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The Adyar Lffcrary Series No. 26 



SAMAVEDASAMHITA 



X 




Printed by 

C. SUBBARAYUDU, 

AT THE VASANTA PRESS, 
ADYAR, MADRAS. 



DEDICATED 



TQ 



THEM 



WHO GAVE US THE MUSIC OF JHE SAMAN5 



PREFATORY NOTE 

IT is with great pleasure that I introduce to the world the 
second contribution of Dr. C. Kunhan Raja to the Adyar 
Library Publications through the Bulletin of the Library, 
The first was the Egveda with the commentary of Madhava. 
Here there are two commentaries on the Samaveda, one by 
Madhava son of Narayana who belongs to about 600 A.D. and 
the other by Bharatasvamm, son of Narayana, who belongs 
to the early fourteenth century. Both are very early authors 
and as such the commentaries have a special interest. 

This is the first time that these commentaries have 
been made available in print. In this volume, only the text 
and the two commentaries are published. Dr. Raja has 
utilised a large number of manuscripts in bringing out the 
edition. He has been working at it for some years, attending 
to it day after day with commendable regularity and punctu- 
ality. Now the text portion is finished and in the second part 
the variant readings found in the different manuscripts, some 
indices and appendices, and some notes will appear. These 
supplementary materials will be issued through the Bulletin 
and made available in due course. 

The commentary of Madhava is available only for the 
Purvarcika portion of the Sarnaveda and there is no evidence 
of his having written a commentary for the Uttararcika 
portion. A small part of the commentary by Bharatasvamm 
for the Uttararcika portion is available in some of the 



Vlll 



manuscripts. Since Madhava does not comment on this 
portion and since Bharatsvamin's commentary is available 
only for a small part in the beginning, it is not proposed to 
include this part in the edition. 

By an oversight the last four verses were omitted m the 
fifth Das'atl of the third Prapathaka. They are given at the 
end of the edition. 

It is the division into Prapathakas and Das'atls that is 
adopted in this edition. This is the division found in the 
commentary of Madhava. Bharatsvamin follows a different 
division. [And in the Vedic Concordance of Bloomficld, the 
verses are numbered serially from one to the end. For easy 
reference a comparative table for these different divisions and 
numberings is added at the end, j*p. kisi ] 

Most of the verses comprising the Samaveda are found 
m the Rgveda also. But there are variations in the text as it 
appears in the Egveda and in the Samaveda. The text as 
accepted by the two commentators is not uniform. The 
Rsis mentioned by the two commentators as the authors of 
the verses are not also identical. All such points will be 
noted in the supplementary portion. 

It is my pleasant duty to thank Dr. C. Kunhan Raja for 
his valuable contribution to the Adyar Library Series 1 tike 
this opportunity to thank the University of Madras for ihr 



Director 



FOREWORD 

IN this edition of the Samaveda, I include two com- 
mentaries on the Samhita, one *by Madhava and the 
other by Bharatasvamin. Neither of these commen- 
taries has been till now made available in print. 
Both of them are ancient commentaries and earlier 
than Sayana. 

The edition of the commentary of Madhava is 
based on. a photograph copy of the manuscript in the 
Berlin Library, described by Weber in his catalogue 
as No. 1424, and another manuscript kindly lent to 
me for the purpose by the Vis'vabharati University, 
Santiniketan. The photograph copy of the Berlin 
manuscript is in the Adyar Library and bears the 
shelf No. XXXIX. F. 16. 

Besides these two copies, I had access to the 
three manuscripts in the Library of the Calcutta 
Sanskrit College described in the catalogue by Hrsikes'a 
S'astri in Vol. I, as Nos. 50, 51 and 52, and to the manus- 
cript in the Library of the Palace of His Highness 
the Maharaja of Bikaner, described by Rajendralal 
Mitra as No. 276 in his catalogue. I was allowed a 
loan of the latter a few years ago and I am obliged 
to the authorities in Bikaner for the same. I worked 



X 



in the Library of the Calcutta Sanskrit College for* 
some time and I was able to examine the three 
manuscripts there. I take this opportunity to express 
my gratitude to the Principal of the college for the 
facilities he gave me at that time to work in the 
Library. 

There are two manuscripts in the Bodlein Library, 
Oxford (Catalogue, Winternitz and Keith, No. 917). 
I have not been able*to examine them till now. I find 
that the manuscripts are not in a very good condition. 
I will make use of them also before this edition is 
completed and any material which may be found 
important on an examination of these two manuscripts 
will be duly incorporated in this edition. But the 
manuscripts I have with me are found to be, sufficient 
for the edition. 

The edition of the commentary of Bharatasvamin 
is based upon five palm leaf manuscripts in the Adyar 
Library (shelf Nos. XIX. K. 84, XXIV. C. 25 XXV 
D. 24, XXIII. D. 5 and XXVI. K. 14) and one Deva- 
nagan transcript with the shelf No. XXXVI. D. 15. 
There are other manuscripts available. But these are 
quite enough as a basis for the edition. I am also 
making use of the manuscripts available in Madras 
and around. 

The name of Madhava is given by Satyavrata 
Samasrramin as the vivaranakara in his Introduction 
to the Nirukta in Sanskrit added to the fourth volume 
of his edition of the Nirukta in the Bibhotheca Indica 
Series. In the commentary itself it is mentioned as a 



XI 



Bhasya (see P, 5, LL. 3 and 21). In the Catalogue of 
the Manuscripts in the Palace of H. H. the Maharaja 
of Bikaner, Rajendralal Mitra describes the work as a 
dissertation on the Samaveda. 

Little is known of the commentator, his personal- 
ity and his date. His father's name is Narayana as 
is given by him in the Introductory portion of the 
commentary (see P. 6, L, 20). The opening stanza 
of the commentary is identical with the mangalas'loka 
in Bana's Kadambarl. Perhaps both Madhava and 
Bana had a common source ; or one utilised the 
Mangalas'loka of the work of the other. Or perhaps 
the two are identical, Madhava being the real name 
and Bana being the assumed name. There are reasons 
to believ that Bhavabhuti the dramatist and Umveka 
the writer on the Mltnamsa are identical. There is 
nothing impossible in the same person being known by 
two names. So far as common Mangalas'lokas are 
concerned, for this also there are instances ; I give the 
following which is found both in the beginning of 
Dandin's Kavyadars'a and in the commentary on the 
Sarvanukramani by Uvata : 

caturmukhamukhambhojavanahaipsavadhur mama 
manase ramatam nityam sarvas'ukla sarasvatl 

Manuscripts of the commentary of Uvata on the 
Sarvanukramani are found in the Tanjore Palace 
Library, in the Bhandarkar Institute and in the D.A,V. 
College (Lahore). In the last one the name of Uvata 
appears as the author of the commentary in the 



Xll 



colophon. In the other two, the name of the author of 
the commentary is not given. Thus from the identity 
of the Mangalas'loka no conclusion can be drawn. 

The close similarity of the Introductory portion 

of the commentary with the corresponding portion in 

the commentary on the Rgveda by Skandasvamin 

(edited by me in the Madras University Sanskrit 

Series as No. 8) cannot escape the notice of any one. 

The similarity is in wording, in method and in ideas. 

This close similarity cannot be an accident ; and since 

this commentator mentions the Rgvedabhasya it may 

reasonably be concluded that he is referring to the 

Bhasya of Skandasvamin, though he does not mention 

the name of Skandasvamin. 

Madhava son of Venkatarya speaks of a jNa rayana 
as the collaborator of Skandsvamin in writing the 
Rgvedabhasya ; the passage is : 

skandasvami narayana udgitha iti te kramat 

cakruh sahaikam rgbhasyam padavakyarthago- 
caram 

VIII, iv, 9 (Madras University 

Sanskrit Series No. 2) 

One may be tempted to identify this Narayana with 
Narayaja the father of Madhava (whose commentary 
on the Samaveda is now being edited). 

Skandasvamin must be put to about 600 A D 
"f ? r0nolo ' of the Vedabhasya-' 



X , ' *ras, 

X, pp. 261 and 262.) The relation of Madhava 



Xlll 

with Bana, his relation with Skandasvamin and with 
Narayana and the date of Skandasvamin being more or 
less the date of Bana make it quite possible that 
Madhava belonged to the school of Skandasvamin ; he 
may have been his disciple. I leave it as a mere 
" may have been ". Nothing more can be said at this 
age with any kind of certainty. 

When we come to Bharatasvamin, the position 
becomes much easier. His father is Narayana as is 
mentioned in the eighth stanza in the beginning. He 
wrote the commentary at the time when Ramanatha 
the Hoysla King was reigning, i.e., about the year 
1300. He was a native of Srirangam. These two latter 
facts are given in the ninth stanza. 

The^e is not much difference in text between the 
various manuscripts of the commentary of Madhava. 
But in the case of the manuscripts of commentary of 
Bharatasvamin, the differences are considerable. I 
print the commentary, constituted from the different 
manuscripts, according to the readings which I consider 
the best. In part II of the book I will give the various 
readings found in the different manuscripts. 

Regarding the division of the text of the Sama- 
veda, I have followed the division accepted in the 
commentary of Madhava, i.e., into six prapathakas, 
-each prapathaka being divided into das'atls consisting 
of about ten mantras. Bloomfield in his Vedic 
Concordance gives the stanzas with the continuous 
numbers for the purva and the uttara arcikas. In order 
to enable the readers to make use of that concordance 



XIV 



with reference to the text as printed here, I give 
a comparative table showing the relation of the 
numbers used in this edition to the numbers given in 
the Concordance. I am printing the samhita without 
marking the Sanaa accent, since my purpose is only 
to present the text which forms the basis of the com- 
mentaries. 

Madhava comments only on the purvarcika. The 
commentary of Bharatasvamin continues to portions 
of the uttararcika also. But in this edition I stop with 
the purvarcika. I need not say anything about the 
importance of these two commentaries to students of 
vedic literature. Both of them are earlier than Sayana, 
Bharatasvamin's date is known and Sayana quotes 
Bharatasvamin. Regarding Madhava, there is no 
evidence by which his date can be fixed. The prob- 
ability is that he is a disciple of Skandasvamin, 
His date and personality must be discussed in greater 
detail and I can do it only after I print the entire 
text of the commentary, I will do so in the Introduc- 
tion which will be published when the second part 
is completed. 

Although I have many manuscripts of the two com- 
mentaries, I regret to say that in some places I am not 
quite satisfied with the readings I am printing. What- 
ever improvements I am able to make in the course of 
printing, I will incorporate in the second part. 

ADVAR LIBRARY c. KUNHAN RAJA 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Dedication ...... v 

Prefatory Note . . . , . . vii 

Foreword ...... ix 

Text: 

Prapathaka I ..... 1 

II 87 

III H9 

,; IV 216 

V 299 

VI 357 

NOTE 

1. In the first three Prapathakas and at the end of the 
fourth Prapathaka mistakes like flFRI ^n, which crept m 
through some oversight, may be corrected. 

2. On pages 319 and 320, the figure on the top may be 
corrected from J^-9-2, into 5-3-9 and on page 334, the figure on the 
top may be corrected from 5-5-6 into 5-6-6. 

3. In III. v. (P. 177) The last four verses were omitted by 
an oversight and they are given on Pp. 415 and 416 at the end 
of the edition. 



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" ; Madhava's Commentary is missing for verses 4 and 5 and 
for part of the sixth verse. 



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[At the end of the fifth Datfati in the third Pra- 
pftthaka (p. 177), the last four verses were omitted by an 
oversight and they are given below.] 



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TO 

TO II 




nr 



TABULAR STATEMENT OF THE DIVISIONS 
OF THE SAMAVEDA 



Das'atl 


Verses 


Serial Number 


Das'atl Verses 


Serial Numt 


PRAPATHAKA I 


PRAPATHAKA III 


1 

2 
3 

4 


110 
1-10 
114 
1-10 


1-10 
11-20 
21-34 
35-44 


1 
2 
3 
JL 


1-10 
110 
19 
_ 110 


194203 
204213 
214222 
223-232 


5 


110 


4554 


5 


1-10 


233242 


6 


18 


5562 


6 


1-10 


243252 


7 


110 


6372 


7 


110 


253262 


8 


18 


7380 


8 


1-10 


263272 


9 


1-10 


81-90 


9 


1-10 


273282 


10 


16 


91-96 


10 


1-10 


283292 


PRAPATHAKA II 








PRAPATHAKA IV 


1 


110 


97106 








2 


18 


107-1 14 ' 


1 


110 


293302 


3 


110 


115124 


JL 


1-10 


303-312 


4 


110 


125-134 


3 


110 


313322 


5 


110 


135-144 


4 


19 


323331 


6 


1-10 


145-154 


JL 


110 


332-341 


7 


110 


155-164 


6 


110 


342-351 4 


8 


1-10 


165 174 2 


7 


18 


352359 


9 


1-10 


175184 


8 


110 


360369 


10 


19 


185-193 


9 


111 


370380 



1 Prathamadhyaya and Agneya Parvan end here according to 
Bharatasvaimn and Sayana. 

2 Bahusami ends here according to Bharatasvamm. 

3 Dvitlyadhyaya ends according to Sayana and Ekasami and 
Amdra Gayatra end according to Bharatasvamin* 

4 Trtlyadhyaya ends according to Sayana and Brhati ends 
according to Bharatasvamin, 



416 



TABULAR STATEMENT OF THE DIVISIONS 



Das'atl Verses Serial Number Das'at! Verses Serial Number 
10 110 381 390 l 10 110 477-486 



PRAPATHAKA V 

391398 

399408 

409418 

419_426 J 

427436 

437446 

447456 



1 


18 


2 


110 


3 


110 


4 


18 


5 


110 


6 


110 


7 


110 


8 


110 


9 


110 



467476 



PRAPATHAKA VI 

487496 
497-ir510 
511522 
523532 
533544 
545553 
554565 
566577 
578585 * 



1 


110 


2 


114 


3 


112 


4 


110 


5 


112 


6 


19 


7 


112 


8 


112 


9 


18 



1 Tnstup ends according to Bharatasvamin. 

2 Anustup ends according to Bharatasvamin. 

3 CaturthS-dhyaya and Aindra Parva end according to Sayana. 
Amdra ends according to Bharatasvamin also. 

4 Pavamanaparvan ends according to Sayana. 



In the text-editions by Wilson and Benfey and in 
the Ajmer series the division into 6 Prapathakas and 
each PrapSthaka into Das'atls has been accepted. 

Sayana adopts the division into 5 Adhyayas, the 
first 4 with 12 Khandas (each Das'atl being called a 
Khanda) and the last with 11 Khandas. The first 
Adhyaya is Sgneya Parvan, the next 3 Adhyayas form 
Aindra Parvan and the last Adhyaya is Pavamana 
Parvan. These three Parvans are accepted by Bharata- 
svamin too. 

Bharatasvamin adopts another division also. Bahu- 
saml ends with II. 6, Ekasamin and Aindra Gayatra 
with III. 4, Brhatl with IV, 6, Tristup with IV. 10, and 
Anustup with V. 4, 



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