger inhabitants of the town of Wellington, of annu- 
ally going on Shrove Tuesday to the Parish Church, 
and by joining hands together endeavouring to encircle 
it. What is the origin of this custom it is difficult 
to say ; but it is evidently a remnant of a juvenile 
pastime which boys have for years been accustomed 
to indulge in on this particular day. 

Clod coal, s. a species of coal lying above the ^crawstone^ ; 
so termed because it lies between two measures called 
clods; it is reputed the best for manufacturing iron. 

Clod maxl, b. a wooden hanuner which peasants use to 

break clods. Teut. kht^ gleba, and mceleny molere. 

Then everv man had a maU, 
Syche as thei betyn chttyi withall. 

The Hunttyng of the Hare. r. 91. 

Clog, t?. to pickle or prepare wheat for sowing. The 
important knowledge of preventing Smut or Pepper 
Brand in wheat has not been generally understood in 
this country more than half a century. Steeping the 
seed in a mixture of quick lime and herrin^ (q. v.), 
is found an effectual brine for destroying the uredo 
foetida, Teut. klotteren, coagulari. 

Cloir as cloir, phr. this means that a liquid is perfectly trans- 
parent, as clear as possible, " Cloir as Cloir^^'' *' Cloir as 
waiter^ ; it is certainly more correct than " clear as mud,'^ 
a comparison frequently heard. ^' Clear as clear^ and ^^hard 
as hard*** are terms often used. Also ^^ clire as clire.**^ 

Clout, s. a blow. Ex. " Fatch him a clout Y th' mouth.^ 

Com. chtdy a blow. 

The kynges sone^ kene and proud, 
Gaf kyng Richard swvlke a ner dout 
That the fyr of hys heyen sprong. 

Richard Coer de Lion, t. 768. 


And ndly nght hym a dowte. 

The HunUyng of the Hare, v. 174. 
He gaTe her than so many a great chute. 

The Wife lapped in Morete Skin, v. 977. 
ClaverB and his Highland men 

Came down upo' the raw, man 
Who being stout^ gave mony a clout. 

GiUierankie. Hbrd. i. p. 182. 
Did Sandy hear ye, 
Ye wadna miss to get a chut. 

Ritson's English Songe, vol. i. p. 183. 

Clout, «. 1. to weld, patch. Ex. " CUmt theee shoeB.'** 
2. to beat, strike ; Ex. " Chut him in the face.'' Teut. 
kloUen; Germ, klopfen; Belg. kloppen ; Franc, doppen; 
Swed. klappa^ pulsare. 

Yf thou com more inward 
It schall thd rewe afterward, 
So I schall thd chwght. 

Sir Clsoes, ▼. 261. 
— ^Baxter lads hae seal'd a vow. 
To skelp and chut the guard. 

Ferousson's Poeme. 

Clout nails, s. 1. large nails used for the tire of waggon 
wheels. Palsgrave, daut of yron, platin de fer. 2. short 
nails with large heads for the soles of strong shoes. 

Cloutei>-8Hoe8, s. shocB which may properly be termed 
clouted, are such as are patched, or mended. In the 
rural districts they say, ''put a elouit on the toes.**' 
Colliers however who think there is more virtue in 
iron than in leather, talk of having clout naih driven 
into their shoes, with clinkers turned over the front. 
There can be no dispute about the correctness of the 
former application. Promp. Parv. elowte of a $ho : 
clawted as shone or other thingis of lether. Palsgrave, 
douie of a sho. ung talon. A. Sax. dut^ lamina. Lat. 
Barb. deta. Du Cange. 

His hod was full of holes, and his heare oute. 
With his knoppede ehon douted ful thykke. 

Perbs Ploughman's Crede. 
And put my chuted brogues from off my feet 

Cymbeline, iv. 2. 


And no man ^uttith a chut of boistouB cloth into an olde 
clothing, for it doith away the fulneoM of the doth and a wone 
brekyng is maad. 

WicLirx's New TeUatnent, Matt c iz. 
Neatea leather shall ckmi thy «Ao0fi. 

K. Edw. and the Tanner qf Tamwarth, y. 184. 
But what if dancing on the green. 
And skipping luce a mawkin. 
If thev should see my douiei ehocn 
Of me they will he tanking. 

Hbrd's Scottieh Songs, iL 67. 
And old shoes and clouted upon their feet 

Jo^ ix. y. 6. 

Clouts, 8. thin pktes of iron which are fastened along 
the extremity of an axle-tree. (See Cleat and Clout.) 
Palsgrave, daut^ of yron, pktin de fer. 

Clunches, 8. a measure of indurated earth, nearly as 
hard as stone. Germ. khM; Belg. khiU, massa con- 

Cluts, s. 1. the small wedges which go under the d&w 
or serett of a scythe. C. Brit. dttt. 2. wedges gene- 
rally. Swed. klots, frustulum ligneum vel ferreum fabrile 
alicubi applicandum. 

Cob, 8. the chief, head. Ex. ''He's cob.'^ Belg. kop, 

Cob, «. 1. to conquer, excel, beat. Ex. ''This eobe all.^ 
2. to pull the hair, a punishment applied by school- 
boys to those who offend the olfactory senses of 
their playmates. The penalty consists in having the 
hair pulled whilst the offender whistles, counts ten and 
touches wood. It has nearly the same signification 
among the Roxburgshire shepherds. Belg. kop ; Oerm. 
kopt^ caput. 

Cobbles, 5. 1 . small pieces of coal. Ex. " Put a feow 

cobbles a top o' th"* fire.*" 2. small pebbles. Ex. "Paved 

with cobble stones.'*'* Not very local. 

With staves or with clubs or els with cohble stones. 

Gammer Chirton's Needk, 

Cobnobble, t. to beat on the head. Belg. Teut. eop^ 

caput. Teut. HoU. Fris. Sicamb. Fland. knotken^ tundere. 


Cob-nut, «. 1. a large nut with a hole bored through 
it, and through which runs a piece of string. A game 
played by boys upon the top of a hat, when one with 
his cob-nut tries to break the nut of the other. This 
is not a local amusement, or a provincialism : yet it 
has been deemed by preceding gloesarists sufficiently 
dialectical to have obtained a place in their vocabu- 
laries. They all follow Minsheu, and assign the origin 
of the word to the Belg. lop-nci^ nux capitalis, which 
he explains, 'a great nut, such as boyes play at cob- 
nut withal\ 

CocKABs, 8, short woollen socks. A. Sax. eoeer^ any kind 

of case. Somner. Isl. koklaz^ segre per invia evadere. 

Teut. ioler^ theca. 

Other loke for my cohort, 

P. PlOUHM AN, p. 75. 
— Hub oockreM and hus cuffes. 
id. p. 131. 
And his patch'd cotkert now despised been. 

Hall's SaHref, iv.6. 
His mittens were of bauzen's skinne. 
His ookert were of oordiwin. 

Percy's Rdiq. voL i. p. 324. 

Cock a meg, «. a piece of timber about half a yard long, 
which is fastened on the reepU in a coal mine to support 
the roof. 

CocKET, CocKT, CoxT, oc^'. Bwaggeriug, pert, supercilious. 

Ex. '^ Grown quite cocky P Ck)les has cockei. Coxy must 

be a corruption from coxcomical^ in which sense it is 

generally taken. Fr. coqueti : Cotgr. C. Brit, cocwyo^ 

to bear rule. 

And now I think I mav be cocky, 
Since fortune has smurtl'd on me. 

Jeanny Graden, Ritson's Scott. Songt, i. 246. 

CocKHBAD, «, a piece of iron which falls into the branr 

duU of a mill. Another informant teUs me that the 

oockhead, is that part of a mill ''which is fixed into 

a stave of the ladder, the ladder being what the hopper 

rests upon.*" I confess I do not understand precisely 


what I here repeat, but as it oomefl from a miller it 
is preemned to be correct. 

Coo, 8. that particular part of a scythe which is held 
whilst mowing; the short handle. 

Goggle, e. to move unsteadily backwards and forwards, 
to become shaky. Teut. hikghlen ; Germ, kugdn^ rotun- 

CooGLETT, CocKLETT, od^. apt to shakc about. 

Coin, Quins, «. an architectural term, the comer of a 
building. Various etymologies have been offered for 
this word, as the Or. ayKwv — and yovia — Lat. cuneui : 
Ft. coinff. 

Cold Comfort, «. unwelcome intelligence, disagreeable in- 

I do not ask you much, I beg cold eor^fori. 

K, John. V. 7. 

CoLLOGUEiNG, part, scheming or plotting to the disad- 
vantage of another. Kersey says it means to "decoy 
with fair words, to flatter or sooth up,^^ but not so in 
Shropshire. Minsheu admits the participle as well as 
the verb. The verb is common in our Early English 
Dictionaries, see Baily, Cole, Skinner, Cocker and 
Blount. Forby agrees with me in asserting that it 
has a sense of its own quite different from flattering. 
Lat. eoUoquor. 

Colly Weston, Conny Weston, phr. In the first sense 
in which we use this phrase it implies any thing awry, 
or on one side; if a garment, a bonnet or a shawl 
is awkwardly put on, it is all conny wesson : if things 
are contrary, ill-timed or go amiss, the evil genius 
eonny wesson is the cause, and we lay all the blame 
to him, ^^its all alung o conny wesson.^'' And the 
same characteristics of perverseness accompany its 
meaning when any thing is uneven, crooked, out of a 
straight line, or obstinate. Thus a shuffler partakes 
of the bad spirit of conny wesson^ '^he inoMT we say. 


^^ itrai'ii forad^ his all canny tDeuon^ What connexion, 
or whether it has any at all with the village of CoUy- 
wesUm in Northamptonshire lies out of my power to 

CoLLEB, CoLLT, $. the black incrustation of smoke and soot 
which adheres to the outside of a pot or kettle. Kersey 
recognises the word in his Dictionary. A. Sax. ccl ; 
Isl. Swed. Germ, kol ; Dan. kul; Tout, lole^ carbo. 

Colly, v. to dirty with coUy^ to smut. Ex. ^^ CoUied his 

face all o'^er.'*^ 

He made foule chere, 
And bicoUede is swere. 

Gb3tb of Kino Horn, v. 1071, 1072. 

He lokede aboute, 
Myd is caUede snoute. 

id. V. 1007, looe. 

Brief as the lightning in the ootiy'd night. 

Mids. Nights Dream, L 1. 
And passion having my best judgement coUied, 


Come on, c. 1. to grow, improve. Ex. " The tillins come 
an apace."^ 2. to impose, encroach. Ex. '^ Coming an 
in his charges.*" 3. to succeed, follow. Ex. " A coming 
an tenant.^^ 

Come out, or Come ett, an address offensive to a dog, 
which bids him either '^blin of his barking,^ or get 

CoMEiNG Floor, «. that part of a malthouse, where the 
barley lies, after it vegetates, grows, or acrespires. Isl. 
keima ; Germ, kiemen ; M. Goth, keinan; Franc. Alaman. 
ckinen, germinare. 

CoMB-THY-wAYs, WITH THEE, phr, Au endearing kind of 
address to children. Not entirely dialectical. See ex- 
amples and illustrations of its use in the North Country 
and Craven Glossaries, from one of which works the 
foOowing one is requoted. 

While Aire to Calder calls^ and bids her come her ways, 

Drayton's PoUy-olbim. 


GoMMANDflMKNTS, $. Commandments. The interposition of 
the vowel is very common also in the Early English 
writers; see Wiclif, Chaucer, Spenser, King Cambises. 
The worlde and the Chylde, Apius and Virginia, &c. 

And pylled the barke even of hys fooe 
Withe her cammandemenU ten. 

Ane BaBtU of Mairimonie. 

CoMM^D, pcut part. 1. common for came. Ex. ^^ Afore I 

eomm^d he raught thire ye sin."" 

The righte aire of that cuntre 
Es eumen, 

Minot's Poenu, p. 14. 

Quhaie, troaist ye, I sail find yon new-cumde kinr. 

'Sir D. Lyndsay, yoj. ii. p. 35. 

2. became. Ex. '' Jack ! the measter toud me to ax 

yo, whad yone done a th' groui bitch! Begum I 

dunna knoa — the last as I sid on her was down i^ th' 

bwes fawhr, and whad comm'd on her ater, I conna 

justly say."" A. Sax. cuman ; Teut. komen ; Oerm. 

iommen; Swed. iomma^ venire. R. of Gloster, R. of 

Brunne, P. Plouhman and the Metr. Romances have 

eum^ and com in the A. Sax. form. 

CoMB-MOoB, CuMMuooiN, ifitefj. Au address to the leading 
horse of a team, when he is required to turn to the 
left, to come nearer or turn round. They are varied 
inflections formed thus by elision, from come over again, 
come again, commegpin; as Come-moge and com-mother 
are deduced from, come over, and come hither. 

CoMMiN, $. a common, waste land. Ex. **Kip yo rit 
strai-it forat, across the commin.'^ Those Salopians 
who are roost simple and pwre in their language usually 
employ the imperative in lieu of the indicative with an 
auxiliary, as in the example just given, in which case 
the more educated would say, '' You m/iut keep right 
straight forward/** &c. 

CoMMiN Justice o' the Pace : phr. Ex. " Minded me no 
moor than if Td bin a commin Jtutice o* the PaeeT 


Company keeps, phr. This is the usual method of ex- 
preseing that a young person receives the addresses of 
a lover. It is in analogy with the idiom of the early 
English and French. " Gtrnpagner^ etre en commerce, 
ou en familiarite avec quelqu^un, avoir commerce avec 
une femme.'^ Roquef. Glossary. In the East window 
of St Mary's Church Shrewsbury, (See Blakeway and 
Owen'^s Hist. vol. ii. p. 318) is an inscription which 
beseeches the reader to pray for John de Charlton 
who caused the glaring to be made, and for Dame 
Hawise his companion. At that period the appellation 
was honourable, and even savoured of Royalty. Edw. II. 
in a letter to his son speaks of nostre treschere covnpaigne 
la royne : and the statute of treasons, 25 Edw. III. de- 
clares it to be treason to compass the death of the 
king, or of Madame sa compaigne. The old Spanish 
law has the same phrase. (See Barrington'^s Observa- 
tions on the Statutes, p. 245.) Indeed our modem 
word * queen, is in its primitive sense nothing more 
than a woman. (M. Goth, quino ; Isl. ktiennu ; A. 
Sax. cteen ; Dan. quinde ; Teut. quena ; Gr. 71/1/1?, 
mulier.) The term of companion^ gradually got lower, 
and in 1484, we read of a lady who was daughter 
of Monsieur John de Poictiers an4 Madame Isabeau 
sa compaigne^ who was descended from the kings of 
Portugal. (See Palaye Mem. Sur Tanc. Chevalrie, vol. 
ii. p. 183.) 

Comparative and Superlative double. In common with 
other counties, the language of the lower orders in 
Shropshire abounds with pleonasms of this nature. 
How often do we hear, more painfuUer^ more tidyer^ 
more industrier^ most konestest^ most quickest^ most 
nearest? I suppose these must be considered in- 
correct, examples however do exist which may tend 
to shield these apparent irregularities from the critic^s 



Ne'er from France arrived mare happier men. 

Hen. V. iv. 4. 

More sharper than your sworda. 

Hen. V. iii. 5. 
Contain your spirit in more stricter bounds. 

Every Man out of hie Humour. 
Thev saw the Cardinal more readier to depart than the rem- 
nant ; for not only the high disnity of the Civil Magistrate, but 
the most basest hiandicraft are noly, when they are directed to 
the honour of God. Sir Thomas More. 

Besides meeting with similar pleonasms in Jul. CsBsar, 
the Tempest, and the Two Gentlemen of Verona, we 
have a criticism on the foregoing quotation from Sir 
Thomas Moore from the pen of Ben Jonson, who says, 
'' that this is a certain kind of English Atticismy or elo- 
quent phrase of speech, imitating the manner of the mast 
ancimtest and finest Grecians, who for more emphasis 
and yehemency''s sake used so to speak.*" Again, for 
other examples. 

After the most straitest sect of our religion^ I lived a Pharisee. 

Acts xxvi. 6, 
Whosoever of you will be chiefest, shall be servant of all. 

Mark x. 44. 
The most coldest that ever turned up all. 

Cymb. ii. 3. 
Oh, 'tis the most wickedest. 

Women Pleased. 
But first and chiefest with thee bring 
Him, that yon soars on golden wing. 

H Pensierosa 
That on the sea's extremest border stood. 

Addison's Tratxk. 

C0N9AYT, Conceit, s. 1. good opinion. Ex. "Fve no 

great cotifayt on him.'' 2. opinion, simply. Ex. " But 

a poor confayt as how he'll do it." 

John Anderson my Jo, John 
Ye were my first conceii. 

Scotch BalkuL 

C0N9ATT, V. to conceive, imagine. In this sense, ac- 
cording to Tyrwhitt, the word is used by Chaucer in 
his Translation of Boethius. Fr. Cancevoir. 


Concernment, s. concern, business. Ex. "No canesm- 
ment 6* youm.'' 


CoNSARN, V. to concern. Ex. "I dunna cansam mysilf 

wi"* sich nonsense.'^ 
Consarn; a kind of threat. See Sarn. 
Consort, v. to associate with. Ex. ''^Consorting together."" 

Lat. consoeio. 

And afterwards consort with you till bed time. 

Comedy qf Errors. 
And must for aye consort with black-brow'd niffht. 

Mids. Nighfs Dream, iii. 2. 
Thou consort'st with Romeo. 

Romeo and JuRet, iiL 1. 
And some of them believed and consorted with Paul and Silas. 

Acts xvii. 4. 

CooTH, $. a cold. Ex. '^ Kotched a cooth Y his limbs."*^ 
Cop, «. the top or middle of a Butt in ploughed land. 

A. Sax. Cop ; C. Brit, coppa ; Germ, koppel ; Fr. 

eaiipeau^ apex. 

Tho' can I on this hill to gone, 
And round on the coppe a wone. 

Chaucer's House of Fame, iiL 

CoppET, (ndj. pert, saucy. Craven Glossarist rightly refers 
the origin of this word to the Belg. lop^ caput. 

CoppY, «. a coppice. Ex. "Gwon to the eoppy for a 
bum o^ hetherin.'*'* Gr. kowtw^ scindo. Fr. copp^^ 
cut. Cotgr. 

CoPtiL, CopsAL, 8, a piece of serrated iron which ter- 
minates that extremity of a plough at which the horses 
are attached, sometimes called the Aear of a plough, 
or the cop rail. Ex. ^^Shut 'em to the copgil rail.'*'' 

CoRACLE, 8. a small boat formed with broad hoops and 
covered with tarpauling, so light that a fisherman 
easily carries it on his back. This little vessel is not 
confined to the Severn, being used also on the Wye. 
I suppose we are indebted to the Welsh for intro- 
ducing it on our river. Camden speaks of it as pe- 


«uliar to Shropshire in his time. ^' The Shrewsbury 
fiflhennen,'''' says he, ^^use a vessel caUed a coracle 
which they row with one hand while they fish with 
the other. It is about five feet long, and three broad, 
almost oval, with a round bottom, made of sallow twigs 
or osiers covered with horses' hides, and so light as to 
be carried on a man'^s back. These vessels seem to 
be the remains of the curraghs used anciently between 
Ireland and Scotland, and similar to the canoes of the 
Americans.^' (Gough'^s Edition of Camden, vol. iii. p. 35,) 
The word has been derived by some one from corivm, 
which would suit it well enough, provided coracles were 
covered with hides, but as they are not I conceive with 
more certainty the origin of the word wiD be found lurk- 
ing under the C. Brit, cwrwgle^ one of the singularly few 
words, considering our constant intercourse with and 
proximity to the Welsh, which we have acquired from 
their language. S. Goth, korg ; G^rm. karb, corhis. Fr. 
carbeiUe. A. Sax. cuople^ navicula. Celt, ctiruca^ navis 
coriacea. Sidonius Apollinaris says that the Saxon 
pirates in his time frequently crossed the British seas 
in these boats. 

Quin et Aremoricns piratam Saxona tractiis 
Sperabat, cui pelle salum sulcare Britannum. 

Cartnina, viL 

Armor, crochen ; Bret, croc'hen^ peau de quelque 
animal. Gael, curach^ a small boat of wicker covered 
with hides. 

Corking, «. the turn up bits on the toe of a horse^s shoe. 

Corked, part, past ; offended. 

Corncrake, Corndrake, s. Ralius Crex^ of Linnseus: 
it is also frequently called by the several titles of 
Com craker^ Oraker; Landrail^ Landrake, To write 
the word in an orthographical way, it ought to be 
Corn Creke, It receives this appellation from creaking, 
or making a hoarse, grating noise in the com or long 


mowing grass. C. Brit, crech^ a scream. In a rare 

little volume entitled, ^^ Avium Prsecipium quarum apud 

Plinium et Aristotelem mentio est per Gul. Tumerum, 

Colon. M.D. xLiv: we find it thus described, and 

get at the derivation of the word from ornithological 

authority. '^ Est avis qusedam apud Anglos, lon^s 

cruribus, csetera cotumici, nisi quod major est, similis, 

quse in segete et lino, vere et in principio sestatis non 

aliam habet vocem semper ingeminet, quam ego Aris- 

totelis crecem esse puto. Angli avem illam vocant a 

dcJcer hen ; Germani ein Schryk, nusquam in Anglia 

nisi in sola Northumbria vidi et audivi.**' White, in 

his History of Selbome, says the bird was rare in his 

district. Martin, in his account of the Western Isles, 

calls the bird a corn-craker ; Lyndsay has com craik. 

He gart the Emproure trow, and trewlye behald, 
That the comcraik, the pundare at hand. 

Holland's Buke of the Howlat, 

Corned, part, past ; intoxicated by ale. Ex. "He was 
pretty well corned.'''' Germ. Kornen^ inescare granis. 
At first hearing we should say that this was meta- 
phorical, but when we recollect the magical powers of 
malt liquor, we shall rather cry out as moral philo- 
sophers, in the ballad of Sir John Barleycorn, 

He'll change a boy into a man, 

A man into an ass; 
Hell change your gold into silver, 

Your silver into brass. 

Cornel, *. a comer. Ex. "Clos up i^ th** cornel^ 
C. Brit, comei^ angulus. 

Clement stode in oo kemeU, 


Wei flourished with comeilei, 

R. CoBR DB Lion, v. 1842. 
Florence lay in a comett. 

Lb Boxb Florence of Rome, v. 806. 

Corner, s. a point at whist. The Iceni use this word. 
(See Fbrby.) Its circulation with us is confined to the 



very inferior grades of card playing people. Ex. "I 
reckon ''a 'mun play three yappence a cohmt.'" 
Corny, adj. strong, tasting of the malt. Ex. ^^ Pretty 
corny.'" Just in the sense it has in Chaucer. 

Or elles a draught of moist and eomy ale. 

Cant. Taieg, r. 12249 and 12380. 

Cos, conj. because. Ex. " Cos a coudna."*^ 

Cosh, adj. quiet, still. Ex. '' Quite eoA.'"'' Mush and 
Hush are words of the same import, and have their 
root in the final letters, which it will be se^i con- 
tinually enter into words which imply sound, or betoken 

CoerrERiNG, part, swaggering, blustering. Ex. ^' A eatter- 
ing fellow.''^ Teut. kosteren^ obgannire. 

Costly colours, a, a game at cards. 

CoerrREL, 8. a small wooden bottle used by labourers in 
harvest-time. A word little understood in the interior 
of the county, confined in great measure to the Cambro- 
Britannic side. C. Brit, costrel^ a bottle. Fr. eosteret^ 
sorte de mesure de vin ou d^ autre liqueur. Lat. cos- 
treUua^ costerellum, costerez. (See Du Cange sub voce.) 
Bailey, Coles. 

And withall a coHrell taketh he tho 
And sayd, " Here of a draught or two." 

Chaucbk's Legend of Good Women, v. 2665. 

Cot, a common termination to the names of several 
places in the county of Salop : as Smethcot, Picdescot, 
Sibberscot^ Harcot^ Hencot^ Wookueot^ Woodeot^ JSeffbot^ 
Arlescoty &c. See p. 259. 

Cote, s. a hovel or shed for cattle. A. Sax. cote ; Isl. 
Belg. cot; Lat. Barb, cota, turgurium. 

Thevr housbondiy, but leteth theyr come rote, 
Theyr hey to must, theyr shepe dye in the cote. 

The Hye Way to the Spyttett hotu, v. 642. 

Cotter, «?. to repair, mend, patch. Ex. " Cotter "'em up a 
bit, and mak 'em sarve a trifle lunger."*' Thus frofh things 


being repaired in an inefficient way, by those who may 
not have the pecuniary means to do the work better, 
the word perhaps comes from the Fr. cottier^ rusticus ; 
Lat. Barb, ccteria^ tenementum rusticum. 

Cotter, Cotteril, a. an elastic thin piece of iron passed 
through the end of an iron pin or bolt that is inserted 
in a window-shutter, for the purpose of preventing the 
pin from falling out, and the shutters from being 
opened externally. 

Cotton'*s neck, phr, ^^ All attry like CoUorCa neck.'" A 
simile applied to any thing that is warped or twisted. 

Couch, Cooch, s. a bed of barley when germinating for 
malt. Teut. koeate ; Fr. cauche^ sponda. 

Couch, Cooch, ©. to squat. Ex. " Coached down like y' 
sin, and sda missed on him.'*'* 

Coulbourn'^s eye, phr. '' Clane gwon like OouRxmnCa 
eye.'" A common simile, of whose origin we must con- 
tentedly remain in refined ignorance. Sometimes the 
infirmity of a different person is noted, and we hear 
of Dcmd'a eye^ ould WrigMs eye^ or the ladPa eye. They 
all bear the same mark of provincial vulgarity, un- 
relieved either by wit, or the sanction of antiquity. 

CouLiNG-AXE, B. au instrument used to stock up earth. 

Coupe, «. a wooden box or receptacle where poultry are 
kept to fatten. Purfoote'*s Dictionarie. Palsgrave, 
cfyupe for capons or other poultrie ware, caige aux 

CouRDEL, CouRDLiNG, s. a Small cord. Teut. koordeken, 
funiculus. Fr. courdel. Roquef. Gloss. 

Courted, Courting Keards, «. court cards. 

CouTBR, 8. a coulter, or ploughshare. Teut. k(niter ; Corn. 
coUer ; Fr. catdtre ; Lat. cuUer. 

And heipe my cuUer to kerve. 

P. PlOUHM AN, p. 131 
My daddy left me gear enough 
A couteTf and an auld beam plough. 
Wyllie Wtnkies Testament, Herd's Songs, vol. ii. p 


Cow, «. to feel afraid. Ex. ^' Duiina be cowed at such 
a feOow as that."'' There is no doubt of this being a 
correct word, though Glossographers are at variance 
as to whence it comes. 

It is the oowi9h tenor of his spirit. 

Leavy iv. 2. 
For it hath cowed my better part of man. 

Macbetk, ▼. 7. 

Cow sHARNy 8, cow-dung. Teut. sharn ; S. Goth. Swed. 
sham; A. Sax. sceam^ stercus. Philemon Holland, in 
his translation of Pliny, declares that it is good as a 
cosmetic ! (See Brocketf's Gloss.) Few of our present 
belles would try its virtues in that respect; though it 
is still used by the lower orders as a cataplasm for 
bruises and sprains, being applied to the parts affected, 
as hot as the patient can bear it. In fact, whilst these 
lines are written I am told that a similar poultice has 

just been laid upon Miss J 's leg. The word 

is not very common with us. It is much more so in 
the North. Shakspeare has shard and shard bam 
beetle. (See Craven Gloss.) • 

They turned me out, tliat's true enough 
To stand at city bar. 
That I may clean up ilka sheugh 
Of a' the sham and glaur. 

Galloway's Poems. 

Taft play'd the priming-heels owr hither. 
They fell in shaim, 

Maynb's Siller Gun. 

Crabvarges, 8. verjuice, vinegar made from crabs. Ex. 

" As sour as crahvargesr 
Crab-windlass, 8. a windlass which stands on the deck 

of a barge and is used by hand. Swed. hrabh^ instni- 

mentum quo qusevis ex fundo aquarum eruuntur: 

winda^ trochlea. (See Paul-windlass.) 
Cracht, adj, old, dilapidated, tumbling down. Ex. 

" An oud cra>chy consam ov a plaace.^'' 
Crake, v, to confess, say, declare. Ex. *' He's too oud 


a bond to crakes "Nivir crated a word.**' Teut. 

krayeren^ comicari, proclamare. Chauc. v. 9724. 

Then is she mortall borne, how bo ye crake. 

Fakrie Qijkknb, vi. vii. 60. 

Cranch, Crunch, Scranch, 9. 1. to crush any thing gritty 
under the feet. 2. to grind with the teeth. 

To cranchen ous and al ooie kynde. 

P. Plouhman. 
Slie can cranch 
A 8ack of small coale ! eat you lime and hur. 

Ben Joxson's Magnetick Lady. 

Cranny, adj. quick, giddy, thoughtless. Teut. schrand^ 

Crap, «. a crop. The Promp. Parv. furnishes a well 
known illustration, Crappe of come, 2. an inferior 
piece of beef. Ex. " Nothing but a bit o' th** crap.'^ 
Teut. hrofpe^ offiila. 3. the back part of the neck. 
Ex. "The crap 6' i\^ neck.**" Gr. Kopviprj, vertex; 
Germ, kropt; Teut. kropj vesicula gutturis. 4. the 
dregs of beer or malt liquor. Ex. " Crap 6* tV barrel.'" 
Isl. irapy nix semiliquida. 

Crap, v. to yield a plentiful crop. Ex. " The taturs 
crappen well.'' 

Crapping time, s. the period when grain or vegetables 
are gathered. 

Crappins, $, 1. where the coal crops out. 2. the name 
of a place in the parish of Dawley, county of Salop, 
whence, since the coal there crops out, it may reason- 
ably be said to take its name. 

Crap out, «. Geologists sanction the correctness of this 
phrase, though they must not be considered responsi- 
ble for the change of the vowel. 

Cratch, 8. 1. a rack for holding bacon. Few, if any 
of our Shropshire farm houses are without this kitchen 
accompaniment, which invariably is suspended in a 
horizontal way close to the fire. 2. a rack for holding 
hay. Fr. creicche. 


And I found Jesus — bom into the world poor, laid in a oraUelL 
Wiclif's Pore Caitif, Relig. Tract Society, Reprint, p. 113. 

And this is a tokene to you, ye schulen fynde a yonge child 
wlappid in clothis, and leyd in a craedie. 

Wicuf's Tramlation of the New TeHament, Luke eh. ii. 

But the Lorde answerde to him and seyde, Ypocrite, wher 
ech of you untieth not in the Saboth his oxe or aaae fro the 
eraedte, and ledith to watir ? id, Luke xiii. 

Cratch, f>. to eat as a horse, generally : to eat or feast 
with appetite. Ex. ^' He cratches well, and nivir slights 
his fittle."*^ Hence the phrase of *^ a good cratcher'^ for 
man or beast, when their stomach is constant. 

Crate, «. a large wicker basket, generally used for holding 
glass or china. Fr. cretin, Teut. Belg. Germ. A. Sax. 
kratte^ corbis ; Teut. Germ, kretae^ corbis vimine textus. 
^^ Fiebant autem primum craterce a connexionibus virgu- 
larum.'*'' Isid. Orig. (See Du Cange sub voce Craiera.) 

Craw-stone, s, the lowest measure of iron-stone at present 
discovered in the Ketky Coal Field. It is reported that 
a measure even lower called the Lancashire Ladies has 
been foimd near Coalport. The name originates, I am 
informed by an intelligent friend, from the stone " lying 
in crawB in the rock, like a fowl's craw!" Between 
Aries and Marseille there is a stony district called Crau^ 
and this word has been derived from the Celtic crag^ 
which signifies a rock. It would be travelling too far 
to fetch the origin of the word from thence. 

Crazed, part.joast; china in the biscuit state, ^ short fired." 
When it has passed through the glaee kiln the evil is 
corrected. Coal Port. 

Crazy, adj. dilapidated. £x. ^' An oud crazy consam.^ 

Cress, 8, a curved tile used for capping the roofs of houses. 
Teut. tries; Germ, kreis^ circulus ; Swed. krissa^ circulare. 

Crewe, s. a coop for geese. 

Crib, «. 1. a lock up house. (Wellington and Bridge- 
north.) Isl. kreppa, coarctarc. 9, a rack holding hay 
or any kind of fodder for cattle. Teut. Belg. Germ. 


hribbe; Dan. krybbe; Swed. krvbba; Franc, crippa; 
A. Sax. cryhbe^ prsesepe. Ital. greppia. 

Cricker, «. a man who drives a pack horse with any 
kind of burden. 

Crigkettino, part, a term betokening the oatuliency of a 
ferret. Grose. 

Cricking Horse, $. a horse used by a Cricker^ and from 
being usually small, the appellation evidently comes 
from the Fr. criquet^ une petit cheval. 

Crinkling, s. a small precocious apple. Swed. skrynila^ 
corrugare ; A. Sax. skrincan^ arcare, debilitare ; Teut. 
9chrinkenj contrahere. 

Ciusfi-CRoss, «. the cross or mark of such as cannot write. 
From the earliest period since the introduction of Christ- 
ianity, it has been customary for those who were unable 
to sign their names, to affix the mark of a cross instead. 
Witred King of Kent decreed. Anno 694, that no deed 
was valid unless it bore this stamp. It is constantly 
observable in the charters of the Anglo-Saxon and 
Spanish Kings, and in all those documents which 
recite property bequeathed for ecclesiastical purposes. 
Numerous proofs still remain which testify that royal 
and noble personages were not ashamed to confess their 
ignorance of letters. Witred acknowledges in a charter 
printed in Spelman^s Concilia, p. 1.Q3, that on account 
of his ignorance of letters, he had confirmed what he 
had dictated by the signature of a cross. (See Du 
Cange, under Cruce suiscriiere.) 

Crit, Crut, a. a hovel, a small hut built upon a pit 
bank for the accommodation of colliers. Teut. krufte; 
A. Sax. cruft^ crypta. 

Crock, «. an earthen vessel, a porringer cup. Teut. 
kroegh; Celt, croth; A. Sax. crocca; Dnxi^krukke; Alam. 
cruoh; Belg. kruycke; Germ, cruch; Fr. eruche; C. Brit. 
orochan; Gael, crogom ; Isl. krucka, seria ; Lat. Barb. 
area ; Gr. Kpwcrtroa^ croceus. 


And lerede men a ladel bygge with a long stele 
That cast for to kele a crockke, 

P. Plouhman, 380. 

When that dronken was al in the cr&uk. 

Chaucbr. Reves Tale, v. 248, 

Croft, 8. a small field. A. Sax. cro/iy agellulus. 

For thei comen to my croft, my com to defoule. 

P. Plouhm AN^ 129. 

Croodle, f>. 1 . to bend over the fire in cold weather ; to 
herd together like fowls in the wet. The same word 
used in Cheshire has a difierent meaning. 2. to feel 
cold, experience the want of animal warmth. Ex. 
'^ Chickens as bin wek, gwun croodling about for want 
o" th" hen to broodle "em." And in the former sense, 
" Uz**^ (that is to say, he is) " Uz a raon as ud lifier 
croodls and starve than tak to work/' Fr. eroupirf 

Crop, ». the craw of a fowl. S. Goth, kropp ; Teat. 

krop ; A. Sax. crop^ ingluvies. 

Bv niffht and day, that shouldest vex thee, 
\^hich sore would sticke, then in thy crop. 

The Wife lapped in Morete ekin. 

Crop the Causey, phr, a person is said to crop the 
causey when he unyieldingly walks down the center. 
Fr. chausie. Jamieson. 
Crope, the old pret, of the verb to creep. Ex. " Crepe 
into a hole.*" 

In the erthe they wolde have crope. 

Richard Coer db Lion, v. 3472. 

Crope, the old per/, tense of the verb to creep. 

As thou right now were crope out of the ground. 

The Frankeleinee Tale, v. 11018. 

Crossgrained, part. past ; perverse, ill-tempered. Not local. 

Crosswind, v. to become crooked, warped, or twisted. 
Ex. ^^ This glass crosswinds soa that I conna mak a 
good job on it."'' S. Goth, itinda; Teut. winden; Isl. 
Swed. vinda^ torquere. 

Cross won. Cross woun. Cross wovndeDj part pcut ; uneven, 


irregular, contorted, when the surface is not as a Sa- 
lopian would define it, ^^ palarel (parallel) with itself.''' 

Croup, s. a disease incidental to poultry; not the same 
as the pip. 

Crowder, phr. " As cunning cu Crowder."^ Ray in his 
list of proverbs has Oraddoch in lieu of Crowder, 

Crown, «. to hold an inquest. Ex. " A conna be buried 
yet, for a inna crownedr" 

Crowner, $, a coroner. 

Crowner'*8 Quest, «. a coroner's inquest. These three 
terms are neither local or modern. (See Shakspeare, 
Hamlet, v. l.) 

Crowson's Mare, phr. Ex. "Here a comes, limping 
along like oud CrowsofCa Mare^ 

Crud, v. to curd. Promp. Parv. crudded. 

See how thy blood crutUUes at this. 

A King and no King, 

Cruds, 8. by metathesis for cu/rds, Promp. Parv. crudde^ 

Crudly, cuij. crumbling. By a transposition not unfre- 
quent it makes curdly, which form assimilates in mean- 
ing to our word, though some may prefer fixing its 
etymology at once in the C. Brit, cryd, trembling. 

Cruk, 8. a bend, or shoot. Ex. " The cruk 6" the 

Crump, v. to break any thing of a brittle or crusty 
nature betwixt the teeth. Teut. krimpan; Swed. krym- 
pa ; Belg. krimpen ; Germ, krtmpen^ contrahi. A. Sax. 
ocTttman, in micas frangere. Hence the commoner words 
cramp and crumpet. 

Crumple, Crunkle, v. to rumple. Teut. kronckelen^ in- 

Cub, 8. a chest for com or grain of any kind. Germ. 
iubd^ cupa. Kersey. 

CucKoo-FooT-ALE I Who will say that our Shropshire 
colliers, generally supposed to be insensible to the 


charms of nature and the '^song of earliest birds ^, lie 
deservedly under the reproach, or that they can be 
s^d to have their minds untouched by the soft influence 
of poetic feeling, when we find them annually welcoming 
the cuckoo, by libations quaffed in honor of his re- 
turn. They greet this pleasing harbinger of spring 
by a meeting "to drink his foot-ale'^ or first arrival. 
The custom is invariably celebrated out of doors, and 
a fine levied upon the person who proposes to deviate 
from the usual practice and drink within. 

CuNoiT, 8. a road under the surface to ^the face^ of a 
coal work, by which a horse can go; more recently 
termed 'the leveP. 

Cupola, s. a reverberating furnace, a building constructed 
in an arched form, tapering towards the top, in which 
pig iron is smelted. Bailey has eupely copd^ and cup- 
pd^ as a term amongst chymists, a furnace made of ashes 
and burnt bones, to purify and try gold and silver. 
Ital. cupo ; Phillips has coppd ; Coles cupula^ cupolo^ a 
round tower. (See Richelet under eaupelle.) 

CuRLSTONB, a shale belonging to the coal formation, which 
on exposure to the air hardens and assumes a peculiar 
form, sometimes called " cone-upon-cone'\ 

Cut, 8, a canal. Derbyshire. Ex. " The cuf, " the eui 
side."" Three different grades of society designate it 
by the several titles of the canal ; the ncmgation ; and 
the cut. 

Cut and run, phr. Not a provincial mode of express- 
ing that a person has absconded. To use this phrase 
correctly, the verbs ought to be transposed, and then 
the phrase would be in perfect analogy with any of 
those which emanate from what is deemed proper au- 
thority. C. Brit, cuddio ; Germ, kutten ; 6r. ^eJdoi, 
abscondere, occultare, explain the idiom thus, " he ran 
and hid himself.''^ 

Cut up, v. 1. to be disappointed, labour under distress 


of mind. Ex. ^' Desputly ctU up hy the dheath on his 
feayther.'*^ 2. to die poesessed of ample property. Ex. 
^^A sen as how th"* oud mon cut up well at the last.'^ 

Cute, adf. expert, quick, clever. Ex. "a cute chap,'' "a 
cute dog.'' Some of my predecessors have very properly 
rejected the Lat. (xcutua as the origin of this word, 
and referred it to the A. Sax. ctUh, expertus. 

Cyther, 8. cider. The d is often converted by the lower 
classes both among ourselves and in Herefordshire, into 
th. Wiclif employs the word in his translation of the 
New Testament for strong drink, which it signified in 
its original application, coming from the Heb. secctr; 
Gr. aUepa^ ncera^ omnis potio quae extra vinum ine- 
briare potest. (Isidor. xx. 3. Poli Synops. in Lucam. 
i. 15. vol. iv. p. 856-7. Edit. 1674. Du Cange sub. Sicera,} 


when final is frequently suppress 
ed, particularly in the verbs, send^ 
tindy lend^ &c. and always com- 
muted into t in the perfect tense, 
as helt^ for held, aiii for ailed. 
This habit is not unusual with the 

I wat richt weill, ye vaW baith gif, and len me. 

The Satyre of the Three Rstatis. 

When double it is not unfrequently converted by me- 
taplasm into th^ and it may be remarked that this is 
the most common mutation which any letter undeiv 
goes. A great number of those words derived from 
the Teutonic, Belgic, A. Saxon and C. British, which are 
in universal circulation among the upper classes, may 
strictly be called corruptions of this nature from the 
primitive languages, as in the instances of brother^ wear 
ther^ father^ smithy &c. In proof of such a termina- 
tion being unnatural we need only refer to the diffi- 
culty experienced by children and foreigners in overcom- 
ing its pronunciation. 
Dabb, dabbing, 8. 1. a pinafore. 2. a small legacy or 
gift. Ex. " Laft him a lickle dah o* money. 3. a blow, 
generally confined to one in the face, given with the 


list. Ex. *' Fatch him a dab Y th^ feace,*' or the mouth, 
or the cAcps^ whichsoever serveth him beet. 

Philot him gaf anothir ddbbe. 

Kyng Alisaunder, t. 2906. 
Bytweone you delith hit with dabbe; 
Ajud with spere, and sweordis dunt! 

id, V. 7304. 

As he was recovering himself, I gave him a dab in the month 
with my broken swoi^d, which very much hurt him; but he 
aiming a second thrust, which I had likewise the good fortune 
to put by, and having as before given him another dab in the 
mouth, he immediately went off for fear of the pursuers. 

Memoirs of Capt. Creichton, p. 82, as quoted by Jamieson. 

Dabb, v. the act of striking, or giving a daib. Ex. 
"TU daib your mouth up.""' Teut. dcMen^ subigere. 

The flemmisshe hem dabbeth o' the hed bare. 

A BaUad against the French. (Ritson.) 

Dackt, 8, a sucking pig, " a dacky pig"*'. Ex. ^^ Jack f 
goa yo an fat up the dackies.^'' From what people 
can we have learned this word? And where did we 
pick up the kind invitation for pigs to feed, which is 
conveyed in calling out at the trough, D&k, D&k^ D&k^ 
DSi, I can imagine the apellative SUt, SUs^ SUs, SUs^ 
as conveyed directly by the Latins, but whence we have 
derived Iktk^ Dak^ it is difficult to say. 

Daddlb, 8. the fist, hand. Ex. " Tip us your doddle^ 
A low salutation, or request to shake hands. Grose. 

Dadino Strings, «. strings by which children are sup- 
ported whilst learning to walk. A. Sax. teogan^ ducere. 

Daff, 90. to put a daff on a person means to make him 
afraid. If there be such a word in the Islandic tongue 
as daffe^ stupor, which Junius alleges there is, though 
such an one is not recognised by Andreas, Haldorson or 
Verelius, it exactly accords with the general application 
which we give the word. It seems to have been used 
oontinuously in the same sense from P. Plouhman to 
Chaucer. Bullokar explains, Daff^ a dastard. Ray 
has daff to daunt, . 


Thou doted dafft^ quath hue, doUe aren thy wittes. 


Beth not bedaffed for your innocence. 

But sharply taketh on you the govemaille. 

Cant. Tak9, v. 9067. 

Daffish, adf. 1. shy, modest. Ex. "He's growM bo 

meety daffish.'^ 2. low spirited. 
Daoged, Daggled, part, past ; wet or splashed with dirt. 

Isl. deiga^ madefacere. 

Furtherover, if so be that they wolden yeve swiche pounsoned 
and dogged clothing to the poure jpeple. 

Chaucer's PenoneB Tak, p. 44. 

Daqgle-tailed, part, past; wet or dirtied in the skirts 

by mud. 

Never sorry lass so pitifully aweanr of her ragged petticoat 

and daggled tail, that tattered fivery of the confuting gentleman. 

Pibrck's SupererogtUion ; or a new praite of the old Ae9» 4to. 1593. 

Daggly, adf. humid, wet. Ex. *^ A daggly day.^ 
^^ Meety dagglg weather like.'*" Swed. daggig^ roecidus. 
Isl. deigr, madidus. 

Dandt Cock, Dandy Hen, s. one of the Bantam breed. 

Dang, $. to throw down, or strike with violence. Though 
more commonly used as the prseterite of ding^ it is oc- 
casionally heard as a present tense, as ** Dang my but- 
tons,^ and ^^ m dang it down if y"* sen another synnable.*" 
In this case the prseterite becomes dinged^ as '* He 
ding'^d it smack o"* th' yeath."" Olossographers think 
this is the legitimate praeterite of dang^ and Nares 
quotes the Spanish Tragedy, and Marston, in confirma- 
tion of the rule. 

Brought in a fresh supply of halherdiers, 

Whidi paunch'd his horse^ and ding'd hiin to the ground. 

Old Plays, iiL 133. 
Is ding'd to hell, and vultures eat his heart. 

Marston's Satiree, 

The assumption of dang as a present tense is not borne 
out by any example that I am aware of in the earlier 
English writers ; though as a prseterperfect, instanceB 
are innumerable. It occurs repeatedly in Sir David 


Lyndflay, and besides the ensuing quotation, it is met 
with in one volume alone of his works in half a dozen 
phioes. See vol. ii. pp. 250. 262. 265. 270. 300. SOS. 
Than set my fais for to fang me^ 
And every bouchour dog doun dang me. 

The Complaynt of Bag9d^, p. 109. 
And dang all donn^ in powder small. 

Hie Monarchie, vol. iii. p. 66. 
With his tayl the erth he dang. 

YvMine and Gatoin, v. 3167. 
With that sa derflie on thame dang, 
That lyke ane worthie campioun^ 
Ay at ane straik he dang ane doun. 

Squire MeUrum, v. 662-4. 

Dano it ; phr, an expression betokening disappointment, 
or it may be regarded as an oath, as in the example of 
^' dcmff my buttons.'^ In this instance however, we must 
designate the phrase ^s low. The vulgarity of its use 
IS not confined to ourselves, being universally recognised 
under the form of " d<uh my buttons,^ " chsh my wig,^ 
&c. and such like elegancies of diction ! 
Dark, adf. blind. Ex. ^^ He has been dark upputs o** 

twenty year come next Newyus day."" 
Darksome, iidf. an archaism for dark. 

The fight, the prease, the night and darksome skies. 
Care from his heart had tane, sight from his eies. 

Fairfax's Tasso, ziL 48. 

Dash boards, s. 1. moveable sides to a cart or waggon 
phiced round the natural body, so that the upper part 
is enlarged, and capable of holding an additional quan- 
tity. 2. the beaters of a barrel chum. 

Dater, Dahter, Douter, s. three several methods which 
the lower classes have of pronouncing daughter. The 
Dan. datter^ daatter^ filia, approaches near in sound to 
the two first words. Brockett gives the last to the 
A. Sax. and Oerm. dohter^ to which may also be added 
the Isl. do^r, and Swed. fl. dottrar. 

She found hireeelf, and eke hire dmightren two. 

Cant. Take, v. 14836. 

And namely sin thy daughter was ybore. 

id. T. 8360, 8366, &c. 



Daunt, v. to dare, provoke to the performance of some 
deed which a person is naturally afraid of executing. 
Ex. '^daunted him to it.**" Swed. danta, per invidiam 
male loqui vel alicui quid objicere. Fr. danter^ denter, 
dompter. Roquef. Gloae. 

But he can chorlee dautUen. 

Rom AUNT OF thb Rosk. 
That ne with love may daunted be. 

And ferthermore^ for as moche as resen of man wol not dauni 
sensualitee when it may, therefore is man worthy to have shame. 
The pereonea tak, p. 24, ed. Tynckitt, 

Daunted, part, past ; afraid, alarmed. Ex. *•"• Nothing 
dawnied^ ^"^ Daunted and dardna try again."'* 

Davto^s Etb ; phr. See Coulbourn's. 

Day-House, «. pronounced Dayus : a title bestowed upon 
several farm houses in the county of Salop, which sig- 
nifies a dairy house. There is a Day house near Stot- 
tesdon, and another near Tibberton. Marshall in his 
Rural Economy of Gloucestershire, derives it from dey^ 
an old word for milk, and house^ the miOt house. (See 
Jamieson.) Consult p. 26l, before. 

Dat-work, s. when a laborer is employed by the day, 
paid according to time, his undertaking is called day- 
work^ in contradistinction to piece-work^ or job-work^ 
or Grit^ as they say in Northamptonshire. Masters 
have a decided preference for the latter. A. Sax. 
dasg-weare^ day-work. Isl. doffs-verk ; Teut. dagh-4cerck ; 
Swed. da^gs-werke^ pensum diumum. 

Dat-me: a mitigated form of an oath, far two weU 
known. Ex. " PU be dayd if I do." " Day-me if I do 
though."" Which is as much as to say, " I'll be d — d 
if I do;' " D— me if I do.'' Or if we are to regard 
the phrase lightly, we must consider it merely as an 
archaism for destroy : thus, " may I be dead first."" 
In the Glossary to Peter Langtofb'^s Chronicle, dayet 
is interpreted, cursed, ^^dayet that thereof rouht;'' 
that is, cursed be he that occasioned this : " dayet 


who the kyme,^ that is, oonfounded be he that en- 
tertains thee. Deie is also exphiined to kill, as *'do 
thise Scottis tleie^'^ that is, kill these Sootts. Verel. 
in Indie, deia^ mori. 

Dbaf-nut, adf, a nut whose kernel is rotten* S. Goth. 
dau/, sterilis. Teut. doaw-^iatj nux vitiosa. 

Deauw, 8. dew. Ex. " The deatq innod gwon uv 

the grass yet.'' The orthoepy is peculiar, and rather 

difficult to convey to the ear of an alien. It is very 

similar to the method of writing it in early English 

poetry. Teut. HoU. Sicamb. clouw^ ros. Isl. dauffff ; 

pluvia. A. Sax. deau; Alam. </bu, toH^ ros. C. Brit. 

dw/ry aqua. Gr, Seuo). 

Deawes donketh the dounes. 

Ritson's Ancieni S(mg$, p. 32. 
My Lucia in the deaw did go. 
And prettily bedabbed so. 

Hbrrick's Hetperides, vol. ii. p. 69. 

Deaitw, v. to rain slightly, pronounced ^^jomo*8 o raain.**" 
Teut. dampen rorare. Isl. doffpvar ; Dan. duffffer^ pluo. 

Dbck o' cbords, 8. a pack of cards. Common in Cheshire 

and the North of England. '^ Sweeping the deck'''* means 

clearing the table of all the stakes, gaining all the tricks. 

The announcement in shop windows in Shrewsbury of 

*^ decks of cards'' for sale, has often puzzled people who 

were not natives. (See Nares.) Shakspeare. 

If I chance but once to get the deck 
To deal about and shuffle as I would. 


Deep end, 8, that side of a mine where the coal or iron 
stone strikes below the general level of the work. 

Delf, i. a pit ; the name of a stagnant piece of water 

in the center of the town of Broseley ; it has probably 

been a spot from whence minerals were formerly obtained. 

Brockett says that in the North, €lel/8 are pits out 

of which iron stone has been dug. Teut. dehe^ fovea. 

He drew me doun deme in del/ by ane dyke. 

Gaw. Douglas, i^n. xii.299. 


The fint friend quhil he woe laid in dtff, 

PriesU qf PddU, 
Guyon finds mammon in a deive, 


Delve, «». to dig, go deeper than a spaders graft. This 
is a thorough old English word, and as may be ex- 
pected, occurs perpetually in the earlier poets. Tout. 
Belg. dehm ; A. Sax. del/im ; Fris. deha^ fodere. 

Masons and minours^ and many other craftes; 
And dyken and delf3er$, that don here dedes Ule. 

P. Plouhman. 

Dykers and deivers diggeden up the halkes. id. 

And tok ten men o ther twelve^ 
And het hem in the grounde delue. 
Thai deden ase here louerd hem het. 
And doluen aUe ther ful sket. 
Thai ne had dolumi hut a stounde, &c. 

The Seuth Saoes, t. 2470. 

He wolde thresh, and thereto dike, and deioe, 

Prolog, to Cant. Taleg, y. 538. 

The byschop made to delve down to the rote. 

Hartshorne's Ant. Met. Taleg, p. 141. 

My Daddy's a ddver of dykes. 

Slighted Naney : Herd's Collection, vol. ii. p. 82. 

Demath, 8. a small portion of land, ^ a scouU o* 
ffraun* as my informant describes it. The late Mr 
Wilbraham, with that degree of scholarship and acu- 
men for which he was remarkable, thus explains the 
word : " A daymath^ or a day'^s mowing, generally used 
for a statute acre, but erroneously so, for it is pro- 
perly one half of a Cheshire acre, which is to the sta- 
tute acre in the proportion of 64 to 30 -J- : consequently 
the Demath bears that of 32 to 30-|- to the statute 
acre. JXematy Deymaih^ Daymath^ is common, as I am 
told, in East Friseland. Wiarda explains it as, '^ a piece 
of land containing 400 square yards."" Deymathy day- 
maih^ ein stuck landes von 400 Ruthen. (See Wiarda 
sub voce.) "Sa suere,"" quotes Mr Wilbraham, "hi 
tuene ethan fire thet de mat"": so let him swear two 
oaths for the deymat. (LL. Brockmanorum.) Toffmai^ 


as much as a labourer can mow in one day. ^^ Demote 
Deimaty Dmnt, Diemi^ all mean the same thing.''" The 
word is of unusual occurrence among us, and known 
only to old agricultural labourers. It is frequently 
found in terriers or other writings of an ecclesiastical 
nature. The Teut. daghrmctd^ quarta pars jugeris, is 
about the same quantity of land as is comprehended 
at the present time by a Demath. 

Denial, «. detriment, injury, drawback. Ex. " His lat- 
ness o" speech was a sad denial to him.''^ 

Deuce, 8. The common phrase of '' the Deuce ie in it^^ 
or ^^the Detuce taie you^ &c. are specimens of vul- 
garity not confined to Salopians. The Oauls called all 
those divinities Dueii^ (a Celtic word with a Latin 
termination, formed from Teua) which appeared and 
vanished in a moment. They also bestowed this title 
upon certain dsemiMis, Incubi, who correspond with 
the modem night-mare. St Augustin compares them 
with Sylvans and Fauns. ^^Silvanos et Faunos, quos 
vulgo Incubos vocant, improbos ssepe extitisse muli- 
eribus, et earum appetisse, et peregisse concubitum; 
et quosdam Deemones, quos Dusios Galli nuncupant, 
hanc assidue immunditiam et tentare, et efficere, plu- 
res, talesque asseverant."' (De Civ. Dei. xv. 23.) From 
such an intercourse it has been fabled that the gi- 
gantic race who were imagined by mythologists to 
have originally peopled Briton, sprung. (Keysler, Antiq. 
Select. Septentrion, p. 214.) A passage in the Origines 
of Isidore of Seville seems to be grounded upon that 
of the Latin Father just quoted. '^ Unde et Incubi 
dicuntur ab incumbendOy hoc est, stuprando. Ssepe etiam 
improbi existunt mulieribus, et earum peragunt con- 
cubitum, quos dffimones Oalli Dtuios nuncupant, quia 
assidue hanc peragunt immunditiam."'' (Keysler, p. 457.) 
Bulian has Teut. vet. duyse, concubina. The Romans 
who have borrowed many religious rites and terms 


from the Celts, called those Deities Fatms^ which the 

Gauls called Du$e8. Germ. Sclav. Ihmi ; Sorab. dusehi; 

Bohem. dusse^ manes. Wormius has the Runic dm^ 

spectrum montivagum. Bret, teia; Bas. Bret, deua; 

A. Sax. Dues (though not in Somner, Junius or Lye) ; 

Lang. Rom. dumn^ spectrum. Com. duyse^ a goddess. 

Gr. TfjoviTiOi^ inanis. C. Brit, tysmwy^ horror. For 

additional information on this subject the curious reader 

is referred to the annotations upon 1 Sam. xii. 21. in 

Poli Synopsis Critica, vol. i. part 2. p. 125: to those 

upon Jerem. l. 39. vol. iii. p. 981. Isaiah xiii. 21. p. 144: 

to Pelletier Diet, de la langue Bretonne under Teits ; 

Du Cange Gloss, under Dusius ; Noel, Diet, de la Fable, 

under Dusiens ; Bullet, Diet, de langue Celtique, &c. &c. 

Dever, 8. duty, best endeavour, from which latter word 

Junius supposes that it is derived. Ex. ^^ Fll do my 

d&oer at it."*' Fr. devoir which in the earlier editions 

is printed dever. Gierke's Tale, v. 8842. Knighte^s Tale, 

V. 2600. 

Weile thei stode and did ther devere. 

Pet. Lanotoft's Chron, v. 331. 

Dibs, s. money. Ex. ^' Down with the dihs^" As this 
word is recognised in Somersetshire (See Jennen'^s West 
of England Gloss.) it can neither be called very local, 
or tralatitious. ^' Down with the dust^ is another 
elegancy of the same kind. 

DicKEN, 8. the devil. A common corruption from Nicken^ 
a title given by the Danes to an evil genius who pre- 
sided over the water. (See much curious learning on 
the point in Keysleri Antiq. Select. Septentrion, pp. 

Dicky, 8, an apron, generally of leather. Ex. "A lea- 
then dicky.'" 

Dickens to pay, phr. the result of some bad conduct, 
or ill luck: ''tkere'U, be the Diek&ns to pay J*" Whilst 
on the other hand, to play the dickens^ means to punish 


an offender, to play the dickens with him. The Scotch 
isay ^^ I shall catch my dickali^ (See Jamieson sub voce) 
but our word is distinct from theirs, and unable to 
lay claim to the title of such decided provinciality. 

DicK^s Hatband, phr. This is one of those phrases which 
set philologists and antiquarians at defiance. Mr Wil- 
braham says it must be very local, and he might very 
reasonably conclude that its circulation was extremely 
limited. Yet upon enquiry it is found general, not 
only throughout the whole of Shropshire, but it has 
travelled even to Craven. In Cheshire they say, ^^ as fine 
as Diei'*8 Aatband,"" We are unaccustomed to use the 
phrase in such a commendatory way, for we only ap- 
ply it as a comparison for what is obstinate and per- 
verse. Ex. "As curst as DicFs H(Uh<md^ which will 
come nineteen times round and wont tie at last."^ 
" As contrary as Dick^a Haibcundr " As fause as 
IHcJcs Ha^ndr "As cruckit as DicFs Hatbcmdr 
" As twistit as Dick's Hatband^ " All across like DicVs 
ffatband.^^ " As queer as DicFs Hatband'^ &c. &c. 

DiDDEN, V. did ; and Diden, imperf, of v. to do. An 
archaism, repeatedly occurring in Chaucer and other 
early writers. (See Cant. Tales, vv. 7073. 12901, &c. 
See Remarks under En.) 

Diddeneh! did you, or ye. 

DiDDY, s, 1. the nipple or teat. Ex. "The cow's got 
a sore diddy^* 2. milk from the breast, mother's 
milk. Ex. "Gie th' lickle un a drop o' the diddy^ 
Isl. tita^ res tenera in specie acus capitata. C. Brit. 
fUden ; Germ. diUte ; Hib. did ; Lat. Barb, dida^ 
mamma. (See Titty.) 

Dibden, «. per/, of verb to die. " Lest that they dieden^ 
Cant. Tales, v. 7483. A. Sax. dydam^ mori. 

DiNDEBs, «. small coins of the lower empire which are 
constantly being turned up on the site of the ancient 
Uriconium. They bore this appellation when Horsley 


wrote his celebrated Rritannia Romana, as he mentions 
them under the same title. A. Sax. dinar ; Lat. denarim, 
DiNo, V, 1. to teach, instil into a person^s mind, 
a metaphorical sense deduced from 2. to beat. Ex. 
"For the life on me I coudna ding it into him.'^ S. 
Ooth. daenga ; A. Sax. dmsgan^ tundere. Swed. danga^ 
nisu omni vel adhibita vi percutere. Isl. dangla^ pul> 
Bare. Gael, dingam^ impellere. Coles. 
Other Y schall thd bete and tfynge. 

Ktko Alisauvdes, y.l732. 

Now Bweir, be thy brynt schinis, the devill ding thame fra the. 
Sib U, Ltndbay's Satyre of the Three EeUtHi. 
Oat of hell, the devill scho wald dirtg out u/. 
Even twenty-four of mv next cozens^ 
Will help to ding him downe. 

Old Robin of Portingale, (Pebcy's Reiig. iii. 49.) 

Dip, adf, cunning, crafty. Ex. "As dip as Garrick."' 
" He's too dip a hond to mak anytfain on.**^ " As 
dip as the North Star.**^ 

DiPNBss, atif, depth. A. Sax. deopnyste^ profunditas. 

Disannul, «. 1. to disturb, dispossess, turn out. If a 
poor person is a tenant for life, he expresses it by 
saying, " he 'shall nivir be disannulled.'" 2. to molest, 
interfere with : in this sense the common people say, 
when speaking of a person of quiet and orderly habits, 
"he nivir disannuls no body.**^ Fr. desoMMuUer. 

Dish, t;. to make thin. A term used by wheelwrights 
and coopers. By these it is applied to a hoop on a 
barrel, expressive of making it thinner on one side 
than the other ; by those to the tii*e of a wheel ; and 
confined by each, to the inward edge. 

Dismals, «. melancholy, an atrabilious feeling. Ex. "He's 
got a fit o^ the dismals on him."^ Isl. des^ mala for- 
tuna. It is among the disorders which are imprecated 
by Montgomery upon Polwart. 

The doit and the dismail, indiiFerentlle delt. 

Dither, Dtdder, «. 1. to shako. Ex. " Dithers it out o' 
th' hopper into the jigging sieve."'' 2. to shake from 


the effects of cold. A good old word. Pbomp. Pabv. 
" Dyderinge for cold.*" Isl. tUta ; Teut. Gezm. Sicamb. 
Belg. A. Sax. mUeren^ tremere. 

Brecheles, bare foted^ all stynkyng with dyrt^ 
With M. of tatters, drabblying to the skyrt, 

Boyes, gyrles, and luskysh strong knaues 
Dydderyng and dadderyng, leaning on their stames. 

The H^ way to (he Spyttell Rous. v. 30. 

Dithering, 8. a trembling motion of the eye. In Cheshire 

dithvng. . 

DiviL^s DicHE, «. Offals Dike near Bishops Castle. (See 

Opfa'*8 Dikb in the Archaeological portion of the work.) 

The vulgar belief is that the Devil ploughed it up in 

one night with a gander and a turkey. 
DiviL, 8. a dibble or setting stick. I find Dibble in 

Withals, Purfoote, Blount, Ray, and Coles. Teut. 

dipffel^ fodibulum. 

rU not put the dXbble in earth to set one slip of them. 

Winter' 8 Tale, iv. 3. 

DoLLT, «. a washing beetle. A heavy piece of wood 
circular at the base, where it is about a foot long, 
having a handle inserted. The lower part has two 
transverse grooves. This instrument is turned or worked 
round upon coarse clothes, to save washerwomen'^s hands, 
to the manifest injury of the linen. From the Fr. 
dolerf or the Teut. doUe^ dole? 

Don: a termination to the name of several places in 
the county, which implies that they are placed on an 
eminence, from the A. Sax. dim^ collis. Thus we 
have SiBDON, Abdon, (Appan)^ Lonqdon, Stottesdon, 
&c. (See p. 261, before.) 

Dong, part, pcut; of verb dang: and sometimes as a present 

tense, imperative, as in the petulant exclamations, ^^Dong 

it,'* " Dong my buttons C in the nature of part, past 

it often occurs in early writers. 

1 sai zow lely how thai lye, 
Dongen doon all in a daiince. 

Minot's Poeme, p. 29. 



Double, v. I. to olench or shut the fists. Ex. ^^ He 
dofiMed hk fisses.'*'' 2. to shut. Ex. " Double up your 
Double Coal, $. a carboniferous measure i3ring upon the 
' Queises Neck\ It is a good sale coal : frequently five 
feet in thickness. 
Douce, douse, 8. a blow in the face. Ex. '^ A douse in 
the chops.'' 

And gave the draeon such a douie. 
He knew not what to think. 

Dragon of Wantky. 
Douce, Douse, «. to strike, give a blow. Teut. dousen; 
Belg. dousen^ pugno percutere. 

They douce her hurdles trimly 

Upo' the Stibble-rig; 
As law then, they a' then 
To tak a douce maun yield. 

A. Douglas' Poenu, p. 128. 
Dough, s. pronounced duf. 1 . the stomach. Ex. '' Peg 
him in his dough.'''' 2. the legitimate sense with a 
varied pronunciation. 

Douk, Duck, v, to drop the head, incline it towards 
the ground. A Ute sheriff for Staffordshire upon being 
reprimanded by a judge for not keeping order in court, 
endeavoured to enforce his authority over the refrac- 
tory by the threat contained in the following dialogue, 
which ensued between him and his javelin man. ^eriff. 
" Whoy dost na mak 'em kip quoyot ? Officer. " I 
CO, they wo moind me." Sheriff. " Then louk ""em, 
louk 'em." Officer. " I co, they doukenr S. Goth. 
ducka ; Teut. dw/ekm ; Germ, dudcen ; Belg. duiken, 
inclinare caput. Swed dyia ; A. Sax. ffedurfian^ urinari. 
Gar douk, gar douk, the king he cried. 

Gar €louk for gold and fee ; 
O wha will douk for ErI Richard's sake, 
Or wha will douk for me? 

They douked in at ae weil-head 

And out aye at the other; 
We can douk nae mair for Erl Richard 

Although he were our brother. 

Scottish Mirutrebjf, vol. iii. p. 187. 


DouK, 9. 1. a dip. 2. the quantity of ink usually taken 

up by a pen. 
DouKER, «. the Grebe; Colymbus Urinator, Linn. 
DouL, s. a nail sharpened at each end. C. Brit, hod; 

6r. ^\os, olavus. 
DouL, s. 1. down, feathers, an archaism. Shakspeare 

makes Ariel say in the Tempest, 

One dowle that's in my plume. 

isl. dun^ pluma molissima. Belg. Teut. douse; Dan. 

duun^ lanugo plumaram. 
Dour, V. to extinguish, do out. Ex. " Dotit the candle.''' 

I cannot bring myself to consider this in the light of 

a corruption. The commentators upon Shakspeare have 

been much perplexed about the following passage where 

it is found, 

—the dram of baae 
Doth all the noble substance often daut. 

it is not found in the early quarto edition of l605, 
nor in the first folio. In the edition of l6ll we find 
it thus, 

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt, 
Malone, by his adoption of the former reading, has 
made the passage intelligible, and furnished us with 
an authority for using the word. Nares quotes Syl- 
vester for it. Grose. 

First, in the intellect it douts the light. 

DoDTER, 9, an extinguisher. Ray. 

Dowel, s, an architectural term akin to dove-tail. Fr. 
domlle^ ^'il se dit de la coupe des pierres propres k 
faire des voutes.*^ Richelet. Dowels are pins of wood 
or iron with which flooring is fastened together; the 
pins being driven half their length into the edge of 
each plank, and corresponding holes pierced in the 
edge of the adjacent plank to receive the projecting 
pins. This mode of compacting a floor is termed 


Down, «. to knock down. Ex. ^'He downed him with 
his fisses in double quick time.''^ 

D0WNE8, f. A name which will be readily identified 
with many given to our farm houses. Dissimilar to 
most of those which are bestowed upon modem erec- 
tions, it has a local meaning. Having built their 
houses upon a hill or rising ground, our Saxon an- 
cestors chose their name from the circumstances of 
their situation. Unlike architects of the present day, 
they were content with any simple title that was con- 
nected with the locality, though there might be little 
of novelty in it to please the ear. The BeBe-Vuet 
and Paradise Rousiy which so frequently constitute the 
meaner suburbs of a town, are as dissonant from truth 
in their application, as the nomenclature is at variance 
with the idiom of the English language. A. Sax. 
Germ. Fr. (Roq. Gloss.) dun^ collis. 

Downfall, 8, a fall of snow. Ex. " We shan ha no- 
thin but caud weather, I reckon, till a comes a down- 


Downhkakhed^ part, jpaet ; melancholy, dispirited. A re- 
fined expression for being doten f tK* mouti. 

Drag, 8. an instrument used by wood colliers for the 
purpose of getting timber from dangerous places. Isl. 
dra^i; Dan. last-drager ; Swed. drag, tractor. 

Draughts, 8. a pair of forceps used for extracting teeth: 
draw outs, as it were. 

Draw, v. to take cattle out of pasture land, that the 
grass may grow for mowing. Ex. " It should be 
floated afore the meadow'^s d/rawed,'^ "Nivir drawed 
the lond till the middle o' May."*" 

Dressel, Dresser, s, a piece of furniture that holds in 
its upper part rows of earthen-ware, and in its lower, 
those articles which are most generally wanted for 
household purposes. It is the chief embellishment of 
a Shropshire labourer's house, and is commonly aocom- 


panied by a clock in an oaken case, a round deal 
table, and a comer cupboard. The internal arrange- 
ments of our poor men^s cottages present a striking 
contrast by their superior degree of comfort, and 
greater abundance of chattels, to those of the East- 
em part of England. The same marks of an im- 
proved condition are visible in the quantity and quality 
of their wearing apparel. S. G-oth. dressel^ gazophy- 
lacium, aut ubi res pretiosse conservantur. Fr. dressoir^ 
esp^ce de buffet. Germ, dresmr; Teut. dressaor^ id. 

Dresser, 8. an axe used in pits, to wrench the coal 
down after it is loosened by a jpiie. Teut. dre/el, 

Drifter, 8. a sheep that is 'overlaid' in a drift of 
snow. Isl. dri/i, syrtis nivalis. 

Drink, 8. 1 . small beer. Ex. " A small jug'le o' drinks* 
" Fond on a drop o*" drink.'*'* See Fresh Drink, Pipe 
Drink. 2. a draught. Swed. drici^ bibendi haustus. 
Isl. dryekia; Dan. drikken^ potatio. A. Sax. drmk^ 

After a drink of main. 

SiK T&isT&XM^ Fytte, ii. 40^ 48. 

Swete Ysonde, the fre, 
Afiked Bringwain a drink. 


Yit^ or I die, gif me one dnnk, 

Satyre of the Three EsUUU. 

Drinkmeat, 8. boiled ale thickened with oatmeal and 
bread, generally administered to a person suffering form 
a cold. A comfortable kind of caudle, both meat and 
drink, yet strictly speaking neither one nor the other. 
It is analogous to the old words, Fleshmmt and Mylk- 
mete^ which latter is explained in the Promp. Parv. 
as meat made of milk. Our drinkmeitt corresponds 
with the bieren-brad ^' une soupe a la bierre,'" drank in 

Dhippinos, 8. the last milk afforded by a cow. Isl. 



dreypa; Swed. drtfpa ; Dan. drypper ; Teut. trieffm; 

A. Sax. driopan, stillare. 
Dboppino time, 8. showery weather. Ex. " If thire should 

come a dropping time^ ul be a fairish crap like."^ Swed. 

droppe^ regn&^oppe : A. Sax. dropiend, stillans. 
Droupen, V, to droop, look sickly. Ex. "They draupm 

their yeds.'*' Isl. driupa^ caput demittere. 

For hire lone y cake and care, 
For hire loue y draupne and dare. 

Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 29. 

Droot, Drouth, s. drought. Ex. " The quern unna 
grow as lung as this drouth lasseB.**^ Pronounced ac- 
cording to our custom of dropping the g when followed 
by ht. (See remarks under Length and Strength.) 
Teut. drooghte ; A. Sax. drugoths^ siccitas. 
Drink and drouth come sindle together. 

Scotm Ptov, 

Drub, v. to beat, chastise. Ex. " Drub him soundly."'* 
S. Goth. Swed. drahha^ confligo. Cimb. drihay per- 

Drubbing, %. a beating. Ex. '^Yo desarven a good 
drubbing for it.*"" Swed. drubbning^ conflictio. 

Drudger, 8. a flour sifter, or tin box used by cooks to 
sprinkle flour over meat, called in Cheshire a drudge- 

Druv, part, past ; of drive. Ex. " Drue clane afore the 
wiind "" " The bwes wun o'erdruv!^ (See Remarks 
under uv.) 

Dryp, v. 1. to take the. last milk from cows. Isl. 
drypa^ guttatim stillare. 2. to beat, chastise. Ex. 
"2>ry^ him well.'' S. Goth, drypa; Teut. trej^; 
Isl. drepa^ verberare. 

Ducks and Drakes ; a game played by children, in 
which there seems to be but little meaning or point. 
A writer in Blackwood's Magazine for August, 1821, 
as quoted by Jamieson, gives a diflerent description 
of this juvenile sport to ours, and I will therefore 


explain tHe amusement as it is practised in Shropshire. 
The duck, with us, is a large stone supporting a 
smaller one called the AraJce, The children playing, 
endeavour to knock off the drake by flinging a stone 
at it, which is called the duckgtans, crying at the 
same time, 

A duck, and a drake, 
And a white penny cake. 
And a penny to pay the baker. 

There is another game, which has the same name, but 
yet quite diflerent in its character. It is equally 
silly, but has the recommendation, to notice at least, 
of being known among the ancients. Julius Pollux, 
(lib. ix. cap. 7-) mentions it, and so does Eustathius in 
his commentary upon Homer. I find it thus referred 
to by Minucius Felix. " Pueros videmus certatim 
gestientes, testarum in mare jaculationibus ludere. Is 
lusus est testam teretem, jactatione fluctuum levigataro, 
legere de littore ; earn testam piano situ digitis compre- 
hensam, inclinem ipsum, atque humilem, quantum po> 
test, super undas inrotare : ut illud jaculum vel dorsum 
maris raderet, vel enataret, dum leni impetu labitur ; 
vel summis fluctibus tonsis, emicaret, emergeret, dirni 
assiduo saltu sublevatur. Is se in pueris victorem fere- 
bat, cujus testa et procurreret longius, et frequentius 
exsiliret.'''' Minucius Felix, p. 51, edit. Davisii. Cant. 
1707. Even to the present time the game continues 
precisely the same. We have frequently seen boys 
in very playfulness throwing oyster sheUs, or " tile 
pieces,*" or pieces of broken earthenware, so that they 
may lightly skim the surface of the water; and their 
jay would be proportionate to the frequency with which 
the missiles rebounded from it. 

We have hence the phrase of a man moMiig ducks and 
drakes with his money, denoting that it is foolishly 
squandered away. 



ray ai 
have bought some five thousand capons." 

Green's 7Vf quoque. 

What figur'd states are best to make 
Or watry snrfoce duck or drake, 

Hudibras, Part ii. cap. iii. 301. 

DuFHous, B, a dove house. Pbomp. Pabv. du/Aows. Pals- 
grave, du/house^ columbier. Isl. du/na-hus; Swed. duf- 
htis, columbarius. 

DuMBLE HOLE, 8. & pit of Water partially choked up 
with mud and vegetable life. Its application invariably 
is confined to a piece of stagnant water, in a wood 
or dell. In Cheshire, Dwmble means a dingle. Ours 
is a better word, that is to say, its meaning is more 
analogous with the cognate tongues to which the 
English is allied. C. Brit, tomlyd^ dondydy lutulentus. 

DuMMiL, 8. a slow, stupid, worn out, jaded horse. G«rm. 

dumba^ stollidus. I fancy we have the same word in 

the following quotation : 

" Is it not impossible for humanity to be a spittle man, rhe- 
tone a dummereil, poetry a tumbler, history a bankrupt, philo- 
sophy a broker, wit a cripple, courage a jade." 

Gabriel Harvey's Pierces Supererogation. 

Dung, part, pagi of the verb Ding or Dang. Ex. "HeM 
ha^ chmff it down.'^ 

They war dung down with speid. 

Montgomery's Cherrie and the She. 
Be not fear'd, our mayster. 
That we two can be dung. 

Robin Hood and the Beggar, p. 105. 

DuNGE, 8. the name of a place in the neighbourhood 
of Broseley, evidently given to it from the S. Goth. 
dwiffe, parvula sylva. 

DuNOEviL, 8. a dung fork. The former part of the 
compound is common to various European languages, 
but the latter remains a stumbling block to the Ety- 
mologist, who meets with it under the varied forms 
of Evil^ Shdrifml, Shdrevil and Yilve. 

DuNNA, DuNNOD, fj. do uot : and Dunneh ? for do ye. 


DuNNocK, 8. a contraction from dung hook. 

DuNNY, adf. deaf. Teut. tugnen^ sepire! 

Durst, 9. to dare. Ex. '^I durstna do it if it wuz 
ivir sda.'^ In polite discourse this is the perfect tense 
of dare, but with the vulgar it is the present : their 
perfect is dare, and their present, clurgt. Ex. ''They 
dursm say whad their betters nivir dar:^ and "they 
dardm whad their betters hanna durgten^ Now this I 
suspect is purely Salopian language, and not unlike, nor 
yet much worse granmiar than what the natives of the 
county spoke a few centuries ago, at least if dictionaries 
are capable of bringing sufficient proof. M. Ooth. 
gadawnta^ audebat. A. Sax. ffethrisiian ; Germ, dwnten; 
Teut. darrm; Swed. dHMa^ audere. 

Duerr toub jackbt, phr, a formula expressive of castiga- 
tion. It may be referred to the Isl. dugta^ verberare: 
as to hUk up a dw^ may be to the S. Groth. dttsi^ 
<^«^, tumultus. Isl. dyst^ equestre certamen. Swed. 
ti^, tempestas. Not local. 

DwiNB, «>. to gradually waste away, decay. Ex. "Dtrii^- 

ing away fast into a decline.*" Teut. dioynm^ attenu- 

are. Swed. ttoina^ tabere. A. Sax. dwinan^ tabescere. 

Promp. Parv. diffyne. 

All woxen was her bodv imwelde 
And drie and dwined all for dde. 


Dtch, v. to cut a ditch: invariably pronounced long. 

Ex. " Hedging and dychingT Swed. dXka^ fossas agere 

in pratis. A. Sax. dician ; Teut. diicken, lacunare. 

To delve and dike a deop diche. 

P. Plouhman, p. 386. 



is sometimes lengthened at the be- 
ginning of a word, where according 
to the usual method of pronouncing 
it, it would otherwise be short: thus 
emd for end ; eentry for entry. The 
second vowel being changed into y or 
i furnishes another method of pro- 
nunciation equally common with us: thus occasionally 
we hear eynd^ dthd^ aind for end : eyntry^ eintry, aintry 
for entry. Either practice is borne out by poetical 

Ne weore accountis at the bordis eynde* 

Kyno Alisaunder, v. 7362 and 8016. 
It is often doubled in these words, and in others where 
the same vowel begins a word, as eempty for empty ; 
ewery for every : 

Clothis, eyghtis^ withoutyn «ynde. 

irf. V. 1673. 
It is omitted before a, as in amest, for earnest : (Promp- 
tuarium Parvulorum) : ach on ''em, for each of them ; 
asy for easy ; awn for even. Its rejection from mono- 
syllables is extremely conunon in that part of the 
country which lies between Wenlock and Ludlow. In 
treat, seat, beat, meat, it is rarely or ever sounded ; as 
*' Gie th' bwes their mater " Whoot stond a traie r 
" Tak a gaie^' &c. 


When final it is not unfrequently suppressed, and the 

preceding vowel if naturally long, made short, as yok uv 

a heg, for yoke of an egg ; yet even this abbreviation has 

a precedent in WiclifiTs Translation of the Testament: 

*' Now thanne what tempten ghe god to putte a gkcik on the 
necke of the disciplis." 

Tha Dedig of ApogtaUs, c. xv. 

It is sometimes omitted in the middle of words, and 
placed at the end of them instead, as swates for sweats ; 
a chating fellow, for a cheating fellow; the youngst o 
ten, for the youngest of ten. 

Frequently it is turned into i short, as in rilf^ for self. 
(Leche heele thi sUf,) Widifi New Testament, Luke, 
ch. iv. A. Sax. eilf, ipse ; di^eer chap, for clever chap ; 
nivir, for never. 

It is frequently converted into a, as yaUow for yellow, 
though more commonly yaUer ; this from its derivation 
may be considered the more correct expression, besides 
having poetical precedent. 

Al so yahw so any gold. 

Kyno Alisaundbr, v. 6496. 

Ea takes the sound of short t, as fither for feather ; and 
also of short ^ or a, as wekly for weakly; twake for 
tweak; spake for speak. 

Ea is sounded like short a ; as lam for learn ; am for 
eah) ; amest for earnest ; and very often it assumes 
the sound of he, as dhd bwoard for deal board ; dJief d* 
hearing for deaf; a dhed mon, for a dead man. And 
when in a monosyllable, each letter is pronounced, as 
gtre-am for stream ; te-iim for team, &c. &c. 

Ee is often changed into short i, as wik for week. 

Ei is turned into long a, and has the sound of open a, as 
console, for conceit; desate, for deceit; nather, for neither. 

£i is converted also into oi, in the same words, as in con- 
scit, desaUj neither. This broad pronunciation, however, is 
entirely confined to the mining district, and partakes 
more of the Doric dialect of Stafibrdshire than of our 


regular Atticiflm. Wiclif furnishes us witii authority 
in his Transbtion of the New Testament: 

** Which man hadde an hous in biiielis and noiiker with cheynes 
now mighte ony man bynde him." 

Mark, ch. v. 

It is continually changed into at, in the foregoing words, 
a practice sanctioned by our early writers, by Wiclif, 
Oawane Douglas, Sir David Lyndsay, and others. See 
also Golems Dictionary. 

Eam, $, an uncle. This good old word is all but extinct. 
A. Sax. earn ; Germ, ohdm ; Belg. own ; Fris. iem^ avun- 
culus; R. of OWter, erne; R.of Brunne, earn. Me- 
trical Romances, edited by Ritson and Weber, eem and 
erne. Lyndsay, Spenser, Drayton, Fairfax, Coles. 
Now^ my good erne, for Godes lore I prey. 

ROMAUNT OF THE RosE, v. 261, 162, 906. 

Easiful, adj. quiet, complacent, forbearing. Ex. '' Mr 

Smith is very easiful under his troubles.'*^ Not peculiar 

to us, nor, I imagine are any of those adjectives of a 

like nature, as ioMyfvl^ hurri/tt^, &c. 

£re he attain hU etuefiU western bed. 

3 Henry VL v. S. 

Easing ^parbow, s. the common house sparrow. Frin- 
gilla domestica. 

Ebus, Ebey, a. an abbreviation for Ebenezer. 

Eecle, Ickle, 8, an icicle. Not a corruption, as it might 
at first hearing seem, but an old word, being met with 
in the Promp. Parv. ikyU, stiria. Isl. w, glacies ; Tent. 
iekel, stiria. 

East Melched, adj. applied to a cow who readily yields 
her milk. Swed. mjolka; Tent, mekkm; Isl. nUoEka; 
Dan. malie; Germ, milchen ; A. Sax. mdcan; Belg. 
mdken ; C. Brit, armeilio ; Ital. rndgere ; Gr. afxeXyeiVy 
mulgere. The phrase '^ mild as mother^s milk,^ which 
is in general circulation, is not far removed from the 
Gr. /i6iXc;(09, mitts. Milch, at one period was used for 
mild^ as in Hamlet ii. 2 : 


Would have made mUdi the burning eyes of heaven. 
And horn to his hous he it brought^ 
And tok it his douhter^ and hir besought. 
That hye schulde kepe it as sche can. 
For sche was melche and couthe theran, 
Sche bad it souke and it nold. 

Lay lx Frkinb v. 193-7. 
Edder, Esther, 3. an adder ; and of general application 
for any kind of snake. Promp. Parv. sdder^ eddyr^ 
neddyr^ serpens. A. Sax. c^her^ nceddre; Dan. eder ; 
Belg. adder^ nater; Tout. Fris. Cimb. edder; Grerm. 
oder; C. Brit, neidr ; Isl. nadur; M. Goth, nadrs ; 
Lat. natrixj vipera. Lyndsay. 

Quhair dragonisi lessertis, askis, edderit swatterit 

Paiice of Honour. 
Eddish, 9. after-grass. This genuine Word is not un- 
frequently used adverbially, with much the same mean- 
ing. In speaking of the springing after-grass, the lower 
orders say, " It looks pretty eddish like.'' The term is 
by no means peculiar to us. It may be seen in Wor- 
lidge's Systema Agriculturse, Skinner, Coles, Phillips, 
and of course Kersey, Forby, &c. A. Sax. edisc^ 
gramen serotinum. Tusser has wrested the word from 
its primitive signification in his doggrel. 
Seed first, go fetch, 
For edM, or etch. 
Soil, perfectly know 
Ere edish ye sow. 
Edob, 9. a ridge, or side of a hill ; well known in Shrop- 
shire under the compound form of Benthal-j^e^^, Wen- 
lock'Edffe^ &c. ; that magnificent range of secondary 
transition, which runs without a break from the former 
parish as far as St Clears in Caermarthenshire. Our 
native historian Ordericus Vitalis, gives a particular 
account of the latter under the name of Hwnd-hege^ 
Hunelge-hege^ when describing the passage of Henry 
the First's army to Shrewsbury, after the capture of 
Bridgenorth. " Hunelge-&s^^ is the English name for 
a certain passage through a wood. In Latin it may 
be called malm eaUis^ or mcus^ for it was a hollow way 


of a mile in length, full of great sharp stones, and 
BO narrow 9S scarcely to admit two horsemen abreast. 
It was overshadowed on each side by a dark wood, 
wherein were stationed archers in ambuscade, who 
greatly annoyed the army with arrows and other 
missile weapons. But as the King had more than 
60,000 men in his army, he detached large parties to 
cut down the wood, and make a wide road which should 
endure for the use of posterity.'*'' Lib. xi. p. 808. From 
this period it has been reasonably conjectured by my 
late valued friend Mr Blakeway, in the History of 
Shrewsbury, p. 57, that we may probably date the 
existence of a road over this steep ridge, which has 
since been rendered more commodious, and has laid 
aside most of its primitive horrors. Many of the 
passes, however, down this ridge retain all their ancient 
ferocity; one in particular, termed Blakeway Hollow, 
from the little hamlet adjoining, is nearly as im- 
penetrable now, as it could have been in the days of 
Henry I. We have also the Hoar Edge, and in the 
North, there is Biddlestone Edge^ and SharperUm Edge. 
(See Brockett.) Isl. hegni^ circumsepire. 
Eeke, v, to increase; and consequently ^Ho eeke out 
any thing'*'' is to make some addition by which it may 
answer the desired purpose. Isl. eyk; Swed. oka; 
A. Sax. eacan^ augere. 

Now wol the kynff eche his ost 
Feorre aboute, and eke acost. 

Kyno Alisaundbr, v. 0026. 

With true observance seek to eke out that. 

Alts WeU, iL 5. and ^ You Like it, i. 2. 

I pray to heaven baith nicht and day. 
Be eiked their cares sae cauld. 

Percy's ReUq. voL iL p. 77- 

EiLD, «. 1. to be sickly. Ex. "He is but eUding like.'^ 
2. to grow old, give way imder the weight of age, 
yield: not I imagine another form of this last verb, 


but from the A. Saxon, ealdian, Swed. aldraSy senes- 
cere. Id. <dldr; Dan. €Udery setas. Lyndsay. 

The time that eldeth our auncestours 
And eldeth Kingis and Emperonrs. 

RoMAUNT OF THE RosE, V. 391. 2, and y. 395. 

It is not provincial as a. substantive. Herd's, Ritson^s, 
and Pinkertotfs Scottish Poetry, Percy, &c. 

Whoee graver years would for no labour yield. 
His age was full of puissance and might ; 
Two sons ne had to guard his noble eibi, 

Fairfax's Tosm, iii. 35, and vii. 80. 

Now leave we Robin with his man. 

Again to play the child. 
And learn himself to stand and gang 

By halds, for all his eild. 

Riston's Robin Hood, vol. i. p. 105. 

3. by aphseresis for yield. Ex. *^The wheat dunna eUd 
well.^ A. Sax. gUdan^ prsestare, 

Gramarsey, seyde the weyffe, 
Sir, god eylde het the. 

Robyn Hood {arid the Potter), v. 244. 

EiLT, imp. of old verb eilen, to ail. Ex. " Whod eik 
him.^ A. Sax. adlian^ segrotare. 

What eikth you to be weary thus soone? 

TroUue and Creseida, ii. v. 161. 

Ellabalu, Hullabaloo, 8. shouting, noise, uproar. Ex. 
^' Set up a hullabcdu r '' kicked up a eUahalu^ they 
are used indiscriminately ; the former however must be 
held as the more correct dialecticism. Though the 
Armoric has ehw and hdwy^ the Germ. haUen^ and the 
Franc. hdUn^ sonare, I am for once disposed to de- 
duce a Shropshirism from the Greek. Yet it is not 
claimed as our property alone, for it seems probable 
that the North country recognises the term, as it has 
found a place in Anderson^s Cumberland Ballads. We 
read in the first book of Xenophon's Anabasis, that 
the Greeks were accustomed to strike their arms si- 
multaneously and shout eXeXet/, before they rushed 


into battle; or, clothing the idea in the language of 


fierce with grasped anus 
Claah'd on their soonding wields the din of war. 

That the word has reference to vocal noise is decisive 
from Plutarch : eiriipaweiif Se rah trirovSaii eXeXei/, 
ioi) loi), Tou^ irapotrras- (Vita Thesei, c. 22.) And lo, 
one of the characters in the Prometheus Vinctus pre- 
cedes the chorus with an eXeXei;. It was one of the 
supposed offices of Bacchus to lead the chorus in the 
same cry, see the Antigone, v. 1 54, and the Scholiast 
on this passage, 

cXfXi^cuF Bax^eios ap)^oc. 
Hence, the Priestesses of Bacchus were called Elelei'des. 

Nunc feror, ut Bacchi furiis Elele'idei acts. 

Ovid. Heroides, iv, 47. 

And the god himself derived in the same manner one 

of his numerous epithets. 

Nycteliusque Ekktuque parens. 

MeUmor, iv. 16. 
Than 'tyell^er he began to chow^ 

And hurslt up his shou'der; 
Wid a huUa-haloo I they cry't shoou! shoou! 
And heame set he in a powder! 

Anderson's Battads, CarlUk, 1824. 

Ellar, Ellern, Ellon, s, the elder-tree. In Scotland, 
and the North, the alder is termed the eUer^ but in 
Shropshire and Cheshire we only know the elder-tree 
under this appellation. It is a good old word in the 
form found amongst us, and comes direct from the 
A. Sax. eUarm^ sambucus. Norfolk, ddem; Lincoln- 
shire, kellar. Forby, with his usual accuracy remarks, 
that, it is an adjective, with tree understood. I have 
generally heard it used in that sense; thus, '^in the 
dhm-tree:^ ^'in the eUerT^huahJ" That this was the 
tree intended by our countryman Robert Langland, 
and not the alder, I cannot for a moment doubt; 
the A. Sax. etymology of the word sufficiently proves 

41 L 

it, were there no presumptive reasons for believing 
thst the word had remained unoomipted among us 
since the period when this distinguished Satirist wrote. 
The point, though one of little importance, is really 
worth establishing in a record of provincialisms: for 
my predecessors with a local zeal which should nar 
turally characterise all writers of this description, have 
applied his words to quite a di£Perent tree, because 
such a term is used in their own dialects. The eldar, 
for some reason of which we are ignorant, was con- 
sidered by the dramatists as a tree of disgrace. Pro- 
bably, the poetic invention of Robert Langland in these 
lines is the only plausible authority upon which the 
legend of Judas hanging himself upon it, is grounded. 

Jndas he by japede thoigh Jewene selver 
An afterwturd he heng hym hye on an eUeme, 

P. Plouhman, 16. 

Well foUow'd; Judas was hang'd on an elder. 

Love's Labour Lost, y. 2. 

He shall be your Judas, and you shall be his eUkr-tree to 
hang on. 

Every Man out of Humour, iv. 4. 

Our gardens will prosper the better, when they have in them 
not one of these etdersy whereupon so many covetous Judasses 
hang themselyes. 

Nixon's Strange Foot-post. 

Elbow orease, 8. hard rubbing, such as mahogany tables 
require : '^ Lucemum olere,^^ as Brockett quotes. Not 

Elded, 1. p&rf. of old verb eUm to ail. Ex. "Whod 
Med himT A. Sax. adUa/n^ segrotare. Swed. Mba^ 
salutem dicere. 2. part, past of hold ; to hold, impede, 
hinder. Ex. '' Whod should ha elded him T A. Sax. 
heUafhy servare. Isl. heUd^ tenere. 

Eldsb, s. the udder of a cow. Teut. Belg. elder^ uber 
ovilli pecoris. 

Ell-rake, Ellock-rake, s. Each of these terms have 
diiferent applications. The former must be a corrup- 


tion induced in part by the Shropshire custom of 
leaving out the aspirate. It thus stands as Hell-rah: 
this again, by restoration becomes Hed-rake^ or a large 
rake drawn at the heels, as in fact it is. EUock-rake 
is a vitiation that must be accounted for on the same 
principle, in some measure, as the former. Loss of the 
aspirate has converted HUlochrake into EUock-rake^ 
which is a small rake for breaking up ant-hills, having 
four broad teeth in the head; and is sometimes called 
a oowt-rake. 

Eme, adj. near. Ex. ^^This road is fiill as erne as the 
tother I reckon.^ Here is a term universal among 
Salopians: but how did we get it! It has metapho- 
rical affinity, it is conceived, with the A. Sax. earn, 
which denotes a near degree of kindred; or else the 
primitive has not been recorded by any of our various 
lexicographers. Shakspeare has ''^ eftest way."" Mndi 
Ado about Nothing^ iv. 2. 

Emer, adj, comp. of the preceding. 

En ; the lower orders adopt this ancient termination 
to their verbs, instead of the more general form of 
the perfect tense, used by the educated classes: thus, 
brauffhten for brought: temptiden for tempted: euffereden 
for suffered ; v^enten for went; hodden for had : founden 
for found, (The Seuyn Sages^ v. 173.) miffhien for might, 
{Kyng AUeawnder^ v. 5376.) whietleden for whistled, (id. 
V. 5348,) buriden for buried, &c., &c. In short, Wiclif 
and our earlier writers are full of similar forms. For 
our pronunciation of the latter word one extract shaD 
be given from his translation of the New Testament, 
and that may serve to shew the prevalence of this 
termination in his writings. 

But goode men birieden Steuene and maden greet morenyng 
on him. 

Dedie, c. viii. 

To this head may be referred all such verbs as form 


their preterites in on : as soUon for sat : forgattan for 

forgot: eaton and drunkan for eat and drank. 

When thei had eyton and dronkon also. 

Sir Amadas, y. 293. 

Ends, and Alls, phr, Ex. " Pack up your ends and 
alky and be off with you."" It is uncertain whether 
this phrase has been tralatitiously borrowed from the 
Shoemakers ends and awh^ or not. But in adopting a 
literal explanation, it appears more accordant with 
truth than metaphor can throw around it. For in- 
stance, when a servant is about quitting her place, 
her employers are desirous of seeing her soon and 
thoroughly free from their service; that there should 
be " no hangmg about,"^ as Shropshire people say, but 
an end of her: that her ^Hhings^^ should be packed 
up and her all speedily cleared away. Those who 
by chance have ever seen the varied contents of a 
•domestic's huge papered box, will have been somewhat 
amused, as well as surprised at its useless and mis- 
cellaneous contents: consisting not so much of old 
wearing apparel and materials to keep it in repair, 
as of odds and ends so diversified in their nature, 
that few houses out of their rejected rul^bish could 
supply the counterpart. Nothing seems too trivial, or 
too worthless to be stored up among these highly 
valued possessions. Every end^ scrap or shred that 
fortune has east before them during their course of 
servitude, constitute too frequently the whole amount 
of their worldly treasures. These are their all; their 
ends and alls. 

Endways, aeh. straight forward. Ex. " Miles endways.'^ 

Enemy, s, 1. a conmion appellation for any coleopte- 
rous insect. 2. ants; in which instance it is corrupted 
from emmets, 
Eow, pron, you. 

EowKR, pron. your. Both of these were considered ar- 


chaumiB when Verstegan wrote his Restitution of De- 

caied Intelligence. (See remarks at the commencement 

of this letter, and under Nrw.) 
Ercle, 8. a blister. Ex. '^ Rose up in ercles,'"'' Neenton. 
EscREN, €ulj\ made of ash. Ex. ^^ Lay a good eschem plant 

across his shouthers.*" A. Sax. osse; Oerm. esche; 

Isl. esH; Teut. esch^ (esehen^ fraxinum) fraxinus. 
EsHUK, 8, a hook at the extremity of a waggon horse^s 

traces : properly an S hook, from being in the form 

of that letter. 
Ess, $. ashes: the nearest approach to this is in the 

Hebrew aesh^ eseh^ ignis. Gr. etr^apa, focus. U. 

ey9a^ cinis ignitus. Teut. tut^ eist. 

Do ye not see Rob, Jock^ and Hab, 

As they are fi;irded gallantly. 
While I sit hurlden in the tue? 

I'll have a new cloak about me. 

Herd's ScoUuk Sanfft, vol. iL p. 103^ 

EssHOLE, 8. the pit under a kitchen grate into which 
the ashes fall : in another word, ^' the Puigatoiy.'" 

Etuerinq, 8. strong twigs which are used for platting 
between the upper part of stakes in hedges^ to strengthen 
the top and keep down the trotu* A. Sax. keaiierian, 

Evil, «. a fork, with three or four strong teeth ; gene- 
rally, a dunff-evilj 8hare-evil^ or yilve. 

Expect, v. to think, imagine. Anticipation does not 
cross the mind in the general use of this verb by 
the vulgar. Ex. " It belongs to him I expect, but I 
am not certain." ^^ I eapect you have had a pleasant 
journey.'*^ The polite ea:pect things that are future : 
the vulgar, both in various parts of England, and 
generally throughout America, eapeet things that are 
past. (See Pickering, sub voce.) 


perpetually takes the sound of v, as 

u/d for of; iv for if, &c. 

Faoche, «. the old form of /etch. 

Gothfaccheth me the traytour. 

Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. 21. 
We shale faet^ the lybaos wher tm wille be. 

id. p. 21. 
Thei went to the towne to fach ther wyvys. 
The HunUyng of the Hare, y. 241. 

Faced Card, 8. a court card. 

Fachub, v. to grow like in feature. Ex. " Lickle Johnny 
faehurs his feayther.'*' 

Fabbebrt, 8. a gooseberry. This word I take to be 
confined to the mining district. Colliers talk of a ^^/ae- 
berry poi^^'' meaning a gooseberry tart. It very rarely 
signifies a whinberry. Gerard gives it as synonymous 
with gooseberry. It was of good repute in his day, 
though now it is considered low. (See G^rard^s Herbal 
by Johnson, p. 1324.) The Iceni have abbreviated the 
word into feaps^ feah8^ fabes^ and thaipe8. 

Fagot, 8. a reproachful appellation for a female, whether 
she be of loose character, evil temper, or idle habits. 
Ex. " A nasty imperint fogGt?'* " A lazy fagots Me- 
taphor was never drawn more truly. The French con- 
sidered such individuals in their proper light when they 
coined their proverbs, " Qu'il y a bien de difierence entre 
une femme et un fiigoi f que la plus grande difference 


est qu' une femme parle toujours, et qu^ un fcugij^ ne 
dit mot.**' And ^^ elle est fait comme une fagi^r I 
shall leave the disputes that have tortured the learned 
on the derivation of this term, and content myself by 
adopting the Lat. foLsciSy which seems to be the most 
approved root. C. Brit. Arm. ffagod ; B. Bret. /agod. 
Pelletier finds out a connexion between the latter word 
and haggage. The same affinity exists in all probability 
between our two terms. 

Fagot, b. to cut or tie up fagots. Fr. fagoter^ alligare in 

Faiqh, 8, soil which lies upon stone, marl or coal ; any 
strata superincumbent upon the particular one which is 
about to be got. In Derbyshire, feigh denotes stone, 
soil, or other substances carried away ajs useless. I have 
not been able to trace the verb faigh^ or fey to cleanse 

Fains ; this may be taken in the sense of a verb or 
adverb, but in either case the signification is alike, and 
implies gentle restraint, compulsion or necessity that is 
not of a disagreeable nature, yet not denoting such a 
great degree of willingness as the more conunonly 
accepted term fain implies. The final 8 just marks 
the difierence. Thus says one who has been sent on 
an errand, '^ Company dropped in, and so I was faim 
to wait.'^ A very common excuse for dilatoriness. 
Again, says another, '^ Instead o' fettling the hos, he 
mun fains go off to bed ;'^ glad no doubt to escape the 
labor. The stream of authority for the usage of fain 
runs clear and continuous through R. of Glo'ster, R. of 
Brunne, P. Plouhman, Lyndsay, Chaucer, Spenser, Shak- 
speare, &c., down to our own time. I pass over various 
illustrations in these authors, besides Sir Tristrem, fytte 
i. 60, ii. 35, Minot's Poems, p. 50^ Ritson's Anct. Pop. 
Poet. p. 875, Robin Hood, p. 87, &c. to borrow one from 

the very excellent glossary written upon the Hallam- 


shire words by Mr Hunter, as being pecnliarly within 
the scope of our meaning. 

Then went the cuppes so merrilv ahout that many of the 
Frenchmen were fain to be led to their beds. 

Cavendish's Life of WoUey. 

That lads sae thick come her to woo. 
They're fain to sleep on hay or straw. 

The Ewie wi' the crooked horn. 

Ritson's Scotti^ Songs, yoL i. p. 288. 

Isl. /effinn ; Dan. /armjef^ in sinu gaudens. A. Sax. 
foffmy Isetus. M. Goth, ftiffinon, gaudere. 

Faibishes Pipes, s. the old tobacco pipes which are fre- 
quently found in turning over soil. The idea is not 
peculiar to us, but prevalent in the North of England. 
(See Brockett under the word.) 

Fahushbs Rings, s. small circles observable in grass 
land, of a deeper green than the surrounding herbage. 
It is superstitiously believed in Shropshire and Stafford- 
shire to be caused by the nocturnal visits of the Fairies, 
who are fabled to dance on the spot. This notion is not 
current merely in Shropshire, but of old standing, and 
general prevalency. The causes of the appearance are 
investigated by Dr Wollaston in the Philosophical 
Transactions. (See also Saturday Magazine, vol. v. 
p. 200; Withering's Botany, vol. iv. p. 277; Nares^ 

Fall, 8. autumn. Ex. " Spring andfaUy 

They are most commonly sowen in the faB of the leafe, or 

Gebard's Herbal, p. 66. 

Fallal, s. and adf\ a gaudily dressed woman; a con- 
temptuous expithet for a suspicious looking female. 
Ex. " A fallal sort of a body.'' This word must be 
referred to false as one of kin^^d signification. 

False, v. to deceive. From the old verb falseny used 
by Chaucer, Cant. Tales, v. 3175 ; Rom. of the Rose, 
V. .5416. 



Famuloub, adj, family. Ex. ^' His pride's a famidom 

Fancw, $. olaws of a bird. Germ. Teut. famgm ; A. Sax. 

fanga/n^ capere manu. Id. fanga ; Dan. fomger^ oom- 

Fanteag, $. iU humour. Ex. ^'Put her into a pretty 

fawUag!^ It is most frequently used in aUusion to cer- 
tain ebullitions of temper which the fair sex are at 
times disposed to manifest towards their dep^idants. 
It has some aUiance with the Teut. Ughm^ oontrarius. 

Fantom, adj. li^t. An epithet given to com that is 
unproductive or unkind. ^' The French^^ says Ray, 
*' call a spirit appearing by night, or a ^ost, a Fam- 
tatme^ from Phantasma, Spectrum. So then Phantosme 
com, is com that has as little bulk or solidity in it as a 
spirit or spectre.'^ Hence too has originated the com- 
parison of a thin person to a phantom. ^^ He is just 
like a ptumiom.'^ And in French, one who is wasted 
away, *•*' Ce n'est plus qu' un fantom$y* And h^noe 
the epithet applied to a sickly person, ^^he is but 

Faaantlt, farangly, adj. handsome, comely. Ex. *^ She^s 
a farawUy looking woman enough.^ Jamieson as weD 
as ail other Glossarists are at fault for a satisfactory 
derivation. Our use of it is different to that prevailing 
in other districts. The definition of ^dean, decent,'' 
which it has received from Mr Wilbraham in his 
Cheshire Glossary, comes as might be expected, nearer 
to our sense of the word than the meaning it has 
obtained in the North. He says it has been supposed 
to be compounded of the two words, fair and dean^ 
but at the same time objects to this etymology. The 
application which we invariably give to it, leads me 
however to dissent from this excellent authority. The 
e most commonly introduced in the pronunciation, 
justifies the supposition that it is abbreviated either 


from fair and dean^ or from fair and camdy^ thus, 

Fa\ an" ely^ farandy^ faranily. Pbomp. Pabv. " Comfy 

or well/arynpe in shape, elegans.''^ Homuumi Vulgaria ; 

^* He looked wnfaringly^ aspeotu in composito.'" These 

authorities go to shew, not merely that it is a good 

old wordy but that the primitive meaning, perverted 

elsewhere, has remained pure and unoomipted in the 

mouths of Salopians. Ray has ^^ faranify^ handsom. 

Fair asAfaranify^ fair and handsom.^ 

The eldest is a young merchand^ 
He is right jftnr and weA farrand. 

Sir Gray Stbbl, y. 222. 

With him came mony stede fararU, 
And mony faire juster corant. 

Kyno Alisaunder, y. 3460. 

Hym semyd wele a gentilman; 
She knewe non sache in hyr londe. 
So goodly a man and wele/irofui 

The Lyvb of Ipomydon, y. 282. 

Fasten, v. 1. to detain by a grasp, to bite. Eix. ^^The 
dog fattened him by the leg.''^ 'Z, to take hold of. 
Ex. ''Why ivir dostna fatten houd on it wi^ boath 
honds.^ Belg. tatten ; G^rm. fasten ; Swed. fatta^ oa- 
pere prehensione. The other cognate terms, such as 
the Swed. fdtta ; Teut. vaeten ; M. Groth. fatkja ; 
A. Sax. foBttnian^ figere, apply to the generaUy re- 
ceived sense of this word. 

Fat, b. pres. and preterperf. the old form of the verb 
fetch. Ex. " I fat it from the shap."* ''Fai it from 
him.**^ This word occurs with us in the time of 
Henry VII. (See History of Shrewsbury, vol. i. 
p. 280.) We have also the part, past. Ex. " Ale 
that was fai.'" Hence the common phrase of " A 

fattin o* drink,^ that quantity of ale which is carried 
out of a public house and drank, sub dio, such as the 
Cuekod^t Foot cUe. A. Sax. foeccean^ fetian, adducere. 
Teut. f>a(en ; Belg. vatten^ comprehendere. Swed. fatta^ 



Faud, Fodk, Foud, s. a fold. None of these methods 
of pronunciation are peculiar to us, unless it be the 
second. The first and last are well known Scotti- 

Fause, adj. false, cunning, coaxing, subtle. Ex. ^^A 

fatue dog.*** Fr. fausse. Ray. 

For mine was o' the gude red gould. 

But thine was o' the tin; 
And mine was true and trusty baith, 

But thine was^htue within. 

The Bonny Lass ofLochroyan. Herd's CoUection, 

Fause, V, to coax, wheedle, flatter. Ex. *^He knows 
how to /ause her o'er.**^ Germ, fwbchen ; Teut. Belg. 
vabehen; Swed. fcUskas; Isl. /aba; Dan. for/abke^ 
decipere, adulterare, falsum pro vero substituere. 

Faut, Fault, 8. 1. want, negligence. Ex. " Welly 

clemm'd for faut o' fittle.*" 

When that she swouned next, for faute o' blood. 

Chaucer's Squier's Tale, v. 10767. 

2. a defection in a mine. Ex. *' Ye sin there^s a /autj 
and the coal craps out.''' Jamieson adduces several 
passages, which shew that the former sense of the word 
is precisely that which it had at an earlier period. The 
latter, is the usual term amongst miners in Shropshire 
and Staffordshire; it is current in Derbyshire, but 
with quite a different meaning. It would be diffi- 
cult to substitute any expression more suitable than 
our own. Teut. fatUe, defectus. A la faute^ Tendroit 
oil quelque chose finit. Roquef. 

Fauty, adj, decayed, rotten as wood. Teut. /atU^ ma- 
teria inutilis in arbore aut ligno, facillime cariem 

Favour, v. to bear a family likeness. Ex. " Favours 

the mother'^s side.^ 

Grood faith, methinks that this young Lord Chamont 
Favoun my mother, sister, doth he not. 


Fawhr, 8, a fair. Such is the method of pronunciation 


adopted in the districts round the Clee Hills, where 
the language is very much Doricised. We must there- 
fore not confound it with the Fr. /owv, though it has 
the same meaning. 
Peak, 8. a sharp twitch or puU. 

Fear, v. to frighten, terrify. M. Goth, faurktan ; Dan. 
frycte; Belg. vruchtan; A. Sax. fasran; Ftsluo. /erron; 
Germ, farm; Teut. vaeren^ facere ut metuunt. Hence 
afeard^ for frightened. 

And thus he shall you with his wordes fere. 

TroU. and Crets. iy. 1483. 
I tell thee. Lady, this aspect of mine 
Hath feard the valiant. 

Merchant of Venice, ii. 1- 
And see the slanderer in before I left him. 
But as it is ii fears me. 

A Fair Quarrel, iL 1. 
Nor the threatnings of kings (which are perilous to a prince,) 
nor the perewasions of Papists (whidi are honny to the mouth) 
could either year hir, or aUure nir. 

Euphues and his England, p. 123. 
If he shall feare us out of our wits with strange words. 

The CurtaiTh-drawer of the World, p. 41. 

Feart, past part. ; afraid. 

Feather, v. to bring a stack of grain gradually and 
neatly to a summit, "top it up'' well, slope it care- 
fully to a point. A. Sax. f^he^ acies. Hence the 
term of a feather edge. 
Feck, 9. a small piece of iron used by miners in blasting 
rocks. A. Sax. foscde^ facula. 
Feckless, adj. effectless, of which it is probably a cor- 

False, feckksse foulmart. 

The Flyiing of Montgomery . 
Ygt as we se a mischief grow 
Aft of a feckless thing. 

Montoombry's Cherry and the Sloe, s. iii. 

A GatiHea, feckks, fingerles, and fals. 

Montookxry's Sonnets, 

On pleasure let's emplov our wit. 

And laugh at fortane b feckless powers. 

Herd's Scottish Songs, vol. iL p. 228. 


Feed, $. 1. food, "keep.'' Ex. "They'n had plenty 
o' good feed.^ Swed. foder ; Isl. fodr ; Teut. 9oeder^ 

For losing his pasture, and feed of his field. 


2. a quartern of oata. Ex. Traveller. ^' Give my horse 

a quartern o' com.'" Ostler. '^ He's had a feed a'readf.^ 
Fexdino, part, past ; nourishing. Ex. ^^ Feeding stuff for 

children." M. Goth, foda/n; A. Sax. fedan; Belg. 

WBdea; Swed. foeda; Isl. fodra; Dan. foret; Teat. 

wedereny nutrire. 
Fbxdino time, phr, genial and mild weather, gentle rain 

and moderate heat. 
Fel, per/, of feel. The d and t final are occafiionally 

suppressed in verbs forming their perfect by these 

Feldifiere, b. a fieldfare. Twrdw pilaris of lamueus^ 

A. Sax. fealafor. Both the derivation and its poetical 

iUustrations establish the correctness of the vulgar 


Over all where so they fere, 
And sing. Go iaxewt^i fMfare. 


FnicuB, s, a small stick or piece of wire used by school- 
mistresses for pointing out their letters to children 
learning to read. A word rapidly vanishing from the 
language. Palsgrave ; festw to spell with, festm. 

Ah do hut pnt 
Kfetkw in her fist, and you shall see her 
Tfuce a new lesson out 

The Two Nohle Kinemen, 

Fbt, v. another old form of fetch. 

The Soudan ther he sat in halle, 
He comaundede his knihtes alle 
That maiden for to fette. 

KING OF Tars, t. 961. 

And thempon the win vrasfette anon. 

Chaucer's Prai. r. 821. 


Yong men hymfette, with bowea bent. 

OcTAYiAN Imperator, V. 962. 
And fayr servysc byfore hem^^ 

Richard Cobr dk Lion, v. 1604, 3478. 
Then he fette to Lytell Johan 
The numbles of a doo. 

A lytell geste of Bobyn Node. Ritson, p. 32. 
And fst his felaw. 

Sompnoures Tale. 
How that hire in his grisely carte he fette. 

Merdianfs Tale. 
Whose blood is fet from £athers of war proof. 

Hen. V. iii. 1. 

Fettle, s. order, condition. Ex. " His has (horse) is in 
good fsMey Sometimes applied to denote the jaded 
or splashed state of a beast. Ex. '' Yone brought 
him whdam in a ipreMiy fettle.^'' Lano. Chesh. Hallam. 
Scotch. Ray. Not very local. Mr Wilbraham deduces 
this veiy prevalent word from the old Fr. faiture which 
has the same meaning. I have searched in vain for 
a closer derivative. The Isl. fitla^ adparare, is the 
nearest approach we can nuike. Still I am entirely 
indisposed to allow that a word so universally known, 
so indispensable, let me add too, to give perspicuity and 
meaning to what we intend to say, can be tralatitious 
or superinduced. Nares is at liberty to call it "un- 
dignified,^ but he could never have persuaded a Sa- 
lopian to drop it from his vocabulary; nor will any 
present writer induce us to believe that a word sanc- 
tioned by such authors as Bishop Hall and Swift, is 
inapplicable or inelegant. What imports it, whether 
it be concinnous or not! It is an exceedingly useful 
word, and embodies more pith and meaning than any 
other which can be substituted in its place. It is 
quite certain that no Shropshire person will ever be 
timid in lettmg it fall from his tongue. 

Wa' than, says Job, aw's warn us reet, — 

There 'nought 'ats' ought to settle. 
Sea whoop! mds, hey for Fuursday neeght! 

And git yer pumps \* fettie. 


Fettle, «. to mend, put in order, prepare, rectify, &c. 
The verb is even more common than the noun. Ex. 
''Fettle it wootT ''Fettling the hos.'' "Gwon up 
etiurs to fettle herself; her I soon be down."" Coles, 

Then John bent up his long bende-bowe. 
And fettekd him to shoot. 

Robin Hood and Guy of Gisbornb. 

Yett neither Robin Hood nor Sir Guy 
Them fettled to ilye away. id. 

The barrel^ (of a gun) was rustit as black as the gnm' 
But he's taen't to the smiddy an's fettled it rarely. 

T ANN AH ill's Poems, quoted by Jamieson. 

CraveA Gloss, quotes also, 

*' He has hastened him to the Queen's Court at Mliitehsll 
strange and fetled an archers of the guard liveiye bow." 

Memorial of R. Eokeby. 
Beaumont and Ouarenby saw all this 

And Lockwood, where they stood 
They fettled them to fence, 1 wis 
And shot as they were wood. 

Vale of Colder. 
They to their long-hand journey fettled them. 

Maiden's Bh^ 

Fbyoht, Fegt, 8. a fight. Our pronunciation accords 
with the ancient) and also with the derivation. Oerm. 
fechten; A. Sax. feohUm; Alam./eAtan; Tout. Belg.. 
vecAten^ pugnare. 

I will feghte on a felde. 

The Awntyrs op Artrtjrx. 
I gat them in the ^e\d feiAting. 


Feyt, $. an action or performance, generally imderstood 
in a bad sense. Ex. "A sheamful ^^.'^ "A pritty 

feyt.'" Teut. feyt, facinus. 

File, s. now a slang term given to one who joins a 
tolerable share of worthlessness with cunning and 
quickness. Ex. "A rum old /&.'" It is however a good 
old ^ord and had always much the same meaning, if 
we m&y judge from the position it assumes in the au- 
thorities ensuing. Isl. fyla^ res rejecta. 


David at that while -was with Edward the kyng, 
Zit avanced he that^ untille a faire thing. 

R. OF Brunne* 
Philip the Valas was afile. 
He fled^ and durst noght tak his dole, 

Mmor's Poems, p. 31. 
Sir Philip was firnden a^fe. 

id. p. 36. 

Filly, «. a mare oolt, metaphorically applied to a yomig 
female. C. Brit, ffilog ; Hebr. phUlegeshy (Davies.) 
Germ, fullein ; A. Sax. Swed. fola ; Franc. fuUn ; 
Alam. wfo; M. Goth, fuia ; Id. fyl; Belg. «^fe», 

FiNAGUE, V. to omit or cease playing trumps. Ex. ^^He'^s 
Jmagued shute,^" (suit). In spite of this peculiar speci- 
men of card table concinuity, I am disposed to think 
that the word comes from the Fr. Jmer^ to which 
amongst other meanings, Roquefort assigns those of 
mowrir and cesser. 

FissEs, 8. fists. Ex. '^ Thire inna mainy as bin a gween 
to lick our Tummus, a young springy, lissom chap, 
hondles his Jmes mighty prittily.^'' 

FiTCHUK, «. a pole cat. Ex. ^^Yo stinken wus nor a 
fitchuk^ Fr. fissau. Fitehetio^ seems to be legitimate. 
(See Othello, iv. 1. Troilus and Cressida, v. 1.) 
And make ye fight like.^cAo^. 


FiTCHUK Pie, s. an unsavoury compound of bacon, apples, 
and onions ; by labouring men it is considered a dainty 
kind of pie, but it smells rank unto the senses of 
those who are habituated to delicate feeding. Surely 
some ill-natured Apician conceived its name from those 
offensive odours which are emitted by the Pole Gat. 
The pie is not confined to us, being made in Cheshire 
and Staffordshire. 

Fix, «. a Iamb yeaned dead. 

Fizz, «• to make a hissing noise, as any feAnented 
liquor. C. Brit, ffysg^ haste. Forby has Isl. fisa^ 


flibilftre, bat Haldonon only recognisefl fifUL, flare, and 
fy%^ flatus. 

Flakk, Fletkk, f. 1. a hurdle. 2. the moveable gate 
of a temporary enclosure. 5. the lower part of a bam 
door. S. Ooth. \A, jiake^ gerra. Teut. Belg. tiachU; 
Sicamb. fleckte^ crates. 

Flanob, $. a projection, an obtruding part of any ma- 

Flange out, «. to bulge, swell, or diverge. 

Flannbn, «. Some people will call this a vulgarism for 
JkuMidi but I am disposed to think that the C. Brit. 
gtelanm^ sanctions the local termination. Certainly tw 
have greater privilege to call it thus, than those who are 
indebted to us both for the original term, and as it were, 
for the article itself. Swed. flaneU^ texti lanei genus. 

Flarb^ $, fat round the kidney of a pig, *pig^s leaf.^ 

Flash, ». a title given to a part of the Severn above 
the town of Shrewsbury, which forming a kind of 
lake, probably is derived from the Teut. ptaseh^ palus. 

Flat, ckIj. 1. sorrowful, out of spirits. Ex. ''Looking 

Jkar S. Goth. Jka, subtrfstis. 2. heavy. Ex. " A;W 
market,^ one upon which no sales are effected. 

Flatrone, ». a measure of iron-stone which takes its 
name from its form. 

Flat, «. to pare turf from the surface of meadow 
land, by. means of a breast plough. Dan. fiagtr; 
Teut. Belg. Fland. flam ; A. Sax. /han, excoriare. 

Fled, part, past; 1. flew. Ex. ^^Fhd across the road."" 
2. either ''taken by the fly,^ or 'dashed^ by the son 
and wet weather. In the former instance they say, 
««the tormits bin Jledr "the wheats Jhd.'' In the 
latter, " the cullur uv her gownd's JM /^ " the rick- 
lisses (auriculas) shewden kindly like, but a bin all 

/led since the wets a common.'*^ 

Flee, s^ a fly. Ex. " I conna tell ^ said a poor per- 
son one day to a friend of the author^s, "whadivir 

yo msBen, for yo oaUen fieet, fin; and fitn^ yo oallen 

Flbm, «. a mill strettm, or more oorreotiy defining the 
tenn, water which comes from the main stream down 
to the mill. Frequentlj used for a river in the early 
poets. Wiclif has the word in his translation of the 
New Testament. ^^And thei weren baptisid of him in 
the finm Jordon.^^ A. Sax. fimn ; flumen. Isl; Jhm^ 

Flem, f. a strong lancet used for bleeding horses. Teut. 
vUeme^ scalpellum. Bret. Arm. Jlem^ aouleus. C. Brit. 
fflaimy a lancet. 

Flkr. f. fleas. The A. Sax. pi. o( Jlea^ phlex. Ex. 
"A hous'U o'Jlenr 

Hast thou hadfleen al night or art thou dronke? 

MandjOeSy Proi. y. 16096. 

FuNDBBS, f. small pieces. Ex. ^^Fled all to flind&n.'" 
S. Goth. Swed. JUnga^ frustum. Fr. /endan ; Roquef. 

He's taen the table wi' his foot, 

Sae has he wi' his knee; 
Till siller cup and 'maeer dish 
In JUndert Be gard flee. 

The bow in JlenderU flew. 

Chrigfi Kirk on the Grem, 
That his bow and his broad arrow 
Id. JUnderg flew about. 

Robin Hood. Rrrtoif's Edit. toL i. p. 101; 

FuNO, $. unimpeded gratification. Ex. ^^ FU tak ray 

JUnff at it for onst.^ 
FuNo, V. to baffle, disappoint, deceive. Bx. '^ He thought 

to ha* fun me, but I flung him.*** 
Flint Coal, s, a. coal measure so called, partly from 

its hardness, and partly from reposing upon a riliceous 

Fur, 9. 1. to remove, migrate. Ex. "Thire gwuz 

somebody a flitting wie their goodies and fiimitude.'" 

d. to leave work unfinished. Ex. '' Flitted his job."* 

** FUtted the pit.^ These two last meanings are mam- 


festly perveraionB. The first, however, is generally pre- 
valent in Staffordshire, Cheshire, Norfolk, Northamber- 
land, Hallamshire, Lancashire, and is traceable from 
the period of our Shropshire Satirist through Chaucer, 
Spenser, Fairfax, &c., down to the present time. 
Promp. Parv. flitten^ or remewn away. S. Goth. ftytkLy 
transportare ab uno loco ad alterum. Isl. flytic^ ve- 
here. Swed. flytta ; Dan. flytter^ migrare. 

And JUttynge fond ich the freie. 

Piers Ploubman, p. 202. 
Fer might thai noghi flit. 

Minot's Poemsy p. 46. 
Lat newefangylnes the plese 
Oftyn to remewe nor to flyt. 

Ritson's And. Pop. Poet. p. 85. 
Promitting^ hot flitting. 

MoxT GO meet's Cherry and the Sloe, St 108. 
Hou we binAe fliften, 
Ant togedere smiten. 

Geste op Kyno Horn, y. 865. 
And whan it faileth, he woUflii, 


So Bore it sticked when I was hit, 
That hy no crafty I might it flit. 

id. and also Troil. and Creee. v. 1543. 
Forthwith her ghost out of her corps did flit. 

AetropheL 177. 
FuTCHEN, 8. a flitch of bacon. A. Sax. Jlicce^ succidia. 
Float, v. to irrigate, cut gutters by which water may 
be conveyed over meadow land. This is not a wrested 
application of the common verb neuter which has cog- 
nate synonyms in the A. Sax. fiotan; Teut. flatten; 
Isl. Jlota; Oerm. Jhtter ; Belg. vKeten^ fluitare, but 
derived from the Swed. Jlatta^ pingui fluido imbuere. 
Floating Shovel, 8. a shovel used for cutting turf. 
Flop, ach. quickly, entirely, smartly. A vulgarism ex- 
pressing a fall or blow which has happened without 
any let or hindrance. Teut. vloeSy brevissima pars 
temporis. (See Souse.) 
Flue, Fluke, 8. a lancet used for letting blood from 
horses. Swed. Isl. flyta ; Teut. rloedeny fluere. 


Fluff, f. down, or any light flying particles of a gos- 
samer like nature. Ex. ''A coat is covered with 

fluff when it has lain on the top of a bed,"'' and 
with "-^ihiz tcool'^ when it has fallen underneath. A. 
Sax. floh ; C. Brit, ffloehen (hence a flock bed !) frag- 

Flusk, Fluke, s. a flounder. A. Sax. ,/fo<;, passer. 

Ts fell thee like ikfluike, flaUiiiffs on the fiure. 

MoK TOO meat's Flyting. 

Flummery, «. 1. blanc mange. 2. furmity. The latter 
dish is rarely made at Shropshire farm houses, though 
constituting a principal part of the food at supper of 
our neighbours the Welsh. Fr. fowrmentei^ frimnenie. 
Lat. frumentum. 

Flummery Hulls, «. the skin of oats prepared for 
making flvmmery. 

Flummox, 9. to cheat, outwit. Ex. *'*' Fhmmoxed him 
ye sin.*" A low word. 

Flush, s. an increase of water in the river Severn, not 
so large a quantity as a flood. A bargeman'^s word. 
Ex. "Now the flush is come we'en be off i^ th' 
ownder.*" Sometimes adjectively. Ex. "The Sivim'^s 
(Severn is) pretty flush.'^ Teut. fluysen^ meare cum 
impetu. Belg. fluygen ; Swed. flyta ; Dan. flyder; Isl. 
flyta, fluere. 

Flush, adj. 1. strong in the pocket. Ex. "^wA o^ 
the ready.*" Promp. Parv. Floushen^ floreo. Shaks- 
peare has " As flush as May.**" 2. even. Ex. " Now 
us bin flmh.^ 3. fledged. Ex. " Tak em when a bin 
flmhP Teut. vlugghen^ plumescere. 

Flusker, «. to be confused, giddy, stupified. Ex. 
" Meetily flmkeid^'' A depravation of fluster. 

FocED, fart, past; of verb to force, the r as is usual, 
being omitted. Ex. " I was faced to goa."*"* 

Foggy, adj. A horse is sidd to be foggy ^ when for a 
time having been fed upon grass, he has grown dull 


•nd gtupid. Jamieflon quotes an author who talks 
about the '' dull jadde of my f aggie flesh.'' WiU the 
Teut. ixMytfT, pabulum, account for the adoption of this 
word! k it tralatitious ! metaphorically taken from 
foggy-, heavy weather! or identified with Ray's North- 
em word, Fogi Lat. Fogagiwn^ which means coarse 
grass. Palsgrave ; foggy too full of waste flesshe. 

FoiN, adj, fine, tawdiy. Ex. '^ How meety foin yo 
bin growed !" and " Draw it fwn^ an address to a 
person who is exaggerating. 

Follow, s. a fallow. 

Foot it; Fut it, «?. to dance. Ex. **Wun 'e f%t it 

wi' me a bitT 

Foot U featly here and there. 

Tensest, L 2. 

Foot alb. Footing, f . a sum of money exacted firom 
a young workman, by his companions as a kind of 
entrance fee: a gratuity which a labourer demands 
from his superior when he handles his tools. On 
which occasion he is usually addressed, ^^Now Sir, 
yo mun poy your fut yals.^ Both the term and the 
practice are so universal, that they cannot be con- 
sidered dialectical. 

Foot boat, s, a boat solely used for transporting foot 

FooTsoM, 8. neat's foot oil. (See Neat's foot.) 

FoRAT, 9. to hasten, accelerate in growth. Ex. ^^Sich 
weather as this ul forai the quern." 

FoRAT, adj. and adv. 1. forward, advanced. Ex. ^*'Forat 
in his book." 2. adverbially; onwards, before. Ex. 
" Hie thee forat lad." Swed. find, ante. (See re- 
marks under Oerts.) 

FoRATisH, adj. forward, early. Ex. ^^The inins and 
garrats looken faroHsh.^ (the onions and carrots.) 

FoRDER, FuRDER, odf. farther. Ex. *^ Yo men (meggh- 
ten, might, may) goa furder and far (fare) wusser.'* 


An archaieal expreseion which receives sanction for 
using it, from tiie Early English Poets, as well as 
from a direct uid certain etymon. Germ, fwrder; 
A. Sax. forthar ; Franc, fwrdir ; Teut. toarder^ longius. 
Hy ne thexst her brynge fi^rder est. 

Oct A VI AK iMPEEAToii, Y. 286. 

FoBOEB, FuBDER, «. to promotc, help. The original 
orthography of our modem word to further. Teut. 
voarderen ; Oerm. fwrderen ; Belg. 9orderen ; Franc. 
Alam. /ardaron; Swed. be/ardra; A. Sax. /orthriany 

Forecast, 8. forethought. Ex. ^^Poor John, like many 
other servants, has no fatecatt^ and thus his work gets 
into confiision.^^ 

Forecast, 9. to project, plan beforehand. 

FoBXDALE, ». a pudding of a cow towards the throat, 
the same as the farthing hag. My informant declares, 
to repeat his own words, that ^'if a bin^ (that is 
the *bwes') "bwon i' th^ farthing lag its present 
dheath to ^em,**^ and upon my requesting more specific 
and intelligible information he replies, ^^bwon i^ th' 
fardale^'' These phrases have been subsequently re- 
peated by others. To me the interpretation is, I 
confess, ignotum per ignotius, perhaps my reader will 
understand them better. 

Fore-end, «. pronounced forrand: 1. the front. 2. the 
breast, neck or shoulder of female or beast. Ex. 
"Comes up well i** th** forrand,^ 

Form, Fourm, 8, the bed or seat of a hare. 

Thise wedded men^ that lie and dare 
As in tkfimrme setteth on every hare. 

SMpmans Tale. 

Foul, adj. the former compound of several vituperative 

epithets, as frnd-mouthed^ fhut-imgwed^ f(ml-8pokeny &c., 

&C., with a variety of other foul words which, as 

Shakspeare says, " are but fmd wind, and foul wind 

is but fotd breath, and foul breath is noisome.'*'' 


Ex. '^ H^8 got sich a fovl4(mgus^ & aggravaits yo so, h^s 

for ivir a ninnin agen you; an a dunna spaik like 

the folks r our country, h^B a shommaking chap, oerts 

aa a bin wi^ us."'' 

Founder, v. to maintain, support, provide for. Ex. 

^'^^ Founder for a family.*^ A modermsed shape of the 

old verb found which appears below. 

There lay an old wvfc in that plaoe^ 
A lytte besyde the tyrt, 
Whych Wyllyam had fiund of cheiytye^ 
More than seven yere. 

Adam Bsll, y. 69. 

Four o^clock, «. a lunch or bait taken by labourers at 
this hour in the harvest. Ex. ^^ When ^e getten in 
the harrast they han mwostly a four o'clock.^ 

Frame, v, to talk in a studied way. When people 

frame their words, it may justly be suspected that 
there is some evil feeling lurldng in their minds, which 
they are fearful of disclosing. Guildenstem bids Ham- 
let " put his discourse into some framed 

Frank, 8. a very broad iron fork, having eight or nine 
teeth, used for loading cokes or coals. Very local. 
Isl. prion, filum ferreum. B. Bret, frankighel^ outil de 

Free-spoken, adj. affable, condescending. Ex. ^'Hers' 
a meety free-spoken lady.'*' This qualification will al- 
ways recommend those of a higher rank in life to 
their inferiors. I question whether with us, a popu- 
larity hunter would better accomplish his object, than 
by conversing unaffectedly and courteously with "pore 
commune people.**' They are sensibly touched by the 
imaginary honor, and seldom fail, when mentioning 
the virtues of their superiors, to recount this as a 
feature in their character entitled to their regard and 

Freeten, Fritten, f?. to terrify. Or. (pfHrreiv ; A. Sax. 

frihta/n, horrescere. 


Frbsh, adj. The precise meaning this adjective has 
obtained with us is clearly described in that very 
lively poem entitled the ExdUatio Aim, a production 
worth reading by every lover of malt liquor; See it 
in Ritson's Collection of English Songs, vol. ii. p. 6S. 
Not drunken^ nor sober, but neighbour to both. 

Fresh, «. here the preceding word is changed into a 
substantive, unless we suppose it an elliptical form 
of speaking, the word supply being understood. Ex. 
" There^s a fre^ in the river f that is, an accession 
of water from the upper country. The term has been 
commented upon as local by various authors, (See 
Encyclopedia Britannica, Rees' Cyclopedia, &c.) which 
leads me to think it has no claims whatever to be 
called local or dialectical. Teut. frisch ; A. Sax. ferse; 
Arm. fresc; Swed. fersk ; Belg. versch; Fr. /rats; 
It. friscoy recens. Lat. mreseo. 

Fresh Drink, s, small beer. 

Frith, s. a name belonging to different places in the 
county of Salop. The etymology points out the ori- 
ginal meaning which signifies a wood, or land enclosed 
from a mountain or forest. C. Brit, ffrith^ ffindd^ a 
woodland. Ir. frith^ a wood. 

In toun, in feld, inyh'M and fen. 

Minot's Poems, p. 9. 

In A frith i iknd a stretc. 

Gioaine and Gawin, v. 169. 

By forest, fi^h or fauld. 

Robyn and Mahfne, v. 96. 

Frommet, adv. from ; abbreviated from from towards, 
Ex. " Comes frommet Lungunnus.'"* (i. e. Clungunford.) 

Frost-cetchen, adj, frost-bitten. 

Frostt nails, 8, nails of a somewhat different kind to 
those ordinarily put in horses^ shoes, which from having 
their heads filed sharp, prevent the beasts from slip- 
ping in frosty weather. 


Frowsy, adj. ill savoured and fusty, ill looking and 

dirty. Ex. " Miss O. was but frowsy this morning.'' 
Fbum, iidf, forward: an epithet applied to grain or 

vegetables when they are early or look kindly. Ex. 

''Frum peas.'' ''Frtm to'ert the Ryelands." Tent. 

women; Oerm. frommen^ profioere. From whatever 

language we derive this very conomonly received word, 

the root must be resolved into the M. Ooth. frm^ 

primus ; frmna^ principium tam ordinis quam originis. 

Hence the kindred terms in the Ld. firurn^ primitisB : 
frunucuBta^ maturus. Oerm. fromme ; A. Sax. froim^ 

prsestans: frum^ principium; and frtmy handsome, new, 

as used in Northamptonshire. 
Frump, v. to coin, invent. Ex. '^ Frwnped up a 


Fry, 8. young children. Isl. /rio, fre^ semen. 
FuKE, «. 1. a lock of hair which hangs down between 

the ears of a horse. 2. a lock of hair, generally. C. Biii. 

fflufJDch^ a bush of hair. A. Sax. /mut, oaesaries. Ray. 
Full, adv. quite, entirely, every way. " This'ns fM as 

good as his'n." '^ FuU as nigh," pronounced short 

and sharp, like dull; and iuU on the other hand is 

sounded long and soft, like fool. 
Fullaring, 8. a groove into which the nails of a horse's 

shoe are inserted. 
FuLLOcK, V. to advance the hand unfairly. A term used 

by boys at marble. It is not illegitimate, or capricious, 

seeing that the same word prevails in the North, 

(See Crav. Gloss.) but whence derived I know not. 

I do not think the passage in P. Plouhman bears 

our meaning. 

And ryght JuUokeit a lelyk. 

v. 985. 

FuMK, V. to become inflamed, bum. Ex. ^' My hand 

/ume8 very bad," says a patient to the doctor. C. 

Brit, frommiy to grow angry. Fr. fumer. 


Like boyling liquor in a seething pot^ 

That Jutneth, swelleth high and bnhhleth fast. 

Fairfax's Ta99o, viiL 74. 

Fun, Fund, per/, and part, past ; of verb to /nrf, which 
according to Etymological affinity it properly becomes. 
Id. Swed. Jinna ; Dan. Jmder ; Germ, finden ; Teut. 
vinden ; A. Sax. findan^ invenire ; which respectively 
become Dan. A. Sax. fundm ; Isl. fwndiun ; Swed. 
funneuy inventus. We hear a man say sometimes that 
his late master ^*'fwn him in mate and drink.^ Or, 
the question being asked if a thing is lost, ^^ Han^e fun 
^him' yetr the usual answer is, ^'Noa I haxa\& fiMd 
him.'" As might be expected these forms are of con- 
tinual recurrence in the Early English Poets. 

When thai haAfanden that man unkowth. 

The Seuyn Sages, y. 9835, 3869. 

For all was Junden that he had soght. 

Minot's Poems, p. 36. 

FuNNT, adj. a certain degree of inebriety which just 
stops short of positive stupidity, something half way 
between fooleiy and beastiality. 

FuBDST, superl. of farther. Teut. voordete^ ultimus. 

FuRM, FouRM, 8, a form or bench. Fr. /ourtne. B. 
Bret, faurm. 

FussocKY, adf. an epithet of reproachful tendency for a 
huge, inodorous old woman. 

FuTRiT, 8, an horizontal shaft, or way used in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ironbridge ; sometimes called a footright^ 
quasi foci tread^ a road along which men, and not 
horses, draw ^^fire clay^** or coal firom the work. Isl. 
fit'tred^ conculcare. 

Fuzz-ball, s. brown fungi which emit dust when touched. 
Lyeoperdon BovisUB^ Linn. 


is often omitted in words where it is 
followed by A, as itheelriht, for wheel- 
wright, upriht^ for upright, strenth, 
for strength, lerUh for length, &c. &c. 

Ac, by strenthe no by gynne. 

Kyno Alisaunder, y. 1219. 
Therefore mak thou streyn^ now. 

W. V. 3112. flnrfv. 3387. 
He hadde in kynthe ten grete feet. 

id. V. 6818. 

And in names of places always left out, as Wellinton, 

DoRRiNTON, LoppiNTON, for Wellington^ Dorrington^ Lap- 

pington. Sometimes when preceded by «, the n and g 

take the sound of double ^, as Carditton, Uppitton, 

Berritton, Coomitton, &c., for Cardington^ UppingUmj 

Berrington^ Culmington, &c. 

Gab, 8. 1 . small talk, fluent utterance of nonsense. Ex. 

" The gift of the gab^ Neither the accomplishment or 

the phrase seem peculiar to Salopians. The next word 

may be. 2. the mouth. Ex. " Hand you gab^ 

He dighted his gab, and he prie'd her mow. 

MuiRLAND Willie. 

Gab, v. to prate. Ex. " He'*s a sort o' mon ye sin as 
is always a-gabbing about other folk's business, oVrts 
a-minding his own."" BuUokar. 


I gabbe not, so have I ioye and blis. 

Nonnes Prewte's Tak, v. 15072. 

Or of Chcsshyre, or elles nygh Comewall, 
Or where they lyst, for to gabbe and rayle. 

Hye way to the SpytteU Hous, v. 254. 

Nae daffin, nae gabbin, but sighing and sabbing. 

Floddm Field, (Herd's Coileciion.) 

Gabber, v. 1. to talk foolishly or at random, to utter un- 
intelligible sounds. It is said that a monkey gahbers^ 
when he chatters; an individual gabbers^ when he talks 
fast, and incoherently. Isl. gahba; Teut. Belg. gahbe" 
ren; Ital. gabbare; Ft. gaber ; A. Sax. gabban^ nugari. 

Gaby, Gawby, s, a foolish, idiotic fellow. Ex. " He is 
sich a gaby!^ Isl. gapi^ homo fatuus. 

Gad, u. to aflRx, fasten. Ex. " Gad it to,'" chiefly with 
reference to iron-work. Isl. gadda, figere. 

Gadnail, 8. a long and stout nail used chiefly in fastening 
posts and rails. Isl. gaddr^ clavus. 

Gaff, 8, a kind of hoe, occasionally termed a iaff. (See 
sub Kqf.) Isl. gaffaU; Dan. Belg. Lapp. Teut. Swed. 
gaffel; Germ, gabd; Lat. gabalm^ furca. A. Sax. gaflar^ 

Gaffer^ 8. a superintendant, overlooker, head workman, 
leader of a band of reapers. A. Sax. gefera^ .v^cius. 
Belg. gaffel^ contubemium. 

Gain, ctdj. 1. suitable, convenient, profitable, easy: it is 
most generally taken in a comparative or superlative 
sense. Ex. " It's a power gainer o thisns."*^ 2. near, 
contiguous. Ex. " The gainest road by odds.**^ Both 
senses occur in BuUokar. The latter instance is more 
frequent. I feel disposed to think this is not an arbi- 
trary application of the lower classes, but unconsciously, 
it is true, yet legitimately deducible from the cognate 
tongues. Isl. ganga ; A. Sax. Franc. Belg. Germ, gan ; 
Alaman. kan; Gr. /cicii;; Swed. jri ; Dan. gaa; Teut. 
g(Mn^ ire: and this presumption becomes strengthened by 
the following authorities : 


To a bath gan him lede, 

Sir Tristrem, J^lftie, iL 4D. 
Ye ar the jftUneH gate, and gyde^ to God. 

PrwU qf PdfHi. 

Gaint Coal, ». a ooal measure bearing this title at 
Broflely oorrespondB with the SiUrCoal in the Lightmoor 

field. A collier infomus the writer that ^'Mr 

wonat got it, but it lee him in eliven shilling a ton afore 
he knocked it off.^^ 

Gall, v. 1. to hurt by pressure or friction. Ex. " GaUed 

by the tightness of the collar.'" Hence the seoondaiy 

meaning; 2. to suffer from vexation, be crossed. Ex. 

" Terribly gaUed when I told him.'' 

Howeyer this may gaU him with some check. 

OthOh, L 1. 

A. Sax. geaUatiy intertrigare. Ir. gaiUim, kedere. Fr. 

Gall, «. The bitterness of this liquid, or more correctly 
speaking viscous substance, is universally proverbial: 
whether the simile of '^as yellow as gaW^ be so I am 
uncertain. A term more expressive of color, etymologi- 
cally viewed, it would be difficult to find. A striking 
congruity exists between the substantive and adjective. 
The latter evidently taking its origin from the former, 
and retaining nearly the same sound with the substantive 
in the respective languages below. Isl. Belg. gall ; Swed. 
Franc-Theot. Ital. galla; Dan. galds; Teut. Oerm. A. 
Sax. Fr. galle ; Sp. gaUia ; Lat. gaUa^ fel. Whilst the 
adjective becomes in Isl. gviur; Swed. guU; Teut. gaUe; 
Belg. jr«^, gheluwe ; Dan. ^ui^,* A. Sax. ^eo^^tr; Germ. 
gdb; Ital. gicdlo ; Sp. galde; Fr. jaune^ jaulne ; Lat. 
flatus. From these synonyms the reputed vulgarisms 
YeUer (Isl. gulur) and YaJloto (Ital. giallo ; Teut. galUt 
&c.) with the old English TalUnJo^ receive counte- 

Al 80 yattow as ony gold. 

Kriro Alisaukder^ v. 6469. 


Gallimaufrbt, f . a rank compound of weekly scraps which 
may be enumerated among school boys'* fare. Fr. gaU- 
mafriey sorte de hachis de haiU-guSt Minsheu gives a 
curious account of the dish, sub voce. Bullokar de- 
scribes it as '^ a confused mixture of several things, a 
mingle mangle, hotch potch, mishmash.'" Nares, Coles, 

Gallows, Oallous, adj. applied to a person who by bad 

conduct stands a fair chance of reaching one. Ex. ^^ He^s 

an onlucky gaUow dog.*" M. Ooth. gaiga; A. Sax. galg; 

Dan. Swed. galge; Isl. galgi; Belg. gcUghe^ patibulum. 

Ay^ and a shrewd unhappy gaOowa too. 

Laoe'9 Labour's LoH, v. 2. 

Gallowses, «. braces ; are they termed so metaphorieaUg^ 
because a certain part of men^s attire is held up by them! 

Gallt, adj, applied to wet land, and consequently such as 
is poor and sterile. Ex. ^^ Wet and gaUg^ and wants 
draining.^ Isl. (Verel. in Ind.) gaU; Swed. Germ. gaU^ 
sterilis, infsecundus. 

Gambbil, 8. 1. the lower part of a horse^s leg. 2. a stick 
used by butchers, which having either end passed through 
the sinews of a slaughtered animal, is the means of 
supporting it from the ground. 3. a stick placed across 
the inside to keep open the carcase of the slain. Ital. 

Soon crooks the tree that good gambrel would be. 

Rat, p. 93. 

Gambril, 9, to stretch open the carcase of a sheep or 

other animal for the foregoing purpose. Nares. 

And cany you gamMTd thither like a mutton. 

Nice Valour, iv. 1. 

Gamock, 8. foolish sport, practical jokes ; it may be refers 

able to the succeeding. 
Gamon, 8. nonsense. Ex. ^^ Lets have none of your 

gamon.'" ^^ Houd your gamon,'*'* 2. play, pastime. Ex. 

^^ Up to their gamon.^ Isl. gaman^ jocus. A. Sax« 

gamene^ Indus. Swed. gamman^ Isetitia. 


Bot gamenen togedres, and eke scoff. 

Kyko Alisaunder, v. 6461. 
And that thou never on Eldridge come 
To sporte, gamon, or play. 

Percy's Reliques, vol. L p. 47. 

Oandernoped, cutj. giddy, thoughtless, or as the phrase 

goes, " a goose." 
Gandy, adj. idly disposed. 
Gap, Gat, «. a hole in a fence, part broken down, 

or through. Isl. Teut. Belg. Swed. gat ; Germ, pott, 

foramen, hiatus. M. Goth, gatanka^ ruptura. Verel. 

in Indie, gap^ foramen sepis, per quod pecus transire 


And led 'till the oop. 

Tournament of Tottenham^ 

Gauky, Goky, s, a term of contempt, a foolish, rude, 
illbred fellow. lel. gaukr, arrogans morio. Com. goky; 
Germ, gattcl; Swed.^ac^, stultus. Dan. giei; Alaman. 
goch; Franc, gouch, stolidus. 

a goky he is yholden 
So is he a goky by that in the godsj^l &illeth. 

Pbrbs Plouhman, v. 221. 

Gowke, wyt mee not to gar thee greit. 

Montgomery's Flyting. 

Gaup, v. to gape, stare ; pronounced geaup, Ex. " Whod 
dost stond thire geauping at?*" "A geauping fool.^ 
Isl. gapi; Dan. gahe; Teut. gaepen; A. Sax. geapan; 
Verel. in Indie, gapa ; Swed. gapa; ^Ig.gaapen; Germ. 
gaffeuy hiare. 

•Gaut, 8. a barrow pig. S. Goth. gaUt ; Isl. gaUi ; Dan. 
Swed. galt^ majalis. 

6a WN, 8. a small bucket chiefly used in brewing. Ex. 

. " A lading gavm.^ 

Oaypole, 8. a piece of wood which goes across the interior 
of a chimney, upon which are passed chains, to hold pots 
and kettles over the fire. It is only seen in old houses, 
and the word is rapidly becoming extinct. 

Get, 8, 1. stock, breed. Ex. '' All that hos'^s get bin good 
uns.'^ 2. income, receipt. Ex. " A man of poor gei^ 


Get, v. to receive chastisement. Ex. " Yone pet it lad 
when yo gwon whdam.'^ 

Gib, 8. a piece of wood about ten inches long, used in 
supporting the roof of a coal mine. 

GiD, perf. of give. Ex. " I nivir gid my mind to sich 
nonsense.'* Sometimes en final is added, as " they 
giden^ for they gave. 

GiPFY, 8, the shortest space of time. Ex. " Done in a 
gijSyP This cannot be very dialectical. 

Giggle, t?. to titter. Ex. " Laughing and giggling?^ It is 
usually applied to a person whose manner and discourse 
are light and foolish. And such an acceptation strictly 
accords with its etymon. A. Sax. gega8^ gegas-sprasc^ 
nugatorius sermo. 

GiLLORE, adv, plenty. This word which is not peculiar 
to us I believe, is used in general, at the end of a sen- 
tence. Ex. " Have you any besoms ? Yes, Tve besoms 
gilhrey Irish, gillore. Grose. 

But see de Tyrconnel is now come ashore^ 
And we shall have commission giUore. 

Lilii Burlero, v. 32. 

Gilt, 8. a spayed pig. A. Sax. gilde ; Isl. Dan. gaalte ; 

Dan. gglt; Germ, gelze^ sucula. Northamptonshire, gilt. 
Gin, per/, of verb give. Ex. " Whod'^s he gin yo V for 

what has he given you. 
Gin, 8, a trap or snare to take hares or rabbits. As a 

deceit, plot, or engine of entrapment, it is most commou 

in Chaucer and our early poets. (Canterb. Tales, w. 

149^ 34^, 446, &c. &c.) And in his Translation of 

Boethius we read. 

Ye ne hyden not youre ginnes in hie moimtuns to catchen 

Of the traytouTs of Scotland that take beth with gynne. 

Ritson's AfU, Song, p. 5. 

Neptanabus byhalt his gynne. 

KyNO AL1SA.UNDKR, ▼. 607. 


ThuB berdes been maade all daye full feele 
With anglen and other gynnei over all. 

HAnTBBOBsrK's Ant. Metrical Talei, p. 119. 
My gi/nne», my japia, I will reaigne. 

id. p. 126. 

Gin, 9. to eiunare. U. ginni^ dedpere, allicere. 

OiN, t. a wooden perpendicular axle, which has arms 
projecting from its upper part, to which a horse is 
fastened. A common mode of drawing materials out 
of a coal pit when a work is in its infancy. Whence 
the term has come it is now perhaps impossible to say. 
Unless its origin lies hidden in the word engine. We 
also have several compounds from it, as ^^ going in 
the gin''^ when a horse is used to that peculiar labour, 
besides some other words that follow. 

Ginger hackled, adj. red haired. This elegant epithet is 
chiefly applied to the softer sex, Grose. 

Gingerly, adv. lightly, tenderly, gently. Ex. '^ Gingerly^ 
as if you were treading on eggs.**^ This must not be 
accounted dialectical ; yet it is sufficiently remarkable to 
obtain a place in a provincial glossary, one of whose 
principal uses seems naturally to consist in recording the 
extent of reception, which any word of presumed limited 
circulation, has obtained. 

GiN-HORSE, 8. a horse accustomed to work ^' in the gin."^ 

GiNNT RAILS, 8. vtoxi rails along which small wooden 
carriages (ginny carriages) are drawn, laden with coal, 
ironnstone, lime-stone, or other mineral products. 

GiNNT Carriage, s. a stout wooden, or sometimes iron 
carriage, used for conveying materials along a rail road. 

GiN-BiNG, 8. the circle round which a gin horse exercises 
his daily labour. 

Girder, 8. a blow. Ex. " If he dunnod baud his rackle, 
gie him a girder Thavie.'*'' This is not the vulgarism 
which its first sound would lead us to suppose. Salo- 
pians, though I confess, unconsciously, yet do not un- 
warrantably, give it utterance. In this as in most other 


of their peculiaritiefi, something like good authority can 
be adduced. A. Sax. gyrdan. Besides its adoption by 
our early poets, Robert Langland, Sir David Lyndsay, 
Chauoer and others, we find its occurrence in the follow- 
ing passages. 

A gyrd lycht to the King he couth maik. 

The BaucE. 
Myd gerden to his naked ruff. 

Robert of Gloucester. 
Men of all sorta take a pride to gird at me. 

2 Hen. IV. L 2. 

Gi88, V. to guess. Ex. '^ Oiss agen."^ How or when did 
this vowel supplant the diphthong ! Have not the vul- 
gar in this instance retained a word more closely in 
analogy with the general idiom of our language, than 
that adopted by their superiors! Isl. giska; Swed. 
gism ; Tout, ghissen ; Belg. Germ, gisaen ; Dan. gjCBtk; 
A. Sax. goftcm^ conjicere. 

OiT, V. for get. This change of vowels is very frequent. 

Give, 9. 1. to yield. Ex. ^' The ground giws^ during 
a thaw. 2. to abuse, scold, vituperate. Ex. ^'But^ 
(this disjunctive implies retaliation) ^' I gid it him.**^ 
As much as to say, under another form of provincial- 
ism, ^^ I gid him the length of my tongue.''^ The gift 
itself is usually understood in such phrases, as ^^to 
gits tongue,^ implies to give utterance: and akin to 
the former example, '^I gave him as good as he 
brought,^ signifies that the objurgation was satisfactory 
and complete. S. to chastise, beat. Ex. ^'Thee mind 
lad if I duiina gk it thee when thee comst whdam.'*^ 

GizzERN, 8. the gizzard. Lat. gigerium ; Fr. gener ; the 
guiseme of a bird. Cotgrave. Gysernb of fowles. 
Promp. Pabv. 

Glat, s. an opening in a fence, part broken down, or 
destroyed. Ex. "A stop-^fo^."" "Any thin uU dda 
to stop a gka.'" Isl. glatan, dispendiuin. Teut. Swed. 
gkUt, planus. (See Gap.) 


Olaverino, part, flattering. Ex. *^ A gl^vering and slaver- 
ing fellow.'" The a is invariably pronounced broad. 
Junius had heard each of these. One is merely by a 
trifling metathesis the same as the other. Glater is 
one of the singularly few words which we have ac- 
quired from our Cambrian neighbours. C. Brit, plafr, 
adulatio. A. Sax. gliwan^ scurram agere. Lat. glaber. 

And begileth hem of her good with glauerynge wordes. 

Pkres Ploughman's Cmfe. 
Ha ! now he glavert with his fawning snoute. 

Marston's Scourge of Fillanie, 
Leave glavering on him in the peopled presse. 

When grand Mspcenas casts a glavering eye. 

Hall's Satires, v. 1. 
Do you hear stiff-toe, give him warning to forsake hia saucy 
glauering grace and his goggle eye. 

PoeUuter, vL 4. 

Olemmy, adj. close, damp, muggy. Ex. *' Glemmy wea- 
ther.**^ Teut. klam^ humidus. Promp. Parv. Gleymen^ 
visco ; and Gloytnotu, viscosus. 

Gloppen, v. to alarm ; to feel astonished ; to be igno- 
rantly surprised. Ex. " Welly gl4>ppened when I seed 
him.**' A word found by me hitherto only in the 
mouths of persons living on the North side of the 
county. It comes to us I suspect from Cheshire, and 
being (in part) the property of that county, it has 
not escaped the notice of my late highly valued friend 
Mr Wilbraham. Verel. in Ind. glapa, intentis oculis 
adspicere. Isl. glapi^ intuere. Germ, glupen, oculos 
vultumque demittere. S. Goth, glop^ fatuus. 

It zellede, it zamede with vengeance full wete; 

And saide, aftre syghande full sare, 

I am the body that the bare, 

Alias ! now kyndyls my kare^ 
I gloppyn and I grete.' 

The AunUyrs qff' Arthure. 

Thane gloppengde, and grett, dame Gaynoure the gay. 



Gob, 8. 1. the mouth. Ex. "Shut your gob,'''* Irish, 
gob; Fr. gobe. Sir D. Lyndsay, Ray. Gobstiek^ a 
spoon ; North country. And seoondarily transferred 
to what issues therefrom, as, 2. talk, nonsense, ex- 
pectoration. Ex. "Stop your ^o6." Or, 3. what may 
be put therein as a small round piece of fat, or any 
substance that is edible, whether solid or semi-fluid. 

So hope ich to haue of hym, that his al myghty 
A gobet of hus grace. 

P. Plouhman, 80. 

4. A particular measure in a coal mine. Ex. " At 
work i' th' gob^ 

Gob, 9. to fill up, impede. Ex. "The drain''s gobbed 
up o' dirt." 

Gobble, Gobbler, s. a turkey cock. Let any individual 
stand in a farm yard when the poultry are fed, and 
their ears will be assailed by these various sounds ad- 
dressed to the respective feathered tribes. Gobble^ 
gobble^ gobble^ to the turkey; chtLck^ chuck^ chuck^ to 
the chicken ; pen^ pen, pen^ to the peacock ; icalk up^ 
walk yp, walk up^ to the guinea fowl; hic^ Ate, hic^ to 
the young duck; wid^ wid^ wid^ to the old one. These 
respective terms of invitation are struck off on the 
principle of onomatopeia. 

Gold finch, «. the Yellow Bunting. {Emberiza CUri- 

GoMs, GooMs, 8, the gums. Verel. in Indie, goma fauces. 
A. Sax. gomay ther gums of the mouth. Swed. gom^ 

GbNB, part. past. We are much reprehended for our 
peculiar use of this verb : yet the idiom is classical, 
and well known to readers of the Greek Tragedians. 
Other counties substitute groton for gone^ and say grown 
cold for gone cold. Our form is surely as correct as 

Good few, adj. a fair number, plentiful supply. Ex. 


^^ He gin me a good fewT A goodiik few^ or a good 
iwo4kree^ are phrases of BuniLir significancy. 

OooDiT, GoodtVtubsdat. #. By this title, Shrovetide 
is usoally known among the lower orders. (See Wil- 
braham^s Cheshire Olossary under GuttU.) 

OooM Rbd. (See under Red Ooom.) 

OosLiNs, 8. the blossoms of the salix, which firom their 
color and peculiar softness are not unnaturally com- 
pared by the vulgar to young geese; more commonly 
denominated ^^goosy gosling^ 

OossEPy Gossip, #. a godfather or godmother. A. Sax. 
godsHbf sponsor. Junius supposes that from sponsors, 
under cover of their spiritual office, meeting together 
at entertainments, and discussing family affiurs, arose 
the phrases of Agoing a gossipping;^ and ^a drunken 
or gadding gossip.** Promp. Pabv. gosep many com- 
pater: goaep woman j conunater. 

For which a woman may in no lesse sinne assemble with hire 
godnb, than with hir owen fleshly broder. 

Per9one» Taie, vol. iv. p. 107. 
And say he schal mi goittbbe be. 

Lat le FaEiirz, v. 42 and 50. 
And said gouap beir hame zoor pure offiing. 


OosTEB, V. to bully, hector, talk vauntingly. C. Brit. 
gottegn^ silere quiescere. 

Grab, v. to lay hold of, snatch, pilfer. S. Ooth. Swed. 
grabba ; Tout. Belg. grahbeUn, arripere. 

Oradelt, adv. gently, moderately, by degrees. Ex. 
" Tak it graddy^ Teut. grasd ; Swed. grad, gradus. 
A. Sax. grade^ ordo. 

Oradely, ad}\ respectable, moderate. Ex. ^'A graddg 
man.'" A. Sax. gerasd man, prudens. 

Oraf, Graft, s. the depth of a spaders bit in digging. 
Ex. " Turn up the sile a spaders gra/J' M. gr^a ; 
Dan. grafwa; Swed. grafuwB ; M. Goth, graban ; A. 
Sax. gra/an^ fodere. Isl. grdfningr; Swed. gra/mng; 
Dan. gravningy fossio. Teut. gra^^ fossa. 


Grafting tool, 8. a long spade used in draining. Verel. 

in Indie, graftd^ instnimenta fossoria. 
Orains, «. 1. the prongs of a hay or dung fork. Ex. 

" Pikel grains^ 2. the branches of a tree, where they 

first separate from the stem. S. Goth. Swed. Dan. 

gren; Isl. grein^ ramus. 

Apoun ane grane or branch of yan giene tree. 

' G. Douglas' VvrgUy p. 360. 

S, malt when the water has been passed through it 

in brewing. Isl. grion^ zea. C. Brit, gravm ; Teut. 

Belg. gregn; Ital. Span, grcmo ; Fr. grain, granum. 

GuANDAM, $. a grandmother; An archaism perpetuated 

from grand mamma. 

My grandam liVd at Washington, 
My gramUir deiVd m ditches. 

Ritson's Anet. Songs, p. 280. 

Grange, $. Originally this signified a farm house or 
granary, or farm appOTtaining to a monastry, or some 
other religious house, and thus in time the term be- 
came identified with the place itself, as in the in- 
stances of Hamage Grange^ HcOkm Grange, Hoarfy 
Cfrange, Stoke Grange, Walton Grange, Kingstreet 
Grange, Hence too arose the name of Granger, one 
who was accustomed to keep charge of the farm, or 
storehouse, a farmer. (See Du Gauge sub Grangia^ 
Fr. grange; Ital. grancia; Span, granja; Chaucer, 
Spenser, Milton, Blount. 

Grakny-rear^d, part, past; brought up by a Grrand- 
mother: it commonly implies spoiled, tenderly treated, 
accustomed to the foolish kindness which oyer indul- 
gent relatives evince. 

Gransir, «.,a grandfather. This good old word is 
rapidly falling into disuse, and is now I suspect con- 
fined to the Western district. In a Poem written by 
John Audelay, a blind Monk of Haughmond Abbey, 
preserved among the Douce Manuscripts in the Bod- 


leian, it thus occurs in conjunction with the preceding 


His gfracious oranseres and his frawndame. 
His fader and moderis of kyngis thay came. 

fol. 29. 

Oraves, 8. the refuse of tallow made into cakes, a sort 
of oil cake with which "dogs are fed. A. Sax. Sicamb. 
Teut. greus ; cremium. Brade of greven. 

QRAYErtpike^ 8. an instrument used by sextons in grave 
digging. Dan. grateredstaker^ instrumenta sepulchia- 
lia. Isl. grafa ; Swed. grafwa. 

Oreat, adj. familiar, intimate. A word now chiefly con- 
fined to the vocabulary of schoolboys, though formerly 
in higher circulation. (See Hunter's, and Brocketfs 

Orewed, part, pa8t; 1. burned or stuck to the pot in boil- 
ing. Ex. " The milk is greto'd to the pot. 2. adhering 
firmly to the flesh, as dirt, or filth. Ex. " GreuPd 6* dirt."" 
" The dirt's grew'd into thee.*" Teut. grauen^ crassescere. 

Orig, 8. heath. From this shrub the poor generally make 
their besoms, at least all those whose locality places them 
within its reach. We were remarked by Ray for using 
the word, who in his Catalogue of local words, gives it to 
the Salopians a century or more ago. It is one of the 
very few terms we have borrowed from our Welsh neigh- 
bours. C. Brit. gryg. 

Grime, 8. dirt, colly. Verel. in Indie, grima^ cutis faciei. 
Isl. grima^ conticinium quando omnia quasi obvelata 
caligine videntur: persona. 

Grime, v, to daub, dirty. Ex. " Grimed with colly.'' 

Evidently metaphorical from the Islanoic, hidden with 

dirt, obscured, dark, so that it is difiicult to recognise 

the individual as the same. Tha' runnu a' hann to»r 

grimur, personam fere mutavit, ut vix se continuit. 

Belg. begriemen^ demigrare. 

My face ill grime with fiUh, 

Lear, ii. 3. 


Grin, », a trap, snare to take game or small birds. Some- 
times a springe, consisting simply of a bent twig; hence 
the S. Goth, and Swed. gren^ ramus, suggests an etymon; 
more correctly, the A. Sax. prin. Germ, gam^ laquei 
quibus aves yel ferse capiuntur. Gr. aypfivvw^ rete. 

But I trowe that thy grynnes been untelt. 

Haatbboaite's Metrical Taleg, p. 123. 

GhuN, «. to take hares or game by means of a running 
noose set in those particular parts of a hedge through 
which they are accustomed to pass. 

Grin and abide it, pkr. a phrase applicable to those un- 
fortunate people whose only power of redressing their 
injuries, or means of consolation and contentment under 
adyerse circumstances, consists in the recreation of ' shew- 
ing their teeth,^ and patiently enduring what cannot 
be remedied. What a horrid predicament to be placed 

GBiNDLEBsrwoN, 8. A griudstone. Several verbs which ter- 
minate in ind have correspondent substantives inle; as 
bind, bundle ; windt windle ; and thus by analogy we 
may say grind, grindle. The A. Sax. has not, it is true, 
under grind! our definition of the word, but aa has 
been justly observed by one of my glossarising predeces- 
sors, many terms are still floating about which have not 
yet been arrested by any dictionary maker; and it is 
not assuming too much to suppose that our meaning 
might also belong to that class, and come from the verb 
grindan, molere. Concluding that the former part of 
the compound is satisfactorily accounted for, there still 
remains the use of the latter to justify. The analogy of 
our language will shew this not to be without warrant, 
so the word becomes defensible. (See Remarks under 
gwan.) Ck>tgrave, Mmle, a grindht^ane. 

Grtts, 8. groats. Ex. " GrUtg pudding.'* This farina- 
ceous condiment is invariably eaten by the Comavii with 



roast goose, to counteract the richneBs of the bird. 

A. Sax. groBttOy avens deaoinatae. Swed. grit^ pda. 
Gron, Oroun, part, past and per/, of «. to grind. Ex. 

^^ The batch is gwon to be ffron.'" ^^ Han yo gron that 

sojrthe yit?^ 
Oboun, Obound, Orund, s. 1. definitely taken, for some 

particidar spot or part. Ex. '^ Gwon down i^ th^ grounJ" 

" The uwer praund.'" 2. the whole farm. Ex. " Look 

o^er the grwmd^ Verel. in Indie, ffrundj fundus. Dan. 

Isl. M. Goth. A. Sax. Swed. grund; Tout, prond^ solum. 

3. a greyhound. Ex. " A yroun bitch."" Thus, a ^wy- 

kound, grhoundj grmva. Lincols. grmnd and ^ey. (See 

Skinner, sub voce.) 
Ground, go to, phr. a practice which the building of 

conyenienoes has not yet superseded. (See Brockett^s 

Ground Car, «. an agricultural sledge. 
Grounden, part, pott; of v. to grind. In accordance with 

the usual custom of adding en to the end of verbs. The 

old form ; witness Wiclif, and our earlier writers. 

Or grounden litarge eke on the poiphurie. 

Cant. Take, y. 16243. 

Ground-Isaac, e. the yellow wren. Silvia trochilus. 
Growtbs, 8. the bottoms of beer, or sediment of any kind 
of liquid. Tout, grawct^ condimentum cerevisise. A. 
Sax. C. Brit, grut^ fsex. Isl. gratti; Teut. gmet^ feex. 
Promp. Parv. grut^ limus ; grawte^ stranamellum. 
The toun dykes on every syde. 
They wer deep and fulwyde, 
Fol ofF grut, no man myffhte swymme. 

K. CoBR DB Lion, v. 4339. 

Grubby, adf. testy, ill-tempered, peevish. (See remarks 

under Stubby.) 
Grund, Grunden, part, paet ; of 9. to grind. A. Sax. 

grindan, molere. Lyndsay, Chaucer. 

Shod wele with yren and stele. 
And also grunden wonder wele. 

Yunine and Gmrin, v. ^78. 


Grunsh, «. to bite strongly, gnash the teeth. This must be 
referred to Cransk. Teut. Mhr<mt9m^ dentibus frangere. 

Grunt, v. try, endeayoiir. Ex. " Orwxi at it."' As 
though the speaker had said, *'*' another grunt,^ that 
18, through llie effort, " and then it will be done.'^ 
Though the sense this phrase has, is of ancient standing, 
it must be conceded to be a low metaphorical form 
of speech, taken from those inharmonious quadrupeds 
who usually supply a comparison for what excites dis- 
gust. Vox a sono ficta. Teut. grtmnen; A. Sax. 
grwMin ; Ital. grugnare ; Fr. ffraipner^ grunnire. 

OuDOBONs, s. a pin, or screw of an axis to a windlass : 
a miner^s word which is difficult to explain clearly. In 
Derbyshire, it means a piece of wood used for roofing. 

OuLsoHiNO, OuLSCHT, iidf. addictod to drinking, greedy 
of drink. This word which originally signified glut- 
tonous, has been changed in later times in its passage 
to us. (See Nares, sub Gnleh!) It is found in Ben 
Jonson, and other dramatic writers. Teut. guUigh^ 

OuMpnoN, 8, intellect, strength of mind. Ex. " A nuin 
of gvmptum!^ This word has been declared correct by 
two glossarial writers, and may consequently be con- 
sidered deserving general adoption ; few perhaps would 
deem it entitled to currency on the score of euphony : 
let it stand on its etymology then. M. Goth, paundany 

Gun, son of a, phr, Richardson says that kunde in Per- 
sian has among its various signffications that of a woman; 
and the Gr. Fi/ki;, Irish, pecM mulier, if they have any 
connexion with this phrase make it intelligible : by 
metonymy is it deduced from Isl. and Germ, ^nm, vir ! 

GuBOBONs, s, a coarse meal used in feeding pigs, ex- 
tracted from wheat. The first form is Sharps; from 
them is obtained Gvrgeons ; from them. Bran, and lastly 
Flour. Fr. eteauryeon. 



OuTH, i. a girth. 

OuTH, 9. to girth. Ex. '' Chah up the hoe tight.'' By 
Bjmcope for girtJi. Tout, giartm ; Swed. gwrda ; Bdg. 
gordm; Dan. gjarde; Id. girda; A. Sax. gyrdm, 

GwAiN, OwBBN, /KiH. going. 

OwoN, part, pcui of go. The insertion of a <0 into this 
word is yery general among the vulgar : and the same 
practice exists with regard to many other words ter- 
minating in one; thus for b<me they say hton^ for 
iUmSy 8iwony &c.^ bo. This is by no means a modem 
innovation, or a capricious meUiod of pronunoiatioii, 
such an epenthetical practice existing some centuries 
back, as our early poets will shew. 

Then oommandyd Sir Amadas anon 
A mon to loke or 'thei gwon. 

Sir Amadas, v. 89. 

When he tho^ht on his londee brode. 
His castels, bis towres wher leyd to weyd, * 
How all was gwm and tynt 

id. y. 964. 
Thus the hare is gwm her gate. 

The HunUyng of the Hare, v. 262. 



By practice immemorial this letter 
is silent in all those words where 
by universal custom it is sounded; 
and is pronounced in all those words 
where it ought not to be heard. Its 
incorrect absence or presence is a 
pretty fair indication of the speaker 
being a Shropshire person. Our countrymen invariably 
slip it in the name of their county, and talk of Srcp^ 
shire. A stranger may readily discover whether he 
is addressing a native Salopian by marking how he 
speaks the name of his own county. 
H) is sometimes inserted, in words, by Epenthesis, a& 
frahm^ for frame: lahm for lame, be. *But in such 
instances the final vowel is lost. In the neighbourhood 
of Broadstone, where language partakes much of a 
Doric dialect, we hear teheoy for way, &c. It occa- 
sionally usurps the sound of tr; as '*the teood of my 
cloak,^' '^a tphoatn^ for at home: childwood^ for child- 
hood : neighhowrwood^ for neighbourhood, &c. 
Hack, v. 1. to cut small, chop. Ex. ''^Hacked and 
heowed.*" Chaucer, Sir D. Lyndsay. S. Ooth. Swed. 
iMcka^ csedere. Teut. Belg. Germ. ha4^km; A. Sax. 
hdccan; Alam. hcuxken ; Fr. hacher; It. acciarey con- 
cidere. Prom p. Parv. hachyn^ sectulo. 


A warrior tumbled in his blood we ww, 

His armes though dustie, bloodie, hackt and rent. 

Fairfax's Ta$m), viii. 52. 
One flourishing branch of his most royal root, 
Is crack'd^ and all the precious liquor q>ilt ; 
Is had^d down, and his summer leayes aU &ded. 


2. to stammer, speak hesitatingly. Ex. ^^ Hack$ and 
hammer at hb words.*" Teut. haddm; S. Ooth. kadta; 
C. Brit, haeeio, balbutire. 

Hacker, 8. Such an axe as is usually taken to cut up 
cordwood : it is from two, to two and a half pounds 
weight, almost straight, and set in a wooden handle. 
It difiers from a ^^ Brumhooi,'*' says my informant, as 
that ''comes uv a cruk, is thicker like, and innod 
ni^ so brode."^ Teut. haeke, securis. 

Hacki^e, v. to cover a mow of wheat by placing two 
sheaves at the top with the ears downwards; by 
spreading them round those which are upright, and 
fastening the two exterior sheaves together, the mow 
is protected from wet. 

Uacklrbs, 8. those sheaves which cover a mow. A. 
Sax. haeeta^ chlamys. We also hear among fishermen 
of "a cock^s hackh^ one of those feathers which dothe 
his neck. 

Haddbn, perf. of v. to have. The old form, as used by 

Wicklif, Chaucer, and our early writers. 

For catel haddm they ynough and rent. 

Cant. Tale», v. 375. 

Hadland, 8. headland, that part of a ploughed fidd 

which runs at right angles to the course of the butts. 

Verel. in Indie, haufud; A. Sax. keafody caput. Hom- 

ddond, (Rennet's Gloss.) A. Sax. haffuUandj pro- 

montorium. Item una pecia terrse jacet ibidem cum 

Havedelonds, et jacet pro duabus acris et dimidia. 

id. p. 33S. 

Now plough up thy headland, or delve it with spade 

Where otherwise profit but little is made. 

Tusskr's Husbandry, p. 51. 


Hago, #. 1. a wood. S. thSit part of a coppice set 
out for falliiig. A. Sax. 'haffa^ agelluB. IbI. hapij 
pascna. Swed. hoffe^ IocUb psttciiua cit^imiBeptns. In 
Domesday we read ''In Gildeford habdt Rex WiUel- 
mu8 LXXY. haffOBy Properly, it is according to its 
etymology, a house endowed by a fence, from Oerm. 
kcigm^ sepire: thence the term received a more ex- 
tended signification, and was applied to any enclosure 
or woodland: Oerm. hag^ nemus. Lat. Barb, hofa^ 
haUs sen sepibus septa. The French caHed that part 
of a forest a Hate which was bounded by a fence 
or hedge, to enclose game. (See Du Gauge.) In the 
Domesday Survey the H'ai€B chiefly occur in Worces- 
terriiire, Herefordshire, Cheshire and Shropshire. In 
the last county iii. Haiw fimuB are noticed at Lege^ 
that is Langley. At CUme^ (Chin,) are iii. Hai(B. At 
Wrdine^ or Worthen is a wood with iiii. Haim. At 
Cartune is a Haia '' capreolis capiendis."" And in the 
land of Ralph de Mortimer at Lingham are iii. Haise 
''capreolis capiendis.*" Beasts were caught by driving 
them into a hedged or paled part of a wood or forest, 
as elephants are in India, or deer in North America. 
Hence the Hay near Coalport in Shropshire. See 
Spelman sub /foya, and Ellis's Introduction to Domes- 
day Book, vol. i. p. 115. They also termed the en- 
trenchments made by bushes and thickets hayes^ for 
we ifead in Frousart, where he is speaking of the 
English at the Battle of Poicters, "on^ pris h long 
du ehemin^ fartifiS duremeni de hayes et de buisBone^ et 
ant tMu cMe haye Swm fart de leura Archers.^'' 

This aaid^ he led me over holts and hags, 

Fairfax's Tasw, viii. 41. 

Hago, Haggle, v. 1. to endeavour to lower a persons 

price, to wrangle. Ex. "After a dhel o^ healing,'*'' 

Fri*. hagghen, rixari ; Fr. harceler^ Cotg. 2. to cut ir- 
regularly. Ex. "The joihrs haggledr 



Haoo-wobk, j. work taken by the piece. Ey. '' On by 
the hagg!^ Evidently referable to the preceding, as a 
portion set ^part. Verel. in Indie, kaga^ and S. Ooth. 
haga^ disponere. 

Haiho, t. the woodpecker. Picus viridis. 

HaiR) 9. to air : according to our dutom of adding the 
aspirate. Thna, we hear a servant say, ^Hhe linen is 
not kairedr '^the sheets want hairing"^: and to take 
the chill from beer is usually denoted by the phraae, 
'' tak the hair off the drink'' ; '' Its coud, jist out o' 
the cellar, yoden (you haddmi) better tak the gare off 

Haue, Haul, v. to draw. . This word is confined to the 
river side, and chiefly applied to men or horses draw- 
ing small or large craft on the Severn against the 
stream. (See Bow-haler.) Isl. Swed. haia ; Belg. haim ; 
Fr. haler^ trahere. 

Oaem nee rumpere nauUcum celeusma, 
Nee clamor valet hdcjfarioirum. 

Mart, Epig, iv. 64. 
They setten mast, and hakn saile. 

Kyno Alisaundkr, v. 992. 
Ancies into schip they haUth, 

id. y. 1416. 
It is not comely to be haled to the earth 
Like high-fed jades upon a tilting day. 

Ford's Lover's Melanekoljf. 

Half-strained, adf. an epithet contemptuously applied 
to one who is deficient of understanding. Ex. *^ A half' 
strained fool.''^ 

Haly day, 8, holy day. The old word, alike in deriva- 
tion and authority. A. Sax. halig-dag ; Franc. heUag; 
Swed. kelig ; Germ. Belg. heilig ; Dan. hdUg ; Isl. kei- 
lagr^ sanetus. Verel. in Indie. keUagt^ sacrorum per- 

For thei holden nat here halydayes as holy churche tecfaeth. 

P. Plouhhan, 148. 

Eche haiyday to huyre. id. 169. 


Hamss, Homes, m, two curving pieces of wood which dij^ 
ji honeys ooUar. Celt. G. Brit, camm^ curvus, quia ool* 
Jnm equi ambit tanquam collare. Sorab. iommet; Oerm. 
btmmeiy jugiim equorum. Isl. iamntr, induvise. 

Hampton ; in composition with some preceding word, and 
signifies the viUage of the hamlet, town or house of 
the hamlet, ham-tan ; from the A. Sax. Aom, domus, 
prsedium, villa; and twn^ septum quodvis. Thus we 
have Bbook Hampton ; Welsh Hampton ; Fell Hamp- 
ton, &c. 

Han, v. to have : pres. and perf. Ex. ^^ Hwn ''e bin aater 
the bweast yit.**^ Grerm. Swed. han^ habere. 

Ye han ete on the erthe, and in youie leocheries ye ban 
aoiiflched your hertis. 

WiCLir's New Teetameni, James ch. v. 

What yit han we nede to witneads? lo now ye han herd 
blasfemye. id. Matt. ch. xxvi. and 1 Coiynth. ch. is. 

He wenden han baen kynges and aeiden so in aawe. 

Ritson's And. Son^ij p. 6. 

Handy, adj. ready, expert. Ex. " A handy lad." " Things 
lie handy.'^ A cow is handy with her horn, if she is 
disposed to use it unkindly. A. Sax. handlunya^ praesto. 
Swed. handloff ; Teut. h&'hendigh^ manu promptus ; 
Belg. handelbaar^ handigh^ commodus. Verel. in Indie. 

Handlass, $. 1. a handle of a windlass. 2. a small wind- 
hiss. Isl. handlaSy funis simplex in altera manu aucu- 
pis! Teut. Swed. hand^ manus, Teut. Swed. lasty pon- 
duB ; Dan. handler ; A. Sax. handle^ manubrium ; Gferm. 
handleistunffy opitulatio. 

Handbtaff, 8. that part of a threshing flail which is held 
in the hand. 

HANDfiTRiKB, 8. a strong piece of wood used as a lever 
to a windlass. Verel. in Indie, handstyrkiay manuum 
robore per funem in sublime se toUere. 

Hanna, Hannod, v, have not. 



Hant, .v. they have not. Qetm. ktmt^ habent. 

Habdin, v. to air, as dothes, which bong damp, be- 
eome itiff and bard, as it were, by eaponure to the fixe. 
Tent, kenkim^ tortete ! Id. hmtla ; A. Sax. Mundkm; 
Swed. Aiarda, indmre. A ShroiMhire person would dia- 
peme with these defiYations and deekre tiie word wis 
merely by prostiieflis for oiftim, qmun, air Hum ; and 
eeeing that we make snch strange work always with 
the aspirates, the oriticism may not be mqoet. 

Harnish, e. to harness. 

He dude quyk ftameioke bon. 

Kyno Alisaundbr, v. 4706. 

Harnish, i. harness. We follow the ancient orthoepy 
here, tiiough the word receires from us a secondiuy 
meaning. OiiginaUy it meant heavy armour, made of 
iron or steel : we now apply the word solely to horse 
harness. Oerm. iamiseh^ gravis armatura. Swed. Aor- 
nsei^ thorax ferreus. Lat. Barb, harfuueha ; Fr. iamais. 
Verel. in Indie, hemeekiay lorica. 

Habbast, 8. harvest. Ex. ^^At the back o^ quern iar- 
Tcatr A permutation very unusual A: Sax. Germ. 
hanoett; Belg. herfst^ messis. 

Hab&ast, «. to do harvest work. Ex. ^^ My men's gwon 
a harraximgy 

Habriman, 9. a lizard ; a newt. 

Habslbt, Haslet, %. the race, liver, &c. of pigs. Ex. 

'^ Dineden off a pig's hade^T^ Tout. Aar«^, spina pord. 

Verel. in Indie. AoAa, fasciculus. Palsgrave ; huk^ of 

a hogge. Fr. Aasteral^ a hog's haslet. Ootgr. 

"The intrals of hogges are good (I thinke hee meaneth that 
whiche wee oommonlye call hon^ harsdet." 

P^rfootb's Dhtumarie, sub IHa. 

Hasp, «. to fasten, join together. A. Sax. hapsian^ ob- 
serare, which verb is referred by Wachter to A. Sax. 
hcBhban^ tenere. 

So harde hath averyce Hasped hem to eederes. 

P. pLOITHMAlf, 22. 


Hasp, #. a clasp wfaiob folds by a hinge qvat a .box 
or door. It is a good old word, wbethfir used vevbally 
or substantively. 8. Ooth. Dan. haape ; Teut. Swed. 
Sf^. h^tpe ; Id. hatpa ; C Brit, k&tpin- A. Sax. iopf, 
fibida. In the West of fingland tbey jret geneKally 
use the A. Sax. qrnonym. 

And undemethe k an ha9p, 
Schet with a stapyl and a daspe. 

R. Cqer ds Liok, v. 4068. 

Hastbner, Hastelbr, s. a piece of kitchen furniture made 
of wood and lined with tin, or occasionally made of 
tin exclusively, .used for reflecting the heat upon meat 
that is roasting. Pbomp. Parv. Roster or Hcutder^ 

Hatbat, 9. the common bat, so named probably from 
boys throwing their hats up to catch them. Vespertilio. 

Haud, Houd, «. 1. to hold. Ex. "Tak haud on it.'' 
**Han he got houd 6* the ropf' Teut. Belg. hauden^ 
houdm^ tenere. 2. a term of salutation. Ex. ^^How 
does it hand you?'' Teut. houdef^ gerere. 

Hauntsdbn, 9. the old form of the imperfect plural : to 

haunt, follow. 

Of yonge folk^ that haunteden folie. 

Qmt. Tak9, v. 12808. 

Haavs, v. to lift, throiy . Eix. ^^ I'll Aaam a stwon at your 
yed." M. Ootii. hafffon ; A. Sax. heftm ; Teut. h^ffm ; 
Swed. hafwa ; Verel. in Indie, hefa^ levare. (See Hbft) 
Eng. heaw. 

Havbr, 8. 1. the lower part of a bam do<»* which 
commonly falls in by a slide. 2. a hurdle. 

Haw, interj. a waggoner's address to his horses when 
he wishes them to come towards him. . 

Hawed, part, ptut; when oats are well headed, having 
shot their heads from the stem, and begun to swell and 
ripen, they are said to be hawed. The term is not 
applied to any other kind of grain, which will shew how 
carefully it has kept to its original signification. Teut. 


iauwe^ tunica, sive oalyx : kauer^ avena; iaudm^ spiciun 

profene. Oenn. heben^ oapere de fructibus. Schen. 

Hawk, v. to expectorate, dear the throat. C. Brit. 

koekio; Teut. Germ. ia/i$^m; Swed. hartkna; Dan. 

kareker, soreare. Shakspeare. 
Haws, #. the berries of the haw-thorn. Ex. '* Hepe and 

Aofof .*" A. Sax. koffan ; Brit. Com. hoffon^ mora sentis. 

Shakspeare, Chaucer, Cant. Tales, v. 6241. 

AmongeB hogges, that have haw^ at wille. 

P. Plouhman. 

Hatriff, 8. a pernicious weed which has very smaU seeds ; 
from their minuteness, it is extremely difficult to sepa- 
rate them from grain in winnowing it. 

If yoa stamp Hariffe a little, and lay it in fiiire springe water 
for the space of 24 honres, and then wash any sore or scabby 
place therewith, it will heal it wondexfnlly. 

Lupton's NMbk Thinff$,p.4&. 

Head, to drive a, phr. A phrase confined to miners, 

and lime-workers; it signifies the act of making a 

passage into '^the body of the work/' 
Head out, «. synonymous with "to crap out^: to come 

to the head or surface. 
HxADDiBH, adf. When aftermath begins to grow, the 

fiymers say it is quite headdish, (See Eddish,) which is 

the proper term. 
Headgrove, 8. aftermath. Sometimes called kMutgratt, 

keadgrowth. These terms must be referred to A. Sax. 

ediic^ vivarium. 
Hbafer, 8, a heifer. We here retain the true pronun- 
ciation of the correspondent A. Sax. heakfor^ juvenca. 
Healthful, adj, in sound health. 
Hearten, v, to animate, encourage. Ex. ^^ Hearten him 

on his journey.'" Teut. hertetij animare. (See Craven 

Gloss.) Palsgrave, harten^ to embolden. 
Heartwell, (id^\ in good spirits; and the reverse heart- 

sici, melancholy, low. 


HnsLiNa, HiLLiNo, s. the cover or binding of a book. 
De Rome, De Seuil, Roger Payne, and Charles Lewis, 
who by skill and taste eclipsed all his predecessors in 
Bibliopegistic art, have given the world no term half 
so appropriate. Were it not for provincial bookbinders, 
(imperitum pecus) the word wonld be lost. Dan. iylle, 
cooperculum. Promp. Pabv. hiUings^ of what things it 
be: cooptura. Palsgrave, hytting^ a coueryng, oouver- 
ture. In Northamptonshire MUing signifies a eowrttd 
to a bed. 

That nowther one hede, ne on hare, MUvnffe it hade. 

Avmiyrs t/Arthure, ix. 96. 
Your hffUyngeB with fiurreB of armyne. 

The Squyr qfLowe Degre, ▼. 839. 

Heel of the loaf, phr. the last top and bottom crust 

of a loaf. 

Heft, «. a heavy wei^t. Ex. *' Too great a hefi to lift.^* 

He cracks his gorge, his sides with violent h^. 

WhUer't Tale, iL 1. 

How shall my prince and uncle now sustain 
(Depriv'd of so good heh>e) so great a h^, 

Harrington's AriaHo, xliii. 164. 

Heft, v. to lift. Verel. in Indie, hefa; Tent. Belg. 

hgffm; Swed. S. Goth, hafwa; A. Sax. hefan^ levare. 

Id. hef^ toOere. 

With his lyft hand he A^ his gysaime. 

Kyno Alisaundbr, v. 2297. 

Hett, ifUerj. an address to a horse when he is re- 
quired to go from you : never applied to the leader. 
Persian, heUct^ come hither. Isl. heiti^ vocare. 

This carter smote and ciyde as he were wode, 
Hmt Soot, heit Brok, what spare ye for the nones? 

CmU. Tales, v. 7125 and v. 7143. 

Heick, Hike, v, to cast, to throw on. 

With velvet hats heidU on thair heidis. 

Pinkbrton's SeoUM Poems, p. 327. 

Hett, Horr, «. to throw up. Ex. "/Tod it up.'' What- 
ever may be the origin of this verb, and I confess 


mjielf unable to find any trace of it, it has evidently 
gbeo birth to the more generally reoetved vnlgariBin 
of ''a kaiif4oihf dame.'' A. Sax. haah, altos! 

HnuL, «. to oomb hemp. Teat. Belg. luMm; Swed. 
hatUa^ pectere linnm. Hatdid^ Ash, Lyndsay. Pab- 
grive; kstehM ior flaxe, aerant. 

HsLK, Hill, v. to oov^r. Ex. ^' HUl 'cti o'er or theyl 
be frost ketdien." Here is an exoeOent word retained 
sddy by the lower orders ; we shonld have spoken in 
closer analogy with our language if like them we had 
not wandered to the French for a term to express our 
ideas. 8. Goth, hylia ; M. Goth, hulgan ; Franc. Ala- 
man. G. Brit, hulio ; A. Sax. helan^ t^re ; Teut. Belg. 
hdm. Verel. in Indie. hyUa^ celare; Swed. hUiay ve- 
lare. ffeHed, Pet. Langtoft's Chron. 

Menye of the biyddes 
Hudden and hdeden dumeliche here ^ges. 

P. Flouhman^ 223. 

And yt has hoiu be unhekde. 


Y-heoled wel with selkyn webbe. 

Kyno Alisaundbr, v. 278. 

As enowgh lygKes on the mountaynes, 
Bre nylL 

^J-were nylles and playnee 

With hawberk biyghte and hehnes deie. 

R. Cosm DS Liov^ v. 6686. 

In the pavyloon he fond a bed of piysy 
Iheled with purple bys. 

Lavnfal, y. 281 
The hannes that ase have hent, 
Now miQr ze hele and hide. 

Minot's Poenu, p. 22. 

Parde we women connen nothing hek. 

CatU. Tales, y. 6632. 

Helve, s. the handle of an axe, most commonly HUw. 

A. Sax. helf; Teut. Germ, hehe^ manubrium securis. 

Hbpb, s. the berries from the common brier. Palsgrave; 

hq)pe bery of eglantjme, comille. A. Sax. heap^ cy- 


nosbati bacea^ ^^Fie upon %w: (qaoth the fox) be- 
cauie he could not reaeh. them.^ Ray. 

Hbouw, v. to hew, cut. Ex. '^Hacking ani hmwwimf.'*'' 
Our. method of pronouncing ew is peetdiac; both in 
this and several words of Hke tenninataon. 0» is in^ 
serted before ew^ so that the syUable obtaias the 
sound of yeau^ This kind of utterance has prerailed 
from, the earliest period, as oar Earlier Metrical Ro- 
manoes shew, and the pronunoiaticm seems borne out 
by the several languages to which we claim affinity. 
Tout. Belg. ^oiNM9i, caesim ferire. Ofennj hmum^ csedeve. 

Hbr, pran. be, or him. The masculine and feminine 

pronouns are constantly transposed by the vulgar. 

Thus a poor woman in describing the ii^rm state of 

her husband, says, ^^ Her is meety lahm.^'' And, veifly, 

if saneti<Mi be required for this personal, offence, read 

it in Maister Skelton: 

What WBj ye of the Sosttiih Kyngr 

That is another thing 

He is bat an yonglyng 

A tall worthy striplynff 

Her is a whispiing and a whiplyng. 

Whjf come ye not to Court. 

Herds, s. dressed flax, or hemp. Teut. herder fibra 

lini. A. Sax. heordcm^ stupsB. Palsgrave; heerdes of 

hempe, estoupes. Tow, or hyrdes, Minsheu. 

And pyk and ter, als haiff thai tane ; 
And lynt and herds and biymstane. 

Thb BavcSy'Xvii. ▼. 612. 

Thaire hurdie thaire ankers 
Hanged thai on here. 

Minot's Poems, p. 46. 

That not of hempe ne heerdis was. 

RbMAUNT or THE RoSB, Y. 1283. 

** Now thAt part (of the flax) which is utmost, and next to the 
pill or rind, IB oalkd tow or hurds^" 

Holland's PUny, . 

Hbbbin, 9. urine. Grerm. ham; Gr. ovpov, lotium. 
Hbthsr, 8. an adder. (See under Enram.) 




Hbthkrino, 8. a pliant twig about six feet long, chiefly 
employed at the top of newly laid down hedges to 
keep under the loose and straggling shoots. A. Sax. 
h&Ukmam^ oohibere. 

Hetmbnt, s. a boundary, or fence. In looking accident- 
ally through an old account-book of ecdesiastical ex- 
penditure for the parish of SmeUusot^ co. Salop, a few 
yean ago, I found the following iUm: '"Paid for 
Mending the EmpmmA^ &c. It was not until the 
year, 1838, that I was able to ascertain what this 
veiy local word denoted. My informant says that the 
hedge which encircles part of the Church Yard still 
bears this name, and veiy properly too: from the A. 
Sax. heag^ sepes. 

Hms, IT. to beat. One of the numberless verbs expres- 
sive of castigation. Ex. ''6ie yo a good lidHmffT 
''Tansel your hideT U. A^tiK, flagellare. 

Htb, High, v. to hasten, imperativdy used to denote 
expedition. Ex. ''*'Hy^ thee and fatch ^em.**" A. Sax. 
J^ygo^t festinare. Shakspeare. 

To hym hjfod all the route. 

The Lyfe op Ipomydon, v. 2014. 

Go, hve wsyj^i on heighemg. 
And teche it hider, y pray th^» 

La.t ls FmEixE, V. 214. 

Highe thou to come bifoie winter. 

Wicliff'^s New Testament, 2 Timoth. iv. 

She went vnto the inatioe hall. 
As fiist as she could kye. 

Adam Bsl, y. 66. 

HioLER, #. a person who goes to different country mar- 
kets for the purpose of buying butter, eggs, poultry, 
and fruit. Dan. hycUer^ adulator, Jun. Rather from 
the A. Sax. eacan^ augere, because they sell for more 
than the first vendors. 

Hike, t^. to toss, throw. Ex. '''• Hike it over the wall.'^ 
(See Hbick, and Hrit.) 


Hill, v. to cover, shield. Ex. ^^Gtok and hill theia 
plants.'** Promp. Parv. hyUm^ or ooveren. 

Al yhyted with leed. 

PiBKS Plouhman's Creed. 
Thy hair, thy heard, thr wings, o'er-hUtd with snow. 
Bek Jovbok's Matque qf Beauty. 
Hides and hek» als hende. 

MiifOT's Poenu, p. 22. 

Hit, #. a heavy crop. Ex. " A good hU o' apples,** 
or as they say in the Eastern Counties a good hang^ 
whether it be of hops, or fruit. 

Hirst, s. that part of a ford in the Severn, over 
which the water from the shallowness of the stream, 
and the inequality of the bottom runs roughly. A. 
Sax. hyntan^ murmurare. 

Hoard, «. a heap. Ex. '*A hoard of apples.** Pals- 
grave; horde or heape, monceau. 

Hod, 8. a heap, a tump of potatoes, which being co- 
vered first with short straw, and then with soil, are 
protected during the winter. Teut. hoed; A. Sax. 
hody capitium! Teut. Belg. hoede^ protectio. 

Hod, v. to place potatoes in a hod for protection from 
frost. Teut. Belg. hoeden, protegere. 

Hofb, adf. halt Ex. '' Hofe an oaf:** usually ''o/e an 
oaf,** and also o/e and o/e, for half and half. 

Hoqo, 8. same as hodd. Swed. Verel. in Indie, hoep; 
Germ, huffel; Fr. hoffue^ tumulus. 

Hoooet, 8. a yearling wether. C. Brit, hopyn^ a young 
stripling. Norm. Fr. hoffelz^ a young wether sheep; 
Kelham. hogettus^ bidens. Du Cange, Lyndsay, Coles, 
Ash. Prevalent in the midland counties. P Jsgrave ; 
hoggereUy a yong shepe. 

Hole, v. to undermine; a word used by colliers, who 
are better paid in a coal pit for hoKng than any 
other work. A. Sax. holian ; Teut. Germ, holen ; Isl. 
hda; Franc, holon; S. Goth, holka; Dan. Avfor, ex- 
cavare. Promp. Parv. hclen^ to make holes. 


HoLLEN, HoLLTN, «. the common holly. A. Sax. holmy 
agrifolium. jETofm, Gdes, Lyndsay. 

I see a lady where ehee sate 
Betweene an oke and a green hoOm, 

Marriage of Sir Gawmnt* 
HoLP, puf. of «. to help. 

The matonners tolde the peiyll where they had hen in aad 
how Saynt Marke had holpe them than for that one myrade. 


Hora, t. 1. to long after any thing, desire intensely. 
A baby hone% after the breast. This word was ap- 
propriately used in the following way, by a poor per- 
son towards his rector who was in the constant prac- 
tice of rigorously exacting the utmost of his tithes: 
^' One would think thee didst want thy money, for 
thee meetily hontt after it.^ The reproof of this un- 
lettered individual, fell without any force upon his 
merciless ears. A. Sax. hogian sollioitus esse. M. 
Ooth. hunffafi^ inhiare pecuniis. With what extreme 
correctness was the word applied ! M. Ooth. Qaira 
agav ist thaim htmgandam afar faihn. Quam diffidle 
est iis qui inhiant pecuniis. 2. to swell. Ex. ^^ The 
cow^s elder is honed^ swollen and hard after calying; 
Craven Olossarist says, probably an abbreviation of 
hatened: but I suspect we owe the term to the 
Teut. huyderen^ turgescere uberibus sive mammis, ut 
vaccee fsetui maturse. 

Tom Piper hath havm and pa£fed up cheeks, 
If cheese be so haven, make Ciss to seek creeks. 

TussER, p. 14d. 

HoosissoN, WoosissoN, 8. WooLASTON, CO. Salop. 

Hope, perf. of «. to help. Ex. " He hcpe me to get 

it."*^ Very prevalent in the neighbourhood of Ludlow. 

Whether is this a form of the A. Sax. perf. At^fw, 

from hel/an^ juvare! Shakspeare frequently uses the 


Three times to-day I hope him to his horse. 

Henry Yhv.^ 


Hope; a termination to various names of places in the 
cowitj, which expresses according to its original sig- 
nification, a recess, from the Isl. hop^ recessus* The 
situations of Hope Bowdler, Hope^^ Hopton^ East- 
hope^ MSiiohope^ MiddleAopi?, PrestA<^^, and Wilder&cjjcw, 
accord with this derivation. These places lie between 
hills, in secluded parts of the county. At a later 
era, the Islandic word gave birth to one of more 
general application, and what primarily signified merely 
a remote or circumscribed spot, grew into use to de- 
note a farm, an orchard, a house. Teut. Oerm. hof^ 
villa, hortus; A. Sax. hope^ domus. 

Hopper, a. a basket used by husbanrdmen to hold com 

when sowing: curving in the middle to fit the hip 

upon which it rests. Hence the appropriateness of 

slang in Dunbar^s Complaint. 

With hoppir hippis, and benches narrow. 

PiNKSKTON, p. 110. 

HoppEiuTBouoH, s. a box . of a mill into which the grain 
is put for grinding. C. Brit, hoppran^ infundibulum. 
Palsgrave; hopper of a myll, tremye. 

How that the hopper wagges til and fra. 

Cant. Tales, ▼. 4037. 
And heng his hoper on hus hals. 

P. Plouhman, 131. 

Hopscotch, 8, a game played by children, more cor- 
rectly named in Hallamshire, Hopscore, 

HouD, T. to hold. Ex. "Catch houdr '' Houd yo.**' 
"Tak hods.'''' Teut. Belg. houden^ tenere. 

HouLT, 8. hold. Ex. " No hauU o* sich a chap ;" re- 
ferable to the preceding. 

Hound, 8. an epithet of reproach for a worthless per- 
son. Ex. " Sich a lazy hound.'*'' " Scamping hound."*^ 
^^ Worthless hound."^ This opprobrious comparison is 
found continually in Holy Writ. David says to Saul 
when he had saved his life at Engedi, " After whom 
is the King of Israel come out! after whom dost thou 



purgue! after a dead dag^ after a flcaf" 1 Sam. xxiv. 
14. So Mephibosheth, ^^ What is thy servant, that 
thou flhouldefit look upon such a dead dog as I am."" 
2 Sam. ix. 8. And the same comparison of reproba- 
tion may be read in numerous passages of the Old 
and New Testament. It is no Wonder, then, that in 
Eastern countries we should still find the like figure 
of reproach, applied, as it is most freely, as the writer 
of this note can testify, by Mussulmen to Christians. 
Verel. in Indie, hwnd^ canis, alias verbum contumelio- 
sum in inimicos. Thu hinn illi hundr^ ftpage pessime 
Canis. Germ. Aundy homo vilis. Verel. in Indie. Aund- 
heidin^ mere paganus. The Christians, too, spoke with 
no feelings of aflTection for the heathens of former ages, 
as may be observed in the ancient Romances of 
Chivalry: thus Sir Bevys alluding to a Paynim King's 
daughter who had faUen in love with him, and sent 
Saracens to invite him to her bower, exclaims, 

I wyll not ones stirre of this gronnde. 
To speke with an hethene hounde: 
Unchristen houndes, i rede you flee. 
Or i your harte blonde shall se. 

and afterwards the Mahometans return the title by 

calling him ^^a Christian hownde!^ See Ritson^s Met. 

Romances, vol. iii. p. 3£2. 

The King of Tars applies the same epithet to the 


Hethene hourtd he doth the calle. 

Thb Kino op Tars, v. 98. 

O hound of Crete, think'st thou my spouse to set 

Henry V. iL 1. 

HousEN, «. plural of house. Ex. ^' Farm HawmT' Germ. 

hatuen^ domus. S. Goth. A. Sax. Isl. Fran. Alaman. 

C. Brit. Swed. hus ; Teut. huys ; Belg. huis^ domus. 

Hence come to hofise. Isl. Aysa ; Germ. Aausen ; A. 

Sax. Ausian^ &c. in habitationem recipere: and Afif- 

band, At»bandman, &c. 


Housing, «. gearing of horses. Isl. Aosa, caliga! A. 

Sax. ho$eJ>end€b8^ horse-bands. 
HousiNG-THUNGs, 8, a long strap curled at the end, 

which I remember often to have seen pendant from 

the hames of a horse^s gears. Is this what is termed 

in Northamptonshire a thiUerf 
Hoot, 8, a hold, or place of safety for fish, under a 

bank or between the roots of trees. (See Hoult.) 

The Scotch itey ''the trout has hauU^ meaning hold. 

Our present term is referable to the Teut. howt^ lignum. 
Hour, V. to grasp, seize. Ex. ''Tak hout on his hond.'^'' 

Teut. houden^ tenere. 

HowESf 8. berries on the hawthorn. (See Haw.) 

They eate nothyng that came of come. 
Bat beryesj and howea of the thome 
Amonge the holtes hare. 

Sir Isbnbras, v. 167. 

HuBBiN, 8. a small iron study; a blacksmith^s term. 
HucK, «. perf. of heick. Ex. " He kuek it up,'' that 
is, threw or tossed it up. C. Brit, ueh^ supra. 
Hud, 9. to place or collect in small heaps. Ex. '' Budd- 
ing up fitches.'" G«rm. huddn^ vexare! It has much 
the same meaning as huddle. '' Huddling jest upon jest.'' 
Much Ado about Nothing. 
HuDs, 8. small heaps. Ex. ^'' Hud8 of fitches." 
Huff, 8. a pet. Ex. ''Gone away in a huff.^ 
Huff, r. to put out of humour. Ex. "Now you've 
huff*d him." A. Sax. heof<m^ elevare. Isl. j^/os^, irri- 
tare. Verel. in Indie, yfer^ superbire. Femmes k la 
grande gorre, huffing or flaunting wenches. Gotgr. 

Now huffing m, what's your name. 

The Begga'/e Bwh. 

HuK OR BT Cruk, phr. Hook or by Crook. In the 
Scheie House of women we meet with another differ- 
ence of orthography, "A«di or cruch.^'' 

Hulk, «. to loiter, or idle about. May not this be, 
aa it were by aphseresis, for 8iuli. It is used con- 


temptuouBly : hulking about, that is so indolent and 
lazy that such an individual seems unable to wear hb 
life away. 

HuLKY, adj. heavy, stupid. Ex. "A huUjf fellow.'" 

Hull, «. a shell, or sheath. Ex. '' Pea-Aufif.'*' Verel. 
in Indie. htUda^ proteotio. Isl. Germ. A«^, velum. 
Swed. hfdly cuticula. Teut. Auhche, folliculus. Pals- 
grave; huU of a bean or pea, esoose; all of which 
have emanated from * 

Hull, v. 1. to shell, or divest of its covering: by me- 
tonymy, Verel. in Indie, hidda; M. Goth, hidgan; 
Franc, htden; Germ. Teut. hulhn; C. Brit, hylio; 
Swed. h^ja ; Belg. hulzen^ tegere, operire. 2. to throw, 
cast. Ex. ^' ffuU it at him.*" This must be a verb 
of entirely arbitrary adoption, as no correspondent one 
occurs in those cognate languages which sanction the 
obsolete expressions in our own. 

HuLLocK, 8. for hillock. 

HuMBuz, s. the cockchafer: Melalontha vulgaris. 

HuRCH, HuBCHEN, 9. to keep close together. Ex. ^^Hur- 
ohenen clos up i** th^ chimlay cornel.'*^ Pbomp. Pabv. 
hurehenen togeder. 

HuROT ; a termination to several names of places in the 
county, as Lee Brockhursty BroekAurst Castle, Lily- 
hurst^ SiUeuhurgty Coli-ffurst Wood, HolljAurstj Haade- 
hurat^ &c. Anciently written hyrst. It signifies a 
woody place, and sometimes where the trees grow but 
low, and not so high as in other places,, by reason 
of the badness of the soil: as StonyhurHj SandAtin^, 
&c. The Hursts abound in Kent and Sussex. Germ. 
Teut. Aarst; A. Sax. Aurst; Lat. Barb. Aursta^ sylva; 
Teut. Aor^^ virgultum. 

HuRRYPUL, €uilf\ rapid, hasty. Ex. " He was very Aurty- 
fid and could not wait.''^ Munslow. 

HuspiL, V. to disorder, destroy, put to inconvenience, 
knock about. Ex. " We 'en bin sadly AwpiUedr " Bb- 


nod a gween to be huapiFd a that^ns.*" Promp. 
Paby. hiupefyn^ or spoylen. Fr. houipiOer to tug, 
touse, ruffle, &c. Cotg. ffaussqnUery maltraiter, vexer. 
Roquefort GIosb. de la Langue Romane. ^^ H Fa Aaui- 
piOi rudement."^ Richelet. It has the same origin 
says Menage lus yaspiller^ by the mutation of ff into A, 
and a into <m. This comee close to the A. Sax. 
yetpiUan^ dissipare. Oerm. wnpillm; Teut. spiUm^ 
dilapidare. Id. ^pUU depravare. C. Brit. ytpeUio. 


is constantly changed into ey espe- 
cially if it be followed by ffh: for 
instance, we hear of ^^a leyt neei^ 
for a light night: and I was once 
in the weekly habit of listening to 
a parish clerk who read of ^^a left 
to leyten the GentUes^ This soft^ied 
pronunciation of the vowel is general in the mining 
districts, where they say freytm for frighten ; meygkU^ 
for might : feyght for fight : each of which latter ex- 
amples is accordant with the early idiom and orthoepy 
of our language. 

Sum seyd it was a dogg fey^Utmg. 

The HufUyng i^f the Homy v. 233. 

Where naturally short, i is turned into «, as cegtem 
for cistern : chenmy for chimney ; chreBtmas for Christ- 
mas : selk-ffownd^ for silk gown : prented pddper^ for 
printed paper. 

And in the beginning of words, as enquere for inquire. 
Enquered of men of other con^. 

Lyfe of Ipomydon^ v. 110. 
Ne of no man oowde enquere. 

tdL Y.357. 

Ie has the sound of short t, as JUd for field : yiU for 

IcKLE, 8. an icicle. (See Ebcle.) 
Ilding, part, yielding. (See Eild.) 


Illfit, 8. a large vessel used in brewing. Ex. ^'If it 
innod worked cool i' th'' iUfiiy it wunna mak good 
drink.''^ A vitiation of ale fat. A yel/atej is among 
the inventory of effects belonging to Sir John Fas- 
tolfe. (Archseol. xxi. 277*) S. Ooth. /(Mij vas oujuB- 
cunque generis: ol/aiy cadus cerevisise condendse desti* 
natufl. Teut. ael^ cerevisia, and vat, dolium. Belg. 

Imps, b. young shoots, generally taken for grafts. A. 
Sax. impan; Teut. impffen, inserere. Dan. impe; C. 
Brit, imp; Swed. ymp, surculus. 

Of feble trees ther comen wretched impa. 

Cant. TakSy ▼. 13962. 

Inchmil, Inchmore, ade. inch by inch. 

Incline, 9. for decline. 

Insensb, «. 1. to inform. This vulgarism is not con- 
fined to Salopians. 2. to convince. Ex. ^^Y^ told 
him soa diden ye, but y** didna inamie him.*" 

Insight, s. a road in a coal pit that is driven into the 

Intack, 8. this does not signify so much a take in, 
or imposition, as it does that the work undertaken 
cannot be accomplished at the stipulated price. ^^/f»- 
tacJT says my informant ^^is where a job is inrun- 
ning in the price.^ 

Intubn, prep, instead. Ex. ^' Tak this intum o' that'n.*" 

Jack Squealer, 8. the Swift; Cypeelue apm* 

Jackstraw, 8. 1. the black cap ; Sylvia atrieapiOa. 2. 
the white throat; Sylvia einerea. 

Jao, v. to carry by means of a waggon or cart. Ex. 
^^To joff him a load of hay.*^ There is considerable 
difficulty in ascertaining whence we have learned the 
present term. I think the meaning of the S. Ooth. 
Jaffa, persequi, which in its primary sense is applied 
io hunting, and the Tent, jayhen, festinare, are both aUke 


unable to throw light upon itB origin. IbI. jaga^ 
Jagokr, s. one who works draught horses for hire. Ex. 

"Davis the Jogger.''^ 
Jbnntcoat, b. a bed-gown worn by children. This word 

is almost extinct. 
Jib, to hang the; phr. A vulgarism descriptive of a 

person out of humor. 
JiGom, ifiterj, an address to a waggon horse, bidding 
him proceed; (See remarks under Commoos.) 
J1G6IN-8IEVE, 9. a fine cloth which sifts the dust from 

oats or wheat when they are ground. 

Job, v. to pierce suddenly with a sharp instrument. 

Ex. "Jobbed the fork through the table doth.'' It 

is presumed that the present word is not provincial 


Jobber, 9. a dealer ; as a pig-jobber, a horse-jiMer, &c. 

JoBLocKs, s. the pendulous carunculated wattle which is 

seen in cock turkies. 
Jog, r. 1. to shake. Ex. ^^ Jogging the table." This 
first sense is chiefly of puerile adaptation, but never- 
theless seems to have given origin to the metaphorical 
use of the word in its secondaiy sense ; as, S. to re- 
mind, refresh. Ex. "•/(cy his memory." Tout. Belg. 
ichoekm; Ital. seuotere, quassare. 
JoNNocK, phr. The precise meaning of this word is 
so difficult to convey to polite ears, that an illustra- 
tion rather than a definition must declare its peculiarity. 
I imagine it signifies that a matter is conclusive; for 
when a person seems unlikely to yield or retract, the 
fiat he pronounces, is said to be jonnock; there's no 
appeal that can avail when a man utters this decisive ' 
word : " That's jovmock.^ And sometimes we hear an 
independant, lawless living fellow described 9S jomMck; 
" He's jonnoeL'^ The word must assuredly be tnda- 
titious, and is very likely most limited in circulation. 


JoRAM, 8. a large dish. Ex. *^A good joram o^ brotbs.'*^ 
S. Goth. Swed. Isl. Dan. jord, terra. 

JoRDEN, s. a fictile vessel. In Thomas Walsingham 

there is an amusing story of a quack doctor being 

condemned to ride through the streets of London 

with two jordens about his neck. ^^ In crastino^'* says 

the historian, ^^ cum mendacium latere non posset, cap- 

tus est, et equo impositus, equinaque cauda commissa 

suis manibus loco frseni et duse ollse, qnas jardanes 

Yulgo vocamus, ad ejus collum colligantur, cum cote 

in signum quod illam mentiendo promeruit, et ita 

circumductus est per omnem civitatem in conspectu 

cunctorum physicorum et chirurgorum digna dehones- 

tamenta recipiens pro mercede.**^ p. 288. 1 Henry IV. 

u. 1. 

Ich shal jangly to thys Jordan. 

P. PlouhmapT, 247. 

Then come in iordans in iuasall 
Als red as any russall. 

Hartshornb's Met. Tales, p. 147. 

And eke thyn urinals^ and thy jordanes. 

Cant. Tales, y. 12239. 

Jow, ». abuse. It is variously pronounced; sometimes 

jaw^ at others, ja. Teut. jouw^ clamor rusticorum? 

But they garr'd the Feathentones falrad their jaw. 

Scottish Minstrelsy, vol. ii. p. 88. 

Jowl, s. 1. a dish. Ex. "A jowl-dish.'" 2. the head 
or neck. We sometimes hear . of a man having a 
large jowl. Arm. ffueol ; Irish ffiall, os. Fr. ffude ; 
Ital. and Span, gola, gula. A. Sax. do/, guttur. 

Jowl, v. to beat the head, strike it against anything 
hard. Ex. ^^ Jowled his yed agen the wall.^'' 

JowT-HBADED, (ulj. stupid. A comiptiou from jolt- 
headed. (See remarks under ou.) 

Bot fowl^ jaw-jourdane-heded, jevels. 

Dunrar's Compt* 

JOWT, 9. to jolt. 


Just now ; fhr. Salopians use this in a most extended 
way, applying the phrase to the past, present, and 
future. Such a custom never gives rise to doubt or 
ambiguity among themselves, though aliens are fre- 
quently puzzled by the irregularity. An individual has 
dined, and he expresses the fact, by saying ^^ he dined 
juti funo^ If at dinner, he would say " I am dining 
ju8t now^ or if he has the dinner in anticipation, 
^^he hopes to dine juit now^ 



AFF, Kaffle, 8. a hoe having a very 
long handle, one used by garden- 
ers. S. Ooth. Swed. Verel. in Indie. 
kajhy bacillus. 

Kale, Kave, v. to empty by tilting 
or throwing upwards, as a loaded 
cart. Gr. KotXowj cavo? 
Calts, s. quoits. As this is not a vitiation of Keils, or 
Kayles, which mean nine pins, from the Fr. quUky let 
us see whether it can deduce its origin by one of those 
complicated ways in which Etymologists delight to per- 
plex themselves and their readers. Fr. palet ; by pros- 
thesis, kalet; by syncope, icUt; by paragoge, hdt^, I&l. 
iueita^ violenter jactari. Nine-pirmeSy or Keyles. Cotgr, 
Kansh, Kensh, 8. a strain. Ex. ^^A ken8h in the hip*"^ 
Kasardly, adj. unlucky. Lat. castM. 
Kedlock, 8. a very troublesome weed, known by Botanists 
as the charlock, or Sinapis artenm. 
Keep, 8, 1. pasture. Ex. " Plenty o' good keep.^ 
2. maintenance. Ex. ^^ Jack inna wuth his keepJ" 
Keep, v, to maintain, find in meat and drink. Ex. '^ Vd 
lother keep sich a chap as thee bist, a wik, than a 

Keep, out at, phr. Horses or cattle which lay out in 
hired pastures are said to be out at keep. Ex. '' The 
cowts han bin out at keep.'*'' 


Kbftl, 8. a very inferior horse. Ex. ^^ Such a poor 
hfylP This 10 one of the few words that the Sa- 
lopians have gathered from their Welsh neighbours. 
But why it should be applied in a bad sense seems 
unaccountable. In the Early Poets frequent mention 
is made of eapeU^ eapuU^ &c. for steeds of little value. 

In the same armure y* laenbras wroughte 
And on a croked oopfe that coles broughte 
Hymselfe to battayll gan ivde. 

Sir Isbnbras, y.415. 

Yet the word before us, cannot be regarded as a cor- 
ruption from thence, but must have been learned 'in 
malam partem '' from the C. Brit, kefyl. Promp. Parv. 
keuyll tor hors, mordale. (See Yorke's Royal Tribes, p. 91*) 

Kbogle, v. to be unsteady; Ex. ''The table keggletr 
Germ, kugeln ; Teut. Belg. kughden^ rotundare. 

Kbkill, «. to make a noise like a goose. The same 
as eaeUe. Teut. Belg. kaechden^ glocire. Lindsay. 

Kell, «. a piece of skin which wraps over part of a loin 
of veal. My informants vary considerably in assigning 
it a locality. But as there is no discrepancy in the 
meaning of the word, it may not unaptly come from 
the Teut. gale^ callus. Promp. Parv. kdi^ reticulum. 
Nares quotes as an illustration of its use: 

111 have him cut to the keU, then down the 

Beaumont and Fletcher. 

Kell, s. to skin over ; a term applied to horses when 
they shew symptoms of blindness. Ex. '' His eye begins 
to keU over."*^ The able glossarist just quoted again fur- 
nishes me with an example. 

Now cover'd over with dim doady Mi. 


Rever, t?. to cover. The regular vowel is perpetually 

changed into ^, and t. Ex. "JPiww em o'*er/' 

And leyd hym in his owne hous 

And kmeryd hom vp ayeyn. 

The Hunttun^ of the Hairty v. 252. 


Kets, «. blossoms of the ash. BuUokar under titiaies 
thus explains the word, ^Hhe fruit of the ashen-tree, 
they are little narrow husks hanging together in dus- 
ters, wherein is contained the seed of the ashe which 
is bitter." 

Ketx, Kex, 8. the dried stalks of the hemlock, or other 
umbelliferous plants. The word seems of universal ac- 
ceptation ; supplying all the kingdom through a simile for 
what is withered. Palsgrave ; kickes^ the drie stalke of 
humlockes or burres. 

As doth a kyw other a candle. 

P. Plouhman, 330. 

All the wyves of Tottenham came to se that syzt, 
Wyth wyspes, and kexis, and ryschys there lyzt. 

Tumament of Tottenham, v. 201. 

Ill make these wither'd kea^ea bear my body. 

A King and no King, 

For kejp, dried kex, that in summer has been so liberal to 
fodder other men's cattle, and scarce have enough to keep your 
own in winter. 

The miseries of Inforced Marriage, iv. 

Kibble, t. to cut small. Ex. *'*' Kihled beans."" Teut. 

kippen^ insecare. 
KfBBLiNQ-AXE, B. 9Xi axc about four pounds and a half 

in weight, chiefly used in cutting ^cord wood.^ 
KiBBLiNo MILL, 8, a mill used for cutting beans. 
Kid, r. to cut or bind up faggots. Teut. kudden^ coire. 
Kiddle, v. saliva, chiefly from an infant. Teut. kedd^ 

Kiddle, «. to etnit saliva. S. Goth, mgla; Dan. sigle^ 

dicitur de infantibus, ubi salivam per oris sinus effluere 

Kids, b. faggots. C. Brit, ddyson ; Promp. Parv. kydey 

fascis. Palsgrave; kydde, a fagotto. 
KiLsoN, B. the keel of a barge. 

KiMrr, tjulf. 1. cross, ill tempered. 2. awry. 5. dis- 
ordered in the brain. Ex. ^^A kimit sheep.*^ 


KiMNAL, 8. a veflBel for household purposes. Pbomp. 
Parv. kynlyn, or keler vessel ; what brewers would stiU 
call a cooler ; lempUng^ Bailey ; kmUng^ Coles. An old 
word whose derivation is veiled in obscure conjecture. 
Ray enumerates it among the North Country words: 
it is by no means common in Shropshire. Palsgrave; 
lymneUy quevue. 

A kneding trough or elles a kem^m. 

Cant. Tain. ▼. 3648. 

She's Bomewhat simple 

Indeed; she knew not what a kimnei was. 

The Coxcomb. 

Kind, v. to light, as fire. Ex. " Kind the fire.'' 

Kip, «. a cote. Ex. "A cauves kip^ 

KiPE, 9. a strong basket with two short handles, always 
formed of unbarked osiers. A. Sax. cypay cophinus. 
Tout, kuypej cupa. Oerm. hipe^ corbis dorsuaria. 

Kit, 9. an universal vulgarism for a gang, or company. 

Kitchen, e. a large iron kettle which usually hangs over 
a kitchen fire. 

Knack, «. 1. to gnash the teeth, to snap as a dog. 2. 
to strike gently with one weapon or instrument against 
another. S. to nick. Swed. knaeka^ pulsare. Oerm. 
hnaeken^ sonum edere ex ictu. 

Knag, v. to bite at, snap ; and hence the following adjec- 
tive, in a metaphorical sense. Isl. naga ; Swed. gnagOy 
mordere. Teut. knaghen^ rodere. 

Knaggy, adj. ill tempered, peevish. Dan. knag. 

Knarly, adj. 1. knotty. Ex. '^This timbers knarif 
stuff.'' 2. hardy, stiff. Ex. " A knarly fellow.'' Teut. 
knarren^ stridere. Swed. knar^ hominis morosi verborum 
continuus strepitus; knarrig, morosus. Dan. knarwr- 
ren^ austerus. Verel. in Indie, knar^ acer; Teut. kn<h 
rachtigh^ nodosus. (knorrey nodus.) " A thikke gnarre.^ 
Chaucer, v. 551. 


Knit, v. 1. to unite. Ex. ^^The bwon (bone) inna 
inii yet.^ 2. to hang together. Ex. '' The bees bin 
twitted under the skip.'*'* A. Sax. cnitiom ; Dan. tnyttet ; 
Swed. inyta ; Isl. tnyta, nectere. 

And to hys fete a Btrong xope knjfUes. 

R. Goer db Lion, v. 4008. 
And hiB hondeu bifoien him knet. 

Thx Sxuyn Saoxs, y. 1616. 

I wol ben his to whom that I am knit. 

Cam. Tales, v. 1129a 

Knogs, 8. hemp ; and bemg the course, fibrouB part, may 
have some connexion with the preceding. 

KouNG, Eeouling, 8. a rough tastmg apple, nearly allied 
to the crab. This word is peculiar to the neighborhood 
of Ludlow. 

KoupiNG, adf. addicted to bark at a horse^s heels. Some 
of those who have listened criticaOy to our pecidiari-* 
ties of speech tell me, that there is a decided difference 
between a ieauHnff dog and a koupinff dog. The former 
denotmg one who is quick and sharp, valuable as a house 
guard, the latter, one who is good for nothing, unless 
it be to molest passers by. Ex. ^* Dunna yo hear that 
dog iaupinff the ship !^ (See Ceout.) 



is frequently supplanted by w : thus 
Salopians say, " Pawm uv his hond"" 
for palm of his hand. Palsgrave; 
paulme of the hande. And the prao- 
tioe is not without authority, as we 
find the same interchange of letteis 
in Widifs translation of the New 
Testament : ^^ Othere gaven strokis with the pawm$ of 
her hondis in. his faoe.^ St Matthew, ch. xxtL Also, 
btiwrn^ for babn ; Palsgrave ; baume^ an herb ; p9awn^ for 
psalm. When preceded by o, ^ is invariably dianged 
into IT, or tf, as in fold, sold, old, scold, bold, &c we say 
fawdj iowdy awdy seowd^ bawd (Teut. boude^ audax.) When 
preceded by a, it is likewise converted into t» ; as ^^ this 
borley wunnod mak good mautr" *'^ He dunna yam his 
9aia.^ Sometimes its sound is altogether suppressed, as 
in fault, vault, &c. The natives of Craven (See their 
glossarist under ma/int) have a similar practice. 
Al undergoes a peculiar change in its pronunciation in 
several parts of the county, but especially at Lvdhw. It 
Is commuted into atr, and if a dissyllable ending in d!, the 
d is invariably turned into t Thus we hear the inha- 
bitants of this Burg caU that quarter of the town where 
the prison is situated, Gawowty and Oawfort^ for Goal- 
ford; in like manner Hdlford is called Hatetna, and 
WcU/ord^ Waumtt and Wattfut. 


Lace, v, to beat, chastise. ^^ A tight lacing*^^ in the two 
sexes is hardly synonymous ; for whilst the male portion 
would carefully avoid it, the female part voluntarily in- 
flict upon themselves this species of torment. Orose re- 
cognises the phrase of ^' 111 laee your jacket.*" 

Ladlick^d, part, pott; being beaten by a boy. (See Lick.) 

Lao, 9. to loiter, remain behind. 

Laolast, phr. the last of a band. Verel. in Indie, lag^ 
societas. Orose. 

Laoman, «. an epithet given to the last of a troop of 
mowers or reapers. S. Goth. Swed. lagg ; Lapp, lagg^ 
extremum cujuscunque rei. 

Lam, «. to beat. Ex. ^^ Oive him a good UmmM^g.^'' Gelt, 
fam, manus. Tout, him daen, enervare verberibus. C. 
Brit, lainio^ verberare. Verel. in Indio. lam^ firactus. 
Isl. hlemma^ tundere. Swed. 2am, enervatus. 

Many, I say, sir, if I had been acquainted 
With lammmg in my youth, as you have been. 
With whipping, and such benefits of nature. 

The HtmeH MaiC% Fortune. 
One whose dull body will require a lammmg. 

A King and no King. 

Lamb, Lamp, «. a form of the preceding. Grose has 
the word, and also the phrase '^ Lamb pie^^ which is 
synonymous. In the celebrated play of Ignoramus, 
the word occurs under a Latin form. 
Pol. Capillis illas in viis 

Protiahens ita lamberabo, ne tollant pedes postea. 

EdU. Hawkins, p. 96. 
To amplify the matter then; roffues are ye. 
And lamb'd ye shall be ere we kave ye. 

The Beggars' Bush. 

Lambskinet, 8. a game at cards played by young people. 
A corruption from the Fr. Lansquenet. See Cotgrave. 
Menage, says the LansquenetSy who are Swiss, or German 
footmen, introduced this game into France. They were 
a body much employed by the Duke of Burgundy in his 
wars against the king of France. Phil, de Comines, 
Book vin. c. 14. 



Lamhbl, Lammock^ «. synonymous with the preceding. 

Langan, Lanoit, 8. the socket of a spade or shovel. 

Lannbt, 8. a hmiard. Fr. laniire. 

Lant, 8. urine. Isl. A. Sax. kland^ urina. Whidi 
again come from the Celtic Ian, hn^ lUn^ aqua. The 
primitive has given name to some places in our own 
county, as Leintwardine ; and to several in the king- 
dom generally, as i^ncaster, London, ike, which have 
taken their appellation from their position near water. 
Nares quotes for my purpose. 

Your frequent drinking coontiy ale with kmi in't. 

Glafthoknb's IFU in a CamkAie. 

Lapp, «. to wrap, fold up, enclose. Ex. '^ Lapped up 
in paper.*" Teut. lappen, coagmentare. Swed. lappa, 
saroire. Sir D. Lyndsay. 

And whanne the bodi was taken^ Joeeph lappide it in a dene 

Wiclif'8 New Tett. Si Matt. ch. zxvii. 

BUapped among his fon. 

Amis and Amiloun, v. 1014. 

Sche toke a riishe baudekine 

That hir lord brought fram Conatentine, 

And lapped the litef maiden therin. 

Lay lb Frbine, v. 138. 

Ye must gyve the knyght a lyveray^ 
To lappeina body ther in. 

Ritson's Roinn Hood, vol. i. p. 14. 

And take him a grene mantel! 
To lappe his Ix^y ther in. 

id. vol. i. p. 35, 

Lap me in soft Lydian airs. 


Latch, «. to measure under the surface, as a mine, bj 
way of ascertaining how much of it has been used. 
Thus to latch a pit, signifies to measure how much 
of the mine has been used, as well as to discover what 
direction the work is taking. Germ, ku^ incisura. 
Lat. Barb. Iaehu8, incisio arborum: that is, as a boun- 
dary markf ^^ Omnia qusecunque his lachi8 et terminis 


circumdata sunt oum villulis infra poBitie.'^ (Du Cange, 
sub Lackm,) 

Lathbb, b. 1. a ladder. 2. part of a mill oontigaou0 
to the hopper. 

Lather, Lother, adj. rather. Ex. " Fd Uxther nod.**"* 

Latness o^ speech, phr. difficulty of utterance, impedi- 
ment of speech. Teut. Uneten^ omittere ? S. Ooth. lai^ 
piger. A. Sax. laiicm ; M. Gk)th. latyan^ diferre. Swed. 
laUing, ignarus. 

Lats, «. laths. Teut. latte^ tigillum. 

Lattino, adj. late, backward. Ex. "A lotting time for 
the tillin."'' Verel. in Indie, latur ; M. Goth, lata^ tardus. 

Law, 8. liberty, licence, start. 

Laze, «. to glean. Ex. '^ Gone a lazing.'" S. Goth, kua ; 
Teut. Franc. Germ, lesen ; Swed. Kua; A. Sax. leian^ legere. 

Lazing, 8. the produce of gleaning. A. Sax. lesingj 

Leaf, b. fat round the kidneys of a pig. Ex. ^^Pig'^s 
lea/,"*^ usually converted into lard. 

Leapbrs, 8. grey peas, commonly called ^^laping paze.**^ 

Learn, v. to teach. This is a very common metonymy, 
and in all probability universal. Refinement has in- 
duced us to consider it a vulgarism, but I suspect 
somewhat arbitrarily. For both the example in the 
authorised version of the Bible, and the etymology of 
the word itself supply an answer to those who would 
condemn its use. Germ, lemeny docere. A. Sax. leor- 
nian; Franc, leman; Alaman, liman^ discere. 

Lead me forth in thy tmth, and learn me. 

Psahn XXV, 4. and 8, Pgakn cxix. 2. 

and repeatedly in Shakspeare ; As You Like It, i. 2 ; 

Tempest i. 2. ; Richard II. iv. 1. 
Leather, i?. to beat. 
Lenth, Lbynth, 8. length. There is a general practice 

amongst the lower orders of suppressing the sound of 

gy in this and similar words: and as we find the 


word written by some of our early writers without 

it, the custom is not unsanctioned. One illustration, 

from many, may suffice. 

In his muchehed, and in his legftUke. 

Kyno Alisaunder, t. 7352. 

Lent-obain, LErnvriLLiN, $. such crops as are sown in 

the spring. 

And lenie 9ud9 alle 
Aren nouht so worthy as whete. 

P. Plouhman^ 211. 

LsvEBs, i. ^wet boards;' or the lower moveable boards 
of a bam door: sometimes termed Hea/een: periiaps 
from being lifted out of the side grooves. 

Ley, 8, 1. ploughed land that has been laid down with 

clover or other seeds. Ex. " A clover leg^ '* It was 

a ley last year.'^ A. Sax. %, novale. 

And feyi toke vp a falow ley. 

The Hunttyng qf the Hare, v. 152. 

2. as a common termination to the name of a place. 
In which we must seek for a higher origin. C. Brit. 
He; Com. le; Arm. lech; A. Sax. lea; Qerm. lage^ 

LicHaATB, $. that gate of a church-yard through which 
a funeral approaches the grave. One of the entrances 
to Madely Church- Yard is so called, and whilst all 
corpses are carried through that, all weddings as in- 
variably pass through the other. The term is not 
confined to this place merely, as a similar apellation 
is given to others in various parts of the county; 
the church-yard gate at Albrighton bears this name; 
there is a lAchfiM ChUe near Norton Camp ; and 
the hke name is recognised in Cheshire and Staflbrd- 
shire. The central gate leading into the church-yard 
of the Collegiate Church of Wolverhampton is stiU 
called the LiehrgcOe. IsL Swed. Lapp. Uk ; A. Sax. 
lie; M. Goth, leik; Teut. lijck^ cadaver. The city 
of Lichfield has hence derived its title, being as Lam- 

bard informs w from John Rofls, ''caUed LyoetfMe^ 

i. e. Oada/cerwn OampuB^ from the great daughter there. 

Lie and Lichama in Old KngBwh signifying a body, 

by which name Beda also calleth it."^ 
Lick, «. a blow. 
Lick, «. to beat. Ex. ''A good lieUngJ*" S. Ooth. 

Uffa^ peroutere. Plautus has ^pugno legere^ 
LicKLB, adj. a very general substitution in the vicinity 

of Church Stretton for IMe. 
Lids, «. transverse pieces of wood which support the 

roof of a coal work. A. Sax. hUdan^ tegere! 
LiBF, LiBv, adj<. agreeable, as soon as; pronounced Uf 

and Uf>. Ex. '' Fd as Uf do it as nod."" A. Sax. 

leof; M. Ooth. Uvba; Tout. Urf, dilectus. Oerm. 

Uiben^ favere. Lat. 2iM, lubet. 
What aiuma is ^ or loih. 

P. PLOimMAIf. 

Be hym kfi, or be hym loth. 

Kitson's Ant. Pop. Poehy, p. 90. 

Ne thourii I say it, I na'am not Iq^ to gabbe. 

MiOerm Tale, d6ia 
Whether he were loth or kfi. 

Ritson's BMn Hood, vol. L p. 41. 
Whose mention was like to thee as Seoo 
As a catch-polls fist. 

Hall's SaHrei, iv. 2. 

LiEK, part, pott ; hyn. Ex. '' Her hannod Km up all 

alung;^ which is to say, whether it be masculine or 

feminine, that the brute has layn out. 

Though ye have Uen among the pots. 

PMdm lx?iiL 13. 

LiBVBB, €tdj. rather. Ex. ^^ Liewr, let him be.^ Sir 
D. Lyndsay, Chaucer, Spenser. 

Hym was feusr to lyn than lyde. 

Sir Goworthsr, v. 246. 

That hem were lever lend. 

P. Plouhmav. 

I had leuer than a thousand pound. 

Adam Bbll, v. 645. 

Mee had lever than a ston of chese. 

Tttrnament of Tottenham, v. 180. 



LidOKR, s. a liar. Ex. ''Thee bist a lij/ffer.*' S.Goth. 
Iffi^; M. Goib. Ufiffon; A. Sax. leoffim; Franc. Ala- 
man, Unptm; Belg. Uegm; Id. Swed. Unga; Oemou 
hgeny mentiri. 

Light, «. by aphffireeuiy for aligki. 

She UM adonn and ftlleth him to fete. 

CanL Talei, t. 6624 and 10183. 
A vengeaiinoe and dispigfat 
On the must nedes ij^hL 

Skeltoit's Poemt, p. 83. 
AD hys lo^e yn her was ^^^Uft. 

Laujtfai., y. 308. 

Light timbbred, adj. sickly, weak, feeble, slim. Ex. 

''Theresa nod much chaance o^ keeping sich a weUy, 

liffii timbered crachnr alive.^ 
LiGHTBOMB, adj. light. Pbomp. Pabv. Ij^ffhiaum^ full of 

light. Tent, licht; A. Sax. Kit, lucidus. 
Full U^dwtM and glad of cheres. 


LiGHTsoMBB, adj. Comparative of the foregoing. 

LiKB ; a redundancy which often enters into the middle, 

or forms the conclusion of a sentence. Ex. '' Her's been 

very iU HkeT "Poorly liier 

Sa Hope and Garage did, quod I, 
Experimented lyke. 

Movtooxert's Cherry and the l&at, 

LiKBLT, adj. suitable, promising. Ex. "A Uidy laA.^ 
M. Goth, galeitan^ placere. 

Limb of the Law, phr. Jamieson defines Umb to be 
" a mischievous or wicked person ;*" as " You^'re a per- 
fect limb.^^ An elliptical expression says he, used for 
'^a limb of Satan.**^ Verel. in Indie. Lim^ membrum; 
Swed. lem. 

But I am tauffht the danger would be much, 
If these poor lines should one attornejr touch — 
One of those lAmba of Law who're always here. 

The Bcraugh, Letter Vl« 

Lino, g, heath. Verel. in Indie, ling^ erica. 



LiNKBBDfo, adj. idle. Ex. ^* Yo bin a Unkering fellow.^ 
And as a participle, denoting one who loiten, or idles 
about. Ex. ^' JAnkervng abouitT* By metatheos for Uf^ 
gering. A. Sax. Imgiom; Tent, lenghm; Belg. Imgen^ pio- 

Lm Pin, s. a pin of iron which paflBes through an axle 
of a waggon, or a ^^ copsiP of a plough, to keep the 
wheel on. Lviuik-fvi^ Bailey. 

Lint, $. a dang term for a halter. Ex. ^^ Yone had the 
liiU nigher your neck than he haa.^ Tout. Uwtj funicu- 
lus. Swed. Verel. in Indie. A. Sax. Bret. Un ; Belg. 
Unt; Dan. linkj ; Lapp, line; C. Brit. Arm. Com. 
Km, linum. 

LiNTT, €Ldj. 1. idle, hizy. Ex. "A linty fellow.'' Coles 
has lenkm^ idle ; hence the metaphorical sense, 2. fai. 
Ex. ''A ftfifypig.'' (Lilleshall.) Teut. Unt^er, leniui. 

LippiNo, LippiNQ-ou>UT ; s. a piece of steel welded to the 
front of a horse's shoes. A. Sax. %pa ; Franc, lep ; 
Swed. lapp ; Belg. Teut. Fr. Uppe ; Arm. Oerm. lippj 

Lissom, (idf. elastic, supple, pliant. Ex. ^^ Lissom as 

whalebone.'" A. Sax. Ksse, relaxatio. Isl. Udamiutr; 

Dan. ledmggy agilis. 

And ^ as laase of Kent 

DowMbeB, Y. 27. 

LrrHBBLT, adf. lazy. Not very provincial, I think. Sir 
D. Lyndsay, Chaucer, R. of Oleaster. BuUokar, has 
hiherlyy slothful. ^^ A Sax. lythrey mains, pravus.^ 

My lad he 18 80 Miher, he 8fiid9 ^ 
He will doe nought tluit'8 meete. 

Kino Estmbrb, t. 203. 

A clerk had merfy beeet his while. 

. Cant. Talei, y. 3299. 

LriTBB DOWN, 9. to make up a horse^s bed. Teut. Belg. 

UHer der beesten, cubile, 

Who bdng, as I am, iitter'd under Mercniy. 

Winter'9 Tak, Iy. 2. 


LnTLB FuNT CoAi^ 8. a thin meaenire of ocmI, neareet the 
surfiMM of any, reciting upon the Crawstone. Our 
Shropehire strata lie thus, and bear the foUowing 

Lancashire Ladies. (Iron Stone.) 

Little Flmt Coal. 


Clod Coal. 

Rondle Coal. 

Two Foot CoaL 

801, or Oainy Coal. 


Stinking Coal. 

Penny Coal. 

Flints, or Flint Coal. 

Flat Stone. 

Yard Coal. 

Quises Neok. 

Double Coal. 

Three-quartered Coal. 

Ball Stone. 

Top Coal. 
Lob's Pound, s. a punishment of a plajrfiil kind with 
which children are threatened, an easy detention be- 
tween the knees. Dramatic critics have been unable 
to discover the origin of the phrase. Nares quotes from 
Massinger and Hudibras, 

Fotmd in Lcb*8 pound. 

Duke qfMUan, in- 2. 
Thou basely thxewsft into Lob's pound. 

The term is among the choice collection of Grose. 
Lockbbs, s. pieces of oak or hade, which support the roof 

of a pit. 
Lodged, pixrt. pcut ; grass or any kind of grain which is 

beaten down by wind or water, is said to be lodged. 

Haply the A. Sax. loge^ aqua, originated the term. 


Teat. Hey-loffheHy componere foenum in metam! A. Sax. 
logicm; Belg. Fris. Sicamb. loghm^ componere. 

Lollop, «. to loU. Ex. '' LoOoping about."" Id. fo/fa, 
segniter agere. 

LoMB, 8, a lamb. A deviation from the regular autho- 
rities of the Northern languages, which is only justified 
by the example of Piers Plouhman, and the ancient song 
of Cuccu, printed in Ritson^s Anct. Songs, p. 4. 

LoMMocK, «. a large piece. Ex. *^ A hmmock 6* bread."^ 
(See remarks under Ock.) 

Lonesome, adf. 1. destitute, widowed. Ex. ^'A poor 

loneiome woman."' 

A hundied marks is a long loan for a poor lone woman to bear. 

2nd part of Henry IV. 

2. soUtary, shut out from the world. Ex. ^'A sad 
laneioms place to live in."" 

Thns he hath sold his land soe broad^ 
Both hill and holt, and moore and fenne. 

All but a poore and loneoome lodge. 
That stood far off in a lonely glen. 

RiTSOif's ScoUM Songs, vol. iL p. 131. 

Long Feathers, phr. ^^ To lie in the long feathen^ is 
a cant phrase for sleeping upon straw, in a bam or 

LooBD, pari. past. A perversion of the generally re- 
ceived meaning, which denotes in the present in- 
stance, being supplanted, superseded. Ex. ^^Ah! 
Surrey thee bist looed^ another chapes ta^en thy plack."^ 
Fr. looer. 

Loom, s, the track, or wake of a fish. Ex. '^ A fish's 
loam.'^ Swed. foma, segniter incedere! 

Loose, «. to discharge, let off: as guns, or cannon. 
This is considered by many as a vulgarism, or bearing 
the marks of provincial slang. But there are few words 
used on better authority. It ought rather to be written 
as it is frequently pronounced, and in short as it is 
spelt by Roger Ascham and others, lofue. 


They loined their amwes both at onoe. 

Adam Bbll, t. 309. 

It obtaiDB the like signification with him aa it does 

with ns. Nares gives iUustrations firom Drayton and 

Ben Jonson, to rescue it from reproach. A. Sax. 

leo9an; M. Ooth. lauBon^ liberare. 
LoTHB, «. to ofier. Ex. ^^I lUhed it to him at five 

LoTHKB, aJlj. 1. a corruption of rather. Ex. ^' Fd hAer 

vkoA^ 2. unwilling, in which case it is the comparatiye 

of A. Sax. hU^ perversus. 

A lorde were Mher, for to leyne a knaue 
Than swich a begger. 

P. PtouHMAN's Crede. 

LUk hun was that dede to don. 
And wele tether his liif foigon. 

Amis and Amiloun, t. 640. 

The £Edrer of hce, the prouder of hart. 
The tether to wo, the sooner won. 

8€hote Hoiue qf Women, y. 661. 

LouK, s. a blow. Ex. ^^ Fat him a hui on his yed.^ 
By metonymy I suppose we get this word from the 
Id. and S. Cbth. luta ; A. Sax. UiUan, inclinare se. I 
have no better fancy to offer. 

LouN, s. a clown, boor, stupid, countryfied fellow. Sy- 
nonymous with loon. Teut. Belg. loen^ homo stupidus. 
Verel. in Indie, hmd^ perversse indolis homo. Ir. Ufm^ 
desidiosus. Sir D. Lindsay. Shakspeare. 

Thou lies Mae tewn they said again. 

RiTSOif's Robin Hood, voL i. p. 107. 

And banldly bare away the gear. 
Of many a lawland teun, 

Gilderoy, y. 60. 

He held them sixpence all too deere; 
Therefore he called the t^lor teume. 

Percy's ReUques, yoL L p. 207. 

LouN, LouNnER, r. to chastise. Ex. ^^Loun him well.*''' 
This and the previous Scotticisms have hitherto eluded 
etymological research. 


LouNBB, 8, a large piece of bread ; the laun's piece, is 

the first cut from a new loaf. 
LovBsoME, €uif. an archaism for lovely. Sir D. Lyndsay, 


Her hiueium dghen, her rode so bxidit. 

Lay lb Frsinb^ v. 263. 

Ludlow, $. The name of this town accords precisely 
with its position. A. Sax. leod; Tout, htdrn, populns. 
A. Sax. hlaw^ lowe^ tumulus. Teut. /oo, locus iJtus ad- 
jacens stagnis, torrmtibus^ aut paludibus : (i. e.) The 
people who live on the hill. Low^ or Xo, is common 
as a termination to several places both in and out of 
the county. Thus in it there is Mumhw; A. Sax. 
mand os ; and lowey tumulus; out of it, Marhw^ a hill 
surrounded with marshes. HcwMUno^ East LoOy West 
Loo, &o. The latter part of the word undoubtedly 
comes from the C. Brit, llehau, locare, and by contrac- 
tion lau, and thence hw; but genendly spelling, hwj 
designates a tumulus, as BriniloWj and Kniffhtlaw, in 
Warwickshire, and Saxon'^s Low, near Trentham, co. 
Stafford, on the estate of his Orace the Duke of Suther- 
land. In Shropshire we have the WUlow farm in the 
parish of IdtUe Wmlocky a locality sanctified, as it 
were, by the number of tumuli it contains. (See re- 
marks at pp. 9^9 269.) 

This too will be found in strict accordance with ety- 
mological research, as VereL in Indie, hge; S. Gh>th. 
Uya ; A. Sax. % ; Alam. lav^a ; Belg. laeye ; Fenn. 
Kecii ; Dan. Itic ; Brem. loegnin ; Oerm. loh ; M. Goth, 
in comp. lauh ; flamma, lux^ evidence : having reference 
to the cremation celebrated on the site of those Lowbs, 
or eminences. 

They drowe heom qnvk undnr a lowe. 

Kyng Alisaundbr, t. 4348 and 5364. 

Of lightnes sal then se a lowe. 

Ywmne and Gamm, v. 343. 


Alone he walked bv a kwe, 
A (ayre fyre sawe he glowe. 

Syr IsBNBitAS, y. 384. 

As thegr lyden an a hwe, 

Ltbxaus DiscoiruSy y. 1000. 

That beheaid the Bheriffs of Nottingfaam, 
Ab he leaned under a iawe. 

Robin Hood and Guy qfGisbome, y. 187. 

hvQy $. 1. a pull by the ear. Ex. ^^Aluffot the ew.^ 

Not provinoial: being naed by LuuLsay, Shakspeaie, 

Dryden, &c. ke* (See Nsrai.) In its primary signi- 

fioation, figure was unknown, and it signified the ear 

itself, and this meaning still eontinues in some parts 

of £^land« 

All bat a ly bj th' ear. 
Or BQch tri&. 

The Nice Fakmr. 

2. the strongest kind of ^^springle,^ cut in two, peg- 
ging down under the ^^ buckles^ the thatch of a cot- 

Lugo, v. 1. to puU by the hair, or ear. Ex. ^^Luff- 
ging him by the yare.*^ S. G(oth. lugga^ crines rellere. 
2. to draw : generally applicable to heavy carriage, as 
timber, stone, manure, &c. Thus, we hear farmers 
talking ^'of lugging muck on the follow.'" From 
the tardy movement of horses on such occasions, it 
evidently comes from Tout. Fris. hggken^ ignav^ et 
segniter agere. 

''Don't you remember/' says Horace Walpole to Kr Horace 
Mann, ''how the connteaB used to lug ^ half-length picture of the 
latter behind her post-chaise all over Italy f 

Corro^j^ondeMe^ voL iL p. 280. 

LuMM, 9. an epithet given to a piece of water by the 
turnpike road side, betwixt Coalbrookdate and Welling- 
ton; LuMM HoLR, is vastly similar to some pieces of 
water in the Tyrol, which obtain their celestial green 
marly colour, from the peculiar nature of their bot- 
tom. Willan recognises the epithet in Yorkshire. 
C. Brit. Uimny nudus. 


LuNOR, «. to beat, or violently assault a person, chiefly by 

kicking. This sense enables us not inaptly to derive 

it from the Fr. aUonger. 

Art thou not shrewdly hurt? the foul great hmgiM laid un- 
mercifully on thee. 

Tl» Kfik^ (it the Burning PeaUe. 

LuNGOus, adf. cruel, vindiotive, possessing a disposition 

which delights in mischief, or the infliction of bodily 


Un chien akmge, est cdui qui a les doigts du pied etendus 
par quelque blesure. Ricbblbt. 



undergoeB but few changee, and even 
these are presumed to be of general 
acceptation. In the word twmipy it 
takes the place of fi, as turmit ; the 
same word constantly varies, as, tur^ 
midy tormity tcrmidy &c. 
Magot-mant-febt, «. the millepedes. 
Isl. margfcBtlay scolopendia ! 
Maid, b. an iron firame which holds ^the bakstone.^ 

(See Bakstonb.) 
MAierr, ad/c. almost. Ex. ^^Mairi clemmM.*^ M. Ooth. 
mats; Germ, meitt; A. Sax. mo/est; Teut. Belg. meed; 
Swed. S. Gk)th. Dan. meet; Isl. megtr. plurimum. 
maiety Sir D. Lyndsay: mast^ R. of Brunne: meedy 
Wiclif : mestey Chaucer. 
Mak, v. an usual and very common abbreviation of make. 
Ex. " Whod ivir make thee do a thisus.*^" 

The cheese is to mak, the butter's to kirn. 

Herd's SeoUuh Songg, voL ii. p. 125. 

Makshift, s. a substitute. 

Makb, r. to fasten. Ex. '' Make the door.'' '' Are the 
windows made f^ This has been considered by many 
as a provincialism. It may be questioned however, 
whether it really be one. Let us regard it as an el- 


liptical expression, and call the modern Greeks to sanc- 
tion our use of it by their analagous phrase, of Kafxv€i 
Tfi¥ dvpav. 

Make the doors upon a woman's wit. 

Ao You Like IL 
The doofB are made agmnst you. 

(kmedy 'qf Errors, 

Make up, phr. I . to coat, wheedle. Ex. ^^ Fausmg and 
nuMnff up.'" 2. attempting a reconciliation. 

Mall, s. a corruption from Mary, through MM: unfre- 

Mammet, 8. a doU, something small intending to repre- 
sent a human being. Ex. '^A mafnmet of a thing.''" 
Pbom. Parv. maicmette^ imagines fictee loco Deorum. 
Coles has mamme^ a puppet. Belg. Tent, mammeken^ 
mammula, (Minsheu.) Nares says it has been supposed 
to be a corruption of maeemeni. He quotes among 
other authorities for its use, 

This is no world. 
To play with mammets, and to tilt with lipa. 

1 Hen, IV. iL 3. 

Mammocks, s, broken or refuse victuals. Ex. " You may 
eat your tnammocks as likes."" Not provincial. 

Mammock, 9. to waste or crumble away bread. Ex. 
'^ Child dunna mammock thy fittle o" that"ns."" Skinner 
thinks this word comes fi^m the C. Brit, mdn^ parvus ; 
odb being added as a diminutive. The latter part of 
his conjecture does not seem in analogy, either with 
the Welsh, or any Northern language; da^ being a 
cumulative or intensive verb. (See Remarks under 


Whan maimoeket was your meate. 

Skeltox's Poenu, p. 197. 

Mantle piece, 8, a chimney piece. Belg. manid van de 
sdioude ; Fr. manieau de la chemin^e. Oerm. mantel ; 
structura quas camini focum circumdat. 

Mabchbr Lords, «. A title given to the petty sove- 
re^ns who lived on the borders of England and Wales. 



The aome privileges appertained to those on the Scotch 
borders. Our earliest record of their origin, is given 
by the Conqueror, in 1070, who permitted Roger de 
Montgomery to levy war at his discretion upon the 
neighbouring kingdoms, and to appropriate to himself 
from the Welsh, whatever he could thus acquire. This 
policy led to the erection of the Marcher Lordships, 
which consisted of more than a hundred little states, 
and thus became the fruitful parent of innumerable 
disorders, till their suppression in the reign of Henry VII. 
(See Bkkeway's Hist, of Shrewsbury, vol. i. p. 117.) 
M. Goth, marka ; A. Sax. m$arc ; Dan. S. Ooth. marie ; 
Isl. ma/rt; C. Brit, man; Qerm. gemerdi ; Fr. marcke; 
Belg. Tout, marck ; Ital. marka ; Span, camarka^ limites 
alicttjus territorii. 

Mabb, to CRT the; pkr. This harvest custom is not 
confined to Salopians, as there is reference to it in Golems 
Dictionary, and in the Magna Britannia of Lysons. It 
varies however in the method of celebration, both with 
us, and from others. When a farmer has ended his 
reaping, and the wooden bottle is passing merrily round, 
the reapers form themselves into two bands, and com- 
mence the following dialogue in loud shouts, or rather 
in a kind of chant at the utmost pitch of their voice. 
First band : / have her^ I have her^ I ha'de her. (Every 
sentence is repeated three times.) What hast thief 
What hast thee? What hast thee? First, a mare, a 
mare^ a mare. Second ; Whose m her t Whose is her f 
Whose is her? First, A. B^s. (naming their master, 
whose com is all cut.) Second, Where shaU we send 
hert be. First, to C. D. (naming some neighbour whose 
com is still standing.) And the whole concludes with 
a joyous shout of both bands united. In the South 
Eastem part of Shropshire, the ceremony is performed 
with a slight variation. The last few stalks of the wheat 
are left standing.; all the reapers throw their sickles, 


and he who cuts it off, cries, " / kaiee her^^ " / haw 
her^ " / haw her'''' ; on which the rustic mirth begins : 
and it is practised in a manner very similar in De- 
vonshire. (See Lyson^s Magna Brit. p. oocliv. and 
Cornwall, p. cclii.) The latest farmer in the nei^- 
bourhood, whose reapers cannot therefore send her to 
any other person, is said ^^ to keep her aU the tomter!^ 
This rural ceremony, which like the other picturesque 
usages of a former period, is fast wearing away, evi- 
dently refers to the time, when, our county lying all 
open in common fields, and the com consequently ex- 
posed to the depredations of the wild mares, the sea- 
son at which it was secured from their ravages was a 
time of rejoicing, and of exulting over a tardier neigh- 
bour. That this is the true solution is further con- 
firmed by the fact that there is a ''crying the eow^ 
sometimes observed at the end of the harvest of pease. 
(See Blakeway and Owen's History of Shrewsbury, vol. 
ii. p. 27. Brand's Popular Antiq. of Vulgar Customs, 
vol. i. p. 443, &c.) By way, I suppose, of keeping up 
this custom with fiill effect, it not unfrequently happens, 
that the farmer who has been presented with ^''ihe 
mar^'*^ sends one of his harvest men with a halter at 
supper time for her! Or to express myself in ^ the 
dialect of my own county, according to the relation of 
a witnesser of the scene in 1835: ''They cryden the 
mar awhile I was thire, becos yo sin we'den done har- 
rast fust ; 'e gotten up o'er neet and laid a dhel o' the 
weat down i' swaaths, un awhile we wun at supper a 
mon oumm'd in wie a autar to Catch her away.^ It 
is not unusal to sing this distich at the conclusion of 
a profi^rously gotten in harvest. 

Harrast whoam^ Harrast whoam, 
NivoT a loads been overthxoan. 

Mahket Frbsh, adf. That dubious degree of sobriety 
with which farmers too commonly return home from 



market : having had full inclmation for intemperaooe, 

but only venturing to the borders of excess. 

Not drunken nor sober, bat neighbonr to bodi. 
Marmtt, 8. a pot with hooks at each side. 
Marow, Mabrow, $. a companion, friend. The Pbomp. 

Parv. has marteey and maratce^ or felowe in travayle, 

socius. Fr. mari. 

Pore huBbondes that had no 

The HunUyng of the Hare, v. 247. 
Tis right we together sad be 
For nane of ns cud find a marrow. 

Ritson's Seotiieh'Songe, vol. i. p. 246. 

Mase, 9. to turn giddy, light-headed. Ex. ^' Felt quite 

mcued.'^ An old en^h word, metaphorically applied 

from the substantive, moM, a labyrinth. A. Sax. mate^ 

gurges. Bulloker haa maze^ an astonishment. In a 

slightly deflected sense to our own, we find Chaucer 

using the word. 

Ye maeey ye mawn, goode sire, quod she. 

Canterbury Take, v. 10261. 

Mass or Mars, Maesbrook. In this immediate vicinity 
was fought a battle between Oswald King of Northum- 
berland and Penda King of Mercia, in which the former 
was slain. Tradition, or at best, conjecture, has fixed 
th^ scene of conflict at Oswestry, but surdy it must be 
considered more probable to have taken place in a 
situation still bearing the same name as that recorded 
by the Saxon Chronicler, than in one, concerning which 
all early historians preserve silence. Neither does Ety- 
mology desert us here, in ascertaining the true locality 
of the action. Maesburt, supplies in its termination, 
additional evidence that the place had become sanctified 
through the slaughter of these Saxon warriors. (See 
Remarks under Burt.) At Maesbrook, or on Maes- 
brooke Common, it seems highly probable this engage- 
ment took place. Having fixed the situation, let us 
now turn to the history, about which there can be no 


Tariance. The coDcurrent teatimony of historians repre- 
sents Oswald as a monaroh who .benefitted his age, and 
who displayed in his own life those gentle virtues which 
exalt the charaoter of the bravest chief. His piety was 
remarkable. Bede gives us some striking proofs of the 
way in which he desired to advance the religious con- 
dition of his subjects. Whilst he was thus labouring 
for their advantage, the ambitious and restless Penda, 
King of Mercia, invaded his kingdom of Northumbria, 
and Oswald fell in battle, on Aug. 5, 642, at Maes- 
brooke, in the thirty-eighth year of his age. His con- 
queror caused his head to be severed from his body, 
his trunk cut in pieces, and the parts exposed on stakes ; 
or, according to Henry of Huntingdon who is our autho- 
rity for this fact, his head and arms only were thus dis- 

Cujns et abscissum caput abecissosq. laoertos, 
Et tribus affixoe palis pendere cruentos 
Penda jubet. lib. iii. p. 331. 

Bede, states that his remains were about a year after- 
wards under miraculous circumstances transferred by 
his niece Osthryda to the monastery of Bardney. They 
were received by the monks with great honor, and be- 
came the fruitful source of those numerous legends 
with which the pages of Hagiologists abound. Subse^ 
quently they were removed from hence to Lindisfam by 
his successor Oswy, his hands and arms, however, were 
preserved at Bamborough. Matthew Westminster states 
that in the year 910, his bones were transported with 
great reverence from Bardeny into Mercia ; (See p. 355.) 
and Florence of Worcester corroborates him. (See p. 
3:^9') The episcopal seat of Lindisfam had been re- 
moved to Chester in 882, where we may suppose these 
bones were placed. The Chronicle of John Brompton 
says the bones of St Oswald were removed by Elfleda to 
Gloucester, where she built a monastery in honor of his 


memory, (p. SSS.) (Bedae Hurt. lib. lii. Saxon Chron. 

amio 642. Matt. Westmoiui. p. SS4, &o.) Pennant oon- 

siden it probable that the Britons bestowed cm the spot 

where the battle was fou^t, the name of ilfcMV Air, or 

the long fidi^ or combat, from the obstinacy of the 

conflict. The Saxons, for a considerable time, retained 

the name of the place where the action was fou^t, 

with the addition of their own vernacular word fM, 

or fMk^ a field ; as MaserfM^ maserfeltk^ and corruptly, 

moM/dd. (Pennant's Wales, p. '259.) 

CampuB MeMfeld Banctonun oandoit osbs. 

Hen, HunHfigdon, lib. iiL p. 331. 

*' In after^days'", says Pennant, " the name became en- 
tirely Saxon ; and from the fate of the King was styled 
OiwalcTs tree ; now Oswestry ; and by the Welsh rendered 
CroeS'OswaUtr (p. 26o.) This is a very ingenious deriva- 
tion of Oswestry^ but it does not at all disprove the con- 
jectures I have advanced, or make the present town, the 
site of the engagement. It has also been surmised that 
Oswald fell in a field near the town, called Cae-nrfy or 
Heaven field, and that a tree was planted near the spot 
called Oswald's tree, hence, Oswestry. (Nicholson, p. 1018.) 
In answer to which it has been urged that HeafefnfM 
in Northumberland has the samd meaning ; and re- 
ceived it on account of the victory Oswald obtained 
there. The derivation of Maesbrook may satisfy the 
doubts of those who may still be scrupulous. C. Brit. 
Bret. Armor, maeg, prelium. 
Mash fat, Mash tub, «. a vessel used in brewing, which 
holds the malt : the grain is stirred round with a wooden 
implement, termed a rMuh skiff. Junius aptly deduces 
it from the Or. fAaaaw. pinso. Fr. mascher ; Ital. fnac- 
care, S. Goth. A. Sax. fat ; Germ, fass ; C. Brit. 
ffetta/a ; Alam. faz ; Belg. rcU, vas cujuscunque 

She drancke on the mashefat. 

Eiinour Rumming, p. 137. 


Then up they gat the fnatkinrfai, 

RiTsoN*s Scottiah San^, voL iL p. 124. 

Masker, 9. I. to feel .stupified, confused. Ex. " Sich a 
dark neet I was masker'd like.*" 2. to grow giddy, 
stun. Ex. ^^Gid him a lick as quite masker'd him.''^ 
Fr. moMocre ; Ital. maazare f Pegge has the word 9A 
common in Derbyshire. 

Maoter tail, 8. the left handle of a plough. 

Maul, v, to bruise or hurt by the fist as in fighting. 
Ex. " Terribly mauled in the face." Isl. Swed. mcda^ 
molere. Phillips has mafd^ to bang or beat soundly. 
Coles. Nares. 

Maun, «. a horse's mane. Ex. '^ Cohm (comb) his matm 
afore yo ta'en him out o^ th** steable. The Isl. fl»dii, 
and Swed. mahn^ juba equina, favor our pronunciation. 

Maun, v. must, a corruption, I suppose, of the old verb 


But we maun hae linen^ an' that maun hae we, 

Ritson's Scottish San^, voL L p. 282. 

Maunder, v. to talk foolishly, incoherently. Ex. '^ Goes 
maundering and bothering on.'*' 

Now I shall take my pleasure. 
And not my neighbour Justice maunder at me. 

Ruk a Wife and have a Wife. 

And now Louisa went on with a medical maunderuM, 
Miss Edobwortr's Helen, vol. iii. p. 104. 

Maundrel, 8, 1. a pickaxe pointed at each end, such 
as is used by colliers when ^^holing.**^ S. a pin of 
iron employed by smiths when making ^^ balking axes.'*'* 

Mawskin, 8. part of a calfs stomach, that is salted 
for the purpose of coagulating milk in making cheese. 
S, Goth. Swed. Isl. mage; A. Sax. maga; Alam. 
mago ; Belg. maag ; Teut. maeghe, ventriculus. 

Me, pron. If this be not one of our elegant redun- 
dances, we must consider it as a pronoun used instead 
of my8df. Ex. '' FU goa and get me some mate.'*' 
"Clane me for chyrche.^' 


Meakino, pari. pres. poorly, drooping. Ex. ** A meaking 
cratur."^ "Gwuz meaking about.^ Pbomp. Pabv. 
meJtynj humilio. Verel. in Indio.' meka^ verba baud 
yiriliter proferre. S. Goth, meker^ homo mollis. Swed. 
meka^ hebetudine ingenii in sermone timidolum agere. 

Mbal^s mkat, 8. a meal of meat, or enough for a meal. 
More commonly, "a mahs maU.'^ Ex. "Nobody to 
gie him a males mate.'" Craven. 

Ne take a meh» mete of thine. 

P. Plouhman. 
A mele9 meie for a poure num. icL 

MBANEVEBfl, aeh. mean while. 

Meo, «. a mark pitched at in playing at quoits. When 
the quoit touches it the thrower counts two; if the 
meff is driven from its place, (megrieen) three ; and 
if it be entirely covered, (whaucers) four. C. Brit. 
moffl^ a spot! Isl. meffn^ summa rei! 

Meght, 9. the old form of the preter^imperfect. Ex. 

" He meffkt ha' done it, if had liked." 

Because they met^ haae good space. 

Sir Tryaxoure, v. 679. 

Melch, adf\ in milk. Ex. '* A new mdck cau> :'" and 

one who yields her milk readily is called ^^an easy 

melched one.''' A. Sax. melcan ; Swed. molka ; Belg. 

melken ; Teut. meleken; Germ, melken and mUcken^ mul- 

gere. Isl. miaita; Dan. malken^ mulctum ire. 

For ache was melche and couthe theian. 
Sche bad it souke and it nold. 

Lay lb Fubin^ t. 196. 

Mblverlt, 8. From the circumstance of this village on 
the Welsh side of Shropshire being continually flooded 
by the irruptions of the Severn, has originated the 
phrase of '^ Get to Melverly teie iheey" Its remoteness, 
perhaps, and the frequency of inundations to which it 
is subject, has occasioned the place to pass into a 
bye word, and its inhabitants to be called Mdeerty 
God helps. In a wet season their plight turns the 


joke agaiiifit them, but after a diy aiimiaer, the Md- 
perleianSf whose land which in itself, is rich and pro- 
ductive, has been rendered more fertile by the bountiful 
watering of the adjacent river, retort upon their ban- 
tering neighbours, by the phrase of ^' Melverlt! where 
do you think f^ A triumphant kind of exclamation, 
which signifies that such crops as those at Melverly 
could be obtained no where else. 

Meubb, s, a hole in a fence through which a hare 
usually passes, her general track. Cotgrave has under 
Fr. trouie^ a. gap or mtuet in a hedge. A word recog- 
nised by Beaumont and Fletcher, Chapman, and other 
poets, as well as by Gervase Markham, a professed 
writer on field sports. (See Nares.) 

Take a hare without a vmue, 

Ray's Proverbs. 

Mkzzeld, part, pcia ; afflicted with a kind of leprosy. Ex. 
*^ Th' aud Bow^B mezzUd like, I think as how ul die.^^ 
Prohp. Pabv. maedydy serpiginosus. Palsgrave; mesyll 
the sickenesse, mesellerie. Cotgrave renders the Fr. me- 
seau a meseUed person. In Lancashire and Derbyshire, 
fnezzil^eas*d^ means red with pimples. S. Goth, maslig^ 
scabiosus. Bret. messM; Fr. mezeau and meseau; Teut. 
mesel; Belg. mcuelen; Dan. maseUnff^ leprosus. The term 
is for the most part applied to swine; and as my in- 
formant under the Wrekin saith, the word mezzild 
describes a pig which has '^ the flesh full of tiny blobs 
of water all over the body; the cheeks are not so 
bad as any other part ; the fat as bad iviry moasel, 
but nod BO visible like to the eye."'' Germ. «mw, maeel^ 

MmuNG-sHARP, €uij» tolerably well. Ex. '' How is the 
family, John! Why the measter's ketched a hacking 
cuff (cough) like, but the missus bin rmdUnff-sharpr 

MiKB, «. to idle, loiter. Ex. '^Jacky wants to mikey' 
Craven Gloss, and Nares have it tni^in and michy the 



same word as our own but dilierently spelt. Wo always 
use it in a perverse sense. It is not so iatensiyely 
employed as formerly. Pbomp. Parv. MychfUi cr 
fnfwMy itelyn tmaU thfnfsiy Surripio. Softened 
down by the dramatists to idle and mischievoos. 
Milk, 8. This is inserted simply for the sake of no- 
ticing the universal nnffularity of its use. The vulgar 
never give the word a phnral. A similar practice is 
observable in Foot: they suppose this to be likewise 
a plural in itself, and speak of ^^a two foot rule:^ 
^^a bwdard seven foot long^ In the former instance, 
they say, '*' to^ert four or five mile r** and the custom 
seems to receive countenance from some of our Early 
English Poets. 

Three myle myghte men here the soon. 

Richard Cokr db Lion^ v. 6714. 
An hundred myk, 

Oct AVIAN IicpEmATom, v. 286. 

Miles endways, phr. These are very long ones. 
Miller, «. the larva of a lepidopterons insect, known 

in its imago state by the appellation of Vanessa Urticse. 

It is addressed by children in this distich. 

Miller, Miller, blow your horn! 

You shall be hanged for stealing com. 

MiLK-FoRK, 8, a forked branch of oak, usually at the 

dairy door, upon which the milking pails, and other 

lacteous vessels are hung. 
MiLK-FRicK^D, part pa8t ; milk turned sour. 
MiLNER, 9. the old form for miller, according to P. 

Plouhman, A. C. Mery Talys, p. 24, Percy's Reliques, 

&c. &c. 
Misdeem, v. to be suspicious, illiberal. Teut. misdienen, 

male mereri. A. Sax. mii, from M. Goth. misMr, defec- 

tu8 ; deman^ judicare. 

He which that misconceiveth, oft misdeemeih, 

Chaucer's Merck. Tnie. 


That taketh well and soometh nought^ 
Ne it mUdeeme in hir thongfat. 

House qf Fame. 
They retained not the fear of the Lord, aad they assented not 
to my connsel, and they depraved^ and mUtkemed eJl my correction. 

WiCLiFF on PrayeTy d iL 

MisDEEMFUL, €tdj, siupicious^ See Roister Doister, edit. 
Sriggs, p. 50. 

MisLE, «. to rain gently. Ex. ^^It misled 6* rain,^ that 
is, according to its sense and derivation, "it muts o* 
rain.'^ A. Sax. mitt^ caligo, quia caligo est priyatio Incis, 
a missm, carere. Oerm. mist, nebula. Wachteri Gloss. 
Teut. Fris. Holl. misten, mieselen, rorare tenuem pluviam. 

Mix, v. to clean out as a stable, or cow house. Ex. 
*'^ Mixing the moggies,^ i.e. mixing the calves. 

MixEN, MixoN, 8. a dunghill, heap of rubbish. It is 
not dialectical. A. Sax. mixen ; Dan. mog ; Scan, motk- 
hull; Isl. myH; Swed. moi, sterquilinium. Cotgrave, 
Coles, &c. mexen, mixen, 

MoBBLE, 9. to cover up. Ex. '^ Hobbled up in a cloak.*" 
Mobbledy as females are said to be when so covered or 
clothed, and from their form being obscured and par- 
tially hidden by this ungraceful load of drapery; the 
word has affinity with the S. Goth. Swed. mdn^ nubes. 

1st Playbr. fiat who, ah woe ! had seen the mobbled queen, 

Hah. The nuMled queen ? 

Pol. That's good ; mobbled queen is good. 

Hamlet, ii. 2. 

MoBCAP, e, a cap tying under a woman's chin by so 
broad a piece of lace or muslin of the same material 
as the cap itself, that the face is partially hidden. This 
unbecoming and inelegant fabrication of our English 
modistsB, may not unaptly be assimilated to the Lap- 
pish, siobmok, tegmentum capitis, quo foemine Lappo- 
rum utuntur hieme quoque simul facies operitur. 

Mog, V, to move. Ex. " Come mog off."" Isl. maia, movere. 

Moil, v. 1. to work hard, slavishly, generally at some 
dirty occupation. Ex. ^' Toiling and mailing.'''' 


Unpieachin^ prelates are so troubled with lordly living, and 
nuriUng in their gay manors and mansions. 

Latimsk's Sermon an the Phugk. 

2. to become dirty. Ex. ^'^ Moiled fix)m yed to fat.'' 
Teut. moeyer^ limtiB. Eng. mire; Fr. mouUler^ (which 
gives us the Salopian pronunciation :) madidare. Verel. 
in Indie modur; Dan. mbdder; S.Goth, mod; ALun. 
muoder ; Belg. moede; Germ, miude^ fatigatuB. Grr. 
juLoXuvwy /HMitaminare. 

M01XICRU8H, V. to bruise or break fine; used in ^ma- 
lam partem.' Ex. "Fll moUicnuk thee.'' Fr. md, 

Mollify, «. 1. to bruise or beat. In this sense, whidi 

must be considered a vulgarism, it is not so frequently 

used as in the next. 2. to soften, subdue. Here it 

is a correct word. Neither mottijled nor bound up 

with ointment. Is. i. 6*. Fr. mMifier^ to mollify. Cotgr. 

Lat. mollio. 

Some molMfieation for your giant sweet lady. 

Twdfth Nighi, 1 5. 

MoMMET, 8. a trifle, a doll, or puppet; synonymous 

with mammei. 

MoN, 8. a man. Pure A. Saxon mon^ homo. 
MoNOE, V. to eat, bite at ravenously. Fr. manger a 

un grain de sel, to eat hastily or greedily, without 

staying for any sawce or seasoning, other than a corne 

of salt will yeeld him. Cotgr. 
Moonshine flit, phr. decamping by night, and leaving 

the landlord unpaid. 
Moral, s. a model. As in the North Country, we say, 

**a moral of a man." Brockett, Moore, Nares. 
MoRKiN, Mawkin, 8, a scarecrow. Isl. markinn; Swed. 

mwrken^ putrefactus? 

Could he not sacrifice 
Some sorry morAm that unbidden dies. 

Bishop Hall's SfUtre». 

MoRT, 8. a largo quantity. Ex. " A mort of it." Isl 


. margt^ marpt. Cimb. mort^ multum. Irish, moron, mul- 

titudo. Grose. 
MossBL, 8. a morcel. Ex. ^^ Nod a mossd o" mate/^ 

Fr. marcel. 

And after the mossel, thanne Satanas entride into him. 

WiCLiFF^s New Teetament, John xiv. 

Most, adf, a state verging upon rottenness. Ex. ^^ Mosy 

appleB."*^ Tout, moes^ pals! C. Brit, mwydo^ bumec- 

tan. Or. fxuSdw nimio humore putrescere. 

His horse hipped with an old mothy saddle^ the stirrups of 
no kindred; b^des, possessed with the glanders, and like to 
moee in the chine. Taming qfthe Shrew, vL 2. 

Mother, $. a round piece of leather put upon the bladder 
that lies inside of a foot-ball. 

MoTHERiNo, 8, the sedimeut, or turbulent dregs of vinegar. 
S. GFoth. Belg. modder ; A. Sax. moder^ spuroities ista, 
quse in fiindo doliorum aut ampullarum residet. Teut. 
moeder^ modder^ fse^. Isl. mod^ quisquilise. Swed. moder^ 
residuum feculentum in fundo vasorum. Palsgrave; 
moder^ a disease, marrys. 

MoTHERiNo Sunday, 8, '^ To go a mothering^*'* is a very 
old custom. It seems to have originated from the 
practice that prevailed in the Roman Church of people 
visiting Mother Church on this, or MuBent Sunday, to 
make their offerings at the high altar. The appointment 
of the lessons for this day, the first of which, gives the 
story of Joseph entertaining his brethren, and the se- 
cond, which, treats of our Saviour^s miraculously feed- 
ing five thousand, together with the allusion to Mother 
church in the epistle to the Galatians, iv. 26. '^ Jerusa- 
lem which is the mother of us all,^^ &c. have evidently 
occasioned the practice. 

lie to thee a sinmell bring, 
'Gainst thou goeet a mothering, 

Herrick's Heeperidee. 

MoTrT,'«. a mark, or spot at which quoit players pitch. 
!S^ Goth, mat, punctum, in quo plures concumint. Isl. 


mciy ooneunms. C. Brit, mot^ a place. A. Sax. mti, 

MouoHT, r. the old form of the preter imperfect. Chaucer, 
&c. A. Sax. maij poosum. 

For to get sleep if that he moughi. 

Sir Gray Stkbl^ ▼. 1S98. 
The ffrehound ranne forth his wi^e 
Tyll he came where his maister laye, 

Ab fiute as euer he ftiou^A/. 

Sir Tryaxourb, t. 513. 

MouoHT, 8, a moth. Ex. '^ The moughts han eat it.*" 

Palsgrave; mouffht that eateth clothes. 
Mould ''out, Mouldy warp, s. a mole. A good old 

English word. A. Sax. moldy terra ; weorpian^ jaotare ; 

Swed. mulbork ; Germ, mawl tourf; Teat, mul-umrp ; 

Alton, wd-vourf; Isl. mokharpa ; Dan. muld/wtrp ; S. 

Goth. muUwady talpa. 

We call in some ports of England a mouk, a nunUdwarp, whkh 
is as much to say, as a ctut-earth; and when planks or bords 
are awry we say they catty or they warp. 

Versteoan's RntUutkn i^Decmiei IniMgenee. 
Sometimes he angers me 
With telling me of the tnobkoarp and the ant. 


MouN, «. correllative with may and may not In the 
former instance an archaic, in the latter, a Titiated form. 
Ex. ^' I mcun tak it whdam.^ Here the first Towel is 
oftener silent, and it becomes by elision, mun ; ^* / mun 
take it whdam.'" In the latter example, it is em- 
ployed negatively, as, ^^Imoun let thee do a thatnV' 
implying, I may not. 

Ye moun not seTYe to God and to richesse. 

WiCLunr's New TeHammi. 
For adventures which that ineun hetide. 

CatU. Tales, v. 12868 and 13100. 

MouT, MowT, V. to moult. Pbomp. Pabv. Mowted^ de- 
plumatus; Mawtinge^ deplumacio. Teat, muytmy plu- 
mas in aviariis amittere. Fr. mr^er. 

MouTEB, V. to moulder, decay. Ex. *'*' Me mt mr in g away.*" 
A vitiation of the original form, obtained thns, mcuUkt, 


inoiitor, tnouUr. Teut. fnoiUeren, raaceTare, moUire; 
M. Ooth. muld; S. Ooth. mull; Swed. id. Isl. mol ; 
A. Sax. mold ; Dan. mnldj pulvk. 

Muck, «. 1. to clean out, free from manure. Ex. '^ Muek 
the cowhuB.'" S. Goth. Swed. modta^ siabula purgare. 
8. to cover with manure. A farmer talks of muciinp his 
land. (See Mixen.) Hence, also, 

MucKBB, 9. 1. to be busy or employed upon some filthy 
work. Ex. " A m^icierinff job.*" 2. to live as it were 
from hand to mouth, in a comfortless, dirty way. Ex. 
** He lived always in a very muckering way.'^ S. In an 
uncertain sense. Ex. '' The clothes were mudterad in 
the wash tub.'''' 

MuDsoN, 8, quasi Mudstone, tha upper Silurian rocks 
generally, which rapidly disintegrate, and fall into mud. 

MuoHus, s. a pottery. At Benthal, one is carried on with 
spirit and activity, and it is this, which has supplied 
me with an authority for the present appellation : univer- 
sal there and the neighbouring parish of Broseley. 

MuLLOK, $, rubbish, dung. Ex. '^A heap o'' muUoh?'' 

Isl. mdy mica. C. Brit, mttlwg^ quisquilise. 

The muUok on an hepe ysweped was. 
And on the flore ycsHgt a canevas. 
And all this muUok in a sire ythxow. 

Cant. TaleJt, v. 16408. 

Till it he rotten in muUok or in stre. 

id. V. 3871. 

MuN, V. a form of the imperfect verb must. Ex. " I 
mwn gda I reckon.'*'* 

Thai mun he met if thai war ma. 

Minot's Poenu, p. 3. 

MmvcH, MuNOB, 8. to eat. Fr. manger. 

MuNcoBN, 8. oats and barley mixed; Old English, manff- 
com : a term but rarely heard, except on the Cheshire 
side of the county. A. Sax. mengeanj miscere. 

MuNNA, MuNNOD, 9. two vaHous forms of must not, 
which are very prevalent. Simply another mode of 


expresaion which we give to the old word numn : by 
suppresBion of the firat vowel, it beoomes mtffi, thence 
mu/nna^ and mun nat^ and in accordance with the 
common practice of converting t final into d^ immMod. 
Ex. '^Her rnimnod nize a thafng."" 

MuKDLB, s. A stick used in stirring up cream. Ex. 
^^A cream-'mundh.'" A. Sax. mundy manus. 

Mutton, «. K a low term of cont^npt for an aban- 
doned female. This title has been derived from the 
Fr. moutottne^ a sort of coiftire used by females, con- 
sisting of a tress of hair, tufted and frizzed which 
was worn in frx>nt. 

Noas Toyons des Prechenn coififez a la numUmne 
Se faire lea veaux granda et la bouche mignonney 
Se radoueir la voi^ et poor tout geste enfin. 
Aux Damea d' alentour haie la Mile main. 

Lewis de Sanieoque. 

2. a reproachful address to a dog. Ex. '' Ah! mutton, 

mutton^'" implying that he b addicted to run after, or 

kiU sheep : aa we say in rustic discourse, ^^ Tie up 

that hill-ship o* yom.'*'' 
Mush, Moosh, adf. silent, quiet, hidden. Ex. ^'Remained 

tnush like.'*^ Forby suggests maueke as the origin. 
Muzzy, cuij. fuddled, stupid from intoxication. Ex. ^^A 

bit muzzy. '^ ^' So muzzy, that he could na understond."" 

Is it from the Gr. /uli/ctut. obstructio! 


Iagoy, Snaooy, adj, peevish, conten- 
tious: the same &» naooedt, or nao- 
ling: all deduoible from Isl. na>gga^ 
Nago, «. to bite at, snap. Ex. "Jim's 
whippet nagged at my heels.*^ S. 
GotJi. gnaga; A. Sax. gnagan; Isl. 
gnagen; Dan. Germ, nagen; Teut. Belg. huighen; C. 
Brit, c/noi^ rodere. 
Nack, V, to nick. Ex. " Naeking knives,^ an amusement 

well known to schoolboys. Teut. knacken^ frangere. 
Nail passer, s. a gimlet. A very appropriate word 
invariably used by ourselves and the Herefordshire 
people for that instrument: with what authority let 
the following synonymous parts declare. Teut. nasghd; 
Germ, ncyel^ clavus. Teut. pcuaerm; Germ, passm^ 
Nan, pr(m, (See Anan.) 

Nape, $. the back part of the neck ; the nape of the 
neck. It is that part which falls into a hollow : from 
the Teut. nap^ alveolus. 
Nash, Naish, Nesh, adj, 1. tender, delicate. Ex. "A 
poor nesh cratur.^ Promp. Parv. growe nesshe, and 
also in the very fine MS. of the Promp. Parv. in 
King^s Coll. Lib. Camb. A. Sax. nesc ; Belg. nesh, 



mollis. Hung. ImyA, delicatua. Ck>tgraTe expliuna 
tendre^ netk^ puling, delicate. This expresBive word is 
not local. Pet. Langtoft. Chron. 

The child was keped tendre. and nessche. 

Thb Sbuyn Saoks, v. 732. 

No knyght for ne$icke He harde. 

Lybbaus Disconus, t. 1488. 

All tendere and nm9Che. 


Hun to behold, so is he goodljr freshe, 

It aeemeth for lore his herte is tender and nefA^. 

Chaucer's Court ofLaoty t. 1002. 

— This but sweats thee 
Like a nstA nag. Boniuca, 

2. chiUy. (Qungunford.) The Teuton, neseh, madi- 
dus; (Msch weder^ aer humidus,) justifies also ihia se- 
condary use of the word. A friend of the writer^s 
heard in the county town of Staffordshire, these com- 
pounded forms: '^a nesh-phizzed fellow/^ a man who 
will not fight for fear of becoming bruised — ^'^nesi- 
ikmached^ one who "cannot ete but littel mete,^ 
his " stomach is not good,*" as the old song quaintly 
has it. Had the same observer kept his ears open 
in this county, the present small volume might have 
been enriched with a greater variety of polite dis- 
course, than it can now boast of. Coles. Nares. 
Grose. Ray. 

Theo nessche clay hit makith dyng. 

Kyno Alisaundbr, t. 915 and 7326. 

Native, s. We may consider this as noun or adjec- 
tive, but if taken as the latter, pUt^ by an ellipsis 
is understood. The Iceni adopt the same form. Ex. 
"Neentotfs my naiify" 

Nattebd, adj. sour, crossgrained. Ex. *^A nattered 
piece,^ as they say of an ill conditioned old woman. 

Nature, 8. employed in a good sense, for kind hearted- 
ness and affection. Ex. '* There^s often more wMure 


in people of that sort, than in those as yo^ nten call 

their betters.^ Shakspeare. An leenioism. 

Nauger, s. by Grasis, for an auger, as in NauL Tent. 

eueyher, terebra. 

Hays lent me here his fiaui. 

Crommer OurUm's Needle. 

Naunt, Nuncle, &c., &o., s. None of these words or 
any of a like kind can be deemed provincialisms. 

Neat's foot oil, «. oil extracted from cows' feet, which 
is generally applied to stable or coach-house purposes, 
in preserving leather. This is one of the two only 
forms in which we have retuned the old word Tieat. 
Isl. natU; Swed. not; Alam. noz; A. Sax. neat; Dan. 
nod; Sp. gomado^ bos. The old poets continually used 
the primitive NaiU foot. Ritson's Scottish Songs. 

Neat's tongue, *. a cow's tongue. 

Nbeld, 8. a needle. An instance of Grasis, as old as 

P. Plouhman. 

Tho was it portatyf and penhaunt as the poynt of a nelde. 

M. Goth, nethla; A. Sax. ncM; Alam. nalde ; Dan. 

ncui; Isl. ncud; Fris. nirh; Tout, nadde; Belg. noe^e^,* 

Germ, naedel; S. Goth, nal; Fenn. neula; Esthon. 

neila^ acus. Mids. Nights Dream. 

Why, know you any tidings which way my ne^ is gone. 

Gammer Ourton'e Needle. 

Nelson's Balls, s. a confection in great request among 
children, called NehovCs BuUeU^ in the North, and 
supposed to have been invented in honor of the hero ! 
(See Brockett.) 

Nbow, 4idj. new. I insert this form of the word on 
account of the pronunciation it receives generally 
throughout the county. It is borne out by the ortho- 
graphy, which in numberless cases, it has received in 
our early poets. The Romance of Kyng Alisaunder 
presents no deviation from this mode of writing it. 

And take him a neowe wyve. 
V. doe ; see also v. 416, 1090, 1240, 7172, 7809, &c. &c. 

3a— a 


Nes8, $. The name of this place is in Btrict oonformity 
with its situation. A. Sax. imw0, promontorium. Tent. 
Sicamb. Flan, ymw, nasus: severally implying that it 
stands on, or close upon, a Cliff: hence NeueUff^ 
county Salop. 

Nesses, 8. nests, a corruption similar to seyeral others 
which we have adopted from nouns terminating their 
singular in esi^ ist^ or U9t : Ex. " Bird's nesses^" " Wek 
ttrisses^; ''dry erusaes''^; for bird's nests, weak wrists, 
dry crusts. 

Nest, <idj\ next. Ex. " Nest dure neighbour.'" It can 
scarcely be deemed a vitiation. A. Sax. nshH ; C. Brit. 
nis. S. Goth. ncBste^ proprior. 

Newgate, pause as, phr. Wherefore as False as Netw- 
gcUef Doubtless metonymycally it is so spoken. 

Newyus day, s. New year's day. Almost extinct, and 
now used only by the aged, from one of whom, in his 
eighty-eighth year, I heard the word. 

Neze, v. to sneeze. Not admitted on the ground of 
being provincial. (See Craven and other Olossaries.) 
A. Sax. niesa/n; Franc, niosen ; Belg. niezen; Swed. 
niusa; Oerm. niessen; Tout, niesen^ stemutare. Shak- 

NiFF, V. to quarrel. Correllative with mify and tif: 
all of them words of a base and vulgar kind. 

NiLD, s. a small piece of iron used by miners when 
' blasting' rocks ; by Crasis, for a needle. 

Nile, s. a term for that part of a threshing flail, that 
is usually called a 'swepple.' Nile is peculiar to 
Corve Dale, but I suspect it is tralatitious. 

Nine days, phr, Salopians invariably, when speaking 
of an indefinite length of time between a week and a 
fortnight, express it by the phrase of a week or nixe 
DAYS. In the East and the West, in the South, and 
I rather think in the direct North, the idiom runs to 
a week or ten days. And, wherefore tm days in pre- 


ference to nink! Surely we have as much reason to 
limit, as others have to extend the interval. I be- 
lieve this is a remarkable test by which the identity 
of a man^s Salopian birth may be truly ascertained. 
Let my doubtful readers, try whether this peculiarity 
be not entirely local, and they vnU find, as the 
writer has proved in repeated instances, that a Shropshire 
person always circumscribes the period in question to 
NINE days. 

Nine eyes, s. The Amniocsetes branchialis of Natural- 
ists, so called from having a number of spiracles on 
each side, or branchial orifices in a lateral groove. 
Found profusely in the Ledvdck brook near Ludlow. 

Neneted, part, past; a low term used in a perverse 
sense, descriptive of one versed at an eariy age in 
evil practices. Ex. ^'A nineted youth,'^" a youngster 
who is wicked and wilful. 

Ninetino, s. a threshing, castigation. Ex. '^ A good 
ninettng.'^ Referable to the preceding: each of them 
corrupted from (maint. 

NisGAL, s, the youngest pig in a litter. 

Nobler, «. a man whose duty it is to remind inat- 
tentive youths in church, of their misbehaviour, by 
'-''nMing^ them, or hitting them on the head with 
a wand carried for that purpose. Teut. knodsen^ 
tundere ! 

NoDDiB, 8. a foolish feUow ; when characterizing such an 
one still more contemptuously, he is called a neddy. 
Ex. '' Such a noddie as him."" Fr. nauden^ a noddie, 
Cotgr. Ital. pisellore, a noddie. Florio's Worlde of 
Wordes. Shakspeare. Grose. Moore. 

Nogs, 8. hemp. A. Sax. enotta^ nodus ! 

NoGGEN, 8. any garment soever made of the above ma- 

NooLBR, 8. a bungler. A writer in the Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine thinks the etymology of the word to be this. 



What we call an kigler was onoe written an kagler, 
and 8o you will find it in Dr FuUer^s WorthieB, p. 27. 
Now, an hagler is very easily turned into a nagUr^ and 
with a open a nogler. 

None, cuif. This is often used by a periphrasifl to sig- 
nify not any time, as ^^I stopped wme at Soesbuiy,^ 
for, I staid no time at Shrewsbuiy. 

Nor ; in composition, or in connexion with the name of 
a place means new, from the Islandic. (See Haider- 
son, and Verel. in Indie.) f»yr, novus. Thus we have 
in Shropshire ; Norton, or the New Town : Wbitch- 
NOR, or the new habitation, from the A. Sax. Wmm- 
fMM0, habitatio : wwniany habitare. 

NoTHER, adj. for another, by aphseresis. 

Nope, 8. a bullfinch. Lcxia pyrrhfUa of Linnaeus. Ex. 
^^The Nope's a deuced mischievous bird."*^ 

NoRN, aclj. neither. Ex. ^^ Nam on em.*" As often 
"fiatrn on em.*"^ 

Nose, 9. to smell. Ex. ^* I noted it afore it oummed 
on the table."'' S. Ooth. noia, flare neonon rostro 
pertentare, ut solent animalia. Isl. niaaa, speculari. 

Now, adv, by an ellipse this is generally understood. 
Ex. "Between and then.'' 

Nub, 8. a point, projection. Ex. " A nub of the loaf.'' 
Teut. knobbelf tuber. 

Nurled, culj. 1. twisted, ribbed. A goldsmith's term; 
scarcely Salopian. 

NuRLY, adf\ 1. ill-tempered. 2. warped, knotty. Germ. 
knurren^ stridere. Teut. knarren, grunnire. 

NuviTous, adj. nutritious. (Corve Dale.) 



when Bhort reoeives the sound of 

double : thus cord becomes coord ; 

(Teut. koorde^ funis.) 

''Thanne knvghtiB kittiden awei the 
coordis of the boot, and Bafiiiden it to 
falle aweL" 

The Dedis of ApoiUU, ch. xxviL 

Short is converted into au and otf, 
especially when followed by 7, when the liquid is sup- 
pressed : thus we hear hauty for bolt : eaut for colt : oud 
for old : foud for fold : toud for told, &c. 
It is also changed into short a ; as drap for drop : hcMy- 
btuhy for holly-bush : crop for crop. Many Saxon words 
have been adopted by us with o substituted for the 
more correct a. 

It also takes in its pronunciation the sound of eo^ as ceou 
for cow : pleow for plough : neow for now. 
When followed by ^ it is most commonly converted into 
a, as lang for long : Strang for strong : amang for among, 
and wrong for wrong, as in the Seuvyn Sages, 
Lordinges, he said, lokes omang yow. 

If thou tald a wrong reeown. 

id. y. 3686. 

Long has frequently the sound of short u, as struv 
for strove : prue, for prove : imir for move. 


Oi : this diphthong is perpetually transmuted into long t, 

SA m apUe for spoil : nUhy for moil : «tM, for noise ; bile 

for boil : '' tars €U a Me J" 

And there was a begger Laains by name: that laye at hise 
sate fal of bilU, and coueytide to be fulfilled of the cnunmys tbat 
rallen donn fro the riche mannea boorde: and no man gaf to 
him^ but houndis camen and likkiden hise byHs. 

WiCLiv^a New Tettameniy Luke ch. xtL 

Oo is narrowed into long u^ as ffus for goose : wtis^ for 
noose : and sometimes changed into short «, as epunile 
for spoonful ; ruf, for roof; eruekeiy for crooked ; irui^ 
for brook ; pru/, for proof. Or like ue^ as in the words, 
tuisy dure^ fwre^ for took, door, (A. Sax. dfwre; Teut. 
tiwr; Belg. dewre^ porta,) floor: again, ore takes* a 
similar sound in more, whore, sore, where the lower 
classes say mure, hure, (Teut. hke/re; A. Sax. Amv, 
scorta) suir. 

Ou, when followed by ^U drops the ^A, as in oci^ for 
ought; fdfta for fought: dro/ui for drought. And is 
changed into o, as yoree for yours. 

Oy, takes the sound of i short, as in Hy for boy: 
jiyffd for joyful : emply for employ : destry for destroy : 
the practice has been derived from an early time, 
as our ancient poets will testify. Chaucer perpetually 
gives us a like termination. (See Canterbury Tales, 
V. 1SS2, 17110, &c. Dreme, v. l605, &c.) 

Obitch'*6 Cowt ; phr, '' Forty sa one like Obitch^s oowt.*" 
The origin of this common phrase has heretofore lurked 
in impenetrable obscurity. There exists another simile 
amongst us, of like import; and whether Obitch or 
Rhoden was the real owner of the horse in question 
is a matter much contested. We will not investigate 
that point now, but illustrate the history of Obitch 
by a legendary account which has been taken down 
from the lips of a nurse. She gathered her lore from 
Melverly her birth-place, and coming from so un- 
frequently visited a quarter, where little corruption 


has flowed into the language, we may be allowed to 
receive the history following as a genuine record of 
the animaPs marvellous qualities. To write, however, 
without figure, the tale does appear to have taken 
its birth from tradition: and if my reader wishes to 
know how it first received its present form, and he 
will implicitly believe conjecture, I start one for his 
edification. It is one of those ^very probable^ ones 
which Antiquaries love to produce. We are told in 
the third book of Beda, that not long after the death 
of Oswald, which we have presumed happened at 
Maesbrook in the immediate neighbourhood to Mel- 
verly, a certain traveller passing by the spot on 
horseback, found his beast suddenly grow weary, 
hang his head, and foaming at the mouth, with ap- 
parently much pain, fell to the earth. The rider 
leapt off his back, and having made himself a kind 
of bed, awaited the hour which should either witness 
his beast^s recovery, or oblige him to leave him be- 
hind as dead. Whilst the horse lay in this unhappy 
condition, writhing with pain, he fortunately rolled 
himself over, and touched the place where King Os- 
wald had died. In an instant, his pains left him; 
and as horses are wont, after fatigue, he turned him- 
self on his side, and got up, and then like one in 
perfect health, immediately began to graze. The 
sagacious owner, conceived that the spot was sacred, 
and having marked it narrowly, remounted his horse 
and proceeded to an inn. When he had come thither 
he beheld a damsel afflicted with paralysis; and her 
friends lamenting to him the disorder under which she 
sufiered, it occurred to him to narrate the miracu- 
lous cure which had so recently been eflected on his 
horse. What so natural as to expect that the same 
results would await the maiden? She was forthwith 
placed in a sledge, and brought to the scene of this 


marvellouB cure. A gentle deep fell up<xi ho*, and 
when ahe awoke, feeling herself healed, she asked for 
water with which she washed her faoe; ahe adjusted 
her hair, wrapped up her head, and returned home on 
foot. To this Hagiologioal legend may be traced the 
virtues of Obitch^s Colt, for the latter fable is in some 
parts BO like the former, that it appears manifestly 
to have arisen out of it. By degrees the history be- 
came distorted, and Oswald meiged into the less 
euphonous name of Obitch. We will now have the 
present version. ^' There wuz wunst a laady dhed, un 
a burrieden her in her jewels. An there wuz a moo, 
a callen him Obitch^ as went to her grave i^ th' 
dhead o^ the niht and taked away her jewels off her: 
and ivir ater he was always hainted by a covFt. They 
callen the plaice Cutberry Hollow where he used to 
meet the cowt: they been afread of gween there at 
neet lest a shulden see the coult, and the laady riding 
on him. I conno say that I gie credit to sich ear 
things, o^ folks coming agen like: but a sen the 
auld mon had niver no pace ater : a wuz sadly troubled 
i his yed, and mitherd. The ould mon lived at one 
time at Leighton Hathe, as is clos by Fitz, where 

one Parson H praches. Obitch used to say, 

as a tellen me, that he seed the cowt as nataral as 
ony Christian, and he used to get up clos agen the 
style for him to get up a top uv his back, uid at 
last the coult growed so bould, that the folks sidden 
him in the day time. When I lived at Melverly they 
usen to say if ivir ony body was a gween to be married, 
if a wuz any thin aged like, ^^ ier umz as oM as 
Obiteh^s Couk, forty ea one:' 
Odds, f?. to fit, make even. Ex. '^ Odds this bhwdard.'" 
A earpenter^fi term. This is not a lueu8y as the sound 
in connexion vrith the meaning imports, but a word 
legitimately taken from the C. Brit, addatu^ aptare. 


OsHTB, adi). in compariaoii of. Ex. '*' Mm Smith's gownd 
is dear oerts as thisn."'' 

Off, (ich. The Bubetitution of the adverb's pronuncia- 
tion for that of the preposition, is highly charaoteristic 
of Salopians. Even among those, whose staticm would 
lead us to think they had been better taught, this 
perversion is very gmeral ; and it is the means of dis- 
covering a native of Shropshire with as much certainty 
as by his forgetfulness of aspirates. Ex. ^^ I heard it ^ 
Mr CJhose;' " I bought it of Mr Eddowes/' 

OoierniT, s, Oswestry, co. Salop. 

Ombbr, 8. a hammer; from which word it is a vile cor- 

OMMOfirr, ath. almost. This and the preceding vitiation 
are explained under vocal mutations of a into o, and 
the reverse. 

On ; prefix. In composition constantly employed instead 
of un; and in words of pure Saxon origm not incor- 
rectly so used. The Promp. Parv. has ovdene^ on- 
eertayne^ oshofpy. 

Onbbar, 9. to uncover. A word applied to the opening 
of a lime or stone quarry. Ex. ^' Onbear so many 
jrards.'' I suppose it is resolvable into the A. Sax. on, 
and aherian^ nudare. 

Onbeabing i, the faigh^ or that particular deposit which 
lies nearest any material about to be worked. Ex. 
" There's a dhel uv wibearing.^ 

Ont, «. will not. Ex. "I ant Ao it." Thus perverted 
from the regular fprm ; wiU not^ tiPafUy ''ont. 

OoNT, WooNT, WuNHT, 8. a molc. A word not pecu- 
liar to Salopians, being met with in some of our early 
writers, though from what nation it became engrafted 
on our dialect, it is difficult to ascertain. 

A mottl or wooni enclosed in an earthen pot, if you set then 
the powder of brimstone on fire, she will call other Moles or 
wonU to helpe her with a very mourning voice- 

Lifpton'n Thoiumnd Natabk Things. 


OoNT-KETCHBR, «. a uuui whoBe employment lies in de- 
stroying the above vermin ; discharging the same honor- 
able functions as ^'a rot-ketoher.'*^ 

Orisb, 9. to plane, make smooth. A joiner ori$e$ a 

board, that is, he takes off the aruehedd (C. Brit.) 

the outside, surface. 

Fram thair &rinng stok cttttit quhill thay be. 

ColkeMe Sov, 

Orl, s. the alder. Exclusively confined to the Here- 
fordshire side. Belg. erlenbaum; Fr. atdns^ alnus. 

Ornary, $. 1. a table d'^hote, or open dinner. Ez^ 
'^ Market ornary ."" ?. o^'. a corruption from ordinary, 
inferior. Ex. "Mighty omaty mate."" "A ornary 
looking homan.**^ 

Qrts, $. leavings, fragments, refuse meat. Ex. ^'Eat 
up your orU^ This word may be looked upon as 
one of good quality, furnished through the several cog* 
nate tongues to us as follows. S. Ooth. art; Alam. 
Germ, ori; C. Brit, or; A. Sax. ord; Tout, oort^ cri^ 
extremitas. With these synonyms before me, I can- 
not deem it a perversion of of>er. Towards is most 
commonly pronounced by the vulgar UParU; and a 
similar licence in the word before us, would convert 
owr into oerts and thence into arts. But the word 
is of better authority, and occurs in the Promp. Parv. 

OrtySy THE RELBFE OF MANNYS MBTB, iu fact, the O^' 

sides. (See Hoar Stone, p. 216.) 

Some slender art of his remainder. 

Timon qf Athens, iv. a 

The fractions of her faith arts of her love. 

Trail, and Crewida, v. 2. 

Come^ Goody, stop your humdrum wheel. 
Sweep up your orU, and get your hat. 

Bloom nsLD. 

Out at ley, phr. When cattle or horses are feeding 

in hired pastures they are said to be oti^ o^ ley. 
Out cast, s. the overplus gained by malsters between 


a buahel of barley, and the same when conyerted into 
malt. Pbomp. Parv. owTBCAflrrB, or rsfubb of corn. 

OusBf Ooze, «. a nooze: by aphsereflis. Ex. '^A run- 
ning aUse^ 

Oura, phr. A common formula for expreaaing contempt 
for any individual who is without the eflsential quali- 
ficationa which constitute a gentleman. Ex. *'Him! a 
gentleman ! a gentleman with three auiSy neither wit, 
money, or manners."'' Which is as much aa to infer, 
he ia witAout all. 

OvERGooD, O'^ERoooD, odf. Au epithct applied in an un- 
charitable spirit, to auch aa are more atrict in their 
living than the generality. Ex. ^^O'erffoad by one half."^ 
Teut. ouer-good^ perbonua. 

Over the lepf; phr. a metaphor by which one who 
speaka by figure is reproved. Ex. ^^ Ah f that^s (fver 

the hftr 

OvBRGET, V. to recover from ; or as the Comavii more 
commonly aay, get owr. Ex. *^He unnud overget thia 
bout I reckon."" 

Over run, v. to leave unfinished, to decamp. Ex. 
" He's awr run his work.'*' 

OwLER, 9. the alder: more frequently called the WoBur 
or Wuller : which see. 

OwLERT, B. the owl, generically speaking. This omi- 
nous bird is known by us under the several names 
of Owl, Owlert, HuOert, ffuOat, Hawlat, WuUat, fee, 
which respectively claim affinity with the Isl. ugla ; 
Dan. tiffle; Alam. teuile; Teut. gtU; Belg. uyl; Fr. 
hulate; Sp. autitta^ &c. vMa, noctua. 

OwNDER, «. the evening. Ex. " To'ert to-morrow oinufor." 
" r tK ownderr A word in general acceptation on the 
banks of the Severn, betvaxt Shrewsbury and Bridgenorth, 
and now almost confined to that part of the county. The 
Rev. J. Rocke of Clungunford, informs the author in 
a very interesting communication concerning the words 


current among the lower elaiwoH in his neighbourhood, 

that about thirty years ago, the term nwnder was 

well undemtood in his vicinity, but at present it is 

intelligible only to the older portion of the people. 

This is another, amongst the numerous proofs which 

have presented themselves whilst arranging these pages, 

of the truth of Horaoe^s remarks, 

Multa renaaoentur, qa» jam oeddere: eadentque, 
Qos nunc iimt in honore vocabula. 

and the fact should stimulate observers in other counties 

to record these fleeting memorials of the language spoken 

by their forefathers. 

Few words have been more thoroughly ^shaken' by 

Etymologists than that under present discussion. Jir 

mieson has left little for those who come after him, 

to perform. It is not my intention to follow him 

through his learned meanderings, and as the Scotch 

interpretation of the term assigns it to a different 

period of the day from our own, it would not be 

subservient to our purpose. I shall content myself 

with the insertion of a few synonyms which by thm 

origin are closely connected with the word in question. 

M. Ooth. andei^ finis. Franc. Alaman. andanahti^ in- 

itium noctis. Oerm. Teut. abend; A. Sax. wfm; Belg. 

awmd; Dan. afien; Isl. afftan; Cimb. oiton, vespera. 

Scotch, awnder. Oandwrik. Tim Bobbin. 

Owner, ». the proprietor of a barge. An Owner is a 

sort of Barge Captain, and is looked upon, relatively 

speaking, with as much respect as the Captain is by 

his sailors. We hear of '-'' Owner Lloyd; Owner Doughty, 




AIR o^ BEDSTEADS, phr. th6 frame on 
which a bed is placed, is by the vnlgar 
invariably thus designated, as the 
upper classes say a pair of stairs. 
Passer, s. a gimblet, or small auger: 
termed also a nail passer, Promp. 
Parv. has, a Persoure^ terebrum. 
Fr. persoir^ a piercer, Cotgr. 
Pattun, Pattinton, county Salop ; the un is always pro- 
nounced nasally. 
Paul-windlas, s. a small windlass which is used to raise or 
lower the mast of a barge, placed on the poop of the 
Pay, v. to beat, chastise. C. Brit, pwyan ; Gr. watw, 
verberare. Shakspeare. 

He paid good Robin back and side. 

Ritson's Robin Hood, vol. i. p. 102. 

I fear youll both be paid. 

id. p. 105. 

Payl, v. correlative with the preceding. Belg. pylen; 
Id. piahi^ tundere. 

Pays, s. peas. Ex. " Pay-htUh:' 

Peason, 8. as often pronounced pessum ; in the primary 
sense the word denotes peas, but it is rarely used with 
this restriction. The term is correct enough, if the 


example of an early Lexicographer avails anything for its 

Pmnn with the huakes are windie and hurtful, but their 
huakes being taken off, ynmm are good enough. 

Purfotb's DidUmarie, 

Gerard in his Herbal uses the word indiscriminateiy with 
peas. (See Book ii. c. 510.) Yet our more general applica- 
tion understands it to mean, in the secondary sense, the 
straw of peas; peason, pessum, quasi, peshaulm, peas- 
halm. A. Sax. pisa ; C. Brit, pymn ; Gr. irurov^ pisa. 
Ital. pmUi^ all manner of small peoMm ; Florio. Fr. pcii^ 
peason. Cotgr. 

Pkabt, adf. lively, well. Ex. *^The missis bin pretty 
pearty This is undoubtedly a perversion of pert^ by 
epenthesis, and comes from the C. Brit, pert^ which is 
formed of berA^ the b by use being changed into/?, and 
though more extended in its signification than the usual 
force we give to pert^ will scarcely justify the strained 
meaning Salopians give to the word. 

Pbcklbd, adj. speckled, spotted. By aphseresis for the 
correct word. Teut. speckdm^ variegare. 

Peg, «. to punish with the fist. It may be remained here, 
once for all, that none of these various words which impty 
castigation are local and dialectical. One or other of 
them occurs in all the Olossaries written by my prede- 
cessors, and as yet I am ignorant of any one we nuiy claim 
exclusively. My object in introducing th^m in these pages 
is to shew what universal acceptance they have obtained, 
so much so, that as far as their derivation can shew, they 
may be regarded not as tralatitious even, or neological, 
but as received, and legitimate words. Indeed, the in- 
stance under review seems to have supplied the upper 
classes with a metaphor that is often applied to the 
unruly and conceited. We hear of the prudence of 
taking such an one ^' doum a peg^ which has very much 
the same force as pegging him^ or as ^^ pegging it inio 


himj'" nctrdaaeiv avrou^ as the Greeks say, or in plain 

language^ ^^ moke him feel.^ 
Pbewits s. the common Thick knee ; (Edicnemus of Je- 
' nyns : so called by us in consequence of the peculiar cry 

this bird utters. (See Twowrr.) 
Pbqgy white throat, 8, there is at present a difficulty in 

identifying this bird with its correspondent name in the 

Linnsean nomenclature. 
Pble, 8. an instrument used by bakers. Lat. Barb, palay 

instrumentum coquinarium, batillum. Du Cange. 

A do2 trogh, and a ftele. 

Tournament of Tottenham, y, 124. 

Pbn, Pens, Pbnfbather, $. the roots of feathers in poultry; 
a cook complains that the fowl she is plucking is '^ full of 
pens.*^ Fr. pmtWj a quill, or hard feather, a pmfh/eaiher^ 
Cotgrave. C. Brit. Bret. Armor, pmiy caput, initium. 

Penny Measure, 8. a clay lying above the Penny Stone, 
from which coarse earthenware is numufactured. 

Penny Stone, 8. a measure of iron stone about nine yards 
thick. The best iron ore which Shropshire produces. 

Perished, part, pcut ; by this word farmers describe the 
peculiar condition of their young crops, when there has 
been a wet winter. Ex. " Whod o th' wet a th^ land, 
un altogither, the weats welly perUhed.'''' 

Phbg, 8. a coarse long grass, which affords little if any 
nourishment to cattle, so that rustics say, ^^ the bwes un 
nivir ha any flesh atop on their bwons, when ua sich 
pheg as that to ate.'V The Cynosurw Cri8tatu8 of bo- 

Pheooy, adj. land which has a superabundant crop of 

Pickle, v. to subject wheat to that particular process of 
steeping in salt and water, which is necessary to check 
the uredo foetida, (See Herrin and Smut.) 

PiDLiNo, adj. dainty, small, trifling. Ex. " My pig beant 
but a pidling ater.'** Here is a word employed in a 


minner which shews to iu with what singular felicity it 
has been chosen. For presuming that Adrian Junius is 
correct, Piddh means, to eat daintily, to feed nicely and 
delicately. Coming from the C. Brit. Bwytta^ oomedere, 
B and F being of like power in that tongue. It is, 
moreover, a dictionary word ; see Johnson. 

PurmcH, $. the chaffinch; FrinffiUa ecBkbi of Natural- 

Pio^s Paiisnip, f. the common cow parsnip; hogweed; 
the H^radewn Sphaikfylium^ of Linmeus. 

PiK, $. a pick-axe. Tout. piei$y ligo. 

And with the pj^ puite down. 

P. Plouhman^ 170. 

PiK-AXB, s. a mattock used by agricultural labourers ; it 
is generally pointed at one end of the head and broad 
at the other ; this being termed the pain end, and that 
the sqwure. Oerm. pickd-^ixty ascia in cuspidem desi- 

PiK-iBON) f . the pointed end of an anvil. 

PiKK, «. a pick-axe. In the mining districts the final $ 
is invariably sounded, and by prosthesis, the word be- 
comes long. Tout. pUke^ bipalium, ligo. 

PiKB, 9. to pick. Unwittingly the lower orders elmigate 
this monosyllabic verb from good authority. M. Goth. 
S. Ooth. Id. Swed. picka; Dan. p%dc»; Tent. Belg. 
pMtm ; A. Sax. pye^m ; Fr. piquet; Ital. piocare ; Span. 
picaty pincere. Chaucer, Gower, Lyndsay. 

Pykede aweye the wedes. 

P. Plouhman, 194. 

Wher he wcare othe feld pyoohynde stake. 


Pikes, s. short ^ butts' which fill up, or make up for the 
irregularity caused by hedges not running parallel. 

PiKBL, 8. a hayfork. It is a word in universal use 
amongst all chsses in Shropshire : and is fairly referable 
to the preceding words, to whidi may be added as forming 


a ciofler affinity with the present, the C. Brit, piccd^ jaeu- 
lum, and the Germ, picket^ ooelum, graphium, Bcalpmm, 
et quodvia ingtromentiim ferreum ad fodiendum aut fodi- 
candum factum. Ex. ^^ Gda and git mizzhurd for a pikd ;^ 
applied to a tall and lazy person. 

PiKBurr, 8. a email indigestible oiroular piece of half baked 
dough, which being covered with butter is esteemed dainty 
tea table fare. 

Pile, 9. to detach the jmIm from barley. 

Filing irons, 8. I. a heavy iron instrument used to break 
the beard from barley. Ex. " Sumtimes the thrashall 
unna tak one hofe o' the piles of, and then a bin obleeged 
to use the piling iron yo sin."*^ 2. instruments used to 
take off bark from newly fallen trees. 

Pill, Pell, «. to peel. Ex. " PHling the crust off the 
loaf.^ Dan. pUle ; A. Sax. pila/n ; Teut. Belg. pMen ; 
C. Brit, pilio ; Fr. pder ; Span, pdar^ decorticare, gla- 
brare. Cotgrave has poUer^ to piU. Percy'^s Reliques. 

Qohat Justice mnld ! what piUkng of the pure ! 

Montoomkry's S€nn€t9, 
And pjfled the barke even of hys face 
With her commaundements ten. 

Ane baOet, in Laino's CoUedUm qf Seokh Poetry. 

Pink atbbn, t . a very narrow boat, chiefly used by fisher- 
men on the river Severn. Belg. pimkge. Teut. A. Sax. 
pink ; Fr. pinque^ navis speculatoria. 

PiNifocKs, «. fine clothes. Ex. ^^ My dahter nivir wears 
any fine pinnoeh^ and yo needna fear taking on her.*" 
C. Brit, piner^ a garment. Pinge^ finely dressM. 

PiNsoN, 8, pincers. Ex. ^' A pair of pimon^ Were we 
ambitions of referring our construction to the Greek, we 
ought to claim this as a regular form of the dual. Teut. 
pinsse^ volsella. Palsgrave ; Payrs of Pinsons^ pinces. 
Pytuons of yrone, estricquoyer. 

Pipe drink, «. a weak, sparkling fresh ale, fit for smokers, 
and for no one else, to drink. Ex. ^^ Good pipe drink^ 


PiP8, «. fd. used in all the senses given by Forby as current 
in Norfolk. 

1. seeds of fruit. Ex. " Pips of an orange.*** 

2. spots on playing cards. Ex. ^' Count the z^^."" 

3. flowers growing in a raceme. Ex. " Cowslip pfp^."*^ 
PissANNAT, s. the common ant. The original word has 

in this instance become changed by epenthesis. Pismire 
is doubtless the best tenn. The A. Sax. furnishes us 
with wmett and myra; the Belg, with pi»-emme^ for- 
mica, out of which the provincialism has arisen. 

Pitching axe, b. an axe wei^ng from six to seven pounds 
and employed in felling timber. 

PiTTHEB, f. to go softly, fidget about. A. Sax. pstihian, 
callem facere, conculcare. 

Pit wood, s. wood which is thus called generally runs 
from three feet six inches to four feet in length, and is 
very thick. It is used for supporting the roof of a coal 

PizE, PizY, culj. fretful, peevish, ill-tempered. Ex. " Th' 
oud homan's grow'd mighty pizy: her's a pize ode 

Plack, «. 1. a portion of 'ground,' some part allotted 
from a larger quantity. Ex. ^'A plaei 6* cabbages.*** 
'^ A plack 6* taturs.*' Teut. placke^ V^g^ spatium terre. 
Hence has sprung the secondary meaning, 2. an assigned 
labour, task, employment. Ex. " When Fve done o* 
my present plucky I reckon I shall tak to the diehing 

Plash, s. a piece of water. The Flash near the town of 
Shrewsbury is so called from the Severn forming a kind 
of lake there. Teut. plasch^ palus. Palsgrave ; Plasshs 
of a water, flacquet. 

Play, 9. not to work. Hence a play day amongst colliers 
is " the Monday after the reckoning.*' Ex. " My mon's 
in meety poor get Sir, 'a has but half a turn, an* *a 
play*n three days i* th* wik.** 


Pleach, v. to intertwine, or lay down, as a hedge. This 
term is now admitted into dictionaries, and occurs for 
three or four generations back in Shropshire leases. 
Shakspeare has sanctioned its use in three places. Or. 
-rrXeKO) ; Fr. plssser, to thicken a hedge, or cover a wall 
by picking. Cotgr. Pleisseicumy dbmus suburbana. (Du 

Plough iron, s, the share of a plough. Close to the Isl. 
plouffjem^ vomer. 

Plough Paddle, s. a small hatchet which usually accom- 
panies a plough, for the purpose of detaching whatever 
unnecessarily adheres to the diietd-hoard, 

Plowdex, the case is altered quoth, phr. This phrase 
which originated through the unexpected diecisions given 
by the celebrated Judge Plowden has continued current 
amongst us since his time. It is almost superfluous to say 
that he was bom in Shropshire. Having applied himself 
first to physic and then to law, he became reader in the 
Middle Temple. In the reign of Mary he was called to 
4he degree of Serjeant, but being a Roman Catholic he 
obtained no preferment under Elizabeth. His commen- 
taries or reports remain a splendid monument of his pro- 
fessional learning. " The case is altered quoth Plowden^ 
is yet in the mouths of his countrymen ; though, indeed, 
with many the origin of the phrase is unknown, and with 
many more it has been quite changed, and we hear them 
say instead " the case is altered said Floro.'^ 

To what baae uses we may retom, Horatio! 
Why may not imagination trace the noble dust of 
Alexander^ till he nnd it stopping a bung-hole. 

Plushes, s. thin hoops which hold a besom together. Swed. 

/>il&, assumentum transversum ! Tent, ployen; ¥t. player^ 

plicare ? 
Pol- EVIL, «. a disorder incidental to horses, an eruption on 

the neck and ears. Teut. /?<?/, caput ; and euel^ morbus. 
PoPLAiN, «. the common poplar tree. 


Posh, 9. to push. Chaucer uses /mmw, to pualL (See Legend 

of Good Women, v. 2409.) Fr. pcmmer; 8p. p^ar; Ital. 

hm9are^ pukare. 

I was fOfkei on eTeiy aide. 

ROMAlfCS OF THB RotK, V. 4624. 

PoflH, «. a great quantity. Ex. ^' The waater comM aU of 
ApoAJ^ ^^ A grate jEMw4 o^ waater.*" . 
PoTCH, V. to pierce, puncture. Ex. '' Patded his finger i' 
my eye."" '^Patched the pikel in his leg i** the quem 
harrast.*" Isl. pUa, aou pungere. Swed. pcia; Fr. 
pocher^ digito vel instrumento fodicare. 
Ill poteh at him some way. 

CsHoftiiMW, L 10. 

PoTHERY, a€^'. hot, close. Ex. "Po^A^ weather." Strictly 

speaking this is not a provinciatism ; any more than is 

the phrase of ''being all in a pMer!^ Fr. paudref 

PouK, t. a pimple ; but more commonly a stye in the eye. 

Oerrn. Teut. pock ; A. Sax. poc ; Belg. poeim^ pustula. 

Ne for no potut pestilence. 

P. Ploubmajt. 

PouK-LADEN, part» past ; bewitched, fairy-led ; or to uy 
the precise definition given by my informant, ''led yo 
dunna know whire, an conna remeddy yoursilf.'*^ Though 
this rendering be not so full and figurative as that of 
the immortal bard, it may serve to convey our Salopian 
meaning just as adequately. The reader shall, however, 
have both, and from the two he cannot fail escaping being 
placed in such a dilenuna, at least as far as his compr^ 
hension of the term is concerned. 

I'll follow you, 111 lead yon about a ronnd. 

Through bog, through bush, through brake, through brier: 

Sometime a horse 111 be, sometime a hound, 

A hog, a headless bear, sometime a fire ; 

And neigh, and bark, and grunt, and roar, and bum, 

Like horse, hound, hog, bear, fire, at every turn. 

Midaummer NtglU's Dreame, iiL 1. 

Isl. puki ; C. Brit, ptecOy malus demon. In Guernsey, the 
Cromlechs are called Poquelays, or places of the evil demon. 
Ne nonne helle-foii^AsB. 



1 m&, sere kyng*quod 8er Fouke, — 
I wene that knygnt was a paukt, 

R. COEE DB LlOM, V. 566. 

He 18 no man, he is a pouke, 

id. Y. 4326, and v. 6722. 

Pound stone, s. a tenn applied by colliers to a part of their 

PousE, s. must, refuse in making cider or perry. C. 
Brit, pttyo ; Teut. pobsen ; Fr. pousseu^ pouber. (See 
Cbtgrave and Menage under Fous.) 

PovKv's Foot, phr. " Wos and woa like Faveg'^s foot^ 
It would be vain to search for other information regardii^ 
this simile, than in conjecture ; it is evidently one of 
those vulgar comparisons which have been struck off from 
the circumstance of some one bearing that name, invari- 
ably answering all enquirers that he was ^^ worse and 
worse."" Occasionally varied, to '^as large aa Paitejfs 

PowBR, B. quantity. Under the brass effigy of Edmund 
Oeste, Bishop of Salisbury, who died 1578, it is re- 
corded that among hia bequests, ^^ ingentem optimorum 
librorum eim quantum vix una capere Bibliotheca potest 
studioBorum usui destinavit :"" but the idiom is as old as 
Homer. See Steph, Thesaur. vol i. p. 731, 

Prick, 8, a prop used either to support the shafts of a 
cart, or to relieve a horse from its weight, when resting 
in an ascent ; from being pointed at one end vdth iron, 
it gains readier entrance into the ground, and prevents 
the cart from going backwards. Isl. prikia ; A. Sax. 
prieean ; Teut. priekden ; Swed. prieia ; Dan. priU&r^ 

Prill, «. I. a small stream of water. Ex. ^^ A lickle 
priU o' waiter.'*' (Church Stretton.) 2. the back water 
of a mill stream. (Corve Dale.) 

Principal, 8. the comer posts of a house, 'tenoned into the 
ground plates below, and into the beams of the roof. 
Bailey, Teut. principael^ principalis. 


Theyr hoiuyng vnkept wynd and water tyght, 

Letyng the prffnemtak rot down ryght 

* The Hye Way to the S^fttei Hous, v. 63SL 

Prink, r. to look at, gaze upon, as a girl does at herself 

in a glass. Teut. pronim^ trahere vultum. 

Ys Peen in this place quath icb, and \ie mreynkU upon me. 

P. Ploithman, 34a 

Pbise, v. to force open, raise up forcibly as by means of a 
lever. Ex. " To prUe a lock."" Fr. prener. 

Prodigal, adj. proud. Ex. ** A prodigal chap C »nd on 
the same principle such an one is remarked for hiBprodi- 
gaUty. Here is a wresting from the right meaning with 
a vengeance. 

Prokb, e. to poke or stir a fire. Ex. "Pnwfo out the 
ess C by epenthesis. 

Pboker, t, a poker. Teut. Fris. Sicamb. Holl. Fland. 
pcke^ pugio. 

Prosperation, «. prosperity. It is almost impossible to 
convey to a reader^s ears the peculiar euphony of the 
penultimate. My brother burgesses of the ancient town 
of Much Wenlock can better understand the pronun- 
ciation than most other natives of the county, as they 
have under the old regime been permitted to drink out 
of the mace, success to the municipal interests, in this 


To tne Corporation 

Proud-tailor, 9. the goldfinch; FfingiUa CardueUs of 

Puck, pret. of «. to pick. Ex. ** Whom 'e think tkpudt 

her up r 
PucKLB, 8. a pimple, or breaking out. Teut. pudels^ 

PuMPLE, 8. a pustule. C. Brit, pwtnpl ; Fr. pompette ; 

Gr. <7ro/i0o\i/^, pustula. 
Pumptially, adv, punctually. Ex. ** PumptiaUy Y t\C 



Punk, i. touch wood. A. Sax. apongea^ spongia? 
PuNOER, 9, to spunge upon. Ex. " A pungering fellow.'' 
This aplueretical form leads me to think the preceding 
derivation may not be far from right. 
PuNN, 17. 1. to pound, bruise. Ex. *' Punned in a mor- 
tar.'*' A. Sax. jmntan, conterere. Hence the pugilistic 
term, punished. Northamptonshire, punn. 

The green leaves of the Elder, pouned with Deeres suet or 
Bolls tafiow, are good to be laid to hot swellings and tumors, 
and doe aaswage the pain of the gout 

Gerard's Herbal, p. 1423. 
He would pun thee into shivers with his fist, as a sailor breaks 
a biscuit. TVoU, and CresMa, ii. 1. 

2. to beat or rap at a door. Ex. ^^ Somebody punning 

agen the wall." See Nares. 
PuROY, €idj\ proud, coxcomical, testy. Ex. '* Billy's a 

purgy dog." 
Purgatory, 9. the pit grate of a Idtchen fire place; by 

falling through which the ashes become purer, A. Sax. 

pur^ purus. C. Brit. Arm. purden, purgaiorio. These 

and several synonyms are referable to the Gr. irvp. 
PuTCHiN, 8. a wicker basket in which eels or other fresh 

water fish are taken in running streams. Ir. puccut^ 

marsupium! C. Brit, pwntrel^ a dung-pot or basket 

made with rods and rushes. Fr. puit^ puteus. 
Put over, «. to recover from illness. Ex. " He wunna 

fut this turn oV." 


iTARREL, s. a stone quarry. C. Brit. 
cuxirdy id. 

t^uABRY, 8. a small square tile chiefly 
used for kitchen floors. Fr. quarreau^ 
Quarter with, c. to lodge with. Ex 
' Her quarters with her mother.'" 
QuERK) s. the clock of a stocking. 

Quern, s. com. Ex. " The qwm harrast."" This pro- 
nunciation has not improbably been acquired from the 
A. Sax. cfoeomy mola. 
Quest, s. an inquest. Ex. '^ They hannod had the crown- 
er^s quest yit.*^ It is superfluous to say that this is not 
peculiar to us, as it may be heard in all counties throng- 
out England. In our own we hear of the quests for the 
inquest : Cratener'^s quests for Coroner^s inquest : Croum- 
ers laWy for Coroner^s law: to eraufn a man^ for the 
Coroner holding an inquest. ^^ He inna crowned jfet ;^ 
the jury has not been impanneled. P. Langtoft. 

What lawful quest hsTe gir^n their verdict up. 

Rid^. 111. L 4. 

Quick, s. either as a noun or adjectively. Ex. ^' A quiei 
hedge :*" and verbally used, as '* to quick a hedge,^ which 
implies to plant it with quick. Teut. qmckyhaeghe^ sepes 
viva. Mespilus Oxyacantha of Smith'^s Engl. Flora. 


QuiLE, s. a hay oock. Fr. euilie^ recolte de sbiens de la 

terre en general. Roquefort. 
QuiLB, V. to cock hay. Fr. eueiUir. 
Quilt, o. to punish, castigate. Teut. quelleny molestare ! 
QuiNB, s. the comer of a bnilding. Fr. caigne. 
QuiNiM, QuBBNEN, 8. a fino-flavoured table apple, which 

grows abundantly in the neighbourhood of Ludlow, but 

is not so weU known in other parts of the county. 
QuisE, i, the common wood-pigeon. Columba amas^ or the 

stock dove of Jenyns. 
QuisBs NBCK, s. a strata among the coal measures which is 

formed of ^ Basses^ and indurated earth. 
QuisBHON, s, a cushion. This must clearly be the early 

English form of the word. 

With doMOun, and jmetdlyiw. 


And doime she set her by him on a stone 
Of jasper, upon a qmnken of gold ybete. 

id. iL 480. 
Fetche forth a chayre^ and a quisshion. 

Syr Isbnbras, v. 571. 
And with that word, he for tkomihen ran. 

TrwL and CV«m. vi. 3. y. 966. 

QuixoN, 8. a quicksand. 

QuoBMiRB, 8. a quagmire. A. Sax. cwaeian; Lat. quaiio; 

Arm. puae^ tener, moUis i 
QuoKx, the oldpfi0^. of verb to quake; as in like manner 

we say 8hoie aAd toke^ for shook and took. 

Under the hon feet it ottofce 

R. Lose db Lioir, y. 4441. 
They seten stylle and sore quook, 

id. V. 3471. 


when followed by « is often dropped, 
the 8 in such cases being doubled; 
thus curses is changed into cusses, and 
cursed into cust ; durst not into dust 
not; thirst into thist; horses into hosses; 
mercer into messer; the e retaining the 
original sound of u. In like manner, 
in words where it Js followed by <?, as scase, for scarce ; 
scacely^ for scarcely. 
Rabbit it, phr. The evidently profane phrase *' Od rabbit 
it,^ is not local. The Od in this case is but a corruption 
of God, and the other part of the oath has become 
changed to its present form from the old English ro- 
hate, rebate, which in its turn is altered from the Fr. 
rehatre ; Teut. rabatten, de summa detraliere. 
Rabble, s. a rake with very long teeth, used by wood 

colliers in separating charcoal from the dust. 
Rack, «. 1. a pathway, track. Belg. roc, callis. Forby 
says it comes from the S. Goth, ratta, callis, but I am 
unable to find any such word in my usual authorities. 
Brockett very reasonably infers that Shakspeare intended 
the same meaning as that our word has obtained in the 
North, when he wrote the well-known passage, 

Leave not a rack behind. 
In the Shrewsbury Chronicle of Nov. 1835, there »p- 


peared an account of a murderous assault upon a gen- 
tleman^B gamekeeper, and as the word repeatedly occurs 
throughout the paragraph, I will give it entire by way of 

^'A resolute and cold-blooded murder was perpetrated 
in this county on Wednesday evening. As William Cor- 
field, gamekeeper to M. G. Benson, Esq. of Lutwyche- 
hall, was going his rounds about five o^cIock in tho 
evening, he heard the report of a gun in a coppice, 
and he went into the wood in search of the person; 
there is a path (or ^^ r€uik^ as the witnesses termed it) 
up the middle of the coppice, and another ^^ rack'''' about 
half-way up, which runs along the side of the cover. 
Corfield had scarcely gone one hundred yards up the 
wood, when, just as he came opposite the entrance of 
the other "roc*,"^ he was fired upon by some person 
concealed in a bush within two or three yards of him, 
and the poor fellow received the contents of the gun 
in his left breast, and fell. The villain immediately ran 
back along the ''^rcuAT and it appears that Corfield 
never had sight of him. Corfield got up, and was able 
to walk back out of the wood, and across one field 
and about half-way across another ; but he appears to 
have rested several times, from the traces of blood in 
several places. In the second field, however, he found 
himself sinking, and cried ^^ Murder^' several times. 
His voice was heard. The wounded man was Kfbed up, 
and they endeavoured to carry him to the Hill-top-house; 
but he begged to be put down ^ain, and in a few 
minutes he was a corpse. On the next day informa- 
tion was given to Mr Downes, the coroner, who im- 
mediately repaired to the spot, and a most respectable 
jury being assembled, an inquest was held on the body, 
which was adjourned to nine o'^dock on Saturday, and 
the coroner and jury continued sitting examining wit- 
nesses till five o'clock in the evening. The coroner 


having diarged the jury, they unanimouaiy, and after a 
few minutes^ consideration, returned a verdict of ^^ Wilfiil 
murder against John Thomas, the younger, a millwrij^t, 
living at Hughley.^ The keeper had no gmi or any 
weapon of defence with him ; and, it appeun, had no 
conflict whatever with the villain who shot him. The 
perpetrator, therefore, must have deliberately waited for 
him in ambush, and fired when within a very few yards 
of him."" — Shrmtrimry Okromde. Timei, Nov. 9, 1885. 

Rack, o. to pour off beer ; to subject it to a fermentive 
process. S. Ooth. racia ; Isl. krdsia^ cursitare. Tent. 
A. Sax. Fris. rocibn, pnrgare latrinas. 

Rack of btb, pkr. without line or measure ; to work by 
such a direction as the eye alone affords. 

Racklb, 8, noise, senseless talking. Ex. " Haud thy 
raekle lad.*" Is this a depravation of ratUe f or does it 
claim affinity with any cognate tongue! I fiincy I dis- 
cover some lurking connexion with the Teut. rotfob, 
fauces ; by this method we shall justify through a literal 
translation, iiie other phrase so common, ^^ Haud yor 

Radlino, 8. bribery, money used to purchase votea at an 
election. Ex. ^' He^ll goa up to th' Parliament House 
if 's no railing.^ This is not a figurative application 
from the sheep-fold, but apparently from the Ld. rai^ 

Radunos, 8. slight strips of wood, generally ^^ cloven stuff,^ 
which are employed in thatching bams or outhouses. 
They answer the same purpose as laths under tiles, and 
are six feet long. 

Radt If ad AST, 8. a well known ^ horn book'' for children, 
entitled ^ Reading made Easy." 

Rag, v. to abuse. Ex. ^^ Bost him, but I gied him a good 
ToggvngT Neither word or practice are peculiarly Sa- 
lopian. I foUow my predecessors in assigning the word 
to the Islandic, though I prefer a different word to the 


one they have choBen. IbL rojjffia, imprecari alicui vin- 
dictam deonim. 

Raks, 9. to make up fire for •the night. An invariable 
rale in aU Shropshire houses, fuel being plentiful, and coal 
near to most parts of the oounty. Teut. rekm^ condere 
sive oeeultare ignem cineribus. Hence also a raking 
coaly a large one placed on the top, which will not easily 
bum away. Teut. nMot-kuyl^ scrobiculus in quo ignis 
oonservatur; raedtm het wer. Shaksperian. 

Ram RLiNG^ Ramuno, part, pasi; talking incoherently, con- 
fusedly. Ex. '' He ramUe$ meetily i' his yed."" Teut. 
rsmelmy delirare. S. Ooth. randa; Beig. rarnmeien; 
Ital. rcmbolarey strepitum edere. 

Ramoag'^d, adj. and|M»i^. pcut ; withered, stagheaded ; an 
epithet applied to oaks. S. Goth. Bam^ notat deformem. 
Fenn. mmc^ deformis. 

Ramb, RisABc, Rhams, 19. to cry aloud, weep, sob. Ex. 
^^ Beaming enough to freeten the house.'*^ S. Ooth. 
rdma; A. Sax. hreaman^ reamian; Germ, raimmm^ 

Rammel, s. stony rubbish. Ex. '' Nothing but rammd 
thrown oat o** the road."^^ A. Sax. kremming^ impedimen- 
turn. Germ, rammeny impedire. Nares supplies us with 
an authority for its adoption. 

The Pictes ridding away the earth and ramdi wherewith it 
was closed up. 

Holinshbad's Hitt. of Scotland. 

Ramjollock, 9. to shuffle, completely change in a pack, as 
one who has been unsuccessful serves a pack of cards. A 
low expression which seems to have no legitimate origin. 

Rampagioub, adj. obstinate, passionate, headstrong. If 
this word be not tralatitious, it has been corrupted from 
the A. Sax. rempend^ prseceps. 

Ramshackering, Ramshackling, a^. I. worthless, idle, 
unsteady. Ex. '^No dependance on such a ramshack- 
ering fellow."'* 2. falling to decay, dilapidated. Ex. 



^* A ram$hacilinff oud plakce/'* All these words which 
commenoe with Ram obtain more force by being thus 
compounded, Ram being an old Suio-6othio word, de* 
noting strength. Teut. sehaeeter^ sicarios : sckaeeHermy 
variare. Grose. 

Rasen, Resen, Rosbn, v. to take off the skin from a per- 
son's legs by kicking or striking them. Ex* ^^Rasm 
his shins.**^ Without controversy we are indebted for 
these several forms to the Teut. rcueren^ radere. The 
verb is sometimes changed into rmel ; occasionally into 
nup, which has the same meaning as the four preceding 
words, but seems to have originated in the Teut. Belg. 
Germ, ratpen; Swed. raspa; Dan. raspe; Ital. rcupcere; 
Fr. rcuper; Span, rcupar, radere. 

Rastt, Reasty, (idj. rancid. Ex. ^^ Recuty baoon.^ Nares 
and Forby considered this a vitiaticMi from rusty, and 
I think they were right. Swed. roitig ; Teut. roegHffh, 
femiginosus! My readers will find the word ably 
discussed in the Craven Glosilbry^ to which article they 
are referred. 

Rate, «. to chide, scold. Ex. ^'' Raie him soundly; 
gie him a good rating^'' Swed. rata; Germ, ratrn^ 
vituperare. S. Goth, rata^ vilipendere. Verel hi Indie. 
reita^ irritare. The tide of authority for its use runs 
from P. Plouhman to Shakspeare. 

— ^thus reason me araUde, 

Visum, 75. 
In the Rialto you have rated me. 

Merchant of Venice. 

Rather o** the Ratherest, phr. Here we differ in our 
application of this phrase from the Iceni; accord- 
ing to Forby they use it with reference to underdone 
meat ; the Comavii infer by it, a very minute degree 
of propinquity: thus if one road can be found a 
trifling space shorter than another which was previously 
supposed to save distance, it is described as being, 
rather o* tK rathereet. 


Raucht^ the old prti, and pari, pasi of verb to reaoli. 

.BesideB the eiuniiiig, there are a mnltitiide of other 
authorities, with Shakspeare and Spenser, to show how 
archaically the vulgar use it. Ex. ^* Afore I raufflU 

There was a man gmme up in ye steple of Ssynt- Marke at 
Venyae and as he entnd lor to do a work, he was troubled in 
sache wyse that he feUL and was hrke to haue be al to broken in 
his membres: nevertheles in his &Uynge he ciyed Saynt Marke 
and anone^he rested npon a brannche- that Bpnnge oat, wherof he 
toke none hede and aner one rauM, and lete hym downe a corde 
by whiche he avayled downe and was aaned. 

Oolden Legend, end. 

The domme man to him he rera^U. 

Syr OowoBTBRy y*d36 and 434. 

After he raughte Agylonn^ 

Kyno Alisaundsb, y.2986. 

That lord that rauxt was on the roode. 

RiTSOif's Anct. Simge, p. 45. • 

Tristrem rauj^ his brain. 

Sir Tristrxm, Fytte, iLdS, and L 28,67* 

Raul, e. to pull about rudely. Ex. ^^ Baedinff the young 

homan about.''^ Teut. rauden^ i^tari, ineptire. 
Raul, Scrawl, s. an entanglement. Teut. rauehn^ in- 

RiiN, s. a gutter running paraDel with tho furrows of 

plon^ied land. M. Ooth. rtimo, torrens. A. Sax. 

Wfi; Arm. ryne^ cursus. Isl. remia; Oerm. rieme^ 

eanalifl. C!om. ruansf Tim Bobbin. 

Al the ky in the coontr^, they skazred and chaaed 
That roaring they wood-ran, ana routed in a mme. 

Momtoombry's FIjfilng. 

Rbckun^ Ricklin, #. the smallest, pig of a litter. Orayen 
Glossarist says, '^ A stanrding, wedMnff^ writling. 0(4- 
yrai^, from wreekr 

Reckon, e. We use this word like our Transatlan t ie 
friends, instead of think, imagine,, apprehend, bow 
Thus,, ''its a good distance, I reehm.^ '' Hell not come 
to-day I reehm*^ Webiiter says the word is. used in 


. 001116 of the Smdham states of America, as gutu k 
in the Norikem^ and infers its provinoiality in that, 
as he does in this country. If I mistake not, Bishop 
Wazburton in one of his sennons employs it in the 
same maimer. 

RnpLB, s. a piece of timber five or six feet long, which 
lying horizontally, helps to sustain the roof of a coal 

Remt, f. the akin of bacon. Isl. hreitir^ squama. 

Rbbt, adj, sane. Ex. ^^ Inna quite reet Y his yed.^ 

Rsim, BoFDs, 9. aquatic plants, which choke up the 
bed of a stream. The word is very common among 
fishermen on the Severn, and Salopian piscators. It 
appears from Aulus Gfdlius, lib. ii. c. 17, that from thcBC 
obstacles impeding the navigation they were termed 
rekBj or nets, because they stopped vessels in their 
course al(mg the water. And as in those days equally 
with these, it being important that the channel should 
be open, an officer was appointed under the title of Ra- 
TABius, whose duty it was to remove these obstmctioDS. 
An ancient inscription has been found bearing the words 
Nbootiatob bt Rktjuuus Biutannicianus. EJlian ex- 
plains the Teutonic word reU^ alveus navigabilis, a term 
manifestly taken from the Latin, rda: yet some may 
think the Teut. grvfie^ lentionla palustris quie in pahi- 
dibus et stagnis per sestatem aquse snpeznatat, prefenUe. 

On rvUm and nmchfiB in the fielde. 

Montoomxrt's FIjftimg. 

Rbmeddt, f. so universal a vulgarism is soarcdiy ad- 
missible, for it has not I suspect any daims to bdng 
called provincial ; yet as some of my countrymen will 
expect to find it in the present volume, I have '^no fv- 
meddff^ but to introduce it. 

RsiniBR, e. to seethe, melt ; as a cook renders lard and 
suet, for certain culinary purposes which are fitfoiliar 
to us on Shrove Tuesday. M. Ooth. hrtmrn; S. Ooth. 


Swed. rm; A. Sax. Alam. Belg. rein; Id. hr&in^ 

Bbvb, i. a bailiff; a very sound word ; yet in limited ciren- 
lation, almost confined to the Hmidred of Bradford. 
P. Plouhman, Chauoer, &c. A. Sax. gere/ay prsefectus. 

Rey, Rtb, 9. to sift noxious seeds from wheat, or other 
grain. Ex. ^^ Bye it, and then yo unna see th^ hay- 
riff." Teut. Oerm. Sax. Sicamb. reyteren^ cribrare. 

Rhodbn, Mabtha, phr, I shall leave to some more for- 
tunate local investigator the honour of discovering the 
origin of this very provincial simile. Ex. ^^ All asideny 
like Martha Rhoden^s twopenny dish.*^ 

Rhodrn^s Cowt, forty sa one like, phr. Many places 
in the county dispute the honor of originating this 
phrase. But where the credit consisteth, in the lon- 
gevity of the animal, or the good fortune of his possessor, 
it is difficult to determine. Nevertheless there does 
exist something like local jealousy. One informant 
states that ^^ Rhoden lived under a Hagg near Eyton," 
about sixty years ago ; another declares that this dis- 
tinguished breeder came from Benthall; a third, as- 
sures us that his true seed-plot was at Coal-port ; whilst 
a fourth positively says it is all a mistake, for it was 
not Rhoden^s Cowt that lived to the age of nine and 
thirty, but Obitch^s, and we are sent even ^^to Mel- 
verly" to learn the history of this remarkable quadru- 
ped. None, however dispute the age of the beast^ 
and most reprobate his coat ^^m raggii^* 

Ric, Sic ; a call or invitation to pigs idien their food i» 

Rick, s. a stack, whether it be of hay or any kind of 
grain. In etymology it is identified with rudt. 

BinDLB, t. a strong coarse sieve made with iron wire, used 
by masons, and in agricultural work. A. Sax. hriddd; 
C. Brit. rhidjfU. cribrum. 

RroicuLous, adf, taken frequently in the sense of indelicate. 



RiFTiB, 9. a severe blow on the ribs. Ex. '* Deal him out 
a ri/iery The Id. rif, costa, suggests itself m oppo- 
sition to the Swed. rifioa^ dilaoerare. 

RiooKB, f . lead in a half mdted state, the condition it 
is in before thoroug^y fused. Some was found several 
years back nearly upon the summit of Potuert Hitt^ 
in which were imbedded pieces of charcoal. As those 
mines were worked by the Romans, the fragment evi- 
dently belonged to their age. 

RiaiL, BooasL, s, an animal imperfectly castrated. Isl. 
rojf^ impotens nixus. 

RioLBT, f . a small channel. C. Brit, rhiffol^ sulcus. 

RiN, 9. to run, flow. Ex. ^^ If the yale woll but rm, it II 
do.^ I have only heard this word used by old people, 
and it is nearly extinct. S. Ooth. Isl. Swed. rinfia; 
M. Ooth. A. Sax. Franc, rinnan ; Teut. riwMn ; Belg. 
rm/nm ; Dan. rende^ currere. 

Ac the reyn that rynetA. 

P. PLOURVANy 397. 

His feit maid sic dynnyng 
He lakkit breth for rj/nnkig, 

CoOtMe Sow, T. 264. 
I saw ane river rtn. 

Cherrie and the Sloe. 
On Beaton Crafts they buft their crafts 
And gart them rin like daft, man. 

Tranent Mwt, 

RiNDLAss, «. the maw-skin of a calf when soaked ; used to 
curdle milk in making cheese. Palsgrave ; BendUs for a 
cheese, pressure. Teut. rinded^ ooagulum. 

Rip, 9. to utter impetuously. Ex. ^^ Ripped out an oath.^ 
Isl. Ttppay recitare. 

Ripples, «. a moveable frame attached to the exterior 
surface of a cart or wagon, to enable it to contain more 
than its own body of itself, allows. S. Goth. Isl. refy 
costa, Anglice a rib. 

Rise, Rfthe, «. a twig. Ex. ^* A pea-rise,^ May not the 
vulgar phrase "fetch him a riter^ be derived hence! 


S. Goth. Swed. ris ; lid. A. Sax. kris ; Teut. rjfi ; Dan. 
TtU; Germ, rm, yiigaha. 
To ride an hunting, under rHa, 

Amis and Amiloun, y. 196. 
Her Rudd Redder than the Roee; that on the RUe hangeth. 

Pbrct's RaU[ue$, iiT^. 

RisoMSD, pari, past; well headcfd, applied to oats; some- 
times said to be hawed. From growing strong and par- 
taking of the nature of a stronger plant, I think it is 
connected with the preceding. The word is prevalent in 

Hobble, #. an instrument used by bakers, and preparers 
of oatmeal, one with which bread or grain is moved 
and stirred in an oven. 

BoBBLT, adf. faulty, as the coal runs occasionally in pits. 

BoBLB, 8. a sort of rake. I never heard it in this sense but 
once, and then it was used at a mill under the South side 
of the Wrekin, to describe an instrument with which 
oats are stirred in an oven. Forby has rob a wooden 

RocHB, 1. the strata above a marshy deposit. 2. earth 
mingled with stone. 3. any strata which is superincum- 
bent to the one about to be worked. This word has 
been changed in a slight degree from its primitive' signi- 
fication, though it remains unaltered in its orthography. 
I am unacquainted with any variation of its spelling 
throughout the whole range of Early English Poetry. 
It is roehe^ in Octavian Imperator, v. 296. K. AK- 
saunder, v. 516?. 5196. 6235. 7090. Chaucer, House of 
Fame, iii. 26. Sir D. Lyndsay, vol. i. p. 243. iii. p. 125, 
&c. &c. A. Sax. roc, rupes. Fr. roeque^ motte de 

BocHY, adf. having the foregoing quality. 

Boded, part, past ; lean mingled with fat. Ex. ^^ Boded 
bacon.'" Swed. roed^ ruber. 

BoLLocKiNo, a^. unwieldy, slatternly. Ex. " A hirge rof- 
locking woman.**^ One who roUs about in her gait. 


Genenlly uaed as an ofibnaive epithet, yet the preceding 
adjective weakens the force of my illustration, as size can 
never justly be said to detract from female beauty. 
Thou^ in defiance of all those magnificent creations of 
Rubens, the world at large remains unconvinced that 
breadth and a flowing 'outline contribute to heigfatox 
its eflfect. In his figures, this great painter goes beyond 
the beauty of mere vulgar skin and bone, and imagines 
forms which seem personified with Goddesses and Angels. 
^^Such as nature often erring, shews she would fiiin 
make.^' The great mass of mankind like homely bean- 
ties; the grace that pleases them is technical: hence 
when they observe anything that is above the dead 
level of common life, they marvel, and either mistake 
or misunderstand what their own unenlarged per- 
ception does not permit them to appreciate. And 
thus it is, that whilst no masters^ works have eoax- 
manded more attention and study, yet ncme have re- 
ceived such silly censure. 

Romance, v. to magnify in a narrative. Ex. ^^ He^s 
only ramaneinff Maery, dunna believe him."" 

RoMPBo, $. a blighted part of a tree ; an old stump ; 
the part ^Bta^eaded\ We recognise the meaning 
under the various forms of Bompiek^ Bamcag^ Bom- 
ihaeiy Bonpeff^ Bonpidy &c., &c. C!oles has Bampick 
^an old tree beginning to decay.^ Wachter under 
the various significations of Bam, gives it that of 
^para extrema rei.'' N among the vulgar is often 
substituted for m, and thus by synecdoche, ram and 
rom, ale changed into ran and ran. Drayton. 

RoNDLB-ooAL, 8, A measuTo of coal lying contiguous 
to, and above the clod-coal: it is inferior to that, and 
chiefly valuable in manufacturing iron. 

RoNOE, r. to gnaw, or bite at. Ex. ^'The ship bin 
roifiging at the iwy.^ Fr. nrnger, to knaw or nibble 
off. Cotgrave. 


Rook, 9^ \. to huddle togeUier. Ex. ''JSmmM^. together'' 
generally for the purpose of keeping warm. Hence 
the fieoondary meaning. 2. ^^ Booking o^er the fire.^ 
Tun Bobbin has remokj to idle in neighboured hooseB: 
a signification not unknown to Sdopians, 
we received the word I know not. 

Book, $, In jCorve Dale 9k craw bar bears this title. 

^ps, f. the intestine of a woodcock. A. Sax. roppoiy 

Rops, perf. of e. to reap. Chaucer, Legend of G. Women. 

RoFT, o^f- thick, muddy. Ex. ^^Bopy beer.^ 

RossiL, r. to kick or strike so as to take the skin 
from the legs. Ex. ^^ BowU his shins.^ 

RosT, ad^. When the combs of hens look red and 
healthy, and they commence laying, fowls are said 
to be rosy. 

Rot, 8. a disease incidental to sheep. Ex. ^^ The ship 
han got the rd^ A. Sax. m^wng^ ulcus. 

RoTouT, 8. this vulgarism is used both substantively and 
adjectively, for instance, weak tea, or liquids of any 
kind, bear the appellation, and it also supplies an 
epithet denoting the same qualities. Ex. ^^ Drink 
such poor TOtguJt as that T ''This is rotguJt stuff/' 

RoTTLB, %. the peculiar noise in the throat of a dying 
person. Ex. ^^ BattKng in his throat.''^ Teut. roM, 
murmur quale moribundi edunt : rotden^ murmillare. 

Rough, «. a wood, or copse. 

Rousing, adf. large, unusually strong. Ex. ''A rousing 
fire.**' Is this by syncope for arousing f if it were 
peculiar to us, I should have thought it so; but 
being a word well known in Craven (See Gloss.) it 
rests upon better authority. Mine author referred to, 
attributes it to the Teut. raesm^ (fiirere) to bum. 
The other application is common; and we often hear 
of a rousing Ke^ or a rouser. 

Roust, s. according to thid method of writing we pro*- 


nounoe nui^ and rooti; Ex. ''The gw bin gwiin to 

BowsL, J. A oiroular piece of leather uuserted into a 
honeys side for the purpoM of 4sreating 4k diaebaige. 
Fr. nmtlU. 

BowBL, 9. to insert a rowel. 

He has been tan tim« rmoOtd. 

The Scor^ftd Ladjg. 

RuBBBB, s. a ooarse whetstone used by mowers. 

Buck, s. a heap. Ex. '' A two-year ond balk is as good 

as a rud o' muck,'" as the Shropshire adage mns. 

U. iraubr; S. Ooth. rcet; Teut. rack; Verel. in lor 

die. roi$y cumulus. 

Sweet«seiited ruekt raund wbidi we pWd. 

Herd's SeoUM Srnigt, yoL L p. 297* 

Ruck, «. 1. to gather together. 2. to crease. Ex. 
^^Bnuted her petticoats all in a rwkr Pbomp. Pabv. 
ruehynge^ incurvatio. VereL in Indie, rueka^ ruga. 3. 
to heap up. S. Ooth. rbka, coacervare. 

Ruck o^ bbicks, phr. a slang phrase for the <x>unty 

RuF, f . invariably used for roof. Ex. '^ The r^ o" OC 

Ri7N AOAiN, e. to calumniate, backbite. Ex. '^Hers 
always running again me.'" 

Run of hib tebth, phr. miuntenance, bodify support, 
such allowance as parents often make to iheir child- 
ren when they have married prematurely and impru- 
dently. Ex. ''Gid em tie rm o' their Hikr 

RuNNiBL, s. pollarded ash or oak. Isl. rtifiiir^virgultum. 

Runt, Runtuno, i. the ^ennallest in a litter of pigs. 
Verel. in Indie. runtOy verres non castratus. 
Before I bny a bargain of sadi runU. 

Runts, $. decayed stumps of trees. 

Auld fottin rurUig quharin na sap was leifit. 

FaSce tf Honor. 

Rut, §. the irack of a wheel. 


Rut, «. the desire of sheep to come together. Id. 

rtUur, ariee. 

in gendiynfle of kviide 
After couTB of conception non tok Kepe of othexe. 
As when ^ei hadde ruined. 

P. PLOUHMAlf^ 222. 

RuTT, Boor, Rout, «. to turn up from out of the 

earth : to plough up turf viiOi the snout, as a pig. 

Ex. ^^The pigs han ruyt^d up the taturs down ¥ the 

lezzer.^ Teut. myten^ evellere, eniere. A. Sax. toro- 

iauy rostro versare. Chaucer wrote. 

Or like a worm, that torotdh in a tree. 




A DK, V, to Batisfy. Ex. " rm woDy gaded^" 

M, ioddr^ satoratuB. Teat. au2m, 

Batiare. A. Sax. iodian^ saturare. 

M. Gk>th. Bods^ satur. Gr. aaiTw. 

Sadlvg, part, from the preceding. Ex. 

-Sading stuff.'' 
Sapt, adj. soft: as a oontemptuoas 
epithet for one who is foolish, or acting in a man- 
ner that is disagreeable or ridiculous. Ex. ^^Thee 
bist 9afi.'^ Teut. taefi^ mollis. 

Sago, r. to give way under pressure, become top heavy. 
A wagoner describes a load of hay or grain as tagg- 
ingy when it is badly put on his wagon, and likely 
to fall off before it reaches its appointed destination. 
The commonly accepted word is woag : ours can 
scarcely be deemed dialectical. (See Craven Gloss.) But 
nevertheless it is one that is little inferior to the word 
more known, and rests upon as good a foundation. 
It is used in Staffordshire. Isl. stegioj flectere, 
curvare. (Dan. wqe^ Haldorson.) wcer^ heavy ; mo^mt, 
to wave. 

The mind I sway bv, and the heart I bear, 
ShaU never migg with doubt, nor shake with fear. 

MadbtAy V. a 

Saogbb, 8. a vessel formed of clay, one used in 

China Manufactories and Potteries in which difierent 


artioleB of ware are placed when ^biimed\ Teat tag- 
kene, sagena! Lat Barb. MffO/menj va«, ut videtnr, 
in quo sagimen reponitur* Du Cange. 

Sake, f. a spring that breaks out in a field: and 
hence land which is wet in consequence, is termed 
Sakt. (See under Sbakt.) A. Sax. aic&, nca^ $ieia^ 
sulcus aquariuB. 

Saiilbt, f . the Salmulus of Icthyological writers. It is 
now pretty well ascertained, Jenyns says, that this 
fish is a distinct species, and always remains the same 
size: not being the young of tiie Salmon or Sea 

Sammt, 8. a fool. The North Country recognises both 
the word and the character; 

Sammt, adf. adhering closely together, clammy, heavy. 
Ex. ^^ Sammy bread,^ Sam is a very general prefix 
in S. Goth. Isl. and Dan. denoting a joining or union. 
Thus in the example before us, bread receives the 
epithet from being badly made, and rendered ^clo6e\ 

Saft, ad/\ moist, sodden* Ex. ^^Sapy meat.^ Isl. Dan. 
Swed. ta/iy succus. 

Sakn ; an oath. As, " Sam yo,'' " Camam yo."" A 
deprecation which is evidently acquired from the Isl. 
tamay dolescere. 

Sates, $. quickset. I do not believe this is a corrup- 
tion from Setts^ (q. v.): if it were, the M. Groth. m^ 
^a«ft, and Isl. ^, ponere, would suit it; it seems like 
a genuine word which has never been lucky enough 
to have been committed to paper. 

Saunter Wheel, s. a wheel which works face ways fnaa, 
a 8pwr wheel 

SAvihALL, «. 1. A small tin candlestick which is used 
solely for the purpose of consuming the old ends of 
canoes. 2. an earthen bottle with slits at the sides, 
destined to receive aU the samngt of children. 

Savin-trbb, 8. the Juniperus Sabina of Linnseus. The 



«ame horrid ^virtues^ are attributed to thk tree in 
Shropshire as are mppooed to belong to it by the 
Iceni. (See Moore, Nares, &e.) Gerard states m his 
Herbal that the shrub was esteemed in his day for 
the same reasons. 
SAYVfit, •• a savour, a taste merely: whether it be of 
liquid or solid. Ex. ^' There innod a «MW0r T th' jug.^ 
*^ Thee shat nod hav^ a «MW0r,^ as though the epeaker 
had said ^thou shalt not have a $awmr\' and also in 
tx>nformity with the early word, 

Bot sachd a mmer as hether hade. 

Sir Amaoas^ v. 72. 

ScATTEB-wiTTBD, odf, spoakiug without thought, con- 
fusedly, as persons must needs do if their wits be 

ScoRK, $. the core of an apple. Verel. in Indie. Swed. 
skarpa^ crusta. Teut. seharne^ cmsta. Fr. eseonge; 
Ital. seorza; Sp. carteza. 

Scotch^ e. to impede or stop a wheel. Ex. ^^ Bcoiek 
the wheel.^ Verel. in Indie, dsorday fulcris primare. 

ScRAGOT, adj. thin, meagre: an epithet chiefly confined 
to the neck ; thus we hear in slang language of a 
person being 

Three times lagsf d^ and weiy nigh mm^^dy 

or hung: and ^^a wfog of mutton^; ^^the KTog ^d 
of a neck of mutton^ : when that is all that remains 
to eat, men must be very '^ near the end of the mut- 
ton^** indeed. Though the present word has now fallen 
among the rejected and despised, it is not improperiy 
used. Germ, hragen^ collare, vinculum colli. 

ScRANCH, V. to crush anything between* the teeth. Belg. 
iAra/Mm. Teut. «cAmfi<Mfi, fratigere. 

ScRAT, Scratch, 8, 1. the itch. C. Brit, erach; Gael. 
carry scabies. Gael, carrachy scabiosus. .2. escrache, gale, 
lt)gne, farcin, one who ^* looks after the main chance,'*^ 


who is attentive to his own interest, and secures it 
by personal industry. S. '^Oud BcratP 

ScRAT, e. I. to scratch; S. to work hard, depend upon 
one^s own resources. 

ScRATCHmos, 8. fat which is taken from ^'the leaf of 
a pig^ after it has undergone a kind of rosting pro- 
cess, with the addition of pepper and salt it becomes 

ScBATCHiNa Cake, i . in which state it is eaten, and takes 
its name I imagine from being as it were 9era$cM 
or scraped out of the pigs. 

ScRATTLE, e. to uso cxertiou in procuring a livelihood. 
Ex. '^ They'n nothing to depend on but whad a scrtO- 
tdn torr 

Scrawl, e, to crawly (by prosthesis) to move about 
after the tardy and feeble manner of infirm or sickly 
people. Ex. '^ Much ado to icrawl up stairs ageu.^ 

ScREBGH Owl, s. Strixflammea of Jenyns: the common 
white owl. The singular cry or scream of this bird 
is considered ominous of death. 

Scringe, 9. to cringe, (by prosthens), to draw back. 
Tout. 8chirinekeny retrahere! A. Sax. tcringan, arescere. 
(See Crinkliho.) 

Scrunch, «. the same as Ktaneh^ q. v. Each of these 
are very expressive words, and bear the like signifi^ 
cation with us which they do in Devonshire and Somer- 
setshire. (See Palmer and Jennens.) 

ScRUTHiNo Bags, 9, coarse hair cloths or bags through 
whichi^ider is passed: by metathesis for aewihing bags, 
(See under Scork) because they catch the rind and 
-peel of the apples. 

Scrtmmage, 9, a skirmish. Ex. ^' WeMen only a bit of 
a 9erynmageP 

SeRYMM AGIN, fofi. playfully fitting, i^irmishing, by me- 

There was duimpioiiB dt^rmmg, 
Of heom and of other wnistlyng. 

KyNO ALiaAUNDSR, Y. 197. 


ScBTMJiiTT, adf. stingy, otose. S. Goth, akrumpoj oorrn- 

Scud, i. a pasBUig ahower oi rain. Ex. ^^Its ofy a 

bit of a ieud.^ 
SouD, 9. to rain suddenly, or sharply for a abort time. 

Ex. '' It $cudi o' rain.'' 8. Ootb. Oudda, efiiindere. 

Teut. m&iuUm, flindere. 
Scuff, s. the back part of the neck: as often, $on^. 

Ex. '' Took bout on him by the f^if^ o' ih' neck."" 

M. Goth. skuftB, oapiUos. 
ScuFFLB, f. a hoe chiefly used in gardens for cutting 

up weeds. S. Goth, nkyffd; Swed. sib/My ligo. A. 

Sax. teojl; Fris. Sicamb. Teut. ^chwgffdy pala. 
Scuffle, t^. to make use of the above instrument. Ex. 

^''BeuiffU it o'er."" S. Goth. fJyjffUiy pala motitaze. 

UpcHi this word Ihre renuurks, ^'vocabulum hor- 

tense usurpatum dnm ferro lato a gramine liberatur 

Scutch, ScurrcH, t. loose fibres, roots of grain or graas: 

vestiges of slovenly farming. A. Sax. ewioe^ fpaakBsi 


ScuiTER, f>. to scatter. Ex. '^ BeMer some money amoo^ 

them." IsL «Jt»afo, jaculari. 
ScuTTEB, «. a scramble for whatever is 9(Mtkred. 
Skakt, Oiij. boggy, wet. Teut. iosdU^ mollis.^ 
Sbam Set, b, a grooved wooden instrument used by ahoe- 

makers, for smoothing the Mtnfw of boots and shoes. 
Skarch, «. to penetrate, thoroughly gam admisabn: a 

word applied to wounds : anything liquid aaoroiai them ; 

a cold wind searches an old house: henee a searekmff- 

painj and a searekwg^ioM. 
Seat Bods, s. hazel twigs used in thatching. 
EhKJONDs, f . a quality of flour, from which the '^ sharps^ 

only are taken. 
Seed, Sn>, perf. of verb to see. Ex. ^^ Nivir seed sich a 

chap afore." 


Seed Lbp, 8. a hopper or seed basket used in sowing. A. 

Sax. t€0d kep^ Beminatoris oorbis. 
Sbbking Rakb, 9. a rake used for drawing small cokes 
out of the carbonaceous refuse, after the larger ones 
are selected. 
Sbos, s. sedge. A. Sax. ieeff^ carex. 

I wove a oofl&n for his coTse, of Mm, 
That with the wind did wave like nuineretB. 


Sbn, v. to say. Ex. ^^Asm thee bist kimit:^ (that is, 
they say you are foolish :) ^^ a m9» sda, that^s all I know, 
foils un talk.*** Sen is only used as the third person 
indicative plural. 

Sbn, adv. since. An old contraction for since. Ex. *^ A 
fortneet sen.** R. of Brunne. 8in^ Chaucer, Spenser, A. 
Sax. iitien. 

fioty 9en the time that god was bora. 

Minot'8 Pornm, p. 12. 
Sen, we haif had sic contemplatioiin. 
Sir D. Ltndsay's Dreme, pp. 220, 228, 246, &c. 

Sbnnxws, 8. sinews. Verel. in Indie. 8ina ; A. Sax. Oerm. 
88ne ; Tent, senmee^ nervus. 

Sbbb-fool, 8. a word recognized by Forby in the East, 
and Brocket in the North, though neither are able to 
account for its birth. Its legitimacy must continue 
uncertain, for I think that neither the Fr. 8a888r^ ad- 
duced by the former, nor the Lat. eedo by the latter, 
give us any satisfactory intimation of its origin. This 
receptacle of filth, for such is the meaning of the word, 
has doubtlessly obtained its name from an early and 
direct source, for it does not appear at all probable 
that a term which has such extended circulation, should 
have been superinduced. 

SsTTiNGB, f. a miner'^s word: 'a bar and two tree8 of 
cord wood* used in a pit. This seems to be an ex- 
plication of that nature which is called * ignotum per 
]gnotius\ but the reader is requested to seek ftirther 
information under these respective terms. 


Sbt, Stb, #. a Bkimming diflh* A. Sax. mmi. Teat« riij^^ 
peroolare. Among the valuables enumerated in. the 
humorous baUad of Jok and Jynny is 

Ase fnUk-syik, irith ana swyne-taOL 

Shack, #. a ragamufBn, a vagabond kind of person, ** A 
tkiiek of a feUow.^ Here is a word which is reputed 
as vile and base as the object to which it is q>- 
plied: but it is not so low as that, as its etymology 
sheweth. A. Sax. sceaeere ; Oerm. tekofcher; Teut. tchiBeiey 
latro. Thus we see by lingual analogy^ that a siooler, 
that is, one, as my informant tells me, ** who is a fause 
hoUow sort of a mon,^ a shack of a fellaWy or a sioot- 
baffj bears his title more honestly than his calling. 

Shackbd, pari, patt ; a term applied to timber. Ex. '^ Its 
a hard thing to get a bit o^ yeow (yew) y'^ sin as 
innad laggM and Aaeked^ that is, a piece of yew that 
is not warped, naturally cloven, or twisted. A. Sax. 
Bceaean^ quatere. 

SnACKLBi, s, cow chains. Ex. ^^ Coto-skadieB :^ chaina used 
to tie up cows to, ^^ the Boosey stall.^ A. Sax. sceaedy 
Qompedes. There exists a characteristic diflbrenoe be- 
twixt AoMes and thade^ irrespectively of the number. 
ShacUei has been explained : 9had$ applies rather to the 
iron ring which goes round a ttUoky q» v. and u thus 
appropriately to be assigned to the Teut. iohadcd^ annu- 
lus catena. 

SoleBy fetters, and ftoaUw, with horse lock and pad. 

Tussbr's Htabandrff, p. 16. 

Shall; There is a very common usage among the agrarians 
of substituting shall for will; did they reverse these 
forms of the future the language would be tainted by 
Hibemicism. The lower classes never make use of aioff. 
like our friends in the Bister Country^and say, '^ I will 
be drowned and nobody shaU help me:^ but when in 
perplexity, or doubt, and they cannot immediately collect 
their wits so as to furnish a clear and satisfactory 


reply, they bave recourse to this form rather than 
the common one, as an expedient to allay the eager 
curiosity of an enquirer, and thus, when in mental and 
memorial difficulty they hesitate to answer the question 
propounded, they commonly say, '' I shaU teU you pre- 
Shamble, v. to walk unsteadily. Ex. ^* Look ! how a 

Shambling, oc^'. 1. awkward in gait. 2. uncertain in con- 
duct, unsteady. Thus, if a person be capricious, or 
devoid of principle, we often hear him described as a 
shamhUng feUow. Ex. '^ Thier's no bout o' sich a shamb- 
Ung chap as bim.*^ Teut. sehcmpigh^ lubricus. 

Shank's Ponet, phr. Ex. " Rode on ShanVs Poneg^ that 
is, walked. The origin of this little dash of humor is 
unknown. It is very current from the North to the 
South. My Catholic acquaintance speak of 8t FraneU 
hone^ when they walk. In Herd's coUection of Scottish 
Songs the same means of travel are designated as Shank^s- 

And ay until the day he died 
He raide on good Shahl^9-naigie. 

ToLlL p. 80. 

Sharbvil, b. a fork used for agricultural or garden work. 
(See Evu..) Teut. Sicamb. Ar Sax. ickeere^ forfex, vomis. 

Sharps, $. a refuse kind of flour, meal. First, the flour 
when it has been sifted by every possible means: se- 
condly, come the sharps f thirdly the gurgeonSj and lastly 
the bran. 

Shaver, 8. a term applied in coarse humor to a nuin or 
boy. It has been introduced into poetry by Bums, and 
henceforth it can hardly be reputed as a low or vulgar 

Shaves, s. not an unusual plural of shafts. 

Shawb, «. 1. a wood, cover, generally in a definite sense. 
Ex. '^ Down in the ^ws.'*^ 2. a name given to rough 
land, or land that is woody. A. Sax. SGua ; Dan. schov^ 


nemiiB. Teut. 9ekam, umbra. P. Pkniliiiutfi, Lyndny, 

Thai somer sold achew him 

In MsftatoM ful schene. 

Minot's Poenu, p. 48. 

As he rood be a wodea t^iawe, 

OcTAViAN Impb&atob, y. 366. 

He led her thorow a feyte Mdiawe, 
In wodea waate and wilde. 

Lb Bonb Florbncb of Rovb. 
In aomer when the ^uuo» be aheyn. 

Habtshobxe's And. Mei. Tales, p. 179. 

Shseis fy. to spill, pour out, efiiue. Ex. ^^ Tak care yo 
duima Bheed it.*" *^The wheat begins to aheed out o^ 
the flhofa.'" Teut. seheeden; A. Sax. teeetdan; Germ. 
sohdden^ aepanure. 

Shblboabd, a. usually pronounced AUbwoardj part of a 
plough, which is so called from its similarity in shape to 
a a&Mi, as though we designated it a ihieldboardy whieh 
name it often bears. Amongst the requisite propertieB 
of a plough, Worlidge says, 

''The ahorter and leaser it la made^ haying ita tmepitdi, with 
ita tme caat on the Meld4foard, and thortvarett, and aharp irona, 
the fiir eaaier." Sjfstema AgrieuU, p. 226. 

Shbuvp^s Man, a. the seven coloured linnet, Carditdis of 

Shbit, Shbuh, iniery. a word so weD known that it 
needs no ehioidation except to shew that it is an ono- 
Vkxkjma^ and resolvable into a mere sound, rather than 
the same word as the Germ, sckmm^ vitare. 

Shides, s. cloven, peeled oak poles. Promp. Pabv. Khyde^ 

teda. A. Sax. mde^ scindula. Tent, ttkiedm^ findere 


And bad ahsppe hym a dinp of iMdet and of bordea. 

P. PLOUHMAir, y. 171, 196^ 906. 

—Off ^ymber gtete adhgid^ olong. 

R. CoBR DB LioN^ Y. 1386^ and v. 4369. 

Shimblb, Shamblb, aJ^. loose, unconnected; this and 
scrmbk, 8€ratMe^ are species of anomaiopeia. 


SHms, o. Ex. ^^ May God thine on him.^ A benedio-^ 
tion used by the lower orders which they have ac- 
quired from Holy writ. Numb. vi. 25. Psal. Kxxi. l6. 
Job xxix. 3. 2 Cor. iv. 6, &o. 

Shinolb, «. to beat) or weld iron under a forge ham- 
mer. (See Bloous.) Both of these are terms oon-^ 
stantly employed in the iron manufactories of Shrop- 
shire and Staffordshire. ^From a sow of iron roUed 
into the fire, the workmen melt off a piece called a 
loop, which they beat with iron sledges, and then ham- 
mer it gently, which forces out the cinder and dross, 
and then beat it thicker and stronger till they bring 
it to a bloom^ which is a square mass of about two 
feet long. This operation they call shingling the loop.^^ 
Kenneths Glossary, MS. Lansd. Num. 1098, fol. 45, as 
quoted by Sir H. Ellis in the general introduction to 
Domesday, vol. i. p. 137. 

SHmoLEB, B. a man employed in managing the iron whilst 
under a forge hammer. 

Ship, s. usual for sheep, Ex. ^^The eh^ han got into 
the wheat.^ ^^Poor grass when ships cannot grase.^^ 
Lnsos Literarum, p. 68. 

SmPB, s. a kind of shovel for cutting turf. 

Shop, Shoaf, Shops, s. a sheaf, or bundle. Ex. *'The 
shofi bm but thin on the groun.^' Teut. scqf; Belg. 
sehoof; A. Sax. sceaf, fasds. Pbomp. Pabv. sehef, or 

Sbokb, perf. of 9. to shake. Ex. '' Till a shots agen."* 
This is ^e old form, and ocodis repeatedly in eariy 
English writers. 

Ayiher on othir «waofdii sekske^ 

KyNO ALISAUlfDBEy V. 7397* 
He blew loud and sJuke it wele. 

The Lytb of Ipomtdon^ v. 7B7. 

He strok his beid, and jeM Us y^fde. 

Ths Sbuyn Sagbs, ▼. 1 A 1069.. 
When thoQ ghoke thy sworde so noble a man to ;mar. 
Percy's ReUques, vol. L p.l01.» 



Bhomackt, a^. slovenly, awkward in gait. Teut. dmf- 

maraehtigh^ somnicaloeus. 

Shobe, o. to prop, support. Teut. ichorm^ Buffiilcire. 

And ahaketh it ne were hit under thonds, 

P. Plouhman, p. 306. 

Shorebs, s. props. Teut. tehore^ fnloimentum. 

Shot, $, usually the quota, or sum owing for drinking 
at an ale-house. A word common wherever the prac- 
tice exists. Teut. i^ct; Fr. 0000^; Ital. acMo; Sp. 
M0ofo, solutio. 

''Let UB gether or make a ichotte, or a stake for the mynstraUs 
rewaide or wages." Hamumm Vulgarian p. 283. 

Shbbd, fy. to cut very fine and thin. Ex. ^^ SkrMliiig 

shuet.'" A. Sax« scfwufaii, resecare. 
Shrikb, Sohbioh, «. to scream, cry out loudly. Ex. 

^^Behiriehing as soon as ivir yo touchen him.**^ Pbojip. 

Parv. '^ Seryhyn/ge of ehylder^ vagitus. Isl. dariMa ; 

Dan. ikriger ; (At tikrige hift^ to ickrich aui^ as Salopians 

say) Swed. ahrika^ clamare. 

Women wrifte, giiles gredvng. 

Kyno Alisaundbb, y. 2802. 
The CiyBtene men gimiie make a Mcryftt. 

RiCHA&D COSR DB LlON, v. 4708. 

Londe he gan to crie and tkriehe. 

The Sbuyn Sagbs, v. 1290. 
And quhen she saw the red, red hlnde, 
A loud 9crkh teMdied she. 

Hbrd's SeoiHth S(mg$, vol. L p. 147. 

Shdbt, s. suet. Ex. *^ A shuety pudding.^ 
Shutt, 9. to suit. By this interposition of the aspirate, 
the vulgar unknowingly pay very unfortunate compli- 
ments. A shoemaker for instance hopes that his shoes 
will shuit (shoot) his customers; and the seller of a 
horse, that the steed will AuU (not over his head) 
the^ rider. 
Shupkrnacular, adj;. superior. The aspirate is here in- 
serted in aocordmce with the usage which prevails of 
interposing it in all words compounded with the Latin 


prepoBiiioli. Ab in Avfomofr^ $h/uperfiiiey ikiiperviBari &c. 
It may have been already remarked, that whenever the 
lower claaaes adopt worda which eome from the Latin 
and Greek tongaoB, they generally either mispronounce 
them, or mistake their meaning, but wh^i they use 
those which are portion of their native language^ I 
mean such as are derived from a Northern or Anglo- 
Saxon stock, they speak with conformity both to the 
.orthoepy and idiom of the English. At least they 
rarely, if ever, superinduce a word; they are not 
guilty of any tralatitious, or arbitrary engrafting ; and 
whenever they do pervert a term or phrase from its 
original meaning, they do not grievously damage the 
sense, nor greatly debase the national language. He 
is a bold man who will say as much as this in be- 
half of those who live out of an agricultural district, 
and are consigned to dweU in the great metropolis. 

The lower orders in Shropshire apply the word shu- 
pemaeular to any liquor of an excell^it quality. It is 
an expression derived from a kind of mock Latin phrase, 
iuper nagtdumy upon the nail, as being considered wor- 
thy of being drunk according to that whimsical prac- 
tice. (For an account of this, look to Nares, mb 

S^UT, s. 1. riddance, or deliverance, which occasions 
great pleasure. Ex. *'0ood shut d" bad rubbidge.'" 
Every body may recognise this sense, but the two next 
are, I suspect, local. 2. a narrow passage, forming 
an outlet from one street to another. Ex. *' Thb Gullet 
Shut'", in the town of Shrewsbury. Teut. »ehutj lo- 
cus condusus: 

Per Wailing strete xuqae le Wodewardes ^tUte. 
CarhUar. ST*. Petri. MS. apud Sir Tkoi. PhUUppt, Bart. foL 250. 

3. an accession of fresh water in a river, in the Severn 
for example. Ex. '^ There come a shut on the river 


in the night'' '' Rather mote than a tkut, a firmL'^ 
A. Sax. MMlflm, impetom feoere! 

Shot m, v. a blacksmith'B term, to denote that one pieee 
of fatm 10 made part of another, both compaotedly, and 
ae it were, inviaibly and indivinbly united. 

Shdt of, 9. to part with unoonatnunedly, always with 
alaonty and joy. Ex. *^I reckon you be f^ to 
get Mfifl on him."" ''Whod! yone got tkiU o' the 
tother then, han 'eT Tent, iokuttm^ peDere, aYeitere, 

8m, fmf. of e. to eee. Ex. ^' I hanna M him nnoe 
Mtirday ownder.'* 

Smiran, s, the time of somig, eeedneBB. Ex» ^*The 
quern iidnsm,^ 

Sight of ; an augmentative. Ex. ^^ A $i^ ofwari to be 

SiKB, e. to cry, hunent, Bob. Ex. ^' Sobbing and mUmp."^ 

It BeemB to imply a bitter grief, eorrow fetdbed up from 

the heart, a distreflsfiil ntteranoe of sighs that neaify 

chdce in thehr breathing. A. Sax. mcceiam^ singultire. 


Sykknge for my (Mnnes. 

P. Plouhxav, p. 81. 

Sjfteie for joye. Id. p. 906. 

Sykyng, sorewyng, and thokt. 

RiTf oil's Anei, Sanga, p. 28L 

He glowtyd, and gan to aphe. 

RiCHA&D COXR DS LlON, ▼. 4771* 

And wepe, and affke, and ciye^ alas! 

Lay lb FRSiifBy ▼• 119. 

The Lady Med and said alas. 

H^RTSRoaNs't And. MeMeal Tak$, 

Sill, «. to seU. Ex. ''Whad diden 'e mB hfan forP. 

An archaism that has been with us since the time of 

Widif. A. Sax. nflan, vendere. 

And JhesoB bihdd him and loYede hhn and aeyde to him oo 
thing fiiilith to thee go thon and rille alle thingis that thou haste 
and geye to pore men. 

TVansiaiwn of the TeHament, Maik ch. x. 


Sill, ». the fonndfttion of any tluiig; as a window $iBi 
a door mQ^ &c. S. Goth. syU, flindamentum cujus rei. 

SiMr<x>ALy 8. ooal which my informant describes as being 
fomid '^ in the dunches.'^ This is a luctu with a ven- 

SiMNBLL, 8. a plumb cake having a raised crust lor the 
exterior. It partakes of the nature of a mince pie, 
but the contents are packed closer together, and con- 
sequently rendered still more indigestible. The crust 
is extremely hard, and highly flavoured with saflbon. 
Originally it was a sort of bread merely, or eracknd 
made from tmiluy or very fine flour, and according 
to Qalen, it held the second place for excellence among 
the different kinds of bread. In the middle-age*writers 
we find it spoken of under the title of mmimdim. 
Shrewsbury is now the only place where this kind of 
cake is made. It is supposed to be in highest season 
about Christmas. S. Gkith. a mfa ; Alam. senda ; Tout.' 
Qerm. Belg. 8enmd4)rod^ pads triticeus. 

Skbaw-wift, ad(o. on one side, uneven. Ex. ^^ AU 8kea'W' 

Skslk, v. to shrink* Applied to coffin wood. 

Skin-flint, 8, a covetous person, one who, if it were pos- 
sible would ^^skin a flint, to save a penny.'" 

Skinny, adj. niggardly, mean, avaricious. Ex. ^^ A iJAnny 
aud thing.'" Swed. shinna^ immodice. lucrari. V erel. in 
Indie, dejfnia kwnay mulier frugi. 

Skip, 8. 1. a bee-hive. Gael. 8g8Qp^ a skip for bees. 
2. a basket or vessel used in coal pts by which the 
material is drawn to the surface. A. Sax. 8€htppmh^ 
haurire. A. Sax. 8eiap, vae. Teut. mAepd^ modius. 
Pbomp. Pabv. 8keppe^ sporta. Lat. 8eappa. Northamp. 

Skirmage, «. to skirmish. Fr. e8erimer. 

Ac as they Mrmed to the eon. 

Kyng Alisaundkr, v. 7386. 

Skittkr wittbd, adj. one whose mU are 8GaUer€d^ foolish. 



Skoutb, f. a small portion, allotment, or enokwed jMeoe 
of land* Ex. ''A iiauie o' gioiin;' & Ootk Jkfei; 
A. Sax. icyi, anguliu. Teut. $ditKi^ Beptom. Id. jM, 

Skrben, 9. to riddle. Hence a nud^-^kreen. Lat. Barb. 
eermida. (See Du Cange.) 

Slack, $. small coals. Germ. $eUaeij scoria. 

Slack, «. to prepare clod-lime by means of putting 
water to it. Isl. doffi^ humiditas. A. Sax. dadan^ 

Slaqo, 8, the dross or refuse from any smelting of ores, 
as th