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Wi 




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r 




A8T0R, LEKOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 





z^^'T^id.tk^t^, 



SANDWICH ISLAND 



NOTES. 



■ ; } 



BY A H A L ^. 




NEW YOEK: 

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

82 BBBKMAN STXEET. 

1864. 

V . 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

560790 

ASTOR, LFNOX AND 
TILDEN F'' JOATIONS. 

R 1912 L 



r 



Entered, according to Act of Oongrefis, in the year 1864^ by 

HARPER & BROTHERS, 
In the Clerk's Office for the Southern District of New York. 



PREFACE. 



It is with feelings of much diffidence I submit the 
following pages to a perusal by the pubUc, but it is 
-with the hope that the object at which they aim will 
be speedily accomplished. Several pamphlets and vol- 
umes have already been issued from the press, concern- 
ing that most important of all the groups that stud the 
vast Pacific — the Sandwich Islands. But these fects 
have not deterred me firom making my own observa- 
tions, and employing my own language. 

If the present condition of affairs at the Hawaiian 
Islands augur any thing, there can not but be a good 
prospect that they will soon form an integral portion of 
the United States. They are absolutely essential to the 
protection and advancement of American commerce, 
and whoever owns them will be master of the Pacific. 

I have endeavored to portray the condition of things 
as they appeared to me in 1853, and my only aim has 
been impartiality, independent of all party considera- 
tion. I have taken especial pains to develop the past 
and present condition of the people, in their various re- 
lations, and have endeavored to specify a few reasons 
for the " annexation" of that important group of isl- 
ands. 

I have drawn extensively fircon materials furnished 



viii CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VI. 

HONOLULU. 

Society. — ^Foreign Officials. — Residents, Foreign and Native. — ^Ha- 
waiian Women and Dress. — ^False Charges refuted. — ^Population. — 
police. — Militia. — Hawaiian Guards. — ^Houses. — Streets. — Street 
Si^ones. — ^Honolulu at Night — Saturday Sports. — Sunday in Hon- 
olulu Page H 

CHAPTER Vn. 

ENVIRONS OP HONOLULU. 

NuuHiu Valley. — The Pali of Nuuanu. — ^Former Battle-ground. — 
Rid© to Diamond Head. — ^Village of Waikiki — ^Remains of a Pa- 
gan Temple. — ^Reflections on Paganism. — Leahi, or Diamond Head. 
— View from the Summit — ^The Plains below. — ^Punch-bowl Hill 
tktid its Fortifications. — ^Panoramic View of Honolulu. — Alia-ptta- 
kaij or Salt Lake. — Curious Theory relating to it — ^Testimony of 
Commodore Wilkes^ U. S. N. 90 

GHAPTER Vin. 

JOURNEY TO KUALOA. 

Flaini of Eaneohe. — ^Eonahuanui Mountains. — Geological Features. 
— Probable Formation. — Site of an old Pagan Game. — ^A Legend. — 
Miaaionary Station at Eaneohe. — Christianized Natives. — "Month- 
ly Concert" — ^Residence of the Missionary, and Style of Living. — 
Eoad along the Sea-shore. — ^White Man turned Savage. — Singular 
Corri-reefe. — ^Fish-ponds. — "Women as Laborers. — ^Driving Hogs to 
Market — Simplicity of Native Manners, and Domestic Life. — ^A 
Bolitsry Grave. — A Hawaiian Patriarch. — Thoughts on early 
Boi^ea. — ^A Native Judge. — Taro Plantations. — Thro as an article of 
Food— How converted into P<n. — Eualoa. — Sunset — ^Night 104 

CHAPTER IX. 

JOURNEY TO WAIALUA. 

Hoad to .EWML^-Repairing Roads. — Paahao Labor. — ^Natives as La- 
bopBrs. — ^A Trial of Patience. — ^Balaam and his Ass. — The Proph- 
eV« Conclusion. — ^Philosophy of Patience. — ^A Trial of Speed. — ^Ewa. 
— Church and Station. — ^A Patriarchal Missionary. — ^Ecclesiastical 
Diadi^e.— Singular Case of Divorce. — ^A Night at JEwa 124 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER X. 

JOUBNET TO WAIALUA. 

]>epftrtare from JEwl — Old Battle-ground. — Lands of the PrincMS 
Yietoria. — The Feadal System. — ^Reform of the Landed System. — 
Fee-sinq>le Titles. — Necessity of a judicious Taxation. — Off the 
Road. — ^Extraordinary Feats in Horsemanship. — Arriral at Waia- 
Ina. — ^Biission Station. — Scenery. — How Missionaries extend a Wel- 
come. — ^Ride to Mokuleia. — The Dairy BnsinesiL — Singular Freak 
in a Native's Gostome. — ^Improvement among Natives. — Native 
Chnrch. — ^Popery jsnd Mormonism — Spnrions Baptisms. — ^Native 
Conning.— A novel "Farewelll" Page 185 

CHAPTER XI. 

ISLAND OF KATTAI. 
ntOM HONOLULU TO KOLOA. 

Flogging Scenes at Sea. — ^Eauai at Daylight — Aspect of the Shores. 
— Location of the Island. — Its physical Character. — Edoa and 
Harbor. — ^Remarkable Oaves. — Angular Phenomenon. — ^Revolting 
offer by a Parent 160 

CHAPTER Xn. 

Female Penitentiary. — Character of the Prisoners* —The JaOer.^- 
Statistics of Crime. — ^Wrong Legislation. — An instance of Fanati- 
cism. — Curions Method to obtain Money. — Sugar Plantations. — 
Indigo. — ^Former attempts to cultivate Silk. — Sunday at Eoloa. — 
A Native Preacher. — Specimens of Hawaiian Eloquence. — ^liber- 
ali^ of Native Christians 161 

CHAPTER Xra. 

FROM KOLOA TO LIHUE. 

Uplands and Lowlands. — The " Gap.** — ^A Legend.— Scenery.-^Li- 
hue. — Sugar Plantations. — Labor. — ^Na-wili-wili Harbor and Riv- 
er.— Pleasure Party.— The *< Stars and Stripes."— Significant De- 
portment of the Natives. — ^Remarkable Rock and Cave. — Yalley 
of Cascades. — Moonlight — ^Lunar Rainbows 179 



CONTENTS, 



CHAPTER XIV. 

FROM LmUE TO HANALBI. 

Wailoft Village. — ^Wailua River. — Objects of Superstition. — Strange 
L^ends. — ^Falls of Wfulua. — ^Estate of Eumaln. — ^Reminisoenoes 
of a Family. — ^The Dairy Busineea. — ^What sort of Talent is nee4ecL 
-^Poliey of Government — ^Road to Hanalel — Settlement of Cali- 
fomians. — Traveling on the Sandwich Islands Page 189 

CHAPTER XV. 

Valley of Hanalel — ^River. — ^Harbor. — Coffee Plantations. — Early 
Efforts to cultivate Silk. — Causes of the Failure. — The Spiritual 
versus the Secular. — Capacity of the Soil — Extraordinary v^e- 
table Remains. — ^Evidences of a remote Antiquity. — ^Excursions.— 
Storm-stayed. — Fondness of native Women for Dogs. — Delicate 
Appetite. — ^Mission Station. — ^Manual-labor School 201 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Visit to the Cavee at Haena.— Ouriorfty of <^e Natives. — The Caves. 
— Tradition concerning a Chiefl'-^ubterranean Lakes.~^Perilous 
Position. — Story of a Traveler. — Singular Effsots produced by 
Torchlight — Native Courage and Native Fears. — Terminus of 
Travel by Land.^-A Night at Anahola. — Foi and Bed-fellows 210 

CHAPTER XVII. 

PROft KOLOA TO WAIMEA. 

Zoko NcmUu, — ^Legend concerning Pelh. — Comparative Mythology. 
— ^Novel Method of sounding a Lake. — ^Noble Specimen of a Ha- 
waiian Woman. — Significancy of Native Names. — Nmnilu Salt- 
works. — ^Battle-ground of Wiii-awa. — Incidents and Results of 
the Battle. — ^Valley of Hanapepe. — ^A Relic of civilized |<aw. — 
Arrival at Waimea '. . 217 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Waimea Village -^River — Harbor. — Historical R^painisoences. — 
Charges against Captain Coos. — ^Visit to an ex-Queen. — A Glance 
at her History. — ^RussiaA Fort at Waimea. — ^Expulsion of the Rus- . 
sians. — ^Missionary Church and Station. — ^Peculiarities of this Sta- 
tion. — ^A Sabbath at Waimea. — ^Missionary Labor. — ^Practice ver- 
9u% P/Mtry.-— The right kind of an Epitapli 227 



CONTENTS. xi 



CHAPTER XIX. 

I^OM WAIMEA TO KOLO. 

Volcanic Features. — Tobacco Plantations. — ^Wild Cotton. — ^Plains 
and Vegetation. — Nohili, or Sounding Sands. — ^Probable Theory 
of Sound. — ^A Night at Kolo. — ^Proceedings of a Hawaiian Family. 
—^Kindness to the Traveler. — :Poi-making.— Evening Devotions. 
— ^Return to Eoloa. — ^Departure from Kauai-r-The "Middle Paa- 
sage." — ^A Tribute to Neptune.— Recent Steain-boat Project — ^Its 
Importance and Necessity Page 248 

CHAPTER XX. 

ISLAND OF MOiiOKAI. 
FROM WflHOJJJiXI 9» KALTTAAHA. 

Devotions of a Native Crev.-^Fondness for Tobacco. — ^Despotic Stric- 
tures. — Convenience of Native Habits in Traveling. — Ealuaaha 
Mission Station. — Civilization. — Serwiiig Circles. — Female Cos- 
tume. — SyBtem of Education. — Schools. — ^Influence of Christianity. 
— fiorw it is valued.— -A Hawaiian Feast — ^A Hawaiian Marriag& 
-^Loves of the Hawaiians. — ^Instance of , . «.- 256 

CHAPTER XXi; 

JOURNinr TO HALAWA. 

Sea-shore Road. — Bullock-riding. -^Fondness for Horses. — An In- 
stance of — ^Mode of Fishing. — A Hawaiian " Venus.** — Scarcity of 
Singing Birds. — Solitude of the Mountains. — ^Noble Ku^kui Grove. 
— ^Halawa Valley.— -Descent — Cascades. — ^The Valley at Sunset 
— Cultivation of i'aro. — Kindness of a Hawaiian Family. — An 
Evening Repast — ^Fastidiousness of a Native Cook. — ^A Night at 
Halawa. — Kapa Sheets. — Manufacture of Kapa, — ^Population. — 
Religion.— Morals , .269 

CHAPTER XXII. 

JOURNEY TO THE PALIS OF KALAE. 

Deserted Villages. — ^Road over the Mountains. — ^Ravines.^Oascades. 
— The Palis, — Sublkiie Prospect — ^Plain of Kalaupapa. — District 
of Wai-a-la-la.— ^Native Morals. — ^licentious D«nce. — ^How to study 
Hawaiian Character. — ^Deserted Residence. — ^Broken Resolutions. 



Xii CONTENTS. 

1 

— ^Unpleasant Lodgings. — ^A rough Supper. — fleas and Musqui- 
toes. — " Wailing** for the Sick. — ^Refuge in a ChapeL — Return to 
former Lodgings. — The Scene changed. — ^Daylight Page 280 

CHAPTER XXm. 

ISLAND OF BIAUI. 

TAhaina from the Sea. — Tiahaina on Shore. — Publie Buildings, — 
Palace. — Fort — Churches. — Houses. — ^Beer^hops. — ^** Fourth of 
July" at Trfthaina. — ^Police.— Evils of the Police System. — ^Harbor. 
— Commerce. — Surf-bathing. — ^A singular Providence. — Marque- 
san Chiel — Christian Liberality. — Seminary atLahainaluna. — ^Its 
Location. — Early History. — Present Condition. — Old Hawaiian 
Gods 290 

CHAPTEE XXIV. 

FROM LAHAINA TO WAI-LU-KU. 

CroBsing the Mountains. — Isthmus of Eukk — Maui formerly two 
Islanda — ^Village of Wai-ka-pu.-r-Wai-lu-ku and Valley^ — Teirifio 
Battle-ground. — Old Battle-ground of EahuluL— Hawaiian *^ Gol- 
gotha.** — ^A Cranium^Hunter. — Curiosity of the Natives. — ^Modern 
Superstitions. — Doctrine of the Resurrection studied over the 
Bones of Warriors.— Why the Doctrine ia difficult to believe 308 

CHAPTEE XXV. 

EAST BIAUI. 

Makawaa — Sugar Plantations. — Cultivation of Wheat — Indian 
Com. — ^The Irish Potato. — ^Agricultural Lands. — ^Land Monopoly. 
— The Non-taxation System. — ^Kindness of Foreigners to theTrav* 
eler. — Ascent of Mauna HalS-a-ka4€L — Atmospheric Regiona 
— Unexpected and unwelcome yisitors.^Vastness of the Crater. 
— Sense of Cold. — Splendor of the Sun-light. — " Ossian's" Address 
to the Sun. — ^View from the Summit of the Crater. — Glory of <ihe 
Clouds. — ^The Soul's Emotiona — Man immortaL — Qod omnipo- 
tent 817 

CHAPTEE XXVI. 

ISLAND OF HAWAII. 

Trip to Hawaii — ^The Schooner Mamiro-kchioaL — ^Hawaiian Sailors. 
— ^Abuse offered to a Native Woman.— An unpleasant Position.-* 



i 



CONTENTS. xiii 



A Btormy Sunday. — The snow-capped Mountains of Hawaii — ^Ka- 
waihae. — Landing-place at Mahu-kona. — Mode of transporting 
Baggage. — District of Kohala. — ^Nmnerons Evidences of ancient 
Population *. Page 829 

CHAPTER XXVn. 

A "Visit to the JSeiau of Puuepa. — ^Accursed Despotisms of Paganism. 
— Wholesale Slanghters.— Testimony of an old Pagan Priest— Oc- 
ular Demonstration. — Solitude of the Ruins. — ^Public Works of a 
past Generation. — Graves of a forgotten Race. — Glances at De- 
population. — Causes, Past and Present, — ^New House of Worship 
at I0I6. — Character of Missionaries. — ^Friends and Foes. — ^Import- 
ance and Necessity of an impartial Estimate by the Traveler. — 
Katnre and Extent of Hostilities 887 

CHAPTER XXVm. 

FROM lOLE TO WADfEA. 

Solitude of Native Dwellings. — ^Volcanic Features. — Groves of the 
7% Plant— Wild Oats.— Plains of Waimea.— More Evidences of 
Depopulation. — ^Hawaiian Catacombs. — ^Byron's Soliloquy on a 
SkulL — ^Former Method of Interment among the Hawauans. — 
Abuse of the Dead. — ^A "Plague of Flies." — Comparison of Natives 
and Foreigners. — ^Foreigners and Native Wives. — ^Agriculture. — 
Sugar Plantations. — ^A genuine ** Yankee,** — ^Raising Stock for the 
Market 856 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

J0T7RNET TO THE SX7MHIT OF MAT7NA KEA. 

Cavernous Formations. — ^Interview with a genuine " Nimrod." — Saw- 
mills at Hanipoi — Singing Birds. — Power of Association. — In- 
stances of — ^A rough but generous Welcome. — ^A strange Woman. 
— Ascent of the Mountain. — ^Forests. — ^Wild Cattle. — ^Fruits and 
Flowers. — Deceptions in climbing a volcanic Mountain. — ^Reach 
the Summit — ^Intense Fatigue. — ^Exquisite Sense of Cold. — ^Hilla 
of Snow. — ^A Lunch above the Clouds. — Sound. — ^Large crateri- 
form Lake. — ^Apparent Formation of the Mountain. — ^Extinction 
of its Fires. — ^Absolute Solitude. — ^View from the Summit — Solil- 
oquy of Btbon's " Manfred.** — Descent of the Mountain.— Proposed 
Penance . , , 866 



^y CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

JOURNEY TO WAI-PIO. 

Forests of Acacia. — Gigantic Ferns. — Swamps. — ^An Instance of na- 
tive Cruelty. — Valley of Wai-pio, — ^Descent — Primitive Character 
of the Inhabitants. — Explorations. — Cascades. — ^ABuUock carried 
over the Falls. — ^Fastidiousness of native Appetite. — Population. 
— ^Agriculture. — Curious Instance of Cupidity. — Real Changes. — 
Scenes at an Evening Repast Page 879 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

FROM WAI-PIO TO KA-WAI-HAE. 

Village of Ka-wai-hae.— ^Another Pagan Temple. — Cause of its Erec- 
tion. — ^False Predictions. — ^Moral taught by Paganism. — ^Ravages 
of the Small-pox. — Solitary Village. — Outrageous Mode of Vac- 
cination. — ^Preposterous Conduct of the " Board of Health." — ^In- 
dignation of the Foreign Population. — ^Testimony of Physicians. — 
Native Quackery. — ^Terrible Influences of a certain Superstition. 
— ^Total Defeat of a long-cherished Enterprise 889 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

CONCLUSION. 

Origin of the Sandwich Islanders.— The Theory sustained by Tradi- 
tion. — ^Habits and Customs, Physical Organization and Language. 
— ^Their Fast and Present Condition: Social, Political, and Relig- 
ious. — Probable Destiny of the Race. — Prospective History of 
Christian Institutions. — Cause for Congratulation. — ^One Cause of 
a grand Failure. — ^The English Language the only best Channel 
- of Civilization \ 897 

CHAPTER XXXin. 

ANNEXATION OP THE GEOUP. 

Geographical Position of the Sandwich Islands.— Their Value argued 
from their Poation. — Climate. — Diseases. — Capacity of the SoiL — 
Importance of the Simdwioh Islands to the United States Govern- 
ment. — Objections considered — ^Recent Movements at the Islands. 
— ^Remonstrance of the British and French Consuls. — ^Reply of the 
United States Conunissioner. — ^British and French Diplomacy.— 
British and French Dominion. — Faith of European Nations. — 
Reasons for " Annexation." — ^Its Necessity 426 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Portrait of Prince Alexander Liholiho, Heir-apparent to the 

Crown J^otUitpieee, 

Native Hbuse on the Sandwich Islands 83 

Hawaiian Female Equestrian 86 

Diamond-Head Crater, from East Honolulu, Island of Oahu ... 95 

Punch-Bowl Hill, from the Valley of Nuuanu 99 

Mode of carrying Burdens IIY 

View of a Chain of Extinct Volcanoes near Eoloa, Island of 

Eauai 166 

Eeapaweo Mountain 186 

Falls of Wailua 193 

View of Hanalei Valley 200 

Loko (Lake) Nomilu 218 

Waimea Village, from the Fort 229 

American Mission Church at Waimea 242 

Domestic Utensils and Musical Instruments ^. . . 249 

Kative Pipe and Necklace 266 

Kapa Mallets 279 

Native Female — ^Mode of Sitting 283 

Native Man — ^Mode of Sitting 284 

Lahaina, from the Anchorage: Island of Maui 291 

Old Hawaiian Gods 307 

Village of "Wai-lu-ku: Maui 311 

Valley of Wai-pio: Island of Hawaii 382 



r 



SANDWICH ISLAM NOTES. 



CHAPTER I. 

FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO HONOL17LU. 

]>q>artare from San Francieco. — ^A Glance at its History. — Coases 
of the Change. — Its Future. — ^Tug-boat "Resolute.** — Ship nearly 
ashore. — ^The Rescue. — Once more at Anchor. 

It was a cold, bleak moming — ^the 22d of the last moath 
in 1852 — ^when the "Sovereign of the Seas" containing 
several passengers, weighed anchor and endeavored to escape 
from the Bay of San Francisco. It was with a feeling of 
mingled pride and satisfaction that I paced her decks ; fer 
the queenly vessel was steering for strange climes, where the 
son was more genial, and the winds less chilly. 

On leaving San Francisco, one is forcibly impressed with 
the prond position the city occupies. The history of its past 
and present condition is singularly impressive ; and the im- 
mense rapidity with which this youthfrd emporium has sprung 
into existence, constitutes a miracle even in modem industry 
and progress. To those who have been accustomed to regard 
it, only three or four years since, as a small village with a 
few adobe houses, and a sparse and squahd population, it is 
a just cause of wonder. Every where the sounds of the 
artisan's hammer, and the rushing of the various vehicles of 
oomjoaeroe, are indicative of untiring perseverance. Even to 
those who have witnessed the entire progress of San Fran- 
cisco, so rapid has bc^n the transformation, tl^t the past 
seems more like the bright, feiry-Uke visioAs of an Eastern 
tale than a tangible reality. After repeated conflagrations, 
that swept away, in a few hours, what, in older cities and 



18 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

states, would have been deemed the labor and accumulations 
of many years, and of millions in value, it has sprung up, 
Phoenix-like, from its own ashes ; and every time it has been 
huried to the ground, like the fabled Antsus, it has gathered 
fresh strength and ^veloped new resources. 

Not only in a physical point of view has San Francisco 
made such rapid strides onward : the moral progress of the 
city has kept a corresponding pace. Peace and order prevail. 
The Sabbath's repose is secured by just and practicable laws 
— ^perhaps more so than in many of the older cities of the 
Union. In no place on earth does Education — ^that grand 
Palladium of our Uberties — ^that firm basis on which our Re- 
pubHc reposes — find a warmer advocacy or a better support 
than there. The heaven-kissing spires of temples erected 
to the worship of the Most High, every where sjnringing up, 
as if by magic, afford sufiicient proof that the modem order 
of the San Franciscans are not all worshipers at the shrine 
of Mammon. 

It would be needless to recapitulate the events that have 
produced this splendid transformation. The most striking 
feature of all is the medium through which the change has 
emanated. It is well understood that efibrts were made iJnder 
the old Spanish regime to spread civilization over the territory 
of California,* and that these eSoTt& were in progress during 
a period of more than two centuries. An oppressive hierarchy 
had done all that was deemed advisable for the ben^t of the 
Indian neoj^ytes ; but the aboriginal races yet retained their 
nomadic habits, cherishing a deeply-rooted contempt for the 
numerous innovations against their savage policy. If any of 
them had been taught to appreciate the doctrines of tiieir new 
teachers, that appreciation was based strictly on self-interest ; 
for they followed Hhexa for the sake of temporal gain. If the 
old Spaniards or the modem Mexicans had discovered the 
immense wealth that has rendered the territory the veritable 
^'El Dorado'* about which so many have dreamed and so 
much has been fabled in past days, then some Spanish or 
Mexican historian might have chronicled th^ own deeds on 



THE FUTURE OF SAN FRANCISCO. jg 

that great theatre of modem enterprise. But during the cen- 
turies of misrule by an inglorious govermnfflat, and of darkness 
amid which a numerous race groveled, the great transforming 
agency was unknown. It remained for War to pave the way 
to annexation of the then almost worthless and unknown 
territory ; and it subsequimtly remained Sot Anglo-American 
mind and enterprise to mould the mighty influences to which 
the discovery of vast wealth gave Inrth. It would be super- 
fluous even to glance at the vast exodus of all nations of men 
to that land of gold. It is suflicient to say, that in no nation 
on earth' do genius and energy put forth strides so mighty as 
in California, and especially in San Francisco ; and it may be 
affirmed, with safety, that no community on earth can boast 
abler men. So much for the agency through which this great 
change has been achieved, and for the benefits that emanate 
&om the change itself 

Judging of the past, the future of San Francisco is seen 
with a sort of prophetic vision. Its noble bay— capable of 
floating the world's navy— is seen covered with the war and 
the merchant vessels of all nations ; the streets, extended 
miles beyond thdr present l^agth, are beheld teeming with the 
almost coimtless thousands of a busy population. In a future 
period, and at no great distance rftime, such luxury, wealth, 
intelligence, and magniflcenoe will centre in San Francisco, as 
a city, as have never been surpassed in any city on the globe. 
At l^t p^od, the state will be in advance of any state in the 
Union ; for it wiU be the great d^t between the East and 
West, and will sit empress over the North Pacific, sliding 
its mighty pulsations back to the Onesaty whence civilization 
originally sprung. 

This digression was passing in my own mind while the 
gallant little steam-tug '^ResdtOe^' was towing our brave ves- 
sel down the waters of the bay ; and although such a digres- 
sion has not the lightest omneetion with any of the Poly- 
nesian Islands, rt is perfectly natural to a person who has spent 
any length of time in San Francisco, and is about leaving it 
for a distant port. 



20 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

The " Resolute" had akeady towed ub to the north side <^ 
the Bay, and was on her way back to the city. A smart 
breeze, that induced us to button up our overcoats, was waft- 
ing along our gallant ship at the speed of ten or eleven miles 
an hour. We were about bidding a short adieu to the entrance 
ij£ the Bay, for the ship was on her last " tack." Many were 
the remarks made concerning the islands to which we were 
going. A few of the passengers had visited them before. 
One of our number was a gentleman who displayed some 
facetiousness. He asserted " that the people on the Sandwich 
Islands never died : on the contrary, they hved to such an 
advanced age, that they dried tip, and the wind blew them 
away !" 

But his pleasantries were speedily brought to a close. The 
" Sovereign" was steering very near the base of Point Boneta, 
when suddenly the wind left her sails, and she was swept, by 
a heavy tidal current, to the middle of the channel. The 
monster cHpper was too lightly manned ; and before any thing 
could be done efficiently to arrest the danger that threatened 
her, she was within a few yards of the rocks that lay strewn 
directly under the guns of Fort Lobos. There was something 
horrible in the prospect of going ashore upon that beach, wh^re 
several valuable cargoes and splendid vessels had previously 
been dashed all to pieces. The " Sovereign," which a few 
moments before was worth more than one hundred thousand 
dollars, was apparently worthless in that critical moment. 
Nothing but an immediate plunge of the anchor saved her, 
her cargo, and her passengers ; and even then, every suige of 
the strong waves pressed her nearer to the shore, so that her 
rudder thumped the sunken rocks. In addition to all this, 
there was a strong probabihty of a rough night. 

But as night was rapidly approaching, and hope expiring, 
a favorable breeze sprung up, and the flood tide set in firom 
the ocean. Taking the advantage of so favorable a state of 
things, the cable was slipped, and we lef^ the breakers with- 
out having received any material injury. It was a pleasant 
thing thus to be rescued ficom the very jaws of destruction. 



ONCE MORE AT ANCHOR. 21 

especially when every thing seemed to have conspired against 
us. 

It was not until we had letumed some distance up the Bay, 
and were once more at anchor, that we could realize the 
danger firom which we had just escaped. The sun went down 
to his repose angry and red, and the skies were gathering 
Uackness. While we cheiished an unspeakahle gratitude fivr 
our deliverance, we could not help glancing at the stormy 
heavoi ; and the words of Moobe, in his Fire Worshipers, 
exactly suited us : • 

"The day is lowering — stilly black 
Bleeps the grim wave, while heaven's rack, 
Itispersed and wild, *twixt earth and sky 
Hangs like a shattered canopy. 
There's not a cloud in that blue plain 

But tells of storms to come or past ; 
Here, flying loosely as the mane 

Of a young war-horse in the blast ; 
There, rolled in masses dark and swelling. 
As proud to be the thunder's dwelling I 
While some, already burst and riven, 
Seem melting down the verge of heaven ; 
As though the infant storm had rent 

The mighty womb that gave it birth, 
And, having swept the firmament, 

Was now in fierce career for earth." 



CHAPTER II. 

Daylight and Storm, — ^Weigh Anchor. — ^First Night at Sea. — The 
next Morning. — Stormy "PetreV* — Impressive Moral — Dinner 
during a Gale. — The Ocean in a Storm. — ^A Child bom at Sea.-^ 
"New-year^s" Day. — Sunset in the Tropics. — ^A Calm on the Ocean. 
— "Land-hol" — Landmarks for the Mariner. — Farewell to the 
"Sovereign.^* 

DxTRiNO the preceding night we had rode safely at anchor. 
The next morning, however, dawned on a most iminviting 
scene. It was blowing a gale ; and the heavy rains and mists 



22 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

BO obscured the Bay, that we could see only a short distance 
from our anchorage. The winds were pecuUarly chilling and 
unpleasant, as they swept down from the snow-clad summit 
of Monte Kapael, the northern limit of the Golden Gate. 
Most sincerely did we long to be on our way to another clime, 
where we might escape the cold and relentless frowns of 
winter. 

About noon of the 23d that wish was gratified. The storm- 
clouds began to disperse. The winds suddenly moderated. A 
slight shower of rain passed over us, reflecting an iris of sin- 
gular beauty. Glorious emblem of hope to the earth and 
man ! It cheered eyery spirit, and inBised new strength into 
every heart, and we regarded it as an omen of an auspicious 
voyage. 

By 1 P.M. we weighed anchor once more. The tide was 
running out, and, taking advantage of it, we ghded out of the 
Bay. Before sunset our pilot was discharged, and we stood 
out to sea. Night overtook us just as the surf-beaten shores 
of California sunk behind the wave. The sea-fowls had re- 
tired to their nests in the clifis, and the rays of the distant 
light-house had faded away in the dim distance. It was now, 
with the wide Pacific stretched out before her, that our splen- 
did vessel displayed her ti:ue character as a sea-boat. She 
seemed to feel a sort of consciousness of her duty : 
"She walked the waters like a thing of life;" 
or she seemed more like an impatient steed struggling to escape 
from her rider. To her the foam-crested billows appeared to 
be famihar playthings, for she dashed them aside, and proudly 
defied their strength and fiiry. 

After having remained for some time on shore— no matter 
to what extent a person has previously traveled by water — 
there is always something inexpressibly solemn and spirit- 
moving in \hQ first night at sea. The land is gone — as though 
it had sunk beneath the bosom of the insatiate deep. Dark- 
ness obscures the face of the mighty waters, and even the sky ; 
but anxious faces ccnne peering tiirough the gloom. The soft 
tones of the last "farewell," with its deep and thrilling im- 



THE NEXT MORNING. 23 

port ; the warm grasp of the £riendly hand, as if loth to part 
with your pwn — these; and many other things, rush yividly 
back on the wings of memory, and you are constrained to 
look back and converse mentally with much that is past. 
Heaven reveals the gems that bum on its portals, and you 
seem to drink in, by a spiritual communion, the eternity of 
their glory and their years. The moon, perhaps, mounts her 
chariot, and sheds a serene light over the lap of the ocean. 
Then a dark, fugitive cloud rushes past, as if to dif^ute her 
rightful empire. Suddenly you realize, or try to realize, the 
&ct that the vast, and hoary, and eternal deep is before you. 
You are buoyed up above its dark caverns, where things of 
beauty and shmy numsters take refuge firom the scrutiny of 
man. You are on the brink of the unseen world ; you are 
close to the very presence of the Unsearchable ; you are 
within less than a stone's throw of that goal — ^the grave ! — 
which has entombed the long list of the defunct of Adam's 
progeny ; and there you jure kept from a penetration of all 
that makes mankind true scholars and philosophers by the 
thickness of a single plank! Perchance a storm may rush 
forth from its hiding-place at the hour of midnight, and 
awaken the deep in its fearful power. The Infinite him- 
self leaves his foot-prints on the heaving billow, or he moves 
past on the wings of the tempest. It is then, and there, that 
a man feels his own utter hdj^dessness. Night and storm on 
the wide world of waters is the best school in which a man 
learns to read his own nothingness. Your sleep, even if you 
should escape the too common lot of voyagers, sea-sickness, is, 
in all probability, any thing but that which merits the name 
of sleep. There is a sort of sympathy in your mind with 
winds and waves, and also with beloved faces that come 
peering in upon you. A great lesson to the contemplative 
mind is the first night at sea. 

There is scarcely any association that is more saddening 
than the morning that succeeds the first night on the oQean. 
On ascending the deck, add seeing nothing but sky and ocean, 
a sort of soHtude thrills the voyager's bosom; and he feels, 



24 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

for a time at least, as though his companionship and all his 
interests had fled hack to the shores he has just left. As he 
gazes across the deep^ as if to catch a glimpse of the land, the 
soHtude is unhroken ; hut his eye hecomes more reconciled to 
the scene before him ; his sjnrit drinks in the imposing gran- 
deur of that most magnificent of all elements — ^the ocean. 
Our first morning at sea was one that seemed to wield a spell 
over the entire being. Not a cloud obscured the sky. The 
ascending sun shed an almost supernal glory on the multitude 
of waves that danced around the ship, as though they were 
thrilled with life. It is amid such scenes, and with the bound- 
less deep before him, that a man feels as if he were impelled 
onward by some mysterious destiny. He is not certain at what 
shore the vessel may arrive. Amid the uncertainties of nauti- 
cal life, he ma/y steer for the port of destination, and reach it ; 
or some relentless tempest* may wreak its wrath upon the 
strong-ribbed craft, and leave her a floating wreck, at the 
mere mercy of currents and winds, to find her way — ^heaven 
only knows where. It is no wonder, then, that a man under 
such circumstances feels as though he had shaken hands with 
Destiny. Nor is the '' self-exiled Harold" the only man who 
has said,. 

" Once more upon the waters ! yet once more I 
And the waves bound beneath me as a steed 
That knows his rider. Welcome to their roar! 
Swift be their guidance, wheresoever it lead! 
Though the strained mast should quiver as a reed. 
And the rent canvas, fluttering, strew the gale, 
Still I must on; for I am as a reed 
Flung from the rock, on Ocean's foam to sail, 
Where'er the surge may sleep, the tempest's breath prevail" 

This has been the language of thousands — ^it will be the sen- 
timent of thousands more. 

Over the crests of the wild waves, or between them, in the 
Hquid valleys, the^re^ was speeding on her pinions in search 
of food. I could not help feding a sort of sympathy with that 
bird. The oceau was that creature's home-— the wide world 
was mine. Death had laid low the loving and the loved ; 



THE STORMY PETREL-k MORAL. 25 

and, having little or nothing to attach me to any particular 
spot, I felt free to roam. 

And yet that lone hird, skimming the deep on rapid wing« 
suggested a moral that I had never prc^rly learned in the 
sanctum. Without any apparently fixed aim, and wandering 
strictly in obedience to its own instincts, the end of its exist- 
ence — ^the preservation of its own life by the securing of fixxi 
—was fully answered. In all probability, its mate may have 
been annihilated by the hand of some reckless fisherman ; but 
it seemod to make no difierence. On, on it went. It had been 
cast on the rude lap of the ocean ; and yet, before it broke 
Ibrth from its ovarian prison, its food had been scattered on the 
wave of the ocean by the ever-carefiil hand of a Supreme Prov- 
idence. To be found, that £x)d had to be sought ; and al- 
though it appeared to wander as if only by instinct, its Maker 
was its guide. And is it not so with man ? Before he comes 
into the world, good and evil crowd the pathway of his life. 
To secure the highest good, he needs but to seek it, and it will 
be found. Man may progress through a thousand difierent 
channels without any apparent design, but most assuredly he 
will reach the goal that has been marked out for him ; nor 
can he avoid it. If the petrd wanders over the wave, not for- 
tuitously, how unspeakably great is the amount of good that 
milHohs lose by discarding the guidance and protection of the 
Universal Father I 

If our first morning at sea was one of surpassing loveliness, 
the next was of a very difierent character. Soon after sun- 
rise, the skies were obscured with heavy storm-clouds. A 
strong wind was blowing from the southwest, which by noon 
had increased to a gale. At the regular hour dinner was 
served. And now came the trial, so far as the inner man was 
ocmcemed. Those who have never left their Persian carpets, 
nor been served at table from any other than their own rose- 
wood side-boards, can form no idea of the ludicrous and em- 
barrassing scenes that crowd around a dinner-table during a 
storm at sea. Every passenger on board the " Sovereign" 
seemed to think himself a nautical hero ; at least, he strongly 

B 



26 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

objected to its being supposed that, before dinner was over, he 
would be compelled to pay old Neptune a tribute. "We sat 
down to our repast with a fixed determination to do it justice. 
Those occupying the " weather side" of the table had to lean 
back in order to prevent themselves firom tumbling over it, 
while those sitting to " leeward" held fast to the table to aid 
them lii retaining their seats ; for, every time the sea struck 
the ship, she would roll her lee bulwarks neJBirly under water. 
During such a state of afiairs, one may think himself fortunate 
if a tumbler of water does not come rolling into his di^ of 
soup, or that he does not lose his soup entirely. Another swal- 
lows a mouthful of food, and, feeling very squeamish in the 
gastrological regions, hurries out on deck to avoid a humilia- 
ting display of his own weakness. 'Another chases his fugi- 
tive viands into his opposite neighbor's plate, where they be- 
come so commingled that a just and original division is im- 
possible. A third holds oa to the table, as if fearful of going 
to the bottom. A fourth keeps his eye on some favorite dish, 
holding himself in readiness to arrest its progress in case it 
should sUde away firom its place. A fifth — but, alas ! it is 
impossible to review a list of some score or more of passengers, 
ibr I should be compelled to include myself in the catalogue ; 
and the reader's patience might be wearied in the perusal, and 
himself cherish a profound disgust, in the abstract, of the no- 
blest element ever created. 

The merriment that had its origin in the scenes just de- 
scribed was soon, terminated. Our repast was hardly ended, 
when " all hands" were summoned to shorten what Httle can- 
vas was spread ; for ike gale, that had been increasing all the 
morning, was now at its height. On going out upon deck, 
the scene before us was one of such overwhelming sublimity, 
that language refuses to do its office. Even Longinus himself 
would have failed there. On no element or object in creation 
have more elaborate ^descriptions been lavished than on the 
ocean when in a storm. Poets have implored the aid of every 
muse, and bestowed upon it the boldest and most finished 
verse. Painters, too, long accustomed to ocean scenery in all 



THE OCEAN IN A STORM. 27 

its variety, have employed all their talent to set it forth aa, 
canvas. With a singular vividness, they have pictured the 
fi>am on the summit of the breaking billow, and the imagina- 
tifm has almost caught the reverberations of its savage thun- 
der. But all falls infinitely below the living reaUty. The 
matchless phenomenon, must be seen to be realized, for it can 
be realized only by being seen. The huge waves heaving, 
rolling, surging, sweeping, like spirits of vengeance terribly 
strolling for ^e mastery over each other, and over the thun- 
dering brealli of the storm-king, until they rise higher and yet 
higher, constitute a reality that no imagination can cherish, 
and no pen or pencil portray. The spectator becomes a mere 
child in his views and sympathies ; he feels mute before this 
amazing display of the Almighty's strength. Of all the unin- 
fsgixed men that have ever hved, no one has so accurately de- 
scribed the scene as that great Anglo-Saxon poet, Shakspeare : 

** For do but stand upon the foaming shore, 
The chiding billows seem to pelt the clouds ; 
The wind-shaked surge, with high and monstrous mane^ 
Seems to cast water on the burning Bear, 
And quench the ^ards of the ever-fixld pole. 
' I never did like molestation view 

On th' enchaf(§d flood." — Othello^ Act IL, sc i 

The gale paissed away, however, without any serious injury. 
The figure-head of our noble clipper was a " Neptune," finely 
carved. Whether the fabled god was enraged at the invasion 
of his element by a modem and inanimate deity, it is not for 
me to decide ; but our Neptune was deprived of one entire 
arm by the violence of the storm. Bipeds were not the only 
victims to sea-sickness : there were passengers of the quadru- 
ped species that shared these difiiculties. The latter com- 
prised a large grizzly bear, a rainbow bear, a wol£ a kayota, 
a wild cat, and a leopard cat — all destined for exhibition in 
the Crystal Palace at New York. And probably the elder of 
the two Bndns suffered more than aU the rest of his com- 
panions. 

28th. BAiny, squally, and adverse winds all day. Latitude 



28 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

32" 50' ; longitude 135° 39' at noon. As an instance of hu- 
man progress, a child was bom to-day. His birth was prem- 
ature. His life was given him nearly at the*cost of his moth- 
er's. In honor to our brave vessel, not less than the event, 
we named him the " Yoimg Sovereign." 

The close of '52 was very stormy ; the opening of '53 was 
no better, excepting that we ^ere favored with a fair wind. 
A continent and a wide expanse of ocean separated us from 
our best earthly friends ; but we forgot neither them nor the 
day itself True, they were enjoying their snug parlors, or 
they were making or receiving " caMs'' while we were dash- 
ing on like a race-horse, before a wind that heaved the sea 
like moimtains. But, like all true adventurers, we resolved 
to make the best of our position, and drink a few toasts in 
commemoration of the day and our friends. Preliminaries 
having been adjusted, our sentiments were, 

A HAPPY NEW-YEAR TO THE ABSENT ONES \ May they have 
no cause to regret the ilight of time. Although personally 
absent, we are present with them in spirit. 

Our Country ! May it ever be the beacon of Hepubhcan 
Empire — ^the asylum of the oppressed, the land of the free. 
May the tree of Liberty there flourish until its branches shall 
shelter all nations, and until time shall expire. 

The Sandwich Islands : May every thing that tends to 
embarrass their financial resources, and contract their policy, 
be speedily and forever removed ; and may they yet add an- 
other star in our flag of freedom. 

The " Sovereign of the Seas," and the infant " Sover- 
eign :" May the former weather the storms in safety, until 
she shall reach her port of destination. May the latter, who 
breathed his first breath on the ocean, be safely guided over 
life's sea, until he is safe beyond the region of storms and 
danger. . 

But New- Year's day was buried in the flight of time, and 
we were rapidly approaching the tropics. The weather was 
more genial ; ihe sky more serene ; the winds lighter, but 
more steady. Much has been said about an ocean sunset ; 



SUNSET NEAR THE TROPICS. 29 

but, like a picture of a sea-storm, every thing falls far below 
the original. It was not, however, until we neared the Isl- 
ands, that we were favored with the magnificent picture, or 
reality rather. The horizi§ was as clear as crystal, while a 
firinge of clouds, gorgeously painted by the sun-light, hung 
over it like a canopy of fretted gold. As the God of day was 
HJnking in the calm blue wave, a flood of golden light streamed 
across the ocean ; while, in the region of his descent, the little 
wavelets seemed to kiss the lustre firom his burning brow. 
It seemed as if those waves had flown from the Empyrean 
itself; as if they were peopled with beings beautiful and 
bright. There is something soft and bewitching in such a 
scene as this. It no longer remains a wonder that so much 
should have been said and sung about the evening glories of 
the God of day. When Plato uttered his great ideal of the 
Unknown, he intimated that the sun was but the shadow of 
His ineflable glory. So millions of our race, feeling the bound- 
less yearnings of their own immortal nature, have adc»red and 
revered the ever-glorious orb as the best material representa- 
tive of the inmiaterial God. 

The night that followed that sunset scene was one of cakn 
and soothing splendor. The bosom of the sky was all cloud- 
less, and countless multitudes of night's sentinels peered fi)rth 
in aU their glory. Befere the hour of midnight was chronicled 
by the crew on duty, there was not a single ripple on the sur- 
flBice of the sea. AU was like a vast ocean of glass spread out 
before us. The horizon was as imperceptible as if it mingled 
in the vast ocean of space above us. It seemed as though 
one could almost hear the music of the spheres as they sent 
their echoes through the boundless fields of ether. Immortal 
luminaries ! What is the character of those beings by whom 
ye are peopled, and what their employ ? Does death ever 
thin their ranks, and sweep, with relentless wrath, youth and 
beauty to the grave ? Does war desolate your abodes ? Does 
care or pain ever mar your peace and comfort ? Or are you 
immortal and happy ; happy, because sinless ? How many 
a man seeks for the highest good, as he tries to lajr the hand 



30 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

of bis faith on the throne of the universe ; and yet, as he bows 
himself to the earth, with drops of a^ny on his brow, and 
with a keen anxiety to find what he seeks — a tangible evi- 
dence of the existence d the vS#I>reme — how often has his 
very soul been shaken with distressing doubts, and reascm 
nearly tottered on her throne ? But when he looked up into 
the serene bosom of such a night as I have described, and 
glanced from cause to ^ect, his doubts fied before cqnvicticm. 

Jan. 15th. At daylight this morning we were awakened 
firom our slumbers by the cry of "Land-ho /" On going out 
on deck, the islands of Maui, Molokai, and Oahu especially, 
were distinctly visible. 

At noon we were steering for the southeast point of Oahu. 
The whole shore fimning the southeastern extremity of the 
island has an appearance of absolute desolation. It retains 
the remains of several very ancient craters. The two chief 
landmarks are Capes Makapuu and Leahi. But the latter is 
the most prominent. It has an elevaticm of several hundred 
feet, and is seen at a distance of several leagues. By day or 
night it a^rds an unmistakable guide to the mariner who may 
be steering his vessel for the port of Honolulu, nine miles be- 
yond it, in a norliiwestem direction. It would seem as if the 
storms c^ ages have swept over these shattered monuments of 
nature. 

The desire to get on shore is always varied, in its intensity, 
by the length of a voyage. There may have been many pri- 
vations and embarrassments during that voyage, and many a 
. wish may have been cherished that the ship was at the port 
of her destination ; but th^ moment of parting fipom her, and 
fiom your fellow-passengers, does come. That parting is a 
miniature of the world. Every' passenger goes his own way, 
and pursues his own business ; suid although strong firiend- 
ships may have been created and cherished during the trip, 
who shall say when the parties about to separate may meet 
agaiil ? These are the associations that induce sensitive minds 
to leave their best farewell to the vessel they are leaving ; and 
thus it was we left our own with the " Sovereign of the Seas." 



HONOLULU, PAST AND PRESENT. 21 



CHAPTER m. 

ISLAND OF OAHU. HONOLULU. 

Location of Honolulu. — ^Honolulu, P<ut and Present — ^EUrbQr. — 
Coral Ree&. — Commerce. — Palace of Kakehameha III. — ^A Glance 
at the Monarch. — His Successor proclaun^d. — ^Royal Soirees. — ^Ha- 
waiian Parliament 

The word Honolulu is of Hawaiian'^ origin, and comes 
frwa. hono, the back of the neck, and Izduy shelter from, the 
winds. The term is rather absolute. Whatever its import 
may once have been, certainly it can not now signify a place 
that is sheltered; for the town is ahnost constantly exposed 
to the fierce south winds that come in from the ocean, not 
less than to the heavy northeast trades that sweep down the 
Nujoanu valley. The location, however, is exceedingly pleas- 
ant. Its position is defined on the chart of the group in Ion. 
158" 1' W. firom Greenwich, lat. 21° 18' N. A part of the 
town is built on a plain of great beauty, that stretches away 
for several miles to the eastward. The plain itsdf afibrds 
pasture for hundreds of cattle. It is bounded on the east by 
the old extinct crater of Diamond Head ; on the north, by 
the highly picturesque valleys of Manoa, Nuuanu, Fauoa, 
Makiki, and Falolo; on the south, by massive coral reefs 
that extend for some distance into the sea. From Honolulu 
is distinctly seen the ridge of mountains called Konahuanui, 
that bisects the island. This chain, when cloud-capped, as it 
firequently is, assumes an aspect of great sublimity. 

Honolulu is the largest and wealthiest town on the group : 
it is the commercial emporium, the seat of government. Al- 
though its existence as a town can scarcely date back to an 
earlier period than 1823, and considering that its location is 
so far removed firom continental energy, it bears an impress 

* ''Hawaiian Islands'* is the official term for the Sandwich group. 



32 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

. of progress that is truly astonishing to a visitor. The physi- 
cal condition of Honolulu, peust and present, affords an ample 
comment on the unity maintained between cause and efiect ; 
and that cause was the transforming influence which a refined 
civilization ever wields, when judiciously appUed, over the 
habits and faculties of barbaric races. Before the harbor was 
discovered, Honolulu was nothing more than a small village 
of grass-thatched houses; and the village of Waikiki, five 
miles to the eastward, was the place in which the monarch 
of Oahu resided. For several years after vessels had begun 
to touch at this port, there was little improvement visible, 
while the native population were clad in scarcely any other 
garment than what Nature had furnished for them ; and 
when improvement marched forward, the dwellings and store- 
houses of the principal foreigners were composed of adobes. 
Before 1820, one or two merchants had stationed themselves 
there; but their influence over native character for good 
amoimted to nothing. There was not a native, firom the 
monarch to the meanest of his subjects, and throughout the 
entire archipelago, who owned a single page of printed mat- 
ter, much less could he read or write his own name. Every 
chronicle was orally made, aiid it became a tradition. 

But things have changed since then ; and in no modem 
community on eaxth — San Francisco alone excepted — ^have 
aflairs, in general, experienced a more decided transformation. 
It must be remembered, however, that Honolulu is an island- 
community ; and progress on islands is usually slow and un- 
stable. In 1838, the group had so far lifted its head from. the 
mists of barbarism as to be recognized as one of the commer- 
cial nutions of the earth.* In the course of these pages, such 

* In the year ISSY, the exports fi^m the Sandwich Islands, through 
the Custom-house at Honolulu, amounted to about $197,900. 

In 1888, the {M*ess at Honolulu issued two native newspapers. One 
was entitled Kimiu Hawaii ^Hawaiian Teacher), a semi-monthly peri- 
odical, established in 1834. Circula'tion, 3600 copies. The other was 
termed the Kvmu Kamalii (Children's Teacher), a monthly publica- 
tion, established in 1887. Circulation, 4000 copies. 



r 



THE HARBOR. 33 



comments will be made as will illustrate the c<mditian of 
HotioIuIu in 1853. 

The harbor is one of the best in the Pacific Ocean, and is 
readily accessible to vessels drawing not more than twenty- 
fi>ur feet of water. It afibrds a commodious anchorage for at 
least two hundred ships, and is well def^ided against the 
action of the sea by a massive coral reef Instances have 
occurred, however, during the blowing of the northeast trades, 
of vessels having been torn from their anchorage, and drifted 
to the opposite side of the hiurbor, whore they have be^i 
arrested by a thick bank of mud lining the inside of the reef^ 
from which they have been easily recovered, withont sustain- 
ing any material injury. Vessels have often been wrecked 
on the reef outside the harbor ; but when good pilotage is 
secured, their safe entry to a good anchorage can be guaran- 
teed. The importance and character of the harbor may be 
estimated in view of the large number of vessels that annually 
enter it. In 1824, the whole number of vessels, from all 
nati(ms, that touched at Honolulu, did not exceed one hundred 
and three. In 1852, the total number of vessels that called 
there was five hundred and eighty-five. This gradual and 
steady increase of shifting is a criterion irom which may be 
augured the future prosperity of that interesting and commo- 
dious port.* 

The Hawaiian Spectator, a quarterly publication in the English 
language. 

The Sandwich Island Gazette and Journal Of Commerce, a weekly 
newspaper in En^ish. 

There were ten other publications in the Hawaiian language, 
amounting in their aggregate to a circulation of 114,000 copies. — 
Vide Hawaiian Spectator, vol I, No. IL, Art IX. 

* From the year 1824 to 1862 inclusive, 5016 vessels, of every 
tonnage and class, and from all nations, have entered the port of 
Honolulu. They may be arranged as follows: 

Whalers 2886 

Merchantmen . . ." 1992 

Ships of war 188 

Total 6016 

B2 



34 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

The coral ree&, stretching out from the shore some distance 
into the ocean, are of great value. A very large portum of 
their surface is left dj^ at low tide. From these ree& the 
materials that compose the hest and most puhlie bmldings in 
thel»-wn are procured, simply by hewing them out with axes 
while in a wet state. It has been estimated that these ree& 
fixmting the town contain materials that would buOd a city 
capable of containing 150,000 inhabitants. ^ 

The oomm^ce of Honolulu embraces a large variety of 
exports and imports, such as are mostly used by civilized 
nations. To the energetic whalemen who call there — ^many 
of them twice a year — to recruit their stores, the prosperity 
of the port is mainly indebted, and on them the success of 
commercial finances for the nation mainly depends. If those 
men were to withdraw their vessel firom the islands, it would 
be the greatest calamity the government could at this moment 
experience. It was to this class of men that the eloquent 
Burke referred in his " Speech on American Afiairs'' in 1774 : 

*^ While we follow them among ther tumbling mountains 
of ice, and behcdd them penetrating into the deepest frozen 
recesses of Hudson's Bay and Davis's Straits — ^while we are 
looking for them beneath the arctic circle, we hear that they 
have pierced into the opposite region of polar cold. * * * 
No sea but what is vexed with their fisheries — ^no climate 
that is not witness of their toils. Neither the perseverance 
of Holland, nor the activity of France, nor the dexterous and 
firm sagacity of English enterprise, ever carried this most 
perilous mode of hardy industry to the extent to which it has 
been pursued by this-recent people— a people who are still in 
the gristle, and not hardened into manhood !" 

And yet the men that navigate this fleet of v^sels are not 

By a national division of airivals, it will be seen that a large minority 
of these vessels, during this period, were American; thus: 

Of the whalers 2494 were American. 

Of the merchantmen 600 " " 

Of the ships of war 82 « « 

Total , 8126 



COMMERCE. 35 



properly appreciated by many officials belonging to the Ha- 
waiian government. The existing marine laws are oppressive- 
It was as late as the annual convention of the Hawaiian Par- 
liament, in the spring of 18^2, that a strenuous e^rt was 
made in the House of Nobles to annihilate the last Uberties 
of the saibr. To the honor of the young Prince Liholiho, 
that short-«ighted measure was thrown aside. On this theme, 
the language of Hon. R. C. WyUie, the king's Minister of For- 
eign Relations, is expUcit. In glancing at the commerce of 
the islands, and at their dependence on whalers, he says : 

" But, even were the consumption much less, it is obvious 
l^t the, prosperity of these islands has depended, and does 
depend, mainly upon the whale ^ps that annually flock to 
their ports, many of them coming twice a year. Were the 
whale fishery to fall off, as seems in some measure to be the 
case, or were the vessels engaged in it to abandon these islands 
for some others in this ocean, or for ports on the Main, the 
Sandwich Islands would relapse into thdr primitive insignifi- 
cance. The government seems to be aware of this ; for, as I 
have shown in the notes to my table of the 25th March, pub- 
lished in the " Friend" of the 1st instant, there are exceptions 
in favor of whalers both in the duties and port-dues. My 
enly doubt is whether these exceptions have been carried far 
enough. I incline to the belief that whale ships should be 
exempted firom all port-dues, and that the pohce regulations 
toward sailors ought to be the most hberal that the mainte- 
nance of pubUc Older will permit."* 

This language was uttered several years since, but it has 
been signally disregarded. The commerce of the islands might 
be increased to almost any extent ; but the same want of fore- 
thought that has endeavored to originate oppressive laws to- 
ward seamen flings a blight upon the most important branches 
of native industry. Through a range of several years past the 
imports have greatly exceeded the exports.! The same poHcy, 
or want of poUcy rather, materially aflected the finances of so 

* Published in the "Friend," Honolulu, July, 1844. 
f See Appendix No. L 



36 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

smgll a nation as the Sandwich Islands* during the financial 
year ending in 1852. But, despite numerous restrictive sys- 
tems, it can not be denied that commerce mainly has imparted 
to Honolulu, not less than to the group of islands, their present 
prosperity ; and it may be safely predicted that the commerce 
of the islands is yet in its infancy. 

Leaving commerce to itself for a time, let us pay a visit to 
the abode of the Hawaiian king, Kamehameha HI. It is de- 
nominated the " palace." To a person who has ever visited 
any of the abodes of European sovereigns, such a term would 
at once convey an idea of r^al magnificence ; but the resi- 
dence of the Hawaiian monarch produces nothing that is su- 
perfluous, or even splendid. On the contrary, every thing 
about it is plain, even to plebeianism, and induces a visitor to 
think that he may be treading the apartments of a chief rath- 
er than the palace of a sovereign. The grounds on which it 
stands cover between two and three acres, and are inclosed 
with a heavy wall of rough coral. A visitor enters on the 
south side, between lodges occupied by sleepy sentinels. A 
small but beautiful grove of trees wave their stately foUage 
on either side of the path leading up to the royal apartments, 
and their cool shade reminds one of the groves of the Acad- 
emy and the Lyceum, where so many of the old masters read, 
studied, and rambled. A few steps bring you in front of the 
palace proper. It has a very simple, rustic appearance. The 
walls are composed of coral pirocured from the reefs along the 
shore of the harbor. The ground-plan covers an area of sev- 
enty-four feet by forty-four. The building is a story and a 
half high. A noble piazza, eight or ten feet wide, and raised 
a few feet above the ground, entirely surrounds the building. 
The chief apartment is the one in which the king holds his 
levees. In the centre of the eastern wall of the apartment 
stood the chair of state. Its unpretending aspect led me to 
invest it rather with repubhcan simplicity than monarchical ' 
aristocracy. Several well-executed paintings hung on the 
walls. They represented the then ruling monarch, Kameha- 
♦ See Appendix No. U. 



A GLANCE AT THE MONARCH. 37 

MEHA III. ; Lihdiho, or Kamehameha II. ; Kekauluhoi, the 
late Premier ; and a full-length portrait of Louis Philippe, 
King of the French. On a large centre-tahle were arranged 
several diminutive but exceedingly fine pieces of statuary, 
presents from the King of Denmark. 

On the right of the tnain building, in a detached form, stood 
the private apartments of the monarch ; on the left, those of 
his queen. They were framed buildings, sustained on base- 
ments, having walls of coral, and looking very much like ru- 
ral cottages erected for the mere object of economy. 

Such is the residence of the Hawaiian monarch ! But, 
plain as it is, it is invested with a splendor to which Kame- 
hameha the Great was an utter stranger, for his palace was 
a house thatched all round taith grass f Around the abode 
of the present king there are no haughty nobles to dart their 
withering glances at the stranger, no bristling bayonets to ward 
off the lover of the curious or the ancient. Every thing is 
calm and serene. It is just such a place as European sover- 
eigns, when the cares of empire oppress them, may wgh after, 
and never obtain. Without doubt, the Sandwich Island king 
is infinitely happier than Nicholas of Russia, surrounded as 
he is by his mighty armies, his immense navy, his glittering 
sycophants, and his gorgeous capital. 

Having hastily sketched the palace of the Hawaiian king, 
let us glance at the monarch himself In his personal appear- 
ance he is tall, robust, and well formed. He is rather more 
than forty years of age, but begins to look prematurely old. In 
his more youthful years he possessed great strength and activ- 
ity, and was well skilled in every athletic and manly exercise. 
His appearance is quite prepossessing, for the very genius of 
good-nature seems to dwell in his countenance. He is amia- 
ble, but, at the present time, almost entirely deficient in those 
virtues that would render him a distinguished warrior-king. 
On meeting him in the street, such is his mien and dress, that, 
were it not for the deference paid to him by all classes, a 
stranger could not recognize him as a king. He has no treas- 
ury at his command. No navy floats in his harbors. No 



38 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

powerfiil army awaits his nod. But what he lacks in some 
instances he more than makes up in others. His parliament- 
ary speeches are the hest comments on his manly and regal 
character. An extract from his speech before the Hawaiian 
Parliament in 1850, shows his paternal relation toward his 
people : 

" In June, 1848, in concurrence with my chiefs and with 
the aid of my Privy Council, I made a division of lands upon 
the principle of surrendering the greater portion of my royal 
domain to my chiefs and people, with a reserve of certain 
lands for the support of the fbxt and garrison of my capital, 
and certain other lands as my own private property, in lieu of 
the share which I, inheriting the right of my predecessors, held 
in all the lands of the islands. Under that joint tenure, all 
lands, howsoever or to whomsoever donated, were revocable 
at will ; no man's possesions, even that of the highest chief, 
was secure, and no man thought of improving land the pos- 
session of which was so uncertain. To remove this great bar 
to improvement, the division was made ; but as the interest 
of my poorer subjects appeared to me to require further pro- 
tection, with the concurrence of my chie& and the aid of my 
Privy Council as aforesaid, on the 21st of December, 1849, cer- 
tain resolutions were passed with the view of giving to the in- 
dustrious cultivators of the soil an allodial title to -the portions 
they occupied, and to facilitate the acquisition of land, in fee 
simple, by others inclined to be industrious. 

" No nation can prosper where the interests of religion and 
education are disregarded. What progress we have hitherto 
made is mainly attributable to those two great civilizing in- 
fluences. You can nol;, therefore, neglect them without fail- 
ing in your duty to your God, to yourselves, to the whole Ha- 
waiian people, and to me." 

His sentiments in a speech before his Parliament in 1851 
are worthy the most distinguished ruler that has ever hved. 

"It is equally my wish that, by careful investigation and 
consideration of facts, you place yourselves in a position to de- 
cide if the equality between the Cathohcs and Protestants, un- 



HIS SUCCESSOR PROCLAIMED. 39 

i 
der the proteotion oi the Constitution and the laws, does not 
Btill require something for its perfect a^^hcation. 

« # - # # # # « 

" The markets of California, Oregon, Vancouver's Island, the 
possessions of the Russian American Company, and of Kamt- 
Bchatka, afibrd a jNTofitable outlet for more than my islands can 
produce. It is desirable to increase productions to the great- 
est possible extent, and with that view, to encourage foreign 
capital and labor. With that view, you will consider what 
further l^islation may be required. 

" I have frequently called your attention to the imsatisfac- 
tory state of the prisons throughout my islands. An imme- 
diate and thorough reform is urgently wanted, so as to combine 
the principle of reforming criminals with that of their secure 
detention. 

" The pubhc health is one of the objects most worthy of your 
consideration. Cholera, that scourge of humanity, has only 
recently ceased its ravages in the^ port with which we have 
most frequent and tKe speediest communication. The history 
ci that epidemic proves that it recurs at intervals, and often 
takes years before it leaps firom one place to another. It would 
be wise for us to adopt those sanitary regulations which uni- 
versal experience has recommended before it appears among 
us. All places that have neglected tiiem have suffered for 
their supinenesS." • 

A careftd study of this language will establish the convic- 
tion that selfishness constitutes no part of the character of the 
present king. He is generous to a fault, and, as a sovereign, 
is much beloved by his people. His Malayan cast of coimte- 
nance excepted, he retains hardly a vestige of likeness to his 
kingly predecessors. His proneness to confide in foreigner, 
together with his unbounded hberahty, have made him a mere 
tool in the hands of deagning men. 

Whatever may have dictated the policy, the present king has 
chosen his successor to the crown. At the opening of the Ha- 
waiian Legislature on the 9th of April, 1853, among other top- 
ics, he said : 



40 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

" I have named my adopted son and heir, LmoLmo, as my 
successor to the throne ; and it is my wish that you, my no- 
bles, concur in that appointment, and in the public proclama- 
tion which the Constitution requires." 

The House of Nobles did concur in this nomination, and 
Prince Alexander LiHOLmo was, by acclamation, proclaimed 
successor to the throne. The prince is twenty-three years old. 
He is well educated, and has a gentlemanly address. Some 
of his discussions i^ the House of Nobles— of which he is a 
member — ^have displayed great strength of mind and cleameas 
of thought. His physiognomy* indicates a strong indepencL- 
ence of character. A vast majority of the foreign peculation 
look fcNTward with impatience to the time when he may as- 
cend the throne ; for they feel assured that he will dissolve the 
present cabinet, and reform abuses that can never be reformed 
while the now ruling monarch sways the sceptre. It is rather 
difficult clearly to decide the cause or causes of his immediate 
nomination to the office of successor — although he is heir-ap- 
parent, and the reigning king is in his dotage. It may have 
been done under the advice of officials representing foreign mon- 
archies, ar of repubhcans (?) from the United States of America, 
who, having taken the oath of fealty to the Hawaiian Consti- 
tution, retain their present influence and position on the strength 
of their attachment to a dusky sovereign ; or it may have been 
done to perpetuate the dynasty of Hawaiian kings, and to pre- 
serve the independence of the Hawaiian kingdom. The two 
latter designs, however, can never be realised. Even if Liho- 
Lmo should hve to wear the purple, and to close a peaceful 
and prosperous reign, he will be the last of the Hawaiian mon- 
archs ; but before that period shall be consummated the native 
population will nearly all have gone to the grave, and the na- 
tion itself will have become merged into a strongs and more 
energetic government. 

Among other things that seem curious to« recent visitor of 
the group, are the scnries given by King Kamehameha. They 
are held in the palace on various occasions, but especially on 
* See Frontispieee. 



ROYAL S01RJ£eS. 4]^ 

the last day of July, in commemoration of the restoration of 
the islands, after their seizure by Lord George Paulet, of 
England, on the 25th of February, 1843. It would be impos- 
sible to depict the aspect of the mixed multitude that throng 
his halls on these occasions. Foreigners and Hawaiians, of 
both sexes and nearly all ages, arrayed in every conceivable 
article of apparel ; the resident officials, en mUitaire, repie- 
senting their respective nations ; scores of plebeians who never 
saw a monarch, or were favored with his audience, until they 
saw King Kahehameha III. — all these making their salams 
in the most profound style that can be imagined — ^many de- 
ddedly genuine, but many more assumed and ungracious — 
present a scene that nothing but the graphic pencil of a Cruik- 
SHANK could represent. The most imcouth of all are the sub- 
jects who once belonged to Brother Jonathan, and that enjoy- 
ed but Hmited advantages at home ; but, imbibing a sort of 
disgust for plain repubUcanism, have gone there among high- 
sounding titles, to obtain distinctions and court royal favor. 

But the most interesting object — aside from the monarch 
and his " better half" — ^that is met with at this evening au- 
dience, is the mamo, or feather war-cloak* of the king. It 

* Before this cloak came into possession of Eamehameha L, its fab- 
rication had been going on through the reign of eight preceding 
monarchs. Its length is four feet, and it has a spread of eleven and 
a half feet at the bottom. Its ground-work is a coarse netting, and 
to this the delicate feathers are attached with a skill and grace 
worthy of the most civilized art The feathers forming the border 
are reverted ; the whole presenting a bright yellow color, resembling 
a mantle of gold. The birds from which these splendid feathers 
were taken had but two feathers of the kind, and they were located 
one under each wing. It is a very rare species {Melithreptes pactf- 
tea), peculiar only to the higher regions of Hawaii, and is caught 
with great care and much toil Five of these feathers were valued 
at one dollar and a hal£ It is computed that at least a million of 
dollars have been expended on the manufacture of this gorgeous fab- 
ric The garment itself would be a fitting portion of the regalia of 
any European monarch. Viewing it in the scarcity of the article of 
which it is composed, and the immense amount of time and trouble 
employed in procuring it, it would be impossible for despotism to fab- 
ricate a more magn i ficent or costly garment for its proudest votary. 



42 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

once belonged to his father, the celebrated Kamehameha the 
Great, and justly denominated the Conqueror, It is usually 
accompanied with a war-spear, ten feet and a half in length, 
of a dark red wood, flattened to a point, finely polished, and 
deep-stained with the blood of many a Hawaiian patriot. 
This was the favorite weapon of the old warrior-king ; fiwr he 
was a man of vast strength, and had a matchless skill in battle. 

The themes brought before a Senate, and the tone of their 
discussion, are a good index to the character of a nation and 
the condition of its public aflairs. The legislative power of 
the Hawaiian kingdom is vested in the king, the House of No- 
bles, and the House 6f E«presentatives. Although the king 
is, of course, the head of the nation in his official capacity, yet 
he and the two Houses have a negative one on the other. ^ 

The legislative body assemble annually in the first week of 
April. 

The Constitution gives the king the authority to convene a 
special Parliament, at such time, and in such place, as he may 
deem necessary. 

A nation receives its dignity from the character of its legis- 
lative discussions ; and those discussions borrow their value 
or worthlessness in view of their aim, and from the intelligence 
and mental and moral worth of the legislative body. Under 
this view, the Hawaiian Legislature may be recognized in 
common with others. It has its virtues, but they are nearly 
overwhelmed by the numerous foUies introduced in resolutions 
and discussions. This arises firom the lamentable incompe- 
tency of many of the members, and from despotism on the part 
of a few others ; in other words, the deficiency of strictly po- 
Htical and patriotic men in the legislative hbdy is not unfre- 
quently a source of much embarrassment to the king and his 
native subjects. As an evidence of this, I can not forbear 
citing a message sent by the king to the House of Hepresenta- 
tives on the 9th of May, 1853, during the annual convention 
of the Legislature. It is an appeal of such touching eloquence, 
and so plainly illustrates the true position of Kamehameha, 
that I cite it entire : 



HAWAIIAN PARLIAMENT. 43 

" I desire the representatives of my people to investigate the 
question whether I have legally or equitably lost my right to 
the special appropriation of ten thousand dollars, made by the 
Legislature of 1850,' in the month of July, for a yacht ; if I 
have lost my right firom any fault of mine or ci others ; if I 
can be deprived <rf that right in accordance with the principles 
under which the^ appropriations whiclT have been allowed to 
other persona and for other purposes have been allowed or re- 
fused ; and if the decision should be against me, whether I am 
entitled to any indemnity. If so, what indemnity, by whom it 
shall be paid, and in what manner it is to be paid ? 

" Another question I have to submit to you. The appropri- 
ation for the necessary expenses of my household expired on 
the Ist April. Money has been refiised for these necessary ex- 
• pense» on the ground that no appropriation has as yet been 
mad^. Having the fullest confidence that you do not mean 
to separate without voting me the means necessary to my ex- 
istence, I leave to you to make some enactment to remedy this 
urgent evil. It imposes a hardship upon me which I beUeve 
is not usual in other governments. 

" I have ordered the Commissioners of my Privy Purse to 
place before you every dociunent you may require for the so- 
lution of all the questions directly or indirectly embraced in 
this message, of which I recommend to your loyal patience, 
your just and impartial judgment. 

" I thanlc my gratefuljpeople for the appropriation of ten 
thousand dollars, in July, 1850, for a yacht, to be used at my 
l^ieasure, and of ten thousand dollars granted in 1852 for the 
payment of my debts. I have ordered an account to be ren- 
dered to you oi the way in which these aids have been ap- 
plied." 

This " message" speaks vdumes. The story of " King 
Lear," standing and asking admittance into his own house, so 
as to obtain shelter from the fury of the pelting storm, and to 
have been refused by his own daughters, has drawn tears from 
millions of eyes. In the above message, however, we actually 
see the King of the Hawaiian Islands knocking at the door of 



44 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

the treasury oikis awn people s£nd kingdom for means to keep 
him and his household from starvation ! We see him plead- 
ing for an appropriation actually made by his own subjects, 
through their representatives in Parliament assembled I . In 
such an age as this, we see a monarcn, reposing on the strength 
of a '' constitutional monarchy/' begging his daijy bread ! 

But the people share the embarrassments of their king. At 
the session of the Parliament in 1853, the ^sUowing petitions 
were sent in : 

" That the marriage of very yoimg people with very old be 
prohibited. 

" That the marriage of educated persons with ignorant be 
prohibited. 

" That all persons be required to furnish a quarterly account 
of their income and its sources^ that it may be known whether 
they have been industrious."* 

Such exactions are suited more to the "States of the 
Church," or perfidious Austria, than to a kingdom which 
boasts a Constitution that begins with 

" God hath created all men firee and equal, and endowed 
them with 'certain inalienable rights, among which are life 
and Hberty, &c." 

Another sample of Hawaiian legislation is seen in the in- 
equality of taxation, as established by law : 

Road-tax '. $3 00 per yearf 

School-tax 2 00 " 

Poll-tax T 1 00 " 

Tax for each dog 1 00 

Tax for each horse . /. 1 00 " 

This tax is levied indiscriminately on all able-bodied men. 
Hence the poor Hawaiian who earns but his sixty dollars per 
year, pays as much as the Ministers of Finance and Public In- 
structicm, who have a fixed salary of four thousand dollars a 

* From the " PolynenaiH* — the accredited organ of the Hawaiian 
government — of May 28th, 1858. 

f Was formerly six dollars per year ; but an act that passed the 
Legislature on June 16th, 1858, reduced it one hall 



THEFORT. 45 



year, besides other perquisites. And yet, with this indiscrim- 
inate taxation, there is not a single cent imposed on real estate. 
This system is a source of poverty to the native population, 
and of wealth to a privileged few. Allowing for the pecu- 
liar state of the nation, it outstrips the ser^om of Russia, and 
flings into the shade the ignoble instrumentaUties that have 
laid Poland prostrate. And were it not that the wants of .the 
Hawaiian people are simple and few, this system would term- 
inate in bloody or the race itself would be extermmated in the 
struggle. 



CHAPTER IV 

HONOHJLU. 

The Fort — ^Doings of the French. — ^Mistaken Policy —Popery a 
source of Trouble to the Hawaiian Govemment — ^Vattbl quoted. 
— ^An intoxicated jailor. — ^Insane native Woman. 

The fort is a*curious object, of a quadrangular form. It 
stands close to the sea-shore, and its southern base is laved by 
the water at high tide Its location occupies the very best 
part of the town for business purposes, and it is altogether a 
useless piece of lumber. Its erection took place when the 
reign of Kamehambha I. was drawing to a close, in the year 
1817. The immense walls are of coral, loosely put up, with- 
out cement. One broadside from a heavy frigate would blow 
the structure into countless fragments. 

Although it is the pubUc prison of Honolulu, it is a mere 
ruin. On its walls are piled a few pyramids of rusty and 
worthless shot and shell, over which, from a flag-pole about 
thirty feet high, proudly waves the flag of the Hawaiian gov- 
ernment. In the spring of 1849, these old walls mounted 
rather a formidable array of guns ;* but in August of the 

• Before the fort was dismantled, it mounted seventy guns of the 
following calibre, viz. : 



46 SANDWICH isla;nd notes. 

same year, it was dismantled by the French, simply because 
the government would not submit to " Ten Demands''* made 

1 long brass 82 pounder. 



1 


do. 


12 


do. 


14 


iron 


18 


do. 


4 


de. 


9 


do. 


41 


do. 


6 


do. 


8 


do. 


4 


do. 



1 4 inch mortar. 

* DemaruU to which the government of the French Republic 
thinks that satisfaction ought to be made, before the re-establish- 
ment of diplomatic relations can take place with that of the Hawaii- 
an Islands: 

** 1. The adoption, complete, entire and loyal, of the treaty of the 
26th of March, 1846, as it was adopted ki the French text 

** 2. The establishment of a duty from one to two dollars a gallon, 
of five bottles, on spirits, containing less than fifty-five per cent of 
fdcohoL 

" 8. ^ treatment rigorously equal, granted to the two worships. 
Catholic and Protestant 

" The direction of instruction confided to two superior coofimittees 
formed in each of the two religions. 

''The submission of the Catholic schools to Catholic inspectors. 

** The proportional division between the two veligions of the tax 
raised by the Hawaiian government for the support of schools. 

**4. The adoption of the French language in the relations between 
French citizens and the Hawaiian administration. 

" 6. The withdrawal of the exception imposed upon French whal- 
ers importing wines and spirits, and the abrogation of the regulation 
which obliges ships laden with liquors to pay and support the Cus- 
tom-house guard put on board to watch over their shipment or dis- 
charge. 

** Large facilities of deposit, of transit, and of transhipment grant- 
ed to the trade in spirits. 

" 6. The reimbursement Of all the duties received in virtue of the 
disposition, the withdrawal of which is demanded by the paragraph 
above mentioned ; or a proportional indemnity given for the dam- 
age occasioned to French commerce by the restrictions which hav« 
suspended its relations. 

" 1, The reimbursement of the fine of twenty-five dollars paid by 
the French ship General Teste, and besides an indemnity of sixty 
dollars for the time during which she was unjustly detained here. 

** 8. The insertion in the official journal of the Hawaiian govern- 



DOINGS OF THE FRENCH. 47 

by Admiral de Tromelin in behalf of France. These demands 
afiected to spring out of a misunderstanding that had arisen 
bdrween the Hawaiian government and M. Dillon, the French 
consul ; but, in reality, they seem to have been the intended 
basis of a rupture between the two nations, and all to gratify 
the ccmsummate vanity of France in the extension of her ter- 
ritory in the Pacific Ocean. 

To il^ese demands by the admiral, the Hawaiian nuHmrch 
and his ministers offered no consent, but a bold and courteous 
defenJse of th^ own rights. To mature their comphance with 
these requisiticms, they were oflered three days for dehbera- 
tion, and a threat was made, that, if they did not yield, " dis- 
posable means" would be employed " to redress injuries so pa- 
tiently endured by France." The three days elapsed. The 
king's Foreign Minister declared that these demands could not 
be acceded to, ^nd that the king had ordered that no resist- 
ance whatever should be made to such force. The French 
consul followed this reply by striking his fiag, and retiring on 
board the war-steamer " Gassendi." A force of ovier two 
hundred men landed and took possession of the fort, while an- 
other force took possession of all the Hawaiian vessels in port. 

But these puissant legions were extremely cautious not to 
touch the Hawaiian flag. They requested the governor to 
take it down ; but, of course, he refused. It is possible they 
may have felt creeping around them the strong sinews of the 
treaty made in 1843 between France and England and the 
Hawaiian nation ; and this remembrance may have deterred 
them from perpetrating one of the most finished acts of their 

ment of the punishment inflicted upon the scholars of the high school, 
whose impious conduct occasioned the coQiplidnts of the Abb6 Cou- 

" 9. The removal of the governor, who caused or allowed to be 
violated on Hawaii the domicile of the Abb6 Marechal, or the order 
to that governor to make reparation to that missionary, the one <Mr 
the other decision to be inserted in the official journal. 

"10. The payment to a French citizen, proprietor of the Hotel of 
France, of the damages committed in his house by foreign sailors, 
against whom the Hawaiian government took no process.** 



48 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

own folly. The fort was taken possession of on Saturday, Au- 
gust 25th. It was followed hy a serene and lovely Sabbath. 
The town itsdf was as quiet as the weather. On the follow- 
ing Monday, the king's coimnissioners visited the steamer, 
but no reconciliation was effected. Without charging the Ha- 
waiians with a violation of the treaty of 1846, but by placing 
upon it an unfair interpretation, the French admiral ordered 
the fort to be dismantled. At once a most wanton destructicm 
of govenunent property was commenced. Guns were spiked 
or broken, and their carriages annihilated. Powder maga- 
zines were broken open, and tons of powder thrown into the 
sea. The governor's house was shockingly disfigured ; win- 
dows were broken, doors mutilated, and a variety of property 
totally ruined. Shades of Mars and Minerva ! And these 
warriors were from the land of Charlemagne and Napoleon 
the Great ! Their ravages among old worn-out guns and 
native calabashes continued four days, the Hawaiian flag 
floating, day and night, over their heads. 
' The invulnerable " army of reparation" and their knights 
errant embarked, at last, without the loss of a single man. 
But the admiral and consul failed to compel the government 
to lower their duty on French brandy. The conquerors put 
out to sea, running away with a splendid yacht belonging to 
the Mng, and having destroyed property to a large amount.* 

* Extract from the Report of the Committee of the Board of Fi- 
nance, appointed under a Resolution of the King in Council, on the 
10th of June, 1860, to prepare and subnut a Bill of Appropriations 
for the year 1861. 

" In the estimate of ways and means for the current year, no men- 
tion has been made of the $100,0^0 which Mr. Judd was instructed 
on the 10th of September, 1849, to claim of the French government 
for damages done here in August, 1849, nor of the $86,926 (adding 
interest on the $22,'769 interest due 23d March, 1846, up to 23d 
March, 1860) which, under certain circumstances, he was instructed, 
on the 9th November, 1849, by your majesty's command, to claim, 
for 12 per cent interest, adjusted every year, from 12th July, ^889, 
to 28d March, 1846, on the $20,000 carried oflF from your majesty's 
treasury in July, 1839, nor the indemnity for the disparagement of 
your majesty's royal authority by the proceedings of August last 



DOINGS OF THE FRENCH. 49 

Thus ended another act of indignity on the part of the French 
toward this weak nation. And all this was done on account 
of a little duty on brandy ! Verily, the French have earned 
for themselves a very unenviable reputation among the islaods 
of the Pacific I 

The French admiral 1^ behind him undisputed proofii of 
having fulfilled his threat. When I visited the old fort, in 
the early part of 1853, the guns that had been spiked and 
shorn of their trunnions lay strewn over the interior. But 
there was one gun on which they seemed to have vented all 
their spleen. It was a magnificent specimen of composition, 
of Helvetic manufacture, retaining the date of its origin, 1686, 
and was a long 32 pounder. It looked as if it might once 
have sent many a score of brave fellows to their last reckon- 
ing. In vain were the ej3brts of the French armorer to break 
ofi* its strong arms ; but he drove a huge spike into the vent, 
and tdl^iced its thunder-tones forever. That single gun cost 
the Hawaiian government 1000 piculs of sandal-wood ; which, 
at the time, was equal to $10,000. 

A mistaken poUcy induced the commission of so many in- 
dignities on the part of the French. They may have placed 
a wnmg interpretation on treaties, and made a show of de- 
termination to defend what they supposed were treaty-stipula- 

(which ought to be at least $50,000 more), because, however clear 
your majesty's title is to these amounts, of even a sum larger than 
their aggregate, Mr. Judd left Paris before he received a reply from 
tiie French govemm^it in relation to these demands, and, for the 
present, it is wiser not to count upon any part of the above amounts 
in calculating tiie ways and means for the financial year ending 3 1st 
of March, 1861. 

" By the Report aforesaid, you will find that the king and Board 
of Finance consider that his miyesty has claims on the French gov- 
ernment to the amount of $185^986, and it is hoped that the money 
due for these claims will, at some future day, be available to repair 
the damages done to the fort and the governor's house, to replace the 
artillery and arms destroyed, and pay for a new yacht, which is much 
wanted for his majesty's use." — Appendix to the Report of Hon, R. 
C Wyllie, be/ore the Hawaiian Legidatwre, in 1861, p* 22, 28. 

C 



50 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

tions by an attempt to compel a weak govermnent to lower 
its duty on brandy manufactured in France. But there was 
something else behind the scenes ihat they were imwilling to 
acknowledge as being the primary cause of their unwarrant- 
able hostilities. That cause was the reception given, by the 
king and chiefs, to the first party of Roman Catholic mission- 
aries that landed on the islands. The course they pursued - 
was contrary to the reigning powers, and came under the range 
of pohtical ofienses. The Hawaiian king and his nobles claim- 
ed that they had a right to expel the teachers of a new relig- 
ion ; the commanders of French war-ships denied that right. 
And here it was that the French acted on grounds unsupported 
by the laws of nations, and their policy was, therefore, erro- 
neous. 

In threatening the Hawaiian nation with the wrath of 
France, the admiral forgot the example of pagan Rome, which 
expresdy forbade the worship of any God who had not been 
approved as such by the Senate ; and the exaitiple of England 
in the Act of Uniformity (1 Elizabeth, c. 2), and the impris- 
onments, &c., under it ; the Act 23 Elizabeth, c. 1 ; the Act 
29 Elizabeth, c. 6 ; the Act 3 James I., c. 4 ; the Act 35 
Elizabeth, c. 1, and its penalty of felony, without benefit of 
clergy, if certain parties, persisting in a religion forbidden by 
law, did not abjure the realm and all the queen's dominions 
forever. He equally forgot the persecution for nonconformity 
in the reign of James I. ; those under Charles I., firom which 
the Puritans were glad to save themselves by escaping to 
Massachusetts Bay; tire persecution of Episcopacy under 
Cromwell ; the Conventicle Act (16 Charles II., c. 4), which 
subjected all who presumed to worship God otherwise than as 
the law enjoined, to fine and imprisonment, and punished the 
third ofiense with banishment ; the Test Act of Charles II., 
c. 1, with its declaration against transubstantiation ; and the 
Act 22 Charles II., c. i., with its powers to justices of the peace 
to break down and take into custody persons assembled in con- 
venticles forbidden by law. And he ought to have remem- 
bered that Ihe Toleration Act in England was only passed in 



POPERY A SOURCE OF TROUBLE. 5I 

the reign of William III. ; that, in England, civil toleration 
is an impurdty, and safely granted hy the state to every sect 
that does not maintain doctrines inconsistent with the puhHc 
peace, and that every man is answerable to the laws of his 
country for propagating opinions and pursuing practices which 
necessarily create civil disturbance. He forgot that France 
had established religious toleration only as late as the Charter 
of 9th August, 1836 ; and that the same thing was repeated 
in the Constitution of the French Republic of the 4th Novem- 
ber, 4848. Yet, in view of these facts, he had the presump- 
ti(Hi to threat^SL the female chief ruler of the Hawaiian Islands, 
who, under the light of common sense, could not see that men 
firom foreign lands had any right to come and establish th^n- 
selves on the islands, with the view of teaching a hew religion 
to the natives, tending to civil discord, without the permission 
of the governing powers. 

It is a fact that no well-informed man will attempt to deny, 
that firotn first to last, Popery has been a source of trouble to 
the Hawaiian government. In this connection it may be 
"proper to cite a few paragraphs from the official documents 
of Hon. R. C. Wyllie, Minister of Foreign Relations at the 
Sandwich Islands. . Those documents were unreservedly sub- 
mitted to the commissioner of France, to enable him to form 
a just and impartial judgment on all questions that have ex- 
isted, or that now exist, with his government. 

" In the year 1805, the Abb6 Coudrin, of Poitiers, animated 
by a zeal to promote rehgion in France and in foreign coun- 
tries, established himself, with a few fellow-laborers, in a house 
in the street ''Pic Pits'* at Paris. He labored assiduously 
in the formation of a society with that object, which was ap- 
proved of by a decree of the holy father of the 10th Jan., 1817, 
and confirmed by a Bull on \he 17th Nov., of the same year. 

"In the month of November, 1825, the sovereign pontifij 
Leo XII., specially committed to the Abb6 Coudrin and his 
associates the duty of carrying the light of the faith to the 
Sandwich Islands, and appointed for that mission Messrs. 
Abraham Armaod, Patrick Short, and Alexis Bachelot. They, 



62 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

vnik Melchior Bonda, Theodore Boissier, and Leonard Portal, 
as catechists, embarked, on the 20th of November, 1826, in 
the ^p Comet, firom Bordeaux ; on the 7th of February, 1827, 
they reached Valparaiso ; on the 8th of March, Cluilca ; on 
the 30th of March, Callao ; on the 27^ of May, Mazatlan ; 
and Oahu on the 8th of July, 1827. 

" They arrived with extensive powers from the Holy See, 
M. Bachelot, in the character of apostolic prefect, and the two 
other priests in tiiat of apostoUc missionaries. While in Cal- 
lao, a Lima newspaper, edited by Frenchmen, had Tepresented 
them as ' Jesuitis in disguise ;' and while in Mazatlan, the same 
character was given to' them by M. Jean Angel della Bianca, 
and M. Bigourdan, the supercargoes c£thB Comet.* 

** Nevertheless, after much opposition, they landed, but were 
ordered to re-embark in the Comet, which had brought them. 
This order they eluded by concealing themselves till that ship 
-had sailed. After she had gone, they hved for some time qui- 
etly under th^ disguise, seldom showing themselves abroad, 
shunning puUic notice, but appl3nbig themselves assiduoudy 
to the acquisitic^ of the language, without attempting to make 
any proselytes. Up to December, 1828, they had not admin- 
istered baptism to any adult, but about that time their reU- 
gious tenets had become known to the natives, and attracted 
their curiosity. Li proportion as this curiosity increased, the 
government became alarmed. The worship of images and 
rehcs, and the adoration of the consecrated wafer {Eucharist) 
were identified with the old idolatry abolished by royal au- 
thority in 1819, and which, ever afterward, had been consid- 
ered a treasonable ofiense, and was severely punished. Sub- 
sequently, by order of Kaahumanu, Governor Bold published a 
strict prohibition to the natives to attend places of Catholic 
worship, or partake in its ceremonies."! 

All this is perfeptly dear, and distinctly shows how the 
Hawaiian government regarded the genius of Popery. Li view 
of maintaining their authority as rulers, th^ were induced to 

* Wyllie*8 Historical Stunmary, p. 271. f ^^ P- ^*^^ 



POPERY A SOURCE OF TROUBLE. 53 

take immediate steps to remove an evil which thej supposed 
would resist their own influence. As it is impossible entirely 
to avoid reference to history, and as I wish to be just to aU 
parties, and to truth itself, I am compelled to enter into de- 
tails during the progress of these pages, and correct wrong im- 
pressions. It was no wonder, with their peculiar views and 
feelings, that the rulers of the nation took measures for the ex- 
pulsion of the Papal teachers. To fi^rm a just appreciation 
of their motives and actions, I will cite one or two of their 
orders ^itire, as they were translated into English, and sent 
to the priests in a legitimate manner. The first order was 
delivered on the 2d of Apnl, 1829, and was as follows : 

" Where are you, priests, who Have come from France ? 

'' This is our decree for your banishment. Begone from 
this land. Pwell not upon these Hawaiian Islands, fer your 
doctrine is at variance with the religion which we profess. 
And, because of your teaching your religion to the people of 
this land, some of us have turned to your sentiments. We 
are endeavoring to spread among the people the religion which 
we profess — ^this religion which we plainly know to be true. 
This is what we earnestly desire. 

** When you arrived here, we did not invite you, but you came 
of your own accord ; therefore, we send you away. B^one. 

*' We allow three months to prepare for your departiure, and 
if within that time you shall not have gone, your effects vnll 
be confiscated, and you will go destitute ; and if you wait 
until the fourth Wnth, and we see you delaying, then you 
will be impriscmed, and we shall do unto you as do the gov- 
ernments of all nations to those who disregard their commands. 
So will we constantly do to you. 

(Signed), Kauikeaotjli (the young king). 
Kaahumanu (Kuhina Nui). 
Kaikoewa. 

HoAI*ILI. 

NAraE. 

KUAKINI."* 
* Hist Summary, p. 278. 



54 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

The priests were waited on by a high chief at the end of 
five months, who reminded them of the order of the 2d of 
April. Sundry attempts by Mr. Hill and others were made 
to persuade them to repair to other islands in Polynesia, to 
which neither Protestants nor Catholics had ever carried the 
light of the Gospel ; but tiiey declined to obey tiiese repeat- 
ed orders, and stUl continued to teach their doctrines. Their 
final excuse being that they could not go for want of a vessel 
to take them away, the government, at an expense of fi)ur 
thousand dollars, fitted out the brig Waverley fer that purpose, 
and gave the £)llowing instructions to the captain : 

" November Sth, 1831. 
" I, Kauikeaouli, king of the Sandwich Islands, and Kaa- 
humanu and Kaukini, governor of Oahu, do hereby commis- 
sion William Sunmer, commander of the brig Waverley, now 
lying in Oahu, to receive on board two French gentlemen and 
their goods, or whatever they may have to bring on board, 
and to proceed on to California, and land then^ saie on shore, 
with every thing belonging to them, where they may subsist, 
and then to return back to the Sandwich Islands."^ 

These instructions were obeyed. The priests were taken 
to the coast of California. But in little more than five years 
they caihe back in another vessel to the islands. Their re- 
appearance speedily called forth the following order froia the 
Governor of Oahu : 

"Honolulu, Oahu, 19th April, 188Y. 
** This is what I say to the French gentlemen. This is my 
opinion to both of you, who were sent away before firom these 
idands, that you are forever forbidden by our chiefs to come 
here. This is the reason : I asked you if you intended to live 
here ; the answer you made was, * iVb .' toe intend to stop a 
few days, until we can obtain a vessel to carry its from here,^ 
I repHed, When you get a vessd, go quicJdy, This is what 
* Hist Summary, p. 274. 



POPERY A SOURCE OF TROUBLE. 55 

I say to both of you : From this time, prepaxe yourselves to de- 
part in the same vessel in which you arrived ; when the vessel 
is ready, both of you are to go without delay. 

(Signed), *^ Na Kekuanaoa."* 

This was followed by a proclamation by the king, dated 
from Lahaina (Maui), ten days later : 

" Ye strangers from all foreign lands,^who are in my do- 
minions, both resid^its and those recently arrived, I make 
known my word to you till, so that you may understand my 
orders. 

" The men of France whom Kaahumanu banished are 
under the same unaltered order up to this period. The re- 
jection of those men is perpetual, confirmed by me at the pres- 
ent time. I wiU not assent to their remaining in my domin- 
ions. 

" These are my orders to them, that they go back imme- 
diately on board the vessel on which they have come, that 
they may stay on board her till that vessel on which they 
came sails ; that is to me clearly right, but there abiding here 
I do not wish. 

. " I have no desire that the service of the missionaries who 
fi>llow the Pope should be performed in my kingdom at all. 

"Wherefore all who shall be encouraging the papal mis- 
sionaries I shall regard as en^nies^ to me, to my counselors, 
to my chie&, to my people, and to my kingdom. 

(Signed), " Kamehameha III."t 

But these missives were disregarded. The priests stayed ; 
and their stay was encouraged by the EngUsh and French 
offimals, who aided them in resisting royal authority. These 
things led to a long and ^fficult correspondence between sever- 
al foreign officials and the native rulers ; an^the final result 
was, that the priests of Popery stayed at the islands, and have 
ever since been protected there by the mouth of the cannon. 
* Hist Summary, p. 275. f lb. 



66 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

How far the Hawaiian goyermnent was justified in at- 
tempting to banish the teachers who were deemed dangerous, 
or whether those teachers were justifiable in resisting the law 
of the land, are questions which would receive a great variety 
of reply from difierent individuals. But on these points that 
highly respectable authority, Yattel, seems sufficient : 

" It is then certairi that no one can interfere in the will ci 
a nation, in its religious affairs, without violating its right and 
doing it an injury ; much less is any one allowed to employ 
force of arms to oblige it to receive a doctrine and a worship 
which he considers as ^vine. What right have men to pro- 
claim themselves the defenders and protectors of the cause <^ 
God ? He always knows how, when he pleases to lead the 
nations to the knowledge of himself, by more certain means 
than those of violence. Persecutions make no true converts. 
The monstrous maxim of extending religion by the sword is a 
subversion of the law of nations, and the most terrible scourge 
of kingdoms. Every madman beUeves he fights the cause of 
God, and every ambitious man covers himself with this pre- 
tense. While Charlemagne spread fire and sword through 
Saxony to plant Christianity there, the successors of Moham- 
med ravaged Asia and Africa to establish the Koran. 

" But it is an oflice of humanity to labor by mild and law- 
ful means to persuade a nation to receive a religion that is be- 
lieved to be the only one that is true and salutary. Mission- 
aries may be sent to instruct the people, and this care is alto- 
gether conformable to the attention which every nation owes 
to the perfection and happiness of others. But it must be ob- 
served that, not to do any injury to the rights of a sovereign, 
the missionaries ought to abstain from pre^hing clandestine- 
ly, or without his permission, a new doctrine to his pec^le. 
He may refuse to allow them the Hberty of discharging their 
ofi^ce, and if he orders them to leave his dominions, they ought 
to obey. They, have need of a v^y express order firom the 
King of kings for disobeying lawfiilly a sovereign who com- 
mands according to the extent of his power, and the prince 
who shall not be convinced of this extraordinary order of the 



RELIGIOUS TOLERATION. 57 

Deity will do no more than exert bis authority by punishing a 
missionary for disobedience/'"^ 

Although Popery haa filled prisons with miserable victims, 
shaken the foundations of the mightiest monarchies, and left 
its bloody footprinta on the lap of almost every nation cm earth, 
they have done what every separate ecclesiastical body would 
do if the terrible pre-eminence in power that could insure suc- 
cess were once achieved. Power intoxicates, and, whether it 
becomes invested in the hands of any particular body of men 
car of a single man, it is always dangerous. A full and free 
toleration in all religions is the only thing that can satisfy the 
wants of man, or meet him &ce to £su^. The toleration of 
conscience, established by Kamehameha soon after the return 
of the Papal teachers, was the best thing that could have been 
done for the nation. In referring to this tqpic, the Minister 
of Foreign Belations said : 

" But it pleased the king, much to his glory, by a decree of 
the 17th of June, 1839, to lead the way to the entire and per- 
fectly yree toleration which he consummated in the Constitu- 
tion d[ October, 1 840. That is the only system which accords 
with my conscience (^vesting the question of all considerations 
of state) ; it is the wish of the king and his government to car- 
ry it out perfectly ; but what they abjure is the admixture of 
foreign poHtical intolerance with their own ftee religioits tol- 
eration."! 

It was not my intention to linger so long about this old 
£}rt ; but a desire to make a few crooked things straight, by 
putting facts in their true light, has led me to wade through 
a few of its historical reminiscences. Before bestowing upon 
it a final adieu, one or two items more must claim the atten- 
tion of myself and reader. Life is composed chiefly of incon- 
gruities, and not unftequently do the beautiful and sublime 
precede by but a single step the absolutely ridiculous. After 
indulging so many reflections on this Hawaiian fortress, a 
drunken sailor was the last marine animal I should have pic- 
tured to my own fancy. But so it was. The poor fellow had 

* Vattel, lib, ii., cap. iv., seca 69, 60. f Historical Summary. 
C2 



58 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

secured one too many of the " smiles of Bacchus ;" and now 
it was his turn to be secured by some dozen or twenty ragged 
and dirty native police, who, proud of their victory over (me in- 
ebriate, were carrying him to a stone cell, where it would be 
some time before the rosy god would smile upon him again. 
" Jack'* raved, swore, and sternly threatened what he would 
do when he regained his liberty and felt like " himself again." 
It was all unavailing, however ; for this brave guard carried 
him to his lodgings, into which they threw him like a log of 
wood, and, turning the bolt upon him, left him to commune 
with his own thoughts. 

"While reflecting on the proverbial improvidence of that class 
of men denominated " sailors," my attention was arrested by 
a shriek that seemed to emanate from a contiguous cell. On 
proceeding thither, I was immediately convinced of its cause. 
There stood close before the iron grating that held her captive, 
and admitted the pure light and atmosphere of heaven into 
her wretched abode, a native woman, in a deplorable «tate of 
insanity. She was* rather above the medium size of women, 
and apparently about forty years of age. Her hair, which 
clung aroimd her beautifiilly moulded head, in short, massive 
curk, was as black and glossy as a raven's wing.. She was 
entirely nude, excepting a vnreath of sea-grass, that answered 
the same purpose as Eve's fig-leaves. Her form, however, 
was perfect; and there lingered about her such distinctive 
traces of peerless beauty as would once have ranked her with 
the early women of creation, whose matchless perfection se- 
duced the " sons of God" from their allegiance. In her vio- 
lent moments she had dashed her head against the walls of 
her prison ; and now her fine brow was bruised and bleeding. 
There was no couch, nor a single comfort in her cell ; for the 
hard, cold earth was her only bed. There she stood, a mourn- 
ful smile playing around her lips, and a sort of half-dreamy, 
half-frantic Ught gleaming in her large black eyes. There 
she stood, a pitiful object to the gaze of every recreant stranger 
that might feel inclined to linger before her iron bulwark. Oh 
God ! it was a distressing scene — ^that total wreck of beautiful 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 59 

humanity. She had once mingled freely -with^ her race, and 
cradled her infant to sleep on her beautiful bosoni ; for there 
were evidences that she had been a mother. She had once 
laved her limbs in the clear blue waters of her native seas, 
and threaded the cocoa-nut grove around her dwelling with 
a dignity that would not have dishonored Milton's "Eve,** 
But, poor creature, she was mad now ! I shall never forget 
her gaze as I turned away with a moistened eye and sorrow- 
All spirit, wishing that the grave, in m^rcy, would soon close 
over her physical and intellectual nakedness, and pondering 
how much better was her condition than miUions of gifted in- 
tellects whose powers are prostituted at the shrine of every 
s^isual enjoyment. 



CHAPTER V. 

HONOLULU. 

Ptiblie Buildings. — Churches. — Schools. — ^Benevolent Institations. — 
Cemeteries, Foreign and Native. — ^A Visit to the Royal Tomb. 

The public buildings of Honolulu are of modem date, but 
not numerous. They include the Government House, Court- 
house, Custom-house, Government Printing-office, and Market- 
house. The walls of all these buildings are composed of coral 
procured from the ree&, and smoothly hewn. These edifices 
are more useful than elegant ; and they will stand long after 
the present generation shall have gone to the grave. 

Honolulu contains five regular churches. They comprise 
the First and Second Native churches ; the Bethel for sea- 
men ; the Foreign church ; and the edifice used for Catholic 
worship. All these are well sustained and niunerously at- 
tended. 

There is something so unique about the history of the erec- 
tion of the first native house of worship, that I can not refirain 
fiom giving it entire< I cite firom a document handed to me 



60 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

by the Minister of Public Instraction, and compiled from facts 
furnished by his honor, Associate Justice John Ii, of the Su- 
preme Court of the Sandwich Islands. It may also be proper 
to state that said justice is one of the high chiefs of the nation : 
** The idea of erecting a permanent and conmiodious house 
of worship for the First Native Church in Honolulu originated 
with Ejllaihoku, the first chief in rank next to Kaahumanu, 
the regent. This was about the year 1825. The regent ac- 
quiesced, and the work was commenced. A few stones were 
cut for the walls. Nimierous pits of lime were burned by 
taking the Uve coral from the reefs and carvying wood ficom 
the mountains.. The work was found to be too heavy, and 
progressed slowly, for it was all done by hand. For a time 
the erection of a stone building was abandoned, and a large 
house was built in the old native style, with round timbers, 
and thatched. This was about one himdred and seventy-five 
feet long, and between seveuty and eighty wide, and was com-; 
pleted in the year 1828. Kalaimoku having died in 1827, 
this work was accomplished chiefly through the energetic 
measures of Govemor Boki, directed by Kaahumanu. She 
died in the year 1832, but the idea of constructing a stone 
house of worship was not given up. Kinau, daughter of Kam- 
EHAMEHA I., succeedcd Kaahumanu as regent. She was fav- 
orable toward Christian institutions. About the year 1836, 
a consultation was held by the high chiefs, in relation to car- 
rying out the long-contemplated enterprise. The measure 
was resolved upon. Ejnau gave it her full support. The 
king, Kamehameha III., now in power^ sanctioned the meas- 
ure, and at one time subscribed three thousand dollars toward 
it, and paid the money down. By this means, Imnber, glass, 
nails, &c., were ordered from the United States by Mr. Cham- 
berlain, secular agent of the mission. The estimated number 
of stones requisite were apportioned out to the several chie&, 
who called on their tenants on their adjacent lands, according 
to the custom of those times, to assemble, cut the stone on the 
reefe, and draw them to the spot. In this way, hundreds of 
men were seen employed &r days in succession. Some of the 



ERECTION OF FIRST NATIVE CHURCH, gl 

stones were drawn by o» and horse teams, but they were 
mostly drawn on carts by hand, some forty or fifty men often 
drawing one cart. Large kilns of lime were prepared and 
burned in the same way, the sand being brought £rom the 
beach. In 1838 the comer stone was laid. About that time 
KmAU died ; and important changes were made in the gov- 
ernment, so as to limit the power of the chiefs over the com- 
mon people. The work which, in a good degree, had been 
carried on by the authority of chiefs, was now, in a great meas- 
ure, thrown upon the voluntary labor of the people connected 
with the ccmgregation. Contributions were called for, and 
they were cheerfully responded to. A superintendent was 
nominated for the work, and Kekuanaoa, the present governor 
of Oahu, was elected. He acted with his usual energy, and 
the walls were reared. Native masons only were employed, 
but they refused all pay. Each gang had its mason among 
themselves, and they cheerfiilly gave their services. Foreign 
carpenters were employed to frame and put on the loof, and 
do the joiner-work about the building. At this stage of the 
work, all the necessary funds were raised by voluntary contri- 
butions, and when the building was finished, no debt rested 
upon it. It was a little over five years firom the time the first 
stone was laid until the house was completed and dedicated 
to the object for which it was reared. Estimating building 
and other labor at the rates of those days, the entire cost of the 
work was supposed to be about thirty thousand dollars." 

Such was the way in which men just recovered from the 
debasement of paganism built a house of worship to the Most 
High. It is a huge fabric — one hundred and twenty feet long, 
by seventy wide, and thirty in height to the eaves. It will 
accommodate more than three thousand worshipers, and has 
enrolled on its records the names of two thousand communi- 
cants. The walls are immensely thick and very compact. It 
seems to possess sufBcient strength to undergo quite a siege. 
It is one of the landmarks of the mariner as he steers his vessel 
for the entrance of the harbor, for it stands near the sea-shore. 
This fabric will stand as a monument of Hawaiian piety and 



62 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

labor when their beautiful islands «hall become the abode of 
another race of men from distant nations. 

In addition to their two large churches in town, the Chris- 
tianized Hawaiians have eight outposts near Honolulu. 

In this connection I can not refirain firom making a few 
comments on the Seamen's Bethel. It is a neat frame struc- 
ture, erected at a cost of $5000. Its location is near the prin- 
cipal landing-places for the reception of discharged cargoes. 
Attached to it are two reading-rooms for masters and officers 
of vessels, and one for seamen. Another apartment contains 
a seaman's library, and a depository for Bibles and tracts. 

The sailor's chaplaincy in Honolulu is one of great value 
to the sailor. In no port throughout the vast Pacific Ocean 
is there an opportunity for achieving greater good than there.* 

* A few extracts from a letter dated Honolulu, June 12, 1844, by 
Mr. Damon, the chaplain, to Hon. R. C. WylUe, in the shape of a re- 
ply to quefitions, will well illustrate the above remarks: 

" Himdreds of seamen annually visit this port who do not hear my 
voice in the chapeL Some do not come, although they enjoy an op- 
portunity ; but others do not enjoy liberty on shore during the hours 
of the holy Sabbath, while many come and leave during the week. 

" Hence, as you are aware, it is mj uniform practice to invite sea- 
men of all nations to call at my study, both upon the Sabbath and 
week day. This invitation I have endeavored to make in the high- 
est degree general, most fully beHeving that I should * know nothing 
of nation or sect in this hallowed cause.* 

" During the year above mentioned my study was visited by more 
than 400 seamen. The names of many I did not register, in conse- 
quence of haste or inadvertency. Many of the seamen speaking 
some other than the English language, I could not satisfactorily ob- 
tain their names. I find, however, the following registered : 

American seamen 2*72 

- English do. 67 

French do. 2*7 

German do ; 9 

Swedish do 4 

Danish do. 8 

Portuguese do. 7 

Total 889 



SCHOOLS. 63 



Hundreds of seamen annually visit Honolulu. These men 
come from every nation in the world, and a chaplain can be- 
stow upon them many a portion of solid good, when no other 
man in the community can reach them by any possible means. 
For many a long year thepresent chaplain has to^ed onward 
and upward for the good of these *' sons of the ocean ;" and 
the revelations of the final day of accounts will alone be able 
to tell the amount of good accomplished in his sphere. 

One of the leading influences at the islands emanates from 
the system of education estabhshed there. In no nation on 
earth is the cause oi public instruction more widely diffused, 
or more sacredly honored and guarded. It is exceedingly dif- 
ficult to find a child ten years of age who can not read his 
Bible and other school-books fluently. Probably every native 
child at the age of twelve and fourteen can read and write 
well, and is pretty well versed in the rudiments of scholastic 
science. The proficiency of many of the common-school pu- 
pils is truly astonishing, and reflects an enviable reputation on. 
tbdr teachers, not less than upon the guardians of pubHc in- 
struction. 

** During that year I made gratuitous donations of Bibles and 
Testaments as follows : 

To English seamen 9 Bibles and 8 Testaments. 

To American do ^7 do. 2 do. 

To French do. 9 do. 10 do. 

To German do. 5 do. 6 do. 

To Danish do. 2 do. do. 

To Portuguese do. 1 do. do. 

To Welsh do 1 do. do. 

To Spanish do. 7 do. ^0 do. 

Total . . . . 4l 21 

" In addition, I sold several Bibles at the American Bible Society's 
prices. It is by the liberal appropriations of said society that I am 
enabled to make a gratuitous offer of the Word of Life to the seamen 
of different nations as they visit this port. Quite recently I have 
been supplied with Bibles and Testaments in the Swedish and Port- 
uguese languages, which have been frequently called for, but I have 
been unable to suj^ly the demand." 

Since 1844 this field of usefulness has steadily widened. 



64 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

The principal institution on the group is the academy at 
Punahou {New Fountain). It is situated on the plains about 
two miles east of Honolulu, and at the foot of the highly pic- 
turesque valley of Manoa ; and its situation is as quiet as 
though it were a thousand miles from any pubUc town. The 
institution is of a collegiate character. The youth of both 
sexes can obtain as good an education there as in any similar 
institution in the world. Attached to the academy is a U- 
brary containing himdreds of volumes of excellent reading 
matter ; a noble cabinet of mineralogy, conchology, &c., and 
a very valuable collection of Polynesian curiosities. This 
school is the resort of children of many of the most respecta- 
ble foreigners scattered over the group. No person can pay 
it a visit without becoming an enthusiastic advocate ci popu- 
lar education for the young; nor can he leave it without 
leaving behind a profound esteem for its very gentlemanly 
and scholarly principal, Mr. Daniel Dole. At an examina- 
tion that occurred in the early part of 1853, and at ^^rbxch I 
was present, I could not conceal my astonishment at the effi- 
ciency of the pupils. I was not prepared to find so much in- 
tellectual progress in a school twenty-three hundred miles 
west of the North American Continent. In justice to the in- 
stitution and its guardians, I subjoin a programme of that ex- 
amination: 

Anthon's Osesar. 

Common School Arithmetic. 

The Lion*s Hunt — ^translated from the French. 

Sallust 

Greenleafs Arithmetic 

Story of Panthea — ^from the Greek. 

Sophocles' Greek Grammar and Reader. 

Geography. 

Last Battle of Jugurtha — ^firom Sallust.* 

"Weld's Latin Grammar. 

Algebra. 

The Recluse — an original story. 

Reading. 

Natural History. 

* A splendid effort^ by a mere youth. 



SCHOOLS. ^ 65 



A Voyage along a part of Hawaii. 

Physiology and History. 
[Nautical and Original Declamation. 

This institution can not fail to commend itself to the firiend- 
ship of the wise and good. To perpetuate his institutions, 
Draco wrote his laws with blood ; but they have all perished 
long ago ; and the very dust of the lawgiver has long since 
been scattered to the winds of heaven. But the influences 
that have been and may be wielded in this seminary of learn- 
ing shall morally and philosophically actuate the progress of 
a class of mind long after this globe shall have been reduced 
back to its primitive elements. 

Next in rank comes the Royal School. The structure is 
neatly composed of coral. It stands directly at the long pro- 
jecting base of Pvuhi, or Punch-Bowl Hill. As its name 
indicates, it is under the auspices of royalty. It was origi- 
nally intended as a school in which the children of distin- 
guished Hawaiian families should receive an English educa- 
tion. This design has been answered. At the time of my 
visit there were about eighty white pupils, the half castes, 
and six or eight pure Hawaiians. Among the latter were 
Victoria, a princess of the blood royal, and one or two other 
young girls of Hawaiian distinction. Their text-books are 
much of the same class as those used in the Punahou academy. 
Their intellectual progress was highly gratifying. 

Honolulu contains six other schools in which English, in its 
various departments, is taught to the children of many foreign- 
ers and natives. 

Aside from all these, there is a Town, or Charity School, that 
claims a brief notice. It was established in 1831, and had its 
origin in private instruction imparted to a young lad, son of an 
English sea-captain. In a short time it obtained accessions 
fix)m boys who roamed the streets of the village, and in whom 
nobody seemed to take the least interest. A good foundation 
-was soon laid for its future success. The king gave a lot of 
land, on which a school-house was erected by subscription. 
So influential had it become in three years £rom its origin. 



66 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



that several boys were sent to it all the way from Califomia, 
and from the Russian settlements on the northwest coast of 
America, It subsequently became the resort of children of 
royal blood.* This school has always wielded a highly bene- 
ficial influence, as it does at this day. 

In the district of Honolulu, in 1853, there were eleven 
pubhc schools, containing 494 scholars, imder Protestant in- 
struction.f In these, as in aU the Protestant schools on the 



* The following is a list of several of them: 



Nsma.. 


Whea Bora. 


Father. 


Mother. 


Adopted by 


^Alexander Liholiho 


Feb. 9, 1834. 


Kekuanaoa. 


Kinau. 


KamehamehalU. 


t Moses Kekuaiwa. . 


July 20, 1829. 


ditto. 


ditto. 


Kaikeoewa. 




Dec. 11, 1830. 


ditto. 


ditto, [hi. 


HoapiU. 


^ Wm. Chas.Lunalilo 


Jan. 31, 1835. 




**Kekauluo. 




Peter Young Kaeo.. 


March 4, 1836. 


Kaeo. 


LahUahi. 


John Young. 


James Kaliokalani. . 


May 29, 1835. 
Nov. 16, 1836. 


Pakea. 




Aikanaka. 


David Kalakaua 


ditto. 


ditto. 


Haaheo Kania. 


II Victoria Kamamalu 


Nov. 1, 1838. 
Dec 19, 1831. 


Kekuanaoa. 


Kinau. 




Bernice Pauahi 


Paki. 


Konia. 


Kinau. ' 


AbigaU Maheha .... 


July 10, 1832. 


NamaUe. 


Liliha. 


Kekauonohi. 


fJaneLoeau 


Dec. 5, 1828. 






Kaukualii. 


EUzabethKekaniaa. 


Sept. 11, 1834. 


Laanui. 


Oana. 


[M.D. 


Emma Rooke 


Jan. 2, 1836. 


Naea. 


Kekela. 


T. C. B. Rooke, 


LydiaMakaeha.... 


Sept. 2, 1838. 


Pakea. 


Keohokalole 


Paki & Konia. 


Polly Paaaina 


1833. 


Henry Lewis. 


Kekala. 


John li. 



* Rankf ^c. — Heir apparent to the crown. (The king having no children.) 
t Governor presumptive of Kauai. 

t Governor presumptive of Maui. (Now convalescing fi*om fever.) 
4 Convalescing firom fever (25th May). II Heir apparent to the premiership. 
i Half-sister of Abigail. ** The premier* 

f Comparative Tables, showing the character and progress of 
Native Schools on the Sandwich Islands, from official sonrces. 
Abstract of Native Schools established by the American Missionaries. 





School.. 


TeacheiH. 


SehoUuB. 


Redden. 


Write™. 


Arithmetic. 


Geogr»phy. 


1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 


357 
305 
202 
346 


505 
438 
206 
294 


18,034 
15,228 
8,827 
12,678 


5,514 
5,526 
3,926 
6,569 


961 
2,254 
1,339 
2,290 


3,546 

5,448 
3,560 
6,014 


789 
1,489 
1,195 
1,936 



No return firom Kailua, Kealakekua, Kau, and other schools. Many retonis ^;>- 
pear wanting fVom Maui, Oahu, and Kauai. 

According to the last report, there was in Hawaii 165 schools ; in Maui, 81 ; in 
Oahu, 62 ; and in Kauai, 38. 



Yeur. 


Number 

of 
Sehooli. 


Nnmber 

of 
SehoUuB. 


Nnmber 
of Day»» 
School. 


TotolCort. 


Arerage 
Cost per 
Scho^ 


Average 
Coat per 
Schofsr. 


- Averace 

Coat per 

Day of 

each 

SchooL 


Average 
Nnmber 
ofDaya 
toeaeh 
SchooL 


1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 


527 
540 
543 
535 
440 


19,028 
15,620 
15,308 
15,482 
13,948 


76,663 
88,996 
83,290 
73,749 
57,212 


1 CtB. 

20,185 75 
21,989 84 
25,891 96 
25,271 08 
24,049 07 


1 Cts. 
38 30 
40 72 
47 68 
47 23 
52 38 


1 Cent.. 
1 06 

1*40 7-10 
1 69 
1 63 
1 65 


Centa. 
26 3-10 
24 4-10 
31 

34 2-10 
40 2-10 


145 8-10 
164 8-10 
153 3-10 
137 8-10 
130 



BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 67 

group, the Bible — ^the only bulwaxk of fireedom, the only legiti- 
mate safeguard of the world' a» progress — ^the Bible is the lead- 
ing text-book I 

But while the wheels-of commerce rush proudly forward in 
the capital of the Hawaiian kingdom, and while educational 
interests are promptly sustained, dianterested benevofence 
forms no small item in the character of the population. Mercy, 
with her heav^y smile, extends the hand of timely aid to many 
a needy individual, and pours consolation into many a sorrow- 
ful heart. Hundreds of storm-stricken and afflicted sailors, 
from every clime, have entfered that port in a state of pecu- 
niary and physical need, and they are constantly coming in 
under the same circumstances. A good hospital awaits th^ 
reception. Every act of kindness and sympathy is there freely 
bestowed on this class of men. Good medical aid is always 
obtained, and, like a modem Samaritan, the benevolent chap- 
lain is seen going his round, with smiles of cheerfulness on a 
face bright with generous hope, visiting the sick and sorrow- 
ful, with a Bible for one, a tract for another, and words of pa- 
ternal advice for a third. Many a son of the ocean, without 
money, home, or family ties, and on the very brink of the grave, 
has been befriended and restored there, and gone away with 
feeUngs of devout gratitude toward his generous benefactors. 

But there is another institution there in which benevolence 
Uves and moves — ^for benevolence is its soul. It retains the 
attractive appellation of the "Stranger's Friend Society.'* 
The very name is highly significant of the Society ; it has a 
tendency to soothe the crushed spirit of every "stranger" in 
distress. And in view of the many calls of vessels at that 
port, this class of hiunanity is not small. In true friendship, 
even toward those whom we love, there is something inex- 
pressibly sacred. It is a plant of rare growth. It springs 
not up. Phoenix-like, from the ashes of the heart in which it 
may once have lived, but, flying beyond the darkness of the 
sepulchre, it goes back to mature and flourish forever in that 
heaven whence it sprung. Desolate indeed nmkt that heart 
be which knows no friend ! Young has truly said. 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



"ThefriendleM master of a world is poor I" 
But friendship never becomes sq ^vine, it hever flings around 
itself a halo of glory so bright, as when it kindly takes by tha- 
hand a poor and afflicted stranger. Yet this is the employ- 
ment of that " Stranger's Friend Society" It is composed 
of the most distinguished and philanthropic ladies in Honolulu. 
They have their stated time and place for frequent conventicms, 
when their own fair fingers fabricate useful and ornamental 
articles, which meet with a ready sale, and the proceeds are 
placed in the general fund of the Society. These proceeds' 
are judiciously appUed to reUeve whatever needy stranger 
may be landed on their shores. It is impossible accurately 
to compute the amoimt of good they accomplish in this mode 
of operation. Like the immortal Nile, conveying life and 
comfort to the thousands on its banks, ever-flowing in its 
onward course, so these ladies never tire in their errands and 
acts of mercy. 

The Society held a fair in the Court-house at Honolulu in 
1853, on the evening of the immortal WAsmNGTON^s birth- 
day. The articles on which they had so industriously toiled 
during the whole of the previous year were submitted for sale. 
Although the weather was exceedingly unpropitious, tiie occa- 
sion was handsomely represented, and the ladies of the Society, 
as they richly deserved, realized something over $1900 by the 
sales ! There were articles of every description, from a pin- 
cushion to a saddle-cloth, a lamp-mat to a carpet-rug, and Lili- 
putian socks to a gentleman's dressing-gown. 

On the judicious disposition of their funds, and the generosity 
of the Society, no better comment can be made than by pre- 
senting an extract from the first annual report by their very 
lady-like and accomplished treasurer : 

" The amount contributed to indigent and destitute seamen 
amounts to $312 50, overdue half the whole sum expended, 
excepting the special contributions for the suflerers of the 
* Independence.'* 

* A steamship wrecked on the island of Margarita, on her passage 
from San Juan del Sur to San Francisco, 16th Feb., 1858. The per- 



I 



CEMETERIES. QQ 



*< Connected as we are with the seafaring community, this 
result was anticipated. The Uberal contributions o[ the mas- 
ters and other officers of vessels, however, eiuibles us to render 
such assistance with the utmost cheerfulness, not so much as 
a contribution to charity as an act of common justice. 

" The total number of persons receiving assistance from the 
Society numbers 36, many of whom« but for the aid of the 
charitable, would have suffered and d^ through complete 
destitution. It has been our province to be the ahnoners of 
the boimty so Hberally intrusted to our care, and it is a source 
of congratulation that our Society, in its finances, is in so sound 
a ccmdition, and that its ability to do good to the snaring and 
indig^it stiranger is not impaired for want of necessary funds. 
The two thousimd dollars loaned on bond and mcnrtgage will 
fiimish a certain income of two hundred and forty dollars per 
annum, which may be estimated at one third the amoimt 
required to meet all demands upon our treasury for the com- 
ing year. Bespectfully submitted, 

• "H. H. Newcomb, Treasurer, 

"Honolulu, June 9, 1868." 

Next to the religious and basevolent associations of a peo- 
ple, the character of their pubUc burial-places is an unfailing 
criterion of the state of their civilization. In fact, it has always 
been understood, by all nations and in all ages, that it formed 
a part of their religion properly to dispose of their deceased 
fiiends. With these convictions, I have usually visited the 
resting-places of the dead wherever my rambling propensi- 
ties have led me, and I have always observed that I could 
correctly estimate the characteristics of a commimity from 
the condition in which I found their pubHc places of inter- 
ment. The Foreign Cemetery at Honolulu is a creditable 
comment on the intelligent advancement of the foreign com- 
munity during the last few years. It contains about five acres, 
covered with a carpet of superb grass, and is neatly inclosed. 
The land was granted by the government for this purpose in 

sons referred to in the above report were taken to the Sandwich 
Islands in a whale ship. 



70 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

1845. Before this lot was secured, *^ the burial of foreigners 
at that port, in a common immediately contiguous to a public 
highway, and entirely exposed to the intrusion of all sorts of 
beasts," is said to have been " revolting." Now, however, 
things are changed for the better. On entering the cemetery, 
a* visitor may observe a number of family tombs, neatly con- 
structed of coral and lava stones, and surrounded by walls of 
the same materials. • There are numerous graves neatly sur- 
rounded by iron railings, while others are marked merely by 
the swelling mound of grass, over which the night-winds sigh 
£)rth their dirges. There the dead of various nations and of 
every creed repose, side by side, in their last sleep; every 
dispute is as hushed as the tombs in which they slumber, and 
every distinction that alternately swayed them while living is 
• blotted out forever. Poor humanity ! They are all on a level 
now. This burial-ground is located about two miles up the 
Nuuanu Valley. Its position and general aspect closely har- 
monize with the lo% and majestic mountains a few miles in 
the rear, and it afibids a generous retreat for virtuous reflec- 
tion. 

But there is one monument that stands distinctly apart firom 
all the others. It is conspicuous, from its impretending ap- 
pearance. It is precious, because it was placed there through 
the promptings of the undying love of a virtuous woman. It 
is a cenotaph rather than a regular monument, and contains 
the following inscription : 

" SACRED 
to the memory of 

REV. JOHN DIELL, 

First Chaplain of the American Seamen's Friend Society at this 

port, and for nine years here faithfully devoted to its service. 

In 1841, 

while on his homeward voyage to the United States, and in the full 

enjoyment of the Christian hope, he died, in the 32d 

year of his age. 

Erected by his Widow. 

* And the tea gave up the dead whi^ were in it,^ — ^Rev. xx., 18." 

What a touching memorial of a woman's love ! What a 



CEMETERIES. 7^ 



simply beautiful testimonial to a faithful teacher of the Chris- 
tiaa religion ! It speaks to a contemplative mind in tones that 
could not be suggested .by the most costly mausoleum ever 
reared by the hand of wealth and power. 

The Nati've Cemetery impersonates native character to a 
great extent ; it is hardly any thing but a scene of wretched- 
ness and desolation. It contains about six acres. The adobe 
wall that once inclosed it is now a wreck — in many places 
leveled with the earth. In the area repose the dead of sev- 
eral generations of Hawaiian^. In some places the mounds 
are discernible ; generally, however, they are leveled down by 
the trampling of cattlef of every description. The old Hawaii- 
aus usually displayed a profound regard for the dead. It is 
difficult to attempt a definition of the causes which have pro- 
duced such a change within the short period of two genera- 
tions. Nothing can justify such a shameless neglect of the 
sepulchres of the departed. 

The CcUhdic Cemetery is about one mile out of town, on 
the road to Punahou. Like the native burial-ground, it was 
once inclosed by an adobe wall. I found the inclosure nearly 
all gone, and the tombs, that were composed of the same ma- 
terials, were sharing a similar fate. Several horses were tread- 
ing down the remaining mounds. A more desolate spot can 
hardly be found. On turning away to leave it, I saw a native 
patching up a pig-pen close to the tomb in which some of Iiis 
relatives were interred.' 

But of all the places set apart for the reception of the dead 
in the Hawaiian capital, no one is so interesting as the Royal 
Tomb. It is situated immediately contiguous to the palace 
groimds. The tomb is composed of a single chamber, eighteen 
feet by fourteen in the interior. Its walls are of massive coral, 
and about ten feet high ; the whole is inclosed by a high and 
heavy wall of the same material. Close around the coral in- 
closure is a rapidly maturing grove of noble shade trees, and 
among them the gentle breezes that come in from the ocean 
seem to hymn forth a requiem for departed monarchs. But 
let us enter this abode of defunct royalty. A portly, good- 



72 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

looking native produces a large key ; he is keeper of this sa- 
cred repository. The holt oheys his effort, and the heavy door 
swings hack on its rusty hinges. A. collection of emhlazoned 
coffins at once meets your gaze. They are covered with pur- 
ple satin, and silk velvet <^the same color, and rest one ahove 
another on neatly-made firames of koa {Acacia falcata). The 
grave of Kamehameha, the conqueror, remains a profound se- 
cret unto this day ; hut these members of the royal dead have 
been' placed here since the beginning of 1825, according to the 
mode adopted by some modem nations. Their coffins are 
most scrupulously arranged, and they convey an idea of jhx>- 
found regard for the inviolate sanctity of their individual re- 
pose. Of this congregation of deceased royalty, I had never 
seen one while Hving ; and yet, standing as I did among th^ 
. lifeless dust, an inexpressible sadness, mingled with a sense of 
awe, crept over me, and seemed to chain me to the spot on 
which I stood. There they lay, a few dusky monarchs and 
some of their descendants. They had swayed the sceptre of 
absolute despotism before I drew my first breath, and some 
of them had seen human blood flow from the mangled and 
quivering limbs of victims laid on the altars of their old gods. 
At that moment, and amid such hellish orgies, they little 
thought of the place of their repose ; they cared Httle as to its 
locality ; and much less did fhey think that a rambler from a 
distant land would stand and reflect upon their deeds as they 
lay stretched in their winding-sheets. But what of that 1 
All — everything! They were veritable human beings. They 
did once think and act ; but now every one of them had gone 
to " that bourne whence no traveler returns." Some of them 
had gone that long journey in the blackest gloom of pagan- 
ism ; others, under the light and influence of a divine revela- 
tion. The first royal dead interred there were Liholiho, ot 
Kabiehameha II., and his consort, Kamamalu. They both 
died of measles, in July, 1824, during a visit to London (En- 
gland). The British government generously sent a frigate, 
under the command of Lord Byron, relative of the poet, to 
convey tl^dr remains back to their native islands. When they 



ROYAL TOMB. 73 



bade faiewell to the group as they started for Englaad, they 
seemed to have an impiessioiL that they might never return. 
The young queen, as she left the shore, poured out her full soul 
mto wailing, and exclaimed : 

" O heaven, earth, mountains, ocean, guardians, subjects, 
love to you all ! O knd, ht which my &fher bled, receive 
the assurance of my earnest love !'' 

The young king was much a^cted ; but, as he struggled 
against his feelings, he ordered his chie& and people to pay 
every regard to the instructions of their Christian teachers, 
and use every exertion toward their own mental improvement. 
The vessel stood out to sea, and was soon lost fix)m the gaze 
dike weeping multitude ; for tliey loved their sovereign, but 
they saw him no more— K)nly as an encoffined corpse ! The 
remains of the royal pair are deposited in this tomb. The in- 
scription on his breast-plate is strikingly characteristic of the 
filial attachment of the Hawaiian people : 

Nathre language. 

Bjlmeoameha IL 

Elli no nahina o awhai 

make L Pelekani 28. 

Makaiki Kaiku 

I Ke maloi mua 



o Kemokakai 1824. 

Aloha Ino 
no Kofoakou Elii 

lOJLANL 



Tranaladon. 

Kaioehamsha n. 

King of the Sandwich Islands, 

Died July 14th, 1824, 

in the 
28th year of his age. 



May we remember 
cur beloved King 

XOLANL 



But the most conspicuous of these coffins was that which 
contained the remains of the great and good Kaahumanu, the 
&varite wife of the old Conqueror. It was of immense pro- 
pOTtkms, fi>r the Begent was a woman immensely large. But 
her vast physical bulk wi^ a good emblem of the imperious 
tone of her character when a pagan que^i, and of her Chris- 
tian depcnrtment when a follower of the Nazarene. Never 
was there a greater change produced in a human being ; nev- 
er was a deathHMiene more happy than her own. Although, 
in that final hour, she was surrounded by no courtiers whose 
drapery dazzled by its Oriental magnificence, her language 

D 



74 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

and deportment would have adorned the bright^ page in the 
long ^catalogue of Christian heroes. Precious in the sight of 
Heaven is the dust of that once imperious queen ! Before 
treading the precincts of her remains, I had seen some of the 
finely-executed monuments of the distinguiidied of our race ; 
but I never felf so subdued, so mortal, as then; I never .ob- 
tained a clearer view of the end of all earthly power and glo- 
ry than by the side of that coffin. I thought of the great 
Saladin, who caused to be carried before him, when being 
conveyed to the grave, his shirt (!), as all that remained c^ 
the 6nce mighty ruler. And I remembered the inunortal Gy- 
rus — his wars, palaces, and wealth — and the words compos- 
ing the epitaph of the great warrior came back to my memo- 
ry as yividly as if they had been vmtten in letters of fire be- 
fore my eyes : 

" man ! whosoever thou art, and whensoever thou com- 
est (for come I know thou wilt), I am Cyrus, the founder of 
the Persian Empire. Envy me not the Httle earth that cov- 
ers my body I" 



CHAPTER VI. 

HONOLULU. 

Society. — ^Foreign Officials. — Residents, Foreign and Native. — ^Ha- 
waiian "Women and Dress. — ^False Charges refuted. — ^Population. — 
Police. — Militia. — Hawaiian Guards.— Jlouses. — Streets. — Street 
Scenes. — ^Honolulu at Night — Saturday Sports. — Sunday in Hon- 
olulu. 

An attempt to sketch community-life is a difi&cult and del- 
icate task. An estimate that would appear strictly impartial 
to one man, might not appear so to another. A community 
may retain every jiational representation, or it may hterally 
float on a sea of wealth ; but, unless there can be found in it 
the elements of a strict integrity of purpose, nobihty of soul, 
and honorable relations between man and man, no society can 



FAULTS OF THE HONOLULUANS. 75 

be said to exist there. Domestic display, public promenades, 
evening levees, do not sanctify it. In proportion to the pecu- 
lation, however, a man will find spirits as generous, and no- 
ble, and numerous in Honolulu, as in any town on earth. If 
the Honoluluans have any faults — and what community has 
not ? — ^they are two of rather a glaring nature. First, there 
is an almost universal and inoesifant tendency to ** whisper" 
about each other — an evil that tends to destroy individual con^ 
Mence. Again, there is almost a universal aping of what- 
ever can render them aristocratic and zmnatural — an evil that 
tends to bankruptcy and discomfort. The citizens of that 
town may be a long time coming to these condusicms, but a 
i^ranger sees them almost immediately on his arrival. But 
these traits are not at all uncommon to island communitieB, 
detached so widely from continental society ; nor will th^ 
ever be eradicated in Honolulu until there is wider intercourse 
maintained with the rest of the world. After all, it is ques- 
tionable if these evils are not pretty amply redeemed by many 
of the associations at which I have already glanced. 

The increasing importance of Honolulu, in its commercial 
capacity, may be seen from a list of consuls fiom foreign na- 
tions. They represent the 



United States (consul). 

France. 

Denmark. 

Hamburg. 



England (consul general). 

Peru (consul). 

ChiU. 

Bremen. 



United States Commissioner. 
French Commissioner. 

In 1851, the Hawaiian king was well represented abroad, 
and that representation is a criterion of the national position 
of the Sandwich Islands.* 

Between the foreign residents and the natives there is all 
the difierence imaginable. Although the discovery of gold in 
California took many of the former class away, they are stead- 
ily on the increase. With the latter it is directly the reverse. 

* The Table on the following page is from the Report of the SlGn- 
ister of Foreign Relations for 1B51 : 



76 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



The foreigners take a rational pride in paying eome deforenoe 
to fashion, or they beccvne independent of the enslaving deity> 
and dress just as they please. The natives usually ^low 
their own inclinations in regard to hahits, or they tenaciously 
cling to the custxnais of their progenitorB. As a general thing, 
the foreign resid^its are mastos^ while the natives are the 
servants of the puhhc. This is a painful £su^ to contemj^te. 
But so it will remain. The Hawaiians feel their inferiority ; 
and while the race survives, they will remain inferi<»r both 
mentally and physically- — the icNrm^, because ages c£ igno- 
rance are ^Eitailed upon ihem ; the latter, because of disease. 
Many of them endeavor to imitate foreigners in their extmuil 
appearance ; otl^rs, despairing of success, settle into a sort of 
apathy nearly allied to barbarism. It is extremely difficult to 
create a train ci wants in the mind ci a Hawaiian. 

Since my return from liie group, I have many times been 
asked about the personal appearance of the Sandwich Island 
women. My uniform reply has been, and it now is, that there 
are eome amoi^ them who, in point of physiccj p^ection, 
are surpassed by ncme throughout the whole earth. The girls 
are w<»nett at fifteen and sixteen. Their development is rapid 
under the genial sun of the tropics. They have tl^ Malayaa 
physiology and cast of countenance; with dadc eyes, liiat 
seem to read the bidder's thoughts, and hair as black and 



"nST 



Table of the King's Foreign Agtntt. 

" HmU of AppointiBaiitr' 



17th May, 1845, 
7th April, 1851, 
10th Apiil, 1860, 
10th April, 1850, 



17th May, 1847. 
10th April, 1»M), 
30th May, 1849, 
14th NoTember, 1849, 

August, 1848. 

aoth September, ld46. 

Appointed by Coneol 
General LiTingston, 
7th April, 1851, 
9d Sqitember, 1850, 



Arehibald Barclay, Esq. . 
Edward Beyerbach, Esq. 
John Wataon Bain, Esq. . 
Thos. W. CampbeU, Esq. 



Thomas R. Eldredge, Esq, 
J. Henry Gossler, fisq.. . . 

Joseph Jardine, Esq 

David Jardine, Esq 

James J. Jarves, Esq 

Sehuyler Livingston, Esq. 

Granville S. Oldfidd, Esq. 

John F. MnUsr, Esq 

Alfred A. Reed, Esq 



Commissioner, Lcmdon. 
Consul General, Chili. 
Consol fbr New Zealand. 
Consul General for New South 

Wales and Van IXemen*s 

Land. 
Charge d'Afihires for Pern. 
Consul General fbr Hamburg. 
Consul General for China. 
Consul Ibr H<»g Kong. 
Consul for Boston. 
Consul General for the United 

States. 
Yiee-eonsul for Baltioiore. 

Oonsnl for Bvemen. 
Consul for Java and the Dutch 
East Indies. 



HAWAIIAN WOMEN AND DRESS. 77 

gloBsy as the wing of ^ raven. I have seen many of them 
on whofise external beauty Nature seems to havq lavished all 
her i^ill. From their maturity unto quite past the meridian 
of life, the women appear to think, feel, and act like school- 
girk. It is not until their beautiful tresses become mixed with 
gray that tl^y begin to feel the coming on of life's winter. 
Th^ it is that they grow old rapidly, and they fade like 
flowers smitten by ^e chilly breath of the north. It may 
safely be asserted, that these women acquire much d'their phys- 
ical predion by frequent aquatic and equestrian exercises. 

The m^i present no accurate criterion on the subject of 
dress ; £ir in the momii^ they may frequently be seen sans 
every tlnng but what a civilized man would regard as his only 
und^ gaxmeaiy which, in this relation, I may denominate a 
n<H[idescript; in the evening the same native may be seen 
neatly attiied in the costume of a foreigner. A better and 
nMire accurate opinion can be formed in relation to the women. 
They are passionately fond of dress. Many of them must and 
will have it, at any price — even at the cost of their conjugal 
fidelity. In the gratification of their vanity, they are not un- 
firequently imposed on to a severe extent ; fi>r when an article 
suits their fancy, they can hot be denied it ; and in this case 
1^ philantiirq[HC merchant will commonly tax them 600 per 
cttit. beyond its real value. You may enter a native house, 
and see a vivid picture of all that can make the home of any 
human creature desolate ; and yet, at the extreme end, or near 
the centre of the dcnuicile, you will probably observe a woman 
gayly enveloped in a loose robe composed of a rich satin or a 
viduable silk, while her favorite seat is on a mat or the hard 
cold earth. They may not have a civilized couch to repose 
on, nor a gauze curtain to save them from the ferocious attacks 
of gigantic musquitoes, but they luHl have their silk and satin 
drapery. And you may dress up one or any number of them 
in the richest fabrics ever created by hirnian hands, and there 
will be a thousand probabilities against one that an imcouth 
mode of walking, or something else, will spoil their appearance. 
Among the Hawaiian women there are few graceful promen- 



78 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

aders. They always appear to most advantage when on the 
saddle. 

But while referring to native women and dress, it is neces- 
sary that the most scrupulous honesty be employed in making 
a proper discrimination. On this theme much has been said 
and written that will bear no rigid test. It has been remark- 
ed, by a recent visitor to the group, and especially in relation 
to Honolulu : "The native women are great and extravagant 
purchasers ; some of them boast of possessing fifty or seventy- 
five silk and satin dresses ; as I have said before, they have 
only one way of obtaining mojtey— and it is a well-known 
and monstrous fact, that these stores are entirely sustained by 
the prostitution of the Kanaka women !"* Now all this is 
an unwarrantable denunciation, an unsubstantiated falsehood. 
Among thousands in remote lands, the Hawaiian capital has 
obtained for itself the imenviable sobriqtcet of " the brothel of 
the Pacific." But it is not the shameless hell that the above 
paragraph would represent. Ofiicial documents vividly por- 
tray the domestic infidelity of too many of the native women ; 
and there are too many stores there that are more than par- 
tially sustained by the avails of prostitution. This universal 
condemnation, this want of discrimination, however, is all 
wrong. If Honolulu were the only place in the world where 
such abuses of moral law exist, then the advocates of " Moral 
Reform" may thank God and go forward. But who is there 
that does not know such is not the state of things in our poor 
world ? In relation to the assertion that the native women 
have " only one way of raising numey'^ (.') — I think that a 
candid perusal of the following document will be sufificient. 
It was handed to me by an inteUigent gentleman who has 
spent many years in Honolulu, and whose name can be fiir- 
nished at any moment : 

* "The Sandwich Islands, As they are, Not as they should be." 
Burgess, Gilbert, and StUl. San Francisco, 1862, p. 14. 

This pamphlet is mainly correct ; the above paragraph is one of 
the very exceptionable exceptions. 



FALSE CHARGES REFUTED. 79 

** Honolulu, March 6thy 1853. 

" Bear Sir, — ^In answer to your question, *IIota do natives 
procure money?* I reply, that it is nothing but a corrupt 
mind that can assert their sources of revenue to be corrupt 
means only. And while I may not be able to enumerate all 
the occupations by which natives obtain the means of honest 
livelihood, the following come within my own knowledge. 

** Females are employed as nurses, house servants, washer- 
women, serving-women, and many are the wives of foreigners 
and natives, and are more or less employed in their own do- 
mestic concerns at home. 

''Males are employed as mechanics, such as carpenters, 
masons, blacksmiths, tailors, shoemakers, printers, book-bind- 
ers, coopers, &c., &c. ; and as market-men, butchers, and gra- 
ziers ; also as clerks, teachers, surveyors, sailors, laborers 
on plantations, day-laborers, house servants, cooks, stewards, 
herdsmen, &c., &c. Your own observation will suggest that, 
in Honolulu, a large number are occupied in supplying the 
town with vegetables, milk, fish, eggs, turkeys, hogs, ducks, 
wood, charcoal, grass for horses, and many other articles, to 
say nothing o£ poi for native residents who are employed as 
servants, or as laborers in the town and among the shipping, 
mechanics, &c. 

" Besides this, they receive a large amount of money during 
the year for the letting of horses, boats, and houses, while some 
of them own and sail vessels among the islands. Others cul- 
tivate their little farms, firom which are raised nearly all the 
supplies for residents and shipping. Others, again, are em- 
ployed as peddlers, road supervisors, tax collectors, judges, law- 
yers, school inspectors, constables, land commissioners, jurors, 
legislators, privy counselors, &c., &c. 

** The compensation of all these classes is ample to support 
themselves and families, and varies from 25 cents to $3 per 
day for laborers and mechanics ; from $2 to $7 per week for 
house servants, and firom $1 to $3 for women and domestic 
servants and sewing women. For washing they sometimes 
make firom $5 to $10 per week. 



80 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

'* Employ these items as ydrxc own judgment may suggest, 
and permit me to remain, with every esteem, truly yours, 



In the course of these pages I diall say something more 
ahout native male and female character and occupation. 

The populatipn is composed of persons firom n^urly all na- 
tions. A census of the foreign residents was rec^itly tak^i* 
hy the marshal of the kingdom, included within the following 
limits : from Kalihi to Waikiki, along the coast, and in the 
rear as far as the Fcdi. These hounds embrace the city of 
Honolulu and its suburbs, and give the entire foreign popula- 
tion. 

Males over twenty-one years of ffge 380 

" tinder " « 129 

Females over twenty-one years Qf age 144 

** tmder twelve *' '. . . . 118 

m 

Colored poptdation 21 ' 

Chinamen in business . . ' 87 

Coolies, laborers^ and servants 84 

Total 868 

It appears by the above that there are twice as many males 
as females among the foreign population, a disproportion occa- 
sioned by large numbers of young men who leave ships and 
remain here, or who come to the islands to seek their fortunes, 
as clerks, mechanics, kc. 

The foreign population has diminished within two years by 
the drain to California and the Australian colonies. The na- 
tive population embraced within the same limits is estimated 
at about eight thousand souls. 

The foreign pc»:tion of the community comprises a repre- 
sentation of the following nations : United States of America, 
Great Britain, Chum, Polynesia, Western Islands, France, Port- 
ugal, Germany, Sweden, St. Helena, Calcutta, Singapore, Ma- 
* Published in the "Polifnenan,** October 80, 1852. 



THE HAWAIIAN GUARD. 81 

nilla, G-aam, and the West Indies. During the nine months 
ending 18^2, seventy-four persons from the ahove naticms took 
ihe oath of allegiance to the king and the Constitution. 

The police force is prescrihed by law. For the island of 
Oahu, it is fixed at two hundred. There are four hundred and 
fflxty scattered over the other islands of the group. The prin- 
cipal mimber of those retained cm Oahu axe centered in Hono- 
lulu. With few exceptions, they axe all native subjects, and no 
community on earth can boast a more finished set of knaves. 

There is a body of militia on the isknd numbering in all 
two hundred men, fifom fifty to two hundred of whom are re^ 
served to man the fort at the capital, as emergencies may re^ 
quire. Ima^e, for the miost part, a few lazy, shoeless, and 
stockingless fellows, with hardly spirit and skill enough to 
'* shoul(kr arms," detached here and there over the group, and 
an idea may be partially formed of Hawaiian soldiers. These 
miseraUe men receive the dignified appellation of "arm/y/" 
Prince Alexander LraoLmo is their Heutenant-general. King 
Kamrhaitrha III. is their commander-in-chief. So says article 
tw^ityHseven of the Constitution of 1852. He also, has com- 
mand of the " ncmf — ^the first portion, of which is not yet 
built ; for not a single wax vessel of any size or description 
rides the waves of the Hawaiian seas. Imagine about seven 
hundred erf said soldiers, with " eighty-seven pieces of artillery 
now on the islands/ - and worthless, with an unborn iLavy, and 
an *' Annual Report" upcm them and their merits, and the 
fiiice becomes complete at once. 

The only military force on the group in which any reliance 
may be reposed is the First Hawaiian Guard. It is composed of 
both infantry and cavalry. Its members.are foreigners and the 
sons of foreigners. They are sdf-constituted citizen companies. 
This recent element of strength had its origin in the serious 
sailor riot of I^ovember, 1852. With the permission of the 
government, they organized themselves for the mutual defense 
of life and property. Every man finds his own horse, accoutre- 
ments, and ammunition. They are all residents of Honolulu. 

The fereigners own some very respectable residences, many 
D2 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



of which aie composed of stone or coral, and some are hand- 
somely framed and finished of wood. They are neat, but not 
at all gorgeous. In such a place as Honolulu, magniiicence 
is out of the question. The chief object is comfort. They are 
usually well ventilated ; but they contain no fire-places ; for 
such is the geniality of the climate,* that none are needed. It 
Iias'many times been mahciously Teported that the houses of 
the missionaries are 'luxurious," and "filled with native 
slaves.'* To maintain my original intention — truth in all my 
narrations-^I am constrained to say these charges are untrue ; 
for their dwellings are plain and modest, especially in their in- 
terior. But of these topics I shall say more subsequently. 

Between the residences of fi)reigners and natives the widest 
conceivable difierence exists. The dwellings owned and oc- 
cupied by chiefs afibrd no criterion of those occupied by the 
common natives. The latter can be understood only by actual 
inspecticm. When standing at a distance, and watching the 
cocoa-nut foliage wave its lovely forms over a native hut, there 
is something about it that is exceedingly romantic. On ad- 
vancing and entering it, however, the romance gives place to 
a sad reality. 

" The houses of the common people are defective in almost 
every thing which constitutes civilization. These are thatch- 
ed buildings, with the posts set in the ground, on which rafters 
are placed. They axe higher than formerly, and have a prop- 
er door, instead of a hole into which the occupant ccmld only 
crawl. Among the common people of the better sort there 
are many comfortable houses, tolerably well furnished. They 
Kave, b^des, many respectable adobe buildings. But there 
has been less improvement in the building of houses than in 
almost any other kind of advancement toward civilization. 
This has be^i owing hitherto to the uncertain tenure of a 
home, and the consequent want of local attachments.* *t 

* See Appendix Nd. IH 

t "Answers to Questions proposed by his Ezeellency R. C. "Wyl- 
lie, his Hawaiian Majesty's Minister of Foreign Relations, and ad- 
dressed to all the missionaries in the Hawaiian Islands. ** — ^P. 21. 



r 



HOUSES — STREETS. 



83 




NATIVE HOUSE. 



Into these abodes it is nothing unusual to see four or five 
families crowd themselves. In man]^in8tances, a few cala- 
ba^ed, and a mat or two to sleep on, constitute their domestic 
iumiture. There is seldom any partition. In such cases, ev- 
ery thing is indiscriminate. This stem retention of ancestral 
architecture holds back with a strong hand their progressive 
civilization, and deprives them of much comfort. 

The town can boast of few well-laid-out streets. The only 
good one is that running up from the Custom-house into the 
Nuuanu Valley. All of them are more or less disfigured by 
the fragments of adobe walls built several years since, and 
which give to every object rather an ancient appearance. 
There are numerous lanes and alleys, that are so lumbered up, 
especially at night, by persons that present themselves 



84 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

" In such a questionable shape/* 
that the pedestrian stands a noble chance to break his precipi- 
tate neck by stumbling over them. The natives toill love I 
and, as a genesal thing, with them passion is stronger than the 
restraints imposed by civil and moral law. Beneath the over- 
hanging foliage in those narrow streets, Nature has celebrated 
the nuptials of many a youthful pair of Hawaiians, the mocni 
and the stars alone being witnesses to the ceremony. 

But if those narrow streets retain an aspect of antiquity^ 
many of the day-scenes which occur in them are extremely 
novel to a visitor. In violation of law, some careless native, 
sans lower garments of every description, and with some half> 
worn-out sailor's jacket buttoned close up to his chin, may 
come riding past as though he had stolen the Pegasus of N^ 
tune and Medusa, and was trying to escape pursuit. Yonder 
may be a couple of natives, who are employed as ponies or 
horses, drawing after them a sort of a box resting on four 
wheels, and dignified by the term *^ carriage." The precious 
cargo of that singular vehicle is almost certain to be a foreign 
lady ! In turning a comer, you may suddenly come in con- 
tact with a group of knavish pohce, bearing off, as a trophy of 
victory, a single intoxicated sailor to snug lodgings in the fort ; 
or you may possibly stumble against a crowd of girls and wom- 
en clad in silks and satins, their heads fancifully adorned with 
wild flowers, and theifteyes silently watching poor " Jack** as 
he is borne away from their afiectionate arms ; for he may 
have spent his last dollar with scmie of their number. A lit- 
tle farther on, some Irural lover, having jui^ come in fiK>m the 
country with something for the maricet, may have met* his 
inamorata ; down goes his load, while into it is inserted the 
snout of some rambhng pig ; but he has thrown his arms - 
around the waist and neck of his beloved, and is tasting the 
sweets of her pouting lips, forgetting that any other eyes are 
upon him. Pages might easily be filled with a description of 
the every-day scenes in the streets of Honolulu, but ocnnmon 
humanity must throw a vail over them. It was to this very 
theme that Chief-justice Lee pointed when he said, '* But the 



HONOLULU AT NIGHT. 85 

mofastet evil of the land — the one which goes to the vitals of 
tlnsmatioii — is licentiousness. This suhject is not a pleasing 
one ; hat when we are daOy called upon to witness the mast 
disgtisting scenes in our puMc streets — ccnnmon prostitution 
stalking ahroad at nocoi-day — and the nation speedily wasting 
away under our very eyes with its consuming fires, it is crim- 
inal to keep silence I"* 

Than Honolulu, no town is blessed with a more perfect 
quiet at night. This may be owing mainly to the &ct that 
the P^ial Code makes ample provision for the unlucky wight 
who forgets to place a strong guard over his words and actions. 
**A11 loud noise by night is taboo. Whoever, after sunset, 
shall, by hallooing, singing in the streets, or in any other way, 
make any disturbing or disorderly noise, in apy village, town, 
or part of the kingdom, without justifiable cause for so doing, 
shall be liable to summary arrest and imprisonment by any 
constable or police officer, and, upon conviction, be pimished 
by a fine not exceeding ten dollars." — {Penal Code, chap, xli., 
sec. !.)• Between the hours of nine and ten, this quiet begins. 
The town at night, and the town by day, appear like two 
difierent places. Except the voice of a gentle song, and the 
notes of delicious music flowing from the latticed window of 
some lady's apartment, or the imique strains of a native wail- 
ing for the dead, every sound is hushed. Were it not that the 
pedestrian meets a straggling poUce in search of his prey, he 
could hardly divest himself of the conviction that he is wan- 
dering among the ruins of some buried city. In another hour 
the voice of song itself ceases. Silence seems to have reared 
its throne on the brow of night, demanding an implicit obedi- 
etLce to its sway. It is as if the very wheels of time stood ; 
as if Nature herself were reposing on the bosom of Morpheus. 
Woe to him who may chance to be found giving expression 
to his hilarity by way of song or even gesticulation, when all 
virtuous families are supposed to have retired for the night ! 

* Pirst Annual Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Ck>urt, 
to the Nobles and Representatives of the Hawaiian Islands, in Legis- 
lative Council assembled: 1868. 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



No excuse for such deportment is admissible; and nothing 
less than a night's lodgings in the fort, and a " fine" next 
morning, can expiate his transgression against law and order. 
With the native population, nearly over the entire group, 
Saturday is considered a sort of hoUday. On the plantations 
it is pay-day for the workmen ; in the country it is a sort of 
market-day among those who fail to attend the town markets 
during the week, or who may have none to attend ; it is the 
grand gala day of the natives of Honolulu and its vicinity. 
Scores, and sometimes hundreds of men, women, and children 
meet on the plain on the east of the town, to test their horses' 
skill and their own, and to display their gaudy drapery, and, 
sometimes, the want of it. . On that particular day, if the law 
against "fast-riding" is not suspended ^o tem.^ certainly it 
is not enforced. These sports were originally adopted by the 
natives several years ago, aiwl they are a capital substitute 




FKMALS BQVB8TSIAN. 



SATURDAY SPORTS. g? 

£>r many of their old pagan games. They usually commence 
at 4 P.M., when the heat of the day is past. It is a scene of 
profound interest to strangers ; and were it not that the ani- 
mals are too hardly rode, it would sustain much that would 
be enjoyed. The riders are of both sexes and all ages, and 
of every variety of costume and of physical proportion, mounted 
on every variety of steed. The women and girls are decidedly 
the best riders. With them, not as with the ladies of our At- 
lantic cities, side-saddles are out of the question. In their 
loose, flowing drapery, hair streaming in the wind, their beau- 
tifully erect position, and their horses careering along hke the 
march of the whirlwind, they look majestically dangerous, and 
yet they are never thrown from the saddle. There is many 
a lady in civilized nations who would envy the equestrian 
skill of these Hawaiian women. There is many a finished 
artist that would be glad to have one of them as a subject fbi 
his pencil. It may be owing to this mode of exercise that 
they, in part, acquire such an exquisite development of form. 
I wish I could fully portray these Saturday afternoon sports. 
Yonder, on the plain, some forty or fifty women are spewing 
almost with the rapidity of light toward some well-selected 
goal. Every nerve and muscle of both horses and riders is 
stretched to the utmost tension — ^the former firom sheer instinct 
to gain the victory, the latter firom a spirit of almost match- 
less daring, mirthfulness, and excitement. Now comes along 
a party of men and boys, many of them clinging, with their 
naked limbs, hke leeches to the flanks of their foaming steeds, 
while their restless hands and arms are describing all sorts of 
circles in the air, as if under pain of dismemberment, but, in 
reality, to cheer along their animals to a swifter speed. Clouds 
of choking dust follow their wake. Here and there may be 
a mounted foreign<er, quietly looking on, or sharing in their 
mirth and sports. But yonder is a scene that defies all attempts 
at description. A few horses and donkeys, not under imme- 
diate use, but which, a few minutes since, were quietly feed- 
ing on the ever-Uving pasture, have caught the spirit of that 
fiery locomotion by which their compeers are impelled over 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



the plain. Unable any longer to control their nature, away 
they speed, in the utmost confusion, as though their powers 
of a life-endurance were all concentrated in this single mom^it. 
Now they have mingled with the mounted animals, sharing 
their feam, and madly plunging through the clouds of dust, 
and endangering the life and limbs of any pedestrian who 
&ils to get out of the way in time. Chi, on they speed, like 
fiery Arabians over their native siinds, all and each one strug- 
gling for the mastery in the well-contest^ race for glory. It 
is well there are no toll-gates to oppos^ their progress, that 
their hair naturally grows fiaist on their ifeads, that they cany 
with them na superfluous garments, or, like the celebrated 
Gilpin, they might be the victims of very serious inconvenience. 

Before taking my leave of Honolulu and its scenes, I feel 
constrain^ to attempt a description of one of its Sabbaths, 
as I have seen it. The singular beauty of the weather that 
usually ushers in the sacred day leaves a lasting impress on 
the reflecting mind. The god of day ascends his chariot in 
the majesty of a cloudless sky. Mountains, hills, valleys, 
plams, woodlands, ocean-— every thing seems to borrow a 
tinge of his golden glory. Scarcely a zeph3nr*s breath &ns 
the £}Uage, bespangled with the tears of the night that has 
just fled away forever. At 9 A.M. the heart-felt silence is 
awakened by the familiar tones of the church-going bell. No 
unpleasant sounds are heard, no rush or confusion disturbs 
the streets. Honolulu recognizes the quietest Sabbath on the 
face of the whole earth ! and this repose is secured by the 
enforcement of a just and righteous law.* 

Let us enter the First Native Church, of which mention 
has been already made. There are nearly^ three thousand 

* "Tlie Lord*8 day is taboo: all worldly business, amusements, 
and recreation are forbidden on that day; and whoever shall keep 
open bis shop, store, warehouse, or woik-shop, or shall do any man- 
ner of labor, business, or work, except only works of necessity and 
charity, or be present at any dancing, public amusement, show, or 
entertainment, or taking part in any game, sport, or play on the 
Lord's day, shall be punish^ed by a fine not exceeding ten dollars."—- 
Penal Code, chap, xxzvi, sect 2. 



SUNDAY IN HONOLULU. 



natiYes waiting to hear from the lips of their religions teacher. 
A hymn is smig. The divine henedietion is sou^t. A pre- 
cept of Holy Writ is expounded. What a profomid decorum 
reigns among that well-dressed audience ! With what marked 
^respect they retire, after dismissal, to thdr homes ! A visitor 
may be an entire stranger to the language of those services, 
but if he has a sensitive soul in him, if he is not lost to every 
thing virtuous and sacred, he umstfed the £>rce of that un- 
pretending worship. He may be no denominalionalist ; he 
may make no pubhc profession of the sentiments of his own 
heart'; but there is something about the appearance and wor- 
ship of a Hawaiian congregation that awakens within him 
emoticms no language can define, no change of time or events 
eradicate. When I*glanced over that audience, and thought 
of what Hawaiian character was exactly thirty-three years 
ago{f); when I remembered that from this very church many 
a redeemed man and woman had gone up on high ; when I 
thought how, in the hour and strife of death, many of 'them 
hiid been sustained by the all-consoling presence of the Naza- 
BENE, and that they now met Him, face to fiice, with no cloud 
to obstruct, no infirmities to afflict them any more forever — 
when I thought of these things, for once I obtained a clear 
view of that gieat central truth of all enlightaied tenets, 
"God is love !" and I was compelled to leave that Hawaiian 
assembly, and give a full scope to my feelings ; for they were 
emotions I shall never forget, and can not describe. 

The Foreign Ohurch and the Mariner's Bethel are now 
open. Let us visit them. They are well filled with their 
respective audiences, including a number of the "sons of the 
ocean." A sof^ preliminary is sung by the choir, and the 
worriiip ccnnmences. Hear those benedictions soHcited by the 
respective pastors ! Listen to those hymns of thanksgiving ! 
Attend to those discussions of everiasting truth ! It is here 
that a visitor feels a step nearer to that heaven for which 
every spirit, in spite of itself) ardently yearns. 

Soch is the Sabbath under the auspices of a Hawaiian 
king ! such the devotions of the sacied day ! Verily, those 



90 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

institutions are not far from'right which recognize the Father 
of the universe, and whose supporters bend the reverential 
knee at His feet. How ennohhng, how suhUmely great and 
glorious are the silent and bloodless victories won by Chris- 
tianity! 



CHAPTER VII. 

ENVmOI^S OF HONOLULU. 

Nunann Valley. — ^The Pali of Nuuanu. — ^Former Battle-ground. — 
Ride to Diamond Head; — ^Village of "Waikiki. — Remains of a Pa- 
gan Temple. — ^Reflections on Paganism. — Le<iki, or Diamond Head. 
— ^View from the Summit — The Plains below. — ^Punch-howl Hill 
and its Fortifications. — ^Panoramic View of Honolulu. — Aliorpaor 
kai, or Salt Lake. — Curious Theory relating to it — ^Testimony of 
Commodore Wilkes^ U. S. N. 

The environs of Honolulu are exceedingly picturesque, and 
among them the valley of Nuuanu ranks first. It is located 
immediately at the back of the town, from which place it has 
a gradual ascent until it reaches the famous Pali of the same 
name. The valley seems to have been formed by an abrupt 
break in the great central volcanio ridge of the island. Its 
formation is of a mixed character : its lower part is open ; its 
upper is inclosed between two heavy ridges, descending from 
the siunmit of Waolani on the west, and Konahteanui on 
the east. The upper part of it forms an inunense level pla- 
teau of a circular form, opening toward Honclvlu on one side 
and the Fali on the other. This circus is bounded on all 
sides, except where open, by tremendous precipices. The 
scenery is enchanting. Here and there a native house is seoa 
peeping from between the trees. The alternating light and 
shade produced by the swiftly-flying clouds, as they are scat- 
tered or grow more dense— now rubbing the summits of the 
lofty mountains, and now sweeping over the foHage through 
which the road leads — and the fertilizing showers, reflecting 
every variety and dimension of the iiis, render it a sort of a 



THE PALI OF NUUANU. 91 

fiury land. These showers give birth to the fine streams that 
wend their way down the valley, watering hundreds of taro 
patches, until they reach Honohdu, On approaching the 
Pcdiy the mountains rise still higher, and vegetation assumes 
a richer aspect, clothing their summits with an unfading green. 
Some of these mountain tops are crystal-form. Down their 
precipitous sides cascades are seen falling hundreds of feet, 
cleaving their way between the stunted foHage, and looking 
like huge icicles, or veins of polished silver. On the sides of 
these rugged masses, sandal wood {Santaltmi frey dnetia- 
rwm) was once abundant, and sought for as an article of trade 
by vessels from the Orient. "When, in past ages, these mighty 
masses of rock were reared on high, they were naked and sol- 
itary, presenting no feature of beauty to the eye of the first 
tenants of the valley ; but now they teem with the life of veg- 
etation and of feathered tribes, and the visitor never wearies 
in gazing upon their magnificence. 

But we have passed the singing brooks, the embowered fo- 
liage, the briUiant cascades, and we are now on the Very brink 
of a naked and rugged precipice, within a few feet of the per- 
pendicular line, and eleven hundred feet high. This is the 
Pali* oi NutianUy distinguished alike for its savage grandeur 
and its classic memorials. A narrow gorge is before you, the 
sides of which are formed by the mountains on either hand, 
nearly sixteen hundred feet above your head. Through this 
dreary gcnrge the trade-winds blow with almost a whirlwind 
violence. It is as though the fabled Boreas had concentrated 
all his powers against this single spot, Unless a close vigi- 
lance is maintained, the traveler*s hat is whirled into the up- 
per regions, and the traveler himself may be swept from his 
position. To escape this inconvenience as soon as possible, it 
is necessary to turn the gorge by proceeding a few yards to the 
right. 

Advance to the brink ! But take care ! The visitor draws 
in a long breath ; for the momentary bursting forth of the 
scene beyond sends a ^flirill through his brain, and makes him 
* The Hawaiian word for precipice. 



93 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

feel dizzy. One false step, and he may be lost forever. Be- 
low his feet are scattered a few native dwellings, that dwindle 
away almost to the size of ant-hills, while the animals and 
men are scarcely perceptible. Beyond these, the plains, cov- 
ered with verdure, stretch out for miles. Further than all 
rolls the ever-swelling, azure ocean, luiing the idiore and the 
rocks with foam as white as the snows of winter. 

If a visitor would obtain an accurate view of this tremen* 
dous precipice, he must descend to the plain below, and wend 
his way <;lose up to the foot of the Fali, The descait is la- 
borious, but safe, and is ejected by a circuitous path leading 
down the right of the clifi*. From the ^t of the desc^it the 
view is exceedingly imposing. The summits of the mount-^ 
ains on either side pierce the clouds. The firont of the preei* 
pice itself is hoary with the lapse of unehronioled centuries. 
Here and there it is rent in narrow fissures, the edges of which 
retain sembl^ces of calcination, from the mildest to ihQ most 
intense. While looking upward, the mighty mass seems as 
if it were coming down on the head of the awed visitor. 

Be&re the picture becomes complete, it is necessary to reas- 
cend the precipice. , It is then that its terrible grandeur is 
felt. With 'its penqpective scenery there is a strange commin- 
^ing of the solitary, savage, and sublime. It is horrible to 
reflect that over this abyss a vanquished army was once driv- 
en. Yet so it was. In the summer of 1794, Kalandtopule, 
a rival ef Kamehameha, determined to overthrow the increas- 
ing power of the Conqueror. KAMEfiAMEHA was then* at Ha^ 
waii, but was' apprised of the fle^ that had been manned 
and sent out by the insurgent monarch. The naval expedi- 
tion proved a failure, and the king came down to Oahu. The 
two armies met in the valley of Nuuo^im* The insurgents 
were compelled to flee before the victorious party. As they 
approached the Pali, KALANiKUPtTLE and a few of his fdlow- 
ers escaped to the mountains, but were subsequently tak^i 
and put to death. The rest of the anny — three thousand in 
number — ^were driven over the frightful abyss, inhere father, 
brother, friend, foe, and their implements of war, shared a gen- 



VILLAGE OF WAIKIKL 



eral wreck. And yet, at the time of my visit, the sun shone 
as glorioudy over the hrow of this old precipice as though it 
had never re-echoed the war-cry, or heen haptized hy Pagan 
hkx)d shed in hattle. 

The most conspicuous object in the vicinity of Honolulu is 
the old coast-crater, called Leahi, or Diamond Head. It is 
nearly six miles east of the town, and stands close to the sea- 
shore. It is approached either by sea or land, but the land 
route is the most pleasant and agreeable. The road leads very 
near the shore, winding through numerous fish-ponds and taro 
patches, formed by hands that have long since crumbled away 
to dust. Within a mile of the crater's base is the old village 
of WaikiM. It stands in the centre of a handsome cocoa-nut 
grove, among whose feathery foHage the soft winds firom the 
ocean produce a gentle, murmuring music. There is a fine ' 
bay before the village, in whose waters the vessels of Van- 
couver and other distinguished navigators have anchored. 

Waikiki was once the abode of that Hectoe of the Hawaii- 
ans, Kamehameha the Great. The old stone house in which 
the great warrior once lived still stands, but it is falling into 
a rapid decay. I could not help lingering for a time to notice 
the objects scattered around. There were no busy artisans 
wielding their implements of labor ; no civilized vehicles bear^ 
ing their loads of commerce, or any living^ occupant. But be- 
neath rthe cool shade c^some evergreens, or in some thatched 
house, reposed several canoes. Every thing was as quiet as 
though it were the only village on earth, and its tenants the 
only denizens. A few natives were enjoying a promiscuous 
batli in a crystal stream that came directly from the mount- 
ains, and rolled, like another Pactolus, to meet the embrace of 
the ocean. Some were steering thehr frail canoes seaward. 
Others, clad simply in Nature's robes, were wading out on the 
reefs in search of fish. Here in this quiet hamlet, once un- 
known to all the world, Kamehameha I., surrounded by his 
chieftains, held his councils for the safety and consolidation of 
his kingdom. But the " mene'' so mysteriously inscribed on 
the palace walls c^ a Babybnian monarch, has been written 



94 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

on those councils ; and the old king and his warriors have 
faded away. Mutation is legihly written on the face of all 
that is terrestrial ; and the savage ruler, not less than the civ- 
ilized, must how to Death's all-powerful summons. 

Just heyond Waikiki stand the remains of an ancient heiati, 
or pagan temple. It is a huge structure, nearly quadrangular, 
and is composed merely of a heavy wall of loose lava stones, 
resemhling the sort of inclosure commonly called a " cattle- 
pen." The temples dedicated to the Hawaiian gods were al- 
ways roofless. The altars were rudely reared in the same 
way, and composed of the same materials as thQ walls of the 
main inclosure. This heiau was placed at the very foot of 
Diamond crater, and can he seen at some distance from the 
sea. Its dimensions externally are 130 hy 70 feet. The walls 
I found to he fix)m six to eight feet high, eight feet thick at 
the hase, and four at the top. On climhing the hroken wall 
near the ocean, and hy carefully looking over the interior, I 
discovered the remains of three altars located at the western 
extremity, and closely resemhling paralldograms. I Bearched 
for the remains of human victims once immolated on these 
altars, hut found none ; for they had returned to their primi- 
tive dust, or heen carried away hy curious visitors. But my 
fancy conjured up the deeds of some of the high-priests of pa- 
ganism. It seemed as tjiough I could see one of these de- 
ceived and deceiving torturers hefore me, with his demoniacal 
visage, his arm hared, his uplifted hand grasping the instru- 
ment of death, and the human victim lying on the hloody al- 
tar. I seemed to hehold the vast audience awaiting, with a 
death-hke silence, the fatal hlow, and to hear the agonizing 
groans of the expiring victim. And when I xememhered that 
once these very tragedies were enacted, and on these ruined 
altars too, my heart sickened, and I spnmg out of the inclo- 
sure. 

To a traveler visiting the Hawaiian group at this day, it 
seems almost impossihle that such scenes could have heen en- 
acted at any period in the past. Such relations appear to re- 
tain the character more of the old shadowy myths of the peo- 



PUBLIC UBRARlf 

4cTnR LENOX AND 



REFLECTIONS ON PAGANISM. 97 

pie, than positive realities that existed from time immemorial 
until the &11 of idolatry in 1819. But those relations are 
facts. There are a &w persons now living who once wit- 
nessed many of those hellish oigies, and whose own family 
firiends were viclams. The hierarchy of the group, like every 
hierarchy that now exists, was exceedingly f^reseive. It is 
impossible to conceive how any nation of men could have been 
brought under a rule so crushing and absolute. But of all 
despotisms, none are so absolute or. unjust as those which de- 
prive men of the firee and legitimate exercise of their own con- 
sciences. Such was the condition of the common people on 
those islands, between thirty and £)rty years ago. It was des- 
potism systematized and extended to every man, woman, and 
t^hild, that did not belong to the priests and king. The people 
had to build the temples ; go to the mountains, and cut down 
and carve wood into idols,; and, of their poverty, bring the 
ofierings, of whatever character, to the altars of the gods. The 
nature c^ those ceremonies was such, that it was impossible 
Idiat some person or persons should not violate them, and, in 
that case, death was the penalty. There were omens of such 
a character Ihat they could easily be oonstrued to signify that 
any numbeir c^men were required as o&nngs to the gods, and 
the requisition was always granted. In this way countless 
miultitudes have perished, fiunily ties been severed, and their 
wretched abodes rendered more desola.te than ever. Who 
shall enumerate the evils sustained, the agonies endured, the 
moments of despair struggled against by men in every age^ and 
under every species of oppression, where every just and noble 
c(»isideration haA be^i trampled in the dust by the heel of 
temporal or spiritual pow^ ! 

Having iBached Diamond Head, the visitor ma^ ascend its 
summit without much difficulty. The ascent is most eaaly 
accomplished on the northeast side. To a man who can 
boast of pretty strong limbs, the task is trifling. On reaching 
the brink, the eye rests on a mere pit, or cavity, two hundred 
feet deep, and two thirds of a mile in diameter. The highest 
point of this old crater is on the southwest side, where it is 



98 SAND'VjflCH ISLAND NOTES. 

nearly a thousand feet above the sea. -Nearly all round the 
lim of the crater, but especially on the southiyest, large cal- 
careous incrustations abound. The bottom of the crater was 
covered with a fine pasture, on which a herd of cattle and 
horses was feeding, and in the centre was a shallow lake of 
clear fresh ws^ier. The outside of the hill is deeply marked 
by the course of ancient lava streams. Immense masses of 
lava aire found at its seaward base, heavily mingled with beds 
of coral. It is very evident that this crater has been much 
higher than it is now, and that it has become much wasted 
in expending its fires. 

Although this quiescent crater is not very lofty, the view 
finom its summit is fine, and well repays the curiosity of any 
enthusiastic adventurer. On the east, and skirting the sea- 
shore, are seen the remains of two other craters, long since 
extinct, and highly picturesque. Honolulu, the harbor and 
shipping, the distant range of the Kaala Mountains, and the 
contiguous village of WuiJdki, fiU up the view on the west. 
The rugged chain of mountains skirting the eastern limit of 
the Pal% and immense table-lands or slopes, formed by an- 
cient rivers of lava, and now covered with good pasture, em- 
brace the scenery on the north. Stretchiiig away to the south, 
the ocean heaves its placid bosom, so strangely beautiful that 
it would seem impossible for the noble element ever to be- 
come-so treacherous.. Whoevet has seen this old landmark 
can never forget it. Many a storm has swept over it. But 
there it stands ! a guide to the mariner, and a monument of 
Nature's wrath and power. 

Descending the crater on the north side, and following a 
narrow and very rugged path, I was soon led on the plains 
below. Had it not been owing to the deep grass, the scene 
would have been one of the most perfect desolation. Im- 
mense stones of lava of every shape, and many of them sev- 
eral tons in weight, lay in confusion over this j^ain, and were 
interspersed with indi^ and other plants. Over some of those 
huge masses of volcanic rock the delicate convolvulus {Con." 
vdvtdus tricolor) lyas creeping. Here and there was a gi- 



PUNCH-BOWL HILL. • 



99 



gantic specimen of the prickly-peaf {Cacttisficus Indicus) 
struggling against the surrounding desolation. Upon this 
plain it would almost seem as if the neighboring crater had 
«q>ended all its force. One is forcibly' reminded of the pas- 
sage which so plainly foretold the utter desolation of Idumea : 
** I will stretch out upon it the line of concision and the stones 
of emptiness I" ' 

The path leading directly over the plain conducted me at 
length to the foot of Ptcahiy or Puntfh-Bowl Hill. Like 
Leahit or Diamond Hill, it has long been quiescent, but it re- 
tains a more youthful appearance than the latter, and looks 




PUMCH-BOWL HILL. 



B607 90 



100 saKdwigh island notes. 

as though it may burst forth again williout a single moment's 
warning to the quiet town below. As the highest point is 
but five hundred feet above the sea, the ascent is comparative- 
ly easy. . Many of the, pupils in the royal school, located at 
its base, climb it for recreation during a recess of their studies. 
What may be called its summit is a huge concave, nearly 
half a mile wide, and covered with a luxurious pasture. This 
concavity originates the English name of the old crater. K 
a supply of water could be obtained regularly to irrigate the 
soil — ^which is decomposed lava — ^the summit would make a 
snug little farm. At the time of my visit, niunbers of fine 
cattle were quietly browsing on the pasture, and large flocks 
of wild and tame goats were feeding on the most precipitous 
sides of the hill. While sitting on a gun, taking notes of the 
objects around me, a flock of the latter class of animals ap- 
proached me, bleating, and seemed to diide me for disturbing 
the repose of their elevated retreats. On attempting to get 
near them, they scampered away over the grassy depression^ 
of the crater. 

The physical character of this hill closely resembles that of 
LeahL That portion of the summit which overlooks the val- 
ley of Nufuanu is mainly a huge mass of calcareous lava, and 
constitutes a good building material, much of which has been 
already dislodged ]fer that purpose. The seaward dde of the 
hill is deeply marked by channels down which the fiery streams 
of devastation once roUed in fearfiil volume. 

The hiU itself occupies a commanding position. On the 
heights nearest Honolulu are the remains of a fortress that was 
once deemed impregnable. In all, it mounts eleven guns, 
pointmg diQerent ways, at irregular distances from each other, 
along the nearly perpendicular edge of the hill. Of these guns, 
five ajfe long iron thirty-two-poundets, three are long iron 
twelves, and three short nines. Every one of these imple- 
ments of defense were drawn up by native hands during a 
despotic rule. They rest on carriages in a state of rapid de- 
cay. Some of the larger retain the initials of the last King 
George of England ; also the Crow's Foot (A), or govemmentsd 



PANORAMIC VIEW OF HONOLULU. JQl 

mark, and a crown. T^hey aie used more £x finng salutes on 
the birth-day of the present king than £»r any other purpose. 
The flag-staff is nearly demolished, and its present appearance 
is hi^y indicative of the ftate of the circumscribed kingdom 
whose ensign once waved at its top. I saw two or three 
wretched hovels in a wrecked condition ; yet they had once 
been the homes of a few miserable soldiers Retained there to 
watch the garrison. These hovels, the ruined flag-pole, and 
a thin shdl of a powder magazine-— ^^6£? and plastered on 
the outside f — completed the f(»:tress that was (»riginally in- 
tended to protect the tow;n, the harbor, and its shippng. Now 
the only tenants of the lofty battlements are the goats in 
seaxch of their subsist^ice. The hill itself) though precipi- 
tous, is assailable in several parts, find, unless made bomb- 
proof) by shells in all. Though capable of being strongly £)r- 
tified^ to render it tenable it would require a very large garri- 
son. But the present condition of the finances, and the imbe- 
cility with which the financial department has hitherto, been 
managed, are a sufl^cient guarantee. that, for some time at 
least, things will remain as they are, or will become more 



From the top of Punch-bowl a fine panoramic view is ob- 
tained of Honolulu, thM: quietly reposes at its base. A stran- 
ger can hardly reconcile this seeming indiflerence to a contig- 
uous object, whose deep womb was anciently torn by rivers and 
cataracts of vengefiil fire ; for the citizens of Honolulu treat it 
as though it were a fable ; and yet there is no guarantee that 
PeCe* may not pay them another of her terrible visits. But 
the people either think or care nothing for this ; nor need they. 
The relative position of the town to this extinct crater is that 
of Pompeii to Yesuvius, Hundreds of ^ro patches meet the 
gaze.' The town, with its public buildings, churches, private 
dwdlings, and narrow streets ; and the harbor, with its ship- 
ping at anchor, and numbers of boats and canoes gUding over 
its surface, are brought, as itwere, into a focus. Natives may 
be seen bathing in the streams, or washerwomen may be dis- 
. * TM^lui^godd^fl^of yoloanoes. 



102 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

covered at their toil by the margin of the same streams ; luld 
it is aTnusing and instrucliye to watch the motions of those 
that occupy the streets, on horse or afoot, wending their way 
as business or pleasure may dictate. The best time, however, 
to obtain a good view of such a scene is at the hour of ieaily 
evening twilight. 

Four miles west of Honolulu, and very near the sea-shore, 
is the celebrated salt-lake called by the natives Alia-paakai, 
It is about one third of a mile in diameter, and is of a crateri- 
form character, rather inclined to oval. The biUs that sur- 
round it are rather more than a hundred feet high, and their 
sides appear to be more or less impregnated with saline sub^ 
staQces. The bottom of the lake is composed of an exceed- 
ingly adhesive mud of a Mue-black color, having the chief 
properties of an unctuous clay. The whole region of the lake 
is strictly volcanic, and, although contiguous to the oceai^ is 
entirely different from the formative character of all the coast 
craters on thedsland. 

Until very recently, a self-formed salt was found there in 
great abundance. It was considered an excellent salt for 
putting up provisions for the market and shipping. It was 
also used as a table-salt over the larger portion of the group, 
and commanded a high price. Formerly it belonged to the 
king, and its yield afforded him a good revenue. Vessels 
came annually from the Russian settlements on the North- 
west coast, and from other parts^ of the Continent, to obtain 
suppHes. The trade, however, ha& fallen off. Although the 
salt has almost wholly disappeared, it is stiU found in small 
quantities in the lake, in a crystallized state. 

Extensive salt-works are now carried on at Ptdoa, a few 
miles westward of the lake, by an enterprising citizen of Hono- 
lulu. The process is by evaporation. 

Marvelous things have been related of this salt-lake. They 
may hafe had their origin in some superstitious legends of the 
natives, but they have been gravely treated by history, and at 
this day are firmly beUeved by many citizens of Honolulu. 
The lake itself is said to be elevated " a few feet above the 



TESTIMONY OF COMMODORE WILKES. IQQ 

level of the sea," and that "near the centre a hole exists, 
five to six fathoms in circumference, whidi, as no bottom 
has been fbmid to it, is supposed to connect with the ocean. 
Through this the lake is slightly afiected by the tides."*" 

Supposing such a statement to be correct, and, from its 
direct opposition to all precedents in natural philosophy, look- 
ing upon it as pointing to an extraordinary natural phenome- 
non, I felt exceedingly desirous of seeing it for myself. My 
first journey was performed merely to survey the physical 
confi>rmation of the region immediately contiguous. On the 
second time of my going there, however, I was better prepared 
to conduct my researches. As my plan of operations was 
closely consonant with that of Cobimodore Wilkes, U. S. N., 
who commanded the XT. S. Exploring Expedition to the Ha- 
waiian and other islands in Polynesia, and who conducted an 
examination of this lake in November, 1840, 1 can best present 
my conclusions by citing his own language on this subject : 

" The salt-lake, so much spoken of, was visited many times. 
It has excited a good deal of curiosity, being supposed to be 
fiithomless, and to ebb and flow with the tide. 

" I landed near the foot of the hills which inclose the salt- 
lake, and leveled from low water mark upward, over the hill, 
and down to the lake. The result gave one hundred and five 
feet rising, and one hundred and three feet fidling, which proves 
it to be on the same level as half tide. Some natives carried 
over a canoe to the lake, in which 1 embarked, weU provided 
with long sounding-liftes, to ascertain its reputed depth. Aft- 
er much search, no fathomless hole was to be fi>und, and no 
greater depth than eighteen inches! To find out if it ebbed 
and flowed was the next step. For this purpose, sticks were 
jdaced oa the shore, which is so shelving that a smiall perpen- 
dicular rise and fall would be quite evident. A httle rise above 
the tide-sticks took place, but nothing beyond what would be 
occasioned by the wind, which had sprung up, blowing the 
water to the lee side. 

* '' Jarves's History of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, 1847." 
Third edit p. 11. 



104 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

****** 
•* The lake, after the discovery rdative to its being but knee- 
deep, ^^1U} the subject of mach. discussion at Honolulu. It was 
visited on several occasions afterward, to ascertain if it had an 
ebb and flow, and simultaneous observations were made at the 
shore and in the lake, but all the trials confirmed the first 
observations."* 



CHAPTER VUI. 

JOURNEY TO KUALOA. 

Phdiw of Eaneohe. — Konahiumm Moontuiia^-Geologieal Festiire& 
— ^Probable Formatioii. — Site of an old Pagan Game. — ^A Legend. — 
Missionary Station at Kaneohe. — Christianized Nativea — ^'^ Month- 
ly Concert" — ^Residence of the Missionary, and Style of Liring. — 
Road along the Sea-shore. — ^White Man turned SaTage.-^ingnlar 
Coral-reefs.— Fiflh-pendfl.'— Women as Laborers. — ^Driving Hogs to 
Market — Simj^ity of Native Manners, and Domeslie Life. — A 
solitary Grave. — A Hawaiian Patriarch.— Thoughts on early 
Races. — A Native Judge. — Taro Plantations. — Taro as an article 
of Food. — ^How converted into Poi. — ^Eualoa. — Sunset — ^Night. 

From Honolulu to Knaloa, the most direct route is over the 
Paliy firom whose rugged brow it is distinctly seen in the dii^ 
tance. -From the precipice, the j^ains beiow present the feat- 
ures of a fine landscape. They are marked by heavy undula- 
ticms, and rent in many places by shallow ravines. Hundreds 
of cattle may be seen feeding on the ridi pasture with vidiich 
these plains are covered, adding to the landscape an exquisite 
finish. To render this location a second Eden, the lig^t kind 
of men and sufiicient capital are needed. 

That lidge of mountains termed Kcmahuanui maybe class- 
ed among the most sublime mountain scenery in the world. 
There are chains of hills more lofty and extensive, but proba- 

* "United States Exploring Expedition, during the years 1888, 
1839, 1840, 1841, and 1842. By C^abues ^ilkis, U. & N. Lea and 
Blanchard, Philadelphia, 1845.** VoL iv., p. 82, 88. 



GEOLOOICAL FEATURES. 105 

bly none more curiously £»med or strikingly beautiful . Their 
sides toward ^e plains are composed of contiimous precipices, 
in some places retreating so as to form gigantic amphitheatres. 
In some places their sides are strongly marked by heavy ribs 
of rock rising from liie plain and reaching the highest peaks 
of the chain, and looking like huge buttresses placed there by 
the hand of Nature. The general directi(»i of this chain is 
north, thirty-five degrees west ; the average, height is one thou- 
sand six hundred and thirty-eight feet above the level of the 
sea. At intervals they approach within two miles of the sea ; 
again they retreat a long distance toward the centre of the 
island. On the front of %ome of these gigantic paliSy glittering 
cascades come tumbling down in playful gambols, having their 
source in the immediate region of the clouds* and occasionally 
lost in the overhanging foliage. Wherevpr the traveler turns 
his footsteps or directs his gaze, he is sure to find scnnething 
that will amply reward his researches and excite emotions of 
sublimity. 

The geological features of this range of mountains, are re- 
j^ete with a sohd interest. They are composed of basaltic, 
cellular, and tufaceous lavas. The basaltic^ in many places, 
is porous and scoriform, and sometimes the substrata are as 
compact as any of the basaltic formations close to the eblnng 
and ^wing of the tide ; or entirely tiae reverse may be seen, 
where scoriffi almost as cdlular as pumice form the stratum 
beneath ccnnpact beds of porphyry, having a dark blue basis 
composed of crystals of glassy feldspar and, oHvine. 

The ceUtdar formation is a sort of mixed pumice and slag. 
In every one of the ceUular varieties the cavities are empty ; 
in others they are filled with ohvine crystals partially decom- 
posed. This lava is frequently mingled with white feldspar 
of a dull lustre, that imparta to the isaaX of the rocks a spot- 
ted i^ppearance. The more common color of these lavas is an 
ashy gray ; but it not unfirequently assumes a reddicdi tint, a 
brownish red, and sometimes a cochineal-red color. 

Then comes the tufaceous lava, of a more interesting char- 
acter than all the others. . This species varies much in con- 

£ 2 



106 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

___^ IB 

sistency, but it is usually loose and friable. It is piobably 
owing to this geognostic structure that the c^ebrated Pali of 
Nuuanu has derived its formation, under the almost incessant 
action of the northeast trade-winds and frequent heavy rains, 
and it is this kind of lava that forms so prominent a part in 
the j^ysiognomy of the diain. The bases of some of these 
tufas is earth, or compact mud, of nearly every variety of col- 
or, but mostly of a light orange red. 

An exploration of these rocks is difficult and imcertain. 
The laws which would test the age of continental rocks would 
here be worse than useless, as they would tend only to the 
most profound perplexity. In one IcMsation, the huge mass of 
mountain approaches the scoriform ; in another, scoriform and 
the more compact specimens are placed immediately contigu- 
ous one toJthe other. The law that would determine the age^ 
of these mountains simply by their degree of compactness rests 
on a very feeble foundation, and constitutes cme df those am- 
iHguities that somuetimes cfUng to the favorite and most i)opu- 
lar questions of every age in the history of science. 

That the Konahuanui chain has been anciently originated 
by volcanic agency, is evident from the Yei^ shghtest investi- 
gation of their physical character. The chain itself has been 
a series of craters ; and their present appearance, although of 
long standing, has been efiected by mighty earthquakes that 
shook the island to its centre, rending the mountains asunder, 
and leveling the seaward side of these old craters down to 
the plains below. This theory best explains the cause of 
those heavy undulations of which the plains are mostly formed. 
Before reaching the mission station at Kaneohe, the road leads 
through a narrow but fertile ravine, tenanted by a few na- 
tives. In leaving the ravine, a low round hill, to the right 
of the path, is rather conspicuous from a long, narrow depi'es- 
sion or channel on its side. It was an indication that one of 
the favorite games of the old Hawaiians had been played there. 
This game was called the hdkta,^ and was one of their favor- 
ite games at chance. Both chiefs and common people ficeely 
* Sliding down hilL 



A LEGEND. IO7 



mingled in it. No particular spot monopolized it. The game 
itseU* may very properly be designated, in modem phraseology, 
the sUding-down-hiU game, for it had a close affinity to the 
spcftts indulged in by the 8cho<d-b(^8 of the northern towns 
and cities in the United States, when the streets are firozen, 
and they glide down them on their sleds. The smooth sward 
- of any suitable decUvity was made to answer, in some degree, 
the advantages of ice and snow. A trench was dug firom the 
top of the hill to the bottom, and carried out some distance 
over the adjoining plain. This was made quite smooth, and 
^read over with grass to aid in the velocity of the descending 
sled. It is said that the shders would frequently get carried 
nearly a mile along the tr&ach. 

This amusement was attended with a great hazard of life, 
and great skill and courage were required properly to fit a man 
for such an enterpriise. Many of these slopes were on an angle 
of forty-five degrees ; and woe to the man who rolled firom his 
filed, or whose sled got out of the trench ! Death was the 
penalty, or the unlucky sHder was maimed for Ufe. If the 
players escaped unhurt, many of them l6st their all in betting. 
On their skill in the sport, it was nothing unusual for tiiem 
to stake their property to the very last article — ^their clothes, 
fi)od, crops, lands, wives, daught^, husbands, and even the 
very bones of their arms and legs, to be converted, after death, 
into fish-hooks and arrow-heads. 

Many were the legends treasured up by the natives relative 
to some of the results of this game. As an instance of their 
mental character and superstitious fear, I cite one as recorded 
by Ellis : 

" In the reign of KEALUKUKtr, an ancient king of Hawaii, 
Kahavali, chief of Pima, and one of his punahde (favorite 
cc»npanii»is), went out one day to amuse themselves at the 
hokia, on. the sloping side of a hill, which is still called *Ka 
holtui ana O Kahavali* (the sliding-place of Kahavali). 
Vast nimibers of people collected at the hill to witness the 
sport, and a company of musicians and dancers repaired to 
the spot to add to the amusement of the spectators. 



108 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

" The "buskined youths had began their dance, and, amid the 
sound of ^ drums and the scuigB g[ the nusucians, the halua 
eommenoed between Kahavali and his fiivorite. Pde^ the 
goddess di the volcano, came down from Kilauea to witxieiB 
the sport. She stood im the top of a hill, in the fexm of a 
woman, and challenged Kahavau to -slide widi h^. He 
aceepted the o^r, and they set off together down the h31. 
Pde, less acquainted with the art ni balancing on the nar- 
row sledge than her rival, wafi beaten, and Kahavali wbs 
aj^lauded by the spectators as he walked back up the stdes 
of the hill. Before they started again^ P^ asked him to 
give h^ his papa.^ Suj^posing fiom her i^^pearance th«t 
she was only a common woman, he said, *AqL^ (no); ave 
you my wife, that you should obtain my sledge ?' and, as if 
impatient at being delayed, he adjusted his jto^, ran a few 
yards to take a spring, and then^ with all his might, threw 
hims^ upcHi it, and shot down the hill. Pe2e, incensed at 
his answer, stamped on the ground, and an earthquake fel- 
bwed which rent the hill asunder, ^e called, and £re, and 
liquid lava arose, and, assuming her natural feim, with these 
irresistible ministers id vengeance .she followed him down tl^ 
Mil* When Kahavali reached the bottom of the hill, he saw 
JPd€t acc(»npanied by thunder and Itghtningr earthquake and 

* The papa, or sled, was composed of two narrow runners, from 
seven to twelve, and sometimes eighteen feet long, two or three 
inches deep, highly polished, and, at the foremost end, tapering off 
firora the under ude to a point at the npp^ edge. : These two ma- 
nera w^re Aecuced together by a number c^ short pieees laid lu»i- 
zontally across. To the upper edge of these short pieces two long 
sticks were fastened, extending the whole length of the cross-pieces, 
and about five or six inches apart. Sometimes a narrow piece of 
mat was fastened over the whole upper surface, except three or four 
feet at the foremost end. At the foremost part there was a space of 
about two inches between the runners, but l^y gradually wide];ied 
toward the hinder part, where they were distant from each other 
about five inches. The person about to slide grasped the small side- 
stick firmly with his right hand, ran a few yards to the brow of the 
hill, where, with ill his strength, he threw himself forward, fell fliitt 
upon his sled, and shot down the trench. 



A L^EGEND, X09 



bmaii^ lava, closely^ puiguing him. He took up. his Inroad 
^pear, which he had stuck in the groundat the beginning of the 
game, and, accompanied l^ his friend, fied lor hi* life. The 
musicians, dancers, and crowds of spectaton were instantly 
buried beneath the fiery tOTie&t, which, bearing on its fore- 
most wave the enraged goddess, omtinued to pursue Kaha- 
YALi ai^ his fiiend. They ran till they came to an eminence 
called Buuke^.. There KAOAVi^i threw off his tuilat (doak 
t»f netted ti leavieB)^ and proceeded toward his house, which 
stood near the shore. He met his iavorite hog Akipuaa, 
sainted him by touching noses, and said, * Aloha ifw oe; eia 
Uu»€H paha oe e make cd; keai mainei P^^e^Gompassion 
great to you ; close here, p^haps, is your death; Fele comes 
devouring!)' Leaving him, 1^ met his wile, Kanakawahine. 
He sahited her. The burning torrent approached, and she 
said, VStay with me here, and let us die together i He re- 
plied, 'No; I go, I go.- He then saluted 1^ two children, 
Paupoulu and Ka<die, and said, "^ Ke tie nei om ia ci/ua — ^I 
grieve iox you two !)' The lav:a xolled near, and he ran till 
a deep chasm arrested his progress. He laid down his spear, 
and on it walked over in sstfety. His friend called out for his 
help. He held out his li^pear over the chasm ; his companion 
took hold of it, and he drew hun securely over. By this time, 
Pele was coming dovm the chasm vrith accelerated motion. 
He ran till, he reached the place where one of his sisters was 
sitting. He had only time to say, 'Koae, aloha oe.'— {Alas 
fbr you!)' and then ran on to ^e sea-idiore. His younger 
brother had just landed &om his fishing canoe, and had run 
up to his house to provide for the safety of his £unily, when 
Kahavali arrived. He«and his firiend leaped into it, and with 
his broad spear paddled out to sea. Pe2e, perceiving he had 
esci^ped, ran to the shore, and hurled, with piodigious force, 
huge stones and fi;agments of rocks after him, which fell 
thickly around, but did not strike his canoe. When they had 
paddl^ a short distance from the shore, the kumuhaki (east 
wind) sprung up. He fixed his broad spear upright in the 
canoe, which, answering the double puirpose of mast and sail, 



no SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

he soon reached the island of Maui. There they tested one 
night, and proceeded to Lanai. On the following day he 
removed to Molokai, and firom thence to Oahu, the abode of 
his father and sister, to whom he related his disastrous perils, 
and with whom he took up his permanent abode. "^ 

Kaneohe (from "towc," male, and "o^," bamboo) is a 
small and scattered village, and ccmtains a branch of the 
American Protestant Mission. It is about three miles from 
the loot of the JPcdiy and command a fine view of the sur- 
rounding plains and adjacent mountains. The mission in 
this place was established in 1834. The chapel is a v^ 
neat structure, 95 by 50 feet. The walls ale jsohdly built of 
black lava, united with cement made out of the c<»:al pro- 
cured firom the reefs on the neighboring shore, and burned 
into lime. Nearly all of this fabric is native workmanship, 
and it would be a credit to good mechanics in many older 
countries. The Hawaiians soon become adepts in the mie- 
chanic arts; and it may be owing to the fact Uiat their facul- 
ties are more imitative than creative, for they will copy almost 
any thing they see the white man do. 

The impressions produced on my own mind, while staying 
at Kaneohe, were highly favorable to the Christianity profess- 
ed by the natives. External action is not always a criterioai 
of internal character. The act may "jpe balanced in the scales 
of reason and justice, while the motive which prompted it 
may remain as unfathomable, to the eye of a mcnrtal, as eter^ 
nity itself It was not for me, there^re, to decide that the 
motives of the Christianized natives at Kaneohe were or were 
not rightly founded. But their deportment was unexception- 
able ; their close attention to the teachings of the missionary 
highly commendable ; and it appeared yet more so when I 
remembered that, not many years ago, these very plains, oc- 
cupied by the fathers of the present generation, re-echoed the 
shouts of warriors mingling in barbaric warfare. The punc- 
tuality with which these people att^id to their Christian dit- 
ties is remarkable. On the Sabbath, at sunrise, they always 
* "Ellis's Tour round Hawaii in 1828," p. ICS-l*?!. 



CHRISTIANIZED NATIVES. m 

meet for prayer and mutaal instruction. Nor does this eariy 
hour of devotion ajQbrd them any design to stay away from the 
more public and subsequent duties of the day. Hundreds of 
well-dressed natives — ^men, women, and children — ^many of 
whom come six or seven miles, may be seen thronging the 
chapel to listen to their teadier. 

When we speak of Christianized natives, or of Hawaii be- 
ing a Christian nation, it must be regarded in the same light 
as though we were speaking of the United States as being a 
Christian nation, and in no other sense of the expression. In 
the former nation, as in the latter, there is much nominal 
Christianity, much to condemn, much to approve ; ioi human- 
ity, from the cradle to the grave, is a singular combination of 
good and evil. There is not a more difficult task to which a 
I^iilanthropist can apply himself, than to instil pure morals 
into the heart of a South Sea Islander. The chief cause £ot 
wonder, then, is not that the Hawaiians are not all Christians 
£rom a thorough transformation of character, but that so many 
Christians are feund amoi^ them. There is that in native 
character which can rarely, if ever, be entirely effaced : it is 
the deadly upas of corrupt morals, inherited, through their 
forefathers, from many generations past. To purge away this 
natural and deeply-rooted corruption, and implant within them 
a sensitive conscience-^ conscience aHve to the discharge of 
every moral obligation — ^is as difficult as an attempt to blot 
out the spots of the leopard, or to wash the dusky hue from 
offthfi s^ of the Ethiopian. But this change of character 
?uis been efected, and it will be effected again. The remark 
may be repeated, that, among the Hawaiians, the greatest 
wonder is that so many of them are Christians. It is a well- 
understood truth, that 

- **A thousand years scarce serve to form a state : 
An hour may lay it in the dust" 

Engla|id has been more than thirteen hundred years in attain- 
ing her pres^it eminence among the nations of the earth. 
C^turies had swept over the " Seven-hilled City" befi)re the 
gbry of the Augustan age shed its rays cm Rome. History 



112 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

tells us of states and natbns thai struggled, fat hundreds oi* 
years, amid a sort of semiKsirilizatiosi, and ihen went out like 
the d^ing flame of a midnight taper. When it is lemembo- 
ed that tkirty-five years (!) have not yet fled since effiurts 
were commesieed to civilize and Christianize the Hawaiians, 
who, for centuries past, had, as a race, been buned in the 
blackest midnight of debadement that has ever afiikted a por- 
tion of our race, may it be expected that so shtxrt a period is 
adequate to efiace the last vestiges of mental and iooral dis- 
ease ? No, verily ! And that man, or class of men, who can 
mistake a pcmit so -v^tal as this, have not learned the alphabet 
of human nature. ^ 

I have already, spoken of native Christians at. Kaneohel 
That is a. quaint old saying which assures us we may judge 
of a tree by the fruit it Reduces. On the same philosophical 
principle we may form our opinions of men. It wIbus. on this 
ground that I formed an estimate of native character at this 
mission station. At sunrise — ^in fieust, from early morning, twi- 
light, the members of that Church ccmveaied on the Monday 
in their chapel. It was their '* monthly concert for Mis»ons." 
There is something in the prayer of a Hawaiian Christian 
that finds its way -into the heart of a listener. The solemn 
tones of the invocation, " E Iehovah !" (0 Jehovah !) spoken 
only as a Hawaiian can i^ak it wh^n he addresses his Grod, 
and equalling, if not surpassing, the " Allah achbas !" of the 
Mussulman, is exceedingly impressive. I could hardly real- 
ize the fact that there was a time vfhssi the Cluistiaiis (^ &]> 
ofl* lands were praying for this peqple, and sending the men 
and. means to evangelize them, and that now this branch of 
the Hawaiian mission was doing a ttinilar thiog for other isl- 
ands in the Pacific. But so it was. 

In justice to my theme, I am constrained to say I was as- 
tonished at the unpret^iding dwelling of the missionary, and 
his unostentatious mode of living. On my way to the, group, 
and in accordance with the spirit of previous report, I was ex- 
pecting to find the missionaries living in the most '* luxurious 
houses,'' that were ** filled with native slaves," where one 



WHITE MAN TURNED SAVAGE. II3 

might " witneds the idle luxury of their lires. * ' On my amyal 
at the islands, I £>und that tiiese charges vere only phantoms 
of Uie imaginaticm. The dweliiiig of the missionary at Kar 
neohe— 'Rev. B. W. Parker — ^was as plain as any &nn-bottte 
in ^ew England, hoth in its internal and external ocmdition. 
The servant he employed he fed and paid monthly wages to ; 
and, at that, he was a memher of his own Church ! His &re 
was plain, hut neat and suhstantial ; and, to procure mneh 
of it, he had to toil with his own hands in cultivating the soil. 
And this was honoraHe ; for that splendid scholar and gen- 
tlemanly ChristiiBn, the Apostle Paul, frequently seorved at the 
occupation of maJdng tents. 1 found Mr. Parker cme ci those 
men whom a person can not help esteeming uid loving — a 
plain, honest, afiahle, Christian gentleman. And when I left 
him, I could not help secretly wishing him, and aU his, a sin- 
cere ** God-speed !" 

At a short distance heyond Kanebhe, the path leads along 
the sea-shore. The whc^e scene is highly picturesque. The 
heach is composed of a very fine coral sand of a dazzling 
whiteness, interspersed with long veiiis of hasaltic rock in low 
2ind smooth heds; On the land side, and near the smrge, stand 
a few native dwellings, over which the cocoa-nut tree suspends 
its &ntastic and heautiM fehage ; seaward the feam^^stested 
breakers come rolling m with the speed of the swiftest race- 
hoise, and a voice of thunder, as th^ Ineak on the beach close 
to the feet of the traveler. 

While journeying along tibds shore I met a singular looking 
object. His face was bronzed by a tropical sun, his eyes w^:e 
Mood-shotten, and a short wooleii tdiirt was his only garment. 
His haggard face, his matted hair and beard, his rapid steps,* 
almost induced me to beheve he had just escaped £rom a re- 
treat for the insane. He was once a white man ; but a four 
years* intercourse with the most debased and wretched of the 
natives had turned him into a complete savage. He could 
hardly read, much less write his own name. The porar 
wretch Vas a hbel oh the enlightened state of Connecticut, 
&r from that part of the United States he originally came. 



114 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

He lefiised to tell his name. At this, however, I was not sur- 
prised. His downcast eyes indicated a sense of shame of his 
abject condition. His personal mien and appearance estab- 
li^ed more firmly than ever, in my own mind, the theory that 
the white man, severed from the civilizing influences cf so- 
ciety, is capable of becoming a more debased wretch than the 
savages or aborigines among wh(Hn he Hves. Such a scene 
is calculated to draw tears firom the eyes of angels, and to fill 
the bosom' of any living man with sorrow for the brutal con- 
dition of many of his species. I have witnessed many sudi 
scenes on the Sandwich Islands ; and they are numerous on 
the islands scattered over the wide Pacific Ocean. 

This portion of the shore abounds with a large number ci 
singular coral reefs. They are of a drcular form, "and vary 
firom a few rods to a mile in diameter. They are usually el- 
evated to within a few inches of medium tide, at which time 
the natives reach them in canoes, and wade over them to pro- 
cure shell-fish. Although these circular reefs are located near 
the shore, and are raised near the surface of the ocean, they 
retreat so precipitately that their bases can hardly be fathomed ; 
and there is sufiicient depth of water around them for any 
purposes. 

Beyond these reefs there are numerous fish-ponds. Their 
dimensions range firom one to a hundred acres. Their rela- 
tive size is indicative of the wealth and power of their re- 
spective owners. The smaller ponds belong to the poorer of 
the native subjects ; the larger are owned by th^ king and his 
principal chiefs. They are formed simply by extending a wall 
of coral over a portion of the reefs lining the shore. The huge 
'walls inclosing the largest are of ancient date, and were raised 
when feudal chieftains could command the bodies, souls, and 
lives of the common people ; but now, portions of them were 
beaten down by the ever-rolling tides. Many of these pcmds 
are located at some distance from the shore, and supplied by 
fresh water from the neighboring mountains. Over all the 
shores of the group these fish-ponds abound; Next to their 
ta7t> plantations, they are pnzed by the natives, for their con- 



FISH-PONDS— WOMEN AS LABORERS. HQ 

tents are highly valued as an mdispensable article of food, and 
sacredly guarded ; but, after all their precautions, some thiev- 
ish native -will sometimes come along in the night and extract 
a few of their finny tenants for his own immediate use. Al- 
most invariably, however, he gets detected. With most of 
die Hawaiians, as with the old Spartans, tiie crime consists 
in detecti<Hi, not in the theft. These fish-ponds are not un- 
firequently a source of much gratificati(m to tiie fotigued and 
hungry traveler. On entering a native house just at sunset, 
and after a day's hard riding, it is not uncommon for a good- 
natured old dame to step up to him, pass her hand.across his 
chest, and ask him, with a maternal sohcitude, *' iffie isftdl /** 
On receiving a negative reply, out runs a young girl, or one 
of her sons, and launches a small canoe on the waters of the 
pond. It is easy to guess the nature of their errand. In an 
incredibly short time, having been baked amid ample folds of 
the dark green ti \ea£{I>ra€€Bna terrninaUs)^ a huge calabash 
of fi^, accompanied with boiled taro and poi, as the taste of 
the traveler may be suited, is spread before him. Some twen- 
ty pair of black eyes may be glancing at him, but it only re- 
mains for him to lay aside his fastidiousness and satisfy the 
demands of the inner man. No class o^ people on earth can 
be more generous to the foreigner than the very poorest of the 
Hawaiians. He may partake of their best fare — such as it is 
— and they will make no demand upon his purse. But this 
does not intimate that they are ungrateful for a*** considera- 
tion." 

While pursuing my way toward Kualoa, a rather novel 
scene presented itself Five or six wom^i, up to their waists 
in mud and water, and nearly nude, were cleaning put an old 
taro patch, with the intention of converting it into a fish-pofid. 
The Hawaiian women are ahnost amphibious. Almost in- 
credible statements may be made of their wonderful aquatic 
exercises. Strange as it may seem to a foreigner — an Amer- 
ican especially — ^to see a woman almost buried in mud like an 
eel, to herself it is nothing, for she is fond of dabbling in wa- 
ter. And although these women looked as if they might 



116 SANDWICH ISLAND Nt)TES. 

have been bom the tswrnts of this very dough, or just risen 
up from the Arcadian Stjx, they were merely forming a fish- 
pond £ot the reception of a few c^ the finny tribe that thdr 
brothers, husbands, or fathers were then catching oh the reefiu 

If the Hawaiians ean be strictly, turned a labonng people, 
it is certain that the women do their part. But, whatever 
may be said of them as a people, it is also certain that they 
do not eompel their women to Aibserve the same seifdom that 
brutalizes many of .the women of th6 eommon Arabs, the Cai- 
fires, and even the North American Indians.. 

Although the duties of the Sandwidi Island womai m&y 
not be very -arduous, they aremuch varied. . One of their most 
tedious and favorite duties is sometimes to drive stock to maik- 
et. During these engagements some o£ the most ludicrous 
scenes occur. On ascending an eminmipe just beyond the fish- 
ponds, I noticed a grcmp of native women squatting down un- 
der the shade of a widerspreading and beautiful Pandanus-tree 
( Tectorius eb pdordtissmmsy On coming np with them, I 
found them surrounding an enormous hog. The day was un- 
usually warm, and the beast lay panting a« if he were about 
to breathe his last. To his welfare this female group bestow- 
ed the most assiduous attentions. Their dress was scant ; but 
several of them had evidently taken oiS* thdbr only garments, 
soaked them in virater from their calabasha,.and ^readthem 
over his swinish majesty fixr the express purpose of keeping 
him cool, while a few others were employed in fartning him. 
The usual method of conveying pigs to market is to tie the 
four feet together and run a pcde through them, each end be- 
ing supported on the shoulders of two natives, who trot off at 
no very despicable speeds But this brute would probably have 
weighed nearly five hundred pounds. The silly iai&ction these 
women displayed toward their favorite convinced me that they 
cherished not the least Tespect for the prohibitory laws of tl^ 
Jewish Scriptures, much less those of the Koran ; and yet th^ 
were trying to drive him to market for tale. An old adage 
tells us that " a good man is mercifiil to his beast.'- But it 
may not be argued that mercy to a brute is alvirays indicative 



DRIVING HOGS TO MAfiKET. 



117 



of "goodness." SiKsh was the constmction I placed on this 
old passaged in its application to these women. They were 
simply taking their pet to market. Already had he heen driv- 
el several miles. His guardians would have to condn^ him 
over 1^ brow of the fearful Pali, and then they would he six 
miles distant from Honolulu. It would occupy at least thirty- 
six hours to accomplish this purpose ; hut it would he achieved ; 
fi)rthe Sandwich Islanders — the women especially — ^have a 
large share of patience where little exertion is required. They 
would watch his movranents by day, and sleep by his side at 
night. They had fixed his price in the market, and they wish- 
ed to get him there in a condition as good as possible. To a 
person who has never witnessed life in the South Sea Islands, 
much that might be written on the habits of the girls and 
-women wduld be deemed as merely fabulous. Such a conclu- 
sion GSL the part of a reader is no cause for wonder. A whole 




MODE OP CARBT1NO BURDENS. 



118 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

volume might be filled with illu8trati(9is of the fondnees of 
Hawaiian women for pigs and dogs, but it is better that they 
should drop in as if casually introduced. Whatever may 
have been a person's doubts on this subject, they become dis- 
persed £>rever when he arrives at the group of islands, and 
sees the women and girls carrying dogs and small pigs in 
their bosoms. , ^ 

I shall say more on this tope on a future page. I left that 
company of women, doubting, in my own mind, whether any 
philosopher of the order of Stoics could have maintained hb 
gravity in the presence of such a scene. 

This topic leads me to notice the simplicity of native man- 
ners and their domestic life. Several illustrations of these 
themes were presented to me on my way to Kualoa, but they 
were insignificant in comparison to those I subsequently met 
in the progress of my tour over the group. While pursuing 
my way along this shore, I was t)ccasionally overtaken, or met, 
by some native, smiling aU over his face, and accosting me by 
their national word of greeting — ^** Aloha .'" (love, or saluta- 
tion to you). Sometimes they will accompany you side by 
side for miles, and, excepting this single word of greeting you 
on meeting and parting, not a pliable will escape their lips. 
Others, again, are a£ clamorous as a company of Arabs asking 
fi)r '* bakshish" Whether the Hawaiian o^rs a real greeting 
or not, nothing can harrow up his feelings more than the trav- 
^er's refusal or omission to return the compliment by saying 
''Aloha /" Very probably, at the moment of parting, thmr 
taciturnity may fly away, or the current of their clamor be- 
come changed, and ihea their sole talk is about the " hadS** 
(foreigner). Every feature, the color of his hair, beard, and 
eyes ; every article, of dress he has on ; his proficiency as a 
horseman — every thing becomes the theme of their ridicule or 
praise ; and they will remember that foreigner again after the 
lapse of years. 

In their style of Hving they are just as simple. They know 
little or nothing about artificial wants. With th^ir ponds well 
stocked with fish, their beds of taro flourishing close to their 



A SOLITARY GRAVE. HQ 

dooiB, their stock, lequiring little or no care, increaging around 
them, they appear to be the happiest beings on earth. 

To a certain extent they are an agricnltural people. Such 
they were observied to be when first discovered, and such they 
have been from their earliest history. In this respect they 
difier from the aborigines of the continents of North and South 
America, and yet, in some relations, they seem to have descend- 
ed from the same primitive Oriental stock. Until the down- 
fall of idolatry, the Hawaiians maintained a system of pagan 
worship the most cruel, bloody, and debasing ever known, 
while the latter are more of a nomadic race, retaining an 
immaterial worship. Both races are, or have been, powerful 
and warlike, and both are passing rapidly away. 

By this time. the road had Mt the shore, and resumed its 
course over the plains. While trying to select a good crossing 
place over a narrow ravine, my horse's hoofs casually stumbled 
against a low mound. I immediately perceived it to be a 
fimeral mound, probably of some native. The top of the 
grave was rudely protected by a covering of coral rocks; that 
looked as though they might have been there during several 
generations. By whose hands it had been dug, or by whom 
it was tenanted, I did not, could not ascertain. There it stood, 
near the sea-shore, all silent and solitary. Not a single wilt 
flower grew by ita side to gather a few of the tears of night, 
not a blade of g^rass flourished around it. There was no indi- 
cation that human footsteps came or went on any errand of 
touching memorial. In all probability, the only requiem ever 
wafted over that grave was sung by the foaming surf that in- 
cessantly thundered on the contiguous shore. No man knows 
where he shall rest his bones ; I knew not where I might leave 
my own. I turned away from that grave with a subdued 
spirit, hoping that peace might forever reign over the ashes 
of the profeund sleeper^ 

At a short distance beyond this funeral mound sat a group 
of which any painter might justly have been proud. It con- 
sisted chiefly of a party of native girls. Their hair and necks 
were ornamented with the gay flowers of their native ohdo 



X20 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

{Ghudtheria pendtdiflorum), as beautifully interwoven a» if 
done by faiiy fingers. They i^ppeared a« unsophisticated and 
happy as if they were strangers to ev«ry sorrow — more like 
the descendants of the *' children of the sun," who dwelt am^ 
the glories of an unfading Peruvian summer, than the o&hoots 
of a degraded race. From such beings as these, so beautifol, 
bright, and hi^py, the old poets surely fabled^their genii and 
naiad queens ! 

The chief figure in the group was an old man, who seemed 
to be the centre of their joys. His appearance was decidedly 
patriaxdial. A long white beard flowed gracefiilly down upon 
his chest. A few white locks were sprinkled around his tern* 
pies. When he smiled, his eyes sparkled with unaflected de- 
light, and his parted lips revealed a complete set of the finest 
teeth I have ever seen. Nearly a hundited summers had shone 
upon him, and his simplicity of aj^peaxance was increased by 
a long wreath of wild flowers ^^ch one of those bewitc^ung 
girls had placed on his neck. He was reciting to his little 
audience some of the tales of his youthful days. Truly tkey 
must have been of a thrilling nature, £)r he had lived during 
the sanguinary struggles that achieved the consolidation of the 
entire group under the sway of old Kamehamkha I. ; he had 
Vitnessed the annihilation of several pagan temples, and the 
destruction of ''forty thousand idols/" This little group 
seemed as bright as the sun in whose rays they were bashing ; 
nor was it any wonder that those young girls should crowd 
around the venerable old man, as he told them of past g^ier- 
ations. 

This picture was primitive in all its associations. It eoKt- 
veyed to my own mind a vivid idea of the early races of the 
great fiunily of man. I could not but believe that mankind 
were fiur happier then than now, and J almost wished for a 
return of the patriarchal age. The patriarchs dwelt in t^its ; 
but they were ancestors to the greatest nations of ancient days ; 
and they could step to the thresholds of their plain'and honest 
abodes, and look up to their fiiture homes — the stars, and in 
their light and glory they could read the first truth in Nature 



A NATIVE JUDGE. Jgl 

and ReYela4do]i, the great central trath to which every reason- 
able man cling& — "There is one God!" In this positifm 
they were infinitely happier than the proudest member of the 
Icmg dynasty of the ancient Pharaohs. 

Of all the characters on the group, no one is more interest- 
ing than that of a native judge. A singular specimen of this 
gemts homo I found residing within the precincts of Kualoa. 
His house was constructed on the native plan, but his domes- 
tic comforts were rather superior. He was a judge (!), and 
that made the difierence. He resided in the centre of a vil- 
lage containing six or seven other dwellings. His legal pro- 
fession constituted him a sort of lord over his surrounding 
brethren, for they all looked up to him with feelings some- 
whaX akin to reverence. He had no rosewood book-cases, well 
filled with elegantly bound and ponderous volumes ; but a sin- 
gle shelf contained his papers, and some half dozen books, fix>m 
which he had drawn his legal inspirations. His house con- 
tained a few articles for domestic use that would not have dis- 
graced the residence of many a thoroughly civilized man. Ev- 
ery thing was arranged with scrupulous care as to the best 
side being placed toward the gaze of the visitor, and all was 
proverbially neat and clean. He had so adjusted the insignia 
of his ofiiceT that his own countrymen might at once be im- 
pressed with the- majesty that civil law extends to its faithfiil 
discif^. 

The judge himself was a fine-looking fellow, about six feet 
high, well proportioned, and with a hand that might weU have 
belonged to a high-bom patrician woman. His entire physi- 
ognomy was that of a lawyer. 

It happened that two natives were present seeking the ad- 
justment of some private difficulty. The question having 
been proposed, a solemn sUence pervaded the entire dwelling. 
His honor sat perfectly still, and an awful solemnity shrouded 
his countenance ; while hi^ ** better half" sat down on the 
mat-covered floor, looking him directly in the face all the time. 
The gaze of the two men was not less intense. After some 
minutes' deliberation^ this painM silence was broken ; the 

F 



122 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

defendant was fined several doUais, while the plaintifiT seemed 
to think himself a lucky fellow, and went away with a lighter 
heart and more pleasant countenance. The Uttle court Yfa» 
dismissed, and his honor deposited his fees in a de^ recess in 
his nondesCTipts, evidently satisfied with himself and his own 
profession. 

I have aheady referred to tara plantatiims. The pro£rand 
interest with which they are r^axded hy the Hawaiians inr 
duces me to give them a hrief notice. Those that were flour- 
ishing around the dwelling of that native were among the 
fin^ I saw on ike group. But I would here he understood 
BJB giving a general description of the article in its nature and 
general cultivation. 

The taro {kalo m Hawaiian) is a spedes of arum {Antm 
esculentum). Like the Arum triph/yUim^y it grows in damp 
or wet situations only. It is propagated in water hy planting 
tops fixttn the suckers of one year's growth that have sprouted 
lorom the sides of the original plant. The heds are excavated 
two or three feet deep in the earth, leveled, and heaten with 
cocoa-nut stems, while wet, to produce capacity to hold water. 
Upland kalo is usually much smaller than timt which gmws 
in the rich hottoms. There is a red and a white species, he- 
sides several varieties of each. Some of these plantations vary 
in size from a forty-feet square to two or three acres. Like 
many of the fish-ponds, the size indicates the wealth and rank 
of the owner. Forty square feet of land planted with kcUo 
wOl afibrd subsistence for one person during a whole year. A 
^uare mile of land planted with the same vegetable will feed 
fifteen thousand one hundred and fiftyK)ne persons for the same 
length of time.* 

As an article of food, kalo is invaluable. It is, in fact, the 
Hawaiian staff of 4ife. It is the bread of the islanders. A 
good Providence has caused it to be indigenous. "While raw, 
it is exceedingly styptic and acrimonious, producing a bummg 

* The above estimate is made by allowing paths, three feet wide, 
between each piece of ground of forty square feet. The great ease 
by which th« natives ssstain themselves is thus «xjdain«d. 



KUALOA. 123 

sensattoa on the tongue. In this state it is fireqnently taken 
as a medicine; These properties aie destroyed, however, bj; 
subjecting it to heat; B(»^, baking, or roasting leaves the 
root a light fannaoeons substaace, not much unlike the best 
potato. In this last state, it is extensively used by the foreign 
population as an article of food for their daily table. 

But the nKMSt precious diet of the Hawaiians is the kah, 
when converted into^. It is prepared for this purpose by 
thoroughly cooking it, and then pounding it to a pulp in a 
trough made out of hard wood. The pounding*mallet is a 
piece of lava, having a shape much like a chemist's pestle. 
During the process of pounding, water is frequently added. 
When it assumes the appearance of a thick paste, it is finiidied| 
and then it receives the euphonious appellation of poi. As 
food, it is simple and nutritious, and eaten with one or two 
fingers, according to its consistency. It is always proferred by 
the people after the fermentative process has commenced. 
This article of food imparts bulk rather than strength and so- 
lidity to the constitution. And this fact wiU roadily account 
iai ib& in^nense corpidency of some of the old Hawaiian 
quells, a feature which, in those days, was deemed ihe ne 
ptus ultra of female beauty. Foi is the national dish. A 
native may be fed at the very best civilized tables ; but if he 
is not supplied with his favorite dish, he will go away dissat- 
isfied. And when elevated to the highest possible grade of 
<»Ti]ization, he readily mingles with his countrymen in any 
little party whero this article of diet is certain to be found. 

After a fatiguing: ride, I reached Kualoa (firom kua, the back, 
and loa, long). The name seems to be derived from the pe- 
cuhsr ridge of mountains forming the sButhem boundary of 
the KooLauloa district. It is a highly interesting location, the 
home of several native families. In firont rolls the wide Pa- 
cific. Hie scenery on the east and west is bounded by the 
chain of mountains above referred to, and which are huge 
masses of volcanic rook that have grown gray during the on- 
ward flight of unchronicled generations. Once they echoed 
bade the war-songs of victmous chieftains returning ftom the 



124 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

field of battle, where they plucked glory from the standards 
of their foes. But now the race of warriors has gone, and a 
few wild goats take refuge in the sides of these giant land- 
marks. The plains of Kualoa contain about twelve thousand 
acres, over whose surface may be traced tangible evidences of 
a large population long since extinct. 

Nothing can surpass this spot when the sun sets below the 
mountains, and reflects their massive shadows far out on the 
plain. Twilight reigns bdow, while aU above seems bathed 
in the glory of the descending orb. And when night throws 
its veil over nature, and every sound is hushed, the very silence 
becomes oppressive, and the mountains stand like giant sen- 
tinels to protect the contiguous plains from aU eviL 



CHAPTER IX. 

JOURNEY TO WAIALUA. 

Koad to EuHL — ^Repairing Roads. — Pcuihao Labor.— Natives as La- 
borers.— A Trial of Patience. — ^Balaam and his Ass. — ^The Proph- 
ets Conolosion. — ^Philosophy of Batience. — ^A Trial of Speed. — 
Ewa. — Church and Station. — ^A Patriarchal Missionary. — Eccle- 
siastical Discipline. — Singular Case of Divorce. — A Night at Ewa, 

The road leading firom Honolulu to Ewa contains but little 
of the picturesque. As far out as the Salt Lake, it is exceed- 
ingly rugged, and presents a scene of savage nakedness. It 
ranges along the foot of the huge slopes stretching fsxan the 
summits of the Konahuanui Mountains. 

At the time I passed over it, this road was undergoing re- 
pairs, but certainly not before they w^re needed. This was 
done by an express order from government. The work was 
done by persons who preferred rather to work out their road- 
tax than liquidate it by paying cash. Every native is com- 
pelled to work six days in the year on the public roads in his 
own district, or it may be commuted by paying three dollars. 
Until recently, women, who had trampled on the law of virtue, 



r 



PAAHAO LABOR. 135 

wete compelled to work out a certain term of imprisonment 
to hard labor on the public roads of the islands ; in other 
wordb, they had to repair the high-ways, because they had 
failed to repair their own. The traveler rides over many a 
thoroughfare that has been constructed, firom first to last, by 
this sort of labor. 

The system of road-making is very di^rent from what it 
was once. Then, as now, that sort of labor was denominated 
ptmhao. In former days it was a portion of a system whose 
every feature and aim were unqualified despotism* From 
the highest chief down to the lowest subject, it was a gradar 
tion of usurped power, each subordinate being oppressed by 
his superior. This state of afiairs is well illustrated by the 
laws which w^e appended to the first Constitution, publish- 
ed in 1842 by Kamehameha III. . They may be regarded as 
a hterary curiosity, and that is the principal inducement to a 
few brief citations : 

" Formerly, besides the regular government tax, there was 
another tax laid by,the local governors, another by the high- 
er landlords, and another still by their subordinates. 

'* If the landlords became dissatisfied, they at once dispos- 
sessed their tenants, even without cause, and th^i gave their 
land to whoever asked for it. 

" Formerly, a prohibition rested even on the ocean, so that 
men must not take fish firom it. 

" If the king wished for the property of any man, he took 
it without reward ; even seized it by force, or took a portion 
only, just in accordance with his choice, and no man could re- 
fuse him. The same was true of their chieis, and even the 
landlords treated their tenants thus. 

. '' The chief could call the people from one of the islands to 
the other to perform' labor. 

" If the people did not go to the work of the king when re- 
quired, the punishment was that their houses were set on fire 
And consumed.''i — Laws of Ka/mehameha III,, chap. liv. 

This labor-tax was the greatest of all scourges to the com- 
jnon people. The uncertain tenure of their possessions broke 



12g SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

down '^ir puUio spiiit, and introduced evik that tended to a 
depopulation of the race. 

Bad as was the condition of the road over which I was 
traveling, I could hut condude that the labor bestowed upon 
it would raider it* little or no better. About fi% natives 
were employed in doing repairs, or rather in trying to do 
them. Where the road-supervisor was, I knew not ; hut cer- 
tainly he was much needed. Clodied as I was in a regular 
&ndwich Island suit — and that is just such a suit as a. man 
chooses to wear-^-and approaching the group of idlers, it seems • 
I must have been locked upon as their foreman, hx every 
man sdzed his tools and commenced his work in good earnest. 
They were soon undecmved, however ; fixr^.on coming dose xqp 
with them, they all laughed at thdr panic, throw down their 
tools, and recommenced their jokes on each other. As a gen^ 
end thing) there is no cl^u» of men so difficult to employ as 
Hawaiians. A mere tithe of what was formerly extorted 
from them by the hand oi a relentless despotism^ can not now 
be obtained firom them by kindness and a good remuneratioa. 
No beast of prey watches his vic^m with a dioser scrutiny 
than the KanaJut watches his employer. In his presence he 
makes every efibrt to i^^pear active and useM ; but tiie very 
moment he disappears, it is the signal Hat a general cessation 
of work, and one keeps a ** look-out,'' while the group indulge 
in every variety of gossip. On the reajqpeaxance of their mas^ 
ter, the sentinel gives the alarm, and every man is found to 
be at work as thou^ he meant never again to lay down his 
im^dements. The employer may have watched them through 
a clump of foliage, or fixun the window i£ his house, and, oa 
coming back, tell them of thdr remiamess ; but they will 
swear him out of the use of his eyes, and insist upon it that 
he was altogether mistaken. 

But tiiere was a special cause why these road-repairers 
recognized me as not bdng their supervisor, and that cause 
was the personal appearance and conduct of my horse. The 
characteristics which oomposed his animal nature I am per- 
fectly at a loss to describe ; but I did fed that, in making 



A TRIAL OF PATIENCE. J_27 

him, NatUDe had made a mistake. I found much difficulty 
in. getting him out of the town. Of this his owner had advised 
xoe ; also, that he would do very well when £Eurly on the road. 
The first of the predictions was verified to the leUer ; the latter 
it was impossihle, as yet, to realize. I wsus unahle to decide 
whether or not the beast knew he had left the town two miles 
behind ; but I was conscious that, so far, I had been compelled 
to work my passage. And when he arrived at that part of the 
road where repairs were going on, he positively revised to go 
another step. The laborers indulged in a good deal of mirth 
at my expense. But when the horse came to a dead halt, I 
-was compelled to dismount, much to my own chagrin and the 
bcosterous mirth of the natives. 

I had already applied both whip and spur, until my limbs 
were fatigued. The day was very warm, and the perspiraticm 
actually streamed down into my boots. To have that horse 
stand and look me in the fac& with a dogged independence, 
Bud to see those natives fairly roUing vtdth laughter on the 
xugged road, was more than, my endurance could subserve. 
Feeling like losing some conunand over my temper, I exam- 
ined the girth and appendages, and once more mounted. With 
aU the strength of an excited arm, I applied my heavy riding- 
whip to my steed ; and in return, with all the independence 
of his nature, he madly and rapidly plunged and reared for the 
purpose of throwing me off. It was in vain ; the ugliness of 
his temper only drew down upon him a heavier whipping. 

It was a great relief to get away from those grimacing 
natives. My beast made a start at last. For the next two 
or three miles, and imtil after I had passed Aliorpaakcdj he 
would trot, walk, or come to a stand, just as it suited him ; 
and when I arrived^ at an elevation, of the road, he stood as 
still as a sculptured war-steed. 

To be firank with the reader, I am constrained to admit 
that at that moment I felt placed in a very unenviable posi- 
tion. I lost all patience. My spur had broken down, and my 
arm was tired from using Ihe whip. 

Before this ejqperiment in horsemanship, I had often cea- 



128 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

sured the prophet Balaam for his abuse of his ass. I had 
many a time pictured to myself the bearded prophet moimted 
on his beast, journeying to meet the king and the princess of 
Moab. I could see the old man urging along his steed, and 
the refractory steed endeavoring to urge its way back again, 
and, in its efibrts, crush its master's foot against the wall of 
the vineyard. 

Under such circumstances, Balaam lost his temper. It was 
no wonder. And he wished for a sword, that he might slay 
his beast. 

Situated as I then was, I could freely forgive the incensed 
seer. At that moment I perfectly understood his case, and I 
exclaimed to myself. Henceforth and forever I can pity his 
misfortunes and forgive his weakness. If the prophet had 
possessed a sword» he would have left his beast breathless on 
the spot ; and had I been in possession of a pistol at that 
moment, my sorry brute would never have baffled the efibrts 
of another rider. The prophet was pardonable, and so was 
the ass ; for the beast could see what his master could not — 
a supernatural phenomenon. With my steed, however, it was 
not so ; for I was well assured that the spirit of no Hawaiian 
warrior could come back to dispute my right of way to 
Waialua. 

For the second time I dismounted, and commenced a spec- 
ulation on patience. It occurred to me that the old adage,, 
" Patience is a virtue," was undisputably true ; but, at the 
same time, I was compelled to di^r firom some philosophers 
on what patience actually signified, and the conclusion I came 
to was simply this : that a man who never loses his patience 
has none to lose, and that its occasional test is a satisfactory 
evidence of its existence. 

But Fortune — ^if the goddess yet lives — had not quite aban- 
doned me ; for, while philosophizing on patience, I casually 
turned to survey a part of the road I had traveled over, and 
two native horsemen came galloping along. Under the im- 
pression that my horse would travel in company with their 
own, I once more mounted him. It turned out to be a wise 



EWA— CHURCH AND STATION. 129 

precaution ; for scarcely had I placed myself on the saddle, 
when the horsemen came up, and my own. steed started ofi*at 
a sweeping gallop, imparting a spirit of emulation to theirs. 
Away sped myself asid the two Kanakas, as if impelled along 
by a final race for glory. Reining them in was out of the 
question now. As we sped along I lost all thoughts of Ba- 
laam, far no less a hero than John Gilpin was the only man 
on whom my thoughts rested. He came very near running a 
break-neck race, and a similar doom looked me .in the face. 
The two natives glanced at me with profound astonishment. 
In vain they thed to arrest the mad career of their animals. 
On we sped, over hills, and plains, and through valleys. No 
wooer of the muse ever fled more swiftly on the wings of Pe- 
gasus Ihan we sped over that road. It v^^ a mercy the road 
was clear ; £)r, had there been any serious obstructions in the 
way, either our animals' limbs, or our own necks, must have 
forfeited their safety as an atonement for this unavoidable reck- 
lessness. On the whole, it was a curious j)erformance, but 
very &r .firom being agreeable. And so we rode until we 
nearly reached £ wa, twelve miles west of Honolulu. At that 
point the natives left me. Once more alone, my Bucephalus 
recommenced his tricks ; and it was not until two hours more 
had elapsed, and after sundry coaxings and floggings, that he 
conveyed me entirely to Ewa. 

Long before I reached this station, I could trace its site by 
means of a white flag that was floating over the native church. 
In the distance, it seemed to retain an aspect of marked deso- 
lation^ and yet that white flag bespoke a cordial welcome, for 
it indicated the existence of civilized life. I was not mistaken 
in my surmises. On arriving at Ewa, and closely inspecting 
the face of nature, I found much to admire and love. The 
village was small, and strictly Hawaiian in its character and 
ILppearance, but meriting no particular description. It had 
its district school, under the supervision of a native instructor, 
and the pupils were numerous and attentive. 

But the home of the missionary was a delightful spot. Its 
external features seemed to smile back the ever-glorious sun- 

F2 



130 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

- t I 

light that came streaming ficmi the placid bosom of the sky^. 
Fruits aad flowers thrived beautifully, such as the pomegran- 
ate {Pumica grcmattmiy Linn.), tamarind ( Tamcmndus Inr 
dica), pine-apple {Bromdia ancunas, Linn.), plantain {Mtcsa 
Paradisiaca, Linn.), and the bread-firuit^tree {Artoca/rpus ifir 
cisa) ; the bloody geranium {Gerarmmb sangumeum) ; a 
ma^^iificent specimen of the centmy plant, or American aloe 
{Agave Americana)^ and many other flowers peculiar to the 
tropics. The very atmosphere was balmy with the odors ci 
fruits and flowers. 

If the external aspect of that dwelling was enchanting, its 
internal arrangements wielded a magical influence cv^ the 
spirit of a visitor. Every thing was the very pattern of neat- 
ness and order. I was not long in concludii^ that the female 
proprietor of that' abode never troubled her head about the 
proceedings of " Women's Rights Conventions ;" and that she 
honored her God, herself, and her husband by staying at hcone 
and minding her oum business. 

Li that dwelling there was every thing that was needful to 
refresh a tired traveler. The room into which I was intro- 
duced, where I might refresh myself, had often been occupied 
by an interesting and only daughter*-a.t least I was so in- 
formed — ^who was now on a visit to a* neighboring island. 
But, if she was physically absent, there was something about 
that room that caused me to fed the spirituality of her prea* 
cnce. I had never seen her, but I touched every thing which 
I supposed she had : used her hair-brush ; looked in the mir- 
ror before which her yduthftd form had many a time stood to 
arrange her toilet ; turned over some of the pages of her books 
and music, &c., &c. I must confess I knew not at the time, 
nor do I now understand, why such a singular propensity 
came over me ; but I do know, that if the eye of the £ur 
daughter could have pierced those walls and sh^ its fire upon 
my own vision, I should instinctively have shrunk frx>m any 
such proceedings. There was a sanctity about that room that 
I shall never fail to realize ; it was the sanc^tMTt sanctoru/m 
where a virtuous woman had thousands of times reposed in 
the aims of sleep. 



A {PATRIARCHAL MISSIONARY. 131 

But a bnef truce to the ideal. I had refreshed myself and 
Mt it proper to go and make my best salam to the missumary, 
who had just been summaoned &ota a rather remote portion 
of his premises— -for he carried on a small &im. I did make 
my best bow, and gave him the best squeeze of the hand 
with the best grace I was master of. He was the most patri- 
archal old gentlema^i I have ever met, and he richly merited 
my best regards, my most sincere deference. There was some- 
thing about him so paternal, so honest, cordial, and good, that 
I could not fail to respect him. And then the generous and 
disinterested welcome he gave me to all his hospitalities ! I 
could have rode sixty miles at the break-neck gaUop I had 
just terminated, on a horse ten times as comical and refrac- 
tory, and over a road ten times as uncouth, to have met such 
a welcome at the end of my jou^ey as that missionary gave 
me. Rev. Artemas Bishop—for this is the name of the mis- 
atmary — ^has long since ceased to draw his support from the 
American Board of Missions. There are many persons who 
care to make no discrimination in frtcts which vitally afiect 
the history of Christianity in the Sandwich archipelago. It 
is for this very reason that I enter into details more than I 
otherwise should. I have made my ovfm observations, and 
arrived at my own conclusions, and, in stem justice to truth, 
fearless of the results, I shaU speak of things as I found them 
in 1853.* There are thousands who will care nothing about 
the method by which such men as Mr. Bishop are supported 
in their clerical duties, much less will they care for the rela- 
tive amount expended on their support. There are miany 
who are rather too fond of dealing in wholesale invective 
against the entire missionary body, and who denominate mis- 
sionary enterprise a ** farce/" 

I shall show to what extent this remark may be justified, 
and to what extent it is untrue. In the course of these x>age8, 
I shall give every man of whom I speak his righteous deserts, 
irrespective of parties or pArty influence. 

But to return to the missionary at Ewa. He is one of the 
first band that came to the islands, in the shape of an enforce- 



232 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ment, on April 27th, 1823. For thirty years he has been 
employed in elevating Hawaiian character. Many of the 
people of Ewa have been bom, have flourished, and passed 
away to another world since he has occupied this station. 
He has been their spiritual guide in life, their consoler in sor- 
row, their attendant in the hour of death. If I were requested 
to give an epitcnne of his character, I should employ the lan- 
guage of CowPER : 

"Simple, grave, sincere; 
In doctrine iincormpt; in language plain. 
And plain in manner ; decent, solemn, chaste^ 
And natural in gesture ; much impressed 
Himself, as conscious of his awful charge. 
And anxious mainly that the flock he feeds 
May feel it too ; affectionate in look. 
And tender in address, as well becomes 
A messenger of grace to guilty men." 

Such is the picture of at least one missionary at the Sand- 
wich Islands. Much more could be said in detail of his char- 
acter, but I have said enough. I will merely add that, partly 
by his own exertions, and partly £:om native aid, he obtains 
his support. The external beauties of his dwelling, its inter- 
nal comforts, and even the very house itself-— all are the results 
mainly of his own economy and industry. And where is there 
a heart so infinitely small and callous as to envy such a man 
his personal com£)rt, or cast aspersions on his personal char- 
acter! 

Like many of his coadjutors, the missionary at Ewa fi^e- 
quently mourns the instabihty of native Christian character. 
Under such circumstances, it becomes necessary to employ 
ecclesiastical discipline, and their expulsion from the Ohtirch 
not unfrequently follows. But it becomes a serious question 
if expulsion is not of too frequent occurrence in the Hawaiian 
churches, that of Ewa not excepted. Morally and philosoph- 
ically reasoned, that which may be regarded as a sufficient 
cause for the expulsion of an intelligent member of a Chris- 
tian communion in the United States, may with propriety be 
pardoned in a Church member on the Sandwich group. It is 



ECCLESIASTICAL DISCIPLINE. I33 

the most difficult task on earth to implant a sensitive con- 
science in the bosom of a Sandwich Islander. Even in ad- 
vanced age, or at the meridian of life, native character is ex- 
tremely childish. This is peculiarly the case with men and 
women who have experienced what may be termed a moral 
change of character. In their religious career they closely 
resemble children who are learning to walk — they can not 
stand alone. They are Uable to fall at any moment. To a 
person who knows any thing of the intensity of passion form- 
ing a leading element in Hawaiian character, this state of 
things will afibrd no cause for surprise. A single glance at 
the past moral history of the nation will fuUy estabhsh the 
cause of these palpable efiects, and afibrd solid grounds for 
the excuse of many a violation of ecclesiastical law. A mem- 
ber who has been cut off from all Christian communion deems 
himself a lost man, or herself a lost woman. There is no crime 
they can not then perpetrate, no vice into which they can not 
and do not readily plunge. I am well aware that there are 
some exceptions even to these remarks, but they are very few. 
Many a man has been expelled from the bosom of his church, 
when a slight remonstrance would have saved him from final 
shipwreck ; and so it has been in relation to many a woman. 
It can not be denied that there are those in the Hawaiian 
churches — ^Ewa included — who, at the day of final judgment, 
will shine resplendent as the sun in the glory of redeemed 
spirits ; but, as a general thing, an over-estimate exists as to 
the number of converts. Yet, in spite of all this, some con- 
versation I had with this patriarch, as well as numerous inci- 
dents which subsequently came imder my own observation, 
induced me to beheve that expulsions were altogether too 
numerous, and were induced by causes altogether too trifling. 
"With myself it has not unfrequently been a serious question, 
if, in thes6 rapid expulsions, many of the missionaries have 
not been productive of a greater amount of moral evil than 
otherwise would have occurred. This was my conviction 
when on the islands, and it remains unchanged now that I 
am thousands of miles away from them, 



134 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

In illustratioa of what I have advanced, many incidents 
may he cited. There is one, however, that was related to me 
by the missionary at Ewa, which may suffice. 

It casually happened that a native store was opened for a 
few minutes on a certain Sunday at Ewa. A native woman 
passing by saw something which took her fancy, and imme- 
diately went in and purchased it. On going home, the hus- 
band, who was a conscientious Christian, began to reaison the 
case with her, assuring her she had violated the law of the 
Sabbath, as it was established both by Grod and man. All 
this was true. The woman felt it to be so ; but she became 
mortally <^nded at her Uege lord, and positively refiised to 
accompany him again to the place of Protestant worship. She 
was true to her word. The next Sunday witnessed her at- 
tendance at the Catholic chapel. Her expulsion firam the 
Protestant communion followed as a matt» of course. Her 
next step was to apply to the CathoUc priest for a divorce fiK)m 
her husband, and the request was granted ; but it was direct- 
ly in defiance of civil law, and ought not to have be^i toW- 
ated. It was looked upon, however, by both the priest and 
his proUgSy ag being at once decisive and just ; and while she 
was welcomed into the bosran of a CathoUc communion, her 
former husband was left to mourn over a most unfair and un- 
lucky state of second bachelc»rship. His case was rendered 
more desolate frcon the fact that she could again repose in the 
lap of conjugal bhss, while he could consummate no such 
formal association. On the Sandwich Islands, the '* Church 
of his Holiness (?) the Pope" is a " city of refiige" to every 
class of character. 

Under the very hospitable roof of Mr. Bishop I spent one 
night. Although somewhat fatigued from the efiects of my 
recent steeple-chase, it was a long time before 

** Tired Nature's swe^ restorer, bakny sleep/' 
condescended to creep over my senses. I can now recall sev- 
eral reasons for this state of things, although I need mention 
only two. First, every thing was so very still. I had already 
passed across the great Sahara, where the silenoci so oppress- 



A NIGHT AT EWA. I35 

ive, was broken only by the occasional prayer or song of the 
Bedouin, or the solemn wail of the swiftly^-Ajring sirocco ; but 
amii that silence I had spent many a wake^ night So at 
Staaj the silence that surrounded the dwelling of the mission- 
ary was awful and sepulchral — it was, in short, oppressive ; 
and &r a long time I could not sleep. But the second cause 
of my wakefulness, although by no means surprising, was by 
fax the most emphatic. The drapery of that bed was as pure 
as purity itself, and as white as the whitest snow. Beneath 
it had reposed the young lady of whom ample mention has al- 
ready been made. K a curious reader is anxious to know my 
thoughts on this subject, I would kindly refer him to ** Rev- 
eries of a Bachdor,'* by " Ike Marvel." All I can say is, 
that, on waking up at a late hour next morning, I found my- 
self in the predicament of Fielding's " Tom Janes'* when pur- 
suing his " Sophia!* — ^I was hugging one of the pillows ! 



CHAPTER X. 

JOURNEY TO WAIALUA. 

Departure firom Ewa, — Old Battle-ground. — Lands of the Princees 
Victoria.— The Feudal System. — ^Reform of the Landed System. — 
Fee-simple Titles. — Necessity of a judicious Taxation. — Off the 
Road. — ^Extraordinary Feats in Horsemanship. — ^Arrival at "Waia- 
lua. — ^Mission Station. — Scenery. — ^How Missionaries extend a Wel- 
come. — Ride to Mokuleia.-^The Dairy Business* — Singular Freak 
in a Native's Ck>stume. — ^Improvement among Natives. — ^Native 
Church. — ^Popery and Mormonism. — Spurious Baptisms. — ^Native 
Cunning. — A novel " Farewell 1" 

Next morning I started again for Waialua. Before com- 
mencing my journey, however, I had taken every precaution 
that was necessary to procure a hotter horse, for I had per- 
mitted my former one to remain in the elysium of a fine pas- 
ture, solemnly resolving I would never ride him again — a vow 
which I was compelled, more fiK>m the force of circumstances 



136 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

than any thing else, most rehgiously to ohserve. My worthy 
host cheerfully proffered me the use of his own animal, which, 
he assured me, was " very slow," but, at the same time, "yery 
safe ;" and I, of course, as cheerfully accepted him. 

Wishing my generous entertainer a heartfelt *^ good-morn- 
ing," I pursued my way alone for Waialua, not doubting my 
own most complete success in finding the way thither. Cross- 
ing a brook which supphed the village of £wa with dehcious 
water, and pursuing my way through a small but exceedingly 
romantic dell, I emerged upon the open |dains. It was- on the 
boimdary line of an old battle-groimd. Just before the group 
was brought under the sovereignty of Kamehameha I., the 
kings of Kauai and Oahu engaged in a bloody conflict on this 
spot. Here the terrific war-hoop was sounded. This very 
soil drank in the gore of expiring and wounded warriors. Be- 
neath this sod slumbered many a brave follower of the hostile 
monarchs, whose only object was personal glory. The selec- 
tion of such a spot as this for the purposes of battle convinced 
me that the wars of the old Hawaiians were based on tactics 
extremely formidable and sanguinary. Here, at least, it was 
so. Not a single shrub afibrded shelter to the weaker party. 
It was close, open-field fighting. 

, Extending for miles beyond £wa are to be seen the lands 
of the Princess Victoria — a young native girl whom I saw in 
the royal school at Honolulu. The soil is composed mainly 
of a decomposed red tufaceous lava. In its present condition, 
it produces nothing but a coarse pasture for cattle. If brought 
imder the action of scientific agriculture, it would become 
exceedingly fertile. These lands of the young princess are 
bounded by a deep ravine, over which the traveler passes half 
way between Ewa and Waialua. Beyond that boundary, the 
lands are owned principally by chiefs, who .will neither seU 
nor lease any portion of them, nor do they bring them under 
any degree of cultivation. 

Besides owning several square miles of this territory, Vic- 
toria retains large possessions on all the islands of the group. 
One or two clerks are constantly employed to take care of the 



THE FEUDAL SYSTEM. I37 

books which relate to these possessions. Whoever the Gordian 
knot of marriage may tie to this princess, will probably come 
in for a large share of her territorial wealth ; but so much can 
not be said in relation to her personal or physical riches. By 
most of the foreign residents in Honolulu, it is firmly beUeved 
that she is as wise, in many respects, as her own mother was 
when living. "Why not ? Every grade of royalty is but a 
grade of perishable and erring humanity. 

The great mass of lands on the group were recently held 
very much on the old feudal tenure, but the system has been 
vastly modified within a few years past. The feudalism of 
the Middle Ages was not more absolute or sanguinary than the 
Hawaiian system was only thirty years ago. Its genius was 
to support the power of the ruling monarch, or the high chie& 
who derived their power by birthright, but more immediately 
£pom the monarch himself. It was natural to suppose that, 
to retain their lands, tenants would support the interests of 
their sovereign, for these gifts emanated firom royal clemency. 
The vanquished in battle were the victims of the most mer- 
ciless treatment. Their^possessions were wrested from them 
by the victors ; a hopeless poverty looked them sternly in the 
fece ; and, even if their life was spared, so extreme were their 
sufienngs, that death itself was a boon which many coveted, 
and some secured. 

This imcertain tenure continued until 1 846.* At that date 

* Quest 69. To whom the ownership or lordship of the land belongs, 

Ans. To the chiefs, Makawao alone being sold. [Green.] (East 
MauL) 

Mostly I believe to the king. Several large tracts to different 
chiefs. '[HrroHcocK.] (Molokai.) 

These lands, as I understand the subject^ belong to the heirs of 
Kamehameha L Generally, several individuals seem to have some 
rights to the same land. I can not point to a single piece of land in 
the district owned exclusively by one individuaL [Pabkeb.] (Ka- 
neohe, Oahu.) 

The land of these two districts are all owned by non-resident 
chiefe and people of the king. [Bishop.] (Ewa, Oahu.) 

I do not think that the people generally have had till recently 
any idea that they had a right in the soil, or, at least, such a right 



138 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

popular discussions, and appeals to goyenuu«[Ltal authorities^ 
paved the way to a hetter condition of aflfairs. In c(HmeGti<»| 
with a number of communications on the subject of landed 
property, addressed to Hon. R. C. Wyliie, there was one firom 
the pai of the Roman Catholic Bishop, L. D. Maigret, dated 
Honolulu, 27th of April, 1847. The language of the truly 
philanthropic bishop on this theme is worthy of a record in 
golden characters. Among other practical pnnciples which 
he lays down, he remarks : 

" To grant lands to the natives, and secure to them, forev- 
er, the enjoyment and prosperity of said lands. The Hawaii^ 
an government will lose nothing by being generous. "What- 
ever a sovereign gives to his subjects is more his own than if 
he took it away from them. The islands, it is said, have neaiv 
ly eight thousand square miles, and one hundred thousand in- 
habitants. Dividing those eight thousand square miles among 
one himdred thousand inhabitants, it is found that every native 
would have upward of forty-eight acres of land. Supposing 
the government to keep to itself nine tenths, out of the re- 
maining^ tenth there would stiU be upward of three acres 

as they could not be made to yield at any time by the command of 
a high chie£ And for this reason no natives, except in the large 
villages, have ever attempted to build them permanent houses. The 
removals of the people from one island to another made them feel 
like tenants at will, and from that time to the present I think that 
most of the people have regarded themsel^^es as such (the law to the 
contrary notwithstanding), in most cases where the missionary has 
not succeeded in raising in the minds of the most enlightened a dif- 
ferent sentiment. [Emebson.] (Waialua, Oahu.) 

To Victoria, the daughter of Eekuanaoa, and to the latter as her 
guardian. [Gulick.] (Waialua, Oahu.) 

Every land has been regarded as having some owner, and many 
lands have six or eight owners at the same time. For instance, 
Waialua, containing perhaps one or two thousand acres in all, has 
seven lords, one above the other, and all of them are over the people, 
and claim services from them occasionally, if they happen to want 
it. [Emebson.] (Waialua, Oahu.) See *' Answers to Questions," 
p. 44, 45. 



REFORM OF THE LANDED SYSTEM. 13g 

£>r every inhabitant. In ikuB view, the sovereign of these isl- 
ands is more able to make his people happy than most sover- 
eigns, and therefore he ought to consider himsdf happy, for 
tile happiness of a sovereign does not consist in the power to 
make his people hai^y, but in his really making them happy. 
Let him, then, distribute lands to his subjects, as did, in old 
times, the diief and legislator (^the Hebrews, and he will soon 
flee disappear a multitude of evils which consume and deci- 
mate the population of the islands. The natives then will 
have something to eat, and wherewith to clothe themselves ; 
they will labor with gladness, because they will be interested 
in their labor, and the fruit of their labor will be insured to 
them ; parents, in friture, will be able to raise their famiUes ; 
the multiplication of marriages will be ^loouraged ; we will 
no longer see the plurality of adoptive fisUhers so hurtful to fil- 
ial love and the correction of children ; the natives will be- 
erane attached to a spot erf ground which they well know be- 
longs to them ; they will then construct habitations more solid, 
more durable, more spacious, rnxxe healthy, and fitter for the 
preservation of good morals ; we will no longer see so many 
vagabonds, who hve only at the expense of others, and who 
unceremoniously enter the first housQ they come to ; the na- 
tives will no longer he down on the wet and muddy ground ; 
in their houses there will no longer be the disgusting inter- 
mixture, whence <mginate so many diseases and so much 
corruption ; the peoj^e will bless the sovereign who gov- 
erns them ; they will grant him all their afiection and their 
confidence, and they will respect more than ever his author- 
ity."* 

The first step toward the annihilation of the (Ad feudalism 
was to establish a Land OonvnisMon, befdre which every native 
subject might present his claim to the estate on which he 
Uved, or had been owned or tenanted by his fathers. Very 
soon thousands of claims were presented. Their settlement 
was found to be a most laborious and tedious work, as mtoy 
of the claims were disputed by several parties at once, and the 
• « Answers to QuestionB,'' p. 56, 57. 



140 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

testimony in such cases was necessarily recorded both in the 
EngUsh and the Hawaiian languages. 

But there were difficulties in the way of a q)eedy settle- 
ment. The old chiefs were slow to change the customs of 
their fathers, and, like other men in power, their ambition 
was wide in its grsisp. The king himself pleaded the natural 
rights of his subjects. The contest was long, but the victory 
w^as achieved. A pointed reference was made to this decision 
by the Minister of the Interior, in his Annual B^port of 1850, 
before the Hawaiian Legislature : 

'' It has been the anxious wish of the king and his council 
to encourage agriculture and other branches of industry, and 
attend to the promotion of happiness among the people. It was 
with this view that certain resolutions were passed by the king 
and council on the 21st of December, 1849, granting fee-simple 
titles to the common people for the lands they have occupied. 

"These resolutions are herewith submitted for the consid- 
eration of the Legislature. It is believed, if any thing will 
arouse the people of Hawaii to industry and self-respect, it is 
this crowning act of his Majesty's reign. If this fail, there 
is no hope. J£ the possession of a home — ^the home, too, in 
many cases, where theyr fathers lived, and where their ashes 
sleep — ^the desire to provide for children — ^the prospect of 
wealth and comfort— the excitement of advancing civiUzation 
around them, propelled by the wakeful minds, strong arms, 
and increasing wealth of l^e white man, wiH not start our 
people from their si^ineness and set them to cultivate their 
lands, nothing will do it, and our people must give place to 
those who will make that use of the soil which the almighty 
Maker of the world intended should be made." 

These fee-simple titles have already been of incalculable 
benefit to the people. The]^ furnish another cause for their 
attachment to their ever-generous monarch. There were cir- 
cumstances which justified a reference, by himself, to this 
theme, in his opening speech before the Parliament of April, 
1853. In that single sentence there is something at once 
eloquent and unique : 



r 



FEE-SIMPLE TITLES. 



141 



*' Upon your loyalty and patriotism I rely for the support 
of my rights, and ^^r the preservation of the Hberties which 
are guaranteed to my people. For their welfare I freely gave 
up, in the division of lands, much of my territorial rights, to 
the injury of my private revenues. I confide in the repre- 
sentatives of my people, who are thereby benefited, to fiunish 
at all times, what means may be wanting for the due support 
of my crown, in just proportion to the revenues of my king- 
dom;* 

A few of the pubUc lands have been sold, and their pro- 
ceeds have benefited the government revenues.* 

But one of the most beneficial systems that could be adopt- 
ed by the government would be a judicious tax on real es- 
tate. It would have a tendency to crush some of the land- 
speculations of many foreigners, who would be induced either 
to forsake their schemes of monopoly, or, to meet the expenses 
incurred by a tax, cultivate the soil, and thus find employ- 
ment for hundreds of native subjects. It would reduce the 
&bulou8 value of real estate throughout the islands, but espe- 
cially in towns and villages. It would increase activity, hap- 
piness, and enterprise among the lower orders of the people, 
and be a source of gain to the national finances. The empty 
boast that it is the only nation on earth where the soil is not 
taxed, is countervailed by the slavery of indolence which non- 
taxation imposes oa thousands of the people. 

Having left Ihe battle-ground, and indulged a few specula- 
tions relative to the topics I have just glanced at, I found that 
I had forsaken the regular path. In a general sense it mat- 
tered but Uttle, for the plains over wliich I was traveling 

* The following Table is firom the Report of the Minister of the 
Interior for 1850 : 



PTOTioW 

to Jan. 1, 
1847, 
In 1847, 
In 1848, 
In 1849, 
In 1850, 
Total, 


No. 


Aeiw. 


Path. 


Price. 


Oabv. 


Haoi. 


Hawaii. 


Kauai. 


Aei«f. 


Path. 


ACTM. 


Path. 


Aerw. 


Path'. 


Aerea. 


Path. 


6 
62 
40 
80 
50 


850 
2,297 
1,091 
14,845 
8,207 


648 
115 
805 
475 
151 


$ Cts. 
576 00 
4,800 42 
2,406 74 
30,468 82 
12,834 73 


850 

168 

499 

1,999 

2,841 


648 
457 
373 
501 

377 


1,366 

213 

10,318 

4,320 


1,183 
431 
231 
621 


762 
169 
653 
545 


895 
605 
348 
363 


209 

1,875 
500 


605 
605 


247 


27,292 


984 


51,086 71 


6,357 


1,146 


16,219 


47 


2.130 


1,001 


2,585 


_ 



142 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

were hemmed .in by two chainB of Ipfty momitains. In a par^ 
ticular sense, koweyer, it was of material importance ; iot^ 
although I could not easily lose myself, I might get entangled 
in some ravine, and be compelled to retrace my course. A 
drizzling rain began to fall ; but it was only the precursor of 
the heavy rain-storm ahead. I was nine miles firom Ewa, 
and a long distance from any house in which I could take 
refuge from the storm. I was now in a deep ravine, through 
which a heavy mountain torrent was sweeping. . There was 
no alternative but to go forward. Plimging into the stream, 
my be^t was borne rapidly down to a fording-place nearly 
half a mile below, where he managed to pck his way to the 
opposite shore. After a weary search, I at l^igth discovered 
an egress on the Waialua side of the ravine, and addressed 
m3^1f to ascend the rugged steep. After repeated efibrts, the 
ascent was achieved ; but the horse stood on the brow of the 
hill, panting and covered with foam, and manifesting an un- 
willingness to proceed any further. 

Peering through the gathering mists, and leaving the ravine 
on my right, I congratulated myself on finding the regular 
road. But my position was any thing but agreeable. En- 
tirely alone, with a tired horse, the rain-storm sweeping toward 
me with the speed of the wind, and ignorant of the path, what» 
I adced myself, would happen next ? If the road would re- 
lieve me of all further embarrassm^ts, I was in that. But I 
was doomed to re-enact, to a serious extent, the scenes of the 
previous day ; and yet I forbear all I can of their description. 
The rain increased now to a fury, outstripping a^y thing of 
the kind I had ever seen, either among the Andes, or on the 
Isthmus of Panama. To increase my dijSiculties, my horse 
faced about — as most horses would have done— vdth the evi- 
dent intention of returning to Ewa, while I was equally de- 
termined he should not. My only alternative was to dismount^ 
and hold him where he stood. Shade of Mohammed ! how 
it rained. It seemed to fall firom the clouds in sheets. And 
there I stood, trying to urge that horse along, and wishing that 
he would expire, or that the earth would open and receive 



EXTRAORDINARY HORSEMANSHIP. I43 

him, 80 that I might make scmie sort of a motion through the 
chilling lain that was. streaming down into my boots. Now 
it was that I fully appreciated the commendation bestowed on 
him by his venerable master^ — "very dow T but ''very 
safe /" The reader may probably think my good wishes finr 
that "safe*' steed very emphatic; but I sincerely hope he 
may never be placed in a situation which can call forth such 
reflections. It has been my good or bad luck to ride on nearly 
every species of the quadruped family, but that horse was the 
piince of nondescripts. K the reader can picture to his own 
mind the immortal " Don Qmxote,*' mounted on his no less 
dktinguished " Rozinante/' as he went to wage wax against 
the firiarean arms of the wind-mill ; or the undoubted " Sir 
Poughty Hudibras/' mounted on a steed which had recently 
Jeft his tail cm a hook in the stable wall, as Butler describes 
him ; or if he can imagine the embarrassments that befell the 
ppus and prudent " Vicar of Wakefield," when he stood in 
the fiiir trying to dispose of his faithful old horse " Blackberry,'' 
then, and only then, can he foizn an idea of my own appear- 
ance with that horse and in that storm. To say I was pa- 
tient under such circumstances would be to depart from the 
truth. No man could have kept cod, unless his soul had been 
suddenly metamorphosed into an icicle-— a transformation not 
much to be desired. I would have preferred to be tied, like 
*' Mazei^>a," to a wild horse that would haste away with a 
lightning speed, until towns and cities, day and night, and 
almost every thing human, had been left far behind. 

But there ijs an end to all things ; and there was a termin- 
ation to that rain, not less than my use of that beast. The 
storm sw^t past. The skies, which a short time before 
aeemed wedded to the gloom of night, were again lightened up 
by the gdden sun-rays. At this moment the scene was ex- 
ceedingly grand and imposing. On the right of the elevated 
plains ranged the Konahuanui Moimtains ; on the left, those 
of Kaala. Before me, and in the rear, was a fine view of the 
Pacific laving the shores of the island. 

From this elevation, Waialua waa visible at a distance {£ 



144 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTE^. 

nearly eight miles, at which place I arrived after a fatiguing 
ride of six hours, hut a good hoise would have carried me 
there in two. 

The Mission station at Waialua is one of delightful repose. 
Many of its heautiful features owed their existence to the su- 
pervision and industry of the then resident missionary, Mr. 
Emerson, whose place among the native population is that of 
a father in the midst of his children. 

The climate at this station is much cooler, more pleasant, 
and freer from dust than at Honolulu. This may he attrih- 
uted to its heing located on the north side of the island, which 
is exposed more immediately to the action of the northeaist 
trade- winds that come sweeping in from the ocean. The sum- 
mer heat is indicated by the thermometer at 75** to 80* ; the 
winter temperature usually at 60*. When I visited Waialua, 
it was in the middle of Fehruary. There were several acres 
of Indian com growing at a height of four or five feet. And 
while many of my friends in the north of the United States 
were heavily booted, and incased in overcoats buttoned close 
up to the chin, I was enjoying the luxury of a pubhc bath in 
the beautiful stream that flows through the village. 

Waialua (meeting of the two waters) is situated at the base 
of the Konahuanui range, on its western slope. From the 
centre of the village the scenery is exceedingly fine. The 
rugged slopes of the Kaala range rise at a short distance ; and 
down their sides, during the rainy season, numerous cascades 
may be seen leaping down one after another, in swift succes- 
sion, like sheets of polished silver. The district is watered by 
five streams that have their source in the neighboring mount- 
ains, and flow down the romantic valleys. The view seaward 
surpasses any thing else in this region. The surf comes roll- 
ing in from the ocean with the speed of the swiftest courser, 
leaving its white foam on the beach, and sending its solemn 
murmurs far over the adjoining plains. Sometimes, during a 
heavy northwest gale, it rises to a height of thirty to forty feet 
in nearly a perpendicular crest. At such periods, it presents 
a scene of such terrific sublimity as no language can describe. 



MISSIONARIES' WELCOME. I45 

Occasionally it has nished up the heach, sweeping away neigh- 
boring dwellings, and causing a large amount of ruin. 

I wish I could fully portray the generous, unostentatious 
welcome extended by most of the Sandwich Island mission- 
aries to the traveler. That they have their faults I will not 
deny ; but they have their virtues. They are men only, sub- 
jected to the same frailties, passions, impulses, that are inher- 
ent, to the great progeny of Adam. But there is something 
about their welcome to the respectable stranger that makes 
him forget his toils, and elevates them in his own estimation. 
I had not been in Waialua more than two hours before I re- 
ceived a courteous invitation firom. a superannuated missionary 
residing on the east side of the river. I had never seen him, 
and was personally a stranger to himself and family. Most 
sincerely do I wish that thousands of fastidious devotees to that 
d^ty, Ceremony, so blindly worshiped in all public conunu- 
nities, could have witnessed the unpretending courtesies which 
that good man bestowed on me. It was so in regard to Mr. 
Emerson, at whose residence I first called. These men had 
spent half of their lives on the group, among the semi-civilized 
natives ; and yet they had not lost a particle of that polish and 
dignity, that ease and complacency, which make a man feel 
quite at home, and stamp the character of his entertainer with 
^e permanent solidity of one of Nature's noblemen. A man 
may have all the pohsh which philosophy, rhetoric, and moral 
science can bestow upon the intelligence of the most profoimd 
student, yet, if he be destitute o£ that moral honesty and cour- 
tesy which good old dame Nature bestows on her &,vorite chil- 
dreai, there will be something lacking. What do Persian car- 
pets, and Turkish ottomans, and embroidered damasks amount 
to, if you have the slightest idea that you are not a truly wel- 
come guest ? Of what avail would be all the gorgeous wealth 

" Of Ormufl and of Ind," 
unless its distribution be sanctified by a generous spirit, which 
teaches you to enjoy rather than admire ? I ask no better 
welcome, no truer generosity, than have many a time been 
bestowed on me by those Saoidwich Island missionaries. 

Q 



146 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES: 

A few days afiter my airival at Waialua, I was invited by 
Mr. EmeiBon to acocnnpany him to his dairy at Mokuleia. It 
is a small settlement, or scattered village rather, about six 
miles directly west oi his readence. On om* journey there, I 
had a good c^portunity of seeing the rich |dains stretdiing&x 
miles in that directicm. The soil can be weU cultivated with- 
out the means of irrigation. Those plains contain more than 
twenly square miles that are capable of producii^ cott«i» 
sugar-cane, com, indigo, &oc,, to abn@et any extent, and yet 
they are permitted to remain almost a. total waste. 

On arriving at Mokuleia, I perceived that Mr. Emerson 
had a small farm under cultivation. Com was fi<mrishing 
admirably. It had a touch of Yankeeism about it that iiiade 
me feel quite at home. But the principal object of attracticnL 
tl^re was a dairy. It was in its infancy, but promised an 
extensive suoeess at no distant day. At that period it was 
yielding one hundred pounds per ^month of the fmest butt^, 
which commanded a ready sale in Honolulu at fifty cents per 
poimd. In view of the capabilities of the soil, it is surprking 
that so little has yet been achieved in agricultioral pursuits. 
The dairy business might become an extensive and lucrative 
em{^y. Pasture is abundant and perennial. Cattle eamly 
and rapidly multiply. Streams of the purest water abound 
in every location where pasture can be obtained. With the 
right kind of men — thorough go-ahead Yankees, and a Httle 
capital, together with the right kind of governmental proteo- 
tion, the agricultural portions oi the group could be rendered 
a terrestrial paradise. 

On returning to Waialua, we met with a most amusing 
specimen of native eccentricity in dress. On a riMng part of 
the plain, and in front of his humble abode, stood an old man, 
watching our approach apparently with the most profound 
interest. His personal figure was enough to produce a smile 
upon the countenance of the most stoical moralist. He had 
unfortunately lost one eye, but the sense of sight appeared to 
centre, with a two-fold capacity, in the other. His hair, white 
with age, stood stiaight up on his head. His entize suit twn- 



IMPROVEMENT AMONG NATIVES. ^47 

fiisted of a short blue woolea shirt, and a tattered cotton vest, 
probably once the property of a foreign school-boy. The vest 
was by no means too loiig, and, although very tight, was but- 
tcmed up with the most scmipulous care. He seemed to be 
totally ignorant of every other necessary appendage, such as 
unmentionaUeB, &k;^ kc. Be these things as they might, he 
was as careless and merry as a mere youth. With his one 
eye he watched us until he saw we were immediately oppo- 
site him, when he saluted us with an exceedingly good-natured 
"aloha/*' and drew a long breath, as though he had ridded 
Jiimself of a serious responsibility. He maintained his posi- 
tion, and kept that <me eye upcm us until we were about to 
disappear. 

But it may not be supposed that this old Hawaiian was a 
correct specimen of the present generation of his coimtrymen. 
True, volumes might be filled merely with the descriptions 
of the personal appearance of the natives every where on the 
group. But in no part of the group have the natives made 
more progress in civilization than at Waialua^ fifteen or 
sixteen years ago, there were but two persons ii^ the whole 
district who appeared in church clad merely in shirt or pan- 
taloons. At that period all the women were dressed simply in 
ka^, or native cloth. The people were generally indolent, 
cherishing a profound dislike to an innovation of the customs 
of their Others. Now, however, they axe well clothed with 
imported cloths, silks, &c., and are paying considerable atten-^ 
tion to various kinds of industry. > 

One of the strongest evidences of advancement is the native 
house of worship. It is a noble structure, composed of black 
lava, and cornered with a substantial sand-stone. The walls 
axe weU plastered on the inside^ A short time prior to my 
visit, a idungle roof was put on it, at a cost of $1800. The 
interior is neatly arranged. On the front of every slip ia 
marked, in bold characters, the name of the principal oeon* 
pant. In nearly every slip, and quietly reposmg on the 8ea;\;, 
or in some prominent position, I noticed a singular appen^^la^ 
— a small calabash, or gourd {CticmbUa lagmMria\ ' J|dc][\, 



148 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

was sacredly retained as a receptacle for the superfluous saliva 
of the worshipers ; in plain English, they were Sandwich Isl- 
and spittoons ! But these are nothing when a j^rson becomes 
accustomed to them. On the whole, the fabric is remarkably 
neat and commodious. It was all done by natives, under the 
supervision of a foreign mechanic. Its capacity is 1200 per- 
sons. I was informed that it was th« third building the con- 
gregation have erected in "Waialua. 

At this part of the island. Popery and Mormonism have 
reared their standards and obtained their proselytes. These 
two systems are bitterly opposed one to the other, and both 
to Protestantism. Between them all there \Sf a triple warfare. 
The followers of the Pope regard the " Latter-day Saints" as 
being entirely without the pale of salvation, and unceremo- 
niously consign them to the hottest apartments in a worse re- 
gion than Purgatory. On the contrary, the followers of " Joe 
Smith'* claim a plenary inspiration from God himself, and as- 
sert their authority and prerogative to reform Cathohcs and 
Plrotestants equally alike. In support of these designs, they 
impose upon the too credulous natives by profesang to work 
miracles, and to have the " gift of tongues." In short, they 
do every thing but metamorphose stones into food, raise the 
dead from their graves, and sundry other things which come 
under the category of the supernatural. 

Contrary to the best estabhshed ecclesiastical regulations, 
these disciples of the slaughtered Prophet require no evidence 
of a moral change prior to the reception of proselytes into their 
communion. This modem laxity of saint^hip has been pro- 
ductive of a few rich scenes at Waialua. The natives are al- 
most amphibious. To them it is no " cross" to submit to a 
pubUc immersion. One day a few young men went to thdff 
new teachers to be baptized by them. The rite was imme- 
diately administered. A short time after, when they would 
point to these hopeful converts as an evidence of success, they 
had thrown ofi* all their baptismal vows, and come to the om- 
inous conclusion that all was a mere farce. 

But this was only one out of the many instances ^ cun- 



NOVEL "FAKEWELL!- 149 

ning* BO well understood by Hawaiians generally. So skilled 
are they in the art of deception, that they can hardly be &,th- 
cooed by those who have lived among them for years. When 
they do not wish to be imderstood by foreigners who can use 
their language, they will conduct a sort of monosyllabic chant, 
pronouncing, in a disconnected form, the names of persons, 
things, virtues, vices, hopes, wishes, &c., &k;. Sometimes they 
will hold a significant conversation with their fingers. At 
other times the same purposes are efi»cted by whistling. It 
is difficult to decide whether these practices have in view the 
retention of some old Pagan custom, or the avoidance of a de- 
tection in the conception and commission of crime, the perpe- 
tration of which would be recognized by the penal laws of the 
nation. 

I was present during both sessions of the congregation fonor 
ing the Protestant Church on the Sunday I remained at Wai- 
jilua, and my presence among them naturally excited their 
curiosity. Their gentlemanly teacher showed me a seat near 
his pulpit ; consequently, more eyes were fixed on me than on 
himself. The aiitemoon services had come to a close. The 
lingering audience asked me, through Mr. Emerson, the mis- 
oonary, if they could be pepmtted to step up and wish me 
farewell, for they might never see me again. I answered in 
the affirmative. With few exceptions, every man, woman, 
and child came up to where I stood, and, grasping me warm- 
ly by the hand, wished me a hearty " aloha .'" (lov^, or salu- 
tation). This ceremony, so novel and simple, consumed a 
considerable time. Although I had done nothing to merit 
this display of good feeling, it was perfectly in unison with 
what they had told their pastor : *^ Let us say cdoha to the 
haole (&reigner), &r we have a great love for him." 



150 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ISLAND OF KAUAL 
FBOX HONOLULU TO SOLOA. 

iloggmg Scenes at Sea. — ^Eanai at Baylight— Aspect of the Shoreei 
— Location of the Island. — Its physical Character. — Eoloa and 
Harbor. — Remarkable Cayes. — Singular Phenomenon. — ^Revoltin^ 
offer by a Parent 

Kauai is the northwestemmost island of any importance in 
the gnmp, ani it is cut off fiom Oahu by the usually stonny 
Straits of leiewaho. In former years the passage was efiected 
in small canoes ; and many are the singular and daring ad- 
ventures spoken of in relation to the Hawaiian kings, princes, 
and warriors of past generations. 

The modem mode of transit is by native schooners. Occa- 
sionally a whale ship bound to the Arctic Ocean calls at Ko- 
loa, on this island, for supj^es ; and he is a lucky fellow who 
can procure this mode of inter-idand navigation, for he stands 
a good chance to escape the horrors of those native vessels. 

On my passage down to Kauai, it was my good fortune to 
be conveyed there on board the " Helen Augusta," a first-class 
whal^ bound to the Polar Seas. She had been to one of the 
windward isla:ads of the group on business, and merely touch- 
ed at Honolulu for the captain, whom I accompanied on board. 
The topsails were squared, and as we stood out a little sea- 
ward, I soon became aware that among the crew there were 
two refiractory sailors, who were trj^ng to incite a spirit of dis- 
content. Before leaving for the windward portsj they had re- 
ceived a bonus of their wages — ^for they had been shipped in 
Honolulu — and their discontent was nothing less than a wish 
to get back to the town. They were desirous to go and spend 
the balance of their money with some of the girls on ebefte^ 



r 



FLOGGING SCENES AT SEA. 151 

and, in the hope of achieving their purposes, had lefiised duty, 
and lavished every sort of ahuse upon the officers of the ship. 
The captain, however, was made of sterner materials than they 
BujqpoBed. As soon as the ship was steering her course £as 
Kauai, he changed a portion of his dress, loaded a revolver, 
and came out on deck. 

'' Come &£t here, all hands !*' shouted the captain. 

The crew came aft, as requested. 

« Those of you who are inclined to do your duty will step 
over to the starhoard side of the ship I" added the captain. 
' The whole crew, the two men above refemd to excepted, 
w^ot over. 

" So there are but two of you who are dissatisfied with my 
ship and myself, and I will give you twenty minutes to decide 
whether or not you will return to your duty," said the captain. 

But there the two men stood, or leaning, rather, against the 
bulwai^, loddng defiance at th^ commander. 

" Your time is nearly up," he said, as he passed the kshes 
of a " cat" through his hands. " I am sorry to be compelled 
to act sternly with you ; but I shall go my voyage, and main- 
tain my authority as captain o£ my own ship." 

The two men remained immovable ; but they merely looked 
up to the captain's face, and told him to go to — ^that is, to the - 
place where the Koran consigns all the infidels on earth with* 
out the least distinction. But the captain yet bore with them. 

The fatal moment came at last. The ringleadCT was 
stripped to his naked back, and tied up in the rigging. De- 
liberately but heavily the " instrument of tOTture" fell in reg' 
ular succession. Every stroke left a bloody aeam on the back 
of the sailor. He fainted, calling for water ; but he had re- 
ceived a '* dozffli" lashes. 

The other ddinqu«it was tied up in like manner. He 
pleaded for mercy, but it- was too late. 

** Your repentance must be based on something more than 
a mere promise," repKed the captain. " I have a very ugly 
temper when it is fairly roused. It grieves me to punish you, 
but I shall do my duty at whatever risk." 



X52 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

He did his duty. The man was flogged and cut down from 
the rigging, and his lacerated back was caxeMLy dressed by 
the captain's own hand. The crew was once more convened, 
and they were forbidden, during the entire voyage, to refer to 
the subject in the hearing of the offenders. The men went to 
their duty. The captain retired to his cabin, where he wept 
like a cldld, and haxdly a mouthful of food crossed his lips that 
day. 

It wa£ the first time I had ever seen this hellish and de- 
basing mode of punishment, and may it be the last. My very 
soul sickened during its administration, and yet I was conv* 
pelled to arrive at the conclusion that, in this instance at least, 
the master of that ship had done nothing more than his duty 
in maiutAJning his authority and the peace of the crew. 

During the remainder of that day, and through the follow- 
ing night, we ran down to Kauai under " dose-reefed topsaih^." 
At daylight next morning we were within three leagues of the 
southeast shore of the island. It was a scene of awful sub- 
limity and savage grandeur. The light fleecy clouds, so coedt 
mon at dawn in the tropics, were gently reposing on the sum- 
mits of the lofty mountains, beautiftdly and strangely contrast- 
ing with the dark foliage which was qprinkled over their bold 
and hoary sides, while the sun, just springing up, as it were, 
out of the ocean, shed a flood of nature's poetry over the en- 
tire scene. 

The shores of the island are bold and impressive in their 
appearance ; basaltic in their nature, in some places forming 
a wall from the sea, and in others, piles of rugged rocks as 
black as night, they seem to stand as if to oppose the progress 
of the surf that breaks over or against them. There are wild 
receptacles resembling the work of art, but, in reality, worn 
into the solid rocks by the action of storms during many a 
century past. And amid the savage grandeur, some isolated 
moimd of sand may rear its clear fair brow to the gaze of the 
coaster. Of the shore, as a vessel approaches Koloa, it may 
truly be said : 



ITS PHYSICAL CHARACTER. I53 

''It was a wild and breaker-beaten coast, 

With cliffs above, and a broad sandy shore, 

Guarded by shoals and rocks as by a host^ 

With here and there a creek, whose aspect wore 

A better welcome to the tempest-toss'd; 

And rarely ceased the haughty billow's roar. 

Save on the dead long summer days, whiclf make 

The outstretch'd ocean glitter like a lake." 

A vessel would have no chance if cast away there. 

The location of the island can not be surpassed. Its most 
northern point lies in 22"* 17' north latitude ; its southern, in 
2V 56'. Its longitude is embraced between 159* 41', and 
IGO"* 8' west Its romantic retreats, and the refreshing breezes 
which always sweep over it, render it a delightftd place of re- 
sort in the hot summer months. The thermometer usua% 
ranges from 60** to 80°. No chilling winds contract the foH- 
age or wither the flowers ; no sirocco sends its terrible breath 
over plains or moimtains, to induce fretfiilness or enervation 
on the part of man. The mountains are more or less exposed 
to the genial showers of an eternal April, the plains and val- 
leys to the smile of an unfading summer. It is such a '' bright 
little isle,'' as the distinguished poet Moore sighed for, 

''Where a leaf never dies in the still blooming bowers. 
And the bee .banquets on through a whole year of flowers.'' 

It is a land associated with a long race of kings, chie&, and 
warriors ; with battles, victories, tradition, and song. Its 
scenes can not fail to be deeply impressed in the memory of 
a traveler, even after he has left it for years. 

Kauai is the oldest island of the group : its soil is deeper, and 
there is more arable land. This theory of age is amply sus- 
tained by geological facts, not less than by native tradition. 
It is said that Fde recognized this island as the first theatre 
on which she commenced her fiery devastations ; and that, 
having spread desolation every where in her path, she consec- 
utively visited every other island of the group, until she ar- 
rived at Hawaii, where she has ever since Hved. 

So much for the mythological legends of the old Hawaiians. 
But whatever apparent prodigies these mythical relations may 

a2 



154 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

seem to recognize, certain it is that, in a geological point of 
view, volcanic action did commence here. The entire island 
Beems to have been formed by the successive eruptions of 
Mauna Waialeale — ^the great central peak — ^when in a state 
of activity. The numerous extinct craters in the district of 
Koloa and elSewhere were nothing less than the vent-holes 
through which immense currents of gaseous matter escaped, 
thereby preventing the island from being blown into countlesg 
fragments. So many a^s have eli^psed since the red rain of 
these volcanic fifes, that the small craters have sunk to mere 
mounds, some of which are scarcely distinguishable. And 
where these tangible hills disgorged themselves, a deep rich 
soil has formed in many places, and vegetation has widely 
^>read. 

As the traveler pursues his way to Hawaii, and examines 
rocks, plains, and valleys, he will easily perceive a gradual 
approach to a greater youthfulness of formation. 

Aside from the mirmtice of geological science, the phjrsical 
conformation of Kauai is grand and imposing. Two or three 
chains of mountains, irregularly formed, bisect the island. 
Above them all, like an Atlas, Waialeale rises to an elevation 
of four thousand feet, and is cloud-capped during a great part 
of the year. It would almost seem to be the abode of some 
discarded Hawaiian deity, who had retired there to retain, if 
possible, his immortality ; throwiifig around its awful sunmiit 
-clouds, shadows, darkness, and mystery, and forbidding the 
approach of mortals. From this clouded summit stretch lofty 
and rugged table-lands as far as the west and northwest sides 
of the island, where they terminate in tremendous precipoes, 
from one to four thousand feet high, pierced by immense cav- 
erns, into which roll the foaming waves of the Pacific. From 
the summit of Waialeale, frequent and fertihzing showers are 
wafted over uplands, lowlands, plains, and vaUe]^. Emphat- 
ically it may be said that these diowers are the very life- 
blood of the soil. All around the island, streams — some of 
which are noble rivers — may be seen rushing to the eaAxtdjce 
of the treacherous and insatiate deep. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A8T0R, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



KOLOA AND HARBOR. I57 

My first landing-place on Kauai was Koloa, the most rug* 
ged district on the island. It is twelve miles long by five 
broad, and has a gradual rise as the interior is approached. 
Not much of the soil is under cultivation, nor can it be, for 
the whole district is more or less covered with the heavy vol- 
canic stones once thrown out from the numerous volcanoes. 
It is said to derive its name firom ko, cane, and ha, great or 
long, referring to the large cane cultivated in that region. 
Since whalers have been in the habit of calling there to re- 
cruit for the Polar Seas, a strong spirit of competition has been 
induced among the natives. Koloa is seen to most advantage 
at a distance of two miles out at sea. The native houses 
scattered widely over the gradually ascending plains, the sug- 
ax-house on the Koloa sugar-plantation, the Mission Church 
and school-house, and the lofty hills that bound the horizon, 
form a pleasant picture. 

The harbor is merely an open roadstead. Excepting the 
times, however, when heavy winds blow from the south — 
and they occur usually in the winter season — ^vessels can pro- 
cure a reHable anchorage. 

When a stranger first lands on the beach, he can not fail 
to become amused at the varied scenes which spring up, as 
if by magic, before him. Here are calabashes of poi, raw 
fish, bunches of bananas, and bundles of sugar-cane, that are 
o^red for sale to the foreigner, forgetting that he may never 
have eaten raw fish, much less have tasted poi, in his life. 
His ears are greeted with detached sentences, composed of 
Hawaiian and English nearly as unintelligible ; while his eye 
rests on groups of natives of every age, scattered round in 
nearly every conceivable position, and habited in almost every 
kind of semi-civilized costume. Further on is a crowd of 
sharpers— -natives, of course, who have learned the art of ex- 
torting money — ^who are very desirous of hiring their miser- 
able horses to a foreigner for $1 to $1 50 per mile, and some 
foreigners are foolish enough to pay the sum demanded by 
them. 

A large extent of the lower part of ELoloa is cavernous. To 



158 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

these vast chambers access may be obtained by descending 
through narrow apertures formed in the roofs. Doubtless they 
were formed whrai the neighboring volcanoes were active, and 
the torr«its of lava came rolling down into the. sea. The upper 
portion erf the immense beds were cooled by an exposure to 
the atmosphere, while the molten rivers pursued their sinewy 
path until they either found a natural outlet, or were lost amid 
the surrounding dikes. Where many of these rivers of lava 
have rolled, they have left cavernous formations behind them. 

But the most interesting of these ca,ve» is tl^ one termed 
by the natives Nihdiua. It may be found a short distance 
to the left of the road, about two thirds of a mile below the 
mission station. The entrance is formed by a natural onfioe 
in the roof, caused probably by a dec<Hnpositi(m of the crust of 
lava. Some rude steps have been formed out of blocks of lava 
rock, loosely piled together, and designed to aid in the descent. 
On a close examination, I found it to be four hmidred yards in 
length, and its widest part nearly a hundred feet. The rorf 
presented a continuity of TOugh knots of lava, looking as if they 
were just cooling from a state of fusion, and of varied shape 
and altitude. Throughout the whole length of the cave— 
which was tortuous — the floor had a gradual declination, and 
was covered with a thick unctuous sUme that had been form- 
ed by percolation through the roof. Toward the lower end a 
visitor is compelled to crawl along on his hands and feet, tak- 
ing care to secure his lamp ftom extinctkn ; and when he 
reaches the extremity, he sees a perpendicular opening — brc^en 
through by the fiedling in of portions of the massive roof — 
through which he can emerge into the gold^a sunlight. 

The most airy and visible part of this subt^ranean cave is 
directly under the ^itrance, where the great masses of rock 
seem as though about to fall on a visitor's hjead. Away from 
the entrance, the gloom is '' darkness visible," hardly possible 
to penetrate by the light of a flaming torch. 

This cave has been applied to a variety of purposes. It 
has been used as a hiding-place in time of war. When a re- 
cent epidemic swept over the group, it was used as a ho^ital 



SINGULAR PHENOMENON. ^59 

Ibr the sick and dying. Its last living occupant was an insane 
woman, whom her unfeeling children had abandoned to abeo 
hite want and solitude. 

But its most special use was set apart £cfr warriors, who, in 
past generations, came here to revel with their paramours. 
The Tartarean gloom was slightly relieved by torches ingeni- 
ously formed of strings of the candle-nut {Aleurites triloba). 
Beneath this rugged roof, and amid this darknefis — their faces 
strangely reflecting the feeble t(»rdi-light — and divested of 
every partide of apparel, they promiscuously united in dancing 
the kula htda* To a reader of the " AunaJs of Tacitus'' it 
may be unnecessary to say more than that they enacted wtnrse 
series than disgraced the celebration of Nero's nuptials with 
his freedman. Wives were exchanged, and so were concu- 
bines ; fathers despoiled their own daughters, and brothers 
deemed it no crime to perpetrate incest. For the first time in 
my life, I wished that rocks had tongues ; for I ardently longed 
to hear the startling revelations which, under such circum- 
stances, they could have made of scenes that had been enacted 
in that subterranean retreat. 

At a distance of nearly, two miles immediately southwest of 
Koloa, there is a curious phenom^ion, called by the natives 
j)uhi (to blow (X puff), by foreigners the Spouting Horn, firom 
its striking resemblance to the spouting of a whale. The phe- 
nomenon is caused by the waves of the sea rushing into an 
ocean-worn cavern of basaltic rocks. As the sea rolls in, the 
atmosphere is driven back to the extremity of the cave, T^ere, 
incapable of further compression, a powerM reaction takes 
place. The water is then driven back toward the entrance ; 
but, in its course, a large portion of it is forced through an 
opening in the roof, and rises in a fountain to the height of a 
number of feet. Sometimes, when a heavy south wind comes 
in fix>m the ocean, the water is forced into the cave with a 
tremendous velocity, and the fountain assumes the form of a 
beautiful wheat-sheaf nearly a himdred feet high. At such 
times, the visitor is more than repaid for his trouble in going 
* The lioentioiis danoe. 



160 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

to see it. There are several such phenomena around the 
shores of the archipelago. 

The path leading to this Spouting Horn, although short, is 
very rugged and fatiguing. Near the site of the phenomenon 
is a smaU but scattered village, and, as the day was very warm 
and dry, I concluded to go into a house, to smoke a cigar and 
procure a draught of water. My intention was carried out. 
The water was cheerfully given me, and a light to my cigar 
was procured. Feeling a httle tired firom the efiects of climb- 
ing basaltic rocks, I took the liberty to stretch myself on a 
mat, smoking and resting at the same time. Very soon the 
crowd of natives, whom curiosity had attracted to the spot 
when I first entered the hut, had quietly dispersed ; and as I 
felt hke indulging in a short siesta, I commenced smoking a 
second cigar. Few moments, however, had now elapsed, when 
in came two young girls, both of whom were the daughters 
of my dusky host. On perceiving a stranger there, they at 
once commenced a mirthful conversation, that raised me up 
in a sitting posture, and favored me with an opportunity of 
surveying their personal appearance. The youngest was a 
mere child ; the oldest of the two was about sixteen, and ma- 
tured. I shall never forget the exquisite beauty of that girl's 
development. Had it not been for her drapery — an only gar- 
ment, which I regarded as an absolute neglig^ — she certain- 
ly would have been no unfitting companion of Hebe when she 
handed round the nectar at the banquets of the gods. I in- 
stinctively stopped smoking — and .so would you have done, 
reader ! under the same circumstances — and sat gazing at 
that witching girl, with my hand supporting my chin, and 
my elbow resting on my knee. I humbly acknowledge my 
weakness ; I own I felt speU-bound beneath the mischievous 
smile that played on her mouth. And then 

" her eyes 

Were black as death, their lashes the same hue, 
Of downcast length, in whose silk shadow lies 

Deepest attraction ; for when to the view 

Forth from its raven fringe the fall glance flies^ 

Ne'er with such force the swiftest arrow flew; 



REVOLTING OFFER BY A PARENT. Jgl 

'Tis as the snake late coil'd, who pours his length. 
And hurls at once his venom and his strength." 

I am not conscious of my own appearance at the moment 
I describe, but the &ther of the girl idcls ; and, resolving to 
take advantage of what he deemed a very £sivorable opportu- 
nity, he crept up to me and said, in unmistakable language, 
"MaJcvmaki ka wahine o ke Kanaka ?'' pointing, at the 
same time, to Ihe girl, who, he said, was his daughter. I un- 
derstood him to assure me that I could appropriate his daugh- 
ter's honor, if I chose to do so, by paying him an amount 
equal to what he held in his hand — a single piece of silver ! 
Whatever my own thoughts may have been a short time pre- 
vious to such a revolting offer, they had nothing to do with 
the ofier itself. Suffice it to say, that my indignation became 
my guardian, and, without any further ceremony, I doubled 
my fist, gave the avaricious parent a blow in the face, and 
walked off about my business, leaving a sincere " aloha** 
(love, or salutation) with his straugely-beautiM daughter. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Female Penitentiary. — Character of the Prisoners. — The Jailer. — 
Statistics of Crime. — ^Wrong Legislationw — An instance of Fanati- 
cism. — Curious Method to obtain Money. — Sugar Plantations. — 
Indigo. — ^Former attempts to cultivate Silk. — Sunday at Koloa. — 
A Native Preacher. — Specimens of Hawaiian Eloquence. — ^Liber- 
ality of Native Christians. 

KoLOA is disgraced by a Penitentiary, which has been erect- 
ed solely for the captivity of those luckless members of the sex 
who have taken a Uttle too much liberty with the Moral Law. 
The building is nearly a hundred feet long by thirty wide. 
The walls are composed of lava laid up in cement^ and possess 
too much strength for the easy escape of the basely-insulted 
captives. The whole is divided into three apartments, con- 
taining what are intended as beds for prisoners, but which, in 
reality, are not fit resting-places for weaiy dogs. 



16^ SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

I found in it three prisoners, who appeared to be deserving 
of a better place pf abode. They were doing work for the 
benefit of {he goTemment» and probably to keep out of what 
might be deemed further mischief. Their employment was 
to manufacture a small rope out of the fibres of the native 
rush, atatcd {Scirpus lacustris). It was all dcme by hand, 
and, wh^i finished, exceedingly neat The priscmets were 
young women whose figures indicated any thing but moT$X guilt 
This impression was confirmed by on incident that occurred 
while I was on the spot. One of the females had a very pre* 
possessing mien. As I stood looking at her, she raised her 
eyes to mine, but th^ instantly fell, and the poor creature cov- 
ered her ikce with her faded and tattered garment, and burrt 
into tears. What was the cause of her sudden agony I could 
not debide. Her companions also appeared much embarrassed 
at my presence, and I felt that, if guilty of the sin charged 
against them, they had not grown callous, and'ihat they were 
in the wrong school £)r the improvement of their mcn-als. Of 
their true character, and the cause of their incarceration, I 
formed my own conclusions, and I shall express them in the 
course of this chapter. 

But the most loathsome and disgusting object in the whole 
area of that prison was the jailer himself. If ever there was 
what is vulgarly termed " a hard c^," it was that very man. 
I ransacked Anthonys "Classical Dictionary" — so fiur as I 
could recall its contents by memory — ^for sonae suitable object 
with which I could compare this nameless wretch, but I had 
to retum to my first impression, and that was, that he would 
make a fitting associate for the Hadean Cerberus. There was 
something about him that I can not describe ; but there Was 
nothing in him that Orpheus could have luUed to deep wiA 
his lyre, for his stormy passions looked out of his eyes hke an 
Argus, ^vuig him more the aspect of a d^oaon than a man. 
Such was the keeper of three young women who had been 
brought to this hell of debauchery, doubtless by a false accu* 
sation ! I longed to silence his pulse and his passions by a 
pistol-shot. 



STATISTICS OF CRIME. 163 

I am well aware that there are those who will accuse me 
of making rash assertions ; but on this point, as on others, I 
can meet my accusers on stem ground. The prisons on the 
islands — that at Koloa not excepted — are the worst schools oi 
vioethat can be found on the group. A Kanaka can and will 
ffwear any thing to gain his purpose. It is nothing uncommon 
§x a police, or any petty officer of the kingdom, to make ad- 
vanoes to any girl or wcnnan to whom he takes a notion. It 
Bcmietimes happens that the female has the moral honesty to 
refuse such overtures. The guilty wretch will go and swear 
^— and he has those who wiU readily bear " false witness'' — 
that he caught such a woman in a guilty act, and she is forth- 
with consigned to prison, frequently without a trial, where she 
▼ery soon learns how to violate that law which is the only 
bafids of virtueus society. This was the way in which those 
female prisoners were introduced to the F^tentiary at 
Koloa. 

I wish to be very explicit on this theme. In 1846, when 
the Hon. R^ G. Wtllie addressed a bng series of miscella- 
neous questions to the missionaries on the group, he requested 
to know what were the prevailing vices, with their causes, 
and suggestions fi>r their removal (Q^uestion 63). It was said, 
in reply to one cause of vice, " So loose is the prison discipline, 
that it has often been a matter of question witii me whether 
it does not effect more harm than good. Some species of pun- 
iidmient, that would be keenly felt and long remembered, and 
yet not injure life and health, would be preferable to the pres- 
ent mode."* 

In his Annual Beport fer 18^3, Ghiefjustioe Lee sajrs : 

" I should not feel that I had done mf whole duty did I 
fiul to call to the mind of the Legislature the notcmous defects 
in our prison discipline. The law of 1851, providing a new 
system, has remained a dead letter. ****** Most 
of our ofienses are punidied by imprisonment ; but, unless we 
have suitable prisons and better discipline, it will be of little 
avail to s^itenoe prisoners. Our present jails, with one or 
* <" AoBwera to QaestioiiB,'' p. 88. 



154 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

two excepticms, are little better than peBt-houses and schools 
of vice."* 

If prostitution were a modem feature in Hawaiian female 
character — ^but it is not — ^fines and iniprisonment are not the 
legitimate means of removing so baneM an influence from 
the lap of society. Such strictures exist in no other nation. 
The immorality, however, is coeval with society. By the 
most enlightened legislators it has ever been deemed a '* neces- 
sary evil." I wish not to be understood as advocating a vio- 
lation of the seventh precept of the Decalogue in any way 
whatever, but as being opposed to the despotism of imprison- 
ing oflenders in the Hawaiian mode of impnsonment. In 
this position I stand not alone. In a speech before the House 
of Lords on the 15th of June, 1843, the Bishop of Exeter said, 
in plain language, 

" That he did not consider prostitution as a matter for legis- 
lative punishment. The punishment of prostitution he helcl 
to be a thing impossible. And why was it impos^ble ? He 
h&d no notion that the wisdom of man could devise a punish- 
ment that should inflict so much of suflering and of degrada- 
tion as prostitution itself. He held prostitution itself to be a 
punishment — an awM punishment, which the God of mercy 
had devised in order to ternfy innocent females from &Iling 
into those tremendous evils which he had appc»nted as the 
punishment of the violation of chastity. To attempt to pun- 
ish prostitution would, in his mind, be as wild a scheme as 
if the guilty city of the plague had issued a law against the 
violent storm of brimstone and hail that destifoyed it, or as if 
the Israelites in the wilderness had prq[)ared to pass a law 
against the destrojang angel !" 

The distingui^ed prelate uttered these words on the second 
reading of a " Bill for the Suppression of Brothels." In doing 
so, he took nothing more than a natural and historical view 
of human nature. On this theme he is ably supported by 
Hon. "William L. Lee, Chief Justice of the Sandwich Islands : 

* "Annual Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Courts* 
p. 116. 



STATISTICS OF CRIME. 165 

" One thing is clear, namely, that the present system of fines 
does not much diminish the evil, and some other means should 
be tried. I have no faith in heavier penalties as means of 
repressing this hydra-headed sin, for pubhc opnion will not 
fostain them ; and where laws enacted for the preservation of 
good morals go far in advance of the general voice of the na- 
tion, they fail to ccmmiand respect, and defeat their own ob- 
ject."* 

If the apphcation of penal laws secured an obedience to the 
lequiffltions of moral law, there would be more plausibihty in 
tboT enforcement. But they do not. There are those in the 
principal towns, and even in the remote country districts, who 
earn their own subsistence by procuring vicious gratifications 
£>r others. It is a well-known fact, that the ruling powers are 
none too virtuous. Many of the police, who are employed, 
to a certain extent, as guardians of the pubUc morals, are the 
most debased wretches on the group. They have set many a 
trap, not only for verdant foreigners, but for their own coun- 
trymen ; and, when the bait has been taken, they were the 
first to poimce on the unsuspecting victims, so that, as a re- 
ward for their vigilance, they might share the fine for the 
crime, amounting to $30, specified by law.f 

I have already said that fines and imprisonments do not 
stem the tide of this great national evil. It can not be denied 
that rehgious, not less than civil law, is in advance of the 
pubhc morals. Where there is no moral sentiment, fines and 
imprisonments only pave the way to a farther commission of 
crime. A glance at statistical testimony will be satisfactory 
on this subject. 

On the 16th of January, 1839, the statistics of crime for 
the previous year were published in the Kumiu Hawaii (Ha- 
waiian Teacher). The cases of adultery over the group num- 
bered 246.t 

" In the year 1846, 164 cases of adultery were brought 

* Annual Report of Chief Justice, p. 111. 

f Penal Code of 1850, cap. xiii., sect 4, p. 24. 

X Hawaiian Spectator, voL ii, p. 284. 



166 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

before the courts in Honolulu ; and it has o^n been said that 
a large portion of the money taken in the shops (^ this to^na 
^-say three fourths — ^is the wages of licentiousness."* 

In ihe year 18^2, the number of such cases for the entire 
island of Oahu was 180, and the number of cases of fornica- 
tion was 235.t 

This does not look much like a decrease in crime, nor does 
it speak much for the defense of an arlntrary enactment of law. 
Because the island of Kauai has two penitentiaries, and the 
island itself is rather remotely located in the group, it is sup- 
posed that the people are more moral. But a companson of 
the foUowing table will show which crimes prepcmderate : 

CMMtried. Caa^Mktm. Aeqnittab. 

Fomicatioii and adultery 76 65 '20 

Illicit cohabitation 6 6 

Seduction 1 1 

Larceny 26 18 8 

Violating the Sabbath 5 2 8 

Drinking awa. 18 6 7 

MaliciouB injury 1 1 

Assault and battery 14 11 8 

Demolishing house 8 8 

Riot '. 8 2 1 

Slander 10 6 6 

All other offenses 9 6 4 

Total 166 lOY 59 

The sexes of the persc^is convicted, as near as can be ascer- 
tained, are, 

Males 72 

Females : 86 

Total lO^t 

A question may now arise. Is Hiere not a cause for such an 
extensive violation of moral law ? There is, and that cause 
originates chiefly in the character of Hawaiian legislation. On 
this theme the deUberations of the legislative body are abso- 

* Answers to Questions, p. 82. 

t Report of Chief Justice, p. 106, 106w 

X Report of Chief Justice, p. 108. See Appendix lY. 



WRONG LEGISLATION. 167 

lately wrong. Wlio does sot know that a prohiUtory law 
only t^ids to inoiease the desire for the forbidden object ? The 
fatal curiosity of Eve has entailed infinite evils upon her prog- 
eny. So it has been in every age of the world's history, and 
amid every genera1i(»i of our race. Where public s^atioien^ 
does not recognize all moral evU as wrong, and that» too» on a 
conscientious ba^is, p^ial enactments can not enforce the rec- 
eption, nor can they eradicate the love of evil. 

But, aude from this, the state of the laws is so chaotic, that 
their just and righteous administration is next to impossible. 
In his closii^ remarks, the x^hief justice says : 

" Anotiier evil to whidi I invite your attention is the mul- 
lipUcation of laws on the same subject, without any express 
repeal of formex statutes. There has been such an enacting, 
amending, and accumulating of laws for the last ten years, re- 
lating to the same matters, that our legislation in some of its 
branches has become a perfect patdi-work, which conAises 
the people, the magistrates, and I trust I shall not be thought 
guilty of disrespect when I add, the representatives themselves. 
It is of httle use to say to a district justice that such and such 
a law is repealed by implication ; for his e<hication has been 
under the ancient statutes, and he recognizes no repeal that is 
not plainly expressed in words. The necessity of an express 
repeal of such statutes as are really not in force, or about the 
. force of which doubts are entertained, has been made mamfest 
in the case (^divorces above mentioned. More glaring instan- 
ces of the same kind might be mentioned, but such an enu- 
meration would be only wasting your time, as they can not 
have fisdled to come within your own knowledge. The ig- 
norance of many natives of their rights — their coninision on 
such occasions — ^the want of meaim and inends, in many in- 
stances, to assist in taking an appeal, would oflen lead them 
to submit to an unjust sentence, and thus defeat the great end 
in view — a fair and impartial trial"* 

But, supposing the laws were clearly defined, another im- 
mense difiiculty presents itself The way in which the laws 
* Report of Chief Justice, p. 118, 114 



168 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

aie admimsteied is a sufficient guarantee that virtue—female 
especially— «an not properly be promoted. On a ruinous sys- 
tem of favoritism, many a man is placed in the chair <^ legal 
justice to commence the practice of law, very much as a med- 
ical student would commence the study of dissection and anat- 
omy. Such a course paves the way to countless evils. 

** It can not be denied that some of our magistrates are ig- 
norant of the laws, unable to give them a fair construction, 
hasty, partial, ready to prejudge a case before they have heard 
half of the testimony, and, in conclusicm, to sentence without 
mercy. As a general rule, our district justices, even in cases 
where the fines to be imposed are at their discretion, not ex- 
ceeding a certain limit, are sure to carry the law to the ex- 
treme, and inflict upon o^nders its severest penalty. This, 
too, is done where they have no self-interest to bias their judg- 
ment, no revenge to gratify, and apparently without a reason, 
unless it be to swell the revenue of the government."* 

It does swell the revenue of the government, too. In 1 852, 
the amount raised by the government on adultery and forni- 
cation alone over the entire group was $18,870. This sum 
would nearly cover the entire salary fer the Ministerial De- 
partment. But what a sum ! It was the price of adultery, 
and, therefore, like the silver which Judas received for betray- 
ing the Nazarene, it was the price of blood I 

But neither fines nor imprisonments are equal to the pun- 
ishment which was advocated by a professedly enlightened 
Protestant teacher as late as 1847. The '*Sandtaich Island 
News'* of March 10th, 1847, contains an instance of fanati- 
cism which stands unequal in the history of the last two thou- 
sand years. I cite it verbatim et literatim : 
. " A correspondent of the Eleicy a newspaper published m 
the native language, imder the direction of the American Mis- 
sion, complains of the amount of prostitution in Lahaina and 
Honolulu, and sends an urgent appeal to the editor, Mr. R. 
Armstrong, in these words : * Gb you to the chiefs. I make 
known to you, as you ask where are the chiefe, that the Privy 
* Beport of Chief Justice, p. 109, lia 



AN INSTANCE OF FANATICISM. 169 

Cotmcil are the chiefe at the present time. You, together with 
them, devise some loeasures for suppressmg this o&iise. You 
say to the Privy Council, make a new law.' 

" The editor, in reply to this appeal, suggests the Allowing 
£»r a law to he rigidly enforced : 

<* ' FcMT the first offense ofmce kolohe/^ all the property of 
the ofiender shidl he confiscated to the government and he or 
she be flogged with a rope, and confined £» a time in irons ! 

'< * Far the second oEeaage, the oflender shall be taken to the 
ocean, and held imder water till as nearly dead as possible ; 
then allowed to recover breath, and again submerged in the 
same manner ; this operation to be repeated five times, if en- 
durable, and the ccmvict then banished to another land ! ! 

" ' For the third oBlense, the o^ider shall be hanged until 
dead, acccxrding to the word of God.* — ^Leviticie, xx., 10. 

'* The above having been made the subject of official ani- 
madverskvn, and of ccmununication to his government on the 
part of the consul of Frimoe, has been handed to us for in- 
sertion^ We do not like, however, to insert it without some 
oomm^it.'' 

The editor of the "News,*^ after quoting at length the case 
of the Jewish womian,t goes on to say : 

" The attempts which have been made for the last twenty- 
five years to legislate Ghiistianity into the faith and practice 
of the Hawaiian race, arei sufficient to show, we i^ould think, 
Hiat heatiien tribes are not to be evangelized so. To pxiteot 
religion aiid its intelligent observances — ^to assure morality 
through all the social and dcnoeetic relations of society, is \m- 
doubtedly one of the highest obligations of a good government. 
But to compel men to be religious or virtuous by statute laws, 
whose sanctions axe addressed exclusively to their fears, is 
metaphysically absurd and practically impossible. The at- 
tempts to extinguish, by the terrors of the law, however ter- 
rific, or greatly to restrain, by such measures, the animal pas- 
sions of beings situated as the Hawaiians are, and hopelessly 
must be, under the present system of civil and religious treat- 

* Adultery. t ^^ J^^» ^^» ^^^ 

H 



170 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ment, would be as useless as to attempt to send the stars to a 
grammar-school, or to teach the planets didactic theology.*' 

This language, however severe its tone and aim may be, 
was spoken, or written rather, in 1847. But it is fully reit- 
erated by the Chief Justice of the Hawaiian kingdom in 1853 : 

" In my opinion, licentiousness is so deeply planted in the 
heart of this nation-^the cancer is so firmly imbedded in, and 
has spread its roots so entirely throughout the body politic, 
that no skill of the legislator can cure it, and it must eventu- 
ally destroy the nation."* 

This state of things is amply sustained by the Minister of 
Public Instruction, who, in 1847, disgraced his calling by de- 
vising the fanatical law just referred to above : 

" The sources of the pubUc immorality above mentioned 
are stated to be the want of suitable prisons for criminals, the 
native htdas, the pubUc dance-halls in Honolulu — declared by 
the Marshal and Prefect of Pohce to be the * principal source, 
in fact, the primary cause, of the vast amoimt of fomicatioiL 
and adultery that have disgraced this city this last season ;' 
indolent habits, intoxicating drinks (beheved to be the real 
cause of the riot in November last), the love of filthy lucre, 
illegal divorce, improper marriages, ignorance, and depraved 
appetites, "t 

Sickening to the very soul is the contemplation, not only of 
the evil itself, but the pseudo-philanthopic e^rts made to 
eradicate it. Not less painfiil is it to reflect on the &ct, that 
the above despotic law was publicly advocated by a disciple 
of Him who said to the guilty Jewess, ^'Neither do I condemn 
thee; go, and sin no more/" — (John, viii., 11.) So mudi, 
however, for the tender mercies of ecclesiastical legislation, 
advocated by at least one prominent individual. But such 
will be the state of afiairs so long as this evil is a source of rev- 
enue to the Hawaiian government not less than to individuals. 

But we will leave these dreary scenes, and proceed on our 
way. 

* Report of Ohief Justice, p. 112. 

t Report of Minister of Public Instruction, 1858, p. 66. 



CXmiOUS METHOD TO OBTAIN MONEY. 171 

A few days subsequent to my arrival at Koloa, a rather 
novel scene occurred between a Hawaiian sailor and two na- 
tives who lived on shore. While the whale ship " Helen Au- 
gusta" was taking in supplies for her cruise among the Arctic 
seas, the sailor was tempted to run away firom the ship. The 
two landsmen, who induced him to abscond, had employed ev- 
ery illustration to portray the horrors of a seafaring life, and 
the bliss of living on shore. More than that, they assured 
him, in the cant phrase of the Hawaiian vice-procurer, that 
they had '* a fine sister'' on shore, in whose smiles he could 
find the very sum of all earthly happiness. The bait was 
adroitly held out, and grasped with avidity, and the ** tar" 
was carefully stowed away. No sooner was he safely secured 
in his hiding-place, than away went his two tempters to the 
captain of the vessel, and told him that one of his crew had 
run away, and that, for ten doUars, they would recover him. 
Out went the specified sum, and away went the two natives 
to fulfill their errand. 

Silently and impatiently had the sailor waited for the ar- 
rival of the promised " sister.'' But what was his astonish- 
ment, instead of meeting the soft embrace of that fair daugh- 
ter of Eve, to hear the voice of his captain summoning him 
to his duty ! Further concealment was impossible ; and burn- 
ing with disappointment, and smarting imder a desire for re- 
venge, the unlucky tar came forth firom his lair, the ignoble 
dupe of two of his own countrymen. At length, becoming 
fully aware of their shameless perfidy, he developed the na- 
ture and aim of their plot, and they were compelled to refund 
their nice little earnings, much to their real mortification and 



That was a vivid picture of human cupidity that the im- 
mortal Shakspeaee drew ofihe Venetian "lago:*' 

**Put money in thy purse; follo-w these "wars; defeat thy favor 
with an usurped beard ; I say, put money in thy purse. It can not 
be that Desdemona should long continue her love to the Moor — ^put 
money in thy purse — ^nor he his to her ; it was a violent commence- 
ment^ and thou shalt see an answerable sequestration, pat but men- 



172 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ey in thy purse. These Moors are changeable in their wilk ; fill thy 
purse with money." — Othello, Act L, sc. iii 

This advice, however, was not confined merely to one Ve- 
netian citizen. It is Hawaiian. It is world-wide ! But the 
avidity with which the modem Kanaka grasps at the precious 
metal, sweeps away nearly every vestige of his primitive diar- 
acter. 

One of the most interesting objects at Koloa is the sugars 
plantation under the care of Dr. Wood. It is termed the Ko- 
loa Estate, and contains two thousand acres of excell^it land. 
The Tahitian cane is the kind which is cultivated, and it 
thrives splendidly. The proprietor was realizing at least one 
ton per acre of capital sugar. His present machinery was im- 
p^ect, and an immense per centage was lost by evaporation 
during the grinding of the cane. On the importation of new 
machinery, he would realize two tons, or four thousand pounds 
of sugar per acre. The same amount can be raised on any 
part of the group where cane can be successfully cultivated. 
Its growth is checked by no chilling £ix>sts. 

The labor is performed by Coolies, imported from China, 
and by native men and women, at a daily xemuneration of 
twenty-five cents — a sum amply sufficient to satisfy all their 
needs ! But Cooly labor is the most to be depended upon. 
If these men were permitted to marry the native wom^i, they 
would become yet more trusty. 

Cane can be raised at twenty dollars per acre, including 
every item of expense. 

By a brief statistical comparison, it will be seen that in this 
item of industry, if properly encouraged, the Sandwich Island 
government would derive a vast advantage. Instead of the 
treasury realizing between $200,000 and $300,000 per an- 
num, as it now does, a vast increase might be the result. It 
has been accurately computed that 100,000 acres in the Sand- 
wich Islands, or 25,000 in each o£ the four principal islands, 
would, if well cultivated to cane, produce 3000 pounds a year 
per a^re : this product alone, at 5 cents per pound, would be 
$15,000,000. 



SUGAR PLANTATIONS. I73 

A oentaiy ago the JesaitB brought a few bundles of sugar- 
caae firom Hispaniola, and planted them in the Second Muni- 
cipality in New Orleans. In 1759 the first sugar-mill was 
erected. In 1850-51 the crop exceeded 200,000 hogsheads, 
worth ten millions of dollars. The capital now employed in 
this branch of industry exceeds $75,000,000. 

'* It has been graierally supposed that the lands of the trop- 
ics would produce twice as much sugar per acre as those of 
the best sugar lands of the United States. But on this point 
it is shown that though, according to Humboldt, * a hectare 
(about 2^ acres) of the best land in Mexico will produce no 
less than 5600 pounds of raw sugar,* and that this is double 
the amount produced from the same quantity of land in Cuba, 
yet Mr. James Wafibrd, of St. Mary's, Louisiana, made the 
past season, on forty acres of land in that parish, 190 hogs- 
heads of sugar, of 1000 pounds each, or 11,675 pounds per 
hectare — beating the best land of Cuba or Mexico more than 
two to one. Many planters in the vicinity of Franklin, Loui- 
siana, have just made upward of 3 hogsheads of sugar, of 
1000 pounds each, per acre, or 7500 to the hectare, exceed- 
ing Humboldt's highest figures by a thousand pounds per hec- 
tare. W. W. Wilkins, Esq., of the parish of St. James, made, 
the past season, 48 hogsheads of sugar on twelve acres of 
ground. Harpour, of Pointe Coupee, made on some of his 
land this eeason 10,000 pounds per hectare, nearly doubling 
Mexico/'* 

A very little calculation will show that good cane-land on 
the Sandwich group will produce 10,000 pounds per hectare, 
and that labor can be performed at a much less cost than in 
Cuba or Louisiana. So that Louisiana has very Uttle superi- 
ority to boast over the tropics. 

Aside fin>m what is consumed in the home markets, Oregon 
and California have been the main outlets for the Sandwich 
Island sugar. But they have received it at a duty of 30 per 
cent., while American sugar has been admitted duty free. 
As may be readily supposed, this heavy duty is a serious ob- 
* Db Bow's Beview, March, 1868. 



174 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

stade in the way of the planters oa the group ; nor can it 
be removed until the group becomes annexed to the United 
States. 

The Koloa estate, however, is based on the ruined specula- 
tions of other men, as are several of the estates on di^r^it 
parts of tiie archipelago. In 1836, some capitalists from Oahu 
procured a large lease of land here for a term of fif^ years, 
at an annual expense of three hundred dollars ; but, from the 
petty jealousies of chiefs, the difficulty of procuring relial^ 
labor, and the absurd policy of the government, they exp^- 
enced a total failure. If those islands should ever become an- 
nexed — and the step is inevitable ! — ^the old proprietors will 
not fail to realize that indemnity from our govermnait which 
the Hawaiian, through preposterous counselors, failed to ex- 
tend. 

In this region, as in many other portions of the group, in- 
digo is making fearful ravages. Under the impression that it 
might become of much value as an article of trade, it was 
introduced by A. M. Serriere, of Batavia, in 1832. Since 
that period many persons have endeavored to cultivate it for 
the same purpose. But the mania has long since subsided, 
and the plant been lefl to take care of itself. Hundreds of 
acres are covered with its dense growth, and it continues to 
overrun some of the most valuable lands on the islands. So 
obnoxious has it become,* that I have many a time heard ag- 
riculturists wish that its introducer were compelled to uproot 
every plant by his teeth. There is no reason, however, why 
indigo, properly cultivated, should not become a very lucrative 
branch of exportation. 

On the northern portion of the lands now forming the Ko- 
loa estate, efforts were once made to cultivate silk. Close at- 
tention was paid to the culture of the native or black mul- 
berry {Marus nigra). Succeeding well in this effort, the pro- 
prietors imported several thousand of the Canton mulberry 
{Marus mtUticatdis), in which they were successful. Sub- 
sequently they procured large numbers of the Chinese silk- 
worm. At a still later date, a variety of worms and trees 



NATIVE PREACHER. I75 

weie introduced from the United States. When eggs were 
produced, every means suggestive of success were tried to pre- 
serve them, but in vain. To a heavy drought may be added 
the ignorance of the proprietors in managing their afiairs, 
and the mistaken policy of government, as the chief causes of 
their failure ; and, after expending a snug fortune, they wise- 
ly retired to some other business. Silk, however, not less 
than indigo and sugar, could be cultivated with remarkable 



I spent one Sunday at the native church at Koloa. The 
building was well filled by a unique congregation. It was 
•impossible to suppress a smile at the ludicrous scenes which 
were enacted in that congregation. Children were twisting 
and knotting each other's hair. A few lovers were cozily con- 
versing with their inamoratas, or stealing a private kiss. The 
older members of the audience, however, were as serious as 
mcmuments in a grave-yard ; and some of them had been old 
warriors at the consolidation of the government by Kameha- 
MEHA I. 

At length the native preacher, Kahookui, ascended the pul- 
pit. All was decent and orderly throughout the service. He 
took for his text, Luke, vi., 47, 48 : "Whosoever cometh to 
me," &CC. He was a very eloquent man. Every eye was 
fixed upon his own, which was lightened up with the fire of 
excitement. I regret I can not give an epitome of his dis- 
course ; but I oiKr a few miscellaneous specimens of native 
eloquence. 

Like all nations of men of primitive character, the Hawaii- 
ans have had their national orators who possessed eloquence 
pecuHarly their own. Nature taught them, as she did the 
warlike chieftains of the Celtic tribes, and the mighty spirits 
that led the tribes of the Indian race to battle in past genera- 
tions. The eloquence of the Hawaiians owed its origin to no 
school other than what Nature had founded ; it subserved no 
rules other than the deepest sympathies acted upon, or the 
strongest passions awakened to deeds of love and vengeance. 
That eloquence which knows no law but the strongest im- 



Iffg SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

polseB awakened by peculiar emergendes, is, thereCbre, difficult 
of definitioii, and can be better Mi or read than deembed. 
The old Sandwich Island kings favorably regarded their na- 
tional orators, w^e they, in letnm, claimed the protection 
and &v<(»r of their sovereigns. Usually, howev^, those oratotrs 
were the highest duefs. They m^t in all the councils of war, 
and there their tremendous eloquence, more than logical dis- 
ouflsicMis, wielded an irresistible influence over the passions and 
sympathies of banded warriors. 

like our most distinguished Indian chiefe, their style was 
the multtim in parvo* Sometimes it was poetry of the Inv- 
est order : again, it impersonated the second or third party, by 
displaying the joys, swrows, car dang»» of one or the other. 
Not imfirequently did their orations begin with a sort of invo- 
cation to some celestial or terrestrial object, animate or inan- 
imate, after the style of many of the sacred Hebrew poets. 
Not a single superfluous word was ever uttered, and the word 
that would best express the ihoi^ht was always employed. 
A remarkable, though peculiar instance is seen in some of the 
last words of Kamehambha the Gbeat. The old king was con- 
fined to his rude couch by a mortal sickness, and was desirous 
of propitiating the &vor of the gods. Under these impressions, 
he said to his son LmoLmo, " Gro thou and make supplication 
to thy Grod ; I ana not able to go, and will offer my prayers at 
home!" 

But an instance of Hawaiian eloquence, at once pathetic 
and sublime, is seen in the parting language of the Glueen of 
LmoLiHo, as they were just about to embark for Bngland. 
It has been already cited in these pages, but will not be de- 
teriorated by a repetition. The youthful queen was nearly 
overwhelmed with emotion as she left the shores to tread 
them--as it afterward proved — no more forever; and she 
broke forth into wailing characteristic of the people: "0 
heav^is, earth, mountains, ocean, guardians, subjects, love to 
you all ! O land, for which my &ther bled, receive the as- 
surance of my earnest love !" 

I may be permitted to oSei two qpeoimeas more. They are 



HAWAIIAN ELOQUENCE. J77 

the substance of two addresses delivered by two young Hawaii- 
an clergymen, in the King's Chapel in Honolulu, on the 12th 
of June, 1853, just before embarking on a missionary enter- 
prise to the Marquesas Islands. At a mere glance it will be 
seen that their scope is strictly religious, but that tone only 
imparts to them a higher finish. 

Farewell Add/ress of Kekda. 

" I am happy to meet you on this occasion. We remember 
our old state ; darkness and sin covered us. We were poor, 
wicked, and degraded. This was the condition of our an- 
cestors, and from them I sprang. But all is now changed. 
Teachers have come among us. The Lord has been gracious 
to tis, and we are blessed. In 1852, we sent out a mission to 
Micronesia, and now, in 1853, we have a Macedonian ci^ 
from Fatuhiwa. To this call we cheerfully respond. It is as 
the voice of God. I can not resist it. The Maxquesans are 
in darkness. They need our help. We do not go to seek our 
own things. Love to Christ and love to the benighted con- 
strain us. It is hard to leave parents, and kindred, and firiends. 
We love them, and they love us. It is hard to leave my church 
and people. They cling to me, and my heart clings to them. 
But we will go. Our bodies will be separated, but our hearts 
will be imited. You will go with us, and we will all go to- 
gether. And God will be with us and with you. He is 
there. He is here. He is every where. 

" Dear Christian friends, pray for us, and we will pray for 
you. Remember us. We will not forget you. We ask your 
love, your sympathy, and your intercession. Farewell; the 
Lord bless you all." 

This is highly expressive. But, good as it is, it is far sur- 
passed by the following, as a translation of the 

Address of Kauwealohcu 
" Mt Christian Feiends, — You have aU heard of Makou- 
nui, the Fatuhiwan chief. You know his errand to our isl- 

H2 



178 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ands. He is in pursuit of teachers. His land is a land of 
night, of darkness — a land of sin and death. He comes to im- 
plore our aid ; he asks for teachers to go and instruct and en- 
lighten his people. 

" And we consent to the call. We rejoice to go. But we 
do not go to seek wealth, or honor, or glory, or pleasure. We 
go not to seek our own things ; we go to lahor, to serve, to 
teach the truth ; to do good to the needy. 

" I am a particle of the dust of Kamehameha EI. I am 
weak, and ignorant, and helpless in myself. In God is my 
trust. If He helps me, I will rejoice. If He helps you, we 
will all rejoice. 

" I go from love to Christ. I love the truth ; I love my 
missionary friends ; I love you all. You are my parents. 
You have taught me the good and the true. My love to you 
shall never fail. 

" This is my land, my home. I leave it for a land of mis- 
ery and want. You foreigners are strangers here, this is not 
your land ! But you will remiain here and work for the Lord. 
You will pray for us ; you will work for us. Little children, 
serve the Lord. live in love. We are all Httle children. 
Let us obey our Father in heaven. 

" We go to Fatuhiwa to dig treasure; not gold, not silver — 
these are poor. We go to dig for truth, for hidden pearls, for 
heavenly treasure. We go to remove the rubbish, the earthi- 
ness of sinners ; to seek souls ; to find immortal treasures for 
Christ. We go to dig, to toiZ, to work. 

" I go to pay a debt I owe for my education. I give fn/y- 
sdfioi the debt — ^it is all I can do. Will you cancel it ? 

" Farewell ! our hearts are imited ; let us work together, 
pray together, and rejoice together." 

Most of the members of the Koloa Church are poor. If all 
their real property were put together — that of two or three 
persons excepted — it would not exceed two thousand dollars 
in value. Their regular contributions to religious and benev- 
olent institutions are enough to excite the surprise and even 



THE "GAP." 179 



incredulity of many a laige and wealthy chuicli in a civilized 
land.'*'' As a chinch they are independent of the pecuniary 
aid of the A. B. C. F. M., and even send pecuniary assistance 
to other distant fields of missionary enterprise. 



CHAPTER Xm. 

FROM KOLOA TO LIHUE. 

Uplands and Lowlands. — The ** Gap." — A Legend. — Scenery. — ^Li- 
hue. — Sugar Plantations. — ^Labor. — ^Na-wili-wili Harbor and Riv- 
er. — ^Pleasure Party. — ^The " Stars and Stripes." — Significant De- 
portment of the Natives. — ^Remarkable Rock and Cave. — ^Valley 
of Cascades. — ^Moonlight — ^Lonar Rainbowa 

The journey firom Koloa to Lihue is among some of the 
most picturesque objects on the group. A gradual ascent is 
visible until the face of the country assumes a broad upland, 
slightly undulated. These uplands are grand in their phys- 
ical character ; borrowing, as they do, much of their noble as- 
pect from the contiguous mountains, whose Atlantean shoulders 
seem to pierce the skies, a traveler can not fail to be repaid 
fi)r his visit. These elevated plains, containing many thou- 
sand acres of the richest soil, extend through a natural open- 
ing in the mountains, which is denominated the ** Gap." This 
break in the chain is three miles wide, and forms a natural 
course for the northeast trades, which sometimes come sweep- 
ing down with great violence. 

At the northern extremity of the " Gap," the uplands term- 

* The following items I have copied from the Chnrch Records 
for 1852: 

TowArd the support of the resident missionary. . . $260 00 

For the native preacher 80 00 

For the new church at Waimea 60 00 

For the Mission House at Liane 182 00 

For the Micronesian Mission 86 00 

For Impairing the Mission House at Koloa 25 00 

Total $578 00 



ISO SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

inate and the lowlands commence. The scnl of these depress- 
ed plains is exceedingly fertile. In all probability, it is not 
surpassed by any &rm in the Western States, or by the best 
ranches in Oali&mia. Yet, for all this, square miles oi terri- 
tory, over which the plowshare has never passed, are lying 
waste, and afibrd nothing but pasture for cattle. 

The descent fix>m the upper to the lower plains is down an 
abrupt slope nearly two hundred feet. It is associated with 
a bloody deed. Tradition relates that in the days of despotism^ 
whan chiefs controlled the services and even the lives of the 
C(^mnon people, a chief commanded one of his retainers to 
carry him on his shoulders up this hill, with the threat, how- 
ever, that if he failed to carry him up without resting, he would 
run him through with his spear. The chief was a very large 
man, and the day was excessivdy warm. The retainer ex- 
erted every nerve, the perspiration streamed from every pore, 
and, at last, blood followed sweat. Before he reached the top 
of the ascent he fell exhausted. The tyrant was true to his 
word ; maddened by disappointment, he graq^ his huge wax* 
epear and dispatched his helpless victim. At this day, and 
especially in the darkness of night, it is regarded by the na- 
tives with a superstitious horror. 

On the right of the path leading over these lowlai^, the 
scenery is magnificent. In the chain of mountains separating 
Eoloa from Lihue, there is a lofry bluff which rears its giant 
forehead far above its surrounding brethren ; and from this 
circumstance, and the undoubted antiquity of its existence, it 
has received the highly expressive title of " Hoary Head." A 
little in advance of this savage summit there stands a small 
pillar of basaltic rock, which is called " Sentinel Peak." It 
looks as if it had been placed there by himian hands ; but it 
is strictly one of Nature's freaks. During the days of idolatry, 
it was supposed to be the abode of the spirit of a departed 
king, and was worshiped with superstitious veneration. One 
of the most finished landscapes in nature may be found stretch- * 
ing out from this very spot. 

The diitrict of Lihue is delightfol and invigorating. The 



SUGAR PLANTATION — LABOR. 181 

soil is rich, capable of producing every tropical vegetable, as 
well as several specimens of foreign grain. The temperature 
is nearly the same as that of Koloa, being a httle cooler and 
more bracing. Vegetation is perennial, for the frequent and 
genial showers enrich nature with the baptism of an eternal 
April. The foHage is fanned by the incessant breath of the 
warm tirade- winds. 

The principal village is Na-wiU-wili. In the distiict there 
is a male penitentiary. 

The sugar plantati(m, known as the Lihue Estate, can not 
fiul to attract the notice of a traveler. It is the property of 
Messrs. Pierce and Company, of Boston. At the residence of 
J. F. B. Marshall, Esq., one of the very gentlemanly proprie- 
tors, which stands on the estate, I spent several days, and he 
very pohtely showed me over the satire premises. The en- 
tire estate covers three tl^ousand acres, part of which was held 
on lease. There were two hundred acres of cane, in a high 
state of cultivation, besides a large crop which was being ex- 
pressed into sugar. The cane assumes a large growth. I 
measured one piece, and found it to be fourteen feet in length, 
and nine inches in girth round the lower joints. 

Hitherto this estate has been conducted at an ^lormous out- 
lay of money and labor. Several miles of road, leading to the 
dii^r^it parts of the estate, had to be made. The machinery 
in the grinding-house is of a superior character, and was im- 
ported &om the United States. Mr. Marshall stated that, when 
it was being conveyed on a raft from the ship to the shore, sev- 
eral portions of it fell overboard, but they were recovered by 
some natives who possessed great skill in diving. 

The cost of raising cane is about the same as at Koloa, and 
labor is secured from Coolies and Hawaiians at twenty-five 
cents per day. 

Wi^in a half hour's ride of the Lihue Estate, and immedi- 
ately on the south, are the harbor and river of Na-wiU*wili. 
The harbor is bounded by rocky heights on two sides. It is 
small, and has a fine sandy bottom, with water enough for 
vessels of a small tonnage. The ftnohqiraf e is deemed safe" 



182 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

except when the sea is driven in by the heavy northeast trades. 
At such times, getting out is difficult and dangerous, but an. 
attempt to escape is the only alternative left to the mariner. 

Into this highly romantic Httle harbor the Na-wili-wiU Riv- 
er empties. A bar of quicksand, just covered by the water at 
low tide, stretches across its mouth and precludes even schoon- 
er navigation. The river, so far as the purposes of commerce 
are concerned, is more beautiful than useful. But the majes- 
tic scenes which stud its banks can not fiedl to leave a lasting 
impression on the mind of a lover of Nature. In ascending it, 
the picturesque plains of the Lihue district rise on the right 
bank of the stream, a range of lofty mountains, stretching 
away to " Hoary Head" and " Sentinel Peak," form the limit 
on the left. 

In company with several pleasure-loving American ladies 
and gentlemen, I ascended this lovely stream in a commodious 
boat. The " stars and stripes" — ^magic emblems of fireedom 
— ^floated in the breeze over our heads. I shall never forget 
my emotions as I looked up at that aegis which WAsmNCTON 
had flung over our Republic after several years of struggles 
for national Uberty. I could not help glancing at the ifdghty 
destinies of civilization. It led me back, through a historical 
vista, to Asia, the birth-place of empire and of man ; the cradle 
of the arts and sciences ; the theatre of great conflicts, reverses, 
and successes ; the stage upon which great nations had arisen, 
flourished, and crumbled back to the dust from whence they 
sprung. I could see Empire snatching its fallen sceptre finom. 
the ruins of prostrate nations, and alternately swaying it in 
Eastern, Western, and Central Europe. I was insensibly led 
back to the battle-flelds of PharsaHa and Marathon, where gi- 
gantic intellects guided the sword that swept away thousands 
into obhvion ; where splendid destinies were nobly struggled 
for, and lost forever. I could trace those struggles and victo- 
ries, that alternating hope and despair, of the genius of Liberty, 
as it wept over its bleeding votaries, until, tired of the ghastly 
smile and putrid corpse of monarchical protection, it spread its 
wings, forsook old tyrants, and sped to the lap of the New 



DEPORTMENT OF NATIVES. 183 

World — ^the newly-discovered Oontinent of North America. 
It is on our own soil, and amid our own people, that that 
most sublime of all human problems has been satisfactorily 
solved — SELF-GOVERNMENT, by a people having broken the last 
link of the chain which bound them to the proud chariot of a 
perfidious ruler ; by a people who enjoy the eternal, the God- 
given prerogatives of individual fireedom, protection, and right. 
Over this great family of nations, Liberty had spread her pin- 
ions for their defense, and to raise them to the sublime posi- 
tion of a vast social, moral, intellectual, political, and religious 
firatemity. That unity had flung its glory from the eastern to . 
the western shores of a great continent, forming a young em- 
pire in the long obscure territory of Oalifomia. And here, on 
a Sandwich Island river, were a few American citizens ghd- 
ing along beneath the ever-glorious beacon of true empire— 
the " stars and stripes !" 

"We had proceeded about two miles up the river, when we 
noticed a group of natives collected on the right bank. Doubt- 
less our appearance was novel enough to them, for they stood 
looking at us with mingled pleasure and amazement. But a 
short time elapsed, however, before their monotony was dis- 
pelled. "We gave a triple " three cheers" to our flag and the 
occasion, which seemed to have a' magical e^ct on the na- 
tives ; for they unwittingly and earnestly gave us a sort of 
semi-civilized response. Some of them laughed heartily at 
their own performances, and others probably at our own. 
There were two natives, a man and woman, who appeared 
extremely desirous of manifesting their profound enthusiasm 
in what seemed so deeply to interest our company. They ^s- 
tinguished themselves by taking ofi* the only garments they 
wore, which they raised aloft on a long stick, and then gave 
us a passing recognition. 

At a short distance beyond this group, we landed at the foot 
of a spur that led up to an enormous mass of trap rock, called 
by the natives Keapaweo Mountain. It has a curious cathe- 
dral-like firont, of perpendicular formation, and as smooth as 
if it had been chiseled out by art. Its fiN>nt was pierced by a 



X84 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

cave, an examination of which was a sufficient spur to otir 
ambition. Three of us started to make the ascent. We were 
followed by two other gentlemen, who soon concluded to aban- 
don the enterprise. The spur was v^ difficult to climb. 
We had not dimbed more ^an a fourth of the ascent, when 
we were glad to divest ourselves of coats, vests, hats, and cra- 
vats. Here we ettayed to rest for a few minutes, and then re- 
sumed our task. At length the ascent became a complete 
toil ; it was an alternate climbing and sUpping. Our path 
was directly up the steep firont of abrupt precipices, from which 
projected a stunted and sinewy foliage. To look up was 
dreadM ; to glance downward was equally bad. To return 
was absolutely impossible, and yet the risk of a headlong 
plunge induced us to proceed. Exhausted by toil, and nearly 
melted firom the efiects of heat, we at last reached the cave. 

From this point we turned to look back. The scene was 
one of overwhehning magnificence. In the distance, the boat, 
its contents, and the flag, had almost dwindled away to a 
mere speck. We were elevated at least fimrteen hundred feet 
above the river, and were seen by our party in the bo^t only 
by b^ng exposed in our shirt sleeves. 

The cave was a perfect niche, one hundred feet high, forty 
wide, and retreated about sixty feet firom the entrance. Its 
entire interior had a steppy formation. The floor was cover- 
ed with a rich volcanic soil. We were probably the first 
white men that had ever set foot in this lofty cavity, but not 
the first human beings who had ever been there. It was cmce 
the abode of a sorcerer, whose nightly descents to the banks 
of the beautifiil stream were always accompanied wi^ pres- 
ents firom the superstitious persons that followed in his rear. 
He was called the ** Man of the Bx)ck,'' and many were the 
deeds of darkness and death which his evil genius prompted. 

Before leaving this home of the old sorcery, we gave three 
cheers, as indicative of our success, which were respcmded to 
by our party on the river ; and the sounds of their response 
came echoing up the mighty clifls like the notes of distant 
music. The descent was more rapid, but not less difficult 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A8T0R, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



MOONLIGHT. 187 



than- the ascent. Clutching at the stunted foliage, to aid us 
as we glided doTvn, mostly in a sitting posture, we soon found 
ourselves once more by the side of the river. 

At the head of navigation — only four miles from the mouth 
of the stream — ^we landed, and sat down beneath the cool fo- 
liage in a romantic dell. After a brief rest on the part of the 
ladies, we pursued our way up the dell. On turning an ab- 
rupt projection, nearly at its source, a magnificent view opened 
before us. Several cascades were leaping, one after the other, 
into a deep basaltic basin, placed there by the hand of Nature 
for their reception. The rugged walls that inclosed the stream 
were also of a basaltic character. Such a spot as this would 
be the home for a poet, an artist, or a man of a snug inde- 
pendency. Pouring out a hbation in firont of the lowest foil 
of water, we gave the place the title of " Valley of Cascades,*' 
and took our leave. 

In no part of the world is the moonlight more splendid 
thail at the Sandwich Islands. Before our party had returned 
to the residence of Mr. Marshall, at Lihue, the moon had 
reached an altitude of several degrees. The orb of night was 
at the full. The god of day had gone to his evening rest. 
The hour was as calm as a deserted city. It was such an 
hour as has many a time recorded vows, plighted in the gush- 
ings forth of a love which could not be changed by time, cir- 
cumstance, sorrow, or death ; an hour when the full soul un- 
bosoms itself for the purpose of holding self-conver8e--when 
a silvery light sheds a pale and hallowed beauty over the foce 
of slumbering Nature, filling each*glen with fantastic imagery, 
and covering the placid streams with the memorials of the 
loving and the loved. 

As we rode along under such moonlight as this, I could 
not forbear a' mental recitation of the language of Ossian : 
" Daughter of Heaven, foir art thou ! the silence of thy face is 
pleasant ! Thou comest forth in loveliness. The stars at- 
tend thy blue course in the east. The clouds rejoice in thy 
presence, moon ! They brighten their dark brown sides. 
"Who is like thee in heaven, light of the silent night ? The 



188 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

stars are ashamed in thy presence. They turn away their 
sparkhng eyes. "Whither dost thou retire from thy course 
when the darkness of thy countenance grows ? Hast thou 
thy hall, like Ossian ? B wellest thou in the shadow of grief ? 
Have thy sisters fidlen from heaven ? Are Ihey who rejoice 
with thee at night no more ?" 

K Italy can boast her sunny skic^ just befinre the approach 
of the evening twilight, when the eye rests on a thousand tints 
of splendor, the Sandwich Islands can boast a flood of moon- 
light at once glorious and matchless. In looking up into the 
dear face of the queen of night, a Christian philosopher seems 
to hold converse with many who have long since left the 
earth, and now people the mansions of immortality, and his 
own spirit would &in speed away thither to their sinless em- 
brace. 

Shortly after reaching Lihue, I tried an experimenl^in read- 
ing by the light of the mom. I found it perfectly eaey, and 
read several pages of Milton's " Paradise Lost.'' 

Before the hour of rest that night, I witnessed the rare phe- 
nomenon of a lunar rainbow. A shower of rain feU on the 
ocean immediately in front of the estate, and the beautifrd 
iris, caused by it, stretched from one side of the horizon to the 
other. These lunax rainbows may be attributed mainly to 
two causes, the great brilliancy of the moon in this region, 
and the highly rarefied state of the atmosj^re. 



i 



WAILUA VILLAGE. 189 

"^ 



CHAPTER XIV. 

FROM LIHUE TO HANALEI. 

Wailaa Village. — ^Wailua River. — Objects of SuperBtition. — Strange 
Legends. — ^Falls of Wailua. — Estate of Kumalu. — ^Reminiscences 
of a Family. — ^The Dairy Business. — ^What sort of Talent is needed. 
— ^Policy of Government. — ^Road to HanaleL — Settlement of Cali- 
fomians. — ^Traveling on the Sandwich Islands. 

The first village of any importance ailer leaving Lihue is 
Wailua (two waters). I was informed it was the property 
of Kapulb — better Imown by her baptismal name Deborah 
— an ex-queen, and formerly the consort of Kaumualh, the 
last king of this island, who died at Honolulu in 1824. 

Wailua is a small and scattered village, located on either 
side of tlie river bearing the same title. The only interest it 
now retains is its having once been the abode of royalty. 
Every thing waa going rapidly to decay. The canoes that 
were once occupied by her majesty and, her friends I feund 
rotting in a shed that stood near the banks of the stream. 
The only interest the natives seem to cherish is the cultiva- 
tion of their ta/ro plantations, and in taking care of their nu- 
merous fish-ponds. It waa difficult to conceive that the vil- 
lage had ever been honored with a '' royal presence.'' 

Having ranged among the decaying dwellings, entered the 
old building used by the villagers as a house of divine wor- 
ship j and exchanged a few solitary words of compliment with 
the girls and women — ^for the uncomplimentary men returned 
nothing but significant grunts and sundry gesticulations — I 
began to make preparations to ascend the river. It was with 
a keen sense of disappointm^it that I learned that the old 
queen Kafule, the steady fidend, through many long years, of 
every visitor who had been there before me, had removed to 
the other side of ^ island. I had promised myself a sail up 



190 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

the beautiM stream in one of her large canoes, that had been 
formed out of a solid log by a canoe-maker of a past genera- 
tion. But as this gratification was impossible to procure, I 
submitted to the loss of it with becoming resigilation. 

A large canoe, however, was procured, with a sufficient 
number of men to paddle it, and a youth of eighteen, who 
spoke good English and Hawaiian. We had oUr httle vessel 
launched just above the heavy sand-bar at the mouth of the 
stream, and quietly proceeded on our way. The mouth of the 
river is easily forded at low tide, but a few yards above this 
bar there is water enough to float a first class line-of-battle 
ship. The scenery up this river is second to none in the trop- 
ics. It wends its way through scores of ixLro plantations, ch- 
ange and cocoa-nut trees, plantains and bananas. Its banks 
are densely clothed with the screw-pine ( Tectorius et odora- 
tissinms)y and the native mamaki ( Urtica argentea) and hau 
{Hibiscus tUiaceus), the latter of which extend their pictur- 
esque branches until they droop and kiss the bosom of the gen- 
tle waters. Now they wind through a fertile tract of alluvial 
deposit, and now they sweep round the base of some lofty 
cliff, hoary with age, and placed there, apparently, to watch 
over the surrounding quiet. Again, and on either hand, the 
unruffled bosom of the riv^, with the clearness of a vast mir- 
ror, reflects every object that crowds its banks with wild and 
romantic beauty. At every few yards the scenes change, and 
the eye becomes delighted with the charm of a continuoas 
panorama. 

The Wailua River stands associated with the very genius 
of romance and superstition. Every object on the banks, ev- 
ery rock in the stream, and every cliff by which it is over- 
looked, has attached to it some legend of lovers, warriors, 
priests, and kings. About three miles above .the village, and 
within a few rods of the left bank, there stands a singularly- 
shaped rock. Its form is a well-defined sugar-loaf, sixty feet 
high, and twenty across the base. The natives have invested 
it with every attribute which can constitute a ghostly charac- 
ter, and it is known to them by the name of Kamaku. 



STRANGE LEGENDS. 191 

The origin of this ghost's existence — accepting the native 
legend as authority — ^is simply this : 

At a very eariy period, the site occupied by this gray rock 
was, as it is now, a fine banana grove, sacred only to the gods. 
On numerous occasions, some daring natives, impelled by thiev- 
ish propensities, appropriated the productions of this grove to 
their own use. At length the gods became highly incensed 
at the frequency and extent of these outrages, and a supreme 
coimcil was held to devise measures to arrest and punish the 
aggressors. Kamalau, who was the presiding deity of this 
awM synod, was unanimously appointed supreme guardian of 
the sacred grove. He descended from a lofty cliff— the site 
of the council— on the other side of the stream, and, alighting 
on the spot he now occupies, transformed himself into the rock 
described above. 

Kamalau had a favorite sister whose name was Kulai. Her 
bosom was filled with sorrow when she saw her brother forsake 
the home he had occupied so many ages. Not being able to 
sustain this wholesale desertion, she took a leap similar to that 
just taken by her brother. Whether it was owing to a want 
of greater elasticity, or to some other legitimate impediment, 
tradition does not specify ; but the lovely and forsaken goddess 
fell into the river, and immediately became petrified for her 
presumption in daring to follow her brother. At this day, the 
superstitious natives take a peculiar pleasure in pointing the 
traveler's attention to this rock, submerged about two feet be- 
low the surface of the stream. 

Tradition says that Kamalau succeeded in his guardianship 
of the sacred fruit. No more thieves ever again attempted to 
disturb its repose. The rock Kamalau stands to-day, and the 
banana grove, forming a dense mass of vegetation, that has 
continued to spring up firom decayed matter during unniun- 
bered generations, yet flourishes around it. No compensation, 
however valuable, can induce a native to visit this spot during 
daylight, much less in the darkness of night. 

A short distance above the " Ghost" is another rock, whose 
sharp summit just peers up above the placid bosom of the 



192 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



the stream. It is teimed the " Canoe-breaking Rock," from 
the legend that, in early days, wh«i this valley was densely 
peopled by savage warriors, the canoes of their enemies who 
came hither were dashed to pieces, and their rowers put to 
death. 

Yet higher up the river, another object was pointed out to 
me as having been the residence of a powerftd war-chief His 
retreat was gained by a subterranean passage, access to which 
could be obtained oidy by diving some distance below the sur- 
fece of the water. To gratify his propensities for cannibalism, 
he occasionally sallied forth, and seized the first luckless mor- 
tal who might chance to be passing* Numbers of perscnos had 
thus fiedlen victims to his cruelty before the impregnability of 
his den was violated. When he was put to death and an mi- 
trance was effected into his abode, it was found to be nearly 
filled with human ly)nes, many of which had been converted 
into savage ornaments. 

Volumes might easily be filled with the wild legends which, 
even at this day, these unlettered Hawaiians are fond of re- 
lating to every traveler ; but enough has been said on these 
topics. 

Our canoe stopped at the foot of a hill two hundred foet 
high. It formed one of the sides of an ancient crater, the 
bottom of which was composed of a rich soil covering about 
^^ acres. Through tiiis wild and deep amphitheatre the 
picturesque stream was gliding musically over its rocky bed. 
And in this spot, covered as it was with taro and various 
kinds of foliage, tiiere were hundreds of wild ducks, which 
could be easily approached within shooting distance. 

Climbing the steep banks, and crossing over an elevated 
plain about half a mile, accompanied by my guide, I at last 
reached the object of my search. For some distance befi»6 
arriving at the falls, I saw clouds of vapor ascending toward 
the sky, and heard the solemn tones of their undying music. 
On reaching the brink of the abyss, the sublime scene bursts 
at once on the vision of the astonished and delighted visitor, 
and for a time chains him to the spot. As my ^e endeavor- 



WAILUA FALLS. 



193 




FALLS OF WAILUA. 



ed to follow the huge sheet of water as it went hissing and 
foaming into the " hell of waters" helow, my limbs trembled 
under me, and I instinctively clutched the limb of a solitary 
tree under which I stood. 

After contemplating the scene before me in solemn silence 
for some minutes, I resolved on reaching the foot of the falls, 

I 



194 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

where I should obtain a better view. Descending the rocky 
banks about a quarter of a mile below the cataract, and care- 
fiilly climbing over slippery masses of basalt which had tum- 
bled down from the heights above, I at length found myself 
enveloped in the warm spray of the foaming torrent. At this 
spot the scene assumed a terrific sublimity. On the night 
previous to my visit a heavy rain had rapidly raised the wa- 
ters of the river, and at this moment the view was unusually 
grand and imposing. The brow of the cataract was sixty 
feet wide, the depth of water six feet, and its entire length of 
fall one hundred and eighty feet to the pool by which I stood. 
The basaltic rocks bounding this huge abyss rather overhung 
the vast masses of rock piled rudely below. The front of the 
right waU of the torrent was as smooth as if it had been sub- 
mitted to" the action of a sculptor's chisel. It was with a 
trembling glance that I raised my eyes upward, while the 
huge walls looked as if about to totter down upon my head. 
At this moment a strong ray of sunlight shot down into the 
abyss, and the foaming spray and the ascending vapors re- 
vealed an iris of enchanting loveliness. Beautiful, strangely 
beautiful was its contrast from the black and lofty rocks, in 
the interstices of which delicate ferns were growing, and over 
whose rugged brow flourished the kurJad, or candle-nut ( Ji- 
eurites triloba), and the feathery koa {Ajcacia falcata). 
Round the edges of the deep basin that received the cataract 
rushes were growing ten to twelve feet in length, four or five 
feet under the water, and two inches in girth round the lower 
extremities ; and lower down the ravine, close to the edge of 
the river, I noticed scores of the castor-oil plant growing wild. 
Page after page might be devoted to a description of this 
scene, but nothing can aflbrd a more graphic delineation of it 
than Btron*s eloquent description of the " Falls of Term :" 

" The roar of watera ! from the headlong height 
Velino cleaves the wave-worn precipice ; 
The fall of waters ! rapid as the light. 
The flashing mass foams shaking the abyss; 
The hell of waters 1 where they howl and hiss. 



THE KUMALU ESTATE. 195 

And boil in endless torture ; while the sweat 
Of their great agony, wrung out from this 
Their Phlegethon, curls round the rocks of jet, 

That gird the gulf around, in pitiless horror set, 
And mounts in spray the skies^ and thence again 
Returns in an unceasing shower, which round, 
"With its unemptied cloud of gentle rain, 
Is an eternal April to the ground, 
Making it all one emerald — ^how profound 
The gulf I and how the giant element 
From rock to rock leaps with delirious bound. 
Crushing the cliffs which, downward worn and rent 

With his fierce footsteps^ yield in chasms a fearful vent 
• «««•• 

Horribly beautiful I but on the verge^ 
From side to side, beneath the glittering moon, 
An iris sits amid the infernal surge, 
Like Hope upon a death-bed, and, unworn, 
Its steady dyes, while aU around is torn 
By the ^tracted waters, bears serene 
Its brilliant hues^ with all their beams unshorn : 
Resembling, 'mid the torture of the scene. 

Love watching Madness with unalterable mien.'' 

The estate called Kiimalu, one side of which is bounded by 
the Falls of Wailua, is, in point of beauty, surpassed by none 
on the group. It is located immediately between the junction 
of the Kukemakau and Koheo Rivers. The commodious 
dwelling-house stood on the very brink of the crateriform val- 
ley I have already referred to, and behind it was a garden cov- 
ering two or three acres, beautifully interspersed with a large 
variety of flowers of every hue and odor ; and on the gentle 
slopes that stretched away to the right of the mansion, hand- 
some acacia groves were flourishing, with all the magnificent 
tinge which the climate of the tropics imparts to foUage. 

But the principal charm of the estate, and especially of the 
mansion itself, was gone. The family that once occupied it 
had departed for a distant land, had left with it an eternal 
adieu. There was that about the spot which spoke of that 
family, and seemed to whisper that they had but just gone on 
a neighboring visit. And yet there were gentle memorials 



196 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

that told the stem truth — ^that ixom this enchanting ahode — 
this elysium in miniature— that lovely family had gone forev- 
er. I never knew them. But I could not repel the risings of 
that conmion sympathy which hinds the heart of a man to his 
race. The ispacious apartments which once echoed the inno- 
cent mirth of joyous children, or the instrumental music at- 
tuned hy their accomplished mother, were now comparatively 
silent and nearly a stem soUtude. I passed over the embow- 
ered walks, and among the flowers around that dwelling, and 
thought of the gentle communings of those whose feet had 
pressed that soil, and whose hands had reared those flowers. 
But those feet and hands were . at that moment being borne 
away upon the bosom of the treacherous deep. The sun shone 
with as much beauty, the birds sang just as sweetly, and the 
river in the romantic valley below murmured along just as 
musically as formerly they did. And yet there was something 
about that forsaken home that left impressions on my spirit 
that I can not and wish not to erase. 

But to return to the estate. The then owner of it was Lieu- 
tenant Turner, an English gentleman. He had purchased it 
entire for the small simi of $4050 — an immense sacrifice to 
its former proprietor, Mr. Brown, also an Englishman. The 
estate contained one thousand acres. It had formerly been 
conducted for the support of the dairy business, and Mr. Tur- 
ner designed following the business of his predecessor. I have 
already referred to this branch of business on the Sandwich 
group ; and it is unnecessary again to state that it may be 
rendered a highly lucrative branch of native industry. 

But Mr. Brown's experiment was a failure, and worse than 
a failure. He had been reared in England, and had acquired 
the staid habits of an '' old-fa&hioned English gentleman.'' He 
expected that every thing would proceed in the same way, and 
that manual labor was just as rehable as in England. This 
was his grand mistake — ^this was why he failed. Had he be- 
come a Httle more of the Sandwich Islander, as a Yankee us- 
ually does, he would have stood a much better chance of suc- 
cess. The kind of talent adapted to the tropics is a personal 



POLICY OF GOVERNMENT. I97 

adaptation to existing circumstances, a close study of the oper- 
ations of Nature. Sun, atmosphere, soil, crops, markets, ev- 
ery thing is difierent there to what it is in other places. Nei- 
ther an Englishman as an Englishman, nor a Yankee as a 
Yankee, can well succeed on that group, so long as he retains 
his "isms,'' or his peculiar ideas on agriculture. An agricul- 
turist must depend much on sdf, and not too much on others, 
if he would succeed weU there. He must he willing to lay 
aside many of his preconceived opinions, and lay hold of things 
as he finds them. 

But one cause of so many failures on the group has beai in 
the restaicted policy of the Hawaiian government. That pol- 
icy has heen sustained for the henefit of a few leading men 
that have surrounded the king, more than for the national 
good, and the genius of the policy itself has heen a too arbi- 
trary unity of Church and State. But a beneficial change 
has already dawned, and the first steps toward improvement 
•were seen in the very prompt manner in which the recent 
Minister of Finance was dismissed from his official position. 

From Kiunalu to Hanalei the traveler experiences much to 
interest and much to annoy him. Passing now through a 
small village, then fording a stream, or swimming his horse 
over a river, and yonder picking his path down and up the 
rugged sides of a deep ravine, there is little, if any, of monoto- 
ny. At intervals the path leads through dense groves of the 
pandamus ( Tectoriics et odoratissimus) and the ku-kui {Al- 
eu/rites triloba). Some of these latter groves would have hon- 
ored the old Druidical priests. 

Within two hours' ride of Hanalei I passed through a set- 
tlement established by several enterprising men from Califor- 
nia. They had leased a large tract of land in the district of 
Koolau, for the purpose of sustaining agricultural interests. 
Possessing the essentially needfid article of Yankee enterprise, 
should no obstacles be placed in their way by those in author- 
ity, they can not fail of success. A wider and more rapid in- 
tercourse with the California markets would do much to aid 
the progress of agriculture on the group. And this speedy in- 



X98 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

tercourse can be achieved only through steam navigation- 
advantage that ^v^l not be realized under the present state of 
the Hawaiian government. 

Travehng on the Sandwich Islands is far ftom being easy, 
and, in aU probability, a journey over Kauai is the most diffi- 
cult and laborious of any which can be performed over the 
group. There are no railroad cars and no stage-coaches, into 
which a traveler can place himself, leaving all his responsi- 
biUties to the " iron horse" or the hving driver. Many a weaiy 
hour, and over many a long mile, he plods along on the back 
of his solitary steed. There are ravines to cross, streams to 
ford, and rivers to swim. 

Away from the dwellings of civilized men, his wants may 
be many, but his needs must necessarily be few, otherwise 
they will be slimly supplied. In many cases the traveler must 
fast for hours, or turn Hawaiian pro tern,, and gulp down fish 
and poi. If a chicken is broiled for him, it is done in the hope 
of a heavy remuneration, and the very first preliminary on the 
part of the native is usually a thorough understanding as to 
how much the traveler is going to pay for his miserable accom- 
modations. The insatiable eagerness displayed by the Hawaii- 
ans for money, has been imbibed from avaricious foreign resi- 
dents. So powerful is this talisman, that, in many instances, 
the Kanakas will fireely sacrifice their wives, sisters, moth- 
ers, and even their own daughters, for gold ! I saw some in- 
stances of this kind before reaching Hanalei, and I have seen 
them many a time since. A close observer in passing over 
the group can not fail to see things which he may not relate, 
and which no person, not having witnessed them, would be 
willing to believe. It is well, therefore, for the traveler to 
seek a reputation rather for veracity than the marvelous. 

" But, after all we have said, it is our duty to add the uni- 
versal remark, that in no part of the world is life and property 
more safe than in these islands. Murders, robberies, and the 
higher class of felonies are quite unknown here, and in city 
and country we retire to our sleep conscious of the most entire 
security. The stranger may travel firam one end of the group 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



VALLEY OF HANALEI. 201 

to the other, over mountains and through woods, sleeping in 
grass huts, unarmed, alone, and unprotected, with any amount 
of treasure on his person, and with a tithe of the vigilance re- 
quired in older anc^more civilized countries, go unrohhed of a 
penny and unharmed in a«hair/'^ 



CHAPTER XV. 

Valley of Hanalei — ^River. — ^Harbor. — Coffee Plantations. — Early 
Efforts to cultivate Silk. — Causes of the Failure. — ^The Spiritual 
versus the Secular. — Capacity of the Soil — Extraordinary vege- 
table Remains.— Evidences of a remote Antiquity. — ^Excursions. — 
Storm-stayed. — Fondness of native Women for Dogs. — Delicate 
Appetite. — ^Mission Station. — ^Manual-labor School 

After crossing seventeen streams — several of which were 
respectable rivers — ^I came to the brink of the table-lands by 
which the Valley of Hanalei is bounded. It is one of the 
Edens of the Hawaiian group. As the traveler reaches the 
northeast boundary, the view before him is that of a splendid 
panorama, perfect in all its parts. The summits of the neigh- 
boring mountains at the back of the valley look as though 
within rifle distance, but, in reality, they are six miles away ; 
and of them it may be truly said, 

" Tis distance lends enchantment to the view." 

At the time of my visit it was the rainy season. More than 
a score of cascades were leaping down the perpendicular steeps 
of those mountains, whose rugged summits, clad with a dense 
foliage, pierced the clouds at a height of four thousand feet. 
The valley itself was covered with plantations and. pasture- 
lands, dotted with groves of tropical trees. In the distance 
stood the Mission Church and the other buildings comprising 
the station. Here and there the grass huts of the natives 
•were sprinkled over the open tracts, or half concealed among 
the foHage. Beyond all, and forming the mouth of the valley, 
was the peaceful Httle harbor, revealing its fair sandy beach, 
* Annual Report of Chief Justice, p^ 108. 
12 



202 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

with the white foam of the saif defining its limits. The final 
touch to the picture was the beautiful river that meandered 
through the valley, Ifiaging the wild flowers that clustered on 
its banks, or bearhig a sohtary canoe on ittf bosom, now losing 
itself among the dense fohage, and now bursting on the vision 
like a rich vein of silver stealing its way through the perpet- 
ual verdure. 

To the planters in the valley this river is of incalculable 
value. By ordinary-sized sail-boats it is navigable for three 
miles above its mouth, and is from one to two hundred feet 
wide. By means of boats they can send their produce down 
to any vessel that may be anchored in the harbor awaiting its 
reception. 

The harbor is more beautifiil than useful. In calm weath- 
er large vessels may anchor. in it, but the sandy bottom is 
loose and changeful. Should a heavy northwest wind over- 
take a vessel at anchor there, beating out — ^the small native 
schooners excepted — ^is next to impossible. It was on the 
beach of this bay that the pride of Salem, '* Cleopatra's 
Barge,** was totally wrecked. Several other ' vessels have 
there shared the same fate. There is not a harbor on this 
island fit for a vessel to ride in with safety. That of Wai- 
mea, on the south side, is the best. 

The chief agricultural interest in the Hanalei Valley I found 
to be the cultivation of cofiee. There were two plantations 
in good condition. There was also the ruins of a third, which 
had been placed under an attachment for debt. But the most 
flourishing estate in the valley was owned by Mr. Titcomb, a 
thoroughly enterprising Yankee. 

The co£fee is of the Bourbon species, closely allied to that 
species called Mocha, now extensively cultivated in the king- 
dom of Yemen, Arabia Felix. It has a most delicious flavor, 
the virtues of which I many times tested during my stay. 
The article can be raised for three and a half to four cents 
per pound. The cost of labor per man, per day, is, for Coo- 
lies, eighteen cents, and for natives twenty-five cents. Yet the 
Coolies will do the most work, and give the most iatisfaction. 



EARLY EFFORTS TO CULTIVATE SILK. 203 

But the Hawaiians feel their superiority over these Celestials, 
and their services can be obtained only by a superior remuner- 
ation. The business is a highly-lucrative one, but it requires 
care and close attention. It is of no use for a man to fall on 
his knees and implore Jove to assist him, unless he stoutly 
puts his " own shoulder to the wheel.'' Mr. Titcomb, as he 
richly deserves, is rapidly realizing a snug independency. 

A few years ago, this same enterprising gentleman made 
experiments in raising silk. Being a total novice in the busi- 
ness, he procured what he subsequently knew purely from the 
study of books that treated on the subject. After acquiring a 
knowledge of it himself^ he began to impart practical lessons 
to some of the natives living in the vaUey. Mulberry-trees 
were cultivated ; silk- worms were procured, and an immense 
cocoonery was erected. Through his untiring perseverance he 
eooa raised several crops of good silk, samples of which were 
£)rwarded to Mazatlan and the city of Mexico, for which he 
received a very high price. The mulberry leaves which an 
acre of soil would produce were sufficient food for worms that 
would raise fifty pounds of raw silk. The article could be 
raised at an average cost of $1 50 to $2 00 per pound. Num- 
bers of the natives, of both sexes, were profitably employed, 
and many of them became much attached to the business. 
Of Mr. Titcomb's success, the gentlemen of the United States 
Exploring Expedition make ample mention : " Mr. Titcomb 
has a large plantation of both kinds [sugar-cane and mulber- 
ry], and an extensive cocoonery in operation. He has suc- 
ceeded in making silk of excellent quaUty, both fi)r the loom 
and sewing. He gives his personal attention to this business, 
and began in a small way. I imderstand that he has suc- 
ceeded in it. His greatest difficulty is the unsteady labor of 
the natives."* 

But, af^r such an interesting success, he failed ! An in- 
quiry into the failure is both natural and instructive. It hap- 
pened that, as on all other silk plantations, the worms had to 

* '' United States Exploring Expedition." Lea and Blanohard. 
Philadelphia, 1845 ; voL iv., p. 10. 



204 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

be fed on Sundays (!). This did not exactly suit the rigid 
notions of the ecclesiastics that controlled the spiritual inter- 
ests of the natives. The planter was in the habit of issuing 
paper notes, redeemable, at certain periods, in cash or goods, 
as the laborers might choose. The first step, therefore, was 
to create a distrust among them relative to the value of this 
kind of payment. To a great extent it succeeded. One by 
one the laborers left him, until nearly two thirds of them had 
disappeared firom the premises. Every obstacle was thrown 
in the planter's way. The winding-up of the drama was 
positively to interdict natives employing a few minutes on the 
Sabbath to feed silk- worms ; and this was done on a penalty 
of exconununication, and the pains of an endless shower (^ 
hell fire beyond the grave. 

This was an extraordinary instance of the exercise {^spir- 
itual power versus secular interests. It was exercised by men 
totally disqualified in legislation and in the interests of com- 
merce—by men who would have their own food prepared for 
them on Sundays, and permit their horses and cattle to range 
over their pastures — by men whose silk cravats were raised 
by worms fed on Sundays in other parts of the world: Could 
it be wrong to feed a silk-worm on a Sunday, when the God 
of creation feeds the sparrow on the same day ? The result 
of this fanaticism was a failure on tiie part of Mr. Titcomb. 
His laborers were all drawn away from him. His silk- worms 
were aU thrown into the river — ^for they died I And all this 
was done when he was within a few hours of realizing a crop 
of silk worth thousands of dollars ! 

This is another instance of that blind zeal which has long 
held back the most important commercial interests on the Sand- 
wich group. It was the zeal of Protestantism ! But, like the 
perfidious priests of Popery, who, in many a part of the earth, 
have consumed the martyr to ashes at the stake, simply be- 
cause he dared to be firee, it was equally censurable. "When 
God stands not in a man's way, his fellow-men ought not to 
do it. Whatever tends to interdict domestic commerce, 
whether it be by governments as bodies politic, or by men as 



THE SPIRITUAL va. THE SECULAR. 205 

individuals, can not fail to be a source of national and domes- 
tic evil. It is impossible to portray how many evils have 
arisen, and how much real good the Hawaiian nation has lost, 
by the overwhelming predominancy of ecclesiastical legislation. 
The &ilure olthe sUk culture was a disaster to many private 
individuals, and it certainly eventuated in a serious loss to the 
government as an item c^ commerce ; for an interdicted gain 
through an honest medium is an absolute loss secured through 
the channel of the interdiction itself. 

For ages past, the single article of silk has been a source of 
great commercial advantage to civilized nations. - In the early 
trandation of the Bible, by Jerome, it is mentioned as being 
among the articles imported by the PhoBnicians £rom Syria. 
For a long time it was brought by traders from China, in car- 
avans traversing the deserts and sands of Asia to the ports of 
Syria and Egypt. The sails of the pleasure-barge of the vo- 
luptuous Cleopatra were composed of silk. For centuries 
the Persians monopolized the silk trade. When Alexander 
the Great had conquered that nation, it was introduced into 
Greece, and subsequently into Home. The Roman people at 
last induced the Emperor Marcus Antoninus to send embas- 
sadors to Persia, to negotiate with them a commercial treaty 
concerning this commodity. 

About A.D. 1130, Roger II., of Sicily, set up a silk estab- 
lishment at Palermo, and another in Calabria. From these 
two countries the silk trade rapidly spread over Italy. At an 
early day in the history of Spain it was introduced into that 
nation by the Moors. In 1521 it was introduced into France. 
In 1663 the State of Virginia witnessed efibrts to awaken an 
interest in the cultivation of silk. Silk raised in Georgia, 
Pennsylvania, and Connecticut, in 1760, received liberal pre- 
miums from the Society in London for the Encouragement of 
Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. Ever since its introduc- 
tion into the United States, it has been looked upon as a val- 
uable department in domestic commerce, and a source of great 
pecuniary benefit to the country. From 1821 to 1841 in- 
clusive, the United States exported silk to the amount of 



206 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

$26,827,285, and these exports were purely the produce of 
the country. 

Looking at the formidable bulk of the above sum, as real- 
ized by American industry supported by American laws, it 
will be seen that the Hawaiian treasury has lost a great deal 
through the tyranny of Church over State. 

But if Mr. Titcomb was defeated in his silk project, he was 
not entirely crushed. It is impossible to crush a genuine Yan- 
kee. He borrowed a sum of money, and commenced plant- 
ing cofi»e. In two years he had paid all his debts, and Ibund 
himself with money in pocket At this day be owns a noble 
estate, containing a hundred thousand co^e-trees, besides oth- 
er things, and he looks forward to a prosperous and happy 
old age. 

But cofiee is not the only article that can be cultivated in 
this valley. Grapes will flourish on the sido-hills ; and com 
and wheat, of a large growth, can be successfolly raised. 
Fruits are numerous, and of the finest quality. The bread- 
firuit, tamarind, pine-apple, mulberry, orange, peach, guava 
{Psidmm), and many others, are perfiact in their flavor and 
development. Plantains and bananas, limes, cocoa-nuts, the 
castor-oil plant, and the American aloe, attain their highest 
perfection without the least artificial aid. With a climate 
ranging from 60^ to 80^ Fahrenheit, the valley becomes a 
terrestrial paradise. To a stranger, the growth of vegetati(m 
seems incredible. The mulberry has been known to grow an 
inch in twenty-four hours, and very many of the young trees 
at the rate of four feet per month. Many persons who have 
visited this valley have marked sticks and pushed them into 
the soil by the side of young trees, and the immense rapidity 
of their growth has almost staggered the evidence of their 
own senses. 

The rich bottoms of the Hanalei Valley contain vegetable 
remains of a highly interesting character. They are the solid 
trunks of trees, from six inches to nearly as many feet in di- 
ameter, and repose at a depth of firom two to four feet, in a 
horizontal position, below the surface of the soil. They are 



EVIDENCES OF A REMOTE ANTIQUITY. 307 

found "wherever trenches are cut for the purposes of draming 
the land in the valley. The same sort of remains are foimd 
projecting a number of feet firom the banks, and at some dis- 
tance below the surface of the Hanalei and Waioli Rivers. 
"When first exposed to the atmosphere they are excessively 
hard, and bid fair to last forever ; but after a few days* expo- 
sure they begin to crumble away to dust. Large marine shells 
have been found in the upper portions of the valley. The en- 
tire region bears ample evidence of a very remote antiquity. 
The lower stratiun in the bed of the valley is a fine oceanic 
sand, found at regular intervals. The sea once rolled over it. 
It was not until the neighboring mountains had expended their 
last volcanic fires that the soil of the valley began to form. 
The soil is mostly a debris^ washed from the mountains, and 
mingled with decayed vegetable matter. Subsequent to this 
fi)rmation, a forest of huge trees has grown up. It took ages, 
even beneath a tropical sun, for those giants of the forest to 
mature, for there is no such species of wood now on the group. 
That forest has been swept down, probably by a heavy tidal 
influx — ^not at all imcommon in the Pacific Ocean. Over the 
prostrate forest, the soil has accumulated in some places to a 
great depth. Untold generations of years have fled since Na- 
ture has performed this task. Finally, the traveler at this day 
can discover the sites of villages, and of small ponds in which 
the inhabitants cultivated their taro {Arum esculentum). 
But villages, inhabitants, and taro plantations have long since 
passed away. Of the many thousands that once lived in this 
earthly paradise, history makes no mention, and no marble 
points to their places of repose. 

Poets and romancers have flung around the islanders of the 
Pacific the brightest halos of military prowess, and the loveli- 
est finish of humanity unsophisticated. The loves of *' Neuha," 
in Byron's ** Island," have captivated the senses of many a 
reader, and placed him amid associations seen only by a poetic 
eye, and felt only through the abstract flame of poetic fire. 
So many of those " daughters of the isles" are portrayed as 
being like one would suppose Eve was before she ate the fruit 



208 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

of the interdicted tree — the perfection of all that is perfect. 
But gome of my rambles over this group have taught me that 
romance is one thing, and actual experience another. 

While staying in the Valley of Hanalei, I one day set out 
on a short excursion afoot, with my gun, among rocks, firuits, 
and flowers. While on this excursion I was overtaken by a 
heavy, rain-storm, aad compelled to take refiige in a native 
house which was near. On entering it, I dehvered the cus- 
tomary salutation — ** aloha f" and sat down d la Kanaka, 
The house was of very Hmited dimensions, only afibrding one 
a chance to stand exactly in the centre. A huge Kanaka, 
wrapped in a thick blanket, lay stretched on a mat before a 
dying fire. His wife — I supposed — ^was similarly enveloped, 
and in a sitting posture close to the expiring embers. She 
was of diminutive stature, and disgustin^y homely. Occa- 
sionally die would bestow a furtive glance on her dusky lord, 
and then upon something which appeared to nestle most un* 
quietly in her bosom. I sat surveying her for some time, 
when, instead of an infant, out peered the head of a sickly 
mongrel dog. Its very appearance was repulsive and un- 
canine, rendered still more so firom a partial suflbcation be- 
neath the folds of that filthy blanket. Finding it impossible 
to retain him there, his mistress employed herself by picking 
the vermin ofl* him, and depositing them one by one in her 
capacious — mouth / 

I had many a time heard of the absurd fondness of the na- 
tive women for dogs, and I had seen women pick them up 
out of the way of a swiftly-speeding horse, while they left 
their children exposed to the danger of being trampled to 
death ; but until that momQnt I had seen nothing equal to the 
perfi)rmance of that woman of vermin-loving appetite ! It 
was far too delicate for me! "Shades of the Prophet!" I 
thought, " what a speotacle of de^based humanity ! What a 
being for a man to receive into his embrace !'* Horrors ! I 
grasped my gun and started to my feet, and although it rained 
a young deluge, I hurried away from that domicile, and took 
refuge under the nearest clump of trees. 



MANUAL. LABOR SCHOOL. 209 

The Mission Station at Hanalei, located between the mouths 
of the Hanalei and Waioli (singing water) Rivers, is one of the 
most picturesque on the group. I found the mission buildings 
in good condition, commodious, and neat. A rather novel 
mode of sermonizing took place on the Sabbath during my 
stay. The native clergyman publicly questioned the audience 
in relation to the sermon, and their answers were publicly 
and prbmptly returned. I understood the object to be to ob- 
tain their undivided attention, and produce a more lasting 
impression on their minds. 

Connected with this station is a manual-labor school. The 
number of scholars was sixty. They were all native boys, se- 
lected from difierent parts of the island ; they board with their 
parents or friends, and labor for their own support in part. 
There are two native assistants in the school, and instruction 
is imparted generally in the native language; one class is 
taught Enghsh to some extent. The object of the school is 
to prepare scholars for the seminary^ and also for teaching in 
the common schools. 

The branches taught were reading, writing, composition, 
elements of natural philosophy, geography, arithmetic, geom- 
etry, algebra, sacred geograj^y. Church history, moral science, 
and natural theology. 

In these branches the pupils had miade a surprising profi- 
ciency. 

Until the annual meeting of the American Board of Missions 
at Cincinnati, October 7th, 1853, this school was sustained by 
said Board at an annual cost of $1500. 



210 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Visit to the Cayes at Haena. — Curiouty of the NatiTes. — The CayeflL 
— Tradition concerning a Chiefl — Subterranean Lakes. — ^Perilous 
Position. — Story of a Traveler. — Singular Effects produced by- 
Torchlight — Native Courage and Native Fears. — Terminus of 
Travel by Land. — ^A Night at Anahola. — Pai and Bed-fellows. 

Six miles beyond the Mission Station at Waioli are the caves 
of Haena. As these caves are seldcmi visited, the natives who 
live in the vicinity seldom see the face of any white man ex- 
cepting their missionary. On approaching the caves, the coun- 
try becomes more open, and the movements of the traveler are 
seen at some distance, exciting no small degree of curiosity 
among the natives. It is intensely amusing to see them stand- 
ing as still as so many st9,tues, awaiting his arrival ; and even 
then, the lips alone seem to be invested with motion enough 
to deliver the customary salutation — " aloha /'' 

After passing several houses, the natives seemed to recover 
their confidence. A crowd of men, women, and children fid- 
lowed us to the caves. Some carried long strings of candle- - 
nuts {Aleurites triloba^ to serve the purpose of torches ; others 
went with the intention of seeing what the haoUs (foreigners) 
were about to do ; and others out of mere curiosity, or because 
they had nothing else to engage in. 

The caves are three in number. The first is dry. The 
floor, including a few short windings, covers nearly three acres. 
It had the appearance of having been used as a cattle-pen. A 
rich soil had formed at its entrance. Ferns were growing be- 
tween the crevices of the immense walls, and also in the roo£ 
Their contrast firom the stalactites was exceedingly imposing. 
The entrance is wide enough to admit several horsemen riding 
abreast. Half way in the roof begins to decline, and at its 
extremity it rests with an acute angle on the floor of the 
cavern. 



TRADITION CONCERNING A CHIEF, gll 

Tliis cave is invested with numerous traditions both singular 
and ahsurd. The most probable one, however, is that which 
relates to a favorite chief. Many years ago this district was 
invaded, the chief was vanquished, and took reiuge in flight. 
The conquerors, wishing to secure him only, and laying aside 
their customary cruelties to the vanquished, spared his tribe 
and their possessions, and quietly withdrew at a short distance 
from the spot. The people became disconsolate at their loss. 
The usual demonstrations of mourning were indulged, and their 
grief found vent in the following expressive dirge : 

" Alas I alas I dead is my chief, 
Dead is my friend and my lord : 
My friend in the season of famine. 
My friend in the time of drought. 
My friend in poverty. 
My friend in the rain and the wind. 
My friend in the heat of the sun, 
My friend in the cold from the mountain, 
My friend in the storm. 
My friend in the cahn. 
My friend in the eight seas ;* 
Alas I alas ! gone is my friend. 
And no more will return.** 

As their grief continued, the victors became weary of delay ; 
and, beUeving that the conquered chieflain had really passed 
away to the world of spirits, they commenced a final retreat. 
The captive — ^for such he truly was — ^who had been near them 
during the whole of these transactions, left his hiding-place, 
collected his warriors, followed up their retreat, and, in a fa- 
YoraUe location, overwhelmed them with ruin. Peace and 
safety being restored, the conqueror led his people back to the 
cavern, and showed them the spot in which he had efiected 
his concealment. He had heard and seen the warriors of the 
former victorious party in search of him, and close under his 
retreat. 

This celebrated place of retreat is pointed out with a great 
degree of pride at this day by the natives. It is a hole in the 
* The channels between the islands. 



212 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

roof, a little to the right of the entrance of the cave, A me- 
dium sized man would be able to reach the Bides of the orifice 
with his hands, and a smart spring would land him on a ledge 
sufficiently wide to conceal him. Above this ledge are two 
apertures obliquely piercing the solid rock, and sufficiently 
wide to admit the body of any fugitive. Snatching a torch 
firom one of the natives, and climbing up into this hiding-place, 
I became fully satisfied of its abihty to conceal a warrior to 
whom alone it was known. 

The other two caves contain subterranean lakes, which can 
be explored only by the aid of a canoe* The first of these 
lakes is denominated Wai-a-kapa-lae (water of terror). Having' 
procured a canoe and secured a good torch, I commenced an 
examination of the first subterraneous pond. It was my mis- 
fortune to have left behind me my soundhig-line, so I was com- 
pelled to lay aside one of my intentions — sounding these waters. 
The singular transparency of the water renders its apparent 
depth extremely deceptive. As I left the shore, I dropped a 
large stone where the water was a fathom deep, and it sunk 
in three seconds. About thirty feet from the shore I repeated 
the experiment, and the stone found its way to the bottom in 
twelve seconds. Moving over the surface about thirty feet 
further, I once more dropped a stone, which found the bottom, 
in sixty seconds. This proved a depth of twenty fathoms, or 
a hundred and twenty feet at about sixty feet fix)m the shore ! 
The descent of each piece of rock to the bottom was clearly 
defined by a phosphorescent light, which disappeared as it rose 
toward the surface. The sides of this cavern were perpen- 
dicular. The massive roof, covered with stalactites, had an 
angle of twenty degrees, which terminated on the opposite side 
frora the entrance. I judged the superficial area of this lake 
to be about fifty thousand square feet. 

The last cave, Wai-a-kana-loa (water of long desolation), is 
by far the most striking. Its formative character is entirely 
different fix)m the other two, and it is located more than a 
third of a mile further westward. A hundred yards from 
the entrance, which is strictly Gothic, is a fine arch of the 



PERILOUS SITUATION. 213 

same natural architecture. At this point the cavern £)rms a 
right angle, and extends under the mountain nearly an eighth 
of a mile. In the interstices of the roof and sides, ferns, on 
ivhich the genial rays of the sun had never shone, were grow- 
ing in solitary and strange beauty, and looked as if they were 
jBdnged with silver. The waters in this cavern were of an 
inky blackness, and retained a strong smell of sulphur. The 
darkness, after passing the arch that led into the second cham- 
ber, was the very " blackness of darkness" itself — ^for I acci- 
dentally dropped my torch into the water. 

Here was a position ! Where the tortuous path would lead 
to I knew not, and I was equally ignorant as to how soon the 
canoe would come in contact with the rugged sides of this 
Hades, and capsize me into the dark wateis. I am noj; easily 
disconcerted. I trust I am not given to superstition. I have 
enjoyed a sea-bath on the equator a thousand miles from the 
land, and where no soundings could be procured ; and I have 
been perched up in a small boat over the coral reefs of the Pa- 
cific, where, more than a hundred fathoms beneath me, yawned 
fissures as black as night, and amid these sublime scenes I felt 
no undue emotion. But here I was, surrounded by a total 
darkness, in one of Nature's strong prisons, with my canoe 
leaking rapidly, and my attendant native half wild with a su- 
perstitious fear, and I am compelled to admit that for once my 
heart beat faster, and my knees trembled more violently, and 
the ccild sweat flowed more freely than ever before in my life. 
In the midst of all this, I had to crawl to the other end of the 
canoe, and t£dce the paddle firom the native to whom the canoe 
belonged, for he was working uway with all his might. I had 
read of the cold and bitter Acheron of the old Greek mytholo- 
gists, over which the souls of the dead were said to be con- 
veyed to await their destiny, but I never formed so vivid a 
picture of it as now, for I began to imagine I was on its very 
bosom. In this dense darkness I had to remain until, after 
sundry shouts by myself and the native, two or three persons 
came swimming a^r us with lighted torches in their mouths, 
and they were followed by several others. 



214 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Every word they uttered ahd every motioii they made re- 
verberated like peals of heavy thunder, and the light of those 
torches cast a most unearthly glare on the faces of the swimr 
mers, on the crest of every little wavelet, and the spacious roof 
itself. They looked as ifbathed in a liquid fire; and the drops 
of water which filtrated through the spacious roof and fell upon 
them, resembled flakes of flame. So vividly did the whole 
impress me, that I could not help recalling the language of 
Dante : 

" Now *gin the rueful wailings to be heard, 
Now am I come where many a plaining voice 
Smites on my ear. Into a place I came 
Where light was silent alL Bellowing there groan'd 
A noise, as of a sea in tempest torn 
By warring winds. The stormy blast of hell 
With restless fury drives the spirit on, 
Whirled round and dashed amain with sore annoy." 

No sooner did the natives appear with their torches than I 
perceived I was gliding along on a swift current that took its 
course toward the interior of the mountain. A few seconds 
more and I should have been borne beyond the reach of any 
human aid. I exerted all my strength, together with what 
Uttle skill I had, in managing my canoe, for the native was 
stupefied with fear. It was with a feeling of delight I could 
not describe that I succeeded in getting back into the out^ 
chamber of the cavern, where I could once more press terra 
Jirma and wipe the cold sweat firom my face. 

A singular story, and well authenticated, is told of an En- 
glish gentleman who once visited this third cave. His geolog- 
ical propensities induced him to attempt to procure a piece of 
rock from the inner chamber. Having provided himself with 
sounding-line, sledge-hammer, torch, &c., he got into a canoe 
and laimched out upon the lake. But just as he reached the 
Gothic arch separating the two chambers of the cavern, his 
canoe capsized, and he was plunged headlong into the inky 
waters. Eecovering his presence of mind, he struck out for 
the shore at the entrance, and succeeded in reaching it. But 



NATIVE COURAGE AND FEARS. 215 

the most remarkable feature in*the case was that he brought 
back i^th him every thing but his torch. It is needless to 
say that he abandoned his geological expedition. 

To a reader of these pages, not less than a visitor of the 
caves, it may seem strange that the natives will indiscrimin- 
ately bathe in the black waters of the last cavern, and even 
penetrate some distance into the inner chamber, and that they 
can not be induced to set a foot into the second subterranean. 
But their superstitious fears flow through an undefinable chan- 
nel. I had before heard of this singular decision, and resolved 
on testing its truth ; so I ofiered to give one of the party, who 
was an expert swimmer, a piece of gold if he would swim 
across that pond. His eyes sparkled and his fingers twitched 
as he looked at the reward, but nothing I could ofier him was 
sufficient to overcome his scruples. Tradition says that a ter- 
rific monster, of the basilisk, dragon, or sea-serpent kind, has 
taken up his abode in these waters, and that a party of men, 
women, and girls were once bathing there, when, on ; 
they all disappeared. Since that day it is said 
has ventured to enjoy a bath in that lake. 

Not only do the natives cherish a vague 
caverns, but a foreigner is exceedingly liafl^j^o' the same feel- yj^ 
ing. It requires a good degree of physirii^ and moml cour^i^^^s^j 
age to conduct their exploration. On i^in&^ig kii^^bB,i 
sunlight, I readily concluded that nothinj^ woijJd iEiflS3e 1 
reattempt the expedition. My visit to the caves "oTHaena is 
indelibly impressed on my mind, from the fact that, having 
left those " Stygian pools," I climbed over the embankments 
which Nature had thrown up before the entrance to each one 
of them, and walked some distance over the plain to take a 
glance at the overhanging masses of rock which those caverns 
had pierced. They rose to a height of nearly three thousand 
feet, and were perpendicular almost to their summits. I could 
now form some idea of the immense masses of basaltic lava 
under which I had been conducting my explorations. Millions 
of tuns were sustained by the roof of each cavern. 

At a height of several hundred feet from the plains, the 
front of these mountains were pierced by innumerable orifices, 



216 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

which were occupied as lodging-places by the white-tailed fiig-- 
ate-bird {Fhcetan atherius). They formed an impregimble 
retreat from the recreant hand of man ; and as these beautiful 
birds rose up on swift wing to their places of abode, they re- 
sembled huge snow-flakes carried by the wind toward the sides 
of the cliHs. 

At a short distance beyond these caverns all land travel 
terminates. At that spot, the plain is cut off by a range of 
precipices four thousand feet above the sea, which laves their 
sides. These precipices comprise the districts of Na Pali and 
Halelea (house of rainbows), and extend along the entire north- 
west coast of the island. This chain of precipices is said to 
present a scene of terrific sublimity. I was exceedingly anx- 
ious to survey them fipom the sea ; but it was the rainy season, 
the winds were frequently heavy, and the sea treacherous, and 
I was reluctantly compelled to abandon the enterprise. 

Having finished my visit on the northwest and north sides 
of the island, I left a long adieu to its magnificent scenery, and 
a warm feeling of respect to my generous entertainers, and 
started out for Koloa. I had spent the day in examining soen- 
ery among the adjacent mountains, and night and a heavy 
rain-storm overtook me at the small village of Anahola. Al- 
though my position was any thing but comfortable, and my 
night's lodgings had a most dreary perspective, 1 found it im- 
possible to change things for the better. The day's excursion 
had sharpened my appetite, but there was nothing to satisfy it 
but a huge calabash of sour poi. Vexed, impatient, and dis- 
^ appointed, I threw myself down upon a mat, and, supperless 
and dinnerless, with my wet clothes on, I tried to sleep. 
Through the buzzing of countless multitudes of musquitoes, 
and the eager embraces of gigantic fleas, I was kept tossing 
from side to side, wishing for sleep. Tired nature, however, 
obtained the victory at last. 

On waking up next morning, I ascertained one cause of my 
restlessness. A couple of dirty dogs had nestled down by me 
on one side, and a couple oi women (!) on the other. ^ I arose, 
shook myself, saddled my horse, and started at full ^lop for 
the south side of the island. 



LEGEND CONCERNING PELE. 217 



CHAPTER XVII. 

FROM KOLOA TO WAIMEA. 

XoAro NomUtL — ^Legend concerning PeU. — Comparative Mythology. 
— ^Novel Method of sounding a Lake. — ^Noble Specimen of a Ha- 
waiian Woman. — Significancy of Native Names. — Nomilu Salt- 
-works. — ^Battle-ground of W«Jii-awa. — ^Incidenta and Results of 
the Battle. — ^Valley of Hanapepe. — ^A Relic of civilized Law. — 
Arrival at Waimea. 

The south side of Kauai is of a difierent physical confoima- 
tioii to that of the north. The scenery is more rugged and 
less fertile. The traveler has to xmdergo more fatigue, and he 
feels less., (rf,the poetry of traveling. The eye rests on little 
else than wild lands, stretching from the great central sum- 
mits of thf).: inland down to the sea-shore on the south, and 
these slopes are r^ asunder in several places by deep ravines 
and valleys* 

Five miles west of Koloa is a small lake, called by the na- 
tives Loko Nomilu, The lake itself is a great natural curi- 
osity ; but it derives a profound interest from its mythological 
associations. It is three hundred yards long by two hundred 
-wide, and has a subpaanne uniou with tb^ ocean. On three 
sides it is surrounded with \c^^ and abrupt hills. Tradition 
says that its excavation was the work of Fele, when in search 
of fresh water. But when the goddess had dug down to a cer- 
tain depth, the water irqm the sea rushed in and spoiled her 
work. At this ske became huhu (angry), and immediately 
took her departure to the great volcano on the island of Ha* 
waii, where she has ever since remained. 

Such is one of the mythological legends which the Hawaii- 
ans at this day relate of this terrific deity of volcanic fire. It 
is nothing marvelous that, like other pagan nations, they 
should select from the numerous family of gods a chief deity, 
whom they might invest with supreme attributes. The Jupi- 

K 



218 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 




LOKO NOMILU. 



ter of Pagan Rome was invested with every power and pre- 
rogative which conveyed an ideal of the Supreme. In the 
same hght he was regarded by the Greeks.* Modem Brah- 
mism invests Brahm with a spirit of omnipotence and omni- 
presence. For ages past the Gymnosophists of India have 
cherished and inculcated the same creed. If the poHshed 
Greeks and Romans, and the philosophic Asiatics, fell into the 
belief that Jove and Brahm were at once omnipotent and om- 
nipresent, material and immaterial, in their mysterious nature. 



* "Zevc eoTiv alOrfPf 

Zevg re yij' 
Zevf 6e ovpavod 
Zevg ra iravra. 
-Prom the Cheek of -^Eschylus. 



" Jupiter is the air ; 
Jupiter is the earth ; 
Jupiter is the heaven ; 
All is Jupiter." 



COMPARATIVE MYTHOLOGY. gjg 

it afibrds no cause for surprise that a people like the Hawaii- 
ans should have ascribed to Pele such extraordinary perform- 
ances, much less is it surprising that this generation, having 
just emerged from a paganism the blackest and most debas- 
ing the world has ever seen, should cling with a childhke sim- 
plicity to the fabled doings of their gods. The old Hawaiians 
had six principal deities to -yv^hom they gave distinctive names ; 
but they more frequently addressed only four — Ku, Lono^ 
Kane, and Kanaloa. These deities they regarded as having 
their residence above or in the clouds, and as being immate- 
rial, and they were impersonated by idols carved out of wood, 
which received the homage of every man, woman, and child. 
But PeU was as much superior to all these as Jove was to 
Vulcan. She was the deity of volcanic fire — the formative 
agency that originated the group. It was said that she some- 
times assumed the appearance of a woman ; and that when 
she resolved on punishing the inhabitants for a profane ap- 
proach to her awful abode, she summoned, as her ministers of 
vengeance, the contents of the nearest crater, rode on the fore- 
most wave of the fiery torrent, and overwhelmed them with 
destruction. Hence the cause for existing superstitions. It 
is a prominent fact, however, that the operation of natural 
causes is singularly in keeping with the order of native legends. 

But to return to the lake. It retains the most rehable ev- 
idence that it is the remains of a very ancient quiescent crater. 
There is also a submarine connection with the ocean, the shore 
of which is distant but two hundred feet. 

Having been informed that this lake was fathomless, I felt, 
only more solicitous to test the mystery. There were no men, 
however, on the premises ; and, two women excepted, the 
little village was temporarily deserted. There were several 
canoes on the shore ; but the lake was much disturbed by a 
heavy north wind, so that they would have been rendered 
nearly useless. But I felt as though I could not abandon the 
expedition. The gentleman who accompanied me thither in- 
formed the women of my object in coming, and assured them 
I was extremely anxious to know the depth of water in that 



220 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

lake, and that we would wait until some of the men returned 
from their fishing excursion. 

But one of them soon provided a remedy. She proposed 
swimming into the lake with a sounding-Hne to make the re- 
quired measurement. Our remonstrance against such a meas- 
ure was in vain, for she resolutely assured us it would be not 
only an easy performance, hut afibrd her much satisfaction to 
have an opportunity of serving me. She procured a piece of 
vnli-wili wood, exceedingly Hght, about six feet long, and as 
many inches in diameter. This she insisted on carrying to 
the north end of the lake, where, under the lee of the high 
hills, she launched the log of wood. After wading in until it 
was deep enough to swim, she placed the log firmly under her 
chest, keeping it there with one hand, and retaining the sound- 
ing-Hne with the other. In this position she struck down the 
lake, stopping at short intervals to let down the line, which 
she knotted at the surface of the water every time she found 
the bottom. This done, she would gather up lier line, replace 
her log, and resume her course. And she pursued this plan 
until her task was done. 

It would be superfluous to say that this feat excited our ad- 
miration, or that we compensated her for her pains. It was 
the most novel expedition I had ever seen ; nor could I ftdly 
realize it, until I remembered that in these islands, as in other 
parts of Polynesia, and in the Caribbean Sea, the women and 
girls are the best swimmers. The Hawaiians are almost am- 
phibious. Volumes might be written detailing their extra- 
ordinary feats in the water. It is owing to their frequent 
bathing that many of the women of Polynesia display such 
an exquisite physical contowr. 

An examination of the sounding-line satisfied me as to 
the depth of the lake. I found it to vary from five to eleven 
fathoms. 

I can hardly take a leave of this novel navigator 'mthout 
a very brief glance at her personal character. Aside from her 
ingenuity, Emele possess^ a great natural nobiUty. At the 
time of my visit, she was mother of nine children, all of whom 



SPECIMEN OF A HAWAIIAN WOMAN. 221 

were living — an extraordinary event in the history of k Ha- 
waiian woman, for infanticide, abortion, and neglect of children 
during their infency sweep off thousands. Although Emele's 
face was decidedly intelligent, its predominant exipiression was 
that of good nature. To her natural iiohiHty of character 
was added the simplicity of a child. ' Her character may be 
defined in a few words : she was ju^ what Nature and Chris- 
tianity had made her ; she was, therefore, philo^phically and 
morally sjpeaking, a« specimen of the highest style of woman, 
without the least degree of sophistry. 

As a mother, Emel6 retained an ardent and self-sax^rificmg 
love for her children — a fact which readily accounts for their 
number aiid preservation. A few months before i met her, 
her youngest child, Lapouli* (day of darkness), lay at the 
point of death. She was almost frantic with grief Koloa 
was five miles distant from her home ; but she walked that 
distance, over a very rugged region of country, to procure nied- 

* Hawaiian personal names Are usnalUy ngnificknt of some par- 
ticular act) event) or employment J became acqui^inted with an in- 
stance of a birth in, the absence of the father and husband. The 
mother called the child Holokai, which signifies **to go upon the 
seas." 

Emele's little daughter wks bom on the *!^ of August, 1850, at 10 
AM., during kh. almost total eclipse of the sun at the Hawaiian 
group, at whi<di hour the fowls went yy roost She called her child 
LapouH (day of darkness), in commemoration of the event 

The following are significant: 

Aiaipali — guard the precipice. 

Kaiaimak^ni — ^wind watcher. 

Hoki — the donkey. 

Ejiipu — the calabash. 

jKuaihelaui — purchase the heavens. 

Pauahi — ^fire-destroyed. 

Opukahaia — ^ripped abdomen. 

Kahekili — thunder. 

Kapule — ^prayer. (Queen of Kauai, 181 9-'21.) 

Ona — ^intoxicated. 

I^avalevale — ^weak, feeble. 

Mataki — ^wind. 
These specimens might be pursued to any length. 



222 . SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

icine for her sick child. On one occasion she reached Koloa 
at a late hour, and before she could return, a dark night set 
in upon her. The heavens gathered blackness, and it rained 
ahnost a deluge. The family at the Mission Station used ev- 
ery conceivable argument to induce her to stay with them 
imtil morning, but all was in vain. The undying fountain 
of that holy thing — a mother's love, gushed forth in all its 
strength ; and bare-headed, and thinly clad, and without any 
covering for her feet, she went forth into the storm to return 
to her child. Night after night, for weeks in succession, she 
watched by the couch of her suffering Uttle one, pillowing its 
head on her own bosom, giving it cooling drinks, and using 
every effort to soothe its agonies. The child recovered ; but 
its restoration to health was followed by the prostration of the 
mother, whose reason was nearly shattered from the effects of 
long and dreary vigils. 

In the ^region of the lake are the salt- works of Nomilu. 
They are merely a collection of open vats, formed by a low 
wall or embankment of mud, sun-dried. These vats are oc- 
casionally filled with sea-water, which is evaporated by an 
exposure to the sun, leaving behind it a thick sediment of fine 
salt. These works are under the control of a few natives, 
who derive firom them a very snug little profit. 

This region forms the southern portion of the battle-ground 
of Wahiawa. The travel^ can not pass over it without ex- 
periencing deep emotions. With a range of mountains bound- 
ing the battle-field on the north, and the ocean rolling its blue 
waves on the south, it is just such a place as would caU forth 
deeds of noble daring from the warriors of the last generation 
of Hawaiians. 

In 1824 a fierce struggle took place on this plain. Headed 
by the disaffected young prince Hume-hume, son of BLaumua- 
i.n, the last king of this island, a band of insurgents attacked 
the Royalists in the fort at Waimea. This event occurred on 
the 8th of August, before the dawn of day. The insurgents 
were repulsed, and they fled toward the Valley of Hanapepe. 
The Royalists, few in number, and perplexed as to the only 



RESULTS OF THE BATTLE. 223 

legitimate mode of action, were compelled to stand in defense 
of the garrison. At length a dispatch was forwarded by sea 
to Honolulu. The news of the recent struggle at Kauai, the 
danger to which the little garrison was exposed, and the pros- 
pect of rapine by the insurgents, excited the most intense in- 
terest at Honolulu. In a short time a thousand warriors were 
ready, and eager to embark for the scene of conflict. 

Singular and romantic was the method taken to vanquish 
the rebels ; but it was characteristic of the people in those 
days. The regent of the kingdom, Kaahumanu, was absent 
at Lahaina when the missive arrived at Honolulu from Kauai. 
Immediately a messenger was sent thither to inform the queen 
of the recent battle. From hp to hp, as if borne on the wings 
of the wind, his words spread from the royal abode until they 
found their way pver the island of Maui. On hearing the 
danger to which his friend Kalanimoku — ^general of the royal 
forces at Kauai — was exposed, Kaikioewa, an old chief of 
high rank, vehemently addressed a crowd of warriors in the 
following strain : '* I am old, like Kalanimoku. We played 
together when children. We have fought together beside our 
king, EjLMEHABfEHA I. Our heads are now ahke growing gray. 
Kalandcoku never deserted me ; and shall I desert him now, 
when the rebels of Kauai rise against him ? I will not deal 
with him thus. If one of us is ill, the others can hasten from 
Kauai to Maui to see the sick. And now, when our brother 
and leader is in peril, shall no chief go to succor him ? I wiU 
go ; and here are my men also !" 

The speech of the old warrior-chief acted like magic upon 
the courage and enthusiasm of his soldiers. With two other 
chiefs, accompanied by their eager warriors, Kaikioewa em- 
barked for the scene of conflict. No sooner had they left the 
shores of the island, than the regent proclaimed aiast, which 
was most rehgiously observed by many of the people. 

On the 18th of August, these re-enforcements, joined by 
others that had arrived from Oahu, placed themselves under 
HoAPiLi, a youthM and ambitious warrior, and subsequently 
Grovemor of Maui. Leaving their quarters in the fort at Wai- 



224 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

mea, they inarched for the eneampment of the rebel forces. 
Withm eight miles of the insctrgentg, lAiey were overtak^i by 
as lordy a Sabbath as €rver dawned on coreation. Ohristiam- 
ty had just begun to iiifluence a few leading chie& and sehreral 
of the natives. The wanriors hahed, and the day was BtAsfOmr 
ly observed by the performance of r^igious rites. 

With the rising of the morrow's sun, Hoapo;! and hk chosen. 
%and were again seen m line of march. They oto^sed the 
highly picturesque valley and liver of Hanapepe, and advanced 
uBitil within a mile of ^e ^surgents. At this spot, Hoapiu 
kaeh in piresenoe of his little army, who fi^wed hk exan^e, 
"amd sent up an invocatticm to the God of battles : " J^ovah ! 
Ood of the warriors d* Kauai ! Protector o[ ^be liberties for 
which Kamehambha, our old warrioi^king, fought and Med I 
we are here in a ri^lieous cause. Our ^leiiOies wieii to giv6 
our lives to the wind, and our bones to the 6un-)raiy8 that scorch 
the {4ains. Ptft Ga thy ^eld, gvasp t^y war-qiear, 9iad lead 
tis on to the struggle. In thy presence we wiM conquer our 
^i^xiies, and fight thy battles iot freedom !" 

The warriors arose fyom their knees, iaiarehed tip to the n^M 
fcMPces, and commenced the battlo. The contest lasted several 
hours. Sometimes the Royalists W«!e repulsed, but at lai^ vic- 
tory was declared in their favor. The kisoigents weire scail- 
tered. Their dn^fled to the iftountaiiis, but was subsequent- 
ly oaptured. The vanquished wence takesa to Eeiiolulu, wh^re 
they received every manifestntion <^respeot iand kindness which 
royal clemency could bestow. Such a step did more t6 crii^ 
a f^iirit <si rebellion than though recourse to th^ old pagan 
itjTuelties had been em^oyed. This was itub kst battle fo tho 
indep^idence of Kauai. 

The west^n boundary <^ the battle-ground of Waihiawa hi 
tihe Valley of Hanapepe. In its physical a^fiect and c(m£»rma- 
tion it is entirely difierent from the Valley of Hanalei. By Ad 
peculiar sc^ess of its scenery, the latter eeexoR to address the 
finer feelings of the soul ; by the rugged suWmity of its feat- 
ures, the foim^ awakens ^notions of awe and astonidmieat. 
On reaching its brink, both horse and rider imtcoraliy eome to 



VALLEY OF HANAPEPE. 225 

a halt, and a tourist can not fail to admire the richly-cultivated 
valley below. The only place of descent is near the mouth, 
where the principal part of the village is located. Here the 
natives frequently assemble for bathing, and to bask in the 
warm and delicious sunlight. At the mouth of the river, a 
heavy sand-bar disputes its natural egress into the boimdless 
ocean beyond. 

The bed of the valley is a rich vegetable and mineral debris. 
Here and there it is dotted with numerous plantations of taro, 
small cocoa-nut groves, and native dwellings. The ever-peace- 
fiil river incessantly ghdes on through all these objects. As in 
the Valley of Hanalei, the traveler frequently discovers unques- 
tionable evidences of extensive population in other days, such 
as village-sites and lands that wexe once cultivated. War, 
disease, and epidemics, besides natural causes, have swept away 
multitudes, whosfe resting-places remain unknown to the pres- 
ent generation. The inhabitants are kind to visitors who be- 
stow on them the least mark of respect, and endeavor to ap- 
preciate their kindly offices. 

The Valley of Hanapepe is a noble specimen of Sandwich 
Island scenery. It is characterized rather by the savage and 
awM than the beautiful and sublime. There is that, howev- 
er; which can not fail to attract the profound admiration and 
awe of the tourist. In some places the valley contracts to a 
few yards in width, inhere the river comes sweeping along like 
a second Phlegethon, freely distributing its " sweat of agony," 
and moistening the sides of its boundaries, which rise to a per- 
pendiculdf height of five hundred to a thousand feet. Again 
the giant sides expand to a considerable width, admitting the 
warm sunlight, which creates a pleasant temperature. The 
entire length of the valley is tortuous, and its inighty sides 
grow in height as its source is approached. In this region, 
and at an early day, the throes of Nature must have been al- 
most almighty ; for a close survey of the lof\y table-lands above 
convey the conviction that the entire valley was formed by a 
rending asunder of the earth to a great depth by a mighty 
earthquake. At the head of this valley, Nature's fiat pro- 

K2 



226 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

claims to the traveler, " Thus far shalt thou come, and no far- 
ther I" On looking upward, the huge cliffs seem as if coming 
down upon your head, and a few scattered and stunted trees, 
projecting firom their summits almost horizontally, look as if 
they are retained there against their will, or as if ashamed of 
their dwarfish stature. A lover never stole the first kiss from 
the Hps of his earthly idol with more modesty and courtesy 
than the fleecy clouds kiss these shrubs and the rugged rocks 
on whose sides they grow. 

The finishing feature in this savage panorama is a heavy 
cascade, leaping, with " delirious bound," in three separate dis- 
tances, down the time-worn cliffs. The first leap is thirty feet, 
upon a ledge of rocks ; the second is a hundred, where it seems 
to crush another ledge ; the third, of equal distance, falls into 
a deep basin placed by the hand of Nature for its reception, 
where it whirls and eddies like a miniature Charybdis. 

The journey to this scene is one replete with toil and abso- 
lute danger to a visitor, but he is amply repaid for both« 

Within a short mile of Waimea village, and on the east side 
of the river, stood a rude firame, which had once served the pur- 
pose of a gallows. Several years since, four natives murdered 
a foreigner who resided in "Waimea. They were arrested, 
found guilty, and sentenced to expiate their transgressions by 
a forfeiture of their own hves by hanging. From this rude 
gallows they took their final leave of all below, and passed 
into the sublime mystery of death. On the spot where the 
crowd stood to witness the execution of their coimtrymen, a 
small grove oihm bushes {Cordia sebestena) has sprung up, 
as if in mourning for the wretched criminals. The existence 
of this ominous reHc is sacredly protected, and it stands as a 
faithful monitor to aU evil doers. 

Waimea may be seen at a distance of several miles frcmi the 
eastward. On coming up to the banks of the beautiful river 
which has originated the village, the cooling water is exceed- 
ingly grateful. The travder advances some distance up the 
stream to the regular fording-place, where he is sure to find a 
number of natives ready to assist him over to the other bank. 



WAIMEA VILLAGE. 227 

If the tide should be in and the river high, he may unsaddle 
his horse, take him by the bridle-rein, and jump into a canoe 
propelled, probably, by some Naiad of a native girl. In trav- 
eling over this interesting group of islands, such incidents are 
by no means uncommon, and certainly not objectionable to a 
reasonable foreigner. But the most amusing part of these 
performances is the eagerness displayed by the natives in their 
kindly offices to the traveler. Now and then a huge, brawny 
fellow will take him up out of the canoe when it reaches the 
opposite bank, and, to prevent his boots becoming wet, wiU 
carry him in his arms, and deposit him safely on terra firma^ 
and see that the horse is resaddled. For ail this, however, a 
good remuneration is, of course, expected. 

From the west bank of the ford, a ride of two minutes 
brings the traveler ijito Waimea, 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Waimea Village — River — Harbor. — Historical Reminiscences. — 
Charges against Captain Cook. — ^Visit to an ex-Queen. — A Glance 
at her History. — Russian Fort at Waimea. — ^Expulsion of the Rus- 
sians. — ^Missionary Church and Station. — ^Peculiarities of this Sta- 
tion. — ^A Sabbath at Waimea. — ^Missionary Labor. — ^Practice ver- 
ms Poetry. — ^The right kind of an Epitaph. 

The village of Waimea is the capital of Kauai. In this 
relation, however, it differs in no respect from any village on 
the island, unless it be that a few of the houses are composed 
of adobes ; that there is one street in it, and that the village 
itself is a Httle larger. The population in the village and up 
the river numbered about seven hundred — a fearful decrease 
when compared with the census of a few years past. Year 
by year the population declines. 

About this village there is not the least attraction to the per- 
manent stay of a foreigner of any merit ; on the contrary, all 
is cheerless and monotonous, and unless the visitor becomes 
deeply interested during his visit — a thing not at all likely — 



328 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

he is glad to get away as early as posBible. The least motioii 
of men or animals, and especially of the wind, is certain to 
raise a cloud of thick red dust, which coTers the entire village ; 
and whoi the hreath of Boreas does get fairly aroused, the re- 
sult is almost insupportable. Eyes, month, nostrils, ears, and 
* clean linen especially, eeem to be the chief objects a£ ven- 
geance. Numerous ablutions are required to remove the evil, 
before a person can fully recognize himself in a mirror. Oph- 
thalmia, may be attributed not so much to- the action of the 
trade- winds alone as to these clouds of red lava-dust. Vege- 
tation, what httle there is of it, and every fixed object, bortovirs 
from these flying atoms an mmatural tinge. 

But it may be deemed sacrilegious thus to speak of an island- 
capital. 

The river of Waimea is one of the chief objects of attraction. 
To the existence of this romantic stream may be traced that 
of the village. Having its source in the central mountains of 
the island, it flows on for miles in undisturbed repose toward 
the embrace of the otiean. Like an infant Nile, its influence 
is highly fertilizing. Flowing as it does by numerous dwell- 
ings, and watering scores of tciro beds ; affi)rding drink to the 
people, and ccmvenience for canoe-sailiiig, it is of more value 
to the inhabitants than though it were a second Pactolus. ^ 

The bosom of this tranquil stream has been the sc^ie of 
many a loving embrace, and of many a final avowal, by the 
youthfid Hawaiians of many generaticms. Sailing along in 
their swift canoes b^ieath the 6un-lit sky, or when Nature was 
bathed in the more poetic light of the moon and her attendant 
orbs, the zephyrs alone caught those vows and their acfit and 
languishing reeponses. The undefinable emotions which Cu- 
pid breathes in the bofiomis of his votaries a^ not, and can not 
be, confined within the luxurious bdWers of haughty potentates. 
Not merely do they sway the ?i(nm, who gUde vdth smooth 
steps and soul-beaming eyes through the immortal saloons in 
Mohammed's pdx^ise ; not merely does love ^ohtaiily hover 
amid thd damask curtains dnd perfumed couches of an Ori^it- 
al harem ; in all probalnlity, it ^ows as intensely in the boa- 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN PO'JNDATIONS. 



^ WAIMEA HARBOR. 23^ 

oms of the young Hawaiians, as it did in the soul of Sappho 
when she composed her matchless " (Jdes/' or died so tragical 
a death for the love of Phaon. 

Several times I have seen a muscular youth, sitting opposite 
his lovely inamorata, moving his light canoe over the calm 
waters of this stream, and drinking in the soul-fire that beam- 
ed in her eyes. It was a bright scene ! And his own eyes 
seemed as bright, and his arm as strong and active, while he 
paid her his attentions, as though the Golden Age — of which 
we love frequently to dream — ^had come back with aU its glory 
and purity to this fallen world. But most of this bright im- 
agery is mutable and of short duration, and there are not a 
few who can say, 

" Alas ! our young aflfections run to waste, 
Or water but the desert, whence arise 
But weeds of dark luxuriance, tares of haste, 
Rank at the core, though tempting to the eyes ; 
Flowers whose wild odors breathe but agonies. 
And trees whose gums are poison ; such the plants 
Which spring beneath her steps as Passion flies 
0*er the world's wildemess, and vainly pants 
For some celestial fruit forbidden to our wants." 

The harbor of Waimea is merely an open roadstead. It is, 
however, the best anchorage on the shores of the island, and 
is deemed perfectly safe for vessek of a large class, except in 
the months of January and February, when the trade-winds 
are interrupted by heavy southwest winds. 

The historical reminiscences which cluster around this har- 
bor and village are of deep interest to a traveler. They speak 
of bold, intrepid men — explorers of new realms — ^who have 
come here at various periods, and gone away forever. The 
renowned Cook anchored first in this harbor when he first 
discovered the group in January, 1778. The great and good 
Vancouver was here in 1792. It waa visited by the United 
.States Exploring Expedition in 1840. 

Cook has many times been charged by writers — ^but by 
none more than missionaries — ^with two glaring faults, name- 
ly, a clandestine appropriation to his own use of a set of 



232 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

maps and charts found in a Spanish galleon that was cap- 
tured hy Lord Anson in 1748, and also as having introduced 
syphilis into the group of islands. 

The first of these charges is decidedly improhahle ; the Sec- 
ond is exceedingly questioiiahle. 

So many writers have trodden the same path in asserting 
these charges, that at this late day, it may seem the height of 
presumption to attempt their refutation. But justice to truth 
in great historical events, demands at least a passing nbtice. 

The vessel said to have heen captured by Lord Anson is 
described as being bound " from Manilla to the Russian set- 
tlements in America. On its way from America," it wad 
seized. It is also stated, that on her outward voyage thid 
galleon discovered "certain islands, whose latitude agreed 
with that of Hawaii. The name given them on the chart 
was JLos Monjes. As they were m the same latitude, and 
in the route from Manilla to Russian America^ it is believed 
that they were the Sandwich Islands."* 

The latter portion of this paragraph is entirely vague. A 
mere hdief that the "jLo5 Monjes'' were the Sandwich Isl- 
ands did not render them so. It is thoroughly understood that 
modem navigation has corrected the geographical portions 
laid down by itistny of tiie early explorers of the Pacific Ocean. 
It is equally true that the locations assigned by Cook to his 
discoveries have been subsequently found to be correci. Tiiis 
nice accuracy is a noble comment on the splendid genius of 
that distiriguished navigator Whoever carefully reiads the 
narratives of his voyages will discover a singular magnanim- 
ity of character, a truthfulness of description, and a singleness 
of purpose, which are seldom copied by men having so mtich 
under their command as Cook had. He had candor enough 
to acknowledge his indebtedness to aid received i&oin any 
source opened by previotis navigators ; and no man Vt^as ever 
more conscious than himself that such an acknowledgment ' 
could not have detracted fix)m his justly merited fame. That 
he was the discoverer of the Sandwich group is evident from 
* HA^aiialn Spectator, voL ii, g. 61. 



CHARGES AGAINST COOK. 233 

the authority of the natives themselves ; and, in this instance, 
sudh authority is ample. 

But there are stronger considerations than these. As these 
islands aire said to have been the *'Los Monjes'' of the early 
Spaniards, and as they were located immediately en route 
from Pananda, Acapulcoj Mazatlan, and other Spa^nish Amer- 
ican ports — ^in which great commercial interests were sustained 
— to ManHla and other Eastern ports, is it reasonable to ad- 
mit that theiy would faQ to render this gr6up a half-way depot 
for their commerce across this ocean ? Had they fail^ to 
take this step, they certainly would have called here for water ; 
for at that period, vessels used to contain water at sea were ' 
any ihin^ but perfect and convenient, and a freqtient supply, 
during those long voyages, 6ould not but be of vital importance 
to the crews and commanders of those vessels. 

If we admit many exceptions that have been urged against 
lihe probability of these theories, there are others of stiH great- 
er moment. They are facts, however, rather than theories. 
It has been stated that the Spaniards kept their knowledge of 
the niavigation of these seas a profoimd secret from the rest 
of liie commercial world.* In this instance, and for a short 
period, it might have been done with a view to monopolize 
the commerce between the western coiist of America and the 
east coai^ of Asia, as a means of filling the t^ofiers of Spain 
throfugh her colonies in the West. And yet such a step could 
hot long have been retained a secret ; hor would it have ac- 
corded with tihie national chaxacter of Spain at that period, 
much less would it have been consonant ^th the boastful pa- 
geantry of the then ruling monarch. From the time of the 
conquest of Granada by Ferdinand the C/ATdoLic, Spiin has 
act been backward to boast her conquests and possessions, 
her arts and sciences. The discoveries mide by the great 

* '^The Manilla ships are the only ones which have traversed this 
vast ocean, except a French straggler or two ; and during near two 
ages, in which this trade has been carried on, the Spaniards have, 
with the greatest care, secreted all luicounts of their voyages." — Inr 
troduction to Lord Anson's Voyages^ p: 15. London, 1748. 



234 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Columbus, under the auspices of the same monarch, remained 
no secret. The knowledge that a western continent, or New 
World was found, spread from the palace at Madrid across 
the summits of the Alps and over the Ural Mountains, and 
sent a profound thrill to the utmost limit of the conunercial 
world. It opened a new era in the history of nations hy giv- 
ing a new impulse to long dormant energies. It was imme- 
diately followed by the sword and the crucifix, precisely in the 
same manner as Mohammbd and his successors conveyed the 
dread alternative of the Koran : the sword demolished the 
sovereignty of the rulers of aboriginal races ; the Cross, borne 
aloft by a haughty hierarchy, tore from their altars and tem- 
ples the profuse trappings of a splendid paganism. It was in. 
this way that the Aztec Empire crumbled to the dust, and 
that the palaces of the Montezumas were deprived of their 
original tenants to make way for the soldiers of Cortes. In 
the same way the Peruvian sovereigns were hurled from their 
thrones, and the Children of the Sun became mingled with 
the descendants of the conquerors. 

The Hawaiian Islands have been peopled from time im- 
memorial. If they had ever been discovered by Spanish nav- 
igators, would not attempts, at least, have been made by Spain 
to reduce them to her commerce, laws, and religion ? Would 
Spain have permitted them to be wrested from her grasp with- 
out extending some remonstrance ? Did Spain ever discover 
valuable territory, and not attempt to colonize it ? Did she 
ever permit her colonies to pass away, in silence, from her 
grasp ? Let her national history for three centuries past — ^let 
the youthful repujihcs of South America— let the present con- 
dition of Cuba answer I 

Hawaiian history makes mention of all the vessels that 
have called at the islands at the time they were about to 
emerge to civilization. The prominent events recorded in that 
history have never been successfully disputed. It mentions a 
vessel which, generations ago, "was wrecked in the surf at 
Pale, Keei [south side of Kealakeakua Bay, Hawaii]."* The 
* Hawaiian Spectator, voL ii, p. 60. 



CHARGES AGAINST COOK. 235 

people speak of the origin of the group— -of a long line of chiefs 
and kings— of the frequent and sanguinary wars which devas- 
tated entire districts,* but they are silent about the arrival 
of any navigator previous to Cook. 

If the Spaniards ever did discover this archipelago, then the 
alence maintained by Hawaiian history and tradition is most 
marvelously strange. No navigators could have procured a 
chart of the group without adopting a rigid system of inter-* 
island navigation, and in such a proceeding they certainly 
would have been seen by the islanders. The arrival of, the 
first exploring ship could never have been forgotten by a peo- 
ple entirely unaccustomed to such a scene. When Cook's 
ships arrived, they awakened a curiosity among the Hawaii- 
ans as intense as did the ships of Columbus among the ab- 
origines of the new world, and the incident forms one of the 
leading features in their historical records. It is, therefore, an 
undoubted fact that the illustrious Cook was the discoverer 
(tf the Sandvnch Islands, and that he employed honorable 
means in their discovery. 

We come now to the second charge — ^that, at the visit of 
Cook, the syphilis^ vnth its catalogue of attendant evils, was 
first introduced among the Hawaiians. On this point little 
need be said ; and I shall reserve the bulk of my remarks 
until I arrive at the causes of depopulation. And here I would 
have the reader understand that I am pleading for no man or 
class of men, but for truth in history. Whatever may have 
been the condition of the nation at the time of Cook's visit, 
certain it is that the conduct of his crews coiild not, and did 
not, tend to debase the people any more. A darker picture 
can not be portrayed of Hawaiian character -at that precise 
period than is given by their own historians. " When foreign 
vessels first visited these shores, the natives were enveloped in 
darkness. They worshiped idols, were schooled and praxsticed 
in licentiousness, and led captive at the pleasure of Satan, "t 
" There can be no doubt but that the ancient Hawaiians, as 
far back as their own traditions go, were idolaters, devoted to 

* Hawaiian Spectator, voL il, p. 211-216. f ^^^* P- ^l^- 



236 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

sensual pleasures, easily provoked, and inflicting injuries one 
on another.*'* " There were other evils also in ancient days. 
Infanticide, polygamy, polyandria, licentiousness, suicide, tnur- 
der, burjring the aged alive, kilting ofienders without trial, 
robbery, with other turts of a similar character. That time 
was very difierent from the present. 

# * « # « * * 

** The land was full of darkness, folly, iniqtdty, oppression, 
pain, and death. A pit of destruction, dark, polluted, deaSy, 
and ever-burning, was the dwelling of the Hawaiian in alicient 
times.'*! 

So much for facts in native testimony. But how it was 
possible to impair the morals of a people to which history so 
plainly points, is the very sublime of mystery itself. There is 
not a darker page in the history of huhianity than thi,t record- 
ed by Hawaiian historians concerning their own people at the 
time the foreigner first landed upon their shores. "When Cook 
anchored his vessels in the Bay of Waimea, he took every pre- 
cautiont to prevent licentious intercourse on the part of his 
crew. After Kakupuu had been ]()reventM from stealing iron 
&om the " strange ships," his zeal to obtain it was in no de- 
gree diminished. A chief woman, who was sister to the then 
ruling king, KAUBrtrALn, of Kauai, proposed k plan by which the 
much-'Wished-for iron could be secured (for iron was a precious 
thing among the early Hawaiians). Her advice was, " Let 
us not fight our god,Wmt gratify him, that he may be propi- 

* tia^aiian Spectator, vol ii, p. ^20. f IMd., vol R, p. 445. 

X " One order given by Captain Cook at this island was that none 
of the boats' crews should be permitted to go on shore ; the reason 
of which was, that he might do every thing in his po#er to prevent 
the importation of a fatal disease. « « * With the salme view, 
he directed that all female visitors should be excluded from the ships. 
Another necessary precaution taken by the captain was a strict in- 
junction that no person known to be capable of propagating disor- 
der should be sent upon duty out of the vessels." — A Narrative of 
Ck)OK'8 Voyages, by A Kippis, D.D., F.R.S. and aA London, 1788. 
American e^tion. 

§ "The people were filled with terror and confosion, concluded 



VISIT TO AN EX-QUEEN. 237 

tious."* It is said that " she gave her daughter to be Lono'ft 
(Captain Coqk's) wife."t 

Such is the alleged origin of syphilis in the Hawaiian Isl- 
ajids. There is not the least proof, however, that the distin- 
guished navigator accepted the offer made him by the king'a 
sister. But, supposing his own biographers to have done him 
justice — and it may fairly be presumed that they would aim 
at correctness — ^there is strong presumptive proof to the con- 
trary.J 

If the reader will pardpn, this long digression, and, if he 
feels inclined, blame truth rather than my love of rambljng, I 
promise him he shall have little cause for a similar complaint 
through the rest of thes^ l>ages. 

Soon after my arriv£^ at ^aimea I had the honor, of an in- 
terview with Blapule, an ex-queen, and once the favorite wife 
of the last king of K^uai. She had removed her residence from 
Wailua, and taken up her permanent abode at this village, ' 
once the seat of her ancestors. I found her occupying a neat, 
stone house, handsomely matted on the floor of the apartment ; 
for there was only one, and that served for every purpose. 
There was something about it that indicated ease, comfort, 
and dignity, ^though not so inunense as formerly, Kafule's 
physical bulk was pretty soUd. In height she was nearly six 
feet, and her weight between two and three hundred pounds. 
Her age was above sixty. Her countenance was the very seat 
of perfect good-nature, and her conversation was exceedingly 
cheerM. Her " maids (?) of honor" were two or three of the 
Handsomest girls I saw on the group. In 1824, she bore arms 

that the foreigners were superior beings, called the captain, and gave 
him the name of Lono.*' — 'DwiiLE*s JUstory, p. 82. 

* Hawaiian Spectator^ voL il, p. 62. t I^id* 

t "H^ possessed,: in an eminent degree, all the qualifications req- 
uisite for his professions and great undertakings, together with the 
amiable and worthy qualities of the best of men. 

"Mild, jost^ but exact in discipline, he was a father to his pe<^le, 
who were attached to him from affection, and obedient from confi- 
dtmce.** — Introduction to CJook's Voyagen^ p. 8t. London, 1*786. 



238 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

in the old stone fort against the insurgent warriors. She has 
always retained the reputation of kindness to foreigners — a 
report which her deportment toward myself amply sustained. 

But Kapule's history has been an eventful one. "When her 
husband had ceded this island to Kamehameha the Great, it 
was thought that she exercised too much influence over him. 
By royal authority he was admonished to put her away ; but 
she was his favorite wdfe, and his heart clung to her with an 
intense affection, and the order was disregarded. Soon after 
the cession of the island, the conqueror was summoned to the 
world of spirits. The imperious Kaahuuanu was almost in- 
consolable at the loss of her royal husband. Suddenly she 
bethought herself of the King of Kauai. He was the hand- 
somest man on the group, and his own son ranked next with 
him in this particular. But the bereaved woman was a queen ! 
So she sent an order to Kauai for the king and his son to await 
her pleasure at her royal apartments in Honolulu. They obey- 
ed the summons, and on the 9th of October, 1821, both father 
and son were secured to her conjugal bed by the tie of mar- 
riage ! Thus Kapule was deprived of both husband and child 
in a single day ! Subsequently she was expelled from the 
Church for an indulgence which ^would have l^en legitimate 
had not her Uege lord been snatched away from her to share 
the couch of a royal paramour.* 

On the east bank, at the mouth of the Waimea River, stand 
the remains of a fort built by an agent of the Russian colony 
at Sitka. The walls are composed of large masses of basaltic 
rock, mingled with lava stones that have been insecurely put 
together. It has been said that the agent aspired to a lease 
of the whole island, and that he built this fort for its defense- — 
a thing totally improbable and impossible. But the fort was 
erected under the auspices of Kaumualu, the king of the island. 
The magazine was completed, a flag-staff* erected, and on the 
seaward wall several guns were mounted. 

At this stage of the work (in 1820), news was carried to 

* Since leaving the Sandwich Islands, I have received the intelli- 
gence that Kapule died at Waimea, Kauai, August 26, 1858. 



A SABBATH AT WAIMEA. 239 

Oahu that the Russians, through their agent, Dr. Schoof, were 
about to seize the island of Kauai. Kamehameha the Great, 
and Kjllaimoku, a high chief of Oahu, viewed the proceedings 
with alarm. A messenger was sent to the King of Kauai or- 
denng him to expel the doctor forthwith. The mandate was 
immediately compUed with, and the ambitious agent was ban- 
ished from his possessions. 

But widely difierent was that half-finished fortress at the 
time of my visit from its condition at the time the E^ussian 
agent was expelled. Then it was impregnable to the fiery 
assaults of the rebel forces, and the engines of death sent their 
echoes far over the bay and up the peaceful river. But now 
every gun was dismounted ; the powder magazine was used 
as a native dwelling ; while the interior of the old ruin was 
cultivated for the purpose of raising sweet potatoes {Convcl- 
vtdzcs batatus). Some half dozen shoeless and stockingless — 
and almost every thing else-less — soldiers, without arms and 
ammunition, were lounging over the useless guns, or stretched 
on their backs upon the hard stones, and under a tropical sun, 
with mouths wide open, and fast asleep. I knew not which 
looked the most desolate, the ruin itself, or its ruined defend- 
ejp, ycleped soldiers. 

As a mission station, Waimea is extremely uninviting. 
There is no special incentive to any man to go there and re- 
side as a missionary, and a life-devotion to a people living in 
such a region as that is the strongest evidence that a man is 
actuated solely by the purest motives for the furtherance of 
moral good.- The scenery is of a bleak and changeless char- 
acter ; the climate is warm, dry, and choking. The eye rests 
on no splendid groves and foUage-clad bills, as it does at nearly 
every other station on the group. A comparative desolation 
frowns back the tourist's gaze. The only feature of physical 
beauty is the river and a portion of the valley through which 
it flows. 

I spent one Sunday at Waimea. It was one of such a na- 
ture as I can never forget, nor can I repel the desire to at- 
tempt a partial description of it. On going to the native 



240 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Church, I found the audience nearly all afisembled, A solemn; 
silence and decorum pervaded that audience and the entire 
scene. The building in whjch services were conducted had 
formerjy been occupied as a private dwelling-house. It waa 
now in a stat;e of rapid decay ; the g]:ass was nearly all torn, 
off the outsides, and the roof was about tumbling in . Through 
the wide apertures caused by the lost thatch from the side 
facing the south, an extensive view of the ocean could be ob- 
tained, and its foaming surges could be seen at a few yards' 
distance. The missionary commenced the services of the daj. 
with a brief invocation. A hymn was sung, in which all the 
congregation appeared to unite. As their song of praise ag^ 
cended on high, the everlasting hymn of the ocean mingled, 
with it, and produced such an effect on my own entire being 
as I had never before felt. The text was announced. It spoke 
of eternal life and eternal death. Every auditor himg with 
an intense attention on the words of the missionary. A da- 
guerreotype of ^that audience, as it then appeared, would be 
invaluable to a physiognomist. There was every variety of 
coimtenance. There were the young, just starting out upon, 
life's great race, but gay and cheerful. There were others 
who could look down from the summit of life's meridian, wdth 
either shore of life's ocean in view. There sat the far ad- 
vanced in age, their gray locks sprinkled thinly over their deep-, 
furrowed foreheads, and their limbs bearing many a scar from 
engagements rnider the standards of Kamehameha I. In front 
of the pulpit sat the old ex-queen Kapule, absorbed in what 
she heard. And, as that dusky audience sat there, with the 
most profound attention to the words of their teacher, the 
ever-glorious sun gilded the sky, and land, and ocean vdth his 
matchless hght ; and there was a continuation of that same 
ocean anthem, solemn, grand, impressive, as though it felt the 
impress of its Maker's footsteps, and had opened its many lips 
to proclaim his presence. 

At the close of that sacred day, when I sought the repose 
of my p^low, I was wakeful from the most vivid feelings. It 
was not because that Hawaiian congregation had wielded such 



MISSIONARY LABOR. 341 

a moral influence over me that I had become a proselyte — ^not 
that they were more moral than the people in any other part 
of the group ; but that sea-side dilapidated house of worship, 
ihe solemn attention of that varied audience, and that same 
sublime ocean anthem rolled before me in quiet succession. 
Then came the grand and imposing truth : " Jehovah dwell- 
eth not in temples made with hands !" and yet I felt His pres- 
ence that day, in that old house of worship, and in that hymn 
of the restless waves. Then came the stem conviction that, 
whatever may be said of the hypocrisy of native Christians, 
they were not all insincere whom I had seen that day — no, 
not aU! And, as I continued to reflect on these themes, I 
could not help wishing that I myself was a better man. 

On few topics connected with the islands has more been 
said and written' than on missionary labor. It is an incon- 
trovertible truth, that it is Twt all a farce ! The best mode 
of testing the truth of this position is for a man to lay aside 
every preconceived opinion, and quietly traverse the hills, 
mountains, plains, and valleys, where missionary labor has 
been performed, and then form an estimate of things as he 
finds them ! He must then compare the present with the 
PAST of thirty years ago, with just the same sense of responsi- 
biUty as though things of the mightiest moment awaited his 
decisions ; and, unless I am entirely mistaken in what consti- 
tutes an honest conscience, his conclusion will be, that such 
men as the missionary at Waimea have done much good. It 
is a self-evident fact, that, to a certain extent, the Hawaiians 
are morally and physically happier now than they were before 
the introduction of Christianity. 

There is a great proneness to fling around missionary en- 
terprise a few touches of romance and poetry, and this is 
usually done when a ship is about leaving her moorings, to 
convey a band of missionaries to a distant region of the globe. 
There is a good deal of poetry in those throbbing bosoms, and 
dewy eyes, and warm grasps of the hand, as the ship leaves 
her wharf to proceed on her way — Cleaving woods and mount- 
ains, literary institutions, friends and flresides, far behind, until 

L 



242 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



they seem to have sunk beneath the wave that reflects the 
pale and trembling twilight. All this, however, is perfectly 
natural, and ought not to call forth the least surprise &om a 
mere looker-on. 

But the poetry which invests such scenes is of an abstract 
character, and more properly belongs to the Churches at home 
than the stations of the right kind of men abroad. I have 
seen that in the work of some missionaries on the Sandwich 
group and elsewhere, which bar convinced me that the life <^ 
a thoroughly philanthropic Christiaa teacher is a stem reality. 
I found a new church in process of erection at Waimea. For 
five long years it had been in progress; and the missionary has 
accompanied the natives to the mountains, fifteen miles dis- 
tant, to hew wood, and to the quarry, several miles over the 
plains to the westward, to procure stone. That building was 
nearly completed when I saw it, and when finished it would 
be a credit to any town in the United States. 




AMERICAN MISSION CHUBCH. 
\ 



VOLCANIC FEATURES. 343 

^ ^ ^ 

This fiibric was only a portion of that missionary's kbor ; 
but it will be his monument when the hands that have rear- 
ed it have gone back to their primitive dust/ and the mind 
that designed it has gone to expand in a clime where there 
are no evening shadows. When himian destiny receives its 
final seal, such an epitaph as this will be of more value than 
the thrones of Alexandeb, and Cjesxr. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

FROM WAIM£A TO KOLO. 

Volcanic Features.— Tobacco Flantations. — ^Wild Cotton. — ^Plains 
and Vegetation. — NohUi, or Sounding Sands. — ^Probable Theory 
of Sound. — ^A Night at Kolo. — ^Proceedinga of a Hawaiian Family. 
— Kindness to the Traveler. — Poi-maTring.— rEvening Devotions. 
— ^Return to Koloa. — ^Departure from Kauai — ^The ''Middle Pas- 
sage.'' — ^A Tribute to Neptune. — ^Recent Steam-boat Project — Its 
Importance and Necessity. 

Beyond the village of Waimea the traveler's path stxetdhes 
(Tver the plains forming the seaward portion of the district of 
Mana. These plains are twelve miles in length, and their 
average width two. Their physical character is strictly allu- 
vial. The substratum is a fine oceanic sand, mingled with 
fine coral and shells ; the upper fomiation is composed of de- 
eayed v^etaUe matter, 'mingled with a rich deposit of de- 
composed lava, washed down by the rains from the adjacent 

These plains axe bounded on the north by a lofty range of 
volcanic hills, resembling, in some places, the Palisades on the 
banks of the Hudson. Upon 'thona are superimposed rugged 
table-lands, of a gradual ascent as &r as the central peaks of 
the island. These table-lands are formed by a continuation 
of layers that were originated during the periodical eruptions 
of Mauna Waialeale, This formation ha« evidently progress- 
ed when the sea swept over the plains stretching from Wai- 
noea to Kolo. The first strata that waB formed above the sea 



244 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

circumscribed the limits of the south side of the island. The 
oceans of lava that have formed successive strata flowed on- 
ward to this prescribed limit, where they were suddenly ar- 
rested by being broken abruptly, or cooled by the atmosphere, 
thus forming an abrupt boundary or wall against which the 
waves of the sea once rolled in all their majesty and strength. 

Subsequent to these formations, they have been rent asund^ 
by mighty earthquakes. As the traveler passes along at this 
day, he almost fancies that the old Hawaiian gods may have 
torn up these immense masses by their roots during their angry 
or sportive moments, and flung them about merely for recrea- 
tion. The eye rests on single, double, and triple valleys, or ra- 
vines, whose steeps it is impossible to climb, and at whose bases 
a few straggling natives have reared their rude houses. This 
wild and savage scenery extends as fax as Kolo, where the 
land-travel terminates. 

About a mile west of Waimea village is the spot where the 
first English boat landed from Cook's expedition. It is op- 
posite a couple of cocoa-nut-trees, which were pointed out to 
me by the natives as the only memorial of that event. But 
on such a spot, a^d strictly in keeping with the surrounding 
scenery, they seemed to be the most fitting monuments. I 
first saw them at the hour of noon, when the sun was at the 
hottest, and shedding an ocean of light on the fair sand-beach. 
Begardless of the crowd of natives that surrounded me, and of 
the noon-day hour, I walked along the same shore, and bathed 
in the same clear waters that had witnessed the landing of 
the distinguished navigator seventy-five years ago ! It was 
here that the Hawaiians first saw the face of a white man ; 
here, that they looked upon him as a god. Little did Cook 
think, at that moment, that he would find a grave on the 
shores of this far-distant archipelago. 

At Waiawa, five miles west of Waimiea, I met a cordial re- 
ception by some tobacco-planters, who kindly showed me over 
their estates. The planters held their lands on a lease from 
the government. They had commenced their plan of opera- 
tions on a limited capital, but success was nobly crowning 



TOBACCO PLANTATIONS. 245 

their efforts. One of them had tried experiments in the Valley 
of Hanalei, but the too frequent rains interdicted his success. 
The south side of the island is th^ most suitable for the cul- 
ture of tobacco. Here the plant attains a large size, and is 
of superior quality. I took the dimensions of one plant, and 
ascertained its largest leaves to be three feet long, and twenty 
inches broad. The plants were all young, of the species call- 
ed Nicotiana tahacwm. 

Made up into cigars by skillful fingers, this tobacco would 
satisfy the wishes of the most fastidious connoisseur of the 
** Virginny weed." Native labor is available — ^for Hawaiians 
are passionately fond of smoking, and their services can be 
procured at twenty-five cents per day. Experienced men, 
having but little capital, could commence this Dusiness on this 
group, and in a short time realize a very handsome income. 
An amount of tobacco could be annually raised which would 
exceed the financial receipts for 1852-'3,* and, judiciously 
managed, it could not fail to be a source of profit to the na- 
tional treasury. 

On these plains the wild cotton-tree {Ghssypiv/ni vitifdi- 
vm) is found in abundance. Cotton, as well as tobacco, can 
. be successfully cultivated here and on other portions of the 
group. In this region, vegetation luxuriates in a manner un- 
surpassed by few places even in the tropics. 

At a distance of nearly six miles beyond these tobacco plan- 
tations, there is a singular phenomenon, called by the natives 
Nbhilif and by foreigners the Soimding Sands. It is a mound 
of sand about a hundred feet high, located immediately on the 
sea-shore, and forms the southern point of a ridge of sand-hills 
extending in an acute angle to the terminus, of the plain at 
Kolo. This ridge has been formed by the combined influence 
of the ocean on one side and the winds on the other. To test 
the truth of what report had stated, I induced two natives to 
ascend the mound. On reaching its summit, one of them 
placed himself on his chest, while the other seized his feet and 
dragged him dovm to the bottom. During this operation, a 
* See Appendix IL 



246 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

floand, MB of distant thunder, or of the stuting of heavy ma- 
chinery, was distinctly heard. It was sufficiently kod to 
startle my tired hone. After taking him away some distance 
orer the plain, and securing him to a shruh, I walked hack 
and tried the expenmoit I had seen conducted hy the nathres, 
and the same result was produced. 

Sudi an unusual phenomenon was highly interesting, and 
induced me to linger for a time on the spot. On a micro- 
scopic examination, I found the sand to he a comlmiatioQ of 
small oceanic shells, and conl resemhling crushed talc, hut 
Tory hard. There was nothing in the physical conformation 
of the ridge of hills that could induce an echo, nor did the 
mound itself rest on any apparent cavernous foimation. The 
wind was Uowing frcnn the south hy east, and swe^fnng near- 
ly in a direct line along the hills. I observed that when the 
wind was rather light, the, sounds emitted hy the mound dur- 
ing the sliding down of the natives were proportionately hght, 
and so vice versa. It se^Do^ conclusive that the atomic 
character of the hill was such as necessarily to ahsorh a h^ge 
amount of atmosphere ; that the moving of an extraneous 
hody down its sides induced a rapid vibraticai of atnK)6;^)^c 
fluid, and that the direct result was crepitati<m. 

Night was creeping over the face of nature when I had 
completed my explorations of this phenomenon. To return 
to Waimea that night was impossible, and the only alterna- 
tive was to stay virith the first fomily at whose house I might 
arrive. Among the numerous iirchins whom my visit at- 
tracted to the Sounding Sands, there was a young lad, who 
appeared, from some cause unknown to myself, to take no 
small degree of interest in ipy movements. Anticipating my 
need of a night's lodgings, he requested me to follow him. 
He mounted a horse sans saddle and every accoutrement, and 
sped away over the plain ; while his shirt — ^his only garment ! 
— ^was occasionally blown over his head by the wind. As the 
last ray of the evening twilight was merging into darkness, 
my guide halted in front of a commodious house, located in 
the extreme comer of the plain. 



KINDNESS TO THE TRAVELER. 247 

In the front of this native dweUing a huge wood fete was 
blazing. '^From ^e nmnb^ of culinary utensils which w^re 
stationed around it, and simmering away like the enchanted cal- 
drons of the witches in " Macbeth," one might easily have con- 
cluded, that the family were about giving a feast to their neigh- 
bors for miles around. Some half dozen good-natured "oZo- 
has f ' ' spoken at once, made me feel quite at home. Alighting 
from my horse, and having seen him deposited in a good pas- 
ture for the night, I entered the domicile, which was faintly 
illiunined with torches of the candle-nut {Aleurites triloba). 

The arrival of an entire stranger seemed to be a signal for 
a g^ieral family convention. The smoking viands outside 
-^ere for a moment forsaken to self-quiet, while men, women, 
and children came tumbling over each other for the purpose 
of getting a glimpse at the " to^" (foreigner). If I had not 
been previously informed that foreigners were infrequent vis- 
itors to Kolo, a mere glance would have satisfied me of the 
truth of the matter. I sat perched up on a sort of saw-bench, 
while the group crowded close around my feet, surv^ring my 
appearance and my every motion ; and in this position I re- 
mained for some minutes — ^the object of a general scrutiny. 
Squatting on their mats in a way pecuhaxly a la Kanaka^ 
they presented a group that would have been invaluable on 
canvas. There sat two old men, who might have shared in 
the battles of Kamehameha the Great. Beside them sat 
their consorts^— of suitable age, good-looking women, apparent- 
ly of iron constitution. There were several persons in the 
meridian of Hfe, and a few others, of both sexes, varying in 
years, from the playing child to early manhood. But they 
were all one family. 

When their curiosity had somewhat abated, they proceeded 
to make their comments and indulge their witticisms aj; my 
expense. They asked me a variety of questions, which I an- 
swered to the best of my ability, and to their no small amuse- 
ment. At last one of the two elder women came and sat 
down close to me, passed her hand over my limbs, and then 
across my chest, and ^hed to know if I was '' full ;" in other 



348 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

words, if I were hungry. I gave her a negative replv. In a 
short time, a calabash of wild pork immediately from the boil- 
ing caldron, a pile of hot taro, a calabash of water, and a 
huge calabash oi poi, were placed before me, or rather on a 
mat on each side of my bench. My very hospitable entertain- 
ers meant well, but theif^ood remained untasted, for the mere 
appearance of it was enough to disgust an appetite less fastidi- 
ous than mine. I had already conceived an insurmountable 
disgust of sour poi, and its sickly aspect, so semi-civilized, at 
once annihilated my voracity ; so I swallowed a draught of 
water, filled a pipe with tobacco, and began to smoke. 

A question now arose in my own mind where I shoiild re- 
pose. There were twenty-seven persons in that family, all 
told. I saw no prospect before me but that of sharing the 
" field-bed," which I felt assured would be enjoyed by every 
member of that domicile, and it was a prospect I by no means 
coveted. But this difficulty soon vanished. Two of the men 
instantly set to work and rigged up a rude frame, over which 
they stretched an entire raw-hide. A woman then threw a 
rough mattress upon it, and several sheets of kapa (native 
cloth). While these preparations were making, I was squat- 
ting on the mat, passing my pipe firom one to another until it 
had made a family tour, the youngest children excepted. 

No sooner had I sought my pillow than a space was cleared 
in the centre of the apartment, and a couple of men com- 
menced making poi. On a former page I have described the 
process, so I need not waste words in repetition. The labor 
ci making it, however, could not be very light, for they were 
entirely nude excepting their maloSy* and their bodies glisten- 
ed with sweat as though they had been oiled. To enhven 
their work, each man indulged in copious inhalations of their 
lighted pipes. An old woman sat on one side of the tray, and 
a naked child on the other, picking up the pieces of boiled taro 
that were scattered by the stone ^xw'-mallets ; these were put 
back to be pounded up with the general batch of food, which 
was a compound of sweat, tobacco smoke, and dust, scraps of 
* A narrow girdle orossed round the loins. 



0>* A 

is 

I 



1/ 




I 



(a) Calabash for |wi. (d<() Poiii 

(ft) Calabaafa for fish. (e) Ptn trough, 

(c) Water bottle. (/) Natire bracelet. 

(^, *y i i) Fiddle, flute, and drama. 

L2 



tHl: i<£\v yoF?K 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



.A8T0R, LENOX AND 

TILDEN FOUNDATIONSo 



EVENINO DEVOTIONS. ggj 

taro that had been recovered firom the dirty mat, and sundry 
other unmentionables. If this meagre descripti<Hi has been 
sufficiently graphic fox the reader's comprehension, I trust he 
will pardon my decided abhorrence oipaiy and think none the 
less of Hawaiian domesticity when I assure him that it is the 
staff of life to the Sandwich Islanders ! 

The sound of the |io^-mallets, and coming to the conclusion 
that I was more than ever opposed to the article in question, 
lulled me to sleep. But the voice of singing at length awoke 
me. At first I supposed I was in tibe land of dreams ; but a 
continaatiQn of the sounds reassured me. Partially raising 
myself on (me elbow, I soon saw that the family had formed 
a circle, and were engaged in family devotions. They were 
singing Hebeb's magnificent '^ Missionary Hymn,*' commenc- 
ing with the words 

" From Greenland's icy mountains.'* 
At such a time, in such a place, under such circumstances, I 
frankly admit I was much astonished. Their song of praise 
was ccmduded, and the patriarch of the family, with hair as 
white as the snows of winter, and with a face heavily scarred 
by wounds received in youthful struggles on the field of battle, 
knelt down in the centre of the group to pray. I shall never 
£>rget his upturned and solemn countenance, his pathetic invo- 
catiiHi — " E Iehovah !" so strictly Hawaiian in its character, 
and o^red up to the true God. I shall never forget the as- 
pect of that bending and devotional family. At this mom^it 
I feel an irresistible impulse to record the sum of my impres- 
sions created that night by that scene. 

Had I been a disputant against the divinity of Christianity, 
that acem and its associations, so simple, unlocked for, and 
sublime, would have put upon my Ups the seal of perpetual 
silence. To that family I was totally a stranger, and they 
were equally strangers to me. The only thing they felt solicr 
itous about was to have me as comfortably lodged as possible. 
They knew not that I was not soundly asleep ; therefore, in 
this instance at least, they effected no disguise of their paoral 
sentiments. That act of devotion was the spontaneous gush- 



252 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ing forth of feelings at once sacred and grand, for they be- 
longed to God ; and that family group only gave what was 
justly due to the universal Parent of Good. 

It is not the only instance of the kind that I have seen on 
the Sandwich Islands. To a wide extent, the Hawaiians axe 
charged with hypocrisy, and, to a wide extent, that charge is 
just ; but I envy not the feelings of that man who can find 
no good among them. Of the many who have quietly wor- 
shiped their Maker, and gone to the grave, and been received 
up on high, the day of judgment will best decide. Think on 
it, ye misanthropes ! and ye who never bend your knee, only 
in a cushioned sUp, beneath gorgeous domes, that serve only to 
mock the search of the soul after heaven's Monarch ! 

I arose next morning with the gray dawn, refreshed with a 
night's sound repose, and took a final leave of that family. 

On returning to Koloa, I was storm-stayed several days. 
At length the skies again became clear, and the ocean re- 
sumed its cahn, azure smile. I engaged a passage in the 
schooner *^ Chance," Spunyam, master, and 1^ a sincere fare- 
well to the Island of Kauai. 

The inter-island navigation at the Sandwich Islands is ut- 
terly repulsive, the only mode of transit being by small schoon- 
ers, owned chiefly by natives. Those who have never made 
one of these passages can form no conception of their loath- 
some character, and they who have gone through the ordeal 
have bestowed upon it the very expressive appellation of the 
" middle passage." A foreigner takes up his abode in a very 
diminutive place below deck, dignified ^ the title of calnn. 
In a short time, however, the effluvia of bilge water, and a 
few inexpressibles, compels him to take refuge on d^. This 
step is certain to cause discontent among the native passen- 
gers, and they are usually very numerous ; fw, although they 
pay but a fifjh of the passage-money paid by a foreigner, and 
are found in provisions, too, at that, they lay a stem claim to 
the whole of the decks, fore and aft. It is not at all uncom- 
mon for thaoa to gorge themselves with fish and pai before 
starting. (I really beg the reader's pardon for the very fi«- 



THE "MIDDLE PASSAGE." 353 

quent use of the woid poi^ but it is imposBible to avoid it in 
the course of these pages.) Shortly after the schooner leaves 
her moorings, such scenes occur as baffle all attempts at graphV 
ic description. There are women and girls, men and b<^ 
dogs, pigs, calabashes filled with their favorite fix)d, and ev- 
ery variety of bedding, together with bundles of tobacco and 
tobacco-pipes, huddled all together in the most indescribable 
confusion. At such a moment, every human animal on board 
may be paying Neptune a heavy tribute— in other words, they 
may be horribly '* sea-sick," and dogs and pigs will wallow in 
the flood of disgorged poi like ducks in mud. A foreigner 
may have doubled th^ stormy Cape Horn, or made a passage 
across the Polar Seas, and behaved like a good son of the ocean ; 
but here he is compelled to yield. Surrounded by twenty to 
sixty Hawaiians, ejecting with a vengeance the contents of 
gorged systems, it is in vain he endeavors to avert his gaze or 
repress his emotions. Once more he retires to his cabin, but 
his emoti(»is and sympathies obtain the mastery, and once 
more he returns to the deck, again to meet with the disgust- 
ing scenes he has just sought to avoid. . Alas for the acoustic 
and olfactory organs ! He struggles with all his manly forti- 
tude, and resolves and re-resolves he wiQ not yield to the de- 
testable sympathy. But just as he supposes he is gaining the 
ccmquest, his senses are again accosted by the sounds of such 
throes as almost indicate a separation of souls firom bodies, 
and he is compelled reluctantly to lay aside his modesty by 
becoming the sickest mortal in the group. 

Night draws her curtain over the ocean. The foreigner is 
on deck. Wedged in between — two -women, perhaps ! he is 
glad to forget his privations in sleep, if he can procure it. He 
is just on the imaginate wing to some loved and lovely old 
scene ; or, perchance, a " change comes over the spirit of his 
dreams,*' and a sweet face, beaming with an unearthly beauty, 
comes peering in upon him, when, lo ! the scaly shin of some 
diseased Kanaka is wiped across his lips, or a pig, ever hungry, 
capsizes a mess of sour poi over him, and then he himself 
walks over. 



254 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Night weais away, aud the welcome daylight lifts up the 
eyehds of the eleepeiB. The £>reigiier may probably go to his 
cabin to procure something as an antidote against his increas- 
ing squeamishness. He opens his basket, which some lady- 
foreigner filled with nice Uttle delicacies for him during his 
passage, but, alas ! a perfect blank stares him in the face ; §ot 
some dainty native has gone down in the night and stowed 
every thing away in his own capacious system. Lest the 
reader may deem me too imaginative, I wiU merdy say, 

" Fate draw the curtain ; I can do no more." 

And yet, for thirty years, the wives of foreigners have been 
compelled to subserve an inter-island transit so utterly repul- 
sive.* 

liVith a view to obviate these difficulties, attempts were 
made on the 30th of March, 1853, to organize a joint-stodc 
ccHnpany, with a capital of $50,000, in idiares of $500 each. 
It was designed to procure a small steam-boat on the " Eh- 
icsson'* plui. A list of subscribers was made out, and (me 
or two of the subscriptions were taken up ; but, owing to the 
state of the money market, and a want of confidence in gov- 
ernmental protection, the project became a total &ilure. 

The mere efibrt to achieve such an object was in itself 
noble and commendable. Such a step is absolutely necessary 
and imp(nrtant ; but it can nev^ be successfully put into op- 
eration until the " stars and stripes*' float over ihe group, and 
their commercial system is revolutioni29ed by a truly Hberal 
system. 

* Since these pages have been in the press, information has been 
received from the islands that this extremely xmcomfortable' mode 
of inter-island navigation is about coming to a dose. The steamer 
"S. R Wheeler/' from the coast of California, has arriyed at the 
islands for the purpose of plying between them. The Hawaiian 
government has granted the steam company the exclusive privilege, 
for five years, of establishing steam commnnication between the 
islands of the group, and has agreed to admit coal, machinery, and 
other materials for the use of the. company duty free. 



DEVOTIONS OFAHAWAIIANCREW. 355 



CHAPTER XX. 

ISLAND OF MOLO^AC. 
FROM HONOLULU TO KALUAAHA. 

Devotions of a Kative Crew. — ^Fondness fop Tobacco. — Despotic Stric- 
tuBes. — Conyenience of Native Habits in Traveling. — Ealnaaha 
Mission Station. — Civilization. — Sewing Circles. — Female Cos- 
tame. — System of Education. — Sdiools. — ^Influence of Christianity. 
— ^How it is valued. — ^A Hawaiian Feast. — ^A Hawaiian Marriage. 
— ^Loves of the Hawaiians. — ^Instance o£ 

The sun was about to dip in the western wave as the Ku- 
Imnanu left her wharf at Honolulu for the island of Maui. 
She was crowded with passengers, whose destinations were 
various portions of the Windward Islands. The seas were 
calm, the winds light. The schooner glided along so smooth- 
ly, that for a time it seemed as though we were propelled by 
a magical influence. We had passed the outer reef, and were 
just gliding into the ocean breeze, when the owner of the 
schooner — John Ii, a distinguished chief — ^who had accom- 
panied us, took off his hat, and, in a fervent and impressive 
prayer, commended us to tiie God of the ocean, and went 
ashore. 

This was the prelude to the devotional exercises of the crew. 
That evening, and the next morning, and the subsequent even- 
ing, these exercises were faithfully and solemnly performed. 
In former days they would have worshiped their ocean deity, 
as the Eomans venerated Neptune. A tribute of homage to 
the Almighty, when performed on the ocean by the mariner, 
is always impressive and appropriate ; but when paid by a 
crew of Hawaiian sailors, who are always joined by the native 
passengers, it speaks directly to the sensibilities of any foreign- 
er who may be present, and produces an impression not easily 
forgotten. 

If there is much to annoy, during an inter-island passage 



256 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

on a native schooner, there is also much to amuse a foreigner. 
As in the United States, or any other civihzed country, a vehi- 
cle of any kind is the chief place £)r the development of char- 
acter, so on hoard a Hawaiian schooner, a traveler finds a 
capital opportunity to study the traits of the Hawaiian. Bhw- 
ever sea-sick the tourist may be, these traits are so peculiar 
and prominent, that he can not &il to notice them. The 
Hawaiian has a greater fondness for tobacco than the North 
American Indian, and it is on the deck of one of these schoon- 
ers that this fondness most strongly displays itself A native 
would aa easily forget to take himself on board aa forget his 
little bag of tobacco. In many instances, he loves his tobacco 
better than he loves his wife ; and so it is in regard to the 
wife toward her husband. After refireshing themselves when 
going aboard their schocmers, the first thing is to get out their 
bags of tobacco, containing also their pipes, flint, steel, and 
tinder-boxes. The tobacco is cut and rubbed finely, and the 
pipes are filled and lighted. The girls share the pipes smoked 
by the women, the boys those used by the men. Sometimes 
there is a general family smoke, and one pipe makes a tour 
of the entire group of passengers — ^the foreigner included, if he 
wishes. It is certainly one of the most comical scenes in the 
world to witness a young girl (of semi-Greek features, with 
glossy raven hair and eyebrows, and lids finnged with the 
same kind of material) take one of those huge wooden pipes 




NATIVE PIPB. NATIVE NBCKLAO. 



FONDNESS FOR TOBACCO. 257 

in her mouth, and inhale the smok^ until her cheeks are dis- 
tended as though they would hurst, and, after retaining it 
tiiere several seconds, puff it out in a perfect cloud. It tends 
to fling a shadow over their rcHnance and heauty. What a 
native most wants the first thing in a morning, and the last 
thing at night, is his pipe. It would be ahnost impossible to 
recount the number of times the pipe is used by the same per- 
son in a single day ; and every time he wakes up at night he 
fiMs and smokes his pipe. One is forced to conclude that both 
men and women retire to refresh their memories by dreaming 
of the " weed" and its " vapors." It is their food when hun- 
gry, and their consolation when full. It is their antidote in 
affliction, and especially in sea-sickness ; and the more severe 
this horrible feeling bec(Hnes, the more eagerly the pipe is 
sought after. A physician, long a resident on the group, 
thus describes this native propensity : 

" The zcse of tobacco has evidently a deleterious influence 
on the natives, whatever may be its effects on others. In 
smoking, the natives do not sit down deliberately, and finish a 
cigar or pipe, but take one or two quiffs, inhaling the full 
volume of smoke directly into the lungs, and retain it there 
as long as the breath can well be retained. Individuals have 
been killed by its efiects, and how much disease may have 
been induced or exacerbated thereby remains to be ascer- 
tained."* 

This inveterate love for tobacco has given rise to the most 
despotic restrictions on the part of a few of the missionaries. 
Several of the churches are organized on the anti-ixibnjcco prin- 
ciple, and the luckless wighf who happens to violate his 
pledge— K)r, I had rather say, who is caught breaking it — ^is 
certain to be excommunicated £>r his sin(?). This is espe- 
cially the case with the Church at Lahaina, on Maui. By 
some of the missionaries it is thought to lead to the vice of 
licentiousness. The mode in which some of the native wom- 
en are said to procure private gratifications is certainly novel. 
Missionary testimony says : " They are not ' keepers at home,' 
* Hawaiian Spectator, yoU L, p. 268. 



258 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

but, wandering about, fall into the society of the profligate, 
and, aa is often the case, become tempters of others. Smok- 
ing tobacco leads, in multitudes €i cases, to the oommissiim 
of this sin. Many a female has risen at midnight, filled her 
pipe, ^md gdne in the darknews to some neighbor to procure a 
light, when she has fallen into sin."'*' Under such circum- 
stances, they are, of course, expelled. 

But the wisdom of expulsion is exceedingly qrostionalde. 
The restrictions placed on smokers are both unwise and dm- 
potic. Every where over the group the natives smoke. It 
is «.F^fT i?gi"g to see how carefully a Church member of Tjahaina 
puts away his *' smoking tackle" when he goes ashore from a 
schooner. So Icmg as the natives are fond of mimicking for- 
eigners, just so long they will smoke. The foreign population 
very generally smoke. A number of ex-missionanes, and a 
few regular missionaries, chew the "filthy and destructive 
weed." Numbers of the members of the " Bethel," and of 
the " Foreign Church" in Honolulu, smoke in the public 
streets, and in the presence of the natives. To excommuni- 
cate Hataaiians for smoking is, therefore, "straining at a 
gnat and swallowing a camel." 

* But the despotic restriction not only creates a more intense 
desire for the forbidden article, but it leads directly to false- 
hood. A striking instance was related to me by Mr. Parker, 
missionary at Kaneohe, on Oahu. During one of his pastoral 
visits, he entered a house in which he found a woman and her 
little daughter, and a large cloud of tobacco smoke. His first 
question was, 

" "Who has been smoking ?" * 

Keply: "No one." 

" But there has, for I can see it." 

He was mistaken ; no one had been smoking. 

" But I can smeU it." 

Again he labored under a mistake ; it was only the smoke 
firom a wood-fire which had just been put out. 

This waa more than Mr. Parker could endure. With the 
• See " ABtTren to Qaeftions,'* p 81. 



NATIVE HABITS IN TRAVEI^ING. 259 

toe of his boot, he removed the yet smoking p^, which waa 
just visible under the woman's drapery as she sat down on 
the mat. Beiog fairly caught, she owned her. fault, and con- 
fessed her sorrow for smoking. Mr. Parker, osi leaving that 
domicile, examined the prohibitory law and its tendencies, and 
he came to the very sensible conclusion that, f(^ using tobacco, 
he would not expel another member from his church. 

However singular native habits may appear, they are cer- 
tainly very convenient in .traveling. Nothing can be more 
simple than their mode of dietetics. They nearly always eat 
and drink their food in a cold state ; so that while a foreigner 
may be waiting two or three hours £)r the coddng of a few 
sundries, in a few minutes 'the natives have made a hearty 
meal of poi^ fish, water-melons, and water. Such a course, 
however, leads to a very beneficial result. 

" The fine rows of teeth possessed by the natives will attract 
the notice of every stranger. The oldest inhabitonts have gen- 
erally their teeth in perfect order, except such as they have 
knocked out firom time to time, on ocea^ons of the death of 
chie& or their firiends. The rea^ns are obvious : they make 
no use of acids or other substances which tend to e&ct rapidly 
the destruction of the enamel ; they J#e free £rom those dis- 
eases of the stomach and of the nervous system which operate 
most actively in producing carious teeth ; and they rarely eat 
their food while hot, and the water which they drink is usually 
no colder than that of our rivers during the heat of summer.'' 

A passage of thirty-six hours among these smokers and poi- 
eaters was broughl to a close by arriving at Lahaina. The 
little sloop Sarah, of seven tuns register, was in port ; and as 
she was about returning to JBlolokai, I concluded to visit that 
island first. 

Three bonis' bailing brought us to an anchor on ^e coral 

^leef, off the Mission Station at Kaluaaha. The '* Sarah's' ' very 

small boat conveyed me to the rugged wall of a hnge fish- 

pcmd, along which I walked until I fairly landed on the beach. 

I had noticed several places on Oahu and Kauai — the latter 
island especially — where the appeaaranoe of a foreigner excited 



260 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

an intense curiosity. But I had yet seen nothing which com- 
pared -with the curiosity displayed among the natives on my 
arrival at this station. Women, who had seen me at a dis- 
tance, came to meet me with children in their arms, as though 
I had shared in the introduction of the latter into this sinful 
world. There were crowds of older children, who, getting into 
each others* way, turned a variety of gyrations one over the 
other, in their eagerness to catch a glimpse of the *^ haolS** 
(foreigner). That crowd of urchins, followed me up as though 
my very shadow imparted a healing influence to disease. And 
when I got fairly into the residence of Mr. Dwight — a very- 
gentlemanly Christian teacher — ^the door was hesieged in such 
a way that I feared some of their hmhs would share some dis- 
aster in their struggles to get the foremost standing-place, 
where they might gaze their fill at myself. This crowding 
continued until I requested the missionary to order them away, 
when he informed me that, as few foreigners ever came to the 
island, they were usually objects of great curiosity. 

Kaluaaha is the only regular station on Molokai. It is but 
sparsely inhabited. As it is approached fipom the sea, it has 
an appearance highly picturesque. The mountains in the 
rear are much rent It^ deep ravines, but their cloud-capped 
summits are covered with foliage. It is extremely difficult 
for a tourist to divest his mind of the impression that those 
clouded heights are the abode of the discarded deities once 
worshiped by the people. 

My stay at this station, and my subsequent tour over the 
island, induced the belief that civilization lia6 bestowed some 
benefits on the people, but more especially on those residing 
in the region of the mission. It ia a civilization based, not on 
Christianity only, but on personal employment and activity ; 
and a unity of ethics with practical actions is the only legiti- 
mate mode of elevating savage mind, or of sustaining civilized 
institutions. 

Civilization is best t^ted by its results. One of these tests 
was the school of Hawaiian youth, of both sexes, under the 
care of Mr. B wight. There was a class of girls in that school 



SEWING-CLASSES.^ 261 

who had been organized by himself I into a sewing class. It 
was the first time in my life — and it may be the last — ^that I 
saw a class of girls whose sewing occupations were mider the 
supervision of a gentleman ! But Mr. Dwight was a Yankee ! 
and a Yankee can turn his attention to any thing, for he cer- 
tainly is the most remarkable specimen of the genius homo 
that has ever helped to compose the family of man. Aside 
from Mr. Dwight's Yankeeism, he combined the sterling qual- 
ities of a gentleman with the deep and eloquent sympathies 
of a refined Christian woman. He loved those girls, and, in 
return, they loved him. It was a love such as is reciprocated 
by father and child. He was their physician when sick, their 
friend and adviser in health. There were not wanting those, 
however, among his own " brethren," who rather felt inclined 
to stigmatize his celibacy — ^for he was a bachelor. 

But to return to this sewing class. Mr. Dwight had taught 
his school-girls to sew, and their work would have honored 
the instructions ,of the most punctilious woman. They cut 
and made up sundry unmentionables for gentlemen, besides 
cutting and making all their own drapery. The articles they 
manufrwtured for gentlemen were sold in stores. In several 
instances they have commanded a ready and lucrative sale at 
the agricultural fairs in Honolulu, where they would favora- 
bly compare with the needle-work of the foreign belle, upon 
whose education years of time and purses of money had been 
expended. But they had some inducement to be industri- 
ous. For an article which would sell for two dollars, the 
maker of it would receive a compensation of seventy-five cents, 
and so 6n in a regular ratio. With the avails of their own 
labor they furnished their own wardrobes, which were highly 
creditable. That class of sewing-girls numbered about thirty ; 
and they never met or dispersed in their usual capacity with- 
out singing a hymn and invoking the blessing and protection 
of Heaven. 

I have spoken of female costumes, and I can not dismiss 
the theme without a brief remark or two. In no item of civ- 
ilization have the natives — ^the females especially — ^made more 



262 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

adyancement than in this. When civilized halnts first da'wn- 
ed upon th^oo, their perscmal appearaace was the most eccenr 
trie that can well he imagined. In coming to chnich ^ a 
Sunday, one man would come clad in nothing but a coat but- 
toned up on his back instead of in firrait. The eauixie ward- 
robe of a second would be dragged cravat, and a angle strip 
of native cloth crossed over his loins, called a malo; that tsi a 
third, the malo, and a pair of high boots ; that of a Iburth, 
the malo, and a tattered palm-leaf hat that might have served 
some foreigner nearly a score of years ; that of a fifth, a shirt, 
virith a collar reaching his eyes and halfway up the back of 
his head, and the, malo. The catalogue might be pursued to 
any length, and it would stagger the faith of many a reader ; 
but these were among some of the ciHuical scenes which irre- 
sistibly drew smiles fix>m the lips of their early teachers. 

But they have improved since then. The costume of the 
females was, to my own mind, a convincing comment on the 
certainty of a great transformation. Many of those school- 
girls were on the verge of womanhood. Their drapery sat 
easily on them, and displayed forms which would have excit- 
ed the envy of many a city beUe. More than once did I see 
them arrayed in their best, with their heads handsomely dec- 
orated with wreaths formed, by their own fingers, fi»m tlie 
beautiful flowers of the native hala, or screw pine ( Tectoritis 
et odoratissimus), and their appearance was exceedingly fas- 
cinating, rather verging to the coquettish. Their beautiful de- 
velopment was the work of Nature, unassisted by the imposi- 
tions of every-day fashions, and their toilet was the result of 
their own easy and honest industry. Think of the former, ye 
slaves to Fashion ! and learn to be more true to Nature. And 
think of the latter, ye slaves to Avarice ! whose wealth may 
be earned in part by needle*women, whose cheeks are pale and 
emaciated by fatigue over the midnight lamp, and by the pangs 
of the same hunger which is gnawing the very vitals of their 
children — ^who toil on, and weep and hunger <m, to earn your 
stinted pittance, until the angel of Death breaks the acciused 
fetter which binds them to your slavery ! 



EDUCATION—SCHOOLS. 263 

The systeiji o£ education pursued by Mr. Dwight is design- 
ed and calculated to be of permanent value to the scholars. 
Their studies are conducted mainly in Hawaiian. The course 
embraces reading, writing, algebra, geography, universal his- 
tory, vocal music, drawing, mental and moral -science, elocu- 
ticm, and composition. Four hours «ach day are devoted to 
English Btudies^-chiefly reading and spelling. In these exer- 
cises, both males and females equally participate. In addi- 
tion to aU, there is a system of manual labor for the elder of 
the male scholars, which to themselves is a source of pecuni" 
ary gain and of great physical benefit. The number of schol- 
ars averaged a hundred, and their proficiency was truly sur- 
prising. At the time of my visit, this school had be«i in ex- 
istence but a single year ! 

Many of the scholars woidd read English fluently, but speak- 
ing it was rather difficult. It was intensely amusing to hear 
them salute, mornings and evenings, during my stay at th^ star 
tdon. In the morning they invariably said, ^^Doodre night P* 
and in the evening, the usual salutation was "Dood-e momr 
in /" I was willing to make every allowance, for I have 
reason to believe that many of the Hawaiian words that I tried 
to use were just as absurd to themselves, so our mirth met 
with a reciprocity. 

The Government School at this station was in a thriving 
condition, and contained a hundred and sixty scholars. 

There was a flourishing Sabbath school of three to four 
hundred children, neatly clad and looking happy. 

The total number of schools on the island was sixteen ; the 
number of scholars, eight himdred and ten. These were sus- 
tained at a cost to the government, during the i»revious year, 
of $1197 48. 

For the people of Kaluaaha and other portions of Molokai, 
Christianity has done a great deal, for to its influence, sec- 
onded by practical and social habits of industry, they owe 
whatever they possess of a change for the better. It has sev- 
eral limes been asserted that the inhabitants of this island, be- 
cause rather isolated, are more moral than those on the other 



264 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

portions of the gioup ; but I waive all notice of this asserticni 
for the present. I have already spoken of the moral heroism, 
the miearthly beauty, the perfect happiness which poetry and 
romance have thrown around these " children of Nature," 
when they were excluded from the light of revelatiiHi. In 
such instances, the bright side — far, indeed, too fabulous — has 
occupied the gaze of the mere sentimentalist. They forgot to 
delineate their deeds of blood, and the desertion of the aged, 
and infirm, and the dying by unnatural children, and of chil- 
dren by unnatural parents. They did not portray the hellidi 
horror which brooded oyer altars stained by the blood of hu- 
man victims immolated to the gods by the red right hand of 
a pagan hierarchy. But their omission renders their past ex- 
istence none the less a truth. And it is from these acts, so 
dark, sanguinary, and relentless — ^from the undefinable dark- 
ness of the pagan's grave and the pagan's eternity, that this 
people have been rescued. 

And how, it may be asked, do they appreciate the change ? 
They are not clad with the "** pomp and circumstance" of those 
to whom Fortune has been most lavish of her favors, nor are 
they as highly gifted as millions who are blessed with the civ- 
ilization which philosophy and refinement have hereditarily 
bestowed. But, feeling conscious that the genius of the Bible 
nobly advocates the civil and spiritual freedom of the whole 
family of man, they have acted out their impulses and convic- 
tions by showing their liberaUty to that best and most sacred 
of all causes — a republican Christianity. It is not for me to 
judge of the motive which prompts a disposition of a sacred 
gift on the altar of the soul's fireedom ; but it nu^y safely be 
asserted that, in view of their extent of worldly wealth, no 
community on earth has ever done more for the cause of Chris- 
tianity than the Christianized natives of Molokai. A careful 
examination of their ecclesiastical records proved to me that, 
from 1847 to 1853 inclusive, they had contributed in cash 
$1389 63 to missionary operations in other portions of the 
Pacific ; and they had oheerfully subscribed the sum of 
$3458 08, during a period of years ranging from 1845 to 



A HAWAIIAN FEAST. 265 

1852, for the support of the resident missionary at Kalua- 
aha. 

The Hawaiians are peculiarly patriarchal in many of their 
hahits. They cherish a particiUar fondness for visiting and 
company, and are always glad to see a £riend. When any lit- 
tle circumstance occurs to try personal friendship or courage, 
or when a few persons have heen exposed to a Heavy tribula- 
tion, a feast is the almost certain result. While at Kaluaaha, 
I witnessed one of these convivial gatherings. It had its ori- 
gin in a storm at sea. During a recent trip of the sloop " Sa- 
rah," and when the parties in question were on board, Tnalring 
a passage from Honolulu to Molokai, a terrible gale arose. 
The Httle craft labored to keep on her way, and her Hawaiian 
captain exerted all his ingenuity to efiect the passage, but in 
vain. To escape being ingulfed, it was deemed advisable to 
put back to Honolulu. To cheer their hopes and reheve the 
anguish of disappointment, the captain made a solemn prom- 
ise that, if they diould live to return to Molokai, he would give 
them a " feast." 

After having been detained a day or two at Honolulu, the 
sloop again put to sea. Favorable breezes soon wafted them 
to Molokai.' A day was appointed for their social meeting, 
but its arrival witnessed clouds and storm. The feast was ad- 
journed until the first fine day. Once more disappointed, the 
crowd dispersed to console themselves with a trial of patience. 

At length the long-wished-for day arrived. The sun rose 
in a cloudless sky. From plains, valleys, and across the cloud- 
capped mountains, the guests made their appearance, and were 
gladly welcomed by their host and his better half. It was 
goon discovered that the host's domicile was too small for their 
acc(»nmodation, for five times the original number had arrived. 
To remedy this inconvenience, an awning was spread over the 
smooth grass. Clean mats were laid. Sundry articles of ta- 
ble-service were then distributed over them. Under each plate 
was laid one or two leaves of the ti plant {Draccma termi- 
nalis). Several huge dishes and calabashes, containing the 
lepast, occupied the remaining space. 

M 



266 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

The company, clad in their best apparel, took their station 
round the viands. The captain proceeded to invoke the Al- 
mighty's blessing. The last accent of the '•'Amen^^ had not 
fallen firom his lips, when such a clatter of dishes, et cetera^ 
commenced as effectually baffled all approach of ceremony, 
and the host's bounty was most mercilessly attacked. Pigs, 
turkeys, chickens, and fish had been compelled to yield up their 
firail lives, so as to be permitted to honor that feast with their 
presence. Besides these substantials, there were 'poi^ sweet 
potatoes, baked and boiled, in abundance ; and their drink was 
the pure cold water, which had just flowed down from the 
summits of the lofly moimtains. 

There was not one in the company who appeared to possess 
a knife, fork, or spoon ; so they were compelled to employ their 
fingers ! — Adam and Eve's plan, undoubtedly. All squatted 
down a la Turky and disposed of their refireshments a la Ha- 
waiian, It really did me good to see with what eagerness 
they attacked their food. There was no fastidious delicacy, no 
studied formaUty, such as sometimes clog the sociabiUty at the 
patrician's table. They cared not for the glance and the pres- 
ence of the stranger, but kindly invited him to share their re- 
past. While surveying that scene, 1 almost concluded that, 
if Nature had not made me white, Hawaiian simpUcity would 
have suited me very well. One or two of the most amusing 
features in that feast were, it took place at 10 A.M., and lasted 
fifteen minutes ! when the company dispersed for their homes. 

Before leaving this station, I witnessed the novel scene of a 
Hawaiian marriage. The sun was setting in aU that quiet 
splendor peculiar to the tropics, as a couple walked into Mr. 
Dwight's yard, and interrupted ourjx)nver8ation by requesting 
him to unite them in the holy bonds of matrimony. They 
had walked that day firom the other side of the mountain — a 
distance of nearly thirty miles ; and under such circimistances, 
there was a two-fold claim on his official power. The couple 
were of a respectable size, and ranged in their respective ages 
from twenty to twenty-five years. In a few seconds the in- 
telligence was communicated that a wedding was about^to 



LOVES OF THE HAWAIIANS. 267 

take place. A number of the school-girLs gathered at the 
scene of operations. The moment arrived when the betrothed 
were to be linked for life in the destinies of the hymeneal 
chain. The officiator had obtained a quiet response to every 
question he had proposed to the man. It was now the wom- 
an's turn to submit to interrogations. But before the mission- 
ary coidd reach the end of either of his questions, so anxious 
was she to assert her obedience to her newly-espoused lord, 
and also to end the ceremonies, that she rapidly and emphat- 
ically enunciated " ae, ae" (yes, yes). In the midst and at 
the end of every sentence he uttered, the emphatic "ye*.'" 
rolled from her Ups in such a manner as to indicate her own 
sincerity of expression, and also to excite the most irresistible 
mirthfulness among those laughter-loving girls. 

This unique ceremony at last ended, and the newly united 
in mind, soul, and body, went away smiling like the sim after 
an April shower, being apparently satisfied with themselves, 
the world at large, and the ceremony just performed ; nor 
have I a single doubt that the missionary was equally re- 
lieved, for the very moment they had disappeared, his patient 
eiylurance found vent in a loud outburst of laughter, which 
was echoed by all present. I, too, was reheved ; for it need- 
ed but a single glance to assure one that the female, at least, 
had for some time past been married, and that Nature had 
acted as priest in the ceremonies. Her pubUc union was, 
therefore, a very necessary consummation, for it saved her 
fiK>m fines, hard labor, and imprisonment. 

These very necessary unions are by no means uncommon 
among the Hawaiians ; nor can it be questioned that they 
have their origin in the fervent eloquence of their " loves," 
which flow rather from Nature's dictates than the voice pf 
reason. They are the ofispnng of passion rather than the 
high and holy inculcations of susceptible spirits. But, after 
all, they will favorably compare witii the deeds of fabled he- 
roes, with which our modem school-boys are supposed to ren- 
der themselves famihar at an early age. 

The loves of the Hawaiians are usually ephemeral. It is 



268 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

fabled of Abela&d, that after he had been dead twenty years, 
he opened his arms to embrace his beloved Heloise when 
she was lowered into his grave. But few such instances of 
undying afiection can be fabled of the Sandwich Islanders. 
The widow seldom or never plants a solitary flower over the 
grave of her lord. She may (mce visit the mound that marks 
the repose of his ashes, but never again unless by accident. 
It not un£requently happens that a second husband is selected 
while the remains of the first are conveyed to his "long 
home." 

There are instances, however, of a singular constancy of af- 
fection. One of these occurred some years since on the island 
of Kauai. 

A beautiful young Hawaiian girl was attached to a noble 
and warlike youth. In childhood, and up to manhood, they 
had played, conversed, and rambled together, until their very 
souls seemed to form a unity that was inseparable. They 
were about to consummate their external union, when events 
called him away to sea. Three long, dreary years crept past, 
and the young adventurer was looked upon as dead. But his 
affianced hoped against hope, until news was actually brought 
that the schooner in which her lover had sailed was lost In 
one of the distant archipelagoes in the South Pacific. 

At this fatal moment, hope closed her broad pinions, and 
the icy hand of despair was laid on the bosom of Liliha, until 
her v^ soul sickened, and reason forsook its throne. Morn- 
ing, and noon, and evening, she wandered the shore he last 
touched with his feet. The burden of her complaint was, 
" Alas for you, my Ltjnalilo I Where hast thou gone, my 
soul, my light ? Long has been thy journey toward the golden 
gates- of the western wave. Let us die together, Lunalelo ! 
Come back to me, my love, on the golden wing of the morn- 
ing twilight ! I will go to the western wave, and there I will 
ding to thee, Lunalilo !" 

For two years LmmA was thus disconsolate. Reason i^as 
again restored to its empire, and she was compelled by her 
firiends to marry. The couple Hved together until a lovely in- 



SEA-SHORE ROAD. 269 

fant crowned their union. When she could again tread the 
cocoa-nut grove on the sea-shore, with her child in her arms, . 
a schooner hove in sight, and soon dropped its anchor in the 
bay. With an agony of suspense, she stood there, as if trans- 
fixed, watching a small boat that came boimding over the 
waves. An oarsman, pale with impatience, came up the 
beach, took one glance, and folded her in his bosom. 

That night a certain couch was vacated and a certain ad- 
venturer was missing. The prophetic dirge of Liliha was 
fulfilled : "I will go to the western wave, and there I will 
cling to thee, Lunalilo !" 



CHAPTER XXI. 

JOURNEY TO HALAWA. 

Sea-ehore Road. — Bullock-riding. — Fondness for Horses. — An In- 
stance ofl — ^Mode of Fishing. — ^A Hawaiian " Venus." — Scarcity of 
Singing Birds. — Solitude of the Mountains. — Noble Kvrkui Grove. 
— Halawa Valley. — ^Descent. — Cascades. — ^The Valley at Sunset. 
— Cultivation of Taro. — Kindness of a Hawaiian Family. — An 
Evening Repast — ^Fastidiousness of a Native Cook. — ^A Night at 
Halawa — Kapa Sheets. — Manufacture of Kapcu — ^Population. — 
Religion. — ^Morals. 

In the roads leading along the south shores of the Sandwich 
Islands there is much sameness of general character ; but 
that leading from Kaluaaha to the romantic valley of Halawa 
was diversified more by incident than scenery. 

Occasionally the traveler's eye rests on the ruined walls in^ 
closing immense fish-ponds that were formed several genera^ 
tions past. Here he passes a solitary dwelling that indicates 
the last extreme of poverty and discomfort. Yonder is a smah 
village bearing precisely the same aspect, and yet its tenants 
seem perfectly happy. Now the path leads along the edge 
of the beach, and the horse's feet are wet with the white surf 
which breaks in thunder-tones upon the shore. 

The Sandwich Islanders cherish a strong propensity foi 



270 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

equestrian feats. Any species of the quadruped, strong enough, 
to carry them, serves their purpose. On my way to Halawa 
I was not a little amused at seeing a specimen of bullock- 
riding by two or three native lads. Their riders were clad 
simply in the suit which Nature had bountifully bestowed 
upon them. They had very ingeniously secured bridles in the 
mouths of these comical-looking steeds. With eyes bright with 
excitement, and th^ shaggy hair streaming in the wind, those 
young urchins sped on with inconceivable dehght. Occasion- 
ally they would dismount and keep pace on foot with their 
animals by running alongside* and then, with all the dexterity 
of circus-riders, they would spring on their backs, goading and 
inciting them, to a greater speed, until they were foaming at 
the mouth with rage. It is a current phrase, " Place a beg- 
gar on a horse, and he will ride to ." Philanthropy for- 
bids the harsh conclusion, and I may as well omit it. But, 
put a Kanaka on a horse, or a bullock either, and there is no 
deciding to what place he will not ride. 

The fondness of the Hawaiians for horses is proverbial. 
With them it may be denominated the ruling passion. Give 
a Hawaiian a pretty wife and a first-rate horse, and, as a gen- 
eral thing, his earthly happiness is completed. Give hinx 
these — ^the horse especially — and you could not fascinate him 
with the rivers of wine, and milk, and honey ; the couches of 
silk, the undying fountains, the unfading fruits, the immortal 
beauty of the " hcniri^^ the paviHons of pearls promised by the 
Koran to the faithful warriors and followers of the Prophet 
and Allah. This fondness for the horse is displayed, not in. 
a generous care of him, so much as in wearing him out by fu- 
rious and firequent riding. Their mode of riding over hills 
and plains, and through valleys and ravines, entirely ecUpses 
the immortal " Gilpin.'* Sometimes you may see a Hawaii- 
an horseman dashing along the very brink of a ravine hun- 
dreds of feet high, where a single false step would send both 
horse and xy^Qx into the jaws of certain destruction. 

The best horse in the world would last one of those island- 
ers but a short time before he is entirely worn out. This pen- 



FONDNESS FOR HORSES. 271 

chant for riding removes certain little delicacies in relation to 
the rights of ownership. On getting up in a morning to look 
at his horse after a hard ride on the previous day, the traveler 
is sometimes surprised and mortified to see that the nohle ani- 
mal is in a perf^t foam, or covered with a cold sweat — ^the 
strongest evidence that some rascaUy native has ridden him 
all night. I knew an instance in which a gentleman caught 
a native in the act of saddling his tired horse. Being on the 
alert for him, he gave him such a chastisement wit& a heavy 
raw-hide as brought him three several times upon his knees, 
in which position he earnestly iipplored for pardon and con- 
fessed his fault. And yet the same culprit met the same gen- 
tleman on the following morning, touched his hat to him, and 
coolly said "Aloha .'" (Love to you). 

Volumes might he filled with a relation of the curious meth- 
ods adopted hy natives to procure money or means to purchase 
horses. But this would refer more particularly to the time 
when horses were not so numerous as now. One day a na- 
tive and his wife came to the house of a foreigner in Oahu 
with produce for sale. He had on his entire person nothing 
but a malo, and his wife's only covering was a tattered sheet 
o£kapa. The foreigner offered him an equivalent in clothing 
and domestic comforts, hut they were resolutely refiised. On 
being closely questioned, he stated it to be his intention to pur- 
chase a horse, and that for some time past he had saved all 
the money required excepting five dollars. The foreigner 
handed him money for his produce, and the next time he saw 
this Hawaiian ** Gilpin,'* he was mounted on the very steed 
to purchase which he had toiled and saved for more than two 
years. 

Passing on along the sea-shore, and leaving those buUock- 
riders far behind, I noticed scores of men, women, and chil- 
dren out on the coral reefs fishing. Some were out at a dis- 
tance of nearly two miles in canoes. Others were nearer the 
shore, up to their waists in water, anxiously watching the 
movements of the finny tribes, which they would spear with 
remarkable swiftness whenever they made their appearance. 



272 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Others, again, were in groups of ten to twelve, in the form of 
a crescent, and holding a light net, -^hUe one, detached for the 
purpose at the distance of a few rods, would come toward 
them, beating the water as he came, and drive the fish into 
the net, which the party would close by ciywding in toward 
the centre. In one place there liras a young mother accom- 
panying her husband, with an infant in her arms, and up to 
her waist in water, looking after a calabash of fish that was 
floating on the surfiice. Still nearer the shore there were 
small groups of women picking a species of Conferva and. 
FtKi as an article of food. There is more romance in wit- 
nessing these sports than in actually sharing them. 

In truth to Nature, it may safely be asserted that beauty is 
not confined merely to the saloons of the monarch, nor to the 
tapestried chambers of the patrician. It is more firequently 
found amid the lowlier walks of life, on the desert, or the dis- 
tant isle of the ocean. In "^is instance I wish to be under- 
stood as speaking of physical beauty only. On leaving the 
shore road to ascend the mountains for Halawa, I met just 
such a specimen as has often driven men mad, and whose pos- 
session has many a time paved the way to the subversion (^ 
empire on the part of monarchs. 

She was rather above the medium size of American wom- 
en. Her finely-chiseled chin, nose, and forehead were singu- 
larly Grecian. . Her beautifully-moulded neck and shoulders 
looked as though they might have been borrowed firom Juno. 
The development of her entire form was as perfect as Nature 
could make it. She was arrayed in a single loose robe, be- 
neath which a pretty little nude foot was just peeping out. 
Her hair and eyebrows were as glossy as a raven's wing. 
Around her head was carelessly twined a wreath of the beau- 
tiful native ohdo flowers {Chmttheria pendidiflorum), Hor 
lips seemed firagrant with the odor of countless and untiring 
kisses. Her complexion was much fairer than the fairest of 
her countr3rwomen, and I was forced into the conclusion that 
she was the oflshoot of some white father who hadlrampled 
on the seventh precept in the Decalogue, or taken to his em- 



A HAWAIIAN "VENUS." 373 

brace, by the maniage relation, some good-looking Hawaiian 
woman. But her eyes ! I shall never forget those eyes ! They 
retained something that spoke of an afiection so deep, a spir- 
itual existence so intense, a dreamy enchantment so inexpress- 
ibly beautiful, that they reminded me of the beautiftd Greek 
girl ^'Myrrha,' in Byron's tragedy of " Sardanapalus," 
whose love clung to the old monarch when the flame of the 
funeral pile formed their winding-sheet. 

In no former period of my life had I ever raised my hat in 
the presence of beauty, but at this moment, and in such a 
presence, I took it off! I was entirely fascinated, charmed, 
spell-bound now. I stopped my horse, and there I sat to take 
a Mler glance at the fair reality. And the girl stopped, and 
returned the glance, while a smile parted her lips, and par- 
tially revealed a set of teeth as white as snow, and of match- 
less perfection. I felt that smile to be an unsafe atmosphere 
for the nerves of a bachelor ; so I bowed, replaced my hat, 
and passed on my way, feeling fully assured that nothing but 
the chisel of Praxiteles could have copied her exquisite 
charms. And as I gently moved past her, she exclaimed, in 
the vocabulary of her country, " Love to you !" 

In ascending the elevated regions of the Hawaiian group, a 
traveler is sometimes more impressed with what there is not, 
than with what he sees. One of these negative gratiiications 
is the almost universal absence of singing-birds. Seldcmi does 
a feathered warbler utter his melody, annoimcing the approach 
or the close of the long summer days. In this relation there 
is little, if any thing, to remind- him of the gentle melody which 
sends its sweet echoes through the avenues of the Northern 
£>rests when the foliage is in its glory. 

And then the solitude of the mountains is almost oppress- 
ive. To be realized, it must be felt. It is in such places as 
these that a man can think without an eflbrt, for thoughts 
crowd upon him fast and heavy. It was in passing over the 
mountain regions to Halawa, where I met not even a wan- 
dering native to break the solemn silence, that I thus thought 
And yet Nature had a voice, grand, aolemn, and impressive. 

M2 



274 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

He can retire into the depths of his own spirit, and there hold 
self-converse, and fed that he is immortal. It was not in 
vain that the early Persian made the everlasting mountains 
of our earth his altars, and thus sanctified an unwalled tem- 
ple to the worship of the Eternal Spirit. Compared with 
Nature's realms of worship-^the hosom of the deep, the clear, 
cold atmosphere, the summits of the mountains, the glades of 
the forest — ^how utterly insignificant are all the temples rear- 
ed by the hand of Groth, Greek, or Christian ! If this beau- 
tifiil world, with its flowers and sweets, its lakes and rivers, 
its broad plains and fertile valleys, and its mountains, that 

" Look from their throne of clouds o'er half the world" — 
if this world is only the " footstoor* of the Creator, what must 
his " throne" be ! How true are the words of " Childe Har- 
ddr 

" There is^ pleasure in the pathless woods, 
There is a rapture on the lonely shore. 
There is society, where none intrudes. 
By the deep sea, and music in its roar : 
I love not man the less, but nature more, 
From these our interviews, in which I steal 
From all I may be, or have been before. 
To mingle with the universe, and feel 
What I can ne^er express, yet can not all conceal." 

On the extreme point of the promontory which bounds the 
eastern portion of the valley, a noble kurktd grove {Aleurites 
triloba) was flourishing. It contained nearly two hupdred 
acres, and on its outskirts stood a few native dwellings. In 
many a country it would have been a place of favorite resort. 
By the old DiTiids it would have been held in sacred venera-v 
tion. It would have ^rmed a classic retreat for the disciples 
of Plato and Aristotle. But the cmly benefit it could ever 
confer on the natives who resided near it would be candle- 
nuts for their torches. 

The VaUey of Halawa, to which I have firequently alluded, 
is the finest scene on Molokai. The traveler stumbles on its 
brink unawares. At a depth of nearly twenty-five hundred 
feet below him, the whole scene is spread out befinne him like 



CASCADES. 276 



an exquisite panorama. Several large cascades were leaping 
from a height of several hundred feet at the head of the val- 
ley. Scores of taro beds, and a number of dwellings, and the 
romantic river, are all seen at a single glance ; and it seems 
as though a single leap would lodge the visitor at the foot of 
the enormous walls which bound this earthly Eden. 

The descent is arduous, leading down a zigzag path, the 
bottom of which it seems will never be reached. In the last 
angle of this downward jpath, your horse treads the edge of 
a steep bank several hundred feet high, and one false step 
would s^id him breathless to its foot. 

Some of the chief objects of attraction are the cascades at 
the head of the valley. A good path leads to within a quar- 
ter of a mile of the mighty precipices over which they fall. 
A little careful stepping will aid the tourist to cross the foam- 
' ing torrent, as it rushes between huge masses of basalt, and 
finds its way into the peaceful river below. At this spot the 
most difficult part of the journey commences. Now scramb- 
ling over lofty banks, or stepping up to your waist in treack- 
erous mud covered with a luxuriant grass, or making the cir- 
cuit of some solitary taro bed, there is quite a variety. The 
river has to be crossed again, by skiUM leaps firom one basalt- 
ic ^rag to another. Here the grass is nearly five feet high, 
occasionally concealing interstices between -the rocks, and in- 
stead of stepping on soUd ground, the tourist disappears among 
them several seconds at a time. There is no remedy, how- 
ever, but to crawl out and go on again. 

Some tourists over this ^oup have boasted the absence of 
v«[iomous creatures in whose slimy folds a traveler's limb may 
meet a warm embrace. This is all true, so far as the larger 
reptiles are concerned. But there are spiders surpassing in 
size the Jjycosa Tarenttda of the ItaUan forests ; and these 
are any thing but agreeable. With feet distended firom five 
to six inches apart, these horrible creatures may be seen cling- 
ing to their strong, silky webs, of a bright yellow color, and 
several yards in length. Sometimes these bright networks 
entangle the travdier's face, producing an indescribable shud- 



276 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

der. The only remedy for this incoavenieDce is to cany & 
stick for the parpose of beating it down ss you progreas, and 
then the foul-loc^dng t^iants disappear with proper di^patdi. 

At length the foot of the huge spur which separates the two 
cascades is reached. The ascent of this spur is HiflFM» nH and 
dangerous. Two thirds of it is achieved by the aid of stunt- 
ed fohage and strong fkrinaceous plants. Beyond this pmiit 
it is necessary to stride the sharp ridge as a horseaian sits his 
saddle, and by firequ^it jumps the top is reached. 

The summit once gained, the adventurer is rewarded by a 
magnificent prospect. One of these cascades falk loom a 
height oi more than two hundred feet, the other fiom twice 
the same elevation, and each one of them has a volume a£ 
thirty to forty feet wide, and four to five feet deep, at its beaa- 
tifiil brow. (I now refer to the rainy season.) As the eye 
follows them down their rapid desc^it into deep basins placed 
there, by the hand of Nature, for their recepticm, the brain 
becomes ahnost sick, and the nerves tremble like an aspen 
leaf The sides of the perpendicular rocks ind liie maigin of 
these basins are ornamented with the most delicate and lovely 
ferns, as if they would mock the downward rush and impetu- 
ous thunder of the delirious torrents. The huge masses of 
mountain over which these streams tumble are purely tra- 
chytic, and on their summits were trees whose verdure is ev- 
erlasting. The cratenform character of the two basins below 
led me to decide that a volcano of scnne magnitude had once 
been active here ; and a subsequent examination of the sides 
of the valley induced the conviction that a mighty earthquake, 
a forerunner of some eruption, rent the earth asunder firom the 
crater to the sea. And this conviction was supported by test- 
ing the bed of the valley, which closely corresponds with the 
Valley of HanaJei, on Kauai. 

The natural beauty of this valley is greatly increased at the 
hour of sunset. The rays of the sun, as they melt away into 
the soft twilight, impart to the entire scene such a tinge of 
splendor as no words can express, no pencil portray. The 
glittering cascades, covered with white foam, seem to creep 



AN EVENING REPAST. 277 

nearer to the mouth of the river, and to be invested with a 
species of life allied to some familiar playthings half spiritual. 
One could almost imagine himself transported to that Alpine 
cataract by whose sides appeared the Witch of the Alps to the 
desolate and haughty soul of BtsoN's " Manfred." 

The cultivati(m of the taro is carried on here on a large 
Bcide. It is raised chiefly to supply the Lahaina market. I 
was informed by Mr. Dwight, at Kaluaaha, that the entire 
amount raised for sale and hon^ consumption was valued at 
$15,000 to $20,000. The Valley of Halawa is the richest 
spot on the island. 

Probably in no portion of the group is the £:)reigner better 
cared for than in this valley. I was favored with a note of 
introduction to the district judge, a full-blooded Hawaiian. 
He was away from home on professional duties, but the re- 
ception extended me by his family was one of very marked 
cordiality. Every exertion was employed to render me " at 
home." There was a good deal of civilization in that dwell- 
ing — a state of things accounted for in the fact that his honor 
handled a few more dollars than any of his neighbors. I no- 
ticed a well-made table — a scarce article in a Hawaiian fami- 
ly — a well-flnished bedstead, a few chamber chairs, and, above 
all, that universal and indispensable article of domestic com- 
fort, the Yankee rocking-chair. 

But my evening repast under that hospitable roof was one 
of the most unique character I have ever seen. First of aU, 
the table ivas covered with a sheet just taken off the bed. 
The^ table-service consisted of a knife, £)rk, and spoon, procured 
&om the foot of a long woolen stocking, a «ingle plate, a tum- 
bler, and a calabash of pure water from a neighboring spring. 
The eatables were composed of ^resh fish, baked in wrappers 
of the ti le^ {Draccena tenmnalis), a couple of boiled fowls, 
a huge dish of sweet potatoes, and another of boiled tara. My 
excursion had created within me a shark-like appetite, and I 
need not say that I bestowed ample justice upon my host's 
hospitahties. The last thing served upon the table was some- 
thing which the family had learned to designate by the name 



278 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

of " tea'' in English. This was emptied into large bowls, and 
was intended for the fiunily group, myself included. 

At this stage of the performances I feel constrained to in- 
troduce my worthy cook, who undertodc a dischaige of the 
table-honors at that evening meal. He was a strapping Ka- 
naka, rather more than six feet in height, and would have 
weighed nearly three hundred pounds. While I was the 5nly 
occupant of the table, the &mily had formed a circle on their 
mats, where they were discussing their supper with the ut- 
most eagerness. He devoted his entire attention to me. He 
was a good specimen of a well |x»-fed native. I could see 
his frame to advantage, for his sole dress consisted of a short 
woolen shirt and the malo ; and his head of hair resembled 
that of the pictured " Medusa." When I first sat down to 
the table, he took up my plate, and, with a mouthful of breath 
which was really a small breeze, he blew the dust firom it. 

This act occasioned me no small merriment. But when, 
in supplying me with *' tea'' he took up a bowl and wiped 
it out with the comer of his flannel shirt, I could refimin 
no longer. I laughed until my ffldes fairly ached, and the 
tears streamed down my face, and the very house echoed 
with my mirthfiilness. For a moment the &mily were taken 
by surprise, and so was this presiding deity of culinary op- 
erations. But on a second outburst firom myself, they felt re- 
assured, and joined with me in my laughter. The cook, how- 
ever, seemed to fed that I had laughed at some one of his 
blimders; so he dipped the bowl in a calabash of water, 
washed it out with his greasy fingers, and again wiped it out 
with that same shirt lap. This was done three times, in an- 
swer to tke laughter it was impossible for me to restrain. 
And when he had filled the*bowl with " tea," and saw that 
it remained untasted, he put a laige quantity of sugar into 
the huge tea-kettle, shook it up, fdaced it at my right elbow, 
and told me to drink that ! 

I spent that night at Halawa. The evening was closed 
with solemn devotions. The best bed in the house was placed 
at my disposal ; and upon it was replaced the sheet on which 



A NIGHT AT HALAWA. 



279 



I had just before supped, and on which I slept during that 
night. The bed was carefully stufied with a soft downy sub- 
stance resemWing yellow raw silk, but called by the natives 
jpvlUy and culled from the tree-fern (fiihotvumri chamissonis). 
The pillows were stufied with the same material. Although 
the kapa sheets which covered me were not so smooth and 
soft as those which the Koran describes as existing in Moham- 
med's " Paradise," I found them extremely agreeable, and they 
furnished me with a night's good repose. 

These sheets of kapa^ or native cloth, are regarded by every 
traveler as a great- curiosity. Formerl]^ they were only gar- 
ments used by the natives, of every age, sex, and condition. 




KAPA MALLETS. 



280 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

As sheets fi)r bedding, it is still used extoisively in lemote 
portions of the group. 

The manu&ctuie of ka^ is rather tedious, and always de- 
volves cm the women. It is made of the inner bark of the 
paper mulberry {Marus papyrifera), beat out on a board, and 
joined together with anow-root, so as to form any width or 
length of cloth required. The juice of the raspings of the 
bark of trees, together with red clay and the soot of burned 
candle-nut, furnish them with coloring matter and varnish, 
with which they daub their native cloth in the form of squares, 
stripes, triangles, &<^, but, with a few exceptions, perhaps, de- 
void of taste or regularity. 

The population of the valley was little more than three 
hundred and fifty, and on the decrease. 

They appeared to be a strictly religious people, and regu- 
larly sustained their periodical meetings for religious worship. 

Their morals were more elevated than on any other part 
of the island — so I judged from their general deportment. 



CHAPTER XXn. 

JOURNEY TO THE PALIS OF KALAE. 

Deserted Villages. — ^Road over the Mountains. — ^Ravines. — Cascadea. 
— The Palis, — Sublime Prospect — ^Plain of Ealanpapa. — District 
ofWai-a-la-la. — ^Native Morals. — ^Licentious Dance. — ^How to study 
Hawaiian Character. — ^Deserted Residence. — ^Broken Resolutiona. 
— ^Unpleasant Lodgings. — A rough Supper. — ^Fleas and Musqai- 
toes. — " Wailing** for the Sick. — ^Refuge in a ChapeL — ^Return to 
former Lodgings. — The Scene changed. — ^Daylight 

Next to the Valley of Halawa, the Palis of Kalae claim 
the attention of the tourist, and no man visiting Molokai 
should leave the island until he has seen them. Returning 
to Kaluaaha, and directing his course westward until he 
reaches Kaunakakai, he passes several deserted villages which 
present the most absolute pictures of desolation. The houses 



THE PALIS. 281 



•were falling in. Hank weeds had grown up around the oft- 
firequented doorways. And the tenants had gone — ^heaven 
knows whither I 

At Kaunakakai, a small village on the sea-shore, the road 
to the Palis commences, and runs directly north over a rugged 
mountain region. Over this region the path leads through 
deep ravines, bearing traces as of recent lava-streams, or deep- 
ly shaded by a variety of foliage, interspersed with wild flow- 
ers, lu crossing over some of these ravines, silvery cascades 
-were leaping £:om crag to crag, or the stream, so clear and 
beautlBil, was just fordable by the horse. Far away, on either 
hand, stood a solitary native dwelling on the summit of some 
elevation, presenting a. feature as desolate and forsaken as a 
lodge built by a watcher of an Oriental garden of cucum- 
bers. Within one or two miles of the PaliSy a variety of 
£)liage environs the path. Among these I noticed large quan- 
tities of the castor-oil plant {Palma Christi), the Qual- 
theria 'pendvlijhorwnt, and whole groves of the Draccena ter- 



The Pali of Kalae is on the northern limit of the island of 
Molokai, and stands close to the shore of the ocean. It is per- 
pendicularly reared to a height of nearly three thousand feet. 
The brink of it is quite bare, owing to the fierce action of the 
northeast trade-winds'. The traveler wends his way on foot 
through the deep moimtain grass, for he is compelled to leave 
his horse at some distance behind him. All of a sudden he 
comes to the edge of the precipice ; his very knees quake imder 
him ; he holds his breath ; he involuntarily sinks down into 
a sitting posture, overwhelmed with the unspeakable mag- 
nificence that is spread out before him. The ocean unfolded 
its majestic bosom for scores of miles ; and although the trades 
were blowing heavily, and the sea was rough below, the tops 
of the huge waves, crested with Vhite foam, looked no larger 
than snow-flakes. And the larger rocks on the shore dwin- 
dled away to the size of pebbles in some moimtain brook. The 
thimder of the heavy surge -^as lost in the distance below. 
I^ever before in my life had I so well realized, as at that mo- 



282 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ment, the language of" Edgar" to '' Gloster," in Shaksfbake's 
"King Lear:'* 

" Here's the place — stand stilL How fearftd 
And dizzy 'tis, to cast one's eyes so low I 
The crows and choughs, that wing the midway air. 
Show scarce so gross as beetles. * * * 
* * * * The mnmmring surge, 
That o'er the mmnmber'd idle pebbles chafes^ 
Can not be heard so high." 
This precipice has stood, while the storms of centuries have 
swept over it, and while najions have arisen, flourished, and 
gone to the grave, and it will stand, in all its terrible majesty, 
till time itself shall expire. 

From the base of the Paliy the plains of Kalaupapa extend 
some distance seaward. Over its surface were scattered a 
number of dwellings belonging to the natives, besides numer- 
ous pasture-lands and plantations. From where I stood, they 
were just traceable to the naked eye. 

Nearly two thirds of the island were visible £rom this spot. 
Its broken surface, dotted occasionally with clumps of trees, 
or a low volcanic cone, and rent asunder in deep ravines, had 
a most uninviting appearance. Over the rugged brow of the 
Pcdiy the winds howled as though they were singing the re- 
quiem of a lost race. The dark storm-clouds were coming in 
j&om the sea, rolling in subHme confusion, and warning me to 
depart. 

Leaving the Palis, on my return I passed through the dis- 
trict of Wai-a-la-la. Fatigue and thirst induced me to enter 
a native house, and procure water, and take a httle rest. The 
lirst thing which attracted my notice was the deep and undis- 
guised immorality of the native women. 

By many of the missionaries, and some of the ecclesiastical 
legislators in Honolulu, it has frequently been said that where 
no foreigners have corrupted the Hawaiians, their deportment 
is exceedingly chaste. How far this assertion is true will be 
seen in the following facts that occurred imder miy own ob- 
servation. 

I had not been in that house ten minutes before I noticed a 



NATIVE MORALS. 



283 



wide difierence between the people in that village and in the 
Valley of Halawa. I had been urged to visit the Palis on the 
assurance that foreigners seldom or never went there. Now 
that I was among the people, I resolved to see all I could of 
native character. My appearance was uncouth enough to be 
taken for a runaway sailor. In view of this, the natives — es- 
pecially the women — ^manifested ^very possible freedom, for by 
this time quite a little crowd had collected in and around the 
house in which I was staying. Two or three of the women 
were very desirous of finding my pockets and testing their con- 
tents, and, had I permitted them, they would soon have left 
me minus of nondescripts. In that respect I concluded they 
had gone far enough, so I motioned them away, and patient- 
ly awaited the rest of the drama. 




NATIVE FEMALE — MODE OF SITTING. 



I sat smoking a cigar. Just before me sat a young woman, 
nude to the waist, and covered with a syphilitic eruption. 
Her hair was hanging down her back in tangled and filthy 



2S4 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



In that OQnditiDii she was leediiig her child haia 
" Nature's Nile." And that infant, from the crown of its 
head to the loks of its £9et-;-4br it was quite nude — ^was cor- 
eied, like its mother, with a disgusting cutaneous disease. I 
looked anotha way, and several parties were performing com- 
ic acts which diould never be pei£inned only behind the thick 
curtain of night But my presence and the light of day had 
not the least influence oir their motives and actions, for they 
ccnnpleted what they so unceremoniously begun — amid the 
shouts of the by-standers. 




i*4-l**'-lTT. 



NATIVK MUf — ^MODB OP 8ITTIIIO. 



There were indications that these unseemly performances 
had not come to a close, and I was resolved on seeing all I 
could of " native morality." Three of the younger women 
placed themselves in a state of nature, and commenced danc- 
ing the hida hula* to the music of a native flute and drum. 
Their intricate gyrations I can not attempt to describe, for I 
possess not the talent of a dancing-master, nor could any form 
of written language assume a sufficient modesty to attempt a 
* The licentious dance. 



TEST OF NATIVE CHARACTER. 285 

description of that scene. Its results, however, were to excite 
the animal passions to the highest degree beyond endurance. 
In the midst of this excitement, a danseuse advanced toward 
me, and before I could repel the movement, she had taken a 
seat on my shoulders, precisely as a horseman would mount 
his sacAe. What else occurred in that domicile I know not. 
With me it was the last act in the drama, for I moved the 
woman from her posture, rose to my feet, mounted my horse, 
and rode away. 

I presume this statement may be abnegated by thousands 
of persons who have never seen the intense degradation of a 
semi-civilized or an uncivilized South Sea Islander. It may 
be totally denied even by many residents on the Hawaiian 
group. But that abnegation does not amount to disproof. 
This was the first time I had seen " native morahty" so ftdly 
developed, but it was not the last. This instance taught me 
a species of philosophy I had not before thought of It was 
this — ^that the natives take liberties at certain times and with 
certain persons which they will not take at other times and in 
the presence of other persons. 

There is only one key which wiU unlock this simple philoso- 
phy. The only mode of properly testing native character is 
simply this : A man must not go among them with a minis- 
terial suit of clothes, nor a ministerial deportment, as the mis- 
sionaries do. This is why many a resident clerical teacher 
has failed accurately to test native character when he ought 
to have known all about it. But let a man — any man — ^put 
on a rough suit, and put off, to a certain extent, his stoical 
gravity ; let him go and sit on their mats, share their food — 
if nature will permit him: — and smoke with them, and indulge 
in a ]H$b tete-a-tete, and in one tour over the group he will 
see more than many a permanently located missionary will 
see in twenty years. WTbo does not know that semi-civilized 
islanders have a secret dread of their spiritual teachers, and 
that they will conceal many things in their presence which 
they would not think of concealing in their absence ? This 
is but human nature ; and it is the same in professedly Chris- 



286 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

tian lands as in pagan countries. In nations and states where 
Popery sways an absolute sceptre, a sight of the cowl and 
hood, and the ringing of the vesper-bell, will produce the most 
complete momentary transformations. Every emplojrment 
and pursuit, of whatever character, or by whomsoever^^tron- 
ized, immediately terminates ; nor is it resumed until the ces- 
sation of the superstitious spell. So, wherever men, as teach- 
ers, have acquired any influence over the minds of their pros- 
elytes, they have only to make their appearance, and their 
disciples endeavor to appear what they wish them to be. On 
these grounds missionaries have many a time censured the 
honest statements of travelers ; but, under the circumstances, 
those travelers knew most of native character. They went 
among them quietly and unpretendingly, and the rude natives 
acted out before them their exact nature. In this way, they 
saw what the missionaries, as missionaries y never saw, and 
can never see ; and in this way every traveler passing over 
the group to-day has the advantage. 

In retracing my steps toward the southern shore of the isl- 
and, at a distance of about two miles from the Palis, I passed 
the residence of Mr. Hitchcock, once the missionary of this dis- 
trict. The family had gone away to the United States, and 
their absence from that dwelling imparted to it a shade of 
profoimd solitude. I found the rooms pleasantly furnished, 
and resolved on staying there that night. I turned my tired 
horse into a pasture. My next step was to roll down one of 
the beds, and I was as weU satisfied with my performance as 
though it had been done by the most accomplished valet de 
chambre. There were at least two hours left for reading 
before the day merged into total night ; a propensit^which, 
in the absence of supper or any means to procure it,^as not 
difficult to gratify. 

There was a small library of good reading, among which 
were the famiUar titles of Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary, 
CowPER*s Poems, Fox's Martyrology, and Bunyan's "PU- 
grim's Progress*' translated into the Hawaiian language. The 
" Pilgrim" was a pet of mine in my school-boy days ; and the 



DESERTED RESIDENCE. 287 

vivid impressions then produced in my mind about the " De- 
lectable Moimtains," the " Land of Beaulah," the " River of 
Death," and the " Eternal City," were reproduced as I turn- 
ed over the Hawaiian pages of that matchless allegory. Lit- 
tle did the poor " tinker" think, when in Bedford jail, that his 
" Pilgrim" would find its way to this distant archipelago ! But 
where has it not journeyed, as though it were animated by the 
prophetic mandate of its immortal author — 

** Go now, my little book, to every place?" 

It has crossed the burning plains of India and Persiar— passed 
through the forest glades of Burmah and Ceylon — ^traversed 
the valleys of Syria and Palestine — and wended its way 
through almost every obscure pomer of the North American 
Continent. And it ^all live until the sun of Nature rises and 
sets for the last time, and after human languages have per- 
ished on the lips of the last of Adam's race. 

I stood turning over the pages of that library until the sky 
grew dark, and then my resolution to stay all night entirely 
forsook me. As I turned away fiom those pages, the wind 
uttered its sad and wild meanings, and heavy storm-clouds 
came sweeping over the tops of the mountains. In the apart- 
ment in which I stood, there lay strewn around me the toy of 
the child, and the vestiges of things which had engaged the at- 
tention of sober manhood : they were memorials of the loving 
and the loved ; associations of days which had fled forever. 
These things made that silence more stilly and that solitude 
more solitary. I could no longer endure it ; but, rolling back 
the bed I had smoothed down, and saddling my already tired 
horse, and securing the door of the house as I passed out of it, 
I mounted and started for the sea-shore on the south. 

By the time I reached Kaunakakai, night had spread its 
dark wings over every object. I rode up to a hut and bar- 
gained for a night's lodgings. Negotiations having been closed, 
my smutty host kindly inquired into the condition of my <* in- 
ner man." In something short of an hour, he brought a mess 
which was suiEcient to have disgusted a shark. It consisted 



288 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

of some sweet potatoes and salt fish dried in the sun. But 
such a mess ! Had my existence depended on that food, I 
could not have taken it ; and I soon forgot that I had abready 
fasted twenty-four hours. But I felt enraged and disappoint- 
ed ; so I took up the dish of provisions, and flung them all at 
the head of my worthy host, much to his sincere indignation 
and disgust. My only solace lay in raising a cloud of smoke 
from cigars, i^hile the host and his son collected the scattered 
fragments of the supper I had just flung at his head, and then 
sat down aud devoured them with the appetite of cannihals. 

Failing in my efibrts to gratify a keen appetite, I concluded 
to retire for the night. But if I had retired supperless, the 
fleas and musquitoes seemed resolved on another thing. I had 
been exposed pretty freely to these sorts of things on the island 
of Kauai ; but they were no more to be compared with these 
merciless bed-fellows, than Gulliver's Liliputiaa warriors 
with the Anakims of the early ages of the world. The mats 
seemed lined with fleas, aud the atmosphere of the wretched 
hovel of a house seemed thick with musquitoes. Tired na* 
ture, however, was gaining the ascendency over this species ci 
martyrdom, and I was just closing my eyes in a refreshing 
sleep, when such a weeping and wailing comm^iced as was 
never before heard on this side of Hades. It seemed as though 
Pandemonium had broken loose from its Stygian confines, and 
had come to pay a midnight visit to this settlement. In a 
moment I sprung from my mat aud entered the next house, 
from which the lamentation seemed to proceed. 

On entering the wretched abode, such a scene burst on my 
vision as I wish never to see again. There sat a group of 
thirty or forty women, in the centre of whom was a mother 
with streaming eyes aud dii^eveled hair, and an infant, ap- 
parently in the last pangs of existence, lay stretched at frdl 
length across her knees. She was bathing its head with cold 
water, and besmearing its limbs with a thick decoction of can- 
dle-nut bark. At intervals of a few seconds, the mother would 
recommence her unearthly wailing, in which she was jcMned 
by the other women, who seemed to aim at nothing el^e bat 



REFUGE IN A CHAPEL. 289 

the loudest noise. Their faces were distorted as if with mortal 
agony ; but the mother of the sick child was the only woman 
that shed real tears. The gloomy reality was completed by 
a few men who were present, some of whdm sat up as pro- 
foundly still as the Egyptian Menmon ; while the others lay, 
faces downward, and snoring away as if designing never to 
wake until the archangers trumpet should announce the ar- 
lival of the resurrection morning. 

That wailing continued ; of itself, it was enough to kill any 
well child, not to say any thing of one nearly dead. Not 
caring to stay to philosophize on the subject, I started for the 
native Church. It was some distance £rom this scene of sor- 
row, but the moon was rising, and I found it easily. On en- 
tering the building, I groped roimd for materials to make a 
pillow, and found a pile of books. These I placed on the 
platform which supported the pulpit, and once more stretched 
myself for the purpose of sleep. But the Fates — ^if they really 
have an existence — ^were against me that night. Even there, 
the siege commenced afresh, but with more vigor, for this 
time there was an addition of mice and cockroaches. Inch 
by inch they disputed the groimd Mdth me ; but raoaembering 
that, in this instance at least, discretion was the best part of 
valor, I concluded to leave them the undisputed victors. 

There was now left no imaginable alternative but to return 
to my former lodgings. On nearing the house, I found that 
another order of things existed — ^the sick child had suddenly 
recovered. And now their mirth was as unbounded as their 
sorrow had just before been deep and distressing. They con- 
tinued Hiese rejoicings until daylight dawned on the village, 
and found me half asleep imder a large catioe. 

No vigil-keeper by a sick couch was ever more glad to wel- 
come the coming dawn than I did that morning. In addi- 
tion to the many annoyances of the previous night, I discov^ 
ered that my tired horse had been rode all night by some mis- 
creant of a Kanaka. Brimful of wrath at such a proceed- 
ing, I quietly returned to Kaluaaha, which place I soon left for 
Lahaina, on Maui. 

N 



290 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



CHAPTER XXin. 

ISLAND OF MAUI. 

T^liftiTin^ from the Sea. — Lahaina on Shore. — Public Bmldings. — 
Palace. — Fort — Churches. — Houses. — ^Beer-shops. — "Fourfii of 
July" at Lahaina. — Police. — Evils of the Police System. — ^BEarbor. 
— Commerce. — Surf-bathing. — ^A singular Providence.-^Marque- 
san Chief — Christian Liberality. — Seminary at Iiahainaluna. — ^Its 
Location. — Early History. — Present Condition. — Old Hawaiian 
Gods. 

Viewed from the anchorage, Lahaina is tlie most pictor- 
esque town on the Hawaiian group, It is the capital of Maui ; 
and a few years since it was the abode of royalty. 

The town of Lahaina is in longitude 156° 41^ west, lat- 
itude 20^ 6V 60^^ north. It has a front of two miles, and 
is close to the sea-shore, which is skirted with the foam of 
lofty and powerful roUers coming in £rom the ocean. Many 
of ike houses lock as though they had actually grown up out 
of the trees. 

But the background of the picture is the most impresfflve 
and grand. The mountains rise to a height of rather mcnr^ 
than six thousand one hundred feet above the sea, and are deft 
asunder by precipices thousands of feet in depth. To come 
and gaze on these splendid footprints of the Almighty, it is 
worth a journey of thousands of miles. During every hour 
of the day, they assume a new feature beneath the difierent 
degrees of sunlight. But the most perfect view of them can 
be obtained just as the sun is going down behind the wave of 
the ocean. A tourist continues his gaze as though some in- 
visible chain held him to the spot. Towering far above La- 
haina, and at a distance of two miles, may be seen the semi- 
nary of Lahainaluna. 

But Lahaina has a very difierent aj^axance to a stranger 
when ashore. It is a di^rence as great as thi^ which exists 



TITE NE'.V VOr-K 



n 



A8T0R, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATiCNS. 



LAHAINA ON SHORE. 298 

between dream-life and life that is real. It has hut one prin- 
cipal street, intersected hy a few others running at right an- 
gles. They are all too narrow, and without any regular gra- 
ding, and many portions of them are inclosed hy ruined adobe 
walls. Their surface is composed chiefly of a red tufaceous 
lava-dust, deep, hot, and dry during a very laige portion of 
the year, and very obnoxious to pedestrians. But all these 
features are relieved by a various and extensive foUage, com- 
prising the bread-fruit {Artocarpus incisa\ the cocoa-nut 
(Cocos nv/dferd), the candle-nut {Aleurites triloba), the koa 
{Acada fcUcata), and the hau {Hibiscus tiMacezis). These 
aflbrd a romantic and refreshing shade from the mid-day sun. 

In Lahaina the pubhc buildings are few in number and 
uncostly in appearance. They include a hospital for seamen, 
a few school-houses for native children, a customrhouse and 
post-office — 'Ccmiprised ia one building — an4 a ne"^ly-erect- 
ed jail, which a£G)rds rough accommodations for delinquents 
against civil and qiiritual laws, brought £rom Molpkai, La^ 
nai, and every portion of Maui. And among these culprits, 
poor "Jack," just come in £rom the tdiLs of the ocean» xnay 
not infirequently be numbered foj^ a violation of the seventh 
precept of the Decalogue. 

The Palace (!) is a plain, huge frame building for such a 
place as Lahaina. It is a hundred and twenty feet long, and 
forty in width, exclusive of a piaasza, which entirely surrounds 
it. It has two stories, divided off into almost any number of 
apartments, without 1^ least regard to comfort or design. 
It was never finished, and never wiU be ; consequently, it re- 
tains an appearance peculiarly ruinous. The best thing about 
it is its location, close to the ebbing and flowing of the tides, 
and within hearing of that never-wearying hymn, the ocean's 
anihem. 

Yet this worthless pile, erected, too, at vast expense, was 
OD.ee the abode of royalty. Here, in his younger days, Kam]&-. 
j^A TxngTTA III. convoked 1^ counselors on aflairs of state and, 
received £^mgn officials. But, since those days, every thing 
and every body has changed. The past seems more an asr 



294 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

semblage of shadows that have fled away forever. The large 
saloon in which the monarch formerly held his soirSes is now 
employed as a circuit-court room, and very comical and ab- 
surd are some of the scenes sometimes enacted there. In the 
rear of this ruined pile is a large fish-pond, in the centre of 
which, and on a small island, stands a tomb containing sev- 
eral defimct members of Hawaiian nobility, some of whom 
wandered over this shore before the face of the fin^ foreign^ 
was seen by any of them. It is thus that governors, like the 
governed, go back to the dust firom whence they sprung, and 
where there are no more human distinctions in place, wealth, 
and power. 

The f(»rt is much like that at Honolulu both in form, ma- 
terial, and capacity. It is a cumbrous mass of no use what- 
ever, but occupies tlie best and most valuable piece of land 
in the town. It was erected in 1832 by Hoapili, the chief 
of the royal farces that conquered the insurgents at Kauai in 
1824. Its walls are lumbered with twenty-one useless guns 
of every calibre. Their principal use is to fire salutes on the 
birth-day of Kamehameha III. 

In Lahaina there are two churches — a Bethel for seam^i 
and foreigners, and a large house of worship used by the na- 
tive population. It was erected at an early period in the 
Sandwich Island Mission, and is the best and most seemly 
structure on the group. Its capacity is sufi&cient to accom- 
modate the entire native population of Lahaina. 

The houses are mostly built in the Hawaiian style of arch- 
itecture, which has already been described. There are a few 
dwellings, owned by foreigners, which are peculiarly neat and 
inviting in their appearance and location. 

There are no licensed taverns in this sea-port, but, what is 
infinitely worse, there are numbers of licensed victuaJing- 
hduses. The very appearance of these dens is enough to cre- 
ate within a man a disgust of his race — enough to make a 
savage sick. They are kept entirely by a few low foreigners. 
During the spring and fall seasons, when thewhahng fleets 
are here to recruit, there are no f&wet than twelve of these 



BEER- SHOPS. 295 



Plutos in full blast. And these hot-beds of vice are tenned 
" Houses of Refreshment !" and *' Sailors' Homes !" 

" These termis need not be interpreted to those who are at 
all conversant with seamen, their general character, and hab- 
its ; the object with which but too large a proportion of them 
Beek first to be entertained, when coming on shore afler a 
voyage or a cruise, and the altar upon which so many lay 
property, and peace, and character, and all, a willing sacri- 
fice. Refreshed with 5000 or 6000 gallons of * New England 
rum,' and kindred spirits during a single year ! Refreshed, 
indeed, and with a vengeance ! as the troubles on board ships 
firom the intemperance of their crews — ^the pawning of clothes 
and chests, and oooks and instruments, to procure a few glass- 
es of the ' good creature' — ^the sicknesses and diseases conse- 
quent upon drinking ardent spirits — ^the lodgment of a score 
or more of sailors upon the bare ground in the fort, for weeks 
or months, and with kalo and salt and water for their daily 
fix)d and drink, as a penalty for scrapes into which rum had 
brought them — and as the shame, and conscious disgrace and 
degradation, which a sailor must feel on awaking to con- 
sciousness, after a drunken fit in a grog-shop, would probably 
testify." 

And then the vile decoctions which are constantly palmed 
off as " beer" on the too pliant sailor, would best merit the 
title of '* double-distilled damnation ;" for this beverage has 
the capacity to produce scenes, the mere mention of which is 
impossible. An idea of the profits arising from this " beer"- 
eelling may be formed from the fact that a room twelve by 
fourteen, centrally located, will rent at $100 per month. 

The result of liiis pseudo-license system was plainly visible 
on the fourth of July, 1853, among some of the crews of the 
United States sloop Portsmouth and the fiigate St. Lawrence. 
The governor of the island had removed every restriction, in 
the shape of fines and imprisonment, that would tend to fet- 
ter the liberties, not only of "Jack ashore," but the entire na- 
tive population of the town. Sensible of these acts of clem- 
ency, it hardly need be said that no person was slow to em- 



296 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

brace opportunities that are not of eveiy-day occurrence. The 
Bailor could take his '' glafis of cheer/' gallop his horse through 
the streets, and be gallaat to the native women, ivithont in- 
curring the vengeance of the law, or securing a sohtary place 
of abode in the fort. It is impossible to depict by the pen 
the singularly comic equestrian feats of some of the sailors ; 
nothing less than the pencil of Cruikshajnk would be equal 
to the task. Many an unlucky &I1 was witnessed. In one 
instance, a sailor, rather " tight" &ojai the effects of Hquor, 
affirmed tiiat the legs of his horse were extr^oaely uneven, 
and he dismounted in order to measure their length before he 
would venture again along the streets. Others might be seen 
on horses, with women sitting in £ront of the saddle, and near- 
ly frantic with mirth. The governor very generoudy took tlie 
tabu off himself and family, and those who had no moral 
helm attached to their vessels drifted about just where they 
pleased. 

All this time the police were silent spectators of all these 
scenes. There was many a good opportunity to drag " Jack" 
and his paramour away to the fort, and share the fine imposed 
on their forbidden " loves." But the suspension of the tabu 
rendered them powerless pro tern. Their only consolation 
was to follow the sailor's plan of enjoyment, or to 

" Grin horribly a ghasHy smUe,*' 

and pass on. In all probability, an efiicient body of police 
will do a great deal toward the maintenance of order ; but 
in some parts of the world — ^the town of Lahaina included — 
it is exceedingly questionable how much they accomplish to- 
ward the preservation of virtue. A more unprincipled set of 
fellows than the police at the Sandwich Islands generally — 
and especially at Lahaina/--*-can not be found. They can be 
bribed to do any thing but commit murd^. Many a time 
they have gone and laid a snare, not only for foreigners, but 
for their own unsuspecting countrymen. When the plot has 
been ripe for development, or has just reaohed its crisis, the 
base hireling who led him into the coil has gone and brought 



HARBOR OF LAHAINA. 297 

his posse alcmg with him, and poimced upon him like a wild 
heast. Like " Samson" shorn of his locks, he has been drag- 
ged most brutally to the fort, while the " Delilah," who was 
employed as the principal bait, skulks away, giggling at her 
escape firom pubhc recognition and lodgings in prison. Of 
course the crest-fall^ victim does not wish to be placed in con- 
finement, and yet there is no alternative between that and the 
payment of $30 to these sagacious Idood-hounds, who chuckle 
over the £>Uy of their victim as they pocket the *' spoils." In 
most cases, the female culprit is treated on the same plan. 

It can not but be seen that such a system is rife with evils 
of the deepest dye. In all parts of the kingdom pohce are 
paid regular wages, but this does not disincline them to make 
a few dimes in the manner above described. In speaking of 
Hawaiian police, it may safely be said that they wotBhip no 
god so much as Mammon, and, next to that, Lust. So long 
as these fellows can be bribed to their present extent, or be 
permitted to adopt and carry out the blackest of intrigues, just 
80 long will the foundations of female virtue be undermined. 
These police very well illustrate the vile saying, " Employ a 
rogue to catch a rogue !" In th^ case, it is like his Satanic 
majesty sitting in judgment over his apostate compeers. 

Within the last few years, the port of Lahaina has become 
quite a resort for vessels from foreign nations. This may be 
owing, in a great measure, to the character of the harbor. The 
anchorage is accessible at any hour of the day or night. The 
mast^ of a vessel need not await the mere pleasure of a pilot 
to conduct him to a spot where he can anchor. The best 
holding-ground is between the fort and the native church. 
During the winter season, the winds blow strong from the 
south ; consequently, they threaten a vessel with a lee shore. 
But these vnnds are of short duration, and come only at inter- 
vals. The northeast trades blow during nine tenths of the 
year, when the town and anchorage are amply sheltered by 
the lofty mountains in the rear, and a ^p rides at her anchor 
as safely as when her timbers flourished in the forest. A ves- 
sel has never been lost here, and both access to this port and 

N2 



298 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

egiess from it are easily efiected by day or night, and at any 
season of the year. In these respects it is vastly superior to 
the port of Honolulu. 

This sea-port was once deemed the best in the group ; nor is 
there any solid reason why it should not now be regarded as 
such. The fact that the king has fixed his abode at Honolu- 
lu may have drawn to that port a greater number of foreign- 
ers than otherwise. Of course it is to their interests to advo- 
cate the alleged superiority of that harbor. But these things 
do not detract from the c(»nmercial importance of Lahaina. 
The truth of this position is clearly demonstrated in the fact 
that, in the spring season of 1853^ no fewer than seventy 
whale ships came here to recruit. For many years it has oc- 
cupied this commercial position. Shipping to any amount can 
be supplied with the utmost dispatch. A vessel of any ton- 
nage can be watered for the sum of ten dollars. It may safely 
be predicted that, when the immense agricultural resources of 
Maui shaU be fully developed, Lahaina will become the capi- 
tal of the group. Those resources may sustain a population 
of 150,000 ; but they will never be properly developed until 
the soil is universally turned up by the plowshare of the Amer- 
ican farmer. 

Of the numerous national games and amusements formerly 
practiced by the Hawaiians, surf-bathing is about the only one 
which has not become extinct. . Lahaina is the only place on 
the group where it is maintained with any degree of enthusi- 
asm, and even there it is rapidly passing out of existence. In 
other days, there was no amusement which more displayed the 
skill, or bestowed a greater phydcal benefit on the performer, 
than this. Formerly it was indulged in by all classes of per* 
sons, of aU ages and both sexes, firom royalty to the lowest 
plebeian, at one time and in the same place. Even the huge 
regent Kaahumanu, and others, by whose cofi^ I stood and 
pondered in the royal tomb at Honol]ilu, were in the habit of 
bathing in the surf at Lahaina. At this day, the sport is con- 
fined more to the youthfiil portion of the community. 

Surf-baHiing is an exciting sport to the swimmer, and a 



SURF. BATHING. 299 

cause for excitement and astonishment on the part of an un- 
accustomed spectator. The swimmers start out from the shore, 
taking with them their surf-boards. These boards are of di- 
mensions suited to the muscular strength and capacity of the 
swimmers. As they proceed seaward, they dive, Uke ducks, 
underneath the heavy rollers, and come up on the other side. 
This course is pursued until the outermost roller is reached — 
sometimes nearly a mile firom the shore. The higher the 
roller, the more exciting and grand is the sport. Placing them- 
selves on these boards, the bath^nr gradually approach the in- 
ward current of the roller as it sweeps over the reef, and, 
lying on the chest, striding, kneeling, or standing up on the 
board, they are borne on the &aming crest of the mighty wave 
with the speed of the swiftest race-horse toward the shore, 
where a spectator looks to see them dashed into pieces or 
maimed for life. By a dexterous movement, however, they 
slip o£r their boards into the water, grasp them in their hands, 
dive beneath the yet foaming and thundering surge, and go 
out seaward to repeat the sport. This they do for hours in 
BUccessicHi, imtU a traveler is almost led to suppose they are 
amphibious. This game involves great skill ; it is acquired 
only by commencing it in the earhest childhood. A standing 
position on the svdftly-gHding surf-board is a feat of skill never 
yet surpassed by Jjny circus-rider. 

While I was staying at Lahaina, a very singular provid^ce 
developed itself in relation to the Christianity of the islands. 
It had its development in the arrival of a Marquesan chief 
In his personal appearance he was an interesting fellow. He 
was rather below medium size for a South Sea Islander, with 
a muscular ferm, features rather sharp, a prominent nose and 
chin, forehead rather retiring, and his hair trimmed to a bushy 
ridge, running over the crown from ear to ear, giving him a 
formidable and warlike aspect. 

For a man of his character, the object of his visit seemed 
more romantic than real ; but it manifested the silent and 
sovereign agency of the great Father of the universe over his 
oreatuies, and it teaches a very significant lesson. 



300 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

On the moming of March the 14th, 181^3, Makouivi?!-- 
chief in question — and his son-in-law, Puu, presented tfacsnr 
selves at ^e residence of Dr. Baldwin, the missionary at la^ 
haina. The chief stated that he had come firom the island^ 
Haknhiwa, in the Marqnesan group. He had come to procme 
a teacher of Christianity to take back with him. He thought 
they might get a Hawaiian first, and subsequently a white 
man. On being questioned what they had seen or heard which 
induced them to wish fcr a religious teac^ier, they replied, 
" We have nothing but war, war, war ! fear, trouMe, and 
poverty. We have nothing good, and are tired of . living so. 
We wish to live as you do here." 

But what added a yet deeper interest to the mission c^this 
pagan warrior-chief was the nature ci the circumstances un- 
der which he left his home in the Marquesas. The people 
were then at wto. Putr stated that Makountji was the high 
chief of the island of Hakiihiwa, aiwi had ten chiefs under him. 
In this war he had employed erne thousand fighting men. 
There was a strong force opposed to him. When ihe war 
was ended, he called his chiefs together, and proposed the bnsi« 
ness of sending for a missionary. Far a long time he had 
cherished this idea. It was first conceived by seeing sailors 
who were natives of the Sandwich Islands, and the islands of 
Raratonga, Aitutake, and Mangaia coming ashore, well dress- 
ed, firom whale ships. He Mt satisfied that the Hawaiian 
sailors were the test clothed of any, and on a^dng them a few 
questions in regard to it, he instantly exclaimed, '* The gods 
of Hawaii best clothe Iheir people ! they are, therefore, the 
best gods ! The gods of Hawaii shall be our gods !" 

It was decided by the council of chie& to send MAKOtmn 
and his son-in-law to Tahiti or the Sandwich Islands fat a 
teacher. Before he embarked on this voyage, it was clearly 
understood that, if he were absent firom his people and lands 
longer than five months, they were to conclude him dead. 
Having set out, he adopted a very unique method of comput- 
ing time. He k^pt a piece of twine, in which he tied a knot 
for eax)h day and night dating the voyage, until they sighted 



CHRISTIAN LIBERALITY. 301 

the high mountainB of Hawaii. After six knots a space was 
left, which, he said, indicated to himself the time when he left 
bis own archipelago. There were forty-seven knots in this 
twine ; thns showing that Ihey had been twenty-three and a 
half days coming within sight of Hawaii, exclusive of thirteen 
days more in reaching Lahaina on the 14th of March. 

On the countenance of this chief there dwelt a deep and 
constant anxiety. For this there was ample cause. He knew 
,it was ^e custom of the Marquesans, when a chief was sup- 
posed to be dead after a certain absence, to seize upon his pos- 
sessions and kiU his family. Aside firom this, he was very 
desirous to procure teachers to instruct his benighted country- 
men. 

It is superfluous to state, that in his enterprise the Sand- 
-wich Islsuid diurches felt a profound interest. His errand 
was laid before the General Meeting of the missionaries in 
May, 1853. The Directors of the Hawaiian Missionary Soci- 
ety chartered the English brigantine " Royalist," at an expense 
of several thousand dollars, which were raised by the native 
churches. The tone of that meeting is graphically described 
by the editor of the ''Friend** for June, 1853 : 

" The anniversary of this society tpok place at the Bethel, 
Tuesday evening. May 24th. The exercises on the occasion 
were rendered exceecUn^y interesting in consequence of the 
presence of the Marquesan chief, who has come for a " Kumu" 
or teacher. The Rev. Mr. Alexander officiated as interpreter,- 
who informed this messenger from Marquesas that the audience 
had assembled to confer in regard to the sending of mission- 
aries to his countrym^i. With great earnestness, the chief 
asked, * Have you found the teacher?' It was for a ' teacher* 
that he had come — ^that was his sole errand. That one idea 
has been ever present to his mind, in pubhc and in private. 
To one of the missionaries he remarked that he came, not to 
see the coimtry, its fig-trees, or its other products, but for a 
* teacher.* " 

The request of the Marquesan chief was granted. The 
''Boyaikt" sailed on the 16th of June, taking out the chi^, 



302 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

his eon-in-law, three native cleigymen and their wives, and 
Mr. Parker, missionary at Kaneohe, Oahu. 

Whatever may be the fate of tiiat enterprise, and whether 
expectations which have been cherished will ever be realized, 
there is no lover of his race but will wish it a hearty " God- 
speed !" Repeatedly have attempts been made to civilize and 
Christianize those savage and warlike islanders. The Eng- 
lish and American missionaries, as well as the French Cath- 
ohcs, have aQ been doomed to disappointment. In summing 
up the prospects of this enterprise, the ''Friend' for July 
says : 

" We hope, as the missionary spirit is awaking, and two ex- 
peditions having already left our shores, others will follow in 
their wake. Let one, at least, annually go forth, until every 
island in Polynesia shall not only be visited, but the Bible be 
translated into every dialect spoken by these wasting nations. 
The Bible, faithfully translated into the dialect of any heathen 
people, is a prouder monument of the Church of Christ than, 
are the most costly Christian temples which adorn the en- 
lightened nations of Europe and America. Suppose the na- 
tions and tribes of Polynesia may waste and vanish b^ore civ- 
ilization, let Christians break to them the bread of life, and 
now promptly discharge a duty which was tardily peiformed 
or altogether neglected by former generations." 

This language is sensible and just, and will readily be ap- 
preciated by thousands of enlightened and hberal minds. A 
few moments of reflection wiU be sufficient to show that the 
success of that enterprise depends entirely on the cliaracter of 
the first efforts made on the Marquesan soil. Look to it, yo 
pioneers, that none of you dabble in the pohtical councils of 
warlike chieftains. Should commerce send the white-winged 
clipper to your shores, throw no obstacles in the way of trade, 
as many have done at the Sandwich Islands. In your at- 
tempts to Christianize those warrior-tribes, dirilize them on a 
generous commercial basis. Should the chiefs ever derive .a 
revenue from commercial relations, stand aloof from financial 
matters, and see to it that the fingers of your compeers are 



SEMINARY AT LAHAINALUNA. 803 

kept out of the treasury, otherwise your efibrts to benefit 
that people will be as useless as the attempts of a tidal in- 
flux to wash away a continent. In such an enterprise as this, 
no private consideration should actuate the Qiind — ^no sectari- 
anism should level its deadly venom at a brother's soul. Ves- 
sels may be employed to convey rehgious teachers to a foreign 
shore, and thousands may be lavished on their support, but, so 
long as denominationalisms exist so extensively as they do at 
this day, not much good will be realized. We may hope for 
the cessation of crime and vice, want and sorrow — ^we may 
look for the dawn of the jubilee of our whole race, only when 

" From the lips of Truth, one mighty breath 
Shall, like a whirlwind, scatter in its breeze 
The whole dark pile of human mockeries : 
Then shall the reign of hind commence .on earth. 
And, starting fresh as from a second birth, 
Man, in the sunshine of the world's new spring, 
Shall walk transparent, Hke some holy thing I" 

But it is time we paid a visit to the seminary at Lahaina- 
luna. As I have already stated, it is two miles at the back 
of Lahaina, on an elevation of six hundred and fifty-two feet 
above the sea. The road leading up to it was made several 
years since by some of the students then in the seminary. Al- 
though the seminary buildings overlook the town of Lahaina, 
a large extent of calm blue ocean, and the neighboring isl- 
ands of Lanai and Kahoolawe, it is the very worst location 
which even a bad taste could have selected over the whole 
group. Its selection for a retreat for Hawaiian students is a 
specimen of the impracticable and absurd. The soU is com- 
posed of a red clay, which in dry weather forms a fine red 
dust that covers and chokes every thing, and which is raised 
in dense clouds by the daily winds that sweep down the 
slopes of the mountains in the rear. This is an obstacle to 
native comfort, and a complete nuisance to every visitor. 

As this seminary has all along been fostered by missionary 
enterprise, a glance at its ewrly history can not fail of some in- 
terest to a general reader. I have gathered my materials from 



304 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

a sketch published some years since in the Hawaiian Spec- 
tator.* The primitive object of the institution was to aid in 
the advancement of Christianity and the perpetuity of its in- 
stitutions ; to elevate the moral- and religious ccmdition of the 
people, and to teach them the arts and sciences, and to pro- 
vide suitable teachers for the existing generations. This 
school was established cm the principle of self-support, and 
none were admitted but those who could support themselves 
by manual labor. It went into operation in 1831. The site 
of the school was then in a rude and barren state ; the only 
school-house was a temporary shed, constructed of poles and 
grass by the scholars. In a few weeks, the scholars, under the 
direction of the principal, commenced building a moie perma- 
nent house. But great embarrassment was experienced for 
the want of means to carry forward the work, and of skill in 
the workmen. After two or three accidents, which material- 
ly put back the work, the walls of a house, fifty feet by twen- 
ty-six inside, were finished and covered with ti leaf^ and fur- 
nished with rude seats and window-blinds, but without a floor. 
This building was erected entirely by the scholars themselves. 

In 1 836, the character of the institution was dtanged. The 
self-supporting system was laid aside, and no pupils were ad- 
mitted beyond the age of twenty years. 

In 1837, the present buildings were reared, and their ex- 
tent and cost is thus described in the sketch already alluded 
to : " They consist of a centre building and two wings, all in 
one block. They are built of stone. The centre building is 
forty feet square inside, two and a half stories high, with a 
smaU cupola. The lower story a^>rds two school-rooms. 
The second story afibrds a good room, fi>rty feet square, for a 
chapel. A room above the chapel, forty feet by eighteen, is 
occupied as a room for apparatus, library, curiosities, &c. The 
two wings were each fifty feet by twenty-six, two stories high. 
The lower story of one is a school-room, and the upper story 
a dwelling-house for one of the teachers. The lower story of 
the other is a dining-hall for the boaiding-seholars. The up- 
* VoL i, No. iv., Art 1. 



EARLY HISTORY. 305 

per story is unfinished, but designed as a dwelling-house for a 
secular assistant. In addition to this building, there are twen- 
ty-seven small thatched houses for lodging-rooms for the pu- 
pils, besides a few other small buildings, such as cook-house, 
store-houses, &c. These buildings, including the dwelling- 
houses connected with them, and the improvements on the 
yard, cost about $12,500." This institution was endowed 
by the king and chie& with a grant of lands, for the purpose 
of aiding the pupils in raising their own food, which was val- 
ued at about two cents per scholar per day, or $7 30 a year. 
Their food was principally poi and fish — ^the common food of 
the country — but eaten at a taUcy vrith botds, spoons^ knives^ 
&c. The clothing of each scholar consisted of a shirt and pan- 
takxms. The entire personal expenses for the year amounted 
to about $20. 

Their course of study was reading, writing, Scripture geog^ 
raphy, history and chronology, Church history, elements of ge- 
ometry and astronomy, trigonometry, mensuration, algebra^ 
navigation, and surveying. To test their capacity for the class- 
ics, they were permitted to study Greek, and they made con- 
siderable progress in that language. 

But the change introduced into the seminary since 1836 
has been highly disadvantageous to the pupils. The rapid 
transition of a number of young men £rom outof^oor exercise 
to close mental exertion could not fail to inflict certain evils 
upon themselves and others with whom they came in contact. 
The savage can not be taken firom his canoe, firom his fishing 
excursions, his loiterings in the valleys or among the mountr 
ains, and immured within the walls of a seminary with im- 
punity. Practical labor must ever be paramount to mere in- 
tdlectual pursuits, or the exertions made to elevate native 
character are ahnost useless. 

After all the means expended on this seminary, one is nat- 
urally led to hope to see scmiething of the results of that ex- 
penditure. But there are few to be seen to-day. The insti- 
tution has long be^i past the meridian of its usefulness. Not- 
withstanding it had for eacae time past been under the foster- 



306 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ing care of the government, I found the buildings half pros- 
trated, and the remaining portion looked as if they were des- 
tined soon to share the same fate. It was at the time of var 
cation. The pupils had gone to their homes or to visit their 
friends. The rooms they had vacated were half filled with 
every variety of cast-off or dirty articles, and presented the very 
epitome of filth and recklessness. The chapel, recitation-rooms, 
and lecture-rooms were in a deplorably filthy condition. From 
these circumstances, it was not diflicult to estimate the appear- 
ance of the pupils when occupying their respective desks and 
rooms, or when formed into a class for recitation. The whole 
seemed to me to be an almost total failure of an. object once 
inherently good ; and it was because the earlier ilistructors 
were not eminentiy practical and systematic men. For twen- 
ty-two years the young men of the group have been boring 
away at their intellectual pursuits amid aU the poverty of 
their native language. For twenty-two years exertions have 
been making to produce a grand failure. The costs of this in- 
stitution to the Hawaiian government amounted, in 1852, to 
$6000 ; and in his annuul report, the Minister of Public In- 
struction recommended that the same amount be appropriated 
for 1853, besides $3500 for the repairs of the ruined build- 
ings.* 

The modem course of instruction is closely allied to the sys- 
tem originally established. It consists of arithmetic, mental 
and written algebra, geometry, trigonometry, optics, sacred, 
ancient, and Church history, composition, pimctuation, anat- 
omy, didactic theology, and Hawaiian laws. 

During the twenty-one years ending in 1852, four hundred 
and ninety-nine students have received their diplomas, after an 
individual course of four years* study. A few of th^oti have 
become teachers, evangelists, and ordained clergymen, while 
a few others have acted as judges, lawyers, and physicians, 
the last of which are villainous professions in the hands of Ha- 
waiians generally. 

In the museum of this seminary, in the midst of a pile of 
* See Annual Report for 1852, p. 59. 



OLD HAWAIIAN GODS. 



307 



ipirorthless philosophical apparatus, I observed a couple of old 
Hawaiian gods. Their aspect was extremely ridiculous and 
repulsive. One was about two feet high. It was composed 
of a plain piece of wood, slightly hollowed out at the back, 
^nrhile the front was covered with a piece of native cloth, mark« 
ed with sundry figures more grotesque than some of the old- 
Aztec hieroglyphics. The other idol was about six feet high, 
carved out of a sohd log, and of grim countenance. These 
gods are correctly represented in the accompanying wood-cut. 
It was with some difficulty that I concluded that the people 





308 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

of a formw generatioii were 80 intellectaally debased, or that 
theae were 

"The devils they adored for deities.** 

Yet all this was true! While I stood ccmtemplating these 
idols, I could not help wondmng how many li^sless humaa 
victims had been laid at their feet, in the hope of conciliating 
the spirits of the duties which were sii^poeed to hover aronnd 
the inanimate wood. How many a pocn: wretch had knelt, as 
he felt the gushings forth of his own immortality, and breathr 
ed his prayers to these helpless objects ; and yet he arose froia 
his knees with a greater agony, a darker mind, and a sonl 
more intensely crushed. O ! who shall tell how many hearts 
have thus bled, how many bitter tears have been shed, how 
many spirits have thus writhed in bitter agony during the 
days of pagan darkness. Yet these were once thy gods, Ha- 
waii ! and these were the tortures levied by an accursed hi- 
erarchy upon thy abject and confiding children I 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

FROM LAHAINA TO WAI-LU-KU. 

Crossing the Mountains. — Isthmus of Kula. — Maui formerly two 
Islands. — ^Village of Wai-ka-pxL — ^Wai-lu-ku and Valley. — ^Terrific 
Battle-ground — Old Battle-ground of Eahului. — ^Hawaiian *' 6W- 
gotha." — A Cranium Hunter. — Curiosity of the Natives. — Modem 
Superstitions. — Doctrine of the Resurrection studied over the 
Bones of "Warriors. — ^Why the Doctrine is difficult to believe. 

From Lahaina to Wai-lu-ku there is little to interest a bu- 
perficial traveler. A man must be prepared for a dry, dusty, 
and rugged road, leading chiefly along the sea-shore. 

On passing over the plains of Oloalu, a few ravines open 
on the left. The scenery at this spot is perfectly gorgeous. 
There are times— one of which I experienced — ^when the wind 
bursts through these ravines in gusts of such viol^ice as al- 



MAUI FORMERLY TWO ISLANDS. 399 

most to unhorse a very experienced horseman. They have 
sometimes proved destructive to houses, canoes, and even ves- 
sels "within their reach. Th<f natives call these "wiqds Mur 
muku. 

The road leading over the mountains is surrounded with a 
-wild and romantic interest. The traveler frequently passes 
along the edge of a deep ravine, or cHmhs along the side of a 
lofty ascent. He may meet a hare-hmbed native mounted on 
an ill-fed horse, which he is urging at a regular break-neck 
speed across the fearful ravines. Occasionally a wild bullock 
may stand in the path, as if about to dispute the horse's pas- 
sage ; but, on nearing him, he is certain to run away at the 
top of his speed. The continuous ascent of these mountains 
is very fatiguing — their descent is equally the same. 

This mountain-region once passed, the traveler enters on 
the plain or isthmus of Kula. It is a sandy alluvial, con- 
stantly changing the configuration of its surface beneath the 
action of heavy winds. This neck of land has a gradual ele- 
vation from the sea-shore on the southwest, to nearly two hund- 
red feet on the northeast, in the region of Wai-lu-ku. In ex- 
tent it is seven miles by twelve. During three fourths of the 
year it forms a fine pasture-land for hundreds of cattle that 
range over its surface. It is not fit for cultivation. 

The islaud of Maui is geographically divided into east and 
west. The physical conformation of the isthmus of Kula, and 
the configuration of the two divisions of the island, plainly es- 
tablish the conviction that Maui was formerly two islands. 
The character of the isthmus is mainly alluvial ; but it re- 
tains a large quantity of volcanic sand, ashes, and scorisB, in- 
terspersed with huge boulders and projections of lava, which 
were thrown out of the craters in the neighboring mountains 
in generations past. The formation of this isthmus has formed 
a natural imity between the two islands. In its general out- 
line, Maui represents a human bust well defined. 

The first village of any note on the way to Wai-lu-ku is 
Wai-ka-pu. It contains a population of about five hundred. 
Here the forces of Kamehameha the Great once assembled 



310 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

for battle at the Bounding of the conch-shell. Hence its name, 
Wai-ka-pu (water of the conch or trumpet). 

The ^strict of Wai-lu-ku is composed of upland and valley. 
The soil is rich and well watered. Wai-lu-ku village stands 
at the mouth of the valley bearing the same name. This 
village, like Wai-ka-pu, is somewhat scattered. It once con- 
tained the principal female seminary on the group, and thou- 
sands of dollars have been expended on its support. One of 
its leading features once was, *'to educate the daughters of 
Hawaii as wives for the young men who were educated at 
Lahainaluna," and to keep them in the institution until they 
were married. To a limited extent, this avowed design haa 
been carried out. Like the seminary at Lahainaluna, it has 
proved a grand failure, '' and the daughters, of Hawaii" have 
been, in a great measure, abandoned to take care of them- 
selves. Its former lay-teacher, Mr. Bailey, has found a more 
lucrative occupation under the Hawaiian government. The 
boasted " Central Female Boarding Seminary" at Wai-lu-ku 
has dwindled away, or given place to one of more limited c&- ' 
pacity, called " Mrs. Gower's Family School." In his An- 
nual Report for 1852, the Minister of Pubhc Instruction states 
its capacity thus : "■ Number of scholaJs, seventeen ; ten pure 
whites, six half whites, one native. The school is support- 
ed by the parents ; the usual English primary branches are 
taught : pronunciation, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, 
grammar, and music." 

There is a substantial church at Wai-lu-ku, built entirely 
by natives. Its dimensions are one hundred feet by fifty. 
The waUs are composed of vesicular lava. 

But the valley at the back of the village is the chief object 
of attraction to the traveler. It is commonly called the " Wai- 
lu-ku Pass," and bisects West Maui, terminating in a deep 
gorge in the precincts of Lahaina. This " Pass" is threaded 
with much fatigue and some danger, but the tourist is amply 
repaid for all his toil. Prospects more picturesque and awful- 
ly grand are seldom seen by the most universal traveler. 
Here volcanic action and the subterranean convulsions of Na- 



TK£ :;e-/.' -ii'^bk 

Fujlicl:l:,;.:.y 



A8TCR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS, 



TERRIFIC BATTLE-GROUND. 3x3 

t?ire must have been terrific. The sides of the " Pass" are 
reaied perpendicularly to a height of several hundred feet 
The River lao wends its way, with a thousand gentle mur- 
murs, among masses of fallen rock and tropical plants of a 
highly interesting character, amon^ which I noticed a splen- 
did Lobdia. 

Up this " Pass" there is a narrow foot-path, winding, in 
many places, along the very brink of tremwidous precipices. 
This narrow pass was once a battle-field of Kamehameha the 
Great. The old conqueror sailed from Hawaii to wage war 
agfidnst Kahekili, King of Maui, but met the monarch's son, 
KalaNikufule, instead. Oil the very brink of these preci- 
pices the two armies met. Eetreat by either party was im- 
possible, and the limited space of the field rendered the con- 
flict desperate. For a long time the fortune of war was du- 
bious. Warrior after warrior, of botli parties, and face to face 
in deadly struggle, or close locked in a mutual embrace, and 
amid the shouts of victors and the groans of the vanquished, 
rolled over the brink of the frightful abyss. At length Kam- 
ehameha prevailed. Many of the pursuers and the pursued, 
in the eagerness of fiight and pursuit, fell over the precipice 
and were dashed to pieces. Th^re were many annihilated 
by every species of barbaric warfiire. Numbers took refuge 
in the mountains, where they were reduced by starvation. 
KAHEKmi's army was annihilated, and Prince Kalanikupulb 
fled to Oahu. So terrible was the carnage, that the progress 
of the River lao was arrested. It was from this incident that 
Wai-lu-ku (water of destruction) derived its appellation. This 
victory left Kamehameha the undisputed sovereign of Maui» 
Lanai, and Molokai. For years afterward, this engagement 
was well known by three appellations : Kapani-wai (stop- 
ping the water), EJmanrpali (battle of the precipice), and 
lao (the name of the stream). 

Leaving Wai-lu-ku, and passing along toward the village of 
Kahului, a distance of three miles, the traveler passes over 
the old battle-ground named after the village. It is distinctly 
marked by moving sand-hills, which owe their &imation to 





314 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. * 

< 

the action of the northeast trades. Here these winds blo^ 
ahnost with the violence of a sirocco, and clouds of sand-tfie 
carried across the northern side of the isthmus to a height 
of several hundred feet. These sand-hills constitute a huge 
" Golgotha" for thousands of warriors who fell in ancient bat- 
tles. In places laid bare by the action of the winds, there 
were human skeletons projecting, as if in the act of struggling 
for a resurrection from their lurid sepulchres! In many po- 
tions of the plain whole cart-loads were exposed in this way. 
Judging of the numbers of the dead, the contests of the old 
Hawaiians must have been exceedingly bloody. 

To myself these remains had no small degree of interest 
No hand, whether of friend or foe, seemed to be employed in 
collecting these broken skeletons for reinterment. On the 
contrary, many a strange visitor had passed over these timvur 
liy and carried away just such portions of the dead as best 
suited him to remote regions of the earth. As I glanced at 
those mounds, and thought of the condition of their lifeless ten- 
ants, I could not help thinking of " Hamlet's" celebrated col- 
loquy on the remains jof his friend " Yorick:'' 

" Ham. * To what base uses we may return, Horatio ! Why may 
not imagination trace the noble dust of Alexander, till he find it 
stoppmg a bnng-hole ?* 

" Sor, * 'Twere to consider too curiously to consider so.' 
" Ham. * No, faith, not a jot ; but to follow him Ahither with mod- 
esty enough, and likelihood to lead it; as thus: Alexander died, 
Alexander was buried, Alexander returned to dust; the dust is 
earth : of earth we make loam ; and why t)f that loam, whereto he 
was converted, might they not stop a beer-barrel? 

Imperious Cjssab, dead, and turned to clay. 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away ; 
O that the earth, which kept the world in awe. 
Should patch a wall to expel the winter^s flaw I* " 

Although I could not reconcile my mind to the belief that 
a removal of any of these remains would be exactly right, I 
could not resist the inclination to procure a few perfect crani- 
ums. This "Golgotha," however, afforded no such speci- 
mens. Calling at a store in the village of Kahului, I bor- 



1 



11 



i CURIOSITY OF THE NATIVES. 315 

r lowed a shovel to aid me in my researdies^ As I rode a short 
distance to the eastward beyond the village, that shovel, dan- 
gling from my saddle-bow, sent forth such sepulchral notes as 
seemed to chide my resolves. But I rode on. Arriving at the 
eastern extremity of this old battle-ground, I took off coat and 
vest, for the weather was intensely warm. 

The openness of the plain caused my operations to be seen 
by a few natives, who hved on the sea-shore, at the distance 
of a short mile. An ever-restless curiosity brought them to 
the scene of my excavations, but they manifested not the least 
concern on account of my sacrilegious acts. For some time I 
dug in silence. It was an actual rehef when a native woman, 
deeming that I had no other employment but hunting for era- 
niums, very emphatically termed me ''ka po Kanaka" (the 
E&uU man). However appropriate the appellation might seem 
in its application to myself under the circumstances, I confess it 
sounded pecuharly harsh and ungratefrd ; nor was it at all less- 
ened in its sepulchral signification as my shovel came in con- 
tact with a huge thigh-bone or humerus ; but, graceless fellow 
that I was, neither the reproaches of conscience, nor the title 
bestowed on me by native wit, nor the sepulchral notes pro- 
duced by my shovel, could for a moment deter me from my 
sepulchral excavations. I seriously question whether the dis- 
tinguished Spurzheim, or any other phrenologist, could have 
been more industrious than I was at that moment. Dig I 
would, and dig I did, until I found my efibrts were all in vain, 
I, discovered a few decomposed vertebrsB, and some imperfect 
cranimns, which crumbled to dust by an exposure to the at- 
mosphere. Little did these old warriors, when Uving, dream 
that a stranger from a distant land would one day dig and 
delve among their remains for a physiological reUc. 

From time inunemorial, the Hawaiians have regarded the 
dead with a profoundly superstitious awe. As the civilized 
school-boy, and many adults even at this day, when passing 
a rural cemetery, too frequently converts every object into some 
horrible phantom, and goes along singing or whistling some 
popular air, merely to keep his "courage to the sticking- 



316 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

place,'' 80 the Hawaiiaii, imagining that the spirit of the de- 
parted yet hngeiB aionnd the lottiiig dost, caxeliilly shtrn^ at 
night their places of interment. Of these superstitions many 
of the merchants on the gronp have taken a decided advant^ 
age. It is not uncommon for them to place one or two cra^ 
niums in some prominent place in thdr stores. This precau- 
tion is an unfailing safeguard against all hmglarioas actions 
on the part of the natives. 

OvCT the hemes of exhumed Varriors is the hest of all loca- 
tions to study the doctrine of the resurrectimi of the dead. 
The difficult questions, ^ How are the dead raised up ? And 
with what hody do they ccHUe?'' is by no means modem. 
These questions have been objected to, and answered, on the 
bases of animal, vegetable, and metaphysical science. The 
ablest intellects have examined it, and di8ci]ssed,'with a mas- 
terly success, its absolute certainty. The love which has its 
birth in the strongest of earthly ties, and sends its hallowed 
contemplaticms through the portals of eternity, fineely admits 
it. The resurrection of the dead is a truism which ccxnmends 
itself to the embrace of reason, and it is supp(»ted both by 
analogy and Eevelaticm. Not less has it been admitted by 
the myths of Indian and Persian theology. 

Logic is a species of reasoning, but it may not at all times 
accord with the plain dictates of reason. A logical test of 
this difficult doctrine commonly ffings around it an imperviotis 
cloud, an absolute impracticability. While turning over the 
crumbling remains of those old warriors, I could not but coii- 
clude that, like other men, they had once thought, and willed, 
and acted. They once had their hopes and fears, their joys 
and sorrows. On this sandy plain they had shed their blood, 
and laid down their lives in battle ; and they left behind them 
a few, at least, who would mourn their absence, and cHng, 
with a strong sympa^y, to their memory. Some of the re* 
mains of their warriors have a place in every physiological 
collection in Europe and America ; a hand in one place, a 
£x)t in another, and a cranium in another. * It can not be de^ 
nied that this dismemberment over thousands of miles imparts 



BELIEF IN THE RESURRECTION. 3^7 

a complex aspect to the subject, and holds out the strongest 
improbability of their reunion. But thoughts can not die, 
£01 they are sparks struck out from the depths of eternity. 
And yet these remaios were once actuated by thought, volition, 
and love for somebody. And the love of the meanest slave, 
not less than that of ^e most exalted potentate, is as immoor- 
tal as heaven. 

To the mere philosopher, therefore, it is no wonder that 
this theme becomes a Gordian knot whidi all his reasonings 
fail to unravel. Letl)ut the faith which Eevelation teaches 
be grasped, and the difficulty vanishes, and the Gordian knot 
is severed and scattered into irreparable fragments. This is 
the key which unlocks the resources of the universe, and rolls 
back the long night of ages from the grave. And it is on this 
£>undation, as on the throne of eternity, that man may defy 
the dissolving universe to quendi his immortality, or shake hk 
trust in God. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

EAST MAUI. 

Makawao. — Sugar Plantations. — Chiltiyation of Wheat— Indian 
Com. — The Irish Potato. — ^Agricultural Lands. — Land Monopoly. 
— The Non-taxation System. — ^Kindness of Foreigners to the Trav- 
eler. — Ascent of Mattna ffale-c^^kth-Uk — Atmospheric Regions. 
— ^Unexpected and unwelcome Visitors. — ^Vastness. of the (>ater. 
— Sense of Cold. — Splendor of the Sun-light. — " Ossian's" Address 
to the Sun. — ^View from the Summit of ttie Crater. — Glory of the 
<nouds. — The Soul's Emotions. — Man immortal — Gon omnipotent. 

East Maui embraces more than two thirds of the entire 
island, and is by far the most attractive portion. After leav- 
ing the Isthmus of Kula there is a gradual ascent to Makar 
wao, which is elevated nearly two thousand feet above the sea. 

In its dwellings and population MaJcawao is a scattered dis- 
trict ; but in point of beauty, location, and capacity of its soil, 
it ranks with any on the group. 



318 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

In this Tegion I found several &ie sugar plantations. The 
crops do not mature so rapidly as on Kauai, but they produce 
a superior quahty of sugar. The planters concluded that the 
causes of this difference originated in the lower tempferature 
of the clunate ; that the cane does not tassel as in the lower 
regions, and that, at this elevation, the soil is not so heavily 
impregnated with salt. Within a few years past, the cultiva- 
tion of wheat has received considerable attention. The wheat 
used for seed has been procured firom Sidney and Oregon, firom 
which abundant crops have been raised. The ustial number 
of bushels to a single acre is twenty-five, but as many as thir- 
ty have been realized. The agricultural resources of East 
Maui are rapidly developing. The wheat crop in the harvest 
season of 1853 turned out some two thousand bushels of an 
excellent quality. It was the intention to reserve most of this 
crop for seed, and twenty thousand bushels was anticipated as 
the yield for 1854. 

The amount of land on East Maui and on Hawaii has led 
to the hope that the time is not distant when, for home con- 
sumption, if not for export, the flour of the Hawaiian Steam- 
mill Company wilt take the place of Richmond, Gallego, and 
HaxaU, by far the largest portion of which comes into market 
in a damaged condition. It is only occasicoially that a ship 
brings flour around the Gape perfectly sweet ; it is more ire- 
quently sour, and often musty withal, and, of course, greatly 
deteriorated in money value as well as heahhiul qualities. 

It was in May that I first visited Makawao. Such was the 
nature of the climate and the capacity of the soil, that, had the 
season not been unusually rainy, there would then have been, 
crops ready for the sickle. 

Here the Indian com crops attain great perfection. 

The Irish potato is cultivated to a large extent. In no part 
of the world are its qualities and size generally surpassed. A. 
golden harvest has been raised by exporting large quantities 
to California when the mines of wealth were first announced 
to the world. 

The only obstacle of a serious nature in the way of the 



CLIMATE — LAND MONOPOLY. 3^9 

planter is a small caterpillar called the " pekuiy Sometimes 
its ravages are very destructive. Like the locusts of Egypt, 
but not -so numerous, it marches forth, destroying every leaf, 
but more commonly the roots of the grain. No agent for its 
destruction has yet been discovered. 

I have already hinted at the nature of the climate in this 
region. It is delicious to leave one's couch at early daylight, 
and stand and inhale the balmy air as it comes in from the 
ocean, or sweeps down the mighty slopes of the contiguous 
mountai^. Under such influences, a man feels years younger, 
and he is almost tempted to wish he were a child again, so 
that he might chase Jhe butterfly from flower to flower. He 
wanders among whole groves of the rose and the bloody ge- 
ranium (^Geranivm sanguinevm), towering to a height of 
Jfour to seven feet, breathing forth almost celestiift odors. * He 
stretches forth lus hands, and plucks a peach so luscious and 
blooming that it really seems a sort of violence to deface it by 
eating. The pure dew-drops are pendant from every bough, 
and these delicate tears of night drop on your hair, hands, and 
drapery with all the sweetness of a lover's kiss. Think of 
this, before breakfast ! while thousands in our cities are buried 
in sleep— -and in the month of May ! 

The extent of agricultural lands on East Maui covers about 
a hundred thousand acres, eight thousand of which were al- 
ready taken up in plantations. But there were thousands of 
acres of the best of the soQ reposing in a state of nature, for 
those who monopolized them had never put a plowshare in a 
single acre. 

If there is an evil which has retarded the progress of civil- 
ization, and precluded habits of industry among the native jiop- 
iilation in remote districts, it is tbis land monopoly. The lands 
themselves are useless, and their owners worse than useless, 
for they are consumers only, and do nothing in the shape of 
production, unless it be in that line usually denominated the 
genus homo. 

This land monopoly is encouraged by a non-taxation ; hence 
the evil becomes two-fold. The treasury loses by the latter, 



320 



SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



the mass of the people by the fonner. I have already referred 
to the necessity of a tax judiciously imposed on all parties in- 
discriminately. Nor can I here avoid a reiteration of the same 
sentiment. The sales of lands on difierent portions of the 
group have already been a source of benefit to the finances of 
the natLon."*" Properly ccmducted, the real-estat&system would 
be of still greater benefit. In his annual report for 1852, the 
Minister of Finance did all he could to prevent taxation of real 
estate. He said that " a property tax, owing to the peculiar 
state of the islands, will be a difficult and expensive one to 
collect." It might have been much less " difficult and expen- 
sive'' if the minister himself had not been in possession of 
large estates. A written Constitution and Code of Laws have 

♦ SALES OF REAL ESTATE. 

The number of Royal Patents granted during the present year 
IS 844: 

To aliens 25 

To subjects 819 

By the annexed table can be seen the number of acres sold on 
each island, and the gross amount of their price: 

Islands. Acres. Amoant. 

Oahu 15,161 $19,775 20 

Maui 9,387 17,927 86 

Hawaii 8,196 8,490 68 

Kauai 2,446 2,699 58 

Molokai 1,871 439 00 



31,518 $44^852 82 

— From the Report of the Minister of the Interior for 1851. 

Owing to mismanagement on the part of the officers of the Land 
Commission, the report for 1852 shows a serious decline in the re« 
ceipts for the sale of public lands : 

THE SALES OF REAL ESTATE. 
PatenUfor Land Soldt execuUd during the Nine Months ending Dec. 31, 1659. 





Whole 

Nmnberof 

Patanto. 


For Land 

Sold. 


AetM. 


Priee. 


•t Nominal 
Pricet. 


Atxm. 


Hawaii 

Maui 


949 
30 

4 
38 
6 


947 
94 

4 
37 
6 


18,705 45 

1,409 00 

969 35 

6,897 94 

134 50 


• Cte. 

17,511 96 

9,147 29 

155 00 

6,680 90 

87 09 


9 
6 

1 


1,006 84 
3,043 95 

46 


Molokai 

Oahu 

Kauai 

Tbtal 


397 


318 


97,499 94 


96,589 17 


9 


4,141 95 



KINDNESS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS, ggl 

efiected some improvement in the condition of the nation. But 
the reins of government have been held by one or two individ-^ 
uals who have too long dictated terms to that puppet of a king> 
-whose wil^, most unfortunately, has been merged in their own. 
This extraordinary course has been induced by self-interest on 
the part of some of the ministry, whose only aim has been ever 
to aggrandize themselves, and impoverish the king and his nar 
tive subjects. 

But a truce to these political elements. Let us turn ajdde, 
and converse with one of Nature's landmarks. 

And yet, before conversing with the good old dame, I must 
linger for a moment to notice the kindness of the foreign res- 
idents to the traveler. I was deeply sensible of this feet be- 
fore leaving Makawao. No m^tt^ how far a man has trav- 
eled in the course of the day, nor how rude his externals may 
be, the welcome he receives by the family of a foreigner he 
can nev^ forget. This generous spirit is rife both in mission- 
ary and lay femilies. But, to appreciate it &lly, a man must 
have been out for several days in the interior, among semi- 
civilized natives, where his very soul loathed their filthy food 
and their filthy selves — ^where he dare not touch their water* 
calabashes with his Ups for fear of a contagious disease, and 
where he may have fested a day or twQ firom compulsion. 
After such a tour, let him return to a civilized family — a fam- 
ily of foreigners. Let him gaze on a parlor scrupulously neat 
and clean — every thing in its place. Let him take his seat 
at a table covered with linen of a snowy whiteness, and sup- 
phed with plain and good cheer for the '' inner man.'* At the 
same table there may sit one or two interesting wom^i, doing 
the " honors" with an irresistible grace, whose faces almost 
grow into smiles of inefiable sweetness, and whose words are 
soft and delicious as an evening zephyr. As the day glides 
away, she tells you of " life on the islands," and gives you il- 
lustrations of native character ; and then, like a true woman, 
she kindly inquires into your health, your general welfiure, and 
your general self. 

Night covexB that dwelling with its dark wings. You are 
02 



322 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

i^wn to a sleeping apartment where the bed-drapery rivals 
the whiteness of winter's snows. For a moment you stand 
buried in contemplation. The spell departs. You unrobe 
yourself with a motion somewhat mechanical. 0|it goes the 
light, and you slip into the pure sheets, aired and spread for 
your special comfort. You would not change your position 
for the " Paradise" of the Prophet — even if you andd go there. 
Your thoughts wander away to the circles of the loving and 
the loved : you are once more in the land of brave men and 
of lovely women ; you think of its mighty rivers, its fields of 
plenty, its populous and enterprising cities, its everlasting 
mountains — the emblems of our fireedom — and as sleep begins 
to steal over your senses, you are led to exclaim, firom the deep- 
est sympathies of your soul, '* My country-women ! God bless 
them forever !" 

But to return to Nature. After a night of refireshing sleep, 
I started from Makawao at an early hour to ascend Mauna 
HaU-n-ka-la (house of the sun). My worthy host wished 
me to adjourn my intentions for a day or two, for the purpose 
of furnishing me with a guide ; but my impatience would 
brook no delay ; and, besides, I had seen sufficient of the in- 
tense stupidity of native guides. 

From the starting-place it was fifteen miles to the summit ; 
but, in reaUty, it seemed within a few minutes' walk. I fol- 
lowed a narrow path for some distance up the mountain, un- 
til it became lost in almost endless bullock-paths, which were 
not a little perplexing. My only alternative now was to keep 
my eye fixed on some prominent object on the summit, and 
travel directly toward it. Pursuing this course, I soon enter- 
ed some young groves of koa {Acacia falcata). Evidently 
much larger groves, containing gigantic specimens of this 
beautiful tree, had flourished iiere at an earlier day. Here 
and there, on isolated hills much exposed to the action of the 
strong winds, stood a few solitary trees, all sapless and with- 
ered. In other places, huge koas, which appeared to have 
been torn up by their roots by the fierce embrace of some re- 
lentlesB tempest, lay rotting and bleaching, like forsaken skel- 



ASCENT OF MAUNA H ALE-A-K A-L A. 323 

etons, in the rain and the sunbeams. Numerous ravines 
were nearly filled with the foUage of the silvery ku-kui {Al- 
eurites triloba). There were thousands of bushels of wild 
strawberries, that needed only a few hours of sunshine to rip- 
en them. In this region the limbs of the trees were fantas- 
tically clad with a fine end luxuriant mo6s, that causes them 
to appear several times more than their real dimensions ; and 
amid these fantastic trappings of Nature, the gorgeous crim- 
son creeper {Cirthia sanguinia) was sporting from limb to 
limb. 

When I commenced the ascent, the slopes were entirely 
firee firom clouds ; but at this point they rubbed the slopes of 
the mountains so closely, that frequent showers fell, and my 
way became almost indiscernible. Occasionally a fugitive 
sun-ray would pierce the gathering mists ; again a heavier 
cloud would sweep past, spreading a gloomier tinge over ev- 
ery object. Already had my thermometer fallen 12°. The 
rains were growing chilly. My path was more difficult. The 
increafflng rarefEiction of the atmosphere had a strong tenden- 
cy to nervous depression. 

During the intervals of scattered clouds, I obtained a few 
casual glances at the vdld bullocks that ranged this region of 
the mountain. Those glances were freely exchanged, and 
Xhej betokened no good-will at my disturbance of their sav- 
age and solitary retreats. It was with no small degree of 
satisfaction that I saw them erect their tails, stretch out their 
powerful necks, and trot away. 

But my anxiety was relieved only to be more intensely 
tested. Scarcely had these wild catde disappeared, when a 
troop of wild dogs crossed my path. There were more than 
a dozen of them ; and there they stood, like so many hungry 
devils, ready to pounce on my horse, or myself, or both of us 
together, casting at us their fiery glances, and sending forth 
their Gerberean yells. Not anticipating a tmi from their ca- 
nine maj esties, I was there completely at their mercy. Sincere- 
ly did I wish for a " Colt's revolver," or a good sabre ; but 
as I knew that merely wishing would avail nothing, I felt it 



324 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

"woald be piudent to be active in dispelling thdbr hopes. There 
was no club which chance might have cast in the way, but 
there were plenty of rugged lava-stones strewn around ; so, 
amid their infernal music, I dismounted, losing one leg of my 
nondescripts in the act of doing so, and began to storm them 
with misses. To mysdf, it was a novel mode of assaulting 
a brute, or a band of brutes rather ; but, by dint of peltings 
and shouts, I at l^oigth succeeded in dispersing this un&iendly 
mob. 

Beyond the regular region of vegetation and the clouds, 
commenced the region of boulders. This was at a height of 
eight thousand feet above the sea. The ascent in this spot 
was Uterally covered with a shower of lava stones, and ridges 
of lava precipitous and rugged. At intervals there were a few 
stunted bushes of sandal-wood {Santaltifn frey dnetiarum), 
Compasitaf Vdcdniimi, and Epacris, struggling £»r life amid 
the dense soUtude. 

Within two mile8«of the summit, my tired horse refused to 
carry .me any fieurther. I dismounted, and secured him to a 
small wiry shrub, but not without a few misgivings of those 
rascally dogs. From this point I was compelled to plod along 
on foot. Alternately climbing, sUpping, and resting, after a 
space of two hours I reached the summit of the crater. 

But what a prospect ! Could I attain ten times the age of 
Methuselah, I could never forget the overwhelming mag- 
nificence of the sc^ie that burst upon me in a single moment ! 
I stood there, spell-bound to the spot. Every sense of &tigue 
was in a moment forgotten. I looked, and pondered, and 
looked again, as I stood on the brink of the greatest of all 
quiescent craters, and I felt that I was nothing and less than 
nothing. 

It is only by actual measurement that the immense dimen- 
sions of this crater can be ascertained. From the point where 
I stood, a huge pit, two thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
three feet deep, and nearly thirty-five miles in circumference 
—capable of burying three cities as large as New York — 
opened before me. The sides, in some places, were a perfect 



VASTNESS OF THE CRATER. 325 

wall ; in others, abutments of lava rocks, partially incased in 
slopes of red and black lava sand. The bottom of the abyss 
was a wide field of lava in the first stage of decomposition, 
and on it were superimposed fourteen distinct cones or chim- 
neys, composed of scoria, some of which were six hundred feet 
high, but which, firom the top of the crater, appeajred to be 
nothing more than mere mounds of sand and ashes. From 
"where I stood I could overlook the funnel-shaped tops, partially 
fiUed with loose sand. There was a certain freshness about 
them that caused them to look as if they had just expended 
their last fires, or were merely reposing to gain new strength 
preparatory to another deluge of devastation. Had it not been 
for the canopy of heaven shining down upon it, I should al- 
most have concluded that it was the identical Pluto, spc^en 
of in classic iable, where the smutty Vulcan forged flamjng 
thunder-bolts for Jove. 

On the east and north were two enormous gaps forced 
through the solid wall of the crater. It would seem that 
during eruptions — and probably the very last — ^the enormous 
sea of liquid lava must have accumulated to a depth (or height 
lather) of more than a thousand feet. Terrible indeed must 
have been the scene at such a momeyt ! Wave must have 
lolled on after wave, surging against the sides of the mighty 
prison-house in search of an escape. Millions on millions of 
tons accumulated thus. Unable any longer to restrain the 
impetuous ravings of the dreadful hell beneath, the wall east- 
ward and northward gave way beneath its pressure, and the 
fiery flood was hurled with fearfiil velocity down the steep 
slopes into the sea. Surpassing every thing that this world 
has ever witnessed, or the mind of man conceived, must have 
been this crater when in a state of activity. And it only 
needed that Yiroil and Homer should have caught one 
glimpse of it to have earned an immortality beyond that they 
already possess. 

On the highest point of the crater the temperature was 32°, 
and on the floor of the crater, 75°. The thermometer ranged 
at 81^ at sunrise, when I started out &r the ascent. The ex- 



326 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ertion of climbing these rugged steeps iuduced a free perspira- 
tion. On the summit the change I experienced in a few hours 
was a depression of 49^ in the atmospheric temperature. My 
wet clothes clung to me like an icy mantle, and the sudden- 
ness of the change produced an intense physical depression, 
and a slight hemorrhage at my nose. But these difficulties 
fled as I commenced the descent of the crater. On looking, 
from the highest point, down into the bottom of the abyss be- 
low me, I noticed a cluster of objects which looked about the 
size and brightness of silver dollars ; but on reaching the bot- 
tom, what was my surprise on finding they were a grove of 
those beautiful Alpine plants called the silver sword {Ensis 
argentea)y growing to a height of six or seven feet, and shining 
like silver. 

On the summit of HaU-a'ka-la the sunlight was perfect. 
I had seen the sun from elevations far greater than this, but I 
had never seen it so purely bright as now. It seemed like one 
of the portals of the '* third heavens" just opened to shed its 
surpassing glory on this lower world. At this moment I was 
not surprised at the genius of that splendid paganism which 
traced in the brightness of the sun's fauce the quintessence of 
aU that was perfect ip^glory and goodness ; for, in a material 
sense, it seems but one remove firom the uncreated light of the 
immaterial God. What intellect has not been elevated when 
contemplating this centre of the solar system ? What soul 
has not felt the gushings forth of the sublime and beautiful, aa 
it looked through the eye of sense, and viewed this elder son 
of creation shaking an ocean of light from his blazing locks ? 
And were it not that mankind are, in part, blessed with a di* 
vine revelation, thousands, millions, yea, all might mistake the 
sun for its creator, and pay it divine homage. Among all the 
apostrophes to this glorious orb, there are few, if any, more nat- 
ural and eloquent l^ian that of Ossian : 

"O thou that rollest above, round as the shield of my fathers I 
Whence are thy beams, O sun 1 thy everlasting light 1 Thou comest 
forth in thy awful beauty ; the stars hide themselves in the sky ; the 
moon, oold and pale, sinks in the western wave; but thou thyself 



VIEW FROM THE CRATER. 327 

moveat alone. Who can be a companion of thy course ? The oaks 
of the mountain fall ; the mountains themselves decay with years ; 
the moon herself is lost in heaven ; but thou art forever the same, 
rejoicing in the brightness of thy course. When the world is dar]^ 
with tempests— when thunder rolls and lightning flies, thou lookest 
in thy beauty from the clouds, and laughest at the storm. But to 
OssiAN thou lookest in vain,- for he beholds thy beams no more, 
whether thy yellow hair flows on the eastern clouds, or thou trem- 
blest at the gates of the west. But thou art, perhaps, like me, for a 
season ; thy years will have an end. Thou shalt sleep in thy clouds^ 
careless of the voice of the morning. Exult, then, O sun 1 in the 
strength of thy youth. Age is dark and unlovely ; it is like the 
glimmering light of the moon when it shines through broken clouds 
and the mist is on the hills : the blast of the ndrth is on the plain, 
the traveler shrinks in the midst of his journey." 

Not less beautiful than the sunlight was the view from the 
summit of the crater. I could overlook the clouds called cir- 
rus, and far below them were others of their brethren, but di- 
verse in character. Those clouds looked like an ocean of pol- 
ished silver. If it be true that 

" Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth 
Both when we sleep and wake," 

I could almost fancy that the silvery vapors below me were 
their intermediate dwelling-place. Far above them, by a nat- 
ural illusion, rose the lofty peaks of West Maui. On the east 
and southeast was the wide and eternal deep, whose horizon, 
so far away, seemed lost in the embrace of the vast upper 
ocean of firmament. Away to the southeast, at a distance of 
seventy-five to one hundred miles, respectively rose the sum- 
mits of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, on Hawaii, with their 
broad crowns of -buow glittering in the sunlight, and looking 
down, as if with a conscious pride, on the clouds which girdled 
their sides. The lofty and rugged cones — forming, at an early 
period, the natural vent-holes of the more external fires of the 
mountain — ^which I had passed in my ascent, dwindled away 
to the size of mere mounda. By the aid of a telescope I could 
just discern my horse, by his gray coat, standing patiently, as 
i£ awaiting my return. Makawao and the isthmus beyond 



828 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

seemed to be a perfectly smooth plain, for every midulation 
was lost in the distance below. 

It is on such an elevation as this that a man feels his own 
insignificance. The conscience becomes sensitive, and the soul 
— ^that inner being that constitutes the man ! — utters its might- 
iest and most holy aspirations. Here a man is entirely alone, 
or, at least, he should be, for he can not help reflecting. 
Here there is no trace of man, nor of his pigmy and perisha- 
ble works. The busy sounds of commerce, and the tread of 
milhons of its votaries, are fax away ; not even a fly cleaves 
the atmosphere with his wing. Not a sound £atlls on the ear, 
unless it be the soft moaning of the wind, sweeping up, like 
the notes of an ^ohan harp, from the depths of the crater. 
I felt as tl^ough I was losing my own identity amid those 
overwhelming scenes and their associations. I seemed to stand 
on the portals of anoth^ world, or to cling, sohtarily and sad- 
ly, to the wrecks of this, as if it were just emerging frcon the 
grave of a deluge. Like Caius MARros contemplating the 
ruins of Carthage ; like Volney holding converse with the 
fallen but beautiful Palmyra ; Hke Campbell's ''Last Man,'' 
surveying the wrecks that old Time had flung over the lap of 
earth's mightiest nations, I was alone on that naked sunmiit, 
where I felt like a child, listening to a voice within me that 
proclaimed my own destiny — ^my immortality. 

Man is immortal, or the earth is an incomprehensible mys- 
tery; man a mere machine, and history an absurd fable. 
Wherever we go and are, this sublime and innate truth of the 
soul utters its voice, and points us to the skies, where immor- 
tahty itself becomes inunortalized. On the siunmit of Hal^- 
a-ka-la, more than when treading the- streets of forsaken and 
ruined cities, I was compelled to exclaim with the poet : 
" It must be so : thou rea80^e8t well, 
Else whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire 
Of falling into naught? Why shrinks the soul 
Back on herseli^ and startles at destruction ? 
*Tis the Divinity that stirs within us : 
Tis Heaven itself that points out a hereafter, 
And intimates eternity to man 1" 



TRIP TO HAWAII. 329 

The loftier the altitudes we ascend, the wider becomes the 
development of things around us. So, when the soul takes its 
flight £rom its mortal prison, there will be developments of 
which it cherished no previous conception. Existence here is 
but the bud of being — ^the dim dawning of our futurity — ^the 
Yestibole to everlasting hopes. And as the last moments of 
liie are surrounded with foretastes of what the fiiture shall be 
to every man, so, doubtless, the very first step beyond life's 
threshold wiU be an introduction to futurity forever future ! 

The vast ruin of this ancient crater is a soHd proof of the 
omnipotence of God. It is but one of the many of his foot- 
steps which are so plainly stamped on the bosom of universal 
nature. His breath kindled the ancient ^fires of this abyss, 
that spread such a setf of desolation around its sides. By his 
permission alone these wrecks were left to instruct and aston- 
ish the traveler. As I left that scene, I was led involuntarily 
to exclaim, " Who would not fear Thee, Kino of nations I" 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

ISLAND OP HAWAII. 

Trip to Hawaii. — The Schooner Jfanti-o-ifca-iooi— Hawaiian Sailora 
— ^Abnse offered to a Native Woman. — ^An unpleasant Position. — 
A Btonny Sunday. — The snow-capped Mountains of Hawaii — Ka- 
waihae. — Landing-place at Mahu-kona. — Mode of transporting 
Baggage. — ^District of Kohala. — ^Numerous- Evidences of ancient 

• Population. 

Hawah is by far the largest island of the Sandwich group. 
It has long be^, and now is, the theatre of volcanic action. 
It has been the birth-place of a long line of rival kings, and 
of generations that have passed away forever. 

These general associations are sufficient to allure the curi- 
ous and adventurous traveler to its bold and rugged shores. 
It was with some difficulty that I restrained my impatience 
to see it ; and it was with no common enthusiasm that I em- 



330 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

barked on board of a Hawaiian schomier which would carry 
me thither. 

The blue ddes were just beginning to blush with the gor- 
geous purple of departing day, as the Marvu-a-ka-wai (Bird 
of the water) spread her sails and raised her anchor to leave 
the port of Lahaina for Hawaii. With an extensive cargo of 
passengers, a sufficient complement of seamen — among whom 
.was a white man, who had so far forgotten his dignity- as to 
turn " cook" and '* steward" under the auspices of a du^y 
captain — and an almost endless assortment of calabashes filled 
with native food, and of water-melons, oranges, bananas, pigs, 
dogs, etc., that schooner, of about fifty tons, stood out to sea. 
"We had made but little progress, when the coming twilight 
brought a calm with it, and there, wifhin sight of the town, 
we lay imprisoned nearly all night. It is in such a situatum 
as this, when hour drags along after hour^ and the sweQ 
heaves the vessel in every possible position, that a passenger 
feels his Dwn helplessness ; and he is ready to sweax, by Nem- 
esis, that, should he ever set his foot, agidn qn the land, there 
he will remain, and no loxiger tempt the treacherous bosom 
of the deep. 

But, in spite of these occasional calms, there is little of mo- 
notony. There are so many ludicrous scenes constantly oc^ 
curring, that there is ample food for mirth and excitement.- 
In all probabihty, the most perfect novelties on board are the 
men who compose the crew. In the strongest sense of the 
term, a Hawaiian sailor is the " creature of circumstances." 
During a calm, he is the calmest being in the world, for he 
invariably always falls into a slumber deeper than that which 
creeps over the ocean, and lulls the wave into a peaceful re- 
pose. A sudden breeze may possibly excite him, or leave him 
in a state of apathy. In any case, he may usually be seen 
squatting down on deck, with his arm thrown listlessly over 
the tiller, while he is smoking a pipe, gorging himself with 
water-melon, or holding a tete-a-tete with the nearest dadc;- 
eyed beauty. Under thesd circumstances, he is more likely to 
steer the schooner into the wind, and run the risk of having 



ABUSE OF A NATIVE WOMAN. 33I 

her driven down backward, than he is to steer her on her 
course, and so escape the danger. So lax is the authority of 
the captain, that a transient observer is hable to mistake him 
for one of his men, and so vice versa. 

But the singular deportment of these sailors formed not the 
only 4und of variety on board that schooner. The principal 
share of it was produced by the mate of the vessel. This 
nautical hero was brother-in-law to the captain, through a 
marriage relation to his sister. When the mate came on 
board the schooner at Lahaina, he was well steeped in hquor. 
His first performance was to light his pipe, after which he 
commenced some disgusting familiarities with his "better 
half,'* and which she indignantly repelled. Her " lord para- 
mount" relapsed into a seeming indifierence to every thing ex- 
cepting his pipe, and, when tired of smoking, he renewed his 
famiharities. His wife's temper now became irritated, and 
she gave him several heavy blows in the face, much to the 
amusement of the native passengers. But this pugihstic per- 
£>rmance, and the merriment it drew forth at his expense, 
were more than his nature could surmount. He very deHb- 
erately went down into the cabin, put on another suit of 
clothes, came up on deck, and began, in the most villainous 
manner, to abuse his wife. With one hand he seized her by 
her Jiair, and with the other he dealt upon her face and bo- 
som the most furious blows. The woman screamed and plead 
for mercy, but he only showered his blows upon her with in- 
creasing vengeance. All this time his wife's brother, the cap- 
tain, stood against the main-mast smoking his pipe, and fold- 
ing his arms, and the passengers chuckled most boisterously 
over the sufiering woman. This state of things gave this hu- 
man fiend courage to renew his cowardly insults. He seized 
her again by her hair, and dragged her across the deck with, 
the intention of throwing her overboard ; but at this moment 
the hand of a foreign passenger held him by the throat, and 
the foreigner vowed, by the God of the land and the ocean, 
that unless he left that woman alone, he would inflict upon 
him her fate. The thunder-stmck mate dropped his victim, 



332 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

cuisiiig the interference which ended his baseness — for, like 
the captain, he spoke some Engh^. Such a disinterested act 
of noble and virtuous daring was son^thing new to these Ha- 
waiians, and they stood mute in astonishment, while the -poor 
insulted woman was left to lament herself to sleep. 

Such scenes as this are not uncommon. Some of these Ha- 
waiian *' liege lords" are guilty of treatment to their wives, a 
delineation of which would draw tears of shame and sorrow 
from any hearts but their own. And, in truth, to what I have 
witnei^ed among the inhabitants on that group, I am compell- 
ed reluctantly to acknowledge that the Hawaiians treat their 
wives with no more fiendish cruelty than most of the low for- 
eigners do, who have married native women. 

A smooth breeze had sprung up about midnight, and by 
daylight next morning we were directly opposite the danger- 
ous Cape Pohakueaea, on East Maui. Once more the schoon- 
er was becalmed. In his carelessness, the captain had the 
schooner steered too dose to the horrible-looking rocks which 
formed this cape, and as we were imprisoned in this calm, an 
inland current was rapidly carrying us toward the shore. The 
captain and crew seemed to care nothing about it, and the na- 
tive passengers were equally careless. The Hawaiians look 
upon the approach of death with remarkable indifierence* 
Into its ghastly jaws we were speeding. I could have thrown 
a missile to the black rocks against which the heavy suige 
was thundering in sublime confusion. There was a prospect 
of a few struggles, a few stifled gasps, and an ocean grave ; 
for no 

" Strong swimmer in his agony** 

could have escaped being dashed to pieces on those rocks. But 
just as expectation was reaching its crisis, relief came. A 
. few pufls of wind from the land carried the schooner toward 
the middle of the channel, where we were out of the danger 
of being wrecked ; but the heavy swell of the sea was such as 
seriously to test the strength of the schooner's ribs, as well as 
our own abdominal regions. 

Having passed this dangerous cape, we entered the Straits 



AN UNPLEASANT "FIX." 333 

of Alenuihaha, where we Btruok the northeast trades. These 
straits separate Maui from Hawaii. Although they are only 
thirty miles wide, they are of great depth, and usually very 
stormy. From the hour we had left Lahaina, the weathor 
had been too calm to permit our small craft to effect a rapid 
passage. Imprisoned as I was among seventy native passen- 
gers on that contracted deck, and the small-pox breaking out 
among them, not to say any thing of the effluvia of old wood- 
en tobacco-pipes, sun-dried fish, and sour pai, I was longing 
for a gale, or any thing which would bring to a close the hor- 
rors of the passage. I envied the deer in the forest, and the 
Bedouin on the wastes of Lybia, their Hberty. It was not 
long, however, before my wish was gratified. The Straits 
soon became lashed into a foam, and the schocmer's canvas 
was nearly all shortened. In a short time every passenger 
was ridding himself of his break&st by an upward passage. 
It was a sort of &st-day with myself. Wishing to escape the 
sickening scenes that surrounded me, I took refuge in the 
small boat suspended at the schooner's stem, where, nearly all 
day, amid wind and spray, and under a scorching sun, I pre- 
served my fast firom the previous noon. But it was a result 
of dire necessity, for I was the mosO sea-sick mortal in the 
ccnnpany. 

Having been compelled to shorten sail, it was nearly sunset 
when we were within fifteen miles of the shores of Hawaii. 
It was at this spot that I first obtained a perfect view of the 
snow-capped mountains of the island. Among the loftiest of 
the Andes, looking firom their thrones of clouds over the lap 
of a great continent, there is something so awfiiUy grand, that 
a traveler can not but cherish emotions of reverence and won- 
d^. It is so, too, in relation to 

"TheAlps, 

The pi^adM of Nature, whose vast walls 

Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps, 

And throned eternity in icy halls 

Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls 

The ayalanche-— the thnnder-bolt of snow I 

All that expands the spirit, yet appi^ ; 



334 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Gathers around those summits, as to show 
How earth may pierce to heayen, yet leave vain man below.** 

But the snow-capped mountaiiiB of Hawaii are difierent finom 
all these. A tourist stands and looks at them, and takes out 
his pencil to record his impressions in his note-book, and th^i 
he stops and looks again at the mountains, and again tries to 
record his thoughts, and, finally, he fails. Mauna Kea and 
Mauna Loa are before him, and, although miles and miles 
must be left behind before their summits can be reached, yet 
they seem but a short distance away. There is something 
about them so lovely, grand, and impressive, that I am com- 
pelled to term it the majesty of repose, and yet it is a repose 
which seems as if about to start into life, like Nature awak- 
ening from her nightly or her winter's slumbers. 

Next morning found the ManvrO-ka-vxd anchored in the 
Bay of Kawaihae. I was not long in resolving to go ashore 
to see the village. There were severallwats, owned by Ha- 
waiians, that came off to the schooner to carry away those of 
the passengers who wished to leave her at that village, and it 
was highly amusing to witness how those fellows fought among 
each other for the privilege of canying them ashore, or, rather, 
earning a Spanish rial per passenger for their trouble. The 
first consolation the traveler seeks on landing firom a Hawaiian 
vessel is usually a thorough ablution. This was a luxury I 
enjoyed that morning on landing from that hatefiil craft. 

The village of Kawaihae was the pooiest and most cheer- 
less I have ever seen. Every thing around and in it wore an 
aspect of such stem desolation, that I could not but wonder 
that any human being, or even a wild goat, should find a place 
of abode there. There was nothing in the shape of refresh- 
ments which money could purchase from the natives — ^not even 
a cocoa-nut ; and had it not been that I was favored with a 
note of introduction to a foreign resident who lived near the 
house once occupied by John Young (the friend and counselor 
of Kamehameha the Great), I must have maintained my fast. 

As my destination was I0I6, in the district of Kohala, I was 
compelled to resume my passage in the Manura-korvxii at 



DISTRICT OF KOHALA. 335 

noon. The captain had pledged himself to land me at Mahu- 
kona, on his way to Hilo. After much labor, the landing was 
leached in the schooner's boat. 

The natives of this "village gave me a kindly welcome, and 
manifested a deep interest in my welfare. I was ''Ka Kana- 
ka maikai'* (a good man), and every thing else that was 
" good." As these encomiums were bestowed on the suppo- 
ffltion that possibly I might have a few dollars about me, I 
received them at cost price, and returned them a few salams 
for their generosity. They cordially invited me to stay the 
night, for day was beginning to wane, and, as a special in- 
ducement, ofiered me the handsomest^eTTzm^ in the village as 
an accompanimient to my couch ; but I respectfiilly declined 
all such ofiers. Had most of the people not been afflicted with 
syphilist and arranged chiefly in Nature's costume, I should 
still have refused their solicitations. 

Having resolved on not staying there through the night, the 
next thing was to arrange for the transportation of my bag- 
gage. A Hawaiian has not the shghtest idea of the value of 
time, and in this instance they were exceedingly dull of com- 
prehension. There was no alternative left but to look out a 
suitable pole, to which I slung my baggage with a bark rope 
made out of the hau {Hibiscus tUiaceus), and placed the 
whole on the shoulders of two natives, who went trotting off 
with it at a very respectable speed. In this way they set out 
for I0I6, twelve miles distant, and as I could procure no horse, 
I was compelled to plod after them on foot. We reached I0I6 
at a late hour in the evening, and just in time to get thorough- 
ly dr^iched with a heavy rain-storm. 

Kohala is the northern district of Hawaii, and forms one of 
the six divisions of the island. Before the group was brought 
under the sway of Kamehameha the Conqueror, this district 
was a petty kingdom, and had its consecutive hst of monarchs. 
The lands are very fertile and extensive, and the soil rich, and 
it is well refireshed by fertilizing showers. 

If ancient landmarks are any evidence of past population, 
then the district of Kohala has been densely peopled. The 



336 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

entire region, covering more than three hundred equaxe miles, 
18 oovered with these landmarks. Countless footpaths, wide 
enough for pedestrians in single file, but nearly overgrown with 
grass ; sites of villages, of various extent and in every locati(ni» 
and the small, elevated lines of demarkation — or, as the Ha- 
waiians would term them, na itai (the bones of the land) — 
which showed the limits of landed property, were scattered 
over all the entire district. These village sites appeared to 
have been laid out so as to accommodate from fifty to five 
hundred, and in some places a thousand pec^le. The real es- 
tate seems to have been laid out in lots ranging fiom a fourth 
d an acre to two or three acres, all starting firom the nKmnt- 
ains on the south, and nmning down to the sea-shore on the 
north. 

These evidences of ancient population led me to oondude 
that Cook's census of four hundred thousand inhabitants, scat- 
tered over the group of islands, waa not, as some inodem sta- 
tisticians have asserted, over-estimated. Here, in this very 
region, thousands on thousands have flourished at once, and 
many a generation of warriors have cultivated these lands, and 
enjoyed their indigenous productions, and gone back to the 
same oblivion fiiom whence they sprung. No pyramids com- 
memorate their architectural skill, no costly mausoleums mark 
their resting-places, no giant fortresses stand as monuments of 
their martial habits ; but these landmarks are sufficient indi- 
cations of their vast numbers, and also of their mysterious ex- 
tinction. The traveler finds no costly shrine to kindle a devo- 
tional spirit, or before which he may o^r a piassing memorial ; 
nor does he wander amid the astounding splendors of a Thebes, 
or a Luxor, or a Kamak, but there is something in the deep 
silence and desolation of Kohala which seems to say — 
" Stop I for thy tread is on an empire's dust : 
A nation's spoil is sepulchred below 1" 

And such is the wasted state of the modem populaticm, that 
they seem to feel as if they almost intruded on the lands owned 
by their fathers. 



PAGAN TEMPLE AT PUUEPA. 337 



CHAPTEE XXVn. 

A Visit to the Seiau of Puuepa. — Accursed DespotismB of Paganism. 
— ^Wholesale daughters. — ^Testimony of an old Pagan Priest — Oo- 
nlar Demonstration. — Solitude of the Ruins. — ^Public Works of a 
past Generation. — Graves of a forgotten Race. — Glances at De- 
population. — Oausesy Fcut and Present, — ^New House of Worship 
at I0I6. — Character of Missionaries. — ^Friends and Foes. — ^Import- 
ance and Necessity <^ an impartial Estimate by the Traveler. — 
Nature and Extent of Hostilities. 

The first object I visited after my arrival at Kohala waa 
the celebrated heicm, or pagan temple at Puuepa, six miles to 
the northwest of I0I6. It is the largest temple on the group, 
and is located within a few yards of the sea-shore. Extemal- 
- ly, its length is three hundred and fifty feet, its width one hun- 
dred and fifty feet. The walls are nearly thirty feet thick at 
the surface of the earth ; their thickness at the top, eight ; 
their average height, fourteen. I found the northeast wall in 
the best state of preservation. 

Tradition says that, at the time of its erection, all the in- 
hahitants of the island were convened for the purpose, and 
that the stones of which it is comjposed were conveyed from 
the Valley of Polulu, a distance of twelve miles, by being pass- 
ed fipom hand to hand in single file by the workmen. Wheth- 
er tradition be true or not, it is certain that these stupendous 
works were reared when kings had absolute command over 
the lives and labors of their subjects, and when population 
was immensely numerous. The character of the stones form- 
ing these huge walls is volcanic. The solid materials of this 
hdaUy including the altars, and allowing for their nature, would 
weigh nearly 2,000,000 tuns. 

Of the date of its erection there is no knowledge. Without 
doubt, however, it has stood for ages ; for the walls are nearly 
oovered with a thick, coarse, and stunted moss — a species in- 

P 



338 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

dicative of age on the Hawaiian group. The inhabitants of 
the neighboring village have traditions of many of the scenes 
which have been enacted in this temple during the reign of 
some of their ancient kings, but the date of its origin is buried 
in oblivion. A few niches, once occupied by roughly-hewn 
idols, were still visible in the sides of the walls. In the north- 
east comer of the interior was a niche more perfectly formed 
than any of the others : it is said to have been the place occu- 
pied by the guardian deity of the temple. Portions of the 
walls were in a state of ruin, and so were the three rugged 
altars. 

It is impossible to sit on the walls of this temple, and not 
indulge thoughts pecuUax both to time and place. On one 
hand, the heart sickens at the remembrance of the hellish 
atrocities ; on the other, a liberal mind rejoices that these deeds 
of blood have fled forever. It seemed impossible to believe 
that whole hecatombs of human beings were once immolated 
here, or that on this very spol the dearest family ties were 
severed by the high-priests of paganism. Yet on these very 
altars the child saw its father, the wife her husband, and pa- 
rents their sons, sacrificed to secure the favor of imaginary 
deities. 

The immolation of human beings was practiced on a whole- 
sale principle. Some were ofiered to gods which the people 
feared — others to deities which they professed to love. If an 
epidemic swept over the island — ^if the crops were not so abun- 
dant as usual — ^if the king of the district was going to war, 
or if he had returned from victory — ^if he was sick — ^if he re- 
covered — or if he died, at aU and every one of these instances 
men were needed for sacrifice. Thousands on thousands, 
through successive generations, have been thus consigned to a 
bloody death. 

When I visited this spot there were persons living near who 
had witnessed the overthrow of their idols and the abolition 
of idolatry. One of them was a white-headed old man, who 
had acted as sub-priest at the very time of pagan worship in 
this temple. He said he had witnessed hundreds c^ human 



OCULAR DEMONSTRATION. 339 

sacrifices, by tens at once, in the course of a few days, and 
that he had assisted on those occasions. The victims were 
permitted to remain on the central or principal altar during 
two whole days. On the morning of the third day, and when 
putrefaction had commenced, the bodies were removed to a 
large flat stone on the outside of the temple. This stone was 
placed near the east comer of the north wall. Its dimensions 
were seven feet long by five wide, and it was slightly con- 
cave. It was sacred to the purposes of immolation. When 
the victims above alluded to were placed on it, the flesh was 
stripped from the bones, and the bones were all separated. 
Both flesh and bones were then carried down to the sea-side 
and thoroughly washed. On being conveyed back to the tem* 
pie, the bones were tied up in bundles, and the flesh was con- 
sumed to ashes at the back of the altars. 

There were men selected from among the people for the 
performance of these last rites. If they complied, they al- 
ways obtained grants of land from the king or chiefs, through 
the intercession of the high-priest ; but if they refused, directly 
the contrary was the result : their lands and personal property 
(did they already possess any) were taken from them, and they 
were marked out as the next victims for immolation. Doubt- 
less this union of king and priest, and this exaction of such 
bloody servitude, were the means through which such a hell- 
ish oppression was maintained. 

When this old priest had ended his narration, he pointed 
out the fire-place at the back of the central altar, in which 
he said the flesh of the victims was consumed. His testimony 
was fully established in the fact that the stones were covered 
with a vitreous coating — ^the result of frequent and intense 
calcination. And it is altogether improbable that this fire- 
place could have been used for any other purpose than the 
one he described. He then assured us that in the large niche, 
and under the stone- work which had once supported the prin- 
cipal idol, there were bundles of human bones. We employed 
three or £>ur natives to remove a few of the stones and some 
of the rubbish, and we witnessed a verification of this state- 



340 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ment also. There were human remains in the last stage of 
deoompofiition. They were so bnttle that they broke b^ieath 
the touch, and th^ position was indicative of the truth of all 
the priest had said in relation to th^oa. 

But over this earthly pandemcniium a great change has 
swept. The life-blood of husband, father, brother, £riend, 
shall never again redden these altars. The red right hand 
of the sacerdotal butcher is silent in the grave. The sub- 
priest who gave us these revelations is the odIj surviving 
member of the fraternity ; and he shuddered, as he spoke, at 
the mere remembrance of the scenes, the agony, the honxns 
once witnessed here. The eager crowds who once pressed 
these huge walls to behold pagan rites, and knew not who of 
themselves would be the next victims, and dared not to drop 
a visible tear for an immolated &iend — those crowds, too, have 
passed away. All now was silence, and solitude, and ruin. 
A solitary castor-cnl plant and a few noble stalks of tobacco 
clustered around those ruined altars ; and a few harmless li2s- 
ards were the only living t^iants of this forsaken temple, which 
was once deemed the dwelling-place of gods. Unless these 
huge walls should be carried away for purposes inherent in 
modem improvement — and such a step is not at all probable 
under the presmit system of government — they wiU stand fas 
centuries as a monument of the diabolical oppression of a pa- 
gan hierarchy. 

But these huge temples were not the oaly public works in 
which the people were compelled to engage. Two miles 
southeast of the Mission Station at I0I6, there is a water-course 
of no ordinary interest to an explorer. The foimtain-head of 
this stream is at the termination of a deep ravine. To convey 
water over the surrounding district, it was necessary to have 
it brought from the head of this ravine, and thus turn it from 
its original channel. To achieve this object, an embajakment 
seems to have been raised from the bed of the ravine to a 
height of nearly two hundred feet. Where this embankment 
terminates, a channel has been hewn in the sides oi the solid 
rock more than half a mile in kngth. To maayji reader, such 



GLANCES AT DEPOPULATION. 34I 

a work may appear altogether insignificant ; but when it is 
remembered that the qnly tools employed in this excavation 
were koiSj or stone axes, and sticks of hard wood sharpened 
down to a point, the success of the workmen is as astonish- 
ing to a tourist as are the sculptures among the temples of 
the Nile to the modem traveler. In all probabiHty^ this may 
have been the work of some Hawaiian Mehemet Ali, in days 
when thousands of men could be levied to do the bidding of 
their despotic master. In view of the old mode of Hawaiian 
labor, and of the physical character of the abyss along which 
this stream is conducted, it may be considered as great a work 
for rude islanders as the Pyramids of Egypt were for the min- 
ions of the Pharaohs., The greatest wonder is that the Ha- 
waii's ever achieved such a work at all. 

I have already referred to numerous landmarks as indica- 
tive of the existence oi a past race. But these are not the 
only evidences of ancient population. In the- northeast por- 
tions of lole, on the favorite grounds of Kamehameha the Con- 
queror, there are almost countless graves which look genera- 
tions old. The stones which cover the dust of these long-for- 
gotten dead are in a state of decomposition. Many of these 
sepulchral mounds have sunk on a level with the earth's sur- 
face, and are discovered firom the fact that upon them the grass 
grows tall^ and more verdant. No hand guards the existence - 
of these ancient dead. Nor is there any need of such precau- 
tion, for nothing obtrudes itself timong them but the sighings 
of the winds of night, and they alone chant the requiems over 
these rude resting-places of a forgotten race. 

There is every evidence that not only Kohala, but every 
part of the island of Hawaii where soil and water may be 
found, has been densely peopled. Like multitudes of the 
North American Indians, myriads have passed away unknown 
and unlamented by the rest of the world. In the Sandwich 
Islands history is only of modem birth. In its infant dawn- 
ings it timidly glances at the depopulation of the native races. 

It may be interesting to glance at this theme and its 
causes. 



342 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

These causes may come mider the clistinctive tenns of past 
dJuA. present. 

Among the past were war, human sacrifices,^ oppressions 
by kings, priests, and chiefs, and drunkenness. But among 
the principal causes were— 

1. Indolence. — ^In pursuing this theme, I prefer using the 
language of the best and most reliable natiTe historian :t ' 

** Another thing that tended to diminish the population was 
indolence {mclowa). Neither men nor women had any de- 
sire to work ; therefore some lived a lazy, wandering life, or 
attached themselves to those who had property for the sake 
of sustenance. Many, however, died in the wandering state, 
for laziness is attended with more evils than can ever be 
named." 

But this evil seems to have been constitutional. It grew 
out of the nature of the climate, the bounty of l^ature, and the 
uncertain tenure by which they held their possessions. This 
evil is fully portrayed by a late missionary authority : 

*' During a certain eruption, as stated by Mr. EUis, one of 
the rents or chasms made by it, emitting sulphurous smoke 
and fiame, ran directly through the fioorless and thatched hut 
of a native hving at Kaimu. All the notice he took of it was 
merely to remove his sleeping mat a little distance from the 
chasm, and composed himBelf again to his slumbers. A stu- 
pid insensibility to every elevated idea and every elevated emo- 
tion is a trait of heathenisnf . If you wish to awaken their 

* " In the days of ITmi, they said, that king, after having been 
victorious in battle over the kings of six of the diyisions of Hawaii, 
"was sacrificing captives at Waipio, when the voice of Euahiro, his 
god, was heard from the clouds, requiring more men ; the king kept ^ 
sacrificing, and the voice continued calling for more, till he had slain 
all his men except one, whom, as he was a great favorite, he refused 
at first to give up; but the god being urgent, he sacrificed him also, 
and the priest and himself were all that remained. Upward of 
eighty victims, they added, were offered at that time, in obedience 
to the audible demands of the insatiate demon.** — Mli^s Tour through 
Hawaiiy p. SSY. 

t See Hawaiian Spectator, voL il, No. ii., Art 1. 



GLANCES AT DEPOPULATION. 343 

attention, present a calabash ofpoi, a raw fish— or call them 
to some low, groveling, and sensual sport. To them the per-* 
fection of enjoyment is fullness of bread and abundance of 
idla[iess ; deep by night, lounging by day, filthy songs and 
sensual sports."* 

2. Pestilence. — ^This occurred while Kamehameha I. was 
residing at Oahu. It spread over the entire group, and the 
majority of the inhabitants were cut down by it. No proper 
care could be taken of the sick. Men perfectly well in the 
morning were dead in the evening. Persons who went to bury 
their neighbors were seized be£)re this last office of friendship 
could be performed, and died themselves, without even return- 
ing to their homes. Hence many corpses remained unbuned. 
This sickness, called katwkuu, greatly diminished the popula- 
tion. 

3. AAortion.-^There were various reasons for the practice 
of this evil. One was a fear, on the part of the mother, that 
the father would leave her and seek another wife, or because 
neither sustained such a relation to the chief as to be supported 
by him, and in that case the relatives of the parents destroyed 
the child. On this account, but few women had any desire 
for children, and many had the contrary desire of not having 
th«[n, and therefore drank such medicines as would prevent 
their becoming enceinte. Some absolutely denied. themselves 
the conjugal benefits immediately resulting in the marriage 
state. So, also, some of the men desired children and some . 
did not. Hence arose the sin of sodomy. Numbers of cat- 
amites were retained for unnatural purposes, and thousands 
of men died childless, never having cherished any female as- 
sociations. 

4. Infanticide was another means of decrease. It was so 
common that it had a parallel in no other country. Mothers 
destroyed their own children both before and after they were 
bom. They regarded the care of them a burden ; they fear- 
ed, too, that their pleasures would be diminished and their 
personal beauty impaired. In some instances, an additional 

* Dibble's History, p. 116. 



344 SANDWICH ISLAND NOT£S. 

motive was found in illegitimacy, and the consequent jealousy 
of their husbands. Hence they hardened their hearts, and, as 
if destitute of natural afiection, killed their ofispring. In lan- 
guage vivid as the light, Dibble portrays this horrible method 
of destroying children : 

*' The child, perhaps, is sick, and troubles her with its moans 
and cries, and, instead of searching into the causes of its sor- 
row or attempting to alleviate its pains, she stifles its cries for 
a moment with her hand, thrusts it into the grave prepared, 
covers it with a little earth, and tramples it down while strug- 
gling yet in the agonies of death. But wait and look around 
a httle, and you will find that this is not the first grave she 
has dug. Perhaps this may be the fifth or the seventh child 
that she has disposed of in the same way, and many of them, 
perhaps, firom no better motives than to rid herself of trouble, 
or to leave herself nu»:e firee for sensual pleasure and vicious 
indulgence."* 

5. Xice72^i(n«5ness'wa8 another cause of depopulation. Hab- 
its of iUicit intercourse were deemed necessary to the preser- 
vation of friendship and good feeling one to another. " These 
habits were often commenced at the age of twq or three years, 
and continued in such a manner as to induce genital.impoten- 
cy, and to perpetuate barrenness. This course was once al- 
most imiversal among the people."! 

6. Syphilis was the greatest of all causes of this decrease 
of population. The deadly virus had a wide and rapid circu- 
lation throughout the blood, the bones, and anews oiihe whole 
nation, and left in its course a train of wretchedness and mis- 
ery which the very pen blushes to record. In the lapse of a 
few years, a dreadful mortality, heightened, if not induced, by 
their unholy intercourse, swept away one half of the popula- 
tion, leaving the dead unburied for want of those able to per- 
form the rites of sepulture ! ^ 

It is singular that so many writers have persevered in the 
affirmation that this evil was introduced by the crews of Cap- 
tain Cook's vessels in 1779. It is a fact, established on the 

* Dibble's History, p. 128. f "Answers to Questions," p. 47. 



GLANCES AT DEPOPULATION. 345 

highest medical authorities, that, in thousands of instances, 
syphilis has been generated, de novo, by impure sexual inter- 
course. In view of the unrestrained Ucentiousness of the Ha- 
waiians from time immemorial, is there any r^ison why they 
should not, like other nations, fall victims to their wholesale 
indulgences ? Had Nature thrown around them an impreg- 
nable defense against the results of a violation of physical and 
moral laws ? Such an anomaly can not for a single moment 
be supposed. The rapid decrease of population since the visit 
of GooK may more properly have had its origin in a reaction 
of disease generated, de novo, in the early history of the na^ 
ti<m, precisely as the plague in any country may slumber for 
years, and then open yet wider its jaws of destruction. It is 
to a combination of licentioiusness and disease, and not to the 
crews of Cook's vessels, nor to the subsequent visits of every 
£»reigner, as the missionaries doggedly affirm, that the main 
cause of depopulation is owing. A maintenance of that af- 
firmation is exceedingly impolitic, and displays a total igno- 
rance of the physical organization of man. It may be sus- 
tained only when it can be undeniably proved that the Ha- 
waiians, throughout all their previous generations, were not 
actuated in the same manner as every portion of the human 
race. 

But these remarks bring us to the present causes of depop- 
ulation. They may be recognized as follows : 

1. Indolence, — This evil is as rife now as it ever was, and 
has already been noticed. 

2. Dietetics. — ^In their habits of eating and drinking they 
are very irregular. Those who have a good supply offish and 
poi will eat six or eight times in the twenty-four hours. They 
will sometimes rise in the night to eat. When they have 
nothing to tempt the appetite, such is their indolence that 
they will often fast for^days together, and when food is again 
procured, they will eat proportionably more. These extremes 
not unfrequently tend to fevers which end in death. 

3. Dress, — ^In passing firom a hardy way of Hving to one 
more conformed to the rules of civilization, requiring clothing, 

P2 



346 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

and leading to more efieminate habits. Not having from ear- 
ly life been accustomed to the use of clothing, they at first 
foimd it burdensome, and cast it off imprudently, often when 
they should hsve kept it on, and thus exposed themselves to 
colds, and consequent disease and death. Those who had ob- 
tained clothing often put it on in the heat of the day, and di- 
vested themselves of it in the cool of the day, and at night and 
in the wet appeared generally in their native costume, which 
was an almost entire destitution of clothing.* 

4. Parental Neglect. — On the Sandwich group children 
are Uterally bom to an inheritance of disease and misery inde- 
scribable. It is a matter of wonder how any of them survive 
their complaint& When contrasted with the children of civ- 
ilized lands, there is indeed a great gulf between. Nurtured 
in the lap of maternal love, watched over by day and night 
with the tenderest soUcitude, the first jrising symptom of ill- 
ness detected, and the best medical skill obtained which is in 
the power of parental anxiety to obtain, most of the latter live 
to bless the care that rears them. But the children of Ha- 
waiians are not so blessed. With all the predisposing causes 
of disease fastened upon them, having no suitable diet or med- 
ical aid when sick, destitute of careful nurses, having only 
those who are ignorant and heedless of their duty, they pine 
away till exhausted nature sinks, and they sleep in the arms 
of death. 

5. Dwellings. — " Though the Sandwich Islanders are re- 
markably fond of the water, and are fastidiously particular in 
their practices of washing and bathing, they are, nevertheless, 
extremely filthy and squaHd in many of their habits of life. 
With their beasts and fowls in the same habitation, and not 
unfrequently on the same mats with themselves, their often- 
repeated ablutions will be regarded as timely. The kapa^ or 
native cloth iised by the inhabitants, is worn vdthout cleans- 
ing, till, having become foul with dirt and vermin, and too 
ragged to serve longer the purposes of covering or protection, 
it is lain aside. Hence diseases induced or exacerbated by 

* "Answera to QueationB," p. 49. 



GLANCES AT DEPOPULATION. 347 

such causes have at those islanids a fruitful soil, and flourish 
hixuriantly." 

CntanecMs diseases and scrofula are the invariahle results 
of their wretched mode of domestics. • 

6. The TherapeiUics of Hawaiian Doctors, — Native med- 
icines and quacks tend to injure the health of the nation. 
Awa, a powerful narcotic, is the great medicine, when all oth- 
ers fail, with native doctors, and this produces intoxication 
like opiimi, feehleness, indigestion, nervous afiections, and ap- 
oplexy. Much of the practice of native doctors is Uttle else 
than mere nuinslaughter,* 

'* Many of these evils have their source in a hlind and har- 
baious practice of using immoderately the most powerful and 
drastic cathartics. The inside of the calabash {Cticurbita 
lagenaria), triturated seeds of the castor oil, the fruit of the 
candle-nut {Aleurites triloba), two or three species of the Ipo- 
mecBy and some other drastic articles, are given in such doses 
as sometimes to create the most obstinate and dangerous dys- 
enteries. I have known a case in which the average opera- 
tions of four cathartics, given to disperse dropsy, were twenty- 
one, the aggregate eighty-four ; and another case, in which a 
man, from a fear that he would be sick, took such an enor- 
mous dose of the calabash as to produce a hemorrhage, which 
proved fatal within a few hours."t 

" Charms and incantations have a conspicuous place in 
their therapeutics, and often lead to practices the most shock- 
ing. Many have been pounded and roasted to death from a 
belief that their diseases were the eflect of an indwelling spirit. 
Nor is it in all cases needfiil that the patient should be actu- 
ally suflering with disease ; the mere apprehension of future 
fidckness is sufficient reason for having recourse to remediate 
measures, and truly fortunate is he who has sufficient strength 
of constitution to withstand the baneM influence of their 
more drastic do6e8.''t 

8. &yphilisy in its worst forms, is one of the principal mod- 

* ** Answers to Questions," p. 48. 

f Hawaiian Spectator, voL i., p. 259. % Ibid., p. 262. 



348 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

em causes of depopulatioQ. Under this head I will cite one 
Trictim as described by a recent medical authority at the group. 
In presenting this case, he says : "I have seen more than one 
cas^ of marasmus induced by the difficulty of mastication and 
deglutition. The mouths of these patients were ahnost closed 
in the process of cicatrization, and the gums and fauces were 
destroyed by ulceration. In one of my patients sufiering with 
the secondary symptoms of the disease, in which I was suo- 
cessM in stopping its progress by a mercurial course, the ex- 
ternal nose had entirely disaj^peared, and its place was occu- 
pied by a concavity and a foramen of an irregularly oblong 
form. The left eye was totally blind, and both so disfigured 
by ulceration as almost to lose their identity. The mouth was 
shockingly deformed ; the hps and alveolar processes mostly 
removed by absorption, and the teeth, having their necks and 
a portion of their roots divested of integuments, were irregu- 
lar in their distances and positions, pointed in every direction, 
and but slenderly adapted to the purposes of utility. The 
whole coimtenance was much disfigured by deep eschars, and 
the body greatly emaciated ; no food could be masticated by 
him, so bad was the condition of his mouth."^ 

Thus far I have been tedious on the causes of depopulation 
of the Hawaiian race. The reader will immediately perceive 
that I have drawn largely from materials fiumished both by 
native historians and missionary authority. In doing this I 
have followed my original design, for I was anxious that they 
should tell their own story of facts which a few pseudo-phi- 
lanthropists might carefully undertake to dispute. But there 
is a cause— the greatest of all causes— for modem decrease in 
the numbers of this dying people, that they have studiously 
avoided, or cared not to mention, or of which they are totally 
unconscious. That cause is 

The strictures of Missionary Law ! — Owing to the uni- 
versal intercourse between the sexes, numbers of women be- 
come enceinte. The ofispring may be that of a foreigner, for 

* ** Climate and Diseases of the Sandwich Islands. By Alonzo 
Chapin, "i/LDJ* American Journal of Medical Sciences, No. : 



GLANCES AT DEPOPULATION. 349 

to this class of men the native women are strongly attached, 
and they deem such an intercourse honorable. It will never 
do for that offspring to see the light. As a natural result, it 
is certain to be a half-caste. It would detect the crime of the 
mother. Ecclesiastical inquisitors would faithfully watch her 
recovery from sickness, and then they would not fail to see 
that she was faithfully fined and imprisoned. {See Penal 
Code for 1850, chap, xiii., sec. 4.) If an unmarried woman, 
it will certainly lead to her detection, and she will certainly 
be punished in the same way. {Ibid., chap, xiii., sec. 5.) 

Such is the method of argument employed by the Hawaiian 
women. ^ And is it ^ot very natural ? Can their law-givers 
be so blind as to beUeve that their minions will not avail them- 
selyes of the means which will aid them in escaping a shame- 
fid and degrading conviction ? If they are, they are willfully 
blind. To escape the rigors of the law, the women emjjloy 
ahortiony and, in some cases, infanticide. The former of 
these evils is very common among the younger women over 
aU the group, and the latter is employed in extreme cases, 
or when the former fails to reHeve them ; but too frequently 
it destroys the mother and her ofispring at the same time. In 
this way hundreds of women destroy themselves, and thou- 
sands of children, perspectively, are prevented from entering 
upon life's stage. Ten thousand times better would it have 
been for that wronged people had they been permitted to in- 
dulge a restricted concubinage, on their old plan, than to have 
had their domestic habits so suddenly revolutionized. Among 
a people possessing such whirlwind passions, it would have 
been a source of greater virtue than can ever be secured by 
the strictures of .law; and their willingness to renounce a 
plurality of wives would have been the strongest test, in case 
of their becoming candidates for church-membership, that they 
wiUingly acquiesced in the just and righteous demands of the 
Moral Law of the Bible. 

There are other causes of decrease which might be enumer- 
ated, but they axe of minor importance, and may be dismissed. 
The rapidity in the depopulation of the Hawaiiaa people is 



350 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

unparalleled in the history of the human race. By the early 
navigators in these seas, the inhahitants of the several islands 
of this group were estimated at not less than £)ur hundred 
thousand. This was the estimate given hy the scientific gen- 
tlemen who accompanied Captain Cook in his voyage of dis- 
covery. Suheequent voyagers confirmed the correctness of the 
estimate. The accounts of the older and more intelligent na- 
tives, as well as the indications of a country oace extensively 
cultivated, conohorate the prohalnlity c^ its truth, and prove 
the &ct that there was once a teeming population flourishing 
throughout the whole cluster of islands. But within the shcnrt 
space of seventy-four years-^— allowing for the scourge of the 
small-pox during the year 1853 — ^the population has dvnndled 
down to the low census of ahout sixty-five thousand. Official 
documents* show the immense rapidity of its decline within 
a few years past. According to the census of 1 836, it amount- 
ed to 108,759. The census of 1832 gave 130,313, as follows : 

bUnds. 1833. 1836. Deereaae in 4 yetn. 

Hawau 46,792 89,364 6,428 

Maui 36,062 24,199 10,863 

Molpkai 6,000 6,000 • 

Lanai 1,600 1,200 400 

Eahoolawe 80 80 

Oahu 29,766 27,809 1,946 

Kauai 10,977 8,934 2,043 

Niihau 1,047 993 64 

130,313 108,679 21,734 

The last census, taken in 1848, shows the following result : 

Islands. Population. DeaUia. Births. 

Hawaii 27,204 2,726 686 

Oahu 28,146 2,409 696 

Maui 18,671 1,619 267 

Kauai 6,941 686 164 

Molokai 8,429 412 62 

Niihau 723 44 18 

Lanai 628 47 6 

Total 80,641 7,943 1,478 

* Hawaiian Spectator, voL i, p. 426. 



CHARACTER OF MISSIONARIES. 35^ 

During the last five years^ disease and death have been no 
less active than formerly. There is something mournful in 
the thought of a nation thus fading away. And it may be 
said, in the sorrowftd language of a native historian, ** On ac- 
count of the magnitude of these evils which have come upon 
the kingdom, the kingdom is sick — ^it is reduced to a skeleton, 
and is near to death ; yea, the whole Hawaiian nation is near 
to a close."* 

I can not leave I0I6 without briefly referring to the new 
mission church which was in progress of erection at the 
time of my visit. This was the third edifice which had been 
erected there by the regular congregation of native worship- 
ers. The first was a mere thatched building ; the second was 
a commodious frame house, which was devastated by a heavy 
wind in 1 849. The one now in progress is invested with some- 
thing at once permanent and novel. The walls are composed 
of vesicular lava, which was procured firam a neighboring ra- 
vine. The sand was brought from the valley of Polulu and 
the beach at Kawaihae — ^the former place six miles distant, 
the latter twenty-six. There were no roads over which a 
team could travel ; consequently, the materials were conveyed 
to the site of the building in a method entirely new, and each 
native threw in a share of labor. Some carried sand from the 
place just mentioned in handkerchiefs, others in their imder- 
garments. Others very ingeniously connected an entire suit 
together, and filled it with the same material, and then con- 
veyed it to I0I6. The lime was the product of coral, which had 
been procured from the reefs at a depth of one to four fathoms 
below the surface of the sea. The timbers were hewn in the 
mountains several miles distant, and dragged down by hand to 
the building. In this way the Work had been going on firom 
the time the foundation was laid ; and when finished, it will 
certainly be a credit to the architect and supervisor, the res- 
ident missionary, Mr. EHas Bond. 

These remarks have led me to make a brief review of mis- 
sionary character. The life of a faithful and devoted mission- 
* Hawaiian Spectator, voL ii, p. 180. 



352 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

axy on the Sandwich Islands is one of toil, and hard toil, too. 
A good deal is required, and much must be perfcnrmed. The. 
missionaiy must occupy every post of duty. In many in- 
stances he has to turn carpenter, blacksmith, road-supervisor, 
land-surveyor, surgeon, and physician. He must necessarily 
become versed in the vernacular language of the group. Aside 
from all these duties, he has to attend to the temporal, moral, 
and spiritual claims of his own family and congregation. He 
must be here, there, and every where, so to speak, at the same 
time. He may be a Yaslbo in literature, a Cbestebfibld in 
poUteness; but, unless he can readily adapt himself to the 
multifarious caUings above specified, he is of no use at the 
Sandwich Islands, and had better be away. Grood, practical 
men — ^not mere theorists — men of true philanthropy, with 
large hearts, are the ani/y sort of men needed there. And I 
wi^ to be understood as declaring that, although there are men 
there who in their clerical capacity have hindered the cause of 
true Christian civilization, there are those who have done their 
work well and cheerfully ; and Mr. £. Bond, at I0I6, is one of 
the latter number. Their object is to elevate a pagan race. 
No herald precedes their movements ; no triumphal chariot 
bears them onward in the discharge of their duties. They 
work steadily, quietly ; yet theirs 

"Are deeds which shall not pass away, 
' And names that wUl not wither, though the earth 
Forgets her empires with a just decay. 
The enslavers and the enslaved, their death and birth : 
The high, the mountain-majesty of worth 
Shall be, and is, survivor of its woe, 
And from its immortality look forth 
In the sun's face, like to the Alpine snow, 
Imperishably pure, beyond all things below." 

Like other men, these missionaries have their fiiends and 
foes around them and far away. That fidendship and that 
enmity are both strong, and shrink not at trifles, and both, as 
a general thing, are very extreme. To tread a medium path, 
so as to avoid a fulsome flattery or a sweeping censorious- 
nesB, is extremely difficult ; yet is it the only just path, and 



CHRISTIAN LIBERALITY. 353 

few have found it. Feeling, sympathy, partiality, have often 
carried away the judgment, and led to fiaital mistakes on the 
part of their eulogizers, and in the estimation of their enter- 
prise hy mere spectators ; and vengeful feelings, counter views, 
opposing motives, when leagued against them, have produced 
residts not any worse on the side of the opposing party. Could 
it be more universally understood that those zealous mission- 
aries of whom I have spoken are not angels nor demi-gods, 
but MEN, and that they have their virtues not less than their 
faults, matters would be viewed wil^ more justice and gen- 
erosity. 

In this relation, it is absolutely important and necessary that 
^the traveler over the group should be strictly impartial. In- 
temperate eulogy has done more injury than wholesale invec- 
tive. Both extremes hold up things in a flgdse hght. A sen- 
sible writer, himself a missionary at the time, reprehends this 
extremity of eulogy and invective in language too plain to be 
mistaken : 

" It may be remarked here that travelers who visit mission- 
ary establishments sometimes contribute to existing error. If 
they write in favor of them, they wish to do it to some pur- 
pose ; they wish, of course, to be popular in an age which 
asks for new and exciting matter firom the press. Hence we 
have seen books professing to give the state of things at the 
Society, Sandwich, and even Marquesas Islands, written in a 
style of extravagance adapted rather to gratify than to in- 
form the reader. There are other travelers who fall into the 
opposite extreme. They have a point to establish, namely, 
that the missionary enterprise does no good ; that it impover- 
ishes and depopulates, and that the natives who survive its 
pestilential influence are more idle, filthy, and vicious."* 

While he refers to the traveler, he is not afraid to correct 
the wrong inferences sometimes drawn from missionary reports 
by secretaries of societies. In referring to misapprehension on 
this theme, he says : 

" Certainly this may be affirmed of the late Rev. William 
* Hawaiian Spectator, voL L, p. 99. 



354 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Orme, foreign secretary to the London Missionary Society. 
Tet in a discourse,* for the most part excellent, ddivered by 
him at varioos missionary anniversaries in England, he di&w 
a portrait of the South Sea Missimi, fi>r which there is no ori- 
ginal in the Pacific, and, in our judgment, will not be fi>r a cenr 
tnry to come. The following is the paragraph to which ref- 
erence is made : 

" ' See those smiling children — Ibeir father's boast, th^ 
mother's pride — romping in all the joyousness of youth, in all 
the conscious security of home, and the delights of parental 
fondness, and brotherly and sisterly afiection. 

** * Behold that happy family, united, endeared, and peace- 
ful! the parents bound together by the indissoluble tie of 
marriage, and the still more sacred bond of religion — the 
husband loving his wife even as himself, and the wife honor- 
ing and obej^ing her husband — ^the children growing up like 
olive-plants about their table — and all showing how good and 
how pleasant a thing it is to dwell together in unity. 

" * Examine that cottage — I describe from facts — ^it rises (»i 
the outskirts of a shady wood, through which a winding path 
conducts the traveler, improving, as it advances, in beauty. 
At its termination, and in firont of the dwelling, appears a 
beautiful green lawn. The cottage is constructed with neat- 
ness and regularity, and tastefiilly whitewashed. Enter its 
folding-doors. It has a boarded floor, covered with oil-cloth ; 
the windows are furnished with Venitian shutters, to render 
the apartment cool and refreshing ; the rooms are divided by 
screens of kapa, and the beds covered with the same material, 
white and clean ; the apartments are furnished with chairs 
and sofas of native workmanship, and every article indicating 
at once the taste and comfort of the occupants.' "t 

* " The History of the South Sea Mission applied to the Instmo- 
tion and Encouragement of the Church. A Discourse delivered at 
various Missionary Anniversaries. By William Orme, Foreign Secre- 
tary to the London Missionary Society." London : doldsworth and 
Ball, 18 St Paul's Church-yard, 1829. 

f Hawaiian Spectator, vol i.» p. 94. 



NATURE AND EXTENT OF HOSTILITIES. 355 

If foreign secretaries are intemperate in their encomiums, it 
is to be regretted that some foreigners residing on the group 
are not more careful in drawing the dividing Hne between 
those missionaries who yet faithftdly discharge their duties, 
and those who have abandoned them for the acquisition of 
wealth and pohtical power. That these two classes exist will 
not for a single moment be questioned by men who are prac- 
tically famihar with the present condition of the Sandwich 
Islands. 

There are causes, however, for the exist^ice of some hostil- 
ities, cherished both by foreigners residing on the islands and 
by tourists conversant with their pohtical and religious condi- 
tion, and the chief of these causes is an attempted unity be- 
tween the two elements by a few ex-missionaries and their 
partisans. If to this influence laymen should stand opposed, 
it ought to a^rd no cause for surprise, for it has aheady done 
much injury to the interests of the nation, as well as to the 
noble cause of Christianity. It is a well-established fact, that 
theologians never did become Hberal and enHght^ied poUti- 
cians ; and their failure has always been owing to their dogged 
determination to render spiritual power superior to the rights 
and immunities of civil institutions. When the Nazabene 
was arraigned before the bar of Pilate, he said, *' My kingdom 
is not of this world !" 



356 • SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 



CHAPTER XXVm. 

FEOM lOLE TO WADIEA. 

Solitude of Native Dwellings. — ^Volcanic Features. — Groves of the 
7% Plant — ^Wild Oats. — ^Plains of Waimea. — ^More Evidences of 
Depopulation. — ^Hawaiian Catacombs. — ^Btbon's Soliloquy on a 
SkulL — Former Method of Interment among the Hawaiians. — 
Abuse of the Dead. — A '* Plague of Flies.'' — Comparison of Natives 
and Foreignera — ^Foreigners and Native Wives. — Agriculture. — 
Sugar Plantations. — ^A genuine ** Yankee" — ^&aising Stock for the 
Market 

As I left I0I6 behind me on my way to "Waimea, I could 
not help bestowing a lingering glance on the graves of past 
generations of men. Nor could I avoid cherishing a profound 
regret that the last vestige of the race in the district of Ko- 
hala was nearly gone to the " land of silence.'' The charac- 
ter of my journey was such as to foster these impressions. 
My path lay directly across the mountains separating, the dis- 
tricts of Kohala and Waimea. It was nearly an unbroken 
solitude. The graves of the earlier generations of Hawaiians 
were around. Their village sites were on every hand. The 
foot-paths over which many a warrior had passed from his 
home to battle, and where many a Hawaiian Hebe had glided 
in the splendors of a tropical twilight, were stiU there. 

As I continued to ascend the long slopes, I passed two or 
three native huts. What induced them to raise their habita- 
tions in the midst of such a solitude, I could not easily guess. 
But, as the equally solitary inmates came out to steal a glance 
at me while passing, I almost felt an intruder on their fore- 
fiithers' soil. 

The geological features of this region are purely volcanic. 
I passed several cones or chimneys several hundred feet high. 
They had decomposed into a very soft red tufa, and their 
sides w^re covered with a rough mountain grass, interspersed 



WILD OATS. 357 



with a few stunted trees. The soil was mostly of a dark 
brown, and very fertile. 

Inunense groves of the ti plant {Draccena termincdis) 
flourish on these upland plains. This is one of the many in- 
stances of Dame Nature's hberality toward her Polynesian 
children. The ti plant is serviceable in a variety of ways. 
The long dark green leaf is used as envelopes for certain mar- 
ketable articles, and they are usually wrapped round fishes, 
pigs, and fowls, during the process of cooking. The root, 
which closely resembles in form the root of the cochlearia, is 
supphed with a rich saccharine juice. When baked, its taste 
is not unlike the sugar*cane. As an article of food, it is much 
prized by the inhabitants of mountain regions ; and in times 
of scarcity, it has fed multitudes who would otherwise have 
perished with famine. 

Halfway between I0I6 and Waimea, either side of the road 
was skirted for miles with wild oats, that served as food for 
numerous herds of wild cattle. It is said they were originally 
sown by an American sailor wh(»n I found residing in this 
region. Having disposed of his own *^wild oats" in his more 
youthful days, and becoming weary in baffling the storms of 
the ocean, he forsook his nautical employment, took to his 
aims a dusky daughter of Hawaii, and located his abode on 
terra jimui, 

Where the road begins to descend the mountains on the 
south, the plains of Waimea spread before the eye like an im- 
mense panorama. When fidrly on them, their appearance is 
much broken by low volcanic mounds and narrow gulches, or 
water-courses. They have a gradual ascent from the sea- 
shore at Kawaihae until they reach the district of Hamakua 
on the east, and the base of Maima Kea on the south. 

These plains are much pierced by subterranean chambers, 
many of which are accessible fiom their roofe, while others, 
once used as places of interment for the dead, are hermetically 
sealed. Nearly midway between Waimea and Hanipoi the 
load leads over one of these vast chambers, no access to which 
has yet been discovered. In riding ovot it, the hoxse's feet 



358 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

produce hoflow reverberations, which carry the convictioii to 
the rider that the roof may break through at any moment. 

Like Kohala, the district of Waimea displays numerous evi- 
dences of extinct population. On nearly every portion of the 
plains, and on every hill-side to the north, there were distinct 
traces of lands that had once been well cultivated, and of vil- 
lages once densely peopled. At almost every step, the travel- 
er is induced to stay and to ask himself, '' What has become 
of the vast multitudes that once hved and progressed in this 
region? and where have they been scattered?'* And he 
pauses and reflects until Echo answers " Where ?** 

Let us pay a visit to the principal catacomb at Waimea. 
It is situated about three miles to the south of the village. A 
native guide is a very necessary accompaniment to the travel- 
er, for the site of entrance is diflicult to find. The aperture 
is small and pierces the roof. Several projecting masses of 
lava rock aid in the descent, which is accomplished by going 
down feet first, and some care is required to prevent a stran- 
ger from breaking his neck by falling backward. The aid of 
a torch is also required, for the darkness of this catacomb is 
literally " thick darkness." The chamber has no regular for- 
mati(m ; the sides are rugged, and seem as if once torn by a 
heavy natural convulsion at a very early period. The bottom 
was much torn in pieces, and in some places the fissures were 
filled up with a smooth bed of black lava sand, over which a 
stream of water seems to have passed at difierent intervals, 
caused, probably, by infiltration during the rainy seasons. 

Nothing can be more striking than the dreary and solemn 
aspect of this subterranean. The light of a torch hardly scat- 
ters the dense darkness beyond its own radius, but casts a pale 
and startling hue over the heaps of the mouldering dead. The 
first object which attracted my notice was a skull, against 
which my foot came in contact while passing over the bed of 
sand. I picked it up, looked at its eyeless sockets, jcxamined 
its loose teetii. The interior was filled with sand, fragments 
of dried grass, and pieces of native cloth, clearly indicating that 
in this very cranium, once actuated by thoughts, passions, 



BYRON'S SOLILOQUY ON A SKULL. 359 

hopes, sorrows, joys, emanating from an immortal soul, a few 
mice had witnessed the progress of one of their own genera- 
tions. If there is an ohject on earth that will produce hene- 
ficial meditation, it is a human cranium, in a catacomb whose 
* midnight blackness is illumined only by a single torch, and the 
being to whom that cranium once belonged a pagan warrior. 
It is said that the poet Young wrote his "Night Thoughts'' 
with a skull before him, lighted up with a candle that was 
placed inside it ; and the melancholy sounds of some portions 
of that poem Mly establish the truth of the assertion. Re- 
flections on this sublime wreck of hiunanity have many a time 
given birth to some of the purest thoughts and the most sub- 
lime emotions. The colloquy of " Hamlet" over the crani- 
mn of his deceased friend " Yorick" has often been cited as 
a masterly display of thought and reasoning. To this decision 
I humbly bow. But it may be questioned if any thing can 
surpass the musings of " Ohilde Habold" as he stood view- 
ing the widowed ruins of the once glorious Athens : 

« * » * « 

" Bemove yon skull firom oat the scattered heaps. 

Is this a temple where a God may dwell ? 
Why, even the worm at last disdains her shatter*d celL 

Look on its broken arch, its mined .wall, 
Its chambers desolate, and portals foul : 
Yet this was once Ambition's airy hall, 
The dome of Thought, the palace of the Soul. 
Behold, through each lack-lustre, eyeless hole^ 
The gay recess of Wisdom and of Wit, 
And Passion's host that never brook'd control — 
Can all saint, sage, or sophist ever writ. 
People this lonely tower, tins tenement refit ?" 

At an early period, the silent tenants of this catacomb ap- 
pear to have been disposed of with some degree of symmetry. 
At the time of interment it would seem that the ligaments 
were severed, so as to give the deceased a sitting posture, with 
the hands placed on the knees. Their former method of inter- 
ring the dead of rank, as described by a recent historian, will 
lead to a comparison of the more recent method : 



360 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

''After the death of a chief or the king, the corpee was per- 
mitted to lie one day, during which time the royal sorc^^ 
was engaged in incantation to procure the death of some per- 
son as a sacrifice or peace-ofiering to the gods fer the "proeper- 
ous reign of the new king. The corpse was then carried to 
the temple, where certain ceremonies were performed. It was 
then neatly inclosed in leaves of the native ti plant, in the 
same manner as they wrap together the hody of a hog or dog 
for cooking. The body was then placed in the ground and 
covered to the depth of about eight inches. A slight fire was 
then kindled over it, so as to keep it at about the temperature 
of the hving body. This was done for the purpose of hasten- 
ing the process of putrefaction. As soon as the flesh could be 
easily slipped from the bones, the six long bones of the arms and 
the six long bones of the legs were taken out, and, being cleansed 
in some perfumed water, were then fast^ied together, the hemes 
of the arms standing or the bones of the legs. The head was 
then taken, and, having been cleansed in the same mann^, 
was placed on the top, and the whole wound up in native 
bark cloth, and deified. But if they were merely the bones 
of a high chief, they were simply preserved in some depository. 
In times of public commotion, the bones of the kings, though 
thus deified, were immediately concealed by their firiends, lest 
they shoiild be obtained by the enemy and treated with disre- 
spect. Some kings gave charge during Idieir lifetime to have 
their bones concealed at once. This, we have seen, was the 
charge of Kamehameha."* 

It was evident, however, that the tenants of this catacomb 
had not been exposed to such extreme transformations afi;er 
death ; yet this was the burying-place of the chiefii of more 
recent timas. They seem to have been interred with their 
weapons of war, and all their domestic implements, such as 
fishing-lines, tobacco-pipes, &c. ; they were also rolled up in 
sheets of native cloth manufactured out of the bark of the na- 
tive waiite {Moras papyrifera), and laid on rude firames con- 
structed with poles. Some of the skeletons I examined were 
* Dibble's History, p. 128. 



' ANCIENT MODE OF INTERMENT. 361 

between six and seven feet in length, while others were rather 
more than medium. It occurred to me as being a very re- 
markable fact that, in those jaws which were the most entire, 
the teeth were perfect in their enamel, and almost in number. 
Two or three of the front teeth, however, were usually defi- 
cient, both in the upper and lower jaws, and this was the re- 
sult of a custom which always followed the death of a king or 
chief, and was formerly considered the most sincere badge of 
mourning. This singular beauty of the teeth after their long 
interment is owing solely to the fact that the Hawaiians al- 
ways — ^then as now — ate their food in a cold state. Some 
of these remains were in a state of remarkable preservation. 
The skin was merely withered, and hung loosely around its 
tenant, like a piece of faded parchment : it seemed as if a 
mere touch would awaken the sleepers to thought and action. 
Others, again, were so entire, and retained so quiet an aspect, 
that I could hardly persuade myself that they were not indulg- 
ing a brief and refreshing repose. The chambers of the dead 
are perfectly dry, and every fragment of rock, together with 
every portion of human remains, was covered with a conglom- 
erate of fine dust ; and it may be owing to the perfect aridity 
of these sepulchres that the dead have so long retained their 
entireness. 

It was evident that some miscreant hands had been busily 
employed in violating the repose of these silent slumberers. 
Some were dislodged from their horizontal position, and placed 
in an erect posture against the walls of the catacombs ; a part 
of these were placed on their feet, while others were fixed di- 
rectly vice versa. I founH one immense skeleton in a sitting 
posture, with an old tobacco-pipe placed in its ghastly jaws ; 
and in spite of that mysterious sanctity which ever hovers 
around the last vestiges of the dead, I found some difficulty in 
repressing a smile at the very ludicrous appearance. Others 
reposed in the position in which they had been originally 
placed, with the exception that the same sacrilegious hands 
had placed an empty calabash under each head. There were 
others that appeared never to have been disturbed, while vast 

a 



3^ SANDWICH ISLAND NOTSS. 

numben were tumbled about in every conceivable attitude. 
Others, again, were robbed of the domestic impi^nents that 
had been interred with them. 

Nothing can justify these wanton outrages upon the dead, 
and that man is not to be envied who can tread the realmaof 
the ** king of terrors" with a callous heart. Only a few yeais 
before my visit, a large catacomb at Kea-ni-^, a little to ^e 
eastward of Waimea village, was burned out. Every vestige 
of the long-buried dead was destroyed. It is said to have 
been done by two fiireigners ; but whether by accident or de- 
sign, it is not known. But the indignation of the natives who 
resided near the spot was aroused at this wholesale destruc- 
tion of the bones of th^ fathers, and it came very near cost- 
ing these travelers and their native guides their life. Otiier 
catacombs in this region have been similarly outraged ; con- 
sequently, a number more have been closely sealed by the 
present generaticm, with a view to preserve them inviolate. 

Having finished my explorations, I procured a fine large 
cranium belonging to a skeleton six feet seven and three fowrth 
inches in length, and once more eiperged into the light of day. 

Waimea is a pleasant village, and has in full view the sum- 
mits of the three great volcanic mountains, Mauna Hualalai, 
Mauna Kea, and Mauna Loa ; and there are many {feasant 
objects to attract the admiration of a tourist. But almost ev- 
ery thing is marred by the eternal buzzing and biting of count- 
less swarms of flies. Whether Idieir existence is owing to the 
numerous catacombs, or the cattle-pens which are located 
there, or to both of these causes, I am unable to decide ; but 
they are an intolerable nuisance. They are up the first thing 
in a morning, and that man must be a sluggard indeed who 
can slumber amid their merciless attacks. It is impossible to 
sit down to a single meal but they find their way into your 
food, or directly into your mouth, as^ if they would dispute 
your right to satisfy the cravings of the " inner man." All 
day long, in the house and out oi doors, in the sunlight and 
in the shade, you are beset with these curses of Phabaoh, ^lis 
plague of Egypt. If you sit down to converse, your very aim 



NATIVES AND FOREIGNERS. 353 

wearies in its attempts to drive away these plagues ; or, if 
you sit down to read, you must hold a bush or a fly-brush in 
one hand, with your book in the other. If your inclination 
leads you to indulge a brief siesta after dinner, and you can 
not enjoy it without deeping with your mouth open, that un- 
finrtunate member serves for a regular fly-trap. Eating, drink- 
ing, sleeping, waking, riding, or walking, doing any thing or 
doing nothing, these legions surround you ; and if you do not 
latterly curse the plague-stricken Egyptian king for not keep- 
ing these curses in his own granite palaces, it is because you 
have more patience than Job, or because you never knew and 
never will know what patience means. 

While staying at Waimea, I had an excellent opportunity 
to study the comparative diflerence and the relations between 
native and foreign character. Aware that I am treading upon 
very delicate ground, I wish distinctly to be understood as 
speaking of a low class of foreigners, not at Waimea only, but 
wherever they reside on the group. More especially, how- 
ever, I choose to refer to this class of men who reside on the 
island of Hawaii, for there they most plainly reveal their true 
characteristics. As a general thing, this class are illiterate, 
sensual, and vicious ; they are the substratum of the society, 
<x canaille of other nations, and possess neither the inclina- 
tion nor means to elevate native character. To elevate abo- 
riginal races, both intelhgence, virtue, and ambition are nec- 
essary. These essentials the lower class of foreigners do not 
possess, and they never will. Having spent several years of 
their life among the natives without a single attempt to re- 
form them, it is exceedingly improbable that they will com- 
mence now. I have met with many foreigners who, in point 
of civilization, are far below thousands of the tffcitive race, 
and I have many a time questioned myself if native indolence 
and stupidity have surpassed their own. The efiects of such 
examples have always been extremely baneful to the cause of 
Hawaiian civilization, and the extent to which the cause of 
native virtue has been hindered will never be known until 
the day of the world's final judgm^it. 



364 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

So also the relations which subsist between most foreigners 
and native women — as wives, is more commonly a source oi 
evil than good. To a person who has never threaded his way 
over the Sandwich group, it will be natural to suppose that, 
when a foreigner marries a native woman, he will exert every 
eSbrt to raise her in the scale of civilization. But such is not 
the case. Almost, as a general thing, this union is but a li- 
cense to indiscriminate sensual indulgence and horrible bru- 
tality. When a foreigner takes to his arms one of these daugh- 
ters of the Pacific Islands, and supposes she can do for him 
what a woman of his own nation could, he must be destitute 
of the first rudiments of common sense. Yet these mistakes 
are of nearly every-day occurrence. In such cases, the native 
women are regarded more as matters of convenience than as 
immortal, and therefi)re responsible beings. In a very brief 
period their masculine tyrants ccmmience their brutality, force 
their unjust exactions, and become unfaithful to their conjugal 
vows. 

In point of civilization, too, Idiese foreigners, of whom I am 
speaking, are as much below their wives as their wives are 
below native women who are married to natives. Justice 
compels me to state that I have hwad them generous to a 
fault. They have always furnished me with the very best 
they had in their possession, and would never receive from me 
any compensation for their hospitalities ; but, at the same tim^ 
there was every thing wanting which* could tend to fling 
around their habitations what we understand by that magical 
word, that mighty talisman — ** HoifE !" It would be impos- 
sible to picture the demoniacal outrages perpetrated upon some 
of these native women by their own husbands during moments 
of groundltfiss jealousy. However a woman may thus sufier 
from the hands of a foreigner, there is no redress. Her life 
becomes a scene of continued slavery. Her spirit is broken, 
and she too commonly takes that license which a groundless 
jealousy only siipposed had an existence. Under such circum- 
stances as these, it is no longer a cause for surprise that so many 
of the Hawaiians never see the light of a true civiHzation. 



A GENUINE "YANKEE." 355 

The district of Waimea can not strictly be termed agricul- 
tural. This is owing to natural causes, not less than to the 
inattention of natives and foreigners to agricultural pursuits. 
In 1850 and 1851, vessels from California took away large 
supplies of produce. Since then there has been a great reduc- 
tion in native enterprise. 

At Lihue, a short distance to the southwest of Waimea, I 
passed over a ruined sugar estate. Every efibrt that ingenui- 
ty could devise had been vainly expended upon it. This fail- 
ure was owing to the commercial laws emanating from that 
sublime (»racle— the body pohtic at Honolulu ; also to the high 
duties imposed on the exported sugars. But this estate is not 
the first, nor will it be the last — should the present £)rm of 
government continue— that will be a mere sinking-fund to 
moneyed men. 

But the planter at Lihue was of that singular specimen of 
the genus homo usually termed a " genuine Yankee." As 
fast as the government and its one or two " Yankee'' sateUites 
tried to crush him in one comer, he always managed to elude 
their grasp — ^like an eel — and crept out at another. He was 
not long in finding out that, with himself, at least, sugar-mak- 
ing was not a lucrative business, and, fearing he might be 
tempted to attempt it another year, he tore down his sugar- 
house, and turned his hogs into the standing cane to fatten' for 
the market. As the chameleon is said to change his hues, so 
this planter changed his vocation. He at once commenced 
the business of cabinet-making, and reserved his sugar-grind- 
mg machinery for the purpose of turning his saws and lathes. 
Ever since this change of business, his success has been all he 
could wish. 

While staying with Idiis enterprising gentleman, Lwas at a 
total loss to decide which was the greatest curiosity — ^his per- 
sonal appearance, or the multiform character of his unconquer- 
able bent of mind. I did decide, however, that a thorough 
Yankee is the " eighth wonder of tiie world." I have watch- 
ed his movements until I have been compelled to reUeve my 
emotions by firequent outbursts of laughter. To me he'se^xi- 



366 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ed to be a sort of omnipiesence on his estate. In his shirt- 
sleeves, and with a lumbering apology £)r a walking-cane, I 
have seen him start up a group of indolent natives in one 
place, and be£}re I could realize that he was really gone, he 
would be rods away, giving directions in another. I remain- 
ed with him several days, and when I left him I waa compell- 
ed to sustain my original conclusioa, that a genuine Yankee 
is the ** eighth wonder of the world." 

The whole district of Waimea is best suited to raising stodc 
for the maiket. Horses, cattle,, and sheep increase at a rato 
of three per cent, faster than in any other country in the 
world. There are no chilling breezes. The lap of Nature is 
never frozen. The rains are frequent and fertilizing. Yes- 
dure is perpetual. Stock of every kind is easily fed cm these 
everlasting pastures. By proper care and enterprise, snstainr 
ed by a judicious expenditure of captal, this business may be 
rendered exceedingly lucrative both, to salesmen and pio- 
chasers. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

JOUENEY TO THE SUMMIT OF MAUNA KEA. 

CaYdmoTis FormationB. — ^Interview with a genuine " l^mrod.** — Saw- 
mills at Hanipoi — Singing Birds. — Power of Association. — In- 
stances o£ — ^A rough bat generous Welcome. — ^A strange Woman. 
— ^Ascent of the Mountain. — Forests. — ^Wild Cattle. — ^Fruits and 
Flowers. — ^Deceptions in climbing a volcanic Mountain. — ^Reach 
the Summit. — ^bitense Fdtigue. — ^Exquisite Sense of Cold- — ^Hills 
of Snow. — ^A Lunch above the Clouds. — Bound. — ^Large cratm- 
form Lake. — ^Apparent Formation of the Mountain.-^£ztinotion 
of its Fires. — ^Absolute Solitude. — ^View from the Summit. — Solil- 
oquy of Bybon*8 " Jf<m/re<i"r-Descent of the Mountain. — ^Proposed 
Penance. 

HATma finished my rambles over the district of Waimea, I 
commenced my pr^arations for a journey to the summit of 
Mauna Kea. I felt impatient to tread its snowSi and breathe 
the atmosphere at so sublime an altitude. 



A GENUINE "NIMROD." 867 

My preparations being completed, I started out with a na,- 
tive guide to the forests of Hanipoi, on the northeast slope of 
the mountain. For several miles after leaving Waimea, our 
path lay over a large sur&ce of country, which, from the hol- 
low sounds produced by the horses' feet, was evidently pierced 
by numercMis volcanic subterraneans. 

Noon overtook me within sight of the residence of Mr. 
Pabker, an old American, who had resided on this island near- 
ly forty years. I was curious to see him, as I heard much of 
his generous and excellent character, so I resolved on rn^\dvg 
a short stay with him. In his eadier life he had wandered 
over the ocean in the ci^cily of a sailor. His last voyage 
brought him to this island, when he resolved on quitting a pur- 
suit so precarious. For some years he ranged the woods afiber 
wild bullocks, and became a 8ec<«id Nimkod, " a mighty himt- 
er befere the Ixnrd." He showed me a rifle with which he 
had shot twelve hundred head of cattle. 

After a residence of several years on the idand, be married 
a Hawaiian wcmian. Two noble half-caste sons were the re- 
sult of that union. His own untiring and consistent deport- 
ment toward her rewarded him, for she has ev^ been a 
faithful, good wife. The civilization she displayed in her per- 
sonal i^peaxance and domestic relations entirely surprised me, 
and established a firm conviction that, with manly treatment, 
these ** daughtexB of the isles" can be rendered virtuous, happy, 
andusefiil. 

From this old veteran I gathered much useful infermation 
which I have interspersed in these pages. He had lived on 
the group several years before the first missionaries landed. 
He could speak of the " times of Kamehameha the Gb^t," 
and of his sijpcessor, Kamehameha H. His mind was well 
stored with facts relating to the habits and customs of the 
Hawaiians, all of which were deeply interesting ; and he lived 
on this island wh^i the battle was feught fer the overthrow 
of idolatry, on the plains of Kuamoo, in 1819. 

On the following day I took leave of Mr. Pabxer. My next 
stage brought me to Hanipoi. At this plaoe I feund several 



368 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

saw-mills employed in cutting lumber, abundance of which 
was supplied by the extensive forests of Acacia that flnnrwh 
in this region. 

Here, too, for the first time since my arrival at the group, I 
had the exquisite jdeasure of listening to the melody of birds, 
as they poured forth their music in the midst of the rich £>li- 
age, as if in honor to the setting sun. And that melody, so 
soft, sweet, and unexpected, imparted an intense charm to the 
already goigeous robes and associations of nature. 

Such an association as this can not fail to attract the no- 
tice of the tourist. It awakened up in my own spirit feelings 
and memories which had been biiried there for years. I could 
recall the hours when, a school-boy, I loved to range braiieath 
the canopy of the woods and groves, and play by the side of 
the murmuring brooks. Then, every zephyr had its music, 
every flower its honey, and every rose was thomless. It was 
the singing of these tiny warblers which brought bade days 
of innocence, and made me a child again. And who has not 
met some gentie incident which has awakened within him 
memories, feelings, thoughts, and sympathies tiiat may have 
slumbered for years, and that come back like music on the 
surfiu^ of the streams, or like the glory of a sun-ray on a calm 
sea ? Man is the creature of association. It was thus that 
the wax-bow of the brave Ultsses awoke the fountain of 
Penelope's tears.* The events which surrounded the youth- 
ful years of Cardinal Richelieu followed him through life. 
And when he built his splendid palace on the site of the old 
fiunily chateau at Richelieu, he even sacrificed its symmetry 
to preserve the room in which he was bom.f 

I spent that night under the hospitable roof of Mr. Fat, an 
old Englishman, and proprietor of the saw-mill^ to which al- 
lusion has been made. The same hberaUty which usually 
characterizes the English nation in their reception olf visitors 
seemed to influence him. His welcome to myself was rough 
and uneeremonious, but imbounded in its generosity. Every 

* Odjrssey, xxi, 56. 

f Mem* de Mll«. de Montpensier, i., 27. 



ASCENT OF THE MOUNTAIN. 369 

thing and every body around his dwelling were laid under a 
tax to provide for my comfort. 

I slept on the best bed in the house. The fatigues of the 
day were sufficient to render slumber a welcome companion. 
I deferred retiring until a late hour, on account of a woman 
who had taken up her abode near my couch. As she mani- 
fested no intention to remove her station, I concluded my only 
pohcy was to put on a bold face and disrobe myself at <mce. 
With a piercing eye, she watched every one of my movements 
until I had fairly got into bed, and when I was just closing 
my eyes in sleep, she sat there watching me still. I subse- 
quently ascertained that she was slightly deranged. 

After an early breakfast next morning, in company with a 
foreigner who acted as my guide, and several Kanakas, I com- 
menced the ascent of Mauna Kea. Hanipcn is elevated on the 
foot of the northeast slope, at a height of two thousand seven 
hundred feet above the sea, so that I had already obtained a 
certain altitude in my favor. The early part of the ascent lay 
through d^ise forests of gigantic koa {A(XLciafalcata)y covered 
with delicate creepers and species of TiUandsia. There were 
also scmie 4ioble specimens of the tree-fern ( Cibotium chamis' 
sands), whose feathery branches were swayed by the morning 
breeze, bearing on its wings the melody of birds. Just above 
the beginning of the zone of forest, the banana ceases to flour- 
ish, but a beautiful species of the Ruh^ may be found among 
the crevices of the rocks. The vegetable inhabitants of the 
mountain are of a highly interesting character. Amcmg these 
the Ferns are conspicuoufr. When the naturalist Douglas 
visited this region in January, 1834, he counted two hundred 
varieties, and a hundred difierent kinds of Mosses. The re- 
gion of forest reaches an ^evation of ^ht thousand feet above 
the sea. At this point the atmosphere is usually humid, and 
fovorable to the great number of Felices, which can not fail 
to attract the notice of the lover of botanical science. At the 
termination of the woody region, a species of Fragaria carpet- 
ed immense patches of the volcanic soil. There were also 
specimens of ComposUcdt some Vaccmkmiy and other Al^Mne 

a2 



370 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

flecks. In the higfaetst limit of the soil, I noticed a very fine 
Ranunculus^ and far above every other vestige of vegeta- 
tion, there were hundreds of the beautiful silver sword (Ensis 
argentea). 

These forests form a retreat for hundreds of wild cattle, the 
descendants of those introduced by Vancouver in 1 793 . They 
are wild as prairie horses. Woe to th^ unlucky traveler w1m> 
may meet one at the head of some contracted ravine, or fall 
into one of the pens in which the hunter may have entrapped 
a couple or more ! His life is certain to be fiir&ited. The in- 
trepid Douglas lost his life in the latter way when traveling 
over this island in 1834. 

These forests also abound with immense beds of strawber- 
ries. I could have picked bushels in a i^ort time, ripe, beau- 
tiful, and blooming. On this fruit thousands of birds, ducks, 
and wild geese sustain life, and it renders their flesh a deli- 
cacy which can not be surpassed. Whole groves of immense- 
ly tall raspberry-bushes were loaded with fiiiit of an incredible 
size. They are invaluable to quench thirst ; but after eating 
a few, their flavor seems to become bitter and disagreeable. 

In the lower regions of the woodlands the traveler crushes 
some delicate tropical flower at nearly every step. These 
gems of innocence and beauty intersperse the grass until it be- 
gins to diminish. 

The ascent of a volcanic mountain is usually very decep- 
tive. At a distance Mauna Kea looks very smooth and easy 
to climb ; but when fairly aa its mighty slopes, the traveler 
is soon undeceived. It was no longer the sublime illusion I 
had witnessed firom the distant waters of Kawaihae Bay, but 
regular up-hill work. It is intensely wearying before the 
zone of forests is passed, but after that the labor seems to in- 
crease Ai every step. Now the traveler knocks his knee 
against a sharp projection of lava, or he sinks up to his waist 
in soft sand and ashes. Now he reaches a steep cone, a ves- 
tige of which he could not see from the plain below. He 
must pass on one side of this, for he is too tired to climb it, 
•nd the eflbrt would not be repaid. Again, he is up to his 



ASCENT OF THE MOUNTAIN. 37I 

middle in sand and ashes. Just above his head there is a 
piece of rock projecting from the soft and abrupt slope. If he 
can but reach that^ he will sit down and rest! He still 
climbs ; his right hand clutches it, and he gently and gladly 
puUs himself up ; but, just as he is about to place both feet on 
it, the treacherous fragment gives way, and while it goes roll- 
ing down the mountain with the speed of an avalanche, he 
goes sliding down several rods of dry, loose sand. It is nec- 
essary to stay a while, and recover both breath and strength. 
What would he not give for a single drink of water ! But 
the lazy natives are far below, eating, drinking, and taking 
their ease. Breath is recovered, and a httle strength is gain- 
ed, and away goes the traveler again. Every step lost is 
more embarrassing than the efibrts made to gain twenty in 
advance ; so it is a succession of sHpping, climbing, panting» 
struggling, and perspiring, hour after hour, until the summit 
is gained. And even here the traveler is exposed to much 
disappointmeQt. He reaches an immense ledge of lava, which 
he joyfully hopes may be the last ; but there is another, and 
yet another, until he is almost in despair of reaching the end 
of his journey. 

After toiling upward for nearly a whole day, and on foot, 
I reached the great table or platform of the mountain. My 
guide had several times admonished me not to think of achiev- 
ing so much in one day ; but the near^ I approached the 
summit, the greater was my anxiety to reach it. It was on 
the edge of night when I attsnned this elevation — thirteen 
thousand two hundred feet above the sea, and the deep shad- 
ows of departed day were rapidly drawing over the plain be- 
low, shrouding every object in darkness. The exquisite sense 
of fatigue that crept over me was such as I can not describe, 
and wish never again to experience. At that moment I 
would have given any thing for a drink of water. But the 
lazy Kanakas could not be discovered by the aid of my tele- 
scope. In spite of hunger, thirsty and fatigue, J flung myself 
down on a block of lava and went to sleep. 
. When the faithful fellow that accompanied me bad roused 



373 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

me £n»n my brief siesta, I £)llowed bim a short distaAce down 
the mountain until we reached a cave, where he had kindled 
a good fire with a pile of the withered silver-sword. 

After waiting th^e mx hours, three of the natives made 
their appearance, bringing our eatables ; a great portion they 
had consumed, besides having used two calabashes of water. 
Nothing now remained but to make the best of our position ; 
so we cooked some beef-steaks which had been {nnwured ficom 
a young bullock we shot in the early part of the day. By 
the time we had finished our supper, the fourth native came 
in. The blankets which it fell to his lot to carry were not 
with him. He vowed by all that was sacred that a wild bul- 
lock had chased him, and that, in his flight, he had drqyped 
the blankets and lost them. He sealed these vows by taking 
supper enough for four men, and by Inreaking the only cala- 
bash which contained our last supply of water. Provoking as 
this piece (rf^carelesmess was» angry scolding would avail noth- 
ing, nor would it gather up the pre^ous fluid ; so I smoked 
my pipe in profound silence. Supper being ended, we con- 
soled ourselves by sleeping for the rest of the night on the 
hard floor of the cave. 

At sunrise next morning I resumed my journey. But the 
cold was intense. Although the thermometer stood at 23^, 
I felt the cold so keenly that I experienced a heavy bleeding 
at the nose ; and such was the aridity and rarefaction of the 
atmosphere, that it produced a violent pain in my head, my 
eyes became tnuch bloodshotten, and my hmbs, fer a time, 
were nearly paralyzed. The guide and natives all shared the 
same fate. A brief exercise, however, partially removed these 
difficulties. 

I was once more on the platform of the mountain. For 
the first four miles over this region, it was easy to form an 
idea- of the terrible havoc which had been produced by vol- 
canic fires. The enormous masses of lava, and the wide fields 
of sand, scorisB, and ashes, seemed to have passed through 
every degree of calcination, firom the mildest to the most in- 
tense. Hot rivers of sand had been projected over this fearfiil 



SNOW-COVERED HILLS. 373 

waste, bearing on their bosom huge masses of vblcamc rock, 
while in other places the streams of lava looked as fresh as if 
just vomited up from the deep womb of the mountain. 

On this wide platform or main summit stood the summit 
|»rqper. It is composed of a short range of snow-covered hills, 
forming a lengthened ridge of two hundred and twenty-eight 
yards^ running nearly in a direct line southeast and northwest. 
The loftiest of these hills or chimneys was five hundred and 
sixty-finir feet above the platform of the mountain. I was al* 
leady sufioing firom the efiects of intense fatigue, and, on reach- 
ing the snow, my resolution to ascend the Grand Peak felt a 
little shaken. It only remained for me to will the ascent, and 
the victcwry was won. After two hours* toiling and slipping, 
and having several times sunk up to my chin in snow, I at 
laagth. gained the summit of the highest cone. From this ele- 
▼aticm — ^thirteen thousand seven hundred and sixty-four feet 
above the sea — I had a good opportunity to view the plain on 
which the Grand Peak rested. These snow-covereid hills, 
when viewed from the village of Waimea, appeared insig- 
nificant ; but now, as I looked down their slopes, they seemed 
mountains in themselves. For miles around stretched a vast 
plain of scorise, sand, and ashes, heavily undulated, like tem- 
pest*t06sed billows. Sincerely did I long for the means and the 
possibihty to erect a lofty flag-staff', with the " stars and stripes" 
nailed to it, that they might wave over the group as high as 
the eagle soars on his broad pinions toward the sim. 

On the highest snow-bank, the thermometer stood at 20^ 
when suspended by hand. 

I gave a signal to my guide to pass round the base of the 
Grand Peak, while I descended on the southwest mde. Our 
eariy excursion had given us a good appetite for refreshments, 
and when we met we sat down fti a block of lava to take a 
lunch. The weather, although in June, was cold and bracing ; 
but there was something novel and agreeable in taking a lunch 
above the clouds, and we washed it down with water pro- 
Dored fiom snow. 

Commodore Wn^KES speaks of the diminution <^8omid wfam 



374 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

a gun was fired off bj him on the sammit <^ Maiina Loa.* 
This gingnlar phenomenon may have been caused by its hay- 
ing been fired across the crater, which was of vast depth, and 
the floor of which was rent by huge fissures which coidd not 
be fathomed. But on the summit of Mauna Kea it was v^ 
diflerent. There the non-diminution of sound struck me as 
being a curious fiact. I fired off a brace of pistols, and my 
guide fired off his nfle, and their noise was not at all difl^rent 
to the efi^cts of their discharge on the foot of the northern 
slope, but sent a thousand echoes through the spacioos regi<xis 
around. The phenomenon on this summit may be owing to 
the peculiar structure of the summit itself, not less than to the 
mineral character of the upper zone of the mountain, fi>r snow 
is doubtless a non-conductor of sound. 

Having finished our lunch, I passed toward the south to lode 
at a lake which I had discovered firom the summit of the Grand 
Peak. An hour's difficult walking brought me to the near- 
est shore. The surface of the lake was thirteen thousand and 
ninety-two feet above the sea, and surrounded by precipitous 
banks composed of red and black lava-sand. This sheet of 
water covered nearly two hundred acres. It was skirted with 
ice, which extended several yards firom the shore ; and although 
it seemed to have been much thawed, it would probably have 
borne the weight of a man. Anxious to test its capacity, I 
began to descend the bank, but I soon discovered the utter 
recklessness of the attempt. In a £ew seconds I sank up to 
my waist in sand and ashes, and was rapidly disappearing. 
Every attempt to reascend only plunged me into greater diffi- 
culties. I was rescued, however, by my guide. He request- 
ed me to desist iroia all further eflbrts until he could aid me. 
He did so by securing his pocket-handkerchief to the end of 
his rifle, which he lowered^iown the bank, and drew me up. 
By this time I was sufficiently warned not to hazard a second 
expedition ; and yet, if I had been in possession of a few good 
ropes, a large canoe, and hplf a dozen trusty natives, together 
with a suitable sounding-line, I should have tried the ei^ri* 
ment of sounding that lake. 

• TJmUd SUtm Exploring Expedition, tvI. ir., p. 16S. 



FORMATION OF MAUNA KEA. 375 

As it was, I was forced to content myself merely by gazing 
on its tranquil bosom. In many places on its treacherous 
8h(»es, and on the desolate plain around me, the bones of many 
a wild bullock were bleaching in the cold air. During the 
dry season, they had come here to procure water. Those in 
the former position had not been able to return ; those in the 
latter had perished firom sheer exhaustion. 

The formative process of Mauna Kea is a theme of profound 
interest to a naturahst. A dose study of its geognostic char- 
act^ can not fail to establish the ccmviction that it has been 
raised up firom the bed of the ocean. Like the other large 
mountains on the group, it may be classed among the craters 
of elevation.* One immense layer of lava succeeds another, 

* " The description given by Strabo and Pausanius of this eleva- 
tion led one of the Roman poets, most celebrated for his richness of 
fancy, to develop views which agree in a remarkable manner with 
the theory of modern geognosy. * Near Troszene is a tumulus, steep 
and devoid of trees, once a plain, now a mountain — the vapors, in- 
closed in dark caverns, in vain seeking a passage by which they may 
escape. The heaving earth, inflated by the force of the compressed 
vapors, expand like a bladder filled with air, or like a goat-skin. 
The ground has remained thus inflated, and the high, projecting emr 
inence has been solidified by time into a naked rock' Thus pictur- 
esquely, and, as analogous phenomena justify us in believing, thus 
truly has Ovid described that great natural phenomenon which oc- 
curred two hundred and eighty-two years before our era, and, con- 
sequently, -forty-fiv^e years before the volcanic separation of Thera 
(Saotorino) and Therasia, between Troezene and Epidaurus, on the 
same ^>ot where Russegoeb has found veins of trachyte : 

* Near Troezene stands a hill, exposed in air 
To winter winds, of leafy shadows bare : 
This once was level ground, but (strange to tell) 
Th' included vapors that in caverns dwell, 
Laboring with colic pangs, and close confined, 
In vain sought issue for the rumbling wind : 
Yet still they heaved for vent, and, heaving still, 
Enlarged the concave and shot up the hill. 
As breath expands a bladder, or the skins 
Of goats are blown t' inclose the hoarded wines — 
The mountain yet retains a mountain's fkce, 
And gather'd rubbish heads the hollow space.' ^ 

— "Ovid's Description of the Eruption of Methom {Metam., »r., p. 
20<^806X J>ryden'9 trantlaium,'* Ooimos^ vol I, p. 240, 241. 



376 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

each one beccnniiig more youthful as the snimnit is approached. 
By some terrible reaction, the crater se^ns suddenly to hav» 
become extinct, while vents have been formed in the sides of 
the mountain, and the Grand Peak or ridge of coaea superim- 
posed on the great platform. In this way that craterifcnrm 
lake has been established. It is supplied by the action of the 
sun's rays on perpetual snow. 

Just below the summit, and around its entire circuit, there 
are no fewer than forty-seven high conical hills of lateral Ibr- 
matiraL When the main crater became extinct, these cones 
or chimneys fonned the natural outlets of gaseous fluids and 
volcanic steam. Through these same vents the fires expend- 
ed their last strength, or took a subterranean course, and united 
with those of Kilauea, on the northeast dope of Mauna Loa, 
and of its own crater. 

The solitude of the summit of Mauna Kea is almost over^ 
whelming and absolute. Not a vestige of vegetation is to be 
seen. Nothing indicates the existence of man. The desola- 
tion was such as I had never before witnessed, and may never 
witness again. Forcibly did it recall to my mind the lan- 
guage of Milton's archangel when he addressed his fallen 
compeers: 

'* Ib this the region, this the soil, the clime, 
• • * • this the seat 

That we must change for heaven f '' 

The entire surface of the plain looked 

" As if it were a land that ever bum'd 
With solid, as the lake with liquid fire: 
And such appeared in hue, as when the force 
Of subterranean winds transports a hill 
Tom from Pelorus, or with t^atter^d side 
Of thundering ^tna, whose combustibles 
And fuel'd entrails thence conceiving fire, 
Sublimed with mineral fury, aid the winds^ 
And leave a singed bottom." 

B\}t the view from the summit was surpassingly grand and 
impressive. The sunlight shed such a sea of glory on the 



VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT. 377 

clouds which girded the sides of the mountain as to give them 
an apj^arance ahnost supernatural. The *' Aurora" of Gumo, 
with all its soft and heautiful touches, was infinitely surpass- 
ed here. In the distance, the island of Maui rose up out of 
the deep as if hy enchantment. The mountains on the north- 
west, that separated Kohala from Waimea, were enveloped 
with fleecy clouds that seemed permanent, like oceans of sil- 
ver suspended in the atmosphere. To the west, Mauna Hua- 
lalai, the third great mountain on the island, rose up like a 
huge giant from the plain helow. On the south towered the 
mighty Mauna Lioa, leaving its throne of clouds beneath its 
snowy brow, as if disdaining to notice* them. I looked up to 
the snow-covered hills close to where I stood, and as the sun 
shed on them his ddl and unobscured light, it seemed as 
though they almost held converse with the eternity which 
hung over them. The vast variety of objects, so mysteriously 
and beautiMly blended together, have a tendency to oppress 
the spirit. It was with great force and eloquence that Douo- 
. LAS said, when standing on this very spot, no longer than 
twenty years ago, 

*< Were the traveler permitted to express the emotions he 
feels when placed on such an astonishing part of the earth's 
surface, cold indeed must his heart be to the great operations 
of Nature, and stiU colder toward Nature's God, by whose 
wisdom and power such wonderful scenes were created, if he 
could behold them without deep humility and reverential awe. 
Man feels himself as nothing — as if standing on the verge of 
another world. A death-like stillness of the place, not an 
animal nor an insect to be seen — far removed £rom the din 
and bustle of the world — ^impresses on his mind with double 
£)roe the extreme helplessness of his condition, an object of 
pity and compassion, utterly unworthy to stand in the pres- 
ence of a great and good, and wise and holy God, and to con- 
template the diversified works of his hands." 

But the sun was the most glorious of all objects, as it shed 
its flood of light firom the bosom of the sky, and it has been 
ivell portrayed in the soliloquy of Byron's '^Manfred:'' 



378 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

"Glorious orb! the idol 
Of early Nature, and the vigorouB race 
^ Of undiseased mankind, the giant sons 
Of the embrace of angels, with a sex 
More beautiful than they, which did draw down 
The erring ^irits who can ne'er return. 
Most glorious orbl thou wert a worship, ere 
The mystery of thy making was revealed ! 
Thou earliest minister of the Almighty, 
Which gladdened, on their mountain-tops, the hearts 
Of the Chaldean shepherds, till they poured 
Themselyes in orisons I Thou material God, * 
And representative of the Unknown-^ 
Who chose thee for his shadow ! Thou chief star ! 
Centre of many stars ! which mak'st our earth 
Endurable, and temperest the hues 
And hearts of all who walk within tliy rays ! 
Sire of the seasons I Monarch of the climes 1 
And those who dwell in them I for near or far. 
Our inborn spirits have a tint of thee. 
Even as our outward aspects: thou dost rise^ 
And shine^ and set in glory." 

After lingering on and around the summit of this giant of 
the Pacific, I made preparations to descend. It really was a 
relief to call back the mind from a contem];^&tion of scenes 
▼iewed from the summit of a mountain nearly three miles in 
height ; and yet I left with them a rductant &jrewell. 

The descent I found to be more fatiguing than the ascent 
had been. The downward course, fas miles and hours in suc- 
cession, down slopes seventeen miles in length, makes a strcu^ 
man feel as thou^ Jbis limbs were about to be dismembered. 
As we approached the woody legion,^ we casually struck inta 
the same path of our ascoit, and on sitting down upon a ledge 
of rock to rest for a while, we discovered the nussiiig Uankets 
very carefuUy tucked away under it ! Aided by the. beauli&l 
moonlight, we continued our descent. At a late hour in the 
night we arrived onee taose at the hospitable dwelling of Mr. 
Fat, where we regaled ourselves oa substantial &re. 

It is impossible to describe the anguish which emanaton 
fromthekbiMrofolimbingMauBalLea. I had w^nni out thcef^ 



A HAWAIIAN FEAST. 379 

pairs of shoes in as many days. On returning to a place of 
repose, it was some time before even my sleep became a source 
of invigoration. I was highly gratified with what I had 
accomplished, but nothing would have induced me to reat- 
tempt it. 

In concluding this chapter, I have only to add, that if there 
is a devotee in the world who is looking to the genius of hu- 
man creeds for consolation, and is passing through a sea of 
penance to secure it, let him once climb this enormous volcanio 
cone, and if his sense of fatigue does not enlighten him as to 
the accursed impositions of his spiritual tyrants, nothing ever 
wiU. . 



. CHAPTER XXX. 

JOITRNEY TO WAI-PIO. 

Forests of Acacia. — Gigantic Ferns. — Swamps. — ^An Instance of na- 
tive Cruelty. — ^Valley of Wai-pio. — ^Descent — ^Primitiye Character 
of the Inhabitants. — ^Explorations. — Cascades. — ^A Bullock carried 
over the Falls. — ^Fastidiousness of native Appetite. — Population. 
— ^Agricnltare. — Curious Instance of Cupidity. — Real Changea< — 
Scenes at an Evening Repast 

The journey firom Hanipoi to Wai-pio is one of the most in- 
teresting and difficult of any over the Sandwich group. The 
" rainy season" was over, but its departure did not preclude 
ihe coming of frequent and fertilizing showers. My guide and 
myself were wet to our boots. The nearer we approached 
Wai-jno, the more embarrassing was the condifion of the roads. 
The horses sunk up to the skirts of their saddles in soft mud, 
and sometimei it cost hours of patient t<Hl befi>re they could 
Bgtan set their feet on terra firma. 

But, in spite of mud and rain, the scenery was grand. Our 
route lay directly through immense forests of koa {Acaciafal- 
ccUa\ liie strong limbs and forks of which were profUsely 
adorned with creepers of various sizes, pending in a perpen- 
dioolar line firom the lofty foUage down to the floor of the Ibr- 



380 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

est. Parasites ^jA, Epiphytes, of the most delicate species, 
clung to many of these huge koa-tiees with as much gentle- 
ness and dependence as *' Desdemona" clung to the Yenitian 
"Moor." 

But the most stately ohjects which hordeied our pathway, 
or occupied the remoter regions of these woods, were gigantic 
tree-ferns {Cibotitim cha/ndssoms). Many of them ranged 
firom twenty to seventy feet in height, and the £>hage of the 
most perfect of them, as it waved in the halmy winds, had a 
close resemblance to that of the Oriental palm-tree. From 
this noble fern the natives gather a soft, silky substance, that 
much resembles the best merino wool. This they call pulut 
and it is used for stuffing beds and pillows. 

To the left of the path lay treacherous and impassable 
swamps. In endeavoring to efiect a nearer journey to Wai- 
pio, many a native, when he supposed he Was passing over 
soUd ground, has suddenly disappeared and been seen no more. 

While following the path through this forest region, my at- 
tention was attracted toward a prostrate bullock. It needed 
but a single glance to convince me that his brutal owners had 
overloaded him, and goaded him through the sea of mud I 
had just crossed with an unbroken neck. In all probabiUty, 
he was but a year old ; but the poor creature lay there in the 
agonies of death. Although the mud was still up to my 
horse's knees, I dismounted, and, with the assistance of my na- 
tive guide, endeavored to assist the prostrate brute to his feet. 
But it was all in vain. My guide filled his old palm-leaf hat 
with water, and gave to him, but with no e^t. There is 
something in the agony of a dying camel, as he breathes his 
last in the wide solitudes of the Sahara, that can not feil to 
touch the deepest sympathies of a beholder, and there was 
something in the long sighs of that poor bullock that touched 
mine. His very eyes, because his tongue was dumb, were 
eloquent in their agony, and he turned them upon me with 
imploring glances. Feeling persuaded that I should do him 
an act of mercy, I terminated his sufferings with a pistol- 
shot. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ASTOR^ LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 



DESCENT INTO THE VALLEY. 393 

The Valley of Wai-pio may justly be tenned the Eden of 
the Hawaiian Islands. Long befi)re I saw it, I had heard it 
frequently spoken of in t^rms of the wannest admiration, and 
had prepared my mind for something beyond the usual char" 
acter of the scenery so profusely scattered over the group. On 
reaching the brink of the tremendous bank by which its south- 
em limit was bounded, the scene was truly magnificent. The 
bed of the valley reposed at a depth of two thousand feet be- 
low. The dwellings of the natives dwindled away nearly to 
the mze of ant-hills. The numerous herds of cattle which 
were quietly grazing in the everlasting pastures were hardly 
discernible. On the opposite bank — ^much higher than the 
one on which I stood — glittering cascades, broken in thirty 
abrupt falls, were tumbling firom rock to rock, half sport- 
ively, half angrily. The centre of the valley was enhvened 
with two crystal rivers, winding theijc tortuous path to meet 
the foaming surge that broke on the fair sand-beach at its 
mouth. There was something about that valley so lovely and 
imdisturbed, that it pictured to the imagination the paradise 
in which the first man wandered with the first woman. It 
seemed to belong to another world, or to be a portion of this 
into which sorrow and death had never entered. 

The descent into this lovely valley is comparatively easy. 
The tourist may assume a sitting posture, and slide dovm the 
smooth grassy bank for rods in succession. If he finds, himself 
gUding too rapidly, he may arrest his speed by an occasional 
clutch at a pandanus-tree, or a strong fern. In twenty min- 
utes he wiil find himself at the foot of the lofty spur, where 
he may lave his heated limbs in the quiet stream that ghdes 
gently past. 

On reaching the bed of the valley, and entering a native 
liouse, I was much impressed with the primitive character of 
the inhabitants. The arrival of a " hadi'* (foreigner) was, 
as usual, the signal for a numerous gathering of curious 
natives. For a time the doors — ^there were no windows — 
were to crowded, that it was impossible to procure a breath 
of atmosphere. Observing that I was a good deal heated firom 



384 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

the labor of descending the wall of the valley, one woman pro- 
cured me a drink of water ; another commenced fanning my 
&oe with an old palm-leaf hat ; while a third procured a: 
kUUli (fly-brush) to keep off the flies ; and a fourth, a good- 
looking woman about twenty years of age, procured an enor- 
mous wooden pipe, filled and lighted it with her own hps, and 
handed it to me to smoke. I was compelled, however, to de- 
cline this last attention. I had seen so much of syphilis among 
the Hawaiians, both men and women, that I had grown some- 
what fastidious. And there sat before me a woman, apparently 
much interested in my wel&re, who had lost a part of her nose 
and one eye finom the eflects of the same disease. As I had 
no strong inclination to lose my own members of that class, I 
concluded I had better let that pipe alone, for it certainly had 
a contagious look about it. Mistaking my real motive in this 
refusal, they even weni farther. I had acquired a sufficient 
smattering of the Hawaiian language to understand certain 
private forms of expression, and I understood that, to remedy 
the refusal I had just made, I might, if I would, pay my pri- 
vate respects to a dark-eyed girl who had just squatted down 
on the mat by my side. To this ofier, so indigenous to Ha- 
waiian character, I replied by taking out a cigar and smoking 
it. It is almost needless for me to state that this cluster of 
circumstances abnegated an assurance I had previou^y re- 
ceived, that " the inhabitants of Wai-pio were a moral set of 
people merely because they had not become contaminated by 
foreigners !" 

My explorations in this valley convinced me that it once 
teemed with a large and busy population. The boundaries of 
ancient fish-ponds, toro-beds, and village-sites were very numer- 
ous. At diflerent periods in its history, there was not a single 
square rod which does not seem to have been well cultivated. 
The population is rapidly decreasing ; in fact, it is nearly ex- 
tinct. In 1823, when the white man's face was seldom seen 
here, there were several hundred habitations, and thousands 
of inhabitants. There were also several pagan temples stand- 
ing, and an immense stone indosure, or city of refuge, into 



AGRICULTURE. 385 

which persons might flee in times of war and danger.* From 
that day to this, depopulation has been in active progress. 
The present population does not exceed two himdred and sixty. 
This fearful decrease is owing to causes already enumerated, 
especially the restrictions of ecclesiastical law. A small stone 
chapel or school-house acconunodates the entire population. 
Unless some unlooked-for interposition takes place, it will be 
but a short time before this terrestrial paradise will be as des- 
olate and forsaken as was Eden of dd after the expulsion of 
its first tenants. 

In this vaUey there is some attention paid to agriculture, 
if the mere cultivation of the taro can be dignified by such 
a term. For agricultural purposes, it possesses great and nu- 
merous facilities ; and yet the taro is the only plant of any 
importance that is cultivated. This article is the bread, the 
staff* of life to the Hawaiian race. Its cultivation is a source 
of wealth to the occupants of this valley. Every day, and 
during all sorts of weather to which this climate is subjected, 
loads of this food are conveyed on the backs of buUocks and 
the shoulders of natives from this spot to Kawaihae— over 
roads almost impassable — a distance of thirty miles, where it 
finds an immediate sale. 

There is no vaUey on the whole group which has a soil so 
rich, or is so WeU located as Wai-pio. Coffee, rice, tobacco, 
and many other articles could be here cultivated with im- 
mense success. The soil is composed of a rich debris of sev- 
eral feet in depth, and rests on a stratum of alluvial washed 
up generations ago by the restless ocean. This debris is con- 
stantly accumulating. Sheltered from the trade-winds, the 
vine would flourish extensively beneath the hills that form 
the southern boundary of the vaUey. 

Wai-pio Valley is nearly two miles wide at its mouth, •nd 
terminates in a deep and awfully grand ravine, seven miles 
from the sea-shore,, where the almost perpendicular walls at- 
tain an altitude of two thousand five hundred feet. The en- 
tire valley is crateriform, and its origin is closely allied to the 
* Ellis's Tour through Hawaii, p. 202-8. 
R 



386 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

valley of Halawa on Molokai. To enjoy a perfect view of 
this Hawaiian Eden, it should be seen and studied at early 
sunrise, at noon, at the hour of evening twilight, and at night 
under the brightness of the full-orbed moon. It surpasses in 
grandeur all that Johnson has said of the valley in which 
he introduces his readers to " Rassdas" the " Prince of Abys- 
sinia." Nor is it any cause for surprise that it should be re- 
tained as the favorite possession of Kamehambha III. 

I have already referred to the magnificent cascades in this 
valley. There is one, however, which can not be seen until 
the lofty banks are descended. It is located between the 
"spur" to which I have alluded, and the southern wall or 
boundary. It has its origin in a river that sweeps down a 
ravine terminating on the brow of a precipice one thousand 
two hundred feet high. On the brink of this tremendous 
abyss, the river is a foaming torrent ; but before it reaches 
the deep basin into which it falls, it is resolved into a heavy 
shower of spray, reflecting a cluster of the most magnificent 
rainbows which the eye can rest on, and giving life and beauty 
to a large variety of Ferns which grow out of the face of the 
lofty precipice. The whole scene is one of Nature's subhmest 
footsteps, which the tourist is compelled to stand and admire. 

A few weeks prior to my visit, a bullock was carried over 
the brow of this frightful abyss. His owner, a foreigner, whom 
I found residing near the place of descent, had missed him. 
Supposing he might have been carried down by the torrent, 
he searched the ravine, and discovered footprints where the 
animal had exerted himself to climb the banks. On tracing 
these marks to within a few feet of the cataract, he concluded 
that the bullock had been carried over, and dismissed the sub- 
ject from his mind. 

]fL a few days subsequent to this event, he was called upon 
by a few natives, who informed him that they had found a bul- 
lock at the foot of the falls which they supposed to be his, and 
requested the favor to dress and eat it ! The foreigner gave 
his cordial assent, and away they started down the " spur" 
mto the valley below to commence preparations for their feast. 



EVENING REPAST — REAL CHANGES. 387 

The mangled and bloated bullock was dragged ashore. Some 
undertook the task of dressing him, while others began to heat 
stones in a concave formed in the earth, where it was their in- 
tention to bake him. This process is called huiu. Just be- 
fore dusk, the former owner of the animal went down into the 
valley to look after his final disposition. He soon saw that 
they were cooking him I He waited a while longer. The 
natives spread their mats, put on theji viands, brought along 
their Zi^e^^ bullock, and conunenced their feast. The for- 
eigner had hved in that regicm several years, and had lost 
much of his former niceness of appetite, but he speedily con- 
cluded that it would be best to absent himself from this semi- 
cannibalism, and leave the group to finish their repast in theii 
own way. 

These statements may naturally lead to the remark that the 
inhabitants of Wai-pio have made but Uttle progress in civili- 
zation. The conclusion is, alas ! too true. I sought for the 
jpuhorma (city of refiige) which once existed there, and also 
for the heiatiSi on whose bloody altars so many human vic- 
tims had perished, but found them not. The bloody rites no 
longer existed. The conch was no longer sounded to summon 
warriors to battle. Life and property were now sacred, and 
every man was protected in the freedom of his rehgious wor- 
ship. The huge walls of their pagan temples and " city of 
refuge" had been torn down, and now stood as inclosures to 
Several cottages and fish-ponds. These are some of the real 
changes that have come over this valley and its people. But 
when the question of Christian civifization is tested, it must 
meet with a very unsatisfactory response. 

At the close of my second day's visit in this valley, I was 
about starting back up the " spur" which led out of it, when 
the owner of the house I first entered on my arrival informed 
me, if I would spend the nigh> with him, he would give me 
a good reception. The sound of the English language — ^lor 
he spoke Enghsh well — ^was a sufiicient inducement for me to 
remain with him. In an incredibly short time a fire was kin- 
dled on the outside of the house, and preparations were made 



3g8 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

fi)r cookiiig sapper. When oar repast was brouglit in, it con- 
sisted of a roasted fowl, some beef-steak, a mess ofpoi, some 
boiled taro, and a bowl of milk for myself. The form^ was 
all very well, but the latter I raised to touch ; &r reasons the 
same that induced me to refuse the pipe and tobacco on a pre- 
vious occasion had no small influence upon me at this supper- 
hour. I was fortunate enough to procure my " mess" in a 
separate dish, and the family group denned themselves equal- 
ly fortunate in dipping their fingers in the food without dis- 
cnminaticHi. Men, wom^, children, dogs, and cats, all ate 
together. 

The supper was finished and the mats were cleared. The 
next movement of '' mine host" was to procure several copies 
of the Bible and as many hymn-books, for the purpose of con^ 
ducting &mily devotions. Inwardly I r^roved myself for the 
hasty conclusion I had formed in relation to the private mor< 
als of this people. The devotions were conducted with a 
grace and solemnity that would have honored any civilized 
&mily. 

These devotions having terminated, I retired to the outside 
of the house to smoke a c»gar, and contemplate the aspect of 
the valley under the moonlight. As I sat smoking on the low 
stone wall which surrounded the dwelling, my ^itertainer, who 
was a young man, came out and joined me. He was a good 
specimen of a Hawaiian, both in personal appearance and 
mental structure. After making some remarks on the weath- 
er, the valley, the people, and myself, he wished to know if 
" I was attached to the sex." 

I told him I respected ihexa. 

Placing a wrong construction upon my reply, he assured me 
he was very poor, and must adopt some means to raise money. 
He had a mother, a sister, and a wife ; and each and all were 
at^my entire diqwsal, pro teifi.y for one silver dollar ! The 
wife, sister, and mother were all present at, and took a part 
in, the religious devotions of the evBning ; and the mother was 
the same woman whom I have already referred to as having 
lost h^ nose and (me eye' from l^e efilects of disease. 



VILLAGE OF KA-WAI-HAE. 399 

I have but a single comment to make on this human fiend. 
He had studied and graduated at Lahainakma a few years 
since, and in 1852 he was judge of the very district in which 
he now lived. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

• FBOM WAI-PIO TO KA-WA|(HA£« 

Village of Ka-wai-hae. — ^Another Pagan Temple. — Cause of its Erec- 
tiofl. — ^False Predictions. — ^Moral taught by Paganism. — ^Ravages 
of the Small-pox. — Solitary Village. — Outrageous Mode of Vac- 
cination. — ^Preposterous Conduct of the " Board of Heahh.'' — ^In- 
dignation of the Foreign Population. — ^Testimony of Physicians. — 
Native Quackery. — ^Terrible Influences of a certain Superstition. 
— ^Total<Defeat of a long-cherished Enterprise. 

Ea-wai-ha£ is a small, dreary village, on the shores of Ka^ 
wai-hiae Bay, without the least object to attract a resident to 
it. Excepting a few sickly-loddng cocoa-nut-trees, which 
stood near the tide^mark, I &und scarcely a piece of fdiage in 
the entire re^on. Hot, dry, and dusty, it is a perfect Sar 
hara ; yet this is a port of entry, and vessels have to pay for 
the privilege of anchoring in the unsafe waters. 

It really seems a mystery why any living thing should have 
concluded to reside in this desolate region. The. fi)od used by 
the natives is brought all the way from the Valley of Wai-pio« 
There is a Custom-house and Post-office, and both are con- 
ducted in a miserable native house. The house built many 
years ago by Jcoin Young, the firiend and counselor of Kame- 
HAMEHA the Great, I found yet standing ; but the old Eng- 
lishman had g<me to the grave, and the house was tenanted 
by the former teacher of the Oahu Charity-school, now y'clept 
District Judge. 

A short distance to the south of this forlorn village I found 
another heiaUy as perfect as when it was erected. It stands 
on the seaward side of a sloping hill, near the sea-shore. The 
massive walls are composed of lava stones ; and there stood 



390 SANDWICH IdLAND NOTES. 

the rude altars which had once heen haptized with hiunan 
blood. There were also the niches in which grim idols. once 
stood, while assembled thousands paid th^n a soul-felt homage. 

This heUiu is called Puukohala. It was built at the insti- 
gation of a priest during the reign of Kamehameha I., and 
under the assurance that it would be a safeguard against all 
the perils of war. 

But the prophet was false. The walls were not completed 
when hostilities ad^udly commenced. The war^hiefe of the 
old conqueror assembled a powerM army, and marched to 
Ka'u to exterminate Keoua, Iheir recent antagonist Keoua's 
course lay by the great crater of Kilauea. An eruption an- 
ticipated the carnage of battle, and his troops, exposed to a 
heavy shower of stones, cinders, ashes, sand, and blasts of sul- 
phurous gas, were nearly all overwhelmed. With the wreck 
of his army he met Kamehameha and his warriors a few 
days afterward, and a fiery contest commenced. For a long 
time the struggle was doubtful. At length, one of Kame- 
hameha's warriors, disguised as a Mend, went over to Kjboua 
and advised him personally to seek the favor of the kii^, then 
at Ka-wai-hae. Retreating by the way he came, Keoua led 
off his warriors, and proceeded by water to obtain an interview 
with the monarch. On arriving at Ka-wai-hae, he received 
the most solemn assurances of royal clem^u^y. But the very 
m(»nent he and his followers landed on the beach, they were 
seized, treacherously slaughtered, and their mangled remains 
were laid upon the altars of the unfinished temple, and sacri- 
ficed to the gods ! 

Such was the mercy shown to warriors who had reposed 
implicit confid^ice in ^e word of a pagan king ! Such was 
the spirit which paganism inculcated into the bosoms of its 
votaries ! 

But there is a moral in paganism which ought never io be 
£)rgotten. A man may stand on those altars where hundreds 
have been immolated, and shudder at the mere remembrance 
that human blood flowed from them like water, and that the 
very men who toiled to raise these walls were the first who 



RAVAGES OF THE SMALL-POX. 39X 

fell victims to the accursed despotisms of priests. But the 
moral of these helUsh orgies is this — ^that these debased isl- 
anders fdt their immortality,- and deemed these immolations 
the nearest way to secure it. 

This was the last pagan temple ever built on the group, 
and it is a remarkable coincidence in Hawaiian history, that, 
while it was bmlt at Ka-wai-hae, the first blow which eventu- 
ally laid the tabu system in the dust was struck in the same 
place, and at a time, too, when human victims were piled on 
the bloody altars of that temple to insure its consecration. 

On my return to Ka-wai-hae, I found the village almost des- 
olated by the small-pox. Out of a population of about fifty, 
twenty-three had already gone to the graves of their fathers. 
It was mournful to take a glance over that afflicted village. 
A few dwellings had already been consumed by fire. At 
nearly every door of the few houses that yet stood, a small yel- 
low flag was flying, to indicate that none but physicians were 
permitted to enter, under pain of fines and imprisonment. In 
the shades of their homes sat women and children, nearly as 
still as statues, and as desolate as lepers among the ancient 
Hebrews. It seemed as though a wave firom Lethe had swept 
over that village. Not to this dreary spot only was the epi- 
demic confined. The following rejfft)rt of the Conunissioners 
of Public Health in Honolulu, for the week ending July 22d, 
1853, shows its ravages oh the island of Oahu : 

" The number of new cases of smaU-pox which have been 
reported during the past week for the island of Oahu, is 626 ; 
deaths reported are 216. From the other islands, the new 
cases reported are 40 ; deaths reported, 19. Total number 
of cases reported, 2342. Total number of deaths reported, 808. 

" Whole number of cases reported during the week ending 
July 28th, for the island of Oahu, is 480 ; the number of deaths 
reported in the same time is 219. 

" From the other islands the new cases are 54 ; deaths, 26. 
The total nimiber of cases reported is 2886 ; deaths reported, 
1027. 

" The total number of burials under the direction of the 



392 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

commissioners, by the police and otheis, in Honolulu and viciiir 
ity, since June 26th, is 663. 

'' Forty houses at Waikiki, and thirty on the Ewa side of 
Honolulu, more than two miles £rom the market, are being* 
erected by the commissioners, under the direction of the dedc 
of the Bureau of Public Improvements." 

Accounts which have come to hand since I left the group 
give the following information : 

''The small-pox is still raging. At Honolulu there are 
only nineteen cases, but in other parts of Oahu it is still de- 
structive. The total number of cases till the 9th of S^tem- 
ber was 5049 ; total deaths, 1805. The number of new cases 
fi>r the week ending September 9th was 214 ; the previous 
week, 295. There are no authentic reports firom other isl- 
ands, but rumor said that the disease was increasing at La- 
haina. 

^'Office of the Commissioners qfPtdlic Health Report, — 
The number of new cases of small-pox which have been re- 
ported during the past week, fox the island of Oahu, are 214 ; 
the number of deaths reported in the same time are 68. 

" From the other islands, the new cases reported are 4 ; 
deaths, 2. 

" Total number of cases reported, 5049 ; total deaths, 1805. 

'* Nimiber of cases remaining in Honolulu this day are 13. 

*' LmoLmo, Chairman. 

"Honolulu, September 9, 1853." 

When this terrible scourge first appeared in Honolulu, it 
naturally created an intense excitement. Vaccination be- 
came the order of the day. Physicians, native and foreign, . 
and persons who boasted of their ignorance of Materia Med- 
ica^ were induced to enter the lists as " knights of the lance." 
A Board of Health was established, under the specious guise 
of aiding the sick. The disease spread like a whirlwind far 
and near, and every effort was made to arrest its progress. 
Consummate quacks, both native and foreign, followed or su- 
perseded the movements of skillful physicians. This prostitu- 
tion of the calamity drew from two of the most skill&l med- 



MODE OF VACCINATION. 393 

ical men in town a bitter censure, wMch was published in one 
of the town journals.* The " constituted authorities" had 
appointed ^eo^t-professional men to vaccinate the natives. 
Thus armed with a "little brief authority,'' they sallied forth 
on their mission; and their doings were portrayed by the 
medical men just alluded to. " Old scabs, sometimes of doubt* 
ful character, taken indiscriminately £rom children or grown 
persons, were mixed, on homeopathic principles, with a suf* 
ficient quantity of afpm fontana to set any therein supposed 
to be donnant spirits at hberty, and inserted faithfiiUy into 
the skin by means of half a dozen crossK^uts, which at times 
would produce such a gush of blood as to be alone a suffici^it 
safeguard against the introduction of the pretended regenera- 
tor." Much of this labor was entirely lost, but where it took, 
it produced in some cases '^ a broad, dirty-looking, pustule-like 
mass, which might have been taken by an inadvertent exam- 
iner for what is called ecthyma or rupia ;" in others it pro- 
duced ** large festering sores of an undeteiminable character, 
spreading into real ulcers, and surrounded by a secondary 
eruption." 

One of these educated physicians remarked, " ' Excellent 
vaccine' (?) is daily shown me, that is so active that in a day 
or two it has formed a large pustule ; and hundreds of arms I 
have seen with horrible ulcers, which can not be cured for 
months, many of them presenting piles of scab very much re- 
sembling the rough piles of rock upon the moimtain top. * 
* * * Verily the poor natives are sorely beset. It does 
seem as if their condition was bad enough, even though these 
newly-fledged knights of the lancet should desist from so ac- 
tively propagating the most loathsome ulcers from arm to arm. 
Humanity demands that they should let alone what they do 
not understand, and occupy themselves in some more harm- 
less amusement suited to their capacities.'* 

Nor is this all. The ''vaccine mrv£' (?) employed by 

some of these disciples of Hippocrates has, in some cases, been 

productive of syphilitic disease, for it was procured from per- 

* The ^Weekly Argut,"* June 16, 1868. 

R2 



394 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

sons who were similarly afflicted ; and many of the natives, 
overwhelmed with superstitious fears, tried to vaccinate them- 
selves. 

But vaccination did not save multitudes ; there is evidence 
that it procured their death. The '' Pclynesian'' of the 13th 
of August remarks : 

" It appears that even vaccination will not protect the en- 
ervated Kanakas firom disease. The marshal of Honolulu re- 
ports that he had found ahout seven eighths of those attacked 
had heen vaccinated. He then presented a pap^, gi'^^ing the 
numh^ of persons taken with the disease who had been vac- 
cinated, and the number cured. We give only a summary : 
whole number vaccinated taken sick, 477 ; whole number 
cured, 209." 

And what was the " Board of Health" doing all this time ? 
While the epidemic was sweeping over Oahu, and laying mul- 
titudes in their graves, Messrs. Judd and Armstrong — ^who 
were the leading spirits of this " Board" — ^permitted vessels to 
leave Honolulu, and carry the disease to the other islands in 
the group. This was scientific and philanthropic, was it not ? 
But this was the way in which the small-pox was conveyed 
to Ka-wai-hae, and tiience over the island of Hawaii. And 
while the foreign residents of Honolulu were spendmg their 
time and money to stay the march of this fearful pestilence, 
which was threatening to annihilate the people and sweep off 
their commerce, and while the small sum of " two thousand 
dollars" would have caused every native on the group to be 
properly vaccinated, and thereby have saved thoussuids of 
hves, these tioo philanthropic gentlemen controlled the treas- 
ury, and the Aitreaties and anxieties of true philanthropists 
were trodden imder foot by them. It was not until the de- 
stroying angel had swept past that their superior wisdom un- 
dertook to devise means for the pubhc safety. 

It could not be expected that the foreign population could 
pass by these outrages and say nothing. Neither did they. 
A storm of pubhc indignation burst forth. On the 20th of 
July, 1853, a pubUc notice was sent forth, calling upon every 



^•COMMITTEE OF THIRTEEN." 395 

friend of justice to petition for the final removal of the Minis- 
ters of Finance and PubUc Instruction. That was the most 
important event that has ever occurred in the Sandwich Isl- 
ands since the overthrow of idolatry in 1819. It was the 
daivn of freedom's birth-day to the native and foreign popula- 
tion. It was the means of convening three pubHc meetings 
for free discussion of individual rights and opinions by the best 
citizens on the group. As that third meeting of independent 
citizens seriously concerns the United States not less than the 
Sandwich Islands, I give an outline of its proceedings in this 
connection : 

"At a pubhc meeting of the foreign residents, called by the 
" Committee of Thirteen," to be held in the court-house in this 
city on the evening of August 15, the following officers were 
elected : John Montgomery, President ; Frank Spencer and 
Pierce Haggerty, Vice-presidents ; and William Ladd and 
J. M. Smith, Secretaries. 

" The chairman of the committee of five, to present the peti- 
tion to the king, reported that they had discharged that duty. 

" J. D. Blair, Esq., then moved the adoption of the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

"Resolved, That we, the independent party, continue our 
organization, and the committee of thirteen continue to act 
until the purposes of this party are attained. 

"Resolved, That the appointments heretofore made by the 
committee of thirteen to fill vacancies are hereby ratified, and 
that the committee be empowered to fiill all vacancies that 
may hereafter occur. 

"Resohedy That we will sustain the committee of thirteen 
in all measures it may deem expedient for accomplishing the 
object of this party. 

" J. Montgomery, Esq., being called, addressed the meet- 
. ing in earnest support of the resolutions. 

" Dr. Newcombe then followed in a detailed and successful 
review of statements which appeared in the last issue of the 
Polynesian, and boldly challenged a contradiction of his state- 
ment offsets as opposed toG. P. Judd and Rich'd Armstrong. 



396 SANDWICH ISLAND NOT£S. 

" C. C. Harris, Police Justice, addreeeed the meetiiig in op- 
position to the proceedings and purpose of the independent 
party. Mr. Harris read an extract from the petition, to which 
he ohtained access in the office of the Minister of the Interior, 
and then intimated that an idea of teason or rerohition was 
involved in those proceedings. 

'* Mr. Blair replied with much ei&ct to Mr. Harris, and 
charged him with heing the first to iatroduce revolutionary or 
treasonable ideas or designs, and also of having improper pos- 
session of an extract from the petition. 

"A. B. Bates, District Attorney (and brother-in-law of G. 
P. Judd), during a period of thirty-five minutes, made a variety 
of remarks, design^ to screen and defend the obnoxious min- 
isters, to divert the attention and purposes of the party, and to 
prevent the adoption of the resolutions. He then descended 
to indulge in some ungentlemanly personal remarks respecting 
all the officers of the meeting, and also some of the speakers 
and members of the committee of thirteen. 

" J. M. Smith being then called upon, in the course of his 
pungent observations, charged home upcm certain ministers 
certain ofiensive acts which came to his knowledge while act- 
ing in the last Legislature. 

" The resolutions having been duly seconded and ably sup- 
ported, were enthusiastically adopted, upon which the meet- 
ing adjourned." 

I shall enter more fully into this subject on a subsequent 
page. I have already referred to the testimony of competent 
physicians as to the sufierings inflicted upon the people by in- 
competent men ; but, in aU probability, the most prominent 
evil has resulted in the quackery of native doctors, if they may 
i)e dignified by such an appellation. With their charms and 
incantations, together with their powerful medicines, it is un- 
doubtedly true that they have destroyed more lives than they 
have saved. 

It is not improbable that the common " neglect of the proper 
means to preserve life are the remains of superstition among 
the people. They appear to have but little sense of the value 



ORIGIN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDERS. 397 

of life. , They can lie down and die the easiest of any people 
with which I am acquainted. I have pretty good reason for 
the hehef that they sometimes die through fear, heUeving that 
some person having the power to pray them to death is in the 
act of doing so, and the imagination is so wrought up that life 
yields to intense fear."* 

The existence of this epidemic was an efiectual harrier to 
my farther progress over Hawaii. I had purposed to continue 
my ramhles £rom Ka-wai-hae to Kealakekua Bay — ^the death- 
place of Cook ; from thence across the spur of Mauna Loa to 
Kilauea and to Hilo. This was a plan I had long cherished, 
but the natives were falling around me like withered leaves 
in the forest ; I could get nothing done at any cost, and I could 
not finish my journey alone. Keenly did I feel the disappoint- 
ment, hut there was no remedy ; so I resolved on finishing my 
tour by a few concljiding observations. 



' CHAPTER XXXII. 

CONCLUSION. 

Origin of the Sandwich Islanders. — ^The Theory sustained by Tradi- 
tion. — ^Hahits and Customs^ Physical Organization and Language. 
— ^Their Past and Present Condition: Social, Political, and Relig- 
ious. — Probable Destiny of the Race. — Prospective History of 
Christian Institutions. — -Cause for Congratulation. — One Cause of 
a grand Failure. — ^The English Language the only best Channel 
of Civilization. 

There is a sort of melancholy pleasure in a patient investi- 
gation of the origin of ancient races. When there are well- 
defined landmarks to aid the researches of the antiquary, his 
task is easy ; otherwise it is like threading his way along the 
galleries of buried nations in search of some one whose rest- 
ing-place is marked by no monumental marble. 

Such is the position of a tourist over the Sandwich group. 
"Answers to Questionsj" p. 49. 



398 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

There are no Giant Causeways or Gothic turrets to mark the 
footsteps of a great and ancient race, or to indicate that the 
arts and sciences ever floiuished there. The tourist knows 
that he is in a land where battles have been fought, and hu- 
man victims offered to imaginary gods, and where the very 
genius of despotism has swayed its sceptre— a land of song in 
old times, and of ancient poets and minstrels, who wandered 
over their mountains in the train of warlike monarchs, in the 
same way as did the heroes of Ossian. He passes over the 
silent graves of extinct generations, that repose where every 
stream, crag, hill, valley, and object has its associational le- 
gends, and his very soul overflows with a poetry of romance, 
with a torrent of impulses that language is too poor to clothe 
in words. There are no histories carefully treasured up from 
past ages to tell him how multitudes have lived and died, and 
passed away forever, and how mighty earthquakes have rent 
the huge mountains asunder, when rivers of lava spread deso- 
lation and death in their pathway, and volcanic hghtnings 
painted a miniature hell on the bosom of the midnight sky. 
There are none of these records to guide the traveler. He is 
placed amid the giant landmarks of Nature, and they, and 
tradition, and philosophical analogy must guide his decisions. 

Unlettered as the Hawaiians have always been, there is a 
very striking coincidence between their rugged traditions and 
the operations of natural causes and effects. The old Hawaii- 
ans attributed their own origin, as also that of their islands, to 
the direct interposition of their gods. 

Native historians affirm that " the name of the first man 
was Kahiko (ancient), and the name of the first woman was 
Kupulanakahau. Their son's name was Wakea. Among the 
first settlers from abroad were Kukalaniehu and his wife Ka- 
hakauakoko, who had a daughter by the name of Papa. Wa- 
kea and Papa were the first progenitors of the Hawaiian race, 
both of the chiefs and common people."* 

* Hawaiian Spectator, vol il, p. 211, 212. 

There are many fabulous things related of Papa. One is, that she 
was the mother of these islands. Another, that Kuhanakahi was 



ORIGIN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDERS. 399 

All this is, of course, fabulous. By pursuing the mythical 
thread of Hawaiian tradition, it will be seen that they looked 
upon their gods as possessing the attributes and the persons 
of both gods and men. 

Nearly three centuries have elapsed since philosophy com- 
menced its speculations on the origin of our North American 
tribes and the tenants of the numerous islands composing Poly- 
nesia. Conjectures at once vague and absurd have thrown 
around this theme much perplexity and doubt. Some Deisti- 
cal writers, among whom may be reckoned the German, Dr. 
Von MARxms, have asserted that the Indo- Americans are " in- 
digenous," or produced on the very soil which they inhabit ; 
a professed Christian writer also, Mr. Whiston, advanced the 
absurd and unscriptural notion of the first inhabitants of 
America being CainiteSy the descendants of the first known 
polygamist, Lamech, who by some means had escaped the gen- 
eral deluge. The Jewish Rabbi, Manasseh ben Israel, being 
imposed upon by one Antonio Montesino, wrote a book en- 
titled La Esperan^a di Israely or the Hope of Israel, in 
which he attempts to prove that America had been peopled, 
at least in part, by the descendants of the ten long lost tribes 
of Israel. This book was dedicated to the Enghsh ParUa- 
ment about the year 1650. William Penn, also, was per- 
suaded that the American Indians were derived from the He- 
brews, and a work has lately been pubhshed in England with 
the title, " The Ten Tribes Historically Identified with the 
Aborigines of the Western Hemisphere." 

The philosophical theory that the Polynesians have come 
from the Orient is based on a more than hypothetical foimdation. 
Whatever may have been the chances or designs that brought 

born from her head and became a god. Furthermore, that Wakea 
and Papa had a deformed child, which they buried at the end of 
their house, where it sprouted and grew, and became a taro {Arum 
esculentum), and hence the origin of the taro plant, the Hawaiian 
staflf of Ufe. The leaf of this plant was denominated laukapaliliy and 
the lower part of its stalk hcdoay from which Haloa, one of the kings, 
derived his name. It would not be easy to mention all' the marvel- 
ous statements made concerning this Papa. 



400 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

such vast numbers of inhabitants to the two great continents 
of the West, as well as to the Pacific Islands, it is certain that, 
in the main, the races of the Continental regions were widely 
difierent from the Polynesians in language, habits, customs, 
and religion. When Cortes demolished the sovereignty of 
the MoNTEZUMAS, and when Pizarro dethroned the last of the 
Incas, the warriors of these CathoUc heroes were astonished 
at the magnificence and civilization of the old Aztec and Pe- 
ruvian kings. At the discovery of the Polynesian Islands, 
nothing of this sort was seen among the rude inhabitants. 

The Oriental origin of the islanders of the Pacific is more 
than merely theoretic. The American Journal of Science 
remarks : ** That the Polynesians belong to the same race as 
that which peoples the East Indian Islands, is at present imi- 
versally admitted. If any doubt had remained on this point, 
the labors of William Von Humboldt and Professor Busch- 
MAN would have been sufficient to set it at rest. Having 
traced all the principal tribes of Polynesia back to the Samo- 
an and Tongan group, it next becomes a question of interest 
how far the information which we now possess will enable us 
to verify the supposed emigration of the first settlers in these 
groups from some point in the Malaisian Archipelago." 

Coming now to the Sandwich Islanders, it is certain that 
they have derived their origin from the same great family, but 
more immediately from some group or groups of islands in the 
South Pacific. No theory, however plausible, is sufficient to 
invest them with a western continental orig^l. It is an un- 
doubted fact that "they are evidently of the same race with 
the inhabitants of most of the groups of islands in the East 
Pacific. The people of New Zealand, the Society and Tahiti 
Islands, the Harvey Islands, the Friendly Islands, the Naviga- 
tor's Islands, the Marquesas Islands, the Sandwich Islands, and 
some others of the same range, exhibit the same features, the 
same manners and customs, and speak substantially the same 
language. The sameness of language is a fact so weU under- 
stood that there is no need of quoting authorities to confirm it*'* 
* Dibble's History, p. 6. 



ORIGIN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDERS. ^Ql 

The peopling of the Hawaiian Islands afibrds no more dif- 
ficulty than the peopling of any other group in the Pacific. 
It is well understood that the habits of the Polynesians were 
migratory. On this topic, the Sa/moan Reporter of March, 
1848, contains an article which, in this connection, is at once 
curious and invaluable, and well deserves a very careful pe- 
rusal by the reader : 

To the Editors of the Samoan Reporter. 

" Gentlemen, — I have much pleasure in forwarding to you 
the following facts, which have lately come under my notice, 
and if you think they will in any way prove interesting as 
connected with the migration and population of the South 
Sea Islands, you are quite at liberty to pubUsh them. 

" In the month of October last I sent my vessel to duiros' 
Island, a low, uninhabited coral island, about one himdred and 
filly miles to the north of Samoa, and on her arrival there, 
the captain found two natives on shore, who, it a^^ars, had 
been drifted to that spot about seven months before. They 
were brought to Samoa, and I took them in my charge, and 
soon £)und that, with the aid of the Samoan, Tahitian, and 
Rarotongan languages, I could converse with them quite freely. 
One of them is named Koteka, and is a native of Manahiki ; 
the other is from Fakaaho, and firom the former I learned the 
following particulars. About the time the last great comet 
appeared, Koteka, with several others of his countrymen, con- 
ceived the idea of a voyage of discovery, and accordingly put 
to sea in one of their large double canoes ; the party journey- 
ed for three days, but, not finding any land, they determined 
on returning to Manahiki ; the canoe was put about, and they 
steered, as they imagined, for the land ; but, at the expiration 
of the second day, they again altered their minds, and still 
wished to follow out their first intentions. They then alter- 
ed their course, and continued sailing for seven days, when 
they saw land-birds, which led them to hope that some land 
was near, and which they expected shortly to reach ; but, to 
their disappointment, a strong southwest wind sprung up, and 



402 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

as they were unable to contend against it, they were compel- 
led again to steer for Manahiki. On the evening of the sixth 
day they perceived the smell of fire, which induced them to 
lay to for the night, and at day-break, to their joy, found them- 
selves near to their own land, but soon discovering they were, 
unfortunately, to leeward of the island, they pulled hard for 
the shore ; but the wind veering to the northeast, they were 
blown off, and for sixteen days were drifted about at the mer- 
cy of the winds and waves, and had but little or nothing to 
eat. Despondency reigned in their bosoms, and several of 
them lay down in the canoe, shortly expecting to die, when 
one espied land in the distance, which they providentially 
reached in about two hoiurs. It proved to be Cluiros' Island. 
When they had been there about three months, an American 
whaler called, and the captain agreed to take them back to 
their own land ; but after some detention, and not being able 
to find Manahiki, they were landed at Fakaaho, one of the 
Union Groilp. 

" Some time after this, when Koteka, with nine others, 
were going from Fakaaho to Nukunonu, a gale of wind sprung 
up and blew them out of sight of land. They were now quite 
at a loss in what direction to steer, and were tossed to and firo 
on the wide Pacific for thirty-six days — ^nine of which they 
lived on cocoa-nuts, and the remaining twenty-seven they sub- 
sisted by eating parts of their clothing soaked in rain-water. 
Eight of their companions died, and their bodies were com- 
mitted to the deep. On the morning of the thirty-sixth day, 
Koteka saw land near, but was too weak to steer for it ; but 
a kind Providence conveyed their frail canoe in safety over 
the reef, and it was washed on the shore of the very island to 
which they had been formerly drifted. They had been there 
seven months when my vessel called and brought them to 
Samoa. 

" It is my intention shortly to convey them to their own 
land, and I sincerely hope, as they have embraced the Chris- 
tian religion themselves, they will, on their return to their na- 
tive shore, be able to induce their fellow-countrymen to do the 



ORIGIN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDERS. 493 

same, and then it will be found that the privations and dan- 
gers they experienced have not been in vain. 

** J. C. Williams, U. S. Consul. 
" Vailele, Feb. 18th, 1848." 

These migratory habits of the Polynesians afford a clew to 
the long-disputed method by which their isjands were tenant- 
ed. This method is clearly shown in the discriminating lan- 
guage of the justly-lamented Williams : 

** Let us consider for a moment the distance from the Malay 
coast to Tahiti, the Sandwich and other islands. That dis- 
tance is about a hundred degrees, or seven thousand miles ; 
and it is thought to have been impossible for the natives to 
perform such a voyage with their vessels and imperfect knowl- 
edge of navigation. If no islands intervened, I should admit 
the conclusiveness of this objection ; or, if we were to assert 
that they came direct from the Malay coast to islands so far 
east, the assertion could not be maintained. But if we can 
show that such a voyage may be performed by very short 
stages, the diflSculty will disappear. 

" Suppose, then, that the progenitors of the present islanders 
had started from the Malay coast or Sumatra, what would 
have been their rout* ? By sailing five degrees, or three hun- 
dred miles, they would reach Borneo ; then, by crossing the 
Straits of Macassar, which are only about two hundred miles 
wide, they would arrive at the Celebes. These are eight de- 
grees from New Guinea ; but the large islands of Bessey and 
Coram intervene. The distance from New Guinea to^ the 
New Hebrides is twelve hundred miles, but the islands be- 
tween them are so numerous that the voyage may be made 
by short and easy Stages. Five hundred miles from the New 
Hebrides are the Fijis ; and about three hundred miles farther 
on, the Friendly Islands. Another stage of five hundred miles 
brings you to the Navigators ; but between these two points 
three other groups intervene. From the Navigators to the 
Hervey Islands the distance is about seven hundred miles, 
and fi:om thence to the Society Group about four hundred 



404 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

more. Thus, I think, every difficulty vanishes, for the longest 
stage in the voyage from- Sumatra to Tahiti would be from 
the Navigators to the Hervey group, seven hundred miles ; 
and the Earotongans themselves say that their progenitor, 
Elakira, came from thence."* 

But there is undoubted testimony that mere accident has 
introduced many of these islanders to unknown islands, where 
they lived and died, and have given place to their own descend- 
ants. Sometimes, in passing from one island to another, canoes 
filled with men and women are blown out to sea and from sight 
of land. Under such circumstances, they are liable to wander 
about on the bosom of the deep, and either perish or fall in 
with some other group of islands. Numerous instances of 
this kind have occurred within a few years past. Some of 
them have been compelled to forsake their homes during pe- 
riods of savage warfare. Vessels, having lost their reckoning 
at sea, and drifting into unknown curronts, have been carried 
into unknown seas, and wrecked on these distant islands, or 
been spoken in the midst of the ocean. 

In 1832, a Japanese junk came ashore on the island of 
Oahu. A responsible witness of this event says : *' The Jap- 
anese of whom I am now to speak made the shore of Oaliu 
in a junk, and anchored near the harbcn: at Waialua, on the 
last Sabbath in December, 1832. They cast anchor about 
mid-day, and were soon visited by a canoe, as the position of 
the junk, being anchored near a reef of rocks, and other cir- 
cumstances, indicated distress. Four individuals were found 
on board, all but one severely afHicted with the scurvy ; two 
of them incapable of walking, and a third nearly so. The 
fourth was in good health, and had the almost entire manage- 
ment of the vessel. This distressed company had been out at 
sea ten or eleven months, without water, except as they now 
and then obtained rain water from the deck of the vessel. 
Their containers for water were few, adapted to a voyage of 

* ''A Narrative of Missionary Enterprise in the South Sea Islands. 
By John Williams.'* First American edition: Appleton and Ca; 
New York, 1887, p. 50^ 605. 



ORIGIN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDERS. 495 

not more than two or three weeks. The junk was bound from 
one of the southern islands of the Japanese group to Jeddo, 
laden with fish, when it encountered a typhoon, and was driven 
<mt into seas altoge^er unknown to those on board, and, after 
wandering almost a year, made the idand of Oahu. 

" The original number on board the junk was nine ; these 
were reduced by disease and death, induced probably by want 
of water and food, to four only. 

# # # ^# # # # # 

" When the people saw the junk, and learned from whence 
it came, they said it was plain now from whence they them- 
selves originated. They had supposed before that they could 
not have come from either of the continents ; but now they 
saw a people much resembling themselves in person, sfiid in 
many df their habits — a people, too, who came to their islands 
without designing to come. They said, * It is plain now that 
we came firom Asia.' "* 

"Later still, the 6th of June, 1839, the whale ship James 
Loper, Captain Cathcart, fell in with the wreck of a Japanese 
junk in lat. 30^ N., and long. 174° E. from Greenwich, abqut 
midway between the islands of Japan and the Sandwich Isl- 
ands. Seven of the crew were rescued, and brought to these 
islands the ensuing fall. 

*' Again, three Japanese sailors were rescued from a wreck 
in the North Pacific (June 9th, 1840), in lat. 34° N., long. 
174° 30^ E., more than 2500 miles from their homes. They 
were boimd to Jeddo, and, driven beyond their port by a west- 
erly gale, had been drifting about for one hundred and eighty- 
cfne days when found. "t 

The antiquity and origin of the Hawaiians, in common with 
that of other Polynesians, are confirmed by traditions which are 
peculiarly Oriental in their character. They have a tradition 
that Mauiakalana, one of their gods, went to the sun, and 
chased his beams because they flew so rapidly ; also, that he 
dragged with a hook these islands from Maui to Kaula, tow- 

* Hawaiian Spectator, vol i, p. 297, 299. 
f Dibble's History, pp. 12, 18. 



406 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

ing them afler a canoe, and had those in the canoe landed 
safe at Hilo, Hawaii, then all the islands of the gioup would 
have been united in one ; but one of the company looking be- 
hind him, the hook broke, and the expected union &iled of its 
consummation. It is said, also, that he searched for fiie, and 
fi)und it in the aloe (burning forehead, the name of a bird whoee 
upper mandible is of broad expansion, and a bright red color). 

The cosmogony of other Polynesians is acknowledged to 
have had its origin in the will and« actions of beings whom 
they denominated gods. 

'' As to the mythology of the Fijians, it is a tradition amcHig 
them that the world was made by Ndegei or Tenge, the chief 
of the gods. He is partly a serpent and partly a stone, and 
dwells in one of their high mountains. He has a son who is 
mediator between his &ther and inferior spirits. The Sons of 
the gods in Samoa also formerly acted as mediators."* 

The Hawaiians have a tradition of the flood, in which dis- 
tinct allusion is made to the ark, a laau — not a canoe or ship, 
but something that floated — ^the height, and length, and 
breadth of which were equal, containing men, and also an- 
imals, and food in great abundance. The name of Noah fre- 
quently occurs in their traditions. 

The Fijians refer to the same catastrophe. They have a 
tradition of a flood in which the natives were saved in two 
canoes made by the carpenters' god. 

Hawaiian tradition says that man was originally made of 
the dust of the earth by Kane and Kanaloa, two of their prin- 
cipal deities. 

A very singular tradition exists among the Fijians. They 
firmly believe that Mautu, the son of Ndegei, and the medi- 
ator above mentioned, first made a human figure of clay ; but 
the female was made first. By this pair the islands were 
peopled. The Samoan tradition is, that the son of their great 
god Tangaloa, by his father's order, formed the first human 
pair out of the bodies of two worms, and took life for them 
down from heaven. 

* Samoan Reporter, March, 1848. 



^THEORY SUSTAINED BY CUSTOMS. 407 

The Oriental origin of the Hawaiians is plainly seen in their 
liabits and customs. 

They ofiered their first-fruits to the gods. 

The Samoans did the same. 

Among the Hawaiians, till the arrival of the missionaries, 
the practice of circumcision was common. The act was at- 
tended with religious ceremonies, and performed by a priest. 
An uncircumcised person was considered mean and despicable. 
The practice did not cease till formally prohibited by Kaahu- 

MANU. 

The Samoans have a practice answering the same purpose. 

Every person and thing that touched a dead body was con- 
sidered unclean, and continued so a certain season, and till 
purified by rehgious ceremonies. 

The same purifications were enjoined upon the Jews under 
the Levitical priesthood. 

Females after child-birth, and after other periods of infirm- 
ity, were enjoined strict separation, and were subjected to cer- 
emonies of purification, similar to those of the Jews, on pen- 
alty of death. 

The Hawaiians had eities of refuge for the same purpose, 
and imder similar regulations with those of the Jews. 

In referring to Simiatra, Marsden says : 

" Mothers carry the children, not on the arm, as our nurses 
do, but straddling on the hip. # # # * * 
This practice, I have been told, is common in some parts of 
Wales. It is much safer than the other method, less tiresome 
to the nurse, and the child has the advantage of sitting in a 
less constrained posture. But the defedsive armor of stays, 
and ofiensive weapons called pins, might be some objection to 
the general introduction of the fisLshion in England. The chil- 
dren are nursed but Httle ; not confined by any swathing or 
bandages ; and being sufiered to roll about the floor, soon learn 
to walk and shift for themselves." — History of Svmatra, 3d 
edition, p. 285. 

Precisely the same custom applies to the Hawaiian women 
at this day. 



408 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

The physical oiganization of the Sandwich IslanderB proves 
them to belong to the great Malayan family, so widely scat- 
tered over the vast Pacific. They are of a Gipsy, or brown 
color, tall, as a general thing, and well made, having agreea- 
able features. In disposition they are cheerful, good-hmnor- 
ed, and hospitable, bat fickle, and often acting wi^ petty cun- 
ning, hypocrisy, or selfishness to gain their purposes. In these 
traits there is a close afi^ty with other grou{)s, but in hon- 
esty they are certainly sup^or to most. The afiinity and 
derivation of natives are ascertained chiefly by resemblances 
in person, language, manners, custcmis, and religion. 

But language is the chief medium through which it may 
be decided, not only that the groups stretching fiiom Easter 
Island in the east, to the borders of the Papuan tribes of the 
New Hebrides, &c., in the west, and finam New Zealand in 
the south, to the Sandwich Islands in the north, are peopled 
by jBjces having a common parentage, but that all these races 
have also a common origin with the Malays. 

" Languages, as intellectual creations of man, and as close- 
ly interwoven with the development of mind, are, independ- 
ently of the national £mn which they exhibit, of the greatest 
importance in the recognition of similarities or difierences in 
races. This importance is especially owing to the clew which 
a community of descent aflbrds in treading that mysterious lab- 
yrinth in which the connection of physical powers and intel- 
lectual forces manifests itself in a thousand difierent forms."* 
Language can not utter falsehoods, therefore it is the best 
guide to the primitive traduction of tribes and nations. 

One of the ablest works ever published, describing the hab- 
its, customs, origin, and language of the Polynesians, was 
written by Dr. J. D. Lang, when Principal of the Australian 
College, Sydney. In discussing the theme of language, he 
says: 

" The Polynesian branches of that ancient language doubt- 
less bear a closer resemblance to each other than to the dia- 
lects of the Indian Archipelago, but this is just what might 
* "CosmoB," voL i, p. 867. 



• EVIDENCE OF THEIR ORIGIN. 499 

have been expected from the comparative isolation of the 
South Sea Islands on the one hand, and from the vicinity of 
the Indian Archipelago to the vast continent of Asia on the 
other. 

" The modem language of the Malays abounds in Arabic 
words, introduced, along with the Mohammedan delusion, by 
the Moors of the Mogul empire. It abounds also in Sanscrit 
vocables — ^the evidences and remains of the ancient inter- 
course of the nation with the Hindoos of Western India. The 
former or more recent of these foreign admixtures, compared 
with the rest of the language, presents the appearance of a 
number of quartz pebbles imbedded in a sheet of ice, their 
edges rough and broken, and their general aspect exhibiting 
nothing in common with the homogeneous mass into which 
they have been frozen. The result of the latter or more an- 
cient of these admixtures, in consequence of the more liquid 
character of the Sanscrit language, resembles a compound 
fluid, homogeneous in appearance, but differing essentially, 
however, from each of the simple ingredients of which it is 
composed. But the skeleton of the language — ^its bones and 
sinews, so to speak— consists of the ancient Malayan or Poly- 
nesian tongue."* 

As an iUiistration of his arguments, the same author brings 
forward a comparative vocabulary, from which a few exam- 
ples will be sufficient. Some of the words are identical, while 
the difference in others is so slight that their identity can be 
easily traced : 



EngUsh. 


Polynesian. 


Malay. 


The eye. 


Mata (universally), 


Mata (universally). 


Toeat^ 


Maa (strong guttural), 


Macan (Javanese, Man- 
gan> 


To kill, 


Mate, ' 


Mate. 


A bird. 


Manu, 


Manuck). 


Fiflh, 


Tka, 


Ika (Javanese, Iwa). 



" View of the Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian Nation. 
By John Dunmore Lan^, D.D." London: James Ooohran <& Ca, 
18H P* 23-25. 

S 



410 



SANDWICH ISLANP NOTES. 



En^iah. 


Polynesian. 


Malay. 


A louse, 


Outou, 


Coutou. 


Kain, 


Euwa, 


Udian. 


Water, 


Wai or Vai, 


Vai (Ambronese). 


The foot. 


Tapao, 


Tapaan. 


Anmsqtiitov 


Kammon, 


Gnammnck. 


To scratch. 


Heam, 


GariL 


CoccoB roots, 


Taro and Talc, 


TaUas, 


Hog, 


Buaa, 


Buia (Achinese). 


Inland, 


Uta, 


Ftan. 


Name, 


Ingoa, 


Ingoa. 


Hair, 


Hnra, 


Bu (Island of Savii). 


Rre, 


Auai, obsolete Apoaia 
(TahitianX 


Apuai (Achinese). 


Man, 


Ora (guttural, Tab.), 


• Orang.* 


Gentleman, 


Rangatira (K ZealU), 



Belationghip is clearly expressed, and ccnnpoimd words or 
ideas are farmed in the Chinese and Malayan languages m^oely 
by the contiguous arrangement of certain primitive words, thus : 



Chinese. 
Tao, Head. 


Ka-too, Head(LSav.). 


Tao-faa, Hair of the head. 


Ru-katoo, Hair of the head. 


Sao, Hand. 
Sao-tchee, Finger. 


Mata, Eye. 
Mata orang, Man's eye. 


In some instances there is a similarity of use of the parti- 


cles in both languages, in others they are identical, thus : 


Chinese. 
Y ko nyan, A man. 


Polynesian. 
E manu,- A bicd. 


Y ko chu, A tree. 


E ko nai. The chin. 


Ko tyan. The heeL 


Kotiro, A girL 


Sounds both similar and peculiar abound in both languages : 


Chinese. 

Thai, Sea. 


Polynesitti. 
Tai, The sea. 


Yu, Eain. 


Ua, Rain. 


Tong, East 
Ngau, Bite. 
Ko tsau. Blood. 


Tonga, East 
Kgau, Bite. 
Toto, Blo^t 



* " View of the Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian Nation. 
By John Dunmore Lang, D.D." London : James Cochran A Ca, 
1884, p. 22. f Ibid, p. 47. 



THEIR PAST AND PRESENT CONDITION. 411 

But not only does the Polynesian manifest a close affinity 
i^th the Oriental, it is similar in all its hranches : 

" To a person famihar with any one of the dialects, it he- 
comes apparent at once, on a very slight acquaintance with 
the other, that they all have the same root. As the voyager, 
acquainted with any one of the dialects, passes from one group 
of islands to another, though thousands of miles of unhroken 
-waters he between, he feels that he is still among a people of 
gubstantially the same tongue ; being able to converse with 
one branch of the numerous £unily, he finds httle difficulty in 
introdudng himself to all the rest. Some of the South Sea 
missionaries, being well acquainted with the language of Ta- 
hiti, can converse with considerable ease with the inhabitants 
of the Friendly, Navigator, Austral, Permotu, Marquesan, and 
Sandwich groups, although their only opportunity for acquiring 
a knowledge of these several dialects is an occasional visit to 
their shores, and an interview now and then with a wander- 
ing native."* 

After glancing at the origin of the Sandwich Islanders, it 
becomes an interesting duty to examine their social, pohtical, 
and religious condition, past and present. 

The first feature that calls the attention to the past is tkeir 
sodai condition, and a darker picture can hardly be present- 
ed to the contemplation of man. They had their firequent 
boxing-matches on a pubhc arena, and it was nothing uncom- 
mon to see thirty or forty left dead on the field of contest. 

As gamhUrSy they were inveterate. The* game was in- 
dulged in by every person, firom the king of each island to the 
meanest of his subjects. The wager accompanied every scene 
of pubhc amusement. They gambled away their property to 
the last vestige of all they possessed. They staked every ar- 
ticle of food, their growing orops, the clothes they wore, their 
lands, wives, daughters, and even the very bones of their arms 
and legs — ^to be made into fish-hooks ailer they were dead. 
These steps led to the most absolute and crushing poverty. 

They had their dances, which were of such a character a« 
* Hawaiiaii Speetaetor, vol !., p 289. 



412 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

not to be conceived of by a civilized mind, and were accom- 
panied by scenes which would have disgraced even Neeo's 
revels. Nearly every night, with the gathering darkness, 
crowds would retire to some favorite spot, where, amid every 
species of sensual indulgence, they would revel until the mean- 
ing twilight. At such times the chiefs would lay aside their 
authority, and mingle with the lowest courtesan in every de- 
gree of debauchery. 

Thefts, robberies, murders, infanticide, licentiousness of the 
most debased and debasing character, burying their infirm and 
aged parents alive, desertion of the sick, revolting crueltieB to 
the unfortunate maniac, cannibalism, and drunkenness, form a 
list of some of the traits in social life among the Hawaiians in 
past days. 

Their drunkenness was intense. They could prepare a 
drink, deadly intoxicating in its nature, &om a mountain plant 
called the dvxi {Piper methysticum), A bowl of this disgust- 
ing hquid was always pxepared and served out just as a party 
of chiefs were sitting down to their meals. It would some- 
times send the victim into a slumber from which he never 
awoke. The confirmed atoa drinker could be immediately 
recognized by his leprous appearance. 

But by far the darkest feature in their social condition was 
seen in the family relation. Society y however, is only a word 
of mere accommodation, designed to express domestic relations 
as they then existed. 

" Society was, indeed, siich a sea of pollution as can not 
well be described. Marriage was unknown, and all the sa- 
cred feelings which are suggested to our minds on mention of 
the various social relations, such as husband and wife, parent 
and child, brother and sister, were to than, indeed, as lliough 
they had no existence. There was, indeed, in this respect, a 
dreary blank — a dark chasm from which the soul instinctive- 
ly recoils. There were, perhaps, some customs which imposed 
some httle restraint upon the intercourse of the sexes, but those 
customs were easily dispensed with, and had nothing of the 
force of established rules. It was common for a husband to 



THEIR PAST AND PRESENT CONDITION. 413 

have many wives, and for a wife also to have many husbands. 
The nearest ties of consanguinity were but little regarded, 
and, among the chiefs especially, the connection of brotllfer 
with sister, and parent with child, were very common. For 
husbands to interchange wives, and for wives to interchange 
husbands, was a common act of friendship, and persons who 
would not do this were not considered on good terms of socia- 
biUty. For a man or woman to refuse a sohcitation fi)r iUicit 
intercourse was considered an act of meanness ; and so thor- 
oughly was this sentiment wrought into their minds, that, even 
to the present day, they seem not to rid themselves of the feel- 
ing of meanness in making a refusal. When a solicitation is 
made, th^ seem to imagine, or, at least, to feel, notwithstand- 
ing their better knowledge, that to comply is generous, Uberal, 
and social, and that to refuse is reproachful and niggardly.""*^ 

It would be impossible to enumerate or specify the crimes 
which emanated from this state of afiairs. 

Their pohtical condition was the very genius of despotism, 
systematically and deliberately conducted. Kinga and chiefe 
were extremely jealous of their succession, and the more noble 
their blood, the more they were venerated by the common peo- 
ple. The Egyptian Pharaohs and the Eoman jeisars never 
employed more studied precautions to compel the entire sub- 
mission of their subjects, than the kings and chiefs of Hawaii 
did to secure the unreserved obedience of their own people. 
The will of the high chief was a law firom which there was 
no appeal. He could decide all cases of disputation, levy tax- 
es, and proclaim war, just as best suited his purposes, and none 
but the royal counselors were permitted to take the least ex- 
ception. During their life, they were approached with the 
most absolute veneration ; and after death, they were dei- 
fied and worshiped. 

But the condition of afiairs could not be difierent, for the 

character of the govemriient was strictly feu^Ud. A system 

of landlordism existed, decreasing in subserviency until it 

reached the monarch, whom it left an absolute lord. This 

* Dibble's History, p. 126» 127. 



414 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

syBtem was originated and sustained by war. The victors al- 
ways seized the lands of the vanquished, and then gave them 
ti^their fbUowers. If a king, or chief^ or sub-landlord, when 
passing through his district, happened to see a fine £a7%>-patch, 
a hog, a mat, or a calabash, that suited his ideas, he had only 
to claim it, and it became his own. If they wished to build 
a house, cultivate a tract of land, turn a water-course, or ^neet 
a tem^ £>r the gods, they had only to snnwnon die people 
firom a district, the entire island, or a neighboring island, aad 
the work was speedily accomplished. To refuse to obey Hie 
summons was to insure instant death. There were no courts 
of justice, no trials by jury, no fixed laws, either oral or writ- 
ten. The property, tl^ services, the life, and almost the souls 
of the people, were claimed by their rulers. 

But the broadest and most gloomy page of their past histor 
ry is that which records their religious condition. It was a 
imity of Church and State. The two heads of the nation 
were the king and priest, but the hierarch was paramount. 
There was a reciprocity of sacerdotal and kingly power : the 
first i«omised the fiwor of the gods, the latter the suj^Kirt of 
the spears hurled by banded warriors. The paramount claims 
of the hierarch soon found a solid suj^rt in the foimdatioii 
of the most hellish system — the Inquisitioii of the " Hdy (?) 
See'' exc^yted ! — ^that has ever cursed fisdlen humanity. This 
was the U^ system.* It had its oaigin in hist. Its subse- 
quent support was in the shedding of human blood. Sadly 
and darkly the tale is told by their own historians. 

** When HooHOKUKALANi had become large and fidr, and 
her father pero^ved that she was a beauty,. he cbsired to &ar 
joy her society unobserved by his wife ; Imt his plans £» this 
purpose proving unsuccessful, he inquired of his priest how he 
might elude observation, at the same time aj^rising him c^ 
his reasons £ot wishing to do so. The priest readied, ' If it 
would gratify you to comxmt incest, we will appoint certain 
nights to be consecrated for you, in which you must dwell 
separate firom Papa ; and other nights must be appropriated 
^ Bettricti&ii or proh^ithn. 



THEIR PAST AND PRESENT CONDITION. 415 

to her also, whea it shall not be proper even for her husband 
to appear in her presence. 

* * # « * * 

'* ' I win announce to you both that this is by divine ap- 
pointm^it, and when Papa hears that such is the pleasure of 
the gods, she will readily acquiesce. This is one step — ^with- 
draw yourself, and eat not with her. This is another— con- 
secrate as sacred to the gods a part of the fish, and food, and 
beasts. Furthermore, let temples be built foi the deities — &i 
Ku, for Lono, £)r Kane, and Kanaloa ; also £)r the Hbrty thou- 
sand of gods, and £>r the four hundred thousands ; and, lastly, 
of every thing obtained by the hand of man, let the fjcst-firuits 
be devoted to the deities.' 

" When the preceding outline was well digested in their 
minds, Wakea visited Papa, and related it fiilly to her, giving 
her to understand that it was wholly the revelation of a priest 
to him-— concealing his own part in the afiair — ^to all which 
Papa cordially assented ; whereupon her husband returned to 
hk confederate to in£)rm him of her acquiescence. 

# # * # # * 

'*' On the second of the tabu nights, Wakea accomplished 
his desire with HooHCMroKALANi. 

" The priest agreed that in the course of his prayers the 
next morning he would wake up Wakea. So, when he saw 
the day breaking, he commenced his devotions, and on pro- 
nouncing that part of the service which was designed to arouse 
Wakea, he did not hear, fi)r he slept very soundly. The sun 
hastened up, the sleeper awoke, covered his head with kapa, 
saUied forth, and walked rapidly that Papa might not see him. 
But she did see him, and knew what he had done, and was 
angry, and wait to him and beat him. Wakea took hold of 
her and led her gently our of doors ; but she would not be 
pacified. He then dragged her to another place, where they 
discussed the question of their separation, an event which ac- 
tually followed. That day Wakea prohibited Papa from eat- 
ing pork, and bananas, and cocoa-nuts ; also certain kinds of 
fish ; also the turtle and tortoise.''* 

• Hawaiian Spectator, vol i, p. 216, 217. 



416 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Ab the tabu system expanded and strengthened, it imposed 
restrictions on every act, word, and thought ; it covered every 
article of food, and related to every act of religious worship ; 
it was so ficamed, that it was ahsolutely impossihle not to vio- 
late its bloody requirements ; its mandates even entered the 
sanctuaries of families, and imposed a heavy restriction upcm 
the rights of men and women. When a couple entered the 
marriage state, the man must build an eating-house for him- 
self) another for his god, another for a dormitory, another for 
his wife to eat in, and another in which to beat kapa : these 
fi>ur the men had to build. In addition to this, he had food 
to provide ; then he heated the oven and baked for his wife ; 
then he heated the oven and baked for himself; then he open- 
ed the oven containing his wife's tarOy and pounded it ; then 
he performed the same operation on his own. The husband 
ate in his house, and the wife ate in hers. They did not eat 
together, lest they should be slain lor violating the tabu. 

A tabu existed in relation to idols. The gods of " the chiefi 
and common people were of wood. If one made his idol of 
an apple-tree, the apple-tree was afterward tabu to him. So 
of all the trees of which idols were made. So, too, of articles 
of food. K one employed taro as an object of his idolatry, to 
him the taro became sacred, and might not be eaten by him. 
Thus it was with every object of which a god was made. 
Birds were objects of worship. If a hen, the hen was to him 
sacred. So of all the birds which were deified. Beasts were 
objects of worship. If a hog, the hog was sacred to him who 
chose it for his god. So, too, of all quadrupeds of which gods 
were made. Stones were objects of worship, and tabUy so 
that one might not sit on them. Fish were idoHzed. If one 
adopted the shark as his god, to him the shark was sacred. 
So, also, of all fish ; so of all things in heaven and earth : even 
the bones of men were transformed into objects of worship." 

A tabu was imposed on such accidental events as it was 
impossible for the common people to avoid. Hence, if the 
shadow of a common man fell on a chief — ^if he went into a 
chief's yard — ^if he put on a kapa or malo of the chief, or 



THEIR PAST AND PRESENT CONDITION. 4I7 

wore the chief's consecrated mat, or if he went upon the 
chief's house, it was death ! So, if he stood when the king's 
hathing-water, or ka'pa^ or mcdo were carried along, or when 
the king's name were mentioned in song, or if he walked in 
the shade of a chief's housa with his head hesmeared with 
clay, or with a wreath round it, or wearing a kwpa mantle, 
or with his head wet, it was certain death ! 

There were many other ofienses of the people which were 
made capital hy the chiefs and priests. Ka woman ate pork, co- 
coa-nuts, bananas, a eertain kind offish, or lobster, it was death. 
To be found in a canoe on a tcHm day was death. If a man 
committed a crime, he died ; if he was irreligious, he died ; if 
he indulged in connubial pleasures on a tolm day, or if he made 
the slightest noise while prayers were saying, he had to die. 

While the common people could commit no crime under 
penalty of death, the priests did as they pleased. 

" When one deemed it desirable that a temple should be 
built, he applied to the king, who commanded the natives to 
construct it ; which being done, the king and priest were sa- 
cred ; and on the day when a log of wood was obtained for a 
god, a man was sacnrificed in order to impart power to the 
wooden deity. When sacrifices were ofiered, men were slain 
and laid upon the altar with swine ; if a fish proper for an 
ofiering could not be obtained, a man was sacrificed in its 
stead ; and human victims were required on other occasions." 

The king and the priest were much alike, and they consti- 
tuted the main burden of the nation. If a temple had to be 
built, the entire burden fell on the people ; and when it was 
erected, they had to find levies of firuits, fish, hogs, fowls, Tear 
faSy and other articles for sustaining the service ofiered to the 
gods. When human sacrifices were needed, the priest had 
only to look at the king, and say, " Let there be men for the 
god." The king consented. " Let there be land for the god." 
The king consented. " Let there be a house for the god." 
The king consented. Then the priest addressed the king 
again, " Let a hog be hung up for the god ; the thigh for the 
god, the head for the god ; let there be certain fish for the 

S2 



418 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES, 

god — the fiiBt fish for the god." The king conseEted. Then 
the priest proceeded, •* Let the land ef the priest be sacred — 
firee firom taxes ; let the wife of the priest be sacred — ^no erne 
using fireedom with her ; let the house of the priest be sacred — 
no one wantonly entering it ; in short, let all that belongs to 
the priest be in safety." * 

The time would fail, and so would the ready's patience, 
under a third of what could be ^oiumerated relative to the 
withering curses, the crushing despotisms, which emanated 
fiKHU this union of pagan kings and pagttn priests. The ma- 
jority of these wrongs are forgotten, or they repose in Hie 
graves of past generatimis. 

But it is time we turned fix>m thesd dark reahties to exam- 
ine the conditkm of the Hawaiian people in 1853. Of this 
condition the reader will be able to form his own conclusions 
from what has been s^d in the previous pagea of this volume; 
Although ecclesiastical law is paramount at this day, as it 
was in the days of old, still no man can sustain the assertion, 
80 firequently made, '* that the people are worse off than for- 
merly they were, and that no good has been achieved." This 
language is utterly Utopian, and will not staled the stem test 
of truth. If I may be permitted to advance my own feeble 
testimony, I am bold to say that there has been a change, and 
that change has heenfar the best/ I have stood on the very 
altars where men, as good as mysdf, were once immolated to 
imaginary gods; I have climbed the ruined walls of temples 
which once c<»itained thousands of superstitiGUS devotees ; I 
have handled some of the dust of human bones that were once 
burned at the back of those time-w(»ni altars. In such po- 
sitions, I have pondered over the scenes of by-gone years, and 
have thought of the joabm^its whidi then suiix)unded me-— the 
ever-glorious sunlight, the vacated temples, the victimless al- 
tars, the grave-like silence, the departed priests, the dispersed 
worshipers — and it seemed as though I could hear, in loud 
trumpet-tones, speeding over the entire aichipdago, the spirit 
of what had occurred ^^^e the first Protestant missionary set 
his feot on their shores ; 



THEIR PAST AND PRESENT CONDITION. 419 
" LmoLmo is king, the islands aee at peace, the tabu 

SYSTEM IS NO MORE, THE GODS ARE DESTKOTED, AND THE TEM- 
PLES ARE DEMOLISHED.'' 

Yenly there has been a change ! and that change has been 
great, and he who denies it insults his own intelligence and 
ignores the evidence of common sense. In this connection, the 
opinion of such a man as Hon. B. 0. Wyllie can not fail to 
be respected. After a residence of several years at the isl- 
ands, he j&ankly expressed himself thus : 

" Whatever faults may attach to the government (and I 
would not deny that it may have many), the experience of the 
last thirty-two years shows that it possesses within itself the 
means of self-improvement, and that in the aboHtion of idola- 
try, the reformation of immoral and superstitious usages, the 
extinction of feudal privileges oppressive to the poor, the dif- 
fusion of religion and education ; the establishment of a free 
religious toleration, the consoUdation of a free Constitution of 
king, nobles, and representatives of the people, and the cod- 
ification of useful laws, the Hawaiian people have made more 
progress as a nation than what ancient or modem history re- 
cords of any pec^le beginning their career in absolute barbar- 
ism."* 

In all probabiHty, the genius of the Constitution is the best 
comment on national progress. Those sections which relate 
to hberty of conscience are worthy of the most enlightened 
nation. The first Constitution of tiie Hawaiian kingdom was 
adopted on the 8th of October, 1840. The second article sol- 
emnly declares that " all men, of every religion, shall be pro- 
tected in worshiping Jehovah, and serving him according to 
their own understanding, but no man shall ever be punished 
for neglect of God, unless he injures his neighbor or brings 
evil on the kingdom." 

The new laws of Kamehameha IH., § 6 of Part IV., second 
act, provides as follows : 

" All men residing in this kingdom shall be allowed freely 
to worship the God of the Christian Bible according to the die- 
* Aimual Report of the Minister of Foreign Relations^ 1851. 



420 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

tates of their own consciences, and this sacied privilege shall 
never be infringed upon. Any disturbance of religious assem* 
blies, or hinderance of the free and unconstrained worship c^ 
God, unless such worship be connected with indecent or iia- 
proper conduct, shall be considered a misdemeanor, and pun- 
ished as in and by the Criminal Code prescribed." 

So far the Constitution and laws were correct. Their se- 
curity of liberty of conscience was nothing more than a mere 
recognition of ike legitimate and eternal rights which Grod has 
bestowed alike on all men, firom the mightiest potentate to the 
meanest slave. Had the spirit of that Constitution and those 
laws been liberally carried out by the religious teachers of the 
people, and had not many of those teachers taken upon them- 
selves the responsibility to adopt and enforce a species of eccle- 
siastical legislation, the changes efiected by Christianity would 
have been yet greater and far more beneficial. At a general 
meeting in June, 1837, of the Protestant missionaries, it was 

**Itesolved, That though the system of government in the 
Sandwich Islands has, since the conmiencement of the reign 
of LraoLmo, been greatly improved, through the influence of 
Christianity and the introduction of written and printed laws, 
and the salutary agency of Christian chiefe has proved a great 
blessing to the people, still, the system is so very imperfect for 
the management of the affairs of a civilized and virtuous na- 
tion as to render it of great importance that correct views of 
the rights and duties of rulers and subjects, and of the princi- 
ples of jurisprudence and political economy, should be held up 
before the king and the members of the national council.'' 

A rigid adherence by them to the latter portion of this res- 
olution has been a source of vast disadvantage to the nation, 
and a palpable violation of their instructions. 

The pioneers of the mission to these islands were instructed 
** to aim at nothing short of covering these islands, with firuit- 
fiil fields, and pleasant dwellings, and schools and churches, 
and raising up the whole people to an elevated state of Chris- 
tian civilization."* They were fiirther charged by their diieo- 
* Hawaiian Spectator, vol i, p. 86, 



PROBABLE DESTINY OF THE RACE. 421 

rectors that, as " the kmgdom of Christ is not of this world," 
tiiey are " to abstain from all interference with the local and 
poUtical interests of the people."* 

How far these " directions" have been compUed with, the 
reader will easily perceive by a careM perusal of these pages. 
On this theme, it only remains to remark, that if Dr. Judd had 
never been appointed Minister of Finance, and Mr. Armstrong 
Minister of Public Instruction — ^if ecclesiastical law had not 
predominated over civil institutions to such an extent that 
religious enactmoits are far in advance of morals, and morals 
far subservient to penal requirements — ^if the people had been 
taught generally to respect Christianity finom love rather than 
a slavish fear, or had they been taught the importance of 
maintaining a profoimd regard for the preservation and in- 
crease of domestic commerce rather than have had their hopes 
and sympathies raised through a medium too exclusively spir- 
itual, their present condition would have been vastly supe- 
rior, both in its social, political, and religious aspects, and the 
shrine before which they knelt would yet have retained its 
sanctity and life. 

These views naturally lead to the inquiry, " What is to be- 
come of the race ?" I have already examined the past and 
present causes, and the extent, of depopulation. The answer 
to this inquiry is, therefore, necessarily brief in its outline, and 
sad in its finale. The Hawaiians, as a race, are physically 
and morally doomed to pass away. In the short period of 
about seventy-four years, more than 325,000 of them have 
passed away from the earth. The probabihty is, that, if 
brought exclusively under the fostering care of the American 
people, a wreck of the people may be saved ; otherwise, no 
legislation, civil or religious, can long perpetuate their exist- 
ence. In a few years, the last of the Sandwich Islanders, 
with silvered locks and tottering steps, will be passing over 
the sunny plains or the romantic valleys, and as he looks 
through his tears of sorrow and despair, he will exclaim, in 
the language of the Arabian, " I came back to the land of my 
* Hawaiian Spectator, voL iL, p. 846. 



422 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

fathers, to the home of my youth, and said, ' The friends o£ 
my youth ! where are they ?' and an echo answered, ' Where 
are they ?» " 

The race may pass away ;* hut the Christian institutions, 
which have been reared, at so great a cost,* for their ji^hysical, 
and religious, and social improvement, will Uve on, to be a 
benefit to foreigners and their descendants. To the faithM 
and zealous missionary — and there are several of that class — 
it ii a source of sorrowful disappointment that there is no 
prospect of their rdigious instituticms being perpetuated by the 
Hawaiian people. 

There is one cause for congratulation on the part of the 
American Board of Misaons and \\Bfaithfid servants on the 
Hawaiian group, and that is, their effi>rt9 have not all been in 
vain to snatch that race from the gulf of barbarism in which 
they were once sunk. A close observer, who threads his way 
over those islands, will not and can not agree with the decis- 
ion passed by the Prudential Committee of the American 
Boards at its meeting in Cincinnati, October 7th, 1853, that 
" the Sandwich Islands, having been Christianized, could no 
longer receive aid &om the Board." There is a species of 
logic in the New Testament, however, which surpasses all 
others, and it announces the most sublime truth that the 
world has ever heard : its genius is, that the soul of the most 
despised man or woman is worth more in the estimation of 
its Maker than the whole material universe ! A reasonable 
doubt can not be cherished, that thousands of the Hawaiian 
race have passed away from earth to heaven. If, then, the 
American Board have been the means of redeeming but one 
idolater (!), they have conferred upon liim a prize which the 
wealth of a million worlds could not purchase ! 

If, however, there is cause for congratulation that good has 
been achieved, there remains one cause erf" a grand failure in 
missionary enterprise to those islands, and that cause is the 
almost universal rejection of the English language in the pub- 
lic schools, and the imiversal use of the Hawaiian in all cler- 
• See Appendix YII 



CAUSE OF A GRAND FAILURE. 433 

ical instruction of a public and private nature. Not to say 
any thing of the absolute vileness of the native language,* its 
extreme poverty is a sufficient argument against its use. On 
this subject a highly respectable missionary authority says, 

" Another obstacle may be imperfectly termed a destitution 
of ideas, and a consequent destitution of w^ords on the subject 
of true religion. Centuries of heathenism had done the work 
of devastatioik most efficiently. They had sw^ept away the 
idea of the true God, and buried all his attributes in oblivion. 

"The Sandwich Islanders and Society Islanders had no 
name for a superhuman being too high to be appHed to the 
departed ghosts of setisual and blood-stained chiefe. Many 
heathen nations have "no term expressive of a higher being 
than deified warriors. To these gods, of course, they attach 
the same attributes which pertain to them here on earth. K 
a missionary, then, wishes to speak of the high and holy God, 
what terms shall he use ? There is no term in the language. 
If he uses the name applied to their low and vile gods, it will 
mislead. K he use an English, Hebrew, or Greek word, it 
will not be understood. 

" He wishes to say gracious and merciful, and here, too, he 
is perplexed. The highest idea they had of a merciful man 
was what we term a good-natured man. 

" Such ideas having been obliterated for ages ; the terms, 
also, expressing such ideas, having long been lost ; and, in con- 
sequence of this destitution of terms, missionaries are obliged, 
in their conversation, their preaching, and in their translations 
of the Scriptures too, to use words nearest aUied to the sense 
they would express, though far from conveying the precise idea 
at first, or till the meaning has become fixed by frequent use 
and frequent explanation."! 

With these fects before them, it is truly surprising that, for 
thirty-three years, the native language should have been the 
• Dibble's History, p. 111. f Ibid., p. 26»-260. 



424 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

vehicle of public instruction not less than of political power. 
It is thoroughly understood that the English language is the 
best medium, not only of conmierce, but of civilization. The 
Hawaiians readily learn English, and its universal exclusion 
£rom their pubUc instructions has caused them* to experience 
a great public and private loss. 

In closing this abready long chapter, I can not, with pro- 
priety, omit some remarks once made by the l^jinister of For- 
eign ^lations. In referring to the English language as it re- 
lates to French diplomacy and to commerce generally at the 
islands, he says : 

" The misunderstanding of the French government upon 
the subject of language is, if possible, greater. Had the Ha- 
waiian Islands been discovered by the celebrated La Perouse, 
and had French ships and merchants exclusively visited and 
conducted the trade of the islands for many years afterward, 
the French language would have been, in all probability, as 
current in the islands as the English has been, in aU opera- 
tions of trade, for the last fifty years ; but Providence other- 
wise ordained. The islands were discovered by the famous 
Cook nearly seventy-three years ago.' Up to the visit of Van- 
couver, fourteen years aJfterward, the English and Americans 
were the only foreigners having relations with the islands ; it 
80 continued for many succeeding years, during the existence 
of the fiir-trade on the Northwest Coast. The islands after- 
ward became the resort of American and English whale ships, 
and from aU these natural causes the English language had 
gained such an ascendency, that both the Spaniard^ Don 
Francisco de Paula Marin, and the Frenchman, M. Jean 
B. KiVES, the earliest regular interpreters employed by Kame- 
HAMEHA I. and Kamehameha II., had to exercise their func- 
tions through the medium of that language. 

" So far as language goes, the United States and Great Brit- 
ain are to be taken together. In this sense, the English lan- 
guage may be said to represent eight hundred and forty-five 
persons on the islands, and the Frpnch thirty-three— dbort of 
a proportion of four per cent. 



INFLUENCE OF TUB ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 435 

» 

'* Li the trade of the islands, in the same sense, .taking last 
year as a hasis of calculation, and leaving out importations 
firom California entirely, the English language represents an 
amount of $461,807, and the French an amount of $7633 — 
short of a proportion of two per cent. 

t " Owing to the natural and inevitahle result of the circum- 
stances he&re mentioned, the English language is so indis- 
pensahle to the transactions of all matters of husiness in the 
islands, that Chinese, Chihans, Columhians, Danes, Germans, 
Hawaiians, Itahans, Japanese, Mexicans, all Polynesians, 
Portuguese, Prussians, Russians, Spaniards, Swedes, and even 
the French them^lves, speak it — advertise their goods and 
wares, and send in their invoices, bills, &c., in that language. 
There is not one of you to whom aU this is not notorious, but 
nothing of this kind seems to be known or beUeved in France. 
She considers that, under the second article of the treaty of 
the 26th of March, 1846, she has a right that her language 
should be as current here as the English, and hence the fourth 
article of the Declaration signed by M. Pebein and myself 
on the 25th of March, published in the Fdynesian on the 
29th."* 



' CHAPTER XXXin. 

ANNEXATION OP THE GROUP. 

Geographical Position of the Sandwich Islands. — Their Value argued 
firom their Position. — Climate. — ^Diseases. — Capacity of the SoiL^ — 
Importance of the Sandwich Islands to the United States Govern- 
ment — Objections considered. — ^Recent Movements at the Islands. 
— ^Remonstrance of the British and French Consuls.— Reply of the 
IJnited States Commissioner. — ^British and French Diplomacy. — 
British and French Dominion. ^ — Faith of European ^Nations. — 
Reasons for " Annjxation." — ^Its Necessity. 

In the preceding pages I have attempted to sketch the 
physical character, the scenery, and the commerce of the 
* Annual Report of the Minister of Foreign Relations^ 1861. 



426 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

group; I have portrayed a variety of scenes and incidents 
which will tend to illustrate the pohtical, moral, social, aad 
religious condition of the people ; I have glanced at the causes 
and extent of depopulation of the native races ; and I have 
endeavored to show what that group may be rendered, and 
how that dying pec^le may be brought back to life and ac- 
tivity by Ihe mild sway of just and righteous laws, emanating 
£rom a good government. I have done this, not only as a 
record of -^^at I have seen, but to prepare the way for a few 
remarks on the " Annexation" of that important group of 
islands to the United States of America. 

In pursuing this theme, it may be proper to lay down a few 
general premises. 

A mere glance at the map of the Western Hemisphere will 
show that the Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands — as they are 
officially termed — are situated in the North Pacific Ocean, be- 
tween latitude 18o 50'' and 22^ 20^ N., and longitude 154^ 
53^ and 160^ 16^ W. They are nearly equidistant from Cen- 
tral America, Mexico, California, and the Northwest Coast <mi 
the one side, and the Russian dominions, Japan, China, and 
the Phihppine Islands on the other. From their relative 
position to the above countries and Australia on the south, 
they have been termed the " Half-way House," or the " Great 
Crossings of the Pacific." Vessels bound from San Francisco 
to China or Austraha, stop at these islands, or pass within sight 
of them on their outward and return voyages. 

The group consists of twelve islands, eight only of which 
are inhabited, the other being but barren rocks. Those in- 
habited are as follows : 

Names. Miles Wide. Miles Long. Square Miles. 

Hawaii 88 73 4000 

Maui 48 80 620 

Oahu 46 26 630 

Kauai 42 26 600 

Molokai .40 1 190 

Lanai 17 9 100 

Niihau 20 7 90 

Kahoolawe 11 8 60 



THEIR VALUE AND POSITION. 427 

The whole embrace a superficial area of about 6100 square 
miles. 

The value of the group may be argued chiefly from their 
geographical position. Their equidistance from the chief 
ports — and especially San Francisco— on the western shores 
of the two continents of America, places them in a natural 
position to command the North Pacific Ocean. Gibraltar is 
not more the key to the Gates of Hercules, nor the island of 
Cuba to the Gulf Stream, than the Sandwich Islands are the 
natural defense of the Nofth Pacific. Civilization points to 
them as the island-empire of that great ocean. A few years 
ago, that world of waters was rarely whitened by the track of 
a vessel. The trade-winds were almost the only messengers 
that sped among their innumerable islands, reposing beneath 
the soft smile of an et^nal summer. Those lovely gems on 
the bosom of the deep remain unchanged ; but not so the 
spirit of the times in which we five. The western shores o£ 
our continent have experienced the greatest transformation, 
ever known in the history of the world, and that change can 
no more be chained to a single spot than the chariot of the 
sun can be stayed by a passing cloud. In times but just gone 
by, " our ships visited the Pacific to harpoon the whale ; now 
ships can not be found to transact the business which calls 
them to its basin. America has already ccmmienced the col- 
onization of these shores, and the dark blue Pacific will soon 
be traversed by the keels of white-winged cUppers, and plowed 
by the wheels of the steam-ship. The times hurry us along 
very fast, and the patriot and the statesman are called on im- 
peratively to provide for the interests of the country, of com- 
merce, and humanity on the Pacific. We can not pass these 
duties by, or leave them to chance, for we are in trust for 
human nature." 

The famihar line of the poet, 

" "Westward the star of empire takes its way,** 

is not unfirequently cited without remembering the splendid 
destinies to which it points. But it is the very genius of his- 



428 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

tory, the epitome of national grandeur, a just and impartial 
recognition of the true progress of man. To no nation, how- 
ever, does this sentiment so fully apply as the new State of 
Califomia. Its commerce, and the commerce of Central Amer- 
ica, and of the western coast of South America, are but yet in 
their infancy. "What Spanish wealth and Spanish Christian- 
ity failed to per&rm, after a fair trial, during nearly three hund- 
red years, American activity and enterprise have accomplished 
in five times that number of days! When the contemplated 
thoroughfares shall have been constructed across the Continent, 
80 as to bring the east and west nearer together by a more 
rapid communication, such a revolution in commerce will be 
efiected as the world has never before seen. With the rapid 
increase of merchant- vessels, whose wealth shall be wafted 
over every part of Polynesia, a sort of commercial depot will 
be needed between the East and West. Of this increase of 
c(»nmercial wealth, the United States will possess at least fif- 
teen twentieths. This ratio they ahready possess. The ccan- 
merce of the Western United States is yet in its infancy. It 
will not be long before such a mighty tide of wealth will roll 
between Califomia and the Orient as shall render the Pacific 
the ** highway ef nations" on a grander scale than the Atlan- 
tic now is. Califomia will then sit empress over the Pacific. 
She will be the great outlet through which America shall send 
forth her arts, sciences, Christianity, and civil liberty to the 
remotest regions of the earth, teaching mankind their imiver- 
sality and unity, their mutual duty one to another, and their 
legitimate allegiance to national councils and properly organ- 
ized governments. These splendid destinies once realized, it 
can not but be seen .that Americans will need a sort of half- 
way house, a commercial depot, in the North Pacific, precisely 
on the same principles as those by whicfi Pahnyra wa« long 
recognized as a stopping-place of the old Syrian merchants. 
Just such a place the Sandvidch Islands may and must be 
rendered, subjected, at the same time, to American laws and 
protection ; and for such a purpose they are eminently fitted 
by their great natural advantages. 



CLIMATE. 429 



The climate is the most uniform and salubrious of any in 
the world. Situated in the very midst of the vast Pacific, 
without any extensive inland causes to affect the temperature, 
and remote from the cold, chilling winds of the temperate and 
frigid zones, the Sandwich Islands possess a remarkable even- 
ness in the degree of atmospheric temperature. Cool breezes, 
l^ day from the sea, and by night from the mountains, serve 
to mitigate the burning heat produced by a vertical sun, and 
to render the climate pleasant. The thermometer varies but 
httle from day to day, and even from month to month ; and 
what is particularly to be remarked, all portions of the islands, 
along the shores, are alike in this respect. Districts most 
parched by heat and drought do not difier essentially in tem- 
perature from those sections where almost daily showers and 
perpetual trade-winds prevail. As we recede, however, from 
the low lands along the sea, and ascend the mountains, a 
change is immediately perceived, and along their extended 
sides we may procure almost any degree of temperature. The 
thermometer at Honolulu never rises above 90°, and rarely 
falls lower than 65°. June witnesses the highest range, Jan- 
uary the lowest. At Lahaina — ^the second sea-port in import- 
ance on the group— the highest thermometrical elevation, 
during a number of years, was 86°, and the lowest 59°. 

On. an average of temperature throughout the islands, the 
thermometer varies but 12° on a level with high tide.* Such 
is the gradual change from summer to winter — seasons more 
in name than reaUty — ^that it is hardly perceptible. Only at 
a height of one or two thousand feet above the sea are fires 
used to procure artificial heat. No marble columns or gUt- 
tering domes have ever been reared there, to trace the exist- 
ence of the Moslem, the Goth, the Druid, or the Christian, or 
to beautify the already beautiful footprints of Nature. Nor 
are they needed. The lofty peaks of the mountains bespei^k 
the e^stence of Time's monuments, which neither flame nor 
flood can waste. The streams, the foHage, the flowers, the 
plants, are peremiial. Wherever foUage flourishes, every thing 
^ See Appendix IIL 



430 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

Btaada bedecked in living green— ^«verj thing reposes beneath 
the bright sunhght of an unfading summer. 

Such is the equableness of the climate, and the simplicity 
of the natiyes in their regimen and most of their habits of lijfe, 
that, compared with civilized countries, the variety of their 
diseases is neither numerous nor complex. Their remoteness 
from other lands is so great that but few contagious diseases 
are imported among them. Even the clwiera, which has of 
late p{U9sed over almost the whole surface of our planet, be- 
came inert and powerless before it reached those islands. The 
diseases most ccmimon among the native population, so &r as 
I observed them, were fevers, ophthalmia, catarrhs and asi^ 
ma, rheumatism, venereal, diarrhea, dysentery, cutaneous 
diseases, scrofula, dropsy, etc., and they occurred, in frequen- 
cy, in about the order in which I have mentioned them. Dis- 
eases sometimes occur epidemically, as is the case with car 
tarrh repeatedly. Many other diseases^ not specified, fi:e- 
qiiently make their appearance. 

Ophthalmia, of the purulent form, abounds in every por- 
tion of the group, and opaque corneas, and thickened coats of 
the eyes are very numerous. The old and the young are alike 
afiected with this disease ; very small children are occasional- 
ly m6t with nearly blind &c»n its efiects. I at one time at- 
tributed its prevalence to the efiects of the clouds of sand ofbn 
raised and blown about with great violence by the trade- 
wind ; but finding it equally common in those districts where 
frequent rains prevent the dust fix)m ever rising, there appear- 
ed to be no other cause so active as the trade-winds, which aie 
constantly prevalent, and come mingled with salt spray. 

Pidrrumary Diseases. — Sudden ai^d severe atmosp hericvi- 
cissitudes, the exciting cause of pulmonary afiections, do not 
occur at the Sandwich Islands, and with the accommodations 
for protection and comfort which are possessed in every civil- 
ized laud, diseases of the respiratory organs would be far more 
rare. Such, however, are the habits and practices' <rf the peo- 
ple, and so exposed are they to the influence of every atmo- 
spheric change, that aMhma, and catarrhs in particular, are 



DISEASES. 431 



of frequent occurrence. The latter are, however, usually mild 
in their character, ephemeral in their existence^ easily yield to 
remediate applications, and rarely pass into the more invet- 
erate and fatal stages of pulmonic disease. 

But the most mahgnant and destructive of all the diseases 
on the group is syphilis. It has been perpetuated and ex- 
tended until language has become too feeble to express the 
wretchedness and woe which have been the result. Foul ul- 
cers, of many years' standing, both indolent and phagedenic, 
every where abound, and visages horridly deformed — eyes ren- 
dered blind — gnoses entirely destroyed — ^mouths monstrously 
drawn aside from their natural position — ulcerating palates, 
and almost useless arms and legs» mark most clearly the state 
and progress of the disease among that injured and helpless 
people. 

It is a melancholy reflection, that there is no prospect of 
this disease, so disgusting in its eflects and destructive in its 
course, being soon eradicated. The natives possess, among 
themselves, no curative means which will control it. But a 
small portion have ready access to foreign physicians, and 
many within reach appear too indiflerent to their condition to 
make appUcation, while most permit the disease to go on till 
secondary symptoms appear before they seek assistance. These 
circumstances, together with their prevailing and inveterate 
habits of promiscuous sexual intercourse, will serve still to per- 
petuate and extend the disease. 

Children are much exposed to disease. The profound ig- 
norance of parents relative to then: maternal duties, and their 
frequent indifference to the comfort of their offspring, subject 
them to an almost incredible amount of unnecessary suffering 
and disease during the most tender age of infancy and child- 
hood. Should they be taken sick in the night, the sluggish 
parents, either wrapped in a profound slumber, or averse to 
moving during the hours of darkness, suffer their helpless lit- 
tle ones to he, benumbed with cold and exhausted by crying, 
till morning at length comes to their rehef Catarrhs, asth- 
mas, and particularly fevers, are hence abundant, and the 



432 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

seeds of nomennis future diseases are doubtless sown at such 
times. 

Their cleanliness is also greatly neglected. An occasional 
immersion at mid-day is perhaps the only ablution performed, 
and the constantly accumulating filth over the surface of their 
bodies subjects them to the prevailing cutaneous diseases and 
scrofula ; while the folds of their joints, the nates and vagina 
being so much neglected, are extensively afiected with exco- 
riations and ulcers. Add to these the practice of feeding them 
with the crudest and most indigestible food nearly as soon as 
bom, and it is a matter of wonder that so many survive the 
infantile discipline. 

The diseases above specified, however, are slightly, if at all, 
applicable to foreign residents or their children. 

Makuria is entirely unknown. 

As a resort for individuals predisposed to, or afiected with 
pulmonary diseases, the Sandwich Islands can not be sur- 
passed. 

Before entering upon the capacity of the soil, it may be 
proper to glance at its character. On this topic a very few 
remarks will suffice. 

It is generally composed of decayed volcanicmat ters, such 
as lava, sand,' mud, and ashes, all of which are fertile when 
well watered. On the hills, to a great height, and in the ra- 
vines, vegetable mould is abundant. Some of the soil is of a 
red, tufaceous character ; in other places itis brown, granular, 
or black. The compact soils appear best adapted to resist the 
drought. About 'Honolulu, the superstratum of earth is thin 
— ^from one to five feet, and the average about three. Under 
this is a stratum of black volcanic sand or scorisB, of about the 
same thickness, upon a bed of coral, in which, by hewing out 
a cavity of from three or four to twenty feet in depth, water 
is foimd, with which the grounds are easily irrigated. 

Such is the character of the soil over the greater portion of 
the group. 

The capacity of the soil is almost miraculous ; consequently, 
the natives do not cultivate a large extent. 



CAPACITY OF THE SOIL. 433 

" In regard to the cheapness of fobd for the natives, it is 
proper to state that 40 feet square of land, planted with kalOy 
afibrds subsistence for one person ; 32 feet square of land, 
planted with bananas, will yield 4000 pounds of fruit, while 
the same extent of land will yield but 30 pounds of wheat, 
or 80 pounds of potatoes. A tract of land one mile square, 
in fields, will occupy and feed 153 persons ; the same extent in 
vineyards will occupy and feed 289 persons, while the same 
quantity of land in kcdo will feed 15,151 persons, and proba- 
bly not more than one twenty-fifth of that number would be 
required in its cultivation. The numerical Value of this re- 
source is not of so much importance as its relative proportion 
to other resources." 

The districts of Hilo and Puna, on Hawaii, would support 
400,000 natives. 

The districts of Kaneohe, Ewa, Koolau, and Waialua, on 
Oahu, containing about 21,000 acres, would support 90,000. 

The district of Koolau, on Kauai, would produce food 
enough to supply 40,000. 

Here, then, are seven small districts capable of furnishing 
food for 530,000 native inhabitants, or 130,000 greater than 
the population estimated by Cook in 1778. 

Arable land is found from three feet to two thousand feet 
above the level of high tide. 

The natural resources of the soil afford materials for cord- 
age, tanning, kapa^ and mats, castor, lamp, and paint oil, fire 
and sandal wood, fancy wood for furniture, also the bamboo, 
banana, plantain, guava, turmeric, bread-fruit, tamarind, lime, 
orange, citron, and mustard. Of these, several will probably 
become articles of export, particularly several kinds of beauti- 
ful wood for ornamental furniture, paint and castor oil. Tim- 
ber, the banana, and several kinds of bark, will be important 
auxiliaries in the progress of iiliprovement. 

There are other resources more directly dependent upon its 
cultivation. Among such we find sugar, molasses, cotton, cof- 
fee, indigo, silk, rice, Indian com, wheat, hemp, Icalo, cocoa, to- 
bacco, ginger. Also the yam, potato, melon, squash, bean, 

T 



434 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

grape, pine-apple, olive, cabbage, radish", onion, cucumber, to- 
mato, gooseberry, strawberry, cbirimoya, papaya, and fig, be- 
sides a list of less important articles. 

Cotton will likewise beccnne an important article. It is 
easily raised, and the dry, rocky Isuid which abounds on the 
leeward side of these islsunds is well adapted for it. 

The cultivation of the cotton-plant will be prevented <m 
the uplands by the high trade-winds, which blow freely over 
all the islands. How far the cotton-tree known in Mexico 
will grow on such lands, and retain its wool till picked, re- 
mains yet to be ascertained. It is an object eminently wor- 
thy df experiment. 

The vine flourishes in some parts of the island, and there 
is no doubt that good wine could be made, imder the direction 
of persons knowing how to manage the vintage. 

The cultivation of the grape for the manufacture of wine 
would soon witness a return equal to the entire revenue of 
1853. 

From experiments already tried, it is known that silk can 
be very profitably produced here, and that it will aflbrd em- 
ploymmit to a large proportion of the population. It is be- 
lieved that six crops of leaves may be gathered annually fix)m 
the same trees, which grow here with a rapidity unknown in 
silk countries. 

It is thoroughly understood by all judges of the article, that 
the coflee produced in these islands rivals in flavor the much- 
esteemed Mocha, and perhaps only yields to that rare and ex- 
quisite species produced only in Peru, in the province of Yun- 
gas. It can be raised in large quantities* Under a more lib- 
eral government, it may find its way extensively into foreign 
markets. 

The principal manufacture is that of salt. A quantity of 
this article, sufficient to supply the Pacific Ocean, can be man- 
ufactured at Oahu, equal in quality to that of Turks' Island 
or Liverpool. 

The shores of the islands and their romantic streams abound 
with the finest of fishes, thkt constitute an indispaisable and 



IMPQETAJ^CJE OF THE GROUP. 435 

extensive item in iaativ^ food. There are al^ shells, both 
numerous and beautiful, among which are the echini, coral- 
lines, and crustaceae. The Cypres MadagasoLriensis is 
found here abundantly ; also fine specimens of the Perd/Lx^ 
HdiaSy BullcBy Ovtdce, Neritince, the Corms cLdmiraliSy 
and others less rare. A- small species of the Chiton is also 
common. 

From what has already been stated,^ it can not but be seen 
that the, Sandwich grpup must be of vast importance to the 
United States govenupent. The history of their discovery is 
a page of romance as interesting as any tale.of adventure and 
fiction. Less than a century has witnessed the birth and 
growth of an empire, and brQ^ght these fair islan4B in the 
once desert waste of the Faci^ to be the station and harbor 
of thronging ships. Those islands, where the naked savage 
roamed amid cocoa-nut groves, and over the slopes of fertile 
mountains, are inhabited by Americans,, and are necessary ^or 
American commerce. 

From their central portion, and the numerous facilities af- 
forded for recruiting vessels, the islands have long been a fa- 
vorite resort for whalers, and, since the increase of commerce 
in the Pacific, have formed a regular stopping-place for the 
merchant mariners in their voyages across that great ocean; 
The result is, that Honolulu, from its position and fine harbor^ 
has become a place of great consequence. At least one mill- 
ion of dollars was expended there by the seven hundred sail 
of vessels that visited that port in 1852, in paying off their 
crews, recruiting, repairing, and refreshments. In 1851, one 
million of dollars worth of goods was imported into the isl- 
ands, mostly from .the United States. The commercial im- 
portance of the place is daily increasing, and in a short time 
it will raok only second to San Francisco among the towns of 
the Pacific. 

Annexation to the United States would be of infinite bene-[ 
fit to them in a variety of relations, but in none so much a» 
in the extension and protection of American interests already 
firmly established there; Those islands once possessed by our 



436 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

goyemment, a nucleus would be established from which would 
radiate the blessings and advantages of Amencan civilization 
over the whole of Polynesia. 

To a step so desirable and inevitable, a few objections have 
been uiged: ^ 

1. By missionaries and a few persons in the immediate em- 
ploy of the Hawaiian government. 

The charge, so widely reiterated, that " the missionaries, 
and those banded with them, own the finest property and 
houses on the group," is, alas I — ^with a few exceptions — ^too 
true.* Paying no taxes, especially on real estate, it is for 
their interest to raise every objection to a change of govern- 
ment. . This they have done, and c<mtinue to do, through the 
press at home and abroad, and in the councils of the Hawaiian 
Parliament. To gratify their sdf-mteT&t and maintain their 
position, they have expended many an hour's eloquence, and 
wasted ink on many a quire of foolscap. Such a course has 
grown out of a pseudo-philanthropy toward the Hawaiian 
race. A change of government would e^t a transforma- 
tion in their afiairs, and send some of the king's officials to 
engage in duties for which they are infinitely better fitted. 

2. It has been urged that the annexation of the Sandwich 
Islands would be a superfluous extension of American territo- 
ry. This objection carries with it its own refutation. With 
the many millions of acres in the gigantic West ; with a coun- 
try inexhaustible in its mineral and agricultural wealth, and 
whose lap will lodge and feed a family of 300,000,000 of hu- 
man beings, it is natural to conclude that the United States 
possess sufficient territory. Not less true it is that a small 
group, whose superficial area does not exceed six thousand 
one hundred square miles, can not add to our ^country a very 
significant amount of territory. It is equally true that those 
islands can be of advantage to us only as they will afibrd the 
means for extending and defending our vastly expanding com- 
merce. But who will say that such advantages are not well 
worth a possession by a great commercial people like our own ? 

* See Appendix V. 



OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED. 437 

3. Another objeetion which has been raised is the acqui- 
sition of slave territory. But this topic I leave to the disposal 
of diplomatists. The American people possess sufficient in- 
telligence and decision of character to provide against any 
measures that may tend to conffict with the genius of the 
Constitution. 

4. It has been objected, that any steps taken toward an- 
nexation would lead to a rupture between our government, 
and France, and England. This last objection, although a 
perfect fallacy, merits some degree of consideration. So say 
a few of the French and British subjects residing on the group ; 
and such has been the day-dream of a few of our own citizens 
immediately at home. And yet such an objection is, in itself, 
utterly objectionable, and the objectors themselves need a little 
light on national rights and privileges. 

But, whatever may be the sentiments of a few self-interested 
individuals, or of men who can not see beyond the shadows 
of the moment, certain it is that the political afiairs of the 
islands are becoming revolutionized, and the dawn of their 
lepubhcan freedom is in the ascendency. As recently as July, 
1853, the first step taken toward reform was the removal of 
a portion of the obnoxious ministry — ^fbrmed, in part, of mis- 
sionaries. A large meeting — ^not of mere enemies to mission- 
ary enterprise, but the despotic ministers — of independent cit- 
izens of unblemished reputation convened at Honolulu for 
the purpose of discussing the grievances they were compelled 
to throw off. The movements and decisions of that body of 
citizens are fraught with vital interest to the Hawaiian gov- 
ernment and our own ; and, as they will eventually terminate 
in annexation of the islands to the United States, it may be 
proper to notice those proceedings at length. 

That mass-meeting of the people was called by the follow- 
ing card: 

" The Time has Come — Keep the Ball in Motion. — A 
meeting of the citizens of Honolulu, fetvorable to the dismissal 
from office of G. P. Judd and Richard Armstrong, Minis- 



438 SANDWICH IBLAND NOTES. 

ten of Finanoe and Public Instruction^ will be held at the 
Court-house, in Honolulu, to-night, at 7^ o'clock, to discuss 
the resolutions ofiered last nig^t by George A. Lathrop. 
' Liberty of speech is the birthright of freemen.* By order 
of the committee of Independent Citizens. 

"Honolulu, July 20, ISSS." 

• In pursuance of the above call, the foreign residents of Hcnir 
dulu assembled at the Court-house on the evening of July 
20th, and organized the meeting by electing the Allowing 
officers, viz. : Dr. Wesley Newcomb, President ; Captain 
John Meek and Captain DAvm Pearce Penhallow, Vice- 
presidents ; William Ladd and C. H. Lewers, Secretaries. 

Dr. George A. Lathrpp stated the objects of the meeting, 
insisting upon the right of free discussion, -which had been cut 
off the previous evening, and, in support of his position, read 
the third and £>urth articles of the Constitution of the Ha- 
waiian Islands, to wit : 

" Art. 3. All men may fineely speak, write, and publish 
their sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse 
of that right ; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge 
the liberty of speech or of the press. 

" Art, 4. All men shall have the right, in an orderly and 
peaceable manner, to assemble, without arms, to consult upoa 
the common good ; give instructions to their representatives ; 
and to petiti(m the king oi the Legislature for a redress of 
grievances." 

He then introduced a series of resolutions, which were ably 
supported by Messrs. J. D. Blair, Captain A. J. M*Duffie, 
Dr. W. Newcomb, and Dr. J. Mott Smith, and unanimously 
adopted. 

The following are the resolutions offered by Dr. Lathrop : 

"Whereas, The position of the Sandwich Islands in the 
Pacific Ocean must render them of very great importance, in 
a commercial point of view at least, and they would, under 
wholesome, judicious, and liberal governmental policy, at no 
distant day, become rich in the various productions of their 



MOVEMENTS AT THE ISLANDS. 439 

soil, influential in the expansion of their trade and commerce, 
and their citizens prosperous, contented, and hsCppy; and 
whereas the ]^ple should he the source of power in aU, and 
are emphatically the Support and dependence of aU govern- 
ments, whether monarchical, mixed, or democratic, and that 
no government can he conducted successfully, prosperously, 
and happily without the confidence and respect of the people ; 
therefore, 

** Reserved, That the wishes of the people should he con- 
sulted hy emperor, king, or president, in the appointing or con- 
tinuance of ministers, who, hy the power their position gives 
them, exercise a controlling influence over the destinies of the 
country and the individual happiness of the people. 

" Resolvedy That we, a portion of the foreign and native 
reddents of the Sandwich Islands, entertain for his majesty, 
KAMEHAiffEHA III., nothing hut the most profound sentiments 
of loyalty, regard, and esteem, and that he will ever find in 
us earnest supporters of his title and prerogatives, so long as 
such a course would he consistent with a proper respect for 
private rights, personal Uherty, individual honor, and the puh- 
lic good. 

" Resdvedy That the Ministers of Finance and Pubhc In- 
struction, memhers of his majesty's present cahinet, are not so 
fortunate as to have either the confidence or esteem of this 
meeting, nor, as we beheve, of any considerable portion of his 
majesty's native subjects, or of foreign reddent citizens through- 
out his kingdom, and that their retention in office is in direct 
opposition to the wishes and interests of a very large majority 
of the natives and citizens of the Sandwich Islands. 

*^ Resolved, That these same ministers, having the com- 
mand of the principal channels of influence, viz., treasure, 
education, and the almost absolute control of government pa- 
tronage, have most wickedly neglected their duty in not using 
the means within their control to protect the people from the 
pestilence which is now depopulating the islands. That, in- 
stead of devoting themselves to the public good, they have 
ever sought their own aggraudiz^ooent, regardless alike of the 



440 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

high duties devolving upon them, or of the evils necessarily 
following their malfeasance in office. 

*' Resclvedy That while the foreign residents of Honolulu 
are making such earnest and energetic efibrts, expending their 
time, lahor, and money so hherally to stay the dread pestil^ice 
that threatens in a short time to sweep off a large portion of 
the inhahitants of these islands, annihilate their trade and 
commerce, and therehy hring distress, ruin, and absolute want 
upon the citizens, it is not unreasonable to ask the dismissal 
of said ministers, who, by their criminal, selfish, and willful 
neglect, have brought this frightful curse upon us. For even 
the plea of ignorance* can not be made in their defense, as 
the pubhc are well aware that they were warned in season — 
nay, even urged and entreated to use the only means by which 
protection could be given to the people. But, as the sum of 
less than two thousand dollars would be required to vaccinate 
and protect the people of this island, the recommendation or 
proposal to the physicians passed for naught. 

*' Resolved, That a committee be appointed by the president 
to prepare a petition to his majesty, praying that he will grat- 
ify the most eamest hope and desire of the people, and contrib- 
ute to their happiness and prosperity, by dismissing firom office 
G. P. JuDD and Richard Armstrong, the present Ministers 
of Finance and Public Instruction." 

J. D. Blair, having been appointed to prepare a petition 
to his majesty Kamehameha III., submitted the following, 
which was unanimously adopted, and over one himdred signa- 
tures were immediately obtained in the meeting : 

Petition to his majesty Kamehameha III. 
"We, the undersigned, citizens of the Sandwich Islands, 
part of whom are most loyal and dutiful subjects of your maj- 
esty, and others, residents and denizens of your most gracious 
majesty's kingdom, would earnestly and respectfully represent 
to your majesty that we entertain for you, as a man, the warm- 
est sentiments of esteem and respect ; for you, as the lawftd 
sovereign of this kingdom, feelings of the most loyal duty and 



MOVEMENTS AT THE ISLANDS. 441 

respectful reverence ; and for those noble and generous qual- 
ities of the heart, that have so eminently characterized your 
majesty, the cordial admiration of our hearts can only be felt 
— never expressed. 

"Your petitioners would further most respectfully represent 
to your majesty that we are law-abiding subjects, citizens, and 
denizens of your majesty's kingdom ; that we will ever be sub- 
missive to, and supporters of, all laws made in conformity 
with the Constitution, and cheerfully submit to perform aU 
obligaticms properly due from a free and Christian people to 
their lawM sovereign. 

" Your petitioners would further most respectfully represent 
to your majesty that the interests of all of us are largely, and 
many of us solely, identified with the Hawaiian Islands ; that 
the prosperity, poUtical advancement, and happiness of your 
kingdom is the sincere and earnest desire of our hearts. * We 
advance with its advancement, and are prosperous in its pros- 
perity. The destinies of us all are more or less united with 
the destinies of these islands. As a nation is, so are the peo- 
ple ; and as national wealth, greatness, and dignity are shared 
by the people individually, so also must they share in the pov- 
erty, insignificance, and depreciation of national character. It 
is for these reasons, as well as the sentiments of personal re- 
gard and esteem we entertain for your majesty, that we so 
earnestly desire that the dignity and authority of your majesty 
should be maintained — ^the wealth, commerce, and prosperity 
of the nation augmented and steadily advanced — and that 
peace and happiness may reign throughout your majesty's do- 
minions. 

"Your petitioners would furthermost respectfully represent 
to your majesty that the history of all ages illustrates the 
truth, that no monarch, however good and great in his own 
person, can make his government respected or his people happy, 
when surrounded by pernicious counselors. The happiness of 
a people is in the wisdom of the government, and the strength 
of the government is in the trust and confidence of the people. 

" Your petitioners would furdier represent to your majesty 
T2 



442 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

that, entertainiiig as we do the highest coiuuderation for your 
majesty, the unprejudiced convictions of our judgment are, 
that your majesty has, as your confidential advisers, persons 
undeserving the trust and confidence of the people, and high- 
ly prejudicial to the best interests of your majesty's govem- 
ment. 

" That, in the humble opinion ci your petitioners, the pub- 
lic good and the welfare of your majesty's people would be 
greatly promoted, and the peace and harmony of the country 
secured, by the dismissal from office of G. P. Jubd and Rich- 
ard Armstrong, Ministers of Finance and PuUie Instruction. 

*' Their inefficiency and misdeeds may be artfully concealed 
firom your majesty, but their selfish cupidity, political imbecil- 
ity, and malfeasance in office, are well* known and grievously 
felt by your people. 

" If ^e pubho good made subservient to personal aggran- 
dis^ement — ^the use of official and arbitrary power to gratify 
personal malice, ineffici^cy, and neglect in the discharge of 
official duties — and the shandeful betrayal of the trust of a 
confiding and unfortunate peojde, merit public reprobation, 
and the withdrawal of the trust ccmfided to them, then do 
they. 

< ' The public good and public feeling urgently demand their 
dismissal. We earnestly and respectfully petition that it may 
be done ; and not only we, but the almost universal cry is, that 
they may be no longer allowed to hold places in your majesty's 
ccMffidence, or of national trust Gould the voices be hc^xd of 
those thousands of your majesty's people who have recently 
been so suddenly swept from time into an awful eternity, 
through the criminal parsimony and neglect of these minis- 
ters, they would cry night and day in the ears of your majes- 
ty to reprove, and in some measure avenge, the wrong done 
your people, by dismisHing such faithless ministers from your 
majesty's councils. The bodies of hundreds of your majesty's 
humble and &ithful subjects lie cold and dead, and their 
tongues are silent in the grave ; but the silence of those graves 
conveys a language more impressive than the speech of tongues. 



MOVEMENTS AT THE ISLANDS. 443 

and admoniBhes your majesty that the -wrongs of your people 
should still live in the memory of your majesty, though they 
have passed away forever. 

" Your petitioners have a full and ahiding confidence in the 
justice and firmness of your majesty, and indulge the not un- 
reasonahle hope that your majesty will hear the hving and 
remember the dead, and so respond to this petition as to bring 
peace, happiness, prosperity, and unity to your now distracted 
and suffering people." 

This petition was signed by two hundred and sixty fi>reign- 
ers, and twelve thousand two hundred and twenty natives. 
Subsequent meetings were held, and resolutions, confirmatory 
of preceding action, were unanimously passed. The fiiends 
of iJie two ministers were active in their defense, and charged 
the repubhcans with revolutionary or treasonable designs 
against the Hawaiian government ; but a host of stem facts ' 
stood arrayed against them, and their defense of the ministers, 
and their hbelous charges against the patriots, were crushed. 
"While these scenes were enacted in the Court-house, let us 
take a peep into the " royal presence.'* 

The besotted king and his native counselors were so alarm- 
ed by the determined attitude of the Independents, that, even 
after refusing to dismiss Messrs. Judd and Armstrong, they 
met in secret conclave, and resolved to compel those obnox- 
ious ministers to resign. Judd got wind of*the matter, ap- 
pealed to the sympathies and prejudices of the king, over whom 
he has obtained unbounded influence, and managed to induce 
him to reconsider his determination. By this means he con- 
trived to retain his hold upon place and power a brief space 
longer. The Hawaiian Guards, composed principally of Amer- 
icans, exhibited such a spirit a few days afterward, that the 
king, in great trepidation, is said again to have promised the 
withdrawal of the ministers. 

Annexation to the United States now seemed to be the 
movement at which both parties were aiming. To gain pop- 
ularity — and probably to obtain an interim for the better ad- 



444 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

jostment ot thdr difficulties — they avowed tiieraaelTes as the 
advocates of annexaticm, and accused the Indep^idoits of op- 
position to that measure. Bat it was a hbel on all their for- 
mer actions and sentiments. The hollowuess of the pretext 
was palpable. The doors of the whirlwind had been opened, 
and couid be closed only by the dismissal of the olmradous 
Minister of Finance. Ihr. Judd was removed from office, and 
Elisha H. Aixen, ex-ccmsol of the United States, appointed. 
Thus a decided step had be^i taken toward annexation to 
the United States. It caused no small, excitement among the 
British and French residents. The consols of France and 
England solicited an audience with the king and Privy Coun- 
cil. The Council was convoked on the 1st of Septemha, 
when the consuls presented the following joint remonstrance : 

"Honolulu, Sept 1, 1863. 

" May it please tour Majesty, — ^We, the representatives 
of Great Britain and France, beg leave respectfrdly to inti- 
mate te your majesty that we are fully informed of the extra- 
ordinary course adopted by some American merchants, landed 
proprietors, and other citizens of the United States, coimected 
with the Protestant missionaries residing on Woahoo, with a 
view to induce your majesty to alienate your sovereignty and 
the independence of these islands by immediate negotiation for 
annexation to the United States, and that we are aware, also, 
of the countenance and support that a memorial which those 
gentlemen have addressed to you, to the aforesaid efiect, has 
received from high official functionaries at Honolulu, all of 
which proceedings have given rise to considerable excitement 
among French and British residents. 

" Under these circumstances, we consider it our duty to re- 
mmd you that Great Britain and France have entered into 
solemn treaties with the Sandwich Islands, by which treaties 
your majesty, your heirs and successors, are bound to extend, 
at all times, to French and British subjects, the same advant- 
ages and privileges as may be granted to subjects or citizens 
of the most favored nation, a;id that the joint resoluticm of En- 



REMONSTRANCE OF THE CONSULS. 445 

gland and France of the 28th of Novemb^, 1843, was found- 
ed upon the clear understanding that your majesty was to pre- 
serve your kingdom as an independent state. 

" Therefore we declare, in the name of our governments, 
that any attempt to annex the Sandwich Islands to any for- 
eign power whatever would be in contravention of existing 
treaties, and could not be looked upon with indifference by. ei- 
ther the British or the French government. 

** We beg Airther to observe, that, in accordance with the 
Hawaiian Constitution, your majesty could only alienate your 
sovereignty and islands imder certain circumstances — ^which 
circumstances have not occurred — and that no monarch what- 
ever, according to Yattel and other writers on international 
law, has a right to alienate his kingdom, or to enter into a 
negotiation with that view, without the concurrence of his 
people. 

" We therefore consider that the time has arrived for us to 
remonstrate ; and we do hereby remonstrate against your maj- 
esty becoming a party to the scheme recently got up, or to 
any other project which existing treaties and the Hawaiian 
Constitution do not sanction.* Em. Perrin, 

Wm. Miller." 

To this " extraordinary" movement on the part of the two 
consuls, the Minister of Foreign Eolations issued the following 
laconic reply : 

" Privy Council Chamber, Palace, Sept 1, 1868. 

'* The undersigned is commanded by the king to state to 
the representatives of Great Britain and France that his maj- 
esty will duly consider the joint memorandum which they this 
day presented to his majesty, in presence of his ministers and 
Privy Council of State. R. C. Wyllie. 

"To Monsieur Louis Emilie Perrin, Consul, Commissioner, and Ple- 
nipotentiary of his Imperial Majesty, Napoleon III., of France. 

"To William Miller, Esq., H. B. M-'s Consul," Ac, Ac. 

* See treaties in Appendix YL 



446 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

To prevent a wrong impression in the minds of persons at 
a distance, a communication was published in the FolA^nesicun 
of the 10th instant : 

'* Mr. £DiTOR,-*-The commmiication firom 1^ representa- 
tives of Great Britain and France, in your last paper, will 
probably convey a wrong impression to many of your readers. 

" The Protestant missionarijBS at these islands have nev^ 
engaged in any scheme of annexation. It has been th^ cher- 
ished wish that the government may remain independent, un- 
der th^ present Constituticni and rulers. Whatever may have 
been done by merchants, planters, or others, the Protestant cler- 
gymen at the islands have neidier advised nor signed any me- 
morial to the king touching annexation. £. W. Clark, 

P. J. GULICK." 

This last dispatch was needless — uidess iot persons abroad 
— iox it has ever been understood that pohcy would keep the 
missionaries iroia ajqi advocacy of ail movements tending to 
annexation. 

The joint " remonstrance" by the consuls met with a digni- 
fied and firm reply fix)m the U. S. Commissioner — a reply 
highly characteristic of American diplomacy. The following 
is the answer entire, as it was addressed to the representatives 
of the Biitish and French governments, through the Minister 
of Foreign B.elations ; and as it anticipates some topics on 
which it was my intention to dwell, I give it this place in 
these pages : 

"XJnited States Commiflsion, Honolulu, Sept 8, 1853. 
" Sir, — ^I have the honor of receiving your communication 
of this morning, in which you say it was resolved by the king 
in council, on the first day of the month, that you should pass 
to me officially a copy of the joint address to his majesty by 
the representatives of Great Britain and France, made on that 
day, which you have done by inclosing a copy, No. 17, of the 
Polynesian, published this morning. 



REPLY OF THE U. S. COMMISSIONER. 447 

" My thanks axe due to the king and council for taking im- 
mediate measures to apprise me officially of the exact contents 
of the address, which I perceive remonstrates against the ex- 
traordinary course adopted hy some American merchants, 
landed proprietors, and other citis^ns of the United States, to 
induce the king to alienate his sovereignty and the independ- 
ence of the islands, by immediate negotiation for annexation 
to the United States. 

'' You are aware that the government of the United States 
has never made any propositions to his majesty's government 
to annex the islands, though the matter has undoubtedly en- 
gaged the attention both of citizens of the United States and 
of subjects of the king. To me it is not surprising that the 
'merchants and landed proprietors,' whether Americans or 
others, should perceive great commercial advantages in such 
a connection, considering that the principal part of the com- 
merce of the islands is with the United States, and that the 
islands must look almost exclusively to the Pacific coast of the 
United States for a market for their products and the means 
of paying for their heavy imports. I perceive, theref(»re, noth- 
ing very extraordinary in the project remonstrated against. 
And if now, or at any future time, it shall be found to be de- 
cidedly for the interest of both countries to unite their sover- 
eignties, I am imable to perceive any treaty or moral obliga- 
tions oil the part of either to forbid the dedred union, or any 
good reason for foreign interference to prevent it. 

'' French and English subjects might still be entitled to the 
privileges of the ' most favored nation,' and, on the score of 
commercial advantages, can not weU complain of being sub- 
jected in these islands to the revenue laws of a country which 
consumes and pays for French manufactures and other prod- 
ucts to the amount of forty miUions of doUars annually, and 
of British goods to liie amount of one hundred millions annu- 
ally — ^the revenue laws of a country rapidly growing, and 
whose trade is now of more value to Great Britain and France 
than that of any of their colonies, if not, indeed, of all of them 
added together, vast as English colonies are. 



448 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

" In view of these great interests, which would be sacrificed 
by a disturbance of pacific relations (to say nothing of several 
hundred millions of American stocks held in Europe, whose 
value might, for the time, be seriously a^cted), it is not to be 
supposed that France will insist on theUttle advantage of im- 
porting into these islands silks, wines, &;c., to -the amount of 
a few thousands of dollars, at five per cent, duty, as she now 
does by her construction of the treaty of the 29th March, 1 846 
— a treaty which, instead of being a vaUd reason why the king ' 
should not transfer his sovereignty, is a standing and power- 
ful argument to justify him in doing so, since that treaty denies 
to him one of the most important attributes of sovereignty — 
one in the highest degree essential to all independent nations. 

" Still less is it to be supposed that Great Britain will claim 
the privileges of the * most favored nation' under the French 
treaty, since she has generously thrown up her own treaty of 
the same date and tenure, and substituted that of the 10th of 
July, 1861, in accordance with the American treaty of Wash- 
ington of the 20th of December, 1849. 

" The right to cede or acquire territory, or to imite two in- 
dependent nations by compact, is regarded as inherent in all 
independent sovereignties. It has certainly been practiced 
from time immemorial. The power which can cede a part, 
can cede all the pagrts. Modem history abounds in examples, 
and none more than English and French history. Annexa- 
tion is neither a new thing, nor rare in our day, as the Turks 
and Arabs of Algeria, the Caffires of Southern Africa, and more 
than one hundred and thirty miUions of people in India, can 
testify — people, it is hoped, who may be benefited by the 
change ; but whether so or not, I can not admit that annex- 
ation by voluntary consent is any more illegal or reprehensi- 
ble than annexation by conquest. But whether it be done by 
one process or the other, the government of the United States- 
can have no colonies. Whatever territory is added is but an 
integral part of the whole, and subject to the same national 
constitution and laws. 

" The expediency of union with the United States I do not 



REPLY OF THE U. S. COMMISSIONER. 449 

propose to consider at present, for I have no authority to say 
that the United States will consent to any terms that may he 
c^red ; yet I have no douht, if they shall he offered, they will 
be frankly received and duly considered ; but no sinister means 
of accomplishing the object, however desirable, will receive any 
favor from the United States. 

" I am most happy to have your testimony that the com- 
missioner and consuls of the United States have acted fully 
and fieiithfully up to the principles declared by Mr. Websteb. 
and Mr. Clayton in the communications referred to by you, 
and I am not permitted to doubt that you will have as httle 
reason hereafter as you have now to disturb the friendly in- 
tentions of the government and people of the United States. 

** My regard for the king and his government, and for the 
highly respectable representatives of England and France in 
these islands, who have deemed it their duty to interpose an of- 
fical remonstrance, ahke demand the utmost frankness in the 
expression of the sentiments I entertain, which I am sure they 
will appreciate. 

" The agreement or joint declaration of the 28th of No- 
vember, 1852, that neither Great Britain nor France would 
take possession of these islands, as a protectorate or otherwise, 
was creditable to those powers. The government of the Uni- 
ted States was not a party to the engagement, neither was 
BIamehameha III., so far as appears. The parties to it, by 
their naval forces, had both made hostile demonstrations upon 
the king's sovereignty. 

" The United States has not ; but, both before and since, 
though their interests were far greater here than those of any 
or aU foreign powers, they have constantly respected the gov- 
ernment of the king. They have never sought to limit the 
right of his government to frame its own system of finance, 
enact its own revenue laws, regulate its own system of pubUc 
education, establish its own judicial pohcy, or demanded any 
special favors,. and they were the first to recognize the com- 
plete and unqualified national independence of the kingdom, 
by the treaty of the 20th of December, 1849. 



450 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

" The treaty having he^i fidthfully observed, there is noth- 
ing in the policy oi the United States toward these islands 
which requires concealment or demands an explanation — 
nothing to disturb the harmony which happily exists betwe^i 
the United States and the great commercial powers of Europe. 

'* Lest silence on my part, after the publication of the joint 
remonstrance, should make a di^rent impression here or else- 
where, and considering the distance from the seats of goT- 
emment of Europe and America, it maybe advisable to depart 
£nom the usual course in such matters, and to publish this let- 
ter also, to go with the remonstauice of the Briti^ and French 
representatives. 

*' I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient 
servant, Luther Severance. 

** His Excellency Robert Cbichton "Wtllie, Min- ) 
ister of Foreign ReUtions," Ac., Ac ) 

The joint address of the British and French consuls is not 
merely at war with the most solid facts,* but with existing 
treaties, and it betrays a characteristic jeabusy as to territorial 
rights claimable on the part of the United States. The G<m- 
stitution of the Hawaiian Islands gives to the monarch a le- 
gitimate sovereignty as a king merely.f But the diplcmiacy 
of France and England, as visible in their treaties, has attempt- 
ed to deprive him of his sovereign rights, by bringing the gov- 
ernment, several times, under their own exclusive control. 
"Some of those attempts have been as perfidious as despotism 
could render them.t In his reply, the American Oommis- 
sioner Imefly referred to the territorial aggrandizement of 
France and England. • Neither of those nations has the least 

* " The king, by and -with the approyal of his cabinet and Privy 
Council, in case of invasion or rebellion, can place the whole king- 
dom or any part of it under martial law ; and he can even alienate 
it, if indispensable to free it from the insult and oppression of any 
foreign j^wer."— -Article 89 of the Constitution of 1S52, 

t See Articles 24, 26, 26, 27, 28, 29, 80, and 86, of the Constitution 
of 1S62. J See treaties in Appendix VL 



BRITISH AND FRENCH DOMINION. 451 

chance to vindicate themselves from the serious charge of ter- 
ritorial extension. Of all nations on earth, England should 
be silent on this theme. The London Quarterly Review 
exults in the crushing poUcy which British supremacy has en- 
tailed on the East : 

" Our territory is equal to all Continental Europe, Russia 
excepted. Peshawur is as far north of Tanjore as Stockholm 
is of Naples ; Chittagong as far east of Kuirachee as Athens 
is of Paris. Germany, Italy, France, Spain, Holland, Belgi- 
imi, Denmark, and Sweden, unitedly, do not equal either our 
territory or our population. The report of the grand trigono- 
metrical survey, which has lately been printed for Parhament, 
gives the total — area in square miles, 1,368,113 ; population, 
151,144,902. And a corrected copy, with which we have 
been favored, adds seven miUions and a half to this population, 
most of which is in our own territories, but part in the native 
states, making the total 158,774,065. But the fact is, that 
even fiom our territories, many of the returns are no better 
than guesses, and from the native states few are to be rehed 
upon. It has, however, generally proved that accurate returns 
give a higher population than previous estimates, and after 
considerable attention to the subject for years, we should not 
be surprised to find the official statement gradually coming up 
from its present advanced figure to nearly two hundred mill- 
ions. 

" This splendid empire is distributed into four governments 
or presidencies — Bengal, Madras, Bombay, and Agra. The 
first is the seat of the Governor General and the Supreme 
Council ; the next two have each a Governor and CouncU ; 
and Agra is administered by a Lieutenant Governor without a 
Council. The army is : Clueen's troops, 29,480 ; Company's 
European troops, 19,928 ; Company's native troops, 240,121 : 
total, 289,529 ; nadve contingents commanded by British of- 
ficers, and available under treaties, 32,000 : total at the dis- 
posal of the Governor General, 321,529. This is a great 
anny, yet its proporti(Mi to the ext^it of the empire presents a 
fercible comment on the nature of the British rule. Ccnnpare 



452 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

it with the proportion which the armies of the Contin^it bear 
to the population of the resp^tive countries, and you might 
imagine that they were holding conquered nations, and we 
governing our hereditary soil. Forty-nine thousand out of the 
whole are Englishmen ! a less number than is generally found 
necessary to garrison the one city of Paris. Even the native 
lajahs, with a population of 55,000,000, have 400,000 sol- 
diers; while we, with double the population, have 110,000 
less, though they are guaranteed against external war, and we 
have to take all risks. Then our 240,000 native troops are a 
strength or a weakness, just as our authority is popular or the 
reverse. Were their attachment lost, how formidable would 
they be, taught in our mode of war, and five times as numer- 
ous as the English soldiers. Were they and the troops of the 
rajahs united against us, it would be 50,000 against 640,000. 
You may travel through India for days together without com- 
ing on a military station. You may pass through kingdoms 
with three miUions or more inhabitants, containing only one 
post of European troops. You may find great cities with- 
out a soldier ; the remains of vast fortifications, near which 
not a uniform is visible. Facts such as these, when contrast- 
ed with the constant display of miUtary force in the countries 
of even civilized Europe, forcibly prove that the power of the 
English has foimdations in the homes of the people as well as 
in ihe cantonments of the soldiery. In the native regiments 
the officers are, as to numbers, about half native, half En- 
glish ; but no native officer can rise higher than to a sort of 
captaincy or majority, and even then is under the youngest 
European ensign, a position much worse than that enjoyed by 
Hindoos in the armies of the Mussulmans. Bengal, Madras, 
aiid Bombay have three distinct armies and three commiand- 
ers-in-chief" 

But how did the British govemmei t obtain " this splendid 
empire ?" Was it done by an honorable purchase or a just 
diplomacy ? No ! But it resembled, to a great extent, the 
aggressive warfare which aimed at the extermination of the 
rising Hberties on this continent in 1779. The acquisition of 



BRITISH AND FRENCH DOMINION. 453 

British " empire" in India has been marked with rapine and 
blood, perfidy and cruelty, and every crime denounced in the 
Decalogue. Marvelously plain are the remarks of Dr. Bow- 
BiNG — ^the present British consul at Canton — ^made thirteen 
years ago, at a pubhc meeting convened in London fbi the 
special purpose of relieving the wrongs of India : 

" We are called together to consider the interests of 
150,000,000 of our fellow-subjects. England has long held 
the sceptre over the miUions of India, but what has she ever 
done for them but to rob them of their rights ? We boast 
that we are a civilized^ a religious, an instructed nation. 
What of all these blessings have been conferred upon India ? 
The inhabitants of that fine, that noble country, are not to be 
compared even to the Swiss upon his bleak and barren mount- 
ains. We are a large commercial coimtry, but we have nev- 
er extended the humanizing and civilizing blessings of com- 
merce to India. This is an agricultural nation. What a pic- 
ture does India present ? Possessing boundless tracts of land, 
with every shade of climate, fit for the best productions of the 
earth, yet men perishing by thousands and hundreds of thou- 
sands from famine, while the store-houses of the East India 
Company are filled vrith bread wrung firom their toil by a 
standing army. We have boasted of our rehgion. Have we 
impart^ any of it to the nations of India ? We profess to be 
a well-governed nation, and to be weU acquainted "with the 
principles of liberty, which we highly prize ; but we have not 
given that liberty to India. We have not even made justice 
accessible to them. So far from imparting commerce to In- 
dia, we have ruined that which she conmienced before. It 
is not many years since India suppUed almost every European 
nation with cotton cloths. Now we supply her with our 
fabrics." 

This is the deadly venom, the serfdom so crushing to pros- 
trate India, which the London Times advocates, when it reads 
to the American people, on the theme of American annex- 
ation, siich grave lessons ; such the glory of that nation, " upon 
whose possessions the sun never sets," that is incessantly point- 



454 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

iog to the state of oar own domestic institiitkiiis. Lm^dng oa 
" this picture, then on that," one is led to eYrJaim, with the 
MEamMii,*'Otemparaf O mores T 

Of French pohcy in annexation, Uttle need he said. The 
reader may look to her African colonies. He may follow in 
the wake of her ships of war, and trace the perfidious conduct 
of thor commanden at the Society Islands, and their treat- 
ment of the Sandwich Island king — all of which was sanc- 
ticHied by France. He may then look at the condition and ao- 
quiation of French Guiana chl the South American Contin^it. 

It has been already intimated hy the British and Fr^Msh 
refnresentatiyes, that " any attempt to annex the Sandwidb 
Isiands to any foreign power whatever would he in contraven- 
tion €& existing treaties, and could not be locked upon vdth in- 
difierence by either the British or the French government." 

The first of these claims assumes a most unreal hasis fi}r 
dipkxnatio language in behalf of ** treaties." The fiuth held 
hy the ''great powers" of Europe toward feehle neighhois is 
nothing less than a mere ccmvenience for the achievement of 
their own individual plans at national aggrandizement. How 
often have they formed ''treaties" on the verge of some great 
emergency, or af^ an enormous waste of blood, and life, and 
treasure on the field of battle ! and how often have those 
treaties been snapped asunder, like a withered reed, to suit the 
designs of some arch-tyrant ! And yet, amid such perfidy, 
some imperious shadow behind the throne has issued a decree 
that such a step was necessary for the security of govemr 
mmt!^ Was it for this " security" that England and France 
stood by silently when the perfidious Muscovite applied the 
scourge that leveled Poland to the dust, and rendered her the 
Niohe of nations ? Was it for this " security" that the great 
German family has become tongue-tied — ^that Italy, beautiM 
Italy, which had 

^ The fatal gift of beauty, which became 
A funeral dower of present woes and past," 

has been locked up, as it were, in her own sculptured sepul- 
chres, without the power and the means to 



FAITH OF EUROPEAN NATIONS. 455 

" Awe the robbers ba^ who press 
To shed her blood, and drink the tears of her distress ?" 

"Was it for this "security" that proud and patriotic Hungary 
has had the hloody sword placed to her neck by that most per- 
fidious of nations — ^Austria ? or that Ireland has been bruised, 
lacerated, crushed, impoverished, destroyed, by the iron heel of 
England ? Was it for this " security" that, for the last thou- 
sand years, the despots of Europe have shed thQ blood of their 
best and bravest sons — and daughters too— or, branding them 
with treason, have sent them into perpetual exile, or confined 
them in a felon's cell, bestowed upon them felpn's food, and, 
at death, gave them the privilege of rotting in a felon's grave ? 
Since the disastrous defeat of Napoleon the Great on the 
field of Waterloo, has European faith been held more sacred ? 

- "Is earth more firee ? 
Did nations combat to make one submit, 
Or league to teach all kings true sovereignty? 
"What I shall reviving thraldom again be 
The patched-up idol of enlightened days?" 

When that great impersonation of progressive freedom was 
vanquished at that " king-making victory," it put back the 
dial of European liberty for half a century. The sovereigns 
and leaders of the '* allied armies" held a special congress to 
make provision for the " security" of their respective govern- 
ments. Then and there a treaty was drawn up and signed, 
on tiie reception of thtf Ettcharisty that the empire of France 
should never be resumed in the Napoleonic name. And how 
has the faith of thM treaty been observed by the allied sover- 
eigns ? We look across the Atlantic, and behold no less a 
miracle than Louis Napoleon — successively the exile, the 
prisoner, the president — ^now the Em^Kbor of France. 

In relation to the ** non-indifierence" of France and England, 
it is nothing to us — ^nothing in itself but an empty boast. In 
' case of opposition from that source— and it is altogether im- 
probable—we can defy it. They have no business to interfere 
in matters relative to our well-being as an independent repub- 
hc ; for '* they have prosecuted colonization and annexation 



456 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

on too gigantic a scale to have their nerves shocked at what 
in itself is neither an outrage on human rights or national 
good faith, but what must redound to the interests of the 
world of Commerce, and perhaps the preservation of the orig- 
inal inhabitants of these islands. We hope that no miserable 
squeamishness about enlarging our boundaries, no cant about 
manifest destiny, will prevent the consu^mlation of what is a 
destiny brought about by the course of events, without the 
trickery of diplomacy or the violence of imscrupulous ambition. 
Great Britain dare not interfere to prevent this peaceful ab- 
sorption of the Sandwich Islands as the station of the stars 
and stripes in the Pacific ; and France can not." 

Annexation would confer a benefit on the Hawaiian people. 

'* The rude and. oracular rhyme in which the islanders tell 
the story of their race passing away firom the earth is touching 
indeed ; and the prophecy in a few years will be accomplished 
— ^the simple-minded savages will have departed. Our abo- 
rigines are passing away, because of their contact with civil- 
ized man ; these islanders seem to sufier, being in a measure 
tabooed. The missionary has, indeed, excluded rum — the 
poison of the North American tribes ; but he could not cast 
out the demon of intemperate lust, and beneath this curse the 
natives of the Pacific Islands are melting away like hailstones 
beneath the sun of their own tropical clime. They ax6 fated 
— ^the disease is mortal, the missionaries have not applied the 
balm, and civilized, and Christian, and free men must come 
in contact with them ; Christianity has been planted on the 
islands, and the savages have been taught its tessons, while, 
alas ! they have missed the benefits and blessings of Christian 
civilization. The missionary has compassed sea and land to 
make his proselytes, and they are almost as unhappy as con- 
verts as when they were heathen. The missionary pohcy has 
evidently been to ke«p the natives in a state of vassalage and 
tutelage — ^to make them pay the expenses of their tuition by 
a species of religious s^dom. Religious freedom and eman- 
cipation are their only hope, and this they will secure by the 
introduction of the free laws of an American state." 



REASONS FOR ANNEXATION. 457 

Whatever of Christianity or civilization have been grasped 
by that people, they are indebted mainly to the United States 
for them. The. Protestant Churches of America have ex- 
pended a large sum to Christianize the Hawaiians.")^ Annex- 
ation would permit them to gain access to the greatest possible 
amount of good in the shortest time possible. They would 
procure the boon an exclusive Christianity has never yet con- 
ferred. Before many years, we shall see representatives of 
Hawaii — ^probably scions of royalty — ^in the Congress of the 
United States. And the channels of native industry, which 
ecclesiastical legislation has so long closed, wiU be fully opened, 
thereby securing an honorable subsistence to the remnant of 
the race, should that remnant exist. 

Annexation would advance our commercial interests in the 
Pacific Ocean. The preceding pages of this volume will show 
that American comjmerce predominates in the North Pacific, 
and especially at the Sandwich Islands. A remnant of the 
original savage race survives on these beautifiil islands, and a 
copper-colored king — a caricature of royalty* — ^represents them 
in the family of nations. But our citizens have quietly gone 
there, and by the right of nature and humanity — superior to 
the decrees of pontifi*or of despot — ^have colonized there. The 
rapidity with which American commerce has spread to every 
clime is a modem miracle in history. Although only in its 
infancy, it nearly equals, in tunnage the marine of England, 
which has been ages in forming. Polynesia is a world of 
wealth undeveloped. What little of it is known is mainly o^- 
ing to the indomitable energy of American enterprise. 

With the vast increase of commercial wealth, there will be 
a stem necessity for a strong naval force to protect it. Placed 
directly in the great commercial route fix)m the West to the 
East, the Sandwich Islands can be rendered an impregnable 
naval depots and maintained for that special purpose. Rome, 
Greece, England, France, and Spain have successively clami- 
ed the prerogative to protect the interests and claim the re- 
sults that have emanated from their own commercial systems. 
* See Appendix VII. 
U 



458 SANDWICH ISLAND NOTES. 

This is the pieiogatiYe of every maiitiiDe power. Destined, 
as they are, to achieve the moet splendid transfonnations in 
the history of humanity, hy rolling back a mighty tide of civ- 
ilizatifm to the Orient firom iidience it sprong, can the Amei^ 
ican people be satisfied with any thing short of a competent 
naval defense ci their commerce scattered over the Pacific ? 

But, beyond all reasons that have been urged, annexation 
is a step absolutely NscEsaA&T on tiie part of our govemm^it. 
The Sandwich Islands are absolutely essential to the protec- 
tion of the western confines of the United States. Their fu- 
ture annexaticNi is a matter, not of choice, but of neces^ty — a 
necessity even more imperative than tiiat which caUs for our 
possession of Cuba, and less complicated with difficulties. We 
are surrounded by foes, and there are those in our midst who 
would never fail to sing '' Hosannas" if they could but see the 
death-struggle of that liberty which our honored fiithers pur- 
chased on so many battle-fields. The day is hot far distant 
when our western boundary will require to be watched with 
a close scrutiny, and protected by an efficient force. Mexico, 
on the south, although she could not destn^, may, in case of 
renewed hostilities, harass our commerce. Russian America, 
on the north, in close communication with tiie eastern shores 
of her Asiatic possessions, could, in case of a rupture, send 
down a fleet which for a time would sweep our western sea- 
board of its commerce. Her recent treatment of Poland ; her 
oppressions to the races inhabiting the Caucasus ; her hellish 
perfidy toward Turkey ; her recent butchery of Hungarian 
troops — all these are sufficient warnings to the statesman that 
no national faith can be reposed in Russia. 

In this age, when some unforeseen event may burst fortli and 
revolutionize the commerce, the politics, and the national char- 
acter of the Old World, it is of the greatest moment that the 
United States should be impregnable at every point — ^^at they 
should possess those outposts which will best aid in national 
defense. This step becomes at once an imperative duty, the 
performance of which it seems impossible to avoid. The 
Sandwich Islands must be ours at all risks^-if there are any 



NECESSITY OF ANNEXATION. 459 

— and at every cost I Sincerely it is hoped that our govern- 
ment is awake to the necessities of the movement, and will 
take care that neither England nor France slip into posses- 
sion while it is considering what would be the safest policy to 
pursue. There is but one wise and safe policy, and that is to 
accept the islands from King Kamehameha, if he wishes to 
make a trade, and give him a comfortable pension. The 
Sandwich Islands are exceedingly desirable as auxiharies to 
our commercial enterprises in the Pacific, and since the course 
of events are bringing them within the circle of ** manifest 
destiny," let us unhesitatingly and thankfully accept 

" The goods the gods provide us." 

Let Kamehameha III. keep broad and fertile lands for the 
use of himself and household, but let him lay aside the ridic- 
ulous insignia which have so long rendered him a mere play- 
thing in the hands of designing men. Once in the possession 
of the United States, it will be seen that those islands will 
materially affect the hopes and the happiness of millions of our 
countrymen by protecting their interests, and of myriads of 
Polynesians by extending to them the advantages of a civil- 
ized commerce. 

It is now, while the United States afibrd an asylum for the 
oppressed of all nations — ^while European and Asiatic dynas- 
ties are trembling for their present safety and ^ture prosperity 
— ^while the grand struggle is going on between Freedom and 
Despotism, to be performed on a republican or monarchical 
tiieatre— it is now that the American people are to take those 
steps, of whatever necessary character, which shall pave the 
way more fuUy toward the goal of their future greatness and 
glory.* 

* See Appendix VUL 



A P P E I D 1 1. 



i 



CONTENTS. 



Appendix , Page 

L CnBtom-HoiiBe Statistics 463 

n. Financial Statistics 469 

m. Meteorological Table , 470 

IV. Criminal Statistics 472 

y. Report on Missionary Lands, and Comparative Table . . . 474 

VL Treaties relating to the Sandwich Islands 477 

VJJL Cost of Misfflonary Enterprise at the Sandwich Islands . . 482 
VUL Extracts from a Speech of Mr. "Waahbnm, of Maine, in the 

House of Bepresentatiyes 484 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX L 

The following Tables will show the character, extent, and increase 
of the commerce at the Sandwich Islands from 1836, inclusive : 



•9if %iiidM 'Xietsoq 'sa»[00M..<9i«M. I 

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HONOLULU— Domestic anpplies to 177 merchant Teseels, at an aver- 
age of $150 each $26,550 00 

To 220 whalers, at an average of $220 each 49,720 00 

To men of war, Ac 5,000 00 

LAHAINA— To aU vessels .• 29,645 00 

HILO— To all vessels 16,123 00 

Other ports . 600 00 

Total $127,638 00 



APPENDIX. 



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APPENDIX. 469 



n. 

FINAl^CIAL STATISTICH 
- From, the Annual Jtejxyrt of the Minister of Finance^ p. 23, 24, 1862. 

Since the appointment of the Treasury Board, the receipts of the 
government have been, in round numbers, as follows : 

For year ending Slst March, 1843 $41,000 00 

" " " " 1844 69,000 00 

" " " " 1846 66,000 00 

*• " " " 1846^ 76,000 00 

" " " « 184*7 12*7,000 00 

u u 1848 166,000 00 

« " " 1849 166,000 00 

1860 194,000 00 

« «. « « 1861 284,000 00 

" " " " 1862 234,169 46 

The receipts for 1862, compared with those of 1861, show a de- 
crease of $60,000; a fact not veiy creditable to the Minister of 
Finance. 

The Receipts fob 1868 hat be estimated thus : 

From the Department of the Interior $60,100 

« " " " Public Instruction 2*7,600 

" " " « Finance. 184,466 

" ** « " Land Commission. 10,000 

"^ $282,166 

The Ezpenditukb. 

For the Civil list as before, less the extraordinary 

appropriation last year $24,466 16 

For the Department of the Interior '. 64,020 00 

" " " " Foreign Relations 8,680 00 

« « " "Finance. 26,4*70 00 

" " ' « « Public Instruction 60,260 00 

** « " «* Law, say .* 46,000 00 

** " « ** Land Commission. 10,000 00 

" Miscellaneous Appropriations 4,040 00 

•* Contmgent Expenses 10,000 00 

" Legislature of 1863 10,000 00 

$262,826 16 
leaving $29,889 84 toward the payment of former appropriations. 



470 APPENDIX. 



If the aboTe estimate is correct^ the govemment can not safely 
undertake any public improvements without additional funds, which. 
I can not recommend to be raised by a l^an without a definite pros- 
pect of a future increase in the receipts of the government^ which 
shall be competent to repay all the money thus borrowed, with the 
interest 

Money is not to be had in these islands except in small sums» for 
short periods^ and at a high rate of interest 

It will be an important question, therefore, for the representatives 
of the people to consider in what way the funds necessary for carry- 
ing on public improvements, and for a permanent increase of the 
revenue, shall be raised. The property tax authorized by the law 
of 1846 was intended for an emergency like the present^ but that 
law is so deficient in the details^ so unequal in the application, and 
so impracticable in the execution, that I hope you will, in case yon 
deem a property tax advisable, substitute a new law for that of 1846. 

A property tax, owing to the peculiar circumstances of the islands^ 
will be a difficult and expensive one to collect 

Gk)D PBXBEBVB THE KlNG. 



G. p. JUDD. 



in. 

METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. 
The town of Honolulu is in lat 21** 18' N. aid long. ISS® 1' W. 
from Greenwich. The climate is subject to little variation. The 
opposite Table, taken firom several others recording the weather 
during several years, is an average and accurate specimen of Sand- 
wich Island climate at a few feet aboye high tide. 



APPEJfDIX. 



471 



(4 






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472 



APPENDIX. 



IV. 
STATISTnCS ON CRBEEl 

Table^thowmg tke idkole number of Convictions /or Criminal Offenses on the Island 
of Oaku during tke Year 1852. 



OffM 



Bwa. WftiaiUM. Wuala«. 



Koolaa 
Loa. 



KooUal Whole 
Poko. |Ntimb«r. 



Manslaughter 

Assault and battery 

Drunkenness 

Adoltory and fomieaticm 

Polygamy ,. 

Larceny 

ReoeiyUig eUAea goods. 

Riotous eondnct 

Fnrioos riding 

Foi^ery 

Perjury 

All other oAnses 

Total 



1 

51 

659 

323 

7 

53 

5 

77 

191 

2 

3 

90 





20 


40 

4 


16 
1 



26 




4 

4 

18 





Sr 




2 


34 

3 

4 

17 


2 



1461 



31 



16 



1 

82 

659 

415 

7 

80 

5 

97 

209 

2 

2 

123 



1682 



Of the 659 persons conyicted of dnmkeimess, 5^7 were foreigners 
and 122 natives, principally sailors. 

Of the 228 convicted of fornication, 124 were foreigners and 104 
natives ; while of the 96 convicted of adultery, only 4 were foreign- 
ers and 91 natives. 

Of the 60 convicted for larceny, 10 were foreigners and 40 natives. 

The amount of fines imposed by the police and district justices of 
Honolulu during the year 1862, is as follows: 

By C. C. Harris, Esq., Police Justice $8,7'76 60 

By J. Kaaukai, Esq. 1,761 00 

By J. W. E. Maikai, Esq. 630 00 

Total -.$11,166 60 

Of this amount there Has been collected 10,292 60 

Balance not collected $874 60 

The offenses for which convictions were had, before the district 
justices of Honolulu, during the year 1862, are as follows, viz. : 

Drunkenness 669 

Fornication 228 

Adultery ^ 96 

Assault and battery 49 

Furious riding 191 

Larceny 60 

Receiving stolen goods 5 

'Carried forward 12*77 



APPENDIX. 473 



Brought forward 121*1 

Gambling 12 

Common nuisance ^ 6 

Selling Jiquor without license 3 

Biotous conduct, disturbing the peace, Ac 77 

All other offenses 60 

Total 1424 

Maui, Molokai, Lanal 

From the report of James W, Austin, Esq., the District Attorney 
of the district composed of the islands of Maui, Molokai, and Lanai, 
I am enabled to lay before you the following statistics of crime in 
those islands : 

The whole number of persons prosecuted in 1852 was 916 

" " " ** acquitted " " 181 

" " « " convicted " " .... 1Z6 
The whole amount of fines imposed in 1852 was $9425 62 

The offenses for which these fines were imposed were as follows: 

Drunkenness 886 

Fornication . . .- 112 

Adultery '. 98 

Assault and battery 114 

Larceny 94 

Keceiving stolen goods 6 

Furious riding 74 

Selling spirituous liquors without license 1*7 

Profanity 6 

Common nuisance 3 

Aiding deserters to escape 2 

Bigamy 2 

Perjury 2 

Felonious branding 1 

Total 916 

— Jf'nym the Annual Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
for 1868. 



474 APPENDIX, 



REPORT ON "MISSIONARY LANDS^" AND COMPARATIVE 
TABLE 

Certain spplicatioiiB having been made to the Hawaiian govern^ 
ment for land, by several members of the Missionary Board residing 
on the Islands, the subject was laid before the Hawaiian Legislature, 
at its session of 24th June, 1861. In view of these'^applioations^ the 
King's Privy Council 

Be$olvedi "That the committee to whom were referred the ampli- 
cations of missionaries for lands be requested to take into considera* 
tion the' whole subject of granting lands to missionaries, and report 
to this Council the course that in their view should be pursued 
hereafter in regard to them.'* 

The undersigned present the following statement, which they 
have carefully prepared from the best data that they have been able 
to collect.* 

The undersigned, under the resolution above quoted, are most 
conscientious in declaring to your majesty, that the respectable and 
well-deserving individuals and families above named, who neither 
hold nor have applied for land, would have great reason to com- 
plain were your' majesty to pursue toward them a diflferent course 
from that which has been pursued in relation to their brethren who 
have obtained and applied for land. It becomes, therefore, a matter 
of some importance what that course has been. The missionaries 
who have received and applied for lands have neither received nor 
applied for them without offering what they conceived to be a fair 
consideration for theuL 

So far as their applications have been granted^ your mi^esty's gov- 
ernment have dealt with them precisely as they have dealt with 
other applicants for land — that is, they have accepted the price 
where they considered it fair, and they have raised it where they 
considered it unfair. 

It will not be contended that missionaries, because they are mis- 
sionaries, have not the same right to buy land in the same quanti- 
ties and at the same pieces as those who are not missionaries. 

The question occurs. Have greater rights been allowed to the misp 
sionary applicants than to non-missionary applicants! To solve this 
question satisfactorily requires that the undersigned should give 
some statistics. 

******** *«r 

Bul^ besides what is strictly due to them, injustice and in grati- 



APPENDIX. 475 



tude for large benefits conferred by them on your people, every con- 
sideration of sound policy, under the rapid decrease of the native 
population, is in favor of holding out inducements for them not to 
withdraw their children f roB^ these islands. One of the undersigned 
strongly urged that consideration upon your majesty in Privy Coun- 
cil so far back as the 28th of May, 1847, recommending that a formal 
resolution should be passed, declaring the gratitude of the nation to 
the missionaries for the services they had performed, and making 
some provision for their children. 

Your majesty's late greatly lamented Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion, Mr. Richards^ with that disinterestedness which characterized 
him personally in all his worldly interests, was fearful that to moot 
such a question would throw obloquy upon the reverend body to 
which he had belonged, and hence, to the day of his death, he ab- 
stained from moving it Neither has any missionary, or any one who 
had been connected with the mission, ever taken it up to this day ; 
but the undersigned, who are neither missionaries, nor have ever 
been connected with them, hesitate not to declare to your majesty 
that it will remain, in all future history, a stain upon this Christian 
nation if the important services of the missionaries be not acknowl- 
edged in some unequivocal and substantial manner. This acknowl- 
edgment should not be a thing implied or secretly understood, but 
openly and publicly declared. 

The undersigntd would recommend that the following, or some 
similar resolutions, should be submitted to the Legislature. 

1. Resolved^ That all Christian missionaries who have labored in 
the cause of religion and educatipn in these islands^ are eminently 
benefSactors of the Hawaiian nation. 

2. ReBolvedt That, as a bare acknowledgment of these services, 
every individual missionary who may have served eight years on 
the Mands, whether Protestant or Catholic, who does not already 
hold nve hundred and sixty acres of land, shall be allowed to pur- 
chase land to that extent at a deduction of fifty cents on every acre 
from the price that could be obtained from lay purchasers ; but that 
for all land beyond that quantity, he must pay the same price as the 
latter would pay ; and that those who have served less than eight 
years be allowed to purchase land on the same te^^ as laymen, un- 
til the completion of the eight years, after which they are to be al- 
lowed the same favor as the others. 

8. Betolved, That all Christian missionaries serving on these isl- 
ands shall be exempt from the payment of duties on goods imported 
for their use in tiie proportion following, for every year, viz. : on 
goods to the invoice value of one hundred dollars for ev^ry active 
member of the missioD, excluding servants. 



476 



APPENDIX. 



On goods to the value of thirty dollars for every child above two 
years of age. 

Privy Council Chamber, August lOthi 1850. 

[The following is a list of the quantities of land, and the price per 
acre, to ten non-missionary individuals ; and of the quantities of land, 
and the price per acre, to ten individuals belonging to the clergy of 
the American Protestant Mission :] 

NON-MISSIONART INDIVIDUALS. 



Number 
or Patent. 


PatMrtM. 




Aeies. 


Pnoaniid. 


160 


Chas. R. Bishop. 


Hamakualoa, Maui. 


598 


$598 00 


210 


W.Whitmarsh. 


Kona, Hawaii. 


61 


61 00 


185 


Benj. Pitman. 


HUo, HawaU. 


210 


316 00 


148 


Danl. Barrett. 


Kona, Hawaii. 


83 


125 00 


278 


Geo. Holmea. 


Waialua, Oahu. 


100 


50 00 


238 


Anderson and Davis. 


Waialua, Oahu. 


25 


77 40 


64 


A. M*Lane. 


Makawao, Maui. 


319 


638 00 


136 


John 0. Davis. 


Waialua, Oahu. 


71 


355 00 




J. Kaeo. 


Koolau, Oahu. 


2345 


1569 00 


250 


W. Goodale. 


Haleia, Kauai. 


500 


2500 00 



MISSIONARIES. 



Namb«r 
of Patent. 


Patentee. 


Land,wheie8itoated. 


Acne. 


Price Paid. 




W. P. Alexander. 


Hamakualoa, Maui. 


^60 


$180 00 


209 


D. Baldwin. 


Lahaina. 


13 


19 50 


189 


E. Bond. 


Kohala, Hawati. 


200 


300 00 


153 


F.W.Clark. 


Pawaa. 


70 


70 00 


241 


D. Dole. 


Waialua, Oahu. 


195 


97 50 


240 


J. S. Emerson. 


Waialua, Oahu. 


166 


62 25 


68 


J. S. Green. 


Makawao, Maui. 


87 


87 00 


177) 
239 


P. J. Gulick. 


Waialua, Oahu. 


(632 
i 6H 


237 00 
61 50 




H. R. Hitchcock. 


Kaluaaha, Molokai. 
Koolau, Kauai. 


1370 9-10 


438 92 




E. Johnson. 


500 


500 00 



-From the « PofynesianT of 1th May, 1852. 

[With all due deference to the statistics of the Hon. R C. Wtllie^ 
Minister of Foreign Relations, and to Keoni Ana, the then Minister 
of the Interior, it remains for me to say that the above table is ex- 
tremely limited. It might have been extended to a much greater 
length, and then it would have shown to what extent the missiona- 
ries are owners of real estate.] 



APPENDIX. 477 



VI. 

TREATIES AND MANIFESTOES RELATING TO THE SAND- 
WICH ISLANDS. 

Vint of t! e French Frigate VArtemite, 
The French frigate VA rtemise, C. Laplace commfender, arrived at 
Oahu, July 9th, commissioned to settle the difficulties existing be- 
tween the government oi France and the King of the Sandwich Isl- 
ands. The purport of the visit is best set forth in the subjoined 
manifesto, as published in the Sandwich Island Gazette, July 18th, 
18S9, addressed by Captain Laplace, in the name of his government^ 
to the King of the Sandwich Mands: 

Zaplaee^s Mmifetto, 

''His majesty, the King of the French, having commanded me to 
eome to Honolulu in order to put an end, either by force or persua- 
sion, to the ill treatment to which the French have been victims at 
the Sandwich Islands, I hasten, first, to employ the last means as 
the most conformable to the political, noble, and liberal system pur- 
sued by France against the powerless, hoping thereby that I shall 
make the principal chiefs of these islands understand how fatal the 
conduct which they pursue toward her will be to their interests, 
and perhaps cause disasters to them and to their country should 
they be obstinate in their perseverance. Misled by perfidious coun- 
selors, deceived by the excessive indulgence which the French gov- 
ernment has extended toward them for several years, they are un- 
doubtedly ignorant how potent it is, and that in the world there is 
not a power which is capable of preventing it from punishing its 
enemies, otherwise they would have endeavored to merit its favor, 
or not to incur its displeasure, as they have done in ill treating the 
French. They would have faithfully put into execution the treaties 
in place of violating them as soon as the fear disappeared, as weU 
as the ships of war which had caused it, whereby bad intentions 
had been constrained. In fine, they will comprehend that to perse- 
cute the Catholic religion, to tarnish it with the name of idolatry, 
and to expel, under this absurd pretext^ the French fi*om this archi- 
pelago, was to offer an insult to France and to its sovereign. 

" It is, without doubt, the formal intention of France that the 
King of the Sandwich Islands be powerful, independent of every for- 
eign power which he considers his ally, but she also demands that 
he conform to the usages of civilized nations. Now, among the lat- 
ter, there is not even one which does not permit in its territory the 
free toleration of all religions ; and yet, at the Sandwich Islands, the 



478 APPENDIX. 



French are not allowed publicly the exercise of thein, while Prot- 
estants enjoy therein the most extensiTe priyileges; for these all 
faTOTs^ for those the most cruel per8ecation& Sach a state of affiuis 
being contrary to the laws of nations, insulting to those of Catholics^ 
can no longer continue, and I am sent to put an end to ik (Conse- 
quently I demand, in the name of my gore, ament^ 

" Ist Tliat the CathoHe worship be declared firee throughout all 
the dominions subject to the King of the Sa i^dwich Islands ; that the 
members of this religious faith shall eiyoy in th^u all the priyil^es 
granted to Protestants. 

« 2d. That a site for a Catholic church be giyen by the goYemment 
at Honolulu (a port firequented by the French) ; and that this ehurdi 
be ministered by priests of their nation. 

" Sd. That all Catholics imprisoned on account of religion, smee 
the last persecutions extended to the French missionaries, be imme- 
diately set at liberty. 

" 4Ul That the King of the Sandwich Islands deposit in the hands 
of the captain of FArtemise the sum of twenty thousand dollars, as 
a guarantee of his future conduct toward France, which sum the 
government will restore to him when it shall consider that the ac- 
companying treaty will be faithfully complied with. 

*' 5th. That the treaty signed by the King of the Sandwich Islandi^ 
as well as the sum above mentioned, be conveyed on board the 
frigate FArtemise by one of the principal chiefe of the country ; and 
also that the batteries of Honolulu do salute the French flag with 
twenty-one guns, which will be returned by the frigate. 

" These are the equitable conditions a€ the price of which^the 
King of the Sandwich Islands shall conserve friendship with France. 
I am induced to hope that, understanding better how necessary it 
is for the prosperity of his people and the preservation of his power, 
he will remain in peace with the whole world, and hasten to subr 
scribe to th^m, and thus imitate the laudable example which the 
Queen of Tahiti has given in permitting the free toleration of the 
Catholic religion in her dominions ; but if, contrary to my expecta- 
tion, it should be otherwise, and the king and principal cMefe of t^e 
Sandwich Islands^ led on by bad counselors, refuse to sign the treaty 
which I present, war will immediately commence, and all the de- 
vastations, all the calamities, which may be the unhappy but neces- 
sary results^ will be imputed to themselves alone, and they must 
also pay the losses which the aggrieved foreigners, in these circum- 
stances, shall have a right to^daim. 

(Signed), "C. Laflaob, 

** Captain of the French frigate TArtemise. 

*' The 10th July (0th aooonling to date here), 1830.» 



APPENDIX. 479 



Treaty between Laplace and KamehameKa JIL 
Art, 1st There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between 
the King of the French and the King of the Sandwich Islands. 

Art, 2d. The French shall be protected in an effectual manner in 
their persons and property by the King of the Sandwich Islands, who 
shall also grant them an authorization sufficient so as to enable 
them juridically to prosecute his subjects against whom they will 
have just reclamations to make. 

Art, 8d. This protection shall be extended to French ships, and to 
their crews and officers. In case of diipwreck, the chieib and inhab- 
itants of the various parts of the archipelago shall assist them, and 
protect them from pillage. The indemnities for salvage shall be 
- regulated, in case of difficulty, by arbiters selected by both parties. 

Art, 4th. No Frenchman, accused of any crime whatever, shall be 
tried except by a jury composed of foreign residents, proposed by . 
the French consul, and approved of by the government of the Sand- 
wich Islands. • 

Art, 6th. The desertion of sailors belonging to French ships shall 
be strictly prevented by the local authorities, who shall employ 
every disposable mea'ns to arrest deserters, and the expenses of the 
capture shall be paid by the captain or owners of the aforesaid ships^ 
according to the tariff adopted by the other nations. 

Art, 6th. French merchandises, or those known to be French pro- 
duce, and particularly wines and eaux de vies (brandy), can not be 
prohibited, and shall not pay an import duty higher than 6 per cent. 
ad valorem. 

Art. lih. No tonnage or importation duties shall be exact^ from 
French merchants, unless they are paid by the subjects of the nation 
the most favored in its conmierce with the Sandwich Islands. 

Art, Sth. TUe subjects of King Kamehameha in. shall have a right 
in the French possessions to all the advantages which the French en- 
joy at the Sandwich Islands, and they shall, moreover, be considered 
as belonging to the most favored nation in their commercial relations 
with France. 

Made, and signed by the contracting parties, the 17 th July, 1889. 

Kamehameela. IIL 
(Signed). C hjj^cB, 

Foat Capt oonmutnding the French frigate rArtemise. 



480 APPENDIX. 



TRAJVBLATION. 

Honolala, Sandwich teles, July 84, 1837. 
jyeaty between the King of the French, Louis Philippe Z, represented 

hy the Captain A. Du Petit Thouars, and the King of the Sandwich 

Islands, Kamehameha I£L 

There shall be perpetual peace and amity between the French and 
the inhabitants of the Sandwich Isles. 

The French shall go and come freely in all the states which com- 
pose the government of the Sandwich Isles. 

They shall be received, and protected there, and shall enjoy the 
same advantages which the subjects of the most favored nation en- 
joy. 

Subjects of the King of the Sandwich Isles shall equally come into 
France, shall be received and protected there as the most favored 
foreigners. 

^ ^ ^* A- Du Betet Thouabs, 

Captain Commander of the French frigate La Yenua 

Doings of the English at the Sandwich Islands, 

H. B. M. Ship Carysfort, Honololu Harbor, February 16, 1843. 
Sm, — ^I have the honor to acquaint your majesty of the arrival in 
this port of H. B. M. ship under my command, and, according to my 
instructions, I am desired to demand a private interview with you, 
to which I shall proceed with a proper and competent interpreter. 

I therefore request to be informed at what hour to-morrow it will 
be convenient for your majesty to grant mfe that interview. 

I have the honor to remain your majesty's most obedient and hum- 
ble servant, Gbobob Paulei, Captain. 
To his migesty Kamehameha m. 

Honolala, Febroary 17, 1853. 

Salutations to you, Lord George Paulet, Captain of her Britannic 
majesty's ship Carysfort 

Sm, — ^We have received your communication of yesterday's date, 
and must decline having any private interview, particularly under 
the circumstances which you propose. We shall be ready to receive 
any written communication from you to-morrow, and will give it 
due consideration. 

In case you have business of a private nature, we will appoint Dr. 
Judd our confidential agent to confer with you, who, being a person 
of integrity and fidelity to our government, and perfectly acquaint- 
ed with all our affairs, will receive your communications, give all 



APPENDIX. 481 



the information you require (in confidence), and report the same 

to 118. With respect, 

.„. .. EIamehameha nL 

(Signed), KEKAULUom. 

Her Britannio m^jMty's ship Carysfbrt, Oahu, 17tb February, 1843. 

Sm, — ^In answer to your letter of this day's date (which I have too 
good an opinion of your majesty to allow me to believe ever ema- 
nated from yourself but from your ill advisers), I have to state, that 
I shall hold no communication whatever with Dr. G. P. Judd, who, 
it has been satisfactorily proved to me, has been the prime mover in 
the unlawful proceedings of your government against British sub- 
jects. 

As you have refused me a personal interview, I inclose you the 
demands which I consider it my duty to make upon your govern- 
ment, with whichj demand a compliance at or before 4 o'clock P.M.^ 
to-morrow (Saturday), otherwise I shall be obliged to take imme- 
diate coercive steps to obtain these measui^s for my countrymen. 

I have the honor to be your majesty's most obedient humble ser- 
vant, GzioBGV Paulet, Captain. 
His majesty Kamehameha HI. 

Her Britannic majesty's ship Carysfort, Oaha, February 17, 1843. 
Sib, — ^I have the honor to notify you that her Britannic majesty's 
ship Carysfort, under my command, will be prepared to make an im- 
mediate attack upon this town, at 4 o'clock P.M., to-morrow (Satur- 
day), in the event of the demand now forwarded by me to the king 
of these islands not being complied with by that time. 
Sir, I have the honor to be your most obedient humble servant, , 
(Signed), Geobob Paulet, Captain. 

To Capt Long, Commander XT. 8. 8. Boston, Honolnlo. 
JL true copy. AUesty Wh. Bakeb, TV. 

[The demands of Captain Paulet resulted in a cession of the isl- 
ands to himself^ by the king on the 26th of February, 1848. They 
were restored on tiie Slst of July, 1844] 

X 



482 APPENDIX. 



VIL 
COST OF MISSIONARY BNTERPRISEL 
These costs have been ineurred' in sostainuig missionaries^ and 
providii^ them with dwellings; for the prinUng and binding de- 
partm^it, and for the seminaiy and other pnblic schools. Aid has 
also been rendered, to some extent, in the erection of diaries and 
common school-houses; and large soms have been expended in Ae 
publication and drcnlation of books. The whole amount of expoidi- 
tnres hare been nearly as follows : 

18}9» Preparatory expenses $132 50 , 

1820, ** " 10,829 80 

1821, " « 660 70 

1822, - •« 1,071 00 

182«, " « 12,074 67 

1824, " ^ « 6,746 80 

1825, " «* 9,764 89 

1826, •* •* 10,241 94 

1827, *» " 9,761 81 

1828, •* ' " 19,484 84 

1829, •* •* 8,092 9a 

1880, " ** 11,166 91 

1881, •* •* 18,942 91 

1882, ** " 20,631 75 

188S, - •* 16,833 67 

1884, * « 11,788 02 

1885, " " 16,178 98 

1836, " " ^.. 80,084 88 

1887, " •* 63,521 09 

1838, " " 41,916 90 

1889, " " 89,885 46 

1840, ** " 88,286 66 

1841, ** • " 88,620 08 

1842, " ** 42,175 46 

184S, •* « 40,448 66 

1844, " " 36,400 00 

$539,1)89 67 

By the American Bible Society 50,000 90 

By the American Tract Society 19,774 51 

Total $608,865 08 

—From the ''Note^* of Hon. R. C. Wylub, publUhed in the **Fnendr 
for 1844. • 



APPENDIX. 483 



Amount carried forward $608,865 08 

1845, Preparatory expenses $34,865 92 

1846, " " 84,716 1 

1847, " « SI, no 

1848, " " 88,254 84 

1849, « ** 85,71122 

1850, " ** 28,924 81 

1851, '• " 26,206 83 

1852, " " 23,027 00 

L1868, ** " 82,273 35 






^ 



$286,709 82 
By the AmericaaBible Society 7,600 00 

$294,809 82 294,809 82 

Total for 85 years $908,174 90 

[The annual amounts from 1845 to 1858 inclusive have been pro- 
cured from the Annmtl B^)orts of the American Board of Conuuis^ 
fiioners for Foreign Missions and the American Bible Society.] 

The Table on the following page, from the official " Report on Mis- 
aioiuury Landa^" was published by Mr. Wtlldb in the Polynman of 
May 7, 1852: 



484 



APPE^iDlX. 



TkbU B k o w iit ^ the period i^Mitnonmrp Service and He Valmee, ae 
imUfttUfor m the UniUd States, 



it has been eetir 






ATMBgeof 



Alexander, Rer. Mr. . 
Baldwin, Rer. Mr. . . 
Bond, Rer. Mr. 
Bailey, Mr., teac 
Clark, Rer. Mr. 
Cook, Mr. A. S., 

Dole, Rer. Mr 

Emerwm, Rer. Mr. . 

Green, Rer. Mr 

GoUek, Rer. Mr. . . . 
Hiteheock, Rev. Mr. 
Hall, Bfr., late aeoBlar argent. 
Dimond, Mr., * 



Jolmaon, Rev. Mr.. 
Parker, Rev. Mr. . . 



Rogera, E. H., printer . 

RoweU, Rer. Mr 

Lyman, Rer. Mr 

Coan, Rer. Mr. Titna 

Ivea, Rer. Mr. Mark 

Thuraton, Rer. Mr. Aaa 

Andrewa, Dr 

Lyona, Rer. Mr 

Conde, Rer. Mr 

Rice, Mr., teacher 

Chamberlain, late aeenlar agent ; . . . . 

Caatle, 8. N.. aeenlar agent 

PogncRer.Mr 

Smith, Dr 

Whitney, Rer. Mr., late of Waimea . 

Wilcox, Rev. Mr. 

Dwight, Rev. Mr 

Witmore, Dr 

Ogden, Mtaa 

Brown, Mtaa 

Smith, Mtaa 

Biahop, Rev. A 

Whittleaey, Rev. Mr 

Smith, Rev. L 

Total. 



18 
19 

9 
13 
SS 
13 

9 
18 

» 
18 
15 
15 
13 
17 
18 
8 
18 
15 
IS 
30 
13 
18 
13 
9 
37 
13 
6 
8 
30 
13 
3 

33 
15 
13 
37 

17 



$450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 

\450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
450 



$8,100 
8,550 
4,050 
5,850 
9,900 
5,850 
4,050 
8,100 
9,900 
9^900 
8,100 
6,750 
6,750 
5,850 
7,650 
8,100 
3,600 
8,100 
6,750 
5,850 

13,500 
5,850 
8,100 
5,650 
4,050 

12,150 
5,850 
3,700 
3,600 

13,500 
5,850 
900 
450 
9,900 
6,750 
6,850 

13,150 
3,700 
7,650 



to the piooa oontrlbntora in the United 
iwaiian people, who had received an the 



HaiN 



598 yeara, 

M, and not 

benefit of their 



$369,100 
I rial tothe 



zealooa aervicea. 



VIII. 

EXTRACJT8 PROM A SPEECH OF MR. WASHBURN, OP MAINE, 
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JANUARY 4, ISH 
IN COMMITTEE OP THE WHOLE ON T HE S TATE OF THE 
UNION, ON THE MOTION TO REFER THE PRESIDENTS 
ANNUAL MESSAGE TO THE APPROPRIATE COMMTTTEEa 

BfB. Chaibman: I hate taken this opportanity to express some 
opinions whi<^ I have formed in reference to a question of consid- 
erable magnitude and increasing interest^ now engaging the atten- 



APPENDIX. 485 



tion of the American people, and which must, in the progress of 
opinions and events, become, at no distant period, a practical ques- 
tion for the action of this government I speak of the annexation 
of the Sandwich Islands to the United States. The interest of the 
state which I in part< represent upon this floor — ^the largest ship- 
building, and one of the most important commercial states in the 
Union — ^in this question, must plead my excuse, if any be necessary, 
for occupying a portion of your time this morning in its consideration. 
With the doctrines of " manifest" destiny in the raw and rampant 
forms in which they have been advocated so frequently of late, I 
trust I need not say I have but little sympathy. There is a school 
of statesmen, or politicians, in this country, which teaches in effect, 
if not in words, that the time has come in our history when our 
chief business as a nation is territorial expansion — when, to borrow 
the current phrase, it is our special "mission** to overrun and annex, 
with little or no regard to time, manner, or circumstances, whatever 
territories or possessions of other nations we may have the wish and 
the power to grasp. Of this school I am not a disciple. So far from 
being so, I have thought that our leading thought and purpose 
should be to learn and practice whatever would most certainly con- 
tribute to our domestic well-being and internal growth ; to develop 
' the resources, and cultivate to the highest the capabilities which 
are already ours ; to strengthen the foundations where we stand ; 
to fix our institutions so firmly upon our own land, and give them 
root so deep, with fibres so numerous and tenacious, in the soil of 
material, political, and social interests, that they will stand secure- 
ly under all the pressure of rivalries and unfriendly interests and 
influences to which they may be exposed from without, and in all 
the storms of passion and faction that may and will. arise within. 

Policy and duty alike require that we should look more at home 
and less abroad tiian I think we are in the habit of doing. I have, 
therefore, been unable to yield my assent to the doctrines which 
deny the right of the general government to protect and encourage 
by its legislation the home interests of the country ; as> for instance, 
to remove obstructions in the great rivers of the Mississippi Valley, 
for the advantage of conmtierce in a vast section of the Union ; and, 
to the same end, to improve the harbors of our inland seas; to ar- 
range and adjust the duty on importations, so as to aid the industry 
of ther counti^ rather than oppress it ; to construct, directly or in- 
directly, a rail-road upon its own land, from the Mississippi to the 
Pacific, which shall connect the east, the centre, and the west — ^unite 
them by the ties of acquaintance and good neighborhood, of a com- 
mon interest and feeling beyond the danger or the desire of separa^ 
tion. Sir, it is difficult to agre« with those who see no power under 



-g^ APPBMDIX. 



Um OoiMtitiitkm for esp«iisioii8 and conquests like Uiese, whieh «re 
mot ooAteriAl only, but social and moral also, and which, in the lan- 
guage of an English republican, adi^yted with a single yariatioD, 
•* require no garrisons^ equip no navies, and might extend from the 
Arctic to the Antarotic mrcle, leaving every Americim at his own 
fireside, and giving earth, like ocean, her great Pacific," yet whe 
can readily find constitutional warrant for territorial acquisitions, 
whenever, wherever, or however they may seem desirable, whether 
by the purchase of a Louisiana, which Mr. Jefferson thought to be 
of more than doubtful authority, or by the annexation of a Texas by 
a joint resolution, the most palpably unconstitutional act of this 
government I do not mean, here and now, to object to any aoqui- 
■itions of territory that have been made. Some of them were tOf 
dispensable to our commercial independ^oe, and were, I think, juit- 
ifiaUe, having been made by treaty, and without the practiee ol 
injusdoe upon any party. But I do intend to question the p<^cy 
of Regarding our first things as furthest off, and to express my doubts 
as to the soundness of those principles which the President, in his 
message at the commencement of the present aession of Congress, 
speaks of as constituting "the organic basis of union," and whidi 
are to be found, as I understand him to suggest, m the Virginia and 
Kentucky, resolutions of 1798 rather than in the Constitution. ^, 
with all req>ect for ** the fathers of the epoch of 1798," I must be 
permitted to go behind them and their time, to the epoch of 1788 
and the firamers of the Constitution, and to their work, for " the or- 
ganic basis of union." And here I find language like this : 

** We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more 
perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide 
for the oonunon defense, promote the general welfEtre, and secure 
the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Con8tit^tion for the United States of America." 

And in the light it imparts, I do not find it easy to believe that 
the central idea of this government has regard only to what is out- 
side of us — ^that the Constittition pretermits or rejects the ordinary 
domestic duties and fonctions of civil govermQent. On the contrary, 
I have seen no reason to doubt that it was adopted in part, and in 
no subordinate or inddental sense, for the sake of justice and do- 
mestic prosperity — ^for the general welfare— to secure the blessings 
of liberty, by assisting us to cultivate the arts which are her con- 
stant companions. 

The Spaniards claim that Gaetano discovered one of the Sandwich 
Islands as early as A.D. 1642 ; but the claim has not been generally 
acknowledged, though it has received the san^on of Humboldt 



APPENDIX. 487 



The honor of the discovery must, it is believed, be awarded to Cook, 
•mrho visited them in 17*78, and, in honor of his patron, the Earl of 
Sandwich, gave them the name by which they have since been 
known. His tragical fate upon returning to the islands is well 
known, and the spot where he fell is still marked, and was visited 
by Wilkes in 1840. 

For twenty years after the death of Captain Cook, the islands 
were visited but a few times, and it was not till near the commence- 
ment of the present century, when American whaling ships and fur- 
traders began to frequent Uiose seas, that they attracted more than 
the passing notice of the civilized world. Since that time, however, 
they have become the depot of a large and rapidly-increasing trade, 
and the theatre of patient, persistent, and, on the whole, highly 
beneficial missionary operations. They are now the residence of an 
enterprising and influential American population. 

The climate, though warm, is equable and salubrious. "The 
heaven's breath smells wooingly" through the year, the mean tem- 
perature being about seventy-five degrees, and the general range for 
the year from seventy to eighty. The soil is rich in those parts of 
the islands which have long been free frH>m volcanic eruptions. 
Their productions and capabilities are very great; and with the spur 
and direction of Anglo-American enterprise, the benefits of American 
trade and protection, they would be equal to those of any country, 
although half, at leasts of the whole area is incapable of cultivation. 

Independent of halo — an article of food so readily grown that the 
entire population might be maintained, in health and vigor, upon the 
product of six square miles, from which it will be seen how easily 
human life may be sustained in these islands — ^the chief products are 
sugar, silk, tobacco, cotton, cofifee, arrow-root, indigo, rice, ginger, oil, 
salt, pearls, sandal-wood (nearly exhausted, it is to be hoped), woods 
adapted to ship-building and cabinet-work, some of them of beauti- 
ful grain, and nearly as hard as mahogany, skins and hides, wheat, 
potatoes, and fruits of various kinds. Of the articles of commercial 
value, the most important is sugar, as, from the proximity of the 
islands to California and other markets, the demand and prices must 
be such as to warrant its production in large quantities, for which 
the soil and climate are very favorable. More than ten years ago, 
Messrs. I^add <& Co. raised an average of a tun and a half to the acre, 
a rata at which one thousand square miles would yield nearly a 
million tuns, or four times the total supply of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Sir George Simpson was of opinion that the islands might " supply 
with sugar nearly all the coasts of both continents above their own 
latitude, California* Oregon, the Russian settlements both in Asia 



488 APPENDIX. 



and America, and ultimately Japan ;** and, he continues, " Bhonld 
they be secured in this trade, they could hardly be dislodged from 
it by any rival so long as they enjoy the advantage of being the g^reat 
house of call both in the length and in the breadth of the Pacific 
Ocean." The most reliable accounts since received confirm his opin- 
ions as to the value and promise of this crop. It is not unknown that 
our late commissioner (Hon. Luther Severance) has never failed to 
urge its importance upon our government and people, and when his 
caution, soundness of judgment, and means of information are consid- 
ered, this fact speaks with great force for the present and possible 
magnitude of Uds interest The markets which these islands would 
occupy are so remote from our sugar-fields on this side of the con- 
tinent as to preclude injurious competition. 

Silk may be cultivated to advantage in certain sheltered localities, 
and is believed to have even fewer obstacles to surmount than sugar. 
It yields six crops in the year, and may be produced at rates which 
will allow it to be sold at remunerating prices in England and the 
United States. 

Coffee, said to be equal to Mocha, is among the products of the 
islands that may be cultivated successfully, and raised in sufficient 
abundance to be sent with advantage to almost any part of the 
world. 

Mr. Chairman, this people are capable of doing more .and better 
for themselves and the world than they have heretofore, as inhabit- 
ants of remote and isolated islands, known or conceived. They have 
claims upon Christendom for better government, laws, and institu- 
tions than they possess. For their own sake, they should be protect- 
ed, held up, and sustained by one of the stronger and more advanced 
of the civilized powers. Only by the multiplied means of education 
and discipline which such connection can give, can depopulation, 
and the vices and wrongs which induct it, be entirely and speedily 
stayed, and long and weary years of pupilage and preparation 
abridged. 

Opposed, sir, as I am to annexation, where it is sought for the 
mere purpose of extending boundaries and dominion, and without 
regard to our wants and actual requirements as connected with all 
the interests of the country ; and fearing, as I have said, the conse- 
quents to be apprehended from the doctrines now so zealously, and, 
it seems to me, thoughtlessly taught, yet, when a case occurs where 
it manifestly may be employed as a means to the noblest ends, and 
humanity demands it, and our national and domestic interests will 
be served by it, and justice waits upon it, I shall not hesitate to yield 
it the best advocacy of my mind, as it will compel tha^i of my heart 



APPENDIX. 4S9 



I would not be so confined by the strait-jacket of one idea, whether 
of stand-still or go-ahead, that I could not endeavor to make dis- 
tinctions, and act free from the influence of extreme, which are al- 
most always practically erroneous, opinions. 

The question of the annexation of the Sandwich Islands is one of 
necessity, of time, and of justice. By necessity, as I have used the 
term in these remarks, I do not mean an absolute and indispensable 
need, but that clear, strong, legible convenience and fitness which 
the common imderstanding sees and feels; and when this conveni- 
ence and fitness shall be apparent, and the parties declare themselves 
ready and willing for the connection, the time will be propitious, and 
the justice unquestionable, for I think no question can arise as to 
the right of other nations to interfere. 

So far as I am able to judge, of all the conditions required to le- 
gitimate ihe union, one only is open to doubt — ^that of the free con- 
sent of the Hawaiians. Without this consent, intelligently and un- 
reservedly yielded, we should not think for a moment of the connec- 
tion ; for, however plausible the reasons that might be assigned for 
it, it would be a "losing trade" — ^we should seek a possession which, 
by a law whose operation is never suspended, would wither at our 
touch. The importance of the acquisition in this case, whether in 
regard to the United States or the Islands, can not be doubted. The 
time is when the former may safely and properly desire it ; and when 
the latter shall perceive that it has come for them, let it be made; 
and from that hour, instead of weakness, we shall have increased 
strength, and shall feel that the people, the government, the Union, 
are greater than before. 

Consider the lines of steamers that are to bridge the Pacific, mak- 
ing a pier of this little group, and from it spanning the ocean on 
either side. Think of California and her fiiture, and of that stupen- 
dous work, which should receive the approbation of all minds and 
the help of all hands, that is to make the Atlantic and Pacific one — 
the Pacific rail-road, the work and the duty of our day, commanded 
by all our necessities, authorized by the Constitution, not more in 
particular and specific parts, wl^ich are full and clear, than by the 
whole sweep and living life of that instrument. 

Mindful of these things, and not forgetting that Russia, France, 
and England have at times looked with wistful eyes to these distant 
islands, we shall perceive the importance of availing ourselves of the 
earliest fitting opportunity to unite them, with their consent, to the 
American republia 

M. Perrin, the French consul, has never intermitted his efforts to 
break up the good understanding which has existed between the 

X2 



400 APPENDIX. 



goTeramentB of th« XJiuted States and the Sandwich Islands; and 
with his detachment of French priests, acting under the direction of 
tha SociHoi de Propaganda Fide, aided by his allies of the brandy 
interest^ has been able to keep the archipelago in constant broils and 
alanna And though England, it may be, has no present intention 
to take it into her possession, haring joined with France in Novem- 
ber, 1848, in a treaty or agreement^ by which it was stipulated thai 
neither Franee nor England should take possession of it as a protec- 
torate tut otherwise, yet by all Americans there is fielt to be an un- 
certainty as to the future movements of either of those powera It 
is well understood that England would not be pleased with its an- 
nexation to the United States ; and in fear of that events she may be 
led to take advantage of such opportunities as may arise, or be cre- 
ated by her, to take it into her own sa£e-keeping. It is known that 
she has long set up a sort of daim by virtue of discovery, and by 
the alleged cession of Kamehameha L, which, they say, his successor 
visited England in 1824 to confirm. 

Sir, I have heard that a distinguished American statesman^— thex^ 
or afterward, a candidate for the Presidency-^Kshanged his mind sudr 
denly and completely upon the subject of the annexation of Texas 
by reading an article in an English magazine^ With authority like 
this as to the considwation to which magazine articles are entitled, 
I will venture to allude to the fact that the annexation of these isl- 
ands to the BritiBh crown has been advocated in some of the English 
magazines and reviews; and I think there is no one who will deny 
that there is greater probability of England's annexing the Sandwich 
Islands than ever there was of her seizing Texas. 

Before taking leave of this subject, I will notice some of the ob- 
jections which I have seen to this annexation. *' The islands,,4u^ 
■mall,'' it is said, " in territory and population." But they are large 
enough for the purposes, for which they are desirable, and, as a state 
of the Union, might support a population of a million. " If annex- 
ed, they will furnish no increased facilities to our trade." This is 
mere assertion. It is because almost every body knows that they 
will, that annexation is so generally advocated. ''It costs us noth- 
ing to defend them now ; whereas, if annexed, we must fortify and 
garrison them," Ac. With our trade in the Pacific, we must needs 
keep a large fleet there. Will a home and a station of our own in 
mid-sea iocrease the expense of supporting that fleet, of refitting and 
repairing it? With the islands as our own, will the probability of 
war be any thing like what it would be were they the home of rivals 
and the seat of conflicting interests? 

''England has lost by her colonies, therefore America ought not 
to annex the Sandwich Islands.** The example proves nothing, be- 



APPENDIX, 491 



cause no <me contemplates annexing them as colonies, but as a terri- 
tory, to be united with us; and which, in time, may be admitied as 
one of the States of the Union. 

** But they are a great way oS.** Two weeks^ three weeks^ per- 
haps, when our Pacific road is constructed. 

"We have territory enough already.'* Enough^ perhaps, like 
Maine, or Virginia, or Louisiana, or Ohio; but this little addition is 
needed for the uses and development of these and all the rest. 

" They are not conterminous territory." I^either is Long Island 
or Mount Desert ; but our steam shuttles will draw a thread of con- 
nection as good as any other. 

Having endeavored to show that there are many and valid rea- 
eons why we should be ready to receive the Sandwich Islands when- 
ever they shall signify a willingness to become part and parcel of 
the United States, and noticed some of the objections that have been 
made to such a consummation, I desire to address a few words to 
the conservative feeling of the country, which) in view of the les- 
sons of history and the opinions of the fathers of the Republic, as it 
understands them, regards cUl enlargement of boundaries as fraught 
with evil, boding unsteadiness and danger, tiireatening the stability 
of our institutions and the perpetuity of the Union. I do not share 
in these fears. The more extended our dominion — where we do 
have dominion* — ^the greater th^ variety of soil and climate, the 
inore numerous the fields of industry, enterprise, and production, 
&e stronger and the more independent we become. Dependent 
upon each other, the states are independent of the world besidea 
The South is the complement of the North, and the West of the East, 
Our differences, such as they are, become our bond of union and 
tower of strength. 

' No, Mr. Chairman, to accessions of territqry, fairly and honorably 
acquired, when necessary to our development, and when there are 
no reasons to oppose them, arising from the character of the people 
to be united with us, their customs, lawa^ and institutions, there 
should be no objection. I fear not tdie ability of our admirable form 
of government to hold steady and beneficent- sway over any extent 
of territ<ny. It is as good for one hundred states as one, and the 
notion that a republic like ours is adapted only to small states or 
territories, is one of those fallaeies that should be given to the winds 
as lighter than they. Who can doubt that ihia government stands 
more securely to-day, with its thirty-one states, tiian if it had been 
confined within its original limits — " from Maine to Georgia ?" Thus 
far, no dangers have appeared from the accessions we have made, 
simply as accessions. Whether they are to be apprehended fr^m 
the manner in which tha acquisitions were made, or other causes. 



483 APPENDIX. 



does not in any degree sffeet the positions I have taken in reference 
to the annexation of the Sandwich Islands. Annexation, thus far, 
seems to have proceeded ^n passu with onr preparation and ability 
to receive and govern what^we have acquired. Adaptation has 
kept company with extension. When Louisiiuia was purchased, 
Fnlton came with the steam-boat, and made New Orleans nearer to 
Washington than Savannah had been before. When Texas was an- 
nexed, the rail-road had been introduced ; and now, practically, her 
capital is nearer that of the Union than St Louis was when her 
venerable and distinguished representative was first a senator from 
Missouri. And when Califomia added another star to our banner, 
the telegraph was ready to announce the fact from the Bay of Fun- 
dy to the Gulf of Mexico in less time than Puck agreed to put a 
girdle round the earth. And the Sandwich Islands, when the Pacific 
rail-road is built, will, measured by time and ejtpense, be nearer this 
city than Bangor was when Maine was admitted into the Union. 
With the facilities we enjoy for the communication of intelligence 
and the transportation of persons, and of the vast and various pro- 
ductions of our dififerent climes, size and weight, when of congruous 
parts, but bind us more indissolubly together. We can not fly apart 

My faith in American republicanism, in our modem civilization, 
and the elements which vitalize it, distinguishing it from all that 
have gone before, and lending it a power which they never knew, 
does not permit me to doubt the coirectness of the views I have ad- 
vanced. The history and experience of other nations and other 
times may afford admonitions against fraud, violence, rapacity — 
Ikgainst the systems of the Roman and Teutonic civilizations in re- 
spect to colonies and dependencies ; but not against good faith, just- 
ice, peace, and her victories, more renowned than those of war ; not 
against our Christian civilization. 

Between that miscalled progress, which, in its wantonness, disre- 
gards experience and flouts justice, and that stolid conservatism, dry 
and bloodless, whicll lives in the ashes of the past, daring nothing 
for which it has not the authority of precedent, there is no occasion 
to decide in determining the question before us. 

No age should be a mere repetition of its predecessor. Every age 
brings or finds its own needs and duties, and of them must be its own 
judge; and those among us who r^ect the counsel of the latter 
time as to what is fitting, err as surely as they who will not inquire 
of the ancienter what is best They overlook or misread all the 
lessons of history, and misapprehend the laws of human progress, 
which show 

" That ever through the ages one increasing purpose runs. 
And the thoughts of men are widened with the process of the suns." 



^ 



APPENDIX, 403 



They exhibit a Bkepticism, ag blind as it is diBOOOfBging, in regard 
to the forces and functions of Cbrifttion ciYilizatiDii and its appoint- 
ed co-worker, Republican Liberty ] 



THE MIB. 



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AUC 2 9 1930