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'. ! 





1* -• / 

• xJ (v f 






Pbmnician Hiftory, 

Tranflated from the 

Firft Book of EusEBius 
De Praparatione Evangelica. 


A Continuation of Sanchoniatho^s History 
by Eratojihenes Cyrenam's Canon , which 
T>lcaarchm connc<9:s with the First 

Thcfe Authors are illuftrated with many Hiftorical 
and Chronological Remarks, proving them to 
contain a Series of Pbcenician and Egyptian Chro- 
nology, froip the firft Man to the firft Olympiad, 
agreeable to the Scripture Accounts. 


By the R'.Rev''. R.Cumberland, D.D 
late, Bifliop of Peterborough . 

With a PREFACE giving a Brief Account of 
the Lifei CharaSer, and IVritings of the Author, 

By S. Payne, A. M. Rcdor of Barnack, 

in Northamptofijbire, his Lordfliip's domcftick 


Printed by W^. B. for R. W i l k i n at the Klm^s Head in 

; St. PoHfs Churcii-yard. MDC^XX. 




[ iii ] 



P R E F A C 

wiU nott I prefume 
cceptaHe to the Re^ 
refix a Jhort Accout. 
reat a Man as the A 

,he folhw'mg^apers. 

He WAS born in xSi%. in Fleetf 
London, the Son of a Citizen who is, 
nJ^eSied by all that knew him. Hit 
tien was firft /» PaulV >S"cAuo/, afterij,- 

iv The P]R.E FACE. 

thar*s time were^ !Dr. Rainbow Bijhop of 
Carlifle, 2)r.Duport 2)^^/? (^/Peterborough, 
each of them of great Eminence. Such Men 
were Jhining Ornaments to the Society^ but 
neither that^ or any other College., bred to^ 
gether Men of more Learning and Virtue^ 
than three whom that fmall Society elected 
near the fame time into its Body^ T)r. Cum- 
berland f T)r. Hezekiah Burton , . and Tir, 
HoUings. ' 

The lajl was a Thyjlcian^ who fettled at 
Shrewsbury, an^ livfd there with univerfal 
Eftetm to a gOQd old Age ; received in the 
Families that were happy in his Acquaint 
tancej not only as a Friend and a Thyfcian^ 
but almofl as a good Genius. The T)iftance 
of their Rejidence did not obliterate the dif 
interefted Affection that was between him 
find bis\Friend T)r. Cumberland which was 
$f equan>uration with theisr Lives. 

His other worthy Frienal T>r. Burton, a 
moft excellent Terfon^ was early loft to his 
Family^ his Acquaintance , and the World. 
I call hisT^eath a Lofs to the Worlds becaufe 
I believe there hardly was in it a Man whci 
"had in a greater degree the Chriftian Spirit of 
Lovcy and Good- willy and Zeal to do good 
to others. (I have by me Evidence for what 
I affirm^ fom§ of his fatft^U^r Letters to my 


(rtlon Father who had been hisTupl^ which 
tho' writ with great hafte and negligence^ 
breathe fuch a Spirit as cannot but leave 
good Imfrejfions on thofe that read them.) 
God^ who had fiWd his Heart with thefe 
Defires^ did not permit him to live to bring 
them to effeSf. Great Modefty prevented his 
publijhing any thing in his Life*^time^ but 
the Jhort AUoquium ad Leftorem before his 
Friend^ s Book de Legibus NatUras. 

The/e were our Author's intimate Friends^ 
but he maintained a particular Acquaintance 
with all others of the fame Society y who 
were eminent for Farts and Learning, His 
own Love ti> Merit made him Jhew ReJpeSt 
to all who deferv'd itj as the natural Sweet ^^ 
nefs of hts Temper^ and his other Accom-^ 
flijhments, made him again beloved by them. 
Among thefe were Sir Samuel Moreland,,^wi- 
nent for his>Skill in the Mathematicki \ 
Mr. Pepy s, many Tears Secretary to the Ad-^ 
miralty : A Gentleman who was Majier of 
all polite Learnings and who by his lafi JVilly 
in grateful Memory of his Education^ there 
bequeathed his own^ a moft elegant Library^ 
to Magdalen College, tho' he referred the 
full fettling offo noble a Legacy to his Exe- 
cutors. A 3 



ti' The PREFACr. 

jMn^tber Contsm^w^ry to him m that Sa^ 
ciety^ and afterward a greM af^ f^Jefai 
Frkndy wm Sir Orlando Bridgman^ t^ 
whom be dedic^ed bis Book ofth^ Laws of 
Nature, as be did that of)emfh Weights 
and Meafiires to Mr, Secretary Vepys. 

His chief ImtroduHim into tt^ Worlds ta 
ke knQWK otherwife than by his fFritings^ 
^as thrd the Friendfinf of Sir Orlando 
Bridgman- Our Author^ and bis Friend 
^Dr. Burton, were bo^tb bis Chaplains when 
ke was Lord Keeper y and preferred by him. 
Had his Lardjhif been inclitCdto have fou^ 
any where elfe, where there was a larger 
Choite^ he could not have pitched on Clergy^ 
men 6f greater Merit than the fey who had 
keen his Acquaintance^ and Contemporaiyes in 
the fame College. 

He dipingmjh'd bimjelf whilfi he was a 
Fellow of the College by the Performance of 
his Academical Ex er^ifes. He wient out 
Batchelor of ^ivimty at a puhlkk Com- 
mencement ; and tho^ it was hardly known 
that the fame Terfin performed thafi great 
lExercifhs twice^ yet Jkch was the Expe£ia- 
iion he hadrais d^ that he was afterwards 
fUlicited to keep the A£t at another publick 
Commencement for his DoSiofs degree. 



tlii Jirfi 'PriferfHenti fit which hi quit- 
tti 0M 'Vnivirfity Life, was the ReBory Bf 
Brampton in Northamptoilfhire, given hiM 
byStr}bha. Norwich. The Tat ton was not 
a^fitppointedy in hai/ing a Cletk who in alt 
rijpe^s Mijvuet*d his higbeft Expectations ; 
Md they liifd tdgethet in the gteateftVHd' 

His Nomination df^efuHards td thi Bi- 
fhoptick &f that 'Dioeefh iisas the inote pirofef 
h this tef^eBy that he had liv'd long in it. 
Had thi Ctetgy tet4in*d the ptimitive Vti- 
fiile^e of e testing theit Bijhdp, that of th& 
^DioieJeofPtXtTomom^j wouid have cbofei^ 
no other *PerJhn, No Mdn was then mote 

infiverjklf^ $elov'4, and applauded y eiscept* 
ing by hete and there one infiam'd wifh 'Par- 
ty Heat. Few Were pfe^udic'd again f^ the 
hSvidOal Man, againh 2)r. Cumbtrldnd* 
tbo' more were againff his Ttoinotion. Ill- 
ittitlMd Envy will he direBed again fi Men 
that are tai/d to he eminent ty conjpieuotts \ 
and he tnuji be very inconjidetdbhi whom no 
^dy thinks wotth oppofing, or opening his 
Momh againfl. 

In this rural Rettrement he minded little 
elfe than the duties of his Funifion and his 
Studies. His Relaxations front thefe were 
very few bejldes his Journtes to Caiiibridge* 

A 4. which 


viii ThePREFACB- 

which he made frequently to preferve aCor- 
rejpondence with his learned Acquaintance 
in that T lace. 

In human probability his, Talents were ta^ 
he confined to a finall Country Tarijh : His 
own Thoughts being never turned to the rai^ 
Jing himfelf. That which is ^^^ Opprobrium 
Theologorum, the Snare^ (I could almqft call 
it the Scandal) of our TrofeJ/ion , Prefer- 
ment- feeking, he was ferfehly free from. 

But it f leafed God to call him to a£t in a 
larger Sphere : The Inftrument of his Trovi* 
dence in it was Sir Orlando Bridgman, who 
being rais'4 to that high Station of Lord 
Keeper of the Great Seal^ invited bis Friend 
and Fellow-CoUegiate Mr. Cumberland ij^, 
to TowUf and /don after bejiow'd on him the 
Living of AUhallows in Stamford, the Tre^ 
fentation for that Turn being in the Gift of 
the Crown. 

This occafion^d his Remove to Stamford 9 
a Town whofe Inhabitants^ if I am not pre^ 
judic'd in its Favour^ are Teofle of better 
Senfe^ and more Civility^ than others ujual^ 
ly are of the fame degree and Condition. 
They knew how to value Mr. Cumberland, 
and all Ranks of Teofle thought it their com^ 
mon Advantage that fuch a Man was placed 
among ^em. 

^ He 

The PREFACE. ix 

He engaged in an extraordinaryTrauble in 
this Tlace ; for befiies the 1>uty that was 
incumbent on him as Minifter^ he accepted 0/ 
the weekly LeBure^ and by this means was 
oBlig'd to f reach three times every Week in 
the fame Church. This difficult Tr^vince 
he went through conjiantly and affiduoufly. 
Tbisy which alone would have been a Bur* 
then too heavy for an ordinary Man^ he dif 
chared with Jo much eafcy that he carried 
on at the fame time great IDefgns in his 
Thilo/dphicali Mathematical ^ and Thilolo* 
gical Studies. 

In this Station of a private Clergyman fa, 
great was his Reputation^ that he was im^ 
portun'dbythe Vniverjityj and by other Ac^ 
quaintance^ to take upon him the weighty 
Exercife of Refponding at the public k Com- 
mencement: Nothing but the earneft SoUici- 
tation of his Friends could have prevailed 
with a Man void not only of Ambition^ but 
of even theT>efire ofApplaufcy to appear Jh, 
fublickly. This he did in the Tear 16^0. The 
Thefes maintained by him^ direSied againft 
the oppofite B^nemies of our Churchy were^ 

San<3:o Petro nulla data eil Jurifdidio in 
caeteros Apoftolos. 

Separatio ab Ecclefia Anglicani eft fchifr 




Infi^ (ywn Time^ many Teats afier^ the 
Fame of 2>r. CuffiberkndV Verfbrmanet 
was frefi? among the Members of the Vni^ 

He had been fot fime tifne feujlble of the 
Meajhres that were too notorkufiy and tM 
fuhlkkly taken in favour ofTopery, As he 
"o^M a mo!f hearty Lover of the TrotejUmt 
Keiigfon^ the great Sukje£t of his Sermmi 
ivas to fortify his Hearers ag^infi the Er^ 
torsy and to freferve *em from the Corrupt 
tions of that Idolatrous Church. He detefled 
nothing Jo much as Toferyj and wasjeahta 
abmfl to an Exc^fs of every thing that he 
JkJpeBed tofafwur it. 

The Bigotry of that Religion^ and the Ig- 
norance and Slavery it introduces wherever 
it has ^oxverj canmt but raife Ideas dreads 
ful to the laft degree^ in a Man that hai 
Freedom and Largenefs of Thought. I haf^o 
kfen told by elderly Men in thefe TartSy how 
he J who was in other things of the eooiefi 
Temper in the IVorld^ us'd to be fir'd with 
2^aly when in his ^r^athing he was exfOjUtg 
that Super ftition. This T>efravation ofChri^ 
fiianity ran m^eh in his Thoughts j and the 
Enquiry how Religion came at fir ft to degene- 
rate into Idolatry i put him upon the Searches 
that produced the following Work. 

6 The 

The PREFACE. xf 

The melancholy TroJpe£f of Affairs in the 
Reign of K. James, as it made deep Imfref^ 
fms on every one who mijh'd well to out 
Onjtitntion in Church and St at Cj Jo it made 
a deeper than ordinary on this excellent ^er- 
fhy and contributed to the bringing on him 
a dangerous Fit ofSicknefs^ one of the fever eft 
Fevers from which ever Man recovered. 

But after a Night ofGloominefs and^ark^ 
nefi^ Tyay broke out at the Revolution, ^rth 
vidential Eftafes from Wrecks at Sea^ and 
great Perils at Landy when they are afters- 
wards related to other l^erfons, are heard 
toldlyy and make not much Imfrejlon ; but 
they who were Eye-witneffes of them ^ much 
more they who efeafdfrom them^ have their 
Hearts rats' d ufon every RicoileStion of their 
Trefirvation. So tho^ thofij •who knew notj 
or "were unconcerned at the T>angers that 
threatned m from Popery and arbitrary 
^owcTy can hear of that ConJunBure with 
Indifference: Others^ who faw then otet Ha* 
zardj and were likely to fall Sacrifices to it^ 
know beft how to eJHmate the Greatnefs and 
the Blefjing of that ^deliverance. 

In fuch Convulfions as this Change occa- 
fon'dy the utmoji Prudence was required to 
make things fettle frmly again. The Trince 
happily thougjht^ that Lenity Juitedbeji with 


xii The PREFACE. 

the Englilh Tempers and Conftitution. Ai 
^efert was above all things regarded in the 
di^ofalofTrefermentSy fo it was ejpecially 
in Ecclefiaftical ones. Whatever Motives 
might in other Times have recommendedCler- 
gymen to Bijhopricks^ at this Seafon nothing 
could do it but Merit. , It was not fo much 
conjider'd who had made their Court bejij as 
who had defirv'd beji. And the Men who 
were then rats' d to that high Station^ were^ 
fuch^ and fuch only y as had beenmofi eminent 
for their Learnings mofl exemplary in their 
Jjives^ andfirmeft to the Vroteftant Inter efi. 

Whilst thefe Salifications were only con^ 
fidefdy fiich a Man could not eafily be over* 
kok'dj tho^ he himfelf did leaft of any Man 
look for fiich a Promotion. The King was 
toldy that ©r. Cumberland was the fittefl 
Man^ he could nominate to the Bifho^rick of 
Peterborough. Thus a private Country Cler^ 
gymany without fofling to Courts dTlacehe^ 
had rarefy feen ; without fuing to great Men ; 
without taking the leafl Ste^ towards foli- 
citing for it ; was pitched upon to fill fb great 
a TruHj only becaufe he was fitteft for it. 
He walked y after his ufual manner ^ on a 
^ofi'day to the Coffee-houfe^ and read in the 
News-paper^ that one ©r. Cumberland of 
Stamford was nam'd to the Bijhoprick of 


The PREFACE. xiii 

Peterborough. A greater Surprize to him^ 
felfthan to any bo^ elfe. 

A Promotion like thisj and done in fucb a 
manner^ was a Reputation to thofe that con^ 
ferr'd it. The Approbation of it was gene- 
ralj tho' in the Struggles the Nation was- 
then in J it can't be Juppos*d to be univerfaL 
There was a Tarty^ to whom the Principles 
he had always profefs'dy and the Maxims of^ 
which he had a^edj could not but be difa^ 
greeable. Such could not be fuppos'd to bfi 
pleased with it. But even thefe Men were 
obli^d to own J that a divine was exalted 
to the Trelacy of the great eft perfonal Mi- 
ritj and whofe Life was without the leaH 

He now apply d himfelf to the Work of a 
Bijhop. Studious Men acquire Habits that 
make them not overforward to put themfelves 
out into A£iion. The Speculations of their 
Mind employ the whole Man. The natural 
Calmnefs ofhisLordfi?ip's Temper added ft iH 
to this T^ijpofition. Tet no Man took more 
care not to be defedlive in his proper T)uty^ 
He made no Omijfions to confult his own Eaje^ 
^^ 1^0 J^are his Tains ; andtheDefires of bii 
'Mindy that all under him floould do their 
^uty^ were very earneft andfncere. 




jriv The PREFACE. 

His Speeches to the Clergy at his ViJutSr- 
tionsj and his Exhortations to the Catechu- 
mens before his Confirmations^ tho" they have 
not the EmbeUijhments of Oratory^ nor would 
make a pompous Figure ^ were theypubliflffd ; 
yet they are fervent ExpreJJions of the /»• 
ward T>e fires of his Soul to do what good he 
was abky and to excite others to be infiuenc^d 
by it. They are the pious Breathings of a 
plain and good Mind. 

On allOteafions he treated his Clergy with 
fingular Regard and Indulgence. An Expref 
fion that often came from him was^ I love al- 
ways to make my Clergy eafy . This was his 
Mule on all Applications made to him by them ; 
and if he err'dj it was always on this fide. 

When^ the duties of his Office required />, 
^e never ^ar^dhimfelf To the laH Month 
of his Life it was impojfible to dijfuade him 
from undertaking Fatigues that every body 
about him feared were fisperior to his Strength. 
He -was inflexible to their Jntreatiesy and 
his Anfwer and Refblution was^ I will do 
my Duty as long as 1 can. He had a6led by 
4 Maxim like this in his Vigour : When his 
Friends reprefented to him^ that by his Stu^ 
dies and Labours he would injure his Heakhj 
his ufual Reply was^ A Man had better 
wear out than ruft out. 


The PREFACE. xt 

The U^ fm^ h iiifife4 kh 7>$fifeJ^, be 
vm in the 80*'' Te^r 9fbh Age. Ai if W4r 
my "Duty t9 intend kim, J M Apfreben^ 
fim tbat be could not kntfiiffer tbrttfgk fke 
Faf'tgttei efit, tb(f itpU4id Gad be bad m 
Jnsovveuience frem it. A gi»od Tremidenee 
nvitbwt deui^ attends Men 4ifih4Uiging tbeir 
U)Hty. At b*f next Triennial^ wsr 
itttbed^^ Tem'fif bi*. A$e, it was with the 
14 di^cnky that be ecnid be M£Medfifm 
mdertaking t^ain tbg Fi^athn efbis 1^> 
cefs : That an Omijeen then happen' d, w^ 
net with his good Liking dttd A^frobationt 
hvt was abnofl a Force fnt n^ott bim.. To 
draw the Clergy nearer than tbenfital Ikca' 
nolMeetings, to make bis Vijitations eafier 
to himfelfy nfias a thing he would not bear of. 
Be would never take a Murden from bis own 
Sbouldersy. to lay it on other Teoples^ 

fFhen I read the CharaS^er given in Serif' 
tureefMofeSf That he was very Meek a- 
bove aU theMenttm wece upon the £iceQf 
the Earth ; and that given to Nathanael bgf 
omt Saviour^ TWhe was an Qraelite indeed, 
in whom was no Guile ; / cannot but a^^hf 
tbem to this extraordinary P«r/5». .• For J 
think there never could be a Man after than, 
^bm^tbefe(^bara£leri f^ more trufy fit. 



^vi The PREFACE. 

' He was of tJoe moSi eajfy^ chearfulj Sum- 
klej undefi^nmg Temper : His Candour to- 
wards all Teople was unfaralleFd^ he took 
' every thing hy the befi Handle. It is no Hy-? 
perbole ^^ ySy, that in Humility 6 f Mind^ in 
Sweetnefs and Benevolence of Temper^ and 
in Innocence of Life ^ he was not exceeded iy 
mortal Man^ He was without GaU^ or 
Guile ; fo ferfeUly free from any TinSlure of 
ArtificCi Ambition^ orlU-will^ as if he had 
in thefe reJpeBs been born escemp from th^ 
Corruptions of Human Nature. .^ 

He liv'd to the 8 f^ Tear of his Age^ with^ 

'^Ibelievcy the feweft Sins ofCommiffion that 

tver Man did, who arrived to that Teriod 

of Life : Bkfs^d with a Mind free from eve^ 

ry evilTaffion. 

His Comfojition had no Alloy of Vain-glory. 

He never did any thing to court Afflaufe^ 

or gain the ^raife of Men. He never a5led 

4 Tart^ never put on a Mask : His Tongue 

and Heart always went together. If he ran 

into any Extremey it was the Excefs of HUr 

anility J the fafeft Side for every phriftian to 

.err on. He liv'd with the Simplicity and 

jPlainnefs of a Trimitive Bijhop^ conversed 

\and looked like a private Man^ hardly main- 

^iainingy as the World calls it ^ theT>ighityof 

his QhafaSter. . He was not one that lov'd 


The PREFACE. xvii 

to have the Preeminence ; and he contended 
with no body for Prerogative and Prece- 

He us'd Hofpitality without grudging, Ko 
Man^s Houfe was more open to his Friends ; 
and the Ea/e and Freedom with which they 
always found themfelves entertain* dy waspe* 
(uliar to It. The Toor had JUbftantial Re- 
lief at, his ^oor\ and his Neighbour s^ and 
Acquaint ance^ a hearty Welcome to his Table^ 
after the plentiful and plain manner in which 
he liv^d. Every thing in his Houfe fervid 
for friendly Entertainment y nothing for Luxu- 
ry or TPomp. * 

His ^ejire was to make every body eajy^ 
and to do 'em good. He dijpens'd with a li- 
beral Hand to the Neceffities of others^ tho' 
his contented Mind made him require little 
for his own. His Kindnefs to his Relations 
and Acqjuaintance that wanted it y the Sums 
he parted with to fuch as were indigent ^ are 
Tweeds not proper to be proclaimed. Half 
fuch Sums dijlributed with OJlentation^ by 
tbofe who defire to have Glory of Men^ would 
have gained the Fame of great Liberality and 
Generofity. In thefe Cafes he truly obfer^v'd 
our Saviour^ sTreceptSy to^ do his Alms in fe- 
cret , and even not to ' let his Left Hand 
know what his Right Hand did. 

B Every 

xviii The PREFACE. 

Ev^ry body concerrid ''^ith hifftf or thaf 
I^^ld under bim^ felt the Advantage, of the 
Benevolence and Goodnefs of his Temper • 
He h(}4 a faiiet^nal Eftatey the Lejf^es^ of 
which found htm a Lmdlord kind indeed* 
He never rais'd his Rents^ or hardly chap^d 
a Tenant : Tb^ grew old in bis Farms^ 4fCd 
"were afterward fucceedjed by their Chiliir^fk* 

Such 'mas he, aljh t^ them thaf b^M unjder 

him as he "Wns Bifl^o^ ; goodnatufdy I am 

almoH temped to p^^ to^ a fault : They 

were Jure t^find nq Trejfure fr^m him \ the 

Voint in quejfion always was his freferviw 

thejuSi Rights of his See, If he could be fre^ 

vaird on to raife a Fine^ where th^ Refjm 

md Equity of it was moli afparenty it w^ 

always with great dff^culty^ and never his 

own voluntary Adt. In renewing fome of his 

Leafes heJhew'dgreatlnJiancesofKindnep 

and Compajfion ; / wijh they who received the 

Obligation were fenjible enough ofit: For 

indeed Tenants under Bijhops are genenajiy a 

t hankie fs fort of Men ; they conjider not the 

Eft ate they hold as another Man'sy but look 

upon it as their own^ and fart grudgingly 

with what goes out of ity as a H^rdptp on 

As the great Chriftian Graces in which he 

exceWd were Humility and Mgeknefs^ and 



The PREFACE. xix 

tkfi ebntufring 'witb a fedentary andfiudi- 
HuHahify it is not to be exfe£ied that there 
fioUld be in the fame Man any great 'Degree 
of Warmh md Mivenefs, God Almighty 
inies not *Perfiefi^n to any Man in this mor- 
tal State, they that dre ^oft ufeful to .the 
WorU by their aBive Spirits^ are alfo often 
tirhknt ; they f repent ly are in Miftakes ; 
% are too t^t to eaU their own 'Defigns 
Md TafftoHs by the Ndme of the fubliek 
Mi md to be tranfpmedtoo far by their 

Men isdho hofVe ExceUencies in one kind 
m not tuithottt fbefem in another. This 
% Bemeffreted as a Signification of the 
WmofQtfd, that Mtn Jhould be Jdmewhat 
fqMly and to keejp thofe whff have great Ta- 
knts humble : That they fhould not think of 
themfelves more highly than they ought to 
think, bttr f& thirtk fbbcf ly. 

HisLordJhip was of aTemferJb calm and 
ml^JBat if could Mtbe^fais'd t6 the height 
€^er. ffe invidd escpefs his ^ijttke of 
« thittgy and that was the ufmofl of his Iri- 
^att&n: ffe therefore neifey feU into any 
^dnenchs of l^^affioHy dny unguarded Ex- 
Mion, pr*BffiofH]^ofUre- ^f Mind, as he had 
^on the other hand a vi^fous Spirit of 
^""^ W: / tbaughr it the more my "Duty, 

B a in 



• _ • 

m the Station in which I had the^ Honour 
many Tears to ferve him^ to endeavour to 
fupply thaty and have thereby experienced to 
ivhat Inconveniences a reforming Spirit ex- 
fofes a Many and how bazar dous^ it is to 
follow Truth too clofe at itj heels. 

Through Excefs of Charity he W9s not 
willing to think the tVorldfo degenerate as 
it really is. He would believe no ill of any 
Man^ unlefs he had full Troof of it : He 
abhor fd entertaining Sufpicions^ but lov^d 
rather to thinks that there was as much 
ReSitude and Integrity in other Men^ as in 
himfelf And indeed had other Men been 
any thing like him^ there would have been 
no need for Severity. The Maxim then would 
be commendabky ' 

Si vis amari, 

Languida regnes manu.- 

Had his Life been as aSivCy /is it was in- 
fjocenty he would have rifen above the fitch 
of human Nature. 

His natural Tarts were not quick j but 
Jirong^ and retentive. He was a perfedt 
M after of every Subject he ftudied. Every 
thing he read ft aid with him. The Idea's 
in many Mens Minds are too like the Imfref 


The PREFACE. ' xxi' 

fwns made in foft Wax, they never^ are dl- 
fiinB and clear ^ and are foon effaced: In his . 
Mind they were like Impreffions cut in Steely 
they took fome time in formings but they were 
deary diftinSfj and durable. 

The things he ^ had chiefly Jiudiedj were 
the fe Searches into the moft ancient Times ^ 
Mathematicks in all its T^arts^ and the 
Scripture in its original Languages. Thefe 
were the great IVorks of his Life ; but he ' 
bad by the bye di*verted into almofl all othir 
Studies J He was thoroughly acquainted with 
all. the- Branches of ^hihfofhy ; he had 
^od Judgment in Thyflcky knew every thing 
that was curious in An atomy ^ had an Jnfu 
macy with the Qlafflcks. Indeed he was a 
Stranger to no' fart of Learnings ^ but every 
SubjeSi he had occafion to talk of he Was as 
much a.Maft^r ofity as if the T^ireSlion of his 
Studies had chiefly lain that way. He was 
thoroughly converfant in Script urcy and had 
kid up thatTreafure in his Mind. No hard 
^ajfage ever occur^dy either occaflonaUy or in 
Readingy but he could readily give the Mean- 
ing of ity and the fever al Interpretations^ 
without needing to con/iilt his Books, He 
fometimes had thoughts of writing an Exfo^ 
fltion of the Epftles to the Romans and Ga- 
htians. // W(is a Misfortune to the PForldy 

xxii The PRBFACE. 

that he wanted that Sfurfi nec^Jf^yy to epti^ 
cite Men to A^tm^ the T^efre^ Qf Traifi. 
Ha4 he done its I believe hf WQuU have 
cleared the Controvert ^bout Ji(fiifi(0t»n9 
with all its A^^endagesy nhvf 4^ thing 
that ever was fubli/h^d. He often in C^n- 
verfation explained to me what h^ tbongbt 
the Key to the difficulteft Tiacof 0f tbofe E^ 
fifties ; it opens thpm fo ^4/2^» tbaf I earit 
hut believe that it is the trne we. If bit 
J^ordft^if was right y Tolemical'jyivlines ba%^ 
quite miftaken the Senfi of St. Paul,' ^md 
v;r it ten much to little furfoje' on the Sui^eSi 
of Juftification. 

Learned Men often love and affeSi tot ie 
Jilent. His Lordjhif wai^ Jo bumble^ $hat 
he thought no bodsi too low to k^ costvers^d 
It; it by and Jo benevolent ^ that be wot wily 
ling every body that came P^r hm fiwtid 
fartake of his Knowledge. As be wof tba 
mofi learned^ Jo be iJi^s the m^ cop^mmicor 
five Man I ever kn^^^. Jslo Converjatim 
f leas' d him fo well aju what turn'd nfto^Jime^ 
fart of Learning. 

The firft Experience I had of fkis wav: 
"iphile I was Vnderg^ad^ate in the ^niver^ 
fity^ J^on after bis Lovd^iff ^romofm. M 
was then ftudyingjme^ Tarts oftke^Matk^ 
ma/tical Sciences : He dfd me (b4 HonoMr ta 



The P R E I? A C E. xxiii 
iilk mth me on thofi SuhjeSts, It ftruck 

me with Surprize to fee fo much Co'ndefcen- 
fm^ Familiarity of ConverfatioHy and Love 
to inform a young Man^ in a Ter/dn of his 

Learnings Age^ and St At ion. The Tears If nee 
ha^eJ^Ht in greater freedom with him have 
been the haffy fart of my Life : A Blejjlng 
that by mt tan never be fufficiently valud. 

He was my Oracle to confutt on any Author y 
w whattvet SabJeSt I read. fFhatever zvas 
difficult^ was Jkre to have rejolv'd ty hirn. 
He Was unacquainted with nothing I cjuld 
a^k himy even in fnall matters^ in low Au^ 
thorSj which it might be exj^eSied by a Man 
^hofi Mind Was taken up with fo much 
highet Speculatidnsy Jhould have beenpafsd 
Wer uhheided. 

Hii Soui was J through his whole Life^ in 
a coHJiant Calm aAd Serenity ^ hardly ever 
infied ^ith any Tajf/IoH. Having thus a 
Mind friefidty to his Body ^ and being ekaiily 
feguhr ditd tempttate in his w^ of livings 
he attaprid to a good old Age with ferfeh 
Somdnisfs of Mifid and Body. He was not 
affliSied mthj sr JUbjeEi tOj any Ailing or 
^iftempif i neijtt comflain'd that he was 

iUy or out of order ; came almoji cmftantly 

front hh Chamber in a Morning with a Smile 

in bis Countenance. 

B 4 Thi 



xxiv The PREFACE. 

The Toet gives a D^fcripion ofOJd A^ 
very unlovely. 

Quaerit, & inventis Mifer. abftinet — 

Difficilis, querulus 

Cenfor, caftigatorque minorum. 

His Lordjhip liv'd beyond what Horac^ 
caWd Old Age^ but never were Characters 
more unfuitable to any Map than thefe wer^ 
to him\ 'tis literally true that he was in eve- 
ry reffeH' the very Reverje of them. Would 
you have retired from every thing that "Was 
cenforiomy querulous^ uneajy^ difquieting^ 
you muH have gone into bis Company y and 
the Room where he fat. The Eaflnefs and 
Sweet nefs of his Temper was fuchj as is not 
to be deferih'd by Words \ nothing but Con- 
verfation with him^ and the Experience of 
it, could give a Man ajuf Idea of it. This, 
happy T)ifpoJition was become a Hnbit to 
him, and continued to the laji ©^jy of his 

His Senfes, and bodily Strength lafted 
better than could well be expedted in a Man 
whofe Courfe of Life had be^n ftudious and 
fedentary. Tet /, who conversed every day 
with him, thought that the Faculties of his 
Mind were lefs impaired than thofe of hi^ 


The PREFACE. xxv 

Body. He remained a Mafier of all the 
Tarts of Learning he had Jiudied when he 
was young. He ever lov*d the Clajficks^ and 
to the laB Week of his Life would quote, 
them readily^ and apfofitel^. 

When "Dr. Wilkins hadfubliflfd his Copr 
tic Tefamentj he made a Trefent of one of 
them to his LorJJhify who fat to jiudy this 
when he was paft 83., At th\s Age he ma-- 
fier'd the Language^ and went tfjro* great 
fart of this Verfion^ and would often givq 
fie excellent Hints and Remarks ^ as he fro- 
etededin^readingof it. 
. The lafl Converfatiom I had (he Haffinefi 
to have with him^ was as he was reading in 
a NewS'fafer that the Emperor had made 
Sir George Bing a Knight of the Golden 
Fleece. He was pleas' d^ and faid^ That; 
Order of Knighthood was the propereft that . 
could be for an Admiral. The Expeditioa 
of the Argonauts^ faidhcy was the firil con- 
fiderable l^nterjprize the Greeks undertook 
by Sea ; 1 think it was about 80 Years be-, 
fore the Trojan W ar. Yes, faidl^ my Lord, 
it is plac'd thereabouts. TTien, faid he^ you 
find I can remember. Fetch me down 'U- 
jher\Annalsy and Marjhah Tables : I have 
j^miijid to look pver thefe things. 

fecvi the PREFACE. 

That Jftertmn I left him far a 25«fy, 4f 
my Return I faund himjtruek with //&f'Ki:Us 
Paralyticus, which iiprntediattfy took fhm him 
tfis Lifnbs and Sj^ech. ff^e had not the kaH 
previous Notice of this. Jflero/e that Mom^ 
ing rather better and more vigor om than 
ufual\ but was firuck in a moment with a 
Blow from which he could not be recovered. 

This was the Teriod of a hapfy old Agt^ 
and he was gathered tx> his People in hisfuU 

In his Life-time hefuhUflSd no more than 
two Books. His Difquifitio Philofophica de 
Legibus Naturae, is one of the firSf^ writ in 
the demonftrative way on a moral SubjeEfy 
J may add too the ferfeSieH ; far 1 belief 
aU good Judges allow it to be a T)emonJfra- 
tion. He was not near the Trefs' while tt 
was working off, by this means it came intd 
the World very incorreBfy pinted. Thii 
may have been fome fDifcouragement to the 
reading of ity thtf the difficulty of the Sub^ 
JeSty and the Clofenefs of the Reafoning has 
been a greater. Hardly any Men hitherto 
have made themfelves acquainted with the 
Argument of it , but fach as are in the up^ 
fermoft Form of Learning. I have Jbmetimes 
wijhd that his Lordjhip Would have been 


Th€ PREFACE. xxvit 

fkis^d fP have revi/d ity Mnd trfd to make 
it m^rs eafy and inteUigiUe ; ^t it had lain 
fi kng out of his hands^ that he did not care 
t$ take it iif ^^i^*[ H^ ^^'^ ^^ leave to 
attempt any thing of that kind^ if I wouldy 
and as a help he gave me his own interleaved 
BoeL which has here and there a little Ad^ 
J&tien. I read his Book over and over dili^ 
^entUf with this View^ but never found 
wkere I could well alter any things where T 
eeuld leave out^ or where I could add. All 
lean think on to give a little Advantage to 
common Readers j is to print the Book cor-^ 
teBfyj to give an Analyfis of the Argument 
tation^ to add Contents to each Taragraph^ 
and to divide them o finer : This I may per^ 
hops find leifure to do. 

///xEflay towards the Recovery of Jewifh 
Weights and Meafures is much efteem^d. 
Dr. Bernard, in his Book de Ponderibtis, 
&c, puhli/k'd after ity thought ft to contra- 
di£t fome of his Affertions without quoting 
him. His Lordjhip writ fome Sheets toju* 
ftify his Cakulations ; but his Averfenefs to 
any thing Hke JVrMgling made him lay thenf 
dfj and leave his Book tojhiftfbr it fetf. 

Thefo Studies went en the more heavify 

from a great Burthen our Author had then 

on his Mind. He bad a quicker Senfe than 


xxviii The PRE.FACf: 

many other Men of the Advances T^ofery was 
making ufon uf. He was affeSied with the. 
Afprehenfions of it to the Ufi degree. This 
made him turn his Thoughts to the Enquiry y 
by what Stefs.and Methods Idolatry got. 
ground in the World. The oldeft Account of 
fhis he believ'd he found in SanchoniathoV 
Fragment. This he faw was a frofefs^d At, 
fology for Idolatry^ and owffd openly what 
other Heathens would have made a Secret of 
that the Gods of the Gentile World had been, 
4U , mortal Men. He fudied this: Fragment 
with no other View than as it led to the difco^, 
very oft he Original of Idolatry. Hefpentfbme 
Time upon it before ever he had a Thought of 
^xt ratling from it Foot fiefs of the Hiftory of 
the World preceding the Flood. The firSi^ 
Hint given him ^^ from tbts Taffage. 


IJirls the Brother of Chnaa the firft Tho^^ 

Tbefirji Phoenician was indifputably Ca- 
naan^ whofe Tojierity peopled that Country ^^ 
His Name in the Hebrew is often writ, 
Chnaan ; that the Egyptian King called by 
the Greeks Ifiris, was Brother to him^ wa^ 
Jgmething new^ Tb^ next Step isi^s to fnd, 

' \ tb0$ 

The preface; txlt 

that Mifor in Sanchoniatho was Mizraim in 
Moies. ^zraim was the Name of a Teo- 
flcy //i^Ludim, Philiftim, Caphtorim, &c. 
the fingular Number^ and the prober Name 
of the Man was Mifor ; in this there is not 
much difficulty J nor that Mifor ffrom whence 
comes Mifraiili) was the Brother b^ Canaan! 
It is a greater to make Mifor' the fame Man 
with Ifiris,' tho^ it is done without much force. 
M in Hebrew is a Jervile Letter often omit- 
ted ; leave it outj the Name is Ifor ; add to 
this a Greek Termination^ which Greek Au^ 
thors always do to E aft em Names ^ it is Iforis,, 
and by the fmall Change of a Vowel^ Ifiris^ 
The next Obfervation was, that Mifor or lli- 
ns is flac'd by Sanchoniatho about thedi- 
fiance of IX Generations from Protogonus, the 
frft froduc^d Man^ ^»^Mizraim is undoubted^ 
ly in the twelfth Generation from Adam. 

Our Author then proceeded to collect ^ that 
Protogonus was Adam ; what' Name San^ 
choniatho caWd him by we know not^ it was 
frobably byfome Eaftern Name ftgnifying the 
fir Si created Man^ which Philo Biblius tranf 
lates Protogonus by a Greek Word of the, 
fame import. 

iEon and Protogonus are the two firSi 
Mortals, ^on our Author conjectures to 
have fome affinity to the Name Eve. iEon, 


yxx The PREFACE. 

addsSmchom^tho^ firft ^ther'd Food ftoto 
Trees, ff^hat can this^ he Imt anAUuJkn to 
Eve'j: eati^ thi forbidden Fmit ? 

Fr<m ProtogmUs andMortf /ays Smcho^ 
siatbO) difimdid Gtmx^ Tou catmotweU 
make any^Qtber Greek NMie of thiVLthitw 
Cain than. tiv@^. Heme our Author €$n^ 
chdes that SancilotMatbo freferv'd the Hi* 
fioryoftbe idolatrous Lin&cfGdsmy as Mofes 
did that «/ Sethi, -M«&^ were the Worfhiffers 
^ the true God. 

Who the Men were wboft Matttes ate j^r6^ 
finid byi SaBchomaCho m the /keseedittg 
Ges^atimSf^ wo kmw not; their Memofyi 
yerijh'd with the Flood. But ht the twe^k 
Generations fr^m MoA snd Pkotogoiiu v ^^ 
Jkd Mkibr ; and Mizraiilot is in the fime d$^ 
fiance from Adam and Eve. Hefe again' we 
are get within our Knowledge. 

But we hatie not in Safichoniatho one 
Word about the Tklnge. What wonder ii^ 
it we Jhould not ? BaiicbcMiatho^ wss am 
Idolater^ he writes ammedly a ^f&nee o^ 
J^hgy for Idelatry. The ^ehge wa$^ a 
Judgment on thoi^atroftf Worlds a^f^eft^ 
it away. The Worjhippers of the true God 
ghried in thes^ and reproa&h'^d the Heathens 
with it ;. no wonder theri they were defirom to- 
concemlfmk a Mmer of Shame to thw^k;es. 


Tbc PREFACE. xxxi 

CrQWK, wbt makes the great Figure i« 
tbisHifiory^ our Author fuffofis to be Ham^ 
etki brinf^ good. Vouchers for his Opinion 
fromMttc^utty. Confequently tberefor^O^:' 
nODSi the Father ^/Cronus^ mufi bel>io^ 
^amy amptt^ theSousofNoihj was theM^u 
of Ambition^ and the Reft or er of Idolatry 
e{t£r the Flood. How long he liv^d we know 
mt: fFe are ajffur'd byMoi^ that his Bra^ 
thfir Shem liv'd $0% Tears after the FloodL 
Ham in all probability liifd long^ tho* per^ 
bafs not fo kng as that religiws and peace^ 
4bleMan Shem« He dejir'd to make his Sims 
^reat ; therefore bejidgs Canaan > who peth 
Jlkd S^riat two other ofhis'Sons^ Cufli and 
Mj^raim , were the Founders of two great 
Bmfires^ the AiTyrian Md the Egyptiask 
Swchoatatha reprejents him as a fort ^uni^ 
verfai^Mtmarch travelling over tkefTorld t9 
fkwt Qdhmfis. He intimates that he out^ 
/rz;V Mifor [Mzxaim] and fettled the Son of 
Mifqr t Thoth.^ the great Hermes of the Et 
|y]j>dans,, i« the Kingdom of Egypt. From^ 
the Records kft by this Tboth^, Sanchoma»T 
tbo QoUeBed bit Hiftory^ and with him tbist 
Proffne^t ends. 

Wherf Sanchomatho ends Eratofthenes 
^9if^ns : The two fir ft. Kings in his C^aloguO 

^^ Menes and.Atkot3a.Qs. That Menes wa* 


x*xii The PREFACE. . 

the jir ft King in Egypt, dfid the fame Man 
^ith Mizraim , /V / think alloixfd on all 
hands. Athbthes is plainly the fame Name 
^i>i& Thoth. A is arbitrarily prefix^ dy or 
(mitted. He is called indijff^erently Thoth 
or Athoth. Es is only the Greek 2>rw/- 

Eratofthenes 'Was the learnedeft Man of 
his Time J a Native of Cyrcne bordering ok 
Egypt, Librarian to Ptolemaeus Euergetes, 
had greater Opportunities and Helps for 
fe arching ?Z^^ Egyptian Records than any other 
Man. TheTrieftsof^^^t had ever been 
in a Combination to relate extravagant and 
incredible Accounts of their Kings ^ thinking 
thereby to aggrandize their Monarthy. Era- 
tofthenes went with a T^efire to find out the 
Truth. The Names of the firft 38 of his Ca- 
talogue of the Kings of Thehcs in Egypt are 
jprejerv'd; they are a SucceJ/i(rn for the /pace 
of 105' 5" Tears. Nilus, the laft King but one 
in this Lift^ is fuppos^d to have liv'd about 
the Time of the Siege of Troy. Dicaearchus, 
a learned Hiftorian ^ Contemporary with A- 
riftotle, y^j, that frmn ^Aij* Nilus to the Be-- 
ginning of the Olympiads were 456 Tears. 

This Account has an Air of T^rob ability ; 
it places Menes about 1^00 Tears before the 
Olympiads) near 100 Tears after the Floods 


The PREFACE. xvii 

and it agrees well with the Mofaic Hi- 

JVe have by this means a Series of pro- 
fhane Hijiory from the fir §i Man to the fir ft 
Olympiad, agreeing with the Scripture. 
Sanchoniatho begins his Hiftory with Pro- 
togonus [Adam], and briiigs it down to 
Thoth the fecond King of Egypt. Eratof- 
thenes begins his Catalogue with Menes 
[Mifor] , and Athothes [Thoth] , which is 
conne6ied with the Olympiads. 
' This is what I take to be an Improvement 
on the Subject la T^ifcovery that has hitherto 
efcap'd the Inquifitivenefs of all other Learn- 
ed Men, 

While other divines of the Church of 
England were engaged in the Controverjy 
with the Tapifisy in which they gained over 
them fo . compkat a ViHory ; our Author 
was endeavouring to Jirike at the Root of 
their idolatrous Religion. His firft ^efign 
he finiflf d about the Time of the Revolution^ 
and would then have printed it^ but his 
Bookfeller was fo cautious^ that he did not 
care to undertake it. ^ ^pon this T>ifcourage- 
ment he laid afide the Thoughts of making it 
public k ; hut he was enter d on a Subje£f he 
did not know how to leave. Having made 
what he thought a great Difcovery^ thefe 

E Searches 

xviii The PREFACE. 


Searches into the oldeft Times became more 
engaging to him ; and he went on with them 
rather for his own Entertainment j than 
with any Tiejign to make the World acquaint- 
ed with them. 

He made a Trogrefs on a Second Tart^ 
which he entituledy Origines Antiquiffimae> 
and has on this ivrit feveral Dijfertations^ 
which I frafofe Jhall make a Second Volume. 
He gave not over thefe Studies till i70z. 
To that Tear I find Tapers written by him ; 
hut none later. 

After 1 had the Hafpnejs of coming into 
his Family^ I had a great Curiojity to fee 
thefe Tafersy which I found he had not re- 
duc'd into Order J nor laid up with Care. 
What is writ on fuch SubjeBs is always 
increajing under a Matis Hand. After his 
Lordjhip had penned his firft Thoughts^ lye 
added to them fo many Interlineations^ Re- 
ferences^ and Additions ; that without his 
AJJiftance no Man could have made any thing 
of them. J fat down to the tranfcribing of 
them^ which with his Help I got through^ 
having the Opportunity of confutting htm on 
every ^ifficulty^ and have been thereby the 
means of prefer ving a great deal of Learn^ 
ing^ which muH have been otberwife irre- 
trievably loH. 

I often 

The PREFACE. xix, 

1 often exfrefs^d to him my Wijhes^ that 
they might be publtflfd. He told me I might 
do what I would with them ; but it was 
too late for him to meddle any more with 

He allowed himfelf Time to turn thefe 
Things often over in his Mind^ and very 
fedately. He had a cool Head, and was 
the fartheji of any Man from being carry* 4 
away with a warm Imagination : It was not 
his Temper to invent an Hypothejisy and 
then firain for Arguments to fupport it. He 
has made in thefe T^apers many new T^if 
cover ies in the Hiflory of the earlieji Ages^ 
and confequently great Improvements in 
Chronology. Such Matters at their firfi Ap- 
fearance are ufually quefiion^d^ and fufpeEi- 
ed : But His Lordjhip had long dwelt on 
them; farther reading and fearching flill 
confirmed him in the Juflnefs of his Notions^ 
and he would fay to me when I talked with 
him on thefe SubJeSfs^ The more I think of 
thenii the more I am perfuaded of the 
Truth of them. 

« * 

He faid he bad been in the wrongs in 
writing fuch Refearches^ which only a few 
of the Curious and Inquijitive , even among 
^earned Men^ would trouble themfelves 
with examining^ in the Englilh Tongue, He 

Ex had 



had therefore fame Thoughts of writing thetn 
nnew tn Latin. He made fome frogrefs in 
that "Defign^ and the lateji of his Tiifferta- 
tions are ^written in that Tongue \ but he 
never found Leifure to finijh it. 

I once intended to have undertaken this 
Work rny Jelf to have turned the whole in- 
to Latin , and to have altered the Method 
according to a Scheme his Lordjhip gave 
the. But I am fenjible it would be too 
much for my Abilities to perform it as it 
ought to be : The (Fork would only fuffer 
by pajfmg under fuch unskilful Hands. The 
rough 'Draught offo great a Majier fhould 
be frefented to the JVorld as he left it : I 
ought not^ I think^ to be fo vain as to at^ 
tempt to touch it at all after him. It is Ho- 
fiour enough for me to be thought fit to tran^ 
fcribe his Copy^ or to carry his. Books. 

As he left his Tapers^ fo they fhall come 
into the JVorld, The firji Volume is jufi 
as he writ it about thirty Tears ago. His 
Origincs Antiquifliraae, which Ipropofe fhall 
make another Volume^ are all Tra6fs writ 
later ^ and two of them y viz. De Cabiris 
^W De Legibus Patriarchalibus , /« Latin. 
/ have Papers enough to make a large Vo- 
lume^ but I would publifh only thofe that are 
bejl finijh' d. 


The PREFACE. xxi 

Had he been pleased to have undertaken 
fuch a thing himfelfy it would have come in- 
U the World with much greater advantage : 
1 Jhall offer them only as Materials^ which 
other Learned Men may work up into a 
more regular and beautiful Fuzbrick, 

The Reader muji not expeB in them * 
great ExaEinefs, One Inconvenience not 
now to be remedy d is^ that to what he 
composed fir ft he would afterwards ^ as 
frejh proofs and Illuftrations arofe^ add 
long T^aragraphs in the Nature of Refe^ 
fences "which muft be brought in^ but too 
often break the Th^^ad^ and Connexion 
of the T>ifcourfe ^ and make it abrupt: 
Thefe will occur too frequently^ and call for 
the Reader's Candour. 

Thefe and other Accidents will make Room 
for ObjeSi ions to Men that love^ to have a 
Handle for carping and cahjilUng. 1 my 
felf have been under a Temptation to be ar- 
rogant enough to criticife. fometimes on the 
Argument at ion^ and fametimes on the Style: 
viz. That the Author has taken pains to prove 
many Things that moft Readers would eafily 
allow^ that the Reafonings might be fome- 
times jhorterj and the Expreffion more accu-^ 
ra$e ; tho^ the laft may be excused in a Man who 
always minded Things y and negleSfedfFords. 


xxii The PREFACE. 

But I think the great Salification in a 
Tratifcriber Jhould be Faithfulnefs , and I 
have religioujly adhered to the Letter of my 
Copy J not daring to alter any thing. 

The Humour which prevailed with fever al 
learned Men to rejeii Sanchoniatho as coun* 
terfeHj becaufe they knew not what to make 
ofhimy his Lordjhip always blamed. Philo 
Byblius, Porphyry, ^^^Eufebius, who were 
better^ able to judge than any Moderns^ ne- 
ver call in que ft ion his being genuine . What 
3/r.Dodwell has writ on this Suhje£t^ is ra- 
ther the Exprejfion of his own Inclination to 
disbelieve him^ than an Argument to prove 
that he is, f furious. 

What Acceptance my Tart in this Work 
will meet with among the Judicious^ who 
Jhall give it a Terufal^ I know not. I 
have been prompted to the Tains 1 have 
taken from a T>efire to benefit ^ and entertain 
them^ as well as to preferve the Remains 
of a great Man^ for whofe memory J 
ought to have^ and ever Jhall have the 
bigheft Veneration. 


C O N T E N T S. 

B O O K I. 

Confifl^ of Translation, Table, Remarks. 


1. ' I ^HE Tranflation </ Sanchoniatho divided into, i. Tim 
Cofmogonyy ThothV athetjiical Scheme of the Generg- 
tion $jf theWorldy with feme KemArks, Page j, &C. 

2. Ihe Hijiory of his principal Line, p. 2.3 • 

3. The Hijiory of h(is fecond Lino, p. i8« 

4. The Hiftory of his laft Line, p. 33. With thefe Eufebius in- 
termix'd fome Reflexions^ and the Author hath added a few 

II. The Table with Notes thereon in two Chapters. I. Prinfid" 
pally exhibits the confent hf the number of Generations in San- 
choniatho, with the like number in Mofes'i Genealogies ; amd 
proves the connexion between Sanchoniatho and Eratoflhe- 
nes, p. 41. Chap. II. shews Menes to be Meon, a falfr 
God in Scripture f and probably Pcor, p. 6i, 

III. Confijis of feven Chapters of Remarks. 

Remark I. That Chna is Canaan, and his brother liiris is Ofi- 
ris or Mizraim, call'd Hyfiris by HcUanicus. Plutarch** 
myftical Table de Ifide Sc Ofiride, though containing many 
things relating to later times than]>/l\zx2im*s life, yet hath alfo 
many other things agreeable to Sanchoniatho 'i Htftory of elder 
times, Pt9^* 

II. That Cronus is Ham; bis time ftated. Of the Rephaim; 
/^Athothes is Thoth. Of the planting of Attica by Cfo- 
nus, arui his daughter Athena, p. 1 1 1. 

III. Bochart miftakes Cronus'^ Sacrifice <j^Jeoud to be Abra- 
ham '1 readinefs to offer Ifaac. The antiquity of fuch Sacri- 
fices and the tifz.a^l AcufMu^ mention d by Heathens, p. 134* 

IV. 0/Ouranus, &c. 4»i Hercules Phoenicius. Of the Phoe- 
nician P^/f^n wiEgypt, one of which ts Arclcs, or Hercules 
-^gyptius, P« '5'* 

V. rWSydyc, Mifor, &c. i» Sanchoniatho*^ /r/f genealogi- 
cal line, belong to the collateral line before handled. Of the 
Egyptian Dynafties in Manetho prior to the Theban, and 
of the Cabiri, p. i73. 

yi. The tenfirft Generations in the principal line explain d. The 
Jiifiory of their Idolatry therein contained, p. 107. 

VII. Of 



VII. 0/Japhet*i lifjc: Ibc feof>lmg Attica: The Pclafgi: T/;^ 
Sicyonian JC/»^j ; Worjliip of ReUques : Meno [MeonorMe- 
nes] his time ietermind in ?\\viy from Auticlides, p. 256. 

The Second BOOK contains fix Sedions, 
Two of Reviews, Four of Additions. 

Sedlidn I. Reviews the Cofmo^ony, comparing Damafcius nt^i 

II. Treats of the Hifiory of Idolatry ; the UtXvavvfiia of confe- 
crated Men, and the Innovations of the Zabii by Thabioni- 
dcs, p. 190. 

III. O/Z'^e Phoenician Paflors in ^gypt, their expulfion thence, 
and where feated afterwards in Canaan, p. 350. 

IV. The time i^/Tethmofis, Founder 'of the Theban Bynafiy in 
Lower ^gypt upon the expulfion of the Pafters ; the Exodus 
of Ifrael from iEgypt, and the^ time of ScfoftrK and Danaus, 
againft Sir ]o\inM\x0^zm, * P- 387. 

y. The connexion o/Menes and Athothes in Eratofthenes with 
SanchoniathoV Mifor and Thoth; the agreement of Teth- 
mofis'f time therewith, and Dicaearchus'j diftance of Nilus 
from the firji Olympiad, p. 416. 

VI. Concurrent evidence concerning the beginriing of Menes. 
Trom the time c/HerodotusV Myris, or Meres Philofophus : 
Trom Varro'5 Mythic Age : "From JofephusV diftance of Mi- 
naeus from SolomonV Temple : From Pliny and Anticlides 
fixing Meno: From the Babylonian i^ra, and the eldeft 
Aftronomic Obfervations : From the age of the Lydian Colony 
and Monarchy founded by Meon. All thefe making near ap- 
proaches to agreement with the Hebrew Numbers, ftating the 
diftance between Mizraim and the firft Olympiad. The Anti- 
quities of Crete from the Ccrethithcs or Philiftines are 
Jhewed, P-447* 

Page 84. for 1841, the firft year o{ Menes, read 1849, 


C HA P. I. 

Tranfiatedout of 
- Eufeb. Pr^epar. Evangel, lib.i., 

'•»«« S « 9) «a s a * « « « »« »a « «: « « ai « ffi « : i« « iK ««« 


« \Efuppofeth\ or affirmi^ that 

\ " the frincifle of the uni- 

I " verjk was a dark and 

i « windy air, or a wind 

i " tnade of dark air , and a 

" turhulent evening Chaos ; and that thefe 

" things were bound fefst and for a hng time 

D "i&^i 

1 Thi Cosmogony. 

<< wind fell in kvt with hii i^wnffim^f^ 
^ and a mixture was tnadi » that mixture 
« was calPd Defire, or Cupid, [n#^^.] 

^ This mixture etmiphted^ nvas the h^ 
•« ginning of the [j^Ifitrtot] Making ef all 
<< things. But that wind did not know its 
^ 0wn frodu£iien% and ofthis^ with that 
^ wmd^ was hegotten Mdt, wbkhfime cail^ 
^ Mud, others the futrefaHion of a watery 

<^ mixture. And of thit time all the fied 

<< (ffthis huiUingi and the generati9n$fshe 
^ univerfe. 

^ But there were ctrtMU Otimals^ which 
<< had no fenfe^ out of which were hegotten 
<< intelligent auimdls^ and were calfd Zo« 
" phefemin, that isi tbejpies or overfeers 
** of Heaven y akd were fomfd alike in the 
^^ Jhape of an egg: Thus Jhone out Mdt, 
*' the Sun and the MooUf the tefs and the 
<« greater Stars. 

" Such (addeth Eufebius) is the Phoeni- 
«* fcian CofmogoHy, direHly bringing in A^ 
^ thei/m. Now let us fee how he affirms 
" the generation of animals to be or fubjiji : 
<* He faith therefore^ 

^^ And the air /hiniug thoroughly with 
*^ light , by its fiery ii^uence ^n the /em 
<< and earth winds wefy begott^n^ and 

*^ clouds 


7>&e Cosmogony. 3 

« cidkif dki gHat d^fluxions of the hea" 
•* *^l^ waters. And when aU theje things 
** jftjt -were fattedy Mdwere fef orated front 
•* their frofer plate by the heat of the fun 9 
<< and thm nU met 4^ain in the air^ and 
*< daflf'd agAinft one another ^ and werefo 
*« hifhn to fieitiSy whence thunders and 
** Ughhttngs were made ; and at the ftroke 
" ofihefe ihknders the foremention*d intet- 

* ligettt atimats it>ere awaken*dy and fright" 
^ ed Hitith the Jhttndi and male and female 
•* firf'd in the eOrth, and in the fea i this 
** is their generic ion of animals. 

«* Afier the/e things our Author (Saiicho^ 
*« liisfho) goes on filing : The/e. things ari 
•* written in the Cofinogony of Taautus, 
** latd i» hit memoirs, and out of the con* 

* jedures^ and furer natural figns which 
^ his mindfa^y and found out, and where* 
« with he hath ^lighten* d us. 

** Afterwards declaring the names of the 

* winds y North, South, and the refi-y he 

* nukkti this epilogue t 

« Aut thijefirfi men conftcrated the plants 

* jhOoting out of the earthy and judged them 

* G^dSy ind worjhipfdthem, upon whom they 

* tbfmjilves liv'dp and all their pofterityy 

* md aU before them ; to thefe they made 
** their Meat and.1>r ink-offerings. 

" l>% «« Then 

4 The Cosmogony. 

^^ The^H he concludes : The/e were the devh 
f< ces of worjhip agreeing with the wesh^ 
f ^ nefs and want ofboldnefi in their mif^is^ 

A. Note c&memmglsM^u 

Tho' the learned Bochart hath given a 
fatisfadory account of molt of 4:he Thoeni^ 
cian words contaijn'd in this fragment, for 
which I fhall refer you to him ; yet I think 
Jie has not beenfo happy in the very firfl, 
which is Md^t^ he drawing it from an /ira^ 
hie word which fignifies the firft matter of 
things : Whereas Sanchoniatho makes it not 
the firft material princij^, but %(L®t^ ^<^)^^ 
and exprefly atErms, that M6t was begotten 
by a mixture of principles that were be- 
fore it. 

1 think therefore that it may better be ac^ 
counted for frbm another Arabic word^ 
lE^hich needs no fuch changes as he is forced 
to prefume. The learned may find it in 
Dr. CaJiWs Heftaght^ under the Root ciiai 
the 3 3^ and 34*^ Words in ^l^^uirabic being 
Mat ha and Mauatho : The verb fignifies ta 
fteep, or macerate in water ; the noun de- 
notes fuch a confufion and folution> as is 
thereby made ; a nfucilage^ as PhyficianR. 


REMARKS on the Cosmogony. - 

T^HE Author of this Cofmogony being 
. confefs'd by our Hiftorian to be 
' Thothj who was not only a Philofo- 
pherof the greateftfize that thefe early times 
afforded Without the pale of the true Church^ 
but alfo a King in Egypt j and fo a Gover- 
nor of tliepublick Religion {h^o(pcLvlng) if 
not a Prieft (Ig^<^V) in that Kingdom ; it is 
to be believ'd , that he took care it fhouI4 
be fuch as bell favoured that Religion, which 
he ordered to be exercis'd in his Kingdom. 
Fdf beiidjcs that the publick works of 
perfons under his charafter are feldom with- 
out refpedl to the ends of their office ; it is 
manifeft by his premifing this generation 
of the world to the 'Hiftory of the Antiqui- 
ties of tfieir Religion, which by the fequel 
will appear he caused to be written ; and it 
appears , even by the general epilogue an- 
nexed hereunto, that he reports his firfl: men 
to begin their Religion with a devotional 
refpeft to Tlants jX\itix food that grew 
out of the ground, as to their moft imme- 
diate benefaftors in the fupport of their 


6 Remarks on the Cosmogony. 

O fanBas gentes / qmbtu btfc naf^untur in^ 

Numina. JVV^. 

In paifing I moil note, tt\at by fa^ M^ 
he capnot mean ilridly thf firft p^r, be* 
caufe be prefently adds , that tbofe before 
them liv'd on plants : Now npQe can be 
before the firft pair, flxiftly taken ; where-, 
fore he muil mean more largely fe veral meA 
in the elded times , but yet not the very 
firft pair : It may regch mpft in his ten fir^ 
generations, but cannot cen)prehen4 the; 
IProtopUfts. , 

But I obferye by con^paring this places 
with its parallel in the 9* ch^p. of the firfl; 
book oi Eufebius^ pag.xS. A-B. in the Ta^. 
L ris Edition , that their Religion only began 
Here, and proceeded in. the confecrgting Qt- 
thefe plants to the Sun> Mpon> and 3t4rs,| 
^nd other like parts of the upivetfe, which, 
were their only knpwn Qods? ^s ftim *3<*'i 
MUffmf. This muft be underi[looj4 of their, 
higheft publickly worihipp'd Cto^s» fof other 
inferior Gods he there enprefleth: And 
their publick laws took po co^^cf? of 
fuch a fovereign Deity, as contempl^itiv? 
men might fecretly and iQ filence honour, 
as the firft Caufe of the h^ing and duration 



. ILemarks on the Cqsmoqqny. f 

of the worid s iiic)i «^od8 not falling tu^ 
dcr httOMB Jttdictttures. 

Bat this Governor thought f«ch ^ Reli- 
gion neither neeefllry to> nor priu^e/ible 
hy, the nutTs of mankind of that Kingdom : 
Wherct^K here they fiopp'd } and tho' thoy 
either did know , or at ieaft by the good 
life of their reafon might have known tt^ 
Moft High, by coniidering the neceffityof 
fuch a Canfe to the produ^on and govern- 
ment of tMa viable worid ; yet ^hey did 
not, as they ought, by conflant ^Uek 
Worihip ^irify km at Gody by thankf- 
g^vmgs , and ^ktd not to retain him m ac-' 
tmamie^menti i.e. in folemn Worihip, but 
^ame vain in their imagin0ums, Rom* i* 

It is thore remarkable, that the Apc^e is 
Ut from makmg the knowledge of the 
iv^eignGod an <ir^ment that ^yeoold 
fkot df fa0a give his due Worihip to Ae 
ereatnres, and fofa<} guilty of idolatry; that 
he aiferts the fSuft to be frequently (Soni' 
netted , and G$4fs wrath to be revtaUd 4' 
gainfi it, and makes the eeaconutant kosfsr- 
bdge of him to be the higbeft aggramition 
of the fin fo conAantly {x^s'd. 
And io Bufibins having towards the bot- 
of U)e s,^*^ page affirtned, that ^img 

t> 4 the 

8 /REMARKS on theCosaoGoiS^. 

the eldejf Heathens there werethen^naStm^ 
caWd Gods but the Star s^ and, mfD^mims 
(fuch he means as the later Greeks taik'd crfi 
diftind from mens Souls, czlYd Trvdifi^ 
d^Avfj) neither good nor bad^ then own^d: 
He fmth, pag, 30 Our Scripture affirms it^ 
pointing at Deut. iv. 19. which he fo ex- 
pounds , that God had let the heathen na- 
tions (efpecially iht Egypt iansy from whofe 
Religion he there deterreth them) worjh^ 
the Sun J Moonj and Star s^ ^ca^^m zpf^nn dn-^^ 
vmfuSiiS^. But had rejirifd only to the He- 
brew people the privilege of being initiated 
to himfelf {\ir(i';flH4t)f) conjijiing in Moth the 
knowledge (6ta^ici) of the Maker andDif- 
pofer^ of the univerfe^ and. the true IVorfl^ip . 
of him. 

For he adds afterwards, the heathen Gods 
are mot asy or like to, the GodafUrady tb^ 
themfelves being Judges^ Deutxxxii. 31* in 
theSeptuagint tranflation : And J^.i?. They 
facrificed unto ^amonsj not to God ; to Gods 
unknown^ newly fprung up. Thefe expref- 
fions cannot agree only to difiiiiS pames of 
the fame fovereign God, 

Add hereunto that Eufehiusj pag. 31.C 
fpeaking of Sanchoniatho the tranibriber c^ 
Thotby faith exprefly, Oi; r 3^ vdijm @m 
;ih f4u) WA(4tnr i^h dtoXe^^S. lie, delivers no 

J * . * ' 


Remarks on-the Cosmogony. - 9 

divinity J ^ T^e^gyj concerning the Cod 
4dfOve all, things^ nor concerning the inhabh- 
4ants ofHe^wn (meaning the Angels \) \but 
-concerning mortal men and wo0en J mdthofi 
none ff the befi, "either as to wifdom or vinr 
tue^but cloa$jbedwith the WQrJfpf vices \ and 
fefiifies^ thaAth/e are the fer fins even to 
if is time received J and refuted as Gads in 
tit cities and co^iries. . . , 

And t;he fame Obfervation he inculcates 
fin the xiv. book, chap. 16. p-Zfy. CD- 
'And the fame aniraadverfion he makes up- 
on the Egyptian Cofinogony deUvcr'd bjr jD/o- 
,d$ru$ Siculus (who liv'd and died before 
^hik Byblim\ lim^, and therefore his Cof- 
mogony could not be forg'd by Thflo) which 
in fiibllance^ a$ Grotius hath obferved, a- 
fgrf^tih with S0nchoniatho% but is more larg^ 
-(a5 later commentaries ufe to be) in parti- 
vculars, and ni^e in attjsmpts to a mechanu:]c 
explication of tbe gener^tioij of the world* 
without any help from God. ^ 

/ - This qonfenf 1$ an argument, .that they 
Jjotfe tobkitljeir notions from the fame fow- 
tain, Tbotk. £«/?^ii^'S;refle6lions thereon 
}ire exprefs'd p, x i • D. 'OuJe .fjt^xt/^^ mfJMr®- 

, ^ GkS fiftjfievdifa^ C¥ rjf Kor/MfovU. He never 

fimuch as mentions God^ Jo far as to name 
ffffn in the making of the world 

d This 

.*-« ^.m.,.^ 


%o Remakks on the CosUf^Gam . 

This I have prov'd the more diUgentljs 
that I may evince , that altho* Torfl^ffy afw 
firms our SaHebouisthe to h^ve receiv'd me- 
iQoirs or informati(Hi from Hi^mnhaluf, % 
Prieft (meaning perfaai^ Jeritkifaal, or Gi- 
deouy who nevertfaelefs was no Prieft) of 
I46W or JeinnfaB ; which hath miiled fotyie 
learned Men to fancy, that he agreed with 
Mojes in the do^hine of the Creation : Y^ 
it appears not in this fi'agment, that he 
therein believ'd the Mtfa/M/ books, whi^h 
were the role of Gideai^s Faith ; but oh the 
contrary, whofoever diitin^tly underftands 
hi^ O/mogonj, will fee that it is dire^ty opu 
ppfite to Mofe^ fcope , as we have ihewn 
under the conduA of Eujhkku. 

It is likely indeed , that being an inquiil- 
tive man, he took informations from men 


<^«divers Religjcms and Countries, and that 
in fome otho: book written concerning 
Jawijh affairs, which f*firpb^ intimates 
that he wrote, he mi^t make ufe of Gididtfs^ 
memmrg. Bat in this piece whi<;h we have, 
lie comes not fo low Xn timf , as to fpe^ 
^ the very beginning <^ the Jowifo nationx 
(which was in the(»'omife to AlfrMham, tha^ 
God would give CamMM to his pofterity) as 
will appear before we finifii thu Difi^Qtufff ^ 



Remarj^ on the Cq9Mqqont. . t< 

In x\^ mean tioie , beoiMil^ I have pmv'4 
|bit S4»chni00b9t w bi9 Cb>R^^ follows 
Tktfih no( Af<!^<, into the foeteft link of 
Hentbeoifin « wluch is QC|Mt of the ibv»< 
rdgn ^ oniy true God, m tbe mul^ogs 
,^i ^nfcqii^QUy in the govquuog pf tho 
work}; if foUpws th«it be hus miis'd tba' 
f(Kni<iAtioQ of ^ true mtmX ReligiQii, 
w^eb is iQve 9d4 obedieQce to him «s thtt 
fono^er «od Supporter of our being; to b« 
exprefs'd not only in filenc thoughts* bat 
is open foleffid Pniyerv andThsmkfgivings, 
j^Q'4 with eoniUnt tmd pobUcK profeifion 
^ Y^ Truth and WorOupt $nd univerfal 
Jttilic^ and Charity to mankind* u partial* 
^ting of his divine Perf^ons, 

And tnfle^d hereof he hath l»d the fouiir 
^tion of the vttn foolM^ Religion of the 
9fmicf4Mt tnd BgypPhnf, Wb» fmrjh^fi 

Qni0tor, Q94 kkffiiA fir fvmmrt, 1^ 
9tberwife douht^ foi^e of the prepojCi^n^ 
11^' moil be determin'd h^ the eonteset^ 
which &itb, ne^ gkri/Sfd ^,mt stGotk 
imd wtmihm n^ i# mkn^imMgnmi^ to 
^gni^ their {Mrefenriog the fre4tm't in the 
nuQner of their Worihip before the Creaftr, 
pi the yulgar it^tm and the tncieot Sjrriac 
^r^ it : CrtatttTif pftiiis ptdm Crg0tm 


T.m»- I . 

fi Remarks m the Cosmogony. 

fkr^ehanP. • Which, in God's efteem, and 
the judgment of true reafon , is to flight 
and pafs him by, agreeably to Bez£^ trani^ 
Jation , Tr^tiritb Cr eater e^, approaching to 
this import , - againft the Creator j or, in af- 
front to him. So 43^' r w/wv isi in &pfajh^ 
tim to the LaWy A&s ytviii. 13. and ^2^^ 7^ 
iikxTtray/JS^ov impdtts, fi befides imperial C6n^ 
fihutiony as to be contrary to it. And the 
JEthiofic tranflation fays , they left the 

I And this y A/79 Byblius confirms, witnef- 
fing, in his Preface to his trahflation of 
Sanchoniathoy that he found this to be the 
tmeConftitution, after fe arch into a great, 
abundance^ or wood of Books^ not to be found, 
nnmng theGrcekSj '^oxt^^v i^^^wia-JifBf)^ wAjjk, 
kVi T 'srUf "Wkvitn. Eufeb? p. 3%. C. 

Neverthelefsj tho' this corrupt Conftitu* 
tionof publick Religion open'd a wide door 
to Atheifm in fome, and occafion'd a ^ne* 
ral corruption in the Religion of the Babylon 
nians or Chaldaans^ hence taken, as Lucian 
de 2)e» Syrid acknowledges ; and in the 
Greeksj whom the Apoftie affirms to 'offer 
their Sacrifice? in like manner, Umiuymg i 
©fS, to inferior beings whom they wor- 
lhipp*d, and not to the Jivereigfii Gody 1 Con 
X. %o. WheUice alfq the Thufian and the 


Remarks on the Cosmogony! 13 

Jbman derived, tho' with feme variety : Yel 
it could not extinguifh ati knowledge of thc^ 
(bverdgn God continued by natural light, 
and the tradition of, the bell Patriarchs itl 
the world ; whereof the Scripture affords 
fcMne inftances before the Jemjh polity was 
form'd by Mofes^ in Melchifedeckl^n^ of 
^alem ; Abimelecb in Abraham^ time ; Job 
and his friends \ and even near to Thath^ 
Dominions, or rather in them, viz. in The^ 
hdisy or the Upper Egypt ^ after his time. 
The Worfljip of Cneph^ which feems to be. 
the name of their fovereign God, prevaird 
fo much , , that thofe peoj^e paid nothing to* 
^ards the pharge of thofe animals us'd in 
the Lower Egypt in the fervice of their in* 

, For Tlutarch de IJide & OJiride teftifies, 
that they own'd no mortal Being to be a Gody 
hut their God Cneph, whom they afferted to 
be without beginning and without end^ and 
therefore paid not the charge laid on other s^ 
as above. 

. Porphyry J in Eufeb. lib. iii. cap. 11. p. 11^. 
feith , Cneph was an Egyptian name of the 
'" ^fj^^^o^ the Maker or Framer^ and Gover^ 
> mor of the univerfeJ He, as we have feen, 
was not owned in Thoth's Cofmogony ; but 
where G^^i' was worlhipp*d,w^. in TZ^^^^AT, 
'^ as 


x4 HjKMAHtcis OH the Cosmogony. 

«s be W^s at le»ft in later tiMes^ be fceiils 
10 be the fatiw that in Str4b9 is call'd Gift^ 
fkiti who had d 'temple in SyeHit the rei^ 
tlloteft part in Tbe64is. 

fPhUa BySHtti, Enfek. P.41.C. faith, tbt 
t^boeniciaos it^dhim theg^Yktmm^ hut 
f 4&^ EgjfptiattS (a/««<W) t6 tbffimefikjk tai^i 
him Cneph \ Mii they dr^fw him at a drw^ptti 
ft firfeia^ Imt fnt 6H him d hdi/^k's heatk 
G^etttidg him Epeis, falfd by them thk 
grtsteft Hitf^bdHti and Scriici finth, Thit 
Jtrft uuffi ^Uviitt Being U a/erptut htibidg a 
bawKs heddy haUtifitl to look on^ %vbo, if 
he efOHs bit r|v/, JiUs tho trnkverje with 
l^ht tn his firfihmrn ttgion \ if he ioiifiM^ 
d»-ibiefi is made. 

This feems to in^rt^ that he believ'd 
^jfmotf to be odginaUy a VhttMiciOH woi-d/ 
ft0ta. n fuficientyi with the Greek tennis 
nation fim added to it : And Groiita alfi^ 
approves fuch dedudion of it frotn the Eaift 
If I may adventure to offer an Etymology df 
Cneph, it (hall be from ^ which in Atabio 
fignifies, hefrefir^^dt Or cover' d, any wAy, 
efpecially with his wings ; a name very pro^^ 
per to the great Prefervet (A men. And t 
have obferv'd diven Coptic or Egyptkao 
words to be of kindred to the words of theif 
neighboui^ the Arabians and Hebrevu. 

I have 


. thtve alfo re^on to believe thefe TMom 
4^/M^ to hKW been of alU^gion nearer 
^ wxe* tbitai ttKife that were in the Lowtr^ 
more known Bgjift, call'd ^«&4^« and 2)^A 
f4b asid that even in the eldeft timesf jnft 
b^ore^^«Mv's death t becfiufelfindthat 
tos^Amsfis, or. TW^fly^t their King, who 
foiic'd thtThmnUftm Paftmn (HycfiJ out of 
t]ieZ.0iMr£jj^, dia tub thus fiu: mend the 
R^On of that Lvmr Eppu and of the 
Tbgniciatu before govenung ther^ thtf hft 
fiififeif'd <hem IK) lon^r to (k<:ri|ice meo« as 
bsf(»e theyhad done. Em/e^. UA. iy. ^ i^.x^ 

But I fMlft not tnM on this fingle infiance 
of l^eat antiquity ( mUich lefs vtAy I long in* 
Wi on the infiaoce of the .^f/AmrMar Altar ^ 
iSdiif <^y r« ihe uMktiown Gdd. Which 
i^Sstiptton d^irly enough intiiaates that Al« 
tir to bedeOgn'd to fomeGod diftindfrom 
til the Godi tfaey ordinarily ^orflupp'd» but 
bid not found their Sucrifioes to them avail<» 
able to ftop the pla^ ( and tfierefore tht$ 
Akar Was erected to him, whom they con> 
feg'd they knew ftDt» aor did at other AI* 
tatf worflnp: Aad/Sr* St.P4W^ tcUsthem, 
Mtiu the G^d thai mmtt the vfoNd, the Lard 
tfkunftn md mirtb. 


X 6 Remarks ou the Cosmog6nt, 

" feut bis informing them ift this matter 
aoth not prove they knew fo itiuch befor^ 
fcuf rather iliti titles, that thtiy>didnotkndM^ 
it ; and in confeffion of theit perplestihg 
Ignorance fet up this Altai* to ia God- that 
might know if, and take it as an honour in- 
tended to him, tho' they* had no diftin^ 
khowledge of him; So TertuUian intimaties, 
'jtdverjiis Marcianem^ lib. i. Invenio flank 
igmtisT)eis arasfnefiitutasy fed Attica id^^ 
'kiatria eSi. 

• - Whence it follows that thisi who is the 
only true God, was not any 6ne'6f the Gods 
worfhipp'd ih their ordinary fettled State-Re^ 
Hgion, but was indeed made their refuge^in 
an extraoi-jdinary cafe, by th^ advice of a 
philofophicalMan, Efimenidesy or whoever 
clfe counfeird the fetting up of that Altan 
iiim St. y^i^ advifes to make the conftant, 
and only Objeft of their Devotion : He be- 
ing the true &%ii ^^fxnuxMVj fit to be fled to in 
all emergencies; and fuch w^fe none of 
their deities fettled by Law, 

But let this fuflSce to (hew, that tho* 
Tboth's Cofmogmyy and Religion thereunto 
fuited , had iio care of the Honour of the 
fovereign .God, and fpread its influence far 
upon the State-Religion in mod heathen 
Countries j yet it could not totally and uni- 

• ' » verfally 


RkMAnks cH the CoSMOGokr; if 

Verfally obliterate that ferife of him, which 
his works, and his belt fervants did propa* 
gate in the world, in their more private fen* 
tiffients efpeciall)r. 

A particular cohfideratioh 6f all things 
couch'd in this hyj^thejis would require a 
krge difcourfe, and divert nie both from the 
Authot^s arid my chief defign, which is thei 
Ffiftory of the rife and progrefs of this hea- 
then Rdigion. 

Wherefore I will avoid making remarks^ 
t:k>th upon fuch commendable philofophical 
iiotiOns ds are hinted therein ,* which gave 
ground to the great reputation which Thoth 
gtin'd in the world ; and alfo upon thofd 
m«ny dcffeds (which yet are a good fign of 
its grfeat Antiquity, Phildfophy being then! 
very imjteifeA) which niight be ihe wn there- 
in : By reafcfn wberecf ic's altogether infuf^ 
iicieolt toi give a fatisfadory account of the 
appearances which ate obftrv'd even in the 
inanimate palrts of this fyitem, becaufe there 
are no laws of motion of miatter. 

Much Icfs will it arifwer what experience 
&ews to be in the living ai^hts, whether 
irrational or rational $ here being no laws 
0f natural reafon mention'd,^ to all which it 
yet vainly pretends, bec^e it pretends to* 
live « Generatkn of the whole Worlds and! 

B cotifc- 

x^ Remarks on the Cosmogony. 

coafequently it muft pretend to contain ^ 
that is neceflary, either to conftitute, or to 
prefer ve the entire fyftem thereof; but it's 
far from performUig anfwerably to fuch high 

Yet there is one paflage which hath fome* 
times made me guefs, thatTA^f A confider'd 
the £arth as a planet Ihining to fome di- 
ftance ; for after he had fppken of the Za- 
fhefemin^ he faith, Mot Jhone out of the Sun 
and Moon. 

Here by Mot thus diftinguifh'd from aU 
the reft of the world , I cannot underftand 
that firft muddy matter of which , he faith, 
all was made, that had now put on all vari- 
ety of forms, and ceas'd to be what it was 
formerly. Nor can any other part of the 
univerfe claim this name fo well as the ter- 
raqueous globe , which we call the Earth- 
Now this, he faith, Jhone outy ufing the 
word i^i^xtfi\pt; fo as its fliining is im- 
ported to be like that of the Sun , Moon, 
and Stars. 

Neverthelefs , becaufe he is filent con* 
cerning fuch motions as muft be allowed it, 
if it be made a planet, I will not conclude 
that he thought fo. But to try if I could 
find farther information , I look'd into this 
Egyptian Cojmogony^ as it's delivered by T^io^ 



Remarks on the Cosmogony* t^ 

iorus Skulus ; there I find not fhlning men- 
tion'd as belonging to the Earth, but he faith 

It was HXifJ^QV C¥ ieurrS k ov^tp^^o/jS/jov trujutx^^y 

rolled within itfelf^ and turned continually. 
Thefe motions, if joined with the light, or 
fliining before, would make one fufpeft the 
Hiore, that fuch a notion was in Thotlfs head. 

But thefe Hiftorians have not written like 
Aftronomers. Let others confider it far- 
ther, if they pleafe : I refolve to pafs from 
all phyfiological fpeculations, and to fix upon 
only what concerns the Religion and Hiftory 
here delivered. 

Wherefore 1 muft defire the reader to 
obferve, that he makes all the Stars^ com- 
prehending both the fix*d ones and the pla* 
nets, to become in procefs of time inteUi- 
gent animals y tho' at fir ft they had ^ife 
without fenfe. And this is to intimate, 
that thefe heathen Deities, the Zophefemin^ 
the ftars, pafs'd gradually from the life of 
plants , which have no fenfe ; yet fome of 
them were worfliipp'd, through the ftate of 
fenfible animals^ which were more folemn- 
ly ferv'd , till at length they became to be 
»06gjt, jp^erfeSi intelligences ; and fo worthy 
to challenge the higheft worfhip, which they 
gave to them, in which their State- Religion 
refted. Andhere lay jtheir fundamental error. 
• , El, Only 

16 Remarks on the Cosmogony- 

Ohly I muft add > frcnn what Eufibim iiti 
fris iii^ book hath prov'd out of Manetha^ 
^iodotUi Siculus ^ Qh^rmon^ &c. that the 
J^gyftidHs^ who ,w?re taught by the Tht^ni-^ 
$ians madefy Th<^tht did affirm that the fame 
fubtile matter , which being in great abun- 
dance in the Stars > made them intelligent^ 
did refide in their facred beads, plants^ and 
men^ and efcap'd death. And this made 
them fit to partake of fuch worfliip, as they 
gave to the Stars^ being there alfo intelU^ 
gent and vduntarily influential upoii mens 

And tho' this their dodrine might give 
occasion to fome fubtile menv that bdiev'd 
matter could not underiland or govern the 
world , to be irreligious ; yet they fbund 
that their people generally fell into no fuch 
fpeculations, and were much more inclined 
to haVe numberlefs Gods than none : And 
therefore they governed them by f hefe prin-» 
ciples of idolatry, by which they could make 
their anceftors and themfelves to be ador'd^ 
tho' they were diredHy contrary to the true 
idea of the cmly wife, good, and juft mindr 
who is the firil Caufe and Governor of the 
world } to the worfliip of whcnn. Mily th« 
true Religion calleth men* 

w . „ That 

Remarks oh the Cosmogony. , 2 r 

That the Stars, Elements, or great parts 
of the world, and all the JVinds^ were natu- 
ral and eternal Gods. Compare the begin- 
ning of this Cofmogony^ in. which Wind does 
much, with ^iodor. Sicnl. in Eufeb. p. 59. C. 

The learned Bochart hath rightly given 
the original of the name Zophefemin from 
the Hebrew rxssi tfofhey fignifying fpeculatorj 
or obfervers , and ca^^ famajim^ /. e. Hea- 
ven : But he does violence to the author's 
whole text and fcope ; befides, that he op- 
pofes Eufeblus\ juft refleftion upon him, as 
not propounding the inhabitants of Heaven 
ie. Angels, for Deities, when he interprets 
thefe Zofhefemin to be Angels. For how 
fliould Angels be bred , as thefe are faid to 
be, out of Mud ? How, when Angels are 
fo generated, fhall the Sun, Moon, and Stars 
Ihine out ? How fliall Angels be fliap'd like 
an egg, or in a roundifli form ? The truth if, 
his mind was prepoflefs'd with Chriftian no- 
tions, and he vainly imagined that an Hea- 
then muft be fo too. Biit Sanchoniatho meant 
only, that the celeftial bodies are intelligent, 
and fee what is done here below ; and there- 
fore were to be ador'd as Gods. 

This error of the E^yftians founded on- 
ly on the regularity of their motions , ( all 
yhich appearances our learned Profeflbr 

E 3 Mr, 

21 Remarks on the Cosmogony. 

Mr. Newton has demonllrated may be per- 
iForm'd without any knowledge, only by the 
' laws of the motion of projefted bodies, and 
the principles of Hydroflaticks) yet was ge- 
nerally receiv'd both in the Eaft, and among 
almoft all the feds of the Greek Philofophers, 
yea by fome learned Jews and Chriftians, but 
with different effed : For Origen and his fol- 
lowers efcap'd themifchief of it ty adhering 
to Chriji's maxim, OrigMb.y. 
/.a 3 7. But the Philofophers were feduc'd 
by it to defend Heathenifm, which is built 
upon it. 

If there be any excufc to be made for this - 
negleft of the fupreme Deity, which is vi- 
fible both in this Cofmogony^ and in all the 
Hiflory of Thmniclan Religion which fol- 
lows , it muft be that which the later Hea- 
thens conftantly plead, viz. that the honour 
given to his inferior minifters of ftate, in the ' 
government of the world , would be taken 
by him as redounding to the honour of their 
fovereign ; and that they might and would 
intercede with him in behalf of their wor- 
iliippers. But there is no fufficient evidence 
given of either of thefe two pofitions which 
lb boldly prefum'd, but both are direftly 
contrary to the foundations of true ReJigion> 
both as it was eihbliih'd among the Jews^ 

and ^ 


Remarks on the Cosmogony. 2 3 

and as it is fettled by Cbrift among his fol- 

But there is nothing in our Author to ob- 
lige me to profecute this matter any farther ; 
and therefore here I leave it to the reader's 
farther confideration, and pafs to the Hiilo- 
' ry, which in our Author is thus delivered. 

C H A P. II. 

7^<? Hiftory of the pr'mcipal Vme» 

Generation I. 

^* ^r^\ P fbe Wind Colpias, and his wife 

i f •^ Baau, ^r Baut, asBoch^rtreads^ 

^^were begot two mortals^ caWd 

" PrOtOgonUS (n^ftrroyw®-) Md iEon (Ai«v) 

•** and &ovi found out the way of taking 
" food from trees. The frjl generation of 
^' mortals. 

Gen.H. ** Tho felt hat were begotten bythefe 
^* were called GQnus andGenez(TiY(^jTmei) 
*• and dwelt in Phoenicia : But when great 
^ droughts came, they Jir etched their hands 
'** uf to Heaven fowards the Sun ; for him^ 
•* he faith, they thought the only Lord of 

E 4 ** He^en^ 


■ i 

t4 . 7J&(? History tf/ 

HeaveUy calling him Beelfamin^ which m 
Phcenician is Lord of Heaven j in Greelf 
** i^ ZdC/V- Then he charges miftake upon the 
** Greeks^ laying : Far we^ not vainljy h^me 
- ' frequently dijlinguiflfd thofe names ^ hut 
♦• with reJpeSt to the later fgnijication of 
* ' names accruing to them from later things ; 
f • which the Greeks not knowings have con- 
f^ firued otherwifcj heing deceived with the 
" ambiguity of their fgnificat ions. 

Gen. in. '' jifterwardsyfromGtmis the 
•* finofVtologpmxs andlEorXy other mortal 
ijfue was begotten^ whofe names were {<b£i^^ 
IltJ^, & Oap|) Lights Fircy. and Flame, 
•* The fe found out the way of generating f re 
by the rubbing of pieces of wood againSf 
each other y and tanght men the ufo thereof 
Gen. IV. •• Thefe begat fens ofvajl bulk 
and height , whofe. names were given ta 
mountains on which they firH fiix^4 • ^^ 
^' from them were nam-d mount Caffius an4 
*' Libami8| Antilibanus tf»^ Brathys. 

Gen.V. ** Ofthefe^ faith he, w^ebeg4t- 
«* rm NlemrumuM^^ Hypfuranius (pr, as 
Bochart reads it^ who is alfo cali'd HyfJ^r^- 
niusj *• but they liver e Jb nam^d by their mor 
?• tbersy the women ofthpjetimes^ who with^ 
* ' outjha^e lay with 4uy man they could Ught 
?* u^n^ 

'' ^he^ 





the Principal Line. tj 

^* Then^ faith he, Hypfuranius inhabited 
«f Tyre. (No mention oi the ifle in the 
Greeks but Vigerus hath unreafonably in^ 
ferted it into the Tranflation, the' it be csx^ 
tain that the town in the ifle was built long 
after thefe days. ) ^' And he invented the 
making of huts of reeds andrujhes^ and 
the paper reeds. And he fell into enmity 
with his brothfr\}{o\x%^ wbofirfi invented 
** covering for his body out of the skins of 
<< wild bekfts whieb he could catch, 

" And when violent temp efts of winds and 
** rains (ame^ the boughs in Tyre being rubbed 
^^ againft each other j tookfre^ and burnt the 
wood there. And Ufous having taken a 
tree J and broke off its boughs^ fir ft wasja 
^^ bold as to venture upon it into the fea. 

** And he confecrated two^n>Mj ruder 
^* ftones tranfiated pillars, to Fire and Wind 
(probably thofe violent ones that had burnt 
the wood ;) •• and he bow^d down to (or wor^ 
* * fl^iff^J them, and poured out to them the 
blood of JUch wild beafts as had been caught 
in hunting. But when thefe were dead^ 
thofe that remained confecrated to them 
^*i3Jk^, ftumps of wood, and Wa^j wor^ 
fl)ipping them^ and kept wniverfary feafts 
V mtothem^ 



26 The History of 

\ In this Generation are fet the firft inftan- 
ces of bloody facrifices, and confecration of 
^^A«i and fd&^bi, to beings below the heaven- 
ly bodies : And the founders of this Religion 
areiritimated to be afterwards fo worfliipp'd 
themfelves; which is ATreGiua-igy with the 
addition of anniverfary feafts. But Mo/es 
gives us an example of an earlier facrificfe to 
the true God , made by jiSel of the firft- 
- lings of his flock. 

Gen. VI. ** jffter many years from thege-^ 
** neration of Hypfuranius (which is the 
• • fifth) came Agreus and Halieus , the in- 
*• venters of the arts of hunting and fijhery^ 
"^^ from whom huntfmen andfijhermen are 
** nam'd. 

Gen.VII. ^* Of thefe were begotten two 
•* brothers J the inventors of iron^ and of the 
** forging thereof One ofthefe^ caWd Chry- 
for, whom he affirms to be Hephaeftus 
or Vulcan, exercised himfelfin words and 
charms y and divinations \ and he found 
out the hooky baity and fijhing- line y and 
boats flight ly made ; and that he was the 
** firft of all men that fait d. Wherefore he 
alfo was worfloipfd after his death for te 
Gody and they caWd him Diamichius (or 
rather dividing the word ZeusMichiusy /. e. 
Machinatory\thQ gKzt inventer or engineer) 


/>&^ Principal Line. 27 

* andfime fay his brothers invented the way 

* of making walls of brick. 

Gen- Vin. Afterwards from this generation 

* C(Me two brother Sy one of which was calTd 

* Technites, i.e. the artijiy the other Gei- 

* nus Autochthon, the home-born man of the 
' earth. Thefe found out to mingle Jiubble^ 
' QT finall twigs y with the bricky earthy and 

* to dry them by the fun ; and fb made 
' tiling.. 

Gen. IX. ** By thefe were begotten others^ 

* of which one was calPd Agrus (Field) 
' the other Agroueras , or Agrotes (Huf 

* bandman) who had a much worjhiffdjia- 
' tucy and a temfle carry' d about by one^ or 

* more J yoke of oxen in Phoenicia, jind in 
' books (or, as Bocbart reads, among the 

|)eople of ByblusJ ^' he is eminently calPd 

* the great eft of the Gods. Thefe found out 
' hpw to make courts about mens houfes^ 
' and fences^ mid cavesj or cellars. Huf 
' bandmeuj andfuch as ufe dogs in huntings 
' derive from thefe : And they are alfo calPd 

* Aletae, andTitztiS, 
Gen. X. ** From thefe were begotten Amy- 

' nus, and Magus, who Jhew'd men to con- 
' ftitute villages and flocks. 


^8 73&<? History of 


The Hifiory of the fecond line* 

Gen. XL/* Y^ROM tbefi men were be^ 

•• got Mifor and Sydyc, 
♦• i. e. Well freed ^ and 
' • Juft. Tbefe found out the ufe of fait. 

Gen. XII. ** From Mifor came Taautus, 
* * who found out the writing of the fir ft let- 
** tersy whom the Egyptians calPd Thoor, 
'* f^^ Alexandrians Thoyth, andtheGvetki 
** Hermes^: But from Sydyc came the Dio- 
•♦♦ fcuri, or Cabiri, or Corybantes, ^rSamo- 
^* thraces. Thefiy he faith ^ firft invented 
** theiuilding aUxohh or ctmfleat fl)ip. 

Gen/XIU. ** Of thefe others came^ who 
*♦ found out berbs^ the cure of bitings and 
«* charms. 

Contemporaries with the 9* and 10* Ge* 
ncrations were fuch, whofe defcent from 
the firft man is pafs'd over in filence, which 
I fliall fliew tO' be defign^d to conceal the 
antiquity of the better line, and the better 

*• In thefe mens agCy viz. m the 9^^ and 
** 10*'', there was one Elioun, which im^ 
*' forts /» Greek Hypfiftus, the MoftHigh\ 
' ^* «nd 

the Second LinL i^ 

" wd hii vixife was caltd BetUth , which 
" dwik ab(nahi\j\mi from whom was be^ 
'yg^tunone Epigeus, ^r AtitochthtHi, whom 
'' tbvf afterwards cfllPd OanuMiS) i. e. Hea^ 
*' viik So that from him that element which 
** k wer uSf by reafon of its excellent beau- 
" tyis caird Heaven: And he hadajifler of 
** the fame fafents^ talN Ge> i. e. Earth ; 
** and by reafm of her beauty the earth had 
" her name given fo it. 

"Hypfiftusj the father of thefe^ tfying ift 
''fight with wild be^fis^ was conjeeratedf 
" and his children offered facrifices and li^ 
** bations to him. 

*' Bnt Ommas^ taJkinf the kingdom of his 
" father^ married his^fter Ge> and had bj 
*' her four fins : i. Has, who is calFdCro- 
" ntis, t. Bctylus. b- Dagon, who is^i^ 
" ton> er the God of corn. 4. Atki. 

" But by other wives Ouraiius had much 
*• iffke i whm^^pre G« being grieved at iff 
" and jealous^ reproached Ouranus^ fi as 
'* ^ey farted from each other. But Oura- 
" nus, tho\ he farted from her^ yet by force 
^' invading her^ and lying with her when he 
*' Ufied^ went away again ; and he alfo at-- 
** temped to kill the children he had by her. 
•* Ge alfo often defended or avenged herfelfi 
\' gathering auxiliary fowers unto her. 

'* But 




3cy The History of 

" But when Cronus came to maiCs age., 
«/% Hermes Trifmegiftus <tf his counfel' 
kr andaffiftant (for he was his fecretaryj 
be opposed bis father 0\ix^aa&^ avengmg 
his mother. But Cronus had children, 
Perfephone and Athena ; the former died 
a virgin, but by the counfel of the tatter, 
Athena, 4»</<7/ Hermes, Cronm made of 
iron a fcimeter and a fpear. Then Her- 

" mes /peaking to the affifiants of Cronus 
with enchanting words, wrought in them 
a keen dejire to fight againft Ouranus in 
the behalf of Ge, jind thus Crpnus war- 
ring againji Ouranus , drove him out of 
his kingdom, and fucceeded in the impe- 
rial power or office. 

In the fight was taken a wett-behnfd 
concubine <?/Ouranus big with child. Crx)- 
nus gave h^r in marriage to Dagon , and 

*\fl3e brought forth at his houfe what Jhe had 

** in her womb by Ouranus, and cali'd him 

•• Demaro(Mi, , 
" Jfter thefethingi Cronus builds a waU 

** round about his houfe, and founds Byblus, 
the firft city in Phoenicia. Afterwards 
Cronxxs fuJpeSiing his own, brother Atlas, 

*' with the advice of Hermes throwing him 
into a deep hole of the earth , there bn^ 
ried him. 

'' AP 




the Second Line. 31 

''At that time the defcendents of the Di- 
" okxxxi having built fime tumultuary y and 
" other ftronger jhipy went to fea^and being 
^* out o^er againft mount Cailius> there, con^ 
" fecrated a temple. 

•' But the auxiliaries ofWxxs^ who is Cro^ 
" nus, were caW d Eloimf i.e. llus'smenj or 
** t&o/e that Were for Cronus. But Cro- 
** nus halving a Jon caird Sadid , dijpatch'd 
" him with his own /wordy having aju/pi- 
'* cion of him , and deprived his own Jon of 
*' life with his own hand. 

{Bocharty in his Canaan^ p. 784, C. faith, 
that nnu^ in Arabic fignifies robujiusy a (Irong 
man , and intimates ic to be of kindred to 
Shaddai.'] ** So alfo he cut off the head of 
** his own daughter y fo as all the Godsy the 
'* Eloiniy were amasdd at the mind of 
** Cronus. 

But in frocefs of time y Ouranus being 

in flighty or banijhmenty fends his daugh* 
** ^^r Aftarte^ with two other fiftersy Rhea 
^' and Dione, to cut off Cronus by deceit ^ 
*' whom Cronus takingy made wives of thefe 
" fifters. Ouranus under ft anding this fent 
\' Eimarmene and Hora, Fate and Beauty^ 
" with other auxiliaries y to war againft 
" him : But Cronus having gained the af 
V feSfions ofihefe alfoy kept them with hitn^ 




51 i7o6 HistoRV of 

** ptf. Mitre&ver the G«?rf Olifands Jeiti/d 
** Baetulia, contriving Jimes that mn% ai 
** having life. 

'* i?ji^ Cfontts ^^4f «iy Aftarte Jiven 
*' daughters calPd Titanides, or Artcmi- 

dts ; 4»^ ke begat *n Rhea y^#» finsi 

the yimngeft cf which ^ ae/ioHas he wdi 
** hern^ was emfierated a God. (Muth, I 
♦* f^fefe.) jftjoi^ Dione he had daughter Jj 
** and iy Ai\sLttQ moreover two Jons, Fotho^ 
** and EtoSj i. e. Cupid and Love. 
/ *' But Dagon^ 4fl[/fc?r ^ /^^ found out 
** bread' com and the plough, wm caird 
0" Zeus Arotrius. 

*' 7e? Sydyc^ or thejujl^ one of the TUai- 
*• nides hare Afclcpias. Croritis had aljo in 
^* Peraea three fins: 1. Cronus^ his father's 
** namefdkei t. ZeosBelas. 3. Apollo, 
, In the next paragraph our Author bring& 
in another family <^ men, of which Nereui 
is the firft nam'di whofe lineage and origi- 
nal he conceals , reprefenting them only a& 
Contemporaries with Ouranus ziadiCronusy 
and engaged in a War ^penSffiOurafius^ from 
whom he was feparated : Which implies in- 
deed, that he had formerly beert conjoined! 
with him, but upon what account he men- 
tions not ; only he tells us,^ that in that war 
Onranus ftuck to his M-bern fob l>emaroon4 


i^^^ Second Lin£. 3^ 

and intimates that the overthrow (^ him, 
who hardly efcap'di wasfatd to Ouramtsi 
for the next thing we hear of him is his be« 
Jug caught by ambufli, which brought him 
to his end. 

Confider whether this relate not to Vahz- 
.lutants of the ifles* and rjsmote ihores waih'd 
by the great fea , /. e. the Mediterr^teaiit 
the biggeft they knew. So I/aiab Ix. f . de- 
scribes the EuropaoM converts to Ho&MeJJiab 
by the abundance of the fea : And Mofesy 
Gen.ji. 5. faith of the 'fons of Japhety By 
thefe tifere the ifles of the Gentiles divided 
by their lands ; comprehending not only the 
fmall lands furrounded with watec^ but 
Greece and Itaiyy yea all Euro fey as the 
country the Jews went to by fea, as Mr. 
Mead hath fhewn. 


The Hifior^ of the laft linei 

i $ 

. % 

^ ^^ Of^emp^rary with thefe were Pon- 

1, J " tus and Typhon, tf»</ Nereus 

** thefatbetof^ovLlMs, FromF on^ 

*J tVLS came Sidcm, who by the exceeding 

.; F ** fweetnep 




34 7lbe History of 

'' fweetntfi tfher vme^ or jSif^Mg^ fdumd 

** 9Ut fir fi the hymns of id€s w fr4iifis^ ami 

" Pofidon ^ Neptune. 
** But to DeiMFOan was horn Melicartns^ 

•* who is alfo called Hercules. 
^' Then again Ouranus makes ns>ar agasnH ^ 
Pontus, and ^ing fiftarafed frsm him% 
Joins wkh Demarooo* 
'' DemairooA invades Pontns, hut Pontus 
fmts him t9 fiighty and Demaroon V9wi 
ajkcrifieefbr his ejcape. 
• * Bwt m the thirty fecond year ofhisfi^wer^ 
mid reign Ihis, who is Cronus^ having laid 
an amhufcadefor his father Ouranus in a 
certain vfidland flace^ and having gt^ten 
him into his hands j cuts off his privities 

•• near fountains and rivers. There Ouraf 
nus was eonfecratedy and his Jpirit or 
breath was feparated^ and the blood of his 

•* fberetsdropt into the fountains and watirs 

" of the rivers ; and the j^lace is fheistfd un-^ 

*' to this day^ 

Thefe are the memorables ^Cronus, 
thefi the venerable things of the life of 
thofe that liv'd in Cronus V time , which 

^' are fb much cried uf among the Greek?, 
who were the fir Si and goiden generation 
ofmeuy who enjoyed that blejfed felicity of 

" the ancients. [This is Eu/ehiuis refle- 








//^^ Last Line. 35 

fiian on thefe times, ^ defcrib'd by our 

" Them tmr Hlfiorim^ ^fter Jbme .things 
" inurfreted^ goes an frying : But Aftarte 
** cali'i the Gre^iteft^ md Detnarooti entu 
*' tnid Zeus , Mnd Adodus nam'd King iff 
•* theG^ds^ reigm'droer the cwntryhyCto- 
** nasV eonfint ^r mitbdrity : - And Adarte 
'' put on her he^y ms the fMti cfhtr five* 
" reigifty^ a hUTs he»d. 

(I conceive that by the bofl^s head, wiiich 
our Author affirms Afiurte to have pur 09 
4s a mark of fovereignty, he fdainly Bieans 
the bull's boras ; for it's certain that a horn 
is in the Eaflera languages an emblem or 
expreflion noting royal power» as in x S>am. 
ii^zo. and many other places. Thefiaitern 
mens notion of this fymboi we may leara 
irom the words of Zedekiah^ who put oa 
boras of iron,, to exprefs to Ahab that^. as it 
were, withfuchheihould puih, or gore the 
Syrians^ tiii he had deftroy'd them^ i Kings 
nai. n, ®r. The fame deftrudion did A^ 
fiMTte threaten by her horns to the enemies 
of the ikmity of Craawj-, whofeNamerdate^s 
tQi^Jtertn^ a horn. 

And I am prone to liiink^ that the flamp 
on the Sidonian money, which LMcian dt 
T)ed Syria aiTures us was a woman fitting on 

F X a bull. 

i^jat L -^ 

'3<$ The HisToitY of 

a bull , did originally fignify no more than 
the royal power of Aftarte^ to whom their 
temple was confecrated ; altho' the Greek 
Xnythic writers have made a prodigious fable 
of it concerning Jupiter turn'd into a bull, 
and fo carrying away Eurofa. Ludian {\x^ 
ficiently intimates, that he thought -^/^rr? 
and Eurofa the fame perfon , to whom the 
•Sidonlan temple was dedicated. And it's 
no -wonder that Aflarie fliould becall*di?«- 
ropa^ fince Bochart hath fliewn, that this 
jiame in Thoenician fpeech fignifies the white- 
fac^d, or fair : For that epithet muft needs 
i^elong to her, whom our Sanchoniatho af- 
fures us, that the Greeks calFd Afhrodite^ or 
Venus J the goddefs of love. 

I know that the Greek My thologifts. have 
fAzc'd Eur opa^ and their deities alfo, in later 
ilimes than Sanchoniatho does ; but I wonder 
not at fuch grofs miflakes in them, who 
twrote many Centuries after him , and con- 
cerning ftrangers to their country.] 
*- ""' But travelling about the world y Jhe 
•• found a Jiar falling from the air^ or sky^ 
•* which fhe taking «^, confecrated in the 
** holy if and Tyre.' And the Phoenicians 
** f^yy thath&SLiVt is Jhe^ who is among the 
V Greeks caWd Aphrodite. 

... ^ \. " Crontis 

the Last hiitt.' 3*7 

" Cronus al/dy going about the war Id ^ 
*^ gave to his own daughter Athena the king- 
" dom of Attica : But when there was a 
^ fkgue and mortSlity^ Cronus made his 
" only Son [There's not a. word of a lawful 
wife, which Vigerus adds ; but elfe where it's 
exprefsM , that the only fon he had was by 
a nymph of that country call'd Anobret ] 
** a whole burnt ^offering to his father Ou- 

" ranus. 

(This Hiftory is told in two other places 
in Eu/ebius, viz. P.40.C. p. ly^. D. with 
thefe additions and variations, i. It's added, 
that Cronus did thus in compliance with an 
ancient cuftom of Princes fo to do. x. That 
fuch facrifices were offer 'd as aJt^ov nfjiM^oU 

ocu[io(riy and that alfo dnt *? "zrcLnm (pdo^j to 

appeafe avenging Daemons, and to buyoffge- 
lieral deftruftion. 3. That his fon fo facrific'd 
Was called Jeoudj becaufe he was the only 
child he had by the nymph Anobret. 4. That 
this CrvniiSj after his death, was cohfecrated 
into the Planet, which is by his name call'd to 
this day Cronus in G reeky m Latin Saturn. 

The Variations are two. 
^ I. In thefe places Cronus is faid to be 
call'd^ I/rael by the Thoenicians ; whereas 
throughout our Fragment of the Thcenician 
Hillory never fo calFd, but ohtnilus. 

F 3 This 

^8 T^tf History af 

This Grotiusj in his notes upon bis book 
^e Verkate Relig, Cbrifi. p. 45; in the edi-^ 
tion join'd to bis notes on die kitter part of 
the New Teftamenr , 15^h fhew'd to be a^ 
miftake of the tranfcriber. t. lu thefe pla- 
ces diffrejis of war is made the occaiioa, 
whereas in our Fragment thepdagueismade 
the motive. Both may be true, his coun^ 
try might be affltded at once with war and 
the plague,] 

• •* ^ff^ Cronus was circumcised in his fri- 
'' wtitSy and forced his auxiliaries to do tb§ 
" fame. 

'• Jkd not long after he conficrsaedy after 
^ • his death y another fin , which be had by 
*' Rhea, calSA Maith ; fi the PhoeniciansT 
'•* ^/ Deaths flr Pluto. 

*• After tbefi things Cronus gives the city 
*' Byblus t/f the Goddefs Baaltis, which is 

Dione ; and Berytus he gave to Pdidon, 
** and to fi&^Cabiri) and to husbandmen and 

toFifhermen^ who confecrated the remains 

^/Pontus i» or unto Berytus. 

" But before thefe things the GodT^h- 
** tus, having former fy imitated or refre- 
V finted OmzwaSy made mages of the couur 
^ tenances of the Godsy Cronus 4Mi/DagQD^ 
** and fornid the facred charaSters^ of tbt 
^^ other elements^ He contrived alA fUr 



• ^ 

" '"J 

^ '^ 

# t 



« « d 'V 

. ^ ^' 


• I 



» • t 

I t 

r ' I 

« ^* 



»' '.I 


of Sanchomathos Ge- 

- i 

• . * • 

1 " 

\ .' 

' f 

•% • 



*j&^ Last Line. jp 

' Cronus the enjign of bis royal power, four 
' eyes part fy before and partly beh'mdi two 
' of them winking as injieep ; and upon his 
' fljoulders four wings, two as flying , and 
' two as let down to refi. The emblem was^ 
* tbatCxomi^ when hefleptyetwas watch- 
" mg, and waking yet^pt : And fo for his 
" wings, that even rejiing he flew about i and 
" flj^ffg y^f refled. But the other Cods had 
'* two wings each of them on their fljoulders, 
" to intimate that they flew about with or 
" under bim. He al/o had two wings on 
" his head J one for the mofl governing part 
" themindy one for the fen fe. 

" £«/CroDUS coming into the South couH' 
" fUy S'*^^ "^^ EgyP' ^^ ^^^ Go./ Taautus, 
" that it Jhould be his kingdom. Thefe 
" things, faith he, r^&f Cabiri, the feven font 
" ^^Sydyc, and their eighth brother hSs\z- 
" pius, flrfl of all Jet down in memoirs, as 
" the God Taautus commanded them. 

A Chro- 

1 I 

• \ 

I . 



, -«u- _ A *_ r.^.JL 


Notes on the Table. 

C H A P. I. 

Shfwing the confent of the tmmher of 
Generations in Sanchonutho, yitib 
the like mmber in Mofes's Geneah- 
gies i and proving the connexion be-' 
tweeti Sanchoniatho and Eratof- 

Section I. 

IPON 3 careful review of all that I 
have written concerning thefe two 
ancisit Authors, I have thought 
that it will tend much to theread- 
ind fatisfaflion, that 1 Ihould exhi- 
: table fummarily both thefe Ao- 
t)i the conneftioti between them, 
^. and 


4';^ ^ N6TEis>«'^^ Table/ 

atkl the years of the world, which I hafe 
ahnex'd to them, upon reafons given in the 
f^Howkig difcourfe. 

' Both thefe Authors are the more credibfet 
•^id fitter to be opposed to the extravagant 
accounts \vhich are given us from Manetho 
(a Prieft of Sabenne in the Lower EgyftJ in 
thofe remains^ w^cb we have ol^Afiriimus ; 
and alfo to thofe diflferent, yet ftill extrava- 
^mt numbers, which HerodftMs and ^h^o- 
rm Siculus tell us they received from thofe 
Priefls of Lower Egypt ; becaufe both my 
Authors had viewed and compared their 
Notes with the original records kept at 2^^ 
fatisy ox No-Ammoh in the Vpper Egyft^ as 
EufebtM'y Thih Byhlius and Syncellu^ te- 

ilify. - 

: fifit SkncbemsatbQ had a peculiar advantage 
in this, that not only his own time was many 
Centuries before all Hiilorians that we have 
extant ; but alfo he fearch'd at his own town 
JSerytusy. the records that were there de- 
|>ofited , and kept by the Ckbiri, appoifited 
ciy Thotb to fct down thefe antiqiutidl be- 
i$»e he went 'mioEgyp\o belSng there; 
t^cti muft be about 800 years, or more, 
"diier than h» time. - • 

'^' Agreeably to the manner i^-fachaftei^nt 
V^HiOTjiSancbuniafbo hath dUHngtiBIf dti^s 



Notes m the Table. 4^ 

to Of herwife than by the (ever^ii generkiom 
of the petfcms that liv^d therdn ; Md its ttf 
far the greater part of the refmnns, t fee nc$ 
euoie to fafpe^t cormptkm therein : Only I 
find caufe to Mped: there has been feme 
difloeation in about three lines relatirig to 
the three lafl; generations in his genealogy, 
whereof I have pvoposV) an eafy .^ay c^ cor« 
region with very httle alteration^ 

Neverthelefs I have taken care^ even in my 
Table, to reprefent the Author's Genealogy 
jiift as I found it, without any correction, in 
one cohinm;. and have put my corredion iii 
a column by it felf, that the reader may not 
be impos'd upon by me, but may judge for 
himfelf , wh^er I had reafbn to make a 
correction, or not. 

But before I juflify my correction, I vriU 
obferve what is dear and ufeful in it, evest 
without any change therein to be made. 

I* It's clear thztSancbamiatkOy juft after he 
had delivered bis C^^gmjfy or Generation 
of other parts of the worM, begins bisHi^ 
Aory of mankind with his way of producing 
^ iSrft man> whom S^bih nanses very figni-- 
'jficantly^ Ti^ottgoMmr. 

%. It's cleaf tkttt this fragment of our Au-^ 
dior ends with ka^gof Tbctb^. the ion of 
^flfjfir^ into Egj^^ to govern tliere ; and 


44 N o T'E $ on the Tab l t/ 

occafiqnaUy motions CtiMi >v\io is ktiewik 
to be Canaan^ Mizraim\ brother 9 as the 
foA Thoenician^ and Ihring about that time. 
Now it's very clear, that Mijbr is the img^^ 
lar number of Mizraim , and fignifies the 
firft founder of the Egypian diftinft monar- 
chy, feparated from the reft <jf /y^nw's large 
dominions ; And it's confefs'd by. Manefha 
and others, that the fecond King was the 
fon of the firft ; and they call hito Athothes^ 
which is the fame name withT^i^^,^ abating 
only the Greek termination ,; and the firft 
tetter Ay which I have prov'd in the folw 
lowing treatife is oft left. out. 

Hence we are fure, that all the interme- 
diate generations relate to men who were 
defcended from Trotogonus^ and liv'd be^ 
fore the fecond King m Egypt. Now be- 
caufe theMofaical Hiftoryhath given us f ) 
generations counted from the firft man pa^ 
f allel with thefe, and the years of their lives, 
we muft needs come to a good degree of cer- 
tainty concerning the tinies in or near which' 
all the generations of ^y^^iw-A^jjriiir/A^ muft live ; 
and by the Hebrew numbers' they are cons- 
eluded within xooo years from the creation: 
Thofe that like the numbers of tlie Seftua- 
gint or xhQ Samaritan copy better, may afr 
fyi them in their Qwn tables, and rbcor4 all 


Notes ok theT AhL£ 45 

the authors and inventions mentioned by ojxc 
Author according to fuch times. 

3. It is clear that I have madeno alteration 
in the ten firft. generations, and that in the 
11^ generation I have left Sydjfc to continue 
at the fame dMlance from Trotogonus. that 
Smchoniatho ip\Me% him : And fo I have l^c 
the CW^iri in the ix^^ generation, and theif 
fonsin the 13% as my Author uncorrefte4 
places them. 

4. It is certain, that if no corre6iion be 
made, Mifir and Thoth^ or Mijraim and his 
(on, will neceffarily be own'd to be the two 
foil Kings of £gy/?. In the very preface of thjj 
Ten Commandments, Egyft is call'd by the 
name of Miz^aim iii Hebrew ; and long be- 
fore the land was call'd by. his name, in Abra^ 
ham^s time ; and at the burial of Jacobs th$ 
mourning of the Egyptians was by the d- 
fioaniUs, call'd jibel-Mizraim^ which clearly 
intimates the Egyptians, to be Mizraim'% 
fieople, or him to be the founder of ^ their 
monarchy, and the fuccefHon to be in his 
line, i : 

Hence alfo it appears pl^niy.enough, that 
even without any correftion of the latter 
end of the line, there is a conneftion be- 
tween the genealogies of Sanchoniatbo, and 
.the. fucceffion of Kings in Eratojlhenes"^ La- 
ter cuius: / 

4<J Notes wr /if Table. 

urcwhs : For Stncbouutho^s line of genent 
tions ends in the fame two perfons, MSifiir 
teoA. Thotbt with wfaam ErttofibtnesH fiic- 
cefltohs begin ; lus tnro iirft being Meuer, 
of \fbota£mti^benej in SynceUiu faith, ^w 
r^f dw Meftrsim dkitmr^ wto is Mi for ^ aotl 
jithtithest wlKife faaoBoiefs widi 7%«/i& I have 
fMutly dear'd ahtsdiy, and ftail add more to 
put it out of difpute. 

But I think fit firit to e^eis my reafoos 
why I believe there is a dHlocation in the 
iaft generations of SancbontMibOy which fiands 
m need of that carre^tion which I have fag- 
fefled in my Table. 

Now my reafons are chiefly thefe : 
- t. Becaufe SoMcboniafbt, as he comes to 
us uncorreded , hath made the three kft 
generations to be deriv'd from yiu^ttx and 
MagMs^ who are the lo^ generation in chft 
line of Genus, whom I have prov'd to te 
Cam in my fixth Remark upon SoMcbamsiJjip % 
«nd have alfo prov'd in my fifth Remaxk , 
lS:xxtSydyc zndMifir, who flandnowplac'd 
•in his uncorreded line as the immediate i^Aie 
:of Amymu and M*g$Uy were not their chil- 
dren; becaufe the lo*'' generation in Cam\ 
line, anfwering to Jt^ab in Setb*% Ime, muft 
needs be all drown'd in the flood, cogethtt* 
With fuch children as might then be bom 




Notes o» *)&f Tasle^ 47 

of.iheai, anfv^riflgto JAa«^ Hmn^ and J<* 
fket^ the foBsof i\5wA. 

But Thoth"^ fecretaries the Cahirh or their 
&ccc£brs an Btrytm^ from whofe wricingi 
SamhmUth^ took his Gcneak>gie$» a$ heaf«- 
ftrms in Eufihius^ have fuppre&*d ail mefb- 
tioii of this divine judgment on that impi*. 
txtsUne, whereby it was wholly cut off, and 
have forg'd a continuation of it, bypiedng 
it to fome men taken out of S€th\ Hne, or 
ihkb^^ family* whicl^ only forviv'd that ge- 
neral calamity. 

Thus here they have taken the righteoos 
King Sedec or Melchifidecy whom I conceive 
to be Shem, acid Tbilo calls him Sydyc^ the 
vowels only differing, which are eafily 
changed in paifing into the Greek language, 
asd have piac'd him in the it^ generation 
fiom Tretcfgmmsy as he truly was; but be 
was brother to Uam^ or Cronusy and fon to 
Nmbif whom Saucboniatbo calls Our anus y 
not the fon of Jmymns and Magus. And 
dttrefore it was neceiSary for me to join 
Syifc to Cronus y placing them both under 
that other lii^ of Ouranus^ which Sancho^ 
niatbo alfo owneth to be diflind from the 
line of Genus. 

%. As for Mijbr^ whom Sancbomatbtfs 
Genealogy uncorreded joins with Sydy^e^ 


:|8 Note* ^» #>&^ Table. 

there was the fame reafon to remove liini 
out of the line which was deftroy'd into that * 
^hich was preferv'd ; but there was alfo a 
neceflity to place him one generation lowei^ 
vis^. in the ix^^ generation ; becaufe he is 
fo manifeftly Mi^raim the fon of Hamy or 
Cronus ; and therefore mnft necefTarily be 
one generation after his father » not in the 
fame with him , as without my correftioii 
he would be- 

Befides, if Mifir had been in Sy dye's time* 
and was none of thofe preferv'd in the ark, 
he mufl necefTarily have been loft in the de- 
luge ; whereas we find him to be the foui^^ 
,der of the Egypiau kingdom, and therefore 
it's more reafonable to believe him bom in 
the generation after the floods 

The mifplacing of thefe two men being 
reftified , which I hope will be allowed by 
all confiderative perfons to be neceflary, the 
true places of their children will follow of 
courfe ; becaufe nature determines them to 
fucceed their parents^ and to be in the fame 
line with them. 

And now tho* I have both ih thefe Notes 
on my Table^ and in the body of this bookf 
intimated my fufpicion, that this diflocation 
which I have obferv'd, and reftified, was 
made defignedly before Sanchoniatho's timit, 

. , to 



.K Qt^.^ &» the Ilabl jB. .4p 

4Eft0paceal the\gr/eat judgment of the flood, 
which fwept away the impious race of Cain» 
ffft I will cpnfi?i"$i^tb*t I think it not impoffible 
that it wight happen by hegled, or want of 
f»pB to difli^^i(l) tbefe two lines, and the 
^a^n of legoh p^rfon in. tranf<pribing the re- 
Pf^4 U k not jraeceflary for inepereipptQrily 
fQ<i§teiwng hpw the mifearnage caipe, \m 
I am ftire it oecaGon'd g^QU difficulty and 
trcod^le to me to find it ouf: , and to bring 
the.Hifiory isto that order in which I ofler 
k t<x the neader^s jtidgment. 

The judiciQas, I doubt not, will fee, that 
if Mijar be not fet in the genen^ti(m aftet 
his fatbjer Crtmmy which is the chief chaiage 
I have made; tfaiebeginiujig:ofthe£^>/^««^ 
Kingdom fduoded by hoii^ mufl jbe fdaced 
nearer the Hood than I have fet it, and I 
am fiire I have; fee it n»r enough ; it being 
impofiible there fliould be, before that time 
wMch my nutnbers , point at , men enough 
to people that country tokf ably, beildes tha 
people in CatfaoH^ Syria, and Ration.. 

Wherefore I am fatisfieid that I have not 
done amKs in thus placing him, and his fon 
Tkotb, one generation jlower than I foimd 
them in the uncorred^d Genealogy, efpe« 
cialiy becaufe by this mesms he comes into 
- G the 

yo Notes o» /;&f Table. 

the diilance from Adam, which Mofes ^ves 
to Mizraim. 

I win conctude thefe RefleAioDS upon 
Sanchoniatho's part in my Table with this 
Nore/ihat tha' I believe I have done rightly 
in diftinguifhing carefully thefe twa fioes, 
which nay Amhor does but obfcurcly point 
at ; yet even from this his flightly touching 
the diftindlion of the two hnes> we may ob^ 
ferve that his principal defign tnA care in 
his Hiftory was only to exprefe in what di- 
ilance of generations from the firftma^nr the 
feveral additions to the Thmnkian Religion) 
and the alterations thereof were made. 

For he makes ufe of no other diilinflioiH 
or chara6^er of time's diAance from the be- 
ginning , but only this moft ancient and ot>* 
vious one , that fuch things were firft done 
in fuch a generaticm to be nutmber'd from 
the fir^fl man. 

Now it's plain by the numbers affix'd in 
my Table to the men plac'd in both the Unes, 
that the diilance from Trotogonus is the 
fame to different perfons in the two diilkidl 
Hnes : So Eliaun is the 9^ from thefirilman 
in one Uae^ and Ager and Arouerus are the 
9'^' in the other line. The like is vifible in 
the 10'^ generation in each line . diiUndliy : 


Notes on the Table. yi 

But after the lo*^ generation in Cain^s line, 
there is no poffibility that more generations 
ihould come into hiftory; becaufe before 
that lo'*' generation could come to natural 
death, the flood fwept it quite away, with all 
that iSTue that might be bom iof it, before 
the foC^ year of Noah was come. 
. Neverthelefs there was on earth an II'^ 
12^, and 13*^ generation, which fucceeded 
to Vrotogonusy and Sanchontatho has nam'd 
fome of them : As Sydyc and Cronus^ and his 
brethren, were of the ii'** generation from 
Trofogonus ; Mi/or and the Caiiri nam'd by 
him were truly of the ix'** generation from 
the firft man ; and Thotb^ with the fons of 
the Cabiri^ or T>iofcuri^ were of the 13*^ 
generation from the fame beginning. 

" Sec t I o >i II. 

The conneBion between Sanchoniatho*^ 
Geneaiogtes and the SucceJJions of 



CAnchoniatho having concluded his Genea- 
*^ logies with the times of Mifir and Thoth, 
I thought it moft convenient to the reft of 

G % that 


:ft 1>{orts on the TABLf. 

that Table, therein only to note a pfobsbfe 
approach to the tiines of their birth, by fuph 
fiofing them bora ^outr the times which 
Mofex hathaffign'd ta the birth oiJrphaxsdj 
the rx^^ from jidam in Setb\ line, and to 
-•yr^aA's birth ^ who is the 13*^ therein. So 
even in the Mathematical fciences, when we 
cannot attain to precife^ deternlioatioos, for 
want of fufficient ddt^ wecontcnt oiir feives 
vfith z f rope verum. 

But the SucceflkMis of 37 Tbeban Kings 
' given us by Erst oft hews^ with the nambets 
of the years of their reigns, will help us to 
a more exaft chronological account of above 
1000 years iS and particularly will determine 
the end of the reigns of the two firft Kings 
of Egyftj Menes and jitimhesj who are 
mentioned alfo by Sanchoniatho by the names 
of Mi/or ztiATbotb; 

Therefore I will endeavour to give far- 
ther evidence, that both thefe Authors do 
fpeak of thefe two as the fame man, that fo 
the connexion of thefe two Hiftorians may 
he yet clearer: Betaufe the ftrength <^ this 
Hiftory and Chronology, (which I propofe in 
oppofition to the extravagant accounts of 
Manet hQ\ Fragntents ,. and the incrediUe 
and incottfiftent repoirts^ «Khich the PHefts 


Notes on the\T k^ti^ yj 

dinrusSicHUisJ doth fo mudidepetid^iponit. 

It is fuppos'd ia this aiQGbrtion^ that one 
perfon had often. divers names; fomecimes 
wiiiSlehe liv'd by way of titles of honourj 
more frequently fuch names and titles were 
fuperadded to men that were con&crated 
4ftef (jieir death : He muil be a ifaranger in 
Hiftory both facred and prophane, that will 
not grant this. But I have clear'd this far^ 
ther in the fecond ieftioo of my Rfview^ to 
wWch the reader is ref ierr'd. 

Doubtfuinefs concerning kindred, and o- 
ther circumltances of the peribn fo diije- 
lently cali'd, doth naturally arifa henc;^; 
And the heathen Priefts ( who defign*d to 
make their Religion dark # that men mighf: 
die more depend upon them for informa- 
tion J and mig:bt he more fuperititioufly ifi 
awe of tfa£a|;s aad |)erfoAs doubtMy ktK) wn) 
multiplied the names of perjGons that were tp 
he woriliipp*4f on purpofe to af»a.%e men i^ 
tbeirtUligloo, as I baveprov'd. 

Now becaufe thU s^idtitud? of names is 
gotten mto moii of their authors who deti- 
ver ancient (lory, there is iio way to deli- 
ver us, that read tbea^ out of thecoiifufion 
and araazement that fg^lows this their f»per- 
ttkious intrigue » but to (liclk <:lofe to the 
moil piain ikd naked ^dories of matter ^f 

54 Notes on the Table. 

fad that we can find, and io to follow clofe 
the nature of things , tracing natural caufes 
and effedS) and the furefl adjundb of time 
and place, which are free from the illufions 
and labyrinths that their fables would lead 
us into. 

In purfuit of this method I have pitched 
on Sanchoniatho and Eratofihenes^ who were 
both employed on purpofe to free themfelves 
and other men from the mifchiefs, which 
followed the perplexing of mens minds by 
the fables and the allegories of the heathen 
Priefts : And I hope that by comparing them 
together, and by borrowing farther light 
from the moft ingenuous and ancient hiilori&s 
which remain to us, I have obtaitf d fatif* 
faftory proof that Mijl^ and Thothy in the 
end oi Sanchoniatho y are the very fame men 
with Menes and Athothes^ in the beginning 
of Eratofthenes. 

I begin with proof that Mijbr is the fame 
with Menesy which alone would fliew the 
connexion, if we had no farther evidence 
thereof This I argue from the natural 
proofs, befides the authority of SynceUus^ ' 
^iXidiEratoJlhenes^ that exprefly faith, Meues^ 
who is z\{o Meftraim^ which is known to be 
Eufebius^s and EupoUmus's Greek manner of 
exprefling the Hebrew name Mi&r^im. 

Notes fl» ry&^ T AS LE. jj' 

I. MiJbr^mA Menes had the fame maa 

t. Hie £iiiie man w«s the fon of il//ySr 

3 . The fame city was J)uilt by them. 

4. They firft rul'd and civiliz'd the fame 

5'.- They liv'd at the fame time. 

6. They died the fame violent death by 
Tj^hoHt mention'd by SanchonUtho in that 
generation. Therefore thefe different names 

iignifythe fame xaxR. 

I. To clear the famenefs of parentage* I 
fhall fuppofe that Mijor and Mizraim, as 
the LXX call him, being but the fingular 
and dual of the fame word, fignifythe^ime 
man. So the country Egy/>t is fometimes 
e3q>refs'd by the fingular number, as Bochart 
hath prov'd well, Thaleg^ P-2^93- A; tho* 
moft commonly its known by the dual. The 
lame name in either number expreiTeth the 
finne man and country. 

Moreover after this Mizraim, the foun- 
der's name, the Egyptians name one of their 
months, mration'd by Tlutarch^ Me fort; 
And its obfervable that they have fo plac'd 
it, that it comes in the courfe of their year 
before the month call'd Tbotht by the name 

of jSis ion who next fucceeded him. This 

G 4 feetps^ 

^6 Notes ^» /^^TaSle.' 

feems to have been imitated ki the koman 
Calendar, wherein Julius goes before his 
adopted fon, afterward caird AugufiUs^ 
both giving names to months, one of 
which fucceeds the other , as' the fon did 
the father. 

I know that the Egyptians begin their 
year with Theth , ind end it with Mejdri ; 
but I know alfo that it's at any man's {^ea- 
fure to begin where he will' In a circle ; But 
ftill my obfervation is true, th*t Mejbti thii 
father's month will cotoe next before the 
Ton's month Thoth in the courfc of natUre , 
or order of time. 

Now Afr?/?/ hath aflurVl us, xM^vHam was 
the father of Mizraimy and ^dftchoniatho that 
Cronus vi^^s the father bfAf//3** ; but I have 
prov'd largely that Cr^w/ and Ham are th^ 
fame,' Remark the 11^. . . ' 

But now I add, that ^fffe*'is a moft an*- 
xMVit Egypt ianGoAy or, to fpeak mote pro^ 
perly, a man whom, after death /both th^ 
Egyptians and ^httnicians cbhfecrated, and 
worlhipp'd as a God, both under the name 
of Cronus J which Sanchoniatho y Diodonts 
Siculuszndi Tlutatch own, and alfo under 
the name of /r^w^», Amoun^ Hamfnmy acd 
and other names of near found with his tit^ 
brew name, differing little but ih the ter- 


Notes <?» ?^^ Table. 57 

fiunation, whidh arfe fdutnd'ihSpriptute, atnd 
in y/«^ari-^, and in others. ' 

Now we find that tjiis ^s among the E- 
^tiam the name of tjjat ^rtsat Deity, who 
atnon^ tWi^rteiiX^ call'd Zd6V; among the 
Romans Juflter, ■ This is clearly attefted 
both by Herpdottti) Ttutateht and tiejyvhius 
quoting Ar^oth a's fo afli.f miog. Hence the 
^aticityicaliy /!f<««w?^:iS?b by Mzek. xxjc. ty, 
t6. is by th^ "Sepua^nt tendered A««a«reA<f, 
\urhich is the urnalnatn^ among the Greeks 
f6t the Thekj!\£gypU. ' 
- Thus it's cidjr who waS the father of Mi- 
fivy eseti'^vji^iter Haimmony who Was fo 
greatly honotir'd, nOt 6nly b Egyp and in 
•Africa, but among the Greeks alfo, that -^-i 
/(Pflra»</pr would' needs be calPd hrs fon. It*$ 
dear that Menes is in Eratofihenes's inter- 
pretation own*d to be A'«f>(^, deriy'd from 
this Jupiter. 

To this head belongs the argument arifing 
fiiom the laying together the a^ertions of 
divers authors very ancient, and of good 
credit. Thus, 

Maj. Canaatfs father TPas Mizrahri% fa^p 
ther ; (becaufe they are aflbtted to be bro- 
thers, not only by .M)/?/, ^xitalfo by Eu}>Q'^ 

L t J 


j8 Notes <?» /^^ Tap LE. 

Min. The £ttber of Ifiris was Candan*i 
father; (hecaufe they are affirm'd to be 
brothers by SancboniiUbo^ 

Cpncl. TTierefore the father of Ifiris was 
Mizraim*s father. Now he is jknown to be 
Ham or Cronus^ the old Egypt Um Jupiter. 

This Ifi'is in Sanchtmiatbo is the Dune 
with v4e/( in HeUanicus afud Thtarchum, 
and he is confeis'd to be the fitme with the 
man commonly call'd O^is by 'Pfyitarch 
himielf, who deduces Ofiris from Cronus , 
whom we have prov'd to be H^m : And by 
this means not only Mi/or, or Mizraim, is 
prpv'd to be Menes-, but Ofiris alfo. 
. And becaufe this argument proves my 
corre^on in placing Mifir under Cronus to 
be true, which imports only that he was 
'Cronus't fon ; we may gather that Sancho- 
niatbo and Eratojihenes do yet farther agreC) 
viz. in this, that the three laflfucceiBons in 
$anchoniatbo, Cronus, Mifir, Tbotb, anfwer 
tlje three Eratojihenes, viz. Ji^iter 
fiammon imply 'd in him^, Menes, Jifbo^ 

X. The fame fon came from Mifir and 
MeHes. This is evident in the fucceflbr, or 
fecond of tl^e line, ^anchoniatbo palls him 
Thoth, Eratoftbenes Athoth. They have 
iche fame efTential qhara^ers for parts and 


Notes on the Table. 59 

learning ; tbe fame honour to be King in 
Egyp as foon as the firtt was dead. This I 
have farther cleared in my renwrks. 

3, The fame city was built by him who is 
caird Mifovy or Ofiris^ and hini who is call'd 
Menes : I inilance in Memphis. Herodotus 
exprefly affirms this to be built by Henefy 
the firft King. 

Bocbartde Animal, tells us it's c^U'd^^r 
neph by the Arabians^ fo that it carries \f^ 
name ; and hence it's probable, that ancient^ 
ly in Hebrew it was called Mempby now con- 
traftedly it's Mopb. The Greek name Mengi^ 
pbis is but a corruption of Menepbis. But 
the fame Bocbart alfq qwqs ip hi^ ^^^^^g^ 
that the Arabians call this city Mezer^ as 
the Turks call it Mie^^ir^ which plainly re- 
late to Mizraimy , or Mifir. 

4. It's prov'd that thefe two names flgni- 
fy the fame man , becaufe the fame great 
adtion of firft ruling and improving thp famp 
Kingdom, Egypt y is afcrib'd by Authors of 
unfiifpefted veracity tp Menes among thp 
Heathens, which by Mofesy and the Jewijh 

and Chriftians writers, is ^fcrib^d to Mizr 
raimy o^i^erwife c^U'^ Mijfbr. 

Now fincp there is good reafon to believe, 

tfa^t both Heathens on one fide, and the 

Je<9f^ apd Chriftiai^s on |l?e pth^r, fpgajc 


Sb Notes oii the Tab^** 

the truth concerning the founder of this 
Kingdom, we muft conclude that both fides 
mean to exprefs the fame man, tho' they ufe 
different names or titles belonging to him. 

f . As to the time of Mi&raim and MemeSy 
that it was the fame, I muft refer my reader 
to my chronological arguments towards the 
end of the book, which I hope will fuffici- 
ently prove Menes's time to Fall in thofe years 
t>f the world in which Mizraim liv'd , ac^ 
cording to the divine Hiftory of Mofes. 

6. The argument fi^m his death , that it 
was coincident with the time of the death 
of Atemsy or fucceflion of Thothj will be 
made good by the fame chronological proofs 
of the truth of my numbers in the table : 
For the death of each of thefe Kings is con- 
cluded to be at the fame time when his f«o- 
ceffdr's reign begins. 

Having thus briefly difpatch'd my argu- 
ments from natural topics, to evince that 
^i/&r and Menes are the fame nwn, whidi 
prove confequently, that Saachomatbo^s hi- 
ftory, ending in Mi fir" i death, which is fuf- 
ficiently imply'd by TA^/it's fucceflicm there 
exprefs'd, is truly continu'd with the be- 
ginning of Eratofthenes ; it will be feafon- 
able now to give an account in the follow- 
ing chapter of the name of Mtnes^ which'J 


Notes o»/^if Table: 6t 

judge to be oxi^mHlly \m.Meyotty sfid will 
fliew to be mention'd in the Scripture : 
Which may make this treatife more ufeful 
for Divines. 



• • - 

That Series's name h from Meon, menr 
itorid m Scripture : Whtch is here 
iJiuJl rated. 

THERE is evidence of this, which 
feems p me confiderable, in the 
holy Scripture; for altho' the name 
Meott be not found. there without compofi- 
tion , yet in cotopoiition it is found often ; 
and that in relation to fuch a heathen deity 
or idol, as that I can find nothing to anfwer 
. it, but this Menes or OJa-is^ the great deity 
of Egyff^ and other neighbouring people. 
We find, 
• t. Bt^ltMeon'mNumb.Tsxni. 38. xCbron. 

^. Wefind alfo Beth Me9H^ Jer, xlviii. zj. 

3. Thtere i« the fame place moft fully ex- 
, iwefe'd by the na;me of Betb-koAl-meon in 
: j^ii)^i,j^7- which '\% WeU exprefsil m the 
-J.: * margin 

6i t^oTEs OH the Tabli.. 

margin of our Bibles^ the houfe or temple of 
Baal'tneon. The Arabic tranllation in this . 
place leaves the Septuagint^ which it moftly 
follows, becaufe it is here plainly corrupted ; 
and the Alexandrine copy here differs from 
the Roman J and exprefles it 1 think well, the 
houfe of the idol Maon. 

Anfwerably alfo in i Chron.v.2. tht Ard^ 
tick verfion tzkcth Moon to be a proper 
name, or title. 

The Alexandrine copy of the Seftuagint 
hath Bt^ufM¥ in Jojhua^ only mifplacing one 
letter, as I conceive, for BcAjem^^; for fa 
that x:opy exprefleth it in the Chronicles^ 
calling Baal Bely which is commonly don^. 
And that name is to be underfiood as if it 
were written with a hyphen, thus, Baal- 
meoni fignifying the God or Idol Maon ; for 
it cannot be underilood otherwife in that 
place, ^^r.xlviii.23. where it's caird jB^/A* 
meon^ i. e. the houfe or temple of Meon, 
Nothing but a fuppos'd deity can be faid to 
have a temple dedicated to it. 

In this place therefore even the Vatican 
copy of the Septuagint expreflbth it rightly, 
•Ticci^ M^A^y. I fuppofe the reader will not 
wonder at the change of a vowel, a being 
put inflead of e ; nothing is more ufua! , 
wheSn a word pafleth out of one language 


T^oTEs OH the TAHLt. 6^ 

into another: And it^s known that ow^ fig- 
nifies a temple, when ir relates to a deity. 

Wherefore by comparing all thefe texts 
and trahflations, I judge we may fafely con- 
dude in general, thztMeon in them all, fig- 
nifies, or is the name of a God worfhipp'd 
by the Moabites and Amoritesy who dwelt 
in this town Beth^ or BaAt-metm^ before If- 
rael conquered it ; and the Heathens reco- 
vered it, when the Ifraelitijh Kingdom de- 
clined in the times oi Jeremiah and E^ekiel. 

But this conclufion will receive farther 
light by confidering , that Mojes tells us ex- 
prefly in the firft text wherein it is men^ 
tion'dj Numb.yasxA. 38. that after the con- 
quefl, when the -Reubenites rebuilt Nebo and 
Baal-meonj the names of thefe towns were 
changed ; for I doubt not but the reafon of 
the changing their names was, becaufe the 
Heathens had calFd the towns by the names 
of fome deities which were there peculiarly 
h(Kiour'd. Nebo relates to a deity, who was 
efteem*d greit in the perfeftions of a Prophet x 
fuch was th^ Egyptian Thoth^ or Hermes^ 
efteem'd among them : And the Se^tui^rnt^ in 
Ifa.Ys.%, fay, that in that town was an altar. 
But my concern is only about their town 
Baal-meBH , whoTe name was alfo changed , 
becaufe it related to the worfliipof Mean^ a 


iietthen deity, u^pT^ rcmembp^iaQQf, 2^19 
any honour, was to be blotted ofit. , ^ 

I know not what others wHl think of thefe 
obfervationsy wl^ch Ihave made concerning 
tfai^-A^M, in famany. texts of the Scriptures; 
bujC it feems, I c^nfefs, to n^, that hereby 
this Hebrew word has fuggefted to us thf 
true original of the name of Meitnt founder 
of the LydioM Kingdom , of whom I have 
treated in this book, and oiMenes (whom 
I. take to be th^ iame perfon, the termina^ 
ticm bnly being add^d by the Greeks) the 
iirit l^ing iviEgyPt |)ecaufe I can find no 
other deify'd man, to whom this idol Meoti^ 
was in any likelihood ereded. He was 9 
neighbouring famous deity^ near of kin alfo 
to the Canaanite^\ for Mizraim or Metfi^ 
was Canaan's brother. 

There is one circumilance relating to this 
Baat-nuoHy and divf rs other towns join'4 
with it in Scripture, which with it were 
taken from Sibon King of the Anwrites^ that, 
I obfervfd in the Seftuagint \ which I will 
propofe to coniideration, but will not build 
upon it, havingtotherfufilcient proof to (kr 
ti§fy my felf Tis this. That ail that trafi 
oflifid, which ifrJe^AxiU. we feveral times 
traoHate the plaia country* is in.the«K^«^ 
gint caU'd by a proper, namft Mifir, 60 it 

. . is 

• l>loTi.y on the Table. 6^ 

is Jojh.imi. 9,17, XI. fo again Jifjh. xxi. ^6. 
Our Roman copy cdls that countrey iJ///3, 
leaving out the ^ ; but the Alexandrine copy 
expreflfes it fully Mi/or^ and it is mentioned, 
again in tht Seftuagint^ Jer.ylvm.%1. 

I know that in moft of thefe places, the 
Hebrew word is the fame that is here not 
tranflated, but kept and put as a proper, 
name. Sure the Interpreters, being Jews^ 
knew what were the proper names of large 
trails of ground in their own nation. 

Moreover Mijor is not in the Hebrew in 
JoJh!ipsk^ji6\ yet it; i^ in the Seftuaginty andr 
wUgzY. Latin too;, 'a$. the. name of a. place. 
This has made me fometinies thlrdv, xhat a 
large traft of ground thereabouts wasfome^ 
time either inhabited by Mi/or before he 
went into Egyft^ or afterwards dedicated 
to- his honour as a Deity, when he was ca- 
noniz-d. Tis certain the place was not far 
from AJhteroth-Carnaim^ one of the feats 
of his father Cronus^ and therefore might be 
convenient for him to dwell in before he 
went into Egypt to be Kigg. 

And this Beth-meou being within thii,traft 
of ground, made me take notice* that here 
is a remembrance of both his titles , Mifor^ 
and Meon or Menes, But this only- in paf- 

H ling, 


66 Notes o« /^^ Table. * 

fing, which others may confider of farther^ 
if they think it deferves it. 

I will conclude this enquiry zhout Metm 
with a paflage which I obferv'd in theTir* 
gutn of Jonathan ben D&zielj ftrengthetfd 
and clear'd by comparing his notion with 
T/utarcbj and thefuggcftions Ihaveafready 
given. This Targum or Paraphrafe I con-, 
fiolted upon Numb.YSsii. 38, and founds 
that inftead of B^uil^meon he cxpreflgs it 
^ €lty of Balak , in which Ifrael deftrqfi 
the idol Peor, in the bouje of alt or Sy &c. 
I fiippofe he might in luperffitions nicety 
avoid mentioning the old honourable namq 
of the idol BaaUmeon. Probably alfo this 
town having been taken from the Moabites 
by Sihon^ he thought fit to call it the city of 
Balak J who was then King of Moah. 

But to our purpofe : He owns an idol 
here placed in a houfe of altars, which is his 
Periphrafis of its temple. That which moil 
furpriz'd me was, that inftead of Meon he 
calls it Tear. This I did not believe to be 
accurately done , • till I had well eonfider*d j 
and recolleded all that I knew about Baal- 
feor^ and had carefully compared it with . the 
rites of OJirts^ whom I think to be the fame 
^8if|sS^ Menes the firft Egypian King, and 


1^ oris Oft the TABLti 62 

Bnfequeritly all one with Meon mentioned 
by Mo/es. . But upon fuch confideration I 
think the Paraphraft hath done well to ex- 
prefs ^fem by P^cr,- although in fo doing 
he hath wav'd a title of honour given to that 
Deityj and taken defignedly a name of dif- 
grace, which yet charafterizeth truly the 
very lame perfon. 

Tlie Egyptians, and all his worihipper^ 
rfefign'd to honour him , when they call'd 
him Meoity as a perfon thdt gave them habi- 
tations, eilates, refuge, and all the benefits 
of a colony : Bat our Paraphraft, and with 

him other ;7^'''» '^y c^Ming him Tear intend 
to let us ^ow , that he was the God that 
fhews boa^ingly, publickly, his nakednefs ; 
that*s void of all modefty, and fo a friend to 
debauchees. This is the true import of 
¥eor, or Baal-feor, in the HeArett;: The 
fubjdR: is too immodeft to be fpoken of 

Hierof/t, who underftood the Eaftern 
learning very well, often tells us Teor is 
Tfiapu^t whofe naked flatue with enor- 
mous /»^4p»^4 is well enough known: And 
as to the Egypian Deity O fir is or Menes , 
whom the Paraphraft hereby intimates to be 
the fame with Teofi the fame is fufficiently 
tQofefs'dj even byy/»^<«rfA himfelf, in that 

Hi book 


6^ N o/TEs- on the Tab le. 

book wherein he labours to make: him one of 
|fhe better fort of Daemons, yea and declares 
him with nis wife to have rifen (till higher, 
unto the Hate of Gods, and therefore to 
have deferv'd to have the honour both of 
Daemons and of Gods mingled io. their fa- 
lemnities. Neverthelefs he there plainly tells 
us , that in Ofiris's feaft , ciU'd Tamjiia or 
Tamylitioj his fliamelefs Thal/i are carried 
in proceflion , and an image with an aOciau 
Tf/Trxda-^j a pudendum of thrice the ordina- 
ry bignefs : And Herodotus^ in his EuterpCj 
aiTures us, that it w^ made moveable. ^ Lu- 
cian calls it vdj^ooordrov 9 which tended to^ 
Ihew the moft obfcene poftures thereof 

I know what Thtarch faith to palliate this 
extravagant folly ; but fuch fliamelefs deeds; 
fpeak louder to refHroach fuch an immodefi: 
religion, than any man's mouth can who 
undertakes the defence of it. 


The fingle di(honourable mmt oi Baal^ 
feor importing this God of the Egyptians j 
Moabites and Amorites^ to be the Lord- of 
fuch filthy nakednefs, fuggefls more to make 
himjo^th'd, than all the fplendid titles which 
the Egyptians gave him can be able to re- 
move: And it's plain that OJiris is defer-. 
vedly caird the God of nakednefs ; . fb Baal 
/f^r properly iignifies , whofe nakednefs, or 

Notes on the Table. 6^ 

culom^ was ias big as all' the reft of his body, 
which Herhdoius aflTures us , after he had 
many -years- feen the pretended religious 
pomps oi Egypt ^ was ordinary in the image 
iacred (forfooth) to OJiris. 

^hdoViii Siculus^ in his firft book, gives 
a more hHlbrical and lefs drained account 
than Tlutarch of this obfcene religion, 
which heViflures us alfo^ that not only the 
Egyptians^ bat other nations, not a few, 
ufed towards the ^rtxov fto(/ov, not only in 
OJiri/s lifelefs image , but alfo in his living 
images, the Goat at Meftdes^ and I believe 
alfo in the Bull /^/V, and in Tan or FauHus^ 
the Sileni^ndi iSW^yrj*, when he faith, that 
they affirmed they thereby- gave thanks for' 
the ^ohvTmfidL , the numerous iflTue of their 

This carries fome ftie w of a reafon , be- 
caufe it is true that OJiris^ or Mizraim^ was 
for that caufe a founder of many Nations, or 
Colonies ; but it*s likewife true, that fo alfo 
were Jafhet and Senij and other long-liv'd 
men that defcended from them in the cen- 
turies near the flood : Yet we find no other 
Heathens defcended from them were ever 
fo ihamelefs in their religion , as thefe de- 
fcendents from Ham and Mizraim. Tho' 
I confefs indeed, thefe mingling with them 

H 3 in 

70 Notes on the Table* 

in after ages> did corrupt ibme ipMtof Afin 
theLefs> andGr^^r^alfOf and i^Mi^ in fome 
degree, with a mixture of their inunode^ 

And it is mod evident, tha( the memory 
and acknowledgment c^ God's incrtofing 
mankind wonderfully in the firil ages after 
the flood might much l^etter be fecur'd by 
fuch modeil Hiftory as that of Mpfisj than 
by their ihamelefs ihews and rude fQlenmt* 
ties. That excellent hymn oi^avid^ Tfaljcv, 
doth this buiinefs infinitely better, evpnone 
yerfe of it, f. X4, He increajed his feofU 
greatly^ and made them flronger than tbeif> 
enemies ; proves to their eyes, that without 
fuch a nally religion the true God did muU 
tiply his people before the Egyptians face$i; 
and in their own land, more than all the 
ihamelefs Gods of Egypt were able to dp 
for their worlhippers. But I mull no longer 
infift on this filthy fubjeft, which my defire 
to clear the Scripture notions of Tetfr and 
Mepn drew me into. 

I hope I fball be pardon'd , if after this 
evidence, which I think is conclufive, I 
propofe a conjecture concerning a paflage* 
which follows in Ben Vziziefs Targum^ 
wherein it's faid , that wben they deftmyd 
feor ofid his temple , they dejiroyd alfo the 

V city^ 


Notes oh the Table* 71 

city J whQfe wmSs encofnpsfs'd tk^t ttmfle^ 
and were notable for the names ^ their mi»t 
which were written ufon tkem^ and (§k the 
name of) Shiran. 

I find no way to underfiatui who i\m Shi^ 
ran was, wbofe name eminently was en- 
graven (Ml tjhefe walls ; but I gi^efs it means 
Pfirisy to whofe honour this temple and city 
'Was dedicaited. I ffaall be willing to be in* 
" form'd better, if I have guefs^d amifs. Let 
the learned confider, tliat thp light change 
of the termination is aimed conllant;, when 
words pafs out of one language into ano* 
ther, as here OJirls doth from the Egypim 
fpeech with a Greek terminaUOQ, into Shi^ 
ran with a. QhaUaan termination \ and for 
the leavii^ out of the vowel at the begin- 
ning, I have ihewo it to be ufual in my 
|>roofs, that Tho^ is the lame man with ^- 

However I fubmk my conjeftur^ to all 
better judgments , and profefs that I ihould 
neither have adventur'd to make it, sc»r to 
propofe it, if I had not firtt been convinced, 
xhat the thing which this relates to is irue, 
ibat M^on or Menes is the fame heathen God 
whom fbe Scripture calls Teor^ and chere- 
forp I ihink it probable, that another title of 
•tbeikai^iPeity, viz. 0/iris, gx iO ChaUee 

H 4 Shiran^ 

71 Notes o» if^ Table. 

_ ^ » 

Shirauy was engraven on the wall of the dry 
dedicated to his lervice. 

But it's more material to obferve , that 
the name Mean was in Mofis's time thougKt 
to import fo great honour to this Deity, that 
after the city was in pofleflion of the I/rae- 
lites^ it was fit that name (hoiild be chahg'd. 
This Mofis notes, Nnmh. xxxii. 38. -New 
names were given to-Nebo and B^ial-rf^on 
by the Reubenites^ who rebuilt them after 
they had been much ruin'd by the wtfr where- 
in they were conquered. Meon viiporttdi 
this faife God to be the founder of the hap- 
pinefs of that place, and their reftige in time 
of trouble; and therefore the Jews^ yea 
Mofis himfelf , gives this title to the true 
God, P/i/.xc.i. The Hebrew hzth Meof$y 
where we tranflate, Lordy thou haft been our 
dweUin^'flace^ inthat^Jalm of Mofis ; and 
fo alfo ^y2r/. xci. 9. Wherefore this title 
was thought too great to be allowed to a 
falfe God , within the dominions of the 
worlhippers of the true God. 

I conceive that for this reafon moft pro- 
bably it is , that when Ifiiah prophecies a- 
gainft Moab^ and mentions thefe parts there- 
of , he points at this city under th^ name 
Bajithi or Bethj leaving out the idol's 
name i^^^, I fa. xv. x. tho* he means the 


'SoTEs on the Tablil. 73 

town eaird Bith-meoHj as the neighbourii^ 
cities, lDiibon\ Neh, and Medeba may afliffe 
us, becanfe he was unwilling tormentibn the 
name that imported too great honour to him^r 
And the fmgle name Beth fignifying tht 
temple by way of eminence among them^ 
would fufficiently point out the place which 
he defign'd,it being certain there was no other 
city o{Moab call'd by that name Bajitb^ atfd 
that this waS riam'd from the temple for- 
merly there built. 

I am fenfiblethat in this account of i?^A 
/^^r, which I have been neceffitated to give, 
in order to clear my notion of Baal^meon^ 
I have relinquifli'd the learned Seldfn's judg- 
ment, who in his book de Diis Syris rejefts 
the notion which moft of the antients, efpe- 
cially Origen^ and Jerom^ and Thilojudaus^ 
had relating to fome turpitude, which they 
do not particularly defcribe ; yet iij general 
they all agree in that which I have more 
particularly fyecified. But I hope this dif- 
fent from him will be allow'd to me, fince in 
the main I concur with the moft learned 
among the Fathers, and have given my proofs 
for all that I fuperadd to their fuggeftions. 

Selden faith, that Teor was either a deify'd 
Prince , of which he gives no proof, or a 
fnountain of fuch a Prince's name, whereon 

74 Notes m the Tablr 

Ik was worihipp'd. Now tho' he doe^^ive 
tmn proof fr<Mn Nwnb. xxiii. x8. that there 
was the top of a hill caird Tear% yet th^ 
cvinceth not tjiat that bill was fo call'd from 
fji deify*d Prince's proper name, but on the 
jpooa^ry it will i^ill be ne^flary to in<}uire 
ji letter reafon (^ the name of that hill, 
V Now 'tis certain 9 that in all other places 
^ii^re the nacae Te^r is us'd , as it is twice 

1 7. and in all the places where it's join'd with 
MfaJj'^filk^ jupe many, it conftantly relates to 
pa idol or falfe God, and none of them, faith 
be^ was worlhipp'd on that mountaiii. Nay 
ihat iingte place cited by him, Beth-feor^ 
IDept, 3cxxiv. 6. which be rightly affirms to 
lignify his tem{rfe, yet gives us no intimation 
that it was on 4 hill, as he aiTerts without any 
proof; nyuch lefs doth he prove that it was 
ihis bill menticm'd Numb, xxiii. 2 8. 

On the c^itfrary, the Se^tuagint conflant-^ 
ly tranilates all the places where we expreis 

irv^iigamft Beth-peor, in the valley near Pe- 
er. So©^i;^^iii.z9. i\.^6. xxxiv. 6- whic{» 

rather intimates that Bethhpeor was in a val* 

ley than on a hill. And in Jojh. xiii. 17. 

Beth-bna.Umeon is expreflly faid to be iii the 

plain, aud fo is Bethfew^ mentioned jr. xo. 

Intimated to be. For all thofe cities, from 


Notes a» /i6tf Table. ^y 

i^e 17^ ti9 ^%o* inciiifiirdiy, tfeaffiiin^ 
f. 17. to be cities in theplain^ only one of 
^m beii^ d^lio^ly marfcVl, viz. Zmrefbf 
findiMT to be on a XQQUQt n^ iti^thit l^px 
phin CQtmtrey. 

For thefe reafons I believe aad aftinni 
tlu|t Tear is pnmarily the name of an id(4, 
fsA I\haye fliewn why I think it a name 
given in reproach : We find it only ns'd by 
^twi in Scripture and Rabbinical books; 
there's no evidence from heathen authors, 
that my of them called their God by this 
name. Tni^s indeed comes very near it* 
and I eafilygraiit that the Heailiens were left 
modeft than the pious Jtw^ yea fometimes 
g;Ioried in their ffaame : But &S!i they guve 
inore honourable titles to their Gods, «Qd 
the Scripture chufeth to give them diflio- 
nourable names, and fuch I affirm this to be ; 
though the Heathens wore not fo afliam'd of 
beaftly nake4ne^ as mibdefly required them 
to be. 

Now I have obferv'd, that there are twelve 
placi?s of Scripture, in which ^^r, either a- 
lone or in compoiition, iignifies an idol, and 
but one place i^ere it can fignify a hill ; and 
no proof of a teopiple , or fo much as an al- 
tar there to that idol God. It's certain alfo, 
that this hill was near the plain in which 



. x6 Notes a» thi Tiab^li;;. 

\i6dk'Baai^me9k ds^ JSefb-^r flood ; To 
tbatiromzdiQade tfarwhok pkm^ oiM^aij 
wherein //^if/ ehcafiip'd^ after the cooqueft 
^S$h$mj idighl^ Teen : • Wherefore I ju<^e 
that the hill was fo nam'd from the adgki 
bouriog city, temple, or idol-god; as if we 
ihoiild call it the hill of Teor^ becaUfe it ky 
OAor within it^ bounds, Gvarlodk'd-it-^ 
belonged to it. ^'tkiSMf the tiill might be 
land given to^i^or, or he might have anal*. 
tWi axemplby a grove, -a {nUar there, tlib' 
there be nd proaf of it: rYeb Ml I think 
rather the hill to ti&e ii^ namelirbm tlie idol^ 
God, >than the C^bd to take his name fram 
the hill. • rv - : 

As for the Word ^wb ?^?y^r, I know the 
Vcftb it« root isf very^feldom us'd in Scripture, 
and in the modefteft fenfe relating to the open- 
ing of the mouth ; but that it hath an obfcene 
fenfe alfo, is not denied by Mr. Selden himfelfi 
who acknowledges not only the judgment 
of Origen and Jerom^ befides other ancient 
Chriilian writers, to bepftain to this pur- 
pofe ; but alfo 'I^hilo JudiHus^ . Mdimonides^ 
J archly and other j^^wj, tb be of this mind. 
I will not defend the litewl fenfe of fome 
nafty poftures , which fome Rabbins affirm 
to have been us'd in the worfliip of Teor ; 
but I am prone to think that they thereby 


I • 

N QT E s &n the T a b l e. 77 

idid iratber intitoate fpine other impurities; 
whicli they tl«)ught not fit plainly; to es^jrefs; 

Amongfl: tnodern Lexicographers, the beft 
light to this fenfe of the word is given by 
I^. C?/?/f,' from. the Chalde^ fignification of 
-^^f^p^yar^'deHMdmxitj ^nd by Qonrade'.Kirn 
th§r^ in \x&Omartimti/e Tolychrefia^ .under 
the fame root,: The reader^ may confult 
thefe, fof I take no pleafure in tra'nfcribing. 

: Thus much I thought, necefiary: to fay in 
defence of what I have written: concerning 
Teor^ becaufe I am perfuaded that it tends 
to make many places, of Seripcufe better 
underflood, by help of thofii clear arguments, 
\s\i\Qk\HerodotMSi Tlutarch^ and other ^r^^^ 
authors give us of the 0ct»^o<pQ(/a, in Egyp 
Md Greece y to which impure folemnities I 
believe theCanamiUs^ and tbeir, neighbours 
of MoaA znd Midisn^ did conforpi as to tbi3 
fubftance ; for circumftantiaj differences ever 
were in different countries, and in different 
times are in the fame nation. -^ 
^ After this largejproof from Scripture that 
ilf(f»w under the name Meon was known and 
worihipp'd in part of Canaan^ I ftjall briefly 
jihew, why I think he was khown and ho- 
noured alfo in Greece by the fame nanje. 

Tiufaniasj in his Ettacu , near the £x\d , 
tells us there is in Elts an old theatre, be- 

^8 i^ofEsdn theTABii: 

tween the mdrket-pitice and the temple of 
Jdenes: So I uoderfbiid his words, ^iT«|^ 
^ «.y«(jft Xj ff MfivtH' becaufe immediateljr 
after he fays, the theater and the temple Vb- 
kmgs to £kiirv(rof ot Bocchus. Now Her6d$» 
t*Sy and 'Di$dorux, and 'Piuta^cbi by many 
teafons have afFor'd me, that *t>ioHyfits and 
O^hy who is Metiesy are the Ikme perfon i 
and I doubt not but Taufamas hifre inti- 
mates the fame thing ; for be goes on t6 
tell how religioufly the Eleans worfliipp'd 
this God, wlK>fe temple he ciA&Menioni li> 
terally the tem]de ofMtnes ; the God of it 
is ^DtonyPusy and that he fills miraculouily 
the empty vefiels plac'd in. his temple with 

I know that AmafieM tratiilates Mi^Wk by 
^ianimn, as if it were deriv'd from M^nit 
the Moon , as Sylburgius fuggefls ; but tins 
is altt^ther ihconfiftent with the Authdr's 
direA affirmation, that the temple belonged 
to DiotiyfuSi and the whole ifaream of the 
context. And a little before Taufiniai 
mentions, in another place, theflatueoftbe 
Moon by the name of Selenty and not Mene, 
and tells us that flatue had horns on ki» 
head : Wherefore I doubt not but this 
temple, call'd MenUm, and expounded to 
be\ongto*DioMjffitf, mvt&ht Mepes% whom 



NoTtsm the Table* 7^ 

we have fo mach proof to be ^ionyjks^ or 
Liber Tater^ as the Rmums caH'd him. 

It will not be feafonable here to coalirni 
the Greeks correfpondencies with Eg^ id 
the eldeft times , though afterwards theitt 
was ar long intermiliion y by infixing largely 
on the voyages of Ofi^is and Ifis hither » 
which Eufebius iii his fec(»id book relates 
out of T^iodorus : Or to add the if^KOve^ 
ment by fowin^, &c. (aid to be broiight in- 
to Greece by Ifis^ caH'd Aiyjwjfny^ in Graekj oP- 
ten own'd in ^aufanias ; Or to ralarge oa 
the temi^e of IJisy laidet the name of Hjh 
geiay jE/cMla/ius zodjffolh th^ Egyptians 
zt Ej^idaurMy mentioned in hkC^rmtkiaca^ 

Let it fuffice to have mentioned thefe 
proofs, to which more ibight be added t 
but then I ihonld digrefs too fiir from my 
mam concern, which wis to prove the con- 
tinuation of San€kmiath& to be made by 
EratoftbeneSy becaufe Mifor and Theth ia 
Sanchtmiatho ate the fame with -Mw^j and 
Atbothes in Erateftfienes. The former of 
thefe I hope I have fufficientfy prpv^ , and 
farther clear'd , by giving evidence that Mis^ 
nes was only a title of honour given to Mi^ 
fory becaufe he was the founder of the Egyf^ 
ttan colony, and of many more plantations. 



8o Note's on the Table. 

There will nbt need mucJbi to be added 
to prove the latter, viz, that Tboth and ^ 
thotbes arc the (ame man meiftion'd in thefe 
Wo Authors. Therefore I will here only 

I. That I have given in my Remarks a 
fufficient Account of that fmall difference, 
which is in the name fo varied by them who 
prefix^ to 7i&^^. 

X. As to the nature df the thing , I ob- 
ferve that it's clearly affirmed , that Thoth 
was Mifir's fon, by Sanchoniatho ; and that 
Atbotbts was the fon of Menesj and his fuc* 
cefTor in the Government, as is plainly af- 
ferted by Eratoftbenes. Now fince Mi/or 
and Ments are before[prov'd to be the fame 
perfon, it mufi follow that the fon and fuc* 
ceifor immediately to him* in the fameKing-^ 
dom muft be one and the fame man ; that 
is, that Thoth v^Athothes^ which was to be 

It's fome confirmation in this matter, that 
Manetho alfo confents to ^ Eratofihenes in 
this fucceffion, altho' he differs from him 
in the Kings that come after this firfl ella- 
blifhment of the Kingdom. And I wonder 
not at their agreement about thefe two great 
founders^ of the monarchy, becaufe they 
were men of greater renowiuhan their fuc- 

cefTors j 

J^ or ts Oft the TA^it. St 

cSxSi and fo their memory was better 
kept both in hiftory, and in the traditions 
of the Egyptian Religion ; for both thefe 
were confecrated into Gods commonly call'd 
by the names OJiriSy and Orus, or Hermes 
among the Greeks. 

It's probable that Thoth, or Orust died a 
violent death, becaufe TUttarch intimates, 
that it was fo reprefented in the Egyptian 
tradition both con<;erning hitn and his mo*- 
ther Ifis ; but he thought fit to cut that off 
in the narrative, which he had delivered, be- 
caufe it ieem'd to him diihonourable to their 
Religion. He did well to cell us, that he 
left this out, dfe we had not known any 
thing of the manner of his death, which he 
faith Was iiafu^Kri*@^ , by tearing him lindb 
from limb. This hinting to me fomething 
of tumultuary violence, hath made me think 
diat he was kill'd and torn in pieces in fome 
fedition ; or perhaps the Thtenicians in\£» 
SJft under Beon the fecond King conquer'd 
him , and that his Kingdoih thereupon was 
divided into many, and fo weaken'd; 

But I muft not indulge ccHijedufes, but 
keep to Eratojihenes^s Laterculusy whofc 
title affures us , that his immediate fuccef- 
for had the fame name, and that all his fuc- 
ceflbrs were Theban Kings, which intimates 

I that 



Si Notes o»3f^e.TABLt, , 

that they govern'd part biVppef Egypt ; but 
tells us not how much that Kingdom Was ar 
Any time larger than the Province Thebais. 

Neverthelefs it is fufficient co my defigOf 
which is to find howlong before the Olym- 
piads Menes founded the Kingdom : For this 
feries brings u& dc^nto' the time oSNiluSy 
and his diftance from the firfifc Olympiad is 
determin'd by 7)ic£archus in that part of 
him which is preferv'd for us by the Scho* 
Haft on ylpoUonius^ 

And bccaufe theiiote (which in Scatiger\ 
edition cff this Eratofthenaan Canon is a&- 
nex'd toMaresi informing us* that thenthefe 
Thebans began their Dynafty over the Egyp- 
tians diilingui(h*d from them) fufficiently 
indicates, that then Tethmojis's reign began 
in Lower Egypt ^ whofe time we have in this 
treatife 'fafterfd ; we have b^^eckoning 
backwards found that the beginning of Me- 
ms , deducibk from this note , differs not 
much from that place, which he mufl; hav^ 
if we rcckcwi backwards from the firflOlym-* 
piad ta Nilus , according to T>k^archui^ 
find add thereunto all the years affign'd to all 
^ the Kings before him^ This near agreement 
in calculations, founded on feveral authors^ 
ilrengthens the teftimonies of them all. 


, K oris on the TABLtk 8^ 

i^everthekfs, that I might give the fuileft 
fevidence that I cin iind to the time ofMe^ 
m's founding the Egyptian Kingdom, I 
have added feveral other prodft deduced 
from the moil credible and ancient authors^ 
whom I find to give any light in this matter % 
Particularly from H^rodotus's Myris (whom 
1 take to be the Meres Thihfophus in Era^ 
toftbenesj I have deduced an a^proadh as to 
the time of Meres^ fo to the times of all the 
Kings linked together in this Ganon, incl 
particularly to Menes's beginning. . _ 

From Jo/e^hus I have takeii aiiother ap^ 
proach ; for he tells us that the firft Tha^ 
raohy the founder of Memphis ^ was caird 
MiHieusi which is Menes. Another from 
!P/i»y, founded on Anticlides\ proofs; \ 
have Argued it froni the time of the Babylo- 
«/j^ Monarchy^ whi^h Was founded not long 
before that t>i Egypt j and ffcJm the timSf of 
the Lydian Kingdom founded "but a littld 
after it. All thefe relating to the titne be- 
tween the firft Cataclyfme i the Flood i and 
the Olympiads , I have (Sonjpar'd with thc^ 
judgment off^at^ro in that matter, Whb faith 
modeftly^' that this interval, Noh piane qui^ 
def^ fciHtVi^ fid tdmeH ad mille virciter ^ 
fixseHfos annoi ejfi cte^itur\ intimating 

\ % that 

j84 Notes oh theT ab le. 

that fpace of time to be prudently believed 
to be about 1600 years- 

And this agrees well with all my accounts, 
and with the numbers in the fiebrew text, 
which point at the time of Ham^ and con- 
fequently of his fob Mizraim^ who is our 
Menes. For if we count backward from 
the firft Olympiad, which by Armagh\ num- 
bers, adjutted to the Hebrew accounts, fell in 
the year of the world 31x8, we fhall find by 
the numbers in my Eratofihenaan table, 
that there were 1387 years between the firft 
Olympiad, and the beginning of Menesy 
which therein is plac'd in the year of the 
world t^i) as this fubdudion proves* 


Now from this beginning o( Menesto thtf 
Flodd) the diflance is found thus : Subdud 
from 1841, the year o^ the Flood i6y5, there 
remains Imt iRf, in which time Mizrdim 
muil be born,' and Noah's family, or thofe 
who Were proferv'd in the Ark , rouft in- 
creafe , fo that a branch thereof might be 
fent to plant jB^>/f. And the name of E* 
gjipf in Mo/es*s writings) and among the J" 


Notes on the Table, 85: ^ 

rabtMs^ relating to Mizra'm^ the name of 
phe fon of Ham^ there is no reafon to doubt- 
but he was the foun4er of that Kingdom, aj 
Eufolemus alfo affirms he was; And our 
Sanchoniatbo's Mifor being but the lingular 
number of Mi&raimy we are brought to the 
latter end of his Genealogies , which will 
lead us ftill backwards to Trotogonus. 

Only it's requifite to perfeft agreement 
with Mofesy that thi^ part of my correftiom 
be admittedi that Mijbr be placUin Cronm*$ 
line, which I hav^jjhewn tp be reafonable 
and neceflary already, bec^ufe not only iWb-- 
fes\ Genealogies fo place Mizraim^ but Eur 
folemus and the Babylonians under the name 
Meftraim aijign him to l?e of Cr onus's ifliie : 
And Tlutarfh and l^fodorus Skulus^ fay the 
fame of Ofirisj whofe name and natural lii- 
peage I have Ihewjd tQ be the, fame with 
Uizraim\ . - 

I thirij?: I need ^dd nothing tp fliew, that 
the reckoning forwards from the beginning 
to the Olympiads, proves the fatafe thing. 
The Qr4^rly rifing of the mimbers by the ad- 
jditioijiofpaqb generation's time, and of each 
King's reign, to them that go before, makes 
fhat clear, ; Thus much therefore may fuf»- 
$ce tp lead /the reader into the chronolc^'- 
Wl part of this book, which came intp my 

"^ I 3^ niind 

88 Notes oh the Table. 

fPriaf^us ii Auvwri^. ^iodorus aird Herodo^ 
tus^ and others, efpecially y/ir/^arfA, fully 
prove, that the Greek Dionj/us is the fame 
perfop with the Egyptian Ofirls : The fame 
that's laid by Athemeus is affirmed alfo by 
the Scholiaft on Theocritus. 

So that if we allow Suidais affirmation 
to have fome truth , that Orus in fome de* 
. ^ee anfwcr'd Triapus^ yet OJiris more emi- 
. nently, as is clear by greater authority than 
Suidas can pretend to ; and even Suidas 
himfelf, a little before his words relating to 
Orusj faith exprellly, that Triapus is the 
fame with T)ionyJus : So that whatever way 
he is reconciled to himfelf, the fame way he 
is made to agree to me. 

To conclude thefe notes, I think it will 
be needful to ad vertife my reader, that this 
table, and the notes thereon, being writ- 
ten after I h?id finiih'd my two books on 
thefe two ancient authors , might mofl na* 
turally be plac'd at the end of both the 
.book$ : But becaufe moil readers defire to 
Jcnow, before they take much pains, what is 
the lail end and defign of the work that is 
to be iludied ; I thought it convenient to 
place this table at the beginning of the hiilo- 
rical difcourfc. 


t^oTts m theTABLi:. 8.9 

In fliort therefore, I will tell him, that I, 
in two different years, had two very different 
ends in this writing. At firft I only defign'^ 
fome explication of Sanchoniatho alone, and 
therein particularly the moft ancient hiftory 
of the original^ growth , and alterations of 
idolatry, as here affian'd by a heathen to be 
begun by Genus^ whom I ihew to be Caiu^ 
to be continued in his line only to the Flood, 
and afterwards to be reviv'd by Cronus or 
Ham^ both notorioufly wicked men; and 
in his ifTue to be altered into the Egjfptian 
mode under Mizraim and his fon Th^th. 
But after t had finifh'd the firil book, and 
part of the fecond, I found that much light 
would be given to the times that I had pitched 
on before, by a chronological back-reckon- 
ing, from the Canon of Eratofil^enes^ whofe 
end \ found plac'd at a known diilance from 
the Olympiads. 

This confideration engaged me to fludy 
and write the greatefl part of my fecond 
book, efpecially the four lafl fedions there* 
qL This I apply'd my felf to, the more wil- 
Jingly and chear fully, becaufe the imminent 
danger of idolatry, which chiefly I at firfl 
•Intended to oppofe, was hjappity blown away 
before my book was fitted for the preft. 
Now therefore t3a& JEratofibenaan chrono- 


ipo Notes on the Table. 

logy, that at once agreed with our Bibles, 
tttid tended to give fonie light and confir- 
Biatibn to Sanchoniathoj feein*d to challenge 
my endeavours, and they have pf oduc*d the 
four latter feftions of nyrfecond book. 

I believe that both thefe defigns of mine 
may be of good ufe to the Church, not on- 
iy now, but in ages to come : For the know- 
ledge both of the nature and original of ido- 
latry, and alfo the confent of heathens with 
the accounts of Scripture, will always tend 
to the eftabliffiment of mens minds in the 
true Religion, not only in oppofition to 
heathenifm, but alfo in the controverfies 
with the Romaniftsy who participate of the 
heathen corruption, both in many idolatrous 
practices, and in leiTening the authority of 
the Scriptures. Againft them ther|efore, 
and againft all attemptei^s to fubvert the 
foundation of our Religion, let my endea- 
vours be underftood to be oppos'd. 

I have often declared in the following 
^ooks, that I will manage no controverfy 
-with thofe learned men, who think the 
numbers in the Samaritan copy of the Vefh 
taieuchy may be preferred to tht Hebrew j 
becaufe thefe agree that the Scripture is the 
rule of faith ; nor yet with thofe that chufe 
the Sepuagint\ number's in this cafe, altho' 

^ thefe 

Notes o» /)&^ Table. pi 
thefe depart farther from the Text. I have 
tried to reconcile them with thefe accounts 
of heathen hiftory ; Others perhaps may 
more fuccefsfuUy perform that work , efpe- 
cially to make the Samaritm numbeh frbm 
the Flood downw^ds , to agree with the 
diftance of Menes from the Olympiads. I 
fliould be glad to fee that done. 

In the mean time I fatisfy my felf, that in 
this work I have at once fliew'd my good af- 
feftionto the Scripture, and to thofe twd 
moll ancient hiHorians , who have writtea 
of the eldeft times of the world. The fuitt 
oftheirconclufions is pointed at in the tabl^ 
and their eonnedion clear'd in thefe notes. 
But the premifes and chief evidence whence 
^hefe conclufions are gather'd, are exprefs'4 
\a. th:e two books following. 




That Chna is Canaan, and his brother 
. Iliris « Ofiris or Mizraim, caWd 
Hyfiris by Hellanicus. Plutarch'j 
mfjftkal tahh de ICde & Ofiride, 
■ tho' coHUunmg many things relating 
to later times than Mizraim'j life, 
yet hath alfo many other things agree- 
able to Sanchoniatho'f hifiory of 
elder times. ^ 

OHUS much, as our Author affirms 
himfelf to luve taken from the me- 
moirs of thefe ancient Cabirit I de- 
fign to confider diligently. The 
f^ being only intimation, that iirfi fome 
j'hicnicians had fpoil'd this hiitorical account 

Remarks on the History. ^^ 

with allegories, and then that the Greeks 
had corrupted them ftill farther j I conceive 
not fo well to deferye my pains, and there- 
fore will pafs it over. 

Only there i§ a little paflage of fcarce three 
lines, that I muft not negleft, becaufe it 
fuggefled to lAe fomething material in my 
opinion, towards the clearing the time when 
this hiftoryctids} which is manifeftly before 
Cri)ms's death , who is left here reigning > 
and conffituting feveral Kings under him , 
but not a word is fpoken of the end of his 
reign- But, /. 39- D. after complaint that 
fome even in Thteniciaj the firft of whom 
\k^as the fon of ThabioHj had darkned this 
hiftory by allegories and myftical fables ; he 
adds, One ofthefe was\{m%^ the inventer 
pf three letters^ the brother of that Chna, 
who was firft caWd a Phoenician. 

Here we have mention of C&»i^, concern- 
ing ^hom it is generally agreed among the 
learned, that he is Canaan the fon of Ham^ 
and the brother of Mizram^ and the mah 
from whom the countrey, fome time com- 
prehended under the later name of Thtenh 
€ia as a part of it, is and anciently was called 
the land of Canaan. 

And there is good reafon that all fliould 
own this , becaufe althb' we make Ca the 

6 ' firit 


04 Remarks on the HisTORt. 

firft fyllable in the word Canaan ; yet thi 
Jews did not fo , but the ^heva joins theJ 
letters C and n into one fyllable, making it. 
Cnaan. And ^A//^ imitated his own coun- 
try pronunciation, and only left out the 
terminating^letter n of the ThiBnican wordi 
which is not ufual in Greek \ yet compen* 
fating the lofs of it by long pronunciation ^ 
or circumflexion of a. Accordingly Ste^ 
fhanus Eyzantinus^ who liv'd about thoi 
fixth Century, and feveral times quotes our' 
Thi/oByifliusz^a good author, without the 
leail intimation of charging forgery on him, 

expounds ;^^t ^rc^^ ii (pomKfi hcaXSii ; again f 
7D iGviKov rojuTfjg %>fltp** That is, Chua is Vhtt^ 
nice or Canaan , and Chndi are the Canaan 
nit 6s. And it's certain that the countrey 
and the man Canaan have the fame name p 
the countrey deriving its name from him. 

Now becaufe the time of the Man d- 
naan is known to be fix'd by Scripture 
chronology, wherein 1 fliall chjife to fol* 
iow our Archbifhop VJher^ and the Hebrew 
.text, yet not defpifing either the Septua^ 
^int% ox the Samaritan numbers ; it fol* 
lows that we know thereby alio the time of 
liis brother //&•/>, who is Mifor^ the father 
of Thoth , becaufe he mufl be his contem- 
porary : And we find Canaan's time to be 
^ within 

. Remarks on the History. ^^ 

wkhin the fecoiid and third Centuries after 
the Flood, while his father Cronus was alive ; 
for I will not prefume a nicer determina^ 
tion. Whence we may gather, that all aJ^*- 
cboniatbo's hiflory is bounded within thofe 
ages, it beginning with the firfl: man Tr<>x 
togomts^ and ending with Thoth's reigning 
in Egyp by Cronns*s grant , juft after bis 
father Mifor. 

To tonfirm this farther , k muft be ob*- 
ferv'd , that our author has fet down from 
IProtogonus to Cronus eleven generations in* 
clufivdy, which I have niark'd with fuitable 
numbers ; and I infer , that to Canaan th^ 
ion of Cronus there muft be juft twelve ge^ 
nerations : And if we compare Mofe/s Get 
nealogies from Adam to Canaan the fon of 
Ham^ you will find juft fo niiany generations. 

This obfervation gave me the firft light I 
had towards the underflanding of this dark, 
hiftory ; and therefore rho' it begins with 
the latter end of the hiftory, yet becaufe it 
-enlightens by going b^ck to the beginning, 
I make it my firft remark. 

But to clear this matter farther, let us try 
to find out this7/?m, who is own'd as C^i 
naan\ brother. To this purpofe I remem* 
•ber, that Tint arch de IJide ® OJiride dTures, 
that HeUanicHs^ an author whom GeUius. af- 



9^ Remarks on the History. 

• ■ 

firms to be older than Herodttus, faith, he 
often heard the Priefts in Egypt pronounce 
that name Hyjirist which therefore is to be 
cfteem'd his true name, of which the Priefts 
took great care : And it's known that in the 
Greek old infcriptions there is no mark of 
the Ajpirate or Hi and v and * have a found 
l^ery near each other : So that Hyfiris in 
Hellanlcus will be of the fame found with 
Ifiris in Thih^ and confequently each of 
thefe will be the fame with Ofiris^ wherein 
there was no fuch AJplrate as the Prieft in 
Hellanicus pronounced ; and OJiris will be 
€letermin'd to be Canaan^s bi^other : Which 
tends much to. clear the times of antiquities 
remaining in Tlutarch^ about the Egyptian 
Keligion there veil'din a fable. 

Tlutarch labours many ways not confift- 
ing with each other , to explicate that long 
fable, fo as might bring the Egyptian rites, 
which then were in difgrace at Rome^ into 
favour with that city, as confiding in fub* 
jftance with the Religion of Rome^ and othet 
heathen countries, efpecially Greece. I muft 
not digrefs to fliewhow unfuccefsful be is in 
that attempt , only obferve , that he was a 
friend to the allegorical way, and very fliy 
of the iiiftorical way of owning , that their 
Gods had been men , which is the buGnefs 


Remarks on the History. 97 

of Sanchoni^fbo to prove by hiftory of their 
births and aftions from the beginning. Ne* 
verthelefs Tlutarch owns fome hillorical 
paflages, which I fhall note. 

And his judgment, after he had delivered 
the hiftory in their myftical way, and many 
ways of allegorizing it , is this : That tho' 
he Jikes none of them taken alone , yet he 
thinks , that taking them altogether, they 
deliver the truth. Now this to my under- 
fianding founds no otherwife, than if he 
had frankly confels'd, that there is an hifto- 
rical fruth at the bottom ; but it muft be 
improved by addition of many things natu- 
ral, moiialy and theological, to make the 
old Egyp$An Religion, which iS fo like our 
Romm and Greek Religion, look more di- 
vine than in its naked nature ( which only 
hiftory reprefents) it will diO. 

But I would firft fix this Ifirls to be the 
man whom Mofis defigns by the name i^fi;2;- 
rAtm. To which purpofe I confider with 

I. That the name Mizraim is moft com- 
monly the name of Egypt, and its people ; 
and is a word in the Dual number, not ori- 
ginally defign'd to note a fmgle man, but a 
large countrey confifting of two parts , JE- 
gy£tus fuperior call'd Thebais , and inferior 

JC calj'd 

5^8 Rema-rks on the History. 

caird Tielta. Hence it is often fet to figni- 
fy the country ; but only twice, viz. in the 
Genealogies, Gen.x. and i Chron/i. us'dto 
fignify one of the fons of Ham : And in 
thofe Genealogies naany names of people, 
defcended chiefly from fome one man, are 
reckoned as the names of a man's fons. So 
Ludim^ Anamtm^ Lehabim^ Naphtubimy Va^ 
thrujimy Cajlubim^ Caphtorimj are fet down 
as the children of Mizratm ; meaning, that 
they were Nations defcended from x}^^ Egyp- 
tians^ viz. their colonies. 

Wherefore I think it probable, that this 
fon of Ham^ had for his title fometimes Afi- 
/dry fometirties IJir or''T<r#g, both words be- 
ing from the fame root 'yav yatzar^ fignify- 
ing to rule or reftrain ; the difference of the 
names being only, that the fervile letter -Af 
is fometimes added, fometimes omitted. 

And as Iconceive Ofiris to be only an ap- 
propriated title of honour, fignifying the 
Prince; fo I believe the name of his wife 
Ifis tobejT^N IJhahy that is, the Wife, %ai? 
dnoyofccuristvy by Way of eminence ; juftasthe 
Saxon word , the Queen , fignifies no more 
than, the Wife. The change in the termi- 
nation is natural, ig being a Greek foeminin© 
termination , into which the n the Hebrew^ 
foeminine termination is changed. 



Remarks on the History. 99 

Neverthelefs my argument to prove OJi- 
risy or Ifir is J ioh^ Mizraim^ doth not bear 
upon thefe difputable etymologies, but up- 
on the natural relation that was between 
this perfon and Canaan his brother, and on 
the famenefs of their times , which will af- 
terwards farther appear in my chronological 

But here I confirm the famenefs of Miz^, 
ram (who as founder of the diftinft Monar-^ 
chy of Egypt bears conftantly in Scripture! 
the fame name with the countrey) with O/^ 
m, which name is moft us'd in heathen 
writers for the founder of the fame Monar- 
chy, ixovti^^\^z^\ViT)todorus Siculusj quo-* 
ted by Eufebius^ lib. z. Traparat. where he 
afliires us ^ that Ofiris having married Ifis i 
many ii)ays promoted the good of that King^ 
dom ; but efpeciaUy by building the chief tity 
thereof caWd by the Greeks Diofpolis [but 
the Jews call'd it Hammon No ] arid there-^ 
in ereBing the temple of his parent Si whom 
the Greeks caWd ZA and'H^ ; but the 
Egyptians are known to call his father A^ 
muny as the Jews Ramon or Hafnx 

But if any contend, with SMen^^ that th^ 
haitie Ofris is rather to be deriv'd from 1^/- 
hor, the old name of Nile^ or from 2ei^(^, 
us'd either for the Dog-ftar or for the Sun, 

K ^ h« 

too Remarks on the History. 

he doth not hurt my argument : Por the 
founder of the Monarchy, and of T>iof^o- 
lis^ will ftill i)e the fame man, who is caird 
Mizratm the fon of Ham by Mofes^ and 
OJiris the fon of Jufiter Hammon by ii« 
heathens; for neither Nile^ nor thp Sun, 
nor the Dog-ilar, can build cities and 

a.- That there is no other brother of Ca- 
naan that may fo well pretend tp be IJiris^ 
as he, his two other being Cujh and Thuty 
Gen. X. 6. pujh and his ifTue is feated in 
Jljfyria m,^ Arabia^ and Thut^ and his ifTue 
in Africa ; whereas this Mizralm^ and hii 
family, are by all acknowledged to beplac'd 
and to govern in Egyp : Wherefore he, as 
a man of greater authority in it , in things 
both civil and facred, is mofl: likely to have 
bad influence fufEcient to introduce that 
allegorizing way mention'd by our author. 
And he alfo, upon farther fearch, will be 
found to be even ^he fubjeft or matter of % 
great part of the fabulous allegory, in the 
telling and afting of w^ich much of the pub- 
lick Religion did confift : Ifiris and Ofiris 
being one name pronounced with one diffe- 
rent vowel only, fince all know that vowels 
are ordinarily changed upon the flighteft 6c- 
icafions in the Eaftern languages, whofe fub- 

^^ ftancq 

Remarks on the History, ioi 

fiance and roots lie in their confonants. 

One objeftion lies agaifttt this, viz. that 
he intimates his O/lris to be a Thoenician^ 
whereas ordinarily he is reckoned an Egyp^ 
tian. I anfwer, our author being a Thceni^ 
cian^ is zealous for the honour of his coun- 
trey, to affert as many great men to be his 
countrymen , as may with any reafon be af- 
firm'd to belong to it. Accordingly here , 
tho' Mizraim and Ttoth reign'd in Egyp^ 
yet he intimates that their birth and breed- 
ing was in ThtBnicia^ whence, we acknow* 
ledge, they afterwards removed to dwell 
and reign in Egyp : Arid it's rational tb 
think , that Canaan or Thtenice being hear- 
er tb the place where mankind was repaired 
after the Flood , was fooner peopled , and 
government was fooner fettled there. More- 
over the acknowledged Dynafties in Mdne-^ 
thoy of the Vhtenictans over Egypt ^ fall a- 
bout this time, as we ihall hereafter fhew; 
no wonder then that Thmtcians are now 
found there. 

It may be objefted alfo , rhat no reafon 
appears why he Ihonld in this place call him 
Ifirisy whom in the Genealogies precedent 
he names Mifor. I anfwer, that the Genea- 
logies being avowed by our author to be 
tranfcribed out of the Cabiric records writ- 

K 3 ten 

102 Remarics on the History. 

ten by Thoth\ command, Sancboniatho was 
pblig'd in thenj to exprefs the name as he 
found it in the original records j and it apn 
pears by Mofes's writing him Mizraimy that 
the moil ancient name of this man had thp 
fervile letter M in its beginning. But San-- 
choniatho himfelf living fome Centuries after 
Mpfes's time, found that cuftom, the law of 
fpeech and writing , had left the fervile M 
quite out, and that then the fame man was 
called IJiTy who before was fometimes call'd 
^Mifor\ and therefore it was fit he fliould 
name the Egyptian Prince and innovator in 
Rehgion Ifir^ as others did in his time. As 
for the isy the termination in Ifiris^ that's a 
Greek termination , which cuftom required 
the tranflator Thtla Bybltus to add, whep 
Jie turn'd the hiftory into Greek. 

In Ihort, 'tis certain that fervile letters and 
terminations being no eflentials to a word 
pr name, are eafily changed, which is^U 
the difficiilty in this exception. 

Yet it is to be noted , that thefe words 
^hat ni^ejition Ifiri^^ and his introducing 
change in the Egyptian Religion , are not 
by Sancboniatho affirni'd to be. taken put of 
f:he memoirs of the Cabiri^ but reported a§ 
known fome other way. 

Remarks on the History. 103 

. Again, it may be objefted that Ifirls can- 
not wdl be Mlzratm^ becaufe Thoth^^ as 
hereafter will appear, was his fon, accords 
ing to our auth6r, and reign'd after him, 
where it is not likely the father fliould make 
the doftrines of religion allegorical , and his 
fon fet th^m down in a different hiftorical 
manner. This objeftion is very plaufible , 
^nd was for fom(^ time a rub in my way ; 
yet it not removing the evidence I have 
given , and much more proof which I fliall 
add, that IJlris or OJiris was Canaan's bro- 
ther, I have confider'd that it may be an^ 
fwered thus: 

I. That in thefe times mens lives were ve- 
ry long, viz. about 300 or 400 years, as 
appears by the ages of the Patriarchs in the 
line of S hem, fet down by Mofes^ who were 
contemporary with thefe of the line oiHam, 
viz. Mizraim, ^c. and therefore as they 
had many children to repeople the world, 
fo they ordinarily liv'd to fee many genera- 
tions defcended from themfelves, and great 
revolutions therein. So Sbem is prov'd to 
fee 10 generations defcended : Others might 
iee fix , feven, or eight ; and I have reafon 
XO believe, that Ham faw fuch a number de- 
icended from him. We Ihall finid fqmething 
in our author, tho' Scripture gives no num? 

K j. be^ 

104 Remarks d» the History. 

ber of his yeari , to afliire us that he liv'd 
fome time after Noah's death, and that was 
35*0 years after the Flood, as Seripture at* 
tefts ; and at the Flood Ham was abdtit loo 
years old ; So his life mult be above 45*0 years, 
how tnuch above I find not. But our author 
affures us , that he fettled Thoth , who was 
his grandchild, in Egypt while he liv'd. 

X. Tho' Sanchoniatho tells us that Thoth 
caused the Cabiri to fet down this hiliorical 
account of their Deities , yet he tells us not 
that he did fo aftef he w^s King in Egypt ; 
it might be many years before, Befides, we 
find not in ,him that this hiftory was to be 
made publick, or to be inferted into the pub- 
lick doftrines of his Kingdom, nor fo much 
as that it was to be communicated to all ini- 
tiated. Thoth being a philofophical man, 
might either before his father's allegorical 
fable was publick, or after, think fit tb have 
fuch hiftorical memoirs written for his own 
memory fake,which either he, or his kinfmen 
the Cabiri J might communicate to fuch on- 
Jy as wef e judg'd worthy of fuch fecrets ; 
and might let his father's allegorical (lories, 
mingled of hiftory and fable, be reprefented 
in the open folemnities of the Rdigiotl 
which he bad eilablifli'd^ 


Remarks on the History. lojr 

So Numa TompliMs\ tho" hiriifelf was the 
founder of the Religion of heathen Rome^ 
yet wrote books not well agreeing with it , 
which were found buried near him almofi 
5'oo years after his death , and were burnt 
publickly by a decree of the fenate, as Livy 
withefleth, Decdd./i^, lib. lo. 

I may here fuggeft alfo , that our authot 
deflgn'd to fhew, that the plainer and Ampler 
form of idolatry retained by the Thoenicians 
was much elder than thofe fabulous repre- 
fentations us'd in Egypt ; and fo takes his 
countrymens parts againft the Egypians^ as 
innovators in the heathen Religion. 

3 . Tho' I grant that Mizratm might be- 
gin to introduce fome allegorical reprefen* 
tations into the publick Religion of Egypt ; 
yet it's no incongruity that his ion ihould 
caufe the plain hiftorical account of fuch al- 
legories to be written- This was not to a* 
boUfli , but explain the Religidil eftablifli'd 
by his father. 

4. I cannot grant that all t^at fable or 
allegorical fcene of Egyptian folemnities, 
which Tlutarch delivereth deljide ^ Ofiride^ 
was fo old as Mizraim's eftablifhment ; much 
ofit relates to his death, aspaft, which he in 
his life could never require to be reprefented, 
mi is wn'd by Tlntanh to be introduced by 

10^ Remarks on the History. 

IJis after his deatL Other things I fliall 
ihew relate to tranfaftions above loo years 
after his death. But this matter I have 
farther clear'd in the end of the fecond 
feftion of the review of this hiftory. 

Yet here note , that in the beginning of 
Tlutarch\ ftory of Ofiris there is delivered 
myftically the addition of the five Wayif^cu 
to the old Egyptian year of 360 days, which 
the Egyptian hiftory aflures us was intro- 
duced in the time of AJJis , the laft palloral 
King, above xoo years after the death of 
Ofiris. And befides, Apofhis^ who was one 
* of their paftor Kings after Ofiris\ death , is 
nam'd in Tlutarch\ narration as an enemy 
both to Jove and Ofiris^ which fliews plain- 
ly that Ofiris and Ifis are reprefented here as 
the heads of the Egyptian intereft under 
Jove^ againft all its enemies, even after the 
death of the firft. He may in allegory be 
faid to be opposed, when his family is afflifted 
with war by the intereft of the Paftors, whofe 
laft hold in Egypt was at ^f^i^ri-r, in the£- 
gyftian theology calFd Tyfhonius^ as Jofe-^ 
fhus fhews. 

Neverthelefs I will now add , that in the 
Egyptian allegorical fable about Ofiris in 
¥lutarchy I took notice of feveral .things, 
^hich ajgree with the hiftory t)f thofe elder 

' times 

Remarks on the History. 107 

limes found in our Sanchouiathoy and in o- 
f her authors, which I will here briefly touchy 

I. T kit arch there makes OJiris the foil 
of Rhea a wife of Cronus ; fo our author 
owns Rhea married to Cronus. And I fliall 
hereafter prove that Cronus is Ham^ as I 
have already fliew'd OJiris to be Mizraii^ 
the fon of Ham, . 

1. Tlutarch makes IJis to find ^t Byblus^ 
a King calFd Melcander^ and that name i« 
plainly derived from the Hebrew Mekc or il/a- 
loch^ which was a title appropriated eminentr 
\y to Cronus or Ham in old times, becaufe of 
|iis vaft dominions both in J^a and Africa^ 
^s far as they were peopled in about 300 or 
400 years after the Flood. 

3. The Queen, whom Ifis foun^ at By^ 
blusj Tlutarch tells us is by fome calFd^ 
fiarte^ which is the name of one of Cronus\ 
wives in Sanchoniatho. 

Give me leave alfo to fugged , that Tlu^^ 
tarch tells us, that fome calFd his wife i\S?- 
maus^ which I cannot read, but the nam^* 
Naamah comes to my mind ; and I cannot 
chufe but ask, was not this the famous wo- 
man, of whofe birth alone in all Cains line 
Mofes takes notice. Gen. iv. xx. the filler of 
Tubal Cainy and the lafl: perfon mentioned 
|n that line ? If ftie were one wife of Cronu^ 

- or 

loJl Remarks on the History. 

or Hawj (for he had many) we may give a 
very probable reafon for his falling into ido- 
latry, notwithftanding his father was fo free 
from it. This wife taken out of the idola- 
trous line of Cain before the Flood , might 
feduce him afterwards, as the idolatrous 
Wives of Solomon withdrew that wife man 
from following the fteps of his father 2)^^- 
^id. I have in the review given reafon why 
I believe that this generation, in which Naa^ 
mah was , liv'd at the time of the Flood , 
when tiam was married : And I cannot be- 
lieve Mofes would have noted this woman 
rather than any of Cain's line, if fhe had not 
been a perfon of great fame in the world. 

4. As Tlutarch makes Typhon a' contem- 
porary with Cronus and his children ; fo doth 

f. The laft hiftorical intimation that TIu^ 
tarch fuggefts, is, that when Typhon w;^s 
conquered, he fled away, and begat Hiero- 
filymus and Judaus. This feems to relate 
to the driving the Thcenices out of Egypt a- 
bout an age after Cronuis time ; whereas Jo- 
fephus from Manetho informs us, that there 
went above xooooo of them , by compofi- 
tion made in their diftrefs, from thence in- 
to the country afterwards call'd Jud£a^ and 
built the city JerufaUm. 


Remarks on the History, lop 

And it feems probable to me, that the 
Egyptians^ whom Thtarch owns to refer 
moft evil and afflifting things loTyfhon^ dp 
in that allegorical fable extend the expuliion 
of Tyfhon beyond the time of his natural life 
(which I believe was ended before AmoJis\ 
days) to the expuliion of that Thxnician ia- 
tereft, whereof he feems to be the head at 
firit, when it began to affli<3: the intereft of 
Mizraim or Ofiris. This Manet ho (in Jo- 
fephus againft Afion) fufficiently proves, 
telling us that Abarisy the laft town held by 
the Thosniciau Pallors, was in their theology 
caird Typbonius. 

This flory Jofefbus^ and after him many 
others , T March among the rell , feem to 
confound with the going of Ifrael out of 
Egyft ; tho' in truth it was above 3 00 years 
before that time , and a good while before 
Jacob went thither, as the learned Arma- 
chanus has prov'd. 

If this expofition of the laft palTage out of 
^ hit arch be admitted, we hav6 gain'd (be- 
fides his concurrent evidence, that OJiris 
and Mizraim are the fame) a full account 
of the hiftory that is wrapt up in the mylli- 
cal folemnities of the Egyptians^ call'd Sa- 
cra IJiaca ; that they are a commemoration 
of the prime founders of their Monarchy, as 


110 Remarks on the History. 

Gods or Dasmons, who are honoured and 
lamented, as both doing and fufFering much 
for their country ftruggling under the Tho^- 
nician powers, to which Ifis applied herfelf 
with great mourning at Byblus (which San- 
choniatho informs us was the royal city of 
Cronus) for remedy to little purpofe. 

Agreeably hereunto ^ Luciande T>ed Syria 
affirms , that Ofiris was buried at Byblus ; 
'and Apollo dor us reprefents /i^ or //& going to 
to the King of Bybhs^ when her fon was 
loft, rib.%. c.i. and this was written before 
fPhilo was born : So that it is certain Tbilo 
did not feign the town Byblus to be fuch att 
ancient royal city only out of partial afFeftion 
to the to\\^n he was bred in. But at laft hef 
ifliie being excited to avenge injured Ofiris^ 
as it were by his Ghoft, and being affifted 
by their brethren of Thebaisj whence Ma^ 
ne^ho affures us ^Tethmojis or Amojis came ^ 
. diftrefs'd the Thoenicians fo much, that they 
were forc'd to leave Egypt ^ and to fettle in 
Talajiine. This feems to be the hiftorical 
foundation of the lamentations and joys that 
were in the Egyptian religious folemnities ; 
the trouble from, and the conqueft over th6 
Phoenician Dy nafty . But however my Syn^ 
thronifm about OJiris and Canaan is"good- 

Remarks on the Histort. hi 

Let this condude our firft remark, fixing 
the time of IJiris or Ofiris^ by help of the 
Mofaical chronology and Tlutarch^ com- 
pared with our author 2 And all this is greatly 
confirmed by the conneftion oiEratofthenes'^ 
catalogues, beginning with the end of San- 
choniatho's hiftory. 



That Cronus is Ham, thisprov'd^ and 
his time ftated. Of the Rephaim, and 
that Athothes is Thoth. Of the 
planting of Attica by Cronus and his 
datighter Athena. 

CRONVS, who fills the greateftpart 
of this hiftory, is riesit to be coiifi- 
der'd by us : For we are ftill oblig'd 
to move from the latter part thereof to the 
former, becaufe we have more concurrent 
hiftory in other books concerning thefe lat- 
ter times of it, than the firft times thereof, 
and confequently more evidence ; and there- 

Ill Remarks on the History. 

fore we proceed from the more known to 
the lefe known, as reafon direfteth. 

The defcent of Cronw from Otiranus and 
Ge is ackn(?wledg'd in all the heavthenTheor 
gonies that I can think of* as in tiejiod^ in Apalr 
lodorusy m7)iQdarfis Siculus\ account of the 
Theolbgia AtlanUorunt^ and in Euemerusi 
Meffenius tranfcrib'd by Eufebius. This 
main difference I find between our fragment 
of Simchematboj and thefe Greek Theogo- 
nifts, that he ends where they begin ; which 
fhews, that he had fearch'd the elder Eaftern 
records, and had written his collection from 
them , which he believ'd to be much more 
authentick than any thing among the Greeks^ 
who write contradidorily to each other. 
None of thefe Theonogifts lead us to the 
knowledge of the time or age of the world 
in which he liv'd , which is the thing we 
want , and (hall feek to find it in other hi- 

I. By help of fome other name whereby 
he is call'd. 

n. By help of his children J and other con-^ 

m. By counting his number of genera- 
tions from the firft man in our author. 


Remarks on the History. 113 

If we find concurrent tcftimony from thefe 
topicks, I fuppofe his «ge, and the countries 
in which he liv'd , will be fufficiently de- 

I. I find him called by another IiamK of the 
fame import with this of Cronus^ in a piece 
of Eupokmus preferv'd to us by Alexander 
Tolyhiflar^ 2indLEufeb.Tr£p.Evang.. lib.iyk, 
c. 17. where the Babylonian/ are affirmed to 
call him Belufj by^ Baal in their language 
fignifying a Lord or King; as pp Keren ^ 
from whence Grotius informs me that Cro^ 
nus is derived, doth import in Hebrew fuch 
an illufirious perfon as a King, which I will 
prefume fufficiently known among the 
learned : Becaufe this name Belu/ is own'd 
to belong to Cronus hyTbeophilus Antkche^ 
nus ad Autolycum^ lib.i. and hy l^amafiius 
im Vita IJidori ; and alfo that Moloch and 
Mikomy words of the fame fignification, 
are names frequently us'd to defign the 
fame man. 

EupolemM*s words are the more confide* 
rable^ becaufe they import the general telti* 
mony of the moil ancient and learned peo-* 
pie 9 the Babylonians J in whofe country we 
fliall find reafon to believe that Cronus liv'd 
before he came into Tho^nicia : B<»/3t;AAw*W 
?i%ym v^Znif '^^ BifA^v -ijt mad K^iifOit. Here 

L this 

114 Remarks on the History. 

this firft Belus is expreffly affirmed to be 
Cronus J the fame man known by thofe two 
names, the reafon whereof we have given. 
Then he proceeds to tell us his children, 
fome of which wr ihall find to live in times 
certainly known, whereby the time of Cfa- 
nus himfelf, who liv'd before them and with 
them, will be determined : *E* t^th ^ i^^^ 

•B^Aoy % XfltVfltfltV, rir^v ^ r Xavctctv ^fitra^ r 

I know well that the learned Bochart hath 
faid, that this place is much corrupted, but 
gives no proof of corruption, and hath fug- 
gefted many changes as neceffary to be made 
for the removal of the pretended corrup- 
tions ; but all the changes he offers tend to 
make it ferve his hyfothejls^ which is, that 
Cronus is Noahy Boch. Thaleg. p. 137. 

But I fee no reafon to alter the words-at 
all , and .will fliew , that , as they are , they 
may reafonably be conftrued or tranflated , 
fo as to exprefs the true number and names 
of the four fons of Hanij which I will marjs: 
with figures, and confequently they will im-^ 
port that Cronus is Ham. To evidence this, 
I fubmit to the judgment of the learned this 
tranflation of them , without any alteratioa 
. /* made 



REMAiLfcs OH the History. 115 

made in the text ; and that will bring in the 
fecond point, to prove his time* viz, by his 

n. There was at fir ft Belus, ni)ho is Gro- 
BUS ; imt of him came another^ i. Belus, and 
fi. Canaan , wjpo was or begot the father of 
/A^ Phoenicians ; his /on too was^ 3. Coum> 
whom the Greeks call Asbolos, the father of 
f ^f iEthiopes, the brother of^. Mellraim, 
the father of the Egyptians. 

Now to adjufl: this tranflation to the four 
iovL^oiHamy Gen.x.6. is eafy enough ; for 
two of their names are plainly the fame, G^- 
naan and Mizraimx the third name^ Coum^ 
is but flightly altered from Cujh^ the ^ being 
changed into fi , only to exprefs the accufe'- 
tive^cafe in a form more like the Greek ter- 
mination of that cafe , as Bochart hath well 
noted. Wherefore there remains only, that 
Belusy the fucceflbr of his father Ham in the ' 
dominions over Africa^ be allow'd to be the 
fame with Thut in Mofes's enumeration of 
their names ; and it's reafonable to admit , 
that he who fucceeded his father in that 
large ihare of empire , Ihould bear his title 
among the Babylonians^ as he is here call'd 
by the Chaldaan title of honour Belus\ 
whereas Mofes calls him by the name pro- 
bably given him at his birth. 

L 1 Yet 

11 6 Remae p m the Histohy. 

Yet I think that B^cbart hath well ob- 
fery'd conc^rmog hitn> that the footfleps of 
the name Thut w^re retained by the GreeAsh 
who caird him Tythim Af^ ; the reader 
may.confult him far proof, i which I will not 
tranfcribe : But I will add thereunto, that I 
like his Qpinion about this name the betteiv 
|>ecaufe I have obferv'd in our SanchoniathOj 
that j^Uo wa^ one of Cronus's fpns born ia 
Teraa^ i. e. the country beyond the riveri; 
where I think he means, and hereafter have 
exprefs'd my reafon, beyond ^^rdan. And 
be(ides , I find Jf^Ua worfliipp^d under the 
name oiCarneus in mod ancient tim^ inSi^ 
cym ^ and I do not like any Gr^k account 
of that old tttle fo well as the Eaftem ety- 
mology, that it having all the radicals of np 
or Cronus's name in it, it fhould import him 
to be the fon of that ancient and great King 

' It remains, that I now juftify. my tranfla^ 
tion againft one obvious obje^^ion that lies 
againft it, which is this: That I make the 
words nira 5 ^^(^H^v not to relate to Co- 
naan the next antecedent, but to Cronus the 
remoter antecedent, contrary to the romd 
of other tranflators, and the moft ufual 
grammatical conilrudion. 




Remarks qh the HistoRY. ny 

T6 this I infwer : Firft^ th« 1 do it not 
Without example^ which is authority ih fuch 
aSti. I t&uft hot digtefs fit* itito a gramiha^ 
tical difpatt^ but I will point at in inftance 
or two in EufeilM^ 5tit of whofai this place 
is taken, in the end of this chaptef . Lik ix. 
€.ty. EupvUfHus Mth of Enochs that he was 
the true At las ^ the invehter of Aftronomy ; 
telling us he had a fon Metku/elai j w ^ct{](t 
A'Ay/fAw &fS yfSvxij who knew all fdeh 
things by the help of AtigelS. The relative 
dertainly muft refer to Enoch this great mail 
in that fcience^ tho' ther remoter antecedent, 
and not to the nearer ^(??^»/?/isr^i concern^ 
ihg Whom he delivets iiothin^ that required 
ifigelical help to difcover it. So alfo in the 
place quoted in our firft remark from Enfe- 
biUs^ p. 39. D. wSglif l(r/e/jr, the relative ^y 
certainly rel^efts the old ThmniciaHs re- 
motely mentioned, not fheir latet fucceflbrs 
and initiated xiien who arfe mentioh'd next 

Sehfe^ trtitht and peftineh6e muft more 
fWay us in interpreting wife inens words , 
than the Grammar rules, which are atcorn- 
modated ohly to the more ufua! manner of 
fjpeech. Thetefore I have chofen in my 
tt*nflatiofl to fhafee our Enpltmus^ whoih 
bdth y^fiphus and Eufebius own as a goo4 

L 3 author 

1 1 8 Remari^$ on the History; 

Author in Jewijh concerns, rather to tnitaf- 
grefs a rule of Grammar, that admits matiy 
exceptions, than to make him tell ieverd 
untruths, which cannot any way be excus'd i 
And fuch untruths will be told , if rim be 
referr'd to the next antecedent CaitoMm ; fof 
then both Cujh and Mizraim will be afiipm'd 
the children of Canaan^ whereas it '%% plain 
by Mofes\ words , that they were both his 
brothers. Befides, it would follow that Q- 
maan muft be anceftor of all the Cujhites% 
paird by the Greeks Mthiofesy which nei- 
ther Scripture nor exotjck hiftory will air 
low : And why ihould we make an incon^ 
fiftence between a credible heathen author 
and Mafesy wheni by the way, I pfopofe he 
may be fo conftrued a j to confill with him ? 
. But yet if my reader will be fo jnorofely 
. grammatical, that he will not allow me this 
reference to the remoter antecedent, I will 
tell him, th^t thq' ji^ will hereby hinder me 
from finding a full agreement of Eupokmus 
with Mo/esj in enumeratiiig j^U the four fons 
of Ham ; yet without that reference \ can 
(Bvincp, by joining the teflimonies of Eup- 
Jemus and Mofes^ that his Cranus is M^fes\ 
flamy Ayhich is my principJ^l ^efign in this 
remark; ; Fpr 4iill E^ufolemuf e?pr«ffly faithi 
tbgl: liis Cri>nuf w»s tfte father pf C;an44n : 


Remarks on the History.' ii<x 

Let that be the major. Ham was the father 
of Canaan ; Be that the minor. Therefore 
Ham is Cronus will be the conclufion inevi- 
tably following. And then fince the time of 
Ham is plain enough in Scripture to be the 
firft four Centuries after the Flood, or five 
Centuries, if we may allow him to live 
as long as his brother Shem^ unto whom 
Scripture ailigns fo long a life ; as indeed it 
will be found neceflary to allou^ all Noah's 
children near upon fuch long lives, that the 
world may be peopled by them , and colo- 
nies fo far planted, as we find hiflorical me- 
moirs that it was within 500 years after the 

Befides , it appears even in Sanchoniatbo^ 
that in Cronus's time the world was peopled 
not only in Syria and Egypt ^ but in Attica 
alfo ; and that Cronus outliv'd his father , is 
there plain enough. But Ham being proved 
to be Cronusy bis father Ouranus muft be 
Noahy and the Scripture afTures us that Noah 
liv'd 35:0 years after the Flood; therefore 
Cronus muft live confiderably above that 
number of years. This is all I can find cre- 
dible about his time ; and this determina- 
tion of it, as imperfeft as it is, yet afTures us 
that Sanchoniatms hiflory, remaining in this 
fragment, ^nds within 4 or j 00 years after 

ihe Flood. L 4 There 

1 la Remarks on the History. 

Thtre is a probability, that Ham did flot 
Hvealtogether fo long as Shem^ which may 
be taken from the time oiAbrahdm's coming 
into the land of Canaan : For it is certain by 
the Hebrew chronology, that Shem was thep 
alive, and did not die till above 70 years af- 
ter Abraham% firlt entrance into that coun- 
try^ A. M. 1083. And if Ham had then 
been alive , who claimed dominion over all 
that country and many more , it's probable 
we fhonld have found fome influence of his 
power mentioned in Abraham's life, where- 
on Mofes infifts largely^ 

But there is no adion ofHam\ meiitioft'd 
therein , only there are the names of two 
towns fet down,, that brought to my mind 
liim and his wife Aftarte^ mentioned Gen. 
xiv. J. whtttChederlaomBr and bis confede- 
rates are recorded to have fmote the Re^ 
phaim^s in AJhter9th Carnaim , and the Zu^ 
xims in Ham , A, M. 1091. Thefe gigati-* 
tick people may feem to be his children, or 
defcendents from him, and their cities feem 
to bear their father's name ; and if he had 
then been alive, we fbould have heard of his 
oppofing fuch an invafion. 

However I crave leave to fuggeft, thit as 
AJhten^th will cafily be admitted to be A* 

fiarte ; fo it's not improbable, tfeat Carnaim 


Remarks on the History, i 2 r 

being deriv'd from tp the original of Crd^ 
mis name may relate to him , atid fo may 
be a memorial of both the King and the 
Queen, the brother and the fifter, accord- 
ing to Sanehcniatho : And yet not long af- 
ter their deaths, this invafion much defac'd 
thefe memorials by the deftrU(Sion of the 
inhabitants of thefe towns ; and the build-' 
ing of thefe to\Vtos muft probably be a con* 
fiderable time before this their captivity, be- 
cjtnfe w^hen they were overthrown, they are 
rcprefented as places of great ftrength, 
which towns do not ufually grow to, tmleft 
time be allow'd them to increafe in people 
and fortifications. 

Indeed the very name <3f Refhaitns, wha 
are faid to dwell in Ajhteroth Carnaim, feems 
to me not only to import their giantlike 
ftrength, which is the moft common fenfci 
of the Hebrew word us'd here , and tranf* 
lated by the Se^tuagint ytydntf^ both here 
and in Jojh. xiii. li. which rentes to this 
very place, befides many other Scriptures ; 
but alfo it refers to Rephas, which Was one 
of the peculiar names given to flam or Oo- 
mtSi when he was worfliipp'd ; becanfe of 
Jkll the giants before and after the Flood, he 
i'as efpecially deify'd and ador*d j and the 
inigi^icil men of his race gloried in theif 


Ill Remarks on the Histort. 

likened to hiin , and therefore afTeded to 
be call'd Refhaim. 

Now that the name Re f has was Cronus\ 
title, the learned have acknowledged both 
from the Cpftic name of his ftar , and from 
the Sepuagint^ who tranflate QhiuHy Cro- 
nus^ known name , by P«u(p^, Amos v. x6. 
which was eafily altered in Ibme copies into 
'Pifi^eigy by inferting an (4.. This is the 
cleareft account of that paflage in Amosy and 
and is alfo to our purpofe, a fufficient rea« 
fon why fome of his pofterity, that were 
mofl like him, and other antediluvian men 
of healthful conftitution, long life, large ila- 
ture, and great ftrength, are calFd Ref bairn ; 
f fpecially thefe that dwelt in his city, Jljh^ 
terothCarnaim. And methinks the deducing 
of his Coptic name Re f has from the Hebrew 
Mn (which imports that healthful conftitur- 
tion that produceth long life, growth to 
great ftature , and ftrength) doth give far- 
ther light to the reafon of this name giyen 
ta Cronusy and to the Rejphaim defcending 
from him. 

Befides, we learn from the precedent ver- 
ijpSy that before their deftruftion there had 
pafs'd 14 years , fince the time they began 
to be under Chederlaomer\ government ; 
which it's fcarce poffible ibould take place 



Remarks ok the History, i 1 5 

m Canaan^ if Crow^x had been alive: There* 
fore we may reafonably gather, that he was 
xiead before Abraham came thither, the time 
x)f their overthrow being but nine years after 
Abraham's entrance into Canaan ; whereas 
it was 14 years after their firft fubjeftion to 
the King of Elam. So if we fuppofe Cro^ 
nus to die juil before Chederlaomer got pof- 
leffion of this part of his Kingdom, his death 
.will be about five years htior^ Abraham^t 
^ntx'mg mto Canaanj i.e. A.M.^zojZ. 

If this be allowed, it will be additional 
evidence from Scripture, that Cronus\ do- 
minion in Canaan was long before Abt^a^ 
ham's time of flouriihing there ; and this 
doth more than any thing that's written in 
Sanchoniathoj who hath given us only Ge- 
nealogies , and a few aftions , but hath left 
us to feek for the times of them where we 
can find them. 

The third proof of his time follows. 

ni. With thefe times that I have pitched 
cn/:Qncurs that eftimate which may be made, 
by comparing the number of generations fet 
down in Sancbdniatho from his Trotogonus 
to Cronus^ with Mofess number of gene- 
rations from Adam to Ham : There are ii 
in both authors. In Mo/es's enumeratioh 
Jbis is clear, and in Sanchonhtho's it will be 


4 ^4 REMARKS m the History^ 

maiiifcfl:, if we confider that the ii* gene* 
ration is by him fixt in his cc»nplete line 
upon Mifor and Sydyc^ with whom in his 
uncomplete line Cronus is contemporary, as 
Cronus'^ children are made contdnporary 
with Thcith the fon of Mifiri and with the 
Ci^irk the fons of Sydyc in the ix'** or laft 
generation found in this piece of hiftory. 

We muft not wonder, if we find Thdth 
here plac'd in the laft generation, firft fecre*» 
tary or counfellor to Cronusj afterwards 
inade a King by him, who is made of the 
generation next before him. Two or thre* 
generations live together, father, fon, and 
granchild, even in our fliort lives ; but in ihft^ 
long lives of thefe old times they us'd to fed 
their children and kindred of many mor? 

^. So alfo it is not ftrange that Sydyc (plic'd 
here in the ii'^ generation) is faid to havfc 
had ilfue Afckpius by a daughter of Cr6nus\ 
which muft be in the iz'** defcent ; for elder 
men oft marry younger wompn. It's pof- 
ilble the diftance of their years was not very 
greats and yet a greater difference of yeifi; 
(fuppofe 5-0} in their long lives of 4 or 5*00 
ypars , was lefs confiderable in relation to 
jflTue, than it is now in the cafe of our fliort 
lives : However it certainly imports, that 


Remarks oh the History. 115 

hpafl^rms Sydy^w&s fometime contempor^iry 
wii;ti CrMus*s 4aughter> who w^s pf cbe ge- 
p^f^tipn fu<H:e^4}ng him. 

A littk Qoncurrent eyid^Qce to cjear thi$ 
pQipXy th^X Crqnus'% time was about three or 
fouF Centuyi^s oext fuc<;ee4ing the Flood • 
vm be gathered from th^ remains of the 
Ikory that we have about his wife and fifler, 
caU'd AJiarte \n Greeks jljbterotb in Hebrew. 
Tlutarch de IJi^ intimates, fhe was Queen 
tiByklusy zvAMelcandery which is Me lee b 
ix Mahcby i. e. Cronus^ was King there^ 
when OJhris\ body was brought thither in a 
cheft, which in the fable perhaps means a 
"ftip ojr a cofftn. Now OJiris being prov'd 
to be Mizraim y this pointeth , that at his 
death Cronus was alive , aivdl Aftarte too, 
the parents of this Miznum. And Saucbo^ 
niatbo affirming Ctmus to appoint Thotb 
(whom Saneboniatho affirms to be the fon of 
Mifir) to govern there ; it's mofl probable 
he wauld fend Mifir'% fon (now with him) 
to iiicceed him. 

Befides Aftarte probably being the ^ea 
Syrioy of whom Ludan de ^ed Syria in- 
Tornas us, that there was in her templef at 
Hierafolis a conflant commemoration of the 
Flood and its drying up made in her temple- 
fervice ; it inclines me think (hat ihe (for no 



ii6 KtuAViKson theHtstott. 

Other Syrian Goddefs is fo near that time) 
is intimated thereby to be the filler or wife 
of Cronus or Hamy who was one of thofe 
that (har'd in that great efcape : And the city 
jf/hteroth Carnaim bearing her name at A*- 
braham\ entring into Canaan ^ aflures us, 
that flie liv'd before that time ; and thefe 
bounds fix her and Cronus within the four 
Centuries next to the Flood , which is the 
thing I undertook to prove. 

I know Lucian calls the images chiefly 
ador*d in that temple by Greek names, Hera 
and Zeusy in compliance with the Greeks^ in 
whofe language he writes ; but hd^xpreflly 
affirms, that the God there was caird by ano- 
ther name: Whence I gather that the God- 
defs there had another name alfo, vis:^ A- 
fiarte. For Lucian, acknowledges that her 
ftatue bore on her head beams, and a tower, 
and the Ceftus wherewith they only adorn 
* Vranioy which I interpret Aphrodite or Ve^ 
nusy the daughter of Our anus and fo Aft arte 
is affirm'd to be by our Sanchontatbo^ in the 
general fenfe of the Thmniciansy who alfo 
caird her the Greateft : She therefore is mod 
likely to be join'd with the image of their 
greateft male Deity. So Cicero faith, Venus 
Syria Aft arte vocatur. !D^ Kat. T)eor. 

^> 1 con- 

Remarks on the History. 127 

I conceive TA^r^ to be the man, whom 
Manetho and Eratojihenes's catalogue call 
Athothes^ and the fon of Menesj who is 
plainly own*d to be Meftraim^ or Mizraim^ 
in SynceUus's catalogue ; and in Sanchoniatho 
Thoth is affirmed to be the fon of Mifor^ 
whom Grot ins, affirms to be Mizraim 1 and 
both agree that he was a learned writer, a 
fure natural dillinguifliing charafter hardly 
to be found in any other Prince near him in 

It's probable that Manetho, being a Priefl: 
of Sebenna, might know more accurately 
that his name was Athoth, in the facred E- 
gyptian books , tho' vulgarly he was call'd 
Thoth : And Bochart hath given feveral in- 
ftances in the Eaftern languages, in which 
the initial A was commonly left out, /. %r6. 
of his Canaan. 

I will mention only a few examples of this 
change: The fame man is call'd fometimes, 
Aram, fometimes Ram; compare Luke iii. 
33. I Chron. ii. 9. And the Syrian nation, 
commonly call'd in Hebrew Aram, fome- 
times Ram, z Chron. xxii. 6. in the Hebrew 
text, and Job xxxii. x. So the name Elea- 
zer, written in Hebrew with the firfl letter 
6«> in Greek is exprefs'd by Lazarus, &» be- 
ing quite omitted. He who is Tachnas in 


1 2^ Remarks oii the History. 

.^'teanm'% catalogue of pailoral Kings^, is 
call'd Af0chn(u in Jofophus's from M^teth^. 
And fo the Egyptian month , that by the 
Greeks is written M^x^^ is in the Coptif or 
Egyptian language written Amfhir^ in Sc^- 
liger's Ca», I fag. And mount Tabar is known 
to be eall'd Atabyrms, So <l»tf«, VulcAn*% 
Bgyptfon n^mc is written A'^ttf in Sutd4$, 

Agaip, we may confirm our time ailign'd 
to CrQtius^ by comparing what Saueh^niatho 
faith concerning his giving to his daughter 
Afhena the country of Attica^ whofe chief 
city takes its name from her, with paifages 
in the Greek hiftory, whofe times are pretty 
well agreed on by the beft Chronologers. 
But we mufi: fuppofe this not to be done till 
Jiis wars with his father were pafs'd j then 
he had befk leifure to travel, and fettle colo- 
nies in places either not at all or very thinly 

Now it's certain that Attiea muft be w^ 
peopled before the Ogygian flood , which 
by great teftimonies is tix'd in the year of 
the world zio8 ; and we cannot well allow 
lefs than zoo, or more, of thofe years to the 
peopling of it : Wherefore the firft colony 
muft be there planted about A. M. zoOo, or 
rather fooner ; and this will bring us back 
into the time before Cronus died, according 


. Remaiucs on the HtstORY* 129 

to our allowiflg him to live about 460 years 
after the Flood, which is time little enough 
to affign to him , fince his brothet Shem by 
iJ/i^/^j'sjufl: account liv'd ido yeai's more ; and 
all that wer^eborn in the next^Century aftet 
the Flood, whofe ages are given to us by 
Mofisj liv'd above 400 years. This reafoii^ 
evinceth, that Attic a muft be planted in his 
time> and fo SanthonUtho faith it was by his 
fettling his daughter thei^e. ^ 

Let the learned confider and determine*,' 
whether that eldeft name oi \}^ Athenians^ 
mentioned in Herodotus^ ^)ranU^ where he 
tells us they were firft caird Crandii then 
Cecrafida^ ^c. do not intimate i that they 
^ad a name from CV^»»j biefore their, hame 
from Cecrops. 1 doubt not but the Greek 
names Cronaus and Cardnus are deriv'd 
from the fame root ppi as Cronus is : And 
I know there was a Cranaus King in At^ 
tica loon after Cecrops ; but I do not believe 
they were called Cranai fi*om him firft^ and 
afterwards Cecrofidie from CecrOfs that 
reign'd before him; It feems moi^e probable 
;his name Cranai flioifld be giveii theili from 
the firft planter^ w\}A£\i Sanchoniatho tells us 
of. Neverthelefs becaufe HtrcdotUs calls 
them: alfo ^elafgi^ I judge that Cronus 
foilnd fome of Japbet'% poiterity here , and 

M mingled 

» I 


150 Remajucs tf/r ^i&^ History. 

mii^ted with theili» and got foveraigMy 
«fver thetn. But of thefe Tcls^i I do in* 
tend to fay more hereafter. 

Hereunto agrees ateftimonyof 2)iAftiriif 
Skulutt ckcdhy Eufiiiuiy liif.h. e.i.j>,^% 
That Triptotemus i&ss fent into Attka iy 
Ofiris* tn improve it by foyo'a^ cam. Now 
we have ftew'dQ/&i/ to hzMixram^ and 
that he died in Cnatus\ time, Jong before 
Ce crops ^ Hence we may gadier, that the 
colony wMchQ^^j ^Egyptian brought 
thither about A. M ^448, was not the &*& 
plant<M:ioo oC Attka^ but a repairing of that 
wtuch was (dmoil defiroy'd by the0^^i«» 
flood } s^tbo' the Greek writers generally 
will go QO farther back than to Cecropj^ 
where the Tariatt marbles begin. 

But before him we find even thofe marbles 
to own Aureus , whofe dau^ter Cecn^s 
married > «s y^oJMerus zad Tati/ittiaf wit^ 
nefs, doubtlef^ to fecure htsfettlement there 
by marriage with the f<Miner King's family. 
Yea P^n^witfx in his ^^ifj,/. 14. adds^that 
Itill beforehim theAthmoTOMoi ^/M®*tfr Ptie- 
eia& ajS^^jtba^ one PoarphyiicMi reign* dtbert^ 
who built for tbem thetemfk 0^ Venus Ura- 
nia. Now the worfliip of th^Goddefs com> 
ing out of 'PbmniciA and Syria^ as he juft be- 
fon^ acknowtedgesy made mp diink thatthi^ 



REi»<ARits OH the History. t^\ 

£kbi^a» King Twfbj^m liisre otil^ i6en- 
ti)M'd> was A (7^^eil cra&flatioA of foine lili- 
fiftiH tiHioe ; find besrauTe Torphjrm, the 
tuniedf tbie Tyrmn PhiloToph^r, who ratich 
dpfyots'd our Religion , is known to be die 
ttanflad^ of his ThunkUn mriia Maithar, 
I jtt«lge that in Ukie manner this 7*etfhyrk>n 
is the <?f^^j^ tramilatioii of Mokch, m MiU 
tMy Which ar-e known to cofne from the 
&Ae toot with Makkksy and to be the tides 
^flijm or CrMTft/, th^f^i&<?»ia<2«God. 

This being adrMtted, the AtJmohJta^ Af- 

H^ ^ Jithins herd ih ^mfiiHias will fay the 

^me fhiM thitSdHK^idfhb doth ccSicetn- 

i&gCi^9«iir^ planting a eolohy m ^f/ir^4) and 
tfXi m^ireover inform us, that he built a 
teitople to his wife, whom we tnud there* 
ibre fup{>ofe dead, and ideifj^'d , tht^phfif- 
Hie Oi^mUi o^ Veltii the daUghtei- of 0«u 
timtTy ^ SMthoiiiafifO affirms that ih^Was^ 
MbreoVei* , there are in Tau/hnias mm 
{KiflageS) that own the donteft between^- 
tbeHA tthdi Tiffidbn i ab6ttt the goverhment 
^lAttitdy and other parts o/t Greece Wlthia 
tlte IjlhMUi ; all Which fuppofe (bme pkn- 
tatioh of Gntei &om the Eall in thefe early 
times, in Which our SaHcbtmi^ho alEtms 
them to live. 

M % I will 

1^1 Remarks on the History. 

I will mention but one of them rekting 
to Trmfeney which was fo famous, that their 
ancienteft money bare the marks ofthe de- 
cifion , that they fliould both be honoured 
there ; for Athena's face was on one fide of 
it, and Tofidon's trident on the other. Tau- 
fan. Corinth, p. 73. The purple dye being 
invented by Hercuks Thmniciusj and ap- 
propriated to Princes in the reign of Cro- 
Tmsy gives fufficient reafon why the Greeks 
might cal) him Torfh^rion , who was Mo- 
lochj a King wearing purple. 

Accordingly we find, that in the fubf^ance 
ofthe ftory, the Greek my thick writers, 
particularly ApoUpdorus^ agree, that Athena^ 
Cronus\ daughter, firfl: plailte4 this country, 
and in a tryal before a jury of twelve Gods 
call Neftune^ who claimed it as firft occu- 
pant , becaufe he had fi:ruck it with his tri- 
dent before her coming thither ; the Gods 
•determining that Athena's olive-treey which 
ihe fhewed (he had planted there t was a 
better proof of occupation than a flxoke of 
his trrdent. Afotlodor. lib.m. r.13. 

Neverthelefs he puts in this, that this tryal 
was in Cecrofs's time ; whereas true hillory 
fliews that Athena j and Tofidon^ who is Kep^ 
tune^ were many years before him, ^nd 
thus generally their mythick writers con- 

Remarks on the History. 133 

found and lofe all the times of their Gods, 
which advantage divers Chriftians made ufe 
of againfl: them : And this was a good ar- 
gument ^^ ^^^/^^m, asitiscaird, but is not 
fufficient to prove, that idolatry and thei 
heathen Gods are of fo late an original, as 
foine both Heathens and Chriftians have af- 
firmed them to be. 

My bufinefs is not to decide controver* 
fies of this kind , but only to explain this 
ancient hiftory. Neverthelefs I will refer 
my reader, who defires to fee what^roof 
may be given that idolatry was elder than^ 
the Flood, to the writings of Selden in his 
Trolegtnn. to his book de "DiisSyriisy p.xSf, 
29. Hof finger's Smegna Orientate j p. 130. 
in Enoch's life ; Schedius de T^iis Germanis^ 
p.49. where he may fee that many of the moft 
learned J^,a;x affirm this not only to be their 
.opinion, but to be taught by Mo/es himfelf. 



134 R-EMARKs w the History. 



T^ap Boch^ has not r'tghh^ afftrnid 
Cronus*! facnficmg of Jeoud to ha 
Abraham'^ readtnefi to affer IjTaac. 
The great antiquity of fwh cruei f(f 
mfi^eiy <fnd the e^fi rtime^ ^i^- 
vas tmatiotfd hy bsMttbefns. 

CRONVTs time being tbos largety 
' flated, my next remsurk (hall be upon 
• that extraordinary facfifice, wluch 
fee is f«d by our author to have made of his 
Ion feoudy his only child by Awbret .* And 
here I find my felf under a neceffity of dif* 
fenting from the judgment of fome very 
learned men ; \ will name but (me, Boehart, 
wh€rfe authority- hath fWayed mod, and who 
o£fers moil in defence of his opinion. He, 
in his Canaattt p. 790. affirms this Saturn to 
be Abraham^ and Jebid to be the epithet of 
Ifaac , and Anobret to be Sarah ; fo ilrain- 
ing the whole ftory in Sancboniatho^ to be 
the fame with Mofis's hiilory of Abrahan^% 
trial in the offering^ c^his fon, in imitation 
whereof he affirms the Canaanites to have 
taken up the cuftom of lacrificing men. 



Remarks on the Histort. 13^ 

Grotifis^ inhisAnnotat. ad m.i. Veritaf. 
llelig.ChrtJfian£j had better cotriider*d this 
cafe, and therefore he wifely fcniples it, and 
foith: Eft €ur dubitem^ p. 5* 3- edit.infoL 1 
adventure fartl^r, and openly deny that 
Sdmchoniatho and Mofes fpeak at aB con- 
cerning the fame man, or the fame matter, 
for thefe reafons following. 

L The offerer is not the fame man ; for 
there is no agreement, either in their paren- 
tage , and their wives and children , or in 
the whole courfe of their lives , or in their 
names ; as appears by comparing Sanchonin^ 
tbo's hiflory of Cronus with Mofef% hiftory 
of Abraham. Heaven and earth Are jiiQC 
more diftant than the fives of thofe two rsxtTX, 
But B&chart imagines, becaufe (in the place 
quoted out of Torphyry) Cronus is call!d If- 
raely by a miflake of tranfcribers , ;is Gh- 
tius hath fliewed, that therefore ^^r*&>«!!i 
is meant. But there mufi be great viQlep^e 
Qs'd, to infer Abraham from the name giyeifi 
ku^ after to his grandchild (for prevailing; 
xnth that God whom Cronus never pwji'^ 
•nd fo to his pofterity ; which forqe I cannot 
confent unto. 

Much lefs can I agree to what he ((ftet- 
wards adds concerning j^aham,^qttem ex 
^enef. xxiH. 6. tsmbs w« ^*ffi Ehhim; 

M 4 



13^ Klu\kks Off the HisjOKx: 

Chananai fecerunt Trincifem ^eum ; ad- 
ding alfo> €^ confecrdrunt ifji ferimn fipi^ 
mat^j i. e? ^f^^ fabbatiy qu£ ^pud Judaos^ 
erat facta, for t^io'. the Canaofiites wor- 
fliipp'd Cronus ; y?t it can never be proved; 
tl^at they worfliipp'd Abraham ; nor is there 
apy proof that the Canaanites cogfecrated 
the feventh day of tlie week to Cronus , oj} 
to religious ufes , much lefs to Abraham : 
For there is no evidence, that the diitindioli 
of the days of tjie week by the qames lately 
Bs'd (^mbng which dies Satumi imports the, 
laft day) is pf fijch ancient conftitution a% 
th? Canai^nites time, or that they imitated 
Xhtjewijh fabbath> or that Abraham himfelf 
kept it, or that he was confecrated into the 
planet Saturn. The power qf this one pre- 
judice , that the Canaanites wpre imitators 
of the Jeijus in tjieir Religion ( whi?h can 
never be proved) was very great, when it 
prevailed upon fo learned a man to write 
fiich improbable things as thefe. Where- 
fore we will the more diligently refute the 
miftake of confounding Cronus with Abra^ 
bamj and add many inllances of difference 
between them in this niatter. 

II-. The time ^nd occafion of the offerings 
4iffer confiderably : For we ihew'd bpforef 
that Cronus was probably dead fome tinpi^, 


t&a. ..Ci 

Remarks <?« /^^ History. 137 

before Mrahm enter'd Canaan \ and the 
Primiate di Ireland's Annals fhewi that it waS 
about $0 years after his etitriag Canaant that 
fee was thus try'd by God's command. ■ 
The occafion of Cronus\ facrifice is af- 
firm'd to be war and plague on the coun- 
try wherein he was King, which, cuftom re; 
tiuir'd the Prince to endeavour to remove, 
by offering his child as a Xvr^f, or expiatory 


. Now tho' Akraham was a Prince over his 
family, confiilirfg of fervants, whom he could 
arm and command to war, to the number 
of 318, as he had done for Lot's refcue; 
yet he was not King of the countrey, for ht 
had not then one foot of land in it, but only 
common for his cattle upon fufferance : This 
trial being twelve years befofe his wife's 
death, after which he purchased cme field ia 
it for a burying place. Befides, he was not 
mov'd unto that trial by any plague, or war, 
or former cuftom, as Cronus was in our au; 
thor ; but by a fpecial command fromOod: 
Nor was he commanded to offer him as a 
AuT^i', an expiatory facrifice ; but as a great 
ihflance of fuch faith in and love to God, 
as would make him obey a command con* 
trary to all the inclinations of flefh and 




-13 8 Remarks oh the History. : 

Nfcverthelefs we may juflfy take occafion 
from the plain iSgiufkatt(Mi of the w(mi 
liufr^w in tins cafe* us'd by Ettfekku^ a learned 
chriftian.BiAtop, and by thofe two learnecK 
heathens tPj&i^ and Totfhyry^ that all agre« 
to ufe it agreeably to the f»fe wherein 
our Church ufeth it, when it is af^y'd to 
the great conceni of our redempticm, by the 
facrifice which Cbrift ofier'd for us to his c^ 
fended Father : Whereas the Socinian noti<Mi 
of this is inconfiflent with the fenfe of aU, 
either chriAian or heathen antiquity, nfing 
this word. For here both underihnd the 
facrifice of one perfon's life , in lieu of ma* 
ny who are own'd to be obnoxious to the 
difpleafure of that injur'd Deity, to whom 
the facrifice is ofier'd : And the elded hea< 
thens by natural Ught, before the law of M*- 
fist are h«re afiirm'd to have beUev'd, ttett 
fuch a facrifice mi^t reafonably be tender 'd 
by a man, and accepted by a Deity. 

To clear this extraordinary matter ^her, 
I craTe le^ve to add to this head thefe a>niide« 
rations peculiarly belon^gto it,whichihew 
at^^/Uraham's a6, ot readinefs toaftinthis 
caie, cannot be made an example to be imif 
tated by any men, who have not the fame 
esprefs and extraordinary commands and 
promifes from God, which he had. 

I. That 


Remarks sfi the History. 139 

I.: Th»t before thn tHai ^6r4hanfs feith 
was afli»'4> both coiacermftg the power of 
(jo4 to wife hia fo» from tl» dead, in cafe 
he hud beeci s^oaUy ofier 'd , and a^fo eofh- 
eowng his wlU , that he certainly wowld 
raife him again > to ioaake good his expre^ 
promife, that in Ifiuw (who yet b^ no 
chiW) ^dAr^aw^s numerous feed AouJd be 
c^U'd. SeeGr».xxiii. comparing /^««^ ix. 
7,8. Iif^Kj.hiy>,i9. 

And this £ittth concerning his refurredioou 
in cafe he had been ofier'd» was the true 
canfe of his readinefs to obey that command, 
^ we are afilir'd by the Apoftle , HeSr, xi.. 
»7, 19. Xfm. iv. 17, 18. On which accoiuic 
aUo he fhews, that aChrifUan's Faith is like 
jiiraham'Sy and in like manner to be re- 
warded , becaufe they befieve on God , as 
one who rais'd their Lord Cbrift from, the 
dead, as in the 13, 24, z; j^. of that chapcer. 

This makes his cafe» even if he had tOxt- 
ally {lain his fon a^ a facrifice (bevag before 
affiir*d that he muft flibrtty be raised again » 
and have n great family, which within 400 
years ihould come out of EgyfUt and po^ 
fefk CgttaaftJ to be unlike ^ the heathen 
nmrtfaering of children in facriitce , whm 
they have ho hope th^ they fliall be reftor 'd 
to them by a fpeedy refurredion : For if 


i4<i Remarks on the HistoryT 

Ifaac had then died , his death muft have 
been as a fleep for a fihort time, becaufe he 
muft quickly be awaken'd to be the father 
of many nations, the Edomites as well as the 
IJraelites^ befides theChriftians, who were 
to be his children by imitation of his virtues.^ 
Chrijl alone could thus offer his human 
nature, becaufe he had full afTurance of his 
refurreftion on the third day ; arid this is 
the only facrifice of a man, who yet never 
faw corruption, which the true God ever 
accepted : And yet even in that cafe there 
was (above the piety that was call'd for in 
Ahraham\ cafe) an extraordinary expiation 
for the fins of all mankind, and a great 
example both of martyrdom for the true 
Religion, and of the greateftlove to the 
univerfal Church. So careful hath God 
been to ^ve no example or encouragement 
to fuch inhuman facrifices, in which there is 
no ground to expeft a miraculous refur-^ 
reftion of the perfon offered, 
f X. It is vifible, that Abraham herein fliew'd 
his great love to God , in his readinefs to 
obey his hardeft command : For notwith- 
flanding his afTurance that his fon ihould be 
rais'd again, if he had then died ; yet it muft 
be great love that could make him content, 
not only to part with him whQih he lov'd 


Remarks on the History. 141 

•above all his eftate , till God's time for his 
refurredion Ihould come, which time it 
doth not appear that he knew ; but alfo to 
be the executioner of this hard command 
with his own hands, upon his only child by 
Sarahj and one that had ferv'd him with all 
dutifulnefs, as appears by his carrying the 
wood , upon which himfelf was defign'd to 
be offered , and by his making no reliftance 
in this peril of his life. 

3. I confider, that the direft and chief 
end of God and Mofesj in recording this 
hiftory of Abraham's trial , is to (hew , that 
tho' he requires his fervants to love him a- 
bove their neareft relations ; yet that he 
doth perfectly abhor , that any fhould go a- 
bout to exprefs their afFeftion to him by of- 
fering up the fruit of their own bodies, or 
any man's blood, in facrifice unto him. Ac-? 
cordingly an Angel's voice is heard by him, 
forbidding him from heaven to do any hurt 
tohisfon, in facrificing him ; and byfpecial 
providence a ram is cailght, ^rid fubttituted 
in his place : Which things being the laft 
iffue of the trial , do fihew, that God's in* 
tent thereby was to make a folemn decla- 
ration unto him and his feed , by an Angel 
from heaven , that a cheaper facrifice of i 
ram was more pleaUng to him than thofe 


14^ Remauks m the History* 

inhnman facriiices of chtldf en , which tfir 
Camanites (among wbom he dvt^k) though 
the greareft proofs of their devotion \ which 
^9tsB fouoniturkl aiin^ cbac for this caufe the 
v HaiuMmUt were call oat^ Lev. xviii* %^ z8. 
S^isut. xii. 3 1 . And fevere laws were made *- 
l^oft the imitation thercofi^ Ltiik. tK. it. 
fiiA it's time to ^s froito this fecond difp»* 
f ity between QrQnus\ facrifice^ and the trial 
of Abraham. 

HI. Let xa dbferve a third dtfifereiice, 
n^fatcb proves they were not the Qaae, which 
is m the perfcm who was to be facri^*4. 
TMs in Cromufi cafe was hit fon Jfoit^l, tht 
only child he had by a nytnph of that couA^ 
trey called An^6t : For he had nuany wivei; 
lus own f^rs, and a numerous iitue by 
them, and but one only child by tins nym|^ 
hui^raibam's cafe the fon to be ofifer'd wis 
IJaac, the only child of his ody wife Ssr^ 
, the daughter of Haroft of Vr of the CM' 

One would think here were difference 
enough to fright a wife man from attempt- 
ing to make tb6 two men the fame man : 
Yet becaufe they were the only childceft 
of their mothers, and becaufe Attobtet may 
be {trained to fignifyone that was concehr'd 
by GracSi Boebart contends that AMbres is 


Remarks e» /i&^ History. 143 

the (ame perfon with Sart^, and her fon is 
I/Smc the fon <^ Sarab. But let us confider, 
I. That this Anobrtt is confirm'd to be 
^cexfl^jA t a woman of that country where 
Cr0i»«i'. dwelt, zndiSaHcboniatbo too: Sofhe 
muft be a Canaanit^^ probably not hr from 
CrMtts*s palace at By bins ; whereas Ssrab 
was bom at 1)r of the Cbaldees^ on the o- 
tber fide of the river or flood, viz. Eu^ 

fhdtes^ asisexprefs'dG^.xi. 31- compar'd 
with Jojhua xxiv. i. 

%. That there is no reafon affignable to 
prove , that in Anokrefs name there ihonld 
be any refped to God's fpecial grace en- 
abling her to conceive : ^fo proof that ihe 
was an old woman, land paft the expedation 
of child bearing in the courfe of nature. 
SgMchoniatb&, who only tells us of her> 
%eaks not one word of the true God, much 
kfs of his extraordinary grace, in all the hi- 
ftory which I have tranilated. Even the 
Scripture^ that magnifies God's kindnefs to 
jiirabam and Sarab in the birth of I/aae, 
yet tdls us nothing of a change made in Sa^ 
rab*s name, which makes any ^tpproach to 
this word, only Sarab inilead of Sarai ; and 
if fuch a change had been made Mofis was 
inore likely to tell us of it than Sancbo^ 


144 Remarks oh the Histor^y. 

Wherefore it is reafonable rather to in*^ 
terpret y^»^^r^ A name , a paffingfair one, 
like Tulcheria in Latin^ than groundlefly 
to imagine, that Ihe conceiy 'd by grace, and 
had a name given from thence ; whereas 
proper names are prefum'd to be given at 
their birth, unlefs there be proof to the con-* 
' trary. And it's certain, that even the words 
ft-bm which he derives her name, ^^v ^d (n, 
do more ufually fignify as I interpret them, 
than as he : For he himfelf , in his book de 
^nimalibusy vol. i. lib. ii; cap. 30. cpnfefles 
that this word never in all the Bible but 
once fignifies to conceive, and that not ac- 
cording to an Hebraifm but Chaldaifm^ Job 
xxi. 10. whereas it fignifies to pafs or furpafs 
very often. And fo in ^i&^^,which he will have 
to import miraculous grace, fcarce ever fig- 
nifies fo reftrainedly, but at large the favoi^f 
either of God or man adively, and often 
beauty of body or naind , or of ornaments. 
I'll name but one place, 5Pr^ v. xxxi. 30, Fa-' 
vour is deceitful^ &c. 

Agreeably to this I find, amongfl: the po- 
jiierity of EJaUj a King that reign'd in Edam, 
caird BadUHana», Gen. xxxvi. 3^,3^. iigni- 
fying either a mailer or lord of beauty ; ot 
pf kindnefe i and fo gracious : And I took 
the more notice of this name, becaufe it's 

6 the 

Remarks on the History. 145 

the fame name in both its parts with Hanni^ 
baly only the part that is firft in one is plac'd 
laft ih the other name. Surely no body will 
find the miraculous grace of God in thefe 
Edamite and Tunic heathen names; and 
there is no more reafon to imagine it to be 
found in the Canaanitijh name of Anobret^ 
who I doubt not was an heathen alfo, 

ly . There is yet another proof that Cronus ^ 
and Abraham's defign'd facrifice > was^ not 
the fame , becaufe they were not offer'd to 
the fame Deity. Abraham cert^nly, after 
his coming into Canaan^ offer'd to none but 
the fovereign God, the firft caufe ; but Cro-- 
nus is expreflly affirm'd to be offered to his 
father Ouranus, in Sanchoniatho^s words as 
tranflated by Thilo ; and by Torfhyry citing 
this ftory, exprefs'd, rifiwoi^ ^aifM(ny to the 
punifhing Damons. 

The reconciliation is eafy : It was to all 
the difpleas'd Daemons; but his father was 
one of them, he having moft provok'd him, 
and fo was moft concerned to appeafe hiyn ; 
yet not rieglefting the other Daemons, who 
might take his part : And furely light and 
darknefs will fooner be the fame,than the true 
God and thefe Daemons. A man cannot par* 
take of the altar or table of God and thefe at 

N once. 

1^6 Remarks dn the HisTORt. 

once^ nor the fame facrifice be to fiich 6{)poM 
fite Deities- 

To" dear this farther , we rtiuft cJbfcrve^ 
that Sanchoniatho tells us i that there OUra^. 
nus was confecratcd^ where hfc was cdlra* 
tedt and bled to death ; without ahy t^- 
preiiion that it was tc another time, or bfter^ 
wards : (Thp' Vigerus inferts pftea \xko his 
tranflation> there is nothing Kii anfw^r it in 
^hilo.J; He was copfecrated updn that ve- 
ry (pot of ground; winch intimates^ moft 
probably, that it was done forthwith , or 
irefentiy, which glfo \v&a fonj^tiines] figni- 
ies. Cronus wasof jhis mind, whofajdi Sit 
^ivus modh ne Jit vivus\ He knew it would 
be bonojurable unto bitnfelf to be bejiev'd 
(while he liv'd) to be the fon of a I>eity, 
and that it m^ht make^way to his owflcdil-f 
fecration , when he fliould die ; ae iildeed 
he was confecrated into the planet Sfituth. 

When he bad tjiu? deify'd hito^ ndthing 
could % his confecration mdre^ ttrnti th^ 
iiis fon (now a great Prince) ibould iacrific^ 
to him, add that with the moft v^uabte holo^ 
cauft of his own child. I have f(>fn€tiDie$ alio 
thought that Cronus might (kfign, hj del^ 
fytng his father (whofe Religion wits not id^ 
latrous) to make .^ter ^ges beUfiv^* that he 



Remarks on the History. 147 

apprt>v*ii their Religion who thtis ferv'd 
him, and thus might blot out the remem-p 
brance of the greateft patterns of true piety. 
But this I mention only as a conjefture at 
his end; the fad Santhiniatho delivefS as 
hiftorical truth : Intentions will be fecrets. 
But I am fure that this hiilorian (agreeably 
to fuch an intention) hath never mention'd 
in this hiftory the true Ood, nor the way of 
his worfhip either patriarchal or legal. 

However, before I leave this confide« 
ration , I cannot but take notice , that we 
have in this place oi SanchoH'tatho (as et- 
prefs*d by 'Bor^hyryJ the oldett mention of 
the Tjpy^oi ^cupioHg that any hiftory contains, 
and that the injured Ouranus is affirm'd to 
be one of them ; And yet if Tdr^phyry had 
fufficient warrant to affirm, as he doth, that 
Ctonui fo ofTer'd his fon to thefe Daemons, 
becaufe it was an old cuftom \ we may 
thence conclude, both that Cronm was not 
Abrahdm^ who in his tryal did not follow 
any fuch cuftom , but a fpecial command ; 
and that the Canaanites did not learft it by 
imitation of Abrahitm^ as Bothatt aftirms, 
but ^om elder precedents thin O-ohus or 

Befidesf, this fuggells to us, that finee we 
have before prov'd <!nnu5 to be Ham , tt« 

N X cuftom 


148 Remarks oh the History. 

cuilom that is before him mud be judg'd ta 
be even before the Flood » before which ail 
acknowledge Hamto be born : So we (hall be, 
led toDsmons worihipp'd by focb facrifices 
before the Floods when idolatry was in its 
youngeft years ; and we muft judge , that 
even thisworft part of it was received, and 
continued by Ham in Canaan and ^gyfU 
and the reft of his dominions. 

V. My fifth reafon why I cannot believe, 
with Bocharty that Cronus is Abraham^ in 
this hiftory of his facrifice » is , becaufe Ba- 
chart y in this affirmation > contradids what 
with greater ^{^roach to truth he had for- 
merly aflerted in the firft chapter of his Tha- 
leg. There he offers many reafons to pei> 
fuade us, that Cronus is Noahy which con* 
fifts not with his being Abraham : For Cro^ 
nus was born about 45-0 years before him, 
and had ended his life probably before Abra- 
ham\ entrance into Canaan. In his firft coii- 
jefture he was but one generation before 
what I have jwrov'd to be Cronus's time ; but' 
in this laft guefs he makes him the fames 
with a perfon who was nine generations after 
Ham. He hath not faid, much lefs prov'd, 
that there were two Cronus' s at fuch diftance 
from one another : And it's plain that San- 
choniatho attributes this facrifice to a man, 


Remarks on the History. 149 

who was contemporary with the 1 1^ gene- 
radon from thefirft man Trotogonus ; where- 
as we know by the Af^/V^/ Genealogies, 
that Abraham was the lo* generation from 
the firft man A4am^ -AS?4f A being the 10*^ from 
him, and Abraham the 10'^ from Noah. 

VI. My fixth and laft reafon t^ prove that 
Crtfnus is not the fame man with Abraham^ 
is taken from the occafion of Cronus's cir- 
cumcifion, which Sanchoniatho fays was quite 
different , and contrary to the occafion of 
Abraham's circumcifion , as it is related in 
holy Scripture: For Sanchoniatho^ after 
reckoning up the (laughters and murders 
he had committed agafinfl feis i)rother and 
children , yea and his 9wh father , and ob- 
ferving that from hence arofe a peftilence^ 
and the death of his fubjefts ; he fays, C^o^ 
nus being mov'd by thefe, offered «p his <»- 
iy begotten fon a burnt^ofFering to the >of- 
fended Manes of his father, and circurads'd 
himfelf and thofe that were with him ; to 
the intent that he might appeafe the avenging 
Daemons, whom he had by fo many wicked- 
neiles provok'd to take vengeance. 

But Mofes and St, Taui have told us, that 
circuQ^ifion was commanded to Abraham^ 
as a fign of the covenant of grace between 
God and him : Not that the blood of the 

N 3 foreskin 

ijO Remarks €H the History. 

foreskin Aioti}4 be an i^Kpiation for fin$ be* 
fore committed} but that it ihould be a fiai 
oftbf rigbtewfnefi of tbf faith which Abra- 
ham Mi h$in^yet un^itcHmi^ d \ wbicb 
righteoufQ?rs proceeded wholly from grace, 
and not from the merit of good worjts. 

3y the way, I thirtk theC? two things may 
be noted i 

i. Th«t Vigeruf btth not well tranflated 

Ibould have faid» firfumfidttt 

%. From hence it is probable, that both 
the Egypi^mf and th^ ^tbhpisns^ whp 
were the pofterity of Qrmnsy receiv'd th« 
irite of cireumcifion from his example aad 
command, not from the escample of Ji^ra^ 
httm^ who wds iTOGireumQis'd while he fo- 
joarn'd among them, wid for nbove twonty 
years after his return from E,gypt : Nor did 
^bey praflife It in imitttion of the J^^st 
Whom they always hated and their cuftom^« 



Remarks on the History, i j i 

Cy Ourknus, and htsfofierky^ efpec\ally 
hh grandchild Hercules Phoenicii;s, 

ma th€ Paftors, of 'VDham Arcje^ 

w^w one. 

Ilnfifled the more largely »poa Crenus^ 
to prove him ^*«r, in my fecpnd re- 
mark , becaufe upon that depends aU 
the evidepce that is fufficient to lead me to 
this aflenion, thzt Ouranm here miw be the 
fame man with Noah in the Mi>faical hiftp- 
ry. For the father of Ham "w^sNi^ah i hvit 
OurdnkS' was the father of this Ham or Cro- 
nuij according to Sanchof$iathe : Tlierefore 
his Oupanus is Mo/i£s Niab. 

He intimates, that this was not his name at 
fipft,buta name relating to the earth: Epgeus 
or Aut^cbtbm are Thufs Greek tranflation of 
. his firft9i^A«r*/<?/^;!i'name, which he tells us not. 
*ns lik*ty tbefe names tranflate the title 
whict^ M^f^s gives Noahy Gen. ixi la A man 
oft he earth, which we tranflate an htisband- 
mim r and that miy atfo be the reafc^ why 
U&irife^nameisfiuJdt&beG^ i-.^^ the earth. 
But as for his fmme' OarMtm , if I maybe 

X N 4 ^low'4 

i * */ 

L .. 

I y 1 Remarks on the History. 

allow'd to conje6lure, I guefs it was given 
to him by Thoth and the Cabiri^ and other 
idolaters, by reafon of his worfliipping only 
the fiipreme God our Father in Heaven, in 
oppofition of or contempt to all their earthly 
Gods, which had been men ; and the fame 
caufe I give for his father's name, which i)a 
Sanchoniatho is Eliun^ or, the Moil High : 
For it's certain they knew Lamech and Noah 
to be fleih and blood like others ; and thdf ' 
they gave them thefe great names, they did 
not give thqm any confiderable worflup in 
their Religion; that was all employed in 
ferving Cronus (who was the prime Baal 
or Moloch) and his wives and children. 

Agreeably hereunto I judge that Baal- 
berith doth (ignify this Cronus or Homy wor- 
fhipp'd anciently at Berytus. He is men* 
tion'd only Judg. viii. 33. and he feems to 
l>e defcrib'd by the name of the God of i5^- 
rtth. So I underftand Judg. ix. 46. And 
generally where Baal is fet alone , and no 
circumihnces determine it to another Dei-> 
ty, I take Cronus^ as the moil eminent, to be 
underilood : And fo Sutdas interprets BteA^ 
\f] Cronus. 

The parents of Cronus they own as King^ 
before him^ and coniecration they gave 
them after their death ; which things ware 


.^ •» .^i 

Remarks on the History. i j j: 

honourable to Cronus, flq}s to the height to 
which he was advanc'd , and foils to fet off 
his lufke : Ouranus being brought into the 
hiftory only to be ill reprefented, then con- 
quer'd, and abus'd by Cronus. 

Now it's certain that , the Moft High and 
Hiaven,, Hyffiftus and Our anus, are known 
titles belonging to the true fupreme God, nor 
can thefe names belong to mere men in any 
p^o|M-iety of fpeech ; therefore I guefs them 
to be put upon thefe fervants of the fove- 
reign God with an irony, grinning at them 
for that caufe, as Tetronius does at the Jews 
for their their prayers to heaven : 

Et cxti Jkmmas advocet auriculas. 

And Arifiofhanes abufeth Socrates^ as wor- 
ihipping clouds, becaufe he looked above 
their images to the Deities in heaven. 

On this account I conceive, that the books 
of the Cabiri and Ammon^i pef us'd by San^ 
cbtmiatboj and tranfcrib'd as far as he thought 
fit in this hiflory, make no honourable men^p^ 
tion of the piety and righteoufnefs of Ou-- 
ranus or his anceftors , but reprefent him 
as a man injurious to his wife , and that ihe 
therefore excited Cronus to avenge her quar- 
rel on his £ither. 

^ And 


1 54 RiWAitKs on the Histort. 

Aiid I ctnnot find any other account why 
they and he would pot trace the line of 0>kt 
rMWts up to 'Pr9t9gQnmf, as he hath done 
the line oljftiynn^ and M4^y whom he 
makes his contemporanesi hut that they did 
Approve the ReUgion of the idolatrous line. 
For this caufe they flighted , and therefore 
conceal'd the Religion of the other Jjne con- 

ijeming which they give u$ no potipe. t>«t 
in this ironical flirt copch'd in the PfUpes ^ 
Hyffifim and Qitr^mts : fim by the books 
fif 4f«e/?'» only we under^Und, thati^^#Aan4 

his jjnceftors ( in the line of ^fifk reaching 
to yidamj .continually prefery'd the worship 

of the true God in righteoufnefs and true 
liolinefs: NmI) being tke ^b$bfrf acker of 
rigbtequfuefs, x Pet. ii. 5*. as Bifliop Tear/on 

intimates thefe words may laore eonveiiih 
ently be uranClated. 

But if n^ iconje^urt about the reafpn c^ 
the names be not admitted, I build nodting 
Yqpon it : The bbfervations on which I form^ 
it are true and evident, and will be ufiofi^, 
«i«. that ndtho: S^milxmi^^lu^ nox bis vntt 
thors, the C^iri abd Tbatl^i h^d any goo4 
ivill to Oirrfv«x,' or the tine from which hik 
came, the line of Setb \ hqt nor to thcGod 
whom they ivorfliipm'd , whom we proved 


B^EMARKs on the History, i j f 
that they ihvtt Qwt pf the Qfi^onyt or did; 

not own in njaKing of the worl4. 

It's certain lilfo , that thffreafon wh»<;H 
SmciKfnhtho intirjisit^s of th^ ^(T^ai'd n^rof 
pf QHranuf (fpr hi? original mw^ he affirpis 
to he Epigfuf, which is M^fef^.^ title, fFoi» 
his Wbandry r^w^ IJh Ar^t^) is a very 
fenfelef? reafo(i, that hath no truth in it, 
viz. that for his illqflrious beauty he was 
cafl'd Heaven, and the vifible heaven had 
it's name from its likenefs to him. This 
jQ«ie me feek a better reafon* which I have 

c^er'4f agreeable enough to the fcoffing hu- 
mours of thcfe incwr<J)le idolaters. Never- 
theleft I acknowledge, that Mufebiuf batli 
cplle^ed out of TUQdaruf ^icnlns and ^Ur 
mfiTffs, 4 re^fon of thi$ n^me Onraffus, which 
pomes nearer to the truih th^n that which 
fP^fUf hiith reported. This I h^Fe deUyer'd» 
with nn aroewdment of it, in the Tr^wmitm 
to the fecond part of this hjjftory. 

In the ipean tiwe I ft*wi to the hiftorieal 

obfenr«itioftj» hitherto m»de!» and ihall folr 
-iQW them to the coofeqnenee9 that naturair 
ly flow from them. OuranMm defpis'd and 

dtfgfftoeMy ownher'd, tho' ftfterwtrds com- 
I^enieiited with the fecrifiqe of the only fon 

that CSr^iwf J- had by OBle'Ofhis country girls: 
Vet in the Religioo eftabUfli'd by Crouus** 

'■ . ' pofte- 

tj6 Remarks o» the History. 

pofterity, Cronus (whom they honoured un- 
der the title of Moloch) and his pofterity, 
carried away all the human facrifices : We 
''read of none, but this one, to Our anus. 
The God univerfally ador'd in the Eaftem 
world, and in Africa j is, the murtherer of 
Our anus J Ham ; or, as Lucan exprefles it, 

— ^thiopum fofulisj Arabum^; beatis 
Gentibusy atq\ Indis, unus fit Juppiter 

Even the great Greek name of a Deity, 
Z^f , altho* in time given to all their Dei- 
ties, from the higheft to the loweft; yet 
feems originally to be but the tranflation of 
his name can Cham : Both fignify hot or 
warm ( ^e«, ferveo) and are apply*d either 
to body or mind, coeleftial or terreftrial 
heat , or to the common principle of natu- 
ral heat and life, in the moft diffufive notion 
of it. His name was fit enough to ferve tfie 
turn of their allegorical Theology, foon after 
his time introduc'd, and to be apply *d to all 
faot-fpirited adive Princes , that would fol- 
low his example. 

Hence it is that Tlutarch de Ifide affirms,^ 
that KfAfjiHif (which is HamJ is the peculiar 
name in the Egyptian language of the Greeks 
GQd, ZdC^f * And agreeably Menes or Mis^ 


flEMARKs on the History. 157 

raimj the ion oi Ham^ is in Erattfthenes 
expounded T>hniusj as intimating him to b^ 
the fon ? AicV ; and Na-Ammony the Hebrew 
name of Theba Mgyftl^ (wherein Ham or 
jhntmn was worihipp'd) is by the Greeks 

And it's no wonder if^ from fo various 
names given in divers times and countries 
to the fame perfon, his hiftory be made con- 
fused, and this caflxation diOuranus by Crt^^ 
jBTtfj be increased into another like it ofCro^ 
nus by Z<^V. This mifbke is noted by 5a»- 
cboniathoy even in his time, to have been 
entertained in Greece i and he contends th^ 
it muft be imputed to the wanton wits of 
the Oreeksj and all the hiftory to be ftated 
right, or regulated, by his Pi&^;yirii^9 records. 
^etEufeb. p. 39. D- ^40. A. And Bocbarf 
(hews the famAiefs of thofe two Greek my- 
thick {lories of caftration, from Tmaus^ in 
the SchoUa upon AfoUonius. See his Tbakg. 
p. 9. D. 

There is one circumftance of Ouranu^s 
or Noah's death, which is noted by our aur 
thor, w;c. the time of it, which may be ufe* 
fill to obferve ; he faith it was in the 3%^ 
year of Ham^s or Cronus^ reign. This very 
imperfett mark of the time baingjoin'd with 
the more accurate accounts contained in 


1 5^ REKL\kKs cH the HistoRt. 

MdJ^lTz hiflx><y,ittay give US nbtice,that Hm 
begdft ftot hifel-^igfi, Or the exercife Of fove- 
reign pdWei', rill his f^thfer Ni>ah ^zt 91 B 
years bid, ft! 318 y^ats after the Flobd. 
Whence We ftifty gathet, that fo many years 
he was quietly fubjeft to his father , till ih 
«h4t f iftie idahklnd Was gfeatly ihcreas'd, and 

ij* hid ftiside a p^rty ftroAg ehdugh ; firft to 

tmh ftfid fttpi^bf t hltnfelf *s a King inde^Jeft- 
detit df hii fkther ; ahd theh after ^x yciits 

ifetdettieht to 'p\h with hifti itt his unnatural 
f ebelHoh aftd Aifrder of his father. 

I doubt hot bfut befdife thefe 32, yeans, 
which begin itt tfee year of thfe world 1974, 

fee under his father fi*d inflaence to fettlfc 
his (bfl Miaraimy And Thifth his grandtihild. 
In Egypt i §)r when l^nah died they were 

bdth dead , and the third Thtenitiitn King 
Jtyuiitnas rul'd J but I belief with d^peft- 
^fs<± on hitti ; his fathet (being Verv aged) 
IttVing referv^d ih thofe f>*rts Httle befides 

the name of Sovereign , which now Ms uH- 
^tetlful fon thought too hiuch for hirh, and 
aifoffi'd it to Ktihfelf 

This violent withdrawhig all reverfirtce 
fi-btA Ms father, and the euttitrg offa co<rfi^ 
dewible Kingd6Wrfrom his dOtoitiion, Wherie- 
^ his power mtift be Idfen'd, ibtne goefe t6 
be all that is lue^rti by the eaftratioft <tf 0«- 


RemaUks on the History^ i j^ 

rmus, whieh they take to be a6 idl^gory (till 
kft in Simthd»iath9*s hiftory, becftUfe it wai 
literally imitated by the Priefts to Rhtiit and 
b^d obtain'd a general belief aihoi^g thehea''^ 
taens, \irhd iieceiv'd their religious iloriei 
lad rifes ft-om OoHUs, Ofifh, ahd Thdth'y 
eoemies to Ountms, With (Udh a little ini3e<^ 
rare of allegory, iii reproach td him, as ail 
ill-will'd Deity. Such indded they Wdr* 
fldf^'d , With facrlflces mixing reproaches* 
tsTiMtarcb oWds concerning ^//S^ t And 

VrotMs's facrifice to cnff-aMs was as td 4 
tevengefUl God. 

^t let us^ pafs ovdr this tragical (loty. 
w^ch cdd impdrt no lefs than rebeHion, and 
a GodntmelioUi Way of murtfaering Out-aku^ 
by hift fon, and leave others to judge ho\tr 
troe it is (Scri^ttir^ being iilent in the cafe ;) 
md proceed to confider of a fon, which ii 
aforib'd to him ^y our author. Which I find 
not elfewhere : He calls him 'DAftarotfif, ^d 
ikfletts bim CO bd the fatheir of Mtlcbarfux, 
^ o\d7*h&hiciatt HercuUfy who is famous 

t. For his voyage through the Strtight^t 
i(4t*re (t^n thfc iiland to which he gaV6 
the ThtniciaH tame GadiraJ he built i. 
itva^^, as the etymologift alfures us from 
fHaadiUs itflaus. 

z. For 

i^o Remarks m the History. 

%. For the finding out the purple-dye { 
the hiftory of wliich we have from Take- 
fbiUus Mgyftiusy preferv'd in th^FaftiSi- 
culij or Chronicon Akxandrinum. He is 
therefore affirmed a Philofopher, and 
to have liv'd in the ^me of Thmnix^ whom 
Sanchmlatbo afTures us to be Canaan ; which 
^rees well with the time that his Genealc^ 
here leads us to. 

, I cannot affirm that he is the fame man 
that is caird Jrcles among the Thmnkian 
JS^ings in Egypt \ but becaufe the name of 
this latter feems occafion^d by the fame of 
the former, apd they were both Thigniciansy 
I will take occafion hence to enquire more 
fully concerning this Prince's time, and con- 
fequently the times of the whole Thwnidan 
Pynafty there ; which will help much to clear 
the feries of our chronology, by bringing us 
to the time of Tethmofis^ who expelled thefe 
tPb(Bnkian Paftors. 

Our firft ftep towards the difcovery of 
iof this Hercules JEgyptius's time , is to ob* 
ferve, that we meet with his name in the 

ly'^ Dynafty of Manet hOy in Scaliger's edir 
tion of Eu/eh. Chronic, moft diftinftly plac'(t 
in his CoUeBaneay p. iyx. The title of that 
Dynafty fliews, that the Kings thereof wer9 
Phoenicians y ftrangers, that took Memphis 


Remarks on the History. i6i 

' ' ' ' 

the ca{)iMl city, and reigned there : Skare 
there Jiam'd , and the fifth of theni is call'd 
'AgxA?^ This Trim being a King riow in E- 
gypty is the Egyptian Her ckles: The fnial! 
difference that is made b']^ the chsinge of the 
fpiritMs a/per itito the lenisj will niove rid 
body that kriofws thoTe m'arks, which either 
were not anciently written, Or were ordina- 
rily changed ; and fo for the difference of 
vowels* A long feigh 0/49 years is affign^d 
him, in which he might do the great things' 
that are writteni of hirti, efpecially ffis war in 
^frka againft Antieusy Who inuft now be 
old, being made governor of Libya b\MOyf- 
ris , Eufeb: p. ^6. B. mfention'd by W/y- 

I coiild here add much proof that Arcles^ 
or Archaleus^ is the name nearer than* his 
iifual Greek name to the Eaitern original 
"r^ny jercol^ fignifying fwift and finev^y, and 
that the Gf-eek nartic is an ea:fy change of it ; 
but I think fto body will flick to grant, that 
this is Hercules. But the niain' difficulty is 
yet utitodch'd, and that is, to find the rime 
in the feries of the world's years, wheii this 
15*^ Dynafty was in Egypt. Hie labor ^ hoc 
ipus eft. Wbereforei my fecond ftep fhall 
be this afFertion: 

O X. I 


i6t Remarks on the HistofJy. 

X. I think it highly probable, that the I5* 
0ynafty of Mauetho^ in Afrtcanus\ fecoiui 
edition, is the very fame with the Dynafty, 
or the Kangdom of the Hycfi^ or Paftorsy 
q^uoted out of Manet ho by Jofefhus againft 
ApoHi whofe time, I believe, is well ilated 
fey the Primate oi Ireland in his Annals ; and 
that Arcles in Afrtcanus exaftly anfwers Affis 
m Jofephtts / And fo bis time is determin'dy 
dt leaft frofe verum^ which is fufficient for 
my purpofe. This aiTertion containing my 
fingular opinicm, I muft crave leave to pro- 
pofe gradually the ccmliderations which led 
me thus to judge. 

I. I coniider, that it is very frequent ^ 
when names have a known (igniiicancy, to 
exprefs that name with the fame fignificatioD 
fey different words in divers languages or 
countries : As Ifaac fignifying laughter in 
Hebrew J is by ^hih Judaus^ writing in 
Greeky call'd Tiy<c^' which imports the fame 
thing and perfon , yet founds nothing alike. 
So Afdrubal in Tunic is turn'd into the Greek 
Clitomachus ( in TlutarchJ and MaberM 
into Diognetusy Mukhus iota Torphyry^ O- 
nias into Menelaus ; words (^ the fame 
fenfe in different languages^ tho' the found 
of them be very unlike : and therefore they 
«re apt to be taken, by men that know not 
' their 

Remarks on the History, i 6^ 

-their fignificsncy, for the names of diffe- 
rent men. 

Thus I conceive the matter to be here : 
yfj^is in Jafe^hns would be written in the 
Syrian tongue , tuy ^zi^ , which lighifies a 
ftrorig finewy man ; the fame is fignifiied by 
Arcles in the Egyptian and Chaldean lan- 
guages. HerodotuSi who dwelt long in jE- 
gyPi tells us in his Euterfe, that Hercules 
is an Egyptian name, and that even the The- 
ban Hercules^ long after the time we now 
fpeak of, was defcended of Amphitryon and 
Alcntenaj whom he knew to be both Egyf^ 
Hans by remote original, and therefore to 
have given their fon an Egyptian name. For 
this caufc Manet ho in Africanus ufeth the 
iiame Arcles\ as we may well expeft that an 
Egyptian Prieft fhould chufe the name beft 
known in his country : Yet Jojephus did not 
Wfong his author, to call the fame perfon by 
a name iof the fame import better known in 
Thmniciaot Syria^vxL. Affis. 

a. This being fuppos*d,the following tables 
tranfcrib^d out o^ofefbus zndAfricanu/s re- 
mains in ^«/&^/»j',will exhibit fo many agree- 
ments between them, which I will point out, 
as will make it appear, that in both the fame 
hiftory is ddign'd ; altho' there be feveral dif- 
ferences in .the names and figures, which I 

Oz impute 

164 t^iuAKVis d» the MistoiCS^ 

impute to the mifcarriage of tranfcribei'9# 
who uv'd in feveral countries and Centuri«rS 
of time. Hereof the reader fliall be able to 
judge more eafily by comparing the tables 
with my obfervations of their agreement. 
The fame author Manetbo is exlubited 

thus : 


tn Africanus. 

Been — 

Janiees - 

*» ■< *■« 


— 44 

— 61 

— 49 


Mattes ^ 
Anon — 
StaaH — 

Arcles - 





iAn both it is agreed ^ that theDynafty 
had juft fix KingSi all ilrangers from Egypt^ 
all fupported by paftorage , the oldeft reve- 
nue of Rings 9 fuch as Abraham and J oh 
were ; all Thxnicians originally, and great 
affliSers of Egypt : Hence t\^Egyptians 
hated fuch. Gen. xlvi. f. 34, and firft made 
war againft, and in the end expelFd this fo- 
reign government. 

X. The fum of all the reigns put together 
in each author is fomewhat near agreement j 

'■y <k. 


Remarks on the History. i6f 

Jofefhtu^^ nunabers rife to %s9j Africanus\ 
to 141 ; excefs is but 17 in Jofephus. 

3. The name agrees where the years vary 
in the third, and the years of their reign and 
order agree 9 when their names vary, as in 
the firft and fecond in both : A great iign 
of corrupt writing. 

4. Some agree very nearly both in nanfies 
and numbers of years , for their reign i So 
Salatis and Saites , Apopbis and Aphobis ; 
and under this fort of agreement in names^ 
fignificationy and number of years reign^ is 
our Arcles or AJJis ; 49 years belonging to 
him under each name; and under the name 
Affis he is placed in Armagh^ Annals^ m the 
year of the world 2131. 

Laftly, I think it a good confirmation of 
the hiftory of thefe Pallors oppofiticHi to the 
race of Mtz^raim , that I find Ttutarchi in 
his piece de Ifide^ (^c. to affirm , that one 
Apqf^isy whom I doubt not to be this Pallor 
caird by Jofephus Apopbisj wasone of thofe 
who was concerned in war againft Ofiris : 
For tho^he was dead before y^^/Aij's time, 
yet his family and intereft had from the ear- 
lieft time been engaged in the fame war, 
vf^ich Manetbo fays was 7ff<t\vx^m®^y and 
lafted till the total expulfionof thefe PaftorsJ5 
Typbon^ who kiird Ofirisy was the beginner* 

• Q 3 of 

1 66 Remarks on the History. 

of -thefe troubles, which th6 Egyftidnjf r^r 
prefent as the war of the giantb againft their 
6ods. Thotb^ Mizraim's or Ofirii\ fon^^ 
who in Tint arch is call-d Orus^ iiarried ii 
on. In his timc;^ by my tccotin^ the Padors 
adl united uhder one King «SW/ii/jf/ .*. And this 
Orust in Tlutarchy is intimf^ted to have in- 
troduc'd the \vay of fighting on horreboc];: 
ftgainft them. Before him their Gods ar^ 
affihn'd by Eratiafihenes, in his Cataflefifin 
of Cuncejc or A/eSit to have warr*d on the 
back of afles, and j^nong them Attmr^y 
whom T^ltttsrcit. -proves to hie the fame witl^ 
OJff-is ; and thefe wars ce^'d not till the 
tithes of Tethmtjisy who totally broke the 
TyfhouiaHi or gigantick intereft. 

l%ere is no Aich agreement to b^ found 
in any other Dynafiies in Manetho \ wherfc- 
fore I judge them to be one and the fame 
bynafty. Which of thefe two copies of -M*- 
f^tho is the better, or lefs corrupted, t will 
not determine. JBedhart hath fliewed all the 
names,' ^ they fiand in Africmus^ to be 
^Thanician names, and ha; given theii* fighi: 
fication in the firlt book C^ his CanadHy r.4. 
Atid, I confefs, I like the pliKiing of Arcks 
before the laft in Masnethoy better than thq 
fetting him lail under the xaxo^ <&Affis iin 
JofejfbttSi becaufe I citaxck eaiily beiieve 


1 » 

Rf.MARi{^s OH the History. i6y^ 

thtt Hercules was forc'd to leave Egyp^ un- 
der an agreement with Tfithmojis^ to gd 
quietly with hjs army to feejk a plantation 
elfewhere, about Jerufalem ; tho* this may 
be true. But either of the places will an- 
fwer my defign fufficiently, becaiife I hope 
not to determine the beginning or end of his 
time precifely, nor is it needful towards the 
<:learing of my author. 

For I know that the Thtenkian Hercules 
of Tjre is commonly believ'd to be a diffe- 
rent perfon from the Arcles or Hercules that 
reign'd in Egypty altho' he alfo was one of 
the Thcenician Kings there : And it^s not in- 
deed impoflible, in that long-iiv'd age, that 
the fon of Demaroon might reach to that 
King^stime^ and fo might be the fame man; 
yet it*s fafer not to affcrt fuch a famenefs, 
becaufe proof is defeftive. However, the 
famenefs of the name gave an allowable rea- 
fon of this inquiry about a perfon, who liv'd 
not far in time and place froiji him, and was 
originally a Thoentciau : And we fliall have 
occafion in the fecond book to make great 
' ufe of the time of thefe Thoenician Paftors, 
'when we have fix'd the time of TethmvJIsj 
who put an end to their reigning in £[0/?. 
ITiere is «K>ther feries of thefe Kings in 
Synceltnsy p. 103. D. where inftead oi J£ii 

O 4 or 

1 5S Remark3 on the History. 

or Jrclesy an. ^9. are put two names, Kerj 
fus^ ann.x^. Afetk^ ann^xo. ofwbichlpbr 
ferve, that the numbers adfied together njakjs 
49 , the years of Arcles j and the pame A- 
feth differs only in termination from Ajfis^ - 
zndKertuf is a corruption pi Mekarfus^ the 
name of Hercules or 4rcks. This I talje tp 
be a confirmation of njy opinion, that 4Ifi^ 
and Arcles are but two names of the fame 
man , caird A feth and Kertns m SynceUusj 
(both namps fignifying the fame Hercules) 
becaufe the time of them both is the time of 
o^ Arcles. 

Thxs A (Ji^ or A feth (as SynceUus notes) 
added the five days call'd \7r<tyofJ^cu to the . 
formerly more imperfeft account of tl^e days 
of the year , which among f he BgyptUns 
before were reckoned bvit 3(^0 : Npw he made 
them known and accounted to be 3 65-, which 
is a fign that he underllood the fun s motion 
annually pretty near exaftnefs. 

I will conclude this remark with an obfer- 
vation about Tethmofis or Amofisy whom 
we juft now mentioned, as the m^n who ne-: 
ceflitated the Tl^osinicians to leave Egypt. 
Some account of him the, reader may find 
in Armagh's Annals^ A. M. ii 79. where he 
fixeth his time : But that which I intend to 
fpeak of is not theye , but is deliver 'd by 




Remarks^» the History. i6^ 

Euftbm^ 1, iv. c. 1 6. Trap, Evang. from 
fPorphyrys teftimony, that this Amojis abo- 
Jifli'd by law the vile praftice of facrificing 
men, which had there taken place in the 
times before him, and caused men of wax to 
be oflfer'd inftead of men of flefli and blood. 
I chufe to obferve this , becaufe he was of 
I'hebaisj or H)pper Egyft^ before his con- 
queft over thq ThwnicianT^ who dwelt in the 
Lower Egypt ; and therefore (according to 
what Tlutarch inform -d us before) was a 
worihipper of the fovereign God, and from 
the natural Religion towards him (I fuppofe) 
had learned to abhor fuch cruel Sacrifices : 
Yet I doubt he had fome mixture of idola^ 
try in him, elfe he would not have fubfti- 
tuted thofe waxeq men lately mentioned, to 
be facrificed to the Deities, that formerly had 
true men ofF^r^d to them, ^ 

1 . I obferve this the rather, becaufe hence 
we may gather, that h^ioxQ Abraham died, 
or thereabouts, this cuftom was removed 
out of Egypt y which gives us the reafon 
why Egypt was never accused of this crime, 
tho* their neighbours the Canaanites often 
are , either by Mofesy or any of the Pro- 
.phets. And its a reafon alfo why the If 
radites neither did, nor could learn this 

praftice in the Egyptian bondage, altbo' 





170 Remarks on the Histor;?, 

ri^y did learn other parts of idolatry there, 
), Becaufefotne light will break out, eveo 
from hence, to clear the ftate of the times, 
that were before the expnlfion of this PAar*- 
nician power by this Thebaic King. For it's 
i:ay^nal to think > that thd^Tbenicians m 
XIanaamtesy that had reign'd in Egypt all 
thefe fix fucceificms , which we confider'd 
before y had for moft of their time , if not 
<iU al<:H2g, praflis'd this great inhumanity of 
Sacrificing men vx Egypt ; which he that ex* 
peird them thence thought fit to expel, when 
the introducers of that barbarity were caft 
out by him. Now this Thosnician Dynafty 
4;ontinu'd there ^^% years, in the^ihortefj: 
^count in Afrieanus\ %%^ years in Ji^yS^- 
fhm\ account. Now ^4^ years ( the kaft 
nutnber) being fubdufled from xi79, ^ 
year of the world in which Tethmofis ex- 
pelled the Thmniciansy there remains .1937 
for the year wherein thefe ThtsnicioMs be- 
gan their dominion there ; and if they then 
iK^an to ufe fuch facrifices there alfo, it will 
prove they us'4 them long before Abrabm 
was born, his birth being A. M. ioo8. and 
therefore they could not imitate him. 
. This ferves to confute an opinion, whidi 
fame have taken up without fufficient rea^ 
(oils, vi^. th^ the Qgnuimtis or "PhmtctM^ 


. J 

Remarks on the History. 171 

followed the 9xainpleof j/iiraham in the ir in« 
huma n ftcr ifices of their children. TheiErvS. 
of^^^a^^ wasafecret between^God, ainl 
himfelf > and his fon j none d{e knew how 
far he went towards obeying qf th^t com- 
mand » which God folemnly refcinded ber 
fbre it could cffeftually be obey'd ; and it 
Wzs but 46 years before the ^onquefts of jtf^ 
mofis in Egypt ^ and the* expulfton of fudi 
facrifices from thence. This will not fuflfer 
it tQ be an ancient cuftom (as Tcrf^yry af* 
firms it was) before Cr onus's facrifice of his 
fon i and It feems to be too little a time to 
allow for the fettlement of fuch an unnatural 
pradice, that had taken fuch deep rooting 
among them, that even when by law it was 
i)arr'd| yet the lawgiver thought fit fo far 
to comply with it, as to fubititut^ men of 
wax in the place of true men. 

4. We may learn by counting backward 
from TethmoJis\ time, through the years of 
the reigns of thefe fix Thmnici^n Princes, 
that two of them reign'd there, vis^^ Sala^ 
tis and Beon^ and died before NMh\ death, 
which falls in Armagh^ Annals in the time 
of the third Apachnas : And becaufe Cronus 
pr Ham in Sanchontatho is affirmed to out- 
live him, it's probable he liv'd to the time 
^f the fourth in Jofefhusy call'd Apphis. 


17 i Remarks (7« /^^ History. 

• Hence we may colleft, that the number 
of. men growing apace to multitudes fulfi* 
cieht to people many Kingdpms, their long 
Kves , aod ftrong conftitutions multiplying 
children every year; Noah znd Ham ^^ 
pointed many Kings under them in their 
lives time, as owr Sanchoniat ho mentions fe- 
deral Kings under his Cronus : So that in 
their latter time they cpntented themfelves 
within lefler bounds, and fent their children 
out to enlarge their plantations, which Cro* 
nus did to fo great an extent, and increased 
fo much in ftrength, as that he is repre- 
sented to have overcome his father in war, 
and to appoint Kings under him , both in 
Syria y vfh^vQ Adodus was under him, an4 
in Egyfty of which our fragment of Sancho- 
niatho mentions only Thoth. But we hav^ 
here fliew'd, that Cronus liv'd in the reign 
of feveral other Thmnician Kings in Egypu 
which gives reafon to think, that he had 
fome hand in that Phoenician plantation 
there ; but this we may better inquire into 
in the next remark, and in our review. 



Hemarks on the History, 17^ 


Of the two lafi generations plac'd tk 
Sanchoniatho'; principal line^: An4 
gftheeldefl%%y'^ii^^DynaftieL ^ ! 

>.. \ 

HA V ING finifh'd my remarks on the 
fliCM't collateral line of Cronus ^ and 
his ahceiiors ; I now proceed to con^ 
fider the longer, or principal Krie^ given by 
our authot in l^ generations together. But 
here alfo L think it befl: to begin with the 
two laft generations, as the moil known, 
and thence pafs to thofe that are fee before 

The greateft difficulty will be in deter- 
mining the firft of thefe two generations, in 
which our author places Mi/br and Sydyi^y 
as if they were coufm germans^ or brothers 
children. We muft firft find who each of 
th0m was fmgly, and then confider their re- 
lation to each other. We will begin with 
Sy4ycj vfhom'Thilo wjell tranflates UKeu(^j 
thf Juji. This was, I conceive, his title 
that he was known by ; and I believe he de- 
ffer^^d this title well, for I take him to be no 
Other than Shem^ the beft fon of his good 
» father 

17^- kEMARfeS oh the HiSTORf*. 

fe^c to be fufficient, iftd therefore will hd^ 
repeat them. But ! am ia an efpecial man-2 
ner concerned to anfwer an objeftion rifing 
out of Sancboniatbo my author : For he tefis^ 
lis that Sydyc and Mijbr were the fon^ of 
Magus and Amynus^ which cpniilh not 
with Sy dye's being Shemy becaufe he was the 
{on oi Noah J who. is Our anus in otrr author,- 
and is in a line diftind: from that wherein 
jimynus and Magus ftand;. 

The beft kindnefs that I can ihew to our 
'author in this cafe, is to acknowledge, that 
t believe he honefUy wrote this outof thofe 
Cabiric records which he fearch'd,- (which 
yet perhaps might be fomewhat altered be- 
tween his time and the time of thofe G^^iri, 
that were Sydyc'% children) which contained 
the greateft antiquities that their Priefts 
would communicate : But yet I believe ,( 
that in this link of their line, or Genealogy^ 
their books were corrupted j , and that it was 
thought neceffary to the intereft of their 
falfe Religion i or idolatry, to mifreprefent 
this part of its hiftory in later times , when 
none alive could contradidl by their own 
teilimonyfrom their fenfes, and few or no 

records were likely to be compared , that 
might atteft the contrary. 



RiMARicis on the HistbRY. 177 

For this clevetith generation being the 
fiext generation after thfe Fibdd , in which 
all the t^nth generation, and the children of | 

the tenth geiieratibh , exciept Noixh iand the J 

children of his family, were drbwn'd , can 
have no other people in it but his family, 
unlefs fetvants be fuppos'd preferv'd iii thi^ 
ark ; Wherefore I miift believe that thef^ 
idolaters (from whom Sdnchoniatho taok his 
Geneialdgies ) did |in thcfe records ( which 
he faw) fupptefs dU the mention of the Flood, 
AS he doth ; land pretended that the line, in 
trtiich their idolatry began j was cofltinu'd 
«n to fiicfceeding ages. 

But this could ribt be aone in ihftances of 
Ineri that ever had any being in the earth , 
any other way, but by taking nien om, of 
Noah\ line , and ktihexin^ them as fdns td 
the laft men Of that family^ which iri truth 
was wholly eitihghiih'd in the Flood. Thusi 
and for this caufe , I judge they did in the! 
cafe before us i They havcl tikeh both Sy- 
'dyc arid Mifor Out of Noah's line, which we 
know to be Seth's (tho' they would hot lead 
US up fo high) to lengthen out that Other 
line, (It Will appear hereafter to ht Cain's 
line:) which in truth was cut off totally in 
the Flood. But they had no ttiind fuch i 
Uot^ ind judgment upon his family, fliould 

P ftand 

f^^ KtUAK^ts OH the MistoRt. 

(land Q[{toli tecoM to tbe difcff die of idqfa- 
try, which had its rife there, as ]|ve wtlUei^ 
us ; and were wilUfi^ to have twof^h con-' 
{iderable lutmesi as thefe are to belpBg nato 
it, and fo to transfer ^ the bopQi^r a^d re^ 
putation, that Sydyc and Mifor^ wod aU. tbidr 
children, the C^^iri and Thoth^ bad gain'di 
jin the world i to the %vs^ family in which 
their falfe Religion bpgan. Befides^ it is 
pliun, that by aiferting Mifot or Mizraim to 
belong to the eld^ famMy of CdiHt they im- 
ply that Cana4»i who wse Mizr4m^% bro^ 
ther, was of the elder hoi^e alfp j which it 
K likely tbey might ta^e for a great honouFy 
feeing theyafiert their Relig^en alTotOGome 
from thence. 

I know not what pretence tfey coufd ha^ 
to Sydyc to be of that finfiil idolatrous femi* 
ly, but only becaufe he did fbqie time live 
and reign ^ Salem vaCanaaM, among a peo' 
pie who were generally of that Religion. 
How long he rul'd there we IsBffw noty 
having no biftory of him left but tliat of 
Mfifes, which records his meeting with and 
l>leffing ol Abraham m the name of the true 
God, whofe Prieft he was ; which is inqon^ 
fiftent with the idolatry fetupin this family.^ 
to which he is moft unjuftly afcrib*d in Sa»^ 


Remarks on the History, ifd 

As for Mijori who is [joined with him iii 
the fame genetation^ I believe that he is the 
hiah who is commonly call'd Mizraim^which 
dual word is indeed the name of a country; 
or people, partly defcend6d frdm him, part- 
ly governed by hini. His ridme alone would 
incline nie to believe fo: Grot ins avers it ; 
whofe words from his Annot. on lib. i. de 
Veritate Chrift. Relig. p. 47. edit, in fol. I 
will trarifcribe, becaufe they' add reafon tb 
his authority. A pniinD Mitzrim, qui Mifdr 
Philofti Byblid, Mefori\y5yi ipfis S? ac colli 
ii qui Gr*cis iiEgyptii , ^ tnenfis afud eOs 
Homen Metr^^. 

As fdi- the tranflation of this name Mijof; 
trhich Thih gives us by the Greek \vXvt(^; 
fignifying happily free , Bochart derives it 
from a Syriac w6rd a^i^ib Mizrdy fignifying 
freei whith the reader may accept of. Yet^ 
I corifefs, I rather thiiik the notion of free- 
doni to be cdrifeqtient utito his name, whicE 
(as in the firft remark I faid) fignifies a Prince 
to liian of dominidny the confequent where- 
tf is freedom from any coercive power ovet 
him, and froni niany reftraints which fttb- 
Jeds are under by civil laws. So alfo the 
title Tbdraifhi which was ^ven to his fuci 
ceflbrs ihortly after, or rather to him in his 
timej in Abraham'% time hath both thofe 

P % figni- 

180 RfcMARKs on the History. 

fignificarions, of a fupreme governor ^ and 
of a free perfon ; as will appear by compar- 
ing the Hebrew and the Arabic^ under the 
root 3ns Taravy in Dr, Cajile's Heptaglot, 

However his name be derived, the man 
being a fon of Ham or Cronus (under whofe 
appointment he mull be underflood to go- 
vern in Egypt y the land of Ham^ as Mifor's 
fonalfo, Thothy is expreflly affirmed by <Stf»- 
fboniatho to do, doubtlefs after he was dead) 
muft needs be of the line of Noahy and there- 
fore ill placed by our author under a diffe- 
rent line. And by this freedom that I ufe 
in cenfuring this error, which I have difco- 
ver*d in the records which my author trufted 
to , the reader will fee that I do not con* 
ftantly believe what he delivers , nor think 
my felf bound to make him better than I 
find him ; but only to endeavour to make 
him better underflood , that he may be be- 
lieved , where there is no jufl reafon to the 

I will add alfo, that there is a great error 
in making Mi/or of the ii'^ generation, be- 
caufe he was of the iz'**, his father Ham be- 
ing in the 11'^ : Yet this is fo far exci&fable, 
that it may be truly faid he liv'd contempo* 
rary with men of that 11^*' generation ^ and 
died aifo before his fathet.. And here it 



/ ' 

Remarks on the History. i8i 

muft be confefs'd, they had fohie preten- 
fions to Mijbr, who fell into the idolatry^ 
that line tinto which they have tack'd him ; 
and he began to cloak it with allegories, (as 
was noted in the firft remark) which in pro- 
cefs of time were impi;ov'd into that myfti- 
cal fable, which we find in Tlutarch. Tis 
probable alfo that Mizram^s brother Ca- 
. naau fettling in ThwtticUy and being of the 
fame Religion with that elder line , might 
be an inducement to our author to believe 
they were both originally of it. So careful 
were thefe forgers of an ii* generation ia 
the elder line, that they put in men who 
liv'd in that fame age, wherein the ii* ge* 
Deration thereof mutt have liv'd, if they had 
not been prevented by the Flood. 

Neverthelefsjl cannot but obferve,that we 
have in this cafe a notable inftance, that the 
Prieft's tradition was no fure footing for the. 
people's faith, when their intereft might' 
tempt them to tell fuch untruths. Yet it's 
to be obferv'd, that as the attempt tp give 
the hiftory of idolatry before this age that 
efcap'd the Flood, is peculiar to this "Phmni- 
clan theology and hiftory ; fo is this error of 
lengthening out the line that was deftroy'd 
thereby, and the diffembling or conceal- 
f»ent of that hiftory, as if it had never been. 

%ii Remarks o» the History. 

For all the remains th*t w^ have of thsr 
Chaldifan hiftory out of Berojfiis^ Jjk^d^nus^ 
jdfoUfidorus ^ Alexandfr Tolyhlfior (whicl> 
are gather^ together in the firft Gr^f A Chro- 
nicle of Eufibim) agree with egch other ^ 
and withil/^y^j, that there was fqph agreat 
(ielugc in the lo'^ generation, and ^hat Cro^^ 
nus kqew of it before , and warned others, 
and efcap'd. AndZ^^M/ir/in his book de 
2)^4 Syria J affirms , that even to his time ^ 
be faw the memory thereof tp be celebrated! 
yearly in the famous idol temple at Hiera- 
polisj not far from Euphrates. 

Thefe teftimonies, and many more g^T 
ther -d by Eufibim and Grotim^ to prqve the 
affirmative in this hiftorical matter, mnft ne^ 
peflarily outweigh the filence of Sancbonia^ 
tho^ and his Tht^nieian Priefts therein ; efpe-r 
cially cpnfidering, that they might well thinly 
it more for the intereft of their fleligion to 
conceal the deluge, than to record it : Foe 
it's likely they knew^ , that even thofe heat 
thens, th^t did own the JDeluge, yet wer^ 
fprc'd tq hide the tnie c$ufe <>f the fingulaf: 
tavpur, which was Ihew'cl tp the fanwly tha^ 
(^fcap'd it ; which w^s God's cs^re to pre.- 
ierVe a familyj wherein the true Religiocn 
had been maintain'4 ^pin the beginning^ 
an4 vrould be continued unto the end , al- 


t- i * 

Remarks on the History, i S | 

tho* fome branches of it ( efpecially Ham , 
with hii pdfterity) degenerated into idola- 
try. Tboth , and his fcholars , might reafo- 
nabfy think , that it would be a more wary 
courfe to conceal even the whole hiftory of 
the Deluge, left out of it Ihould arife ah ob- 
jeftion againft their idolatry, from God's 
judgment thereby upon it, which could not 
be anfwer'd by all that ftory of its antiquity 
before the Flood, which he could product 
in its behalf. 

Thefe things being thus ftated, we maj^ 
how proceed to confider the ii**" or laft ge- 
neration, which muft needs be mifplac'd in 
relation to the lo*'', altho' we allow it to be 
true in relation to its immediate anceftors of 
the II* generation : For UMiJbr be the i^' 
therofThotb, as is here alferted, and I think 
truly ; yet neither Amynus nor MagUs will 
Be his grandfather, becaufe we have prov'd! 
before^ that neither of them was fathei* to 
Mtfor, but they and their ilTue were loft in 
Ihe Deluge. And the like muft be faid of 
the Cablf't^ that they came not as grand- 
children from either Amynus or Magus , if 
it bcf true, that they were the children of 
Sy^Cy as r cannot prove ttie negative , that 
they came not from hina. 

f^ For 

1 84- Remarks on the History; 

For thp' Sydycj qr Shem, was a man mpft 
firm to the true Religion, yet his <;hildrep 
(eljpecially after they were parted from hiio^ 
into different plantations, and had either fet - 
Up i diSibrent governipent themfelves, or 
join'd themfelves to mep of anqther govern? 
jnent ap^ religion, as t find caufe to believe 
the^ Cabiri joined themfelves tp the fpns of 
HdmJ inight fall into, the idolatry, which 
foon fpread it f(plf over the greateft part of 
the world : For even Mofes leaves the other 
x:ljildren of 45*^^^?, Ajhiiv^ Elarn^ Lud^ and 
Aram^ witliopt any pharafter of conitancy tq 
their father's piety ; an4 it's certain tljeir por 
fterity were generally idolaters. 

But where fliall we find the time and hir 
ftpry of this great man Thoth^ whom our au- 
thor calls a God ? Tlato calls him a T>^r^ 
won , and ii\ certaiq the pld idolater? us'd 
thpfe titles promifcupufly. Sanchmiatha 
owns him fecretary and cpunfellor to Cror 
ffusi and we haveprpv'd, that he being by 
^im alfp ^ffifm'd to bp Mi/or's foji, he mull 
be Croms's gran(ifoi|. And this is pp won-? 
der , if we confider , that in that long-liv'd 
age it wasufijal tp fee many generations from 
them ; as it's certain, by the Scripture chro? 
nplogy, that his brpther Sbem liy'd tgn yearsj 
after I/aac was married to Rebecca , altho' 


Remarks on the History. rSr 

he did not marry till he was 40 years old, 
and Ifaac was in the 11'^ generation counted 
from Shem. No wonder then if Cronus or. 
Ham had a grandchild in his council, a man 
of noted parts, and one whom he afterwards 
fent to be King in Egypt y as our author te-^ 

Therefore we mufl look for him in the 
chronicle of the Kings oi Egypt ^ and next 
after his father Mrjsraim ; for it's not likely 
his grandfather would fend him to reign 
there , till his father was dead : And ac- 
cordingly I fearch'd there , and found , not 
Only in Manetho% but alfo in Eratojihenes^s 
catalogue of Egyptian Kings, the next to 
Menes . ( whom EratoJIbenes in Syncellus af- 
firms expreflly to be Meftraim, Sec Scali^ 
ger'sGreekEufeb, p. 17. which is the Gr^^^ 
writing of Mizraim) we find Athothes^ the 
fon of Menes or Mizraim. Hen^e I gathered, 
that this was our Thotb^ whom I look'd for ; 
and that his name was alfo written Athothy 
es being only the Greek termination. 

In both authors this man is plainly ac- 
knowledged to be the fon and fucceflTor of 
the firft King of Egypt ^ who is Mizraim : 
For tho'Hamj otCronusy had influence here, 
yet he is juftly reckoned King of a far larger 
dominion , i;,aking in Syria and all Africa. 



%%4 Remarks on the History* 

The firft King limited to Eg^t was Mtz^ 
raim^ thefftther of our Tbothy in Manetb^ 
and Eratoftbenes call'd Atkatb^ among the 
Greeks^ HermtsTriJinegiftus ^^ as our author 
exprcffly affirms ^ contrary to thofe who 
would have another later perfon, namVl Si* 
fhoasj a reftorer of learning, to be the true 
Tri/megiftus : Unlefs it be granted, that even 
the latter alfo, who was the father of Tafi 
was calFd Hermes Trijmegi^us as weli a& the 
former ; altho* the liitter be plac*d by Hie-^ 
rtm (from Eu/ebiMjJ after the ddiverance 
from Egjft ; whereas the former nrafl be 
before Jlbrabatfis birth ; .Ajod our biftory is 
only concerned in him who was Mtzraim'^ 
fofl > and tharefore about 400 years elder 
than Sipboas^ if Hierom's account fiiouM be 
^ow-<i Bui: Sir Jabn Ma^Jham (who ha« 
taken the greatefl: pains in fiating the Eg^- 
/)f^w Kings, according to Eratofibtms) places 
this Sij^beas e h^ 'E^f4Sig cf^ 'M(p^Vyf full 900 
years after our jttbofbes^ the dd Thvtb^ 
whofe cofmogony and hiil6]ryt tran£mb'd 
by Sancbmimbo^ we are ende^vouriiig to 
clear up. 

Wherefore it follows, that tf there M 
better notions of Religion, the knowledge 
of the fovereign God, taught by the later 
J^erme^^ who was of Tbebais^ and con(^ 

- quentl^ 

Remarks on the History. 1 85f 

giiently worfliipp^d him which the elder 
fpeaks not of ; and if I i^iopld grant, thai 
we have thofe notiotis without interpolatioa 
in the Ta^mder^ 01* other Hermaic hook^ 
now eiftant ; yet it will not thence be con^^ 
eluded , that the ancient idolatry eftabU(h'4 
by the firft Hermes had any fticjh thing in iti^ 
or was any l?etter than we here find it ro* 
prefented by E^febius. Or if Eufihius doe? 
{bmetimes grant, that the later EgyptioMt 
pf Lower Egypt do fpejjJj: better with rela- 
tion to the firit caufe, than thefe old one? 
did, from whom other heathen? learn'd their 
firilpublick conAitutions in Religion ; it dotI| 
not follow that he contradifts himfelf, but' 
only that he owns, that they (as Philofo- 
phers) faw reafon and neceffity to mend^ 
and come nearer the truth , than their an^ 
cefiors did, in publick eflablilhments whicH 
they could not alter. This I thought fit to 
^dd in defence of Eufebius^ who hath lately 
been fo roughly handled upon this account 
by a very learned man. And yet I am not 
afraid to declare upon this occafion , that I 
believe this piece of S^nchoniatbo^ with c- 
ther paffages gathered by Eufebius from Ma^ 
netho and Charemon^ to contain a truer ac- 
pount of the doftrine and religion of the old 
flermesy tjian any other Herm^c books now 
g^t^nt. Moreover, 

i S 8 Remarks on the History. 

Moreover, tho' I think I have already fug- 
gefted fufficient proof, ihziThoth and-^i/- 
thothes are the fame man, becaufe two Hi- 
ftorians agree to make the latter the fecond 
¥ingoiEgyptj taken alone, Mizr aim being 
thefirft, and both agree, that in thisfuccef" 
fion the fon followed the father, as Sancho^ 
niatho faith Mi/or was father to Thoth ; the 
fucceflion and natural relation of father and 
- fon neceflarily determining in courfe of na- 
ture the fame perfon , altho' the names had 
been more different than Thoth and Athoth 
are, which differ only by one letter prefixed 
in the latter name: yet Iivill add, that the 
famenefs of the names may be ^farther 

' I. By confiderihg, that Bochart hath 
fliew'd^ that the initial letters » and y are 
often left out. See many examples by him 
produced, /. 8x6. C. D. and /. 840. C. D. to 
which I will add but one : The fame man is 
written Apachnas in Jofefhus^ who in Afri- 
canus is calFd Tachnas ; both of them tran- 
fcribing ManethOy as we (hew'd before. 
■ X. The charafter of Thoth in Sanchoniatho 
agrees with that oi Athoth in Manet ho j both 
defcrib*d as eminently learned men, an un- 
lifual charafter in the old Egyptian Princes; 
fo that he (lands as a fingle infbnce for many 
ages. 3- The 


Remarks on the History, i S9 

3; The expofition oi4thoth in Eratojihe^ 
nes plainly ihews the name to relate to Her* 
mes ; for it's there tranflated 'E^p^>;V, where* 
in it's certain that 'E^fjLfjg tranflates the Thothy 
the chief biilk of the name : But I confefs I 
know not why, for the fake of the fingle 
letter A prefixed to it , he fhould add yiv^ 
at the end of his compound ; and I fuppofe 
there was no need of it, for the reafons hi* 
therto alledg'd : Yet becaufe Eratofthenes 
has obtained a great name, as one who was, 
tho' not of the firft rank of learned men, yet 
of the fecond , and therefore is ftyl'd B^t^, 
and was a keeper of the Alexandrine library 
in the time of Ttolemaus Euergetes^ being 
fetcht from Athens into Egypt ^ I fufpefthe 
might have more reafon for his addition than 
I know of L»et thofe who have better skiU 
in Copticy than I pretend to , confider far- 
ther of it. It's certain his father's name was 
Menes or Mizraim^ not Thothy that I can 
.find, as that ygv^V feems to infinuate. 

I have fometimes thought that his father, 
who in Sanchoniatho is call'd alfo Ijiris^ as 
we obferv'd in the firft remark, and is alfo 
affirm'd to have invented three letters, r^jim 
y^fifutrm <^§6rj/V^ which imports that he was 
a beginner in that art of letters, which bis 
fon brought to great perfedion } it's pof- 


f 1 . , 

ipo ^ Remarks ^» the HistoRt. 

fiWe he might,- from ftich bfeginmn^ of skili,^ 
get the title of fcarSy yar&t^y a dinning man : 
And it*s vefy probable that the Greek Word 
TB^^?? conies^ frof* thtt Eaftei-ft f oot^ whkh 
i|S tranflated by the Sej>tudghf p^ofifi@^ and 
ihtottig. If this title be allowed to oar 
Tb9th's ftther^ it will be a full account of 
Mratojfh^e/s tranflation of Athoth by *Ef /ccd- 
ywit J biit I propofe it only as my conjefture,* 
tphich I fubmit to better judgments. 

SitiCt the writing hereof re vie wing SitJ&hn 
Marjham's Canon Chromcu^i 1 think he has 
fuggefted another reafon of this interpreta- 
tion: For he affirms, that ±e word 'E^/ei9- 
^? is mifplac'd in ^ratofthenesj when it^s 
affixed to the firft Athothesj and faith it 
Ihould be join'd to the feeond Athotbes^ 
who in that Canon of Eratofthenes imme- 
diately fucceeded the firft ; and then indeed 
it will be clear, that the feeond Athothes ife 
rightly caird 'E^ftojlpfii i becaufe he Was in- 
deed the fon of -^/A^/Am, or Thoihy otHet^^ 
mes the firft. Eratojlhenes's interpretation 
being fufficiently juftify'd by either of thefe 
ways , I am fatisfied that Thoth and Athotb 
are the fame man, h^ the reafons above^ 
mentioned ; which is the thing here chiefly 
fought for- 


« % \ t « 

RfiMARks on the HistORt. i ^ t 

t miift not here digrefs to enquire^ wh^« 
ther Mifir and Thotb were truly the firft ic^ 
venters of letters j or no : It's Aifficient td 
toydefign, tbdt nvy author rq>refeHts theni 
as fuch, and that the CaUri, from whoBk he 
takes information, did perftiade men in that 
put of the world (b to believe. All there* 
ibouts aft^r the Flbod (I will yield) recei?*d 
infractions from them; yet I may fuggeft* 
that i believe the Chaidteans zxidiAffyrums 
wilt not grsic them this honour , but coor 
tend iot an earUer mventicm of them before 
tike Flood, and that the inventors liv'd among 
theht, not in 'Pbcenicia otEgyft. But this 
difpote is not io fit for me to decide in thit 

BeGautfe Sdiichoniatbo leads us no fartheif 
than the beginning of Thoth's reign in Egyft^ 
it's natural to enquire, wlKnn ihall we take 
to gmd^ us onward in the Egypt stm hiftory ? 
tlie eldeft author after him > that pretends 
to this office, is Mamtbo ; but in the chap^ 
ter foregoing we have found, that thofe 
whom he places in the if*Dynafty, asy^ar* 
tiwrMW Pallors, did truly live, and begin their 
government in the times of Thoth, Mifiri 
and Cronus i ta whom his firft Dynafiy re- 
htes : Wherefore it muft be confider'd, what 
iccouQt e«i be ^ven of all the firft 14 Dy*' 




19 1 Remarks oh the HistorV. 

naitiest which he hath mention'd and pl^b'cl 
as fucceeding each other, iti a feries amount- 
ing to about 3000 years. And upon ccmfi-' 
deration it will appe^* plainly, that we muft 
either wholly rejeft all thefe Dynailiesj and 
the Kings contained in them, or we mufi 
fay, that thefe Dynafties and their Kings did 
refide in fome little Principalities m feverai 
parts of the Vfper and Lower Egyft^ at th6 
fame time that the Pallors reign'd in the land 
lying about the 'Delta^ and on the Eaft fide 
of ^iky towards ArabU and the Red Sen. 

This latter way feems more fit to be chcn 
fen ; and it's agreeable to the cufllom of thofe 
elder times, to divide, themfelves into many 
little Kingdoms, whofe feverai Kings had 
their reigns recorded in this country, where 
the skill of writing flourifh'd betimes. But 
in after ages their Prieih affeding to makd 
their Kingdom ancienter than others, and 
haying no Efocha's from a fix'd beginning 
fettled, might take (either onpurpofe or 
by miftake) the names of contempora^-y 
Kings, with the years of their reign, and fee 
them in feverai Dynafties one before ano* 
ther, as if they all had govern'd ii)^Egyfti 
whien truly they did not. This is the beii 
accoiint I can give of themi only I will in:paf- 
fing fuggefi thefe ihort obfervations tocok*' 

^ firfrt 


.Remarks on the History, i p ^ 

firm iti which others may improve at tfaek 

, I. Mimetho confeflbh none of their 14 
pyaafites to be much above 300 years, moft 
to be mider ioo years, as appears by the fums 
i|t the bottom of each^ dompar'd difiin^y. 
Now fach might eaiily be cdsttemporary widi 
this Tlmtutuml>fmScy dependent moftly on 
Ham, which I have flated : So alfo becaufe 
none of thefe Dynaities have above nipe Kings 
&am*d^oft underthat number ; which might 
well be contemporary with thofe eight by us 
mention'd. Hie Scripture owns feveral 
Kingdoms in Egyft, Ifa. six. %. which Qf- 
rillus Akxandrinus and Bpipbanius inter- 
pret, £tntnX Nomi ci Egyft. 

z. Of thefe 14 Dynaities , feven have no 
Dames of Kings remaining^ which W€i need 
not be foUidtous about. One cithern, vixs. 
Ibe feyenth, is of 70 men cali'd Kings, which 
governed each of them but for one day. 
Thde muft be a very mtan fort of governors 
m i<xne dif<Mrderly times at Met^phis. 
. 3. The feven remaining DynaiHes, whofe 
Kings are nam'd, are own'd to be all of the 
Superior EgyfU which being a large coun- 
try, mi^t eafily contain many Kingdoms : 
Asd accordingly iuc of the feven Dynaities, 
whofe Kings names are 1<^, belong to the 

Q ii(mi 

JUmahics o» the History. 

Nmhi of Suptrton Egypt^ and but one, via;^ 
of the AoiTtgj is within the Helta ^ or Infe^ 
ri^r Egypt i for weieckon the Hepianothis^ 
in irhich Memphis : fk)dd , to the Superior 

Egypt- - ' \ ; - -- . • - • *' 

4. The fame judgment is to be" made of 

ttro other Dynafties of yAar «*ri^« Baftors in 

Egypt J viz. thofe which -A/^«»*j6^ calls the 

i6**\and 17^^; which ^r«r^^A, following y^* 

fephmy paileth over,. and joins the^i^* Dy- 

nafty's end to the beginning ofix6g> i8f^ Dy- 

nafty of The bans i\ ^This: muftimpoitrithefe 

two, contemporary with theiy'V brrieVer 

ta fc^ve. had- any being, AgmxAuifriianus^i 

account;, v ; \ i ' *. a. .. :'.-.;/.. Vv x\ v '• 

Laftly, The.g^eateitoiitie'saiiddi'viirfitie? 

o^ lldigiiro ifi the ffivcKfl: pans'of i^^^^ is 

* very^probable figprtheyiwere^nciently bred 

uiKje^fjOewral gdvernmerits;-i>ecaufe in the 

fai&j^parts of the country th'ey gbixerally were 

of one mind with the governmttitJ . ^^'^ ; 

fiy-thts method,)' which my obfervatibtis 

on Manet ho fliewto have probability (found- 

» ed in the intrinficfcconftitution ofhisDyna-^ 

fties) we may bring all his Kings within the 

time.which the Scripture chronology limrts> 

ajidmay ^Ifo reduce, the account -in HereHo^ 

tM^m^'J)wdorm'Srtulus to the -fame mea- 
furej aftd w<t ate ' encourag'd hw^eaiito by 

; . . ^ • the 

the catdogiie an4 ftries^ -ttfi r^^A«»rKtngs 
given us by JElratofthfinesi: JForjif we take 
them aU'y befides ifeffeii?/ ind Ath^hesi^ to 
i-eign only id 219^^i^/jf^ vastbis ticle.©f Tbtban 
Kings doth reafonablyiiii6^ i we dihall find 
that all thefucceffion gl.them, which is 
105-5- years>.will reach no farther ^han frpfti 
Mi z^r aim's time to the* days of Eli judging 
in I/raek J :, . -^ j « 

I have alfo obfei-t'd'i&:;a paflage' of J/^^- 
neJhOy that is quoted at length in ^pfefhus^ 
lib. i. agfiinft -^i<wr 5 and ; tranfcrib d by Eu^ 
febiur dfi Tr^p. lik x* r.jcj; that he: plainly 
confefles^ that the thif^e -Dynafties of the 
Paitors did not extend Oyer all Egypt ; be? 
caufe he; ou?np , that t)efor.e the war againft 
them by MiJ^hragmutfyoJis ^ and the^expul* 
^pn of theoi by his fot)> there was a fifwg 
againft hipti of the Kings, bpth of Thebais and 
of.the'/ff^^r ^gypt i * Which' word. Kings^ 
ift the pjurdl nvimber, relating alio to diffe- 
rent coij8£rie«; muft impoitj that there were 
divers fuch Kings in Thebais and Inferior E^ 
gyptj powerful enough to carry on a Iqng 
war^ as Jfeie. The father and fon ^ 
whom he names one after the other tp have 
carried it on, do not hinder the plurality of 
Kings who joih'd with them ^ but are only 

nam'd as moil f amour/ 

Q i However, 

jp6 KtitAj^Ks OH the HisroKY, 

: However, becaufe I find no fufiicient evi- 
dence to guide me in difpoTing of chefe 
Pynaflies, which in Mafietbo*s remains are 
placM before that which he calls the If*^ 
containing the Factors ; tho' I am falisfied 
that they were fome way contemporary with 
the nine firft Kings oi Tbgbais in Eratoftbe- 
nes's Latercttlm, yet I will not adventure to 
determine their times particubrly, left I 
fliould be guilty of making a ftory without 
juft authority from any ancient writer. But 
I will content my felf to wave them all, and 
only to place the ThetHidan Paftors» whom 
y o/ef bus hzth aflur'd us, thzt Manetbo took 
out of good records, and doth not fay they 
were the 15* Dynafty ; but hath fo deter- 
min'd thefr time before Tetbmp'% jeign in 
the Lower Egy^t, that if we can fix his timc^ 
all their times will be certainly determin*d> 
and will lead us up td the time which JSr*- 
tofthenes afTigns to Athoihesf who is Thotby 
that came from Tbemcia, otCoHooH, by Cro* 
nus's appointment. 

Hence there is great reafon to believe, 
that the dominion of the ^bcnticiatts was 
moil confiderable in Lower Egypt, from its 
firlt plantation :j . . 

X, Becaufe there is fo much evidence that 
Ham or Cronus, who fent colonies thither,iirft 


Remarks on the History. 197 

^\frt\t\nThie9iciay ztByi/us, faith our JW*- 
choniatbo clearly $ and he gives an intimation, 
that he dwelt fome time in Ter^eoy i.e, the land 
.of Galaady on the Eaft fide oi Jordan^ where 
our beft maps and the hiilory oh\ic Maccahees 
place AJhterotb Carnaim ; and the Zuzims in 
Ham are joined thereunto by" Mofes^ and he af* 
iures us that he fent Tbth to reign in Egyft, 

X. Becaufe there is great evidence, that 
the time of Tethmofis^ who with Thebaic 
powers drove thofe 'PhxHiclans out, was 
within lefs than 400 years of the time of its 
plantation ; all which time is fill'd up t^ 
Mizrainh Tbotb, and the fix ^hgniciim 
Kings own'd by Manetho mjo/kphusf And 
Ham being alive much above halif this time, 
mud neceflarily make the Tbs^ician inte- 
red great there. He might allow many lefs 
Principalities , but would not bear any fuf- 
ficient to diftrefs his intereft, which mud b^ 

For thefe reafons Armagh madp the Tha- 
»^iii»DyQa% the Canon of time, by which 
the reft may be regulated , or thereunto re* 
duc'd : But in my review \ have added a 
much greater help to regulate x\i& Egyptian 
chronology, from the Canon of Thebaic 
Kings left to us by SfaUjlbenef \ to which I 
have Joia'd tfa^ ^bdmtcuM P^dors of the 

Q 3 lawer 

ipS -RfeMARKs mthe History. 

Lowir Egypi as contemporary with fottie 
of the iort£i\o9iThebans ruling in the upper 
parts of -£gj>^/^ ; thinking, that' a rationable 
conciliation of thefe heathen hlftoridns with 
Scripture chrondlbgyj tends \iS the hdnour 

• of both , ^efpecfafly »f ^he Sorlpturd \ ^whic|^ 
being lilore ancient and accitirafe.. than ar^ 
of the heathen ^cdotin^s; I fed griar>'reafoa 
to ni^^ tktf *he€ai6h, by WKidh the^others 
•^re tb^'bi^^' Wgulatfed: * ^^^^ - '^ ^^^ / '^i ' * 

I muft condtide this head oTr^^lnarks with 
ah-enqui^ irito-thfe^^/r/,' XMhdm' Otir ata- 
thor-toakefe thefbtfe of Sydjc'i^ and; the fam]^ 
with* Ihe- Ci^/Jy^if^^j^^^ ^nd Sam9- 

• tl/rate^l which frre ftrer names*' giXrieri by o- 
thei? ftAtiotos to thefe ^rafeni who \xi^h(»nicla 
we^e deify 'd uhdef^ the Vhteuirian'tisime of 

C^^/r?/' which /^i«^r^^^ well tranflated "Dk 
vos ^(yt?i in old Latin t' TertuBian^ ^oHntis 
(^ Valente^^ the tnighiy Cods m Eftglijhi 

I find alfo Taufaniasy in his Laconics^ to 
' intim^te^ -that the Cabiri TiW^Cprykdntes are 
cither the fame, oiF'fo' like one andiR^r, that 
he cjould' not cRftihguifii their ftafties, three 
of which' (all ftrafs) he faw ait BrAjia^^-^ Ld- 
fedampnian Prorhdnildr y \ bUt-ttiey^^ete not 
above a foot in Iie?gW, ' and h'ad caps oh their 
hea.ds. '6d alfo in liis "^hoeic^ h& teHs v&y the 
Amphipnfe^\.t^i a feifl to tfae'^Avaaiyef •anaS- 


Remarks *o)i the HiSTokY. i pp 

m-,i-^-^'^^ ^uHg Kitfgs or TriHces : But 
who tlK>fe<36ds wehfiy 'Was not deterinih^d ; 
fome faiditfie'2)/(»/?wrt,' others the Curetes ; 
thofexhat'fecttfd to fcftdw- ittoft, call'd them 
the Gj^iH.i.Iti his .2^^)5W/Vj, he faith , K^^ 
iSttJv^-cl^'ji^i^o S(sftT^^^^; intimatihg, a 
CuryBantj and- a great : ihmifter oi ■ ftate to 
fheirDri?i(3s,«lli(Jfie. ; ^ -:v\ 

jy^^ we have fliew'd to be Shenii^fttyi^ 
riiildr^nrhdfe) being xalPd'SJ^iP/^^/r- he is 
•thereby intimated^^O' be ^'Jupker'^<^t "t^i^ 
^s vt^ifeU -f/iiw: Yet^e^hea*- 
•thens jHac'dntfeefe bmthers in two diflind: 
fplanets, Ham^ot CxmarsiritSatiirnj^s Sin- 
choniatho cxpceflly attefts!-; but ^yy^s^r in the. 
ifetrighter-drid more benign, but infer iofpla- 
^et , ftiU pall'd Jupiter. . The Eafftern peo- 
ple anciently caU?d that planer pny Sedek: So 
,i5flrl>^/t,pefliftes, ^- 784. Inaming the eldeft 
3^^^/^ writings wher^h this name is found. 
. ^ 4^*6^011 cotdd not hinder it after his death, 
when hiar idoktrous po{ferity thought fit for 
' their own honour to deify him . . It: feems it's 
no new art of the Devil,: to make even God*s 
:beft ferwjnts the objefts of idolatrous wor- 
cAip after their death, thb' they deteft and 
, oppofe it moft carefully while they live. This 
t concerning the father of the Cablri in paffing. 
But tho' our author mentions no other Ca- 
cv Q 4 ^^^^ 


top Remarks 4iih the HtstotX. 

Mfi than the f bUdreQ of SydjfCi and | 
i\it*PhteHUiMJt geners^y ow&'d nonic(imi^ 
^er that, honootahle title, befides hi$ chil^ 

• * * k I • I • 

dren; yet he ^oth qoc tell us, that zSlvom 
tions refttain'd that title tdhischilditiio^lyi. 
And I find reafon to believe, tl^t xb&Greek^ 
us'd this title in a larger feofef and th^ E*', 
gyf^tians alfo : But I will not . digrefit &oift 
my author. 

The G»*/>»i (Our author telb us) were 
d^ti but he tells us oiriy the name of o;n^ 
of them, Afckpiusy who was firnam'di?/^ 
muftust &om pv Saman^ fignify ing tki pgJbtb : 
And be tells us, his inother was one of the 
;^r(einides , dabghters of CroMus. Tins is 
hard to believe, yet not impoilible, that ii| 
his latter time dwelling in X^naau^ he migtir, 
10 fe^ure his quiet }ife, fOr we read of no 
warlike action of Sbm,\ he might, I fay, 
marry a daughter of ATtfm's, and by her have 
this fon Af€lep't$isi And Stmshtmatho might 
think iit ( having in this hiflory a pecufiar 
refped to his own country ¥batnic'ut) to 
take notice Only of him as bom and bred 
thercj and perhaps fettling among the iflfue 
oiHamt which the reft of •yAm's ifliie, five 
of whom are mention'd by Mafes^ did not, 
but paft into the more Eaftern parts dj/f/U^ 
Jjfyriai Elymaisy &c. 

I have 

lUMAfti^ m ibeWistofVi^. ^ tot 

I hai« ligl^ ot| one {>afl|ge iti .i^mkmsi 
vbicfa moires me bidieve ^aa j/fii^ms, o* 
thetwif^ cair4 in 4t^mM/tklfhfSi dordt 
witl^ .^^Ws childreii. r(tBce I find him 
G^*d Miw^bim hlfOeiiitf^ A/netiuhiius^ 
Strmuttwm iik. i. whsre Wo he is offixihVI 
to be ii^ mem opiaioii efteemM » God 4^ 
is^ao%ibpJ^gyp$iam^ tho^ he was Icocnm ixii 
JJiilveHV'damoQgi&e&iii their country : Ao^ 
in 1P4mfimi0\ Ctt'mhidca tfarat; is mehtian 
of a t^iaple <0 Mpfkli^iMt^ j^Uo, md Ify- 
gets, Egy^iaitf. Aj^iu, m Ms book df 

{whottt -oar atithor affirins to be Jiatff$rtK 
Omuii feii) pfft 10 ^i!i;^ the herb^»- 
lamtmi [^^t-lbade]; acquaintiaghim, (. 
'fvi^fe, With its nfes : Afid from his Tbm- 
iHcim name that heii) is calTd A^ir B/^^i 
in Timkt £n • the An^tuirittm to 'DMjitridet, 
This pftfn^g^ iti ^t/i^i&r both codSrms 
-the charade that Sdnchmatbt gives of thus 
• Cc^inr's (fhildtens skill iti fHa&ti, iiftd thdr 
tiles, ^hich they might wtH leara of thdr 
Uthet Afikffittsy inftnidted by A^»Uo^ and 
alfo flle^s^ that agreeably to Sancboniatbo^s 
gekiealo^esy Jfie^lius liv'd With AfoBo^ Cro- 
»«i'sfohv and was confequently of the ix* 
•generiltio/i from the firft man. This is the 
' eldeft account I meet with of skill in phy- 


20 1 Remark! }ptf]iheiHmmv(M 

. Imlifiot^togcsthSdp^ oyca:^>ii^kDQ^Ms 
ledgniiisn&, tiiat'ithebiatfenaioj^.^CvfiQflot^ie^ 

^aretfacBii.' Thisrinttteaiiesv^ .tl\t|t^j&Q§if d^n^t 
'poA from: Jiiskitilb ^iWa9'jt4W»bWfu^4i 

theitiittv^uo)as ^t^^\&i|^piR^o!qm".: >, lo 

rrepv6fs^(}: bj5 fcim :a(s.Sfe^ei^|iy^j PK^t^- 
ri6s> eli^y'd ^n<jter:'feiBfe r^I^fcWvefiJj^!^ 

•Eaftw^rd, that; J , i:da^:flf.36iT^i,fe^&>AP 
intimatei tbat'.S(&«w^8.\VbSdr^,ji^l^ pecj- 
ijrfcd.Uic Eaft C\Rb» -WJlyiiai^Xftsati^'i by 

' il/^jg^ were .HQBrei-jGif.. th^-^mnfhj 4#- 

tb4r these, was a^teiBg l^tof the i^m M ^5- 
'gyf^» viM<? whoff hrt^, place, .i|ja?<;f!iji|)le by 
, tbeir 'law to'apy! but ■2i,,^xm^ Qf»hf^ 
. woi^ld. needs epterj .ajid feoff, ^t. ib^mima- 

ges, which were defbrm'd lilje; ^hat(,0f i^ 
' can.: This the Hiljorian loo^ oni^s a figi 
. that he was mad. . : . ' .' • 


Remarks m the. HisTORtl |t o 3 

* Bochutt ^%^v^xi .good evidence of the 

early fettlement of tb^lttrDtfliip of thiefe Qa^ 

biri\vi Sdffmbrave^ Imbrm^^i^^ other ifles I 

-of the Mgemiesiy in tbe'iwdlfth chapter, of 

bis CamiaHi\ which let the reader ' confult: 

My bufinef^if.^only licaoe to gather^ that 

their childtai .:and Priieilfc,: that rfbrv'd ii 

their worfliipv- were igreat;,navigators,.ba*» 

ving leartet the imtn^ovemcfit of rfhippiiig 

from them, ^agreeably td%hat Sanchoniatho 

jfnggefts. And this is: confirmed alfo to.dome 

"from 'Phcenicidj in the Thiemeian language 

peculiar to thenifelves (which Bochart proves 

from ^lodorus Siculus) which they us'd and 

'kept, efpecially in matters of Religion, even 

3:0 his time. . ^ ui > .r. '■ :j \ 

' Wefind alfb a temple of theirs bninoinft 

'Coffins^ and Berytu^^ giv^n tothem aijd 5ft^- 

\fidon by Cronas. Thefeii^ltfces 'heiDgf -all 

within his dominions , • thfe ^'honours . thcfe 

I given feem to be with refpeft to ttteir^i^ 

ther his daughter ; and £hefe things bei^ 

done while <hE was aliv/?i/as *$W«^i^iiwM^ 

affirms, 'I am^ inclined to^ believe, they di^, 

:>nd were confecrated DaeoiOns Jbeifbre^Jiim. 

So Sbem outliv'd his grandc^Hd SaUhy ijltho* 

Salah had outliv'd Nabdr^ who was; hisi 

: ^gTiandchiJd in the fifth generation frp«Uji» ; 

\ mens 



104 l^tUAfiKs Off the HisTOKi. 

metis «ges fliortning apace in the fonr next 
Centuries after the Flood. 

Tbere are four more names <^ the Ca^iri 
^ven US by the Scholiaft upon AfoUontU', 
whofe word^ containing their ThmhicioM 
manes, may be feen in Boehart^ p. 41 ;r. which 
I think hot needfbl to tranfcribe , becaufe 
two of them are affirm'd to be Satunfi 
cl&Idren by Sancboniathp^ viz. ^Profer^tM* 
«nd ?^fofff. The third, being Ceres, I fcruple 
at, becaufe the mafcuHn^ taxD&Cabiri doth 
not wdl agree with her Sex: Yet if any 
think fit to accept thcfe, becaufe they are 
oamMfoby MMofeasi an Hiftorian of repute, 
.ftfac'd by Fofftus'm*Ptokmey Tbyfcori% time, 
I win not oppofe him, knowing tha t the 
\ lieathen Deities had both fexes attributed to 
tthem , and that Croims\ grandchildren may 
lie cotM his children. The fourth name y>ii& 
C^jibilkts^ 4Ukd by the Boeotians, he was call'd 
GuhuMus, which word Bocbart deduces 
:ffGttk the Arakic crtn Cbadant, (ignifying to 
'H^n^ler or ferve, relating to the fupericu? 
jBeities j(Mn*d with ^ Eel, the Deity, 

Yet I crave leave to fuggeft, that the mofl 

lifual name, Cajmllus, may more reafoi^- 

• ably be deriv'd from the Hebrew word aop 

Kajpm^ Signifying to divine, which isus'd 


Remarks m the History, lof 

in die, law of Mofix, Numi. xxii 7, Dene. and hach an iiidif&retiqrto good and 
bad, and we are Aire is ancient and Pi&«ql^• 
eioHi which "wt canaoc be fo ceita^ of in 
xhtjfy'i^k word to which Beebarf x^ktii 
and it more exadly agrees with that fubtje 
wit, which is Mtrcmfi eflential chaiaiSers 
whereas his being a feryaoc to the JDeities is 
but a potticai fi^on. 

This CdfiiiUus, they fay, is the Greek God 
Hermes, the Latin Mercwy, the Meil^SQ^ 
of the Deities. My objection againlt this is, 
that Tb^h is the dd generally own*d Her'* 
aes, and Mercury's Caditeeus is a plain hie* 
rogjiyphick, or Bgyftim fymbol; and for 
contrivance of fuch oor author affures us that 
Tbtak was famous, who was not ^Umt^Sjh 
dycy but of Mifir. But thefe not appearti^ 
in our author, I will not be much coocem'd 
about them ; Let the reader judge as he 
ihali fee caufe. 

Yet i think fit to add, that ^utifamaft 
near the end of his Beeotics, aiTures us,; i^at 
not far iromThebes there was a grove dedi* 
cated to Ceres Cabiria and TrofirfinOt which 
he intimates none might enter but the ini- 
tiated into their myiieries. He defires to 
be excus'd from telling who thefe dUfiri 
were, and what was performed to them, and 


zo6 Remark* iwr afe HiSToit; 

to the mother of the Godd: But thishetnight 
fpeak without violatiba^ of therreligious fe^ 
crefy, th« there were fdrnacriy^irien cali'd 
CW^i, and 'thiirwGfc that coumrfl they had a 
city, and that (f^r^ir 'coming rfiere to tte 
knowledge of ^Ptwf^th^usj ^xAJsneus his 
fon, wfro^wereof tliat^city, delivered a de^ 
fofitim or pledge to- them ; what, that was 
he muft not tell us ; and that the" rites: of 
initiation were the gift of Ceres to ttiefe Ca- 

. Here we have Ceres in Greece in the time 
of^-rametheus^ who is agreed tottethe fon 
of Jafetus or Jdphet. This Ceres aHb we 
have great teftimbny is IJis^ the .wife of OJi^ 
ris or Miz^raim^ founder of the Egypian 
government. Herodotus is clear in it 'in his 
Euterpe \ ^iodomsSiculus oh aifirms it, 
and AfieUodorus faich the fame." : Wntarch 
indeed differs yet but a little ; foriie faith 
IJis was Terfefhone^ whom Sanchoniutho aft 
firms to be 4y^^»r)i's daughter, that died a 
maid. So all agree Ifis was in the genera* 
tion next to Cronus^ and contemporary with 
him , as Jafhefs and Shem's children were 
with them. Hence alfo I think it worth 
obferving, that all thefe Cabiri's names do 
certainly relate to perfons contemporary 
vj\\hJfclej>ius^ and the latter part of Cr(?»«x's 

6 or 

or^ifitt's fife? whichaflureslnethallBaye 
fix'd his time Vighc, wHich is the foundation 
of this difcbin-fe; i'' l-"^-- ' '^ •• - - 


t;rjt:."t ' =♦ •tO'T^J/.^ ^'1 • // /-* .■> 

. rjiR.£:.WA.Ry:K^;.=j..¥I. 

D] the Jm .0ieKaiffim.^pta(f4 ; firff m 
"^f ??iI&g3&K riioft cerfaiftl)' Isihoit^n 1)y fls 

iflfies'tfie firft BegjDfcterf, iakit^ the wordbe^ 
^ttett \n i%ri^ fenfe, T6 is^^' tsike- irt ' pk-«i 
^rtabh-^dih'cauTe^ thatefefibt of thef famb 
kind with tWH^fefFeft. ^' Wftat were ^the cai^ 
fes of x\iyfr(HbgbnUi' avidH JE&it^h He tells lis 
^Iity-wdre the' \^nd Cfijfr/iij,' and his i^ife 
Biau :"■' Boehart would • have it. corre<fted 
'iB4«^y '%liicli he ifBritts to fignify- night. 
Scalijier and Grotius own this Bct^u to ht 
tHefaitie with iKi mMsfevx xht Seprnagint 

bVder'd, atid'tinaddthy-triatt'ef':. And thJsI 


^o8 kEMARKi M tie HisToiLr; 

jadge to be more Teafooibie* to ex^tmi 
tvh^t w« 6i)d in otir book* thaii to make 
fome new word> and expound thtlt. 

But the main difficulty is about the wind 
Co^ias: To dear this we muft obibrve* 
that our author ended his Ce^fiiMgoity with 
mentioning an account iHtiAiTbdtb had ^ven 
of the winds ; to exprefe the extent of this» 
he names particulariy only theNbrth and the 
South* but takes care to comprehend all 
JTorts of winds by thefe large words* ii r 
XtnrSft fbe reft. This was neceffitry, be- 
caufe the winds were fome of their natural^ 
mi immortal God$» a$ Vkifo di^gdiilieth 
in the end oi et^.^. iibi, a^eeing with 
fDiodorws Si(uku» and Euemerm Meffeiifu* 
cited bfEM/ei>. /^.ii. c. x. /tf^.5'9. C. And 
fofftridfftm aSirm$ the f^e of the wind«. 
inhisC/Ja } arid he azures us alfo in his ?tf^ 
iynmuh that the ^elfbk oracle Mvis^'d the 
Creeks to pray to tl^ winds in their great 
danger ftomXerxes*^ invafion* and tbat ac* 
cor^gly they did fet up an altar to tbf 
winds in Thya, ^nd faith » fitU at *Delfb9s 
for this oracle's fake they pro{4Ciate the 

Among thefe certainly KaAW<tf muA be 
one, which he took no care to e^lain, be* 
caufe he fuppo&'d it fufficiently idiown* (^ 



REKiARks brtihe History. ±6^ 

fcbvious to be underftood,^as being from a 
tireek word xoA^rj^, very ufual to fighify 
any cavity, whether thofe little ones th^fc 
are in our bofoms, garments and fails, or 
thofe large ones which we call bays, in the 
feas lind fliores; Sb that 1 believe thfe authbi: 
ttieans no more than this : That d wind en- 
closed in leveral cavities df unlhdpen matter^ 
worked out of it the fifll itian ; the rude 
itiattei^ being the f aflive pfriftciple 6r caufe^ 
and therefore here figuratively caird the 
wife. : And the dnclos'd Wind being thd 
a6live principle, and therefore here inti- 
mated to be as it were, or figuratively, th^ 
husbaiid, in this firft gfeneratiori. 

This brdught to my mlrid a pafla^e very 
like it, in a piece 6i Ariftbphanes^ which Sul- 
das has preferv'd, in th^ word x^'^^ \ wherej 
after he hath told us of Cfrdoi^ Erebus^ and 
the Night being bdfdre heaven And earth 
were fbrrh'd, he adds, that NigHt firft con- 
ceived a/ wind egg in the va(l davities, xoA- 
^*^, of Eribus-, CiWi of which Cupid was 
hatch'd- The Greek verfes miiy be read at 
large in Grotius de Veritatb^ tSc. lib, i. Jin^ 
netat. fag. ij. His Latin tranflatiori, iri 
that part of it that is moil tb niypurpofe:, is, 



1 1 6 Remarks m the HistoRt. 

Vi fiaminls ovunt 

Gremmm fti^er infinitum Erehife^erit Hox^ii, 
Bx quo bonus inde emerjit amor. 

I think indeed , that fuch a farmatic«i of 
man doth better become the Poet tham our 
Phoenician or Egyptian Philofopher ThethT 
for whom thefe two aincienc nations contend 
^s an honour to either, or both: of them: 
Yet I can find nothing better in our aathbr's 
words y which be affures us he learnt from 
the moil authentick books of the Cabiri. 

I know what the learned Bockart hath 
proposed, Canaan^ IX\. c.%. telling us> Ven^ 
tus ille Colpias eft rp->a-inp Col-fi-jahy i. e^ 
Vox oris T^ei. I am wilHng to believe, thai 
he devis'd this etymology and interpretation 
of the word with a good end ; but I doiiot 
believe that it's the true original or fenfe of 
the word, and I will never think it fit to^ 
ferve a goad end by departing from truth. 

My feafons why I believe not that Thih 
or Sanchoniatho meant any fuch thing, are : 

I. Becaufe it's inconfiftent with the fcope 
and tenor of the Cofmogony, wherein we 
have lliew'd, both from the author'is words, 
and from Enfebids% reflexion thereon, that 
the author endeavoujrs to fliew how the| 


* Remarks oh the Mistory^ * in 

• - .• .- ' . ' . ■ ' ■ 

WdrM migM coriie to Be what it is, Without 
iany inflAience of a God ^ and how all the 
trods that he afterwards mentions might be 
generated out of the Chaos : And that a firfl: 
caiife creating matter^ or fo much as begin- 
hing motion, and difpofirig the parts of the 
\iniverfe> is neVer mentioned by him* Par*- 
ticulars I will not repeat. 

X. Becaufe there is no good reifoil ^{Rg^ 
able, why Thi/o fliould call this one wind by 
Un f^eirewmrhQj when the other winds men* 

• r 

tion'd by him are call'd by the commoii 
tjreek names of Bot^edsztidl^otus. 

3r. Neither^jf^-zez/^ nor any Eiftefrn ^ efpe- 
cialiy .heathen Thoenician people,, can be 
Jprov'd to have caird any wind by a name oj^ 
fuchfacred import as^ th^P'oice of the mouth 
t/* Jah, which he would have us belieVe to be 
the fenfe of Colpias. 

4. Even in the facred writings all thefe 
three words (even upon the folemneft occa- 
fions to fpeak of God's powerful word) are. 
iie ver put together i tho* fometimes two of 
Iheni are^ as, the mouth of Gody or hii voice } 
6ut there is no fuch Hebrew phrafe as, Th& 
^dice of the mouth (?/Jah. 

$. Much lefs is this twice compounded 
tvord Coi^'tM any where found ia the Hebreia 

R % language^ 

ill Rema RKs on the History. 

language^ where fuch coiripofitions arp very 


6. Thereforeify/&/7i?had taken this woni 
from SanchoniathOy as Bochart intimates , I 
demand where Sanchontatho learn'd fuch a 
name of a wind ? Surely not of the hea- 
then Cabirij or their SuccefTors or Priefls, 
who fervid not J ah at all , but their own 
Baalim. Either they were made Gods, or 
the natural parts of the univerfe. Nor could 
he learn it from the Prielfe of the true God, 
who cannot be proved to ufe any fuch word, 
cfpecidlly in apportion with a wind, as it 
Hands here. . ^ 

7. ^ut it's ftill more abfurd to make San-- 
chortiatho fay, that this voice of the mouth 
6f God had a wife Baau^ and begot of her 
two children, Trotogonus and jEon. Admit 
it to be a figurative ^eech, it will yet ^be an 
indecorous manner of expreffion, inftead of 
affirming God created man by faying, Let 
us make man^ to affirm that the voice of 
God begat on his wife Baau two mortals: 
Surely if Sanqhoniatho had learnt the making' 
of Trotogonus and jEon from a Priefl: of Je* 
hovahy he would have learnt to exprefs it' 

with more decency • 


• / 

Remarks on the History.. 213 

The heathen Rhetorician honginus had 
read fomething of Mofes\ doftrine of the 
creation, and he commends Mofes as an ex- 
traordinary man for exprelling it agreeably 
to the divine Majefty, thus : Let there bf 
light y and there was light. And yet Bo- 
chart would have us beUeve that Sanchonia- 
tko did learn of God's Priej^ls this way of 
producing man , by joining the deformed 
Chaos in marriage with the Voice of God. 
Thefe inconfiftencies, join'd with a flraih'dl 
etymology of a Greek word from three He^ 
brew words, never put together by any au- 
thority, I cannot digeft ; efpecially when the 
name Colpias may mofl eafily be underftood 
to be a fimple Greek word deriv'd from ;coA- * 
5r(^, after the manner of Tatronymicsy as 
the wind Etejias is from £r(^, and i^viSiccg 
from o^vigy as 4$"///^^ tells us a wind is call'd, 
that kills fome birds with cold, or that 
brings other birds. So with fome analogy 
to the reft of the language may KoXTrUg be 4 
wind fliut up in a cavity, bofom or bay, in 
any of thofe hollow places , that muft b^ 
made by fermentation (which is not with- 
out wind more or lefs) in the mix'd matter 
of the Chaos : Out of which alfo T>iodortis 
"SlculHSi in his Egy^lan Cofmogony, agree- 

R 3 ing 


J, 1 4 Remarks on the History. 

ing with Tboth\ af^rrns that living c;it9c^ 
tures came at firli. 

And it's Well known that heathens taughf, 
that men were bred after the fame mantnep 
that mice, frogs, ?nd infefts are fai4 to be 
bred out of the mud of overflowing NUe^ 
Nay, it is notorioully evident, th^t the hea- 
thens thought their eldefl Gods to have bpeq 
thus bred out of thp Chaos^^ and efteern'd 
fuch Deities more venerable, than the Deir- 
ties that were born afterwards, by the con* 
junftion of a male peity with one that wa.? 
female ; as may be feen by thofe feveral hea- 
then Cofmogonies , fome of which are coir 
lefted by Grotius\ efpecially that qf Hejiod 
and Arijlophanes^ to which many more inay 
be added. 

But let it he obferv'd , that I do not fay, 
that all the heathens, $nd at all tinges, thought 
thus; but that thofe who entertained the 
^hctntcian or Egyptian doftrine of Thoth^ 
own*d thefe things ; which is a goo4 fign 
that I underftand hini as his clofeft follow- 
ers did ; and our author's words , an^ the 
drift of his hiftory, will bear no other in- 
terpretation. Arijlotle de Mundo ufeth th§ 
word ivif4.(^ iyKo^TrUg for a wind breaking 
oVtt of a hollow place, and h^ names movq 


Remarks on the History, • 21 j 

kin<is of winds e'nding in Uq^ whichno body 
will fufpeft to take their lad fyllabte froni 
the Hebrew name of God, J ah ; nor can J 
fee any reafon why it Ihould be thought fo 

Let us proceed to confider the peribns 
thus produced, and their iflue : Butbecaufe 
it may be objected , that many of thefe 
names in ^hilo are Greeks which was not 
fpoken in thofe eldett times, it will be ne- 
celFary to anfwer this obje<5lion, as ^lato anr 
fwerM the fame made againU the like Greek 
names of perfons, whom he affirmed in. his 
Criiias to have liv'4 in his Atlantis^ in -times 
elder thah the Greek language. Briefly, be 
iiflerts that Solon us'd them to exprefs the im- 
port of fome Egyptian names of like figni- 
fication, and that thofe Egyptian names alfo 
were made by their Prielts, to exprefs the 
import of llill elder Atlantick names. Jult 
fo, in imitation of thefe ancient examples j^ 
I affirm Thilo to have tranflated by thefe 
Greek names, which our table exprefles, old 
Canaanitijh names equipollent thereunto. 
And GrotiuSy de Veritate Relig. Chrifi, hath 
given other examples like hereunto. 

- The two firfl: perfons are call'd by thefe 
names, Trosogonusy AEon, Gr^ri^j hath, t 
doubt not, rightly exprefs'd who thefe are 

R 4 4e 

ti6 IIemarks o» the Histort* 

4(e Veritate^ ^c. viz. A^kim and Eve^ whpn| 
Mofes affirins tp be the firlt parents pf all 
piankind, and^(9 have e4it the fruit of tree s^ 
,as Sanchoniatho faitli, Mon firft fpiin^ this out, 
The reafonof the Gr^^^fe name here us'd i$ 
plain^ from his being produced before all 
others, even before his wife ; |)iit yet there 
is np agreemenl of it with the Hebrew qame 
Adam^ relating to red earth. 

My pbferyation pf this piakes me put of 
hopes tp find put the Hebrew names of moft 
other perfpns, whom Thilo hath here ex- 
prefs'd by Greek words, tho' a itv^ of them 
taay offer thepifelvps fon^ethipg fairly. As 
him makes fon>e approach to mn, confider- 
ing that the Greeks in names ufually omit 
the gutturals, which tjieir Ungu^ge, or way 
of writing, cannpt exprefs- Agreeably here- 
untp Dr. Hammondy in his nptes on i Tim: 
1,17. derive? xhtjEpn^s of the Valentinians^ 
frpni nvn jn pzechiel. That thefe mult be 
meant (if the ^uthpr fpeal^s truth) accord- 
ing to the Mofaical hiftory, is plain, becaufe 
thefe wer^e the firft of human race that ever 
Jiad any being, and fo became capable to be 
matter of hillorical narration : There being 
po perfons whom we might miitakingly fix 
\jpon, we cannot here chufe amifs. 


* . w *. 

Re^^iarks on the HisTbkV. 117 

But that our author doth fpeak concern-^ ' 
in'g thefe real perfons, and not write z to- 
mance , we may prove by counting his Ge4 
nealogies to the ii'^ and ix^\ wherein- he 
brings us to Cronusy SydyCy Mifovy and Thoth^ 
and other perfons; concerning whom we 
have fufficient evidence that they did reallj^ 
exift, and at or about fuch diftance from the 
firfl of mankind, as our author here affigns 
to them. Hence we may conclude, that hd 
writes an hiftory that hath fome truth in it, 
at leaft as to the number of generations. 

Having thus fix'd the beginning and end 
of tfeis hiftory, we fhall hereby have fome 
help to find out the middle parts of it. But 
I am concerned under this head to note, that 
the learned Bachart hath not guefs'd well, to 
chufe one whom our author placeth in the 
8'^ generation, calling him r»fiV©-, or Au- 
tochtboHy and to, fay that he was Adam, 
His reafon is vifible, the names import, a 
man of the earthy which he mifinterprets, as 
MSanchoniatho meant, that God form'd him 
originally from thence, whereas it's plain 
that Sanchoniatho names his anceftors. 

This he thought enough to prove he meant 
Adamy and upon this account feeing the au- 
thor's Genealogies to be inconfiftent with 
)3is concept, |ie blaipes t^he author, and faith. 





a I S Remarks on the History. ' 

Jie difturbed all the order of the hiftory. I 
think not fo. The order of time relating 
to a man's exiftence in priority to all others, 
in^ply'd in the name Trotagmusy is a fulii- 
cient charadier to diitinguifli him from all 
ot]}er men > and therefore abundantly an- 
iWers the end of his name ; this is fix'd in 
^rotogonusy therefore it marks Adam out 
well enough to prevent confufion, and fq 
doth not difturb the hiftory. This name of 
C^inusy or Earthy, is very ambiguous, and 
in a great meafure belongs to all, efpecially tQ 
Jbusbandmen ; and Autochthon hath been us'd 
to. fignify all old inhabitants of any country, 
efpecially when it was not known that their 
anceftors came from any other know, place J 
Neither of tl^efe names fignify red earth, tq 
which Adam\ name refers. 

Tis plain from hence, that Bochart did 
not fee any feries of time fix- d by the begin* 
jiing and end of this hiftory ; if he had, he 
would not have blam'd the author, fo as to 
intimate, that he put the firft man in the 
ipighth generation : Whereas he himfelf i4 
to be blam'd for thinking, on fuch flight 
grounds as a Uttle agreement in the figijifi- 
cation of their names, that a man of the 
^ f ighth generation was the firit man. 



Remarks tf« /^f History, iip 

There remains a fmall objcdlion, that mgy 
l)e made from the article liv prefixed to the 
name of JSottj which may raife a fufpiciojj^ 
that that word fignifies a man, not the wPr 
man Eve : But that furmife is to be rejeiSe.4^ 
hecaufe it's certain fropi the nature of things^ 
that there mufl be a woman joined with » 
man in the produftion of iffye, which is 
plainly attributed to thefe two perfons j ^jj4 
we mull judge, th^t the tranfcriber igno; 
rantly confider'd Alfav as' an appellative, ii| 
which notion it is mafcuUnej an^ nqt 4S htf 
ought to have done, as a proper n^me of 4 
woman, in which fenfe it muft be foe* 
minine. - • . 

We will pafs now to cppfider the fecQn4 
generation here mentioned vnder tho^reek 
names of Hv®^ and T^ytdy and we muft ea» 
quire what fon of :/^4am this Gf»tfs imports. 
My anfwer briefly is, that I believe he means 
the man whom Mq/es calls Ca/», and that 
Genea fignifies only the wife of Genus , as| 
C^a the wife of C<i/us in the civil law. Thc{ 
reafons of this my belief are thefe three^ 
which confider'd together will amount to asi 
full proof, a§ in fuch a matter can be exr 

I. Becaufe the names us'd by our tranfla- 
fgr Tkf^^i ^nd by Mo/fs^ do a^ree fully in 


. . . \t 

210 Remarks on the History. 

their defign*d fignification relating to this 
man , and make a fair approach alfo to a- 
^reement even in the found of their letters, 
abating the termination ©- in the Greeks 
Hvhich every body knows is arbitrarily ad- 
ded, and muft as arbitrarily be call away, 
when we enquire into the original. 

To clear the firtt part of this argument, 
we muft obferve, that the direfl: intent both 
of Mofes and ThilOy is to give a name fit to 
fignify the firft man that was begotten, and 
born in the ordinary courfe of nature, yet 
of parents who were produced in an extra- 
ordinary mariner. And fince neither of the 
writers affertthat twins were born, both 
muft intend or point at the fame perfon^ 
fuppofing both to fpeak truth , which is to 
be fuppos'd, if the contrary be not prov'd ; 
particularly Thilo'% name Tiv(§^ doth necef- 
farily refer to that which is generated ; but 
KdT dymofjuLo-icLVy ov by fpecial privilege of 
birthright, muft firft belong to this man that 
was the firft begotten and firft born in the 
world. So like wife the fignification of this 
flame given by i^/I^7?j', viz. C^/>, imports the 
firft increafe of mankind by way of genera- 
tion: As I remember, even in Latin poe- 
try, incrementum fignifies fometimes a fon, 
or child born. 

Remarks on the History. 2 2€ 

Char a T)eum foboles magnum Jovis inert* 

And the great lawgiver Mofes thought i; 
not below himfelf to exprefs this etymology, 
or true reafon of his name, telling us, Gen. 
iv. I. that when Eve brought him forth, ihe 
faid, ^n^Dpunii IJh Kanti^ which, imports, I 
have gotten increafe, even a man,; and from 
that verb n^p Kanath he was call'd rp Cain^ 
which Jofephus interprets KTn<rigy increafe or, 
gain. And Dr. Cajile^ in hisfifeptag/ot LexU 
cofiy and Bochart in CanaaUy p/784. nave giveiiv 
proof, that the root of it refers efpecially to. 
increafe by generation : .Wherefore the for-, 
iner intimates, that even the Greek word: 
j^HtLoiy whence comes the old Latin Gena^ 
Genus ^ Generoy are deriv'd thence ; and. 
confequently Thilo's name Tev©^: It being, 
plain , that the change bf the letters G into^ 
C is where both letters are of the fame or- , 
gan, and therefore eafily mutable into each; 
other, by a known grammatical rule. 

Moreover, it's evident that Thilo's name . 
cannot tranflate either of the two other fons^ 
of Jdam : Abel fignifying forro w,, and Setb- 
importing a fubflhute ; * neither of which no-^ 
tions will agree with the man, who was the 

n firil 

^^t Remarks dH the flistouf. 

firft fruits of generation in natural courf^j 
tfsG«« wasj which as his Mofakal nimi ■ 
well Signifies, fo doth the name Oenus made! 
h^ ThilpByblius: Wherefore we maycon- 
Idiide, that he mieant the fame ffiart with 

•' And his infoti&ers, the Cahir'ti chofe only 
to record this fine, as being indeed the eldell 
family among Adanfs children, of which wfi 
inay think thofe idolaters did boaft muchj 
that their Religion" was introduc'd by this 
elder hoitfe^ as we fhall find he inforftis 
m, that this <?<?»»/ or Cain began rhe wor^ 
ihipof thefuri, uffder the title of Beelrfameii 
dr Lord of Heaven ; and federal of the def- 
' cendents added feveral other methods dt 
idolatrous worlhip diftindly' fet down b/ 
this author t feveral of which were confe- 
crated , or deify'd , after thfeir deathsf* Oil 
the contrary, Mojes only briefly toucheth 
the progeny of Caiiti as having no good 
example in them ; but he hatlir recorded 
the years of the bifth and death of Setbj the 
younger brother, dnd his line;* diftirhSlyi 
having refpeft to the true Religion preferv'd 
in that family, and to the defcerlt of Noah 
atad AbrahaWy and confequently of Qtit'i^ 
from thence* 

■ 4? 1. ^ly 


Remarks on the History. 123 

• t. My next proof, that hj Genus is meant 
Qain^ fhall be taken^ from this obfervation ; 
that this line is continu'd from ^hvtx)gonni 
oxAd^m downwards to its end: But there 
is another line mentioned by our author , ivi 
which there are only four generations ex- 
prefs'd ; which line is not deduc'd from itsf 
beginning Trotogmusj but only fome later 
generations mentioned , in which we have* 
found Naahy and Hamy and Canaan^ fi^r. 

Hence I argue thus : That line which 
teads not to iV^tfi& in the 10'^ defcent,. ttor^ 
to Ham in the i\\ cannot be the liiie of 
yW^«rpaffing through 4?^^^, but muft be his' 
line pafling through Caiity he having no o- 
ther known fons: But this litre whereinff^- 
nm ftands, leads not \o Noah in the ro* ge^; 
Iteration, nor to Homy ^c. Ergtr, It is- the 
line of Cain. 

The minor will be dear from what we 
ih^ir prove in the following part of this dlA 
courfe, where we Ihall find Noah ^ndHam 
in the fhort line that is not continued up ta 
^rotogonus: And it is remarkable, that in. 
the inclufive account Amynus. and Magus are , 
the 10* generation from Trotogonus^ and 
confequently Hand in the fame generation * 
itomAddm that Noah doth, in the Mofaical 

hiftory :' And tbefe I take to' be the names 


1 14 Remarks on the Histort; 


men, who (with all their anceflors" theii 
found alive , and their children ) were 
drown'd in the deluge which Noah efcap'd. 
And we fhall in the next chapter (h^w par-^ 
ticularly, that the two other generations foU 
lowing are not of this line, but floln inja* 
rioufly out of the line of Seth. 
\ This argument may farther be ftrengthen'd. 
by the concurrent teftimony of the Chaldaan 
antiquities, whereof we have fome frag-, 
ments in the Greek Chronicon of EufebiuSy 
p. 5-. Abydenus^ a fcholar ofiAriftotle^ wrote 
v[iAlexander\K\x£i!t the AJfyrian or Chaldaan 
antiquities. He and ApoUodorus mention juft 
io Kings (which I fuppofe were the heads 
of their families in Chaldaa in the 10 firft. 
generations) before the Flood : And juft fo 
many hath Tolyhiftor out of Bero/uSy in the 
fame time before the Flood. 

Now tho' our Sanchontatho mentions not 
the Flood , but feems to follow fome in- 
formers, who by lengthening out Catn\ Une 
beyond the 10*^ generation wherein it was 
deftroyM, would oppofe the belief of it ; yet 
becaufe they could not find men of Cains 
line in the 11'^ and ix*^ generation, but were; 
forced to fteal them out of Noah's children and 
grandchildren , and confequently of Seth's 
Une : I fee even from thence juft reafoh td 


REkARKs on the History. 1 1 y 

tdhclude that Cain'^ family was at thdt time 
totally extinguiih'd agreeably to the Scrips 

In piafltng; I may here add that in Aby- 
denus i Crmus is affirm'd to forfelhew the 
Rood td Siftthtus the ChaUaan. This is 
agreeable to my notion of his being Ham^ 
Vhich I fhall fuUy {irove ; for Ham was near 
an hundred years old when the Flood campt 
and might know it from his father many 
years before, and fo might warn others, or 
be dreamt of as warning Sijithrus ; this Be- 
rojus in his fecond book fays, as Alexander 
Volyhiftor teftifies in a fragment preferv'd 
by Scaligeri p. 8, Eufeb. Gr£c. There is 
mentioned tter e the keeping of fome records 
in Sifj^arii written before the Flood. This 
fliews ^tChaldaans claim'd tb be skilFd iii 
writing long before Thcth^s time. Letters 
graven in ftone upon ^n^tu might be unhurt ^ 
by water. 

The name Sifpari^ Scaliger faith, figni- 
fies the place caird Sipphara in Ttolemy^ the 
origimi he notes not, but it feems to me to 
be clearly from "«3d fignifying a book, or re« 
cord ; and they may be gathered hence to 
have had places anfwerable to our libraries 
to keep them in, and this is like Kirjath 
Stpber -in Scripture. The Tranflation of 

S this 

2i6 Remarks vh the History. 

this t^in-iw or Cbuldee name Slf^i ioto 
Greeky is in ttMt place cali'd IhtfjtQtS^ tnen- 
tion'd in jdhydenus and Apollothrus, whofe' 
fragments are in Sfii^ger\ GreeA Eufibiust 
p. f . which J'^iti//^^ f«ltbhefiiidsnomenti(Mi 
of, amongft the ancient; in bis Not a 4dGrdea 
Eufibii. Yet I doubt not but Siffttr^i fig- 
niiies the place cali'd. UmHiRi^M^ .But it's 
tifive to pafs hence to our third pr<koeG that 
Genus\ line is that of C^i/r, wfoidi import 
feim to be the iame man, 

3, This may be evinc'd by fliewtng th* 
^sMckfitiatho affirms that in the line of Ge- 
'iUfSi the fame and other Uke arts, togfdox 
Wi<hche beginning aadprogrefsofheathm- 
Kh w€>r&ip and maaners;, were fitil ^oond 
<MSV and carried on agreeably fjo wImc itif<7/^ 
«nd Other <aflern writers have dieiiyar'd con- 
cerning the line of Caiif. This wtU he 
ckar'd, by obTerving that Set6's Uwt^ was 
employ 'd in the, nobler improvements of h*** 
mm nature, which are, literatore laad true 
Religion^ the knowledge or concen^atum 
of God, and his wifdom, in making, or^a^ 
ing and governing the world g togcfther widi 
theiludyc^ the motions of the heavenl$rbo»- 
dm, and the fciences of Aihronoflay and 
Geoinetry therein employ id ; which t«e the 
lK>bl«ft ((Indies., m^ fuppofe or involve fooie 


.;Rf;MAjiM w/^^ History. |.^7 

skill in letters firit lUr'd in writing, ffficl jn 
numbering. So ^//«^, /i^. vii. (f. §6. Lptf* 
rasfemper^rkftrerJffrhsfuifey which im- 
ports his belief that they were of the urmoft 
antiquity ; and this he prefers to their opi- 
nion,* who ftttribure them to the j^gyftioft 
Mercury^ which feems to me very conii4ef- 
able. See B^chart. Canaan, fii. L c. %o. 

I believe, as Tliny hints. Mercury or ThQth 
to be rather a reftorer of learning in Mgypt 
and Canaan ^fter the Flood, than it*s firit 
inventor ; though our SmchontathQ^ for the 
-credit of his own, and the Mgyftian nation 
land religion, and on the authority of Mer- 
^mry'^ fcribes, would have us beljevie him 
the firtt author, fimpjy, or without the limi- 
taition which I fyggeit 

Jafephuf in the beginning of his AntiqfMr 
ties, caf. 3, 4. e^preflly attributes ttiefc 
liigh improvements to Seth^ and his pofteir 
rity iof the firfl: feven generations. And { 
tiave obfiwrw'd that in Eufeh. Trafar.. Itb. ix. 
c. 17. Eufotemus affirms the Batyhnians to 
deliver chat Enoch was the great Atlasy the 
inventor, or promoter by new inventions, 
of Aftrology, fo they called what' we now 
call Aftronomy. Thefe nobler fcicnces be- 
ifig Kferv'd to the better line. 

We will more particularly Ihew the a^^ee** 

S X ment 


218 Remarks on the HlstoifY. 

mcnt of our author with others, in truly at- 
tributing the invention of the lower arts ta 
Cain*s line : And the agreement in the line 
will ftand good, though there be found fome 
difference in the order and number of the 
defcendents in it. For though Mo/es hath 
reckoned juft as many generations in SetMs 
line between jidam and Noah^ vis^. 10, as 
Sanchoniatho does between TroUgonus and 
Amynus^ whom I have caufe to place coi^ 
temporary with Noah\ yet in CWm's line, 
Mofes reckons but 8 in the account inclu* 
ding Adam. It feems more credible to me, 
that Mofes pafs'd over two generations of 
Cainitesy as not worth the mentioning, than 
that eight generations in this line ihould live 
as long as ten in Seth's line, when yet it ap- 
pears that Cain was born near 130 years be- 
fore Seth. Omitting therefore fuch diflfe- 
rences as might eaiily fall out, where in fub« 
ilance there is agreement ; let us obferve, 
I. That the invention of building is by 
Mofes attributed to Cf/>, and his iiTue ; for 
it's certain he muft have many hands to join 
with him when he built the firfli city, call* 
ing it by the name of his eldeft fon (fo Jofe- 
fhus faith) Hanochy or Enoch. But in what 
year, or rather century of his life this was 
<lone, we are not informed j only we have 



Rei^rks on thf History, i zp 

veafon to judge that he Uv'd as many years 
■as his brother *rff/&, which were 9 IX. And 
he might build this city, fuch as it was, in 
any part of this time after his fon's birth, a- 
greeably to the Mo fate al Hiftory. We may 
fuppofe therefore that he did it when he 
was about 7 or 800 years old, and had feen 
7 or 8 generations defcended from* him ; 
each of which was in fuch numbers increased, 
as was not only fufficient to build it, but to 
inhabit and defend it. In fo much time, all 
the artsmig^t eafily be invented which were 
requiiite to fuch an undertaking. 

I am not concem'd to determine where 
this land oiNod, or this city was, but only 
to affirm, that if it fignifies only the land of 
his pilgrimage, or of praife, as fome render 
it, it may either be Tixenicia, where Sax- 
choniatho faith he dwelt, or he might come 
out of it thither in fome time of his life ; ei- , 
ther way his words may be true. 

Perhaps it may not be impertinent to add, 
what I have obferv'd that there was a city in 
Canaan calFd Cain, which is aftirm'd, Jojh. 
XV. $7. to be within the bounds affign'd to 
the tribe ofjudab. I find not who was the 
builder of this city , nor of many others 
which Jojhua diftribuied among the Ifrae- 
. lites : But in my beft map of Canaan^ it's 

S3 iituated 

t^6 Remarks oh the HrsTont. 

iittiated not fur ftotn the fea fidc^ oii>a|»-o» 
tootttory, lying" within the countrey which 
the ThiliftiHes kept long in their {lofieffion ; 
and it's not likely that any who oWn'd thein* 
felves deriv'd ftomSeth^ ihould btiild a city, 
and then brand it with the odious ikme of 
CdiH ; but it's pofflWe it might either be 
built by fome of his family before the Flood, 
tod its ruins be fepair^d afterwards, Itill 
keeping his name, as *Plitty faith of Joffat 
lib.v. c.t3. AHtiqkior tdrratUminundAtioHe 
4it fermt^ Or it might be built by the old 
Thilijiines before jdftjua's time ; and they 
being defcended from Mizraim^ might, 
though falfely, believe z% Sanchoniatho re- 
poftsj that he was of CW/«*s line, and thence 
might 6jiU this city by his name. The Rcl- 
def may chufe what he thinks moii proba^ 
\Aj trtie. 

Bit t &m mdfe concern'd to obferve^ that 
in the fpace of ^oo ye^rs dfiign'd to his lift,^ 
tie Might live With> and mike ufe of to build 
his itt^, thdDb ^\v&tRSdHcbi>niathataxixs^ in 
the fifth ahd feventb generation from ^rot*- 
goiHif, ""bm, in the iifth MefHtuthus, who al^ 
fb in Gi^eek is di^ll'd IfyjfJUrattiusl He, faith 
Qto iuKhof) fflade houfes about f^^an^'riir/, 
^fcittopftfs'd ^d ^Ver'd with ordinikiy reeds, 
fiiib(>Sj«hl ;he p|i|K^ tee4, lihHfih^iw mti^ 


Remarks on the History. 231 

- • • 

Memrum^Mochart thinks to have \c& t fylla* 
UsjAlem being left init^ad of QtjjJtJU or s^nur 
Shsmsimj fignifying Heaven, toanfwerthe 
Vrmtius in ^hiWi tranflation, as Rum does 
the i}^^. Sesliger thinks it only put in- 
ftead of earn) Minrumj fi'om on high. I 
will add a way with lefs change, it m^y 
come from on Rum^ and t»o MAJim^ fig- 
oifyiflg waters fnm on high^ or iffue from 
above : Let the readef take which he likes. 
Iq his feventh generation he puts Chryfor^ 
whom he affirms to be the Hephaijius of the 
Greeks^ ^ and the Latin Vukanus^ and his 
brother the inventor of bricks, tiles, and 


walls. Thefe men joined together, will ea- 
fily do all that belongs to the building of 
one, or many cities. 

X. Mo/is hath plac'd all the other artifts 
of the line of Cain in the eighth generation 
from TrotQgMusy and they are three bro-* 
thef s the children o/i Lamech. Jabal^ the 
father (^ fuch as dwell in tents: Jnbaly the 
lather of fuch as handle the harp^ ilring'd 
ftmfick, and the organ, wind mufick : Tu- 
bal CaiUy an inllruftor of artifts working in 
iron and brafs. Somewhat anfwerably here- 
tmto, Sanchoniatho has placed his chief ar- 
tifts in the feventh and eighth generations : 
\id;i Vulcan 9 with his brother- workers in 

S 4 iroui 



X31 Remarks o» /)&^ History. 

iron ; to him he afcribes the invention of the 
hook, bait and fifhing line, yea of boau; 
and failing, fofigs of longer and ihorter 
ineafures, mix'd Efod^Sy und Divinations; 
infomuch that they wprlhipped him as a God 
after his death, and call'd him2?M-i^/ri^iM; 
for fo I think bis name ibould be written, in 
two words, whofe nominative is Zf v( Mxxi@^y 
from 'm Majhhh Ma^hina^ the gre^t engi* 

In his eighth generation, bis Tecbnites^ 
which fignifies the artift ; and Au$ocb$hm^ 
to whom yet he afcribes only the invention 
of fome fort of bricks^ and tiles^ and roofs 
for houfes. His coming fo near to the place 
where Mofis hath put the artifts, pkafeth 
me pretty well, but a fuller agreement would 
be more acceptable. To procure this, I 
will do no violence to my author, bat will 
propofe to my reader fome thought^s which 
haye offered themfelves to my mind, l-et 
Others add to them, or mend then>* 

I. I haye thought, that thefe two links of 
the genealogy, have by fqme negligence of 
the tranfcribers been tranfpos'd, which tu 
ror is fometimes committed in pedigrees; 
and then it may as eafily be mended, as; it 
was committed, by fetting Qhryfor^ qr VuU 


Remarks oft the History. . 13 j 

e^ in the eighth place, and Technkes in 
the feventh. Or, . 

2. Without fuch a change, the father in 
the feventh generation might begin inthefd 
arts, and on that account be celebrated by 
Thotb or his fcribes the Cabirh^ and the 
iRwis tnigfit bring them to greater perfe6Kon 
in the eighth generation, and for that rea^ 
ion be rather taken notice of by Mofis ; 
whofe^ words do not neceflarily import the 
firft invention, but rather refpeft excel* 
Jency and exemplarity in the feveral arts. 

By either of thefe ways a full agreement 
will be made between Mofes's acknowledge 
ment that thefe arts were invented in Cain^s 
Une, and Sanchoniathoj who affirms, not on- 
ly thefe but feveral other inventions of the 
tower fort, yetveryufeful to life, to feve- 
ral perfons diftin^ly exprefs'd by him; which 
Iwill Aot infift upon particularly, becaufe I 
can add nothing to them from concurrent 
teilimony of good credit : Nor can I infer 
any thing from them to the farther clearing 
of the hifiory, which is my main defign. 
Thefe thiogs are fufBcient to prove that 
thefe ten generations (which are by his con* 
feilion not of the fame line with Cronus^ or 
Hdm^ who was from «$>r^^ mult neceflarily 
be reckoned in the line paffing through Cain^ 



2! j4 RfMAiiKS <i;9 the History. 

iliere being no other line of ceiigeiicraticMM. 
before Ham., but that of CW>. 

Wcf will ;pQW proceed to copfidcf that 
which I fow to be the defigp of thjj hiftory> 
(lutd to b6 gridutUy carry'd on frooa Geu%t 
tQCrfffir/^andr^c^^ before I found out afty 
^ the Peffons pention'd in itt or any of 
tWr times wherein they iiv'd. This is thit 

igfeaftd pr Offlefg of l^at^yp rf>lt^#v*^ Cjj- Worn 

fti^» firll given, to the fun,, and afterwards 
t0 dead nten, who had been, either by in- 
vention of ufeful things, or by fettling go- 
Temaient ainongft them, tjieir benefa<3ars. 
S«t;h be plainly. tflSrms iiril to be honour'd 
ivrtth loemoriais fet np for them andfoknm 
\ twaesand manniers> of conwnemoration* then 
j with iacrifice^ Jt<^ t^iem as Go4s % and thcfo 
\ iacrilices h<J informs ns werp firft ctf wild 
: oititle taken in hooting,. \m afterwards they 
, trerc takea from the tame bealls in men's 
• jpoSeiBons* at length they ame to oflfer 
^»en* '■ V - ' . : ■ .> ;. ^ 
, This obfciryatioo made me think it Worth 
mjr pdnR l» iftudy to find 4)i^t the mc®; and 
tlidr times^ and gavetne fome Jight toward; 
the difcovtry of thtmt by taktf^me off from 
nB^niog that the beft fort of men could 
te coiDcem'd ther^» as I faw ibme learned 


Remarks qH the History* t'^f 

men to have believed. Let us therefore 
defcetid now to particulars, 

I. It gave me fome encouragement tq 
Ipkve a degree of credit to this hiftory, whci) 
I obferv'd that it attributed no beginnings 
of idolatry to Trotogonus and Mm , ths 
firft pair nam'd in it ; for this I faw was ar 
greeable to M&fes^ who reprefentj them on- 
ly , as owning their Creator, and fupporte4 
by the promife of the Seed of the womau^ 
So our author has laid no ^laim p them in 
the behalf of heathenifm, and confequently 
hath not oppofqd our claim to the higheft 
antiquity for the worfliip of one God the 
Creatoft He doth indeed challenge Genur^ 
Whom upon the proofs antecedent we ihafi 
iSaH Cain^ and we ihall own him to be the 
fldeift fon of yidam., Scripture indeed tells 
Us nothing of his worlhipping the Sun* but 
its filebce will not prove the negative. 

If s plain that Mofes\ defign was not to 
tell us of the rife , and progrefs of worfliijgi- 
ping creatures J, but rather to couceal that 
Which was not to be imitated, and to fet 
^fore us the belt patterns of faithful adhe* 
rence to the for vice of the one true God. 
Htehce he tooft diligently fets forth the line 
of fuch worihippers ; and for the oppofite 
fnd, tb^ Cab\ri here have ilighted that 


1^6 Remarks on the History. 

fine, till for the honour ofCronus^ 'who was 
a great idolater, it was needful to itiention 
two of his anceftors, Klion and Our anus ; 
which he doth, without faying a word of 
their religion, which was the worihip of 
the only true God, from which Cronus a* 

Thoth^ and his fcribes tell us plainly, that 
tWi» lifi uf his hands to the Sun , and 
thought him the only Lord of Heaven. This 
pofture of religious worihip, join'd with fuch 
thoughts, can import no Icfs than a depre- 
cation of thofe violent heats from the fun, 
which put him upon them. I doubt not 
but he had been taught better things by his 
parents, and had own'd a higher God in his 
oblations. But as even then God faw his 
faith in that invifible being was not like 
Aheh^ it may be none at all but outward 
compliance ; fo it's certain that wicked men 
grew worfe andworfe\ deceiving and bein^ 
deceived: And therefore, for ought fktibw, 
this may deferve credit. This certainly was 
the eldeft fort of idolatry; yet I think Ma- 
crohius ftrains too hard, whfen he endea^ 
vours to make all their idolatry to refer to 
this fort of religion towards the Sun, which 
be thought moft juftifiable. 

.... %. Wl 

RenUrks oH the History, 257 

i. In his third and fourth gen^ations he 
gives us na in^ance of any progrefs in ido- 
latry ; fo that for aU that appears in him, 
jet cAily the celeitial bodies were worflup- 
ped. The names of the men he gives us in 
theto are very feange 19 usi yet I believe 
diey are not fo Unufual amongftthem. ' ffis 
third are Ligla^ Firet Fiamt\ titks givett 
them, I fuppofe, becaufe-they found the 
way of kindling fire by i^ibbing wood. But 
I have obferv'd that the names *Ur and *Uri, 
Beor alfo and Leltahim fignify fire and fiam^ 
and are mention'd in after times in Scrip- 
ture ; and they iuifwertPi&i/9's well enough.' 

So alfo his fourth generation were inhabi- 
tants and lords in the great mountains, and 
were called Libanus, ^tilibanusy Caffius 
Brathy. The mountains which now are 
known by thofe names, he tells us were 
call'd fo from thofe men that were lords 
therein. So I find that Sesr^ which was a 
name oiEfau from his hairynefs at his birtb. 
Gen. XXV. x$. was given . to. the mountain 
which he poiTefs^d. Yet I know.the name 
is proleptically given to that oountrey, Geu. 
xiv. 6. before hjs birth ; probably Gtf^/«^ . as 
the Samaritan Verfibn, whence Goholitis in 
Jofe^hus wis the old namel 

I • ' / r ' » 


, ' 3- The 


^3^, .Remarks en the HwTORt. ^ 

' 3 .Tbe fifth gsneration ofS^x^ m ibnietbing 
store coofiderpbk ; Therem u^e bav^ ajrei:- 
dy given iin aQCoimt of M*ff*rffmm ap4 ^s 
qotttges, which he my60i;ed jthis boiidng 
of J. bitt themflw 0fO<j/?tw bis btpthejr iif- 
•flttins flill to bp enqidp'id »9tp. Sc^l^evt be- 
;c«0fe qf the difftgneement I ]|i«ftfi(m'd be- 
'twetQ turn imd his bratber, guefles hioi «> 
lie Efiwi Que djffer^ficQ between brothers 
is too commoo a dtiiqg to bf ft fuflicieot cha- 
i:a(9ercoknowv^/2wby. The^ftUdiihuiQe 
.hatween this Qiao aad Trokfgmtts, he be- 
xQg but the fifth from hiio, demot^bates 
tb^i be is not .<^4^4w'$ gmidchild, Mriu> 
vos in the 93^ deiieait from the firft isan; 
Irv T<?ff^/, iSgi^iag ibong, ft name bag «^ 
ter given to the foo of Ar^Mt whom 3F«/d- 
fhus ai3is.Qufit\ we cranflate Vz, theiet- 
ninfttifflQ in JeJl^Mt onlydsffi^rs fromT'^i- 

This man our audior records not only to 
have ihveoted clothes, by the sl^ins of wtid 
iieafis, and to, bave been the iirfl man that 
'Tentur'd into the fea upon a tree that was 
Jabwn down « bat ^o to have coiaCecrafed 
two pillar^ to the wind and to the fire ; no;- 
kting, I iiiffbDfe, Co that wind and fire .bf 
which the wood there naentuMi'd was huiii(. 
And tbefe he ador'd, and pour'd out to 

' ». them 

Remarks on «&e HtsTORt. ^3^9 

itfm the biooiJ of the t*^iia bkfls wMch hfe 
(lad hunted. I ntotifiifii) that in E^fiimnt 
is not expreffly- ^ffirm'd vctoncerning tlfe 
blood of thefe wild bedfis Which 1% had t«- 
fcen by hunting, that that waS {^urM oat; 
but t conceive it neceflary fo to nnderftahft 
hk words m^tm e^€>ijf/W, bedattfe thercls 
no!!hing dfe in them, which ^ever w^s 4*^ 
to be pour'd ottt to any prctettded deity, 
befides their Wood ; nothing elfe in thck 
%6dieS that* can be porit'd out as a libation^ 
Thi s therefore lobferve to^ b e the firft o8e<^- 
iagof Mood te inferior deit<e«4i> TAt T r^jmA^ 
Atid 4)6c9!ufe it's a^mM 'tb b« of hunted 
yiM beafisy of whofe blood there eoild 
hardly any qnantity be gotten td be pduf%l 
-ooc of bowls, or b«i<ms ; I thkik we mnv 
infer, that he oflfer'dfotfte part of irtjeir flam, 
with their blood yet partly cbntaan'd inltek 
arteiies and reins, partly dfo{>ptng out of 
their limbs. - Then' becaufe hanttnjg 4ogs 
jfeO^'^06, a fort of beads of pney, we tiave 
-l^re the fird in(lance of ^tf^cU^oft or one 
V^lld beaft takieB by another, 

■ Awd fiiioe there is no -reeifoti to doubt 
4nit be ate pait of 'w^at be had taken «a 
iHintIng, as be «6fer'd part ; Ibis is the ^rft 7 
^exanij^e of eating ffelh before 'the Flood, ^ 
^Iter Af^ncfa God ^raated ieave to N9ak t6 




146 RfMAKics dn the HisToitt. 

life fach fcfod. But we tnuil obfervei, 
was granted witb a reftrv^on/ forbidiii 
to eat it with its blood in it r which ande^ 
law feems*to intimate, that th^ wild ante- 
diluvian fons of Cfiff^ bad fallen into the 
b^yrbarity of «f»^yicui the eatit^ of raw and 
bloody fleflis forbidden therefore to Noah 
and his pofierity, both in the cafe of facri* 
fices and of ordinary dieti to prevent tSL 
correfpondence with their £ivage pradice& 
I But when tbefe were dead« men 6f that 
Jne remaining, confecrated pofls and pillars 
to them, ftdor'd the pillars, ana kept inni^ 
irerfary feafis unto them. Here we have 
the eldeft inilance of worihipping the winds 
mid fire, a lower fort of their naturally im- 
mortal Gods, which I think they worfbipp'd, 
becaufe the winds are of kindred toceleitial 
Or ffithereal matter ; and fire like the nature 
of the fun and (Urs; And her^ is the cob- 
nexion of the worfhip of men after do^ 
with the other: For thofe that were fo de- 
vout . to fire and wind, were the firft men 
we read of td be confecrdted and honoured 
with pillars, in commemoration jdn'dwith 
adoration or bowing down to them, and 
feafts. But I find not here any prayer, or 
facrifice to them, or peculiar .calling them 
Gods, or worflupping them as fuch, whic^ 


."Remarks on the FftsfORY. '241 

is firft exprcflly faid oiVukan in the feventh 
generation. ' , \ ■ 

it is fit here to take notice of the immo- 
rality in the otdinaty pr ollitution of their 
. bodies ; . which our author plainly confefles 
concerning the women who brought the 
children of this generation, becaufe it fulii* 
cientiy hints that th is was c ommon among 
the womeii, and men too of thofe times, 
and of this line: And it agrees with the in-r 
timation that Mofes gives concerning the 
debauchery of thofe ages, and the general 
corruption of the world which enfued upon 
it ; when even the Tons of God, which the 
ancients do underftand to be the children 
of the better line, went into thefd daugh- 
ters of men, and begat a wicked, yet ftrong 

The reader may note alfo, that I am not 
foUicitous to make all the men of the line, 
nam'd by Sanchoniathoy to anfwer to thofe 
few which Mofes names, becaufe I know it 
is impoffibk : And it's certain, that in both 
the lines, there were many more children 
than thofe that are nam'd in the books that 
we have , elfe the world could not have 
been fo peopled as it was. 

4. In his fixth generation, our author 

mentions a brood of fifliermen and huntf- 

^ T men« 


i4i RemaSks on the MisToicIf- 
men, under the names of Agreus and tid- 
. tieus ; by which 1 can underitapd nothing 
more than that ih this age/ thole arts or em- 
ployments were much improv'd. 

The Greek names us'd in this and other 
generations, we muft Judge tcr be Thiliii 
tranflation of eaAern names of like import ; 
and it's probable that they were of the fame 
root with the name Siion after thefe times 
given to Canaan\ fon ; for ^at root relates 
to both employments of hunting and filbing: 
And I believe that Zethui the brother of 
uim^hion of the Ctdmaan colony ia Bteotia, 
had his name from that root. 

It's plain that he tells us Oufim was an 
huntfman before them, for which caufe it 
feems they valued him fo highly, as to con- 
fecrate him into an hero, which in the -bea-^ 
then religion is known to be a Hep lower 
than their Gods i yet fuch, asoutof it they 
may be advane'd to that higher degree of 
Godlhip,as ^?rWfl/«j acknowledges tohave 
been done in the cafe of Hercules in jEgjtft, 
whom he faith they made one of the is 
Gods. Whereas before they had but eight, 
they made four more, whereof he was one. 

Before I difraifs this generation, I will be 

r » I . 

Remarks on fhe HiStoRt. * 1^ j 

diately befdre it, is more ambigubufly eX- 
f>refs*d than any other in thfe whole pedigree, 

by thofe WOtds ;t;§ovo<<^ v<ri\ov 'koH^olg aftir 
inuch tin^: From th^ timisi of Hyp/bur an ius 
came thefe huhtfmeri and fiflierS, t^^hich 
mademfe^ little doubt whether thefe were 
iiis immediate children dr nd. But this dbubt 
Wis taken away, by cdflfiderhig that thefe 
words need impott no niore than that h6 
ivas Idh^ or much advsfnc'd in years befoffe 
he had thefe children^ which Fhave obferv'd 
to be ticftecl by Mdjes concerning fome of the 
better line? ; as, Jareiiwtis i6i years old when 
fiis fon Enoeh was borri ; dnd Methu/alahvfzs 
itSyyeat'S did wheti his fon Lainech was bOrnt 
Such year's may well be call'd '^l>1^^ -orAJhoi. 

But all fcriiple was balnifli'di when I cofli 
fider'd, that if an interpolation of other ge^ 
fieratiOtis fhOuld be here admitted^ weniuft 
own fo ihany more generations in G«i»*s 
Kne before the Flood as might be interpoj 
kted, which would make his Hue to havef 
tnore links in it thari Seth% which there i^ 
tio reafoA to believe ; the fame interval be- 
tween the Creatiori altid the Flood* being 
beft fill'd up in both cafes by ten generiH 

':■■% Concerning the feveiith geneMiow, ^4 
liiSfehad occtfion to fay fomeihing already^ 
V.IiV.. T X inrhich 

1 1 

f 44 REMARKS on the HisTORtV 

which fliall jiot be repeated : Here we wijl 
take a little notice of the name Chryfor. 
.Bocbart\ origination from "^im unn Chore fur,^ 
which he renders Uv(/ltxyirfj(^ is.not impro- 
bable ; yet I had rather deduce it from a 
jfimple root v^n Hharats^ acriter egity con- 
(idity acuit\ whofe derivative is rendered 
hy thtSepui^int dy^ei(^. X^&^y beaten 
or cut gold is acknowledged to come thence, 
why TiolCh^^? which differs only in an 
^bitrary termination ; fince it*s certain that 
compofitions muu not be admitted in ear 
ftern wofds, but where there is neceffity. 

3ut the moft confiderable matter concern* 
ning him^ is, that jbe is the firit man whom 

Ithor informs u s nf^ t ^t wa^; y orflijp^ 

s a God after his deaths This is a 

plaiQ confeilion that fuch worfhip was not^ 
4nd indeed it's impoilible it ihould be fron) 
the beginning. . Mofes informs us that Adam 
died not till above 930 years after the cre«-* 
tiori; we may therefore well judge, that 
the feventb generation from him died not 
till above 1000 years were gone; though 
we know that Enochs who was the fcventh 
from Adam in Stth'sXmQi was tranflatediQ 
the year ^87, a little before 1000, becaufg 
heliv'd not, half the time that others in that 
?ge of the world continued unto. This is 


Remarks on the History. 245: 

therefore an acknowledged innovation in fo* 
weighty a matter as the objeft of religious 
wptiliip r And it's agreeable to the degen^- 
f acy of Cam\ race, to give the example of 
fuch impioufly bold pradice. 
"^•^ Tet even this wicked brood fell not into 
4:his fin till the 8'^ generation;^ till more than 
1000 years degeneracy had hardened them, 
and divine vengeance in the deluge was 
'drawing near in the next generation but one. 
I may here add , that tho* we know by 
fcripture accounts^ that Methu/alahy who 
was of the 8'** generation fwmAdam^ and was 
born early therein, when his father Enoch 
was but iixty five years old, did die juft be- 
fore the Flood ; yet many others might be 
born in the line of Cain in that eighth gene- 
ration, when their Parents were loo or 300 
years old, or more ; and it's certain, that 
thofe cpuld not live near to Methufalah'% 
age, ^s the antediluvian men generally did 
in the courfe of nature, but they muft be 
drown'd therein. Which extraordinary 
judgment againtt the firtt deifiprs of men, I 
'think worthy to be reniark'd. 
'. This fame Chryfor in Greek^ onr Sanch^ 
mat ho faith is"H(pA<9(^ ; and his being the 
eldefl: of that name^is probably the man whom 
Manetht) hatl^ put firft in his firft Dynafty 

T 3 Pf 

.14^ Remarks oft the History. 

qf Gods and Demigods in ^gyft^ plac'd be^. 
fore the Flood in Scaligefs Eufelfian chroiii- 
cle in Greek. I have more refpeft to thisf^rft 
of their Gqds jp that Dynafty than to ^11 tl}^ 
reft ; partly becaufe oi Sancboniatho'stQi&m(fp 
py, that fuch a God \yas worfliipped in their 
neighbouring 7^i&fl?»/rw before -A?(7i^A's timci 
and partly becaufe Herodotus infornis me of 
a temple built by M^nes^ or Mizr4iniy to thij 
Vulcan *y fpr no other deify *d man can b^ 
ifbund bcfovQMij&ram'^ time, that was call'd 
by the name pf Vulcan^ or a name equipol- 
lent thereunto, as Cbryfor in the Thdsnictafk 
and Tbtha in \}citMgypian l^guages are: 
From which divers learned n^en have fiig- 
gefted the Greek nf^ttt^^ to be deriy'd, ttiq* 
with much change, as in pafling put of one 
language into another is very ufual. 

6. I havp nothing to add concerning thp 
eighth generjftion tp what I have already 
written, but an account of the names, which 
are Ttx^iTtig and Tn^y^ ^ the former of tjiefe 
feems to tranflate the eaftern name MaUch'h 
from nD^lTD Malacuj jirtificium ; the latter, 
becaufe it anfwers XoiVoV> fignifying eartlyij 
is in the Syriac tranflatioh of i Cor. xv. 47. 
exprefs'd by a word of the fame, root with 
E^her^ ^XidLEfhron^ which 2iXt Canaakitijh 



REMARKS OH the History. 247 

- * - 

•names, and therefore may reafojiably be 
judg'd to have been us'd bfSanchoniatho. 

But the ninth g eneration is very remark- 
able in our authoj^r"6ecaufe to the mea 
thereof, the firft ilatue or idol to be wor- 
fliipped, and t h e firft temple we read of, 
was ereft ed in ^hegn icioj a fijiall temple^ 
or rather tabernacle it was, becaufe he tells 
usit was ^ufoipoji^^dv, i.e. fuch as was drawn 
from plaee to place by one, pr more yoke^ 
©f oxen. 

Methinks I fee fomething like this in the 
advice of the priefts of the Thlliftines^ fuc^ 
ceffors to the old Thoenicians in their reli- ^ 

gion and abode, to fend back the ark of 
God upon a new cart, drawn by two milch 
kine. This ark was the epitome of the ta-* 
bernacle, or moveable temple of God, and 
it*s here made by the Canaanitljh priefts pr^ 
der; to be ^vfoipo^^/3/joy, Only this is fuper- 
natural, that the kine leave jheir young 
ealves, and carry the ark the next way to 
God-s people, to whom that token of his 
refidence did belong, i Sam. vi. 

A lik e portable tabernacle was that oj 
Molo chl 2iVidi of'^arWiTT^hmn^ or Rephan^ 
^^hicEboth relate to the famp perfon Cro-- 
nusy and probably to the d^^n^ d€^07rilr,g ippq- 
tion' dirtSancbomatboJ whereof St. Steuben 

J 48 Remarks on the^ History. 

ifin^Sy J6fs vii. 43, thauhe IJraeiites Q^iVf^d: 

them in the wildern^fs to bow unto, pr w<v 

ihip. . This^ idolatrous pradice they ufed 

there, as common both to j^gypi . a?[d G^- 

naan^ and including both the worihip of an 

immortal God, a planet, and of a l»orCal 

confecrated man, the fum of all idolatry. 

The learned Dr. Spencer is to be confulted 

for clearing the harmony of this text with- 

Amos V. z6. in whom is a full coUeftion of 

all that the eaftern or weftern learning can 

contribute thereunto. Out of which I chufe 

Grotim's tranflation of the Hebrew^ which 

only removes the accent Athnach to the. 

next word -yyo Chochaby and thereljy makes 

the Hebrew to agree perfedlly with St. Lmke's 

tranflation. But 1 rernark that he varies 

from the Septuagint little in appearance, yet. 

with great reafon , and to great purpofe ; 

for he tranflates the Hebrew CDD^nb)» Elahe- 

chentj not by the fimple word tuVw, .as they 

do, but by adding thereunto ts-^wkuuhv avruu. 

fo defining their falfe God to be images made 

for men to worihip thereby dead men, or; 

the ftars, tSc. 

The names of the men of this generation 
given us by Sanchoniathoy are 'A/^ and *A- 
f^ii^(§-, which import Gods of husbandry, 
as the names Tan, and Tales, and Sylvan. 



Remarks on the History. 149 

jpKi do among the Greeks and Romans ; and' 
oxen are very agreeably employ'd to draw 
their tabernacle, becaufe they were the pld- 
cft fervants in husbandry. I guefs, that in 
S-anchoniaeho, the perfon 'whom Thilo ex- 
preifes by 'Af^os, might be caU'd Siddim, 
or Sad'tdy a name whereby one of Cronus's 
fons is call'din our author; either of thefe 
will anfwer the Gr^-^/t one here us'd, which iii 
fcnfe anfwers to the Latin Jlgricoluy or our 
Englijh name Fields or Fielding. 

Among the Mgypians^ whofe countrey 
was near, and their religion and parentage 
from HafHy the fame with that of the old 
Thmnicians^ I find not only Tan^ but alfo 
Aroueris^ mentioned by Tlutarch as a molt 
ancient deity: And he tells us he was born 
upon the fecond of the five Epagomena^ 
which were added to the year of ix months, 
whereof each had 30 days ; whence this fe- 
cond Epagomena was caird by his name 
in \}[it JEgyptian year. Who he was, he 
intimates to be uncertain, fome, he faith, 
call him Apollo^ others Orus fenior ; Sea-- 
liger de Emend. Temp, guefles him to be 
Anubis. I beg leave to fuggeftbut of our 
' Sanchoniathoj that he is the man whom 
he calls Agrouerus ; and if yOu will al- 
low the y to melt away, as it often does^ 


^ JO Remarks on the History. 

or if we take 'A/§«V and '^ A^yg^t as Synonyma^ 
the name is the "fame ; for the termiQation 
is known to be arbitrarily variable. 

If this be admitted, he will be elder than 
OJarijy although the Mgy^tian fable puts him 
the next day after him : And I can expeft 
QO lefs than that \}a^ ^Egyptians fliould give 
precedency to their founder Ofiris. But i 
give more credit to Sanchomathfl's hiftory 
than jto their profefs'd lable ; both agree 
that great antiquity belongs to this perfom 
Tbotb and the Cabiri here pur Agrauertu 
iirft ; and I believe that the MgyptUn fable 
in Tlutarchy though very ancient, is of much 
later date than their records; and Tlu- 
tarcb openly owns a fabulous mixture to 
to be joined with their folemn coQinxemor 
ration of ancient things, 

Now though, thefe men liv'd ip the ninth 
generation, yet there is no reafon to doubt 
but ,their confecration to be deities, and 
their images and temple were made in the 
JO'**, Thefe people call'd this Agrouerm the 
greateft of their Gods, either in their books, 
or at Byblusy as the words may more con- 
veniently be tranflated. And the men whon^ 
our authpr names in this generation, Amy^ 
mis and Magus^ have names that are like to 
flgnify fuch idolatrous praftice, Amynu^ 


/ - 

I^MARKs on the History, %^% 

f(peimng to import in this place a defender 
|roai enchantments, and Magus a forcerer ; 
though I know both the words are capablp 
pf a njore favourable interpretation. Yet 
\n thefe loweft dregs of Cafn's race^ I ^m in* 
^iin'd to believe the worft that the words 
can bear : For nqw in tliefe two laft gene- 
rations, idolatrous falling off from God and 
yiolent praftice towards men was grown tcj 
the height ; and vengeance fwept them ^* 
Wjjy botli together in the Flood. 

However, this is ^lear by this hiftory, 
that the idolatrous wprfliipping the creature, 
is much elder than the ufe of images to pror 
mote fo bad an end ; even Lucian in his 
ibea Syria affirms that the Mgyptlans^ whoia 
he reprefents contrary to our author, as the 
firftniakers of idols, yet moft anciently had 
none in their temples. And here I obferve, 
that the firft age that fet them lip, was fo 
feverely puniih'd, that there are none left 
of that race. 

Moreover it is confiderable that this firft 
image we here find made, pretends only 
to reprefent to the worihipper, a man who 
fonaetimes was, and was a benefaftor. And 
I obferve, that the Greek word %Um^ us'd 
by Tbik here to exprefs a flatue, is \xiTau- 
fanias generally limited to fignify onlj^ fuch 
*""" * '■ • • ^ ' its 

iji Remarks on th^ History. 

as are made of wood, not of flone, or me- 
tal ; and therefore it's likely that Tbilo \% 
here to be underflood to mean fuch a woodr 
en ftatue, which Taufanias afTures ps was 
the matter of which the eldeft ftatuaries and 
idolaters made ufe. But I cannot find 
that even thefe children of Cain were fo ex- 
travagantly bold, as to pretend to make au 
Image of the true and fupreme Gad : The 
doing of that is an improvement in idolatry, 
which later times have undertaken f o make. 

Macrobiusy lib. I r, x, affirms, that even 
to his time the philofophers avoided all ^- 
bulbus umbrages ; when they fpake of the 
lupreme Godj the 'sr^a-nv curm^ or of th^ 
inind, the fecond Tlatonic perfon, and gCr 
fierally faith of heathen ^tlquity, that it 
niade no image of this fupremie being, tho- 
!it had many of other inferior deities. Nul^ 
lum ejus Jimulachrumy cum diis aliis confiU 
tueretuvy finxit antiquitas\ quia fummuf 
^Deusy nataque ex eo tnens^ Jicut ultra anu 
mamy it a fupra naturam Junty quo nihil fas 
eft de fabulis fexvenire. Intimating images 
to have as much fable in them, unworthily 
belying the fupreme Deity, when pretending 
to reprefent him. 

I might here Ihew that the chriftian Fa- 
thers own, that idolatry among the heathens 


Remarks on the HistorV . ±)^ 

4id arife from the fame oocafions, and by 
the fame degrees that Sanchottiatho here re- 
latesi although he goes back to elder times 
than they take notice of* They acknow*- 
ledge that pillars and ftatues were firfi de- 
fign d Qxuv to prefe rve the memory of the 
lead, .that felUval facr ifices were us'd at 
the mo nument s of the beroe s^but thataf- 
ter wards thefe heroes were made Gods, 
ana tne lacrmces at nrit otterd ta othqr 4c- 
i ties at tlTeir to mDs, were made lacrliices to 
tnem> their monuments were torn d into 
altars and temples. 

I might alfo prove that thus idolatry be^ 
cj^me mijc'd with the religion of fome who 
profefs chritiianity. Firfl were religious aff 
fenablies at the tombs., or memories. of 
ipartyrs, where were commemoratioijs of 
their virtues, join'd with prayers direded 
only to the true God. Afterwards came in 
extravagant panegyrics, then canonization 
of faints, and invocation of them as inter- 
ceflors with God , at length Prayers were 
made to them, without any mention that 
they fhould intercede. 

But thefe things are without the bounds 
of -this work ; let it fuSice that thus we have 
followed this line from the beginning to it's 
end, and have briefly obferv'd the rife and 
. X progrefs 

1^6 Remarks on the History. 

pofterity j who treading in the fteps of their 
(degenerate Parents, reinforc'd Idolatry, at 
ter the Flood had wafli'd it away for a time* 
This I obferve only in paffirig, to makrit 
clear that Sanchoniatbo was fo far from wri- 
ting from informations agreeing with Mo- 
fesy that he openly owns other, * and oppo* 
fite teachers, and accordingly writes Uttle 
or nothing but what is defign'd to ferve the 
religion that Mofes oppQs'd. 



Of Japhet's Ime. The hegmnmg of the 
peopling Attica. Of the 'Pclafgi, 
md of the Sicyonian Kings. fVor- 
jhip of Reliques, Meno his time 
iktermitfdin Pliny from Anticlides. 

IMuftnot negleft to obferve, that befides 
Cronus and his children, on yhom out 
author infills largely, he doth briefly 
mention another line, as concerned in 011- 
r anus's affairs, /. 32. /. i. beginning with 

>J' lixag. In this line, which he affirms not to 



'JRjMARKs oh the HiStOR y. i^f 

DC ^eriv'cl from Crdntts, but to be coftteni- 
poirary with him', he intimates Nereui td be 
the firft, from him defcterids ^onitAsi witH 
^homT^hm is join'd ; from Tontns de- 
Xcends Tpfidoh, whom the Latins call Nep^ 
tnne^ and a famous woman for fongs call'd 

Here I find lefs light to guide me than iii 
t)ther parts of this hiftory, which I beaf 
themorfc patieritlyi becaufe ttd confidera- 
ble part of the hiftory is obfcur'd by this 
dark paflage^ Neverthelefs , becaufe I be- 
liev'd our author, more than HeJSod and Jf- 
follodorusy Grnk wrltets of thofe timie^i 
who yet agrees that thefe deities belonging 
to the fba are in the fathe iine^ but make 
Tontus the father oif Nereus : I fliall tik^ 
Nereus for the firft of this line, and at leaft 
conjeifture who he is; Wherefdrci finceh(6 
and hi$ race are put to be contemporary td 
Ham and his iiTuej atid we have alfd found 
Shem under the name SydjCy it riemaihs that 
We take Jdphet with his iflbe to bb here 
{Jbihted at, becaufe ther^ was no othbr cbn- 
fiderdble perfons in authority contemporary 
<)f that geneiratidn ftridly but the three brd* 

Befidesi it's certain that our Atithdr tieVer 
Mentions J^i^het and bis LinCj if it b^ Xi^i 

\5 hcrcj 

1 J 8 RiMAftKs OH the Histoilt. 

here; and it would be ftrange if an hifta- 
rian writing of that age wherein mankind 
was repaired, (hould have no occaficHti or ne- 
ceffity to mention him who peopled a third 
part of the world. When the work of an 
hiltorian, which is human affairs, was re- 
duced into fo few hands as thefe three bro* 
ther's families mufl: be at firft, it's hard to 
believe that each of thefe famiUes would not 
in fome degree be engag'd in each others 

Accordingly it falls out here. Tontus 
the fon oiNereus \s engag'd hi a war againft 
^emarooHj and is here reprefented as a 
younger brother to Cronus^ and yet on Ou^ 
r anus's fide igainft him ; and Tyfbon^ whO' 
is here put in Kereus\ line, is in all J^gyp- 
tian antiquity, the enemy and <Jeftroyer of 
Ofiris and Cronus's line. At prefent I only 
fuggeft that in thefe lines of Jsphet and 
Ham^ thefe men and thefe aflions might 
be within the compafs of 300 or 400 years 
after the Flood, which we have beforeprov'd 
to be the time that Ham or Cronui liv*d af- 
ter the Flood : So the funi of my firft rea- 
fon to provfe that this is Japhefs liac, is 

. I. The cdntradiftindion from Ham's line 
(Skepfs line ip its main branches tjeiog gone 

^ ' far 

ilEMARKS OH the HiSTORY. 259 

far eafl:> and unconcern'd in thefe affairs) 
and the confiftency of times do favour, if 
not enforce this conclufion. 

Or thus : Thefe men are contemporary 
with Ham and his ifliie that was while he 
Hv'd, and yet are not by our author own'd 
to be of his line, nor yet were^'they of the 
main line of Shem which went eaftward '% 
therefore they mutt be o{Japhet\ line. Tho* 
oiir author doth no^ tell us that this Nereus 
and his iffue defcended from Ouranus^ or 
Noah^ yet we know By fcripture that they 
muft Gome from him, and there is no other 
line known in which they might come from 
Noahj but Japhet's. Sanchoniatho being a 
Canaanite^ i. e. derived from Ham^ and an 
idolater, hath taken no care to clear other 
pedigrees, but only that of Ham, and that 
of Cain^ in which he affirms his religion to 
have had its rife, audit wasreftor'd by Ham 
after the Flood. 

a. My fecond reafon to prove that thefe 
names intend Japhefs line, fhall be taken 
from the famenefs of their import , witii 
the phrafe whereby the Scripture, our eld eft 
eaftern record, expreffes nations and coun- 
tries peopled by Jafhet: For Nereus^ Ton^- 
tusj and Tofidon or Neptune^ Qstxy body 
owns to relate to the fea, its ifles and fliores. 

U i Typhon 


i6o Remarks on the History. 

Tyfhon alfo is by Tlutarch de IJidcj own'd 
both vulgarly, and among the wifer priefis 
of JEgyptj ^ to import the fea that fwallow- 
eth up their Nile^ and they abhor it and its 
fifiies, and fait, as the foam ofTyphon raging; 
and feamen they will hardly fpeak to, 

The Scripture, Gen. x- $. having nam'd 
Japhet^s line, faith, by thefe were the ijles 
of the Gentiles divided by their lands. And 
the prophecies that relate to the planting of 
chriilianity among y^/A^^'s pofterity expreis 
it in the fame manner- The ijlesjhall wait 
for his Uwj If. xlii. 4. The iJles Jhall wait 
for tne^ If Ix. 9. And the difperfion of the 
Jews zmongjaphefs pofterity is faexprefs'd. 
To Tubals and Javan^ to the ijles afar off 
that have not heard my fame^ If. Ixvi. 19* 
Let thefe fuffice, though many place* might 
be added. So I conceive our aathor 
and his Cabiri fpeak of Japhefs nations^ 
under names that import in general be*- 
J^ond-feamen and foreigners ; eaftern peo- 
ple, both anciently and to this day, being 
very ignorant of the northern and Eurofaan 

3 . Becaufe Jofefhus, in the fifth chapter 
of his firft book, intimates that the land- 
bounds between Japhet and Hamy were the 
great mountains Amanusy Libanus and Tau- 
\ 5 rus^ 

Remarks on the History. %6i 

rM\ fo that Syria on the fouth of thefe 
fnountains was in Ham's pofleflion, befides 
^gypt and Africa ^ and accordingly we 
find his town Byblus not far from hence 
fouthward in Sanchontatbo ; it follows that 
what lay north and weftward from thefe 
mountains belonged to Jafhetj that is, ^11 
the countrey now caird Natoliay or Jlfia 
fhe Lefs, and Europe. 

But by fome paflages appearing in Sancho- 
niatho and the Mgyptian hiftory, I judge 
that the prime families oijaphet and Han^ 
were feared at no great diftance from each 
other, and fometimes had fair correfpon- 
denee, fometimes fell into wars^ Of friend- 
ly comport between them, our author af- 
fords an inftance in his own lo^ViBery^ 
tusy which he tells \}i% Cronus gave to To^ 
fidon^ and the Cabiri. Now though the 
Cabiri were a little branch of Sydyc's or 
Shemh race that liv'd \yith Ham^ or near 
him ; yet this ^ojidon is of the other line 
which we are now handling and aflert to 
bp Japhefs. It feems he thought fit to let 
fome of his breth;'en's families dwell qijiet- 
ly together in Berytusj a town that lay near 
the skirts of his dominions. And we find 
^Ifo th^t at this place the reliques of Tontus^ 
<:onfecrated by thefe inh^abitants of Berytuf^ 

U 3 among 

t6z Remarks' on the History, 

among whom the Cabiri are the moll facred 
tnen^ and likelieft to perform the office of 
this confecration. 

This is the oldeft heathen confecration of 
i^eliques that I meet with in hillory. And a» 
bout this time alfo Tlutarch affures us, that in 
Mgyft the reliques of Ofirts^ and not long af- 
ter the reliques of I/is^ and Horus alfo came 
to be there worfliipped ; their bodies being 
worjhipped here on earthy while their fouls 
' /hone as Jiars in heaven. His words are the 
more remarkable, becaufe he oWns them to 
be the doftrine of their priefts, who delivered 
their whole religion- to them. Ig^«fAeW; 

Thus Mnyptian Religion, like the Romifl) 
Faith, is refolv'd into the prieft's tradition. So 
alfo all the Mgyptian priefts were governed 
^nd taught by one, who in Clemens Alexan- 
^rinus is calFd the Prophpt, which fignifies 
the infpir'd, and fo an infallible man, about 
whofe neck hung 'AajJ^«a, i.e. Truth, as 
I JElian writes. Surely he was the Prototype 
i| of the Pope, whofe name Tapa is known 
to come from Alexandria in Mgypty yet 
there extended to men of a lower ranjkf 
On this fupreme m/£gyftian religion de- 
pended all its lower officers, and confe- 
quently thofe, who before a dead body was 
embalm'd made the prayer for the dead 


Remarks en the History. 26'j 

(imitated alfo by the Romanifts) defiring 
that they might be received to cohabit with 
the eternal deities, which looks fomewhat 
like a canonizing of then;^ for faints. , T^is 
iP^/A)/rv informs us from Ecphantustrzn^ 
dating the prayer into Greek out of the 
^gyfttan language; Whence it appears^ 
that Mgypt was not fo injurious to its peo- 
ple as Ren^e is, which makes her publick 
prayers' in a tongue not publickly under-* 

And xk}^ Mgyftian priefts affirm this not 
only of the fouls of thofe deities, above- 
nam'd, but concerning other Go^s alfo^ oi 
many as wete not unbegotten and uncorrup^ 
tible^ as the fun and moon were. Ta [^ 

rets 4^^%<^^ <^ 'Ov^vS XufiTreiv ct<r^. Then 

he tells us what flars fome of them were re- 
ferred to by confecration. 7/& is the flar 
which the Greeks call the Dog-ftar, but the 
Egyptians Sot his: Horus that which the 
Greeks call Orion, and Typhon is the great 
Bear, Tlut. de I fid. p. 357- . So early did 
the jRgyptians diftinguifli the liars by feve- 
ral names and conftellations. Yea, the Thoe- 
nicians3\£o feem fo early to have dillinguilh'd 
the planets from the fix'd flars ; becaufe 
Sancbomatho aflures us, that Cronus was 

U 4 ' confe- 

1^4 Remarks on the Histort. 

f pnfecrated into that planet that bears his 
pame in Greek^ but \ty ijs is c^'d \>y the 
Zjotin name Saturn. 

Perhaps it may be worth noting here 
(hat I have obfe^-v^dji that Erafiothenes in 
his C^tafterifijis, ca^^.zi. which treat of the 
planets, czWsSatift:^ by no other n^mebut 
^haethpn ; alluding perhaps to his ambition, 
as afpirin^ xo fit ip his father's tlvone. He 
alfo puts Jupiter before him, as if he thought 
Saturn lower, nearer the fun or the earth, 
And he calls Mercwy^ Sttlbon the fparkler, 
and refers him to the; Mgypfian Htrmes.i 
the firft ^iithpr pf 4 icelefti^l fyllem of the 

But my preftnt concern is to note, that 
^ontus furely liy 'd not far from BerytuJi 
when he died, clfe his relique? were .not 
likely tQ be confecr^ted there. The like 
feafon hplds about Tofidon^ if his family's 
l"efidencp had been far from hence, he would 
hardly haye accepted of ^ fliare in the town 

J^erytus^, , 

' Befidej, of wars between thefe families, as 
jiQt ^r diilant, we have an inftance in Toftr 
tu/s war againfl T^emaroon, to whom Ourar 
pus was JQin'd* This Tontus mutt in all 
Jikelyhoo^ be an aflociat^ to Cronus,^ be- 
*aufe he is in war Wnit Ouranus^ gxNoafu 


« » 

Remarks (?» /^^ History. i($f 

when Cronus alfo was in rebellidn againft 
him. Now he could not be an ufefbl afib-* 
ciate to Cronus^ if he were not near him ; 
]ret it muft be aoknowledg^'d the feat of this 
war is not fpecified by our author. How* 
ever, it is worth obferving, thzt this Tontus 
muft aeeds be a faint, deferving to have his 
reliques confecrated by none but vile Hea- 
thens, becaufe the only meritorious thing 
We have recorded of him, isafuccefsfol re^ 
beUion againfl his anceflor, the pious NoaA. 

In paffing I cannot but take notice of our 
author's report concerning ^emarooHy that 
being put to flight, he made a facrifice for 
his dcape. This is the only religious a6l 
that he has let us know of, done by a man 
on Ouranus's or Nvab's fide ; and I doubt 
not but he thought tp expofe him to fcora 
at once for his flight, and his facrifice for 
his efcape thereby. Yet becaufe the man 
is here reprefented as a fon of Ouranus^ con- 
(juer'd in attempting to defend his pious fa- 
ther : I believe he facrific*d to the true God, 
and do think fit to mark this with honour, 
as the oldeft facrifice to hini that I have 
ifound mentioned in any heathen author. 

I will add alfo concerning 2)^«r^r^^»'s fon, 
^he oidi TbmHician Melcartusy ox Hercules^ 
that his ancient temple at Gadira^ or Qades^ 


i66 J Fj-EMA-RitS »;« "/i&tf History. 

bad thus much ef the trae patriarchal reli- 
gion that was before the law in it, continue 
cd even to the times <^ Sil^m I talicus znd 
Th'thftr4t^'i diat there were no image; 
therein. . . : 

• w 

Sed nuUa (ffigies^ Jimulacr^e mtm Deth 
rum, Silius, lib. iii. 


( • ■ ■ 

See Bochart. Qanam. p. 677. who unfaap{Hly 

calls this way of. their worflrip mtri Judai* 
turn. If be had uod^rftood that Hercules 
Whtenkiusws&Xong before, the JtftMt^ hx, 
9od had cbnftder'd thatin thofe days the 
truly pious r patriarchs jis^d.uo images for 
^worfhip,: he would fredy have g^veh the 
jiiore honourable title of Patriarcbil tofucfa 
jjeligion, rather than Judaical. 
•; But to return to this obfcure line where- 
io Tontus^n^ whofe vidory , diverted vSt 
me fa\^:Typbon join'd with him» as at leafl: 
of the famegeneration, if not his btother>. 
.This man being by this hiftory (expounded 
f& I offer) y4»/'M*s:fonjmijft. needs not <j«Iy 
Jxe contempof^^ry with ^««'s children, aj 
he is here affirm'd 1 bit. in all iil^elybood 
,mtift be the m?m whom the ^gypians fo 
^abhor as tfeie flwirtherei: Qi.OJkis,.OT Mip- 
Taints . ' n • 


Rema-rics^ on iht Historyv z^'^ 

, In the fablf in Tlut/inbj ^Ty^hen k jce-, 
prefented as b^fri/s brother, in thisbiftpry: 
a!s his.coufm german. The reconciliation 
is that brother's children in the eaftern an4 
larger fenfc of the word are called brethrei^ j 
He might come out oijafhefs. comrtrejj 
on the north hdit oi jimanus into JE^yfJt^ 
to ' correfpond with his kinfman their go- 
verning, either by fliipping over the^fca^ 
which the Mgyftians call Tyfhm^ qr hy 
land through Thcenicmj with Cronus'^ leave. 
Torpf^yrjf tQWs us in Eufei^. lib. iii.. <•. i?^ 
that the Mgyftians reprefent him by a^ 
Hipfofotamus^ or River- horfe. Hence; I 
ji^pafe it is that Manet ho faith, Men^s^ i.45» 
Mtz^raimj was kill'd by an Hipfopotanmt. 
This gives us concurrent teftimony from 
Mgyftmn hiflory, that his time is well plac'd 
by Sanchaniatho. 

The like confirmation we have from the 
Greek hiftories, that the time of ^ojidon or 
f^eftune is well confillent with Sanchonia^ 
tho\ genealogy here, making him the grand- 
child x>f Is(ereus or Japhet; and it proves 
alfo that then ^ofidon of this line had come 
fo far weftward as Attka is from Amanus. 
They own that Tofidon had feiz'd on Attica 
by a ftroke of his trident before Athena 
came thither (which we have before fliew*d 


1^8 Remarks on the History. 

was in Cronus's life time :) I need not re- 
peat the argument, becaufe in Afollodorus^ 
lib. it. V find that from Oceanus^ whofenam^ 
relates to the fea, as all Sanchoniathoh names 
in this line do, is deriv'd Inachusj and in 
his line the eldeft ^ela/gus is placed very near 
the beginning. 

I may crave liberty to fuggeft, that I judge 
the tlkt^Telafgus (for that name is con- 
fdfs'd to be given to divers men in feveral 
generations after the time now handled) de? 
notes a man of this Japhefs line in the eld- 
eft times. For I think the name to be de- 
duced from Telagus the Sea, to which aU 
thefe men's names plac'd in Sanchoniatho re- 
late : And the letter / which is inferted in- 
to it, I take to be epenthetical, which is no 
more than they prefume, who derive it 
from Teleg of ShemWwit \ only I think J^^- 
fhet\\\nt fitter to be look'd for, and found 
in Europe^ and th6 ifles adjacent to it, in 
which all the ancients place thefe Telafgi^ 
as in all Greece j from the moft northern to 
the moft fouthern parts of it ; and in Italy 
alfo, as Tliny affirms, who places them' in 
Hetruriaj or Tyrrhenian lib.iii. c.f. and af- 
firms they firft brought letters into Latium^ 
lib. vii. c. $6. and that they were in Italy 
before thp hydian colony under Tyrrhenus 

' ' came 

K£M>U(.Ks on the History, i^o 

caine thither, and eicpeird them, lib. iU. c. f. 
And yet I have ihcw'd in my following re- 
view^ that the Lydian colony was but four 
generations after the time of Menes. 

. But becaufe our author doth not mentioa 
thefe Telafgij I will not here digrefs lon^ 
to inveftigate their antiquities, only note 
that the ^elafgi are the founders of learn- 
ing in Italjfy particularly in Tufimiy\ zvA 
that Herodotus deduces the Greek Thalh^ 
fbariay and the names of their Gods fronji 
thefe Telajgij in his Euterfey affirming 
them to come out of Samothrace. After- 
wards in his Tolymnia he affirms alfo, tha( 
the old inhabitants oiTehfonneJin^ before 
the coming either dil^anaus^ or of Ion the 
fon of Xuthusj were c^'&jEgialean ^elafgi^ 
which confirms the antiquity of the JEgia^ 
lean Kingdom, that's now queifibn'd and 
rejefted by fome; and the names fo join'd 
feem to intimate, that thefe Mgiakan Ter^ 
lafgi were feafaring men fettled on the 

The beginning aifo of the kingdom of the 
Sicyonians in Telofonnefus under Mgialeus^ 
who I fuppofe W4S ofjafhefs line, becaufe 
his name relates to the fea-ihores, falls with- 
in Cronus\ time. See Armagh's Ann^lsi AM. 
191s. I am iaduc'd to believe thi^s jEgia-^ 




1170 Remarks on the HfsTQRf. 

« ■ 

kus to belong to this line, principally be^ 
iraufe Cajior in the firft book (AEuJhk. chro- 
ftiele in Greeks intimates him to be thefori 
ofToJidonj according to the Mythic Greek 
liiftory, which is the beft they have of thefe 
indent times, and carrieth fome agreement 
with Sanchoniatho's genealogy, under the 
pames of their falfe Gods. Apollodm'm 
teakes him the grandchild oiOpeanuSy zsA 
the fon of Inachus ; thefe cannot be recoil 
^rd, except we make Inachus to be the 
<fame with ^ojldon^ and Octanus the fame 
with Tonius in Sanchoniathd's line, and thefc 
they win agree all to make jEzialeus oS this 
'family, 'by which the ifles of the Gentiles 
were divided, which is Mofes\ defcrip(iofi 
oijaj^efs line. But the be^nning of his 
Teign, which is the beginning of the Sicyo* 
i!r/4P» kingdom and Mra^ is fix'd by Caftor^ 
whom our Armagh hath foUow'd to the 
75^ year gS Nahor^ which the Mofukal^t- 
trounts determine to the year of the world 
above written. 

' To prevent miftake, it mufl be noted that 
*the Inachus here mentioned as the fame 
with Tofidon^ and father of -^^E^M/f^/, iJa- 
bout xyo years before thiH Inachus who was 
•founder of the kingdom of Argos. And to 
me it's no wonder that this namej or rather 
' ' ^ title, 

Remarks <>» /^ HiSTdRY. .271 


title, ftould be given to feverai men, be- 
caufe I believe its derived Irom the eaftcm 
word pjy, and fignifies Terquatusy a mail 
that wore a chain of filver or gold as a badge 
of honour. The Anakims in ^hmnicin long 
after were caird fo on the fame account. : 

There is another Synchronifm. which \ 
have obferv'd in Tliny, lib. vii. c. ^$. wherfe 
he delivers the opinion of Anclides^ or as 
it's other wife read -^»f/r//Wi?x, concerning: 
the inventioh of letters, in Mgypo in- 
"ven^ quendam nomine Menona if annh 
ante ^horoneum antiquijjimuin Qracia ri- 
gem^ idque monument is apfrohare conainr. 
^ That in -^gypt one -M'w found them oirt 
^ If years brfore Thoroneus the ddeft k,ing 
*^ of Greecey and he endeavours to provfe 
^^ it by monuments. 

Sir John Mar/ham hath well obferv'd that 
this Meno^ who in AEgyp is faid tp be this 
inventor, is the tnan whom others call Me^ 
nesy whom we have be;fote ihew'd to hb 
Mi^raimy and whom our Sanchoniatho owns 
to be an inventor of three letters, calling 
\\\m'Ifris. This man, Antic Udes in TUny 
laffirms to have attained this invention i f 
years before Thoroneus. Hereupon I com- 
f)ar'd Mizraim's time with the beginning of 
the J/Q'i?^!/^^ kingdom, the eldeft particular- 


i^i Remarks at the HistokT. 

ly mention'd amongft the Greeh, and fail 
they come within a fevir years of each otlier; 
And this muft needs be fo, becauTe Tboro- 
neuf was, ^ ApoUodorus affirms, the \KQh 
therof ^dxtuMgUkus whom we obferv'd juft 
liow to be the founder of the Sicyon'm 
kingdom, about 15*9 years after the Floods 
91 years before the death of Noah. Whence 
we mu(i conclude that he Uv'd near the 
time oiMenesi, or Mizraim^ Noah's grand- 
child) who might well ihe^ the ufe of let- 
ters in Mgyp 15 years before him, t&Ah' 
ticiides affirmed. 

This agreement oiAntlclides with the times 
fiated, partly ih the Mo fate al chronolpgfy 
partly in Cajior^who is one of the eideft chro- 
fiologers us'd h^EuJebius^ makes me believe 
ther^ was good ground for his judgmenty 
that the time of Thorcneus was fo n€ar Afe- 
nes in thofe old monuments by which be 
prov'd it, which alas are how loll with his 
books, and the time wherein he liy'd ; only 
we know concerning,hini,' that he liv*d be- 
fore Athen^us^ Tlutarcb and ^lif^j whtiil 
buote him as a credible hiilorian. His tefti- 
mony therefore is confiderable to my prci* 
fent purpofe, which is, to prove that Greed 
was peopled in fome degree within lefs than 
300 years af^er the Floods and that by thel 




Remarks on the History. Z73 

line of JafbfU which I judge was exprefs'd 
by the Ci^/ri'under the names of Kerens^ 
Tontusj Tofidon^ tSc. names relating to the 
fea, its fhoreS) and the iiles of the Gentiles. 

Nor am I femov'd from this judgment by 
the genealogy delivered by Afollodorus^ who 
makes our Thoroneus the fon of Inachus^ 
the fon of Ocestnusy whom he puts to be a 
brother of J ap^tus^ and fo makes them two 
diffinft fons of Cielusj or Noah. For it's 
plain there is much of fable mingled with 
his ilorie$9 but flill even he owns a Synchro^ 
nifm between Oceanus and Jafhety whence 
it foliow^s that Oceanus and his line might 
well join with J apbet and his line (if I fliould 
grant them diltinft, they might be uiiited> 
and the times of their great grand^children 
muil be the fame ; ^nd within the^time of 
Noah's lif^ they might fet up government in 
Greec^e under Thoroneus and his brother JEL* 
gialeusj not long after the time of Mizraimy 
Noah's grandchild, which is the only Sy nr 
chronifm, or approach to Synchronifm,which 
I am endeavouring here to clear. 

Only it muft be noted, as I before obferv'd 
of Inachusy that this Thoroneus mull not be 
the fame with the founder of the Argive 
kingdom, but much elder than that is ufu<* 
ally accounted ; So that either ^t Argosy or 

X fomewhere 

274 * Remarks m the History. 

fomewh^rte dfe ki (Ateic^y a kihgdoitt ^as 
fettleai Which #fes attef Partis cifl'd the Jr- 
tyoniak gdVernmeiit.' 

Viinfs words calling this PA^n^wi", -/f*- 
ttquiffimus Gracfut Rexi, cann6t bear to be 
depreft'd to the ufual Ar give Mr a oFzS^B ifi 
in the Julian period, fince there is fo niuch 
Evidence -that there were in GH^e elder 
kingdoms than that at Argos ; plafrticirlariy 
that given by Crbnusio his dauj^hter, beat'- 
ing hfer fefeme Athena: And this AEgiaka^^ 
in whi(Jh T^horcneus his brother fticceeded 
Inaahus dyttig without ifliie, as Aptdhdprus 
witheHeth. He^ probably while htkchus liv'd, 
governed fottitt paVt of ^V/^/^w^^j^j", fo called 
afterwards, but th^^hole Ttninfula wife un- 
der his^wet after Ills brother's death. Sbme 
pkc e of abode certainly he had , but I dare not 
fix a place, beclaufe I know that government 
is elder than cities, building of towns, and 
|5alaces royal-came inta ufe in Greece) \ be^ 
lieve much after the times we now fpeak 
of, which were before the death of Noah. 

Even in the Skyonmn kingdom it's ac- 
knowledged that the place whence the king- 
dom is now called, was not known by the 
name of Sicym till the reign of its 19^** kinj 
Sicyon. And that there was a towh'^caUV 
by the name ofMgialetis^ the firft founder, 
• • ^^' — is 


tions.'* rihow alfp that the '^enmju/a, now 
mofi 'ftflM)^ j by theuoame of 'Fehfnnefks 
in the (?#<;?M wtitewy 'wis -more "iticicsitfly 
called Mgtalea, as Eufebius and Nierame 
ackndWle«gei aiad iifa/igfar hath pfdv'd it' 
out ^f-Th^vifitus. V ^ / • r :; .: 

For^ftfeft: and other itealbns I will hof^re* 
jeft th^eTt^^-^ff* antiquitifeSf whiehdrddder 
than the j^w«' €rf" -^fljp oh Athens-^ as^Ii:fee 
a very'kanifed maa hath Ilatdydcat^y, but 
will i^oelve them, as agreeing wtth>'!3nj(ig^\^> 
ing confirmatioh to. my author v^ndra^^'®' 
ihg alfo owo^'d; by JSiTiariwuthe moft katned 
i?iM«<«« antiqustry^ as^he-is qubted t>y;$|.^4t 

aot n^il]e>:ipoi{eiover £^j^ib«x zadrUier^v&i 
who (b ilate the times of t)ai>^ky&m4»Mi»& 
in cb<ir oaiidP' - -^'^ > -jr"; • , i «, | 

Only I will rematk that 9nr Arfm^k:h%lh 
rii^tly 'plac'd ^^/^Awjy ^tM. iv^s- that 
being the 75^ yeabof JVa^'s age a«?(6M?4^ 
ing to theift'^wcc Bible ;.a(nd the Gr^pk^uff-* 
hmi ^. 19. expreffly affirim,that thei|-the Si-^ 
r;^»iM« j^iagdom began under JS^i4A!«J-N9W: 
his time bein^ fix'd, iifs certain that tbe^tioi^ 
<rf his brother the elder ^?^<?»ww fPhraueifi 
isnear determinM} ^d fo i$aJfo. theif fan 
ther*8 time, who was the tflder li$^chvs^ l^r 

i7<^ RemarkSs iz» tl}e HisTo^. 

ven Jdngs reigns btfote the ;/t^give If^cBush 
time, and contemporary with thi( Menes^ 
whom jiHticlides mikes 15- years before that 
cldeft ThoroHius to have invented letters in 

« The mother of this t\die^Th(froH€Us is 
«< affirmed to be Niobe in Scaliger^s Greek 
*« Eufebiusj p. a4. I 5'x. Where al6> G«^ 
f« md Beiusy the founders of the Ajfyrtan 
^ city, afterwards call'd Antioch^ are faid 
<< to* be born of the fame father InacbMj 
^* and that the fame mother Niobe bore A* 
^^ fts to Jupiter y .which y^/xwas caird al- 
« fo Serapis. Now this plainly relating to 
the firll founder of the AEgyptian monar- 
chy, fnuft needs import this T^h^oneus to 
be his contemporary, and confequently long 
before the Argive Thoroneus. 

In Caftor in the Greek Eufibius^ p. 19. 
the Sicyonian AEgialeus is expreflly fet at the 
diftknce of feven kings reigiis before th6 
reign of the Argive Inacbusi which is time 
fufficient to place him and his brother Thth^ 
roneus ^hoMt the time oiMenes. And Eujebius, 
in the fame, /. 24. /. ult. iipplies 4:he place ift 
VlattfsTimaus^ Which mentions ^^ri^«^w# 
Niobe and the Ogygian Flood as thq eld- 
eft things in Greece; to this Thoroneus the 
fon of Niobe. And it's certain that V0^rff% 


Remarks m th Hjstory; 277 


accoucits place the Oiygian ¥\o6A m'this 
JEgialeuis time, thoupi ifome bthtts place 
k 3obyedrs later. '*' ^' ; •' 'j\\ v. , 

H6 that ihall confider lupchus ^and JPif^^ 
roneusttte originally eaftern words, lignify^ 
ing titles of honour and government^ of the 
fame roots^ with Af^ak ind ?^i&ir^,'jwill 
not i^^orider that the' firlt planters ;c6ming 
from the eaft ihould brinfg thefc names with 
them into Creece ; nor will he think it ilrange 
that other men, the ^r^/i;^ kings 
afterwards , fliould haye the honourable 
names of the firft planters beftow'd upon 
them ; fince they only imported men wear- 
ing chains of gold,' and free princes, which 
are titles of honour afFeded in all ages. 
I am fenfible that a farther profecution of 
this argument would lead me into thecbn- 
fideration of all the utmoft antiquities of 
Greece^ which are a very large, but alfo a 
very difficult fubjeft. Wherefore I have 
refolv'd to confine my felf'to thefe Thmni^ 
cian and Egyptian affairs , which my au- 
thors hav^ limited themfelves unto, left I 
Ihould darken them, by mingliog with their 
hiftorical narratives; |the'il/)'/A/r ftories of 
the Greeks^ from which 'tis hard to feparate 
the truth that's difguis'd by their fables. I 
..wjyU[,.be content to have given my reader a 
-'-"-''•*■ ; X 3 fmall 


17* RemarkJ mjke Histort. 
limll trMiif myi^^in that nutter, by t 
fewr paflages vhicfa lli«v£:alreftdf written in 
this treatife relating to Mgyft. But as for 
'ia&C'rtek antiquities, ilnd other Fiirts of hi- 
ftory, wherein tliefe authors give no infor- 
niation ; both 1 a^ my reader may juiUy 
liope for bither Kgbt than yet tlie world 
faatbifeeB, fron) the learned kbours of the 
tight reverend the L;oridBifl»5p oiSf..'Afiifb, 
{\rhi<±h are partly printed, partly preparing 
for the prefs) olien' they come forth. In 
the mean time lapplyl lAy felf to th^. fecond 
part of '^his work, which contains^ review 
6f what's writtm in this ; «nd a continuar 
tion theteof by EtifitthfifiiCyrtiia»s^ an{I 
lotherlwalben writers; •» , ' 

* D/. Poyd, tatt si^tf ,/Worcefter. 


BOOK n. 

I fiiid it necejfary to add U the prece- 
dent difcourfe a hook of review and 
contmuatton of Sianchoniatho .^y 
Eraftothenes. And\ this fecQud book 
may c&mjeniently hi ' divide^ into fix 
SeBionSy wheteof ih^two prp contain 
a review, i. Of the Cofmogpny, 
2. Of theHiftor<^. . The four l^ ^re 
fitted to prepare for , explain and 
■ confirm the continuation. 


Sect. I. Of the Cosmogony. 

H E only occafioti of adding 
fomethifig on this headt was 
given me by a manufcript frag** 
ment oi^amafcius ^ 'A^x^^j 
which jpy li^arned friend Dr. Gale commu- 
oicated to me after I had finiih'd niy re- 

X 4 marks 


2 8 o A Review of the Cosmogony. 

marks on Sanchoniatho^ and acquainted him 
with my defign of publifliing fome obferva* 
tioiis which I was making on the reft of his 
iiiltory which is prcferv'd in Eufeblus. 

Wherefore, after my obligations to my 
friend for theufe^of his manufcriptj will on- 
ly briefly remark two things out of it, left I 
might feem to negleft the fuggeftions there- 
in made. * 

I. I obferve that Damafcius hath faid 
fome things that plainly concur with the re- . 
mark that I have made upon the Cojmogony 
of Thoth^ and other heathens writing after 
bis copy. For he acknowledges that the 
Balylonian theology did pW r o aa;k 0^ 
xluj Qtyfi 'srpL^mcu^ fafs over in. filence the 
one principle of the univerje. And he owns 
that the peripatetic theology derived in Eu^ 
demius the peripatetick from Orfheus^ did, 

Tloiv TO voYiTdy QicoTrm c^ etpp^la^ . Kj iyva^of^ Say 

nothing of all that's tntelleBual as unfpeak- 
ahle^ aM unknown ; but he never mentions 
* therein either Thoth or Sanchoniatho, Per- 
haps when he wrote that piege he had not 
read him, (yet I have reafon to believe that 
4)6 did. read him fome time) or he ibrgot 
him^ or elfe he faw that this Cofinogony af 
Thoth could not be driwn to ; allesory, 
and a trinity of principles^ as he hath done 



^ Review of the Cosmogony. 281 

feme others. The eldeft author he names 
hMdcbus the Thohiician Mythologer, as he 
calls him, though others own him under a^ 
better charafter, of both a philofopher and 
an hiftorian ; and the JEgyptianSy Afikfia^ 
des and HenufcuSj and fome other later 
writers, whom he only fpeaks of in general 
terms> not naniing them, but faying they 
had their doftrine from the ancients. I 
make my 

11. Note, viz. That'thoiigh thjey did fay, 
as he affirms, that there was fiU r cAav d^xn 
Qkot®^ uyva^ovy Onefrincifle of the univerfi^ 
viz^ unknown darknefs^ yet they do not 
con tradidt what I have affirmed, viz. that 
ihe Hermetic dio&xixit of the world's origi- 
nal tended to atheifm. 

For, I. We have no proof that their do- 
ctrine was the feme with that of Thothj or 

7. i Even their unknown darknefs may be 
underftood of a there material Chaos void of 
light, and then it's plainly atheiftical; of 
elfe it may imply that they only acknow- 
ledge one general caufe, but profefs they 
know not what it is, and would difcourage 
all other men from ieeking to know him. 

Moreoyer, he copfelFes that Ajclej^iades 
makes his Egyptian Qmej^hts (which i§ an 



±Sz A Review of the Cosj^ogony. 

Mi^^tian ^xmt of the firiSb cayfe,. perhaps 
the fame ^m^Ctufh) to be begotten .^ouit 
df (and ah4 water, ahd^cpniiM^ be 

io* jpiritusd principle; and m mm Her ^t feu f 
6\il/ii$ t;ne fun to be w« vonjif'the higbeft minda 
which is certamly to fall Ihbrt of the know- 
ledgie of the truie God : So that both thefe 
«fe fo fkr.frbm denymg what I affirmM. 
chit they confirm it, when frcMn a ^neral 
itotibn thi^y defcend to a more par.ticular. 

^h^efore I am fatisfy'd by this manu- 
I^pt,tM thefe, zvi^MiMochusaaifbif. 
nittmi > befides pjariy of tte eldefl Qreett 
^nd B^f^kmaks^ist. faidfo much fcQnfent^- 
lieous to t^i^Trimegifiic Cdjino^ny^t that they 
tannot , without 'riianifeftly viole^t^ sdl^gori- 
liA interpretations, be free4,, ifrOpi^.,:ftrQOjg 
liQdure of Us Atheifm^ /or ,1b h^ niylUcally 
ihtcijifbts ^Q^^aos delivered by HeJfod^viA. 

\AcitJitdUi to be axaJet^tiTrf^ ^uVjf J" vofirS, 

tt^e unintelligible nature of an intelle^ual 
agent. *Th6)Ci h6 msikesHeffd*^ JBrfbm 9$ 
Attile, and Nu|: or. Nigbt as a female,, to 
b^get J£tb^j Cupid and Merls,'' kHreG in- 
t6lleftual hyppftifel So when he had report- 
fed Epifnen/dts to' make ^ir und Ni^bt the 
hto p^ncipleis of things, he faith, ifsmam- 
f^hefilentt^ hdHiur'd one principle bgfore 

Wife tm 1 coiifefs thlsis pot maiiifett td 

y^^YifW of t^eCosuoGom. 28 J 

\ stay i^iderfbuiding ^ t^ I think fuel) fiknce 

! conceVning the iitJI^i and trUlf ifttdleftuil 

I caulfi of the woricj: (^en tl^ jbtfers, oiii^ 

0{ wjiich is fluid, matter, arid 'the bth^f a 

m^r^ privation or aofence ofJ[ight,are n^tn'^ 

\ ^ is 'lijfcelier to banilh the Knowledge olP'tfeft 

jtrjie God out of" the world^ than i:o jproniot^ 

j the iincere worihip of him in retirement 

i. I cannot be fo partially affe^ied to tfiefe 
[ heathens as I knowlD^/^^^j^i^was, when he 
S here will needs naake ^em mean fo much be t* 
Wr than thf y fpeak ; and will by the fehfelefs 
inaterial Chaps, in. Ipight of all reafon, uft^- 
iderft^danimmaterial wife and good fpirit^; 
yea, will conceive' that muddy matter to 
ferment it fejif into a germination that bratr- 
phes it felf iJBto an inteile^iiai trinity i Ne- 
verthelefs> I mn w^U enough pleased to fee 
this heatl^en fo far comply w;ith j^at myfte- 
rious doftrine oFChriftianityi^'which prevail'd 
very much in the, :/?^/v^ii Empire in the hxth 
<:entury after 0>^i/? wherein he liv'd) as to 
ik^in to find fomething like it in the hea- 
fhen philofophers. ' [ 1 

I am wilUng they Ibould mend, and come 
pear |;ruth» yea t<) the fuU owning of it when 
they will ; but what is crooked and pall 
^i|^ot be made tq be qthetwife at the fame 


184 ^Review ^/^^^CpsMOGONY. 

time, than it was. My philofophyreqbjfes 
ihff to obterve thingj diligently, and tate 
*efn juft as' tWy are, both in the woi;ks of 
inature ^nd of men. I muft not rtiake new 
j^ppearances in books any more than in fia- 
ture,byhelpofan allegorizing imaginatijon ; 
.which may make one think that oil may lie 
difliird out of a pumice ftone, f ho* it have 
no fuch thing in it, unlefs you think fit/tft 
hf at it firfl, and then foak it in oil 6f ybur 
own providing : Then indeed you may diftij 
fome of your own oil out of it, but its//- 
ces will be left in the ffone." The true ef- 
fpft of fuch forced interpretations, is only to 
'befmear authors with the ^regs of our ima- 
ginations, which is a fault that honeft 'mind- 
ed readers muft carefully avoid : Fof it Will, 
ever be a good rule in interpreting ill au- 
thors, that their fenfe is not .td be brought 
to 'em, but to be t^ken from their own 

' I will conclude this difcourfe on the Cof 
mogony of Thothy with this reflexion flpon 
it: That although-he thought fit tp;iiiala 
bis way to the eftablifliment of the worihip 
' of creatures, by attempting to fliew that the 
world was made without the influence'ofia 
God, knowing indeed that this was the 
.mofl effeiJlual w^ay tp do it," by ehdeavbur- 


AKBviEyr^f the C9SiMp^NY. zZ $ 

i ^i g-to anticipate, all knowledge of a Godby 
Ijjchcreatipn'; yet awn's. natural reafoq w^? 
lijpjc bereby exlliniguifli'd»biit ,thou^tfuI mi^ 
ij|j^9*. {educated under pub^ick ejftablii^inen|;p 
p£. idolatry or religious worihip iJerform'd Jjp 
i^rior beings, ftill did arrive at th? knowr 
^^ge of one.fiipreme mind»/j3ie. firft cauf^ 
Oif all other beings» and gtve^pnie,, at kaji 
fecret, . fervice M^o biin;..yet.|lill conciniir 
ing their pubUc^, idolatry, .^as^ouriea^nipij 
m«n have, well, proy'd, from whom I diflent 
^ot in this dVcourfp. . .,.. ; ,,^ •; ./ ^ .. ^',; 
;^ut on the .contrary JJiilly^gree. wkjh 
'enj, that men nwy» and Iwye bfccn idolafers, 
-both before 7)&fl^i»'s time, and fince, riot with*- 
ftanding their knowledge and belief of the 
being of thetrueGod ; and tho'. they thoiigltt^ 
and aftirm'd alfo that the puhlick wprflup 
of creature^ was a lower fort of religion? 
worfliip than the private, fil6nt^ and meiatal 
adoration -wljich they might give either, to. 
God, or tq the •celeftiaj, bodies, oi to Dae? 
mons,: For 'tis evident that this diftiu^pa 
«an never. t;ak(e^ away the guilt..whic^ muft 
be giving to tKe creatjir^ 
that which is due only to Vhe Creator, or^ 
only tpthat one Mediator, who is God def- 
ied for ever. -\. 

« .• ■» .' 


" • IHs pWfi, tfiat prayer ddcteaturcs impdifts 
Ihit thHr w'(3?^t>6r^jbelJc^e'*(eift to knidi^ 
Thefir Wv^'/'iwKchijdSfliij'bnly to «i4 
^^^rt-fear(A%(«nriiicicJtre^^dr<^^^ Itfte^ 
Jibks^alfo tlibi''they ;t)ell«yc ■ that they ate 
'\bfer to fogply^^freir ' wants 'i6l^numberteft 
things, t6rtiippf af^ kiid fpiritnal^' ■ thotighr' . Hie 
petitioners cfyelff in 'couiif iics far reimote 
from each other; *ii^ch^Hi^e is no reaftm 
to Kliieve that thd finite power 6f a deceas*4 
man's or woman's foul can: exteind to ; biit 
it's certain it b^opgs to<3tS9'^ ohmipotenfee, 
Whrffe pSrfeflion; as wiiPas^'brnnifcience^ 
itV blali)hienT^ to afttibe to thfe fereature: It 
imports •me4iators of intercdfioh in the hea- 
ven^ tfie fiplypffeoli?s, where God ofilf 
allows the great' High Pffeft of our profef- 
fit)ntQCome,ancr to liake interceffion ; and 
Jiath given nb ppwer to men to appoint for 
themfelves other mediators. 

It implies great prefumption againu the 
majefty of God, for men thus to intrude in- 
to things which they underfiand noti either 
by anV clear teafon or revelation, and it*$ 
ah affront to God for men thus tp be vainkf 
puffed up in their flejhiy minds., as the Abo- 
flle in this cafe intimates. Col. ii. i8. cpn- 
demning this recourfe to the mediation even 


A Rev iiw\df /^e* Cosmogony. 2 S/ 

of Angels, as ifratip^auy preiump^uous^ and 
therefore a fin agalnjft nafur aj light 

figtiation' of 'only tii^ ktter ibrtto cre4tuces, 
was not fotindi oiotigK to. beat tjie WqigHt 
^bf the pra^^e of /worftiipping theni ; . and 
"therefore he: \;^h6!i^!^vaves it,^ a^dchofe i-a- 
%r to ^nditHipoTri aboid^rjiire'rtiontH^ 
ttiijr' worl(f tpai^e icfelf, tmd tptlfetjuentjy 
■itaj)p6tts it- fe\f, ' He "knew thit If thiffwerfe 
.^ov*d,' Hfhich 5ie ^ttd^avklfd t'6 do, xhp^ 
^^rfftf bb fnffiefeiitjreafon to jaffifythe-wiSr- 
ihlp bf the^ amverfe, br aiiy of its nobler 
parts, ssthe ilars and heroes,. which. w&s the 
o(d^^jF/?/«» f^igion. ;■ '" ']^' . 
: This w^ Of Th<fth% aiid'ihe bjthef tjiat 
wbrfcips crtatures as ihediatot? to the; fo- 
vqe^jgn God, ;^ee'iti injuring God, by 
giving his pebufiiTrM^t t6 beings below 
tim. Tjhe difteWntfe is, that the former 
takes- nt) tioticebif^^od, and his jufl: daim, 
"to all men's \^^ip,"which th4y give to o- 
ther beings; thfe 'qdwr takes notice of the 
true God ani hi$ daitn , but yet will jn 
fpight of right^ rt^ail^;' and^ tifie j^raftice of 


i8 8 A Review of the CosMdGpNY. 

the Church Patriarchal, Mofaical, and pri- 
mitively Chriitian, which are the rule and 
meafures of duty in the caf^, divide his 
worlbip between God and his creatures; 
like the whore who before Solomon would 
have the child divided, though thereby de- 
llroy'ii ; when the true mother was for pre- 
ferving it alive by being undivided , and 
.wholly beftow'd according to right. 

This obfervation of the di^rent ways of 
idolaters, makes it evident that we (Cannot 
conclude that a worihip is not idolatrous, 
becaufe it differs from one or more waj^ 
that are acknowledged to be fuch ; for the 
(hapes into which idolatry turns it felf, are 
infinitely various in all the different ages of 
the world, and all the feveral places of the 

Lucian in his book de 7)e4 Syridt fhews 
the methods of heathen fervice in the feve- 
ral temples of that countrey to be very dif- 
ferent. Tltttarch and Taufanias ^ew the 
fame in different parts of Greece ; and Ma» 
netbo fhews , that not long after Tbotbh 
time, the Mgypian way of worfhip which 
he fettled, was much.alter'd by the introdu- 
cing of the living images whereby they worr 
ihipped their Gods ; viz. the Bull ^/^ and 
MneviSf or tzikct Menis, as Mlian writes. 
. It, 

-^ Review ^/^e^ Cosmogony. 289 

ir, and the Goat at Mendesj and the Cat at 
Bubajtusj ^c. which were violently opposed 
by the Thdenician T^ftors in Mgypt^ who 
yet were idolaters as well as the Mgyftians^ 
The rule and ftrait line drawn thereby is 
one, but enormity or departure from it, may 
be committed a thoufand different ways. 

Therefore idolatry is to be try'd and 
convided only by comparing it with th« 
rule which was ftated before, or in our Sa- 
vioijr's words, Thou Jhalt worjhip the Lord 
thy God, and him only Jhalt -thou ferve. If 
worfliip depart from this, it's ftrange wor- 
fliip, as the Jews call idolatry, although it's 
very unlike another fort of ftrange wor- ' 

Let this fuffice for the firft feftion of 
our review, for I do not think it convenient 
in this work to add a philofophical refuta- 
tion o^Hermes's Cojmogonyy which is fo lame* 
ly performed, that tho' in the ignorant age 
ih which he liv'd it might pafs, being aflift* 
td by his reputation and authority as a 
prince ; yet now 'twill perfuade no body to 
be bf his mind, and therefore I think I may 
follow Eufebius\ example, who only point- 
ed at the folly and atbeifm that was in it, 
and fo let it go abroad to ihame it feif 



Sect. II. 

^Review of the History oj 


IN the foregoing remarks on this hiftory, 
which our author hath given us from 
the Cabiri's records written at ThotB^ 
command, my only care was to obferve 
fuch things, as being compared with the 
Mofaical^ and dther hiftories relating to the 
ancienteft times, might lead to the know- 
ledge of men , and to the things thereby 
dcfcribed. Now thefe things being ibund, 
and dated as well as I can, it will be feafona- 
ble to add fome obfervations which our au- 
thor hath no where fuggefted, and feveral 
chronological helps which he was not ac* 
quainted with, that may yet be ufeful to 
clear his hiftory. 

And this I do in imitation of our late 
learned Chronologers, who by the help of 
that art have given life, order, light and 
beauty to many old hiftorians, whofe dili- 
gence, although commendable, yet without 


y _V . ' . - f T.i^'f<'^*!i^^ 

A Review 6f the History. 2 p i 

this improvement would have been much 
lefs ufeftil, and more exposed to contempt. 

I will begin with two general confidera- 
tions relating to all the perfons concern'd 
in this hillory : The firft of which relates 
to their names ; the fecond to their ages or 
years of their lives, both of 'em unufual in 
o^her hiftories, and therefore the more ne- 
ceflary to be prov'd and clear'd in this. 

I. I have* before prov'd, and here I far- 
ther contend for, a variety of napies belong- 
ing to the fame perfon: And this not only 
in different languages, which I have evinc'd 
already, but in the fame tongue ; divers 
names were anciently given to the fatae man 
as titles of honour, efpecially after confe- 
dration into the number of Gods, or per- 
fons to whom religious worftiip was to be 


A,nd thefe new names their priefts or fa- 
Cred writers (and fuch were the Cablr't here 
tranfcrib'd) were oblig'd generally to ufe as 
moft honourable to their deities ; that the 
names which they bore while they were a- 
live, and mortals here on earth, might be 
forgotten, as too low for tbofe that were 
now advanc'd into the ftate of immortality 

and glory. 

Y i Ot 



2p-2 ^Review of the History. 

Of this my firft proof ihall be from Eufe^ 
bins Trap. pV4n. p. sy. C. where out of 
the Atlantian theology he informs us, that 
Xit^a the wife of Ouranus having been an 
excellent wife, 'ihn&w^lu/od iS^ r uhdntw Tlw 
IJLilovofAA6ii<r(tyy was made a Goddefi after her 
deaths her name being changed intoGt. The 
inflance is dear, full, and relates to a mod 
ancient Deity ; and I took notice of this ef- 
pecially, becaufe it relates to a perfon men- 
tion'd by this new name in our Sanchonia- 

But I muft be fo frank as to confefs that 
I like the AtlantiamczoxiXiX, or reafon of her 
name> much better than that which Sancho- 
niatho or Thilo hath given; who tell us, 
that the earth was call'd Ge from the name 
of that beautiful womaii. Doubtlefs the 
earth had its name before ihe was born,ajtid 
her fruitfulnefs and beneficent nature rather 
piade her like the earth, and fo fitted her to 
partake in its name, than to give a nam'e to 
her mother earth. 

And her firft name Titaa (from wa Tift I 
fuppofe) which fignifies muddy, was not 
thought convenient for a Goddefs, 'and 
therefore was chang'd into Ge ; which agreiss 
to her as a mother of mankind, and more- 
over denotes a body not fubjed to death. 



A RfeviE w of the History, i p 3 

Befides, it's worth obferving th^t tho' our 
Sanchoniatho makes Ouranus's wife a par- 
ty with his fon in the rebellion againft him, 
which the Thcenicians might think neceftary 
tp juftify their King Ctonus ; the Atlantlan 
or African theology faith no fuch things 
which I note only in paffing, to wipeofFthe 
afperfions that the Cabiri threw upon Ou- 
ranus or Noah. 

Another example he gives us, /. 5-9. B. in 
the fame book: He tells us from THodoruSj 
that Zeus travelling much of the earth to dif- 
cipline men, by punifhing the wicked, and 
rewarding the good, was, after his paflage . 
out of men's fociety here nam'd Zlwcty be- 
caufe he was thought to be the caufe of men's 
living here well and happily^ ^ KdXZg ^ 
cuTi^. So Tlutarch in Romulus alTures us, 
that Romulus. zt his confecration was Ityl'd 
^irinus, commonly deriv'd from the Sa- 
bine word ^irisj a fpear or lance, to de- 
note him to be a God of war after his death, 
as he was a man of .war while he liv'd ; but 
perhaps from pp Keren; the Hebrew p ealily 
paffing info the Roman Q. 

But the fullellproof of this cuftom among 
the heathens, is a place in La£lantiusi In- 
flit. lib. I. c. 21. the words are thefe: Hie 
eji O ^ri - quern Serafin^ ^ Serapdem vuU 

Y 3 g^^ 

194 ^ Review of the History, 

gus appellate folent enm mortuis confeera- 
tis nomina immutarij ne ^uis futet eos ho- 
mines fuijfe. Nam ^ Romulus jpoji mortem 
^irinus eft diSius^ & Leda NemeJiSy & Circe 
Maricaj & Ino poftquam fe pracipitavit in 
mare Leucothea^ mater que MatutUy ^ Me- 
licertes filius ejus ^alamon^ & Tortunus. 

Other proofs might be added out of 
Ovid's Faftij but if thefe be not fufficient, 
I defpair of convincing my reader. How- 
ever, I n^uft confefs that I am fully fatistied 
concerning this cuftom among the eldeft 
heathens; it being alfo fo natural to give 
pew names to thofe whom they ihould of- 
ten have occafion to call upon, aftcjr they 

were pafs'd into a higher and more glorious 
ftate ; and being very honourable, becaufe 
the names were fuchas imported fome per- 
feftion inherent, fome dignity acquired, or 
fome benefaction which they had been au- 
thors of. V 

Hence the ancient heathen hymns to their 
Gods are llufi 'd full of fuch epithets, and 
this folly of thcir's feems to be the Battolo- 
gy, and much babbling, which .our Saviour 
affirms their devotion to be guilty off, Mat. 
vi. 7. . . 

Hence alfp Hefychtus ii) -sct^a Ji/v/^t^ affirms 
that word to be an epithet oi JpollOy a God 

• of 


-^Review of the History. 2.9 y 

of many names ; and that the Tlatontc Mo-- 
nad or fovereign God was alfo fo call'd, as 
if it were moft honourable to have moft 
names; fo the prayer 6^ Diana to her fa- 
ther Jupiter^ cited out of Callimachus by 
Dr. Cudworthj /. 532, is for this honour as 
much as for virginity, 

Ac; fiQi Tardoj^mlw ceidviov ttTTTrct (f>vXeLps'€iyy 
K,cu 'Z!rQ>^mvfillw^-''^-^^ — -■ — 

This made their religion dark and myfteri- 
ous, which made it admir'd by the igno- 
rant and blindly devoted multitude , who 
would reverence that which they under- 
flood not : And as for the few that were in- 
quifitive to know more of their names, and 
the genealogies of their Gods, they muft 
pay well for a little knowledge that might 
be communicated to 'em in their initiations, 
under great obligations of fecrecy. 

Neverthelefs I have obferv'd, that becaufe 
thofe who were deified in one place, were 
not o wn'd with the fame honour in all pla- 
ces, and fome of their relations were itill 
known, and not deified any where, the dif- 
ficulty of finding out their Gods is not alto- 
gether infuperable. Thus in that place of 
Eupolemus which I before quoted from £^1^- 

Y 4 febiusy 

2^6 /f Review of the History. 


fehiusy Canaan not being any where deify 'd, 
his name is left unchanged, and his being 
own'd the fon of Cronusy leads us to know 
that Cronus is H^fn^ who was his father. 
And fo Mejiraim's or Mizraim's 'im^iofr^ 
being not much regarded at Babylon^ left 
his name unchanged there j which was a key 
to let me into this whole hiltory, flill taking 
it in conjunftion with divers other things 
that fliall be hereafter infifted on. 

This obfervation gives a fatisfaftory ac- 
count why all the deify'd perlons we meet 
with in this hiftory, are found under other 
names here than in Mofes's books ; Elioun 
ior Lamechy Our anus for Noah^ Cronus for; 
Ham^ Ifiris or OJiris fov Mizraim, Sydyt 
for Shemy &c. Yet their natural relations, 
fathers and children own'd in this hiftory, 
are certain marks which determine 'em to 
be the fame perfons : For the fame reafon 
^rotogomts muft be Adatn^ no other perfon 
can be the firft man, and be juft ten gene- 
rations before Noah. 

n*Our fecond obfervation muft be concern- 
ing the ages to which the perfons mentioned 
in this hillory did moft probably live, which 
not being exprefs*d by our author, we muft 
with the beil probability that we can arrive. 
at,, determine by help of a better hillory, 


^RiviEw of the History. 2^7 

written by Mofes concerning the fame time, 
that fo we may fix 'em to certain years of 
the world. 

And here I (hall reckon^ by Julian years 
as the neareft exaiSnefs, becaiife I have fug- 
gelled that the five Epagomeme were in 
j^gyp added to the year, in the time 
oiAffisy or HerculesThoeniciusy before 7^/^- 
Jes wrote ; arid therefore I prefume, he be* 
ing bred skilful in all Mgypian learnings 
underftood . and made ufe of this exafter 
year in expreffing the lives of the patriarchs, 
which muft be our guide in this enquiry. 
However, if Mofes us'd the elder year of 
but 360 days, the difference of five days in a 
year is not fo great, as to be neceflary to be 
confider*d in^ my accounts. 

To this end I lay down this poftulate,^ 
which I (hall build upon as my foundation. 
The fons of Cain in their feveral fucceeding 
generations may be rationally concluded,^ 
and accounted to live about the fame num- 
ber of years before the Flood, that the fons 
of S€tb\ line attained to ; and in like niian- 
ner after the Flood, the defcendents from 
Ham and Jafhet. liv'd about as long as the 
defcendents from Shem downwards, to -^(^r^^- 
bam's time or farther, to the time of the 
deliverance from JEgypian bondage. 


jp 8 A Heview of the History. 

This poflulate is rational, becaufewefind 
jufl ten generations in Catn\ line recorded 
by our Sanchoniathoj to reach to the time 
of Ouranusj or Noahy and an eleventh ge- 
neration fuppos'd by him fynchronal to Cro- 
fiusy or Ham\ and befides^ it has always 
been agreed that fuch temporal favours, as 
length of life, aredifpos'd of by providence 
much alike to the good and to the bad. 

It^s neceflary for me to ufe this poflulate, 
becaufe pur author hath given us no infor- 
mation in this cafe, and Mofes hath only re- 
corded the years of the Jives of the deicen- 
dents from Seth and Shemj thefe conflituting 
the line in which the worfliip of the true 
God was continued from the' beginning: 
And thefe being the anceftors of the Tfrae- 
lites for vn^iomMofes made thefe divine re- 
cords ; and thefe were the progenitors of 
the Meffiahj the Prince of peace, to whonji 
all nations muft be fubjeft. 

This poflulate pretends not to determine 
the time of Cain's and Ham's poflerity ex- 
aftly, but fomewhat near the ma^tter, and 
challenges no place where any hiflorical e- 
vidence can be given that things happened 
otherwife: Even mathematical fciences di- 
reft us, to acquiefce in approximations, 
where precife quantities cannot be exprefs'dy 


■ I 

A Review of the History. ip^ 

And Diony/im Halicarnajfenfis^ one of the 
bell ancient hiftorians, in the beginning of 
his feventh book, allows hiftoriographers to 
mifs a few years in the accounts of the eld* 
eft times, when yet he feverely forbids to 
mifreckon two or three generations. 

It feems he had obferv'd that tfi^ elder 
writers diftinguifli^d time no better, than by. 
the numbers of generations between one 
perfon, and another after him ; and it's plain 
our Sanchoniatbo had no better skill in chrb- 
nology : For he hath only given us feveral 
generations fucceeding each other; info- 
much, that becaufe he affirms 'em written 
by //?r«^^/s command, I have thought they 
might be call'd Tin%ci 'E^fjuSy which book to- 
gether with ui Kv^vvlhg fiiQ^oty of the fame 
contents, I find mentioned in a fragment of 
an old jEgypian chronicle, which may be 
feen in Scaligefs Greek edition oiEufebius\ 
Canon Chronicus^^. j. lin. ii. And I count 
Scaliger's note upon the word Kv^wihg 
worth obferying, for he derives it rightly 
from the Hebrew fc^np Kara^ whence alfo 
the name Alcoran^ the Mahummedan Law is 
deduced; it fignifies legends, eminently fo 
caird, as then efteem'd moll worthy to be 
read; and feveral fuch words of affinity to 
the Hebrew and Arabic^ I have noted to 


300 A Review of the History. 


have been receiv'd into the Mgyftian An- 

But my method endeavours to give light 
^Q Sanchoniatho's hillory denv'd from that 
in Mofes^ who was a man of much more 
learning than he, as well as of a better reli- 
gion. To this end I have drawn a chrono- 
logical table, wherein I have placed all thofe 
of Setb's line from Adam to the Flood, fet- 
ting before 'em the years of the world, or 
from the creation in which they were born, 
according to Mofes's computation in the 
Hebrew text, or as our learned Primate of 
Armagh ftaies them in his Annals from 
thence, and after 'em the number of years 
that they liv'd. And right againft each ge- 
neration of thefe, I have fet all the genera- 
tions in the line of Cain that are deUver'd to 
us by Sanchoniatboy as alfo thofe few of 
SetlS^ line which Sanchoniatho hath told us 
were deify'd by the Tbeenicians^ and are 
caird by different names in his hiftory. 

Againft thefe alio I have fet the line of 
Cain that's delivered by Mofes^ which ends 
in the invention of fome lower forts of arts, 
with Lamech's prefage of vengeance fulfiird 
|n the Flood, as I fuppofe upon himfelf, or 
|iis family, and feems to me written by jMo- 
fes very briefly, only to acquaint us with 


AKEvwfr of the History, 3P1 

thefe things fet in the end of the line> ih 
which he gives no times of their birth, or 
of their continuance in this life. ' So that he 
hath left us no way to know thefe thingi 
but by comparing it with the line of Sefh^ 
in which he hath been exaft. 

Accordingly! have taken this way; i.Of 
irjany ufefulSynchronifms of the generations 
ih the different lines of Setb and Cain^ bi^t 
moll ufeful in the lines of Shem and Ham. 
X. Of the lon^ lives, and confequently ftrong 
conftit^tions fit tq multiply children in thefe 
elder times, which will be of confequenc# 
to gfTure a quick peopling of the earth foon 
after the creation, but fooner after the 
Flood, more being lav'd in the ark than at 
firft were created. 

But here I muft give fome cautions about 
many Synchronifms deducible from the ta- 
ble. Asa 

I. We muft not conclude the births in 
both lines recorded, to be precifely in the 
fame year i for we know that Cain was elder 
than ^^^^ about 130 years, which will influx 
ence the births of the firft born in each line 

X- We have no affarance that the men men- 
tioned in Seth's line by Mojesy were all the 
eldeft fons of their fathers refpeftively, but 



302 A Review of the History. 

only that they were the progenitors direft- 
ly leading to Noab^ and fo to Abraham. In 
like manner in Sanchoniatho's line of Caitij 
\is not affirmed that they were the firft born, 
but only that they were fuch defcendents 
from him as peopled yA^«/Vii7, and begad 
fottie cuftoms in religion, and in arts ; o- 
thers in each line might do like things in d^ 
ther parts of the earth. 

3. Yet in the main parts of their lives each 
generation may be prefum'd to be contem- 
porary with another at the fame diftance 
from the firft ; and the length of their lives 
much alike, only fubjeft to fuch variety as 
is found in thofe recorded by Mofes. Yet 
accidents cannot be barr'd from either line ; 
as Enoch's Ufe was ihorter than any other 
of Seth's line, by reafon of a happy tranfla- 
tion in reward of his excellent piety ; fo 
fome of Cain's pofterity might be more fpee- 
dily cut off in punilhment of their Cm, or by 
the violence of their brethren. 

Such accidents hinder not, but that as we 
find ten generations in each line reached 
Noah's time, or amounted ta the fame fum 
of years, fo any one generation in one line 
may be eftimated about as long as the like 
generation in the other line. 

4. Its 

*^ Review of the HistorV. 363 

4. It's confefs'd that Mofes hath not re- 
corded ten generations in Cain's line, as 
Sanchoniatho hath, yet it doth not thence 
follow that there were not ten generations 
in that line before the Flood : For Mo/es 
doth not tell us that thofe he hath nam'd, 
were all the defcents before the Flood, nor 
that the laft generation which he mentions 
was drown'd ; though I think it probable it 
was fo, yet it is not certain or afErm'd by 

However, I think it very improbable that 
the eight generations which only are record- 
ed hy Mofes in Cain\ line Ihould live as long as 
the ten in Seth's^ efpecially confidering that 
Cain probably had children before Seth was 
born, for he was then 130 years old. Where- 
fore I Judge it moft reafopable to believe, 
that Mofes hath filently pafs*d over two ge- 
nerations of Caifiy as not worthy of men- 
tion, as he is very Ihort about all the other 
defcents in that line, putting all from his E- 
noch to Lamech in oneverfe, Gen.iv. 18. 

Moreover, I have obfervM that there 
Mofes doth not lay that Enoch begat Irad^ 
as he faith that Irad h^gzx. Methujaelyj^c. 
but he only faith that to Enoch was born /- 
rady which will be true, if we underftand 
that he was not his immediate fon, but his 


304 y4KEvjswoftheir[jsroR.Y. 


grandchild, or rather his great grandchild^ 
skipping over two generations not worthy 
of remembrance; which added to the eight 
mention'd, will make tepi as in Seth's fine 
before the Flood* This conje<aure found- 
ed in the indefinite fignification of the phrafe 
to be born to a family, and its capacity to 
be underftood with relation to remote de- 
fcent, is ftrengthen'd by a like expreffion 
in I Kings xiii. x. where it is foretold that 
Jofiah Jhouldbe born to the houfe of^avidj 
or be of the pofterity of Rehoboam then 
reigning, yet he was many generations after 
him, being born 3x5* years after thispredicr 
tion. Having thus had occafion to confider 
this Irad, and to fuggeft that he may pro- 
bably in nature ftand two generations low- 
er than is commonly thought, I will add 
concerning him alfo in pafling, that it trou- 
bled me fome time to find him call'd Gaidad 
in the Septuagint. After confideration, and 
comparing it with the Hebrew name TT«y 
Tairad, I judg'd that the LXX exprefs'd I 
the y by T, as they often do, and miitook ' 
the middle radical Rejh for Ttalethy as they 
in many other places feem to have done. 

Becaufe the .chief fuggeftion which Mo^ 
fes hath given us concerning the beginning 
of idolatry before the Flood , is in Gen. 

iv* x6. 


A R£viE<x^ ^//i&r History. 3 o r 

tv. itf. thi? W9f4$ being tr^nflated as in the 
margin pf p\jr bibl^a, Thtn (while iFirtfj liv'd) 
mtn began H. <4U fhtmfilves by tbe name of 
fhf I^rii^ 4. e. %Q be deify'd* The Seftua- 
gimt^ ana n^ny o^her learned expoiitors fa- 
"VPuringthftt fenfe \ I cpnfider'd the time to 
^ludi bi$ life retch'd to be the year of the 
world 114P. And by our table it appears 
(bat: Npakt pf the tenth generation from A* 
44nh W^ born before that time, and above 
^Q years old ; wherefore I conclvide that 
the time$ wherein Swfhouiatbo places fe ve- , 
r%l il^ m^e in ths progrefs of tliat crim% 
do fall within the iime. that JB&y^j hath ^i^ 

• And >rhereas JoJ^ptms hath fuggefted in 
%\)Q beginning of c^. 4. M. i. that, in th* 
eighth ggneration the gj-eat departure was 
fSjk^e from tf tie piety and humanity^ tbai^ 
4f<» is fniiciently conijjiient with our au- 

B^f I thfnlf Jofepi^ii f|)eaks only.cottcern- 
igg the degeneracy of Setl:f% pofterity, yet 
incipuw^ng this to be accompany'd with in* 
|)ejrs»rf ying with Qm-% line ; for. I am wil- 
ling to underftand thofe call'd Angels, to 
be the ^mi$ who in Genejis are called fons 
of God, which by many ancients are inter- 
preted S«th*% line. And herewith we find 

Z that 

3o(f jiKtvuw of the History. 

that theaiicient apbcryphal book call'd Enofh^ 
whereof a fragment is given to us in Scali- 
ger's notes on Eujebius's Greek chronicle, 
doth agree very nearly : For he places the 
coupling of the Egregoriy or v^atching An- 
gels, with women, in the year of the world 
1 1 70. the excefs beyond Enos's life is but 
30 years. Scaliger proves this book to be 
of antiquity fomewhat before the Apoftles 
times ; yet neither he nor I think it to be 
Enoch\ but the fenfe of fome Jew about 
Chrift\ time, who fpake agreeably to opi- 
nions of good repute among his countrymen 
in that age, tho* with fabulous mixture. 

Other cautions might be ofFer'd, but it's 
both neceffary and decent to leave much to 
the reader's own judgment! Wherefore I 
will pafs to the later times of our table after 
the Flood, wherein moft of the hiftory 1$ 

Here therefore I have obferv'd, that in 
the firft century after the Flood, Mo/es 
hath recorded three generation?, or fuc- 
ceeding defcendents, to be born in Setffs 

I. His fon Arphaxad^ born in th^ year 
of the world 1658. 

X. His 

A Review of the History. 3 07 

1. His grandchild cf^/iii&, homAnnoMufh^ 

di 1693. 
3. His great grandchild Heber^ born A. 

M.ij%^. And each of thefe liv'd above 400 
years ; Heber liv'd 464 years, fb that he out* 
liv'd Abraham who was in the 10*** defcent 
from Sem^ and all of 'em liv'd after the time 
of his birth. * 

Hence it will not be unreafomible to be- 
lieve that the defcendents from Ham^ which 
might be born to him in the firft century 
after the Flood, might be three generations 
alfo, and that they, proof of the con- 
trary be given from hiftory, maybe eftima- 
ted to live to like ages, and increafe in like 
proportion. So Misiraim^ whom Sanebonia^ 
tho calls Mijbrj being of the firft generation 
from Ham or Cronus^ and Thotb of the fe- 
cond, may be born in the firft century from 
the Flood, iprohibXy MiiiSraim about the 
fametimewith-^r//&4fArtf^, -r^. ik/. 1658. and 
Thoth his fon near the time. oiSelah^ A. M. 
1693. In the courfe of nature .undifturb'di 
W9 may judge they might have liv'daslong 
as the contemporaries in birth. 

But we find in hiftory that Mizraim^ 
caird in jEgyftian antiquities OJiris and 
Menesj was earlier cut off by the confpira- 
cy and violence of Tyfhon ; the time of his 

Z X death, 

' ju8 A Review of the HisTotY. 

-4luti^..i^:C0iifci)Uefttfty of the iucceffion 
and reign of Athothes or Thothy we fliall 
kbeur td ibtd by help of other and later 
hiftd^r Snce Scripture and Sanehoniaitbo 
idc) nbt hei'dn give us any information. And 
if w6 have the time of their deaths deter- 
mined by reckoning backward from other 
hiftories, and the time of their births thus 
det6rhiin*d by reckoning from the begin- 
toingj" from both \re may fiiid the years (rf" 
Uieir live$) iand how much they wanted of 
eqaaTity with Sem*% defcendetits in their re- 
t^eftive generations. 

- But becaiife I have dciign'd a diflind fe* 
6Hcin of thi& review for the fixing a chrono-^'P-ira^gmat or fettled point of time) 
from Whence wemaft reckon backwards 
to the fettling of divers things in our table \ 
^mong which the reigns of Thotb zsA fA 
Minis are c6ntain*d, having fome connexioQ 
therewith ; let us here only coo^der what 
SanchcnUtho, compar'd with Mofiiy may 
enable us t(i determine^ 

For tho' I believe we fliall ifind by help 
of more exadl records of time, that our au- 
thor hath fail'd in Hating the time of the 
the beginning of Crotms\ reign, fo near to 
the death ai Our anus ^ as to be but 3x years 
before it } yet he hath given us a hdp to 


A Review of the History. 309 

conned the dominion of: i^^^homkians in 
Mgypt with the times oi Our anus or Noah^- 
and of Cronus or Ham^ which is no' where; 
dfe fo well ftated ; and hath acquainted us 
with the defcent of Thoth from Mijar or: 
Mizraim^ which lay hid from divters other 
authors, but will be of great influence in £x^ 
ing the beginning of the JEgyptian Dypa^ 
fties, which was thruft fome thoufands of 
years farther backwards, fceyond the time 
of Noah or Adam^ by the exorbitant pre- 
tenfions of their later pHefts to antiq^ty, 
in oppofition to the recorde diMofis ; who 
being bred in all their learning, which UsA 
Egyptians alfoconfefs, could not be igao^ 
rant of their beft hiftorieai records, and cisrr 
tainly would never haye plap'd the deliver*- 
aiice out oi Mgypt lefs than ^ooo years af«> 
ter the Flood, if he had found among ^em 
any credible proof that i^t JEgyptian king- 
dom was of fuch antiquity as Manetho at 
ferts. For he faith there had pafs'd 4x83 
years between the beginmng of their king- 
dom under Mizraim^ or Meftes^ and the end 
of the i8*^Dynafty, in which he confefles the 
Jews departed from Mgypt. Our Sanchonia- 
thoy tho' he hath fome millakes in him^ yet 
tie hath no fuch exorbitant falftioods. 

Z 3 He 

3'io A Review of the History. 

He aflures us, that Mip^r or Mizraim 
their founder, came from Thmnicia^ and his 
time is in fome meafure alcertain'd by being 
in the ix*^ generation from the firfl: man, 
and herein he agrees with Mofes ; which 
utterly ruins ail the extravagant pretences 
of the hxtx ^gypians to a greater antiqui- 
ty, either in the Dynaflies of their men," 
which I have ihewn already, or of their 
Gods, which is now farther to be noted. 

For I have ot)ferv'd in Herodotus^ Eu- 
ttrpe^ compared with the remains of Mane- 
tho which we have, that the ends of 'em, 
both in advancing the hiftory of their hu- 
man Dynaflies to fuch a prodigious antiqui* 
ty, was not merely to outvie others in the 
claim to antiquity in human affairs; but 
chiefly to place their Theology,the Dynaflies 
of their Gods, and confequenriy the objefts 
and foundations of their religion, in greater 
antiquity than all other nations, Thefeign'd 
antiquities of their kings that governed «ri- 
^^d^jLi lim tffi^ui^/i.i<^y one brave man after ano- 
ther {zs Herodotus interprets the Egyptian 
Priefl's words, which they fo often inculca- 
ted when they fhew'd him their wood- 
en ftatues) was all defign'd to fhew that flill 
more thoufands of years ago theGods reign'd 
over their countrey, and confe^uently a- 


A Review of the History. 3 i r 

inon'g them was the eWeft theocracy, and 
they the peculiarly belov'd people by the 
Gods, which all aim'd to imprefs this no- 
tion, that their religion was the beft. 

This Herodotus feems. to be fomewhat 
fmitten with ; yet he retained fome degree 
of the liberty of an Ionic Greeks and made 
free enquiries in many other places about the 
antiquities of his heathenifm. 

But it's very remarkable that the Mgyf- 
ttan Priefts who informed him in their hi- 
llory and religion differ very much, viz. 
about 6000 years from thofe which inftruft- 
ed Manet ho their brother-prieft at Sabenne ; 
for this is a demonftration that both thefe 
forts of priefts did not follow true records, 
iince truth doth not fight againft truth. 
And though Manetho is own'd by Jofefhus 
to follow good records in his account of the 
fix paftoral kings, and of the Theban kings 
following Tetbmofis\ yet the digefting all 
the Mgyptian kings from Menes unto Ne^ 
chipjbs into x6Dynafties fucceeding each o- 
ther, is never own'd nor mentioned by^^- 
fephus ; nor doth hp meddle with the Dy- 
nafties from Camhyfes to Darius Codoman^ 
nus. Wherefore the credit of Manetho 
njuft needs ftagger, when its juftled by good 

Z 4 hiftory 


• » * 

3 1 * -^Review of the History. 

hiflory inconfifietit with Ms reports^ which 
J^ve no cdncurrenc tdlimony to fapport 'etn. 

Neverthelds, becaufe he hath been own'd 
by good authors to record fome truth, his 
Dytiaities may be admitted, though not (b 
fucceffivdy as. he hath plac'd 'em, but with 
refpeft toXeVeral parts oiJEgypt over which 
hii kings might reign at the fame time, 
without any contradidion to other hiftories 
of better credit than his ; and confequently 
without giving any undue; advantage to the 
antiquity either df their government or their 
religioQ s for I am willing to own 'em both 
to have been within a few centuries of the 

This S^fffbomatho jftxfficiently intimates 
by owning Cr^»»j', i.e. -K^i»'s influence ear- 
ly therei though he makes his chief refidence 
to be in Thwnici4 ; now he is known to be 
one of thofe who was prefervM in the ark. 
And our author may be juftiy efteem'd more 
than Manethoy who liv'd in ^tul. ThiUdil- 
f.b^s\ time, .which is about 800 years later' 
than his time, in the judgment of thofe who 
allow him the leaft antiquity. . 

And if we confider his hiftory as tran* 
fcrib'd by the Cabiriy Thoth\ Amatpuenfis^ 
it will ftiil be more conclufive evidence a- 
gaintt all later Egyptian pretences \ for by 




A Kivitv7 of tBe HtsroKY. 31^ 

the long conVcrfe that Tbofh had with Cro- 
nus, he muft needs underlland the ftate of 
tlie world both before and after the Flood ; 
yea, He might probably converfe with Sy- 
dye or Shem in Canaan^ becaufe the Cabirt 
who were his fcribes, arie affirmed here to' 
be Sydyc\ children, and he was in Canaan 
long after Thoth'% time, and to probably ia 
his time ; whence he could not want means 
of knowing both the antediluvian and poft- 
diluvian ftate of human affairs. * 

If from thefe remains of his we can gather 
any thing oppofife to the later conffitutions 
or pretences of JEgypian heathenifm , I 
think we may believe it ; but I cannot trufl 
him in any thing oppofite to the Jewijh 
records. For by the Cofinogony he hath left 
us, and by his cruel counfels here recorded 
againft Ouranus his great grandfather, and 
againft Cronus's brother Atlas^ &c. I judge 
him to have been an atheiflical immoral po- 
litician ; yet I fuppofe he would not record 
lies, when there was no worldly intereft to 
tempt him fo to do: And this confidera- 
tion , as alfo becaufe he wrote ' of things 
done in his own time, and while many were 
ahve to confute him if he had delivered falfe 
things, induced me^ to take fome pains to 


314 -^ Review of the History. 


clear thefe records, which our ^thor affirms 
to have come from him. 

He often calls him 0coV, a God, Tlato 
ih his Thadrus calls him a Daemon ; and 
alfo one of the ancient Gods. He knew 
thefe names anciently were us'd promifcu- 
oully, fignifying only fome power that was 
fo greatly influential on human affairs that it 
ought to be worfliipped ; later ages have 
made fome difference in fuch objefts of wor- 
fliip,* hv$ they are all injurious to the true 

I conceive this Tboth\o be the Orus fe- 
niory honoured with that namq after his con- 
fecration in Mgypt^ probably with refpeft 
to the great liglit of wifdom i^6i Our^ which 
they efleem'd to have been in him, and 
communicated from him. My reafon is be- 
caufe Or^J^and fo our Thothis acknowledged 
to be fbn of OJiris and IJis^ and to reign 
juffc after him (in T>lc^archus preferv'd in 
the fcholiafl: on Afollonius) and to avenge 
his father*s death, and to promote all learn- 
iiig, efpecially skill in phyfick ;. whence IhU 
was confecrated to him : which are all fure 
marks of our Tlfe^/A fuccefTor tq his father 
in the kingdom. His mother, who taught 
him fome medicines when he was young, as 
%Hodorus witnefles, and learn'd probably 
. ^ more 



A Review of the History. 315 

more of him after he was grown an im- 
proved maDjt was the old Goddefs Health, 
Tyfc*^ in Greeks, Salus in Latin. Tat^fanias 
mentions a temple in Eftdaurw^ built to 
Hygiea^ MfiuUpus and A^ollo^ Mgyptlans^ 
His name Hermes is fo well known, I need 
add nothing of it ; but it is not fo common- 
ly known that he was call'd Anubis^ and Her- 
mnubisj and his ftatues made with a Dog's 
head, the fymbol of his fagacity, intimating 
him to be like a quick-fcented hourtd. The 
original of the name Anubis is doubtlefs 
from n:n3 Nabach^ which in the eaftern lan- 
guage fignifies to bark as Dogs do, when 
they challenge the fcent of that which they 
hunt. • 

To this head I refer Nibhaz^ the idol of 
the Avim^ as we exprefs it ; the Sep. tran- 
flate it 'EuaJo*, xht Hivites^ 2. Kings yisii. 31. 
underftanding the difference to be only a 
change of the two gutturals n and y, which 
are ofteti changed : So thefe Canaanites will 
be underftood to worihip Mercury under 
the name Nibhaz^ fignifying by its origina- 
tion the fame with Anubis from the fame 
TOOt. Servius on Virgil^s Latrator Anubis^ 
rightly underilands Mercury or Thoth. 

Strabo alfo witneffes, lib. xvii. that the 
Hertnofolitaj worfliippers of Hermes or At 


^i6 A Review of the History. 

niibh^ did .worihip KujuoKipuXov j an image 
pith a dogs beai\ and that in Cynopolis 
dogs were fapred, and fed in their temples, 
which is to be underftood as Jthe living ima- 
ges of this Hermes \ fo were cats kept and* 
honoured as living images of the Mgyftim 
^iana (who was fifler to Orus or Thotk 
HeroJ.J by them cali'd Bubaftis, ^hibefeth 
is Co tranflated by the iS*^/^. 17. 
I believe that Bubajiisy the j^gyfttan name 
of Artemis or ^iana , is a corruption of 
the word Thibefethy which fignifies Hill in 
Arabic J and I fuppofe in old JSgy^tiany 
flortulanay from non Befethy a garden, the* 
I know Stephanus Byz. faith it fignifies a 
<:at ; for I can find no fuch fignification of 
Bubajiusy and I fufpedt he had no skill in 

So were the Bulls Apis and Mnevis (or ra- 
ther Menisy as Mlian writes it) living images 
oiOfiris the founder of ±eir husbandry. And' 
the bull or ox being the chief help in plough- 
ing the ground, carrying in, and treading out 
the corn, in the old way of husbandry, was 
therefore chofen for ttie livelieft reprefenta- 
tion of the chief author thereof among the 
AEgyptians\ though in Syriay ^ agon y{omt- 
thing elder than he, was worlhipped on the 
fame account : If the religious worfliip of 





AKtvim of theHisroKY. ^i:^ 

dead but confecrated benefadors we»e law- 
ful) and it were alfo true, that fuch worflwp 
was to be givjen to the image as belongs to 
the Mrfon reprefented thereby, becaufe it 
all pafles to the Prototype (whichare curr 
rent dodriaes among RomamJisJ all, this 
Egyptian religious fervice paid to bulls, 
dogs and cats, will be fully excus'd from 
blame, for its all founded upon the fame 

principles. '^ 

Herodotus'm his Euterpe allures us con^ 
cernipg theiir facred animals, that the worr 
jhippers thereof ^'%*5 C<P* >«"7«A6«<r<, ^l/^pi 
tS ^tSS ^v i » •9-16'W P^^^ ^besr devottQus 
to tbePft frajing ta the God to whom the 
beafi bfikng'd. Here he plainly affirms that 
they did not ultimately terminate their pray- 
ers in the beaft (which was confecrated as 
he tells before) but direfted their prayers 
farther to the deity to whom each beaft be« 
loflg'd. Nev6rthelefs all other heathens, ef* 
pecially ^he Roman, Greek, and even Thee* 
nkian idolaters, as Manethomjojephus in^ 
forms us, detetted this folly of giving reli-. 
gipus worlhip to beafts, though it were de- 
clar'd to be only relatively, as confecrated 
Kving images of deities, and that prayer was 
not dire(fted ultimately to 'em. In the mea'^ 
tin^e they did not fee themfelves to do as 


3 1 8 A Review of tkeT:lisTOKT. 

abfurd a thing, in giving as much adoratidh 
to images of wood and ftone, and metals 
that were without life, and fo had lefs like- 
nefs to the fouls of heroes whom they wor* 
Ihipped thereby ; ^nd the Romanijfs cafe is 
too too like 'em, as others have proved fuf- 

Ejccufe this digreffioft from the method 
of the table, becaiife it's of good ufe to my 
chief end in writing this treatife. I return 
to make fome farther obfervations upon the 
Derfons mentioned in our table, and to add 
lomething thereunto. Faffing all that died 
before, or in the Flood, I add concerning 
Ouranusj whom I have fliew'd to be Neah^ 
that he is the man that Lucian in his book 
de T>ed Syria calls by the name of the Scy*^ 
thian Deucalion. 

He calls him T)eucalion becaufe he efc^p'd 
a deluge, as Greek flories record ^euMlion 
in later times to have done ; and Scythian 
he adds both to dillinguifh him from the 
Greekj and to point at his coming from the 
north eaft parts of the earth, which the an- 
cients comprehended under the name Scy- 
thiay and that part of Taurus^ which in 
fcripture is calFd Ararat y was contain'd 

within the bounds known by that name. 

- . # . . -^ .. 

I need 

A Review of the History. 319 

I need not infift on jiroof hereof, becaufe 
it's commonly admitted, but I chufe rather 
to add that which I meet not with obferv'd 
by others; that he tells us there were three 
moft confiderable ftatues in the Adytumj or 
Thalamus J or mofl: holy place of the temple 
at Hierapolis^ which he largely defcribes, 
into which few of their priefts were admit- 
ted, the two outmoft whereof he fays he 
judg'd to be Zeus and Here^ Jupiter and 
Juno ; but he confefles that they caird Ju- 
fiter by another name, which he tells us 
not; I doubt not but it was our Cronus^ and 
the woman he calls Here or Juno^ 1 judge to 
be Ajlarte his wife, thefe being the chief 
Syrian deities; and he confefles flie had 
fomewhat of the peculiars of the ftatues of 
Rhea^ and of Aphrodite Ourania^ which 
both are Greek names given to Aft art e^ as I 
could prove largely. 

But my defign is to determine the name 
of the ftatue or perfon that he tells us flood 
between them two, which the AJfyrians 
caird the ftatue, but had no proper name 
for it, nor account of the generation and 
Ihape of the perfon ; fome different gueflTes 
about it he names, and one is, that it is 


5 2 o ^ Review of the Histort. 

This I like, but with the ^iftin^ve wark 
that he adds ip the beginning of that book, 
futz. I underftand the elder ^eucsiiou that 
came from Scythia or 4r4r*t mountaini, 
which is Noah or Ourams, the father of thie 
two deities between^hom he Hands $ aod 
that golden 'Dovt which he tells us flood up- 
on his head, is a. fair, intimation ofJ^T^ 
ab'% dove. « This flew away twice in a 
« year, as they reported , at the time of 
« the commemoration there made of tbe 
.« Flood, by pouring out abundance of 
" water, which not only the priefts, but 
<* numberlefs other men brought from all 
** Syria i Jrabia^ and from peyond 5«»^ 
<« phrates, and froni ihe Sei t which b«- 
« ing pourM d9wn in the temple, runs all 
" into a xA'^fMy or cleft in the earth which 
5* now is not great, as he witnefles upoa 
«' the fight of it ; but they told him for mer- 
« ly that it was a great one, and fwallow'd 
" up all the Flood that drowned iht worlds 
*« but 'Deucalian that eifcap'd ir, built altarp 
*' by this Chajme in thanlifgiving for his de^ 
** liverance, and this temple wherein thf 
** commemoration is kept bebngs tp Jthoif 
« altars'*. He doth not tell us that he U'i 
the golden dove fly, that was only a Jthii^ 
told him, and its flight is direfted by an o- 


A Review of the History. ^%t 

racle miraculoufly mahag'd in the tempi?, 
wherein I fuppofe there were many arts pf 
of delufion to abufe, credulous people. ' 

Neverthelefs I think I may fafely believe 
from the whole tradition and praftice'rela-. 
ting to a commemoration of the Flood, and 
of the Dove which was us'd therein, that 
tjiey had a jftarue for Qur^nus cm: Noah thus 
charafteriz'd by a dove on his head ; and 
die dove was fo facred there, he affirms, 
that they never did eat any fidgeons abqup 
HierapoUs ; which confirms my belief th^p 
there was fuch a fjjcred account of their re- 
Kgious refpedl to the dpve, and that thei^e- - 
fore they join'd its iipage to the image of 
Ourdnus or Noah. 

Before I leave thefe ftatues which Lucpan 
defqribes (which Iconfider the more, be* 
caufe I remember he tells lis he was bre4 
with a ftatuary, afid had gotten ^ood skill in 
'em) I will note that among other orna- 
ments of that woman's ftatiie, which I have 
affirmed to be JJiarte\ he tells uS; fl:>e had 
a Splendid ft one on her heady which was 
caird hvxn^j which in th£ night gave much 
light to the temple J but Jhone weekly in the 
day time^ and loohUd like fire. 

This made me think of the c^^^oy Ai^oTnri^ 
the fallen ftar^ which in o\xv Sanckfoni^tho 

A a ihc 

tit , ^Review tfthe History. 

fte IS faid to have found, and jt's a fwe 
ttiirk that the flatue is her's. Yet I ^efs it 
Vl^zs only a carbuncle plac'd on her liead^ 
which the priefts could by rubbing make to 
/hixie, when they thought fit to allow any 
niafi the great favour of feeing the A^tunh 
and this ftatue in it, that thereby the imag^ 
might become the more venerable to the he- 
ftblder; who muft be prefum*d prepared 
with great devotion to receive this favour, 
though it were but a cheat, perform'd ^^ «^- 
mas tmitante fyropo, I cannot pafs over 
that which he adds foon after ; that there 
njMs in that temple a throne of the fun^ 
nsbhich had no ftatue in it^ becaufe he tells us 
they made no image for the fun and maon^ 
for. this reafonj becaufe every man faw ^em 
daily in heaven ; whereas their other deities 
were invifible now after the death of the 
peribns reprefented. This made me to un- 
derftand that Macrobius bath not rightly* 
judged that all their deities were to be re- 
duced to thele planets and ftars, tho' I own, 
they were a great part of th^ objed of hea-f 

And moreover, I remembered that in the 
tabernacle and temple of the Ifraelites there 
was a mercy feat, or throne of Grace for 
the true God, attended on by Cherubins, 

4 but 

A Review d//^^. ^fsTojit. 34^, 

fcilt no iimge of him w^^/h^re; ^fgrfA^ 
cian's reafon, but for .tl^ Qontraiy, bec^i^ 
' fee is, an4ever yvas inyi^bi^, mA tberefore 
it-s impoflible to maike any .thiijg like him, 
A blind ftityary is as w/eH fitted tamfdie a/^ 
imafe jof him, as one eftdu'd with t^emoft 
curious eyes, becaufe it's aisfolutdy ii^iB9ffif 
bie for any man to make any thaqg Ukeuntp 
the true God, whom no ey^ c^n bpho^d. 
Grotius in his Catechifej well ejqprcffles it ; 

:Bttt it'is time to confider the otlier c|iil- 
dren attributed to Our anus by our awf^hor ; 
concerning which ingeneral, I muftfay^th^ 
it belongs not to t4ie task I have underta* 
ken to poflefs my reader with the feelief ol 
all this author reports, much lefs am I bovind 
to confute every thing that either I fufpedt 
or others may with reafon ajp&rm to be falfe : 
Yet I have been willingTopaetimes to oppofe 
him where I thought it neceiTary, and in-^ 
confident with the Mofaical hiftorv to be* 
lievie him ; but where he/aith any thing npt 
faid by Mofes^ nor cpntradifted to my ap- 
prehenfion, I let that pafs, and clear the un- 
dqrflanding of it when I can, but leave it 

A a X tffl< 

3 14 ^ Review of the History. 

to the reader's difcretion to believe or diC- 
believe as he fliall fee caufe- 

Thus I do concerning the three other 
children which he attributes to Ouranus^ 
whom T apprehend to be Noah ; it's certaiii 
that his four fons are more than the three 
which only are nam'd by Mojesj yet I am 
hot bound to affirm that this is falfe, but 
leave it to the reader to judge whether it be 
not poffible or probable that Noah in thofe 
35-0 years which he liv^d after the Flood, 
might have many children which Mojes fays- 
nothing of. 

Perhaps fome will judge that this may be 
neceflary, at leaft ufeful to the fpeedy peo- 
pling of the world ; fo that Babylon might 
be built, and the difperfion of nations might 
begin from thence not much above 100 years 
after the Flood, according to the Hebrew 

Some may think that an affirmative tefti- 
mony from Thoth and his Cabiriy brought 
to us by our Sanchoniatho\ is not to be re- 
. jeded, becaufe Mofes a better man fays no- 
thing In the cafe •••Probably the defign of 
Mofes was not to reckon all his children, 
but only the chief heads of families by whom 
colonies were led, to plant the feveral coun- 
tries, and govern the nations of the world ; 


^Review of the History. 3 if 

hot it-s pUin he chiefly refpeaed the fami- 
ly ofSbem. 'Tis certain that in the Greek^ 
genealogies in Apollodorus, a numerous iflue 
is aflign'd to Ouranus ; and it's evident he 
liath many truths, deriv'd from the tradi- 
tion oiThcenicians ^nd Mgypiaas planting 
Athens in his Myth'fc hiftory, though many 
incredijjle ftories are mingled therewith. 
; The Atlantian theology which Eufebius 
^ives us from *iDtodorusy afEgns 45 children 
to Ouranus ; and our moft learned Dr.Pa- 
cock in his notes on the Specit^ten Hijiori^ 
I Arabum^ p, 38. intimates that fome^r<«^i- 
ans deliver, that 80 perfons were receiv'd 
: .with iN5?^A into the ark, which if admitted, 
' would facilitate the fpeedy peopling of th^ 
^ ,world, which hiftory requires before the 
times of Abraham's travels ; he adds, Hac 
pracipuff ex Ifmaele Abulfeda qui fabulif 
non nimis indulgere vtdetur^ aliifque referre 
vifumeit', and yet c*Utioufly intimates fucji 
narratives to belong to the biftories that are 

called fabulous. 
I will not be folicitous for thefe authors 
r credit, but I wifli I knew more concerning 
thefe three fons of Ouranus, which our hi- 
dorian hath join'd to Crfl»«/, whom he chief- 
ly refpefted as reigning in his countrey. 
Their names gre, i. BetulM^ x,Vago», and?. 

1 Aa 3 3. Adat 

3 Id AKivitwoftheHistotct. 

3. u^las. I carindt £te reafon ehotig^ td 
fcqhcltide that any one of 'era is either SJ!^fd 
(whom I think he calls SydjcJ or Japhe$. , 

The firft of thefe i do not find mentioned 
byany other writer, his name BetulUs feemi 
\o be of eaftern original from the root vei 
Bttely which though it often fignifies difto- 
npiirable idlenefs, yet it fometimes imports 
that quiet fpirit which ferves religious duties 
and ftudy. And in Arabic it fignifies a her 
ro, who by fuccefsfUl wars procures to him- 
felf and his fubjeds reft and peace ; info 
much that they render the warlike title Tte- 
lemaus by a derivative from this root Batah- 
matiSy as may be feen in Dr. Cajile\ Heftd- 
glot under this root. 

TTie fecond T>agon is call'd, agreeably to 
ThiU's skill in the eaftern languages, Sitoffj 
becaufe he was the inventor of fowing bread- 
corn, and ZdOV 'A^o^t^j for his contriving 
of ploughs. This ihews that fuch husban- 
dry was not firft invented in ^gyft (tho* 
it was probably more improved and encou- 
raged there) by OJiris^ or Mizraimj but by 
' this man who was elder, and his uncle: And 
I fuppofe our author notes this on purpofi? 
to fhew that the Mgyptians did not juftly 
challenge thjs invention to themfelves. We 
find him canonized, and woiihipp'd among 

^ '' the 

•> I 

if Review o/i?;ft^tfistoW. ^ ^iy 

^''^%ilMines in Canaan i and his name, 
is^icK I fuppofe was given him at his cano* 
hlz&rrbn,. fuggefts to u; the reaifon of the 
fli<rHie honours they gave him. 
' T^e third Atlas \ fin4 reckonU one of 
the ttioft celebrated fonts oi OuranifSy Vi0% 
onfy; Here J but in the 'AQaniian theology 
om Kyt^iodorus^ fet v&Euftbiu^9 fecond 
book de Tr£}>ar. His fon Ani^ufilSxi^ xr% 
favour with OJiris in Vp^per J^gyPty an4 
f hence fertt to govern ^^ hioPiit. ana LHya^ 
Eufeb. Vrarp. 1. ii. r. i. And he Teems to be 
the man (but it muft be-in his. old age) o\ 
a fori of the fame name, againft who^ the 
Egyptian Herculps made war, and over* 
came hinj ; of which Eufebius tells ils, /. ix^ 
c. xo. from Cleodemm^ who is (?^rd Malr 
chds. And I find pothins in credjblq hiflo- 
iry that, the The ban Hercules of much late? 
time ever warred agaihfl Ant^eusy defeend^ 
ed from Atlas in Africa ; but nauft coxjcludej 
that the Greeks tranflated this aiftiqni ot tb9 
Egyptian and ^hisnician^ Hercules to their 
TAe*^^;^ of his name, with aji^ifioi) pf njany 
fiftions thereunto. /. • . . 

The Atlanta in Africa are derived' fronn 
this y/if/^, fon olOuranusy whpinbiseldei; 
time was, as the Cabiri tell us, buried alive 
by bis brother Cronus^ Ihoth adviling it, 

A a 4 An4 

3 1 8 A Review. */ the History. 

And I catihot jfbrbear to obferve in pafliog» 
that thus early in time, the firft reftorers oi \ 
idolatry did agree in fuch cruel counfels, as 
the means to eftablifli and enlarge theij own 
powers :, For this muft be done to 4ths^ to 
fecure toCronuSj and afterwards to Tbotbj the 
the doriiitiioti over the outiiioft weftern parts 
c/t Africa;^ wherd the Attantii were feate^ ; 
and to ptevent the family bf Atlas from ha-* 
Ving any power there, independent either 
tn Cronus his brother, or on the pofterity 
of Cronus^ in which was Thoth. 

And acdordingly We find that when Au 
ids's family rferiiaining after his death in An^ 
i£us didi afterwards reign there, notwith* 
Handing this cruelty to Atlas ; Th^AEgyp- 
tiari power tinder Hercules called Arcles and 
AJfii^ i& I have fliew'd, invades and deftroys 
Antaius^ thoilgh he had OJiris\ cohfent, as 
t^re fliew*d. *Tis like this family claimed tq 
rule in right o^ Atlas their father, and th^ 
brother t>{ Cronus^ but Crqhus^s family we 
fee would have them fubjeft unto them. If 
Antaus confented to Ojiris to be his depu- 
ty, as ^iodorus in Eufehlus feems to hintip 
the right was on the.^de of Cr^^^j-^s line; 
but Aps or tierdulesy tho* not oliMizratfri^ 
ht t)firis\ linej yet probably the fon oi^e 



^ Review of the History. 31^ 

iofrom mighl take tip the title of Crofms^ 
fuch as it wasy and invade Antseus. 

I am fenOble that in this great aptiqmty 
there ve fome thiftgs in the Greek Mythic 
writers not reeoncileable hetewith ; yet be-» 
caufe even thrfe have feme thing agreeable 
to our Thtenician and ^Egyptian hiltory, fo 
much of em I admir; where they differ, I 
l^-efer the eaftern hiftory. 
, For infiance, the Greek Mythk writers^ 
particularly AfQllodorus^ make Atlas the 
fon of Jafetuty and the grandfon of 0«- 
ramis. I agree that he was of the line of 
Our anus ^ SanchoniathoQwtis it i yet I agree 
not that he was the fon of Japetus^ yet ra* 
ther his brother, becaufe Santboniatho aflerts 
Jiim to be Cronus's brother, whom the Greeks. 
alfo agree to be brother to Japetus, 

Scaliger in his animadverfions on Eufe^ 
bitis hi* number 379 faith. Atlas was the 
feithei^ of Antaus i This I agree to, having 
found Antaus in Mgypt with OJiris his cou^ 
fin german ; and I find there alfo one of the 
Nomi^ or Shires of Thebais^ call'd by his 
name Ant(feofolites Nomusy in TUny and 
Ttolemy. From hence he mov'd wellward 
^'caching to the Atlantic OceaH^ call'd fo 
, from the name of the family or people of 
' l^'hjiflj hg was, an4 in wliicfi he rwrd, or 




ibsm the nsotifttaihs i«ihidt *hifd tei^^HfftK* 
from hisfalheV jifidXt dtmi^lfiapp6k'f^i^ 
the HekteWfmxi^ !>!>» Tbalklrdggeffit., du^u- 
ifwr,' icdtfihe futuf ©r of ih-Hl^be^ of OwiS 
46e( firom J^i^e/, k\ cotit^iifteit into J^iic^ 
It feems of kin to our Engiifl) word tiX^'tH 
kftfl; in £gnification ; and it's an epitli^ idi 
HiVXi-ds may be given to atall man. 

Ne verthelefs I do not agnse with Eiifebilfi 
^K>ir' his time, he fottol^^iag ^ Greeks, 
whom heconfeffes .to differ from each ^thetf 
jfbou't the i%t%.oi Atlas and *Prometbeits'\ki 
Ibrother. But! flick to iriy «ithfor SsMcho- 
nUtho, who only determines what genera* 
tiott after Ouranus he liv'd in, which appear* 
not in Eufekiks, But how Antaus ihould 
be guided or tempted to go fo far weft from 
ThehaisAo ^itrly, I know only by a conjec- 
ture, which (becaufe the faift is agreed- a? 
among ancient hiftorians, and the caufe not 
pbvious to the younger readers) I will cra^ 
leave to add. ' ;>': 

I find in* Golius's notes upon Aifragau of 
FergdnenfiSy and in other modern difcovd^ 
ries of Africa^ that the MUe^ far foutfe of 
the higher JS^jy/^ is divided into two great 
ilreams; one of which hath been longknoWn'^ 
as coming through Mgypt into the Medi- 
terranean iSea ; the other no l^fs confidera^- 

yf.RiTiiw of the HiSToltY. 3 j $ 

We,; but Itttkfty "kriown' fere) ntos' direfily 

weft through! the ReghJSS^rhMjmy till & 

falls inj;o the jitlantic Ocean about Gape 

^^i.' . . ^ ' -:/^ -/• :: ': ^'Vv' i ' '. , 

: This hranclt iy^onmiQoly^kifowh tryfthj 

aatac oi t\iQ ivKT' Niger f which ii often mi^ 

ft^en for a Idi&nd riverfram JViie^ beoamia 

It falleth into .thfe ocean^at 'ffrcha Taft'dJ? 

fiance frotii J%^^; but iloihfkhfiatidsag 

the mifhrkc^ there is thus Amch of good 

lock rti the diftinft nahie j^i^/n' that it %^ 

hifies the fame blackifli or pdsicldy coIcMir'd 

water which thA name Meh anciently giveik 

by the Gneks to Nik dbrfi lmJ)ort. And 

it's obfervable that in Herirdotu/s Euterpt 

there is related a ' fiory- which a Cyrehian 

told him from Etearchlis kifig of the Amn«*- 

nians, concerning five boM youths of the Na^ 

famones, that travellingto make new difts^ 

veries through the de farts d/'Libya, were ia 

lafi^ brought to a city (inhabited by Blacks of 

Jow jlature) by which ran a great riveri 

whofe courfe was from the weft towards tbi 

taft^ and there were crocodiles in ity and^^ 

tearchus judg'd it to be the Nile. So much 

light towards the knowledge of this truth 

was given in the days oi Herodotus the fa^ 

ther of hiftory ; but either they only meant 

that the length of the river lay between 


3 3 * A REriE w of the History. 

thofc- pointyj or they mifplac'd ihe terms^ 
for' the water falleth into the weftem o^ 
cean. . .'-..:• 

Now I judge that the Atlanta early fol-^ 
lowing the ^//f (whofe overftowirigs made 
the neighbouring grounds good ix)th fos 
corn ;and cattle^ and confequentljr eafily fup^ 
pjy'd men with meat, drink and clothes) 
$nd coming to diis diviiion of Nile^ followed 
it on weftward as fall as they increased, e- 
very one driving to be the firfl; pofleflbr or 
0ccupant of a great quantity of fuch good 
land, and therefore to go farther than any 
had done before him, till the Atlantic fe* 
ftopt their progrefs. x 

j This J think a probable reafon of fuch 
-early peopling this hot, but well water'd 
countrey. Here I mull leave the poflerity 
of Atlasj and Antaus among them, whom 
Plutarch in his Sertorius informs us to have 
been buried about 77»gij ox Tangier ^ and to 
Jiave been dug up, and found by his bones 
to have been of a wonderful ilature. 

There are feveral daughters oiOuranus 
nam'd by our author, as perfons whom Cro- 
pus took to be his wives befides Aftarte^ 
who is known by the Hebrew name AJhte- 
rothj whofe daughters were caird Titanides 
Qt Artemi4ff- The name Titan \ have elfe- 

^Review of theHisroKt, 535 

where intimated to be eafiern; ind I c6n- 
ceive alfp the name jlrtemisy by which t^ 
great Diana ^i the Epbejians is knotxrn t^ 
be of the like origunal, from auoSn Chart^^ 
afDiviner^ by which name the C&^i/i/^^w wif 
zards in Daniel are often call'di it being an 
honourable title among them, altho' among 
us it's in deferv'd contempt. One of thefe 
Artemides^ perhaps the moft famous one, 
was worfhipp^d at Efhefus^ and was, by Sy^ 
^dyc as father, the mother oi^fculapius,\ 
whom I take the more notice of, becaufe 
this her fon was one of the Cabiriy from 
whom as fcribes we have the original of tins 
hiftory, which our author affirms himfdf to 
have tranfcrib'd. 

The names of the other daughters of O^^ 
ranusj whom Cronus cajoU'^ to help to ruin 
their father, are Rhea and Dioney, Hora and 
Eimarmeney which two laft may be tranlla* 
ted beauty and delliny, or fate. Of then^ 
all in general I can fay nothing but this, that , 
I believe they are Greek tranflations of the 
titles given to 'em at their confecration after 
death, but not at their birth by their fathen 
Accordingly we meet with thefe names, or 
molt of them, in the memoirs we have of 
heathen worfhip among the Greeks^ deriV'd 
from the eafiern idolaters. 


' We wiU now pcoceed eo cimfider brtefly 
Hkofe three Sow^ which our author ceils us 
we^e bora to Q^^tuiixx Teraoy fuppofkigit 
ftou}d be fo read, as it is in the margin of 
the P^ixedkioh ofEufibwSy premifing on^ 
]y that it's moil'likely that tiie place or city 
ef their 'birdi chere pointed at, is AfliO^ervtb 
Onyii/>K;,wbtcliiscn the other MtdiJanLmi 
mnd thence i^ call'd TerdaiXkGreek^ bat the 
elder eaftern- name of the cbuntrey is Bafan 
near to the hn^diGikad. There we find 
thistowncalrdCia'«»ifli,ijd£ir£tfi&.v. 43>44; 
*nd 3^. 17, compared with the 'l6\ and Cnr-^ 
niony X Mac. ml %6. its name being deduc'd 
from pp Kereuj or from Cr^nufy fometimd 
refident there ; for fome whi^e our authoc 
makes him dwell at Byhlus near the fea fide, 
fometimes here, as princes ufe to have ma^ 
»y palaces. 

- Scaliger mentions a Teraa Tranfiupbra- 
tenJiSy but I find no marks of him on the o^ 
ther fide of Euphrate^j although I believe 
he came from thence, and I obferve our 
author takes notice of little but what w^is in 
Canaan his own countrey ; therefore I be-> 
Keve he points at this moft know Teraa 
htyondi Jordan. ' i 

The names- he gives us of the three fons 
here born are, i.O^irjthefecond, x.Zeui 

< Belus. 


jf Revjew iff the HisTEORY. 5 1 j 

yi^ fciiQW&.tQ ibei(DKig to iieathen deitietf 
by m^jEiyafieioifttirtiters; biit thatdwyaaiefl^ 
the fons of Cronus is fcarce any where 
fo^Hjd^ only CofRetbtag to this {nirpofe &^>iiK 
a ^cagoieat of ^^^^!^^^^^ which I hfid.b^^' 
fore occafion to quote in the fecond Re- 
^r^ ; > bttit tbeiie isibkne difierence betiv^n 
tibcfe two authors wfaidb muil be confider^d^ 
and iben we will fee liow oor author maif^ 
Qftnfift with -^&/^j.. 

The difference of thefe names both^froni 
Mofes'% and EupoUmui^ nahies, though he 
bafii retained federal of the names whiob 
Mojts owns, arifeth hence \ that neither 
M^fis nor Eupokmus who writes the jB^i^ 
Idnian traditions about 'em, do ufe or own^ 
the names which the Canannites gave to 
thefe men at their confecration into the> 
number of Gods worfhipped by them. And* 
indeed this is certain that the fame ma^i was 
often deified in one place, who was nQt fa 
bonour'd in another ; and often the fama 
perfon was worfhipped in feveral places un- 
der feVeral names. So Herodotus aflTures us, 
that (he who was call'd in their worfhip Ifis 
among the Egyptians ^ was Li\^jL^^it in- 
Greece y T)iodorus Stculus and TP bit arch alfo 
agreeing. They all agree alio that he who 

- was 

33^ ^Review of theliisrov^Y. 

was OJiris in Mgyfty was fDionyfius in 
^reecti and Nommus affirms the fame man 
tt his father to be SaSHi of more names. 

"^Ajf^i ipvgN€Oi£(^/A(ffipXiC¥®^*Acrvfi9fZiv^. 

Out of this variety I obferve that one of 
OJk'ij or Miarainfs names is Cranusy which 
he fays rightly was his Arabian or Eaftern 
name, and it*s known that Arabia Tetraa 
juA bordered on Canaan beyond Jordan. 

Hence I colleded that the firft of the 
three fons affirmed by our author to be bom 
in Ter£ay near Arabia Tetraa^ and callVi 
Cronus the fecond, or his father's namefaKe, 
is Mizraim. For it's clear in Tlutarch de 
Ofiride^ (and Strabo lib. vii. ^Aing i cuurif 'O* 
o-ie/0 that Apis among the jEgyptiansj or 
on Nilusj was the living image of Ofirisy 
which is Mizraim ; and he there alfo afTures 
us that Mnevis alio is facred to OJiris^ and 
^lian writes him Menes inilead oi Mnevis^ 
which is Mizraim's name. But the fame 
perfon is in different places expreffly af» 
firm'd hyNonnus to be Cronus^ BelusyHam^ 
mon and Zeus^ which are acknowledged alc^ 
lb to have, belonged to Ham bis father^ gpd 

A Review (?/ the History. 337 

and To he muft be the fecond in all thefe 
names. . 

The fecond he names is Belus^ which 
name the Chaldaans^ calling him Baal of 
Beel^ gave to many of their deify'd Princes ; 
but here I take Cujh the fon oiHam to be 
intended by our author. The third whom 
he calls Afollo I have before intimated, that 
I take him to be Mofes's Thut known among 
the G'reeksy fometimes by the name 7y- 
thius, which in radical letters agrees with 
^hut ; fometimes x\it Greeks call \{im Apol^ 
lo Carneusj which I take to fignify the eld- 
eft jlpoUo the fon of Cronus j from pp Keren^ 
a# his town was called Carnaim from that 
root, or as % Maccab.yixi. 16. calls it Car-^ 

It is added there that in this city was a 
temple of Atergatts^ concernitlg whom fee 
Selden de Diis Syrisj whofe notions I will 
not repeat, but will adventure to add this ; 
that whereas Atergatis is there prov'd to 
be in fome flatues reprefented wholly a wo- 
man, as Lucian z?tixv[i% ztHiera; yet in 
fome he owns both in Thctnicia and Babjh 
hn^ that (he \^as figur'd with a fifties tail, 
which he faw and admired, as furely in- 
timating^ fome myftical doftrine. I judge 
that the hiftorical import thereof was^ only: 

B b this. 


^ 38 A Review of the History. 

this, that Crtmus'i wife bad like a fiAn as; it 
were fwam out pf the iea, by efcaping the 
Flood with that family to which Ihe belong'd. 
This is agreeable to the firft and ruder ages 
of the world) -wherein hUlories relating to 
religion were e^^ubited to the vulgaris eyes 
by fytnbolical fbtues, becaufe ftw or pone 
but the chief prieib could read. 3ut I mxi& 
Bot enlarge on this digreflion. 

I am very feniiUe that the determination 
of the names of thefe three fons oS Cronus is 
a iUppery uncertain bufinefs, but I have us'd 
the befl caution I could in it i and if I have 
been mifiaken in it, there can be no ill con- 
fequence thence to the fubilance of the \%t 
fiory, becaufe there is no confequent adion 
related of any of thefe men. 

But I obferve that he reckons not CMiaan 
the founder of the CMtaanites amoyg thefe 
i^t were born at Teraa, Yam I fuppofe he 
thought born at or about Byblus ; and it's 
certain that the main ilrength of the Otnaa- 
nitijh nations deriv'd from him lay on the 
weft fide of Jordan towards the Mediterra- 
Qean Sea. But t think he defigns for the 
honour of Tbtenkioi to tell us that the foun- 
ders of three other great nations, 1. The 
Cufij'ttes^ often call'4 Arabians and Mttm- 
^ians: %. The ^^j^tmsy and 3- T^asA* 


A RfcVttW of the HistGR V. 1 3 5^ 

frkans from iPhut or Apollo^ were hatti td 
the old Cronus at Carnion. But J fubffiit all 
this to farther eonfideration and better judg- 

Neyerthelefs, I doubt not but the reader' 
will fee that our author hath been careful td 
flfTert that out of his countrey Can4an§ 
{at lead that pan of it which was beyond 
Jordan eaftward, compi'ehending GileadJ 
the founders of thofe great and ancient co- 
lonies in Arabia^ Mgypt and Africa Cams 
Originally ; and be feerns particularly to chal- 
/ knge intiquity greater than the Mgyptian^ 
that moft boafted thereof, and of that wif- 
dom whkh commonly accompanies a nationi 
that has been long civiliz'd, i/?xix. ii. 

Yet to clear this farther^ I will remark 
that after our author had finifli'd his hiftori* 
c«l account, trartfcrib'd from Thoth'% me- 
moifSj ^tm'A by the Cabifi at Thoth*s com*- 
iiiafid^ containing th^ naked narration of 
the rife and progrefs of the. eldeft form of 
heathen religidn, he ^fefently adds ati ic-^ 
coutrt df the attegoricil mijttures tbat werg 
firft blended with it by IJiris, Whom I have 
ihew'd to be OJifis the founder of the jE^ 
gyptian teYtgiony and continued by his fori 
Tkot^ (probably with addition of nsany fo- 
httm lites;) wbo making a coflipkat fettle- 

B b dk tnent 

3 40 -^ Review of the History. 

ment of their religion, is commonly efteem'd 
the fou^ider thereof. 

. Agreeably hereunto I have obferv'd that 
Plutarch ma'kes IJls (who was Tl^oth's mo- 
ther, and had during her life a confiderjible 
influence upon him and the government, 
efpecially in • rehgious concerns) to intro- 
duce much in their pubiick worihip relating 
to the death and divine honour of OJiris 
her husband after his death ; all which is al- 
fo mingled with allegorical intimations as he 
confefTes. So alfo though Romulus intro- 
duced much of the Roman religiop, yet the 
-com pleat form of it was fettled by Numa 
^omplius^ nothing being begun and finifti'd 
at the fame time. 

Andto.fliew that the firft beginnings of 
the Mgyftian religion , where it differed 
{xom\S\^CanaMitljh^ were not invented 'e- 
ven by Ofiris or Ifiris himfelf, but were 
taught him by an innovator in Canaan^ our 
author informs us, Eufeb. Traf. /. 39- G. 
that he received his allegoric reprefentations 
from one whom he only defer ibes by thefc 
A. He mas the fin e^Thabion. 

II. He vJas the firfi Hterofhant of the 
Phoenicians from the beginnings i^ e. ttie 
eldeit declarer and appointer of facred rites. 

III. He 

.^REVifew of the History. 341 

ni. He allegorized the hiftorical matters 
hefire . deliver' d^ mingling them with the ocz . ' 
cutrentes or pajfions ofiiaturey "nnd of the 
"Worlds which is the whole fyftenj of nature,- 

(f>vTiKdig Kj Koa-fUKois "zrdStcnv moLfJii^agy whlch I 

underftand to relate to the different rifings 
and fettings of the ftars and planets, efpeci- 
ally the fun and moon, the burying of grain 
by fowing it, and the refurreftion of it in 
germination and growth till it be prepared 
for the harvefl ; the .changes made in hea- 
ven and earth by fpring, fummer and win- 
ter, befides all the accidents and changes 
that befal human life ; all which things SP/»- 
tarch acknowledges to be reprefented in 
the Sacra Ifiaea^ or Mgypian rites, and 
TuUy owns to be in the Eleufinia Sacra^ the 
eldeft myfleries of the Greeks^ but receiv'd 
fromj^l^j/^/ as H^r(?^/s;^«j intimates; befides 
the paffions and other concerns of Daemons 
^i^hich Plutarch joins to the former, and 
earneftly contends for that notion, that their 
religion might look at objeds above men, 
v^hich our Sdnchoniatho doth not own in 
this hiftory of the firll rife ^nd progrefs 
thereof. Yet he denies not but after ages 
might worlhip a fublimer fort of Demons 
\}[iW.Ouranus was, who bled to death, be- , 
ing abus'd by his fon, yet was honoured as' 

Bb 3 QHQ 

3 4 i -^ Review of the History, 

^e of the nfM^ htifuvtst by facrifices of 

But IV. This innovating allcgorizer is de- 
(crib'd by this, that he deliver'd his notions 
and inilruftions to others, who are call'd 
9^ft2{Jts9!tid 'zs-^^rtu, both lower forts of o^< 
niilers in heathen religion,, who increa$'4 
(be innovations. 

I mufl not digrefs to enquire into the par- 
ticular buiineis of thefe under officers, ei* 
(her prophets or managers of the fecrets 
cail'd Orgia, from the Qhald^ean word 
b^DM ^zaitty under the root n iigniffing a 
fecret, as Bocbart and Dr- Cafile well de- 
duce it. It muft fufiice me that our author 
here tells us that 7/?rff receiv'd his allego- 
ries or fecrets from this fon of Thabmt or 
under officers infirin^ed by him. 

Now thefe circumdances give us but an 
imperfefl knowledge of the man whofe 
Hime we know not; only we learn that he 
muft live at lead with IJirist and amoii^ the 
Tbeniciansy who was the firft Hierofrfiant 
or conffituter of this allegoric fafliioa of 
heathenifm, \ So early began this my^ry of 
iniquity, thefe cheating ways of darkningre- 
ligion^ by allegories and reprefentations, in- 
{lead of letting men fee the native beauty 
pf it| that they ipight love its own worth., 

\ confefs 

A Review of the HisTORf. 343 

I cfonfefs thefe priefb may excufe them- 
felves, if they would be fo ingenuous, bj^ 
confeffing that thdrrdigibn had littje tt no 
native wofth to recommend it ; their deities 
having many faults that flood in need xk 
covering. Butlanfwer, that'notwithftahd* 
ftig all the faults of their deities, if the]jf 
would plainly tell us, that they hottour'd 'em 
for fome good deeds that they did to tsaxL^ 
kind, 1 Ihould like it better than to be or* 
der'd With abundance of pageantry to wor- 
ftip perfons generally unknown, their good 
deeds alfo being not known with any degre6 
of certainty. 

Having taken thus much notice of the 
fon, I muft not pafs by his father Tha^ion ; 
and indeed on his fon's account I donfider'd 
his name, becaufe I have a fufpicion that th6 
fon was call'd by the fame name Thabion^ 
elfe methinks our author would have fold 
us th^ diftinft name of the eldeft ttiero* 
phant in the world, unfefs he WoKld have 
us think he was Thabion too. However \\k 
may beeAird'(by ot!r Author's warrant) tha' 
^ionides, as the fon t^Maimpt is commonly 
call'd Mahmnides in imitation of the Greek 
PatrdnyAiicks. Now this Thabkn I doubl 
fnoit is aft eaftdrn name, nothing like it ofTer- 
ii)g it (^If ^ong^ out wefterii i«iffle§, dn4 

B I) 4 yhf 

3 44 ^Review af^he History, 

the ternain^tion of it oqly mi^ be allo^'d 
to be Greek. 

Why may we not thit|k |)oth the father 
and the fon to have been call'd ZiAii in 
^bwnicja^ which vprd fignifies both one 
coining from the eaft, ^ they muft do iince 
the Flood aqd difperfipn from J^abylon^ a 
little before this time ; and iipports alfp one 
who changes his religjqn^ \yhich pur author 
afTures us that this Tbakionides did ? See 
Dr. Sfencer de Zabiis in the beginning of 
his fecond boo)c, where you will find that 
the third and the fifth opinion therj^ pro- 
posed and prov'd, may thus cpnfiit ; and \ 
f epeai; nothing there faid^ nor can I add any 
thmg thereunto, only I will intimate to the 
reader that he may find both thefe notion^ 
of the word ZabU briefly foggefted in Dr. 
Cajik's iiepag. under the root t^ax J^aba^ 
in thie Arabif. 

But to clear the derivation of JI&^A^ from 
Zabij two.things I mpft proppfe ; i. s is orr 
dinarily t]aro'd into bj by the Cbaldai ; of 
which Bochart gives many ipftances. I will 
n?me bijt one near pur cafe, T^bi or Tor 
bitha is generally acknowledg'd to Come 
from the Hebrew ^m Zabi. z. That to is 
fometimes exprefs'd by $ in cafes where 
Hebrew word? are to be written in Greek 


\ ' 

y^ Review oftke History. 34^ 

letters, becaafe i^htth the £iine j^ee in the 
Grfek alphabet ftom Cadmus that » hath, iif 
the Hs&rew. T^aKoBocAattowns, when' 
he derives, /. 440, Cinthus from tfsry Chanat.^ 

If this derivation be admitted, we have 
here found the name of the author, and the 
time of the riling of the Z^bii^ fo famous 
in MAJemonides^ and among the Arabtans:^ 
which will alfo give an eaiy account of thtf 
far fpreading of this fort of idolatry ; becaui^ 
this early deceiver Thabionide^ had oppor-. 
tunity to poifbn the fountains of many co^ 
ionies, that fpread from Thmnicia and the 
fons of Cronus. v 

But however others judge of the wordi 
our Ssncboniatho afliires us that the things 
viz. this allegorical and miiic'd fort of ido^ 
latry, joining phyfical notions with hiftori*^ 
oal commeHK^ation^ of men th^t were ear- 
ly heads of government, and other wife in? 
ventors , was £rom this place, ^md «at this 
time, by this man's influeikfe begtih, and 
far ijpread, which is certainly worth the ob^- 
fervation, and for the derilration of the 
taxiCs name I am not fo much concern'd. ^ ^ 

Though I am inclined to look on this nam4 
^ containing a niark of this grea^ change^ 
.and . defign'd by Sancboniatbo ta he a re* 
pnoach or nickname to the family that was 
/ ; the 


34<^ ,^ Review of fheHtsro^r. 

tiie paufe of i( ; Por ic% [datn by his refufing 
to give us the diiliaguiAMfig tamt of this 
fon ofTktikiom, that he dcfigtiU hibi oo hb« 

And the whde defign of this part of the 
hifiory which is left to us, i$ tqihew that the 
^bmuicum xeh^on, which was more as hi-> 
ftcnrical commemoratioaof their beiiefa&or$> 
lAd free frcMo fabulous allegoric mixtures, 
was elder, and therefore, truer than the ./£« 
gyptisft, their honoured Ti^^/^confeffing it. 
And tho' his Either I/kh did receive thofe 
mixtures from the ionoi Tlf^hft mTim* 
Mtcia, probably juft before he went thence 
to goverf) the*eolony he {Wanted in Mgyft ; 
yet it's poilible i^X-TbiibmUts might in ^• 
g^t initil his dod^riae ipto Q/S^w, wWIe 
Ti^th was in Thignkia, and was recording 
the biih^rical account of the rife «ad pto* 
grefs of their religion. 

And I believe that whomever fHall wett 
confider the violent outtages of the Tbtat^ 
eUm paflors in Mgs^ againft the^|;^M* 
priefts, and. iheii confecrated animak, ift 
the long wars between 'em during that tkne^ 
(c^ which, there are undoubted .<J^j);^iri<Mr 
records cited by JofipJmt'm his book againft 
jipfflon) and knows thattheie were iilfc truth 
6ic\iC<mda»ites as Smtcbntafba was, bomof 

A Review of the History. 347 

(^ heathensy not Jtws^ as Jofefhus miftook 
'em without any fufficieitf proof from. the 
records he recites, but leaning upon foiqe 
^ight conjedures of his own* as our learneid 
^r»4i^i& hath prudently fuggefted ; they will 
not. wonder to 6nd that this our ThanicsMm 
doth inherit the old enmity of his fore- 
fathers againft the Mgy^pians., who expeU*4 
'em out <rf their part oiMgyft in the time 
of Tethmofis^ which I intend in the next fec« 
^ion to confide^ more fully. But now I am. 
only €oncern*d to obferve that he hath deli* 
ver'd to us fu^h ancient hiitorical obferva> 
tions as might juftify the TImnicians in theiir 
enmity to the Mgypiansy as early innova- 
tors in the heathen religion, although they 
pretend to be moil ancient. 

Thus wt are come again to the times of 
Qfiris and Tb^th the fir A kings (^ JE>g3ftt 
yet under Crmus i But thou^ Samchoniaib$ 
dbes not give us any account of the precife 
time of either of their beginnings to reign as 
fovereigns, but hath left us to feek that fomc 
other way ; yet the line of generations given 
to tis by him, compar'd with the more acr 
curate accounts <^ Mojes conceraiog tfj&^w's 
liiie, may otiable us to make fome ^broach- 
ing guefs at the time of their births. 



34^ -^Review of the Histoky, 

Mizraim or Ofi'is m?y be guefs'd to be 
born about the time oi Arj^haxad^shixt\\^ and 
Thoth about the time of Selah\ birth : And 
both of 'em were deify'd after their deaths, 
as it's obfervable that the two firft genera- 
tions after the Flood produced moft of the 
elder heathen Gods, feveral of which were 
kings in their life time. 

I will here add the confeffion or acknow- 
ledgment made of this by a high prieft in 
Mgyp to Alexander the Great , whereby 
this will ^e proved ; becaufe it's pertinent e- 
jiough to^ the cafe of thefe two firft kings 
Ihere, which our author'? genealogies lead 
lis to. This Auguftine gives us in the eighth 
book de Crvitate 2)^/, c. f . That Alexan- 
der wrote to his mother j that even the Gods 
of the higher rankj Jupiter, Juno, Saturn, tSc. 
were men ; and that this fecret was Idid o- 
fen to htm by Leo the great prieft ej^iEgypT 
tian /acred things*^ requiring the letter to 
be burnt J after it reveatd this to her. The 
like Cyprian affirms, only he laith, it was 
writ to his mother inftgni voluminey in a fa- 
mous volume y that the memory of their 
greater kings was preferv'd, and thence a- 
rofe the cuftom of facrificing ; the prieft con- 
feffing to him this fecret. 


Il ' 

AKEviEwoftheHisroKi. '349 

And that we may not ftifpedt thefe chri:- 
ftian writers, TuUy in his Tujcuifan queftions, 
. not far from the beginning, owns thistabe 
a thing, that thoje who are initiated muft 
know that they worjbipfed metis fouls, de- 
parted from their . bodies into heaven^ and 
that Majorum Gentium Dii were fuch ; and 
that almoft all heaven was JiWd with men. 
I doubt not but Alexander^ Cicero and At^ 
ticusy and our Sanchoniatho alfo, were ad- 
mitted to be tTTOTfJcu fityd/^v fM^njfJi^vi ac^ 
quaint ed with the great eft myfteries in the 
religious initiations of the heathens ; and^ 
that they have truly told us that this worfliip.' 
of fuch great men, as were the founders of 
arts add civil governments was the grand fe- 
cret of it, which was not communicated e- 
ven to thofe that were initiated into the lef- 
fer myfteries; all which exaftly agrees, with 
Sanchoniatho^ hiftory. And this may fuflSce 
for the fecond Seftion of the Review of this 
Hiftory. ^ 


Jyo ^/^tf Phoenician Pastors. 

Sect. IIL 

, Cincernmg the Phoenician Paftorsy and 
their exfitdfi(m out ofMgyi^t into Cik* 
naan by Techmofis. 

I Intend ift tfiis feftion to fix the time of 
Tetbmofuy who expeli'd the Tbcenician 
Paftors out of Mgyptf by fuch hifto- 
rical evidence, as may determine both how 
long he was before other known ^ra^s of 
later time, and how long after other fix*d 
times which preceded him. 

But I muft prepare my way to this, by 

I. Who thefe Tbcenician paftors were 
whom he removed. 

II. Where they were feated in Mgyft 
before the war which made them remove* 

m. Where they fettled afterwards. 

to the firft enquiry our author helps us 
to make an anfwer, where he afHires u» 
that Cbnaa was the firit Tbwnician. For 


\ - 

0/*/A^ Phoenician Pastors. 3^1 

iSace we have prov'd Chtfsa to be Caftaatff 
one of Haff^s fons mention'd b^ Mt/es, it 
follows that theTbteHsciattj wei^ of his po- 
fierity the Canasnitesy yet not all the fami- 
lies or nations that ifTued from him, partlr 
exdarly not the Hktiusy Jebufites^ &c. 
nam'd by Mtfi*, Gen. x. 15-, i6„ 17. but 
thofe contradifiin^ firom tibefe who are ex» 
[irefs'd in the end of &e 18''' verfe» in thefe 
words^ JIfterwards were the families of the 
CMMaamtes jpread abroad. Intimating that 
Other faimlies of his children were fpread! 
eifewhere, befides thofe that fettled in the 
promis'd knd, and north of it, ^%\!Eit Atva" 
dite and Hamathite did, who are there fpe- 
cify'd ; many fouthward about Gaza an<} 
Gerar, f. 19. and thence (till farther fouth 
wXioJB^^tf as from ihs Mgy^ian hiftory 
I -^all fiiew. To dear this farther it is to 
be obferv'd, that ^though the Hittifes, Je- 
ht/Sfesj AmoriUfy Girga^ites, voAHivitei^ 
were ail chit^ken of C9«tf<M, yet their pecu« 
fiar names, t<»gei!her with their lands were 
fbt limited, and diflSn^y known from other 
fiuailies deriv\!' from iianaan^ who had no^ 
other commcm or known name but that of 
Canaamitesy thait in Mcfir*^ writings, and 
the books of Jofhna and Judges rfiey are 
cdntradidioguiiSi'd from Canaanifes, to let 


352 t?//^^ Phoenician Pastors. 

us know that notwithflanding they were. 
Canaan's oifspringy ye^ they are not to be 
underflood under the general n^es of Cc- 
UManiteh but that name is by^ufe of fpeech 
limited to other families that camie from the 
fame remote anceftor, whidi had no fix'd 
plape, elpecially in the promised land, with 
a diitind name of a nation aliix'd thereto. 
. Such places of Scripture the reader may 
fee (befides the fundamental place^ Gen. x. 
18. juft now quoted, on which the reft are 
built) Gen. xv. xi. xxxiv. jo. Ex. iii. 8, 
17. xxiii. x8. xxxiii. x. xxxiv. 11^ ^eut. 
Yii. I. XX. 17. Jojh.m: 10. ix; I. xii. 8. 
xxiv. II. Judges iii. i, j. In all which the 
other nations are reckoned diftiuiftly from 
the Canaanitesy and the Canaanitfs from 
them, notwithftanding that Canaan was fa- 
ther to all thefe, and many more which pe« 
rifh'd in the wars in Mgypt. 

There are alfo many'places in the Scrip- 
ture which ailign particular feats to fuch 
Candanitesj diftind from the feats of thofe 
nations which never went into Mgyft^ but 
xefided in the land of promife: But I re- 
ferve 'em to be confider'd in my anfwer to^ 
to the third enquiry ; where the Canaanitet 
fettled after their expulfion out oiMgyfi ? 

I « 


0//^ Phoenician Pastors, jjj 

Only here I fuggeft that 1 believe moft 
of the places already noted, which only di- 
ftinguifli Canaanites from the other nati- 
ons devoted to be extirpated with 'em by 
Ijfaely refer to fuch as were the offspring 
of thofe who fome time dwelt in MgyfU 
but thruft thcmfelves in among their kin- 
dred here, when they could not ftay there. 

In the mean time it will here be feafona- 
ble to intimate, that I acknowledge that 
there were fome in the promised land, whom 
Mofes calls Canaanites^ diftinft from the o- 
ther devoted nations even before the ex* 
pulfion of the great body of Canaanites out 
of Mgyp^ particularly thofe mentioned 
Gen. xii- 6. and xiii. 7. at the time when 
Abraham and Lu were newly come from 

This I believe was before Tethmojis's fuc- 
cefs againft thofe Thssniciansin Mgypt ; yet 
there was a long war and a great conflift, 
not only before his time, but before the 
time oi Hali/phraginutbojis his father, be- 
tween the Mgyptians and thefe Thcenician 
Pallors, as Jofefhus expreflly affirms; i cont. 
Ap. And it's credible that many Canaanites 
which were in -^gypt might go away from 
thence with their cattle into Canaan^ to a- 
void the danger and trouble of thofe wars, 

C c ' although 

3 j4 Of the Phoenician Pastors. 

although the maih- body of 'eni thought fit 
td'fighV'it out till they were reduced to ex- 

TTrs plain Mofis in the two fore quoted 
places fpeaks oiCanaafiites atid Tertzzitesy 
as newly come info the land when Abraham 
and 'Lot came ; but 'he fpeaks not fo of the 
Hittttes and Amoriies with whom Abraham 
was confederate, G^^. xiv. 13/ The like al- 
fo I obferve concerning the Horimj or fons 
of Seir^ thefe were not look'd on as new 
comers, but were of the Hivites ; for Zi- 
beoiu Seir's fon is fo exprelfly c^H'd, Gett. 
xxxvi. 2. TtTiefe and the like were the old 
fettled fotts oiCanaan thereabouts ; but the 
contradiftinguifli'd Canadnites feem not to 
be fuch, for as My^j intimates they were 
fcatter'd, G^». X. 18. And fo were the T^- 
rizzitesy who are not nam'd there, but are 
join'd with the Canaantte in Lot\ cafe, G^^r. 
xiii. 7. and often afterwards. The T^eriz- 
zite fignifles a villager, and fuch indeed 
might an Amoritel Hittite^ or any other of 
Canaan s fons be, although they had after- 
wards fome well fortify 'd towns alfo ; but I 
judge that the ^erizzites^ and the fcatter'd 
Canaantte s did not dwell in fuch in that -age. 
And I take notice of thefe Terizzitesj on- 
ly becaufe I found 'em firil in fuch Canaa^ 

^ nites 

Of the Phoenician Pastors. 3 j y 

nites cofflxpany, and in circumftances that 
imply 'em to be men that liv'd on pafturage, 
moving their tents from place to place as 
pafture invited *em ; juft as Abraham and 
^Liot did while the land was not fully peo- 
pled, when there was room enough to fpare 
for them and their cattle, though they were 
llrangers. . 

But the' coming of fome Canaanites and 
^erisszites thither, feems to be mentioned 
to give a reafon why Abraham and Lot be- 
gan now to be fo ftraitned thereabouts, that 
it was not convenient for 'em to keep toge- 
ther, but parting each of 'em to go where 
they niight find more room, and no occa- 
fion of their herdfmen -to fall out. 

To evince farther that thefe diftindtly 
caird Canaanites and ^erizzites came out 
of Mgyfp^ it may be obferv'd that in the 
JPiindamentaPplace, Gen:yL. 15*, fSc. the 5P^- 
rizzites are not reckoned up as one 6f the 
Idiftind families defcended from Canaan ^ 
nor mentioned at all, when all the people 
deriv'd from him are diftiiiftly exprefs'd, 
but are there only included among the 
^catter'd Canaanites j who had no place at 
firfl: in the land of Canaan. 

And their name importing 'em villagers, 
ftrongly intimates that they had no cities, 

C c X ' but' 

^j6 Of the Phoenician Pastors. 

but wcvt kept out of 'em by the inhabitants 
that firft built 'em, and fenc'd 'em againft 
flrangers, although they would allow fuch 
ftrangers to dwell in fmall villages, and per- 
mit 'em common for their cattle^ while the 
land was not yet full flock'd. 

And laltly, thofe chariots of iron which I 
find the Canaanites and Teriz:&ites had, 
Jo/h. xvii. 1 6, 1 8. and elfewhere, being the 
^^gjl^f/^/y manner of fighting, and not found 
in any other people of Canaan whom IJrael 
deftroy'd, though the Tbiliftines us'd 'em 
who were Mixir aim's children ; this Satisfies 
me that the people diftindly calPd Canaa- 
nites and Teriz&itesy both in Abraham'^ 
time, and afterwards in JoJhua% came from 

This leads me to obferve the difference 
that was between thefe Canaanites when 
they fpread farther fputh, and a little weft- 
ward to come into a part oi Mgyfty and 
the fons and fubjeds of Mizraim there. 
For our Canaanites kept to their old way of 
life by paflurage, and chofe fuch a part of 
that countjey to dwell in as fitted their man- 
ner of life, and it's prpbable had the con- 
fent of old Ham or Cron$iSj who was yet a- 
live, and had a fovereignty there ; though 
Mizraim by his confent (I have reafon to 


ty^j&f Phoenicun Pastors. 357 

think) rui'd there, as his fon Thoth is ex- 
preflly aflSrm'd by Sanchon'tatho to do, who 
was Mizraim's fon, and is own'd by Mane- 
tho and Eraftotbenes alfo to fucceed him. 

What part oi Mgypt thefe Canaanites 
dwelt in, I fhall exprefs in my anfwer to the 
fecond ^are. Now I only remark that 
they were Paftors, and royal ones too, as 
Jojfefhus faith the name /^r/J" whereby they 
were call'd doth denote, which he had from 
IdanethOy and Eufebius from him. In thofe 
days a coniiderable number of children and 
fervants, and cattle, made a man to be call'd 
a prince ; fo was Abraham call'd by Ephrgn 
the Hittite^ and a mighty one too, Gen. 
xxiii. 6. Siich a one I believe was Job, and 
fuch were his friends that vifited him : Such 
it's like were the 70 kings which Adonibe- 
zek kmg of Bexxk had conquer'di and cut 
off their thumbs and great toes, as he was 
foon after juftly requited, Jvdges i. 7. and 
many more mention'd in Jojhua as kings in 
Canaan, but there fpyeral pf 'em had more- 
over fenced cities. 

This paftoral life they were fo well pleas'd 
with, together with that independent power 
or fovereignty thereto annex'd, that they 
defpis'd plowing and fowing, and all men 
that affefted the plenty or riches that thence: 

C c 3 might 

3 y 8 Of the Phoenician Pastors. 

might arife, accompanied with fubjedion 
to great princes. So did the old Scythiam 
Nomades^ fo do the Hoards of the Tartars . 
now in the north, and the Alarbes in part 
of the kingdom of Fez and Morocco^ not 
to name more. 

But there was another difference which 
was in religion between them and the JE^ 
gyptians\ for \}^t Qanaanins &\xz)fi to the 
old and Ampler forms of idolatry, the ^- 
gyptians embraced newer ways ; firft fuch as 
OJiris from Thabionides introduced, after- 
wards more innovations by the worlhip of 
living images. Thefe two difierenccs laid 
the foundation of a mortal ettmity between 
the Phoenicians (whom I call Canaanites by 
Sanchoniatho\ direftion) and the Egyp- 
tians^ whofe temples Mamtho faith they ru- 
in'd, captivated their wives and children, 
burnt their to\X^ns, and committed all out- 
rages againft them. 

But I cannot find the name of Timaos 
king of the Mgyftians at the time of thefe 
Canaanites entrance into Mgyftt according 
to Manetho in Jofefhus, in any remains of 
Manetho preferv'^d to us, by Jifirivanus, En- 
feb'ius mSyncellus: 

I have thought it no improbable guefs to 
conjcdure that the Tintaos (being a name 


Of the Phoenician : P ast oRSi 359 

no where elfe found to belong to itny king 

ofJEgyptJ is corruptly placed iiy, ti'anfcri«» 

bers inltead of Minaios^ Which is the name 

whereby Jofefhus calls the builder of' Mem- 

fhisy in his Arch. lib. viii. c. x. Whom o- 

thers generally call Menes. Yet- he is call'd 

Mmes in Scaliger's Greek Eufebilts^^ p. 18. 

Out of Syncellus he defcribes Athptbes^ as 

zfoV y^mm^ And Tint arch de //ii^i^ calls him 

M*vi>jV, and the Excerpt Latini^Barbara^ 

name him Mineus^ all exprefliog thie iirft 

founder of the peculiar monarchy of JS^jj^^. 

And many fons of Canaan j whom Sanchoniap^ 

tho aflures us to be the firft Tbmnicianj 

might probably come into a ^xtsdAEgypt 

with Mizraimy Canaan's brother, >and^ive 

without any king peculiar to themfelves all 

Mizr aim's time, yet toight fet up this Sala-- 

tis over themfelves in Thoth's time. If this 

be admitted, it will greatly clear the-^^/- 

tian chronology, and will affure us, that in 

Jofefhm'% time the Dynaflies , precedent 

now to that of the Paftors, did not ftand. one 
before an other in fuch order as they now 

come to us from Africanus. 

But upon farther confideration I think it 

moll certaita that this Timaos in jfojephus is 

, but a different way of writing that eldeft 

king Thammusy to whom Tlato in his Th^e- 

C c 4 drus 

3 ^o Of the Phoenician Pastors. 

drus informs us, that Thoth fliew'd his in- 
vention of letters in Mgyft. r and $ are let- 
ters eafily chang'd in Greek; and in the eaft 
alfo thofe letters differ but by a point added 
to n. Thammus is alfo the Hebrew name of 
jidonts^ or OJirls^ or Menesj the titles of 
Thot^'s king and father. So Chronicon A- 
lexandrinum cited by Selden^ makes QU/jlv^ 
iignify Adonis^ who from Stephanus and Z»«- 
cian is known to be OJirts^ or the firft king 
of Mgyft. This agrees in the perfon with 
my former conjefture, but gives a better ac- 
count of Timaos from Thammusj and fixes 
the Thtenician's entrance into /Egypt in the 
firft king's time ; but their fetting up a king 
Salatis of their own family was in Thoth's 
time afterwards. 

The numbers of thefe Paftors which are 
exprefs'd in Jofefbus from Manetho are too 
great for me to believe. I fufpeft falihood 
there us'd either by Manetho^ or fome be- 
fore him, or by the tranfcribers oijofephus, 
Neverthelefs I believe the fubilance of the 
hiftory to be true, that thefe Thcenician Pa- 
ftors and Egyptians had in thpfe early times 
great animofities and wars againft each o-^ 
ther, founded partly in the difference of 
their civil conflitutions and manner of life 
before exprefs'd, and partly in their religious 



Of the Phoenician Pastors. 3^1 

rites; becaufe it's too evident that men a- 
greeing in the fubftance of religion with 
each other, do yet in all ages bitterly hate 
one another for differences in the modes or 
rites of Religion. And the Scripture wit« 
nefles that the Mgypt'tans counted them- 
felves fo much purer than the people of. 
Canaan^ that they would not eat together, 
even when they made friendly entertain- 
ments of one another ; but the Mgypt'tans 
muft eat by themfelves in the banquet that 
Jofeph made for his brethren when they 
came out of Canaan to buy food. Gen. 
xliii. i%. 

For it is to be confider'd that then the 
Mgyptians did not diftinguifh the Hebrews 
of Jacob\ family from other CahaaniteSj 
. there being no evidence that they knew of 
any difference of their religion frona the 
Canaanites religion, but behav'd themfelves 
toward^s towards 'em as they would have 
done to any heathen co];ne out of Canaan. 
ypfeph had not then own'd 'em to be his 
brethren, nor had they made there any pro* 
feffion of a different religion from that which 
was publick in Canaan^ whence they canie 
to buy food ; particularly their being Paflors, 
which was ordinary in Canaan^ made 'em 
an abomination to the Mgypttans^ Gen. 

xlvi. 34, 


3^2. Of the Phoenician Pastors* 

xlvj. .34. And Herodotus- ziihres us, that 
they would not ufe the knife or dilh of a 
Qreeky who was as truly heathen as they 
Ijy their own acknowledgment, but not fo 
pure and refin'd in their opinion. 

IL Our next enquiry is for the place or 
part of JSj>/^ wherein xh^Thwnician Paijprs 
were feated during their Dynaily : . Thefe in 
Manet bo's 1 6"^** Dy nafty are call'd (poiviKig ^ivai^ 
Tbcenician flrangers, he JTpeaking like an 
jEgyptian prieft , who becaufe they wer0 
not of il//-2;r^ii»'s children or colony, looked 
on 'em as foreigners, notwithflanding that 
their anceftor Canaan the firfl Tho^nician was 
JMizraim's brother. 

See the beft account that remains from 
jjfrkanus in Sca/iger's CoUeiianea^ p- 352.. 
iftdiere three Dynalties of Paftors are reck- 
pn'd, vis^. the I5'^ 16'^ and i7'\ but there 
are no names of kings in any befides the 15'^. 
And thefe only a-re ownM by J of ef bus's ci- 
tation from Manet ho, without any names of 
Dynafties ; and he plainly cgnnefts the be- 
ginning of the The ban kingdom, which in 
^fricanurs'% remains of Ha^ftho is calFd the 
rxV^ Dynafty, with the..e2?pulfion of thefe 
Paftors which he haci nam'd. . 
.. Several difagreeijients between Jofefhus 
and Mricanus'% account of the fame Mane- 


Of the Phoenician' Pastors. 3(^3 

/^p*s hiflory are too vifible : But I will here 
only remark one, which is njoft pertinent' 
to our enquiry about the place of thefe Par 
ilors, vi2^. Jofe^hm fays they fortify*d a 
place caird Abaris in the Nomus Suites asf 
their frontier ; Africanus fays it was in the 
Momus Sethroites, Thefe are places far di- 
ftant, fiTidiJofephus's defcription that it was 
on the eaft, and on the fide of the Bubaftic, 
ftream of Nilej is inconfiltent with the. fitu- 
ation of the Saites Nomus ; therefore we 
muft conclude that Africanus'^ name of the 
Sethroltes Nomus is the true name of the 
place, and this is indeed fituate on the eafi: 
of iE^jy//, and on the Bubaftic ftream, and a 
fit place both for a frontier againil foreign^ 
ers, and a pafs into all Mgyft. Here there- 
fore is their entrance or bound on, one fide. 
Abaris is the town's Hebrew name (as I 
fupppfe the Canaanites fpake a language not 
much different from that, which may eafily be 
proved) from nay Gnabar, fignifying ^^/^/r ; 
land Sethrcfn yj2iS its AEgy^tian nzmtj from 
.whence the Nomus adjacent to it is call'd Se^ 
throites. The Greeks call either this city, or 
one near it, Telujium. It's probable the coun* 
trey which Mofes calls Gojhen began here- 
abouts, and ran fouthward, between the Nile 
on its weft fide^ and the red fea on part of it's 

eaft \ 

3 tf 4 ^/ ^^^ Phoenician Pastors. 

eaft fide. The Arabic verfion, from which 

F hop'd to find fome help to underftand Go- 

jhtn^ as neighbouring to Arabia^ renders 

Gojhen by Sadiry which I conjefture to re- 

fpeft t\i^ AEgyftian mme Set hr any in which 

t think on to be only the Greek termination, 

and Sethir to be the fame with JV^/r, be- 

caufe d founded often in the eaft like ^/A, 

or th. 

'This conj^fture I conceive is confiftent 

with the derivation of Set hr on from theJS- 

gypian word Sethy their ufual name for 

Typhon^y^wYitnctJofefhus informs us this 

town was in their theology caird Tyfhontus. 

For the Arabic being a late tranflatipn, might 

refpeft ^and make an approach to the Greek 

word immediately, and yet ftill the Greek 

be derived from th? old AEgypian word 


The Sepuagint cpnftantly exprefs the 

Hebrew name Gojhen by Fga-Vt which being 

a Hebrew word impprting iho^^ers of rairi^ 

made me to confider that fiirely they would 

intimate to us that in the name Gojhen the 

m is chang'd into », which is an Ordinary 

change in many languages, and th^y feem al- 

fp by chufing to return to the original found, 
importing fliowers, to fuggeft-to us that it 

was that part ofAEgyp which had it's whole 


Of the Phoenician Pastors. 3 6^ 

<kpendence on the rains from Heaven, as 
it is diftinft from the other part of ^gyft 
which is ' overflowed and made fruitful by 
liile^ and is call'd Rahab in Hebrew j ^elta 
in Greeks both from its triangular figure, as 
pthers have noted* 

But the countrey that Jofe^h cl?ofe for 
his family, or Ifraelites^ was I conceive 
<much the fame with that \vhic^ the old liea* 
then Canaanitijh Paitors had been exr- 
pell'd out ' of, (about 1 1^ years before the 
time that Jacob came thither, as will appear 
.by Armagh's annals as to the time ;) the nes- 
ceflity of both their caCps being much a* 
like, this was the fitteft place for *em, both 
to keep unmix'd with the pure Mgyfttansy 
and to maintain their cattle, in which lay 
all their eftates. Now xki^^Delta in no part 
of it could do this, being near half the year 
overflowed, and the reft of the year em- 
ploy'd in the fowing, growth and harveft of 
the corn fow'din the mud: Wherefore it's 
peceflary that the Paftors muft dwell and 
feed their cattle in fuch a part oiMgypt as 
was not thus overflowed, but yet was in 
fome degree (though much lefs) water'd 
by rain from heaven immediately. 

To this purpofe I have obferV*d, that 
Mofes fpeaking of the place w;here his Ifra- 


0//i&^ Phoenician Pastors. 

idifijh Pallors had liv*d in jEgypty intimat^ 
tftat it was often a very dry place, where 
they fow'd their feed, and water'd it with 
their foot as a garden Of herbs, ^eut. xi. lo; 
which evidently proves that it was not with- 
in the Deltaj which is thoroughly foak'di 
btit without it, where they have only fome 
help fey rain^ which falleth more fparingly 
there than it doth it in Canaan^ yet in 'thfe 
vallies th^re was a fufEci^nt quantity of 
grafs for the cattle. , - 

But to inform us farther of the fituatio^ 
of GoJheHj the ^ Sepuagint add to its name 
Ipmething that is not in the Hebrew text ; 
the word 'A^^lctg fignifying its fituation to- 
wards Arabiay\t that it is in that diftinft 
countrey : For it's certain that the ancients 
made Nile the bound between Africa and 
AJia^ and reckoned the land on the eaft fide 
of Nile to Afiuy to belong to Afia in general, 
Arabia in particular. -' 

This Hier6mX% angry at, as fometimes he 
is without a caufe ; for it's nd fault in a 
tranflation to add now and then a word or 
two to make the text better underftood, 
as they have hereby done, G^«, xlv. lo. 
xlvi, 34. And I wifh they had done fo in o- 
ther cafes oftner fo happily ; for hereby we 
are informed that Gojhen was contiguous to 


ar . - , ^ 

Of the PfeiOENiciAN PasItors. 3(^7 

Arahldy whe^f e it <vas bounded % land, artdf 
that Arabia ^is over agaiiitt it on the other 
fide of the red fea, where it was bounided 
by water : Andl believe it is for this reafon 
alfo that Bar Bahlul the Striae - Lexicogra- 
pher doth, as Dr. 'Q/?/?. informs us in' the 
root im Gojhen , , render it by* Cujhathaj 
whereby Arabia is often fignified. But I 
confifs I cannot give a certain reafon why 
he writes it with a Kofh rather than a Caph^ 
only this change of a letter is very fmall, 
and'.mjghi; eafily be committed in tranfcrib- 
ing, and without fuppofing this change, I 
can give np account of his meaning. 

Ho'u^ever, in favour of the Septuagint\ 
notion, Herodotus who was long in Mgypt 
is clear, ownihg all that part oiJEgyp which 
lay^eaft of i\ri/^ to belong' to AJiay and calling 
It i\iQ Arabic dde thereof; and I doubt not 
but' that the old heathen Thasnice^ firft, and 
afterwards the . Ifraelitijh Paftbrs dwelt 

There, is tlie' 'Hg^Ja^y 'zsrixigy mentioned by 
the SeJ^tuagint as belonging to Gojhen^ Gen. 
xlvi.. xS;, 29. There is alfo a large ihire or 
divifion of jEgypt^ call'd both in Herodotus^ 
and defcrib'd by the ancient Geographers, 
Strahoj Ttvlemy and Tlinyy by the name 
Nomus Tharbaticus. This name is clearly 


3^8 Of the PhoeniciaitTastprs. 

4criv'd from ->b Thatt a bullock, and no 
Beth, a hpufe ; and imports the whole coun- 
trey to be full of flails for oxen or bullocks, 
and being a pure Hebrew, name, was left 
there moft probably either by the old Cana- 
amtes, which I think moft likely, or the 
JJraelities their fucceflbrs in the fame coun- 


Yet to confirm it more, I find a place 
caird Thahtus in Eretria belonging to Eu- 
kwa, which place's name fignifies its abound- 
ing with oxen ; and it was a colony from 
^hcenicia and Mgyp, as Bochart hath 
prov'd, though he fays nothing oiTbarbe- 
tus, which is in Stephanus, and muft be a 
name given in Eubma on a like reafon there, 
to that which I have affigned concerning 
this part oijEgyft. 

I might here add other arguments to prove 
this place the feat of thefe Paftors, as that 
HerOy which the Seftuagmt and others call 
Heroou Tolls, was an Mgyftian city, as 
Stephanus witnefles, feated here ; which al- 
fo he fays was call'd ««/*«, from the blood 
of Typhon here wounded, and hidden, or 
buried in the lake of Serbonis not far from 
it, as Herodotus fays. 

All which fable relates to the wars be- 
tween the eldeft kings of Mgyft, who 


0/^^^ Phoenician Pastors^ 3^0 

their Gods, md thefe foreigii Payors, and 
probably were the tru^ fo}^nidaqop. - of i^^ 
Qreek fidions of the ftght qf the Qi^ri^tsWitli 
their Gods, borrowed froni Mgy^y wlpiipl^ 
I might clear by conftrtiiig; the cOi^trVy 
glofles. I might argqe it from a ceffa^nty 
that we have from HerpdQtu^'% ^atjimAs^ v^V^ 
Bubajiis certainly in this countr^y* that $P/- 
thomi which 4^ but^tbe i^^^rfte; aofwedng 
HerodUM\ Tatumt^Sj own'd by Mofes t(p 
be built by the IJraelitiJ? P^flors her^ \^^^ 
this was the place of. tlxe elder Qammhtjh 
Pallors/ , 

JHerewith that agrees well wljich Gr^litf 
fuggefts in his notes on Exodus i. 11. TJwu: 
the ^athmetic Oftium of Nile mentioned hy 
Ttolemy^ had its name from this ^ithonf. 
The cbapge of a vowel and termination in 
the Greek language hinders not, being )cnow|i 
to be idual ; only it mufl be added that that 
branch of iV>7^whofe mouth was call'd Tatbr^ 
metkum^ ^oth fall out of the Bubafiic 
branch, near the place where TitMnt was 
/eated, and fp kads from it to fea, or from 
fea thither, and gives a jufl: reafqn of the 
name. But I perceive I have been too long 
already upon this fubjeft, therefore I will 
haflen to difpatch the third enquiry, in 
which I will be Ihorter. 

D 4 ^«- ni. 

j7o Of the Phoenician Pastors^ 

^. ni. To this I anfwer, that I conceive^ 
they went into Canaan ^ and were theref 
known by that general nzmQ of Canaankes^ 
us'd by Mo/es in contradiftinftion to all the 
other nations derived froni the fame ance- 
ftor Canaan^ (but formerly fix'd there) uit- 
der the fpecfaf names ofHiuitesy HiviteSf 
Amorttes^ Jebufitesj &C. 

t. Becaufe they were their kindred, and 
of the fanie religion with them, and hated 
not their way of life by pafturage. 

i. Here was room^ enough, as appears not 
only by their admitting Abraham and his 
■flocks, and his fervanfS, with whom they 
made friendly confederacies, yet that was 
before the main bodyofthefe Canaanites . 
came from Mgypt : But alfo aftfer the time 
of their coming, which we will: fliew in the 
next feftion was near thev^nd ofAbrahamS 
life, we find there was room enough fbrfuth 
ftrangers to their blood and religion as /- 
faac\ and Jacobs family were, which had* 
great flock of cattle. See Gen. xxxiv. 21. 

The fruitfulnefs alfo of the land join'd i^ 
the former confiderations, mufl needs* be 
a great invitation to them. 

3. I confefs indeed that the Mofaicathi- 
flory- doth not exprefs their coming thither, 
but it doth not deny it neither. The true 

4 reafpn 

0/*/^f Phoenician Pastors. 371 

iteafon of Mofes's filence in this matter is e- 
vident, becaufe his defigii did not lead him 
to record all the concerns of the family de- 
rived from the accurfed Canaan ; hut he was 
only engaged in that branch of S hem's line 
from which Abraham ^ Ifaac and Jacob 
came ; the anceftor's of God's peculiar peo- 
ple, and of the Meffiah. Wherefore he on- 
- ly briefly mentions other nations, fo far as 
» was neceffary to make clear the concerns of 
I/ratly to whom he gave laws* 

Hence he hath left us to feek the hiftory 
of other nations in other authors, whom we 
may believe^ fo far as the matter they re- 
. port is in its own nature rationally credible, 
and not repugnant to his divine revelations. 
And indeed heathen hiilory in this cafe may 
juilly challenge great credit from us, in thofe 
parts of it which are fo conliftent with the 
- Mofaical records that they afliil us to un* 
derlland fome palFages in 'em more diftindl- 
ly than we could without 'em. 

Yet before I proceed to my probfs from 

heathen writers, I beg leave to infert here a 

. conjefture concerning the !PA/7//?/»^j, whom 

. Mofes mentions as refiding in the fouthern 

..part of Canaan in. Abraham's time, even 

when IJaac was born, as appears by Gen. 

xxi- 34. compared with what goes before: 

Ddx Yet 

T • I 

i7z Of the Phoenician Pastors. 

Yet in Gert. x. 14. Mofis affirms the f^AUi- 
ftinei to have defcended of Mizraim, which 
as I conceive imports that originally they 
were Mgyptians. 

To make *em as Becharidoest to be the 
remains of an army that before this time had 
conquer'd and inhabited Cekhssy and ftaid 
fome of them here in their return towards 
JEgypi is without ground to make an im- 
probable ftory. It feems rational to me to 
believe, that they were a part of the^^>/- 
tians that liV'd by pafturage, and coofe- 
quently cohabited with the Themices in G#- 
fhen. But in the beginning of the long war 
mention'd by Jofi^husy between the Pallors 
and other JEgyfttans^ finding their coun- 
• trey invaded by their kindred, the other 
foris of Mizraim^ they left it to avoid the 
dangers of the war, before things were 
cOme to that extremity to which Hali^hrsg- 
muthojis mdiTethmofis brought the more ob- 
ftinate Pallors afterwards. And thus early 
I bfelieve they came to the better psdflure 
grounds in the neighbouring part of Oma- 
an, as I have fuggefted that fome did who 
are peculiarly call'd Canaanites, of whom 
Abraham found a ftvi to have come into 
this couritrey when he firft enter'd into it. 

» * 


Of the Phoenician Pastors, 373 

In Tint arch's theologic fable about ijis, 
there is mentioH of a boy call'd TaUft'tMus, 
which ihe when (he was at Byblus was much 
difpleafed with ; this I guefs to be a little 
people the ThiliftineSy who left her govern- 
ment and countrey, and dwelt with her ^*' 
mies the Canamites. 

4. Therefore I prove thefe Thfeniclan 
Paftors to have gone from Mgyp into Ca- 
naattt out of Manethoy Herodotus and Tlu- 
tarch. And Manetho's teffimony in this 
cafe is the more confiderable, becaufe it's 
own'd to be true both by Jofefhus alTertin^ 
that Manetho had it from accurate JE^yp- 
tian records, and alfo by many of the chri- 

ftian fathers. 

For I have before intimated that the tnl- 
llake which Jofephus and feveral chriftian 
fathers fell into, by mifconftruing this ftory 
oiMauetho concerning the Jews, doth not 
hinder the hiftory from being true concern^ 
ing the heathen Canaan'ttes, whom only he 
meant it of; and he plainly diftinguiflies them 
from x}a&Jen3}s whom he fpeaks of, as after 
their titoe going out oiMgyPt^ fo far he is 
true. But he adds divers fallhoods about 
'cm, which Jofephus affirms he had no good 
Mgyptim records for, nor are they confi- 
ftent with the divine hiftory of Mofes, buf 

X) d 3 ro«r« 

374 Of the Phoenician Pastors; 

mere fables invented by the Egyptians out 
of hatred to the Jewsy which yet do not 
prejudice the report he makes from good 
records concerning the heathen Paftors of 
elder time by above 300 years. 

There may be fome error of tranfcribers, 
or others, in the greatnefs or roundnefs of 
the number 140000, and perhaps the build- 
ing oijerufalem afcrib'd to 'em, muft be in- 
terpreted of enlarging and fortifying it, as it 
is often in other hiftories exprefs'd by build- 
ing ; but the fubftance of the ftory that they 
fettled in Judaa^ as it was after calFd, and 
thereabouts among their kindred derived 
from Canaan, who poflTefs'd more than the 
land of promife, I fee no reafon to doubt 
that it's true. 

The testimony of Herodotus in the begin- 
ning of his Clioj reciting what he had re- 
ceiv'd from choice or renown'dP^ry?i^»j*, con- 
cerning the firft or eldeft occafions of quarrel 
between the Greeks and the Ajiatics relates 
to this m^tter^ and confirms my belief much. 
And there is a parallel place in his Tolymniaj 
p. 114. where thefe P/^^^/Vm^j" oiTalaftine 
own theitfelves formerly to have dwelt on 
the borders of the red fea , now on the 
ihores of Talajline. He Yaith, The Phoe- 
nicians coming from the red feuy and fettling 


t}fthe Phoenician Pastors. 37 f 

"ft/bere they mw are fin his time) carrying 
Aflyrian and JEgypthn merchamiizes or car ^ 
goe^ came to Argos, and thence by furprtze 
carried away lo the daughter o/lnachus, and 
faird »way with her into ^gypt, &c. 

Here, i. J urvierftand their coming from 
that fide of theredfea that lies towards^- 
gypt^ aad the part of it calFd Gojhen^ where- 
of we have lately difcoursVl; becaufe the 
words will bear this as well as any limitation 
of 'em to the other fide of that fea, and bet- 
ter;. and becai^feconcurrent hiftory aflures us, 
that hence both heathens and j^^w/ came into 
Vhmniciayhat there's no proof of any to come 
from the other fide of that fea into PA^wV/tf. 
a. I underftand thefe to be the elder 
^hceniciansy heathens or CanaaniteSy fuch 
AS were great traders at fea in AjSyrifln and 
JE.gyptt4n wares, both in the eldeft times^ 
and in Herodotus^ days. Npw the Jews 
were never fuch tr^aders at fea^ either in He- 
rodotus^ time, which was not long a^ter their 
return out of the captivity ; then they were 
very po^pr, and had no fliipping, as the 23^- 
rians and other Canaanitijh ports had : Npr 
in thofeold ximts xhzx, Herodotus fpeaks of, 
wasitpoffiblethat thej^te^j could be traders, 
^nce the founders of their twelve tribes Ja-^ 
foiis fons were not born in Inachus's days- 

Dd 4 Where- 

li y 

37^ Of^e Phoinician Pastors. 

Whef efofe we nsaft hence conclude thai 
thfefe were heathen ^Pbienicianst who came 
from AieJSgjffian fide of the fed fea about 
Iktcbus"^ time, who was ative when Ms 
daughlKf lo was carried away, as Tafthenms 
Nk^enfis (Who Was taken in the Mithrida- 
tk war, tbi fo came to Rome^ where f^irgil 
he&rd him read Greek lefturies) Witneffes in 
his Eroticfy caP. t. 

Thefe things agree well with our Ar- 
magh's accoUHts> who places T€thmoJis\ ex- 
pnlfion of the Paftors within the time of 
Inkthus^ reign. And this ftory intimates^ 
that ^ leaft forae of *em were in ^hmnicia 
rather fooner, as I fuggefted before, but 
then certainly. 

And I was well fatisfy'd to obferve that 
%hfc learned old Terfians had recorded this 
tjarly tranfaftion, and that Herodotus rather 
believed this eaftern hiftory than the Greek 
fables about lo. This made me wifli we had 
more fuch things as he learn'd from the 
eaftern fages, efpecially thofe AJfyriaca of 
his wriritig) which he mientions under the 
name of tdy^i 'AarJe/o*. But I muft ndt ex- 

Yet I will nxrte another tellimony in He- 
rodotus^ Lii. c. 54, 55. becaufe he.aflTures 

us that he received it both from the Mgyf- 


Of the Phoenician Pastors. 377 

tiaH priefts oUTbehes^ and from thofe of the 
^lUdenddH oracle in The/protia ; that the fir fi 
priefi^ejfei both of the Libyan Oracle ^/Jupi* 
ter HauiffKMi, and of the Dodonasan orattei 
"were taken away and fold by the Phoenici- 
ans into the fe countries out ^/Thebes in ^-. 
gypt. Tis likely be may mean that the 
^hmnicians^ when they harafs'd the "Upper 
Mgypt^ might take captive thefe women 
tieaf Thebes in the province Thebais ; becaufe 
I find no proof elfewhere that they took 
the capital cky thereof; but Jofephus from 
Manetho informs us that they did invade 
that upper inland region. 

Hence I argue, that thefe oracles were 
founded before Afnojis\ time, while the 
^hcentcian Dynafty was ftrong in JEgyft\ 
for it's evident that y^Thoenicians couid not 
^t any other time pierce into thofe inmo& 
|>arts of ^pper Mgypt to cwry away cap^ 
tives to be fold into other countries. 

Tliis commerce with Greece at this time 
agrees weH with his form«ition'd hiftory 
relating to Inachu^s daughter, and confirms 
chaCt tdlimony of Taufanias^ who affirms 
that the Teliasj or dove (fo they caird 
priefteffes) oi^odona^ was elder than^^^^- 
tnonoe at T)elphos, The black face of the 
firft prieflefs, and her chattering atfirftin;^ 


37^ Of the Phoenkian Pastors, 

knguage not underftood by the Greeks^ and 
the likenefs of the T>odonaan oracle to the 
Theban in ^gyft^ all which are expreffly 
noted by Herodotus ^^^ exadly to confirm 
this hittory. 

And fo do the human facrifices enjoinU 
by the T)odon£an oracle mentioned in P^*- 
fan. Achate, in the tragical flory of Corefm 
and CaUirrhoej fufficiently intimate that the 
. Thtenician and Mgyptian priefts had fet up 
this Do^mean oracle before the time of A? 
mojis^ who deftroy^d that barbarous praftice 

in Mgyp. 

I know the name ^odona is commonly 
deduced ivom^odanim of Jafhefs line, 
'whofetimeis ncit determined, neither will I 
oppofe this derivation ; yet perhaps it will 
not be amifs i;o intimate that I believe that 
fDodafiimj and 7)avidy Jedediahy "Dido and 
^Dodo^ twice mentioned, x Sam. xxiii. 9, 24. 
are all from one ThiBnician or eaftern root 
in ®W; importing love or kind afFeftion* 
And fince the name came from the eaft, the 
men that gave it may juftly be thought to 
come thence alfo, whether they were of 
Jafhefs line or oiHam\ 

I will only farther point at Tlutarch's te- 
ftimony, wherein he reports it's affirm d 
that Typhon efcafmg^ ^egat Hiprofolynnis 

Of the Phoenician Pastors. 375^ 


and Judaeus ; becaufe I rely on the hiftory 
which is more clear than this fable, into 
which Tlutarch affirms that thefe Judaical 
affairs are inferted. Only in paffingi note 
that it cannot import lefs than this, that 
thofe who were driven out oiAbaris^ which 
the Mgyftlan theology calls Tyfhontusy (as 
Manetho confeffes) did people part of the 
city and countrey which afterwards were 
cairA Jerufalem and Judaa , and this im^ 
ports that they fettled there. / 

Agreeable hereunto is the teftimony of 
Lucian in his difcourfe de T)ed Syrtdy where 
in the beginning he reckons up divers an- 
cient temples which were in Thc^ntcia of 
higheft efteem ; as that to Allarte in Sidon, 
which fome referred to Europa, whofe image 
he fays fitting upon the bull into which ]ove 
was transformed^ was ft am fd on the Sido- 
nian money ; " aHd befides one great ancient 
temple the Phoenicians (who are ^«r Cana- 
amtes) had was ^Egyptian, and came from 
>Heliopolis (which belongs to Gofhen) in- 
to Phoenicia. I doubt not but he means 
that the model of its building, and the rites 
of religion there us'd, were brought out of 
j^gypt by thefe Canaanitesj for its not cre- 
dible that the ftones of it fhould be carry'd 


I ^ 

3^0 0/ /i&^ Phoenician Pastors. 

t will coadode this enquiry with obfen^ 
ing that alt tlus proof from heathen teftim^ 
ny> is not only confiflent with the things 
recorded by M/>Jesy but helps to a more di- 
fiind underihinding ctf feveral places there* 
of; and therefore Mofis feems to fuppdci 
that his readers when he wrote Genefis knew 
it, although he relates not this hiilory that 
the Canaanites came out of another place 
into the promifed land. 

For I. All the places that I havebefwre 
cited, wherein the Canaanites are diftin- 
guiih'd as different people from the HitfiteSf 
HiviteSyJehufttesjAmorites^&Lc. (whower€ 
allfons oi Canaan) cannot diflin^Uy be un- 
derftood without this notion. 

a. There are many more places in Scrip- 
ture, where the Canaanites are reported to 
dwell together in diftindt bodies of men di- 
Hantfrom one another, and yet fliUdiitind 
from the other nations devoted to extirpa- 
tion by IJirael. For inftance we find a di- 
ilinft body of 'em in the fouth of the land 
joining to the Amakkitesy Numb, xiv, x^, 45, 
4;. under king yfr^i/. 

And in thefe fouthern parts I find a con- 
fiderable Countrey mentioned as part a^ijih 
Jhua's conqueft, calFd Gojheny which reached 
even to Gibeonj Jofl?.^. 41. Now this be- 

Of the Phoenician Pastors. 3 S i 

ing the very mime of the covntr^y iji^^jjw 
out of which the QMnumk^s, w^^ drivea, I 
Cftnoot but judge that it w»s giiyen by 'enpi 
to their new pitncation, wheii ^ter their 
leaving J^^/^ they ca«»ei;o:/6^tl^e here; as 
the. countries . calted . JStpwS»^iiifd,i Nf^ 
Jjerfey^ &c. are tjom'd byif h^plABC^rs ff»® 
|daces out of which they c»m& by u$J^^jf. 
So Btchart fiiys in his 'Phrnkg^ p. 1^2. iM 
the. ancients us'd, hca a Jk nufif dete&i$. 

Others embodied near the fea, and aetr 
Jmdmt Numb. adii. at^. Joft., y- t, The chief 
body of diem feefos to be ao^t^wfirds #i)oi4t 
HasaeTi and <eal]t and weft x\m^ under Jttt- 
bin, Jojh. ]d. 3^10. Comparer, im- 31,4. 4io4 

this Jaiiin is cail'd King cf Can^^m, Judges 
iv. X. uind he reigiCd in Hazor,. $nd Sifera 
was the captain of bis hofty who dwelt iff 
Haroflteth of the Gentiles. By which I cafi 
underfiand nothing kff tbm fordgners, peo- 
ple that came out of. another couatrey» or 
which originally were not of that land, tlus 
being the common fenfe <^ the name Gen- 
tUesi and he had nine hundred chariots Qf 
iron, currus fakatos^ arm'd with fcythes. 

Now I can find no other foreigners that 
would be under a king of CanaM but thefe, 
who had not long before been bred in uE- 


382 Of the Phoenician PAstoRs. 

gy^t^ and expeird theiice^ and which we 
have proved to have retired into this coun- 
trey. And though Jojhua had broken their 
power about ijo years before at the waters 
oiM^roffiy yet it appears by the hiftory in 
Judges that they had recruited, and were 
ilrong enough to opprefs Ifhael %o years 
before the time oi Barak and Deborah \ 
^nd none are more likely to do fo than thefe 
Canaanitesj which were the iffue of thofc 
who had been long difciplin'd in war in JS^ 

Of this fort of Canaanites I reckon thofe 
to be, whom the half tribe oiManajJes (that 
were fettled on the weft fide oijordany to- 
wards the midland fea between T^r^^^r and 
Ephraim) could liot drive out, Jojh. xvii. 
12, 13, 18. And thofe among the Efhrai- 

• mites^ Jolh. xvi. 10. at Gezer^ which ftood 
-out till the days of Solomon^ to whom it was 

given by Tharoah for a prefent with his 
daughter, iKingsix.i6.^ Which made me 
think that the jEgyftian king, who made 
an expedition againft this ttrong city, and 
^ burnt it, and then gave its ruins, wijcL the 
territory about it away with his daughter, 

• might llill after fo many hundred years re- 
r tain the old grudge againft the ThcsnicraHs 

or Canaanites ; the jEgypian religion: re- 

Of the Phoenician Pastors. 385 

ftewing the memory of it, as included in 
the Tjv/A^^w^miferies, commemorated year- 
ly in the folemnities of i/&,and 0/&*/>, as the 
Mgyptian bondage was in the Jews palTover 
eaten with bitter herbs. 

But among all the places that mention the 
feiveral bodies of thefe Canaanites^ I have 
not obferv'd any confiderabte remains of 
'em in the large countrey that was on the 
eaft fide of Jordan^ among thofe Amorltes 
ind people of Bajhan that Mofes conquer'd ; 
which makes me think that they enter'd into 
Canaan not on the eaft fide of it, as Mofes 
did, but on the fouth fide that lay next JS- 
gypt\ and I guefs thereabouts where we 
found Aradvjiih his Canaanites ; and fo they 
pafs*d on fettling plantations, as they found 
opportunity, either in the midland^ or by 
' the coafts of the fea, or by Jordan^ their 
main body fettling about Maxtor ^ as we found 
'em before. 

I fhall conclude this enquiry with an ob- 
servation which I have made of two paflages 
• in Mofes's hiftory of Jojeph^ which do not 
only feem to refer to this notion, that the 
Phoenician Paftors that formerly troubled 
JEgypt fettled in Canaan ; but alfo intimates 
that this was done fome confiderable time 
before Jofeph\ being there in authority. 


384 Of the Phoenician Pastors. ^ 

The firft is in Gen. xlii. 9. where when his 
brethren (whom he knew, though they did 
not know him) told him they camie from 
Canaan to buy food ; he keeping the deco- 
rous watchfulnefs of an Mgyftian gover- 
nour, while he defign'd to conceal his know- 
ledge of 'em, tells 'em, ye arc fpies, that 
come to fee the nakedne^ of the land ; ia- 
timating that the Mgyptiaus had caufe to 
fufped that the Canaanites wtatch'd for an 
q;>portu&ity to invade that land, and fo he 
lees 'em not know that he took them for 
any other than the fons of thole heathen Gi- 
naanitesj that having been expell'd thcnc^, 
might well be prefum'd to have a deiign tp 
invade 'em again, and therefore ibught to 
find fome unguarded pafs by which thev 
might fuccefsfully return thither ; to whicfi 
purpofe he. fo often inculcated this charge, 
Te are ffiesy which was founded on a very 
probable ground of fufpicion, elfe it had 
been indecent for a wife man to ' much to 
infift upon it, and to require proof of the 
truth of their words, by bringing their yo^Q- 
ger brother down \xiXQMgyft. 

Now I can find no fuch probable ground 
of fuch a violent fufpicion and enmity grown 
high thereby, as the former expulficm 
of 'em out of this land ; which therefore 



0//y6f Phoenician Pastorsv 385; 

feems to mot to be intimated when he tells; 
'em 7> are /pies. 

The fecond pafl&ge is that Gen. xlvi. j^^ ^ 
laft. where Jofipb affirms that every fliep-^ 
herd is ^n abomination to the Mgyptiauf. 
The word abomination in the. Hebrewi ^ 
r^nyin Xognab^tbi Sept. hixvffu^, carries in it 
an intimation of high diflike founded 00 
fome religious account : And none fuch be^- 
fore this time can be affign'd fo probable as 
this old grudge againll the Thoenician fhep- 
herds, acknowledged by their own writers 
to have been bitter enemies to 'em, being 
oppofite to their religion, government and 
intereft in the land ; infomuch that their lafl 
hold there at Aharis^ QfT Sethrofiy is call'd 
in the J^g^ptian theology Ty/Aw/w; and 
it's knbwn that the JjiplwHian times were a 
conftanc matter of lamentation in their re- 
ligious ^ommemorattoo of their deliverance 
from thein, which it's likely was fettled 
foon after their Paitors expulfion ; the time 
of which we njuft now hafbn to fix, which 
was about 130 years before the great pro- 
motion of Jofeph v^ Mgypt. 

For the clearing the time di%ethmofis 
(other wife c^diAmoJis the expdler of the 
Paftors, and the founder of the ThebanXiy^ 
natty in theX^w^r jEgyptJ is the immediate 

E e end 

3 8 ^ Of the Phoenician Pastors. 
end for which we have kbour'd fo much to 
anfwer thefe preparatory queftions, and it*s 
the beft means to clear the foregoing times 
by the method of numbring backwards; 
which muft now be ns'd, becaufe the later 
things are better known; and we muft 
by them be aflilled to make their antece- 
dent things clearer to our underftandingi 
which niuft pafs a Mtioribus adtninHs neta. 



Sect. IV. 
^ The time of Tethmosis fix'd. 


TO this end we mufl: now endeavour 
to clear two things: 
I. That the expulfion of 'the Pa- 
ftors out of Mgyp was about the beginning 
of the Argtve Mra^ the eldeft well agreed 
time of the Greek antiquities beginning with 
Inachus and ^horoneus ; from whence to 
the taking of 7r^, and to the firft O/j^'^^/w^, 
the intervals of time are near agreement a- 
mong the beft Greek hiftorians and chrono- 

II. We mufl: fliew and fatten upon an /E- 
gyptian chronicle or record of time more 
credible and uncorrupt than Manetho\^ 
which will lead us from this expuUion of 
the Paftors to the times of Mizraim and 
Thoth^ where Sanchoniatho ^eaves us, and 
fo will help us to determine the times which 
he hath not fpecified. 

And this chronicle will the better approve 
it felf to be credible, and be the more help- 

Ee ^ lul 

jSS The time ofl! ttwUosis fix' J. 

fill to us, if it's Gonneition with foreign and 
later hittory in matter of interval of time be 
agreed on ; and if the interval between its 
remote parts exprefe'd therein, be found il- 
fo to. agree with the times affign'd by other 
hiftories to things done in Syrtchronifm with 
the remote parts of this chronicle- 

But to both thefe undertakings I premife 
thivt ia matters.of fo great antiqmty where- 
in our beft records ave ipiperfed, I rbink 
not: of r«;onc£Bng aB my authors exaitty ; 
but if I fhaJl bring good, authors to aflerj 
what I aim at, agreeuag fomewhat near the 
time, as within half a eenturyi I fliafl think 
I hay4 rwh'd wy.end. For. my defigh is 
not noW' precifeiy to determine all thingSj^ 
hut to n:iake an approach^ aj^d^ ef^cralty to, 

fliev^. ;that, ^'^ ^e ^^^ to be frighted^ either 
from the Mofaica/ hiiioryy or from Sancbo^ 
nratb^ ^nd EratofiI:>€nesj by Manethe^s Oy- 
Balties^ as we have 'enj. deliver^ to, us».' ei- 
ther in Eufebins^ or iu Scaliger, from G?- 
/aukf/9 library, and p»rticirlarly to defend 
ehe Prim:*te of ir^/^^^/'s annals, in the conr 
aern of thefe Pallors, and the tinae of their 

For I confefsy as I did at the beginning, 
that t have conftantly followed fome chrono- 
logical notions^ which I learn'd from him 
% in 


The time <?/ Ti^THMbsis fi^. \%q 

ifimyycjYithj anAtherefbre having oft iij^ 
ufe pf/e«Yth this difpcmffe^ and MirigtW 
they are opposed, ancJ others Hiffei^ng rti^y 
centuries from *em ofFerM in 1the^'frl?fce,''J 
jam heQeflitatfd in my t?^h defence to viir- 
dicate him whom i' folJot^ generajl^^, aiti 
think I can fliew fiiflSdent reafcm* ^^iry I 
fliould not here depart irpiii bim, jri *fuch a 
manner as a vfry learned gemieni.ah ftath 
lately done. 

Neverthelefs I heartily wifli that wje had 
the Vr\mzi^\Ojr07tokgla/Egyftiaca^ TX'bidi 
he fometimes mentions in his annals, as a 
work either finifli'd, or ilear compleated*; 
for I doubt not tut therein W€ ibould find 
good proof of feveral things in that fubjeft 
which now he hath fet down, and hath on- 
ly given us fome fliort hints of evidence fpr 
'em in his annals. He had reading and aur 
tbprity enough and to fpare to manage tWs 
controverfy with Sir John Marjham r Baf 
fmce providence hath deny'd us the great 
advantages which we might have hop*dfor, 
either from that work of his, or by his lotii- 
:ger living to condu(^t us, I think it will not 
be indecent for me to endeavour to defend 
that poll in which his condqft has fet me. . 

And in this undertaking I do in the firft , 
place acknowledge, and willingly give allr 

E e 3 that 




390 The time ^/Tethmosis fix'd. 

that deference and honour which . is due, 
both to his exceeding great learning, and to 
his quality while he liv'd, as a moft wor- 
thy knight ; neither will I forget the duty 
of being tender to the memory pf him fince 
he is dead. For I believe that by the skill 
which he hath Ihew'd in his writings, . both 
in the general doftrine of chronology, and 
in the Greek and Jewijh antiquities parti- 
cularly, he hath built himfelf a monument 
more lafting than the brazen monument of 
our famous king Henry the feventh. And 
although I differ from him in the times 
which he hath aflign'd to divers Egyptian 
antiquities, yet I freely own that no body 
whom I have read hath made fo judicious, 
nor fo full a coUeftioh of 'em as he. 

This being premis'd, I proceed to pro- 
duce the reafons which induce me to be- 
lieve that our Primate hath rightly, or near 
the matter, fix'd the time of the Paftors 
leaving JEg; ft. Here firft I muft (lie w what 
hiftorical :)roof we have of this time. x. What 
inconveniences attend the change whidh 
Sir John M^irjham has made : Thefe I will 
add, if I think there be any need of^em ; if 
not J will omit !em. 

As to the firft, viz. the time when the 
Pallors left ^gypt by a forc'd agreement 


The time ^/Tethmosis fix'd. 391 

ys^ixhTethmoJis^ as y^y?/A«/ calls him, or^if- 
mojis as others ; both names fignifying the 
fame famous perfott marked out by this com- 
paft, or conqueft, and his beginning the 
The ban kingdom over the ,Lower Mgypt : 
in which Jofefhus and Jfricanus^ and all o- 
ther ancient writers on this fubjed conllant- 
ly agree ; as they do alfo in the number qf 
kings fucceeding him in that Dynafty, which 
were 16, and in the number, of years of 
their reign, which Sir John Marjham alfp 
hath not alter'd- 

Concerning this beginning of Amofisy or 
of the 1 8'^ Dynafty of Manet ho^ I aflert with 
our Primate, that it was near the beginning 
of the Argive Mr ay which is a time where- 
in moft chronologers come fomewhat near 
to an agreement. And I am not minded to 
difpute about the lefTer fort of diflferences 
in this cafe, being refolv'd to leave that en- 
tire to thofe who have more ability and lei- 
fure than my felf, becaufe particularly I 
hope to fee fuch things accurately deter- 
mined in the chronology of the right reve- 
rend Bifliop of Afaphy which is expefted 
e'er long to come out ; but 1 muft defctibe 
this time near the; matter, as well as I can* ~^ 
It was about 1815- years before the bii:th of 
Chrtfty according to the common reckon- 

Ee 4 ing; 

^ 9 i The ttme of Tethmosis fix\d. 

ing ; above yio years after the Flood, ac- 
cording to the accouht of the //Ir^r^w Bi- 
bles ; in the year of the world from the cre- 
ation, according to that Hebrew aidcount, 
1.179; ^^ ^^ ^^ y^^^ of the Julian period 
5.8^9, as the Primate reckons; But accord- 
ing to Sir John Marjham^ who alfo makes 
ufe of this artificial 3^«//^» Period, about 

'Here is a vaft difference of f^x years, 
^'hich being accompanied with a change of 
the order of all the Mgyftian Dyhafties de- 
livered to us hy Jfricanusy and dillurbing 
4H the connexion of the Mofaical hittory, 
itt& Jewijh affairs, with ih^JEgyptian kings, 
I tannot pafs over, but am oblig'd to give 
itoy reafonswhy I believe the Primate to have 
ivritten more agreeably to hiftorical evi-r 
dence, which I will tiow produce. 

*. ^toiermtus Meadefitis^ a learned J5gjf/- - 
trim priett, whom Vo£iui affirms in his book 
de Hijhricis Greets to have liv'd in Augu^ 
finsCa/ar's time, and who is cited foon af- ' 
ttthyJpion in Tiheriufsxim^j doth affirm 
that this Jmojis rook and ruin'd AvariSy 6r 
Ahatisy the laft hold of the Paftors, and 
liv*d )x\Inat:hui\ time. See Eufeh.^rapar^ 
t s:. c.ii. Which tefUmony is cited alfo 
by Ckf^ens Alexandr. Tatiam^ and Jiifiin 


The time ^/Tethmosis fix'd. 393 

Martyr. So that it was valu'd as credible 
both by the heathen Afion^ ahH the chri» 

ftian fathers. Neverttelefs : Sir 7^A« Mar\ 
y5&i^«r flights it, CdiWinghimT tfiiem^um (m^ 
cio quern) Mendejium ; and lVitb> this opi? 
nion hath no other foundation than the Pro- 
chronifm, that is^ an- ewor in chronology, 
antedating the tiilie of J<^^fbp^^ 

Surely he ^d not conudei: tl)af this 5^/^^^ 
lemaus MetideJfUi^ on whofe words the fa^ 
thers bear> wrote a confiderable time before 
yofefhusy he m Auguftus\ timp^ J({fefbus 
in Vejpajian'% ; fq that it was impofltt)Ip he 
iliould t^ke his opinion from jiim: Beildes 
that, it was not likely an MgyJ^tian prieflt 
^ipuld go to a Jew to karn the antiquities 
oi^gyft^ and fuch as concerned their reli^ 
gion. It muft be confefs'd that this priefl: 
doth rail thefe Thoenuians Jsws in that 
place, as it's cited by the fathers, and this 
was a miftake » or improper fpeech ; yet ' 
doubtlefs be meai\p nothing by it but them* 
habitants of CanaaUy who were not called 
^ews when they were driven from Mgypt^ 
tho* that countrey was call'd Judaea in the 
time wherein be wrote ; and he did not right- 
ly diflinguifli the different people that in dif- 
ferent ages liv'd in the fame place. His de- 
fign tvas to wisife a book of the Aigyptian 


394 ^^^ ^^^^ ^/ Tethmosts fix'd. 

antiquities, which he call'd Y.^m^y or Chro^ 
nlfles ; therefore he took goo4 care to ex- 
prefs rightly the time oi^mojisy by affixing 
it to the Argive Mr a begun in Inachusy 
well known in Greece^ in the language of 
which . cotintrey he wrote for the Greeks 
ufe ; but negleded to diftinguifli between 
the Canaanites and the J/raeliteSy both of 
'em being alike Pallors, and alike inhabi- 
ting, firft in the eaft fide oliMgypt^ and af- 
terwards in Canaaffy though there was a real 
difference in the extraftion, religion, and 
times of thefe people. 

Hence he miftook alfo in calling the lea- 
der of the Canaanites from jibarisj by the 
name Mofisj who was afterwards the I/ra-- 
elites leader. But he rightly fets down 
both the great conqueft of Amofis^ the tak- 
ing of Abaris , or Telujium of his time, 
which being a domeftick concern o^Mgyft 
he underftood better. And I am fure it's 
more reafonable to believe that he mifled^c^- 
fephusj and confequently thofe fathers that 
followed him, into the miftake of confound- 
ing the Canaanites with the Ifraelitesj ihan 
it is to believe that Jofefhus milled him, 
who had finifli'd his work, and publiih'd it 
before Jofefhus began to write, 

♦ I have 

The time (/Tethmosis fix'd. 39 j ' 

I have flood the longer oil this teftimonyi 
becaufe it contains alfo the authorities of 
Apion who wrote in Tiberiu^s time, and 
of feveral chriftian fathers, who had many 
books of Mgyptian antiquity to compare, 
which are lib w loft; and therefore may be 
prefum'd to have had good aflTurance of 
f his part thereof, when they wrote this a- 
gainft the heathens, who would have con- 
futed 'em if they could. And becaufe it a* * 
grees exadly as to the tinie oflnachus^ with 
Herodotus^ teftiraony before mention*d, thai 
then the Phoenicians were come away from 
the fide of the red fea. The agreemeht*be- 
tween Herodotus and Ttolemaus Mendejiui^ 
who liv'd fo long afunder in time, is ftreftgth 
to both teftimonies. 

X. In the next place I will mention a tefti- 
mony of Tolemon a curious Greek hiftorian, 
who as VoJJius hath proved, liv'd in the time 
of Ttoletmeus EftfhaneSy and was ftyl'd 9aj- 
hoitoTTdg, becaufe of his great labour in ga- 
thering his antiquities out of the infcrip- 
tions of flones calFd ^a«<. He is quoted by 
Afrtcanus^ whofe words may be read in 
Eufebiusy I. jr. c. 10. affirming that a part 
of the ^Egyptian forces withdrew out of 
Mgypt^ and fettled in TaUftina not far 
from Arabia^ in the time of APis the Ion 



io^ The.time' of TETHh\6sis Hx'd. 

ii^ "i^koronefis. .Tlie time here fet down is 
jjppethb;^*!^^^^^^ lna,ijjus\^y ^i^. in lus 

";r^m!ciiild]§ leiga ; but the j^ifterence is not 
Jreat^^ and jt*s.probable fome of the Canaa- 
nife^ yyenp, out fooner tliap ojhers. How- 
ever ii^s certoiii by Sir 7. M's own tables, 
that theo€;ginning;Of-^/> was x/z years be- 
fore the Ifhoelites went out cAMgyft^ and 
ijherefore this mull not Be underllo^d of 
tiieir dep^rtute, butoftheCtf^<*^;?i/^j-i who 
jiycpt out fp Iqng, or. longer before *em. The 
)ijrj0elttes, W£i;e not then come into Mgy^^^ 
u^y ^^y^/A. was not then bovn^ as his' tables 
rightly enough d^claie. . 
.' .This ai'^yment I ufe ojily to prov;e tha^t 
thfe Pallors departure out of Mgyft was 
fiswipthing near the beginning of the Argive 
J^aj Apu being agreed to be the third in 
that line. And though i? prove only ati ap- 
proach to the primate's tim^, it's within ' 
half a centiwy. For m/Sir J- -A/'s tables, 
A^is begins aI?QHt i^so oithQ Julian period, 
api(l tetbf^vjtr IS ip z^^xlx^^epf. Subduft 
thie. theVa Temms ^i, !which is lefs than 
•h^f a cei«jur)y^:l^d is as near as T undertook 
to prove ; . aiid this f s. valid againft him th^t 
aiferts their. dq>arturc to have been foo 
. ^.yfiars later. ... . i 


^he tme of TetJimosIs .fix^d . :? of , 

,$.]fi the thicd plafe I will ofter an jirgumenf 
gi-oiindecl' on cdttfiid^fai)!^ tfeftitrfikire?; th^t 
ismUfcfi neaf^f/'a'lfticjii precife ' Thus f foflti; 
it. The laft year of Ameno^h'tSy^ father iH 
"Dandiis and Kamfeii Of Sethop, the firft 
king, of the 19* Dynafly, Was the 333^ year 
from the firft of T-ethmJis or Amafis^ or the. 
^pulfion of the heathen Qmaan'ttes. But 
the. year of the departure of Ifrael out of 
Mgypty was the, hft year of Amemphh fa- 
ther to Rameffes %vA Tianaus^ t§c. Ergo, 
the year of their departure was 333 ye^ 
ftom- the firft o^-AmofiSf or he began 333 
yeats before the Exodus^ whereas Sir J. M. 
places him long after it. , ,J^ 

-• i^'hje major iti'tfeisfyl!og|fhi'b: |jfovM; by 
^ffrtntiingiip thei eiii:ire years of ^M/the"pr5p- 
cfeS'iHthis rA«»»^?» bj^allyl'^fi^Jn bath ttip 
Ptirtiirt^ dnd%ir5'; M'agi-tei both liranfcrifc' 
m^Jh/ephus ^^{"^Jpon ; wnoie 'catalogue 
WkfSit frofra 'hfahetha is dertiaiiqly ' the moft 
icttidte, giving tis not only "the entire ye'aics 
tff eiiih reigti, buralfo the' 'pdd tndnth^l 
Thtfe are tpr^e catalogues of thefc kin^ 
tarefally colle<^ed by Sir J.M. p. 314. of 

Very great; and I am glad to find the two 
learned authors, . whofe judgments Um no\j^ 
;;/'' ' ^ ; comparing. 


398 TToe time of Tethmqsis fio^d. 

comparing, to agree in this, that they both , 
t2k^Jofe^hus\ catalogue to be mod authen-- 
tick. ^ 

For evidence take the account thus. 

Jimofis^ or T$thmcfis 




Y'« M» 












Achoncherrts fr 
Achoncberr$s 2* 

Ramtffes MiamuM 
Aminofhis , 


12 t 













Sum total of Year 333 o 

The minor of my argument, viz. that 
the year oiljraers departure was the laft of 
Amemphls the fzther of Ramejfesj who was 
alfo caird Mgyftus^ and had Danaus for his 
brother, call'd alfo Armais j is proved partly 
by Scripture teftimony, which affirms that 
the Tbaroah^ from whofe dominion they 
departed, was drown'd'with his hod in 
the fea; which evinces that their depar- 
ture was in the laft year of a King's reign, 
(though Mofes gives us not his name,) part- 
ly by two heathen witneffes, Manetho and 
Charemofty who both affirm the Jews go- 
ing out of Mgyft from under Amenophls^ 
whom they both diftinguifli from others of 


i' - 

Tloe time ^/Tethmosis fijc^d. 399 

the fame name, by his being father to the 
great Rameffes^ as appears by the words of 
both thefe writers fet down by Jofefhus ar. 
gainft Afton. I value their concordant te-? 
flimonies only concerning the name of this 
AB.gyptian king, with his diflinftion taken 
from his fon ; becaufe this was a thing that 
they might certainly know from credible 
Mgyptian records, and becaufe it could no 
way ferve the intereft of their religion, or 
their hatred to the Jews to give us a falfe 
name ; and becaufe the time when this man 
liv'd is exaftly agreeable to Scripture chrai 
nology, and connefts xk^ Exodus fromyiE- 
gyP^ with the time of T>anaus's coming iri; 
to Greece, which is well fix'd alfo in the 
Greek chronology. And it falleth out hap- 
pily that our Primate and Sir J. M. come 
very near to an agreement about the time of 
I/raefs departure from JEgjy/>t. For the 
Primate place? it in the year of the Julian 
period 3x2,3, and S\xJ.,My\xx 3x17 of the 
fame period, which is but four years later, j 
Imuft not digrefs to examine' the caufes of 
this fmall difference; and.if in other yEgjij^l 
tian antiquities they had come fo hear ar 
greement, I would not have meddled in this 


/ / 

400 The time of Tethmosis Jio^d, 

All the obje^Hpnthat lies againft the cre^ 
dit oi ManHho and Chderemofti on which 
the prt)of of tny minor bears, is only this, 
that they haver in many things faWy repre- 
fented the caufes and manner of the Jews 
departure from M$ypt. This I grant, and 
own that Jojh^huf in thofe cafes hath well 
confuted 'em : But I deny that it will fol- 
low that therefore .they have not truly told 
us the king's name from whom they depart- 
ed, or that they have falfly reported the . 
name of his fon, or fcHis. No body hath 
prov'd thAt Maftetbo falfly affirms that this 
jimenofhis's fou "Danaus w6nt into Greece 
about the time of Ifi-aeH wandring in the 
wildemefs. Sir J. M. fays indeed, /. 13X. 
Edit. tiff, that Manetho hath unhapftlji 
cwtfafd the affairs <?//Egypt with DanausV 
age ; but he gives us no proof that this is 
falfe which he hath faid. He faith alfo that 
this was agreeable to a vulgar error amoi^ 
X}cit Greeks^ whd thought iS^/^^x, or JSg;>^^ 
tui^ or Sefijfrisj who was T^anaus^ bro*' 
ther, ta be elder than the Trojan war ; yei 
he hath given us ho proof fuificient to er 
vince that it was an erfor. But this belongs 
to another argument ; here it will be fea- 
fonable to obferve only this in defence o^ 
Manetho and Charemon^ that Sit J. Ml and 



The time of Tethmos;(s fix'd. 40 1 

the Primate agree to acknowledge that they 
have done well in diftinguifhing between 
the Thoenician heathen Paftors, and the If- 
raeliteij whom Jofefhus unhappily con- 
founds : Why may they not have done well 
alfo in telling us the name of the king under 
whom Ifrael departed from Mg^ft ; and in 
defcrihing him, as Mofes doth, a man eafily 
and ftrongly deluded, even to his own de- 
ftruftion by their fuperftitious Priefts ? 

This tirgument I think to be of great 
confequenccj not only becaufe it determines 
near precifenefs, both the beginning and 
end of the 18'^ Dynafty in Mgypt^ by a 
happy concurrence of the Mgyftian wri- 
ters with the Mofaical hi{tory oU/raePs de- 
parture from Mgypt ; in which, by reafoa 
of plain Scripture proof, the Primate and 
Sir J. M, are very near agreement, but alfo 
becaufe by this means the whole fucceffion 
of feventeen kings that reign'd in this in- 
terval is perfeftly determined ; whence we 
learn what Tharoah Jofefh liv'd under, 
and who reign'd during all the time of If- 
raePs bondage ; and morebver, we are here- 
by led to know the time of the fon of this 
Amenophis that fucceeded after he was 
drowned, and began the 19'^ Dynafty of -A/^^- 
netho. Which will furnilh us with a fourth 

F f argument. 

• 49 ^ ^^ ^f^^ ^/Tethmosis fix'd. 

argument, whereby we may conclude both 
the time of Amofis^ which is our immediate 
end in this enquiry, and the connexion of 
the JEgypt'tan with the Greek chronology, 
which we ultimately defign. I form it thus : 
4. Tethmofis or Atnofis\ beginning to reign 
after the Pallor's expulfion, was juft as ma- 
ny years before the beginning of Ramajfes^ 
as it was before the end of Amenophis his 
father. But it was 333 years before Ame^ 
' nofhis\ end ; ergo^ 333 years before Ramaf- 
fes\ beginning. The major is clear, becaufe 
Ramaffes began to reign immediately after 
his father's death; the minor was proved 
juft now. Therefore it follows that Ra- 
maffes began to reign juft ^t the Exodus of 
Ifrael out of Mgyftj which is a time near- 
ly agreed between thefe two learned men, 
and mqft chronologers. 

I thought fit thus near precifenefs to prove 
Ramajfes^ beginning, by help of my former 
argument^ becaufe I confefs this part of hi- 
ilory doth not afford me more proofs which 
are fo exaft as to the time. Nevertheless, 
becaufe I would not have this argument al- 
together coincident with the former, and 
becaufe there are many proofs which agree 
in oppofing the time wherein Sir J. M. hath 
plag'd this fon oiAmenafhis^ and fet him fa 


The time (J?/Tethmosis fioe'd 40 5 

much before that, that they approach near 
this precife time which the Primate fix'd on, 
and I defend. 

I will now produce 'em, having hitherto 
deferred 'em for this place, that they might 
make a diftind argument; containing ap« 
proaches reduc'd to great nearnefs by help 
of this method which I have chofen. To 
this purpofe I obferye, i. That Sir J. M. 
owns, that according to Manetbo this R^ 
maffes was called Mgyptus^ which Eufebius 
alfo affirms ; and Sethofis and hi$ brother 
was caird Armais and DanauSj which is al- 
fo own'd by Hiodorus Siculus^ lib. i. This 
2}anaus having been entrufted with the go- 
vernment oiJEgyft by his brother, ufurp'd 
it for himfeif; but by him, returning, he 
was driven out of Mgyfty and fled into 
Greecey doubtlefs with considerable ftrength, 
where he became governor of Argosy as 
Manet ho in Jofefhm affirms. Now becaufe 
this time of IJanaus is evidently prov'd to 
be about the time of the Jews departure 
out olMgyfty Sir J. M. fays, /. 386. Edit. 
Lipf. That Manetho took this not out of the 
4tgyptian records y but out of the Greek my- 
thology. Yet he proves it not ; and whoever 
compares the Mythic hiftory in ApollodoruSy 
with this part oiManetho\ hillory preferv'd 

Ffx by 


404 The time (?/Tethmosis fix'd. 

by Jofefhusj will fee that Manetho\ hiftory 
is fo unlike it, that it could not be tran- 
fcrib'd from thence. Andbefides, the fob- 
ftance oi Manet ho\ hiftory concerning the 
revolt of Sefiftris\ brother from him, and 
his conqueft of him, is both in Herodotus 
and in T>iodf>rHs Siculus \ they calling him 
Sefoftris^ or Sefoojis^ whom Manetho calls 
Sethqfisj as Sir J. M, and Scaliger confeft. 
And Jofephus expreflly affirms, that this 
part of Manetho\ hiftory was taken out of 
records carefully kept in Mgyft ; though 
he complains that Manetho's ftories about 
the Jews were taken iip by him from fables 
which were dyioarSJAyiMch as no author own'd, 
but were feign'd out of his hatred to their 
religion. And befides, Herodotus^ lib. ii. 
aflbres us, That Danaus came originally from 
Chemnis, a large city in Thebais, where 
they kept the memory of him carefully^ and 
the genealogy of Perfeus from him. Cajior 
alfo and Tau/anias in Atticis own T^anaus\ 
c6ming from jEgyft^ (and his enmity with 
\{\shro\htr jEgyftusJ about this time ; and 
Sir J. M. differs not much in the time of 
danaus ^ arrival into Greece from Mgyfty 
for he places it 14 years before the Exodus 
of Ifrael. This difference being fmall, I 




The time of Tethmosis fix'd. 40 j 

think not fit here to difpute, becaufe it 
would make a digreflion. 

Only let the reader note, that the mar- 
bles alledg'd by Sir J. M. to prove Danaus'% 
coming earlier, do not fay what year "Danaus 
came into Greece \ but to Lindus in Rhodes 
his daughters came then,and poflibly he might 
fend 'em away before he fled himfelf : And 
the arrival of 'em all in Greece^ or Telopon- 
nefusy and his getting the kingdom of ^r^w 
from Gelanos might be confiderably later? 
and therefore the marbles do not contradift 
them who place T>anam\ fettlement at Ar- 
gos near the departure of IJrael out of JS- 

But I muft obferve that this fets T)anaus 
flill farthei^ off from his brother Sefoftris^ or 
jEgyptus's place affign'd by Sir J. Mi which 
is, above 500 years after him in Rehoboani^ 
' time, which is inconfiftent with the fliortr 
nefs of human life after the days of Mo/esy 
and with Sefojiriss being the elder brother; 
And it is to be well confider'd that Eufebius 
afligns the time of "Danaus's coming into 
Greece^ but two years different from the 
Primate of Armagh^ for that will conclude 
the time oiMgyptus oxSethofa to be there- 
about, becaufe he fled from him out o^M- 

Ff 3 To 

40 (J The Urne (7/Tethmosis fix'd. 

To this head of arguments, which prove 
Sefoftris or Sethojis to have been much el- 
der than Sir J. M's accounts allow, I mutt 

I. The authority of Artfiotle^ who in his 
Politicks, lib. vii. c. lo. affirms the kingdom 
of Sefdttris to be much elder in time than 
Minos in Crete, which yet Sir J. M. owns 
to have been in Jojhud^s time. 

X. Strabo in his laft book affirms Sefofiris 
to have been before the Trojan times, ^ but 
our learned knight places him in the third 
century after them. So alfo all the writers 
of Argonauiicksy own Sefoftris^ colonies in 
Colchis to have been before that expedition* 
which was in the century before the fall of 

3 . Tliny aflerts Ilium taken in the time of 
RamifeSy 1. xxxvi. c. 8. TKis Ramifes is in 
the third defcent from SethoJiSy or Sefoftris^ 
and there were but five years between his 
end and the beginning of Thuoris^ under 
whom Africanus i^\2iCts the fall of 7r^.- So 
that thele a^ree pretty near in this matter, 
and both muft imply, that Sethojis being 
long before this Ramifesj muft be ftill longer 
before Trofs fall. 

I muft not infift upon leffer authorities, 
as As^athiasy Chronicum Alexandrinum^ &c. 

Thd time '^/Tethmosis fix'd. 407 

But I am fure thofe which I have infifted on - 
are no vulgar men, although Sit J. M. was 
pleas'd to call the great antiquity of Sefo^ 
Jiris a vulgar error of the Greeks. I pafs o- 
ver alfo all the evidence that might be giv- ' 
en of the Ajfyrian Empire continuing in 
ftrength, during the times wherein Sir J. M^ 
affirms Sefojlris and his fucceffors to have 
had their empire in the fame parts of Afia^ 
becaufe I will not digrefs, nor produce more ' 
dubious arguments againll his opinion. And 
I haften to confider the infuliiciency of the 
foundation which he builds upon, which is 
a paflage or two \XiJofephui\ 8*^ book, ^4, 
which I think will not bear the great weight 
which he would have fupported thereby. ^ 

The firfl is in thefe words ; God fent 4- 
gatnft the Jews Shifliak king ^^Egypt, 

^ctS^ i TffXctyti^eig ^Wao^oj^ Tag ts-^^ng twt^ St* 

(rc^^^{ 'Zir^oa-ciTrJi, concerning whom Herodotus 
being mijiaken^ afcribes what he did to Se-r 
foftris. If we enquire what Herodotus men» 
tions and afcribes to Sefofiris^ which Jofe^ 
fhus aflirjns to have been done by Shijhak 
{as our tranflation) or SufaCy as Jofephus 
calls him, you will find in Herodotus that no 
other work is mentioned, but that of fetting 
up certain ^?Aa<, ftones with infcriptions of 
marks of his viftory, and figns, importing 

Ff 4 that 

40 8 The time of Tethmosis fix'd. 
thofe iii TaUJiina Syria were an effeminate 

nation. 'Ev ^ tj TlcL\cu<rivif ^ufj-^ ccujig ci^tov 
tHcretg » ii ta y^fJifjuQa ta Mff/jSi/jot, cuiovjA , ^ 

ywjcuKog ai^M, Hero J. Euterpe. Such he 
affirms he law there, and Jofepbus defigns 
to inform us, that Sufac^ and not Sefojiris 
fet up fuch 9"?Aa/, having conquered the two 
tribes without refiftance cuiax^ri^ whereas 
Herodotus having feen thefe through mi- 
Itake, afcrib'd 'em to Sefojiris. To this 
purpofe Jofephus argues from Herodotus\ 
context, where he mentions the Syri TaU- 
fiint as circumcised. Now I add the old 
¥bilijiines and Canaanites (who Hv'd there 
in Sefoftris\ time) were not circumcis'd ; 
but the only circumcis'd people in that 
countrey conquered by any ^Egyptian prince, 
were the Jews overrun by Shijhak. 

This I take to be the defign of Jofephus 
to exprefs in that chapter, not only in this 
firft paffage, but in the fecond alfo. , Con- 
cerning which I defirc the reader to ob- 
ferve, that it is in the fame chapter fore- 
quoted, and that, juft before he brings it in, 
he fets down thefe words, t5to Tsroiyia-ctg dn- 
^^erpiv «V Tci oUeict; when he had fpoird the 
riches of the temple lately built by Solomoftj 
and the king's houfe, he went to his own do- 
minions. This bars all farther progrefs in that 

' expedi- 

* • • # 

The time' of Tethmosis fix^d. 409 

expedition. Sufac did not touch the ten 
tribes of Ifrael where Jeroboam reign'd , 
who had liv'd with him long in the time of 
Solomotiy and probably as the Primatei inti- 
mates, invited him to diftrefs Rehoboam^ a- 
gainft whom he had rebell'd, that he might 
be the fafer when the kingdom oijudab 
was impoverifli'd. Much lefs did Sufac con- 
quer the greateft part oiAfia^ and fome of 
Europe J as Sefofiris did ; but content with 
thefe fpoils of JW^^A he march'd home. Jyfl; 
after thefe words elvi<r^e\^iv «V rd oiKScty he 
brings in thefe words, which in the fecond 
place are quoted by SirJ.M. Mifjbvfi^ ^ 

rcuJTfig 1? ^^fictg (^ o ^AXiKctoyetoj-^g 'Hf o^o/®* 
'srSi fJLovoy li ^ (icLO'iXicog 'ss-XcLvrj^^g ovofjLcL^ tl ou 
A^oig Ti "ss-o^^oig g^^A^gv e5yj;o"i, ^ r Yiou^^ous-lylw 
^v(Jct,v eoaXoiiralof XaZm AfJULxriTt T^g dydpcoTritg 

Ti^ff 01^ cwT^. But the reader muft obfervte 
that Sir J. M- breaks off the quotation at 
the end of the word ovo}My which I conceive 
he ftiould not have done, but fliould have 
cited the whole fentence together as I have 
done. For I believe Jofephus meant, as his 
words taken altogether do exprefs, that 
Herodotus miftook, or was deceived, not 
only in the name of the king by calling him 
Sefojiris inftead of Sufac^ but alfo in affirm- 
ing that he invaded many pther nations, 


41 o The itm^ of Tethmosis fioc'd. 

and brought into flavery the whole coun- 
trey TaUftina Syria^ which Jo/efhus jufl 
before affirm'd that Sufac- never did: For- 
he only fiibdu'd Rehoboam\ fmall kingdom, 
confining of two tribes, as appears both by 
Jofef bus's narrative, and by i Kings xiv. 15, | 
X Chron. xii. 2, to f. ix. But he never con* 
quer'd the other ten tribes, much lefs fo 
many other kingdoms as Sefojirisis affirmed 
by Herodotus to have yanquifli'd ; nay, he 
did not fo much as conquer the Tbiliftitjes 
that dwelt on the fea coaft of Judaa^ who 
in greateft propriety of fpeech were the 
TaUfi'tni. This, I believe, upon careful 
confideration of that whole chapter of J<?- 
fefhusy was his true meaning, and that Sir 
J. M. and Bochart mifunderftood him, by 
attending only to a few of his words, with- 
out weighing the defignof the whole chap- 
ter together. Therefore I do not believe 
that which Sir J, M. adds in reflefting on 
the citation he gave usj^ T>e re convenit Jo- 
fefho cum Herodoto ; nor that aflertion of 
his, ^i Hebrats Sefac^ Gracis Sefoftrts di- 
citur ; That Sefac is the Hebrew name of 
the fame mm^ who in Greek is caird Sefo- 
ftris. And I argue againfl: it from the words . 
of Jofefhus thus. He that faith Herodotus 
was deceived in attributing the deeds of Su- 

The time of Trmuosis fioc'd. 41 1 

fac (or Sefac in Hebrew) to Sefiftris^ doth 

not believe that Sufac is the fame man with 

Stfoftris. But Jofephus faith Herodotus was 

deceived, in attributing the deeds of Sufac 

to Sejbftris ; ^rg^, he did not believe Sufac 

to be Sefoftrls. The minor is clear by Jo* 

fefhus% words quoted by us both : The mar* 

jor I illuftrate by an example exadly paral- 

lei to what Sir J. M. fuppofes, Cephas is 

the Syriac name of the fame man who in 

Greek is call'd ^eter. But it cannot be faid 

that any man is deceived that attributes the 

aftions of Cephas to Tetef ; for it's no mi- 

ftake to fay Cephas deny'd CbriH^ becaufe 

it's true that "Teter did fo ; both names fig- 

nifying the fame perfon who did the thing 

that's affirmed to be done. All the thing 

which Jofephus yields was done, is, that an 

Mgypttan king Sufac ^ after the Jews fettle- 

^ment in Canaan^ did indeed conquer and 

fpoil Rehoboam^s kingdom without refiftance, 

and therefore in reproach of their efFemi- 

fiatenefs fet up fuch difgraceful ^A^, as 

Herodotus faith be had feen ; but he no 

where yields he did all the fame a6tions 

that Herodotus attributes to Sejbftris : This 

only would have prov'd that he had yielded 

the whole matter in conteft, and that Sufac 

fignify'd the fame man whom the Greeks 


411 TTye itme of Tethmosis fix'd. 

caird Se/bftris. But this therefore he ex- 
preffly denies 5 by aflerting that he went 
home when he had fpoil'd the rich 'temple 
and palace royal that Solomon built- In like 
manner I argue againft Sir J. M's opinion 
from the fecond quotation taken entire, 
thus : He that faith Herodotus"^ miftake lay 
only in the name, and in affirming that ma- 
ny more nations were invaded by him, who 
is confefs'd to have conquered Rehoboamy 
and to have fet reproachful ^?a^, doth not 
yield that Herodotus only miftook a name- 
But Jofefhus faith that Herodotus's miftake 
lay fo copulatively ; ergo^ Jofephus yields 
not that Herodotus miftook only the name, 
without miftaking alfo in the thing coupled 
therewith. The ftrength of the argument 
lies here, that ^^vfideig imports error be- 
yond the word ovop* in the whole fentence 
coupled by Kj. Nor is it incongruous to put 
the copulative k^ after fimv ; for fo Hebrews 
ix. 10. it's faid concerning the Jewijh fer- 
vice, that it confifted only (fjUv^v) in meats^ 
yet many i^s follow it, and drinks^ and di- 
vers wajhingSy and carnal ordinances. It's a 
particle of exception which may lead up 
leveral particulars, and I doubt not but Jo- 
fephus fo intended it here. And to prove 
this farther, it muft be obferv'd that Sir J. M. 

- owns 

The time ^/Tethmosis Jix'd. 413 

owns Sefojiris to be the fame man whom 
Jofephus againft Apion calls Sethofis the fon 
oi Amenophis, and brother of ^anausy xyho' 
afterwards reign'd at Argos, whom he knew 
to be many hundred years before the times 
oiRehoboam. Therefore he could not without 
manifeft contradiftion think him the fame 
man with Sufac who conquered Rehoboam\ 
but if he could fwallow fuch a contradifticMi* 
as rhis involves in matter of chronology, his 
teftimony would be of no worth, much lefs 
fit to be the foundation of a new method' 
oiMgyptian chronology, being inconfiftent. 
at once with himfelf, and with fo many 
Gonfiderable tellimonies as I have produc'd 
againft placing Sefofirts in the time of Re- 

I have done with the confideration of y^ 
7?/^A«j's teftimony ; and muft now confider 
What Sir 7. M. offers us from the teftimony 
of the JEgyptian priefts deliver 'd in "Diodo- 
rus Siculusy lib. i. cited by Sir J. M. f. xx. 
Edit. Lipf, where he tells us, Menes had 
5x of his offsprings which fucceeded him in 
above 1400 yearsj which have left no at^ 
chievments that he thought worth the writ- 
ing. Thefe Sir J. M. reckons to reach ta 
Se/ojiris's time, whom he makes to ereft a 
glorious monarchy in the fourteenth cen- 

414 73^^ '^^^ of Tethmosis fix'd. 

tury after Mtnet. But yet Diod^rus Siculus 
doth not tell us that in that century Sefiojis^ 
as he calls him or as other Se/bftrisj came : For 
between thefe fx (who reign'd above 1400 
years) and Sefoofis , Hiodwus places 29 0- 
other fucceffions, as Scaliger in his Collect 
tanea^ with Ifaae Cafaukon have well ob- 
ferv'd, Eufeb. Gr^c. p. sjrj. The particu- 
lars that are given us are, i. Bufirisy then 8 
of his line,. then ix generations of kings; 
then Myrisy then 7 more generations, and 
after thefe comes Sefoofis. Troteus and Ni^ 
kusj about whofe times Troy was taken^ 
are plac'd by him many generations after *$>- 
fiofis. Therefore this makes againft Sk J. 
M. who will have Sefoofis ^ or Se/ofiris to be 
long after the fall ofTr^. It's certain there- 
fore that 7>iodorus never defign'd to favour 
fuch a projed of Mgypian chronology as 
Sir 3^. M. hath contrived ; and he knew this 
too, for he being to defcend to particular 
Kings leaves TDiodorus^ (as in this cafe all 
wife men muft) with his numbers of gene* 
rations without name, or time of rei^, and 
follows better authors ; but difpofeth them 
in fuch order and time^ as would beft agree 
with the placing SeJoSfris.m the time of i?^- 
hoboam^ which was a Synchro&ifm that he 
thought fure enough, and I have declared 


Ths time- af Tethmosis fix' 4. 4 1 j 
my befl Teafons why I think otherwife. Up- 
on confideration of them togetheri I will 
jTorbear to add any nH«-e inconvem^ices 
which follow \[\sMgyptian chronology, Hill 
acknowledging that by many other parts of 
his Canon Chronicus, he hath oblig'd fhidi- 
oxis men to preferve for ever an honourable 
memory of his excellent learning. 


4i6 0/ Er ATosf HENEs'5 Canon^ 

S E C T. V. 

Propofing Eratosthenes his Canon^ and 
fixing the time of Menes, and of all 
his fuccejfors therein. 

IT is now time to proceed to the fecond 
thing which I mentioned as requifite : 
And that is, to propofe and adhere to 
an Egyptian chronicle of good antiquity, 
which is more credible and uncorrupt than 
I have intimated Manetho's to be, in the 
times antecedent to Amojis ; whom I hope 
we have now fix'd, together with the time 
of thofe Paflors whom he expelPd. That 
which makes this very defirable, is, that 
Manetho\ Dynafties delivered to us by-^- 
fricanusy run backwards beyond the Flood, 
and the Creation too, as it's delivered in the 
Mofaical hiftory, which is far more credi- 
ble on many weighty reafotis ; and I have 
ihew'd it comports well with this of San-- 
choniathoj whom we are endeavouring to 
clear. Wherefore any authentick record 



and the tlmB of Menes, &c. 4 i *f 

piMgyptian kings, that will outweigh, or 
at leaft counter-balance Manetho's credit, 
will do good fervice, if it be found alfo to 
agree well with both Mofes and Smchoniar 
tho the eldefl: eallern writers ; efpecially if it 
piece well alfo with the Greek and fVefiern 
hiftorians. ' All thefe valuable qualifications 
I find in the feries oiMgypian kings that 
reign'd at Thebes or T>loJpolis in ThebaiSj 
or the Vpper ^gypty which I find caufe to 
believe was fooner planted than the Lower 
Mgyft^ becaufe it was not fp fubjeft to in- 
con veniencies from the inundations oiNile\ 
it lying much higher, and yet fo as to re- 
ceive great benefit, but lefs trouble by its 
overflowings. This feries or Laterculus of 
Thebaic kings was carefully gathered, and 
fet in order by Eratojihenes Cyremeusy in 
the time and at the command of Pf^/^w^^x 
Euergetes ; illuftrated with a Greek inter- 
pretation of their Mgyfttan names> which 
were commonly fignificant in the nature of 
titles. Suidas informs us that Eratojihenes 
was born in the ii6'*' Olympiad, more ex* 
aftly I find his birth about the 1 8'^ year of 
Ytolemaus Thiladelfhus's reign mJEgy^y 
A.M.juxta Armachanum 3738, about x65' 
years before the common account oiChrifi's 
birth, as I gather from his age and death 

G g Which 



4 1 8 Of Er ATOSTHENES'5 QmOHj 

which the Primate hath fet down. Hence 
we learn that he came foon after Manetbo 
who flouriih'd under the fame king, in 
wbofe time he was born. And this gives us 
reafon to judge that Ttolem£us Euergetes 
was no way fatisfy'd with Manetho\ ac- 
counts oiMgyftian antiquities* given to his 
predeceflbr Tbiladelfbus ; for there would 
be no reafon fo foon after to fet Eratojihe- 
nes about a like work^ if he had not expec- 
tation that he would mend the performance 
oi Manetbo. 

Moreover, I confider that il/4»ff£w being 
an Egyptian priefi, and therefore partially 
inclin'd to the antiquity and honour of his 
countrie's religion, above the antiquity of 
cither (fr^^/&, ot Thienician^ or J ewijb r^]i' 
gion, had a ftroiig temptation to favour it, 
by eafily believing himfelf and reccMnmend- 
ing to others faith thp priefts traditions &- 
vourable thereunto ; which priefts we find 
by Hero Jot uj before him, did cUtm fuch ex- 
travagant antiquity, but ihew'd him no aa- 
t hen tick records thereof, only a great nuim-- 
bcr of old Itatues, which couW give no 
fufficient proof of their pretentions. And 
in Thiladelpbus's time, when the Greeks 
power in Mgypt was but newly fettled, it 
was not fafe for the king to pppofe their 


and the time of Menes, ^c. 415^ 

extravagant claims of antiquity, but rather 
to connive at 'em. Ttolemaus Euergetes 
might better do this, when the Greeks inte- 
reft in Mgypt was grown ftronger, and con- 
firmed ; and when Jby the help of the fa- 
mous library that Thiladelphus had gathered, 
clearer evidence might be produced out of 
the records therein contained, and to be 
feen ; among which the Mo fate at liiOLory was 
one. This library Manetho doth not pre- 
tend to have fearch'd, but flies to the Adyta 
^iEgyptian temples^ where he pretends the 
fecdnd Mercurius or Agathodaemon laid up 
books tranftated after the Flood into the 
Greek tongue in hieroglyphic^ letters^ out 
* of ^iXu4, charaHeriz'd in tht holy dialeSf in 
hierographical letters by the firfl Mercury. 
So Eufebius's chronicle tells us Manetho af- 
firmed to Ttolem^us Thiladelphus. Here 
all is dark, and full of grounds to fufpeft 
fraud. But our Eratofthenes being keep- 
er of the known Alexandrian library, could 
eafily both inform himfelf, and fatisfy others 
by what authority of books he composed his 
catalogue pf kings which he left us. Be- 
fides, Jofefhus hath aflrur*d us that Manetho 
fometimes foUow'd good records, and fome- 
times fables, which he refutes in his firfl: 
book againft Afton. But Eratofiheness cre- 
^ G g X die 

42 o Of ERATOstHENEs'J Cdnott^ 

dit is unblemifli'd, his education not entan- 
gled with the interetts oiMgyftian reli- 
gion, and his learning great and diffUs'd, as 
may be feen in Suidas, and Vojius de Hi- 
ftoricis Grtecis. Hence they aflure us he was 
fometimes call'd a fecond Tlato, fometimes 
«4»7*fiA@-, as a man fit to ftrive for the ma- 
ftery in all games of learning. Moft com- 
monly he was call'd Beta^ all allowing him 
to be the fecond in learning, (lb Suidas in- 
terprets this name given to him). It's likely 
many kept - the firft place for themfelves, 
who yet would allow him to be next ; which 
may make one think that he really deferv'd 
tp be call'd Alpha. 

My learned friend Dr. Gale, in his pre- 
face to fome Greek Ofufcula, which he 
caus'd to be printed at Amfterdam, A. ©. 
1688. hath with great diligence colleded a 
catalogue of all Eratoftheneis works men- 
tion'd by the ancients, which will demon- 
flrate him to be a man of moft ftupendious 
learning and induftry. One of *em was 
call'd chronology, of which I conceive our 
Laterculus to be a part ; this work he af- 
firm'd to be cited by Cicero^ T)'tonyfius Ha- 
llcarnajfenjist Cenforinus, Clemens Alexan- 
drinus, Eufehius, who Were men of fuch 
exa^l judgment, that they would not cite 



and the time of yix.m.Sy &c. 411 

an inconfiderable author. This work of his, 
I believe, contain'd his greateft antiquities, 
becaufe there is a diftindt work of his men- 
tion'd, De Olytnfionicis^ which might refer 
lefs antiquities to the feveral Olymfiads which 
came in after, our Laterculus ends, above 
400 years' : Befides his book de O£ioeter'tde, 
which imports him skill'd in the technics 
part of chronology. The reft of his works, 
whith refpett almoft all the Eucyekpady 
of learning may be feen in the Doftor's Pre- 
face ; although the injury of time hath de- 
ilb-oy'd moft of 'em, their titles only re- 

\ like the Laterculus which we have of him 
fo well, that I wifh we had mu6h more of it ; 
but my bufinefs is to make the belt ufe that 
I can of what we have, though it be but 
little. It comes to us through Apo{lodorus 
his Chronica^ cited with honour by Marcior 
ittts Heracleota his contemporary, and by 
Clemens Alexandr'tnus ^ and by Eufebi- 
m\ from whence, or ixom Africanus, 
whom Eufebius often tranfcrib'd, Georgius 
Syncellus inferted it into his works ,near 
900 years ago ; whence Scaliger put it into 
his Greek Eufebms, land into his Ifagogic 
canons, affixing his Julian period, and 
fome other charaderifms thence deduc'd: 

Gg 3 liut 

411 Of Eratosthenes'5. Canon y 

but not fo happily as I hop'd and wiih'd. I 
am glad that I can add to the honour of this 
Erdtojihenean Canon» that the learned Sir 
J. Marjham hath given it his ,tellimony, 
which becaufe it's given with great judg- 
ment^ I will tranfcribe in his words. Eft 
l»€ Eratafihenis Laterculum venerandijfi- 
mum antiquitstis mQnummtumy & ad Jiabi- 
liendd Mgyftiwum tempera imfrimis necef 
farium. To which I ftiall only add Syncel- 
lus'^ afiirmation, that ErauSihrnes took 
thefe things out »pf the Mgyptiam own 
books ; in which 'concern there is great rea- 
fon to believe that he chofe the books or 
records of nwft undoubted credit, that he 
might beft fatisfy the king, by whpfe com» 
inands he undertook the work. 

Synceilus's words in Scaliger^s Greek Eu-^ 
Jeiiusy p. X5. I ij. concerning Eratofthenes 
are remarkable, ha&w 6k r c¥ Aitm-ixi le^d- 
y^fjt,fjL<£l€im ; they import, he had V^ from 
the facred Archives in Diofpolis, <?r Thebes 
it /elf. So that he did not only fearch the 
Atexandrine library, where6f he was keep- 
er (and we may be fure he neglefted not 
the records conttantly in his own power ;) 
but he had thefe from the Vpper Mgypt\ 
metropolis, which was the royal feat of the 
kings whofe names he gives us. And I doubt 



and the time of ^m^Sy 8cc. 423 

not but Syncellus had this from Eratofthe- 
7^es*s own words, fince of his own knowledge 
he could not affirm it, and he had no tempta- 
tion to feign it to ferve any hypbthefis of 
his own : For his notions lay quite another 
way than that which this Latercului leads 
unto. And he chofe to preferve the memory 
of thefe Eraftethenean kings, tho' he there 
refufes to record 5'3 other kings, which jf- 
folkdorus only mentioned ; and therefore I 
believe he valu'd Eratoflhenes's evidence 
much above that which bore on the fingle 
credit of Afolkdorus. 

For he was a man of very great learning 
and induftry, and had the beft records in 
the royal AlexandrtneX^x^x-^y and of that at 
^iojpdlis alfo at his fervice, was not byaft'd 
by the intereft of ^Egyptian religion to feign 
iany thing in favour of its antiquity, as I have 
Ihew'd Manetho Was. He was not guided 
by the pretended interpretations of Sifhoas 
the fecohd Mercury j who by this canon ap- 
pears to have liv'd about 900 years after the 
firtt Mercury Athothes^ and might eafily ei- 
ther miftake in unriddling the hierographic 
letters of the firft/ or might forge what he 
pleas'd, and yet pretend to derive it from 
'em. Befides, it's remarkable that Mane- 
tho's aflertion, that the fecond Mercury de- 

G g 4 liver'd 

424 ^Eratosthenes'^ Canoriy 

liver 'd all from the firii:> is incredible and 
impoffible to be true : For it was impoffible 
that the firft Thoth or Mercury could write 
all that hiilory. of fucceflion that was in a- 
bout 900 years between him and Sipboas the 
fecond Mercury. He muft prophefy of 
things to come long after his own death, 
and not write a hiftory of men that were 
not yet 1)orn. Moreover, there is no e- 
vidence that the fecond Mercury reigning 
in Tbebais could write in the Greek Ian*- 
guage, as Manetho faith he did ; fince he 
liv'd before the Trojan war, before which 
time there appears not to have been any 
confiderable correfpondenoe between jE- 
gypt and Greece ; altho' fome exiles from M- 
gyft might fly thither, as in Tfanau/s cafe 
is confefs'd. Other arguments might be ad- 
ded to Ihew great reafon to fufpeft Manetho 
rather than Eratojihenesj ^ut what I have 
faid feems abundantly fufficient. 

Neverthelefs I doubt not, but that to im- 
partial readers, the good correfpondence 
which Eratojihenes's Canon keeps (as I will 
now fliew) both with ih^ Mofaical \{\^ory^ 
and with the Greek chronology, will recom- 
mend it moft effeftuallv, and make it to be 
much more valued than Manet bo's ; which 
in the tiroes before Amojis or Tetbmojky 

* fpr 

and the ttme ofMtmSy &c. 425 

for the l]pace of near 4000 years holds no 
correfpondence with any other hiftory, be- 
ing founded only in fuch (lories as heathen 
priefts pretended to have out of their ^-. 
dyta^ which no body could fearch but them- 
felves. And tho' thefe priells flories agree 
not with each other, different accounts be- 
ing found in Hero dot us ^ Manethoj and 2)/- 
odorus Siculus j yet all from priefts, and all 
different from eaph other, and from Era- 
tofihenes% catalogue taken out of the pub- 
lick royal library, carefully ftirnifli'd at great 
charge with the moft authentick records ; 
which therefore w^e will adhere to. And we 
will add from Syncellus^ p. 147. Editionis 
Coar^ that Eratojihenes received his inftruc- 
tions from the 'U^of^fjcfAoJeis in 7)ioJpolisi 
they may be tranflated the facred fcribes in 
Thebes oiMgyft. 

To prepare us to the right underftanding 
of this Eratofthenean catalogue of Theban 
kings, and all their times, I muft intreat my 
reader to obferve a note or obfervation af- 
fixed to the ninth king thereof, whofe name 
is Mares y interpreted Heliodorus in Greeks 
in thefe words, Ha^ *Kifv7f]Uig irvfx^nv *t 

Ticri ^t dyjif^^poig ^ ; which • fignifies , that 
then was among the ^Egyptians (that is, of 

. the 


4i6 CyERATOSTHENEs'i Canon, 

the Lowfr Mgyft diftiDguilh'4 from The- 
kahj the i6^ ^ynafty^ wherein^ Thebans 
r^ign^d 1 60 years in feme copies y hut in a- 
thers 190 years. This note neither Scaik'^ 
ger m his accounts, nor.Siir^.Af. in his, 
Teem to have duly obferv'd, both framing 
their tables fo as cannot conlltt therewith: 
For both of 'em place the The ban Dynafty 
over the Lawer Mgypt aftw the laft king of 
this cat^li^e Amuthantausy as Sir J. M. 
writes him ; Scaliger in Latin writes him 
jimutbartausy in Greek 'Kfjt^^cu®^. And 
though Scaliger did not fufficiently coniider 
this note to follow it in his calculations, 
yet he is to be commended for his diligence 
and faithfulnefs in fetting it down juft after 
the place where he names Mares in his 
Greek Eufebian chronicle, /. 18. /. 34. 

After I had finiih'd this difcourfe, I had 
an opportunity to confult the edition of 
^Syncellusy which is given us by Jacabus 
Goary wherein I find that this note is IdFt 
out in p. 96. And moreover, in his notes 
/. 5^1 . he accufeth Scaliger as adding it of 
of his own invention. But I confefs I have 
more confidence concerning Scaliger's in- 
tegrity in tranfcribing the manufcript M 
Syncellusy than I have concerning Goar% and 
am encourag'd to continue my value for 


and the itme ofMEiiZSy &c. 417 

this note as derived from Eratofthenes by 
SynceUus^ and from him by Scaliger^ becaufe 
I find that the diftance between both the 
firft and Jaft kings in this catabgue being 
piac'd according to it, and the firft Olym- 
piad following them, will better agree with 
^icaarchus\ and their diftance from the 
Cataclyfmus prior ^ the great deluge before 
'em, will better agree with Varro's chrono- 
logy which follows, than the placing of the 
Theban kings doth that's given us in the ta- 
bles of Goar. And moreover, Goar's only 
objedion againft the truth of this note, is 
founded in a fuppofition that the time of 
AmoJis% reign in Mgypt was the fame with 
that of Mofes conducing Ifrael out of M^. 
gypty which I have fhew'd to be a grofs er- 
ror in chrpnology.^ 

But I cdnfefs the note is fomething too 
fliort, and the numbers exprefling the time 
of the Theban Dynafty are ambiguous, or 
rather corrupt, for the biggeft of the two 
are too little ; however, by diligent compa- 
ring the Theban Dynafty with what we have 
ipore perfeftly in Afrkanus^ and efpecially 
in Jofephus^ the number may be correfted 
as we have done already, having found 333 
years in the Theban Dynafty. But this doth 
not hinder us from obferving that in the 


42 8 Of Eratosthenes'^ Canon ^ 

time of Maresj or at the end at fartheft of 
his reign, he informs us that ihoiTheban Dy- 
nafty in the Lower JEgypt began. And al- 
though he calls this Dynafty the i6'S which 
in >d^/ri«^«/s epitome oi Manet hp^ is call'd 
the 1 8'** Dynafty: Yet we may underftand 
that he certainly means the firft Dynafty, 
wherein The bans governed the Lower M- 
gyjpt upon the expulfion of the Paftors who 
were in the i^^** Dynafty. Africanus in^ 
deed tells us of two Dynafties more, viz. 
i6'** and xf^ of Paftors, but he gives no 
names of kings in 'em ; and as Eujebiui 
palTeth 'em both over, fo doth our EraSio^ 
thenes here Before him, calling this Theban 
Dynafty not the i8'\ but the i6'\ This will 
be farther clear'd, by obferving that in Sea- 
liger\ Greek' EufebitiSy pi 8. 1. 41, and 44, 
the The bans are a^rm'd to reign in the 16* 
Dynafty ; and Mlamun^ who was the father 
q{ Amenophis^ and thelaft but one thereof, 
is particularly nam'd as one of the 16'^ Dy- 
nafty, begun by Amojts or Tethmojis. Here- 
with agree alfo the Excerpt a Latino Bar- 
bara^ where the \f^ Dynafty is made the 
laft in Manetho\ fecond tome, whereas in 
Africanus the laft is calPd the 19'^ Dy- 


and the time o/Menes, &c. 419. 

Thefe rubs bein^ thus taken, out of our 
way, which I fufpeft were the caufe why 
our i learned men forenam'd ove^look'd this 
note, let us place the beginning of the Ti&^- 
ban Dyiiafty in the Lower Mgyp^ or the 
firtt year oiAmoJls^ which we have taken fo 
much pains before to fettle ; put it to be the 
fame with the lafl year of Mares^ and let us 
fee what will follow thence. And this I 
will do, not pretending that the note now 
determines the latt year of his reign, for it 
may relate to any year therein ; but becaufe 
one year mutt be determined for trial's fake, 
and this will be leaft trouble, and I pretend 
not to greater exadtnefs than within the 
compafs of his reign, which was x6 years ; 
and the laft of his reign is the fame year 
with the firtt ofiAnoyphis who was his fuc- 

I will therefore according to the Primate 
of Ireland's chronology fix TethmoJis\ be- 
ginning, or the firtt year of the Theban Dy- 
natty in the Lower Mgypt^ to the year of 
the world, according to the Hebrew text 
XI 80, or of the 7«//tf« period 2890. Which 
they may ufe who prefer the Samaritan or 
LXX\ numbers. 

Let this number now exprefs alfo the laft 
year of Maresy the ninth in EratQBhenis\s 



A.M. Thebans, 

0/ Eratosthenes "^ Canon^ 

Anni Inferior Mi^t 
Regni Paftors A.M. 



























Athotbis 59 

Athotbts 2. 3^ 

DiabUs . 19 

Ptmfbcs 18 

T0^4r Amdcbus 79 

Stotchus 06 

Goformlis 30 

if4m 2,6 

Anoyfbts 20 

5irM/ ' 18 

Cnuhu$ Cmnrus 27 

Kancfis 1 3 

fi^rrii 10 

Saopbis 29 

Stnfaopbis 27 

Mofcbiris 31 

^M/fi&i/ 33 
PMtnnus Arcbondis 35 

Ap4ppHS Maxmus 100 
E^befius Karas I 

Nhoeris 6 ' 

Myruus 22 

Tbyofimans 12 

TbyrHltts 8 

SimpbucraUs 18 

Cbuter Taurus 7 

Aff r«f Pbibfipbus 1 2 

Cir0fl94 Epbtbn 1 1 

Ancbunius Ocby 60 

Pentisfbyris 16 

Stamentf 23 

Siftoficbirmet 5 5 

Maris 43 

Sipboas Htrmis 5 

Pbruron vel Nj/«x s 

Amutbaruus 63 








Thoth 4jii 
1910 /^# Cabiri 
1939 purlfii, 

Tethm^fis 2180 

Exodtts Ifraelis 25i3,"7 
Sefoftris «»/frx Afia. j 

Inventor of Elements ofGecmet. 
Laert. VitaPyih,\M4Ar#r <»/^it# 
£tfi(r« 4»^ i/j Pyramid ; <^^'i 4* 
^n^ 900 yf4r/ ^f/<?re ^i^# /imex 
0/ Herodotus, l.ii. c. 13. 

Sanchoniatho ficuriJbeSf accord' 
$ng to Porphyry, ^</0r« Siphoas, 
/^tf* otbers fay later, 
Troy /4lr«», 436 y#4r/ ^/v/f 
Olympiads began^ Dicasarchos. 
Olympiads begin, 

&omc built 9 according /# Varro. 


and the tme o/Menes, &c. 435 

EraUfthefi^s's table being thus determined 
to the years of the world by the help of this 
note, which I believe Syncellus had from 
him along with the table, and did not add 
it as his own judgment, becaufe he himfelf 
reckons another inconfiftent way ; it remains 
therefore thit we now confider what con- 
current evidence We can find , that may 
give us farther aflurance that this note was 
true, and that we have placed our numbers 
fo as not to be far from the true time of 
Menesy Th&thy and the reft in the cata- 

The chief heathen teftiitidny, and of greats- 
eft antiquity that I know which precifely 
determines the time, is a paflage of 2>/r;^- 
archus the fcholar oiAriflotle^ zsAtheH/sus 
and Suidas affirm, who niuft be thetdforfe 
rather elder in time than either £riStf^7?Arm 
or Mdnetho himfelf. He alfo was an hifto- 
rian fo cOttfiderable, thatijis book concern* 
ing the government of the Spartans^ was 
every year fjublickly read before the Lace- 
dMmnian youth in the ^t^tdrium of. their 
Ef^hofiy as Suidas informs us. And our 
fearned Sir J. M. hath hpnbur'd him with a 
great (tharafter, I lie inhr primos chronologic 
Grscs farentes habendus efi. The place is 
prefervU to-us-by thefehoftaft onjipollonins 

H h _ Argo- 

454 ^/ Er ATOSTHENEs'5 Canofij 

Argonautic. 1. iv. . 3^. x^^. He there affirms 
that from the reign of Ntlus unto the firft 
Olympiad are 43^»years. 

And his numbers deterniining this inter- 
val, aje more credible than thofe he hath 
given to other intervals, becaufe they relate 
to times nearer his own, and next of all to 
the time which Varro calls hiftorical time, 
and refpeft the moft fix'd Parapegijna . oS, 
the Greeks among whom he liv'd, apd for 
whole ufe he wrote : Yea, this whole inter* 
val is very near the fame with a known in- 
terval among the Greek chronologers, viz, 
the.dift^nce of time*hetween the raking of 
Sroy and the firft Olyn^piad. Therefore I 
may jufljly adhere to T^icaarchusxxi this inr 
terval) ai\d as juftly relinquifli him in his 
two other intervals , wherein he ' hath no 
fuch concurrent evidence, either from the 
G reeky or ixom t\iQ jEgy ft tan hiftories. 

Now this ^LingNilus being the laft but 
one in . our catalogue, we learn from this 
teftimony bow long before the firft Olym- 
piad he li v'd in T)icaarchus's judgment, . 
' and by ,confequence we may gather how" 
long every one of 'em liv'd before the firft 
Olympiad, which is a time agreed on by the : 
general confent of chronologers to have 
been 776 years before ChriB's birth,, and 


and the time ofMmEs^ 8cc. 43 5- 

to be the 3938'^ year of th^jfulian period, 
wherein the Primate of Ire land and Sir y. 
il/. agree. Now to evince that this comes 
ix^ithin lefs than half a century of agreeing 
with the place which I have affign'd to Ni^ 
lus or Thrurouji according to Eratofthenes^^ 
note, we mull find the interval of time be- 
tween the beginning of Menes and the end 
of Nilus^ by adding their reigns together, 
or briefly by my numbers. Subdu(^l 1849 
from 1841, there remains 991 the interval : 
add hereunto 436, ^icaarchus's interval, 
the fum is 1418, the interval between the 
firfl Olympiad and -A/i?»^/s beginning ; de- 
duct this from 3938, the place of the firft 
Olympiad in the Julian period', there re-* 
mains 2510, the number in the Julian pe- 
riod when Menes began according to jD/- 
caarchus, Deduft 710 from 2510, there 
mains 1800, the year of the world belong- 
ing (according to Armagh^ account) to the 
year zfioin the Julian period. So that hence 
we may gather, that if we will follow Dica- 
archus rather than the note o{ Eratojlhenes^ 
we muft place Menes^ and all the reft of the 
Catalogue 49 years fooner than by following 
Eratoft henes*% not^ we have done, for 1800 
is fo much lefs than 1849. 

H h X It's 

/ • 

43 f ^f Er AT.OSTHENES'5 CanoHj 

It's thought by Sir John Marjhant ancj pr 
thers, that the nu^er 436, which 2)/V^7 
archu^ puts for the diftance between Kilus 
and the firfl: Olynjpiad, is intended by him 
to be the year from the facking of ^r^ 1^9 
the Olympiads ; and that he intended jto af- 
Hrm Nilus's end to be contemporary with 
the taking of Troy. If |this be adn^itted, fince 
^tis certain that Eratojijpenes thought there 
}v:ere but 407 years in that interval, then fhfs 
is 29 years lefs than Tiiaearchtis^ account ; 
and if 2^9 be taken from 49 there will remain 
%o. So that there will be but %q yeap diffe- 
rence between thefe two accounts, the firft 
whereof is from EratoJlhenes% nqte on Ma- 
res\ end, and the laft from the end of iSTi- 
lus^ put contemporary with Tr^'s fall. 

It eftablifhes my belief much, that we are 
by thefe means come near the truth, that I 
find Cen/brinus relate from Varro^ that the 
diftance between the Cataclyfmus ^riorj the 
great Deluge, and the Olympiads beginning, 
was about i6co years, from which time 
neither of thefe two accounts do mi^ch dif- 
fer, as not only MAjtetho\ account? do, hut 
alio thofe of T)lodorHs Siculus and H^ro4(h 
tjus. Varro certainly knew the accounts of 
the Egyptian antiquities' in Herp^tus,^ apd 
others to exceed his 1600 years, yet he gave 

. . ' not 

and the time <?/Menes, &c.' 417' 

not any credit to *em, elfe he would hafvef' 
affign'd a' much gre?[ter diflance between' 
the Flood and the Olympiads, which i^ 
(iaird by \i\vtJLx^^v^ fjuv^iiikj becaufe for want 
of clear hillory fo precife an account of 
diat timfe could not by him be determin'd,^ 
as was in tater intervals ; atid his Cataclyfi 
ifim prior is not to be underftood of the * 
bgygedn Flood in a little part of Greece^ 
becaufe the Mythic time is not thereby 
bounded, but reaches to the times oiCwlus 
and Cronus j long before Ogyges. 

But becaufe I take Eratojihenes^ though 
a little later, yet to be a much more authen- 
tick author in the matter oi jEgyptian anti- 
quities, for reafons already mentioned, I 
llick rather to him. Notwithftanding this 
difference of 49 years between Didearchus 
and Eratojlhenesj yet both thefe authors are 
ufefiil to my end, to oppofe the extrava- 
gant zccoiint of Manet fjo that runs feveral 
thoufand years beyond them both, x. It 
may be oppos'd alfo to Sir y^?/^^ Marjham\ 
account'. Who placeth Menes in the head o£' 
four kingdoms mj^gyp^ within four years 
after the Flood, about 140 years before this 
account dedut'd fromDk^archusy without 
any exprefs authority from any ancient wri- 
ter, befide thofe wltich I have anfwer'd; 

H h 3 which 






* .-^S 

43 8 . O/Eratosthenes'5 Ci?;f^», 

which were reafonings from remote autho- 
rities infufficient to bear the weight laid up- 
on 'em. 3- It may ferve to prove convin- 
cingly that in all the fpace of 991 years, 
which is fiU'd up by the reign of 3 7 kings in E- 
ratojlhenes's catalogue, hdottAmutbart^us^ 
there was no chafme or gr^at times of inter- 

• regnum^ or reign of many kings whofe names 
are loft; for if fuch accidents had fallen 

. out in this cafe, the difference between the 
accounts of Eratojihenes and T^icaarchm 
would probably have been much greater 
than 49 years, which is all that we find. 

4. I have obferv'd that the times of all 
thefe kings added together, amount to but 
J Of 5- years, but in Syncellus the fum is faid 
to be 1075" ; wherefore I fuppofe that either 
he fum'd them up amifs, or there hath been 
fome error in tranfcribing or printing th^t 
fum, for the particular reigns given us, care- 
fully added together, amount tq %% years 
lefs than his fum. 

5. I may note alfo, that if wp remove the 
Synchronifm between Amojit and Mares 
nearer towards the beginning of Mares ^ 
which the generality and indefinitenefs of 
jhe note on which we build would permit, 
this inconvenience would inevitably follow j 
that the difference between EratoJihenef% 



andthetimeofMn^^Sy 8cc. 43 p 

account, and that founded or\T>ic£archuSy 
will grow juft fo much greater as the re- 
move is made from the laft year of Mares. 
To avoid this therefore I flick to my firfl 
choice of fixing the Synchronifm there, and 
I am encouraged fo to do, by obferving that 
Anoyphes the fucceflbr of Mares ^ whofe 
firfl year is the fame with Mares\ lafl, is by 
Eratojihenes faid to be ^og S^Koiy®^^ which 
I cannot better underfland or interpret than 
thus, that he was his fon, and as copartner 
held a fhare or part in the empire or king- 
dom with another prince. And this may 
befl be underflood, if we conceive that he 
held Tbebaisy or the upper parts o^Mgypt^ 
when Amojis or Tethmojis held all the Lower 
Mgyft^ which we find in^ Manetho pre- 
ferv'd b^Jofefhus that he at this time did? 
by firfl joining with thofe in the Lower M- 
gyft to expel the Paflors, and after wardi' 
fettling the Theban Dynafly there, fo call'd, 
becaufe he and his fucceflbrs were original- 
ly Thebans^ comers from Thebais^ which is 
the chief province or Komus of Vfpr M- 

• Tis confefs'd th^t the father of this Amo- 
fis or Tethmojis , is expreffly in Jofephm 
caird HaliJphragmuthoJiSy andthat this nam^ 
4otl> not appear among the Theban kings, 

H h 4 pjr 

449 O/Eratosthenes'5 Camn^ 

or T)ioJpoUtes ^ either in Eratofthenes or 
Manetho'^ or any other author that I know, 
which hath made me fometimes fufpeft 
that he was fome great officer eptrufted by 
the Theban monarchy, near the Lower M- 
gypt\ and that he fell off from his own 
prince, and by confederating with thofe iq. 
Lower Mgyft to expel the Paftors, up- 
on his fuccefs in that attempt, fo far as to 
fliut 'em up in Abaris^ his fon after his death 
perfefting the conqueft, found means to 
make himfelf an abfolute monarch over the 
Lower jEgyp. Neverthelefs, it's poiEble 
alfo that Halifphragmuthofis may be but an 
honourable title belonging to Mares^ which 
is expounded HeVtodoriis^ and that^s a titlQ 
too. I guefs alfo that the Mgyftian month 
Tharmuthi bore much of his name, as he 
had been their ^eat benefador, zsMeJori 
and Thofh bear the names of their foundei^s 
Mtzratm and Thoth. 

If this be admitted, yf;w(?y5> will be a bro- 
ther oi Anoyphis^ and thefe two willihare 
JEgyp between 'em. In this want of evi- 
dence from records, let the reader take 
what conjefture he thinks moft probable: . 
But as to the time, which only we underr 
take to ftate, and main matter of fa6i, I 
think I have produced fufficient evidence to . 




and the time of Mtt^tSy Set. ^^^^ 

mp^ that tWs Mare^^ the nittth Ring. inSr^ 
rstffp^ems^s carKii*, was eorrtett^owty wit^ 
Aimp eh€ €xpel!er of the T^hGenkians pm 
of Mgyft^i arid fch^t by reekofting bacl:^- 
wards from Mares ^ the years of His- ()rede-* 
jC€5fibi^S' giveft^ fey EratoJfbeMSy we may* der, 
terfiiinfe the beginning oi Ments ot Mt&f 
niw^fs reigfij whicfr was- oar chief enquiry. 
JFor this proves Eratefthene/s canon to be- 
gin with the foii and grandchild' df Crofmt 
or Ham^ viz. A^&Paim ^LndThoth, in whofe 
reignS Sambomathe'sfngment ends. And 
fo'by this meatts we have Qbtain'd' deter*-' 
jninate years of the world (according to the 
Jiebrew account exprefs'd by the Primate 
of Armagh) for the firft founders of the 
JE^^//i^i» monarchy, which years are not 
exprefs'dc either by Erat&Jihenes or Stmche^ 
niatho^ who only gives us generations- fuc- 
ceeding each- other. Yet becaufe his num^ 
bers of generations are the fame with^thofe 
ih- Mefesi Gemjky We may according to 
pur: poftulate, eftimatfe the- generations of 
Cains line antecedent to the time of Cro--- 
nus zndi Ouranus^ who both liv'd in the 
F^Jood, to have run parallel with the times 
pf the generations in iye-z^^'s- line which are 
exprefs'd \x\Mofes% ai>d fo, with aHowarice' 
of fome latitude, the yeai^ of the worldbe- 



44* ^/ ERATosTHENEs'i Canortj 

Ipng^ng to Setl>s line may be apply'd to 
Cvm's line in SanchaniatbOy to ^ve feme 
lig^t thereunto by help of this back reckon- 
ing, as it, did before by reckoning from Tr(^ 
tagpnus the fir it man* 

. The reader may perhaps be tir'd with the 
laborious calculations of this fe6tion, there- 
fore I will in the end of it divert and enter- 
tain him with fome more eafy obfervations, 
wherein his fancy may fport it felf in a li- 
berty of conjefturing, there being no other 
way left whereby we may reconcile thofe 
different names, whereby feveral authors 
feem to mean the fame perfon, whofe time 
is determin'd in our Eratojihenean table 
confidently with fcripture accounts, but in 
our authors very differently reprefented- I 
will attempt to give a few inftances, where- 
by it nuy appear that there is fome corre- 
Ipondence between thefe Eratoftbenean 
names, and the names given to Mgyftian 
fovereigns by other writers. The reader 
may fee that the difference is not great b^ 
tween thefe. 


In EratQ- 

fibenes. In Manetbo. 
t. Sir ins. i. Swis. 
X. Rauojis. 2. Ratoifis, 

3. MofcbCf 

A4f ''V,f^j 


and the 
3. Mofche^ 


j^. S^o^is. 4 

5. Siphoasy 

6. Senfao- 
fhisy ovSa* 

. of his fecun- 
dus *y Sen I 

* / • 

jTjiff Shanab. 

time of Menes, &c. 443 

3, Mycerinus Herod^t . builder 
of a great pyramid call'd 
Mencherres in Manet ho ^ 
Mencberinus in *Diodor. 
Sufisy Manetho 2iS^xxm}M 
built the greateft pyramid, 
and afcribes to him the fa- 
cred book, which he boafts 
he had gotten as a rarity, 
and a great prize, 

5. This book feems to me to 
belong to Sifhoas in Era- 
tojihenesy and Manetho vx 
his epiftle to Thiladelfhus^ 
intimates he received in- 
flruftions from him- 

6. Methufuphis in Manetho 
anfwers Saophls fecundus^ 
the firft fy liable Meth feems 
deriv'd from ^, fignifying 
fofty or one that followed 
after a prince of the fame 



7. Nitoeris is a queen's name, that all 
writers oiMg^plan ftory agrep in, and the 
etymology thereof anfwering Eratojihenes's 
interpretation is in Bocharty and many o- 



444 'Oft.KATosnLHtJszs'sCam?i^ 

Lallly, Whereas Nilus arid Thrurofp{b[nd 
near the end of this catalogue as names of 
the fame men, I crave leave to fuggell that 
I believe his true eaflern name was Nilus; 
V/hich I deduce from the eallern wwd Vni 
^achi^l^ fojjedit^ cujiodivit. And I take 
^^i^m to be Erat6jihenes\ interpretation 
thereof in Gr^ifi, which is by the carelefnefs 
df tranfcribers plac'd fir ft in Syncellus. There 
are fuch interpretations annex'd to moft of 
this catalogue j arid' Salmajius in his epiflles" 
to Gotius pwijs 'erii all to be good, and con- 
^equently the work to be genuine ; fome 
.6f 'em he hath particularly deduc'd froni 
the Copic language. I hope fome learn- 
ed man will do the like for all the reft*; 
I have undertaken only the chronology* 

Having thus fh'ew'd'fome connexion of 
the ^Egyptian Canon with the Olyihpiads, 
which are the beft rule of the Greek chrcJr 
riology : I will briefly fiiggeft what connex- 
ion they have alfo with the Roman chrono- 
logy, which is regulated by the years ah 
Vr&e conditdy from the building oS Rome. 
This I ihall do by the helpof the fame' P^^ 
fapegnia^ or fix'd time of Amojisy which I 
have before Settled to be coincident with 
Mares ^ laftyear, and with the time oflna^ 


,md^ the time of Mjnes, ^&c. 44 jr 

chus tl^e ffm^^^ of the 4rg}ve kingdom. 
NQ\y pur. Primate informs jiis from f^arrg^ 
the ijioft learne4 fiomafiy that the beginriing| 
of tlje city, and of Romulus;% reigp, jyas 
1 1 ox years after Inachus's beginniijg, )vhich 
ya^ about 3f years before pur Amofis. So 
by Q^T accounts, Varro^s Taliliaj Of Feaft 
to ^^les^ in whfph Rome was begun to be 
l?uilt, Y^ill fall put abouj: 1401 years after 
Menes'^ time, pr the beginning of the M-- 
'gypjan iponarci|y : ^up by "biP^^rchni^ ac- 
cpunt itbe time is fpniewjjat lpng,er. 

But thefe Papers are fwelFd to a bulk 
greater than I intended ; and Iconfider that 
the end which mov*d me to enquire into 
thefe ^Egyptian antiquities, was the finding 
out the time when Mizraim (whom Syncel^ 
lus affirms to be Menh) began to reign, as 
alfo the time of Thoth's reign. Now I have 
found thefe things which belonged to the ex- 
plication of our Sanchoniatho and Eratojihe- 
nesy I am not obliged to look any farther 
into thefe Egyptian concerns, I once in- 
tended to write an Appendix to this dif- 
courfe, and therein to give my thoughts far- 
ther about the 14 fir ft Dynafties of Manet ho ; 
but I am difcourag'd from profecuting that 
defign, by the evidence I have found and 
given, that there is much forgery^ in the 
, . cafe. 

44* 0/" Eratosthenes'! Canon, Sec. , 
cafe, and that chiefly upon delign to make 
their woilhip of beafts, as the living images 
of their gods, more ancient than really it is. 
fiut becaufe the fixing this time ofMenei 
is of fuch confequence to the clearing of 
both EratoJIhenes and Sanchoniatho, I will 
in the laft fediion fnperadd to thefe, which 
I confefs to be my principal proofs, fome 
others which feem to me of moment, and 
worthy to be confider'd as concurrent evi- 
dence with that already given from Sancho- 
niatho, Eratejtbenes, 'Dicnarchus and Varro. 


— -— -.-^■■■^■^ 


Sect. VI. 

Containing Tejiimomes concurrent abma 

the time of Mi'sts. 

HEre I will place firft an argument of 
approximation, which I draw froxnf 
the Mofaical hiftory- Mizram or 
Menes being the fon diHam^ muftbe thought 
to be born near the time that's aflign'd 
by Mofes to Arfhaxad the fon of Sheniy 
from which time all other accounts draw 
him too far ; and this not only the Hebrew^ 
but the Septuagint and the Samaritan agree 
to be the fecond year after the Flood, which 
in the Hebrew numbers mutt be exprefs'd 
AM. 1658. 

• Neverthelefs I acknowledge that he might 
be born fomewhat later in Hanis life, which 
was long; but being his fon, whom he 
placed firft to reign in ^gyp^ a rich coun- 
trey known to him, it's moft probable that 
he was either his firft born, or near him, 
and confequently near the time aflign'd to 
Arphaxad in Sbem's lint: Neither do we 

^ pretend 

44S Concurrent Tejlmonies 

pretend to more than an approach to tht 
time of bis birth. Only we are affur'd by 
SfincbQn$4th0^%\u!^orf^ that his birth was fo 
early in Cronus's time, that all his life and 
his reign was «nded before Cronus's death ; 
becaufe he expreflly tells us that Cronus fent 
^h0th his fucceflbr to be governor in JE- 
gyfty which muft be after bis death. This 
is the only place which I can find to allow 
fpioe Ijtitlide in, for the diifFercnt accounts 
thut many learned men diflfer from each o- 
pther in ; fome taking the numbers of the 
fjebrew text as I have done, others rather 
inclining to thofe of the Seftuagint tran- 
slation, or the Samaritan copy. This coiji- 
jroverfy I am not willing to undertake, hu^ 
leave others to accommodate the hiftorical 
evidence from other authors here produced, 
to the accounts of the Sepuagtnt or JWin^ 
titan as well as they can. I amifure by the 
prafticc of Eufebius and Africanusj that e- 
yen in the Greek church, where the autho- 
rity of the Seftuagint was higher than it 
was either in the Romdu or Syrian churc^$» 
it was ilill held lawful and con:imendab)e t[Q 
calculate times by the Hebrew account 99 
well ^s by the Qreek ; and thi^ is all^ (t^t | 
jtiav^ here done. 





- Now thti%^/#/4» hiftprtes* agfed'^fljat 
their fitft king - was* Cttr> o^ by a violent 
death, bfefofd ?the coiitfe «f ttjfture in thbfi 
times wbwid ^sive rettkMAJ hiih. Nevertfeei. 
Ids Eraiofthiems^^tpMti'd.if^ mi ftuiftbeP^ 
allows hini to :have liv'd toihe' y^kt 4911 ^ 
whence if we fiibduft^ the fuppes^* t'ilnfe df 
his birth it5fS, tiis «^ ^c his deatti idU^be 
a jf 3 y)s2irs^whichis afati^ time for a niait wtibok 
i\\t Mgjifti'aHs lamenrlis:cui:'offfiiil ihfc 
flowier<of hiiage; and ~thaCs above h9tl£>t^. 
time that w.d'r/iiSwArtMf iiv-d, which being 45^ 
years, thfe -half is' buric^. <.: And agcocdihg 
to our itumbefs, the b^tuiaig of Hi$ reign 
ivill not be' till he t^^ 1-91 years: old^^^hich 
ngi-eesireU with thioib time^ Wherein nser^ 
^ves were fo long ; and tli&re is n&teajfba 
to fuppofe him to bfegihx-o^reif^ whea be 
wa& £lder : Thefe things make myfir^pbtr- 
baUe ^guilifcnt that MeHeii timr iis^ Tiot 
fec'd atnif^. In like mii«Mr, if W0 tiike 
thoth-dt-Aibtttbes to be bora ifoouc 'iWift^^ 
time in the Hebfew account jii\M. 11J93, 
the beginning of tiis feign 4)eing by- oar- ta- 
ble 1911, he K^ill not eomc? to the ih»aoe 
dll he be it8 years ^IdjsUfd' be will dye ^v 
ged x77i which is a good approach to the 
loagatity of thofe times, though not To 
long as iAlaif''& life, which many accidents 
: : I i . might 

4^0 Chnctit^ifii Tefi'tmomes 

fHighit hinder;, r. Our stable, znd j^frma^^ 
«jajD[aj$i fu^eftsonc) fufficient caiife, viz. 
^af,. the jSrft king ofr.the ^btenkUu 
P?^prs, ;wa5 in his £i«ie let u|> againft bimj 
^d Mmeth^ m -Joffifhi^s agaioil .<^i9jir, de- 
c}arf^ hiojf to:be/a<lbJaforinid9blcjS^arriorj 
*s mtgbti^rotaMy Jiofteri iHvfife's .days. . 
I, J And tecauie-t believe that C^j . (who in 
3fM0^k'fi .myiHoal fiery is alBnn'd to be 
jrbe fi^ aadfneccFcff of O/'-i/^iiiMifl: there- 
lcfr^:b<l the famCiihafa with TkUif^, the ibh 
:tnd fwUSbr JoSMizr'aim (call'd Orus after 
^is cooiectation> .(o be worfhipp'd becaufe 
iof the li^.oc wifdobi of t»« mind,.froaii 
f^iOm:* wUeh fignifies that) it follows that 
¥htfiarfh*s AckmWkdgimntt where in the 
aS^f6t4»: myifteriesr. he was reprefented 
M tofhr to.; ': pieces ; this. was. fo horrid, a 
i^g^ f< thaet ^.he, confeflTes he ileft out thii 
i^^07«9« :iti iiis.nartiativej ts. a c^l^tnity 
li^bicb /the i?0faM» ears could not biear tjo b^ 
.faid iToncerJoing jl God:. It foUoi^s, i fay, 
,that tWJSgj/p.iaiis did own. that their d« 
«w or TifotS w.9$ cut off by a yiojertt deatb, 
aadcoitfequently .did. not Uve ^^QRg as bf 
the'«oUrfe of naturp he night have done in 
^ofe times, beif^ : ^^andfoa t;o If am ; . fot 
>Sahtbt\vt Siftm. liVd '4a>^6ar& 
Thdfeiatimations icr the M0pjiil» hiflcMry* 
.;--:« ... that 

.."•/•■.^ '-^ **». \'.^l. :. ,'■ -A, 

that tfaek Menet and Th^tb iiv'd y^ an t^ 
tS the world, wherein death at 2-53 and 
»77 years :Qld was GOjinted untimely, death, 
are good proofs that Meneszod Timbliy'^ 
HOi: ai^ after the ^lopd. For there is no 
eicample in Scripture of a man ths|t liv'd^oo 
years, if he were bom ^30 years after the 
Flood, according to the Hebrew Recounts 
as far as L remember $ unlefs J^e Ajmay be«x* 
eepced, whofe age fome think wa^ . doi^ 
Jed, by a rairaculoos recompence t^l4s,pa« 
tience. f , .; . .. . ; 

Id the fecon^ ^ace^^I will prc^ofe^pailagei 
»n Jofifbui% antiqiHties, //i^^ yiii* c. x*/, a^68. 
after the iniddle of that long chapter* , There 
fee haviftg fpoken amply oi? Salomon'^ ^uild* 
xngs, an4 mentioned fjis. marriage with the 
daughter of ^baroab\ he gives the ijeafon 
why the JEgy^tian . king? ; then were , caird 
by that.naoiei becaufe.that name in the^^^ 
gypian lan^age flgoi^es the king; andafi 
fert5 thdt title had been. >orn by dltheJB^ 
gyptim fevereigns from 2l/iW«x who built 
Memfhlsy and liv'd, many, years before OHjr 
forefather Abraham y\x\lo Solomon^ \\mt^^ 
more than 1300 yearshavingpafs'd betweea 
*€hi, H^re I doubt not^but il/i»^»j means 
Memes; becaufe he is.diftinguifti'd by a fure 
mark as the fopnder of ^^e^i^/AfVjfWrhtch Z/^- 

I i X rodotus 

45 1 CoftcthrMt Tkftitmnks 

T^ottts 'Cxprtfily'.teftifteiS' that M^is baiJt, 

iib.W: r.'^jr. ■ Arid Ma»etho in j^itams zi* 

6rtiiB 'hy fdh Atboftht't Built a pAlace in fei 

tfhich iVippofes'the'citjr firll bflilt, and irt 

klhgfTX^'aJf before him but Menes; ^J.'M, 

flrggtfft$i 'Drbi ipfi co^Jiterii mm^n reftmrt 

videiury ifitlmatiiig, T-'f\if>pof(&, that MetH- 

^Bii"i5 i conrraftiott'of -Afe/^^Vy « eafily 

f«iflmg"-ftiw »:\ as- Btkh'dH bath iteited . Dr^ 

CajpeitiMofhy iCsHeSrfw namd,' (peFhapd 

tohfraldRJcF froin Mefk>/kJ infomis- Us- that 

in G?/r/V it's call'd Manfbtha, the » being 

thcfe tAain'd^ and M^hntiiNcpft Sfe pfo- 

mifcubony taken, becattft «6r aftd » a^e fo 

often-int'ercfiang'd: Tht TirnksdnW it Mit^ 

aivi ftickihg rather^to the /T^'^i-zit' Vikme of 

Mizruhn its fouftdei*, than to MeM^t that's 

irioft uj?d amori^ tWe ■(jf'eeksi '' /- 

. . And indeed the change ^hi6h- Jifefhus 

hath made is onlyih* vow'el, ah^tbe ter- 

fration, which thefearhed^kntxr^m changed 

very' arliitrarily. Vlutarch* de Jfide calls 

tMs man Minieiy 'DUddtus Sicuhts calls hint. 

M^> orMffFrtf- y/f»)' calls him Jl/«!r(>, the 

Eiceerpa Latino-Barbara in [Scal't^er call 

him Mpfteus ; in all, the firft king, or ?»i&«- 

raeh in Mgypt^ is meant a fure charaftef of 

Mizra'm or A/l?»<*j : And Jbfephus tells qs he 

Was liotitiuch above 1300 years before SaU^ 


% .« ."V 


I I 

.^f tke. ti^ of MznESi. 4^1 

mm^i mixdfiigp with thethra^^r^'s ^\iglk^^ 
whkh ^ve occafipn tq bis ensjiwy* Thi? 
marriage refix'd fajf^^he E^fWWte «f^/«<^^ 
to T.J. 3700, frwft jrh^QCi^^uWiid: i^^o. 
Ihere xw>iins 1490 ; '\yhich. rails Jar ^QJctpJ 
Manethf^ accouat, (omething-ihbrt or-Sijr 
J. M4vjhim% acc9UBt, and . theixfore Cj^ri,- 
jtf adi^ 'cm both. 3utl.canfe{s ic..&IIs„a:- 
hove ipQ.yQws beyoo^, W accqUiit, fotfi^it 
reaches the year of the world 1690,' which 
:8nfviri?rs 2400 ip the JiUian period. Wbere- 
fbre-I cojHfider'd w,^^_^f^e^on m&dj&^fofe^hus 
oreokoit «^bove 1309 yejir^ from Men^it<kt!las 
l>egiornngpf the t^n^ple; ^nd by iopkiog ba^ 
towards 5hp beginalflgof the fatne Chapteijt 
fouQd by comparing hif accoutcs thqre^ j;h^ 
he ^cw'd, J5)i years, ja-om the depaf tnr^ oijt 
of JE^p, to the firfthivldwg-of the temple: 
But tibtts is too tnuch ^y aibJove ioq years, 
gsis clear- by iKitfgs\i. i. wheiA it's af' 
firnif'd to ibe bttf4^o yej-rs^fcer tlw?. depar- 
ture fr<Jm ui^^pj^if, . Wherefore. rp6bfy xhis 
"iniftafce, ftod Jf<?/ifif^j> f9* years will be 
but 48<s^ whi<?h ii .«i>' le,^ ; and dednd,;ix 
.firom i3<POfe • tha-p wiH^, Remain but 1 1 ^8 ; 
rand lihia flMcri^gf of S4m9» withTharaaSs 
jdaui^w v-jiff^ two yeats bf^Ore that; fo 
-axBft:;^(?«iejri tO tl^s g^rriage js buc 1186 
y? jprs;: o^Wbefefore from 5P. ;?. 37Po^ ftib- 
r I i 3 <iua 


45:4 Concu&eut Tefiimoni&s 

Met iiS(J, there reihiins 2514 of y. J. be- 
longing to Mentf ^ tHis anfwers the year of 
the world according to' Jrmagb\ account 
1804. This year falls between the two«:- 
taunts thut I.decluc.d from E'rd(»fiheuett 
anid ' fronj 'Dicsdrchui^ differiiig but ftiiir 
years, from 'Dic^earchUs^ iiccoants,' and 
Coining by fo mach nearer to Erati>fiheues\ 
trA\t\bvk IX years-eairEer thaftthfe Primate 

Si)ch. another approach to the begittning 
of^ theJEgy^tian kingdom after ttoe^ Flood, 
and; before J^iraham\tmiej may lie ded uc'd 
'ftovnyp/ephu/szctbunt of the lihie'of Sa^ 
Jomn's building his tertiple; givfen lieiar thfe 
beginning of the fame chapter. For he 
there teHs OS it was ioio years after AAra- 
i&4i»'s coming intb' ^^^n^, and 1440 years 
^fter .the Hood. ^ ^ubdud loxo from 1446, 
there remains 4^0 years between the Flood 
and Abrabaw^s cptning into CoHMun. \Cs 
certain the Mgypttan kingdom began in 
that interval, which i^ calculated very near 
agreement with the Heknw mnnbcrs whidi 
Ifoilow ; and fo doi^ aUb bis inter?al whkfa 
immediately follows, iirfaere he^iaich that 
the temple was buik 3161 years after the 
firft man Adam. F6r fubdud Its difinGe 
frpm the Flood , which he s^es ^440 



of this timivfMinEs. 4if 

9 • 

years j ^emt' of 3 to* ,' ' there remains \66ti 
which differs- but fix years fromih^ Hebrew ^ 
account ; whereas iFht 'feaS' foltel>i;M the 
SMturkdn^ or the ^eptuagint account, h6 
muft have 'diflfer'd much more,- Now,-be- 
fiaufe th6 w^^j'/^^i/^/r kingdom began 'id Me^ 

time, and that was in the interval betWeeii 
.the Flood and Abrdham^i journey jhto G^- 
naan i!ated by Jofephus 410 years after the 
Flood; we may allow* about ioo years of 
this interval to the peopling - of the ^brld, 
and then Menes's time will agree well e- 
ftough with the time whi<ih I have pitched 

upon. ' ' - ' 

H^flcc it appears thtt Jafifbus's place 
from Mizraim differs very little from^hat 
which I have found, if we correft only his 
iniftakc between the departure out of M- 
%yp\ *nd^ the founding bf the temple, 
wherein' he plainly forgot the text, i Kings 
vi. t. And by this liberty fhat I ufe to cori 
reft a UBftftake in Jofe]^hus*s chronology, the 
reader wttU fee f hat^although I found an ar- 
gument for approach' to truth on his autho- 
rity, in 'Confent with others, who indeed 
often ' fuggeift great truths, yet I think not 
my fclf bound to juffify all his affirmations 
about, times; nor do I think it poffible to 
• ^ i 4 reconcile 

4\^ ' Cancmreftf Tefi'tmsnhs 

reco9Q|^ all pafl^^S; in turn, ^ w« ap w ^o4 
%m itrltiU-t>oo);^ « ^q'-k.'s fikdy to wn)C« 
'em better than ^le^iipw^e, -But in tbf^ 
fecond approac|;i foi^94pd on JoftfhHs^ ac- 
^oiints, I need tioc corre^,l)iin'a,t ^1. • 

io the third place Ii will ment^Qn a proof 
of M^jtsxitoei , taken ^om the detef mina^ 
^o& of it, which is ia.y//ry^ .whom I be- 
Ueire with Sir J^M., tbi^t he caH> J(/!f;r?^ if*. 
vii« r. f6L and (^iXQ^Jhticlides^ ss^pcoving 
i>y ancient monumefnts th^t he Uy'4 if yeani 
before ihe eUeftyPMi9»^«^, w^Kl wa$.bro« 
ther tQ Mgialeus the fk&^icytmidn king ; bis 
time was -^. Af. j^ij,. S^duai5^ ypars from 
it, there remains 1900, which is fomewhat 
above fo years hter than the time our table 
fixes'. But this therefore is iliU more op- 
pofite t;a the pfOtended »tiquitie$ lof Ma^ 
netho and the priefts> whom //^^(for*/ and 
^kdorusktm tajfbljpw, and^whom chiefly 
I oppofe. And this is eafily reconcil'd to 
my table, by aftirmingthatATif*// invented 
letters in the latter end* of his rdgtii whidi 
ended o^. M. 1911. as ;app^ars'by ourtable/ 
.wherewith Tliny > rigljf ly underllood fully 
agrees. . - 

. I will not enlarge on- this ai^Bient, bof 

caufe I have before in this ; book i^ed thf 
Sicyonian kingdom^ . original {. a$d have 

; proved 

3 . 

of"^ tme 0/Mem£& J^^jt 

Jtotekea. fr6m ibq jirgivr, Iniinftoiir the «$»9 
«jri!»iinr.kitig0oiD> -he faeiilgr.biK)|her;tn' JB^ 
gialimtf attji^^siUdaai* wkpeflesj . . , V. \ 
. ii^e. fiauith: concintenti ttibdu>a;r vAUti 
^^grqeswki^citir tables jpreay^oear, zadjcoitl 
iequently confimis all thetiiaesiher^.^fiit\iji 
te(5ilife' they dr-e ehaia'd cogisdier by cb6 
fififc of fiicc^ffibn begUmlng in f^tnts, fktA 
be uken ikwxki {tafiage occafiotiaHy fiieni 
tiotv*^ by H^'Oihiiii, /«^. ii, neai* the beg^ 
ifitig. . He telllufr th^t Myrh had feareely 
been dead 900 ytears ip^eri he was m M^ 
g^t ^c. The lifiie of bis ttavelling 4iii 
tberl know tiof certainly, but-^ birtti' it 
ik^d out oSOeiUus^ and agreed by our^ii» 
moGeof y^iM^i^, and ^tJ:M. to aaive beek 
^«r. 3^«/. 41^0, which ani^ers* in Airm*^% 
jibfials ta >#. M. 3 500. Subdudt hence ^od^ 
thereniaifiisatfao, which year ofthewjorld 
falleth within 1 1 years of the death of Mm^ 
res.¥bikfiphiv$, the xt^ king fn>m JIT^x 
in 6ur Eritafik^kidn tikAd. And indeed 
tht| Kingi who^ title is interpreted theP)H>- 
]ofc*pher, is moft likety to be the fttne with 
Afyris, oFi^dr^/i- m Her^dotns: kndi i^keh- 
'rut\ yea, in JKr A%*r*s Gre^it S«/?^j he is 
fiontied Meref. For we find him recorded 
3IB. Herodetus, aS doing the greateft things 


4j8 Comurrem Tefiitfimhs 

that a^peaoeeUe-fdiilofoi^cal pcHice iiiv:^- 
gjfft could iperJbnn, for pabtick benefit of 
the lind^ by geejttsiWttee-ons ihotn^een^ tiie 
Ail/f, a&dthefi!npdKiocn'l«kethatl>e>rs.ln$ 
liame, and bnni]^ hiin.tH a great revenue. 
He aJdoarn^d their p^;i^k reli^oni alfoi/i^ 
tniilding * the flatiity * niortfaerh- Tortica to. 
V^^S' cemfde. in Mmpk^i • And mipre^ 
Over, 2>/<5g*fWx is^ft^fMir: iO; : ^iE^<«j^#4;'S 
life tells usi thajtAf-fm UiYcntei tfe^ prinr 
ct]^e$ of the dements ofGeo^tt^y^v^hicb 
Tyt^biigorMs] learn'd in -S^yft, Now- be? 
cai^ I defirAd to kaow 4)ow-k>ng he was 
before Tytb«gor4^% time :of i)?ii^ in Mg^t^ 
I found ^i.'^yf.hAgw^, w^ there j#<il/, 
lASn% by4m4gh'% amjaWand by our tublie 
H«fiiruf ^\g^iiAM.%6icj^\,:{x:k^di thisfuem 

ibfBformer* there,reniain>4^3raiQr$ betnvinea 
the death .of Mtef-fSt ^.tbe, timeof^* 
th(ipra^% :ftudyiiig tliere r> wi, fo nmch d* 
der zt^MiBris\ princ^JeS'Of.gfometry-than 
Ihe.timeof this learhed: 0^re^fki who fifttkd 
at Uft in /r«/y, . and wasf.the'foutidenof tte 
iltf/ir fuccefEon of philQJbpb^s; . My pen 
would rouiiiy digrefe fjircher in praifo of 
M^risy but I muft itftriaitt my felf to cda- 
fider only his time, which we have found 
p-pf^e verMm^ near the. matter. Ajid diis 
being doi^e, we can come, as near to find 





of the titne pf Mi.m^> 4S9. 

the be^imiBg jui Menes by,,- help fd Brattf^^ 
fhevesl^cvRoxii Forby.^kd^ilig the. years oC 
dietS foil kiogSy ^ ittm will be fouQ4i 
which;is to be firixlude^ frofiji^^Z'^ta Bqi 
tfaieihor.te£t,Wiiy?i$^lhis: Ftq»*^o9, wjbicb 
IK the k{{ yetr t>f JM«fr«x ?i&iX9/^/|fu^ fiMH 
dud .' (849* out* . taJwlar niKBber ^Me^j^s 
begmniflg, the diiferenqe is 7^ ; ^aihis is the 
futni of all the fe^^ from.Meites to: iAf«r#r 

jiumt^r before JpHod, fubda6}:> 7(^9 thev^ 
-will r^it»in i^^j- which is jii^ 11 more th^ay 
ij849, and fiiews th^t by this account M^ 
4fer began^; i x years- only later than we • have 
{dac'd him. Now thi? being but a •tauHi 
difierence» it-^ a fufHcient approach to »■ 
igreement in time with me. And the fo 
near agreement in time, and oamet and cha- 
jrader of a philofo|^icai peace^ prince, 
fuffidttitly proves that the M^res Tbik;fb^ 
fkus in EratofikeMesy is indeed the very 
fame perfon with xheMmres, whofe time is 

. For Heroiuus did not ]Mrctend to telltis 

to a year how long Mmres Iiv*d before tuBi^ 

/but. intimated an approach only by the 

• round number 900. If be had faid 911 

years before my birth Meres died, then t^ 

iMing in my Er4i$9fiben9t» table that his 


dcatli-^d^ jitft^fcf many ye^f« t)efefre Herd^ 
/b^ir/s bk|tli,:i^ad^had' an argument to 
prove precifely thiit alR ^tlie kings times 
Ihercin were rightly determined by my nuib» 
6ers, and particularly MeHes%b\xt fince }sh 
ft>ake only prof^ verutn^ \ can tiience on^ 
infer /r^/^ vifrw«r that ffiy nwaibeff do well 
determine ' -A/(Wf ^4" and other kings timeSi 
And this ijear concuryetice of Herodotus 
^ith otfier'^thorities' tv^Mcb' I have cited, 
makes Hie flilJ more to v^\x€Eratofiheme/s 
canon, arid the . connexifen -of it with Jui^«- 
choniaihiPs Thotb ; there being greater r«i- 
fon to regard Herodotu4Wt9im\otiy con- 
cerning this king Mdress that liv*d but ar 
itoiit 900 ^eat^ before him;^ which he meni- 
fions as certainly \t\o\sr^fpop^ verum^ tlnm 
thereis to believe the fnbles that the pricfts 
told Ibim about kings mariy; thoufands of 
years before his days, whertof he acknow- 
'ledges that tfeey gave him -no fathfaftory 
'proof. - * * . - . i .. i ' .' 

I crave leaver to addfo th6fe proofs this 
dbfervatibn, fha! it's rationally credible that 
Mgypt ftould become a kingdom not be- 
fore, but fomewhat after Babykn^ and* not 
many years after it neither. ^ Hereunto the 
'times that I have fix'd on either A:M.t%^<)y 
or hy^Dk'jearrbtis's numbers (i^cto^ do well 


f t *j 



I I 

ofi^ time of MBfits.: 4^\ 

djiiree: Fortbeiitut^^roof oftJbelB^iilvi^il^ 
<ntiquitks istdcen from the el4eft oete^il! 
^bisxmiacA that there werci fotoid. vsrhm 
jtU»Mder tooHs. Bak^lon. No^ thdfe reach'd 
^dLwards no vdfdxt dian 190J year^ ycit 
doabders had beeii made {two. the begta^ 
niog, of the Bafy/diti^fi mqiutrchy; WhercR 
fore. I (vb^to&'i^.^ firom the year .wha«at 
jiteStiJtnder voo^L^Rahjlon^ which Wi» 3<{74^ 
there remains 1 771 for the year 6f the world 
^hea that monarchy and .thbfe ohfervati^Mi^ 
begaiit This, is 2^9 years before 'the accounc 
from Dic^iarcbus^ at y% yeai^ before th^t 
Ibanded in thenbceof J?r;0^^/'/Sif«^/. 

- And- indeed 1 cannot doubt but the Ath. 
tility of Mgypi was fo well kikiWA before 
the Flood, and' fo foon famous after this 
FIdod) as wonld^induce either J^cM to ad>« 
Vife,- or hSi chMdi^ff to undertaken joarney 
thither to planrfdftie paf r ctf i'ncMafing m«ri- 
feind in that fMcful pkces as- f6bn t» the 
ifecdtihts I haye given do affirm : btft (boner 
after feheFKjod 4rid peopling -moderately Of 
the eaft, tKi^y could hot be. 't 

' The biftory of thefe celeftlal obfer^^ 
cions on which this arguitien(? is founded 
is in SimPlteiu/iti lik ii.- dt Cmh. Some 
countenance is'given to this my i^tiocina^ 
tion. I. From that Babylon in Mgyp>f\ 



4^4 ^«M*f/''^^' Tefli^ftijfs 

W^ whkh Bow^^re coingiqjj^iirintcd in 
ifafiny ^^iticugs cff QW 3ibles.. I il^adily rc- 
folye HOC to digre^ iaco Jt^e ic$)fitroverfy v» 
bout the Bumbers in the S^tun^int and J> 
M0itat$ thm.^fit: from the Hfi>rewj tdd 
from «ach othe^. Yet th^re is reafon ^ 
xn6 to hope thaE-cbofe who prefer tither df 
thefe.befoFe th^ ^Ws^^j wjll not be c^r 
li^ed at my if}iioc^t.es4eay(Mtfst<»prQVe 
thA% tbefe andeaC hetthen hi^riaufi do ik- 
gree well, ift tbe; rami b0tb> ^tb ^ac}t <^ 
{her, dttd with omiieifrew jaccoimt. 
. Add hereunto that SjmfeUtfs {^es th$ 
.il/46v/ of Sin0tofibiene/f who i$ Uieoalytfnf 
4WCie, 114 years after the cohfiifion oi toUgn^ 
that was by the Hebreigt accounts ^. M, 1 jisj, 
therefore Mtnet. is by him fet A. M, \%%i. 
but yt years laitfir thtn my -number. 
'. Laitiy, in favoiir of theVI//?/{i#Ai/ accounts 
in the Hebrew text, I will .add. yet one ^ 
f>rQach more towards the time cf Mimef 
or M'tzraim^ taken from the 'remains we 
have of the Lyiian antiquities in other Au- 
thors compar'd with Mofe^. His afitrma- 
tion that M*x,raim begzt Lndim^ Ge».K. i^. 
placing this people firit of tiit defcendents 
from this fon of Ham, made me think, that 
in, and before Mofei% time, and foon after 
the founding of the Mgy^titm kingdom, this 
/ nation 

hf the itftie of Menes, 46" j, 

fiation w« a ' confiderable plantation/ All 
the ancients unaninxpully .^gree Ludim to 
fignify^ the Indians in ^fia Minor : So Xo/e^ 
J^hus^jifrkunus^ Eufehiu^j Hienmy . Eufta^ 
thiusi and others; but without ihewing' the 
caufe they refer LudtmiQ ^ij^^rt^/s line ratlier 
than ii/^^'s;_ Bachart nrorfeover doth'fugr 
gelt fome intimations -tliat Ludim of j^an!ii$ 
line fignify feme Mtfiioffapi, r . _ . ;•. . 

I affirm that Meon^^^ox Mizraim planted 
this paft of J/i^i^ finc^ call'd Lydia^ but an*- 
ciently M^onh^ from Meon^ z%\J^uf€hius 
owns in hi^ "Vrjgpar. Evangel. It'S'>fJertaia 
that Mofes mentions no people call'd Ludim, 
except, tl^ofe of i/^^'sliae: But fhe,rga>a 
enquiry is, . where we ftiall find any cpncur- 
lent evidence to determine at leaft feme*- 
what near the time of, this plantation^ and 
confequently of the pknten The bell and 
neareli that I can produce, is founcjed iii 
Eufebius's Qhronicon aD his number 56. . He 
affirms that then reigfid in Crete one Cres, 
who was one of the Cutetes, who brought uf 
Jupiter ; thefe built CnolTos in Crete, and 
the temflf of Cyh^\t the mother of the Gods. 
Now becaufe it's evident that this Cybele is 
the great Phrygian or Lydian Goddefs, 
nearly relatbd to the founder of that mo- 
narchy, and it may be juftly taken for gratit- 

K k ed, 

466 CoHcunem Teftimonks 

ed, that this buildfing a temple to hit wds 
after her death: Therefore thfe tithe being 
fe'd in which this temple was bmlt, we 
ft all know that ihe was before that, and 
then was dead, and confecrated to be 
a Goddefs. NoW we have a fure rule given 
hy Scaligtr^ and generally admitted by all 
chronologers, that add %6^j to Euftbiks'i 
number here $6^ the fum gives the year in 
thQ Julian perioci, Which is ^7S^. Subduft 
from' this 710 according to Armagh's me* 
thod of determining the year of the world, 
and there willretoain A.M. 2043. thej:ime 
when this temple was built, which falleth 
Out to be not- many years afler Menes't 
death, which by our table was 1911; for 
by fubduftion it appears to be but i3x after 
the end of his reign, who was cut ofFin the 
midft of his age, and by the courfe of na- 
ture in thofe times, be being of the fame 
generation with Arphaxad^ might have 
liv-d paft the time of the building of this 
temple as Arpbaxad did, who died in the 
year of the world 1096. 

Hence it is certain that the Lydian riio-* 
iiarchy was founded long before Cyhles 
temple was built; for EufebiusTrap. I. n. 
f. 58. faith, Thar her father 7fc/i?<?» reign'd 
there before flie died a good while, and (he 


of the time ofMnais. 4(^7 

was dead before lier temple was built. 
Therefore this monarchy mutt be founded 
about • the' fint'e of Menes's reign mJBgjfpt; 
To 'that tKis knowledge of the time of the 
'Zyi//i2?« kingdom's beginning, mult lead us 
to a near guefs at the time of beginning the 
Mg^pthtn kingdom, from Whence the co^ 
iony in the I/jj^^/m/j klhgdottt was fent. 

- Sbme'pei^haps may ftight Eufibius\m^o^ 
tity, bed^ufe he doth not-name any Sndlefitefr 
'aufhdrs-from whomh^ receit^M fhi^hift0- 
>ical matter, ■ with tfefe" tirfte to wbMh it's 
annexed ; btit I doubp- noc ^but he had good 
authority' ro warrant him theifein, tho* he 
fiamesf.nohe here: For hb feldom names 
his autfiors in his'c^ftdifli that beifngbuta 
\taWe, not defign^d for debating doubtful 
things, but to helf? the memory of things 
proyM in other places.- Scaliger in his ani- 
madverfions on the place, proves this Cres 
to be own*d by Efhomsy a very ancient hi- 
'ftorian,^ quoted by Marc ianus Heracleotes\ 
' and he^^dds alfo Eujiathius quoting Arria- 
nus for the fame. I add, that Clemens yf* 
lexand. Strom, r. ownJ this Cres. The 
name *Aim;^d&;v that's given him, fignifies 
to my underllanding, only that they knew 
not his parents, or any elder ancellors. I 
doubt not but he \yas from the Ceretbitesy 

K k X or 


■ • 


- 4^ 8 Concurrent Tejlimomes 

or Thilifiin€i\ whom I fliew afterwards to 
be the firll planters there ; and Mofis owns 
. *em to be Mizr aim's pofterity fettled in Ca- 
naan when Abraham came thirhen The 
fable about defending Jupiter y I can give a 
• probable hillorical interpretation of 5 but 
pafs over it, defigning only to regard the 
time of .building the temple oiCybele. 

;I am fenfible that this approach taken by 
it felf gives but a little light, in this dark 
part of antiquity ; yet a little I thought was 
not to be altogether neglefted: Becaufethe 
. Ibrs^ of the leaft magnitude, joining their 
light with thofe of the firft and fecond mag- 
.nitude, make the night it felf more clear 
.and pleafant. This very approach hath en- 
couraged me fo far, that I have ventured to 
, guefs that this Meon (whom Diodorus af- 
ferts to be the firft king of Lydias, and 
Thrygia; and from him Eufebius took in- 
formation) was the very fame man, who in 
'Herodotus IS twice mention'd, (in Clio and 
Melfomene) and call'd Mants^ as the eldeft 
\\Vi%Q{ Lydia^ anceflpr to Atys^ and fo to 
the firit royal line of the Atyada^ who go- 
verned Lydia before the Heraclida and the 
Mermnada: The fame alfo with Manisj 
"mentioned in Tlutarch dejftde as the^^ry- 
• gian hero, and the very fame with the^- 



of the time of Menes, ^6^ 

gyytian Menes. A fmall change in the vqw- 
ds and termination is very common, when 
the fame name pafTes into feveral countries 
and languages. Nay, I do farther believe 
that Me^n is neareft the original of th^ 
name; and that Mijy, MWj, Menes ^ Ma- 
his^ and all other variations of the fame 
man's name, are but chajtiges of that origi- 
nal name; which in Hebrew is pyo Mea^Uy 
iignifying, .when it is a noun, a hfibi ration, 
or refuge; or, as a participle, it will im- 
port, him that caufes m,en to inhabit, or 
dwell in any place, the founder of a colony, 
tfW»iV, in "Faufaniasy who, as prince there- 
of, is their .refuge, an^i gives thcn;^ plj^ces 
to dwell in. 

The reader may fee foundation for this 
notion in Df . Cafile\ Heft^gloty in the root 
py //«», but more in Bochart^ in hi^ Tba- 
leg. p. 138. whomi willnot tranfcribe. Yet 
neither of them applies this to tfte original 
tion of Meottj or Menesy or to the fam^- 
nefs of thofe feemingly different names. (Seq 
more of this in my notes on the general ta- 
ble.) Neverthelefs, 'tis certain that the old- 
ell names of thofe perfqns who were wor- 
fliipped by heathens, are of fuch eaitern c:^- 
tradion; And ic-s certain, alia that this Mer 
n^es was lb worfliipped, as the: iounder; 

470 Concurrent Tefiimonm 

firft, of the Mgyptiattj and afterwards of 
many other colonies or nations, which Mo- 
fes himfelf owns to have fprung from him, 
particularly the Ludim, Agreeably hereun- 
to, T>tohrus fpeaking of him utider the 
name of OJiris^ faith, he did i7r^}<6im viroii 
clKif/jSpluf, fafs through moftofthe then k^own 
and habitable world ; and becaufe he. taught 
'em to fow com, plant trees, and build 
houfes, was every where received as a deity. 
To this purpofe he is cited by Eu/ebim^ 
Tr£p. p. 46. Particularly in that page he 
faith, he did €^eAd«y ta x^ \ ^^r^w edr^, 
fajs />^/^ Phrygia, and the nations adjoining^ 
with which, then Lydia was one kingdom, 
as it naturally joins to it. 

This is exprefs teftimony that the. fame 
man who founded the ^Egyptian monar- 
chy, was alfo in Thrygiay and the adjacent 
countries,^ (which mult include LydiaJ to 
fettle colonies there. And it's evident that 
thefe kingdoms mull be of near equal anti- 
quity, which are founded by the fame man. 
Agreeably hereunto it's affirmed by 5P^»y2p- 
niasy that the Phryghm did con teji with the 
Algyptians about this claim to antiquity^ 
Atticorum, p. 13. And he would not have 
noted it, if he had riot thought their claim 
confiderable, ^ 


of the time of Mekes. 47 1 

J^t£lAts.\i\{is,Her^dotM^f.^^. twice ^flcr ting 
Manes to be the founder oF the Lydidn mo- 
fitrchy^ which is the fame with Menes^ puts 
the mattw ahnoft but of doubt. The great' 
eileem that thefe Afiattcks had o^ this Ma^-^ 
ntSy uinderilpod by this, that 5P/«- 
tnr€h dt i^^/r. faith, they* caU'd all heroick 
deeds after his r^vo^ Mamca\ and that 
fome caird him Mafdet^ which being cer^ 
tainly an honourable tide, 1 confider ^ what 
it might import. To help us here, Hefy- 
chins tells usi- that Mtt^v^is the title of ZcJ? 
or Jupiter among the "Phrygians. - Now 1 
fuppofe that { ia M^<j6<. being* turn'd into 
e^ (as was ufual in the Dark and JB(?/fr di* 
aled, which the AEoUc migration carry'd in- 
to Thrygia) thefe kitid of ? Arv^i^^x caird 
him Mafdes^ intimating thereby that he was 
z Jupiter y or great deity to be worfliipped: 
If this be admitted, it may help in part to 
underftand Oromafdes^ elteem'd a good de- 
ity farther in the ealh However, itfs evi* 
dent enough that the Phrygfans (^whom I 
take at the firll to be one people with the 
Lydians planted by Manes^ as I havefhew'd) 
did, under the title of their common fouur 
der, honour the fame perfon with a reli- 
gious worihip, who was fo hanour'd in M^ 
gypt on tt\e f;^me account.. 

K ^^ 4 .Add 

47^ Concurrent Teftimcmes 

Add hereunto that Dionyfiu^ HaVtcar- 
najfenfisj not only owns this Manes to be 
the founder of the Ziy//i4» monarchy, but 
calls hiiD the fon o{ Jupiter ^ which I un- 
derfland concerning Jupiter Hamon , or 
Ham-^ fo that his fon might inherit that ti- 
tle alfo to be Jupiter fecundus^ as he was 
Crbnus fecundus in the ilyle of Sanchonia^ 
tho ; and fo Menes in Eratojihenes^s Later- 
cuius is expounded Aidvi@-, flill relating to 
the fame Jupiter Ham his father. 

The records of this kingdom*s antiqui- 
ty-^that remain to us, are fo few and imper- 
fed, that I cannot affirm certainly that 
Menes or the pofterity of Ham were the 
fole founders thereof: Yea, I have fome 
f eafon from them to fufpeft that the pofte- 
rity q{ Japhet had begun to plant there, 
either as foon, or perhaps before him. For 
I have obferv'd that in Thrygiay which joins • 
to Lydia^ and is made part oi Manes % king- 
dom by "Plutarcbj ApoHodorus places Elec^ 
tra^ the. daughter of Atlasy the fon of J a* 
petusy according to the Greek tradition; 
and Teucer at the fame time, or very near,. 
Atlas being Japhet\ fon, as Mane^ was 
Havfs. And I find that "Dionyfius Halicar- 
fiajfenfis makes Cotys the fon of Manes^ to 
mi^rry thedaug;hter o^Tullusy who is calFd 

. 'an 

. of the time o/Menes. 473- 

^n* Avrix^m of Lydia I which certainly im- 
ports that he was not of the fame fanaily 
with Manes ^ but a native of the countrey,- 
whofe parents they knew not, or woiild' 
not take notice of. Whence I muft colIe6^^ 
that the planters from JEgyft found fome 
aborigines in Lydia^ and intermarry'd with 
*em ; but got the fovereignty iiito their owa 
hands, and tranfmitted it to their pofterity 
^the Jtyad£. Neverthelefs, the other fami- ' 
lies there were fo confiderable, that they 
got Thrygia not long after into their own 
hands, and made it a diftihft kingdom un- 
der Tfardanus^ who marry'd Teucer'^ daugh- 
ter Bateia^ and founded the Trojan kmg- 
dom. But the religion of thefe feparated 
kingdoms was, I believe, fubilantially the 
fame with the Mgyptian idolatry ; for I 
cannot but think that 7/r/j, who defcended 
from l^ardanus^ carries the remembrance 
of the old 7/^, or Cronus^ whom the Thoe:, 
mcians and ^gypians v^orihi^tdL ; and 
the city being caird Iliumj makes me think 
him to be worfliipped there. The famous 
Talladiumj guardian of the city, was the 
image of his daughter Athene^ or Tallas. 
That Athena was €ronus\ daughter, San^^ 
thoniatho affures us , in fpight of the Greek 
fables, that feign her to have leap'd arm'd 


ii74 Concurrent Tefiimonhs 
out; of a cleft in Ji>ve\ skuH. That ?«//^ 
wa^,the iofic wuh her iscoxomonly grahte4» 
smd. the Roman city that, plac'd the ^Paik- 
nf/ttm in Miftrya's temple ieems to own it ; 
yet I know that ^tUodarus diflinguiflies 
tbeni^ and reports, that being warlike dei- 
^s.they qoarrell'd : But iHll he makes them 
CCHitemporary^ and intimates* -that Athena 
4id ihape her ipiage the Talladium^ B'tbli- 
etbeca lib. iii. c.ii. This being the chief 
idol oiTroyt I have confider'd the defcrip- 
tion of it there given ; and ia. Herodiatt and 
Serviusy I find it to be altogether like the 
ddett Mgyftian in\ages <?f their deities ; it 
tiras of wood, is Herodotui u\\s us the ^- 
gyftiM were. ^ It was nude with the legs 
jom'4 together, as all the old ^Egyptian 
ftatues are known to be' fo made: The 
Kvcly parting of the legs was an improve- 
ment made afterwards by Tiadalus. AfoUo^ 
doru$\ words exprefs it pretty well, im -zrexri 
Cuf*£^<^n^if Joined on the legSy or not farted. 
But the tranflator of AfoUodorus hath quite 
fpoird the author's fenfe , when he faith 
in the Latin^ Tedibus it a comfofitis ut quafi 
4inbular^ videretur. The learned know 
that their ftatucs were made rather like 
their Mummies, preferv'd dead bodies, than 
like walking men : And in fuch manner ji^ 


of the time of -^ 47^^ 

foifadorus intimates. the T^lladium'sXe^ <tp. 
h^ve been made, which makes me belieyp 
it wasJeriv'ifram this old M^y^tian, pjl^j?. ' 
tation there ; for Mgyp is knowpn to wor? . 
lliip this Goddefs anciently. by, the name. 
Neith\ apd the temple, oracle, and feaff'"* 
of Minerv4i in Mgypt^ art exprefs'd by,; 
Heradotus^ And, I Jfind ini?^rwifW*S 2Vf/>-" 
Jtchare^ a.temf»le of Minerva on the Trojan 
promontory, call'd Sigeumt from, ^er hamei 
Siga, 2mong T/MstucioMs. Tau/a». Eaeoticj 
d^riv'd from md Siig, claufit, Jipivit^ be- 
c^tjfe ihe was a virgin perpecuaUy.inclps'd. ; 

J[ might here add dfo the agreement ot 
the I^jdian or 'Phrygian folemnities of the 
M^t^r 'Ikprumt with the Mg^piau folem* 
nities to Ifis \ which Apuk'msy who under-f 
Hood them well, makes alto^ther chiQ 
fame, Metam. li^, ix. but this hath been ofa^ 
fcrv'd by others alreadj^, particulaply by Sr 

Therefore I thufe rather to note, thaf 
when LycofhrmcUVA th&Taliadiufn.^nn- 
kIujQmv, intimating it the im«g<^ Qf.<« y^* 
niciaft Goddefi ; this is to be UHtderftopd of 
the heathen 'Photn'tcest who in the fpbflancp 
of their religion agreed with the Mgyp" 
t'tansy and particularly of the 'Philtjiine^ 
nyho were before Abraham' % coming, an 


j^y6 Concurrent Tejiimomes 

» ' • • • 

early colony from ^gypt^ and are by Mo^ 
Jts reckotfd among Mi&raitn'i ifliieras * 
thefe Ludtm are. And I (hew afterwards 
that the Mgyftians pafs'd. into Thrygta 
through Thtenicia. 

With the religion in both thefe countries 
is naturally coherent the fornj of the year 
Bs'd ia them both. . Now it appears in Ttu- 
tarchy that the eXditik. Mgyptian year was 
but 360 days ; and Syncellus informs us, as 
before is noted, that the five i^tiyifMpifu 
were added in the time of JJfis, or jifetkj 
the paftoral king, who, according to Ar^ 
magh's annals, reign'd about the time that 
Abraham Was caird to offer Ifaac^ A.^ M. 
1.1 31, is his beginning. But the Lydian 
year, as appears by the difoourfe between 
Cr^us and Solon in Herodotm\^t^ mujTp, 
was of the eldeft form w^'AmJEgypt before 
that time, and the &Vie%7nk/yii^cu were ne- 
ver added there; which intimates that they 
Were planted from AE.gypt long before that 
time of Abraham^ and kept the old.formof 
the year, when the Mgyptians had long 
taken up a new meafure of^annual folemhi- 
ties. ^This argument taken as I have Hated 
it, in conjunftion with the famenefs of their 
founder and religion^ is of goo4 force ; altha' 

" ■ • 'if 

■f" 111 ■ mm^-^m^mm^-^^^i^m^fg/m 

ofth£ ttme of Menes. ^7^ 

if it were feparated from *em it might be Ufi- 
ble to fome exceptions. . , . ; o 

. I mutt not negledt alfo to note, that &tej^ 
Kodotm in his Clio, mentions in Lydia dbat 
thiere were to be feen fome wqrks, I fugr 
jpo(e he means buildings, of the JS^j'^fi^^^ 
'^nd Babylonians^ which he reports as cpnffc- 
derable next after the monunje^t olHa^^ , 
attes^ Cr (^^'s father, which ; was ilupen^ 
doufly grejit. For we find nothing in ^i- 
itpry relating to .the Mgypians doing any 
,grpat matter.ihr,JL>'^w, fciefixles , what they 
did in thofe^eldeft times wherein they plaoir 
^ed colonies there, as thefe J^^^/w/^ .mp- 
numents did. tellify. 

. Agreeable to this early^pljmtatipi} of thp 

\t^^x AJia^ it is that Taufdnias mentions, in 

^\% Attics^ P* 34- Edit. Francof. That^ )oe 

.f^w, in the Upper Lydia,^ at a little city 

caWdTm^H &}>(^x Temei^usV C^^, bone^^ 

wkofe figure would Jatisfy any man thaf 

'they were men's bones^ but their bignejfs was 

, above the now known fiz>e of men. In the 

,fame page he mentions the bones ^/ Afterius 

in the neighbouring^^^{\zxi% countrey^ giv-^ 

. ing the dimenfion of his body to be no lefs 

, than ten cubits long: What cubit he mea- 

. fur'd by he tells us not, aflerting alfo that 

he was the fon ^/Anax. I doubt not but 


478 Concurrent Tefi'tmonies 

he means one of the eMeft Anakim, whofe 
pofterity is mention 'd by Mofes. In like 
niMiner in his Achates he affinns that the 
IMueilans inforfiTd hinfy thta their country 
Anas mofi ancientfy eaWtt Anafteria, before 
ll^Ietas came thither from Cr&ie, Jfyittg from 
the ejdeji MiitOi,- dHd gteve his name to their 
eityy and the neighheiurittg countrey. Now 
lt*s certain that thefe Anakim were Canaa- 
nitesy jMid bein^^ of near kindred to Mia- 
>««?s ikmily, might accompany him in the 
firff planting thefe Afiatic parts. So aUb in 
Bis Attiesy p. 4. He aflures irs, ^that the c&uH- 
ir^ of the Pergatneni neighbouring to ihi^j 
was anciently facred to the Cabfri, whom we 
know to be Mgyptian and Thwnician Dei- 


Thi^ mindsf me of a pdflage in Tully de 
NaturdTieorumy where enquiring aftei^ the 
Hercuies whom they worfhipp'd ; yet he 
confeffes they know not which of the fix, 
whom he reckons up. The fecond^ he fays, 
Kvaf an JEgyftiany quern aiunt Phrygias li- 
teras confciripfifTe, who wrote the letters 
nsd in Phrygia. This man he pkces in 
great antiquity, expreffly before that Her- 
ctilesy who was of the Idai "Dafiyliy (fo 
calPd, becaufe of the even numbers of fin- 
gers, rtieanmg, as I think, fix, which they 


of the time of MenesJ 475^ 

had on their haiiids) who, wei'e/famotis- in 
terete T&yout yoflyua\ time/. ThereforjB 1 

fuppofe he means th^t Mxypi^n Her(;ik(6'^t 
Who liviag not long after nie thne ofTiatiu 
took care that the TbrygiAu br LydkH-ttr- 
Ipny ifrom ^0][>ti fliould' be 'acquainted 
w;ith that, ^rtat improvement- by writiflfo 
which was then lately mad^ &y Tbvth mthk 
couhtrey from .whence they wei^e fent ; invl 
thisfeems to be the origihal' of' that leam- 
ixig which was. among 'era 'i'd^eciallf skill 
in mufick, foi* which they w)jfe femdus. " • 
This Lydian coXor^y pro(Ju6'd i multitadd 
of children in the times of 'the. firft plan- 
ters ; and this I take to be a farther proc^ of 
its great antiqairv' : For no age^ after were fp 
long liv'di and ofib robuft a Cionftitutidn*. 
and fo numerous in their chfldren, asthJe 
three or four firft gentt'iit.ipns after iht 
Flood. Now that thefe elddft'£^</ia»/ha<4 
a multitude of children, may be certaiiily 
concluded from this that's deliver'd to iK 
by Herodotus .f Ti'tonyjius Hal'tcamaffenfa^j 
'Pliny, and others, th^tt Tyrrhenus led away 
a great colony out ol Lydit^ into that part 
of Italy^ riow caill'd Tufcany. And yet this 
Tyrrhenus IN ^% but the fourth from Manrs. 
or Meon in the inclufive account, i. Md-- 
»//, z, Cotys^ 3. Atys^ 4. Tyrrhfnus, who 



4^0 Concurrent Tefiimomes 

kft his brother Lydus in ^Jia to govern 
thofe left behind, who from his name are 
faid to be call'd Lydians. 

This name muft be fettled fome time be* 
fore Mofesj for he calls thefe people Ludirn^ 
not Meonesj which was their firft name- 
Now we may reafonably take it for granted, 
that when the colony was fent into Italy^ 
^hey left Lydia fufEciently peopled, and it's 
manifeft thefe- . things could . not be done 
without a numerous iflTue in each of the 
three firfl generations : Which things taken 
,together> I judge to be fufficient marks of 
the great antiquity of the Lydians^ which I 
am labouring to prove* . 

This argument is of fome ufe as it ftands^ 
for it helps us to fix the beginning of the 
line of the Atyada in the Lydian monarchy, 
.by allowing a proportionable time to the 
two predeceflbrs of his, which are known 
to be Manis and Cotys. And Mants may 
probably be aflerted to begin to reign in 
Lydia about ten years before the end of 
Menes determined by our table. But I 
would willingly lay by this conjedure, if a- 
ny could fliew me good authority in ancient 
hiltory that; determined precifely how many 
.years ihc Afyada hdd their fovereignty; or 
if any could fliew me the true time whea 



■■ » ■!■ 

of the time of Menks. 4S i 

T^rrhenus tx\X.^x' ^ Tufcdny%,{6t this would 
^ive yet farther light to find the firft plant- 
ing o{ Lydia^ and confequently would de- 
termine the time oiMenes the jEgyptia^y 
tvhom I am pcrfuaded to be the f^me m^ 
with Meon the Lydian founcfer; becaufe 
Tyrrhenus's plantation was in the fourth de- 
fcent from Mdnesj or Menes, or MisoHy and 
an allowance may eafily be agreed fiiitijig to 
that time. But the farther fearch for thefe 
things I am willing to leave to others ; yet 
will point at two ways, whereby it's prq-^ 
bable that this colony in AJia Minor might 
pafs out ofMgypt thither, becaufe that may 
feem incredible to fome, although plainly 
affirm'd by ^iodorus Siculus. i. It might 
pafs by land through Thoeniciay his father^g 
countrey. x. By Tea, or fhipping, taking 
Crete in their way. 

The firft way is clear, becaufe the father 
and fon wdtild eafily agree in the defign to' 
enlarge their dominions ; a:nd Sanchoniatho 
aflures \i^^Eufeb,p.i%. ©. that Qrotmwent 
about the habitable world with his daughter 
A\\i^m i and gave her the coaji of Attic^. 
Kow it's plain that all J/la the lefs was in his 
way thither, fuppofing him to go by land till 
he came to the narrow paffage of the Hel- 
lejpont into Greece. 

LI The 


4^1 ' Concurrent Teft'tmoHiei 

The fecoiid way as to the invention of* 
Ihipping is plain dfo; becaufe he informs 
lis, that not only the beginning of that skiU I 
was invented long before Cr onus's time, 
but fhaf ixk his time the Cabirii Ot Samo- 
tbraces invented improvements therein, 
p.i6.A. Yet I deny not but that fails might 

then be unknown, and they feem to be in- 
vented long after by ^adalm flying by fea 
from Minos. 

I do not find exprefs teftimony determi- 
ning which of thefe ways was firft taken. It's 
fufficient that the faft in general is attefted, 
and wc.rtiay reafonably think that the entire 
fettlement of the Lydiah ot Thryglan king- 
dpm was ftot rbade at once, but gradually ; 
and that at feverat times forfie might pafs by 
land, others by fea. As to the latter paf- 
•fage by fea, there remain fome indications. 
i. That the ThHiftines who were of Miz- 
r aim's family, were the firfl planters of 
Crete. 2. That from Crete^ and by Samo- 
thrace they pafs*d into Thrygta, 

As to the Thilijiines peopling of Crite^ 
which could not be but by fea paflage, I of- 
fer this evidence, i. It's certain that they 
Were in Canaany and Abimelech was a^ king 
among them when Abraham , made a cove- 
nant with him, and with ThUhol the chief 


of the, time of Menes. 483 

captain of hh hoft; which Armagh's ac- 
counts place within^ lo years after the death 
^i Arfhaxady who was of the firft genera- 
tion after the Flood. We may fix this time, 
according to the Hebrew account, about 
the year of the world xiX4. Mo/es men* 
tions it, Gen. xxi. 3^— 34- How long be- 
fore that time they had been there, I find 
no proof; but then they are fpoken of as 
fettled, not as ilrangers newly com?; for 
the place is caird their land, and aij hoft of 
'em is mentioned.' 

2. lobfervethat in the Scripture language 
the Thilijiines are called Cerethites^ i Sam. 
XXX. 14, 16. Ezek.xxw.i6. Zeph/ih^. And 
in the twp laft of thefe places th^ Sepuagint 
tranflates that word Cretes. The name fig- 
nifies archers, men that in war were noted 
for skill in ufing bows and arrows ; And Bo- ' 
chart ii) his Canaan largely fliews this to be ^ 
the pame, firft of the Thtllfttnes countrey, 
and then of the famous ifle Crete^ now 
caird Candia. Dr. Cajile declares himfel£ 
oiBocharfs mind herein, and alfo deduces, 
the name of the Curetes from hence. I arat ' 
perfedly of their judgment herein, and be- 
lieve that both the . people and the reUgion, 
(which commonly go together) fettled in 
(^r^tCt came from thefe TbiliJIines, who 

LI X ' i^rQ 


484 Concurrent Tefitmontes 

are originally oiJEgyptian race. Now from 
hence Scamander and Teucer came to peo- 
ple part of jifia Miwr about Troy ; and 
hence ^/r^/7 in ^ his third ^»^/^ affirms his 
JEneas to have gone to this ifland to feek a 
fettlement, as to their old kindred : 

Gentis Cunabula noftra. 

Among all the proofs which Bochart fug- 
gefts of thefe Thgenician plantations in Crete^ 
I will point only at one fuggeftion that he 
gives us from ^iodorus Siculusy which is, 
that Cronus or Saturn hi mfelf there taught 
r TQ^hKtw, the art of ufing the bow and ar- 
rows. This comes up high enough to reach 
a plantation there in his time by his fon 

The reader will underfland that we fup- 
pofe the plantations to be but of fmall num- 
bers, to take pofleffion of countries by 
thofe early generations after the Flood. And 
then let the reader accept of this argument 
toward the determining of Menes's time as 

an S^ZMfjLoL, a Mantiffa in the Tufcan fpeech; 
fomething over weight, tho' of no great va- 
lue, becaufe I hope my other arguments are 
fufficient to caft the fcale againft the extra- 
vagant accounts oi Manet ho J 6fr. which 
fome ill minded^ people make ufe of to op- 


> 1 

of the time of Mfnes. 485 
pofe to the authority of Scripture, and by 
confequence to ruin the Chriftian Religion. 
The fum of it is this. None can reafonaWf 
pretend the Lydians^ Phrygians and Cre~ 
tans to have been much above i3ooyeart 
before the Oiymfiat/s; yet they were neat 
the fame in antiquity with the Mgyptiam 
(efpecially the Lydians) as this argument 
proves. Therefore the antiquity of the M~ 
gyfttans^ or Mettes's time, may be reafon«> 
bly ftated as we have done. The centuries 
next before and next after the year of the 
world ^ooo, will be found as they were, 
the times of longeft life, greateft incrcafe dE 
men; and the times wherein there was 
greateft neceffiiy to fpread men, to prev«sc 
the overrunning of the earth with wood 
and wild beafts ; fo to have been the true 
times wherein the eldeft colonies in this 
known part of the world were planted: 
And it's probable a very large empire was 
defign'd by Cronus and Menes, tho' in the 
ilTue many parts thereof fell into diftinft 
kingdcmis, contrary to the defigns of thefe 
great men. 

Ilius I have finifti'd the Proofs that I can 

find of the time of Menes, or the beginnings 

of the Mgyptian monarchy, which falling 

jnto the time that the Mofaical Hebrew 


48tf Concurrent Teftsmonies 
hiftory.affigns to the firil generations after 
the Flood, I take to be a good argument 
that the Hebrew numbers are not corrup- 
ted> and that we need not eafily depart from 
'em to comply with the fragments which 
we have of Manetho^s DynalUes, or other 
diflferent reports of ^^^/;«»Priefts made 
to Herodotus and "T^iodorus Siculus ; who 
tho' heathens did not think themfelves, much 
lefs their readers bound to believe thofe^- 
gyptian reports, not confiding well among , 
themfelves. I can prove the like things con- 
ceriuog the Cbinefe antiquities alfo, which 
are made ufe of to fliake the credit of the 
Hebrew text : But I am refolv'd not to en- 
tangle my felf in that difpnte, wherein we 
have no ancient claffical authors to t>e our 

It's fufficient to my undertaking to op- 
pofe the learning and credit ofEratoJlbenes^ 
inform*d by the Archives^ both of Tiiojpo- 
iis and the Alexandrian library, to the vain, 
pretenfions of Manetho and others, who op- 
pofe the authority of the Scriptures. Nor 
do I think this Eratofthenean Laterculus to 
be rejefted, becaufe his works come not en- 
tire to us ; but this canon came from him to 
Apilodorusy thpnce to Eufebius and Syn- 
fellus, and fo to us. This is con^moq to 


of the time of MeneS. 487 
all remains of antiquity; they muft pafe 
through the hands of many generations, be- 
fore they come to us whoare reinote poft^. 
rity. AU the learned receive many frag- 
ments of the beft ancient authors, tho' the 
main body of 'em be loft, from the hands of 
Stobxus, Thotiui, Hefychim, Suidas, and 
from many fcholiafts whofe names are V* 
yet the Remains of the ancients cited 
'em are highly priz'd. Tis plain that . 
cellus did not counterfeit this Eratofihei 
canon, becaufe it will not ferve his accoii 
I think Scaliger judges well, that he toe 
out of Eufel)ius\ canon, and we know 
febiu! hath preferv'd for us many excel 
pieces of antiquity; And tho' it tranl 
not to ns variety of hlftory, yet it maj 
veryufeful to us in this matter of chron 
gy, to which only I apply it. 
To conclude, I hppe my reader will 
■ that in this my fearch into the moft ren 
antiquity, I am not exceflively pofitive 
Confident in my opinion ; but that I reir 
her the wife caution oiStraho, A« t w*; 

It may fuffice, that- in this matter 1 ] 
oiFer'd the beft evidence that I can i 
ihefe heathen hiftorians, whofe credit 
doubt not, fuSicient to overweigh the