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ankola, m. N. of a tree. 

ati-kopana, a. greatly incensed. 
V43 adhiJldAa, pp. ( ,' uh) placed upon 

jmgiif1 au-upa-skrita, pp.: add blame- 
less after disinterested. 

auu-praharam, ad. with a blow. 
aiitar-nivish/a-pada, a. hav- 

ing a footing gained within, having taken 
possession of Aw heart (curse). 

f<4Yg a-yoddhrt, a. having no fighter = 
unmatched, invincible. 

J^lfTI ava-gati,/. understanding, appre- 
hension ; -/(/.Aeda-ka, a. determining, dis- 
tinguishing ; -dharana, n. restriction; em- 
phasis on preceding word. 

fqfn avauti and "3iqfl\ avanti : read 
Uggeyinlfor Ujjayini. 
R||^SH ii-vyakshepa, m. absence of dis- 
traction, presence of mind. 

a-sakuna, n. inauspicious omen. 
u-naman : delete 

ayush-ka; /or -ya, a read -ya. 
uttaraayana, n.for summer sol- 

stice read : commencement of the stirix north- 
ward course = winter solstice (in the month 

udattaalamkara,m. the rhe- 
torical figure called ' sublime ', ' supermun- 
dane '. 

ul-lola, a. [ud + lola] violently agi- 
tated, surging. 

(r*4T-f^I ui dhva anguli : correct semi- 
colon to colon after upwards. 

^ff^font kara-nivesita, pp. rendered 


sisting of the nectar of loveliness. 

Hm^ftl kama-vritti, a. self-willed, inde- 

"PRT^rf'nSW k8rya-viuiyama read -vini- 

8> fa kmh-i : for 'id.' read agriculture. 
kshub-dha, (pp.) m. churniug-stick. 

granthi-saniana, n. (bringing a 
(jarment to an end with a knot =) money 

rika./. commentary mid 'which ex- 
plains only difficult passages '. 

lfH^ tatparya, n. [see tat-para, a. 2.] add 
chief usage. 

dakshinaayana, n. add: com- 
mencetnent of the sun's southward course 
summer solstice (in the month Ashdc\ha). 

\ <* I <l <!t <, dosha- vastar, of 
gloom (BV.). 

dhanna-vahika, /. vehicle of 
religious merit - account-book of charitable 

Wf?T dhru-ti (V.),f. seduction [-/dlivrl. 

ne-trf,/. (of netri) leader or guide of 


ne-shat, 3. sg. aor. subj. of v/ni. 

lOrMnfqsil** nyayaSropita-vikra- 
ina, a. from whom powerful assistance might 
justly lie expected. 

paksh, m. after partisans add: family, 

'^ pafika-pura, m. great quantity of 
mud, deep mii'l. 

^M^l paiiiia-padi/.nrfrf: -nadiyate, does 
not accompany Mm even five steps. 

flHftl padma-nidhi, m. add treasure 
linviny the value of a Padma = 100,000,000 
pieces (if money. 

para-kara-gata, pp. passed into 

the hands of other*. 

para-tva, n. after intentness add ' or 
emphasis '. 

\lfl para-yat-f,/. pr. pt.(V'i) gone by, 
departed (dawn : BV.). 

piinar : after but aild nevertheless. 

pra-kirtana, n. proclaiming, an- 
nouncing: A,/, mention; -klrti,/. celebra- 
tion, praise; -ku7,a. m. a measure of capacity 
equal to about a handful ; -k/ita, pp. i/kri: 
-tva, n. state of being in question. 

pra-kriti,/. ([jutting before, what is 
presupposed), original or natural form or 
condition (opp. vi-kriti, derivative form); 
nature, constitution, disposition, temper; fun- 
damental form, pattern, standard, rule (sp. 
in ritual); nature (opp. spirit: ph.): pi. ma- 
terial elements (rare); primary constituents 
of nature (from which all else is evolved: 
there are eight: avyakta, mahat, ahatnkara, 
and the five elements: ph.); constituent ele- 
menta of the state (in politics: there are 
seren : Ttiny, minister, fortress; territory or 
subjects, treasure, army, and ally; kings 
primarily (of these time are four) and 
secondarily (of these there are eiyht) con- 
cerned in it war (each of these twelre having 
fice prakntis in the form of minister, terri- 
tory, fortress, treasure, army); constituent 
elements of a king's own state (ej-clusive of 
himself) ; ministers ; subjects, citizens ; By. 
root, ba'e^) 1 .): -or in, by nature, originally , 

properly ; in the original Btate, unchanged : 
-ka, a. (-) ill.; kn'pana, a. naturally feeble 
in dixcriminatiiiy betwteit (Ic.) ; -j/a, a. in- 
nate ; -purusha, m. nature and spirit (du.); 
minister ; -bhava, m. original or unmodified 
slate ; -ma//ala, n. whole circle of subjects, 
entire territory ; -mat, a. having or being in 
the original, natural, or usual condition or 
form ; -saw; panna, pp. endowed with a noble 
nature; -snbhaga, a. until rally beautiful; 
-stna, a. being in the natural state or con- 
dition, natural, genuine, normal ; healthy ; 
being in good circumstances. 

JTSTg pra-krtshfa, pp. (-v/krieh) extended, 
long (road) ; distinguished : -tva, u. excel- 
lence ; -keta, HI. (F.) perception, intelligence, 
understanding ; knower ; -kopa. in. raging 
(nfwar, disease); turbulence, tumult, insur- 
rection; anger, rage (ord. my.): -m -k>-t, be 
angry with (g.); -kopana (or na), a. (1) 
exciting, arousing (-") ; n. irritation; provok- 
ing, exasperating ; -kopita, CK. i>p. (v^kup) 
provoked, enraged; -koh<Aa, m. fore-arm 
(ord. mg.); space near the gate of a palace ; 
court of a palace (Pr,). 

HD*1 pra-krama', m. stride (Br., X.) ; C.: 
beginning (also S.); proportion, measure; 
right sequence of words, grammatical con- 
struction; -kramaua, striding forward; 
advancing towards (-") ; going forth ; -kra- 
ma-bhanga, m. violation of tjrammatical 
construution ; -kranta, pp. y'kram ; . set- 
ting out, departure : -tva, n. state of being 
meant i-kriya^/". procedure,method, manner; 
ceremony ; formality ; privilege, prerogative, 
precedence, high position (ord. mg.) ; insignia 
of high rank ; characterization ; chapter ; 
-kri'/a, m. sport; playground; -krlcftn, a. 
playing, gambolling (Itf. 1 ). 


PRAKH only 
-prtkshase with fc, greet (R V. 1 ). 

^nH!r pra-kshaparea, n. destruction ; 
-kshaya, m. id. ruin, end ; -ksharaua, n. 
flowing ; -kshalaka, a. washing ; m. washer; 
-ksnalaa, a performing/rejuejit ablutions; 
washing, - off, cleansing, purifying; water 
for washing ; means of purifying ; -kshi/ia, 
pp. v^kshi; -kshepa, m. cast, throw ; throw- 
ing or scattering upon ; setting down (of the 
feet, pada-, pf. steps); interpolation; sum 
deposited by each member of a commercial 
company ; -kshepana, n. sprinkling or pour- 
ing upon ; throwing into, - >y>on (- ) ; fixing 
(of a price, ) ; -ksuepln, throwing or 
placing upon (-") ; -ksheptavya, pp. to be 
thrown into (Ic.) ; thrown or scattered on 
(le.) ; -kshepya, pp. to be put on (orna- 

pra-khiira, a. very hard ; -khala, . 
great rogue; -khya, a. [^/khya] visible; 
clear, bright : a, f. appearance : only a. 
a, having the appearance of, resembling, 
like ; lustre, beauty : only a. a, bright or 
beautiful as; -khyata, pp. (Vkhya) famous 



etc.; -khyati, /. perceptibility ; -khyapana, 
. cs. (-) making known, announcement of 
(-"); -khyai, d. inf. .y/khya (R\'. 1 ). 

.... pra-gama, m. first advance of love in 
courtship ; -gardhin, n. hastening onwards 
(JZr.) ; -galbha, i. den. A. be courageous or 
resolute ; be capable of (Ic.), be able to (inf.); 
i. a. bold, intrepid, resolute, confident ; 
mature (age) : -knlala, m. dexterous potter, 
-til, f. boldnefs, confidence ; -gatha, m. 
kind of tkiee-verte stanza (combination of a 
ltr\hitti or Kkubh with Satobrihatl); A". 
of a RUAi ; -gna, n. right, correct (mud); 
being in good order, efficient ; excellent ; 
gnnaya, den. I", put in order ; manifest, 
show : pp. ita, put in order, properly ar- 
ranged ; -gnua-raX-ana, /. putting in proper 
order ; -gunln, a. kind towards (Ic.) ; -gunl- 
kri, put in proper order, arrange; render 
amenable to (Ic.) ; -grihlta-pada, n. having 
the words pronounced separately (i. e. with- 
,,ut Sundhi); -grihya, fp. (to be) pro- 
nounced separately, not liable to the rules of 
Sand hi (vowel). 

ft pra-ge, Ic. ad. [in the foregoing time] 
early in the morning : -tana, n. matutinal. 

pra-graha, m. holding forth, stretch- 
ing out ; grasping, seizing ; seizure of the svn 
or moon, beginning of an eclipse ; kindness; 
obstinacy (rare) ; rein, bridle (ord. my.) ; 
leader, s;uide ; companion, satellite ; -grah- 
ana, m. leader, guide (only - a. = led by) ; 
. grasping, seizing; commencement of an 
eclipse; -graham, <i6. keeping the words 
separate (i. e. not combining them according 
to the rulet of San<lhi : Br.); -grlva, m. 
railing or fence enclosing a house. 
_4 pra-ghana, in. [\'lian] space outside 
the door of a house ; -gharsha, m. friction ; 
-ghatia, m. = -ghana ; -ghosha, m. sound, 

pra-Aanrfa, a. violent or impetuous; 
very powerful (heat) ; very fierce, furious, or 
terrific ; i. If. of a Ddnava : -tarl-bhft, 
grow more furious ; -varman, m. N. of a liing. 

pra-Ait-a, in. ad. [Vita*} with 
secrecy, secretly (RV. 1 ). 

pra-Aaya, m. [v'*'] picking, gather- 

ing ; accumulation, collection, quantity, mul- 
titude; -/tayana, w. collecting ; -<-aya-vara, 
m. accumulated tone ('. e. tone occurring in 
a series of syllables), tone of the unaccented 
syllables following a Svarita ; -Parana, n 
setting to work : i,f. kind of supplementary 
wooden ladle (rit.) ; -araniya,/>;. being in 
actual use(Br.,S.); -iarltavya,/j>. n. imps. 
one should set to work ; -fala, a. moving, 
tremulous, shaking ; -/,-alana, n trembling, 
swaying; fleeing; -/.alayita, (den. pp.), 
nodding while asleep (ai-ina-. - in a sitting 
posture) ; -A-alita, pp. set out, departed, etc.; 
-frara, m. walking about, ranging ; going in 
pursuit of ( ") ; showing oneself, manifesta- 
tion, appearance ; application, employment ; 
currency ; conduct,behaviour; pasture-ground; 
exercising-ground ; -frarana, n. scattering ; 
-A-ftrin, a. going about ; attaching oneself to 
(Ic.,-); acting, behaving; -/clta, pi>.(Vki), 
pronounced with the PraAaya tone ; -fcura, 
a. abundant, ample, much, many, frequent ; 
, abounding in, replete with : -gahana, <i. 
having abundance of impervious passage*, 
-tva, n. abundance of ( ), -ratna-dhana_&- 
garaa, a having a large income of gems and 
money ; -fcurl-bhft, grow in extent ; -A-n'tta- 
ikha, a. having loosened braids or flowing 
hair; (a>A-eta, a. heedful, intelligent, wise 
(F.); m. (C.),ep. o/Varua; N.; -/.odana, 
n. instigation, incitement; command; -todin, 
a. driving before one ( ") 

pra-A-*Aada, m. coverlet, bed-cover; 
-K-Aanna, pp. (V*Aad), hidden, secreted, 
disguised, etc.; -AAAadaka, a covering, con- 
cealing ( ) ; m. song, accompanied by the 
lute, of a woman deserted by her husband, 
and containing a veiled reference to her for- 
lorn state ; -tMadana, a. covering, con- 
cealing (-") ; n. concealment ; -fc/.-Aadya, fp. 
to be concealed ; JtWiaya, n (?) shady place, 
shade ; -A/.-Afta, pp. v'**- 
m^4f pra-fcyavaua, n. withdi-awal, de- 
parture ; loss of (rib.) ; -tynta, pp. (v'kyu) 
fallen, degraded, banished, etc.: -Ayuti,/ de- 
parture, withdrawal; loss of (06.); abandon- 
ment of (-") : Amya^avaBthAnit , loss of 

pra-bhanga : under (pra)-bhava, in- 
sert 'a.' before arising. 

jua-vftyyiJ : -vilapitva : MM -vl- 

BANDH : under vlfor unyoke read 
stretcli out, extend. 

Sl BAKU : it would have been more con- 
eiilait to ijive thit root in the form of 

bahish-pa/a: add -pra^na n. hav- 
ing external cognition. 

^f^| brahma-bhuvitna, 11. world of 
Brahman : insert -bhftta, jip. before having 
become one with. 

bharata-vakya, n. actor's speech 

epilogue of a play to be inserted before 

vii^njijirthani : occurs out of its 
aljihabelical order in column * instead of 
column 3, p. 238. 

_ rupa-yauvana-vat, a. y 
and beautiful ; -siddhi, /. correctness of 
grammatical form. 

reka, m. man of low caste. 

insert pntrau before yuvaiu : 
jou two are my sons; why should I be 
ashamed ? ' 

VADH : delete 'dee. bibatsa [read 
bibhatsa] A. (belonijs rather to ^/badh) '. 

vd-ana : delete ' -marnta, down to 
breath ' (inclusive) : see vail-ana, n. 

vi-karsha, m.: for removal read dis- 
tance, interval. 
jfa^ vi-kira: before ' n. scattering 

strewing' insert ; -klrana. 

veda-ka : for restoring to conscious 

ness read rendering conscious. 

^^T vUtUsta, pp. [-/as throw] crossed 


<W^,q sakya-rupa : for probably not t< 

be read possible to be. 

























1956, 1960 


THE first edition of this Dictionary had the advantage of being published by 
the Delegates of the Oxford University Press, with the support of the Secretary 
of State for India in Council. The present greatly enlarged and improved work 
enjoys the same privileges. The first edition appeared in the summer of 1872. 
The extent of its indebtedness to the great seven-volumed Sanskrit -German 
Thesaurus compiled by the two eminent German Sanskritists, Otto Bohtlingk 
and Rudolf Roth, with the assistance of many distinguished scholars, such as 
Professor A.Weber of Berlin then only completed as far as the beginning of the 
letter ^ v was fully acknowledged by me in the Preface. 

Having regard, however, to the entire originality of the plan of my own work, 
I did not venture to describe it as based on the great Sanskrit-German Worterbuch. 
For that plan I claimed to be alone responsible. Every particle of its detail was 
thought out in my own mind, and the whole work was brought to completion by 
me, with the co-operation of five successive assistants whose names were duly 
recorded in about twelve years from the date of my election to the Boden 
Professorship in the University of Oxford. 

The words and the meanings of the words of a Dictionary can scarcely be 
proved by its compilers to belong exclusively to themselves. It is not the mere 
aggregation of words and meanings, but the method of dealing with them and 
arranging them, which gives a Dictionary the best right to be called an original 

In saying this I am not claiming any superiority for my own method over 
that of the two great German Sanskrit scholars which, of course, has advantages 
of its own. Nor am I detracting one whit from the tribute of admiration which 
I and other lexicographers are always desirous of rendering to the colossal 
monument of industry and scholarship represented by their work. I am merely 
repeating my claim to the production of a Sanskrit-English Dictionary on a wholly 
unique plan a plan the utility of which has been now proved by experience. 

It was not thought desirable to print off more than a thousand copies of the 
first edition of my book. These notwithstanding the necessarily high publishing 
price were sold off in a few years. It then became a question as to how the 
continuous demand for the Dictionary was to be met, and the Delegates decided 
to provide for it by a supplementary facsimile edition, produced by a photo- 
lithographic process. Copies printed by that process have been procurable ever 
since. Of course I was well satisfied with the factual evidence thus afforded of the 


practical utility of my Dictionary, and the more so as, along with many eulogistic 
reviews and notices, it met with some adverse criticism, especially at the hands 
of German Sanskritists. 

Not that such criticisms discouraged me. On the contrary, as soon as I 
became aware of the likelihood of my volume becoming out of print, I set about 
preparations for a new edition on the very same general plan, although with an 
earnest determination to improve the original work by the light of such critical 
animadversions as seemed to me to be pertinent. And I must at once acknowledge 
that in these efforts I received valuable suggestions from Professor Ernst Leumann 
of the University of Strassburg, who was my first collaborator at an early stage 
of the new undertaking (see p. xxxi). It ought, however, to be put on record 
that, even before Professor Leumann's co-operation, I had made the discovery that 
the great increase in the number of printed Sanskrit texts and works bearing on 
Sanskrit scholarship, since the issue of my first edition, would entirely preclude 
the idea of my producing a mere 'rechauffe' of my former volume, with additions, 
however numerous, introduced from my own interleaved copy and the contributions 
of fellow-Sanskritists. It would necessitate the re- writing of the whole from be- 
ginning to end a formidable task, tantamount to the production of an entirely new 
Dictionary. This task I began to put in hand alone at least twenty years ago, 
and it is only due to the authorities at the India Office, under whose auspices this 
work was inaugurated, and with whose assistance it has been printed, that I should 
explain the causes which have led to the unexpected delay in its publication. 

In real truth I am bound to confess that I entered upon my third lexico- 
graphical career with a little too magnificent audacity, and a little too airy hope- 
fulness, at a time when my energies were severely tried, not only by my ordinary 
duties of lecturing in Sanskrit, but by other collateral activities. 

Amongst the latter it may be mentioned that I had devoted myself to 
researches into Indian religions and philosophies, for a series of public lectures 
before the University, which I felt bound to give in my capacity of Boden 
Professor. And I certainly could not have ventured to carry on these researches 
much less to have printed them in various books as trustworthy 1 if I had not 
gained a 'first-hand' knowledge of my subject by placing my own mind in direct 
touch with the mind of the learned natives of India in their own country. 

It was for this and other cognate reasons 2 that with the consent and 
approbation of two successive Vice-Chancellors, and at my own expense I under- 
took voyages to India on three several occasions (in 1875-6, 1876-7, 1883-4), 
and extended my travels from Bombay to Calcutta and the confines of Tibet 
from Cashmere to Madras and the extreme South, including the chief homes of 
Buddhism in the island of Ceylon. 

1 Some of these books are referred to in the present that on ' Buddhism ' (also published by Mr. Murray, 

Dictionary ; for example, that on ' Hinduism ' (pub- and ed., referred to as MWB.). 

lished by the S. P.C. K., isth edition); that on 2 One of these was the founding of an Indian 

' Brahmanism ' &c. (also called ' Religious Thought Institute for the promotion of Indian studies in my 

and Life in India;' published by Mr. J. Murray, own University of Oxford. Another was to induce 

Albemarle Street, 4th ed., referred to as RTL.) ; that the Government of India to found six Government 

on 'Indian Wisdom' (published by Messrs. Luzac scholarships for enabling deserving Indians to finish 

of Great Russell Street, 4th ed., referred to as IW.); their education at our University. 


On each occasion I was cordially assisted by the Governor-General and local 
Governments of the day 1 . On each occasion, too, I found scattered throughout 
vast areas old fellow-students and pupils of my own administering immense pro- 
vinces, and eager to help me in my investigations ; and on each occasion I met to 
my surprise with learned and thoughtful natives not only in the cities and towns, 
but even in remote villages able and willing to converse with me in Sanskrit, as 
well as in their own vernaculars, and to explain difficult points in their languages, 
literatures, religions, and philosophies. 

It may well be believed that these Indian journeys were of great value 
in extending the horizon of my own knowledge, and increasing my power of 
improving the Dictionary, but it must be confessed that they interrupted its 
continuous prosecution. 

And, in very deed, the intermittent character of my latest lexicographical career 
would have made its completion during my life-time almost hopeless, had I not 
been ably aided by successive assistants and fellow-workers, whose co-operation is 
gratefully acknowledged by me subsequently (p. xxxi) ; that of Professor C. Cappeller 
having extended over far the larger portion of the work. 

And this is not all that I have to urge in extenuation of my apparent dilato- 
riness. A still more unavoidable cause of delay has been the unlooked-for amount 
of labour involved. This is fully explained in the Introduction (see p. xvi), but 
I may briefly mention here that it has consisted in adding about 60,000 Sanskrit 
words to about 1 20,000 the probable amount of the first edition ; in fitting the 
new matter into the old according to the same etymological plan ; in the veri- 
fication of meanings, old and new; in their justification by the insertion of 
references to the literature and to authorities ; in the accentuation of nearly 
every Sanskrit word to which accents are usually applied ; in the revision and 
re-revision of printed proofs ; until at length, after the lapse of more than a quarter 
of a century since the publication of the original volume, a virtually new Dictionary 
is. sent forth. 

It would, of course, be unreasonable to look for perfection in the result of 
our combined efforts. The law of human liability to error is especially applicable 
to the development of a new method of any kind. Nor are the imperfections of 
this volume ever likely to become better known to the most keen-sighted critics 
than they are to the compilers themselves. 

It is said of the author of a well-known Dictionary that the number of 
mistakes which his critics discovered in it, were to him a source of satisfaction 
rather than annoyance. The larger a work, he affirmed, the more likely it was 
to include errors ; and a hypercritical condemnation of these was often symptomatic 
of a narrow-mindedness which could not take in the merit of any great per- 
formance as a whole. 

Without having recourse to this convenient way of discomfiting critics of the 
Chidrdnveshin type, and without abating one iota of justifiable confidence in the 

1 The three Viceroys were Lord Northbrook, the and to Sir Richard Temple for receiving me at 

late Lord Lytton, and Lord Ripon. I owe a deep Government House, Belvedere, during the Prince of 

debt of gratitude to Lord Ripon for receiving me as Wales' visit in 1875-6; and to Sir James Fergusson for 

his guest at Government House, Calcutta, in 1883-4 ; receiving me at Government House, Bombay, in 1884. 


general trustworthiness of the present Dictionary, its compilers can yet be keenly 
alive to its thoroughly human character. 

Speaking for myself I may say that blended with my thankfulness for the 
longevity that has enabled me to see a protracted undertaking brought to a com- 
pletion, is a deep consciousness that I am not young enough to consider myself 
infallible. Indeed it is at once the joy and sorrow of every true scholar that the 
older he grows the more he has to confess himself a learner rather than a teacher, and 
the more morbidly conscious he becomes of his own liability to a learner's mistakes. 

From all true scholars I do not fear, but court, criticism. Such critics 
will understand how a sense of responsibility may increase with advancing age, 
putting an author out of conceit with his own performances, and filling him with 
progressively intensified cravings after an impossible perfection. They will make 
due allowance for the difficulties besetting the production of so many densely 
printed pages, often comprising column after column of unbroken serried type, and 
abounding with countless dots and diacritical marks. Nor will they be surprised at 
occasional inequalities of execution in a work representing efforts spread over numerous 
years. Nor will they need to be reminded that occasional distractions, trials of health 
and weariness of spirit are unavoidably incident, not only to the responsible head of 
a prolonged undertaking, but to his several assistants. Indeed it is no disparagement 
to those who have contributed to the detail of this work to admit that a com- 
pilation, which is the result of the collaboration of so many different personalities, must 
in some degree reflect the idiosyncrasies and infirmities peculiar to each. 

Yet notwithstanding my desire that due weight should be given to such 
considerations, I may be pardoned if I express my confident expectation that the 
volume now offered to students of both Sanskrit and comparative philology, will 
supply them with the most complete and useful one-volumed Sanskrit-English 
Dictionary ever yet produced a Dictionary, too, which in its gradual progress 
has, I trust, kept pace with the advancing knowledge and scholarship of the day. 

At all events I feel sure that I may affirm for my collaborators, as well as for 
myself, that we have earnestly striven to secure for this new volume, even 
more than for the old, the possession of four principal characteristics, namely: 
i. Scholarly accuracy; 2. Practical utility; 3. Lucidity of arrangement, designed to 
set forth, as clearly as possible, the etymological structure of the language, and 
its bearing on that of the cognate languages of Europe; 4. Completeness and 
comprehensiveness, at least to the fullest extent attainable in the latest state of 
Sanskrit research, and to the utmost limit compatible with compactness and 
compression into a single volume. 

And here it is my duty to notify, in justice as much to my assistants as to 
myself, that I must be held primarily responsible, not only for the plan, but for 
the general character of the whole Dictionary. This will be understood when 
I state that I have from the first exercised a strict superintendence over the 
details of both editions not only in carefully supervising the manuscript, but in 
adding new words, in modifying or amplifying meanings, in subjoining explanations 
from my own literary notes made during my sojourning at the chief seats of 
learning in India in examining and re-examining every proof-sheet. 

I ought to state, however, that during occasional attacks of illness I have been 


compelled t(5 trust more to my collaborators than at other times 1 ; and I must also make 
an exception in regard to the Additions, the abundance of which is justifiable 
by the circumstance that many of them are taken from texts and books published 
quite recently. For although a manuscript list of all the words and meanings in the 
supplementary pages was submitted for my approval, and although many words 
in the list have been eliminated by me, while others have been added from my 
own notes, yet the necessity for passing the worst winter months in a Southern 
climate has made it impossible for me to have at hand every new book needed 
for the verification of every addition which I have allowed to be retained. 

With regard to a strictly personal criticism in which I have for many years 
been content to acquiesce without comment, I may perhaps advantageously now 
that I have nearly arrived at the end of my career make a brief explanation. 
Some of my critics and a few candid friends have expressed surprise that I should 
have devoted so much of my long tenure of the Boden Professorship to the dry, 
dreary and thankless drudgery of writing Dictionaries and Grammars, and to 
practical researches carried on among the Pandits of India in their own country, 
rather than to the duty of proving the profundity of my learning and my fitness 
to occupy a high Professorial position by editing or translating obscure Sanskrit 
texts which have never been edited or translated before 2 . 

In explanation I must draw attention to the fact that I am only the second occupant 
of the Boden Chair, and that its Founder, Colonel Boden, stated most explicitly in his 
will (dated August 15, 1811) that the special object of his munificent bequest was to 
promote the translation of the Scriptures into Sanskrit, so as ' to enable his countrymen 
to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian Religion V 

It was on this account that, when my distinguished predecessor and teacher, 
Professor H. H. Wilson, was a candidate for the Chair in 1832, his lexicographical 
labours were put forward as his principal claim to election. 

Surely then it need not be thought surprising, if following in the footsteps 
of my venerated master, I have made it the chief aim of my professorial life to 
provide facilities for the translation of our sacred Scriptures into Sanskrit 4 , and for 

1 I cannot allow myself to think that the Dictionary Nov. 21,1811. His daughter died Aug. 24, 1827, where- 

has suffered much from this cause, except perhaps upon his bequest passed to the University of Oxford, 

during the collaboration of the late Dr. Schonberg, the but the first election to the Chair, for some reason 

rapid impairment of whose powers did not at first strike unknown to me,, did not take place till 1832. 
me so as to make me aware of the necessity for increased * In his address proposing himself for election to 

vigilance on my part (see p. xxxi). the Boden Electors, Professor H. H.Wilson laid stress 

4 I believe it is held that for an Alpine climber to on what he had done for ' the rendering of Scripture 

establish a reputation for mountaineering he must as- Terms into the Sanskrit language.' It was doubtless 

cend some peak, however comparatively insignificant, on this account that after he was elected he urged me 

that has never been ascended before. But the appli- to compile an English-Sanskrit Dictionary a work 

cation of such a principle as a sole proof of scholarship never before attempted. I laboured at this for about 

in the present day, can no more hold good in Sanskrit seven years, and although the result (published in a 

than in Greek and Latin. At all events let any one thick volume by the Directors of the East India Com- 

who claims a reputation for superior scholarship on pany in 1851) cannot, I fear, be said to meet the needs 

that sole ground associate with Indian Pandits in their of the present day, yet it should be borne in mind that 

own country and he will find out that far severer proofs it was pioneering work. Nor can it be said to have 

of his knowledge and acquirements will be required of been useless, seeing that seven years after its publication 

him there. the following testimony to its utility was voluntarily 

3 Lieutenant-Colonel Boden, of the- Bombay Native tendered by the Rev. J. Wenger, translator of the Bible 

Infantry, returned to England in 1 80 7 and died at Lisbon, into Sanskrit and Editor of Dr. Yates' Sanskrit Die- 


the promotion of a better knowledge of the religions and customs of India, as the 
best key to a knowledge of the religious needs of our great Eastern Dependency. 
My very first public lecture delivered after my election in 1860 was on 'The Study 
of Sanskrit in Relation to Missionary Work in India' (published in 1861). 

For the rest, I have already alluded to the advantage which this Dictionary 
has derived from the support of the Governments of India, and I ought here 
to acknowledge with gratitude that, without the subsidy granted by successive 
Secretaries of State in Council, the present volume could not have been sold to 
the public at the price at which it is now offered. In regard to the Oxford 
University Press it will be sufficient to say that this volume adds to the countless 
evidences of its efficiency and of the wealth of its resources. But I may be 
permitted to congratulate its Delegates and Controller on their good fortune in 
possessing an unrivalled Oriental Press-reader in Mr. Pembrey. For more than 
forty years he has read the final proofs of all my books ; and I can from my own 
experience, and without exaggeration, affirm, that I doubt whether any one can 
surpass him in the perfection to which he has brought the art of detecting errors 
due to the inadvertence of both authors and printers. 

It is only necessary for me to add that having been alone responsible for 
the singularity of the plan of the original Dictionary, I thought it desirable to 
prefix to the first edition several sections of introductory explanations. In the 
same way my supremacy in the production of the present new work necessitates my 
undertaking the responsibility of writing a new series of explanations, in which I have 
deemed it desirable to pursue the main lines of my previous method, and not to 
discard any portion of the old matter which could be advantageously retained. 



This Dictionary, to which my father devoted so many years of labour, was 
completed by him a few days before his death, which took place at Cannes, in the 
south of France, on April n, 1899. It had been his hope to see this work published 
shortly after his return to England. Although this desire was not granted, it was 
a satisfaction to him to know that the last revise had received his final corrections, 
and that the book would be issued from the University Press within a few weeks 
of his death. 


May 4, 1899. 

lionary :' I received a copy of Professor Monier and erudition which his volume displays. The Rev. J. 

Williams' English and Sanskrit Dictionary at a time Parsons of Benares, who has been engaged for some 

when I was about to commence a translation into years past in preparing a new Hindee version of the 

Sanskrit of portions of the Old Testament. I have New Testament, has likewise derived material assistance 

used it daily for the last seven years, and the more from Professor M. W.'s work. Indian missionaries 

I have consulted it the more excellent I have found it. generally owe him a large debt of gratitude.' 
I feel bound to say that he appears to have succeeded, Let me add that I hope the present Sanskrit-English 

not only beyond my previous ideas of what was likely, Dictionary will furnish some young scholar with 

but also of what was feasible, to be accomplished at the materials.for the compilation of a far more satisfactory 

present time. The Pundits whom I employ have like- English-Sanskrit Dictionary than that which I began 

wise expressed their unqualified admiration of the labour to compile more than half a century ago. 



Statement of the circumstances which led to the peculiar System of Sanskrit Lexicography 
introduced for the first time in the Monier- Williams Sanskrit- English Dictionary 0/1872. 

To enable me to give a clear account of the gradual development of the plan of the present work, 
I must go back to its earliest origin, and must reiterate what I stated in the Preface to the first edition, 
that my predecessor in the Boden Chair, Professor H. H. Wilson, once intended to compile a Sanskrit 
Dictionary in which all the words in the language were to be scientifically arranged under about 3,000 
roots, and that he actually made some progress in carrying out that project. Such a scientific arfangement 
of the language would, no doubt, have been appreciated to the full by the highest class of scholars. 
Eventually, however, he found himself debarred from its execution, and commended it to me as a fitting 
object for the occupation of my spare time during the tenure of my office as Professor of Sanskrit at 
the old East India College, Haileybury. Furthermore, he generously made over to me both the beginnings 
of his new Lexicon and a large MS. volume, containing a copious selection of examples and quotations 
(made by Pandits at Calcutta under his direction") with which he had intended to enrich his own volume. 
It was on this account that, as soon as I had completed the English-Sanskrit part of a Dictionary of 
my own (published in 1851), I readily addressed myself to the work thus committed to me, and actually 
carried it on for some time between the intervals of other undertakings, until the abolition of the old 
Haileybury College on January r, 1858. 

One consideration which led my predecessor to pass on to me his project of a root-arranged Lexicon 
was that, on being elected to the Boden Chair, he felt that the elaboration of such a work would be 
incompatible with the practical objects for which the Boden Professorship was founded*. 

Accordingly he preferred, and I think wisely preferred, to turn his attention to the expansion of the 
second edition of his first Dictionary s a task the prosecution of which he eventually intrusted to a 
well-known Sanskrit scholar, the late Professor Goldstflcker. Unhappily, that eminent Orientalist was singularly 
unpractical in some of his ideas, and instead of expanding Wilson's Dictionary, began to convert it into 
a vast cyclopedia of Sanskrit learning, including essays and controversial discussions of all kinds. He 
finished the printing of 480 pages of his own work, which only brought him to the word Arim-dama (p. 87 
of the present volume), when an untimely death cut short his lexicographical labours. 

As to my own course, the same consideration which actuated my predecessor operated in my case, 
when I was elected to fill the Boden Chair in his room in 1860. 

I also felt constrained to abandon the theoretically perfect ideal of a wholly root-arranged Dictionary 
in favour of a more practical performance, compressible within reasonable limits and more especially as 
I had long become aware that the great Sanskrit-German Worterbuch of BShtlingk and 'Roth was 
expanding into dimensions which would make it inaccessible to ordinary English students of Sanskrit. 

Nevertheless I could -not quite renounce an idea which my classical training at Oxford had forcibly 
impressed upon my mind-viz, that the primary object of a Sanskrit Dictionary should be to exhibit, 
by a lucid etymological arrangement, the structure of a language which, as most people know, is not only 
the elder sister of Greek, but the best guide to the structure of Greek, as well as of every other member 
of the Aryan or Indo-European family-a language, in short, which is the very key-stone of the science 
of comparative philology. This was in truth the chief factor in determining the plan which, as 
proceed to show, I ultimately carried into execution. 

' This will be found in the library pre5ented by me to the H. H.Wilson appended to my Reminiscence, of Old Haileybury 
Indian Institute, Oxford. College (published by A. Constable & Co.^ 

The main object was really a missionary one, as I have ' His first Dictionary was publ.shed in 18,9, and hit second ,n 
shown in the Preface to this volume ( P . i*), and in my Lift of iSja, while he was a candidate for the Boden I'rofessor.h.p. 


And it will conduce to the making of what I have to say in this connexion clearer, if I draw 
attention at the very threshold to the fact that the Hindus are perhaps the only nation, except the Greeks, 
who have investigated, independently and in a truly scientific manner, the general laws which govern the 
evolution of language. 

The synthetical process which comes into operation in the working of those laws may be well called 
samskarana, ' putting together,' by which I mean that every single word in the highest type of language 
(called Samskrita ') is first evolved out of a primary Dhalu a Sanskrit term usually translated by ' Root,' 
but applicable to any primordial constituent substance, whether of words, or rocks, or living organisms 
and then, being so evolved, goes through a process of ' putting together ' by the combination of other 
elementary constituents. 

Furthermore, the process of ' putting together ' implies, of course, the possibility of a converse process 
of yyakarana, by which I mean 'undoing' or 'decomposition;' that is to say, the resolution of every 
root-evolved word into its component elements. So that in endeavouring to exhibit these processes of 
synthesis and analysis, we appear to be engaged, like a chemist, in combining elementary substances 
into solid forms, and again in resolving these forms into their constituent ingredients. 

It seemed to me, therefore, that in deciding upon the system of lexicography best calculated to 
elucidate the laws of root-evolution, with all the resulting processes of verbal synthesis and analysis, which 
constitute so marked an idiosyncrasy of the Sanskrit language, it was important to keep prominently in 
view the peculiar character of a Sanskrit root a peculiarity traceable through the whole family of so-called 
Aryan languages connected with Sanskrit, and separating them by a sharp line of demarcation from the 
other great speech-family usually called Semitic*. 

And here, if I am asked a question as to what languages are to be included under the name Aryan 
a question which ought certainly to be answered in limine, inasmuch as this Dictionary, when first 
published in 1872, was the first work of the kind, put forth by any English scholar, which attempted 
to introduce comparisons between the principal members of the Aryan family I reply that the Aryan 
languages (of which Sanskrit is the eldest sister 5 , and English one of the youngest) proceeded from 
a common but nameless and unknown parent, whose very home somewhere in Central Asia cannot be 
fixed with absolute certainty, though the locality may conjecturally be placed somewhere in the region of 
Bactria (Balkh) and Sogdiana, or not far from Bokhara and the first course of the river Oxus 4 . From 
this centre radiated, as it were, eight principal lines of speech each taking its own course and expanding 
in its own way namely the two Asiatic lines : (A) the Indian comprising Sanskrit, the various ancient 
Prakrits, including the Prakrit of the Inscriptions, the Pali of the Buddhist sacred Canon, the Ardha- 
Magadhi of the Jains, and the modern Prakrits or vernacular languages of the Hindus, such as Hindi, 
MarathT, Gujarat!, Bengali, Oriya &c. (B) the Iranian comprising the Avesta language commonly called 
Zand or Zend', old Persian or Akhaemenian, Pahlavl, modern Persian, and, in connexion with these, 
Armenian and Pushtu ; and then the six European lines : (A) Keltic, (B) Hellenic, (C) Italic, (D) Teutonic, 
(E) Slavonic, (F) Lithuanian, each branching into various sub-lines as exhibited in the present languages of 
Europe. It is this Asiatic and European ramification of the Aryan languages which has led to their being 
called Indo-European. 

Now if I am asked a second question, as to what most striking feature distinguishes all these 
languages from the Semitic, my answer is, that the main distinction lies in the character of their roots 

1 Sanskrit is now too Anglicized a word to admit of its being and Aramaic ; a. ' South Semitic," comprising Arabic, Himyaritic, 

written as it ought to be written according to the system of trans- and Ethiopic. 

literation adopted in the present Dictionary Samskrit. * Though the younger sisters sometimes preserve older forms. 

' The name Semitic or Shemitic is applied to Assyrian, 4 According to some German Theorists the cradle-land of the 

Hebrew, Aramaic (or Aramaean), Arabic, and Himyaritic, Aryans was in the steppes of Southern Russia. Others have 

because in the tenth chapter of Genesis, Shem is represented as fantastically placed it in Northern Europe. Most scholars hold 

father of the principal nations speaking these languages e.g. to the old idea of ' somewhere in Central Asia,' and probably in 

Assur (Assyria), Aram (Syria), and of Arphaxad, grandfather the region of Bactria (Balkh) and Sogdiana, although there might 

of Eber, from whom came the Hebrews or Trans-Kuphratian have been a second centre of migration. I myself firmly believe 

race, the name Hebrew coming from^-e, and really meaning that Balkh was once a chief ancient home of Aryan civilization. 

' one who lives beyond (a river) 'and Joktan, the father of Its ruins are said to extend for twenty miles, 

many of the tribes inhabiting South Arabia. It is usual, too, to See note 3, p. xxv, on Pali and on the Prakrit of the inscriptions, 

reckon among Semitic races the people of Abyssinia, whose * As to the Avesta, commonly called Zend (more correctly 

sacred and literary language is the Ethiopic or Ge'ez, while their Zand), this is that ancient language of Eastern Iran in which are 

spoken dialects are Tigri for the north and north-east, and written the sacred books of the Zoroastrians, commonly called 

Amharic for the centre and south, all presenting affinities with Zend-Avesta books which constitute the bible and prayer-book 

the ancient Himyaritic Arabic of South Arabia (Yaman). Hence, of the Parsts those fugitives from Persia who are scattered 

speaking generally, we may classify Semitic languages under the everywhere throughout India, and are now among the most 

two heads of: i. 'North Semitic,' comprising Assyrian, Hebrew, energetic and loyal of our Indian fellow-subjects. 


or radical sounds ; for although both Aryan and Semitic forms of speech are called ' inflective ',' it should 
be well understood that the inflectiveness of the root in the two cases implies two very different processes. 

For example, an Arabic root is generally a kind of hard tri-consonantal framework consisting of three 
consonants which resemble three sliding but unchangeable upright limbs, moveable backwards and forwards 
to admit on either side certain equally unchangeable ancillary letters used in forming a long chain of 
derivative words. These intervenient and subservient letters are of the utmost importance for the diverse 
colouring of the radical idea, and the perfect precision of their operation is noteworthy, but their 
presence within and without the rigid frame of the root is, so to speak, almost overpowered by the ever 
prominent and changeless consonantal skeleton. In illustration of this we may take the Arabic tri- 
consonantal root KTB, 'to write,' using capitals for the three radical consonants to indicate their 
unchangeableness ; the third pers. sing, past tense is XaTaBa, 'he wrote,' and from the same three 
consonants, by means of certain servile letters, are evolved with fixed and rigid regularity a long line 
of derivative forms, of which the following are specimens: XaTB, and XiTaBat, the act of writing; 
XuTiB, a writer; maXTuB, written; taKTTB, a teaching to write; muXaTaBat, and taXaTuB, the 
act of writing to one another; mutaXaTiB, one engaged in mutual correspondence; iXTaB, the act of 
dictating ; maXTaB, the place of writing, a writing-school ; XiTaB, a book ; XiTBat, the act of transcribing. 

In contradistinction to this, a Sanskrit root is generally a single monosyllable J , consisting of one or 
more consonants combined with a vowel, or sometimes of a single vowel only. This monosyllabic radical 
has not the same cast-iron rigidity of character as the Arabic tri-consonantal root before described. True, it has 
usually one fixed and unchangeable initial letter, but in its general character it may rather be compared to 
a malleable substance, capable of being beaten out or moulded into countless ever-variable forms, and 
often in such a way as to entail the loss of one or other of the original radical letters; new forms being, 
as it were, beaten out of the primitive monosyllabic ore, and these forms again expanded by affixes 
and suffixes, and these again by other affixes and suffixes', while every so expanded form may be again 
augmented by prepositions and again by compositions with other words and again by compounds of 
compounds till an almost interminable chain of derivatives is evolved. And this peculiar expansibility arises 
partly from the circumstance that the vowel is recognized as an independent constituent of every Sanskrit 
radical, constituting a part of its very essence or even sometimes standing alone as itself the only root. 

Take, for example, such a root as Bhu, 'to be ' or 'to exist.' From this is, so to speak, beaten out 
an immense chain of derivatives of which the following are a few examples : Bhava or Bhavana, being ; 
Bhava, existence; Bhavana, causing to be; Bhavin, existing; Bhuvana, the world; Bhu or Bhumi, 
the earth; Bhn-dhara, earth-supporter, a mountain; Bhu-dhara-ja, mountain-born, a tree; Bhn-pa, an 
earth-protector, king; Bhupa-pntra, a king's son, prince, &c. &c. ; Ud-bhn, to rise up; Fraty-a-bhu, 
to be near at hand; Prodbhuta, come forth, &c. 4 

Sanskrit, then, the faithful guardian of old Indo-European forms, exhibits these remarkable properties 
better than any other member of the Aryan line of speech, and the crucial question to be decided was, 
how to arrange the -plan of my Dictionary in such a way as to make them most easily apprehensible. 

On the one hand I had to bear in mind that, supposing the whole Sanskrit language to be referable 
to about 2,000 roots or parent-stems', the plan of taking root by root and writing, as it were, the 
biographies of two thousand parents with sub-biographies of their numerous descendants in the order of 
their growth and evolution, would be to give reality to a beautiful philological dream a dream, however, 
which could not receive practical shape without raising the Lexicon to a level of scientific perfection 
unsuited to the needs of ordinary students. 

On the other hand I had to reflect that to compile a Sanskrit Dictionary according to the usual plan 

1 As distinguished from unchangeably 'monosyllabic' like the they are held to be distinct roots and the number is thereby 

Chinese, and 'agglutinative' like the Dravidian of Southern swelled to 3,490. It should be noted, too, that a great many of 

India, and like the Turkish and other members of an immense these Dhatus are modifications or developments of simpler 

class oflanguages, in which there are no so-called ' inflections,' elements, and this Dictionary does not always decide as tc 

but merely affixes or suffixes 'glued' as it were to the root or which of two, three or more roots is the simplest, although whei 

body of a word, and easily separable from it, and not blending roots are allied their connexion is indicated. Probably th 

intimately with it, and so, as it were, inflecting it. number of elementary radicals in Sanskrit might be reduced to a 

' Of course it is well understood that there are in Sanskrit comparatively small catalogue-even, as some think, to 

a certain number of dissyllabic roots, but I am here merely not more than about lao primitive roots. Many Sanskrit : 

contrasting Semitic and Aryan roots gaurOfy. have alternative Prakrit forms or vice versa, and both forms ar 

The vitarana of a root may be called an ' affix,' and the allowed to co-exist, as than and bhan, dhan and A*, nr* 
verbal termination Ac. a ' suffix.' ~ti others whose initials are aspirated consonants have passed 

For other illustrations of this see I. M, p. 300 ; I. **, into other aspirated consonants or have retamed only th aspirate 
p. 1.00; .. aki, p. 126, of this volume. as in %*******<*"; A S am ' ""* * T' * 

The number of distinct Dhatus or radical forms given in is probably nothing but a compound of a, and root < and such 
some collections is 1,750, but as many form, having the same roots as jfeM, Hum*, stambh are plamly mere modif 

sound have different meanings, and are conjugated differently, each other. 


of treating each word as a separate and independent entity, requiring separate and independent explanation, 
would certainly fail to give a satisfactory conception of the structure of such a language as Sanskrit, and 
of its characteristic processes of synthesis and analysis, and of its importance in throwing light on the 
structure of the whole Indo-European family of which it is the oldest surviving member. 

I therefore came to the conclusion that the best solution of the difficulty lay in some middle course 
some compromise by virtue of which the two lexicographical methods might be, as it were, interwoven. 

It remains for me to explain the exact nature of this compromise, and I feel confident that the plan 
of the present work will be easily understood by any one who, before using the Dictionary, prepares the 
way by devoting a little time to a preliminary study of the explanations which I now proceed to give. 


Explanation of the Plan and Arrangement of the Work, and of the Improvements 
introduced into the Present Edition. 

Be it notified, at the very threshold, that there are four mutually correlated lines of Sanskrit words in 
this Dictionary : (i) a main line in Nagari type, with equivalents in Indo-Italic type * ; (2) a subordinate 
line (under the Nagari) in thick Indo- Romanic type 1 ; (3) a branch line, also in thick Indo-Romanic type, 
branching off from either the first or the second lines with the object of grouping compound words under 
one head; (4) a branch line in Indo-Italic type, branching off from leading compounds with the object 
of grouping together the compounds of those compounds. Of course all four lines follow the usual 
Sanskrit Dictionary order of the alphabet (see p. xxxvi). 

The first or main line, or, as it may be called, the ' Nagari line," constitutes the principal series of 
Sanskrit words to which the eye must first turn on consulting the Dictionary. It comprises all the roots 
of the language, both genuine and artificial (the genuine being in large Nagari type), as well as many- 
leading words. in small Nagari, and many isolated words (also in small Nagari), some of which have their 
etymologies given in parentheses, while others have their derivation indicated by hyphens. 

The second or subordinate line in thick Indo-Romanic type is used for two purposes: (a) for 
exhibiting clearly to the eye in regular sequence under every root the continuous series of derivative words 
which grow out of each root; (6) for exhibiting those series of cognate words which, to promote facility 
of reference, are placed under certain leading words (in small Nagari) rather than under the roots them- 

The third or branch line in thick Indo-Romanic type is used for grouping together under a leading 
word all the words compounded with that leading word. 

The fourth or branch Indo-Italic line is used for grouping under a leading compound all the 
words compounded with that compound. 

The first requires no illustration; the second is illustrated by the series of words under ^ i. kri 
(p. 300) beginning with i. Xrit, p. 301, col. 3, and under *HT i. hard (p. 253) beginning with i. Earaka 
(p. 254, col. i); the third by the series of compounds under ^ i. kara (p. 253, col. i), and Kara&a 
(p. 254, coL i); the fourth by the series of compounds under -vira (p. 253, col. 3). 

And this fourfold arrangement is not likely to be found embarrassing; because any one using the 
Dictionary will soon perceive that the four lines or series of Sanskrit words, although following their 
own alphabetical order, are made to fit into each other without confusion by frequent backward and 
forward cross-references. In fact, it will be seen at a glance that the ruling aim of the whole arrangement 
is to exhibit, in the clearest manner, first the evolution of words from roots, and then the interconnexion 
of groups of words so evolved, as members of one family descended from a common source. Hence 
all the genuine roots of the language are brought prominently before the eye by large Nagari type; 
while the evolution of words from these roots, as from parent-stocks, is indicated by their being printed 
in thick Romanic type, and placed in regular succession either under the roots, or under some leading 
word connected with the same family by the tie of a common origin. It will be seen, too, that in the 
case of such leading words (which are always in Nagari type), their etymology given in a parenthesis 
applies to the whole family of cognate words placed under them, until a new series of words is introduced 
by a new root or new leading-word in Nagari type. In this way all repetition of etymologies is avoided, 
and the Nagari type is made to serve a very useful purpose. 

It will also be seen that words which are different in meaning, but appear identical in form, are distinguished 

1 I use the expression ' Indo-Romanic ' and ' Indo-Italic ' to and other Indian languages. The thick Indo-Romanic type 
denote the expanded Roman and Italic alphabets adapted by the employed in this volume is a product of the Oxford Clarendon 
use of diacritical points and marks to the expression of Sanskrit Press, and therefore named Clarendon type. 


from each other by the figures i, 2, 3, &c., placed before the Indo- Romanic or Indo-Italic transliterated forms : 
see, for example, ^t$ffa i. a-sita, ^qffa 2. astta (p. 113)'; i. A'pya, isim 2. apya, flnT 3- apya (pp. 142, 
144); *| I. brih, ^ 2. M2, ^ 3. brih (p. 735). 

In regard to the roots of the language, it will be observed that they are treated of in the present 
work both in respect of the meanings and of the exhibition of tenses, participles, and verbal forms 
evolved from them more thoroughly and exhaustively than has hitherto been attempted in a Dictionary*. 

Furthermore, all the verbs formed from the roots with prepositions (as, for example, 1 rgw anu-Vkri, 
p- 3', *nrfH*T r j|' sam-abhi-vy-a-Vhri, p. 1156) are arranged according to the method followed in Greek 
and Latin Lexicons; that is to say, such verbs are to be looked for in their own alphabetical order, and 
not under the roots kri and hri. The practical convenience resulting from this method, and the great advantage 
of exhibiting the connexion of every verb and its meanings with its derivatives, constitute in my opinion 
an invaluable gain, especially to the student who studies Sanskrit as he would Greek and Latin, and makes 
it a guide to the study of the other members of the Indo-European family. At all events it forms one 
of the unique features of the present work, stamping it with an individuality of its own, and differentiating 
it from all other Sanskrit Dictionaries. The labour entailed in the process necessarily a wholly pioneering 
process of thus rearranging the verbs in a language so rich in prepositions, can only be understood by 
those who have undergone it. 

As to the separation of meanings it must be noted that mere amplifications of preceding meanings 
are separated by a comma, whereas those which do not clearly run into each other are divided by 
semicolons. A comma, therefore, must always be taken as marking separate shades of meaning, except 
it occurs in parenthetical observations. 

Let it be observed, however, that all the meanings of a word belonging to a group are not always 
given in full, if they may be manifestly gathered from the other members of the group. This applies 
especially to participles and participial formations. 

Observe too that all remarks upon meanings and all descriptive and explanatory statements are given 
between ( ), all remarks within remarks and comparisons with other languages between [ ]. 

I was told by a friendly critic, soon after the appearance of the first edition, that meanings and 
synonyms had been needlessly multiplied, but when the book had been fairly tested by repeated and 
extended application to various branches of the literature, it was found that apparently superfluous 
synonyms often gave the precise meanings required to suit particular passages. In the present edition 
to save space some synonyms which seemed mere surplusage have been rejected; and I fear I may 
have occasionally gone too far in sanctioning some of these rejections. For experience proves that the 
practical utility of a Dictionary is less impaired by a redundancy than by a paucity of meanings. 

Again, a glance at the following pages will show that the arrangement of compound words under 
a leading word, as introduced in the edition of 1872, and continued with modifications in the present 
edition, is entirely novel. 

It may perhaps be objected that there are too many of these compounds; but once more it may be 
urged that a Sanskrit Dictionary must not be tried by ordinary laws in this respect, for Sanskrit has 
developed more than Greek and German and any other Aryan language the faculty of forming compounds. The 
love of composition is indeed one of its most characteristic features. To exclude compounds from a Sanskrit 
Lexicon would be, so to speak, to ' unsanskritize ' it. Not only are there certain compounds quite 
peculiar to Sanskrit, but, in the grammar, composition almost takes the place of Syntax, and the various 
kinds of compound words are classified and defined with greater subtlety and minuteness than in any 
other known language of the world. When a student is in doubt whether to translate compounds like 
Indra-satru as Bahuvrihis or Tatpurushas, the Dictionary is surely bound to aid in clearing up his 
perplexity. Even as it is, many useful compounds have, I fear, been sacrificed to the exigencies of space. 
The meanings of these, however, can be easily inferred from the meaning of their component members. 
Take, for example, such a word as samyulct&kslutra, 'a compound or conjunct letter.' 

Another distinctive peculiarity of this Dictionary consists in the articles on mythology, literature, 
religion, and philosophy, scattered everywhere throughout its pages. My own collection of notes from 
various sources, especially those made during my three Indian journeys and published in the books 
named in the Preface to this volume (see p. vi, with note), have enabled me to furnish students with 
much useful information on many subjects not hitherto treated of in Sanskrit Dictionaries. It will, I feel 

1 In this first case the hyphen used in the transliterated form * I must, however, here repeat the acknowledgment of my 

is no doubt sufficient to distinguish the two forms from each other. original indebtedness to ' Westergaard's Radices;' nor must 

Hence, to economize space, the figures have occasionally towards I omit to mention Whitney's valuable Index of Roots, Verb- 

the end of the work been omitted (see samdnd, Sa-mdna, p. 1 160). forms and Primary Derivatives. 


sure, be admitted that the knowledge gained by me from personal contact with Indian Pandits and 
educated men in their own Universities, and with all sorts and conditions of Hindus in their own 
towns and villages, has been a distinct advantage to this Dictionary. It has enabled me to give much 
useful information not found in other works, and to avoid many mistakes made by Sanskritists who have 
only a book-knowledge of India. 

A further peculiar feature is the introduction of a large number of names of persons and places. 
This may be objected to as a needless extension of the scope and limits of a Dictionary. In extenuation 
I contend that greater liberty ought to be allowed to a Sanskrit Dictionary in this respect thah to 
Greek and Latin Lexicons, because Oriental alphabets have no capital letters enabling such names to be 
distinguished from ordinary nouns. 

Then again, in regard to the names of works, which are also multiplied to an unusual extent, 
Sanskrit literature is so vast that, although as I hold very little worthy of attention remains to be 
edited, yet it may often be of great importance to have attention drawn to unknown treatises, or to 
commentaries on well-known works ascertained to exist in manuscript in the libraries of Europe or 

As to plants and trees, the adjective qualifying the name of a plant, as well as the name of the 
plant itself, ought occasionally to be marked, according to the rules of botanical science, with an initial 
capital letter. But it is often difficult for a non-botanist to decide as to the correct usage. It was therefore 
thought better to use capital letters for both substantive and adjective, especially as in the new edition, to 
save space, the word 'plant' is omitted. Hence the second capital letter, though often inappropriate, 
serves as a symbol for denoting that the epithet is that of a plant. 

I need scarcely draw attention to the comparisons from cognate languages which manifestly 
constitute a special feature of this volume. Many doubtful comparisons have been eliminated from the 
present edition. A few questionable ones have, I fear, been retained or rashly inserted, but they will be 
easily detected (e.g. under Ayasya, p. 85). 

In regard to what may be thought a needless multiplication of indecent words and meanings, offensive 
to European notions of delicacy, I am sorry to say that they had to be inserted, because in very truth 
Sanskrit, like all Oriental languages, abounds with words of that character, and to such an extent, that 
to have omitted them, would have been to cut out a large percentage of the language. A story is told 
of a prudish lady who complimented Dr. Johnson on having omitted all bad words from his English 
Dictionary ; whereupon he replied : ' Madam, it is true that I have done so, but I find that you have 
been looking for them.' In point of fact students of Sanskrit literature cannot sometimes avoid looking 
for such words. Nor have I, except in rare instances, veiled their meaning under a Latin translation 
which only draws attention to what might otherwise escape notice. 

In extenuation it may fairly be urged that in India the relationship between the sexes is regarded as 
a sacred mystery, and is never held to be suggestive of improper or indecent ideas. 

After the foregoing explanation of the general plan of the work it remains to describe some of the 
more noteworthy changes and improvements introduced into the present edition. 

And let me at once say that, as it was intended to give explanations of even more Sanskrit words 
than are treated of in the great Wfirterbuch of Bohtlingk and Roth, and in the later Worterbuch of the 
former, and, as it was decided that to prevent its expansion beyond the limits of one compact 
volume, the number of pages in the new edition should not be augmented by much more than a hundred 
and fifty, it became a difficult problem to devise a method of making room for the ever-increasing number 
of words which, as the work grew under our hands, continually pressed more and more for admission into 
its purview. 

Let any critic, then, who may feel inclined to pass a severe judgment on the contrivances for 
abbreviation in the present edition of the Dictionary, think for a moment of the difficulties in which its 
compilers found themselves involved. It was only gradually that the actual fact revealed itself the very 
startling fact that we had to provide for the treatment of about one half more Sanskrit words, simple 
and compound, than in the first edition. That is to say, calculating as I had done that the number of 
Sanskrit words simple and compound in the first edition amounted to about 120,000, it became evident 
to us, as the work proceeded, that the number to be provided for in the new edition could not be 
reckoned at less than 180,000. It was as if a builder employed in repairing one of his own buildings 
had been told that he had to provide for the crowding of 1,800 human beings into a room, originally 
constructed by him to hold only twelve hundred. 

Or perhaps the difficulty may be better illustrated thus : A traveller, after having made a voyage 
round the world, starts some time afterwards for a second similar journey. The rules of the ship in 


which he embarks only permit of his taking a limited amount of baggage into his cabin, and naturally 
his first idea is to take the same box which accompanied him on the first occasion. Into this he begins 
by packing his possessions, with perhaps a little more compression than before. He soon finds, however, 
that the lapse of time has added to his acquisitions, and that no close packing will enable him to make 
room for them. What then is he to do? He is permitted to make his one box a little longer and 
deeper; but even then he has not room enough. His only resource is to make his one receptacle 
hold more by filling up every crevice, and fitting one article into the other by various ingenious 

This is an illustration of the difficulties encountered in the process of compressing the immense mass 
of new matter which had to be brought within the compass of the new edition. It has been possible to 
lengthen the pages of the new volume by about an inch, so that each column now contains about eight or 
nine lines more than in the first edition, and the volume has been increased in thickness by more than 
one hundred pages (and with the Addenda by 147 pages). These enlargements have given considerable 
additional space, but not nearly as much as was needed. All sorts of contrivances for contracting, 
abridging, and abbreviating had, therefore, to be adopted, so as to secure the greatest economy of space 
without impairing the completeness of the work considerations which will, I hope, be a valid excuse for 
the occasional violations of uniformity which forced themselves upon us, as the need for greater com- 
prehensiveness, within a limited circumference, became more and more imperative. 

Perhaps the necessity for such measures will be better understood if I here enumerate some of the 
sources whence the additional matter in the present volume has been derived. 

Imprimis, all the latter portion of the great seven-volumed Worterbuch of the two great German 
lexicographers beginning with the letter ^ v. Next, all the additions in Geheimrath von Bohtlingk's later 
compilation, and especially his Nachtrage. Then all my own manuscript Addenda in the interleaved copy 
of my first edition 1 ; and lastly all the words from many important pure Sanskrit and Buddhistic Sanskrit 
works printed and published in recent years, most of which will be named in the sequel. 

Doubtless, therefore, in describing the improvements which mark this new Dictionary, the first place 
should be given to the vast mass of new matter introduced into it. This I venture to assert, after a 
somewhat rough calculation, amounts to very little short of 60,000 additional Sanskrit words with their 

And a still further increase has resulted from the introduction of references to authorities, and to 
those portions of the literature in which the words and meanings recorded in the Dictionary occur. The 
reason given by me for abstaining from more than a few such references in the first edition, was that 
abundant quotations were to be found in the great seven-volumed Thesaurus so often named before 
which all who used my Dictionary could easily find means of consulting. In real fact, however, not 
a few words and meanings in the earlier portion of the first edition of my book were entered on the 
authority of Professor H. H. Wilson, while many more in the middle and towards the end were inserted 
from sources investigated independently by myself, and were not supported by any of the quotations given 
in the Thesaurus. It followed as a matter of course that, very soon after the publication of my first 
edition in 1872, the almost entire absence of independent references of my own was animadverted upon 
regretfully by even friendly critics. 

Naturally, therefore, I determined to remedy an evident defect by introducing a large number of 
references and quotations into the new edition. Nor is it surprising that this determination grew and 
strengthened in the course of execution, so much so, indeed, that after the printing of page 60 I decided, 
with Professor Leumann's co-operation, to give no words and no series of meanings without quoting 
some authority for their use, or referring to the particular book or portion of literature in which they 

And further, it became a question whether we were not bound to indicate by a reference in every 
case not merely the particular books, but the chapter and line in which each word was to be found, and 
sometimes even to quote entire passages. This, in fact, as will be seen, has been occasionally done, but 
it soon became evident, that the immense copiousness of Sanskrit literature a copiousness far exceeding 
that of Greek and Latin would preclude the carrying out of so desirable an object in full, or even to 
a somewhat less extent than in the great St. Petersburg Thesaurus unless indeed my new Dictionary 
was to be enlarged to a point beyond the limits of a single compact volume. Nay, it soon became clear 
that the exigencies of space would make the mere enumeration of all the works in which a word occurs 
impossible. In the end it was found that the use of the symbol &c., would answer all the purpose of 
a full enumeration. 

1 Unfortunately in noting down words for insertion I omitted to quote the sources whence they were taken, as I did not at 
the time contemplate improving my new edition by the addition of references. 



Hence it must be understood that RV. 1 &c. &c. denotes that a word occurs in the whole literature 
both Vedic and Post-Vedic beginning with the Rig-veda, while Mn. &c. signifies that the use of a word 
is restricted to the later literature beginning with Manu. 

And again, when a word had not yet been met with in any published literary work, but only in 
native lexicons, it was decided to denote this by the letter L. 

As to the words and meanings given on my authority and marked MW., many of them have been 
taken by me from commentaries or from the notes which I made after conversations with learned Pandits 
in their own country. For it seems to me that Sanskrit Dictionaries ought sometimes to give important 
modern words and meanings as used by modern educated Sanskrit scholars in India such, for example, 
as the meaning of prdna-pralishtha " (see Additions under Prdna, p. 1330). 

Then a third improvement in the present edition, as every true scholar will admit, is the accentuation 
of words occurring in accentuated texts, although it will be found, I fear, that occasional accidental omissions 
occur, and in cross-references the accent has often been designedly dropped. Many accents, too, which are 
only known from Panini and the Phty-sutras have been intentionally omitted. 

It is admitted that accentuation is marked only in the oldest Vedic texts, and that in later times it 
must have undergone great changes so far at least as the spoken accent was concerned. And this led me 
to decide that in preparing a practical Dictionary which employed so many complicated diacritical marks, 
it would be better not to increase the complication by adding the marks of accentuation. All accentuation 
was, therefore, designedly omitted in the first edition. But the careful study of Panini's grammar, which 
my higher lectures, during the period of my active occupancy of the Boden Chair (1860-1888), obliged 
me to carry on, forced upon me the conviction that, inasmuch as at the time when the great Indian 
Grammarian the chief authority for both Vedic and classical grammar elaborated his wonderful system, 
every word in Sanskrit, as much in the ordinary language as in the Vedic, had its accent", a knowledge 
of accents must be often indispensable to a right knowledge of the meaning of words in Sanskrit. 

And in real truth the whole of Panini's grammar is interpenetrated throughout by the ruling idea of 
the importance of accentuation to a correct knowledge of words and their meanings. 

For example, we learn from Pan. vi, i, 201, that the word kshaya means 'abode,' but kshaya with 
the accent on the last syllable means 'destruction.' And again, from Pan. vi, i, 205, that datta, 'given,' 
which as a p. participle has the accent on the second syllable (dalta) is accentuated on the first syllable (i.e. 
is pronounced ddlla} when it is used as a proper name. On the other hand, by Pan. vi, i, 206, dhrfshta 
has the accent on the first syllable, whether as a participle, or as a name (not dhrishta at p. 519). 

Further, by Pan. vi, i, 223 and vi, 2, i all compounds have different meanings according to 
the position of the accent. Hence Indra-satrn means either ' an enemy of Indra ' or ' having Indra as an 
enemy,' according as the accent is on the last or first member of the compound (Indra-satrti or Indra-salru ; see 
Additions, p. 1321). These examples may suffice to show the importance of accentuation in affecting meanings. 

That this holds good in all languages is shown by the careful way in which accentuation is marked 
in modern English Dictionaries. How, indeed, could it be otherwise when the transference of an accent 
from one syllable to another often makes such important alteration in the sense as may be noted in the 
words 'gillant' and 'gallant,' 'record' and 'record,' 'present' and 'present,' 'august' and 'august,' 
'desert' and 'deseVt.' The bearing, too, of Sanskrit accentuation on comparative philology will be evident 
to any one who has noted the coincidences between the accentuation of Greek and Sanskrit words. 

Manifestly then it would have been inexcusable had we omitted all accentuation in the present enlarged 
and improved work 4 . It must be admitted, however, that incidence of accent has not been treated 
with exact uniformity in every page of this volume. 

In Panini's system, as is well known, the position of the accent is generally denoted by some indicatory 
fetter, attached to the technical names given by him to his affixes and suffixes, including the terminations 

1 Rig- Veda has now become an Anglicized word, and the dot Krishna-varma (who was also a Government Delegate) to illustrate 

under the R has been omitted in the Dictionary for simplicity. my paper on Vedic hymns by repeating them with the right accentu- 

1 I am sorry to have to confess that imbued as I once was with ation. The Pandit's illustrations were not only much appreciated, 

false notions as to the deadness of Sanskrit, I have sometimes but received with grateful acknowledgments at the time by the 

omitted to give the meanings of important modern words like eminent Chairman, Prof. A. Weber, and other Sanskrit scholars 

pr&na-pratishtha in the body of the Dictionary. present, but were misconstrued by one of my auditors the well- 

' The absence of accent was only permitted in calling out to known and most energetic Hon. Secretary of the Royal Asiatic 

a person in the distance, Pan. i, a, 33. Society. That gentleman made the Pandit's illustrative additions 

4 The importance of correct accentuation and intonation in the subject of an extraordinary criticism in a paper on ' Oriental 

a language, the very sound of which is held by the Hindus to be Congresses,' written by him and published in the Calcutta Review, 

divine, and the bearing of Sanskrit accentuation on (hat of No. CLXI (1885), and quite recently reprinted. A letter lately 

Greek, had become so impressed on me, that when I was sent as received by me from Professor A. Weber, and printed last year in 

a Delegate to the Berlin International Congress of Orientalists by the Asiatic Quarterly Review, expresses the astonishment which 

the Government of India in 1881, I requested Pandit Syamajl we both felt at the statements in that paper. 


of verbs and of verbal derivatives (called pralyayd). Thus, by Pan. vi, 1,163 the letter c added to a suffix 
(as in ghurac, Pan. iii, 2, 161), indicates that the derivative bhangnra formed by that suffix is accented on 
the last syllable (e.g. bhangnra). 

In Vedic texts printed in Nagari character the accents are denoted by certain short lines placed above 
and below the letters, but in the present Dictionary we have not thought it necessary to mark the accent of 
words printed in Nagari, but only of their equivalents in Romanic and Italic type, the common Udatta or 
acute accent being marked by ', and the rarer Svarita by '. 

And in this connexion it should be mentioned that the employment of the long prosodial mark ( ~ ) 
to denote long vowels (e. g. a) has manifestly one advantage. It enables the position of an accent to be 
indicated with greater clearness in cases where it falls on such vowels (e. g. a). 

Next to the three principal improvements thus explained ought certainly to be reckoned the increased 
mechanical aids provided for the eye, to facilitate the search for words in pages overcrowded with 
complicated and closely printed type. And most conspicuous among these aids is the employment of 
thick 'Clarendon' type (see p. xiv, note i) in place of the Italics of the previous edition, both, for 
the derivatives under roots and under leading words and for the compounds under such words; thus 
allowing the Italic type to be reserved for compounds of compounds. 

Then another improvement of the same kind has been effected by the distribution of the compounds 
belonging to leading words under two, three, or even more separate heads, according to the euphonic 
changes in the finals of these words. Thus in the first edition all the compounds belonging to the leading 
word Bahis were arranged under the one word Bahis (=Vahis); but in the present edition these 
compounds are far more readily found by their segregation under the five heads of Bahis, Bahih, Bahir, 
Bahis, and Bahish (see pp. 726, 727). 

Furthermore, among useful changes must be reckoned the substitution of the short thick line (not 
necessarily expressive of a hyphen ') for the leading word in all groups of compounds whose first member 
is formed with that leading word. Take, for example, such an article as that which has the leading 
word Agni, at pp. 5, 6. It is easy to see that the constant repetition of Agni in the compounds formed 
with that word was unnecessary. Hence -kana, barman &c. are now substituted for Agni-kana, Agni- 
karman &c. By referring to such an article as Maha, at pp. 794-802, an idea may be formed of the 
space economized by this simple expedient. 

And here I must admit that a few changes may possibly be held to be doubtful improvements, 
the real fact being that they have been forced upon us by the necessity for finding room for those 
60,000 additional Sanskrit words with their meanings, the accession of which to the pages of the 
Dictionary as already mentioned became a paramount duty. 

For instance, towards the end of the work, the exigencies of space have compelled us to use Italics 
with hyphens, not only in the case of sub-compounds (as, for example, -mani-mqya under caiidra-kanta 
at p. 386, col. 3, is for candrakanta-mani-maya), but also in the case of compounds falling under 
words combined with prepositions (as, for example, under such words as 2. Vi-hndha, Vi-hhaga, at p. 977). 

The same exigencies of space compelled us to group together all words compounded with 3. vi 
(see p. 949) and with 7. sa (see under sa-kankata, p. 1123 &c.). 

The same considerations, too, have obliged us to make a new departure in extending the use of 
the little circle to English words. Its ordinary use, of course, is to denote that either the first or last 
part of a Sanskrit word has to be supplied. For instance, such a word as kesa-v, coming after i. Vapaniya 
at p. 919 stands for kesa-vapanlya, while da, data, dasva after codati, at p. 400, are for coda, codata, 
codasva; and similarly dyotana under Fra-dyota at p. 680 is for Pra-dyotana. 

The application of this expedient to English words has enabled us to effect a great saving. It must 
be understood that this method of abbreviation is only applied to the leading meaning which runs 
through a long article, or to English words in close juxtaposition. For example, the leading signification 
of ratha under the article i. rdtha (p. 865) being 'chariot,' this is shortened to 'ch' in the remainder of 
the article ; and ' clarified butter ' in one line is shortened to ' cl b ' in the next. By referring to such 
an article as sahasra, at p. 1195, it will be seen what a gain in space has thus been effected. 

In cases like - c nsa under kala (p. 261) the denotes that -'nsa is not a complete word without the 
prefixing of a, which is not given because it has become blended with the final a of the leading word kala. 

Much space, too, has been gained by the application of the symbols A A A A (adopted at Professor 
Leumann's suggestion) to denote the blending of short and long vowels. Thus A denotes the blending 
of two short vowels (as of a + a into d); A denotes the blending of a short with a long vowel (as of 
a + a into <f) ; A denotes the blending of a long with a short (as of a + a into <f); A denotes the blending 
of two long vowels (as of a + a into ), and so with the other vowels, e.g. / for a+t, 6 for a + u, ff for a + u 
&c. (see for example kritagni for krila + agni, kritodaka for krita + udaka, at p. 303). 

1 Some compound words which are formed by Taddhita affixes supposed to be added to the whole word ought not strictly to have 
a hyphen. 

b a 


A further economy has been effected by employing the symbol V for root. 

In this new edition, too, the letters ' mfn.' placed after the crude stems of words, have been generally 
substituted for the forms of the nominative cases of all adjectives, participles, and substantives (at least 
after the first 100 pages), such nominative forms being easily inferred from the gender. But it must be 
borne in mind that nearly all feminine stems in a and i are also nominative forms. In cases where adjectives 
make their feminines in i this has been generally indicated, as in the previous edition. Occasionally, too, the 
neuter nominative form (am) is given as an aid to the eye in marking the change from one gender to another. 

Other contrivances for abbreviation scarcely need explanation ; for instance, ' N.' standing for ' name ' 
is applicable to epithets as well as names, and when it applies to more than one person or object in 
a series, is omitted in all except the first; e.g. 'N. of an author, RV. ; of a king, MBh.' &c. 

Also, the figures i, 2, 3 &c. have been in some cases dropped (see note i, p. xv), and the mention 
of cl. 8 is often omitted after the common root kri. 

Finally, I have thought it wise tp shorten some of the articles on mythology, and to omit some of the 
more doubtful comparisons with the cognate languages of Europe. 


Extent of Sanskrit Literature comprehended in the Present Edition, 

I stated in the Preface to the first edition of this work written in 1872 that I had sometimes 
been asked by men learned in all the classical lore of Europe, whether Sanskrit had any literature. 
Happily, since then, a great advance in the prosecution of Indian studies and in the diffusion of a 
knowledge of India has been effected. The efforts and researches of able Orientalists in almost every 
country have contributed to this result, and I venture to claim for the Oxford Indian Institute and its 
staff of Professors and Tutors a large share in bringing this about. 

Nevertheless much ignorance still prevails, even among educated English -speakers, in respect of 
the exact position occupied by Sanskrit literature in India its relationship to that of the spoken 
vernaculars of the country and the immensity of its range in comparison with that of the literature of 
Europe. I may be permitted therefore to recapitulate what I have already said in regard to the term 
' Sanskrit,' before explaining what I conceive ought to be included under the term ' Sanskrit literature.' 

By Sanskrit, then, is meant the learned language of India the language of its cultured inhabitants 
the language of its religion, its literature, and science not by any means a dead language, but one 
still spoken and written by educated men in all parts of the country, from Cashmere to Cape Comorin, 
from Bombay to Calcutta and Madras '. Sanskrit, in short, represents, I conceive, the learned form of 
the language brought by the Indian branch of the great Aryan race into India. For, in point of fact, the 
course of the development of language in India resembles the course of Aryan languages in other countries, 
the circumstances of whose history have been similar. 

The language of the immigrant Aryan race has prevailed over that of the aborigines, but in doing so has 
separated into two lines, the one taken by the educated and learned classes, the other by the unlearned 
the latter again separating into various provincial sub-lines*. Doubtless in India, from the greater 
exclusiveness of the educated few, and the desire of a proud priesthood to keep the key of knowledge 
in their own possession, the language of the learned classes became so highly elaborated that it 
received the name Samskrita, or ' perfectly constructed speech ' (see p. xii), both to denote its superiority to 
the common dialects (called in contradistinction Frakrita) and its more exclusive dedication to religious 
and literary purposes. Not that the Indian vernaculars are exclusively spoken languages, without any 
literature of their own ; for some of them (as, for example, Hind!, Hindustani, and Tamil, the last belonging 
to the Dravidian and not Aryan family) have produced valuable literary works, although their subject-matter 
is often borrowed from the Sanskrit. 

Next, as to the various branches of Sanskrit literature which ought to be embraced by a Dictionary 
aiming, like the present, at as much completeness as possible these are fully treated of in my book 
'Indian Wisdom" (a recent edition of which has been published by Messrs. Luzac & Co.). It will be 

1 A paper written by Pandit Syaraaji Krishna- varma on ' Sanskrit course the provincialized Prakrits though not, as I believe, derived 

as a living language in India,' was read by him at the Berlin directly from the learned language, but developed independently 

Oriental Congress of i8Si, and excited much interest. He argues borrowed largely from the Sanskrit after it was thus elaborated, 
very forcibly that ' Sanskrit as settled in the Ash\&dhyayj of * It has been recently stated in print that Russian furnishes an 

Panini was a spoken vernacular at the time when that great gram- exception to the usual ramification into dialects, bat Mr. Morfill 

marian flourished.' In the same paper he maintains that Sanskrit informs me that it has all the characteristics of Aryan languages, 

was the source of the Prakrits, and quotes Vararnci's Prakrita-pra- separating first into Great and Little Russian and then into other 

kasa xii, i (Prakritih samskritam,' Sanskrit is the source'). Of dialects. 


sufficient therefore to state here that Sanskrit literature comprises two distinct periods, Vedic and 
Post-Vedic, the former comprising works written in an ancient form of Sanskrit which is to the later 
form what the language of Chaucer is to later English. 

Vedic literature begins with the Rig-veda (probably dating from about 1200 or 1300 B.C.), and 
extending through the other three Vedas (viz. the Yajur, Sama, and Atharva-veda), with their Brahmanas, 
Upanishads, and Sutras, is most valuable to philologists as presenting the nearest approach to the original 
Aryan language. Post-Vedic literature begins with the Code of Manu (probably dating in its earliest form 
from about 500 B.C.), with its train of subsequent law-books, and extending through the six systems of 
philosophy, the vast grammatical literature, the immense Epics 1 , the lyric, erotic, and didactic poems, 
the Nlti-sastras with their moral tales and apothegms, the dramas, the various treatises on mathematics, 
rhetoric, prosody, music, medicine, &c., brings us at last to the eighteen Puranas with their succeeding 
Upa-puranas, and the more recent Tantras, many of which are worthy of study as repositories of the 
modern mythologies and popular creeds of India. No one person, indeed, with limited powers of mind 
and body, can hope to master more than one or two departments of so vast a range, in which scarcely 
a subject can be named, with the single exception of Historiography, not furnishing a greater number 
of texts and commentaries or commentaries on commentaries, than any other language of the ancient 
world. To convince one's self of this one need only glance at the pages of the present Dictionary, and 
note the numerous works named there, which, if the catalogue were complete, would probably amount 
to a total number not far short of the 10,000 which the Pandits of India are said to be able to enumerate. 

Nor is it their mere number that astonishes us. We are appalled by the length of some of 
India's literary productions as compared with those of European countries. For instance, Virgil's 
.JSneid is said to consist of 9,000 lines, Homer's Iliad of 12,000 lines, and the Odyssey of 15,000, 
whereas the Sanskrit Epic poem called Maha-bharata contains at least 200,000 lines, without reckoning 
the supplement called Hari-vansa 2 . In some subjects too, especially in poetical descriptions of nature 
and domestic affection, Indian works do not suffer by a comparison with the best specimens of Greece 
and Rome, while in the wisdom, depth, and shrewdness of their moral apothegms they are unrivalled. 

More than this, the Hindus had made considerable advances in astronomy, algebra, arithmetic, 
botany, and medicine, not to mention their superiority in grammar, long before some of these sciences 
were cultivated by the most ancient nations of Europe. Hence it has happened that I have been painfully 
reminded during the progress of this Dictionary that a Sanskrit lexicographer ought to aim at a kind of 
quasi omniscience. Nor will any previous University education, such at least as was usual in my youth, 
enable him to explain correctly the scientific expressions which although occasionally borrowed from the 
Greeks require special explanation. 

In answer then to the question : What extent of Sanskrit literature is comprehended in this 
Dictionary ? I reply that it aims at including every department, or at least such portions of each department 
as have been edited up to the present date. 

And here 1 must plainly record my conviction that, notwithstanding the enormous extent of Sanskrit 
literature, nearly all the most important portions of it Vedic or Post-Vedic worthy of being edited or 
translated have been already printed and made accessible in the principal public libraries of the world '. 

No doubt the vast area of India's philosophical literature has not yet been exhaustively explored; 
but its most important treatises have been published either in India or in Europe. In England we may 
appeal with satisfaction to the works of our celebrated scholar Colebrooke, of the late Dr. Ballantyne, and 
more recently of such writers as E. B. Cowell, A. E. Gough, and Colonel Jacob, all of whom have 
contributed to the elucidation of this most difficult, but most interesting branch of study, while among 
Continental scholars the names of Deussen, Garbe, and Thibaut are most distinguished. 

1 See the chapters on the Epic poems in ' Indian Wisdom," and neighbourhood. Much Jaina philosophical literature, too, is 

my edition of the ' Story of Nala,' published at the Clarendon still unedited, although well worthy of attention, and although 

Press, and my little work on ' Indian Epic Poetry ' (now scarce). only occasionally referred to in this Dictionary. It is written in 

* The late Professor Biihler has shown that the inscriptions of Sanskrit as well as in Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit, for the elucidation 

about 500 A.D. quote the Maha-bharata and describe it as con- of which Professor Leumann has done such excellent work. In 

taining 100,000 verses. fact, the Sanskrit form of Jaina philosophical literature (now being 

3 I do not mean this remark to apply to Buddhistic literature, ably expounded by Mr.Vircand Ghandhi at Chicago) still offers an 

which is very extensive, and is partly in Sanskrit, and has much almost wholly unexplored field of investigation. Furthermore, 

still unedited and untranslated. The Divy&vadana, edited by it must be admitted that in some cases better editions of pure 

Professor E. B. Cowell and Mr. Neil, is an example. It is Sanskrit works are needed. For example, a better critical 

written in Sanskrit or rather in a kind of Sanskritized Pali, edition of the Maha-bharata than those of Calcutta and Bombay it 

or Pali disguised in Sanskrit garb. Other Buddhist Texts, written a desideratum. The Southern Recension of that immense work 

in Sanskrit, are now being ably edited by the well-known Tibetan is I believe engaging the attention of Dr. Liiders, Librarian of 

traveller, Rai Sarat Candra Das, Bahadur, C. I. E., to whom I was the Indian Institute, 
greatly indebted for help in my researches at Darjceling and its 


There is also much still to be done in what may be called Epigraphic or Inscription literature, in which 
Dr. Fleet, Dr. E. Hultzsch, and Professor F. Kielhorn are labouring so effectively. And I am happy to say 
that we have occasionally availed ourselves of their labours in the following pages. 

The Tantras, too, present a field of research almost wholly untrodden by European scholars, and these 
books at one time attracted much curiosity as likely to present a hopeful mine for exploitation. I therefore, 
during my Indian journeys, searched everywhere for good MSS. of the most popular Tantras, with 
a view to making the best procurable example of them better known in Europe by a good printed edition 
and translation. Everywhere I was told that the Rudra-yamala Tantra was held in most esteem 1 . But 
after a careful examination of its contents I decided that it was neither worth editing nor translating (see 
my 'Brahmanism and Hinduism,' pp. 205-208). 

As to translations, the long array of ' Sacred Books of the East ' might well be supposed to have 
exhausted the whole reservoir of Sanskrit works worthy of being translated; even admitting that the entire 
range of Sanskrit literature is held to be more or less sacred. Yet the series is still incomplete*. 

Assuming then my opinion on this point to be correct, I think I may fairly claim for the present 
Dictionary as great an amount of comprehensiveness as existing circumstances make either possible or 
desirable. Of course the earlier part of the work must perforce be less complete than the later. Nor can 
it be said to deal with every branch of literature with equal thoroughness, but its defects are, I hope, 
fairly remedied by the ample Additions at the end of the volume. 


Reasons for applying the Roman Alphabet to the expression of Sanskrit, with an account of 
the Method of Transliteration employed in the Present Dictionary. 

As I cherish the hope that this Dictionary may win its way to acceptance with the learned natives of 
India, I must ask European scholars to pardon my diffuseness if I state with some amplitude of detail my 
reasons for having applied the Roman or Latin alphabet to the expression of Sanskrit more freely than 
any other Sanskrit lexicographer. 

For indeed I know full well that all who belong to the straitest sect of Hindu scholars will at once 
flatly deny that their divine Sanskrit can with any propriety be exhibited to the eye clothed in any other 
alphabetical dress than their own ' divine Nagari.' Na hi putaiji sy&d go-ksturam sva-drilau dhfitam, ' let 
not cow's milk be polluted by being put into a dog's skin.' How can it possibly be, they will exclaim, 
that the wonderful structure of our divine language and the subtle distinctions of its sacred sounds can be 
properly represented by such a thoroughly human and wholly un-Oriental graphic system as a modern 
European alphabet? 

Let me, then, in the first place point out that our so-called European alphabet, as adopted by the Greeks, 
Romans, and modern nations of Europe, is really Asiatic, and not European in its origin. And secondly, 
let me try to show that it has certain features which connect it with the so-called divine Nagari alphabet 
of the Brahmans. Nay more, that it is well suited to the expression of their venerated Sanskrit ; while its 
numerous accessory appliances, its types of various kinds and sizes, its capital and small letters, hyphens, 
brackets, stops &c., make it better suited than any other graphic system to meet the linguistic requirements 
of the coming century a century which will witness such vast physical, moral, and intellectual changes, 
that a new order of things, and almost a new world and a new race of beings, will come into existence. 
In that new world some of the most inveterate prejudices and peculiarities now separating nation from nation 
will be obliterated, and all nationalities brought into fraternal relationship will recognize their kinship 
and solidarity. 

Even during the present century the great gulf dividing the West from the East has been partially bridged 
over. Steam and electricity have almost destroyed the meaning of differences of latitude and longitude; 
and nations which were once believed to be actually and figuratively the antipodes of each other have been 
brought to feel that mere considerations of distance are no obstacles to the reciprocal interchange of personal 
intercourse, and no bar to the adoption of all that is best in each other's customs and habits of thought 

And a still more remarkable event has happened. Europe has learnt to perceive that in imparting 

1 A section of it has been printed in Calcutta. version of all the hymns might have been given in one volume. 

1 The use made of some of the series is thankfully acknowledged It is regrettable, too, that vol. xlii only gives about a third of the 

at p. xxxii ; but it is surprising that the long line of 49 thick Atharva-veda hymns, and that the Bhagavata-purana, which is a 

octavo volumes includes no complete translation of India's most bible of modern Hinduism, has no place in the list, while some 

sacred book the Rig-veda. Only about 180 out of 1017 hymns volumesgivetranslationsoffarlessimportantworks.andsomeghre 

are translated in vols. xxxii and xlvi, when a continuous English re-tranilation of works previously translated by good scholars. 


seme of the benefits of her modern civilization to Eastern races, she is only making a just return for the 
lessons imparted to her by Asiatic wisdom in past ages. 

For did she not receive her Bible and her religion from an Eastern people? Did not her system of 
counting by twelves and sixties come to her from Babylonia, and her invaluable numerical symbols and 
decimal notation from India through the Arabs ? Did not even her languages have their origin in a common 
Eastern parent? It cannot, therefore, be thought surprising if her method of expressing these languages 
by graphic symbols also came to her from an Eastern source. 

We cannot, indeed, localize with absolute certainty the precise spot whence issued the springs of that 
grand flow of speech which spread in successive waves commencing with the Sanskrit in Asia and the 
Keltic in Europe over a large proportion of those two continents. Nor can we fix, beyond all liability to 
question, the local source of the first known purely phonographic alphabet. But we stand on sure ground 
when we assert that such an alphabet is to be found inscribed on Phoenician monuments of a date quite 
as early as the cognate Moabite inscription on the stone of King Mesha, known to belong to the middle 
of the ninth century B.C.* 

It was of course a priori to be expected that Phoenicia one of the chief centres of trade, and 
the principal channel of communication between the Eastern and Western worlds in ancient times 
should have been compelled to make use of graphic symbols of some kind to enable her to carry 
on her commercial dealings with other nations; and it may fairly be conjectured that a mere system 
of ideograms would have been quite unsuited to her needs. But this does not prove that the phonographic 
signs on Phoenician inscriptions were invented all at once, without any link of connexion with previously 
current ideographic prototypes. And it is certainly noteworthy that the discovery at Tel-el-Amarna in Egypt 
of letters from an ancient king of Jerusalem written on tablets in the early Babylonian cuneiform script 2 
proves that a Babylonian form of ideographic writing existed in Palestine and the neighbourhood of Phoenicia 
as early as the fifteenth century B.C. 

Those, however, who have conjectured that the Phoenician phonograms were developed out of the 
Babylonian cuneiform symbols, cannot be said to support their hypothesis by any satisfactory proof, literary 
or epigraphic. 

Nor does the theory which makes the South Semitic or Himyaritic scripts * the precursors and 
prototypes of the Phoenician seem to rest on sufficiently clear evidence. 

On the other hand it is certain that if we investigate the development of the Egyptian hieroglyphic 
ideograms, we shall find that they passed into a so-called ' hieratic ' writing in which a certain number of 
phonograms were gradually introduced. And it is highly probable that Phoenicia in her commercial inter- 
course with a country so close to her shores as Egypt, or perhaps through a colony actually established 
there, became acquainted in very early times with this Egyptian hieratic script. 

Furthermore, a careful comparison of the elaborate tables printed in the latest edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, and in the Oxford ' Helps to the Study of the Bible ' giving the Egyptian and Phoenician 
symbols side by side tends no doubt to show a certain resemblance of form between five or six of the 
Phoenician and corresponding Egyptian letters. 

Nevertheless, the comparison by no means makes it clear that all the Phoenician letters were derived 
from Egyptian models 4 , nor does it invalidate the fact that existing epigraphic evidence is in favour of regarding 
Phoenicia as practically the inventor of that most important factor in the world's progress a purely phono- 
graphic alphabet. 

Here, however, I seem to hear some learned native of India remark : It may be true that the Phoenician 
inscriptions are prior in date to those hitherto discovered in India; but do you really mean to imply that 
India's admirably perfect Deva-nagari alphabet, which we hold to be a divine gift', was borrowed from 
the imperfect alphabet of a nation of mere money-making traders, like the Phoenicians ? Is it not the case 
that the earliest elements of civilization and enlightenment have always originated in the East, and spread 
from the East to the West not from the West to the East ? And if, as is generally admitted, the symbols for 
numbers, which were as essential to the world's progress as letters, originated in India and passed through 

1 The Phoenician inscriptions have been deciphered by assnming French once was in Europe. Other tablets in Babylonian cunei- 

that the Phoenician language must have been akin to Hebrew, form character have proved to be letters written by the king of 

Although their age cannot be ascertained with abolute certainty, Jerusalem to the Egyptian monarch to whose suzerainty he appears 

yet there is good reason to believe that some of them are of to have been subject. 

greater antiquity than the cognate Moabite inscription of King ' There are two kinds of Himyaritic inscriptions, viz. Sabaean 

Mesha which was found at Dibon, a little N.E. of Jerusalem and and Minsean. 

south of Heshbon. * Notwithstanding the elaborate proofs given by the Abbe Van 

1 Some of these tablets show that diplomatic correspondence Drival in his ingenious and interesting treatise on Ttrigine de 

passed between Babylonia and Egypt through Palestine. In fact, Vicriture? 

' Babylonian ' was in those days the language of diplomacy, as Sec note 3, p. xxvi. 


Semitic countries into Europe, why should not alphabets have had the same origin and the same course? 
Did not the Hindus invent for themselves their own grammar, their own science of language, their own 
systems of philosophy, logic, algebra, and music? Have they not an immense literature on these and other 
subjects, much of which must have been written down at least 600 years B. c. ? And are there not references 
in this literature to the existence of writing in India in very ancient times? for instance, in the Vasish^ha 
Dharma-sutra of the later Vedic period, in the Laws of Manu 1 , in Panini, who lived about 400 B.C.', in 
the Pali Canon of the Buddhists which refers to writing schools and writing materials '. And again, do not 
the actual inscriptions of King Asoka of the third century B. c. exhibit a remarkably perfect system of alpha- 
betical signs, and many varying forms in different districts of India, postulating several centuries of antecedent 
development 4 ? And if no Indian epigraphs of an earlier date than the reign of Asoka have yet been discovered, 
is not that due to the circumstance that the art of incising letters on stone and metal only came into use 
when great Hindfl kings arose, whose empire was sufficiently extensive to make it necessary to issue edicts 
and grants to their subjects ? Bearing all this in mind, may it not be contended that if there has been any 
plagiarism in the matter of alphabets, the borrowing may have been from the Hindus rather than by them ? 

Such questions as these have often been addressed to me by learned Pandits, and it must be confessed 
that they are by no means to be brushed aside as unworthy of consideration. Quite the reverse. They 
contain many statements to which no exception can be taken. But my present object is not to furnish 
incontestable proof of the derivation of Indian alphabets from a Phoenician source. It is rather to point out 
to Indian scholars that even admitting (with some eminent authorities) that there is good ground for claiming 
an indigenous origin for Hindfl alphabets, many of the letters composing them offer points of contact and 
affinity with those of Phoenicia, and therefore with those of Greece and Rome and modern Europe. 

And at the outset it must be frankly acknowledged that the first phonographic alphabet brought to 
light on ancient Phoenician monuments constituted by no means a perfect alphabetic system. It had, no doubt, 
advanced beyond the ideographic stage, and even to some extent beyond the syllabic, but its phonograms 
were only twenty-two in number, and mainly represented consonants. It had not attained to the level of 
an alphabet in which vowel symbols are promoted to an equality of representation with consonantal, and 
treated as compeers, not as mere secondary appendages. And even to this day, the Semitic alphabets 
connected with the Phoenician viz. the Hebrew, Aramaean, and Arabian are nearly as imperfect, and very 
little better than, so to speak, consonantal skeletons, wanting the life-blood which vowels only can impart. 

Indeed, the imperfection of the Phoanician script is well shown by the fact that the Greeks who, as 
every one admits, were indebted to the Phoenicians for their rudimentary consonantal method of writing, 
had no sooner received it (probably quite as early as 800 B.C.) than they began to remedy its defects, and 
gradually developed out of it a true alphabetic method of their own, which was ultimately made to flow from 
left to right in opposition to the Semitic method. 

Similarly, too, the Romans when they had accepted the Phoenician graphic signs from the Greeks, 
found it necessary to improve upon them, and ultimately developed out of them an even more practical 
alphabetic system. 

But surely these two facts may be appealed to as making it not improbable that if the Greeks and 
Romans, two highly intellectual races, sprung from the same Aryan stock as the Brahmans, condescended 
to accept certain rudimentary phonograms from the Phoenicians, and to expand them into alphabets suited to 
the expression of their own languages, the Brahmans also might have deigned, if not to accept a foreign alphabet, 
at least to improve their own graphic system by modifications introduced through contact with Semitic races. 

Nor should it be forgotten that in later times the Hindus did actually borrow a Semitic alphabet from 
Arabia for the expression of their vernacular Hindi 5 . 

No doubt it must be admitted that, had any overmastering conviction of the necessity for the 
general use of written signs taken hold of the Hindu mind in early times, India would not have 
consented to be beholden to other countries for even improvements in her own forms of writing. 

But the most patriotic of India's patriots must acknowledge that the Hindus have always preferred 
oral to written communications. Indeed, although a vast literature exists in Sanskrit, no word exists 
exactly corresponding to our English word 'literature';' and even if such a word were available, true 

1 In Book viii, 168 written legal documents are mentioned. * Hindi when so transliterated is called Hindustani or Urdu. 

1 He gives the words lipi and libi in one of his rules (iii, 3, 21)- * Ultra,'* letter, 'is derived from lino, 'to smear,' just as San- 

1 The bark of the Bhoj (or Birch) tree and the leaf of the palm skrit lipi from lip. If a corresponding word were to be used in 

seem to have constituted the chief material used by the Hindus Sanskrit it would be lipi-iastra. The word akshara, which is 

till the introduction of paper by the Muhammadans. No such the Sanskrit for a letter, properly means ' indelible,' and this 

durable materials as Egyptian papyrus or European parchment meaning seems to point to the use of letters in early times for 

the latter being prohibited on account of its impurity seem to inscriptions on stones and metal. Similarly the first meaning of 

have been employed. lekha is ' scratching with a sharp point.' 

4 See note 3, p. xxv. 



).), they consider 'that the things from books are not so advantageous as things from 
the living and abiding voice.' Nor must we forget that the climate of India was unfavourable to the 
preservation of such writing material as existed in ancient times. 

And besides this may it not be conjectured that the invention and general diffusion of alphabetic 
writing was to Indian learned men, gifted with prodigious powers of memory, and equipped with laboriously 
acquired stores of knowledge, very much what the invention and general use of machinery was to European 
handicraftsmen? It seemed to deprive them of the advantage and privilege of exercising their craft. It 
had to be acquiesced in, and was no doubt prevalent for centuries before the Christian era, but it was not 
really much encouraged. And even to this day in India the man whose learning is treasured up in his 
own memory is more honoured than the man of far larger acquirements, whose knowledge is either wholly 
or partially derived from books, and dependent on their aid for its communication to others 1 . 

It seems, therefore, not unreasonable to assume that, when the idea of the necessity for inventing 
alphabetic signs began to impress itself on the minds of Semitic races, it had not taken such deep root 
among the inhabitants of India as to lead to the invention or general adoption of any one fixed system 
of writing of their own. It seems, indeed, more probable that learned men in that country viewed the art of 
writing too apathetically to make a stand against the introduction of alphabetical ideas from foreign sources. 

At all events there can be no antecedent improbability in the theory propounded by German Sanskritists 
that an early passage of phonographic symbols took place from a Phosnician centre eastward towards Mesopo- 
tamia and India, at about the same period as their passage westward towards Europe, namely, about 800 B. c. 

It is not asserted that the exact channel by which they were transmitted has been satisfactorily 
demonstrated. Some think and, as it seems to me, with much plausibility that they may have been 
introduced through contact with the Greeks'. Perhaps a more likely conjecture is that Hindu traders, 
passing up the Persian Gulf, had commercial dealings with Aramaean traders in Mesopotamia, and, becoming 
acquainted with their graphic methods, imported the knowledge and use of some of their phonetic signs 
into India. 

This view was first propounded in the writings of the learned Professor A. Weber of Berlin, and has 
recently been ably argued in a work on 'Indische Palseographie,' by the late Professor Biihler of Vienna 
(published in 1896). If Indian Pandits will consult that most interesting standard work, they will there find 
a table exhibiting the most ancient of known Phoenician letters side by side with the kindred symbols used 
in the Moabite inscriptions of King Mesha which, as before intimated, is known to be as old as about 
850 B. c. while in parallel columns, and in a series of other excellent tables, are given the corresponding 
phonographic symbols from the numerous inscriptions of King Asoka scattered everywhere throughout 
Central and Northern India 3 . 

These inscription-alphabets are of two principal kinds : 

The first kind is now called Kharoshthi (or 'Ass's lip' form of writing, lipi being understood)*. This 
belongs to the North-west corner of the Panjab and Eastern Afghanistan. It was used by King Asoka for 
a few of his rock and stone inscriptions, and is a kind of writing the prototype of which was probably 
introduced into Persia about 500 B.C., and brought by Persian rulers into Northern India in the fourth 

1 Pandit Syamaji in his second paper, read at the Leyden 
Congress, said : ' We in India believe even at the present day 
that oral instruction is far superior to book-learning in maturing 
the mind and developing its powers.' 

1 Certainly, as I think, the change of direction in the writing 
may have been due to Greek influence. Panini, who probably 
lived about 400 B.C., gives as an example of feminine nouns the 
word Vavandnt, which Katyayana interprets to mean ' the Greek 
alphabet ; ' and we know that Greek coins and imitations of Greek 
coins, unearthed in North-western India, prove the existence of 
that alphabet there before Alexander the Great's time. Hindu 
receptivity of Greek influences is illustrated by the number of 
astronomical words derived directly from the Greeks to be found 
scattered throughout the pages of the present Dictionary. 

3 Asoka, who called himself Priya-darsin, and was the grand- 
son of Candra-gupta, did for Buddhism what Constantine did for 
Christianity, by adopting it as his own creed. Buddhism then 
became the religion of the whole kingdom of Magadha, and 
therefore of a great portion of India ; and Asoka's edicts, inscribed 
on rocks and pillars (about the middle of the third century B. C.)> 

furnish the first authentic records of Indian history. Yet the 
language of these inscriptions cannot be said to be exactly identical 
with so-called Magadhi Prakrit, nor with the Pali of the Buddhist 
sacred scriptures, although those forms of Prakrit may be loosely 
called either Magadhi or Pali. Nor was the name Pali originally 
applied to the language of the Buddhist Canon, but rather to the 
line or series of passages constituting a text (cf. the use oilarttra). 
According to Professor Oldenberg the Vinaya portion of the texts, 
existed in its present form as early as 400 B. C. The later Buddhist 
texts were written down not long after, and commentaries have 
since been compiled in Pali and the languages of Ceylon, Siam, 
and Burma ; the Pali of Ceylon being affected by intercourse with 
Kalinga (Orissa). 

* See this Kharoshfhi fully described in Professor Btthler's book. 
The first names given to it were Ariano-Pali, Bactro-Pali, 
Indo-Bactrian, North Asoka &c. Sir A. Cunningham called it 
Gandharian. Pandit Gauri-Samkar, in his interesting work 
Praclna-lipi-mala written in Hindi, calls it Gandhdra-lifi. Some 
think that Kharoshjhi is derived from the name of the in- 


century B.C. At all events, it is well known that the Persian monarchs of the Akhsemenian period 
employed Aramaean scribes, and that the Kharoshthi writing, even if originally Indian (according to 
Sir A. Cunningham and others), has assumed under their hands a manifestly Aramaic character, flowing 
like all Semitic writing from right to left. Possibly, however, as it seems to me, Grecian influences (which 
penetrated into India before the time of Alexander) may have partially operated in assimilating this early 
North-western Indian script to a Phoenician type. It may be excluded from our present inquiry, because 
it never became generally current in India, and never developed into a form suitable for printing. 

The second kind of ancient Indian script is called Brahma (or Brahmi lipi). This is without doubt the 
oldest of the two principal forms 1 . Its claim to greater antiquity is proved by its name Brahma given 
to it by the Brahmans, because, as they assert, it was invented by their god Brahma* an assertion which 
may be taken as indicating that, whatever its origin, it was moulded into its present form by the Brahmans. 

And undeniably it is this Brahma writing (Brahmi lipi) which has the best right to be called the true 
Indian Brahmanical script. It must have been the first kind of writing used when Sanskrit literature began 
to be written down (perhaps six centuries B.C.), and it is the script of the Asoka inscriptions of Central 
and Northern India and even of North-western India, where it is found concurrently with the Kharoshthi. 
It was employed to express the Prakrit dialect * of the Buddhist kings, and flowed, like its later development 
called Nagari, from left to right. Its first appearance on actually existing inscriptions so far as at present 
discovered cannot be placed earlier than the date of these kings in the third century B. c. 

But it is important to note that the existence of the Brahmi lipi in India must be put back to 
a period sufficiently early to allow for its having once flowed from right to left like the Kharoshthi, probably 
as early as the sixth century B.C. This is made clear by the direction of the letters on an ancient coin 
discovered by Sir A. Cunningham at Eran 4 a place in the central provinces remarkable for its monumental 
remains. One can scarcely accept seriously the suggestion that the position of the short f in the present 
Nagari is a survival of the original direction of the writing'. 

If then any unprejudiced Hindu scholar will examine attentively the tables in Professor Btthler's book, 
he will, I think, be constrained to admit that the Indian Brahma letters have certain features which connect 
them with the ancient Phoenician script, and therefore with the Greek and Roman. 

It should not, however, be forgotten that an interval of nearly seven centuries separates the Phoenician 
from the Brahma inscription-letters, and that to make the affinity between the two alphabets clearer the 
side-lights afforded by collateral and intermediate Semitic scripts ought to be taken into account'. Nor 
should it be forgotten that when the Hindus, like the Greeks, changed the direction of their writing, some 
of the symbols were turned round or their forms inverted, or closed up or opened out in various ways. 

The further development of the Brahma symbols into the modern Deva-nagari and its co-ordinate 
scripts 7 is easily traceable. It must, however, be borne in mind that the later Pandits tried to improve 
the ancient graphic signs by setting them up as upright as possible and by drawing a horizontal stroke 
to serve as a line from which the letters might hang down, and so secure a system of straight writing 
often conspicuously absent in Hindustani and Persian caligraphy*. 

I here append a table consisting of seven columns, in which I have so arranged the letters as to 
illustrate the view that the Phoenician alphabet spread about 800 B.C. first westward towards Greece and 
Italy, and secondly eastward towards India. 

The column marked i gives ten Phoenician letters. That marked 2, to the left of i, gives the ten 
corresponding Greek letters; that marked 3 the corresponding Roman; and that marked 4 the corre- 
sponding English letters. Then the column marked 2, to the right of i, gives the ten corresponding Brahma 
letters; that marked 3 shows the gradual developments of the Brahma symbols as exhibited on various 
inscriptions; and that marked 4 gives the corresponding letters in modern Nagari*. 

1 A variation of it called Bhaftiprolu is described by Btihler. of the notation, inasmuch as units are placed on the right, while 

1 In the same way the great Arabian Teacher Muhammad tens and hundreds are on the left. 

declared in the first Sura of the Knran (according to Rodwell, Professor Buhler's first table in his work on Indian Palseo- 

p. a, and Sale, p. 450 with note) that ' God taught the use of the graphy would have been more convincing had he given examples 

pen.' Even some Christians may not be indisposed to agree with of collateral and intermediate Semitic forms. 

Hindus and Muhammadans in holding that the faculty of writing, * Such as the Bengali, the Marathi, GujaratI &c., some of which 

as an instrument for the expression of thought although dormant may be usefully studied as presenting forms more closely resem- 

through all the early ages of the world's history is as much a bling the ancient Brahma letters. 

divine gift as language. Muhammad's view, however, of the 8 A similar line is often drawn in English copybooks and on 

divine origin of writing consisted in declaring that the Kuran writing paper as an aid to straight writing, but always below, not 

descended ready written from heaven. above the letters. 

' For the language of the inscriptions, see p. xxv, note 3. Dr. Lu'ders, of the Indian Institute, has kindly assisted me in 

4 These letters are shown in Professor Buhler's tables. the right formation of some of the inscription letters. The 

Our invaluable decimal notation certainly came from India, roughness of some is due to their being photographs from 

and may be said to conform to Semitic methods in the direction original impressions. 



Let any one study this Table and he must, I think, admit that it indicates an original connexion or 
family likeness between the Phoenician and earliest Indian or Brahma letters, whilst it also illustrates the 
fact that the plastic hand of the Brahmans has greatly modified and expanded the original germs, without, 
however, obliterating the evident indications of their connexion with the Phoenician. 

43212 3 4 















H H V *J 







+ + f $ 







A n t> i 







A A A >\ 




e q g EI 







o > < t, 







u u a a 














*L d/ <5f 3 







6 & < 4 


* This is for the Greek theta, which is represented in this Dictionary, according to present usage, by th, although ( or f 
would be a more scientific symbol. 

5 According to Professor Buhler, the Brahma. became Nagari V dh, from which ^ d was evolved. 

And indeed the modest equipment of twenty-two letters which satisfied the Phoenicians, Greeks, and 
Romans, to whom the invention of writing was a mere human contrivance for the attainment of purely 
human ends, could not possibly have satisfied the devout HindQ, who regarded his language as of divine 
origin, and therefore not to be expressed by anything short of a perfect system of equally divine symbols. 
Even the popular Prakrit of King Asoka's edicts seems to have required nearly forty symbols 1 , and the 

1 Some of the inscriptions had not tfie full complement of 
vowel-signs. As a matter of fact I find that in some inscriptions 
a list of only thirty-five letters in all is given, while in others there 
are thirty-six, and in others again thirty-nine. Professor Biihler 
says (p. 8a of his latest work published in 1898) that the ordinary 
Brahma alphabet has forty-four letters traceable in the oldest 

inscriptions (including the BhaJ{iprolu) which with au (derived 
from 0) would make forty-five, and with the mark for Visarga 
which ' first occurs in the Kushana inscriptions ' forty-six. The 
common reckoning for the vowels, as taught in indigenous schools, 
makes them only twelve. 


amount needed for the full Brahmi lipi, as used for the Sanskrit of that period, could not have been less 
than fifty (if the symbols for at, au, ri, ri, Iri, Iri, and la be included). 

Then, if we turn to the Brahma alphabet in its final development, called Nagari, we see at a glance 
that it is based on the scientific phonetic principle of 'one sound one symbol' that is, every consonantal 
sound is represented by one invariable symbol, and every shade of vowel-sound short, long, or prolated 
has one unvarying sign (not as in English where the sound of e in be may be represented in sixteen 
different ways). Hence, for the expression of the perfectly constructed Sanskrit language there are sixteen 
vowel-signs (including atp and ah and excluding the prolated vowel forms), and thirty-five simple consonants, 
as exhibited on p. xxxvi of this volume. 

Of course a system of writing so highly elaborated was only perfected by degrees', and no doubt it 
is admirably adapted to the purposes it is intended to serve. Yet it is remarkable that even in its latest 
development, as employed in the present Dictionary, it has characteristics indicative of its probable original 
connexion with Semitic methods of writing, which from their exclusively consonantal character are admittedly 

For the Pandits, unlike the Greeks and Romans, cannot in my opinion be said to have adopted to 
the full the true alphabetic theory which assigns a separate independent position to all vowel-signs. And 
my reason for so thinking is that they make the commonest of all their vowels namely short a* inherent 
in every isolated consonant, and give a subordinate position above or below consonants to some of their 
vowel-signs. And this partially syllabic character of their consonantal symbols has compelled them to 
construct an immense series of intricate conjunct consonants, some of them very complicated, the necessity 
for which may be exemplified by supposing that the letters of the English word ' strength ' were Nagari 
letters, and written iKi'i<q. This would have to be pronounced satarenagatha, unless a conjunction 
of consonantal signs were employed, to express sir and nglh, and unless the mark called Virama, ' stop,' 
were added to the last consonant. So that with only thirty-three simple consonants and an almost in- 
definite number of complex conjunct consonants the number of distinct types necessary to equip a perfect 
Sanskrit fount for printing purposes amounts to more than 500. 

Surely, then, no one will maintain that, in these days of every kind of appliance for increased facilities 
of inter-communication, any language is justified in shutting itself up behind such a complex array of 
graphic signs, however admirable when once acquired. At all events such a system ought not to have the 
monopoly for the expression of a language belonging to the same family as our own and in a country 
forming an integral part of the British Empire. The Sanskrit language, indeed, is a master-key to a know- 
ledge of all the Hindu vernaculars, and should moreover be studied as a kind of linguistic bond of sympathy 
and fellow-feeling between the inhabitants of the United Kingdom and their Indian fellow-subjects. But to 
this end every facility ought to be afforded for its acquirement. 

And if, as we have tried to show, the Brahmi lipi, the Nagari, and the Greek and Romanic alphabets 
are all four related to each other at least, in so far as they are either derived from or connected with the 
same rudimentary stock it surely cannot be opposed to the fitness of things, that both the Nagari and 
Romanic alphabets should be equally applied to the expression of Sanskrit, and both of them made to 
co-operate in facilitating its acquisition. 

Nor let it be forgotten that in the present day the use of the English language is spreading everywhere 
throughout India, and that it already co-exists with Sanskrit as a kind of lingua franca or medium of com- 
munication among educated persons, just as Latin once co-existed with Greek. So much so indeed, that, 
contemporaneously with the diffusion of the English language, the Roman graphic system, adopted by all 
the English-speaking inhabitants of the British Empire, has already forced itself on the acceptance of the 
Pandits, whether they like it or not, as one vehicle for the expression of their languages ; just as centuries 
ago the Arabic and Persian written characters were forced upon them by their Muhammadan conquerors 
for the expression of Hindi. 

It is on this account that I feel justified in designating the European method of transliteration employed 
in this Dictionary by the term ' Indo-Romanic alphabet.' 

And be it understood that such an acceptance of the Romanic alphabet involves no unscientific 

1 The oldest known inscription in Sanskrit is on a rock at * This it is the a of our words 'vocal organ' (pronounced vocul 

Juna-garh in Kathiawar. It is called the Rndra-daman inscrip- organ}. Sanskrit does not possess the sound of a in our ' man," 

tion, and dates from the second century A.D. It is not in Nagari, nor that of o in our ' on.' As a consonant cannot be pronounced 

but in old inscription letters. The Bower MS. of about 400 A. D. without a vowel, the Brabmans chose the commonest of their 

shows a great advance towards the Nagari, while Danti-durga's vowels for the important duty of enabling every consonant to be 

inscription of about 750 A.D. exhibits a complete set of sym- pronounced. Hence every consonant is named by pronouncing 

bols very similar to the Nagari now in use. It is noteworthy, it with a (e.g. ka, kha, ga &c.). It is, I suppose, for a similar 

however, that the first manuscript in really modern Nagari is not reason that we have used the. common vowel symbol c for naming 

older than the eleventh century A. D. many of our English letters. 



adaptation of it to the expression of Sanskrit like our chaotic adaptation of it to the expression of English ; 
or like the inaccurate use of it by native writers themselves in transliterating their own Indian words'. 
Quite the reverse. The Roman alphabet adapts itself so readily to expansion by the employment of 
diacritical points and marks, that it may be regarded as a thoroughly scientific instrument for the accurate 
expression of every Indian sound, and probably of nearly every sound, in every language of the world. 
And it may, I think, be confidently predicted that before the twentieth century has closed, man's vision, 
overtasked by a constantly increasing output of literary matter, will peremptorily demand that the reading 
of the world's best books be facilitated by the adoption of that graphic system which is most universally 
applicable and most easily apprehensible. Whether, however, the Roman symbols will be ultimately chosen 
in preference to other competing systems as the best basis for the construction of a world's future universal 
alphabet no one can, of course, foretell with the same confidence. 

One thing, I contend, is certain. Any ordinary scholar who consults the present work will be ready 
to admit that it derives much of its typographical clearness from certain apparently trifling, but really 
important, contrivances, possible in Romanic type, impossible in Nagari. One of these, of course, is the 
power of leaving spaces between the words of the Sanskrit examples. Surely such a sentence as 
sadhu-miirany akusalad varayanti is clearer than sadhumitranyakuialadvarayanti. Again, who will deny the 
gain in clearness resulting from the ability to make a distinction between such words as 'smith' and 
'Smith,' 'brown' and 'Brown,' 'bath' and 'Bath?' not to speak of the power of using italics and other 
forms of European type. And, without doubt, the use of the hyphen for separating long compounds in 
a language where compounds prevail more than simple words', will be appreciated by all. I can only 
say that, without that most useful little mark, the present volume must have lost much in clearness, and 
still more in compactness; for, besides the obvious advantage of being able to indicate the difference 
between such compounds as su-tapa and suta-pa which would have been impossible in Nagari type, it is 
manifest that even the simplest compounds, like sad-asad-viveka, sv-alpa-kesin, would have required, 
without its use, an extra line to explain their analysis'. 

Fairness, however, demands that a few of the obvious defects of the Indo-Romanic system of 
transliteration adopted in this volume should be acknowledged. In certain cases it confessedly offends 
against scientific exactness; nor does it always consistently observe the rule that every simple vowel-sound 
should be represented by a single symbol. For instance, the Sanskrit vowels ^ t and ^ t are not 
represented in this Dictionary by the symbols r and f, according to the practice of some German 
scholars a practice adopted by the Geneva Transliteration Committee but by ri and r'- And my reason 
is that, inasmuch as in English Grammar r is not regarded as a semi-vowel, r and f are unsuitable 
representatives of vowel-sounds. Moreover, they are open to this objection, that when the dot under the r 
is accidentally dropped or broken off, as often happens in printing, especially in India, the result is worse 
than if the r were followed by f. For example, Krshna is surely worse than Krishna. 

So again in the case of aspirated consonants, the aspiration ought not to be represented by a second 
letter attached to them. Indeed, in the case of ch employed by Sir W. Jones for the palatal ^, and chh 
for ^f, the inconvenience has been so great that in the present edition I have adopted (in common with 
many other Sanskritists) the simple c for <q, the pronunciation being the same as c in the Italian dolce or 
as ch in ' church," the latter of which would, if a Sanskrit word, be written ' cure.' Similarly ch has been 
adopted for ^ 4 . 

As to the transliteration of the palatal sibilant $r, I have preferred s to the i employed in the first 
edition, and I much prefer it to the German and French method of using f. Experience proves that the 
cedilla is often either broken off in printing or carelessly dropped, and as a consequence important words 
such as Asoka are now often wrongly printed and pronounced Acoka. 

So also I should have preferred the symbol s for the cerebral sibilant, but have felt it desirable to 
retain sA in the present edition. There is the same objection to as to the r mentioned above. This 

1 Take, for example, the following transliterated words in 
a recent pamphlet by a native : Devi, puja, Durga, Purana, 
ashtami, Krshna, Savitri, Acoka, Civa &c. I have even seen 
crab written for the Hindustani kharab, 'bad.' 

a Forster gives an example of one compound word consisting of 
153 syllables. This might be matched by even longer specimens 
from what is called Campu composition. 

* We may, at least, entertain a hope that the hyphen will not 
be denied to Sanskrit for the better understanding of the more 
complex words, snch, for example, as vaidikamanv&dipranita- 
smrititvdt, karmaphalarupaiarlradharijivanirmitatvabhdvamd- 
trena, taken at haphazard from Dr. Muir's Texts. We may 
even express a hope that German scholars and other Europeans, 

who speak forms of Aryan speech, all of them equally delighting 
in composition, may more frequently condescend to employ the 
hyphen for some of their own Sesqu'ipedalia Verba, thereby 
imitating the practical Englishman in his Parliamentary com- 
pounds, such, for example, as Habtas-corpus-suspcnsion-act-con- 

* In the paper on transliteration, which I read at the Berlin 
International Congress, I proposed a kind of mark of accentua- 
tion to represent aspirated consonants, as, for example, K, p'. 
To say (as at p. xxxvi) that aspirated k or / is like kh in inkhorn 
or ph in uphill is to a certain extent misleading. It is simply 
k or p pronounced as in Ireland with a forcible emission of the 



will be clear if we write the important word Ztishi in the way German scholars write it, namely Bsi, and 
then omit the dots thus, Rsi. 

In regard to the nasals I have in the present edition adopted n for T and n for tj. In these 
changes I am glad to find myself in accord with the Geneva Transliteration Committee. 

As to the method of using italic k, kh for ^, ^ and italic g , gh for 5f, ^ adopted in the ' Sacred Books 
of the East' the philological advantage thought to be gained by thus exhibiting the phonetic truth of the 
interchange of gutturals and palatals, appears to me to be completely outweighed by the disadvantage 
of representing by similar symbols sounds differing so greatly in actual pronunciation. For instance, to 
represent such common words as 'chinna' by 'Minna' and 'jaina' by '^aina' seems to me as objectionable 
as to write 'Khma. ' for ' China ' and ' (Japan ' for ' Japan.' The plan of using Italics is no safeguard, seeing 
that in printing popular books and papers the practice of mixing up Roman and Italic letters in the same 
word is never adhered to, so that it is now common to find the important Indian sect of Jains printed 
and pronounced ' Gains V 

Having felt obliged by the form in which this Dictionary is printed to dwell at full kngth on 
a matter of the utmost importance both in its bearing on the more general cultivation of Sanskrit and 
on the diffusion of knowledge in our Eastern Empire, I must now repeat my sense of the great assistance 
the cause of the transliteration of Indian languages into Romanized letters formerly received at the hands 
of the late Sir Charles Trevelyan. He was the first (in his able minute, dated Calcutta, January, i834 ! ) 
to clear away the confusion of ideas with which the subject was perplexed. He also was the first to 
awaken an interest in the question throughout England about forty-two years ago. His arguments 
induced me to take part in the movement, and our letters on the subject were published by the ' Times,' 
and supported by its advocacy. Since then, many Oriental books printed on a plan substantially agreeing 
with Sir W. Jones' Indo-Romanic system, have been published 3 . Moreover, on more than one occasion 
I directed the attention of the Royal Asiatic Society 4 , and of the Church Missionary Society 8 , and Bible 
Society, to this important subject, and at the Congress of Orientalists held at Berlin in September, 1881, 
I read a paper, and submitted a proposal for concerted international action with a view to the fixing of 
a common scheme of transliteration. The discussion that followed led to the appointment of the first 
Commission for settling a common international system of transcription, and it may, I think, be fairly 
assumed that the agitation thus set in motion, and carried on for so many years, was one of the principal 
factors in bringing about the proposed international scheme issued by the Transliteration Committee of the 
Geneva Oriental Congress in September, 1894. 

Acknowledgment of Assistance Received. 

In the Preface to the first edition I made special mention of the name of an eminent scholar who was 
a member of the Oxford University Press Delegacy when the publication of that edition was undertaken 
Dr. Robert Scott, sometime Master of Balliol, afterwards Dean of Rochester, and co-author with Dr. Liddell 
of the well-known Greek Lexicon. He had been one of my kindest friends, and wisest counsellors, ever 
since the day I went to him for advice during my first undergraduate days at Balliol, on my receiving an 
appointment in the Indian Civil Service, and I need scarcely repeat my sense of what this Dictionary, in 
its inception, owed to his support and encouragement. 

Nor need I repeat the expression of my sense of obligation to my predecessor in the Boden Chair, 
Professor H. H. Wilson, who first led me to the study of Sanskrit about sixty years ago (in 1839), and 
furnished me with my first materials for an entirely new system of Sanskrit lexicography (see p. xi). All the 
words and meanings marked W. in the following pages in the present work rest on his authority. 

1 Surely we ought to think of our Indian fellow-subjects who in of the Rig-veda itself, edited by Professor Aufrecht, was printed 

their eagerness to learn the correct pronunciation of English would in the Roman character, and published in two of the volumes of 

be greatly confused if told that such good old English words as Professor Weber's Indische Studien. 

pinch, catch, chin, muck, jump, jest, ought to be written pio*. * See especially my paper read before the R. VS., April ai, 

ca, in, mu, gamp, gest. 1890. 

1 This will be found at p. 3 of the 'Original Papers illustrating 5 In 1858 I wrote strong letters to the Rev. Henry Venn, 

the History of the Application of the Roman Alphabet to the deprecating the system of transliteration then adopted by the 

Languages of India,' edited by me in 1859. C. M.S. It has been recently remodelled on the lines of the 

* Among other numberless publications a most accurate edition Geneva Congress report. 


Nevertheless, sincerity obliges me to confess that, during my long literary career, my mind has had to 
pass through a kind of painful discipline involving a gradual weakening of faith in the trustworthiness of 
my fellow men, not excepting that of my first venerated teacher. I began my studies, indeed, with much 
confidence in the thought that one man existed on whom I could lean as an almost infallible guide; but 
as I grew a little wiser, and my sensitiveness to error sharpened, I discovered to my surprise that I was 
compelled to reject much of his teaching as doubtful. Nay, I am constrained to confess that as I advanced 
further on the path of knowledge, my trustfulness in others, besides my old master, experienced by degrees 
a series of disagreeable and unexpected shocks ; till now, that I have arrived at nearly the end of my journey, 
I find myself left with my faith in the accuracy of human beings generally and certainly not excepting 
myself somewhat distressingly disturbed. Such painful feelings result, I fear, in my own case from a gradual 
and inevitable growth of the critical faculty during a long lifetime, and are quite consistent with a sense 
of gratitude for the effective aid received from my collaborators, without which, indeed, I could not have 
brought this work to a conclusion. 

In my original Preface I expressed my thanks to each and all of the scholars who aided me in the 
compilation of the first edition, and whose names in the chronological order of their services were as follow : 

The late Rev. J. Wenger, of the Baptist Mission, Calcutta ; Dr. Franz Kielhorn, afterwards Superintendent 
of Sanskrit Studies in Deccan College, Poona, and now Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Gdttingen ; 
Dr. Hermann Brunnhofer; Mr. A. E. Gough, M.A., of Lincoln College, Oxford, sometime Professor in the 
Government Colleges of Benares, Allahabad, and Calcutta; and lastly, Mr. E. L. Hogarth, M.A., of Brasenose 
College, sometime Head Master of the Government Provincial School at Calicut. 

It is now my duty to express my grateful obligations to the able and painstaking Assistants who have 
co-operated with me in producing the present greatly enlarged and improved work. 

No one but those who have taken part in similar labours can at all realize the amount of tedious toil 
I might almost say dreary drudgery involved in the daily routine of small lexicographical details, such as 
verifying references and meanings, making indices and lists of words, sorting and sifting an ever-increasing 
store of materials, revising old work, arranging and re-arranging new, writing and re-writing and interlineating 
' copy,' correcting and re-correcting proofs printed, be it remembered, in five kinds of intricate type, bristling 
with countless accents and diacritical points, and putting the eyesight, patience, and temper of author, 
collaborators, compositors, and press-readers to severe trial. I mention these matters not to magnify my own 
labours, but to show that I could not have prosecuted them without the able co-operation of others. 

The names of my new Assistants in chronological order are as follow: 

First, Dr. Ernst Leumann (a native of Switzerland), who worked with me in Oxford from October 3, 
1882, until April 15, 1884, when he accepted a teachership in the Kantonschule of Frauenfeld in Switzerland. 
I have already acknowledged my obligations to him. 

He was succeeded by the late Dr. Schonberg (a pupil of the late Professor Blihler), who came to me 
in a condition of great physical weakness, and whose assistance only extended from May 20, 1884, to July 19, 
1885, when he left me to die. He was a good scholar, and a good worker, but impatient of supervision, 
and, despite my vigilance, I found it impossible to guard against a few errors of omission and commission 
due to the rapid impairment of his powers. 

Then followed an interval during which my sources of aid were too fitful to be recorded. 

In September, 1886, Dr. Leumann, who had meanwhile been appointed Professor of Sanskrit in the 
University of Strassburg, renewed his co-operation, but only in an intermittent manner, and while still resident 
in Germany. Unhappily the pressure of other duties obliged him in September, 1890, to withdraw from 
all work outside that of his Professorship. He laboured with me in a scholarly way as far as p. 474; but 
his collaboration did not extend beyond 355 pages, because he took no part in pp. 137-256, which represent 
the period of Dr. SchSnberg's collaboration. 

It was not till December, 1890, that Dr. Carl Cappeller, Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Jena, 
began his painstaking co-operation, which, starting from the word Dada (p. 474), he has prosecuted per- 
severingly to the completion of the Dictionary. And it should be put on record that, although his 
collaboration had to be carried on contemporaneously with the discharge of his duties at Jena involving 
the necessity for a constant interchange of communications by post yet it resulted in the production of 
834 finished pages between March, 1891, and July, 1898. It should also be recorded that, from the beginning 
of the letter *l p, he had a careful assistant in Dr. Blau of Berlin, who also occasionally read the proof-sheets 
and contributed a certain number of words for the Addenda. 

Furthermore, I must express my gratitude to Herr Geheimrath Franz Kielhorn, C. I. E., Ph.D., Professor 
of Sanskrit in the University of Gottingen, who was my assistant soon after the inception of the first edition, 
for his free and generous supervision of the grammatical portions of the present edition from about the 
year 1886; and his readiness to place at my disposal the experience which he gained during his labours 
for many years as Superintendent of Sanskrit Studies at the Government College, Poona. 


I have finally to record my grateful appreciation of the value of the principal works used or consulted 
by my collaborators and myself in compiling this Dictionary. Some of these, and a few important grammatical 
works such as the Maha-bhashya (in the excellent edition of Professor Kielhorn), the Siddhanta-kaumudi 
&c. besides many other texts, such as that of Manu, the Brihat-samhita &c., did not exist in good 
critical editions when the great Thesaurus of the two German Lexicographers was being compiled. 

Professor Ernst Leumann informs me that during the period of his collaboration he was much aided 
by Grassmann's Rig-veda, Whitney's Index Verborum to the published text of the Atharva-veda ; Stenzler's 
Indices to the Grihya-sutras of Asvalayana, of Paraskara, Sahkhayana, Gobhila, and the Dharma-sastra of 
Gautama ; the vocabularies to Aufrecht's edition of the Aitareya Brahmana ; BUhler's Apastamba Dharma- 
sutra; Garbe's Vaitana-sutra ; Hillebrandt's Sankhayana Srauta-sutra &c. He states that in his portion of 
the work his aim was rather to verify and revise the words and meanings given in the Petersburg 
Dictionaries than to add new and unverifiable matter. In regard to quotations he refers the reader to 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol. xlii, pp. 161-198. 

Professor C. Cappeller states that in addition to the books enumerated above he wishes to name in 
the first place Bohtlingk's Upanishads, his Panini (and ed.) and Kavyadarsa as well as the valuable critical 
remarks of that honoured Nestor of Sanskritists on numerous texts, published in various journals ; further 
the JaiminTya Upanishad Brahmana edited by H. Oertel, and various Sutra works with their indices by 
F. Knauer, M. Winternitz, J. Kirste, and W. Caland. For some additions contributed from the Drahyayana 
(Srauta-sutra he is indebted to Dr. J. N. Reuter of Helsingfors. He also made use of the VaijayantI 
of Yadava-prakasa (edited by G. Oppert, London, 1893); the Unadigana-sutra of Hemacandra (edited by 
J. Kirste, Vienna, 1895); the Dictionaries of Apte (Poona, 1890), of A. A. Macdonell (London, 1893), of 
C. Cappeller (Strassburg, 1891); Whitney's Roots, Verb-forms, and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit 
Language (Leipzig, 1885); Lanman's Noun-inflection in the Veda (New Haven, 1880); Jacob Wackernagel's 
Altindische Gramm itik (Gottingen, 1896); Delbrtlck's Altindische Syntax (Halle, 1888); Regnaud's Rhe"torique 
Sanskrite (Paris, 1884); Le"vi's Theatre Indien (Paris, 1890); Macdonell's Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 
1897), &c. 

For Vedic interpretation Roth and Grassmann have been the chief authorities, but it will be seen that 
neither Sayana nor such modern interpreters as Pischel and Geldner in Vedische Studien (Stuttgart, 1889- 
1897), and Bloomfield for the Atharva-veda (in S. B. E., vol. xlii) have been neglected. 

The Buddhistic portion of the Dictionary has chiefly been enriched by the following: Asvaghosha's 
Buddha-carita (edited and translated by Professor E. B. Cowell of Cambridge) ; Divyavadana (edited by Cowell 
and Neil, Cambridge, 1886); Jataka-mala (edited by H. Kern, Boston, 1891); the two Sukhavatl-vyuhas 
(S. B. E., vol. xlix) and the Dharma-samgraha (Anecdota Oxoniensia, 1885). It is evident, that until new 
and complete Pali and Prakrit Dictionaries are published, the idiomatic Sanskrit used by Buddhists and Jains 
and the authors of certain inscriptions cannot be dealt with satisfactorily. 

Of course many portions of the Indische Studien (edited by Professor A. Weber of Berlin) have been 
consulted, and valuable aid has been received from some of the translations contained in the ' Sacred Books 
of the East,' as well as from many other works, the names of which will be found in the List of Works 
and Authors at p. xxxiii. 

As to the books used by myself, many of them, of course, are identical with those named above. Others 
are named in the first edition, and need not be referred to again here. I ought, however, to repeat that some 
of the words marked MW. in the present edition rest on the authority of the Sabda-kalpa-druma of Radha- 
kanta-deva (published in eight volumes at Calcutta in the Bengali character). I am also, of course, responsible 
for some words and meanings taken from my own books, such as ' Brahmanism and Hindflism,' ' Buddhism,' 
' Indian Wisdom ' (see note i to p. vi of Preface), my Sanskrit Grammar and Nal6p3khyanam (with vocabulary, 
published by the Delegates of the Oxford University Press), text of the Sakuntala (with index and notes, 
published by the same), as well as from the notes appended to my English translation of the Sakuntala 
(published by Messrs. Harmsworth among Sir John Lubbock's hundred best books of the world), &c. 



[The order is that of the English Alphabet. The letters outside the parentheses represent the abbreviated forms 

used in the referentes.] 

Abhinav(a-gupta) . 
Adi-p(arvan of the Maha- 


Ait(areya) Br(ahmana) . 
Alarnkaras'(arvasva, by Ruy- 

Alamkaras'(arvasva, by Man- 

Alamkaras(ekhara, by Ke- 

AlamkSrav(imarsinT, by Jaya- 


Ap(astamba's Dhanna-sutra). 
Ap(astamba's) Y(ajna-pari- 

A(pte's Die ionaiy). 

. *) 

Aiv(alayana-55kh6kta) Man- 
_ traS(amhita). 
A(tharva)V(,eda). Paipp(all- 


A(tharva)V(cda) .Paris(ishta). 
A (tharva- Veda) Pr (Stiiikh- 



Bsdar(iyana's Brahma-sQtra). 
Badar(ayana). Gov(indJnan- 

da's gloss). 

kara's Comm.). 
Baudh(ayana's Dharma-s5s- 



Bh(Sgavata) P(uiSna). 



Bhar(ata's Nitya-Ustra). 







Bhav(ishya)P(urSna;, ii Kh. 

(Bhavishya- & "yottaraP.). 

B(ohtlingk &) R(oth's) 


Brahm(a) Up(anishad) . 
Brahmdtt(ara)Kh(aiida, from 

the SkandaP.). 
Bf (ihad) Ar(anyaka)Up(ani- 



xxxviii Adhy. 
Buddh(ict literature). 


Damayanti-kathl, see Nalac. 
Devatadhy Sya = DaivBr. 
Dhanamj (aya-vijaya). 
Dharmasarm(abhyudaya) . 
Gal(anos' Dictionary). 
Ganar(atna-mah3dadhi ) . 








Gaut(ama's Dharma-SSstra). 










Gr(ihya and) Sr(auta-Satra). 




HaQ$(a)Up(anishad) . 






Hayan(a-ratna, by Balabha- 




H(emadri's) cat(urvarga-cin- 

Hir(anyakesin's) Gr(ihya-su- 



I(ndian)W(isdom, by Sir M. 

Jaim(ini)Bh(arata, asvame- 

dhika parvan). 
Jaim(iniya)Br(ahmana) . 
Jain(a literature). 
Kaiy(ata or Kaiyyata). 

Kalakic (Srya-kathinaka; . 

Kam(andakiya-nitisara) . 
Kan(ada's Vaiseshika-sutra). 
Kap(ila)Samh(ita, from the 

Kap(ila's) S(amkhya-pravaca- 




KSrand.' (metrical recension 

of the text). 
Kas(ika Vritti). 
KasiKh(anda, from the 


Ksth(aka)Gr(ihya-sutra) . 

Kaush(itaki)Up(anishd) . 
Kautukar(atnakara) . 
Kav^ya literature). 

Ked(ara's vritti-ratnakafa). 
Kriyay(oga-sara in the Padrna 

Kularn (ava-tantra) . 
Kull(0ka's commentary on 


Laghuj(ataka, by Varaha-mi- 


Lexicographers, esp. such as 

Ainarasinha, Hal^yudha, 

Hemacandra, &c.). 
Ul(avati of Bhaskara). 
M(acdonel)l(*s Dictionary, 


MaghaMah(atmya in the 

Padma Purana). 
MahanSrayanaUp. (see N5r 

Up ). 

M (ahavira-)car(itra). 


Maitr(ayani)S(arnhitl) . 









Man(aviya)S(amhitS of the 


Mand(Okya)Up(anishad), 12 

Ma nd(ukya)Up(anishad; Gau- 

d(apada's Karika). 
M(a)n(u'j Law-book). 

Matsyas(dkta'), Sabdak. 

Megh.*(i5 additional verses). 
M (onicr) W'Jlliains, 1st edition 

of Dictionary , with mar- 

?'nal notes). 
nier)W(illiams) B(uddh- 


Nadlpr(akaia), Sabdak. 
Naigh, antuka, commented on 

by Yaska). 
Nalac(ampu or Damayanti 

Nar(ada's Law-book). 
N.1r(ay ana) Up(anishad ) . 
N(ew) B;ohtlingk's) D(ic- 


Nid(ana by Madhava). 
Nid(ana),Sch. (i.e.Vilcaspati's 

Nil (amata)P(urana) . 
Nir(ukta, by Yaska). 
Nitis, see Kam(andak!ya-nlli - 






Padyas(amgraha) . 


Pancad.' (metrical recension). 
PancadaS, see Bh(5ratitirt ha's) 



Pirivan (atha-caritra). 
Ping(ala)Sch(oliast, i.e. Hala- 


Prah(asana Nstaka). 
Prajap(ati's Dharma-sutra). 
Pravar(a texts). 





Rimapuj as arani) . 

RSmat(apanIya)Up(anishad ). 









R(eligious) Thought and) 

L(ife in India, also called 

' Brahmanism and HindQ- 

ism,' by Sir M. Monier- 

R(ig-)V(eda. referred to as 
' RV.). 
Romakas(iddhanta) . 
Sabdak (alpa-d r uma) . 
Sahv(adri)Kh(anda, from the 

Samav (idhana) Br(a'hmana). 


Samgit (a-sarasamgraha). 





Sarasv(atT-kanjha'bharana, by 


Sarasv. 8 (by Kshemndra). 
SiDhas(ana-dvStrirj5ika or Vi- 

kramaditya-caritra, Jaina 

SirjhJs. 3 (metrical recension of 

the Ind.Off.,E.I.H. 2897). 
Sinh!s.' (recension of E. I. H. 




Sivag(it3, ascribed to the 




Smritit(attva ; the numbers 
xxix & xxx mark the ad- 
ditional texts Graha-yajna 
& TIrtha-yatra). 


















Svet(a5vatara)Up(anishad) . 



T(aittiriya) Prat(isSkhya). 






T(aranatha Tarkavacaspati's 

Tlrtha-yatra(see Smrititattva). 

prose version). 
Uttamac 9 (aritra in about 700 



V(ajasaneyi-Sambita) Prat- 

Vam(ana's Kavyalamkara- 




Var(aha-mihira's) Yogay - 


Vasantar(aja's Sakuna). 
Vedantap(aribhasha) . 
V(ikramankadeva)car(ita, by 

Vishn(u's Institutes). 
Viivan(atha, astronomer). 

Vyavaharat(attva) . 
Yajfi., Sch. (i. e. MitaksharJ). 



= denotes ' equivalent to," ' equal,' ' the same as,' ' explained by,' &c. 

( ) Between these parentheses stand all remarks upon meanings, and all descriptive and explanatory statements. 

[ ] Between these brackets stand all remarks within remarks, and comparisons with other languages. 

denotes that the leading word in a group of compounds is to be repeated. It is generally, but not always, equivalent to a hyphen. A shortened line 
occurs in cases like 5d, followed by -uda and -sudana, which are for Havyn-sud, havya-s5da, havya-sudana. 

denotes that the rest of a word is to be supplied, e. g. ri-in after karlndra is for kari-indra. 

*/ denotes a root. 

~ denotes that a vowel or syllable is long. 

" denotes that a vowel or syllable is to be specially noted as short. 

v denotes that a vowel or syllable is either long or short. 

+ is for pins. 

&c. is for et cetera. 

A denotes the blending of two short vowels (as of a + a into a) . 

" denotes the blending of a short with a long vowel (as of a + 1 into a). 

* denotes the blending of a long with a short vowel (as of a + a into 4). 

* denotes the blending of two long vowels (as of a + 1 into J). 


[/ the progress of a work extending over many years it has been found almost impossible to preserve absolute uniformity in the use 
of abbreviations and symbols, but it is hoped that most of the inconsistencies are noticed in the following table.} 

A. Atmane-pada. 

abl. =.ablative case. 

above ** a reference to some 
preceding word (not neces- 
sarily in the same page). 

ace. = accusative case. 

accord, or ace. = according. 

add. = Additions. 

Adi-p. " Adi-parvan of the 

adj. = adjective (cf. mm.). 

adv. = adverb. 

alg. = algebra. 
anat. anatomy. 
Angl.Sax. = Anglo-Saxon. 
anom. = anomalous. 
Aor. or aor. = Aorist. 
Arab. = Arabic. 
arithm. arithmetic. 
Arm. or Armor. = Armorican 
or the language of Brittany. 
A mien. =s Armenian. 
astrol. = astrology. 
astron. = astronomy . 

B. = Bombay edition. 

Boh. or Bohem. = Bohemian. 
Br. = Brahmana. 
Bret. = Breton. 

C. = Calcutta edition. 
c. case. 

Cat. = catalogue or catalogues. 

Caus. = Causal. 

cf.= confer, compare. 

ch.= chapter. 

cl. = class. 

Class. ? Classical. 

col., cols. =column, columns. 

Comm. = commentator or 

comp. =compound. 

conipar.=comparative degree, 
concl. conclusion. 
Cond. = Conditional, 
conj. = conjectural, 
cons. = consonant, 
dat. = dative case, 
defect. = defective. 
Desid. = Desiderative. 
dimin. = diminutive, 
dram. = dramatic language. 
du. = dual number, 
ed. = edition. 

e. g. = exempli gratia, ' for 

Eng. = English. 
Ep. or ep. = Epic, 
esp. especially, 
etym. etymology. 

f. = feminine, 
fig. = figuratively, 
fr. = from. 

put. or fut. future, 
fut. p. p. = future passive par- 

g. = gana. 
Gael. = Gaelic, 
gen. = genitive case, 
gend. = gender, 
geom. geometry. 
Germ. = German. 
Gk.== Greek. 
Goth. Gothic. 
Gr. = Grammar. 

Hib. = Hibernian or Irish. 

Hind. = Hindi. 

ib. = ibidem or 'in the same 

place or book or text' as 

the preceding. 
ibc. =in the beginning of a 

Ice!. = Icelandic. 

id. = idem or ' the same mean- 
ing as that of a preceding 

i.e. = id est. 

ifc. = in fine compositi or ' at 
the end of a compound.* 

impers. = impersonal or used 

impf. = imperfect tense. 

Impv. = imperative. 

ind. = indeclinable. 

inf. = infinitive mood. 

Inscr. = Inscriptions. 

instr. = instrumental case. 

Intens. = Intensive. 

interpol. = interpolation. 

Introd. v Introduction. 

Ion. = Ionic. 

irr. irregular. 

L. = lexicographers (i. e. a 
word or meaning which 
although given in native 
lexicons, has not yet been 
met with in any published 

Lat. = Latin. 

lat.= latitude. 

Lett. = Lettish. 

lit. = literally. 

Lith. = Lithuanian. 

loc. = locative case. 

log. -logic. 

long. = longitude. 

m. masculine gender. 

math. = mathematics. 

m. c. = metri causa. 

medic. medicine. 

metron. = metronymic. 

mm. = masculine, feminine, 
and neuter or = adjective. 

Mod. modern. 

MS., MSS. => manuscript, 

myth. mythology. 

N. = Name (also title or 

n. =" neuter gender. 

neg. = negative. 

Nom. Nominal verb. 

nom. = nominative case. 

obs. = obsolete. 

onomat. = onomatopoetic (i.e. 
formed from imitation of 

opp. to opposed to. 

opt. = optative. 

orig. = originally. 


others = according to others. 

P. = Parasmai-pada. 

p. = page and participle (cf. 
p. p.). 

parox. =paroxytone. 

part. participle. 

partic. particular. 

Pass. = Passive voice. 

pair. = patronymic. 

perh. = perhaps. 

Pers. = Persian. 

pers. = person. 

pf. = perfect tense. 

phil. = philosophy. 

pi. plural number. 

poet. poetry or poetic. 

Pot. Potential. 

p. p. = past participle. 

Pr. = proper. 

PrSk. or Prikr.-Prikrit. 

Prec. = precative. 

prec. = preceding. 

prep, and prepos. = preposi- 

pres.= present tense. 

priv. = privative. 

prob. = probably. 

pron. = pronoun. 

pronom. = pronominal. 

propar. = proparoxytone. 

Pruss. = Prussian. 

q. v. = quod vide. 

redupl. = reduplicated. 

Reflex. = Reflexive or used 

rhet. = rhetoric. 

rt., rts. = root, roots. 

Russ. = Russian. 

RV. = Rig-veda. 

Sax. = Saxon. 

sc. and scil. = scilicet. 

Sch. and Schol. - Scholiast or 

Scot. = Scotch or Highland- 

seq. = sequens. 

sev. several. 

sing. singular. 

Slav. = Slavonic or Slavonian. 

Subj. = subjunctive. 

subst. = substantive. 

surf. = suffix. 

superl. = superlative degree. 

surg. = surgery. 

s. v. =sub voce, i.e. the word 
in the Sanskrit order. 

Virt. and Virtt. = Varttika. 

vb. = verb. 

Ved.-Vedicor Veda. 

v. 1. varia lectio. 

voc. vocative case. 

vow. vowel, 

wk. work. 

w. r. = wrong reading. 

Zd. = Zend. 





Initial. Medial. Equivalent* and Pronunciation. 

a in mica, rural. 

T a tar, father (tar, father) 


i fill, lily. 

I police (police). 

U full, bush. 

U rude (rude). 

fi ,, merrfly (merrfly). 

ri marine (marine). 

Iri revelry (reve/rt). 

hn the above prolonged. 

* prey, there. 

ai ,, aisle. 

O go, stone. 

au ,, Haus (an in German). 


/either true Anusvara n 
n or mjor the symbol of any 

'. h symbol called Visarga. 


Equivalents and Pronunciation. 

k in kill, seek. 

kh initAorn. 
" g gun, get, dog. 
^ gh loffAut. 

n sing, king, sink (siftk). 

C dolce (in music). 

ch churcAAill (curcAill). 
j jet, jump. 

jh he<fyeAog (he;*o g ). 
*\ fi singe (siaj). 
\ t true ({rue). 
3. th anfAill (anfAill). 
^ 4 i. drum (drum), 
^ dh rei/*aired (repaired). 

^5. 9 none ( no ? e ). 

V, t water (as in Ireland). 

*^ th nufAook (more dental). 


Equivalents and Pronunciation. 

d in dice (more like th in this). 

dh arfAere (but more dental). 

n not, nut, iu. 

p put, sip. 

ph upAill. 

b bear, rub. 

bh a&Aor. 

m map, jam. 

y yet, loyal. 

r red, year. 

1 lull, lead. 

1 (sometimes foi Trf in Veda). 

Ih (sometimes for ^rfA inVeda). 

v i> ivy (but like w after cons.). 

S sure (sure). 

sh shun, bush. 

8 ,, saint, sin, hiss. 

h hear, hit. 

* Sometimes printed in the form W, see p. 174, col. 3. 

The conjunct consonants are too numerous to be exhibited above, but the most common will be found at the end of ' A Practical Sanskrit 
Grammar by Monier -Williams,' published by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, fourth edition. 

For the correct pronunciation of the aspirated consonants, kit, cJi, th, tk, ph, &c., see p. xxix, note 4 of the foregoing Introduction. 

Observe that n represents the true AnnsvSra in the body of a word before the sibilants and A, as in ania, unsn, an/tali : m as the 
symbol of any nasal will often be found at the end of a word, as in danam ea; but may also represent AnuBvara, when final m is followed by 
initial semivowels, sibilants and A, and in words formed with preposition .mm, like tam-veia, tam-iaya, tam-hata : the word Sanskrit is now 
too Anglicized to be written Samskrit. Visarga, as a substitute for final *, is a distinctly audible aspirate, so that the A at the end of 
such a word as rfecoA must be clearly heard. 



a, I; t, I; n, K; fi, ;I; Ijl, Iri; e, at; o, an; - n or m, h ; k, kh; g, gh; i; c, ch; i, Jh; i; , th ; d, dh; n; t, th; d, dh; 
i P. 1 ! bi bh ; m ;j, r, 1, 1, pi, T ; i, h, j h. 




^T i . a, the first letter of the alphabet ; the 
first short vowel inherent in consonants. kara, m. 
the letter or sound ft. 

^ 2 . a (pragrihya, q. v.), a vocative particle 
[a Ananta, O Vishnu], T.; interjection of pity, Ah 1 

W 3. a (before a vowel an, exc. a-rinin), 
a prefix corresponding to Gk. d, av, Lat. in, Goth, 
and Germ. , Eng. in or , and having a nega- 
tive or privative or contrary sense (an-eka not one ; 
an-anla endless ; a-sat not good ; a*pasyat not 
seeing) ; rarely prefixed to Inf. (a-svaptum not to 
sleep, TandyaBr.) and even to forms of the finite 
\eib(a-sprihayanti they do not desire, BhP. ; Sis.) 
and to pronouns (a-sah not he, Sis. ; a-tad not that, 
BhP.) ; occasionally denoting comparison (a-brah- 
manatikex Brahman, T.); sometimesdisparagement 
(a-yajila a miserable sacrifice) ; sometimes diminu- 
tiveness (cf. d-karna,an-udarS); rarely an expletive 
(cf. a-kupya, a-pupa). According to Pin. vi, 2, 
16 1, the accent may be optionally either on the first 
or last syllable in certain compounds formed with a 
(as d-tlkshna or a-ilkshnd, d-suci or a-sucl, dn- 
anna or an-annd) ; the same applies to stems ending 
in tri accentuated on the first syllable before a is pre- 
fixed ; cf. also d'-turta and a turta, d-bhinna and 
a-bhinnd, &c. 

^ 4. a, the base of some pronouns and 
pronom. forms, in asya, atra, &c. 

TO 5. o, the augment prefixed to the root in 
the formation of the imperfect, aorist, and conditional 
tenses (in the Veda often wanting, as in Homer, the 
fact being that originally the augment was only pre- 
fixed in principal sentences where it was accentuated, 
whilst it was dropped in subordinate sentences where 
the root-vowel took the accent). 

^J 6. a, as, m.,N. of Vishnu, L. (especially 
as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syl- 
lable om). 

a-rinin, mfn. free from debt, L. 

ays, ol. 10. P. ansayati, to divide, 

distribute, L. ; also occasionally A. ansa- 
yate, L. ; also a%sdpayati, L. 

**$[ dnsa, as, m. (probably fr. \/i. as, 
perf. dn-dnsa, and not from the above */ans fic- 
titiously formed to serve as rt.), a share, portion, 
part, party ; partition, inheritance ; a share of booty ; 
earnest money; stake (in betting), RV. v, 86, 5; 
TandyaBr.; a lot (cf. l.prds); the denominator of 
a fraction ; a degree of lat. or long. ; a day, L.; N. of 
an Aditya. karana, n. act of dividing. kal- 
panS, f. or -prakalpana, f. or -pradana, n. allot- 
ment of a portion. bhagin or -bhaj, mfn. one 
who has a share, an heir, co-heir. bhu, m. partner, 
associate, TS. bhutev, mfn. forming part of. vat 
(for ansumatl), m. a species of Soma plant, Susr. 
savarnana, n. reduction of fractions. svara, 
m. key-note or chief note in music. hara or 
-harin, mfn. taking a share, a sharer. Ansansa, 
m. part of a portion (of a deity), secondary incarna- 
tion. Ansansi, ind. share by share. Ansavata- 
rana, n. descent of part of a deity ; partial incarna- 
tion ; title of sections 64-67 of the first book of the 
MBh. Ansi-y/ 1 - *?*> to share. 

1. Ansaka, mf (z&f)n. (ifc.) forming part. 

2. Ansaka, or, m. a share; degree of lat. or long. ; 
a co-heir, L. ; (am}, n. a day, L. 

Ansala. See ansald next col. 
Ansin, mfn. having a share, YajK. Ansi-ta, f. 
the state of a sharer or co-heir, heirship. 

'sfo ansu, us, m . a filament (especially of the 
Soma plant) ; a kind of Soma libation, SBr. ; thread ; 

end of a thread, a minute particle ; a point, end ; array, 
sunbeam ; cloth, L. ; N. of a Rishi, RV. viii, 5, 26; 
of an ancient Vedic teacher, son of a Dhanamjaya, 
VBr. ; of a prince. Jala, n. a collection of rays, 
blaze of light. dhara, m. 'bearer of rays,' the sun, 
L, -dhana, n., N. of a village, R. -dharaya, 
m. a lamp, Maitrllp. -nadi, f., N. of a river. 

patta, n. a kind of cloth. patl or -bhartri, 
m. 'lord of rays,' the sun, L. mat, mfn. fibrous, rich 
in filaments ; rich in Soma plants or Soma juice ; 
radiant, luminous ; pointed ; (an), m. the sun, the 
moon ; N. of various persons, especially of a prince 
of the solar race, son of A-samaHjas, grandson of 
Sagara ; (mdtt), f., N. of a river (Yamuna ?), RV. 
viii, 96, 13-15 ; Hedysarum Gangeticum, Susr. 

matphala, f. Musa Paradisiaca. mala , f. a gar- 
land of light, halo. - malin, m. the sun. _ vana, 
m. 'having rays for arrows,' the sun. vimarda.m. 
ray-obscuration. hasta, m. 'having rays for hands,' 
the sun, L. Ansudaka, n. water which has been 
exposed to the rays of the sun or the moon, Bhpr. 
Ansv-adi, a gana of Pan. (vi, 2, 193). 

Ansnka, am, n. cloth ; fine or white cloth, muslin 
[see cinaQSvka], L. ; garment, upper garment ; tie 
(for binding a churning-stick). 

Ansula, as, m. radiant, T. ; N. of the sage CS- 
nakya, L. 

ans ( cf - Vans), L. See 

A'nsa, as, m. the shoulder, shoulder-blade ; corner 
of a quadrangle ; N. of a king ; (au), m. du. the 
two shoulders or angles of an altar ; a share (for 
an so) ; [cf. Goth, amsa ; Gk. Zftos, aai\\a ; Lat. 
humerus, ansa. ] kuta, m. the shoulder ; a bull's 
hump, the protuberance between an ox's shoulders. 

tra(<fJ3-), n.armourtoprotect the shoulder, RV.; 
a bow, Nir. ; dnsatra-koia, mfn. having a cask for 
its tunic (probably = a Soma filter, Gmn.), RV. x, 
101, 7. -daghna, mf(a)n. up to the shoulder, 
SBr. dhri, f. a cooking vessel, A V. prishtha, 
n. back of the shoulder. phalaka, n. shoulder- 
blade, SBr. ; Susr. bhara or anse-bhara, m. 
a burden on the shoulder, (gana bhastradi, q.v.) 
-bharika, mf(f)n. or anse-bharika, mf (r)n'. 
bearing a burden on the shoulder, ib. mula, n. 
the acromion, L. 

Ansala, mfn. lusty, strong, SBr. &c. 
A'nsya(3), mfn. belonging to the shoulder, RV. 
i, 19'. 7- 

! oA (cf. Vangh), cl. i. A. anhate, 
to go, set out, commence, L. ; to approach, 
L.; cl. 10. P. anhayali, to send, Bhatt.; to speak, 
Bhatt. ; to shine, L. 

Anhri, is, m. a foot, Hpar.; root of a tree, L. ; 
[cf. ahghri^\ pa, m. 'root-drinker,' a tree, L. 

skandha, m. or -siras. n. a part of the foot 
between the ancle and the heel, L. 

2. anh, to press together, to 
strangle (conjecturable from Gk. 0^05, 
lyyvs; Lat. angustus, anxius, &c.), L. 

Anhati, is, f. anxiety, distress, trouble, RV. ; ill- 
ness, L. ; [cf. Lat. ango] ; a gift (also anhati, f.), L. 

Annas, n. anxiety, trouble, RV. &c. ; sin, L. ; [cf. 
aghd, dgas; Gk. dxfVfiai, axos, 0705.] pati or 
annasas-pati [VS. J, m. lord of perplexity, i. e. an 
intercalary month; cf. ayhaspatya. patya, n. 
power over calamity, TS. ; ApSr. Anho-muc,mfn. 
delivering from distress, RV. x, 63, 9 ; VS. 

Anhlti, is, f. a gift, donation, L. See anhati. 

Anhn, mfn. (only in compar. ayfifyas) narrow, 
AitBr., seepard'nhu; (if), n.(only in Abl. anh6s) 
anxiety, distress, RV. ; [cf. Gk. iyyvs ; Goth, ag- 
gvus; Lat. angustus, ansius, &c.] bhldi, f. 
having a narrow slit (pudendum muliebre), VS. 

Anhura, mfn. straitened, distressed, RV. x, 5,6. 
Anhurana, mf(<j)n. distressing, R V. vi, 47, 20 ; 
(dm), n. distress, RV. i, 105, 17 ; AV. 
Anhoyti, mfn. troublesome, RV. v, 15, 3. 

> 1- ' P- akati, to move tortu- 
x ously (like a snake), L. Cf. -Jag and 

1. aka, the suffix aka (akac). 

2. d-ka, am, n. unhappiness, pain, 
trouble, TS.; sin, L. 

^t^ a-kaca, mfn. hairless, bald ; cf. lit-, 
urd/iva-,vi- ; (as), m., N. of Ketu, the dragon's tail 
or descending node (having a headless trunk), L. 

WSi^i a-katuka, mfn. not acrid, not im- 
petuous; unwearied, indefatigable. 
A-katn-phala, as, m. a kind of plant. 

^3i7t< a-kathora, mfn. not hard, weak. 

^^"3*1 akadama, am, n. a kind of Tantrik 
diagram. cakra, n. id. 

^^rtpr^i a-kantaka, mfn. thornless, free 
from troubles or difficulties or enemies. 

^TOTJS a-kantha, mfn. having no neck ; 
having no voice, hoarse. 

^WTH a-katthana, mfn.unboastful. 
W^W5 akathaha, am, n . a kind of diagram. 

W^TSII a-kathya, mfn. unspeakable ; un- 
utterable, unmentionable, 

TO=BTTO d-kanishtha, as, m. pi. of whom 
none is the youngest (i. e. younger than the others), 
RV. ; a class of Buddhist deities. (fa, m. a Buddha, 
L. pa, m. a Buddhist king, T. 

a-kanyd, {. not a virgin, Mn. 
akaplvat, an, m., N. of a Rishi. 

TOK**tR akampana, as, m., N. of a prince ; 
of a Rakshasa. 

vicn(**iii a-kampita, mfn. unshaken, firm ; 
(as), m., N. of one of the II chief pupils (gana- 
dhara or gan&dhipd) of Mahavira (the last Tlr- 

A-kampya, mfn. not to be shaken. 

W^FX a-kara, mfn. handless, maimed ; ex- 
empt from tax or duty, privileged ; not acting ; (a), 
f. Emblic Myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica. 

wqn,^ a-karana, am, n. absence of action. 

A-karani, is, f. non-accomplishment, failure, dis- 
appointment (used in imprecations, e. g. tasy&ka- 
ranir evdstu bad luck to him !), L. 

A-karanlya, mfn. not to be done. 

TOS^*!T a-karuna, mfn. merciless, relent- 
less. tva, n. harshness, cruelty. 

a-karkasa, mfn. not hard, tender. 

-karna,mi(a)n. having diminutive 
ears, TS. ; Br. ; without ears, deaf; without helm 
or rudder ; without Kama. 

A-karnaka, mfn. without ears, TS., &c. 

A-karnya, mfn. not fit for the ears, Pan. Sch. 

^Tofi'SvH a-karnadhdra, mfn. without a 
helmsman, destitute of a pilot. 

'Stsdriri a-kartana, as, m. a dwarf, L. 

^nw a-kartri, ta, m. not an agent, N. ap- 

plied to the purusha (in Sankhya phi!.) ; not active 
(in Gr.) tva n. state of non-agency. 




\ a-karmdn, mfn. not working ; not 
performing good works, wicked, RV. x, 22, 8; in- 
efficient ; (in Gr.) intransitive ; (a ), n. absence of work ; 
observances; improper work, crime. Akarma- 
bhoga, m. enjoyment of freedom from action. A- 
karmanvita, mfn. unoccupied ; disqualified. 

A-karmaka, mfn. (in Gr.) intransitive. 

A-karmanya, mfn. improper to be done ; unfit 
for work ; inefficient. 

a-kala, mfn. not in parts, entire; 
not skilled in the arts (kalds). 

**$ a-kalanka, mfn. without stains or 
spots ; N. of a Jaina. 

1 ?n*^i a-kalka, mfn. free from impurity; 
(<i), f. moonlight, L." tS, f. honesty, Yajfl. 

^nS<3'T a-kalkana or a-kalkala, mfn. not 
deceitful, honourable, (T.) Bhag. 

WvHa-kalpd,m{(a)n. not subject to rules, 
uncontrolled ; not admitting (any comparison prati- 
tnanam), RV. i, 102, 6; unable to (loc. or Inf. 
or in comp.) 

A-kalpita, mfn. not manufactured, not artificial, 
not pretended ; natural, genuine. 

[ a-kalmasha, mf(o)n. spotless. 

' a-kalmasha, as, m., N. of a son 
of the fourth Manu, Hariv. 

Wir^T a-kalya, mf(a)n. ill, sick ; true (?), L. 

A'-kalyana, mfn. not handsome, A V. ; inauspi- 
cious ; (am), n. adversity. 

^T?i^a-iara,mfn. (fr. i,ku, q.v.),not con- 
temptible, not stingy, RV. 

A'-lcavSri,mf(i)n. not selfish, not stingy, RV. iii, 
47, 5, & vii, 96, 3 [Say. explains by a-kava-ari, 'not 
contemptible as an enemy, or to his enemies ; not 
having weak enemies ']. 

w*^ a-kavacd, mfn. having no coat of 
mail, AV. xi, 10, 32. 

' d-kavi, mfn. unwise, RV. vii, 4, 4. 

^ a-kasmdt, ind. without a why or 
a wherefore, accidentally, suddenly. 

w*I*!J d-kdna, mf(a)n. not one-eyed, not 
monoculous, TS. & SBr. 

wms a-kdnda,mfn. without a trunk,T.; 
causeless, unexpected; (t), ind. causelessly, unex- 
pectedly, -p&ta-jata, mfn. dying as soon as born. 
sula, n. sudden, acute pain. 

'. a-kdtara, mfn. not dejected. 

I a-kdmd, mf(a)n. without desire or 
wish ; unintentional, reluctant ; (in Gr.) the Sandhi 
which causes the dropping of a final r before a 
succeeding r. kar sana (d-kdma-), mfn. not dis- 
appointing desires, RV. i, 53, 2. tas, ind. unin- 
tentionally, unwillingly. tS, f. freedom from desire, 
&c. hata (d-kdma-), mfn. unaffected with desire, 
calm, SBr. xiv. 
A-kamin, mfn. = a-kdmd. 

"*m a-kdyd, mfn. bodiless, incorporeal, 

a-kdrana, mfn. causeless ; (am), 
n. absence of a cause; (am, ena, e, at), ind. cause- 
lessly. A-kXrandtpanna, mfn. produced spon- 

A-k5rln ,mfn . inactive, not performing, (gana gra- 
JlAdi, q. T.) 

^< a-kdrnaveshtakika, mf()n. 
not fit for ear-rings, not looking well with e?.r-rings, 
Pin. Sch. See karna-vcshtaka. 

W*l3 a-kdrya, mfn. not to be done, im- 
proper ; (am), n. a criminal action. k&rln, mfn. 
an evil-doer ; neglecting duty. 

^ii"*W a-kdrshnya, am, n. absence of 

*"*irt a-kdla, as, m. a wrong or bad time; 
(mfn.), unseasonable ; (e) or -tas, ind. unseasonably. 
knhm!Epfln, m. a pumpkin produced out of 

season ; a useless birth. knsoma, n. a flower 
blossoming out of season. Ja or -jata or akalot- 
panna, mfn. born at a wrong time, unseasonable. 

jaladodaya or -meghodaya, m. unseasonable 
rising of clouds or mist. vela, f. wrong or unseason- 
able time. salia, mfn. unable to bide one's time. 

hlnam, ind. without losing time, immediately. 
A-kalikam, ind. immediately, MBh. 
A-kalya, mfa. unseasonable. 

^T^iT?tR a-kdsdra, as, m., N. of a teacher, 

5 HiV j ai a-kiRcana, mfn . without anything, 
utterly destitute ; disinterested ; (am), n. that which 
is worth nothing. tS, f. or -tva, n. voluntary 
poverty (as practised by Jaina ascetics). 

A-kincauiman, a, m. utter destitution, (gana 
prithv-ddi, q. v.) 

d-kitava, as, m. no gambler, VS. 
a-kilvishd, mfn. sinless, SBr. 

a-klrti, is, f. ill-fame, disgrace. 

kara, mfn. causing disgrace, disparaging, insulting. 

$<! a-fcan/Aa,mfn.not blunted.not worn 
out ; vigorous, fixed ; ever fresh, eternal. dM- 
shnya, n. an eternal abode, heaven. 

A-knntnlta, mfn. = a-kitntha. 

icjn*^ a-kutas, ind. (usually in comp.), 
not from any quarter or cause. Akntas-cala, m. 
not movable from any cause ; N. of Siva. A-kuto- 
bhaya or a-kutascid-bhaya< >r a-kutraca-blia- 
ya, mfn. having no fear from any quarter, secure. 

A-kntra or ( Ved.) a-kntrS, ind. nowhere, astray, 
RV. i, 120, 8. 

a-kutsita, mfn. unreproached. 

a-kudhryaftc, an, dhnci, ak (ku- 
dhrifakudha. to\kuha=kutra), 'going nowhere' 
(ak, 4), ind. objectless, aimless, RV. x, 22, 12. 

a,am,n. not base metal, gold 
or silver, Kir. ; any base metal ( = Itupya, see 3. a). 
Akupyaka, am, n. gold or silver, L. 

T^TK d-ktimdra, as, m. not a boy (said 
of Indra), RV. i, 155,6. 

a-kula, mfn. not of good family, 
low ; (as), m., N. of Siva, L. ; (a), f., N. of Parvati, 
L. tS, f. lowness of family. 
A-knllna, mfn. not of good family, Mn. 

*S^5tc5 a-kusala, mf(n)n. inauspicious, 
evil ; not clever ; (am), n. evil, an evil word, Mn. 

a-kusida or akusida, mfn. taking 
no interest or usury, without gain. 

a-kuswna, mfn. flowerless. 

a-kuha, as, m. no deceiver, L. 
-knhaka, as, m. id., Susr. 

f(o)n.having no prominence 
on the forehead, TS. ; not deceitful, unerring (said 
of arms), Yajfi. ; not false (said of coins), Ysjn. 

-kupdra, mfn. unbounded, RV. v, 
39, i Sex., 109, 1 ; (as), m. the sea, VS. &c. ; tor- 
toise, BhP. &c., the mythical tortoise that upholds 
the world ; N. of a man, PBr. ; N. of an Aditya, L. ; 
(a), f., N. of an AngirasI, PBr. 
A-kuvSra * a-kupara above. 

>S'^ 1 ^ a-kurca, as, m. 'the guileless one,' 
a Buddha, L. 

a-kricchra, at, am, m. n. absence of 
difficulty ; freedom from trouble. 
A-kricchrin, mm. free from difficulty or trouble. 

"Wfrid-krita, mf(a)n. undone, not commit- 
ted ; not made, uncreated ; unprepared, incomplete ; 
one who has done no works ; (am), n. an art never 
jefore committed, Ait Br. ; (a), f. a daughter who 
las not been made putrikd, or a sharer in the 
jrivileges of a son, Pan. karam, ind. in a way 
lot done before, Pan. - jna, mfn. not acknowledging 
benefits, ungrateful. Jna-ta, f. ingratitude. bud- 
Ihl, mfn. having an unformed mind. buddhi- 
tva, n. ignorance. vrana, m., N. of a commen- 
tator on the Puranas, VP. ; of a companion of 
Rama Jamadagnya, MBh. ; of a teacher. Akritit- 

man, mfn. having an unformed mind ; not yet 
identified with the supreme Spirit. Akritartha, 
min. having one's object unaccomplished, unsuccess- 
ful. Akritastra, mfn. unpractised in arms, MBh. 

A-kritln, mfn. unfit for work, not clever. Akri- 
ti-tva, n. unfitness for work. 

A-kritya, mi'n. not to be done, criminal; (am), 
n. crime. karin, mfn. evil-doer, MBh. 

W^i^ n-kritta, mfn. uncut, unimpaired. 

rue, mfn. possessing unimpaired splendour, RV. 
x, 84, 4. 

a-kritrima, mf(5)n. inartificial. 
d-kritsna, mf(a)n. incomplete. 
a-kripa, mfn. merciless, unkind. 
a-kripana, mfn. not miserly. 

d-krisa, mfn. not emaciated, TS. ; 
unimpaired. lakshml, mfn. enjoying full pros- 
perity. A-krisasva, mfn., N. of a king of Ayo- 
dhyj, Hariv. 

^T^fTT^fH d-krishivala, mf(a)n. not agri- 
cultural, RV. x, 146, 6. 

^I^fS d-krishta, mfn. unploughed, un- 
tilled ; not drawn ; (am), n. unploughed land, SBr. ; 
(as), m. plur., N. of a kind of Kishis, MBh. ; Hariv. 

paoya, mfn. ripening in unploughed land, grow- 
ing wild, AV. ; VS. ; TS. ; (said of the earth) giving 
fruits without having been ploughed, VP. 

^S^THin|J>l^ a-krishna-karman, mfn. free 
from black deeds, guiltless, L. 

a-ketana, mfn. houseless. 

a-ketu, mfn. shapeless, unrecognis- 
able, RV. i, 6, 3 ; ('unconscious,' Say.) 

a-kesa, mf (a, Pan. ; I, R.) n. hairless. 

a-kota, as, m. 'without a bend," 
the Areca or Betel-nut palm, L. 

*|<*V < 4 a-kopa, as, m., N. of a minister of 
king Dasaratha, R. &C. 

a-kopana, mfn. not irascible. 
a-kovida, mfn. unwise, ignorant. 

a-kausala, am, n. unskilfulness, 
Pan. ; cf. akattiala. 

W^T akkd, f. (Voc. akka, Pan.) a mother 
(used contemptuously ); N. of a woman ; [supposed to 
be a term of foreign origin ; cf. Lat. Acca^\ 

1. akta, mfn. (Vaj), driven. 

2. aktd, mfn. (Vanj), smeared over; 
diffused ; bedaubed, tinged, characterized. Often ifc. 
(cf. rattdkta) ; (am), n. oil, ointment. 

Akta, f. night, RV. i, 62, 8. 

Aktn, us, m. tinge, ray, light, RV. ; dark tinge, 
darkness, night, RV. ; (As, libhis), ind. at night, 

a-knopana, mfn. not moistening, 
drying, Nir. 

1. d-kra, mfn. (Vkri), inactive, RV. 

i, 120, 1. 

2. akrd, as, m. a banner, RV. ; a 
wall, fence (prdbdra), according to Durga on Nir. 
vi, 17. 

a-kratu, mfn. destitute of energy or 
power ['of sacrifices," S5y.], RV. x, 83, 5 ; AV.; fool- 
ish, RV. vii, 6, 3 ; free from desire, Up. 

a-krama, mfn. not happening suc- 
cessively, happening at once, Yogas. ; (as), m. want 
of order, confusion. 

d-kravi-hasta, mfn. not having 

bloody hands ['not having niggardly hands, not 
close-fisted,' Say.], RV. v, 62, 6. 

aiSTr^ a-kravydd, mfn. not consuming 
flesh (N. of an Agni), AV. ; not carnivorous, Yajn. 
A-kravyada, mfn. not carnivorous, Mn. 

^Tailil a-kranta, mfn. unpassed, unsur- 
passed, unconquered ; not doubled, RV. Prlt. ; (a), 
{. the Egg plant. 

a-kriya, mfn. without works; inac 
tive ; abstaining from religious rites ; impious ; (a) 
f. inactivity ; neglect of duty. 

^rSTTi^ d-kridat, mfn. not playing, RV. x 
79- 6 - 

^ranCo-fcn7ra,mfn.not cruel, gentle ; (as) 
m., N. of Krishna's paternal uncle, MBh. 

"WlV a-krodha,as, m. suppression of an- 
ger; (mfn.), free from anger, -maya, mfn. free 
from anger, SBr. xiv. 

A-krodhana, mfn. free from anger, Mn.; (as) 
m., N. of a prince, son of AyutSyu, VP. 

a-klama, as, m. freedom fromfatigue. 
aklikd, f. the Indigo plant, L. 

a-klinna-vartman, a, n., N. of 
a disease of the eyes, Susr. 
A-kledya, mfn. not to be wetted. 
wfpTCT a-klishta, mfn. untroubled ; undis- 
turbed; unwearied, -karman or -karin, mfn 
unwearied in action. - vrata, mfn. unwearied in 
keeping religious vows. 
A-klesa, as, m. freedom from trouble, Mn. 
^HJil aksh (perhaps a kind of old Desid. 
xof, cl. I. 5. akthati, akshnoti 
Pan : III, i, 75 ; fut. akshishyati or akshyati, 'L. ; 
aor. dkshit, 3. du. dkshishtdm or dshtdm, L. ; perf. 
anaksha [Pan. vii, 4, 60, Comm.], but A. p. [with 
the Vedic weak stem dksh, cf. perf. ds-uh 3. pi. & c . 
fr. Vl. as] dkshdnd), to reach, RV. \, 21, II 
to pass through, penetrate, pervade, embrace, L ; to 
accumulate (to form the cube ?), L. : Caus. akshayati, 
dnkshat, to cause to pervade, L. : Desid. acikshi- 
shati or acikshati, L. 

I. A'ksha, as, m. an axle, axis (in this sense also 
am, n., L.) ; a wheel, car, cart; the beam of a balance 
or string which holds the pivot of the beam ; a snake 
L.; terrestrial latitude (cf. .karna, -bhd, -thdga); 
the collar-bone, SBr.; the temporal bone, YsjB N' 
of a measure ( . 104 arigula) ; [cf. Lat. axis; Gk! 
afar ; Old Germ, aksa; Mod. Germ. Achse; Lith. 
assis.] -karna, m. the hypotenuse, especially of 
the triangle formed with the gnomon of a dial and 
its shadow ; (in astron.) argument of the latitude. 
- ja, m. a diamond ; a thunderbolt ; N. of Vishnu. 
drlk-karman, n. operation or calculation for 
latitude. - dvSra, n. the cavity in the axle of a car 
Say. on RV. v, 30. 1. -dhur, f. the pin at the end 
of an axle, pole attached to an axle. _ dhurtila, 
m. a draft-ox, L. -pida, m. Chrysopogon Acicu- 
laris, Susr. ; (a), f., N. of a plant. - bhS, f. shadow 
of latitude, -bhfiga, m. degree of latitude, -bha- 
ra, m. a cart-load. sangam, ind. so that the axle 
is caught or hooked by contact with some obstruc- 
tion, MaitrS. Akshansa, m. a degree of latitude. 
Akshagra, n. end of an axle, or of the pole of a 
an axle. Akshaffra-kila or -kilaka, m. a 



-part, ind. with exception of a sin E Ie die, Pan 
-pata, m. throw or cast of dice, -patana n act 
of casting dice. _ prlya, mfn. fond of dice, or (per- 
haps) favoured by dice. - bhfinU, f. gambling-place 
-mada, m. passion for dice, -m&tra, n any- 
thing as big as dice ; the twinkling of an eye, a mo- 
ment (cf. 4. aksha), L. - mala, f. a string or rosary 
of beads, especially of Eleocarpus seeds ; N. of Arun- 
dhatl, wife of Vasishtha (from her wearing a rosary) 
Mn. ix, 23 ; N. of the mother of Vatsa - malin 
mfn. wearing a rosary of seeds; N. of Siva, MBh' 
-raja, m. 'king of dice,' the die called Kali 
Vb. - vat, mfn. having dice ; (/f), f. a game of dice, 
L. -vSpa = akshavdpd below, Kath -vama 
m. an unfair gambler, -vid, mfn. skilful in gam- 
bling. _ yritta,mfn. anything that happens in gam- 
bling. -saunda, mfn. fond of gambling. -snkta 
n. d.ce-hymn N. of RV. x, 34. 1 sritrf, n. a string 
or rosary of Eleocarpus seeds. - stusha, m. Beleric 
Myrobalan. - hridaya, n. innermost nature of dice 
perfect skill in gambling. - hridaya-jSa, mfn. perl 
fectly skilled in gambling. AkshativSpa, m.= 
akih&vapd .below, MBh. Akshavapana, n a 
dice-board, SBr. Akshavall, f. a rosary. Aksha- 

keeper orsuperintendent of a gambling-table [Comm. 
= dyuta-pati, dyutddhyaksha, aksha-goptri}. 

3. Aksha, am, n. an organ of sense ; sensual per- 
ception.L.; (ar).m.thesoul,L.; knowledge, religious 
knowledge, L.; a lawsuit, L.; a person born blind, L. 
M. oi Garuda, L. ; of a son of Ravana ; of a son of 
Nara, &c. -darsaka or -drii, m. a judge, i.e. 
one who sees lawsuits, -patala, n. court of law 
epository of legal document, Rjjat. -pa^a, m. an 
rena, a wrestlingground, place ofcontest, L. - pSta- 
ka or -patika, m. a judge, i. e. arranger of a lawsuit, 
L. - vttta, L. = -pata. - vid, mfn. versed in law, L. 
4. Aksha, aksha-carana, &c. See col. 3. 
AkBhaka,<zj,m. Dalbergia Oujeinensis; (as,am) 
"lant thC CO ""' bone ' Su5r -'' W. f; N. of a creeping 

34, 4 & i, 1 64, 4 2 ; Achyranthes Aspera. - kara, m. 
a kind of religious meditation, Karand. - cancu or 
-cuncu or -cana or -cana, m. 'clever in writing,' a 
scribe, L - cyutaka, n. 'supplying dropped (cyuta) 
syllables, a kind of game, K5d. - chandas, n. metre 
regulated by the number and quality of syllables. 
-janani, f. 'letter producer,' a reed or pen -JI- 
vaka or -jivika or -jivin, m. 'one who lives 
by writing,' a scribe. - tulika, f. a reed or 
pen. -ny&sa, m. array of syllables or letters; 
the alphabet, -pankti, mfn. containing five syl- 
lables; (akshdra-pankti), f., N. of a metre of four 
lines, each containing one dactyl and one spondee, 
VS>.; also called pankti or hansa. bhSj.mfn. en- 
titled to a share in the syllables (of a prayer), AitBr. 
-mukha, m. having the mouth full of syllables, a 
student, scholar, L. - mnahtlka, f. the art of com- 
municating syllables or ideas by the fingers (one of 
the 64 Kalis), Vatsyay. - vinyasa = -nyasa,-V\\a. 
-sas, md. syllable by syllable, MaitrS.; AitBr. 
snnya, mfn. inarticulate. samsthana n 
scripture, writing, L. - samamnSya, m. alphabet,' 
Pat.; BhP. Akb.arakBhara,m. a kind of religious 
meditation (samadhi), Karand. Aksharanga, n. 
part of a syllable (said of the anusvara), RV. Prat: 
Akshare-sthS, mfn. consisting of syllables, 

Aksharaka, am, n. a vowel. 

A-kshara, f. (cf. a-kshdra, n. above), word, 
speech, RV. 

Aksharya, mf (o)n. corresponding to the number 
of syllables or letters, RV. Prat.; (aksharyam rcvat), 
n., N. of a Saman, ArshBr. 

a-Tcshanti, is, f. impatience, jea- 
lousy, intolerance. 

. -, . 

linch-pin ; the pin fastening the yoke to the pole. 
AkshS-nah (the vowel lengthened as in upd-ndh, 
&c.), mfn.tied to the axle of a car, RV. x, 53, 7; (horse, 
Say.; trace attached to the horse's collar, Gmn.) 

2. Aksha, as, m. (-/ 1. as, Un.) a die for gam- 
bling; a cube; a seed of which rosaries are made 
(cf. indrdksha, rtidrdksha) ; the Eleocarpns Gani- 
trus, producing that seed ; a weight called karsha, 
equal to 16 mSshas ; Beleric Myrobalan (Terminalia 
Belerica), the seed of which is used as a die ; a N. of 
the number 5 ; (am), n. sochal salt ; blue vitriol (from 
its cube-like crystals), L. -kama (akshd-), mfn. 
fond of dice, AV. -kitava, m. a gambler, MBh. 
-knsala, mfn. skilled in dice. kshapana, m., 
N. of a gambler, Kathas. -gflaha, m. gambling,' 
playing at dice, MBh. -Ja, m. a thunderbolt ; N. 
of Vishnu, L. - tattva, n. science of dice ; -vid, 
mfn. skilled in it. - diya, m. handing over the dice 
in gambling, Naish. [moving a piece on a board, BR.] 
devana, n. gambling, dice-playing, -devin or 
-dyfi, m. a gambler, a dice-player. - dyuta, n. gam- 
bling; cf. dkshadyutika. -'dyutadi, a gana of 
Pan. (iv, 4, 19). -drngdha (akshd-), mfn. hated 
by (unlucky at) dice, or injuringwith dice (a sharper), 
AV. dhara, mfn. holding dice ; (as), m. Trophis 
Aspera (see sakhata), dhnrta, m. 'dice-rogue,' 
gambler, L. -naipnna or -nalpnnya, n. skill in 
gambling, -parajaya, m. defeat in gambling, AV. 

a-kshana, mfn. inopportune. 

_ x a-kshanvat,mfn. (\/ks/um),aot 
injuring, AsvGr. 

v "fl a-kshata, mfn. not crushed ; un- 
injured, unbroken, whole ; (as), m. Siva, L. ; (as, 
am), m. n. a eunuch, L. ; (a), f. a virgin, YajH N' 
of a plant, Karkatasririgi or KahkadasringI ; (am), 
n. and (as), m. pi. unhusked barley-corns ; N of the 
descendants of Surabhi, Hariv. -yonl, f. a virgin, an 
unblemished maiden. 

ifa a-kshatra, mfn. destitute of the 
Kshatriya caste, apart from the Kshatriya caste. 

akshan. See akshi. 

'a-kshama, mf(a)n. unable to endure, 
impatient ; incompetent (with Loc., Inf. or ifc.), en- 
vious ; (a), f. or -ta, f. impatience, envy ; incompe- 
tence, inability (with Inf.) 

181 *fl a-kshaya, mf(o)n. exempt from de- 
cay, undecaying; (as), m., N. of the twentieth year in 
the cycle of Jupiter ; N. of a mountain, Hariv. ; (a), 
f. the seventh day of a lunar month, if it fall on Sun- 
day or Monday ; the fourth, if it fall on Wednesday, 
-gtma, mfn. possessing imperishable qualities; 
(as), m. Siva, -ta, f. or -tva, n. imperishableness. 
-trltiya, f., N.of a festival (the third day of the 
bright half of Vaisakha, which is the first day of the 
Satya-yuga, and secures permanency to actions then 
performed), -nivi, f. a permanent endowment, 
Buddhist Inscr. puruhuta, m. Siva. matl, m., 
N. of a Buddhist. loka, m. the undecaying world,' 

A-kshayin, mfn. undecaying ; (ini), {., N of 
Siva's wife (?), Rajat. 

A-kshayya, mfn. undecaying ; (am), n. or ind. 
'may thy prosperity be undecaying I ' (a form of bless- 
ing addressed to a Vaisya), MBh. navami, f. the 
ninth day of the bright half of Asvina. Akshayyo- 
daka, n. inexhaustible water, YajH. &c. 

^^T. a-kshdra, mfn. imperishable; unal- 
terable ; (as), m. a sword, L.; Siva, L. ; Vishnu, L. ; 
(a),{., see dkshard \K\OVI; (am), n. a syllable ; the 
syllable cm, Mn. ; a letter [(as), m., RSmatUp.] ; a 
vowel ; a sound ; a word ; N. of Brahma ; final beati- 
tude; religious austerity, sacrifice, L.; water, RV. i. 

a-kshdra, mfn. free from alkali or 
factitious salt. - lavana, n. not factitious (i.e. 
naturan salt ; (mfn.) not composed of artificial salt, 
[Kulluka on] Mn. iii, 257 ; v, 73 ; , IO o; or, 
according to Goldst. and NBD., better '(food) no? 
containing acrid substances nor salt;' therefore also 
akshdrAlavana in the same sense, cf. kshdra-la- 
vana. - lavanitsin, mfn. eating akshdra-lavana. 
A-kihSra-madya-mansada, mfn. not eating 
acrid- substances nor (drinking) spirituous liquors nor 
eaung meat, VarYogay. 

W% dkshi,n. (-/i.aJ,Un.)[instr. akshna, 
dat. akshnt, &c., fr. akshan, substituted for akshi 
m the weakest cases. Vedic forms are : abl. gen 
akshnds;^ loc. akshan (once akshini!); dn. nom, 
ace akshi, RV., akshini, dkshyau, m&akshyau, 
AV. ; SBr. & AitBr. ; instr. akshfihydm; gen ak- 
shyls , VS., akshySs and aksh6s(\), AV. ; phi nom. 
ace. dkshlni, AV., akthani, R V. ; ifc. aksha is sub- 
stituted, see 4. aksha}, the eye ; the number two; 
it), n. du. the sun and moon, RV. i, 72, 10 ; [cf. Gk 
5<r, oTaAAos ; Lat. oculos ; A. S. acgh; Goth! 
augo; Germ. Auge; Russ. oko ; Lith. aki-s.} -ktt- 
Ja or -kfitaka, n. the prominent part of the fore- 
head above the eye, YajH. &c. -pata, mfn. pre- 
sented to the eye, visible, seen ; hated, MBh & c 
-frola, m. the eyeball, -jsha, n. the root of the 
eye. tSrS, f. the pupil of the eye nikS&am 
ind. with half-closed eyes, Pan. iii, 4, 54 Sch ' also 
mkanam-akshi, id. -nlmegha, m. 'twinkling of 
an eye, a moment, Susr. -pakshman, n. the eye- 
lash, -patala, n. coat of the eye, L. -pit, ind 
as much as could fall into the eyes, a little, RV. \\, 
16, 18& x, 119, 6. -pSka, m. inflammation of the 
eyes, Susr. -bhu, mfn. visible, perceptible, mani- 
fest, AV. xx, 136, 4; VS. -bheshaja, n. medi- 
cament for the eyes, collyrium, &c. ; (as), m. a tree, 
Ked Lodh. -bhrnva, n. the eyes and eyebrows 
together. - mat, mfh. possessing eyes, -loman n- 
the eyelash. - vlkSnita, n. a glance with the eyel 
lids partially closed, -samtarjana (probably n ) 
N. of a mythic weapon, MBh. Akshy-amayi 
m. disease of the eye, SBr.; KatySr. Akshy-' 
Smayin, mfn. having a disease of the eye, PBr. 

4. Aksha, am, n. [only ifc. (f. i) for akshi], 
the eye. - carana or -pad or -pada, m. (probably) 
'having his eyes fixed in abstraction on his feet,' N. 
of the philosopher Gautama; cf. dkshapdda. 

Akshan, n. substituted forakshi, 'the eye,' in the 
weakest cases, Gram. 122 [cf. Goth, augan} ; a 
organ of sense, BhP. -2. -vat, mfn. having eyes, 
RV.; (for I. see col. 3.) 




i or akshika, as, m. the tree Dalbergia 
Oujeinensis, L. ; see aksliaka. 

^ffRprrt aisAmi, f. one of the eight condi- 
tions or privileges attached to landed property, L. 

TrfTJTrT a-kshit, mfn. imperishable, not lost, 

A'-kshita, mfn. undecayed, uninjured, nndecay- 
ing ; (aw), n. water, L. ; the number 100,000 mil- 
lions, PBr. A'kshita-vasn, m. ' possessed of unde- 
caying wealth," N. of Indra, RV. viii, 49, 6. Akhl- 
totl, m. ' granting pennanent help," N. of Indra, 

A'-kshitl, is, (. imperishablcness, AV. &c.; (mfn.), 
imperishable, RV. 

akshiba, as, m., L. ; see akshiba. 

d-kshiyat, mfn. not inhabiting, 
destitute of a dwelling, unsettled ('not decreasing in 
riches,' Say.), RV. iv, 17,13. 

TTBJ^oS akshika, as, m., L. ; see akshika. 

V%j\ISId-kshina, mfn. not perishingor fail- 
Ing, SBr. ; not waning (the moon), SBr. ; not dimi- 
nishing in weight, YljS.; N. of a son of VisvSmitra, 

VJK/1*) akshiba and akshiba, mfn. not in- 
toxicated, sober, L.; (as), m. Guilandina or Hype- 
ranthera Moringa, L. ; (am), n. sea salt, L. 

WE[ dkshu, us, m. a kind of net, RV. i, 180, 
5 ; AV. The N BD. suggests ' axle of a car,' making 
dkshu = dksha. 

wys a-kshunna, mfn. unbroken, uncur- 
tailed ; not trite, new, Mslatlrn. ; permanent ; un- 
conquered ; inexperienced, inexpert. ta, f. uncur- 
tailed condition ; inexperience. 

WEfJ a-isAaoVa, mfn. not small; not low 
or vulgar, MBh. 

T8^{d-kshudh t f. satiety, VS. 
A-kihudhya, mfn. not liable to hunger, AV. 
A'-kshodhnka, mfn. not hungry, MaitrS. 

VI a) 3 d-kshetra, mfn. destitute of fields, 
uncultivated, SBr. ; (am), n. a bad field, Mn. x, 7 1 ; 
a bad geometrical figure. Jfia [Pan. vii, 3, 30] or 
-via [<UksA, RV. v, 40, 5 & x, 32, 7], not finding 
out the way ; destitute of spiritual knowledge. 

A-kshetrin, mfn. having no fields, Mn. ix, 49 
* 5 i. 

A-kihaitrajnya, am, n. spiritual ignorance, 
Pin. vii, 3, 30 ; see dksk. 

WBfte akshota, as, in. a walnut (Pistacio 
nut?), Ragh. ; the tree Pilu; the tree Aleurites 
Triloba. Also spelt akshoja (Susr.), akshodaka, 
akshota,, akshodaka, dkhota. 

<HEf>T a-kshobha, mfn. unagitated, un- 
moved ; (as), m. the post to which an elephant is 
tied, freedom from agitation, imperturbability. 

A-kshobhya, mm. immovable, imperturbable ; 
(as), m., N. of a Buddha ; of an author ; an im- 
mense number, said by Buddhists to be 100 vivaras. 

HBjtfis*!/! akshauhini, f. an army consist- 
Ing of ten anlkints, or 91,870 elephants, 21,870 
chariots, 65,610 horse, and 109,350 foot, (Since 
an anikinl consists of 2 7 vihinls, and 2 7 is the cube 
of 3, akshauhini may be a compound of 2. aksha 
and vdhini; or it may possibly be connected with 
I. aksha, axle, car.) 

WH akshna, am, n. = a-khanda, Tin. Sch. 
ySvan, mfn. going across, RV. viii, 7, 35. 

AkshnayS, instr. ind. transversely, SBr. (Sch. 
circuitously, like a wheel I) ; wrongly, SBr. xiv ; 
diagonally, Sulbas. tofttA(aJtshnaya-),mln. done 
wrongly, SBr. deia, m. an intermediate region, 
SBr. drub, mfn. injuring wrongly or in a bad 
way, RV. i, 122, 9. rajju, f. diagonal line, Sul- 
bas. - stonily , f., N. of an MiUkii, TS. ; SBr. 

TO^g alchatta, m. Buchanania Latifolia. 
akhatti, m. childish whim, L. 

a-khanda, mfn. not fragmentary, 
entire, whole ; (ant), n. time, L. ; (a-khanda t/vd- 

dait), the twelfth day of the first half of the month 

A-khandana, am, a. not breaking, leaving entire, 
L. ; non-refutation, admission, L. ; (as), m. time, L. 

A-khandlta, mfn. unbroken, undivided, unim- 
paired ; unrefuted. rtn (rilii}, mfn. 'not break- 
ing the season,' bearing seasonable fruits. 

*!K<Hf^ d-khanat, mfn. not digging, RV. 
x, 101, II. 

WH% d-kharva, mfn. not shortened or 
mutilated, RV. vii, 32, 13; not small, important; 
also a-kharvan, Heat. ; (a), f., N. of a plant, L. 

^rafrT d-khata, mfn. unburied, AV.; (as, 
am), m.n. a natural pond or lake, a pool before a 
temple, L. 

a-khddya, mfn. uneatable. 

d-Jthidra, mf(a)n. not weak, TS. &c. 

yaman (dkhidra-), mfn. unwearied in course, 
RV. i, 38, II. 

^rf^ra a-khila, mf(o)n. without a gap, 
complete, whole ; (ena), ind. completely. Akhi- 
latman, m. the universal Spirit, Brahma. Akhlli- 
V'.kri, -kritya, ind. p. not having annihilated 
or rendered powerless, SiS. ii, 34. 

^IJijftoR akhetika or akhetika, as, m. a dog 

trained to the chase. 

'SWfi^ a-khedin, mfn. not wearisome, un- 
wearied. Akhedi-tva, n. continuous flow (of 
speech), one of the vdg-gunas of MahSvira, Jain. 

^I^Wrf akhkhala, ind. an exclamation of 
joy, S.IY. on RV. vii, 103, 3. Akhkhali-krityS, 
Ved. ind. p. (V*- kri), uttering the exclamation 
akhkhala, RV. vii, 103, 3. 

W4UJIH a-khycitu, mfn. not famous, un- 

A-khyati, if, f. infamy, bad repute, disgrace. 

kara, mfn. causing infamy, disgraceful. 

_MJ t ag, cl. i. P. agati, to move tor- 
Stuously, wind, I/.: Caus. agayati, L.; 
cf. Vang: 

I. aga, as, m. a snake [in this sense perhaps 
rather a-ga'], L.; the sun, L. ; a water-jar, L. 

^PI 2. a-ga, mfn. ( Vgam), unable to walk, 
Pan. vi, 3, 77 Sch. ; (as), m. a mountain ; a tree ; 
the number seven. Ja, mfn. produced on a moun- 
tain, or from a tree ; (a), f., N. of PSrvati, daughter 
of Himalaya ; (am), n. bitumen. Ag&tma-jS, f. 
= aga-jd, Kir. Agravaha, m., N. of a son of 
Vasudeva, and of others, Hariv. Agaukas, m. 
mountain-dweller,' a lion; 'tree-dweller,' a bird; the 
Sarabha, q. v. 

A-gaccha, mfn. not going, L. ; (as), m. a tree, L. 

wifVun a-ganita, mfn. uncounted ; incon- 
siderable, VP. pratiy ata, mfn. returned without 
(or because of not) having been noticed, SiS. lajja, 
mfn. disregarding shame. 

VTil d-gata, mfn. not gone; (am), n. not 
yet frequented, the dominion of death, AV. 

A-gati, mfn. not going, halting ; without resource, 
helpless ; (if), f. stoppage, R. ; want of resort or re- 
source ; unsuccessrulness, Vikr. ; not cohabiting with 
a woman. 

A-gatika, mf(o)n. without resort or resources, 
Kathas. gati, f. the resort of one who has no 
resort, a last resource, Yajii. i, 345. 

A-gatlka, mf(a)n. not to be walked on (as an 
evil path), MBh. 

WT<J a-gadd, mfn. free from disease, 
healthy, RV. Sec. ; free from affliction ; (as), m. free- 
dom from disease, Mn. ; a medicine, drug, (especi- 
ally) antidote, Mn. Agadam-kara, m. a physician, 
Naish. Agada-veda, m. medical science. Car. 

A-gadya, Nom. P. agadyaii, to have good health, 
(gana kanijv-ddi, q. v.) ; to heal, ib. 

wife; rr a-gadita, mfn. untold. 

a-gandhd, mfn. without smell. 

a-gama, mfn. not going, unable to 
go; (as), m. a mountain, L.; a tree [cf. t.a-ga], 
A-gamya, mfn. unfit to be walked in, or to be 
approached; not to be approached (sexually); in- 

accessible; unattainable; unintelligible; unsuitable. 
ga, f. a woman who has illicit intercourse with a 
man, VarBr. rupa, mfn. of unsurpassed form. 

A-ffamya, f. a woman with whom cohabitation 
is forbidden. gamana, n. illicit intercourse with 
a woman. gamaniya, mfn. relating to it, Mn. 
xi, 169. gamin, mfn. practising it, Gaut. 

^nTTt a-gari, f. a kind of grass (Deotar, 
Andropogon Serratus), L. ; [cf. gari.] 

^TT^ agaru, us, u, m. n. Agollochum, Amy- 
ris Agallocha ; cf. aguru. 

^It ri fi^ d-garta-mit (cf. garta-m(t), mfn. 
not buried in a hole, SBr. 

A-?arta-skandya, mfn. 'not having holes to be 
lept over,' not offering hindrances, SankhBr. 

a-garca, mfn. free from pride. 

a-garhita, mfn. undespised, un- 

reproached, blameless. 

wiufri a-gavyut(, mfn. without good 
pasturage for cattle, barren, RV. vi, 47, 2O. 

^Tlft<T agdsti, is, m. (according to Un. iv, 
179 fir. 2. a-ga, a mountain, and asti, thrower, */i. 
as), N. of a Rishi (author of several Vedic hymns ; 
said to have been the son of both Mitra and Varuna 
by UrvasI ; to have been born in a water-jar ; to 
have been of short stature ; to have swallowed the 
ocean, and compelled the Vindhya mountains to pros- 
trate themselves before him ; to hve conquered and 
civilized the South ; to have written on medicine, 
&c.); the star Canopus (of which Agastya is the 
regent, said to be the ' cleanser of water,' because of 
turbid waters becoming clean at its rising, Ragh. xiii, 
36) ; Agasti Grandiflora, Susr. [also -dru, f., L.] ; 
(ayas), m. pi. the descendants of Agastya ; (f), f. a 
female descendant of Agastya, Pan. vi, 4, 149, Sch. 

Agastiya, mfn. relating to Agasti, Pin. vi, 4, 
149, Comm. 

Agastya (3, 4), as, m. = agdsti ; N. of Siva, L. 

gitS, as, f. pi. Agastya's hymns, forming part of 
the Adi-viriha-Purina. cara, m. the path of 
Canopus. m&rga, m. the path of Agastya (Cano- 
pus), i. e. the South. samhitS, f., N. of an old 
compendium of the Tantra literature. Agastyo- 
daya, m. the rising of Canopus ; the seventh day of 
the second half of Bhadra. 

VI! a-^a, as, m.f. (Ved.) not going, Pan. 
iii, a, 67 Sch. 
^TTrJ a-^atr,<5,m.abad singer.TandyaBr. 

W'lul a-gudha, mf(a)n. not shallow, deep, 
unfathomable; (of), m. a hole, chasm, L.; N.ofoneof 
the five fires at the Svadhikira, Hariv. Jala, mfn. 
having deep water ; (am),n. deep water. rudMra, 
n. a vast quantity of blood, Das. 

A-gadhi-tva, am, n. depth, Comm. on Sis. i, 55. 

WTTX opera (rarely as, m.), am, n. house, 
apartment [cf. dgara"]. dahln, m. 'house-burner,* 
an incendiary, Gaut. 

Agarin, mfn. possessing a house ; (t), m. a house- 
holder, layman (cf. an-agdrin), Jain. 

SSflC a^ira, as, m. (Va<j), the sun, L. ; 
fire, L.; a Rakshasa, L. 

^lf'(Um d-giraitkas, mfn. (^Va, instr. 
ofgir, and okas), not to be kept back by hymns, N. of 
the Maruts, RV. i, 135, 9. 

W d-gu, mfn. (fr. go with a), destitute of 
cows, poor, RV. viii, 2, 1 4 ; (us), m. ' destitute of 
rays,' N. of Rihu the ascending node. 

A-go, f. not a cow, ParGr. tS (a-g6-), (. want 
of cows, RV.; AV. 

WJtJ a-guna, mfn. destitute of qualities 
or attributes (said of the supreme Being, cf. nirguna); 
destitute of good qualities ; (at), m. a fault. tS, f. 
or -tva, n. absence of qualities or of good qualities. 

vat, mm. destitute of qualities; without good 
qualities. vadin, mfn. fault-finding, censorious, 

iila, mfn. of a worthless character. 

WJH a-gupta, mfn. unhidden, uncon- 
cealed ; unprotected ; not keeping a secret. 

"WJ?} a-guru, mfn. not heavy, light; (in 
prosody) short as a short vowel alone or before a 


single consonant ; (us, u), m.n. the fragrant Aloe 
wood and tree, Aquilaria Agallocha. 


a-gudha, m!n. unconcealed, manifest. 

gandha, n. Asa Foetida. -bhava, mfn. having 
a transparent disposition. 

^PpflTTe'-f?) ihlnta, mfn. notseized ortaken, 
unsubdued, RV. viii, 79, I; TBr. soda (dgri- 
bkita-), mfn. ' having unsubdued splendour,' N. of 
Agni and the Maruts, RV. v, 54, 5 & 12 ; viii, 23, 
I; ('having inconceivable splendour,' BR.) 

M'J? a-griha, mfn. houseless. -tS, f. 
houselessness, TSndyaBr. 

^I J 1T^^ a-gocara, mfn. not within range, 
unattainable, inaccessible (cf.dris/ity-agocara), im- 
perceptible by the senses ; (a/it), n. anything that is 
beyond the cognizance of the senses ; Brahma ; the 
not being seen, absence ; (ena), instr. ind. out of the 
sight of any one (gen.), behind one's back, Hit 

^T*uTT d-gopa, mfn. without a cowherd, 
not tended by one, RV. 

^nft^V d-go-rudha, mfn . not driving away 
the cow, RV. viii, 24, 20; ('not repelling or dis- 
daining praise,' Sly.) 

^T*1T?I d-gohya (4), mfn. not to be con- 
cealed or covered, bright, RV. 

^irrfe|p^ agaukas. See 2. a-ya, 

w*ll$ agdhSd, mfn. (fr. a + gdha, p.p.p. fr. 

*/glias + ad), eating food which is not yet eaten, 
TS.; (Comm.=dagdh&d.) 

Wffl agna (hr agni inthefollowingcomp.) 

marntau, m. du. Agni and Marut, Pan. vi, 3, 
28, Sch. vishnu, voc. m. du. Agni and Vishnu, AV. 

Affnayi, f. the wife of Agni, one of the deva-pat- 
nyah, R V. i, 2 2, 1 2 & v, 46, 8 ; the TretS-yuga, L. 

^TP'T agni, is, m. (Vag, Un.) fire; sacri- 
ficial foe (of three kinds, Girhapatya, Ahavanlya, and 
Dakshina) ; the number three, Suryas. ; the god of 
fire ; the fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric 
fluid; bile, L.; gold, L.; N. of various plants, Semi- 
carpus Anacardium, Susr., Plumbago Zeylanica and 
Rosea, Citrus Acida ; mystical substitute for the let- 
ter r; in the Kfitantra grammar N. of noun-stems 
ending in i and a [cf. Cat. igni-s; Lith. ugni-s ; 
Slav. ognj]. kana, m. 'fire-particle,' a spark. 
karman, n. 'fire-act,' piling up the wood &c., 
SBr.; action of Agni, Nir. ; cauterization, Susr. 

kalpa (agn{-), mfn. having the nature of fire, SBr. 
-karikS [L.], f. and -kfirya [Mn. &c.], n. kin- 
dling or feeding the sacrificial fire with clarified butter 
&c. ; the prayers said while doing so, Kathas. ; cau- 
terization. kashtha, n. Agallochum, L. knk- 
kuta, m. a lighted wisp of straw, firebrand, L. 

knnda, n. a pan with live coals, R. ; a hole or 
enclosed space for the consecrated fire, Kathas. 

kumara, m. a particular preparation of various 
drugs ; N. of a class of Bhavanavisin deities, Jain. 

krita, mfn. made by fire. ketn (agnl-\ mfn. 
having fire as an emblem or characteristic mark 
(Ushas), TS. ; (us), m., N. of a Rakshas, R. - kona, 
m. the south-east quarter, ruled over by Agni, L. 

krida, f.'fire-sport,' fire-works, illuminations, &c. 
khada, f. an infernal pan or stove, KSrand. 

garbha, mf(o)n. pregnant with fire, BrArUp. ; 
(as), m. a gem supposed to contain and give out solar 
heat ( iitrya-kdntd), L. ; N. of a frothy substance 
on the sea, engendered by the submarine fire, L. ; N. 
of a man; (a), f. the plant Mahajyotishmatf. 

griha, n. house or place for keeping the sacred 
fire, M Bh. ; a room fitted with hot-baths, Car. gr an - 
tha, m., N. of a work. ghat a, in., N. of a 
hell, Karand. cay a [Sulb.], m. or -cayana, n. 
or -citi, f. or -citya [SBr.], f. arranging or pre- 
paring the sacred or sacrificial fire-place ; agni-caya, 
a heap or mass of fire, R. cit, mfn. arranging the 
sacrificial fire, or one who has arranged it, SBr. &c. ; 
an- (neg.), SBr. cit-vat , mfn. possessing house- 
holders that have prepared a sacred fire-place, Pan. 
viii, 2, 10, Sch. Ja, mfn. 'fire-born,' produced by 
or in fire, AV. ; MaitrS. ; (as), m., N. of Vishnu, 
Hariv. ; of a frothy substance on the sea (cf. -garbha), 
L. janman, m. ' fire-bora,* Skanda, god of war. 
jara or -Jala, m., N. of a frothy substance on the 
sea (cf. -garbha and -ja) t L. Jihva, mfn. ' having 

Agni for tongue,' consuming the sacrifice through 
Agni, RV. ; (a), f. tongue or flame of fire, AV. ; 
MundUp. ; the plant Methonica Superba (Llrigall). 
jvalita-tejana, mfn. having a point hardened 
in fire, Mn. vii, 90. jvala, m., N. of Siva ; (a), (. 
flame of fire ; a plant with red blossoms, used by dyers, 
Grislea Tomentosa ; Jalapippali. tap, mfn. enjoy- 
ing the warmth of fire, RV. v, 61, 4. tapas, 
mfn. hot as fire, glowing, RV. x, 68, 6. -tapta, 
mfn. fire-heated, glowing, RV. vii, 104, 5. tS 
(agni-), f. the state of fire, SBr. - tejas (agni-), 
mfn. having the energy of fire or of Agni, AV. ; 
(as), m. one of the seven Rishis of the eleventh Man- 
vantara, Hariv. -traya, n. or -treta [Mn. ; 
MBh.], f. the three sacred fires, called respectively 
Garhapatya, Ahavanlya, and Dakshina. trS, mfn., 
see dn-agnitrd. da, m. ' fire-giver,' incendiary, 
Mn.; Yajfi. ; stomachic. i.-dagdha (,{>/-), mfn. 
burnt with fire, RV. x, 103, additional verses ; SBr. ; 
cauterized, Susr. ; (am),n. a cautery. 2,-dagdha, 
mfn. burnt on a funeral pile, RV. x, 15, 14 ; TBr.; 
(as), m. pi. a class of Pitris who, when on earth, main- 
tained a sacred fire, Mn. iii, 199. datta, m., N. of 
a prince ; of a Brahman, Kathas. damani, f. a 
narcotic plant, Solanum Jacquini. dayaka, m. 
= -da, q. v. daha, m. a particular disease ; a fiery 
glow (in the sky), Hariv. -dis, f. Agni's quarter, 
the south-east. dipana, mf(f)n. stomachic, Susr. 

dipta, mfn. blazing, glowing ; (a), f. the plant Ma- 
hSjyotishmatl. -dipti, f. active state of digestion, 
Susr. duta (agni-), mfn. having Agni for a messen- 
ger, brought by Agni, RV. x, 1 4, 1 3 ; AV. - dushita, 
mfn. 'fire-marked,' branded. deva, m. Agni ; (a), 
(.-nakshalrd, q.v., L. devata (agni-), mfn. 
having Agni for deity, SBr. daivata, n. --na- 
r/M'/>-rt,q.v.,VarBrS. -dh (agni-dh, dh for {dh; 
cf. agnfdh), m. the priest who kindles the sacred fire, 
RV. ii, i, 2 ; x, 41, 3; 91, 10. -dhana, n. recep- 
tacle for the sacred fire, RV. x, 165, 3; AV. -na- 
kshatra, n. the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades 
(Krittika), SBr. nay ana , n. the act of bringing 
out the sacrificial fire. niryasa, m. = -jara. 

nnnna (agni-~), mfn. struck by fire or lightning, 
SV. netra (agni-), mfn. having Agni for a guide, 
VS. pakva, mfn. cooked on the fire, Mn. pada, 
m. 'whose foot has stepped on the sacrificial fire- 
place,' N. of a horse, Laty. ; Vait. parikriy a, f. 
care of the sacred fire, Mn. ii, 67. paricchada, 
m. the whole apparatus of a fire-sacrifice, Mn. vi, 4. 

paridhana, n. enclosing the sacrificial fire with 
a kind of screen, -pariksha, f. ordeal by fire. 

parvata, m. 'fire-mountain,' a volcano, R. 

pnccha, n. tail or extreme point of a sacrificial 
fire (arranged in the shape of a bird), AsvSr. pnra, 
f. the castle of Agni, SBr. pnrana, n., N. of a 
Purana. pnxogama, mfn. having Agni for a 
leader. pranayana, n. = -nayana, q.v. pra- 
nayaniya, mfn. referring to the -franayana. 

pratishthS, f. consecration of fire, especially of the 
nuptial fire, prabha, f. a venomous insect, Susr. 

pravesa, m. < : -pravesana, n. entering the fire ; 
self-immolation of a widow on her husband s funeral 
pile. prastara, m. a fire-producing stone ; flint ; 
L. -prayascitta, n. or -prayascitti [SBr.], f. 
an expiatory act during the preparation of the sacri- 
ficial fire. bahn, m. smoke [cf. -vaha"], L. ; N. 
of a son of the first Manu, Hariv. ; of a son of Pri- 
yavrata and KSmyS, VP. -bija, n. gold, L.; N. of 
the letters, RSmatUp. bha, n. 'shining like fire,' 
gold, L. bhn, n. 'fire-produced,' water, L. bhu, 
m. Skanda, L. ; N. of a Vedic teacher, with the patron. 
KJsyapa, VBr. ; (in arithm.) six. bhntl, m., N. 
of one of the eleven chief pupils (ganadharas) of the 
last TIrthakara. bhrajas (ngn(-), mfn. possessing 
fiery splendour, RV. v, 54, n. -mani. m. the 
sun-stone ( = sfirya-kanta). mat, mfn. being near 
the fire, AV. (RV. has -vat); having or maintain- 
ing a sacrificial fire, Mn. &c. ; having a good diges- 
tion, Susr. mantha, mfn. producing fire by fric- 
tion ; (as), m. Premna Spinosa, Susr. _ manthana, 
n. production of fire by friction, AsvSr. man- 
thaniy a, mfn .relating to such friction, ib. maya, 
mf(?)n. fiery, SBr.; AitBr. -mathara, m., N. of 
an expounder of the Rig-veda, VP. mandy a, n. 
slowness of digestion, dyspepsia. maruti, m., N. 
of Agastya, L. ; cf. agnimaruta. mitra, m., N. 
of a prince of the Suiiga dynasty, son of Pushyamitra, 
VP. m-indha (agnim-indhd), m. the priest who 
kindles the fire, RV. i, 162, 5. -mnkha (ani-\ 
mfn. having Agni for the mouth, SBr. ; (as), m. a 

deity, a BrShmana, a tonic medicine, L. ; Semicar- 
pus Anacardium ; Plumbago Zeylanica, L. ; N. of a 
bug, Paficat. ; (t), f. Semicarpus Anacardium ; Glo- 
riosa (or Methonica) Superba. mudha (ngnt-), 
mfn. made insane by Agni, RV. x, 103, additional 
verses; AV. ynta, m., N. of the author of the 
hymn x, 1 16 in the Rig-veda. - yojana, n. the act 
of stirring the sacrificial fire (to make it blaze up). 

rakshaiia, n. maintenance of the sacred domestic 
fire, raja or -rajas, m. a scarlet insect, L. ra- 
hasya, n. 'niystery of Agni,' title of the tenth 
book of the Satapatha-Brihmana. raj an, mfn., 
pi. ' having Agni as king,' N. of the Vasus, SSnkhSr. 

rail, m. a heap or mass of fire, a burning pile. 

ruia, f. the plant MTuisarohinl. rfipa (/-), 
mfn. fire-shaped, RV. x, 84, I ; (agni-rtipa), n. 
a shape of fire, SBr. retasa, mfn. sprung from 
Agni's seed, SBr. -rohini, f. a hard inflamma- 
tory swelling in the arm-pit, Susr. loka, m. the 
world of Agni, KaushUp. vat, mfn. being near 
the fire, RV. vii, 104, 2 (*s-mAt, q.v.); 'joined to 
(another) fire,' N. of Agni, TS. varcas, m., N. 
of a teacher of the Puranas, VP. var na, mf(o)n. 
having the colour of fire ; hot, fiery (said of liquors), 
Mn. xi, 90 & 91 ; (as), m., N. of a prince, son of 
Sudarsana. vardhaka or -vardhana, mfn. pro- 
moting digestion, stomachic. - vallabba, m. the 
tree Shorea Robusta ; its resinous juice. vffna, m. 
a fiery arrow. - vfidin, m.'fire-asserter,' worshipper 
of fire. vartta, mm. gaining a livelihood by fire 
[as a blacksmith &c.], VarBrS. vSsas (agn(-), 
mfn. wearing a fiery or red garment, AV. vaha, 
m. the vehicle of fire, i.e. smoke, L. vidha, f. 
manner or fashion of fire, SBr. vimocana, n. the 
act of lowering the sacrificial fire (by spreading it 
out). visarpa, m. spread of inflammation (in a 
tumour). viharana, n. removing the sacrificial 
fire from the Agnldhra to the Sadas Mandapa. 

virya, n. gold, L. vrlddhi, f. improvement 
of digestion. - vetala, m., N. of a VelSla (con- 
nected with the story of kingVikramSditya). vela, 
f. the time at which the fire is kindled, afternoon, 
AsvGr. vesa, m., N. of an ancient medical 
authority; also of other persons. vesman, m. the 
fourteenth day of the Karma-m5sa, Suryapr. ve- 
sya, m., N. of a teacher, MBh.; N. of the 22nd 
muhOrta, Suryapr. sarana or -sala [AV.], n. or 
-sala, f. house or place for keeping the sacrificial 
fire, i-sarman, m., N. of a man. -sikha, mfn. 
having a point like fire (an arrow), R. ; (as), m. an 
arrow; a lamp; a safflower plant, L.; saffron, L.; N. 
of Varamci's father, Kathas. ; of a Vetala, Kathas. ; 
(am), n. saffron, L. ; gold, L. sikha, f. a flame, 
SBr. &c. ; the plants Gloriosa Superba and Meni- 
spermum Cordifolium. susrusha, f. attention to 
the sacrificial fire, Mn. ii, 248. sekhara, n. saf- 
fron. sesha, m. appendix to the chapter on Agni 
in the Taittiriya-Samhita. srf, m(nom. pi. -irl- 
j>as)fn. having the brightness of Agni, RV. iii, 26, 5 
['approachingthefire(oflightning),'Say.] Broni, 
f. leg of the sacrificial altar, KatySr. shtut , m. 
' laudatory of Agni,' the first day of the Agnishtpma 
sacrifice, one day of the Sattra PaHcadasaratra, SBr. 
&c. ; N. of a son of the sixth Manu, Cakshusha (by 
Nadvala), VP. ; Hariv. [v. 1. -shttibK]. -shtoma', 
m. ' praise of Agni,' N. of a protracted ceremony or 
sacrifice (forming one of the chief modifications 
[samsthas~\ of the Jyotishtoma offered by one who 
is desirous of obtaining heaven ; (he performer is a 
Brahman who maintains the sacred fire, the offering 
is the Soma, the deities to whom the offering is made 
are Indra &c., the number of priests required is 1 6, 
the ceremonies continue for five days) ; a mantra or 
kalpa connected with the Agnishtoma, L. ; (agni- 
s!itoma)-yajin, mfn. one who has performed the A. ; 
-sad, mfn. performing the A. ; -sadya, n. the per- 
formance of A., SBr. ; -samd, m. and -samdn, n. the 
passage of the Slma-veda chanted at the A. ; -hotra, 
n. title of a Vedic text. shtha, mfn. placed in, or 
over, or near the fire ; (as), m. a pan, fire-pan, R. 
[c(.-sht!iita\; a vehicle carrying the fire, ApSr. ; (in 
the Asvamedha sacrifice) the eleventh Yupa or sacri- 
ficial post which (of all the twenty-one) is nearest 
the fire, SBr. ; (a), f. that comer of the sacrificial 
post which (of all the eight) is nearest the fire, SBr. 
-shthika, f. a fire-pan [cf. -shtha'}. -shvattfc 
[in Epic and later texts -svaita~\, as, m. plur. 
'tasted by the funeral fire,' the Manes, RV. x, 15, 
1 1 ; VS. ; SBr. ; in later texts N. of a class of 
Manes (who on earth neglected the sacrificial fire), 




MBh. &c. samskara, m. the consecration of 
fire ; performance of any rite in which the application 
of fire is essential, as the burning of a dead body, 
Mn. ; Ragh. sakha, m. 'friend of fire,' the wind, 
L. samkasa (agni-), nifn. resplendent like fire, 
SBr. sajja, f. ? indigestion, Susr. samcaya, 
m. preparing the sacrificial fire-place ; see -cayana. 

sambhava, mfn. produced from fire ; (as), rn. 
wild safflower, L ; = -jiira ; 'the result of digestion,' 
chyme or chyle, L. - saras, n., N. of a Tirtha, 
VarP. sava, m. consecration of the fire, TS. ; 
SBr. sahaya, m. 'friend of fire,' the wind; awild 
pigeon ; L. sakshika, mfn. taking Agni or the 
domestic or nuptial fire for a witness, R. &c. sa- 
kshika-maryada, mfn. one who taking Agni for 
a witness gives a solemn promise of conjugal fidelity. 

sada, m. weakness of digestion, Susr. sara, 
n. a medicine for the eyes, a collyrium, L. sa- 
varni, m., N. of a Manu, L. sinha, m., N. of 
the father of the seventh black Vjsudeva, Jain. 

sutra, n. thread of fire ; a girdle of sacrificial 
grass put upon a young Brahman at his investiture; 
I,. stambha, m.or-stambhana, n.the(magical) 
quenchingof fire. stoka, m. a particleof fire, spark. 

svatta, see -shvdttd. havana, n. a sacrificial 
libation, Gaut. hut [VS.] or -Irata, mfn, sacrificed 
by fire. hotrl (agni-), m. having Agni for a 
priest, RV. x, 66, 8. I. -hotra (agni-), mfn. 
sacrificing to Agni, AV. vi, 97, I ; (), f. the cow 
destined for the Agnihotra, SBr. ; AitBr. ; (agni- 
hotri)-vatsd, m. her calf, SBr. 2. -hotra, n. AV. 
&c. oblation to Agni (chiefly of milk, oil, and sour 
gruel ; there are two kinds of Agnihotra, one is 
nitya, i. e. of constant obligation, the other .kdmya, 
i. e. optional) ; the sacred fire, Mn. ; Yijfi. &c. ; (ag- 
nihotra)-devata, f. the deity of the Agnihotra; 
-tvd, n. the state of the A., MaitrS. ; -sthdh, f. a 
pot used at the A., SBr. ; -kdvani, f. a spoon used 
at the A., SBr. ; AsvGr. ; -hiit, offering the A., 
AV. ; -homa, m. a libation at the A., KstySr. ; 
agnihotrdyanin, mfn. one who offers only the A., 
KitySr. ; agnihotravrit, i. (see dvrit) the mere 
A. without recitation of Vedic formulas, KstySr. ; 
agnihotrahutl [SBr., cf. dhuti] and agnihptreshti 
[KStySr., cf. ishti], f. a libation or offering at the 
A. ; agnihotrdcchishtd [SBr.] and agnihotrdcche- 
shand [TS.], n. the remains of the A. hotrin, 
mfn. practising the Agnihotra, maintaining the sacri- 
ficial fire, SBr. &c. homa, m. oblation put into 
the fire, KstySr. hvara, mfn. ? making a mistake 
in the fire-ceremonial, MaitrS. Agnidh, m. the 
priest who kindles the fire, VS. ; SBr. ; AitBr. [cf. 
agntdK\. Agnidhra, m. ( = agni-bdhu), N. of 
two men. Agnindrati, m. du. Agni and India, VS. 
Agnlndhana.n. kindling or feeding the fire.Mn.&c. 
Agru-parjanyau, Voc. m. du. Agni and Parjanya, 
RV. vi, 52, 1 6. Agni-varunau, m. du. Agni and 
Varuna, SBr. Agni-shoma or man, m. du. Agni 
and Soma, RV. ; AV. ; VS. ; (agnishoma)-pranaya- 
na, n. bringing out the fire and the Soma, a ceremony 
in the Jyotishtoma sacrifice. Agnishonuya, mfn. 
related or sacred to Agni and Soma, AV. &c. ; (ag- 
nishomiya)-nirvdpa, m. making libations with the 
cake sacred to Agni and Soma, a ceremony in the 
Darsapiirnamasa sacrifice ; -pasu, m. a victim, gene- 
rally a sheep or goat, sacred to Agni and Soma ; 
-pasv-anushthana, n. the rite connected with that 
victim at the Jyotishtoma sacrifice ; -purtufdia, m. 
cake sacred to Agni and Soma (baked in eleven 
bowls) ; -ydga, m. one of the three sacrifices of 
the POrnamasa; agnishomiy&kadasa-kapdla, m. 
cake sacred to Agni and Soma, see above. Agny- 
agara [SBr. &c.] or -agara, m. house or place for 
keeping the sacred fire. Agrny-abliava, m. absence 
or want of the sacred fire ; loss of appetite. Agny- 
arcis, f. or n. flame, SBr. Agny-Sg&ra, see 
agny-agdrd. Agny-atmaka, mf(ikd)n. having 
Agni's nature. Agny-adhana [KaushBr.] or 
-adh^ya [AV. ; Mn. &c.], n. placing the fire on 
the sacrificial fire-place ; the.ceremony of preparing 
the three sacred fires Ahavanlya &c.; (agnyddheya)- 
devatd, f. the deity of the Agnyidheya ceremony, 
ParGr. ; -rupd, n. form or shape of the A., SBr. ; 
-iarkara, as, f. plur. (figuratively) bad performance 
of the A., SBr. ; -hauls, n. an oblation at the A., 
SBr. Agny-Uaya, m. = agny-agdrd. Agny- 
ahlta, m. one who has performed the AgnySdhSna, 
R. &c. Ajny-utpSta, m. a fiery portent, Car. ; 
a conflagration, ParGf. Agny-utsadin, mfn. one 
who leu the sacred fire go out. Agny-nddharana, 

n. taking the sacred fire from its usual place (previous 
to a sacrifice). Agny-upasthana, n. worship of 
Agni at the conclusion of the Agnihotra &c., SBr. 
Agny-edha, m. one who kindles the fire, VS. 

Agnika, as, m. a plant, probably Semecarpus 
Anacardium ; a kind of serpent, Susr. ; an insect of 
scarlet colour, Coccinella ; (am), n. the Acayou-nut, 

Agnisat, ind. to the state of fire (used in comp. 
with t/i.i-riund Jbhft, e.g. agnisdt kri, to reduce 
to fire, to consume by fire), cf. bhasmasdt. 

"W^P^ agman, a, n. conflict, battle, L.; 
(connected with ajman, q. v.) 

WIT dgra, rafn. (fr. Vang, Un.), foremost, 
anterior, first, prominent, projecting, chief, best, L. ; 
supernumerary, L. ; (d), f. [scil. rekha] measure of 
amplitude (i. e. the distance from the extremity of 
the gnomon-shadow to the line of the equinoctial 
shadow), Suryas. ; (am), n. foremost point or part ; 
tip ; front ; uppermost part, top, summit, surface ; 
point ; and hence, figuratively, sharpness ; the near- 
est end, the beginning ; the climax or best part ; goal, 
aim ; multitude, L. ; a weight, equal to a pala, L. ; 
a measure of food given as alms, L. ; (in astron.) the 
sun's amplitude ; (am), ind. in front, before, ahead 
of; (dgrena), ind. in front, before (without or 
with ace.), SBr.; (dgre), ind. in front, ahead of, 
in the beginning, first ; further on, subsequently, 
below (in a book) ; from up to (d), SBr.; before 
(in time), AitUp. &c. [cf. Gk. aitpov]. -kara, 
m. the fore part of the hand, finger ; first ray ; Sis. 

kaya, m. the fore part of the body. ga, m. a 
leader. ganya, mfn. to be counted or regarded as 
the foremost, principal. gamin, mfn. preceding, 
taking the lead. grasika, f. the claim or right to 
the first morsel, Pan. iii, 3, 1 1 1, Kas. ja (cf. -jd), 
mfn. bom first or earlier ; (as), m. the first-born, an 
elder brother, Mn. &c. ; a Brahman, VarBrS. &c.; (d), 
f. an elder sister. jangha, f. the fore part of the 
leg, the shin-bone, L. janman, m. the first-bom, 
an elder brother ; a Brahman, Mn. ; Yajfi. &c. ; a 
member of one of the three highest castes, L. ; Brah- 
ma. Jit, mfn. first-born, RV. ix, 5, 9. jataka 
or -jati, m. a Brahman, L. jihva, n. tip of the 
tongue, VS. jya, f. sine of the amplitude, Suryas. 
ni, mfn. taking the lead, foremost ; N.of an Agni, 
MBh. - niti (dgra-), f. the first offering, RV. ii, 1 1, 
14. tas, ind.; see col. 3. tirtha, m., N. of a 
prince, MBh. datri, mfn. offering the best bits 
(to the gods), MBh. danin, m. a degraded Brah- 
man who receives presents from SQdras,or takes things 
previously offered to the dead, BrahmavP. didhi- 
shii, m. = agre-didhishu, TBr. nakha, m. tip 
of a nail, R. ; cf. nakhdgra. nasika, f. tip of the 
nose, R. ; cf. ndsikagra. nirupana, n. determin- 
ing beforehand, prophecy. parni, f. cowage, Car- 
popogon Pruriens. pa, mfn. drinking first, MBh. 

pani , in. fore part of the hand ; the right hand, 
L. pada, m. fore part of the foot, Sis. puJS, 
f. highest act of reverence, R. peya, n. preced- 
ence in drinking, AitBr. pradayin, mm. offering 
first, MBh. prasirna, mfn. broken at the top, 
SBr. by a, mfn. (said of plants) propagated by 
cuttings ; (as), m. a viviparous plant. bhaga (or 
agrdnsa), m. fore part ; (in astron.) degree of am- 
plitude; L L bhuj, mfn. having the precedence in 
eating, TAr. ; N. of the sun, MBh. bhB, mfn. 
being at the top, at the head of. bhumi, f. a goal, 
L. ; the top-floor (of a house), Megh. mahishi, 
f. the principal queen, R.; Jain. manna, n. the 
heart, L.; morbid protuberance of the liver. yana, 
n. stepping in front to defy the enemy. yayin, 
mm. going before, taking the lead ; (f), m. a leader, 
SSk. ySvan, mfn. going before, RV. x, 70, 2. 

yodhin, m. the foremost man or leader in a fight ; 
a champion. lohltS, f. a kind of vegetable, similar 
to the spinage. vaktra, n., N. of a surgical in- 
strument, Susr. vat (dgra-), mfn. being at the 
top, TS. saa, ind. from the beginning, AV. 

saxndhani, f. the register of human actions (kept 
by Yama), L. sandhya, f. early down. sara, 
mf (i) n. going in front, taking the lead. sanu, m. 
the front part of a table-land, L. sara, f. a short 
method of counting immense numbers. sucl.f. point 
of a needle, Naish. sena, m., N. of Janamejaya's 
son. hasta, m. = -pani; the tip of an elephant's 
trunk, Vikr. ; finger, R. hayana, m. 'commence- 
ment of the year,' N. of a Hindu month (Mdrga- 
iirsha, beginning about the 1 2th of November). 

hara, m. royal donation of land to Brahmanj; 
land or village thus given, M lih. Agransa = tigra- 
thaga. Agransu, m. the end of a ray of light, the 
focal point. Agrakshan, n. a side-look, R. A- 
graiignli, m. the finger-tip. Agradvan, mfn. 
having precedence in eating, RV. vi, 69, 6. Agra- 
nika, n. the front of an army, vanguard, Mn. &c. 
Agrayanlya, n. title of the second of the fourteen 
oldest ^but lost) Jaina books, called Purvas. Agra- 
sana, mfn. eating before another (abl.), MsrkP. 
Agrttsana, n. seat of honour. Agre-ga, &c.; 
see dgre below. Agretvan, m((ari)n. going in 
front, AV. Agrdpaharaniya, mfn. that which 
has to be first or principally supplied, Susr. 

Agratas, incl. in front, before ; in the beginning, 
first, RV. x, 90, 7 ; VS. ; (with gen.) before, in pre- 
sence of. Agratah- v/ 1 . kri, to place in front or 
at the head, to consider most important. Agra- 
tah-sara, mf(f)n. going in front, taking the lead. 

Agrima, nifn. being in front, preceding, prior, 
furthest advanced ; occurring further on or below (in 
a book, cf. dgre) ; the foremost, RV. v, 44, 9 ; eldest, 
principal, L. ; (d), f. the fruit Annona Reticulata. 

Agriya, mfn. foremost, principal, RV. ; oldest, 
first-born, RV. i, 13, 10; (as), m. elder brother, L. ; 
(dm), n. the first-fruits, the best part, RV. iv, 37, 4 
and probably ix, 71, 4. - vat, mfn. ; f. vatl (scil. 
ric}, N. of the hymn Rig-veda ix, 62, 25, quoted 
in LSty. 

Agriya, mfn. best, L. ; (as), m. elder brother, L. 

A'gre, ind. (loc.), see dgra. ga [RV. ix, 86, 45] 
or -gfa [TBr. &c.], mfn. going in front or before. 

gu, mfn. (said of the waters) moving forwards, 
VS.; SBr. -ni, m. a leader, VS. -tana, mfn. 
occurring further on, subsequently (in a book). da- 
dhus [MaitrS.] or -dadhlshu [KapS.] or -didhi- 
Bhn [MBh. ; Gaut.], m. a man who at his first mar- 
riage takes a wife that was married before ; (agre-di- 
dhishu or -didhishu),f. a married woman whose elder 
sister is still unmarried. pi [RV. iv, 34, 7 & 10] or 
-pu [VS. ; SBr.] , mfn. having the precedence in drink- 
ing. bhru(v^''O'),m. wandering in front, Pan. 
vi,4, 4O,Comm. vana,n. the border of a forest, (gana 
rdjadantadi, q.v.) vadha, m. hitting or killing 
whatever is in front, VS. sara, mf (i) n. going in 
front, preceding ; best, L. sarika, m. a leader, L. 

Agrya, mf(o)n. foremost, topmost, principal, best ; 
proficient, well versed in (with loc.) ; intent, closely 
attentive ; (as), m. an elder or eldest brother, L. ; 
(a), f. = tri-phald, q. v. ; (am), n. a roof, L. ta- 
pas, m., N. of a Muni, Kathas. 

^HJ?l!I a-grabhand, mfn. (Vyrabh=V 
grab), having nothing which can be grasped, RV. 
i, 116, 5. 

A-graha, mfn. ^mukhya (Comm.), MBh. iii, 
14189; BR. propose to read agra-ha, destroying 
the best part ; (as), m. non-acceptance ; a houseless 
man, i. e. a Vanaprastha, a Brahman of the third 
class, L. 

A-grahin, mfn. not taking ; not holding (said of 
a leech and of tools), Susr. 

A-grahya, mfn.not to be conceived or perceived 
or obtained or admitted or trusted ; to be rejected. 

A-grShyaka, mfn. not to be perceived, impal- 
pable, MBh. 

WillW) a-gramya, mfn. not rustic, town- 
made ; not tame, wild. 

^ffff agri, m. a word invented for the ex- 
planation of agni, SBr. 

^nj dgru, us, m. unmarried, RV. v, 44, 7 & 
vii, 96, 4 ; AV. ; (u), f. a virgin, RV. ; AV. ; nom. 
pi. agriivas, poetical N. of the ten fingers, RV. ; and 
also of the seven rivers, RV. i, 191, 14 & iv, 19, 
7 ; cf. Zend aghru. 

-U^i agh, cl. 10. P. aghayati, to go 
\ wrong, sin, L. 

Agha, mfn. bad, dangerous, RV. ; sinful, impure, 
BhP. ; (as)j m., N. of an Asura, BhP. ; (dm), n. 
evil, mishap, RV.; AV.; sin, impurity, Mn. &c.; 
pain, suffering, L. ; (as), f. pi. the constellation 
usually called MaghS, RV. x, 85, 13. -krit, mfn. 
doing evil or harm, an evil-doer, AV. ghna or 
-nasaka, mfn. sin-destroying, expiatory; (as), 
m. 'an expiator,' N. of Vishnu. deva, m., N. of 
a man, RSjat. -marshana, mfn. ' sin-effacingj' 
N. of a particular Vedic hymn [RV. x, 190] still used 
by BrShmans as a daily prayer, Mn. ; YSjfi. ; Gaut. ; 


(as), m., N. of the author of that prayer, son of Ma- 
dhucchandas ; (plur.) his descendants, Hariv. ; AsvSr. 
mara, mfn. fearfully destructive, AV. nid, 
mfn. 'howling fearfully,' N. of certain female demons, 
AV. vat, mfn. sinful ; [voc. aghavan or aghos, 
q. v.] visha (agkd-), mf(a)n. fearfully venomous, 
AV. sansa (agAd-), mfn. wishing evil, wicked, 
RV.; TBr. -sansa-han, m. slaying the wicked, 
RV. sansin, mfn. confessing sin, R. ; Das. ha- 
rana, n. removal of guilt, L. hara, m. an out- 
rageous robber, SV. ; AV. Agh&'sva, mf n . having 
a bad or vicious horse, RV. i, 1 1 6, 6 ; (d s) [accord- 
ing to NBD. fr. agka + \/svas~], m., N. of a snake, 
AV. Aghasura, m. Agha, Kapsa's general, BhP. 
Aghahan, n. inauspicious day, S.inkhSr. Aghaii- 
gha-marshana, mfn. destroying a whole mass of 

Aghala, mf(a)n. fearful, AV. ; SBr. ; SSnkhBr. 

Agliaya, Nom. P. aghdydti (part.>dV), to intend 
to injure, to threaten, RV. ; AV. 

Aghayii, mfn. intending to injure, malicious, RV. 


a-ghatamdna, mfn. incongruous, 


a-ghana, mfn. not dense or solid. 

a-gharma, mfn. not hot, cool. dha- 
, m. 'having cool splendour,' the moon. 

d-ghata, m. no injury, no damage, 

A-ghatln, mfn. not fatal, not injuriou's, harmless. 
A'-ghatnka, mfn. not injurious, MaitrS. 

a-ghdr(n, mfn. not anointing, AV. 

f a-ghdsaka, mfn. without food or 

T&1&S a-ghriya, mfn. incompassionate. 

A-ghrinln,mfn. not contemptuous, not disdainful. 

wfk d-ghora, mfn. not terrific; (as), m. 
a euphemistic title of Siva ; a worshipper of Siva and 
Durga ; (a), (. the fourteenth day of the dark half of 
Bhadra, which is sacred to Siva. ghoratara, 
mfn. having a form both not terrific and terrific, 
MaitrS. ghora-rnpa, m. 'having a form or nature 
both not terrific and terrific,' N. of Siva, MBh. 
cakshua (dghora-), mfn. not having an evil eye, 
RV. x, 85, 44. -pathin or -marga, m. a par- 
ticular sect of Saivas who eat loathsome food and are 
addicted to disgusting practices. pramana, n. a 
terrific oath, L. 

wtfta a-ghosha, as, m. (in Gr.) 'non-so- 
nance, absence of all sound or soft murmur,' hard 
articulation or effort as applied to the hard conso- 
nants and Visarga; (mfn.), soundless, hard (as the 
hard consonants). 

w*TU^ aghos, ind.,voc. ofagha-vat,O sin- 
ner ! Pan. viii, 3, 1, Sch. ; see also Pan. viii, 3, 1 7 seqq. 

VHi^d-ghnat, mf (ati) n. ( Vhan), not kill- 
ing, not injurious, RV. 

A'-ghnya (2, 3) or a-ghnya (a, 3), m. 'not to 
be killed,' a bull, and (a, a), f. a cow, RV.; AV.; 
(aghnya), said of a cloud, RV. x, 46, 3. 

WMM a-ghreya,mfn.(Vghrd), improper to 
be smelled at, Mn. 

a nk, cl. i. (connected with Vane) 
J. A. ankate,anahke, ahki$hyate,ahkitum, 
to move in a curve, L. ; cl. lo.Y.ahkayati, to move 
in a curve, L. ; to mark, stamp, brand. 

Aika, as, m. a hook, RV. i, 162, 13, &c. ; part 
of a chariot (used in the dual), TS. ; TBr. ; a curve ; 
the curve in the human, especially the female, figure 
above the hip (where infants sitting astride are 
^carried by mothers, hence often = 'breast' or 'lap'); 
the side or flank ; the body ; proximity, place ; the 
bend in the arm ; any hook or crooked instrument ; 
a curved line ; a numerical figure, cipher ; a figure 
or mark branded on an animal, &c. ; any mark, line, 
stroke, ornament, stigma ; a number ; the numbers 
one and nine ; a co-efficient ; an act of a drama ; a 
drama ; a military show or sham-fight ; a misdeed, 
a sin, L. [cf. Gk. a-jxas, d-vKoAij, a-jxiiv, Syncs, and 
Lat. uncus]. karana, n. the act of marking or 
stamping. kfira, m. a champion chosen by each 

side to decide a battle, B.llar.; ahkakarT-i/i.kri, 
to choose such a champion, Bilar. tantra, n., 
N. of a book treating of magical marks or figures. 
dharapa, f. manner of holding the body, figure, 
AsvSr. parivartana, n. turning the body, turn- 
ing on the other side. - pSda-vrata, n., N. of a 
chapter in the Bhavishyottara-Purana. -pall, f. 
or -palika, f. embracing, an embrace, I,. p51i, f. 
an embrace; a nurse, L.; the plant (Firing) Medi- 
cago Esculenta. pasa, m. a peculiar concatenation 
of numerals or numbers. - pasa-vyavahara, m. 
the use of that concatenation. pasadhyaya, 
m. the study of that concatenation. bandha, m. 
branding with a mark (that resembles a headless 
body), YjjH. -bhaj, mfn. (an infant) carried on 
the hip ^(forced fruit) nearly ripe, early ripe, Kir.; 
near one's side, in one's possession, close at hand, 
easy of attainment, -mukha, n. introductory act 
of a drama giving a clue to the whole plot. lodya, 
m. ginger, Cificoda or Cincotaka. vidyS, f. science 
of numbers, arithmetic. Ankanka, n. water, VS. 
AnkavatSra, m. the close of a dramatic act (pre- 
paring the ,-udience for the following one). 

Ankati, is, m. wind, L. ; fire, L. ; Brahma, L. ; 
a Brahman who maintains the sacred fire, L. ; N. 
of a teacher of the Sama-veda. 

Ankana, am, n. the act of marking, stamping, 
branding, ciphering, writing ; (mfn.1, marking. 

A'nkas, as, n. a curve or bend, RV. iv, 40, 4 ; cf. 
Gk. cfyfos. 

Ankasa, am, n. the flanks or the trappings of a 
horse, RV. iv, 40, 3. 


Aikin, mfn. possessing a hook, RV. iii, 45, 4; 
AV. &c. ; (f), m. a small drum, L. ; (int), f. a num- 
ber of marks, (gana khaladi, q. v.) 

Anki, f. a small drum, L. 

Anknta and ankudaka, as, m. a key, L. 

Ankupa, am, n. water/VS. 

Ankara, as, m. a sprout, shoot, blade ; a swell- 
ing, a tumour, Susr. ; a hair, L. ; blood, L. ; water, L. 

Ankuxaka, as, m. a nest, L. 

Anknrlta, mfn. sprouted. 

Anknsa, as, am, m. n. a hook, especially an ele- 
phant-driver's hook ; (a) or (i), f. one of the twenty- 
four Jaina goddesses, L. [cf. Gk. dyKiarpoy ; Germ. 
Anger]. graha, m. an elephant-driver. dur- 
dhara, m. a restive elephant. 

Anknslta, mfn. urged on by the hook. 

Ankusin, mm. having a hook, laying hold of with 
a hook, RV. x, 34, 7. 

Airkuyat, mfn. (fr. a Nom. aiitiiya, related to 
ahka), moving tortuously (to escape), R V. vi, 1 5, 1 7. 

AnkSra, as, m. a sprout, L. See aiitura. 

Anknsha, as, am, m. n. an ichneumon, Un. 
Comm. ; cf. angusAa. 

Ankya, mfn. fit or proper to be marked or counted ; 
(as), m. a small drum [cf. ankf], L. 

'H^-K ankara, as, m. ? diminution in 
music, L. 

W|jte nnkota, ankotha, ahkola, ankolla, an- 
kolaka, as, m. the plant Alangium Hexapetalum. 
Ankolla-sara, m. 'essence of Ankolla,' a poison 
prepared from the plant Ankolla, &c. 

VI f;) (pi* I ankolikd, f. (a corruption of ah- 
ka-pdlika, q. v.), an embrace, L. 

V^>~rt anktvd, ind. p. (Vailj), having be- 
smeared, PSn. vii, a, 62, Sch. 

j ankh, cl. 10. P. (p. ankhaydt), to stir 
up, mix, SBr. 

^Jri ofyi A.i. P. angati,ananga,angi- 
* *% turn, to go (cf. */ag) ; cl. 10. P. anga- 
yati, to mark (cf. /an&), L. 

Angana, am, n. walking, L. ; ' place to walk in,' 
yard ; see s. v. 

W^f i. ahgd, ind. a particle implying at- 
tention, assent or desire, and sometimes impatience ; 
it may be rendered by well ; indeed, true ; please ; 
rather ; quick ; kirn anga, how much rather I 

Angi (for anga in comp. with ^l.kri and its 
derivatives), karana, n. act of taking the side of, 
assenting, agreeing, promising. kfira, m. agree- 
ment, promise. -/Lkrl, to take the side of; to 

agree to, assent, promise, confess. krlta, mfn. 
agreed to, promised. krltl, f. agreement, promise. 

2- anga, am, n. ( \/am, Un.), a limb of 
the body ; a limb, member ; the body ; a subordinate 
division or department, especially of a science, as the 
six Vedaiigas ; hence the number six ; N. of the chief 
sacred texts of the Jainas ; a limb or subdivision of 
Mantra or counsel (said to be five, viz. I. karma- 
ndm drambkSpayah, means of commencing opera- 
tions ; 2. purusha-dravya-sampad, providing men 
and materials ; 3. desa-kdla-vibhaga, distribution 
of place and time ; 4. vipatti-pratikdra, counter- 
action of disaster ; 5. kdrya-siddhi, successful ac- 
complishment ; whence mantra is said to be paft- 
c&nga) ; any subdivision, a supplement ; (in Gr.) the 
base of a word, but in the strong cases only, Pan. i, 
4. '3 X 11- 1 anything inferior or secondary, anything 
immaterial or unessential, xtanga-td; (in rhetoric) 
an illustration ; (in the drama) the whole of the sub- 
ordinate characters ; an expedient ; a mental organ, 
the mind, L. ; (as), m. sg. or (as), m. pi., N. of 
Bengal proper or its inhabitants; (sg.), N. of a king 
of Aiiga ; (mfn.), having members or divisions, L. ; 
contiguous, L. kartana, n. cutting off a limb. 

karman, n. or -kriya, f. a supplementary sacri- 
ficial act. kashaya, m. the essence of the body 
(said of the semen virile), SBr. graha, m. 'limb- 
seizure,' spasm, Susr. ja, mfn. produced from or 
on the body ; ornamental, L. ; produced by a supple- 
mentary ceremony; (as), m. a son, L.; hair of the 
head, L. ; the god of love, L. ; intoxicating pas- 
sion, L. ; drunkenness, L. ; a disease, L.; (a), f. a 
daughter; (am), n. blood, -janus, m. a son. 

jata, mfn. produced from or on the body ; orna- 
mental ; produced by a supplementary ceremony. 

J vara, mfn. causing fever, AV. 15, f. or -tva, 
n. a state of subordination or dependance ; the 
being of secondary importance, the being unessential. 

da, m., N. of a brother of Rama ; of a son of 
Gada ; of an ape, son of Balin ; (a), f. the female 
elephant of the south ; (am), n. a bracelet worn on 
the upper arm. dvipa, m. one of the six minor 
Dvlpas. nySsa, m. ceremony of touching certain 
parts of the body. pall, f. an embrace, L. ; see 
ahka-pdli. - prayascitta, n. expiation of bodily 
impurity, especially that arising from death in a family. 

bb.5, m. son, Sis. bheda, mfn. causing rheuma- 
tism, AV. -mar da or -mar dak a or -mardln, 
m. a servant who shampoos his master's body ; ahga- 
marda also rheumatism, Car. marslia, m. pain in 
the limbs, rheumatism. marsha-praaamana, 
n. alleviation of rheumatism. m-ejayatva (iiri- 
gam-ef"), n. the trembling of the body, Yogas. 

yashtl, f. a slender form, fairy-figure. yaga, m. 
a subordinate sacrificial act. rakta, m. the plant 
GundSrqcanl. rakshani or -rakshim, f. 'body- 
protector,' a coat of mail, L. raga, m. application 
of unguents or cosmetics to the body (especially after 
bathing); scented cosmetic. - rSj or -raja, m., N. 
of Karna, king of Anga. rajya, n. kingdom of 
Aiiga. rnna, mfn. 'growing on the body,' hair, 
wool, down, &c. lipi.f. written character of Anga. 

loka, m. the country Anga. lodya, m. a sort 
of grass; ginger, or its root. - vak-pani-mat,mfn. 
possessing mind (?), speech, and hands, -vikriti, 
f. change of bodily appearance, collapse ; fainting, 
apoplexy. vikshepa, m. gesticulation ; movement 
of the limbs and arms ; a kind of dance. - vidya, 
f. knowledge of lucky or unlucky marks on the 
body, Chiromantia, Mn. vi, 50, &c. vaikrita, 
n. a wink, nod, sign. sas, ind. into parts, SBr. 
- samskara, m. or -samskriya, f. embellisTiment 
of person, bathing, perfuming and adorning the body. 

sarnhati, f. compactness of limb, symmetry of 
body. - aamhltfi, f. the SamhitS or phonetic re- 
lation between consonants and vowels in the body 
of a word, TS. Prat. sanga, m. ' bodily contact," 
coition, L: skandha, m. a subdivision of a science. 

sparsa, m. bodily contact, -hara [Kathas.] or 
-hSri [L.], m. gesticulation. hlna, mfn. limbless, 
mutilated ; incorporeal ; (as), m. Kamadeva. An- 
gaigl, ind. jointly or reciprocally, related as one 
limb to another or to the body. Angangl-tS, f. 
mutual relation or correlation as between the limbs, 
or a limb and the body, or between subordinate and 
the principal, or principal and accessory. Angangl- 
bhava, m. correlation between the limbs of a body ; 
the mutual relation or correlation of the different 
limbs or members of anything, as in a simile or com- 



parison between the principal parts or features of any 
object and those of the thing compared to it. An- 
gadhlpa, in. Karna, the king of Aiiga. Anganu- 
kula, mfn. agreeable to the body, Megh. Ahga- 
nulepana, n. anointing the body. Angapnrva, 
n. cflect of a secondary sacrificial act, L. Angsvara, 
m. the king of Anga. Ange-shthS, mfn. situated 
in a member or in the body, AV. Angoncha, m. 
or angonchana, n. a towel, L. 

Angaka, am, n. a limb, member, body ; (**a), 
f. a bodice, a jacket, L. 

Ahgin, mfn. having limbs, corporeal, having sub- 
ordinate parts, principal ; having expedients. 

Angiya, mfn. relating to the Anga country, (gana 
gahadi, q. v.) 

Angya (3), mfn. belonging to the limbs, RV. i, 

I angana, am, n. See ahgcma. 

angati, is, m. (Vag), fire, L. ; a 
BrJhman who maintains a sacred fire, L. ; BrahmS, 
L. ; Vishnu, L. ; cf. ahkaii. 

^Tg^ angana, am,n. ( v/a#,q.v.),the act 
of walking, L. ; place to walk in, yard, court, area ; 
(d), f. 'a woman with well-rounded limbs/ any 
woman or female ; (in astron.) Virgo ; the female 
elephant of the north. Angana-gana, m. a number 
of women. Aigana-jana, m. a female person. 
Angana-priya, m. 'dear to women,' N. of the tree 
jonesia Asoca. 

Angana, am, n. a yard, court, area. 

angabha, m. a kind of rice, L. 
aitjava, as, m. dried fruit, L. 

s, as, n. (Vahj, Un.), a bird, L. 

. dngara, as, m., (rarely) am, n.(Vag 
or ahg, Un., cf. agni), charcoal, either heated or not 
heated ; (as}, m. the planet Mars ; N. of a prince of 
the Maruts, Hariv. ; the plant Hitivali ; (as), m. pi., 
N. of a people and country, VP. [cf. Lith. angli-s ; 
Russ. iigolj ; also Germ. Kohle ; Old Germ, col and 
cola; Eng. coat\. kSrin and -krit [Hpar.],m. 
charcoal-burner. knshthaka, m. the plant Hit5- 
vall. dhani or -dnSnika, f. a portable fire-place. 

paripacita, n. roasted food. parna, m., N. 
of Citraratha, chief of the Gandharvas, MBh. ; (i), 
f. Clerodendron Siphonanthus. patri, f. a port- 
able fire-place. puhpa, m. the plant Ingudi 
(Vulg. Ingua). manjarl or -manji, f. the shrub 
Cesalpinia Banducella. vallari or -valli, f. (va- 
rious plants), Galedupa Arborea ; Ovieda Verticallata ; 
BhJrgt ; Gunji. - sakatl, f. a portable fire-place 
on wheels. setn, m., N. of a prince, father of 
GandhSra. Angaravak shay ana, n. an instru- 
ment for extinguishing coals, SBr. xiv. 

Angaraka, as, m. charcoal ; heated charcoal ; the 
planet Mars ; Tuesday ; N. of a prince of Sauvlra ; 
of a Rudra ; of an Asura, KathSs. ; N. of two plants, 
Eclipta (or Verbesina) Prostrata, and white or yellow 
Amaranth ; (am), n. a medicated oil in which tur- 
meric and other vegetable substances have been boiled. 

dina, m. n. a festival of Mars on the fourteenth 
of the latter half of Caitra. man!, m. coral (am- 
ber). vara, m. Tuesday. 

Angarakita, mfn. charred, roasted, burnt, (gana 
t&rakadi, q. v.) 

Ahgari.iV, f. a portable fire-place,. L. 

Angarika, f. the stalk of the sugar-cane ; the bud 
of the Kinsuka or Butea Frondosa. 

Ang&rlta, mfn. charred, roasted, (gana tJrakiidi, 
q. v.) ; ' burnt, 1 a kind of food not to be accepted by 
Jaina ascetics, Jain. ; (a), (. a portable fire-place, 
L. ; a bud, L. ; N. of a creeper, L. ; of a river, L. ; 
(am), n. the early blossom of the Kinsuka. 

Aig&rin, mfn. heated by the sun, though no longer 
exposed toits rays, VarBrS. [generally f.(pi)> sc '''^> 
the region just left by the sun] ; N. of a creeper. 

AngSriya, mfn. fit for making charcoal, Pin. v, 
I, 1 2, Sch. 

AngaryS, f. a heap of charcoal, (gana/ai&ft, q.v.) 

angikd. See ahgaka. 

angir, ir, m. (Vang, Un.), N. of a 
Rishi, who received the BrahmavidyS from Athar- 
van, and imparted it te SatyavSha, the teacher of 
Angiras, MundUp. 

j;nglra,<jj, m. = dhgiras, RV. i, 83, 4&iv, 51, 
4 ; MBh. ; Y JjS. ; (cf. Gk. &fyt\os and dfyapos.) 

Angiras, iis, m., N. of a Rishi, author of the 
hymns of RV. ix, of a code of laws, and of a 
treatise on astronomy (he is said by some to have 
been born from Brahml's mouth, and to have been 
the husband of Smfiti, of Sraddhl, of two daughters 
of Maitreya, of several daughters of Daksha, &c. ; he 
is considered as one of the seven Rishis of the first 
Manvantara, as a PrajJpati, as a teacher of the Brah- 
mavidyS, which he had learnt from SatyavSha, a de- 
scendant of Bharadvaja, &c. Among his sons, the 
chief is Agni, others are Samvarta, Utathya, and 
Brihaspati ; among his daughters are mentionnd Sini- 
vall, K nl in. Raka, Anumati, and AkupJrl ; but the 
Ricas or Vedic hymns, the manes of Havishmat, and 
mankind itself are styled his offspring. In astronomy 
he is the planet Jupiter, and a star in Ursa Major) ; 
N. of Agni, MBh. ; (asas), m. pi. descendants of 
Angiras or of Agni (mostly personifications of lumi- 
nous objects) ; the hymns of the Atharva-veda, TS. ; 
priests who by using the magical formulas of those 
hymns protect the sacrifice against the effects of in- 
auspicious accidents. tama (dhgiras-), mfn. hav- 
ing the luminous quality of the Angirasas in the 
highest degree, said of Agni and of Ushas, RV. 

vat, ind. like Angiras, RV.; VS.; (dngiras-vat), 
mfn. connected with or accompanied by the Angi- 
rasas, RV. ; VS. 

Anglrasa, as, m. an enemy of Vishnu in his in- 
carnation of Parasurima. 
Angirasam-ayana, am, n. a Sattra sacrifice. 

angt. See I. anga. 

anguri, is, or anguri [L.], f. (for 
anguli, q. v.), a finger, AV. ; a toe ; (cf. an-ahgvrl, 
pancahguri, sv-ahgurl.) 

Angurlya or yaka, as, am, m. n. a finger- 

WJfc5 ahgula, as, m. ( Vag orang),& finger; 
the thumb ; a finger's breadth, a measure equal to 
eight barley-corns, twelve angulas making a vitasti 
or span, and twenty-four a hasta or cubit ; (in astron. ) 
a digit, or twelfth part ; N. of the sage Cinakya, L. 

pramana or -mana, n. the measure or length of 
an angula ; (mfn.), having the length of an angula. 

Angulaka, ifc. = angula, i. e. so many angulas 
or fingers long. 

Angull, is, (orangult), (. a finger ; a toe ; the 
thumb ; the great toe ; the finger-like tip of an ele- 
phant's trunk; the measure angula. tor ana, n. 
a sectarial mark on the forehead consisting of three 
fingers or lines shaped like an arch or doorway (to- 
riinii}, drawn with sandal or the ashes of cow-dung. 

tra, n. a finger-protector, a contrivance like a 
thimble (used by archers to protect the thumb or 
finger from being injured by the bowstring), R. &c. ; 
-vat, mfn. provided with it. trana, n. = -tra, R. 

mukha or angull-mxikha, n. the tip of the 
finger, Sis. mudra or -mudrikS, f. a seal-ring. 

motana, n. snapping or cracking the fingers. 

veshtaka, m. or -veshtana, n. a glove (?). 

shanga, m. contact of the fingers ; act of finger- 
ing ; (mm.), sticking to the fingers. samdeoa, m. 
snapping or cracking the fingers as a sign. spho- 
tana, n. snapping or cracking the fingers. An* 
gnll-pancaka, n. the five fingers. Anguli- 
parvan, n. a fiager-joint. Anguli^sambhiita, 
m. 'produced on the finger," a finger nail. Anguly- 
agra, n. the tip of the finger, SBr. Angaly-adl 
(ahgult-), a gana of Pin. (v, 3, 108). 

An guliy a or angnliy aka, am, n. a finger-ring ; 
also ahgulika, L. 

Angiishtha, as, m. the thumb ; the great toe ; 
a thumb's breadth, usually regarded as equal to an 
angula. mfitra,mf(l)n. or-m&traka, mf(ikif)n. 
having the length or size of a thumb. 

Angnshthika, f., N. of a shrub. 

Angnshthya, as, m. belonging to the thumb (the 
thumb nail). 

<( angiisha, as, m. (Vang or ag), 'mov- 
ing rapidly,' an ichneumon ; an arrow. 


Angha (not in use, but equivalent to aghd), evil, 
sin, L. Anghari, m. 'an enemy to sin or evil,' N. 
of a celestial guard of the Soma, VS. [blazing, T.] 

Ahghas, n. sin, Hariv. 

Anghri, is, in. a foot ; foot of a scat ; the root 
of a tree [cf. anfirf]. namaka, m. or -naman, 
n, a synonym of ahghri, means always foot as well 
as root, pa, m. (drinking with the foot or root), 
a tree. parnj or -valli or -vallika, f. the plant 
Hedysarum Lagopodioides. pana, mfn. sucking 
the foot or toes (as an infant), L. ikandlia, m. 
the ancle. 

ipiu ^i (connected with Vatic, q.v.), 

Ncl. i. P. A. dfati, dacati, te, ananca, 

ce, to go, move, tend ; to honour ; to make round or 

curved ; to request, ask, L. ; to speak indistinctly, 

L. See 3. atita, dcishtu. 

^f\ 2. ac, a technical term for all the 
vowels, Pin. Aj-anta. mfn. ending in a vowel. 

'W^'ili a-cakrd, mfn. having no wheels; 
not wanting wheels, i. e. moving by itself, RV. 

^f^TSp^ a-cakskus, us, n. a bad eye, no 
eye ; (mfn.), blind. A-cakahur-vishaya, mfn. not 
or no longer within reach of the eyes, invisible. 
Acakshush-tva, .n. blindness. 

A-cakshushka, mfn. destitute of eyes, SBr. xiv; 

^T^?!J a-canda, mfn. not of a hot temper, 
gentle, tractable ; (i), (. a tractable cow. 

^T^rjt. a-catura, mfn. destitute of four, 
having less than four ; not cunning, not dexterous. 
a-candra, mfn. moonless. 

ahgoshin, mfn. ' resonant (?), 
praiseworthy (?),' N. of the Soma, SV. 

dngya. See col. i. 

atffh, cl. i . A. ahghate, anahghe, 
to go, set out, set about, commence, L.; 
to hasten, L. ; to speak hastily, blame, L. 

a-capala,m(n. not oscillating, not 
wavering, not fickle ; unmovable, steady. 
A-capalya, am, n. freedom from unsteadiness. 

WMt a-cara or d-carat [RV.], mfn. im- 

^T^I,H d-carama, mfn. not last, not least ; 
said of the Maruts, RV. v, 58, 5. 

W^cR a-carmdka, mfn. having no skin, 

W*T55 a-cala, mf(a)n. not moving, immov- 
able ; (as), m. a mountain, rock ; a bolt or pin ; the 
number seven ; N. of Siva and of the first of the 
nine deified persons, called ' white Balas ' among the 
Jainas ; of a Devarshi, VP. ; (a), f. the earth ; one 
of the ten degrees which are to be ascended by a 
Bodhisattva before becoming a Buddha. kila, f. 
the earth. tvish, m. the Kokila or Indian cuckoo. 
dnriti, f. a metre of four lines, of sixteen short 
syllables each, also called Gltyaryi. -pura, n., N. 
of a town, Jain. bhratri, m., N. of a BrShman 
from Oude, who became one of the eleven heads of 
Ganas among the Jainas. matt, m., N. of a 
MSraputra. sreshtha, m. chief of mountains. 
Acaladhipa, m. 'king of mountains,' the Hima- 
laya. Acala-saptami, f., N. of a book in the 

a-cdru, mfn. not pretty, Pan. 

a-etf, mfn. without understanding, 
RV. ; irreligious, bad, RV. ; (the NBD. suggests to 
take a-clt as a f. ' not-knowledge ;' Siy. sometimes 
explains by Vd, ' neglecting the Agnicayana, irre- 
ligious;') a-cit, f. not-spirit, matter, Sarvad. 

A-cikitvas, an, us In, at, not knowing, ignorant 
of, RV. i, 164, 6. 

A-citta, mm. unnoticed, unexpected ; not an ob- 
ject of thought; inconceivable, RV. ; destitute of 
intellect or sense, -pajas and -manai (dcitta-), 
m., N. of two Rishis, MaitrS.; KJth. 

A'-cittl, is, f. want of sense, infatuation, RV. ; 
AV. ; (figuratively said of) an infatuated wan, RV. 
iv, 3, ii ; VS. 

1. d-cita, mfn. not heaped up. 

2. acita, mfn. (Vac), gone, L. 
Acisntu, mfn. moving, VS. 

wfacf a-citrd, mfn. not variegated, un- 
distinguishable ; (dm), n. undistingjiishableness, dark- 
ness, RV. iv, 51, 3 & vi, 49, ii. 

a-cintd, f. thoughtlessness. 


A-cintlta, mfn. not thought of, unexpected, di 

A'-ointya, infn. inconceivable, surpassing though 
MaitrS. &c. ; (as), m., N. of Siva. karman, mfi 
performing inconceivable actions. rupa, mfn. hav 
ing an inconceivable form. 



; a-cira, mfn. not of long duration 
brief; instantaneous, recent ; (am, at, ma), ind. no 
long, not for long ; not long ago ; soon, speedily 
(a), f. the mother of the Jaina saint Santi. dyut 
or -prabha, f. lightning. - prasuta, f. ' havin 
recently brought forth, ' a cow that has recently cal ve< 
bhas, f. lightning, Sak. mrita, mfn. recentl 
deceased. rocia, f. or aciransu, in. or acirabha 
f. lightning. 

' dcishtu. See 2. acita. 

I a-cetana,mfn. without conscious 
ness, inanimate ; unconscious, insensible, senseless, 
fainting, &c. 

A-cetas, mfh. imprudent, RV. ; unconscious, in 

A'-cetana, mfn. thoughtless, infatuated, RV. vi 

A-caitanya, am, n. unconsciousness ; insensi 
bility ; senselessness, want of spirituality; that whicl 
is destitute of consciousness, matter. 

W^H a-ceshta,mfn. effortless, motionless 
ta, f. loss of motion from fainting, &c. 

'enrfan^a-co<fa'<,mfn.(v / CM<i), not driving 
or impelling, RV. v, 44, 2. 

A-codas, mfn. free from compulsion or externa 
stimulus, spontaneous, RV. ix, 79, i. 

Wa i.a-ccha, mfn. (fr. a + cha for chac 
or chdyd, -Jehad), 'not shaded,' 'not dark,' pel- 
lucid, transparent, clear ; (as), m. a crystal, L. Ac- 
choda, mfn. having clear water ; (a), f., N. of a 
river ; (am), n., N. of a lake in the Himalaya 
formed by the river AcchodS. 

A-cchaya, mfh. without shadow, casting no sha- 
dow, RV. x, 27, 14 ; SBr. xiv. 

W3S 2. accha, as, m. (corruption of riksha), 
a bear, bhalla, m. a bear, Balar. (cf. lihalla). 

wa 3. accha (so at the end of a pada), or 
usually dcchd, ind., Ved. to, towards (governing ace. 
and rarely the locative). It is a kind of separable 
preposition or prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives, 
as in the following. 

A'ccha- -/i or accha- t/gsan or accha-\/car, 
to attain, go towards, RV. &c. 

A'ccha--v / 2. dru, to run near, RV. iii, 14, 3. 

A'ccha- \/dhanv, to ran towards, RV. iii, 53, 4. 

A'ccha- -y/naksh, to go towards, approach, RV. 
vi, 32, 5. 

Accha- vi. nai, to come near, RV. 

A'ccha- v'nl, to lead towards or to, RV. 

A'ccha- V;. nu, to call out to, to cheer, RV. 

A'ccha-Vpat [SBr.] and Caus. P. -patayati 
RV. v, 45, q], to fly towards. 

Accha- \/bru, to invite to come near, PBr. 

A'ccha- Vya or accha- VySi to approach, RV. ; 

A'ccha- (/vac, to invite, RV. 
Accha- vaka, m. 'the inviter,' title of a particular 
priest or Ritvij, one of the sixteen required to per- 
form the great sacrifices with the Soma juice. 

Accha vaklya, mfn. referring to the acchavaka ; 
containing the word acchavaka, Pin. v, 2, 59, Sch. ; 
(am), n. the state or work of the acchSvUka, Pan. 
v, I, 135, Sch. 

Accha- Vvafic, Pass, -vacydfe, to extend itself 
towards, to go towards, RV. i, 142, 4. 

A'ccha-VVad, to salute, RV. &c. 

A'echS-v'vrit (Opt. A. i. sg. -vavniiya), to 
cause to come near, RV. i, 1 86, IO. 

Aiecha-v'ari, to flow near, RV. ix, 92, 2. 

A'ccha- Vsy and, Caus. to flow near (aor. -tisi- 
shyadat), RV. ix, 81, 2: cause to flow near 
(part. nom. sg. m. -sanishyadaf), RV. ix, 1 1 o, 4. 

A'ccheta, mfn. approached, attained,_VS. 

Acchetya, mfn. to be approached, ApSr. 

A'cchokti, is, (. invitation, RV. 

VMf\jA d-cchidra, mfn. free from clefts or 
flaws, unbroken, uninterrupted, uninjured; (am), 
n. unbroken or uninjured condition, an action free 
from defect or flaw; (cna), ind. uninterruptedly, 

without break from first to last. kanda, n., N. 
of a chapter of the Taittiriya-Brahmana. ' Acchi- 
drdti, mfn. affording perfect protection, RV. i, 145, 
3. A'cchidrddhui, f. (a cow) having a faultless 
udder, RV. x, 133, 7. 

A'-cchidyamana, mfn. uncut, uncurtailed, AV. ; 
not fragile (a needle), RV. ii, 32, 4. 

A'-cchinna, mfn. uncut, uncurtailed, uninjured ; 
undivided, inseparable. pattra (dcchinna-), 
mf(/z)n. (said of goddesses, of a bird, of an altar shaped 
like a bird), having the wings uncurtailed, uninjured, 
RV. i, 23, II; VS.; having uninjured leaves, VS. 
pariia, mfn. having uninjured leaves, AV. 

A-cchedika, mfn. not fit or needing to be cut, 
Pin. vi, 2, 155, Sch. 

A-cchedya, mfn. improper or impossible to be 
cut, indivisible. 

a-cchupta, f., N. of one of the six- 
teen VidySdevls of the Jamas. 

wa^lVqiT acchurika or accAurt, f. discus, 
wheel, BhP. 

TSjpT d-cyuta ora-cyufa'.mfn. not fallen; 
firm, solid ; imperishable, permanent ; not leaking 
or dripping ; (as), m., N. of Vishnu ; of Krishna ; 
of a physician ; the plant Morinda Tinctoria ; N. of 
a gift to Agni, SBr. -kshit, m. 'having solid 
ground,' N. of Soma, VS. - cyut, mfn. shaking firm 
objects (said of the thunderer Indra), RV. ; (said 
of a drum), AV. Ja, as, m. pi. a class of Jaina 
deities. jallakin, m., N. of a commentator of the 
Amara-Kosha. danta or acjrutanta, m., N. of 
the _ancestor of a warrior tribe called Acyutadanti 
or Acyutanti (though possibly these refer to two 
distinct tribes). pajas and -manas (dcyula-), 
m., N. of two Maharshis, TAr. mSrti, m., N. of 
Vishnu, rush, f. inveterate hatred. vasa, m. 
the sacred fig-tree, Ficus Religiosa ; acyulAvdsa, 
id., T. sthala, n., N. of a place in the Panjab, 
MBh. Acjrutagraja, m. (Vishnu's elder brother), 
Balarama ; Indra. A'cyntopadhyaya, m. = 
acyuta-jallakin, q.v. 

aj, cl. i. P. (defect., supplemented 
fr. Vvi), djati, djit, ajitum, to drive, 
propel, throw, cast : Desid. ajijfshati, to be desirous 
of driving [cf. Gk. 070;; Lat. ago], 

I. Aja, as, m. a drove, troop (of Marats), AV. ; 
a driver, mover, instigator, leader ; N. of Indra, of 
iudra, of one of the Maruts [ajd tka-pdd, RV., 
and ajd Ika-pdda, AV.], of Agni, of the sun, of 
3rahmS, of Vishnu, of Siva, of Kama (cf. 2. a-ja); 
the leader of a flock ; a he-goat, ram [cf. Gk. alf, 
alfis ; Lith. oys] ; the sign Aries ; the vehicle of 
Agni ; beam of the sun (PQshan) ; N. of a descendant 
of Visvamitra, and of Dasaratha's or DlrghabJhu's 
ather; N. of a mineral substance; of a kind of rice; 
of the moon ; (as), m. pi!, N. of a people, RV. vii, 

" 19; of a class of Rishis, MBh. ; (a), f., N. of 
'rakriti, of MSya 1 or Illusion, see a-jd (s. v. 2.a-jd~) ; 
a she-goat ; N. of a plant whose bulbs resemble the 
udder of a goat, Susr. karna, m. a goat's ear ; 
he tree Terminalia Alata Tomentosa. karnaka, 
m. the Sal-tree, Shorea Robusta. HIS, f.,N. of 

town of the Bodhis. kshira, n. goat's milk, 
MaitrS.; cf. Pan. vi, 3, 63, Sch. -gandha or 
gandhikS, f. 'smelling like a he-goat,' shrabby 
asil, Ocymum Gratissimum. gandhim, f. a 
\*nt,=aja-srihgf, q.v. ffara, m. ('goat-swal- 
ower '), a huge serpent, boa constrictor, AV. &c. ; 

. of an Asura ; (t), (., N. of a plant. - gallika, 

'goat's cheek,' an infantile disease. jivana or 
livika, m. ' who lives by goats,' a goat-herd. ta, 

a multitude of goats ; the being a goat tva 
TS. ; cf. Pin. vi, 3, 64, Sch.] or aja-tva, n. the 
)eing a goat. dandi, f. a plant, = brahmadandi. 

devata, as, f. pi. the 25th lunar mansion. 

namaka, m. ' named Aja or Vishnu,' a mineral 
ubstance. pa, m. a goat-herd. patha. m. 

goat's road,' probably = aja-vithi, q.v. pada 
-pada, mfn. goat-footed. pSd, m., N. of the 
Vinity called Aja ikapad. parsva, m. 'having 
ack sides like a goat, N. of Svetakarna's son Ra- 
valocana. pala, m. a goat-herd, VS.; N. of 
lasaratha's father. babhru (aja-}, n. said to be 
le father or origin of a medical plant, AV. v, 5, 8. 

bhaksha, m. 'goat's food,' the plant Varvura. 

mayu (ajd-\ m. bleating like a goat (a frog), 
.V. vii, 103, 6 & 10. mara, m., N. of a tribe 

or prince, (gana hiru-SJi, q. v.) midha or 
-nulha, m., N. of a son of Suhotra (author of some 
Vedic hymns, RV. iv, 43 & 44) ; of a grandson of 
Suhotra; of Yudhishjhira. mnkha, mfn. goat- 
faced ; _(t), (., N. of a RSkshasi. - mern, N. of a 
place, Ajmlr (?). moda, m. or -mods or -modi- 
ka, f. 'goat's delight,' N. of various plants, common 
Carroway, the species called Ajwaen (Ligusticum 
Ajwaen), a species of Parsley, Apium Involucratum. 
rshabha (risk}, m. a he-goat, SBr. lam- 
bana, n. antimony. loman, m. or -loml, f. 
Cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens ; (d), n. goat's hair, 
SBr. &c. vaati, m., N. of arribe,(gana^/-!j^Ay-aa' 
and sub/iradi, q.v.); (ayas), m. pi. the members 
of that tribe, (gana yaskadi, q. v.) - vaha, m., 
N. of a district, -vlthi, f. 'goat's road,' N. of one 
of the three divisions of the southern path, or one of 
the three paths in which the sun, moon, and planets 
move, comprehending the asterisms mula, piirva- 
shajha, and uttarashatfha. irlngi, f. 'goat's 
horn,' the shrub Odina Wodier, used as a charm and 
as a^remedy for sore eyes, AV. (its fruit resembles a 
goat's horn). stunda, n., N. of a town, Pan. vi, 
* *S5- ha, f. =a-ja4d, q.v. ; the plant Alkusi, 
T. A.ia-kripamya, mfn. like the goat and shears 
in the fable, Pjn. v, 3, 106, Sch. Aja-kshlra, n. 
goat's milk, SBr. &c. ; cf. aja-kshtrd. Aja-g-ala, 
m. goat's neck. Ajagala-stana, m. nipple or 
fleshy protuberance on the neck of goats, an emblem 
of any useless or worthless object or person. AjS- 
Jiva, m. ' who lives by goats,' a goat-herd. AjS- 
tanlvali, m., N. of a Muni who lived on the milk 
of goats (an example of compounds in which the 
middle term is left out, gana Sakapdrthivadi, 
q.v.) Ajada, m. 'goat-eater,' the ancestor of 
a warrior tribe, Pan. iv, I, 171. Aj&danl, f. a 
species of prickly night-shade. Ajadi, a gana of 
Pan. (iv, I, 4). AJantrl, f. the pot-herb Convol- 
vulusArgenteus. AJa-payai, n. goat's milk. AjB- 
palaka, mfn. tending goats ; (as), m. a goat-herd. 
L. Ajavi, m. pi. (ajdvdyas, SBr.) or ajavlka, 
n. sg. goats and sheep, small cattle. AJasva, n. 
goats and horses, Yjja. ; (as), m. POshan or the Sun 
(having goats for horses), RV. AJaikapad, m., N. 
of Vishnu ; of one of the eleven Rudras ; cf. I . ajd. 
Ajaldaka, n. goats and rams, (gana gavasvadi, 

Ajaka, as, m., N. of a descendant of Purflravas ; 
of a king of Magadha ; (akd or Ota), f. a young 
she-goat ; a disease of the pupil of the eye (small 
reddish tumours compared to kids, protruding 
through the transparent cornea and discharging pus). 
AjakS-jSta, n. the above disease. 
Ajana, ajani, ajma, &c. See s. r. 
^9>f 2. a-jd, mfn. not born, existing from 
all eternity; (ds), m., N. of the first uncreated being, 
RV. ; AV. ; Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Kama ; (a), f., 
N. of Prakriti, Mays or Illusion (see also I. ajd and 
I. ajana). 

Vm<*q ajakava, at, m. Siva's bow, L. 

Ajakava, mfh., N. of a sacrificial vessel dedicated 
to Mitra and Varuna and (according to the Comm,) 
having an ornament similar to the fleshy protuber- 
ance called ajd-gala-stana, q.v., SBr. ; (ds or dm), 
m. or n. a species of venomous vermin, centipede or 
scorpion, RV. vii, 50, 1 ; (as, am), m. n.Siva's bow, L. 

Ajag-ava, as, m. Siva's bow, L. ; the southern 
portion of the path of the sun, moon, and planets ; 
(as), m., N. of a snake priest, PBr. 

AjagSva, m., N. of a snake demon, TlndyaBr. ; 
cf. djagdva; (am), n. Siva's bow, L. ; N. of the 
sacrificial vessel also called ajakava (q. v.), ApSr. 

^1M" a-jaghanya, mfn. not last; not 

d-jaghnivas, rai(d-jaglinushi)n, 
(/hari), not having killed, RV. viii, 56, 15. 

iii a-jata, f. Flacourtia Cataphracta, 
= ajaifd and ajjhatd. 

^tff a-jada, mfn. not inanimate, not tor- 
pid, not stupid ; (a), f. the plants AjatS and Kapi- 
kacchu (Carpopogon Prariens). dhi, mfn. of a 
vigorous mind, energetic. 

ajathya, f. yellow jasmin. 
i. ajana, as, m. (\/<y') 'the insti- 

gator,' Brahma ; (am), n. act of instigating or 


moving. yoni-ja, m. ' bom from Ajana,' N. of 
Ajani, is, f. a path, road, Nir. 

^TSTT 2.0-jand, mfn. destitute of men; 
desert ; (as), m. an insignificant person. 

A-janani, is, f. (generally used in cursing), non- 
birth, cessation of existence ; ajananir astu tasya, 
'may he cease to exist !' Paiicat. ; cf. Pan. iii, 3, 1 1 2. 

A -j any a, mfn. improper to be produced or bom ; 
unfit for mankind ; (am), n. any portent unfavour- 
able to mankind, as an earthquake. 

f aj-anta, mfn. See 2. ac. 

I.a-japa, as, m. (Vjap), one who 
does not repeat prayers ; a reciter of heterodox 
works, L. ; (a), i. the mantra or formula called 
hansa (which consists only of a number of inhalations 
and exhalations). 

'Hill 2.aja-pa, m. See i. ajd. 

"Jl*T a-jambha, as, m. 'toothless,' a frog. 

<cniM a-jaya, as, m. non-victory ( defeat; 

(mfn.), unconquered, unsurpassed, invincible ; (as), 
m., N. of Vishnu; of a lexicographer; of a river; 
(a), (. hemp ; N. of a friend of Durgl ; MSyS or 

A-jayya, mfn. invincible ; improper to be won 
at play. 

^T5Tt a-jdra, mfn. (Vjri), not subject to 
old age, undecaying, ever young ; (a), f. the plants 
Aloe Perfoliata and Jirnapanjhl ; the river Sarasvati. 
Ajaramara, mfn. undecaying and immortal, MBh. 

A-jaraka, as, am, m.n. indigestion. 

A-jarat, mfn. not decaying, VS. 

A-jarayn, mfn. not subject to old age, RV. i, 
1 1 6, 20. 

A-jaras, another form for a-jara, used only in 
tome cases, L. 

A-jarya, mfn. not subject to old age or decay, 
SBr. ; not friable, not digestible ; (am), n. friendship. 

lT=l^ a-javds, mfn. not quick, inactive, 
RV. u, 15, 6. 

^iiTfcrf d-jasra, mfn. (i/jas), not to be ob- 
structed, perpetual, RV. &c. ; (am [gana svar-adi, 
&c.] or ena [RV. vi, 16, 45] ), ind. perpetually, for 
ever, ever. 

^tT?Tl a-jahat, mfn. (pr. p. Vs-ha), not 
dropping or losing (in comp.) svarthS, f. a rhe- 
torical figure (using a word which involves the mean- 
ing of another word previously used, as ' white ones' 
for 'white horses,' 'lances' for 'men with lances'). 
Ajahal-liiffa, m. (in Gr.) a noun which does not 
drop its original gender, when used as an adjective. 

I ajd, f . a she-goat. See i . ajd. 

a-jdgara, mfn. not awake, not 

wakeful, L. ; (as), m. the plant Eclipta orVerbesina 

w*flfl ajaji, is, or ajaji, f. Cuminum Cy- 

minum ; Ficus Oppositifolia ; Nigella Indica. 

WWm d-jdta, mfn. unborn, not yet born, 
not yet developed. kakud, m. a young bull whose 
hump is yet undeveloped, Pan. v, 4, 146, Sch. 
pakaha, mfn. having undeveloped wings. Io- 
nian, mf(mni)n. or -vyanjana, mm. whose 
signs of puberty are not yet developed. Vyava- 
hara, m. having no experience of business, a minor, 
a youth under fifteen, satrn (djata-), mfn. 
having no enemy ; having no adversary or equal 
(Indra), RV. ; (us), m., N. of Siva, of Yudhishthira, 
of a king of Kssi, of a son of Samika, of a son of 
VidmisSra or Bimbisara (contemporary of Sakya- 
muni). Ajatannsaya, mfn. having no regret. 
Ajatari, m. having no enemy, Yudhishthira, Sis. 

^MMt^ a-jdnat, mfn. (pr. p. VjRd), not 
knowing, unaware. 

witlfi a-jani, is [AV.], or a-jdnika [L.], 
as, m. having no wife. 

TIII(I d-jdmi, mfn. not of kin, not related, 
RV. ; (in Gr.) not corresponding, Nir. ; (i), n. '(co- 
habitation) not allowed between relations,' incest, 
RV. -ta (dj'dmi-) [SBr.], f. or -tv [TBr.], n. 
not uniformity, variation. 


d-jdyamana, mfn. (i/jan), not 
being born, not subject to birth, VS. 

ajika, f. See ajaka. 

a-jita, mfn. not conquered, unsub- 
dued, unsurpassed, invincible, irresistible ; (as), m. 
a particular antidote ; a kind of venomous rat ; N. 
of Vishnu ; Siva ; one of the Saptarshis of the four- 
teenth Manvantara ; Maitreya or a future Buddha ; 
the second of the Arhats or saints of the present 
(Jaina) Avasarpini, a descendant of Ikshvaku ; the 
attendant of Suvidhi (who is the ninth of those Arhats) ; 
(as), m. pi. a class of deified beings in the first Man- 
vantara. keaa-kambala, m., N. of one of the 
six chief heretical teachers (mentioned in Buddhist 
texts as contemporaries of Buddha). balS , f., N. 
of a Jaina deity who acts under the direction of the 
Arhat Ajita. vikrama, as, m. ' having invincible 
power,' N. of king Candragupta the second. Aji- 
tatman, mfn. having an unsubdued self or spirit. 
Ajitapida, m. having an unsurpassed crown ; N. 
of a king, Rsjat. Ajltendriya, mfn. having un- 
subdued passions. 

wfii ajina, am, n. (probably at first the 
skin of a goat, ajd) ; the hairy skin of an antelope, 
especially a black antelope (which serves the religious 
student for a couch, seat, covering, &c.) ; the hairy 
skin of a tiger, &c. ; (as), m., N. of a descendant 
of Prithu, VP. pattrS or -pattri or -pattrikS, 
f. a bat. -phala, f., N. of a plant, (gana ajadi, 
q. v.) yoni, m. 'origin of skin,' an antelope, deer. 
vasin, mfn. clad in a skin, SBr. sandha, m. 
one who prepares skins, a furrier, VS. 

wPni-a/iro, mfn. (Vaj), agile, quick, rapid; 
(dm), ind. quickly; RV. ; AV. ; VS.; (as), m., 
N. of a Naga priest, PBr. ; (a), (., N. of DurgS ; 
of a river ; (am), n. place to run or fight in, area, 
court, R. &c. ; the body ; any object of sense, air, 
wind ; a frog; L. vati, f., N. of the river on 
which the town Sravasti was situated, Pin. vi, 3, 1 19 
& vi, I, 22O, Sch. socia (ajird-), m. having 
a quick light, glittering, N. of Agni, of Soma, RV. 
Ajir&di, a gana of Pan. (vi, 3, 119). AJiradM- 
raja, m. ' an agile emperor,' death, AV. 

Aj ir ay a , Nom. A. ajirayatc, to be agile or quick, 
RV. viii, 14, 10. 

Ajiriya, mfn. connected with a court &c., (gana 
utkaradi, q. v.) 

'wftra a-jihma,mtn . not crooked, straight ; 
honest, upright, Mn. &c. ; (as), m. a frog (perhaps 
for a-jihva), L. ; a fish, L. ga, mfn. going straight ; 
(as), m. an arrow. Ajikmagra, mfn. having a 
straight point. 

wftigr a-jihva, mfn. tongueless ; (as), m. 
a frog, L. 

w*flii<f ajlkava, am, n. Siva's bow, L. 

See ajakava. 

Waffrtn a-jigarla, as, m. 'that has nothing 
to swallow,' N. of a Rishi, Sunahsepha's father. 

WSfrrT d-jlta, mfn. (*/jya, usually jina), 
not faded, not faint, AV. ; TS., &c. pnnarva- 
nya, n. ' asking the restitution of an object which 
has in fact not been lost,' N. of a twofold rite to be 
performed by Kshatriyas, AitBr. 

A'-jiti, is, (. the state of being uninjured, RV. ; 
TS. &c. ; cf. d-jyani. 

^nrtln a-flrna, mfn. (Vjri), not decom- 
posed ; unimpaired ; undigested ; (am), n. indigestion. 
A-jirnl, is, f. indigestion, L. 
A-jirnin, mfn. suffering from indigestion. 
A-jirti, is, f. indigestibleness. 

^inft^ a-jiva, mfn. lifeless. 

A-jivat, mfn. not living, destitute of a liveli- 
hood, Mn. 

A'-jivana, mfn. destitute of a livelihood, AV. 

A-jivani, is, f. non-existence, death ; ajivanis 
tasya bhuydt, 'may death befall him I" Pin. iii, 3, 
112, Sch. 

A-jivita, am, n. non-existence, death. 

WJj'jftiiT a-jugupsita, mfn. not disliked. 

^jj^a-yur.mfn. (\/;'r),not subject to old 
age or decay, RV. viii, i, i. 
A-jurya (3 ; once 4, RV. vi, I?, 13), id., RV. 


A-J5ryat, mfn. not subject to old age, RV. iii, 
46, i & v, 42, 6. 

^STJTT d-jush{a, mfn. not enjoyed, unsatis- 
factory, RV. 

A-jnshti, is, (. non-enjoyment, feeling of dis- 
appointment, RV. 

'WwH^T a-jetavya, mfn. invincible. 
A-jeya, mfn. invincible ; N. of a prince, MBh. ; 
(am), n., N. of a kind of antidote. 

-josha, mf(a)n. not gratified, in- 
satiable, RV. i, 9, 4. 

A-joshya (4), mfn. not h'ked, not welcome, 
RV. i, 38, 5- 

W5J^iT ajjukd, f. (in the drama) a cour- 

ajjhata, f. the plant Flacourtia 
Cataphracta ( = ajatd and aja4S). 

"fj*K<5 ajjhala, as, m. a burning coal. 

""S a-jfia, mfn. (v}'Ra), not knowing; 
ignorant, inexperienced; unconscious; unwise, stupid. 

tS, f. or -tva, n. ignorance. 

AjuakS or ajnikS, f. an ignorant woman, Pan. 
v . 3.^47- 

A'-jnSta, mfn. unknown ; unexpected ; unaware ; 
(am), ind. without the knowledge of, MBh. knla- 
sila, mfn. whose lineage and character are unknown. 

keta (djtldta-), mfn. having unknown or secret 
designs, RV. v, 3, u. bhnkta, mfn. eaten un- 
awares, Mn. yakshma, m. an unknown or hidden 
disease, RV. x, 161, I ; AV. vSsa, mfn. whose 
dwelling is unknown. ilia, mfn. whose character 
is unknown. 

Ajnataka, mfn. unknown, ( yav&di, q.v.) 

A-jnati, is, m. not a kinsman, not related, Mn. 

A-jnatva, ind. not having known or ascertained. 

A-jnana, am, n. non-cognizance ; ignorance, (in 
philosophy) spiritual ignorance (or a power which, 
consisting of the three Gunas sattva, rajas, and 
tamos, and preventing the soul from realizing its 
identity with Brahma, causes self to appear a distinct 
personality, and matter to appear a reality) ; Prakriti, 
MSy5, Illusion ; (mfn.), ignorant, unwise ; (at), ind. 
unawares, ignorantly. krlta, mfn. done inadver- 
tently. tag, ind. unawares, inadvertently. ta, 
f. or -tva, n. ignorance. bandiana, n. the bond 
of ignorance. 

A-jnSnin, mfn. ignorant, unwise. 

A'-jn5s, mfn. having no kindred, RV. x, 39, 6. 

A-jneya, mfn. unknowable, unfit to be known. 

TT3R djma, as, m. (Vaj), career, march, 
RV. [cf. Gk. o^/jos]. 

AJman, a, n. career, passage, battle, RV. ; AV. 
[Lat. agmen\. 

AJra, as, m. a field, a plain, RV. [Lat. agtr; 
Gk. dyp6s : cf. ajira\. 

Ajrya (3), mfn. being in or connected with a 
field or plain, RV. x, 69, 6. 

AJvin, mfn. (Vaf), active, agile, used in a sacri- 
ficial formula, AsvSr. 

WTmPn d-jyani, is, f. the state of being 
uninjured, AV. (cf. d-jtti) ; (ajyanayas), nom. pi., 
N. of certain offerings, TBr., ApSr. 

A-jyeya-tB, f. state of anything which is not to 
be hurt or overpowered, SBr. 

wtrMf a-jyeshthd, mfn. not the oldest or 
best ; (as), nom. pi. of which none is the eldest (the 
Maruts), RV. v, 59, 6 & 60, 5 ; cf. d-kanishtha* 

vyitti, mfh. not behaving as the eldest brother 
[Mn. ix, 1 10], or (ajyeshtha-vritti) behaving like 
one who has no elder brother. 

^UU i . aftc (connected with Vac, q.v.), 
S cl. i . P. A. allcati, te, anaAca, ce, aftci- 
shyati, te, aftcitum, to bend, curve, incline, curl ; 
to reverence (with inclined body), to honour ; to 
tend, move, go, wander about ; to request, L. : cl. IO. 
or Cans, aftcayati, to unfold, make clear, produce : 
Desid. P. A. afUicishati, te, to be desirous of bend- 
ing : Pass, aftcyate or acyate, to be bent. 

2. Anc, only ifc., turned to, going or directed 
towards ; see akudhrydflc, dvdftc, udafic, deva- 
dryaftc, &c. 

Anca, 'curling* (of the hairs of the body, thrill of 
rapture), only at the end of remdSca, q. v. 

Aficati, is, m. or ancati, f. wind, L. ; fire, L. 

Ancaua, am, n. act of bending or curving. 

Ancala, as, m. (perhaps also am}, n. the border 
or end of a garment, especially of a woman's gar- 
ment, of a veil, shawl. (In Bengali, a strip of country, 

Ancita, mfn. bent, curved, curled, arched, hand- 
some ; gone, walked in ; reverenced, honoured ; dis- 
tinguished. pattra, m. a kind of lotus with curved 
leaves. pattraksha, mfn. having lotus eyes. 

bhru, f. a woman with arched or handsome eye- 
brows. lontfula, mfn. having a curved tail (as a 

^4 id oHj, cl. 7. P. A. andkti, anktt, a- 
N nafija, afljis/iyati or ahkshyati, dnjit, 
anjitujn or ahktum, to apply an ointment or pig- 
ment, smear with, anoint ; to decorate, prepare ; to 
honour, celebrate ; to cause to appear, make clear, 
RV. 1,92, 1 ; to be beautiful, L. ; to go, L. : Caus.a/J- 
jayaii, ailjijat, to smear with ; to speak ; to shine ; 
to cause to go, L. [cf. Lat. ungo\. 

Anjaka, as, m., N. of a son of Vipracitti, VP. 

Anjana, as, m. a kind of domestic lizard, L. ; 
N. of a fabulous serpent ; of a tree, Paflcat. ; of a 
mountain ; of a king of Mithili ; of the elephant of 
the west or south-west quarter ; (<i), f., N. of Hanu- 
mat's mother; of Pravarasena's mother; (am), n. act 
of applying an ointment or pigment,embellishing,&c.; 
black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes 
or the inner coat of the eyelids ; a special kind of 
this pigment, as lamp-black, Antimony, extract of 
Ammonium, Xanthorrhiza, &c. ; paint, especially as 
a cosmetic; magic ointment ; ink, L. ; night, L.; fire, 
L. (In rhetoric) making clear the meaning of an 
equivocal expression, double entendre or pun, &c. 
kesa, mf(r)n. whose hair (or mane) is as black 
as pigment ; (i), (., N. of a vegetable perfume. 

namika, f. a swelling of the eyelid, stye. vat, 
ind. like collyrium. Anjana-girl, m., N. of a 
mountain. Anjanadiika, f. a species of lizard, L. 
Anjanambhas, n. eye-water. Aiijana- vat I , f. 
the female elephant of the north-east (or the west ?) 

Aiijanaka, as, m. portion of a text containing 
the word afljana, (gana goshad-ddi, q. v.) ; (i), f., 
N. of a medicinal plant. 

Aujanika, f. a species of lizard, L. ; a small mouse, 
L. ; cf. afljalikd. 

Anjani, f. a woman (fit for the application of 
ointments, pigments, sandal, &c.), L. ; N. of two 
medicinal plants. 

Anjala, anjalf. See s. v. below. 

Anjas, as, m ointment, a mixture, RV. i, 1 32, 1 ; 
N. of a Saman, ArshBr. ; (as), ind. quickly, instantly, 
RV. ; BhP. ; see dftjasd. Anjah-sava, m. rapid 
preparation (of Soma), SBr. ; AitBr. Anjas-pa, 
mfn. drinking instantly, RV. x, 92, 2 & 94, 13. 

Anjasa, mfn. straight, straightforward, honest, 
L. ; (f), f., N. of a heavenly river, RV. i, 104, 4. 

A'Sjasa, ind. straight on, right, truly, justly ; 
quickly, soon, instantly. Anjasayana, mf(i)n. 
having a straight course, going straight on, TS. ; 

Anjasina, mfn. going straight on, straightfor- 
ward, RV. x, 32, 7. 

Aiiji, mfn. applying an ointment or pigment, 
RV.; ointment, brilliancy, RV. ; unctuous, smooth, 
sleek (membrum virile), VS. ; (is), m. a sender, com- 
mander, Un. -. mat, mfn. coloured, bright, adorned, 
RV. v, 57, 5. saktha, mfn. having coloured 
thighs (a victim), VS. ; cf. Pin. vi, 2, 199, Sch. 
Anjy-eta, mfn. black and white coloured, TS. 

Anjiva, nfn. slippery, smooth, AV. 

Anjishtha, as, or anjisnnu, us, m. 'highly 
brilliant,' the sun, L. 

anjala only ifc. for aHjali, q. v. 

/aft', Js,m. ( Vanj), the open hands 
placed side by side and slightly hollowed (as if by 
a beggar to receive food ; hence when raised to the 
forehead, a mark of supplication), reverence, saluta- 
tion, benediction ; a libation to the Manes (two hands 
full of water, udakaftjali),\f. &c. ; a measure of 
corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side 
by side, equal to a kudava. karman, n. making 
the above respectful salutation. karika, f. an 
earthen figure (with the hands joined for salutation) ; 
the plant Mimosa Natans. - pnta, m. n. cavity 
produced in making the anjali salutation. ban- 


dhana, n. salutation with the anjali raised to the 
forehead. Anjali-krita, mfn. placed together to 
form the anjali salutation. 

Anjalika, as, am, m. n., N. of one of Arjuna's 
arrows, MBh.; (a), f. a young mouse, L. 

TiWIi aiijika, as, m., N. of a son of Yadu. 
See afljaka. 


desire of going, ["sham cakre (/!. krf}}, Bhatt. 
aSji, {. a blessing(>), T. 

anjira, am, n. (a Persian word), a 
species of fig.-tree (Ficus Oppositifolia) ; a fig. (In 
Bengali) a guava. 

:gj at, cl. I . P. A. atati,te, ata, atishyati, 
\ atit, atitum, to roam, wander about (some- 
times with ace. ; frequently used of religious mendi- 
cants) : Intens. atdtyate, to roam or wander about 
zealously or habitually, especially as a religious mendi- 
cant : Desid. atitishati, to be desirous of roaming. 

Ataka, mfn. roaming, L. 

Atana, mfn. roaming about, VarBf. ; (am), n. 
act or habit of wandering about. 

Atani, is, (. or atani, f. the notched extremity 
of a bow. 

Atamana, as, m., N. of a prince, BhP. 

Atavi, is, or usually atavi, f. ' place to roam in,' 
a forest. Atavi-sikhara, as, m. pi., N. of a people, 

Atavika, better Stavika, as, m. a woodman, 

Ata, f. the act or habit of roaming or wandering 
about (especially as a religious mendicant). 

Atata, f. (habit of) roaming or wanderingabout, L. 

Atatyamana, mfn. roaming excessively. 

Atatya, f. (habit of) roaming, L. 

At ay a, Nom. A. atayatc, to enter upon a roam- 
ing life, to become a religious mendicant, L. 

Atya, f. roaming about, one of the ten faults re- 
sulting from an excessive fondness for pleasure, Mn. 
vii, 47. 

'ani. See 

*i^it atarusha or atarusha or atarushaka, 
as, m. the shrub Justicia Adhatoda. 
^TJ<5 a-tala, mfn. not shaky, firm, L. 

MJ att, cl. I. A. at fate, anatte, attitum, 
*^ toexceed,L.; to kill, L.: d.lo.P.attayati, 
to contemn, L. ; to lessen, diminish, L. 

Atta, ind. high, lofty, L. ; loud, L. ; (as), m. a 
watch-tower ; a market, a market-place (corruption 
of hatta) ; N. of a Yaksha, Rajat. ; over-measure, 
L.; (a), (. overbearing conduct(?), Pan. iii, I, 17, 
Comm. ; (a/),n.boilddrice, food, L. ; (mm.), dried, 
dry, L. -pati-bhaffakhya-griha-kritya, n. 
business of the house called the market-master's de- 
partment (an office in Kashmir), Rajat. Bthali, 
f. site of an atta (?), (gana dhiimadi, q. v.) ha- 
sita, n. loud laughter, a horse-laugh, hasa, m. 
id. ; a name of Siva ; of a Yaksha, Kathas. ; of a 
mountain. naaka,m. the shrub JasminumMul- 
tiflorum or Hirsutum. -hasin, m., N. of Siva, 
-hasya, n. loud laughter; a horse-laugh. At- 
tatta-hasa, m. very loud laughter. 

Attaka, as, m. an apartment on the roof; tower. 

Attatfa, ind. very high, L. ; very loud, L. 

Attana, am, n. a weapon shaped like a discus, L. 

AttSya (Nom. fr. atta), A. attdyate, to be over- 
bearing (?), Pan. iii, I, If, Comm. 

^TJlcSflf fa/o, as, or attdlaka, as, m. a watch- 
tower ; (ikd), f. a palace, L. ; N. of a country, Rijat 

Attalika-kara, as, _m. a bricklayer (son of a 
painter and a lascivious Sudra woman), BrahmavP. 

Attalika-bandham, ind. (in the way that att5- 
likas are formed), Pin. iii, 4, 42, Sch. 

a((ilikd, f., N. of a town, Rajat. 
atndrd, as, m. a king of Kosala, SBr. 
atya, f. See Vaf. 
ath, cl. i. P. A. athati, te, to go, L. 
athida, as, m. pi., N. of a people, 



athilld, f., N. of a Prakrit metre. 
i. ad, cl. i. P. adati, to endeavour, L. 

adalcavati, N. of a fabulous palace 
on Meru ; also of a city. 

^u j arfd,c\.l.P.addati,anadda,addititm, 
X to join, L. ; to infer, argue, L. ; to meditate, 
discern, L. ; to attack, L. 
Addana, am, n. a shield, L. 

50^ "n, cl. I. P. anati, ana, anitum, to 
^^ sound, L. : cl. 4. A. anyate, to breathe, 
(another form of V 'an, q. v. ; in this sense regarded 
in the Dhatu-pitha as a distinct rt.), L. 

Anaka, mfn. insignificant, small, contemptible, 
(gana utkaradi, q. v.) 

Anakiya, mm. connected with what is insignifi- 
cant, &c., ib. 

Anavya, am, n. a field of (anu) Panicum Milia- 
ceum, Pan. v, 2, 4 ; see anu. 

Ani, is, m. or ani, f. the point of a needle or of 
a sharp stake, L.; linch-pin, L.; the pin or bolt at the 
end of the pole of a carriage, L. ; the corner or part 
of a house, L. ; a boundary, L. Ani-mSndavya, 
m., N. of a BrJhman ascetic (said to have been im- 
paled on an ani or point of a stake), MBh. 

Anlman, a, m. (fr. anu, q. v.), minuteness, fine- 
ness, thinness, SBr. &c. ; meagreness ; atomic nature ; 
the superhuman power of becoming as small as an 
atom ; (dniman), n. the smallest particle, SBi. 

Anishtha, mfn. (fr. anu, q. v.), most minute. 

Amyas, an, asi, as((i. anu, q.v.), or aniyaska 
[AV.], mfn. more minute than usual. 

Ann, mf (vf) n. fine, minute, atomic ; (us), m. an 
atom of matter ; 'an atom of time,' the 54,675, oooth 
part of a muhurta (of 48 minutes) ; Panicum Milia- 
ceum,VS.; SBr. xiv; MundUp.; N. ofSiva ; (dnvt), 
f. ' the subtle one," N. of the fingers preparing the 
Soma juice, RV. ; (u), n. (in prosody) the fourth 
part of a matra ; (anu), ind. minutely, SBr. tara, 
mfn. very fine or minute, gentle. taila, n., N. of 
a medical oil. tva, n. or -ta, f. minuteness, atomic 
nature. bha.f.lightning. madhya-bija, n.,N.of 
a hymn, matra, mfn. having the size of an atom. 

matrika, mm. having the size of an atom ; con- 
taining the atomic elements (matra) of the body, 
Mn. i, 56. renu, m. f. atomic dust (as seen in 
sun-beams). renn-jala, n. an aggregate of such 
atomic dust. revati, f . the plant Croton Polyan- 
drum. vadln, mfn. one who believes in and 
teaches atomism. vedanta, m. title of a book. 

vrata, ani, n. pi., N. of the twelve small duties 
or vows of the laymen adhering to the Jaina faith. 

vriM, m. a fine sort of rice, L. as, ind. into 
or in minute particles. Ann (with ^bhu, &c.), see 
s.v. A'nv-anta, m. a hair-splitting question, SBr. 

tTinVa., mfn. fine, minute, atomic ; clever, (gana 
ydvadi, q. v.) ; (am), n. an atom. 

Anu (for anu in comp. with */bhu and its deri- 
vatives). bnava, m. the becoming an atom, Nir. 

VbliB, to become minute or atomic. 

Anva, am, n. fine interstice or hole in the strainer 
used for the Soma juice, RV. 

^njffT anuha, as, m., N. of a son of Vi- 
bhraja, MBh. 
' MIIJ anth or ath, cl. I. A. anthate, anan- 

x the, anthitum, to go, move, tend, L. 
Antnita, mfn.' pained (?), Susr. 

<li anda, ant, n. (also as, m., L.) [Vam, 
Un.], an egg, a testicle ; the scrotum ; the musk 
bag ; semen virile, L. ; N. of Siva (from his being 
identified with the Brahmanda or mundane egg). 

kataha, m. the shell of the mundane egg, VP. 

kotara-pnshpi, f. the plant Convolvulus Ar- 
genteus(?). kosa or -kosha or -koihaka, m. 
the scrotum ; the mundane egg. ja, mfn. egg-born ; 
(as), m. a bird, L. ; a fish, L. ; a snake, L. ; a lizard, 
L. ; (), f. musk. jdavara, m. 'king of birds,' 
Garuda. dala, n. egg-shell, -dhara, m., N. of 
Siva. Tardhana, n. or -vriddni, f. swelling of 
the scrotum, hydrocele. sn, f. oviparous. Anda- 
karshana, n. castration. Andakara, mfn. egg- 
shaped, oval, elliptical ; (as), m. an ellipsis. Anda- 
kriti, mfn. egg-shaped, oval, elliptical ; (is), f. an 

Andaka, as, m. the scrotum ; (am), n. an egg. 



Andara, mf(T, gana gaurSJi, q.v.)n., N. of a 
tribe, (gana bhriiadi, q.v.) 

Andaraya, Nom. A. andarayatc, to behave like 
an Andara, (gana bhj'isAdi, q. v.) 

Andaln, KJ, m. ' full of eggs,' a fish, L. 

AndikS, f., N. of a weight ( = 4 yava), Car. 

Andira, as, m. a full male, a man, L. ; strong, L. 

^Tf^, ind. a prefix said to imply 'sur- 
prise,' probably a contraction ofati, meaning 'extra- 
ordinary/ (gana iiry-adi, q.v.) Ad-bnuta, mm. 
extraordinary ; see s. v. 

2- o<, cl. I. P. A. <fra<j (Naigh.; 
p. titat or dtamdna), to go constantly, 
walk, run, RV. ; to obtain, L. 

A tana, as, m. a passer on, Nir. ; (am), n. act of 
passing on, Nir. vat, m. one who wanders, Nir. 
Atasi, atka. Sees.v. 

^TrTTsT a-taj-jna (for a-tad-jrta), mfn. not 
knowing that, i. e. Brahma and the soul's identity. 

V At a-tata, mfn. having no beach or shore, 
precipitous, Sak. ; (as), m. a precipice ; the third 
hell ; cf. atala. 

wflTeifaij. a-tattvO'Vid, mfn. not knowing 
the truth, i. e. the soul's identity with Brahma. 

A-tattvartha-vat, mfn. not conformable with 
the nature of truth. 

VrfVJ) d-tatha, mfn. not saying tatha (yes), 
giving a negative answer, RV. i, 82, I. A-tatho- 
cita, mfn. not deserving of such (a fate) ; not used 
to this (with gen.) 

A-tathya, mfn. untrue, unreal, not really so. 

VA^ a-tad, not that, BhP. (cf. o-sa). 

arna, mm. not deserving that ; (am), ind. un- 
deservedly, unjustly. gnna, m. (in rhetoric) the 
use of predicates not descriptive of the essential 
nature of the object. 

wnJ i . a-tanu, mfn. not thin, not small, 
a. A-tann, us, m. ^an-ahga, N. of Kama. 

writ* a-tantra, mfn. having no cords ; 
having no (musical) strings ; unrestrained ; (am), n. 
not the object of a rule or of the rule under con- 

flrlt-J d-tandra, mfn. free from lassitude, 
alert, unwearied, RV. ; AV. 

A-tandrita or a-tandrin, mfn. id., Mn. &c. 

wrTH a-tapa (Vtap), as, m. pi. a class of 
deities among the Buddhists. 

A-tapas or a-tapaska or a-tapasya, mm. one 
who neglects tapas or the practice of ascetic austeri- 
ties ; an irreligious character. 

A-tapta, mfn. not heated, cool. tann. (dtafta-), 
mfn. whose body or mass is not prepared in fire, raw, 
RV. ix, 83, i. -tapas, m. whose ascetic austerity 
has not been (fully) endured. 

A-tapyamana, mfn. not suffering, RV. i, 185,4. 

"dfii*^ a-tamds, mfn. without darkness, 
SBr. xiv. A-tamavishta (irregular contraction of 
a-tama-dvishta), mlh. not enveloped in darkness, 

A-tamisra, mfn. not dark, not benighted. 

d-tameru, mfn. not languid, VS. 

a-tarka, as, m. an illogical reasoner; 
bad logic. 

A-tarkita, mfn.unconsidered, unthought of; un- 
expected ; (am), ind. unexpectedly. 

A-tarkya, mfn. incomprehensible, surpassing 
thought or reasoning. lahaira-iakti, m. en- 
dowed with a thousand incomprehensible powers. 

MlrlcS a-tala, am, n. bottomless; N. of a 
hell beneath the earth ; (as), m., N. of Siva. 

sparsa or -oprls, mm. whose bottom cannot be 
reached, bottomless. 

x)nM^ d-tavyas, an, osi, a*, not stronger, 
not very strong, RV. v, 33, I & vii, loo, 5, 

wn^ dtas, ind. (ablative of the pronom. 
base a, equivalent to asmdt), from this, than this ; 
hence ; henceforth, from that time ; from this or 
that cause or reason. Ata-urdhvam, ind. hence- 
forth, afterwards. Ata-eva, ind. for this very reason ; 
therefore. Atah-parani, ind. henceforth, further 

on. Ato-nimittam, ind. on this ground, for this 
reason. Ato-'nya, mfn. differing from this. Ato- 
'rtham, ind. for this object. 

^Tnfl atasa, as, m.(v'aOi w ' n( l,air, L.; the 
soul, L. ; a (missile) weapon, L. ; a garment made 
of the fibre of (atasi) flax, L. ; (dm), n. shrubs, 
RV. ; (i), (. common flax, Linuni Usitatissimum ; 
Sana, Bengal sun used as hemp, Crotolaria Jimcca. 

ilftt a tii si, is, m. (Vat), a wandering 
mendicant, RV. viii, 3, 13. 

Atasayya (5), mfn. to be got by begging, RV. 
i, 63, 6 & ii, 19, 4. 

w n **4 1 l d-tasthdna ( \/stha), mfn. not suit- 
ing or fitting, SBr. 

nm d-tapasa, mfn. not an ascetic, Br. 

WITf dti, ind. [probably neut. of an obsolete 
adj. atin, passing, going, beyond ; see /at, and cf. 
Old Germ, anti, unti, inti, unde, indi, &c. ; Eng. 
and ; Germ, and ; Gk. irt, &vri ; Lat. ante ; Lith. 
ant ; Arm. ti ; Zend aiti]. As a prefix to verbs and 
their derivatives, expresses beyond, over, and, if not 
standing by itself, leaves the accent on the verb or 
its derivative; as, ati-kram (^kram), to overstep, 
Ved. Inf. ati-krdme, (fit) to be walked on, to be 
passed, RV. i, 105, 1 6 ; ati-krdmana, n., see s.v. 

When prefixed to nouns, not derived from verbs, 
it expresses beyond, surpassing; as, ati-kaia, past the 
whip ; ati-manusha, superhuman, &c. ; see s. v. 

As a separable adverb or preposition (with ace.), 
Ved. beyond; (with gen.) over, at the top of, RV. ; AV. 

Ati is often prefixed to nouns and adjectives, and 
rarely to verbs, in the sense excessive, extraordinary, 
intense ; excessively, too ; exceedingly, very ; in such 
compounds the accent is generally on ati. ka- 
thora, mfn. very hard, too hard. katha, mfn. 
exaggerated ; (a), f. an exaggerated tale ; see also s. v. 
-karshana (for -karsanaf), n. excessive exer- 
tion. kalyam, ind. very early, too early. kanta, 
mfn. excessively beloved. kaya, mfn. of extra- 
ordinary body or size, gigantic ; (as), m., N. of a 
Rakshasa, R. - kirita (dti-) or -kirita [Comm.], 
mm. having too small teeth, TBr. kutsita, mfn. 
greatly despised. kulva (dti-), mfn. too bald, VS. 

kricchra, m. extraordinary pain or penance last- 
ing twelve days, Mn. ; Yajn. krita, mfn. over- 
done, exaggerated. krisa (dti-), mfn. very thin, 
emaciated. krlslma (dti-), mfn. very or too dark, 
very or too deep blue. krnddha, mfn. exces- 
sively angry. krudh, f. excessive anger, Kathas. 

krushta(<fr*-),n.extraordinary cry or wailing, VS. 

khara, mm. very pungent or piercing. ganda, 
mfn. having large cheeks or temples ; (as), m., N. 
of theyoga (or index), star of the 6th lunar mansion. 

gandha, mfn. having an overpowering smell ; 
(as), m. sulphur ; lemon-grass ( Andropogon Schae- 
nunthes) ; the Champac flower(MicheliaChampaca); 
a kind of jasmin. gandhalu, m., N. of the creeper 
Putradatri. gariyas, n. (compar. ofati-gvru), a 
higher or too high price ; ati-gariyasd (instr.) *Jkri, 
to buy too dear, Das. gar vita, mih. very conceited. 

gall ana, mfn. very deep ; very impenetrable. 

gadha, mfn. very important ; very intensive ; 
(am), ind. exceedingly ; excessively. gnna, mfn. 
having extraordinary qualities. gupta, mfn. closely 
concealed, very mysterious. gnrn, mfn. very heavy. 

go, f. an excellent cow, Pin. v, 4, 69, Sch. 

canda, mfn. very violent. carana, n. exces- 
sive practice. cSpalya, n. extraordinary mobility 
or unsteadiness. eira, mfn. very long ; (am), iud. 
a very long time ; (asya), ind. for a very long time ; 
(at), ind. at last. cliattra or -chattraka, m. a 
mushroom ; (a), f. Anise (Anisum or Anethum Sowa) ; 
the plant Barleria Longifolia. jara or -jaras, 
mfn. very aged, Pan. vii, a, loj, Sch. jala, mfn. 
well watered. java.m. extraordinary speed; (mfn.), 
very fleet. jagara, mfn. very wakeful ; (as), m. 
the black curlew. Jirna, mfn. very aged. jirna- 
ta, f. extreme old age. jiva, mfn. quite alive, very 
lively, AV. dina, n. extraordinary flight (of birds), 
M lib. tapasvln, mfn. very ascetic. tikshna, 
mfn. very sharp. - tivra, mfn. very sharp, pungent 
or acid ; (d), (. dflb grass. trinna, mfn. seriously 
hurt. tripti, f. too great satiety. trisnna, 
mfn. excessively thirsty, rapacious ; (a), f. excessive 
thirst. trasnn, mfn. over timid. dagdha, mfn. 
badly burnt ; (am), n., N. of a bad kind of burn. 

dantuxa (dti-), mfn. whose teeth are too promi- 


nent, TBr. -darpa, m. excessive conceit; N. of 
a snake; (mfn.), excessively conceited. darsin, 
mfn. very far-sighted, datri, m. a very or too 
liberal man. dfina, n. munificence; excessive 
munificence, dfiruna, mfn. very terrible, daha, 
m. great heat ; violent inflammation, TS. &c. 
irgha (dti-), mfn. very long, too long. dnh- 
knita (or -dushkhita), mfn. greatly afflicted, very 
sad. duhsaha, mfn. very hard to bear, quite un- 
bearable. durgata, mfn. very badly off. dnr- 
dharsha, mfn. very hard to approach, very haughty. 

durlambha, mfn. very hard to attain. dush- 
kara, mfn. very difficult. dura, mfn. very dis- 
tant ; (am), n. a great distance. dosha, m. a 
great fault, diavala, infn. very white. dhenu, 
mfn. distinguished for his cows, Pan. i, 4, 3, Comm. 

nidra, mfn. given to excessive sleep; (d), f. ex- 
cessive sleep; (am), ind., see s.v. (p. 14, col. 1). 

nipuna, mm. very skilful. nica, mfn. exces- 
sively low. pathin (nom. -panthas), m. a better 
road than common, L. pada, mfn. (in prosody) 
too long by one pada or foot. paroksba, mfn. 
far out of sight, no longer discernible. paroksha- 
vritti, mfn. (in Gr.) having a nature that is no 
longer discernible, i.e. obsolete. pataka, n. a 
very heinous sin. pnrnsha or -purnsha (dti-) 
[SBr. j, m. a first-rate man, hero. puta, mfn. quite 
purified, over-refined. pesala, mfn. very dexter- 
ous. prakSsa, mfn. very notorious. prage,ind. 
very early, Mn. pranaya, m. excessive kindness, 
partiality. pranudya, ind. having pushed far for- 
ward. prabandha, m. complete continuity. 

pravarana, n. excess in choosing. pravritti, 
f. issuing abundantly. pravriddha , mfn. enlarged 
to excess, overbearing, Mn. prasna, m. an extra- 
vagant question, a question regarding transcendental 
objects. prasnya , mfn. to be asked such a ques- 
tion, BrArL'p. prasakti, f. or-prasanga, m. ex- 
cessive attachment ; unwarrantable stretch of a rule. 

prasiddha, mfn. very notorious. praudha, 
mfn. full-grown. praudha-yanvana, mfn. being 
in the full enjoyment of youth. bala, mfn. very 
strong or powerful ; (as), m. an active soldier ; N. 
of a king ; (d), f. a medicinal plant (Sidonia Cordi- 
folia and Rhombifolia, or Annona Squamosa) ; N. 
of a powerful charm ; of one of Daksha's daughters. 

bahn (dti-), mfn. very much ; too much, MaitrS. 

balaka, m. an infant ; (mfn:), infantine. balm, 
m. ' having extraordinary arms,' N. of a Rishi of the 
fourteenth Manvantara, Hariv. ; N. of a Gandharva, 
MBh. bTbhatsa, mfn. excessively disagreeable. 

brahmacarya, n. excessive abstinence or con- 
tinence. bhara, m. an excessive burden ; excessive 
obscurity (of a sentence); N. of a king. bh&ra- 
ga, m. 'heavy-burden-bearer,' a mule. bhi, m. 
' very terrific,' lightning, L. bhisnana, mfn. very 
terrific. bhrita, mfn. well filled. bhojana, 
n. eating too much ; morbid voracity., 
mfn. having extraordinary eyebrows. mangalya, 
mfn. very auspicious ; (as), m, ./Egle or Crataeva 
Marmelos. mat! (dti-), f. haughtiness, RV. i, 
129, 5; (mm.), exceedingly wise, MBh. ma- 
dnyandina, n. high noon. marsa, m. close 
contact. mana, m. great haughtiness. nianin, 
mfn. very haughty. mani-ta, f. great haughti- 
ness. maruta, mfn. very windy ; (as), m. a hur- 
ricane, Yajn. mirmira (dti-), mfn. twinkling 
exceedingly, TBr. mukta, mfn. entirely liberated ; 
quite free from sensual or worldly desire ; seedless, 
barren ; (as), m. the tree Dalbergia Oujeinensis ; 
Gzrtnera Racemosa. muktaka, m. the pre- 
ceding ; mountain ebony ; the tree Harimantha. 

mukti (dti-), (. final liberation (from death), 
TS. ; SBr. xiv. - mBrtl, f. ' highest shape,' N. of 
a ceremony. memislia (<;V/-), mfn. (yi. misli), 
opening the eyes too much, staring, TBr. mai- 
thuna, n. excess of sexual intercourse, moksha, 
m. ; see ati-^muc. mods, f. extraordinary fra- 
grance ; the tree Jasminum Arboreum. yava, m. 
a sort of barley. yasa [MBh.] or -yasas, mfn. 
very illustrious. yftja, m. 'great sacrificer, 1 very 
pious, RV. vi, 52, I. yuvan, mfn. very youth- 
ful, L. yoga, m. excessive union, excess. ran- 
nas, mfn. extremely rapid, Sak. rakta, mfn. 
very red ; (d), f. one of Agni's seven tongues. 

ratha, m. a great warrior (fighting from a car), 
R. rabhasa, m. extraordinary speed. rasa, f. 
'very succulent,' N. of various plants (Murva, RSsni, 
Klitanaka). rajan, m. an extraordinary king, 
Pin. v, 4, 69, Sch. ; one who surpasses a king [cf. 




also s.v.] rncira, mfn. very lovely; (d), f.,N. 
of two metres (a variety of the Atijagatl; another 
called Cu4ika or Citlika). rush, mfn. very 
angry. rupa, mfn. very beautiful ; (am), n. extra- 
ordinary beauty. roffa, m. consumption, L. ro- 
masa, mfn. very hairy, too hairy ; (as), m. a wild 
goat, a kind of monkey. laksrtml, mfn. very 
prosperous ; (is), (. extraordinary prosperity. lan- 
ghana, n. excessive fasting, Susr. lamba, mfn. 
very extensive. Inbdha or ati-lobha, mfn. very 
greedy or covetous. lulita, mfn. closely attached 
or adhering. lobha, m. or -lobha-ta, f. exces- 
sive greediness or covetousness. loma or -loma- 
sa (dti-) [VS.], mfn. very hairy, too hairy. lo- 
masa, f. Convolvulus Argenteus. lohlta, mfn. 
very red. laulya, n. excessive eagerness or desire. 

vaktri, mfn. very loquacious. vakra, mfn. 
very crooked or curved ; (d), f. one of the eight 
descriptions of planetary motion. vartnla, mfn. 
very round ; (as), m. a kind of grain or pot-herb. 

vata, m. high wind, a storm. vada, m. abusive 
language ; reproof; N. of a Vedic verse, AitBr. 

vadin, mfn. very talkative. valaka, see -bd- 
laka above. vahana, n. excessive toiling. vi- 
kata, mfn. very fierce ; (as), m. a vicious elephant. 

vipina, mfn. having many forests, very impene- 
trable, Kir. v, 18. vllambin, mfn. very dila- 
tory. visrabdha-navSdlia, f. a fond but pert 
young wife. visha, mfn. exceedingly poisonous ; 
counteracting poison ; (a), f. the plant Aconitum 
Ferox. vriddhi, f. extraordinary growth. vri- 
shti , f. excessive rain. vrishti-hata.inti >. injured 
by heavy rain. vepatbu, m. excessive tremor ; 
(mfn.), or ativepathu-mat, mm. trembling ex- 
cessively. vaicakshanya, n. great proficiency. 

vaisasa, mfn. very adverse or destructive. 

vyatriana, n. infliction of (or giving) excessive 
pain, Pan. v, 4, 61. vyatha, f. excessive pain. 

vyaya, m. lavish expenditure. vySpta, mfn. 
stretched too far (as a rule or principle). - vyapti, 
f. unwarrantable stretch (of a rule or principle), Pan. 
vi, 3, 35, Sch. sakta or -sakti, mfn. very power- 
ful ; (is), (. or alisakti-td, f. great power or valour. 

saktt-bhaj , mfn. possessing great power. san- 
ka, f. excessive timidity. sarvara, n. the dead 
of night, AV. sasta, mfn. very excellent. su- 
kra (dti-), mfn. too bright. sukla, mfn. very 
white, too white, -sobhana, mfn. very handsome. 

sri, mfn. very prosperous, Pin. i, 2, 48, Sch. 

slakshna (dti-}, mfn. too tender, TBr. sam- 
skrita, mfn. highly finished. sakti, f. excessive 
attachment. akti-mat,mfn.excessively attached. 

samcaya, m. excessive accumulation. sam- 
tapta, mfn. greatly afflicted. samdheya, mfn. 
easy to be settled or conciliated. samartha, mfn. 
very competent. samlpa, mfn. very near. saru- 
parka, m. excessive (sexual) intercourse. sarva, 
mfn. too complete, AitBr. ; superior to all, see s. v. 

sadhvasa, n. excessive fear. santapana, n. 
a kind of severe penance (inflicted especially for 
eating unclean animal food). sSyam, ind. very 
late in the evening. slddhl, f. great perfection. 

sojana, mfn. very moral, very friendly. snn- 
dara, mfn. very handsome ; (as, a), m. f. a metre 
belonging to the class Ashti (also called Citra or 
Cattcald). sulabha, mfn. very easily obtain- 
able. Buhita, mfn. excessively kind, over-kind. 

Brishti (dti-), f. an extraordinary or excellent 
creation, SBr. xiv. seva, f. excessive addiction (to 
a habit). saurablia, mm. very fragrant; (am),n. 
extraordinary fragrance. - sanhltya, n. excessive 
satiety, e.g. being spoiled, stuffed with food, &c., Mn. 
iv, 62. tnti, f. excessive praise, Nir. gthira, 
mfn. very stable. - stlmla (dfi-), mfn. excessively 
big or clumsy, VS. &c. ; excessively stupid. snlg- 
dha, mfn. very smooth, very nice, very affection- 
ate. sparsa, m. too marked contact (of the tongue 
and palate) in pronunciation. trpMra, mm. very 
tremulous. svapna, m. excessive sleep ; (am), n. 
excessive tendency to dreaming. svastlia, mfn. 
enjoying excellent health, -basita, n. or -hasa, 
m. excessive laughter, -brasva (dti-), mfn. ex- 
cessively short, VS. &c. Aty-agni, m. morbidly 
rapid digestion. JKty-anu, mfn. very thin, MaitrS. 
Aty-adbhuta, mfn. very wonderful ; (as), m., N. 
of the Indra in the ninth Manvantara, VP. ; (am), 
n. a great wonder. Aty-adhvan, m. a long way 
or journey, excessive travelling. Aty-amarsbana 
or -amarghin, mm. quite out of temper. Aty- 

a, mfn. very acid ; (as), m. the tree Spondias 

Wangifera ; (d), f. a species of citron. Atyamla- 
parni, f. 'having very acid leaves,' N. of a medicinal 
>l:int. Aty-alpa, mfn. very little. Aty-asana, 
n. immoderate eating. Aty-asnat, mfn. eating too 
much'. Aty-asama, mfn. very uneven, very rough. 
Aty-adara, m. excessive deference. Aty-adana, 
n. taking away too much. Aty-ananda, m. exces- 
sive wantonness, SBr. ; (mfn.), excessively wanton, 
Susr. A'ty-apti, f. complete attainment, AV. 
xi, 7, 22. Aty-arudhi, f. or -Sroba, in. mount- 
ing too high, insolence, arrogance. Aty-asa, f. 
extravagant hope. Aty-asita, mfn. (\/2. as), too 
satiate, MaitrS. Aty-asarin, mfn. excessively 
flowing towards, TS. Aty-abfira, m. excess in 
eating. Aty-abarin, mfn. eating immoderately, 

-, . exaggeration ; hy- 

perbole. Aty-ugra, mfn. very fierce ; very pun- 
gent ; (am), n. Asa Fcetida. Aty-nccais, ind. 
very loudly. Atynccair-dhvani, m. a very loud 
sound ; a very high note. Aty-utkata, mfn. very 
imposing or immense. Aty-utsaba, m. excessive 
vigour. Aty-udRra, mfn. very liberal Aty-nl- 
bana or -nlvana, mfn. very conspicuous, excessive. 
Aty-nshna, mfn. very hot. Aty-udhni, f. hav- 
ing an exceedingly large udder, Pan. Sch. 

ati-katha, mfn. transgressing tra- 
dition or law, deviating from the rules of caste ; (see 
also s. v. a/i.) 

ati-kandaka, as, m. the plant 


Hn dti-kalyana, mf(i)n. 'past or 
beyond beauty,' not beautiful, SBr. 

^Trl*?! ati-kasa, mfn. beyond the whip, 
unmanageable, Pan. vi, 2, 191, Sch. 

to become very angry. 
ati-^/kurd, to jump about. 
ati-kriti or better abhi-kriti, q. v. 
* ati- Vkris?t,io drag over or beyond. 

ati-kesara, us, m. the plant Trapa 

wfirai^ ati-\/kram, to step or go beyond 
or over or across, (Ved. Inf. ati-krdme, to be walked 
on, RV. i, 105, 1 6); to pass, cross; to pass time; 
to surpass, excel, overcome ; to pass by, neglect ; to 
overstep, transgress, violate ; to pass on or away; to 
step out ; to part from, lose : Caus. -krdmayati or 
-kramayati, to allow to pass (as time) ; to leave un- 

Ati-krama, af, m. passing over, overstepping ; 
lapse (of time) ; overcoming, surpassing, conquering ; 
excess, imposition, transgression, violation ; neglect ; 
determined onset. 

Ati-kramana, am, n. the act of passing over, 
SBr., surpassing, overstepping; excess; passing, 
spending (time). 

Ati-kramaniya, mfn. to be passed beyond or 
over; generally' negative an-atikramaniya, q.. 

Ati-kramin, mfn. (ifc.) exceeding, violating, &c. 

Ati-kramya, ind. having passed beyond or over. 

Ati-kranta, mfn. having passed or transgressed ; 
exceeded, surpassed, overcome. niibecUia, mfn. 
one who has neglected a prohibition. 

Ati-kranti, is, (. transgression, Kir. 

Atl-kramaka, mfn. exceeding, transgressing, L. 

^frlBj^ ati-Vkshar, to overflow or flow 
through, RV. &c. (3. sg. aor. dfsAdr dti, RV. ix, 
43. 5)- 

'VfirfW{ati-\ / kship, to throw beyond. 

Ati-kshipta, mfn, thrown beyond ; (am), n. 
(in med.) sprain or dislocation of a particular kind, 

^rfimj ati-khatva, mfn. beyond the bed- 
stead, able to do without a bedstead, Pan. Sch. 

^rfrTjaft ati-Vkhya, to survey, overlook 
(3. sg. impf. dty-akhyaf), AV. ; to neglect, pass 
over, abandon (2. sg. Conj. dti-khyas, 2. du. Conj. 
dti-khyatam}, RV. 

ati-^gam or ati-</i. ga, to pass 

jy or over ; to surpass, overcome ; to escape ; neg- 
lect ; to pass away, die. 

Ati-ffa, mfn. (ifc.) exceeding, overcoming, sur- 
passing (cf. sokdtigd) ; transgressing, violating. 

Ati-gata, mfn. having passed ; being past. 

ati-Vgarj, to speak loudly or pro- 
vokingly or in a threatening voice, MBh. 

ati-gava, mfn. (a bull) covering 
the cow, L. 

ti-Vgiih} 'to emerge over,' to 
rise upon, RV. 
Ati-gadha, mfn. See p. 1 1, col. 2. 

^rfiPfJC ati- Vgur, (Pot. utijuguryat'), to cry 
out, give a shriek, RV. i, 173, a. 

' ati-guha, f. the plant Hemionites 


ati-Vgrah, to take beyond or over 
the usual measure, SBr. ; TBr. ; SankhSr. ; to sur- 
pass, Pan. v, 4, 46, Sch. 

Ati-graha, as, m. act of taking over or beyond, 
surpassing ; one who takes or seizes to an extraordi- 
nary extent ; (in phil.) = atigrdha. 

Ati-graha, as, m. the object of a graha (q. v.) 
or organ of apprehension (these are eight, and their 
corresponding ati-grdhas or objects are apdna, 
' fragrant substance ;' ndman, ' name ;' rasa, ' fla- 
vour ;' rupa, ' form ;' sabda, ' sound ;' kdma, ' de- 
sire ;' karman, 'action ;' sparsa, 'touch '), SBr. xiv. 

Atl-jfrahya, as, m., N. of three successive liba- 
tions made (or cups filled) at the Jyotishjoma sacri- 
fice, TS.; SBr. &c. 

^frm ati-gha, as, m. (v/Aon), 'very de- 
structive,' a weapon, bludgeon ; wrath., f. utter oblivion or profound sleep 
(obliterating all that is disagreeable in the past, and 
regarded as the highest condition of bliss), SBr. xiv. 

Ati-jfhnya / (4), mfn. one who is in the con- 
dition ati-ghni, AV. 

wfiT^^ ati-camu, mfn. (victorious) over 
armies, L. 

^rfrT^T^aJi-v'ear, to pass by; to overtake, 
surpass ; to transgress, offend, be unfaithful to. 

Ati-cara, mfn. transient, changeable ; (a), f. the 
shrub Hibiscus Mutabilis. 

Ati-carana. See p. 1 2, col. 2. 

Ati-cara, as, m. passing by, overtaking, sur- 
passing ; accelerated motion, especially of planets ; 

Ati-carin, mfn. surpassing, transgressing. 

|TI ati-Vcrit, to stick on, fasten, AV. 

ati- Vcesht, to make extraordinary 
or excessive efforts. 

^ffrl a&.'^dti-cchandas, mfn. past worldly 
desires, free from them, SBr. xiv ; (as, as), (. n., 
N. of two large classes of metres ; (as), n., N. of a 
particular brick in the sacrificial fire-place. 

flfM'Irft ati-jagatl, f., N. of a class of 
metres (belonging to those called Aticchantlas, and 
consisting of four lines, each containing thirteen 

wftjH ati-jana, mfn. 'beyond men,' un- 

wflln7I ati-jata, mfn. superior to parent- 

^rfirfT ati-\/ji (aor. dty-ojaishit), to con- 
quer, AV. 

^fitTil^ ati-Vjiv, to survive ; to surpass 
in the mode of living. 

wfifrTiI ati-tata, mfn. (*/tan), stretching 
far, making one's self big, conceited, SiS. 

vfinf^ati-Vtap, to be very hot, AV. xviii, 
2, 36, &c.; to heat, AV. xiii, 2, 40 ; BhP.; to affect 
greatly : Caus. -tdpayati, to heat much. 

^rfiTrTrpR[ ati-taram, ind. (compar. of dti), 
above in rank (with ace.), KenaUp. ; better, higher, 
more (with abl.), SBr. &c. ; very much, exceedingly, 




ati-Vtrid, to cleave, split, VS. ; to 
pierce through, penetrate, AV. 
W fid ij K, ati-Vtrip, to be satiated. 

^rfrn at\-Vtfi, to pass through or by or 
over, cross, overcome, escape : Desid. -titirshati, 
to be desirous of crossing or overcoming, BhP. 

Atl-tSrin, mm. crossing, Aitlir. 

Ati-tarya, mf(a)n. to be crossed or passed over 
or overcome, AV. 

^rfrTW^ at\-tyad, surpassing that, Pan. vii, 
i, 102, Sch. 

wfrTr^ att-tvam, surpassing thee, Pan. 
vii, 2, 97, Sch. ; atitvdm, atitvdn, ace. sing, and 
pi. him that surpasses thee, them that surpass thee ; 
(fictitious forms coined by grammarians.) 

ati- Vtvar, to hasten overmuch. 

a tit hi, is,m.(</at, or said to be from 
a-tithi, 'one who has no fixed day for coming'), a 
guest, a person entitled to hospitality ; N. of Agni ; of 
an attendant on Soma ; N. of Suhotra (king of Ayo- 
dhyJ, and grandson of Rama). kriyS,f. hospitality. 
gva, m. 'to whom guests should go,' N. of Divodasa 
and of another mythical hero, RV. tva, n. state 
of a guest, hospitality. deva, mm. one to whom a 
guest is as a divinity, TUp. dvesha, m. hatred 
of guests, inhospitality. dharma, m. rights of 
hospitality, Mn. iii, III, &c. -dharmin, mfn. 
entitled to hospitality, Mn. iii, 112. patl(<fft'M-), 
m. a host, entertainer of a guest, AV. pujana, 
n. or -pSJS, f. showing honour to a guest. vat, 
ind. like a guest. latkara, m. honourable treat- 
ment of a guest. ev5, f. attention to a guest. 

Atithin, mm. ( Vaf), travelling, RV. x, 68, 3 ; 
(i), m., N. of a king (also Suhotra and Atithi, q.v.) 

'WfteJ^ ati- Vdagh, to go beyond, to pass 
(3. sg. dti-dhak, 2. du. dti-dhaktanf), RV. 

^ffrT<; <l ati-datta, as, m., N. of a brother 
of Datta and son of RajSdhideva, Hariv. 

wfrK? ati-Vdah, to burn or blaze across, 
SBr. ; to burn or distress greatly. 

wfinjT ati-</i.dd, to surpass in giving, 
RV. viii, I, 38 ; to pass over in giving, KStySr. 

ati-ddnta, as, m., N. of a prince. 

ati-'/das, to favour with a gift, 
present, RV. 

to play higher, RV. x, 42, 9; to risk (in playing), 
MBh. ii, 2041. 

^cfilfc^ati-Vdis, to make over, transfer, 
assign : Pass, -disyate, (in Gr.) to be overruled or 
attracted or assimilated. 

Ati-dishta, mfn. overruled, attracted, influenced, 
inferred, substituted. 

Ati-desa, as, m. transfer, extended application, 
inference, analogy, overruling influence, assimilation; 
a rule providing for more than the usual rule ; putting 
one thing instead of another, substitution ; rup&ti- 
dtia, such a rule as affecting the form of a word ; 
(mfn.), overruling, previously stated. 

'Wftf'Tui ati-dipya, as, m. 'very brilliant,' 
the plant Plumbago Rosea. 

^rfir^ati- v / <fr*P> t De excessively con- 

^rf?J^"7 ati-deva, as, m. a superior god ; 

surpassing the gods. 

wfrl^ ati-Vi dru, to run by, pass hastily, 
RV. ; AV. ; to pass over, SBr. 

wfAVrti^ati-dhanvan, a, m., N. of aVedic 
teacher, a descendant of Sunaka, VBr. 

flfrfUT ati-\/dhd, to put away. 
A'ti-hita, mm. put away or aside, AV. 

ati-Vi . dhdv, to run or rush over. 

ati-dhriti, is, f., N. of a class of 
metres (belonging to those called Aticchaftdas, and 
consisting of four lines, each containing nineteen 
syllables) ; (in arithm.) nineteen. 

ati- i/dhyai, to meditate deeply.VP. 

ati-Vdhvans, to raise the dust in 
running through or over (3. pi. Conj . aor. ati-dhva- 
sdn), RV. viii, 55, 5. 

1 wfrT1^ ati- v / nam, to bend aside, keep on 
one side. 

wfrtllHH ati-ndman, a, m., N. of a 
Saptarshi of the sixth Manvantara. 

wfnHiJ} ati-nds/itrd, mfn. beyond danger, 
out of danger, SBr. 

wffTftr:^!^ ati-nih-</svas, to breathe or 

sigh violently. 

VffrlftT^'?^ ati-nicrit (or wrongly written 
ati-nivrit), f., N. of a Vedic metre of three padas 
(containing respectively seven, six and seven syl- 
lables), RV. Prat. &c. 

'WfrTf^j^ ati-nidram, ind. beyond sleep- 
ing time, Pan. ii, i, 6, Sch. See also ati-mdra 
s. v. ati. 

W frt fi ^ ati-nish-tan (\/tan), (perf. Pot. 
3. pi. dti nhh-tatanyufi), to penetrate (with rays), 
RV. i, 141, 13.' 

^srfirfTFW ati-ni-hmitya, ind. p. (Vhnu), 
denying obstinately. 

wfinft ati-Vni, to lead over or beyond, 
to help a person over anything, RV. &c. ; to allow 
to pass away : Intens. A. -neniydtc, to bring for- 
ward, RV. vi, 47, 1 6. 

ati- \/3. , Caus. to turn away, TS. 
ati-*/nud, to drive by, AV. 

ati-Vned, to stream or flow over, 
foam over, TS. &c. 

^rfifWT ati-paScd, f . a girl who is past five. 

i"rm"|T!f<J ati-patikshepa, v. 1. for a-pa- 
tlkshepa, as, m. omitting to remove or non-removal 
of the theatrical curtain. 

'WfriM^ ati-Vpath, Pass, -pathyate, to be 
greatly proclaimed or celebrated, MBh. 

wfinTr^aft'-v'z. pat, to fall or fly by or past 
or beyond or over ; to neglect, miss : Caus. -pdta- 
yati, to cause to fly by ; to drag away ; to make 

Ati-patana, am, n. act of falling or flying be- 
yond, passing, missing, transgressing. 

Ati-patlta, mfn. passed beyond, transgressed, 

Ati-pata, as, m. passing away, lapse ; neglect, 
transgression ; ill-usage, opposition, contrariety. 

Ati-patita, mfn. completely displaced or broken ; 
(am), n. (in med.) complete fracture of a bone. 

Atl-patin, mfn. overtaking, excelling in speed ; 
(in med.) running a rapid course, acute ; neglecting. 

Ati-pStya, mfn. to be passed over, to be neglected. 

wfrripi ati-pattra, as, m. the Teak tree ; 
the tree Hastikanda. 

flfriM^ ati-Vpad, to go beyond (ace.), 
jump over ; to neglect, transgress : Caus. -pddayati, 
to allow to pass by. 

Ati-patti, is, f. going beyond, passing, lapse ; 
kriyatipatti, the passing by of an action unaccom- 
plished, PSn. iii, 3, 139. 

Ati-panna, mfn. gone beyond, transgressed, 
missed ; past. 

wftrm. ati-para, mfn. one who has over- 
come his enemies ; (as), m. a great enemy. 

^frtlO ati-pari (part- >/), to pass round, 

^TfirTTl ati-\/pas, to look beyond, look 
through, RV. i, 94, 7 ; AV. 

WfiTIT ati-i/i. pa, Caus. P. -pay ay ati, to 
give to drink in great quantity, Kama's. 

ati-pdda-nicrit, f., N. of a 

Vedic metre of three padas (containing respectively 
six, eight and seven syllables). 

ati-pitri, ta, m. surpassing his 
own father, SBr. xiv. 

Ati-pitamaha, as, m. surpassing his own pater- 
nal grandfather, SBr. xiv. 

wfrP ati-Vpu, P. to clarify or purify 
through (3. pi. aor. ati apdvishuh), RV. ix, 60, 2 : 
A. -pavate, to purify or purge by flowing through 
(especially used of theSoma juice, which is considered 
to be a purgative), SBr. &c. 

wfrT'J ati-</i.pri, to convey across, to 
help over, RV. ; to cross, pass over, RV. i, 1 74, 9 & 
vi, 20, 12; to keep (a promise) : Caus. -parayati, 
to lead or convey over, RV. &c. 

wfinj ati-Vpri, cl. 4. P. -puryati, to be- 
come full or overflowing, MBh. 

Tjfinif%i^a<i-/jra-Vei/, -cekite (=-cikite, 
BR. ; = Intens. -cekilte, Gmn.), to be clearly dis- 
tinct or distinguishable, RV. i, 55, 3. 

^ffinnsj ati-pra-Vcyu, to pass by, TBr. : 
Caus. -cydvayati, to cause to pass by, SBr. 

VfiriTtl ati-i/prach, to go on asking, 
SBr. &c. 

^fifrTHTK^ ati-pra- Vjval, to flame or blaze 
exceedingly, MBh. 

wfrlUiil^l ati-pra-nas (Vi.nas), to be en- 
tirely deprived of (ace.), SBr. 

'WfrTHT'ft ati-pra-ni (VnT), to lead by or 
beyond, Laty. ; AsvSr. 

YTfinHJ^ ati-pra-nud (\/nurf), to press or 
incite very strongly. 

^rfrTlTH^ ati-pra-Vpad, Caus. -pddayati, 
to help to pass into the other world (Comm.), MBh. 
iv, 1717. 

wfrlUHUll ati-pramdna, mfn. beyond mea- 
sure, immense. 

^rfrlH^*^ ati-pra- Vy am, to give or hand 
over, TS. ; TBr. 

W CH U^ ^ ati-pra- Vyuj, to separate from 
(with instr.), TS. 

^ffrTlH^ ati-pra- Vvah, to extend or carry 

wfrlH^I ati-pra-'/ 2. vd, cl. 4. P. -vayati, 
to blow violently, MBh. 

wfrTJlftrS ati-pra-viddha, mfn. ( Vvyadh), 
frightened away, scared, R. 

^rfrllT^ ati-pra- Vvrit, to issue violently 
(as blood from a wound), Susr. ; to have an intense 
effect (as venom), Susr. 

tlfrTlH ati-pra- Vve, to add in weaving, 
weave on an additional piece, SSnkhBr. 

^ifff M ^i^ ati-pra- Vsajis, to praise highly. 

V frl H 1 *} ati-pra- Vsru,c\.^. A. -rinre(Ved. 
3. sg.), to become known or famous more than others, 
RV. x, II, 7. 

wfinm^ ati-pra-Vsad, P. -sidati, to be- 
come completely cheerful. 

^rfrTTHJ ati-pra-i/sri, Intens. -sarsrite, to 
outstrip, surpass, RV. ii, 25, 1. 

Ati-pra-srita, mfn. issued violently. 

^ffifJIWr ati-pra- i/stha, to have an ad- 
vantage over, RV. i, 64, 13 & viii, 60, 1 6. 

wfrin^I ati-pra-Vz. hd, cl. 3. A. -jihile, to 
give or hand over, SBr. 

nam, ind. exceeding life. 

Ati-pr5na-priya, mfn. dearer than life. 

ati- Vprv,to jump o escape.TS. 

ati-preshita, am, n. the time 

following the Praisha ceremony, KstySr. 

wPrKllU^ ati-\/badh, to molest or annoy 

NH frl j^ ati-brih. 


ati- Vl . brih, to push out intense! 
(scil. rttas; used only for the etym. olvrishabha 

(ati-brahman, d, m., N. of a king 

x ati-Vbru or alhi-Vbru, to insult 
abuse, MBh. iii, 15640. 

^TfiTHT ati-*/bhd,-bhati, to blaze or be very- 
bright, AV. x,z,i7; R. 

'HnT>J - fl<t'-'v/6Au (perf. -babhSva), to origi- 
nate or take rise in an excessive way, MBh. viii 
4541 ; P. (once A., TAr.), to excel, surpass, PBr. 
MBh. &c. : Desid. to intend to surpass, AsvSr. 

Ati-bnava, m. superiority, overcoming. 

^rfifJIW ati-bhumi, is, f. extensive land ; 
culmination, eminence, superiority ; excess. 

^rfiT>JS ati-\/2. bhiish, to adorn one's sell 
before (another) ; to adorn richly. 

^Tiinj ati-Vbhri, A. to pass or extend over 
(perf. 2. sg. -jabhrishe), RV. ix, 86, 29 & 100, 9. 

Ati-bhara, as, m. See s.v. ati. 

*ifr!**^ ati-Vman, -manyate (i. pl.-mand- 
mahl 'tf), to disdain, despise, RV. &c. ; to value 
less than one's self, SBr. ; to pride one's self, SBr. 

Ati-manita, mfn. honoured highly; cf. ati- 
mdnd s. v. ati. 

isifrli^iM^Cs ati-manushya-buddhi, mfn. 
having a superhuman intellect. 

' ati-martya, mfn. superhuman. 

f ati-marydda, mfn. exceeding the 
proper limit ; (am), ind. beyond bounds. 

^rfrTHin^ ati-marsam, ind. (Vmris), so as 
to encroach, AitBr. 

^rflTTfijT ati-matrd, mfn. exceeding the 
proper measure, AV. &c. ; (dm), ind. or -sas, ind. 
beyond measure. 

wffTHT'J^ aii-mdnusha, mfn. superhuman, 
divine, MBh. &c. 

1 Wfn t llt i ati-mdm (ace. of aty-aham, q. v.), 
surpassing me, Pin. vii, 2, 97, Sch. 

SHffltnfl ati-mdya, mfn. emancipated from 
MayS or Illusion ; finally liberated. 

^rfrWlX ati-mdra or ati-bhdra, as, m., N. 
of a prince. 

^rfirftTrT i. ati-mita, mfn. over measured, 
beyond measure, exceeding. 

2. a-timita, mfn. not moistened. 

escape, SBr. &c. 

Ati-mnkta or ati-mnktaka, as, m. 'surpass- 
ing pearls in whiteness,' N. of certain shrubs. 

Ati-mukti, is, {. final liberation. See ati. 

Atl-mucya, ind. p. having dismissed or given up. 

Ati-moksha, as, m. final liberation, SBr. xiv. 

Ati-mokshin, mfn. escaping, TS. ; Kith. 

^tfrt*[fl ati-mrityu, mfn. overcoming death, 


^rfrt*!^ Sti-Vyqf, to neglect or pass in 
offering a sacrifice, TS. 

wfirTT ati- vVa, to pass over or before ; to 
surpass, RV. &c. ; to pass by, RV. i, 135, 7; to 
transgress, BhP. 

"Wfit^q*^ ati-yuyam (nom. pi. of ati-tvam, 
q. v.), surpassing thee. 

wfrHISJ ati- Vraj, to shine over (aor. Subj . 
3. sg. dti rat}, RV. vi, 1 2, 5. 

Ati-rajan, a, m. a supreme king ; superior to a 
king, Pan. iv, I, 12, Sch. ; (-rdjZi), f. (a woman) 
superior to a king, ib. Ati-rajakumari, mfn. 
superior to a princess, PSn. i, 2, 48, Sch. 

Atirajaya, Nom. P. atirdjayati, to surpass a 
king, Pin. vii, 4, 2, Sch. 

^rfiTO^ ati-ratrd, mfn. prepared or per- 
formed over-night, RV. vii, 103, 7 ; (ds), m. an 
optional part of the Jyotishtoma sacrifice ; com- 
mencement and conclusion of certain sacrificial acts ; 

the concluding Vedic verse chanted on such occa- 
sions, AV. &c. ; N. of a son of Cakshusha the sixth 
Manu. - savaniya-pasu, m. the victim sacrificed 
at the Atiratra. 

ati-ri, neut. of ati-rai, q. v. 

* ati- v/ric, Pass, -ricyate, to be left 
with a surplus, to surpass (in a good or bad sense 
with abl. or ace.); to be superior, predominate, pre- 
vail : Caus. -recayati, to do superfluously, to do too 
much, SBr. &c. 

Ati-rikta, mfn. left with or as a surplus, left 
apart ; redundant, unequalled ; different from (with 
abl.) ta, f. redundancy, &c. Atiriktanffa, 
mfn. having a redundant limb or finger or toe ; (am), 
n. a redundant limb or finger or toe. 

Ati-reka or atl-reka [only once, SBr.], as, m. 
surplus, excess ; redundancy ; difference. 

Ati-rekin, mfn. surpassing. 

^rtrT^^ i. art-vVac, to shine over or 
along, RV. &c. ; to surpass in shining. 
2. Ati- rue, m. a horse's fetlock or knee, VS. 

Wfn t\^ ati-\/ruh, to climb or ascend over, 
RV. ix, 17, 5; to grow higher, RV. x, 90, 2. 

ati-rai, ds, ds, 'i, exceeding one's in- 
come, extravagant, Pin. Sch. 

ati-Vlanyh, Caus. -langhayati, to 
transgress, Kathis. 

atilihd or athilld, f., N. of a 
PrSkrit metre (of four lines, each containing sixteen 

w fit^'i ati- -/vac, to blame ; to speak too 
oudly either in blaming or praising. 

^Tnr^ ati-Vvad, to speak louder or bet- 
:er ; to surpass or overpower in disputing, TBr. &c. 
to ask for too much, AV. 

T ati-vayam (nom. pi. of aty-aham, 
q. v.), surpassing me. 

ati-Vvah, to carry over or across ; 
o pass by'; to pass (time), Dai : Caus. -vdhayati, 
o let pass, get over or through, endure ; to let time 
>ass, spend. 

Atl-vahana, m, n. excessive toiling or enduring. 

Ati-vahika, mfn. ' swifter than the wind,' N. of 
the linga-sarira (but see dtivdhika); (as), m. an 
nhabitant of the lower world. 

Ati-vahya, mfn. to be passed (as time, &c.); 
am), n. the passing of time. 

Ati-yodhri, ifhd, m. one who carries over or 
cross, SBr. 

wfiraTa<-\/2. a,cl. 2. P. -coM.toblowbe- 
ond, AV. : cl. 4. V.-vdyati, to blow violently; (ati- 


i-vvrit, to pass beyond, surpass, 
cross ; to get over, overcome ; to transgress, violate, 
offend, especially by unfaithfulness ; to pass away ; 
to delay. 

Ati-vartana, am, n. a pardonable offence or 

Ati-vartin, mfn. passing beyond, crossing, pass- 
ing by, surpassing ; guilty of a pardonable offence. 

Ati-vritti, is, (. surpassing ; hyperbolical mean- 
ing ; (in med.) excessive action. 

{ati-</vridh, to surpass in growing, 
grow beyond, SBr. 
Ati-vriddha, mfn. very large ; very old. 

"l 1 ^, a ' J " v / fmA, to rain violently. 

wTTOc? ati-tela, mfn. passing the proper 
boundary, excessive ; (am), ind. excessively. 

^lfinn^ ati-Vvyadh (Ved. Inf. ati-vidhe, 
RV. v, 62, 9), to pierce through, RV. ; AV. 

Ati-viddha, mfn. pierced through, wounded. 

Ati-vyadhin, mfn. piercing through, wounding, 
VS. ; SBr. xiv. 

Ati-vyadhya, mfn. vulnerable. 

^flfls(>^a/- -/vraj, to pass by; to fly over, 
RV. i, 1 1 6, 4 ; to pass or wander through. 

^jfif^l*^ ati-Vsans, to recite beyond mea- 
sure, to continue reciting ; to omit in reciting, AitBr. 

^lfrl$IS8lJ ati-sakkari or ati-sakvari, f. a 
class of metres of four lines, each containing fifteen 
syllables. It has eighteen varieties. 

ati-sakra, mfn. superior to Indra. 
ati- / sank, to suspect strongly, 
L5ty. ; to suspect falsely ; to be concerned about. 

ati-saya, &c. See i . ati- */i . si. 

ali-sastra, mfn. superior to 

f Indian, atisakvara, mfn. written in or 
connected with the Ati-sakvari metre. 

ati-Vsi, cl. 3. A. -stiite, to sharpen 
up (a weapon) for attacking, RV. i, 36, 16. 

^sfHf$r^ ati/2. sish, to leave remaining : 
Pass, -sishyatc, to remain. 

A'ti-sishta, mfn. remaining, TS. &c. 

Atl-sesha, as, m. remainder, remnant (especially 
of time), ChUp. 

ati-vdsa, as, m. a fast on the day 
before performing the SrSddha. 

ati-vi-Vdhd, cl. 3. A. -dhatte, to 
distribute too much, SBr. 

w Pn Pq *.i ^ ati-vi- Vraj, to shine or be bril- 
liant exceedingly, MBh. &c. 

TfrrfqpSlF ati-vi- i/langh, Caus. -langha- 
yati, to pass by without taking notice of, BhP. 

^filfV^ ati-vi- Vlud, Caus. -lodayati, to 
disturb, destroy, MBh. 

'afnlq^r^ ati-vi- Vvrit, Caus. -vartayati, 
to separate too far, to make too great distinction be- 
tween, RV. Prit 

^fTTri *i ^ ati-vi- Vsranibh, Caus. -sram- 
bhayati, to make too familiar or too intimate, Car. 

Ati-vi-srabdha, mfn. entirely trusting or con- 
fiding in ; (am), ind. quite confidently. 

'iififfq 1 *! ati-visva, as, m. ' superior to all 
or to the universe,' N. of a Muni, Hariv. 

^rnf^**!*^ ati-vi- Vsvas, to confide or trust 
too much (generally with na, neg.) 

ati- V vl, to outstrip, RV. v, 44, 7. 

tT ati-vritthita, mfn. ( 
strengthened, MBh. v, 499. 

i. ati- V i. si, -sete, to precede in 
lying down, MBh. ; to surpass, excel ; to act as an 
incubus, annoy, L. : Pass, -sayyate, to be excelled 
or surpassed. 

Ati-saya, as, m. pre-eminence, eminence; supe- 
riority in quality or quantity or numbers ; advan- 
tageous result; one of the superhuman qualities attri- 
buted to Jaina Arhats ; (mfn.), pre-eminent, superior, 
abundant, SaiikhBr. &c. ; (am or ena), ind. emi- 
nently, very. Atisayokti, f. hyperbolical language ; 
extreme assertion ; verbosity. 

Ati-sayana, mf(i)n. eminent, abundant ; (am), 
ind. excessively ; (f), f., N. of a metre of four lines, 
also called Citralekha. 

Ati-sayita, mfn. surpassing, superior. 

Ati-sayin, mfn. excelling, abounding. 

Ati-sayana, am, n. excelling ; excessiveness. 

Ati-sayin, mfn. excelling, abounding; -excessive. 

wfir?ft 2 . ati- v/3- si, to % fall or drop beyond, 
Ksth. ; to get out from (ace'.), leave, ChUp. 

wfnsiTn^ ati-sitam, ind. past or beyond 
the cold, after the winter. 

ali-silaya, Nom. P. yati, to 
practise or use excessively. 

ati-Vsubh, to be brilliant; to 

please : Caus. -sobhayati, to make brilliant, adorn. 

ati-sreshtha, mfn. superior to the 
best, best of all. -tva, n. pre-eminence. 

Ati-sreyasi, is, m. a man superior to the most 
excellent woman. 

, to fasten or tie over. 
ati-sva, mf(i)n, superior to, or worse 



than, a dog, Pin. v, 4, 96 ; (a), m., N. of a tribe (?), 
(gana pakshadi, q. v.) 

<sfiTT3i dti-shakta or (in later texts) ati- 
sakta, mfn. ( Vsaiif), connected with, AV. &c. 

TOfrTfTrT dti-shita, mfn. tied or bound 
round (so as to prevent the flow of any liquid), RV. 
*> 73, 9- 

^lfrn^i'^ ati-shkand (Vskand), to cover 
(said of a bull), RV. v, 52, 34 to leap or jump over, 
Ved. Inf. (dat.) aJi-shtdtie, RV. viii, 67, 19 ; Ved. 
Inf. (3i\A.)-slikddas,'R.V. x, 108, 2; to omit, dn-ati- 
skaniiaf, mfn. not omitting anything, uniform, TBr. 

Ati-shkadvan, mf(ar;~)n. jumping over, trans- 

wfirfgN*^ ati-sht(gham (Vstigh), ind. so 
as to overwhelm, MaitrS. 

^frT uti-shtu (Vstu), to go on too far in 
reciting hymns of praise, PBr. ; Lsty. 

w fn 8 n d-tishthat, mfn. not standing, uii- 
itable, RV. 

of, govern, RV. ; AV. ; to jut over or out, TBr. 

2. A ti- slit hj, f. precedence, superiority, SBr. &c. ; 
(as), m. f. or ati-shthavan, m. or atishtha-vai 
[AV.], mfn. superior in standing, surpassing. 

wffRnn ati-sam-Vdhd, to overreach, de- 
ceive, Sak. ; to wrong or injure, VarBrS. 

Ati-sandbam, ind. so as to violate an agreement 
or any fixed order, SBr. 

Ati-sain-dhana, am, n. overreaching, cheating. 

Ati-sandhita, mfn. overreached, cheated. 

Ati-sam-dheya, mfn. easy to be conciliated, 
easy to be settled. 

^frHTt ati-sarva, mfn. superior to all, 
Pin. Sch. ; (as), m. the Supreme. 

ati-samvatsara, mfn. extend- 

ing over more than a year, Mn. 

TOfni*Hi ati-samya, f. the sweet juice of 
the Bengal Madder, Rubia Manjith. 

^finj ati-Vsri, Caus. to cause to pass 
through : Pass, -s&ryate, to be purged, Susr. 

Ati-sara, as, m. effort, exertion, AV. 

Ati-sara or atl-sSra, as, m. purging, dysentery. 

Ati-sarakin, or ati-sarakin or ati-sarin or 
ati-sarin, mfn. afflicted with purging or dysentery. 

'Sfrnjj^ ati-Vsrij, to glide over or along, 
RV. ; to send away, dismiss, abandon ; to leave as 
a remnant ; to remit, forgive; to give away, present; 
to create in a higher degree, SBr. xiv. 

Ati-sarga, as, m. act of parting with, dismissal, 
giving away ; granting permission, leave ; atisargdm 
y/i . da, to bid any one farewell, MaitrS. 

Ati-sarjana, am, n. the act of giving away, 
granting ; liberality ; a gift ; sending out of the 
world, killing. 

Ati-srijya, mfn. to be dismissed, SBr. 

Ati-srishti, is, 1. a higher creation, SBr. xiv. 

^J fn j >^ ati- Vsrip, to glide or creep over, 
get over, RV. &c. 

ati-sena, as, m., N. of a prince. 

4 ati-Vsev, to use or enjoy immode- 
rately, to practise excessively ; cf. ati-sevd s. v. aft. 

^ifniH4U ati-sauparna, mfn. superior to 
(the powers of) Suparna or Garuda. 

^frittfl ati-stri, m!(is or i) n. surpassing 
a woman, L. ; see Gram. 1 23. /;. 

^fruit^ ati-Vsrans, to drop or turn away 
from, to escape, RV. vi, 1 1, 6. 

wfnti ati-Vsru, to flow over or flow ex- 

Ati-srSvita, mfn. caused to flow excessively 
(as a wound), Susi. 

Ati-srnta, mfn. that which has been flowing 
over (N. of Soma), VS. 

wfnt^ ati- Vsvfi> to hold or sustain a note, 
PBr. ; ChUp. 

Ati-svarya, mfn. the last of the seven notes, 

ati-Vhan, Desid. -jighansati (for 
-jighdsati h. Vt. haf), to try to escape, AitBr. 

Ati-hata, mfn. firmly fixed, SBr. ; utterly de- 
stroyed, Car. 

,Nom.(fr. ati-hasta), 

P. atihastayati, to stretch out the hands ; (ft. ati- 
hastin), to overtake on an elephant. 

^Nrl^l ati-Vl. ha, to jump over, RV. &c.; 
to pass jumping from one place to another. 

WrTf?*?H ati-himam, ind. after the frost ; 
past the cld. 

'wli'd ati-Vhri, to hold over; to reach 
over ; to cause to jut over ; to add. 

ati-Vhve (i. sg. A. -hvaye), to call 
over to one's side, TBr. 

ati (Vi), el. 3. P. aty-eti, -etum, to 
pass by, elapse, pass over, overflow ; to pass on ; to 
get over ; (Ved. Inf. dty-etavat), to pass through, 
RV. v, 83, 10 ; to defer; to enter; to overcome, 
overtake, outdo ; to pass by, neglect ; to overstep, 
violate ; to be redundant ; to die : lutcns. aiiyate, 
to overcome. 

Atita, mfn. gone by, past, passed away, dead ; 
one who has gone through or got over or beyond, 
one who has passed by or neglected ; negligent ; 
passed, left behind ; excessive ; (as), m., N. of a 
particular Saiva sect ; (am), n. the past. kala, 
m. the past time or tense. nauka, mfn. passed 
out of a ship, landed. 

Atitvarl, f. a female transgressor, bad woman, VS. 

Aty-aya, aty-Sya, see s. v. 

d-tlkshna, mfn. not sharp, blunt ; 
not severe or rigid. 

in1f5<4 alindriya, mfn. beyond the (cog- 
nizance of the) senses ; (as), m. (in SSnkhya phil.) 
the soul ; (am), n., N. of Pradluna ; the mind. 

ati-rekd. See ati-Vric. 

ativa, ind. exceedingly, very ; ex- 
cessively, too ; quite; surpassing (with ace.): Corn- 
par. atiifa-taram, ind. exceedingly, excessively, Sis. 
iv. 25. 

^TrfiH a-tivra, mfn. not sharp, blunt ; not 

a/isA ( Visb),to pass by(acc.),MaitrS. 

afi-sara. See eti-Vsri. 
*fijg-a-tu%a, mfn. not tall,short,d warfish. 
a-tunda, mfn. not stout, thin. 
tura, mfn. not liberal, not rich, AV. 

a-tula, mfn. unequalled ; (as), m. 
(destitute of weight), the Sesamum seed and plant. 
A-tulya, mfn. unequalled. 

a-tushd, mfn. without husks, SBr. 
<*t a-tushara-kara, as, m. 'having 

not cold rays," the sun. 

a-tushti, is, f. displeasure.discontent. 
a-tuhina, not cold. dhaman or 

-rasmi or -met, m. ' having not cold light,' the 
sun, VarBrS. 

^TrrrtflT d-tiituji, mfn. not quick, slow, 
RV. vii, 28, 3. 

^Trfji d-turta [RV. viii, 99, 7] or a-turta 
[RV.], mfn. not outrun, not outdone, not obstructed, 
unhurt ; (a-ttcrtam), n. il limited space, RV. x, 149, 
I. daksha, in. 'having designs that cannot be 
obstructed,' N. of the Asvins, RV. viii, 26, 1 . pa- 
tUn (dturta-}, m(nom. -fan/Ads){n. having a 
path that cannot be obstructed, RV. 

l orj|<uic; d-trindda, as, m. ' not an eater of 
grass,' a newly-born calf, SBr. xiv. 

A-trinyS, f. a small quantity or short supply of 
grass, Pan. vi, 2, 156, Sch. 

^arjf^rt d-tridila, mfn. ' having no inter- 
stices,' solid, RV. x, 94, II. 

a-<ripd',mfn.not satisfied, RY. i v,5, 1 4. 


Atripnnvat, mfn. insatiable, RV. iv, 19, 3. 
A-tripta, mfn. unsatisfied, insatiable, eager. 
drii, mfn. looking with eagerness. 
A-tripti, is, (. unsatisfied condition, insatiability. 

Irjfarf d-trishita, mfn. not thirsty, not 
greedy, RV. x, 94, n. 

A-trishnaJ, mfn. not thirsty, RV. x, 94, II. 

A-trlshya, mfn. beyond the reach of thirst, AV. 

A-trishyat, mfn. not thirsting after, not greedy, 
not eager, RV. i, 71, 3. 

^rtT*{ a-tejas, as, n. absence of bright- 
ness or vigour ; dimness, shade, shadow ; feebleness, 
dulness, insignificance; (a^tyas'), mm. [AV.] or 
a-tejaska [SBr. xiv] or a-ttjasvin, mfn. not bright, 
dim, not vigorous. A-teJo-maya, mfn. not con- 
sisting of light or brightness, SBr. xiv. 

WrnmiftM a-toshaniya, mfn. not to be 
pleased or appeased. 

^r3i dtka, as, (Vat), m. a traveller, L.; a 
limb or member, L. ; armour, mail, garment, RV. ; 
N. of an Asura, RV. 

wrflrt atkila, as, m., N. of an ancient 
Rishi (uttila, q.v.), AsvSr. 

attali, is, m., N. of a man. 

attavya, mfn. (Vad), fit or" proper 
to be eaten, Mn. 
Attl, is, m. an eater, SBr. xiv. 
Attri, td, m. an eater, AV. &c. ; f. attri, TS. 

^rai attd, f. (probably a colloquialism 
borrowed from the Deccan, said to occur chiefly in 
dramas), a mother, L.; mother's sister, L.; elder sister, 
L.; (in Prakrit) a mother-in-law, L. See akkd. 

Attl, is; or attika, f. elder sister, L. 

attra. See 3. & 4. atra, p. 17, col. 2. 
attri. See dtri, p. 17, col. 2. 

atna, as, or atnu, us, m. (Vat), the 
sun, L. 
Atya (2, 3), as, m. a courser, steed, RV. 

WJ^^ dty-anhas, mfn. beyond the reach 
of evil or distress, VS. 
Aty-auha, as; m., N. of a man, TBr. 

^BTQTT'laty-agni, is, m. too rapid digestion ; 
(mfn.), surpassing fire, -somarka, mfn. brighter 
than fire or the moon or the sun. 

'amC'lBi*) aty-agnishtoma, as, m., N. of 
the second of the seven modifications of the Jyo- 
tishtoma sacrifice ; the Vedic verse chanted at the 
close of that ceremony. 

WrMU dty-agra, mfn. whose point is jutting 
over, TS. 

'H.rHS?! aty-ankusa, mfn. past or beyond 
the (elephant-driver's) hook, unmanageable. 

VSrQ^S aty-angula, mfn. exceeding an 
angula (finger's breadth). 

i ("*( aty-ati- Vkram, to approach for 

sexual intercourse, MBh. 

^rmfrlfr^ aty-ati-Vric, Pass, -ricyate, to 
surpass exceedingly. 

^itfri^ aty-anila, mfn. surpassing the 

'WiM^lJ aty-anu-Vsri, Caus. -sarayati, to 

pursue excessively, MBh. 

^TrT*TTa<y-ante,mfn. beyond the properend 
or limit ; excessive, very great, very strong ; endless, 
unbroken, perpetual ; absolute, perfect ; (am), ind. 
excessively, exceedingly ; in perpetuity ; absolutely, 
completely; to the end ; (dyd), dat. ind. for ever, 
perpetually, Pat. ; quite, Pat. kopana, mfn. very 
passionate. ga, mfn. going very much or very fast, 
Pan. iii, 2, 48. g-ata, mfn. completely pertinent ; 
always applicable, Nir. ; gone forever, Ragh. gati, 
f. complete accomplishment ; (in Gr.) the sense of 
'completely.' gamin, mfn. = -ga above. (Ta- 
llin, mfn. having extraordinary qualities. tiras- 
krita-vacya-dhvani, f. (in rhetoric) a meta- 
phoric or hyperbolical use of depreciatory language. 
pidana, n. act of giving excessive pain. vasin, 
m. a student who perpetually resides with his teacher. 

gainyoga, m. (in Gr.) immediate proximity. 

samparka, m. excessive sexual intercourse. 

sukumara, mfn. very tender ; (as), m. a kind 
of grain, Panicum Italicuin. Atyaiitabhava, in. 
absolute non-existence. 

Aty-antika, mfn. too close ; (am), n. too great 
nearness, SBr. 
Atyantina, mfn. going far, Pan. v, 2, II. 

^TTlfUJtr aty-abhi-srita, mfn. ( Vsri), hav- 
ing approached too much, having come too close, 
MBh. i, 3854. 

^fTHI aty-aya, as, m. (fr. Vi with ati, see 

all), passing, lapse, passage; passing away, perishing, 
death ; danger, risk, evil, suffering ; transgression, 
guilt, vice ; getting at, attacking, Yajn. ii, 12 ; over- 
coming, mastering (mentally) ; a class, ChUp. 

Atyayika. See dtyayika. 

Atyayin, mfn. passing, Pan. iii, 2, 157. 

W<*Rrfif aty-ardti, is, m., N. of a son of 
Janantapa, AitBr. 

^(TH aty-artha, rafn. 'beyond the proper 
worth,' exorbitant, excessive ; (am), ind. excessively, 

'SW^ aty-Vard, to press hard, distress 
greatly, Bhatt. 

^TW^ aty-Varh (Subj. -arhat), to excel in 
worth, RV. ii, 23, 15. 

t aty-ava- Vsrij, to let loose, let go. 

dty-avi, is, m. passing over or 
through the strainer (consisting of sheep's wool or a 
sheep's tail ; said of the Soma), RV. 

^TV3[aty-\/2-as,to precede in eating, SBr.j 
MBh. ; to eat too much, Bhag. 

Wlf? aty-ashti, is, f . a metre (of four lines, 
each containing seventeen syllables) ; the number 
seventeen. samagrl, f., N. of a work. 

WW^ i.afy-\/ excel, 
surpass, RV. vii, I, 14 ; AV. 

xiw*^ 2. a<y-\/2. as, to shoot beyond, 
overwhelm, overpower (as with arrows). 

Aty-asta, mfn. one who has shot or cast beyond, 
Pan. ii, I, 24. 

Aty-asam, ind. ifc. after the lapse of (e.g. dvya- 
hatyasam, after the lapse of two days), Pin. iii, 4, 
57, Sch. 

>S A ^^aty-aham, surpassing me ; surpass- 
ing self-consciousness, NrisUp. ; cf. Pin. vii, 2,97, Sch. 

flrtg aty-ahna, mfn. exceeding a day in 
duration, Pin. v. 4, 88, Sch. 

^f r^T^BTt aty-d-kdra, as, m. ( -/I . in), con- 
tempt, blame, Pin. v, I, 134. 

'Wr'lT'ai'^ aty-d-Vkram (ind. p. -krdmya) to 
walk past, TS. ; SBr. 

'Snqr^TT aty-dcdra, as, m. performance of 
works of supererogation - T (mfn.), negligent of or 
departing from the established customs. 

WWTf^rll aty-dditya, mfn. surpassing the 

TTT aty-d-Vdri,'io take great care of, 
be anxious about. 

^THUV^afy -a- i/dham,-dhamati, to breathe 
violently, Susr. 

WrJIIVT aty-d-Vdhd, to place in a higher 
rank, SBr. 

Aty-a-dhana, am, n. act of imposing or placing 
upon, Pin. ; imposition, deception, L. 

Aty-S-hita, mm. disagreeable, Mbh. &c. ; (am), 
n. disagreeableness, Sik. &c. (Prakrit accahida). 

^mrm aty-aya, as, m. (Vi), the act of 
going beyond, transgression, excess, Pan. iii, I, 141 ; 
(am, 4), ind. going beyond, RV. viii, IOI, 14. 

^TWTTfi^ aty-d-Vyat, A. to make extra- 
ordinary efforts for (loc.), Das. 

aty-d-Vyd, to pass by, RV. 
atydyu, n., N. of a sacrificial vessel, 

atyanta-samyoga, w^fgpj a-dakshina. 

aty-dla, as, m. Plumbago Rosea. 
THt^ aty-dsramin, i, m.'su]ierior to 


the (four) Asramas,' an ascetic of the highest degree. 

^TrMl^ aty-d-Vsad, Caus. ind. p.-sddya, 

passing through. 
Aty-a-sarma, mfn. being too close. 

TJ aty-a-\/sri,to run near, Kaus. 
Aty-a-sarin, mfn. flowing near violently, TS. 

metres (of four lines, each containing two syllables). 

t/ia) to surpass, RV. 

r**^ aty-ut-Vkram, to surpass, excel. 

^_ aty-ud-dhd (V 2, hd), to surpass, 
SBr. xiv. 

W^^nT aty-upadha, mfn. superior to any 
test, tried, trustworthy, L. 

w rj} M M ^ aty-upa- Vyaj, to continue offer- 
ing sacrifices, SBr. 

aty-Vuh. See aty-Vi-Hh. 

aty-umasd,\nd, a particle of abuse 
(used in comp. with J\. as, bhii, l.kri; gana 
ury-adi, q.v.) 

dty-urmi, mfn. overflowing, bub- 
bling over, RV. ix, 1 7, 3. 

i. aty-Vi.uh, to convey across. Spelt 

aty-uk in some forms, possibly belonging to 
^raji 2. aty-\/2.uh,-ohate, to contemn, RV. 

viii, 69, 14. 
Aty-uha, as, m. excessive deliberation ; a galli- 

nule, a peacock, Car. ; (a), f. the plant Jasminum 

Villosum or Nyctanthes Tristis. 

1 ""i9'T aty-Vrij, to convey across (towards 
an object), admit to, AitBr. 

WT^ s aty-Vesh (Subj. 2. sg. -eshas) to 
glide over, AV. ix, 5, 9. 

I. d-tra (or Ved. d-tra), ind. (fr. pro- 
nominal base a; often used in sense of loc. case as- 
mtit), in this matter, in this respect ; in this place, 
here ; at this time ; there ; then. aaghna, mf(a)n. 
reaching so far up, having this (or that) stature, SBr. 
bhavat, mfn. his Honour, your Honour, &c. 
(used honorifkally in dramatic language). Atraiva, 
ind. on this very spot. 

Atratya, mfn. connected with this place, pro- 
duced or found here, L. 

W3 2.a-tra, mfn. (Vtrai}, (only for the 
etym. of kshattrd), ' not enjoying or affording pro- 
tection,' BrArUp. 

W& 3. atrd, as, m. (for at-tra, fr. Vad), a 
devourer, demon, RV. ; AV. ; a Rikshasa. 

4. A'tra, am, n. (for at-tra), food, RV. x, 79, 2. 

A'tri, is, m. (for at-tri, fr. Vad), a devourer, 
RV. ii, 8, 5 ; N. of a great Rishi, author of a number 
of Vedic hymns; (in astron.) one of the seven stars of 
the Great Bear ; (atrayas), pi. m. the descendants 
of Atri. caturaha, m. 'the four days of Atri,' 
N. of a sacrifice. jata, m. ' produced by Atri,' the 
moon. drig-ja or -netra-ja or -netra-pra- 
suta or -netra-prabhava or -netra-suta 
or -netra-bliS, m. ' produced by Atri's look,' the 
moon ; (in arithm.) the number one. bharadvfi- 
jika, f. marriage of descendants of Atri with those 
of Bharadvija. -vat, ind. like Atri, RV. -sam- 
hdta or -smriti, f. the code ascribed to Atri. 

Atrin,/, m. a devourer, demon, RV. ; a Rakshasa. 

a-trapa. mfn. destitute of shame. 
a-trapii or a-trapus, mfn. not tinned, 

MaitrS. ; Kith. ; KapS. 

^3^ d-trasnu [SBr.; Ragh. xiv, 47] or 
a-trdsa, mm. fearless. 

^T%ITrT a-tri-jdta, mfn. ' not born thrice' 

(but twice), a man belonging to one of the first three 
classes ; [for atri-jdta, see under atri.~] 

Wr^ a-tvdk-ka [TS.] or a-tvdc [SBr.], 
mfn. skinless. 

a-tvara, f. freedom from haste. 
dtha (or Ved. dthd), ind. (probably fr. 

pronom. base a), an auspicious and inceptive particle 
(not easily expressed in English), now; then; more- 
over ; rather ; certainly ; but ; else ; what ? how 
else? &c. kim, ind. how else? what else? cer- 
tainly, assuredly, sure enough. kimu, ind. how 
much more ; so much the more. ~ ca, ind. moreover, 
and likewise. tu, ind. but, on the contrary. va, 
ind. or ; (when repeated) either or ; or rather ; or 
perhaps ; what? is it not so? &c. vapi, ind. or, 
rather. Athatas, ind. now. Athanantaram, 
ind. now. Athapi, ind. so much the more ; more- 
over ; therefore ; thus. 

Atbo, ind.( = atha. above), now; likewise ; next ; 
therefore. va, ind. = atha~vd, Mn. iii, 202. 

WZlft: athari, is, or athart,f. (said to be fr. 
Jat, to go, or fr. an obsolete */ath), flame [Gmn. ; 
'the point of an arrow oiof alance.'NBD. ; 'finger,* 
Naigh.], RV. iv, 6, 8. 

1. Atharya [VS.] and atharyu [RV. vii, I, i], 
mfn. flickering, lambent. 

2. Atharya, Nom. P. atharyati, to move tremu- 
lously, flicker, Naigh. 

wxfqr^ dtharvan, d, m. (said to be fr. an 
obsolete word athar, fire), a priest who has to do 
with fire and Soma ; N. of the priest who is said to 
have been the first to institute the worship of fire 
and offer Soma and prayers (he is represented as a 
Prajapati, as Brahmi's eldest son, as the first learner 
and earliest teacher of the Brahma-vidyi, as the 
author of the Atharva-veda, as identical with 
Angiras, as the father of Agni, &c.); N. of Siva, 
Vasishtha [Kir. x, I o], Soma, Prina ; (a, a), m. n. the 
fourth or Atharva-veda (said to have been composed 
by Atharvan, and consisting chiefly of formulas and 
spells intended to counteract diseases and calamities) ; 
(dtharvanas), pi. m. descendants of Atharvan, often 
coupled with those of Angiras and Bhrigu ; the 
hymns of the Atharva-veda. 

1 . Athar va (in comp. for alharvan) . bhuta , 
as, m. pi. 'who have become Atharvans,' N. of the 
twelve Maharshis. vat, ind. like Atharvan or his 
descendants, RV. vid, m. one versed in the 
Atharva-veda (a qualification essential to the special 
class of priests called Brahmans). veda, m., N. of 
the fourth Veda (see above). - BikM, f., N. of an 
Upanishad. sir as, n. id. ; N. of a kind of brick, 
TBr.; (as), m., N. of Mahapurusha. -hridaya, 
n., N. of a Parisishta. Atharvangiras, m. a mem- 
ber of the sacerdotal rice or elass called Atliar- 
vdngirasas, m. pi., i. e. the descendants of Atharvan 
and of Angiras ; the hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Atharvaiigirasa, mfn. cennected with the sacer- 
dotal class called Atharviiigiras ; (am), n. the work 
or office of the Atharvangiras ; (as), m. pi. the hymns 
of the Atharva-veda. 

2 . Atharva, of, m., N. of Brahmi's eldest son (to 
whom he revealed the Brahma T vidyi), MundUp. 

Atharvana, us, m., N. of Siva. 

Atharvani, is, better atharvani, m. a Brih- 
man versed in the Athirva-veda, L.; a family 
priest, L. 

AtharvSna, am, n. the Atharva-veda or the ritual 
of it, MBh. -vid, m. one versed in that ritual. 

Atharvi, f. ['female priest,' Gmn. ; BR.] pierced 
by the point (of an arrow or of a lance), RV. i, 112, 
10; cf. athar I. 

i . ad, cl.2. P.dtti, dda, atsyati, attum, 
to eat, consume, devour ; Ved. lnf._dt/at>e, 
RV. : Caus. adayatid. le (once adayatt [ApSr.]), 
to feed [cf. Lith. edmi; Slav. /aw/' fajaamj; Gk. 
ISa; Lat. cdo ; Goth. rt. AT, pres. ita; Germ. 
essen; Eng. to eat; Arm. uleni}. Ad-adl, mfn. 
belonging to the second class of roots called ad, Sic., 
cf. Pan. ii, 4, 72. 

Attavya, atti, attri, 4. atra &c., see s. v. 

2. Ad, mfn., ifc.'eating,' as matsydd, eating fish. 

Ada or adaka, mfn., chtefly ifc., eating. 

I. Adat, mfn. eating, RV. x, 4, 4, &c. 

A'dana, am, n. act of eating ; food, RV. vi, 59, 3. 

Adaniya, mfn. to be eateii, what may be eaten. 

Adman, adya, advan, see s.v. 

^nTBf a-daksha, mfn. not dexterous, un- 
skilful, awkward. 

A-dakshina, mfn. not dexterous, not handy; 
not right, left ; inexperienced, simple-minded ; not 




giving or bringing in a dakshinJ or present to the 

priest, RV. x, 61, 10, &c. tva, n. awkwardness 

not bringing in a dakshina. 
Adakhiiuya,mfn.not entitled toadakshinS,SBr 
AdakBhinya, mfn. not fit to be used as a da- 

kshina, TS. 

^T^V a-dagdha, mfn. not burnt. 

'<;|S a-danda, mfn. exempt from punish- 
ment ; (am), n. impunity. 

A-dandaniya, mfn. = a-dandyd. 

A-dandya, mhi. not deserving punishment, PBr. 
Mn. &c. ; exempt from it, SBr.; Mn. viii, 335. 

toothless. (For i.addt, see above.) 

W^TI d-datta, mfn. not given; given un- 
justly ; not given in marriage ; one who has given 
nothing, AV. ; (a), {. an unmarried girl ; (am), n. ; 
donation which is null and void, Comm. on YajH. 

A'-dattva, ind.not having given, AV. xii,4, 1 9,&c. 

A-datraya, ind. not through a present, RV. v, 

H$&*^adadry-afa, an, lei, ak (fr. adas+ 
afic), inclining or going to that, L. 

ddana, adanlya. See */ad. 

I. a-dantu, mfn. toothless; (as), m. 
a leech, L. 

A-dantaka [TS.] or a-dantaka [SBr.], mfn. 

A-dantya, mfn. not suitable for the teeth ; not 
dental ; (am), n. toothlessness. 

wqii 2. ad-anta, mfn. (in Gr.) ending in 
at, i. e. in the short inherent vowel a. 

*rf3 d-dabdka, mfn. ( Vdambh or dabh), 
not deceived or tampered with, unimpaired, un- 
broken, pure, RV. - dhiti (ddatdha-), mfn. whose 
works are unimpaired, RV. vi, 51, 3. vrata- 
pramati (ddabdha-}, mfn. of unbroken observances 
and superior mind (or 'of superior mind from having 
unbroken observances '), R V. ii, 9, 1 . Adabdh&yn, 
m. having unimpaired vigour (or ' leaving uninjured 
the man who sacrifices '), VS. Adabdtaan, mfn. 
having a pure life, AV. v, I, I. 

A-dabha, mfn. not injuring, benevolent, RV. v. 
86, 5- 

A'-dabhra, mfn. not scanty, plentiful, RV. viii, 
47, 6 ; strong. 

A-dambha, mfn. free from deceit, straightfor- 
ward ; (at), m., N. of feva ; absence of deceit ; 

A-dambhl-tva, am, n. sincerity. 

"w^g-SJ^ adamudry-afa, an, ci, ak, going 
to that, L. 

Adamny-aric or adamuy-anc, id., L. 
*i^-< a-damya, mfn. untamable. 

Tnpl a-dayd, mfn. (Vday), merciless, un- 
kind, RV. x, 103, 7; (am), ind. ardently. 
A-dayaln, mm. unkind. 
W^T a-dara, mfn. not little, much. 
Adaraka, as, m., N. of a man. 

l . a-dar$a(for n-rfarsrt),ns,m. a mirror. 

2. a-darsa, as, m. day of new moon. 

A-darsana, am, n. non-vision, not seeing ; dis- 
regard, neglect ; non-appearance, latent condition, 
disappearance ; (mfn.), invisible, latent. patha, 
n. a path beyond the reach of vision. 

A-daranIya, mfn. invisible ; (am), n. invisible 

?< a-dala, mfn. leafless ; (as), m. the 
plant Eugenia (or Barringtonia) Acutangula ; (a), 
{. Socotorine Aloe (Perfoliata or Indica). 

fi^f^d-dasan, a, not ten, SBr. A'-dasa- 
maaya, mm. not ten months old, SBr. 

W!J^ adds, nom. m. f. asau (voc. dsau, 
MaitrS.), n. ados, (opposed to iddm, q.v.), that; 
a certain ; (ados), ind. thus, so ; there. Adah- 
kritya, having done that. Ado-bhavati, he be- 
comes that. Ado-maya, mfn. made of that, con- 
taining that, SBr. xiv. Ado-mula, mfn. rooted in 

Adayiya, mf(i)n. belonging to that or those 
Adacya, Nom. P. adasyaii, to become that. 

ti <; I IBJ*!^ a-ddkshinya, am, n. incivility. 

^i 1 1 ij a-ddtri, mfn. not giving ; not liberal 
miserly ; not giving (a daughter) in marriage ; no 
paying, not liable to payment. 

^ii;i1 d-ddna, am, n. ( \/i . da), not giving 
act of withholding, AV. &c. ; (mfn.), not giving. 

A-danya, mfn. not giving, miserly, AV. 

A-daman, mfn. not liberal, miserly, RV. 

A-dayin, mfn. not giving, Nir. 

A'-dasu [RV. i, 174, 6] or a-dasnri [RV. viii, 
45, 15] or a-dasvaa [RV. ; Compar. dddsiishtara, 
RV. viii, 81, 7], mfn. not worshipping the deities, 

I. A-diti, is, f. having nothing to give, desti- 
tution, RV. ; for 2. aditi, 3. d-diti, see below. 

a-danta, mfn. unsubdued. 

d-ddbhya (3, 4), mfn. free from 
deceit, trusty ; not to be trifled with, RV. ; (as), m., 
N. of a libation (graha) in the Jyotishfoma sacrifice. 

WifniT^ a-ddyddd, mf (i, in later texts 6) n. 
not entitled to be an heir ; destitute of heirs. 

A-daylka, mfn. unclaimed from want of persons 
entitled to inherit ; not relating to inheritance. 

w^lt. a-ddra, as, m. having no wife. 

w t; i <j r^ d-ddra-srit, mfn. not falling into 
a crack or rent, AV. ; N. of a Siman, PBr. 

a-ddsa, as.m.'notaslave.'a freeman. 
d-dahukn, mfn. not consuming by 
fire, MaitrS. 
A-dahya, mfn. incombustible. 

^rfirSS a-dikka, mfn. having no share in 
the horizon, banished from beneath the sky, SBr. 

2. aditi, is, m. (Vad), devourer, 
i. e. death, BrArUp. 

. d-diti, mfn. ( 1/4. dd or do, dyati; 
for I. d-diti, see above), not tied, free, RV. vii, 53, 
i ; boundless ; unbroken, entire, unimpaired, happy, 
RV. ; VS. ; (is), f. freedom, security, safety j , bound- 
lessness, immensity ; inexhaustible abundance ; unim- 
paired condition, perfection ; creative power; N. of 
one of the most ancient of the Indian goddesses ('In- 
finity' or the 'Eternal and Infinite Expanse,' often 
mentioned in RV., daughter of Daksha and wife of 
Kasyapa, mother of the Adityas and of the gods) ; a 
cow, milk, RV. ; the earth, Naigh. ; speech, Naigh. 
(cf.RV.viii, 101, 15); (),du. heaven and earth, 
Naigh. ja, m. a son of Aditi, an Aditya, a divine 
being. tva, n. the condition of Aditi, or of free- 
dom, unbrokenness, RV. vii, 51, I ; the state of the 
goddess Aditi, BrArUp. nandana, m. = -ja, q.v. 

d-ditsat [RV. vi, 53, 3, &c.] or <r- 
ditsu, mfn. (Desid. fr. Vi- da), not inclined to give. 
vf^V>^filadi-prabhfiti=^ad-ddi. See*/ad. 

W<0 (SJrt d- dikshita, mfn. one who has not 

serformed the initiatory ceremony (dtkshd) con- 
nected with the Soma sacrifice ; one who is not 
concerned in that ceremony ; one who has not re- 
ceived Brihmanical consecration. 

-dina, mfn. not depressed ; noble- 
minded ; (as), m.,N. of a prince (also called Ahina). 
sattva, mm. possessing unimpaired goodness. 
Adinatman, mfn. undepressed in spirit. 

7 a-dlpita, mfn. unilluminated. 

d-dirghd, mfn. not long. -*itra, 

mfn. not tedious, prompt, L. 

a-duhkha, mfn. free from evil or 
rouble, propitious. navami, f. the propitious ninth 
lay in the'first fortnight of BhSdrapada( when women 

worship Devi to avert evil for the ensuing year). 

d-dugdha, mfn. not milked out, 
vii, 33, 11 ; not sucked out, Susr. 
?3"T a-ducchund, mfn. free from evil, 
>ropitious, RV. ix, 61, 17. 

a-durya, mfn. not difficult of access; 

destitute of a strong hold or fort. vishay a, m. an 
unfortified country. 

W^R'H' d-durmakha, mfn. not reluctant, 
unremitting, cheerful, RV. viii, 75, 14. 

"5*1P5 d-durmahgala, mf(nom.iA)n. not 
inauspicious, RV. x, 85, 43. 

"<3^TT a-durvritta, mfn. not of a bad cha- 
racter or disposition. 

d-dusk-krit, mfn. not doing evil, 
iii,3 3 , 13. 

a-dushta, mfn. not vitiated, not bad, 
not guilty, Mn. viii, 388 ; innocent, tva, n. the 
being not vitiated ; innocence. 

^Iga-rfu, mfn. dilatory, without zeal, not 
worshipping, RV. vii, 4, 6. 

d-duna, mfn. (^/2. du), uninjured. 
a-dura, mfn. not distant, near; (am), 
n. vicinity; (e), (at), (atas), ind. (with abl. or gen.) 
not far, near ; soon. bhava, mfn. situated at no 
great distance. 

wg^ftff a-dushita, mfn. unvitiated; un- 
spotted, irreproachable. dii, mm. possessing an 
uncorrupted mind. 

'W^Sa-dridha, mfn. not firm; not decided. 

wrtUiri d-dripita, mfn. not infatuated, not 

A-drtpta, mfn. id., RV. -krata (ddripta-), 
mfn. sober-minded, RV. 

Adripy at , mfn. not being infatuated, RV. {,151,8. 

^f^^a-dris, mfn. (\fdjig), blind, L. 

A-drisya, mfn. invisible, latent ; not. fit to be 
seen; (cf. a-drtiya,} -frarana, n. act of rendering 
invisible ; N. of a part of a treatise on magic. 

A-drlsyat, mfn. invisible, L. ; (off), (., N. of 
Vasishtha's daughter-in-law. 

A-drlshta or a-driahta [SBr.], mfn. unseen, 
unforeseen ; invisible ; not experienced ; unobserved, 
unknown ; unsanctioned ; (as), m., N. of a par- 
ticular venomous substance or of a species of vermin, 
AV. ; (am), n. unforeseen danger or calamity ; that 
which is beyond the reach of observation or con- 
sciousness (especially the merit or demerit attaching 
to a man's conduct in one state of existence and the 
corresponding reward or punishment with which he 
is visited in another) ; destiny, fate : luck, bad luck. 

karman, mfn. one who has not seen practice. 

kama, m. passionate attachment to an object 
that has never been seen. ja, mfn. produced or 
resulting from fate, -nara or -pnrnsha, m. a 
treaty concluded by the parties personally (in which 
no third mediator is seen). para-samarthya, 
m. one who has not experienced the power of an 
enemy. purva, mfn. never seen before. phala, 
mfn. having consequences that are not yet visible ; 
(am), n. a result or consequence which is not yet 
visible 01 hidden in the future. rnpa, mfn. hav- 
ing an invisible shape, vat, mm. connected with 
or arising from destiny ; lucky or unlucky ; fortu- 
nate. hall, m. destroyer of venomous vermin, 
RV. i, 19 1, 8 & 9. Adrishtartlia, mfn. having 
an object not evident to the senses (as a science), 
transcendental. Adrishtasrntapurvatva, n. the 
state of never having been seen or heard before. 

A-drishtl, is, or a-djishtikS, f. a displeased 
or malicious look, an evil eye, L. 

a-deya, mfn. improper or unfit to be 
given ; (am) or -dana, n. an illegal gift. 

d-deva, mfn. not divine, not of divine 
origin,notreferringtoanydeity,RV.;godless, impious, 
?.V. ; (as), m, one who is not a god, SBr. xiv ; Mn. 
matrika, mfn. 'not having the gods or clouds as 
mothers, not suckled by any deity,' not rained upon, 
i-devaka, mf(o)n. not referring to or intended 
"or any deity, SBr. 

A-devatS, f. one who is not a deity, Nir. 
A'-devatra, mfn. not devoted to the gods, RV. v, 
61, 6. 

A-devayat [RV. ii, 26, l] or adevayu [RV.], 
mfn. indifferent to the gods, irreligious. 

A-daiva, mfn. not referring to or connected with 
he gods or with their action ; not predetermined by 
them of by fate. 


d-devri-ghnl, f. not killing he 
brother-in-law, AV. xiv, 2, 18. 

^T<,31 a-desa, as, m. a wrong place, an 
improper place, -kala, n. wrong place and time 
ja, mfn. produced in a wrong place. stha 
mfn. out of place, in the wrong place ; one absen 
from his country, an absentee. 

A-desya, mfn. not on the spot, not present on th 
occasion referred to, Mn. viii, 53 (v.l. a-desa); no 
to be ordered or advised. 

'S<;l*n; a-doma-ddoT a-doma-dhd, mfn. no 
occasioning inconvenience, AV. 

W ado-mdya, &c. See adds. 

a-doha, as, m. (\/duh), the season 
when milking is impracticable, KatySr. 

A-dogdhri, mfn. not milking; not exacting 
not caring for, BhP. 

'Wsf ddga, as, m. (yW), a sacrificial caki 
(/ara/a^madeofrice, Un.; acane(?), AV.i, 27,3 

^T?T ad-dhd, ind. (fr. ad or a, this), Ved 
in this way ; manifestly ; certainly, truly. tama 
mfn.quite manifest, AitAr.; (am), ind. most certainly, 
SBr. pnrusha, m., see an-addhdpurushd. bo- 
dheya, as, m. pi. adherents of a particular Sakha or 
recension of the white Yajur-veda. 

Addhati, is, m. a sage, RV. x, 85, 16; AV. 

^siifjl^cn*!! addhya-loha-kdrna, mfn. 
having ears quite red, VS. ; cf. adhiriltfhd-kdrna. 

Wj^rT ddbhuta [once adbhutd, RV. i, 120, 4], 
mfn. (see I. at), supernatural, wonderful, marvel- 
lous ; (as), m. the marvellous (in style) ; surprise ; 
N. of the Indra of the ninth Manvantara ; (am), n. 
a marvel, a wonder, a prodigy. kariuan, mfn. 
performing wonderful works ; exhibiting wonderful 
workmanship. kratu (ddbhuta-), mfn. possess- 
ing wonderful intelligence, RV. gandha, mfh. 
having a wonderful smell, tama, n. an extra- 
ordinary wonder. tva, n. wonderfulness. dar- 
sana, mfn. having a wonderful aspect. dharma, 
m.'a system or seriesof marvels or prodigies,'N. of one 
of the nine angas of the Buddhists. brahjnana, 
n., N of a portion of a Brahmai.ia belonging to the 
Sama-veda. bhima-karman, mfn. performing 
wonderful and fearful works. rasa, m. the mar- 
vellous style (of poetry), -ramayana, n., N. of 
a work ascribed to Valmiki. rupa, mfn. having a 
wonderful shape. santi, m. or f., N. of the sixty- 
seventh Parisishta of the Atharva-veda. sam- 
kasa, mfn. resembling a wonder. sara, m. 'won- 
derful resin' of the Khadira tree (Mimosa Catechu) ; 
N. of a book on the essence of prodigies. svana, 
m. 'having a wonderful voice,' N. of Siva. A'dbrm- 
tainas, mfh. one in whom no fault is visible, RV. 
Adbhutottarakanda, n., N. of a work, an ap- 
pendix to or imitation of the Ramayana. Adbhn- 
topama, mfn. resembling a wonder. 

^cfl^ ddman, a, n. (\/ad), eating, a meal, 
RV. i, 58, 2. 

Adma (in comp. for adman), sad, m. seated 
(with others) at a meal, companion at table, RV. 

sadya, n. commensality, RV. viii, 43, 19. sad- 
van, mfn. companion at a meal, RV. vi, 4, 4. 

Admani, is, m. fire, Un. 
Admara, mfn. gluttonous, Pan. iii, 2, 1 60. 
I . Adya, mfn. fit or proper to be eaten ; (am), ifc. 
(cf. annddya, havir-adya), n. food. 

^t?T2. a-dyd (Ved. adyd), ind. (fr. pronom. 
base a, this, with dya for dyu, q. v., Lat. ho-die), 
to-day; now-a-days; now. dlna or -divasa, 
m. n. the present day. purvam, ind. before now. 

prabhriti, ind. from and after to-day, sva, 
mfn. comprising the present and the following day, 
PBr. s vina, mfn. likely to happen to-day or (mas) 
to-morrow, Pan. v, 2, 1 3 ; (a), f. a female near 
delivery, ib. sntya, f. preparation and consecration 
of the Soma on the same day, SBr. &c. Adyapi, 
ind. even now, just now ; to this day ; down to 
the present time ; henceforth. Adyavadhi, mfn. 
beginning or ending to-day ; from or till to-day. 
Adya-sva, n. the present and the following day, TS. 
Adyaiva, ind. this very day. 

Adyatana, mf(J)n. extending over or referring to 
to-day ; now-a-days, modern ; (as), m. the period 
of a current day, either from midnight to midnight, 

or from dawn to dark; (f), f. (in Gr.) the aorist 
tense (from its relating what has occurred on the 
same day). - bliuta, m. the aorist. 

Adyataniya, mfn. extending over or referring 
to to-day ; current now-a-days. 

^?ST d-dyu, mfn. not burning or not sharp, 

RV.vii, 34,! 2. 

A-dynt, mfn. destitute of brightness,, 39,3. 

^^W a-dyutya. (4), am, n. unlucky gam- 
bling, RV. i, 112, 24; (mfh.), not derived from 
gambling, honestly obtained. 

a-drava, mfn. not liquid. 

a-dravya, am, n. a nothing, a worth- 
less thing ; (mfn.), having no possessions. 

Tfj ddri, is, m.( \/ad,Vn.),a. stone, a rock, 
a mountain ; a stone for pounding Soma with or grind- 
ing it on ; a stone for a sling, a thunderbolt ; a moun- 
tain-shaped mass of clouds ; a cloud (the mountains 
are the clouds personified, and regarded as the ene- 
mies of Indra) ; atree.L.; thesun,L.; N. of a mea- 
sure ; the number seven ; N. of a grandson of Prithu. 
karni, f. the plant Clitoria Ternatea Lin. kill, 
f. the earth, L. - krlta-sthali , f., N. of an Apsaras. 
Ja, mfn. produced from or found among rocks or 
mountains; (a), f. the plant Sainhali ; N.ofParvati 
or Durga ; (am), n. red chalk. - ja, mfn. produced 
from (the friction of) stones, RV. iv, 40, 5; N. 
of the soul, KathUp. -Jnta (ddri-), mfn. excited 
by (the friction of) stones, RV. iii, 58, 8. tana- 
ya, f. 'mountain-daughter,' N. of Parvan"; N. of 
a metre (of four lines, each containing twenty-three 
syllables). dngdha (ddri-),m!n. not pressed out or 
extracted with stones, RV. - dvish, rn. the enemy 
of mountains or clouds, i. e. Indra, L. nandini, 
r ., N. of Parvati. pati, m. 'lord of mountains,' 
the Himalaya. barhas (ddri-), mfn. fast as 
a rock, RV. x, 63, 3; TBr. -bndhna (ddri-), 
mfn. rooted in or produced on a rock or mountain, 
RV. x, 108, 7; VS. -bhid.-mfn. splitting moun- 
tains or clouds, RV. vi, 73, 1 ; (/), m., N. of Indra, L. 

bhu, mfn. mountain-bora, found or living among 
mountains; (us), f. the plant Salvinia Cucullata. 

mS&ii(ddri-), mfn. having a rock or mountain for 
a mother, RV. ix, 86, 3. -murdhan, m. the head 
or summit of a mountain. raj or -raja, m. 'king 
of mountains,' the Himalaya, vat (voc. vas), m. 
armed with stones or thunderbolts, RV. vahni, 
m. fire on or in a mountain or rock. sayya, m. 

having themountain foracouch,'Siva, L. sringa, 
n. a mountain-peak. shuta (ddri-), mfn. pre- 
pared with stones, RV. samhata (ddri-), mfn. 
expressed with stones, RV. ix, 98, 6. sSnn, mfn. 

ingering on the mountains, RV. vi, 65, 5. sara, 
m. 'essence of stones, 1 iron, sara-maya, mfn. 
made of iron. Adrindra or adrisa, m. ' lord of 
mountains,' the Himalaya. 
Adrika, f., N. of an Apsaras. 

^S^ a-druh (nom. a-dhrub), mfn. free 
rom malice or treachery, RV. 

A-druhana [RV. v,7O, 2] or a-drnhvan [SV.], 
mfn. id. 

A-drogha, mfn. free from falsehood, true, RV. ; 
d-drogham), ind. without falsehood, RV. viii, 60, 4. 

vac (ddrogha-), mfn. free from malice or treachery 
n speech, RV. ; AV. A'droghavita, mfn. loving 
reedom from malice or treachery, AV. 

A-droha, as, m. freedom from malice or treachery. 

vritti, f. conduct free from malice or treachery. 
A-drohln, mfn. free from malice or treachery. 

T^adharastat. 19 

A-dvaySvin [RV.] or a-dvayn [RV. viii, 18, 
'5]> ml . free from double-dealing or duplicity. 

WjfT^ d-dvdr, f. not a door, SBr.; MBh. 
A'-dvSra, am, n. a place without a door ; an en- 
trance which is not the proper door, SBr. xiv, &c. 

Mn. viii, 22. 


a-dmtiya, mfn. without a second, 
sole, unique ; matchless. 

a-dvishenyd (5), mfn. (Vdvish), 
not malevolent, RV. 

A-dvesha, mfh. not malevolent (nom. du. f. V), 
RV. viii, 68, 10 & x, 45, 12. -ragin, mfn. free 
from malevolence and passionate desire. 

Adveshas, ind. without malevolence, RV. 

Adveshin, mfn. free from malevolence.!, td, m. not an enemy, a friend. 

*S d-dvaita, mfn. destitute of duality, 
having no duplicate, SBr. xiv, &c. ; peerless ; sole, 
unique ; epithet of Vishnu ; (am), n. non-duality ; 
identity of Brahma or of the Paramatman or supreme 
soul with the Jivatman or human soul ; identity of 
spirit and matter ; the ultimate truth ; title of an 
Upanishad; (ena), ind. solely. - vSdin, f, m. one 
who asserts the doctrine of non-duality. Advai- 
tananda, m. advayananda, q. v. Advalto- 
panishad, f, N. of an Upanishad. 

A-dvaidha, mfn. not divided into two parts, not 
shared ; not disunited ; free from malice, straight- 

^Vddha orddha, ind.,Ved. (=dtha ; used 
chiefly as an inceptive particle), now ; then, there- 
fore ; moreover, so much the more ; and, partly. 
A'dha adha, as well as, partly partly. Adh- 
priya, mfn. (you who are) now pleased (voc. du. 
ya), RV. viii, 8, 4. 

f: adhafi, &c. See ' 

a, mfn. invisible, MundUp. 

advan, mfn. (\/ad), ifc. (e.g. agrd- 
'van), eating. 

a-dvaya, mfn. not two, without a 
second, only, unique ; (as), m., N. of a Buddha ; 
am), n. non -duality, unity ; identity (especially the 
[entity of Brahma with the human soul or with the 
niversc, or of spirit and matter); the ultimate truth. 
vadin, m. one who teaches advaya or identity, 
Buddha ; a Jaina ; (ctatlvaita-vadin. ) Advaya- 
anda, m., N. of an author, and of a founder of the 
aishnava sect in Bengal (who lived at the close of 
le fifteenth century). 

A-dvayat [RV. iii, 29, 5] or a-dvayas [RV. i, 
37, 3 & viii, 1 8, 6], mfn. free from duplicity. 

a-dhana, mfn. destitute of wealth. 
A-dhanya, mfn. not richly supplied with com 
or other produce ; not prosperous ; unhappy. 

TV? adhamd, mfn. (see ddhara), lowest, 
vilest, worst ; very low or vile or bad (often ifc., as 
in narddhama, the vilest or worst of men) ; (as), m. 
an unblushing paramour ; (a), f. a low or bad mistress 
[cf. Lat. in/mus']. -bhrlta or -bhrltaka, m. a 
servant of the lowest class, a porter. rna (ri) or 
-rnlka (ri), m. one reduced to inferiority by debt, a 
debtor. - sakha (?>, N. of a region, (ganigahadi, 
q.v.) Adhamanga, n. 'the lowest member,' the 
foot. AdhaniacSra, mfn. guilty of vile conduct. 
Adhamardha, n. the lower half, the lower part. 
Adhamardhya, mfn. connected with or referring 
to the lower part, Pan. iv, 3, 5. 

*nw$ adhama-TTfa, &c. See adhamd. 

^JVT ddhara, mfn. (connected with adhds), 
lower, inferior ; tending downwards ; low, vile ; 
worsted, silenced ; (as), m. the lower lip, the lip ; 
(at), abl. ind., see s. v. below ; (asmdt), abl. ind. 
below, .L.; (a), (. the lower region, nadir; (am), 
n. the lower part ; a reply ; Pudendum Muliebre, 
L. [Lat. in/erus]. kantha, m. n. the lower 
neck, lower part of the throat, VS. -kaya, m. 
the lower part of the body, -tas, ind. below, 
p 3n- v, ;?, 35, Sch. -pana, n. 'drinking the 
lip,' kissing, -madhn, n. the moisture of the lips. 
sapatna (ddkara-), mfn. whose enemies are 
worsted or silenced, MaitrS. svastika, n. the 
nadir. hanu, f. the lower jaw-bone, AV. Adha- 
r&mrita, n . the nectar of the lips. Adhararani, 
f. the lower of the two pieces of wood used in pro- 
ducing fire by friction, SBr. &c. Adharavalopa, 
m. biting the lip. Adharl-krita, mfn. worsted, 
eclipsed, excelled, Sak. (v. 1.) Adharl,bh5ta, mfn. 
worsted (as in a process), YajR. ii, 1 7. Adhare- 
dyiis, ind. the day before yesterday, Pan. v, 3, 22. 
Adharottara, mfn. lower and higher ; worse and 
better; question and answer; nearer and further; 
soonerand later; upsidedown, topsy-turvy. Adhar'- 
oshtha or adharabshtba, m. the lower lip; 
(am), n. the lower and upper lip. 

Adharaya, Nom. P. adharayati, to make in- 
ferior, put under ; eclipse, excel. 
Adharastat, ind. below, L. 
C 2 


Adharak, ind. beneath, in the lower region, i.e. 
in the south, VS. 

AdharScina [RV. ii, 1 7, ?] or adharacya[(5) ; 
AV.], mfn. or adhar&nc, ail, ad, ak,\e&. tending 
downwards, to the nadir or the lower region, tending 
towards the south. 

Adharat, ind. below, beneath, RV. & AV. ; in the 
south, AV. tit (adharat-), ind. below, beneath, 
RV. x, 36, 14. 

Adharina, mfn. vilified, L. 

WVH d-dharma, as, m. unrighteousness, 
injustice, in eligion, wickedness ; demerit, guilt ; N. 
of a Prajapati (son of Brahma, husband of Hinsi or 
Mrisha) ; N. of an attendant of the sun ; (d), f. un- 
righteousness (personified and represented as the bride 
of death). cSrin, mfn. practising wickedness. 
tag, ind. unrighteously, unjustly. dandana, 
n. unjust punishment, Mn. viii, 127. maya, mfn. 
made up of wickedness, SBr. xiv. Adharmatman, 
mfn. having a wicked spirit or disposition. Adhar- 
mastikaya, m. the category (astikdya ) oiadharma 
(one of the five categories of the Jaina ontology). 

Adharmin, mfn. unrighteous, wicked, impious. 

Adharmishtha, mfn. most wicked, impious. 

Adharmya, mfn. unlawful, contrary to law or 
religion, wicked. 

W*raT a-dhara, f. one who has no husband, 
a widow (usually vi-dhavd, q.v.), L. 

^WJ^ adhds, ind. (see ddhara), below, 
down ; in the lower region ; beneath, under ; from 
under (with ace., gen., and abl.) ; also applied to the 
lower region and to the Pudendum Muliebre [cf. 
Lat. infra]. Adha-upasana, n. sexual inter- 
course, Comm. on Bf ArUp. Adhah-kara, m. the 
lower part of the hand. Adhah-kaya, m. the lower 
part of the body. Adhah-krita, mfn. cast down. 
Adhah-krlshnajinam, ind. under the black skin, 
KatySr. Adhah-kriya, f. ( = apamdna), disgrace, 
humiliation. Adhah-khanana, n. undermining. 
Adhah-padma, n. (in architecture) a part of a 
cupola. Adhah-pata, m. a downfall. Adhah- 
pnshpi, f. 'having flowers looking downwards,' 
two plants, Pimpinella Anisum and Elephantopus 
Scaber (or Hieracium?). Adhah-pravSha, m. a 
downward current. Adhah-prastara, m. seat or 
bed of turf or grass (for persons in a state of impurity). 
Adhah-pran-gSyin, mfn. sleeping on the ground 
towards the east. Adhah-saya, ram. sleeping on 
the ground, SBr. Adhah-sayya, mfn. having 
a peculiar couch on the ground ; (a), f. act of sleep- 
ing on the ground and on a peculiar couch. Adhah- 
siras, mfn. holding the head downward ; head fore- 
most ; (as), m., N. of a hell, VP. Adhah-stha, mfn. 
placed low or below ; inferior. Adhah-sthita, 
mfn. standing below ; situated below. Adhah- 
vastika, n. the nadir. Adhai-cara, m. 'creep- 
ing on the ground,' a thief. Adhas-taram, ind. 
very far down, SBr. Adhas-tala, n. the room 
below anything. Adhas-pada, mfn., Ved. placed 
under the feet, under foot ; (drri), n. the place under 
the feet ; (dm), ind. under foot. Adho-aksha, 
mfn. being below (or not coming up to) the axle, 
RV. iii, 33, >). Adho-'kBham [KltySr.] or adho- 
'kBhcna [AsvSr.l, ind. under the axle. Adho- 
'kiha-ja, m., N. of Vishnu or Krishna ; the sign 
Sravana. Adho-gata, mfn. gone down, descended. 
Adho-g-ati. f. or -gama, m. or -gamana, n. de- 
scent, downward movement, degradation. Adho- 
gati and -gamin, mfn. going downwards, descend- 
ing. Adho-ghanta, f. the plant Achyranthes 
Aspera. Adho-'nga, n. the anus ; Pudendum Mu- 
liebre. Adho-janu, ind. below the knee, SBr. 
Adho-jihvlka, f. the uvula. Adho-daru, n. the 
under timber. Adho-diB, f. the lower region, the 
nadir. Adho-driBhtl, f. a downcast look ; (mfn.), 
having a downcast look. Adho-desa, m. the lower 
or lowest part (especially of the body). Adho- 
dvara, n. the anus ; Pudendum Muliebre. Adho- 
nabham or -nabhi [MaitrS.], ind. below the navel. 
Adho- nilaya, m. ' lower abode,' the lower regions, 
hell. Adho-'para, n. the anus. AdhopahSsa 
(dhds-up\ m. sexual intercourse, SBr. xiv. Adho- 
bandhana, n. an under girth. Adho-bhakta, 
n. a dose of medicine to be taken after eating. 
Adho-bhava, mfn. lower. Adho-bhSga, m. the 
lower or lowest part, especially of the body. Adho- 
bhaga-doBha-hara, mfn. curing or strengthening 
the lower part of the body. Adho-buuvana, n. 



the lower world. Adho-bhnml, f. lower ground ; 
land at the foot of a hill. Adho-mar man , n. the 
anus. Adho-mnkha, mf (a [Sis.] or ; )n. having 
the face downwards ; headlong ; upside down ; (as), 
m. Vishnu ; a division of hell, VP. ; (d), f. the plant 
Premna Ksculenta. Adho-yantra, n. the lov/er 
part of an apparatus ; a still. Adho-rakta-pitta, 
n. discharge of blood from the anus and the urethra. 
Adho-rama, m. (a goat) having peculiar white or 
black marks on the lower part (of the body), VS.; SBr. 
Adho-lamba, in. a plummet ; the perpendicular. 
Adho-loka, m. the lower world. Adho-vadana, 
mfn. ---aJho-mukna. Adhb-varcas, mfn. tumbling 
downwards, AV. v, 1 1, 6. Adho-vasa, m. Puden- 
dum Muliebre. Adho-vayu, m. vital air passing 
downwards ; breaking wind. Adho-'veksliin, 
mfn. looking down. Adho-'svam, ind. under 
the horse, KatySr. Adlio-'sra-pitta, n. adho- 
rakta-pitta, q. v. 

Adhastana, mfn. lower, being underneath ; pre- 
ceding (in a book). 

Adhaatat , ind. = aJ/ias, q. v. Adhastad-dis, 
f. the lower region, the nadir. Adhastal-laksh- 
xnan, mfn. having a mark at the lower part (of the 
body), MaitrS. 

ddha, Ved. See ddha. 

adhamargava, as, m. the plant 
Achyranthes Aspera. 

a-dharanaka, mfn. unable to 

support, unremunerative. 

^tVlftnS a-dhdrmika, mfn. unjust, un- 
righteous, wicked. 

WVH*i a-dharya, mfn. unfit or improper 
to be held or carried or kept up. 

^jftl i. adhi, is, m. (better adhi, q.v.), 
anxiety; (if), f. a woman in her courses (=*avi, 
q.v.), L. 

wfv 2. ddhi, ind., as a prefix to verbs and 
nouns, expresses above, over and above, besides. 

As a separable adverb or preposition ; (with abl.) 
Ved. over ; from above ; from ; from the presence 
of; after, AitUp. ; for ; instead of, RV. i, 140, 1 1 ; 
(with loc.) Ved. over ; on ; at ; in comparison with ; 
(with ace.) over, upon, concerning. Adb.y-adb.1, 
ind. on high, just above, KatySr. 

Adhika, mm. additional ; subsequent, later ; sur- 
passing (in number or quantity or quality), superior, 
more numerous ; abundant ; excellent ; supernume- 
rary, redundant ; secondary, inferior ; intercalated ; 
(am), n. surplus ; abundance ; redundancy ; hyper- 
bole; ind. exceedingly; too much; more. kshaya- 
karin, mm. causing excessive waste. ta,f. addition, 
excess, redundancy, preponderance. tithl, m. f. an 
intercalary lunar day. tva, n. = -ta, q. v. danta, 
m. a redundant tooth which grows over another, 
Susr. ; (cf. adhi-danta.) dina, n. a redundant, 
i . e. an intercalated day ; (cf. adhi-dina. ) mansar- 
man, n. proud flesh in the eye ; (cf. adhimdysa.) 
masa, m. an intercalated month. rddhi (rid), 
mfn. abundantly prosperous. vakyokti, f. exag- 
geration, hyperbole. Bhashtika, mfn. (containing 
or costing) more than sixty. sanivatsara, m. an 
intercalated month. saptatika, mfn. (containing 
or costing) more than seventy. Adhikanga, 
mf(i)n. having some redundant member or members, 
Mn. iii, 8 ; (am\ n. belt worn over the coat of 
mail, L. Adhikadhika, mfn. outdoing one another. 
Adhikartha. mfn. exaggerated. Adhikartha- 
vacana, n. exaggeration, hyperbole, Pan. ii, I, 33. 

wft(*t^ adhi-kandharam, ind. upon or 
as far as the neck, Sis. 

adhi-karna, as, m., N. of a snake 
demon, Hariv. 

^sftTofWoirsc adM-karmakara, as, m. and 
adhi-kartnakrit, t, m. See adki-*J \.kri below. 

wftl(fg(^ adhi-kaljti'n, i, m. a sharp 
gambler, VS. 

^jfv<*m adhi-karma, am, n., N. of some 
place unknown, Pan. vi, a, 91. 

Pvy adhi-\/i. kri, to place at the head, 
appoint ; to aim at, regard ; to refer or allude to ; 
to superintend, be at the head of (loc.), MBh. iv, 

241 : A. -kurute, to be or become entitled to (ace.), 
MBh. iii, 1345 ; to be or become superior to, over- 
come, Pan. i, 3, 33. 

Adhi-karana, am, n. the act of placing at the 
head or of subordinating government, supremacy, 
magistracy, court of justice ; a receptacle, support ; 
a claim ; a topic, subject ; (in philosophy) a sub- 
stratum ; a subject (e. g. a/man is the adhi-karatta 
of knowledge); a category; a relation; (in Gr.) 
government ; location, the sense of the locative case ; 
relationship of words in a sentence (which agree to- 
gether, either as adjective and substantive, or as sub- 
ject and predicate, or as two substantives in apposi- 
tion); (in rhetoric) a topic; a paragraph or minor 
section; (mfn.), having to superintend, bhojaka, 
m. a judge. mandapa, m. n. the hall of justice. 

mala, f. a compendium of the topics of theVe- 
dJnta by Bharati-tirtha. siddhanta, m. a syllo- 
gism or conclusion which involves others, Nyayad. 
&c. AdMkaranaitSvattva, n. fixed quantity of 
a substratum. 

Adliikaranika or better Sdhikaranika, as, 
m. a government official ; a judge or magistrate. 

Adhi-karanya, am, n. authority, power. 

Adhi-karman, a, n. superintendence. Adhi- 
karmakara or -karmakrit, m. an overseer, 
superintendent. Adhi-karma-krita, m. person 
appointed to superintend an establishment. 

Adhlkarmika, as, m. overseer of a market, L. 

Adhi-kara, as, m. authority ; government, rule, 
administration, jurisdiction ; royalty, prerogative ; 
title ; rank ; office ; claim, right, especially to per- 
form sacrifices with benefit ; privilege ; ownership ; 
property ; reference, relation ; a topic, subject ; a 
paragraph or minor section ; (in Gr.) government ; 
a governing-rule (the influence of which over any 
number of succeeding rules is called anu-vrittj, q. v.) 

stha, mfn. established in an office. AdhikartU 
dhya, mfn. invested with rights or privileges. 

Adhi-karin, mfn. possessing authority ; entitled 
to ; fit for ; (i), m. a superintendent, governor ; 
an official ; a rightful claimant ; a man, L. Adhi- 
kari-ta, f. or -tva, n. authority ; rightful claim ; 
ownership, &c. 

Adhi-krita, mfn. placed at the head of; ap- 
pointed ; ruled, administered; claimed; (as), m. a 
superintendent (especially a comptroller of public 
accounts). tva, n. the being engaged in or occu- 
pied with. 

Adhi-kriti, if, f. a right, privilege ; possession. 

Adhi-kritya, ind. p. having placed at the head, 
having made the chief subject ; regarding ; concern- 
ing ; with reference to. 

trftlW^ adhi-\/kram, to ascend, mount 
up to. 

Adhi-krama, as, m. an invasion, attack, L. 
Adhi-kramana, am, n. act of invading, L. 

wfvls adhi-Vkrid, to play or dance 
over (ace.), MaitrS. ; TBr. 

Wftlftj adhi-Vi.kshi (3. du: -Ttshitdh; 
3. pi. -kshiydnti) to be settled in or over, be ex- 
tended over or along (ace. or loc.), RV. ; MBh. i, 
722 & 730 ; to rest upon, SBr. 

wfwf^ adhi-ksMt, t, m. ( \/2. ksAi), a 
lord, ruler, RV. x, 92; 14. 

vfvf^^adhi-Vkship, to throw upon ; to 
bespatter ; to insult, scold ; to superinduce (disease). 

Adhikshipad-abja-netra, mfn. having eyes 
which eclipse the lotus. 

Adhi-kshipta, mfn. insulted ; scolded ; thrown 
down ; placed, fixed ; despatched. 

AdbJ.-ksb.epa, as, m. abuse, contempt ; dismissal. 

^rfUJTO^ adhi- Vgan, to enumerate ; to 

value highly, BhP. 

'BTftc 7 !^ adhi- Vgam, to go up to, approach, 
overtake ; to approach for sexual intercourse ; to fall 
in with ; to meet, find, discover, obtain ; to accom- 
plish ; to study, read : Desid. P. adhi-jigamishati, 
to seek ; A. adhi-jigdnsate, to be desirous of study- 
ing or reading. 

Adhi-gata,mfn. found, obtained, acquired; gone 
over, studied, leamt. 

Adhi-gantavya, nifn. attainable, to be studied. 

Adhi-g-antrl, / ;, m. one who attains or acquires. 

Adhi-gama, as, m. the act of attaining, acquisi- 




tion ; acquirement, mastery, study, knowledge ; mer- 
cantile return, profit, &c. 

AdM-ffamana, am, n. acquisition ; finding ; ac- 
quirement, reading, study ; marriage, copulation. 

Adhi-gamaniya or -gamya, mfn. attainable ; 
practicable to be learnt. 

^rfVTW ddhi-gartya (5), mfn. being on 
the driver's seat, RV. v, 62, 7. 

wfVH 5 ! adhi-gavd, mfn. being on or in a 
cow, derived from a cow, AV. ix, 6, 39. 

^(fijrn, P. to obtain; P. (aor. 
Subj. 2. pi. -gdta. or -gdtana) to remember, notice, 
RV. & AV. ; P. or generally A. (-jage, -agishta, 
-agishyata, Pan.) to go over, learn, read, study; 
to attempt, resolve : Caus. P. -gdpayati, to cause to 
go over or teach : Desid. Caus. -jigdpayishati, to be 
desirous of teaching, Pan. ii, 4, 51. 

'^I'ftT'J'!! adhi-gnna, mfn. possessing su- 
perior qualities, Megh. 

adhi-gupta, mfn. protected. 

adhi-griham, ind. in the house, 

in the houses, Sis. iii, 45. 

wfv?jfa*^ adhi-grivam, ind. upon the 

neck, up to the neck, 

^ffv^lfH adhi-cahkramd, mfn. (*/kram), 
walking or creeping over, AV. xi, 9, 16. 

^rfv^ adhi- V car, to walk or move on or 
over, RV. vii, 88, 3, &c. ; to be superior to (ace.), 

Adhi-carana, am, n. the act of walking or mov- 
ing or being on or over. 

hi- V i -ci, to pile upon.AV.; SBr. 

adhi- Vjan, to be born. 
Adhi-ja, mfn. born, superior by birth, Pan. iii, 
2, 101, Sch. 
AdM-janana, am, n. birth, Mn. ii, 169. 

adhi-janu, ind. on the knees, Sis. 

adhi-Vji (Subj. 2. sg. -jayasi) to 
win in addition, RV. vi, 35, 1. 

^rfvf>T3f adhi-jihva, as, m. or -jihvika, f. 
a peculiar swelling of the tongue or epiglottis, Susr. 

"SftTrir ddhi-jya, mfn. having the bow- 
string (JyS) up or stretched, strung, SBr. &c. 

WVUltfrt^^ adhi-jyotisham, ind. on the 
luminaries (treated of in the Upanishads), TUp. 

^f fvf (f?f?f adhi-tishthati. See adhi-shtha. 

^TfVrWoFT adhityaka, f . (fr. adhi-tya, a deri- 
vation oiadhi; cf. Pan. v, 2, 34), land on the upper 
part of a mountain, table land, Sis. ; Ragh. &c. 

^wfvi^TJTH'rJ adhi-danda-netri, ta, m. ' pre- 
siding over punishment,' N. of Yama, BhP. 

^rTVtpiT adhi-danta, as, m. a redundant 
tooth, Pan. vi, 2, 188, Sch.; SuSr. 

arca,mfn.(fr.rfar), wooden. 

adhi-dina, am, n. an intercalated 

^fftff^ adhi- Vdis (aor. Subj. A. 3. sg. 
-didishta) to bestow, RV. x, 93, 15. 

^jf*J^fvfrT adhi-didhiti, mfn. having ex- 
cessive lustre, Sis. i, 24. 

'Wfq^ adhi-deva, as, m. or -devata, f. a 
presiding or tutelary deity. Adhi-devam or -de- 
vatam [SBr.], ind. concerning the gods or the deity. 

^rfv^H adhi-dfoana, am, n. a table or 
board for gambling, AV. ; SBr. 

>fffw|^ adhi-daiva or -daivata, am, n. a 
presiding or tutelary deity ; the supreme deity ; the 
divine agent operating in material objects ; (am), 
ind. on the subject of the deity or the divine agent. 

Adhi-daivika, mfn. spiritual. 

^rfV5adAi-v / 2.dra,tocover(said of ahull), 
SBr. : Caus. -drtwayati, to cause to cover, SBr. 

adhi-Vdha (Pass. 3. sg. -dhdyi, 
RV.) Ved. to place upon; to give, share between 
(dat. or loc.), RV. ; A. (aor. -adhita; perf. -dadhe, 
p. -dddhdna) to acquire additionally, RV. 

^rfvT>| adhi- Vdhri, Caus. P. -dhurayati, 
Ved. to carry over or across. 

"Wfv^ adhi-\/nam, Intens. A. -ndmnatc, 
to incline over, RV. i, 140, 6. 

adhi-natha, as, m. a supreme 
lord, chieftain ; N. of the author of the Kalayoga- 

adhi-ni- </dhd, Ved. to place 
upon ; to impart, grant. 

^f fvfVifiB'ij ddhi-nirnij, mfn. covered over, 
veiled, RV. viii, 41, 10. 

*8i i\jfn^\f adhi-nir- ^/muc, Pass, -mucyate, 
to escape from, PBr. 

adhi-nir- Vhan (perf. 2. sg. -ja- 
ghantha) to destroy, root out from, RV. i, 80, 4. 

lhi-ni-V%.vas, to dwell in. 

adhi-ni-Vvyadh (Imper. 3. du. 
-vidhyatam) to pierce through, AV. viii, 6, 24.. 

^ adhi-ni-shad( Vsad), (perf. 3. pi. 
-shedtiK) to settle in a place, RV. i, 164, 39. 

^rfVtrt adhi-Vni (aor. 2. pi. -nais/tta) to 
lead away from (abl.), RV. viii, 30, 3 ; to raise above 
the ordinary measure, enhance, RV. x, 89, 6. 

^rftpTrT adhi-^nrit (Imper. -nrityatu) to 
dance upon (ace.), AV. 

wfv*t^ adhi-ny-Vz-as, to throw upon, 

wfvi adhi-pa, ns,m.s. ruler, commander, 

regent, king. 

A'dhi-pati, is, m. = adhi-pa; (in med.) a par- 
ticular part of the head (where a wound proves 
instantly fatal). vati (Adhipati-), f. containing 
the lord in herself, MaitrUp. 

Adhi-patni, f. a female sovereign or ruler. 

Adhi-pa, as, m., Ved. a ruler, king, sovereign. 

'wf^'W^adhi-pathdm, ind. over or across 
a road, SBr. 

f fVTf9W adhi-paysula or -pausula, mfn. 
being dusty above ; dusty. 

'Wnnjxf'W adhi-purandhri, ind. towards a 
wife, Sis. vi, 38. 

flrfVJJ^ adhi-purusha or -purusha [VP.], 
as, m. the Supreme Spirit. 

i-puta-bhritam, ind. over 

the (vessel) full of purified Soma, KatySr. 

adhi-ptshana, mfn. serving to 
pound or grind upon, SBr. 

^rfVHiP^ adhi-prajam, ind. on procrea- 
tion as a means of preserving the world (treated of in 
the Upanishads), TUp. 

wftnWT^ adhi-pra- Vi dhav, to approach 
hastily from, TBr. 

ddhi-prash( i-yuga, am, n. yoke 

for attaching a fourth horse laid upon the prashti 
or foremost of three horses (used on sacrificial occa- 
sions), SBr. 

Wfvn^ adAi-pra-v/, to send away 
from, Kith. 

adhi-Vbddh, to vex, annoy. 

/bru,Ve&. to speak in favour 
of (dat.) or favourably to (dat.), intercede for. 

wfv>JT adhi-VZ- T>huj, to enjoy. 

A'dhi-bhojana, am, n. an additional gift, RV. vi, 
47- J 3- 

vf^adhi-bhu, us, m. (Vbhii), a master, 
A superior, L. 

Adhi-bhuta, am, n. the spiritual or fine sub- 
stratum of material or gross objects ; the all-pene- 

trating influence of the Supreme Spirit ; the Supreme 
Spirit itself; nature; (dm), ind. on material objects 
(treated of in the Upanishads), SBr. xiv ; TUp. 

odAi- \/man, to esteem highly. 

adhi-mantha or adhi-mantha, at, 
m. 'great irritation of the eyes,' severe ophthalmia. 

Adbi-manthana, am, n. friction for producing 
fire, RV. iii, 29, I ; (mfn.), suitable for such friction 
(as wood), SBr. 

Adhi-manthita, mfn. suffering from ophthalmia. 

^rfvi! adki-mansa or -mansaka, as, m. 
proud flesh or cancer (especially in the eyes or the 
back part of the gums). Adblmansarman, n. 
ophthalmic disease produced by proud flesh or cancer. 

^U Vn I ^f adhi-matra, mfn. above measure, 
excessive ; (am), ind. on the subject of prosody. 
karunika, m. 'exceedingly merciful,' N. of a 
Maha-brahmana, Buddh. 

'afNiift adhi-masa, as, m. an additional 
or intercalary month. 

^ffvg^i adhi-mukta, mfn. (Vmuc), in- 
clined, prepense, Buddh. ; confident, ib. 
Adhi-mukti, z'j, f. propensity ; confidence. 
Adhi-mnktika, as,m.,ti. of Maha-kala, Buddh. 

^rf>nj?I adhi-muhya, as, m., N. of Sakya- 
muni in one of his thirty-four former births. 

wf\nnj adhi-yajna, as, m. the chief or 
principal sacrifice, Bhag. ; influence or agency affect- 
ing a sacrifice ; (mfn.), relating to a sacrifice, Mn.; 
(dm), ind. on the subject of sacrifice, SBr.; Nir. 

wfVnri^adAi-v/yat, to fasten, RV. i, 64,4 : 
Caus. A. -ydtdyate, to reach, join, RV. vi, 6, 4. 

wftll*^ adhi-Vyam (Imper. 2. pi. -yaccha- 
td) to erect or stretch out over, RV. i, 85, 1 1 ; A. 
(aor. 3. pi. -ayassata") to strive up to (loc.), RV. 
x, 64, 3. 

adhi-Vya, to escape, Bha$. 
adhi-Vyuj, to put on, load. 

ddhi-rajju, mfn. carrying a rope, 

fastening, fettering, AV. 

tjfvc*! ddhi-ratha, mfn. being upon or 
over a car ; (as), m. a charioteer ; N. of a charioteer 
who was a prince of Anga and Kama's foster-father; 
(am), n. a cart-load, RV. 

Adhi-rathyam, ind. on the high road. 

^rfVTW adhi-raj, t, m. a supreme king. 

Adhi-raja, as, or -rajan, a, m. an emperor. 

Adhi-rajya, am, n. supremacy, imperial dignity ; 
an empire ; N. of a country. -bhSJ, m. possessor of 
imperial dignity. 

Adhi-rashtra, am, i\. = adhi-rajya. 

^ifvi^^il ddhi-rukma, mfn. wearing gold, 
RV. viii, 46, 33. 

wftn>? adhi-Vnth, cl. i. P. or poet. A. 
to rise above, ascend, mount : Caus. -ropayati, 
to raise, place above. 

Adhi-rudha, mfn. ascended, mounted. a- 
madhl-yo^a, mfn. engaged in profound meditation. 
Adhirudha-karna, mfn. = addhya-loha-kdrna, 
q. v., MaitrS. ; cf. adhiloha-kdrna. 

AdM-zopana, am, n. the act of raising or caus- 
ing to mount. 

Adhi-ropita, mfn. raised, placed above. 

Adhi-roha, as, m. ascent, mounting, overtop- 
ping ; (mfn.), riding, mounted, Sis'. 

Adhi-rohana, am, n. act of ascending or mount- 
ing or rising above ; (f), f. a ladder, flight of steps, L. mfn. rising above, ascending, &c. ; 
(ini), f. a ladder, flight of steps. 

adhi-lokdm, ind. on the uni- 
verse (treated of in the Upanishads), SBr. ; TUp. 
Adhi-loka-nStha, m. lord of the universe. 

SSfV^^orfAt- \/vac (aor. Tmper. 2 .sg.-coco, 
a. du. -vocatam, i. pi. -vocata) to speak in favour 
of, advocate, RV. ; VS. 

Adbi-vaktri, td, m. an advocate, protector, com- 
forter, RV. ; VS. 

Adhi-vacana, am, n. an appellation, epithet. 


Adhi-vaka, as, m. advocacy, protection, RV. 
viii, 1 6, 5; AV. 

wfilqjj adhi-Vvad, to speak, pronounce 
over or at, SBr. ; TBr. 
Adhi-vada, as, m. offensive words, MaitrS. 

^ffVcf^ adhi- V 3. vap, A. -vapate, to put 
on, fasten, RV. i, 92, 4 ; to scatter, TS. 

wfvsj^ i. adhi-V4. vas, A. -vaste, to put 
on or over (as clothes, &c.), RV. x, 75, 8. 

A'dhi-vastra, mfn. clothed, RV. viii, 26, 13. 

1. Adhi-v&sa [SBr.] or adhi-vaaa [RV. ; SBr. 
&c.], as, m. or I. adhi-vasaa [Vait], as, n. an 
upper garment, mantle. 

TOftre^ 2. adhi-Vfr vas, to inhabit; to 
settle or perch upon. 

2. Adhi-v&sa, as, m. an inhabitant ; a neigh- 
bour ; one who dwells above ; a habitation, abode, 
settlement, site ; sitting before a person's house with- 
out taking food till he ceases to oppose or refuse a 
demand (commonly called 'sitting in dharna') ; per- 
tinacity. bhumi, f. a dwelling-place, settlement. 

1. AdM-vasana, am, n. causing a divinity to 
dwell in an image ; sitting in dharna (see above). 

Adhi- vasin, mfn. inhabiting, settled in. Adhi- 
Vasi-ta, f. settled residence. 
Adhy-ushita, see s. r. 

'WfV^li^^rtlw adhivdjya-kulddya,m., N. 
of a country, MBh. 
^jfV^T^ adhi-Vvds, to scent, perfume. 

3. Adhi-vSsa, as, m. perfume, fragrance ; appli- 
cation of perfumes or fragrant cosmetics. 

2. Adhi- vaaana, am, n. application of perfumes, 
&c. ; the ceremony of touching a vessel containing 
fragrant objects (that have been presented to an idol); 
preliminary purification of an image. 

Adhi-vasita, mfn. scented, perfumed. 

%<tV|qi^i adhi-vdhana, as, m., N. of a 
man (said to be a son of Anga). 

^rfvf^ranr<T adhi-vi-kdrtane, am, n. the act 
of cutting off or cutting asunder, RV. x, 85, 35. 

^rftf fa <fc*^ adhi-vi- Vkram, A .to come forth 
on behalf of (dat.), KitySr. 

wfalVsjiH adhi-vijKdna, am, n. the high- 
est knowledge. 

^rfvif^! adhi- V $ vid, cl. 6. P. -vindati, 
to obtain ; to marry in addition to. 

Adhi-vinna, f. a wife whose husband has mar- 
ried again ; a neglected or superseded wife. 

Adhi-vettavya, f. a wife in addition to whom 
it is proper to marry another. 

Adhi-vettri, td, m. a husband who marries an 
additional wife. 

Adhi-vedana,tf/, n. marrying an additional wife. 

Adhi-vedaniya or -vedyS, f. = -ve ttavyd. 

wfVlfas*^ adhi-vidyam, ind. on the sub- 
ject of science (treated of in the Upanishads), TUp. 

'fliMf^VT adhi-vi- Vdha, to distribute or 
scatter over, SBr. &c. 

^ffilfaTi^ a<fti-ci- Vyat, Caus. -yatayati, 
to subjoin, annex, Kath. 

wfvfarrw^ adhi-vi- V raj* to surpass in 
brightness, RV. 

iHfVffas^ adhi- V vis, Caus. -vesayati, to 
cause to sit down ; to place upon. 

'*lf\<*|^ adhi-Vvrij, cl. 7. P. -vriydkti, to 
place near or over (the fire), SBr. 

5fffv^ adhi- Vvrit (Pot. 3. pi. -vavrityuK) 
to move or pass along or over (loc.), RV. x, 27, 6 : 
Caus. id, TBr. 

SSfVj^V adhi-Vvridh, P. (Subj. -vardhat) 
to refresh, gladden, RV. vi, 38, 3 ; A. -vardhate, to 
prosper through or by (loc.), RV. ix, 75, I. 

wfV^^ adhi-veddm, ind. concerning the 
Veda, SBr. xiv. 

^Hf*l%?P^ adhi-velam, ind. on the shore, 

SiS. iii, 71. 

-shkdti) to cover in copulation, RV. x, 61, 7 ; AV. 

Adhi-shkanna, f. (a cow) covered (by the bull), 

^rfWT adhi-shthd ( t/stha), to stand upon, 
depend upon ; to inhabit, abide ; to stand Over ; to 
superintend, govern ; to step over or across ; to over- 
come ; to ascend, mount ; to attain, arrive at. 

Adhi-shtliatri, mfn. superintending, presiding, 
governing, tutelary ; (d), m. a ruler ; the Supreme 
Ruler (or Providence personified and identified with 
one or other of the Hindu gods) ; a chief; a protector. 

Adhi-sbtliana, am, n. standing by, being at 
hand, approach ; standing or resting upon ; a basis, 
base ; the standing-place of the warrior upon the car, 
SamavBr. ; a position, site, residence, abode, seat ; a 
settlement, town ; standing over ; government, au- 
thority, power ; a precedent, rule ; a benediction, 
Buddh. deha or -sarira, n. the intermediate 
body which serves to clothe and support the departed 
spirit during its several residences in the Pitri-loka or 
world of spirits (also called the Preta-sarira), 

Adhi-shthayaka, mfn. governing, superintend- 
ing, guarding. 

AdM-slxthita, mfn. settled ; inhabited ; super- 
intended ; regulated ; appointed ; superintending. 

Adhi-shtlieya, mfn. to be superintended or 

<d fill M^ adhi-shvan ( */svan),to roar along 
or over (3. sg. aor. Pass, in the sense of P. adhi- 
shvarif), RV. ix, 66, 9. 

Vfwfa3(adhi-sam- </&.vas (3 . pl.-vdsante) 
to dwell or reside together, TS. (quoted in TBr.) 

wfvff^arfii-sai- Vvrit (impf. sdm-avar- 
tat&dhi) to originate from, RV. x, 129, 4. 

wftuhn adhi-sam-Vdhd (perf. 3. pi. -da- 
dhtiK] to put or join together, RV. iii, 3, 3. 

^ffvj^r^ adhi - Vsfip, to glide along, 

adhi-stri, ind. concerning a wo- 

man or a wife, Pan. ii, J, 6, Sch. 
Adhi-stri, f. a superior woman, Hariv. 

^fvwfit adhi-Vspardh (3. pi. p. -spdr- 
dhante & perf. -paspridhri) to compete for an aim, 
strive at (loc.), RV. ' 

^1 f*l^ 5^ adhi- Vspris, to touch lightly or 
slightly, SBr. : Caus. (Pot. -sfaridyef) to cause to 
reach to, to extend to, TS. 

At- v/ trickle or drop off, SBr. 

adhi-hari, ind. concerning Hari, 
Pin. ii, i, 6, Sch. 


adhi-vaka. "Y*^ adhuna. 

^rftrsfr adhi-Vvye, to envelop. 
Adhi-vita, mfn. wrapped up, enveloped in. 

W fvj^l W adhi-sasta, mfn.( v/iajfs), (=a4W- 
Jasta), notorious, MBh. xiii, 3139. 

tfvj(ft adhi- V si, to lie down upon, to lie 

upon, to sleep upon (loc., but generally ace.) 
Adhi-iaya, as, m. addition, anything added or 

given extra, Laty. 

Adhi-sayana, mfn. lying on, sleeping on.- 
Adhi-saylta, mfn. recumbent upon ; used for 

lying or sleeping upon. 

*R fv fiJI adhi-Vsri (Ved. Inf. ddhi-srayi- 
tavaf, SBr.) to put in the fire ; to spread over, AV. 

Adhi-sraya, as, m. a receptacle. 

Adhi-srayana, am, n. the act or ceremony of 
putting on the fire ; (f), f. a fire-place, oven. 

Adhi-srayaniya, mfn. relating to or connected 
with the Adhi-srayana. 

Adhi-irita, mfn. put on the fire (as a pot); re- 
sided in, dwelt in ; occupied by. 

^rfVnj adhi-shu (v/3_ su),to extract or pre- 
pare the Soma juice, RV. ix, 91, 2. 

Adhi-shavana, am, n. (generally used in the 
dual), hand-press for extracting and straining the 
Soma juice ; (mfn.), used for extracting and strain- 
ing the Soma juice. 

Adhi-shavanya (6), m. du. the two parts of 
the hand-press for extracting and straining the Soma 
juice, RV. i, 28, 2. 

adhi-hasti, ind. on an elephant, 

adhi-Vhu (impf. 3. pi. -djuhvata) to 
make an oblation upon or over, RV. i, 51, 5. 

adhi-Vhri, to procure, furnish. 

adht (Vi), adhy-Ai or ddhy-eti (ex- 
ceptionally adhfyati, RV. x, 3 2, 3), to turn the mind 
towards, observe, understand, RV. & AV. ; chiefly 
Ved. (with gen. [cf. Pin. ii, 3, 72] or ace.) to myid, 
remember, care for, long for, RV. &c. ; to know, 
know by heart, TS. ; SBr. ; Up. &c. ; to go over, 
study, MBh. iii, 13689; to learn from (a teacher's 
mouth, abl.), MBh. iii, 1071 3 ; to declare, teach, SBr. 
x ; Up. : A. adhtti or (more rarely) adhtyate (Mn. 
iv, 1 25 ; Pot. 3. pi. adhtylran, Kaus. ; Mn. x, i) to 
study, learn by her.rt, read, recite : Caus. adhy-dpa- 
yati (aor. -dpipat, P5n. ii, 4, 51) to cause to read 
or study, teach, instruct : Caus. Desid. adhy-dpipa- 
yishati, to be desirous of teaching PSn. ii, 4, 51 : 
Desid. adhtshishati, to be desirous of studying, PSn. 
viii, 3, 61, Sch. 

Adhita, mfn. attained ; studied, read ; well read, 
learned. v4da, m. one who has studied the Vedas 
or whose studies are finished, SBr. xiv. 

A'dhitl, is, f. perusal, study, TAr. ; desire, recol- 
lection, RV. ii, 4, 8 ; AV. 

Adnitin , mfn. well read, proficient, (gana ishtadi, 
q.v.)&c. ; occupied with the study of the Vedas, Kum. 

Adhitya, ind. p. having gone over, having studied. 

Adhiyat, mfn. remembering, proficient. 

Adhiyana, mfn. reading, studying ; (as), m. a 
student ; one who goes over the Veda either as a 
student or a teacher. 

Adhy-ayana, am, n. reading, studying, especially 
the Vedas (one of the six duties of a Brahman). 

tapasi, n. du. study and penance. pimya, n. 
religious merit acquired by studying. 

Adhy-ayaniya, mfn. fit to be read or studied. 

Adhy-apaka, mfn. a teacher (especially of sacred 
knowledge). Adhyapakodita, m. styled a teacher. 

Adhy-apana, am, n. instruction, lecturing. 

Adhy-apayitri, td, m. a teacher, RPrSt. 

Adhy-apita, mfn. instructed, Mn. ; Kum. iii, 6. 

Adhy-Spya, mfn. fit or proper to be instructed. 

Adhy-aya, as, m. a lesson, lecture, chapter; 
reading ; proper time for reading or for a lesson ; 
ifc. a reader (see vedadhydya), P5n. iii, 2, I, Sch. 

sata-patha, m. 'Index of One Hundred. Chap- 
ters,' N. of a work. 

Adhy-ayln, mm. engaged in reading, a student, 
Adhy-etavya or -eya, mfn. to be read. 
Adhy-etrl, td, m. a student, reader, 
Adhy-esiiyamana, mf\a)n. (fut. p.) intending 
to study, about to read, Mn. 

wftliK adhi-kara (= adhi-kdra), as, m. 
superintendence over (loc.), Mn. xi, 63; authoriza- 
tion, capability, MBh. 

'Wvfhl adhiksh (Viksh), to expect. 

WVjfa a<ft>na,mfn.(fr. adit), ifc. resting on 
or in, situated; depending on, subject to, subservient 
to. ta, f. or -tva, n. subjection, dependence. 

tuflH*"! adhi-mantha = adhi-mantha, q.v. 

witt.d-dhtra, mfn. imprudent, RV. i, 179, 
4 ; AV. ; not fixed, movable ; confused ; deficient in 
calm self-command ; excitable ; capricious ; querulous ; 
weak-minded, foolish ; (a), f. lightning; a capricious 
or bellicose mistress. ta, f. want of confidence. 

^TV/lrtVgli*U adhiloha-kdrna, mfn. = ad- 
dhydloha-karna, q. v., TS. 

'SUfNlfl adhl-vdsd=I. adhi-vasd, q.v. 
2. Adhi-vasas, ind. over the garment, KStySr. 

^ftST adhisa, as, m. a lord or master over 

Adhisvara, as, m. a supreme lord or king, an 
emperor ; an Arhat, Jain. 

^nft"? adhishta, mfn. (</3- ish), solicited, 
asked for instruction (as a teacher), PSn. ; (as ? or 
am), m. n. instruction given by a teacher solicited 
for it, Pan. Sch. 

Adhy-esbana, am, d, m. f. solicitation, asking 
for instruction. 

adhuna, ind. at this time, now. 


Adhnnataua, mf( t)n. belonging to or extendin 
over the present time, SBr. 

! a-dhura, mfn. not laden. 
a-dhumaka, mfn. smokeless. 

irita, mfn. not held, unrestrained 
uncontrolled ; unquiet, restless, TS. ; (as), m., N. o 

A'-dhriti, is, f. want of firmness or fortitude 
laxity, absence of control or restraint ; incontinence 
(mfn.), unsteady. 

^HJf d-dhrishta, mfn.(Vdhrish), not bold 
modest ; not overcome, invincible, irresistible. 

A-dhrishya, mfn. unassailable, invincible ; un 
approachable ; proud ; (a), (., N. of a river. 

T^J d-dhenu, mfn. yielding no milk, RV 
i, 117, 20; AV. ; not nourishing, RV. x, Ji, 5. 

W*Hl a-dhairya, am, n. want of self-com- 
mand ; excitement ; excitability ; (mfn.), withou 
self-command ; excitable. 

TWT _adhy-aysa, mfn. being on the 
shoulder, AsvGr. 

W^i adhy-akta, mfn. (Vanj), equipped, 

^nfl^ ddhy-aksha, mf(a)n. perceptible to 
the senses, observable ; exercising supervision ; (as), 
m. an eye-witness ; an inspector, superintendent 
the plant Mimusops Kauki (Kshirikd). 



(adhy-aksharam, ind. on the sub- 
ject of syllables ; above all syllables (as the mysticom). 
^SMjfr^ adhy-agni, ind. over or by the 
nuptial fire (property given to the bride). Adhy- 
agni-krita, n. property given to the wife at the 
wedding. Adhyagny-npSgata, n. property re- 
ceived by a wife at the wedding. 

Wfl^ adhy-anc, an, id, dk, tending up- 
wards, eminent, superior, Pan. vi, 2, 53. 

^JynjJT adhy-andd, f. the plants Carpopo- 
gon Pruriens (cowage) and Flacourtia Cataphracta. 

^rujnnSpT adhy-adhikshepa, as, m. exces- 
sive censure, Yajn. iii, 228 ; gross abuse. 

^uprta adhy-adhina, mfn. completely 
subject to or dependent on (as a slave), Mn. 

f adhy-antfna, ind. close to, SBr. 

[ adhy-apa-Vvic, -vindkti, to put by singling out from, SBr. 

vitq*jr adhy-ayana, &c. See adht. 

^TUIV ddhy-ardha, mf(a)n. 'having an ad- 
ditional half," one and a half. kansa, m. n. one 
and a half kansa ; (mf(z)n.), amounting to or worth 
one and a half kansa. kakinikc, mfn. amounting 
to or worth one and a half kskini. karshapana 
or -karshapanika, mfn. amounting to or worth 
one and a half karshapana. kharlka, mfn. 
amounting to or worth one and a half khiri. 
panya, mfn. amounting to or worth one and a 
half pana. padya, mfn. amounting to one foot 
and a half. pratika, mfn. amounting to one and 
a half karshapana. mashya, mfn. amounting to 
or worth one and a half masha. vinsatikina, 
mfn. amounting to or worth one and a half score or 
thirty, sata or -satya, mfn. amounting to or 
bought with one hundred and fifty. satamana or 
-satamana, mfn. amounting to or worth one and 
a half satamana. Sana or -sanya, mfn. amount- 
ing to or worth one and a half s5na. snrpa, mfn. 
amounting to or worth one and a half surpa. saha- 
sra or -sahasra, mfn. amounting to or worth one 
thousand five hundred. snvarna or -sanvarni- 

Adhy-ardhaka, mm. amounting to or worth 
one and a half. 

wm Jr; adhy-arbuda or -arvuda, am, n. a 

congenital tumour, goitre. 

WUH^ adhy-ava-Vrnh, to step down- 
wards upon, TBr. 

iiqi\ adhy-ava-Vso, cl. 4. P. -syati, 
to undertake, attempt, accomplish; to determine, 
consider, ascertain. 

Adhy-ava-sana, am, n. attempt, effort, exer- 
tion ; energy, perseverance ; determining ; (in rhe- 
toric) concise and forcible language. 

Adhy-ava-saya, as, m. id. ; (in phil.) mental 
effort, apprehension, -ynkta, mfn. resolute. 

Adhy-ava-sayita, mfn. attempted. 

Adhy-ava-sayin, mfn. resolute. 

Adhy-ava-sita, mfn. ascertained, determined, 

Adhy-ava-siti, it, f. exertion, effort. 

^Hflqf^ adhy-ava-Vhan, to thrash upon, 

Adhy-avahanana, mfn. serving as an imple- 
ment on which anything is thrashed, SBr. 

WTSTT adhy-asana, am, n . eating too soon 
after a meal (before the last meal is digested). 

^ ****<, adhy-\/2. as, to throw or place over 
or upon ; (in phil.) to attribute or impute wrongly. 

Adhy-asta, mfn. placed over ; disguised ; sup- 

Adhy-asa, as, m. See s. v. 

adhy-asthd, am, n. the upper part 
of a bone, TS. 

Adhy-asthi, i, n. a bone growing over another, 

<-Vah, perf. -aha, to speak on 
behalf of (dat.), AV. i, 16, 2. 

adhy-d-Vkram, to attack ; to 

choose, Sak. 

-d-Vgam, to meet with. 
-d-Vcar, to use, Mn. &c. 
ddhy-dndd, f. = adhy-andd, SBr. 

adhy-dtma, am, n. the Supreme 
Spirit; (mfn.), own, belonging to self; (dm), ind. 
concerning self or individual personality, cetas, 
m. one who meditates on the Supreme Spirit. 
jnana, n. knowledge of the Supreme Spirit or 
of dtman. dris, mfn. knowing the Supreme 
Jpirit. rati, m. a man delighting in the contem- 
jlation of the Supreme Spirit. ramayana, n. a 
limSyana, in which Rama is identified with the 
universal spirit (it forms part of the Brahmanda- 
*urana). Tid, mfn. = -dris. vidya.f . = -jnana. 
sfistra, n., N. of a work. Adhyatmottara- 
kanda, n. the last book of the AdhyJtma-ramayana. 
Adhy-atmika or better adhyatmika, m((i)a. 
elating to the soul or the Supreme Spirit. 

^IHTIVT adhy-d-Vdhd, to place upon. 
adhy-dpaka, &c. See adht. 

o bring near from, VS. 

'SUiT^ adhy-d-Vruh, to ascend up on 
igh, mount : Caus. -ropayati, to cause to mount. 

Adhy-arudha, mfn. mounted up, ascended; 
bove, superior to (instr.); below, inferior to (abl.) 

Adhy-aropa, as, m. (in VedSnta phil.) wrong 
ttribution, erroneous transferring of a statement 
rom one thing to another. 

Adhy-aropana, am, d, n. f. id. 

Adhy-aropita, mm. (in Vedanta phil.) erro- 
eously transferred from one thing to another. 

er upon, SBr. 

Adhy-a-vapa, as, m. the act of sowing or 
scattering upon, KitySr. 

hy-d-V&- vas, to inhabit, dwell 
n (ace. or loc.) 

Wl*4l =i i f- MI * adhy-d-vdhanika, am, n. that 
art of a wife's property which she receives when 
ed in procession from her father's to her husband's 

1T^ adhy-\/ds, to sit down or lie down 
pon, to settle upon ; to occupy as one's seat or 
abitation ; to get into, enter upon ; to be directed 
3 or upon ; to affect, concern ; to preside over, in- 
uence, rule ; to cohabit with : Caus. P. adhy-dsa- 
ati, to cause to sit down, Bhatt. : Desid. (p. adhy- 
isishamdnd) to be about to rise up to (ace.), Bhatt. 
Adhy-asana, am, n. act of sitting down upon, 
. ; presiding over, L. ; a seat, settlement, BhP. 

Adhy-aslta, mfn. seated down upon ; seated in 
a presidential chair; settled, inhabited; (am), n. 
sitting upon, Ragh. ii, 52. 

Adhy-asin, mfn. sitting down or seated upon. 

Adhy-aslna, mfn. seated upon. 

^HflTH adhy-dsa, as, m. (1/2. as), impos- 
ing (as of a foot), Yajn.; (mfh\\.)=-adhy-dropa; 
an appendage, RPrit. 

wwilW^ adhy-d-i/saftj (i. sg. -sajdmi) to 
hang up, suspend, AV. xiv, 2, 48. 

WlHi^ adhy-d-Vsad, to sit upon (ace.), 
Kaus. : Caus. (i. sg. ddhy-a-sddaydmi) to set upon 
(loc.), TBr. 

TUIT^tir adhy-d-harana, am, n. (Vhri), 
act of supplying (elliptical language) ; supplement ; 
act of inferring, inference. 

Adhy-aharaniya or -ahartavya, mfn. to b 
supplied ; to be inferred. 

Adhy-ahara, as, m. act of supplying (elliptical 
language), Pan. vi, 1, 139, &c. 

Adhy-ahrita, mfn. supplied, argued. 

WWWT adhy-ut-thd (Vsthd), to turn away 
from, PBr. 

adhy-ud-dhi, f. See ddhy-udhnt. 
^ adhy-ud-dhn(Vhn), (Imper. 2. sg. 
ddhy-ild-dhara)\oi\vn (water) from, AV.xii,3,36. 

adhy-ud-^bhri, to take or carry 
away from, AV. 

loc. ind. at daybreak, MBh. ; 2. (^5. vas) inha- 
bited ; occupied. 

^TOJ? adhy-ushta, mfn. (invented as the 
Sanskrit representative of the Prakrit addhuttha, 
which is derived from ardha-caturtha), three and 
a half. valaya, m. forming a ring coiled up three 
and a half times (as a snake). 

^*91T adhy-ushtra, as, m. a conveyance 
drawn by camels. 

WW? adhy-udha, mfn. (v'raA), raised, 
exalted ; affluent ; abundant ; (as), m. the son of a 
woman pregnant before marriage [cf. l.iaA&ffio]; 
Siva ; (a), f. a wife whose husband has married an 
additional wife. ja, m. the son of a woman preg- 
nant before marriage. 

WWjft ddhy-udhni, f. (fr. Hdhan) [MaitrS. ; 
KstySr.] or adhy-ud-dhi, f. (Vdtd) [ApSr.], a 
tubular vessel above the udder, or above the scrotum. 

W^^(adhy-ushivas, dn,ushi, at (perf. p. 
Vs. vas), one who has dwelt in, Pin. iii, 2, 1 08, Sen. 
*^ adhy-Vl.ih, to lay on, overlay; to 
place upon ; to raise above. 
Adhy-nhana, am, n. putting on a layer (of ashes). 
ridh, to expand, SBr. xiv. 
adhy-etavya, &c. See adht. 

edh, to increase, prosper. 
adhy-eshana. See adhtshta. 

d-dhri, mfn. (\/dhri), unrestrained, 
irresistible, AV. v, 20, IO. go. (ddhri-), mfn. 
(m. pi. dvas), irresistible, RV. ; (us), m., N. of a 
heavenly killer of victims, RV. ; N. of a formula 
concluding with an invocation of Agni, SBr. &c. 

Ja (adhr(-), mfn. irresistible, RV. v, J, 10. 

pnshpalikS, f. a species of the Pan plant, Piper 

A-dhriyamana, mfn. (pr. Pass. p. 4/JAri), not 
held ; not to be got hold of, not forthcoming, not sur- 
viving or existing, dead, (gana cdrv-adi, q.v.) 

^T>P d-dhruva, mf(o)n. not fixed, not per- 
manent ; uncertain, doubtful ; separable. 

^nj^ adhrusha, as, m. (etymology doubt- 
ful), quinsy, sore throat, Susr. 

'Wlep^ ddhvan, a, m. a road, way, orbit; 
a journey, course ; distance; time, Buddh. & Jain. ; 
means, method, resource ; the zodiac (?), sky, air, 
L. ; a place ; a recension of theVedas and the school 
upholding it ; assault (?) ; ifc. adhva, as. 




Adhva (in comp. for ad/ivan). ga, mf(ii)n. 
road-going, travelling ; (as), m. a traveller ; a camel, 
a mule ; (a), f. the river Ganges. gat, m. a traveller, 
AV. xiii, I, 36. gaty-anta or-gantavya, m. 
measure of length applicable to roads. ga-bhogya, 
m. ' traveller's delight,' the tree Spondias Mangitera. 

gamana, n. act of travelling. -gamin, nit'n. 
wayfaring. Jl, f. the plant Svarnuli. pati, m. 
lord of the roads VS. ratha, m. a travelling car. 

salya, m. the plant Achvranthes Aspera. Adhva- 
dhipa or adhv^sa m. an officer in charge of the 
public roads, police-officer, Rajat. 

Adhvanina, as, m. a traveller, Pin. ; YSjB. i, 1 1 1 . 
Aduvanya, ,:,-, m. id., Pin. v, 2, 16. 

^tW a-dhvard. rafn. (%/rfArri), not injur- 
ing, AV. ; TS. ; (<fa \ m. a sacrifice (especially the 
Soma sacrifice) ; N. of a Vasu ; of the chief of a 
family ; (am}, n. sky or air, L. karman, n. per- 
formance of the Adhvara or any act connected with 
it, SBr. kalpB, f., N. of an optional sacrifice 
(K.tmyeshti). kanda, n., N. of the book in the 
Satapatha - Brahmana which refers to Adhvaras. 

krit , m. performing an Adhvara, VS. (fa, mfn. 
intended for an Adhvara. dikshaniya, f. conse- 
cration connected with the Adhvara. dhishnya, 
m. a second altar at the Soma sacrifice, SBr. prS- 
yascitti, f. expiation connected with the Adhvara. 

vat (adhvard-}, mfn. containing the word 
Adhvara, SBr. sri , mfn. embellishing the Adhvara, 
RV. - samishta-yajuH, n., N. of an aggregate 
of nine libations connected with the Adhvara. stlia 
or adhvare-shtha [RV. x, 77, 7], mfn. standing 
at or engaged in an Adhvara. 

Adhvarlya, Nom. P. (2. sg. rtydsi ; f.rtydf) 
to perform an Adhvara, RV. 

Adhvarya, Nom. P. (p.rydf) to be engaged in 
an Adhvara, RV. i, 181, I. 

Adhvaryu, us, m. onewho institutes an Adhvara ; 
any officiating priest ; a priest of a particular class 
(as distinguished from the Hotri, the Udgdtri, and 
the Brahman classes. The Adhvaryu priests 'had 
to measure the ground, to build the altar, to prepare 
the sacrificial vessels, to fetch wood and water, to 
light the fire, to bring the animal and immolate it ;' 
whilst engaged in these duties, they hai 1 to repeat 
the hymns of the Yajur-veda ; hence that Veda itself 
is also called Adhvaryu) ; (adhvaryavas), pi. the 
adherents of the Yajur-veda ; (us), f. the wife of an 
Adhvaryu priest, PSn.iv, 1, 66, Sch. kanda, n., N. 
of a book of mantras or prayers intended for Adhvaryu 
priests. kratn, m. sacrificial act performed by the 
Adhvaryu, Pin. ii, 4, 4. veda, m. the Yajur-veda. 

a-dhvasmdn, mfn. unveiled, RV. 

a-dhvanta, am, n. (not positive 
darknessj, twilight, gloom, shade. - iatrava, m. 
'an enemy to shade,' the plant Cassia Fistula or 
Bignonia Indica. 

W^ i . an-, occasionally WT ana-, (before 
a vowel) the substitute for 3. a, or a privative. 
ni 2. an, cl. 2. P. dniti or dnnti, ana, a- 

^ ^ nishyati, <mi7[RV. x, 1 29, 2], to breathe, 
respire, gasp ; to live, L. ; to move, go, L. [cf. Gk. ave- 
/jos; Lzt.animus] : Ctx&.anayati: Desid.aninisAali. 

Ana, as, m. breath, respiration, SBr.; ChUp. 
vat-tva, n. the state of being endowed with 
breath or life, Nir. 

Anana, am, n. breathing, living, Nir. 

^nT$T an-ansa or an-ansin, mfn. portion- 
less ; not entitled to a share in an inheritance. 

a, f. the plan- 

tain (= ansumat-phalo). 

"** a **3** anaka-dundubha, as, m., N. of 
Krishna's grandfather. 

Anaka-dundnbhi or better anakadnndubhl, 
is, m., N. of Krishna's father (Vasudeva ; said to be 
derived from the beating of drums at his birth). 

n-akasmat, ind. not without a 

cause or an object ; not accidentally, not suddenly. 

vr^JHHK an-akama-mara, mfn. not kill- 
ing undesiredly, AitAr. 

^PfW an-dksk (nom. an-dK), mfn. Wind, 
RV. ii, 15, 7. 

An-akha,mf(fl),RV.ix,73, 6 & x, 27,11. 

An-akshi, n. a bad eye, L. 

An-akshika, mfn. eyeless, TS. 
^IH 8),mfn. unfit to be uttered; 
unable to articulate a syllable. 

. ^ .. ^ dn-aksha-smgam [MaitrS.] or 
dn-atsha-stambham [SBr.], ind. so as not to in- 
terfere with the axle-tree. 

an-nyara, as, m. houseless, a 
vagrant ascetic, L. 

An-agarikS, f. the houseless life of such an ascetic, 

d-nagna, mf(a)n. not naked. tS 
(a-nagnd-), f. the not being naked, SBr. 

. an-agni (dn-agni, Nir.), is, m. non- 
fire ; substance differing from fire ; absence of fire ; 
(mfri.), requiring no fire or fire-place ; not main- 
taining a sacred fire, irreligious ; unmarried ; dis- 
pensing with fire ; 'having no fire in the stomach;' 
dyspeptic, tra (dn-agni-), mfn. not maintaining 
the sacred fire, RV. i, 1 89, 3. - dagdha (dn-agni-), 
mfn. not burnt with fire ; not burnt on the funeral 
pile (but buried), RV. x, 15, 14; (as), m. pi., N. 
of a class of manes, Mn. iii, 199. shvatta, as, 
m. pi. id., L. (see agni-dagdhd, agni-shvattd). 

an-ogha, mf(o)n. sinless; faultless; 
uninjured ; handsome, L. ; (as), m. white mustard, 
L. ; N. of Siva and others. Anaghashtami, f., 
N. of an eighth day (spoken of in the fifty-fifth 
Adhylya of the Bhavishyottara-PurSna). 

an-ankusa, mfn. unrestrained. 

an-angd, mf(o)n. bodiless, incorpo- 
real ; (as), m., N. of Kama (god of love, so called 
because he was made bodiless by a flash from the 
eye of Siva, for having attempted to disturb his life 
of austerity by filling him with love for Parvat!) ; 
(am), n. the ether, air, sky, L. ; the mind, L. ; that 
which is not the ahga. -krida, f. amorous play ; 
N. of a metre (of two verses, the first containing six- 
teen long syllables, the second thirty-two short ones). 

devi, f., N. of a queen of Kashmir. pala, m., 
N. of a king's chamberlain at Kashmir. m-ejaya 
(an-ahgam-), mfn. not shaking the body (?), (gana 
cdrv-adi, q.v.) ranga, m., N. of an erotic work. 

lekha, f. a love letter ; N. of a queen of Kashmir. 

Bokhara, m., N. of a metre (of four verses, each 
containing fifteen iambi). aenS, f., N. of a dramatic 
personage. Anangapida, m., N. of a king of Kash- 
mir. Anangasuhrid, in. 'Kama's enemy,' Siva. 

An-angaka, as, m. the mind, L. 
Hfsft an-ahgur(, mfn. destitute of fin- 
gers, AV. 

an-aceha, mfn. unclear, turbid. 

an-ajakd or an-ajika, f. a miser- 
able little goat, Pin. vii, 3, 47. 

'SHyH an-anjana, mfn. free from colly- 
rium or pigment or paint ; (am), n. the sky, atmo- 
sphere, L. 

wj^j^ anad-uh, dvdn, m. (fr. dnas, a cart, 
and Jvah, to drag), an ox, bull ; the sign Taurus. 
Anadnj-jihvS, f. the plant GojihvS, Elephantopus 
Scaber. Anadud-da, as, m. donor of a bull or ox. 

Anadntka, mfn. ifc. for anatfuh, (gana ura-ddi 
and gana risyadi, q. v.) 

Anadnha, as, m. ifc. for anaduh / N. of the 
chief of a certain Gotra(?), (gana sarad-adi, q.v.) 

Anaduhi [SBr.] or anadvShi [Pan.], f. a cow. 

flH^", dn-anu, mfn. not minute or fine, 
coarse, SBr. ; (us), m. coarse grain, peas, &c. 

An-amyas, mfn. not at all minute ; vast, mighty, 
Sis. iii, 4. 

W^rT a-nata, mfn. not bent, not bowed 
down ; not changed into a lingual consonant, RPrSt.; 
erect ; stiff; haughty. 

W?ffrT- an-ati-, not very-, not too-, not 
past-. (Words commencing with an-ati are so easily 
analysed by referring to ati, &c., that few need be 
enumerated.) A'n-atikrama, m. not transgress- 
ing, SBr. ; moderation, propriety. An-atikrama- 
niya, mfn. not to be avoided, not to be trans- 
gressed, inviolable. An-atldrlsya, mfn. not trans- 
parent, opaque, SBr.; (or = aty-adrisya), quite 
indiscernible. A'n-atidbhuta, mm. unsurpassed, 

RV. viii, 90, 3. A'n-atlneda, m. not foaming 
over, MaitrS. A'n-atirikta, mfn. not abundant, 
SBr. An-atireca, n. not abundance, MaitrS. 
An-ativritti, f. congruity. An-ativyadhya, 
mfn. invulnerable, AV. ix,2, 1 6. An-atyanta-gati, 
f. the sense of 'not exceedingly,' sense of diminutive 
words. An-atyaya, m. the not going across, SBr. ; 
(mfn.), unperishable, unbroken. An-atyndya, 
mm. ( = aty-an-udya~), quite unfit to be mentioned, 
far above any expression, AV. x, 7, 28. 

Wl^T^rfn-arfaf, mfn. not eating, not con- 
suming, RV. iii, i, 6; AV. &c. 

*r|^f dn-addha or (with particle ) dn- 
addho, ind. not truly, not really, not definitely, not 
clearly, SBr. purnjjha, m. one who is not a true 
man, one who is of no use either to gods or men or 
the manes, SBr. ; AitBr. ; KJtySr. 

^t*fHrt1 an-adyatana, as, m . a tense (either 
past or future) not applicable to the current day, PSn. 
, ind. not below, TBr. 

not to be enlarged or excelled ; boundless ; perfect. 

^prfvRTr; an-adhikara, as, m. absence of 
authority or right or claim. carca, f. unjustifiable 
interference, intermeddling, officiousness. 

An-adhlkarin, mfn. not entitled to. 

An-adhlkrlta, mfn. not placed at the head of, 
not appointed. 

^nrf>JTTrI an-adhigata, mfp. not obtained, 
not acquired ; not studied. manoratha, mfn. one 
who has not obtained his wish, disappointed. sSs- 
tra, mfn. unacquainted with the SSstras. 

An-adhlgamya or an-adhlganianlya, mfn. 

'Wtrfv^t'T an-adhishthana,am,n. want of 

An-adhlshthlta, mfn. not placed over, not ap- 
pointed ; not present. 

^T7l\ittT an-adh'ma or an-adkinaka, mfn. 
not subject to, independent ; (as), m. an independent 
carpenter who works on his own account (see kautn- 

'HTrUTBJ an-adhyalcsha, mfn. not percep- 
tible by the senses, not observable ; without a super- 

WHW4H an-udhyayana, am, n. not read- 
ing or studying ; intermission of study, Mn. &c. 

An-adhyaya, as, m. id. ; a time when there is 
intermission of study, Mn. divasa, m. a vacation 
day, holiday. 

*1 an-anangamejaya, mfn. not 

leaving the body unshaken (?) ; cf. an-ahgamejaya. 
dn-anukhyati, is, f. not per- 

ceiving, MaitrS. 

Hjsllrl an-anujfiata, mfn. not agreed to, 
not permitted ; denied. 

in,mtn.not miss- 

ing, not missing anything, AitBr. ; not insidious,TBr. 
^FrffiVfT^ban-anubhavaka, mfn. unable to 
comprehend. tS, f. non-comprehension; unin- 

on-an6AosAona, am, n. not re- 

peating (for the sake of challenging) a proposition," 
tacit assent. 

^7)^^ an-anubhuta, mfn. not perceived, 
not experienced, unknown. 

^M^HrT an-anumata, mfn. not approved 
or honoured, not liked, disagreeable, unfit. 

WrHm>l an-anuyajd or an-anuyajd [TS.], 
mfn. without a subsequent or final sacrifice. 

an-anushangin, mfn. not at- 

tached to, indifferent to. 

^MHirra an-anushthana, am, n. non-ob- 
servance, neglect ; impropriety. 

^M^3i dn-anukta [SBr. xiv] or an- 
anfikli [KatySr.], mfn. not recited or studied ; not 
responded to. 


1i *(f an-anrita, mfn. not false, true 
Sit. vi, 39. 

^t^rer an-antd, mf(n)n. endless, bound 
less, eternal, infinite ; (as), m., N. of Vishnu ; o 
Scsha (the snake-god) ; of Sesha's brother Vjsuki 
of Krishna ; of his brother Baladeva ; of Siva ; 
Rudra; of one of the Visva-devas ; of the 141 
Arhat, &c. ; the plant Sinduvara, Vitex Trifolia 
Talc; the 23rd lunar asterism, Sravana ; a silke 
cord (tied round the right arm at a particular festi 
val); the letters/ a periodic decimal fraction? (d\ 
[. the earth ; the number one ; N. of PSrvati an 
of various females, the plant SarivS ; Periploca 
Indica or Asdepias Pseudosarsa or Asthmatica (th 
root of which supplies a valuable medicine) ; (am] 
n. the sky, atmosphere; Talc, -kara, mfn. ren 
dering endless, magnifying indefinitely, Pan. iii, t 
21; R. v, 20, 26. ga,, mfn. going or moving fo 
ever or indefinitely, Pan. iii, 2, 48. sfuna, mfn 
having boundless excellencies. caturdasi, f. the 
fourteenth lunar day (or full moon) of Bhadra, when 
Ananta is worshipped. carltra , m., N. of a Bodhi 
sattva. jit, m., N. of the fourteenth Jaina Arhat o 
the present Avasarpini. ta (anantd-), {. eternity 
infinity, SBr. xiv. tSna.mfn. extensive, -tirtha 
m., N. of an author. tirtha-krit, m. = Anantajit 

tritiya, f. the third day of Bhadra (saidtobesacre( 
to Vishnu). - tritiya- vrata, N. of the twenty- 
fourth Adhyaya of the Bhavishyottara - PurSna, 

tva, n. = -id, q. v. drishti, m., N. of Siva, 

deva, m., N. of various persons, especially of a 
king of Kashmir. nemi, m., N. of a king o: 
Malava, a contemporary of Sakyamuni. para, 
mfn. of boundless width. pala, m., N. of a war- 
rior chief in Kashmir. bhatta, m., N. of a man. 

mati, m., N. of a Bodhisattva. mayin, mfn. 
endlessly illusory or delusive or deceitful. mala, 
m. the medicinal plant Sariva. raina, m., N. ol 
a man. rasi, m. (in arithm.) an infinite quantity ; 
a periodic decimal fraction (?). rupa, mfn. having 
innumerable forms or shapes, vat, mfn. eternal, 
infinite ; (an), m. (in the Upanishads) one of Brah- 
mi's four feet (earth, intermediate space, heaven, 
and ocean). varman, m., N. of a king. vata, 
m. a disease of the head (like tetanus). vikra- 
min, m., N. of a Bodhisattva. vijaya, m., N. 
of Yudhishthira's conch-shell. virya, m., N. of 
the twenty-third Jaina Arhat of a future age. 

vrata, n. ceremony or festival in honour of 
Ananta or Vishnu (on the day of the full moon in 
Bhadra); N. of the IO2nd Adhyaya of the Bha- 
vishyottara-Purana. sakti, mfn. omnipotent ; (is), 
m., N. of a king. sayana, n, Travancore. slr- 
shS, f., N. of the snake king Vasuki's wife. sush- 
ma (ananfd-), mfn. possessing boundless strength 
or endlessly roaring (?), RV. i, 64, 10. Anantdt- 
man, m. the infinite spirit. Anantftsrama, 
anantesvara, &c., names of persons unknown. 

Anantaka, mfn. endless, boundless, eternal, infi- 
nite ; (am), n. the infinite (i.e. infinite space). 

Anautya, mfn. infinite, eternal ; (am), n. infi- 
nity, eternity. 

^ 1 ft t. an-antard, mf(o)n. having no in- 
terior ; having no interstice or interval or pause ; 
uninterrupted, unbroken ; continuous ; immediately 
adjoining, contiguous ; next of kin, &c. ; compact, 
close ; (as), m. a neighbouring rival, a rival neigh- 
bour ; (am), n. contiguousness ; Brahma or the 
supreme soul (as being of one entire essence) ; (am), 
ind. immediately after ; after ; afterwards. Ja, m. 
' next-born,' the son of a Kshatriyi or Vaisya mother 
by a father belonging to the caste immediately above 
the mother's, Mn. x, 41. jata, m. id., Mn. x, 6; 
also the son of a Sfldra mother by a Vaisya father. 

A'n-antaraya, as, m. non-interruption, SBr. & 
Plir. ; (cf. antaraya.) 

A'n-antarayam, ind. without a break, SBr. & 

A'n-autarita, mfn. not separated by any inter- 
stice ; unbroken. 

A'n-antariti, is, f. not excluding or passing 
over, TS. ; AitBr. 

Auantarlya, mfn. concerning or belonging to 
the next of kin, &c., (gana gahadi, q. v.) 

vtrCrtfifrT dn-antar-hita, mfn. ( v/rfAn^not 
concealed, manifest ; not separated by a break. 

^nVxJ a-nanda, mfn. joyless, cheerless; 
(as), m. pi., N. of a purgatory, Up. 


, mfn. not blind, TBr. &c. 

dn-anna, am, n. rice or food unde- 
serving of its name, SBr. xiv. 

^PTSJ an-anyd, mf(d)n. no other, not an- 
other, not different, identical; self; not having a 
second, unique ; not more than one, sole ; having 
no other (object), undistracted ; not attached or de- 
voted to any one else, TS. - gtl, f. sole resort or 
resource. _ gutd or -ffatika, mfn. having only one 
(or no other) resort or resource left, gamin, 
mfn. going to no other. guru, m. 'having no 
other as a Guru,' N. of Krishna, Sis. i, 35. citta, 
mf(a)n. or -cetas, mfn. giving one's undivided 
thought to (with loc.) -codita, mfn. self-impelled. 
-Ja, m., N. of Kama or Love. tS, f. or -tva, 
n. identity. drishti, mfn. gazing intently. 

deva, mfn. having no other god. nishpadya, 
mfn. to be accomplished by no other. pnrva, f. 
a female who never belonged to another, a virgin, 
Ragh. pratikriya, mfn. having no other means 
of resistance or redress. bhava, mfn. originating 
in or with no other, bhava, mfn. thinking of 
the only one, i. e. of the Supreme Spirit. manas 
or -manaska or -manasa, mfn. exercising un- 
divided attention, yoga, m. not suitable to any 
others ; (am), ind. not in consequence of any other 
(word), RPrSt. vishaya, mfn. exclusively appli- 
cable. -vishayatman, mfn. having the mind 
fixed upon one (or the sole) object. vrlttl, mfn. 
closely attentive. sadharana, mfn.' not com- 
mon to any one else, not belonging to any other. 

hrita, mfn. not carried off by another, safe. 
Ananyanubhava, m., N. of the teacher of Pra- 
kasatman. Ananyartha, mfn. not subservient to 
another object ; principal. Ananyasrita, rrifn. not 
laving resorted to another ; independent ; (am), n. 
[in law) unencumbered property. 

An-anyadrisa, mf (f) n. not like others, KathSs. 

^1*l<f an-anvaya, as, m. want of con- 
nexion ; (in rhetoric) comparison of an object with 
ts own ideal, (as, ' a lady-like lady.*) 

An-anvita, mfn. unconnected, inconsecutive, 
desultory, incoherent, irrelevant, irregular ; not at- 
ended with, destitute of. 

dn-anvavacara [SBr.] or dn- 


an-apadeia, as, m. an invalid ar- 

WfqT|UJ an-apadhrishya, ind. p. not hav- 
ing overpowered, AitBr. 

m-apanihitdm, ind. without 

leaving out anything, SBr. 

laiwFKan-apayati, ind. (\/ with 
apa ?), ' before the sun makes a start,' very early, L. 

^THTC an-apard, mfn. without another; 
having no follower ; single, sole (as N. of Brahma), 
SBr. xiv. 

IIH,I- dn-aparaddha, mfn. one who has 
not injured anybody, MBh. ; faultless, SBr. ; (dm), 
ind. without injury, SBr. xiv. 

An-aparadha, as, m. innocence, innocuousness; 
(mfn. ), innocent, faultless ; free from defects. tva, 
n. freedom from fault. 

Anaparadhin, mfn. innocent. 

PJn. vi, 2, 1 60, Sch. 

-apavacand, mfn. impossible 
to be talked away or wished away, AV. viii, 8, 9. 

an-apavrijyd, mfn. not to be 
finished (as a way ; ' free from objects that should be 
shunned as impure,' Say.), RV. i, 146, 3. 

dn-apavyayat (apa-vy-ayat), 

anvavdya [MaitrS.], us, m. or dn-anvavdyana 
SBr.], am, n. (i/car and Vi with ante and ava), 
not followii-g or going after any one (in a sneaking 

wi'^IHTIi dn-anvdbhakta, mfn. (\/hhaj), 
ot receiving a share, not interested in (!oc.), SBr, 

an-apa, mfn. destitute of water, L. 
an-apakarana, am, n. (in law) 

mfn. unremitting, RV. vi, 75, 7. 

*1M*T1 an-apasara, mfn. 'having no hole 
to creep out of,' inexcusable, unjustifiable ; (as), m. 
a usurper, Mn. viii, 198. 

An-apasarana, am, n. not leaving a place or 
withdrawing from it, SBr. 

C1M**j3^ dn-apaspris, mfn. not refusing, 
not obstinate, AV. 

cufMtig^ dn-apasphur [RV. viii, 69, 10] 
or dn-apasphura [RV. vi, 48, n], mf(a)n. or dn- 
apasphurat\RV. iv, 42,10; AV.J, mfn.' not with- 
drawing,' not refusing to be nv ? ked (said of a cow). 

< \ dn-apahata-papman, mfn. 

non-payment, non-delivery. 

An-apakarman, a, n. id., Mn. viii, 4. 

An-apakara, as, m. harmlessness. 

An-apakarin, mfn. not harming, innocuous. 

An-apakrita, mfn. unharmed ; (am), n. no of- 
ence, MBh. 

An-apakrlyS, f. = an-apakarana, Mn. 

<SHM*h^ an-apakarska, as, m. (Vkrish), 
. non-degradation, superiority. 

A'n-apakramin, mfn. not departing from ; de- 
oted, attached to. 

Au-apakrama, as, m. not retreating or with- 
rawing from, AitBr. 

An-apakramuka, mf (a) n. not running away, 
daitrS. ; PBr. 

if (<z)n. not departing from (abl. or in comp.) 
^rrfljujrl dn-apacyuta, mfn. not falling 
ff, holding fast (a yoke), RV. x, 93, 12 ; never 
ropping off, keeping to or faithful for ever, RV. 

rnn^ an-apajayydm, ind. (Vji), so 
iat its victorious character cannot be reversed, SBr. 
^t TTW an-apatyd, mf(d)n. childless ; (am), 
. childlessness, RV. iii, 54, 18. -tS, f. childless- 
ess, Sik. &c. vat (dnapatya-}, mfn. childless, AV. 
Anapatyaka, mfn. childless. 

an-apatrapa, mfn. shameless. 

(said of the Pitris to distinguish them from the 
Devas) not freed from evil, Br. 
An-apalianana, am, n. not repelling from, PBr. 

^rTfiriclitlff an-apdkarana, am. n. (in law) 

non-payment, non-delivery. 
An-apakarman, a, n. id. 

Wtimn an-apdya, mfn. without obstacles, 
prosperous; (as), m. freedom from mischief; (in 
phil.) the state of not being abridged or deprived of 
(abl.); N. of Siva. 

A'napa'yin, mfn. not going or passing away; 
constant in the same state ; invariable. 

Wrl m=jt^ dn-apavrit, ind. without turning 
away, unremittingly, RV. vi, 32, 5 & x, 89, 3. 
VI'imVSlHan-apdsraya,mtn.not dependent. 

^TJfiJWoli a-napunsaka, am, n. (in Gr.) not 
a neuter. 

WfyfTT an-apaplya or an-apiipya, mfn. 
unfit for cakes. See of ufa. 

TMtlHBj an-apeksha, mfn. regardless, care- 
less; indifferent; impartial; irrespective of ; irrele- 
vant ; (a), f. disregard, carelessness ; (dn-apeksham), 
ind. irrespectively, carelessly, SBr. tva, n. dis- 
regard; irrelevance; irrespectiveness ; (at), ind. from 
having no reference to, since (it) has no reference to. 

An-apeksl>ita, mfn. disregarded ; unheeded ; 

An-apekahin, mfn. regardless of; indifferent to. 

An-ap^kshya, ind. p. disregarding, irrespectiveof. 

'BHTTrT dn-apeta, mfn. not gone off, not 
past ; not separated, faithful to, possessed of. 

l an-apoddharyd, mfn. of which 
nothing is to be taken off, SBr. 

n-apta,mtn . not watery, RV. ix, 1 6,3. 

-apnds, mfn. destitute of means, 
RV. ii, 23, 9, [cf. Lat. ittops.] 




an-apsaras, as, f. unlike an Apsa- 
ras, unworthy of an Apsaras. 

wiHiT anaphd, {. a particular configuration 
of the planets. [Gk. &vaip-qj} 

wlW|T an-abhijna, mfn. unacquainted 
with, ignorant, Comm. on Mil. ii, 125. 

' a ' l ^ H if an-abhidruh, mfn. not malicious, 
RV. ii, 41, 5. 

v) i IH M n an-abhipreta, am, n. an occur- 
rence different from what was intended. 

^ffiujjfT an-abhibhuta, mfn . not overcome, 
unsurpassed ; not beset, unobstructed. 

W|fWrf an-abhimata, mfn. not to one's 
mind, disliked, Hit. 

dn-abhimanuka, mfn. not hav- 

ing evil intentions against (ace.), MaitrS. ; AitBr. 

WTfiTjrnr an-abhi-mldta, mfn. unfaded. 
varna (anabhimlata-), mfn. of unfaded colour 
or brightness, RV. ii, 35, 13. 

An-abhimlana, as, m. ' non-fading,' N. of the 
chief of a Gotra, (gana iivadi, q. v.) 

^MTi*f*sM an-abhirupa, mfn. not corre- 
sponding ; not handsome, not pleasing; 

TfacSftspT an-abhilakshita, as, m.'desti- 
tute of (right) marks or symbols,' an impostor. 

^Tl*i I H an-abhildsha, as, m. non-relish; 
want of appetite ; want of desire. 
An-abhilashin, mfn. not desirous. 

wffHitjj^ an-abhivadtika, mfn. not greet- 
ing, GopBr. ; Vait. 
An-abkivadya, mfn. not to be greeted. 

i an-abhivyakta, mfn. indistinct. 

dn-abhisasta [RV. ix, 88, 7] or 
dn-abhisasti [VS.] or an-abhisastenya [VS.] or 
dn-abhisastya [Naigh.], mm. blameless, faultless. 

WrfT'J^f an-abhishanga or an-abhishvah- 
ga, as, m. absence of connection or attachment. 

wtlUWVPT an-abhisandhdna, am, n. ab- 
sence of design ; disinterestedness. 

An-abhisandM, is, m. id. krita, mfn. done 

WTftfg*<l an-abhisambandha, mfn. un- 
connected ; (as), m. no connection. 

"fllfM^fj an-abhisneha, mfn. without af- 
fection, cold, unimpassioned, Bhag. 

^nTmT^TrT dn-abhihita, mfn. not named; 

not fastened, SBr. ; (as), m., N. of the chief of a 
Gotra, (gana upakctdi, q.v.) 

WJTVftsj an-abhtsu, mfn. without bridles, 
having no bridles, RV. 

wi*Hgsjl an-abhyanujnd, f. non-permis- 

xij*H=cmjq, dn-abhyavacaruka, mf(o)n. 
not attacking, MaitrS. 

'!i1*Ml!<S dn-abhyarudha, mfn. not as- 
cended, not mounted, AV. ; not attained, SBr. 
A'n-abhyaroha,, as, m. not ascending, SBr. 
An-abhySrohya, mfn. not to be ascended, SBr. 

"ei1*Hi$I an-abhydsa or an-abhydsa, mfn. 
not near, distant. An-abhyasam-itya, mfn. im- 
proper to be approached, Pan. vi, 3, 70, Comm. 

WTuw an-abhydsa, as, m. want of prac- 
tice or skill. 

WtfS an-abhra, mf(a)n. cloudless. -v?i- 
shti, f. ' cloudless rain,' any unexpected acquisition 
or advantage, Kir. iii, 5. 

An-abhraka, as, m. pi. 'cloudless,' N. of a class 
of divinities, Buddh. 

Wffij an-abkrf, mfn. not dug out with a 
spade (said of rain-water), AV. 

^TTT a-nama, as, m. 'one who makes no 
salutation to others," a Brahman, L. 
A'-namasyu, mfn. not bowing, RV. x, 48, 6. 

an-amitam-paca, mfn. 'no1 
cooking what has not first been measured,' niggardly, 
miserly ( = mitam-paca, q.v.) 

'HtflH^ an-amitrd, mfn. having no ene- 
mies, AV. ; (dm), n. the having no enemies, AV. 
VS. ; (as), m., N. of various persons, particularly a 
king of Ayodhya. 

^HlWli an-amwd, mf(a)n.,Ved. free from 
disease, well, comfortable ; salubrious, salutary ; ( dm), 
n. good health, happy state, RV. x, 14, II. 

wig<. an-ambara, mfn. wearing no cloth 
ing, naked ; (as), m. a Jaina mendicant ; cf. dig- 

^r^fT i . a-naya, as, m. bad management ; 
bad conduct (gambling, &c.) 

WIM 2. an-aya, as, m. evil course, ill luck ; 
misfortune, adversity ; (cf. ay&naya s.v. aya.) Ana- 
yam- gata, mfn. fallen into misfortune. 

wiMSM an-aranya, as, m., N. of a king of 
Ayodhya, said by some to have been Prithu's father. 

'wt^^an-orus, mfn. not sore or wounded, 

an-argala, mfn. without bars or 
checks, free, licentious. 

-aryAa, mfn. priceless, invaluable ; 
(as), m. wrong value. raglava, n., N. of a drama 
(by Muriri, treating of Rama). 

An-arghya, mfn. priceless, invaluable, Kuni. i, 
59, &c. ; not valuable, L. tva, n. pricelessness, Hit. 

winn an-arjuna, mfn. without Arjuna, 

an-artha, as, m. non-value ; a worth- 
less or useless object ; disappointing occurrence, 
reverse, evil; nonsense; (mfn.), worthless, useless, 
bad ; unfortunate ; having no meaning ; having not 
that (but another) meaning ; nonsensical. kara, 
mfn. doing what is useless or worthless ; unprofitable ; 
producing evil or misfortune. tva, n. uselessness, 
&c. darsln, mfn. minding useless or worthless 
things. nasin, m. ' Evil-destroyer,' Siva. bud- 
dhi, mfn. having a worthless intellect. bhava, 
mfn. having a bad nature, malicious. lupta, mfn. 
freed from all that is worthless. samsaya, m. 
non-risk of money or wealth. 

An-artkaka, mm. useless, Tain, worthless ; 
meaningless, nonsensical. 

An-arthya, mfn. worthless, useless, SBr. 

vii^i( dn-arpana, am, n. non-surrender- 
ing, not giving up, AV. xii, 4, 33. 

anarmdn, mfn. = an-arvdn, q. v., 
AV. vii, 7, I. 

an-arvd, mf(o)n. or an-arvdn, mfn. 
not to be limited, not tobe obstructed, irresistible, RV. 
An-arvaua, mfn. id., RV. viii, 31,12; (as), m., 
N. of the god Pushan, RV. v, 5 1 , 1 1 & x, 9 2, 1 4. 

dnar-vis, t, m. seated on the car 
(dnas), a driver, RV. i, 121, 7. 

dn-arsani, is, m., N. of a demon 
slain by Indra, RV. viii, 3 a, 2. 

r dn-arsa-rdti, mfn. giving un- 
injurious things, one whose gifts do not hurt, RV. 
viii, 99, 4. 

an-arha, mf(o)n. or an-arhat, mfn. 
undeserving of punishment or of reward ; unworthy; 
inadequate, unsuitable. 

Auarhya-ta, f. the not being properly estimated ; 
unworthiness ; inadequacy, unsuitableness. 

anala, as, m. (Van), fire ; the god 
offire; digestive power, gastricjuice; bile,L.; wind, 
L. ; N. of Vasudeva ; of a Muni ; of one of the eight 
Vasus ; of a monkey ; of various plants (Plumbago 
Zeylanica and Rosea ; Semicarpus Anacardium) ; 
the letter r; the number three ; (in astron.) the 
fiftieth year of Brihaspati's cycle ; the third lunar 
mansion or Kfittika (?). da (fr. 3. da), mfn. 
quenching fire (said of water), Kir. v, 25. dipaua, 
mfn. exciting the digestion, stomachic. prablia, 
F. the plant Halicacabum Cardiospermum. prlya, 
F. Agni's wife. vSJa, m., N. of ancient Pattana. 

- *ada, m. dyspepsia. Analouanda, m., N. of a 
VedJntic writer, author of the Vedanta-kalpataru. 


aj} an-alamkarishnu, mfn. not 
given to the nse of onuiucnts ; nnornamented. 

W*T3^ an-alam, ind. not enough; in- 

an-alasa, mfn. not lazy, active. 

anali, is, m. the tree Sesbana 


an-alpa, mfn. not a little, much, 
numerous. ffhosha, mfn. very clamorous, very 
noisy. manyn, mfn. greatly enraged. 

''1<*<*l^t an-avakdsa, mf(a)n. having no 
opportunity or occasion ; uncalled for, inapplicable, 
Pan. i, 4, i, Sch. 

*t1 c util*l*^ an-avakrdmam, ind. not step- 
ping upon, ApSr. 

^TtTllV^r^an-avagahin, mfn. ( Vgdh), not 
dipping into, not studying. 
An-avatr&hya, mfn. unfathomable. 
^tH^JTTrT an-avagita, mfn. not made an 

object of contemptuous song, uncensured. 

^11 =li4 5 an-avagraha, mfn. resistless; not 
to be intercepted. 

WT=ijj \m[dn-avagldyat, mfn . not growing 
remiss, AV. ir, 4, 7. 

wiif*** an-avacchinna, mfn. not inter- 
sected, uninterrupted ; not marked off, unbounded, 
immoderate; undiscriminated. hasa, m. conti- 
nuous or immoderate laughter. 

^PT=lrlN an-avatapta, as, m., N. of u ser- 
pent king, Buddh. ; of a lake ( = Ravana-hrada), ib. 

anavat-tva. See Van. 

in-avadyd, mf(a)n. irreproachable, 
faultless ; unobjectionable ; (a), (., N. of an Apsaras. 
ta, f. or -tva, n. faultlessness. rupa (arra- 
vadyd-), mf(a)n. of faultless form or beauty, RV. 
x, 68, 3, &c. Anavadyaiga, mf(f)n. having 
faultless body or limbs. 

an-avadrdnd, mfn. (Vdrd), not 
going to sleep, not sleepy, AV. viii, I, 13. 

an-avadharshya (6), mfn. not to 
be defied, AV. viii, 3, 10. 

-avadhdna, am, n. inattention, 
inadvertence; (mfn.), inattentive, careless. ta, f. 

an-avadhi, mfn. unlimited. 

an-avadhrishyd, mfn. impossible 
to be put down or injured, SBr. 

af (f,,37)n.'afford- 
ing no help or protection,' causing distress; (am), n. 
non-protection, Pan. i, 3, 66. 

ta, as, m. 'having victorious banners unlowered,* 
' ever glorious,' a future universe, Buddh. 

TQ dn-avaprigna, mfn. (Vpric), not 
closely united, but spreading all around, K.V. i, 
IS 2 . 4- 

-aeabudhyamdna, mfn . de- 

ranged, L. 

an-avabravd, mfn. (Vbru), irre- 
iroachable, RV. x, 84, 5. 

an-avabhrd-rddhas, mfn. 
, having or giving undiminished (or durable) 
wealth, RV. 

w 'I =1*1 an-avama, mf(a)n. not low; exalted. 
ind. without 

ouching, SBr. 
An-avamrisya, mfn. not fit to be touched, SBr. 

^H^t; an-avara, mfn. not inferior; ex- 





an-avarata, mfn. incessant ; (am), 
ind. incessantly. 

WI^r<I an-avaratha, as, m., N. of a son 

of Madhu and father of Kuravatsa, VP. 

WHsttTU} an-avardrdhya, mfn. chief, prin- 
cipal, L. 

'Wl^rt^f an-avalamba, mfn. having no 
support, not propped up. 

An-avalambana, am, n. independence. 

An-avalambita, mfn. not supported or propped 
up, not dependent 

wrjcirtTj an-avalepa, mfn. free from ve- 
neer, unvarnished, plain, unassuming. 

^TT^o5TWT an-avalobhana, am, n. (for 

lopana, ' cutting off,' Comm.), N. of a ceremony 
observed by a pregnant woman to prevent miscarriage 
(treated of in an Upanishad), AsvGr. 

^Hq an-avasd, mfn. (probably fr. Vso 
with ova), not making to halt, not stopping, RV. vi, 
66, 7. 

<Mfi. an-avasara, mfn. having no inter- 
val of leisure, busy ; coming when there is no such 
interval, inopportune ; (as), m. absence of leisure ; 

WiJiis an-avasddya, ind. p. (Caus. of 
ova- V 'sad), not discouraging, not annoying. 

wi^win an-avasdna, mfn. (Vso), having 
no termination, free from death ; endless. 

An-avasita, mfn. not set, not terminated ; (a), 
f., N. of a species of the Trishtubh metre (consisting 
of four lines with eleven feet in each). 

A'n-avasyat, mm. unceasing, RV. iv, 13, 3. 

vniitsn. an-avaskara, mfn. free from dirt, 
clean, cleansed. 

i1<i*l an-avastha, mfn. unsettled, un- 
stable ; (a), f. unsettled condition or character ; in- 
stability, unsteady or loose conduct ; (in phil.) non- 
finality (of a proposition), endless series of statements. 

An-avasthana, mfn. unstable, fickle, BhP. ; 
(as), m. wind ; (am), n. instability ; unsteadiness 
or looseness of conduct 

An-avasthayln, mfn. transient. 

An-avasthita, mfn. unsettled, unsteady, loose in 
conduct. oitta, mfn. unsteady-minded. citta- 
tv, n. unsteadiness of mind. tva, n. unsteadiness, 

An-avastniti, is, {. instability ; unsteadiness ; 
looseness of character. 

-ava-syat. See an-avasana. 

an-avahita, mfn. heedless, in- 

^i<4<^'^ dn-avahvara, mfn. not crooked, 
straightforward, RV. ii, 41, 6. 

an-avac, mfn. not speechless. 

acaJJc, an, act, ok, not inclining 
downwards, looking up or straightforward. 

^H^Mrl dn-avdnat, mfn. ('/an), not 
taking breath, not respiring, SBr. 

An-avanam, ind. without breathing between, 
in one breath, without interruption, uno tenore, 
AitBr. Anavana-ta, f. uninterruptedness, con- 

^?r|c||H an-avdpta, mfn. not obtained. 

An-avapti, is, (. non-attainment. 

^{reni an-avdyd, mfn. uninterrupted, un- 
yielding, RV. vii, 104, 2. 

mriPMUiJ an-avithya, mfn. (fr. avi, q. v,), 
not suited to sheep. 

>HrMj an-av&slia, mfn. regardless ; (am), 
ind. irrespectively ; without regard to ; (a), t. or 
an-avfikshana, n. regardlessness. 

WHdri an-avrata, mfn. not destitute of 
ascetic exercises ; (as), m. a Jaina devotee of that 

VH^M dn-asana, am, n. abstinence from 
food, fasting (especially as a form of suicide adopted 

from vindictive motives) ; (mfh.), fasting. tS 
(anajand-), f. not eating, SBr. 

An-asanaya, mfn. not hungry, SBr. 

A'n-asita, am, n. condition of not having eaten, 

A'n-asnat, mfn. not eating, RV. i, 164, 20, &c. 
An-aBuan-t-sangamana, m. the sacrificial fire in 
the Sabhi (which is approached before breakfast), SBr. 

An-aanana, mf(a)n. not eating. 

WTO an-asru, mfn. tearless, RV. x, 18, 
7; VS. 

WP8 an-asvd, mfn. having no horse or 
horses, RV. [cf. dmnrot] ; (as), m. something that 
is not a horse, Pancat. -dB (an-asva-), mfn. one 
who does not give horses, RV. v, 54, 5. 

^i1a\ an-asvan, a, m., N. of Parlkshit's 
father, MBh. i, 3793 seqq. 

^1>*. a-nasvara, mfn. imperishable. 

A-nashta, mfn. undestroyed, unimpaired. pasu 
(dnaskta-), mfn. having one's cattle unimpaired, 
RV. x, 1 7, 3. vedas (dnashta-), mfn. having 
one's property unimpaired, RV. vi, 54, 8. 

WJT^dnas, as, n. (Van, Un.), a cart, RV. 
&c. ; a mother, L. ; birth, L. ; offspring, living creature, 
L. ; boiled rice, L. vat (dnas-), mfn. yoked to a 
cart, RV. ; AV. 

Anad-iin, anar-vis, ano-ratha, &c. See s.v. 

wrfi<i an-asuya, mfn. not spiteful, not 
envious ; (a), f. freedom from spite ; absence of ill- 
will or envy ; N. of a daughter of Daksha ; of one 
of Sakuntala's friends. 

An-asuyaka or an-asnyn, mfh. not spiteful or 

witjfV. an-a-suri, is, m. not unwise, in- 
telligent, ChUp. 

L *MWf*<H dn-astam-ita, mfn. not gone 
down ; not subject to setting or declining. 

OTTW an-asthd [RV. viii, i, 34 ; AV.] or 
an-dsthaka [MaitrS.] man-astkdn [RV. i, 164, 4; 
Mn.] or an-asthi [KstySr.] or anastUka [TS.] 
or an-asthika [SBr. ; YajB.] or anasthi-mat, mfh. 

't?<*i, an-ahamkdra,as, m. non-egotism, 

absence of self-conceit or of the tendency to regard 
self as something distinct from the Supreme Spirit ; 
freedom from pride; (mfn.), free from self-conceit. 

An-ahamkrita, mfn. free from self-conceit. 

An-ahamkriti, is, l. an-ahamkara; (mfh.), 
free from self-conceit or pride. 

An-ahain-vadin, mfn. = an-ahamkrita. 

SSH^ an-ahun, as, n. a non-day, no day, 
an evil or unlucky day, L. 

^RT ana, ind. (fr. pronom. base a), hereby, 
thus, indeed, RV. 

an-akdra, mfn. shapeless. 

rl an-dkdrita, mfn. not claimed, 

not exacted. 
?HI4il<4 dn-dkdla, as, m. unseasonable 

time, SBr. ; (in law-books') famine. bhrlta, m. 
a slave who became so voluntarily to avoid starvation 
in a time of scarcity (also spelt annakala-bhritcf). 

%HI<*I9I an-dkdsd, mfn. having no ether 
or transparent atmosphere, differing from ether, SBr, 
xiv; opaque, dark; (am), n. non-ether. 

'BMI'9<4 an-dkula, mf(a)n. not beset ; not 
confused ; unperplexed, calm, consistent, regular. 

V>HIJirl dn-dkrita, mfn. unreclaimed, un- 
reclaimable, RV. i, 141, 7; not taken care of, PBr. 

^Hlftlfl an-dkrdnta, mfn. unassailed, un- 
assailable ; (a), (. the Prickly Nightshade (Solanum 

*!HH!jir<rI an-akshdrita, mfn. unre- 

dn-dkshit, mfn. not residing or 

resting, SBr. 

-aga, mf(o)n. See dn-dgas. 
dn-dgata, mfn. ( Vgam), not come, 

not arrived ; Tuture ; not attained, not learnt ; un- 
known ; (am), n. the future. vat, mfn. connected 
with or relating to the future. vidhatri, m. 'dis- 
poser of the future/ provident ; N. of a fish, Pancat. 
Anag-atabadha, m. future trouble. AnSgatar- 
tava, f. a girl who has not yet attained to puberty. 
Anag ataveksJiana, n. act of looking at that which 
is not yet come or the future. 

An-ag-ati, is, f. non-arrival ; non-attainment ; 

An-agrama, as, m. non-arrival ; non-attainment ; 
(mfh.), not come, not present ; (in law) not con- 
stituting an accession to previous property, but pos- 
sessed from time immemorial, and therefore without 
documentary proof. Anag-amopabhog-a, m. en- 
joyment of such property. 

An-agamishyat, mfn. one who will not ap- 
proach, AV. 

An-aganaya, mfh. unapproachable, unattainable. 

An-agamin, mfn. not coming, not arriving ; not 
future, not subject to returning ; (i), m., N. of the 
third among the four Buddhist orders 

An-affamuka, mfh. not in the habit of coming, 
not likely to come, Pin. vi, 3, 1 60, Sch. 

Tili*m dn-dgas, mfn. sinless, blameless, 
RV. &c. ; (an-dgdi), mfn. not injuring, RV. x, 1 65, a. 
Anaffas-tva, n. sinlessness, RV. Anago-hatya, 
f. murder of an innocent person, AV. x, I, 29. 

An-aga, mf(a)n. sinless, RV. ; (a), f., N. of a river. 

wii'^TSt^ dn-dgurtin, mfn. one who has 
not recited the Agur, SBr. 

TIII^I<U an-dcarana, am, n. non-perform- 
ance of what is right or customary, improper be- 
haviour ; misconduct. 

An-Scara, as, m. id. ; (mfn.), improper in beha- 
viour ; regardless of custom or propriety or law ; 
unprincipled ; uncommon, curious, Kaus. 

Anacarin, mfn. not acting properly. 

^n^mfcftnfcr an-dcdrya-bhogina, mfn. 
unfit or improper fora spiritual teacher to eat or enjoy. 

'HiiBflj dn-uchrinna, mfn. not poured 
upon, TS. 

dn-djdnat, mfn. (i/jRa), not 

learning or perceiving, AV. 

An-ajnapta, mm. not commanded. kXrln, 
mfn. doing what has not been commanded. 

An-ajnata, mfn. unknown, surpassing all that 
has ever been known ; (dn-djUdtam), ind. in an 
unknown, i. e. inexplicable way or manner, TS. 

YKilGl dn-ddhya, mfn. not wealthy, poor, 
SBr. &c. An-adhyam-bhavishnn, mfh. not 
becoming wealthy, becoming poor (i), Pin. vi, a, 
1 60, Sch. 

wiinTT dn-atata, mfn. not stretched or 
strung, VS. 

VMIHH an-dlapa, as, m. freedom from the 
blaze of the sun ; shade ; (mfh.), shady. 

*(tjifj. an-dturd [once dn-dtura, AV. xii, 
a, 49], mm. free from suffering or weariness, RV. 
&c.; well. 

Hlr*H v an-aYman, a, m. not self, another; 

something different from spirit or soul ; (an-dtmdri), 
mfh. not spiritual, corporeal ; destitute of spirit or 
mind, SBr. 

An-atma (in conip. for an-afman). * jna, mfn. 
destitute of spiritual knowledge or true wisdom. 
pratyavdkaha, f. reflection that there is no 
spirit or self, Buddh. vat, mm. not self-possessed; 
(vat), ind. unlike one's self. 

An-atmaka, mfn. unreal, Buddh. 

An-atmanina, mfn. not adapted to self; dis- 

An-Stmya, mfh. impersonal, TUp. ; (am), n. 
want of affection for one's own family, BhP. 

'+ an-dtyantika, mfn. not per- 

petual, not final ; intermittent, recurrent, 

WtTT'*! a-ndtha, mf(o)n. having no master 
or protector ; widowed ; fatherless ; helpless, poor ; 
(dm), n. want of a protector, helplessness, RV. x, 
Id, II. pinda-da or -pindika, m. 'giver of 
cakes or food to the poor,' N. of a merchant (in 
whose garden Sikyamuni used to instruct his dis- 
ciples). sabha, f. a poor-house. 




a-nada, as, m. absence of sound (in 
pronouncing aspirated letters), RPrSt. 
A-nadin, mfn. not sounding. 

! an-ddaddna, mfn. not accepting. 

. an-ddara, as, m. disrespect, con- 
temptuous neglect ; (an-ddariS), mfn. indifferent, 
SBr.; ChUp. 

An-adarana, am, n. disrespectful behaviour, 

An-adarin, mfn. disrespectful, irreverent. 

An-adrita, mfn. not respected, disrespected. 

An-adrltya, ind. p.without respecting, regardless. 

*JHlf<; an-adi, mfn. having no beginning, 
existing from eternity. tva, n. state of having no 
beginning. nidhana, mfn. having neither begin- 
ning nor end, eternal. mat, mfn. having no be- 
ginning. madhyanta, mm. having no beginning, 
middle or end. Anady-ananta, mfn. without be- 
ginning and without end, Up. An-adyanta, mfn. 
without beginning and end ; (as), m., N. of Siva. 

^Hifijg dtt-ddishia, mfn. not indicated ; 
not commanded or instructed ; not allowed. 

an-adlnava, mfn. faultless, Sis. 
an-adrita. See an-adara. 

an-ddeya, mfn. unfit or improper 
to be received, unacceptable, inadmissible. 

WTI^SIfT anddesa-kara, mfn. doing what 
is not commanded or not allowed, BhP., mfn. = an-adi, q.v. 

I, mf(o)n. (=an-adya),not 
eatable, AV.; SBr.; Mn. 

?PTT^ dn-adhrish, mfn. (Vdhrish), not 
checking, AV. ri, 21, 3. 

An-adhrislita, mfn. unchecked, unimpaired, 
invincible, perfect, RV.; VS. 

An-adhrishtl, if, m. ' superior to any check,' 
N. of a son of Sura ; of a son of Ugrasena (general 
of the YJdavas). 

An-adhrishya, mfn. invincible, not to be 
meddled with, RV. &c. 

WfllliT dn-nnatn, mfn. unbent, not hum- 
bled, RV. ; (aj), m., N. of a Rishi of the SV. 

VM|tJ<Jii(| an-dnukrityd, mfn. (anu foranu), 
inimitable, unparalleled, RV. x, 68, 10 & III, 5. 

^WJJWF an-anuja, f. (being) no younger 
sister, TS. 

OHI^J<J an-anudd, mfn. (v'l.rfa with anu 
for anu), not giving way, obstinate, RV. 

iligfqB dn-anudishta, mfn. (Vdis with 
anu for anu), unsolicited, RV. x, 1 60, 4. 

TTH^'} an-dnupwreya, am, n. separation 
of the different parts of a compound word by the 
intervention of others ; the not coming in regular 
order, tmesis, RPrJt. samhitS, f. the manner of 
constructing a sentence with the above tmesis. 

^TT'J'jfrT dn-dnubkuti, is, f. ' inattention, 
neglect ' (fayas), pL neglectful or irreligious people, 
RV. vi, 47, 17. 

<eMIM$ an-dpad, t, f. absence of misfor- 
tune or calamity, Mn. 

An-apanna, mfn. not realized, unattaincd ; not 
fallen into distress. 

wimin an-dpdna, at, m., N. of a prince 
(son of Ariga). 

^Hlft} un-dpi, mf (nom. ih)t\. having no 
friends, RV. x, 39, 6; (Indra), RV. viii, 31, 13. 

wiljfTiT dn-apuyita, mfn. not stinking, 

VHIM dn-dpta, mfn. unattained, unob- 
tained, RV. i, 100, 3, Sec. ; unsuccessful in the 
effort to attain or obtain ; not apt, unfit, Mn. viii, 
294 ; (as), m. a stranger. 

An-apti, is, f. non-attainment. 

An-apya (4), mm. unattainable, RV. vii, 66, 1 1 ; 

an-apluta, mfn. unbathed, un- 
washed. An-aplutanga, mfn. having an unwashed 
body, MBh. 

anabayu, m., N. of a plant, AV. 

an-dbddha, mfn. free from ob- 
stacles or troubles. 

vJHIjflM an-dbhayin, mfn. fearless (N. of 
Indra), RV. viii, 3, I. 

^PTT>J,an-o6A, mfn. neglectful, disoblig- 
ing, RV. i, 51, 9; MaitrS. 

WTT^pjfT5 an-dbhyudayika, mfn. in- 
auspicious, ill-omened, unlucky. 

^HH^o-naman, mfn. nameless, SBr. xiv; 
infamous ; (a), m, the ring-finger, Heat. Anama- 
tva, n. namelessness. 

A-namaka, mfn. nameless, infamous ; (as), m. 
the intercalary month ; (am), n. piles, haemorrhoids. 

A'-namika, f. the ring-finger, SBr. xiv, &c. 

*HIHf andmand, as or am, m. or n., N. 
of a disease, AV. 

^TTT*ni an-dmayd, mf(o)n. not pernicious, 
AV. ; free from disease, healthy, salubrious ; (as), 
m. Siva ; (am), n. health. 

A'n-amayat, mfn. ' not causing pain ' (yaid), 
instr. ind. in good health, VS. 

An-amayitnu, mfn. salubrious, curative, RV. 
*, 137.7- 

W 1 1 1 1^ d-ndmin, mfn. unbending, RV. 

A-namya, mfn. impossible to be bent. 

"Wirfat? an-dmisha, mfn. without flesh; 
bootless, profitless. 

WTfpn an-dmrind, mfn. having no enemy 
that can injure, RV. i, 33, I. 

^raifiT dn-amrita, mfn. not struck by 
death, TS. 

<H i I y I rt an-omndta,mtn. not handed down 
in sacred texts. 

tHM=lf a-ndyaka, mf(a)n. having no 
leader or ruler, disorderly. 

*lT*lrt dn-dyata, mfn. not tied or fasten- 
ed, RV. iv, 13, 5 & 14, 5 ; close, continuous, un- 
separated ; unextended, having no length. 

TfU^fl'I dn-dyatana or an-dyatand, am, 
n. that which is not really a resting-place or an altar, 
SBr. ; (an-dyalant), mm. having no resting-place 
or altar, AV. vat, mfn. = the last, AitBr. 

VHmTI an-dyatta, mfn. independent, un- 
controlled. vritti, mfn. having an independent 
livelihood. vritti-tS, f. independence. 

Wn4$ni4 an-dyasdgra, mfn. having no 
iron point. 

^Prnrm an-dydsa, as, m. absence of ex- 
ertion, facility, ease, idleness, neglect ; (mm.), easy, 
ready; (ena), ind. easily. krlta, mfn. done readily 
or easily ; (am), n. (in med.) an infusion prepared 

r|igI an-dyudhd, mfn. weaponless; hav- 
ing no implements (for sacrifice), RV. iv, 5, 14 & 
viii, 96, 9. 

W'll^^T an-ayushd, f. or an-dyus, f., N. of 
the mother of Bala and Vritra. 

An-aynshya, mfn. not imparting long life, fatal 
to long life. 

*HRH an-drata, mfn. without interrup- 
tion, continual ; (am), ind. continually. 

wiK*H i . an-drabhya, mfn. improper or 
impracticable to be commenced or undertaken. 
tva, n. impossibility of being commenced. 

3. An-arabhya, ind. p. without commencing 
(used in comp. in the sense 'detached'). vSda, 
m. a detached remark (upon sacrifices, &c.) AnS- 
rabhyadhita, mfn. taught or studied or read as a 
detached subject (not as part of a regular or authori- 
tative treatise). 

An-arambha, as, m. absence of beginning, non- 
commencement, not attempting or undertaking ; 
(mfn.), having no commencement. 

an-aramf>ana',mfn. (for andlam- 
tatta), having no support, SBr. xiv ; ChUp. 

^nrrTWn an-arambhand, mfn. intangible, 
giving no support, RV.; SBr.; BrArUp. 

^l^T^T an-druhya, ind. p. not having sur- 

'JmTTfaTI an-drogya, am, n. sickness ; 
(mfn.), unhealthy. kara, mfn. unwholesome, un- 
healthy, causing sickness. 

^T?IT1? an-drjava, am, n. crookedness, 
moral or physical ; disease, L. 

WIT^ dn-drta, mfn. not sick, well. 

A'n-arti, is, f. painlessness. 

an-drtava, mfn. unseasonable. 

an-drtvijina, mfn. unfit or 
unsuitable for a priest. 

^?H*' an-drya, mfn. not honourable or 
respectable, vulgar, inferior; destitute of Aryas ; 
(as), m. not an Arya. karmln, m. doing work 
unbecoming an Arya or becoming only a non-Arya. 
ja, mfn. of vile or unworthy origin ; (am), n. 
Agallochum, being a produce of the country of 
Mlecchas or barbarians, jushta, mfn. practised, 
observed, or possessed by non-Aryas. ta, f. vile- 
ness, unworthiness, Mn. x, 58. tikta. m. the medi- 
cinal plant Gentiana Cherayta. tva, n. = -id, q. v. 

An-aryaka, am, n. Agallochum or Aloe wood 
(Aquila Agallocha). 

^Pini an-arska, mfn. not belonging to s 
Rishi or to a Vedic hymn ; not belonging to the 
SamhitS text (e.g. the word iti, added for gram- 
matical purposes in the Pada-p3tha to certain words, 
RPrit.) ; not applied to a Rishi, not added to his 
name (as an affix), l'3n. iv, I, 78. 

An-arsheya , mfn. not connected with the Rishis, 

aicw^J an-dlamba, mfn. unsupported, 
without stay or support ; (as), m. want of support ; 
despondency ; (i), (. Siva's lute. 

An-alambana, mfn. unsupported ; desponding. 

An-alambuka [Ksth.] or better an-alam- 
bhuka [TBr. ; KapS.], f. ' intangible,' a woman 
during menstruation. 

viiirti'J an-dldpa, mfn. not talkative, re- 
served, taciturn ; (as), m. reserve, taciturnity. 

an-dlocita, mfn. unseen, un- 

beheld ; unweighed, unconsidered, rash, imprudent. 
An-alocya, ind. p. not having considered. 

>Mliq^ dn-dvayas, mfn. (cf. dvayd & d- 
pravlta), not having the power of causing concep- 
tion, AV. vii, 90, 3. 

ar|iq<f<Nf^on-aparanin,'na*,m. pi. ' with- 
out cover or clothes,' N. of a religious sect, (t = an- 
ambara, q.v.). 

^THTr^T dn-dviddha, mfn. not wounded, 

unhurt, RV. vi, 75, I, &c. 

SHlftM an-dvila, mfn. not turbid, clear, 
pure, not marshy. 
^ili^fl dn-dvrit, mfn. not returning, RV. 

x, 95. '4- 

An-avritta, mfn. not turned about or round ; 
not retreating ; not frequented or approached, AV. ; 
not chosen. 

An-avritti, is, f. non-return to a body, final 

WrlT^if dn-dvrita, mfn. uncovered, SBr. 
xiv, undressed ; uninclosed, open. 

virit^fl? an-dvrishti, is, (. want of rain, 

^n^nTir an-dvedita, mfn. not notified, 
not made known. 

^PTPmV an-dvyddhd, mfn. impossible to 
be broken or forced open, AV. xiv, I, 64. 

^mra*?R dn-dvraska, as, m.(\/vrasc), not 
falling or dropping off, TS. ; uninjured condition, 
KaushBr. ; (an-dvraskd}, mfn. not falling or drop- 
ping off, AV. xii, 4, 47. 




i. an-dsa, mfn. (fr. dsd), hopeless 

^TT^r 2. a-ndsa, mfn. (\/2. nas), unde 
stroyed, living. 

I. A-nSsin, mfn. imperishable. 
A-nasya, mfn. indestructible. 

dn-dsaka, am, n. fasting, ab 
staining from food even to death, nivritta, n 
one who has abandoned the practice of fasting 
Anasakayana, n. a course of fasting (as a pen 
ance), ChUp. 

2. An-asin, mfn. not eating. 

A'n-asvas, van, usAt, vat, not having eaten 
fasting, TS. ; TBr. (without an the form would b 
dsivas, see Pan. iii, 2, 109). 

wii^Urt an-asastd, mfn. not praiset 
[Gmn. ; ' not to be trusted,' NBD.], RV. i, 29, i. 

^Ili^l*^ an-asis, mfn. not desirable, no 
agreeable, Rajat. An-asir-dS, mfn. not giving 
blessing, RV. x, 27, I. 

An-asir-ka, mfn. not containing a prayer o 
blessing, TS. 

'SrqiJfJ an-dsu, mfn. not quick, slow, RV. 
superl. an-asishta, mfn., AitBr. ; not having quick 
horses, RV. i, 135, 9 (Siy. derives the word in the 
last sense from ^2. nas or y'l as : a-ndsu or an 

an-dscarya, mfn. not wonderful 

an-dsramin, i, m. one who 
does not belong to or follow any of the four Asramas 
or religious orders to which BrShmans at different 
periods of life are bound to attach themselves. 

An-asrama-vasa or an-asrame-vasa,,/-, 
one who does not belong to the Asramas ; non- 
residence in a religious retreat. 

an-airaya, as, m. non-support, 
absence of any person or thing to depend upon ; 
defencelessness, self-dependence, isolation; (mfn.), 
defenceless ; unprotected ; isolated. 

An-asrite,, mfn. not supported, detached ; dis- 
engaged, independent ; non-inherent. 

^S>1TJ? a-ndshtrd, mfn. free from dangers 
or dangerous opponents, SBr. ; (cf. ati-ndshtrd.) 

viriit^ an-ds, mfn. having no mouth or 
face (N. of demons), RV. v, 29, 10. 

'H'TW a-ndsa, mfn. noseless. 

A-nasika, mfn. noseless, TS. 

^Trn^nr^'rT an-dsddita, mfn. not met with, 
not found or obtained, not encountered or attacked ; 
not occurred ; not having happened ; non-existent. 
- vigfraha, mm. unused to war. 

An-asadya, mfn. not attainable. 

^ii**4i an-dsthd, f. unfixedness, want of 
confidence ; disrespect ; want of consideration; want 
of faith or devotedness ; unconcern, indifference. 

An-asthaua, mfn. having or yielding no basis 
or fulcrum (as the sea), RV. i, 116, 5. 

^tllWrat an-dsmdkd, mfn. not belonging 
to us, AV. xix, 57, 5. 

'W'llHT^ an-dsrdvd, mfn.not causing pain, 
AV. ii, 3, 2. 

Tilsi<; an-dsvdda, as, m. want of taste, 
insipidity ; (mfn.), without taste, insipid. 
An-asvadita, mfn. untasted. 

^MT^rT an-dhata, mfn. unbeaten, un- 
wounded, intact; new and unbleached (as cloth); 
produced otherwise than by beating ; not multiplied ; 
(am}, n. the fourth of the mystical cakras or circles 
of the body. nftda, m. a sound produced other- 
wise than by beating ; the sound om. 

f dn-dhavaniya, as, m. no Aha- 

vanlya fire, SBr. 

^TI^TT: an-ahara, as, m. not taking food, 
abstinence ; non-seizure ; non-production ; (mfn.), 
one who abstains from food. 

An-aharin, mfn. not taking (food) ; fasting. 

An-attarya, mfn. not to be seized or taken, not 
producible, Mn. viii, 202 ; not to be bribed, Vishnus. ; 
not to be eaten. 

dn-dhitdg-ni, is, m. one who 

has not performed the Agnyidhana. 

T^IT^nf dn-dhuti, is, f. non-sacrificing, 
Rv - x > 37> 4 & 63, 12 ; a sacrifice unworthy of 
its name, SBr. 

^niT^rl an-dhUta, mfn. uncalled, unin- 
vited. Aiialmtopajalpin, m. an uncalled-for 
boaster. Anahutdpavishta, mfn. seated as an 
uninvited guest. 

'"I'Sl^ an-dhldda, as, m. absence of joy; 
(mfn.), gloomy, not cheerful. 

An-alilSdita, mfn. not exhilarated. 

^Iii:5IW a-nif/sasta, mfn. blameless 
[Gmn. ; ' not repelled or refused, 1 NBD.], RV. iv, 
34. II- 

a-nikdmatas [BhP.] or a-ni- 
kamam [SBr.], ind. involuntarily, unintentionally. 

a-niketa ora-niketana,mfn. house- 


a-nikshipta-dhiira, as, m., N. 
of a Bodhisattva or deified Buddhist saint. 

an-ikshu us, m. (see 3. a), ' not 
(true) sugar-cane,' a sort of long grass or reed, Sac- 
charum Spontaneum. 

a-nigirna, mfn. not swallowed, 

not suppressed (as an ellipsis), Sjh. 

^lfa?T? a-nigraha, mfn. unrestrained ; 
(art, m. non-restraint ; non-refutation ; not owning 
one's self refuted. gthana, n. (in phil.) occa- 
sion of non-refutation. 

a-nighdteshu, us, m. 'having 
arrows that strike no one,' N. of a man. 

an-inga [APrat.] or an-ingya 
[RPrat.], mfn. not divisible (said of words). 
An-ingayat, mfn. not dividing, RPrSt. 

Wl* an-iccha or an-icchaka or an-icchat, 
mfn. undesirous, averse, unwilling ; not intending. 

An-iccha, f. absence of wish or design, indif- 

An-icchu, mfn. = an-iccha, Vishnus. 

^tfa>iqi a-nijaka, mfn. not one's own, 
>elonging to another. 

an-ita, mfn. not gone to, not hav- 
ng obtained, Ragh. ix, 37 ; destitute of; (am), n. 
not deviating from (abl.), KaushBr. bha (dn- 
'ta-), {., N. of a river, RV. v, 53, 9. 

a-nitya, mfn. not everlasting, tran- 
occasional, incidental ; irregular, unusual ; 
unstable ; uncertain ; (am), ind. occasionally. kar- 
man, n. or -kriya, f. an occasional act of worship, 
sacrifice for a special purpose. ta, f. or -tva, n. 
transient or limited existence. datta or -dat- 
taka or -datriraa, m. a son surrendered by his 

larents to another for temporary or preliminary 
adoption, -pratyaveksha, f. consciousness that 
all is passing away, Buddh. bhava, m. transitori- 
ness. sama, m. sophism, consisting in generaliz- 

ng what is exceptional (as perishableness). ama- 
prakarana, n. a section in the NySya discussing 

oat sophism. samasa, m. a compound, the sense 

if which may be equally expressed by resolving it 

nto its constituent parts. 

a-niddna, mfn. causeless, ground- 

an-indrd, mf(a)n. dispensing with 
or disregarding India, RV. 

Wmf^lf an-indriya, am, n. that which 
is not the senses, the soul, the reason, L. 

f MMemiri d-nipadyamana [a-nipddya- 
mana, AV.], mfn. not falling down (to sleep), un- 
tiring, RV. i, 164, 31 & x, 177, 3. 

^TfallrT a-nipdta, as, m. (not a fall), con- 
tinuance of life. 

^ffatpn a-nipuno, mf(a)n. unskilled, not 
clever or conversant. 

"f'TOS d-nibaddha, mfn. not tied down, 
not bound, RV. iv, 13, 5 ; unattached, incoherent, 
unconnected. pralapin, mfn. chattering inco- 
herently, talking at random, Ysjii. 

^fa^T*J a-nibddha, mfn. unobstructed, 
unlimited ; (ds), m. liberty, RV. 

^fftTHff a-nibfirita, mfn. not private, not 

reserved, immodest, bold, public. 

^TrH|l? d-nibhrishta, mfn. unabated, un- 
defeated, RV.x, 1 16, 6. -\a,Tri*bl(dnibhrish(a-), 
mfn. having unabated power, RV. 

an-ibhya, mfn. not wealthy. 
animan=animan, q.v., L. 

a-nimantrita, mfn. uninvited, 
bhojin, mfn. eating without being invited. 

a-nimund, mfn. unbounded, RV. 

a-nimitta, mf(a)n. having no 
adequate occasion, causeless, groundless ; (am), n. 
absence of an adequate cause or occasion, ground- 
lessness. tas,ind.groundlesily,Mn.iv,l44. nir- 
Skrita, mfn. groundlessly rejected, Sak. -ling-a- 
nasa, m. 'unaccountable loss of distinct vision," N. 
of an ophthalmic disease ending in total blindness 
(perhaps amaurosis). 

^ftf"^ a-nimish, m. ' without winking,' 
N. of a god, BhP. ; (dnimisham or dnimisha), ace. 
or instr. ind. without winking, i. e. vigilantly or inces- 
santly, RV. 

A-nimisha, mfn. not winking, looking steadily, 
vigilant, RV. &c. ; open (as eyes or flowers) ; (as), 
m. not winking ; a god, BhP. ; a fish, L. ; (dm), ind. 
vigilantly, RV. i, 24, 6. Animishaksha, mf(i)n. 
one whose eyes are fixed. Animishacarya, m., 
N. of Brihaspati. 

A'-nlmishat, mfn. not winking, vigilant, RV. 

A-nimesha, mfn. =animishd; (dnimesham), 
ind. vigilantly, RV. i, 31, 12 & 164, 21. 

a-nidra, mf(o)n. sleepless, awake; 
a), (. sleeplessness. 
A-nidrita, mfn. not asleep, awake. 

^fri^K a-nidhrishta, mfn. unchecked, un- 
ubdued, L. 

n-WiB>a, mfn. having or requiring 
o fuel, RV. ii, 35, 4 & i, 30, 4. 

an-ind, mfn. strengthless, feeble, 
IV. i, 150, 2. 

^TM t; i d-nindd,f. noreproach.AV. xi,8,22. 
A-nindaniya, mfn. unblamable, faultless. 
A-nindita, mfn. irreproachable, virtuous. 
A-nindya (3, 4), mfn. id., RV.; SBr. &c. 

a-niyata, mfn. not regulated, un- 
controlled, not fixed, uncertain, unrestricted, irregu- 
lar, casual ; not unaccentuated, RPrtt. pnnski, 
f. 'having no fixed husband,' a woman unchaste in 
conduct. vritti, mfn. having no fixed or regular 
employment or income. Aniyataika, m. (in 
arithm.) an indeterminate digit. A-niyatatman, 
m. one whose self or spirit is not regulated or under 
proper control. 

A-niyama, as, m. absence of control or rule or 
fixed order or obligation, unsettledness ; indecorous 
or improper conduct ; uncertainty, doubt ; (mfh.), 
having no rule, irregular. 

A-niyamita, mfn. having no rule ; irregular. 

*i II ^ Xia-niyukta, mfn. not appointed, not 
authoritative ; (as), m. an assessor at a court who has 
not been formally appointed and is not entitled to vote. 

A-niyog-a, as, m. non-application, LSty. ; aa 
unfitting employment or commission. 

A-niyogln, mfn. not attached or clinging to. 

iri< an-ird, mfn. destitute of vigour, 
RV. iv, 5, 14; (dn-ird), f. want of vigour, languor. 

a-nirdkarishnu, mfn. not ob- 
structive, not censorious, Pin. vi, 2, 1 60, Sch. 
A-nlrakrlta, mfn. unobstructed. 

wfVlXTf?rI d-nirdhita, mfn. not to be kept 
off from (abl.), AV. xii, 2, 35. 

TftT^i d-nirukta, mfn. unuttered, not 
articulated ; not explained (because of being clear by 

30 vft^SOTTO anirukta-ffdna. 

itself); unspeakable, TUp. fftna, n. indistinct 
singing ; humming (of hymns), a particular mode of 
chanting the Sama-veda. 

*ifi^ a-niruddha, mfn. unobstructed, 
ungovernable, self-willed ; (as), m. a spy, a secret 
emissary (?) ; the son of Pradyumna (a form of 
Kama, and husband! of Usha) ; Siva ; N. of an Arhat 
(contemporary of Sakyamuni) ; of a descendant of 
Vrishni ; (am), n. the rope for fastening cattle, L. 
patha, n. 'an unobstructed path,' the atmosphere, 
ether, L. bhavlnl, f. Aniruddha's wife. 

'wfrujMa-mrupfa, mfn. ( Vi- rap), not dis- 
tributed, not shared. 

("l^ftm a-nirvpita, mfn. not determined, 

^i Ii 5 1 n d-nirghdta, as, m. not wresting 
or tearing from, TS. ; TBr. 

1 a-nirjita, mfn. unconquered. 

I a-nirnaya,as, m. uncertainty, want 
of decision. 

A-nirnlta, mfn. unascertained, undetermined. 
A-nirneya, mm. not to be decided. 

f Me;^| a-nirrfoiaor a-nir-dasdha, mf(a)n. 
within the ten days of impurity after childbirth or a 
death, Mn. &c. ; (am), ind. id. (used adverbially). 

*tfrir^* a-nirdishta, mfn. (Vdis), unex- 
plained, undefined. 

A-nirdiiya, mfn. undefinable, inexplicable. 

A-nirdesa, as, m. absence of rule or direction. 

A-nirdesya, mm. undefinable, inexplicable, 

^STHVTtTiT a-nirdhdrita, mfn. undeter- 
mined, unascertained, undefined. 

A-nirdhSrya, mm. undeterminable, not to be 
agreed upon. 

^9TW^ a-nirbhara, mfn. not excessive, 
little, slight, light 

wfiriJfif a-nirbheda, as, m. not blurting 
out," not revealing. 

^ifriArt a-nirmala, mfn. dirty, foul, turbid. 
A-nirmalya, {. the plant Mendicago Esculenta. 

WMirtipqn a-nirlocita, mfn. not carefully 
looked at, not considered. 

a-nirlodita, mfn. not examined 


thoroughly, Sis. ii, ]. 

'wfll'^lTTl a-nirvacanlya, mfn. unutter- 
able, indescribable ; not to be mentioned. 
Anirvacya, mm. id. 

irl<n<iii a-nirvartyamana, mfn. not 
being brought to a close. 

fi<ii<u a-nirvana, mfn. unextinguished. 

ill 11 g a-nirvaha, at, m. non-accom- 
plishment, non-completion ; inconclusiveness ; insuf- 
ficiency of income. 

A-nirvahya, mfn. difficult to be managed. 

wlWlW a-nircinna, mfn. not downcast. 
A-nirvid, mm. free from causes of depression, 
undesponding, unwearied. 
A-nirveda, as, m. non-depression, self-reliance. 

wfr\in a-nirvrita, mfn. discontented; un- 
happy ; discomposed. 

A-nirvriti, is, f. discontent. 

fl^^t a-nirvritta, mfn. unaccomplished, 
A-nirvrltti, is, f. incompleteness. 

l wfV<3i a-nirvesa (= akrita-nirvesa), mfn. 
not having expiated one's sins, BhP. 

wfiw ant/a, as, m. (Van, cf. Irish anal), 
air or wind ; the god of wind ; one of the forty- 
nine Anilas or winds ; one of the eight demi-gods, 
called Vasus ; wind as one of the humors or rasas 
of the body ; rheumatism, paralysis, or any affection 
referred to disorder of the wind ; N. of a Rishi and 
other persons; the letter y ; the number forty-nine. 
knxoSra,<u,m pi. 'wind-princes,'aclassof deities, 

Jain. tjhna, mfn. curing disorders arising from 
wind. ghnaka, m. the large treeTerminalia Bele- 
rica. paryaya or-paryaya, in. pain and swelling 
of the eyelids and outer parts of theeye. prakriti, 
mfn.'having an airy or windy nature,' N. of the planet 
Saturn. vyadhi, m. derangement of the (internal) 
wind. sakha or -5rathi [MBh.], m. 'the 
friend of wind,' N. of fire, ban or -hrit, mfn. = 
-ghna. Anilatmaja, m. the son of the wind, 
Hanumat or Bhlma. Anilantaka, m. ' wind- 
destroying,' the plant IngudI or Aiigara-pushpa. 
Anilapaha, mfn. = anila-ghna. Anilamaya, 

m. morbid affection of the wind, flatulence, rheuma- 
tism. Anilayana, n. way or course of the wind, 
Susr. Anilasin, mfn. 'feeding on the wind,' fast- 
ing ; (i), m. a snake, L., cf. vdyu-bhaksha. 

iMic'>t*nfl a-nilambha-samadhi,is,m. 
' unsupported meditation,' N. of a peculiar kind of 
meditation, Buddh. 

^>r1rt4 a-nilaya, mf(a)n. having no rest- 
ing-place, restless, AitBr. ; AsVSr. 
A-nilayana, am, n. no home or refuge, TUp. 

"Wiri^nrf a-nivartana, mfn. not turning 
back or away, steadfast ; inlproper to be abandoned, 

A-nivartin, mfn. not turning back, brave, not 
returning. Anlvartl-tva, n. not turning back, 
brave resistance. 

A-nivritta, mfn. not turning back, brave. 

w(V<ifY.!f a-nivarita, mfn. unhindered, 
unimpeded, unopposed, unforbidden, unchecked. 

A-nivarya, mfn. not to be warded off, inaver- 
tible, unavoidable, irresistible. 

'SnTf^n'T'T a'-niptiamana, mf(a)n. not 
retiring to rest, restless, RV. vii, 49, I. 

xifi<jn d-nivrita, mfn. (Vl. ri), un- 
checked, not impeded, RV. iii, 29, 6. 

VNfiHtyri a-nivedita, mfn. untold, unmen- 
tioned. vljnata, mm. known without being told. 
A-nivedya, ind. p. not having announced. 

xifrfq^jti a-nivesand, mf(o)n. affording no 
place of rest, RV. i, 32, 10. 

wfn^l a-nisa, mfn. ' nightless,' sleepless ; 
uninterrupted, incessant (only in comp.); (am), 
ind. incessantly, continually. 

A'-nisita, mfn. incessant, VS. ; SBr. ; (am), ind. 
incessantly, RV. ii, 38, 8 & ix, 06, 2. sartja (dni- 
iita-), mfn. having an incessant flow, RV. x, 89, 4. 

'wCif'siit a-niscita, mfn. unascertained, 
not certain. 
A-niscitya, ind. p. not having ascertained. 

v Titans a-niscintya, mfn. not to be 
thought of, inconceivable, incomprehensible. 

xi fm jy a-nishahgd,m(n . having no quiver, 
unarmed, RV. i, 31, 13. 

an-ishavyd, mf(o)n. not to be 
wounded or killed with arrows, RV. x, 1 08, 6. 

wTfifq^i a-nishiddha, mfn. unprohibited, 
A-nisheddhra, mf(a)n. unimpeded, SBr. 

^afH^ an-ishu, mfn. having no arrows, 
having bad arrows. dhanva, mm. without arrows 
and a bow, TAr. 

w Pi *i f n a-nishkdsita or a-nishkasin, 
mm. without remains of food, ApSr. 

wfn"yK d-nishkrita or dn-ishkrita, mfn. 
not done with, unfinished, not settled, RV. Anish- 
kritainas, mfn. having one's guilt not settled, i.e. 
unexpiated, L. 

^TfHT? i . an-ishta, mfn. (\/3- <sA), unwished, 
undesirable, disadvantageous, unfavourable ; bad, 
wrong, evil, ominous ; (a), f. the plant Sida Alba ; 
(am), n. evil, disadvantage. graha, m. an evil 
planet. dnshta-dhi, mfn. having an evil and 
corrupt mind. prasanfra, m. connection with a 
wrong object or a wrong argument or a wrong rule. 
phala , n. evil result. sanka, f. foreboding or 
fear of evil or misfortune. sncaka, mfn. fore- 
boding evil, ominous. hetu, m. an evil omen. 

An-isht apadaua, n. not obtaining what is desired 
or (fr. anishla and apadana) obtaining what is not 
desired. Au-ishtapti, i. ul. An-ishtasansin.nn n. 
indicating or boding evil. Anightotprekgkana, 
n. expectation of evil 

^fT? 2. dn-ishta, mfn. (Vyaj), not offered 
in sacrifice ; not honoured with a sacrifice. 

An-ishtin, /", m. one who does not sacrifice or 
has not sacrificed, KitySr. 

trign d-nishtrita, mfn. unhurt, uncheck- 
ed, RV. viii, 33, 9 ; VS. 

'wiiai a-nishtha, f. unsteadfastness, un- 

a-nishthura, mfn. not harsh. 

a-nishna or a-nishnata, mfn. un- 

'Mfl'MfW a-nishpatti, is, f. non-accom- 
plishment, incompletion. 
A-nislipanna, mfn. imperfect, incomplete. 

^rfJTOlIP^ a-nish-pattram, iud. so that the 
arrow does not come out (on the other side), i. . 
not with excessive force, KStySr. 

wtittM a-nisarga, mfn. unnatural, un- 
naturally affected. 

^nrmi*J a-nistabdha, mfn. not rendered 
immovable or stiff; not paralysed ; not fixed. 

^ifcnsn'u a-nistirna, mfn. not crossed 
over; not set aside; not rid of; unanswered, un- 
refuted. Anistirnabhiyoga, m. (a defendant) 
who has not yet (by refutation) got rid of a charge. 

lft* dmka, as, am, m. n. (s/an), face; 
appearance, splendour ; edge, point ; front, row, 
array, march ; army, forces ; war, combat. vat 
(dnika-), mfn. having a face, or constituting the 
face, or occupying the front or foremost rank (N. of 
Agni),VS. &c. vidarana, m. 'shattererof armies,' 
N. of a man. sag, ind. in rows or marching 
columns, AV. stha, m. a warrior or combatant ; 
an armed or royal guard, a sentinel, L. ; the trainer of 
an elephant, an elephant-driver, L. ; a mark, a sign, 
signal, L. ; a military drum, L. 

Aniklni, f. an army, a host, forces ; a certain 
force ; three Camus or one-tenth of an Akshauhint 
(or of a complete army 52187 elephants and as many 
cars, 6561 horses, and 10935 foot) ; a lotus. 

^Jfl!ju an-ikshana, am, n. not seeing or 
looking at. 

WTfa a-nica, mf(a)n. not low, decent, 
respectable ; not pronounced with the Anudatta 
accent. darsin, m., N. of z Buddha. A-nlca- 
nuvartin, mfn. not keeping low company ; (f), 
m. a faithful lover or husband. 

A-mcais, ind. not in a low voice, loudly. 

xi^fls d-nida, mfn. having no nest, RV. 
*i 5S> 6; having no settled abode, i. e. incorporeal, 
Up. ; (as), m., N. of Agni or fire, L. 

turi T.ii-ntti, is, f. impropriety, im- 
morality, injustice ; impolicy, foolish conduct, indis- 
cretion. jna or -vid, mfn. clever in immoral 
conduct or (fr. a and mtijrta) ignorant of morality 
or policy, not politic or discreet. 

wftfif 2. an-lti, w, f. freedom from a 

calamitous season. 

wit 51 an-ldrisa, mfn. unlike, dissimilar. 
an-ipsita, mfn. undesired. 

a-nlrasana (a-nir-rasana), mfn. 
not destitute of a waistband, having zones or girdles. 

antla-vdjin, mfn. ' white- 

horsed," Arjuna, Kir. xiv, 16. 

rHt^I an-isa, mfn. one who has not a lord 
or superior, paramount ; powerless, unable ; (as), 
m. Vishnu ; (a), f. powerlessness, helplessness, Up. 
tva, n. powerlessness. 

A'n-isvara, mf(a)n. without a superior, AV. ; 
unchecked, paramount ; without power, unable ; 
not belonging to the Deity ; atheistical. ta, f. or 
-tva, n. absence of a supreme ruler. vadin, in. 


' one who denies a supreme ruler of the universe,' 
an atheist. 

^fttf an-iha, mfn. listless, indifferent; 
(as), m., N. of a king of AyodhyJ ; (a), f. indiffer- 
ence, apathy, disinclination. 

An-ihita, mfn. disagreeable, displeasing, un- 
wished ; (am), n. disinclination, apathy. 

*rcfto5 d-nlla [RV. x, 55, 6] = d-ntda, q. v. 

^rg i. anu, mfn. = anu, q. v., L. 

'3J7J 2. anu, us, m. anon-Aryan man, RV.; 

N. of a king (one of Yayati's sons) ; of a non-Aryan 
tribe, MBh. &c. 

WJ 3-dnu, ind. (as a prefix to verbs and 
nouns, expresses) after, along, alongside, lengthwise, 
near to, under, subordinate to, with. 

(When prefixed to nouns, especially in adverbial 
compounds), according to, severally, each by each, 
orderly, methodically, one after another, repeatedly. 

(As a separable preposition, with accusative) after, 
along, over, near to, through, to, towards, at, ac- 
cording to, in order, agreeably to, in regard to, in- 
ferior to, PJn. i, 4, 86. 

(As a separable adverb) after, afterwards, there- 
npon, again, further, then, next. 

A'nu-ka, mf(a)n. subordinate, dependent, TS. ; 
SBr.; 'being after,' lustful, Pin. v, i, 74, 

Anu-tamam, (superl.) ind. most, SBr. 

^J^i^ anu-Vkath, to relate after (some 
one or something else) ; to repeat (what has been 

Anxi-kathana, am, n. orderly narration, dis- 
course, conversation. 

Anu-kathita, mfn. related after (somethingelse), 
Pin. vi, 2, 190, Sch.; repeated. 

Wfjcurfl*^ anu-kanlyas, an, asi, as, the 
next youngest, Pin. vi, 2, 189. 

anu-kapolam, iud. along the 


anu-Vkuj, to follow in cooing or 

inging or groaning. 

' H 3 < 8. rt anu-kula, mf(a)n. following the 
bank (/a/a) or slope or declivity ; according to the 
current, AV. ; favourable, agreeable ; conformable 
friendly, kind, well-disposed ; (as), m. a faith- 


cheek, Sis. v, 35. 

"J^ anu-Jkam, Caus. (impf. -akdma- 
yata) to desire (with Inf.), AitBr. 

Anu-kama, as, m. desire, VS. ; (mm.), accord- 
ing to one's desire, agreeable, RV.; (dm), ind. as 
desired, at pleasure, RV. - kf it, mm. fulfilling one's 
desire, RV. ix, II, J. 

Anukamin, mfn. desirous, TS. 

Anukamlna, mfn. one who acts as he pleases, 
Pan. v, 2, n. 

161 'i ** **l anu ~ ^kamp, to sympathize with, 
compassionate : Caus. P. (impf. -akampayaf) id., 

Anu-kampaka, or, m. ' sympathizer,' N. of a 
king ; (mfn.), ifc. sympathizing with, compassion- 

Anu-kampana, am, n. sympathy, compassion. 

Ann-kampanlya, mm. pitiable. 

Ann-kampS, f. id. 

Ann-kampSyin, mm. condoling. 

Ann-kampita, mfn. compassionated. Anu- 
kampitatman , mfn. having a compassionate spirit. 

Anu-kampin, mfn. sympathizing with. 

Ann-kampya, mfn. pitiable, worthy of sympathy; 
(as), m. an ascetic, L. ; expeditious (explained by 
tarasvin, perhaps for tapasvin), L. 

\ anu-karsha. See anu-^/krish. 
\ anu-kalpa. See anu-\/klrip. 

lu-vkahksh, to long for, desire. 
Anu-kanksha, f. desire after. 
Ann-kankshin, mfn. longing for. 

'airjqiirt anu-kala, mfn. opportune, occa- 
sional ; (am), ind. opportunely, occasionally. 

'SPJ^ftrT anu-Vkirt, to relate after or in 
order ; to narrate. 

Anu-klrtana, am, n. the act of narrating or 
proclaiming or publishing. 

"~3$fe (ff anu-kuncita, mfn. bent, made 

^J^T anu-/kush, to drag along, Pan. 
iii, i, 25, Sch. 

- * ---,.._ ^^ j yy, ill. A 141111- 

nil or kind and obliging husband ; (d), f. Croton 
Polyandrum ; N. of a metre ; (am), n. (in poetry) 
narrative of calamity leading finally to happiness, 
-ta, f. concord, good-will, favour, conformity, con- 
sent ; prosperity. _ nayaka, m. a kind husband or 
lover. - vayn, m. a favourable wind. 

Annkulaya, Norn. P. anukulayati, to act in a 
friendly way towards, favour. 

^TJ? anu - ^*r, to do afterwards, to follow 
in doing ; to imitate, copy ; to equal ; to requite ; 
to adopt : Caus. -kdrayati, to cause to imitate. 

Anu-kara, mfn. imitating, SBr.; (ds), m. an 
assistant, AV. xii, 2, 2. 

Anu-karana, am, n. the act of imitation or of 
following an example ; resemblance, similarity. 

Anu-kartri, mfn. an imitator, imitating ; (to), 
m. a mimic, actor, performer. 

Anu-krman, a, n. imitation ; a subsequent rite 
or ceremony ; (d), m., N. of one of the VisvedevSs, 

Anu-kara, as, m. imitation, resemblance. 

Anu-karln, mfn. imitating, acting, mimicking. 

Anu-karya, mfn. to be imitated or copied, to 
be acted (dramatically) ; (am), n. subsequent busi- 
ness, R. 

Anu-krita, mfn. imitated, made like. 

Auu-kriti, if, f. imitation, a copy, compliance. 

Anu-kritya, mfn. fit to be imitated, Pancat. 

Anu-kriya, f. imitation, doing anything in like 
manner or subsequently ; a subsequent rite. 

^^f\ anu -Vx. kjit (p. -krintat) to go on 
destroying, MBh. xiii, 2906. 

" v}T 1 anu - 'Skrip, -kripate, to mourn for, 
long for, RV. i, 113, i o ; Norn. A, -kripayate, to 
compassionate, condole with, MBh. 

"3$^. anu-Vkris, Caus. 'karsayati, to 

"3? 1, nu- Vkrish, to drag or draw after, 
attract : Caus. -karshayati, to cause to drag after, 
draw, attract ; to subject 

Anu-karsha, as, m. attraction, drawing; in- 
voking, summoning by incantation ; the bottom or 
the axle-tree of a carriage ; grammatical attraction 
(including a subsequent in a preceding rule) ; lagging 
behind in a ceremony ; delayed performance of a 

Anu-karshana, am, n. = anu-karsha. 

Anu-karshan , d, m, the bottom of a carriage, L. 

Anu-krishta, mfn. drawn after, attracted ; in- 
cluded or implied in a subsequent rule. 

W5J^ anu- \/I . kri ( l . sg. -kirami) to scatter 
along, A V. ; to strew, fill with, crowd : Pass, -ktryate, 
to become crowded or filled. 

Anu-kirna, mm. crowded, crammed full. 

T^Jlfl. anu-Vklrip, to follow in order, 
TS. : Caus. -kalpayati, to cause to follow or imitate 
in order. i 

Anu-kalpa, as, m. permission to adopt an alter- 
native or substitute (e. g. instead of Kusa grass you 
may use Durbi), Mn. &c. 

Anu-kalpita, mfn. followed by (instr.), MBh. 

Anu-klripti, is, f. (in Vaiseshika phil.) agree- 

^lJ3i an-ukta, mfn. (s/cae), unuttered, 
unsaid, unheard of, extraordinary. ~nlmitta, n. 
a reason which is unuttered or unheard of or extra- 
ordinary ; (mfn.), having such a reason. 

An-ukti, is, f. the not speaking, improper speech. 

An-uktha, mfn. hymnless, not singing hymns, 
RV. v, 2, 3 ; not followed by an uktha, AitBr. 

'W^W 1 *''! anu-krakaca, mfn. dentated like 
a saw, serrated. 

wgait; anu-Vkrand (perf. A. -cakradt) 
to shout or cry after one, RV. viii, 3, io. 

VI^JB*^ anu-Vkram, to go on, go after, 
follow ; to go through in order, enumerate, supply 
with an abstract or index. 

Anu-krama, as, m. succession, arrangement, 
order, method ; an index showing the successive 
contents of a book ; (am) or (ena) or (at), ind. in 
due order. 

Anu-kramana, am, n. proceeding methodically 
or in order ; following. 

Anu-kramaiilka or ann-kramani, f. a table 
or chapter of contents, index to a collection of Vedic 
hymns (giving the first word of each hymn, the 
number of verses, name and family of poets, names 
of deities and metres). 

Anu-kranta, mfn. gone over, read, or done in 
due ordei ; enumerated, mentioned in the Anu- 

anu-krl, mfn. (Vkri), bought sub- 
sequently (i.e. not early on the first day) PBr 
Lsty. &c.; (cf. pari-kri, iata-kri.) 

anu-^krid, to play, Pan. i, 3, ai. 
anu-Vkrus, to shout at, RV. iv, 
38, 5 : Caus. (ind. p. -krosya) to join in lamenting 
show sympathy for, MBh. xiii, 285. 

Anu-krosa, as, m. tenderness, compassion. 

l *"j<S!<u*^ anu-kshanam, ind. momentarily, 
perpetually, every instant. 

"3^ anu-kshattrt, ta, m. a door- 
keeper's or charioteer's mate or attendant, VS. 

^tJOfH*^ anu-kskapam, ind. night after 
night, Kir. 

TJ?R: anu- </kshar (3 . pi. -kshdranti ; Im- 
per. 2. sg. -kshara) to flow into or upon, RV. 

^f8f i . anu- v/2 . kshi, -kshiyati (Imper. a. 
sg. -kshiya) to settle along, AV. 

WTjftg 2. anu-</4. kshi, Pass. (p. -kshiya- 
mdna) to decay or vanish gradually, BhP. 

1 "^^* anu-kshetra, am, n. stipend given 
to temple-servants in Orissa (in commutation pro- 
bably of the proceeds of an endowment). 

^S^W anu-khanja, as, m., N. of a 

^JWT anu-Vkhya (perf. 2. du. -cakhya- 
thuh) to descry, RV. vii, 70, 4, &c. 

A'nu-khySti, if, {. act of descrying or revealing, 
1 S. j AitBr. 

Anu-khyStri, ta, m. a discoverer, revealer, 

^T'S't, anu-gangam, ihd. alomj the 
Ganges, Pat. 

WtJTTTir anu-\/gan, to count over. 
Ann-franita, mm. counted over. 
Anu-gfanitln, mfn. one who has counted over, 
(gana ishtadi, q.v.) 

^pTC( anu- Vgam, cl. i . P. -gacchati, -gan- 
tum, to go after, follow, seek, approach, visit, ar- 
rive ; to practise, observe, obey, imitate ; to enter 
into; to die out, be extinguished : Caus. -gamayati, 
to imitate, cause to die out. 

Ann-ffa, mf(a)n. going after, following, cor- 
responding with, adapted to ; a companion ; a fol- 
lower, a servant ; (ifc.) followed by ; (a), (., N. of 
an Apsaras. 

Anu-gtita, mm. followed by ; having anything 
(as a skin) hanging behind ; following ; a follower ; 
acquired ; extinguished ; tallying with ; (am), n. 
moderate time (in music). Anugatartha, mfn. 
having a corresponding meaning. 
Anu-g-ati, is, f. following, imitation, dying out. 
Ann-g-atika, as, m. a follower, an imitator. 
Ann-gantavya, mfn. to be followed (as a hus- 
band by a wife in death) ; worthy of being imitated ; 
to be looked for or discovered. Pin. vi, i, 7, Sch. 

Ann-gama, as, m. or anu-gamana, am, n, 
following, going after in life or death ; postcremation 
of a widow ; imitating, approaching. 
Ann-gamya, mfn. to be followed or imitated. 
Ann-gamin, mfn. following, a companion. 
Anu-gamuka, mfn. habitually or constantly 
following or attending. 

WJJH^ anu-^/garj, to shout or roar after. 
Anu-garjita, am, n. roaring after, echo, Kum. 



anu-gavam, ind. so as to suit (or 
follow) the cows, Pan. v, 4, 83. 

IJ<H"|T anu-gavina, as, m. a cowherd, 
Pan. v, i, 15. 

WJJTT anu- v/l . gd, to go after, follow ; to 
act in conformity to, or according to the wishesof, RV. 

^HfjTif<;^ anu-gadin, mfn. repeating an- 
other's words, Pin. v, 4, 13. 

^H^nTT*! dnu-gay as, mfn .( Vgai), followed 
by shouts or hymns, RV. viii, 5, 34 ; ('to be praised 
in hymns,' Say.) 

'dtj'ii^ anu- i/gali, to plunge after, be 
immersed in. 

Anu-gradha, mfn. plunged or immersed in. 

WfjfnT^ anu-giram, ind. on the moun- 
tain, Ragh. 

"^J anu-gu, ind. behind the cows, Pan. 
v, 2,15. 

TJpJin anu-guna, mf(a)n. having similar 
qualities, congenial to ; according or suitable to ; 
(am}, ind. according to one's merits, Kathas. ; (as), 
m. natural peculiarity. 

Anu-g-unaya, Norn. P. -gwtayali, to favour, 

^Srj'jH anu-yupta, mfn. protected, shel- 
tered, concealed. 

WfJJJWanu- ,/gridh (pr. p. -gridhyafjio be 
reedy after (loc.), MBh. xii, 372. 

amt-Vl- gf>, -ffnnati, to join in 

praising, RV. i, 147, 2 ; to rejoin, answer, SSnkhSr. ; 
to repeat, BhP. 

TPJH anu-Vgai, to sing after or to (a per- 
son or tune) ; to celebrate in song : Caus. -gapayati, 
to nuke one sing after or to. 

Anu-gita, f. 'an after-song,' N. of part of the 
fourteenth book of the Mahabharata (chaps. 16-92). 

Ann-gitl, is, f., N. of a metre (of two verses, the 
first containing twenty-seven, the second thirty-two 

WJ'fl<*^ anu-godam, ind. near the Goda- 

^ST?J dn-ugra, or an-ugrd, mf(o)n. not 
harsh or violent, mild, gentle, RV. &c. 

'HH?|S anu-Vgrah, to follow in taking or 
plundering, MBh. iv, 996 ; to support ; to uphold ; 
to receive, welcome ; to treat with kindness, favour, 
oblige ; to foster. 

Anu-grihlta, mfn. favoured, obliged. 

Anu-gfraha, as, m. favour, kindness, showing 
favour, conferring benefits, promoting or furthering 
a good object ; assistance ; facilitating by incanta- 
tions ; rear-guard ; N. of the eighth or fifth creation, 
VP. katara, mfn. anxious to please or for favour. 
sarga, m. (in Sankhya phil.) creation of the 
e elings or mental conditions. 

Anu-ffrahana, am, n. = anu-graha. 

Ami-granite, mfn. occupied, engaged, R. i, 7, 


Ann-ffrahin, i, m. proficient in magic skill. 

Ann-ffrahaka , m((fta) n. favouring, furthering, 
facilitating ; favourable, kind, gracious. 

Anu-efrahin, mfn. gracious, favourable. 

Ann-ffrUijra, mfn. to be favoured or furthered. 

Ann-jiffhrikshS, f- desire to show favour or 
kindness ; intention to include, NySyam. 

MH'JIH*^ anu-gramam, ind. village after 
village, Pan. iv, 3, 61; into, a village, Lsty. 

^STJUWel" anu-grasaka, as, m. a mouthful 
(of boiled rice, &c.) ; the equivalent of a mouthful. 

^THOT anu-Vghatt, to stroke, rub length- 

WrJ^onu- Vghush (Ved. ind. p. -ghushya) 
to name aloud, RV. i, 162, 18. 

^TrJHT anu-Vghrd, 'to smell at,' kiss, 

Anu-jiglira, mfn. snuffling at, AV. viii, 8, 8. 

TP^v anu-Vcaksh (perf. -cacdksha; 
impf. A. -acashta) to look at or up to, RV. 

^. anu- -/car, to walk or move after or 
along ; to follow, pursue, seek after ; to follow out, 
adhere to, attend ; to behave : Caus. -carayati, to 
let or cause to traverse : Intens. p. -carcurydmdna, 
continuing following, RV. x, 124, 9. 

Anu-cara, ruf (i) n. following, attending ; (ds), 
m. companion, follower, servant ; (t, rarely a), f. a 
female attendant. 

Anu-caraka, as, m. a follower, attendant, (gana 
mahishy-adi, q. v.); (ika), f. a female follower or 

Anu-carin, mfn. following, attending. 

^^J'tf"^ arm-cam, mfn. reciting or repeat- 
ing (in a chorus), AsvSr. 

wjpi anu- */2. ci (Imper. A. -cikitam) to 
remember, AV. vi, 53, I. 

WJjfaiT i.anu-cita, mfn. (, set or 
placed along or lengthwise or in rows, AitBr. 

Wjf^K 2. an-ucita, mfn. improper, wrong, 
unusual, strange. Anncitartha, m. an unusual 

W"jfa!r anu- Vcint, to meditate, consider, 
recal to mind : Caus. to make to consider. 

Anu-cintana, am, n. or ann-cinta, f. thinking 
of, meditating upon, recalling, recollecting ; anxiety. 

Ann-cintlta, mfn. recollected, recalled, thought 

^PJ^fan-weca, mfn. not high, low, humble; 
( = an-udatta), accentless, APrSt 
An-uccais, iud. not aloud, in a low voice. 

an-uccara, as, m. or an-uccarana, 

am, n. non-pronunciation, skipping words (in re- 
citing hymns). See uc-t/car. 

*lJisd.l? anu-cchddd, as, TO. (-/chad), a 
garment which hangs down (probably that part of 
the lower garment which hangs down in front from 
the waist to the feet), SBr. 

wtjf's&fa an-uc-chitti, is, f. (Vchid), not 
cutting off, non-extirpation, non-destruction, inde- 
structibility. dharman (dnucchitti-), mfn. pos- 
sessing the virtue (or faculty) of being indestructible, 
SBr. xiv. 

1. An-nc-chindat, mfn. not destroying. 
An-nc-chinna, mfn. not cut off, unextirpated. 
An-uc-cheda, as, m. = an-uc-chitti. 
An-uc-chedya, mfn. indestructible, not sever- 


^T^r3^[ anu-cchid (Vchid), to cut along 
or lengthwise. 

2. Ann-cchindat, mfn. cutting lengthwise. 

'Mnf'aae an-ttcchishta, mfn. (Vsish with 
ud), without remains or leavings of food, pure; not 
mere remains, Ragh. 

*IJ^ anu-ccho (Vcho), cl. 4. P. (Imper. 
2. sg. -chya) to cut open or cut up, AV. ix, 5, 4. 

^TJ1T^ anu-Vjan, cl. 4. A. -jayate, to fol- 
low in being born or produced or arising; to take 
after (one's parents), Ragh. 

Ann-ja, mm. born after, later, younger ; (as), 
m. a younger brother, a cadet ; the plant Traya- 
mana ; (am), n. the plant Prapaundarika ; (a), f. a 
younger sister, TS. 

Anu-janman, a, m. a younger brother, younger. 

Anu-jata, mfn. after-born, later, younger ; tak- 
ing after (one's parents), Pancat. ; born again, re- 
generated by the sacred cord ; (as), m. a younger 
brother ; (a), f. a younger sister. 

WH^rl'*^ anu-janam, ind. according to 
people, popularly. 

'%fflif^anu-\/jap, to follow or imitate in 

^T^i|<^ anu--/ja!p, to follow in talking ; 
A. -jalpate, to entertain by conversation. 

iJli'i anu-Vjdgri, to watch as an at- 

^tjfsf anu-Vji, to subdue : Desid. -jigi- 
shate, to be desirous of subduing. 

anu -jighrikshd. See anu- 


anu-jighrd. See anu-Vghra. 

anu-jtrna, mfn. grown old or de- 
cayed after or in consequence of, PSn. iii, 4, 72, Sch. 

"^j>l i^ anu-\/jlv, to follow or imitate in 
living ; to live for any one ; to live by or upon 
something ; to live submissively under, be dependent 
on : Caus. -jivayati, to restore to life, Das. 

Anu-jivin, mfn. living by or upon ; dependent ; 
(f ), m. a dependent, follower ; N. of a crow, Pancat. 
Annjivisat-krita, mfn. made wholly subservient, 

Ann-jivya, mfn. to be followed in living. 

'W>J>J^ anu-Vl. jush, to seek, SankhGr.; 
to devote one's self to, indulge in, BhP. 

^ ^} J *U.n x an-ujjhat, mfn. not quitting. 
An-ujjhita, mfn, uudiminished, unimpaired, not 
left or lost 

WJpTT i. anu-\/jna,to permit.grant, allow, 
consent ; to excuse, forgive ; to authorize ; to allow 
one to depart, dismiss, bid farewell to ; to entreat ; 
to behave kindly : Caus. -jUdfayati, to request, 
ask permission, ask for leave to depart, to take leave : 
Desid. -jijnasati or -te, to wish to allow or permit, 
Pan. i, 3, 58. 

Anu-jnapti, is, f. authorization, permission. 

2. Anu-jna, f. assent, assenting, permission ; 
leave to depart ; allowance made for faults ; an order 
or command. prarthani or anujnaiBhana, f. 
asking permission, taking leave. 

Anu-jfiata, mfn. assented to, permitted, allowed ; 
ordered, directed, instructed ; accepted ; authorized, 
honoured ; allowed to depart, dismissed. 

Anu-jnana, am, n. = 2. anu-jna. 

Anu-jnapaka, as, m. one who commands or 

Ann-jnapana, am, n. = an-jflafti. 

W^HIS anu-jyeshtha, mfn. next eldest, 
Pan. vi, 2, 189, Sch.; (dm), ind. after the eldest, 
according to seniority, MaitrS. ; MBh. 

"a ^Jfl'81 anu- Vtaksh (impf. 2. pi. -dtaksha- 
fa) to create or procure for the help of (dat.), RV. i, 
86, 3 ; TS. 

etiJfJZ^ anu-talam, ind. along the shore, 

jr|r^a!W-\/toi,toextend along, to carry 
on, continue, develop. 

^rJfH^ anu-Vtap, to heat, Susr.; to vex, 
annoy, AV. xix, 49, 7 : Pass. -tapyaU (rarely -tapyati 
[MBh. i, 5055]), to suffer afterwards, repent ; to 
desiderate, miss : Caus. -tdpayati, to distress. 

Ann-tapta, mfn, heated ; filled with regret ; 
(a), f., N. of a river, VP. 

Anu-tapa, as, m. repentance, heat. 

Anu-tapana, mfn. occasioning remorse, repent- 
ance or sorrow. 

Anu-tapin, mfn. penitent, regretting. 

anu-tara. See amt-Vtri below. 

anu-Vtark, to follow in thought, 
to regard as or take for. 

^T^rl't anu-tarsha, as, m. thirst, wish, 
desire, L. ; a drinking vessel (nsed for drinking 
spirituous liquors), L. 

Anu-tarsnana, am, n. a vessel from which spi- 
rituous liquor is drunk, L.; distributing liquor, L. 

Anu-tarsbnla, mfn. causing desire, MBh. 

^J^frlc?^ anu-tilam, ind. grain after grain 
(of Sesamum), by grains, very minutely, (garia/arj- 
mukhadi, q. v.) 

^jfrTETT'l anu-tishthamana. See i.anu- 

^Jij^f anu-tunna. mfn. (-Stud), depressed 
or repressed (in sound), muffled, PBr. 

^T*J'r{c<T*t anu-tulaya, Nom. P. -tulayati, 
to rub lengthwise (with a brush or cotton). 

^TJiJjJ anu-Vtrid (Imper. 2. sg.-trindhi; 
impf. 2. du. -atrintam ; perf. -talarda) to split 
open, RV. 

^'grfi^ anu-Vtrip, to take one's fill (or 
refreshment) after or later than another. 

T anu-tri. 

f anu-t/tn (3. pi. -taranti) to follow 



across or to the end, AV. vi, 1 2 J, a. 
Aun-tara, am, n. fare, freight, L. 

w^r* an-utka, mfn. free from regret, not 
regretting, self-complacent, not repenting of. 

wjr*i an-utkarsha, as, m. non-elevation, 

131* d-nutta, mfn. not cast down, invin- 
cible, RV. manyn (d-nulta-), m. 'of invincible 
wrath,' Indra, RV. vii, 31,11; viii, 6, 35 & 96,19. 

a^tH an-uttama, jnf(a)n. unsurpassed, 
incomparably the best or chief, excellent ; excessive ; 
not the best ; (in Gr.) not used in the uttama or 
first person. An-uttamambhas, n. (in SSnkhya 
phil.) indifference to and consequent abstinence from 
sensual enjoyment (as fatiguing). An-uttamam- 
bhasika, n. indifference to and abstinence from 
sensual enjoyment (as involving injury to external 

wtj^n. an-uttara, mfn. chief, principal; 
best, excellent ; without a reply, unable to answer, 
silent ; fixed, firm ; low, inferior, base; south, south- 
ern ; (am), n. a reply which is coherent or evasive 
and therefore held to be no answer ; (as), m. pi. 
a class of gods among the Jainas. yoga-tantra, 
n. title of the last of the four Bauddhatantras. An- 
nttaropapStika, as, m. pi. a class of gods, Jain. 
Annttaropapatika-dasa, as, f. pi. title of the 
ninth anga of the Jainas treating of those gods. 

"WtjWM an-uttana, mfn. lying with the face 
towards the ground ; not supine ; not flat, Susr. 

W*Jr*lTT an-utthana, am, n. (\/stha), the 
not rising, want of exertion or of energy, Rajat. 

An-nUMta, mfn. not risen, not grown up (as 

wgrMffi an-utpatti, is, f. failure, non-pro- 
duction ; (mfn.), not (yet) produced, Buddh. sa- 
ma, as, a, m. f. (in NySya phil.) arguing against a 
thing by trying to show that nothing exists from 
which it could spring. 

Anutpattika-dharma-kshanti, is, f. acqui- 
escence in the state which is still future, preparation 
for a future state, Buddh. 

An-utpanna, mfn. unborn, unproduced ; un- 
effected, unaccomplished. 

An-ntpada, as, m. non-production, not coming 
into existence ; not taking effect. kshanti , f. ac- 
quiescence in not having to undergo another birth. 

An-utpadana, am, n. not producing, non-pro- 

An-utpadya, mfn. not to be created, eternal. 

dn-utsanna, mfn. not lost, SBr. vii. 
an-utsaha, as, m. non-exertion, 
want of effort ; want of energy or determination ; 
listlessness ; (mm.), deficient in determination. ta, 
f. want of determination, S;ih. 

"Hrjrtjqi an-vtsuka, mfn. not eager, calm, 
retiring ; moderate. ta, f. moderateness, Vikr. 
an-utsutra, mfn. not anomalous. 

i an-utseka, as, m. absence of arro- 
gance or highmindedness. 
An-utsekln, mm. not arrogant or puffed up, Sfik. 

^|fj<5<(i an-udakd, mf(o)n. waterless, RV. 
vii, 59, 4, &c. ; (am), ind. without touching water, 
KltySr. ; without adding water, ib. 

'w^lj an-urlagra, mfn. not lofty, low; 
not projecting. 

anu-dandi, is, f. back-bone, MBh. 
an-udoya, as, m. non-rising, the 
not rising (of a luminary). 

I. An-ndlta, mfn. not risen, not appeared. 

^Jiji; an-udara, mf(o)n. (see 3. a) thin, 
lank, Pat. 
W^iJ anu-\/dah, to bum up, RV. &c. ; 

to take fire (aor. Subj. 2. sg. -dakshi\\ for dkakshi]), 
RV. ii, i, to ; to be consumed by fire subsequently 
after (ace.), MBh. xii, 8107. 

i.da (Pass, -dayi) to pennit, 
restore, RV. ; to give way, yield, RV.; AV. ; to remit, 
AV. ; to pay one out (?), MBh. vii, 9499. 

Ann-da. See andnudd. 

Anu-datta, mfn. granted, remitted, given back, 
Pan. vii, 4, 47, Conim. 

Ann-d6ya, am, n. a present, RV. vi, 20, 1 1 ; 
(anu-dfyt), f. a bride's maid (Gmn. & Say.), RV. x, 
85,6; l35-5&6;['gift,'NBD.] 

'W^J'?!'!* an-udatta, mfn. not raised, not 
elevated, not pronounced with the UdStta accent, 
grave ; accentless, having the neutral general tone 
neither high nor low (i. e. both the grave or non- 
elevated accent explained by PJnini as sannatara, 
q. v. which immediately precedes the UdStta, and 
also the general accentless, neutral tone, neither high 
nor low, explained as eka-sruti) ; having the one 
monotonous ordinary intonation which belongs to 
the generality of syllables in a sentence ; (as), m. 
one of the three accents to be observed in reading 
the Vedas, the grave accent. tara, m. ' more than 
Anudatta, still lower in sound than Anudatta,' i. e. 
the very AnudStta accent (or a syllable having this 
accent which immediately precedes a syllable hav- 
ing the UdStta or Svarita accent, and is therefore 
more depressed than the ordinary Anuditta, PSn. i, 
2, 31, Sch.), Pin. i, 2, 40, Sch. AnudSttadi, n. 
(in Gr.) a nominal base of which the first syllable is 
AnudJtta. Anudfittit, m. a verbal root having for 
its Anubandha the Anuditta accent to indicate that 
it takes the Atmane-pada terminations only ; also 
anudattSpadeia. Anndattodaya, n. a syllable 
immediately preceding the Anudatta accent. 

i . an-udara, mfn. niggardly, mean. 

2 - amt-dara, mfn. adhered to or 
followed by a wife. 

frafipv anu-digdha, mfn.( </dih), covered 
(ifc.), Car. 

iw*jr<;n 2. dn-iidita, mfn. unsaid, unutter- 
ed ; unutterable, blamable (cf. a-vadyd), RV. x, 95, 
AV. v, i, 2 (see l.dn-udita s. v. an-udayd). 

anu-dinam, ind. every day. 
anu-divasam, ind. id. 

i, to point out for, assign. 

Ann-disam, ind. in every quarter. 

Ann-desa, as, m. a rule or injunction pointing 
back to a previous rule ; reference to something prior. 

Ann-desln, mfn. pointing back, referring back ; 
being the object of an Anudesa; residing at the 
same place, AsvGr. 

" 3S"\ flnu - v'rfwA, to become demoralized 

as a result of, MBh. v, 4543. 

anu-i/dribh, to make into bundles 
or chains, KaushBr. 

dris (ind. p. -drfsya, RV. x, 
1 30, 7) to survey, behold ; to keep in view or in 
mind, to foresee : Caus. P. -dariayati, to show, tell, 
teach : Pass, -drisyate (also perf. A. -dadriie, RV. 
viii, I, 34), to become or be visible. 

Ann-darsana, am, n. consideration, regard. 

Ann-darsin, mfn. considering, foreseeing. 

Anu-drishti, is, f., N. of the ancestress of Anu- 
drishtineya, (gana iubhradi and kalyany-adi.} 

Ann-draahtavya, mfn. to be observed, visible. 

^TrJiJ anu-i/dri, Pass, -diryate, to break 
through after (another) ; to be scattered or confused 
in consequence of the confusion of others. 

anu-deham, ind. behind the body, 
Sis. ix, 73. 

anu-dairghya, mfn. longitudinal. 

an-udgirna, mfn. not vomited 
forth, not disdained ; not spurned. 

dn-uddhata, mfn . ( \/han), not lifted 
up, humble ; unsurpassed ; unopposed ; (as), m. not 
a high place, TBr. 

t!\an-uddharana,am,n. ( v/Art), non- 
removal ; not offering, not establishing or proving. 
An-uddhSra, as, m. non-partition, not taking a 
share; non-removal. 

An-nddhrita, mfn. non-removed, not taken 
away ; uninjured, undestroyed ; unoffered ; undi- 
vided, unpartitioned ; unestablished, unproved. An- 
uddhritabhyaatamajra, m. sunset (abhy-astam- 
aya) taking place whilst the Ahavaniya fire con- 
tinues unremoved from the Garhapatya, KJtySr. 

w^SS an-udbhata, mfn. not exalted, un- 


^njW an-udya, mfn. unutterable, Pan. iii, 
i, 101, Sch. 
An-ndyam&na, mfn. not being spoken, Br. 

'W^Hfl an-udyata, mfn. (\/yam), inactive, 
idle, destitute of perseverance. 

^PJIITT anu-dyuta, am, n. continuation of 
the play at dice, N. of the chapters 70-79 in the 
second book of the MBh. 

an-udyoga, as, in. absence of ex- 
ertion or effort, inactivity, laziness. 
An-udyogfln, mfn. inactive, lazy, indifferent. 

^TJJ'J an-udrd, mfn. waterless, RV. x, 
US, 6. 

^Jfanu-v/a. dru, to run after, follow; to 
accompany ; to pursue ; to run over in reciting, AitBr. 

Anu-druta, mfn. followed, pursued ; having 
followed or pursued ; accompanied ; (am), n. a mea- 
sure of time in music (half a Druta, or one-fourth of 
a Matra or of the time taken to articulate a short 

^gsi an-udvaha, as, m. non-marriage, 

wgfs'1 an-udvigna, mfn. free from ap- 
prehension or perplexity, easy in mind, Mricch. &c. 

Att-ndvega, mfn. free from anxiety ; (as), m. 
freedom from uneasiness. kara, mfn. not causing 
apprehension, not overawing. 

VJ fs "^onu- i/dvish, to wreak one's anger 
upon, BhP. 

wgi^ anu-</dhanv (perf. A. 3. Bg. -da- 
dhanvt) to run near, RV. ii, 5, 3. 

^PJV^ anu-^/dham (3. pi. dhdmanty dnu) 
to sprinkle over, RV. viii, 7, 16. 

^rg^T antt-Vdha, to add in placing upon, 
LSty. ; to stimulate to, RV. vi, 36, 2 ; to concede, 
allow, (Pass. aor. -d-fiayi) RV. vi, 20, 2. 

i.anu-\/i.dhav, to run after, run 
up to ; to follow ; to pursue. 

1. Ann-dhSvana, am, n. chasing, pursuing, run- 
ning after ; close pursuit of any object, going after 
a mistress. 

Ann-dhBvita, mm. pursued, run after (literally 
or figuratively). 

^HJVT^ 2. anv-i/3. dhav, to cleanse. 

2. Ann-dhavana, am, n. cleansing, purification 
^rg>ft anu-^/dhl (p. A. -didhyana; impf. 

P. 3. pi. -dtdhiyujf) to think of, RV. iii, 4, 7 & x, 
40,10; AV. 

dnv-dhupita,iafn.( -v/tMup) .puffed 
up, proud, RV. ii, 30, IO. 

, Caus. -dhipayati,toca.use 
to suck, to put to the breast, SBr. xiv. 

anu-*/dhyai, to consider attentively, 
think of, muse ; to miss, Kajh. ; to bear a grudge, TS. 

Ann-dhya, f. sorrow, AV. vii, 1 14, 2. 

Anu-dhyana, am, n. meditation, religious con- 
templation, solicitude. 

Ann-dhyayin, mfn. contemplating, meditating ; 
missing, MaitrS. 

arm- ^/dhva^s, 5.. (perf. -dadhvasf) 
to fall or drop upon, TS. 

anu- Vnad, to sound towards (ace.): 
Caus. P. -nadayati, to make resonant or musical. 

Ann-nada, as, m. sound, vibration, Sis. ; rever- 
beration, echo. 

Ann-nadlta, mfn. made to resound. 

Anu-nadln, mfn. resounding, echoing, resonant. 

anit-^/nand, to enjoy. 

34 TP*^ anu-nam. 

^M?T*Tana- v/nam, A. to incline to, RV. v, 
32, 10 : Caus. P. -ndmayati, to cause to bow, BhP. 
[ anu-naya, &c. See anu-v/- 

i anu-ndsika, mfn. nasal, uttered 
through the nose (as one of the five nasal consonants, 
or a vowel, or the three semivowels^, v, I, under 
certain circumstances ; in the case of vowels and 
semivowels, the mark is used to denote this nasal- 
ization) ; the nasal mark * ; (am), n. a nasal twang; 
speaking through the nose (a fault in pronunciation). 
tva, n. nasality, -lopa, m. dropping of a nasal 
sound or letter. AnunSiikadi, m. a compound 
letter commencing with a nasal. Annnfiikanta, 
m. a radical ending in a nasal. Annnasikopa- 
dna, mm. having a nasal penultimate ; succeeding 
a syllable with a nasal sound. 

^ftTHi^ anu-ni-Vkram, -tramari(Subj. 
-krdmdt) to follow in the steps, TS. ; SBr. 

anu-\/nisA, to pierce along, AV. 

anu-ni-v/iud (impf. 3. pi. -atu- 
dan) to wound with a stab, goad, PBr. 

^PjfTT^ anu-ni - v'parf, -padyate, to lie 
down by the side of, SBr. ; Kaus. 

WJjfir^pT anu-ni-Vyvj, to attach to, place 
under the authority of, AitBr. ; PBr. ; Ksth. 

^rjfn f^^ M anu-m'r-^iAana,mfn.(pr.p. A. 
*/l. ftd^j, proceeding out of, BhP. 

^Jtjfr(^^ anu-nir-\/dah (Imper. 2. sg. 
-daha) to bum down in succession, AV. ix, 3, 9. 

Wfjfti^I anu-nirdesa, as, m. description 
or relation following a previous model. 

^jfrl^H, anu-nr-\/2.eap, to take put 
from for scattering or sharing subsequently, TS. ; SBr. 

Ann-nirvapya, mfn. to be taken out and shared 
subsequently.TS.; (a),f.,N.of a ceremony, KaushBr. 

Wrjfl%T, -vdti, to become 
extinct, go out after. 

W*|fW3f anu-ni-i/vrij (impf. 3. *{? -Bfi- 
naK) to plunge into (loc.), RV. vii, 18, 12. 

^^fnJ^ anu-ni-Jvrit, Caus. -vartayati, 
to bring back, AitBr. 

VjftnfPJ i. anu-ni-\/sam (ind. p. -samya) 
to hear, perceive, Bh?. ; to consider, MBh. xii, 6680. 

WfjfH3l*^ 2. anu-nisam, ind. every night, 
Kathas. &c. 

'"^jfajflll*^ anu-nisitham, ind. at mid- 
night, Kir. 

^pj^ft anu-v'ni (Subj. 2. sg.-nayas; aor. 
Subj. -ntshi, 2 pi. -neshatha) to bring near, 
lead to, RV. ; to induce, win over, conciliate, pacify, 

Ann-naya, as, m. conciliation, salutation, cour- 
tesy, civility, showing respect or adoration to a guest 
or a deity ; humble entreaty or supplication, reve- 
rential deportment ; regulation of conduct, discipline, 
tuition ; (mfn.), conciliatory, kind ; (am), ind. fitly, 
becomingly. pratisjna-pranana,n. abandoning 
the obstacles to conciliatory behaviour, Buddh. 
Annnayamantrana, n. conciliatory address. 

Anu-nayamana, mfn. conciliating, honouring. 

Ann-nayin, mfn. courteous, supplicating. 

Ann-nayaka, mf(jAJ)n. submissive, humble. 

Ann-naylka, f. a female character subordinate to 
* nayikd or leading female character in a drama 

Ann-nlnlinn, mfn. desirous of conciliating. 

Ann-nita, mm. disciplined, taught ; obtained ; 
respected ; pleased, pacified ; humbly entreated. 

Ann-niti, it, f.conciliation,courtesy,supplication. 

Ann-neya, mm. to be conciliated, Mricch. 

'STJpJ anu-\/4. nv, Intens. (impf. 3 pi. -no- 
ttavur ; pr. p. nom. pi. m, -n6ntrvatas) to follow 
with acclamations of praise, RV. i, 80, 9 & viii, 92,33, 

WJT7f ana- v/nrt'f , to dance after (ace.), 
R. ; Kathas.; to dance before (ace.), MBh. 

'st'j^fl an-unnata, mfn. not elevated, not 
lifted up. g-Rtra, mfn. having limbs that are not 


too stout, prominent or protuberant, Buddh. An- 
nnnatanata, mfn, not raised nor lowered, level. 

an-unmatta, mfn. not mad, sane, 
sober, not wild. 

An-unmadita, mfn. id.,, III, 1-4. 

A'n-nnm&da, as, m. not being mad, soberness, 
MaitrS. ; (mfn.) an-unmatta. 

^ljqc|i|ftr^ an-upakdrin, mfn. not assist- 
ing, disobliging, ungrateful, not making a return for 
benefits received ; unserviceable, useless. 

An-upakrita, mfn. unassisted. 

^MqfBJH dn-upakshita, mfn. uninjured, 
undecaying, RV. iii, 1 3, 7 & x, IOI, 5 ; AV. vi, 78, 2. 

dn-upagltam, ind. so that no 
other person accompanies in singing, SBr. 

an-upaghdtdrjita, mfn. ac- 
quired without detriment (to the paternal estate). 

An-upagfhnat, mfn. not detrimental, Mn. ; not 
touching, Laty. 

- \/pac, to make ripe by degrees, 
BhP. : Pass, to become ripe by degrees,MBh.xiv,497. 
an-upojivaniyd, mfn. yield- 

ing no livelihood, (Compar. -tara, ' yielding no live- 
lihood at all') SBr. vi ; having no livelihood, SBr. vi. 

H*JT^ anu-Vpath, to say after, read 
through, repeat, BhP. ; Suir. 

Anu-pathita, mfn. read through (aloud), recited. 

Ann-patnitin, i, m. (one who has read through 
or recited), proficient, (gana ishtadi, q.v.) 

fl^JM ^anu-Vpat, to pass by (ace.) flying, 
ASvGr. ; to fly after, run after, go after, follow : Caus. 
(Imper. 2. sg. -pdtayd) to fly along,, 134, 3 ; 
to throw (a person) down together with oneself, R. 

Ann-patana, am, n. falling on or upon ; fol- 
lowing ; (in mathem.) proportion. 

Ann-patita, mfn. fallen, descended ; followed. 

Ann-pata. See s.v. 

WTlfrf anu-pati, ind. after the husband, 


'?TJtl*! tinu-patha, mfn. following the road, 
RV. v, 52, 10; (as), m. a road followed after an- 
other, BhP. ; a servant, BhP. ; (am), ind. along the 

WHM<? i. anu-^/pad, to follow, attend, be 
fond of; to enter; to enter upon; to notice, under- 
stand ; to handle. 

2. Ann-pad, mfn. coming to pass, VS. xv, 8. 

Ann-pada, mfn. following closely, L. ; (as), m., 
N. of a man or tribe, (gana upakadi, q. v.) ; (am), 
n. a chorus, refrain, burden of a song or words sung 
again after regular intervals ; N. of an Upanga be- 
longing to the Sama-veda ; (am), ind. step by step ; 
word for word ; on the heels of, close behind or 
after. -sStra, n. a commentary explaining the 
text (of a Brihmana) word for word. 

Ann-padavi, f. a road followed after another, 

Ann-padln, i, m. a searcher, an inquirer, one 
who follows or seeks for, P5n. v, 2, 90. 

Annpadina, f. a boot, buskin, Pan. v, 2, 9. 

^T^1<;W an-wparfa<a[Kaus.] or an-upa- 
dasya [SankhSr.] or an-upadasyat [TS.] or dn- 
upadasvat [AV.] or dn-upaddsuka [TS.], mm. not 
drying up, not decaying. 

^TJJ'jffll? an-upadishta, mfn. untaught, 
An-upadeshtri, td, m. one who does not teach. 

^tjmi an-upadha, as, m. ' having no pe- 
nultimate,' a letter or syllable (as a sibilant or A) not 
preceded by another. 

IJtTTfv^T^ an-upadhi-sesha, mfn. in whom 
there is no longer a condition of individuality, 

<M<ji(HI an-upandha, as, m. want of close 
attachment or adherence (?), Buddh. 

^.JM'^UrT an-upanyasta, mfn. not laid 
down clearly, not established, YSjn. 

An-npanyasa, as, m. failure of proof or deter- 
mination, uncertainty, doubt. 

an-upapatti, is, f. non-accom- 

plishment; failure of proof ; inconclusive argumen- 
tation ; irrelevancy, inapplicability ; insufficiency of 
means, adversity. 

An-upapanna, mfn. not done, unaccomplished, 
uneffected ; unproved ; irrelevant, inconclusive, in- 
applicable ; impossible ; inadequately supported. 

An-upapadaka, <;,f, m. pi. 'having no material 
parent,' N. of a class of Buddhas, called Dhyani- 

4 an-upaplava, mfn. free from dis- 
aster or overwhelming calamity. 

An-npapluta, mfn. not overwhelmed (with 

an-upabadhd, mf(o)n. unob- 
structed, SBr. 

an-upabhukta, mfu. unenjoyed, 

An-npabhnjyamana, mfn. not being enjoyed. 

*HMH an-vpama, mf(o)n. incomparable, 
matchless ; excellent, best ; (a), (. the female ele- 
phant of the south-east or of the north-east. matt, 
m., N. of a contemporary of Sakya-muni. 

An-npamita, mfn. uncompared, matchless. 

An-upameya, mfn. incomparable. 

WH l 4H^'f an-upamardana, am, n. non- 
demolition or refutation of a charge. 

<QM<J^3i an-upayukta, mfn. unsuited, un- 
suitable, improper ; useless, unserviceable. 

An-upayoga, as, m. unserviceableness, useless- 

An-upayoffln, mm. unsuitable, useless. 

'W^'Jtil dn-uparata, mfn. uninterrupted, 
not stopped. 

VH<HI4i^ anu-para- Vgam, to follow one 
who is escaping, MaitrS. 

^rjm.lHrl anu-para-\/pat, to fly or hasten 
by the side of another, AitBr. 

Wr}lK|J. anu-pard-T/bhu, to spoil or de- 
stroy after another, TS.; AitBr.: Caus. -bhdvayati, 
id., TS. 

onu-pard- Vmris, to seize, SBr. 

ami-pard- \Xsni, (said of a leaky 
vessel) to flow with water subsequently, Kath. 

^TTjqftw anu-pari- Ji. kf%, to scatter 
alongside, to bestrew, Kaus. 

onu-pari-vkram, to walk 

round in order, to make the circuit of, visit in a 
regular round. 

Ann-parlkramana, am, n. walking round in 
order, AitAr. 

Anu-parikramam, ind. while walking round in 
order, TS.; SBr. ; ParGr. 

^njT (*.'!! anu-pari- <J i. gd, to make the 
round of, traverse, MBh. 

ind. = anu- 

parikramam, KapS. 

^J^TfttflY anu-pari-rA (i/ni), to lead or 
carry about, KauS. 

^nrof^ftl anu-paridhi, ind. along or at the 
three Paridhis of the sacrificial fire, KatySr. 

WrjqftmflJWT anu-paripdti-krama, as, m. 
regular order, VarBrS. 

^J^TfTTT anu-pari- </y a, to pass through 
in order, AsvGr. 

^J^trft^ anu-pari- i/vrit, to return, be 
repeated, SBr. xiv. 

^nj'jfTfsn^ anu-parisrit, ind. along or at 
the surrounding fence, KatySr. 

ari-V*, to run after, BhP. 
anu-pari-hdram, ind. sur- 
rounding, TS. 

yanti, AV. xv, 1 7, 8, irreg. -paryanti, Kaus.), to 
follow in going round, to make the round of. 


ami-pare (-para- </i), (Imper. 2. sg. 
-pdrehi ; impf. -pdra't) to follow in walking off 
RV.x, 18, i;TS. 



anu-pary-a-i/ (aor. 3. pi. 
-agur) to revolve, return to, AitBr. 

'Wgi^TVT anu-pary-d-Vdhd (Pot. -dadh- 
yat) to place round in order, AitBr. 

^3<44I<;}TT anti-pory-a-\/vrit, to follow in 
going off, to follow, TS.; SBr.; AitBr. 


to sprinkle 

round, Gobh.; Gaut. 

anu-pary-e (-d-^/i), -pary-ititi, to 
make the whole round of, SBr. &c. 

a, mfn. untraced, 

unperceived, unmarked, indiscriminated. 

An-upalakshya, mfn. not to be traced, imper- 
ceptible. vartman, mfn. having ways that can- 
not be traced. 

an-upalabdfia, mfn. unohtained, 

unperceived, unascertained. 

An-npalabdhi, is, {. non-perception, non-re- 
cognition. sama, as, d, m. f. trying to establish 
a fact (e.g. the reality and eternity of sound) from 
the impossibility of perceiving the non-perception of 
it, sophistical argument, Nyayad. 

An-npalabhyamSna, mfn. not being perceived, 
Pan. vi, 3, 80, Sch. 

An-upalambha, as, m. non-perception. 

An-upalambhana, am, n. want of apprehen- 
sion or knowledge. 

A'n-upalabha, as, m. not catching, TS. 

WJJ175T3 anupaldla, as, m., N. of a demon 
dangerous to children, AV. viii, 6, a. 

tjM=nf7l^ an-upamtin, I, m. one unin- 

vested with the sacred thread. 

w^RSI anu-^pas, P. A. -pasyati, te, to 
look at, perceive, notice, discover, RV. &c. ; to con- 
sider, reflect upon (acc.^ MBh. &c. ; to look upon 
as, take as, ib. ; (perf. A. p. -paspasdna} to show 
(as the path), RV. x, 1 4, 1 ; A V. vi, 28, 3 ; (Nir. x, 20.) 

Ann-pasya, mfn. perceiving, seeing, Yogas. 

A'nn-apashta, mfn. noticed, RV. x, 160, 4. 

w 31511 an-upasaya, as, m. any aggra- 
vating circumstance (in a disease). 

w^M^rifT an-upasdnta, mfn. not calm ; 
(or), m., N. of a Buddhist mendicant. 

^}IIWM an-upasarga, as, m. a word that 
is not an Upasarga, q. v., or destitute of one ; that 
which needs no additions (as a divine being). 

1tJTT^T an-upasecand, mfn. having no- 
thing that moistens (e. g. no sauce), AV. xi, 3, 34. 

"3 l '* < ?'rT an-upaskrita, mfn. unfinished, 
unpolished ; not cooked ; genuine ; blameless ; un- 

f J ^ *4 1 1 an-vpasthana,am, n. not coming 
near, Laty.; not being at hand, absence. 

An-npasthapana, am, n. not placing near, not 
producing, not offering ; not having ready or at hand. 

An-npasthapayat, mfn. not presenting, not 
having at hand. 

An-upasthapita, mm. not placed near, not 
ready, not at hand, not offered or produced. 

An-npasthayin, mfn. absent, distant. 

An-upasthita, mfn. not come near, not present, 
not at hand ; not complete, SBr.; (am), n. a word 
not upasthita, q. v. 

A'n-upasthiti, is, (. absence, not being at hand ; 
incompleteness, SBr. 

'W^JI^TT an-upahata, mfn. unimpaired, un- 
vitiated ; not rendered impure. krnshta, mfn. 
whose organs of hearing are unimpaired, Buddh. 

'M ^l? if dn-upahiita, mfn. not called upon 

or invited, SBr. ; not accompanied with invitations,ib. 
An-upahuyamana, mfn. not being invited, 

"5* 11 * a " M - / v /I - P a < to drink after or 

thereupon, follow in drinking, drink at : Caus. 
(Pot. -pdydycf) to cause to drink afterwards, SBr. 

Aiiu-pana, am, n. a fluid vehicle in medicine; 
drink taken with or after medicine ; drink after 
eating ; drink to be had near at hand, (Comm. on) 
ChUp. i, 10, 3. 

Anu-paniya, am, n. drink to be had near at 
hand, Comm. on ChUp. i, 10, 3; (mfn.), fit to be 
drunk after ; serving as a liquid vehicle of medicine. 

T-JUT 2.anu-^, Caus. P. A. -pala- 
yatifte, to preserve, keep, cherish ;to waitfor, expect. 

Anu-palana, am, n. preserving, keeping up. 

Anu-palayat, mfn. keeping, maintaining. 

Anu-palin, mfn. preserving, keeping up. 

Ann-pain, n., N. of a plant, wild Calladium (?). 

^Pjm^iH an-updkrita, mfn. not rendered 
fit for sacrificial purposes, Mn.v, 7; YijR. -mansa, 
n. flesh of an animal not prepared for sacrifice. 

^Tgm^ar an-upakhya, mfn. not clearly 
discernible, Pin. vi, 3, 80. 

'H'^UrT anu-pdta, as, m. falling subse- 
quently upon, alighting or descending upon in suc- 
cession ; following ; going, proceeding in order, or 
as a consequence ; a degree of latitude opposite to 
one given, the Antzci (?) ; proportion (in arithm.) ; 
arithmetical progression, rule of three. 

Anu-pataka, am, n. a crime similar to a maha- 
pdtaka, q.v. (falsehood, fraud, theft, adultery, &c.) 

Anu-patam, ind. in regular succession. 

Anu-patin, mfn. following as a consequence or 

anu-pdna. See\ 

an-updnatka, mfn. shoeless, 

^'girftp^ an-updyin, mfn. not using 

means or expedients. 

^'JJITOl anu-parsva, mfn. along or by the 
side ; lateral. 

anu-i/pdl. See a.anu-*/ 

an-updvritta, as, m. pi., N. of a 
people, MBh. 

''H'JJiraT an-vpasana, am, n. want of at- 
tention to. 
An-upasita, mfn. not attended to, neglected. 

^T^^l anu-^/pis (perf. -pipesa) to fasten 
along, AV. 

* s rf 1 f3'>nu-\i'pish(md.p.-pishya) to strike 
against, to touch, KstySr. 

"^3^ anu-purusha, as, ra. the before- 
mentioned man,, a, 190; a follower, ib. Sch. 

wq^l ana- -/push, to go on prospering, 
VS.; to prosper after another (ace.), ShadvBr. 

Ann-pushpa, as, m. a kind of reed (Saccharum 
Sara Roxb.) 

"wy^anu-Vpu, A. (dnu-pavate) to purify 
in passing along, SBr. 

Wffl^ anu-purva,mf(d)u. regular, orderly, 
in successive order from the preceding ; (dm), ind. 
in regular order, from the first, RV. &c. ; (ena), ind. 
in regular order or succession, from the first, from 
the beginning, from above downwards. kesa, 
-g&tra, -danshtra, -nabhi, -pani-lekha, iniii. 
having regular hair, regularly shaped limbs, regular 
teeth, a regularly shaped navel, regular lines in the 
hands (all these are epithets given to Buddha, some 
of them also to MahSvIra), Buddh. & Jain. Ja, 
mfn. descended in a regular line, KstySr. vataS 
(anupurvd-), f. a cow which calves regularly, AV. 
ix, 5, 29. sag, m&. = anu-purvdm. 

Anupurvya, mfn. regular, orderly, KStySr. 

anu-prikta, mfn. mixed with, MBh. 
anu-pfishthya, mf(5)n. (held or 
extended) lengthwise, KJtySr. 

f^H ann-i/pri, Caus. (Imper. -purayatu) 
to fill, Git. 

wrjqrf dn-upeta [SBr.] or anupeta-purva 
[AsvGr.], mfn. not yet entered at a teacher's (for 

-upSshana, am, n. not fasting. 

w ^H an-vpta, mfn. (-v/2. flop), unsown (as 

seed). BaBjra,nifn.fallow,meadow(ground,&c.),L. 

An-nptrlma, mfn . grown without being sown, L . 

xirjHli*M anu-pra- \>kamp, Caus. (Pot. 
-kampayet, '3. pi. yeyur) to follow in shaking or 
agitating, AitBr.; ApSr. 

^jct^t anu-vprach (with ace. of the per- 
son and thing), to ask, to inquire after. 
Annprasna. See s. v. 

a u-pra- \sjan, to be born after ; 

(with prajam) to propagate again and again, BhP.: 
Caus. -janayali, to cause to be bom subsequently. 

anu-pra- \- jila (pr. p. -jdndt) to 
track, trace, discover, RV. iii, 26, 8, &c. 
Anu-prajnana, am, n. tracking, tracing. 

^^^^ anu-pra-nud (^/nud), to push 
away from one's self; to frighten away, put to flight. 

anu-prati-kramam, ind. 
returning, TS. v. 

anu-prati-^/dha, to offer after 
another (ace.), AitBr. (Pass, -dhlyate). 

^pfrTVT anu-prati-shthd ( v stha), to fol- 
low in getting a firm footing or in prospering, TS. ; 
ChUp. : Desid. -tishthdsati, to wish to get a firm 
footing after, Gobh. 

^J"^ anu-^/prath, A. -prathate, to ex- 
tend or spread along (ace.), TS.; to praise, (Comm. 
on) VS. viii, 30. 

^JJU<TT anu-pra- v/ 'i. da, to surrender, 
make over, Buddh.; to add. 

Ann-pradSna, am, n. a gift, donation, Buddh.; 
addition, increase, Pr5t. 

wgnVT^ anu-pra- V 'i . dhav, to rush after, 
RV - *. 145. 6, &c. : Caus. (perf. -dhdvaydm ca- 
kdra) to drive after, SBr. 

Ann-pradhavita, mfn. hurried, eager, Dal. 

TTJlPfi^ anu-pra- \fpat (aor. 3. pi. -pap- 
tan) to fly towards, RV. vi, 63, 6. 

Anu-prapatam, ind. going in succession, Pin. 
>v, 3, 56, Sch. 

'"'^ini^ anu-pra-i/pad, to enter or ap 
proach or arrive after ; to follow, act in conform 
ance to. 

Anu-prapauna, mfn. following after, con 
formed to. 

Anu-prapadam, jnd. going in succession, Pin 
"v, 3, 56, Sch. 

WjmT anu-pra- ,/ 1 .pa, P. (3. pi. -ptbanti] 
to drink one after the other, AitBr. ; A. (3. pi. -pi- 
fate [sic] & -pibate) to drink after another (ace.), 

" *J WT anu-pra- v'i ha, to shine upon.TBr. 

"JHJjrT anu-pra-bhiita, mfn. passing 
through, penetrating, (dnu prd-bhuta) RV. viii, 
58, a ; penetrated, ChUp. 

^^n^^anu-pra-Vbhiish (p. -bhushat) to 
serve, attend, offer, RV. ix, 29, I. 

^T5jKilU anu-pramdna, mfu. having a 
suitable size or length. 

<3HJ^ anu-pra- ^/muc, to let loose or go 
successively, RV. iv, 22, 7. 

wgngS anu-pra- v mud, Caus. -modayati, 
to consent, MSrkP. 

anu-pra- Vy am, to offer, TS. 

anu-pra x/y a, to follow after, TBr. ; 

to start after, accompany. 

'* I 3 1 *3 T1 \ anu-pra- ^yuj, to employ after, 
add after (abl.), PSn.; to join, follow, AV. &c. 

Ann-praynjyamBna, mfn. being employed in 
addition or after or afterwards. 

Anu-prayoktavya, mfn. to be joined or em- 
ployed in addition or after. 

Ann-prayoga, as, m. additional use. 

'"'JHF?' anu-pra- i/ruh, to grow in ac- 
cordance with, SBr. 

D a 


Ann-praroh, mfn. coming up or growing in 
accordance with. 

^JlJtl^H anu-pra-vacana, am, n. study 
of the Veda with a teacher. Annpravacanadi, 
a gana of Pan. (v. I, III). 

Annpravacanlya, mfn. belonging to, or neces- 
sary for anupravacana, AsvGr.; Gobh. 

<H J U <4 $ anu-pra- \/vad,to repeat another's 
words, TS. ; AitBr. ; to speak of, Nir. : Caus. -va- 
dayati, to cause to resound, to play (an instrument), 

VrjyH? anu-pra- \/vah, to drag (or carry) 
about ; to go or get forward, RV. x, 3, 3. 

^njnftr$^anu-prn-v // ci, to follow in en- 
tering, enter ; to attack. 

Ann-pravisya, ind. p. having entered into. 

Anu-pravesa, as, m. or ann-praveiana 
[gana anupravacanadi, q. v.], am, n. entrance 
into ; imitation, L. 

Anu-pravesaniya, mfh. connected with enter- 
ing, (gana anupravacanadi, q. v.) 

W^H^i^ anu-pra- Vvrij, -prd-vrinakti, to 
tend or throw after, SBr. 

*(^U>l^anu-pra-</vrit (\mpt.-pravartata; 

perf. -vdvritf) to proceed along or after, RV. 
Ann-pravritta, mfn. following after (ace. ), BhP. 

^rJHcTfl anv-pra-T/vraj, to follow into 
exile, R. v, 36, 61. 

WfJHSN anu-pra- \/J. sue, -socate, to re- 
gret or mourn deeply, MBh. 

V^UVJ unu-jirasna, as, m. a subsequent 
question (having reference to what has been pre- 
viously said by the teacher), 

^PJITCJ?^ anu-pra- -^aarlj, to adhere to, 

fasten, SBr. 

Anu-prasakta, mfn. strongly attached, Sis. 
Ann-prasakti, is, (. close connection with. 

'(H'JHW^ anu-pra- -/sad, to be content or 
satisfied with (ace.) 

V ^ 1MJH anu-prasiita, mfn.( v^4.),created 
afterwards, MBh. xiii, 7361. 

*ljmj anu-pra- \/sri, Caus. (impf. 3. pi. 
-pr&sarayanta) to extend over, RV. x, 56, 5 : Intens. 
part, -sdrsrdna, moving along (ace.), RV. v, 44, 3. 

V^m^anu-pra-\/srip, to creep towards 
or after, TS. ; SBr. : Caus. (Opt_J. pi. -sarpaytyufr) 
to cause to pass round (ace.), AsvSr. 

^"JDTT anu-pra- i/stn, to scatter along or 
upon, Kaus. 

^TJJIfWt anu-pra- */stha, to start after an- 
oiher : Caus. -sthapayati, to cause to follow, BhP. 

Anu-prastha, mfn. latitudinal ; according to 
width, following the breadth or latitude. 

Wfjuf^fl anu-pra-hita, mfn. (\/hi), sent 
after, Uttarar. 

1HJH{J anu-pra- <Shri, to throw into the 
fire, TS.; SBr. &c. 

Ann-praharana, am, n. throwing into the fire, 
SBr. &c. 

xitjHKU anu-prdn ( t/an), cl. a. P. -prdniti, 
to breathe after, TUp. 

rj U i H_ anu-prap ( \/ap), to come or go up 
to, reach, attain ; to arrive ; to get ; to get back ; 
to get by imitating. 

Ann-prftpta, mm. arrived, returned ; obtained ; 
having reached, having got 

^njl?m anu-prds (, -prSsyati, to 
throw after, SBr., KstySr. 

Ann-praga, as. m. alliteration, repetition of 
similar letters, syllables, and words, Kpr. &c. 

VJli anu-pre (\/) cl. 2. P. -praiti, to 
follow, RV. &c. ; to follow in death, SBr. ; to seek 
after, AV.; AitBr. 

tl^WlSJ anu-prtksh ( v'tfoA), to follow with 
the eyes. 

anu-praroha. '"J'TC anu-ma. 

^lJUi^ anu-presh ( \/ish), Caus. P. -pr- 
shayati, to send forth after. 

Ann-prtCilia,j,m. a subsequent invitation, SBr. 

anu-pr3h ( Y/I. A),to insert, ApSr. 
anu- i/plu, to float (as clouds) after; 

to follqw. 
Ann-plava, as,m. acompanionorfollower,Ragh. 

flr|*fw anu- -/bandit, to attach, tie; to 
bind (by an obligation) ; to stick, adhere, follow, 
endure ; to be followed by, BhP. 

Anu-baddha, mm. bound to, obliged to, con- 
nected with, related to, belonging to ; followed by. 

Anu-badhnat, mfn. following, seeking, Kir. 

Anu-bandha,<w, m. binding, connection, attach- 
ment ; encumbrance ; clog ; uninterrupted succession ; 
sequence, consequence, result; intention, design; 
motive, cause ; obstacle ; inseparable adjunct or sign 
of anything, secondary or symptomatic affection 
(supervening on the principal disease) ; an indicatory 
letter or syllable attached to roots, &c. (marking some 
peculiarity in their inflection ; e.g. an i attached to 
roots, denotes the insertion of a nasal before their 
final consonant) ; a child or pupil who imitates an 
example set by a parent or preceptor ; commence- 
ment, beginning ; anything small or little, a part, a 
small part ; (in arithm.) the junction of fractions ; 
(in phil.) an indispensable element of the Vedinta ; 
(t), { hickup, L. ; thirst, L. 

Anu-bandhaka, mf (>'&>) n. connected, allied; 

Anu-bandhana, am, n. binding, connection, 
succession, unbroken series. 

Anu-bandhln, mfn. connected with, attached; 
having in its train or as a consequence, resulting ; con- 
tinuous, lasting, permanent. Annbandhi-tva, n. the 
state of being accompanied or attended or followed. 

Anu-bandhya, mfn. principal, primary, liable 
to receive an adjunct (as a root, a disease) ; (cf. a- 

fl^J^Crf anu-bala, am, n. rear-guard, an 
auxiliary army following another. 

WtJTTW anu- i/bddh, Pass, (p -bddhyamd- 
na) to be oppressed or tormented, Rajat. ; Kathas. 

T^OTH anu- \/budh, to awake ; to recol- 
lect ; to learn (by information) : Caus. -bodhayati, 
to communicate ; to remind, Sak. 

Anu-bodha,a.r, m. recollection; an after-thought, 
L. ; reviving the scent of a faded perfume, replacing 

Ann-bodhana, am, n. recollecting, reminding. 

Ann-bodhita, mfh. reminded; convinced by 

>H^ellCH!I anu-brahmana, am, n. a work 

resembling a Brahmana, Pan. iv, a, 62 ; (am), ind. 
according to the Brahmana, Lsty. 

Anu-bralimanika [Cornm. on Laty.], as, or 
anu-brttimanin [AsvSr. ; Vait.], i, m. a knower 
of an anu-brahmana. 

'Wg'|[anu-\/6rii, cl. 2. P. -braviti, to pro- 
nounce, recite ; to utter ; to address, invite (with dat.), 
SBr. &c. ; to repeat another's words, learn by heart 
(by repeating another's words), R V. v, 44, 1 3 ; SBr. 

, to worship, BhP 

anu-i/bhd, to shine after another 
(ace.), RV. iii, 6, 7 ; Up. 

1T%>*T^anu-\/bhdsh, to speak to, address ; 
to confess. 

Anu-bhashana, am. See an-anubhdshana. 

Anu-bhashitri, mfn. speaking to, saying, Ragh. 

anu-bhasa, as, m. a kind of crow. 
anu-^/bhid, to split or break 
along, SBr. 
Ann-bHittl, ind. along a mat, KstySr. 

'HJ^r 3 ! anu-</bhuj, to suffer the conse- 
quence of one's actions ; to enjoy successively, Kum. ; 
to enjoy, participate ; to pass (an asterism), BhP. 

Ann-bhoga, as, m. (in law) enjoyment, a grant 
of hereditary land in return foi service. 

WJiJ anu-Vbhii, to enclose, embrace, 
ChUp. ; to be after, attain, equal, RV. &c. ; to be 
useful, to help ; SBr. ; SankliSr. ; to turn or incline 

to, RV. x, 147, I ; to notice, perceive, understand; 
to experience, to attempt. 

Ann-bhava, as, m. perception, apprehension, fru- 
ition ; understanding ; impression on the mind not 
derived from memory ; experience, knowledge de- 
rived from personal observation or experiment ; 
result, consequence. siddlia, mfn. established by 
experience or perception. AnubliavArudlia, mm. 
subjected to trial or experiment. 

Anu-bhava,<j.t, m. sign or indication of a feeling 
(bhdva) by look or gesture, Kpr. &c. ; dignity, 
authority, consequence ; firm opinion, ascertainment, 
good resolution, belief. 

Ann-bhSvaka, mf (ika) n. causing to apprehend, 
making to understand. 15, f. understanding. 

Ann-bh3vana, am, n. the act of indicating 
feelings by sign or gesture, Sah. 

Ann-bh&vin, mfn. perceiving, knowing ; being 
an eye-witness, Mn. viii, 69 ; Ap. ; showing signs 
of feeling., mfn. perceiving, understanding (ifc.) 

Anu-bhnta, mm. perceived, understood, appre- 
hended ; resulted, followed as a consequence ; that 
has experienced, tasted, tried or enjoyed. 

Anu-blmti, is, f. perception ; knowledge from 
any source but memory ; (in phil.) knowledge gained 
by means of the four Pramanas (perception by the 
senses, inference, comparison, and verbal authority) ; 
dignity, consequence. prakasa, m., N. of a me- 
trical paraphrase of the twelve principal Upanishads 
by Vidyaranya-muni. svarnpacarya, m., N. of 
the author of the grammar Sarasvatl-prakriyS. 

Anu-bhnya, ind. having experienced. 

Ann-bhuyamana, mfn. being under trial ; being 
experienced or enjoyed. 

^TJJ anu-Vbliri, to support, Kath.; to 
insert, enter, RV. x, 61, 5 ; AV. 

Anu-bhartri, mf(tri)n. supporting, strengthen- 
ing (Gmn.), penetrating (NBD.), RV. i, 88, 6. 

, to illuminate. 

anu-bhrdtri, td, m. a younger 

wjti^ anu-\/mad, to rejoice over, to 
gladden, to praise, RV. &c. 

Ann-madya (4, 5), mfn. to be praised in suc- 
cession, to be granted with acclamation or praise, 
RV.; AV. 

^>T*JRUnT anu-madhyama, mfn. next oldest 
to the middle, Pan. vi, 2, 189, Sch. 

IM ^1 *i\ anu- </man, to approve, assent to, 
permit, grant : Caus. P. -manayati, to ask for per- 
mission or leave, ask for (ace.), YajH.; to honour. 

Anu-mata, mfn. approved, assented to, per- 
mitted, allowed ; agreeable, pleasant ; loved, be- 
loved ; concurred with, being of one opinion ; (am), 
n. consent, permission, approbation ; (e), loc. ind. 
with consent of. karma-karin, mfn. doing what 
is allowed, acting according to an agreement. 

Anu-mati, is, f. assent, permission, approbation ; 
personified as a goddess, RV.; AV. &c.; the fif- 
teenth day of the moon's age (on which it rises one 
digit less than full, when the gods or manes receive 
oblations with favour) ; also personified as a goddess, 
VP. ; oblation made to this goddess. pattra, n. 
(in law) a deed expressing assent. 

Ann-manana, am, n. assenting, Nir. 

Anu-mantri, mm. consenting to, permitting, 
TBr. &c. 

Anu-manyamana, mfn. minding, assenting. 

I. Anu-mana, as, m. 'permission, consent, TBr.; 

^Tgf?T anu-\/mantr, to accompany with 
or consecrate by magic formulas ; to dismiss with a 

Ann-znantrana, am, n. consecration by hymns 
and prayers, mantra, m. a hymn used in con- 

Anu-mantrita, mfn. so consecrated. 

anu-marana. See anu-^/mri. 

anu-maru, us, m. (used in the pi.) 
a country next to a desert, R. iv, 43, 19. 

^TgHI i.anv-\/, Intens. (impf. ami- 
med dnu) to roar or bleat towards, RV. i, 164, 28. 
2. anu-v/3- md, to be behind in 


measure, to be unable to equal, RV. ; to infer, con 
elude, guess, conjecture : Pass, -miyate, to be in 
ferred or supposed. 

3. Ann-mil, f. inference, a conclusion from give 

2. Ann-mSna, am, n. the act of inferring o 
drawing a conclusion from given premises ; inference 
consideration, reflection ; guess, conjecture ; one o 
the means of obtaining true knowledge (see pra 
mono). khanda, n.or-cintamani, m.or-pra- 
kasa, m. works on anumdna. mani-dldhiti 
f. a similar work written by RaghunStha. Ann- 
mSnoktl, f. inferential argument, reasoning. 

Ann-mapaka, mf(&i)n. causing an inference 
(as an effect). 

Anu-mita, mfh. inferred, conjectured. 

Anu-miti, is, f. conclusion from given premises 

Ann-mlmSna, mm. p. A. concluding, inferring 

Ann-mlyamana, mfh. Pass. p. being inferred. 

Ann-meya, mfn. to be measured, AV. vi, 137, 
3 ; inferable, to be inferred, proved or conjectured. 

anu-madya. See anu-^mad. 



anu-mqsham., ind. h'ke a kidney 
bean, (gana parimukhadi, q.v.) 

"3 *^< an -v / 2. mid, -medyati, to become 
fat after another, TBr. 

'wgg^i anu-\/mud, to join in rejoicing, 
RV. viii, i, 14, &c. ; to sympathize with, to re- 
joice ; to allow with pleasure, express approval, ap- 
plaud, permit : Caus. -modayati, to express approval, 

Ann-moda, as, m. a subsequent pleasure, the 
feeling of pleasure from sympathy. 

Ann-modaka, mf(z&z)n. assenting, showing 
sympathetic joy. 

Ann-modana, am, n. pleasing, causing pleasure, 
applauding ; assent, acceptance ; sympathetic joy. 

Ann-modi ta, mfh. pleased, delighted, applauded ; 
agreeable, acceptable. 

wgq^ anu-Vmuh, to feel distressed at, to 
be troubled about or after another, MBh. i, 143. 

^njJ anu-Vmri, to follow in death, TBr. 

Ann-marana, am, n. following in death ; post- 
cremation or concremation of a widow; the burning 
of a widow with (her husband's corpse or with part 
of his dress when his body it not on the spot ; cf. 

Ann-marishyat, mfn. about to follow in death. 

Anu-niritS, f. the woman who burns with a part 
of her husband's dress. 

w^J'H anumrigya, mfh. (Vmrig), to be 
sought after, BhP. -dasu, mfn. granting all that 
is sought. 

f anti-vWi/, to rub lengthways for 
polishing or cleaning, AV. ; SBr. &c. : Intens. part. 
-mdrmrijdna, stretching (the arms) repeatedly to- 
wards, RV. x, 142, 5. 

13191. anu-yWt*, to grasp, seize, RV. 
&c. ; to consider, think of, reflect : Caus. -marsa- 
yati, to touch or take hold of for the sake of examin- 
ing, Kath. 

Ann-mar sam, ind. so as to seize or take hold 
of, SBr. ; KatySr. 

'*^B T ^ anit-Vmluc (only used for the 
etymol. of anu-ml6canK below), to rise from the 
resting-place (?), SBr. 

Ann-ml6cantl [VS.] or ann-mlocS [Hariv.], 
f., N. of an Apsaras. 

'* l g < i'J*J > anu-yajus, ind. according to the 

Yajus-formula, KatySr. 

Ann-ySga, as, m. a subsequent or after-sacrifice, 
Pan. vii, 3, 62, Sch. 

Ann-y5ja, as, m. a secondary or final sacrifice, 
RV. x, 5 1, 8&9andl8a, t; SBr. &c. -pragava, 
m. permission to perform an Anuyaja, KatySr. 
pr&Bha, as, m. pi. the formulas belonging to the 
Anuyaja, KatySr. vat (anuydjd-), mfn. having 
secondary sacrifices, MaitrS. ; AitBr. Annyajann- 
mantrana, n. reciting those formulas, KatySr. 
Anuyajartha, mm, belonging to or used at an 
Anuyaja, KatySr. 

anu-^/yat, A. -y at ate, to strive t 
attain to or to reach, RV. ix, 92, 3. 

TJ1^ anu-Vyam (3. pi. -yacchanti; Im 
per. -yacchattt ; p. fern, -yacchamdnd) to direct 
guide, give a direction to, RV. i, 113, 13; j v , 57, 
& v ', 75, 6 ; (perf. 3. pi. -yemuh, A. 3. du. -ytmdtt 
to follow, RV. 

A'nu-yata, mfn. followed (in hostile manner 
RV - v. 4'. 13- 

i, ind. like barley, (gan 
parimukhadi, q.v.) 

TrJUT I. anu-Vya, to go towards or after 
follow ; to imitate, equal. 

3. Ann-ya, mfn. following, VS. xv, 6. 

Anu-yata, mfn. following ; followed ; practised 

Ann-yatavya, mfn. to be followed. 

Ann-yatri, m. a follower, companion. 

Ann-yatra, am, a, n. f. retinue, attendance ; tha 
which is required for a journey. 

Ann-yatrika, mfh. following, attendant, Sak. 

Anu-yana, am, n. going after, following. 

Ann-ySyin, mfn. going after; a follower, a 
dependant, attendant ; following, consequent upon. 
Anny5yi-tS, f. or -tva, n. succession. 

a. y),depending, de- 

anu-i/yuj, to join again, SBr.; 
AitBr. ; to question, examine ; to order ; to enjoin 
Caus. -yojayati, to place upon; to add, Kaus. 
Desid. -yuyukshati, to intend to question, MBh. 

Ann-ynkta, mfn. ordered, enjoined ; asked, in- 
quired ; examined, questioned ; reprehended. 

Ann-yuktin, i, m. one who has enjoined, ex- 
amined, (gana ishtadi, q.v.) 

Ann-yngam, ind. according to the Yugas or four 
ages, Mn. i, 84. 

Ann-yoktri, td, m. an examiner, inquirer,teacher. 

Ann-yoga, as, m. a question, examination ; cen- 
sure, reproof, NySyad. ; religious meditation, spiritual 
union. krlt , m. an AcSrya or spiritual teacher. 

Ann-yogin, mfn. ifc. combining, uniting ; con- 
nected with ; questioning. 

Ann-yojana, am, n. question, questioning. 

Ann-yojya, mfn. to be examined or questioned, 

In. ; to be enjoined or ordered ; censurable ; a ser- 
vant, agent, delegate, Sak. 

wndent, SBr. xi. 

"tJT^ onit-yiipam, ind. along the Yupa 
>r sacrificial post, (gana parimukhadi, q.v.) 

xi g<B^ ana- v/i . raksh, to guard while fol- 
owing, SankhSr. ; to guard, take care of. 

Ann-rakshana, am, n. the act of guarding. 

'* r 3*-*3 anu-rajju, ind. along the rope, 

^ anu-'/ranj, to become red in imi- 
tation of ; to be attached or devoted : Caus. P. -raH- 
ayati, to win, conciliate, gratify. 

Ann-rakta, mfn. fond of, attached, pleased ; be- 
oved. praja, mm. beloved by his subjects. lota, 

i. a person to whom every one is attached. 

Ann-rakti, is, f. affection, love, devotion. 

Ann-ranjaka, mf(ika)n. attaching, conciliating. 

Ann-ranjana, am, n. the act of attaching or 
onciliating affection, love ; pleasing. 

Ann-ranjita, mfh. conciliated, delighted. 

Ann-rSga, as, m. attachment, affection, love, 
assion ; red colour, Sis. ix, 8, &c. yat, mfh. af- 
ectionate, attached, in love with; red, Sis. ix,lo,&c. 

nnrgngita, n. gesture expressive of passion. 

Ann-rftgln, mfh. impassioned, attached ; caus- 
ng love ; (MB), f. personification of a musical note. 
innragi-tS, f. the state of being in love with. 

^TJJU0I anu-ranana, am, n. sounding eon- 
rmably to, echoing, Sah. 

fl^t.'q anu-ratfia, as, m., N. of a son of 
Curuvatsa and father of Puruhotra, VP. ; (am), md. 
>ehind the carriage, Pan. ii, i, 6, Sch. 

Ann-rathyS, f. a path along the margin of a 
oad, side road, R. ii, 6, 1 7. 

arm- i/ram, P. -ramati, to cease to 
;o or continue, stop, SankhSr. : A, to be fond of 

Ann-rata, mfn. fond of, attached to. 
Ann-rati, is, f. love, affection ; attachment 

' el 3*.*l. an u-i/l. ras, to answer to a cry or 
to a sound. 

Ann-rasita, am, n. echo, Malatim. ; Uttarar. 

1B "^*.*f anu-rasa, as, m. (in poetry) a sub- 
ordinate feeling or passion ; a secondary flavour (ai 
a little sweetness in a sour fruit, &c.), Susr. &c. 

*<^*.5*i^ anu-rahcuam, ind. in secret, 
apart, PJn. v, 4, 81. 

Tg^n^anu- -x/ra/, to be brilliant or shine in 
accordance with (said of corresponding metres), RV. 

<H 3*J3*1, anu-ratram, ind. in the night, 

^T^XTV anu- Jradh, to carry to an end ; to 
finish with (gen.), TBr. 

Anu-raddna, mfh. effected, accomplished ; ob- 
tained, BhP. 

Ann-radha, mm., see anurddha; born under 
theasterism AnurSdha, Pan. iv, 3, 34 ; (as), m., N. 
of a Buddhist ; (as), m. pi. and (a) [AV. &c.], f. 
the seventeenth of ike twenty-eight Nakshatras or 
lunar mansions (a constellation described as a line 
of oblations). grfana, m. or -pnra, n. the ancient 
capital of Ceylon founded by the above-named Anu- 

, onu-y'ric, Pass, -ricyate, to be 
emptied after, TS. 

, 01.4. P. -rithyati, to be 

injured after (ace.), ChUp. 

anu-v/n", cl. 4. A. -riyate, to flow 
after, RV. i, 85, 3 ; (p. -nyamana) VS. x, 19. 

1. anu-Vru, to imitate the cry or 
answer to the cry of (ace.) 

Ann-rnta, mfn. resounding with, VarBrS. 

2. an-uru, mt(us or r:)n. not great. 

anu-Vnie, Caus. P. -rocayati, to 
choose, prefer, MBh. 

anu-i/rwl, to lament, bewail. 

' anu-\/rudh, to bar (as a way), 
VIBh. xiii, 1649 j^ to surround, confine, overcome, 
3hP. &c.; cl. 4. A. -rudhyati or ep. P. -rudhyati 
'a. sg. -rudhyase, RV. viii, 43, 9, &c.), to adhere 
o, be fond of, love ; to coax, soothe, entreat. 

Ann-rnddAa, mfh. checked, opposed ; soothed, 
pacified ; (as), m., N. of a cousin of Sakyamuni. 

2. Anu-rudh, mfn. adhering to, loving, VS. xxx, 
I ; (cf. anu-riidh.') 

Anu-rodha, as, m. obliging or fulfilling the 
wishes (of any one); obligingness, compliance ; con- 
sideration, respect ; reference or bearing of a rule. 

Ann-rddhana, am, n. obliging or fulfilling the 

wishes of; means for winning the affection of, AV. 

Ann-rodhln, mfn. complying with, compliant, 

ibliging, having respect or regard to. Anurodhi- 

tS, f. the state of being so, Kathls. 

anu-v/ruA, P. to ascend, mount, 
*V. x, 13, 3 : A. to grow, RV. 

Ann-ruhS, f. a grass (Cyperas Pertenius). 

Ann-roha, as, m. mounting or growing up to, 
MaitrS. ;PBr. 

, mfn. following the form-, 
onformable, corresponding, like, fit, suitable; 
dapted to, according to ; (as), m. the Antistrophe 
which has the same metre as the Stotriya or Strophe ; 
he second of three verses recited together ; (am), 
. conformity, suitability ; (am, tna), ind. ifc. con- 
ormably, according, -ceshta, mfh. endeavouring 
o act becomingly. ta, ind. conformably. 

anu-reeati, f., N. of a plant. 

, ind.p.conformingto. 
w$(*'*lanu-lagna,mfn. attached to; fol- 
owed ; intent on, pursuing after. 
wqrtlan- \/labh, to grasp or take hold 
(from behind), SBr. ; Kstyr. : Desid. -lipsate, 
intend to grasp, ib. 

g<3T ana/o, f., N. of a female Arhat or 
uddhist saint ; also of a queen of Ceylon. 


nnu-lapa, as, m. ( v'/op), repetition 
of what has been said, tautology. 

i^Jrtl*f anu-lasa or -lasya, as, m. a pea- 

VJjfW^ anu ~ */tip> P- t anoint, besmear ; 
A. to anoint one's self after (bathing) : Caus. -lepa- 
yaii, to cause to be anointed. 

Ann-lipta, mfn. smeared, anointed. Annlip- 
tanga, mfn. having the limbs anointed. 

Anu-lepa, as, m. unction, anointing, bedaubing. 

Anu-lepaka, mfn. anointing the body with un- 
guents, L. ; (ikd}, f. (gana mahishy-ddi, q. v.) 

Ann-lepana, am, n. anointing the body ; un- 
guent so used ; oily or emollient application. 

anu-\/ti, to disappear after, BhP. 

anu -VI"bh, Caus. -lobhayati, to 
long for, desire, R. 

^I'JJrTW anu-loma, mf(a)n. ' with the hair 
or grain' (opposed \oprati-loma, q.v.), in a natural 
direction, in order, regular, successive ; conformable ; 
(a), f. a woman of a lower caste than that of the 
man's with whom she is connected, Yajn. ; (as), m. 
'descendants of an anulomi,' mixed castes, (gana 
upakadi, q.v.); (dm), ind. in regular order, SBr. 
&c. -kalpa, m. the thirty-fourth of the Atharva- 
parisishtas. krighta, mm. ploughed in the 
regular direction (with the grain). ja, mfn. off- 
spring of a mother inferior in caste to the father 
[Mn. ; Yajii.], (as the MQrdhSvasikta of a Brahman 
father and KshatriyJ mother, and so on with the 
Ambashtha NishJda or Parasava, Mshishya, Ugra, 
Karana.) -parinltS, f. married in regular grada- 
tion. Anulomaya, mm. having fortune favour- 
able. Annlomartha, mfn. one who holds favour- 
able views on any question. 

Anu-lomana, am, n. due regulation, sending or 
putting in the right direction, Susr.; carrying off 
by the right channels, purging, Susr. 

Anu-lomaya, Nom. P. anu-lomayati, to stroke 
or rub with the hair, Pan. iii, 1,35, Sch. ; to send in 
the right direction or so as to carry off by the right 
channels, Susr. 

w*j<^.'l an-ulband, mf(o)n. not excessive, 
not prominent, keeping the regular measure, RV. &c. 

wg^l anu-vansa, as, m. a genealogical 
list or table ; collateral branch of a family, Hariv. ; 
(am), ind. according to race or family ; (mf(a)n.), 
of a corresponding family, of equal birth. 

Anuvansya, mm. relating to a genealogical list. 

anu-vakra, mfn. somewhat crooked 

or oblique. tja, mfn. having a somewhat oblique 
course (as a planet, &c.), SuSr. 

wq^ 1 ^ anu-\/vac, to recite the formulas 
inviting to the sacrificial ceremony ; to repeat, re- 
iterate, recite ; to communicate ; to study : Caus. 
-vdcayaii, to cause to recite the inviting formulas, 
to cause to invite for some sacrificial act, KatySr. 

Anu-vaktavya, mfn. to be repeated, SBr. 

Anu-vaktri, mfn. speaking after ; replying. 

Ann-vacana, am, n. speaking after, repetition, 
reciting, reading ; lecture ; a chapter, a section ; 
recitation of certain texts in conformity with injunc- 
tions (pr&sha) spoken by other priests. 

Ann-vacaniya, mfn. referring to the anuva- 
cana, (gana anupravacan&di, q.v.) 

Anu-vaka, as, m. saying after, reciting, repeat- 
ing, reading ; a chapter of the Vedas, a subdivision 
or section. sankhyS, f. the fourth of the eigh- 
teen Parisishtas of the Yajur-veda. AnnvSka- 
nukramani, f. a work referring to the Rig-veda, 
attributed to Saunaka. 

Aun-vakya, mm. to be recited, TBr. ; to be re- 
peated, reiterated, Gobh. ; (a), f. the verse to be 
recited by the Hotri or MaitrSvaruna priest, in which 
the god is invoked to partake of the offering in- 
tended for him, SBr. Anuv&kya-vat [SBr.] or 
anuvSkya-vat [ASvSr.], mfh. furnished or accom- 
panied with an AnuvSkyl. 

Ann- vac, k, {. = anu-vdkyh, SBr. ; AitBr. 

Anu-vacana, am, n. the act of causing the Hotri 
to recite the passages of the Rig-veda in obedience 
to the injunction (f>rd\sha) of the Adhvaryu priest, 
KstySr. praisha, m. an injunction to recite as 
above, KitySr. 


Anukta, &c. See s.v., p. 42. 

w^rtt*. anu-vatsard, as, m. the fourth 
year in the Vedic cycle of five years, TBr. &c. ; a 
year, L. ; (am), ind. every year, yearly. 

Annvatsarf^a [TBr. &c.] or annvatsariya 
[MinSr.], mfn. referring to the anuvatsard. 

"'JJ^? anu-^/vad, P. (with ace.) to repeat 
the words of; to imitate (in speaking) ; to resound ; 
to repeat, insist upon ; (according to Pan. i, 3, 40, 
also A. if without object or followed by a Gen.) 
Pass, (andtfyate) to be expressed correspondingly ; 
cf. nntiJita s. v. 

Anu-v&da, as, m. saying after or again, repeat- 
ing by way of explanation, explanatory repetition or 
reiteration with corroboration or illustration, explana- 
tory reference to anything already said ; translation ; 
a passage of the Brahmanas which explains or illus- 
trates a rule (vidhi) previously propounded (such a 
passage is sometimes called anuvdiia-vacana) ; con- 
firmation, Nir. ; slander, reviling, L. 

Anu-vadaka or anu-vadln, mfn. repeating 
with comment and explanation, corroborative, con- 
current, conformable, in harmony with ; (the mascu- 
line of the last is also the name of any one of the 
three notes of the gamut.) 

Anu-vadita, mfn. translated. 

Anu-vadya, mfn. to be explained by an anuvada, 
to be made the subject of one ; (am), n. the subject 
of a predicate. tva, n. the state of requiring to be 
explained by an anuvada. 

Anudita. See s. v. 

wtjql^ anu-vanam, ind. along side of a 
wood, Kir.; (cf. Pan. ii, i, 15.) 

ijq<, anu-\/2. nap, P. to scatter over, 
Nir. ; A. to scatter as dust, AV. : Pass, dnu ufydle, 
to be scattered as dust, RV. i, 176, 2. 

^nj^^anu-vW-n, to mention, describe, 
recount ; to praise. 

-t)ar<ana, &c. See anu-\/vrit. 

anu-vasa, as, m. obedience to the 
will of; (mfn.), obedient to the will of. 

"3 <|l *$ a -"a*a?-*r (Vi.fcn), -karoti 
(Pot. -kurydf} to make a secondary exclamation of 
vashat, SBr. ; AitBr. ; KaushBr. ; SsnkhSr. 

Anu-vashatkara, as, m. or -vashatkrlta, 
am, n. a secondary exclamation of vashat, 

^J^^ i. anu-\/4. vas, to clothe, cover, 
RV. vi, 75, 18 ; AV. &c. 

Ann-vasita, mfn. dressed up, wrapped. 

^Irj<^\/5. pas, to settle after an- 
other (ace.) ; to dwell near to ; to inhabit along with : 
Caus.-vdsa}>att,to leave(the calf)with(the cow),TBr. 

Ann-vasin, mm. residing, resident. 

w^j^i| ana- \/vah, to convey or carry along; 
to take after, Comm. on Mn. iii, 7. 

Anu-vaha, as, m. 'bearing after,' one of the 
seven tongues of fire. 

I. anu-i/va, el. 2. P. -vati, to blow 

upon, blow along or after, RV. &c. 
2. Ann-va, f. blowing after, TS. ; (cf. anva.) 
Ann-vate, ind. with the wind blowing in the 

same direction, to windward, Mn. ii, 203. 

anu-vakd. See anu-\/vac. 
anu-varam, ind. time after time. 

nif- -/pas, to roar in reply to (ace.), 

W^J^TH anu-\/vas, to perfume. 

Ann-vSsa, as, m. perfuming (especially the 
clothes); an oily enema; administering oily enemata. 

Anu-vSsana, am, n. id. 

Anu-vasita, mfn scented, perfumed, fumigated; 
prepared or administered as an enema. 

Anu-vasya or -vSsaniya, mfn. to be scented 
or fumigated ; requiring an enema. 

anu-vi-i/kas, to blow, expand, 
as a flower. 

TT5(an-tn'- \/kas, Tntens. -cakasiti, 
to penetrate with one's vision, AV. 



anii-rt-v'i. kri, to shape after, 

anu-vi-\/l. kri, to bestrew, SBr.; 
to scatter separately, ApSr. 

^TJJrVai*^ anu-vi- \fkram, A . to step or walk 
after, follow, AV. &c. 

^Tjra^ anu-vi- </ car, to walk or pass 
through, RV. vi, 28, 4 ; to walk up to, RV. viii, 
3', 19- 

**3 fa^c! anu-vi- \/cal, to follow in chang- 
ing place, AV. 

WgfVfa'Sfr anu-p-v/ct)i/,torecal to mind, 
Bnddh. ; to meditate upon, ib. 

'w^fin^ anu-vi- V tan, to extend all along 
or all over, SBr. 

^Tgf^[ i.a-v/i.rtd,cl. 3. P., Ved.-t>ei, 
to know thoroughly, RV. &c. 

^Tgf^[ 2.ana- v / 3. vid, cl. 6. P. A. -m'n- 
dati, te, to find, obtain, discover, RV. &c. ; to 
many, MBh. ; to deem, Git. 

Ann-vitta, mm. found, obtained, at hand, SBr. 
xiv, &c. 

A'un-vlttl, is, f. finding, SBr. 

Anu-vidvas, mm. perf. p. having found, AV. 

^T^frvrr anu-vi- ^dha, to assign to in 
order ; to regulate, lay down a rule : Pass, -dhtyate, 
to be trained to follow rules ; to yield or conform 
to (gen.) 

Anu-vidhatavya, mfn. to be performed accord- 
ing to an order. 

Ann-vidllana, am, n. acting conformably to 
order, obedience. 

Anu-vidhayin, mm. conforming to, compliant ; 
imitating, Sis. vi, 23. 

^njNvt^ ana-Pt-v'l. dhav, to flow or run 
along (ace. or loc.), Kath. ; KafhUp. ; to flow through, 
RV. viii, 17, 5. 

w^fqie; anu-pi- \/arf, Caus. P. -ndda- 
yati, to make resonant or musical. 

"jf' ! '*'l anu-vi- \/nard, to answer with 
roars, Hariv. 

^I'jhi'l^ anu-ci-v/2. nas, to disappear, 
perish, vanish after or with another (ace.), AV. &c. 
Anu-vi-nasa, as, m. perishing after. 

wtjNHiJ^ anu-vi-nih- -v/ go or come 
out in order, MarkP. 

wgr=t^ anu-vinda, as, m., N. of a king 
of Oujein. 

w 3 fWTJ(anu-vi- */pas, -v(-pasyati,to\oo\i 
at, view, SBr. ; PBr. 

^T^fV>J i antt-ei-v'iAu, to equal, correspond 
to; SBr. 

M-ri-v/mris, to consider, Das. 

l an-p- i/raj, to be bright after 
or along, RV. v, 81, 2. 

^njrirtl anu-vi- ^/U, to dissolve (as salt 
in water), SBr. xiv. 

WJ%3T anu-vi- V"d, to blow while passing 
through, TBr. 

^TrjfVfVsf anu-vi- -/vis, to settle along 
separately, TS. 

'Wjf'$r^ aa-tn- -</vnt, to run along, RV. 
viii, 103, 2 : Caus. A. -varlayate, to follow hastily, 

jfV^anu- /'*, to enter after; to enter; 
to follow. 

Anu-vesa, as, m. or -vesana, am, n. entering 
after, following. 

anu-visva, as, m. pi., N. of a 
people in the north-east, VarBfS. 

nnn-ri-shanna, mfn. ( Vsad), 
fixed upon, ChUp. 

anu-vi-shic (^sic), to pour in 
addition to (ace.), AV. 


inW anu-vishtambha, as, m. the being 
impeded in consequence of, Nir. 

^njfTBT anu-vi-sh{ha (Vstha), to extend 
over, RV. Sec. 

m-Bwintt, ind. after Vishnu. 

t! anu-vi-shyand (-/syand), to 
flow over or along or upon, SBr. 

anu-vi-^/sri, to extend or stream 
over, TBr. 

*njf^JT anu-vi- Vsrij, to shoot at or 
towards ; to send along (ace.), RV. v, 53, 6. 

^Hjf'SreTTT anu-vistrita, mfn. (*/stri), 'ex- 
tended, spread out,' large, roomy, R. 

''H^r^HHrl anu-vismita, mfn. one who is 
astonished after another, R. 

^jfTO^ anu-vi- \/srans, Caus. -srasa- 
yati, to separate, loose, SBr. 

'WJjfa^'^ anu-vi- t/han, to interrupt, de- 
range, MBh. 

^frj^ 1 anu-vi (-v/t), cl. 2. P. -vyeti, to fol- 
low or join in going off or separating, VS. ; SBr. ; 
to extend along, TBr. 

WcJ^TS^ anu-viksh (v'lksh), to survey, 

tj, to fan. 

anu-\/vri, to cover, KaushBr. &c.; 
to surround : Caus. A. -vdrayate, to hinder, prevent. 

^Tj<|i^anu- Vvrit, A. to go after; to fol- 
low, pursue ; to follow from a previous rule, be sup- 
plied from a previous sentence ; to attend ; to obey, 
respect, imitate ; to resemble ; to assent ; to expect : 
Caus. P. -vartayati, to roll after or forward ; to 
follow up, carry out ; to supply. 

Ann-vartana, am, n. obliging, serving or grati- 
fying another ; compliance, obedience ; following, 
attending ; concurring ; consequence, result ; con- 
tinuance ; supplying from a previous rule. 

Anu-vartaniya, mfn. to be followed ; to be 
supplied from a previous rule, 

Ann-vartin, mm. following, compliant, obe- 
dient, resembling. Anuvarti-tva, n. the state of 
being so. 

A'nu-vartman, mfn. following attending, AV. 
&c. ; (a), n. a path previously walked by another, 

Anu-vrit, mfn. walking after, following, MaitrS. ; 

Anu-vritta, mfn. following, obeying, comply- 
ing; rounded off ; (am), n. obedience, conformity, 

Anu-vrittl, is, f. following, acting suitably to, 
having regard or respect to, complying with, the act 
of continuance ; (in Panini's Gr.) continued course 
or influence of a preceding rule on what follows; 
reverting to ; imitating, doing or acting in like 

A, t.o grow, increase 

h, to rain upon or along, 
AV. ; TS. 

^PJ^fif anu-vedi, ind. along the ground 
prepared for sacrifice, KatySr. Anu-vedy-antam, 
ind. along the edge of the sacrificial ground, SBr. 

; anu-Vven, to allure, entice, RV. 
[ anu-velam, ind. now and then. 

anu-vellita, am, n. ( VWW), 
bandaging, securing with bandages (in surgery) ; a 
kind of bandage applied to the extremities, Susr. ; 
(mfn.), bent in conformity with, bent under. 

W^N^ anu-\/vesht, to be fixed to, cling 
to, Kath. : Caus. P. -veshtayati, to wind round, 

I anuvaineya, N. of a country. 

anu-vyanjana, am, n. a secon- 
dary mark or token, Buddh. 

anu- vvyadh, cl. 4. P. -vidhyati, to 
strike afterwards, Mn.; to penetrate, pierce through, 

Auu-viddlia, mfn. pierced, penetrated ; inter- 
mixed, full of, abounding in ; set (as a jewel). 

Anu-vedha or ann-vyadha, as, m. piercing ; 
obstructing ; blending, intermixture. 

"3^^ anu-vyam, ind. (\/vi), behind, 
after, inferior to, SBr. ; PBr. 

TIJ^r^nT anu-vy-ava-\/, 01.3. P. -ji- 
gdti, to come between in succession to another, SBr. 
anu-vy-ava-\/so, to perceive. 

anu-vy-avi (Vt), cl. 2. P. -avaiti, 
to follow in intervening or coming between, SBr. 

. ^J c M?ia-cy-v'i.B, to overtake, reach, 


^HJT?TT anu-vy-a-\/khya, to explain 
further, ShadvBr. ; ChUp. 

Ami-vyakhyana, am, n. that portion of a BrSh- 
mana which explains or illustrates difficult Sutras, 
texts or obscure statements occurring in another 
portion, SBr. xiv. 

*^J 4 Mi*<4T anu-vy-a-\/stha, Caus. -stha- 
payati, to send away in different directions, TBr. 

^ti^^i^ anu-vy-a-i/hri, to utter in order 
or repeatedly, MaitrUp. ; to curse, SBr. &c. 

Anu-vyaharana, am, n. repeated utterance, R. 

Ann-vyahara, as, m. cursing, execration, KatySr. 

Anu-vyanarin, mfn. execrating, cursing, SBr. 

" TJ^"^- an -py-uc--v / car, to follow in 
going forth, SBr. 

"J^J^ anu-vySi. uh, to move apart 
after, PBr. ; to distribute, SBr. 

^erg^lT anu-\/vraj, to go along, AsvSr. ; 
to follow (especially a departing guest, as a mark of 
respect) ; to visit seriatim ; to obey, do homage. 

Ann-vrajana, am, n. following as above, Heat. 

Ami-vrajya, mfn. to be followed (as by the 
relatives of a dead person to the cemetery), Yajn. 
iii, I. 

Anu-vrajya, f. = anu-vrajana, Mn. &c. 

w^sjn dnu-vrata, mfn. devoted to, faith- 
ful to, ardently attached to (with gen. or ace.) 

Ttq^i*^ anu-Vsans, to recite or praise after 
another, TS.&c.; (Ved. Inf. (dat.) anu-sdse) to join 
in praising, RV. v, 50, 1. 

^lj^T< anu-\/sak, to be able to imitate 
or come up with, RV. x, 43, 5 : Desid. Caus. P. 
-sikshayati, to teach, instruct. 

Ann-slksnin, mfn. exercising one's self in, 
practising, Das. &c. 

^nj^ffil^r anu-satika, mfn. accompanied 
with or bought for a hundred. Annsatikadi, a 
gana of Pan. (vii, 3, 20) containing the compounds 
the derivatives of which have Vriddhi in both parts, 
as anusatika, &c. 

anu-*/ sap, to curse, MBh. 
It anu-sabdita, mfn . verbally com- 

municated ; spoken of. 

Ann-sabdya, ind. p. having communicated, 

'flJ5l*^ anu-^/sam, to become calm after 
or in consequence of, BhP. 

anu-saya, &c. See onu-v/i.ii. 
! anu-sara, as, m. (v/m), N. of a 

"^51^ anu-sastra, am, n. any subsidiary 
weapon or instrument, anything used in place of a 
regular surgical instrument (as a finger-nail), Suir. 

'SnjSIT^ anu- v/sos, to rule, govern ; to 
order ; to teach, direct, advise, address ; to punish, 
chastise, correct. 

Ann-sasaka, mm. one who governs, instructs, 
directs or punishes. 

Ann-asat,mfn. showing (the way),P V. i, 1 39,4. 

anu-shanga. 39 

Anu-sasana, am, n. instruction, direction, com- 
mand, precept, RV.x, 32, 7,&c. para, mfn. obe- 

Anu-sasauiya or -cSsya, mfn. to be instructed. 

Anu-s&sita, mfn. directed ; defined by rule. 

Anu-sasitri, mfn. governing, instructing, Bhag. 

Anu-sasin, mfn. punishing, Vikr. 

Anu-sishta, mfn. taught, revealed; adjudged, 
done conformably to law. 

Anu-sishti, is, f. instruction, teaching, ordering. 

Anu-sishya, ind. part, having ruled or ordered. 

F anu-siksh, &c. See anu- \/sak. 

anu-sikha, as, m., N. of a Naga 
or snake priest, PBr. 

anu-sivam, ind. after Siva. 

dnu-sisM, us, {. followed by its 
young (as by a foal, &c.), SBr. ; KatySr. 

^^J$rt ana-v/i. si, cl. 2. A. -sete, to sleep 
with, lie along or close, adhere closely to. 

Anu-saya, as, m. close connection as with a 
consequence, close attachment to any object ; (in 
phil.) the consequence or result of an act (which 
clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the 
temporary freedom from transmigration toenterother 
bodies) ; repentance, regret ; hatred ; ancient or in- 
tense enmity ; (f), f. a disease of the feet, a boil or 
abscess on the upper part; a boil on the head. 
vat, mfn. = anu-sayin. 

Anu-sayana, mfn. repenting, regretting; (a), 
f. a heroine or female character who regrets the loss 
of her lover (in dramas). 

Anu-sayitavya, mfn. to be regretted. 

Anu-sayin, mfn. having the consequence of an 
act, connected as with a consequence ; devotedly 
attached to, faithful ; repentant, penitent, regretful, 
sorry for ; hating deeply. 

Anu-sayin, mfn. lying or extending along, Nir. 

TJj^TTcST anu-silaya, Nom. P. -sitayati, 
to practise in imitation of, BhP. 

Anu-silana, am, n. constant practice or study 
(of a science, &c.), repeated and devoted service. 

Anu-siUta, mfn. studied carefully, attended to. 

"^J9J T 1 anu-^/i. sue, to mourn over, re- 
gret, bewail : Caus. P. -iocayati, to mourn over. 

Ann-soka, as, m. sorrow, repentance, regret, L. 

Ann-socaka, mfn. grieving, one who repents; 
occasioning repentance. 

Anu-socana, am, n. sorrow, repentance. 

Anu-socita, mfn. regretted, repented of. 

Anu-socin, mfn. regretful, sorrowful, 

^^J^, an "-v sush, to dry up gradually, 
SBr. xiv, &c. ; to become emaciated by gradual 
practice of religious austerity, Kaus. ; to languish 
after another. 

anu-sobhin, mfn. shining. 
anu-i/srath, cl. 6. P. -srinthati, to 
untie, TS. : Caus. P. (aor. Subj. i. sg. -SisrathaK) 
to frighten [BR.; 'to abolish,' Say.], RV. iv, 33, 23 : 
A. -srathayate, to annihilate or soften the effect of, 
RV. v, 59, I. 

WTJ-SJ anu-i/sru, cl. 5. P. -srinoti, to hear 
repeatedly (especially what is handed down in the 
Veda) : Desid. A. -susrushate, to obey. 

Anu-srava, as, m., Vedic tradition (acquired by 
repeated hearing), L. 

Ann- sruta, mfn . handed down by Vedic tradition. 
anu- \/svas, to breathe continually. 

inu-shac ( </sac), to adhere to, keep 
at the" side of, RV. &c. 

WJWl^ anu-shanj (-/safij), cl. I. A. or 
Pass, -shajjate, -shajyate, to cling to, adhere, be at- 
tached to. 

Anu-shak or ann-shat, ind. in continuous 
order, one after the other, (gana svar-ddi, q. v.) ; cf. 

Ann-shakta, mfn. closely connected with, sup- 
plied from something preceding. 

Ann-shang-a, as, m. close adherence, connec- 
tion, association, conjunction, coalition, commixture; 
connection of word with word, or effect with cause ; 




necessary conseqnence, the connection of a subse- 
quent with a previous act ; (in the DhStupatha) the 
nasals connected with certain roots ending in con- 
sonants (as in trimpK) ; tenderness, compassion, L 

Ann-Bhangika, mfn. consequent, following as 
a necessary result ; connected with, adhering to, in- 
herent, concomitant. 

Ann-ihanffln, mfn. addicted or attached to, con- 
nected with, or 'common, prevailing," Mn. vii, 53. 

Ann-Bhanjana, am, n. connection with whai 
follows, concord ; grammatical relation. 

Anu-BhanJaniya, mm. to be connected, supplied 

TI*J^S anusHanda, as or am, m. or n., N 
of a place or country, (gana kacchadi, q. v.) 

Tl-jifM anu-shatyd, mfn. being conform- 
able to truth (satya), RV. iii, 26, I. 

i^fa^ anu-shic (</sic), Ved. to pour 
upon or into ; to drip upon. 

Anu-chikta, mfn. dripped upon, TS. 

Anu-Bheka, as, m. or -ahecaua, am, n. re- 
watering or sprinkling over again, L. 

V^f^^anu-shidh ( ,/sidh), Intens. (p. -sf- 
thidhaf) to bring back along the path, RV. i, 73, 15. 

TrJ?at anu-shtabdha, mfn. ( Vstambh), 
(used for an etymology) raised, KaushBr. 

t^J5 anu-shtu ( Vstu), to praise, RV. 
Ann-Bhtnti, is, (. praise, RV. 

T^^H. i. anu-shtubh (\/siubh), to praise 
after, to follow in praising, Nir. 

a. Ann-shtubh,/ (nom. "shttik, TS.), f. follow- 
ing in praise or invocation ; a kind of metre con- 
sisting of four Pldas or quarter-verses of eight 
syllables each (according to the DaivBr., quoted in 
Nir. vii, I], so called because it anushtobhati, i.e. 
follows with its praise the Giyatri, which consists of 
three Pidas), RV. x, 1 30, 4, &c. ; (in later metrical 
systems, the Anushtubh constitutes a whole class of 
metres, consisting of four times eight syllables) ; 
hence the number eight ; speech, Sarasvati, L. ; 
(mm.), praising, RV. x, 1 24, 9. Anmhtup-kar- 
mina, mfn. being performed with an anushtubh 
verse, SBr. Annshtup-cnandai, mfn. having 
anushtubh for metre, MaitrS. Anushtnp-iiras 
or -sirshan [AitBr.], mfn. having an anushtubh 
verse at the head. Annshtub-garblia, f. a metre 
(like that in RV. i, 187, i) of the class Ushnih, 

Ann-shtobhana, am, n. praising after, DaivBr. 

wqg an-ush(ra, as, m. no camel, i.e. a 
bad camel. 

"3i anu-sh(kd (\/sthd), to stand near or 
by ; to follow out ; to carry out, attend to ; to per- 
form, do, practise ; to govern, rule, superintend ; to 
appoint : Pass, -shthlyate, to be done ; to be fol- 
lowed out : Desid. -tishthasati, to be desirous of 
doing, &c. 

Anu-tiahthamfina, mfn. following out, carry- 
ing out, performing, attending to. 

Anu-ahtha, mfn. standing after, i.e. in suc- 
cession, RV. i, 54, 10. 

Ann-shtkStavya, mfn. to be accomplished. 

Arm-shthStri, ta, m. the undertaker of any 
work, AV. &c. 

Ann-Bhth&na, atx, n. carrying out, undertak- 
ing ; doing, performance ; religious practice ; acting 
in conformity to ; (), f. performance, action, Kaus. 
krama, m. the order of performing religious 
ceremonies. iarlra, n. (in Sinkhya phil.) the 
body which is intermediate between the lihga- or 
sukshma- and the sthula-iartra (generally called 
the adhishthana-sartra, q. v.) nuaraka, 
tai(ika)n. reminding of religious ceremonies. 

Ann-BhthSpaka, mf(//fei)n. causing to perform. 

Anu-ghthapana, am, n. the causing to perform 
an act. 

Ann-shthjyln, mfn. doing, performing an act. 

Anu-shthi, is, (. 'being near, present, at hand,' 
only inst. anu-shthya, ind. immediately, SBr. &c. 

Ann-Bhthita, mfn. done, practised ; effected, 
executed, accomplished ; followed, observed ; done 

Anu-htlieya, mfn. to be effected, done or 

accomplished ; to be observed ; to be proved or es- 
Ann-shthya. See anu-shthi. 

f<*JU!l an-ushtia, mf(d)n. not hot, cold; 
apathetic ; lazy, L. ; (am), n. the blue lotus, Nym- 
phtea Caerulea ; (a), f., N. of a river. gTi, m. 'hav- 
ing cold rays,' the moon. vallika, f. the plant Nila- 
diirb.'i. AnnahnaBita, mfn. neither hot nor cold. 

An-nBhnaka, mfn. not hot, cold ; chilly, &c. 

^^J*TT anu-shyand (\/syand), Ved. Inf. 
-shyade [RV. ii, 13, 2] and Caus. -syandayddhyai 
[RV. iv, 22, 7], to run along: -syandatt & -shyan- 
date with a differentiation in meaning like that in 
abhi-shyand, q. v., Pin. viii, 3, 72. 

Anu-shyanda, as, m. a hind-wheel, SBr. 

WJKV^ anu-sHvadhdm (fr. sva-dhii), ind. 
according to one*s will, voluntary, RV. 

WJ=IIM*^ anu-shvapam, ind. 
continuing to sleep, RV. viii, 97, 3. 

Wjppu anu-sam-\/yd, to go up and down 
(as guards) ; to go to or towards. 

3*l<,!fli anu-samrakta, mfn. attached or 
devoted to. 

^enpJTHanu-sar/j-v'raSA, A. to catch hold 
of, RV. x, 103, 6 ; to catch hold of mutually, AV. 
anu-samvatsaram, ind. year 

after year. 

iHrj^iqi anu-sam- */vah, to draw or run 
by the side of, AV. ; to convey along, TBr. 

wrjtjqi anu-sam-i/2. vd, to blow towards 
in order, TBr. 

WrjH f<4<!^. anu-Sam-vi-\/car, to visit suc- 
cessively, make the round of, MBh. 

w^tff^[ anu-sam-^/, to know to- 
gether with, or in consequence of (something else), 
AV. x, 7, 17 & 26. 

tl Jt| fmS!(anu-sam->/vis, to retire for sleep 
after, AV. ; TBr. &c. 

^T^ff^tn anu-sam-vita, mfn. ( \/vye), 
wrapped up, covered, MBh. 

W^T9"S^ ana-saw- -Jura.}, to go after, fol- 
low, AsvSr. &c. 

wqj anu-sam-i/sri, Caus. P. -sarayati, 
to cause to follow, to pass or go on before, MBh. 

w jtj *i\anu-sam~ Vsrip, to creep or crawl 
after, SBr. ; TBr. 
Ann-sam-Barpam, ind. creeping after, KJtySr. 

(^*j? anu-sam-$fishta, mfn. joined to 
(instr.X BhP. 

anu-sam-i/stka, P. to follow (a 
road), BhP. : A. to become finished after, SBr. ; 
AitBr. : Caus. P. -ithapayati, to encourage, R. 

Ann-sam-Bthita, mfn. following; dead or de- 
ceased after (another), Ragh. 

anu-sam- \/spris, Caus to cause 

to touch after, Br. 

w^jtli anu-sam- i/smri, to remember, to 
long for (the dead or absent). 

T^J'T +*(<: anit-sam-t/syand, Intens. (p. 
nom. m. dnu sam-sanishyadaf) to run after, VS. ix, 
14; (f. Pan. vii, 4, 65.) 

w cj^if^rl^ anu-samhltam, ind. according 
:o the Samhiti text, RPrJt. 

w-jtl^ anu-sam- i/hri, to drag (the foot), 
CauJ. ; to compress, reduce a subject, Lsty. 

(jW^r'5 anu-sam- v/z. kal, to drive or 
convey along or after, AsvGr. 

js3<*^ anu-sam- */kram, to walk or go 
up to, to reach, AV. 

^JHJWI anu-sam- \/khy a, Cans. P.-khya- 
payati, to cause to observe, show, SBr. 

31[^ anu-sam- \/grah,to oblige, favour ; 
o salute by laying hold of the feet. 

anu-sam- ^/car, to walk along 
side, to follow, join ; to visit ; to pursue, seek after ; 
to penetrate, traverse, cross ; to become assimilated : 
Caus. P. -carayati, to join, become identified or as- 
similated with. 

Auu-Mun-cara, mfn. following or accompany- 
ing (with ace.), TBr. 

w g fa ^ anu-sam- Vct'it, to meditate. 

^qtJia^. anu-sam- \fjvar, to feel distressed 
after (another), BfArUp. (anu-sam-car, SBr. xiv) ; 
to be troubled, become envious. 

"T}*' n *\ an "-sam-\/tan, to overspread, 
diffuse, extend everywhere ; to join on, continue. 
Ann-BttJn-tati, is, f. continuation, MaitrS. 

T^TTT anu-sam- \/tri, to carry to the end, 
go on (in spinning), AV. vi, 123, I ; AsvSr. 

"3*^^ anu-sam- y'doA, to burn up along 
the whole length, AV. 

'"y f<;^ anu-sam- -J 'dis, to assign, to 
make over. 

" ^J** ?*^ anu-sam- \/rfrs (ind. p. -rfrtsyo) 
to consider successively, MBh. xii, 12024. 

^njlTVT anu-sam-Vdhd, to explore, ascer- 
tain, inspect, plan, arrange ; to calm, compose, set 
in order ; to aim at. 

Ann-Mundh&tavya, mm. to be explored, to be 
investigated, to be looked after, &c. 

Ann-samdhana, am, n. investigation, inquiry, 
searching into, close inspection, setting in order, ai- 
ranging, planning ; aiming at ; plan, scheme, con- 
gruous or suitable connection ; (in the Vaiseshika 
phil.) the fourth step in a syllogism (i. e. the appli- 

Anu-sanidhinin, mm. investigating, searching, 
skilful at concerting or carrying out schemes. 

Anu-samdhayin, mm. id. 

Anu-sanidheya,mfn. to be investigated, worthy 
of inquiry or scrutiny, &c. 

'W^IIr'flJ^ anu-sandhyam, ind. evening 
after evening, every twilight. 

anu-samaya. See anu-sam- \/i. 
anu-sam- v/ 1. as, to overtake, 
reach, SBr. 

3*m anu-sam- 1/3. as, -sdm-asyati, to 
add further, SBr. 

^ anu-sam-d-\/car, to carry out, 
accomplish, BhP. 

qtf1lin anu-sam-d- \/dhd, to calm, com- 

TjfjMl^ anu-sam- Vdp, Caus. P. to com- 
plete or accomplish further or subsequently, KitySr. 
Ann-samSpana, am, n. regular completion, 

T anu-sam-d- \/rabh, A. to place 
one's self in order after, cling to (ace.), TS. j TBr. : 
Caus. A. (impf. -Srambhayata~) to cause to cling 
to oqe's self (loc.), TS. 

anu-sam-d- i/ruh, to rise after, 

w^*ii^ anu-sam-d- Vhri, to join or bring 
n order again, ChUp. 

^Hprftl anu-sam-\/i, el. 3. P. -eh', to visit 
conjointly or successively ; to join in following or 
jeing guided by ; to join, become assimilated with. 

Ann-Camay*, as, m. regular connection (as of 
words), NySyad. &c. 

anu-sam- Viksh, to keep in view, 
lave in view, SBr. 

anu-samudram, ind. along the 
sea, Pan. iv, 3, lo. 

, to go to- 

wards, AV. xi, i, 36. 

* 3*M \\anu-sam-prap (\/dp), to arrive, 
each, get. 
Anu-samprilpta, mfn. arrived, come. 


f anu-sambaddha, tnfn. ( i/bandh), 
connected with, accompanied by. 

W^HfWjj anu-sam-v bhid, to bring into 
contact, combine, K5{h. 

"^"8. aw "- sal ? l -v / 6Au, to be produced 
after, proceed after, SBr. 

Orjflujr^ aiiu~sam-\/man, to approve, 

wq^i*^ au-saeadro, ind. at very 
sacrifice, TBr. &c. ; constantly, BhP. 

'Jt'JHId*^ anu-saforo, ind. according to 

*igfi*J anu-sanu, ind. along a table-land 
or summit, from ridge to ridge. 

w*jli anu-sama, mfn. at every Saman- 
verse(?), Pan. v, 4, 75. 

>BtjiM*^ anu-sayam, ind. evening after 
evening, every evening, (gpn* parimukhadi, q.v.) 

w^tlH. anu-sara, anu-sarin, &c. See 
under anu-Vsri below. 

nnu-<i/sic. See anu-Vshic. 
anv-iiddha, mfn. (\/3- sidh), 
gradually effected or realized, BhP. 

w 3*1! n^anu-sitdm, ind. alongthe furrow, 
TS.; (gun parimukhadi, q.v.) 

w 3"K*^flni(-sjra>n, ind. alongthe plough, 
(gana parimukhadi, q.v.) 

wj<j_ anu-sii, us, m., N. of a work, Pan. 

*tJU^* anu-sucaka, mf(j/sa)n. (s/suc), 
indicative of, pointing out. 

Ann-sueana, am, n. pointing out, indication. 

"3*3^*1 anu-supam, ind. in every con- 

^PpJ anu-Vsri, to go after: Caus. P. -sa- 
rayati, to pursue. 

Ann-sara, mf(i)n. following, a companion. 

Ann-sarana, am, n. following, going after; 
tracking, conformity to, consequence of; custom, 
habit, usage. 

Ann-sara, as, m. going after, following ; custom, 
Usage ; nature, natural state or condition of any- 
thing ; prevalence, currency ; received or established 
authority, especially of codes of law ; accordance, 
conformity to usage ; consequence, result ; (ena), 
or -tas, ind. conformably to. 

Ann-saraka or ann-sarln, mfn. following, 
attendant on, according or conformable to ; pene- 
trating, scrutinizing, investigating. 

Ann-saryaka, am, n. a fragrant substance. 

Ann-srita, mm. followed, conformed to. 

Ann-sriti, is, f. going after, following, conform- 
ing to; N. of a woman, (gana kalydny-ddi, q.v.) 

w *jj >^ anu-i/srij, to dismiss, let go, RV. 
x, 66, 8, &c. : P. A. -srijati, te, to create suc- 
cessively, SBr. &c. : Pass, to be created in succession 
to, TS. 

Ann-srishta, mfn. created in succession, VS. 

f( ^H, anu-Vsrip, to glide after or to- 
wards, to approach. 
Ann-sarpa, as, m. a serpent-like being, AV. 

^jifa anu-V'sep, to practise, observe. 
Ann-savin, mfn. practising, observing, habitu- 
ally addicted to. 

watt's anu-sainya, am, n. the rear of an 
army, L. 

w gtili^anu-soroam, ind. according to the 
(practice with the) Soma, as with the Soma, KatySr. 
u-skandam, ind. having gone 

into in succession, Pan. iii, 4, 56, Sch. 

*i^w*.u ami-starana, as, m. (i/stri), an 
animal which is fit to be chosen as a secondary victim ; 
anu-stdrani, f. the cow sacrificed at the funeral 
ceremony, TS. &c. 

anu-stotra, am, n.' praising after,' 
N. of a treatise relating to the Sama-veda. 

onu-sneham, ind. after (adding) 

anuna-guru. 41 

I . Anuoya, am, n. elbow-piece of a seat, AV. &c. 
an&cyate, Pass. of anu-Vt>ac,q.v., 

oil, Susr. 


dttu-spashta. See anu-</pas. 
anu-Vspris, to touch, extend to, 

,4, . 

anu-Jsphur, to whizz towards, 
RV. vi, 67, ii. 
Ann-sphnra, mfn. whizzing (as an arrow), AV. 

"3**J anu-v/smrt', to remember, recollect : 
Caus. P. -smdrayati or -smarayati, to remind 
(with ace.), Kir. v, 14. 

Anu-smarana, am, n. remembering, repeated 

Ann-smrlta, mfn. remembered. 

Ann-smriti, is, f. cherished recollection, recall- 
ing some idea to the exclusion of all others. 

wjtjfl anu-syuta, mfn. (Vsie), sewed 
consecutively, strung together or connected regularly 
and uninterruptedly. 

x tjt* M w\dn-usra-ydman, a, m. not going 
out during daylight, RV. iv, 33, 24. 

wgsil anu-svdna, as, m. sounding con- 
formably, Sah. 

TIJSU, anu-svura, as, m. (Vspri), after- 
sound, the nasal sound which is marked by a dot 
above the line, and which always belongs to a pre- 
ceding vowel, vat, mfn. having the Anusvara. 
vyavaya, m. separation between two sounds 
caused by an Anusvara. Anusvaragama, m. an 
augment consisting in the addition of an Anusvara. 

J5 anuhn, as, m., N. of a son of 
Vibhratra and father of Brahma-datta, VS. 

anu-haud. See anu-</hve. 

anu-^/2. ha, cl. 3. A. -jihile, to run 
after.'catch, AV. &c. ; to follow, join, RV. 

" 3ST anv -hum- Vkri, to roar in imitation 

13?^ anu--/hurch, to fall down after 
another, Kajh. 

^3g anu-Vhri, to imitate ; to resemble : 
A. -karate, to take after (one's parents). 

Ann-harana, am, n. or -Kara, as, m. imita- 
tion ; resemblance. 

Ann-harat, mm. imitating ; (an), m., N. of a 
man, (gana anusatikadi, q. v.) 

Ann-naramana, mfn. imitating. 

Ann-n&raka, ml(ika)n. imitating. 

Ann-harya, mfn. to be imitated; (as), m.= 
anv-d-hdrya, L. 

^nj?TJ anu-hnda, as, m. a cart(r), (gana 
anusatikadi, q. v.) 

wggie; anu-hrada or -hldda, at, m., N. of 
a son of Hiranya-ka&pu, Hariv. 

VtJ^ anu-Vhve, to call again, call after, 
call back, RV.; AV.: Intern, -johaviti, to call 
repeatedly, AV. 

Ann-nava, as, m. inviting, stirring up, AV. 

^tfiqi dnuka, as, am, m. n. ( \/anc with anti), 
the backbone, spine ; the back part of the altar ; a 
former state of existence ; (am), n. race, family, L. ; 
peculiarity of race, disposition, character, VarBrS. 
&c. ; (a), f., N. of an Apsaras, Hariv. 

Annkya (3, 4), mfn. belonging to the backbone, 
SBr. ; backbone, RV. x, 163, 3 ; AV. 

"*J*'?I anu-kdsd, as, m. ( Vkds), reflection 
(of light), clearness, VS. ; TS. &c. ; regard, refer- 
ence, AitBr. 

^lJT!^ anuksh (<\A- uksh), (p. A. ami . . . 
ukshdmdna; perf. dnu . . . vavdksha) to sprinkle, 
bedew, RV. iii, 7, 6 & vi, 66, 4. 

WH ^O"^ anucind, mfn. (fr. anv-anc), com- 
ing after, successive, RV. iv, 54, 3 ; Sulb. ffjr- 
bha, mm. born in successive order, SBr. Ann- 
cin&ham, ind. on successive days, SBr. 

p. 38, col. I. 

Anukta, mfn. spoken after, recited after ; occur- 
ring in the (sacred) text ; studied ; (am), n. study. 

Annkti, is, f. mentioning after, repeated men- 
tion, repetition by way of explanation ; study of the 
Veda. tva, n. state of requiring repetition or ex- 

Anncana, mfn. one so well versed in the Vedas 
and VedaAgas as to be able to repeat them ; one 
who repeats his lesson after his master ; devoted to 
learning; well-behaved (</uc). 

i. Anncya, mm. to be repeated or learnt ; (cf. 

flijj~ii( andj-ji (anu-ud-^ji), (aor. Subj. I. 
sg. dttuj-jcsham) to be victorious after, VS. ii, 15 ; 

^PJjf an-udha, mfn. (i/vah), not borne, 
not carried ; (a), f. an unmarried woman. mftna, 
mm. bashful. Anndha-gamana, n. ' going after 
an unmarried woman,' fornication. Anfidna-bnra- 
tri, m. the brother of an unmarried woman ; the 
brother of the concubine of a king. 

dn-uti, is, f. no help, RV. vi, 29, 6. 
I- ^kram, to go up or out after, 

SBr. """ 

OJ_fVn andtthi (-Stthd), anuttishthati, to 
rise after, VS. &c. 

*lJ_rM l(andt-<Spat, to fly up after another 
(ace.), raise one's self into the air, jump up afterwards. 

wt^wi I. anut-\/i.pd, -pibati, to drink 
up or empty by drinking after another, SBr. 

en^rMi a.anZf-\/5. pd (3. pi. -pipafe) to 
rise along, TBr.; (cf. ut-^$.pd.) 

" > k'*"*-*V an dt-sdram, ind. while leaving a 
place or retiring successively, AitBr. 

"Ifi'V an dt-V*TV> * dismiss towards, 

^l^; anud(\/vd), (impf. 3. pi. anv-aundan) 
to wet along, Ksth. 

*(tj^4 an-udaka, am, n. (metri causa for 
an-udaka), want of water, aridity, R. i, 30, 16. 

"J^^ anud-\/, -asyati, to toss up 
behind or after, SBr. 

ijp anud-\/i, to go up or out after 
(another), AV. &c. 

1 Wjfi?'if anudita, mfn. (*/vad), spoken 
after, spoken according to. See also anu-i/vad. 

I. Anndya, mm. to be spoken to afterwards. 

3. Anndya, ind. having said afterwards or in 

Anndyamana, mm . spoken in reply to or accord- 
ing to. 

^Tijjl' andd-e (-d-</i), cl. 3. P. andd-aiti, 
to rise or come up after, SBr. &c. 

T(J^J;^ anud "/drink (Pot. 3. pi. antid- 
drinheyuh') ' to fix or fasten during,' keep waiting 
until (a), SBr. 

ft f^(5 ^i anuddtsa, as, m. ( \/dis), describing, 
mentioning according to or conformably with, Sah. 

lli andd-^i. dru, to run after (ace.), 

Vf^CI andd-dhd (Vi- ha), to set off or 
start after, TBr. 

'WJI anud-dhri (</hri), to take out from 
subsequently, TS. 

1J8I anud-^2. co, -vati, to disperse or 
dissipate by following (the wind vdyum), SBr. 

THJ^^ nn-udhds, as, f. udderless, RV. x, 

^<j1 dn-una, mf(n)n. or an-naia [L.], 
mfn. not less, not inferior to (abl.), Ragh. ; whole, 
entire ; having full power ; (a), f., N. of an 
Apsaras, Hariv. gnrn, mfn. of undiminlshed 



weight, very heavy. varcas (liniina-), mfn. 
having full splendour, RV. x, 140, 2. 

Wt^fl anun- \/ ni, cl. I . P. -nayati, to take 
out and fill after another, TBr. ; SBr. 

^nWanupd, mfn.(fr. 2. op, q.v.,with an), 
situated near the water, watery, L. ; (ds), m. a 
watery country, Mn. &c. ; pond, RV. ; bank of a 
river ; a buffalo (cf. anupa), L. ; N. of a Rishi, 
teacher of the S3ma-veda. ja, n. growing near the 
water, VarBrS. ; ginger. desa, m. a marshy 
country. praya, mfn. marshy. vilSsa, m., 
N. of a work. 

Anupya (4), mfn. being in ponds or bogs (as 
water), AV. 

^Tfjrn^ anupa- \/das, to fail (or become 
extinct) after (ace.), PBr. 

TPTtrVT andpa-s/dka (generally P.), to 
place upon, pile up after or in addition to, TS. ; Br. 

fif^M>| anupa- i/dhri, Caus. -dhdrayati, to 
hold towards in addition to, Li}y. 

^njJTfaSJ anupa- V 'vis, to sit down in 
order, AsvSr. ; Lity. ; to lie down or incline the 
body (said of a parturient animal), SBr. 

^nj'Ufij'T anupasadam, ind. at every Upa- 
sad (q. v.), KStySr. 

^(JMtVJT aimpa-</sthd, A. to approach in 
order, SBr.; AitBr. 

^ftJ^rUl anu-bdndhya. mfn. to be fastened 
(as a sacrificial animal) for slaughtering, SBr. &c. 
anu-yajd=.anu-yajd, q. v., TS. 
anu-rddhd, mfn. causing welfare, 
happiness, AV.; (as}, m. f. plur. = anu-rddhds, 
q.v., TS.; TBr.; Kith. 

^TJ55 an-vru, mfn. thighless ; (us), m. the 
charioteer of the sun, the dawn, Rsjat. &c. ara- 
thi, m. whose charioteer is Anuru, i.e. the sun, Sis. 

WJT5V anu-nidh, mfn.=anH-rdA, q.v., 
RV.iii.55. 5- 

^jf^rf an-urjita, mfn. not strong, weak ; 
not proud. 

^nju} an-urdhva, mfn. not high, low. 
bhas (dn-urdhva-), mm. one whose splendour 
does not rise, who lights no sacred fires, RV. v, 77, 4. 
An-urdhvam-bhSvnka, n. not rising upwards, 
not reaching the her.ven, TS. 

WfjfH dn-urmi, mfn. ' not waving or fluc- 
tuating,' inviolable, RV. viii, 34, It. 

l anula, f., N. of a river in Kasmira. 

-rrO'.only du. -vrtjau, m. f. a part 
of the body near the ribs, AV. ix, 4, 12. 

WiK an-ushara, mf(a)n. not salted, not 
saline, AsvGr. ; Heat. 

'fltjJVd an&shita, mfn. ( -v/5- vas with anu), 
living near another, Pin. iii, 4, 72, Sch. 

fl^mm. an-ushma-para, mfn. (in Gr.) 
not followed by a sibilant. 
Wrp? an-uha, mfn. thoughtless, careless. 
An-uhya, mfn. inconceivable, MaitrUp. 
an-rik-ka. See an-nc below. 

an-rikshard, mfn. thornless (as a 
path or a couch), RV. 

Tf^ an-ric [RV. x, 105, 8, &c.] or an- 
rica [Mn.}, mfn. not containing a verse from the 
Rig-veda, hymnless, not conversant with the Rig- 
veda ; (an-ricdm), ind. not in conformity with the 
Ric, MaitiS. 

An-rik-ka (or an-ric-ka , mfn. containing no 
Ric, Pin. v, 4, 74, Kas. 

HJJ dn-riju, mfn. not straight, crooked, 
perverse, wicked, RV. iv, 3, 13, &c. 

^tT1I an-rind, mf(o)n. free from debt. 
ta, f. or -tva, n. freedom from debt. 
An-rinin, mfn. unindebted, free from debt. 
An-rinya-ta, f. freedom from debt, R. 

^TJiIan-ri<a,mf(a)n. not true, false ; (am), 
n. falsehood, lying, cheating; agriculture, L. dva 
(dnrita-), m. one whose gods are not true, RV. vii, 
104, 14. dvish, mfn. persecuting untruth, RV. 
vii, 66, 13. maya, mfn. full of untruth, false. va- 
dana, n. speaking falsehood, lying, vac [AV.&c.], 
-vadin, mfn. speaking untruth. false 
to vows or engagements. Anritakuyana, n . telling 
a falsehood. AnritabMsandha, mfn. id., ChUp. 

Anritin, mfn. telling untruths, lying, a liar. 

T*|3 an-ritu, us, m. unfit season ; (u), ind. 
unseasonably, MaitrS. kanya, f. a girl before men- 
struation . pa (<f-r*Vw-),mfn. not drinking in time, 
RV. iii, 53, 8. 

w |3l a-nmonsa,mf(a)n. not cruel, mild. 

tS, f. mildness, kindness. 

^^ati an-eka, mfn. not one, many, much; 
separated. kama (dneka-), mfn. having many 
wishes, SBr. kalam, ind. a long time, for a long 
time. kalavadhi, ind. long since. krit, m. 
'doing much,' N. of Siva. gotra, m. having 
more families than one, i. e. two, belonging to two 
families (or to one as an adopted son). cara, 
mm. gregarious, citta- mantra, m. one whose 
counsels are many-minded. ja, mfn. born more 
than once ; (as), m. a bird, L. ta, f. or -tva, n. 
muchness, manifold condition. tra, ind. in many 
places. dharma-katha, f. different exposition 
of the law. dha, ind. in various ways, often. 

dha-prayoffa, m. using repeatedly, pa, mfn. 
' drinking oftener than once,' an elephant (because 
he drinks with his trunk and with his mouth), 
Ragh. bh&rya, mfn. having more wives than 
one. mukha, mm. having several faces, having 
different ways. ynddha-vijayin, m. victorious 
in many battles. randhra, mfn. having many 
holes or weaknesses or troubles. rnpa, mf(a)n. 
multiform ; of various kinds or sorts ; fickle, of 
variable mind. locana, m. 'having several (three) 
eyes,' N. of Siva. vacana, n. the plural number. 

varna, (in algebra compounded with various 
words to denote) many unknown quantities (colours 
representing x, y, z, &c., e.g. aneka-varna-gu- 
nana, multiplication of many unknown quantities). 

varam, ind. many times, repeatedly. vldha, 
mm. of many kinds, in different ways, various. 

sapha, mfn. cloven-hoofed, Pan . i, 2, 73, Conim. 

sabda, mfn. expressed by several words, synony- 
mous. sag, ind. in great numbers, several times, 
repeatedly. AnekakSra, mfn. multiform. Ane- 
kakshara, mfn. polysyllabic, having more than one 
syllable. Anekajpra, mfn. engaged in various pur- 
suits. Anekac, mm. having more than one vowel or 
syllable (ac in Gr. being the technical term for vowel). 
Anekartlia, mfn. having more than one meaning 
(as a word). Anekirtha-dhvani-mafijarl, f. 
and auekartha-sarngraha, m., N. of two works 
on words. Anekal, mfn. consisting of more than 
one letter (a! being the technical term for letter). 
Auekd'sraya or anekasrlta, mfn. (in Vaikshika 
phil.) dwelling "or abiding in more than one. 

A'n-ekakin, mth. not alone, accompanied by, SBr. 

An-ekanta, mfn. not alone and excluding every 
other, uncertain, tva, n. uncertainty. vada, 
m. scepticism, vadin, m. a sceptic; a Jaina, an 
Arhat of the Jainas. 

Aneki-karana, am, n. making manifold. 

Aneki-bhavat, mfn. being manifold, i. e. di- 
vided in two. 

Anekiya, mfh. having several, (gana utkaradi, 

w}^ an-ejat, mfn. (Vy)> not moving, 

^nte an-eda, as, m. (an being an expletive 
or denoting comparison), stupid, foolish, L. 

An-eda-muka, mm. deaf and dumb, L.; blind, 
L. ; wicked, fraudulent, L. 

tJi d-nedya (4), mfn. (Vnid), not to be 
blamed, RV. 


An-enasya, am, n. freedom from fault, sin, SBr. 
d-neman, mfn. = prasasya (to be 

I. an-end, mfn. without stags, RV. 
vi, 66, 7; (cf. eni.) 

an-ends, mfn. blameless, sinless, 
not liable to error, RV. &c.; N. of various per- 

praised), Naigh. 

dn-eva, ind. otherwise, AV. xvi, 7, 4. 

an-elidi, mfn. (vA), without a 
rival, incomparable, unattainable ; unmenaced, un- 
obstructed ; RV.; (a), m. time, Bilar. ; BhP. 

W^^TT'fT an-aikanta, mfn. (fr. ekdnta), 
variable, unsteady ; (in logic) occasional, as a cause 
not invariably attended by the same effects. 

An-aikantika, mfn. unsteady, variable, having 
many objects or purposes ; (am), n. (in Vaiseshika 
phil.) the fallacy of undistributed middle, tva, n. 
unsteadiness, uncertainty, NyJlyad. 

An-alkya, am, n. (eka), want of oneness, plu- 
rality, the existence of many ; want of union, anarchy. 

a-napuna or a-naipunya, am, n. 
unskilfulness, Pan. vii, 3, 30 ; (see dnaipuna.) 

an-aisvarya, am, n. non-power,' 
weakness, Pan. vii, 3, 30 ; (see dnaisvarya.) 

ano, ind. no, not, L. 

ing in a house (as a beggar), L. 

An-oka-ha, as, m. ' not quitting his home or his 
place,* a tree, Ragh. &c. 


an-om-krita, mfn. not accompa- 
nied by the holy syllable cm, Mn. ii, 74. 

WOW ano-ratha, as, m. pi. waggon (anas) 
and chariot, AitBr. 

Ano-vaha, mfn. driving a waggon or carriage, 
TS. ; SBr. 

Ano-vahya, mfn. to be driven on a carriage, 
TS. ; (am), ind. in waggon-loads, KatySr. 

( i i ri w an-aucitya, am, n. unntness, Sah. 

^Tlii**< an-aujasya, am, n. want of 
vigour, SJh. 

'WliSN an-nuddhatya, am, n. freedom 
from haughtiness, S5h. ; not standing high (said of 
the water of a river), Kir. 

an-aupamya, mfn. unparalleled. 

an-aurasa, ag, m. not one's own 

son, adopted. 

-MJ ant, cl. i.P.afoti,tobind,L.; (cf. 
^\ '/and, int.) 

^Pif an<a, as, m. end, limit, boundary, 
term ; end of a texture ; end, conclusion ; end of 
life, death, destruction (in these latter senses some- 
times neut.) ; a final syllable, termination ; last word 
of a compound ; pause, settlement, definite ascer- 
tainment, certainty ; whole amount ; border, out- 
skirt (e.g. grdmdnte, in the outskirts of the village) ; 
nearness, proximity, presence ; inner part, inside ; 
condition, nature ; (e), loc. c. in the end, at last ; 
in the inside ; (am), ind. as fer as (ifc., e.g. uda- 
k&ntam, as far as the water); (mfn.), near, hand- 
some, agreeable, L. [cf.Goth. andeis, Theme andja; 
Germ. Ende ; Eng. end : with anta are also com- 
pared the Gk. avra, avri ; Lat. ante ; the Goth. 
atlda in anda-vaurd, &c. ; and the Germ, ent, 
e.g. in enlsagen]. kara, -karana, -karin, 
mfh. causing death, mortal, destructive. kala, m. 
time of death, death. krit, mfn. making an end ; 
(t), m. death, -krid-dasa, as, f. pi., N. of the 
eighth of the twelve sacred Anga texts of the Jainas 
(containing ten chapters). (ra, mfn. going to the 
end, thoroughly conversant with. gata (dnta-), 
mfn. gone to the end ; being at the end of; 
thoroughly penetrating, TS. ffati (dnta-) [SBr.] 
or -gamin, mfn. going to the end, perishing. 

jfamana, n. the act of going to the end, finish- 
ing ; going to the end of life, dying. cara, 
mfh. going to the frontiers, walking about the fron- 
tiers, R. Ja, mfn. last born. jati, see antya- 
jati. tas, ind. from the end, from the term; 

lastly, finally ; in the lowest way ; in part ; within. 

dipaka, n. a figure in rhetoric. pala, m. a 
frontier-guard. bhava, mfn. being at the end, 
last. bhaj, mfn. standing at the end (of a word), 
RPrSt. rata, mfn. delighting in destruction. 

Una, mfn. hidden, concealed. lopa, m. (in 

rf^ anta-vat. 



Or.) the dropping of the final of a word, vat 
(an/a-), mm. having an end or term, limited, 
perishable, AV. &c. ; containing a word which has 
the meaning of anta, AitBr. ; (-vat), ind. like the 
end; like the final of a word, Pat. vahni, m. 
the fire of the end (bv which the world is to be 
burnt). Anta-vasin = /f'-zV7j-;',q.v.,L. Auta- 
velS, f. hour of death, ChUp. -sayya, f. a bed 
or mat on the ground ; death ; the place for burial 
or burning ; bier ; L. satkrlya, f. the funeral 
ceremonies, RSjat. sod, m. a pupil (who dwells 
near his teacher). stha, mfn. standing at the end ; 
see also antaft-sthd. svarlta, m. the Svarita 
accent on the last syllable of a word ; (am), n. a 
word thus accentuated. Antadi, t, du. m. end 
and beginning, (gana rdjadantadi, q. v.) An- 
tavasayin (or antavasayin . m. a barber, L. ; 
a CSndSla, MarkP. &c., cf. ante-vasdyin ; N. of a 
Muni, L. Ante-'vasayin, m. a man living at 
the end of a town or village, a man belonging to 
the lowest caste, MBh. &c. Ante-vasa, m. a 
neighbour, companion, AitBr. Ante- vasin, mfn. 
dwelling near the boundaries, dwelling close by, L. ; 
(t), m. a pupil who dwells near or in the house of 
his teacher, SBr.&c. = ante-vasdyin, q.v.,L.; (i), 
ind. in statu pupillari, (gana dvidantfy-ddi, q. v.) 
Antodatta, m. the acute accent on the last syllable ; 
(mfn.), having the acute accent on the last syllable. 

1. Antaka, as, m. border, boundary, SBr. 

2. Antaka, mm. making an end, causing death ; 
(as}, m. death ; Yama, king or lord of death, AV. 
&c. ; N. of a man favoured by the Asvins, RV. i, 
112, 6; N. of a king, droll, Nom. -dhrtik, !. 
demon of death, RV. x, 132, 4. 

1. A'ntama [once antamd, RV. i, 165, 5], mfn. 
next, nearest, RV. ; intimate (as a friend), RV. 

2. Anf""*-, mfn. the last, TS. ; SBr. &c. 
Antaya, Nom. P. antayati, to make an end of,L. 
ArtlX"-, antima, antya, &c. See antika, 


^WrTt an tdh ( for antdr, see col . 2 ) . kar ana, 
n. the internal organ, the seat of thought and feel- 
ing, the mind, the thinking faculty, the heart, the 
conscience, the soul. kalpa, m. a certain number 
of years, Buddh . kntila, mfn. internally crooked ; 
fraudulent ; (as), m. a couch, L. krlini, m. a 
disease caused by worms in the body. kotara- 
pusnpi -an4a-kotara-pushpt, q.v., Car. kona, 
m. the inner corner. kopa, m. inward wrath. 

kosa, n. the interior of a store-room, AV. pata, 
m. n. a cloth held between two persons who are to 
be united (as bride and bridegroom, or pupil and 
teacher) until the right moment of union is arrived. 

padam or -pade, ind. in the middle of an in- 
flected word, PrSt. -paridhana, n. the innermost 
garment. parldhl, ind. in the inside of the pieces 
of wood forming the paridhi, KatySr. parsa- 
vya, n. flesh between the ribs, VS. - pavitra, the 
Soma when in the straining- vessel, SBr. pain, 
ind. from evening till morning (while the cattle are 
in the stables), KatySr. -pati [SBr.] or -patya 
[KatySr.], as, m. a post fixed in the middle of the 
place of sacrifice ; (in Gr.) insertion of a letter, 
RPrat. -pStita or -patin, mfn. inserted, included 
in. pStra, n. the interior of a vessel, AV. pa- 
dam, ind. within the Pida of a verse, RPrit. ; 
Pan. -parsvya, n. flesh between or at both sides, 
VS. p&la, m. one who watches the inner apart- 
ments of a palace, R. pnra, n. the king's palace, 
the female apartments, gynseceum ; those who live 
,in the female apartments ; a queen. pnra-cara, 
m. guardian of the women's apartments. pura- 
jana, m. the women of the palace. purft-pra- 
cara, m. Jie gossip of the women's apartments. 
-pnra-rakshaka or -pura-vartin or -pnra- 
dhyaksha, m. superintendent of the women's apart- 
ments, chamberlain. pura-sahaya, as, m. be- 
longing to the women's apartments (as a eunuch, 
&c.) purika, m. superintendent of the gynae- 
ceum or harem ; (a), f. a woman in the harem, 
-pfiya, mfn. ulcerous. -p6ya, n. supping up, 
drinking, RV. x, 107, 9. -prakrltt, f. the heart, 
the soul, the internal nature or constitution of a man. 

prajna, mfn. internally wise, knowing one's self. 

pratishthSna, n. residence in the interior. 

pratihtnlta, mm. residing inside. Bar*, 
m. interior reed or cane, TS. ; an internal arrow or 
disease. iarira, n. the internal and spiritual part 
of man. ialya (antdh-}, mfn. having a pin or 

extraneous body sticking inside, SBr. Bila, f. > 
antra-sila. ilesha [MaitrS. ; VS.], m. or -il- 
shana [SBr. ; AitBr.], n. internal support. sam- 
jna, mfn. internally conscious, Mn. i, 49, &c. 

sattva, f. a pregnant woman ; the marking nut 
(Semecarpus Anacardium). sadaaam, ind. in the 
middle of the assembly, SBr. sara, mfn. having 
internal essence ; (as), m. internal treasure, inner 
store or contents. auk ha, mfn. internally happy. 

senam, ind. into the midst of the armies. stha 
(generally written antasthd), mfn. being in the 
midst or between, SBr. &c. ; (as, a), m. f. a term 
applied to the semivowels, as standing between the 
consonants and vowels, Prat. &c. ; (a), f. interim, 
meantime,PBr. Btha-mndgara, in. (in anatomy) 
the malleus of the ear. stna-chandas, n., N. of 
a class of metres. - sveda, m. ' sweating internally,' 
an elephant, L. 

Antah- VkhyS, to deprive of, conceal from, RV. 
Antah- v'paB, to look between, look into, RV. 
Antah- Vstha, to stand in the way of, stop, RV. 

^ITII dntama and antamd. See s.v. dnta. 

^ antdr, ind. within, between, amongst, 
in the middle or interior. 

(As a prep, with loc.) in the middle, in, between, 
into ; (with ace.) between ; (with gen.) in, in the 

(Ifc.) in, into, in the middle of, between, out of 
the midst of [cf. Zend antarS ; Lat. inter / Goth. 

Antar is sometimes compounded with a following 
word like an adjective, meaning interior, internal, 
intermediate. agni, m. the interior fire, digestive 
force, Susr. ; (mm.), being in the fire, Kaus. anga, 
mfn. interior, proximate, related, being essential to, 
or having reference to the essential part of the aiiga 
or base of a word ; (am}, n. any interior part of 
the body, VarBrS. anga-tva, n. the state or con- 
dition of an Antaraiiga. avayava, m. an inner 
limb or part. akasa, m. intermediate place, 
KaushBr. ; the sacred ether or Brahma in the interior 
part or soul of man. akuta, n. hidden intention. 

Sgama, m. (in Gr.) an additional augment be- 
tween two letters. agara, m. the interior of a 
house, Yajn. atmaka, mf()n. interior, MaitrUp. 

atman, m. the soul ; the internal feelings, the heart 
or mind, MaitrS. &c. atmeshtakam, ind. in 
the space between one's self and the (sacrificial) 
bricks, KatySr. adhana (antdr-}, mfti. ' having a 
bit inside,' bridled, Tlir. apana, m. a market in- 
side (a town), R. 5ya, see antar-^i. arama, 
mfn. rejoicing in one's self (not in the exteriorworld), 
Bhag. Sla or -alaka [L.], n. intermediate space ; 
(), loc. ind. in the midst, in midway (Sla is pro- 
bably for dlaya). Indriya, n. (in Vedinta phil.) 
an internal organ (of which there are four, viz. mantis, 
buddhi, ahamkdra,i.n& cittd). ipa, n.(fr. t.ap\ 
an island, Pan, vi, 3, 97. -ushya, m. (V^.vas), 
an intermediate resting-place, KaushBr. ; cf. daidn- 
taruskyd. -ganga, f. the under-ground Ganges 
(as supposed to communicate under-ground with 
a sacred spring in Mysore). gadn, mfn. 'hav- 
ing worms within,' unprofitable, useless. gata, 
&c., see antar-^gam. garbha, mm. inclosing 
young, pregnant, KatySr. girl, m. 'situated 
among the mountains,' N. of a country, MBh. 

gnda-vaiaya, m. (in anat. ) the sphincter muscle. 

gudha-viBha, mfn. having hidden poison with- 
in. grlha or -geha, n. interior of the house, 
inner apartment ; (am}, ind. in the interior of a 
house. goahtna (antdr-), mfn. being inside of 
the stable, MaitrS. ; (as), m. inside of a stable, 
ManGr. -ghana or -ghana or -ghSta, m. a 
place between the entrance-door and the house ; N. 
of a village, Pan. iii, 3, 78, Sch. -Ja, mfn. bred in 
the interior (of the body, as a worm). Jathara, 
n. the stomach, L. -janman, n. inward birth. 

jambha, m. the inner part of the jaws, SBr. 
-jala-cara, mfn. going in the water. -jSta, 
mfn. inborn, inbred, innate. Jann, ind. between 
the knees ; holding the hands between the knees, 
Heat. ; (mfn.), holding the hands between the knees. 

JnSna.n. inward knowledge. )yatlB(arttdr-), 
mfn. having the soul enlightened, illuminated, SBr. 
xiv ; Bhag. Jvalana, n. internal heat, inflam- 
mation. dagdha, mm. burnt inwardly. da- 
dhana, n. the distillation of spirituous liquor (or a 
substance used to cause fermentation), L. dadhS- 
na, mfn. vanishing, disappearing, hiding one's self; 

(cf. antar-^dhd.} dais, f. (in astrol.) inter- 
mediate period. dasaha, n. an interval of ten 
days; (at\ ind. before the end of ten days, Mn. 

dava, m. the middle of a fire, AV. daha, m. 
internal heat, or fever, dig, f. -deid below, 
ManGr. duhkha, mfn. afflicted in mind, sad. 

dnshta, mfn. internally bad, wicked, vile. 

drishti, mfn. looking into one's own soul. 

desa, m. an intermediate region of the compass, 
AV. dvara, n. a private or secret door within 
the house, L. dna, &c., see s.v. antar-*Sdhd, 
p. 44. dhyana, n. profound inward meditation. 

nagara, n. the palace of a king, R. nlviht, 
mfn. gone within, being within. niihtha, mm. 
engaged in internal reflection. b&ahpa, m. sup- 
pressed tears ; (mm.), containing tears. bhavana, 
n. the interior of a house. bhava, &c., see 
anttir-\fl>hu, p. 44, col. 2. bhSvanB, f. inward 
meditation or anxiety ; (in arithm.) rectification of 
numbers by the differences of the products. bhflmi, 
f. the inner part of the earth. bhanma, mfn. 
being in the interior of the earth, subterranean, R. 

manas, mfn. sad, perplexed, L. nmkha, mfn. 
going into the mouth ; (am), n. a kind of scissors 
used in surgery, Susr. mndra, m. 'sealed inside,' 
N. of a form of devotion. mrita, mfn. still-born, 
Susr. yama, m. a Soma libation performed with 
suppression of the breath and voice, VS. ; SBr. &c. 

yama-graha, m. id. yamm, m. 'checking 
or regulating the internal feelings,' the soul, SBr. 
xir ; MundUp. yoga, m. deep thought, abstrac- 
tion. lamba, mfn. acute-angular ; (as), m. a tri- 
angle in which the perpendicular falls within, an 
acute-angled triangle, lina, infn. inherent. lo- 
ma (antdr-), mfn. (said of anything) the hairy side 
of which is turned inwards, MaitrS. ; covered with 
hair on the inner side. vansa, m. - antah-pura. 

vansika, m. superintendent of the women's apart- 
ments. vana, mfn. situated in a forest, Pin.; 
(am), ind. within a forest, Pan. Sch. vat (antdr-), 
mf(r/o/f[RV.]orzv/i)n. pregnant, RV.&c. -va- 
mi, m. flatulence, indigestion. varta,m.the actof 
filling up gaps with grass, TS. vartln or -vacat , 
mfn. internal, included, dwelling in. vmu, m., 
N. of a Soma sacrifice, KatySr. VMtra, n. an 
under garment, Kathas. vani, mm. skilled in 
sacred sciences. vavat, ind. inwardly, RV. Tl> 
sai, n. an inner or under garment, Kathas. vl- 
gahana, n. entering within, L. vidYM, mfn. 
(perf. p. i/\. vid), knowing exactly, RV. i, 72, 7. 
vega, m. internal uneasiness or anxiety ; inward 
fever. vedi, ind. within the sacrificial ground, 
SBr. &c. ; (i), (. the Doab or district between the 
Gaiigl and Yamuna rivers ; (ayas}, m. pi., N. of 
the people living there, R. vesrnan, n. the inner 
apartments, the interior of a building. Timika, 
m. superintendent of the women's apartments. ha- 
nana, n. abolishing, Pin. viii, 4, 24, Sch. ba- 
nana, m., N. of a village, Pan. viii, 4, 24, Sch. 

hastarn, ind. in the hand, within reach of the 
hand, AV. hastlna, mfn. being in the hand or 
within reach, AitBr. hSsa, m. laughing inwardly ; 
suppressed laughter ; (am), ind. with suppressed 
laugh. hita, &c., see antar-*i/dhd, p. 44. hrl- 
daya, mfn. turned inwards in mind, MaitrUp. 

^(rn. dntnra, mf(o)n . being in the interior, 
interior ; near, proximate, related, intimate ; lying 
adjacent to ; distant ; different from ; exterior ; -(am), 
n. the interior ; a hole, opening ; the interior part 
of a thing, the contents ; soul, heart, supreme soul ; 
interval, intermediate space or time ; period ; term ; 
opportunity, occasion ; place ; distance, absence ; 
difference, remainder ; property, peculiarity ; weak- 
ness, weak side ; representation ; surety, guaranty ; 
respect, regard ; (ifc.), different, other, another, 
e.g. deidntaram, another country ; (am), or -tds, 
ind. in the interior, within [cf. Goth, anthar, 
Theme anthara ; Lith. antra-s, ' the second ; * 
Lat. alter] . cakra, n . the whole of the thirty-two 
intermediate regions of the compass, VarBrS. ; a 
technical term in augury. Jna, mm. knowing the 
interior, prudent, provident, foreseeing. tama, 
mfn. nearest ; immediate, intimate, internal ; like, 
analogous ; (as), m. a congenial letter, one of the 
same class. tara (tintara-), mm. nearer; very 
intimate, TS.; SBr. -da, mm. (Vz-da), cutting 
or hurting the interior or heart. diia [VS.], f. an 
intermediate region or quarter of the compass ; (cf. 
anlara-dii and antar-desd.} pnrusha, m. the 




internal man, the soul, Mn. viii, 85. prabhava, 
mfn. of mixed origin or caste, Mn. i, 2. prasna, 
m. an inner question ; a question which is contained 
in and arises from what has been previously stated. 
-stha, -sthSyin, -gthita, mfn. interposed, in- 
ternal, situated inside, inward ; separate, apart. An- 
tarapatyS, f. a pregnant woman, L. Antarft- 
bhara, see antara. 

Antara, the middle, inside, within, among, 
between ; on the way, by the way ; near, nearly, 
almost ; in the meantime, now and then ; for some 
time ; (with ace. and loc.) between, during, without. 
Antaransa, m. the part of the body between the 
shoulders, the breast, SBr. AntarS-dli, f. an/ar- 
diia, q.v. Antarfi-bhara, mfn. bringing close to, 
procuring, RV. viii, 33, II. Antara-bhava- 
deha, m. or -bhava-sattva, n. the soul in its 
middle existence between death and regeneration. 
Antara-vedi, f. a veranda resting on columns, 
L. Antara-sriiigam, ind. between the horns, 

Antarlya, am, n. an under or lower garment, L. 

Antare, ind. amidst, among, between ; with 
regard to, for the sake of, on account of. 

A'ntarena, ind. amidst, between; (with ace.) 
within, between, amidst, during ; except, without, 
with regard to, with reference to, on account of. 

Antarya, mfn. interior, (gana dig-ddi, q. r.) 

wtuJH antar Janj, to assume, take up 
into one's self, VS. 

r-aya, &c. See antar- </i. 

r-a-Vdha, A. -dhatte, to re- 
ceive into one's self, contain, RV. ix, 73, 8; SBr. 

WIKIM antaraya. See antar-*/i. 
>HtlOc4 antar-dla. See s. v. antar. 

'vnij^antar- -/as, to sit down into (ace.), 
RV. ix, 78, 3. 

Tin(V. antar- \/i, -ayati, to come between, 
Mricch. ; (perf. -aydm cakdra) to conceal, cause to 
disappear, Sis. iii, 24 ; -tti, to stand in any one's 
way, separate ; to exclude from (abl., rarely gen.) ; 
to pass over, omit ; to disappear : Intern, -tyate, to 
walk to and fro between (as a mediator), RV. 
_ I . Antar-aya, as, m. impediment, hindrance, 
ApSr. ; (cf. dn-antaraya.) 

i. Antar-aya, Nom. P. -ayati, see antar- ^/i. 

Antar-ayana, am, n. going under, disappearing, 
Pin. viii, 4, 45. 

Antar-ayana, as, m., N. of a country, Pin. 
viii, 4, 25. 

Antar-aya, as, m. intervention, obstacle. 

Antar-ita, mm. gone within, interior, hidden, 
concealed, screened, shielded ; departed, retired, 
withdrawn, disappeared, perished; separated, ex- 
cluded ; impeded ; (am), n. (?) remainder (in arith- 
metic) ; a technical term in architecture. 

Antar- iti, is, f. exclusion, MaitrS. 

wfl(V.q antdriksha, am, n. the inter- 
mediate space between heaven and earth ; (in the 
Veda) the middle of the three spheres or regions of 
life ; the atmosphere or sky ; the air ; talc. kshit, 
mfn. dwelling in the atmosphere, ChUp. (fa or 
-cara, mm. passing through the atmosphere ; (as), 
m. a bird. pr, mfn. ( f/ 1 .prf), travelling through 
the atmosphere, RV. prut, mm. (*Jpru\ float- 
ing over the atmosphere, RV. i, 116, 3. yam, 
f., N. of a brick, TS. loka, m. the intermediate 
region or sky as a peculiar world, SBr. lamilta 
(antdriksha-), mfn. sharpened in the atmosphere, 
AV. sad, mm. dwelling in the atmosphere, RV. 
iv, 40, 5, & c - *yt " residence in the atmo- 
sphere, SBr. AntarlkihAyatana, mfn. having its 
abode in the atmosphere, SBr. Antarikshodara, 
mfn. having an interior at comprehensive as the 

Antarikshya (5), mm. atmospheric, RV. 

Antarikiha, am, n. antdriksha. 

wnffiU^ anf<fr-\/3. ish (3. pi. -icchanti) to 
wish, long for, RV. viii, 72, 3. 

flft^Mlirt antar-updti (i/i), -updtyeti, to 
enter over a threshold or boundary, Kaus. 

wti'l^ antar- i/gam, to go between (so as 
to exclude from [abl.]), SBr. 
Antar-gata or -gamin, mfn. gone between or 

into, being in, included in ; being in the interior, 
internal, hidden, secret ; disappeared, perished ; 
slipped out of the memory, forgotten. manas, 
mfn. whose mind is turned inwards, engaged in deep 
thought, sad, perplexed. Antarg&topama, f. a 
concealed simile (the particle of comparison being 

^fl'li antar- v/i . ga, to go between, RV. ; 

to separate, exclude from (with abl.), SBr. 

^JtTVT i. antar ^dha, A. -dhatte, to place 
within, deposit ; to receive within ; to hide, conceal, 
obscure; to hide one's self: Pass, -dhiyate, to be 
received within, to be absorbed ; to be rendered in- 
visible ; to disappear, vanish ; to cease : Caus. -dhd- 
payati, to render invisible, to cause to disappear. 

2. Antar-dhS, f. concealment, covering, Pin. 

Antar-dnana, am, n. disappearance, invisibility; 
antardhdnam */i or \^gam, to disappear ; (as), 
m., N. of a son of Prithu. gata, mfn. disappeared. 

cara, mfn. going invisibly. 
Antar-dhapita, mfn. rendered invisible. 
Antar-dh&yaka, mf(ia)n. rendering invisible. 
Antar-dhi, is, m. concealment, covering, AV. ; 

disappearance ; interim, meantime, ShadvBr. 

Antar-hita, mfn. placed between, separated ; 
covered, concealed, hidden, made invisible, vanished, 
invisible ; hidden from (with abl.) Antarhitat- 
., m. ' of concealed mind,' N. of Siva. 

antdr-'/bha, to be (contained or 
inherent or implied) in, RV. vii, 86, J, &c. 

Antar-bhava, mm. being within, inward, in- 
ternal, generated internally. 

Antar-bhavana. See s. v. antdr. 

Antar-bhava, as, m. the being included by 
(loc.), internal or inherent nature or disposition. 

Antar-bhavana. See s. v. antdr. 

Antar-bhavita, mfn. included, involved. 

Antar-bhnta, mm. being within, internal, inner. 

tva, n. ; see antar-bhatia. 
Antar-bhumi. See s. v. antdr. 

wti "!*(antdT- \fyam (Imper. 2 . sg.-yaccha) 
to hinder, stop, RV. x, IO2,_3 ; VS.; TS.; (Imper. 
-yaechatu) to keep inside, AsvGr. 

wn5^ antar- \A;. vas, to dwell inside, 
abide in the interior, Sis. ; to stop in the midst of, 
MBh. ; (cf. antar-ushya s. v. antdr.) 

'W*nf!\ antar-Vhan, forms the ind. p. 
-hatya, Pin. i, 4, 65, Sch., and the Pass, -hanyate, 
Pin. viii, 4, 24, Sch. 

w 11 <5)^. antds-Vcar, to move between, to 
move within, RV. &c. 

w^nT^S antd$--/chid, to cut off, inter- 
cept, SBr. 

Tim*^ antns for antdr, see p. 43, col. 2. 
tapta, mm. internally heated or harassed. tapa, 
m. inward heat, Sak.; Milatlm. tushara, mm. 
having dew in the interior. toya, mfn. containing 
water inside, Megh. patha (dntas-), mfn. being 
on the way, RV. v, 52, 10. 

Antagtya, am, n. intestines, AitBr. 

^("rt i. dnti, ind. before, in the presence 
of, near, RV. ; AV. ; (with gen.) within the proxi- 
mity of, to [cf. Lat. ante; Gk. d*rf]. griha 
(dnti-), m. neighbour, RV. x, 95, 4. tama, 
mfn. very near, Pin. Comm. ta (dn/i-), ind. 
from near, RV. deva (dnti-), mfn. being in the 
presence of the gods, near the gods, RV. i, 180, 7. 

mitra (dnti-), mm. having friends near one's 
self, VS. vama (dnti-), m((d)n. at hand with 
wealth or loveliness, RV. vii, 77, 4. shad, mfn. 
sitting near, Pat. dunna (dnti-), mm. at hand 
with kindness, AV. A'nty-nti (4), mm. at hand 
with help, RV. i, 138, I. 

i. Antlka, mfn. (with gen. or abl.) near, prox- 
imate, L. (compar. nedlyas, superl. nedishtha) ; 
(am), n. vicinity, proximity, near, e.g. antika- 
stha, remaining near ; (dm), ind. (with gen. or ifc.) 
until, near to, into the presence of; (at), ind. from 
the proximity ; near, close by ; within the presence 
of; (/), ind. (with gen. or ifc.) near, close by, in 
the proximity or presence of; (ena), ind. (with gen.) 
near, -gati, f. going near. tl, f. nearness, 

vicinity, contiguity. Antlkiiraya, m. comiguoui 
support (as that given by a tree to a creeper), L. 

I. Antima, mm. ifc. immediately following (e.g. 
daSdntima, 'the eleventh'); very near, L. 

i. anti, is, f. an elder sister (in 
theatrical language), L. For I. dnti, see col. 2. 

Antika, f. an elder sister (in theatrical language ; 
perhaps a corruption of attika), L. ; a fire-place, 
L. ; the plant Echites SchoUris. 

Anti, f. an oven, L. 

2. antika, mfn. (fr. anta), only ifc. 
reaching to the end of, reaching to (e. g. nds&ntika, 
reaching to the nose), lasting till, until. 

2. Antima, mm. final, ultimate, last. Anti- 
mafika, m. the last unit, nine. 

Antya, mfn. last in place, in time, or in order ; 
ifc. immediately following, e. g. ashtamdntya, the 
ninth ; lowest in place or condition, undermost, 
inferior, belonging to the lowest caste ; (as), m. the 
plant Cyperus Hexastachyus Communis ; (am), n. 
the number looo billions; the twelfth sign of the 
zodiac ; the last member of a mathematical series. 

karman, n. or -krlya, f. funeral rites. ja, 
mfn. of the lowest caste ; (as), m. a Sudra ; a man 
of one of seven inferior tribes (a washerman, currier, 
mimic, Varuda, fisherman, Meda or attendant on 
women, and mountaineer or forester). ja-gamana, 
n. intercourse (between a woman of the higher caste) 
with a man of the lowest caste. janman or -jati 
or -jStiya, mfn. of the lowest caste. ja-gamana, 
n. intercourse (between a man of the higher caste) 
with a woman of the lowest caste. * Ti*., n . last 
member of an arithmetical series. pada or -mnla, 
n. (in arithm.) the last or greatest root (in the 
square). bha, n. the last Nakshatra (Rerati) ; the 
last sign of the zodiac, the sign Pisces, yoga, m. 
the last or Kali age. yoni, f. the lowest origin, 
Mn. viii, 68 ; (mm.), of the lowest origin. varna, 
as, a, m. f. a man or woman of the last tribe, a 
Sudra. vipnla, f., N. of a metre. Antyava- 
sayln, f, im, m. f. a man or woman of low caste 
(the son of a Candlla by a NishidI, especially a 
Cindila, Svapaca, Kshattri, Suta, Vaidehaka, Mi- 
gadha, and Ayogava), Mn. &c. Antyihntl, f. 
funeral oblation or sacrifice. Antyfahtl, f. funeral 
sacrifice. AntyAshti-kriyS, f. funeral ceremonies. 

Antyaka, as, m. a man of the lowest tribe, L. 

'WflMife't. ante-vdsfn. See p. 43, col. i. 

antra, am, n. (contr. of antara; Gk. 
ivTfpov), entrail, intestine (cf. dntrd) ; (t), (. the 
plant Convolvolus Argenteus or Ipomcea Pes Caprz 
Roth. knja, m. or -kujana, n. or -vikujana, n. 
rumbling of the bowels. m-dhami (antram-), (. 
indigestion, inflation of the bowels from wind. 

pjlcaka, m. the plant /Eschynomene Grandiflora. 

maya, mm. consisting of entrails. vardhman, 
n. or -vriddhi, f. inguinal hernia, rupture. ilia, 
f., N. of a river. sraj, f. a kind of garland worn by 
Nara-sinha. Antrada, m. worms in the intes- 

^^an<f, cl. I. P. andati, to bind, L. 

Anda, us, or andn, us, f. the chain for an 
elephant's feet ; a ring or chain worn on the ancle. 
Ananka or andSka, as, m. id., L. 

^rf'^Tt andika, f. (for antika, q.v.), fire- 


andolaya, Nom. P. andolayati, 
to agitate, to swing. 

Andolana, am, n. swinging, oscillating. 
Andollta, mfn. agitated, swung. 

andraka=drdraka, q.v. 

ninlh, cl. 10. P. andhayati, to make 
N blind, Sis. 

AnJha, mf(o)n. blind ; dark ; (am), n. darkness ; 
turbid water, water ; (as), m. pi., N. of a people. 
- kara, m. n. darkness. kara-maya, mm. dark. 

kara-samoaya, m. intensity of darkness. 

karita, mfn. made dark, dark, Kid.; (cf. gana 
tdrakadi.) knpa, m. a well of which the mouth 
is hidden ; a well over-grown with plants, &c. ; a 
particular hell. m-karana (andham-), mf(i)n. 
making blind. ^^""'it' 1 . n. great, thick, or intense 
darkness, Pin. v, 4, 79 ; Ragh. tl, f. or -tva, 
n. blindness. t&mava, n. -tamasa, L. tl- 




miira, m. complete darkness of the soul ; (;}, n. 
the second or eighteenth of the twenty-one hells, 
Mn. &c. ;' doctrine of annihilation after death. 

dhi, mm. mentally blind. pntanS, f. a female 
demon causing diseases in children, Susr. muaha, 
f. a small covered crucible with a hole in the side. 

mnshika, f. the grass Lepeocercis Serrata. 

m-bha vishnu (aKO%<ZOT-), mm. becoming blind, 
Pan. iii, 2,57. m-bhavnka(fl<//W;OT-),, 
ib. ; Kaus. - ratri, f. dark night (?), AV. Andha- 
laji, f. a blind" boil, one that does not suppurate, Susr. 
Andhahi (or andh&hika), m. a 'blind,' i.e. not poi- 
sonous snake ; (is, is), m. f. the fish called kucika. 
Andhi- \/ 1 . kri, to make blind, to blind. Andhl- 
krita, mfn. made blind. Andhikrita'tman, mfn. 
blinded in mind. Andhl-trn, us, m., N. of a Rishi, 
PBr. Andhi- V^nn, to become blind. Andhi- 
bhuta, mfn. become blind. 

Andhaka, mfn. blind ; (as), m., N. of an Asura 
(son of Kasyapa and D iti ) ; of a descendant of Yadu 
and ancestor of Krishna and his descendants ; N. of 
a Muni. ffhatin or -ripn, m.' the slayer or enemy 
of the Asura Andhaka,' N. of Siva. varta, m., N. 
of a mountain, Pin. iv, 3, 91, Sch. vrishni, 
ayas, m. pi. descendants of Andhaka and Vrishni. 
Andhakari or andhakaanhrid, m.'enemy of the 
Asura Andhaka,' N. of Siva. 

I. A'nfl'i'Mf. as, n. darkness, obscurity, RV. 

AndhikS , f. night, L. ; a kind of game (blindman's 
buff), L. ; a woman of a particular character (one of 
the classes of women), L. ; a disease of the eye, L. ; 
another disease, L. ; = sarshapi, L. 

W^f^ 2. dndhas, as, n. (Gk. &>6os),* herb ; 
the Soma plant ; Soma juice, RV. ; VS. ; juice, SBr.; 
grassy ground, RV.vii,96, 2 ; food, MBh. 111,13244; 

andhu, us, m. a well, Rajat. 

andhula, as, m. the tree Acacia 

VH andhra, as, m., N. of a people (pro- 
bably modern Telingana) ; of a dynasty ; a man of 
a low caste (the offspring of a Vaideha father and 
Karavara mother, who lives by killing game), Mn. 
x, 36. j&ti, f. the Andhra tribe. Jatiya, mm. 
belonging to the Andhra tribe. -bhrttya, as, m. 
pi. a dynasty of the Andhras. 

V^ anna, mfn. (i/ad), eaten, L.; (dnnam), 
n. food or victuals, especially boiled rice ; bread corn ; 
food in a mystical sense (or the lowest form in which 
the supreme soul is manifested, the coarsest envelope 
of the Supreme Spirit) ; water, Naigh. ; Vishnu ; 
earth, L. kSma (dnna-), mm. desirous of food, 
RV. x, 1 17, 3. kala, m. meal-time, proper hour 
for eating; time at which a convalescent patient 
begins to take food, Bhpr. koshthaka, m. cup- 
board, granary ; Vishnu, the sun, L. gati, f. the 
oesophagus, gullet. gandhi, m. dysentery, diar- 
rhoea. Ja or -jKta, mfn. springing from or occa- 
sioned by food as the primitive substance. Jala, n. 
food and water, bare subsistence, jit, mfn. ob- 
taining food by conquest (explanation of vdja-jit), 
SBr. Jivana (dnna-), mm. living by food, SBr. 

tejas (dnna-), mm. having the vigour of food, 
AV. da or -dStri, mm. giving food ; N. of Siva 
and DurgS, L. dana, n. the giving of food. da- 
yin, mfn. = -da above, -devata, f. the divinity 
supposed to preside over articles of food. dosha, 
m. a fault committed by eating prohibited food, Mn. 
V, 4. dvesha, as, m. want of appetite, dislike of 
food. patl (dnna-), m. the lord of food, N. of 
Savitri, Agni, Siva, patni, f. a goddess presiding 
over food, AitBr. ; AsvSr. -patya (dnna-), n. 
the lordship over food, MaitrS. pn, mm. (expla- 
nation of keta-pii), purifying food, SBr. pnrna, 
mfn. filled with or possessed of food ; (a), f., N. of 
a goddess, a form of Durga. peya, n. explains the 
word vdja-pfya, q.v., SBr. prada, mm. = -da 
above.SBr. pralaya.mfn. being resolved into food 
or the primitive substance after death, L. prasa, 
m. or -prasana, n. putting rice into a child's mouth 
for the first time (one of the Samskaras ; see sam- 
skd ra^, Mn. ii, 34 ; Ysjfi. i, 1 2. - bnbhukhu, mfn. 
desirous of eating food, brahman, n. Brahma as 
represented by food. bhaksha.'m. or-bhaksha- 
oia, n. earing of food. -bhEga, m. a share of 
food, AV. iii, 30, 6. -bhnj, mfn. eating food; 
(k), m. a N. of Siva, MBh. xii, 10382. -maya, 

mf(,f)n. made from food, composed of food or of 
boiled rice. maya-koia, m. the gross material 
body (which is sustained by (ooA^sthula-sarira). 

mala, n. excrement ; spirituous liquor, cf. Mn. 
xi, 9.;. rakshi, f. caution in eating food. rasa, 
m. essence of food, chyle ; meat and drink, nutri- 
ment, taste in distinguishing food. lipsa, f. desire 
for food, appetite. vat (dnna-), mfh.Ved. possessed 
of food, RV. x, 1 17, 1, &c. - vaitra, n. food and 
clothing, the necessaries of life. vahi-srotas, n. 
the oesophagus, gullet. vikara, m. transformation 
of food ; disorder of the stomach from indigestion ; 
the seminal secretion. vid, mfh. (</2- vid), ac- 
quiring food, AV. vi, 116, I ; (i/l.vid~), knowing 
food. sesha, m. leavings, offal. samskara, m. 
consecrating of food. hartri, mm. taking away 
food. homa, m. a sacrifice connected with the Asva- 
medha,SBr. Ann akala, see anakala. Annaccha- 
dana, n. food and clothing. Annattri or annildin 
[Mn. ii, 188], mfh. eating food. Annada, mS(t,d)n. 
eating food ; Superl. of the fern, ann&dl-lama, 'eat- 
ing the most,' N. of the fore-finger, SBr. Anna- 
dana, n. eating of food. Annadya, n. food in 
general, proper food. Annadya-kama, mfn. de- 
sirous of food. Annftyn, m. (coined for the ety- 
mology of vdyu), ' living by food, desirous of food,' 
AitUp. Annarthin, mfh. asking for food. An- 
na- vridh (final a lengthened), mm. prospering by 
food, RV. x, 1, 4. Annaharln, mm. eating food. 

A'nnlyat, mm. being desirous of food, RV. iv, 2, 7. 
T^Wg annambhatta, as, m., N. of the 
author of the Tarka-samgraha, q. v. 

W3f i. any a (3), am, n. inexhaustibleness 
(as of the milk of cows), AV. xii, I, 4 ; (cf. dnyd.\ 

^T 2. anyd, as, a, at, other, different ; other 
than, different from, opposed to (abl. or in comp.); 
another ; another person ; one of a number ; any a 
anya or eka anya, the one, the other ; anyac ca, 
and another, besides, moreover [cf. Zend anya; 
Armen. ail ; Lat. alius ; Goth, aljis, Theme alja; 
Gk. aXXoi for aA/'o-s ; cf. also Ivioi] . kama, mfn. 
loving another. kSraka, f. a worm bred in excre- 
ment, L. krita (anyd-), mfn. done by another, 
RV. kshetra, n. another territory or sphere, 
AV. ffa or -gamin, mm. going to another, adul- 
terous. gotra, mfn. of a different family. cltta, 
mf(a)n. whose mind is fixed on some one or some- 
thing else. oodlta, mm. moved by another. 
Ja or -jSta (anyd-} [RV.], mfh. bom of another 
(family, &c.), of a different origin. Jan man, n. 
another birth, being bora again, tag, see s. v. 

tS, f. difference. dnrvaha, mfh. difficult to be 
borne by another. devata or -devatya [MaitrS. ; 
SBr.] or -daivata, mfh. having another divinity, 
i.e. addressed to another divinity. dhanna, m. 
different characteristic ; characteristic of another ; 
(mfh.), having different characteristics, dhi, mfn. 
one whose mind is alienated, L. nabhi (anyd-), 
mfn. of another family, AV. i, 29, 1. para, mfn. 
devoted to something else, zealous in something else. 

-pushta, as, m. or a, (. [Kum. i, 46] 'reared by 
another," the kokila or Indian cuckoo (supposed to be 
reared by the crow). pnrva, f. a woman previously 
betrothed to one and married to another. bija-ja 
or -bija-samndbhava or -bijotpanna,' m . ' bora 
from the seed of another,' an adopted son. bhrlt, 
m. ' nourishing another,' a crow (supposed to sit upon 
the eggsof the kokila). bhrita,ar,m.or(f,f.[Ragh. 
viii, 58] = -pushtd above. mainn or -managka, 
mm. whose mind is fixed on something else, absent, 
versatile ; having another mind in one's self, pos- 
sessed by a demon. matri-ja, m. a half-brother 
(who has the same father but another mother), Yajn. 

-raj an, mm. having another for king, subject to 
another, ChUp. -rashtrfya, mm. from another 
kingdom, belonging to another kingdom, SBr. 

rupa, n. another form ; (ena), in another form, 
disguised; (anyd-rufa), mf(o)n. having another 
form, changed, altered, RV. &c. -rnpin, mfn. 
having another shape. llnga or -lingaka, mm. 
having the gender of another (word, viz. of the sub- 
stantive), an adjective. varna (anyd-), mf(o)n. 
having another colour. vfipa, m. 'sowing for 
others,' i. e. ' leaving his eggs in the nests of other 
birds,' the kokila or Indian cuckoo, VS. vrata 
(anyd-), m. devoted to others, infidel, RV. ; VS. 

saknaka, m. a Brahman who has left his school, 
L.;napostate,L.-amgama,m. intercourse with 

another, adulterous intercourse. &dhCrana, mfn. 
common to others. BtrS-ffa, m. going to another's 
wife, an adulterer, Mn. Anyft-drikiha [L.] or 
anya-drii [VS. &c.], mfn. or anya-dria,mf(i>. 
of another kind, like another. Anyadhina, mfn. 
subject to others, dependent. Any&irayana, n. 
going to another (as an inheritance). Anyiirlta, 
mfn. gone to another. Anyftsakta, mfn. intent 
on something else. Any&sadhSraaa, mm. not 
common to another, peculiar. AnyddhS, f. mar- 
ried to another, another's wife, Sah. Anyotpanna, 
mfn. begotten by another. Anyodarya, mfn. bora 
from another womb, RV. vii, 4, 8 ; (as), m. a step- 
mother's son, Yajn. 

Anyaka, mfn. another, other, RV. 

Anya-tama, mfn. any one of many, either, any. 

Anya-tara, as, a, at, either of two, other, dif- 
ferent ; anyatara anyatara, the one, the other ; 
anyatarasydm, loc. f. either way, Pan . ta (anya- 
tard-), ind. on one of two sides, SBr. ; KatySr. ; 
either way ( = anyatarasydm), VPrit. Anyata- 
rato-danta, mf(o)n. having teeth' on one side 
(only), SBr. Anyatare-dyui, ind. on either of 
two days, Pan. v, 3, tt. 

Anya-taa, ind. from another ; from another 
motive ; on one side (anyatah anyatah, on the 
one, on the other side) ; elsewhere ; on the other 
side, on the contrary, in one direction ; towards some 
other place. Anyata-eta, m((-eni)n. variegated 
on one side, VS. xxx, 19. Anyatah-kshnnt, mm. 
sharp on one side, SBr. Anyatah-plaksliS, f., N. 
of a lotus pond in Kurukshetra, SBr. Anyato- 
ghatin, mfn. striking in one direction, SBr. An- 
yato-dat, mfn.anyaiardto-danta, q.v., TS. 
Anyato-'ranya, n. a land which is woody only 
on one side, VS. xxx, 19. Anyato-vSta, m. a 
disease of the eye, Susr. 

Anyatastya, as, m. 'opponent, adversary,' in 
comp. with -jay in, mfn. overwhelming adversaries, 
SBr. xiv. 

Anyat-karaka, mfh. making mistakes, Pin. vi, 
3, 99 (the neut. form appears to be used in comp. 
when error of any kind is implied ; other examples 
besides the following are given). Anyat-^i. kri, 
to make a mistake, Pat. Anyad-asa or -tell, 
f. a bad desire or hope (?), Pan. vi, 3, 99. 

Anya-tra, ind. ( anyasmin, loc. of 2 . anyd), 
elsewhere, in another place (with abl.) ; on another 
occasion ; (ifc.) at another time than ; otherwise, 
in another manner ; to another place ; except, with; 
out, MinGr.; Jain. [cf. Goth, aljathrf], manai 
(anydtra-), mm. having the jnind directed to some- 
thing else, inattentive, SBr. xiv. 

Anyathaya, P. anyathayati, to alter, Sah. 

Anya-tnS, ind. otherwise, in a different manner 
(with atas, itas, or iotas = m a manner different 
from this ; any at Ad anyatha, in one way, in another 
way) ; inaccurately, untruly, falsely, erroneously ; 
from another motive ; in the contrary case, other- 
wise [cf. Lat. aliuta\. kara, m. doing other- 
wise, changing ; (am), ind. otherwise, in a different 
manner, Pan. iii, 4, 37. Vi. krl, to act otherwise, 
alter, violate (a law), destroy (a hope), &c. krita, 
mfh. changed, -khyati, f. (in Sankhya phil.) the 
assertion that something is not really what it appears 
to be according to sensual perception ; N. of a philo- 
sophical work. tva, n. an opposite state of the 
case, difference. bhftva, m. alteration, difference. 

bhnta, mfn. changed. vidin (otanya-vadin), 
mfn. speaking differently ; (;), m. speaking incon- 
sistently ; (in law) prevaricating or a prevaricator. 

vritti, mfh. altered, disturbed by strong emo- 
tion. siddha, mfh. wrongly defined, wrongly 
proved or established ; effected otherwise, unessen- 
tial. ciddha-tva, n. or -siddni, f. wrong argu- 
ing, wrong demonstration ; that demonstration in 
which arguments are referred to untrue causes. 

Btotra, n. irony, Yajn. ii, 204. 

Anya-dft, ind. at another time ; sometimes ; one 
day, once ; in another case [cf. Old Slav, inogda, 
intida] . 

Anyad-SiS, -Kila, &c. See anyat-karaka. 

Anyadiya, mfn. (PSn. vi, 3, 99) belonging to 
another, Dai. 

Anyarhi, ind. at another time, L. 

Anyedynka [Car.] or anyedynihka [Susr.], 
mfh. occurring on another day ; (as), m. a chronic 

Anye-dyns, ind. on the other day, on the fol- 
lowing day, AV. &c.; the other day, once, Panctt. 




Anyonya or anyo-'nya (said to be tV. anyas, 
nom. sing, m., and anya ; cf. paraspara ; in most 
cases the first anya may be regarded as the subject 
of the sentence, while the latter assumes the ace., 
inst., gen., or loc. cases as required by the verb ; 
but there are many instances in which the first anya, 
originally a nominative, is equivalent to an oblique 
case) ; one another, mutual ; (am\ or -tas, ind. 
mutually. kalaha, m. mutual quarrel. >ffhata, 
m. mutual conflict, killing one another. paksha- 
nayana, n. transposing (of numbers) from one side 
to another. bheda, m. mutual division or enmity . 
mithuna, n. mutual union; ,;/, m. united 
mutually. vibhaga, m. mutual partition (of an 
inheritance). vritti, m. mutual effect of one upon 
another. vyatikara, m. reciprocal action, rela- 
tion or influence. samiraya, m. reciprocal re- 
lation (of cause and effect). sapeksha, nil'ii. 
mutually relating. harabhihata, mfn. (two 
quantities) mutually multiplied by their denomina- 
tors. Anyonyapahrita, mfn. taken or secreted 
from one another, taken secretly. AnyonyabhSva, 
m. mutual non-existence, mutual negation, relative 
difference. Anyonyasraja, m. mutual or reci- 
procal support or connection or dependance ; mutually 
depending. Anyonyasrita, mfn. mutually sup- 
ported or depending. Anyonyokti, f. conversation. 

'W^jf a-nyanga, mfn. ' spotless,' in comp. 
with -sveta, mfn. white and without spot (as a 
sacrificial animal), AitBr. 

(<( n^ anyd-tas, &c. See s.v. 2. anya. 
Anya-tha, anya-da, &c. See ib. 
^T^IT anya (3), f. inexhaustible (as the milk 
of a cow), RV. vui, I, 10 & 27, 1 1 ; SV. 

^Ml<* a-nydya, as, m. unjust or unlawful 
action ; impropriety, indecorum ; irregularity, dis- 
order. vartin or -vritta, mfn. acting unjustly ; 
following evil courses. 

A-nyayin or a-nyayya, mfn. unjust, improper, 
indecorous, unbecoming. 

^f*tfl d-nyuna, mf(5)n. not defective, not 
less than (with abl.) ; entire, complete. A'-nyu- 
natirikta [SBr.] or a-nyunadhika, mfn. not too 
little and not too much ; neither deficient nor ex- 

d-ny-okag, mfn. not remaining in 
one's habitation (okas}, AV. 

W^JSf anv-aksha, mfn. (fr. 4. aksha), fol- 
lowing, L. ; (am), ind. afterwards, immediately after, 
R. &c., cf. gana sarad-adi. 

^l-IBK^fal anv-akshara-sandhi, is, tn. 
a kind of Sandhi in the Vedas, RPrtt. 

i*^U'^ anv-angdm, ind. after every 
member or part, SBr. 

TT^^ anvdnc, an, uei and uci, ak (*/anc), 
following the direction of another, going after, fol- 
lowing ; lying lengthwise ; (anuci), loc. ind. in the 
rear, behind ; (alt), ind. afterwards ; behind (with 
ace.) Anvag-bhavam, ind. afterwards, L. ; 
friendly disposed, Pan. iii, 4, 64. Anvag-bhuya, 
ind. becoming friendly disposed, ib. 

anv- Vaflj, to anoint, SBr.; Kaus. 

t < '^ anv-ati- </sic, to pour out over 
or along, TBr. 

'W^iit anv-ati (\/f), cl. 2. P. -atyeti, to 
pass over to, follow, SBr. 

W^ftr^ anv-adhi-</ruh, to ascend after 
another, Lfity. 

'W'qwi^ anv-adhy-^2. a>, to throw upon 
after another, MSnSr. 

wrqUnT^ anv-adhydyam, ind. according 
to the chapters (of the Veda), according to the 
sacred texts, Nir. 

V^TH^ anv-apa-\/kram, to run away 
after another, TBr. 

^rafafa^ anv-abhi-shic (i/sic), A. -siit- 
cate, to have one's self anointed by another (with 
ace.), MBh. xii, 2803 (both editions). 

anv-aya,ns, m. (/{, see anv-\ f i), 

following, succession ; connection, association, being 
linked to or concerned with ; the natural order or 
connection of words in a sentence, syntax, constru- 
ing ; logical connection of words ; logical connection 
of cause and effect, or proposition and conclusion ; 
drift, tenor, purport ; descendants, race, lineage, 
family. jna, m. a genealogist, vat, mfn. hav- 
ing a connection (as a consequence), following, 
agreeing with ; belonging to race or family ; (vat), 
ind. in connection with, in the sight of, Mn. viii, 
332. vyatireka, n. agreement and contrariety; 
a positive and negative proposition ; species and 
difference ; rule and exception ; logical connection 
and disconnection. vyatirekin, mfn. (in phil.) 
affirmative and negative. vySpti, f. an affirma- 
tive argument. 

Anvayin, mfn. connected (as a consequence) ; 
belonging to the same family, Rajat. Anvayl-tva, 
n. the state of being a necessary consequence. 

^T^W ont - -v^arc, to honour with shouts 
or songs of jubilee, RV. v, 29, 2. 

V^T^anv-\/arj, to let go, SBr. 

w <* r^ anvart (according to NBD.) short- 
ened for anu-vart (Vvrit), to go after, demand 
(a girl in marriage), AV. xiv, I, 56. For the abbre- 
viation, cf. anva, apva, a-bhva. 

Auvartitri for ann-vartltrf, id, m. a wooer, 
RV. x, 109, 2. 

^Jr^if anv-artha, mf(a)n. conformable to 
the meaning, agreeing with the true meaning, Ragh. 
iv, 12; having the meaning obvious, intelligible, 
clear. grahana, n. the literal acceptation of the 
meaning of a word (as opposed to the conventional). 
samjiia, f. a term whose meaning is intelligible 
in itself (opposed to such technical terms as bha, 
ghu, &c.) 

W"**^ anv-Vav, to encourage, RV. viii, 
7. '4- 

^irq^^i anv-ava- \/i. kj-i, to despise, re- 
fuse, MaitrS. 

w-=l^e* anc-apa-s/i. krt, to scatter or 
strew about (with instr.), Y5jn. 

Anv-avakirana, am, n. scattering about succes- 
sively, L. 

WfiJIstrH anv-ava-\/kram, to descend or 
enter in succession, SBr. xiv. 

^P^HT ae-opa-,-v/i. ffa, to go and join 
another, SBr. 

^ T=J ^^J anv-ava- </car, to insinuate one's 
self into, enter stealthily, TS. &c. 
Anv-avaoSra, as, m. See dn-anvavacdra. 

W^tTT anv-ava-Vdha, to place into suc- 
cessively, Apr. 

w*qii( anv-ava-i/i. pa, Ved. Inf. -patoh, 
to drink after others, SlnkhBr. 

^^^5 anv-ava- Vplu, -plavate, to dive 
after, TBr. 

'Wf<*{^( anv-ava-\/mris, to touch or 
come in contact with or along, Gobh. 

W'^^^ anv-ava- /ruh, to ascend or 
enter upon after another, MBh. 

wi-qqcj^ anv-ava- Vlup, Pass, -lupyate, 
to drop off after another, PBr. 

w*i<i<ji v anv-ava- Vsrii, to let go along 
or towards, TS. ; TBr. 

Anv-avaiarga, as, m. letting down, slackening, 
TPrSt. ; Pat.; permission to do as one likes, Pan. 
i, 4, 96. 

anp-aca-v/so, -syati, to adhere to, 
cling to, TBr. &c.; to long for, desire, SBr. &c. 

Anv-ava-sSyin, mfn. adhering to, depending 
on (gen.), TS. ; SBr. 

Anv-ava-sita, mfn. seized by, SSiikhBr. 

*T q (T anv-ava- </stha, to descend after 
another, SBr. 

. -sravayati, to 
cause to flow down upon or along, TS.; TBr.; SBr. 

anv-ava- Shan, to throw down 

by striking, SBr. 

T'^f^' anv-ava- \/hri, to lower (the 
houlder), SJnkhGr. 

'Wr^qTSt anv-avdrj (\/arj), to cause to go 
after or in a particular direction, SBr. ; to afflict with 
(instr.), AitUp. 

anv-avds (\/2. as), to place upon 
(dat.), TS. 

anv-avg (\/i), cl. 2. P. -aruiti, to 
follow, walk up to or get into. 
Anv-avaya, as, m. race, lineage, MBh. 
Anv-avayana, am, n. See dn-anvavayana. 

W?T^^ anv-avttksh (\/iksh), to look at, 
Anv-avekh5, f. regard, consideration. 

'W^^ anv-Vl. as, cl. 5. P.. A. -asnoti, 
-nute, to reach, come up to, equal, RV. ; AV. 

w-qKqii anv-ashtakd, f. the ninth day in 
the latter half of the three (or four) months following 
the full moon in AgrahSyana, Pausha, Magha (& 
PhSlguna), Mn. iv, 150. 

Anvashtakya, am, n. a Sraddha or funeral 
ceremony performed on the Anvashtakas. 

W^^, to be near, Laty. ; to 
be at hand, RV. ; AitBr. ; to reach, RV. 

^T'^^T dnv-asta, mfn. (, shot along, 
shot ; interwoven (as in silk), chequered, SBr. 
^T'^|T anv- \/ ah, petf. -a ACT, to pronounce 

(especially a ceremonial formula, SBr. &c.) 

^t?^ anv-ahdm, ind. day after day, 
every day. 

W7I anvd (for 2.n-pa, q. v.), blowing 
after, TandyaBr. ; GopBr. 

^T^qTJji anv-d-i/i. kri, to give to any one 
to take with him, to give a portion to a daughter, 

Anv-a-kxiti, is, (. shaping after, imitation, 

^T^TTBi^ anv-d-i/kram, A. to ascend to- 
wards or to, TS. : P. to visit in succession, BhP. 

anv-d-ksdyam, ind. (ksd for 

khya], reciting successively, MaitrS. 

^^IWT anv-u- s/tAya,toenumerate,Laty. 

Anv-akhyana, am, n. an explanation keeping 
close to the text, SBr. ; a minute account or state- 
ment, Pat. 

'1=|T'T*J anv-a-Vgam, to follow, come 
after, VS. ; SBr. &c. : Desid. -jigdnsati, to wish or 
intend to follow,. SBr. 

OT3TTT anv-d-^/ 1 . gd, to follow, RV. i, 
126, 3. 

^^T^3 anv-d-ycaksh, to name after, 

*U'*I^ anv-d-\/cam, to follow in rinsing 
the mouth, AsvGr. 

anv-dcaya, as, m. (v/ct), laying 
down a rule of secondary importance (after that 
which is pradhdna or primary) ; connecting of a 
secondary action with the main action (e.g. the con- 
junction fa is sometimes used anvacaye). sisli- 
ta, mfn. propounded as a rule or matter of secon- 
dary importance. 
Anv-acita, mfn. secondary, inferior. 

^qT^ane-a-\/car, to follow or imitate 
in doing, BhP. 

W'^l'H anvdje (\/aj?), only used in con- 

nection with ^ \.kri, e.g. anvaje kri, to support, 
aid, assist, Pan. i, 4, 73. 

^T^7H^ anv-d-Vtan, to extend, spread, 
RV. viii, 48, 13, &c. ; to overspread, extend over, 

anv-d-^i. da, A. to resume, SBr. 


anp-a- Vdis, to name or mentio 

afresh, Pan. 

Anv-adisttta, mfn. mentioned again, referrin 
to a previous rule, Pan. vi, 2, 190. 

Anv-adesa, as, m. mentioning after, a repeati 
mention, referring to what has been stated pre 
viously, re-employment of the same word in a sub 
sequent part of a sentence, the employment again o 
the same thing to perform a subsequent operation. 

Anv-adesaka, mfn. referring to a previou 
statement, TPrat. 

*)! T anv-a--/dha, to add in placin 
upon, place upon : A. & P. to add fuel (to the fire' 
AitBr. &c. ; to deliver over to a third person (i 

Anv-adhana, am, n. adding or putting fuel (o 
the three sacred fires) ; depositing. 

I. Anv-adi.1, is, m. a bail or deposit given t 
any one for being delivered to a third person, Gaut 

Anv-adheya or -adheyaka, am, n. proper! 
presented after marriage to the wife by her husband' 
family, Mn. &c. 

Anv-Shita, mfn. deposited with a person to b 
delivered ultimately to the right owner. 

<mt>-a- \/i .dhdv,to run after, Rath 

anv-a-\/dhi, to recollect, remem 
her, think of, AV. ; TAr. 

3. Anv-adhl, is, m. repentance, remorse, L. 
Anv-adhya, as, m. pi. a kind of divinity, SBr. 

anv-d-Vni, to lead to or along. 

anv-a-Vnu, Intens. -ndnaviti, to 
sound through, RV. x, 68, 12. 

^TJ^T^ai dnv-antrya, mfn. being in the 
entrails, AV. 

^TJTC^anp-v'ap, to attain, reach, AitBr. : 
Desid. anv-lpsati, to harmonize in opinion, agree, 

w-qiu^ anv-d-</bhaj, P. and A. to cause 
to take a share after or with another, SBr. &c. 

Anv-a-bhakta, mfn. entitled to take a share 
after or with another. 

1 !P'TltJ. anv-d-\/bhu, to imitate, equal, 
TS. &c. 

'WU4r^ anv-d-Vyat, Caus. -ydtayati, to 
dispose or add in regular sequence, bring into con- 
nection with (loc. or abl.), SBr. &c. 

Anv-a- yatta, mfn. (with toe. or ace.) connected 
with, being in accordance with, being entitled to, 
TS. &c. 

Anv-ayatya, mfn. to be brought in connection 
with, to be added, to be supplied, AsvSr. 

W^nfiTT anv-dyatana, mfn. latitudinal. 

w <i i Mi anv-a- /rabh, to catch or seize or 
touch from behind ; to place one's self behind or at the 
side of, keep at the side of, AV. &c. : Caus. -rambha- 
yati, to place behind another (with loc.), TS. 

Anv-arabhya, mfn. to be touched from behind, 

Anv-arambha, as, m. touching from behind, 
TBr. ; KatySr. 

Anv-arambhana, am, n. id., KatySr. 

Anv-arambhaniyS, f. an initiatory ceremony, 

4n^ anv-a- */ruh, to follow or join by 
ascending ; to ascend : Caus. -rohayati, to place 

Anv-aroha, as, m. pi., N. of certain Japas ut- 
tered at the Soma-libations, TS. 

Anv-arohana, am, n. (_a widow's) ascending the 
funeral pile after or with the body of a husband, 
(gana anupravacanadi, q. v.) 

Anv-arohaniya, mfn. belonging to the Anv- 
arohana, or rite of cremation, ibid. 

VlMlc3>T anv-a-\/labh, to lay hold of, 
grasp, handle, take in the hand or with the hand, 
RV. x, 130, 7, &c. 

Anv-alabhana or anv-alambhana, am, n. 
a handle (?), MBh. iii, 17156. 

^WT7yNr anv-a- Vloc, Caus. -locayatt, to 
consider attentively. 



anv-a- \/2. vap, ' to scatter in ad- 
dition," to add, Kaus. 

'W'^i^^ anv-d-vvah, to convey to or in 
the proximity of, RV. x, 29, 3. 

*( ifTSfT anp-a- \/vis, to enter, occupy, 
possess ; to follow, act according to, ChUp. &c. 

T*^I^i^an0-a- v vrit, to roll near or along, 
RV. v, 62, 2 ; to revolve or move after, follow, VS. 
&c. : Intens. -varlvartti (impf. 3 . pi. dnv avartvuA 
for vrituh), to drive or move after or along, RV 
x, 51, 6; TS. 

w^T^IT anp-a- \/si, to lie along, be ex- 
tended over, AV. 

w-flfW anv-d-srita, mfn. (</sri), one 
who has gone along ; placed or situated along. 

T'^R^ anv-Vds, to take a seat subse- 
quently ; to be seated at or near or round (with ace.) ; 
to live in the proximity of (with gen.), Heat. ; to 
be engaged in (especially in a religious act). 

Anv-asana, am, n. sitting down after (another); 
service ; regret, affliction, L. ; a place where work 
is done, manufactory, house of industry, L. ; an 
unctuous or cooling enema, L. 

Anv-asina, mfn. sitting down after, seated 
alongside of. 

Anv-asyamSna, mfn. being accompanied by, 
attended by. 

anv-d-vsthd, to go towards, to 
meet, attain, VS. &c. 

Tl anv-d-hita. See anv-d-\/dhd. 

anv-d-i/hri, to make up, supply, 
SBr. &c. 

Anv-a-harana, am, n. making up, supplying, 
Comm. on Laty. 

Anv-a-hara, as, m. id., Laty. 

Auv-aharya, as, m. a gift, consisting of food 
prepared with rice, presented to the Ritvij priest at 
:he Darsapurnamasa ceremonies, TS. &c. ; (am or 
akam), n. the monthly Sraddha (q.v.) held on the 
day of new moon (according to Mn. iii, 123 it should 
>e of meat eaten after the presentation of a Pinda or 
mil of rice). pacana, m. the southern sacrificial 
ire, used in the AnvSharya sacrifice, SBr. &c. 

anv-d- V hve, to call to one's side 
n order or after another, Kaus. 

anv-Vi, to go after or alongside, to 
bllow ; to seek ; to be guided by ; to fall to one's 
share, RV. iv, 4, 1 1 ; Ved. Inf. dnv-etave, to reach 
or join [BR.], to imitate [Gmn.], RV. vii, 33, 8 ; 
anv-etavat, to go along (with ace.), RV. i, 24, 8 ; 

i. 44. 5- 

Anv-aya. See p. 46, col. I. 
Anv-ita, mfn. gone along with ; joined, attended, 
accompanied by, connected with, linked to ; having 
s an essential or inherent part, endowed with, pos- 
sessed of, possessing ; acquired ; reached by the mind, 
inderstood ; following ; connected as in grammar or 
onstruction. Anvltartha, mm. having a clear 
meaning understood from the context, perspicuous. 
A'nv-iti, is, ft following after, VS. 
Anv-iyamana, mfn. being followed. 

^(f^^anv-Vidh or anv-Vindh, to kindle, 

fi*JU v anp-v/3. ish, cl. I. P. -icchati, to 
esire, seek, seek after, search, aim at, AV. &c. : 
1. 4. P. -ishyati, id., R. &c., Caus. -eshayati, id., 
ilricch. &c. 

Anv-ishta or anv-ishyamana, mfn. sought, 

Anv-eaha, as, m. [Sak.] or anv-eshana, am, 
, n. f. seeking for, searching, investigating. 

Anv-eshaka, mf(ta)n. or anv-eshin or anv- 

ih$ri [Pan. v, 2, 90, &C.], mm. searching, in- 

Anv-eshtavya or anv-eshya, mfn. to be 

arched, to be investigated. 

W "ll^ anv-Vtksh, to follow with one's 
ks, to keep looking or gazing, AV. &c. ; to keep 
view, SBr. 
Anv-ikthana, am, n. or anv-Iksha, f. exa- 

mining, inquiry, Comm. on NySyad. ; meditation, 

Anv-ikshitavya, mfn. to be kept in view or in 
mind, SBr. 

anv-ita = anv-ita,q.v., Balar. ; Kir. 

anv-ipdm, ind. (fr. 2. ap), along 
the water, along the river, MaitrS. ; cf. Pan. vi, , 
98, Sch. 

tT*| anv- v/rt (01.3. P. -iyarti), aor. A. -aria, 
to follow in rising, R V. v,- 5 2, 6. 

"^"i*! anv-ricdm, ind. verse after verse, 

dnv-riju, mfn. moving straightfor- 
wards or in the right way (N. of Indra), MaitrS. 

*pspr anv-\/ridh, cl. 6. P. -ridhdti, to 
carry out, accomplish, RV. vii, 87, 7. 

^n=^ anv-e (a-\/), cl. 2. P. -aiti, to coma 
after, to follow as an adherent or attendant, RV. i, 
1 6 1, 3, &c. 

dnv-etave, &c. See anv-^i. 

p, n. (gen. npds), work (according 
to NBD.), RV. i, 151,4. 

WH, 2. dp (in Ved. used in sing, and plur., 
but in the classical language only in plur., apas), f. 
water ; air, the intermediate region, Naigh. ; the 
star 8 Virginis ; the Waters considered as divinities. 
Ifc. ap may become apa or ipa, iipa after i- and u- 
stems respectively. [Cf. Lat. aqua; Goth. ahva,'t. 
river ;' Old Germ, aha, and affa at the end of com- 
pounds ; Lith. upp&, ' a river ;' perhaps Lat. amnis, 
' a river," for apnis ; cf. also u</>/im . | Apa- vat, 
mfn. watery, AV. xviii, 4, 24. Apah-samvarta, 
m. destruction (of the world) by water, Buddh. 
Apam-vatsa, m. 'calf of the waters," N. of a star. 
Apam-napSt [RV. ; VS.] or apam-naptri [Pan. 
iv, 2, 27] or apam-garbha [VS.] or apo-naptri 
[Pan. iv, 2, 27], m. 'grandson of the waters," N. 
of Agni or fire as sprung from water. Apam- 
naptriya [Pan. iv, 2, 27] or apam-naptriya 
[Kath.] or apo-naptriya [l J Br.]orapo-naptriya 
[MaitrS. ; TS. ; AitBr. &c.], mfn. relating to Agni. 
ApSm-natha, m. the ocean, L. ApSm-nidhi, 
m. the ocean, L. ; N. of a SSman. Apam-pati or 
ap-pati [Mn.], m. the ocean ; N. of Varuna. 
Apam-pitta or ap-pitta, n. fire ; a plant ; L. 
Ap-kritsna, n. deep meditation performed by 
means of water, Buddh. Ap-cara, m. an aquatic 
animal, Mn. vii, 72. Ap-saras, see s. v. 

Aptya (3\ mfn. watery, RV. i, 124, 5. 

Apya (2, 3), mf(dpyd; once dpi, RV. vi, 67, 9)n. 
being in water, coming from water, connected with 
water, RV. (cf. $.apya). 

Apsava, apsavya, apsa. See s. v. 

Apia, for words beginning thus, see s. v. apsu. 

Al>-, forwards beginning thus, see s.v. ab-indhana, 
ab-ja, Sec. 

^T1 apa, ind. (as a prefix to nouns and 
verbs, expresses) away, off, back (opposed to >ipa, 
dnu, sam, pro] ; down (opposed to ud). taram, 
ind. farther off, MaitrS. 

When prefixed to nouns, it may sometimes = the 
neg. particle a, e. g. apa-bhi, fearless ; or may ex- 
press deterioration, inferiority, &c. (cf. apa-pdlha). 

(As a separable particle or adverb in Ved., with 
abl.) away from, on the outside of, without, with the 
exception of [cf. Gk. dird; Lat. ab ; Goth, of; 
Eng. of}. 

apa-karuna, mfn. cruel. 

apa-kalanka, as, m. a deep stain 
or mark of disgrace, L. 

apa-kulmasha, mf(a)n. stainless, 



apa-->/kash, to scrape off, AV. 
apa-kashdya, mfn. sinless, 

apa-kdmd, as, m. aversion, abhor- 
rence, RV. vi,'75, 2 ; AV. ; abominableness, AV. ; 
(dm), ind. against one's liking, unwillingly, AV. 




apa-kirti, it, f. infamy, disgrace. 

apa-kukshi, is, m. a bad or ill- 
shaped belly (?), Pin. vi, 2, 187; (also used as a and Avyayi-bhdva.) 

WH^W apa-kuftja, as, m., N. of a younger 
brother of the serpent-king Sesha, Hariv. 

Wf apa- \/i . hi, to carry away, remove, 
drag away ; (with gen. or ace.) to hurt, wrong, in- 
jure : Caus. -kdrayati, to hurt, wrong. 

Apa-karana, am, n. acting improperly ; doing 
wrong, L. ; ill-treating, offending, injuring, L. 

Apa-kartri, mfn. injurious, offensive. 

Apa-karman, a, n. discharge (of a debt), Mn. 
viii, 4 ; evil doing, L. ; violence, L.; any impure or 
degrading act, L. 

Apa-Ura, as, m. wrong, offence, injury, hurt; 
despise, disdain. glr [L.], f. or -iabda [Han. viii, 
I, 8, Sch.], m. an offending or menacing speech. 
-tS, f. wrong, offence. Apakararthin, mm. 
malicious, malevolent. 

Apa-k&raka or apa-karin, mm. acting wrong, 
doing ill to (with gen.); offending, injuring. 

Apa-krlta, mm. done wrongly or maliciously, 
offensively or wickedly committed ; practised as a 
degrading or impure act (e. g. menial work, funeral 
rites, &c.) ; (am), n. injury, offence. 

Apa-kriti, is, f. oppression, wrong, injury. 

Apa-kritya, am, n. damage, hurt, Pancat. 

Apa-kriya, f. a wrong or improper act ; delivery, 
clearing off (debts), Yijfl. iii, 234; offence. 

Vdf l^opa-v/a. iftf, cl. 6. P. -kjintati, to 

cut off, Kaus. 

*f*&^apa-</krish, cl. I. P. -karshati, to 
draw off or aside, drag down, carry away, take away, 
remove ; to omit, diminish ; to put away ; to antici- 
pate a word &c. which occurs later (in a sentence) ; 
to bend (a bow) ; to detract, debase, dishonour : 
Caus. -karshayati, to remove, diminish, detract. 

Apa-karha, as, m. drawing or dragging off or 
down, detraction, diminution, decay ; lowering, de- 
pression ; decline, inferiority, infamy ; anticipation, 
NySyam. ; (in poetry) anticipation of a word occur- 
ring later. ama, as, a, m. f. a sophism in the 
Nyiya (e. g. 'sound has not the quality of shape as 
a jar has, therefore sound and a jar have no qualities 
in common '). 

Apa-karchaka, mf(&j)n. drawing down, de- 
tracting (with gen.), Ssh. 

Apa-kanhana, mm. taking away, forcing zway, 
removing, diminishing ; (am), n. taking away, de- 
priving of; drawing down; abolishing, denying; 
anticipation, Nyayam. 

Apa-krihta, mm. drawn away, taken away, 
removed, lost ; dragged down, brought down, de- 
pressed ; low, vile, inferior ; (as), m. a crow, L. 

cetana, mfh. mentally debased. jSti, mfn. of 
a low tribe, til, f. or -tva, n. inferiority, vileness. 

ws apa-Vl.kri, A. apa-s-kirate (Pan. 
fi, I, 142) to scrape with the feet, Uttarar. ; (cf. 
ava-*/s-kri): P. apa-kirati, to spout out, spurt, 
scatter, Pin. i, 3, n, Conmi.; to throw down, L. 

w^Tui a-pakti, is, f. (v/pae), immaturity; 
A-pakva, mf(ii)n. unripe, immature; undigested. 

ta, f. immaturity; incompleteness. bnddhi, 
mfh. of immature understanding. Apakvasln, 
mfn. eating raw, uncooked food. 

w*H^ apa-Vkram, to go away, retreat, 
retire from, RV. x, 164, 1, Sec. ; to glide away ; to 
measure off by steps, Kaus. : Caus. -kramayati, to 
cause to run away, PBr. : Desid. -cikramishati, 
to intend to run away or escape (with abl.), Br. 

Apa-krama, as, m. going away, SBr. &c. ; 
flight, retreat, L. ; (mfh.), not being in the regular 
order (a fault in poetry). 

Apa-kramana, am, n. or apa-krama, as, m. 
passing off or away, retiring. 

Apa-kramin, mm. going away, retiring. 

Apa-kronta, mm. gone away; (am), n. (-=att- 
tam) that which is past, Balar. 

A'pa-krantl, is, f.-=apa-krdmana, MaitrS. 

Apa-kramnka, mm. = apa-kramin, TS. ; PBr. 

^nnft apa-</kri, to buy, AV.; SBr. (see 

W l JJS^ apa- v/fcrus, to revile. 

Apa-kroia, as, m. reviling, abusing, L. 

^TT^ a-pakshd, mfn. without wings, AV. 
&c. ; without followers or partisans, MBh. ; not on 
the same side or party ; adverse, opposed to. ta, 
f. opposition, hostility. pata, m. impartiality. 
pnccha, mfn. without wings and tail, SBr. &c. 

^nift? apa- ^4. kshi, Pass, -kshiyule, to 
decline, wane (as the moon), TS. ; SBr. 
Apa-kshaya, as, m. decline, decay, wane, VP. 
Apa-kshita, mfn. waned, BhP. 
Apa-kshina, mfn. declined, decayed, L. 

ITlfEn^ apa-i/kship, to throw away or 
down, take away, remove. 
Apa-khlpta, mfn. thrown down or away. 
Apa-khepana, am, n. throwing down, &c. 

^TH'l*^ apa- V 'gam, to go away, depart; 
to give way, vanish. 

Apa-gra, mf(a)n. going away, turning away from 
(abl.), AV. i, 34, 5 ; (cf. dn-apaga); (a), i.^dpa- 
ga, L. 

Apa-gata, mfh. gone, departed, remote, gone 
off; dead, diseased. vyadhi, mfn. one who has 
recovered from a disease. 

Apa-gama, at, m. going away ; giving way ; 
departure, death. 

Apa-sramana, am, n. id. 

"WtJTT apa-gara, as, m. (V/I.$T), reviler 
(special function of a priest at a sacrifice), PBr. ; 
Lity. &c. ; (cf. abhigara.) 

VPlfSlf apa-garjita, mfn. thunderless 

(as a cloud), Kathis. 

^f <4*l <*T apa-galbhd, mfn. wanting in bold- 
ness, embarrassed, perplexed, VS. ; TS. 

WPTT, to go away, vanish, 
retire (with abl.), VS. &c. 

*iM'j$. apa-Vgur, to reject, disapprove, 
threaten, RV. v, 32, 6, &c. ; to inveigh against any 
one : Intens. part, apa-jdrgurdna (see s. v. apa- 

Apa-garam or apa-goram, ind. disapproving, 
threatening (?), Pin. vi, I, 53. 

Apa-gorana, am, n. threatening, Comm. on TS. 

WH'J^ apa-\/guh (Subj. 2. sg. P. -guhas, 
A. -guhathds; impf. 3. pi. dp&guhan; aor. -aghu- 
kshat) to conceal, hide, RV.; AV. 

A'pa-gudna, mfh. hidden, concealed, RV. 

Apa-gnhamana, mfh. hiding, AV. xix, 56, 2 ; 
(dpa guh) RV. vii, 104, 17. 

Apa-goha, <w,m. hiding place, secret,RV.ii, 1 5,7. 

WH^apa- \/2.gri, Intens. part, -jdrgurdna, 
mfh. (Gmn. & NBD.) devouring, RV. v, 29, 4. 

WHM~l;j< apa-gopura, mfn. without gates 
(as a town). 

VJn apa- </gai, to break off singing, cease 
to sing, GopBr. ; Vait. 

"Wnif apa-i/grah, to take away, disjoin, 
tear off. 

^rn^ apa-\/gha(, Caus. -ghdtayati, to 
shut up. 

WMII i.apa-ghana, as, m. (\/han), (Pan. 
iii, 3, 8 1 ) a limb or member (as a hand or foot), Naish. 

Apa-ghata, as, m. striking off, warding off, 
SBr. ; (cf. Pin. iii, 3, 81, Sch.) 

Apa-ghataka, mf('/ia)n. (ifc.) warding off. 

Apa-ghatln, mfn. Id. See apa-^han. 

2. apa-ijhana, mfn. cloudless. 

a-paca, mfn. not able to cook, a bad 
cook, Pin. vi, 2, 157 seq, Sch. 

WH^^. apa - -Scar, to depart ; to act 

Apa-carlta, mfn. gone away, departed, dead ; 
(am), n. fault, offence, Sik. 

Apa-cara, as, m. want, absence ; defect ; fault, 
improper conduct, offence; unwholesome or im- 
proper regimen. 

Apa-carin, mfn. departing from, disbelieving 
in, infidel, Mn.; doing wrong, wicked. 

apa-cdy, to fear, TBr. ; to respect, 
honour, SBr. ; TBr. 

Apa-caylta, mfn. honoured, respected, PSn.vii, 
2, 30, Sch. 

Apa-cftyln, mfn. not rendering due respect, 
showing want of respect, MBh.; vriddh&pacayi- 
tva, n. the not rendering due respect to old men, 
MBh. xiii, 6705. 

Wjf"f i . apa- \/2 . ci (Imper. 3. sg. -cikihi) 
to pay attention to, to respect, AV. i, 10, 4. 

I. Apa-oita, mfn. (Pin. vii, 2, 30) honoured, 
respected, SBr.&c.; respectfully invited, BhP.; (am), 
n. honouring, esteeming. 

1. Apa-clti, is, f. honouring, reverence, Sis'. 
mat (dpacili-), mfn. honoured, TS.; SBr.; 

Wlfa 2.apa-</, -cinoti, to gather, 
collect: Pass, -clyate, to be injured in health or 
prosperity; to grow less; to wane ; (with abl.) to 
lose anything, MBh. 

Apa-caya, as, m. diminution, decay, decrease, 
decline ; N . of several planetary mansions. 

2 . Apa-cita, mfh. diminished, expended, wasted ; 
emaciated, thin, S3k. &c. 

2. Apa-citl, is, {. loss, L. ; expense, L. ; N. of a 
daughter of Marici.VP.; (for 3.<fyVj-V!',seebelow.) 

Apa-ci, f. a disease consisting in an enlargement 
of the glands of the neck, Susr. 
Apa-cetri, ta, m. a spendthrift, L. 

WTfl^i^T apa-cikirshd, f. (</i. k?i 
Desid.), desire of hurting any one. 

WlN^ i.apa-Vcit, Caus. A. (Subj. -c- 
tdyatai) to abandon, turn off from (abl.), VS. ii, 1 7 : 
Desid. -cikitsati, to wish to leave or to abandon any 
one (abl.), AV. xiii, 2, 15. 

2. Apa-cit, t, f. a noxious flying insect, AV. 

Apa-cetas, mfn. not favourable to (with abl.), 

OTTfafk s.dpa-citi, is, f. (= anorurts, 
VS- cf), compensation, either recompense [TS. &c.j 
or retaliation, revenge, punishing, RV. iv, 28, 4, &c. 

xtH'asej apa-cchad (i/chad), Caus. -ccha- 
dayati, to take off a cover, ApSr. 
Apa-cchattra, mfh. not having a parasol, 


apa-cchaya, mfn. shadowless, 
having no shadow (as a deity or celestial being) ; 
having a bad or unlucky shadow ; (d), f. an unlucky 
shadow, a phantom, apparition. 

WMI\$ i. apa-cchid (\/ckid),to cut off or 
away, SBr. &c. 

2. Apa-cchid, t, f. a cutting, shred, chip, SBr. ; 

Apa-cclieda, as, am, m. n. cuttting off or away; 

Apa-ccbedana, am, n. id. 

Wrgapa-\/cyu(aor. A. 2. sg. -ryoshthah) 
to fall off, go off, desert, RV. x, 1 73, 2 : Caus. (aor. 
-cucyavat) to expel, RV. ii, 41, 10. 

Apa-cyava, as, m. pushing away, RV. i, 28, 3. 

WI'ifnT apa-jdta, as, m. a bad son who 
has turned out ill, Pancat. 

Wqfl apa-i/ji, to ward off, keep off or 
out, SBr. ; Kith. ; PBr. 
Apa-Jaya, as, m. defeat, discomfiture, L. 
Apa-jayya, mfn. See an-apajayydm. 

Tf^fjim^ apa -j ighdnsu, mfn. (\/han 
Desid.), desirous of keeping off, wishing to avert, 

wf*l%\ 1 ^apa-jihirshu,mfa.(</)iri Desid.), 
wishing to carry off or take away, Rijat. 

apa-Vjrta, -janite, to dissemble, 
conceal, Pin. i, 3, 44. 
Apa-jn&na, am, n. denying, concealing, L. 

wmq apa-jya, mfn. without a bowstring, 

l^if a-panci-krita, am, n. (inVedanta 
phil.) 'not compounded of the five gross elements," 
the five subtle elements. 


. a-patdntara, mfn.' not separated 
by a curtain,' adjoining (v. 1. a-pad&ntara, q. v.), L. 

WM^l apatl, f. a screen or wall of cloth 
(especially surrounding a tent), L. kghepa, m. 
'tossing aside the curtain ;' (ena), ind. with a toss of 
the curtain, precipitate entrance on the stage (indi- 
cating huiry and agitation) ; (cf. pa(ikshepa.) 

WIJ a-patu, mfn. not clever, awkward, 
uncouth ; ineloquent ; sick, diseased, L. tS, f. or 
-tva, n. awkwardness. 

WI7 a-patha, as, m. unable to read, Pan. 
vi, 2, I57seq., Sch. 

frsfflsn a-pandita, mfn. unlearned, il- 

wni^ a-panna-dat. 

a-panya, mfn. unfit for sale ; (am), 
n. an unsaleable article, Gaut. 

. pi. -takshnuvanti & 
impf. apdtakshan) to chip off, AV. x, 7, 20; SBr. 

^TMil apa-tantra, as, m. spasmodic con- 
traction (of the body or stomach), emprosthotonos, 

Apa-tantraka, as, m. id., Susr. 

Apa-tanaka, as, m. id., Susr. 

Apa-tanakin, mfn. affected with spasmodic con- 
traction, Susr. 

WlfiT d-pati, is, m. not a husband or mas- 
ter, AV.viii, 6, l6;(j),f. 'without ahusband or master,' 
either an unmarried person or a widow. f^nni 
(d-pati-), f. not killing a husband, RV. x, 85, 44 ; 
AV. 15, f. state of being without a husband. 
putra, f. without a husband and children . vra- 
ti, f. an unfaithful or unchaste wife. 
i, f., Nir. 

apa-tirtha, as, am, m. n. a had or 
improper Tirtha, q. v. 

WHIJPJ dpa-tula, mf(a)n. without a tuft, 
without a panicle, TS. 

WMrjH, apa--/tfip, Cans, -tarpayati, to 
starve, cause to fast, Car. ; Susr. 
Apa-tarpana, am, n. fasting (in sickness), Susr. 

"Wtljl a-pattra, mfn. leafless ; (a), f., N. 
of a plant. 

TTMfllc* a-patnika, mfn . not having a wife, 
AitBr. ; KatySr. ; where the wife is not present, 

wsm dpatya, am, n. (fr. dpa), offspring, 
child, descendant ; a patronymical affix, Sah. kft- 
ma, mfn. desirous of offspring. jiva, m., N. of a 
plant. 15, f. state of childhood, Mn. iii, 16. da, 
mfn. giving offspring ; (d), f., N. of various plants. 

patha, m. ' path of offspring,' the vulva, Susr. 

pratyaya, m. a patronymical affix, Sah. vat 
(dpatya-), mfn. possessed of offspring, AV. xii, 4, 1. 

vikrayin, m. 'seller of his offspring,' a father who 
receives a gratuity from his son-in-law. satrn, m. 
' having his descendants for enemies,' a crab (said to 
perish in producing young). sac, m (ace. sg. -sa- 
cam)fn. accompanied with offspring, RV. Apa- 
tyartria-sabda, m. a patronymic. 

VTcTR.apa- \/trap, to he ashamed or bash- 

ful, turn away the face. 

Apa-trapana, am, n. or -traps, f. bashfulness ; 

Apa-trapishnn, mfn. bashful, Pan. iii, 2, 136. 

Wlef ^ apa- </tras (impf. 3. pi. ~atrasan) 
to flee from in terror, RV. x, 95, 8, MBh. 

Apa- traita, mfn. (ifc. or withabl.)afraid of, flee- 
ing or retiring from in terror, Pan. ii, 1, 38. 

Tiyvj d-patha, am, n. not a way, absence 
of a road, pathless state, AV. &c. ; wrong way, de- 
viation ; heresy, heterodoxy, L. ; (mf(a)n.), path- 
less, roadless, Pin. ii, 4, 30, Sch. ; (a), f., N. of 
various plants, -gamin, mm. going by a wrong 
road, pursuing bad practices, heretical. prapanna, 
mfn. out of place, in the wrong place, misapplied. 

A-pathin,Ma J, m . absence of road, Pan . v, 4, 7 2. 

A-pathya, mfn. unfit ; unsuitable ; inconsistent ; 
(in med.) unwholesome as food or drink in particu- 
lar complaints. nimitta, mfn. caused by unfit food 
or drink. bhnj, mfn. eating what is forbidden. 

a-pdd or u-pad [only SBr. xiv], mfn. 
nom. m. a-pdd, f. a-pdd\RV. i, 152, 3 & vi, 59, 6] 
or a-pddt[RV.x, 22, 14], footless,RV.; AV.; SBr. 
A'-pada, am, n. no place, no abode, AV. ; the 
wrong place or time, KathSs. &c. ; (mfn.), footless, 
Paiicat. - ruhS or -rohlm, f. the parasitical plant 
Epidendron Tesselloides. atha, mfn. not being in 
its place; out of office. A-padantara,mfh. 'not se- 
parated by a foot,' adjoining, contiguous (v. 1. a-pa- 
tdntara, q.v.), L.; (am), ind. without delay, imme- 
diately, MBh. 

*i M<; Fmvi^apa-dakshinam, in d. away from 
the right, to the left side, KatySr. 

xtm^ii apa-dama, mfn. without self-re- 
straint ; of Wavering fortune. 

M<;<T apa-dava, mfn. free from forest-fire. 
Apa-dav&pad, mfn. free from the calamity of fire. 

WIT5I apa-dasa, mfn. (fr. dasan), (any 
number) off or beyond ten, L. ; (ft. daia), without 
a fringe (as a garment), MBh. 

^nj^apa-v/ds(3. pi. -dasyanti) to fail, 
i. e. become dry, RV. i, 135, 8. 

H<;^ apa-Vdah, to burn up, to burn 
out so as to drive out, RV. vii, I, 7, &c. 

iH<;if apa-dana, am, n. (*/dai!), a great 
or noble work, R. ii, 65, 4 ; Sak. (v. L) ; (in Pali 
for ava-ddna, q. v.) a legend treating of former and 
future births of men and exhibiting the consequences 
of their good and evil actions. 

a-paddrtha, as, m. nonentity. 

- v/rfis (ind. p. -disya) to assign, 
KatySr. ; to point out, indicate ; to betray, pretend, 
hold out as a pretext or disguise, Ragh. &c. 

Apa- (H Bam, ind. in an intermediate region (of 
the compass), half a point, L. 

Apa-dishta, mm. assigned as a reason or pretext. 

Apa-desa, as, m. assigning, pointing out, 
KatySr. ; pretence, feint, pretext, disguise, contriv- 
ance ; the second step in a syllogism (i. e. statement 
of the reason) ; a butt or mark, L. ; place, quarter, L. 

Apa-desin, mfn. assuming the appearance or 
semblance of ; pretending, feigning, Dai. 

Apa-desya, mfn. to be indicated, to be stated, 
Mn. viii, 54 ; Das. 

wigwi^ dpa-dushpad, ' not a failing step,' 
a firm or safe step, RV. x, 99, 3. 

^T<J* apa-\/dr%, Intens. p. apa-ddrdrat, 

mfn. tearing open, RV. vi, 17, 5. 

apa-devata, f. an evil demon. 
apa-dosha, mfn. faultless. 
apa-dravya, am, n. a bad thing. 

-i/dra (Imper. 3. pi. -drantu, 3. 
sg. -drahi) to run away, RV. x, 85, 32 ; AV. 
apa-</2. dm, id., SBr. &c. 

a-dvara, am, n. a side-entrance 
(not the regular door), Susr. 

VWJ apa-Vd/iam (3. pi. -dhamanti, irapf. 
dpddhamat, 2. sg. -adhamas) to blow away or off, 

VIVT i.apa-^/dha (Imper. -dadhatu; aor. 
Pass, -dhayi) to take off, place aside, RV. iv, 28, 2 ; 
vi, 20, 5&x,l64, 3. 

2 . Apa-dhi, f. hiding, shutting up, RV. ii, 1 2, 3. 

WTVT^ apa-\/dhav, to run away, AV. ; 
Br. ; to depart (from a previous statement), pre- 
varicate, Mn. viii, 54. 

^*^J^ apa-dhurdm, away from the yoke, 

VT^apa-\/dhu (i.8g.-dhunomi)to shake 
off, SinkhGr. 

Apa-dhuma, mfn. free from smoke, Ragh. 

Hir>|^ apa-Vdhrish, -dhris noli, to over- 
come, subdue, KaushBr.; (cf. an-afadhriskya.) 

Vl^ apa-^dhyai, to have a bad opinion 
of, curse mentally, MBh. &c. 


Apa-dhySna, am, n. envy, jealousy, MBh. &c. ; 
meditation upon things which are not to be thought 
of, Jain. 

WIt4^ apa- \/dhvans, -dhvaasati, to scold , 
revile, [Comm. on] MBh. i, 5596 ('to drive or turn 
away,' NBL>.) ; to fall away, be degraded (NBD.), 
Hariv. 720. 

Apa-dhvansa, as, m. concealment, A V. ;' falling 
away, degradation," in comp. with -ja, mfn. ' born 
from it,' a child of a mixed or impure caste (whose 
father belongs to a lower [Mn. x, 41, 46] or higher 
[MBh. xiii, 2617] caste than its mother's). 

Apa-dhvansln, mfn. causing to fall, destroying, 

Apa-dlxvaita, mfn. degraded ; reviled ; aban- 
doned, destroyed ; (as), m. a vile wretch lost to all 
sense of right, L. 

WWItl apa-dhvanta, mfn. (Vdkvan), 
sounding wrong, ChUp. 

*nTH*J apa-Vnam, (with abl.) bend away 
from, give way to [NBD.], to bow down before 
[Gmn.], RV. vi, 17,9. 

A'pa-nata, mfn. bent ouiwards, bulging out, 
Br. ; KaushBr. 

Apa-n&ma, as, m. curve, flexion, Sulb. 

WM1^opa--/2.nas,'to disappear,' Imper. 
-naiya, be off, KaushBr. 

^fHH? apa-nasa, mfn. without a nose, L. 

, to bind back, AV.; (ind. 
p. -nahya) to loosen, MBh. iii, 13309. 
WITTM dpa-nabhi, mfn. 'without a navel,' 

without a focal centre (as the Vedi), TS. 

WMII*<\, apa-ndman, a, n. a bad name, 
Pin. vi, 2, 187 ; (mfn.), having a bad name, ib. 

i.apa-nidra, mfn. sleepless. 

2. apa-ni-dra, mfn. ( Vdrd), open- 
ing (as a flower), Sis. ; Kir 
Apa-nl-drat, mm. id., Naish. 

^TTftfVT apa-ni- i/dha, to place aside, hide, 
conceal, TBr. &c. ; to take off, AV. 

tTTfs^nit apa-nirvana, mfn. not yet ex- 
tinct, SSk. 

WlPtiwl apa-ni- v/K, A. (Imper. 3. pi. -la- 
yantam) to hide one's self, disappear, RV. x, 84, 7 ; 

" lf a P a - n *- </hntt, to deny, conceal, 

ChUp. &c. 

apa-\/nt, to lead away or off; to 
rob, steal, take or drag away ; to remove, frighten 
away ; to put off or away (as garments, ornaments, 
or fetters) ; to extract, take from ; to deny, Comm. 
on Mn. viii, 53. 59 ; to except, exclude from a rule, 
Comm. on RPrit. : Desid -ninishati, to wish to 
remove, Comm. on Mn. i, 27. 

Apa- nay a, as, m. leading away, taking away ; 
bad policy, bad or wicked conduct. 

Apa-nayana, am, n. taking away, withdrawing ; 
destroying, healing ; acquittance of a debt. 

Apa-nlta, mfn. led away from ; taken away, re- 
moved ; paid, discharged ; contradictory ; badly exe- 
cuted, spoiled ; (am), n. imprudent or bad behaviour. 

Apa-ntti, u,f. taking away from (abl.).Nyayam. 

Apa-netri, ta, m. a remover, taking away. 

opa-v/3. nu, to put aside, SaiikhGj-. 

apa-\/nud, to remove, RV. &c. 

Apa-nutti, is, f. removing, taking or sending 
away ; expiation, Mn. & Yajn. 

Apa-nnda, mfn. (ifc. e.g. iokdpanuda, q.v.) 
removing, driving away. 

Apa-rranntsn, mfn. desirous of removing, ex- 
piating (with ace.), Mn. xi, 101. 

Apa-noda, as, m. afu-nutti. 

Apa-nodana, mm. removing, driving away, 
Mn. ; (am), n. removing, driving away, KauS. ; Mn. 

Apa-nodya, mm. to be removed. 

"WMq'jf: d-panna-griha, mfn. whose house 
has not fallen in, VS. vi, 24. 

A-panna-da, m(n.*=d-panna-dat, q.v., Gaut. 

A-panna-dat, mt(ati)i\. whose teeth have not 
fallen out, TS. ; TBr. 





:-\/pad, to escape, run away. 

apa-pare(\/i), (perf. I. sg. dpapd- 
reto asmi; dpa asmi may also be taken by itself as 
fr. I. apds) to go off, RV. x, 83, 5. 

^rvfofip(^apa-pary-d-</vrit, to turn (the 
face) away from, Gobh. 

V (414 17 apa-pdtha, as, m. a mistake iu 
reading, Pin. iv, 4, 64, Sch.; a wrong reading (in a 

WTTfi5fapa-pa/ra,mfn. not allowed to use 
vessels (for food),' people of low caste, Mn.x,5l; Ap. 
Apa-patrita, mfn. id. 

^M1l<Jef apa-pddatra, mfn. having no 
protection for the feet, shoeless, Rijat. 

WJHM apa-pdna, am, n. a bad or im- 
proper drink. 

^fTjUirq apa-pitvd, am, n. (probably for 
-pittvd fr. </2.pat; cl.abhi-pitvd, a-pitvd, pra- 
pitvd; but cf. also api-tvd, s. v. dpi), turning away, 
separation, RV. iii, 53, 24. 

^ln faqi^d-papivas, m(gen.d-pupushas)fn. 
(perf. p.), who has not drunk, AV. vi, 1 39, 4. 

WM^rl apa-puta, au, m. du. badly formed 
buttocks, Pin. vi, 2, 187; (mfn.), having badly 
formed buttocks, ib. 

WfJ apa-Vl pri (aor. Subj. 2. sg.parshi) 
to drive or scare away from (abl.), RV. i, 129, 5. 

VJIHTT apa-pra-i/i. gd (aor. -pragdt) to 
go away from, yield to, RV. i, 113, 16. 

v4H*tini apa-prajata, f. a female that 
has had a miscarriage, Susr. 

' apa-praddna, am, n. a bribe. 

_>ru, dpa-pravate, leap 
or jump down, SBr. &c. 

Vl|I|V| apa-Vpruth (Imper. 2. sg.-pro/Aa ; 
p. -prtihat) to blow off, RV. vi, 47, 30 & ix, 98, 1 1 . 

yanti; Opt. -prfydt) to go away, withdraw, RV. x. 

TO apa-proshita, am, n. (vg. vas), 
the having departed, a wrong departure or evil caused 
thereby, (neg. dn-) SBr. 

WM* apa-v/plu, to spring down, MBh. : 
Caus. -plavayati, to wash off, TS. &c. 

^fHTr^^ dpa-barhis, mfn. not having the 
portion constituting the Barhis, SBr. ; KitySr. 

HHm^apa-Vbddh, A. to drive away, re- 
pel, remove, RV. &c. : Caus. P. id., AV. xii, I, 49 : 
Desid. A. -bibhatsate, to abhor from (abl.), AitBr. 

w4iij<i apa-bdhuka, as, m. a bad arm, 
stiffness in the arm, L. 

'WS^apa-i/brii (impf. -brdvat) to speak 
some mysterious or evil words upon, AV. vi, 57, 1. 

WIHl^ apa-Vbhaj, P. (Subj. i. pi. -bha- 
jamd) to cede or transfer a share to, RV. x, 108, 9 ; 
SBr.; tosatisfythe claims of (ace.), KitySr. ; todivide 
into parts, PBr. ; SinkhSr. 

^T<T*ni apa-bhaya, mf(u)n. fearless, un- 

Apa-bhi, mfn. id. 

WJHUBlT apa-bhdrani, f. pi. (Vbhrf), the 
last lunar mansion, TS. ; TBr. 

A'pa-bhartavai, Inf. to take away, RV. x, 14, 2. 

Apa-bhartri, mfn. taking away, RV. ii, 33, 7; 

^WTT*^ apa-\/bhdsh, to revile, Kum. v, 83. 

Apa-bliaahana, am, n. abuse, bad words, L. 

"(rufir^ apa-\/bhid (Imper. 2. sg. -bhindhf 
for -bhinddht) to drive away, RV. viii, 45, 40. 

< W 1 <|i^apa-\/6Au(Imper. -bhavatu Sc -bhutu 
[RV. i, 131, 7]; aor.Subj. -bhus, 2. jl.-tAii 
tana) to be absent, be deficient, RV. ; AV. ; TS. 

Apa-bhuti, is, f. defect, damage, AV. v,8, 5. 

"WW5I apa-bhra^sd (or apa-bhransa), as, 

m. falling down, a fall, TS. &c. ; a corrupted form 
of a word, corruption ; ungrammatical language ; 
the most corrupt of the Prakrit dialects. 

Apa-bhrashta, mfn. corrupted (as a Prakrit 
dialect), Kathas.' 

apamd, mfn. (fr. dpa), the most dis- 
tant, the last, RV. x, 39, 3 ; AV. x, 4, 1 ; (as), m. (in 
astron.) the declination of a planet. kshetra, see 
kranti-kshctra. -Jya, f. the sine of the declina- 
tion. mandala (or apa-mandala) or -vritta, 
n. the ecliptic. 

apa-manyu, mfn. free from grief. 

apa-marda, as, m. (\/mrid), what 
is swept away, dirt. 

?I apa-marsa, as, m. (Vmris), touch- 

ing, grazing, Sik. (v. 1. for abhi-marSa). 

o/>a-\/3.roa(ind.p.-maya; cf.Pan. 
vi, 4, 69) to measure off, measure, AV. xix, 57, 6. 

apa-mdna, as, m. (or am, n.), 
, disrespect, contempt, disgrace. 
Apa-manita, mfn. dishonoured, disgraced, 
SSnkhGr. &c. 

Apa-manin, mfn. dishonouring, despising. 
Apa-manya, mfn. disreputable, dishonourable. 

'flljmrt i.apa-mdrga, as, m. a by-way, 

apa-m(tya. See apa-Vme. 
apa-mukha, mfn. having the face 
verted, Pin. vi, 2, 1 86 ; having an ill-formed face 
or mouth, ib. ; (am), ind. except the face, &c., ib. 

apa-murdhan, mfn. headless. 
apa--/mry, cl. 2. P. A. -marshti 
(I. pi. -mrijmahe; Imper. 2. du. -mfijcth&m) to 
wipe off, remove, AV. ; SBr. &c. 
2. Apa-mSrga, as, m. wiping off, cleansing, Sis. 
Apa-marjana, am, n. cleansing; a cleansing 
remedy, detergent, Susr. ; (mfn.) wiping off, mov- 
ing away, destroying, BhP. 
A'pa-mrishta, mfn. wiped off, cleansed, VS. &c. 

SSI 141^ apa-mrityu, us, m. sudden or ac- 
cidental death ; a great danger or illness (from which 
a person recovers). 

^V^fMri apa-mrishita, unintelligible (as a 
speech), Pin. i, 2, 20, Sch. 

^WIH apa-Vme, cl. r. A. -mayate (ind. p. 
-mitya or -mayo) to be in debt to, owe, Pin. iii, 4, 
19, Sch. 

Apa-mitya, am, n. debt, AV. vi, 1 1 7, 1 ; AsvSr. 

h (Imper. 2. sg. -mya- 
ksha) to keep off from (abl.), RV. ii, 28, 6. 

WQg&dpa-mlukta, mfn. (Vmluc), retired, 
hidden, RV. x, 52, 4. 

vnrs^opa- Vyo; ( i . pi. -yajdmasi) to drive 
off by means of a sacrifice, Kaui. 

*l M <4 ^(apa-yasas, as, n. disgrace, infamy. 
kara, mfn. occasioning infamy, disgraceful. 

WTHIT apa-Vya, to go away, depart, re- 
tire from (abl. ) . ; to fell off : Caus. -ydpayati, to carry 
away by violence, BhP. 

Apa-yata, mfn. gone away, having retired. 

Apa-yatavya, am, n. impers. to be gone away, 

Apa-y&na, am, n. retreat, flight; (in astron.) 

^^ apa-Vi. yu, -yuyoti (Imper. 2. sg. 
-yuyodhl, 2. pi. -yuyotana) to repel, disjoin, RV. 

WJ^^apa- Vyuj, \.-yunkte, to loose one's 
self or be loosened from (abl.), SBr. 

VM(1 i. a-para, mfn. having nothing be- 
yond or after, having no rival or superior, vat, 
mm. having nothing following, SBr. I . --para, 
mm. ' not reciprocal, not one (by) the other,' only 
in comp. with -sambhuta, mfn. not produced one 
by the other, Bhag. A'-paradhina, mfn. not de- 
pendent on another, SBr. A-par&rdhya, mfn. 
without a maximum, unlimited in number, AsvSr. 

2. dpara, mf(o)n. (fr. dpa), posterior, 
ater, latter (opposed to puna; often in comp.); 
"ollowing; western; inferior, lower (opposed lopdra}', 
other, another (opposed to rvd ) ; different (with 
abl .); being in the west of ; distant, opposite. Some- 
times apara is used as a conjunction to connect 
words or sentences, e.g. aparam-ta, moreover ; 
[as), m. the hind foot of an elephant, Sis. ; (a), (. 
the west, L. ; the hind quarter of an elephant, L. ; 
the womb, L. ; (/), f. (used in the pi.) or (dm) [RV. 
v '> 33> i]> n - tne ruture, RV. ; SBr. ; (dparam 
[AV.] or aparam [RV.]), ind. in future, for the 
future ; (aparam), ind. again, moreover, PirGf. ; 
Paficat. ; in the west of (abl.), KitySr. ; (ena), ind. 
(with ace.) behind, west, to the west of, KatySr. [cf. 
Goth, and Old Germ, afar; and the Mod. Germ. 
aber, in such words as Abcr-mal, Alier-witz], 

kanyakubja, m., N. of a village in the western 
part of Kanyakubja, Pin. vii, 3, 14, Sch. kaya, 
m. the hind part of the body. kila, m. a later 
period, KatySr. trodana, n. (in Buddhist cosmo- 
gony) a country west of the Mahi-meru. ja, mfn. 
born later, VS. jana, sg.or pi. m. inhabitants of the 
west, GopBr. ; KitySr. ta,f. distance; posteriority 
(in place or time) ; opposition, contrariety, relative- 
ness ; nearness, tra, ind. in another place ; (eka- 
tra, aparalra, in one place, in the other place, Pin. 

1, 194, Sch.) tTa,n. = -ra, q.v. -dakshi- 
nam, ind. south-west, (gana tishthadgv-ddi, q.v.) 

nidagha, m. the latter part of the summer. 
- pakuha, m. the latter half of the month, SBr. ; 
the other or opposing side, the defendant. pa- 
kshiya, mfn. belonging to the latter half of the 
month, (gana gahadi, q. v.) paic&la, m. pi. the 
western PancSlas, Pin. vi, 2, 103, Sch. para, 
m(of or e)fn. pi. one and the other, various, Pin. 
vi, 1, 144, Sch. pnrusha, m. a descendant, SBr. 
x. prancya, mfn. easily led by others, tractable. 

bhava, m. after-existence, succession, continua- 
tion, Nir. ratza, m. the latter half of the night, 
the end of the night, the last watch, -loka, m. an- 
other world, paradise. vaktrS, f. a kind of metre 
of four lines (having every two lines the same), 
vat, see I. a-para. varsha, as, (. pi. the 
latter part of the rains. iazad, f. the latter part 
of the autumn. svag, ind. the day after to-morrow, 
Gobh. - saktha, n. the hind thigh, SBr. - sad, 
mfn. being seated behind, PBr. 2. -s-para, 
mfn. pi. one after the other, Pin. vi, 1, 144. sva- 
stika, n. the western point in the horizon. he- 
manta, m. n. the latter part of winter. nai- 
mana, mfn. belonging to the latter half of the winter 
season, Pln.vii,3,n,Sch. Aparaffni, f.m.du.the 
southern and the western fire (of a sacrifice), KitySr. 
Aparanta, mfn. living at the western border; (as), 
m. the western extremity, the country or the inhabi- 
tants of the western border ; the extreme end or 
term; 'the latter end,' death. Aparantaka, 
mf(i&d)n. living at the western border, VarBrS. Sec.; 
(tia), (. a metre consisting of four times sixteen 
mitris ; (am), n., N. of a song, Yijn. Aparanta- 
jnana, n. prescience of one's latter end. Apara- 
para,m(r or e)fn.p\. another and another, various, 
L. Apararka, m. the oldest known commentator 
ofYajnavalkya's law-book. Apararka-candrlka, 
f. the name of his comment. Aparardua, m. 
the latter, the second half. Aparahna, m. after- 
noon, the last watch of the day. Aparahnaka, 
mfn. 'born in the afternoon," a proper name, Pin. 
iv, 3, 28. Aparahna-tana [L.] or aparahne- 
tana [Pin. iv, 3, 24], mfn. belonging to or pro- 
duced at the close of the day. Aparfetara, f. op- 
posite to or other than the west, the east, L. Apare- 
dyus, ind. on the following day, MaitrS. &c. 

'WHvS^ apa-i/rafij, -rajyate, to become 
unfavourable to, MBh. ; Kir. ii, 49. 

Apa-rakta, mfn. having a changed colour, grown 
pale, Sik.; unfavourable, VarBrS. 

Apa-raffa, as, m. aversion, antipathy, Mn. vii, 


WTOT apa-rata, mfn. (\/ram), turned off 
from, unfavourable to (abl.), Nir.; resting, BhP. 

^HH3 apa-rava, as, m. contest, dispute ; 
discord. Aparavojjhita, mfn. free from dispute, 
undisturbed, undisputed. 

WKHK i . a-paraspara. See r . a-para, 

2. Aparaa-para. See t. Apara, 


Jtf^H apa-lashin. 

a-parah-mukha, mfn. with un- 
verted face, not turned away from (gen.), Ragh. 

TSI 4" .T i f*4^ d-pardjayin, mfn. never losing 
(at play), TBr. 

A'-parajita, mf(<J)n. unconquered, unsurpassed, 
RV. &c. ; (as), m. a poisonous insect, Susr. ; Vishnu ; 
Siva ; one of the eleven Rudras, Hariv. ; a class of 
divinities (constituting one portion of the so-called 
Anuttara divinities of the Jainas) ; N. of a serpent- 
demon, MBh.; of a son of Krishna, BhP.; of a 
mythical sword, Kathas. ; (a), f. (with jii) the north- 
east quarter, AitBr. &c. ; Durga ; several plants, 
Clitoria Ternatea, Marsilea Quadrifolia, Sesbania 
jEgyptiaca ; a species of the Sarkari metre (of four 
lines, each containing fourteen syllables). 

A-parajlshnu, mm. unconquerable, invincible, 
SBr. xiv. 

WJTTV apa- </rddh, -rddhyati or -rddhnoti, 
to miss (one's aim, Sec.), AV. &c. ; to wrong, offend 
against (gen. or loc.) ; to offend, sin. 

Apa-r&ddha, mfn. having missed ; having of- 
fended, sinned; criminal, guilty; effing. pri- 
shatka or aparaddheshn, m. an archer whose 
arrows miss the mark, L. 

Apa-raddhi, is, (. wrong, mistake, SBr. 

Apa-raddhri, mfn. offending, an offender. 

Apa-radha, as, m. offence, transgression, fault ; 
mistake ; aparddham \/ 1 . kri, to offend any one 
(gen.) bhanjana, m. 'sin-destroyer^'N. of Siva. 
bharijana-stotra, n. a poem of Sankaracarya 
(in praise of Siva). 

Apa-r&dhin, mfn. offending ; criminal ; guilty. 
Aparadb-1-tS, f. or -tva, n. criminality, guilt. 

W4<l4.<u a-pardparand, as, m. not having 
descendants or offspring, AV. xii, 5, 45. 

^TtTtTHT^ d-pardbhdva, as, m. the state of 
not succumbing or not breaking down, TBr. 

A-parSbWita, mfn. not succumbing, not break- 
ing down, SBr. 

WlU *je a-pardmrishta, mfn. untouched. 

T< 4 <j 1*01 a-parasikta, mfn. not poured 
on one's side, not spilled (as the semen virile), SBr. 

wmj^rt d-parahata, mfn. not driven off, 
AV. xviii, 4, 38. 

WMRcufrtn a-parikalita, mfn. unknown, 


si 1 Pi.**! a-parikrama, mfn. not walking 
about, unable to walk round, R. ii, 63, 42. 

A-parltramam, ind. without going about, 
standing still, KjtySr. 

Wrftf^f? a-pariklinna, raft), not moist, 
not liquid, dry. 

a-pariganya, mfn. incalculable. 

a-pariyata,}>ts,mcfl, un- 
known, Kad. 

*ml\i|^ a-parigraha, as, m. not includ- 
ing, Comm. on TPrat. ; non-acceptance, renounc- 
ing (of any possession besides the necessary utensils 
of ascetics), Jain.; deprivation, destitution, poverty; 
(mfn.), destitute of possession ; destitute of attend- 
ants or of a wife, Kuril. i, 54. 

A-parigranya, mfn. unfit or improper to be 
accepted, not to be taken. 

TI 4 K.I rM^ a-paricayin, mfn. (v 2. ci), 
having no acquaintances, misanthiopic. 
A-pariclta, mfn. unacquainted with, unknown to. 
A-pariceya, mm. unsociable. 

^nrfTflff^ 1 a-paricchada, mfn. (VchacT), 
without retinue, unprovided with necessaries, Mn. 
viii, 405. 

A-paricchanna, mfn. uncovered, unclothed. 

A-parlcch&dita, mfn. id. 

i MiVfrBfl a-paricchinna, mfn. without 
interval or division, uninterrupted, continuous ; con- 
nected ; unlimited ; undistinguished. 

A-pariccheda, as, m. want of distinction or 
division ; want of discrimination, Ssk. ; waat of 
judgment; continuance. 

a-parijydni, is, f. ' not falling 
into decay,' ishtdpurtasy&parijydni, f., N. of a 
sacrificial ceremony, AitBr. 

a-parinayana, am, n. (</nT), 
non-marriage, celibacy. 
A-parinitS, f. an unmarried woman. 

*) M Ru li a-parinama, as, m. ( \/am), un- 
changeableness. dariin, mfn. not providing for 
a change, improvident. 

A-parlTiSmln, mm. unchanging. 

V4 retire a-paritosha, mfn. unsatisfied, 
discontented, Sak. 

a-paripakva, mfn. not quite ripe 
(as fruits, or a tumour [Susr.]); not quite mature. 

d-paripara, mfn. not going by a 
tortuous course, AV. xviii, 2, 46 ; MaitrS. 

^roftfiW d-paribhinna, mfn. not broken 
into small pieces, not crumbled, SBr. 

WTtWiiu d-parimana, mfn. without mea- 
sure, immeasurable, immense ; (am), n. immeasur- 

A'-parimita, mfn. unmeasured, either indefinite 
or unlimited, AV. ; SBr. &c. gTina-gana, mfn. 
of unbounded excellences, dill, ind. into an un- 
limited number of pieces or parts, MaitrUp. vi- 
dha (dparimita-}, mm. indefinitely multiplied, 
SBr. Aparimitalikhita, mfn. having an indefi- 
nite number of lines, SBr. ; KatySr. 

A-parimeya, mfn. immeasurable, illimitable. 

T 4 ft* re d-parimosha, as, m. not stealing, 

i4fViir| a-parimldna, as,m.' not wither- 
ing, not decaying,' the plant Gomphrena Globosa. 

in M U.M i f*u a-pariydni,is, f .inability to walk 
about (used in execrations). Pin. viii, 4, 29, Kas. 

xmRwiH a-parilopa, as, m. non-loss; 
non-damage, RPrSt. 

vujfV.'*'!'^ d-parivargam, ind. without 
leaving out, uninterruptedly, completely, TS. ; TBr. ; 

WMl^qnilM a-parivartaniya, mfn. not to 
be exchanged. 

w^f^ifl a-parivddya, mfn. (i/tad), not 
to be reprimanded, Gaut. 

* <T(VfqK d-parivishta, mfn. not enclosed, 
unbounded, RV. ii, 13, 8. 

^mRiTn d-parwita, mfn. (Vvye), not 
covered, SBr. 

*R ^Hl^Jrl a-parivrita, mfn. not hedged in 
or fenced, Mn. & Gaut.; (cf. d-parivrita.) 

Vrfr^ta a-parisesha, mfn. not leaving a 
remainder, all-surrounding, all-enclosing, Sankhyak. 

, ind. not loosely, 

very firmly, Uttarar. 

TnrPc B "RT a-parishkdra, as, m. want of 

polish or finish ; coarseness, rudeness. 

A parishkrita, mfn. unpolished, unadorned, 

TftwrTftToR a-parisamdptika, mfii. not 
ending, endless, Comm. on BrArUp. 

wft$tT.a-parisara, mfn. non-contiguous, 


l yfl.lAtJ*^ a-pariskandam, iiid. so as not 
to jump or leap about, Bhatt. 

SHlfX^idl'N a-pariharaniya, mfn. not to 
be avoided, inevitable ; not to be abandoned or lost ; 
not to be degraded. 
A pariharya, mfn. id., Gaut. &c. 

Wjf^mi a-parikdna or a-parhdna, am, n. 
the state of not being deprived of anything, KaushBr. 

^T THy. rl d-parihvrita, mfn. unafflicted, not 
endangered, RV. ; (cf. Pan. vii, 3, 32.) 


a-parikshita, mfn. untried, un- 
proved ; not considered, inconsiderate. 

Wirta d-parita, mfn. unobstructed, irre- 
sistible, RV. ; (as), m., N. of a people (v. 1.) 

xmi.t'jrf d-parivrita, mfn. (i/l.vri), un- 
surrounded, RV. ii, 10, 3 ; (cf. a-parivrita^) 

^PT^ apa-Vl. rudh, to expel, drive out 
(from possession or dominion), RV. x, 34, 2 & 3 ; 
AV. &c. : Oesid. Pass. p. apa-ruruisyamdna, 
wished or intended to be expelled, Kath. 

Apa-roddhri, a, m. one who keeps another off, 
a repeller, TS. 

Apa-rodha, as, m. exclusion, prohibition (an-, 
neg.), KstySr. 

Apa- rodhnta, mfn. detaining, hindering.MaitrS. 

a-parusha, mf(a)n. not harsh. 

dpa-rupa, am, n. monstrosity, de- 
formity, AV. xii, 4, 9 ; (mfn.), deformed, ill-looking, 
odd-shaped, L. 

apare-dyus. See 2. dpara. 

a-paroksha, mfn. not invisible; 
perceptible ; (am*), ind. (with gn.) in the sight of; 
(dparokshaf), ind. perceptibly, manifestly, SBr. xiv. 
Aparokshaya, Nom. V.yati, to make percepti- 
ble, L. ; to take a view of (ace.), MBh. 

^TOT a-parnd, mfn. leafless, TS. ; (a), f., 
' not having even leaves (for food during her religious 
austerities),' N. of Durga or Parvatl, Kum. v, 28. 

wig apa-rtu (ritu), mfn. untimely, un- 
seasonable, AV. iii, 28, I ; not corresponding to the 
season (as rain), BhP.; (us), m. not the right time, not 
the season, Gaut. ; Ap. ; (u), ind. not in. correspond- 
ence with the season, Gaut. 

WHTnT a-paryantd, mfn. unbounded, un- 
limited, SBr. x, xiv, &c. 

^nWTW a-parydpta, mfn. (Vdp), incom- 
plete ; unable, incompetent, insufficient ; not enough ; 
unlimited, unbounded, L. vat, mfn. not compe- 
tent to (Inf.), Ragh. xvi, a8. 

WT'tni a-parydya, as, m. want of order or 


WnhffcrT a-parydsita, mfn. (Caus. perf. 
Pass. p. -v/2. aj), not thrown down or annihilated, 
Kir. i, 41. 

WJH^ a-parvdn, a, n. not a point of 
junction, RV. iv, 19, 3 ; a day which is not *pa"- 
van (a day in the lunar month, as the full and 
change of the moon, and the eighth and fourteenth 
of each half month) ; (mfn.), without a joint. 
Aparva-danda, m. a kind of sugar-cane. A- 
parva-bhanga-nlpuna, mfn. skilled in breaking 
a passage where there is no joint (i. e. where there 
is no possibility of bending), Kim. 

A-parvaka, mfn. jointless, SBr. 

a-parhdna=a-parihdna, q. v. 
i . apala, am, n. a pin or bolt, L. 
^14 rt 2. a-pala, mfn. fleshless. 

W4c*H, apa- V lap, to explain away, to 
deny, conceal : Caus. A. -Idpayate, to outwit, Bhatt., am, n. denial or concealment of 
knowledge, evasion, turning off the truth, detraction ; 
concealing, hiding ; affection, regard, L. ; the part 
between the shoulder and the ribs, Susr. 

Apa-lapita, mm. denied, concealed ; suppressed, 
embezzled, Comm. on Mn. viii, 400. 

Apa-lSpa, as,m. = apa-lapana. danda, m. a 
fine imposed on one who denies or evades tin law). 

Apa-lapin, mfn. one who denies, evades or con- 
ceals (with gen.) 

a-paldla, as, m., N. of a Rakshas. 
a-paldsd, mfn. leafless, RV. x, 
a?, M- 

WmFSlf^pT apa-ldshikd (or apa-ldsikd), f. 
thirst, L. 
Apa-lashin, mfn. free from desire, Pan. iii, 2, 






Apa-laihuka, mfn. free from desire, Pip. vi, 1, 
160, Sch. 

Mfri^a/>a- </KiA(Subj.-/tAAa<)to scrape 
off, AV. xiv, j, 68. 

1 d-palita, mfn. not grey, AV. 

upam,md. (according to Pan. 
iii, 4, 1 1, Sch.) Ved. Inf. of apa-f/lup, to cut off. 

^m^m^rt d-palpulana-krita, mfn. not 
soaked or macerated, SBr. 

^1 H *l % apa-vaktri, td, m. 'speaking away,' 
warning off, averting, RV. i, 24, 8 ; AV.v, 15, 1. 

Apa-vicanm, am, n. See ait-apavdfand. 

. See s. v. 2. op. 

a- v/eaef, P. to revile, abuse, TBr. 
&c. ; to distract, divert, console by tales, PlrGr.; 
Yajfi. ; (in Or.) to except, RPr. ; (A. only) to 
disown, deny, contradict, Pin. i, 3, 77, Sch. : Caus. 
-vadayati, to oppose as unadvisable ; to revile ; (in 
Or.) to except, RPrlt. 

Apa-vadam&na, mm. reviling, speaking ill of 
(dat.), Bhatt. 

Apa-vfcda, as, m. evil speaking, reviling, blam- 
ing, speaking ill of (gen.) ; denial, refutation, con- 
tradiction ; a special rule setting aside a general one, 
exception (opposed to ulsarga, Pan. iii, 1,94, Sch.), 
RPrlt. ; Pin. Sch. ; order, command, Kir. ; a pecu- 
liar noise made by hunters to entice deer, Sis. vi, 9. 
pratyaya, m. an exceptional affix, Pin. iii, 1,94, 
Sch. ithala, n. case for a special rule or exception, 
Pin. Sch. 

Apv-v&daka, mm. reviling, blaming, defaming; 
opposing, objecting to ; excepting, excluding, Cornm. 
on TPrlt. 

Api-vadlta, mfn. blamed ; opposed, objected to. 

Api-vldin, mm. blaming, Slk. 

Api-vadya, mfn. to be censured ; to be excepted, 
Comm. on TPrtt. 

*l<lm apa-Vvadh (tot. -avadhit) to cut 
off, split, RV.x, 146, 4; to repel, avert, VS.; Br. 

f|lH*1 I. a-pavana, mfn. without air, 

sheltered from wind. 

z.apa-vana, am, n. a grove, L. 

a-i/2. vap (Subj. 2. sg. -vapas 
[Padap. -vapa] ; impf. a. sg. -dvapas, 3. sg. -dva- 
faf) to disperse, drive off, destroy, RV. ; AV. ; TS. 

iraia,&c. Seea/>a-\/i.rri. 
apa-tarya, &c. See opa- \/rri/. 
apa-varta, &c. See apa-Vcrit. 

apa-\/2.cas(Subj. -ucchat, Iinper. 
-ucchatu) to drive off by excessive brightness, RV. ; 
AV. ; to become extinct, AV. iii, J, J. 

Apa-vsUa, as, m. extinction, disappearance, AV. 
iii, 7, 7; N. of a plant, L. 

VRT apa-Vvak, to carry off; to deduct; 
to give up : C*\K.-vahayati,io hare (something) car- 
ried off or taken away ; to drive away, Dai. ; Pailcat. 

Apa-v&ha, as, m. 'carrying off (water),' a chan- 
nel, TS. ; 'carrying off," see Vasishth&pavdha ; de- 
duction, subtraction ; N. of a metre ; of a people. 

Apa-vahaka, as, m. deduction, subtraction. 

Apa-vatana, am, n. carrying off, Iiit. ; Dai. ; 

Apa-v&hya, mfn. to be carried av ay, R. 

Apddha. See s.v., p. 56, coL 3. 

"WITT apa-\/vd, -vati, to exhale, perspire, 
RV. i, 162, 10 ; (Imper. -vdtu) to blow off, RV. 
viii, l8, IO. 

a-vdda, &c. See apa-i/vad. 

l apa-vikshata, mfn. un wounded, 
Slk. (v. 1.) 

apa-vighna, mfn. unobstructed, 
unimpeded ; (am), n. freedom from obstruction, 
MBh. i, 6875. 

WwHi'q apa-Vvie, el. 7. -vinakti (impf. 
dpivinak) to single out from, select, AV. ; SBr. ; 
cl. 3. -vevekti, id., KauS. 

a-pavitra, mf(a)n. impure. 
apa-tiddha. See apa- 

apa-</vii, Caus. (Imper. 2. sg. 
-vtiaya) to send away, AV. ix, a, 25. 

^Mf<MT apa-vishd, f. ' free from poison,' 
the grass Kyllingia Monocephala. 

WlirnHJJ apu-vishnu, ind. except or with- 
out Vishnu. 

^T'ret apa--/vi, -veti, to turn away from, 
be unfavourable to, RV. v, 61, 18 & x, 43, 2. 

vrtfaff apa-tina, mfn. baring a bad or 
no lute, Pin. vi, 2, 187 ; (a), f. a bad lute, ib. ; (am), 
ind. without a lute, ib. 

d-pavira-vat, mfn. not armed 

with a lance, RV. x, 60, 3. 

*m<J opo-Vl. Vfi (impf. 2. sg. dpdvrinos, 
3. sg. dfdvrinet ; Subj. -varat ; aor. t. & 3. sg. 
-avar [Padap. -avar], 3. sg. A. -avrita; aor. Subj. 
I. sg. -vam [for varm, RV. x, 28, 7], 3. sg. -var, 
3. pi. -vran, Imper. 2. sg. [in RV.] once apavri- 
dhi and five times dpd vridhi [cf. apd-*/\.vri 
and ib'. dpd-vriid\ ; perl. 2. sg. -vavdrtha, 3. sg. 
-vavdrd) to open, uncover, exhibit, RV. ; (ind. p. 
-vrleya)^Br.iiv; (cf.apd-*/l.vri): Cva.-vdra- 
yati, 'to hide, conceal," see apa-varita. 

Apa-varaka, as, m. an inner apartment, lying- 
in chamber, Kathls. 

Apa-varana, am, n. covering, L.; garment, L. 

Apa-vartri, ta, m. one who opens, R V. iv, 20, 8. 

Apa-varana, am, n. covering, concealment, L. 

Apa-varita, mm. covered, concealed, Mricch. 
&c.; (am ), ind. (in theatrical language)secretly,apart, 
aside (speaking so that only the addressed person 
may hear, opposed \o prakdiam), Slh. 

Apa-vSrltakena, ind. = apa-varitam. 

Apa-vSrya, ind. y. = apa-varitam. 

WT|T apa- Vvfij, A .-vrinkte (Imper. 2 . sg. 
vrihkshva; Subj. I. sg. -vrindjai ; aor. P. 3. sg. 
dpdvrtt) to turn off, drive off, AV. ; SBr. ; to tear 
off, AV. ; (with<f<zoa)carpere viam [BR.], RV. 
x, 1 1 7, 7 j to leave off, determine, fulfil, SBr. &c. : 
Caus. -varjayati, to quit, get rid of; to sever, turn 
off from ; to transmit, bestow, grant, MBh. &c. 

Apa-varg-a, at, m. completion, end (e. g. /<z3- 
c&pavarga, coming to an end in five days), KatySr. 
&c. ; the emancipation of the soul from bodily ex- 
istence, exemption from further transmigration ; final 
beatitude ; BhP. &c. ; gift, donation, AsvSr. ; re- 
striction (of a rule), Susr. ; Sulb. da, mf(o)n. Con- 
ferring final beatitude. 

Apa-varjana, am, n. completion, discharging a 
debt or obligation, Hariv. ; transmitting, giving in 
marriage (a daughter), MBh. ; final emancipation or 
beatitude, L. ; abandoning, L. 

Apa-varjaniya, mfn. to be avoided. 

Apa-varjlta, mfn. abandoned, quitted, got rid 
of, given or cast away ; made good (as a promise), 
discharged (as a debt). 

Apa-varjya, ind. p. excepting, except. 

Apa-vrlkta, mfn. finished, completed. 

Apa-vrikti, it, f. fulfilment, completion. 

^m^li apa-Vvfit, to turn away, depart ; 
to move out from, get out of the way, slip off: 
Caus. P. (Ved. Imper. 2. sg. -vartaya) to turn or 
drive away from, RV. ii, 23, 7 &c. ; (in arithm.) to 
divide ; to reduce to a common measure. 

Apa-varta, as, m. (in arithm. or alg.) reduction 
to a common measure ; the divisor (which is applied 
to both or either of the quantities of an equation). 

Apa-vartaka, as, m. a common measure, L. 

Apo-vartana, fl?, n. takingaway, removal, Susr. ; 
ademption, Mn. ix, 79 reduction of a fraction to its 
lowest terms ; division without remainder ; divisor. 

Apa-vartlte, mfn. taken away; removed; divided 
by a common measure without remainder. 

Apa-vritta, mfn. reversed, inverted, overturned ; 
finished, carried to the end (perhaps for apa-vrikta), 
SlnkhSr.; KltySr. &c.; (am), n. (in astron.) ecliptic. 

Apa-vrltti, is, (. slipping off; end, L. 

^ni? apa-\/ve (Imper. 2. sg. -vaya) to 
unweave what has been woven, RV. x, 130, I. 

Wll^ apa-\/ven (Subj. 2. sg. -venas) to 
turn away from, be unfavourable to, AV. iv, 8, 2. 

IHT^ apa--/ve$ht, Caus. -veshtayaii, to 
strip off, PBr. 

- \/vyadh (Subj. 3. du. -vidhya- 
tdm) to drive away, throw away, RV. vii, ^5. 4, 
&c.; to pierce(with arrows), MBh.; to reject, neglect. 

Apa-vldcUuv, mfn. pierced ; thrown away, re- 
jected, dismissed, removed. pntra, m. a son 
rejected by his natural parents and adopted by a 
stranger, Mn. ; Yijn. ; one of the twelve objects of 
filiation in law. loka, mfn. 'who has given up 
the world,' dead, BhP. 

Apa-vedha, of, m. piercing anything in the wrong 
direction or manner (spoiling a jewel by so piercing 
it), Mn. xi, 286. 

^rtpmj apa-vyaya, as, m. (Vi), prodi- 
gality, L. 

Apa-vyayam6na, mfn. See apa-\/vye. 

MII^I apa-vy-a-i/i. da (see ry-a-v^i. 
dd), to open (the lips), Br. 

j|<*4i(| apa-vy-d-Vhji (Pot. -haret) to 
speak wrongly or unsuitably, SBr. ; KltySr. 

^Tl'sta^a- </vye, P. A.-vyayati ( i . sg. -tya- 
ye) to uncover, RV. vii, 81, 1 ; AV.: A. (pr. p. -vya- 
yamdna) to extricate one's self, deny, Mu. 

-Jvraj, to go away, AsvSr. 

dpa-vrata, mfn. disobedient, un- 
faithful, RV. ; perverse, RV. v, 40, 6; (x, 103, ad- 
ditional verse, ) A V. iii, 2, 6 VS. xvii , 47. 

apa-sakvna, am, n. a bad omen. 

apa-sanka, mfn. fearless, having 

no fear or hesitation ; (am\ ind. fearlessly, Sis. 

M^l6, apa-sabda, at, m. bad or vulgar 

speech ; any form of language not Sanskrit ; un- 
grammatical language ; (apa-bhraQia.) 

apa-sama, at, m. cessation, L. 
a-pasavyd. See a-pasu. 

apa-sdtaya (cf. V*ad), Norn. P. 
(Imper. 2. sg. -sataya) to throw or shoot off (an 
arrow), AV. 

WH^K^ dpa-siras [SBr. xiv] or apa-iir- 
sha or dpa-iirshan [SBr. xiv], mfn. headless. 

w <<f?i ( apa-Vsish, to leave out, SBr. 

*m i.u-pasu, its, m. not cattle, i.e. 

cattle not fit to be sacrificed, TS. ; SBr. -nan (d- 
/a^-),mf(^4)n. not killing cattle, AV. xiv, 1, 62. 

2. A-pain, mm. deprived of cattle, poor, TS. ; 
SBr. ; having no victim, AsvGr. tC (apahi-), (. 
want of cattle, MaitrS. 

A-paaavya, mfn. not fit or useful for cattle,TBr.; 
SBr.; SinlchGr. 

WJ^ v i. apa-suc, k, m. (v/i. sue),' with- 
out sorrow,' the soul, L. 

Apa-soka, mfn. sorrowless, Ragh. ; (as), m. the 
tree Jonesia Asoka. 

Vnj^2. apa-\/2.suc, Intens. p. -sdsucat, 
mm. driving off by flames, RV. i, 97, I. 

^IM'JJ!<;Jr| s d-pascd-daghoan [SV.; AV. 
xix, 55, 5] or better d-pa!cdd-daghvan[KV .v\, 41, 
i ; MaitrS.], mfn. not staying behind, not coming 
short of, not being a loser. 

TTTf^H a-pascima, mfn. not having an- 
other in the rear, last ; not the last. 

TM'a<n apa- \/ snath (aor. Imper. 2. pi. 
-fnathishtana) to push away, repel, RV. ix, 10 1, 1 . 

WT^J a-pasyd, mfn. not seeing, RV. i, 
148, 5. 

A'-paiyat, mfn. id., RV. x, 135, 3 ; (in astron.) 
not being in view of, VarBr. ; not noticing ; not 
considering, not caring for, Yljfi. ii, 3. 

A-paiyani, f. not seeing, Buddh. 

^llfa apa-Vsri, to retire from, Laty. 
Apa-irayi, as, m. a bolster, AV. xr, 3, 8. 
A'pa-irlta, mfn. retired from, retreated, ab- 
sconded, RV. ; AV. ; SBr. 

ws'pfl apa-sri, mfn. deprived of beauty, 

^PT^m apa-</svat cl. 2. P. -ivasiti, used 
to explain afdniti (cf. afdn), Comm. on ChUp. 

Apa-svasa, as. m. one of the five vital airs (see 
apdna), L. 

' apa'shtha, as, am, m. n. (*/sthd),the 
end or point of the hook for driving an elephant, 
Pan. viii, 3, 97 ; (cf. apdshthd.) 

Apa-shthn, mfn. contrary,opposite,L. ; perverse, 
L.; left.L.; (), ind. perversely, badly, &5.xv, 17 (v.l. 
urn); properly, L.; handsomely, L. ; (j),m.time,L. 

Apa-shthnra or-shthula, mfn. opposite, con- 
trary, L. 

i . dpas, as, n. (fr. i . dp), work, action, 
especially sacred act, sacrificial act, RV. [Lat. opus.} 

2. Apis, mfn. active, skilful in any art, RV. ; 
(lisas), (. pi., N. of the hands and fingers (when 
employed in kindling the sacred fire and in per- 
forming the sacrifices), RV. ; of the three goddesses 
of sacred speech, RV. ; VS. ; of the active or running 
waters, RV.; AV. _ tuna (apds-), mfn. (superl.), 
most active, RV. ; most rapid, RV. x, 75, 7. - pati, 
m., N. of a son of UttJnapSda, VP. 

I . Apagy a, Nom. P. (Subj sydt) to be active, RV. 
i, "I, 7- , 

I. ApasyS, f. activity, RV. v, 44, 8 ; vii, 45, 2 ; 
(cf. sv-apasyd; for 2. apasya, see 2. apasya below.) 

Apasyu, mfn. active, RV. 


Apa-sarita, mfn. removed, put away. 
Apa-sriti, is, f. = apa-sara. 

^Tt P-vV>, to glide or move off; 
to retreat. 

Apa-sarpa, as, m. a secret emissary or aeent 
spy, Bslar. 

Apa-sarpana, am, n. going back, retreating. 
Apa-sripti, is, f. going away from (abl.) 

"J***** apa-skambhd, as, m. fastening, 
making firm, AV. iv, 6, 4. 

^"T'P* apa-Vskri. See apa-v/3- *r*- 
Apa-skara, as, m. any part of a carriage, a 

wheel, &c., Pin. vi, i, f 49 ; feces (cf. avaskara), 

Vet. ; anus, L. ; vulva, L. 
Apa-skSra, as, m. under part of the knee, L. 

apd-karana. 53 

WM^w apa-hasta,am, n. striking or throw- 
ing away or off, MBh. iii, 545 ['the back of the 
hand,' Comm.] 

Apa-hastaya, Nom. P. yati, to throw away, 
push aside, repel, (generally used in the perf. Pass, p.) 

Apa-haatlta, mfn. thrown away, repelled, Ml- 
latim. &c. 

i. apa- >/2. ha, A. -jihite (aor. 3. pi. 
-ahdsata, Subj. i. pi. -hdsmahf), to run away from 
(abl.) or off, RV. 

. apds, mfn. (fr. 2. dp), watery. (So 
some passages of the Rig-veda [i, 95, 4, & c .] may 
(according to NBD. and others) be translated where 
the word is applied to the running waters, see 2. apds 
at end & apds-tama.) 

1. Apasya, m((sf)a. watery, melting, dispersing, 
RV. x, 89, i ; VS. x, 7 ; ( 2. apasya}, (. a kind ofbrick 
(twenty are used in building the sacrificial altar), 
SBr. ; KatySr. 

iwi apo-v/sac (perf. A. 3. pi. -sascire, 
I. pi. P. -sascimd) to escape, evade (with ace.), RV. 
v, 20, 2 ; VS. xxxviii, 20. 

*nm^ apa-sada, as, m. the children of six 

degrading marriages (of a Brahman with the women 
of the three lower classes, of a Kshatriya with women 
of the two lower, and of a Vaisya with one of the 
Sfldra, Mn. x, 10 seqq., but cf. MBh. xiii, 2620 
seqq. and apadhvansa-ja); an outcast (often ifc.; 
see brahmanapasada). 

iM*i*^apa-iaman, ind. last year (? gana 
tishthadgv-ddi, q. v.) 

^1 W^5T apa-sarjana, am, n . (\/srij), aban- 
donment, L.; gift or donation, L. ; final emancipa- 
tion of the soul, L.; (cf. apa-f/vrij.) 

^nfHWfa apa-salavi, ind. to the left (op- 
posed to pra-salavl ; cf. ava-salavi), SBr. ; the 
space between the thumb and the forefinger (sacred 
to the Manes). 

Apa-salaii, ind. to the left, AsvGr. 

^WSJ apa-savya, mfn. not on the left 
side, right, Mn. iii, 214 ; (with auguries) from the 
right to the left, moving to the left, MBh. ; VarBrS. 
&c. ; (am. eita), ind. to the left, from the right to 
the left, KatySr. &c. Apasavyam /! . krl -pra- 
dakshinam kri, to circumambulate a person keep- 
ing the right side towards him, Kaus. &c. ; to put 
the sacred thread over the right shoulder, Yajfi.i, 232. 
Apasavya-vat , mfn. having the sacred thread over 
the right shoulder, Yajn. i, 250. 

apa-siddhdnta, as, m. an asser- 

, as, m. slipping ['out- 
side of a threshing-floor,' Say.], SBr. 

apds-tama. See 2. apds. 
apa-stamba, as, m. a vessel inside 

or on one side of the chest containing vital air, 

Apa-stambha, as, m. id., Susr. 

Apa-stambhini, f., N. of a plant. 

"HWIII apa-sndta, mfn. bathing during 
mourning or upon the death of a relation, R. ii, 
42, 22. 

Apa-snana, am, n. funeral bathing (upon the 
death of a relative, &c.), L. ; impure water in which 
a person has previously washed, Mn. iv, 132. 

apas-pati. See 2. apds. 

apa-Vspri, A. (impf. 3. pi. -sprin- 
vata) to extricate from, deliver from, KaushBr. ; 
(3. pi. -sprinvatf) to refresh [Gran. ; 'to alienate,' 
BR.], RV. viii, 2, 5. 

See dn-apaspris. 

apa-sphiga, mfn. one who has 
badly formed buttocks, Pan. vi, 2, 187 ; (am), ind. 
except the buttocks, ib. 

i. apa--/sphur (aor. Subj. z. sg. 

2. opa-v/3. * A - (aor. Subj. 2. sg. 
-hasthdK) to remain behind, fall short, not reach 
the desired end, AV. xviii, 3, 73 : Pass, -hiyate, to 
grow less, decrease (in strength, balam), Susr. 

Apa-hani, is, f. diminishing, vanishing. Up. 

Apa-hSya, ind. p. quitting, MBh. &c. ; leaving, 
avoiding, Hariv. ; leaving out of view, Sk. &c. ; 
excepting, except, Ragh. 

WTf^ apa-Vhi, to throw off, disengage 
or deliver one's self from (ace.), BhP. 

, mfn. without the 

syllable him (which is pronounced in singing the 
Sama verses), SBr. 

-spkarTs) to move suddenly aside or to lash out (as a 
cow during milking), RV. vi, 61, 14, 

2. Apa-sphur, mfn. bounding or bursting forth, 
(or figuratively) splashing out (said of the Soma),RV. 
viii, 69, 10 ; (cf. dn-apasphur, &c.) 

tion or statement opposed to orthodox teaching or 
to settled dogma, Nyayad. &c. 

1P<rftn{ apa-Vi. sidh (Imper. 2. sg. -s/- 
dha or -sedha, 3. sg. -sed/iatu, 3. pi. -sedhantu ; pr. 
p. -sddhaf) to ward off, remove, drive away, R V. &c. 

wk apa-</i. su (i. sg. -suvdmi; Imper. 
i. sg. -suva; aor. Subj. -sdvisAai) to drive off, 
R V - *, 37, 4 & ioo, 8 ; AV.; VS. 

WHJ apa-\/sri (impf. -sarat) to slip off 
from (abl.), RV. iv, 30, 10 ; to go away, retreat : 
Caus. -sdrayati, to make or let go away, remove. 

Apa-sara, as, m. (in geom.) distance ; see an- 

Apa-sarana, am, n. going away, retreating. 

Apa-sara, as, m. a way for going out, escape, 
Mricch.; Pancat. 

Apa-sSrana, am, n. removing to a distance ; 
dismissing; banishment, Mcar. I 

apa-smdra, as, m. epilepsy, falling 
sickness, Susr. &c. 

Apa-smarin, mfn. epileptic, convulsed, Mn. &c. 

Apa-smriti, mfn. forgetful, BhP. ; absent in 
mind, confused, ib. 

wfltM apasya, apasyu. See 

note or sound, L. 

as, m. an unmusical 

apa-svdna, as,m.& hurricane, Ap. 

"v/ftan (Subj. 3. sg.-Aon; Imper. 
2. sg. -jahi,^. du. -hatam ; 2. pi. -hata or -hata; 
perf. -jaghana ; pr. p. -ghndt ; Intens. p. nom. m. 
-jdhghanaf) to beat off, ward off, repel, destroy, 
RV. &c. 

Apa-gh^ta, apa-jiffhagsu. See s. v. 

Apa-ha, mfn. ifc. keeping back, repelling, remov- 
ing, destroying (e. g. iokdpaha, q. v.) 

A'pa-hata, mfn. destroyed, warded off, killed. 
papman (dpahata-),m(n. having the evil warded 
off, free from evil, SBr. 

Apa-hati, is, f. removing, destroying, AitBr. &c. 

Apa-hanana, am, n. warding off; (cf. apa-ghd- 
ta, s. v.) 

Apa-hantri, mf(r>v, Ragh.)n. beating off, de- 
stroying, SBr. &c. 

-hara, &c. See apa-Vhfi. 

i/a, mfn. having abad plough, 
PSn. vi, 2, 187, Sch. 

fHI^ apa-</has, to deride : Caus. -hdsa- 
yati, to deride, ridicule. 

Apa-hasita, am, n. silly or causeless laughter, 


Apa-hasa, as, m. id., L. ; a mocking laugh, R. 
Apa-hSsya, mfn. to be laughed at, R. 

ffpa-\/Ap,to snatch away, carry off, 
plunder; to remove, throw away : Caus. -harayati, 
see apa-hdrita below. 

Apa-hara, mln. (ifc.) carrying off, Bham. 

Apa-harana, am, n. taking away, carrying off ; 
stealing, Mn. 

Apa-haraniya, mfn. to be taken awty, carried 
off, stolen, &c. 

Apa-haras, mfn. not pernicious, PBr. 
Apa-hartri, td, m. (with gen. [Mn. riii, 190, 
192] or ace. [PJn. iii, 2, 135, Sch.] or ifc.) taking 
away, carrying off, stealing, Mn. &c. ; removing 
(faults), expiating, Mn. xi, 161. 

Apa-hara, as, m. taking away, stealing ; spend- 
ing another person's property; secreting, conceal- 
ment, e. g. atmapahdram </i . kfi, to conceal one'i 
real character, Sale. 

Apa-haraka, mfn. one who takes away, seizes, 
steals, &c. ; a plunderer, a thief; (cf.atmdpa/tdraka, 
vdg-apahdraka. ) 

Apa-harana, am, n. causing to take away. 

Apa-harita, mfn. carried off, R. ; Ragh. iii, 50. 

Apa-harin, mm. = apa-haraka. 

Apa-hrita, mfn. taken away, carried off, stolen, 
&c. vijnana, mfn. bereft of sense. 

Apa-hrlti, is, f. carrying off. 

f Tf WT a pa -held, f. contempt, L. 

RV. i, 1 38, 4 ; to conceal, disguise, deny, Klfh. See. ; 
to excuse one's self, give satisfaction to, SBr. ; TBr. 

Apa-hnava, as, m. concealment, denial of or 
turning off of the truth ; dissimulation ; appeasing, 
satisfying, SBr. ; affection, love, R. ; - afa-hnuti, 

Apa-hnnta, mfn. concealed, denied. 

Apa-hnnti, is, (. 'denial, concealment of truth,' 
using a simile in other than its true or obvious appli- 
cation, Kpr. ; Sah. 

Apa-hnnvSna, mfn. pr. p. A. concealing, deny- 
ing (any one, dat), Naish. 

Apa-hnotri, mfn. one who conceals or denies or 
disowns, Comm. on Mn. viii, 190. 

apa-hrdsa, as, m. diminishing, re- 
ducing, Susr. 

MI<^ dpdk & i. dpaka. See dpditc. 

Vrni 2. a-pdka, mfn. (v/pac), immature, 
raw, unripe (said of fruits and of sores) ; (as), m. 
immaturity ; indigestion, Surr. Ja, mfn. not pro- 
duced by cooking or ripening ; original ; natural. 
Ska, n. ginger. 

A-pakin, mfn. unripe; undigested. 

wmpap3-v / i. in, to remove, drive away, 
(Ved. Inf. apSkartoK) MaitrS. ; to cast off, reject, 
desist from, M Bh. &c. ; to select for a present, PBr. ; 
KatySr. ; to reject (an opinion). 

Apa-karana, am, n. driving away, removal, 
KatySr. ; payment, liquidation. 



Api-karishnn.mfn. (with ace.) 'outdoing,' sur- 

Apd-karman, a, n. payment, liquidation. 

Apa-krita, mfn. taken away, removed, destroyed, 
void of ; paid. 

Apa-kriti, is, f. taking away, removal, RV. 
viii, 47, a; evil conduct, rebelling (Comm. vi- 
kdra), Kir. i, 27. 

^nil^tl apd-Vkrish (Inf. -krashtum) to 
turn off or away, avert, remove, R. &c. 

WTTcR apd-Vi. kri, to throw any one off; 
to abandon, to contemn. 

WJIKJ apdksha, m{n.=adHy-aksha orpra- 
ty-aksha, L. 

VNI|I J-H a-pdnkteya, mfn.' not in a line or 
row,* not in the same class, inadmissible into society, 
ejected from caste, Mn. &c. 

A-pliktya, mfn. id., Mn.; Gaut. Apanktyo- 
pahata, mfn. defiled or contaminated by the pre- 
sence of impure or improper persons, Mn. iii, 183. 

^H!^ apdnga,mfn. without limbs or with- 
out a body, L. ; (as), m. (ifc. f. a or f) the outer 
corner of the eye, Sik. &c. ; a sectarial mark or circlet 
on the forehead, R. ; N. of Kama (the god of love), 
L. ; = apAmargd, L. dariana, n. or -drishti, 
f. a side glance, a leer, deia, m. the place round 
the outer comer of the eye. netra, mf(o)n. cast- 
ing side glances, Vikr. 

Apangaka, as, m. = apamdrgd. 

^HH^ apdc (Vac), (Imper. -aca) to drive 
away, RV. ix, 97, 54. 

'WJT'^ apdj (Vaj), (impf. -djal; p. apdjat; 
Imper. 2. sg. -aja) to drive away, RV. ; Aitlir. 

WIH^ dpdnc, an, del, dk (fr. 2. anc), going 
or situated backwards, behind, RV. & AV. ; western 
(opposed to prdZc), ib. ; southern, L. 

A'pak, ind. westward, RV. ; VS. tas [AV. viii, 
4, 19 ; cf. RV. vii, 104, 19] or -tit (dpdk-) [RV. 
vii, 104, 19], ind. from behind. 

I. Aiaka, mfn. coming from a distant place, 
distant, RV. ; VS. ; (at), ind. from a distant place, 
RV. viii, 2, 35. -cakshas (dpdka-), mfn. shining 
far, RV.viii,75,7. For 2. a-paka, see p. 53, col. 3. 

Apaka (an old instr. case of I . dpdAc), ind. far, 
RV. i, 129, I. 

Apaci, f. the south, L. Apacltara, f. 'other than 
the south,' the north, L. 

Apacina, mfn. situated backwards, behind, 
western, RV. vii, 6, 4 & 78, 3; AV. vi, 91,1; turned 
back, L.; southern, L. 

ApScya (4), mfn. western, RV. viii, 28, 3; AitBr.; 
southern, L. 

[ apdnjasp), Pan. vi, 2, 187. 

[ a-pdtava, am, n. awkwardness, in- 
elegance, L. ; sickness, disease, L. 

t a-pdthya, mfn. illegible. 

jy^ll a-panigrahana, am, n. ce- 
A-pani-pada, mm. without hands and feet, Up. 

Wffift apdti (Vi), to escape (with ace.), 

WJTcf a~patra, am, n. a worthless or 
common utensil ; an undeserving or worthless object, 
unfit recipient, unworthy to receive gifts, Bhag. ; 
Kathas. kritya, f. acting unbecomingly, doing 
degrading offices (as for a Brahman to receive wealth 
improperly acquired, to trade, to serve a SOdra, and 
to utter an untruth), Mn. xi, 125. dayin, mfn. 
giving to the undeserving. bhrit, mfn. support- 
ing the unworthy, cherishing the undeserving. 

A-patrI-karana,u,n. = a-patra-krityaJAn. 
xi, 69. 

^ItlT|f a-pdd. See a-pdd, p. 49, col. 2. 

A-pada, mfn. not divided into Padas, not metri- 
cal. A-padadi, m. not the beginning of a Pada, 
VPrlt. A-padadi-bhaj , mfn. not standing at the 
beginning of a Pada, RPrat. A-padantlya, mfn. 
not sanding at the end of a Pada. 

A-padaka, mfn. footless, TS. 

A'-p5dya,mf (a) n.(or dpddyat), N.of certain Ish- 
tis (performed with the cayana vaiivasr/j^.TBt. 

ijnFfrw} apd-karishnu. 

apa- y/i . da, A. to take off or away, 
SBr. ; KauS. 

Apa-datri, Id, m. one who takes off, TBr. 

Apa-dana, am, n. taking away, removal, abla- 
tion ; a thing from which another thing is removed ; 
hence the sense of the fifth or ablative case, Pin. 

SJtrjVT apd-Vdhd (Subj. I. sg. -dadhani) 
to take off, loosen from, KaushBr. 

WTW^ apddhvan, a, m. a bad road, Pan. 
vi, a, 187. 

TOTTT^ apdn (Van), apdniti or apdnati 
[AV. xi, 4, 14], to breathe out, expire, SBr. xiv ; 
ChUp. ; pr. p. apdndt, mf(/f)n. breathing out, RV. 
x, 189,2; AV. 

Apana, as, m. (opposed to prdnd), that of the 
five vital airs which goes downwards and out at the 
anus ; the anus, MBh. (in this sense also (am), n., 
L.); N.ofaSaman.PBr.; ventris crepitus, L. da, 
mfn. giving the vital air Ap5na,VS. xvii, 15. drib, 
m(nom. -dhr{k)ln. strengthening the vital air 
Apana, TS. dvara, n. the anus. pavana, m. 
the vital air Apana, U pi, mfn. protecting the 
Apana, VS. -bhrit, f. 'cherishing the vital air," a 
sacrificial brick, SBr. vayu, m. the air Apana, 
L. ; ventris crepitus, L. Apanodgara, m. ventris 

apa-Vnud (the a of apa always in 
the antepenultimate of a sloka, therefore apa metri- 
cally for apa ; see apa-Vnud), to remove, repel, 
repudiate, MBh. ; Mn. 

MmitTrT apdnrita, mfn. free from falsehood, 
true, R. ii, 34, 38. 

, as, m., N. of 

an ancient sage (who is identified with Krishna Dvai- 
piyana), MBh.; Hariv. 

am-ndpat, &c. See 2. dp. 

a-papa, mf (a)n. sinless, virtuous, 
pure. kSsin (d-pdpa-), mfn. not ill -looking, VS. 
-krit (d-pdpa-), mfn. not committing sin, SBr. 
purl, f., N. of a town ; also written pdpa-purT, 
q. v. vamyasa (d-pdpa-), n. not a wrong order, 
no disorder, SBr. ; (cf. papa-vasyasd.) viddlia 
(d-pdpa-), mm. not afflicted with evil, VS. xl, 8. 

^TtlTJTHRTin d-pamam-bhavishnu, mfn. not 
becoming diseased with herpes, MaitrS.; (cf.pdmam- 

^T^nTT^t apa-margd, as, m. (Vmrij), the 
plant Achyranthes Aspera (employed very often in 
incantations, in medicine, in washing linen, and in 
sacrifices), AV. ; VS. &c. 

Apd-marjana, am, n. cleansing, keeping back, 
removing (of diseases and other evils). stotra, n. 
' removing of diseases," N. of a hymn. 

WVlfHiM apa-mtiya, n. (cf. apa-mtiya), 
equivalent, MaitrS. 

^1MI*li<J apd-mrityu = apa-mrityu, L. 
^fm< apdya. See ape. 

^tJT^ apdr (apa-Vn), to open by remov- 
ing anything, RV. v, 45, 6 (Subj. A. 3. sg. dpa ri- 
tiutd); ix, 10, 6 (3. pi. dpa rinvanti) & 102, 8 
(impf. 2. sg. rinir dpa). 

wm^ a-pdrd, mfn. not having an oppo- 
site shore, TS. ; not having a shore, unbounded, 
boundless (applied to the earth, or to heaven and 
earth \r6dast\, &c.), RV. &c. ; (as), m. 'not the 
opposite bank,' the bank on this side (of a river), 
MBh. viii, 2381; (am), n. (in Sankhya phil.) 'a 
bad shore,' ' the reverse of para,' a kind of mental 
indifference or acquiescence ; the reverse of mental 
acquiescence, L. ; the boundless sea. para, mfn. 
carrying over the boundless sea (of life), VP. ; (am), 
n. non-acquiescence, L. 

A-paraniya, mfn. not to be got over, not to be 
carried to the end or triumphed over, M Bh. ; BhP. &c. 

A-parayat, mfn. incompetent, impotent (with 
Inf. or loc.) ; not able to resist, MBh. 

Ns a-pdramdrthika, mf(i)n. not 
concerned about the highest truth. 

(apa-Vrick), to retire, L. 


< WHifjH aparjita, mfn. (vri/ with o^ia), 
flung away, L. 

WMI*U apdrna, mfn. (fr. apdr above, BR. 
see abhy-arna), distant, far from (abl.), Nir. 

HIN apdrtha, mfn. without any object, 
useless ; unmeaning, BhP. &c. ; (am), n. incoherent 
argument. karana, n. a false plea in a lawsuit. 

Aparthaka, mfn. useless, Mn. viii, 78, &c. 

Wnf'N a-parthiva, mfn. not earthly, 

WTfTc? a-pala, mf(a)n. unguarded, unpro- 
tected, undefended ; (a), f., N. of a daughter of Atri, 
RV. viii, 91, 7, &c. 

wrtrtf apalanka, as, m. the plant Cassia 
Fistula; (see pdlahka.) 

IMIrty apa-lamhd, as, m. a kind of break 
let down from a carriage to stop it, SBr. ; KatySr. 

WTTf<5 i. a-pdli, mfn. having no tip of 
the ear, SuSr. 

^nnfe 2. apdli, mfn. free from bees, &c., 
L. (see a/0- 

'STT^ apd-Vi.vri (apd=apa, cf. apa- 
Vl.vrf), -vrinoti, to open, uncover, reveal, Lsty. ; 
Up. &c. 

Apa-vrit, mfn. unrestrained, BhP. ; (cf. <f- 

A'pa-vrlta, mfn. open, laid open, RV. i, 57, i, 
&c. ; covered, L. ; unrestrained, self-willed, L. 

Apa-vriti, is, (. a place of concealment, hiding- 
place, RV. viii, W, 3. 

ed, RV. viii, 80, 8. 

*i 4 1 <Jt^ apa- Vvrit (aor. A. 3. pi. apa avrit- 
sata [v. 1. oV 3 ]) to turn or move away, SankhSr. 

Apa-vartana, am, n. turning away or from, 
retreat, L. ; repulse, L. 

Apa-vrltta, mfn. (for apa-, the vowel being 
metrically lengthened in the antepenultimate of a 
sloka), (with abl.) turned away from, R. ; abstain- 
ing from, rejecting, MBh. ; (am), n. the rolling on 
the ground (of a horse), L. 

Apa-vritti, is, I. = ud-vartana, L. 

Apd-vritya, ind.p. turning away from (with abl.), 
AV. xii, 2, 34. 

TimM dpavya, mfn., N. of particular gods 
&Mantras,TS.(Comm. =apa-dvya) ; TBr.(Comm. 
= apa-avya, ft. ^av). 

^rTITTT a-pdsyd, f. no great number of 
nooses or fetters, Pan. vi, 2, 156, Sch. 

TOII^m i . apasraya, mfn. helpless, desti- 

^mrf%T apa-Vsri, P. A. -srayati, te, to 
resort to ; to use, practise. 

2. Apa-sraya, as, m. the upper portion of a bed 
or couch on which the head rests, Das. ; refuge, re- 
course, the person or thing to which recourse is had 
for refuge ; an awning spread over a court or yard, 
R. v, n, 19. 

Apa-srita, mfn. resting on ; resorting to. 

^Itnfi? apdshli. See dyo-'pdshti. 

Apashtha, as, m. (ft. V ' sthd with apa, APrSt.; 
cf. apashtha), the barb of an arrow, AV. iv, 6, 5 ; 
(cf. satdpdshtha.) vat (apdshthd-), mm. having 
barbs, RV. x| 85, 34. 

Apashthi = apdshti in comp. with -ha or-han, 
mfn. killing with the claws, SBr. 

^)l||H i . apds ( Vi af),'to be absent from, 
not to participate in,' see apa-parl. 

VITJT^ 2. apds (V2. as), to fling away, 
throw away or off, discard ; to scare, drive away ; 
to leave behind ; to take no notice of, disregard. 

Apasana, am, n. throwing away, placing aside, 
KatySr. ; killing, slaughter, L. 

Apaaita, mfn. thrown down, injured, destroyed,L. 

Apasta, mfn. thrown off, set aside ; driven away ; 
carried off or away, abandoned, discarded ; disre- 
garded ; contemned. 

Apasya, ind. p. having thrown away or discarded ; 
having left, having disregarded ; having exccpted. 


Apasyat, mfn. discarding, throwing off, &c. 

^fTTtrjfopd-sanga, as,m. (Vsan/)?, Kath.j 
= updsanga, L. 

apdsi, mfn. having a bad or no 




apdsu, mfti. lifeless, Naish. 

&-Vsri (apa-d-; or apd for apa, 
the a standing in the antepenultimate of a sloka), 
to turn off from, avoid (with abl.), Yajfi. ii, 262. 

Apa-sarana, am, n. departing, L. 

Apa-srita, mfn. gone, departed, gone away, L. 

WJTWr apd-Vsthd, to go off towards, 
AitBr. ; SinkhSr. (v. 1. upd-</stbd, q.v.) 

wU?\ apa-Vhan, to throw off or back, 

WnjTT apd-hdya, ind. p. (fr. \/3. hd with 
apa, the a being metrically lengthened), quirting, 
MBh.; disregarding, ib.; excepting, except, ib. 

apa-Vhri, A. to take off, SBr. 

dpi, or sometimes pi (see pi-dribh, 
pi-dhd, pi-nah ), expresses placing near or over, unit- 
ing to, annexing, reaching to, proximity, &c. [cf. Gk. 
tni ; Zend api ; Germ, and Eng. prefix te] ; in later 
Sanskrit its place seems frequently supplied by abhi. 

(As a separable adv.) and, also, moreover, besides, 
assuredly, surely ; api api or api-ca, as well as ; na 
vapi or na apivd or na nacapi, neither, nor; c&pi, 
(and at the beginning of a sentence) api-ca, moreover. 

Api is often used to express emphasis, in the sense 
of even, also, very ; e. g. anyad api, also another, 
something more ; ady&pi, this very day, even now ; 
tathapi, even thus, notwithstanding ; yady api, 
even if, although; yadyapi tathapi, although, 
nevertheless ; na kadacid api, never at any time ; 
sometimes in the sense of but, only, at least, e.g. 
muhurtam api, only a moment. 

Api may be affixed to an interrogative to make it 
indefinite, e.g. ko 'pi, any one; kutr&pi, anywhere. 

Api imparts to numerals the notion of totality, 
e.g. caturnam api varndndm, of all the four castes. 

Api may be interrogative at the beginning of a 

Api may strengthen the original force of the Po- 
tential, or may soften the Imperative, like the English 
'be pleased to ;' sometimes it is a mere expletive. 

Api tu, but, but yet. 

Api-tva,a>,n. having part, share, AV.; SBr.; (cf. 
apa-pitvd.) Api-tvin,mm.havingpart,sharing,SBr. 

Api-nama (in the beginning of a phrase), per- 
haps, in all probability, I wish that, Mricch.; Sak. &c. 

Api-vat, mf(vati)n. See api-i/vat. 

^rfttWEJ'api-iaisAa', as,m. the region of the 
arm-pits and shoulder-blades (especially in animals), 
RV. iv, 40, 4 ; x, 1 34, 7 ; Laty. ; N. of a man & (as), 
m. pi. his descendants. 

Api-kakshy a ( 5), mfn. connected with the region 
of the arm-pits, RV. i, 117, 21. 

Wfl^SB api-karnd, am, n. the region of 
the ears, RV. vi, 48, 16. 

^rftl^i api-^/i. kri, to bring into order, 
arrange, prepare, TS. ; TBr. ; PBr. 

w f4 ji i^ ap i- \/2 . krit (l. sg. -krintami, fut. 
I. sg. -kartsydmi) to cut off, VS. ; AV. ; TS. ; SBr. 

^rftnii| api-Vkshai, Caus. -kshdpayati, to 
consume by fire, AV. xii, 5, 44 & 51. 

fif^n^api-Vgam, Ved. to go into, enter, 
approach, join, [aor. Subj. 3. pi. <z/zZ(?K,RV.v,33, 
IO]RV. &c. ; to approach a woman, RV. i, 179,1. 

^F*fiTlapi-Vi. gd, Ved. to enter, get into, 
mingle with, RV. vii, 21, J, &c. 

api-girna, mfn. praised, L. 

api-guna, mfn. excellent, MBh. 
xii, 2677. 

api-VgraJi (with or without mu- 
Jtham, ndsike, &c.), to close (the mouth, nose, &c.), 
SBr.; AitBr. ; ChUp. 

1. Api-g-rihya, ind. p. closing the mouth, TS. 

2. Api-grihya [Ved., Pan. iii, I, 118] or api- 
grahya [ib., Comm.], am, n. impers. (with abl.) the 
mouth to be closed before (a bad smell, &c.) 

api-</ghas. to eat off or away 
(perf. 3. pi. -jakshuK), SBr. ; (aor. A. 3. sg. -gjhi, 
[fr. gh-s-ta], which by Say. is derived fr. \/Aan) 
158, 5- 

a-picchila, mfn. clear, free from 
sediment or soil. 

api-jd, as, m. born after or in addi- 
tion to (N. of Prajapati and other divinities), VS. 
a-pinda, mfn. without funeral balls 

l.a-pit, mfn. (\/pi), not swelling 
dry, RV.\ii, 82, 3. 

2. a-pit, mfn. (in Gr.) not having 
the it or Anu-bandha /, Pan. 

wftTrJ d-pitri, td, m. not a father, SBr. 
xiv. -devatya (d-pitri-), mfn. not having the 
Manes as deities, SBr. 

A-pitrlka, mfn. not ancestral or paternal, unin- 
herited ; fatherless, Ap. 

A-pitrya, mfn. not inherited, not ancestral or 
paternal, Mn. ix, 205. 

^rftf^f api-^dah, -dahati (impf. -adahat) 
to touch with fire, to singe, TS. ; Kath. 

Tftl^T api- V 'do (l. sg. -dydmi) to cut off, 
AV - iv . 37. 3- 

api-Vdham, to blow upon, Kaus. 

api-Vdhd, Ved. to place upon or 
into, put to, give ; chiefly Ved. to shut, close, cover, 
conceal (in later texts more usually pi-^/dha, q. v.) 

Api-dhana, am, n. placing upon, covering, 
KstySr. ; a cover, a cloth for covering, RV. &c. ; 
a lid, BhP. ; a bar, Kum. ; (f), f. a cover, Ap. ; 
(d.pi-dhdna.) vat (apidhdna-), mfn. 'having a 
cover,' concealed, RV. v, 29, 1 1. 

Api-dhi, is, m. 'that which is placed upon the 
fire," a gift to Agni, RV. i, 127, 7. 

A'pi-hita, mfn. put to, placed into, RV. ; shut, 
covered, concealed, RV. &c. ; (cf. pi-hita ) 

Apl-hiti, is, (. a bar, MaitrS.; PBr. 

api-Vdhav, to run into, Vait. 
api-Vnah,tot\e on, fasten (usually 
pi-t/nah, q. v.) ; to tie up, close, stop up (Ved. ; 
later onpi-^nah, q.v.) 

A'pi-naddha, mfn. closed, concealed, RV. x, 68, 
8; SBr.; (cf. pi-naddha.) 

^rfrpft api-Vni, to lead towards or to, 
bring to a state or condition, TS. ; SBr. ; AitBr. 

Api-netri, td, m. one who leads towards (gen.), 

api-pakshd, as, m. the region or 
direction to the side, TS. 

api-</path, Caus. -pdthayati, to 
lead upon a path (ace.), KaushBr. ; SinkhSr. 

api-Vpad, to go in, enter, SBr. 

a-pipdsd, mfn. free from thirst or 
desire, SBr. xiv ; ChUp. 

^fftnj^api-v'pnc (aor. 3. sg. aprdg dpi) 
to mix with (loc.), A V. x, 4, 26 ; (-princanti, AV. v, 
2, 3, according to BR. a mistake for -vrinjanti.) 

wCsM!*!! api-prana, mf(j)n. uttered or pro- 
duced with every breath, RV. i, 186, II. 

^rf<W( ajii-Vbandh, i. to fasten upon, 
put on (a wreath), AsVGr. 
Api-baddha, mfn. fastened, R. iii, 68, 42. 

^rflJfPT dpi-bhdga, mfn. having part in, 
sharing in, SBr. 

1"ftT>J. a.pi-V'bhu, to be in, AV. ; to have 

part in, RV. ; AitBr. 

WflT9I api-mantra, mfn. giving an ex- 
planation or an account of, Kath. 

^rfltflj^fz/n'-v/mmi, A. -mrishyate (i. sg. 
-mrishye ; aor. Subj. 2. sg. -mrishthas) to forget, 
neglect, RV. 

api- Vydc, Caus. -ydcdyate, to de- 
spise, refuse (?), AV. xii, 4, 38. 

dpi-ripta, mfn. (vVip), 'smeared 
over,' i.e. grown blind, RV. i, 118, 7; viii, 5, 23. 

api-Vruh, dpi-rohati, to grow to- 
gether, grow whole again, TS. 

w iMn^aj)t- Vvat (Opt. i. pi. -vatema; pr. 
p. -vdtaf) to understand, comprehend, RV. vii, 3, 10; 
60,6: Caus.(Imper. i.^.-vdtaya; fr.p.-vdidyat ; 
aor. 3. pi. amvatan, RV. x, 1 3, 5) to cause to under- 
stand, make intelligible to (with or without dat.), RV. ; 
( I . pi. -vataydmasi} to excite, awaken, RV. i, u 8, 3. 

Apl-vati (scil. vac), f. of a conjecturable adj. dpi- 
vatya, intelligible, TBr. ['containing the wunla/t 
or what is meant by api, Comm. & BR.] 

Tin q^ api-,/2. vap (i. sg. -vapdmt) to 
scatter upon, AV.; SBr. ; TBr. 

Api-vapa, as, m. 'scattering upon,' N. of par- 
ticular PurodJsa, TBr. 

q. v., Kaus. 

^fftT| api-\/i.vri (perf. A. -vavre) to con- 
ceal, RV. iii, 38, 8. 
Api-vrita, mfn. concealed, covered, RV. 

" ' **^1. a P*~ v/ Ty (3- pi. -vrinjanti; aor. 
3. pi. avrijann dpi, RV. x, 48, 3) 'to turn to,' 
procure to, bestow upon (dat. or loc.), RV. 

ffrl^ api-\/vrit, Caus. (impf. a. sg. 
-avartayas) to throw into (ace.), RV. i, 121, 13. 

^rfrrat api-Vvye (i. pi. P. -vyaydmasi) to 
cover, AV. i, 27, i. 

wnisrrT dpi-vrata, mfn. sharing in the 
same religious acts, related by blood, SBr. ; KatySr. 

WUiri ^ api-Vvrasc (perf. Imper. 2. du. 
-vavriktatu, RV. vi, 62, 10) to strike off, cut off, 

api- samara, mfn. ' contiguous to 
the night,' being at the beginning or end of the night, 
AitBr. ; (dm), n. the time early in the morning, RV. 

piiala, as,m., N. of a man ; (as), 
m. pi. the descendants of Apisala. See dpisali. 

api-sds, f. (only used in abl. -id- 
sas) slitting, ripping up, MaitrS. ; AitBr. 

a-pisuna, mfn. unmalicious, up- 
right, honest. 

jlapi-v'sn, P. to break off, AV.; A. 
id., SBr. : Pass, -ilryate, to break, PBr. 
Api-iirna, mfn. broken, AV. iv, 3, 6. 

api-shtuta, mfn. (\/stu), praised.L. 

api-shthd (Vsthd), to stand (too) 
near, stand in any one's way, AV. iii, 1 3, 4 & v, 1 3, 5. 
Api-shthita, mfn. approached, RV. i, 145, 4. 

wftRnpTTT api-sam-gribhdya, Norn. P. 
(Imper. a. sg. -gribhayd) to assume, RV. x, 44, 4. 
vftlftf^ api-Vsic, to sprinkle with, L. 
wfstj api-</sri, to flow upon, SBr.; TBr. 

V *i *^. P*~ v *rVi P- to place to or upon, 
TS. ; SBr. : P. & A. to add to, mingle to, Lafy. 

i-V Aan(^Anan/)toremove 
or suppress (pregnancy, sutum), TS. 

dpi-hita, &c. See api-Vdhd. 

api-Vhnu (3. du. dpi hnutah) to re- 
fuse, RvTviii, 31, 7. 

apt-Are (i. sg. A. -hvne) to call in 
addition to (or besides), RV. x, 19, 4. 

i . dpi. See dpya. 

2. api(*/i), (Ved.) dpy-eti,to go in or 
near ; to enter into or upon ; to come near, ap- 
iroach (also in copulation, RV. ii, 43, 2, ind. p. 
apftya) ; to partake, have a share in ; to join ; to 
K>ur out (as a river). 

Api-yat, mfn. entering the other world, dying, 
IV. i, 162, 20; dissolving, disappearing, BhP. 

I. Apita, mfn. gone into, entered, SBr. x (used 
"or the etym. of svapiti), ChUp. ; (cf. sv&pyayd.) 

A"pitl, />, f. entering into, RV.i, 121,10; dissolr- 
ng, dissolution, SBr. ; Up. 

Apy-aya, as, m. joint, juncture, Kaus. ; Sulb. ; 
xiuring out (of a river), PBr. ; entering into, van- 




ishing (the contrary o(frabkava or utfatti). Up. 
&c. ; (cf. svdpyayd.) -dikshita, m., N. of a 
Drivida saint and writer (of the sixteenth century, 
author of various works, celebrated as a Saiva, and 
thought to be an incarnation of Siva; also apydya* 
or apyaf, &c.) 
Apy-ayana, am, n. union, copulating, L. 

^nrt^T0j>Icyo(3,4), mfn. (fr. ap-a3c), se- 
cret, hidden, RV. ; very handsome (v. 1. aplvya), BhP. 

^l>flJaj>i -ju,m(d\i.-juva)(a. impelling, RV. 
ii, 3'. 5- 

^T<OiH a-pidana, am, n. not giving pain, 
gentleness, kindness. 

A-pIdayat, mfn. not paining. 

A-pida, f. id.; (aya), ind. not unwillingly. 

"?nrt(T 2. a-plta, mfn. not drunk; not 
having drunk, MBh. ii, 1902. 

A-pitva, ind. p. not having drunk, without 

^TUfttT^ ap't-nasa, as, m. (api for apt; cf. 
pt-nasa), dryness of the nose, want of the pituitary 
secretion and loss of smell, cold, Susr. 

l-vrita. See api-Vi !" 
apivya, mfn. See aplcya. 
-pu^s (nom. -puman), m. not a man, 
a eunuch, Mn. iii, 49, &c. tva, n. the state of a 

A-pnnskS, f. without a husband, Bhatt. 

mjj'oA a-puccha, mfn. tailless; (a), f. the 
tree Dalbergia Sisu. 
^TipPI a-punya, mfn. impure, wicked. 

krit, mfn. acting wickedly, wicked. 

Vffi d-putra, as, m. not a son, SBr. xir; 
(a-piilra), mf(a)n. sonless, SBr. &c. - ta (aputrd- ), 
f. sonlessness, SBr. 

A-pntraka, mf(A/)n. sonless, Kath5s. ; Das. 

A-putrika, as, m. the father of a daughter not 
fit to be adopted as a son because of her not having 
any male offspring. 

A-pntriya, mfn. sonless, childless, SSiikhGr. &c. 

^Tjj1^.a-puno'r, ind. not again, only once, 
RV. x, 68, IO. anvaya, mfn. not returning, dead. 

Svartana, n. or -avrittl, f. final exemption 
from life or transmigration, Jain. ; Up. - nkta, n. 
or -nkti.f. no (superfluous) repetition. diyamana 
(if-^ar-),mfh. not being given back, AV.xii,5, 44. 

bhava, m. not occurring again. Car. ; exemption 
from further transmigration, final beatitude, BhP. 

bhSva, m. id. ybliB, not to recover conscious- 
ness, SBr. A-punah-prapya, mfn. irrecoverable. 

^lyilHI a-purana or a-purdtana, mfn. not 
old, modem, new. 

V JJIj'H a-purusha, mfn. unmanly. A-pn- 
TtLshartha, m. a rite which is not for the benefit 
of the sacrificer ; not the chief object of the soul. 

" !J imd-purogavafTufo .without a leader, 
AV.xx, 135, 7; AitBr. 

A-puro-'nuvakyaka, mfn. without a Puronu- 
vikya, SBr. 

A-pnrornkka, mfn. without a Puroruc, SBr. 

A'-puroMta, as, m. not a Purohita, SBr. ; (mfn.), 
without a Purohita, AitBr. 

^r(jU4,(4 a-ptuhkala, mfn. 'not eminent,' 
mean, low, Venls. ; Hear. 

TT}S n-pushtn, mfn. unnourished, lean; 
soft, L. ; invalid, unimportant, Kpr. 

^Tjni a-pushpd,m{(a)n. not flowering, RV. 
&c. ; (as), m. the glomerous fig tree. phala or 
-phala-da, m. ' bearing fruits without flowering,' 
'having neither flowers nor fruits,' the jack tree, 
Artocarpus Integrifolia, the glomerous fig tree. 

[ apus, us, n., v. 1. for vdput, Naigh. 

a-pujaka, mfn. irreverent. 
A-puJS, f. irreverence, disrespect. 
A-pnjita, mm. not reverenced or worshipped. 
A-p5Jya, mfn. not to be worshipped or revered. 

"?? d-puta, mfn. impure, SBr.; KatySr. ; 
not purified (by purificatory rites), Mn. ; Gaut. 

d, as, m. (cf. pupa), cake of flour, 
meal, &c. , R V. &c. ; a kind of fine bread ; honey- 
comb, ChUp. ; wheat, L. - nabhi (apftpd-), m. 
having a navel consisting of a cake, AV. x, 9, 5. 

may a, mm. consisting of cake, I'm. v, 4, 21, 
Sch. vat (apupd-), mfn. accompanied with cake, 
RV.; AV. Apupadi.a ganaof PSn.(v,i, 4). Ap5- 
paplhita, mfn. covered with cake, AV. xviii, 3, 68. 

I. Apuplya, mfn. fit for cakes, Pan. v, 1, 4. 

3, Apupiya, Nom. P. yati, to have a desire for 
cakes, KstySr. 

Apupya, mfn. = I. apuptya, Pin. v, I, 4 ; as, 
m. flour, meal, L. 

fl^llft apitrani, f. the silk cotton tree 
(Bombax Heptaphyllum). 

wy^jM a-purushd, mfn. lifeless, inanimate, 
RV - *> "55. 3- glm (d-purusha-), mfn. not 
killing men, RV. i, 133, 6. 

^T^ a-purna, mfn. not full or entire, in- 
complete, deficient ; (ant), n. an incomplete, number, 
a fraction. kala, mfn. premature ; (as), m. in- 
complete time, -kala-ja, mfn. bom before the 
proper time, abortive. ta, f. incompleteness. 

A-pfirti, is, (. non-accomplishment (of wishes), 

A-puryamana, mfn. not getting full, KStySr. 

^T^% a-pured, mf(o)n. unpreceded, un- 
precedented, SBr. xiv, &c. ; not having existed before, 
quite new ; unparalleled, incomparable, extraordinary; 
not first ; preceded by a, PSn. viii, 3, 1 7 ; (as), m., 
N. of a sacrifice (offered to PrajSpati), PBr.; Vait.; 
(am), n. the remote or unforeseen consequence of an 
act (as heaven of religious rites), NySyam. ; a conse- 
quence not immediately preceded by its cause ; (/a), 
ind. never before, AV. x, 8, 33. karman, n. a re- 
ligious rite or sacrifice (the power of which on the 
future is not before seen). ta, f. or -tva, n. the 
being unpreceded, the not having existed before, in- 
comparableness, &c. pati, f. one who has had no 
husband before, Pat. vat, ind. singularly, unlike 
anything else. 

A-purviya, mfn. referring to the remote or un- 
foreseen consequence of an act, L. 

A'-purvya (4), mf(a)n. unpreceded, first, RV.; 
incomparable, RV. 

Wjrti a-prikta, mfn. unmixed, uncom- 
bined (said of a word [as a and u, Prit.] or an affix 
[Pan.] consisting of a single letter, i. e. of one not 
combined with another). 

'%f^Hn(d-prinat, mfn. ' not filling, not pro- 
pitiating by gifts,' stingy, RV. 

Y|iV|e{i a-prMai,ind.not separately, with, 
together with, collectively. irutl.mfn. not audible 
separately, RPrat. Aprithag-dharmaslla, mfn. 
of the same religion. 

WJ1? a-prishta, mfn. unasked, Gaut. &c. 

WT apg(Vi), P,. A. apatti, dpdyati (impf. 
A. dpayata, RV. x, 72, 6) to go away, withdraw, 
retire, run away, escape ; to vanish, disappear. 

Apaya, as, m. going away, departure ; destruc- 
tion, death, annihilation ; injury, loss ; misfortune, 
evil, calamity. 

Apayin, mfn. going away, departing, vanishing, 

Apdta, mfn. escaped, departed, gone ; having re- 
tired from, free from (abl. or in comp.) blii, mfn. 
one whose fear is gone, Mn. vii, 197. rakshasi, 
f. the plant Ocimum Sanctum (also apr$ta-r). 

Apdnl (Imper. a. sg. in comp.) means ' exclud- 
ing, expelling." praghasa (scil. kriyd), f. a cere- 
mony from which gluttons are excluded, (gana 
mayuravyattsakadi.) vSnljS (scil. kriyd), f. a 
ceremony from which merchants are excluded, ib. 

vStB (scil. laid), f. 'useful in expelling wind,' the 
plant Poederia Foetida, Susr. 

^THTJ apeksh (Viksh), to look away, to 
look round, AV. ; SBr.; to have some design; to 
have regard to, to respect ; to look for, wait for ; 
to expect, hope ; to require, have an eye to, SSh. ; 
with mi, not to like, Kathas. 

Apekshana, am, n, = apeksha, L. 

Apekshaniya, mfn. to be considered or regarded ; 

to be looked for or expected ; to be wished or re- 
quired ; desirable. 

ApdkshS, f. looking round or about, considera- 
tion of, reference, regard to (in comp. ; rarely loc.) ; 
dependence on, connection of cause with effect or of 
individual with species ; looking for, expectation, 
hope, need, requirement ; (ayd), ind. with regard to 
(in comp.) buddlii, f. (in Vaiieshika phil.) a 
mental process, the faculty of arranging and methodiz- 
ing, clearness of understanding. 

Apekshita, mfn. considered ; referred to ; looked 
for, e-xpected ; wished, required. 

Apekshita vy a = apekshaniya, q. v. 

Apekshin, mfn. considering, respecting, regard- 
ful of, looking to (in comp. ; rarely gen.) ; looking 
for, expecting, requiring ; depending on. Apdkshi- 
tS, f. expectation, Kum. iii, I. 

I . Apdkshya = apekshaniya. 

3. Apekshya, ind. p. with regard or reference to. 

^T1^ opej (Vy'), dpejate, to drive away, 
RV. v, 48, 2 & vi, 64, 3. 
xiMrj dpfndra, mfn. without Indra, SBr. 

flM<f a-peya, mf(a)n. unfit for drinking, 
not to be drunk, Mn. &c. 

SS^^TfiS a-pesala, mfn. unclever. 
A-pesas, mfn. shapeless, RV. i, 6, 3. 

^TT^ i. apfsh (-/ish), (aor. 3. sg. dpa ai- 

yeK) to withdraw from (abl.), RV. v, 2, 8. 

aphi-praghasa, &c. See apf. 

a-paisuna, am, n. non-calumny, 

a-poganda, mfn. not under six- 
teen years of age, Mn. viii, 148 ; a child or infant, 
L. ; timid, L. ; flaccid, L. ; having a limb too many 
or too few, L. 

^TiflleJ apticchad (ud-Vchad), (ind. p. 
-chddya) to uncover, AsvSr. 

Wlte apddha, mfn. (Vvah), carried off, 
removed, taken away. 

flqlr^ apdt-krish (VJtrish), (ind. p. -kri- 
shya) to disjoin, Kaus. 

WnVi^qi dpSdaka, mf(a)n. waterless, water- 
tight, RV. i, 116, 3 ; not watery, not fluid, AV. ; 
(ikd~), f. t'le pot-herb Basella Rubra or Lucida, L. 

^tMnej apSd-i ( Vi), to go away altogether, 
withdraw from (abl.). AV. ; SBr. ; AitBr. 

Apod-itya, (mfn.) n. impers. to be completely 
gone away from (abl.), SBr. 

ap6d-\/i. iih, to strip off, TBr. 

apod-dharya. See an-ap6d- 


apti-naptri, &c. See 2. dp. 

apdbh (i/ubh), (Imper. 2. pi. dpdm- 
bhata) to bind, fetter, AV. viii, 8, II. 
Apobdna, mfn. bound, TS. 
Apoinbhana, am, n. a fetter, TS. 

W(iB apornu (\/rnu), dpa urnoti, dpdr- 
nute, once apSrnauti [KjtySr.], to uncover, unveil, 
open, RV. ; AV. ; SBr. : A. to uncover one's self, 
TS. ; SBr. 

Apdrnavana, am, n. untying, Comm. on ApSr. 

(v / asA)=apa-v / 2.pas, q.v. 

apoh (\/l.uh), -uhati (impf. dpdu- 
tuit) to strip off, push away, frighten away, RV. 
Sec. ; to remove or heal (diseases), Susr. ; A. to keep 
away from one's self, avoid, Mn. ; to give up, Ragh.; 
(in disputation) to object, deny, S3h. 

Ap6ha, as, m. pushing away, removing ; (in dis- 
putation) reasoning, arguing, denying. 

Ap3hana, am, n. id. 

ApShanlya, mfn. to be taken away, or removed, 
or expiated. 

Apohita, mfn. removed ; (in disputation) denied 
(the opposite of sthdpita). 

Apdhya, mfn. = apShaniya. 

^mi^^ a-paurusha, am, n. unmauliness ; 
superhuman power; (mfn.), unmanly; superhuman. 


A-panrusheya, mfn. not coming from men, 

^ftn^PB d-paulkasa, as, m. not a Paul- 
kasa, SBr. 

<zp<a. See dn-apta. 

tas, as, n. a sacrificial act, Un. 

Aptur (only ace. sg. & pi. tiram & tiros), m. (fr. 
I. dp + Jtvar), active, busy (said of the Asvins, of 
Soma, of Agni, of Indra), RV. 

Apturya (4), am, n. zeal, activity, RV. iii, 1 1, 
8 & 51, 9. 

Apna-rSj , mfn. (afna = dpnas below), presiding 
over property, RV. x, 131, 7. 

A'pnas, as, n. possession, property, RV. [cf. Lat. 
ops] ; work, sacrificial act, Naigh. ; Un. ; progeny, 
Naigh. ; shape, ib. vat {dpnas-), mfn. giving 
property, profitable, RV. Apnah-stha, m. pos- 
sessor, RV. vi, 67, 3. 

W5J aptii, mfn. small, tender [Comm.; but 
perhaps connected with apttir above, because also 
applied to the Soma], MaitrS.;TS.; SBr.; body.Vn; 
mat, mfn. containing the word aplii, MaitrS. 

Aptor-ySma, <w [SBr.&c] or-yaman, a [PBi.; 
L3ty.], m. a particular way of offering the Soma sacri- 

aptyd. See 2. dp. 

dpnavdna, as, m., N. of a Rishi 
(appointed with the Bhrigus), RV. iv, 7,1; the arm, 
Naigh. vat, ind. like ApnavSna, RV. viii, 102, 4. 

W-Mfrl ap-pati, is, m. See 2. dp. 

^miftfufrt appadlksUta or apyadikshita, 
as, m., N. of an author ** apyaya-dikshita, q.v. 

ap-pitta, am, n. See 2. dp. 
( dpya. See 2. dp. 

apy-aty-\/arj (3. pi. -arjantf) to 
add over and above, AitBr. 

WUI;} apy-\/ad, to eat off, SBr. xiv : Caus. 
-adayati, to give more (food) to eat, AitBr. 
apy-aya. See a. apt. 

dpy-ardham, ind. within proxi- 
mity, near to (gen.), SBr. ; (cf. a/tJty-ardhas,) 

^HH^ apy-i/i. as, -asti (i. pi. -shmasi; 
Imper. -astu; Opt. -shydf), Ved. (with loc. or local 
adv.) to be in, be closely connected with, RV. &c. ; 
to belong to (as a share), RV.; SBr. 

W*m apy-\/2. as (Subj. A. 2. sg. -asya- 
thdK) to insert, AitBr. 

Vn^ 1 apy-a-Vhri (Pot. dpy a haret) to 
take or assume in addition, TS. 

apy-uta = api -\-uta, q.v. 

a-praka(a, mf(a)n. unmanifested, 
unapparent ; (am), ind. without having been per- 
ceived, KathSs. 

sNHcfcUla-prautampa, mfn. unshaken; firm, 
steady; unanswered, unrefuted. ta, f. firmness, 
stability, unanswerableness. 

A-prakampin, mfn. not shaking, steady, AitAr. 

^TTnirC a-prakara, mfn. not acting excel- 
lently, L. 

A-prakarana, am, n. not the principal topic, 
not relevant, to the main subject. 

A-prakrita, mfn. not principal, not relevant to 
the main topic under discussion, not chief; occasional 
or incidental ; not natural. 

A-prakriti, is, (. not an inherent or inseparable 
property, accidental property or nature. 


A-prakrlshta, of, m. a crow, L.; (cf. apa- 

< H <* <d4 4 a-prakalpaka, mf(*a)n. not pre- 
scribing as obligatory. 

A-praklripta, mfn. not explicitly enjoined. 
-tS, f. the state of not being explicitly enjoined, 

a-prakanda, mfn. stemless, L.; 
(as), m. a bush, a shrub, L. 

WH^T5T a-prakasa, mf(o)n. not shining, 
dark ; not visible, hidden, secret, Mn. ; not manifest 
or evident; (am), ind. in secret, Mn. viii, 351; 
(as), m. indistinctness, darkness, Ragh. i, 68. 

A-prakaiaka, mf(ta)n. not rendering bright, 
making dark. 

A-prakasamana, mfn. not manifested, unre- 

A-prakaiita, mfn. id. 

A-prakaaya, mfn. not to be manifested. 

^nr%TT a-praketd, mfn . indiscriminate, un- 
recognizable, RV. x, 1 29, 3. 

WlfforrT d-prakshita, mfn. undiminished, 
inexhaustible, RV, i, 55, 8. 

<(*; a-prakhara, mfn. dull, obtuse, L.; 
bland, mild, L. 

wmoHrTT a-prakhya-ta, f. want of a strik- 
ing or dignified appearance, MBh. xii, 5881. 

a-pragama, mfn. (in speech or dis- 
cussion) going too fast for others to follow, not to be 

^WT<&a-pragalbha,inf(a)n. not arrogant, 
modest; timid. 

a-praguna, mfn. perplexed, L. 

a-pragraha [TPrat.] or a-pragri- 
hya [RPrit.], as, m. not a vowel called pragrihya 


A-pragrraha, mfn. unrestrained, L. 
'ilH^^;?! d-pracankasa, mf(o)n. without 
power of seeing, AV. viii, 6, 1 6. 

a-pracura, mfn. little, few. 

d-pracetas, mfn. deficient in un- 
derstanding, foolish, RV.; AV. xx, 128, a. 

A-pracetita, mfn. not having been perceived, 

TTH^Tl f<; iJ a-pracodita, mfn. undesired, not 
bidden or commanded, unasked, Mn. iv, 248. 

WHf3!3 a-pracchinna, mfn. not split, 

A-pracchedya, mfn. inscrutable, L. 

^nrajre a-pracyava, as, m. not falling in, 


A-pracySvnka,mf(a)n. not decaying, KaushBr. 

A'-pracynta, mfn. unmoved, RV. ii, 28, 8 ; (with 
abl.) not fallen or deviating from, observing, fol- 
lowing, Mn. xii, 1 1 6. 

A'-pracyuti, ir, f. not decaying, SBr. ; SankhSr. 

WTTSf d-praja, mf(a)n. (Vjan), without 
progeny, childless, RV. i, i, 5 ; Mn. &c.; (a), (. 
not bearing, unprolific, MBh. i, 4491. 

I. A-prajajul, mfn. not generative, having no 
power of begetting, SBr. 

A'-prajanlshnn, mfn. id., MaitrS. 

A'-praJas [AV.] or a-prajas[SBr. &c. ; cf. Pan. 
v, 4, 122], mfn. without progeny, childless. ta 
(aprajds-), f. or aprajas-tva, n. childlessness, AV. 

A-prajasya, am, n. childlessness, TS. 

A-praJStS, f. not having brought forth (cf. a- 
prajd above), MBh. v, 3047. 

^JJJflfsJ 2. d-prajojfti, mfn. (Vj%S), inex- 
perienced, inexpert, RV. x, 71, 9. 

A-prajna, mfn. not knowing, RamatUp. 

A-praJnata, mfn. not known, TS. ; Mn. i, 5. 

A-praJnatra, mfn. (h.pra-jadtrf), not know- 
ing, erring, being wrong, TS. 

d-pranasa, as, m. not perishing, 

SBr. ; PBr. 

a-pranita, mfn. (\/nI), unconse- 
crated, profane, Mn. ix, 317 ; (am), n. the act of 
frying clarified butter without consecrated water, 

^nrata a-pranodya, mfn. ( \/nvd), not to 
be turned away (as a guest), Mn. iii, 105 ; Gaut. 
a-pratarkya, mfn. not to he dis- 

d-pratimanyuyamana. 57 

WHrtT a-prata (Ved. loc. fr. prati), ind. 
without recompense, for nothing, RV. viii, 33, 16. 

^HfTT1a-j>ra<apa,as,m. want of brilliancy, 
dullness ; meanness, want of dignity. 

^rnfft a-prutt, mfn. without opponents, 
irresistible, RV. ; BhP. ; (f), n. irresistibly, RV.vii,83, 
4 & 99, 5 ; AV. ; (a), ind., see s. v. above. i . -rtt- 
pa, mf(o)n. of unequalled form, incomparable, R. 
&c. [cf. 2. a-pratirupa, p. 58]. rSpa-kathl, 
.f. incomparable or unanswerable discourse, L. vlr- 
ya, mfn. of irresistible power, R. iv, 35, 4 & 38, 13. 

^HflfrT<lit a-pratikara, mfn. trusted, con- 
fidential, L. ; (ena), ind. without recompense, Rijat.; 
(cf. a-prata.) 

A-pratikarman, mfn. of unparalleled deeds, R. 

A-pratikara [Veins.] or a-pratikara [Mn. 
xii, 80 ; Kid.], mfn. not admitting of any relief or 

A-pratikarln, mfn. (said of patients) not using 
a remedy, not permitting the employment of a 
remedy, Susr. 

a-pratikiila, mf(a)n. not resist- 

cusred, L.; incomprehensible by reason, undefinable, 
Mn.i, 5&xii, 29; BhP.&c. 

ing, not obstinate. 

VUfrI^niT d-pratikhyata, mfn. not seen, 

a-pratigrihyd, mfn. one from 
whom one must not accept anything, SBr. xiv. 

A-pratigrahana, am, n. not accepting (a girl 
into marriage), not marrying, R. 


A-pratlsfrahya, mfn. uaacceptable. 

wWfrni a-pratigha, mfn. (VAan), not to 
be kept off, not to "be vanquished, Mn. xii, 28, &c. 

^l^ns'i a-pratidvandva, mfn. 'not hav- 
ing an adversary in battle,' not to be vanquished, 
irresistible, R. &c. ta, f. unrivalledness. 

'smfTT^T a-pratidhurd, mfn. without a 

match in going at the pole oi'a carriage (as a horse), 

tnifinff d-pratidhjishta, mfn. ' irresisti- 
ble,' in comp. with tiavac, mfn. of irresistible 
power, RV. i, 84, 2. 

A-pratidhrishya, mfn. irresistible, VS. &c. 

^mni^^ d-pratinoda, as, m. not repell- 
ing, MaitrS. ; PBr. 

^Tnfifrej a-pratipaksJta, mfn. without s 
rival or opponent. 

"BUfTnUPT a-pratipanya, mfn. not to be 
bartered or exchanged. 

a-pratipatti, is, f. non-ascertain- 
ment ; not understanding, Nyiyad. ; the state of being 
undecided or confused, Sah. &c. ; non-performance, 

A-pratipad, mfn. confused (vikala), VS. xxx, 8. 

A-pratipadyamina, mfn. not consenting to 
(ace.), Ssk. 

A-pratipanna, mfn. unascertained ; unaccom- 

WirftWW a-pratibandha, as, 'm. absence 
of obstruction ; (mfn.) unimpeded, undisputed, direct 
(inheritance), not collateral or presumptive. 

^Wfrl i 3<3 a-pratibala, mfn. of unequalled 
power, R. 

tibodha, mfn . without con- 

sciousness, Ragh. viii, 57. vat, mfn. id., MarkP. 

^nrfrT^S'i^ d-pratibruvat, mfn. not con- 
tradicting, AV. iii, 8, 3. 

WHfiW a-pratibha, mfn. modest, bashful, 
L. ; (a), (. shyness, timidity, Nyiyad. 

OMfrlM a-pratima, mf(a)n. unequalled, in- 
comparable, without a match. 

A-pratimana, mfn. incomparable, RV. viii, 
96, 17. 

A-pratimeya, mfn. id., Hariv. 

^tfffHK^TjTR d-pratimanyuyamana, mfn. 
being unable to show resentment or to retaliate anger 
for anger, AV. xiii, I, 31. 





a-pratiyalna-piirva, mf(o)n. 
not produced (' by force' = ) artificially, natural, Sis. 

^nrfrnftfl^ a-pratiyogin, mfn. not op- 
posed to, not incompatible with ; not correlative to. 

^THfrtnllVR[ a-pratiyodhin, mfn.' not hav- 
ing an adversary,' irresistible, MBh.; (cf. gu 

(as}, m., N. of a Rishi (son of Indra and composer 
of the hymn RV.x, 103); N. of a son of RantinSra, 
VP. ; (am), n., N. of the above-named hymn (com- 
posed by Apratiratha), MaitrS. ; SBr. &c. 

a-pratirava, mfn. uncontested, 

flnfrTCT 2. d-pratirupa, mf(a)n. not cor- 
responding with, unfit, SBr. xiv ; odious, disagree- 
able, R. &c. (For I. see a-prati.) 

^nifrl (>* 1*1 a-pratilabdha-kdma, mfn. 
never satiated in one's desires. 

tJiirniifi;^ d-prativadin, mfn. not con- 
tradicting, TS. &c. 

WHTri^itt i(d-pratisansat, mfn. not reciting 
or shouting towards, SBr. 
A'-pratisasta, mfn. not shouted towards, id. 

SnrfiHiiwtf a-pratiidsana, mfn. not sub- 
ject to the orders of another, not giving a counter 
or rival order, completely under subjection. 

^Illfirfa^i d-pratishikta, mfn. not poured 
upon, not moistened, MaitrS. 

A-pratishekya, mfn. (a ceremony) at which 
there is no pouring upon, MaitrS.; ApSr. 

TOJlfirTfc^f a-pratishiddha, mfn. ( \/2. sidh), 
unprohibited, unforbidden, Susr. 

A-pratishedha, as, m. ' non-prohibition,' non- 
negation, an invalid objection, Nyayad. 

^Hfno^n d-pratishkuta, mfn. not to be 
kept off, unrestrainable, RV. 

a-pratishkrita, mfn. to whom 

nothing has been opposed, Nir. 

^rnfrTSW a-pratishtabdha, mfn. not stip- 
ported by (instr.), Ap. ; (cf. a-pratistabdha below.) 

Truing a-pratishtha, mfn. having no solid 
ground, no value, fluctuating, unsafe, MBh.; Mn. iii, 
180, &c.; (as), m, N. of a hell, VP. 

A'-pratishtha, f. instability, TBr. 

A-pratishthana, mfn. having no solid ground, 
AV. xi, 3, 49. 

A-pratishthaynka, mfn. id., MaitrS. 

limited, BhP. ; Jain. 

^nrfiW3>T a-pratisamkrama, mfn. having 
no intermixture. 

^Vt a-pratisamkhyd, f.'not observ- 
ing,' in comp. with -nirodha, m. the unobserved 
annihilation of an object, Buddh. 

WMPnw*! a-pratistabdha, mfn. unre- 
strained, BhatJ.; (cf. a-pratishtabdha above.) 

WHfiTsTrT a-pratihata, mfn. uninterrupted, 
unobstructed, irresistible ; unaffected, unimpaired, 
indestructible, uninjured ; not passed away, PSrGr. 
netra, m. 'whose eyes are unimpeded,' N. of a 
deity, Buddh. 

vmfn^H a-pratihdra, as, m. not stopping, 
PBr. ; (mfn.), without the syllables contained in the 
pratihdra (q.v.), I, sty. 

A-pratiharya, mfn. not to be repelled, irre- 
sistible, R. 

a-pralikara. See a-pratikdra. 

ward, ApSr. ; (d-pratiksham), ind. without looking 
backward, SBr. 

w H H 1 1| i frl rl I a-pratighdtitd, f. the state of 
not having (or meeting with) obstacles, of not being 
restrainable, MBh. xii, 9138. 

^Turiln d-pratita, mfn. unapproached, un- 
attackable, RV. ; AV. vii, 25, I ; not understood, un- 

common (as an expression), Sah. Sec. ; not merry, 
sad, R. 

A-pratiti, is, {. the state of not being under- 
stood ; mistrust, want of confidence. 

d-pratltta, mfu. not given back, 
AV. vi, 117, i. 

^TRrftT a-pratipa, mfn. not contradictory, 
not obstinate ; (as), m., N. of a king of Magadha.VP. 

wHJrt a-pratula, as, m. want of weight, 
want, L. 

inH a-pratta, mfn. (for a-pradatta), not 
given back,PBr.; (a),f.'notgivenaway (in marriage),' 
a girl, Nir.; Gaut. 

'WHWBf a-pratyaksha, mfn. not present to 
the sight, invisible, imperceptible. ta, f. imper- 
ceptibility. liishta,, mfn. not distinctly taught. 

^"UWT a-pratyaya, as, m. distrust, disbe- 
lief, doubt ; not an affix, Pan. i, 1, 69 ; (mfn.), distrust- 
ful (with loc.), Sak.; causing distrust ; having no affix. 
stha, mfn. (in Gr.) not pertaining to an affix. 

a-pratydkhydta, mfn. uncon- 

tradicted, unrefuted, assented to. 

A-pratyakhyana, am, n. non-refutation. 

A-pratyakhyeya, mfn. not to be contradicted, 

a-pratydmndya, as, m. not a 
contradictory statement, RPrat. 

d-pratydlabhamdna, mfn. 

not offering resistance, SBr. 

^THr^fi a-pratyrita, mfn. (=an-arra), not 
encountering any resistance in (loc.), Nir. 

TOTrfsfiT a-prathita, mfn. not spread, Nir. 
^( U^' l d-pradagdha, mfn. not burnt, SBr. 

^TH^f^ d-pradadi, mfn. not. h'beral, AV. 
xx, 128, 8. 
A-pradanavat, mfn. id., R. 

t<>l<;i d-praddha, as, m. not consuming 
by fire, SBr. ; TBr. 

^TH^niT'l a-pradiptdgni, mfn. dyspeptic. 

^TJl^ni d-pradugdha, mfn. not milked to 
the end, RV. iii, 55, 16. 

^rJT^flrT d-pradripita, mfn. not thought- 
less, not careless, RV. i, 145, a. 

^THVTT a-pradhana, mfn. not principal, 
subordinate, secondary, Pig. ii, 3, 19, &c. ta, f. 
or -tva, n. inferiority. 

^TH^^J a-pradhrishya, mfn. not to be van- 
quished, invincible, MBh. ; Paiicat. 

^iJll^'l d-prapadana, am, n. a bad place 
of refuge, SBr. 

A-prapSda, as, m. non-abortiveness, TS.; TBr. 
A-prapaduka, mfn. not abortive, MaitrS. 

"WHMmi a-prapdnd, mfn. not containing 
drinkable water, AV. xx, 128, 8. 

a-prabala,ra(n. inefficacious,weak. 
a-prdbha, mfn. obscure ; dull, L. 

d-prdbhu, mfn. wanting power, un- 
able, incompetent (with loc.), RV. ix, 73, 9 ; AitBr. 
&c. tva, n. want of power, insufficiency, MBh.&c. 

A-prabhuta, mfn. insufficient, inadequate. 

A'-prabhuti, is, {. (Ved. instr. tt), little effort, 
RV. x, 124, 7. 

^n^njt d-prabhraysa, as, m. not getting 
deprived of, not losing (with abl.), SBr. 

w Ht^ d-pramatta, mfn. not careless, care- 
ful, attentive, vigilant, SBr. &c. vat, mfn. id.,MBh. 
xii, 8889. 

A-pramSda, as, m. care, vigilance, MBh. &c. ; 
(mfn.), 'careful, cautious,' see -ta below; (a-pra- 
mddam), ind. attentively, carefully, AV. ; VS. ; with- 
our interruption, AV. ta, f. the being cautious, 
Yajn. iii, 314. 

A-pramadin, mfn. careful, Mn. ii, 115, &c. 

HM(^ a-pramada, as, m. not pleasure, 
joylessness, MBh. xii, 10414. 

-prdmaya, mfn. imperishahle,SBr. 
xiv ; (cf. a-prdmi-satya.) 

A'-pramaynka, mfn. not dying suddenly, AV. 
xix, 44, 3 ; TBr. 

A-pramiya, mfn. (that) which ought not to 
perish, ShadvBr. 

Tn*il a-pramd, f. a rule which is no 

authority (see a-pramdna) ; incorrect knowledge. 

A-pramana, am, n. a rule which is no standard 
of action, MBh.; SJk.&c.; (in discussion) a statement 
of no importance or authority. vid, mfn. incapa- 
ble of weighing evidence, BhP. iubha, as, m. pi. 
' of immeasurable virtue,' N. of a class of divinities, 
Buddh. Apramanabha, as, m. pi. 'of unlimited 
splendour,' N. of a class of divinities, Buddh. 

A-pramita, mfn. unbounded, unmeasured ; not 
proved, not established by authority. 

A-prameya, mfn. immeasurable, unlimited, un- 
fathomable, Mn. i, 3 & xii, 94, &c. ; not to be proved. 
AprameyAtman , m. ' of inscrutable spirit, "N . of Si- 
va. Aprameyanubhava, mfn .of unlimited might. 

TIPTT^^r d-pramdyuka. See a-prdmaya. 
A-pramlya. See ib. 

a-pramudita, f. ' joylessness,' (in 
SSnkhya phil.) N. of one of the eight Asiddhis. 

A-pramoda, as, m. joylessness, Mn. iii, 61 = 
MBh. xiii, 2487. 

A-pramodamSna, f., N. of another of the above 

d-pramvra, mfn. not foolish, pru- 
dent, RV. i, 90, 2. 

THJ4 a-pramrishyd, mfn, not to be des- 
troyed, indestructible, RV. 

^f iw n a-prayata, mfn. not intent (on devo- 
tion), not prepared (in mind) for any important action 
or performance, Mn. ; Ap. ; (once said of food) Ap. 

A-prayatya, am, n. the state of being a-pra- 
yata, BhP.; Ap. 

tH*<(a a-prayatna, as, m. absence of ef- 
fort, indifference; (mfn.), indifferent, apathetic in 
(loc.), Mn. vi, a6. 

Tnlin a-praydjd, mfn. without a Pra- 
ysja, TS. 

wn*4HU'* a-prayanaka, am, n. halt (on a 
journey), PaScat. 

A-prayani, is, f. not going, not moving (used 
in execrations), Pan. viii, 4, 29, Kas. 

A-prayapani, is, f. not allowing to go (used 
in execrations), Pin. viii, 4, 30, Sch. 

^(UH\3*(d-praydvam [VS. xi, 75 ; AV. xix, 
55, i] or d-praydvan [AV. iii, 5, i], ind. (^i.yti), 
not carelessly, attentively ; (cf. d-prdyu.) 

A'-prayucchat, mfn. attentive, RV.; AV. 

A'-prayuta, mfn. id., RV. vii, 100, 2. 

A'-prayutvan, mm. id., RV. vi, 48, 10. 

"WHim a-praydsa, as, m. absence of toil ; 
(etui), ind. easily, Yajn. iii, 115. 

^Tn^3> d-prayukta, mfn. not used or ap- 

plied, MaitrS.; (of words) not in use, Pat.; unsuit- 
able, Pancat. ta, f. or -tva, n. unusualness (of 
expressions), Sah. 

A-prayog'a, as, m. non-application ; the not 
being in use (of words), Pat. 

A-prayojaka,mf(z/6a)n. not causing or effecting; 

WRrtfJ^ a-pralambam, ind. without de- 
lay, L. 

^TU^'rl a-pravadat, mf(afi)n. not roaring, 

inq'5 d-pravargya, mfn. without the 
Pravargya ceremony, SBr. ; KatySr. 

^THlrien a-pravartaka, mf(ikd)n. abstain- 
ing from action, inert ; not exciting to action. 

A-pravartana, am, n. the act of refraining 
from, not engaging in ; not exciting to any action. 

A-pravritta, mfn. not acting, not engaged in ; 
not commenced, not instigated. 

A-pravritti, is, f. not proceeding ; no further 
effect or applicability of a precept, KatySr. ; abstain- 
ing from action, inertion ; non-excitement ; (in 




med.) suppression of the natural evacuations, con- 
stipation, ischury, &c. 

a-pravina, mfn. unskilful. 

pravltdJ^seepra-Vvi). not im- 
pregnated, RV. iii, 55, 5 ; iv, 7, 9 ; SBr. ; KItySr. 

^nrjS a-pravriddka, mfn. not excessively 
grown, (gana pravriddhddi, q. v.) 

Wl^<J d-praveda, mf(a)n. (said of heaven 
and earth, togetherwith a-trasnu), not insidious,SBr. 

UIH4J a-pravlaya, as, m. not sinking 
down, AitBr. 

WJ15IW i.a-prasastd, mfn. not praised, 
fameless, RV. ii, 41, 16 & iv, 18, 4 ; not good, in- 
ferior, worthless ; (am}, n. dirt, natural excretion, 
Mn. xi, 255. 

2. A'-prasasta, mfn. not praised, blamable, RV. 
i, 167, 8. 

A-prasasya, mfn. not praiseworthy. 

?n4*|7ji a-prasakta, mfn. not addicted, not 
attached to. 

A-prasakti, is, (. non-addiction, non-attach- 
ment to (loc.), Mn. i, 89. 

A-prasanga, as, m. (in NySya phil.) want of 
connection with ; non-applicability, KitySr. 

VlU^f) a-prasanna, mfn. not quiet, not 
clear ; turbid, muddy ; displeased, unfavourable. 

A-prasada, as, m. disfavour, disapprobation. 

A-prasadya, mfn. not to be propitiated ; un- 
appeasable, implacable. 

VI1HI4 i.a-prasava, as, m. (0/3.311), not 
preparing the Soma juice, KStySr. 

TTUtH 2. a-prasava, mfn. (V$. su), not 
beingprolific;(ar),m.non-propagation. dharmin, 
mfn. (in SSnkhya phil.) not having the property of 
producing (one of the characteristics of Purusha). 

A-prasuta, f. 'not giving birth to," a barren 

irresistible, ib. 

A-prasahishnn, mfn. quite unable (to), Sis. 1,54. 

A-prasaha, mfn. not subjected to any force, 

WjfHS a-prasiddha, mfn. not settled, un- 
established ; unknown, uncelebrated ; unusual, un- 
common, of no real existence, not current, not gene- 
rally known. pada, n. an obsolete word. 

^TIRTH d-prasuta, mfn. (, not al- 
lowed, SsnkhSr. (of persons); SBr. (of things). 

"WTHfJrT a-prastuta, mfn. unconnected with , 
irrelevant, unsuitable to the time or subject ; not 
principal, not being the chief subject-matter ; in- 
direct, accidental or extraneous; not laudable, R. 
prasansa or -stuti, f. 'conveying the subject- 
matter by that which is not the subject-matter,' (in 
rhetoric) implied or indirect expression. 

A-prastavika, mf(i)n. irrelevant to the subject- 
matter, Malatim. 

^STIHJH d-prasransa, as, m. not falling 
down, TBr. ; Kath. ; AitBr. 

WJnnT a-prahata, mfn. unhurt, intact; 
unfilled, waste, L. 

A'-prahan, m(accAanam){n. not nurtin g. RV - 
vi, 44, 4. 

^Tll^H^, mf(tiari)n. not di- 
minishing, not vanishing, MaitrS. 

^ref^TT a-prahita, mfn. not stirred up, 
RV. viii, 99, 7; not sent out, AV. vi, 29, 2. 

<3T&jpT d-prahrita, mfn. (a stick) not ad- 
vanced for striking, SBr. 

^TJiraitftrai a-prakaranika, mfn. not con- 
nected with thesubject-matter.Comm.on Mn. 111,285. 

A-prakrita, mfn. not principal ; not original ; 
special, particular ; not vulgar, extraordinary, Mcar. 
a-prdgrya, mfn. secondary, L. 

prdclna, mfn. not eastern.west- 
eni ; not old, modern, recent. 

a-prajna, mfn. unlearned, ignorant. 

ta, f. ignorance, Mn. iv, 167. 

'WUTII I .d-prdna,as,m. no breath, MaitrUp. 
2. A-prana, mfn. inanimate, lifeless, AV. ; SBr. 
A'-pranat, mfn. id., AV. x, 8, 1 1 ; Laty. 

"STHrfncoi**) a-prdtilomya, am', n. the not 
being hostile to, Rsjat. 

^tMl^r^lcti a-pradesika, mfn. not pointing 
to or suggestive of (the etymol. of a word), Nir. i, 1 3. 

tiMiMl'M a-pradhdnya, am, n. non-supe- 
riority, inferiority, subordination. 

WHTH d-prapta, mfn. uftobtained ; unar- 
rived ; not accomplished^ Ysjn. ii, 243 ; not yet 
full-grown, Mn. ix, 88 ; not resulting (from any 
rule), P3n. viii, 2, 33, Sch. kala, mm. out of 
season, inopportune, ill-timed ; under age ; (am), 
n. an irregular debate, Nyayad. yauvana, mfn. 
not arrived at puberty. vikalpa [Pin. i, 4, 53, 
Comm.], m. or -vibhSshS [P5r>. i, 3, 43, Sch.], f. 
the optional permission of an operation which with- 
out such permission would not take place at all. 

vyavahara, mm. a minor in law; under age, 
not of years to engage in law or public business. 
AprSptavasara, mfn. unseasonable, inopportune, 

A-prapti, is, f. non-attainment, non-acquisition. 

I. A-prapya, mm. unobtainable, MBh. &c. ; 
superl. -tama, Mricch. 

a. A-prapya, ind. p. not having obtained ; not 
reaching. karin, mfn. acting on any object with- 
out direct contact with it.Comm. on Nyayad. gra- 
haiia, n. perception of an object though the senses 
are not in any direct connection with it, NySyad. 

WJJTTrftiroR a-prdmdnika, mfn. unauthen- 
tic ; unauthoritative. 

A-pramanya, am, n. absence or insufficiency of 
proof or authority. 

a-prami-satya ( s/mt with pro = 

pro, cf. a-prdmaya), ' of imperishable truthfulness,' 
unalterably true, RV. viii, 61, 4. 
VNU|l|i<l a^prdyatya. See a-prayata. 

WJJNj d-prdyu, mfn. (*/l.yu with pra = 
pra [cf. d-praydv am~] ; Padap. d-prayu fr. <zy or 
ay.r), not careless, assiduous, RV. (,89, I & viii, 24, 
18; (), ind. assiduously, RV. v, 80, 3. 

A-prayus, mfn. (Padap. a-prayus fr. ayus) id., 
RV. i, 1^27, 5. 

Vim*M4i a-prdrthctka, mfn. not demanding 
in marriage, Comm. on Mn. iii, 27. 

^rnT^iT d-prdvrita, mfn. not covered, SBr. 

^TOTSnT a-prdsana,am, n. not eating, MBh. 

A-prasitri, mfn. not eating, MBh. 

A-prasitriya, mfn. not fit for food called prd- 
tttra (q. v.), TS. 

"Wftra d-priya, mfn. disagreeable, disliked ; 
unkind, unfriendly ; (as), m. a foe, an enemy, Mn. ; 
N. of a Yaksha, Buddh. ; (a), f. a sort of skeat fish, 
Silurus Pungentissimus. m-vada, see apriya-vd- 
din. kara, mfn. 'not giving pleasure,' disagree- 
able,Mn.vii,204. l)liagin,mfn.unfortunate. va- 
din [Mn. ix, 81], mfn. or apriyam-vada [Yajfi. 
i, 73], mf(a)n. speaking unkindly or harshly. 

A-prlti, is, f. dislike, aversion, enmity, Mricch. ; 
pain, kara, mfn. unkind, adverse; disagreeable, 
Mn. xii, 28. Aprlty-atmaka, mf(z/'ii)n. con- 
sisting of pain. 

A-preman, a, n. dislike, aversion, L. ; (mfn.), 
unfriendly, L. 

^TliTT d-prtta, mfn. not gone away, SBr. 
- rakshasi, f. a plant (also called prtta-rakshasi 
or aplta-raltshasi, q. v.) 

Wlfa a-prdisha, mfn. not invoked with a 
prais/ia (q. v.) mantra, Comm. on AsvSr. 

^TftfBfrT d-prdkshita, mfn. not sprinkled, 
not consecrated, SBr. &c. 

!^t d-pr6drta, mfn. not uttered, TS. 
proshita, mfn. not departed, not 

A'-prdshivag, m(nom. van)(a. not gone away, 
staying, RV. viii, 60, 19. 

^ITJre a-praudha, mf(o)n. not arrogant, 
timid, gentle ; not capable of (Inf.), RSjat. ; (n~), f. 
an unmarried girl ; one very recently married and 
not come to womanhood. 

d-plava, mf(a)n. without a ship, AV. 
xix, 50, 31, &c.; not swimming, vat, mfn. with- 
out a ship, MBh. A-plav joa, mfn. unable to swim. 

iii apva (3; dpvd, Naigh.), f., N. of a 
disease (got in danger), RV. x, 103, 1 3 (voc. apve) ; 
AV. ix, 8, 9 (ace. apvam). 

Apnvaya, Nom. A. ydle, to get ill, become 
spoiled, TS. ; (cf. anvart.) 

V^TVS(ap-sards, as[RV. ; AV. &c.], or ap- 
sara [AV. &c.], f. (fr. 2.4p + *Jsri}, 'going in the 
waters or between the waters of the clouds,' a class of 
femaledivinities (sometimes called 'nymphs ;' they in- 
habit the sky, but often visit the earth ; they are the 
wives of the Gandharvas (q.v.) and have the faculty of 
changing their shapes at will ; they are fond of the 
water ; one of their number, Rambha, is said to have 
been produced at the churning of the ocean). Apga- 
rah-pati, m. 'lord of the Apsarasas,' Indra, L. 
Apsaras-tlrtha, n. a pool in which the Apsarasas 
bathe, Sak. Apsara-pati, m. ' lord of the Apsara- 
sas,' N. of the Gandharva Sikhandin, AV. iv, 37, 7. 

Apsaraya, Nom. A. apsardyatt, to behave like 
an Apsaras, Pan. iii, I, II, Comm. 

Apsarayita, mfn. made or grown an Apsaras, 

Ap-sava, mfn. giving water, RV. x, 65, 3. 

Apsavy a, mfn. (fr. 2 . apsti, q .v. ), being in the wa- 
ter(Varuna), MaitrS.; Kath.;, 3,1, Comm. 

Ap-sa, mfn. (</san), giving water, RV. 

VMm^ dpsas, as, n. ' the hidden part of 
the body/ the secret charms(of awife),RV.; AV.; SV. 
['breast or KoAiros,' Gmn. ; 'cheek,' BR. ; 'forehead, 
face,' NBD.]; hidden fault, sin, MaitrS.; Kath.; 
(apsvas) KapS. 

. d-psu, mfn.withoutfood,RV.vii,4,6. 

2. apsu (loc. pi. of 2. dp, q.v.), in the 
water or waters. kshit, mfn. dwelling within the 
clouds, in the region between heaven and earth, RV. 
i, 139, II. oara, mfn. (Ved.) going in the waters, 
Pin. vi, 3, I, Comm. -ja [TS.] or -ja [RV. viii, 
43, 28, Sec.], mfn. born in the waters, jit, mfn. 
vanquishing among the waters or in the region of 
the clouds (N. of Indra), RV. -diksha, f. conse- 
cration in water, mat, mfn. possessed of or shining 
in the waters (e. g. the lightning which does not lose 
its brilliant nature in the clouds), MaitrS. &c. ; con- 
taining the word apsii, SBr. ; N. of an Agni, ApSr. 

yoga, m. the connecting power in water, A V. x, 
5,5. you! (apsii-), mfn.born from the waters, TS.; 
SBr. vah, m(nom. pi. -vaAas)fn. driving in water, 
SV. shad, mfn. dwelling in the waters, RV. iii, 
3, 5 ; AV. ; VS. ahadas, n. dwelling in the waters, 
MaitrS. shoma, m. ' Soma in water,' a cup filled 
with water, SBr. ; KstySr. samsita (apsi't-}, mm. 
raised or excited in the waters, AV. x, 5,33. - hom- 
ya, m., N. of a man, MBh. ii, 107. 

^nS55 a-phald, mf(a)n. unfruitful, barren, 
RV. x, 97, 15, &c. ; vain, unproductive, RV. x, 71, 
5,&c.; deprived of virility, R. i, 49, 1 &II;(ay), m. 
Tamarix Indica ; (a), (. the Aloe (Aloes Perfoliata) ; 
Flacourtia Cataphracta. kankshln, mfn. disinter- 
ested, not looking to beneficial consequences. ta, 
f. or-tva, n. barrenness, unprofitableness. prepsu, 
mfn. one who desires no recompense, Bhag. A-pha- 
lakankshin.mfn. =a-pAafa-MnisAin,<\.v.,Shig. 

^HJi<J| a-phalgu, mfn. not vain, produc- 
tive, profitable, Sis. iii, 76. 

a-;>AMMa,mf(a)n.unblown (a rose),L. 
a-phena, mf(a)n. frothless; (am), n. 
opium, L. 

d-banda, mf(o)n. not crippled, SBr. 

d-baddha, mfn. unbound, unre- 

strained, at liberty, TS. &c. ; unmeaning, nonsensi- 
cal, N. mnkha, mfn. foul-mouthed, scurrilous, L. 

mala, mfn. whose root does not hold fast, is not 
firm, vat, mfn. unmeaning, ungrammatical, BhP. 



A-baddhaka, mfn. unmeaning, nonsensical, L. 

A-badhlra, mfn. not deaf, RV. viii, 45, 17. 

I. A-badhya, mfn. unmeaning, nonsensical, L. 

A-banddhra (or defectively written a-bandhra), 
mfn. without bonds or ligatures, AV. iv, 16, J. 

A-bandhaka, mfn. not binding ; (as),nt., N. of a 
man, & (as), m. pi. his descendants, (gana upakadi.) 

A-bandliana, mfn. without fetters, free, R V. iii, 

55. <5. 

I. A-bandhya, mfn. not to be fettered or bound. 
A-bandhra. See a-banddhra, 

W^VJ a-badHa. See a-vadka. 
3. A-badhya. See a-vadhya. 

TT^VT abadha, f. segment of the basis of 
a triangle; (tf.abdd/iain&avabailha. In Jaina Pra- 
krit abaha or ova Ad. ) 

W*S a-bandku, mfn. without kindred, 
without companions, friendless, RV. i, 51, 9 & viii, 
31, 4; AV. vi, 112, 3. krlt (d-bandhu-\ mfn. 
causing want of companions, AV. iv, 19, I.. 

A-bandhava, mm. having no relation or kindred, 
lone, Mn. x, 55. kr^ita, mfn. not caused by rela- 
tion or kindred, Sik. 

V^TUI 2.a-bandhya, mf(<i)n. not barren, 
not unfruitful, fruitful, productive ; (cf. a-vandhya, 
which is perhaps the better spelling.) 

VW5J a-6ajrf,mf(a)n.weak, feeble, RV. v, 
30, 9, &c. ; (as), m. the plant Tapia Cratzva ; a king 
of Magadha,VP. ; (a), f. a woman, Sak. &c. ; N. of a 
woman, Kathis. ; ( = of aid) one of the ten Buddhist 
earths ; (am), n.want of strength, weakness. dhan- 
van {afraid-}, mfn. possessing a weak bow, AV. iii, 
19,7. Tat,mm. strengthlest, Venis. A-balabala, 
mm. ' neither powerful nor powerless,' N. of Siva. 

Abaliyas, mfn. (compar.) weaker, SBr. ; super). 
abalisktha, mfn. weakest, PBr. 

A-balya [SBr.] or i-balya [SBr. xiv], am, n. 
weakness, sickness. 

W3TH a-baldsd, mfn. not causing con- 
sumption, AV. viii, i, 1 8. 

Wqfe^ a-bahir, ind. ' not outside,' in the 
interior, in one's heart, BhP. dhl (d-bahir-\mA. 
not outside, SBr. - v&sas, mm. without an upper 
garment, BhP. 

V^J a-bahu, mfn. not many, few. Abahv- 
akBhara, mfn. having not many (i. e. not more than 
two) syllables, RPrat. Abahv-ac, mfn. id., 1'Sii. Sch. 

ITTTV a-badha, mfn. unobstructed, un- 
restrained ; free from pain ; (a), f. freedom from 
pain, Mli\iP.; = a-iadAa, q. v. 

A-badhaka, mf(z)n. unimpeded, Kathis. 

A'-b&dhita, mfn. unimpeded, unobstructed, RV. 
x, 93, 8, &c. ; unrefuted ; not forbidden, Comm. on 
Mn. iv, 5. 

A-badhya, mfn. not to be opposed or pained. 

a-bdnd/tava. See a-bandhu. 

a-balisa, mfn. not childish, Nir. 
ix, to; R. 

WTT& ^ a-baUndu, us, m. ' not the infan- 
tine moon," full moon, Ragh. vi, 53. 

^TWTO a-bdhyd, mfn. not exterior, internal, 
Ragh. xiv, 50 ; without an exterior, SBr. xiv. 

wfV'VT ab-indhana, as, m. ' having water 
(a/) for fuel,' submarine fire, Ragh. xiii, 14. 

wfaH'ta^ d-bibhivas, m(instr. bhyusha; 
nom. p\.bhyushas)fa. (perf. p.) fearless, confident, 
RV. i, 6, 7J n, 5 & ix, 53, i ; AV. iii, 14, 3. 

A-bibhyat, mfn. (pr. p.) id., RV. vi, 33, 2. 

^rtfT a-bija, mfn. seedless; impotent, 
Mn. ix, 79. 

A-bljaka, mfn. unsown, Mn. x, 71. 

-bibhatso, f. non-disgust, TBr. 

a-bvddha, mfn. unwise, foolish ; not 
seen or noticed, KaushBr. ; R. tva, n. foolishness. 
A-buddhl, if, (. Want of understanding ; igno- 
rance ; stupidity ; (mfn.), ignorant, stupid ; (a-bud- 
dhya), ind. unintentionally. purva or-purvaka, 
mfn. not preceded by intelligence ; beginning with 
non-intelligence ; (am), ind. ignorantly. mat, 

mfn. unwise, foolish. itha, mfn. not being in the 
conscience of, Comm. on Mn. iii, 166. 

t-bndh [BrArUp.] or a-budha [SBr. xiv], mfn. 
stupid, foolish ; (a-budha'), as, m. a fool, Hit. 

A-bndhya, mfn. not to be a wakened, RV. iv, 1 9, 3. 

A'-bndhyamana, mfn. not being awake, RV. 

A-bodha, as, m. non-perception ; ignorance, stu- 
pidity ; (mfn.), ignorant, stupid; puzzled, perplexed. 
Ijamya, mfn. incomprehensible. 

A-bodhaniya, mfn. unintelligible; not to be 
awakened or aroused. 

Wipj a-budhnd, mfn. bottomless, RV. i, 
34, 7 & viii, 77, 5. 

*W ab-ja, mfn. (fr. 2. dp and Vjan), born 
in water ; (as), m. the conch ; the moon ; the tree 
Barringtonia Acutangula ; N. of Dhanvantari (phy- 
sician of the gods, produced at the churning of the 
ocean) ; a son of Viiila ; (am), a. a lotus ; a mil- 
liard (ci.padma). Ja, m. 'sprung (at the creation) 
from the lotus (which arose from the navel of Vishnu),' 
N. of BrahmS. drli or -nayana, mfn . lotus-eyed, 
having large fine eyes. nabha, m. 'whose navel is 
a lotus,'N. ofVishnu. netra.mfn. -drii. ban- 
dhava, m. 'friend of the lotus,' the sun. bha- 
va [BhP.] or -bhtt [Dai.], m. Brahmi. -bhoffa, 
m. the root of a lotus, L. y oni, m. ( = -ja above) 
N. of Brahma, Heat. vahana, m. 'carrying the 
moon (on his forehead),' N. of Siva. hasta, m. 
the sun (represented as holding a lotus in one hand), 
L. Abjada,m. 'eating lotus-leaves,' a swan, VarBrS. 

Ab-ja, mfn. bom in water, RV. iv, 40, 5 & vii, 

Ab-jit, mfn. conquering waters, RV. 

Abjini, f. a multitude of lotus flowers, (gana 
pushkar&Ji^) patl, m. the sun, Kathis. 

Ab-da, mfn. giving water, L. ; (as}, m. a year ; 
a cloud, Bhatt. ; the grass Cyperus Rotundus ; N. of 
a mountain, L. ; (a), f., see abdayd below, tan- 
tra, n., N. of an astronomical work. vahana, m. 
(for a6ja-vaAana,<i.v.), N. of Siva, L. sata, n. a 
century. sahasra, n. a thousand years. sara, 
m. a kind of camphor. Abdardha, n. a half year. 

Abdaya (instr. of ab-da), ind. out of desire of 
giving water, RV. v, 54, 3. 

Abdl-mat , mfn. possessed of clouds (abdi =- abda), 
RV. v, 43, 14. 

Ab-durga, am, n. a fortress surrounded by a 
moat or lake. 

Ab-daivata, mfn. having the waters as divinities, 
praising the waters (said of certain hymns ; see ab~ 
lihga below), Mn. viii, 106 & xi, 133. 

Ab-dhi, is, m. (*/dhd), a pond, lake, L. ; the 
ocean, Hit &c. ; (hence) the numeral 4. kapha,i u. 
cuttle fish bone, being considered as the froth of the 
sea. ja, mfn. born in the ocean ; (au), m. du. the 
Asvins, L. ; (a), f. spirituous liquor, I.. jivin, m. 
a fisherman, Kathls. jhaaha, m. a sea-fish. ta- 
naya, au, m. du. the Asvins, Kathis. dvipa, f. 
earth, L. -nag-ari, f., N. of DvirakJ, the capital 
of Krishna. navanitaka, m. the moon. phe- 
na, m. cuttle fish bone. mandfiki, f. the pearl 
oyster. iayana, m. ' sleeping on the ocean (at 
the periods of the destruction and renovation of the 
world),'N. ofVishnu. lara, m. a gem. Abdiy- 
ag'nl, m. submarine fire. 

Ab-blndu. us, m. a tear, BhP. 

Ab-bhakaha, mfn. living upon water, Ysjn. iii, 
286 ; Gaut. ; (fu), m. a snake, L. 

Ab-bhakshana, a, n. living upon water (a kind 
of fasting 1 ), BhP. 

Ab-linga, iini, n. pi. [Ysjn. iii, 30] or ab- 
liiiffa, as, f. pi. [Gaut.], N. of some Vedic verses 
[RV. x, 9, 1-3] addressed to the waters ; (cf. 06- 
daivata above.) 

WsJU^Jl a-brahmacarya, mfn. not keep- 
ing a vow of continence, unchaste, Nir. 

A-brahmacaryaka, am, n. incontinence, L. 

tMmW a-brahmanya, mfn. not favour- 
able to Brihmans, MBh. ; BhP. ; (am), n. an unbrah- 
manical or sacrilegious act, used as an exclamation, 
meaning ' help ! ' ' a disgraceful deed is perpetrated 1 ' 
PafScat. ; Kathis. ; (Prakrit abbamfiannam), Sik. 

A-brahman, mfn. not a brahman, SBr. ; with- 
out devotion (brdhman), RV. ; without Brihmans, 
Mn.ix,33i; (d), n.notthe*>-^a,TBr. Abra- 
hma-ta, f. want of devotion, R V. v, 33, 3 ; VS. A- 


brahma-bandhuka, mfn. without brahmabait- 
dhu (q. v.), Pin. vi, 3, 1 73, KiS. A-brahma-vid, 
mfn. not knowing Brahma or the Supreme Spirit. 

I. A'-brahmana, as, m. not a Brihman, AV. 
&c. ; (f), f. not a Brihmanl ; (a-brd/imand), mfn. 
without Brihmans, SBr. 

A-bralunanya, am, n. violation of the duty of 
a Brihman, AsvSr. 

tty^t^a-brvvat, mfn. (pr. p.), not speak- 
ing, silent, Yljfi. ii, 76. 

^HTn d-bhakta, mfn. not received as a 
share, RV. i, 1 39, 5 & iii, 30, 7 ; not attached to, de- 
tached, unconnected with ; not eaten. cohanda, 
m. or -rnol, f. want of appetite. 

A-bhakti, is, f. want of devotion to, want of faith. 

mat, mfn. undevoted to, unbelieving. 

xii K) a-bhaksha, as, m. or a-bhakshana, am, 
n. not eating anything, fasting. 

A'-bhakshita, mfn. not eaten. 

Mn.) bhakihana, n. eating of prohibited food, 
RimatUp. bhakchin, mfn. eating forbidden food. 

*l*t'I a-bhagd, mfn. without enjoyment, 
unfortunate, AV. v, 31, II. 

H"f a-bHagna, mfn. unbroken, entire ; 
uninterrupted. klma, mf(a)n. whose desire or 
wishes are not disturbed, Ragh. 

A- bhang-iira, mf (a) n. not fragile ; unchange- 
able, invariable, firm ; (not curved), flat, plain, Susr. 

A-bhaJyamana, mth. (Pass.) not being detached ; 
not being vanquished, &c. 

^W5 a-bhadra, mfn. inauspicious, mis- 
chievous ; (am), n. mischief. 

TOmT d-bhaya, mf(a)n. unfearful, not 
dangerous, secure; (a-bhaya), mm. fearless, un- 
daunted, SBr. xiv ; (as), m., N. of Siva ; of a natural 
son of BimbisSra ; of a son of Idhmajihva, BhP. ; of 
a river in Krauncadvipa, BhP. ; (a), I. the plant Ter- 
minalia Chebula ; (d-bhayam), n. (ifc. f. a) absence 
or removal of fear, peace, safety, security, RV. &c. 
(cf. dbhaya-tama below) ;' safety,' (applied as proper 
name to) a child of Dharma and his reign in Plaksha- 
dvipa, BhP. ; a kind of symbol procuring security, 
Heat. ; a sacrificial hymn recited to obtain personal se- 
curity, KauS. ; the root of a fragrant grass, Andropo- 
gonMuricatum. girl-valn, 'dwelling on the 
mountain of safety,' N. of a division of Kity iyana's 
pupils, Buddh. glri-vlhara, m. Buddhist monas- 
tery on the Abhayagiri. m-kara [RV. x, 153, 3; 
AV. &c.] or -jn-krtt [SBr.], mfn. causing safety. 

Jata, m., N. of a man, (gana gargadi, q. v.) 

dlndima,m. a war-drum, L. tama(<7'M(ya-), 
n. greatest safety, RV. x, 17, 5. da, mfn. giving 
fearlessness or safety ; (as), m. an Arhat of the Jainas ; 
N. of i king (the son of Manasyu and father of Su- 
dhanvan), Hariv. ; VP. dakshlnS, f. promise or 
present of protection from danger, Mn. iv, 147, &c. 

dana, n. giving assurance of safety. m-dada, 
m., N. of Avalokitesvara, Buddh. pattra, n. (a 
modern term), a written document or paper granting 
assurance of safety, a safe conduct. prada, mfn. 
giving safety, Mn. iv, 333, &c. pradSna, n. = 
-dana, Pancat. yacana, f. asking for safety, Ragh. 
xi, 78. vacana, n. [Pancat.] or -vac, f. [Hit.] as- 
surance of safety. anl.mfn. giving safety, VS.xix, 
48. Abhayiuanda, m., N. of a man. 

WH^<*I ii-bhartrika, f. an unmarried wo- 
man ; a widow. 

'HW a-bhava, as, m. non-existence ; de- 
struction, end of the world. 

A-bhavanlya, mfn. what is not to be, what will 
not be. 

A-bhavan-mata-yogra or a-bhavan-mata- 
sambandha, as, m. want of fitness between words 

and the ideas expressed by them (a defect in com- 

A-bhavya, mfn. not to be, not predestined ; what 
ought not to be, improper. hagsa, m. a swan as 
it ought not to be (i. e. with black wings), L. 

A-bhava, as, m. non-existence, nullity, absence ; 
non--ntity, negation (the seventh category in Ka- 
nida's system) ; proof from non-existence (one of the 
six praminas in Vedinta phil. ['since there are no 
mice, therefore there must be cats here '], see pra- 
mann); annihilation, death. 


A-bhSvanS, am, (. n. absence of judgment or 
right perception. 

A-bhavamya, mfn. not to be inferred or con- 

A-bhavayitri, mfn. not perceiving, not infer- 
ring, not comprehending. 

A-bhavin, mm. what is not to be or will not be, 
not destined to be. 

A-bhavya, mfn. id. 



a-bhavadiya,mfn. not belonging 
to your Honour, Dai. 

a-bhastra, mfn. without bellows. 
A-bhastxakS or a-bhastrikfi, f. a badly made 
or inferior pair of bellows (i. e. small), said to mean 
also (a woman) who has no bellows, Pin. vii, 3, 47. 

"SWri a-bhdgd, mf(a)n. having no share, 
RV. x, 83, 5, &c. 

A-bh&gln, mfn. having no share ; not partici- 
pating in, excluded from (gen.) 

A-bhagya, mm. unfortunate, wretched. 

^WTO a-bhashana, am, n. not speaking, 

W, ind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns, 
expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon. 

(As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the 

notion of moving or going towards, approaching, &c. 

(As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it ex- 

presses superiority, intensity, &c. ; e.g. abhi-tamra, 

abhi-nava, q. v. 

(As a separate adverb or preposition) it expresses 
(with ace.) to, towards, in the direction of, against ; 
into, SBr. & KatySr. ; for, for the sake of ; on account 
of; on, upon, with regard to; by, before, in front 
of; over. It may even express one after the other, 
severally, Pin. i, 4, pi, e. g. vriks/iam vriksham 
abhi, tree after tree [cf. Gk. d/i^i ; Lat. ob; Zend 
aibi, aiwi; Goth, hi; Old High Germ. ft], 

Abhika, mfn. (Pan. v, 2, 74) lustful, libidinous, 
Ragh. xix, 4 ; (cf. I . abhika and anuka) ; (as), m. a 
lover, Naish. 

Abhi-taram [MaitrS.] or abhi-taram [SBr.; 
AitBr. (see 2. aiht)~\, ind. nearer. 

Abhf-teB,ind.nearto, towards, MBh.&c.; near,in 
the proximity or presence of (gen. ), Bhag. Sec. ; (with 
ace.) on both sides, SBr. &c. ; (with ace.) before and 
after, AsvSr.; KatySr. ; Gaut.; (with ace.) on all 
sides, everywhere, about, round; entirely, MBh. ; 
quickly, L. Abhitah-sara, mfn. running on both 
sides, Up. Abhitas-car a, as, m. pi. the attendants, 
retinue, MBh.&c. 

Abhlto (in Sandhi hiabhitas). deva-yajana- 
m&tra-desa, mfn. whose space on all sides suffices 
for a sacrificial ground, KatySr. -bhavin, mm. 
being on both sides, Pan. vi, 2, 181. -ratram, 
ind. near (i. e. either just at the beginning or end of) 
the night, SBr. 'ftihi(aiAM-), mm. surrounded 
by bones (as the eyes), SBr. 

fT*^ abhi-Vkam (fut. -kamishyate) to 
desire, love.TBr.: CvK.-kdmayatc,i&., MBh.; BhP. 

Abhl-kama, as, m. (ifc. f. a) affection, desire, 
N. ; BhP.; (mf(a)n.), affectionate, loving, desirous 
(with ace. or ifc.); (am), ind. with desire, L. ; (cf. 

abhi- </kuj, to twitter, warble, R. 

abhi- V i. kri, to do with reference 
to or in behalf of, SBr. ; (perf. 2. pi. -cakrd) to pro- 
cure, effect, AV. iii, 9, i ; (with niveiam) to settle. 

Abhl-karana. See svapnAbhikdrana. 

Abhi-kriti, is, f., N. of a metre (containing one 
hundred syllables), RPrat. &c. 

Abhi-kritvari, f. 'producing (diseases),' a female 
demon, AV. ii, 8, 2. 

WW^ abhi-Vkrish, -liarshati, to over- 
power, MBh. iii, 15064. 

wfT abhi- V i. kfi, -kirati, to pour over, 
throw OVCP, cover. 

ffi^l abhi-Vklrip, I. (p. -kdlpamana) 
f .. be adc< l uilte to . b* 'n accordance with (ace.), VS. 
xiii, 25: Caus. -kalpayati, to put in order, R. 

Abhi-klripta, mfn. being adequate to, in accord- 
ance with, SBr. ; Up. 

*rf*^jM^ abhi-knuyam, ind. (\/knuy), so 
as to bemoisten, SBr. xiv. 

ab U-kratu,mfn. insolent,haughty, 
RV. iii, 34, 10. 

Ai- i/kamp,-kampate,to tremble 
vehemently, MBh. iii, 15721: Caus. -kampayali, 
to stir, allure, KatySr. 

wfinSTff abhi-Vkanksh, -kankshati, te, 
rarely Caais^-aj/ate, to long for, desire ; to strive. 

Abhi-k&nkBhS, f. longing for, desire (with ace. 
or ifc.) 


Abb.i-k5ikshln, nitn. longing for, desiring (with 
ace. [BhP.] or ifc. [Mn. iv, 91, &c.]). 

wf*^iiro abhi-kala, as, m., N. of a village, 
R. ii, 68, 1 7. 

%i fW<wS^ abhi- v/tos, Intens. -cakasiti (i. 
ig. iimi ; Imper. 2. sg. "Khi ; impf. I. sg. -acdka- 
iam) to illuminate, irradiate, VS. ; to look on, to 
perceive, RV. ; SBr. xiv. 

^TW^c?^ abhi-i/kuti, to revile, inveigh 
against, R. ii, 75, 2. 

Vfaf^ abhi-i/kush, -kushnati, to tear, 
pull at, pinch, Suir. 

abhi-Vkrand (aor. to 
shout at, roar at, neigh or whinny at, RV.; AV. ; 
La|y.: Caus. (tm.-acikradaf), id., RV. ix, 68, 2 & 
82, i: Intens. (p. -kdnHtradat), id., RV. 

Abhi-kranda, as, m. a shout, MBh. ; indrasya- 
bhikranda, m., N. of a Saman. 

WMsft*^ abhi-Vkram (aor. -akramit; ind. 
p. -krdmya) to step or go near to, approach, RV. 
&c. ; to attack, overpower, RV. vi, 49, 15 & ix, 40, 
1 ; to step upon ; to undertake, begin, RPrat. ; (with 
gamandya) to get on one's way, R. i, 7 7, 1 8 : Caus. 
-kramayaii, to bring near, TS. 

Abhi-krama, IIT, m. stepping near, approaching ; 
assault, attack, L. ; overpowering, PBr. ; Gaut. ; as- 
cending; undertaking, attempt, beginning. nasa, 
m. unsuccessful effort, Bhag. 

Abhi-kramana, am, n. stepping near, approach- 
ing, Gaut. &c. 

Abhi-kranta,mfn. approached ; attacked ; begun; 
(am), n. abhi-krdnti, PBr. 

Abhi-kranti, is, f.,Ved. overpowering, bringing 
into one's possession, TS. ; AitBr. &c. 

Abhl-kxantln, mm. one who has undertaken 
(the study of), i. e. conversant with (loc.), Lajy. 

Abhi-kramam, ind. so as to step near, KatySr. 

^rfa'aft abhiJkri, to buy for a special 
purpose, SBr. 

Wfifij^ abhi-Vkrudh, to be angry with 
(ace.), Pan. i, 4, 38, Sch.; Vikr. 
Abhl-kruddia, mfn. being angry, MBh. ; BhP. 

TtfHtj^ abhi-i/krus, to cry out at, call 
out to, to call to (in a scolding manner), AV. &c. ; 
to lament with tears, bemoan, R. iv, 24, 22. 

Abbl-kx6iaka, as, m. a reviler (nindaka), VS. 

dkhyat ; ind. p. -khydya) to see, view, perceive, 
RV. ; to cast a kind or gracious look upon any one, to 
be gracious, RV. ; (impf. 3. pi. abM dkhyan) TS. : 
Caus. -khydpayati, to make known, Mn. &c. 

1. Abhi-khya, f. a gracious look, RV. x, 1 1 a, 
10 ; splendour, RV. i, 148, 5 & viii, 23, 5 ; beauty, 
Ragh. &c. ; fame, glory, KathJs. ; telling,L.; 'calling, 
addressing,' a name, appellation. 

Abb.i-kb.yata, mfn. become known, manifested, 
MBh. ; (neg. an-) Yjjn. iii, 301. 

Abhl-khyatri,/<2,m. a supervisor (N. of Indra), 
RV. iv, 1 7, 1 7. 

Abb.i-kb.yana, am, n. fame, glory, L. 

^rfWn^ abhi-Vgam, -gacchati, to go near 
to, approach (with ace.); to follow, Ka{h. ; R. ; to 
meet with, find; to cohabit (said of men and 
women), Yajfi. ii, 205, &c.; to undertake ; to get, 
gain, obtain, AV.; SBr. &c..; (with mdnasd or me- 
dhayd or hrldayena) to understand, RV. iii, 60, I ; 
TS. ; SBr. : Caus. -gamayati, to study, MBh. i, 1 295. 

Abhl-gacchat, mfn. approaching, &c. 

Abhi-frata, mfn. approached, &c. 

Abhl-irantri, Id, m. one who understands, SBr.; 
'one who pursues,' insidious, Kajh.; one who has 
intercourse with a woman. 

Abhl-ffuna, as, m. (gana anuiatikadi, q. v.), 
approaching ; visiting, Megh. ; Ragh. v, 1 1 ; sexual 
intercourse, YajB. ii, 291. 

Abhi-g-amana, am, n. = atlii-gama; the act of 
cleansing and smearing with cowdung the way lead- 
ing to the image of the deity (one of the five parts 
of the upasana with the RamJnujas), Sarvad. 

1. Abhi-g-amya, mfn. to be visited, Kum. vi, 56, 
&c.; accessible, tempting (for a visit), Ragh. i, 1 6. 

2. Abhi-g-amya, ind. p. having approached. 
Abhi-gamln,n ith. having sexual intercourse with 

(in comp.), Mn. iii, 45 ; YajB. ii, 282, &c. 

i-gard. See ab hi- \/i. gji below. 

abhi-Vgarj, to roar at, bawl at, 
raise savage or ferocious cries, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-g-arjana, am, n. ferocious roaring, up- 
roar, R. 

Abhi-garjita, am, n. a savage cry, uproar, R. 

w(tll abhi- v/l . ga, -ji'yati (impf. -ajigat : 
aor. Subj. -gat) to go near to, to approach, arrive at, 
RV. &c.; to get, gain. 

^fiTTI^ abhi-Vgah, A. (p. -gdhamana) to 
penetrate into (ace.), RV. x, 103, 7. 

wfalJH abhi-gupta, mfn. guarded, pro- 

Abhi-ffnptl, is, f. guarding, protecting, SBr.&c. 
Abhi-goptri, mfn. guarding, protecting, SBr. 

who carves and distributes (food),' an host, RV. ii, 
29, 2 & vii, 21, 8 ; ['a destroyer,' Sly.] 

^rfmijcjl a-bhiksha-da [Padap. abhi-ksha- 
da\, mfn. giving without being asked, RV. vi, 50, 1 ; 
[according to the Padap. (cf. abhi-kshattfl) 'destroy- 
ing, a destroyer," Sly.] 

A'-bhikshita, mfn. not asked for alms, SBr. 

Wf>?Bp^ abhi-\/ksham (Opt. -kshameta; 
Imper. i. pi. -kshdmadhvam) to be gracious, pro- 
pitious to (dat. or loc.), RV. ; to pardon (perf. Opt. 
2. sg. -cakshamithdK), RV. ii, 33, 7. 

^ffytifcabhi-Vkshar (aor. 3. sg. -akshah, 
RV. ix, 97, 45) to flow near or round, RV.; SBr.; 
to pour on, AV. 

(W PHJ H ah hi- </kship (only P., Pan. i, 3, 

80 ; pr. p. -kshipdt) to fling at (as the lash of a whip 
at a horse), RV. v, 83, 3 ; to excel, Bhajt. 

wfVw^ abhi- / khan, to dig up, turn up 
(the soil), SBr. &c. 

wfir^n l.abhi-\/khya(S\Aj. I. 2. 3. sg. 
-Ithyam, -khyas Sc -khyds, -kkydt; impf. 3. sg, abhy 

iMT athi-gumphita, mfn. strung to- 
gether, interwoven, Sis. 

abhi-Vgnr (Subj. -jugurat; Opt. 
2. sg. -juguryds) to assent, agree, approve of, RV. 

Abhi-8TSrta,mfn. approved of,RV. i, 162, 1 5 ;TS. 

Abhi-srurtl,;>,f. song of praise, RV. i, i62,6& 1 2. 

Abhi-grfbya, (Ved.) ind. p. having approved of, 
RV. fi, 37, 3. 

*[fy*[V abhi-gridhna,mfn. Seemithydbhi- 

*Tfm abhi-Ji. gfi, -grindti, to call to or 
address with approbation ; to join in (ace.) ; to wel- 
conie, praise ; to approve of,accept propitiously, allow. 

AbM-tjara, as, m. a calling out in approbation 
(part of the sacrificial ceremony), VS. ; KatySr. ; the 
priest who calls out approvingly (to the other priests), 
MaitrS.; Lity.; (cf. apagara.) 

wf>?^ abhi-Vgai (Imper. 2. sg. -gay a or 
-gay a; 2. pi. -gdyata) to call or sing to (ace.), 
RV.; to enchant, AitBr.; to sing (a hymn, &c.), 
SBr. &c. ; to fill with song, R. ; to celebrate in song, R. 

Abhi-gita, mfn. addressed or praised in song, RV. 
ix, 96, 23. 

AbM-ffeslina, mfn. calling to, AitBr. 

wCnnw abhi-yrasta, mfn. = abhi-panna 
(overcome), L. 

^rfT?J^ ab hi- \/grah, -grihnati, to take hold 
of, take up (from the soil),TS. &c. ; to accept, receive, 
MBh.; to set (as a blossom), BhP. ; to lay together, 
to fold (the hands), see abhigrihita-pdni below : 




Caus. -grdhayati, to catch, surprise, e.g. rupdbhi- 
grdkita, taken in the very act, Das'. 

Abhi-grlhita, mfn. taken hold of, &c. pani, 
mfn. having the hands joined, BhP. 

Abhi-graha, as, m. seizing, taking hold of ; at- 
tack, onset, L. ; defiance, challenge, L. ; robbing, 
plundering, L. ; authority, L. ; a vow, Jain. 

Abb.i-gra.hana, am, n. robbing, L. 

Abbi-grahitri, mfn. one who seizes, MaitrS. 

Wf*TTTJ!J abhi-gharshana,am,n.( /ghrish), 
rubbing, friction, L. ; possession by an evil spirit, L. 

^rf>nmT ab hi-gkat a,as,m .( \/Aan),striking, 
attack ; infliction of injury, damage, Mn. xii, 77,&c.; 
striking back, driving away, warding off; abrupt 
or vehement articulation (of Vedic text), VPrat. ; 
(am), n. an irregular combination of consonants, i.e. 
the combination of the fourth letter of gutturals, 
cerebrals, &c. with the first or third letter, of the 
second with the first letter, and of the third with the 
second letter of those classes of consonants. 

Abhi-ghataka, nif(X-)n. counteracting, re- 

Abni-ghStita, mfn. struck, wounded (ifc. as 
iar&bhighdtita, wounded by arrows). 

Abh.i-gb.5t in, mm. (generally ifc.) striking, at- 
tacking, hurting ; inflicting injury; (t), m. an assail- 
ant, enemy, Hit. 

TOfifJ abhi-Jghri (perf. Pass. p. abM-ghri- 
ta, see below) : Caus. -ghdrayati, to cause to trickle 
down, TS. &c.; to sprinkle with, SBr. &c. 

Abhi-gh&ra, as, m. sprinkling over, SankhGr. ; 
scattering over, mingling with, Gobh. ; ghee or clari- 
fied butter, L. 

Abhi-gharana, am, n. the act of sprinkling 
ghee, besprinkling, Kaus. ; KstySr. 

Abhi-gh&rlta, mfn. sprinkled with, AV. &c. 

Abb.i-gh.Srya, mfn. to be sprinkled., mfn. sprinkled (as ghee), dropped 
upon, TS. ; sprinkled with, BhP. 

vfmil abhi-Vghra, -jighrati (ind. p. -ji- 
%hrya, Gobh.) to snuffle, smell at ; to bring the nose 
close to another's forehead in caressing, or as a token 
of affection, TS. &c. ; to smell, scent, Kid. 

Abb.i-gb.rana, am, n. smelling at, caressing, 
Comm. on Gobh. 

Abhi-Jighrana, am, n. id., Gobh. 

Abhi-jighrat, mf(du. antt}\\. caressing, RV. i, 
185, 5- 

abhi-*/caksh, -cashte (2. sg. -ca- 
Vv, 3, 9 ; Ved. Inf.-cdksht, RV.) to lookat, 
view, perceive, RV. ; BhP. ; to cast a kind or gracious 
look upon any one, RV. ; to address, BhP. ; to assail 
with harsh language, RV. vii, 104, .8 ; to call, BhP. 

Abhi-cakshana, am, n. conjuring, incantation, 
AV. vi, 127, 1 ; (a), f. (in augury or astron.) ob- 
servation (of the sky), AV. ix, 2, a I. 

Abhi-cakhya, mfn. manifest, RV. viii, 4, 7. 

^rfw^ abhi- \/ car (Ved. Inf. abM-carita- 
oal, TBr., & abhi-caritos, Ktfti. ; cf. Pan. iii, 4, 
13, Sch.) to act wrongly towards any one; to be 
faithless (as a wife) ; to charm, enchant, bewitch, 
RV. x, 34, 14 (Subj. 2. pi. -caratAbht) ; AV. &c. ; 
puru&bhicaritd (f. perf. Pass, p.) - puroa-dig-gd- 
mini, R. i, 34, 10. 

Abhi-cara, as, m. a servant, L. 

Abhi-caraniya, mm. fit for enchanting or exor- 
cising, SBr. &c.; (neg. an-), Comm. on Mn. xi, 197. 

Abhi-cara, as, m. exorcising, incantation, em- 
ployment of spells for a malevolent purpose, AV.&c. ; 
magic (one of the UpapStakas or minor crimes). 
kalpa, m., N. of a work on incantations (belong- 
ing to the Atharva-veda). jvara, m. a fever caused 
by magical spells. mantra, m. a formula or prayer 
for working a charm, an incantation. yajna or 
-homa, m. a sacrifice for the same purpose. 

Abhi-caraka, mf(i<z)n. enchanting, exorcising, 
conjuring, VarBrS. &c. ; a conjurer, a magician. 

Abhi-caraniya, mfn. to be enchanted, L. 

Abhi-carita, mfn. enchanted, charmed. 

Abhi-carin, mfn. enchanting, AV. x, I, 9* 

Abhl-carya, mfn. = abhi-cdraniya, L. 

Abbl-cara, as, m. exorcising, incantation, Ap. 

abhi-cakas. See abhi-Vkas. 
-\ / cint (impf. -adntayat) to 
reflect on, MBh. xiii, 4341. 

abhi-cihnaya, Norn. P. (perf. 
Pass. p. -cihnita) to mark, characterize, R. iv, 42, 1 2. 

SSrfTO^ abhi-Vcud, Caus. -codayati, to 
impel, drive ; to inflame, animate, embolden ; to in- 
vite ; to fix, settle; to announce, inquire for (ace.), 
MBh. i, 2913. 

^rftT'tll^ abhi-caidyam, ind. against the 
prince of the Cedis (i. e. Sisupala), SiS. ii, I. 

wfVfa&s abhi-cchad ( Vchad), abhi-ccha- 
dayati, to cpver over, SBr. ; Kaui. 

WfW'aAm*^ abhi-cchuydm, ind. in dark- 
ness, AV. xiii, 1,57. 

^ffTST^ abhi-</jan, cl. 4. A. -jdyate (Ved. 
Inf. abh{-janitos, SBr.) to be born for or to, RV. 
i, 1 68, 2, &c. ; to claim as one's birthright; to be 
bora or produced ; to be reproduced or born again, 
Bhag. &c. ; to become : Caus. -janayati (with abhi- 
jfidnam) to reanimate, revivify, Sarvad. 

Abhi-ja, mfn. ifc. produced all around, L. 

Abhi-jana, as, m. family, race ; descendants ; 
ancestors ; noble descent ; the head or ornament of a 
family, L. ; native country,PJn. iv,3, 90; fame, noto- 
riety,Rajat.&c. vat, mfn. ofnobledescent,Sak.&c. 

Abhi-jata, mfn. bora in consequence of; born, 
produced ; noble, well-bom ; obtained by birth, in- 
bred; fit, proper, L. ; wise, learned, L. ; handsome, R.; 
Kum. i, 46 ; (am), n. nativity, BhP. ; high birth, 
nobility. ta, f. high birth, nobility. 

Abhi-J&ti, is, f. descent, birth, Comm. on Nir. 
ix, 4 ; ifc. ttya (f. a), R. vi, 10, 24. 

wPMHH, abhi- \/ jap, to mutter over or 
whisper to, R. 

^firOT abhi- Vjabh, I ntens. (p. -jdHjabhd- 
na) to try to swallow, open the mouth to do so, AV. 
v, 20, 6 ; Kaus. 

*lfHi|<d^ abhi-Vjalp, to address; to ac- 
company with remarks ; to advocate ; to settle by 
conversation, MBh. iv, fll. 

Vffyfffabhi-Vji, -jayati, to conquer com- 
pletely, acquire by conquest, AV. ; TS. &c. : Desid. 
-jigishati, to try to win, attack, Susr. 

Abhi -jay a, as, m. conquest, complete victory. 

Abhi-jit, mm. victorious, VS. xv, 7; bora under 
the constellation Abhijit, Pin. iv, 3, 36, (cf. abhijita'); 
(t), m., N. of a Soma sacrifice (part of the great 
sacrifice Gavam-ayana), AV. ; SBr. &c. ; N. of a son 
[Hariv.] or of the father [VP.] of Punarvasu ; of 
Vishnu, L. ; N. of a star (o Lyrz), L. ; of the 2Oth (or 
22nd) Nakshatra, AV. &c. ; the eighth Muhurta of 
theday (about midday ),Kaus.&c. Abhijid-visva- 
jitau, f. du. the two Soma sacrifices called Abhijit 
and Visvajit, SBr. Abhjjin-muhurta, m. the 
eighth Muhurta (the period comprising twenty-four 
minutes before and twenty-four after midday). 

Abhi-jita, as, m., N. of a Nakshatra (see abhi- 
jlf), MBh. ; of the eighth Muhurta (see abhi-jit), 
MBh. ; Hariv. 

Abhi-jiti, is, I. victory, conquest, SBr. ; AitBr. 

^jf^fiUJ*!) abhi-jighrana. See abhi-*/ghra. 

l *lffJ1 x a6A-v6'A(Subj. -jtjoshat; pr.p. 
-jushdnd} to be pleased with, like, RV. iv, 23,1 & 4. sited, frequented, surrounded 
by, possessed of, MBh. &c. 

VlfWip>Ta&Ai- */jrimbh,to open the mouth 
wide (for swallowing), R. vi, 2, 18. 

^firSTF abhi-</jRa, -jdnati, nlte, to recog- 
nize, perceive, know, be or become aware of; to 
acknowledge, agree to, own ; to remember (either 
with the tut. p. or with yad and impf.), Pin. iii, 2, 
112 seqq.; Bhatt. 

Abhi-jna, mf(a)n. knowing, skilful, clever ; un- 
derstanding, conversant with (gen. or ifc.); (a), f. 
remembrance, recollection, Pan. iii, 2, 112 ; super- 
natural science or faculty of a Buddha (of which five 
are enumerated, viz. I. taking any form at will ; 2. 
hearing to any distance ; 3. seeing to any distance ; 
4. penetrating men's thoughts ; 5. knowing their state 
and antecedents) . ta, f. [Ragh .vii, 6 1 ] or - 1 va, n . 
the knowledge of. 

Abhi-jnana, am, n. remembrance, recollection ; 
knowledge, L. ; ascertainment ; a sign or token of 

remembrance ; any sign or token serving as a proof 
for (loc. mprati), R.; = abhijHdna-iakuntala,^M., 
Sah. pattra, n. certificate. saknntala, n. title 
of a play of Kalidlsa, i. e. (the ndtaka or play) on 
the subject of ' token-(recognized)-SakuntalJ,' Slk. 

Abbi-jnSpaka, mm. making known, BhP. 

Abhi-jnayam. See yathabhijadyam. 

fi", ind. on the knees, RV. ; 
up to the knees, RV. i, 37, 10 & viii, 92, 3. 

^rfs9o5aoAi-A/;t>a/, to blaze forth, MBh. ; 
Caus. -jvalayati, to enlighten, illuminate, Vait. : In- 

^Hftnifa dbhi-dlna, am, n. (Vdi), act of 
flying towards, MBh. 

wfMfl^ abhi-Vtans (perf. 3. pi. -tatasrf), 
to shake out of, rob, RV. iv, 50, 2 & x, 89, 15. 

^fkiTS abhi-Vtad, -tadayati, to thump, 
hit, beat, wound, bruise ; (in astron.) to eclipse the 
greater part of a disk, VarBrS. 

Abni-tadlta, mfn. knocked, struck. 

wf>TH^ abhi- V 'tan, to stretch or spread 
across or over, be prominent, (aor. I . pi. -tatdndma) 
RV. i, 160, 5 &_v, 54, 15 ; to extend or enlarge in 
front of, (perf. A. 2. sg. -tatnishe) RV. viii, 6, 25 
& ix, 108, 6. 

'f(ftfim^abhi-Vtap, to irradiate with heat, 
to heat, AV. &c. ; to pain, distress : Pass, -tapyate, 
to suffer intensely : Caus. -tdpayati, to distress. 

Abhi-tapta, mm. scorched, burnt ; afflicted about 
(ace.), R. 

Abhi-tSpa, as, m. extreme heat, Sis. &c. ; agita- 
tion, affliction, emotion ; great pain. 

abhi-tardm, &c. See abM. 

abhi-i/tarj, -tarjayati, to scold, 
Kf*n&(abh{-tas, ind. See abM. 

w6TrTTOa6A-^dwira,mf(o)n.very red, dark- 
red, murry-coloured, MBh.; Ragh. xv, 49, &c. 

wfirffrnRtfijT abhi-tigmarasmi, ind. to- 
wards the sun, Sis. ix, II. 

yjfifij^ abhi- V 'tush, -tushyati, to be glad 
or pleased, Kathas. 

^rfiTrJ^ abhi-Vtrid, -trinatti i(Imper. 2. sg. 
-trindhi [for trind-dhi\ ; aor. Subj. 2. sg. -tdrdas, 
RV. vi, 17, l) to burst open, open, procure (waters) 
by bursting (the clouds) or by boring (i. e. digging 
a well), RV. &c.; to procure (vajam, vajdn,gah, 
gandharuam), RV. ; annSdyam, &c., SBr. &c. : 
Desid. (Subj. 3. pi. -ttlritsdn) to try to open, RV. 

x, 74- 4- 

Abhi-tritti, is, f. the act of procuring or gaining, 

^ff*TrJ^a6it- v^rip.Caus. -tarpayati (pr. p. 
f. pi. -tarpdyantih, AV.) to satiate, refresh. 
Abnl-tripta, mfn. satiated, refreshed. 

^rftTiT abhi-Vtfi, to come near, approach 
(A. 3. du. -tarete), RV. i, 140, 3 ; to overtake, get 
up to, MBh. vii, 280. 

^rfaftir d-bhilti, is, f. not bursting, VS. xi, 
64 ; no wall, Kathas. ; (mfn.), having no walls, i. e. 
no solid foundation, Sis. iv, 53. 

*lfa7r*{abhi-'/tyaj, to abandon, R. ii, 47, 
5 (ed. Bomb.) 

^iftrSTQabhi-trasa., as, m. putting in fear, 
intimidating, Ap. 

wfHfsftlFI abhi-tripishtapa, mfn. being 
over the three worlds, Hariv. 

abhi-Vtvar, to be in haste. 

abhi-\/tsar (3. pi. -tsdranti) to 
catch, entrap, RV. viii, 2, 6. 

Abhi-tsara, as, m. catching, entrapping, Kath. 

^tftT^f'^'!!'^ abhi-dakshinam, ind. to or to- 
wards the right, Kaus. ; KitySr. ; Laty. 

abhi-dadi. See abhi-^/i.da. 

, mfn. pr. p. of I .abU- 

.ffi^ abhi-nik-srij '. 


*/dfid, q. v. 

abhi-darsana. See abhi-\/dris. 
?a6 hi- \/dashta,min .( -v/rfass) .bitten. 
abhi-Vdah, to singe, burn.RV. ii,4, 

T abhi-Vi da, -dadali,io give,bestow 
(for a purpose), MBh. iii, 13309. 

Abhi-dadi, is, m. an oblation of boiled rice (caru) 
upon which ghee has been sprinkled, TS. 

Abhi-dapana, am, n. the being trampled on by 
elephants as a punishment (?). 

'W (({ m abhi- \/das, Ved. -dasati (Subj. 3. 
sg. -dasat [RV. vi, 5, 4] or -ddsdt, AV. v, 6, 10) 
to consider and treat as an enemy. 

^ffirfip^J dbhi-dipsu, mfn. (dips, Desid. of 
jjdambfi), ' wishing to deceive,' inimical, cunning, 
RV. ii. 23, 10 & 13. 

abhi-Vdis, to point out, PBr. 

abhi-i/dih, to wrap up, envelop 
in, ApSr, 

Abhi-digdha, mfn. polished, glazed (in the fire, 
tdpasd), i. e. sharp, AV. v, 18, 8. 

^rf*T^ abhi-\/2.di (Imper. -didlki) 
to radiate, beam forth or towards, RV. ix, 108, 9. 

^rfW^'SJ abhi-\/diksh, to consecrate one's 
self (for a purpose, ace.), PBr. 

^rfT3 ! fa-(. abhi- \/ 'dip, to blaze towards, 
Hariv. : Caus. dipayati, to cause to shine, make bril- 
liant, Car.; to blaze or shine all round, AV.iv, 19,3. 

Tfa? abhi- V '2. du (pr. p. m. nom. -dunvdn) 
to bum or pain by burning, AV. v, 22, 2. 

^ifW^abhi-Vdush, -dushayati, to conta- 
minate ; to wound. 

Abhi-dushta, mm. contaminated, MBh. 

Abhi-dushita, mfn. wounded, injured, Susr. 

"f*|f abhi- V 'duh, to milk in addition to, 
TBr. : Caus. P. to cause to milk in addition to, ApSr., am, n. milking upon, ApSr. 

Abhi-dohya, am, n. (impers.) to be milked upon, 

^TfagfiT abhi-duti, ind. to or towards a 
female messenger, Sis, ix, 56 (quoted in Sah.) 

^rf>r^S^ abhi-Vdris (Inf. -drashtum) to 
look at :_ Caus. -darsayati, to show ; to point out, 
denounce any one (ace.), MBh.i, 7740 : Pass, -drii- 
yate, to be visible, be in view, appear, Mn. ix, 308, &c. 

Abhi-darsana, am, n. becoming visible, appear- 
ance, Mn. ix, 274. 

wf*T^^T abhi-devana, am, n. a board for 
playing at dice, MBh. ix, 760. 

1 srfW?J abhi-dyu, mfn. directed to heaven, 
tending or going to heaven, RV. ; heavenly, bright, 
RV. ; SBr. 

"Wfw^T abhi-Vz. dra (aor. Subj. -drasat) 
to overtake, RV. viii, 47, 7. 

Tfa? abhi- V 2. dru, to run up to or near, 
RV. x, 75, .2, &c. ; to attack, overrun, infest. 

AbM-druta, mfn. run towards, attacked. 

Abhi-drutya, ind. p. having attacked. 

*tfr5^ I .abhi- ^druh,-druhyati(&OT.Snbj. 
3. f\.-druhan ; perf. I . p. -dudr6hd) to hate, seek 
to injure or maliciously assail, RV. &c. : Desid. (p. 
-dudrukshat) id., Kith. 

Abhi-drngdha, mfn. injured, oppressed, BhP. ; 
injuring, oppressing, MBh. v, 2160; ParGr. 

2. Abhi-drtLh, mfn. seeking to injure, inimical, 
RV. i, 1 22, 9 (nom. -dhruk) & ii, 27, 16 ; (cf. dn- 

Abhi-druhyamSna, mfn. being injured. 

Abhl-droha, as, m. injuring, RV. ; Mn. &c. 

TOftTV^a6Ai-\/dAan (aor. 3. pi. -ddhan- 
vishuh & perf. A. -dadhanmrl) to come up in 
haste, RV. iv, 31, 6 ; ix, 13, 7 & 24, 2 

TTfrro^aiAi- Vdham (p. m. du. -dhdmanta) 
to blow towards or against, RV. i, 117, al 

Abhi-dhmata, mfn. blown on (as an instrument), 

i-dharma, as, m. the dogmas of 
Buddhist philosophy or metaphysics. kosa, m., N. 
of a work on the preceding. pitaka, m. 'basket 
of metaphysics,' N. of the third section of Buddhist 

possession by demoniac spirits, L. 

. abhi-Vdha,-dadhati, to surrender 
any one to (dat. ; aor. Subj. 2. du. -dhdtam), RV. i, 
1 20, 8 ; to bring upon (dat.), RV. ii, 23, 6 : A. (rarely 
P.) to put on or round, put on the furniture of a horse 
(cf. abhi-hita below), RV. &c. ; to cover (a country) 
with an army, MBh. ii, 1090; to cover, protect, RV. 
viii, 67, 5 (aor. Pot. 3.p\.-dAetana), &c. ; (in clas- 
sical Sanskrit generally) to set forth, explain, tell, 
speak to, address, say, name (cf. abhi-hita below) : 
Pass, -dhiyate, to be named or called : Caus. -dhd- 
payate, to cause to name, AsvGr. : Desid. A. -dhlt- 
sale, to intend to cover one's self, RV. x, 85, 30. 

2. Abbl-dhS,, appellation; theliteral power 
or sense of a word, Sah. ; a word, sound, L. ; (as), 
m. f. surrounding, VS. xxii, 3. -dhvansin, mfn. 
losing one's name. mula, mfn. founded on the 
literal meaning of a word. 

Abhi-dhatavya, mfn. to be told or named ; to 
be manifested. 

Abhi-dhatri, mfn. saying, telling, Sis. 

Abhi-dhana, am, n. telling, naming, speaking, 
speech, manifesting ; a name, title, appellation, ex- 
pression, word ; a vocabulary, dictionary ; putting 
together, bringing in close connection, VPrat.; 
(compar. -tara) KaushBr.; (i), f., sees.v. -clnta- 
mani, m. ' the jewel that gives every word,' N. of 
Hemacandra's vocabulary of synonyms. tva, n. the 
state of being used as a name. mala, f. a dictionary. 
ratnamala, f., N. of HalSyudha's vocabulary. 

Abhi-dhanaka, am, n. a sound, noise, L. 

Abhi-dhani, f. a halter, AV. ; SBr. ; AitBr. 

Abhi-dhaniya, mfn. to be named, L. 

Abhi-dhaya, ind. p. having said, having called. 

Abai-dhSyaka, mm. naming, expressing, ex- 
pressive of, denominating, RPrSt.&c.; telling, speak- 
ing. tva, n. the state of being expressive. 

Abhi-dhayam , ind. ifc. See gotrabhidhayam. 

Abni-dhayin, m(n..-=athi-dhdyaka; (ct.fn- 

Abnl-dhitsS, f. desire of expressing or naming, 

Abhl-dheya, mfn. to be named or mentioned ; 
to be expressed, to be spoken of, Pin. iii, 3, 51, Sch. 
&c. ; being spoken of, being expressed, Sah. ; (am), 
n. signification, meaning ; ' that which is expressed 
or referred to,' the substantive. -tS, f. signification, 
meaning. rahlta, mm. having no sense or mean- 
ing, unmeaning, nonsensical. 

Abhi-hita, abhi-hiti. See s. v. 

WfwVTT? abhi-\/dhdv, -dhavati, to run up 
towards, to rush upon, attack, RV. &c. 

Abhi-dhavaka, mfn. running up, hastening to- 
wards, Yajn. ii, 234; assailing, an assailant. 

Abhi-dhavana, am, n. running up, attack. 

wfrf\I abhi-V^. dhi (impf. 3. pi. abhy- 
adhinvan) to satisfy, Kath.; PBr. 

wf>T*lt ab hi- Vdhi (perf. I . sg. -dldhaya ; p. 
A. -dtdhydna, RV. iv, 33, 9) to reflect upon, con- 
sider, RV. iii, 38, I & x, 32, 4. 

Jlfav^abhi-Vdha (p. -dhunvat) to shake, 

wfT^ a1>hi-</dhri,Cw8.-dharayati, to up- 
hold, maintain, MBh. 

fffHy^abhi- Vdhrish,to overpower,(impf . 
3. pi. -adhrishnuvan} Kajh. ; (perf. 3. pi. -dddhri- 
sAuA) AV. i, 27, 3 : Caus. -dharshayati, id., MBh. 

Abhi-dhrishira, mfn. powerful over (ace.), SBr. 

abhi-dhmata. See abhi-Vdham. 

abhi-Vdhyai, -dhydyati, to direct 
ones intention to, set one's heart upon, intend, de- 
sire, TS. ; SBr. &c. ; to 'meditate, Mn. i, 8, &c. 

Abhi-dhya, f. wish, longing for, desire. 

Abhi-dhyana, am, n. desiring, longing for (loc.), 
Mn. xii, 5, &c. ; meditation, Up. 

Abhi-dhySyin, mfn. (ifc.) giving one's attention 
to, MarkP. 

Abhi-dhyeya, mfn. deserving attention, BhP. ; 
(neg. an-) MBh. 

abhi-</dhvans, Caus. -dhvaosa- 

yali, to sprinkle with dust, dust, Kath. 

Abhi-dhvasta, mfn. afflicted by (instr.), MBh. 
v, 323- 

^rftTU)^ abhi-Vdhvan, to resound, whiz 
(as arrows), Sis. xx, 1 3. 

-nanakshuh ; p. P. -ndkshat, A. -ndkshamdiia) 
to approach, come to, arrive at, RV. ; AV. 

wfinT^ alihi- v/n<zd,to sound towards(acc.), 
BhP. ; to sound, raise a noise, Hariv. : Caus. -nada- 
yati (perf. Pass. p. -nddita or for the sake of the 
metre -nadita [R.]), to cause to sound, fill with noise. 

1 wf*Tn> abhi-naddha, mfn. (\/naA),'tied 
round,* abhi-naddh&ksha, mm. blindfold, ChUp. 

Abhi-nfthana, am, n. a bandage (over the eyes), 

wfiTP<^ abhi-Vnand, to please, AV. ix, 2, 
2; to rejoice at, salute, welcome, greet, hail; to praise, 
applaud, approve (often with na neg. ' to refuse ') ; 
to acknowledge : Caus. -nandayati, to gladden, R. 

Abhi-nanda, as, m. the delight, pleasure (of 
sensuality), SBr. xiv; ChUp.; wish, desire for (ifc.), 
Susr.; N. of the first month; N. of a commentator 
on the AmaraJcosha ; N. of the author of the Yoga- 
vasishthaszra ; (a), f. delight, L. ; wish, L. 

Abhi-nandana, am, n. delighting, L. ; praising, 
applauding, L. ;-wish, desire, L. ; (as), m., N. of the 
fourth Jaina Arhat of the present Avasarpini. 

Abhl-nandaniya, mfn. to be acknowledged or 
applauded, Sak. 

Abhi-nandita, mfn. delighted, made happy, sa- 
luted, applauded, &c. 

Abhi-nandltri, mfn. gladdening, MBh. 

Ablii-nandin, mfn. rejoicing at, wishing, desir- 
ing (ifc.) 

1 . Abhi-nandya, mfn. *=abhi-nandaniya,tit..\ 
Ragh.v, 31. 

2 . Abhi-nandya, ind. p. having rejoiced at ; hav- 
ing gladdened. 

^ff*r?Tf^JiAi-na4/(,iii( wards the sky. 

Abhi-nabhyam, ind. near the clouds or the sky, 
RV. x, 119, 12. 

"eirH*t abhi-'/nam (aor. 3. sg. -anamat or 
-andn [Kath.]) to bow or bend or turn towards. 

Abhi-nata, mfn. bent, inclined, KaushBr. &c. 

Abhi-namra, mf(<z)n. deeply bowed or curved, 
Ragh.xiii, 2. 

Abhi-namin, i, m., N. of a Rishi in the sixth 
Manvantara, VP. 

abhi-naya. See i. abhi-Vni. 
abhi-Vnard, P. (ep. also A.) to roar 
towards, MBh. ; to roar, R. 

"wff?T5 abhi-nava, mf(o)n. quite new or 
young, very young, fresh ; modern (cf. -kdliddsa & 
-sdkatayana below); N. of two men, Rajat. ; not 
having experience, L. -kalldana, m. the modern 
KalidSsa, i.e. MadhavacSrya. ffnpta, m., N. of 
a well-known author, -candrargfha-vidhi.m.'a 
ceremony performed at the time of the pew moon," 
N . of the 1 1 4th chapter in the BhavP.ii . - yanvana, 
mf(J)n. youthful, Hit. valyakarana, m. a mo- 
dem grammarian. sakatayana, m. the modern 
SSkaJayana. Abhinavi- ^bhu, to become new, 
Comm. on Bhatt. Abhinavodbhid, m. a new bud. 

^rfV^a6A- /! . nas (aor. Subj. 3. sg.-no, 
RV. vii, 104, 2$) to attain, reach, RV. 

abhi-nahana. See abhi-naddha. 

ind to the opening of the nose, Sis. ix, 52. 

abhi-nih-Vsri, to stream forth, 

issue, Susr. 

Abhi-nlh-srita, mfn. issued or issuing from 
(abl.), ChUp. ( = KathUp.) ; Yajn. &c. 

*rf*rfir.'q*(abhi-nih-/sry, to pourout to- 
wards, SBr. 



wfaTJ^ ubhi-pat. 

wards, AsvSr. 

ip, to move to- 

n,to sound hea- 

vily (as a dram), Pin. viii. 3, 86, Sch. 

Abhi-niihtana, as, m. 'a sound which dies 
away,' the Visarga, APrat.; AsvGr. &c. 

Abhi-niitana, as, m. *= abhi-nifhtana, Pin. 
viii, 3, 86. 

miij to tread down (with ace.), RV. x, 60, 6. 

' abhi-ni- \''<jad,tu speak to, Kaus. 

f abhi-nidhana, am, n., N. of dif- 
ferent verses of the SSma-veda, KstySr. &c. 

^rf>Tf5TVT abhi-ni- \/rfAo, place upon or 

into (loc.), SBr. ; A. to place upon one's self (as a 
burden), AitBr. ; to touch slightly with (instr.), SBr.; 
KltySr. &c. : Pass, -dhlyate, ' to be touched by each 
other,' be in close contact (as the letters e, o Sc a in 
the Sandhi called abhinihita, q. v.), Prit. 

Abhi-ni-dhana, am, n. placing upon, KltySr.; 
(as), m. [APrit. & TPrit.] or (am), n. [RPrlt.] 
' touching or close contact (of letters in pronuncia- 
tion, especially in the cases where initial a is sup- 
pressed after e & o). 

Abhi-ni-hita, mfn. touched with (instr. ; also 
tin- neg.), SBr.; (as), m. 'close contact,' N. of a 
special Sandhi (by which final e & o are brought into 
close contact with the initial a of the following word, 
which in the old language probably was not entirely 
suppressed), Prit. 

Wfaftftfl alhi-ni--/dhyai, to give atten- 
tion to, R. 

WWrSTTn*^ abhi-ni-nartam,ind. (vr*')> 
so as to accomplish step by step, i. e. repeating sepa- 
rately, KaushBr. ; (cf. abhy-d-gdram.) 

^rf*r>i*l1 abhi-ni- </m, to pour out (water 
&c.) upon, Comm. on KltySr.; (cf. ni-'/nf.) 

ff ftm i^ abhi-ni- \/pat, Caus. -patayati, 
to throw down, MBh. 

Abhi-ni-pata, as,m. abhini-Jhana (m. or n.) 
above, Comm. on APrit. 

^sfHf ^ 3(\ abhi-ni- </pid,to press, squeeze, 
trouble, MBh. &c. 
Abhi-nipidita, mfn. pained, tormented. 

^[tiii 1 ^ abhi-ni ^/mantr, to summon, 
invite, Hariv. 

TI IH m H ^ ab hi-ni- v mruc, -mrdcati (said 
of the sun) to set upon anybody who is sleeping or 
has not finished his work, TS. ; TBr. ; Kith. 

Abhi-ni- mrnkta, mm. upon whom while not 
doing any work or while sleeping the sun has set, 
TBr.; (wrongly written abhi-nir-mukta) Mn.ii, 221 

^{iftilj^ abhi-ni- </mluc =- ^mrvc be- 
fore, Mn. ii, 219 ; (cf. ni-*Jmruc & ni-^/mluc.) 

wMijin abhi-ni-mlupta = abhi-ni-mru- 
kta above, Gobh, 

W*r1*Jw alhi-niyukta, mfn. (Vyuj), oc- 
cupied in. 

wMVt*.^ abhi-nir-v/3. as, to throw to- 
wards, Kaus. 

^rfwffl*^ abhi-nir-'/gam, to go out or 
away from (abl.), R. 

WfwfHf^Tf abhi-nirjita, mfn. (Vjf), con- 
quered, MBh. xiv, 2 2 20. 

vfMT5T^[ abhi-nir-nitd(i/nud),(Pot. -nu- 
dtf) to drive out, frighten away, MBh. xii, 10728. 

wMfif^SI abhi-nir-\/dis, to point out, 
indicate, TS. &c. ; to appoint, characterize, Mn. x, 
o; to settle, fix, MBh.; VarBrS. 

^fafsfHr^ abA-n'r-\/6Aor<* (ind. p 
-bhartsya) to scold thoroughly, R. ii, 78, 19. 

wfWTTWH abhi-ninnita, mfn. (y^. mo) 
made, created, R. iii, 76, 30; Kir. v, 3. 

abhi-nir-mukta for ubhi-ni-mru- 
kta, q. v. 

^rfwTH'n abAi-nr-\/ya,to march out, go 
>ut towards (dat.) or from (abl.), MBh. &c. 
Abhi-niryina, am, n. march of an assailant, L. 

^TfW(Vri$ abhi-nir-\/vad, to declare with 
egard to (ace.), PBr. 

wf*Tf<W^ abhi-nir-</2. vap, to share out 
or add anything to another thing (either ace. & loc. 
"TS.] or instr. & ace. [AitBr.]). 

^rfn fn 5 f^a6Ai'-nr- </vrit, to result from, 
>roceed, MBh.: Caus. -vartayati, to produce, ac- 
complish, Hariv. &c. 

Abhi-nirvrltta, mfn. resulting from, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-nirvritti, is, f. resulting, proceeding, ac- 

i, (a bird) lying down in its nest in the pre- 
sence of (a spectator), VarBrS. 

abhi-ni-vdrtam, ind. (\fvrit), 
so as to turn back towards (ace.), TS. ; SBr. ; Kith. 

ibAi'-nt-v'eis, -visate, to enter 
(with ace.), Pin. i, 4, 47, Sch. ; to disembogue (as a 
river) into (ace.), BhP. ; to devote one's self entirely 
to (ace.), Das. &c. : Caus. -veiayati, to cause to enter, 
lead into (ace.), BhP. ; to cause to sit down upon 
^loc.), Sis.; to cause any one to devote himself en- 
tirely to, MBh. &c. ; (with manas or dtmdnam) to 
devote one's attention to (loc.), BhP. 

Abhi-ni vishta, mfn. entered or plunged into ; 
intent on (loc. or in comp.) ; endowed with, Ragh. 
ii, 75 ; determined, persevering. ta, f. state of being 
persevering, Slh. 

Abhi-niveia, as, m. application, intentness, 
study, affection, devotion (with loc. or ifc.) ; deter- 
mination (to effect a purpose or attain an object), 
tenacity, adherence to (loc.), Kum. v, 7, Sec. 

Abhi-nivesita, mfn. made to enter into, plunged 

Abhi-niveiin, mfn. intent upon, devoted to, 
Yljfl. iii, 134; determined. 

abhi-ni- ^sam (ind. p. -samya) 
to perceive, notice, DaS. 

!oAi-nisc7a,mfn.( \/2 .ct), quite 
convinced of, MBh. xii, 10635 ! settled or fixed with 
regard to (ace.), MBh. iii, 1085. 

^ftofnf*! abhi-ni- </sri, to pass (from one 
thing) to another (ace.), Ap. 

abhi-ni-shad ( i/>ad) , to sit down 
or settle round (perf. 3. sg. -shasdda), RV. vii, 15, 
3 ; (Opt. I. pi. -shidema.) AV. xii, I, 29. 

WfWfHMfTf"*1[ abhi-nish-kdr{n, mfn. in- 
tending anything evil against, injuring, AV. 2,1,31; 
(cf. abhi-krltvari.) 

Abhi-nih-krita, mfn. directed against (as an 
evil action), AV. x, i, 12. 

riri B ili*V abhi-nish-\/kram, to go out 
towards ; to lead towards (as a door), Pin. iv, 3, 86 ; 
to leave the house in order to become an anchorite, 
Buddh. & Jain. 

Ablii-nihkramaii,OOT,n. going forth; leaving 
the house in order to become an anchorite, Buddh. 
& Jam. 

Abhi-ni shkrSnta, mm. gone out towards; de- 
scended from (abl.), R. ; having left the house (abl.) in 
order to become an anchorite, Mn. vi, 41 ; Buddh. & 
Jain. ffrlhavaca, mfn. having left his house (for 
becoming an anchorite), Buddh. 

"wMVlBIl alhi-nishtana. See abhi-nih- 

wfMftiPg^ alhi-ni- </shthiv, to spit upon, 
SBr. ; Kaus. 

Wfa PH M f^ abhi-nish- </pat, to fly out to- 
wards(acc.), AV.vii,64, 1; to spring forth,shoot forth 

Abhi-nishpatana, am, n. springing forth, is- 

*!) i n5 alTii-nish-^pad, to come to 
(ace.), Br. ; to enter into, become (with ace.), Br, 

xiv ; ChUp. ; to appear, ChUp. : Cjus. -pddayati, to 
iring to (ace.), SBr. 

Abhi-nishpatti, is, (. appearance, Comm. on 

trfkTfV^lJ' 1 rI abhi-ni- \/sy and (or -shyand), 
o trickle upon, MBh. xii, 3881. 

Abhi-ni-shyanda, as, m. trickling, K. 

^faffi^ abhi-ni- \/han (p. -ghnat) to 
beat, strike, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-nl-hata, mfn. put on (as on a spit), (alihl 
/A<j/<)RV.i, 162,11; (otabhi-ni-hita, q.v.,APr!t. 

abhi-nihnava, as, m. (*/hnu), 
denial, L. ; N. of a Slman. 

j.6Ai-v/nt (perf. Opt. -niniyat, 
RV. vii, 88, 2 ; aor. Subj. 2. sg. -neshi, RV. vi, 61, 
14) to conduct towards, bring near, RV. &c. ; to 
represent dramatically, act ; to adduce, quote, L. 

Abhi-naya, as, m. (indication of a passion or 
purpose by look, gesture, &c.) acting, dramatic ac- 
tion (expressive of sentiment). 

Abhi-nita, mfn. brought near ; performed, L. ; 
highly finished or ornamented, L. ; fit, proper, MBh. 
&c. ; = marshin or amarshin (? patient or im- 
patient), L. 

Abhi-niti, is, f. gesture, expressive gesticulation, 
L. ; friendship, civility, L. 

Abhi-netavya, mfn. to be represented drama- 

Abhi-netri, ta, m. one who brings near, RV. 
iv, ao, 8 ; SBr. 

Abhi-neya, mfn. = abhi-mtavya. 

^rfarft 2.obA-n((-n-v't),(Imper. -nyetu) 
to enter into (as in approaching a woman), RV. x, 
M9. 4- 

abA-ni/a, mfu. very black or dark. 

bhi-V^.nu, A.( navante) 
to turn one's self towards (ace.), RV. ix, loo, i. 

mahe, 3. pi. -navante ; impf. P. 3. pi. -anavan; 
aor. l . sg. -anus hi, 3. du. -anushatam, 3. pi. -anu- 
shata [very frequently] or -nushata, RV. ix, 103, 
3) to shout towards (ace.), RV. : Intens. (i. pi. 
-nonumas), id., RV. 

trfirspr abhi-i/nud, to push, press: Caus. 
-nodayati, to excite, spur or urge on. 

- Vnrit, -nfityati, to dance to- 
wards (ace.) or in imitation of (ace.), BhP. 

^rfa"!**!! alihi-nrimna, mf(a)n. exceedingly 
propitious, BhP. 

^f?9 d-bhinna, mfn. (Vbhid), uncut, un- 
broken, SBr. &c. ; uninterrupted, RV. vi, 28, 2 ; (a- 
thinnd) AV.; (inarithm^'undivided/integer, whole 
(as numbers) ; unchanged, unaltered, not different 
from (abl. or in comp.) (jati, mfn. not changing 
its course, Slk. taraka, mfn. (compar.) not at all 
diiferent, Pat. ta, f. or -tra, n. [R.] 'non-differ- 
ence,' identity ; (with numbers) wholeness. pari- 
karmaahtaka, n. the eight processes in working 
whole numbers. sthitl.nifu.not breaking its rales, 
Slk. Abninnatman, mfn. 'of undaunted spirit, 'linn. 

Vf*T3R^ alhi-ny-^i. as, -asyati, to de- 
press (as fire), KltySr. 

Abbi-nyasa, as, m. a kind of fever, Bhpr. 

frfT^n5T abhi-ny-i/ubj, to press down, 
hold down, AV. viii, 8, 6 ; KauS. 

^rfal^ abhi-Vpac, to boil up (as milk), 

'Wf>T'T fYrT abhi-pathita, mfn. denominated, 
named, Susr. 

^rfifTH i.abhi-i/i.pat, -patyate, to be 
lord over (ace.), RV. viii, 102, 9; pr. p. -pdtya- 
mdna, possessing, RV. x, 132, 3. 

"Wf>rm^2.a6A-v'2.pat,to fly near, hasten 
near ; to rush towards, assail ; to fall down upon 
(ace.), AV. vi, 1 14, I & l (aor. abhy-apapta & 
abhy-dpaptaf), &c. ; to fall or come into (ace.) ; to 
fly through or over, MBh. v, 3051 ; to overtake in 



flying, MBh. viii, 1910: Caus. -patayati, to throw 
after with (instr.),TBr. ; to throw upon (dat. or loc.) ; 
to throw down ; to pass (time). 

Abhi-patana, am, n. flying towards. 

Abhi-pata, as, m. hastening near, Kad. 

Abhi-patin, mfn. hastening near ; running to 
the help of (in comp.), MBh. iii, 284. 

Abhi-pitva, am, n. (cf. apa-pitvd), approach- 
ing, visiting, putting up (for the night at an inn), 
RV. ; (with or without the gen. pi. d/indm) close 
or departure of the day, evening, RV. 

abhi-Vpad, to come near or to- 
wards, approach ; to approach (a deity) for imploring 
her help, Sis. ix, 27; to come up (as an auxiliary), 
assist ; to seize, catch, overpower, master, R V. x, 7 1, 
9 ; SBr. &c. ; to take possession of, Mn. i, 30, &c. ; 
to accept, R. ; to undertake, devote one's self to (ace. ) 

Abhi-patti, is, f. seizing, SBr. 

Abhi-panna, mfn. approaching for imploring 
the help of, L. ; assisted, MBh. &c. ; seized, over- 
powered, SBr. &c. ; undertaking, taking in hand ; 
undertaken, taken in hand ; one who has acted 
wrongly towards (in comp.), MBh. xii, 68, 50 & 58 ; 
distant, L. ; dead, L. 

alhi-padma, mfn. (said of ele- 
phants) having red spots on the skin, MBh. i, 7013. 

^rfiTM<iM^ abhi-pard/vad, to speak to, 
address, SBr. ; KaushBr. 

^rfalfT?^ abhi-pari- Vgrah, to clasp, em- 
brace, ManGr. 

^rfTTl\(iti aWti-pari-fflcina, mfn.( </glai), 
tired, exhausted, MBh. i, 4489. 

with (as medasa, rajasd [said of a wife during men- 
struation, MBh. iii, 523 ; cf. abhi-plula below], 
&c.) ; attacked, afflicted by (instr. ; as by anger, sor- 
row, compassion, &c.), MBh. &c. 

^rfVnTftTg^ abhi-pari-shvanj (Vsvanj), 
(p. -shvajaf) to embrace, R. 

^rfalfxi-^ abhi-pari-Vhan, to overpower 
entirely, SBr. 

'WfwjfT^' abhi-pari- Vhri, P. to move 
round (in a circle), SBr. : P. with dtmanam [Kaus.] 
or Caus. A. (Opt. 3. pi. -hdrayeran) [AsvSr.] to 
move round one's self. 

Abhi-pari-liara, as, m. moving round, (an-, 
neg.), AsvSr. 

^rfilPCrchT abhi-parita, mfn. (Vi), filled or 
taken with, seized by (instr., in comp.), MBh. Sec. 

'WfaTr^H abhi-pari-vrita, mfn. (Vvri), 
filled or taken with (instr. ; as with anger), R. 

^rfijttT abhi-pare (Vi), (Imper. 2. sg. -pd- 
rehi) to go away towards (ace.), AV. xiv, 2, 34 

^finmnjT abhi-pary-d-Vdha (=pary-d- 
*Jdha, q. v.), to surround (as a pan with fire), SBr. 

^rfHM 5 l^rl abhi-pary-a-Vvrit, A. to turn 
one's self towards (ace.), AV. ; TS. &c.; to turn 
one's self round (ace.), AitBr. 

^TfirqtfTftr^ abhi-pary-d-Vsic, to pour 
out round, AitBr. 

^rfWuTT^, abhi pdry 
iihale, to carry or bring towards (ace.), TS. 

^ffyl&iabhi-pary-e(\/i), (said of the time) 
'to pass round ' (ace.), i. e. to pass away or elapse, SBr. 

"WfHTJS abhi-pale ( Vi), to follow after any 
one running away (ace.), PBr.; (cf.faiS.) 

^rfal5^a6Ai-\/pas, -pasyati,to look upon 
or at, view, RV. &c. ; to perceive, notice, MBh. i, 
5002, &c. ; (with gen.), BhP. ; to know, ChUp. 

^TftftJT i. abhi- V i. pa, to drink of, Gobh. 
Ablil-pita, mfn. watered (as the earth by rain), 
MBh. xii, 12844. 

^jfaqi 2 .abhi- </2 .pd, -pati, to guard, RV. ; 
VS. ; to behold with attention, RV. viii, 59, 3 : 
Caus. P. -pdlayati, to protect, assist, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-pala, as, m. protector, MBh. 

Abhi-palana, am, n. protecting, R. 

n g-rt abhi-pingala, mfn. 'very red,' 
reddish-brown, Hariv. 

abhi-pitvd. See apa-\/2.pat. 

abhi-Vpis (impf. -apinsat, perf. 
A. 3. pi. -pipisre) to adorn with (instr.), RV. v, 
60, 4 ; x, 68, 1 1 ; TBr. 

'Slfmft'^ abhi-\/pid, to oppress, torment. 

Abhi-pidita, mfn. pressed (as the soil by the 
foot or by an army), ShadvBr. &c. ; oppressed, tor- 
mented, afflicted, MBh. &c. 

Wfag^ abhi-Vputh, Caus. -pothayati, to 
throw with violence upon (loc.), Hariv. 

WM^sj abhi-pushpa, mfn. covered with 
flowers, R. ; (am), n. an excellent flower, L. 

^foj^abhi-Vpu, -pavate, to flow purified 
towards or for (ace. or dat.), RV. ; to blow towards, 
TS.; TBr.; to make bright, glorify, AV. ; TS. 

f f*T^T abhi-Vpiij, to honour, reverence 
greatly ; to approve of. 

Abhi-pujita, mfn. honoured ; approved, assented 
to, Mn. vi, 58, &c. 

^TW^t abhi-pilrva, mfn. following in regu- 
lar order, PBr. ; (dm [AV. ; SBr.] or ena [PBr.]), 
ind. in regular order, successively. 

*HH'J abhi-prishthe, ind. at the back of, 
behind, Kum. 

^ffvp| abhi-Vpri (Imper. 2. sg. -prinihi) 
to fill up, ParGr. ; -piiryate, to become full or abun- 
dant, ParGr. ; MBh. : Caus. -purayati, to make full, 
fill, SBr. &c. ; to load with, Kathss.; to cover with (as 
with arrows), MBh. vi, 1 72 1 ; to present with (instr.), 
Hariv.; KathSs.; (said of sorrows, &c.)to fill the heart 
of any one, overwhelm ; to accomplish, R. vii, 35, 14. 

Abhi-purana, am, n. filling, KatySr. 

Abhi-pnrna, mfn. full of (instr. or gen.) 

Abhi-purta, am, n. that which has been fulfilled, 
AV. ix, 5, 13. 

Abhi-purya, mfn. to be filled, MaitrS. 

'HfiT'H abhi-Vpyai (perf. A. p. -pipydna) 
to swell, abound with (instr.), RV. vii, 36, 6. 

*&f*iH<t**{abhi-pra-Vkamp, Caus. -kamp- 
ayati, to stir, allure, SBr. 

^iftiHoiil^ abhi-pra-\/kas, -Jcasate, to be- 
come visible, MBh. (cakshusha, 'to the eye'); R. 

*C(faW&!l^ablii-pra-\/kram, P. -krdmati, to 
go up to (ace.), SBr.; Kaus. 

Abhi-pra-kramya, mfn. to be stepped upon or 
walked on, PBr. 

^sfWmsf^. abhi-pra-Vkshar, to stream to- 
wards (ace.), SBr. 
Abhi-pra-ksharita, mfn. poured out, SBr. 

wf>TlI^<^ abhi-pra-Vkshal, -kshdlayati, 
to clean thoroughly, polish up (as a jewel), Vikr. 

^tfirUTT? abhi-pra-Vgah, -gahate, to dip 
or plunge into, penetrate, RV. ix, 99, 2 & no, 2: 
Caus. (ind. p. -gdhya) to immerse, dip, SaiikhSr. 

abhi-pra-Vpai (Imper. 2. pi. -gd- 
yala) to begin to praise, RV. 

wfwrETai hi-pra- Vcaksh ( Ved. Inf. -ca- 
kshe) to see, RV. i, 113, 6. 

^rfinr^jj abhi-pra-Vcud, Caus. -codayati, 
to impel, induce, persuade, MBh.; R. 

^rfWu'*} abhi-pra-Vcyu (Imper. 2. sg. A. 
-cyavasva) to move towards, arrive at (ace.), VS. ; 

^ifHlJ^ abhi>/prach, to ask or inquire 

after, MBh. &c. 

Abhl-prishta, mfn. inquired after, BhP. 

Abhi-prasnin, mfn. inclined to ask, inquisitive, 

to bring forth, bear, RV. v, 19, 1 : Caus. -janayali, 
to generate for the sake of (ace.), SBr. 

^rftnnjSJ abhi-pra- \/jval (perf. -jajvdla) 
to flare up, MBh. 


i-pra-naksh ( Vnaksh), (perf. 
A. -nanaltshf) to overpower, RV. viii, 51,8. 

WNHTT;* abhi-pra-nad ( \/nad), (perf. 3. pi. 
-neduli) to begin to roar or sound, Shaft. 

^Wnvj*\abhi-pra-nam ( Vam),to bow be- 
fore (dat. or ace.), MBh. &c. 

Abhi-pranata, mfn. bent, bowing before. 

^rfWnift abhi-pra-ni (Vni), (aor. Subj. 2. 
sg. -nesht) to bring towards (ace.), RV. i, 31, 18. 


Abhi-pranlta, mfn. brought to (as fire to the 
altar), Bhatt. ; (cf. pra-ni.) 

WWWJ abhi-pra-nu ( V^. nu), (aor. A . 3. pi. 
-dnus&ata) to shout towards, praise highly, RV. iv, 
32,9: Intens. (I. pi. -nonumas [frequently]; perf. 
3. pi. -nonuvuft) id., RV. 

WfinTrT^ abhi-pra-i/tan, to spread over 
(ace.), KaushUp. 

^rfvrjlrni abhi-pratapta, mfn. 'intensely 
heated," dried up, Sulr. ; exhausted with pain or 
fever, R. 

^TIHi4ni(\^ obhi-pratarin, i, m., N. of a 
descendant of Kaksha-sena, ChUp. 

^rfirnfrT^T abhi-prali-Vi.gri, ' to call out 
to (ace.) alternately,' answer in singing, TS. ; (cf. 
prati-V 'l.gri.) 

^rf>THfrl>4^ abhi-prati-Vpad, P. (fut. -pat- 
syati) to begin with or at (ace.), AitBr. 

^TWJlfrTnT^a6Ai-/>ra/t-v / />isA (perf. -pipe- 
shd) to dash or crush out, SBr. 

TU**niiHji^ abhi-praty-ava- Vruh, to step 
down upon (ace.), AitBr. 

vi faUW? abhi-praty-ave (Vi), to move 
down towards, SBr. 

'wfinfiH abhi-praty-e (Vi), to come back 
towards (ace.), SBr. 

^rfwTT^I abhi-Vprath (perf. A. -papratht) 
to spread, extend itself towards (ace.), RV. ix, 80, 3 : 
Caus. -prathayati, to spread or scatter over (ace.), 
TS. ; to spread (as one's fame), MBh. 

Abhl-prathana, am, n. spreading over, L. 

*'&fcnt<SfiS(ia t {abhi-pra-dakshinam, ind. to 
the right (e.g. with V \.kri, to circumambulate 
keeping the object on the right), R. 

^fW<;^ii abhi-pra-darsana, am, n. point- 
ing out, indicating, Sah. 

*?rfW n ft; 31 abhi-pra- Vdis, Caus. -desayati, 
to urge on, R. 

^TlWn'f abhi-pra- */dri (perf. 3. pi. -dadrur 
abhi-jagmuh. Say. fr. -V*. lira, 'to run to- 
wards ') to put forth by bursting or opening, RV. iv, 
19, 5 : Pass, -diryale, to be scattered or divided 
asunder, MBh. viii, 3976. 

W fifJTJT abhi-pra- Vl dra. See - Vdri . 

^BrfWlTS abhi-pra- V 2. dru (perf. A. -dudru- 
ve) to rush towards (ace.), assail, MBh. 

WfiTTW^'U abhi-pra-dharshana, am, n. op- 
pressing, injuring, MBh. iii, 14937. 

wfainr* abhi-pra-Vpac, Pass, -pacyate, 
' to get ripe,' develop itself, Susr. 

^fftlTn^ abhi-pra- Vpad, to come towards, 
reach at, enter into (ace.), SBr. &c. ; to resort to 
(ace.), MBh. &c. ; to undertake, MBh. 

Abhi-prapanna, mfn. approached, attained. 

^rfHTlTS^ abhi-pra- Vpas (impf. -prapa- 
sjrat) to look out after (ace.), RV. x, 1 1 3, 4. 

'WTHHMT^ abhi-pra- Vpid, Caus. -ptdayati, 
to cause pain, torture, MBh. &c. 

^?fWn<f abhi-pra- V pri, -piiryate, to be 
filled, fill one's self completely, MBh. xv, 678. 

wfaiwf^'^ abhi-pra-bhangin, mfn. (V 
bttanj), breaking completely, RV. viii, 45, 35. 


ra- \/fcAu (Ved. Inf. aor. abhi 
pra-bhushdnt) to assist, RV. x, 132, i. 

wfTHJ abhi-pra- v/iAr ( I . pl.-iAaramaAe) 
tooffcr to (dit.), RV. iv, 56, 5 ; (Imper. 3. sg. -bhara) 
to throw, dart, RV. viii, 89, 4. 

^rfVnnr^ai A-pra- t/math, Caus. -mantha- 
yati, to churn thoroughly, Susr. 

^rf>TITTr^ abhi-pra- \/ma, A. (3. pi. -man- 
vate) to take any one for, look upon him as, AV. vi, 
84. '- _ 

^TfHHi^ abhi-pra- v/l . mand (l.& . A. 
-mantle, -mattdatc ; perf. P. 3. pi. -manduK) to 
gladden, RV. ; P. (Imper. 2. sg. -manda) to confuse, 
infatuate, RV. vi, 1 8, 9. 

^faWjj^n&A-pra-mur,TTifn.(\/nirjJ, bruis- 
ing, crushing, RV. x, 1 1 5, 2. 

wfiTTJ^^ abhi-pra- Vmris (Imper. 2. sg. 
-mrisa; aor. Subj. 2. sg. -mrikshas & 2. pi. ~mri- 
kshata) to seize, grasp : Intens. (p. nom. m. -iiiar- 
mrisai) id., RV. i, 140, 5. 

'Hf>TiI''n abhi-pra-Vyd (Imper. 2. pi. -ya- 
thdna) to come towards, approach, RV. viii, 27, 6; 
to set out, march off', go to battle, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-p ra-ySyam, ind. so as to approach, KatySr. 

Abhi-pra-yayin, mfn. approaching, TS. 

^rfWlPp^ abhi-pra- \/yvj, -prd-yunkte, to 
seize, grasp, bring in one's possession, TS. ; TBr.; 

^sfirn^^ abhi-pra-^ruh, to put forth or 
produce shoots, Susr. 

^nfalT^ abhi-pra- -/coA, to carry or bring 
towards, AitBr. 

^rfmf^ abhi-pra- \/vip (Opt. 3. pi. -vt- 
peran) to move against (ace.), threaten, TS. 

Wfiwfirei abhi-pra-VvH, to disembogue 
into (ace.), BhP. 

Abhi-pra-vishta, mfn. fallen or come into 
(ace.), R. 

Abhi-pra-vesa, as, m. entering into, MBh. i, 

*Bfint^abhi-pra-Vvrit, A. to advance up 

to (ace.), AitBr. ; KaushUp. ; to_disembogue into 
(ace.), R. ; to go forth, advance, AivGr. ; (see also 
abhi-pra-vritta) : Caus. -vartayati, to cause to ad- 
vance against, throw against (ace.), TS. ; (dat.), SV. 

Abhi-pravartana, am, n. coming or flowing 
forth (said of the sweat), SuSr. 

Abhi-pravritta, mm. being performed, advanc- 
ing, proceeding, MBh. viii, 3464; occupied or en- 
gaged in, Bhag. 

(generally used in the perf. Pass. p. -vardhitd) to 
enlarge, Su5r. ; render prosperous, MBh. 

'^ abhi-pra-t/vrish, to pour down 
rain, MBh. &c. 

wfWiT3^ abhi-pra- \/vrqj, to step or ad- 
vance towards, ChUp. ; KaushUp. 

STTH M ^l S ab hi-pra- v / *aff, to praise highly, 


abhi-pra- Vsudh, Caus. -sodha- 
yati, to clean thoroughly, Suir. 
^favfW^abhi-prasnin. See abhi- -/prach. 

Wfa W^(abhi-pra- </svat,to blow towards 
(ace.), AitBr. 

wfiH5 abhi-pra- V 'sad (p. -sidat; perf. 
3. pi. -scduh) to sit down or settle along (ace.), RV. 
iv, i, 13 & x, 37, i : Caus. -sddayati, to cause to 
be well-disposed or gracious, pray for grace or favour. 
MBh. &c. 

fHHH^ abhi-pra- YsoA, to be able to 
(Inf.), Kir. xii, 18. 

Wfainpr abhi-pra-supta, mfn. (Vsvap), 
fallen asleep, MBh. 

'SfinT^atAi-pra-V' (3. pi. -sutanti) to 
drive towards (ace.), Nir. 

abhi-pra-bhu. ^jfWl abld-bhava. 

1. Abbl-pra-snta, mfn. engaged, induced, or- 
dered, Nir. 

^rfWWTH 2. abhi-pra-suta, mfu. (\/4. su), 
generated, born, MBh. v, 964. 

^ifiTWJ abhi-pra- Vsri, Caus. (ind. p. -sar- 
ya) to stretch one's self out towards (ace.), SBr. ; A. 
(Pot. -sdrayita\ to stretch out (as a foot) towards 
or upon (loc.), Ap. 

Abhi-pra-sarana, am, u. stretching out the 
feet towards (gen.), Ap. 

Abhi-pra-srita, mfn. devoted to, R. ; (cf.pra- 

'SffWtnj'^ abhi-pra-\/srip (p. -sdrpat) to 
creep near, AV. viii, 6, 22. 

"?ffWn**^ abhi-pra- Vskand, to jump into 
(ace.), SankhBr. 

'sfairej abhi-pra-Vstu, to praise with a 
stoma (q.v.), TS. 

abhi-pra </stri, to scatter, SBr. 

abhi-pra-i/sthd (aor. Subj. 2. pi. 
-sthdta; perf. 3. pi. -tasthuK) to start or advance 
towards, reach, KV. ; AV. &c. ; to surpass, have the 
precedence of (with or without ace.), RV. i, 74, 8 & 
x . 65. "5; ( cf - aii-pra-i/tthS): Caus. to drive (as 
the cattle to pasture), ChUp. 

Abhi-pra-sthita, mfn. one who has set out, 
started, MBh. &c. 

SSfHW?^ abhi-prat/-han (3. pi. -ghndnti) 
to overpower, RV. vi, 46, 10; SBr. 
Abhi-pra-b.ata, mfn. struck at, hurt, Susr. 

^TfWlTf! a&A'-pra-V2. Ao, -jihtte, to jump 
or fly upwards in the direction of (ace.), SankhSr. 

WfifHf^TT dbhi-prd-hita, mfn. (-y/Ai), sent 
hither, AV. x, 1, 15. 

'afWnn^ abhi-prdn (%/<">), -prdniti, to ex- 
hale, breathe forth towards (ace.), SBr. ; to exhale, 
breathe forth, AitBr. ; TBr. &c. 

Abhi-pranana, am, n. exhaling (opposed to 
ap&nana, q. v.), L. 

'SfHHlrt^. abhi-prdtdr, ind. towards morn- 
ing, early, SBr. xiv; (according to some Comm. 'on 
the fourth day early in the morning'). 

^(finnHabhi-prdp (*/dp), to reach, obtain, 
SBr.; ChUp. 

Abhi-prapana. See arth&bhiprapana, 
Abhi-prapta, mfn. reached, obtained. 
Abhi-prapti, is, f. arrival, Nir. 
Abhi-prepsu, mfn. desirous of gaining, Mn.&c. 

ubhi-prdya. See abhi-pre, 

abhi-prdrc (*/arc), to celebrate 
in song, RV. viii, 49, I & 69, 4. 

wfuHT^ abhi-prdrth (<^arth), to long for, 
wish, R. 

WrWlKIS^ abhi-prds (v/a. as), to eat in ad- 
dition to (ace.) another thing (in order to get rid of 
the taste of it), ChUp. 

WTHrti^a&At-pras ( V 2 - <* s ). to throw upon 
(ace.), SBr. ; KstySr. 

^fwiff i. abhi-Vpri, Caus. to gladden, re- 
fresh, Car. 

2. Abhi-pri, mfn. gladdening, RV. i, 162, 3 & 
ix, 3'. 3- 

Abhi-prita, mfn. pleased, (an-, neg.) AitBr. 
Abhi-priti, it, f. pleasing, pleasure, PBr. 

TM^ abhi-i/pru, to hasten near or to- 
wards, RV. iv, 58, 8; to jump into, SBr. 
Abhi-prava, as, m. = abhi-plavd below, Kath. 

"^*^H1 ubhi-yprush, -prushnute, -prushd- 
yati [RV. x, 26, 3], to sprinkle with, RV. 

^fft?H abhi-pre (v/t), -prdtti (Imper. 2. sg. 
-prfhi, 2. pi. prtta, RV. ; AV.) to go near to, ap- 
proach ; to approach with one's mind, to think of, 
Pin. i, 4, 32, &c. ; to aim at, intend. 

Abhi-praya, as, m. aim, Pan. i, 3, 72 ; purpose, 
intention, wish, R. &c. ; opinion, Mn. vii, 57, &c.; 
meaning, sense (as of a word or of a passage). 

Abhi-preti, mfn. meant, intended, R. &c. ; ac- 

cepted, approved, Nir. &c. ; to whom one's heart it 
devoted, dear, MBh.; Sak. &c. 
Abhi-pretya, ind. intending, meaning by, Nir. 

wfap-ET abhi-preksh (Viksh), (generally 
ind. p. -prekshya) to look at, to see, view, MBh. &c. 

abhi-prepsu. See abhi-prap. 

abhi-prer (/), Caus. -prerayati, 
to drive forwards, push on, Susr. 

Abhi-prerana, CAV, n. pushing, setting in motion 
(as a see-saw). 

Wflf 1 v abhi-presh (A/I . ish), ( I . sg. -presh- 
ydmi) to summon, command, AV. 

Abhi-preshita, mfn. that which has been com- 
manded or ordered, (an-, neg.) SBr. 

wfalftHll abhi-prokshana, am,n.(-/uksh), 
sprinkling upon, affusion. 

wftw abhi-Vplu, to swim or navigate to- 
wards, approach, SBr. &c. ; to overflow, &c. (see 
abhi-plutd) ; to jump near to, Hariv. &c. : Caus. 
(said of the sea) to wash, Kaus. 

Abhi-plava, as, m., N. of a religious ceremony 
(lasting six days and performed five times during the 
sacrifice Gavam-ayana), SBr. &c. 

Abhi-pluta, mfn. overflowed, overrun ; over- 
whelmed, affected by, labouring under (instr.), MBh. 
&c. ; (rajasd, said of a wife during menstruation ; 
cf. abhi-pari-pluta above), Mn. iv, 41. 

WWlrt abhi-bala, am, n. (in dramatic lan- 
guage) overreaching or deceiving anybody by dis- 
guise, Sah. 

^jfa^tV abhi-</bddh, -bddhate, to check, 
stop, RV.viii, 5, 34; to attack (in battle), MBh. xii, 
3731 ; to cause pain, afflict, R. 

Abhi-badhitri, mfn. causing pain, Hariv.; (v.l. 

^fT|% abhi-buddhi, is, f. (in Sankhya 
phil.) N. of a function of the intellect (comprising 
adhyavasdya, abhimdna, icchd, kartavyatd, and 

wftWl^ abhi-Vbhaj, to turn or flee to- 
wards (ace.), Hariv. 

wfW^afcAi-V'z. bhanj(p. gen. pi. f.-bhan- 
jattnam) to break down, destroy, RV. x, 103, 8. 

Abui-bhanga, mfn. breaking down, destroying, 
RV. ii, 21,3. 

. wfiWrt abhi-bhartri, ind. towards the hus- 
band, Sis. ix, 35 ; before (i. e. in presence of) the 
husband, Sis. ix, 77. 

WftWf^ abhi-*/bharts (ind. p. -bhartsya) 
to scold, threaten so as to terrify, R. ; to deride, ridi- 
cule, MBh. iii, 10921. 

wf>W^ abhi-bhavd. See I. abhi-*/bhu 

VrfWT i.abhi-i/bha, to glitter (around), 
be bright, appear, MBh. &c. 

2. Abhi-bha, f. 'apparition, phenomenon,* in- 
auspicious omen, RV. ii, 42, I ; AV. ; (with Buddh.) 
act of overpowering, superiority, L. Abhlbhaya- 
tana, n. 'abode of superiority,' N. of the eight 
sources of superiority with Buddhists, L. 

abhi-bhara. See abhi-i/bhri. 
abhi-Vbhash, to address, speak 
to(acc.),MBh.&c. ; converse with (instr.), Mn.&c.; 
to utter, say (abhibhdshante, 'people use to say," 
Nir.); to confess, Mn. xi, 103. 

Abb.i-bb.asb.ana, am, n. the act of addressing 
or speaking to, AsvSr. &c. 

Abhi-bb.asb.ita, mfn. addressed, spoken to. 

AbM-bhashin, mfn. addressing, speaking to. 

AbM-bbasbya, mfn. to be addressed. 

Abhi-bhashyamana, mfn. being addressed. 

TfT$^ abhi-</$. bhuj, P. to be useful to 

(ace.), SsnkhSr. 

"W>J. i . abhi-ybhu, to overcome, over- 
power, predominate, conquer, surpass, overspread; to 
attack, defeat, humiliate ; to approach, come near to 
(ace.), RV. iv. 3 1, 3 ; AV. ; to be victorious or pros- 
pering in (loc.), RV. v, 37, 5. 

Abbi-bhava, mfn. overpowering, powerful, AV. 


>'. 29. 4 ; (>")> ' prevailing, overpowering, pre- 
dominance, Bhag. &c. ; defeat, subjugation under 
(instr. or abl., or in comp.); disregard, disrespect; 
humiliation, mortification. 

Ablii-bliavaiia, am, n. overpowering, Lalit. ; 
the state of being overpowered, Mn. vi, 62. 
Abhi-bhavaniya, mfh. to be overcome. 
Abhi-bhavaka, mfn. overpowering, surpassing, 
Comni. on Nyayad. 

Abhi-bhavana, am, n. causing to overcome, 
making victorious, L. 

Abb.i-bb.avin, mfn. (ifc.) overpowering, Raeh 
i, 14, &c. 

Abhi-bhavuka, min.^abhi-bhd-vaka, L. 
Abhi-bhu or 2. abhi-bhu, niiii. one who sur- 
passes, a superior (with or without ace.), RV. ; AV. ; 
VS.; (Compar. abhibhutara, RV. viii, 97, 10) ; 
(us), m., N. of a month, Kath. ; (us), m., N. of a' 
die, TS.; Kath.; of a prince of the NSgas, PSrGr. 

Abhi-bhuta, mfn. surpassed, defeated, subdued, 
humbled ; overcome, aggrieved, injured. 

Abhi-bhnti, is, f. superior power, overpowering, 
RV. iv, 38,9; SBr.; KatySr.; disrespect, humilia- 
tion, L. ; (mfn.), overpowering, superior, RV. ; AV. 
Abhibhuty-ojas (6), mfn. having superior power, 

Abhi-bhuya, am, n. superiority, AV. xix, 37, 3. 
AbM-bhuvan, m((vari)n. superior, victorious 
over, RV. x, 159, 5 & 6. 

<SrfH>f abhi-*/bhri (Subj. -bhdrdti) to lay 
or throw upon (as a fault or blame), RV. v, 3, 7. 
Abhi-bhara, mfn. very heavy, SBr. 

"f*W5 abhi-*/mad (p. -madyat) to be in- 
ebriated, SBr.; (cf.aiAi--/ 1. mand below.) 

Ablii-mada, as, m. intoxication, inebriety, L. 

Abhi-madyat-ka, mfn. partially intoxicated 
half-drunk, SBr. 

^IWm^abhi- >/man, -many ate (Subj. -man- 
yate, RV. x, 27, 11) to think of, long for, desire, 
RV. &c. ; (aor. Subj. 2. sg. -mansthah, 3 sg 
-mansta; Ved. Inf. abhl-mantol}, SBr.) to intend 
to injure, be insidious, threaten, injure, VS. ; AV. &c. ; 
to kill, AitBr. (aor. -amansta} ; KstySr. ; to allow,' 
agree, MBh. ii, 1374, & c . ; to think of self, be proud 
ot ; to think, suppose, imagine, take for (ace.) 

Abhi-mata, mfn. Jonged for, wished, desired ; 
loved, dear; allowed, AsvGr. ; supposed, imagined ; 
(am), n. desire, wish, -tS, f. agreeableness, desir- 
ableness ; desire, love. 

Abhi-mati, is, f. self-reference, referring all ob- 
jects to self (as the act of Ahamkara or personality), 

Abhi-manas, mfn. ' having the mind directed 
towards,' desirous of, longing for (ace.), R. &c. 

Abhi-manasya, Norn. A. (Opt. -mtuiasyttd) 
' to have the mind directed towards,' be pleased with 
like, AV. xi, 3, 25. 

Abhi-manaya, Nom. A. (Opt. -mandyeta) to 
long for, desire, Bhatt. ; (cf. gana bhriiadi) : Desid. 
-tnimatiayishate, Pat. 

Abhi-mautavya, mfn. to be considered, Pa3cat.; 
to be desired. 

Abhi-mantri, td, m. one who refers all objects 
to self (N. of Isvara, together with ahamkdra; cf. 
abhi-mati above), Mn. i, 14; one who injures or 
threatens, GopBr. 

Abhi-mantos, Ved. Inf. See s. v. abhi-^man. 
Abhi-manyu, us, m., N. of a son of Manu 
Cakshusha; of a son of Arjuna (by Subhadri); of 
two kings of Kasmlra, Rsjat. -pura, n., N. of a 
town, Rajat. - svamin, m., N. of a temple, RSjat. 
Abhi-mati, mfn. insidious, RV. v, 23, 4 & x, 
18, 9; (is), f. striving to injure, RV.; an enemy, 
foe, RV. ; AV. ; SBr. -jit, mfn. subduing the ene- 
mies, VS. -shah [RV.] or -shaha [RV.; AV.], 
mfn. conquering enemies. ghahya (7), n . con- 
quering enemies, RV.iii,37, 3 . -han, mfn. striking 
or destroying one's enemies, RV.; VS. 
Abhi-matin, mfn. insidious, RV. i, 85, 3. 
Abhi-mana, as, in. intention to injure, insidious- 
ness, KatySr. ; high opinion of one's self, self-conceit, 
pride, haughtiness; (in Ssrikhya ^n\\.)- abhi-mati 
above ; conception (especially an erroneous one re- 
garding one's self), Sah. &c.; affection, desire ; N. of 
a Rishi in the sixth Manvantara, VP. tS, f. pride, 
arrogance, vat, mfn. conceiving or having ideas 
about self; proud, arrogant, -salin, mfn. proud, 

arrogant, Kir. ii, 48. - sunya, mfn. void of conceit 

Abhi-maiiita, am, n. copulation, sexual inter- 
course, L. 

Abhi-manln, mfn. thinking of one's self, proud 
self-conceited ; (ifc.) imagining one's self to be or 
to possess, laying claim to, arrogating to one's self; 
(I), m., N. of an Agni, VP. ; BhP. Abhimani- 
tS, f. or -tva, n. the state of self-conceitedness. 

Abhi-manuka, mfn. insidious (with ace.), SBr 
(cf. an-abhimanuka.*) 

Abhi-mana. See nir-abhimana. 

Abhi-manin, i, m., N. of an Agni, MarkP. 

f WT^ abhi-i/mantr, A. to address or 
consecrate with a Mantra (ace. & instr. or rarely 
dat. & ace. [RV. x, 191, 3]); to address with any 
formula (as when inviting a guest [R.], &c.) 

Abhi-mantrana, am, n. making anything 
sacred by a special formula (called abhi-mantrana- 
mantra), consecrating ; addressing, Kius. 

Abhi-mantrita, mfn. consecrated by a certain 

x i-'/manth, to churn or rub 
(for eliciting fire), SBr. xiv. 

Abhi-mantha, as, m. (ophthalmia) = adhi- 
mantha, q. v. 

Abhi-manthana, am, n. the upper piece of wood 
(arani) which is churned in the lower one (for 
kindling the fire), Kaus. 

^>Wf5? abhi/i.mand, P. (3. pi. aor. -d- 
mandishuh) to gladden, RV. viii, 50, 3; A. (2. sg. 
-mandase) to be pleased with, enjoy (with lo'c.), 
RV. x, 50, 2; (cf. abhi- '/mad above.) 

abhi-mara. See abhi-</mri. 
abhi-marda. See abhi-*/mrid. 
abhi-marsana. See abhi-</mris. 

i.abhi-i/, to measure upon, 
SBr. ; KatySr. 

2. Abhi-ma, f. measure (with regard to the 
breadth), MaitrS. 

^TWnnr abhf-mdti. See abhi--/ntan. 
abhi-mada. See abhi /mad. 
abhi-mana. See abhi--/man. 

abhi-maya, mfn. (fr. maya), per- 
plexed, confused, L. 

fftii I ^H^aiA i-marutam, ind. against the 

WfHTIT'^ abhi-*/mith, to address with in- 
suiting speech, insult, SBr. ; AsvSr. ; SankhSr. 

Abhi-ruethana, am, n. insulting or injurious 
speech, Vait. 

Abhi-methika, f. id., SBr. 

,. p. 
Aafas) to wet (by urining upon), Yajn. ii, 293. 

Abb.i-mib.ya, mfn. to be wetted (by urining 
upon), SBr. 

WH1JI3 abhi-mukha, mf(i, rarely a)n. with 
the face directed towards, turned towards, facing 
(with ace., dat., gen. ; or ifc.) ; (ifc.) going near, 
approaching (as yauvanabliimukhi, 'approaching 
puberty, marriageable,' Paflcat.); (ifc.) disposed to, 
intending to, ready for ; taking one's part, friendly 
disposed (with gen. or instr.), R. ; (am), ind. towards 
(often used in a hostile manner, Kir. vi, 14, &c.), in 
the direction of, in front or presence of, near to (ace., 
gen. ; or ifc.) ; (e), ind. in front or presence of (gen.; 
or ifc.), R. ; m, f. one of the ten Bhumis to be 
passed by a Bodhisattva before becoming a Buddha. 
ta, f. presence, proximity. 

Abhimukhaya, Nom. P. yati, to face, Kir. xii, 

bhi-yucita. (57 

W*|*j| abhi--/muh, to lose consciousness, 
faint away, Susr. 

TH'jJ t$.aabhi-miirchila,mfn. augmented, 
intensified, Susr. ; excited, stirred up (as by passions) 
MBh. i, 7794. 

^f^abhi--/mri, A. (impf. -amriyata) to 
touch or defile while dying, TS. 

Abhi-mara, as, m. killing, slaughter, L. ; com- 
bat, L. ; treachery, mutiny, L. ; binding in fetters, L. 

Abhi-mrita, mfn. afflicted or rendered impure 
by the death of (instr.), defiled, Kath.; AivGf. 

^rftp|'S abhi/mriksh (impf. A. 3. eg. -a- 
mrikshata) to smear, anoint, MBh. xiii, 1486: 
Caus. (impf. i. sg. -amrikshayani), id., MBh. xiii, 

ITHIpJ abhi-/mrij (ind. p. -mrijya) to 
wipe, cleanse, Susr. : Caus. (impf. -amarjayat), id., 
R.iv, 6, 16. 

^rf>T^? abhi-/mrid (Ved. Imper. 2. sg. 
-mrila) to protect graciously from (abl .), R V. x, 2 5 , 3 . 

''''tS abhi--/mrid, to oppress, to devas- 
tate, destroy, MBh. &c.; (in astron.) to be in op- 
position to, VarBrS. 

Abhi-marda, as, m. devastation (of a country 
&c. by an enemy), MBh.; battle, L.; spirituous 
liquor, L. 

Abhi-mardana, mfn. (ifc.) oppressing ; (am), 
n. oppression. 

Abhi-mardin, mfn. (ifc.) oppressing, R .; one 
who devastates. 

"Srf^ST abhi- ^/mris, P. ( i . pi. -mrisamasi : 
Ved. Inf. -mriit, RV. ii, 10, 5) to touch, come in 
contact with, RV. &c. : A. -mrisate, id., RV. i, 
'45, 4, &e.: Caus. to cause to' touch, SankhSr.: 
Intens. (p. -marmriiat) 'to intend to bring in con- 
tact with one's self,' to long for (ace.), RV. iii, 3 S, 

Abhi-marsa (or less correctly abhl-marsha, 
Mn. viii, 352,&c.), as, m. touching, contact, Kum. 
&c.; (ifc. f. a), S5k.; grasping, seizing (as by the 
hair), BhP. 

Abhi-marsaka (or less correctly abhi-mar- 
Bhaka, R.), mfn. touching, coming in contact with. 

Abhi-marsana (or less correctly abhi-mar- 
shana, R.), am, n. touching, contact, KatySr. ; 
Yajn. &c. ; (mfn.), (ifc. ) = ablii-marsaka, R.; BhP. 

Abhi-mrishta, mfn. touched ; struck (as by a 
weapon), BhP. _j a> mm. 'born from (women) 
touched (by others),' illegitimate^), MBh. ii, 2422 
summoned, invited, BhP. 

1*1 <4 \ 


Abhimukhi (for abliimukha in comp. with 
*f\.tfivsA -Jblifi). karana, n. turningthe face 
towards, addressing, Pan. ii, 3, 47, Sch. 1/1., 
to turn the face towards, address ; to cause to turn 
the face forward, push forward, Das. bhuta, mfn. 
being in presence of or facing ; (said of the fate) being 
favourable to. 

"SrfWg^ abhi- Vmuc, P. -muncati, to let go, 
let loose, MBh. xii, 10949: A. to throw or shoot 
(as arrows), MBh. vii, 3967. 

abhi-mlata. See an-abhimldta. 
abhi- Vyaj, to honour with sacri- 
fices, Gobh. &c.; to orler (a sacrifice), MBh.; to 
honour (aor. A. 3. sg. -ayas/ita), RV. vi, 47, 25. 

AbhI-yashtavya, mfn. to be honoured with 
sacrifices, Gobh. 
Abhijya, mfn. id., L. ; (as), m. a god, L. 

wftnrr i . abhi-Vya, to go up to in a hos- 
tile manner, attack, assail, RV. i, 1 74, 5 (aor. Subj. 
-ydsishaf) ; A V. &c. ; to go up to, approach, obtain, 
MBh. &c.; to devote one's self to, take up (as/J- 
shatufam, 'heterodoxies'), BhP.: Caus. to cause to 
approach, send towards, BhP. 

2. Abhi-ya, mfn. going up to, approaching, L.; 
assailing, L. ; (said of a prince) ' going all round," 
i.e. vigilant, careful, MBh. 

Abhi-yata, mfn. approached ; attacked. 

Abhi-yStl, is, or -yStin, ;, m. an assailant. 
enemy, L. 

Abhi-yStrl, ta, m. id., R. ii, 2, 2:. 

Abki-yana, am, n. coming near, approaching. 
L. ; attacking, MBh. 

Abhi-ySyin, mfn. going towards, approaching 
(with ace. or ifc.) ; (ifc.) attacking, Ragh. xii, 43. 

TTHM]-^ abhi-Vyac, to ask for, solicit, 

Abhi-yacana, am, n. asking for, entreaty, re- 
quest ; (cf. satydbhiyacana.) 

Abhi-/acita, mfn. a?kcd for, requested. 



Abhi-yacna, f. id., I . 

^TTHTpT i . abhi- vA/iy, A. -yunkte,top\it to 
(as horses to a carriage) for a special purpose (ace.), 
SBr. : P. to put to (as horses) subsequently, SBr. : 
A. to summon, invite to (dat.), R. vii, 61, 9: P. to 
order, charge with (loc.), MBh. xiv, 2637 : A. 
(rarely P.) to encounter, attack, assail ; to accuse of 
(ace.), Mn.viii, 183, &c. : P. A. to undertake, apply 
to, make one's self ready to (ace. or Inf.): Caus. to 
furnish with, make anybody share in (instr.), MBh. 

Abhi-yukta, mfn. applied, intent on (loc.) ; dili- 
gent, versed in (loc.) ; appointed ; attacked (by an 
enemy), assailed ; blamed, rebuked, L. ; (in law) ac- 
cused, charged, prosecuted, a defendant, Yajn. &c. 

Abhi-ynffvan, mfn. attacking,, 45, 1 5;VS. 

2. Abhi-yuj, k, f. an assailant, enemy, RV. 

Abhi-ynjyamajia, mfn. (in law) being perse- 
cuted (as a defendant). 

Abhi-yoktavya, mfn. (in law) to be accused or 
prosecuted, Mn. viii, 50. 

AbM-yoktrl, mfn. assailing, attacking ; (/a), m. 
an enemy, Hit.; (in law) a plaintiff, claimant, pre- 
tender, accuser, Mn. viii, 52 & 58, &c. 

Abhi-yoga, as, m. application ; energetic effort, 
exertion, perseverance in, constant practice (with loc. 
or inf.) ; attack, assault, Kum. vii, 50, &c. ; (in law) 
a plaint, a charge, accusation, YJjn. &c. pattra, 
n. a petition or writing of complaint. 

Abhi-yogin, mfn. intent upon, absorbed in at- 
tacking ; (in law) accusing, Yajfi. ii, II ; (i), m. a 
plaintiff, prosecutor. 

Abhi-yogya, mfn. assailable, L. 

Abhl-yojana, am, n. putting to (as horses) sub- 
sequently, Say. on SBr. (cf. abhi-^yuj), 

Abhi-yojya, mfn. assailable. 

^rf^npl abhi-yuta, mfn. inclosed in (ace.), 
Nir. ii, 19. 

^rfT*> abhi-</yudh (pr. Subj. 2. sg. -yu- 
dhyas; aor. 2. sg. -yodhls, 3. sg. -dyodhit, 3. du. 
-yodhishtam, p. -yod/idnd) to fight against (ace.), 
RV.;toacquire by fighting, RV.;tofight,Hariv.;BhP. 

'WfatH abhi-i/raksh, P. A. -rdkshati, te 
(p. -rdkshamdna, RV. x, 157, 4) to guard, pro- 
tect, preserve, R V. &c. ; ' to govern or command ' (cf . 

Abhi-rakshana, am, n. guarding, protection, 
MBh. &c. 

Abhi-raksha, f. protection, VarBrS. 

Abhi-rakshita, mfn. protected, preserved, guard- 
ed ; governed, commanded, Bhag. &c. 

Abhi-rakshitri, mfn. one who preserves, a pro- 
tector of (gen.\ Mn. vii, 35. 

Abhi-rakshya, mfn. to be protected, VarBrS. 

^rf*TT?[ abhi-railj, -rajyate, to be pleased 
with (instr.) : Caus. P.'to colour* (cf.abhi-raHjita). 
Abhl-rakta, mfn. devoted to, MBh. &c. 
Abhi-raiijita, mfn. tinted, coloured, R. 

^TTHt* abhi- Vrdbh, A. (perf. 3. pl.-rebhire) 
to embrace, BhP. : Caus. perf. Pass. p. -rambhita, 
see below. 

Abhi-rambhita, mfn. embraced, BhP. ; seized 
by (ace. !), BhP. 

flfHl.^ abhi-\/ram, -ramate, to dwell, 
ASvGr.; to repose, SaftkhGf.; Mn. iii, 251 ; Ysjn. 
i, 251 ; to delight in, be delighted, MBh. &c. : Caus. 
-ramayati, to gladden, MBh. &c. ; to delight in, to 
be delighted. 

Abhi-rata, mfn. reposing, Yajn. i, 251 ; pleased 
or contented with (loc.), satisfied ; engaged in, at- 
tentive to (loc.), performing, practising. 

Abhi-rati, is, f. pleasure, delighting in (loc. or 
in comp.), Ragh. ix, ;, &c. ; N. of a world, Buddh. 

Abhi-ramana, am, n. delighting in, delighting. 

Abhi-ramaniya, mfn. delightful. 

Abhi-rama, mf(o)n. pleasing, delightful, agree- 
able, beautiful; (as), m., N. of Siva ; I . (am}, ind. 
so as to be agreeable to (in comp.), Sak. ; (for 2. 
abhi-ramam, see s. v. below.) tS, f. loveliness, 
beauty, Sis. i, 1 6, &c. ; the state of being agreeable 
to (in comp.), Mcar. tva, n. = -id. pasupati, 
m., N. of a poet. mani, n., N. of a drama of 
Sundaramisra ; (cf. Wilson, Hindu Theatre, ii, 395.) 

wf*i<.^ a4/u'-/i. ras, to neigh towards 
(ace.), KitySr. 

i . abhi- i/raj, -rajate, to shine, be 
brilliant, MBh. iii, 10960. 

2. Abhi-r&J, mfn. reigning everywhere, Kaus. 

Abhl-r5ja, us, m., N. of a Burmese king. 

Abhi-rashtra, mfn. overpowering or conquer- 
ing dominions, RV. x, 174, 5. 

^rfm*( abhi-Vradh, Caus. -radhayati, to 
propitiate, conciliate, SBr. &c. : Caus. Pass, -rddh- 
yate, to be rendered propitious, R. : Caus. Desid. 
-rirddhayishati, to intend to render propitious, SBr. 

Abhi-raddha, mfn. rendered propitious, propiti- 
ated, conciliated, Sii. i, 71. 

wf*Kii^ 2. abhi-ramam, ind. referring to 

^rfifPOT abhi-Vribh, -rebhati, to howl to- 
wards (ace.), BhP. (v. 1. for abhi-i/i. ru, q. v.) 

wfHfXM abhi--/rish (Subj. -rfshat) to fail, 
miscarry, AV. iv, 35, I. 

tlPM^ abhi-Vl ru, -rauti(v. 1. -rebhati) to 
roar or howl towards (ace.), BhP.; (Imper. 2. sg. -ru- 
va) AV. v, 20, 3. 

Abhi-ruta. mfn. filled with roaring or any noise, 
resounding with (in comp.), MBh. &c. ; (am), n. 
cries, R. ; singing (as of birds), R. 

*Tf>T^ i a4Ai-v'ruc, A. to be bright, shine, 
R. ; MSrkP. ; to please any one (dat.), Vikr. : Caus. 
P. to delight, amuse, MBh. xiii, 476 (v. 1. abhi- 
i/ram, Caus.): P. A. to be pleased with, approve 
of, be inclined to, like, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-rnci, is, f. delighting in, being pleased with 
(loc. or in comp.), BhP. &c. 

Abhi-rncita, mfn. pleasing, agreeable to ; pleased 
with, delighting in (loc. or in comp.) ; (cf. yatlia.- 
6/iirucita) ; (as ), m., N. of a prince of the VidyS- 
dharas, Kathas. 

Abhi-rucira, mfn. very bright, R. iii, 39, 5. 

^rfHT>r<rt abhi-rudila, mfn. cried, uttered 
in a lamenting manner, R. 

Abhi-roruda, mfn. causing tears (indicative of 
strong passion), A V. vii, 38, I . 

flfftTFV abhi-^/rudh, to keep off, MBh. 
viii, 4308. 
Abhi-roddhri, mfn. one who wards off, MaitrS. 

wfH^faH abhi-rushita, mfn. very angry, 
MBh. viii, 1747. 

^rfT^ abhi-ruh (perf. 3. pi. -ruruhuh) to 
ascend, mount, RV. v, 7, 5, &c. 

Abhl-rahya, ind. p. having ascended. 

^PH^iM abhi-rupa, mf(a)n. corresponding 
with (dat.), conformable to, Br. ; AitBr. ; pleasing, 
handsome, beautiful, AV. viii, 9, 9; Mn. &c. ; wise, 
learned, Mn. iii, 144 ; Sik. ; (as), m. the moon, L. ; 
Siva, L.; Vishnu, L. ; Ksmadeva, L. ta, f. the 
state of being learned or well educated, Kad. patt, 
m. ' having an agreeable master,' (a rite) to secure 
such a master in the next world, L. vat, mfn. 
handsome, beautiful, MBh. iii, 10070. 

AbM-rupaka, mfn. = abhi-riipa, PSn.viii, 1, 8, 
Sch. ; (gana sreny-ddi and sramanadi, q. v.) 

''H'fHX abhi-'/rai, to back towards (ace.), 

abhi-rorudd. See abhi-rudita. 

. -lakshyate, to 
appear, MBh. viii, 1045. 

Abhi-lakshaiva, /, n. the act of marking (with 
signs), Heat. 

Abhi-lakshita, mfn. fixed or indicated by (as 
by special signs) ; determined for, selected as, MBh. 
xii, 13223; indicated, pointed out, R. ii, 57, 2; ap- 
pearing, visible, Hariv. ; (an- or na, neg.) unseen, 
unperceived, MBh. i, 5823 ; Ysjn. iii, 59. 

Abhi-lakshya, mfn. to be fixed or indicated by, 
distinguishable through (in comp.) ; (am), ind. to- 
wards a mark or aim, R. ii, 63, 23. Abhilak- 
shyl-kritya, ind. p. (/! -*rO> aiming at a mark, 
directing towards. 

wfHBlF abhi- \//a;i3'A,Caus.tojump across 
or over ; to transgress, violate ; to injure, MBh. xii, 

Abhl-laighaua. am, n. jumping over (gen.), 

R. ; violating, acting contrary to (in comp.), MBh. 
xiii, 2194. 

Abhi-lanffhln, mfn. violating, acting contrary 
to (in comp.), MBh. xiii, 4964. 

^cf*f<VHabhi-i/lap,to talk or speak about, 
AitBr.; KaushBr. 

Abhi-lapya, mfn. See nir-abhilapya. 

Abhi-lapa, as, m. expression, word, Sah. &c. ; 
declaration (as of the object of a vow), Kad. ; (cf. 

WfVraH abhi-labh, A. to take or lay hold 
of, BhP. ; to reach, obtain, gain, MBh. &c.: Desid. 
(p. P. -lipsat) to intend to catch or obtain, MBh. i, 

Abhi-llpca, f. desire of obtaining. 

Vffif&^abhi-i/lash, -lashati, to desire or 
wish for (aco.), covet, crave. 

Abhi-lashana, am, n. craving after, desiring. 

Abhi-lasbamya, mfn. desirable, to be coveted. 

Abhi-lashita, mfn. desired, wished ; (am), n. 
desire, wish, will. 

Abhi-iesha (or less correctly abhl-laa),<7*,m. 
(ifc. f. a), desire, wish, covetousness, affection (with 
loc. or ifc.) 

Abhi-lashaka, mfn. wishing, desiring (with 
ace.), R. 

Abhi-lashin, mfn. id. (with loc. or ifc.), Sak. 
&c. ; (less correctly abhi-ldsin, Megh. &c.) 

Abhi-lashuka, mf(</)n. id. (with ace. [Kir.] or 
ifc. [Kathas.]) 

^rftiTpJ'R abhi-lava, as, m. (v/ifi), cutting, 
reaping, mowing, Pan. iii, 3, 28. 

1 ?rf>Tfo^, abhi-Vlikh, to engrave, write 
upon, draw, paint : Caus. to cause to paint, have any- 
thing painted, Kathas. ; to cause to write down, Yajii. 
i, 318. 

Abhi-lekhana, am, n. writing upon, inscribing. 

Abh.i-lekb.ita, am, n. a written document, Yajn. 
ii, 149. 

^rfTf<?H.a6-/Kp, to smear with, TS.; 
Kaus.: Caus. id., MBh. xiii, 7427. 

^rf>T^t abhi-*/li, -Kyate, to adhere to, 
cling to (ace.), MBh. ; Das. 

Abbi-lina, mfn. adhering to, clinging to (ace.), 
Megh. &c. ; 'adhered to,' chosen (as a seat by birds 
or bees), Hariv. ; Ragh. iii, 8. 

^TTH'cyi. abhi-^/lup (p. -lumpat) to rob, 
plunder, BhP. 
Abhi-lupta, mfn. disturbed, injured. 

^ff*T(igXjibhi-'/lubh, Caus. -lobhayati, to 
entice, allure. 

^sfHe^lVH abhi-lulita, mfn. touched or 
grazed by (anything) ; shaken about, agitated, Sak. 
rlT abhi-lutd, f. a kind of spider.Susr. 

Ai-v/fot.Caus. (p. -lokayat)to 
view, look at (from a height), R. vi, 2, 7. 

declare or utter a verse with reference to,' only perf. 
Pass. p. abhy-ukta, q.v.; to say to (ace.), tell, 
: &c. 

abhi-vancita, mfn. cheated, de- 
ceived, MBh. v, 7506. 

'SfH^iT abhi-vdt, mfn. containing the word 
abhi, SBr. 

wf>T^!j abhi-Vvad, P.(rarely A., e.g. MBh. 
v, 923) to address or salute with reverence, SBr. 
&c. ; to declare with reference to, express by, name, 
call, SBr. &c. ; to say, speak, BhP. ; Up. : Caus. -vd- 
dayati, te, to address or salute reverently ; to pre- 
sent one's self to (dat.), SankhGr. : A. to salute 
through another person (ace. or instr.), Pan. i, 4, 53, 
Comm. : P. to cause to recite, BhP.; 'to cause to 
sound," play (on an instrument), MBh. iii, 14386. 

Abhi-vadana, am, n. salutation, MBh. iii, 1835 ; 
addressing, Comm. on Kum. vi, 2. 

Abhi-vSda, as, m. reverential salutation, Mn. ii, 
1 20 seqq. ; Gaut. ; (v. 1. ati-vddd) opprobrious or 
unfriendly speech, abuse, MBh. xii, 9972. 

Abhi-vSdaka, mfn. a saluter, saluting, Comm. 


on Mn. ii, 125 ; having the intention to salute, N. ; 
(cf. abhi-vandaka); civil, polite, L. 

Abhi-vadana, am, n. respectful salutation (in- 
cluding sometimes the name or title of the person so 
addressed and followed by the mention of the person's 
own name) ; salutation (of a superior or elder by a 
junior or inferior, and especially of a teacher by his 
disciple ; in general it is merely lifting the joined 
hands to the forehead and saying aham abhivddaye, 
I salute). sila, mfn. one who habitually salutes, 

Abhi-vadaniya, mfn. deserving respectful salu- 
tation, MBh. iii, 10035 > (said OI> the name) used for 
the salutation, AsvGr ; Gobh. 

Abhi-vadayitri, mfn. saluting respectfully, 
Comm. on Mn. ii, 123. 

Abhi-vadita, mfn. saluted respectfully. 

Abhi-vadin, mfn. telling, enunciating, describ- 
ing, Nir. ; (f), m. an explainer, interpreter, MaitrUp. 

Abhi-vadya, mfn. to be respectfully saluted, 
MBh. &c. 

^jf>T^V abhi-i/vadh (aor. -avadhit) to 
strike, MBh. ; R. 

'Srfa^H abhi-Vvan (impf. 3. pi. -avanvan) 
to long for, desire, RV. i, 51, 2. 

Abhi-vanya [TBr.] or abhivSnya-vatsa 
[AitBr.] (or apivanya-vatsa [Kaus.]), f. a cow 
who suckles an adopted calf; (cf. also ni-vdnya, &c.) 

^sfir^T abhi-Vvand, A. (rarely P.) to sa- 
lute respectfully, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-vandaka, mfn. having the intention to 
salute, Jain. 

Abhi-vandana, am, n. saluting respectfully, 
MBh. &c. 

z -v ap (impf. 3. pi. -vapdnta; 
Ved. ind. p. -tipya] to scatter over, cover with (instr.), 
RV. ii, 15, 9 & vii, 56, 3. 

>an,tospitupon,TS.; SBr. 

ht-vayas, mfn. very youthful, 
fresh, RV. x, 160, 1. 

^rfa^TaiAi-t)Brnana, am, n. description, 
Abhl-varnita, mfn. described, MBh. ; Susr. 

'SfW^'T abhi-</valg, to jump towards, 
MBh. vi, 3265 ; (said of boiling water) to bubble up, 
AV. xii, 3, 29. 

'SrfaoTS^ abhi-/vas, -vashti (perf. A. -va- 
vaie, p. I. -vdvasdnd, RV. i, 164, 28 ; for 2. -vdva- 
sand see a/>/ii-Vvds"), P._to rule or be master over 
(ace.), RV. ii, 25, 3: P. A. to long for, desire, RV. 

^rff^ i.abhi-V^.vas, -vaste, to wrap 
one's self up in (ace.), Kaus. : Caus. (impf. -dvdsa- 
yaf) to clothe, cover, RV. ; TS. &c. 

Abhi-vasa, as, m. covering, Nyayam. 

Abhi-vasana, am, n. id., Comm. on TS. & on 

Abhi-vasas, ind. over the garment, SBr. ; (as), 
n. (scil. ailgirasdm) ' the cover of the Angiras,' N. 
of a Saman. 

Abhi-vasya, mfn. to be covered, TBr. 

2. abhi-VS- vas. See alhy-ushita. 
abhi-\/vah (3. pi. -vdhanti; Pot. 
3. pi. -vaheyuh; aor. Subj. 2. sg. -vakshi, 3. du. 
-volham [RV. viii, 32, 29 & 93, 24]) to convey or 
carry near to or towards, RV. ; SBr. ; AitBr. : Caus. 
-vdhayati (incorrectly for ati-v), to pass (time), 

Abhi-vahana, am, n. carrying near to, Nir. 

Abhivaha-tas, ind. in consequence of the flow- 
ing towards, TS. 

Abhi-vahya, am, n. conveyance, transmission, 
Mn. i, 94. 

Abhi-vodhri, dha, m. one who conveys towards, 

Abhy-udhi, is, f. conveying towards, TBr. 

^rftr^T abkt-t/ (perf. -vavau, SBr.) to 
blow upon or towards, RV. vii, 35, 4 & x, 1 69, 1 ; 
SBr. &c. 

Abhi-vatam, ind. windwards, SBr. 

rTM<ii>^ abhi-t/vanch, to long for, desire, 
MBh. &c. : Caus. id., MBh. xii, 2907. 

Abhi-vancha, f. longing for, desire (ifc.), KathJs. 
Abhi-vanchita, am, n. wish, desire, R. &c. 

wfH^lH abhi-vdta, mf(5)n.( */vai), ill, sick, 

abhi-vanya. See abhi-'/van. 

abhi-yvas (aor. 3. pi. -avma- 
santa perf. 3. pi. -vavdsire or -vdvasre, p. 2 . ~vd- 
vasdnd[RV.x, 123,3; c{ - athi-</vai]) tolow.(as 
a cow) or roar towards, RV. ; Nir. 

Abhi-vasat, mfn. lowing (as a cow) or roaring 
towards, MBh. ; VarBrS. 

Abhi-vasin. See bastabhivdsin. 

WHfaTliT abhi-vikrama, mfn. endowed 
with great courage, R. 

^rfvrfafEP^ abhi-vi-i/kship, to flap one's 
wings over, ApSr. 

Abhi-vi-kshepa, as, m. flapping one's wings 
over, Comm. on ApSr. 

Wf>lf^n abhi-vi-*/khya,to look at, view, 
VS. ; Gobh. 

Abhi-vikhyata, mfn. universally known, re- 
nowned, known as, called, MBh. &c. 

wfafaVSalhi-vi-Vcaksh, -cashte,to look 
towards, RV. iii, 55, 9; AV. ii, 10, 4. 

^TfWfa-l{. abhi-vi-Vcar, A. (Subj. 3. pi. 
-caranta) to go near to (ace.), RV. iii, 4, 5 : Caus. 
-cdrayati, to consider, reflect upon, Nir. 

^rfafas^ abhi-</vij (aor. Subj. A. -vikta) 
to tip over (a vessel), RV. i, 162, 15. 
Abhi-veffa, as, m. tottering, vacillation, RV. x, 

a;, i. 

^rfWfksi^ abhi-vi-*/jar}h, Intens. -jdngahe 
(Ved. 3. sg.) to struggle, move in convulsions, AV. 
v, 19, 4- 

wfaftTsT abhi-ci- </jna (impf. I. pi. -ajani- 
masf) to be aware of, perceive, AitBr. 

Abhi-vijnapta, mfn. notified, made known. 

Abhi-vl-jnaya, ind. p. being aware of, perceiv- 
ing, MBh. &c. 

^rf>rf^3t<^ abhi-vi-Vjval, to flame or blaze 
against or opposite to, Bhag. 

abhi-vlta. 69 

WfTf^TI5^a6At-t!t-\/pas, -pdsyati, to look 
at, view, RV. ; SBr. ; Nir. ; to look hither, RV. iii, 

abhi-vi-*/tan (Imper. 2. sg. -ta- 
nu) to stretch (the string) over or across (the bow), 
AV. i, I, 3: P. A. (3. pi. -tanvanli, -tanvate] to 
stretch over, cover, SBr. ; SankhSr. 

'Slfirf^ i.abhi-/l.vid, Caus. -vedayati, 
to report, relate, R. (v. 1.) 

^fftifqrj 2. abhi-*/3. vid, to find, obtain, 
SBr.: A. (3. pi. -vindate) to know, MBh. iii, 1 3698. 

TOfilfaiiftf'TrT abhi-vi-dipita, mfn. entirely 
inflamed, MBh. xiv, 2033. 

to show to (gen.), ApSr. 

wfWf^&r^ abhi-vi-/i.dyut (aor. -dyaut) 
to break open, open by force, RV. iv, 4, 6. 

^ffWfVjJH abhi-vi-druta, mfn. (\/2. dru), 
run towards, MBh. vi, 1 776 ; run away, fled, MBh. 
vi, 4614. 

^ffHftWT abhi-vi-</dha, to bring near to 
or in contact with (ace.), SBr. 

Abhi-vidhi, is, m. complete comprehension or 
inclusion, Pan. ii, I, 13; (au), loc. ind. inclusively, 
PSn. iii, 3, 44 & v, 4, 53. 

Abhi-vi-hita, mfn. covered entirely, LSty. 

^fvff3V}^abhi-vi-</i.dhav, to run near 
to, RV. x, 29,^3. 

^rfWftHeJ abhi-vi-*/nad, to raise a loud 
noise, R. 

^rfHftltflrl abhi-vinlta, mfn. well disci- 
plined, well educated, versed in (loc.), R. &c. 

^Tf>Tforp![ abhi-vi-</nud, Caus. -nodayati, 
to gladden, cause to rejoice, MBh. xii, 898. 

abhi-vi-panyu, mfn. (= aihi- 

kaimishmika-karma-rahita') absolutely indiffer- 
ent, BhP. 

abhi-vi-i/budh, -budhyate, to 
notice, learn from. 

abhi-vi--/bhaj, A. to distribute, 


abhi-vi- \/bha, -bhati, to illumi- 
nate, RV. vii, 5, ^ ; AV. xiii, 2, 42. 

^lfff^H*^a4Ai-m'- -/month (Opt.-moMni- 
ydf) to grind, triturate, SBr. 

^ffWr^H i ^abhi-vimana, mfn. endowed with 

the faculty called abhimdna ('self-reference'), ChUp. 

^jfirf *j >^ abhi-vi- \/mrij (ind. p. -mrijya) 
to rab in, rub with, KauS. 

^fftrfsiTIT abhi-vi-Vya, -yati, to approach, 
visit, RV. i, 48, 7. 

^Tfvf'KU^ abhi-vi-Vraj (=pi-\/r<y, 'to 
govern'), Nir.; to shine, be radiant, MBh.&c. 

Abhi-virajita, mfn. quite bright or brilliant, 

'sfaf^T^ abhi-vi- \/ rue, A. (impf. -aroca- 
ta) to shine or be brilliant over, MBh. vi, 1669 (v. 1. 
ati-vi- ^ruc). 

abhi-vi- Vli>\nd.p.-ldpya) 
to cause to melt, Suir. 

^rf>?r<Tr^ abhi-vi- </ 2. vas (Pot. -ucchet) 
to shine forth during or at the time of (ace. ), AsvSr. ; 
PBr. ; (A. -uccheta) SankhSr. 

abhi-ti-vriddhi, is, f. increased 

prosperity, VarBrS. 

^SffWfqiH^ abhi-Vvis, Caus., perf. Pass. p. 
-vesita, 'caused to enter upon/directed towards, BhP. 

Abhl-vishta, mfn. 'entered by,' seized by, being 
in the power of (in comp.), R. 

^ffafa^f^ abhi-vi- V sans, -sdysati, to di- 
vide (verses) in reciting, TS. ; (cf. vi-^/sans,') 

'WfafVstflp^ abhi-vi-sankin, mfn. afraid 
of (abl.) 

TRfyfayi abhi-vi- </ in, Pass. (impf. -aslrya- 
ta) to be torn to pieces, MBh. vii, 43/8. 

^rfWf^^if abhi-visruta, mfn. widely cele- 
brated, MBh. &c. 

to render confident, MBh. iii, 1002 r ; Susr. 

abhi-vi-shanj (Vsaftj), Pass. 
-shajjate, to be entirely devoted to, have one's heart 
set upon (loc.), B.hP. 

wfirfa?T abhi-vi-shtha (\/stha), A. (2. sg. 
-tishthase, perf. 3. sg. -tasthe) to extend one's self 
towards or over, R V. v, 8, 7 & vi, 21, 7* 

to pour water upon, moisten, Kaus. 

^ifwfqtj*^ abhi-vi- </srij, A. (impf. 3. pi. 
-asrijanta} to throw or shout towards (ace.), Kath. ; 
to assume from (abl.), KaushUp. 

to divide, AsvSr. 

*rfT?ft abhi-vt (Vi), (3. pi. abM v( j/anti) 
to come towards from different parts, RV. vi, 9, 5. 

^tfa*ft^ abhi-vtksh (Viksh), A. -vikshate 
(rarely P., e. g. impf. -vyaikshat, AitUp.) to look 
at, view, perceive, MBh.; Mn. &c. ; to examine, 
Susr. ; to look upon as (nom.), behave as (nom.) 
with regard to (ace.), MBh. xv, 379; to be affected 

Abhi-vikshita, mfn. seen, perceived. 

Abhi-vikshya, ind. p. having seen or observed. 

^iftTSfti^ abhi-Vvij, Caus. to fan, MBh. 
xii, 6347, &c. 

'SfiiqYrt abhi-vita, mf(o)n. (\/l.ri), de- 
sired, R V. vii, 2 7, 4 ; driven, impelled by (in comp.), 




abhi-rira, mfn. surrounded by 
heroes, RV. x, 103, 5. 

wfvra i.abhi-\/l.vri, Caus. -vdrayati, to 
keep off, fend off, MBh. ' 

1 . Abhi-vrita, mm. surrounded by, R. vi, 92,83. 
Abhi-vrita, infn. surrounded by, bordered by, 

RV. ; (said of a cow) covered by (the bull), RV. i, 
164, 29. 

wfW^ 2.abhi-</2.vri, -vrinite, to choose, 
prefer, Kath. ; (perf. 3. pi. -vavrirc) to select, MBh. 
xii, 4861. 

2. Abhi-vrita, mfn. chosen, selected, MBh. v, 

wfij^tT abhi-</vnt, to go towards, ap- 
proach, SBr. &c. ; to attack, RV. v, 31, 5 ; (ind. p. 
-vrltya} x, 1 74, 2, &c. ; to be victorious (perf. -v d- 
vritf), RV. x, 1 74, I ; to turn up, arise, R. &c. ; to 
take place, happen, exist, MBh. &c. : Caus. P. (aor. 
-avivritat) to conquer, RV. x, 174, 3; AV.; 'to 
render victorious in,' place over (dat.), RV. x, 174, 
I ; to drive over (with a cart), RV. ii, 34, 9. 

Abhi-varta, as, m. ( = abhi-v") N. of a Saman, 

Abhi-vartin, mfn. coming towards, approach- 
ing, Hariv. ; going towards (in comp.), R. 

Abhi-vritti, it, f. coming towards, TBr. 

Abhi-varta, mfn. rendering victorious, RV. x, 
1 74, 1 & 3 ; (ds), m. victorious attack, victory, VS. ; N. 
of different Slmans (especially of the_hymn RV. x, 
1 74) supposed to render victorious, AsvGr. ; L5ty. 

Abhi-vrit, mfn. ' approaching' (Say.), RV. i, 
35, 4; the form (ace. m. abht-vritam) is however 
better derived fr. abhf-vrita by BR. & Gmn. 

^gfa^V abhi-*/vrid/i, to grow higher than 
(ace.), surpass, RV.; AV. (i, 29, I, oerf. -vavridht 
for -vavritt, el". RV. i, 174, i ), &c. ; to grow up, 
grow or increase more and more, MBh. &c. ; to 
prosper, Mn. &c. : Caus. P. (aor. -avivridhat) to 
increase, strengthen, render prosperous, AV. i, 29, I 
& 3 (loral>Ai-Vvrit,c(. RV. x, 1 74, 1 & 3); MBh.&c. 

Abhi-vriddha, mfn. increased, augmented. 

Abhi-vriddhi, is, (. growth, increase, VarBrS. ; 
Susr.; increase, prosperity, MBh.; Mn. vii, 109. 

*rf*^ abhi-\/vri$h, P. (aor. -dvarshit) to 
rain upon, RV. vii, 103, 3 ; AV. &c. : P. (sometimes 
A.) to bedew, cover with (instr.) a shower (as of ar- 
rows or blossoms, &c.), MBh. &c. ; (said of gods) 
to cause to rain, VarBrS. &c. 

Abhi-varslia, as, m. rain, BhP. 

Abhi-varshana, am, n. raining upon, Kaus.; 
AsvSr. ; raining, R. ; (cf. kdmdbhivarshana.) 

Abhi-varshin, mm. raining, R. ; BhP. 

Abhi-vrishta, mfn. rained upon, RV. vii, 103, 
4, &c. ; covered with (instr.) ; (said of clouds) having 
rained, MBh. vii, 8104 ; also (am), n. impers. it has 
been raining) VarBrS. ; (cf. yath&bhivrishiam.') 

'Hfa^ abhi-Vvrih, Caus. (Imper. z. sg. 
-vritthaya) to strengthen, encourage, MBh. vii, 

abhi-vegd. See 
abhi-vedhin. See abhi-*/vyadh. 

abhi-Svesht, Caus. to cover with 
(instr.), Kathas. &c. 

^jfnM^ abhi-vy-i/afij. Pass, -vyajyate, to 
be manifested, become manifest. 

Abhi-vyakta, mfn. manifest, evident, distinct, 
SSk. ; Ragh. &c. ; (am), ind. manifestly, Ysjfl. ; N. 

Abhi-vyakti, is, f. manifestation, distinction, 
Pan. viii, I, 15; Sin. &c. 

Abhi-vyaiijaka, mfn. revealing, manifesting, 
BhP. ; Sah. ; indicative, showing. 

Abhi-vyanjana, am, n. making manifest, L. 

1 wfW>>^ abhi- Jvyadh, P. (rarely A., e.g. 
MBh. viii, 4591) to wound, TS. &c. 

Abhi-viddha, mfn. wounded, MBh. iv, 1691. 

Abhi-vedhin, mfn. (in geom.) cutting (as one 
line another). 

Abhi-vyadhin, mfn. wounding, AV. i, 19, I. 

fjftr^H abhi-vy/an, -aniti, to breathe 
through, to fill with breath, SBr/; (aor. -anil) to 
breathe upon, SBr. ; Ksjh. 

abhi-vy-a-Vi-da (impf. -vy&da- 

ifdt) to open one's mouth for swallowing (with ace.), 
SBr. ; Kith. 

Abhi-vyadana, am, n. 'swallowing,' i.e. sup- 
>ressing (a vowel), RPrat. 

sfTrrJ. abhi-vy-\/ap (ind. p. -ryapya), 
(said of a rule) to extend to (ace.), have value unto 
[ace.), Pan. ii, 1, 134, Sch. 

Abhi-vyapaka, mfn. (in Gr.) extending to (ace. ; 
as a rule), including, comprehending. 

Abhi-vyapin, mfn. id. 

Abhi-vyapta, mfn. included, comprehended. 

Abhi-vyapti, is, f. inclusion, comprehension 
{=abhi-vi-dhi, q.v.), Pan. vi, 4, 53, Sch. 

1. AbM-vySpya, ind. p. up to a certain point, 

2. Abhi-vy5py, mfn. to be included, Susr. 

V?fnjlf abhi-vy-a-*/hn, to utter, pro- 
nounce, TS. &c. ; to speak or converse about (ace.), 
TS. &c. : Caus. to cause to pronounce, Kaus.; to 
pronounce, Mn. ii, 172. 

Abhi-vyaharana, am, n. = abhi-vyahara, 
Comm. on Nir. 

Abhi-vyahara, as, m. pronunciation, utterance, 
ChUp. &c. ; an articulate significant word or phrase, 

Abhi-vyaharin, mfn. (ifc. e. g. kokilAbliivya- 
hdrin) speaking like (a cuckoo), Pan. vi, 2 , 80, Sch. 

Abhi-vyahrita, mfn. pronounced, spoken ; ad- 
dressed, SBr. ; (am), n. what has been said, AitUp. ; 
what is being said, Pan. iii, 2, 188, Comm. 

Abhi-vySliritya, mfn. to be said, AitBr. 

SSfiTO'Er abhi-vy-i/l . uksh (Opt. -ukshet) 
to sprinkle towards (ace.), SBr. 

faBgZf{abhi-vy-ud-'/2. as, to give up or 
abandon entirely, BhP. 

rfi^M abhi-</vye (Imper. 2. sg. A. -vya- 
yarua') to wrap one's self into (ace.), RV. iii, 53, 1 9. 
fXrfH^ abhi-</vraj (p. -vrdjat) to go up 
to (ace.), RV. ; (ind. p. -vrajya) to pass through, 
Kaus. ; to go to (ace.), BhP. 

^rfa^f abhi-vlangd, as, m. turning off, 
shaking off, RV. i, 133, 4. 

^rfar^t a&At-A/flfi (impf. -avliyata} to sink 
down, fall down, PBr. 

^lfT$T^ abhi- A/ 'sans, to accuse, blame, 
calumniate, TS. &c. ; (2. sg. -Sansasi; ind. p. -iasya} 
to praise, R. ii, II, 16 & 23, 8. 

Abhi-sansaka, mfn. accusing, L. ; insulting, L. 

Abhi-sansana, am, n. accusation ; insult (with 
gen.), Mn. viii, 268 ; ' accusation," ifc. e. g. anritb- 
bhisansana [Gaut.] or mithy&bhisansana 
ii, 289] a false accusation. 

Abhi-sansin. See mithyabhisansin. 

Abhi-sas (only instr. -sdsd), f. accusation, im- 
precation, RV. x, 164, 3. 

Abhi-sasta, mfn. accused, blamed, calumniated ; 
defamed, infamous, MBh. Sec.; threatened, Mn. xi, 
1 1 2 ; see also s. v. 

Abhi^sastaka, mfn. accused, defamed, Yajn.; 
caused by imprecation (as a disease), Susr. 

Abhl-sasti, is, f. curse, imprecation, damnation 
RV. ; AV. ; effect of imprecation, misfortnne, evil, 
RV. ; VS. ; one who curses or injures, RV. ; AV. ; 
blame, SBr. ; 'accusation'(ifc.; see mitliySbhisasti); 
calumny, defamation, L.; asking, begging, L. krit, 
mfn. accusing, ApSr. -catana, mfn. keeping off 
imprecation, RV. iii, 3, 6. pa, mfn. defending from 
imprecations, RV. ; VS. ; AV. -pavan, mfn. id., 
RV. ; VS. 

Abhi-sastenya, &c. See dn-ab/iiiasta. 

^rfir^T^; abhi-*/sank, A. (rarely P., e.g. 
aor. Subj. 2. sg. -sahkil), MBh. v, 5000: but A. 
-saiikithah, MBh. iii, 1 166) to doubt, suspect (with 
ace. ; rarely with gen., e. g. Mn. viii, 96), have doubts 
about (ace. ; rarely gen., e. g. MBh. v, 6078). 

Abhi-sanka, f. suspicion (with gen.), R. ; appre- 
hension, fear, Kathas. 

Abhi-sankita, mfn. having doubts ; suspecting ; 
being alarmed, being in solicitude (v. 1. ati-sahkita}, 
Hariv. ; Bhatt. ; (am), ind. (an-, neg.) without fear 
or shyness, MarkP. 

Abhi-sankin, mfn. doubting, suspecting, MBh. 

Abhi-saiikya, mfn. suspicious, MBh. iii, 1167; 
(an-, neg.) MBh. ii, 190. 

so;>, P. to curse, MBh. &c.: 
Caus. (ind. p. -sdpya'} to conjure, implore with so- 
lemnity, Yajii. ii, 108. 

Abhi-sapana, /, n. false accusation,calumny,L. 

Abhi-sapta, mfn. cursed, accursed, calumniated, 
reviled, defamed, MBh. ; Hariv. &c. [often v.l. athi- 
sasta~\ ; (cf. mithyabhilafta.') 

Abhi-iapa, as, m. curse, Nir. &c. ; charge, ac- 
cusation, Yajn. ii, 1 2 & 99(cf. abhl-sapa & mithya- 
bhiiapd); false accusation, calumny, L. Jvara.m. 
fever caused by a curse ; (cf. abhi-iastaka at end.) 

Abhi-sapana, am, n. pronouncing a curse, L. 

Abhl-sapa, as, m. charge, accusation, Yajfl. ii, 
1 10. 

WfM 51^*1 alhi-salidaya, Nom. P. (pr. p. 
yat) to name, call, AsvSr. : Pass, -sabdyate, to be 
called, MarkP. 

Abhi-sabdita, mfn. announced, mentioned, Mn. 
vi, 82 ; named, MBh. ; Susr. 

fcA'- </sam,-samyati,to be calmed, 
cease, MBh. xii, 6020. 

abhi-sasta, mfn. perf. Pass. p. fr. 
abhi- '/sans, q.v., but sometimes (e. g. Comm. on 
MBh. v, 1 277 & on Mn. xii, 112) derived fr. abhi- 
^/sas, which does not occur. 

RV. vi, 54, 2 ; to rule, govern, MBh. xiii, 4582. 
Abhi-sastri, mfn. one who assigns, allots, TBr. 

^rfHfsnCTa&Ai-\/sjtsA, teach (with 
ace.), MBh. i, 8033 ; (with double ace.) Hariv. 4910. 

^rfH^ft \.abhi-i/, to lie upon (ace.), 

^rfnft 2. alM-Vz- si (Imper. 3. sg. A. 
-styatdm) to fall down upon, TBr. 

^rfa$fhT abhi-sita or abhi-syitla, mfn. 
(*/syai), cold, chilly, Pin. vi, i, 26, Kas. 

Abhi-sina or abhi-syana, mfn. coagulated, 
congealed, Pan. vi, I, 26. 

^rf>T?ra i. abhi- 1/ 1. sue, to mourn, MBh. 
xii, 11242. 

^rff$ra 2.abhi-</2. sue (Imper. -socatu; 
Subj. 2 . sg. -sofas) to flame towards, burn, consume, 
RV. ; VS. ; KatySr. ; to burn, torment, AV. ; VS. ; 
KatySr. : Caus. (aor. Subj. 3. pi. -siisucan) to burn, 
consume (by fire), VS. ; TS. : Intens. (p. -tisutdna), 
id., RV. x, 87, 9 & 14. 

Abhi-soka, as, m. ardour, AV. i, 25, 3. 

Abhi-soca, mfn. shining, glowing with heat, AV. 

iv, 37, ' 

Abhi-socana, am, n. a tormenting spirit or 

demon, AV. ii, 4, 2 & iv, 9, 5. 

Abhi-socayishnu, mfn. causing heat or tor- 
ments, AV. vi, 20, 3. 

, mfn. successful, having 
an advantage over (as one wrestler over another), TBr. 

'?rf*nw abAt-v / 'sM&A, A. (part. f. -siirtbha- 
mdna) to adorn one's self with (ace.), RV. i, 92, 
10 ; (3. pi. -sobhante) to be bright, Hariv. 

Abiii-sobhita, mfn. adorned, looking bright or 
smart, Hariv. ; Kathas. 

'HfHSrtfiCafeW-saari, ind. towards Sauri (or 

^(fv(T$l(abhi-/scut,Ca.\is. P. (aor.-acMscu- 
taf) to sprinkle with, Kityjr. ; Kaus. : A. to scatter 
over one's self, cover one's self with (instr.), Kaus. 

^jfroTI abhi-V snath, to pierce through, 
(Ved. Inf. [abl.] -snAthah [with abibhet, he was 
afraid] of being pierced through), RV. x, 1 38, 5 ; 
(Gmn., combining abhi-sndtkah with vAjrdt, takes 
ab/iisndt/i as an adj. 'piercing through, killing"). 

^tf^^nifabhi-sydta and -syana. See abhi- 
slta and -sina. 

wfirfw al>lii--/sri (aor. -nsrait) to spread, 
extend (as brightness), AV. xiii, 2, 9 ; (perf. 3. pi. 
-sisriyuh) to resort to, MBh. i, 8274. 

I. Abhi-sri, mfn. (Ved. du. -sriya) attached to 
each other, RV. i, 144, 6 ; AV. viii, 2, 14^; arrang- 
ing, putting in order (with ace.), TBr. ; (is), m. (or 
f., RV. x, 130, 5) one who arranges, puts or keeps 
in order, RV. 




sh (ahl. -srishas), f. a liga- 
ture, RV. viii, i, 12. 

^rf*T^ft 2. aithi-Vsri (3. pi. -mnanti, p. 
-SrTndt ; plusq. 3. pi. -aiisrayuh) to mix, mingle, 
RV. ; -irinati, 'to prepare or dress,' produce, cause, 
TBr.; (by BR. placed under abhi-Vsri.) 

3. Abhi-sri, nom. pi. -sriyas, f. anything added 
by mingling, RV. ix, 79, 5 & 86, 27. 

ifffH^ o6AJ-</sr (p. -srinvat) to hear, 
learn, Hariv. 4583 ; BhP. 

Abhi-sxavana, am, n. repeating Vedic texts 
(while sitting down to a Sraddha), L. 

Abhi-srava, as, m. hearing (a prayer), grant- 
ing an answer, RV. ^185, IO & x, 1 2, I. 

Abhl-srata, m(\a)n. renowned, AV. vi, 138, 1. 

Abhi-srntya, ind. p. hearing of, learning, MBh. 

p. -svasdt; Ved.Inf. 
(abl.) -ivasas) to blow towards or hither, R V. i, 1 40, 
5 & 92, 8 ; (p. -svasat) to whistle, R. ; to groan, R. 
Abhi-svasa, as, m. blowing (into a name), 

(-v/sac), A. -sacate, 
to turn to, be favourable to (ace.), RV. : P. -sis/ia- 
kti, to approach for revering, RV. vii, 67, 3. 

2. Abhi-shac,m(acc. -acam ; n. pi. -rttvzj)fn. fol- 
lowing, accompanying, RV. vi, 63, 9 ; AV. xviii, 4, 
44 ; paying attention to, devoted to, favourable, RV. 

abhi-shanj(*/sanj), -shajati(Pan. 
viii, 3, 65, Sch.) 'to be in close contact with,' have 
a claim to or lay claim to, MBh. iv, 95 (v. 1. abhi- 
*/2. pat)', to put a slur upon (ace.), revile, curse. 

Abhi-shakta, mfn. possessed by evil spirits, L. ; 
humiliated, defeated, L. ; reviled, cursed. 

Abhi-shanga, as, m. (ifc. f. a, Ragh. xiv, 77) 
propensity or inclination to, BhP. ; the state of being 
possessed by evil spirits (cf. bhiitdbhishahga) or 
disturbed in mind, MBh.; humiliation, defeat, MBh.; 
Ragh. ; Kum. ; curse or imprecation, MBh, ; false 
accusation, calumny, L. (cf. mithyabhishahga) ; 
oath, L. ; embracing, L, - jvara, m. a fever sup- 
posed to be caused by evil spirits. 

Abhi-shangrin, mfn. humiliating, defeating, 
MBh. iv, 2108. 

Abhi-shanga, as, m. curse or imprecation, L. 

abhi-shad (\/sad), -sidati, to be- 
siege, RV. ix, 7, 5 ; Ved. (impf.) -ashidat or -asi- 
dat, &c., Pin. viii, 3, 119, in classical Sanskrit only 
forms with sh are allowed, Pin. viii, 3, 63 & 1 1 8. 

Abhi-shaima, mfn. besieged, oppressed, TS.; 

abhi-shava, &c. See alhi-shu. 

i),(perf. Subj.-sa- 
sdhat, Prec. 2. sg. -sdsahishthas, p. P. -sahvds & 
A. -sehtina) to overpower, conquer, RV. ; (aor. A. 
I. sg. -asdkshi] to gain, win, RV. x, 159, I ; Kaus.; 
Nir.; to tolerate, allow, pardon, (Pass, -saAyate)S$h. 

Abhi-shaha, as, m. = nigraha (q. v.), L. 

Abhi-shahya, ind. p. with V 1 . k*i. 'to treat 
by force,' commit a rape, violate (a female), Mn. 
viii, 367. / 

Abba-shah, m(nom. -shat)fn. overpowering, 
RV. vii, 4, 8 ; AV.; Nir.; (-shdhd), instr. ind. by 
force, SBr. 

Abhi-shaha, as, m. pi., N. of a people, MBh. 
viii, 137. 

abM-shata, mfn. gained, RV. v, 
41, 14. 

abhi-shic ('/sic). P., rarely A. 
(e. g. MBh. vii, 4593 ; Bhatt.) to sprinkle, water, 
wet, RV. i, 121, 6 (pr. p. -siAcdf), &c. ; to conse- 
crate, anoint, appoint by consecration, AV. &c. : A. 
(Imper. 2. sg. -shiilcasua, sometimes v. 1. Pass. 
-shityasva) to consecrate one's self or have one's 
self consecrated, MBh.; Hariv.; R.: A. or Pass, to 
bathe, MBh. xii, 8894 & xiii, 1702 : Caus. P. to 
water, wet : P. (rarely A.) to consecrate, anoint : 
A. (with or without [Nir.] atmanani] to have one's 
self consecrated: Desid. -shishikshati & Intens. 
-sesicyate, Pan., Sch. & Comm. 

Abhi-shikta, mfn. sprinkled ; anointed, in- 
stalled, enthroned ; (cf. murdh&bhishikta.) 

Abhi-sheka, as, m. anointing, inaugurating or 

consecrating (by sprinkling water), inauguration of 
a king, royal unction ; the water or liquid used at 
an inauguration, SBr. &c.; religious bathing, ablu- 
tion, MBh. &c. ; bathing of the divinity to whom 
worship is offered, L. ; (cf. mahabhisheka & mftr- 
dh&bhisheka?) sala, f. the hall of coronation. 
Abhishekaxdra-sixas, mfn. wet on the head 
with the royal unction. Abhishekaha, m. day 
of inauguration. 

Abhi-shektavya, mfn. to be consecrated or 
anointed, Kathas. 

Abhi-shektxi, fa, m. one who consecrates (by 
sprinkling), VS. ; SBr. 

Abhishekya, mfn. worthy of inauguration 
(abhisheka), Kaus. ; KatySr. ; (said of the elephant) 
used for the inauguration, Jain. (Prakrit abhisekka). 

Abhi-shecana, am, n. sprinkling, MBh. ; BhP. ; 
nitiation, inauguration, R. &c. 

Abhl-shecaniya, mfn. worthy of inauguration, 
SBr.; belonging to inauguration (as vessels, &c.), 
SBr. &c. ; (as), m., N. of a sacrificial ceremony per- 
formed at the inauguration of a king, SBr. ; AitBr.&c. 

AbM-shecita, mfn. caused to be sprinkled, 
watered, wetted, Hariv. ; inaugurated. 

Abhi-shecya, mfn. to be anointed, R. 

^srfirfa*' abhi-shidh,-shedkati, Pan.viii,3, 
65, Sch.: Caus. Desid. -shishedhayishati, ib., 64, 

Abhl-shiddha, mf(a)n. driven hither, AitBr. 

abhi-shiv (*/siv), to sew round, 



i - shishenayishu. See 

(-V/3- 0> (3- P 1 - -shunvdnti; 
ind. p. -shtitya.) to press out (with stones) the Soma 
juice (or any other juice), SBr. &c. ; to press out with 
the help of any liquid, Mn. v, I o (Pass. 3. pi. -shii- 
yante); Susr. ; (fut. p. -soshyat, cf. Pin. viii, 3, 1 1 7) 
to moisten, Bhatt.: Caus. -skdvayati, Pan. viii, 3, 
65, Comm. 

Abhi-.shava, as, m. pressing out (the juice of 
the Soma plant), AsvSr. ; KatySr. ; distillation, L. ; 
religious bathing, ablution (preparatory to religious 
rites), L. ; drinking Soma juice, sacrifice, L. ; fer- 
ment, yeast, any substance producing vinous fermen- 
tation, L. ; (am}, n. sour gruel, VP. 

Abhi-shavana, am, n. pressing out (the juice 
of the Soma plant), Nir. ; (abhi-shdvanis), Ved. 
nom. pi. f. the utensils used for pressing out (the 
Soma juice), AV. ix, 6, I, 16 ; (cf. adhi-shdvana.) 

Abhi-shavanlya, mfn. to be expressed (as Soma 

Abhi-shBvaka, as, m. the priest (or any one) 
who expresses the Soma juice, L. 

Abhi-shuta, mfn. expressed (as Soma juice), 
SBr. &c. ; (am), n. ( = abhi-shava, n.) sour gruel, L. 

Abhi-shotxl, id, m. = abhi-shdvaka, SBr. ; 

Abhi-sSvakiya, Nom. P. yati, to long for a 
sdvatta (q. v.), Pin. viii, 3, 65, Comm. 

Abhi-sasush, mfn. desirous of expressing Soma 
juice, Pan. viii, 3, 117, Sch. 

abhi-shuka, as, m., N. of a plant, 

i-shu (>/! . su),-shuvati, to endow 

with (instr.), Kath.; to consecrate for a purpose 


(ace.), SBr. ; impf. -ashuvat. Pan. viii 
Desid. -susiishati, ib., 64, Comm. 

3, 63 : 

abhi-shud (^/siid), Caus. to kill, 

destroy, R. i, 27, 19. 

nd, as, m. directing arrows 
against, RV. vi, 44, 1 7. 

Abhi-shishenayislra, mfn. (fr. Desid.) desir- 
ous of marching against, Sis. vi, 64. 

Abhi-shenana, am, n. marching against (in 
comp.) with an army, RSjat. 

Abhl-Bheuaya, Nom. P. -shenayati (impf. -a- 
shenayat, Pan. viii, 3, 63), to assail with an army, 
to march with an army against (ace.), Venis. &c. : 
Desid. -shishenayishati, Pin. viii, 3, 64, Sch. 

abhi-sho (\/so), (i. sg. -shyami) to 
fetter, chain, AV. iv, 16, 9 ; (pr. p. -shyat) to put 
an end to, destroy, Bhatt. ; impf. -ashyat, Pin. viii, 

dlihi-shlan (\/stan). (Imper. 2. ag. 
-shlanii) to thunder, AV. vi, 126, 2: Caus. id., 
TS. : Intens. (Imper. 3. sg. -iaystanihi) to roar, 
AV. v, 20, i. 

Abhi-shtana, as, m. roaring, hollow noise, RV. 
i, 80, 14. 

abhi-shtambh (^/stambh), -shtn- 
bhiioti or -shtalihndti, impf. -ashtabhnat, perf. 
-tashtambha, Pin. viii, 3, 63 seqq. 

abhi-shtava. See abhi-shtu. 

dbhi-shti, is, m. (s-t(, fr. \/\ . as, cf. 
I. pi. s-mds, &c.) an assistant, protector ['one who 
is superior or victorious,' NBD.], (generally said of 
Indra), RV. ; VS.; (aM(-sAiis), f. assistance, pro- 
tection, help, RV. ; AV. ; VS. ; (cf. sv-athishlj.} 
krit, mfn. procuring help, assisting, RV. dyu- 
mna (abhishtf-}, mf(a)n. 'whose glory is protecting 
or superior,' being of benevolent majesty, RV. iv, 
51, 7. pi, m(nom. -fd)(n. protecting with as- 
sistance, RV. ii, 20, 2 ; (the nom. -pa being irregular 
for -pah, Gmn. proposes the emendation [adopted by 
the NBD.] aM{sfiti(Ved. mSli.)pdsijdnan instead 
of abhishtipasi jdnnti). mat, mfn. rendering 
assistance, RV. i, 116, II. savas (abklsh(i-) t 
mfn. rendering powerful assistance, RV. iii, 59, 8. 

^rfaj abhi-shtu (-/stu), -shtauti (impf. 
-asktaut, P3n. viii, 3, 63, or also -astaut, Pin. viii, 
3, 1 19, Kas. ; Subj. I. pi. -sAtaydma, RV. viii, 100, 
3 ; Imper. 3. sg. -shtuhi, RV. i, 54, 2) to praise, 
extol, RV. Six.: A. '(3. sg.) -shtuvate, id., MBh. 
xii, 7715. 

Abhi-shtava, as, m. praise, eulogy, BhP. 

Abhi-shtuta, mfn. praised, RV.j'AV. &c.; 
praised or addressed (with omtdras), consecrated, 
Yijn. iii, 307. 

Abhi-shtuvat, mfn. pr. p. P. praising, Hariv. 

Abhl-shtnva&a, mfn. pr. p. A. praising, BhP. 

Abhi-shtuya, irrcg. ind. p. praising, BhP. &c. 

WfVf| abhi-shtubh (jstubh), -shtobhati 
(impf. -ashtobhat. Pin. viii, 3, 63) to sing or recite 
in addition to, Laty, 

abhi-shtha(-/sttta), -tishthati(a.or. 
-asthdt, RV., -ashthdt, Pin. viii, 3, 63 ; perf. p. 
-tashtAivas,KV.\v,4,()) to tread or step upon (ace.), 
RV.j'AV.; TS ; SBr.; to overpower, defeat, RV. ; 
AV. ; VS. ; to extend or rise over (ace.), RV. i, 1 49, 
4 & iii, 14, 4; to step or advance towards (ace.), 
PBr. ; Kaus. ; to stay, live, MBh. xii, 3316 ; to stop, 

ib., 4475- 

Abhi-shthlta, mfn. trampled upon, defeated, 
RV. x, 1 66, 2; AV. ; stepped upon, serving as 
basis, SBr. 

abhi-/shthiv (perf. -tish(heva, 

perf. Pass. p. -shthyfita) to spit upon, SBr. 

abhi-shnata, as, m. pi. (v/sna). 
N. of a family, Hariv. 1466 (v.l. abhi-gldna and 

^rfM m 1(.abhi-shyat, mfn. pr. p. fr. abhi- 
sho, q. v. ; (an) or (abhishyantas, n. sg.), m., N. of 
a son of Kuru, MBh. i, 3740. 

^rfjfBp^f abhi-shyand (\/syand), -syan- 
date (or also -shyandate, if said intransitively of 
lifeless objects, Pin. viii, 3, 72) to run towards or 
along (generally said of liquids), AV. v, 5, 9 (perf. 
-sishyade, said of a plant growing or running along 
the stem and branches of a tree), &c. 

Abhl-shyanda or -syanda, as, m. oozing or 
flowing, L. ; running at the eyes, Susr.; great in- 
crease or enlargement, Ragh.; Kum. (Cf. fittA- 
bhishyanda, rakt&bh', vat&bh, sleshm&bh" .) 

Abhl-shyaudamSna, mfn. (said of a cloud) 
raining, Uttarar. 

Abhl-shyandin or -syandin, mfn. oozing, 
trickling, Susr. ; laxative, Susr. ; causing defluxioiis 
or serious effusions, Susr. Abhlshyandl- or abhl- 
syandi-ramana, n. a smaller city appended to a 
larger one, suburb, L. 

abhi-shvanj (</svaitj), -shvajate 

(impf. -ashvajata, Pin. viii, 3, 63 ; perf. -shasvnje 
or -shasvaftje, ib., 118, Kas.) to embrace, MBn. 
viii, 1652 : (exceptionally) P. (Opt. -shvajet), id., 
MBh. xii, 8796. 




Abhi-shvanga, fl-r, m. intense attachment or 
affection to (loc. [MBh. &c.], rarely instr. [KathSs.]). 

Abhi-shvaiigrin, nun. intensely attached to or 
mad for, MaitrUp. 

^rf*nTTff abhi-sam-yatta, mfn. (</yat), 
being taken care of or governed by (v. 1. athi-sam- 
panna), MBh. vii, 5173. 

^ftff[Vlabhi-sam-/ya,-yali, to visit, ap- 
proach to (acc.1, RV. ix, 86, 1 5 ; Kith. ; to approach 
in hostile manner, assail, MBh. viii, 1826. 

^(f*{1AQit^abhi-sam-*/yuj, Caus. to bring 
in close contact with (instr.), Hariv. 

Abhi-samynkta, mfn. furnished or endowed 
with, R. 

AbM-samyofra,<7.r, m. (in Mhnlrjsl phil.) close 
contact or relation to. 

^ff*WT3i abhi-sam-rakta, mfn. (*/raHj), 
intensely attached to (in comp.), R. 

Wf^WW abhi-sam-</rabh, A. (3. pi. -ra- 
bhante ; Opt. I. pi. -rabhtmahi) to take hold of 
(for support), RV. 

Abhi-iamrabcUia, mfn. excited, furious, MBh. 

Abhi-samrambha, as, m. fury, rage, MBh. 
xiv, 874. 

TTfMH * I V^abhi-sam-radhana, am, n. paci- 
fying, conciliating, BhP. 

flTHfl^ i.abhi-sam-i/4. vas, A. (pr. p. i. 
-vdsdna) to wrap one's self into (ace. ),AV.xii, 3, 53. 

^rfmi*m % 2.a&Ai-sa!"v/5.eas, A. (pr. p. 2. 
-vdsdna) to settle round (ace.) together, TBr.; L5ty. 

^JTMtHIHfl abhi-sam-</va%ch, to long for, 

^rf'raf'^! i abhi-sam-i/i. vid (perf. 3. pi. 
-vidtis) to know thoroughly, AV. iii, 11, 5. 

TNtif*);} 2. abhi-sam-^/^. vid, A. (pr. p. 
-viddnd) to meet each other [BR.], VS. Xxix, 6 ('to 
relate, explain,' Comm.) 

^rftwfaa^ abhi-sam-</vis, P. A. (Imper. 
3. pi. -sdm-viiadhvam) to meet round or near, 
surround, AV. &c. ; to enter into, dissolve in, TUp.; 

WfHH*l)B abhi-sam-viksh ( */iksh) , to look 
at in astonishment, gaze at. Kid. 

^rfra^ abhi-sam-</l.vri (impf. -vrinot) 
to cover, conceal, MBh. v, 7 2 39- 

Abhi-samvrita, mfn. covered, concealed, MBh. 
&c. ; surrounded by, accompanied by, ib. ; filled 
with, furnished with, ib. 

*lf<W[^(abhi-sam-i/vrU, A. (Imper. -par- 
tatdm) to turn one's self towards, AV. vi, 102, I. 

Abhi-samvritta, mfn. undertaking, beginning 
to (Inf.), R. ' 

^rf^l* abhi-samvriddha, mfn. (said of a 
tree) 'having grown a very long time,* very old, 
MBh. xii, 5805. 

Tf*WnjftT abhi-samsina or syana, mfn. 
), coagulated, congealed,, 1, 26, KSs. 

f^l abhi-sam-i/sri, P. to resort to 
(for refuge), have recourse to (ace.), SBr. &c. ; to 
give way to, devote one's self to (ace.), MBh. xii, 
518; to attain, (Pass, -iriyate) MBh. xii, 10977. 

Abhi-samiraya, as, m. refuge, R. ; connec- 
tion, MBh. i, 3398. 

AbM-samsr ita , mfn. who has resorted to any one 
(for refuge), 'MBh. xii, 3766 ; (for a visit), MBh. 

"Wf*ro^ abhi-sam-i/sru (ind. p. -srutya) 
to hear, leam, R. 

^rfTOfsr^ abhi-sam-</slish (ind. p. -sli- 
shyd) to cling to each other, MBh. vi, 3137. 

Tfothj abhi-sam--/^. su (3. du. -sdm-su- 
nutas) to press out (Soma juice) together for the 
sake of (ace.), TBr. 

^rfWnj abhi-ta.m/sfi (ind. p. -tritya) to 
run against or assail each other, BhP. 

AbM-am-saram, ind. running near in crowds, 

Abhi-sam-srlta, mfn. one who has come near, 
MBh. viii, 4417. 

^rfHSi abhi-sam-s-</l. kri, -s-karoti, to 
shape, form, SBr.: A. (Subj. I. sg. -s-karttvai) to 
render or make one's self (dtmdnatn) anything 
(wished to be, ace.), SBr. 

Abhi-samskSra, as, m. 'the being formed,' 
development (as of seeds), Car. ; preparation, ib. ; 
conception, idea, Buddh. 

Abhi-sarnskrita, mfn. consecrated, MBh. 

"Wfiwrwr abhi-sam-i/stambh (ind. p. 
-stabhya) to support, render firm, Kaus. ; R. 

^rfmn*ftTJ al>hi-sam-sllrna, mfn. (-/stri), 
entirely covered with, MBh. xii, 7613. 

^rf>THW al>hi-sam-*/stu(pr. p. -stuvat) to 
praise highly, MBh. xiii, 3695. 
Abhi-samstava, as, m. praise, L. 
Abhi-Bamstnta,mtn.highly praised, MBh. ;BhP. 

^rfTOWT alhi-sam-</stha, -tishthate, to 
stop at, finish at (ace.), SJnkhSr. : Caus. to cause to 
stop or finish at (ace.), ChUp. 

Abhi-samstham, ind. in regular order, GopBr. 

Abhl-samstttlta, mfn. stopping or standing or 
watching at some place, M Bh. ; reflecting upon (loc.), 
MBh. iv, 553. 

^rfWFJS^afcAi-sam-v/sprts, to wash one's 
self, MBh. iii, 8080; to seize, ib. xii, 2140. 

^TTHtftH abhi-fam-'/smfi, to recollect 
(with ace.), MBh. iii, 15758. 

TfJTWjJ abhi-sam-^/sru, to unite in flow- 
ing into (ace.), SBr. 

^ff^m^y abhi-sam-\/sta!!j, A. (Imper. 
2. sg. -svajasva) to embrace, AV. xii, 3, 12. 

^rfHH^ abhi-sam-\/svri (impf. 3. pi. -a- 
svaran [four times] or -dsvaran [once]) to praise 
or call or invite unanimously, RV. 

*rf1H^ abhi-sarn-^/han (ind. p. -hatya) 
to combine, confederate, MBh. 
AbM-sani-hata, mfn. attacked, assailed, BhP. 

*< THH f^rl abM-sam-hita. See-sam-Vdha. 

tl fHfi tW abhi-sam-*/krudh (pr. p. -kru- 
dhyaf) to be angry with (ace.), Bhatt. 

Abhi-samkrnddha, mfn. angry with (ace.), 
MBh. iv, 1572 ; (gen.), ib. iii, 682. 

Hf*WiK3labhi-sam-i/krus (ind.p.-irusya) 
to call out to, R. 

^f*RS?%F{abhi-sam/kship (ind. p. -kshi- 
pya) to compress, render quite small (the body by 
magical power), MBh. v, 283. 

Abhi-sarnkshipta, mfn. one who has com- 
pressed his body so as to render it small, MBh. i, 

Abhi-samkshepa, as, m. compressing, L. 

^tfHH<*HT i. abhi-sam-Vkhyd (perf. Pass, 
p. -khyata) to enumerate, R. 

AbM-aamkhya, mm. inferable, clearly ascer- 
tainable, Jaim. ; 2. (a), f. number, MBh. i, 617. 

Abhi-samkliyeya, mfn. to be enumerated, R. 

Tf*TH*T^ abhi-sam-Vgam (ind. p. -gdtya, 
AV. xi, i, r6, or -gamya, R. ; BhP.) to approach 
together, RV. ix, 14, 7 (aor. A. 3. pi. -agmata), 
&c. ; to join in welcoming, BhP. ; to meet with, R. 

Abbl-sam-gata, mm. together with (in comp.), 

Wf*ftPT" ahhi-samgupta, mfn. guarded, 
protected, MBh. iii, 274. 

j-\/l.^ri,to promise, Kaus. 

alhi-sam-Vgrah, to grasp at 
once with several fingers, Gobh. 

iii-v'sac. See abhi-shac. 

abhi-sam-Vcar (3. pi. -cdranti, 
pr. p. f. du. -cdranti) to go up to, seek for, RV. 

Abhi-samc&rin, mfn. ' moving in every direc- 
tion,' inconstant, changeable, Nir. 

m-/i. ci, A..-cinute(Qpt. 

I. sg. -cinvlya) to pile up (the sacrificial fire) for 
the benefit of (one's self, atmanam), SBr. 

int (ind. p. -cn- 
tya) to remember, MBh. vii, 5551. 

iTHWllrfniAt-iawya/a, mfn. (</jan), pro- 
duced (as joy, harsha}, Hariv. 

^f*1Xil abhi-satn-i/jnd (3. pi. -jdnate, 
Subj. -jdnantai, impf. -ajanata) to agree, allow, 
concede anything (dat.) to(,acc.), MaitrS. ; TS. ; SBr. 

Abhi-samjnita, mfn. (fr. 2. samjftd,d. satn- 
jftita), called, named, MBh. &c. 

'TMitjiaj. ab/ii-smn-</jvar,to envy, regard 
with spite, MBh. v, 1615. 

^ifinrf* abhi-satkri (^/i.kri), (ind. p. 
-krityd) to honour, receive (a guest) with reverence, 
MBh. ii, 2549. 

Abhi-satkrita, mfn. honoured, received with 
reverence, MBh. &c. 

^Tl*1r<l\ abHi-satvan, a, m. surrounded 
by heroes, RV. x, 103, 5 ; (cf. abhl-vtra.) 

wfHfl\<i&Ai-sa!-. 4 /<an (3. pi. -tanvanti) 
to use for bridging over or stretching across, TBr ; 

Abhi-gamtata, mfn. spread over, covered with 
(in comp.), Hariv. (v. I. abhi-sam-vrita). 

ifHffUH. abhi-sam-'/tap (Subj. -tapati) 
to press hard on all sides, AV. ii, I a, 6. 
Abhl-samtapta, mfn. tormented, MBh. &c. 

WftnriT abhi-sam-^/tri, to cross over to- 
wards (ace.), AitBr. 

1 ffHrM'f x abhi-sam-</tyaj (ind. p. -tya- 
jya) to abandon, give up, desist from (ace.), MBh. 

^Srf*iti<srt abhi-samtrasta, mfn. (^/tras), 
terrified, much alarmed, R. 

mfn. (i/daris), compressed or tightened together,TS. 

'SffHB^^ abhi-samdeha, am, n. organ of 
generation, (du. ace. Ae) MBh. v, 7494 (v. 1. abhi- 

"f^HM*^ abhi-sam-</dham (i. sg. -dha- 
mdmf) to blow at, AV. viii, 2, 4. 

^TTHSnn i. abhi-sam-'/dha (3. du. -dhat- 
tas ; Imper. 3. sg. -dhehi ; aor. -adhaf) to snap at 
(ace.) for devouring, RV. x, 87, 3; AV. ; SBr.; 
Kith. ; to take aim at (dat. or ace.), MBh. &c. ; to 
aim at, have in view (with ace.; rarely dat.), ib. ; 
to acknowledge unanimously, (perf. 3. pi. -dadhtih) 
RV. i, 101, 6 ', to overcome, master, Mn. &c. ; to 
win (as by presents), R. iv, 54, 5 ; to ally, associate 
with (instr.) 

Abhi-sarn-hita, mfn. aimed at ; agreed upon, 
R. v, 82, 5 ; acknowledged by (in comp.), MBh. 
xii, 4793 ; overcome ; (ifc.) connected with, at- 
tached to, MBh. &c. 

Abhi-sandhaka, mfn. ifc. deceiving ['calum- 
niating,' Comm.], Mn. iv, 195. 

2. Abhi-samdha, f. ' speech, declaration ' (only 
ifc., cf. anritdbhisandha & satydbhisandhd). 

Abhi-samdhana, ant, n. the being allied or 
connected, connection between (in comp.), MBh. i, 
3639 ; ' speech, deliberate declaration ' (only ifc., 
cf. satydbh ) ; attachment or interest in any object ; 
special agreement ; overcoming, deceiving, Ragh. 
xvii, 76 ; making peace or alliance, L. 

Abhi-samdhaya, ind. p. aiming at, having in 
view ; coming to an agreement regarding (ace.), 
Mn. ix, 52 ; overcoming, Malatim. &c. ; bringing 
in contact with (as an arrow with a bow), place 
upon (instr.), R. v, 36, 42. 

Abhi-samdhi, is, m. speaking or declaring de- 
liberately, purpose, intention, object, meaning ; 
special agreement, SSh. ; cheating, deceiving ; mak- 
ing peace or alliance, L. ; joint, junction, L. krl- 
ta, mfn. done intentionally. purva, mfn. that 
which has been intended, aimed at, Gaut. p5r- 
vakam, ind. with some intention, purposely, VP. 

Tf*1W1*^ abhi-sam-^/nam (Opt. -namet) 
to alter, modify, AsvSr. ; SSnkhSr. 

^f*1til^ abhi-sam-</nah (3- pi. -nah- 
| yanti) to bind or string together, Kaus. : A. (impf. 


3. du. -anahyetain) to arm one's self against (ace.), 

1 O. 

Abhi-sam-naddha, mfn. armed, MBh iii 
14883- < 

^ff^Wfrrfa? abhi-satn-ni-vishta, mfn. 
(/vis), being united or combined in, Comm. on 

T f HtPft abhi-sam-*/ni, to lead to or upon 
(loc.), MBh. xii, 6566. 

Wfifthj abhi-sam-V*. nu, A. (3. pi. -na- 
vantc ; aor. 3. pi. -amiskata) to rejoice or cheer 
together at or towards (ace.), RV. 

Wftt <^ abhi-\/sap (3. pi. A. -sdpante) to 
carry on, manage, RV. vii, 38, 5. 

a. See abhi-sam--/i. 


abhi-samavdya, as, m. 
union, association, L. 

1T*W*1^ abhi-sam-/2. as, to put toge- 
ther, group, collect, Car. 

< 3rfTHHni>^ abhi-sam-a-\/gam, to ap- 
proach together, Nir.; to come to (ace.), MBh xi 

^fH*WTlI5 abhi-sam-d-Vpad, A. (perf. 
-pede) to enter upon (ace.), R. ii, 12, I. 

^ST*Tfl*ll*l*^ abhi-sam-a-Vyam, -ydcchati, 
to fasten to (ace.), TBr. 

^TH*ll1T abhi-sam-a-Vya, to approach 
together, MBh. v, 1974. 

TfHUmTJSi abhi-sam-a-yukta, mfn. con- 
nected or endowed with (instr.), MBh. xii, 3478. 

^ffHflWn^ alM-sam-a-Vruh (impf. 3. pi. 
-droAan) to enter upon (the sacrificial fire-place) 
for a purpose (ace.), TBr. 

^f*mirr^abhi-sam-a-*/vrit, Ved. (3. pi. 
-avartante & impf. -avartanta; fut. p. -vartsya- 
mdna) to return home, TBr. &c. 

^TtfWTra^ abhi-sam-a-i/sic, to pour 
together, Kaus. 

i. abU-sam-Vpad, Ved. -pad- 

yate, to become ; to become similar to, be changed 
to (ace.), SBr. Sec.; to come to, arrive at, obtain, 
SBr. xiv ; Up. : Caus. -pddayati, to make equal to, 
change into (ace.), SBr. ; AitBr. 

Abhi-sampatti, is, f. becoming anything, be- 
coming similar or equal to, KstySr. 

2. Abhi-sampad, /, f. id., SBr. 

Abhi-sampanna, mfn. becoming similar to, 
being changed to (ace.), SBr. ; RPrSt. ; being in ac- 
cordance with, agreeing with (instr.), Uttarar. 

^rritt*M<.m abhi-samparaya, as, m. 
futurity, Lalit. 

WWB^abhi-sam-'/pu, -pavate, to blow 
along over or towards (ace.), TBr. 

^f*lW*xr*{abhi-sam-'/pvj (generally ind. 
p. -piijya) to honour, revere greatly, MBh.; MJrkP. 

^TTH ti*M MJJ abfia-sam-pra-\/pad, -pad- 
yate ( = abhi-sam- */pad) to be changed to, assume 
or obtain the shape of (ace.), Up. 


.-santvayat; ind. 
p. -sanfvya) to conciliate, pacify, comfort, MBh. iv, 
383; R. ii, .12, 39; MarkP. 

Abhi-sfintva, as, m. consolation, conciliation, R 
v, 56, 44- 

Abhi-santvlta, mfn. conciliated, pacified, Kim. 

fastened to, connected with (instr.), R. 

^tTH*i1l{^ abhi-sam-a-*/ hri, to scrape up 
or together, Kaus. 

^TfHWr*f abhi-sam-*/i, -eti (3. pi. -yanti, 
Imper. -yantti), Ved. to approach together, come 
together or meet at (ace.), RV. i, 125, 7; AV. &c. ; 
(Opt. 3. p!. -iyiih) to invade, TS. 

Abhi-samaya, as, m. agreement, Car. ; clear 
understanding, Buddh. 

^jfTWfJpV abhi-sam-Vindh,io set on fire, 
kindle, PBr. 

WfH<wWl*< abhi-sam-lkshya, ind. p. (*/ 
iksK), seeing, viewing, R. ; noticing, perceiving, 
learning from, RPrat. ; Susr. ; considering, with 
reference to, Susr. ; Car. 

T*rf*W*ft$.abhi-sam-</tr, (perf. Pass. 
p. -irita) to put in motion, MBh. x, 579. 

vifiij=Ti abhi-sam-\/ubj, to spread a 
covering upon (ace.), PBr. 

^rfHWJJI abhi-sam-\/i.uh, -uhati, to heap 
up, PBr. ; to heap up and cover with (as with ashes, 
instr.), TS. i SBr. 

wfirwj abhi-sam-V'ri, A. (aor. Opt. -an- 
te) to reach, seize, RV. ix, 79, 3. 

wf*PRK abhi-sam-e (-a~</i), Ved. (Imper. 
abhl .... sam-6itu [AV. vi, 102, j] or a .... 
abhi sdm-etu [RV. vi, 19, 9]) to join in coming 
near (ace.), approach together. 

Abhi-sam-eta, mfn. assembled, SBr. xiv. 

^rfiTr^ abhi-sam-Vpac, Pass. (3. pi. 

-pacyante) to become ripe up to a certain time 
(ace.), PBr. 

"SfHti**^ obM-sam-Vpat (p. -patat ; 
perf. 3. pi. -petuk) to fly to, hasten to (ace.), MBh. 
vii, 7295, &c. 

Abhi-sampata, as, m. concourse, war, battle, L. 

ya) to go towards, MBh. vi, 3762 (v. I. abtii-vdra- 

Tl *T<m ^ dbhi-sam-pra-Vvrit, Caus. to 
change (?as a battle-field, randjiram), MBh. i, 

Abhl-sam-pravrltta, mfn. having begun, Var- 

"TtHw*^! \\abhi-sam-prap (\/ap),to reach, 
come to, arrive at, obtain, L. 

^rfHi* i^ abhi-sam-preksh (-/iksh), (ind. 
p. -preksftya) to look at, perceive, MBh.; R. 

WnTig abhi-sam-Vplu (ind. p. -plutya) 
to bathe, MBh. xii, 365 (an- neg.) 

Abhi-sam-plnta, mfn. poured upon, overflowed 
with, MBh. ix, 3279 ; deeply engaged in (in comp.), 

, ind. about evening, 
at sunset, ChUp. ; (cf. abhi-prdtdr.) 

abhi-sara, &c. See abhi-^sri. 
abhi-savaka, &c. See abhi-shu. 

.abhi-^i.sidh, -sedhati, Pan. 
viii . 3. 113, Sch. 

^rfTf%^ 2. afcAj-v/3. ndh, -sidhyati, to be 
accomplished, MBh. xii, 7427 ; to obtain, win (with 
ace.), ChUp. 

AbM-siddhi, is, f. the state of being effected 
or realized, AgP. 

See abhi-shu. 

-sucita, mfn. pointed out, 
MBh. iii, 2939. 

^fTH^ abhi-Vsri (3. pi. impf. -asaran, 
perf. -sasrur) to flow towards (ace.), RV. i, 52, 5 


^rftmfft^ abhi-sam-Vbandh, -badhnati, 
to refer to (ace.), mean by, Comm. on BrArUp.: 
Pass, -badhyate, 'to be referred to,' belong to, re- 
quire to be connected with (instr. [Pat.l or ace 
[Pan. ii, i, 6& 2, n, Sch. &c.]). 

Abhi-sambaddha, mfn. connected, (an- neg.) 

Abhi-sambaudha, as, m. connection with, 
relation to (instr.), Jaim. ; being connected with, 
belonging to, Sah. ; Pan., Sch.; sexual connection, 
MBh. xiii, 2924; Mn. v, 63. 

Vftnigil abhi-sambadha, mfn. pressed 
together, crowded, R. 

^TTHti^S abki-sam-buddha, mfn. deeply 
versed in, MBh. iii, 12515; having attained the 
Bodhi, Buddh. 

Abhi-sam-bodhana, am, n. attaining the 
Bodhi, Buddh. 

^nH^Wf abhi-sam-bhagna,mfn. broken, 
crashed, MBh. viii, 2801. 

^rfTIP[abAt-sam-v/6Att,Ved. (perf. 2. sg. 
-babhiitha) to reach, come to, arrive at, RV. x, 
18, 8, &c. ; to obtain the shape of (ace.), be changed 
into, SBr. : Caus. to salute, BhP. 

< 3u*TH*>JrT abhi-sam-bhrita, mfn. endowed 
with (in comp.), MBh. xii, 1 2959 (v. 1. abhi-sam- 

^TRl*ilfl abhi-sam-mata, mfn. honoured, 
esteemed, MSrkP. &c. 

TTH'HWTJiT abhi-sam-miikhd, mf(5)n. look- 
ing respectfully towards (ace.), SBr. 

^TT>itiJ<T abhi-sam-mudha, mfn. entirely 
confused, MBh. iii, 12219. 

^TTHTn'jT^ abhi-sam- v / march (p. -mir- 
chaf) to assume a solid form with regard to or in 
connection with (ace.), SBr. 

abhi-sara, &c. See abhi-i/sri. 
abhi-saraa, &c. See 

., . , 2 

& ix, 82, 3 ; to approach, go towards, advancein 
order to meet, attack, MBh. &c. ; to go to a rendez- 
vous (said of lovers), Sah.: Caus. to lead towards, 
KathSs.; to cause to attack, lead to battle, MBh. 
iii, 665 (v. I.); to invite to a rendezvous, SSh to 
approach, visit, MBh. i, 1221; Mricch. 

Abhi-sara, as, m. (ifc. f. a) ^'companion, Das. 

Abhi-sarana, am, n. meeting, rendezvous (of 
lovers), Sah. &c. 

Abhl-sartri, mfn. attacking, assailant, VS. xxx, 

Abhi-sara, as, m. attack, assault, R. ; meeting 
rendezvous (of lovers), Sah.; Git. &c.; -pay for 
coming,' messenger's pay, Buddh. ; companion, L. ; 
a purificatory rite, L. ; (ena}, instr. (with sarvena) 
=sarvabhisdrena, q. v., MBh. iii, 639 ; (cf. lo'ha- 
bhisdra & abAisdra) ; (as), m. pi., N. of a people 
MBh. &c.; (i), f., N. of a town, MBh. ii, 1027! 
sthSna, n. a place of rendezvous (of lovers), Sah. 

Abhi-sarikS, f. a woman who goes to meet her 
lover or keeps an assignation, Kum. vi, 41 ; Ragh 
xvi, 12, &c. 

Abhi-sarin, mfn. going to meet, Vikr.; (ini), 
l.^abhi-sdrika, L.; N. of a species of the Trish- 
tubh metre (as that in RV. x, 23, 5, in which two 
PSdas contain twelve instead of eleven syllables, and 
which therefore is said to approach another metre 
called Jagati), RPrJt. 

Abhi-sisarayishn, mfn. intending to go to a 
rendezvous or to visit (a lover), SiS. x, 20. 

Abhi-srita, mm. gone near (ace.), MBh. vii, 
4449 ! Git. ; one who has approached (for attack- 
ing), MBh. ; directed towards (in comp.), VarBrS. : 
visited by (instr.), Kathas. 

Abhi-sritya, ind. p. having gone near (ace.) 
Abhi-sara, as, m. assault, MBh. vii, 8785. 

^rfH*p^ abhi-Vsrij (impf. -asrijat; aor. 
Pass, -dsatj'i [RV. ix, 106, 12] & 3. pi. -asrigran 
[RV. ix, 88, 6] or -asrikshata [RV. i, 135, 6 & 
**i ^3. 2 5]) to Pur into or upon (ace.), pour out for 
a purpose (ace.) or for the sake of (ace.), RV. ; AV. ; 
AitBr.; to let loose in a special direction, SBr.; 
AitBr. ; (aor. Subj. 2. sg. -srds for -srdksh-s) to 
throw upon, AV. xi, 2, 19; to surrender, give, grant, 
allow, permit, R. &c. ; to assail, attack, SBr. xiv. 

Abhi-sarga, as, m. creation, MBh. xii, 13801. 

Abhi-sarjana, am, n. for ati-s (q. v.), L. 

Abhi-srishta, mfn. ' let loose in a special direc- 
tion,' running towards (ace. or loc.), RV. ; allowed 
to, R. ; uttered, Hariv. ; surrendered, given, granted, 
R. &c, 

See abhi-\/srip. 

j'-srp (Imper. 2. sg.-sarpa) to 
approach silently or softly, AV. ; K5th. ; Nir. 

Abhi-sarpana, am, n. approaching ; the ascent 
(of sap in the trees). 

WTH*iii abhi-sevana, am, n. practising, 
cultivating, Susr. 

Tf1!iT; abhi-Vskand (perf. -caskanda) 
to ascend, AV. vii, 115, 2. 




Abki-skandam, itul. running near, AV. v, 14, 

^rfTSW abhi-</skambh, Caus. (p. -s*a- 
blidyat), Pin. iii, I, 84, Comm. 

"WfH^J abhi--/slri, to scatter over, cover, 
TBr. ; Susr. 

nfar^'m.^ abhi-sthirdm, ind. very firmly, 
intensely, SBr. 

wfafw^V abhi-snigdha. See an-abhisn. 
Abhl-sneha, ax, in. affection, desire, BhP. 

mf*1**mab!ii-spris(Opt.-spriset) to touch, 
MBh. i, 3931 ; to influence, affect, Susr. 

wfiitMiRn (ibhi-sphurita, mfn. expanded 
to the full (as a blossom). 

^iftitMi^ abhi-^/sphvrj, -sphurjati, to 
sound towards, AV. xii, 5, 20. 

^jfaftj? abhi-</smi (p. -smayut) to smile 
upon, MBh. iii, 8732. 

abhi-^/syand. See abhi-shyand. 
abhi-Vsrans; aor. Subj. 2. sg. 
-srds, which is better derived fr. abhi-/srij, q. v. 
wffH abhi-i/sru (Imper. 3. pi. -sravantu) 
to cause to flow near, RV. x, 9, 4 ; (p. -sravanta for 
-sravaf) MBh. xiii, 901. 

^f*1^ will's \abhi-svay amatrinndm,\nA. 
on the brick (used in sacrifices and called) svayam- 
atrinna (q. v.), SBr. 

^fT^ abhi-i/sori (Iraper. 2. eg. -svara, 
3. pi. -svarantu) to join in praising or invoking, 
RV. ; to keep a note (in singing) up to (ace.), PBr. 

Abhl-cvar (instr. -svdrd), (. invocation, RV. 
ii, 21, 5 & viii, 97, 1 2 ; (-svarf), dat. ind.'for calling 
into one's presence,' just behind (with gen.), RV. 
iii, 45, 2 & x, 1 1 7, 8 ; VS. 

Abhi-cvartri, fa, m. an invoker, RV. x, 78, 4. 

^rfnn^ abhi-^han (2. sg. Imper. -jajft, 
impf. -hdn [RV. v, 29, 2] & perf. -jaghanthd) to 
thump at, strike, kill, RV. &c. ; to beat (as a drum, 
&c.), MBh. vi, 1535 ; Bhag. &c. ; to afflict, visit 
with (instr.), MBh. xiii, 4375; MSrkP.: Desid. -ji- 
ghdysati, to intend to strike down, RV. vii, 59, 8. 

Abhi-ghata, abhi-ghatita. See s. v. 

Abhi-hata, mfn. struck, smitten, killed, AV. xi, 
10, 22, &c. ; attacked, R. ; beaten (as a drum, &c.), 
R. ; VarBrS. ; afflicted, visited with, MBh. &c. ; (in 
arithm.) multiplied. 

Abhi-liati, is, f. striking (as of an arrow), Ksd. ; 
(in arithm.) multiplication ; the product of multiplied 

Abhi-hatya, ind. p. striking, killing, Mn. xi, 
206, &c. 

abhi-hara, &c. See 

^.-p\.-hdryanti; Subj. 
A. -haryata [AV. iii, 30, i]) to wish anything to 
be near, call it near, TS. ; to like, love, RV. x, n i, 
6; AV. ; (-haryati) SBr. xiv (cf. abhi--</hri, Caus. 

abhi-hava. See ao&i-v/Au & \/hre. 

\ abhi-hdsya, mfn. ridiculous, AV 

vi, 3, ' 
Abhi-hasa, as, m. jest, joke, AsvSr. 

wfi^i abhi-t/2. ha (ind. p. -haya) to rush 
upon, seize hastily, Kath. ; AitBr. 

wf*Tf?T5 abhi-hinkri (-v/,Ved. (3. pi. 
-hin-kurvanti) to make a sound towards, low or 
roar or neigh towards, Kath. ; PBr. &c. 

Abhi-hiikara, as, m. the sound hih (used) in 
addition to (a certain japa formula), AsvSr. 

wfafif if abM-hita,mfn.(</dha), harnessed 
or put to (as a horse), RV. ; AV. ; SBr. ; named, 
called, Mn. iii, 141, &c. ; held forth, said, declared, 
spoken, MBh. ; Mn. &c. ; spoken to, Kum. &c. ; 
(as), m., N. of a chief, L. ; (am), n.. a name, ex- 
pression, word. tS, f. [Sarvad.] or -tva, n. the 
having been said or stated or named ; a holding 
forth, declaration, L. ; authority, test, L. 

Abhi-hiti, is, f. telling, manifesting, title, L. 

i- make an oblation upon 
(ace.) or for the sake of (ace.), shed or pour over 
(ace.), SBr. &c. 

I. Abhi-hava, as, m. pouring the oblation upon. 

Abhi-havana, .///;, n. id., AsvSr. 

Abhi-huta, mfn. poured upon with an oblation, 
shed or poured over, AV. vi, 133, 2 ; AitBr.; SBr. 

Abhi-hotavai, Ved. Inf. to pour upon (an ob- 
lation), MaitrS. 

Abhi-homa, as, m. = I. abhi-hava. Vail. 

abhi-hHti. See abhi-*/hve. 

abhi-</hri, to bring, offer, SBr. 
&c. ; to pull off, tear off, MBh. iii, 14610: Caus. 
-hdrayati, to have brought to by, send bv, Hariv. ; 
to bring, offer, MBh. iv, 2364 ; to put on (as a 
cuirass), ib. iv, 101 1 seqq. ; to assail, attack, MBh. : 
Pass, -haryate incorrectly for -haryati (see abhi- 
\fhary), BrArUp. 

Abhi-hara, mfn. (ifc.) carrying off, removing, L. 

Abhi-harana, am, n. bringing or conveying 
n,ear, MBh.; Ragh. 

Abhi-haranlya, mfn. to be brought near. 

Abhi-hartavya, mfn. id. 

Abhi-hartri, td, m. one who carries off, takes 
by violence (ifc.), MBh. iii, 15761. 

Abhi-hara, as, m. bringing near, Pat. (cf. dbhi- 
hdrikd) ; robbing, seizing anything (in the owner's 
presence), MBh. xiii, 3047 ; brisk attack, L. ; effort, 
L. ; arming, taking up arms, L. ; mingling together, 
Car. &c. 

Abhi-harya, mfn. = abhi-haraniya. 

to gladden, MBh. vi, 1833; xii, 1894. 

^fftr?^a!At-v/AesA (p. dat. jn. -heshate) 
to neigh towards, AitBr. ; MBh. viii, 4471. 

^SfiTjp^ abhi-hrut, mfn. (</hvri), causing 
a fall or damage, injurious, RV. i, 1 89, 6 ; A V. vi, 4, 
2 ; f. (abl. -hriitas) fall, damage, injury, RV. i, 128, 
5&x, 63, II. 

Abb.i-b.ruti, if, f. fall, damage, injury, RV. i, 
1 66, 8 ; AV. vi, 3, 3. 

Abhi-hv&ra, as, m. a crooked or damaging way 
or place, AV. vi, 76, 3- 

^sf*T3?' abhi-t/hve, to call near, SBr. 
2. Abhi-hava, as, m. calling near, Pin. iii, 3,72. 
Abhi-huti, is, f. calling near (as the gods to the 
sacrifice), Nir. 

^nft i. a-bht, mfn. fearless, R. ; Ragh. 

pada (v. 1. -pdda), m. ' whose foot or step is 
without fear,' N. of a Rishi, VBr. 

I. A-bhlka, mfn. fearless, L. 
A-bhita, mf(o)n. id., R. vat, ind. fearlessly, 
MBh. xii, 3730 ; R. &c. 

1. A-bbiti, is, f. fearlessness, L. 
A-bhlru, m(acc. rvam, 4 ; nom. pi. ravas)fa. 

fearless, RV. ; Mn. vii, 190 ; not terrific (nom. pi. f. 
ravas), RV. viii, 46, 7 ; (us), m., N. of a prince, 
MBh. i, 2689 ; N. of Bhairava or Siva ; (us) [L.j 
or (u) [Susr.], f. the plant Asparagus Racemosus. 

pattri, f. the above plant Asp. Rac. 
A-bblraka, mfn. fearless, MBh. vii, 2522. 
A-bhirnna [AV. vii, 89, 3] or a-bhirtina [VS.], 

mfn. not terrific. 

W/ft 2. abh( (Vf), abhy-eti (Imper. 2. sg. 
abhfhi ; impf. 3. pi. -dyan, 3. sg. A. -dyata; ind. 
p. abhffya) to come near, approach, go up to or to- 
wards (ace.), RV. &c. ; (with sakdiam or samipam 
or pdrsve) id., Paficat. ; to go along or after (ace.), 
RV. &c. ; to enter, join, go over to, Mn. ; Bhutt . ; 
(with a pr. p.) to begin to, (perf. 3. pi. abhiyuh) 
SBr. ; to reach, obtain, RV. &c. ; to get or fall into 
(ace.), MBh. &c. ; to come to, fall to one's share 
(with ace.), Bhatt. ; (said of the sun) to rise (as if 
he came nearer ; also with alihitardm [q. v.] in- 
stead ofabhi), AitBr., (with as/am) to set, MBh. 
i, 1 797 (cf. abhy-aya) : Pass, abhfyate, to be per- 
ceived, known, BhP. : Intens. (i. pi. -imahe) to ask, 
request, RV. i, 24, 3. 

2. Abhiti, is, f. assault, RV. ii, 33, 3 & vii, 21,9. 
Abhitvan, mf(varl)n. attacking, VS. ; AitBr. 
Abhy-aya, as, m. approaching (as of darkness), 

KatySr. ; setting (of the sun), ib. 
Abhy-ayuka, mfn. coming up to (ace.), KapS. 

2. abhllca, mfn. (=abhika, q.v.), 
longing after, lustful, libidinous, Pan. v, 2, 74 ; (af\ 
m. a lover ; a master, L. ; a poet, L. 

WTta 3. abhlka, am, n. (fr. abhi-anc ; cf. 
dnuka), meeting together, collision, RV. ix, 92, 5 ; 
(e), loc. ind. in the presence of (gen.), near, to- 
wards, RV. ; (with Vmuc or i/ with arf) 
away from, out of (abl.), RV. ; (with verbs express- 
ing defending from, as V$.pd & ^/urusfiya) from 
(with abl.), RV. ; before (as before midday ; with 
abl.), RV. iv, 28, 3. 

Wf^abhiksh (/iisi), A. (impf. 3. du. 
-alkshtldnf) to look towards (ace.), RV. x, 121, 6. 

^r>Tt^!I abhikshna, mfn. (contr. of abhi- 
kshana, cf. Nir. ii, 25), constant, perpetual, L. ; in 
comp. for abhikshnam, q.v. ; (am), ind. repeatedly, 
again and again, perpetually, constantly ; presently, 
at once ; very, exceedingly (in comp. abhikshna-), 
Rajat. sas, ind. constantly, R. ; Susr. 

abhl-cara. See abhi--/car. 
abhijya. See abhi-^/yaj. 
a-bhita, &c. See I. a-bK. 

abhtndh (Jindh), abh'indhe (for 
nddhf) to surround with flames, inflame, AV. xi, 3, 

Abhiddha, mfh. inflamed, RV. i, 164, 26 & x, 
190, I ; VS. 

WTtr abhlpa, m. or n. (fr. 2. dp with 
abhl ; cf. anup), only in comp. with -tag, ind. 
from the waters or clouds [Gmn.],'at the right time* 
[NBD. (fr. Vdf with abhi)}, RV. i, 164, 52. 

abhi-pada. See I . a-bhi. 

abhips (Desid.), &c. See abhy- 

a-bhima, mfn. unterrific, causing 
no fear ; (as), m., N. of Vishnu. 

THTtii abhi-mana. See nir-abhimana. 
Abhi-manin. See abhi-^man. 

WHl*i"l<;g5 abbimoda-mud (or abhi-moda- 
miid, fr. irreg. Intens.), mfn. (Jmud), excessively 
joyful, AV. xi, 7, 26 & 8, 24 ; (cf. abhildpa-ldp.) 

^T^ abhtr (y^ir), Caus. (p. -Irdyat) to 
bring near, TBr. 
Abhirani, f. a kind of serpent, L. 

fl>TiTo6A!ra (incorrectly) for ab/iira,q.v. 

wfl<.Tfl abhlrojl, f., N. of a poisonous 
insect, Susr. 

d-bhiru, &c. See i. a-bhl. 

hilapa-ldp (or abht-lapaldp, 
fr. irreg. Intens.), mm. (i/laj>), excessively whimper- 
ing, AV. xi, 8, 25 ; (cf. abhimoda-mud.) 

V>flf'i abhl-vargd, as, m. (*/vrij), circuit, 
compass, AV, iii, 5, a ; vi, 54, 2 & xi, 2, 4. 

abhi-vartd. See abhi-</vrit. 
abhi-mita. See i.ofcA-\/ 
abhl-sapa. See abhi-Vsap. 

abhisu, us, m. (fr. \/l. as with abhi, 
Nir. iii, 9), chiefly Ved. rein, bridle, RV. &c. ; ray 
of light, Naigh. ; (through incorrect interpretation of 
ddsdbhiiu, q.v.) arm, finger, Naigh. ; N. of a Rishi, 

Abhishn, us, m. (incorrectly for abhiiu) rein, 
bridle, MBh. vii, 8180; ray of light, Sis. i, 22. 

mat, mfn. 'having rays of light,' radiant, bright, 
Sis. xvi, 50 ; (an), m. the sun, Sis. vi, 63. 

Wft^ abhtsh (V^. ish), abhtcchati (Subj. 
abhJcchdt) to seek for, long for (ace.), AV. ; AitBr.; 
to intend to (Inf.), Kathas. 

Abhishta, mfn. wished, desired, dear, TS. &c. ; 
(as), m. a lover, Paficat. ; SSh. (cf. -tama below) ; 
(d), f. a mistress; betel, L. ; (am), n. wish, ta- 
ma, mfn. (superl.) dearest, Paficat.; (as), m. a 
dearest lover, Sah. tS, f. state of being desired. 

devata, f. beloved goddess, favourite deity (in- 
voked in the last prayer before death), Paficat. 18- 
bha, m. or -siddhi, f. the gaining a desired object. 

Abhisbti, is, f. wish, PBr. 

Abby-eshana, am, n. (only for the explan. , 
abhishti) approaching (either in a friendly or'hos 
tile inanrier), Say. on RV. vii, 19, 8 & i, 9, i ; de 
siring, wishing for, Sly. on RV. i, ij.6 ii & ' 

Abby-esbaniya, mfn. (only for the explan. o 
abhishti) to be desired, SSy. on RV. i, i in 8 

abhi-shaiiga. See abhi-shanj. 
abhi-shdh. See abhi-shah. 


j a-bhtshma-drona, mfn. with 
out Bhishma and Drona, Venls. 

abhl-sara. See alhi-</sri. 

a, mfn. uneaten ; unenjoyed, 
unused, unexpended ; one who has not eaten, en- 
joyed or expended, -purva, mfn. what has not 
been enjoyed before, MBh. xii, 180, 32. -vat, 
mfn. one who has not eaten, MBh. ; Susr. 

A-bbuj, mfn. one who has not experienced or 
enjoyed, RV. x, 95, II. 

A-bb.ojlsb.ya, as, a, m. f. not liberal, stingy, 
SSiikhSr.; not a servant. Abhnjisbya-tva, n. 
the state of a woman who lives independently, 
Mricch. ; (cf. a-bhaiijishya.) 

A'-bbujat, mfn. not being useful to, not liberal 
stingy, RV. i, 120, 12 & viii, i, 6 ; not eating. 

A-bbufijana, mfn. not eating, fasting, R.; Gaut. 

TJ*T a-bhugna, mfn. not bent, straight ; 
free from disease, well. 

a-bhuja, mfn. armless, maimed. 
a-bhuva, am, n. (Vbhii), 'no real or 
common^being,' a monster, MaitrS. ; (cf. a-bh-va.) 

A-bhu, iis, m. ' unborn,' N. of Vishnu, L. 

A-bbuta, mfn. whatever has not been or hap- 
pened, -tadbbava, m. the becoming or changing 
into anything which one has not been before, Pan. 
iii, I, 12, Comm. tva, n. 'the state of not having 
existed or happened any time,' impossibility, Comm. 
on KSvySd. dosha, mfn. faultless, -purva, 
mfn. unprecedented, R. &c. -pradxirbbava, m. 
the becoming manifest of what has not been before. 
- rajas, asas, m. pi., N. of a class of deities (sup- 
posed to have existed in the fifth Manvantara), VP. 
satru, mfn. having no enemy. Abhiitartha, 
as, m. anything unheard of or impossible, Sah. 
Cv. 1.) Abbutibarana, am, n. relating anything 
which in fact has not happened, a wrong account 
(given for deceiving or puzzling anybody), Sah. ; 
Basar. &c. 

A-bhuti, is, f. non-existence, SBr. xiv ; ' want 
of power,' wretchedness, AV. ; VS. ; mischief, cala- 
mity, MBh. 

^r>jftr a-bhi<mi, is, f. non-earth, anything 
but earth, KatySr. ; no proper place or receptacle or 
object for (gen.), Ssk. &c. -ja, mfn. produced in 
unfit or unsuitable ground, Susr. -sdbvaya, m. 
'named a-l>hfimi (bhfimi = diiard, earth), i.e. a- 
dhara' lip, KSvySd. 

'"'S?r.Hf^[f% a-bhuyah-samnwritti, is, f. 
no return any more, Ragh. x, 28. 
A-blmyishtha, mfn. few, scanty. 
A-bburi, mfn. few, some. 

^*3 a-bhusha, mfn. unadorned, Bhatt. 
A-bbusbita, mfn. id. 

a-bhoktri, mfn. not enjoying, not 
using, abstemious. 

A-bboktavya, mfn. not to be enjoyed or used. 

A-bhoga, as, m. non-enjoyment, Megh &c 

Abhofr-srhan, m ( -gkdnas)(n. (fr. a- 
bhoj^d-bhufijat), killing the stingy, RV. i, 64, 3 

A-bhofrya, mfn. not to be enjoyed, Megh (v 1 

MR!? ^ q - v ; not to be en Jy ed %, 

MBh. xin, 4529. 

A-bhojana, am, n. not eating, fasting, KitySr. ; 
Mn.&c.; (dni), n. pi. id., Kathls. 

A-bhojita, mfn. not fed, not feasted. 

A-bbojln, mfn. not eating, fasting. 

A-bhojya, mfn. uneatable, Hariv.; not to be 

eaten, prohibited as food, Gaut. &c.; one whose 

I is not allowed to be eaten, Mn. xi, 152 A- 

bbojyanna, mfn. one whose food is not allowed to 

be eaten, Mn. iv, 221. 

-bhaujIsbya, am, n. ' not the state of a ser- 



a-btirita, mfn. not receiving hire, 
not paid, Mn. viii, 231. 

A-bhritika, infii. id., MBh. vii, 4463. 

A-bbritydtman, mfn. ' not behaving as a ser- 
vant,' disobedient towards (loc.), Kad. 

T a-bhrisa, mfn. not much, little, few. 

a-bheda, as, m. non-fracture, com- 
pactness, closeness of array, RPrat. &c. ; absence of 
difference or distinction, identity ; (mfn.) not dif- 
ferent, identical, VP. 

A-bbedaka, mfn. not dividing, not causing any 
distinction, Pat. 

A-bhedln, mfn. not different, Sarvad. 

A-bbedya, mfn. not to be divided or broken or 
pierced ; indivisible ; not to be betrayed (as a secret 
formula), BhP. ; (am), n. a diamond, L. -ta, f. or 
-tva, n..[R.] indivisibility, impenetrability. 

a-bhautika, mfn. not relating to 
>r produced by the gross elements, not material, 
l/omm. on Nyayad. &c. 

abhy-agni, is, m., N. of a son of 
Etasa or Aitasa, AitBr. ; KaushBr. ; (j), ind. towards 
he fire, Psn. ii, i, 14, Sch. 

W?J abhy-agra, rnf(a)n. having the point 
umed or directed towards (ace.), ApSr. ; quick, 
KaushBr. ; SaiikhSr. ; constant, perpetual, Ap. ; fresh 
as blood), Bhatt. ; near, L. ; (am), n. proximity, L. 

Wnrnj abhy-aghaya, Norn. P. -aghaydti, 
o intend to injure, AV. vii, 70, 3. 

i, mf(a)n. recently marked 
as cattle), Pan. ii, i, 14, Ris. 

^abhy-aj (Vaj), (Imper. or Subj. i. 
u. -djava) to combine, unite, RV. i, 1 79, 3. 
^TWr^ abhy-^afij, P. to smear, anoint, 
S. ; AitBr. &c. : A. to anoint one's self: A (3 pi 
bhy cMjate) to decorate, RV. ix, 86, 43 : A -an- 
Ktt, to decorate one's self, TS. (quoted in Pan. ii, 
3, 02, KJs.); (in Pass, sense; p. -aftjdnd) to be 
decorated, RV. ii, 8, 4. 

Abby-akta, mfn. oiled, anointed, SBr.; Mn. iv 
44, &c. ; decorated, AV. x, I, 25. 

Abhy-ang-a, as, m. rubbing with unctuous sub- 
stances, inunction, Mn. ii, 178, &c.; unguent, Susr. 

Abhy-anjaka, mfn. (ifc.) rubbing (the feet)with 
unctuous substances, Kathas. 

Abby-anjana, am, n. rubbing with unctuous 
substances, inunction (especially of the feet, once 
[BhP.] said of the hairs), KstySr. ; Mn. &c. ; un- 
guent (used for rubbing the feet ; cf. SHjana}, SBr. 
&c. ; (5) ornament, embellishment, RV. 

Abby-anjanya, mfn. whose feet are to be rub- 
bed with unguents, TBr. 

Abhy-anjya, mfn. to be rubbed with unguents (as 
a foot), KathSs. 

ya; Inf. -krdntum) to step over, walk through, R.; 
to overpower, MBh. xiv, 1551; to transgress, vio- 
late, MBh. i, 199. 

TWjfrta^. abhy-ali- Vkshar (impf. -aksha- 
rat) to flow over to (ace.), TBr. ; AitBr. 

abhy-atita, mfn. (Vat), one who 

abhy-ati (v/t), (ind. p. -atilya) to 
pass over (ace.), R.; to get through towards (ace.), 

Abhy-atita, mfn. passed away (as time), MBh 
"i, "547 J dead, Mn. iv, 252 ; MBh. vii, 1061. 

" Vl|i ?'l abhy-aty-Vrij, to carry over or 
transfer upon (ace.), AitBr. 

WWlfvw abhy-adhika, mf(5)n. surpassing 
(in number, power, kind), R. j exceeding the com- 
mon measure, pre-eminent, extraordinary, MBh 
&c. ; superior to, more excellent than, having more 
authority or power than, more than (abl or instr 
or in comp.), MBh. &c.; augmented by (abl [Var- 
3rS] or instr. or in comp.) ; (am), ind. exceedingly, 
MBh. xiii, 580, &c. 

T*Hl^ abhy-adhvam, ind. upon the way, 
KstySr. ; (/), loc. ind. on the way, AV. iv, 28, 2. 

WPpn j . abhy-anu- VjHa, to assent to, ap- 
prove, allow, permit, concede, MBh. &c to au- 
thorize, direct, MBh. ii, 1235; to allow one to 
depart, dismiss, MBh. &c.; (ind. p. -jOdya; Inf. 
-jttdtum) to take leave, ask for leave to depart 
MBh. xiv, 146 ; R. : Caus. (ind. p. -jHdjya; fiit p' 
-jitapayishyat) to ask for leave to depart, MBh 

3 Abhy-anujna, f. (ifc. f. d) assent, approval, 
Ragh. ii,_6 9 ; NySyad.; authorization, permission, 
KPrSt. ; AsvGr. ; granting leave of absence, dismiss- 
ing, R. &c. 

Abhy-annjnat, mfn. assented to, approved 
Mn. n, i ; authorized, allowed to; MBh. &c ; (an- 
neg.) Mn. ii, 229 ; favoured by (instr.), R ijj ,6* 
19 ; allowed to depart, dismissed, MBh. &c. 

Abby-anujnSna, am, n. assenting to, approval 
Comm. on Nyayad. ; authorization, permission, R 
' 3, 14- 

Abby-anujfiapana, am, n. causing to assent to. 
W^rjut^ abhy-anu- Vprach, to inquire 
after, ask for, MBh. xii, 1933 & xiii, 2169. 

abhy-atiu-Vmud, Caus. (perf. 
Pass. p. -modita; p. necess. -moJaniya) to assent 
to, approve of, MBh. i, 4447 ; Inscr. 

^abhy-anu-v'yvj (ind. p. -yvjya) 
to apply to, ask, MBh. xii, 5667. 

..'erf. -antivaca) 

to declare or state or utter with reference to (ace.), 
AitBr. : Pass. (3. pi. -anticyante) to be referred to 
by some statement or verse, Br. 

Abhy-annkta, mfn. stated or uttered with refer- 
ence to (ace.), SBr.; AitBr.; ChUp.; (cf. abhy- 

3 i 5 abhy-anu- v/f ad, P. (=abky-anu- 
Vvac) to utter with reference to (ace.), SBr. 

abhy-anu-Vsas (Imper. I. p. 
-sdsdni) to indicate, denote, ChUp. 

abhy-anu-Vsri (ind. p. -sritya, 
v. 1. -srijya) to learn by investigating, Hariv. 1440. 

_ abhy-anu-Vsrij (ind. p. -srijya) 
id., ib. 

'in; abhy-antara, mf(o)n. interior, 
being inside of, included in (loc. ; gen. or in comp 
\cf.ganal>hyantara~\), MBh. ii, 2282, &c. ; initiated 
in, conversant with- (loc.), R. ; Megh. ; next, nearly 

rolat,.,) ,-nfi m ,. P.K~. . ( am ^ jnne] . jn _ 

.- \ 


tv(y- u n,u. f iuiii. ^ v u>t) t uiie wno I . ' * "MMMi , \urfi), ii. inner pan, m- 

has walked towards (ace.), one who visits (used for S^ff' insi de, middle, Sak. &c. ; (generally loc. : 

*k= ,.,,... _T .,j.'jlS\ XTr._ I irr ^ int*rv^l eni/-a nf ;;,,,-, ^1,: L . r*_s _ . .. 

the etym. of atithi), Nir. 

/ni, to bring or place 
upon (loc.), Kaus. 

1 abhy-ati-Vric, Pass, -a'li-ric 

yale or -ati-ricyatc (Subj. abhy-ati-r{cydtai ; Pot. 
-dti-ricyeta) Ved. to remain for the sake of face 
TS.; SBr.&c. 

'rH^abhy-ati-Vvad, P. (=ati-Vvad, 
q. v.) 'to speak louder or better,' surpass in disput- 
ing, PBr. 

past, MBh. vii, 1391 (v. 1.) 

, . . . 

*0 interval, space of time, Mricch. ; Pancat. ; Hit 

ind. in the interior, inwards, I __-*., 

mfn. 'doing a wrong to one's own land,' raising . 
sedition or mutiny, VarBrS. Abhyantara-yama, 
m. curvature of the spine by spasm, emprosthonos 
Susr. ; (cf. bdhyaydma.) 

Abby-antaraka, as, m. an intimate friend, L. 

Abhyantari (for abhyantara in comp. with 
/I. kri and its derivatives). - karana, n. initiat- 
ing in (loc.), Das. - -v/I. kifl, to put'between, in- 
i, mfn. initiated in (loc.), R. ; made 

mas) to let pass, AV. x, 5, I j =xvi, I, 5. 

. ~ - (ace.), SBr. ; (aor. Subj. 2. sg. -dpa- 

I kramis) to come up to, AV. xii, 2, 18. 

76 ^?jqng dbhy-apa-sri. 

Wnjfa abhy-apa-Vsri, A. to retire to 
wards (ace.), ShadvBr. 

'Wmni'^ abhy-apdn(i/an), to breathe to- 
wards (ace.), AitBr. 

W*H*^afeAy- Vam, abhy-amiti ( VS. fquotec 
in Pin. vii, 2, 34, Sch. ; cf. also ib. 3, 95, Sch.] ; 3 
sg. -amisAi; 3. pi. Subj. -amdnti & impf. A. -d- 
manta) to advance violently against, pain, hurt, 
RV. i, 189, 3 ; vii, 25, 2 & x, 86, 8 ; VS. 

Abhy-amana, am, n. paining, oppression, Nir 
Tat, mfn. paining, hurting, ib. 

Abhy-amita or abhy-anta, mfn. (perf. Pass, p.) 
diseased, sick, L. 

Abhy-amitrlna [Bhatt.] or "trlya or trya 
[Bhatt.], mfn. [apparently derivatives fr. abhy-ami- 
tram (see below s. v.), but probably originally de- 
rived from the rt., which is also indicated by the 
parallel form abhy-amin (see below)] advancing 
against or attacking (the enemy), Pin. v, 3, 17. 
Abhy-amitrina-ta, f. a good opportunity to at- 
tack the enemy, Rajat. 

Abhy-amin, mfn, attacking, Pin. iii, 2, 157. 

^J**lfacf abhy-umitra (basis of abhy-ami- 
tram & its derivatives trtna, &c.), Pin. v, 2, 17; 
(am), ind. against the enemy, Venls. 

Abhy-amitrlna, &c. See abhy-i/am. 

^?ni abhy-aya. See 2. abhi. 

WnnWJ*^ abhy-ayodhyam, ind. towards 
or against Ayodhyi, Bhatt. 

^BWTft abhy-ari, ind. towards or against 
the enemy, L. 


abhy-arkabimliam, ind. to- 
wards the disk of the sun, SSk. 

W1^ abhy-^arc (3. pi. -arcanti & impf. 
-arcan [RV. iv, I, 14] ; Imper. i. sg. -area, t. pi. 
-arcata ; A. I . sg. -arce & aor. -arctue fR V. x, 64, 
3]) to praise, celebrate in song (instr.), RV.; AV. ; 
VS. ; (ind. p. -arcya) to worship, reverence, MBh. ; 
Mn. &c. 

Abhy-arcana, am, n. worship, reverence, Mn. 
ii, 176, &c. 

Abhy-aroanlya, mfn. aihy-arcya. 

Abhy-arca, f. = abhy-arcana above, L. 

Abhy-arcita, mm. reverenced, MBh. ii, 1390, 
&c. ; incorrectly for abhy-arthita, MBh. v, 1532. 

Abhy-arcya, mfn. to be reverenced, VarBrS. &c. 

TM*IU abhy-arna, mfn. (fr. \/ri or accord- 
ing to Pin. vii, a, 25 fr. Vara", in which case it 
should be written abhy-arnna) near, proximate, 
Ragh. ii, 33, &c.; (am), n. proximity, Milatlm. &c. 
tS, f. proximity, Kid. 

VTr^ dbhy-Vart (aor. A . 2 . pi. -artidhvam) 
[NBD.] incorrectly for abhy-*/arth, PBr.; cf. an- 
vart (anv-art f). 

WT^abhy-Varth, A. (Opt. -artha- 
ycthds; rarely P., e.g. fut.-arMayj>^yaft',Kathas.) 
to request, ask for (ace. or dat. or loc. or in comp. 
with artham), MBh. iii, 1 6990, &c. ; (see also abhy- 

Abhy-arthana, am, n. asking, requesting; gene- 
rally (a), f., id., Kum. i, 53, &c. 

Abhy-artnanly a , mfn. to be requested or asked. 

Abhy-arthlta, mfn. asked, invited, Mn. ii, 189, 
&c.; (am), n. request, Yajfi. ii, 88 ; (d.yathathyar- 

Abhy-arthin, mm. (ifc.) asking, KathSs. 

1. Abhy-arthya, mtn. = ab/iy-arthaniya. 

2. Abhy-arthya, ind. p. asking, requesting, 

Wl abhy-^/ard, to oppress, afflict, pain, 
R. : Caus. id., BhP. 

Abhy-arnna, mfn. (as ni-shanna fr. ni-shad). 
See abhy-arna. 

Abhy-ardita, mfn. (fr. Caus.) distressed, op- 
pressed, MBh. i, 41 16 ; Pin. vii, 2, 25, Sch. 

W*Tv abhy-ardhd, as, m. only (^) loc. ind. 
opposite to, in the face of (abl.), SBr. yajvan 
(6), mm. (said of Pushan) receiving sacrifices apart 
or separate ones, RV. vi, 50, 5. 

AbhyarOhas, ind. apart, separate from (abl.), 
MaitrS. ; TS. 

sh (Tmper. 2. sg. -arsha 
(most frequently in RV.) ; p. -drshat) to flow or run 
near (ace.), RV. ; to cause to flow near, afford, RV. 
(aor. or plusq. -dnarshaf) TAr. 

^wnfJU abhy-arhana, am, n. reverencing 
honouring, BhP. 

Abhy-arhaniya, mfn. to be greatly honoured 
venerable. ta, f. honourableness, Mn. ix, 23. 

Abhy-arhita, ml n. greatly honoured, venerable 
Kid. ; (cf. Pin. ii, 2, 34, Comm.) ; more honoured 
Kid. ; more important than (abl.) ; fit, proper, be 
coming, L. 

*i*^'yfi abhy-alamkrita, mfn. decorated 
R- i, .13, 36. 

Abhy-alamkara, at, m. (ifc. f. a), decoration, 
MBh. iii, 16166. 

abhy-alpa, mfn. very small, AitBr 
abhy-\/av (aor. -dvlt) to refresh 
RV. ix, 97, 35- 

WVqi*M<D abhy-avakarshana, am, n. (\/ 
krisK), extraction, drawing out, L. 

i*l=lm3l abhy-avakasa, as, m. (i/kas), 
an open space, Kaus. 

f WTT^T abhy-ava-i/kri (Pass. 3. pi. -kir- 
yante) to throw or cast on, pour on, cover, R.; 

Abhy-ava-klrna, mm. covered, R, 

'WVHlSflT; abhy-ava-\/krand, to call out 
towards (ace.), Kith. 

W^^'il^ abhy-ava-*i/gah, Caus. to ride 
or walk (horses) into the ford, Comm. on TBr. 

Wvq 4 M ^. abhy-ava- -/car (Subj. 3. pi. -cd- 
rdn) to approach, assail, SBr. : Caus. (Opt. -cdrayet] 
to send away, MBh. xii, 3779. 

abhy-ava- </jval, Caus. -jvala- 
yate, to enlighten, illumine, GopBr. 

-ava/tan, -tanoti, to send 
out or spread (as rays, instr.) towards (ace.), SBr. : 
Pass. (3. pi. -tdyante) to be sent out or spread (as 
rays) towards (ace.), SBr. 

i.abhy-ava-\/i. da, to place into 
(loc.), Car. 

' 2. abhy-ava-</3. da, to cut off in 
addition to, SBr. 

Abhy-ava-danya (or -ddnya), mfn. depriving 
of (gen.), Br. xiv. 

abhy-ava-dugdha, mfn. that 
upon which milk has been milked, Kaus. 

abhy-ava- Vdhd (perf. Pass. p. 
-hita) to allay, lay (as dust), R. ii, 40, 33. 

abhy-ava-Vnam, Caus. (ind. p. 
-ndmyd) to bow, incline,'MBh. iii, 10062. 

^T^qfrin abhy-ava-Vnij, P. -nenekti, to 
wipe or wash, clean, Kaus. ; (aor. A. -nikshi) 
AV. x, 5, 15 : Caus. to cause to wash, Kaus. 

t.y-ava- Vnt, to lead down (into 
water), SBr.; AitBr. ; (perf. -nindya) to pour into 
or upon (ace.), AitBr. ; PBr. 

abhy-ava- Vpat, to fly near, 

lilt, abhy-ava- Vman, -manyatt, to 
despise, reject, Mn. iv, 249. 

abhy-ava- Vruh, to step down 
upon, SBr. ; (perf. p. -rut/Aavat) R. v, 5 2, 1 5. 

^0*^Tl abhy-ava-Vvrit, A. (Opt. 3. pi 

vdrleran) to turn one'sselfaway from(abl.),TBr.: 
Caus. P. to turn towards or to this side, SBr. 

abhy-ava-i/sri (ind. p. -sritya) to 
etire from (abl.) towards (ace.), MBh. vii, 8479. 

abhy-ava- Vsrij (l. p. -srijami) 
o dismiss towards (ace.), AV. xvi, I, 6 ; to dismiss 
as rays), MBh. xii, 3295 ; to throw, shoot (as ar- 
ows), MBh. ; R. 

ava- -/skand (ind .p. -skan- 

dya) to jump down or into, MBh. ; to meet, en- 
counter, MBh. iv, 1549. 

Abliy-avaskanda, as, m. or dana, am, n. 
impetuous assault, L. 

abhy-ava-sthita, mfn. resisting 
(with ace.), BhP. 

\, to drive (on 
a carriage) towards, SBr. 

Wlig abhy-ava-Vhri, to throw down 
into water (ace. ; afdh or samudrdm or hraddm), 
VS.; SBr.; AsvSr. ; (cf. abhy~ava-*/ni); to bring 
near, SBr. ; to take food, eat, Susr. ; Car. &c. : Caus. 
to cause to throw down (into water), Li{y. ; to at- 
tack (as an enemy), MBh. iii, 16369 ; to take food, 
eat, MBh. iii, 15905 ; to cause to eat, Das. 

Abhy-avaharana, am, n. throwing away or 
down, SBr. ; KitySr.; taking food, eating, Vishnus. ; 
Comm. on Yijn. 

Abhy -avahara,ff.r,m . taking food, M n. vi, 59,&c. 

Abhy-avaharin. See satrinat>A. 

Abhy-avaharya, mfn. eatable, R. ; Pin. Sch. 
& Comm. ; (am), n. [Vikr.] or (dni), n. pi. [MBh.] 
food, eating. 

^JT^m abhy-avds (\/2. as), (Opt. -ocas- 
ycf) to throw upon (ace.), Kaus. 

WIq' abhy-ave (Vi), -avatti, to go down, 
descend (into water, as in bathing), AitBr. ; SBr. ; 
KitySr. ; (fut. 3. pi. -avidshyanti) to condescend, 
SBr. ; (impf. 3. pi. -avSyan) to perceive, TS. 

Abhy-avayana, am, n. going down, Br. 

Wl^T5r abhy-aveksh (Viksh), -avfkshate, 
to look at or upon, SBr. ; MBh. ii, 2686. 

^TH^raA hy- Vi-as,-asnoti (frequently Opt. 
or Free. I. sg. -asydm, 3. sg. -asyds [RV. iv, 5, 7], 
i. pi. -aiydma; aor. P. -dnat and A. -ashla; perf. 
i. pi. -dnasma,.$. pi. -dnasiih) to pervade, reach 
to, gain, RV.; (Subj. I. d\i.-asndvdva, I. pi. -aind- 
vdma) to overpower, RV. 

Abhy-asana, am, n. reaching to, gaining, Nir. 

Abhy-asa, ns, m. (also written i. abhy-asa), 
reaching to, pervading, YijS. iii, 114; (with yad 
and Pot.) prospect, any expected result or conse- 
quence, ChUp. ; proximity (with gen. or abl.), R. 
&c. ; (mm.) near, Kum. vi, 2 ; (am), ind. near, at 
hand, AitBr. ; PBr. ; (e), loc. ind. near (with gen. 
or abl.), R. &c. ; (at), abl. in comp. with (a perf. 
Pass, p., as) dgata, &c., arrived from near at hand, 
&c., Pin. ii, I, 39, Sch. ii vi, 3, 2, Sch. AbhySsi- 
to come near to, Pat., -dsti (i. pi. abhi 
shmas, but 3. pi. abhi sdnti and pr. p. abhi sat 
[according to Pin. viii, 3, 87 aAAismas, but abhi- 
shanti and abhishaf] ; Subj. -asat, I. pi. -dsdma, 
3. pi. -dsan; Pot sg. -shydm, -shyds, -shyat, I. 
and 3. pi. -shydma, -shyuh or -shytih; pert'. I. sg. 
-dsa) to be over, reign over, excel, surpass, overpower, 
RV. ; AV. ; to fall to one's share, Pin. i, 4, 91. 
Ablii-sliti. See s. v. 

Wl^ 2. abhy-Vz. as (ind. p. -asya) to 
throw towards or upon, SBr. ; AitBr. ; (p. gen. sg. 
-asyatas) to throw (as arrows), MBh. i, 5479 ; to add, 
?ulb. : P. (rarely A.) -asyati (but also Pot. -aset, 
Mn. ; p. -asat, MBh. iii, 1450; R. ; YljH. iii, 204: 
A. -asate, Mn. iv, 149) to concentrate one's atten- 
tion upon (ace.), practise, exercise, study, MBh. &c. ; 
to repeat, double ; to multiply, SOryas. &c. : Caus. to 
cause to practise or study, teach, Comm. on Sis. ix, 79. 

Abhy-asana, am, n. practice, exercise, R. &c. 

Abhy-asanlya, mfn. to be practised, Kathis. ; 
to be studied ; to be repeated ; (in Gr.) to be redu- 

Abhy-asitavya, mfn. to be practised, Comm. on 

Abhy-asta, mfn. accumulated by repeated prac- 
ice (as food), Susr.; practised, exercised, Mricch. &c.; 
arnt by heart, repeated, studied, Ragh. i,8,&c.; mul- 
iplied, Nir. ; Suryas.; (in Gr.) reduplicated (as roots), 
'Jir. ; (am), n. the reduplicated base of a root, Pin. 

2. Abhy-asa, as, m. the act of adding anything, 

Sulb. ; (in Gr.) ' what is prefixed,' the first syllable 

>f a reduplicated radical, Pan. ; reduplication, Nir. ; 

epetition, Mn. xii, 74, &c. ; (in poetry) repetition 

if the last verse of a stanza [Nir.] or of the last word 

of a chapter [Comm. on AitBr.] ; (in arithm.) mul- 

iplication ; repeated or permanent exercise, disci- 


pline, use, habit, custom ; repeated reading, study , 
military practice, L. ; (in laterVedanta phil.) inculca- 
tion of a truth conveyed in sacred writings by means 
of repeating the same word or the same passage ; (in 
Yoga phil.) the effort of the mind to remain in its 
unmodified condition of purity (sattva). ta, f. con- 
stant practice, use, habit. nimitta, n. the cause 
of the reduplication-syllable, Pan. Comm. pari- 
vartin (for abhydsa-\ mfn. wandering about or 
near, N. yoga, m. the practice of frequent anc 
repeated meditation on any deity or on abstract spirit, 
repeated recollection, vat, m. (in Yoga phil.; 
'being in the condition called abhyasa? i. e. a Yogin 
of the first degree, vyavaya, m. interval caused 
by the reduplication-syllable, Pan. Comm. Abhy- 
Ssakupara, n. 'the sea of meditation,' N. of a verse 
of the SV. 

Abhyasln, mfn. (ifc.) practising, repeating, 
Gaut. ;abhydsa-vat, q.v., Sarvad. 

Wl^T abhy-asuya, Nom. P. A. -asuyati, 
"te, to show indignation, be indignant at, MBh. &c. 

Abhy-asuyaka, mm. indignant, Bhag. 

Abhy-asuya, f. indignation, anger, Megh. ; envy, 
jealousy, Kum. iii, 4 ; Ragh. 

^8*H*rt^ abhy-dstam, with \/t [Pot. -iydt, 
Br. ; AitBr.] or [aor. -agdt, SBr.], (said of 
the sun) to set upon anybody (ace.) who is not work- 
ing or while anything (ace.) is not done or performed ; 
(cf. abhi-ni-\/mruc.~) 

Abhy-astam-aya, as, m. See anuddhrit&bk. 

Abhy-astam-ita, mfn. one on whom while not 
(working or) being asleep the sun has set, Gaut. 

WTraiM abhy-dkarsha, as, m. (\/krish), a 
striking of the flat of the hand upon the breast in 
defiance (a practice common to wrestlers and pugil- 
ists), MBh. i, 7109. 

^TT^Tf^iT nbhy-dkdnkshita, am, n. a 
groundless complaint, false accusation, L. 

^TT^iTT 1 ^ abhy-d-kdram, ind. (vl-kfi), 
by or in drawing near to one's self, AitBr.; SBr. (Kan- 
va Rec.) 

TOWan*n^ abhy-d-krdmam, ind. (</kram), 
by or in stepping towards repeatedly, AV. x, 7, 42. 

1S*lJ\T^abhy-d-'/krus (impf. 3. pi. -akro- 
sait) to assail with harsh language, revile, SinkhSr. 

^WrreTT abhy-d-Vkhyd (Inf. -khydtum = 
mithyabhiyoktuni) to accuse falsely, Comm. on Kir. 
xiii, 58. 

Abhy-akhyata, mfn. accused falsely, calumni- 
ated, Kaus. ; TUp. 

Abhy-akhyana, am, n. a false or groundless ac- 
cusation, calumny, Buddh. ; Jain. 

^SVHTTJT^ abhy-d-Vgam (fut. p. neg. dn- 
abhydgamishyat, SBr.) to come near to, approach, 
visit, SBr. &c. ; (with cintdni) to happen to think, 
R. iii, 4, 20. 

Abhy-Sgata, mfn. come, arrived, MBh. &c. ; 
(with kramdf) inherited, Yajn. ii, 119; (as), m. 
(opposed to atithf) an uninvited guest, BhP.; a 
guest in general, H it. &c. 

Abhy-agama, as, m. approaching, arrival, visit, 
visitation, Ragh. &c. ; arriving at or enjoying a re- 
sult, Nyayad. ; neighbourhood, L. ; rising (to receive 
a guest), L. ; war, battle, L. ; encountering, striking, 
killing, L. ; enmity, L. 

Abhy-a-gamana, mfn. arrival, visit, R. i, 8, 24 ; 
Kir.;(cf. kdlak/f.) 

WnnT abky-ii-\/ (aor. abhy-agdt) to 
approach, come to (ace.), RV. i, 164, 27; MBh.; 
(gen.), BhP. ; (said of evil) to visit, MBh. iii, 1 1 20 ; 
to begin to (Inf.), Mn. x, 108. 

^T^HI'llt.*^ abfiy-d-gdram, ind. (\/i.grl), so 
as to call or shout to each other (at the different 
steps ofa dance), i.e. repeating separately, KaushBr. 
(see also abhi-ni-nartani) ; cf. apa-gdram. 

WTI TIT abhy-dgdrc,\oc. ind. in the house, 
AsvGr. ; v. 1. abhy-dcdre [ParGr.] and abhy-dcare 
[MSnGr.J, ' in the reach or compass.' 

Abhy-agarika, mfn. diligent in supporting a 
family, L. 

^T*Ml*HiT abhy-dghdta, as, m. (v/Aan), as- 
sault, attack, Mn. ix, 272; interruption, Comm. on 



Abhy-aghatin, mfn. attacking, Pin. iii, 2, 142 
Abhy-aghatya, mfn. recited with interruption 

. Seepanar-abA 

(impf. -acashta] 
to look at (ace.), BhP.; to speak, BhP. 

^ WQT^abhy-d-^car^r.p. f.abhy- 
a-cdrantis) to approach (with ace.), RV. viii, 96, 
15; to undertake, practise, MBh. xii, 9719. 

Abhy-acare, loc. ind. See abhy-dgarc. 

Abhy-acara, as, m. approaching (as an enemy), 
assault, AV. x, 3, 2 ; mishap, an accident, KaushBr. 
(e), loc. ind. See abhy-dgdre. 

WTTS^ abhy-aj (vaj), (Imper. 2. sg. -aja] 
to drive near, Pin. viii, I, 8, Sch. 

^TWrTsTR abhy-d-jndyd, as, m. order, com 
mand, SBr. 

vata) to take aim at, shoot, TS. 

Abhy-atana, as, m. pi. 'aiming at,' N. of cer- 
tain war-songs, TS. ; Kaus. -tva, n. the state of 
those war-songs, TS. 

^MiflH, abhy-d-Vtap (3. pi. -tapanti) to 
torment, pain, RV. vii, 83, J. 

WJffiT abhy-d-\/tri (Imper. 2. sg. -tara) 
to come up to (ace.), RV. viii, 75, 1 5. 

^WTrW^ abhy-dtmdm, ind., Ved. towards 
one's self, SBr. &c. 

Abhyatma (in comp. for abhydtmdm), ta- 
ram, ind. more towards one's self, AsvSr. Abhy- 
atmagra, mm. having the points turned towards 
one's self, AsvGr. 

to seize, snatch away, (Pot._-Jadtta) MBh. i, 3558 
= xii, 10999 = xiii, 4985 : A. to put on (as a wreath), 
Hariv. ; (with vdkyam) to take up the word, com- 
mence to speak, MBh. v, 3384. 

Abhy-a-tta, mfn. encompassing, ChUp. 

Abhy-adSna, am, n. beginning. Pin. viii, 2, 87. 

^TTT^T<1 abhy-d-ddvya, as, m. (v/2. du), 
N. of the non-sacrificial fire which in coming close 
to the sacrificial one blazes up together with it, 

'WWTrfij'S^ abhy-d-Vdis (Intens. p. -dfdi- 
idna) to aim at (in hostile manner), RV. vi, 44, 1 7. 

abhy-d-Vz. dru (perf. -dudrdva) to 
run towards (ace.), SBr. 

abhy-d-Vdhd, chiefly Ved. to lay 
on (fuel, &c.), VS., &c. ; to place the fire upon, 
SBr. &c. 

Abhy-adhana, am, n. laying on (fuel), SBr.; 

Abhy-ahita, mfn. laid on (as fuel), SBr. ; ChUp. 
pasn, m. a present or duty (usual in some dis- 
tricts of India), Pan. vi, 3, 10, Sch. ; (v. 1. abhyarhita- 

^?Hm1 abhy-dnana, mfn. having the face 
turned towards, BhP. 

abhy-d-\/nl (ind. p. -niya) to pour 
into, mix with, AitBr. 

-v / '' 1 ri< (pr. p. -nrttyat) to 
dance towards, hasten near, TBr. 

nta = abhy-amita, q.v. 

y- Vdf>, -dpndti, to reach to, get, 
obtain, SBr. : Caus. -apiiyati, to bring to an end, 
SBr.: Desid. P. ablnpsati (rarely A., MBh. v, 17), 
to strive to reach, ask for, desire, MBh. &c. 

Abhipsat, mf(<i//~, MBh. 1, 6469; R.; and, Mn. 
v, 1 56) n. (pr. p.) longing for, desiring. 

Abhipsita, mfn. desired, acceptable, dear. 

Abhipsin, mfn. (\k.) = ab/i?psat, KathUp. 

Abhipsu, mfn. id. (with ace., N. &c. ; with Inf., 
Sis. i, 14). 

Abhy-apti, is, f. obtaining, AitAr. 

WWf1(^abhy-a-Vpat, to jump on, hasten 

near to, rush towards (ace. without or with frail), 
VI Bh. ; Kathas. : Caus. to extend (a string) towards 
(ace.), Sulb. 

Abhy-apata, as, m. calamity, misfortune, L. 

1i*im^[ abhy-d-Vpad (Pot. -padyeta) to 
enter into, come to (ace.), AsvGr. 

Abhy-a-padam, ind. so as to enter into or pass 
through (ace.), Nir. vii, 26. 

^JTT^J.a&Ay-a-v^oAu (Pot. -bhdvet) to hap- 
pen to, occur to (ace.), SBr. ; AitBr. 

abhy-dmarda, as, m . war, battle, L. 

-d-\/yam, P. (3. pi. -yacchan- 
ti) to lengthen (as a syllable in speaking^ AitBr. ; 
to draw or pull (as the udder in sucking), Kath. : 
A. (Imper. 2. sg. -yacchasvd) to assume (' to grant,' 
Comm.), VS. iii, 38: P.(Subj. 3. y\.-yaman; ind. p. 
-ydtya) to aim at, RV. viii, 92, 3 1 ; Br. ; AitBr. ; for 
abhy-d-^gam, KaushBr. 

Abhy-a-yansnya, mfn. (said of the ASvins) 
one who allows himself to be drawn near (for ac- 
cepting the sacrificial oblation), RV. i, 34, 1. 

^WnTT abhy-d-^yd, to come up to, ap- 
proach, MBh. &c. 

WITg abhy-d-\/2.yu, A. (3. pi. -ytwate) 
to strive towards (ace.), AitBr. 

'-dyuka. See 2. abhi. 

f abhy-d-i/rabh, A. to lay hold of 
(ace.), $Br.; AitBr.: P. (impf. -arabhat) to com- 
mence, MBh. iii, 10724. 

Abhy-Srambha, as, m. beginning, SBr.; re- 
beginning, repetition, PBr. 

xi mn,*^ abhy-dram, ind. (cf. drd) near, at 
hand, RV. viii, 72, II. 

sHi^i| abhy-d-^ruh, -d-rohati, to as- 
cend, mount, step upon, AV. ; TS. ; SBr. : Caus. 
(Subj. i. sg. -rohdydni) to cause to ascend, SBr. 

Abhy-Srudha, mfn. ascended, TS. ; (cf.dn- neg.) 

Abhy-aroha, as, m. ascending, SBr. (cf. dit- 
neg.); increase, growth (as of days), SBr.; 'ascend- 
ing in devotion,' praying, SBr. xiv. 

Abhy-arohanlya, as, m., N. of a sacrificial 
ceremony, AsvSr. ; Laty. 

Abhy-arohnka, mfn. ascending, MaitrS. 

Abhy-arohya. See an- neg. 

^f*TT^^ abhy-d-</vadk (aor. -avadhit) to 
strike, R. 1,45, 17(v. I.) 

abhy-d-Vvah (3. pi. Imper. -va- 
hantu and impf. -avahan) to convey, bring towards 
(ace.), RV. i, 51, 10; 134, i & vi, 63, 7. 

abhy-d-\/vis (impf. -avisat) to 
rush into (ace.), MBh. vii, 5812 : P. A. to enter 
into, penetrate, MBh. 

^T*u<j1^ abhy-d-Vvrit, -vdrtate (Imper. 2. 

;. -vavritsva ; P. impf. 3. sg. -avart [RV. vii, 59, 
4]) to roll (as a cart) towards, come up to or towards 
(ace.), approach, RV. ; AV. ; VS. : Caus. (Ved.) -va- 
vartati, id., RV. x, 64, 1 ; -vartayati, to repeat, 

Abhy-a-vartam, ind. so as to repeat, repeatedly, 
SBr. ; PBr. 

Abhy-avartin, mfn. coming near, coming re- 
watedly, VS. (voc.) ; Kaus. ; returning (as days), 
AitBr. (an- neg.); (f), m., N. of a king (son of 
CayamSna and descendant of Prithu), RV. vi, 27, 
5& 8. 

Abhy-avritta, mfn. come near, approached, VS. 
viii, 58; (with ace.) SBr. ; turned towards, KatySr. 

Abhy-avritti, is, (. repetition, Pin. ; Jaim. 

Abhy-a-vrltya, ind. p. turning one's self towards 
ace.), MBh. v, 4128. 

-dsa, as, m. See abhy-^/ 

abhy-dsa. See (abhy-^/ and) 
2. abhy-*f'i. as. 

y linked together (as days by beginning a day with 
he same ceremony which has been performed at the 
:nd of the preceding day), AsvSr. ; Comm. on PBr. 
Abhy-asaiigya, mfn. to be closely linked to- 
gether (as days ; see before), PBr. ; Vait. ; (as), m., 
N. of a Panciha, PBr. ; ApSr. 

abhy-d-\/sad (Ved. Inf. -sdditm) 

o sit down into (ace.), RV. ix, 3, I & 30, 4; to at 
ain, obtain, Kir. v, 52 




Abhy-asadana, am, n. attacking an enemy, L. 
Abhy-asadayitavya, mm. to be allowed to ap- 
proach, MBh. iii, 17101. 

TSVnfl&^alhy-a-Vsic, to pour on, Gobh. ; 

^WrirTabAy-a-v / 'Aan (Imper. 2. sg.-jahi; 
perf. A. -jaghne) to strike, wound, RV. ix, 81;, i ; 
MBh. ; ChUp. ; to impede (Inf. -Aanitum), Hariv. 

Abhy-ahata, mfn. struck, wounded, MBh. Sec. ; 
seized by, afflicted with, MBh. Sic. ; impeded, Bhatt., 
(an-, neg.) AsvSr.; MirkP. 

Abhy-ahanana, am, n. impeding, interruption, 
Comm. on PBr. 

ab/iy-a/iita. See abhy-d-Vdhd. 

1 abhy-d-i/hn, to bring near, hand 
over, MBh.; R. ; to carry off, R. ed. Bomb, i, 61,7. 
Abhy-ahfira, as, m. bringing near, SBr.; carry- 
ing off, robbery, L. 

'WWTrar alihy-a-i/hve, -hvayate, to address 
(with the ahava formula), TS. ; SBr. ; AitBr. ; (pr. p. 
-hvayaf) to shout at, challenge, attack, PBr. 

W*3^ abhy-ukta, mfn. declared or uttered 
(as a verse) with reference to (ace.), SBr. ; Up. 

T&**fmabhy-*/l.uksh, P.-ukshdti (ind. p. 
-ukshya) to sprinkle over, besprinkle, SBr. &c. : 
A. (pcrf. -vavakshe) to cover with sparks, RV. i, 
146, i. 

Abhy-uksbana , am, n. sprinkling over, wetting, 
KitySr.; Lity; Ragh. xvi, 57. 

Abhy-ukshita, mfn. besprinkled, R. ; Mricch. 

^*3^, o^Ay-v^tic, -ucyati, to like, take 
pleasure in visiting, TS. 
Abhy-ucita, mfn. usual, customary, R. 

^^^^.abhy-uc-Vcar (Imper. 2. sg. -card) 
to rise over (ace.), RV. viii, 25, ai. 

Wjf% abhy-uc-Vi-ci, to bring together 
in one place, Comm. on Bad. ; to treat (a subject) in 
connection with (another), ib. 

Abhy-uccaya, as, m. increase, Nir. ; Bhatt. 

Abhy-uccita, mfn. increased, Comm. on Nir. 

Wy?f abhy-vcchraya, as, m. ( V / r),'ele- 
vation,' in comp. with -vat, mfn. having a great 
elevation, being higher than (abl.), MBh. iii, 11609. 

Abliy-ucchrita, mfn. raised aloft, elevated, SBr. 
&c. ; prominent, VarBrS. ; Ragh. ix, 62; excellent 
through (instr.), Ragh. xvi, a. kara, mm. with 
uplifted proboscis, MBh. iii, 15735. 

W*}("'n( abhy-uj-*/ji,to obtain by conquer- 
ing, GopBr. 

WXTSffajtbhy-uj-^jiVf-jlvati, to preserve 
life, MBh. r,453t. 

^J^rHiJ^ abhy-ut-\/kram, to go up to, as- 
cend, Vait. : P. (fut. I. pi. -kramishydmas, SBr.) 
and Caus. P. -kramayati [SBr.] or -krdmayati 
[AsvGr.] to cause to go or step towards (loc.) 

^wjrlp^ abAy-trf-v'irui (Subj. I. pi. -krtoi> 
sdma) to raise loud acclamations towards (kce^, 

Abhy-utkruslita, mm. applauded with loud ac- 
clamations, AitBr. (an- neg.) 

Abby-utkrosana, am, n. loud acclamation, Say. 
on AitBr. mantra, m. a hymn of applause (with 
which India is addressed), ib. 

^*J7T abhy-ut-Vtrl (3. pi. -ut-taranti) to 

cross, SBr. ; (i. pi. -tarema) to cross over towards, 
penetrate to (ace.), RV. x, 53, 8. 

SJWptJT abky-ut-thd (Vstkd), (impf. -ud- 
atishthat; perf. -tit-taslAau') to rise for going to- 
wards (ace.), AV. xv, 8, 5 ; SBr. &c. ; to rise from 
a seat to do any one (ace.) honour, Sak. &c. ; (with 
dtithya-karma) id., M Bh. vjii, 634 ; to rise in re- 
bellion, MlrkP.; to leave off, desist from (abl.), 
Comm. on ChUp. 

Abhy-ttttb.ana,<7w, n. rising from a seat through 
politeness, Paflcat. ; rising, setting out, R. ; rebellion, 
Hariv. ; elevation, gaining a high position, gaining 
authority, respectability, Bhag. ; Ragh. ; (said of des- 
tiny) gaining efficacy, power, MBh. xiii, 343 ; rise, 
origin, birth, MBh. xii. 

Abb.y-uttb.ayin, mfn. rising from a seat to do 
any one honour, Comm. on KatySr. (an- neg.) 

Abhy-utthita, mfn. risen, R. &c. ; risen from 
the seat to do any one (ace.) honour, Hariv. ; BhP. ; 
appeared, visible, Ragh. i, 53, &c. ; risen for doing 
anything, making one's self ready for (ace.), Nir.; 
(Inf.), MBh. xii, 4130; ready, Hariv.; BhP. 

Abb.y-uttb.eya, mfn. to be greeted reverentially 
(i. e. by rising from one's seat), Comm. on KatySr. 

^T^JrTr^ abhy-ut-Vpat (p. -patat ; perf. 
-pafdta} to fly or jump or rush up to (ace.), Hariv. ; 
Kathas. : Caus. -tit-pdtayati, to cause to fly up to 
(ace.), SBr. 

Abhy-utpatana, am, n. springing or leaping 
against any one, Ragh. ii, 27. 

"*3 W S "bky-ut-Vsad, Caus. (Ved. aor. 
-sddaydtn akah \akar, Vl-kri]) to cause to set 
out towards (ace. ; for obtaining), MaitrS. (quoted 
by Pan. iii, I, 42). 

^IWJTO^ abhy-ut-Vsarj (Pot. -ut-sarjet) 
to rattle towards (ace.), TS. 

" V 3*"^ fbfiy-ut-Vsah, to be able to resist 
(with ace.), MBh. vi, 2351 ; to feel competent, ven- 
ture (with Inf.), MBh. iii, 13206; Ragh. v, 22. 

^T*jfw^ abhy-ut-Vsic (ind. p. -stcya) to 
fill up by pouring, SBr.; to sprinkle with (instr., 
adbhis), SinkhGr. 

SBWJFJ^ abhy-ut-Vsri], to throw (as an 
arrow) towards (dat.), MBh. vii, 8852: Desid. (p. 
-sisrikshat} to be about to give up (as one's life), 
MBh. xii, 833. 

^Swrff9T abhy-ut-V^smi (only p. -smayat) 
to smile on (ace.), smile, MBh.; Hariv. 

^T^Pt abhy-Vud (p. -unddt; Imper. 2. pi. 
-undtta [for unit a, see Whitney's Gr. 690]) to 
wet, flow over, RV. ; SBr. ; AitBr. 

^*4$*{abhy-ud-Van, -dniti, to breathe to- 
wards or upon (ace.), SBr. 

^l^j^^tli abhy-ud-ava-Vso, -syati, to set 
out or go towards (ace.), AitBr. 

^t*3<?l'fl abhy-vd-a-Vni, to lead up (out 
of water), MinSr. ; MinGr. ; Gobh. (cf. ud-dJnT) ; 
to fetch out from, MinSr. 

^*3^1fj abhy-ud-d-Vhri, to give an ex- 
ample in addition, Ap. 

Abhy-udaharana, am, n. an example or illus- 
tration of a thing by its reverse, L. 

WWjfiy abhy-ud-Vi (2. sg. -eshi; Imper. 
2. sg. -tid-ihi; Pot. -iydt [SBr.], -iydt [MBh. iii, 
2010 & 10272] ; fut. -ud-ayishyati, MBh. iv, 688), 
(said of the sun) to rise over (ace.), rise, RV. viii, 
93, I ; AV. &c. ; to engage in combat with (ace.), 
MBh. (Pot. -iydt, see before) ; to finish off at (ace.), 

Abby-ndaya, as, m. sunrise or rise of luminaries 
(during or with reference to some other occurrence), 
KitySr. ; Jaim. ; beginning, commencing (as of dark- 
ness, &c.), R. ; elevation, increase, prosperity, hap- 
piness, good result, Mn. iii, 254 ; R. &c. ; a religious 
celebration, festival, Mn. ix, 84. Abbyudayishti, 
f., N. of an expiatory sacrifice, Jaim. ; (cf. abhyudi- 

Abhy-udayin, mfn. rising, Rijat. 

I. Abby-udita, mfn. risen (as the sun or lumi- 
naries), MBh. ; R. ; Mn. iv, 104 ; one over whom 
(while sleeping) the sun has risen, Mn. ii, 221; 
Comm. on TS. ; engaged in combat, MBh. ^,15362; 
arisen, happened ; elevated, prosperous ; (abhyiidita), 
am,n. (said of the sun or the moon) rising (during some 
other occurrence), SBr.; KitySr.; (a), f., N. of the 
ceremony (to be performed at the abhyuJita), 
KaushBr. sayi-ta, f. the state of lying asleep 
while the sun has risen, MBh. xiii, 5093. Abhy- 
uditeshti, f. -= rt<MrjwrtVyr^/,KaushBr.;SinkhSr. 

'3Wf<JrT 2 - obhy-udita, mfn. (Vvad), ex- 
pressed (in words), KenaUp. (an- neg.); see abhi- 

T abhy-ud-\/iksh, A. (impf. -aiksh- 
ata) to look towards (ace.), R. 

abhy-ud-i/ir, Caus. (p. -Irayat) 

to raise (one's voice), MBh. i, 21 70: Pass, -tryate, 
to be stirred up, be intensified, Susr. 

Abhy-udirita, mfn. ' raised (as the voice), said,' 
(e), loc. ind. after it had been said by (instr.), Kathas. 

WJSf obhy-ud-\/i.uh (impf. auhat) to 
move or push farther out, AitBr. 

^J*^ abfiy-ude (Vi), (ind. p. -ttya) to go 
out in order to meet any one (ace.), AV. xv, 11, a 
& la, 2. 

^J*JTff abhy-udga, mfn. fr. */ubj, Pat. on 
Pin. Sivasutra 5 & viii, 3, 38. 

STVqtSrr abhy-ud-gata, mfn. risen (as the 
moon) ; one who has gone out in order to meet 
any one (ace.), MBh. i, 3572 ; extended (as fame), 
R.; Lalit. -raja, m., N. of a Kalpa, Buddh. 

Abhy-ndframa, as, m. rising from a seat to 
honour any one, Kathas. 

Abliy-udganiana, am, n. id., L. 

WIKT ubfiy-ud-</ (aor. 2. sg. -rigds; 
3. sg. -tld-agdt) to rise over or during (ace.), RV. 
viii, 93, 4 ; SBr. 

^Jvqf^SJ abhy-ud-Vdis, to point at any- 
thing above with reference to, ManGr. 

"*3F^ a l>hy-ud-drishta, mfn. having be- 
come visible (as the moon) during anything, KatySr. ; 
dn- (neg.), one during the sacrifice of whom the 
moon has not become visible, SBr.; KatySr; (aihy- 
uddrishtd), {., N. of a ceremony, KaushBr. Abhy- 
uddrisb.tesb.ti, f., N. of a ceremony (beginning 
only after the moon has become visible), KaushBr. ; 

^f*g? abhy-ud-Vz.drv, -drdvati, to run 
up to (ace.), TBr. 

^l*'pfT abhy-ud-dhd (vi.hd), A. (3. pi. -vj~ 
jihate) to rise together with, ChUp. 

^*l^ abhy-ud-dhri ("/Ari),Ved. to take 
out (especially one fire in order to add it to another), 
TS. ; SBr. &c. ; to take or draw put, draw (as water), 
MBh. &c.; to take up, lift up, SinkhSr. ; MBh. xii, 
12322; to re-obtain, YajB. ii, 119; to elevate, ren- 
der prosperous, MBh. ; Sih. &c. : Caus. (ind. p. -ud- 
dhdrya) to raise, lift up, MBh. iii, 13326. 

Abhy-uddhrlta, mm. taken up, &c. ; drawn (as 
water), Yajn. i, 1 7 ; collected (for a purpose), Mricch. 

TX'Bffniabhy-ud-yata, mfn.(</yam), raised, 
lifted up, MBh. &c. ; offered, Mn. iv, 247 seq. ; pre- 
pared for, engaged in, ready for (Inf. [Hariv. &c.] 
or dat. [VarBrS.] or loc. [Mn. ix, 302] or in comp. 
[Megh.J); (for abhy-udgata), received kindly, wel- 
comed, BhP. 

'H^jfln abhy-unnata, mfn.(\/n<ra), raised, 
elevated, VarBrS. ; Sak. &c. 

^Tg^ abhy-un-\/nl, to pour upon, scoop 
towards, SBr. ; PBr. ; Laty. 

^TMJUJI*^ abhy-upa-\/gam, to go near to, 
approach, arrive at (ace.), MBh. &c. ; to obtain ; to 
assent, agree to, Das. &c.: Caus. (ind. p. -gamayya) 
to prevail on any one to assent, Das. (see also abhy- 

Abhy-upaffata, mfn. gone near to, approached, 
arrived at ; agreed, assented to, admitted, MBh. ; 
SSk. &c. 

Abhy-npagantavya, mfn. to be gone to or set 
out for (dat.), MBh. xiv, 327; to be assented to or 
agreed upon, Pin. i, 2, 55, K3s. ; to be admitted, 
Comm. on Bad. and on Nyayam. 

Abhy-upagfantri, mfn. one who assents or ad- 
mits, Comm. on ChUp. 

Abhy-npagama, as, m. going near to, approach- 
ing, arriving at, L. ; an agreement, contract, Mn. ix, 
53; assenting to, admitting, Sah. &c. ; (as a state- 
ment) Comm. on Bad. -siddhanta, m. an ad- 
mitted axiom, NySyad. 

Abhy-upaframita, mfn. ' made to consent,' ob- 
tained by assent or free consent (as a slave for a 
fixed term), Comm. on Yajn. 

^fJTjVT abhy-upa-Vdhd, -upa-dadhdti, to 
place upon, TS. ; to cover with (instr.), SBr. : P. A. 
(3. pi. -lipa-dadhati, Subj. i. pi. -dadhamahaf) to 
place upon (the fire) in addition or together with, SBr. 




vrit, to return, 
be repeated, KaushBr. 

"*3 11 ^? abhy-upa-vpad, A. -padyate, to 
approach in order to help, MBh. &c. ; to ask for 
help, R. iii, 14, 7; to furnish with, MBh. ii, 187. 

Abhy-npapattl, is, f. approaching in order to 
assist, protection, defence (ifc. [Mn. ; Das.] or with 
gen. [MBh. i, 1 1 a]); favour, the conferring of a 
benefit or kindness ; agreement, assent, Comm. on 
NySyad. ; impregnation of a woman (especially of a 
brother's widow, as an act of duty), L. 

Abhy-upapanna, mfn. protected, rescued ; ask- 
ing for protection or help, Mricch. ; agreed to, ad- 
mitted ; agreeing to. 

^IHlMtina abhy-ttpa-Vmantr (impf. -man- 
trayaf) to address with a formula, MBh. viii, 4720. 
abhy-upa-Vya, to approach, go 

towards (ace. or dat.), MBh. vii, 1967; R. ; (with 
iamam) to enter the state of rest, MarkP. 

^~XK(l5iabhy-upayukta, mfn. (*/yuj), em- 
ployed, used, Comm. on Pat. 

'8*}MrtET abhy-upa-Vlaksh (perf. Pass. p. 
-lakshita) to perceive, notice, R. v, 28, n. 

^WlfaST abhy-upa-Vvis, to sit down 
upon (ace.), MBh. v, 3244; Gobh. (v. 1. adhy-upa- 
i/vis) ; to sit down, Raj at. 

^T^M^IItf abhy-upa-sdnta, mfn. (\/sam), 
allayed, calmed. 

^WTffjJ dbhy-upa-\/sad, Caus. (ind. p. 
-sddya) to reach (as a town). 

y-upa-Vsri, to come near, R. 

abhy-upa-Vsev, -senate, to ob- 
serve religiously, MBh. iii, 13432. 

^WJTTHJT abhy-upa-Vstha, to honour, 
BhP. : Caus. to cause to bring near, R. iv, 38, 28. 

Abhy-npa-sthita, mfn. come, arrived, Kathas. ; 
attended or accompanied by (instr.), MBh. iii, 16132. 

^?><jmeji abhy-upd-\/l fcn, to prepare or 
make preparations (for a sacred action, see upa- 
V 'i.kri) with reference to (ace.) or in connection 
with (ace.), MaitrS.; SlnkhSr. ; KitySr. 

^THJTIT^i^ abhy-upd-i/krish, to draw to- 
wards one's self, BhP. 

^T^Rllrt abhy-upd-gata, mfn. come near, 
approached, Lalit. ; (with vyasandya, said of a sad 
fate), R. 

'H^JHI^I abtiy-upd-i/l.da (ind. p. -daya) 
to pick up (as fruits from the ground), MBh. xii, 672. 

^IWJTnn abhy-upd-\/ya, to come up to, 
approach, Kathas. 

^vgxn 1 ^ abhy-up6va-\/hri, -upttea-hara.- 
ti, to bring or set down upon (ace.), SBr. ; to lower 
(as one's arms, fctt),VS, x, 25 ; SBr. 

^^!*"1*V aJAy - vpd - Vvfit, -upa-vartate 
(also P., aor. Subj. I. & 3. sg. -upX-vritam, -upS- 
vritaf) to turn one's self or go towards (ace.), TS. ; 
SBr. ; AitBr. 

Abhy-upd-vritta, mfn. turned or gone towards 
(ace.), SBr. ; returned, R. 

^fwjijTjj abhy-upa-\/hri (impf. -up&harat, 
which might also be -up&harat ft. abhy-upa- 
^Ari) to bring near, offer, MBh. xv, n. 

W^ I . abhy-upe (\/t), -up&ti (3. pi. -ttpa- 
yanti) to go near, approach, arrive at, enter, RV. 
vi, 28, 4 ; SBr. &c. ; (with apah) to bathe, KitySr. ; 
Mn. xi, 259; Yajn.; to approach (in copulation), 
Hit. ; to go to meet any one (ace.), BhP. ; to enter 
a state or condition, obtain, share, AitBr. (Ved. Inf. 
-upditos) ; MBh. &c. ; to admit as an argument or 
a position, RPrit. (perf. p. gen. pi. -upeyusham); 
Comm. on Nyiyam. and on Bad. ; to select as (ace.), 
MBh. i, 8 1 1 ; to agree with, approve of, Das. (see 
athy-uptta): Pass, -upeyate, to be approved of, 
admitted, Sarvad. 

Abhy-npaya, as, m. an agreement, promise, en- 
gagement, Ap. ; a means, an expedient, MBh. ; Mn. 
xi, 210, &c. 

Abhy-upayana, am, n. a complimentary gift, 
an inducement, BhP. 

Abhy-upeta, mfn. approached, arrived at (ace.), 
MBh. i, 3592; Ragh. v, 14; (with griAam) stay- 
ing in a house, VarBrS. ; furnished with (in comp. 
[VarBrS.] or instr.) ; agreed upon, assented to, Das. ; 
promised, Megh. 

Abhy-upeta vya, mfn. to be admitted or assented 
to, Comm. on Nyiyam. 

Abhy-npdtya, ind. p. having arrived at (ace.) ; 
having entered, Nir. ; having assented or agreed to. 
Abhy upetyasusrusha, f. breach of a contracted 
service, a title of law treating of disputes between 
the master and a servant who has broken his agree- 
ment, Comm. on Yajn. ii, 182 seqq. 

Abhy-upeyivas, m((yus/ii)n. (perf. p.) having 
approached, arrived at (ace.), R. ; Bhatt. ; having 
admitted, RPrit. (see I.abhy-upf). 

^l*yT 2. abhy-upe (-upd\/i), (Imper. 2. sg. 
-upaihi) to approach (for refuge, saraitam), R. vi, 
9. 39- ^ 

WJJUT^ alhy-vpSksh ( Viksh), (perf. p. 
-upekshitavat) to overlook, allow, MBh. xvi, 160. 

W*jsi ((abhy-ullasat, mfn.( V las), gleam- 
ing, Hashing, Sis. v, 2. 

abhy-Vush (impf. 3. pi. -ushndn; 

Ved. Inf. -usAas) to burn, consume by fire, RV. ix, 
97, 39 ; Kith. 

Abhy-nsha or abhy-nsha or abhy-osha, as, 
m. a kind of cake of grain &c. (half dressed, slightly 
scorched, or parched so as to be eaten from the hand), 
(gana apupadi, q. v.) 

Abhyushlya or abhyushlya or abhyushya 
or abhyushya or abhy-oshiya or abhy-oshya, 
mfn. consisting of, or belonging to, or fit for the 
above cake or preparation of parched grain, (gana 
apupadi, q. v.) 

Abhy-nshta-misra, mfn. partly burnt, SBr. 

^TWjfiTrT abhy-ushita, mfn. (v'S. vas), hav- 
ing dwelt, having passed the night with, R. iii, 1 7, 2. 

abhy-udhi. See abhi-Vvah. 
^^abhy-\/urnu, abhy-urnoti (Imper. 2. 
sg. -urnuhi) to cover, conceal, RV. viii, 70, 2 & 
x, 1 8, ii ; AV. : A. -urnuti {?. (. -urnvdna) to 
cover or conceal one's self, AV. xiv, 1,27; RV. v, 
41, 19. 

^Jm abhy-usha. See abhy-usha. kha- 
dikS, f. ' eating of a&AyusAa-gciim,' N. of a play, 

^IW? i .abhy- \/i. uh, to cover with (instr.), 
TS. ; SBr. ; KitySr. 

W^? 2. abhy-Vz.uh, A. (aor. -auhishta, 
p. -6hasdna) to watch for, lie in ambush for (ace.), 
RV. vi, 1 7, 8 & 9 : P. -uhati, to infer, guess, Nir. 

Abhy-fidha, mfn. concluded, inferred, Nir. 

Abhy-nha, as, m. reasoning, deduction, infer- 
ence, conjecture, Nir. ; Milatim. 

Abhy-uhitavya, mfn. to be inferred, Nir. 

1. Abhy-uhya, mfn. id., L. 

2. Abhy-nhya, ind. p. having deduced by reason- 
ing, having inferred, Susr. ; Pin. vii, 4, 23, Kis. &c. 

'SWI abhy-\/ri, -rinoti (perf. 3. pi. abhy- 
aruh) to run towards, reach, RV. i, 35, 9 & iii, 1, 4. 
Abhy-arna. See s.v., p. 76, col. I. 

TO*T3f abAy-Vr'cA, -archati, to come to, 
visit or afflict with, MBh. iii, 11875 ; (impf. -dr- 
chaf) to strive against (ace.), strive to overpower, 
MBh. iii, 11726. 

W^ abhy-</rinj, A., -rijyate (P. pr. p. 
-rijyat) to stretch out the hand for, hasten towards 
(ace.), RV. i, 140, 2 & vi, 37, 3. 

'fish.. See abhy-\/arsh. 

..-, abhy-S (\/i), -ayati [RV. viii, 55, i] 
or -dlti [VS.], to go near, come to, approach, RV. 

Abhy-6tya, ind. p. having approached, N.; 

Pancat. &c. 

abhy-eshana. See abhish. 

abhr, cl. I. P. abhrati (perf. ana- 
bhra) to err or wander about, Bhatt. 

^1^ abhrd (sometimes spelt abbhra, ac- 
cording to the derivation ab-bhra, 'water-bearer ;' 
cf. Comm. on ChUp. ii, 15, i), am, n. (rarely .7J, 
m., AV. ix, 6, 47 & TS.) cloud, thunder-clc id, 
rainy weather, RV. &c. ; sky, atmosphere, Sis. ix, 
3 ; (in arithmetic) a cypher ; [NBD.] dust, AV. xi, 
3, 6 ; (in med.) talc, mica ; gold, L. ; camphor, L. ; 
the ratan (Calamus Rotang), L. ; Cyperus Rotundus, 
L. ; [cf. Gk. ouBpos & Lat. iml>cr.~] m-liha 
(abhram-P), mfn. [Pan. iii, 2, 32] 'cloud-licking,' 
what touches the clouds, high, lofty, Ragh. xiv, 
29, &c. ; (as), m. wind, Pan. iii, 2, 32, Sch.; Sih. 
- gangs, f. the celestial Gangs, Kail. _ ffhana, 
mfn. thickly covered with clouds, Ragh. ni-ka- 
sha (alihram-k), mfn. [Pan. iii, 2, 42] ' grazing 
(hurting) the clouds,' very high, Kid. ; (as), m. wind, 
Pan. iii, 2, 42, Sch. ja, mfn. ' born from clouds," 
caused by rainy weather, AV. i, 1 2, 3. tarn, m., 
N. of a certain phenomenon, VarBrS. naga, d s, 
m. pi., N. of the eight elephants supporting the 
globe, L. -patha, m. sky, atmosphere, L. pl- 
iaca or -plsSoaka, m. 'sky-demon,' N. of RShu 
(the descending node personified), L. pushpa, 
m. the cane Calamus Rotang, L. ; (am), n. ' a flower 
in the clouds,' castle in the air, anything impossible, 
Naish. ; (cf. ambara-pushpa.} prush, f. the 
sprinkling of the clouds, rain, RV.x, 77, I. man- 
si, f. the plant Valeriana JatamjQsi, L. matan- 
ga, m. Airavata, Indra's elephant, L. mala, f. a 
line or succession of clouds, L. roha, n. lapis 
lazuli, L. lipta, mf^n. partly overspread with 
clouds, Pin. iv, I, 51, Sch. - varsha (ab/ird-), 
mfn. dripping or raining from the clouds, RV. ix, 
88, 6. vatika for dmra-vdtika, q. v. vlllp- 
ta, mf()n. = -lipta, q. v., Pin. iv, I, 51, Kis. 
vjiksha, m. = -taru, q. v., VarBrS. sir as, 
n. a head formed of the sky, Sis. sani, mfn. pro- 
curing clouds, TS. Abhranadhyaya, m. pause in 
the study on account of rainy weather, Gobh. 
Abhravakaslka [Mn. vi, 23, Sec.'] or "kasin [R. 
iii, lo, 4], mfn. having the clouds for shelter, open 
to the sky (as an ascetic). Abhrottha, mfn. 'cloud- 
bom,' Indra's thunderbolt, L. 

Abhraka, am, n. talc, mica, Bhpr. &c. bha- 
sman, n. calx of talc, L. sattva, n. steel, L. 

Abhr ay an ti, f. (pr. p. ft. abhraya, Nom. -P.) 
' forming clouds, bringing rainy weather,' N. of one 
of the seven Krittikis, TS. ; TBr. 

Abhraya, Nom. A. yate, to create clouds, Pin. 
iii, i, 17. 

Abhrayita, mfn. 'shaped like a cloud,' similar 
to a cloud, Bhim. 

Abhrita, mf(a)n. covered with clouds, (gana 
tarakadi, q. v.), Ragh. iii, 12. 

Abhriya (once abhriya, RV. x, 68, 12), mfn. 
belonging to or produced from clouds, RV. ; AV. ; 
(as, am), m. n. thunder-cloud, RV. 

Abhriya, mfn. belonging to or produced from 

Abhrya, as, m. 'clothed only by the air' or 
'having the clouds for shelter' (cf. abhr&vakaiika\ 
a naked ascetic, (gana iathadi, q. v.) 

WHJT a - bhrama, mfn. not blundering ; 
steady, clear ; (as), m. not erring, steadiness, com- 
posure, BhP. 

A-bhramu, us, f. the female elephant of the east 
(the mate of Airivata). -prlya [Vcar.] or -val- 
labha [L.], m. the male elephant of the east or 

^aTrJ a-bhratff, mfn. brotherless, RV. i, 
1 24, 7 (nom. sg. f. to) ; iv, 5, 5 jnom. pi. f. ttlras) ; 
AV. i, 17, I (nom. pi. f. aMrataras) ; Nir. iii, 5 
(ace. sg. f. "trim), -ffhnl (Abhratri-}, f. (VAan), 
not killing a brother, AV. xiv, I, 62. mati, f. 
brotherless, Nir. &c. 

A-bhr&trika, mf(a)n. brotherless, Nir. &c. 

TfryicJ4l( a-bhratrivyd, mf(a)n. having no 
rival, RV. viii, 21, 13; SBr. &c.; (am), n., N. of 
a verse of the SV. 

WST'iT a-bhranta, mfn. unperplexed, not 
mistaken, not in error ; clear, composed. 
A-bhrantl, is, f. absence of perplexity or error. 

^fVr dbhri, f. a wooden scraper or shovel, 
a spatula, spade, VS.; AV.; SBr. &c. -khSta 




(abhri-\ mfn. dug up with a spatula, AV. iv, 7, liquors, Sulr. -madyat, mfn. being (inebriated or) 

joyful without (having drunk) any intoxicating liquor, 

^S*T\J a-mddhti, u, n. no sweetness, SBr. 

A-madhavya, mfn. not worthy of the sweetness 
(of the Soma), AitBr. 

'fcTRlzro d-madhyama, -asas, (Ved.) m. pi. 
of whom none is the middle one, RV. v, 59, 6 ; (cf. 

A-madhyastha, mfn. not indifferent. 

WHH^ d-manas, as, n. non-perception, 
want of perception, SBr. xiv ; (a-mands), mfn. with- 
out perception or intellect, SBr. xiv ; silly, ChUp. 

A-manaska, mfn. without perception or intel- 
lect, Sarvad. ; silly, KathUp. ; not well-disposed, low- 
spirited, Kad. 

A- maul (for a-mands in comp. with </Ui and 
its derivatives). bhSva, m. the state of not hav- 
ing perception or intellect, MaitrUp. 

A-mano (in comp. for a-manas). jna, mfn. 
disagreeable, KatySr. ; (Prakrit a-manunna) Jain. 
rania-ta, f. unpleasantness, Sis. 

A-mantd, mfn. silly, ignorant, RV. x, 22, 8 & 
125, 4. 

A-mantri, mfn. not thinking, MaitrUp. 

a-manak, ind. not little, greatly. 
amani. See 4/am. 

... a-manushya, as, m. no man, any 
other being but a man, KatySr. ; R. ii, 93, 11 (nd- 
manushyc, ' only with men ') ; a demon. Pan. ii, 
4, 23. tS, f. unmanliness. nishevita, mfn. not 
inhabited by men. 

A-manava, mfn. ' not human, superhuman,' and 
' not being a descendant of Manu,' Sis. i, 67. 

A'-mannsha, mf(*)n. not human, anything but 
a man, RV. x, 95, 8 ; superhuman, divine, celestial, 
R. &c. ; inhuman, brutal, RV. ; (mf(a)n.), without 
men, not inhabited by men, Kathas. ; (as), m. not 
a man, SBr. ; AitBr. ; Mn. ix, 284 ; (f), f. a female 
animal, Gaut. -loka, m. 'the celestial world,' 
heaven, Kad. 

A-mannshya, mfn. not human, MBh. xiv, 266. 

a-mano-jiia, &c. See d-manas. 
a-mantri, &c. See d-manas. 

.. . ,. a-mantra, as, m. not a Vedic verse 
or text or any formula ; (mf(a)n.), unaccompanied 
by Vedic verses or texts, Mn. iii, 121 ; unentitled to 
or not knowing Vedic texts (as a SQdra, a female, 
&c.), Mn. ix, 18 & xii, 114 ; not using or applying 
Mantra formulas, Bham. -Jna, mfn. not knowinj 
Vedic texts, Mn. iii, 1 29. vat, mfn. unaccompaniec 
by Vedic verses, Up. vld, mm. not knowing the 
formulas or texts of the Veda, Mn. iii, 133; (t), m. 
N. of a prince. 

A-mantraka, mf(z'a)n. unaccompanied by Ve 
die verses, Mn. ii, 66 ; (am), n. no Vedic verse o 
formula, VarBrS. 

%m*4 d-manda, mfn. not slow, active 
merry, RV. i, 1 26, I ; not dull, bright ; not little 
much, important, Rajat. &c. ; (am), ind. (in comp 
amanda-) intensily, Bhatt. ; (as), m. a tree, L. 

^H^HR d-manyamdna, mfn. not under 
standing, RV. i, 33, 9 ; not being aware of, RV. ii 
12, 10. 

^IH'Url d-manyuta, mf(o)n. not affectec 
with secret anger, AV. xii, 3, 31. 

WIH a-mama, mfn. without egotism, de 
void of all selfish or worldly attachment or desire 
Buddh. ; Jain. ; indifferent, not caring for (loc.), Mn 
vi, 26 ; (as), m. the twelfth Jaina saint of a futur 
Utsarpini. tB, f. or -tva, n. disinterestedness; in 

^*jfa d-mamri, mfn. (\/mri), immorta 
undying, AV. viii, 2, 26. 

A-mara, mf(, Mn. ii, 1 48 ; i, R. i, 34, 1 6)n. un 
god, a deity, MBh. &c. ; hence (in arithm.) the numbe 
33; N. of a Marut, Hariv.; the plant Euphorb 
Tirucalli, Susr. ; the plant Tiaridium Indicum, L 
a species of pine, L. ; quicksilver, L. ; N. of Amara 
sinha ; of a mountain (see -parvata); mystic 
signification of the letter ; (if), f. the residence 

a-bhresha, as, m. non-deviation, fit- 
ness, propriety, Pin. iii, 3, 37 ; Vait. 

WV^ d-bhva [RV.] or a-bhvti [AV.] or a- 
bhvd [SBr.], mfn. (cf. a-bhuva) monstrous, immense, 
terrible, RV. i, 39, 8 & 63, I ; (am), n. immense 
power, monstrosity, horror, RV. ; SBr. ; a monster, 
RV. vi, 71, 5! AV.;SBr. 

^T^ I. am, ind. quickly, a little, (gana 
cadi, q. v.) 

*S*{ 2. am, the termination am in the com- 
parative and other forms used as ind., e. g. prata- 
rdm, &c., (gana svar-ddi, q. v.) 

-M ji 3. am, amati, to go, L.; to go to or 

^ ^v towards, L. ; to serve or honour, L. ; to 
sound, L. ; (Imper. A. a. sg. amishva ; aor. dm ft ; 
cf. abhy-^am) to fix, render firm, TS.; (pert", p. 
ace. sg. emushdm for emivansam) to be pernicious 
or dangerous, RV.viii,77, 10 : Caus. amdyatt r (impf. 
dmayat; aor. Subj. dmamaf) to be afflicted or sick, 
RV. ; AV. ; VS. (cf. dn-dmayaf). 

I. Ama, as, m. impetuosity, violence, strength, 
power, RV. ; VS. ; AV. ; depriving of sensation, fright, 
terror, RV. ; disease, L. vat (dma-\ mfn. im- 
petuous, violent, strong, RV. ; (vaf), ind. impetu- 
ously, RV. v, 58, 1. 

I. Amata, as, m. sickness, disease, Un.; death, 
L. ; time, L. ; dust, Comm. on Un. 

I. A'mati, is, (. want, indigence, RV. ; VS. ; AV.; 
(), mm. poor, indigent, RV. x, 39, 6. Amati- 
van, mfn. poor, indigent, RV. viii, 19, 26. 

A'matra, mfn. violent, strong, firm, RV. i, 61, 9 
& iv, 33. 6 ; (<") " Iar 6 e drinking vessel, RV. ; 
Pin. iv, a, 14 ; (as), m. id., RV. iii, 36, 4. 

Amatraka, am, n. a drinking vessel, vessel, BhP. 

Amatrin, mfn. having the large drinking vessel 
called dmatra, RV. vi, 24, 9., is, (. road, way, Un. 

i. Amlta or anta, mfn. perf. Pass. p. V<"> 
Pin. vii, t, 28. 

Amina, mfn. impetuous, RV. vi, 19, 1 & x, 1 1 6, 4. 

^W 2. <fma, mfn. (pron. ; cf. amu) this, AV. 
xiv, 3, 71 (quoted in SBr. xiv & AivGr.) [The 
word is also explained by fr&na, 'soul,' cf. Comm. 
on ChUp. v, 2, 6.] 

Ami, amat. See ss. w. 

WHjJ'rf a-manyala, mfn. inauspicious, un- 
lucky, evil, Ragh. xii, 43, &c. ; (as), m. the castor 
oil tree, Ricinus Communis, L. ; (am), n. inauspi- 
ciousness, ill-luck, Kum. ; Venls. 

A-mangalya, mfn. inauspicious, unlucky, L. ; 
(am), n. inauspiciousness, ill-luck, BhP. 

YTM7i|4 a-mqjjdka, mfn. having no mar- 
row, TS. 

Tnrfiira a-maniva, mfn. [NBD.] having 
no jewels, SankhSr. 

UJ144J4 amanda, as, m. the castor oil tree, 
Ricinus Communis (cf. amanda & mandjf). 
a-mandita, mfn. unadorned. 
. <f-roa<a mfn. ( \/roan), not felt, not 
perceptible by the mind, Br. xiv ; not approved of, 
unacceptable. padartha, mm. having an unac- 
ceptable second sense, Kpr. ; Sih. 

2 . A-matl , is, f. ' unconsciousness,' generally (tya), 
instr. ind. unconsciously, Mn. iv, 222 & v, 2o;Gaut. 
purva or -pfirvaka, mfn. unconscious, unin- 

^mfit 3. amdti, is, f. form, shape, splen- 
dour, lustre, RV. ; VS. ; time, Un. ; moon, L. 
f dmatra. See \/am. 

a-matsara, mfn. unenvious, dis- 
interested, Mn. iii, 231, &c.; (am), n. disinterested- 
ness, Heat. 

A-matarin,mfn. disinterested, Heat.; not stick- 
ing to, not having one's heart set upon (loc.), R. 

A-matsarya, am, n. disinterestedness, MBh. v, 
1640. -ta, f. id., Lalit. 
SSR? a-mada, mfn. cheerless, Bhatt. 
A-madana, as, m., N. of Siva, BhP. 
A-madya-pa, mfn. not drinking intoxicating 

idra, L. ; the umbilical cord, L. ; after-birth, L. ; 
house-post, L. ; N. of several plants, Panicum 
Jactylon, Cocculus Cordifolius, &c., L. ; (f), f. the 
lant Sanseviera Roxburghiana, L. kantaka, n. 
peak of the immortals,' N. of part of the Vindhya 
ange (near the source of the SonI and Narmada). 
kota, m. 'fortress of immortals,' N. of the 
apital of a Rajput state. kosha, m., N. of the 
anskrit dictionary of Amara or Amara-sinha. ko- 
ha-kaumudi, f. title of a commentary on Ama- 
ra-sinha's dictionary. gana, m. the assemblage of 
mnortals, L. yarn, m. 'teacher of the gods,' 
irihaspati, the planet Jupiter, VarBrS. ; KSd. can- 
la, m., N. of the author of the BJla-bharata. 
ja, m., N. of a plant, L. m-jaya (amaram- 
'"), mfn. conquering the gods, BhP. tatini, f. 
river of the gods,' N. of the Ganges. tS [Sah.], 
. or -tva [MBh. &c.], n. the condition of the gods 
i.e. immortality). datta, m., N. of a lexico- 
rapher ; of a prince, Kathas. darn, m. the tree 
"inus Deodaru Roxb. deva, m. a N. of Amara- 
irjha. dvija, m. a BrShman who lives by attend- 
ng a temple or idol, by superintending a temple, 
,. dvish, m. 'foe of the gods,' N. of an Asura, 
Cathas. pa, m. 'lord of the gods,' N. of Indra, 
VarBrS. patl, m. id. parvata, m., N. of a 
mountain, MBh.ii,II93. pura, n. ' the residence 
of the immortals,' paradise, Bhatt.; N. of various 
owns, purl, f., N. of a town, Pancat. push- 
pa or -pushpaka, m. the plants Saccharum Spon- 
aneum, PandanusOdoratissimus& Magnifera Indies. 

pushpika, f. a kind of anise (Anethum Sowa 
loxb.), L. prakhya or -prabha, mfn. like an 
mmortal. prabhu, m. 'lord of the immortals,' 

one of the thousand names of Vishnu, MBh. 

bhartrl, m. 'supporter of the gods,' N. of 
!ndra, L. mala, f. title of a dictionary (said to 
x: by the same author as the Amara-kosha). rat- 
na, n. 'jewel of the gods," crystal (also amala- 
ratna), L. -raj [VarBrS.] or -raja [R.], m. 'king 
of the gods,' N. of Indra. raja-mantrin, m. = 
amara-guru, q. v., VarBrS. raja-satru, m. 
' enemy of amara-rdja (q. v.),' N. of Ravana, R. 
vi, 35, I. loka-ta, f. 'state of the abode of the 
gods,' 1 the bliss of heaven, Mn. ii, 5. vat, ind. like 
n immortal. vallarl, f. the plant Cassyta Fili- 
formis Lin., L. sakti, m., N. of a king, Pancat. 

sadas, n. the assemblage of the gods, VarBrS. 

sarit, f. 'river of the gods,' N. of the Ganges. 

sinha, m. 'god-lion,' N. of a renowned lexico- 
grapher (probably of the sixth century A. D. ; he was 
a Buddhist, and is said to have adorned the court of 
VikramSditya, being included among the nine gems). 
r stri, f. ' wife of the gods,' an Apsaras or nymph 
ofheaven.L. AmaranganS, f. id., Kathas. Ama- 
racarya, m. ( = amara-guru, q. v.), N. of Brihas- 
pati, BhP. Amaradri, m.=amara-parvata,<\.\., 
BhP. ; N. of Sumeru or Mem, L. Amaradhipa, 
m. =amara-pa, q.v., R. ii, 74, 19 ; N. of Siva. A- 
marapaga, f. = amara-tatini 8c -sarit, q.v., Kad. 
Amarari, m. an enemy of the gods, R. ; an Asura, 
hence (amardrf)-pujya, m. ( = asuracdrya, 
q. v.), N. of Sukra, the planet Venus, VarBrS. A- 
mara-vati, f. (cf. Pan. vi, 3, 119) 'the abode of 
the immortals,' Indra's residence, MBh. ; Hariv. &c.; 
N. of a town in Berar. Amari-Vbhu, to become 
immortal (said of brave warriors dying in battle), 
Balar. Amarejya, m. = amara-guru, q. v., Var- 
BrS. ; Suryas. Amaresa, m. = amara-pa, q. v., 
VarBrS. ; Sah. ; N. of Siva or Rudra, R. Amare- 
svara, m. = amara-pa, q. v., Sak. ; Ragh. xix, 1 5 ; 
N. of Vishnu, R. i, 77, 29; N. of a Linga. A- 
maresvara-tlrtha, m., N. of a Tirtha, SivaP. 
Amaropama, mfn. like an immortal, MBh. 

A-marana, am, n. the not dying, immortality, L. 

A-maraniya, mfn. immortal, L. ta, f. im- 
mortality, L. 

A-marishnu, mfn. immortal (v. 1. for d-ma- 
vishnu, q. v.) 

A'-marta, mfn. immortal, RV. v, 33, 6. 

A-martya (4), mfn. immortal, RV.; AV.; VS.; 
imperishable, divine, RV.; (as), m. a god, L. -ta 
[MBh.], f. or -tva [L.], n. immortality, -bha- 
va, m. the condition of immortals, immortality, 
Ragh. vii, 50. -Wravana, n. 'world of the im- 
mortals,' the heaven, L. 

SSST5 amaru, us, m., N. of a king, the 
author of (he Amaru-iataka, q. v. sataka, n. 
the hundred verses of Amaru. 


a-mardita, mfn. (Vmrid), un- 
threshed ; unsubdued ; not trodden down. 

^m^l^d-mardhat, mfn. not getting tired 
or inactive, RV. iii, 25, 4 ; v, 43, i & vii, 76, 5 ; 
not making tired, RV. vii, 76, 2. 

A'-mridhra, mf(<z)n. not getting tired, unremit- 
ting, indefatigable, RV. ; unceasing, RV. 

vniflr^ a-marmdn, mfn. having no vital 
part, invulnerable, RV. iii, 32, 4 ; v, 32, 5 & vi, 26, 
3 ; (a), n. not a vital part of the body, Susr. 

A-marma (in comp. for a-marman). jSta, 
mfn. not originating in a vital part of the body (as a 
disease), Susr. -vedhi-ta, f. the state of not in- 



flicting severe injury on others, absence of acrimony 
(one of the thirty-five Vag-gunas of a TIrthamkara), 

a-maryada, mfn. having no limits, 
transgressing every bound, R. 

^TTM a-marsha, as, m. (Vmrish), non-en- 
durance, Pin. iii, 3, 145; impatience, indignation, 
anger, passion, MBh. ; R. &c.; (<w),m.,N.ofa prince, 
VP. Ja, mfn. springing from impatience or in- 
dignation, MBh. vat, mfn. not bearing, intolerant, 
passionate, wrathful, angry, L. hasa, m. an angry 
laugh, a sarcastic sneer, MBh. 

A-marshana, mfn.amarska-val, MBh. &c.; 
impatient (cf. randmarshana) ; (as), m. ( = amar- 
3/ia), N.of a prince, BhP.; (am), n. impatience of 
(gen.), MBh. xiii, 2159. 

A-marshita, m(n. = amarsha-vat, q. v., MBh. 

A-marshin, mfn. id., MBh. &c. 

^STHcS a-mala, mf(o)n. spotless, stainless, 
clean, pure, shining ; (as), m. crystal (cf. amara- 
ratnd), BhP. ; N. of a poet ; of Nirayana, L. ; (a), 
f. t N. of the goddess Lakshml, L. ; ( = amard, q. v.) 
the umbilical cord, L. ; the tree Emblica Officinalis 
Gsertn., L. ; the plant Saptala, L. ; (am), n. talc, L. 

?ar bha, m., N. of a Bodhi-sattva, L. pata- 
trin, m. the wild goose, L. wft TH, m. or -ratna, 
n. (cf. amara-ratna) crystal, L. samynta, mfn. 
not defiled by any spot,'endowed with purity, MBh. 
Amalatman, mfn. of undcilled mind. Amall- 
i/l. kri, to purify, VarBrS. Amalodari, f., N. 
of a female poet. 

Amalaya, Nom. P. yati, to make spotless, 
whiten, make brilliant, Kir. v, 44. 
A-malina, mfn. stainless, free from dirt, clean. 

dnl, mfn. of a pure mind. 
A-malTmaga, mfn. not impure, Rsjat. 
wirtifi** a-maldtaka or a-maldnaka, am, 

n. ( =a-mlana, q. v.) globe-amaranth (Gomphraena 
Globosa), (cf. amildtaka.) 

a-vat. See I. dma. 

w *(("<* jj a-mamshnu, mfn. (V^w = v/i. 
miv, NBD.), immovable, RV. x, 94, ii. 

"w*i amasa, as, m. disease, Un.; a fool, 
L. ; time, L. ; (cf. i.amata 8c 3. amdti.) 

\ a-masrina, mfn. not soft, harsh, L. 
' a-mastaka, mfn. headless. 

a-uuistu, mfn. without thickened 
milk or sour cream, Kaus. 

wii3^ dmas-van, mf(cori)n. for tdmas- 
van, q. v., MaitrS. 

^HsT<4*(ll d-mahiyamdna, mf(d)n. 'not 
high-spirited,' down-cast, sad, RV. iv, 1 8, 13; PBr. 

A-maniyu, us, m., N. of a Rishi (composer of 
the hymn RV. ix, 61) ; (cf. dmahiyava.) 

^ITT i . amd, ind. (Ved. instr. fr. 2 . dma, q.v.) 
(chiefly Ved.) at home, in the house, in the house of 
(gen.), with, RV. &c. ; together, Pan. iii, I, 122; 
(d),i.=amd-vdsya, q.v., Comm. on Ragh. xiv, 
80 (in a verse quoted from Vyasa) ; Comm. on Sur- 
yas ; also amanta, m. the end of the amd(-vdsya) 
night, ib. Vi. kri (gana sdkshdd-ddi, q.v.), 
Ved. to have or take with one's self, AV. ; SBr. &c. 
jur, ur, (. living at home, gr