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2 SEP 1970 

1 5 NOV -.1977 





M.A., PH.D., LL.D.(Edin.), D.O.L. (Calcutta) 

late Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University 

of Oxford ; Hon. Fellow of Corpus Christ! College j 

Fellow of the British Academy 



5.V.O. Co 






IN preparing a new edition of this grammar I have found 
misprints requiring correction to be few and insignificant. 
The alterations that seemed necessary are nearly all concerned 
with facilitating the use of the book for students. One of 
these is the indication of the relevant number of chapter and 
paragraph on the inside top corner of each page. Since the 
grammar is intended to supply a complete account of Classical 
Sanskrit, many paragraphs may be omitted till a later stage 
of study. I therefore here append a list of those which are 
essential for absolute beginners and thus constitute a virtual 
primer of Classical Sanskrit. 

I: 1-7, 8-12, 13. II: ]6-22, 27, 30-34, 36 A. B v 37, 38, 40, 
42-44, 45, i. a, 52-55, 65, 67. Ill: 70, 71, 73, 74, 77, 85, 
87i9 } i, 97 i, IOT D(p. 63), 103, i, 2, 109-111, 120. 
IV; 121-128, 131, 132 (only Pres. Par., pp. 92, 98), 135, 136, 
138, i (only Jtud., Par.), 141 a (only Par.), 143, i (only Par.), 
147 (only Par.), 148 (only a<lam\ 151 (only Par.), 154 (only 
Pres.), 156, 160, i, 2, 162, 163, 167, 168, 165, 172, 173. 

When the student has gone through these paragraphs he 
will be quite prepared to begin reading. Any new gram- 
matical forms he now meets with he will be able to find 
explained in the paragraphs that have been passed over. In 
this way he will understand, with the aid of a vocabulary, 
every word in the first canto of the Story of Jfdla within the 
course of a month, and know all the grammar necessary for 
reading easy Sanskrit texts. 


Since the appearance of the second edition of this work 
(1911) ray Ved'ic Gmmnarfor Students was published (1916). 
Though this new book seemed at first sight to make Appendix 
III superfluous in the present work (pp, 236-44), I decided 
to retain it as presenting Vedic grammar in an abridged form 
and rendering it easier for absolute beginuers to master, 

A. A.M. 

r, 1926, 


THE original form of. the present work was my abridgement 
(1886) of Max Miiller's Sanskrit Grammar (2nd ed., 1870). 
That abridgement was the outcome of what I had found by 
experience, both as a learner and a teacher, to be unessential in 
an elementary grammar. It was also partly due to my con- 
viction that the existing Sanskrit grammars, being too much 
dominated by the system of Panini, rendered Sanskrit un- 
necessarily hard to learn. The introductory sketch of the 
history of Sanskrit grammar prefixed to the present rolume 
will, I think, sufficiently show that the native Indian system 
is incompatible with the practical methods of teaching and 
learning in the "West, 

In the first edition of this grammar, published in 1901, the 
earlier book was transformed into an entirely new work. 
Though, on the whole, considerably enlarged it showed many 
omissions, For I made it my guiding principle to leave out 
all matter tbat is found exclusively in Vedic literature or in 
the Hindu grammarians, the aim I had in view being to 
describe only such grammatical forms as are to be met with 
in the actual literature of post- Vedic Sanskrit. The student 
of Sanskrit grammar would thus not be burdened with matter 
which could never be of any practical use to him. Hence 
I refrained from employing, even in a paradigm, any word 
not to be found in the literature; though for the sake 
of completeness I here often gave inflected forma represented 
only by other words of the same type. The purpose of the 
book, then, was not to supply a mass of forms and rules 
mainly useful for answering examination questions more or 


less mechanically, bat to provide the student with the full 
grammatical equipment necessary for reading any Sanskrit text 
with ease and exactness. 

The present edition has undergone a thorough revision aided 
by the experience of ten more years' teaching and by the sugges- 
tions of pupila and others who have used the first edition. The 
improvements chiefly consist of additions, which have increased 
the size of the book by twenty-four pages. 

An entirely new portion of the grammar are the three 
sections comprised in pages 159-168. The first (182) deals 
with nominal stem formation, giving an account of the primary 
and secondary suffixes, and thus furnishing the student with 
a more complete insight into the structure of Sanskrit words 
than the first edition supplied. lu connexion with these suffixes 
a surrey (183) of the rules of gender is added. The third new 
section (184) describes the formation of verbal compounds. 
The most noticeable case of expansion is otherwise to be found 
in the rules about t&e treatment of final dental n in Sandhi : 
these now give a complete account (36, 40) of the changes 
undergone by that letter. In the accidence a few new paradigms 
have been introduced, sueh as grdvan (90, 4), and additional 
forms have been given, as ni the difficult s-aorist of dah, where 
( I 44i 5) * v n middle forms, though not occurring in that verb, are 
supplied as a model for other verbs presenting similar difficulties 
of euphonic combination^ Other improvements are intended to 
lacilitate the use of the grammar. Thus in the list of verbs 
(Appendix I) abbreviations have been added to indicate the 
varioo* forms which beginners have otherwise often found 
difficulty in identifying. Again, the Sanskrit Index has been 
made both fuller and more eixplanatory (see e.g. prakrta). A 
decidedly practical improvement is the substitution of a brief 
flympgb of the sulrject-matter far an elaborate table of contents 
at thft beginning, and the addition of a General Index at the 


end. All these extensions and changes will, I feel sure, he 
found to have considerably increased the practical value of the 
grammar both in matter and form. 

As in the first edition, the book is transliterated throughout, 
excepting the list of verbs (Appendix I) and the syntactical 
examples at the end (180 ; 190-218). The system of trans- 
literation remains the same, being that which is now most 
generally adopted in the West. This system includes the use of 
r (to be pronounced with a syllabic value, as the r in French 
chambre) to represent the weak grade of the syllables ar and ra. 

The improvements appearing in this edition are largely due 
to the suggestions of former pupils or of friends. The gentlemen 
to whom I owe thanks for their advice are Prof, E. J. Eapson ; 
Dr. James Morison; Mr. M. L. Puri, B.A., of Exeter College; 
Mr. Horace Hart, M.A., Controller of the University Press; and 
especially Mr, T. E. Moir, I.C.S., of Wadham College, as well as Dr. 
F. W. Thomas, Librarian of the India Office. Mr. J. C. Pembrey, 
Hon. M.A., Oriental Reader of the University Press, has read 
with his usual care the proofs of this edition, which is separated 
by no less an interval than sixty-four years from the first Sanskrit 
Grammar which he (together with his father) corrected for the 
press, that of Prof. H.H.Wilson, in 1847. T <> Dr. A. B. Keith 
I am indebted for reading the proofs of this as well as of all the 
other books I have published since 1900. I must take this 
opportunity of thanking him not only for having read the proofs 
of the whole of my Vedic Grammar, but also for having passed 
several sheets of that work through the press for me during my 
absence in India between September, 1907, and April, 1908. 


July, 1911. 

a 2 



THE first impulse to the study of grammar in India was given 
by the religious motive of preserving intact the sacred Vedic texts, 
the efficacy of which was believed to require attention to every 
letter. Thus, aided by the great transparency of the Sanskrit 
language, the ancient Indian grammarians had by the fifth cen- 
tury B.C. arrived at scientific results unequalled by any other 
nation of antiquity. It is, for instance, their distinctive achieve- 
ment to have recognized that words for the most part consist on 
the one hand of roots, and on the other of affixes, which, when com- 
pounded with the former, modify the radical sense in various ways. 
The oldest grammar that has been preserved is Panini's. It 
already represents a fully developed system, its author standing 
at the end of a loiig line of predecessors, of whom no fewer than 
sixty-four are mentioned, and the purely grammatical works of 
all of whom, owing to the excellence and comprehensiveness of 
his work, have entirely perished. 

Panini is considerably later than Yaska (probably about 
500 B,C.), whom he mentions, and between whom and himself 
a good number of important grammarians intervene. On the 
other hand, Paniiu is much older than his interpreter Patafijali, 
who probably dates from the latter half of the second century B. c., 
the two being separated by another eminent grammarian, Katya- 
yana. Pftnini himself uses the word yavanml, which Kiityayana 
explains as ' writing of the Tavanas ' (i.e. laones or Greeks). Now 
it ig not at all likely that the Indians should have become 
acquainted with Greek writing before the invasion of Alexander 
in 327 B.C. But the natives of the extreme north-west, of 
whom Panini in all probability was one, would naturally have 
become acquainted with it soon after that date. They must, 
howeve^, have grown familiar with it before a grammarian 
would make a rule as to how to form from Tavana, 'Greek/ 


a derivative form meaning 'Greek writing \ It seems therefore 
hardly possible to place Pan in i earlier than about 300 B.C. 

Panini's grammar consists of nearly 4,000 rules divided into 
eight chapters. Being composed with the utmost imaginable 
brevity, each Sutra or aphorism usually consists of only two or 
three words, and the whole work, if printed continuously iu 
medium-sized Devanfigarl type, would not occupy more than 
about thirty-five pages of the present volume. And yet this 
grammar describes the entire Sanskrit language in all the details 
of its structure, with a completeness which has never been equalled 
elsewhere. It is at oiice the shortest and fullest grammar in the 

In his endeavour to give an exhaustive survey of the bhasa 
or classical Sanskrit with a view to correct usage, Panini went 
on to include within the scope of his grammar the language of 
the sacred texts, which was no longer quite intelligible. He 
accordingly gives hundreds of rules about the Veda, but without 
completeness. His account of the Yedic language, taken as a 
whole, thus shows many gap?, important matters being often 
omitted, while trifles are noticed. In this part of his work Panini 
shows a decided incapacity to master his subject-matter, atlri- 
" bating to the Veda the most unbounded grammatical license, 
especially iu interchanging or dropping inflections. 

The grammar of Panini is a Sabdanuiasana, or ' Treatise on 
Words ', the fundamental principle of which is, that all nouios are 
derived from verbs. Starting with the simplest elements into 
which words can be analysed, root, affix and termination, Panini 
shows how nominal and verbal stems are formed from roots and 
complete words from stems. He at the same time indicates the 
functions which words acquire by the addition of formative 
elements and by being compounded with other words. It is a 
peculiarity of Paniui's word-formation, that he recognizes deri* 
vation by suffixes only. Thus when a verbal root like bhid, i to 
pierce/ is used in the nominal sense of 'piercer', he has recourse 
to the highly artificial expedient of assuming an imaginary suffix, 
for which a blank is substituted I 

Yaska records that the universality of Sakal&yana's principle 
of nouns being derived from verbs was contested by Gargy&, 
who objected to the forced etymologies resulting from a general 


application of this principle. Gargya maintained that if aiva, 
1 horse/ for instance, were derived from ai, 'to travel/ not only 
would everything that travels be called aiva, and everything 
he named after all its activities, but states of being (Ihwva) would 
he antecedent to things (which are presupposed by those states). 
Panini makes a concession to Gargya's objection by excluding 
all words the derivation of which is difficult owing to their form 
or meaning, as aiva, l horse/ go,' cow/ andpun^a/man/ Primary 
nouns of this kind had been collected before Panini's time in a 
special list, in which they were often forcibly derived from verbal 
roots by means of a number of special suffixes. The first of these 
suffixes being u 9 technically called un, the whole list of these 
formations received the name of un&di (' beginning with tin'). 
Panini refers to all such words as ready-made stems, the formation 
of which does not concern him. 

The Unadi list which Panini had before him survives, in a 
somewhat modified form, as theTJnSdi Sutra with the commentary 
(dating probably from the thirteenth century JLD.) of Ujjvala- 
datta. In its extant shape this Sutra contains some late words, 
such as dlndra (Lat, denarius), a noun which cannot have come 
into use in India much before 100 A.D. 

The proper object of Panini's grammar being derivation, he 
does not deal with phonetics as such, hut only incidentally as 
affecting word-formation, or the combination of words in a 
sentence. He therefore does not give general rules of phonetic 
change, but since his analyses, unlike those of the Un&di Sutra, 
move within the bounds of probability and are generally correct, 
being in many cases confirmed by comparative philology, he 
actually did discover several phonetic laws. The most important 
of these was the interchange of vowels with their strong grades 
gwa and vrddhi (cp. iy), which Grimin called ablaut, and 
which comparative grammar traces to the original Indo-European 
language. The other great phonetic discoveries of the Indians 
had already been made by Panini's predecessors, the authors of 
the original Prfiti&khyas, the phonetic treatises of the Vedic 

P&nini also treats of the accents of words in derivation and in 
the sentence, but with syntax in our sense he does not deal, 
perhaps owing to the simplicity of the sentence in Sanskrit. 


The general plan of Panini's work is as follows : Book i, con- 
tains the technical terms of the grammar and its rules of inter- 
pretation; ii. deals with nouns in composition antf case relations; 
iii. teaches how suffixes are to be attached to verbal roots ; iv. and 
v. explain the same process with regard to nominal stems ; vi. and 
vii. describe the accent and phonetic changes in the formation of 
words, while viii. treats of words in a sentence. This general 
plan is, however, constantly interrupted by single rules or by 
a series of rules, which were added by the author as a result of 
progressive grammatical studies, or transferred from their natural 
context to their present position in order to economize words. 

In formulating his rules, Panini makes it his aim to express 
them in as abstract and general a way as possible. In this he 
occasionally goes so far as to state a general rule for a single 
case; while, on the other hand, he sometimes fails to collect 
a number of related phenomena under a single head. 

In carrying out the principle of extreme conciseness dominating 
his grammar, Panini resorts to various devices, such as ellipse of 
the verb, the use of the cases in a special technical sense, and the 
employment of heading rules (adhikara) which must be supplied 
with a number of subordinate rules that follow. By such means 
a whole rule can often be expressed by a single word. Thus the 
ablative dJtatoh, literally 'after a root ', not only means 'to a root 
the following suffixes are attached', but is also an adhikara extend- 
ing its influence (anuvrtti) over some 540 subsequent aphorisms. 

The principle of brevity is, moreover, notably applied in the 
invention of technical terms. Those of Panini's terms which are 
real words, whether they describe the phenomenon, as sam-dsa, 
'compound/ or express a category by an example, as dvi-gu ('two- 
cow'), 'numeral compound/ are probably all borrowed from pre- 
decessors. But most of his technical terms are arbitrary groups 
of letters resembling algebraic symbols. Only a few of these are 
abbreviations of actual words, as it, 'indicatory letter/ from iti, 
'thus.' Most of them are the result of great deliberation, being 
chiefly composed of letters rarely occurring in the language. Thus 
the letter I was taken as a symbol of the personal endings of the 
verb ; combined with a cerebral t it refers to a primary tense or 
mood, but combined with a guttural n it denotes a secondary 
tense or mood. Thus lat, Zi'f, lut y let, lot, mean present, perfect, 


future, subjunctive, and imperative respectively ; Ian, lun, lin, 
imperfect, aorist, and potential. 

Panini's grammar begins with the alphabet arranged on scien- 
tific principles. To several of its letters is attached an it or 
amtbandha (indicatory letter), by means of which can be formed 
convenient contractions (called gratyahara) designating different 
groups of letters. The vowels are arranged thus : a i w-n, r !"\ 
e o-n, at au~e. By means of the indicatory letter at the end of 
the group, all the simple vowels can be expressed by ok, the 
simple vowels together with the diphthongs by ac. As the last 
letter in Sanskrit is A, written ha-l, the entire alphabet is ex- 
pressed by the symbol al (much as if we were to express it by 
az\ Indicatory letters are also attached to suffixes, roots, and 
words in order to point to certain rules as applicable to them, 
thus aiding the memory as well as promoting brevity. 

Panini's work has two appendixes, to which it refers. , One of 
these "is the Dhaturpatha, or 'List of Verbal Roots', arranged 
according to conjugational classes,. the mode of inflexion being 
expressed by accents and indicatory letters. A striking fact about 
this collection is that of its 2,000 roots (many of which are, how- 
ever, merely variants of one form) only about 800 have yet been 
found in Sanskrit literature, while it omits about fifty Vedic verbs. 
The second appendix is the Qana-patha, or 'List of Word- 
' ' groups '. Panini gives rules applicable to the whole of a group 
by referring tq^ its first word. This collection, which contains 
many words occurring in Vedic works only, has been less well 
preserved than the Dhatit-patha. The Ganas were metrically 
arranged in the G^na-rcUna^mahodcidhi, or 'Ocean of the Gems 
of Word-groups J j a work composed by Vardbamana in 1140 A. D. 
Ponini's work very early acquired a canonical value, and has 
continued, for at least 2,000 years, to be the standard of usage 
and the foundation of grammatical studies in Sanskrit. On 
account of the frequent obscurity of a work which sacrifices 
every consideration to brevity, attempts soon began to be made 
to explain it, and, with the advance of grammatical knowledge, 
to correct and supplement its roles. Among the earliest attempts 
of tbifl kind was the formulation, by unknown authors, of. rules of 
interpretation {jpar&kcbd), which. Panini was supposed to have 
followed in his grammar, and which are mentioned by his sue* 



cessor Katyayana. A collection of such rules was made in the 
eighteenth century by Nagoji-bhatta in his Paribhdsendu-^ekhara, 
or 'Moon-crest of Interpretative Rules'. 

Next we have the Varttikas, or c notes' (from vrtti, ' explana- 
tion'), of Katyayana, on 1,245, or nearly one-third, of Panini's 
aphorisms. That grammarian belonged to the Deccan, and pro- 
bably lived in the third century B. c, When Katyayana's criticism 
shows him to differ from Panini, an oversight on the part of the 
latter is usually to be assumed ; but in estimating the extent of 
such oversights, one sbould not leave out of account the fact" ihat 
Katyayana lived both later and in a part of India far removed 
from that of Panini. Other grammarians made similar notes on 
Panini both before and after Katyayana ; subsequent to the 
latter's time are the numerous grammatical Karikas or comments 
in metrical form. 

All this critical work was collected by Patafijali in his extemivo 
Mahabl&sya, or ' Great Commentary ', with many supplementary 
notes of bis own. His discussions take the form of a kind of 
dialogue, and deal with 1,713 rules of Panini. a PataRjali'H work 
probably dates, as has been said, from the latter half of the 
second century B.C. The MaJiabhdpya in its turn was com- 
mented upon in the seventh century by Bhartrhari iu his V&k- 
yapadlya, or ' Treatise on the Words in a Sentence ', which ia 
concerned with the philosophy of grammar, and by Kaiy&ta 
probably in the thirteenth century. 

About 650 A.D. was composed another commentary on Pfmiux, 
the Kd&ka Vrtti, or ' Benares Commentary', the first five bookfl 
being the work of Jayuditya, the last three of V&matia. Baaed 
on a deteriorated text of Panini, it contains some errors, but hits 
the merit of conciseness and lucidity. Though much shorter 
than the Mahabh&sya, it is particularly valuable as the oldest com- 
mentary on Panini that explains every Sutra. The eacum^lvfl that 
it gives in illustration are, as a rule, derived from older inter- 
preters. Such borrowing was a usual practice; oven Pittnft- 
jali speaks of stock examples as mfirdhdbhipikta, or c conHccnitetT 
(lit. ' sprinkled on the head '). 

In the fifteenth century Hamacandra endeavoured m his /V/*- 
kriyarkaumudl, or ' Moonlight of Method ', to m*ko i'&nim'* 
grammar more intelligible by rearranging its mutter iu a iuuro 


practical way. The SiM&nta~kaumucfc f or 'Moonlight oi 
Settled Conclusions ', in which Bhattoji in tbe seventeenth centur? 
disposed Panioi's Sutras in a more natural order, had a siimlai 
aim. An abridgement of this work, entitled Laghu-fyiddhanla-} 
kaumu&i or ' Short Moonlight (of Settled Conclusions)*, by Vara- 
daraja, is commonly employed as a useful introduction to the 
native system of grammar. A belief in the infallibility of Panini, 
which still prevails among the Pandits, has often led the above- 
named interpreters, from Pataftjali onwards, to give forced 
explanations of PSnini's rules. 

Other later grammarian?, not belonging to the school of Panintj 
are on the whole of little importance. While adducing hardly 
any new material, they are much less complete than Panini, since 
they omit whole sections, such as rules about Vedic forms and 
the accent, Introducing no new points of view, they aim solely 
at inventing technical devices, or at presenting their subject in 
a more lucid and popular form. Among these non-PSninian 
grammarians may be mentioned the names of Candra 1 , who flour- 
ished about,6go A, D *; the pseudo-S&katayana, who was posterior 
to theoa Vrtti ; and the most important of them,Hemacandra 
(twelfth century). The Katanira by J3krva-v&rman (of uncer- 
tain date), whose terminology has striking affinities with older 
works, especially the Prati&khyaa, seems to have been the most 
influential of these later grammars. It served as a model for the 
standard PfiK grammar of Kaccayana, and the native grammars 
of the Dravidians and Tibetans. Vopadeva's Mugdha-bodha, or 
'Enlightenment of the Ignorant ', a very technical work dating 
from the thirteenth century, has beeo, down to the present day, 
the Sanskrit grammar chiefly used in Bengal Lastly, we have 
tlw Saraswrti Sutra^ or 'Aphorisms of the Sarasvati Grammar ', 
by an unknown author, a work distinguished by lucidity as well 

as conciseness. 


There are, besides, a few works dealing with special depart- 
ments of the subject, which form contributions of some impoitance 
to our knowledge of Sanskrit grammar. The PMp Sutra of 

1 Hi* Grammar, tix> C&ndrfi-rydkarnna, has been edited by Prof. Bruno 
&*&<& (Let&g, 1902). 

> * See Vicww. Oriental JowitaJ, I& 308-15 ; Wvnternits, GescUicbte der 
mc&atat Litteratttr, H, p, 959. 


gfantanava, composed later than the Mahabhasya, but at a time 
when there was still a living knowledge of the ancient accent, 
gives rules for the accentuation of nouns, not according to the 
analytical method of Pfinini, but with reference to the finished 
word. As Panini does not determine the gender of individual 
words, though he treats of feminine suffixes and does not ignore 
differences of gender in general, some value attaches to works 
dealing with the subject as a whole, especially tp Hemacandra's 
LingQrvuiasana, or * Treatise on Gender '. 

The first Sanskrit grammar ever written by a European was 
composed by the German missionary Heinrich Roth, a native of 
Augsburg, who died at Agra in 1668, as Superior of the Jesuit 
College in that city. This work was never published, but the 
manuscript is still preserved at Rome, There is, however, in 
Kircher's China Illustrate*, (Amsterdam, 1667), pp. 16263, a 
contribution by Both, which contains an account of the Sanskrit 
alphabet with five tables in Devanfigari characters (undoubtedly 
the earliest specimens of that script to be found in any book 
printed in Europe) l . 

The first printed European- 'Sanskrit grammar was that of 
Paulinus a Saucto Bartholomaeo, written in Latin and published 
at Borne in 1790. This work was based partly on the. MS. 
material left by a German Jesuit missionary named Hanxleden, 
who died in 1732. The first scientific grammar aiming at com- 
pleteness was that of Colebrooke, published in 1805. It was 
followed by that of Carey in 1806. The former work was based 
on Panini, the latter on Vopadeva. The earliest Sanskrit 
grammar written on Euiopean principles, and therefore of most 
influence on the study of Sanskrit at the beginning of the last 
century, was that of Wilkins (1808). The most notable among 
his successors have been Bopp, Benfey, and Whitney. Bopp's 
grammar was important owing no less to its lucidity than to its 
philological method. Benfey was the first to combine with the 
traditional material of Pfinini a treatment of the peculiarities of 
the Vedic and the Epic d'ialects. He also largely used the aid 
of comparative philology for the explanation of Sanskrit forms. 
The American scholar Whitney was the first to attempt an 

1 See Zachariae in the Vienna Oriental Journal, 15, 313-20. 


historical grammar of Sanskrit by treating the Vedic language 
more folly, and explaining from it the development of classical 
Sanskrit. The first grammar treating Sanskrit entirely from 
tiie comparative point of view is the excellent work of Prof. 
J. Wackernagel, of which,, however, only the first volume, dealing 
with phonology (1896), and the first part of the second volume 
(*95; treating of compounds, have yet appeared. 

The best known of the Sanskrit grammars used in this country 
during the latter half of tlxe nineteenth century are those of 
Monier- Williams and Mas Mtiller. Both of these contain much 
matter derived from the native system that is of no practical 
utility, hut rather an impediment, to the student of literary 
Sanskrit. All such matter has been eliminated in the present 
work, not from any prejudice against the Indian grammarians, 
hut solely with the intention of facilitating the study of the 
subject by supplying only such grammatical data of the actual 
language as have heen noted by scholars down to the present 
time, Vedic forms have also been excluded, hut in order to 
furnish English and Indian students with the minimum material 
necessary for "beginning to read works written in the older 
language, a brief outline of Vedic Grammar is given in 
Appendix in. My recently published Vedic Grammar being too 
elaborate for elementary students, I hope to briog out, as a 
parallel to the present work, a simplified v edic Grammar, in- 
cluding syntax, which will afford beginners the same help in 
the stody of Vedic literature as this grammar does in that of 

Though the accent is never marked in classical Sanskrit, I 
have, owing to its philological importance, indicated it here in 
tasmsHteraied words as far aa it can be ascertained from Vedic 
texte. A sbort aceouat of the Vedio accent itself will be found 







Relation of Sanskrit to Yedlo and to the Indian Vernaculars 
Origin of Indian Writing Arrangement of the Letters The 
Vowels The Consonants The Numerical Figures Pronunciation . 1" 

External Sandhi: Combination of Vowels and of Consonants- 
Internal Sandhl : Combination of Vowels and of Consonants . . 1Q" ^ 


Nouns : Consonant stems unchangeable changeable : -with Two 
items ; with Three Stems Vowel stems Degrees of Comparison- 
Numerals: CardinalsOrdinals Numeral Adverbs Pronouns : Per- 
>nal Demonstrative Interrogative Relative Reflexive Possea- 
Ive Compound Quantitative Indefinite Pronominal Adjectives 


Introductory The Present System First Conjugation Second 
Conjugation The Augment Reduplication Terminations Para- 
igms Irregularities The Perfect The Aorlst : First Aorist 
lecond Aorist Benedict! ve Future Conditional Passive Par- 
loiples Gerund Liflnittve-Derlvative Verbs : Causative Desi- 
.erative Intensive Denominative 

Prepositions prepositional Adverbs Prepositional Substan- 
Ives Prepositional Gerunds Conjunctive and Adverbial Particles 
Qterjections 144-159 



Primary Suffixes Secondary Suffixes Gender Verbal Com- 
ounds Nominal Compounds : Co-ordinatlves Determinatives : 
Dependent and Descriptive Pofisessives 159-178 


Introductory Order of Words The Article Number Con- 
3rd Pronouns Use of the Cases Locative and Genitive 
.bsolute Participles Infinitive Use of the Tenses Use of the 
[cods-Conditional 178^209 







- -~ 




L Sanskrit (from sa?n-sltrta t 'elaborated') is that later phase 
of the literary language of ancient India which is described in the 
grammar of PSnini. In phonology it is practically identical with 
the earlier Vtdio language. In accidence it has become different 
from the dialect of the Vedas by a process, not of growth, but of 
decay ; a large number of older forms, including the whole sub- 
junctive mood and all the many infinitives save one, having entirely 
disappeared, The chief modifications are in the vocabulary, which, 
while it has lost much of its old material, has been greatly extended 
by the accession of new words and new meanings. The difference, 
on the whole, between the Vedic and the Sanskrit language may 
be taken to be much about the same as that between Homeric and 
Attic Greek. 

2. From the Vedic language are descended the popular dialects 
called Prakrit (* derived from the fundament/ i. e. from Sanskrit, 
thence ' vulgar'). The oldest extant forms of these are preserved 
in King A^oka's rock inscriptions of the third century B, c., one 
of them, under the name of Pali, becoming the sacred literary 
language of the Southern Buddhists. From the ancient Prakrits, 
preserved in inscriptions, in entire literary works, and in parts 
of Sanskrit plays, are descended most of the dialects of modem 
India, PanjSbl, SindhI, Gujarat!, MarSthl, Hindi (which, with an 


idmixtnre of Arabic and Persian, is called Urdu or Hindustani 

BifcSn, and Bengali. The Dravidian dialects of Southern Indii 

Tdtegu, Tamil, Ganarese, Malayalam, though non- Aryan, are fu 

U* f Sanskrit words, , and their literatures are dominated by Sanskri 

3- A form of Semitic writing was introduced into the north 
of India by way of Mesopotamia, probably about 700 B, c 
etriwst Indian adaptation of this script, known from coini 
d inscription* of the third century B.C., is called BrahmT 01 
* writing of BrahmaV Though written from left to right it bears 
Atr t!oas of having once been written from right to left. From 
"* *** descended all the later Indian scripts. The most 
<rf these is the 3%arl (' urban writing,* or perhaps 
f tt* Nagara Brahmins ' of GujarSt) or Deva-nSgan 
of the gods/ a term of late but obscure origin), 
J its characteristic shape about the middle of the 
A.D. Sanskrit ia most commonly written in Devn- 
fc Nottlwsrn India^but other modern Indian character*, 
***&& or Oriyfi, are also employed in their respective 
'* TWB ia the non-Iryau south the Dmvidian scripts 

consists of forty-eight letter, 
-2*^** ^My-^w consonants (including -the pure 
~* A|w * ffto * the spirant called Visarga). These 
of the Sanskrit language. The arrange- 

roil g% scientific, has 
** the le ^ogmphical order 

- oidty in Hnding 
on their alphabetical order wiU , 


g. The vowels are written differently according as they are 
.tial or follow a consonant. They are 

(a) Simple vowels : 

(&) Diphthongs: 

au 6 . 

toably be useful. The unchangeable Anusvura (before a semivowel, 
Uant, or ^ h : cp. 42 B i) has precedence of every other consonant : 

ice t*^^ samvara, tJUJ^I sams'ayn precede ^f5ff sa-ka. The 
ngeable Anusvara (10; 42 B 2) occupies the place of the nasal into 
Lch it might be changed. Thus ?iRT sam-ga would be found beside 
f sanga. Similarly the' unchangeable Visarga (before a hard 
tural or labial) has precedence of every other consonant. Thus 
^Tn\*y antalikarana and ^n H^C antalipura follow ^M^l anta 
: precede *3|*nn anta-ka. But the changeable Visarga (before 
ibilant) occupies the place of the sibilant into which it might be 
nged. Thus ^n*^I antahstha would appear where ^n^5T 
tsstha might be written. 

There is no sign for medial (or final) ft, as this vowel is considered 
je inherent in every consonant ; e. g. ^R = ka. 

Medial or final I is written before the consonant after which it is 
nounced; e.g. fSfi ki. Originally both Jt and I were written as 
srea to the left and the right respectively above the consonant ; but 
the sake of clear distinction were later prolonged wibh a vertical 
nward stroke, the one on the left, the other on the right. 

Though based, in nearly al] cases, on iti and &u respectively, e and o 

at present, and have been since at least 300 B. a, pronounced like 

simple long vowels e and 0* in most European languages. 

Though etymologically representating ai and au, ai and au are at 
tent, and have been since at least 300 B.C., pronounced as ai and Ha. 

The medial forms of the vowels are in combination with consonants; 
^ k, written as follows: ^ ka, ERT ka, fS|R ki, ^\ ki, 3p ku, 

B 2 


I 6 

6. The following table contains a complete classification (known 
to Panini) of all the sounds of the Devanagaii alphabet according 
to the organs of speech employed in their articulation. 

Hard Hard 
teuudij. uplrttes. 




Short, Long. DIpl 


Paktals 1 




*k ; 

t |3 t-li 


\* d-h 



7f m 



^ kn, kr, | kr, ^ kj,^i ke, % kai, ^ ko, ^ kau. In com- 
binntion with ^ r, n and n are written at the ride instead of below : 
^ ra, ^ m. 

1 The palatals, being largely derived from original guttuwds under 
the influence of palatal vowels, were transliterated by Max Mttller with 
italicized gutturals. 

* This term is a translation of the old native Sanskrit word wRrdhanya, 
produced in the head 1 (mnrflkan), i.e. on the roof or highest point 
of the mouth, which is nearest the upper part of the head. This class 
of sounds has also often been called linguals (since Bopp). They 
are as a rule derived from original dentals under the influence of a 
neighbouring cerebral a or r sound. 

s ^ h IB not a semivowel, but the soft breathing corresponding to 

the guttural vowel ^ a, which, unlike the other simple vowels, has 
BO semivowel of -its own. It is identical with the second half of the 
soft aspirates g-h, <fcc. 

* I h (Visarga) the hard breathing, corresponding to the second half 
of the hard aspirates k-h, &c., is regularly used at the end of a word 
in pausti for s or r,and before hard gutturals and labiala. In the latter 
case modifications of it called Jihv&mtiliya ('formed at the root of the 
toDgtie 1 ), a guttural spirant ( = GernL 0A), and UpadhmSnSya ('on- 
hrefcftSng*)' ihe Mlabial spirant/, were formerly employed, but have 
beconae obsolete. They were both written X . 

a It is importafit to note that in the above table only the letters in 


7. AnusvSra ('after-sound'), the unmodified nasal following 
a vowel and differing from the nasals given in columns, is written 
with a dot above the letter which it follows; e.g. *R kam. Before 
WJi it is sometimes written ^ e.g.^R kam. Its proper place was 
originally before the sibilants and ^ h, whence its use extended. 
From AnuBvara is sometimes distinguished Anunasika (' accom- 
panied by a nasal'), the nasalized vowel. 

8* In writing the DevanSgari alphabet, the distinctive portiou 
of each letter is written first, then the perpendicular, and lastly 
the horizontal line 1 ; e.g. ir, rt ? rf ta. 

9. Consonants to be pronounced without any vowel after them, 
are marked below with a, stroke slanting from left to right, called 
Yiraiim (' stop'). Thus cik must be written ^R|j. 

The only marks uf punctuation ure the wigu I at the end of a 
half-verse ur sentence, and the sign II at the end of a verse or 

The elision of ^ a at the beginning of a word is marked in 
European editions with the sign called Avtigralw (' separa- 
tion '); o-S- ?J<TPT te 'pi for ^ ^fft te iipi. 

An ribbieviation IH indicated by the sign ; thus *|<i4-^gfihun, 
%*T (ga)-temu 

10. AMien the five nasals are followed by consonants of their 
own cla*s within a word, they are often, to savo trouble, incor- 
rectly replaced by the sign for Anusviira : e. g. ^fqid anikita 
for ^f^-'fl ankita ; cJTpRT kampita for ftf*Rff kampita. In the 
same way final J^m at the end of a sentence is often wrongly 
written with Anus vara ; thus ^T^ aham for ^^*^aham. In both 
cases the pronunciation remains unaffected by the substitution. 

columns i, a, and 7 are hard (surd, voiceless), while all the rest are soft 
(sonant, voiced). 

1 This was uot originally iin essential clement in the letter, but 
represents a part of the line below which the characters wtre written. 


n. If a consonant is followed immediately by one or more 
consonants they are all written in a group; e.g. ^TW atka; 
tfiTO?$ kartsnya. The general principle followed in the formation 
of these conjunct consonants, is to drop the perpendicular and 
horizontal lines except in the last letter. Most of these combina- 
tions, with the exception of those transliterated with thick type in 
the subjoined list, may be recognized without difficulty. 

12. The following are the most noticeable modifications of 
simple consonants when written in conjunction with others : 

1. The component parts are indistinguishable in ^Tor V jfia= 

^Tjf^Sf ; and in Bf or ^f ksa = ^ -f- ^ . 

2. A horizontal line is sometimes substituted for the distinctive 

portion of 7T t and for the loop of eR k : e.g. ^T tta = <t, 

3. ^s is often. written t when followed by a consonant or by 

the vowels u or r -, e.g. ^ sen, *J su, "*! sf. 

4. "^ r following a consonant is written with a short oblique 

stroke from right to left at the foot of the letter ; e. g. 
W krn> ^ clra, J( s^ra, *&( ntrj-a. 

^ r preceding a consonant or the vowel ^J r is written 
with * placed at the top of the letter before which it is to 
be sounded; e.g.TF% arka, *n*1 varsma; Pl^ufn* niri-tilu 
Thw sign for ^ is placed to the right of any other marks at 
the top of the same letter; e.g. "^S?" arkendu. 

Iiist of Compound Consonants* 

13. ^ k-ka.^f k-kha, ^ k-ca, ^ff k-ija, W k-ta, ?J5f k-t-ya, 
f k-t-ra, Iff k-t-z-ya, ?i k-t-va, WT k-na, |p k-n-ya, ^T k-ma, 

I k-ya, W or ^B k-ra, ^ or ^ k-r-ya, 9T k-la, 8p k-va, 
^ k-r-yaj ^f or ^f kngra, ^pf k--nw. ^R k-s-ya, ^T k-s-va. 


kb-ya, *| kb-ra. J*l g-ya, H g-ra, TZf g-r-ya. ^f gb-na, 
gb-n-ya, HT gb-ma, ^? gb-ya, ^T gb-ra. ^ A-ka, ^ ft-k-ta, 

ii-k-t-ya, ^JJ fr-k-ya, ^ ft-k-sa, 3p ft-k-s-va, ^p ft-kba, 
fi-kb-ya.Nfffi-ga, ^ ft-g-ya, ^ fi-gba,^ fi-gb-ya, ^ fi-gh-ra, 
fi-fta, V fi-na, ^f ft-ma, ^gj d-ya. 

c-ca, ^ c-cba, ^f c-ch-ra, ^ c-fla, ^T c-tna, ^T c-ya, 
ch-ya, ^ ch-ra.--^55f j-ja, 5?J j-jha, 9 or Tf j-fia, ^1 j-fi-ya, 

-ma, Tj-ya,^f j-ra,^T j-va. ^ fl-ca,t8T fi-c-ma, W fl-c-ya, 

fS-cha, S 1 fi-jfti ^*Q ii']-ya, 
f t-ta, 31 t-ya. 3J th-ya, ? tfi-ra, f d-ga, ^J d-g-ya, 
^-gha, ^j" d-gli-ra, ^J <J-ma, v5J d-ya. ST dh-ya, ^ h-ra. 

-ta, TIJ ^-tha.TliS' n-da, TCfgjn-d-ya, ^ii-^i-ra, IJjq 1 n-d-r-ya, 

-dba, ^ ZL*XLa v 1OT ij-ma, ^ n-ya, ^3" n-ya. 

K t-ka, gf t-k-ra, ^T t-ta, T5f t-t-ya, ^ t-t-ra, ^ t-t-va, 

t-tha, ?^. t-na, raZf t-n-ya, fR t-pa, Tff t-p-ra^ 31 t-ma, 

t-ra-ya, W t-ya, ^ or ^ t-ra f ^1 t-r-ya, ^ t-va, W t-sa, 

-s-iia, T^H t-s-n-ya, I th-ya. if d-ga, gf d-g-ra, 5 d-gha, 
cl-gh-ra, ^ d^da, ^J d-d-ya, ^ d-dha, 3T d-dli-ya, If d-na, 
d-ba, ^f d-bha, ^ d-bh-ya, ?I d-ma, ^T d-ya, j d-ja, 3ff cl-r-ya, 
d-va, 31 d-v-ya. ^ db-ua, W dh-n-ya, m db-ma, Hf db-ya, 
db-ra, W db-r-ya, ^c[ db-va. *tt n-ta, 'W n-t-ya, W n-t-ra, 

ii-da, ^ n-d-ra, "i( n-dba, 'W n-db-ra, 5f n-na, ^ n-pa, 
u-p-ra, ^R n-ma, 11 n-ya, BT n-ra, ^f n-sa. 
fl p-ta, ^ p-t-ya, "H p-na, HT p-pa, ^T p-ma, TZJ p-ya, IT p-ra, 

p-la, "^ p-va, "^ p-sa, *13f p-s-va. ^1 b-gba, *5f b-ja, 

b-da, 3KT b-dba, J b-na, 9T b-ba, **C b-bba, WT b-bh-ya, 
1 b-ya, 5f b-ra, 3T b-va. ^ bb-na, T bb-ya, ^T bb-ra, 
f bb-va. ^1 m-na, 1R m-pa, JJf in-p-ra, ^f m-ba, ^T m-bba, 
T m-ma, ^1 m-ya, J5T m-raj ^1 m-la, ^ m-va, 


1 y-ya, f y-. ^|T 1-ka, W 1-pa, ^R 1-ma, 1-ya, W 1-1* 
^f 1-va, ^f 1-ha. TBJ v-na, *g y-ya, * v-ra, 9 v-va. 

^ B-ca, ^Bf B-c-ya, ^ s-na, 19 ^-ya, ^T s-ra, *3 s-r-ya, ?T e-la, 


T a-p-ra, ^[ s-ma, ^ s-ya, ^5f s-va. ^f s-ka, ^ 
T s-ta, ^IT s-t-ya, ^T s-t-ra, ^T s-t-va, ^T s-tha, 

| s^n-ya, ^T s-pa, ^ s-pha, W s-ma,, ^ s-m-ya, ^ - 
f Shra, ^| s-va, ^5 s-sa. 

^ Iw^a, 3f h-na, ^ It-nia, IT h-ya, J[ h-ra, ^f li-la, Z h- 

14. The muerical figures in Sanskrit are 

ffeures were borrowed from the Indians by the Arabs, 
wfeo iHtrodced them into Europe. 

5. Tfce foUoiring roles ehonld be noted : 

flw To-wefe are pronounced as in Italian. The short ^? a, 
bffwftvr, fc*8 nkihea: the sound of the so-called neutral vo^vel 
S* BB^Jrfi, Bte the n in ' but/ It had this sound (in 
fTj-ta, 'closed') at least as early as 300 B.C. 

ft, We vpintioB of tbc coaaonante should be heard distinctly. 
IK ^Hk-feom'; ^=t-h in 'pothouse 9 ; 
-h in ' loghouse J ; \SC=d-h in 

. tho ^KHnHnA W l*a i^e ttPoad of Eg in f king/ 

*, ft* !** ^c ftd^j iwre tke sound of ch in 'church,' 


5. The cerebrals are pronounced similarly to the so-called dentals 

t, d, n in English, the tongue being, however, turned rather 
further back against the roof of the inoulh. 

6, The dentals in Sanskrit are at the present day pronounced 

as inter-dentals, being produced by bringing the tip of the 
tongue against the very edge of the front teeth. In the 
days of the ancient Indian phoneticians they -were pro- 
nounced as post-dentals, being produced at the ba'ck of the 
upper front teeth. 

? The dental ^ s sounds like s in 'sin/ the cerebral ts like 
sh in 'shun'; while the palatal ^s is produced midway 
between the two, being the sibilant pronounced in the same 
place as the spirant in the German ' ich.' 

8. The Visarga, being a final hard breathing, is in India generally 
pronounced as a hard h, followed by a short echo of the 
preceding vowel. 

9 The Anusvara, being a pure nasal unmodified by any stop, is 

sounded like n in the French ' bon. f 

io. Since about the beginning of our era Sanskrit has been pro- 
nounced with a stress accent (instead of the earlier musical 
accent) much in the same way as Latin, Thus the stress is 
laid on a long penultimate (Kalidasa), OH the antepenulti- 
mate when followed by a short syllable (Himalaya), and on 
the fourth from the end when two short syllables follow 




16. In Sanskrit every sentence is treated as one unbroken 
chain of syllables. The coalescence of final and initial letters is 
called Sandhi (' putting together'). The 'rnleg of SaniHri are 
basedchieflyonthe avoidance ofhiattwandon assimilation. 
The ahsence of Saoclhi is in many cases sufficient to mark the 
stops which in other languages have to he marked hy punctuation. 
Though "both are based on the same phonetic principles, it is 
essential, in order to avoid confusion, to distinguish external 
fKttilMj Tvhich determines the changes of final and initial letters 
of words, from internal Sancthi, which applies io the final 
letters of verbal root* and nominal stems when followed by certain 
suffixes or terminations , 

4. The niles of external Sandhi apply, mth few exceptions 
(which ace survivals of an earlier stage of external Sandhi), to 
words forming compoxuids, and to the final letters of nominal 
stems before the Pada or middle case-endings WJ. bhyam, 
fif^bhis, VR bhyas, $ su (71), or before secondary (182, 2) 
suffixes beginning ivith any consonant except ^y. 

JL External Sandhi. 
CrlAMxEcfttioix of 

17* Vowels are divided into 
A, i. Simple rowels: 

. Giina vovela: ^H a; 
3. TpddM To^wels: 'VR 5 

TM VrtWhi fona of ^[ 1 (wfeash w<mkl be ^W^&l) does not occur, 


a. Guna ('secondary form') ia the strengthening of the simple 
'vowels by a preceding ^f a (which leaves ^ a itself un- 
changed) ; Yrddhi ('increase *) is the further strengthening 
of Guna vowels by means of another "^ a 1 . 
B. i. Vowels which are liable to be changed into semivowels : ^i, 
ft I; ^T u, ^ u; ^ r, ^ r, and the diphthongs (the 
latter half of which is ^ i or ^T u) : liquid vowels. 
2. Those which are not : ^ff a, "3R a. 

Combination of Final and Initial Vowelfl- 

18. If the same simple vowel (short or long) occurs at. the end 
and beginniug of words, the result is a long vowel; 

^TJTt sit api Iksate becomes tdlH^fl sapik&ite ; fS|f?J 
kimtii udeti becomes fqig^fif kimtudeti ; *ffg ^H^ kartf rju 
becomes ^l^^'kai-tfjn. 

19. ^T a and *R 

a. coalesce with a following simple liquid vowel to Guna ; e.g. 
tava indral.i=:7T^R;: tavendrali ; 
t?'RT soktva; ^T 

. coalesce with Guna vowels to Vrddhi ; e.g. 
tavaiva ; VT ''Sfnrfv: sa 

c. are absorbed by Vrddhi vowels ; e. g. ^HT 


In this vowel gradation, as Comparative Philology shows, 
vowel represents the normal stage, from which the ample vowel ww 
reduced by low of accent, while Vrddhi ! a lengthened variety f *** 
The reduction of the syllables ya, va, ra (which are parallel with the 
Guna stage) to the corresponding vowels i, u r | is 
(' distraction'). 


20. A simple liquid vowel followed by any other vowel or by 
a diphthong is changed into its semivowel ; e.g. c^f%I *Hf dadbi 

dadhy atra ; R<| ^ kartr uta =^5^T kartr uta ; 
madhu iva = *rfl^f madhv iva ; *f^t W$l^ nadi 
artham = ^4( j*^ nadyar tham , 

21. The Guna vowels TJ e and ^ o _ 

*; remain unchanged before ^ a, which is elided : ^ ^rft? te 
api=?Ufll te 'pi; ^ft ^ffq so api=^ft so 'pi- 

fr become ^ a (thi-ough ^RJ^ay and V^av, which drop the 
semivowel) before every other vowel (or diphthong) : *T% 
ff sakhe iba=5TO T[f sakha iha^ wft Tlf% prabho ehi= 
W! Ttff prabha ehi* 

23. The Vrddhi vowels ^ ai and ^fr au respectively become 
a (throng ^H^ay) and ^p^rtv (the semivowel not being 
in this case) before every vowel (or diphthong) : f^ftfr 
i arthafc=f%RlT ^f ; fcyS artha^ ; ?ft tf^T tan iti== 
v iti. 

e (secondary) hiatus occasioned by the dropping of 
w*4 V ia *^e above three cases (21 b aud 22) remains 

Vowel Sandhi. 

of Gnait results from the contraction of 

;, ^* 1 ^^* i>ift fee perfect participle passive 


^Ri; a 

' (from ^ ud, Vet 9 ). 


Absence of Vowel Sandhi. 

24* Inteij ectional particles consisting of or ending in vowels, 
such as ^IT 5, ^ i, ^ n, ^ he, ^T^ 1 aho, are not liable to Sandhi : 
1[ JTJ i indra, ' Indra'; ^T "WC * e^arn, f is it so indeed?' 
^^7 VM^ aho apehi, ' Oh, go away.' 

25. The vowels f^i, ^l u, 1? e, when dual terminations, nominal 
or verbal, remain unchanged "before vowels (^ a not being elided 
after this dual If e) ; they are called Pragrhya ( c separate *) The 
final of TRTT ami, a uom. plural (of the pronoun ^tn asau, 112), 
is treated in the same way. 

E. g. "BR^ 1 ^ift" kavl imau, c these two poets ' ; 'BT^T'ft sadhu 
imau, 'these two merchants'; ft% 1^ vidye ime, 'these two 
sciences ' ; ili^T^ ^|^*^yScete artham, 'they two ask for money' ; 
^H*n il-yit ami aavab, * those horses.* 

26. In the Epics, the law-books, and other works not strictly 
conforming to the classical standard, vowel Sandhi is seldom 
applied between the first and second line (Pada) of a hemistich. 

Combination of Final and Initial Consonants. 

27. The rules of Sandhi are only applicable after the final con- 
sonant of a word has been reduced to one of the eight allowable 
(actually occurring) consonants at the end of a word in pausa, viz. : 


xf n, *^n, J^m J 

The thirty-four consonants given in the table (6) are reduced 
to these eight, as follows : 

A final must be hard and unaspirated, the palatals (including 
^ s) and ^ h are replaced by ^5 k or <[ t (1 fl ty ^ n )> ^? 
by ^ t, ?E^ s and ^ r by Visarga, while Uln, ^7 ^ N l and ^v do 


not occur* Thua the second, third, and fourth column*, as well as 
the second line (the palatals), disappear entirely, leaving only 
four tenues in the first, three nasals in the fifth, and Viearga 
alone in the sixth and seventh. 

28. No word may end in more than one consonant, except 

when^r precedes a final fk, 3 t, c^t, ^p, which is radical (or 

substituted for a radical) and not a suffix. In the case of 'all 

other combinations the final letter or letters must be dropped till 

only one, in the form allowable as a final, remains. Thus ^q*<*J^ 

bhavant-s becomes ITf^bhavan, 'being' ; ^iftH^ abibhar-t= 

"Hf^W abibhalj, 'he carried' (<^t is a suffix; "^ r must become 

Visarga); but ^F^urk, 'strength 1 (qg k substituted for radical 

*U); ^WT^ amSrt, 'he wiped,' from *JW x mrj (^ t substituted 

for radical 

Classification of Consonants. 

29. Place or organ of articulation. 

i. The throat, the iwilate, the roof of the month, the teeth, the 
lips, and the nose are called the places or organs of 

a. By contact between the tongue and the four places throat, 
palate, roof, teeth the guttural, palatal, cerebral, and 
dental consonants are formed.. Labial consonants are 
formed by contact between the lips. 

3* la forming the namls of the five classes, the breath partially 
posses through the nose while the tongue or the lips are in 
the position for articulating the corresponding tenuis. The 
seal AatOT&ra is formed in the nose only, while the tongue 
Is fa* lie position for forming the particular vowel which the 


4- The semivowels ^ y, ^ r, ^ 1, f v are palatal, cerebral, 

dental, and labial respectively. They are described by the 
old Indian grammarians as produced by partial or imperfect 
contact of the tongue with the organ of articulation, ^f 1 
often interchanges with or is derived from ^ r. 

5- The three sibilants are hard spirants produced by partial 

contact of the tongue with the. palate, roof, and teeth 
respectively. Sanskrit has not preserved any of the 
corresponding soft sibilants (English z, French j). 
6. ^ h and I h are respectively soft and hard spirants produced 
without any contact, and articulated in the position of the 
vowel which precedes or follows-. ^ h, corresponding to 
the second half of the soft aspirates g-h, ]-h, d-h, b-h, from 
which it is in fact derived, occurs only before soft letters. 
Visarga, corresponding to the second half of the hard 
aspirates (k-h, &c.), occurs only after vowels and before 
certain hard consonants. In India Visarga is usually 
articulated as a hard h, followed by a very short echo of the 
preceding vowel; e.g. qi: kali=kah a ,^Sfir: kavit==kavih l ; 

30. Quality of consonants* 

Consonants are 

i. either hard (surd, voiceless) : columns i, 2, 7 in the table, 


or soft (sonant, voiced) : all the rest (columns 3, 4, 5, 6) and 
AnusvSra (besides all the vowels and diphthongs). 

3. either aspirated : columns 2, 4, 7, besides ^ h (in 6) ; 

or unaspirated : all the rest. 

Hence the change of ^ c to ^ k is a change of place (palatal 
to guttural), and that of ^ c to ^ j is a change of quality (hard 
to soft) ; while the change of ^ c to *^g (hard palatal to soft 


guttural), or of ?^t to Sfj (hard dental to soft palatal) is one of 
"both place and quality. 

31. It is essential to remember that consonant Sandhi cannot 
"be applied till finals have been reduced to one of the eight allow- 
able letters (2*7). The latter are then modified without reference to 
their etymological value (except partially in the case of Visarga). 
Only six Of these finals occnr at all frequently, viz. ^|[ k, ?t, *^n, 
^p, ^ m, and Yisarga. The changes which final consonants 
undergo are most conveniently treated with reference to (I) their 
quality, (II) their place or organ. 

I. Change* of Quality. 

32. Final consonants must be soft before soft initials, and hard 
before hard initials. 

a. This rule affecls only the five 'final hard consonants (^jk, 
^ %, *^t, t^p j and ; b) t the nasals (6; 36) not being liable to 
changes of quality (but two of them,^n,,^m, are liable to changes 
of place, like the two hard sounds ?^t and Visarga : 37). 

Hence final ^| k, ^ }, ^ t, ^ p before sonants become 
d, ^ d, W^b respectively ; e.g. 

samyag uktam, ' well said ' ; f^[ TO: = ft[T*W: dig-gajal? 
* world-elephaiit/ 1|(\41^ ''^^F^ = Mf\fll^t*l*i parivr4 
,'ne (is) a mendicant '; ^l\^^^^ l^Bgf?C = Mf\g| If ^Pl 

pariTra^ gacchafci, ' the mendicant goes.' STf^t ^HT 
aaiid afera, *tlu> river here '; ?Tf^\nj:=Tr^^j: mahad-dhanub, 
*a lATge bow.* ^QR^^ni^^pni kakub atra, 'a region 
****** J ^nt ^i;=' I ^H: ab-iafe, f born in water. 5 

r ^i ^ t ^t l^p, isteB followed by initial ^n or *^m, 
,aad i^ practice almost iavwiahly do, become the correspond- 


dig-nagalji or din-uagali, ' world-elephant ' ; 
WlS|T*4: or ^4|fUU|: jagad-nathat or jagan-nathab, 
' lord of the world ' ; ^RE *u<4! = q<i<tiit|! san-mafiah, ' period 
of six months ' ; TTTf <3*^* = ^I^U^* prat-mukhati, * facing 
the east.' 

34- Final ?^ t before ^1 becomes ^1 (through ^ d) ; e.g. 
?T7^ <H*><+V= TrtRKTI^t'al labdham, ' that is taken.* 

35. Since the nasals have no corresponding hard letters, they 
remain unchanged in quality before hard letters ; but in several 
cases a sibilant (after H.n) or cognate hard letter (after *^n or 
^ n) is inserted between the two. An original palatal 'J ft or 
cerebral TI^ n never occurs as a final letter (27). The guttural 
vjp n, which is rare as a final, remains unchanged in that position, 
but ^ k may be inserted after it before the three sibilants ; e. g. 
ITTV ?$l pr&n s'ete or J4I& ?fa prSnk sete, ' he lies eastward/ 
Final Hm is liable to change before all consonants (42). Final 
dental *^n remains unchanged before most letters, but is modified 
before all palatals and cerebrals (except ^s), before the bard 
dentals c^t and ^th, aud before the semivowel ^IJL Its treat- 
ment requires a somewhat detailed statement. 

38. A. The dental nagal ^n remains unchanged 

i. before vowels (op. 52); e.g. ^iH.^^V^I tan uvaca/he apoke 
to them.' 

3. before* all gutturals, ^ k, ^kh, ^g, ^gh, as well as ^ h ; 
6-g. fjFll^ 1*1, ^jf^^t^T buddhiman ko *pi, 'a certain wise 
mail ' ; TTTH ^TT tan hatva, * having slain them.' 

3. before all the labials, ^ p, t ph, ^b, T^bh, *^m; e.g. 

i^cil*^ m^HTI, etan pasan, * these bonds ' ; 
bandhavan mama, * my relatives. 3 

4. before the soft dentals <g d, ^ clh, ^u ; e.g. 



matejan dhatta, 'put the fish ' ; 11^4^1*1*1^1^ rajapuiii 
nayati, *he leads the princes.' 

5. before the semivowels ^y, ^ r, ^ v; e.g. f ^1*1 V*f 

haipean raksati, 'he protects the geese/ 

6. before the cerebral ^s and the dental ^ s, but before th 

latter a transitional ?^t may be inserted ; e. g. TTTT. 'fi 
ttn ( } ' those six ' ; TTTt ^HfH tSu fc-ahate or 
titai sabate r 'he endiues them. 9 
E- Th* dental nasal 1 n is changed 
lu baCor ihe hard palatal ^c and ^ch; cerebral ^ t 

al ^tand ^th, to Anusyara, a palatal ^s, a cerebral 
a deatal ^s being respectively interposed 1 ; o. g. 
hasan cakara= f ff^l 4bT'<! hasaina cakSra, 'lie 
tt ka^liing' ; TTT^T^^^fp^ pSsan chetttim = 
diettum, 'to cut the bonds'; 

: calanis tiftibhak * a moving 

patan taruljt = MTI^I^ pataips 
*fe toft !>alatal8 ^J, ^Jh, and the palatal sibilant 

tk* a^l cerebrals d and tlh to the cerebral 
1 to nasalized W 1 Tvritten with 


Te plural (in -joa) and the nominative 

f . - .- +++*,*.* appears 

in Sanskrit its use has been 

of &&*i ^ n before hard palatals, 


II. Changes of Place. 

37- The only four final consonants liable to change of place 
are the dental ?^ t aud ^ n, the labial ^ m, and Visarga. 

a. The dentals become palatal and cerebral before palatals and 
cerebrals respectively. 

b. Visarga and, to a less extent, *^m adapt themselves to the 
organ of the following consonant. 

1. Final c^t. 

38. Final ?^t before palatals (^c, ^ ch, 3TJ, HJh, ^ s) is 
changed to a palatal (^ c or ^J) ; e.g. TTc^ ^=*W tac ca, 
'and that'; 7T?^fift*lf 13 H = dP*fe*lPH tac chinatti, 'he cuts that' ; 
?rafl<<^ taj jiiyate, ' that is born ' ; Wc^ ^UlVf^ = 
ffl *HU srnoti, but in practice) n^uHRf tac c-hvnoti 1 I 

' he hears that.' 

39. Final c^t liefore 3 ti ? &, ^ <l, dh (but not before \s) 
is changed to a cerebral 01 <l or 1 dh) ; e.g. !T?Tc^ i3?l* = 
H^^ft^: etatf thakkui-ah, 'the idol of him'; 7f^ v^Rl =r flj ej?| 
tad dayate, ' it flies ' ; 7T?[. \*fH = flj\4kr) tad dhaxikate, e it 

2. Final 

40. Final ^n before 3JJ, 1J jh, and ^ s 2 becomes ^ fi ; 
e. g. 7TPI. ^i^Ht = flllS^ni toft jayati, ' he conquers them ' ; 

sSrdulan or 

tftfi chardulan \ 'those tigers.' 

1 With the further change of the initial *^ 4 to the corresponding 
aspirate ^f ch, cp. 53. 

2 For the change of ^ n before the hard palatals ^ o and ^g ch, 
eee 36 B i. 



4L, Final ^ before^ d, dh a (but not ^s) is changed to m.9 i 
e -6- TfT*l VTT:=^f 1 UJ! ^ <t mahan claraarali/ a great uproar.' 

3. Final 11 an. 

40. A. Final 5F^m remains unchanged before voxels; e.g. 

Jrim atra, 'what (is) here ? ' 

B. Final J^in is changed to Anusvara before consonants : 
i. necessarily before semivowels, sibilants, and J h ; e.g. 

yeda/I know bim*; 4R^UI 
karunaqi roditi, 'he cries piteously'; 

moksaiii eeveta, * one should devote oneself to salva- 

madhurani hasati, 'he 

^woally fceJore mutes and the nasals i^n, ^m 3 (6, cols. 
H may become the class nasal 3 (a change which is 
*feJn European editions); e.g. 'R^ ^Of^=f^ 
( w ftr^Ckfl) kirji karosi (or kin karosi), 'what doest 
?> ^!R ^t = ^ ^Tft (or IT^Tff) s'atrum jahi (or 
'kill tbe enemy '; ftj^ ^^^=^1 TRI^ (or 

(or kim phalam), 'what (is) the use? ' 

guruni namati (or gurnn 
the teacher >; 

aastram mimSipsate (or sSstram 

t, 3 th, and 

* ^ > 

Sandhi of the Vedic lauguag-e. 


of final ^ n before the soft palatals WJ, ?J jh (40), the soft 
cerebrals ^ d and dh (41), and the dental *^n ; and with that 
of final c^ t before ^ n (33) ; thus e. g. in qi|vni*t ^ 
kiintau na the first word may represent Hie ace* pi. masc. 3RT- 
?fT*t.k&ntan (36 A 4), the abl. sing. masc. ^Br^l^ kantat (33), 
or the ace. sing. fein. UT*nTl. kantam (42 B 2). 

4. Final Visarga. 

43- Visarga is the spirant to which the hard ^ s and the cor- 
responding soft ^ r are reduced in paiisa. If followed by a 
hard letter 

1. a palatal, cerebral, or dental (^ c, ^ ch ; Z t, ^ th ; ?^ t, 
^th), it is changed to the sibilant (^s, t^s, ^*) of the class to 
which the following letter belongs ; e.g. " 

purnas candi-al;, 'the full moon '; 'TOT: 
nadyas tirani, ' the bank of the river.' 

2. a guttural or labial (^ k, ^f kh, ^ p, Ifi ph), it remains 
unchanged 1 ; e.g. TfTf* ; EfSTT! tatah kamal;, ' thence love '; 'TOT'' 
MT^*^ nad yak pajara, ' the opposite shore of the river.* 

3. a sibilant, it remains unchanged or may be assimilated 2 ; 
e -g- $H* fit^J* suptali sisuli or ^JHHW^J* * tho child is asleep * ; 
IRW; 'GT'h prathamat sargah or w^^y<|: prathamas eargfi^i, 
' the fii'st canto.' 

44. Yisarga (except when preceded by ^ a or ^Jf S) if followed 
by a soft letter (consonant or vowel) is changed to ^ r; e.g. 
avir ayam, * this poet ' ; 

gaur gacchati, 'the cow walks '; 
va3 r ur vat i, ' the wind blows.' 

1 Cp. the treatment of *^n before hardiautes, 36 A 2, 3; B i. 
3 This assimilation was undoubtedly the original Sandhi, and is 
required by some of the ancient Vedic phoneticians. 


45. i* Tlte fiwtl syllable W! fib drops its Visarga before vowels 
tr uJt coaso&ants; e.g, icqi** ^Wpftrr^nn Vft asvil aim, 

'thi potto htvearrnwr; f?TT; Wf.'- ?<TT WT* hatfi 
*lU fepbi3ta (are) killed': Wfl fif: = ?rrf5f: niii-l)hH) r instr, 
plnr. of HTOt. mSs, ' moon. 5 
. Tli final syllable W ah 

its Visarga before voweln except ^ST a; e.g. 

: knta % r fitah, 'whence come?' 
esah, 'who (is) lie?' ?fi: ^fq: 
km rtift, * who (is) the poet ? ' 
uoft fooaonants and before ^ff a, is clwngetl to 

* anTto OTpa^. "the lamp (has been) brought 5 : 
mano-Lhii, inst. plur. 'with minds ? ; 

ro 'yam, 'this man.' 

7tW>lefi ^r; aJ; and ^: a^i, in the fe* instances 1 
Ti represents an etymological T r, are not 
txrepiional rule stated in 43. In other word* 
reVeHin ^ to ^ ai> ft ^ ^ Br, in this case 


blufitar dehi, 'brother, 
dv5r e?5j - thffi doof/ 

r b rfwa y d ^PPed, a preceding short 


K -tlSti^ "**' '^ IW^tar, 'within'; 

U 'mlT/^ '**' ^ dTSr> ' *"*' ^^ var ' 

^^JJ^JTL^Ll?^ pit " ** ?o.) i 

. aing. imperf. 


i-Etjate, 'the moon shines '; tptt ^jf^lpn 1 "^*ft puna rogi, 
' ill agftin/ 

48. The two pronouns m sal?, ' that/ and TJ^: esah, ' this ' 
(no a), retain Yisarga at the end of a sentence only, but 
become ?t so and T^ft eso before ^f a (45, 2 l>) ; e.g. ^ft 
<^Tf?f=*r <^<Tffl sft dadfiti, 'he gives'; *H f^:==^T T^? : 
sa Indrah, 'that Indra*; but ^f: WRf^sr^ftjWfc^so 'bhavat, 
' he was ' ; ^7f J ^: mrtab sat, ' ^e (is) dead/ 

49- Ht bholjt, an in-egular contracted vocative (for bhavas, 
used as an interjection) of fl'flc^ bhavat, 'your honour,' drops 
its Visarga before all vowels and soft consonants; e,g. Ht 
^i(|9|=9ft ^5TTf bho Isana, 'O lord 1 : flt: ^fT:=Ht ^fTt 
bho deval?, c gods ' ; but Ht: %^f : = H^"%^T: bhos chettab, 
' cutter.* 

*. The same mle applies to the contracted vocative H*ftj 
bhagot (for bhagavas) from *Nf*|c^ bhagavat, * adorable on,e/ 

50. Nouns ending in radical ^ r (82) retain the "^ r before the 
^ su of the loc- pi. ; e, g..TT^ + 55=^13 vSr-su, ' in the waters-* 

a. ^nr^ abar (91, 2 N.) and ^^ svai- (indeclinable) retain their 
^ r when compounded with trftT pati : ^HjMf?f! ahar-patih, 
' lord of day/ *<t4f?f.' svar-patilj, ' lord of heaven.' 

Doubling of Consonants. 

51- ^ ch at the beginning of a word may always be doubled 
after vowels; it must be so after a short vowel and after the 
particles ^T a and TTF ma;e.g. 7TO ^i^i = 7W ^|)| tava 
ccMya, 'thy shade'; ^T eei^^fn= m^l^^Pl acchadayati, 
'he covers'; ^TT t^^c^=TT f^^^nia cchidat/let him not 
cut'; but *1<^O^I^I badari-chaya or 
cchaya, ' shade of jujube trees.' 


m. In the body of a void the doubling takes place after all 
vowete : l^Efif icchati/he wishes ' ; ^351 mlecchak ' barbarian.' 

52. Final ^ ft and ^ n, preceded by a short vowel and 
followed by any wwel (or diphthong), are doubled; e.g. 
pratyaM aste, 'he sits westward*; 

dhavann asvafc, ' a running horse ' ; but 
kavm ohvayasva, ' call the poets/ remains. 

Initial Aspiration. 

53. Initial *^s, not followed by a hard consonant, may be, and 
in practice nearly always U, changed to the corresponding aspirate 
^P <* after ^ e (38) and ^ fl (40) { 

tflic ehlokena, 'by idiat verse *; WPT, *ni : = ^I c ' :> *.*l* dll5:vafs 
chalatt, "a running hare. 1 

r Ibe same change is allowed after ^1 k, Z t, ^p, though not 
nsuaily apj^ied ; ^l^rt^ vak-satam may become 

*a hundred speeches.* 
InJtiai ^ h, after softening a preceding 3 

to iKa soft aspirate of the preceding letter; e.g. 
ghi, ( for speech' ; 7R^ ff ^^T tad dhi, 

55- If ^gfe, ^dfe t ^bh, or 1 h are at the end of a (radical) 
begmaing i?iik ^g, ^ d| ^b, and lose their Aspiration 
initb! consonants are aspirated by way 


n\itt^ m . 3 i>t ^ fo ^riguua initial -aspiration of such 
**$**, *4 Sawfctt) by the operation of 

^wfc tiu feud w|mto ^si^jpeared the initial 



B. Internal Sandhi. 

56. The rules of internal Sandhi apply to the finals of nominal 
and verbal stems before all terminations of declension (except 
those beginning with consonants of the middle stem : 73 a) and 
conjugation, "before primary suffixes (182, l),ancl before secondary 
suffixes (182, 2) beginning with a vowel or ^y. They are best 
acquired "by learning paradigms of nouns and verbs first. Many 
of these rules agree with those of external Sandhi ; the most 
important of those which differ from external Sandhi are here 

Final Vowels. 

.57. In many cases before a vowel (and even the same vowel) 
^ i and %^ I are changed to ^^iy ; ^ u and ^T u to ^^ uv ; ^ T 
to H^ ir (cp. 18 and 20) ; e.g. \ft dhi-f^i = f%rf^T dhiy-i, loc. 
sing., ' in thought'; *^+^ i = gf3[ bhuv-i, 'on earth '; 
yu-yu + u V = g^g * yu-yuv-ut, 'they have joined'; 
gf + ati=(it,rn gir-ati, ' he swallows.' 

58. Final *{ f - before consonant tenninations is changed to 
|j^ Ir, after labials to ^T^ ur ; while ^ r (after a single con- 
sonant) before ^y becomes ft ri (154, 3); e.g. ^ gf, passive 
pres. 3. sing. 'ft^Kl gfr-yate, ' is swallowed ' ; *ftlj: gTr-nai, past 
pass, part., 'swallowed'; ^ PF P ass ' P res - %ffi pur-yate, 'is 
fiUed'; past part., TJjtf: piir-nalj, 'filled'; QT kr, pass. pres. 
f!|| ^i<\ kri-yate, ' is done.' 

59- H e, ^ ai, ^t o, ^ au are changed before suffixes 
beginning with vowels or ^ y to ^R^ay, 'JIT^Sy, ^l^av, 
^ini^av respectively (21 ; 22); e.g. % + ^PT=*Iin nay-ana, 
'eye'; J ^ + H=TT^' i^y-e, 'for wealth'; 
'faracow j j ift + ^Tt = TRt nav-afc, 'ships'; 
gav-yah, ' relating to cows.' 


Final Consonants. 

60. The most notable divergence from external Sandhi is thi 
unchangeableness of the final consonants (cp. 32) of verbal am 
nominal stems before terminations beginning with vowels, semi- 
vowels, and nasals 1 (while before other letters they usually follow 
the tjiles of external Sandhi) ; e.g. TTTV pranc-ali, 'eastern'; 

vac-ani, ' let me speak,' flT*H vSc-ya, ' to be spoken,' 
vac-mi, ' I speak * ; but ifW vak-ti, 'he speaks.' 

61. Nominal or verbal stems ending in consonants, and followed 
by terminations consisting of a single consonant, drop the ter- 
mination altogether, two consonants not being tolerated at the 
end of a word (28). The final consonant which remains is then 
treated according to the rules of external Sandhi. Thus WT^-f 
^prSfic+s, nom. sing., 'eastern/ becomes HT^ pr5h (the ^s 
being first dropped, the palatals being changed to gutturals by 
27, and the ^ k being then dropped by 28) ; similarly ^<i? + 
?^ a-doh-M=^l|th^ a-dhok (35), 3. sing, imperf., ' he milljed. 1 

6x Aspirates followed by any letters except vowels, semi- 
vowels or nasals (60) lose their aspiration ; e. g. 
randh+dhve=^^rnnd-dhve 2 / you obstruct'; 

% lap-sye, *I shaU take' ; but ^f%( yudh-i, 'in battle/ 
f! lobh-yat, 'to be desired/ 

1 ^ d is assimilated before the primary suffix ?[ -na ; e.g. in 
an-na, c food' (for sd-na) ; and ?^ t, ^ d before the secondary suffixes 
3R^ mat and ^TO maya ; e. g. fq^j^f^ vidyuu-mat, ' accompanied 
by lightning* (vidyut), and ^4|| mrn-maya, 'conBisting of clfty' 

a For Sanskrit tolerates two aspirates neither at the beginning and 
end of the same syllable, nor at the end of one and the beginning of 
the next* 


a. A lost soft aspirate is, if possible, thrown back before V^dhv 
(not f%( dhi), 3^bh, ?L S . according to 53; e -- ^J2$*^ a-bfcud- 
clhvam, ' you observed,' ^jflfJ bhud-bhih, inst. plur., ^JW bhnt- 
su, loc. plur., but ^fiV dug-dhi, 2. sing, imper., f milk.' 

b. But it is thrown forward on a following ?^t and ^th 1 , which 
are softened ; e.g.^R^+7T: lal)h+tati=*W: lab-dhah, 'taken * ; 

= '^*B i : mnd-dhah, 'you two obstruct*; 
^PV^band-dlitini, ' to bind.' 

63. Palatals. a.AVhile ^c regularly becomes guttural before 
consonants (cp. 61: 27 ; 6, N.I), SJJ in some cases (the majority) 
becomes guttural fllk, ^g) 2 , in others cerebral (^ t, ^ d> ^.s) ; 
e.g. ^Jff uk-ta, * spoken ' (from *P^ vac) ; ^W yuk-ta, 'joined ' 
(from ^ST^yuj); \^ rug-na, 'broken' (from ^^ruj ; cp. 65); 
but XJ^ rat, om. sing, 'kiiig' (for TW v +^i'jH-s); ^^ mrd- 
dhi,2.sing.imper.STipe J (from g^mrj): ^fras-tra, 'kingdom* 
(from ^J^raj ; cp. 64). 

b* *\i , before V dh, the middle terminations (73 a) and the nom. 
^s, usually becomes ^ t * ^ ( J (sometimes { k or ^g); before 
c^t, IT th, it always becomes TB^s (cp. 64), and before the ^s of 
the future and of other conjugational forms, always ^ k; e.g. 
from f%P^ vis we get fad^J vi^-su, 'in the settlers ' ; fTC vi^-t, 
'entered'; ^^|fa vek-fyami (cp. 67), 'I shall enter.' 

c. ^ c and ^j (not ^s) palatalize a following ^ n; e.g* 
^TT^+TT yac+na=^rran ySc-fia, 1 request 1 ; 

yaj-fla, ' sacrifice' ; but JHR pras'-na, 'question.' 

1 Except in the case of the root VT dhn, 'place,' which has (according 
to the analogy of a) \Wt dhat before ^ t and *T^th (eee below, J34i 
third daw, i). 

regularly becomes ^ k before a conjugational ^ a (cp. 144, 4)* 


if. The ^ cb of the root Tf^ prach, 'ask,* is treated like *l>' : 
Tre PTf-ta, * asked,' Uplift prak-syami, ' I shall ask, * TFR pras- 
na, ' question.* (In external Sandhi, i.e. when final, and before 
middle terminations, it becomes ^ t.) 

64. Cerebrals change following dentals to cerebrals (cp. 39) ; 
^+n is-hta=l^r ig.^ fished'; ftpG^+f%T dvis4-clhi= 

dvid-<Jhi, 'hate'; ^Hf-h^TT^ sa^+nam = *TOT*l. san-nSm 
. 33), 'of six.' 

a. \Yhile the cerebral sibilant ^s regularly becomes a cerebral 
(^T t or W <J) in declension (cp. 80), and before ^dh in conjuga- 
tion, It regularly becomes ^ k before an ^ s in conjugation (cp. 
63 Z> and 67) j ^f%| dvek-fi, 'thou hatest,' from ft[^dvis. 

65. Change of dental ^n to cerebral TS^n: 

A preceding cerebral ^1 r, ^Jf, ^ r, ^s (even though a vowel, 
agnttural,a labial, ^y, ^ v , ^ h, or AnusvSra intervene) changes 
a dental *^n (followed by a vowel or *^n, ^m, ^y, t^v) to 
cerebral ^t * * e. g- 3-f-TT^= 5WTR^ nr-nam, ' of men ' T ^ff J 
kar-naV, ' ear * ; ^TOR^dus-anam, c abiifle ' (a vowel intervenes) ; 
^^^n, bfiph-anani, ' nourishing ' (Anusvara, f h, vowel) ; ^HTT 
arkena, 'by the snn' (guttural and vowel); fa<~Uj: ksip-nut, 
' throwing J (rowel and lalnal); T J|i=mTpremnS, < by love' (diphthong 
aad labial); Wf^i: brahman-ya^, 'kind to Brahmins ' (vowel, * h, 
labial, Towel; ^n followed by l^y); fiR^: nisan-nab, 4 seated ' 
(*l H fo31o ^ed by ^n, vhich is itself assimilaied to T^n) ; 
pa^na/|enany ' (vowel, ^y, vowel) . 

Bt %4^*<ar<^anam, ' worship ' (palatal intervenes); 
w^aTeft*, ' by the ocean' (cerebral intervenes); ^fr ardhena, 
' ^r iimif * (d^*al intervenes) ; f$f*T kurvanti, 4 they do * (^ n is 

foB<rpPe ^ ^y ^ *) t TWT*t r^nan, ace. pL, ' the Kamas ' (^ n 
is final), 

II 66 


Note. The number of intervening letters, it will be seen from 
the above examples, is not limited. In the word 

rSmgyana, for instance, five letters (three vowels, a labial, and a 
semivowel) intervene between the "^ r and the 

Table showing when ^n changes to ?H n. 

in spite of intervening vowels, 
gutturals (including ^ h), 
labials (including ^v), 
*T y, and Anusvara, 


if followed by 


66. A. The dental ^ n 

i. remains unchanged before ^y aiii *^v ; e.g. ^tfft han- 

yate, 'is killed ' ; TpSp^tan-v-an, 'stretching/ 
3. as final of a root becomes Anusvura before ^ s; e:g. 
ji-gham-sa-ti, 'he wishes to kill 5 0?*^ han); 
mam-sya-te, 'he will think' (Jp^man) ; also when it 

is inserted before ?^s or ^s in the neuter phiral (7 1 c ; 83) ; 
e.g. *4^iftK yasams-i, uom. pi. of f|tlk y-sas, 'fame'; 
{41(^1 havlniff-i, neut. pi. of ^f^T^ ha vis, 'oblation* (83). 

B. The dental ^ s 
i. becomes dental r^t as the final of roots or nominal stems: 

a. before the ^ s of the verbal suffixes (future, aorist, desidera- 

tive) in the two roots ^R^vas, 'dwell/ and^R^ghas, 'eat*: 
*R3rfir vat-syati, * will dwell' (rgr 6 3); ^iqiAFl^a-vat- 
sit, ' has dwelt ' (144, i); f%IM<Wffl ji-ghat-sati, ' wishes to 
eat ' (171, 5). 

b. before the endings with initial ^ bh or ^. a (^ud in the uom. 


ace. ling, neut.) of reduplicated perfect stems (89) : 
caky-vad-bhiV^B*n^[ caky-vat-su, N. A. n, ^wqc^ cakr- 

a. disappears 

a. between mutes; e.g. WfW a-bhak-ta (for a-bhak-s-ta), 3- 
sing. s-aoiist of H^bbaj, 'share'; ^% cas-te (&* <*&- 
He= original catJ-s-te), 3. sing. pres. of ^^caks, 'speak.' 
This loss also occurs when the preposition ^T ml is com- 
pounded with tbe roots 1ST sthS, ' stand/ and TS 
' support 5 ;~ e.g.^?Tni ut-thaya, ' standing up ' ; 
ut-tambhita, 4 raised up.' 

6, before soft dentals j e. g. TfTfa sa-dbi (fur sSs-dhi), 2. sing. 
imperat. of IJT^sas, ' order ' ; also after becoming ^js and 
cerebraUzing the following dental; e.g. ^t^TljjH. a " s *" 
dhvam (for a-sto-s-dhvam), 2. pi. aor. of ^ stu, ' praise.* 

67. Change of dental ^ s to cerebral tr s : 

Frecejmg vovels excei>t ^ a or ^ a (even though Anusvara 
or Yisarga intervene], aa weU aw ^ k and ^ r, change dental 
^ (followed by a vowel, ^ t, fT^th, ^ n, ^ m, ^y, ^v) to 
cerebral ^3 ; e. g, from ^rfXR^ eai-pis : 4]flfoT sarpis-a, ' with 
^ianfied batter % ^pjfft aarpTmsi, nom. pL; *rf$:i| sarpUtsu, 
be. pL (cp.43, 3); from ^TT^vac: ^TH| vak-su, loc. pi., *in 
*; fromft^ gir : ^ gftr-sa (82), loc. pL, 'in 
d, 'gtands/ from ^JT stha; 'stand'; 
w3l be/ from ^bhs, 'be'; ^tq susvapa, ' he 
>* fne& ^^svap, 'sleep' ; from ^pp^ caksus : 

eeaifigejres^ but ^: sarpit^ (final) ;- 
*^ mind ' (a pawedea} j flfaM*i tamis-ram, ' dark- 


Table showing when ^s changes to ^s 


Vowels except ^f a, ^5fT S 
(in spite of intervening 
Antisvara or Visarga), 
also k, T r, 


if followed by 

Note. The rules about tbe changes of the dental ^n and ^s 
to the corresponding cerebrals, should be thoroughly acquired, 
since these changes must constantly be made in declension and 

68. The labial ^ m remains unchanged before ^y, ^ r, 
W^l (cp. 60 and 42 B i) ; but before suffixes beginning with "^v 
it becomes *^n ; e.g. 3TPRT! kam-yak 'desirable/ TH5f t5m-ra, 
' copper-coloured/ ^P5f am-la, ' sour'; but *i iq I *t ja-gan-van, 
'Jiaving gone ' (from ^FJ^gam, 'go } ). 

69. a. The (soft) breathing ^ h before ^ s and, in roots 
beginning with ^ d, before c^t, ^T x th, ^dh also, is treated like 

e.g.%|+ft[ leh+si=%f^r lek-iii, 'thou lickest* (67); 
dhak-syati, c he wiU burn' 
dha, 1 b l u-nt' (62 1); ^1 + ^ 
dhag-dhve, 'ye anoint* (620). Similarly 
treated are the perf. pass, participles of the roots fti^ anih and, 
in one sense, *fl| muh : ftnV snig-dha, ' smooth/ and JJIV 
mug-dha, ' foolish.* 

b. ^ h, in all other roots, is treated like an aspirate cerebral, 
which, after changing a following ^t, ^th, ^dh to h, and 
lengthening a preceding short vowel, is dropped ; e. g. 
lidha, ' licked f i fl 


mu4ha, ' infatuated.' Similarly treated are the roots ^f vah and 
*R|sah, but with an apparent irregularity in the vowel : ^F* 
u^ha 1 , * carried ' (for ^ + 7! vah + ta) ; *tj^ vodhum 2 , ' to 
cany * (for ^ + g^ vah + turn) ; Vt^, sodhum V to hear ' 
(for ^n|+^sah+tum). 

An exception to b is the root *T| nah, in which T[ h is treated 
as V dh : W nad-dka, ' bound. 9 An exception to both a and 
b is the root TR drh : ^f dydha, 'firm ' (begins with ^ d and 
has a short rowel). 



TO* Declension, or the inflexion of nominal stems by means 
of eadisge, is most conveniently treated under the three heads of 
i* BOOHS (including adjectives) ; 2. numerals; 3. pronouns. 

la Samfcrii there are 

* three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter; 

A. *ltt*e number*: singular, dual, and plural; 

A eight oa***: nominative, vocative, accusative, inatru- 
aumial, datiye, ablative, genitive, locative 3 . 

k yflaifc ^ T, whxA is liable to Sampraaara^ia (p. u, note i), 
"" i aad k then langthanecL 

J o reprwoita th Indo-Irajiian a?h, which after cere- 
^IM^g awi M|nizBg the foHowing doital becomes o, just aa original 

m m ueovou trfthe Hrrktu grammariani, excepting the vocative, 
^^y??^ 1 ^ tfaeaaa M a caie - zt * convenient as the only 

^^.SLj 1 *** **** W * re identicaj in form ei *her in the 
t, I*B teal, r tfee plural, nmy be grouped together. 

Ill 7 2 DECLENSION 33 

71. The normal case-endings added to the stem are the 
following : 


M. F. N. J. F. N. 1C. F. IT. 

V.' - ^ J *U 



a. J 

L. ^i 

a. The vocative is the same (apart from the accent) afl the 
nominative in all numbers except the mosc. and fern. sing, of vowel 
stems generally and the masc. sing, of consonant stems in -at, -an, 
-in, -as (cp. 7605), -yas, -vas. 

6. The nom, ace. sing. neut. has the bare stem excepting the 
words in -a, which add J^m. 

c. The iiom.voc. acc.plur. neut. before the ^ i insert *^n after 
a vowel stem and before a single final mute or sibilant of a consonant 
stem (modifying the *^n according to the class of the consonant). 

73. An important distinction in declension (in stems ending in 
^c, ?^t, *^n, ^s, and ^ r) is that between the strong and 
the weak stem. If the stem has two forms, the strong and the 
weak stem are distinguished ; if it has three forms, strong, 
middle, and weakest are distinguished. 

a. Shifting of accent was the cauae of the distinction. The 
stein, having been accented in the strong cases, here naturally 
preserved its full form ; but it was shortened in the weak cases 
by the accent falling on the endings, For a similar reason the 
last vowel of the strong stem, if long, is regularly shortened in 



the vocative, because the accent always shifted to the first syllable 
in that case. 

73. The strong stem appears in the following cases : 

. voc. ace. sng. 

Norn. voc. ace. dual [of masculine nouns . 

Nom, voc. (not aco.) plarJ 
Nom. voc. ace. plural only of neuters. 
a. When foe stem has three forms, the middle stem appears 
before terminations beginning with a consonant 2 (^R -bbySm, 
l^-bbifl,**^-^^,^^); the weake8t,beforeteTOinatioBs 
beginning with a vowel in the remaining weak cases , e g- ^ <H ^ 1 
praty&fio^u, nom. dual; HWfWI protyag-bhil?, inst. plur.; 
JflSINfo pratlc-^b. gn. dual (93). 

b In neuters with three stems, the nom. voc. ace, sing, are 
middle, the nom. voc. ace. dual, weakest ;~e.g. HRff^S pratyalr, 
ring,, imHt pratic-i, dual, 1OT^ pratyaflc-i, plur. (93)- The 
other cases are aa in the masculine. 


74. Tbz* de^easion may conveniently be divided into two 

L Stenu ending in coasonante 3 : 
A. unchangeable ; B. changeable. 

In T* ; (101) oewly aU nouna with changeable 


to name chuigeftble stezna in the 
KIH tii* k alao the fona in which they appear aa prior 

Sowe g^Momm fegfewift &e rowel dedenflion in^T (H. A) 


II. Stems ending in vowels : A. in ^J a and W a; B. in ^ i 
and ^5 u; C. in ^ I and x3F u; D. in ^B r; E. in*Tfc ai, 
"w o, ^ au. 

I. A. Unchangeable Stem*. 

75- The number of these stems is comparatively small! there 
being none ending in guttural or cerebral mutes, and none in 
nasals or semivowels (except ^ r). They are liable to such 
changes only as are required by the rules of Sandhi before th* 
consonant terminations (cp. 16 a). Masculines and feminines 
ending in the same consonant are inflected exactly alike ; and 
the neuters differ only in the nom. voc. ace. dual and plural. 

76- The final consonants of the stem retain their original sound 
before vowel terminations (71) ; but when there is no ending 
(nom. sing., the ^s of the m. f. being dropped), and before the 
loc. pi, ?J su, they must be reduced to one of the letters *5 k, 
^ t, ?^t, t^p or Visarga (27), which respectively become ^g, ^d, 
^ d, ^b, or "^ r, before the terminations beginning with 3J bh. 

. The voc. sing. m. f. is the same as the nom, except in stems 
in (derivative)"^ (83). 

b. Forms of the nom. voc. ace. plur. neut. are extremely rare 
in this declension; e.g. from ^TT^-bhaj, 'sharing/ 
-bhanji; nom. sing. 

But for practical reasons it appears preferable to begin with the con- 
sonant declension, which adds the normal endixtga (71) without modifi- 
cation ; while the wide deviation of the a-deolenaion from these endings 
is apt to confuse the beginner. 

D 2 


TIT 77 

Stem* in Dentals. 

77. Paradigm ?JJR[ su-hyd, m. 'friend' (lit. 'good-hearted')- 


N.Y. *H*tsu-hrt (27) 

A. ^*flR[* , 

I* *J15( su-brd-a 

D, ^pF^ su-brd-e 






! -brd-ab 
': -hrd-bbilji 
; -hrd-bhyah 

-hrt-su (32) 

A. In tbe paradigms of regular nouns witb unchangeable stems 
it will be sufficient to remember tbe nom. sing, and the nora. 
inst. loc. plur.j e.g. from fa^ -jit, ' conquering 1 : *f^^ -jit, 
ftW: -jit-alj, ^ftrfir: -jid-bhi^, f^c^ -jit-su ; from ^^ 
-math, 'destroying*: ^R^ -mat, ?Rft -math-at, Tf|r* -mad- 
*^<^ -mat-su ; from f^-vrdh r * increasing * : *^ -vrt, 
-vrdh-a^i, ^fl -vyd-bhi^ W -vi-t-su. 

Stems in Labials. 

78. Only a few ending in ^ p and ^ bb occur. They are 
declined exactly like *J1^ au-hrd. 


BOM. 8G. KOK. PL. 


in. * guardian, of law ' -gup -gup-afc -gub-bbih -giip-su 
^kakubh, *JH *$*: Vtf&T.' HiJ^ 

f. region' kakup kakubh-aVi kakub-bbili kakup-su 


Stems in Palatals. 

79- The palatals (^ c, ^T j, *^s) undergo a change of organ 
when final and before consonant terminations (cp. 63). ^ c 
always becomes guttural (^ k or ^g) ; 3(j and *s nearly always 
become guttural, but, sometimes cerebral (Z t or ^ cl). 


vSc *, ^T^ THTI qifi*i* 

f. 'speech' vak vac-at r5g-bhfb 

n. ' blood ' 

f. * disease ' ruk ruj-afy ru^-bhiti ruk-u 

^nSrn^Hammj, tlt4l^ tlt^i^i* Wlf^f* f|4l|^^ 

m. * sovereign ' sarara-fc samraj-ah samra4-bhiU flam-ra^su 

r^t^ dis, f^<n f^Ef* f^PH* f^^ 

f. ' cardinal point ' dfk dfs-ah dig-bhifc dik-lid 

m. 'settler* vf-f vls'-aTji vid-bhf^ vi^-stl 

A, Like "TT^ vuc are declined ^^ tvac, f. * skin,' 1J^ rue, f. 

* light,' ^^ sruc, f. 'ladle' ; ^^^^ jala-muc^ m. 'doud ' (lit. 

* water-shedding '). 

b. Like "^T^ruj are declined ^Tf^T^Ttv-ij, m. 'priest' (lit. 

" sacrificing in season '), q|7*|^ banij, m. ' merchant,' f*iq^ 
bhisaj, m. 'physician'; ^T^sraj, f. 'garland'; also ^OT^iirj, f* 
' strength* (nom. ^n^ urk, 28). 

c. Like f|44 1 4|^ sararaj is declined Mf\fll^ parivraj, m. 

1 Stems in derivative "V^T ac are changeable (93). 


<f. Like fif^dis are declined ^*^-drs, c seeing,' ^*^ -sprs, 
1 touching ' (at the end of compounds). 

Stemi in Cerebrals. 

80. The only cerehral stems are those in the sibilant ^s, which 
is naturally changed to cerebral ^ t or \f d. 


m. f enemy 5 dvffc dvfs-ak dvid-bhffo 

inf\pra-vrg, ITT^ TTTJ^C WT^f^: 
f/ rainy season' pravft pravfs-ali pravM-bhili 

Stem* in J h. 

8L Moat of the few stems in ^ h change that letter when final 
or before consonant endings to a guttural, but (cp. 69 6) in 
4 T%5 -lih, c licking,' it becomes cerebral, and in ^mifg upS-nah , 
f. 'shoe' (that which is 'tied on'), dental: 


^ &: $&<: ^^ 

'making' .ahuk -dol-a^ -dhug-bhib -dhuk-fit (62 a) 

*5f: ^fSr: ^l 

-droh-a^ -dhrag-bhib -dliruk-su 

-3f^ : ^fcqfhr: ^afBr^ 

f. a metre' v^k usnih-a^ nsnig-bhih usnik-su 

"flnp ftrfj: "ftra^ 

-lih-a^i -lid-bhH> -li^-su 

f - * nS-nat -nak-h -nad-bhilj -n&t-su 


Sterna in ^r 1 . 

82. The "^ r becomes Visarga only when final, that is, in the 
nom. sing, only, remaining before the J| su of the loc. plnr. (go). 
A preceding ^ i or ^ u is lengthened when the ^ r is final or 
followed by a consonant. 


f. 'door' dvSfc dvar-afc dvar-bhifc dvSr-f u (67) 

f*r^ gfr, *ft: fine: 

f. voice * gh 

5^ pur, Iff* 

f. town * puTj pur-afc pur-bhih pur-f u 

Stem* in 

83. These stems consist almost entirely of words formed with 
the derivative suffixes ^R as, f^ is, ^R us, chiefly neuters. 
They lengthen their final vowel (before the inserted nasal) in the 
nom. voc. ace. ^plur. neut. The masculines and feminines are 
nearly all adjective compounds with these stems as their final 
member; those in "^T^ae lengthen the ^f a in the nom. sing. 

Paradigms: ^n^yas-as, n. 'fame'; ffRhav-is, n. 'obla- 
tion a ; ^igt^ ay-us, n. *life.' 

N.Y.A. ^TJj: 

i. ^npnr 

yasas-5 havif ^ (67) Syuf-5 (67) 

1 There are no steins in other semivowels* 


ffift ^1^ 

yasas-e ha vis -e Syus-e 

Ab.G. ^npEn ^f*ro 


yasas-i havis-i Syns-i 


N,V*A. ^iittTl ff*ret ^ur^ 1 ^ 

yasas-i havis-I fiyus-I 


yaso-bhySm (45, 2) havir-bbyam (44) Syur-bhySm 

havis-ob ayns-oh 


N.V.A. ^4^i(ti "fPfft 

yasfii|i-i (66, 2) havini-i 




yaso-bbya^ bavir-bhyab Syur-bhyah 

yasas-Sm havis-3m Synfl-5m 

ywafc-su havi^-su (67) 'ayub-su (67) 

su-manas, as an adjective, 'cheerful/ has in the 
nom. sing. masc. ^iii; simian&lji (voc. ^Hf: stimanafc), but 
neuter ^fi; sumaiiat (bat ^1$|<j: dirghSyut nom. sing, in all 
genders). Similarly %lff 4^ angiras, m., ^OTIf^ usanaf, m., 
names of seers, and^CT^ua-as, 1 'dawn/ form the nominatives 

t (sometimes ^npfT usrfna), and 


-sis 1 , f. * blessing,' lengthens its ^ i (like the stems 
ir) hi the nom. sing, and before consonants : nom. sing. 
; pi. nom. WftnH Ssis-ak inst. ^^flftf: asir-bhij?, 
loc. 1fnft.'3 astb-su. 

c. ^faH. dos, n. 'arm,* is quite regular : nom. sing. 
nom. dual ^Wt dos-I; pi. inst. 3[tfifc dor-bhih, loc. 

Z. B. Changeable Stems* 

84* Regular changeable stems end in the dentals <^t, 
or the palatal ^c; those in ?^t end in ^BR^at (also 
^^vat); those in *^n end in V^an (also 3p^man, ^ 
or ^.in (also f5T^min, ft^vin); those in ^ fl end in 
yas (comparatives) or ^vas (perf. participles active); those in 
^c end in ^p^ac, \vhich is properly a root meaning 'to bend.' 

The stems in IR^at (85-6), l^in (87), ^yas (88) have two 
forms, strong and weak; those in V^an (90-92), JR^vas (89), 
(93) have three, strong, middle, and weakest (73). 

HOQUS with Two Stem*. 

85. x. Stem* in V^at comprise Freaent and Future 

Participles (156) active (maso. and neut.) 2 . The strong stem 
is in ^P^ant, the weak in ^ at 8 ; e.g. i<^fl s ad-ant and 
'eating/ from ^ad, 'to eat' 

Derived not with the anffix ^ is, but from th (weakened) root 

with the prefix ^T & 
2 On the formation of the feminine rtem see 95. 
5 In Latin and Greek the distinction was lost by normalization : gen, 


III 86 




: adant-ab 





adad-bhySra ) 

[I adat-afc 
: adad-bhii 

': adad-bhyal; 






a. ir^T^mah-at, c great, ' originally a present participle l , forma 
its strong stem in. TH^anfe. 

Tnahant-ah H. ^|f*fl -hanti 

pli m . 

I. *^ni mahat-a 


* mahat-a^i 


86. The stems of the acUeotivM formed with the suffixes 
7^ mat and ^vat, which mean 'possessed of/ 'having/ 
differ from those in UT^at solely in lengthening the vovel in 
the nom. sing. masc. ; e.g. x. VfM^^ agni-m4t, 'having a 
(sacrificial) fire* (maac. and nent.) 2 

1 From the root ^f mah (onginiJly magh), cp. Lt. mag-nrm. 
1 On the formation of the feminine stem see 95. 


N. sg, m.*u(X|*H*^-man pi. *tnl -ma'nt-alj n. **tfd -manti 
V, -*fa*t^-man ^ TR?T -mat-su 

a* Ul*Wc^ jflana-vat, 'possessed of knowledge* (maso. and 
nent.) 1 

N.Rg.m.'in!qit 4 jftana-T&n pi. 'UilS'fl* jfiSna-vant-ah 
A. ij iiq^i*^ jfiana-vant-am THI^V^* jfiana-vat-ab 

a. 1fV{ bh^v-at, when used as the present participle of 

1 be,' is declined like "^l^adat (only the accent remains on the 
first syllable throughout); but vhen it means 'yur Honour, ' it 
is declined (as if derived with the suffix -vat) like ifli^cv 
jfianavat : nom. VTTPtbhavan, ace. J^RR^bhavantam. Besides 
^W^bhavan there is also an irregular voc. (cp. 49) m* bhoh, 
' sir! ' (a contraction of an older ^W^bhavas). 

b. fSil^ ki-y-at, ' how much ? ' and ^p^f-y-at, ' so much/ are 
also declined like 

pi- ftWW: ldyant-at 

A. fqit<n^ klyant-am I f^?T: kfyat-ab 

87. a. Adjeotivefl formed with the suffix T*lin 
neut.) 1 , which means 'possessing/ are very numerous. They are 
derivatives from substantives in ^ a; thus W^T bala, 'strength/ 
^rflfUbal-in, 'strong/ The stem of these words is weak only 
before consonants and in the nom. ace. sing, neut., where it drops 
the *^n. In the nom. sing, masc., where (as in all regular n- 
stems) the *^n is dropped, and in the nom. voc. ace. pL neut., 

1 On the formation of the feminina item see 95. 



III 88 

the ^ i is lengthened; e.g. VfPT.dhan-in, 'possessing wealth/ 
'rich 7 



dhan-i %|RlV: dhanfn-alii 




: dhani-bhil? 





dhani or Vft*^dhnin. 

m. Stems in fjf^min and f^n^vin have a similar meaning and 
arededined in the same way ; e.g. *f*lR?|^manas-vm, ' wise,' 
^l|4*l*^v5g-mm, eloquent ' (from ^ \ x^ vac) . 4j4 I fi| ^T sva-miu, 
'lord* (lit. 'having property'), is used as a substantive only. 
88, 3. Comparatives in t^iyajs (masc.and neut,) 1 form 
strong stem in l^it^ TySms; e. g. J|0^^ gdr-Tyas, 
,' comparative of J^ guru, ' heavy '- 




*^* TTWrfW: ga>fyo-bhit(45, 2) 



rtem ,ee 95. 




Vonn8 with Three Stems. 

89. i. Participles of the reduplicated perfect in 
^T^vas (masc. and neut.) 1 form their strong stem with ^1^ 
Yams, the middle with ^vat 2 , the weakest with ^us (67; 
C P- J S7) ; e. g. T|a|^ cakr-vas 3 f ' having done,* from W kr, 

' to do ' 


cakr-van N. V. 




: cakr-iis-ob 



1 On the formation of the feminine stem see 95. 

3 The change of ^ a to ?^t here began in the early Vedk period 
before ^ bh, extending thence to the loo. plur. and the nom. ace. sing, 
neut. ^^us is the unaccented fonn of f^vaa (cp. 137, a c). 

8 Beginners sometimes confiue this reduplicated perf. part active 
with the active participle formed by adding the suffix tR^vat to the 
perfect passive part.; e.g. nom. masc. QCHII krta-van, 'having 
done,' ace. &flq*Ul krta-vantam (cp. 161). The confnrion is caused 
by both ending in (l1 s -van in the nom. sing. 


a. The ^ i which is inserted before the ^v in some of these 
participles is dropped before ^us: thus HftrfT^taath-i-vin, 
but TT^^T tasth-tis-a. 

b. The following examples of these stems' may be useful (cp. 


From ^JT stha, flf^PTPl, flftTOTO ^^ : 

'stand' tasth-i-van tasth-i-vains-ab tastiwfe-afc tasth-i-d-bhi 


'lead* nin!-?an ninl-vaips-afr niny-UJ-a^ 

*bhu, vywt ^ptw ^f5^: 

be* babhfi-van babhu-vams-alj babhu-v-Hs-alj babhu-vW-hhih 

iRT'c. ?rf*prref: ?^: clPHWJ 

-i-^ji ten-i-vaips-at ten-iis-ati ten-i-vd-bliiV 

RT^ fW 1JV ^Wft : 

'kill' jaghn-i-van jaghn^-Tanifl-^-jaghn-tis-ab jaghn-i-v^d-bbi 

^RPTPt VRWt *RflV ^ 

jagan-^n 1 jagan-vams^ jagm-us-afc ja 

jagm-i-vaa jagm-i.vaip8-alijagm-tis.ab jagrai-v 

via, ftfljrV ft^wt: 

4 know* Tid-Tan Yid-^aipa-a^ vid-tis-at 

90* a, Notias in ^ an (also W( man, ^ van), masc. 
asi seat, 3 , form the strong stem in ^f^an, the weakest in ^n, 
the Boiddle in ^J a. In the nom, sing. masc. the final ^ n is 
topped. la &e loc. wag. and the nom. voc. ace. dual the 

1 Wi^oot redttplkarfswi, q>. Gk. 

Ill 90 



syncopation of the ^f a of the suffix is optional. In the weakest 
cases syncope does not take place when *P^ man and ^P^ van 
are immediately preceded by a consonant. 

The concurrence of three consonants is here avoided, though 
not in stems in simple V^an. Hence ^iwii St-man-a, hut 
7TOFT taks-n-5, Jpfr murdh-n-S, Examples of the inflexion of 
these stems are : 

, m. 'king' 



j-fi-i or v^lfa raj-an-i- 

* raj-a-bhili 

a. TW^na-man, n. 'name* (Lat. no-men) 



na-mn-I or 

TWnama or 

na-mn-i or 



: na-mn-ot 

': na-ma-bhil? 
ma-su I 

3. VfP^brah-mtfn, m. 'creator' 

after consonant) 


III 91 





brah-ma^-am (65) 

? brah-man-ab 


4. <4i^n, &ia-van, m. * stone ' 




: giav-n-afe 

2a. Irregular Stem* in 

I. tp^t^p&ith-aii, m. 'path,' has Ip^p^ pnth-an for its 
stem, ITftf path-f for its middle, and ^path for its 
weakest stem ; the nom. irregularly adds ^s 1 


g i, due to the feet that in the earlier language this word 

1 " P^tha-h, 

fomijlg N< 

; the other, 

in 91 




i-an, n. ' day/ takes H^ a*h-as as its middle fltem 


TJJjT dhn-I or l|f[4f| alian-I 


^C^^IH, ilio-bhyam 


3- ^a'v-4n, m. ' dog,' forms its weakest stem, 
SamprasSrana. Otherwise it is declined 

sun 2 , with 




N.V. ^fT^: svan-at 

t s'tin-afc (*cu 

I. Vftl svi-bhih 

- 4- ^n.yti-van, m. 'youth' (Lai juven-is), forms its weakest 
stem, ^^ yu n| t, y gamprasSrana (yu-nn) and contraction (cf. 
Lttt. jun-ior) 




J yti-van*at 

ti- van-am 

f: yun-afc 


1 The Yisarga in the N,V. A. eing., and when tbe word it the prior 
member of a compound (except in ^CKH aho-rettt, m. n. *6*j tad. 
night '), ia treated like an original ^ r (46) : 
1 day by day ' ; ^If^; ahar^janah, 'eeriea of days.' 

3 So also in Greek: 


IIT 92 

5* T^WJ. xnagha"-van (lit. ' bountiful '), m. a name of Indra, 
also forms its weakest stem, fl*i1^magh6n 1 , by Samprasarana 
and contraction : 



magha'-va N.V. 

magha- van-am 

V. <H V| q v^ magha- van 

92. The root ^^ban, ' kill,' when used as a noun at the end of 
a compound, for the most part follows the analogy of stems in 
V^aju The strong stem is f^han (with a long Towel in the 
nom. sing, only), the middle ^ ha, and the weakest t^ghn ; e.g. 
Jlfl^l^ brahma-hati, m. ' Brahman-killer ' 

3. Adjective* in 

93. .These words, the suffix 3 of which is generally expressed 
by * -ward,* form the strong stem in 1 W( w affc, the middle in 

1 Forma from 4J^q<\ magha-vat are alao sometimea found ;- 

* The cerebxaBfcation of l^n (65) does not take place here, probably 
becwaae the guttural mote immediately precedes it. 

3 These words are properly oompoundfl farmed with the verb ^TOjtic, 
* bead,* which has, however, practically acquired the character of A suffix. 

HI 93 


c, and the weakest in t^Ic or BP^ uc 1 (according as 
^[ ac is preceded by *(j or \v) ; e. g. TO^praty-ac, m. n. 2 
* backward,' ' westward ' 











L Tc-i 

TTOftf pratylflc-i 

. Other words similarly declined are 


ny-kfic, ' downward ' ^ n-ak ^T nfc 

^nff v aam-y-dflc, * right ' 



, 'transveree' fNJ tir-y-al: 
' upward ' 

tid-Io 4 

1 ContrftctioiiB fop ^C 7-c and ^ v-ao respectively (wh 
would be shortened to f^Io and ^nc). The apparent irregularity 
of the long vowel is probably due to the Samprasrana here being not 
internal bnt external, at the junction of a compound, If the vowel 
were short, the stem wonld look aa if formed with a suffix ^-cadded to 
the final vowel of the prior member; e. g, J|f?P^ jn-fttK ^J^ann-c. 

On the formation of the feminine see 95, 

8 From ft^ tints (cp. Lat trans) + ^T^ac, 'going across, 1 'hori- 
zontal'; as a noun, m. n., it means 'animal/ 

* t i, though no ^y precedes the ^ a of the suffix, by analogy. 

x a 



c, * following ' <*M*tk an v-k ^I*^ aiiuc 
c/ all-pervading' ftMj visv-ak fo^viKuc 

5c/ turned away/ ITT^ pruc, "forward/ * eastern/ 
mid ^RTP^uvSc, 'downward/ 'southern/ have only two stems, 
*HCn^ ptfrafic, TTnj^praiic and ^nTTi^ vailc for the strong, 
pdrac, ITT^ piac and %4T"^ vac for the weak : 

ante. JPLUH. 

N.V. ITT^F prai (6ij 
A. TTTOt, prafic-am 

I. Hi-qi prac-a 


94- 7h beginner will find it useful to remember the following 
ptfeift with regard to changeable stems: 
1* TW Towel of the suffix is lengthened in the nom. sing. masc. 
in aiems in ^^ at and ^R ac; ^f^^ll^ agni-man, 

cakr-van ; 

manos-vf; but ^W^ad-ftn, TTBff^ praty-Aft. 
amg, iasc. ends in a nasal in all changeable stems 

winch drop H. 

AH cfeftgMble steras which lengthen the vowel in the nom. 
H sbqyt m the vocative, and always retain the 


a. In otber changeable stems the vocative differs from the nom. 
solely in always having the accent on tlie first syllable : ^M^l 
dd-an, voc,, addn, nom. ; 144Q^ pratyari, voc., praty&n, notn. 

95. The feminiues of nouns \vith changeable stems are 
formed by adding ^ I to the weak stem (when there are two 
stems) or the weakest (when there are three), and follow the 
declension of iR^t nadT (100); e.g. Jl^fll adat-i; 
agni-mdt-T, 'VJ|iqn\ jfiana-vat-T ; ^Tpfft dhanin-f, 

vag-min-I, H+tftsnl manas-vf n-i ; *lO^^H gariyas-I ; 
cakrfs-i; "^nft raja! ( - queen ') ; Tna^-n5mn-T(adj., 'named') ; 
Bun4 ('bitch'); ^ -ghn-T ('killing'); mfKR pratlc-i, 


a. The feminine of the present participle active of the 

first conjugation (125) is made from the strong masc. stem in 
^H^ft^ant {cp. 156) ; that of the second conjugation from the 
weak stem in TR^ at ; e. g. WRft bhavant-I, 'being 1 / 
tud^nt-I 2 , ' striking, 5 <lH*T| divyant-T, * playing,' 

corayatit-T, 'stealing'; but ^fifll jMhr-at-i, 'sacrificing, 5 35* ?H 
yufij-at-i, 'joining,' ^qrV sunv-at-i, 'pressing,' 3*4^1 kurr-at-J, 
1 doing,' ^tanft krin-at-i, 'buying.' 

b. The feminine of the simple future participle active is usually 
formed like the present part, of the first conjugation; 

bhavisydnt-i 2 , 'about to be,' ^R^*fl karisyant-i, 'about to do. 5 
c. The few adjectives in *P^ -van form their feminines 
in ^nct -van; 4^^ pi- van (n-cW) 9 *fat, J f. iftqO jn 

1 But Wpfft bbavat-i from ?n|7^bJiavat, 'your Honour' (86 a). 

3 If the verbal baae, however, ends in accented ^f a; e.g. tudiC, 
Dhavisy^, the weak form may optionally be taken, when the 1^ 5 receives 
;he accent : ^ff) tud-at-i, tiftfmft bhavisy-at-i 


(Truipa). The fern, of the irregular ^T^yl-van, ' young ' (91, 4)1 
^itff yuva-tl or ^prft yuva-ti. 

Irregular Vouxw with ChangeaUe Stems 

96. i. ^ap, f. ' water/ which is always plural, lengthens 

its ^T a in the strong cases (N.Y.) and substitutes T^t for 

A.TOap-ab I. "Jllir: ad-bhib L. ^ ap-flti 

^ aaa4-vah, m. 'ox 1 (lit. ' cart^lrawer/ from anas-h 
vah) f has thTee stems: the last syllable is lengthened in the strong 
stem, ^V^lflf ana-v5h> and shortened by SamprasSrana in the 
weakest, ^PHPf ana^-uh, and in the middle ^PTi^ anad-ut 
(olwimilated* fw ^Pl^| anad-u^ : cp. 27). The nom. and voc. 
are irregularly formed, as if from a stem in 


A. 'VWf- anadtih-ab 


X. ^ ^Wftl ana4ih-S 

L. 1 VTfiT anafldd-bhifc 
L. ^il^ffU anaddt-su 

1 , m- ' man,' has three forms, being lengthened 
& *e sfcrcjflg stem to ^i^ptimftms, shortened by syncope in 
Ibe ^eafcet t& ^pwpg, and in the middle to ij^pum (with 
: cp. 28 and 16 a) : 

sHooaposiBd, whh the ieoond part of which the Lat, 


N. sg. (J4H*lptSman (cp. 89, i) N,V. pi. y*iiW ptimSms-at 



I* *jfar punis-a 

L. ljf% pnms-i 

I. jflH* pum-bbifr 
L. ^[ pam-sti 

II. Stems ending in Vowels. 

97. A. Stem* in V a (masc. neut.) and ^SJ a 1 (fern.); 
e.g. ITfT k5n-ta 2 , 'beloved* (past participle of W^ kam, 


XA80. 1TEUT. 

A. qn^i*^ kSnta-m 

I. VRtf kantena 8 ^TRRTT kanta-y-5 8 

D. 41^11^ kantaya m^VllQ kanta-yai 5 

A.b. ^rffnT^kantat 4 cn^il^l* kSntfi-yalj. 

3. VPn^T kSnta-sya 3 ^nTT^T: kSntS-yih 

L. *ll^ kante qn^iitii^kSnta-yam 

^T*T kante 6 

1 ^1 a Gk. -os, -OK; Lat. -ui, -um. ^(T S-Gk, -o, -17; Lat. -a, 
3 Certain adjectives in ^fj ah, ^Tf 5 V^am follow the pronominal 

eclenflion (no). 
3 Theae terminationi originally came from tiie pronominal declension 

no). . * 

* This termination if preserved in the Lat 5 for 5d (e. g'. GnalvoVi in 
iscriptiona), and in the Greek (Cretio) adv. rw-fc, 'hence/ * 

* The terminations -yai ( -yft-e), -yah ( yfi-ai), -yamaredue to the 
ifluence of the feminines in -I (originaUy -ya); e.g. nadyai, nadjih, 
ady&m (cp, 100). 

* The voc. of VJT nba, ' mother,' i 




I. D. Ab. 

kantau ^pit kante 




ltflWIHt kSnta-bhyam 



kant2t ^TRTrfSf kSnta-n-i 2 


: kSntah 


: kSnta-bbvalj 


Stenu in ^ i and ^ u (masc. fern, nent); a 
^J myd^ ' 8oft t_ 





36 B, foot-note i), Gfoth. -ana, 
<* tie tern,, in ^ n: 

t^wwd in MS* Gk. dative* u rr,o< r . 

m 98 STEMS IN A, A, I, V 57 


stic-ay-e s'ucy-ai 1 siici-n-e uirdiv-e mrdv-&i l rnrdti-n-e 

^rrr: gf^r: g^t: l?ET: ?f^: 

sticy-ah sdci-n-alj mvd-6b mrdv-4li mrdii-n-ah 

^TT^ ^Rf*l ?^ ??T^ ?ff^ 

stic-au 2 sdcy-im siici-n-i mrd-au Hirdv-aan rnrdii-ix-i 

sitce stice sdci nifdo mfdo mfdu 

stSci Btici stici-n-I mrdu mrdd nardti-n-i 
I. D. Ab. ^fi|^|f^ siici-bhyam 4j^lH, midti-bhyain 

sdcy-oi s'licy-ofc sdci-n-oti mrdv-6t mrdv-dfe 

b'ticay-afr sdcT-n-i mrdav-afc mrdAv-a^ mrdu-n-i 

A. ^K Tfr ^w* ?i^ ?TI 

atidn sticlh stici>n-i_ mrdnn mrdnh 

I. ^f^r: siici-bhit 

D.Ab. ^jftW: stici-bbyat f|W mrdti-bhyab 

1 Op. 97, foot-note 5. 

3 Thin very anomalon* ending, being tbe Vrddbi wwel 
^i, seema to be due to the influence of the eteias in ^ a, 
of which is entirely analogous. 


m. Neuter adjectives (not substantives) maybe declined through- 
out (except N.Y.A. of all numbers), and fern, adjectives and 
substantives in the D. Ab.G. L, sing., like masculines. Thus the 
L. sing, of *Tfif mati, f. 'thought/ is *ircn*< maty&m or <R7fV 
matau, but *frf^ vSri, n . 'water,' only cuRlui vSrini. 

b. The voc. sing* of neuters may optionally follow the masc. 
form ;-^<.g. mfl^ vSri or *Tft vaxe ; *I^J madhu or *nJt mdho. 

c. The feminine of adjectives in ^ u is sometimes also 
formed by adding f[ I ; e. g. 7TJ tanti or IT^t tanv-I, L ' thin ' ; 

hH or ^Jt laghv-i, f. 'light'; T^ prthti, f. 'broad,' 
prthv-t '(the broad) earth.' 


99* i. ^ft pai-i (Gk. ir&rt-s), m, 'husband/ is irregular in 
the wieak casea of the singular: I. T|WT paty-a, D. tfSf pdty-e, 
AKG. inj: ptfty.h *, L. inrft paty-au. %Vhen it means ' lord/ 
or occera at the end of compoimds, it is regular (like *jf*T s'uci). 
Tbe ftm. is Jfgft pdtnl, ' wife * (Gk. irtrvia). 

*~ Wftf slii-i,m. 'friend/ has the same irregularities, but in 
ad&&*i ba * sferoag stem formed with Vrddhi, ^raTR^sikhay : 
2*. **T *&*&, A. ^^TTO^ sakhiy-am, I. ?nRTT sakhy-S, D. 
*&hj-e, Ab.G. ^f sakty-Ti^ 1 , L. ^t saTchy-an, 
raT^fV sakhSy-au ; pi. N. V. 
sa^hih. -At the end of compounds 
id regular in the weak cases, but retains the stem 
ia the strong. The fern, is ^pfV sakh-T. 

' eye/ ^Tftff rfsthi, ' bone/ ^ 
sakthi, ' thigh/ form their weakest cases 

*PP to be due to the influence of the 


N.A.V. ^rf^ du. ^rfiroft pi. 

ksi ksi-n-I Aksl-n-i 


dksi-bhy5m 6ksi-bhijji 

4. *| dyti, f. ' sky ' (originally diu, weak grade of Wt dyo : 
102 c), retains this stem before consonant terminations (taking 
Vrddhi in the N.V. sing.), but changes it to fiff^div before 
vowels : 

sura. PLTJB. 

N. ^ft: dyfcu-^ (zci5Aiw) N. f^i: div-at 

A. t^R^ div-am A. f|[f I dfr-afr 

I- t^TT div-a I. IjfSr: dyti-bhib 

D. f^% div-^ D.Ab. ^Wf: dyd-bhyab 
Ab.G. t^: div-at (Atf tff) G. fi[^FC div-am 

L. f^f^ div-1 (A*fQ L. ^J dyli-su 

V, ^ dyin-h 1 (ZcS) 

IOO. C. Stems in ^ I and ^ u (fem.), according as they 
are monosyllabic or polysyllabic, show various differences of 
inflexion : 

i. Monosyllabic stems change ^ I and 55 u to ^Cjy and V^uv 
before vowels, the polysyllabic stems to ^y and ^v. 

a. Mono-syllabic stems have the normal terminations (71) 
throughout : they may take the special feminine terminations 
(-ai, -Slj, -am) 2 , polysyllabic stems must. 

1 The nom, with voo. accent, while the Greek hai th0 proper voc. 
3 These terminations started from th* polysyllabic rteio* in ^ 4, 
originally ^TT -y&, which wa finad with the nocmal eedin^pi ^* and 

to $ -yai and ZTPEC. -vis, and, in the toc^ with an 
-am (of unknown origin) to *u^-yanL 


3. Monosyllabic stems use the nom. (which takes ^s), poly- 
syllabic stems shorten the ^ I and ^K u of the nom., in the 
voc. sing. 

4. Polysyllabic stems in ^1 have no ^ s in the nom. sing, 
except i^Tlt laksmllj, ' goddess of prosperity,' 7T*^it tantnb, 
c string,' and optionally TP)f\ taiidri, * sloth.' 

5. Polysyllabic stems form the ace. sing, in f^ina and 
the ace. pi. in ' 


Stem >ft dhi, 3^ bhu, f^[ nad-i 1^ vadh-ii, 

'thought' 'earth' 'river' 'woman 3 

N. ^ I^J 

nadi vadhu-b 

A. f%ra^ ^ji*^ i^i*t, ^^H, 

dMy-am bhtiv-am nadi-m vadhu-m 

dhiy-a bhuv-a nady-a vadhv-a 

dhiy-^ bhuv-^ nady-&i vadhv-4i l 

Ab.G. tw: w: irar: 

dhiy-dt bhuv-a^ nady-h vadhv-ah 

dhiy-i bhnv-1 nady-im vadhv-am 1 

V- 'rf^ T^[ 

nacU vidhu 

1 Tb ipecxai feTninme teanninations in *ai, -as, -Sm are here, as in the 
i dedensian (97), due to the influence of the polysyllabic I declension. 




dhfy-au blitiv-au nady-au vadhv-au 

dhl-bhyam bhu-bhyam nadi-bhyojn vadhu-bhyam 

fv^ffc vprt: wt: wt* 

dhiy-6b bhuv-o'lj. nady-6Jt vadh.v-6fr 


N.V.A. f%ra: g^: tf.v. 

dlify-al^ bhiiv-a|ji nady-aji vadhv-ah 

nadi\i vadhub 

bhu-bhib nadf-bhib vadhu-bhih 

dhl-bhyalj bhu-bhy^h nadi-bhyat vadhu-bhya^ 

dhiy-am bhuv-am nadi-n-am vadhu-n-5m 

^3 $5 ^4^3 ^3 

dhl-sH bhu-stL nadi-su vadhu-sn 

stn, f. ( woman,' though monosyllabic, has most of the 
characteristics of polysyllabic stems in t^i (roo, 2-5): it must 
take the special fern, terminations, it shortens its i^ I in the voc. 
it has no ^ s in the nom., and has ail optional ace. sing, in vt,ini 
and ace. plur. in tftis. This is doubtless due to its originally 
having been a dissyllable. 


N. *ft BiA N.V. 

A jf^RR, strfy-am Jf^RIJ striy-aft 

l^j^ta; Btii-iii (^ft: strt-h, 

I. fifltij striy-a I. 4^1 fit: stri-bhfk 

D. f^ft striy-fri D.Ab. ^fo*: strl-bhyAt 

Ab.6. Rqqi; fftriy-ah G. vO^(^ strT-n-am 

L- Rfl^I*^ striy-am L. ^ftj stn-sd 
Y. ffcstrf 

Dual. N.V.A. f^nft striy-au, I.D. Ab. 
G.L. foql, 8triy-6^. 

IOL D. Sterna in V r (auuio. and fern,), -which in origin 
are conaonant stems in ^-ar, are closely analogous in their 
declension to stems in V^-an (90). These nouns mostly end 
in the snffii J -tj- (i. 6 . -tar, Gk. -n;p, -rp, Lat. -tor). They dis- 
tiagmA a gtrong stem ^ -tar or TTT^ -tar, a middle 7J tr, 
and a weakest ^tr. The inflexion of masc. and fern, differs in 
*be we, pjnr. only. 

In the strong stem the names of relations take the Guna form 
(w), the &ames of agents take the Vrddhi form (Sr). 

5^e ting. gen. is formed in *^ iu-, the loc. in *fft ari, the voc. 
aoc, masc. in ^p^rn, fern, in ^ra, the 

f,/.' mother 1 






U. G. ^1$^ dat-iir (H<^ pit-tbf 

L. THlft dat 6ri 

finnj pitar (Ju-piter) 


I ^N.A. ^1^(0 datar-au 




*. *nj niptr and ^ bhartf, though names of relations, fol- 
low ^TTf datf, taking the Vrddhi form in the strong stem : ace. 
sing. IJTH^nrfptar-am, *rfn?lbhartar-am ; also ^TO svdsr, 
f. 'sister': ace. sing. ^1*1 K*t, 8V&ar-am, but ace. pi. 

b. 5 nr, m. 'man* (Gk. a-v^p), takes the Guna form in the 
strong stem; the gen. pi. is JUTFC. nrijam as well as *pHT*l 
nrnam; the I.D.Ab.G. sing, are not found in classical Sanskrit 
(but the D. tmd G. hi the Rig-veda are *f^ n&r-e,^: nir-aT?) ; 
K. TT n, A. HT^nar-am, L. ^ n4r-i (Ep. Gk. l-vtp-i). N- 
pi. TT: ndr-a^ (Ep, Gk. Mpcs), A. ^nfn, I. ^fHt nf-bhib, 

c. ^tf kroB>tfi in. 'jackal' (lit. ' yeller ), substitutes 
krostu in the middle coses : N. pi. *j!WlV* krostar-at, I. pi 

d. Stems in ?J tr, if declined in the neuter, would be inflected 
like the neut. of gf*T a'uci : N. A. sing. VT^ dhffitf , du. VT^uFt 
dhatf-n-I, pi. ^H?ff^ dhatr-n-i; I. sing. W^^T dh&tf-n-S, pi. 
>frfPr: dhatr-bhft. 

e. Feminine agent nouns are formed from masculines in 
^ tr by the suffix |^i : masc. "^TTJ datf, fern, ^nft datr-I, ' giver ' 
(declined like l^t nadi). 

E. Stem* in ^ ai, ^t o f ^ au. 

IO2* The only stems in diphthongs are ^ rai, m. 'wealth,* 
^rt go, m. L ' bull, cov,* ^ dyo, f. ' sky,' and *ft nau, f. ' ship,' 
^ rai thangee the ^ i of the diphthong to ^y before vowels, 
Trot drops h "before consonants. *ft go, in the strong cases, takes 
YytJdhi and becomes 'jfV gau r which is shortened to TT ga in the 
.MMl pL The ab.gen.has a contracted form (os for av-as). 


These steins form a transition between the consonant And vowel 
declension: they agree with the former in taking the normal 
endings ; with the latter in adding ^s in the nom. sing, and 
in showing a vowel before endings with initial consonant : 


Y-6 (re-i) gav-e 


rSy-1 gv-i 


ray-au av< 



rar-bhyam g6-bhj5m 




ra-li (Lat. re-s) 

A. <i^n. - ^ 

ray-am ga-m Ov) nav-am 




rft-bhffc g6-bhib nau-bhifc (wv- 

TPT* *rtw VNr: 

ra-bhyafc (re-bus) g6-bhyafc nau-bhyafc 


ray-am gv-Sm (/3oi/) nav-am (vgf *) 

^5 'ftS 

g6-su nau-sti (vavcri) 

. ^ft dyo, *sky/ is declined like ^ft go ; the nom. Bing. is 
the same as that of ^ dyu (99, 4) ; in the dual and plur. the 
strong forms alone occur : N. *fVt dyiut (Zvt), A 
(Lat. diem), D. ^ dyiv-e, Ab.G. ^Y: dy6^, L. 
Dual N.A. WT^ft dy6v-au, N. pi. *n*C dyiv-al?. 

Xtograaa of Comparison. 

103, i. The secondary suffix of the comparative ?T^ -taiw 
(Gk. -rpo) and that of the superlative TI*f -tama (Lat. -timo) 
are added to the weak or middle stem of derivative adjectives 
(ad eren substantives) ; e. g. *jfar suci : ^jftfl< suci-tara, 
^RltW B,d4aiDjB; ITT^ prac: UTHPC prai-tara, UTTIW prSLk- 
*waa; ^Ptdhanin : \lf*ffl^ dhani-tara, ^rf*f?W dhani-tama ; 
ft ^fl ^ vidvat-tara, ftRHfW^dvat-tamaj HW*C 
|\ piatyak-tara, H?ff||9r pratyak-tama. 
Tfeee snffiiee form thek feminine in ^T a; but 7m tama, 
* ed as an ordinal suffix, forms its fern, in f;i (cp. 107). 
* Ibe jrrmary suffix of the comparative, ^TO^iyas (Gk. 
-wr, U*. -ior), aad thai of the superlative, f^T istha (Gk. -rro), are 
Eoot, which generally takes Guna (and is accented). 
every *wd must be reduced to one syllable by 
~ 9-^ * minute ' : ^00*4^ 6n-Iyae, 


au-istha; *J^ gur-tL 1 , 'heavy*: ^TC^TO^ gar-iyas, 

^ lagh-ii, 'light': ^ftfan^ lagh-Iyas, 

isjha (Gk. t-\d x -toTo f ) ; fX[ du-ra, ' far ' : <*T>q^ daViyas ; 
T^ var-a, 'choice': *fO^H. va*r-Iyas, ' "better*; ^^ ksud-ra, 
'mean*: ^ ^l ^t^ ks6d-Tyas ; ^p^ yu-van, 'young': ^q^l^tl, 
yaViyas; ir^ 111 ^ 8 - 1 ^ 81 ! 'short' : Jpft^R^hrds-iyas ; with irregular 
radical syllable: ^E& dlrgh-a, 'long': s^l^H^^ dragh-Tyas ; 
%V*?I bah-u-W, ' abundant * : '4(^414^ b^iph-Iyas. 

*. In some cases ^f^yas is attached (instead of i^^RSC tyas) j 
a* g- ^i^^l, jya-yas, ' superior, 9 W^ j'y^ha (root WTT j 
^1^ bhu-yas, 'more/ gf%W bhu-y-istha (root ^bhu) ; 
pre'-yas, ' dearer,' ift? pre^stha (root jf\ pri) ; SfaRJ. ar^-yas, 
'better' (Gk. icpW), $& er^stha; t%T sthi-r^, 'firm' : ^ERC 

A. Some comparatives and superlatives belong only in sense to 
their positives ; e. g.^fc^ftR^ne'd-iyas, ?rt|[tf ne'd-istha/ nearest,' 
to ^facvt antikd, 'near' ; ^pffa^ kEn-Tyas, 'lesser/ ^rfTO 
kan-istha, ' least/ to ^^T alpa, ' small ' ; flMT^^ va*rs-Tyas, 
'older/ ^f^r v^rs-istha, 'oldest/ to ff vrddha, 'old.' 


104. Cardinal*. 


3 $ f^ trl (Gk. rpt-, Lat. 

1 By assimilation for original 1|^[ g^-^j C P- Grk. /5op-iJ-r, Lat. gritv-i-f. 
a As first member of a compound ft[ dvi. 

sapt^l (orra). 



III 104 

9 Q, TO nava 

40 80 ^Vfl catva- 

So MO 

70 )0 9TT sapta-if. 
80 ^0 H(^f|fn asltf. 

90 0.0 ^*lRf nava-tf. 

mgqffl ^n-navatf. 

100 ^00 

101 ^ka-satam 

^TET^V asta-dasa. 

dhikam satam. 

adhikam satam. 

in -104 




adhikani aatam. 



sadhikain satam. 


300 $00 

1000 ^000 


' trini 




laksil (lakh). 

10,000,000 qflfZ k6ti (crore). 

a. In order to form the ntunbers from 20 to too not enumerated 
above, it ia only necessary to remember that 2, 3, and 8 are fl[T 
dva (M), ^r; trayat (rpcif), and TOT asta (3rrA) before 20 
^ d 3 (?Trf^nT^ dva-trimaat, ^*jfWH^tr6ya8-trimfiat, ^WT- 
f^hl^ asta-trima'at), and ftf dvi, f^T tri, WS afja before 80; 

both forme may be used witn 40, 50, 60, 70, and 90, 

b. The alternative designations of 19, 29, &c, are formed mth 
the old past participle ^R u-na, ' diminished ' ; e. g. N*lfqajfH 
una-vimaati, 'twenty diminished (by one).* By prefiadng the 
necessary cardinal to this participle, other alternatives may be 
formed ; e. g. B^ff^p^try-una-trimaat^ ' thirty diminished by 
three,' i.e. 27. 

c. Similarly alternatives to xoi, 102, &c. are formed by means 
of the adjective J|f%M adhi-ka, ' exceediBg,' 'plus*; e,g. 
uln*^ dvy-adhikam s'atam, 'a hundred exceeded by two.* 

d. The difference of sense in fg^4*l dvi-iatam, 
tri-s'atam, &c. is only to be distinguished by the accent, these 
compounds meaning K, 103, &c., when accented OB &e first 
member, but 200, 300, &c., when accented on the last. 

adhikain aatam. 

III 104 



sadhikani eatam. 
200 ^00 ^f ^ dve sate. 



300 ?00 






1000 ^000 




100,000 TO laks^ (lakh). 

i (crore). 

a. In order to form the numbers from 20 to 100 not enumerated 
above, it is only necessary to remember that 2, 3, and 8 are fl[T 
dva (dw), ^Ri: trayab (rpck), and ^BT as^L (ojcr<6) before 20 
and 30 (flll R^ dva-triipsat, ^rf^ni^^yas-trinisat, W&1~ 
t^hXfC. asta-triips'at), and fif dvi, f^f tri, ^ni asja before So ; 

both forms may be used with 40, 50, 60, 70, and 90. 

A. The alternative designations of 19, 29, &c. are formed with 
the old past participle ^HT u-na, ' diminished ' ; e. g. ^Ji^Rnfa 

una-vimsati, 'twenty diminished (by one).' By prefixing the 
necessary cardinal to this participle, other alternatives may be 
formed ; e. g. ^ifMll^try-iiiia-triipaat, ' thirty diminished by 
three/ i.e. 27. 

c. Similarly alternatives to 101, 102, &c, are formed by means 
of the adjective Vftm adhi-ka ? 'exceeding, 9 'plus'; e.g.|f%|4 
Ujllf^ dvy-adbikaip. satam, 'a hundred exceeded by two/ 

d. The difference of sense in fVlfl*i dvi-satam > f^lllflH. 
tri-s'atam, &c. is only to be distinguished by the accent, these 
compounds meaning 102, 103, &c., when accented OB the first 
member, but 200, 300, &c., when accented on the last. 


in iog 

Daclemrion of Cardinals. 

IO5- Only the first four cardinals distinguish the genders. 
i TJ( kalj, TpIT ka, V.qit^^kam, following the declension of 
the pronominal adjectives, is inflected like nfi sarva (120 b). 

2, ^ dva", * two/ is declined like the dual of JFPff kanta : 
N.A, m. ^ dvau, f.fl( dv, n.^( dv ; I.D.Ab. flfWT'^dva- 
bhyam, G.L. ^{\l dvtf-y-ofr. 

3. PI trl, in the masc. and neut., is declined like the plural 
of ^|f*f Buc-i, except in the gen., which is formed as if from Vf 
traya (the regular form ^ftH7^tri-n4m is found in the Eig-veda). 
Ita fern, stem is f?|1f tisf , the inflexion of which differs in the 
N.A.G. from that of the regular stems in ^J r. 

4* ^5^ catiir, ' four/ in the masc. and neut., has the strong 
stem ^tui^ catvar (cp. quatuor). The, though the stem 
ends in a consonant, inserts *^n before the ending (like ^ sat), 
The feminine stem is ^?W catasr, which is inflected exactly 
like f?ni tiflf. 



tray-afr tripi 

catvir-at catvir-i c^taar-ah 
trm trmi tir-4h cattlr-at catvir-i caiaer-oh 



i. Win 

tri-bhyat tisf^hyati 

catur-bhih catasr-bhit 
catiir-bhyat catasf-bhya\i 

[ b) caturaam cataey-nam 




106. m. V^Ris, 'eix*; N.A. ^ & (27), I. 
D.Ab. ^f**: sa4-bhyafc, G. WT^?an-*a (6 

A. IHff p&Lca, 'five,' is declined like a neuter in ^SF^an (90, 2) 
except in the gen., where it follows ^TPff kSnta: -N.A. Vft 
P^lca, I. 1p(fiT: pancaVbhik D.Ab. XRP*: panctf-bhyak G. 
M ^ 1 1 in, paficfVn-am, L. "q^ paftca-su. 

The numerals for 7 to ro are declined in exactly the same way. 
"*re asffc, however, has also the following alternative (older) 
forma : N. A. -^ atf&u, I. TOTfr: astft-bhlb, D.Ab. ^rBTP^: 
as^-bhya^ L. TOr^: astft-sti 1 . 

c. The cardinals 3 to 19 are nsed as ploral adjectives, agreeing 
with their substantives in number and case (3 and 4 in gender 
also). The cardinals from 20 to 99 (which are feminine), as well 
** *in*t,satani a^ ^^^sab&ram, are used as singular sub- 
stantives, the accompanying substantive being either in the same 
case or in the genitive; e.g. H?rt ^nftf*K or 

Catena daalbhi^ or daeinam, ' with a hundred female slaves.' 


107. The ordinals from 'first' to 'tenth' are formed with 
various suffixes : ^ tha (for original Tf ta), H ma, ^ ya, f^I lya, 
or a combination of the first with the second and fourth (W*T 
tha-ma, ifttf t-iya); those from * eleventh* to 'nineteenth* 
have the same form as the cardinals (excepting both inflexion like 
^P*l kftnta and change of accent) ; while those from ' twentieth* 
onward either abbreviate the cardinal or add the suffix WR tama 

and ^THTT **& (&*r&, Lt. ocW, Gothic ahtriEa) are old 
dual forma, meaning probably 'the two tetndi 1 (perluqw with relerenoe 
to the finger* of the two hands). 


III 107 

to it The faminina of all but 'first' to 'fourth 9 IB formed 
with i^T. 


2nd fipfar: dvi-tiyab, f. a 
(from cm older dvi-td). 





quaivtns) ; 
tur-ijah, f^ a (fox 

tnr-yab, f. 5 (for 


paUca-mak f. L 
$Hhit (sex-tus). 

apta-mafc (septi- 


^43|l<lltt*i? paficasat-ta~ 



lJ ekasapta- 


I ** 

l aslti-tamah. 
fl*(: ekaslti- 


90th ^^fflfl*?: navati-tamab. 
im^qRl^^: eka-nava- 

'oo^ VT7Rn sata-tamai. 


Numeral Adverb* and other Derivative*. 

I08. a. Multiplicative adverb*: ^^7^ ea-k ft, 'once' 
(]it. ' one making ') ; ftp dvf-fc, ' twice ' (Gk. jM-s, Lat. bi-s) ; ft I 
trf-i, 'thrice' (Gk. rpif, Lat.tri-s); 'qgrcattffe,' four times' (for 
ratrfr-s) ; 1135^: pafica-krtvab, 'five times ' (lit. 'five makings '); 
q^K^! sat-krfcva"b, " six times ' ; &c. 

b. Adverbs of manner s 1FWT eka-dha, 'in one way'; 
fif\ST dvi- Jha or ^CT? dve-dha, f in two ways * ; f^TOT tii-dha or 
^sTT tre-dha, ' in three ways ' ; ^J^Jr catur-dha, 'in foxir ways ' ; 
WJW paflca-dha, 'in five ways'; iftH so-dha, 'in six ways' 
(cp. 104, foot-note 3) ; ^JfTOT sapta-dhi, 'in seven ways * ; 
a^a-dha, 6 in eight ways'; &o. 

c. Diotribntiva adverb* : TPH[: eka-s'afr, 'singly'; 
dvi-sab, 'in pairs'; "Pup trinsab, 'in threes'; TOTO pafica r adt, 
' by fives ' ; &c. 

</. Aggregative noun*: flf^T dvay-A, adj/ twofold'; n. 'a 
pair'; ^RI tray-a, adj., L -t * threefold 'j n-, i, f., and ftl^ 
tri-taya, n. 'triad'; ^TJ5T catus-taya, adj. 'fourfold'; n. 
' tetrad ' ; ^TOTO pailca-taya, adj. ' fivefold ' ; ^FWW asta-taya; 
adj. 'eightfold'; n. 'ogdoad'; ^n^ disa-tayar, adj, 'tenfold'; 
n. 'decade 1 ; &c. 


log. A. Peraonal Pronoun*. 

Stem (in composition) *f^ Stem (in composition) 

mad (sing.) and W^ tvad (sing.) and 

asmad (plur.) yusmad (plur.) 


N. ^Tf^ahtfm, 'I' W^tv-am, 'thou' 

A. WT^mam, 'me' WTHtvam, *thee' 


L TOT mi-y-a, ' by me * WOT tvd-y-5, ' by thee * 

D, ^|nHmrf-liyam(inihi), < to me ' ipOTt W-bliyam (tibi),' to thee ' 
Ab. ITf mid, 'from me ' Wf tvAd, 'from thee ' 

0. TO, f of me ' TO t*va, ' of thee * 

L Iffo md-y-i, 'ia me* Wf^I tytf-y-i^'in thee' 

, A. < mq|J(jmm, ' we or us two ' ^TTH, ynvam, ' ye or you two ' 

avi-bhySm, ' by, ^41^11^ yuva-bhyim, * by, to, 

to, or from na two ' or from you two ' 

I^^IR^tt 5vtf-y-ot, 'of or in ^RJt* yuvtf-y-oti 'of or m you 
us two* two* 


N. TO^ Tay4m, 'we ' ^[^ yu-y-dm x /ye ' 

^n^yusmaD, 'you' 

arat-bhik 4 by us > ^Tt^t yusmi-bhi^, f by you ' 
us* ^W^yuflmi-bhyam, 1 ^ you * 
'from us * ^f^ yusmAd, ' from you' 

( in TW* ^qTTf yusmi-su, 'in you' 

by the influence of 

no* genitivei * all, bat neuter singular* of 
g ^bdcmin to u m' ' 



a. The following unaccented forms, which are not allowed at 
the beginning of a sentence, are also used: Sing. A. *TT ma", W 
tv; D.G, % me (/wi) % te ( r *)- Dual. A.D.G. 'ft nau (Gk. wi), 
Plnr. A. D. G. m naji (Lat. nos), *H vafc (Lat. vos). 

B. Demoutratnra Pronouns, 

HO. The stem fl ta (in composition ^ tani), ' that ' (alao 
=' he, she, it '), may be taken as the type of the pronominal 
declension : 



lW ta-d VPl.tam TTT^ t^n mfif tani m: tab 

^:taH(roip) Hlft: ia-bhib 
: ta-bhyafr 

W5 ta-su 

I. D. Ab. m. f. n. ITPTPl ta-bhyfim ; G. L. f^t\ ta-y-ofc. 

a. A compound of 7T ta, ' that/ is ipl e-ti, ' this/ It is 
declined exactly like the former : Sing.N. TPK esd-t (48, ^?) 
esa, H?I^ et*-d; A.Tp!Het^m, TCTW.ettt-m f TPIf et-d, &c. 

1 Op. 48 ; si, Bft, ta^-Gk. d, , r<J, Gothic BE, 5, that-a (EiJ^. tht, 
Lat. is-tud). 

Horn. Gk. rofo (for rJo^o). ' Lt- -t5ram. 

4 Lat. ig-tirum, Gk.riw (for T&rwr), 


m. Both the pronominal roots ^T a and ^ i (which here in 
some cases show a double inflexion) are employed in the declen- 
sion of V^ a-y-Am, 'this' (indefinitely) : 




I. V*H aa-foa 

D. ^Hjt a-smai ^1^1 a-syal 


: a-syab 

G. ' ' '" 




D.AI). Tp^; e-bhyat ^VPVt S-bhyat 



N. A. m* ^fi l^Bi^b, f. ^pt i-91-^, n. 

; a.L. 


113. The demonstrative pronoun, -which in the nom. sing, has 
the curious form m. f. Trtft a-9-&n, n. 1 W^fC. a-d-aa, meaning 
'that,' 'yon/ employs hi the rest of its declension the stem ^1*J 
a-m-n, for which ^W airn is substituted in the fem. plur- 
(also ace. sing, and partly in dual) and Vft a-m-i in the masc. 
plur. (except the ace.)- 



^lfl*l a-m-ii-m 

* ^B^PIT amu-n-5 ^J^T amli-y-5 

^- "Tg 1 ^ amti-smai ^1*1^ amu-syai 




1LAJBO. IfltTT. 

N. S(T\ ami i ^a. ^ 

, ^'TOT'I amuni 


n; LD.Ab. 


a. The unaccented defective pronoun of the third person, Tjf 
ena ( he, she, it'), is declined in the A. of all numbers, I. sg., 
and G.L. dual : A. HTF^ena-m, UTT^enS-m, H*T^ ena-d ; ipu 
enau, T(^ ene, 1&( ene ; HIC^ ena-n, TfTtt en5- , IWrf*! enani ; 
I. sg. Tpl*I enena, f. HiRTT ena-y-a; G.L. du. Tf*Rft: ena-y-o^, 

C. Interrogative Pronoun. 

HQ. The stem of the interrogative pronoun ^1 ka, ' who, which, 
what?' is inflected exactly like *T ta, excepting that the N. A. 
neuter is ftfiJ^ kl-m ; e. g. N. m ka"fc, ^TT ka, ftl^ kirn \ plur. 
qf ke*, ^rr: kalj, ^ift kani. L. sg. ^lif^lH ka-srnin, f. 4*3141. 
ki-sySm ; pl.%J kg-su, f. >Tf ka-su. 

a. In derivation the stems ftj ki and Jl kn, as well as t| ka, 
are used ; e, g. t^RR^ki-y-at, 'how great ? ' JR ku-tra, ' where? ' 
^R[T ka-dS, ' when ? ' As the first member of a compound fip^ 
kirn is generally employed, sometimes J ku : H*^M kim-nipa, 
adj. ' of what form ? ' gW^ku-karman, n. (' what kind of '=) 
' wicked deed.' 

D. Relative Pronoun. 

114. The stem of the relative pronoun H ya, 'who,' 'which,' 
is declined exaetiy like 7T tar 




yi-smai yi-syai yd-miai y^-bhyalji ya-bhyab y^-bhyalj 


. Brtflaxiv* Pronoun*, 

US* a. <3f*V sva-y-dm, ' self,' is indeclinable (originally & 
nom. sing, like it-y-m). It may express any person or num- 
ber (e.g, 'myself,' 'himself,' ' yourselves '). It usually has the 
meaning of a nominative, bat often of an instrumental, and some- 
times of a genitive. It frequently also means * spontaneously.' 

A. ^IcHI. atmdn, ' self/ is a masc. substantive (declined like 
9jtyV brahman, 90, 3). It is used in the singular as a reflexive 
pronoun of all persons and genders. 

W Bvalk ^ST sva,^n^sv4m (Lat. snus), 'own,* is a reflexive 
adjective (declined like ^pt sarva, 120 b) referring to all three 
persons and numbers (* my, thy, his, our, your, their own ')- It is 
also used (like "*|| <N Batman) in the oblique cases as a reflexive pro- 
noun ; e.g. ^Jf Pl^fcl s vam nindanti/ they blame themselves.' 

d. f*W ni-ja, properly an adjective meaning * inborn/ ' native/ 
is often used in the eensfeof a pronominal reflexive adjective (like 
^T sva). 

7. Poamssive Pronoun*. 


n6. Possessives are formed with the suffix f? 

fltems of the personal pronouns 1T^ mad, ^1^ tvad, &c. : 
mad-iya, 1 my/ ?fa|^l tvad^ya, ' <fey '5 1 ^V^9 asmad-iy^'oor/ 
y usmad-iya, ' your * ; Tf^U tad-zya, ' his, her, its, their/ 

With the suffix q| ka are formed from the genitives 
mama and *W tava, 3THW mSma-k^ *my/ 
- thy * (cp. L09, foot-note a) ; from m*t bhavat> 
1 bh5vat-ka, ' your/ 

G-. Compound Pronoun*. 

H7. By adding f^dre, f* drsa, or f^ drksa, to 
prouominal stems, the following compound proaoffl^ bate 
formed :- 


(lit. ' of that look ) ; ^TT^ya-dtf, ^TflT 3*a-d(sa, ' what like/ 
'of what kind' ; tyt Mft tjH i-dfs'a, t$* wtfksa, ' such ' ; 
*tl^kr-dft*tf*T kl-d#a,'what like ? '; *TT?*l mS-drsa, c Uke 
me,' ^Tflf tva-drsa, 'like thee.' 

& The feminine stem of the compounds in f{^ drs is the 
same as the maec. and neut.; e.g. nom. sing. m.f. n. WHR 
tSdjk; that of the compounds in ^1f drsa is formed with ^T; 
tSdpi; of those in ^ drksa mth ^If aj~e.g. 

n8. By adding ^vat and SR^'yat to certain pronominal 
stems, the following compounds, implying quantity, have been 
formed :--?!TO^ ta-vat and TflfPRt eta-yat, ' BO much ' ; ^TWt 
ya-vat, 'as much'; l^l-yat, 'so much,' fiRJ^ki-yat, 'how 
much? ' These are all declined like nouns in ^vat (86), and 
form their feminine* in the same, way (flFTft tavat-I, |^ 
iyat-i, &c.). 

A ^rf?r k^-ti, 'how many?' (Lai quot), Itft ta^ti, ' so many* 
(Lat. toti-dem), ^ft y*-ti, 'aa many,' are uninflected in the 
N.A., but in the other cases are declined like ^jf^T suci (98) in 
the plural. 

ng. The interrogative * ka, hy tlw addition of f^C cit, ^T 
cana, or ^rfq api t is changed to an indefinite pronoun, 'some,' 
'some one': *ft^kaa cit, ^lf%^ ka cit, PM^Ckim cit; 
^^Tkascan^yp^rka cana, ffiqif kirn cana; ^t^ftf ko 'pi, 
*Tft kapi, ftRft kirn api. 

. In the same manner iDdeflnite adverbs are formed: ^T 
ka-da, 'when?' ^rf^ kada cit, ^T^f kada cana, 'some 
time or other, 1 'once 1 ; kva/where?' ^ mft na kySpi, ' not 
anywhere,' 'nowhere/ 

b. The relatheprecedingthe interrogative renders it indefinite : 
*: M kat, Whosoever'; ^f ^W yasya kasya, 'of whom- 


oever/ Similarly V ^fiffUjalji kaecit, *T* ^TC( yak kasca, or 
flf* ^p| yafc kaicana, * whosoever/ 

c, The relative pronoun, if doubled, assumes a distributive 
ueaning: ^ V yo yat * whoever, whatever in each case' (fol- 
owed by a double correlative)* 

H. IProjiominal Adjective*. 

iao. Several adjective* derived from, or allied in meaning to, 
pronoun*, follow the pronominal declension (like 7T ta) either 
altogether or in part, _ 

, 'V* any*, ' other/ *W!T anya-tara, ' either/ ^TT 1-twa, 
other/ Jfln; ka-tara, ' which of two? ' *7RT ka-tami, ' which of 
many ? ' l^Hm eka-tama, ' one (of many)/ follow the pronominal 
decleneion throughout, taking $ d in the N.V.A. sing, neut.; 
^W: anya-b. *WT anyA, ^Wf anya^d (cp. Lat. aliu-d); D. 
^l^|> anya-imai, f. ^flpft anyrf-syai, L. ^RflR^anyi-amin ; &o. 
* adrva, ' every/ ' all/ ^TO ubh^ya, ' Wfc ' (sg- ^d pi.) , 
, ' one (io5),HWn: eka-tara, l either/ differ only in taking 
instead of $ d in the N.A. sing. neut.;-e.g. ** sjrva-^ 
ftirva, ^rf^^rva-mj D. g^sjSm-Bmai, Ab. ^vi< 
, 0. ^N sirva-sya, L. ^(^ sarva-smin ; P l. N- 

*rve, , 

c. rf purva, 'prior/ 'east/ TO *va-ra, 'posterior/ west 
W^^dha-ra, - inferior/ * west/ ^ tit-tara, -^^ 
north/ ^T5 dok*ina, ' south/ ^ pto, subsequent, other 
VTC 4PM*. 1 other/' inferior/ ***<**, outer, ^ sva, 
'own/ besides necessarily taking ^m in the K.A. sing, neut 
follow the nominal declension in to Ab. L. sing. m. n. and 

* But ** ubM, 'bo*,' i* declined in the dual cnly (&* 



in the N. plur. masc. ; e. g. N. A, n. tj4*^ purva-m ; Ab. m. n. 
^q^rR^purva-smitt or g^lO, purvSt ; L. y^RH*^ purva-sniin or 
^3f purve; N. pL m. TJSf purve or ^j: purvat- 
^ d. *T$ ardha, 'half/ ^^T 41pa, 'little/ ^fiTTO kati-pay^, 
' some, 5 im| pra-thama, ' first,' ^[T cara-md, * last,' ^BT dva-ya 
and r^n4 dvi-taya, c twofold ' (and similar words in ^ ya and 
IW taya), are inflected like ordinary adjectives, except that they 
may follow the pronominal declension in the K. pi. masc.; e.g. 
^\u; caram&t or -q^ cai-am^. 

e. r^nl^f dvitiya, ' second,' and ^tfta tytiya, ' third/ may follow 
the pronominal declension throughout the oblique cases of the 
singular j e. g. D. m. n. ^ffjiJUT trtiyaya or (0^1^ trtiya-smai ; 
L- * ^Jl^nMl*Vtrtfya-yam or g fll *| *$\ 1^ trtiy a-sy 5m ; but N. 
pj. m. only ^pft^TT: trtfyat. 

f. Any of these pronominal words occurring at the end of pos- 

compounds (189) are declined like ordinary adjectives. 



121. Sanskrit verbs are inflected with either active or middle 
terminations. The active voice is called Faraftmai-pada, 
i.e. transitive (lit. 'word for another'). The middle voice is 
called Atmane-pada, i.e. reflexive (lit. 'word for oneself). 
The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada ; with 
which it coincides except in the present and imperfect (where 
it forms ite stem with the suffix ^ ya), and in the third sing, 

tf. The Sanskrit verb has in each tense and mood three 
numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural, with three persons in each. 


122. There are in Sanskrit five tense* conjugated in the 
indicative : I. Present (with imperative and optative moods) ; 
2. Imperfect; 3. Perfect; 4. Aorjst (with a kind of optative 
called Benedictive or Precative); 5. Future (with the Conditional, 
a kind of past future). 

There are also participles connected with three of these tenses, 
present, perfect, and future ; and one infinitive (167), a verbal 
noun unconnected with any tense. 

a. Classical Sanskrit has neither a pluperfect tense nor a sub- 
junctive mood (excepting the survivals of it in the first persons 
imperative); nor has it an imperative or a proper optative of any 
tense except the present There are, therefore, fa* fewer verbal 
forms in non-Vedic Sanskrit than in Greek. 

The Present System. 

123. While the perfect, aorist, and future tenses add the 
terminations directly (or after inserting a sibilant) to the root, 
the present group (the present with its moods and the imperfect) 
forms a special stem, which is made in ten different ways. Hence 
the native Sanskrit grammarians have divided all verbs into ten 
classes. The tenth class, which is really a secondary formation, 
retains its present stem in nearly all the other verbal forms also, 
as do the secondary verbs generally (causatives, desideratives, 
intensives, denominatives). 

The Ten Classes. 

124. The ten classes are divided into two conjugations. 
In the first, comprising the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes, 
the present stem ends in ^a, and remains unchanged throughout. 

In the second conjugation, which comprises all the re- 
maining classes, the terminations are added directly to the filial 

o 2 


of the root or GO the suffixes ^5 n, *[ nu,TT na, (ift nl, ^ n),and the 
present 0tem ia changeable,, being either rbrong 1 or weak. 

A. First Conjugation. 

125. i. The fir*t or BhfL class adds V a to the last letter of 
the root, which, heing accented, takes Guna of a final vowel 
(short or long) and of a short medial vowel followed by one 
consonant; e.g. ^ hhu, 'be/ forms the present stem 3f| 
btav-a; ip^hudh, 'know' : Wt^I b6dh-a. 

a. The gixth or Tnd class adds an accented ^ a to the root, 
which (heing unaccented) has no Guna. Before this V d final 
^C f changes to ^ ir. Thus ifj tud, ' strike ' : 1ft tud-d : 
* kf, 'scatter* : f5^ kir-a\ 

3. The fourth or Div class adds ^T ya to the last letter of 
the root, which is accented (hut the weak form in some case? 
assumed by the root points to the 1J ya having originally been 
accented); e.g. Iff nah, 'bind': ^HS niih-ya; f%*^ div, 
' P^y ' : ^* div-ya "(133 B). 

4. The tenth or Cnr class adds the suffix ^R ^ya, before 
which a final vowel takes Vrddhi, but a short medial vowel 
followed by one consonant takes Guna; e.g. ^ cur, Steal* : 
^K*< oor-iya. Short medial ^ a followed by one consonant is in 
most cases lengthened; e.g. ^kam : ^TRRI kam-aya/ desire. 1 

B. Second Conjugation, 

Et6. The strong forms are 

L the singular present and imperfect active ; 
a- aB tot persons imperative active and middle ; 
3. tbe tbird person singular imperative active. 
la tbeee forms the vowel of the root or the affix, being 
is strengthened ; while in the weak forms it becomes 
because the terminations are accented. 


*. In the ninth class the accented form of the affix is TT na, 
the unaccented ^" m or *^n; in the seventh they are respec- 
tively *! n& and ^n. 

la?, i. The second or Ad class adds the terminations directly 
to the root, -which in the strong forms takes Guna if possible 
(* a 5 i) j e. g. XT^ ad, ' eat * : sing. r. 'WftT a*d-mi, 2. 1 Vfer 4t-si, 
3- ^ftr^ti; TiVgo': T^W, ltfo<<- 9 i, TCfif^tij ftfflih, 
'lick ' : %% leTi-mi, 3rflT lelc^d (690), %ft l-Qbi (69 5). "* 

* This and the seventh are the most difficult classes to con- 
jugate, because terminations beginning with various consonants 
come into contact with the final consonants of roots, and conse- 
quently many rules of internal Sandhi have to be applied. 

a. The third or XTn class adds the terminations directly to 
the reduplicated root, which in the strong forms takes Guna if 
possible; e.g. JThu,' sacrifice': ^tfc ju-L6-mi, ' I sacrifice'; 
<3<l**i: ju-hu-mfit, ' we sacrifice.* 

*. The intensives conjugated in the active (i 72) follow this class. 

3. The evaiitli. or Rudh class adds the terminations directly 
to the final consonant, before -which f na" is inserted in the 
strong, and *^n in the weak forms; e.g.^B^yuj, 'join': Jlfi(H 
yu-na-j-mi; |^4i: yufij-ma^. 

4. The fifth, or 8n claws adds ^J nu, which takes Guna in the 
strong forms, to the root; e. g. ^ *Uf ' press out * : 4|f1fa su- 
n6-mi; <gji; su-nn^ma^L. 

5. The eiffh.tli or Tan, class adds ^3 u, which takes Guna in 
the strong forms, to the root ; e. g. 3!*^ tan, ' stretch ' * fll1fil 
tan-d-mi; n^*l* tan-u-ma^. 

*. All the (seven) verbs of this class end in *^n, except V kr, 
do /which has an irregular present stem : ^pftf^Tk ftr-<5-mi( 134 E). 

6. The ninth or Kri class adds to the root TT na in the 
strong foims, but in the weak *ft ni Lefore consonants and ^n 


before voxels; e.g. *t kri, 'buy': *lMJ|f^ kri-na-mi; pi. I. 
3. fnl<(|An kri-n-nti. 

The Augment. 

128. The imperfect, the aorist, and the conditional prefix to 
the root accented ^ & as their augment, which, form* Vyddhi 
with an initial vowel (23); e.g. f^budh, 'know ' : 3. sing. 
imperf.^Rt^-bodha-t; ^T und/wet': ^ff^f u-n-t-ti, 
'he wets, 5 ^St*T^ 4u-na-t, 'he wetted '; ^g r, 'go': 1 *raff?T 
rcchtfti, 'he goes,' Tfff^B^ arcchat, 'he went.' 

a. The augment is dropped in the imperf. and aorist (which are 
then used imperatively) after the prohibitive particle *TT ma ( 
TT *iJTcvor ITt^ mS karsit or karot, ' may he not do it.' 


129. Five verbal formations take reduplication in Sanskrit : 
the present stem of the third conjugational class, the perfect, 
one kind of aorist, the desiderative, and the intensive. Each of 
these five has certain peculiarities, which must be treated separately 
under tin special rule* of reduplication (130, 135, 149, 170, 173). 
Common to all are the following. 

General Bides of Reduplication. 

i. The fitst syllable of a root (i.e. that portion of it which end* 
with a vowel) is reduplicated; e.g. ^budh : ^5^bu-budh. 
. Aspinted letters are represented by the corresponding unas- 
cat'-; fl|f3f^ bi-bhid; V dhu, 'shake ': 

3. Gnttnrala are represented by tiie corresponding palatals, 
f h by *U;-e.g. %Hkam f ' 


4. If the root begins with more than one consonant, the first 
only is reduplicated; e. g. $^ krus', 'shout': fj^^cu-krus; 
f^t^ksip, 'throw': f%rfan,ci-ksip. 

5. If a root begins with a sibilant followed by a hard consonant, 
the latter is reduplicated; e.g. ^ stu, 'praise': IJjT tu-sju (67); 

, ' stand ' : 7WT ta-sthS ; ^ scut, ' drip ' : ^^ cu-s'cut ; 
skand,' leap ': ^ra^ca-skand. But ^fsmr,' remember': 
ea-smr (m is soft). 

6. If the radical vowel, whether final or medial, is long, it is 
shortened in the reduplicative syllable ; e. g. TT^ g5h, " enter ' : 

ja-gSh; jft kri, 'buy': ft^l ci-kri; fT^kuj, 'hum': 

7. If the radical (not final) vowel is If e, it is represented by 
^i; if^Uto or^au, by^f u; e.g. %^6ev, 'worship*: ftft^ 
si-ev (67); Vt^| dhauk> 'approach ' : wtt^ du4hauk. 

8, Boats which, according to the native Sanskrit grammarians, 
end inlf e t \ ai.^lft' o are more conveniently stated to end in 5, 
and are so treated in reduplication; e.g. % gai, 'sing/ 3. sing. 
perfect ^Rt ja-gau (136, 4). 

Speoial Bnle of BaduplicatioB for the Third dan. 
130. ^B r and ^H f are represented in reduplication by ^ i; 
If bhr, ' bear' : fSpffif b-bhar-ti ; ^ W, 'fill ' : fSnifif p-par-ti. 

131. The following table gives the terminatons r which are on 
the whole the same for all verbs, of the present system. The chief 
difference is in the optative, which is characterized by H e in the 
first, and ^TTya and^i in the second conjugation. It will pi-event 
confusion to remember that the present indicative has the primary 
(-mi, -si, -ti, &c.), while the imperative (with some variation*) 


and the optative, as well as the imperfect, have the secondary 
terminations (-no, -s, -t, &c.). Of the other tenses, the future takes 
the primary, and the aorist, with the benedictive and the con- 
ditional, takes the secondary terminations ; while the perfect takes 
in the active (with many variations) the secondary, and in the 
middle, the primary endings. 

In order to understand clearly the difference between the two 
conjugations, the following points should be noted. In the first 
ora-conjugati02r(as in the a-declension),the accent is never 
on the terminations, but always on the same syllable of the 
tern (the root in the first and fourth, the affix in the sixth and 
tenth classes), which therefore remains unchanged. On the other 
hand, in the second conjugation (as in the declension of change- 
able stems) the accent falls on the strong stem, which is shortened 
in the weak forms by the shifting of the accent to the termina- 
tions. In the second conjugation, therefore, the ter- 
mination* are accented except in the strong forms (126) of 
the present. The same would apply to the imperfect, were it 
without an augment (128), 


I&porfect* Optative. 



TV 131 






n i; 



vahe 1 




vahi 1 









mahe mahi 1 

dhve dhvam 



edhvam idhvim 

ante(i) ania(r) eran 









ethe(i) etham(i) eyatham lyatham ethSm(i) 
athe(2) atham(3) atham(2) 

ete(i) etam(r) eyatam lyatSm et5m(i) 

atSm (2) 



dte(2) ata(2) 4tam ( 2 ) 

i. The final ^ a of the first conjugation is lengthened before 
^m or ^v; e.g. 



a. Terminations beginning with vowels should be added in 
the first conjugation after dropping the final V a; e.g. ^f4*<, 
a*-bhav-am, WlT^ bhav-et. 

3. The terminations of the first conjugation, given in the above 
table as beginning with 1ge, really consist of the final ^a of the 
base + li; but on practical grounds it is preferable to assume 
that they begin with T[ e. 

4. Verbs of the first conjugation take no termination in the 
2. sing, imperat. Par. (being exactly parallel with the vocative 
singular of the a-decleasion). Those of the second take f\T dhi 
(Gk. 61) after consonants, f|[ hi after vowels. But 

*. -in the ninth class ^Pf ana takes the place of fw dhi; 
e.g. *TWTW math-Sna* 1 (but ^Fhtftff kri-ni-hf). 

b. ff hi is dropped in the fifth and eighth classes, if the ^ u is 

preceded by a single consonant; e.g. ^[ su-nti (but 
^Iflfi ap-nu-hi). 

c. in the third class JT hu adds fV dbi (instead of ff hi) after 

a vowel : ^FfV ju-hu-dhi 

5. Verbs of the third class and some other reduplicated present 
stems (cp. 134 A 4, B; 172) drop the ^n of the 3. plur. pres. 
indie, and imperat Par. In the JLtnu the whole Meond con- 
j*g*tion rj^ot the ^n of the 3. plnr. pres. impf. impv. 

6. Verbs of the third class and some other reduplicated stems (cp. 
134 A 4, B ; 172) take ^ ur instead of Vtan in the 3. plur. 
imj& Par. Those of the second class which end in 'W a, as well 
as fof vid, 'know,' and f^dvis, -hate,' may do so. Before 
thk suffix a final ^ 5 is dropped, while ^ I, * u, ^T r are 

1 Tfce ocigin of thij peculiar imperative ending is uncertain It 
perip. ttendi for -lOHUt: & being the reduced form (-long nasal 
wn*at) of the daa inffii -ni, and n the ending which ii found in the 
Vedic 2. 0. impv. ;-e. g. i-ta-na. 


ganatei;-e,g.lft HI, 'fear'; jfoiy Wi-lbj-4; 
d-ju-hav-4; W^-ya-u or fj! fy4 That the (nil of 
tliis ending(which also appears in the j.plur, optative and the }, 
plur, petf, acdve) is etymological])' fy and not ^s, is proved 
by the corresponding forms in the A vesta, 


IJ2, As the four classes of the first conjugation are inflected 
exactly ale, one paradigm will sufice for them, The same 
applies to the fifth and eighth classes, In the second class 
fiftdris has teen used for the paradigm, because it illustrates 
better than ^ ad loth the rules of internal Sandhi and the 


TV 132 











IV 132 






IV 132 


i F 4 r ^ 

IV 132 







II 1 













It! 61 







- -t 

i t i|C * | ~ I 
on- /JV *- 








IV 132 

IV. 132 





> 9 

or i 



R 2 



IV 13* 


10 J 




V 5 











IV 132 

IV 132 




g ? 

rr "r 1 


9 ?' 




a- < F 'I- 



XrregvlfuritiM of the Present Stem. 
First Conjugation. 

133. A. Piwt pr Bhu ClaM, x. WH kram, ' step,' W-^TH, 
S-cam, 'sip,* Jf guh, f conceal/ fW v 9ttiv, 'spit,' lengthen their 
T0 we l : WH kram-a, ^H^TH a-cam-a, ^f guh-a, tffa fthiv-a. 
^jnrj, 'cleanse/ takes Vrddbi : Wt$ marj-a.^R sad, ' sink, 3 
rabstitutes t[i for ^ a: ^t^ fl'd-a (for si-B[a]da: Lat. side). 

a. 1^ gam, 'go,' aad ^ yam, 'restrain/ form the present 
stem with ^ cha (Ok. trie) : !&% gi-ccha, *p^[ y^-ccha (see 
bekw, C 2). 

3. fTT ghra, 'smell/ 1JT pa, ' drink/ ^TT stha, ' stand/ redupli- 
cate with f i : fflTET jf-ghra, ftW pf-ba (Lat bi-bo), fTTS ti-stha 
(Gk. T-^mT-M', Lat. sirto). These verbs originally belonged to 
the third (reduplicating) class (cp. 3!^ sad above, A l). 

4. 3^ darns', 'bite/ Jf^manth, 'churn/ ^IS^saiij, 'adhere/ 
drop the na*al: ^J da^r^, VRT m^th-a, ^T saj-a. 

5* Y^dw/see/ "UfT dhma/blow/ t^Tfmna, 'study/ aubstitnte 
T&g ptfs-ya, Vf dh^m-a, YHf m^n-a. 

B. Fourth or Div ClaMi. i. Tf^tam. 'languish/ %(9^ 
bhram, 'roam/ Tp^sam, ' cease/ ^ST^sram, 'be weary/ ?f^ ma<l, 
*rejoice,'f^div,'play/ lengthen their vowel: ?TW tam-ya, 
*m mad-ya, i^fal dfvya, &c. 

a. M^ bhrfuns, 'faU/ drops its nasal : W5JT bhra-ya. ^^ 
vyadh, 'pierce, 1 takes Samprasarana : ftiaf vtdh-ya. ^fl Jan. 
'be born/ substitutes WT ja: WW ja-ya (cp. 1540, i). 

C. Sixth or TudCl&M. i. ^ krt, ' cut/ ^muc/ loosen/ 
^ lup, ' break/ f*R; lip, ' paint/ ftf rid, ' find/ 

1 sprinkle,' insert anasal :- 
Kmp-a; ft vi 


a * T^Ja, 'wish,* substitutes ^ch for ^s, and ^gr, 'go/ adds 
5 ch : 1^5 i-ccba", ^R? r-ccha* (cp. A 2). 

3- Jra? prach/ask,' W^bhrajj, 'fry,' fl^vrasc, 'cut,' take 
Samprasarana : ^5 prcch~a\ 3^T bhrjj-a 1 , Ifil vrsc-a 1 . 

Second Conjugation. 
134. A. Second or Ad Class. 

i. The root 19 irregularly strengthened in the following 
verbs : 

a. ^ yu, ' join,* and all other roots ending in ^ u r take Yrddhi 
instead of Guna in the strong forms before terminations beginning 
with consonants ; tflRi yafr-mi, but i*ti^*^ a'-yav-am, 

b. JJ^mrj, 'cleanse/ takes Vrddhi instead of Guria: 3. sing. 
^TrfS map-ti (cp. 63), 3. pi. rnfa mrj-inti, 

c. ^IJT fli, 'lie down,' Atm., takes Guna throughout its weak 
forms, besides inserting 1 ^ r before the terminations in the 3. plur. 
pres., impv., impf,: 3. sg. ^ tfi-te (Gk. <CM-CU), 3. pi. ?Jvl 
s^-r-ate, JKiK+ise'-r-atam, ^HXT i-se-r-ata. 

3. The root is irregularly weakened in the following verbs: 
*. *P% vas, 'desire/ takes SamprasSrana in the weak forms : 
3- S 6- ^ft ^M-ti (63 i), 3- pi- Wlfa ne-tfnti. 

b. ^T^as, 'be/ drops its initial ^a in the optative and all the 
weak forms of the pres. and imperative; e.g. 3. sg. opt. 
s-yat ; 3. pi. pres. ^jfifT -dnti (sunt). The ** sing. impv. is 
e-dhl (for az-dhi, Avestic zdT). In the imperfect it inserts ^ I 
before the endings of the a. 3. sing. : "^IRftj as-Ifr, ^^Rfa^as-i-t. 

c. ^p^han, 'kfll/ Par., drops its ^n before l^t and ^th in 
the weak forms : 3. sg. fRf! ha^i-ti, but 2. pi. JfW ha-thft. In the 
3. pi. pres., impv., impf. the radical ^f a is dropped and the ^ h 
becomes ^ gh : ^rf% glin-inti, TT^Tglm-^ntii, ^ii^i-glm-an. 
The a. sg. impv. is ^rff ja-h (for ^ff jha-hf, with palatalized 
initial, instead of tiff" gha-hf). 


3. A vowel or semivowel is irregularly inserted in the follow- 
ing verbs : 

A V^an, * breathe/ Sf^jaks, ' eat/ ^[ rud, 'weep/ ^^s'vas, 
' breathe," ^l^svap/ sleep/ insert^i before terminations beginning 
with consonant? except l^y ; bat fj i or ^ a before the ^s and 
T^t of the . 3. sg. impf. Par. ; e. g. ^tf^fo r6d-i-mi, but ^[f^T 
rud^nti, ^^ i*^ rud-yam j impf. 3. sg, *lO<^1 d-rod-I-t or 

* tl 4. 'praise/ and ^is, 'rule/ both Atm., insert ^ i 
before terminatioM beginning with ^s and ^dh (I.e. 2. g. pi. 
pm. and impv.) : - tW *i-f e, tft<* i^i-dhve; 

e. ^bra/speak/ inserts ^1 in the strongforms before termina- 
tm beghmingjfith consonants : inftf*T brfv-I-mi.(but TO: 

A Ti preceded by^rfV adhi, 'read' (Atm. only), resolves |ji 
in t^P- nd ^ ai (augm. a+i) in the impf. before vowels 
into Ifljy ahd\^aiy r-pres. sg. i. ^^tT adhl-y-,?, 2. ^V^% 
"dhwe-J impf. Bg.I 1 'W0f?radh y .tfi-y.i, 3 .^WT:adhy.j.thab. 
4. The replicated verb. fWTO>.kss/shine/ ^ ja-ks 
(fa JMghW^from ghas), 'eat/ ^ ja-gr, 'wake' (intensive 
!). ^T^Tdari-dr5 (intensive of j^T drS, rnn '), ' be poor/ 
Aa aocoMtedverbs of the second class, follow those of the 
ttadm taking^** ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

in the 3. pi. impf. : _. sg.zf^nfir dan 
3- pi- impf. ^^; Jjaks-uh. 


B. Third or Kn Claw. i. ^T da, 'give/ and VT dhfi, 
' place,' use ^ dad and ^V^dadh as their stems in the weak forms, 
^X^dadh (against 62 b) becomes ^^ dhat before ^ t and ^tli : 
<VTfiT da-dha-mi, but du. i . ^C dadh-vab, 2. VW: dhat-tlufy. 
The 2. ^ffc de-hf (for da-z-dhi) and ^ffj dhe-h( 
(for dha-z-dhf). 

a.?T mS, 'measure,' and fT ha, 'depart, 1 both Aim., have 
mi-mi and f^fl ji-hl as their present stems, dropping the 
i before vo^eh : prea. sg. i. ^f^ jf h-e, 2. fWf^ jfhl-se, pi. 3. 
jih-ate ; . impf. sg. i, ^rftrff tf-jih-i, 2. H 
, pi. 3. ' 

*. ^T ha, 'abandon,' Par"., has ^j^jahi in the weak forma, . 
dropping f^I before vowels and ^y: 3. sg. ^nTrfTT jtfha-ti, but 
du. <*^)n; jahl-tab, pi. ^IfRl jah-ati; impv. 2. sg. W^ff 
jahl-hi ; opt. r. sg. *ffTT*l jab-yfim. 

C. Fifth or 8u Cla0. i. Boots ending in vowels may drop 
u before ^v or 3F m : 


2. Boots ending in consonants change ^5 u to VT uv before 
vowels : Hm^Pfl sak*nnv-dnti. 

3- ^ ru, 'hear, 1 and ^[ dhu, 'shake/ form the present stems 
^J Ir-nu and ^ dhu-nu. 

D. Seventh or Bndh ClaM. ^rer^afli,' anoint,' ifUJbhaflj, 
* break,' ff^ hirns, 'injure/ drop their nasal before inserting if 
na : ^iprfalj a-ntf-j-mi, i^Rt| bha-ntf-j-mi, ffTftr hi-na-K-mi. 

B. Eighth or Tail Clue. V kr, ' do/ takes ^<t kr-6 a* 
its strong stem, and as its weak J^ knr-u, the^ u of which must 
be dropped before ^ m, l^y, ^v: ^tft kav6-mi, J^r: 
kuru-that; but f$ kur-va^, J^: kur-m^; f^T^kiir-jiini. 
Other verbs of this class may drop the ^ u before ^v and H m 


as in the fifth. When compounded with the prepositions t|f^ pari 
and CT^sam, the verb V kr has an initial Js: ^R,jd pri- 
skrta, 'adorned/ ^RJTCf sani-skrta, 'put together.' This *J> ia 
not original. 

P. Ninth or Kri Class, i, ^dhuV shake/ pu/ purify/ 
^lu, 'cut,' shorten their vowel: *j*l I fa dhu-na-mi, <J*ttfij 
pu-na-mi, <j*uf*f lu-na-mi. 

2. Jfl jna, ' know/ and 3T^ grab, ' seize/ ace shortened to 3TT ja 
and 5J5 grh : ^Hlfif ja-na-mi ; *^rftf grh-ija-mi (65). 

3. "^l^bandh/ "bind/ and ?f^manth/ churn/ drop the nasal : 
qmfo badh-na-mi, Ml|lfi| math-ni-mi. 

The Perfect Tense. 

I35* This tense is formed either by reduplication or peri- 
phrafltically. Boots follow the former method, derivative verbs 
(chiefly causatives) the latter. There are also four roots with a 
prosodically long initial vowel (140 a t i) which take the peri- 
phrastic perfect. 

Bides of Reduplication. 

i. ^B r, ^[ r, V 1 are represented by ^f a in the reduplicative 

syllable; e. g. W kr, ' do f ': -qi< ca-kar-a; tf, ' cross ' : 
ta-tar-a; jjnklp, 'be able': 

2. Initial^ a or ^ffS becomes ^BTa; e.g. 1 ^^ ad, 'eat ': 4 
ad-a; "^H^ap, * obtain*: UIH ap-a (cp. 1400, i). 

3. Roots beginning with ^ i contract ^ i -f ^ i to f^I; but if 
the radical ^ i takes Guna orYrddki, ^y is inserted between the 
rednplicative syllable and the root; e.g. ^^if, 'desire/ 3, pi. 
^g: ff-tqt (for i-is-ufc), but i. sg. f^f i-y-eVa. 

4. Eoots beginning with or containing ^ ya or ^ va, and liable 
to SamprasSrana (cp. 137, 2c), reduplicate with ^ i and ^ nr 


*R x yaj, ' sacrifice * : ^ui i-yaj-a ; *P^ vac, * speak ' : ^4rr 

136* The angular perfect active is strong, like the 
singular active present and imperfect, the root being accented; 
the remaining forms are weak, the terminations being accented. 
The endings are the following : 




3. TJ^ ^flftate ^Ti-J^ 

* a. The terminations with initial consonant are adde4 with the 
connecting vowel ^ i 2 except in the eight verbs : ]f dru, 
'run/ 1J sru, *hear,' ^[ stn, 'praise/ ^ sni, *flow/ W kr, ' do,' 
^ bhr, "hear/ ^ vr, 'choose/ 7 sr, 'go/ where it must be 
omitted. The 3. pi. Atm. reiains the ^i even in these verbs. 
In 2. sg. Par. it is omitted by many other verbs also, and is 
optional in verbs ending in "^T 5, as well as in most of those 
ending in ^ i, 1^ i, ^ n. 

1 In these two dual forma ^F ur haa been borrowed from the 3. pi., 
the two endings V?^ thur and 7T^ tor corresponding to the a. 3, da. pros. 
^thfts and Tf^tas. 

1 This ^ i was in origin probably the reduced form of the final TflT a of 
roota like ^T da, ' give/ and became the starting-point of ^ i as a con- 
necting vowel in other verbs. 


The Strong Stem. 

Short vowels followed "by a single consonant take Guna 
'hout the singular ; e. g. ^fH^ is, ' wish * : lji\ *~Y~^ 
idh,'wake': ^J*ftbu-b6dh ; but^ft^jiv, 'live': 

tnal vowels take Vrddhi or Guna in the first person singular, 

in the second, Vyddhi only in the third; e.g. ^ i, 'go* : 

TO i-y-ay-a or <4| i-y-y-a ; 2. ^^T i-y-^-tha ; 3. ^4l^( 

a ; W kr, ' do * : i. *1<1K ca-kar-a or ^%^ ca-k^r-a : 

^ ca-k4r-tha ; 3. ^ft ca-kar-a. 

edial "V a followed by a single consonant takes Vrddhi in 

id optionally in i.; e.g.^*^han, ' kill* : I. ^Cfc||! jaghan-a 

irjaghto-a, 3. BPSTPI jaghan-a. 

ots ending in *Kf a (or diphthongs : 1 29, 8) take ^St u 

Bg., and may retain "^HTa before "^Ttha in 2. sg. (cp. 136 a) ; 

k dha, 'place* : I. 3. ?[Vt da-dhu, 2. <^V4(U| dadha-iha 

^ dadh-i-tha. 

ff hva or ^ hve, ' call,' is treated as Jf hu : 3. ag. ^^i*^ 

i(cp. 1 54^3)- 

Tlie Weak Stem. 

. In roots containing the vowels ?, u t r, the radical 
e remains unchanged, except ly Sandhi ; e. g. '3*^ 
bu-budh-i-ma ; V kr : ^BOT ca-kr-md ; ^[ stu : 

3re terminations beginning with vowels final ^i, i^T, ^H r 
led by one consonant become ^y, ^ r, if by more than 
iy. "^T^ w; while ^ u, gr u, and ^[ f alwaya become 
nd ^T^ar; e.g.M^ nT/lead *: f%^: ni-ny-tit ; fBf sri, 

r, ' do ' : rZ ca-kr-i1fc ; str, 


4 strew*: n<a^ ta-star-ub; ^Jyu, 'join*: ^Jt yu-jnav-tit ; ^1 
kf, 'scatter': T|Q^? ca-kar-tii. 

a. In roots containing a medial V a or a final "HT a, the 
radical syllable is weakened. 

*. Roots in which V a is preceded and followed by a single 
consonant (e. g. tf^ pat), and which reduplicate the initial con- 
sonant unchanged (this excludes roots beginning with aspirates, 
gutturals, and for the most part ^v), contract the two syllables 
to one with the diphthong T[ e (cp. Lat. ffcc-io, fec-i) 1 . This contrac- 
tion takes place even in 2. sg. Par. when ^ tha is added with ^ I 
(the strong form being used when ^T tha is added without ^i); 
e.g. 1|^ pac, ' cook ' : 2. sg.^ifo^ pec-i-th (but MH*!^ papa*k- 
tha), 3. pi. t}^; pec-uk; 71^ tan, 'stretch*: ?tf*W ten-i-th, 

b. ^f^jaa (139, 2), ' be born,* and four roots with medial 'W a 
beginning with gutturals, viz. 1^*^ khan, 'dig,* ^TF^gam, *go,* 
^rf^ ghfis, ' eat," ^p^ ban, * kill,' weaken the root by dropping 
the radical vowel: 3. sg. Atm. ^T% ja-jn-e'; 3. sg. Par. 
ja-gam-a, but 3. pi. 9|JJj: ja-gm-il^ ; 5|V|liJ ja-ghas-a 4 but 
ja.kf-iib ; ^WPf ja-ghan-a, but W^l ja-ghn-tib (cp. 134, 2 c). 

c. Five roots beginning with *f va, viz. f^ vac, * speak,* f^ 
vad, 'speak,' f^vap, 'strew,' ^R^vafi, 'dwell,' ^ vah, 'carry'; 
also l^yaj, 'sacrifice,' c^\^vyadh, 'pierce,' ^p^ svap, 'sleep,' 
^J^ 1 grah, ' seize/ take Samprasarana. In the first five ^ u-f-^ u 
( C P- 135. 4) contract to ^T ii, in the sixth f; i-f ^ i to ^1: 3. sg. 

u-vac-a, but pi. ^T^ uc-tib (for u-uc-tifr) ; ^^l^ i 
j-tSb (for i-ij-iSt) ; ^UH eu-svap-a (67), but 
; HIIf ja-grah-a, but 

1 Tfcia vowel spread from contracted forms like sa-z-d (Avestic hazd), 
weak perfect ateni of Bad, 'sit' (z becoming e; op. 134, 2 & and 
133 A I). 



IV 138 

d. Roots ending in Iff a drop it in all the weak forms, and 
optionally in 2. sg. Par. (see 1360 an'd 138, 3). 

Paradigm* of the Reduplicated Perfect. 

138. i. g^ tnd, 'strike ' : strong stem ^fitf tu-t6d ; weak TJTf^ tu-tiK 











1 Lat tu-tud-i. 

tu-tud-i-ma* l 



IV i 3 8 



^rre da-dha-tha 1 


3. W dhS, 'place 1 : strong 3^*1 da-dha; 


[t da-dh-a*thufc 
;: da-dh-a*tulj 

^rSf da-dh-athe 

^1 da-dh-a 

dardh-i-f e 

4. v(\ ni, ' lead' : stron 


ni-n, Wt ni-nii ; weak f*R\ ni-m. 

ni-ny-i-va f*tf<l*t ni-ny-i-ma 

[I ni-tiy-athui f^W ni-ny-i 

p ni-ny-dtu^ f*f[* ni-ny-iil> 

ni-ny-i-vahe f*lP*l^ ni-ny-i-m^he 

ni-ny-athe t'ff^rSt ni-ny-i-dhve' 

ni-ny-ate Pl(*l\ ni-ny-ir^ 

stu, ' praise ' : strong ^ tu-st6 r ^ tu-stau ; weak ?JJ tu -^ u> 

tu-stu-ya g5*T tu-stu-m4 

j: tu-stu-v-itut 

tu-stu-v^he 3S^ tu-stu-mtfhe 

35% tu-stu-v-e' 

1 Or 
3 Or 


* Or 





IV 138 

6, fl^tan, 'stretch': strong fl?Ftta-taX TflTPt k-tin; weakft^U 

f ten-i-vd ^fi|4f ten-i-md 

~T ten-tf 



Ttf'rt^ ten-i-vihe 
^fT^ ten-athe 
%TI?t ten-ite 

7. 'Rgam/go': 


: ja-gm-alufc 

^'fl^ ja-gm4te 
'speak': strong B^u-v^ 



; weak 



139- i. JTO^bhaj, 'share/ though beginning with an aspirate, 
bllows the analogy of the contracting verbs with TJ e (137, 2 a) : 
J- .eg- ^WTO ba-bhaj-a, but 3. pi. 5f^J bhej-rifc. Similarly TT^ 
*aj, 'shine' (medial 5), and optionally ^R^tras, 'tremble' (two 
nitial consonants), and W^ bhram, * wander ' (initial aspirate, 
wo consonants) : 3. sg. A/^8t rej-e ; 3. pi. P. fl^^j? ta-tras-ufr 
>r %^j: tres-ub ; *W*j: ba-bhram-ut or 9[*p bhrem-ub- 

a. ^fHyam, 'reach,' and ^P^vam, 'vomit/ though beginning 
vith^Tyaandfva,donottake SamprasSrana, but follow 137, 2a: 
&T*lr*f ya-yama, but %|% yem-^ ; ^TTW va-vam-a, but %^: 
rem-ufc \ -while ^^vas, 'wear/ Atm., does not weaken the root 
t all : q4tl va-vas-e. 

3. t'T^ vid, 'know/ 'forms an unreduplicated perfect with 
present meaning : %^ ve'd-a, *I know ' (Gk. o?da, Germ, weiss), ^WT 

vid-mtf (id-/**^, wissen), 

4. t%T ci, ' gather/ ft[ ji, ' conquer/ fif hi, ' impel/ f^ han, 
kill/ revert to their original guttural in the radical syllable : 
^ITO ci-kay-a, fVITO ji-gay-a, f^^N ji-glifly-a, ^TT*f 
a-glxan-a (cp. 137, 2b). 

5. ^R^ ah /say/ is defective, forming only 2. sg.dual and 3. sg. 
.ual pi.: ^HIW at-tha, ^RTf ah-a; "Wf^* ah-dthub, 

6. ^P^arps, 'reach/ reduplicates with the syllable ^HP^5n, in 
rhich the radical nasal is repeated with the initial vowel (cf. Gfc. 
or. inf. /y-yK-iv) ; on the other hand, the radical nasal is dropped 
a the weak forms : 3. sg. P. W 1 !^! an-tfms'a, 3. pi* i. 

n-as-ire. The analogy of this ^erb is followed by ^P arc, 
praise * : 3. sg. ^|i^l an-arc-a. 



7. ^bhu, 'be/ has the double irregularity of reduplicating 
with^ a and retaining its *fu throughout (cp. Gk.*-0W<) : 

^ bft-bh*-v-a *$f* ba-bhu-v-i-va* ^fiW ba-bhu-v-i 

^ ba-bml-tha l^m* ba-bhu-v-iithub *#* ba-bhu-v-4 



Periphrastic Perfect. 

140. The verbs which cannot reduplicate, form their perfect 
by making an abstract feminine noun in the accusative, ^U*< am, 
and adding to this the reduplicated perfect of JK kr, ' do/ ^T^. as, 
'be, 1 or 3bhu t 'be/ This formation started. with the employ- 
ment of the transitive verb ST kr, e.g. *l*1*li ^BTT gamayarn 
cakara/he did going/ Le/he did go'; but in classical Sanskrit 
the periphrastic perfect is usually formed with ^if^ae, the other 
two auxiliaries occurring only exceptionally. The periphrastic 
perfect is almost entirely limited to the derivative verbs in ^RT 
aya (tenth class, causatives, and denominatives) ; e. g. Wl*^r 
*?TO bodbayam asa, 'he awakened*' Hardly any examples of 
desideratives or intensives are found in this tense. 

& The following are the few primary verbs taking the peri- 
phrastic perfect: 

i. four roots beginning with a prosodically long vowel : "^FJ.. 
as, ' it/ l^ik?, * see/ ^f^ujjh, * forsake/ TJ^edh, ' thrive ' j 
ftf as-ain cakre, r he sat/ 

a- the reduplicated roots ^TR ca-kaa, ' shine/ and 
ji-gr, *&wake ' (properly an intensive, 134 A 4) :M*l* 
k5a-Si|i cakSra, Vfl?;i*IW jagar-Sm asa. 

3- the roots $ bhr.'bear/ and, in the Epics, ^ nT/lead/ and 
'call/ optionally: fw^f ^f bibhar-am babhuva or 


ha-bhar-a, 'he "bore'; fa^lRTRTTO (a-)nayam asa or 
ni-nay-a, ' he brought ' ; 4|W|4! hvay-am aea or 
ju-hav-a, 'he called.' 

Paradigm of the Periphrastic Perfect. 


bodhayam as-a bodhayam as-i-ya bodhayam 5s-i-ma 

bodhayam as-i-tha $<r-6a) bodha^m as-athu^ bodhayam as-a 

bodhayam as-a bodbayam as-atut bodhayam Ss-nh 


141. There are two kinds of aorists in Sanskrit, as in Greek. 
The First is formed by inserting a sibilant between root and 
termination, the Second by adding the terminations to the root 
with or without the connecting vowel ^( a. Both aorists take the 
augment (which is accented) and the secondary terminations. 
There are four forms of the First Aorist, and three of the Second. 

Pirst AoriBt. 

B. The first form is made by adding to the augmented root 
the suffix ^1 ia, andis inflected like an imperfect of the first 
conjugation (-bhava-t) except in the Atm. x. sg., 2. 3. dual 
(where it follows the hnpf. of f?^dvis). It is taken by only a 
few roots ending in ^s and J h (which become ^ k before ^s: 
63 6 ; 69 a), and containing the vowels ^ i, ^ u, or ^U r, which 
remain unchanged; e.g. f^^ dis, 'point': 3. eg. ^if^^v. 
a-dik-^a-t. This form corresponds to /the Greek First Aorist 
, Lat. dixi-t). 




IT 142 

a-dik-s-am tf-diksa-va 


a-dik-sa-b i-diksa-tam 

*-dik-sa-t a-diksa-tam 







-diks3-vahi a'-diksS-mahi 

a*-diksa-thSk tf-dikfl-atham a-diksa-dhvam 
3- ^ll^^n -^f^^ in i*^ ^f^^^i 

a*-diksa-ta ^-diks-atam ^-diks-anta 

A. Similarly inflected is the aorist of ^duh, 'milk/ the stem 
of which is rf-dhuk-sa (S5) :^-P*ar. i. eg. 
Atm. ^raf^ a-dhnks-i. 

The other three form* of the Firet Aorist-are made 
by adding to the augmented root the suffixes ^ B, l^i-f, ftW 
-i-f reapectively, and are inflected like imperfects of the^ 
veeoad conjugation (4-dves-am). The sis-form is used, in the 
Piwr, only, by a few roota ending in ^f a, which remains unchanged 
throughout. The s-fonn and inform are used by roots ending in 
otfeer vowels than ^f 5,-or in consonants; both have V r ddhi 
thitmgbout the Parasmaipada (a medial Towel has only Guna 
m the is-fom) and Guna throughout the Itmanepada (a medial 
wwel and final ^ r remain unchanged in the s-fonn). All 
three forma have the peculiar endings f^ia, ^ it in the 
a. 3. amg. Par., and must take ^ ur ID the 3. plur. 


Second or s-form. 

143- i. ^ Til, 'lead ,* as an example of a root ending in a vowel : 


a'-nai-s-am a'-nai-s-va a'-nai-s-ma 

2. ^*ln: ^ft&9^ ^ftr? 

a-nai-s-Di a-nai-a-tam a-nai-s-ta 

a-nai-e-tam a'-nai-s-uli 


v ^- 

d-ne-s-i i-De-s*vahi a-ne-s-mahi 





a-ne-s-atam ^-ue-s-ata 

a. ftf^ chid, 'cut off,' as an example of a root ending in a 
consonant :- PAKASMAIPADA. 

i. ^R^W^ V%7^T ^^7^1 

a"-cchait-s-am ^-cchait-s-va 6-cchait-s-ma 


a-cchait-s-h. ^-cchait-tam a-cchajt-ta 


a-cchait-s-It d-cchait-tom a-cchait-B-ui 


a-cchit-fi-i a-ccnit-s-vahi a-ccMt-s-mahi 


a-cchit-thah a-cchit-s-atham a-cchid-dhvam 

i-cchit-ta a-cchit-s-atam. a-ccblt-s-ata 

120 FIRST AORIST * v *44 

a. ^ kr, ' do,' as ending in ^B r, is similarly inflected : Par. 
,TOTra?: a*-kar-s-itu TfaTnil^-kar-B-Tt, &c. 
r-s -i, TOW: a-ky-thab, TOfl rf-kf-ta, &c. The 
last two forms do not properly belong to the s-aorist, "being 
borrowed from the second form of the root aorist (148) which 
is not otherwise inflected in the Atm. 

Irregularities of the s-form. 

144. i. Before the suffix ^s final radical (a) ^n as well as 
T^ m hecomes Anusvara (cp. 66 A 2) ; e, g. Vfaff a*-mam-sta, 
from tFp^man, * think,* as well as Wijil ^L-ram-sta, from T^ 
ram, ' be glad ' (op. 42 B i) ; (b) ^ 3 in the verb ^ vas, ' dwell,* 
hecomes c^t : ^RTfltn^ a- vat-sit (66 B i). 

2. The termination ^^dhvam (before which the ?J,s of the 
aorist is always lost) becomes W^dhvam when the ^s would 
have been cerebralized (cp. 66 B 2); e.g. W*l<j8*(, d-ne-dhvam 
(for d-ne-s-dhvam), ^TOJt drkr-dhTam (for A-kp-s-dhyam). 

3. ^T da, 'give/ VT dh5, 'place,' W\ Btha, 'stand' (which 
takes the second aorist in the Par., 148), weaken their vowel to ^i 
(cp.i36 1 note2) before the terminations of the Atmanepada: 

A-di-s-i, ^f^Tf: A-di-thali (cp. 143 a), ^f^a A-di-ta 

f ^-di-s-vahi, &c. 

4- fl<M, 'see,' ^T x srj, 'create,' ^[.sprs, 'tonch,* take 
Vrddhi with metathesis in the Par.ji e. g, 3. sg. inaiV^ 
d-Frak-srt (63 a, note 2), du. HU r^TH,^-eras-tam (63 a; 66 B 2), 

^I^K i-srf -ta, &c. 

5. The aoriat of ^J dah, 'bum,' and ^Vs^nidh, 'binder,' is 
difficult owrngtotheSandhi(69a; 



d-dhak-sva, *|^|Jt|4^ a-dag-dham, ^^WT^ a-dag-dMm ; 
pl.^WT^T a-dhak-sma, <4|^|Jt| a-dag-dha, ^TOT^ a-dhak- 
su^ ; A, sg. ^n*fa a-dhak-s-i, TR^nsTT: a-dag-dhat, ' 
d-dag-dha ; ^TV^f? 6-dhak-tfvahi, 

atham, ^KV^lini^ d-dhak-if-atam ; pi. ^l^l^ff d-dhak- 
smaM, ^ ^i m. d-dliag-dhvain (620), 4)^4 a-dliak-s-ata ; 
^-raut-sam j du. 2. ^n^TH^-raud-dliaTn (626), pi. 2. 

^-raud-dlia ; Aim. sing. I. ^^fcM ^-rut-s-i, 2. 

, 3. ^Rpff -md-dha ; pi, 2. ^1^^ -md-dhvam, 

Third or inform, 

145. This form differs from the preceding merely in adding the 
^s with the connecting vowel ^i (which changes it to TG^B, 67). 
The endings of the 2. 3. sg. are %^ is, ij^it (for is-s, is-t; cp. 
28 ; 150). Hardly anyParasmaipada forms of is-aorists from roots 
ending in vowels occur in classical Sanskrit, but one such, formed 
from "3,pu, ' purify/ in the older language and inflected in loth 
voices, may be taken as a paradigm for the active as well as the 
middle : 


d-pav-is-am a-pav-is-va -pav-is-ma 


i-pav-IL, fE-pav-is-tam -pav-is-ta 

^-pa v-it ^-pav-i s -tam -pav-i s-ni. 



d-pav-ia-i a-pav-is-vahi -pav-is-mahi 

4-pav-is-atham tf-pav-i-dhvam (144, 2) 

d-pav-is-ta tf-pav-is-atam a"-pav-is-ata 

, 'awake/ as an example of a root ending in a 
consonant, does not take Vyddhi in the Par. (142) : 



i. ^ 

d-bodh-is-am i-bodh-is-va d-bodh-is-ma 


d-bodh-ih 4-bodh-is-tam d-bodh-5s-ta 
3- ' 

d-bodh-it d-bodh-ia-^m d-bodh-is-uh 


^ ^^ ^^ 

i^bodh*is*i a-bodh-is-vahi a-bodh-is-mahl 

6-bodh-is-5tliSin d-bodh-l-dhvam 

ft. U^ mad, ' exhilarate,' and ^ yad, ' speak,* take Vyddhi in 
the Par.: 


Fourth or lif-form. 

146. This form differs from the preceding one simply in pre- 
fixing an additional ^ s to the suffix. It is conjugated in the 
Parasmaipada only, and ia used by not more than six roots, all 
ending in ^R a. *TT ya, ' go,' may serve as an example : 


4-ya-sis-am A-ya-sis-va &-ya-sis-ma 




Second Aorirt 

147. This aorist is like an impeifect formed directly from the 
root, the terminations being added with or without the connecting 
vowel *f a. 

The first form is like an imperfect of the sixth class, the 
stem being formed by adding ^ a to the unmodified root. It 
corresponds to the Second Aoriat of the first conjugation in 
Greek (?-rwr-o-i>): The inflexion of this aorist formed from 
, 'sprinkle/ is as follows: 


d-sic-am d-sica-va &~sica-ma 

2. ^ifti^it ^(Ri^fl*^ ^Rj^in 

i-sica-b i-sica-tam ^-sica-ta 



d-sic-e d-sica-vahi d-sica-mahi 

a. ^n 

d-fiica-thab d-sic-ethara d-sica-dhvam 

3. -<Ttrci!t ^iRi^dr'flL ^rflf 

d-sica-ta d-sic-etam d-aic-anta 


A i. ^Tf khya, 'tell/ substitutes ^1 a for ^ a : 
4-khya-t. *^P^dr3/see,' takes Guria: ^Rp^c^ d-dars-a-t. 
3 ^, 'throw/ adds ^ th to the root : *4|( MS ^ aB-th-a-t 1 . 
4- 'W^ pat, ' fall,' and ^T^ vac, f speak,' form contracted re- 
duplicated aorists : ^M^H ^-pa-pt-am, ^|4^x|^ a"-voc-am 
(for d-va-uc-am, cp. Gk. 

Second Form. 

148. The imperfect terminations of the second conjugation are 
attached to the root. This form corresponds to the Second Aorist 
of the second conjugation in Greek: VaTP^-dha-m, 'I placed f 
(*-ftr)i "^raTTct ^-stha-t, ' he stood ' (e-a-rrf) ; ^RT^ 4-ga-t, * he 
vent* (f^) ; ^J^a-bhu-t, 'he became' (^w). A few verbs 
ending in ^ffa (as well as *bhu, 'be') take this form. This 
WS is retained throughout except before the ^ ur of the 3. pi. 
There is no Atmanepada (cp. 143 a ; 144, 3). 

i. 3gT da, 'give':-- PAJBASMAIPADA. 

J - T^dS-m ^T^T 4-dA-va "VTR d-da-ma 

2 - 

1 The root of this aorirt i., however, parobably ^fT BthS, ' stand,' with 
** wr^ idwrtewdas in ^^^4-khyat. 


a. ^bhu, be': PABASMAIPADA. 

1. ^^q^a-bhu-v-am ^T^Jf d-bhu-va V^H d,-bhu-ma 

2. ^fl: &-bhu-k ?Pa-bhu-tam ^H**f a-bhii-ta 

Third or Reduplicated Form. 

I49 Excepting the primary verbs 7 dru, *run/ and f%f sri, 
1 go/ tbis aorist bas attached itself to the secondary conjugation 
in ^RI aya (tenth class and causativea). The stem is formed by 
a peculiar reduplication of the root, to vhich ^ a is attached. 
The inflexion is like that of an imperfect of the first conjugation. 
Upwards of forty verbs take this aorist in classical Sanskrit. 

Special Rules of Reduplication. 

i. ^T a, ^KT a, ^S r, ^ r, ^ 1 are represented in the reduplica- 

" tive syllable by ^ i. 

a. The vowel of the reduplicative syllable, unless already long 
by position, is lengthened. 

The quantity of the first three syllables of the stem is thus 
almost invariably u v: S-ji-jan-at, a-ji-grSh-at, ft-sJi-sri-y-at, 
a-vi-vis'-at, a-di-dj?s-at, S-dl-dar-at (from df), S-du-dru-v-at, S-mu- 
m\ic-at, &-cT-klp-at. 

^^ muc, ' release' : stem ^|*jjx| a-mu-muc-a : 


i. ~ 

a-miamuc-am a-mumiica-va a-inumuca-ma 


a-mumuca-li a-niumuua-tam a-mumuca-ta 


a-mumuca-t a-mumuca-tSm a-mumuc-an 



a-mumuc-e a-mumuc5-vahi a-mumucS-mahi 


a-mumuca-thaljL a-mumuc-ethSm a-mumuca-dhvam 

a-rnumuca-ta a-mumuc-eiSm a-mumuc-anta. 


4. x. ^n?radh,' succeed/ and ^J^vyadh,' pierce/ shorten their 
radical syllable, so as to produce" the prevailing rhythm : ^lOO 5 !^ 
S-ri-rfcdh-a-t, *1 <H ft VR^ &-vi-vf dh-a-t (cp. 133 B 2). 

a. ^t^dlp, * shine,' and ^ftw^mil, 'wink, 1 retaining their long 
radical vowel, do not lengthen the reduplicative syllable, thus 
inverting the usual quantity of these two syllables : ^f^^lM<\ 
a-didip-a-t, ^< f*f *Tl ^n f^ a-mimlL-a-t . 

Benedictive or Precative. 

150, The active of this form ia very rare, while the middle does 
not occur at all, in classical Sanskrit. It is an aorist optative, 
being formed by adding the terminations directly to the root. 
The terminations are those of the optative of the second conjuga- 
tion, with ^e inserted between ^TT ya and the personal inflexions. 
The endings of the 2. 3. sing, are ^TR3t.yas (for ya-s-s), <||^yat 
(for yfis=y5-&-t : cp. 28 ; 145), being thus identical in form with 
those of the optative present (131). The Benedictive Far. of ' 
budh, 'awake,' would be formed 'as follows : 

budb-ya-s-am budh-ya-8-va budh-ya^-s-ina 


budh-ya-t budhyaH3-tam budh-ya-s-ta 


budh-ya-t budh-ya-s-tSm 


Simple Future. 

151* The future is formed by adding to the stem the suffix 
"51 sya*, or, with the connecting vowel ^ i f T^( i-?y, and is 
inflected like a present of the first conjugation (bh&v&mi). Most 
roots ending in vowels (except ^H r) take ^T sya, more than half 
of those ending in consonants take ^tZf isya. Derivative vprbs 
regularly take the latter. 

a. Final vowels andprosodically short medial vowels take Gunaj 
e.g. ^ i, 'go': Hmffl e-sya-ti; ^i^budh, 'awake' : 
bhot-sya-te (55); ^I^rudh, 'hinder* : W fn rot-sya-ti ; i 
' do ' : qifvaqf?! kar-i-syd-ti; ^bhu, ' be* : ^fq^fn bhav-i-syi-ti. 

i* Several roots take both forms; e. g. <^[ dah, 'burn* : 
^qjlfn dhak-sya-ti (55) and ^[Tf *affl dah-i-sya-ti. 

2. Derivatives in 1W aya retain their present stem, dropping 
only their final TJ a; e. g. tHv^ cor-aya, c steal * : 

^T da, ' give ' : PAKASMAIPADA. 

_ * __. j. , ,_ j. , 

dS-sya-mi d5-sya-vaf da-sya-majgt 

2. ^l^ftJ ^I^^J ^l<3l 

da-syd-si da-sya-that da-syi-tha 

da-syi-tat da-sy-dnti 

da-sy-^ do-syi-vahe 

dS-sya-se dS-sy-^the dS-sya-dhve 

3. ^itn7l ^i^c) 

da-syd-te da-sy-^te 



b. x. Several verbs have ^ ra" instead of ^H ar before IJT sya 
(cp. 144,4): "Jj^dra', 'see/ ^^srj, 'emit,' W 1 ^ srp,.' creep/ 
^JP^spra, 'touch': s^fa drak-sya-ti (636), ^TOfTT erak- 
n ya-ti (63 a), ta^fn srap-sya-ti, *?p?rf*T BI rak-sya-ti. 
a. A few verbs strengthen the root with a nasal before J?T sya : 
nas, 'be lost 5 : 4>f^$|(7| nank-syati as well as 

nas-i-sya-ti ; ITOljuajj, 'sink*: 4|^^f71 mank-sya-ti. 

3- ^GC. vas, 'dwell/ changes its ^ s to 7^ t before ?5 sya : 
qd^ft vat-sya-ti (66 B i). 

4- ^^ ff 1 "^ 1 ' " seize/ takes i^T instead of ^ i as its connecting 
vowel: ti^tnqfn grah-i-sya-ti (cp. 160, 3 a). 

Periphrastic Putnre. 

152. It is formed by adding the present of the verb ^RJ as, 
'be/ to the nom. masc. of an agent noun in 7J -tf (101). The 
nom. sing, is used in all forms except the third persons dual and 
plural, in which the nom. dual and plural appear. The auxiliary 
is omitted in the third persons. The Parasmaipada only is found 
in use. About forty verbs, chiefly in the Epics, take thia form 
of the future. 

. ?T tr is added, with or without ^ i, to the gunated root, 
much in the same way as ^f sya. But roots ending in ^S r, as 
well as ^ gam, 'go/ and f^han, 'kill/ reject the connecting 
yowelj " kr: ^rfiftu kartasmi (but qRuilfa kar-i-sya-mi) ; 
gantasmi (but ^iRimf^ gam-i-sya-mi). 



bhav-i-tasmi bhav-i-ta-svab bhav-i-ta-smat 


bhav-i-taai bhav-i-ta-sthat bhav-i-ta-stha 

3. *iftu <HfofllO Hfo?ITT* 

bhav-i-ta bhav-i-tarau' bhav-i-tarah 

* 9 

6 s 

e-tasmi e-ta-svah 

2. nmftr iprra: 

e-tasi e-ta-sthab e-ta-stlia 

3. iprr 

e-ta e-tarau e-tarah 


153. This is a past tense of the future, meaning ' would have/ 
It is formed by turning the simple future into a past, which is 
inflected like an imperfect of the first conjugation (abhavam). 
Extremely rare even in the Par., it is still rarer in the Itm. It 
is to be met with chiefly in the Epics and the drama's. Examples 
are: from $bhu,' be': (fat.Hpim ifiTbhav-i-syami) -wfimn^ 
&-bhavisy-am, WftUj: a-bhavisya-b, -n^tfq^q, a^bhavisya-t, 
&c.; Atm. ^Rft^ a-bbavisy-e, &c.; Ti.'g ''- ( fut - 

e-sya-mi) ' s-m: aisa-, lif ?&-*>> &c.; Atm. 

alsy-e, &c. 


154. The passive, which takes the terminations of the Atmane- 
pada, differs from the latter only in the forms made from the 
present stem and in 3. sg. aor. From the Atm. of verbs of the 
fourth class it differs in accent only : iflSfr naVya-te, ' he binds' ; 
nah-ya-te, 'he is bound.' 

130 PASSIVE IV 154 

Pefore adding ^T ya, the root undergoes the following changes : 

1. Final ^JJT a (or diphthongs : 129, 8) remains or becomes X ** 
* g- W jffa, ' know ' : TTPPf jfia-y^-te - 9 tTT pB, 'drink * : 
pz-yd~te; TT gS, 'sing* (or Sfr gai) : H^ gi-y-te. 

2. Final ^ i and ^ u are lengthened ; e.g. ^ i, 'go ' : 
I-ya-te; t% ci, 'collect': ^VWft ci-y-te; ^BTsini, 'hear*: 

3. Final ^J r after a single consonant becomes f^ ri, after two 
consonants, TT^ ar ; e. g. W kr, ' do ' : falft kri-y4-te ; but 
^smr, * remember *: ^cfft smar-yi-te. 

4. Final ^E F is changed to f^ir aud, after labials, to 
e.g. ^1 kf, 'scatter 9 : *$\*$\ kir-yi-te; ^T str, ' strewr* : 
sfir-y^-te; but tj pf, 'fill* (the only example): TJjfa pur-y4-te. 

5. Roots ending in a consonant preceded by a nasal, lose the 
nasal; e.g. *T^bhaflj, 'break' : 9TOft bhaj-y-te. 

6. Boots liable to Samprasarana (137, 2c) take it; e.g. 
yaj : f^ ij-y^-te ; ^ vac : *3*Bft uc-ya-te ; H^ grab : 
grh-y^te ; ^f^svap : ^fl{ sup-yA-te. 

7. Derivative verbs in 1R aya drop the suffix while retaining 
the strong radical vowel ; e. g. ^<ej cor-aya : ^H?t cor-yate ; 
WT^ kfir^ya (from W kr): ^m5^ kar-ya-te. 

The passive of ^bhu, *be,' would be inflected as follows : 


5?T^ g?rw% 

bhu-ya-vahe bhu-ya-mah^ 

^% j^r 

bhu-y-ethe bhu-y^-dhve 



IV 154 



-bhu-ya-vahi -bhu-ya-mahi 








a*-bhu-y-et5m 6-bhu-y-anta 

bhu-ya-vahai bhu-yanaaahai 

bhu-y-etham bhu-y^-dhvam 



^u-y-^ya bhu-y-evahi 

bhu-y-^thalj bhu-y-eyathaon bhu-y-^dhvam 

bhu-y-^ta bbii-y-^yatam 


a. ,. ^Hkhan, 'dig/ has either *&& khan-y^-teor 
kha-ya-te; 7!^ tan /stretch': Tf^fS tan-ya-te or *lW 
gp^jan, 'beget/ has ^rra?ji-ya-te, 'is born' (properly an Atin. 
of the fourth class : cp. 133 B 2). 

a. UT^.Ss/ coinlIiaild '' has either 1 ^ 1 ^ sSs-ya-te 
eis-ya-te (cp. J344 a )- 

K 1 

13 2 PASSIVE IV 155 

3. XT hva, 'call' (or ^ hve), has *tf\ hu-ya*te (cp. 136, 4); 
T va (or^ ve), 'weave/ ^i^T) u-y-te. 

Aorist Passive. 

155. The Atm. of this tease supplies the place of the passive 
except in the third person singular, which has a special 
form. Here the augmented root adds the suffix ^ i, which re- 
quires Vrddhi of a final vowel and Guna of a medial vowel (but 
^t a is lengthened) followed hy a single consonant ; after ^5ff a, 
a ^y is inserted ; e. g. ^ sru, ' hear ' : ^^WTfa d-srav-i ; "8? kr 
'do ' : ^WSTft ^-kSr-i ; T^ pa d, - walk ' : V 
vis/enter^ V5T5|a-ves-i; g^muc/ release': 
IfT JB5, 'know' : miTf^ ^-jfia-y-i. 

a. The following are peculiarities or irregularities in this 
formation : i. ^^ rabo, ' seize/ shows the nasalized form of 
the root: %Kf*iT a-rambh-i. 3. n p f, f fiU,' has ^TffT a-pur-i 
( C P- I54 4)- 3- *n^gam, 'go,' 1^ rac, 'fashion/ ^^ vadh, 
slay/ do not lengthen their ^ a : ^^TfiT a-gam-i, ^1?^^ a-rac-i, 
^nfV a-vadh-L 4. Verbs in VI aya drop the suffix (cp. 154, 7) : 
V\M4 rop-aya, causative of ^ ruh/ mount ' : ^I^tft a-rop-i, 

Z. Active Participles. 

156* The stem of the present and future participles Par. is 
formed with the suffix ^at (cp. 85). The strong atem is obtained 
by dropping the ^ i of the 3. pi, pres. and fut. Par. : hence 
verbs of tie third dus and other reduplicated verbs 
( X 34 A, 4) have no nasal in the strong stem of the pres. part., 
while the fat. part, always has ^RT^ant as its strong stem. 


FBES. 3. pi. PKES. PAKT. Fur. 3. pi. Pur. PABT. 
(strong). (strong). 

bhavant-i (i) bhavant bhav-isyaut-i bhavisyant 

*nY*4l(^ ^fl^I^l "bft|fn %cq^ 

kii-n-ant-i (9) krinant kre-sy&nt-i kresyint 

jiihv-at-i (3) jiihvat ho-syant-i hosydnt 
a. The strong stem of the pres. part, of ^f^ as, ' be,' is 
sdnt (3. pi. tll*h s-Ant-i) ; that of ^^han, ' slay/ is ^1? 
(3- pi- "wf^ ghn-ant-i) - 1 . 

157. The reduplicated perfect participle (89) is most easily 
formed by taking the 3. pi. Par., with which the weakest stem 
is practically identical (only that "^ r 2 must be changed to ^s 
which, being always followed by a vowel, appears as ^s). In 
forming the middle and strong stems from this, the final vowel 
of the root (changed to a semivowel before ^^ us) must be 
restored, and in verbs which, after dropping <3^ ur, become mono- 
syllabic, f[ i must be inserted : 

ca-kr-iifr cakr-iis-a cakr-varpsam cakj--v^d-bhilj 

o|4JJj; q*jgm ^*Js?Mtt*^ (*J^|[i 

babbu-v-ulj babhu-v-tls-5 babhu-^tns-am babhu-vdd-bhi^ 

ten-ilk ten-iis-S ten-i-'vams-am ten-i-vi(d-bhib 

1 On the declension of participles in ^fc^at, see 85 ; on the formation 
of their feminine stems, 95 a. a Cp. 131, 6. 


a. The participle of the present perfect of f%^ vid, 'know-* 
(3-pkf^P vid-tfy), does not take the intermediate^!: insfc. 
sg. ftj^F vidtis-a"; ace. fq^itf ^vid-vatna-am ; ft g^Rf* 

II. Atmanepada and Passive Participles, 

158. Present and Future Participles Atmanepada and 
Passive are formed with the suffix UTT mana, which is added 
after dropping the 3. pi. termination %-nte: A to. pres. WRIT 
bhva-mana, fut* *i ft uq*t \ <jj bhavifyd-mana ; Pass.pres.^WTf 

& The second conjugation takes ^JTT an4 in the pres. 
Atm. : ^pfH jtihv-ana (but fut. ^ft^^I^ hosyd-mana, Pass. 
pres. ^*im huyd-mana). The root "^fP^as, 'sit,' takes the 
anomalous suffix f^f Ina: ^fre^T as-Tna, 'sitting.* 

159- The Perfect Atm. would be formed vith the suffix 
^1*1 Sn^, which is added after dropping the termination ^ ire 
of the 3. pi. Atm. ; e. g. ^f^ babhuv-ir^ : f^TR babhuv-Siui. 
It hag, however, become obsolete, only a few instances of it sur- 
viving in the sense of substantives or adjectives; e.g. 
anujjc-ana* (from ann-vac, 'having repeated '==) 'learned.' 

160. The^ Perfect Passive Participle is formed with the 
suffixes T na and the much commoner 7T ta. 

i. "*r na, which is taken by primary verbs only, and is attached 
immediately to the root, is used by a good many roots ending in 
the long vowels W a, ^1, ^ u, ^ r (which becomes t^ Tr or 
^Jur) and especially in td ;_*. g, ^fT mla/ fade 5 : ^TR mla-na; 
iftn/eKng': ^NlT-na; ^lfi,'cut': ^f lu-na ; Wstr/strew': 
W stlr-^; | P r, 'fiU' ; ^ pur-n^l (cp. 154, 4* 18R[ bhid f 
cleave ' : TO^ bhin-n^, v 


*. ^ nud, ' push,' and foe vid, ' find,* optionally take flta r 
mm-na or *Jrt nut-ta*; ftjl vin-na or ft^f vit-ta". 

b. The final of a few roots in ^ j that take T na reverts to the 
original guttural ; e. g. H^bhanj, 'break': Wf bhag-na; 3J^T V 
bhuj, * bend ' : *pT bhug-na ; JFHT^majj, ' sink ' : ?W mag-na ; 
f^f^ vij, ' tremble ' : f^ vig-na. 

a. 7\ ta is attached to the root with or without the connecting 
vowel ^ i ; e. g. fSfTT ji-ta", ' conquered ' ; tjf?T?f pat-i-ta, 4 fallen.' 
When attaching the suffix immediately, the root has a tendency 
to be weakened in the usual way : verbs liable to Samprasarana 
(137, 2c) take it, W a is in some cases weakened to f^i or even 
^ i, a final nasal is in several cases lost T ; e. g. ^I^yaj, ' sacrifice * : 
^ is-t (63 a ; 64) ; ^ vac, ' speak * : ^Tff uk-t^ ; ^^ svap, 
1 sleep ' : *JH sup-ti ; HT pa, ' drink ' : 1fa( pl-t ; WT stha, 
'stand': f^TT sthi-t^ (Gk. <rra-r<f-ff, Lat. sta-tu-s) ; ^ gam, 
' go ' : *Rf g-** ; f^. tan, ' kill ' : f?f ha-t^C. 

*. VT dha, 'put,' is doubly weakened: f^T hi-ta* (for dhi-tit). 

6. ^T d5, give,' uses its weak present stem <[< dad : ^-rl 
dat-ta. After certain verbal prepositions ^f datt^C is weakened 
to ^T t-ta; e.g. ^irfr a-tta (for a-datta), 'taken.' 

c. Severalroots inTR^am, instead of dropping the nasal, retain 
it, and lengthen the preceding vowel ; e. g. 3fi*^ kara, * love 9 : 
cfil^l kan-ta. 

d. ^9(^ dhvan, 'sound,' follows the analogy of 3R^kam, &c. : 
^TTfT dhv3n-t^ ; while a few others in ^IP^ an use a collateral 
form of the root in W a; e.g. Tl^khan, 'dig' : *Tffi kha-t; 
^*JJan, 'be born * : 3TT?T ja-tdi. 

3. ^TT i-ta is taken by a considerable number of primary verbs 
which end either in double consonants or in single consonants 

1 On the peculiar Sandhi of roots ending in W h, cp. 69. 


not easily combining with ?^t, and by all derivative verbs (which 
drop the final ^ a or ^RT aya before it) ~ 9 e. g. Jf^F sank, ' doubt ' : 
*rf^n safik-i-ta ; fl^ Hkh, ' scratch ' : fwf^RT likh-i-tiC ; 
Ip-sa, desiderative of "UP^ap, ' obtain ' : t/Ujfl ips-i-td ; 
kar-aya, causative of W kr/do * : fc*(f\H kSr-i-ta. 

a. The full form of the root is usually retained before ^j?f ita ; 
but ^T^ vad, ' speak,' and IT^vas, 'dwell,' usually take Saxnpra- 
sarana : ^fc^fl ud-i-ta, >dftfl us-i-ta ; -while I|^ grah, * seize,* 
always takes Samprasarapa and the connecting vowel f^i instead 
of i; i : Vjftll grh-I-ti (cp. 151 b 4). 

161. By adding the possessive suffix ^fT^vat to the past pass, 
part., a new form of very common occurrence is made, which, has 
the value of a perfect active participle ; e. g. "BHT ky-ta, * done ' : 
onsct^ krta-vat, * having done. 3 It is generally used as a finite 
vert, the copula being omitted; e.g. ^BT ?fc^ ttfl41*l. sa tat 
krtavan, 'he (has) done it'; ^T ?Tc^ &4q?ft sa tat kptavatl, 
'she (has) done it' (cp. 89, foot-note 3). 

162. The Fatnre Passive Participle is formed with the 
suffixes ^f ya, 7TO tav-ya, and irffa an-iya. They correspond 
in sense to the Lat. gerundive in -ndus. 

i. Before the suffix ^T ya 

*. final ^(T a becomes TJ e ; e. g. ^T da : ^ d6-ya, ' to be 

b. final ^ i, ^i take Guna,^u, ^T uGunaorVrddhi.^ffr, " 
Vrddhi ; e. g. f% ji : %*J je-ya, 'to be conquered ' ; ^ nl : 
ne-ya, * to be led * ; ^ hu : ^ hav-ytf, * to be offered ' ; 3 bliu : 
TW bhav-ya, 'about to be' ; W kr : ^SpJ kar-ya, ' to be done.' 

c. medial ^ i and ^ u followed by a single consonant generally 
take Guna, ^J a is sometimes lengthened, ^g r remains un- 
changed; e. g. f5?f bhM : %^ bhed-ya, ' to be split ; 


yoj-ya, * to be joined ' ; ipj s'ak : ^ppf s'ak-ya, ' possible ' ; 
but ^R vac: ||**| vac-ya, 'to be said*; ^f^drd: ^ff dfs-ya, 
1 to be seen.' 

a. Before the suffix 7^ tavya, the root, if possible, takes 
China, being treated in the same way as before the 7TT ta of the 
periphrasticfut.(iS2); f^Tji: %7T^je-tavya,'tobe conquered'; 
^bhu : *lfmee| bhav-i-tavyk, ' that must be ' 5 *R^ gam : TfT^T 
gan-tavyfc, ' to be gone * ; <^T da : ^ldty da-tavya, 'to be given* ; 
f*f<^ bhid: Jl^cq bhet-iavya, *to be split.' 

3. Before the suffix ^H4 an-iya, the root takes Gima; 
e.g. f^T ci: *qiTlx4 cay-anlya, 'to be gathered'; ^ bhu : 
*i^^lf bhav-amya, ' that must be ' ; W kr : ^^1^^ kar-aiilya, 
'to be done'; ^^lubh: ^n*tT\q lobh-auiya, 'to be desired.' 

. The ^RI aya of the causative is rejected; *liq*4 bhav-aya : 
bhav-anlya, ' to be supposed.' 

III. Gerund or Indeclinable Participle. 

163. The suffix used for forming this participle from the 
simple verb is 3TT tv-a (an old instrumental singular of a stem 
in TJ tu). It is most easily attached to the root by being sub- 
stituted for the 7f t of the passive participle ; e. g. Wff kr-tri, 
'done': BiflT kr-tva,' having done' ; HWuk-td,' spoken': <9r*ni 
uk-tv5, 'having spoken'; 3f7f ga-ti, ' gone * : *TOT ga-tva/ having 

tf. The suffix of the causative, ^RI aya, is, however, retained : 
^tf^fl cor-i-ta, ' stolen/ but -<t<n(WI cor-ay-i-tva, ' having 

164. If the verb is compounded with a preposition it takes 
^T ya instead of WT tv5 : from ^bhu, ' be,* ^?n bhii-tva, but 

sain-bhu-ya; from T^vac, 'speak/ xjpenr iik-tva,but JTt^T 


prauc-ya; from ^ tf, 'cross/ ^14404 ava-tir-ya, 'having de- 
scended '; from *? pf, 'fill,' 4Jlj^ sam-pur-ya. 

a. The suffix of the causative, TRI aya, is retained (excepting 
the final ^f a) before ^T ya if the radical vowel is short l ; e. g. 
ti|t( sam-gam-ay-ya from tJl*t^ sam-gam-aya, ' cause to 
assemble'; but fo*|l*5 vi-car-ya from fq-qii/bl vi-c5r-aya, 
* consider.' 

165. W tya is added, instead of ^T ya, to compound verbs 
ending in a short vowel ; e. g. fa <fl I ji-t va, but ftftttl vi-jf-tya. 

a. The analogy of these verbs is optionally followed by roots 
ending in *^n or J^m, preceded by ^Sf a, which may drop the 
nasal if it is dropped in the. perfect participle passive (r6o, 2) ; 
e g. l^gam, ' go ' : -9U|< a-gam-ya or ^OTTST a-ga-tya (part, 
TT ga-ta") ; T^nam, ' bend ' : Jj<q<f pra-nam-ya (65) or TRH9 
pra-^ia-tya (part. "ifTf na-t) ; ?f^ man, * think ': ^R? -man-ya 
or *rar -ma-tya (part. ITTf ma-t^) ; f^han, 'kill ' : ^T -han-ya 
or fr -ha-lya (part. fTf ha-t^i) ; TT^tan, 'stretch': 
-ta-ya (cp. 154 a r) or ^cfW -ta-tya (part. 7T7T t&-t&). But 
kram, 'stride,' has only ?fiT -kram-ya (part. 4i|^1 kranta) ; 
^khan, 'dig/ only ^TRI -kha-ya (part. *rRT kha-t4 ; cp. 
154 a i). 

166. There is also a rare indeclinable participle in V^ am. 
It is most easily formed by adding the suffix to that form which 
the root assumes before the ^ i of the 3. sg. aor. passive (155) ; 
e.g. ^ sru C*TOTft <t-srav-i, 'it was heard ') : ^TR^ sr5v-am, 
'having heard.' 

IV. Infinitive. 

167. The infinitive (=Lat. supine) is formed by adding |J^ 
tn-m (originally the ace. sg. of a verbal noun) to the form which 

1 Otherwise the gerunds of the Bimple and the causative verb would 
b* identical. 


the verb assumes before the TTTta of 1he periphrastic future (152), 
or the 7f3l tavya (162, 2) of the future part. pass.; e.g. TjTT stha: 
(Lat. sta-tum),' to stand'; *[\^budh: 

bodh-i-tum, ' to awake ' ; ^bhu : *tfqQ*^ bh&v-i-tum, 'to be ' ; 
W kr : ^4^kar-tum, ' to do*; ^J^drs^ 5^^d*4s-tum(i5i& i), 
* to see ' ; ^^ vah : q'lj*^ vodhum (69 6), 'to carry ' ; ^T^ aah : 
^ftjj*^ fiodJhum (69 &), ' to bear ' ; ^J^ cur : ^Tl^fag*!, coray-i- 
tum, * to steal.' 

I. Cansatives. 

l68. This, the commonest class of derivative verbs, is formed 
with the suffix ^RI aya in the same way as the tenth class (125, 4), 
and is similarly inflected ; e. g. ^f\ nl, c lead ' : n<4^ nay-aya, 
' cause to lead ' ; W kr, ' make ' : *KTT^T kar-ava, * cause to make ' ; 
f^R[ vid, ' know ' : 7|^^ ved-^ya, ' cause to know * ; ^^ sad, 
' sit * : *A\<$*4 sad-^ya, ' set. 1 

a. Most of the verbs in ^ a insert ^p before the causative 
suffix ; e. g. 3[T da, ' give ' : ^|l|i( da-p-aya ; ^TT stha, * stand ' : 
^im sthS-p-aya. 

6. The causative suffix is retained (as in the tenth class) 
throughout the conjugation excepting the (reduplicated) aorist 
(which is connected with the causative in sense only : cp. 149). 


i. IfT jfta, 'know,' 1WT gla, 'languish/ ^^T mla, 'fade,' ^TT 
sna, * wash/ optionally shorten the radical vowel before ^TO paya : 
UTTO jaa-p-aya or V^T jlia-p-aya, <fec. 

a. A few roots ending in other vowels than^TT take tf^J paya : 
f%T ji, ' conquer * : <*|M^ ja-paya, ' cause to win * ; ^i with 
adhi, 'read ' : VUUMtl adhy-apaya, ' teach * ; ^ r, ' go ' : 


ar-paya, 'put'j ^ ruh, 'grow': OH< ro-paya, as well as 
^tfT roh-aya, 'raise.' 

3. Y^hu, 'shake,* makes ^TO dhu-n-aya, 'shake'; ift prT, 
'love': iffan 8 !' prT-n-aya, 'delight'; aft bhT, ' f ear * : tffaf^ bhi- 
B-aya, as well as the regular *f(^(^ bhSy-aya, ' frighten/ 

4. ^P^labh, 'take,' inserts a nasal: t*lH<4 lambli-aya ; wliile 
^^dams', 1 bite,' retains its nasal: ^*l*4 dams'-aya (cp. 133 A4). 

5. ^^ han, ' kill/ substitutes the denominative stem ^u fl^I 
gbata-ya, 'make slaughter of*' 

II. Desideratives. 

169. Desiderative stems are formed by adding to the root, 
reduplicated in a peculiar way, the suffix ^ sa, directly in about 
seventy cases, but with the connecting vowel ^ i (i. e. ftf i-sa) in 
nearly thirty others. Thus ^ bhu, ' be,' becomes ^giSf bti-bhu-sa, 
'desire to be/ but ^ft^jiv, 'live/ RUJjflfem ji-jlv-isa, 'desire 
to live/ Desideratives are inflected like verbs of the first con- 
jugation (p. 93). 

The accent being on the reduplicative syllable, the root as a 
rule remains unchanged, but 

z. before fl'sa, final ^ i and^ u are lengthened, while ^Br and 
^|? become 4^ ir or, after labials, ^P ur; e. g. fq 1 ci, ' gather 9 : 
ci-ci-sa ; ^ stu, ' praise ' : ?J|Tq tu-stu-sa ; 7j tf , ' cross * : 
ti-tir-sa; ^ mr, 'die': lfif$i mu-mur-sa. 

2. before^ isa, final i; I, ^T u, ^f must take Guna; medial 
V T takes it also, medial ^ u does so in one case, and medial ^ i 
notatall ; e.g. *ft st, ' lie * : ftfllfa 1 ! si-say-isa ; T flfi ' crush * : 
si-w-isa; 5?^ nrt/ 1 dance': finrfS^f ni-nart-iea ; 
> 'beautify*: ^ftft^ su-sobh-isa ; f^ vid, ' know ' : 
vi-vid-isa, as well as ftf^TO vi-vit-w. V 


Special Ruleg of Reduplication. 

170. i. ^f a, ^IT S, and ^H ? are represented by ^ i in the 
reduplicative syllable (but ^ ur, standing for ^S r after labials, 
reduplicates with ^ u) ; e. g. ^f dah, ' burn * : f^TO di-dhak-sa 
(55; 690); WTstha,* stand 'rf^Wti-stha-sa; ^^srj,' create': 
flHCT si-srk-sa (63 a) ; *[ bhr, 'bear' : ^ft$ bu-bhur-sa. 

a. The reduplication of roots containing ^ i and ^3 u is 
normal je. g. f*P^ vis, * enter ' : fqfq^l vi-vik-sa (63 6) ; 
budh, ' know f : ^Jc?T bu-bhut-sa (55) ; ^f duh, ' milk ': 
du-dhuk-sa (gg ; 69 a); ^ ruh, Vow': ^^^ rti-ruk-a. 
Thus all desideratives, except those from roots containing ^3 u, 
^f u, reduplicate with ^ i- 

9. The two or three roots with initial vowel that take the 
desiderative reduplicate internally with ^ i: ^P 1 ^ as> *sat/ 
s-is-isa ; t^. 111 ?. ' see f : tt^t^ ic-iks-isa. 

* obtain,* forms its stein by contraction : fTJJ ip-sa. 

171. i. *PHgam, 'go/ and ^p^han,' kill,' lengthen their radical 
vowel; while ^f^man,' think,' lengthens the reduplicative vowel 
as well : f^Rreji-gain-sa (beside R*fRi8| ji-gam-isa) ; foHt* 
jf-gham-sa (66 A a) ; lfl4li41 mi-m&m-sa(66 A 2), 'reflect.* 

a. ^n| gran, 'seize, 9 U^f prach, 'ask,' ^J^svap, 'sleep,' take 
Sampra&arana: t^T^T ji-ghyk-sa (55; 69 a), ft^f^q pi- 
prcch-isa, JJlpg su-sup-sa. 

3. ?[T da, 'give/ >*T dha, 'place/ HT ma, 'measure/ ^ pad, 
'go/ ^^rabh, 'graap/ ^R^labh, 'take/ ^S sak, 'be able/ 
contract the first two syllables of the stem in such a way as to 
retain only the reduplication and one consonant of the root : 
df-t-sa,f%TO dhi-t-sa (for df-dh(a)-sa : 55), f^WT mi-t-sa, 
pi-t-sa, f^T^ ri-p-sa, Rim li-p-sa, fl^ si-k-sa. 


4. pfci, 4 gather,' f^Tji, 'conquer,' f^ ban, * kill' (cp.iyi,l), 
revert to their original guttural : foqTU ci-ki-sa (beside fa^O^ 
ci-ci-sa); f%nfa ji-gi-sa ; foxU4l jf-gliani-sa. 

5. ^n^ghas, 'eat/ changes its ^s to?^t: ji-ghat-sa, 'be 
hungry. 5 

III. Intensives (Frequentatives). 

172. These -verbs are meant to convey an intensification or 
frequent repetition of the action expressed by the simple root. 
Only monosyllabic verbs beginning with a consonant are liable to 
be turned into intensives. Hence neither verbs of the tenth class 
nor roots like ^ff^ ad can form this derivative. About sixty roots 
(less than half the number found in Vedic literature) take the 
intensive in Sanskrit, but forms of it rarely occur. 

The stem, which takes a peculiar kind of strong reduplication, 
has two forms. The one adds the personal endings immediately 
to the reduplicated stem (accented on the first syllable in strong 
forms), being conjugated in the Parasmaipada only, like a verb 
of the third or reduplicated class (p. 96) ; e. g. 'ft*ftf?f b6-bho-ti 
from ^ bhu, ' be/ The other adds accented ^ ya, in the same 
way as the passive (154), to the reduplicated stem, being conjugated 
in the itmanepada only, like the passive (p. 130); e. g. 
bo-bhu-y&-te from ^bhu. 

*. The first intensive may optionally insert ^ I before termina- 
tions beginning with consonants in the strong forms. Stems 
ending in consonants do not take Guna either before this ^ I 
or before terminations beginning with vowels; e.g. fSf^ vid, 
'know'; ^%f|j v -ved-mi or ^f^^ftr v<$~vid-I-mi, ^Rf: 
ve~vidmafr, imper. ^R^lfa v^-vid-Sni ; but J hu, * call ' : JJlft- 
o-mi or *THg^f*| j6-hav-I-mi, qftgqifa j6-hav-Sni. 


Special Rules of Beduplication. 

173. The reduplicative syllable takes Guna and lengthens 
II a ; e. g, f%^nij , c cleanse * : *H%fof n6-nek- ti ; tft nl, ' lead ' : 
*rtfafr ne-ni-yrf-te ; ^budh, ' know ' : dHflvTUTi bo-budh-i-ti ; 
^ plu, 'float ': Ml^&lc) po-plu-ya-te ; 71^ tap, ' be hot ' : dM^Tl 

A. Boots ending in ^SP^am repeat the nasal instead of lengthening 
the vowel; e.g. ^gT^ kram, 'stride 1 : ^**ftf?l cai-kram-i-ti, 

b. Roots containing ^H r insert f^i between the reduplication 
and the root; e.g. ^ mr, 'die 5 : *i^*|R| mar-i-mar-ti ; 
drJ, 'see*: <^0^^ dar-i-drs'-ya-te ; Jc^nrt,' dance': 


174- *J gFi ' awake,' reduplicating with ^JT a (as from 
gar), forms the stem TT*T ]"a-gr which has almost assumed the 
character of a root (134 A 4) and is used as the only present stem 
of the verb : 3. sg. ^iifr? ja-gar-ti, 3. pi. 4114(171 ja-gr-ati. 

a. ^^ dah, 'burn,' and 3R^ jabh, ' snap at/ reduplicate with 
a nasal, while ^T^ car, * move,' changes its radical vowel as well : 
dan-dah-T-ti and ^^({j7) dan-dah-ya-te ; 

jan-jabh-yd-te ; 

b. T|^ pad, ' go, 9 besides reduplicating with a nasal, inserts 1^1 
after it : i|TlM^|t) pa-n-i-pad-ya-te ; while j^T drS, * run/ redu- 
plicates as if (173 b) it contained ^K r (only that the inserted 
vowel is ^ i, which, however, is long by position) : 
dAr-i-drS-ti (cp. 134 A 4). 


IV. Denominatives. 

175- A large number of verbs, inflected like those of the 
a-conjugation (p. 92), are derived, with the suffix *f y&, from 
nouns, to which they express some such relation as 'be or act 
like,' 'treat as/ 'make,' ' desire/ Before the suffix, final j; i and 
^ u are lengthened ; ^T a often is also, but sometimes becomes 
(cp. ifi4, i). Examples are : *HTO namae-yd, 'pay homage 
) to> ; ^T*faf svSmi-ya, ' regard as a master' (svSmi) ; 
gop5-yJ, 'be like a herdsman (go-p5) to/ ' protect >; 
rajS-ya, 'play the king' (raja); gTRFT di-uma-ya, 'rank 
as a tree 5 (drama) ; tpfal putn-ya, 'desire a son ' (putra), 

. Denominatives which - have the causative accent (d-ya) are 
reckoned verbs of the tenth class by the Hindu grammarians. 
Such are H*RI mantitf-ya, 'take counsel' (mdntra), ^ftf*J 
kirt^ya, 'celebrate^ (kirtf, 'fame'); ^? varn<-ya, 'depict/ 
1 describe ' (v&na, ' colour ) ; ^^ kathii-ya, c tell how/ ' relate ' 



Preposition! . 

176. Owing to the cases having a more independent meaning 
than m other Aryan languages, the number of prepositions is 
qnrte small, and their use is very li mited in Sanskrit. They are 

dele t^ P 8tp0 ; itionfl1 ' Md th 7 ^ not 'govern,' but only 
define the general sense of. the case' to which they are added. 


Of the dozen Vedic postpositions (also employed as verbal pre- 
fixes) Sanskrit preserves only three in common use : 

i. TT*J anu, 'after,' and Trf?! pra*ti (Gk, irpori), 'towards,' 
' about,' after the accusative. 

a. ^BT a, ' from ' or ' up to,' before the ablative. 

a. The following are also occasionally met with, nearly always 
following their case : ^rfSj abhi, ' against ' (ace.) ; 5^C pura"s, 
' before"' (gen.) ; ^ffa a*dhi, ' over ' (loc.), **RT^ anta*r (Lat. inter, 
Eng. under), ' within,* ' between * (loc., rarely gen.)* 

Prepositional Adverbs. 

1 177- The loss or obsolescence of the Vedic prepositions in the 
true sense is compensated in Sanskrit by the increasing use of 
ungenuine prepositions, ' that is to say, those which cannot be 
attached to verbs and the origin of which from cases is still for 
the most part clear. They are employed with all the oblique 
cases except the locative and the dative ; with the latter case no 
prepositional word is ever connected in Sanskrit. These adverbs 
are given in the following list, grouped under the cases which 
they accompany : 

a. Ace. ^rcnj antara and il^lX^I tfntarena, ' between,' 
' without ' ; the latter also * regarding ' ; f*lnm nikasa and 
*M*ll samiyS, 'near' ; TrfWTt abhi-ta^, Mf<H: parf-ta^, ^rfo: 
sarv^-talj, 4J4J41d! eamanta-tab, ' around ' ; b+i^dt ubhayi-ta^, 
' on both sides of ' ; M^UI p^trena, ' beyond ' ; ^TTT^yavat, * during, ' 
'up to,' 'till' (alsoabl.). 

b. Instr. ^5 &ahd, ^)4j4^sammj tn^^saka^a, ^llxS^sar- 
dham, ' (together) with'; f^PTT vina/ without,' 'except' (also ace., 
rarely abl.). 

c. , Abl. All the adverbs used with this case express some 
modification of the fundamental ablative notion of separation : 



i. 'before' (of time): ^Nfaf arvak, IpO" puri, 
UT*5 prak* fl. 'after* (of time) : *Hfl <*i an-antaram, 
urdhvam, if<*\ param, TJ?7f: para-tat, M\fll ptfrena, 
prabhrti (originally a fern, noun meaning ' commencement ') 
3. f ontaide,' * out of ' : ^f^J banffe. 4. ' apart from ' : "^wi any- 
tra ; ^H?t rte (also ace.). 

d. Oen. Nearly all the adverbs used with, this case express 
some relation in space : I. * before, 1 ' in presence of : "^% agre, 
^TEnTt agra-tat, HT" : piua-tafc y^nnq, purds-tSt, THITV^C 
praty-aksam, 4J^^H sam-aksam. a. 'after': M^J l<\ pascat. 
3. 'beyond': M<fl: para-tab, M^l^paras-tSt. 4. 'above,' 
' over/ 'upon ': ^H!\ upari (also ace.) and 

the former also ' with regard to.* 5. ' below * : ^W adha^ and 
^JV^fl l^adhas-tat With the gen. is also used W% krte, 'for 
the sake of.* 

178. The case-notions of the accusative C whither*), ablative 
( whence 1 )* and locative ('where 1 ) are often paraphrased by 
nouns meaning ' proximity/ such as ^rf5?RI antikrf, VJM4Q4 
upa-kantha, f*WZ ni-kata, ?EnmT sa-kSs'a, ^frf^I sarn-nidhi, 
**Th sam-ipa, tfRJ parsvi (*side'). In the ace, they mean 
'towards,' 'to/ 'near'; in the abL, 'from*; and in the loc., 
' near,' 'in the presence of : in each case governing the genitive. 
For example: ^nfr^f^rt *T^E 'go to the king'; 
4 he withdrew from Baghu ' ; 

'beside me/ 'near me 1 ; TT^T: ^f^ 'W TH^: 'they 
praised Nala in her presence.' 

Prepositional O6rnnd. 

179. Several indeclinable participles are used in the sense of 
prepositions : 

x. with ace. ^dpv ud-dis'-ya, 'pointing at * = ' towards/ 


'about,' 'at,' 'for' ; ^H^RT a-da-ya, ^JfhTT gybi-tya, 'taking, 1 
nl-tvS, ' leading ' = ' with ' ; ^(VJBT'^ adhi-stfia-ya, ^W- 
ava-lamb-ya, H|(4|AI a-sri-tya, ^UMgKJ S-stha-ya, " re- 

sorting to'='by means of ; tjc^n muk-tvS, M(<tfU3Q pari-tyaj-ya, 
varjay-i-tva, 'putting aside '=' except* ; ^tfrvcci 

adhi-kr-tya, 'putting at the head '=' with reference to,' 'about.' 
9* with abl. 'W^WT a-rabh-ya, 'beginning from *=' since.' 

Conjunctive and Adverbial Particle*. 

l8o. 1 VJf r anga, in exhortations =* pray * : 'Vy J^ ' P^y do 
it/ RMJj) 1 kim anga: i. 'why, pray? ' a. 'how much more? ' 

^RT a-tka : i. introducing something new at the beginning of 
a sentences' now,' 'then/ 'afterwards.' a. in the headings of 
books, chapters, sections,' now* = 'here begins' (opposed to ^ft 
iti, 'here ends'). 3. connecting parts of a sentence =' and,' 
'also.* 4. 4 if f : ^W fll*Ufl*l^lfij 'ifroqifil il^<q*V ' if 
I do not follow them, I shall go to Yama's abode.' ^ 

atha kim, 'what else?' = 'it is so,' 'certainly,* 'yes.' TOT ^T 
atha v5 : x. ' or else,' ' or.' ^ coiTecting a previous statement = 
* or rather,* ' but.' 3. adding a corroborative statement, or 
so'='so for instance*: *|U141 tufa^qWcl 'thus it is well 

^TOt atho, 'then,' 'afterwards' (see <3 u). 

VqW anyac ca, ' and another thing ' = ' and besides/ ' more- 

^RT^aparam, 'further,' 'moreover, 1 'besides/ 

^fft 4pi: I. connecting (like *T ca) parts of a gentence=* like- 
wise,' 'moreover,' 'and' (^1^ 'both and'), a. 'also/ 
'on one's own part': ^RTOUft friNm* 'Damanaka also 
(on his part) went away/ 3. ' even,' ' though ' : TRtf ft ' even 

L 2 


a child'; ll<A!4M(lf ekaklapi, * though alone.* 4. 'only,' 'but 
(of time): *J^n*lfH 'but a moment.' 5. 'all' with numerals 
f all the four castes/ In the above fm 

senses ^rfjj api always follows the word to which it belongs. 11 
is also vised at the beginning of a sentence as an interrogative 
I -article, and with the optative to express a wish or preference; 

ft *HJ?I * is your penance prospering ? ' 
/ would that the time had come*; 

* I would rather abandon life than thee.' ^ift TW api 
nSma, ' perhaps ' (see TTT nama). 

^W^6lam, ' enough,' construed with the instrumental, gerund 
or infinitive, expresses a prohibition : ^Rf H^T ' away with fear ' ; 
* cease reproaching me ' ; ^TW THftvftjp^ 'do nol 


^f?f iti, * thus ' : i. ia used after the exact words of quotations, 
With verbs of saying it supplies the place of inverted commas 
and of the indirect construction in English : 

'he said to me, I will do thy bidding 
or 'he told me that he would do my bidding.' 

A It is similarly used to quote thoughts, intentions, knowledge, 
though not uttered: 

*one should not despise a king, though a child, (thinking=) 
because he is a mere human being '; 

'a gift which is presented (thinking* it ought to be given J =) 
fiom a sense of duty'; * 

knowledge) that he reads the book of the law, ia not a cause (ol 
confidence in him).* 

. 'here ends/ at the end of books, chapters, sections, acts : 
f: 'here ends the third act.' 

of / as regard^' 'as for' : ^Ivif^fTT ffft 
'as for (doing it) quickly, it (would 


be) eaay ; as for (doing it) secretly, it would require consideration/ 
(See also f^fi^kim and JTOT tatha.) 

J^ iva, being enclitic, follows the word to which it belongs in 
sense: i. Mike': "TO TftT ^<IT*iltd 'this man looks like a 
thief.' a. 'as if/ 'as it were': 

'I see, as it were, Siva himself before me.' 3. 'somewhat': 
r * somewhat angrily.' 4. ' almost ' : tJJ^f+J^f * almost 

an hour/ 5. 'just, 5 * quite': ^f^ftR^ 'just a little'; 
'quite soon.' 6. 'indeed/ 'pray' (German * wohl 1 ), 

with interrogatives : fnf3^4 ^"y^l^ll *f*li3S1 TlBinVni*^ what, 
indeed, is not an ornament to lovely figures ?' 

H TL, an old particle of frequent occurrence in the Veda, meaning 
'and,' is preserved in Sanskrit only in combination with TV^ 
kirn (q- v.), and in ipft tho (for athau, 'and so'), 'then/ and 
^ft n6 (for nau, 'and not'), 'not/ 

^37T nt4i a common particle in the Veda, meaning ' and,' also,' 
1 or/ survives only i. in combination with irfTT and ftwj JTRpf 
pratijjta, 'on the contrary 9 ; fci^jd kirn \ita, 'ho\v much more/ 
{ how much less ' ; a. in the second part of a double question : 
fq^_^^ (=utrum an) ' whether or.' It is also frequent a* 
an expletive at the end of a line in the Epics. 

TPT ev4 is a restrictive particle following the word which it 
emphasizes. It may often be rendered by 'just,' 'only/ * exactly/ 
'quite,' as well a in various other ways, sometimes merely by 
fltress: tpff t^T 'quite alone'; ^^^fl 'the very sight'; 
^TfTft ' I myself; fl^T ' that very/ ' the same ' ; *l<*f^ ' sure 
death ' ; ^pfa ' the whole earth/ %^ caeva/and also/ TT^NT 
tathaeva, 'likewise/ 'also/ ^ naeva, 'not at all,' 'by no 

TFTR^ev&m, 'thus/ *so* : TpW^'so belt'; 

' not do ! ' 


iftRt kAo-dt (Vedic neuter of interr. *< kd-d+f^[ cid), 
used in questions expecting the answer 'yes' (Lat. nonne)='l 
hope ' : 4%| BT WTT <i^i^^*fI^Ti ' I hope you have seen 
DamayantT, Oking? ' With negative='l hope not' (Lat. num) :~ 

'I have not done you any injury, 

I hope?' 

^TH^kama-m (ace. of ^Hf 'desire'), primarily used as an 
adverb meaning 'at will,' 'gladly,' is frequently employed as a 
concessive particle: x. 'indeed/ 'certainly/ 'forsooth/ 'to be 
sure'; a. granted/ 'supposing* (generally with imperative), 
followed by adversative adverb :_*|TFHHJ> f*J, ffmft, or 
yrr'it is true but/ 'although yet'; ^TRHr- T ^'certainly 
but not/ 'rather than ' (cp. ^T^varam ^ na). 

i^Kkf-m: i. 'what?' a. 'why?' 3. a simple interrogative 
particle not to be translated, and expecting the answer 'no* 
(Lat. num). 4. 'whether? ' in double questions, followed by 
, or simply ^fl, ^fT, or ' 

Combinations of flU^kim with other particles we the foUow- 
^ f nxoreover/-p| 5 'but/ 4 however/ -1fi|ti?fi|, 
^herefore?'^ ^ ' perchance ? J f*W^ 'why, 
' ^ ' I Bonder ? ' fiRft i. ' very/ ' vehemently ' T ftwft 
^ft 'weeping bitterly'; ^ 'nay, more/-t*g f ft^T, 1* 
S*: 'how much more/ 'how much less ' : T^R ^^*1^iq 
'^tl ^T^ ^Qft^u'even each singly (leads) to ^ruin, how much 
more (is it so) -when the four (are combined) ! ' 

fW kU (quidom) ; i. 'indeed/ 'certainly/ 'to be snre/ 
foUows the word it emphasizes: * 

be snre the rogue deserves calamity/ Sometimes ft* may he 
rendered by stress merely: !?|f^ f^ ^V ^HPfW 
' one day a tiger did come/ a. ' they say/ ' we are told ' ; 


j: 'there lived, it is aaid, a devotee 

named Kartavirya.* 
SFTFR^kr-ta-m (nent. of past part), ' done,' is used (like 

with the instrumental in the sense of ' have done with* : 
'away with doubt.' 

, ' only ' : %^ T^fftfiT'he merely sleeps.' 
^Rft 'not only but.' 
SR kva, ' where? * if repeated with another question, expresses 
great difference, incongruity, or incompatibility: 

Sfl "qinMftM^r *rf?TJ 'where (is) the race sprung from the 
sun, and where (my) limited intelligence?' i.e. 'how great is the 
discrepancy between the glory of the sokr race aad my powers 
of description.' 

^f^ kh&lnt i. 'indeed, ''surely/ often merely emphasizing 
the preceding word. 2. 'pray,* 'please,' in entreaties: ^f^ 
* please give me an answer '( German 'doch'). 

3, with gerund =' enough of,' 'do not' (like ^WR^ flam): 
\f^<3l 'do not weep.' f ^^ 'not at all,' 'certainly not,' 

* I hope not.' 

H ca, enclitic (=T, que), 'and,' 'also': 
'Govinda and Rama.' In poetry the particle is occasionally 
misplaced : ^f ^T^ff for ^f |4J^ ^f ' in this world and in the 
next. 1 When more than two words are connected, the conjunc- 
tion is commonly used with the last only, as in English. 
^ ^ i. ' both and.' a. ' on the one hand on the other/ 

* though yet.' 3* * no sooner than,' 

%< ced (ca+ld), ' if,' never begins a sentence or half-line (as 
irf^yadi, 'if,' does).- *RT ^ 'but if.'- 
' if not ' (elliptically) =' otherwise ' : 

' everything should be done after delibera- 

tion, otherwise you will come to repentance.' %?| cen na, ' if 


not ' (apodosw) ; *nf5f %ff ^fl^VII ' if it (is) to be, it (will) not 
(be) otherwise.' f^TJ ^fa" 'if this (is objected, it is) not (so).' 

STTcJjatTt: i. 'at all,' 'ever. 9 a. 'possibly,' 'perhaps. 1 3. 'once,* 
'one day.' f ^iig 'not at all/ 'by no means '; 'never/ 

7W td-tah: i. 'thence.' a. 'thereupon,' 'then/ *ia*dfl" 
tatas tatat='what next,' 'pray go on' (with what you are 

7TOT t&-tli&: i. 'thus,* 'so,' * accordingly, f a. 'likewise,' 
'also,' 'as well as,' 'and' (=^). 3. 'that is so,' 'yes/ 'it shall 
be done/ IWf ^ 'so also/ 'similarly.' T^TTf! tatha_api, 
4 nevertheless.' TRTT f^ 'for so (it is)/ 'so for instance/ 'that 
is to say/ ' namely. '^Tf^rfTT tathajti, 'yes/ 

JT<5 tA-d (neut of pron. 'that'): i. 'then/ 'in that case/ 
a. 'therefore/ 'accordingly': 

' we are princes ; therefore we have a curiosity 
to hear of war/ 

fll^c^ ta-vat : i. ' so long* (correlative to 4iqc^ 'how long/ 
'while/ 'till'), a. 'meanwhile/ 3. 'in the first place/ '* first/ 
4. just/ 'at once* (with imperative = before doing anything 
else ) ; Vi*n l^iii or*C pray come here at once/ 5. 'already/ 
'even' (as opposed to 'how much more/ 'how much less'). 
6. * only,' ' merely. 1 7. ( at least ' : IT aiq*Ugift ' she is at least 
not a human being/ 8. (concessively) 'indeed/ ' certainly/ ' it is 
true' (followed by ?J 'but/ &c.). 9. emphasizes <a notion (like 
TW): 'as for/ 'as regards/ 'only/ 'just/ 'quite/ or to be rendered 
by stress only. 

^TTOtr- ^ 'scarcely when/ if JTHI^ ' not yet/ 

1J tA (never commences a sentence) : 'but/ ' however/ Tt is 

sometimes = ^ or ^T, or a mere expletive; it is even found 

combined with *T or repeated in the same sentence. ^^fq 3 

'but rather/ W 7f 'but not/ *T ^ 1J na toe va to/ never 


at all/ Tit; <J " yet/ ' however. 1 <J g ' indeed but.' ^ If 7J 
4 although yet not.' 

f u6, f ' not ' ; with indefinite pronouns: 'no ' : *f ^t^ft (' not 
any'=) 'no man'; T fafaq/ nothing '; *T SRf^t ' nowhere '; 
* never.' f if repeated amounts to an emphatic 

positive: *[ THf *nfV^f ^JJT flfnclt 'no one was there (who 
was) not satisfied,' i.e. 'every one was thoroughly satisfied.' 
*ufn naapi, ' not even/ ^f naeva, 'not at all/ 

*f*[ na-nd : i. ' not ? ' in questions expecting an affirmative 
answer (Lat non-ne) =' surely ': *\*{% ?t flW nanuaham te 
priyalj, 'surely I am thy heloved?' a. with interrogative pro- 
nouns and imperatives='pray* : f*J ^fft fTPL ' pray who are 
you ? f fl^fyrilH^ nanuucyatam, ' pray tell/ 3. in arguments : 
'is it not the case that?'='it may be objected'; followed by 
'H ^fl ***|?l atraucyate, ' to this the reply is/ 

I |*f nama, besides its adverbial meaning * by name' (e.g. 1^J| 
TT*T 'Nala by name'), has the following senses as a particle: 
i. 'indeed/ 'certainly/ 'to be sure': *TOT TRT fann/ 1 have 
indeed conquered/ a. ' perhaps' : 

'you have perhaps seen a righteous man/ 3. ironically, with 
interrogatives='pray' : ^t TRI TTTTT fTTO^ 'who, pray, is a 
favourite with kings?* 4. with imperatives =' granted/ 'no 
matter if/ ' ever so much" : ^ ^WT T^J TTO 'let him be ever 
so rich/ ^rftf *TW i. at the beginning of a sentence with 
potential =' perhaps/ a. emphasizes a preceding word more 
strongly than ^jft alone. 1^ TW ' surely* : f 
' surely I am dear to thee/ 

^1 nA, ' now/ with interrogatives =' pray * : ^?t ^J 'who, pray I ' 
^1J, in double questions expressing uncertainty/ (either) or' : 
'can this be BhTma or Dhanna?' 


3^1*^ nu-xUL-m, usually the first word in a sentence : 'in all 
probability,' 'undoubtedly,* ' assuredly * : ^f *|3> IT ^Wtfflir 
^tyxi^r ' assuredly, I think, it is not the fault of the king of 

^t nd (nd+u) in the Veda meant 'and not,* 'nor/ hut in 
Sanskrit simply =' not* (cp. ^J cd). 

: i. ' highly/ ' greatly/ ' entirely/ ' very ' : 
'I am greatly obliged.' a. 'at the most*: 
*<Ah*li T^ f^rci^ *T*rf7l 'in it the life of mortals 
(lasts) at most thirty (years).' ' 3. 'nothing but,' ' only* : f*TOT% 
W *Tt f % Von only lack the horns.' 4. 'but,' 'however 1 : 

it 'they (are) thoroughly versed 

in all learning, but lack intelligence.* 

3 1 ! p^biak : x. 'again.' a. f on the other hand,' ' on the con- 
trary,' 'but.' gift qif:, or simply ^ift, 'again and again/ 
4 repeatedly/ 

JTRi: prayah, ITRnit praya-s'at, ^Tf^HT prayena : x. 'for the 
most part/ * generally/ 'as a rule/ a. ' in all probability/ 

i* 'certainly/ 'assuredly/ 'indeed/ a. ex- 

pressing consent: 'very well/ 3. expressing assent: 'so it is/ 

4 yes 

*T mi, prohibitive particle (=Gk. rf), generally used with 
imperative or unaugmented aorist: *TT 1^5 or *TT ffJ 'do not 
S-' TT W ma sma is employed in the same way. Both *fT 
and$^ maevam are used elliptically-='not sol' - don't \; 
similarly *TT TR^ 'not for heaven's sake!' 'God forbid!' 
*TT WRT with potential or elliptioally : =' would that not/ 'if 
only not': ITT WtV Tf^P 'heaven forbid (that it should be) 
the warders/ 

: x. 'every moment/ 'repeatedly/ ' incessantly ' 


(often repeated: *fFF!). a. ' on the contrary/ 
* now now,' ' at one time at another." 

^nr y&-tah: i. 'whence* (often =' where/ sometimes = 
' whither ' ; often= ablative of the relative ^ ya) . a. ' wherefore/ 
4 for which reason/ 3. 'because/ 'since/ *for' (often introduc- 
ing a verse in support of a previous statement). 4. 'that/ after 
questions or before oratio recta : f^l *J 'Jt^FHTt 

'what misery is greater than this, that there is no 

fulfilment of desire ? ' 

*PT yi-tra : i. ' where/ a. ' if/ 3. ' when/ 4. ' since/ 
*N! yi-tha : i. 'as ' : <JUUIHM*4Rl ^: ' as your Majesty 

commands/ a. 'like' (=f^): <||7| wft 

'the daughter of Bhima shone like the lightning/ 3. 'as for 
instance/ 4. *in order that ' : 

order that she shall think of no other ruan than thee/ 5. c so 
that* : TTJ ^TT ^f^t ^WT ^T fV ^ifl^rfiT I shall so con- 
trive that he will slay him/ 6. ' that/ introducing (like ^T^ yd) 
a direct assertion, with or without l^fiT at the end : t^ciiflf % 
1TOT * you told me that / ^RTT ^RTT W[ TI^TT ' in proportion 
as so/ ' the more the more/ fl4|U|| tad yatha, ' that (is) as 
(follows)/ 'thus for instance/ 

^R^ y4-d : i. - that/ mtroducing direct aflsertions (like Gk. OTI) 
with or without ^fit at the end : <4rikq 

c you must say, I have slain my beloved here/ 9. (so) 'that': 
fl Vtl ^fW W^'how (is it) that you do not know? ' 3. ' in 
order that ' : fill *fW *$ '*& ^9% yi: ' what can be done 
in order that the king be not angry ? ' 4. * inasmuch as/ * because/ 
' since/ 

*rf^ yUi, 'if (cp. %^ c<*d).-- rf?[ *T: x. 'or else/ 'or 
rather/ f or': ^tj^l^f^ TT ^HT^r^ unwittingly or wit- 
tingly/ a. sometimes = * however/ ^4^1 fn yadUpi, ' even if/ 
* although/ 


^TRRt, ya-vat : i. (with correlative m^<0 'as long as/ 
'while/ 'till/ 'as soon as.' a. 'meanwhile/ 'just/ expressing 
intended action : ^iqf^+ii ^|qi*llfacq UTdt<l<!!4lRf ?TT*C 
'having resorted to this shade, I will just wait for her.' <4 ( SR 
yavanna: i. 'while nofc '=r'till.' a. sometimes=* if not/ f 
t TTTTTt. * scarcely when,' 'no sooner than/ 

: i. 'in which manner,' 'as' (corr.Ttaf). a/ whereby/ 
'on what account/ 'wherefore/ 'why': 5JJTJ ?faf *f <ga$Jrl 
*US\ftm* 'hear why the kings do not appear.' 3. 'because/ 
' since ' (generally with corr.?fa) : 

'since thou seest my beloved even 

when far away, teach this spell to my eye also/ 4. (so) * that ' : 
WI<Tl ^HY%f ^ft *T Hf%cTT 'a device has been contrived 
so that no blame will be incurred/ 5. 'in order that' : THST 
^mni ^^if*f ^f ffl-^^n *Rrf?T 'I will become his pupil, 
in order that he may be inspired with confidence/ 

W^vatr like/ is used at the end of compounds in the sense 
of ^ iva: *jnf^mrta-vat, 'like a dead man/ 

^^vara-in Wna, lit. 'the better thing (is) (and) not'=r 
'better than* (^, ?J, or ^pr: being generally added to the 
MiHllliV f HfTWTPTn^ ^PRr 'better death 

than association with the base.' 

TT va, enclitic (Lat. ve), following its word (but for metrical 
reasons sometimes precedingit) ; i. 4 r/ a. 'either or not/ 'option- 
ally* : ^un^tg TT gi^: 'for (a child) that has cut its teeth, 
they may optionally make (the offering)/ 3. 'like/ 'as it were' 


her to have become changed in tfppearance like a lily blighted 
with cold/ 4. with mterrogatives='pray f : qrrafr ^HPT f% 
^T 'what, pray, (with=) is the use of a blind eye?' *TT _ TT 
1 either or/ 


^ vai, used in the older language as a particle emphasizing 
preceding word, is common in Sanskrit poetry as amere explet 

^TW^satya-m : i. 'truly/ 'certainly,' 'indeed.' a.'righl 
'justly/ 3. 'true/ 'it is so.* 4. 'very well* (in answers). 5 
is true but' (7J, f?R ej, TWlf^)- 

^ ha, an enclitic particle, which in the older language slig] 
emphasized the preceding word, is in Sanskrit a mere explet 
mostly occurring at the end of a verse. 

f^ hi, never at the beginning of a sentence, but generally a 
the first word: i. 'for/ 'because.' a. 'to be sure/ 'indeed': 
IC 'thou art indeed his dear friend/ 3. T 

interrogatives or imperatives =' pray ': 
4 how, pray, shall I know the gods ? ' ^fflf <^f^T ' pi'ay* show 
4. often used as a mere expletive, especially in order to a^ 
a hiatus or to obtain a long vowel in 'poetry. The particle so 
times occurs twice in the same sentence. 


l8l. ^rf%T ayif "used with the vocative or supplying its p] 
= ' friend/ 'prithee': ^rf^T *lnO^I*J l^l^* 'prithee 
us go to the garden of love/ 

^Rj aye: i. a particle expressive of surprise, occurring ch 
in dramas : ^Rj 1 *14d*fl%*TT Ml HI 'Ah,Vasantasena has arriv. 
2. sometimes used like "=nfa aa a vocative particle. 
are, exclamation of address : ' ho ! ' ' sirrah I ' 
ahaha, expresses i. joy, ' ha ! ' a. sorrow, ' alas ! ' : ^ 
'alas! I have fallen into a deep qi 


"^fijt aho, exclamation of surprise, joy, sorrow, anger, pn 
or blame, commonly used with the nominative : 


'Oh, the sweetness of the song!' 

* Ah, Eiranyaka, you are praiseworthy I f 
(cp. 24) is used especially to express sudden recollection : 
CT PW ?T?^ ' Ah, BO indeed it was ! ' 

t ah. (cp. 24) expresses joy or indignation, ' ah ' : TRfl ^rf^T- 
* Ah, you who slight your guest ! ' 
m, ' woe ! ' 4 alas 1 ' often combined with fV^J dhik 

or fT ^J ha dhik. 

f^ftJl diftia (inst ' by good luck '=) ' thank heaven ! ' often 
with ^a^vrdh, ' prosper *=' to have cause for joy or congratu- 
lation': f^m *lf 5joTi R(^|^*1 ^i5H 'your Majesty is to be 
congratulated upon your victory I ' 

f%P{ dMk, exclamation of dissatisfaction, reproach, or lamenta- 
tion : * fie !' ' woe ! f It is regularly used with the accusative, but 
the nom. gen. voc. also occur : f%T^ ^i^^tj ' shame on you ! ' 

^7T bata, expresses i. astonishment : * ah ! ' 3. regret : ' alas ! ' 
It is also combined with other interjections in the same sense : 
^TTft bataare, ^fft ^T, ^1 ^7f. 

'ft: bhoh : i. usually an exclamation of address : * sir I f ' ho ! ' 
listen! * Though a contracted form of an old masculine singular 
vocative (bhavas), it is used in addressing female as well as male 
persons, and is connected even with the plural number. It is 
often repeated: ft *ftt ^ftjTTT: 'listen, Pandits !' a. it 
sometimes occurs in soliloquies^' alas ! ' 

^T^ adliu ; i. ' well done ! ' - bravo 1 ' a. with imperative= 
'come': 44|<(^H|: qi|f: ^7^ ^nhlT^'come, let Damayanli 
be played for as a stake.' 3. ' well ' with x. per. pres. : 
I wiU go/ 


'if I live, I shall undoubtedly see him.' 

i. c hull* a. 'farewell!' 


Ix4xi ta: i. exclamation of exhortation = * come,' * look,* 
* pray ' : fff ?t we< fc <* I fo ' come, I will tell thee* ; *pj ^1 
4 pray listen. 1 a. expresses grief: 'alas!' 3. joy, surprise, or 
hurry: 'ohl* 'ah!' 

^T ha expresses z. astonishment or satisfaction : ' ah ! ' a. pain : 
' alas ! ' ^T ffllRiH ' alas ! I am undone.' It is frequently accom- 
panied by a vocative; and is sometimes used with a following ace. 
=' alas for I ' It is often combined with WH*{, f%P{ . or 


A. Vominal Sterna. 

182. Declinable stems, though they often consist of the bare 
rc*>t (either verbal or pronominal), are chiefly formed by means 
of suffixes added to roots. These mvSLxea are of two kinds : 
primary, or those added directly to roots (which may be com- 
pounded with verbal prefixes) ; secondary, or those added to 
stems already ending in a suffix. 

x. Primary derivatives as a rule show the root in its strong 
form ; e. g. %^ vd-a, ' knowledge * (fo^[ ' know '). In meaning 
they may be divided into the two classes of abstract action nouns 
(cognate in sense to infinitives) and concrete agent nouns (cognate 
in sense to participles) used as adjectives or substantives ; e. g. 
JlfTf ma-tfc f. 'thought' (^^ man, ' think '); ^fa yodh-a, m. 
' fighter' Ogt^yudh, ' fight '), Other meanings are only modifica- 
tions of these two. Thus abstract substantives often acquire a 
concrete sense ; e. g. *RR nay-ana, n. ' leading ' comes to mean 
4 eye ' (the organ that leads). 


*. When the bare root is used as a declinable stem, it usually 
remains unchanged; e.g. fi^dvfs, m. (hater) 'enemy 9 (80); 
^pi^ytidh, f. 'fight,' m. 'fighter.' Many of these stems are used 
only at the end of compounds; e.g. ^g -duh, 'milking' (81), 
Boots ending in 1 9(T a are shortened to ^T a, and those in ^ i, 
^ u, or ^& r are always modified hy adding a ?^t : these sterns 
are oiily used as the last members of compounds; e.g. 
su-kr-t, 'doing well* (cp. 187 b). 

b. Several primary nominal suffixes connected with the verbal 
system have already been sufficiently dealt with, viz. those of 
the present and future participles: 1 lR^at (85; 156), ^fPf ana 
and JTPT mana (158); of the perfect: TRi^vams (89; 157); of 
the past passive participle (i 60) : 7f ta and "f na; of the gerundive : 
^(*lW an-Tya 1 , Tfc^ 1 tav-ya 2 , and ^T ya (162). The formation 
of stems to which the primary suffixes of the comparative and 
superlative, f^TR^ Tyains and ^ istha, are added has also been 
explained (88; 103, 2). Of the rest, the following, in alphabetical 
order, are the most usual and important : 

^ a s s ubstanti ves and adjectives ; e . g. ^nt sa*rg-a, m . - creation f 
j t ^emit*); ^Sf megh-i, m. 'cloud' (lit. 'discharger': 
mih); ifR bhag-^C, m. 'share' (^T^hhaj, 'divide') ; fTRT 
priy-it, ' pleasing,' ' dear * (ift prl, ' please *). The substantives are 
almost exclusively masc. j but "**! yug-tf, n. ' yoke 1 (Gk. fvy-o-v, 
Lat. yug-u-m). 

^P^an: masc. agent nouns and a few defective neuter stems; 
e.g. TT^raj-an, m. 'ruler,' 'king' (90, i); ^TflL ah-an, n. 
'day' (91, 2). 

* The Utter part, ^ iya and ^ ya, of thee two suffixe* is secondary 
(i8a, a), but the whole IB employed as a primary suffix (i6a, 3). 

* The firri part of *T^ tav-ya ig probably derived from the old infinitive 
ending ?|% tave (App.III, 135). 


[ ana : neut. action nouns r e. g. <5Tiff d&g-ana, n. ' sight ' 
rs, 'see'), *ll^l bh6j-ana, n. 'enjoyment* (^J^bhuj, 
'enjoy'); also agent nouns ; e.g. '*U$*f vah-ana, 'conveying/ 
n. 'vehicle'; very rarely with -weak vowel: CTHKT kyp-ana" 
('lamenting'), 'miserable/ 

^H^ as, f^ is, ^3^ us: neuter action nouns, often with 
concrete meaning (cp.Ss) ; e.g.^TC{vc-as, 'speech*; aiftf?^ 
jy6t-is t * light ' ; VJt^ dh&n-us, ' bow/ 

^ i : fem. action nouns, also agent nouns (adj. and subst.), 
and a few neuters of obscure origin ; e. g. Wft krs-f, f. 'tillage ' ; 
^ffi suc-i, 'bright'; tnflG pSn-f, m. 'hand'; Tffa aks-i, n. 
*eye, f ^ifei ^sth-i, n. 'bone,' ?[f%C dddh-i, n. 'sour milk' (cp. 

99. 3)- 

^5 u: agent nouns, adj. and subst., the latter being mostly 
masc., but including several fem. and neut.; e.g. Tf^J tan-u, 
'thin' (Lat. ien-u-i-s); on^r bah-i5, m. 'arm' (Gk. fnjx-v-*) 5 
| Wn-u, f. 'jaw' ; 4j|l*J jan-u, n. 'knee' (Gk. ydv-v). 

nna ; adj. and masc. neut. subst.; e.g. ftVu t^r-una, 
4 young'; fif^M mith-und (m.) n. 'pair/ i|pi sak-una, m. 
' bird.' 

^F n : fem. f mostly corresponding to m. and f. in ^ u; e.g. 
a-u, 'body'; independently formed: ^^ cam-u, ' army/ 

tx-u, 'bride/ 

?l ta : besides ordinarily forming past passive participles 
appears, in a more general sense, as Ihe suffix of a few adjectives 
and substantives ; e. g. IjVcf n'l-trf , 'cold,' ^ftlVK as-i-ta, ' black* ; 

1 du-ta, m. ' messenger/ ^ff hds-ta, m. ' hand/ 
f?f ti: fem. action nouns; e.g. *jf?f bhu-tf, 'well-being 1 
(Gk. <u-<ri-r) ; ^rrf?T ja-ti, ' birth ' ; TTrffl jfla-tf, 'kinsman/ is, 
however, masc. (owing to its concrete sense designating a male 



3 tn : chiefly forms the stem of infinitives in 3*^ -turn ; 
e.g. ITJ*^ gan-tum, 'to go 1 ; also a few masc. and neut. sub- 
stantives : TF^f tn-tu, m. ' thread,* ^7T he-trf, m. * cause ' (fi& hi, 
'impel') ; n*g vas-tu, n. 'dwelling* (Gk. oa-rv). 

7[ tr ; masc. agent nouns; e.g. 3Rg kar-tf, 'doer'; also 
names of relationship, fern, as well as masc. ; e. g. +1 ig ma-tf , 
f. 'mother/ frjJ pi-tf, m. 'father' (101). 

^T tra, m, n., ^fl tra f f. : expressive of the instrument or 
means ; e. g. TJT^f pa-tra, n. * cup * (TTT pa, ' drink ') ; ^f d4ms- 
tra, m. "tusk* {'biter 1 : ^"^ daips), ^S[ m^n-tra, m. 'prayer* 
(^?^ man, * think ') ; {JC^I ma-tra, f. ' measure' (Gk. fie-rpo-i/). 
^T tha, m. n ., ^TT tha, f. ; e. g. ^( a>-tha, m. ' aim/ ' object ' ; 
<1JiB| tir-th^, ti. * ford ' ; ^||V|| ga-tha, f. ' song/ 

f na m. n,, TT na v f. : besides ordinarily forming past pass. 
participles (160, i), also adjectives and substantives; e.g. "BTOT 
krs-na, * black ' ; ^nj v4r-na, m. ( colour * ; tfif par-n^, n. ' wing * ; 
IpUT tfs-nS, f. 'thirst/ 

t*f ni, m. f.; e. g. irf^T ag-nf, m. 'fire* (Lat. ig-ni-s); %ftl 
sre^-ni, f. 'Hne/ 

^| nu f m. f. ; e.g. HT^J bha-mi, m. 'light/ ^ au-niS, m. 
'son ? ; ?|^[ dhe-nd, f. 'cow/ 

*f ma, adj.; m. subst.; e.g. rft*T bhi-ma, 'terrible'; 
dhu-ma", m. 'smoke/ 

If^ man, m. n. : chiefly neut. action nouns ; e. g. 
k$r-man, n. 'action/ HH^brtfh-man, n. 'prayer'; "KX**^ ad'- 
man, m. 'stone' (Gk. aK-pov), 9t$j*v. brah-m^n, m. 'one who 
prays' (90, 3). ^ 

fa mi, m.f., ^ft nd, f.; e.g. <fiX ras-mf, m. 'ray;' 
bhu-mi, f. 'earth'; ^ift bhu-mT, f. id.; 4HYJHI laks-mi, f. 
1 prosperity/ 
^ yu, m.; e.g. *TSJ man-yii, 'anger'; ^fl myt-ytS, ' death/ 


?; ra, adj. ; m. n. subst.; e.g. ^1 ug-rd, 'terrible*; 
rud-ra*, m. name of a god; ^W abh-r, n. 'cloud.' 

^ ru, adj.; n. subst.; e.g. *ft^ bhi-rii, 'timid'; ^pBJ as'-ru, 
n. 'tear/ ** 

va, adj. ; m. subst.; e.g. *f$ ar-va, f all 1 (Lat. sal-vo-s); 

a, m. 'horse' (Lat. eq-uo-s). 

^ van, adj.; m.n. subst. ; e.g. iffa^ pi- van, 'fat'; 
gra-van, m. 'stone' (90, 4) ; Tl^ par-van, n. 'joint.' 
a. Secondary nominal Suffixes: 

^ a, adj.; m. n. aubst.: forms adjectives, chiefly with initial 
Vrddhi, expressing the sense of relation to or connexion with the 
primitive word; e.g. ni|cr manav-a", ' belonging to man* (^J 
manu). Many of these have become substantives in the mas-c. 
and, as abstracts, in the neuter ; e. g. 7Uf4f manav-a", m. ' human 
being'; q^ifii^ vaisvamitra, m. 'descendant of Vis'vamitra ' ; 
tn^R pauvus-a, 'manly/ n. 'manliness.' When formed with 
Vrddhi, these derivatives always take ^T in the feminine. 

^W a : forms the fern, of adjectives which in the masc. and 
neut. end in ^f a ; e. g. 4i|dl kant-a, ' beloved ' (97) . 

^ITV ani: forms the fem. of the names of deities ending in 
^ a; e.g. ^^lllH indr-Sm, 'wife of Indra.' 

^U41 ayana, m.: forma patronymics with initjal Vrddhi; 
e. g. ^ii^|^i|t|i as'val-ayana, ' descendant of As'vaJa.' 

i; i, m.: forms patronymics with initial Vrddhi ; e. g. 'JH^fTT 
manit-i, * descendant of the Manits.' Similarly formed is ^ETnCt^T 
$ar ath-i, * charioteer' (9T^T sa-rdth a, 'driving on the same car'). 
^*^ in : forms, in the sense of ' possessing,' adjectives from 
stems ending in ^a;~ e.g. ^TftPl. bal-in, 'strong,' from TO 
hala, n, * strength * (87). 

^i: forms the fem. of masc. stems made with suffixes ending 
in consonants (95), or with tr (101 e), often to those in ^ u 

M a 


(98 c), or in "W a (always when formed with Vrddhi) ;~re. g 
dev-i, ' goddess ' (^ dev-a", ' god '). Cp. 107. 

l^f ina : forms adjectives, chiefly expressive of direction and 
made from words in ^f^aflc ; e. g. *M-41*I prftc-iua, ' eastern ' 
(TTT^prfific, 'eastward'). 

V^ *y* : forms general adjectives ; e. g. Mf*Tl*J parvat-iya, 

* mountainous 1 5 ff^frf tad-iya, c belonging to him,' 'his.' 

1 ka 5 forms adjectives and diminutives ; e. g. 1 *IHF1S dnta-ka, 
' ending * -, with Vrddhi, ^TTf^fi varg-i-ka, * belonging to the rains f 
ti) ; Vl ^qi raja-ka, m. 'petty king/ ^W! putra-ka, 'little 
The fern, of such derivatives (in a-ka) is often formed with 
ifca ; e. g. gf^TT putr-ikS, 'Httle daughter/ 
WT tana : forms adjectives with a temporal meaning ; e. g. 
3LT 1 * 1 nu-tana, 'present/ y<lfl*l purit-taua (f. I), 'ancient.' 

*OT tama : forms superlatives and ordinals ; e. g. ut-tam^, 
' highest ' ; aata-tama\ ' hundredth.' 

TTTtara: forms comparatives ; e. g. ^^TT ut-tara, 'higher.' 

ITT ta, f., ^f tVa, n. : form abstract substantives with the sense 

conveyed by the English suffix knees'; e.g. %MI dev^-ta, 

* divinity ' ; ^n*f amrta-tvrf , n. ' immortality ' ; q^W paiica- 
tva,* five-ness' (i.e. dissolution into the five elements), 'death.' 

W tya, adj.; m. n.: forms nouns from prepositions and 
adverbs ; -~*-&f*m nl-tya, ' constant ' ; ^R?^ ^pa-tya, n. ' off- 
spring'; ^*ii(ei ama-tya,m/ companion' (^f?ITaina/at home'). 

^ tlia, adj. : forms some ordinals from cardinals ; _ e. g. ^RT^ 
catur-tha^ * fourth,' 

* ** bha ** for m8 the names of animals ; e.g.^Hgarda-bhi, 
***** fW vrsa-bhi, * bull/ 

H ma, adj. : forma some superlatives, partly from prepositions, 
and some ordinals ; e.g. ^|^r ava-mtf, * lowest,' ^T^H madhya- 
ia\ middlemost ' ; T^f panca-ma, 'fifth/ 


adj.: forms, in the sense of 'possessing,' derivatives 
from substantives (except such as end in ^ a) ; e. g. 
agni-mt, ' maintaining the (sacred) fire * ; ' fiery.' 

*RJ maya, adj. ( t^ I), 'consisting of; e.g. 
mano-maya, 'consisting of mind, 1 ' spiritual. 1 

^T ya, adj.; m. n. subst. : forms adjectives in the sense of 
'relating to/ masc. patronymics and neuter abstracts with Yrddhi, 
as well as oidinary adjectives without Vrddhi ; e. g. Sfa|gra"iv-ya, 
* relating to the neck ' (iTl^l griva) ; ^if^ffT 5dit-ya", m. ' sou of 
Aditi'; ^H^N^I saubhag-ya, n. 'good fortune* (from 4J4f'| 
su-bbga, 'fortunate'); fi^ei pftr-ya, 'paternal* (ft^ pitf, 

"^ ra, adj.: forms comparatives from prepositions and ordinary 
adjectives ; e. g. ^1^^ a" va-ra, ' lower f ; \JJ5T dhum-ra^, ' grey * 
(from ^R dh-Qma, * smoke'). 

fT lay adj.; m. subst.: forms adjectives and a few diminu- 
tives ; e. g. CiftlHI kapi-U (' monkey-coloured '), ' brown/ W1T1T 
bahu-la% ' abundant ' ; ^PV vrsa-la^, m* ' little man/ ' man of low 
caste/ 'Sfadra/ 

^?^vat F adj. ' possessing '; e.g. H <* \ ^q^ praja-vat, 'having 
offspring' ; i+it^c^ ntfbhas-vat, 'cloudy/ m. 'wind/ 

^P^ van : forms in tbe sense of ' possessing ' adjectives and 
masc. substantives; e.g. 41MC| f l x niagha*-van, 'bountiful/ m. an 
epithet of Indra; ^PW 1 ^ tfthar-van, m. 'fire-priest." 

: forms adjectives meaning 'possessing'; e. g. ^HJ- 
in, 'glorious/ 

183. The above lists practically supply the rules of gender 
for the Sanskrit noun. These may be summarized as followR. 

Speaking generally, all stems ending in the long vowels ^ff a, 
I^T, 5Bf u, are feminine; stems ending in ^ a, ?^t, *^n, may be 


masculine or neuter; stems ending in ^ i or ^ u may be of any 

a. Feminine are all stems formed with the suffixes ^HT a, v * 
^F u, ?TT t5, TT tra, f*T ti. 

A. Neuter are all stems formed with the suffixes ^tva, ^ru, 
J^is, ^5^ us, and (unless the name of a living being) "V^a^ 
and (unless meaning an agent) T ^J1 ana. 

c. Masculine are (in so far as tbey are not used adjectivally) 
all stems formed with the suffixes 7f ta, ^ va, ^Jyu; **nV^ 
ayana, f[ i (patronymic), "8R ka, H bha, ^T la. 

cf. Masc. or fern, are stems formed with the suffixes f^T ni, 
^ nu, fi? mi, ^ tr; also stems formed with the bare root (neuter 
also if adjectives). 

e. Masc. or neut. are stems formed with the suffixes ^T a f 
^ tha, T na, ^T una, H ma, ^t ya, "^ ra, WT tya, ^f tra, 3 tu ' 
an, "JT^ man, *f^ van ; also the adjectives formed with X*l * n > 
n, ^T Ina,|^r lya, 7TT tana, 7TR tama, TT^tara, Tf^I maya, 
If <^ mat, fc^ vat. 

/. Masc., fern., or nent. are stems formed with ^ i or ^ u. 

B. Compound*. 

184. X. Verbal Compounds are formed by combining roots 
with some twenty prepositions and a few adverbs. The com- 
pound verb is conjugated like the simple verb. Thus 
'to go,' combines with ^f^ sam, 'together/ to 
'to go together/ 'unite* ; 3. sing. pres. ^HI^Ri sain-gacchatL 
The compound root can be used to form nominal stems by means 
of the primary suffixes .enumerated above (182, i) } e.g. ^ROT 
sarp-gam-a', m. 'union. 9 

& Tbe prepositions which are compounded with roots are the 
following: .*^ft ati, 'beyond*; WfV Sdhi, 'upon'; 


'after'; ^JRP anta*r, * between'; VT pa, ' away ' ; ^Tft a"pi, 
'on'; ^Brf5T abhi,' against'; ^RT ava, 'down'; ^SJT a 1 , 'near' ; 
"d,'up'; ^Riipa, *upto'; f% nf, 'down 1 ; f*ra>fs, 'out'; 
pra, ' away ' ; T|f^ p&i, 'around'; IT pr, * forth '; JTf?T 
prtfti, ' towards ' ; f% vf , * asunder ' ; ^^ sto, * together." 

6. A few adverbs are a] so compounded with a limited number 
of verbs : Tn<^ tira"s, ' across,' ' aside,' with ff kr, ' make,* \T 
dha, ' put,' ^bhu, * be ' ; e. g. frt^^^fSfl tiras-kurvanti, * they 
abuse'; HlO'W tiro-dha, ' put aside,' * conceal ' ; fTjO^^I'^ 
tiro 'bhavan, 'they disappeared* ; ^tl, puiiis with BF kr and 
W dha, 'put in front,' 'honour'; e.g. y^f^^^l^ puras- 
kriyantam, 'let them be honoured* ; ^Hft^avls, 'openly,' with 
kr, 'to manifest,' with ^R^as and ^bhu, 'to appear' ; e.g. 
avis-karoti,' he shows'; ^u fq ^ i tTl q s avir-asit, - he 

appeared'; ^IflH, ^lam, 'enough,' with W kr, 'to adorn.' 
s'r^d, an old word meaning 'heart' (Lat. cord-), having acquired 
the character of an adverb, is compounded with \TT dha, 'put'; 
and similarly *TO^ n&nas, 'obeisance,' ^^H. ^sta-m, ace. of 
1 ?rar iista, 'home,' are compounded with participles of W kr, 'do,' 
and ^ i, 'go,' respectively; e.g. *i^'iiT+f srad-dadhami, 'I 
l>ut faith,' 'credit* (Lat. credo); l*ltgt(t| namas-kftya, 'having 
adored' ; ^M^HlA stam-ita, 'set* (of the sun). 

Note. Adjectives or substantives may be compounded with f 
kr and ^bhii, before which final ^U a, ^R[ a, or ^ i becomes t^ I, 
final ^ u becomes ^ u; e.g. ^HI vasa, m. 'control 1 : S^Hw 
vasi-kr, *red\ice to subjection,' <nTi^ vas'i-bhu, 'become sub- 
ject' ; tfftj^Bfl parikhi-krta, 'turned into a moat* (H(\^II 
parikha). The sense of these verbal compounds implies a trans- 

1 The preposition TIT & reverses the sense of verbs of going or 
giving ; e. g. ^JPR^ a-gam, ' come ' ; ^1^1 a-da, ' take.' 


formation ; thus ^ffcfl+Jfl ratni-bhuta would mean 'turned into a 
jewel/ but <|+J4f ratna-bhuta, ' being a jewel/ as a nominal 
compound (188, i c). 

II. Nominal Compounds.* 

185. The power of combining two or more words into one, 
which belongs to all the Indo-European languages, has been 
more* largely developed in Sanskrit than in any of the others. 
Not only are long and complex compounds here in constant use, 
but they also take the place of the analytical modes of expression 
which prevail in the other cognate tongues. Thus Kalidasa 
describes a river as 'wave-agitation-loquacious-bird-row-girdle- 
strrag-ed/ while we should say: 'her girdle-string is a row of 
birds loquacious because of the agitation of the waves.' Com- 
pounds being therefore of great syntactical importance in Sanskrit, 
it is necessary to distinguish and classify the various kinds, in 
order that the meaning of a Sanskrit sentence may be clearly 
understood. The most convenient division is into the three 
classes of Co-ordinatives, Determinatives, and Possessives. The 
Determinatives, so called because the former member determines 
(or qualifies) the latter, are of two kinds, Dependent and 
Descriptive. Possessives are secondary compounds, consisting 
chiefly of Determinatives turned into adjectives. 

a. All words making up a compound except the last, ordinarily 
appear in the form of their uninflected stem ; those with two atems 
using the weak, and those with three, the ^middle stem (73 c). 
The last word, in the case of Co-ordinatives and Determinatives, 
retains, as a rule, its usual form and inflexion, as well as, if a 
substantive, its gender ; while, in Possessives, it is variable like 
an adjective. 

E.g. ^i^rar. deva-dasak,m. * servant of a god, or of the gods ' ; 


^SlfiUj^U svSmi-seva, f. * serving a master' ; V<al1 raja-karma, 
n. ' duty of a king * ; J 1 1 *1 *V sa-nam an , ' bomonymous ' : nom. m, 
f. {MfsT), n. 

1. Co-ordinative (Dvandva) Compounds. 

l86, These consist of two (or more) nouns, far less commonly 
adjectives, very rarely adverbs, connected in sense by the copula 
'and.' Dvandva, the name applied to Co-ordinatlves by the Hindu 
grammarians, means ' pair ' or couple.' 

i. Compounded substantives are inflected iu the dual or plural 
according as two or more objects are denoted, the gender being that 
of the last member; e.g. f^jAI^H hasty-asvau, 'an elephant and 
a horse* ; {g^-^ll? hasty-asvaJjL 1 , ( elephants and horses.* When, 
however, the parts of the compound express not individuals but 
categories, the Dvaudva is inflected in the neuter singular as 
a collective; e.g. 'l^ll^ei*^ gavaasvam, ' kine and horses.' 
Names of objects associated in pairs by way of contrast are often 
combined in Dvandvas ; e. g. fcu^l^lt siipha-gajak, ' lions and 
elephants'; M |<*|4|*l|<J[r<n fiSrameya-maij&raV dogs and cats' ; 
aho-ratra, m. n. 'day and night 2 .' The number 

of members in the compound is not limited and is often con- 
siderable ; e. g. ^cj|Mq*n^jili s i^|^tllJ deva-gandharva- 
monusauittga-raksasat, 'gods, heavenly musicians, men, serpents, 
and demons.' 

a. Adjectives (including past participles) are comparatively 
seldom compounded as Dvandvas; e.g. ^TH^(V4U[ uttara- 

daksina, ' north and south ' ; UD^^H sltausna, ' cold and hot ' ; 
sitaasita, "white and black 3 '; *<ii4n ghanajtyaia, 

Cp. Lat. su-ove-t*uriliA. * Cp. Gk. 


'dense and extensive* (forest); Bini8m krta^krta, 'done and 
undone * ; *JHl^nn mrtaajata, ' dead and unborn/ 

& Two past participles are sometimes compounded to express 
immediate sequence, the relation of the second to the first being 
often translatable by e as soon as* ; e.g. &l& drsta-nasta/ seen 
and vanished *=' vanished as soon as seen ' ; SU'dJVfl jata-preta, 
1 di ed as soon as born ' ; HjngifiHfciOfMcT ut-khata + prati-ropita , 
' uprooted and replanted ' ; tJjTifi^a suptautthita, ' having slept 
and arisen/ i. e. * having jiist arisen from sleep/ 

3. Examples of the rare Dvandvas composed of adverbs are 
sgytfm-pratar, 'in the evening and morning * ; 

1TO*^ div5-naktam, ' by day and night/ 

a. Occasionally complex Dvandvas, made up of compounds of 
another class, are met with; e.g. 

vyaklrDa-kesara-f-karSla-mukha, 'having a dishevelled mane and 
terrific jaws/ consists of two possessives (189), 

b. Of the numerous Vedio Dvandvas consisting of the names 
of deities, each member being in the dual and separately accented, 
only very few survive in Sanskrit: 

1 Mitra and Varuna ' ; ^11^1^^ dyava z -prthivyail, * Heaven 
and Earth/ In cases other than nom. voc, ace. the final 
memberjmly is inflected: f^flM^^: mitra-varunayot and 

C dy5v5-prthivyo^. 

mStr, 4 mother/ and ft^ pitr, 'father/ as the first 
member of a Dvandva of relationship, assume the form of the 
nom. aing.; ^ncill^nO mSta^pitarau, 'mother and father J ; 

pita-putrau, 'father and son/ 

1 Mitri and DyivS are Vedic duals. This type of compound was 
porhap* OTiginally due to the juxtaposition of elliptic duals (c) ; e. g. 
Mitri/the two Mitras' being -'Mitra and Varuna/ TOTO dvi-da^a 
i ; a nnmenl Dvandva (< two and ten ') in which the first number is an 
old dual. 


The masc. of co-ordinate pairs of relations can be used alone in 
the dual so as to include the female; e.g. fflflO pitarau = 
* parents'; "3^0 -svaSurau l . =' parents-in-law *; tpft putrau= 
'son and daughter' (as well as 'two sons'); IslTdO bhratarau 
= 'brother and sister V 

2 a. Dependent (Tatpnrusa) Determinatives. 

187. A dependent determinative is one in which tbe first 
member depends on the last, tbe syntactical relation of the former 
to the latter being that of an attribute (noun or pronoun) in an 
oblique case. Tbe compound maybe a substantive or an adjective, 
according as the last member is one or the other. 

E.g. flf^^m tat-purusa, m. 'the man of him,' 'his man* (an 
example used by the Hindu grammarians to designate the class) ; 
frn, sura-manin, adj. ' thinking oneself a hero ' ; 

gunaupeta, adj. ' endowed with virtues ' (upajta is a past part.)- 
In dependent compounds the first member may have the sense 

of any oblique case, but that of the gen. is by far the commonest. 
i. Ace. The last member is naturally always an adjective of 

a verbal nature 3 ; ^^^ jaya-prepdu, adj. 'desiring victory* 

(prajpsu is a desid. adj., cp. 170, a); ^*ftXf varsa-bhogya, adj. 

'to be enjoyed for a year' (bhogya is a fut. part, pass.); *Jf MI<T 

grh^Jigata, adj. ' come to the house ' (agata is a past part.) ; 

<u)*UUH grama-prapta, 'arrived at the village*.* (A past part. 

is more commonly placed at the beginning, when the compound 

1 Cp. Lat. Boceri~sooer et socrus. 

1 Cp. Gk. &St\<j>ot and Lat. favtrei -' brother and sister.' 

8 Cp. Gk. I irtr(5-5a/xo-r, c horse-taming/ Lat. jU-dex, ' pointing out the 
law, "judge/ 

4 The past part. *I7T gata, ' gone to,' is often used at the end of 
Tatpurusae in the sense of 'relating to,' 'existing in*; 
hasta-gata, ' held in the hand/ 


becomes a possessive; e.g. MltH4l*4 prSpta-grama, lit. 'having 
a reached village.*) 
a. Instr. ^itl^ masa-purva/ earlier by a month *$ 

svSmi-sadrsa, ' like (his) master' (cp. 199, 2<r); ^Rfft*T alpauna, 
'deficient by a little '='almost finished' ; ^rf|f?Talii.hata, ' killed 
byasnake'; ^^Tdeva-datta/ given by the gods' (cp. ^<J-doroff) 
commonly used as a proper name with an auspicious sense (Dieu- 
donne') and often denoting an indefinite person=' so-and-so/ 

3* Bat. ^H^l^ yupa-daru, n. ' wood for a sacrificial post ' ; 
fo<*^fa vis^u-bali, m. ' offering to Visnn '; H^f^TT prabhu-hita, 
adj. 'advantageous to the king.' 

4- A,bL ^lHfn1 svarga-patita, adj. * fallen from heaven f ; 
^^^ bhavad-anya, adj. ' difFerent from you.' 

5- Gen. M<*3vi rSja-purusa, m. 'king's man ' ; 
vySghra-buddhi, f. 'thought of (its being) a tiger.' 

LOC.HVOT uro-ja, adj /produced on the breast * ; 

a^'va-kovida, adj. ' skilled in horses ' ; ^fWRT grha-jata, adj. ' born 
in the house'; ^l^iAfl purvahna-krta, adj. 'done in the fore- 

*. Some dependent compounds retain the case termination in the 
governed noun ; e. g. V^TO dhanam-jaya, adj. ' winning booty/ 
TO. as a proper name; ^<hl^ parajpnai-pada, n. 'word for 
another*; q,^^fa v5ca-pati, m. 'lord of speech' ; ^l\|fS< 
yndhi-?^iira, adj. "firm in battle/ m. as a proper name. 

A, If a root forms the last member of a Tatpurusa it undergoes 
o change except that ^ff a is shortened to ^T a, while ^ i, ^ u, 
^ F add ^t ( C p. 182, ia);- e . g . zp(^ vara-da, adj. ' granting 
l^'jJT^V^e 1 ); f^Tftl^visva-JH adj. 'all-conquer- 
ing'; ^TOU; karma-kr-t, adj/ doing work/ 'laborious/ 

AMh* end of a dependent, ft|^ visesa, m. means ' special 
of/ Le. choice/ 'pre-eminent'; similarly ^RR: antaiu, n. 


1 difference,* generally means * other, 1 sometimes * special/ * par- 
ticular'; e.g. n^fq^H tejo-vis'esa, m. 'extraordinary splen- 
dour*; <^;m^\ desajuitara, n. 'another country'; 

\ipayajintai a, n. ' a special means ' ; *U*Uni s bhasyaantara, 
n. ' particular conversation.' 

d. ^nj artha, m. * object,* ' purpose,' is often used adverbially 
at the end of dependents in the ace. and less commonly in the 
dat, and loc.; e.g. cpTOWfaj. damayanty-artham, 'for the 
sake of Damayantl.' 

2l>. Descriptive (Karmadharaya) Determinatives. 

j88. A descriptive determinative is one in which the first 
member describes the last, the syntactical relation of the former 
to the latter being that of a predicate. This relation may be 
expressed in three ways : 

i. By a Noun (in apposition) ; e. g. T^rff rajajsi, m. ' king 
sage,* i. e. " royal sage * ; ??ffanf ( stri-jana, m. ' women-folk.' 

a. A title is thus sometimes compounded with a proper name ; 
e.g. 'limttliJ^Kfl amatya-Baksasa, ' Minister Raksasa.' Oc- 

casionally the proper name comes first; e.g. 
Sandili-mStr, 'Mother Sandili.' 
ft. The apposition often expresses a comparison ; 

jalada-s'yama, adj. 'dark as a cloud'; f^RlfiiH hima-rf'U'ira, adj. 
4 cold as ice '; ^reTRWJC^W jalaantas-candra-capala, adj.* fickle 
as the moon reflected in the water.' When both members are 
substantives the object with which a comparison is made is placed 
not at the beginning of the compound, but at the end; e.g. 
pumsa-vyaghra, m. 'roan-tiger,' Le. ' tiger-like man,' 

'human tiger'; *TPfI^ vafc-madhu, n. 'speech-honey,' i.e. 
'honied speech'; HT<^M^ pada-padma,n. c foot-lotus,' i. e. 'lotus- 
like foot.* 


c. The past part. iJTTbhuta, * become,* 'existent,* is often added, 
in the sense of 'being,' to an appositional substantive (which is 
thus turned into an adj.); e,g. d*fl*J?f tamo-bhuta, ' existing in 
a state of darkness ' ; Vf^JJl ratna-bhuta, ' being a jewel ' (cp. 
184 6, note). 

a. By an Adjective ; e. g. &<*!I*IH krsna-sarpa, m. ' black 
snake *; ^il^nfMtn nilajjtpala, n. 'blue lotus'; +i^|j ma- 
dhyaahna, m. 'midday 5 ; *?v}*J|Jf ardha-marga, m. 'half way'; 
vartamSna-kavi, m. 'living poet." 

a. Those compounds in which the adjective is a numeral are 
by the Hindu grammarians treated as a special class, called 
Dvign. ( two-cow'). They are generally neuters or feminiues 
(in ^ T) expressing aggregates ; e. g. fa^* tri-loka, n. or 
T^n^T tri-loki, f. 'the three worlds.' They may also become 
adjectives by being turned into possessives (189); e.g. RlJJUT 
tri-guna, n. 'the three qualities'; adj. 'possessing the three 

* 5?purva, 'previous/ is put at the end, instead of adverbially 
at the beginning, in the sense of ' before,' after past participles ; 
e-g. 1^4 adj. 'seen before.' 

c. At the beginning of a descriptive compound *1Q^ mahat 
becomes ^TT maha, while at the end TTT^rajan, ^T^^ahan, 
^t% sakhi, ^Jpr j-atri, become TT^T, ^nf , ^RT, TT^T (m. n-) 
respectively ; e. g.^rtTTTWt 'great k^ng ' ; qmrnp^punyajtham, 
'ausiacious day'; flRm^: "dear fnend j ; ^^^(^ ardha-riLtra, 
ni midnight.' 

4f S^d anyo-(a)nya and M^^^ para^s-para, * one auother, ' 
are & kind of irregular compound in which the nom. masc. form> 

Syi|iacfcical J uxt aposition, became generalized ; 

3- By an Adverb (inclusive of particles and prepositions) ; 


e 'g- *J^*l su-jana, m. ' honest man '; ^RdtsTlqi adhi-loka, m. 
'highest tforld'; ^UTITfl a-jffSta, adj. 'unknown'; q^TlTft 
yathaukta, adj. 'as stated ' ; nql <i evaiji-gata, adj. ' thus faring/ 

tf* Compounds of this kind, .when used in the ace. neuter as 
adverbs, are treated by the Hindu grammarians as a special class 
called Avyayi-bhava ('indeclinable state'). Such are 

anu-rupam, 'conformably' ; ^vii^fo yatha-b'akti, * according to 
ability ' ; tlfal^n, sa-vinayam, ' politely ' ; <qiq^|c(^ yavaj- 
jivam, 'for life.* 

3. Possessive (BaLnvrilii) Compounds. 

189. These compounds are essentially adjectives agreeing with. 
a substantive expressed or understood. They are determinatives 
(generally of the adjectivally descriptive class) ending in substan- 
tives, which are made to agree in gender, number, and case -with 
another substantive. Thus -=1*5111^ bahu-vrihi, m. ' much rice/ 
becomes an adjective in the sense of 'having much rice 1 (an 
example used by the Hindu grammarians to designate the class). 

^Every kind of determinative can be turned into a possessive; 
e - ? ^toOU'i indra-s'atru, m. 'foe of Indra* : adj. 'having Indra 
as a foe ' ; 4f)4JM<J4|i*J bhlma-parakrama, m. ' terrible prowess ' : 
adj. ' of terrible prowess ' ; PlM^ tri-p^d, adj. * three-footed ' 
(Gk. rp^Trod-, Lat. tri-ped-) ; ^vD^^I adho-mukha, adj. c down- 
cast* (tnukha, n. 'face'); 1f$1 a-putra, adj. 'sonleas'; 
sa-bhSrya, adj. 'accompanied by his wife* (bharya); 
tatha-vidha,adj.'of such a kind' (vidhi,m.); ^Nr^ 
adj. nom. m,f. (dvo-^tv^), Mil-minded,' 'dejected.' 

A. In the Vedic language possessives were distinguished from 
determinatives by accent ; e. g . raja-putra/ king's son '; rajrf-putra, 
adj. c having kings as sons.' 

b. Possessives often come to be used as substantives or proper 


names ; e.g.^^J su-hrd, 'good -hearted/ becomes masc.' friend' ; 
^TOWTT^ satja'-sravas, adj, nom. m. * of true fame/ becomes 
the name of a man (cp. *Ero*jcX^s). 

c. Possessives are often very intricate, containing several other 
compounds. Thus [(vlcl-tso'bha)-stanita-(viliaga-si i eni)]-(^aftci- 
guna) is based on an appositional descriptive consisting of two 
main parts. The second, ' kaffct-guna/ m. ' girdle-string,' is a 
Tatpurusa. The first is an adjectival descriptive in which the 
Tatpurusa * vihaga-s'reni/ 'row of birds,' is described by ' vTci- 
ksobha-stanita/ 'loquacious through wave-agitation.' The latter 
is a compound Tatpurusa, in which 'stanita* is qualified by the 
simple Tatpurusa 4 vici-ksobba/ 'agitation of the waves/ ^flnr 
UUfJfc^uft fitaufna-kiranau, 'moon aud sun,* is an example of a 
Bah uvrihi which is used as a substantive and contains aDvandva. 
It is in reality a kind of contracted Dvandva ('the cool and the 
hot-rayed" for 'the cool-rayed and the hot-rayed'). 

d. Bahuvrihis with a past participle at the beginning are 
syntactically often equivalent to a gerund or loc. absolute ; e. g. 
tyakta-uagara, 'having the city left' = 

nagaram tyaktvS, 'having left the city/ or TTC Wni 
tyakte, * the city being left. 1 

e. Bahuvrthis based on appositional descriptives often imply 
a comparison; e.g. V|'l{^ l*|4j cajudi^nana, * moon-faced* ; Mijtl 
padmajksa (f. i), ' lotus- eyed/ Inversion of the natural oider 
does not take place here as in descriptives (cp. 188, I b). 

/ qp$i< kalpa, m. 'manner/ and TTpSf praya, m/ chief part/ are 
used at the end of Bahuvrihis in the sense of 'like/ 'almost 1 ; 
e.g. in*racQ<!H amrta-kalpa, adj. 'ambrosia-like 1 ; 

prabhata-prSya, adj. 'almost dawning/ In the same position M^. 
para and M<41 parama, adjectives meaning 'highest/ 'chief/ used 
as substantives, signify 'engrossed in/ 'intent on* (lit, 'having 


as the chief thing f ) ; e.g. ft*fllM< cintS-para, 'immersed in 

f- tJTMl matra, f. 'measure,' is used at the end of Bahuvrihis 
in the sense of ' only ' ; e.g. *u*l*H^n i\|t namamatra nara^, 
' men bearing the name only.' At the end of past participles it 
means 'as soon as ' ; e.g. 4kl4*U^9 ^TJ* jata-matrai satrap, 'an. 
enemy as soon as (he has) come into being. 1 It is, however, 
generally employed as a neuter substantive in this -way ; e. g. 
, ' water alone' (lit. 'that which has water 

for its measure f ). 

h. 4||f^ adi, m. and U*lf3| prabhrti, f. ' beginning,' TIW adya, 
* first ' (used as a substantive), are employed at the end of Bahu- 
Tiihis in the sense of ' and the rest,' ' and so forth, 1 ' etcetera/ 
primarily as adjectives and secondarily as substantives; e. g. 
J* (deva) Indraadayal?, ' (the gods) Indra and the 

rest' (lit. 'having Indra as their beginning'); ^cq lf^ it\Jdi, n. 
'beginning thus* (i.'e. with these words)='and so on.' 

yO J l** puro-gama, ^4 purva, gT^^PC purat-sa r a 'preceding' 
=' leader, 1 are similarly employed in the sense of 'preceded, led, 
or accompanied by'; e.g. 

by Indra.' Ijj3f and ^T-^5TT ftre a ^ BO ^ se d adverbially at the end 
of Bahuvrihis; e.g. Rfld^H 'with the accompaniment of a 
smile,' ' smilingly ' ; ^^*nl*i\ttl\^ bahumana-purabsaram, 
* with respect,' ' respectfully.' 

/. Words meaning ' hand' are placed at the end of possessives ; 
fUJ sastra-pani, 'weapon-handed,' 'having a weapon 

in one's hand ' ; J^^^ti kusa-hasta, ' with kusa-grass in (his) 

/. The suffix 1^ in is pleonasticaUy added to \nl dharma, 
1 duty,' Sftsr sila, ( character/ *TTWT mala, * garland/ irWT s'ala, 
'house/ ^f^TT aobha, 'beauty/ *JT& varna^ 'colour'; e.g. 



fa. vara-var^-in, 'of excellent colour/ The adjectival 
suffix qi ka is similarly often added, especially to unusual finals, 
as to words in ^S r, to feminines in ^ I (like 1^ nadi), and in 
the feminine to words in f^in ; e.g.*jn*ig*nl mrba-bhartr-ka, 
' whose husband is dead '; 4mflT|t|t sa-patnl-ka, 'accompanied by 
his wife.' 



190. As the great bulk of the literature consists of poetry, the 
syntactical- arrangement of the Sanskrit sentence is primitive and 
undeveloped, as compared with Latin and Greek. Its main 
characteristic is the predominance of co-ordination, long com- 
pounds and gerunds constantly taking the place of relative and 
other subordinate clauses, while the oratio obliqua is entirely 
absent. Another feature is the comparatively rare use of the 
finite verb (frequent enough in the Vedic language), for whici 
past participles or verbal nonns are very often substituted. There 
is also a marked fondness for passive constructions. A special 
feature of Sanskrit syntax is the employment of the locative 

The Order of Words. 

igi. The usual arrangement of words in a Sanskrit sentence 
is: first, the subject with its attributes (a genitive preceding its 
nominative); second, the object with its adjuncts (which precede 
it); and lastly, the verb. 

Adverbs or extensions of the predicate are commonly placed 
near the beginning, and unemphatic connective particles follow 


the first word; e.g. *r*ra^[ ^ft ^H M^t SRTO 'but 
Janaka went in haste to his own city/ 

When there is a vocative, it generally comes first. Instead of 
the subject any other word requiring emphasis may be placed at 
the head of the sentence ; e, g. \|^H 9RTT *4d+tt f lftg4|9( 
at night you must not enter the monastery. 1 

A. The subject, if a personal pronoun, is not expressed -unless 
emphatic, being inherent in finite verbal forms. Even the general 
subject 'one* or 'they' is often indicated by the verb alone; 
e. g. WTTc(/ one should say ' ; "WF* ' they say '=' it is said.' 

b. The copula ^Ra ' is,' unless the tense or mood has to be 
expressed, is generally omitted. In that case the predicate pre- 
cedes its noun ; e. g. ij\n<!ll Tlf^ ' the night (is) cold.' If the 
predicate bears any emphasis, Hfft is used, not *nftq ; e.g. ^ 


is distinguished by knowledge, penance, or birth, is (certainly) 
to be respected by the twice-born/ 

c. Just as attributes precede their nouns and the qualifying 
word conies first in compounds, so a relative or other subordinate 
clause precedes the principal clause, which regularly begins with 
a correlative word; e.g. ^TO VT *TO ^n, lit. 'of whom 
wealth, of him power/ i.e. 'he who has wealth has powwr.* 

The Article. 

IQ2. There is properly neither an indefinite nor & definite 
article in Sanskrit. But TPR 'one' and *faf *soW (119), 
being frequently used to express 'a certain,' may sometime* b* 
translated by ' a.' Similarly *T ' that ' (no) may, when referring 
to persons or things just mentioned, be rendered by 'the' ; e.g 
' the king' (of whom we are speaking). 



193. i. Singular collective words are sometimes used at the end 
of compounds to form a plural; e.g. 'teftsil stri-jana, m. 
' womenfolk '=' women.' Such collectives ate sometimes them- 
selves used in the plural ; e. g. <*Tt*6 or WtSfiT* 'the world/ 

a. The dual number is in regular use and of strict application, 
the plural practically never referring to two objects. It is there- 
fore invariably employed with the names of things occurring iu 
pairs, such as parts of the body; e.g. ^<xH 4l^{V ^ 'the hands 
and the feet/ A maac. dual is sometimes used to express a male 
and female of the same class; e.g. ^HTcfJ fnaO 'thc parents 
of the universe* (see 186, 3 c, p. 171). 

3. . The plural is sometimes applied to others by the speaker 
or writer as a mark of great respect, *j|*|4^ and *JflW taking 
the place of ^^ and 3*^1*0 e.g. 5T7f +i*tRj: 'has your Majesty 
heard? * In this sense the plur. m^U ' feet ' is employed instead 
of the dual (cp. 193, 


insults your Majesty('s feet).' Proper names are occasionally 
used in tho same way; e.g. ifft 4TlU(^i<Nl4l* 'thus (eays) 
the revered teacher Samkara. 1 

6, The i. pers. pi. is sometimes used by the speaker referring 
to himself (like our editorial 'we *) instead of the singular or dual 
(cp. 193, 2); e.g. 44|4{fif ftftfij^l+i; 'we (=1) too ask 
sotoething'; fijj g&|: 4JJHd*l'what s haU we (=you and I) 
do now?* 

c. The names of countries are plural, being really the names of 

'in Vidarbha* (Berar). In the singular the name 
of the people often danotea the king of the country. 

VII i<)4 

L Some now** **e uned in the plural only: Iflm f. ' 
(96, i) ; Tim I* *n.* Me ' s 1B t 1 frf* ' the raina '=' the rainy season ' ;'wifc.* 


194* Thi' rule* of ronroyd m case, person, gender, and number 
at'* in gear ml the name as in other inflexional languages, but the 
following Hjat'Ul point* may le noted: 

z. The nominative with^fll may lake the place of a predicative 
ace. governed by verl of calling, considering, knowing, &c.; 
^ft f"ltlf ' itnow me to be a Brahmin* (instead 

a* Whe * dual or plural verb refers to two or more subjects 
theflrit penou U preferred to the second or thu-d, and the second 
percun to the third ; e, g. WHf *T T^fPT: *y^ and I go. 1 

3. , A dual or plural adjective agreeing with masc. and fern. 
itibntantive* In put ia the rnasc., but when neuters are associated 
with m**cul$ne* and fetnittinew, in the neuter (sometimes 
singular) *, - g- ^fl^l^^^l Wti *if$H\Fi *i^tl^'^ ' tbe 
cha, dice (ak^), *nd drinking are reprehensible in kinp ' ; 


* * Wrf vitl)L clipped wings, a withered tree, 

dried-up pond, a toothleM wrpeat and a poor man are of equal 
account (aeut, ring.) to (th *y <>0 the world.' 

. Ocraaionilly aa attribata or predicate takes the jaatural in- 
ttead of ha grammatical gender ; e, g.Wt Ra^-n1i "Piv^iM* 
Win: WWr: *thlnkiag (wac,) of thee the subjects (fern,) have 
been reduced to iaktag no food/ 

<?, Aa in Greek and Latin, a demonstrative pronoun agrees vith 
iU predicate In gettden-e.g. *tft ^?ft ^W: '<his (maao.) 
U Ibe be^ counnl* (maac,). 

A participle uaed in place of a finite verb, which should agree 

182 CONCORD vn i 95 

with the subject, may be attracted in gender by a substantive 
predate if in close proximity with it;_e.g. tf * f3nf m^ 
thou (masc.) hast become (neut.) my friend' (neut.). 
4- A singular collective noun is necessarily followed by a singular 
verb. Two singular subjects require a predicate in the dual, three 
or more require it in the plural. Occasionally, however, the pre- 
dicate agrees in number with the nearest subject, being mentally 
the rest;-e.g. * 


W^VT^'Kantimatl, this kingdom, and my very 
life (are) at your mercy ' (sing.). 

* Similarly, the verb which should agree with a single plural 
subject may be attracted in number by a noun predicate in its 
immediate P roximity; 
tn es e fleven 



195- 1- Personal, a. Owing to its highly inflexional character 
Sanakrit uses the nominatives of personal pronouns far less 
frequently than modern European languages do (cp. 191 a).' 

*. The unaccented forms of ^RR and ?^ (109 a) being 
enclitic, can be used neither at the beginning of a sentence or 
metrical line (Psda), nor after vocatives, nor before the particles 
~ ' ' (not%) ; 

house or mine.' 

*? ?^' yOUr H nOUr> (f ' *""*) ** P lite f o of WH 
thou (with which it often alternates even in the same sentence), 
takes the verbin the 3. person ;_e.g.fvnf *TO>hat does 
your Honour say > The plural TOr: (f. J^W:) i. construed 
in the same way; it frequently has a singular sense (193, 3 a). Two 
compounds of T*IH>re O ft fln used in the drama :-^R^T^ 

*95 PKONOTJNS jfrj 

atra-bhav5nrefers to some one present, either the person addressed 
or some third person='your Honour here' or 'his Honour here'; 
TSWTP^tatraMbhavBn, ' tia Honour there/ referring to some one 
off the stage, can only be used of a third person. Both take the 
verb in the 3. sing. 

a. Demonstrative. . ipj and ^RT^ refer to what is near 
or present=* this/ The former is the more emphatic of the two. 
Both are often employed agreeing with a subject in the I. or 3. 
pers. sing, in the sense of^here ' ; e.g. H* TO?ft tTOf?T 'here 
a devotee stands ' ; ^^(Ifl ' here am I ' ; 

'here comes your son/ ^RJ *rm 'this person' is frequently 
used as an equivalent of *!/ 

6. ^ and ^tH refer to what is absent or remotest that/ ^f is 
the more definitely demonstrative of the two, being, for instance, 
the regular correlative to an antecedent relative. It has the 
following special uses. It has often (like Lat. ffle) the sense of 
'well-known/ 'celebrated'; e.g. ?IT 4JH( Tf^t *that well- 
known charming city/ It is frequently also the equivalent of 

* the aforesaid ' ; e. g. ^frf ^R^ ' I (being) such * (as just described). 
In this sense it may often be translated simply by the definite 
article *the' (cp. 192). When unaccompanied by a noun ^| 
supplies the place of a personal pronoun of the third persoti= 

* he, she, it, they /'but with a certain amount of emphasis when 
used in the nominative O^WH and "W^fY are employed in the 
same way as personal pronouns of the third person). Finally ^T 
when repeated means * various/ 'several/ *all sorts of*; e.g. 
^nf^f JTrff 91I4 WQ?( 'he read various treatises/ 

3. IPoftseuive. These pronouns (116} are comparatively little 
used, as the genitive of the personal pronouns is generally em- 
ployed. In accordance with the sense of t^c^ (195, r c), its 
derivatives Xl^\l bhavad-Iya and *URf* bhavat-ka are used 
as possessive pronouns of the second person in respectful address* 




196. The nominative is far less frequently used in Sanskrit as 
the subject of a sentence than in other Indo-European languages. 
Its place is very commonly supplied by the instrumental of the 
agent with -a passive verb ; e. g.%^lft JNtK^WNltil ftfTifl 
' a certain field-watcher was standing aside * (lit. ' by a certain 
field- watcher it was stood aside'). 

. The nominative is used predicatively with verbs meaning 
* to be, become, seem, appear/ as well as with the passive of verbs 
of calling, considering, sending, appointing, making, &c. ; e. g. 
%*f *jFlTr JRJTt **TW WR 'the dog was turned into a tiger 
by the sage.' 

b. The nominative followed by ff*f may in certain circumstances 
take the place of the accusative (Bee 194, i). 


197. Besides its ordinary use of denoting the object of transitive 
verbs, the accusative is employed to express 

x. the goal with verbs of motion; e.g. 
'he went to Vidarbha.' 

. verbs of going, like inland ^TT, are very commonly joined 
with an abstract substantive where either the corresponding 
adjective with 'to become/ or merely an intransitive verb would 
be used in English; e. g. ^1 ^ftfif 4(1(71 ' he becomes famous * 
(lit. 'goes to fame '); TV^Ef 1pQgf?T ' he dies ' (lit. 'goes to death 9 ). 

a. duration of time and extension of space ; e. g. 

'he learns for a month*; {ftO!*! J|4(Rl 'he goes (the distance 
of) a Yojana' (nine miles). 

3. the object of desiderative adjectives in *J (cp. 169) and of 
some compound adjectives beginning with prepositions; e.g. 


' I am desirous of crossing the ocean ' ; 
' devoted to DamayantT,* 

4. the cognate object of intransitive verbs in the case of sub- 
stantives and the analogous adverbial sense in the case of 
adjectives; e.g. 3ftl*U^ *j4l*t 44j 'may he rain (L e. grant) 
all desires ' ; ifVgT J 1^IH ' let us go quickly * (originally > * go a 
quick gait '). 

Double Accusative. 

198. Two accusatives are governed by 

i. verbs of calling, considering, knowing, making, appointing, 
choosing; e.g. ^Mlf^f 1ST Mwfn^mt/ 1 know thee (to be) 
the chief person.' 

a. verbs of speaking (ff, ^R^, ^f|)> asking ("J^f), begging 
fal 1 ^, JTHsNl), instructing (^-^1^), fining 
winning (f%), milking (^); e.g. 

'the bird addressed a speech to Nala'; 
* he should ask tme evidence from the twice-born * ; 
e asks Bali for the earth* ; 

/ what she commands me s ; m^tl^ia ^H^q<^ * he should 
fine them a thousand (panas)'; fSfW IW i^i*^ 'having won 
the kingdom from Nala ' ; <(i(lf*l iiV^R^^ ' they milked 
(i.e. extracted) gems from the earth.' 

a. qKTC 'tell,' *%<^r 'make known/ and ^(T-t^^ 'enjoin, 1 
never take the accusative of the person addressed, but the dative 
(or gen.). 

3. verbs of bringing, conveying, leading, dispatching; e.g. 
'he brings the goat to the village ' ; 

'having sent SakuntalS away to her husband's 


4. causative vfcrbs ,- e. g. TW ^JJUIIMtlRl ' he causes BSma 
to learn the Veda 1 ; if stress is laid on the agent (the direct ace.), 
it may be put in the instrumental : ?rf ^O^K W^i ' he should 
cause her to be devoured by dogs. 1 

a. When the causative meaning has faded, the dat. or gen, of 
the person is used instead of the ace.; this is generally the case 
with ^Hlfrr 'show' ('cause to see'), and ^fT^R 'tell* ('cause to 
hear'), and always withal 'make known,' 'tell' ('cause to 

b. In the passive construction the direct ace. (the person or 
agent) becomes the nom., the indirect ace. (the object or thing) 
remains ; e, g. <J*Tl ^^ *|U||uft ' BSma is caused to learn 
the Veda ' ; 7ft IfT^! WH9( ' dogs are caused to devour her ' ; 

Bali k asked for the earth.' 


199. The fundamental notion of the instrumental, which may 
be rendered by 'by ' or 'with,' expresses the agent, the instru- 
ment (means), or concomitant by or with which an action is 
performed; e. g. ^rttWt. * it TOS said by him *=' he said'; ^ 
: 'he was killed with a sword'; ^BT f*i^ 
^ ' there is no one happier (201, a a) 

in this world than he who has converse with a friend. 1 
x. The foil owing are modification s of the instrumental sense 

A the reason : *bf , M through, f ' by reason of/ 'because of/ 'on 

account of 1 ; e. g. *T*T??t^pT^r through your favour f ; 
HmPl 'I luiish you for that fault'; ^i 

'by the thought of a tiger ) = < bcftUBe he thought it was a tiger' 
(op* p, 172, s); g^fnPTT * under the delusion of (the existence 
of) pleasure** 


b. accordance : ' by,* ' in conformity with ' ; e. g.lT^WT ' by 
nature ' ; 3TTWT ' by birth'; * *W ^W ^5* 'he goes by (acta 
in accordance with) my opinion.* 

c. the price : (' with/ ' by means of '=) * for/ ' at the price of* ; 
e- g. ^H^ajTH ft<ft*l*M<Q tpjfflf^/ a boot sold for a hundred 
rupees ' ; ^uoiii ^RITT T%^ <K<fM ^ftrft "a man should 
always save himself even at the cost of his wife or of Ms wealth.* 

d. time within which, anything is done : (' by the lapse 
of '=) ' in * ; e. g. 31^14 ff^ ^f^ qiit^ ^RJ?t *gnuninar is 
learnt in twelve years.' 

e. the way, vehicle or part of the body Tjy which motion 
is effected ; e. g. qo*H ^Tf^Nr WTCTt <tmU * in what direc- 
tion (lit. * by what road ') have the crows disappeared ? * ^(fe^J 

'he goes on horseback' (lit. * by means of a hon f ); ^t 
' he carried (uvaha) the dog on hia shoulder.' 

/ *in respect of: with words implying superiority, in- 
feriority or defectiveness ; e. g. tpTWf aTf^^ ^t^l * inferior 
to these two (abl.) in valour 1 ; yjill. *fVf!*l 

fortunate man, you excel your ancestors in that (deverfaca) * ; 

n ' blind of an eye.' 

* of/ 'with' : with words meaning need or TIM, 
tively or with a negative), or 

(with or withont V ' do ') ; e. g. 

use of life to me' (gen.); ^IMm^ *W Mtn, your 
Majesty's feet have no need of servants* ; flfc TOT fWW ^k*i 
'what is to be done with that cow?* f* ^ ^W ***** 
we (to do) with this ? ' Similar is the use ofgW 
'away with' and ^W^ ' enottgh of (ot 180): 
'away with rising^* pray do not rise.' 


!* ' with/ * at f : with verbs of rejoicing, laughing, being 
pleased, satisfied, astonished, ashamed, disgusted ; e. g. qnyn^ 
<jqf?T 'a low person is satisfied even with very little* ; 

013 1 tl Tfa ' he laughed at it. 1 

L ' off 9 * by ' : with verbs of boasting or swearing ; 
4fHM*ll ^Rf jpfr ' I swear by Bharata and myself.' 

/. the obje<rt (victim) with ^JB^ ' sacrifice ' ; e. g 
lW?l *he sacrifices a bull to Rudra/ Here we have the real 
inst. sense surviving from the time when ^I^meant ' worship * 
a god (ace,) with (inst.)* 

a. The concomitant or sociative sense is generally supple- 
mented, by the prepositional adverbs ^J, {IT 1 ^, ^THsfo and 
^*f*V with, 1 which are used (like ' with f in English) even when 
separation or antagonism is implied; e. g. 

'the father went with his son 1 ; finrtf ^ R^R^M: 'dis- 
agreement with a fiiend * ; ^T ^T ft^ ^R ^P^ ' he engaged 
in a fight with him/ This sense is also applied 

A to erpress the accompanying circumstances or the 
manner in which an action is performed ; e.g. <fft 
^ft*t ^RTt *that pair lives in great aflfection'; 
* with great pleasure.* 

A. with the passive of verbs which have the sense of accompany- 
ing, joining, endowing, possessing, and the opposite; e.g. <flt|| 
^f^n'accxmipanied by you; 1 \pTif ^Rift f^Wt TT possessed 
or destitute of wealth ' ; TTT%^ f^WZ ' bere'ft of life/ 

c. with adjectives expressive of identity, equality, or 
** ln im*ji s tl * f ^ill, ^TpTi ^JWT t e. g. 3j7b<y ^?f : ' equal 
to Indr*'; vm ^fW: 'Hke him'; V* if % 

; * ^ i not even equal to the dust of my feet/ The genitive 
naed with these adjeetivea (cp. 202, 2 d). 

VII 200 DATIVE l8g 


2OO. The dative case expresses either the indirect object, 

generally a person, or the purpose of an action. 
A. The dative of the indirect object is used 
x. with transitive verbs, with or without a direct object : 
Aof giving (?[T, ^Ipfa), telling (^f^ ^, WTO, <3MM4( f 
promising (jtft* or TR-3J, JTlTMRT), showing 
<* f^TpET ft <<^lfd 'he gives a cow to the 

Brahmin* ; <*\SJ^|fii ^ JJJU^H'l tell you the truth.' 
b. of sending, casting ; e. g. aft^ 

messenger was sent by Bhoja to Raghu'; 

' they cast (47) darts at Eama.* 

3. with intransitive verbs meaning to please fa^), desire 

^"ys! 1 Le m&j ^ ith ^^ 9 3R:> ^' injure ^^ ; ~ 

e- g. 0"^^ *HW/ it pleases me * ; 1 <WTil ^^ c I do not 
long for the kingdom ' ; P(i4\|%| gn^ft ' he is angry with his 
servant.' (^i^( &Jad 5^ when compounded with prepositions 
govern the ace.) 

3. with words of salutation; e.g. ^!U)^tl^ T*ft 'salutation to 
GanesV; 31*1*1 ^ ' health to thee ' ; <l^l^ ^f?d *hail to Rama' ; 
J9MIC! ^^ 'welcome to her Majesty. 1 

B. The dative of purpose expresses the end for which an action 
ia done, and is very often equivalent to an infinitive ; e. g. *J7G<i 
'he worships Hari for (= to obtain) salvation'; 
'he goes for (=to obtain) fruit'; 

' your Honour (has) full 
authority for the instruction of (= to instruct) niy sons in the 
principles of morality * ; ^\<4 Wfi^dt ' he started for a fight * 
(=' to fight ') ; y*!^* 1 ^ ' au Devoir. 1 

DATIVE v ** 201 

This dative is specially taken by verbs meaning 
1* ' be fit for,' ' tend or conduce to ' (j|^, ^f-tR^, *MJ[)* e< 
'piety conduces to knowledge.' 

in the same way, but are often omitted; 

e.g. <n^ulfM *rat|Y T^T^ Hff?T 'the combination even of 
the weak leads to safety'; ^(|j^|l(||4| It Sfjjp[*(/ your weapon 
(serves) for the protection of (=to protect) the distressed.* 

a. 'be able/ 'begin, 1 'strive/ 'resolve/ 'order/ 'appoint'; 
g- 1?1 ^WT ^nitKHl^qqiltnil^K^ ' this story was able to 
win over (akarsanSya) the warrior 1 ; 11(4) <$<f *i(q\!||^f 'he began 
to (take) an oath'; fl^MU]!^ ^rf^ *I will try to find her'; 

'he has resolved on abandoning 

his life*; 5Rq\*t x ^fdfa^tffl HJ^lf^Jm 'having charged 
(a-disya) his daughter with the reception of tbe guests'; 

: 'he was appointed by the gods 

for the destruction of (=to destroy) Bavana.' 

a. The adverb -**i*^ ' sufficient ' is used in the sense of ' be 
able to copo with/ 'be a match for ' ;~e. g. ^8^ tRl^*i 
' Hari (is) a match for the demons/ 


2OI, The ablative primarily expresses the starting-point or 
source from which anything proceeds. It thus answers to the 
question' whence?' and may in general be translated by ' from/ 

E-g. ^Rf^ ^*5 **Tf ^l^^lf^ 'I wish to depart 
from thia forest'; XTPmmT ^^T 'ruin results from sin' 

did not fiwerve from his 

porpose' (ni&aysd); ^%^ : ^ff^nf ^TT^ 'he heard of 
thedeatii of his son from his relations'; iff yq1lf4qj 're- 

er from her bonds'; f^ff 1^*1^ Resist from 
act ; tfTTf ^fT 'R^TR^' protect me from hell.' 


a. The source of apprehension is put in the ablative with 
verb* of fearing (3ft, ^ft^ud-vij) ; 
'you are afraid of the hunter*; 

1 a Brahmin should always shrink from marks of honour.* 

b. Verhs expressing separation 'from* naturally take the abla- 
tive ; e. g. TO3ft fo*HRW * parted from you ' ; ^TT 

'and she is deprived of her husband's place* (such words 
also take the instr. : cp. 199, 2 6). Allied to this use is that of 
'to cheat of ' (= so as to separate from); e.g. 
* to cheat a Brahmin of his he-goat.' 

c. As the abl. expresses the terminus a quo, it is employed with 
all words meaning "far/ or designating the cardinal points; 
e.g. %t m^ltl/far from the village'; 4JI*II<1 Tg^f f*tf%* 
'the mountain (is) to the east of the village.' 

d. Similarly the abl. also expresses the time after which 
anything takes place;- e.g. 4f^& su^iq/seen after a long, 
time ' ; ^VU^l^ ' after a week.' 

The abl. also expresses the following senses connected with its 
original meaning: 

i. the cause, reason, or motive = ' on accounted/ 'be- 
cause of,' 'through/ "from 1 ; e.g. flWl^ 1TO *1"^*iTd 'he 
eats the flesh through greed.' This use of the abl. is especially 
common, in commentaries, with abstract nouns in W tva ; e. g. 
tf^fti f%|'4| l*V WH^BII^ ' the mountain is fiery because of its 
smokiuess.' (The instr. is also employed in this sense: 199, I a.) 

9. comparison: 

*. with comparatives* (=' than') or words with a comparative 
meaning; e.g^Hfa^ I ^ <l*Tt f^^tli,: 'ESma is more learned 
than Govinda' ; l^ft ^T 1 !^ HfflRL 1 *!^ 'knowledge is superior 
to action.' In thi$ sense it is used even with positives (=*in 
comparison with') ; 


wife is dear even in comparison with (i. e. dearer than) the whole 
world'; ^i^ft ^<fUlfU! J<&fr g>^*tl^fM ^nifa 'hearts 
harder even than adamant, more tender even than a flower.' 

b. with words meaning 'other 1 or 'different' (V*T, \jA\, 
VnC. f*W); e.g. a&mi<^*ft *Hfa^ 'Govinda is different 
from Krsna.' 

c. Allied to the comparative abLis that used with mnltiplicative 
words like ' double,' * treble/ &c. ; e. g. *J<*H^ M^^fl ??&* 

a fine five times (in comparison with) the value. 1 


2O2. The primary sense of the genitive is quasi-adjectival, since 
its qualification of another substantive means ' belonging to * or 
connected with/ It may generally be expressed in English by 
the preposition 'of.' "With substantives the gen. is used in a 
possessive, subjective, objective, or partitive sense; e.g. TTV 
3^V 'the king's man '; <J^**^*l^(^*j *nnT: 'y ou * con- 
cealment of Baksasa's wife,' (i.e. 'by you'); m$*U 7TOT: 'by 
the supposition of her' (Le. 'supposing it was she'); 
TTT*^ 'the foremost of the wealthy.' 
i. The gen. is used with a number of verbs : 
a. in the possessive sense with $^Ts, TT-^ ' be master of/ 
* have power over/ and with ^, ^ ' be/ fa*17t ' exists ' ; e. g. 
'I shall be master of myself; 

' I have a book.' 
in the objective sense (concurrently with the ace.) with 

-I * nm b,''^ ' imitate ';-e.g. 
these men have mercy on you 1 ; 
remembers your favours'; 

'I will imitate BhTma. 1 



c. in the objective sense (concurrently with the loc.) with verbs 
meaning 'do good or harm to' (BtHR , ^^, VHF, 
'trust in 1 (fo- 1 ^), 'forbear with' faO; e.g. 
i: Benefiting his friends' ; fl 

'how have I done her an injury?' "qiJM % 'forbear with me.' 
d. with verbs meaning 'speak of 1 or 'expect of*; e,g. 
'ije speaks thus of me though I am 

guiltless' ; *|4*1<3 *J*lSl t**l | q7i 'anything may be expected 
of that fool.' 

fc. frequently (instead of the dat. of the indirect object) with 
verbs of giving, telling, promising, showing, sending, bowing, 
pleasing, being angry; e.g. 1TOT rn$U*l4 *l^nV ' I have 
granted safety to him ' (tasya) ; f^fi 'Zf^ ^l-qn TW *docs he please 
you ? ' <H4JT*lf^4j^ ^t*f I 'the sage (is) not very angry with me* 

/. sometimes (instead of the instr.) with verbs meaning ' be filled 
or satisfied ' ; e. g. mfM^^ffl ^lai^in, 4fi re is not eatiated 
with logs/ So also the past part, tjjt *fuU of ' (gen.), or 'filled 
with' (instr.). 

a. The gen. ia frequently used with, adjectives : , 

a. allied to transitive verbs; e.g. 3R7 ft*ufVt\ ^H*fl 
1 old age is destructive of beauty. 1 

b. meaning 'dependent on,' 'belonging or attached to,' 'dear 
to ' ;e. g. TITRra: ^T mft*R: * that remedy depends on you ' 
(tava); ^c^^^l^ ^TW f*W^f l^WftT TfcC^R^r 'give 
up whatever you have taken belonging to him' (asya) ; 

TJUt flRi: ' who, pray, is dear to kings?' 

CP meaning 'acquainted with/ 'versed or skilled 
oustomed to* (concurrently with the loc.: 2O3/) ; e. g 

are, indeed, onversant wiih 

the ways of the world *; ^ilWI^K ^^*^ unskilled 


in battle 9 ; yftfl) ^*tt SnTRT^' people accustomed to hard- 

d. meaning ' like ' or * equal to ' (concurrently with the instr. : 

199, ac); e.g. IJ^Tr B<jj<3 IJW 'Rama is equal to Krsna/ 
3. The gen. expresses the agent with passive participles : 
a. past participles having a pres. sense, formed from roots 

meaning 'think,' 'know,* 'worship*; e.g. 

thought of =) ' approved of kings ' ; 

* 'you are known to the hermits to be staying here.' 
b. future participles (which also take the instr.: 199) ; e.g.TT 
(jTOr) %^ff ?fT* ' Hart should he worshipped by me.' 

4. The gen. is used with adverbs of direction in 7R^-tas 
(cp. 177^); e.g.CT?re ^ninTt 'to the south of the village'; 
sometimes also with those in Tpf -ena (concurrently "with the 
ace*}; e.g. ^^f^TTO 'to the north of this* (asya) place. 

5. The gen. of time is used in the following ways : 

a. with multiplicatives (108) or other numerals similarly used 
it expresses how often anything is repeated within a stated 
period ; e. g. ^Tff PK^*I fM^ ' he should offer the funeral 
sacrifice three times a year 1 ; 

*a Brahmin should perform at least one severe 
penance a year.' 

b. Words denoting time are put in the gen. (like the abl.) in 
the sense of 'after*; e.g. *RlM<JIC3f (kati-payaahasya), ' after 
some days'; fava t*l<q<3 'after a long time" : ft<4fl is also 
used alone in this sense. 

c. A noun and past part, in the gen. f accompanying an ex- 
paression of time, have the sense of 'since'; e.g. ^W ^9C?t 

'to-day (is) the tenth month since our 

father died' (uparatasya). This construction is akin to the gen. 
absolute (205, 2). 


6. Two genitives are employed to express an option or a differ- 
ence between two things -, e.g. qtl*l^ ^ *|WtSf *WR 
*of vice and death, the former is called the worse*; 
* * *^ s *& *ke only difference 

between you (the long-lived) and India.* 


203. The locative denotes either the place where an action 
occurs, or, with verbs of motion, the place whither an action is 
directed. The former sense may variously be translated by 'in, 
at, on, among, by, with, near/ the latter by 'into, upon*; 
corresponding to Lat. in with abl. and ace. respectively. 

The following are examples of the ordinary use of the loo. in 
the sense of - where ? ' MfaHHdftUU3% PiqtfPn * birds live 
in that tree*; t%^3 'inVidarbha'(i93,3c) 5 ^ Wli" *f*nflrf^ 
f ' I ^iU kill myself at your door * ; <**un, ' ** 

' (Benares) ; ** T^ 3 lfruit < is ) Been on &* tpees>; 
encamped on (= close to) the Ganges'; 

' neither, among gods, nor Taksus, or among menejtber, 
had such a beauty anywhere been seen before *j WfT Mi if 'by 

my side.' 

A. When the loo. means 'among* it is oftenequivalent to * 

partitive gen.(2O2) 

(=of) all the sons Pamais dearest to me.' 

A. The person 'with ' whom one dwells or stays is put in the 

loc- ;-e.g. ^ 'reft ' he lives with his ** 
c. The loc. with the verbs tOTft' stands 9 and 

(=Lat. versatur) expresses 'abides by/ 'complies with ; 

- comply with your mother's 


d. The loc. is used to express the effect 'of ' a cause; e.g. 

^ifar ^irt f^t ^Rfr tnrfi' fate ^^ ( ifl ) the cause 

prosperity or decline of men.' 

. The loc. expresses 'contact with verbs of seizing by 
fastening to fa*%), clinging or adhering to (WT , 
leaning on f relying on or trusting to; e.g.^WtS ^J^l^t 'seizing 
by the hair' ; ICTWt ^JIT 'taking by the hand '; ^ 

'he fastened a noose to the tree 9 ; *<WlitiTO: *JT* 'a hero 
not addicted to vices ' ; f!*JJ&S 4lPMdlJ ' reclining on the roots 
of trees ' ; ft^|Rlf?f UJg ' he trusts in his enemies * ; 

iU<3rfvi) Isigf^ ft^^^ ' the gods fix their hopes of 
victory on his bent bow.' 

/, The loc. is used (concurrently with the gen.: 202, 2 c) with 
adjectives meaning ' acquainted with/ ' versed or skilled in ' ; 
e.g. <uTt^4]7) f^T* 'Eama (is) skilled in the game of dice' ; 
TT% ^TT ^*4*(!. ' we (are) expert in acting/ 

g* The loc. is used figuratively to express the person or thing 
in which some quality or state is to be found; e.g. ^| 
* I look for everything in him > (cp. 202, 1 d) ; 
Slfaf*! 'hunting (is) recognized as sinful in a prince ' ; 
|* 'there is no harm in (giving) advice to 

the afflicted.' Similarly, when the meaning of a word is explained, 
the loc. expresses ' in the sense of ' ; e. g. VfllMl ^flf ' kalapa 
(is used) in the sense of peacock's tail.' 

It The circumstances in which an action takes place are ex- 
preaeed by the loc.; e.g. TTRf^ 'in case of distress ' ; HT^g 
*ia fortune*; f^MI^T ^JJHl^^fWl ('in the presence of '=) 
* there being opeziings, misfortunes multiply.' ' In the last 
xap3e the loc. expresses the reason ; if it were accompanied by 
a predicative participle, it would be a loc. absolute (cp. 205, I a). 


/. The loc. of time, expressing when an action takes place, is 
only a special application of the preceding sense ; e.g. q$!4J 4 in 
the rainy season ' ; f5f^l*n*^ ' at night ' ; f^% f^% ' every day. 1 

/. The loc. expresses the distance at which anything takes 
place ; e. g. ^?ft Stlfn . . . "^RVnaNfai'f *1^W 'the great sage 
lives at (a distance of) a yojana and a half from here. 5 

204* The loc. answering to the question ' whither ? ' is always 
used with verhs of falling and placing; concurrently with the dat., 
with those of throwing and sending (200 A I ft) ; and, concurrently 
vith the ace., with those of going, entering, ascending, striking, 
"bringing, sending; e.g. ^fl* MMld 'he fell on the ground'; 
' having put (it) in that same begging 

howl ' J ^^*J^ftf teunt ' placing his hand on his breast ' (W ' do, 5 
is frequently used in the sense of putting); 

' he darts arrows at his enemy ' ; 4fd$ft T^t Mf^^H 'the jfiah 
entered the river ' ; ^HlM^f^fa 1 T'f^ Mf^lff* ' he set out for 
a neighbouring town ' ;. 7f Rl^^ldl^*!^ " he struck him on the 

Secondary applications of this loc. are the following : 

a. It expresses the person or object towards which an action 
is directed or to which it refers =r ' towards/ 'about,' 'with 
regard to 9 ; e. g. lUlUI*} ^TT $$( HT^PTt 'the good shoAV 
compassion towards animate beings'; 3TO ^fo^qj ^f\^ 'be 
courteous to your attendants '; ^% (q^^$t 'they are disputing 
about a field/ 

b. Concurrently with the dat (and geii.) it expresses the in- 
direct object with verbs of giving, telling, promising, buying, 
selling (cp, 200 A I a; 202, iff); e.g.*ugtai^ nlq^ltt 'having 
promised (it) to Indra ' ; !H<H fl*)*l VRfff * having sold 
himself to a rich man' ; fi|d<f?f 3^* TTTl| f^WT^'a teacher 
imparts knowledge to an intelligent pupil.' 

198 LOCATIVE vii 205 

c. Concurrently with, the dat. (200 B i, 2), it may express the aim 
of an action with words expressive of striving after, resolving on, 
matting for, of appointing, choosing, enjoining, permitting, of being 
able or fit for; e.g. 4l4o3Vlk *[Kil SJ^J 'an enemy prepared 
for the appropriation of all property ' ; 4*ff(U qtj'S ' he appointed 
(him) to a task' ; jrf?ff K*n+1HJ cf^ 'she chose him for her 
husband'; ^*l^*ltK^&Mil J^U^ 'he is incapable of 
supplying food for us*; 3<8l*l*4UfM TRffi "flRtl^ ^SRt 'the 
sovereignty even of the three worlds is fitting for him.' A predi- 
cative loc. alone ia capable of expressing fitness ; e. g. *iqU" 
' sovereignty befits a man who is en- 

dowed with worldly wisdom, liberality, and heroism. 1 The loc. 
is sometimes used with verbs which do not in themselves imply 
an aim, to express the object gained as the result of an action; 
e. g. ^4fill ?f*?T flftft 3 !^ ' he kills the panther for the sake of 
(obtaining) his skin/ 

<f. Nouns expressive of desire, devotion, regard, friendship, 
confidence, compassion, contempt, neglect, aie often connected 
with the loc. (as is also the gen.) of the object to which those 
sentiments are directed; e.g. 

'my love is, indeed, not towards Sakuntala'; 
'I have no faith in you'; if 

* 'neglect of duties, however small, should not be indulged in/ 
e. The loc. is similarly used with adjectives or past participles 
meaning ' fond of/ ' devoted to,' ' intent on,' and their opposites ; 
e.g. *ti4;4q<n *3f^I% TTT* 'women (are)" intent on their own 
pleasure only.' 

Locative and Genitive Absolute. 

205. i. The locative is the usual absolute case in Sanskrit, 
and has much the same general application as the Greek genitive 


and the Lat. ablative absolute ; e.g. 4'^M f^S $as ^ 
went by*; ^itj ^V||^ ^f ^[7f: 'the cows having been milked, 
he departed*; <BR^f ^ifn ?rf%T +Jm4Jl<l) 'she gives ear when 
I apeak.' 

a. The predicate of the absolute loc. is practically always a 
participle ; the only exception being that the part. ^R^ ' being/ 
is frequently omitted; e.g. *R*f ^l4folf4U: WIT f,fan(\ 
^ff%T ' how (can there be any) interference with the good in the 
performance of their duties, when you (are) their protector? 5 

b. The part. ^R^ ' being ' (or its equivalents q<f*4M and feltt) 
is often pleonastically added to another absolute part. ; e.g. 

'at sunrise, when the owls had 

become blind.* 

c. The subject is of course always omitted when a past pass. 
part, is used impersonally; it is also omitted when the part, is ac- 
companied by indeclinable words likelpp^, fTf, V^H? T^ 
e, g. ?l*U4^lJJl^ 'when consent had been given by him'; Tpj 
lfft 'this being the case' (lit. 'it having gone thus*); 7RTT SSl! 
^rf^t or ^i^T*l(%?t 'this being done.' 

d. The particle Tpf and the noun *ti^ (as latter member of a 
compound) may be used after an absolute participle to express 
'no sooner than,' 'scarcely when'; e.g. 

* scarcely had it dawned, when '; 

' no sooner had' his Honour entered, than/ 

3. The gen. absolute is much less common than the loc. 
and more limited in its application. It is restricted to contem- 
poraneous actions, the subject being a person and the predicate 
a present participle in form or sense. Its meaning may be ren- 
dered by 'while,' 'as/ or 'though*; e.g. HW<T\ % 
4 wandering about, though I was looking on * ; Tp 

ft|7T: * while he was speaking thus, the hunter 


remained concealed ' ; 

f^rat ' while he was thus reflecting women came there to fetch 



206. Participles are constantly used in Sanskrit to qualify the 
main action, supplying the place of subordinate clauses. They 
may, as in Latin and Greet, express a relative, temporal, causal, 
concessive, or hypothetical sense. A final sense is also expressed 
by the future participle. All these meanings are inherent in the 
participle, without the aid of particles, except that ^rft is usually 
added when the sense is concessive. 

E. g. mW eflmfcg^ TO; ^rre ' the jackal, being filled 
with anger, said to him'; filftxfftjST *1*U*t e naU 1" 'JJlfl 
1 though you have been frequently dissuaded by me, you do not 
listen to me'; 

you do not tell, though knowing it, your head will be shattered 
to pieces'; dUfaUJ^ rffaf Vi*K*H$(*l<l 'he ran again at 
Bhima in order to strike him.' 

. Bahuvrihi compounds are very frequently employed in a par- 
ticipial sense, the part. *f?^ being omitted; e.g. 
being anxious he reflected.' 

207. Present Participle. This participle (aa well as a pat 
with a present sense) is used with Hlf^l or *lflf?f 'is,' ^BT% *sits, 3 
fdfa 'stands,* ^nrt *goes on,* to express continuous action, 
like the English * is doing' ; e. g. ^fU^ T'f lRHd*J^i" f^V^^f 
5TT Itl^ni ' this is the very forest in which we formerly dwelt 
for a long time*; tt^tldlQ 'he keeps eating*; Wl 
TnRl 'she is being carefully guarded ' ; 
'this pot is filled with porridge. 9 


a. The negative of verbs meaning 'to cease* is similarly 
construed with a present participle; e.g. f^fft ^PTn^^niT- 
' tne lion did aot cease (=kept) slaying the 


A. Verbs expressing an. emotion such as * to be ashamed/ ' to 
endure,' may be accompanied by a pres. part, indicating the eanw 
of the emotion; e.g. t^8 t *si<m TR ^^- **re yon not 
ashamed of speaking thus ? ' 

c. A predicative present (or past) part, accompanies the aec,, 
or the nom. in the passive construction, "with verbs of seeing, 
hearing, knowing, thinking, wishing (cp. 198, i); e.g. 
o one saw me entering'; ?BF 

* the king one day hmrd oe 

one repeating a couple of si okas *; 

RisHdli ' many daughter* of royl 

are recorded to have been wedded according to the man*$i of 
the Gandharvas/ 

3O8. Past Faxtioipleg. The passive part, in ?I and Hf *dit 
form (161 ; 89, n. 3 ) in ^(but hardly ever the pert wst pl 
^TO^: 89) are very frequently -used as finite redae (tK 
being omitted) ; e.g. T^^^IR. 'this was aaid by to 
' he said this/ 

a. The passive of intransitive v 
wise its past participle has an active sense ; 
fl^JT^'l stood there for a longtime 1 ; 
.to the Ganges ' ; ^[ irf^T ^H l he died on U *y/ ^^ 
Jb. Some past participles in ?! have both * pftT* w9 " 
tive active sense ;-e. g. TTO 'obtained' ^ 
Ht^re ' entered (by) ' and 'having entered 1 ; 
'having drunk'; t^I 'forgotten* *I 


'divided' and 'having divided'; JT^f 'begotten 1 and 
'having borne* (f.); ^l^fc 'ridden,' &c., and riding/ &o. 

c. The past participles in T never seem to occur with a transi- 
tive active meaning. 

209. Future Participles Passive. These (162) express 
necessity, obligation, fitness, probability. The construction is 
the same as with the past pass. part. ; e.g. 

*I must needs go to another country* j 
* m mtlst not (= do not ) kill me, king'; Hfl$|*Ufr 

: 'then he too will surely make a noise.' 
Occasionally the fut. pass. part, has a purely future sense ; 

ease by the strength of your wings/ 

A. ^RW^and m^(from 3j'be J ) are used impersonally 
to express necessity or high probability. The adjective or sub- 
stantive of the predicate agrees with the subject in the inatr. ; 
a-g- H*U ^r^f^n^f JrfiRfcqn 'she must be ( = is most 
probably) near'; TO HTfipft ^T fTf7fT XHM^ 'the 
strength of that animal must be very great. 1 

2IO.TheIiideclinableParticiple(aeriind)nearly always 
expresses that an action is completed before another begins 
(rarely that it is simultaneous). Referring to the grammatical 
or the virtual subject of the main action, it generally agrees with 
tta nom., or, in the passive construction, with the instr., but 
oocwionally with other cases also ;-e.g. * JTOTO * *m: ' having 

'then he throwing himself upon him 

ie love increased as soon as he had seen the 
iwwtly smiling maiden ' {^7 agrees with 

' withaverbal 


noun ; e. g. 1ft fvf\ fW f *l?tn^ * what would you gain 
by killing a poor man like me ? * This use represents the original 
sense of the form as an old instrumental of a verbal noun. 

b. Having the full value of inflected participles, it may 
express the various logical relations of the latter, and may even 
be accompanied, like thereby ^ff%, f^ft, ^ft to expitssa 
continuous action; e. g. ^JKl^rflfl *nfa 'he is the foie- 
most of all the townsmen.* 

c. A number of gerunds are equivaleDt in sense to preposi- 
tions (179). 

</. The original instr. nature of the gerund is preserved in its 
employment with fcPH. or ^W^ or with a general subject ex- 
pressed by the impersonal passive construction; e.g. 
* what (gain accrues) to yon by concealing ? ' 

'have done with going to the forest'; 

' if -one goes to heaven by killing animals/ 


This frequent form expresses the aim of an action and 
may in general be used wherever the dative of purpose is employed 
(200 B) . It differs from the dative of an ordinary verbal noun solely 
in governing its object in the ace, instead of the gen.; e.g. 7f 5&1J 
^Inn ' he strives to conquer him 5 =q*$i ^tcjj^t **nd he strives 
for the conquering of him.' It preserves its original ace. sense 
inasmuch as it is used as the direct object of verbs (e. g. ^TT^ 
^W^ 'he obtains a bathe'), and cannot be employed as the sub- 
ject of a sentence. Verbal nouns usually aupply its place as the 
subject; e.g. ^ ^T*f ^f *J Mfailfi 'ghuig (= to give) is better 
than receiving' (= to receive). The construction of the soc* with 
the infinitive is unknown to Sanskrit, its place beiag supplied, 
with verbs of saying, &c. f by oraiio recta -with ^ffl {i&>}, or 
otherwise by the use of a predicative ace. (198, l and 207 c). 


The infinitive may be used with substantives (e. g. ' time, 1 
'opportunity'), adjectives ('fit/ 'capable '), as well as verbs (e.g. 
* be able/ ' wish/ ' begin ') ; e.g. TW ^BTOt R^faiJH, 'this 
is not the time to delay ' ; 
'this is an opportunity to show yourself; 

f who (is) able to escape from what is written 
on his forehead (by fate)? 5 ^ ?^f Ujp^ ^tt*Rr* 'I have come 
(inorder) toask you'; 4qRl<j i(*)ffl 'he is able to tell'; 

wished to make.' 

The ?. and 3. sing. ind. of ^f| 'deserve' are used with an 
infinitive in the sense of a polite imperative= please/ 'deign to' ; 
' will your Honour please to hear me ? * 

& Tha infinitive, after dropping its final ^ s may be formed 

into a Bahuvrlhi compound (189) with ITRT 'desire/ or *H4^ 

mind/ in the sense of wishing or having a mind to do what the 

verb expresses ; e. g . g^^TR: 'desirous of seeing'; fil ^pTTT 

fTP^ l what do yon intend to say ? ' 

c. There being no pawdTeform of the infinitive in Sanskrit, 
verb* governing the infin. are put in the passive in order to give 

be taught morality by me ' ; 

'a hut (was) begun to be erected 
by him/ 

* The fnt part. pass. ITWa'ak-ya may either agree with the 
or b* put in the neat. sing.;-~e.g. if 

(mischiefe) cannot be repaired' ; 

mg fftTfT 'she cannot be ignored (lit. 'she is not a possible 
it to ignore') when angry/ 3* 'fitting' and 5^, ' 8uit . 


' she should rightly be released by me 
irom JCKU 

VII 213 TENSES 205 



212. The use of this tense is much the same as in English. 
But the following differences should be noted: 

i. In narration the historical present is more commonly 
used than in English, especially to express the durative sense 
(which the Sanskrit imperfect lacks); e.g. 
' Damanaka asked, " How was it ? " 

1 f*l% ^faffi ' Hiranyaka, having taken his food, used to 
sleep in his hole. 1 

formerly/ is sometimes added to this present ; e. g. 
WTfa ' I formerly used to live in a certain 

tree.' The particle ^ (which in the older language frequently 
accompanied ^T, and thus acquired its meaning when alone) is 
much more frequently used thus; e.g. ^ 

'in a certain place a weaver 
named Somilaka used to live.' 

b. The present is used to express the immediate past; e,g, 
"^n&m ^Hl^lfil ' here I come/ i, e. ' I have just come/ 
a. The present also expresses the near future, IJ^T 'soon* and 
* (180) heing sometimes added; e.g. Tffl| 
'then leaving the bow, I am off*; 
' therefore I will just send Satrughna/ 

. With interrogatives it implies a donht as to future action; 
e.g. ffc *Of*C 'what shall I do ? ' 

b. It may express an exhortation to perform an action at once ; 
e. g- *ff^ ^ppfa Mft^l^: 'then we (will) enter (s= let us enter) 
the house.' 

Fast Taiumu 

213, All the three past tenses, imperfect, perfect, and aorist, 
besides the past participles ia fl t and W(^ ta-vat (and the 
hi storical pres ent) , are used promiscuously to express the historical 


or remote past, applying equally to facia which happened only 
once, or were repeated or continuous. 

tf. The perfect is properly restricted to the statement of facts 
of the remote past, not coming within the experience of the 
speaker. The i. and 2. sing, are therefore very rare. 

A The imperfect, in addition to describing the historical past, 
states past facts of which the speaker himself has been a witness. 

c. The aorist has (along with the participles in 7f and TWfO 
the special sense of the present perfect, being therefore appropriate 
in dialogues; e.g. ^H'Ulf^mdlglMlY $ *J^Hq: 'my 
desire has obtained sweet fulfilment ' ; |jwf 

' I have bestowed tibe sovereignty on you * ; cf <ggqMHfl ' I have 
seen him.* 

^ <f. The aorist (very rarely the imperfect) without the augment 
is used imperatively with Wt (215 e and 180). 

e. .As there is no pluperfect in Sanskrit, its sense (to be inferred 
from the context) has to be expressed by the other past tenses 
or the gerund, or occasionally by a past participle with an auxiliary 


214. The simple future is a general tense, referring to any 
fctoe action, while the periphrastic future, which is much less 
frequently employed, is restricted to the remote future. Both can 
therefore often be employed in describing the same action, and 
they frequently interchange. 

. The future is sometimes used in an imperative sense, when 


go, my dear, but first hear my request.' 

215- Besides the ordinary injunctive or exhortative sense, this 
mood lias some special uses. 


a. The first persons, which are survivals of old subjunctive 
forms, may be translated by ' will ' or * let ' ; e. g. 

'his brother said, "Let us play" '5 ^ *T*nftT'l will 

b. The 3, sing. pass, is commonly used as a polite imperative 
instead of the 2. pers. act.; e.g. ^T^dW/Sire, P ra 7 listen! ' 
(cp. 211 a). 

c. The imperative may be used, instead of an optative or 
benedictive, to express a wish or blessing ; e. g. f^TC ^fa * may 
you live long'; ftpfT^, % tRJT*tt ^ * may your .paths be 
auspicious * =' Godspeed.* 

<f. It may express possibility or doubt, especially with inter- 
rogatives; e, g. f*R *Rf?[ *TT TT^ ^l^l^1M\ WNT^ ' whether 
there be poison or not, the swelling of a serpent's hood is 
terrifying' ; iri^J *RT^T ajft 'who on earth would believe it ? ' 
fo*f^M <K,^T*I *what should we do now? * 

e. The imperative with the prohibitive particle JFTT is somewhat 
rare, its place being commonly supplied by the unaugmented aor. 
(213 d)> by the opt. wither, or TO^and flfW^with the instr. (180). 

Optative or Potential. 

2l6. Besides its proper function this mood also expresses the 
various shades of meaning appropriate to the subjunctive (which 
has become obsolete in Sanskrit). 

i. In principal sentence* it expresses the following mean- 
ings: ^ 

a wish (often with the particle "fTPf added); e.g. 
/0 that I could see Bama here! 

t>. possibility or doubt;-e.g. 
haps he may be awakened by the lowing of the cows'; 

'kings can see through the eye of their 


spies'; Tpfc f-*Ud TT f*llf^g<, *JWt V^RTT 'the arrow 
shot by an archer may hit an individual, or may not hit him.' 

c. probability, being often equivalent to a future; e.g. ^T 
1RTT *rnf f?[%<^/ this girl (is not likely to=) will not stay hare.' 

d. exhortation or precept ; e. g. <Fm^ J4lJ * do you act thus ' ; 
^MIMc^f \PT \tjc^ ' one should save wealth against calamity/ 

a. The optative is used in the following kinds of subordinate 
clauses : 

a. in general relative classes ; e. g. qu<?irfn*l*i<l| ^^ ^t 
f Jf'lTTf *JJTf?T 'the king who (= every king who) does not 
neglect the time for the payment of salaries.* 

b. in final clauses ('in order that') ; e.g. *Ufc^ % ^f *TO 
qtl^+l/ indicate to me the pkce where I am to live* (=tbat I 
may live there). 

c. in consequential clauses ('so that*); e.g. ^ET HfO *in ee il 
^ IT *l(iti^^f^ ' (only) such a burden should be borne as 
may not weigh a man down.' 

d. in the protasis (as well as the apodosis) of hypothetical 
clauses, with the sense of the Lat. present (possible condition) 
or imperfect (impossible condition) subjunctive (cp. 218); 
e -g- *rf?[ ^ ^TTH *KMfJf^ t%9%?T *Ht\T W*tt ' if there were 
not a king, the state would founder like a ship. 9 

Beuedictive or Frecative. 

aiy. This rare form (150), a kind of aorist optative, is properly 
restricted to the expression of blessings, or, in the first person, of 
the speaker's wish ; e. g. TK*Ufl4T $?Ttt * mayst thou gire birth 
to a warrior* ; feh 11*41 *J*4ltf*^'may I become successful/ The 
imperative is also employed in this sense (215 c). In a few rare 


cases the benedictive is indistinguishable in meaning from an 
imperative or an ordinary optative ; e.g. ^ ^ WTO 'do 
ye proclaim this speech ' ; 1 f$ M4J$u(i 

'for I do not perceive what should drive any my sorrow.' 


2l8. The conditional, as its form (an indicative past of ibe 
future) veil indicates, is properly used to express a past condition, 
the unreality of which is implied, and is equivalent to the 
pluperfect (conditional) suhjunctive in Latin or English, or tie 
aorifit indicative, used conditionally, in Greek. It is employed 
in both protasis and apodosis; e.g. ^W^R^i $'** 
' if there had been abundant rain, there would law 

been no famine,' If a potential is used in the protect con- 
ditional in the apodosis may acquire the sense of a hypotiietiotl 
present (= imperf. suhjunctive) j-e. 

inflict punishment, the strong would roast the weak like 
a spit.' 



The order of the parts of the verb, when all are given, is: 
Present (PH,), Imperfect (IMP.), Imperative (IP?.) Optative (OP.); 
Perfect (PF.), Aorist (AO.); Future (FT.); Passive (PS.), present, 
aorist, participle (PP.); Gerund (GD.); Infinitive (nrr.); Causa- 
tive (cs,), aorist; Desiderative (DS.)J Intensive (INT.), 

The Roman numerals signify the conjugational class of ihe 
verb; P. indicates that the verb is conjugated in the Parasmai- 
pada ouly, A. that it is conjugated in the Atmanepada only. 

'bend,' I, P. ^RrfTT I PS. IFZfft [ PP. 


j, ' anoint,' VII, P, "SPfflff I IMP. 3|l*f<$ I n>v, 
OP. ^rWTc II *s. ^TO% | PP. 

ad, 'eat/ II, P, ^, ^f; ^f% I IMP. 

OP. TWT^ II FT. "W^jfWI ps.'VSft I PP. ^R\J ^^ n/food f ) I 

^^ I CS. i|l^|(7| N 

an, 'breathe,' E, P. ^iftf?! | IMP. ^RT^O ^11% or 
"Wfci; I IPV. ^flfH, 1 Wf'lf| I OP. 


s, 'attain,' V, ^f?f, I A. IMP. 



' eat,' ix, P. ^rorfa i wr. 


i PP. *firs > ^t^n i . 

, ' be,' II, P. V&R, trf*, 


as, ' throw,' IV, P. TRlfr I 


s p , ' obtain,' v, P. 

. wint i ^m i OP. 
i DS. imfn H 

, ut*i 


as, 'sit, 5 n, A. *ntt i p. ^tw m- 

I W^T irreg. pres. part. A. I 

i, go,' ii, P. -urn , nPi, irt* ; T?T: ; ^t* 

^| adbii,'read,' II, * 
3. pL ^Tm I 

p a 


OP. %|vTl*rid II AO. ^le ; 3. du. 

i FT. *4i3)m<) i PS. nvTIttf i PP. 


idh or ^indh, ' kindle/ VII, A. 
IP*. f7T, ITT^T, |,^K I OP. 

PP. ^r n 
is, ' wish,' vi, P. i^tfd i IMP. 

t^: I Ao.^ftc^ I FT. HfM^fd | PS. ^qrl I PP. 

cs. le^fn II 

s ' see,' I, A. t^n! | BCP. ^5J7T (| PP. 

i FT. fam^ i PS. ^^ i AO. ^f^r i PP. 

* <* i^ffn N 
a, 'burn/ I, P. ^rfTf I IMP. ^Jfalr^ II AO. 


r *go' v ^ P- ^^fd I IMP. ^iri^ II PF. 

, &c. i PP. ^ra i cs. 

,' I, A. TJY|^ | IMP.^JCT | IPV. TITWT'l I 

i ufv^pi: i inrafif i PS. nff^MTi n 

^ kam, *Iovc/ A. (no present) || PF. ^^ or 
\ PP. UTRf I cs. 

s/sbine/ 1, A. ?TH^ a 

i ^^ i ^t 

/do/ vin, ydm, grfrft, grrtfTr; j*, 

, ^rari, 


FT. *f\mfii 

8 PF. ^1(138) I AO. 

i rr. *R^7i \ 


^ kr, 'scatter/ VI, P. f^ft M PF.^nTl w. 

PS. <t^ft i ^?hc} i GD. ^fh$ n 

, ' be able/ I, A. qP5ft II - ^ I 

\ AO. 

Tekram, 'stride/ I, *l*lRf, 


I cs. ftm'fa or 

kn. e buy/ IX, 

, ' km; vm, 

f^ ksi.' destroy,' V. P. t^W I 
cs. H*J*4ffl r ^H^tfl I 

, -throw,- vi, t^rrfw, % i 

w. wni G 

I AO. ^Ixeft^ I DS. 

, ' cut/ VI, P. 3flfd tt " ^^ I ^fS^nt I re - 

i PP. w'fr i cs. '4i$4i1?i \ DS. 

f - draw, f I, P. gHtfTT; 'plough,' VI, P. OTft I FT, 


PP. fa^M, fa WO I FT. ^MSRr, ?t I PS. 

^n9 i nnp. %?pj cs. %rnrfa i 

subh, * quake,' IV, ^tffif , % II PP. 

or ^gfira i cs. 

*gpt khan, ' dig,' I, Wffif , ^ n PP. 

i PS. ^q^ or ^ir^ i pp. ^rraf i 

e eat/ I, P. qigfft N PP. '^rT I FT. 
P. ^i(<n I cs. 

, *teu, 9 n, p. 

i DS. 

f gad, 'speak/ 1, P.l^fTI II PP.^!^ I J|f<mf?| | 

i Tflnpu cs. Jii^ejrd i DS. fajifnfii i IKT. 

' go,' I, P. ap^fTf gRTW (138, 7) I AO. 

P3. iTKfft \ *m | 3RTT, Tr or < 

cs. J|4(i||7! | DS. f%Rf*nrf?r I DTT. dTffpfl ; ^pRjit N 
'plunge/ I, A. ^TT^ H PP. ^iffc I FT. ^1^ | 

i PP. *n* or anfffl i GD. 3mi i cs. ^nr^rfTT n 

guh, 'hide/ I, ^ffif, o^ tt pr ^f | AO. W^R^ I P8. 

i pp. ^jp i GD. 03^1 1 JOT. *rft<pT; i cs. ^Tf^rf?r N 

gaiing/ I, 4Ui|ft, <% || PP. gpfr, ^rSf I AO. 

i PS. *fon?l i ^CT i GD. afan, oafhi i IOT. 

tie/ IX, P. Tf?T tl PS. 



i AO. ^nrtfa, ^w^te i " 


i **> 

glai, 'droop,' I, P. IWRrfn U ^- WfT^ I cfmuiid or 


s, 'sound,' I,^rf?f ,*% ^^ I ^S !<"> 

gbra, 'smell,' I, P. ftPHfTt I w.l^ I w. ffR I 


s, 'speak,' II, A. 

car, 'move,' I, P. 

, 'move,' I, P. *Wfr w- ^T^ '. 3 " ^ : ' 

i rp.5rt?m i ^ftfR. i cs. ^*f?r or 


oi, 'collect,' V, f^tfiT, t^t II 

'think,' X. P. ftRreft I - 


cat,: vn, 


ST^ jan, ' be born, 1 IV, A. STRft **. **% I AO. 


^TT5 jagr, 4 awake,' II, P. (134 A 4) 

, ^TT^ff , 

I PP. ^iin I cs. aiHK^l R 

ji, 'conquer,' I, P. (A. with TR^T and f^T) SRTfit R 

; f^fi^ ; f^<g: i AO. nSjcD^ i rr. 3^rf?r i PS. 
\ GD.fSrar, ^f^nsr i w 

, *ii\e,* i, p. ^rfw i PT. ftp^r ; f^^Og: i 
j ps.^sq?t i sftfirar i G 
^^ it 

ir, Vow old/ iv, p. 3faH?r u PP. ^nrn: i PS. *?tffo i pp. 

I cs. SRTTfiT R 

/know/ IX, *T*fTf7T, ^7*1% U PF. 

PP, TTTO and ^ITH I DS. f^TrT^ R 
, 'stretch,' VIII, ffl{Vf?r, ^ I PF. 7mm, ?ft I PS. 


.^ If ***** * or IV ' ' rafir ' * " " WIT1? ' 

fc^fjfi^^p^!^,^ .^r^T^QT 

?r i 

gf *** ng[ft>^ ii ^.g^ i M . 


*Pl t?p, ' be pleased,' IV, P. gtgfa H PF, wrf J *$*** I **- 


tr, - cross/ I, P. or VI, A. fl^ffl or f?T^ I PF. nnK 5 

i AO. ^nrraf^or ^mOn, i *T. ^fX^fw, ^ i ** 
I INF. ^, nfV^ nO*^ I cs. 

, 'abandon,' I, ai^ft, ^ B PF. n<*u*i; 

, 'tremble,' I, P. or IV, P. A. TOfn or 

i cs. 

div, ' play/ IV, P. 
PP. ?T | nnr.^fg^ 1 

i ps.w ^ i 

INT, I CS. I J>3.t^f^tTI I . 

tvar, 'hasten/ I, A. WT^ B FF.TTSn; I w. ^tRn I <* 


Adams', 'bite/ I, P. ^jf*T PF. ^If I Fr.^fi^fif I - 
I PP. ^5! to. ^?T, ^8 I cs. <^ffl 
dab, 'burn/ I, P. ^ff?f ft *F. sura. 2. ^fl^ or 
I AO. VTT^X I TT- M^afii I w- 

ff | DTF. ^^l I C8. ^lf^f?l I 

dS, * give/ HI, ^rf* T^ " ^' ^ ' ^ ^ 


f|[f dih, 'anoint/ ii, 





i OP. fl[irrac, -A. 

PF. f^f , A. f^f?$ | PS, f^J^ | PP. fipV | GD. 


dnh, - milk/ II, (like fl[|) anra. 3. ?^f*V I IMP. 


FT. tj | P8. l|fpt | pp. J\* | GD. 

' 9 X| P " 

A0 . 
tfl ^/ 1, A. 

A0 . 


I AO. ^WRT,, ^rf^RT I FT. ^TTOfff, ?t I 

PS. Tsfaft I AO. ^raifa | PP. fffl I GD. p VnT I VTJ^ I CS. 

i DS. fawfa n 

x dbav, 'run,' and ' wash/ J, VHrffl, ^ II PF.^TR I PS. 

I \ITffl 'fl f running ': >^| 'washed' I cs. V4H*lfa H 

hu, ( shake,' V or IX, ^ftfff, ^^ or ^Trf?I, ^ft^ U 

i vfroft i PS. q?t i PP. TI eg. 

dhy, ' bear,' (no present) H ^TTTj ^& I 

^pri^Bm^ni cs^K^fd,^ i Ao. 

dhma, ( blow,' I, P. \WfiT M PT. ^*ft I ^- 

PS. ^nq7t or wraft i PP. rnr i <H>. urra i cs. 

R nad, 'hum,' I, P. if^ft | P 

cs. '*(^4jf?l or ^ll^f?l \ IKT. 
nam, 'bend/ I, P. ^Wf?T I P*. TTW ; ^* I AO. 

i 'Nsft i M. 1| f*ft i iw i *raL al w i 

cs. *Wi|ffl[ or l|4iV(7| I AO. ^l*!^ \ DS. lltlci II 
nas, - perish/ IV, P. *Wf?I I PP. 111*4 1 ^ : I 
I " 'TftWf'T or iTf^rfW I PP 'TC I cs. 

'Hjf nah, * bind/ IV, fHfn, "ft I - 'nH I PP. 
GD. ^ff | cs. WTf^lft I 
^ nT, ' lead/ I, TOft , *^ II P*. f*RT6I (p. 113) I AO - 

cs. i||^|i||7l I DS. fil^Mffl? ^t I INT. ill ^n 


t, ' dance,' IV, P. JurfTf || . ^ t^; , . 

' w - 5^ i ffcrf* i DS ,fi 

* 'coot.' i, ^fir, c ?Tii PF. 

qq: pat. 'faiy i, P. *rofn N pF.. 

i w. ^fJnr i ^pi. i i?f?r?rr } ITW i . 

I us. fq^rfn H 

pad, 'go/ IV, A. r&ft 

A0 . 

?T pS, ' drink,' I P. preffr U PF. IT^-, or 

A0 . ^rqrfr i PP. 

ITT pS, ' protect/ H, P. mtn II AO. VfC | nrr. 
3\pus, 'thrive,' IV or IX, P. g^f?T or gHUTfil y PF. 
p. ql?t I PP. ^g i CB. TfT^RTfir H 


P? (55 par), 'fill,' m, P. j . 

^5% 1 PP. fit or ^f I GD. *%$ I a,. ^rfW H 

' VI, P. ^ggft , PF . ^j^. ,0^. , AQ 
I IT. WIBft I M . ig^pt I PP. TO I a^.TCT, 

M . 


'burst/ I, P. TRWfiT H vr. M^l^ I PP. Hifofl or 

bandh, ' bind/ TX, P. 4^11(4 II PF. R*^> |^Fm6| or 

^ budb, ' perceive/ I, P. A. or IV, A. *ftsrf*I , ?l or "$&(& II 

pp - $$^lr i AO, ^jfw, ^5^* 9 **y* \ or 

(p. 122) | FT. iftdgT) I PS, g^ZRt I PP. ^8" I GO- 

cs. ^ft^RrfTf I ua. 
ii, * speak/ II, 3*ftf 

I A. ^; ?T*?t I 

OP - 

is used in tbe other forms. 
bliaks, * eat/ I, P. Wftf U w. *T^^ I PS. AO. 

i INF. *rf^ig^ i cs. *m4fn H 

j, ' divide/ I, Hqffl, ^ U PF. 


j, c break/ VII, P. *RrfW I 
I AO. ^RT^fK I *r. 

i PP. wr i GD. 

*TT bba, ' sbine/ II, P. ^TTm ; *TTT*f I IMP. 
or ^JJ H PF. *|*fl | FT. *t(^siTfl I PP. TfT tt 

is,' speak/ I, A. ?H^n PF. ^rft t AO. ^PnfTC \ FT. 

i ca. ^rnrotTf , *ft H 


id. ' deaye,' VII, ftwftT, f3p% | PF. 
^ I PS. fTO7t | fHJ | an. 

tftl>hl, c fear,'in, P-tl*fm; T^HmTI mp.^,^ n <v> 

> w. fo^i^i i Ao,^*141c^ i PS. tffant i w\n i ^<pi i < 

or i|q^ | iNT.'%a?fa|?f I 

/VII, W?Tfw,W%Pr.TO%| FT.: 

'hecome,' 'bo,' I, nrf?T, ^ (p. 92) U T*J5 (139. 7) I 

, r i IHT. w 

bh r , ' cany,' IH, P. (also I, JTTfff, ^) f*RTf5 J 


i rr. arf^rft i PS. t*Rni i PP. JJTT i on. 
i r. ^ft^fif 

jj, 'fry,' VI, P.aTHrfn I) PS. l$**&t \ PP. 1S \ SD 

, 'wander,' IV, P. or I, P. A. WTWrfTf or 


I apypqfT, o^jj^f or 

jj.'siixk.' I, P. TOTftfl PF. ^mr | AO. 




^ mad, 'rejoice/ IV, P. JfTTfiT II AO. ^l^c^ I PP. 

|>| or 4J^|pl B 

man, ' think/ IV or VHI, A. *TOt or TfVpt II PP. 
AO. ^H*g | FT. 7J?g?) I PS. VT*C|7t I **. *nf I &D. *|{fll, ^TEr or 

c *rar i nrr. irap^ i cs. *n*Ri?i i s. rfl^wTi n 

*n^manth, ' shake/ I or IX, P. *nrf?T (or *Rrf?T) or ^f^lfff K 

pp. THTO, ^^fi|V!< i n. 4jf^sm(7i i PS. Traf^ i PP. ^rf^nr i GD. 

cs. 4<^^ffl || 

ma, ' measure/ n, P. or III, A. Hfffl or f*f*Tlr) II PT, 

or n^ i PS. v\^fH i AO. ^nnf^ i PP. finr i . 

muc, 'loosen/ VI, ^ffTT, ?l II PF. 

I w. *TfaTf?Tj ^ I M. ^Rt I *JW I 

mult, 'be bewildered/ IV, P. flWfiT B PF. 
or 44T|J^l or *Tl I PP. TOl or 

mr, 'die, 3 P. (no present) K PF. *FRTT> 

PS. ftra?t I PP. Tft I GD. ^WT I 

j, 'wipe/ n, p. ?nf ; ^s: ; ^ff t IMP. 
^r^rt i IP*. ^rr9hf*r, ^ff , 'nf ; 
1 OP. RTR^ K pp. *nrril ; w&& i ^^ it^i^T<\ or 

i IT. ^rr^l% i . ^^ i 5* i 


^TT mnS, ' meation,' I, P. ?Hfft D AO. 

^ mlai, 'fade/ I, P. *N 1*4 fit R PF. 1p?ft I AO, 
PP. WT* I cs. 4*Hl|4|f*| or <MM4|f?l II 

j ' worship,' r, ^rarffl, ?t u PF. i^rw > ^ i *> 
i p*. i?^ i pp* ?CB i <. 

IKr - 15*^ i c 8 - TT^ifl i a- 

, ' stop/ I, P. ^t^fd U PIT. 4J4JI1, 

| M. 4|U(c) I PP. "'SHT I GD. ^I^Tj ^W I nrp. 

or ^(l(|^ I ca. ^*4^i or 

vr ya, ' go,' ii, P- *rrf?i i IMP. ^m^i WTPI. or 

*** ^^ng I OP - ^TRTR^fr PP. "^nft" I AO. ^ntTlqJ 

i M. *ii*i7( i PP. irnr i GD. ^rrarr, 0; 5rra i w 

IHqfci | DS. Rt^l^fJI II 

yu, ' join,' II, P. ^ftf?T 5 ^ftf I rap - 
OP. *TR^ N PP* ^T H 

I ^ftTp^l ca. *TN4Pl> ^ I AO. 

, ' protect/ I, T^ffH, ^ H PF. ^T^ I 

FT. voqn ; \^ni I PS. "^int I PP. TVf I OD - 

an.i T^rat^r i 

i r 'tinge,' IY, P. ^ilrfn II PS. <??qft I PP. TW I 

'graap' (^UK^a-Tabh, 'begin'), I, A. Jjfft R 
I rr. ^Mjft { PS, X^| | AO. ^R^W I PP. T?? I >- 


ram, ' sport,' I, A. (P. only when transitive) T&fH * ** 
FT. t^% I nn>. 7?(p^ I PT. T7T 
B. <4<qfd I DS. ftt?6ft H 
j, ' shine/ I, TTTfiT, *7t H ?^T*T> ^% \ 

^Vfa; ^7f : ; ^^f I w. 
PP. "^T | IKF. ^VJ*^ I ca. 

rud, * weep/ II, PJ 

pr - ^v<^ i AC. TRC i TT. Offft i - ^wl i 

, 'shut out/. vii, ^nrr, v% (P. ) i . 

or ^0<Ml<; *rw i w. f^crfii i 

i ^PIJT, ^ar i Tj^i rwi i 

ruh, ' grow/ I, P. Off?t W **- ^Of I AO. ^TfV^ or 

FT. O^fd I PS. \H^ 1 PP. ^* I 0- ^1T I DTF. 

I cs. Of*lft or OM^H! I IMJ. ^TTfif D 

, 'grasp/ I, A. ^W?t H PF. H%| FT. *n*?ft I *** 
pp. ^3Kf | GD. W^T, *W I ca. ^TWrfTT I . ftn^ 
f^T^likh, ' scratch/ VI, P. -fif^f?! N w. f*l%^ I 

i PP. f^if^i^ i GD. nfcMu *ftwr i 
, 'cut/ ix, ^rfr 

vac, * speak/ II, P. 

t OP, 



I PT. cj^ft ; TOfT I w. ^3-^3 I AO. 


Tad, 'speak,' I, P. q(f?r > . UflN^ ; St^.' I AO. 

T*. *f<lPl I PS. S*nt I PP. ^f^T I f^<fll 
f^f^l . *H<*<fa I M. f^qf^Uffl II 

^ vap, ' sow,' I, qftflf | PP. 'giTPT, ^ffcT or 
^$ I AO. ^tHmflq, ( IT. ^l^ft or ^fqt^fjT | PS. 

i OB. ^n^rarfir K 

s, 'desire,' n,P. ^JT, ^T, *fe ; ^^: ; 

OP. BWTT^I cs. 

'dweii,' i, p. Tfffit u w. ^mr ; grj: i AO. 

' " ''CTsfn I p- ^9^ I PP. Tjftfl | OD. 

, ' wear,' II. A. <T%| PF. m . qn { op . 

i nnr. ^ftg^ i cs. ^rnref?r i 

.'cany.' J, yffjf, ?|| PT. ^TTf ; ^TF.' | AO. 

TW, , no-. or 



- via, 'find/ vi, f^ft, ?t i f^, ftft^ i AO. 

f^f I ^Tfir, ^ I w. fo*I% ('there exists 3 ) I 
PP. f^f or fos I tTrTT, ft*T I ST^H I cs. %^rf?f | DS. 
f* B 
is, ' enter,' VI, P. f*nrf7f D PP. fo%1[ I AO. 

f ^r, ' cover/ v, 
; ^ i PS. fiRi^ i r i i rF. 

vr, 'choose/ IX, A. nf|^ R PP. ^ | xo. WIT I w. 

fc^vrt, 'exist/ I, A. (P. also in AO., rr.) *nft tt , 
AO. ^gnq^ I rr. Tfifa^ or ^R^% | PP. *pfl I GD. W[ I iyp. 

, ' increase/ I, A. (P. also in AO., FT.) ^pSnt i w. 

I rr. -qasifTl | PP. $ t INF. 

vyadh, ' pierce/ IV, P. t%^rf?r I PP. 
PS. ftvft I PP. "ftW I OD. ft^T, fW I 

x vra j *go/ 1, P. wfir R ra. *nrnr, ^fiw i 

1 FT. ^rf^WfTf I PS. ?TO?t I PP. SrfWT I en. fif^ 
I cs. iil^'qfd I 
' cut/ VI t P. ^jft A PB. fW% I PP. f^W t 

f^ sains, ' praise/ I, P, iftft H JRfll { AO. 

i w. ira% i ij^r i n^?n, ^ro i ^fftnpu ** 



s'ak, 'be able/ V, P. 3|djftf?l H SIS|W ,' ^t I AO. 

PP. THff and 

*T^ sap, 'curse/ I, 3|Mffl, ^ II *P. ^HTT^ $ft I ** 
PS* Sfizft | PP. TOT I cs. yjIMtini It 

sarn, 'cease/ IV, P. yjlUlft H w. 941(141 J Sftj: I PP. 

i cs. ^iifn or ^l*^fa | AO. 

sas, * order/ n, P. *Trf% ; I. OT. ftl^* J 3- 

IMP. "Viiitin^ ^nrr: or 

i OP. umc^N PF. ui^ii^i i AO. ^f^Mc^ i FT. ^rr- 

I pa. U||^7| or ftpgft | PP. U(lRld or flTE I CD. 

ftprg u w. fit^ i "Rrs i ttr?r> 

II, A, 

i OP. ^i n PT. fir& i AO. 
i . *rftm i cs. un^jeiffl i DS. 

sue, 'grieve/ I, P. *fhrf?l || PT. ^ft^ I AO. 

\ GD. uOfr<fli i DTF. ^ftf^rgt i ca. *fH*ifd it 

an/go/ 1, ?ref7r, ^ n PF. ft^rra, faif^ i 
i FT. ^f%rof?T, <% t w. ^1% ( pp. f%nr s OD. 
i DT 


u, 'hear,' V, P. 

i PP. n >. rr, 

^s'vas/breath*,' II. P. ^f^fj, B . 

*> r or nr i OD. ^jr i OT. 


j, 'adhere,' I, P. TOf?T I w. 




sad> ' 8ink| ' x - p - pr - , r or 

i PI. ^fn i M. wit i PP. war i OB. 


i oi>. o^j , . ^ft^, . ^rnrafTT i 

sic, ' sprinkle,' VI, ftrarfff, ^ | . ft^f , 

p*. flm 

8idh, 'repel,' I, P. 

re " > otlt '' v> 

I M. ^J?J I w. ^71 I on. fW I . 
^au, ' bear,' II, A. ^ | IMP. ^7| | or. $%, ^, 
OJ? - $ft*l II w. ^^ | FT. ^Tf^TRRt or 9t<^ I P. ^{JB^ I 

^ sr, 'go,' i, p. ^fn i TT. 

n" ' emit,' VI, P. ^rf?T . ^rf I 



p. ' creep/ I, P. ^f?f n PF. *n ; U^qq | FT. 

i PS. ^nft i PP. ^n cs. ^Nrfit i w. Rmmfii n 

'prop,' IX, P, ^JRSTTf* I IP*. 

i PS. ^n^ i AO. 

I nrr. ^R | cs. 

stu/praise/ II, ^t?T or ^OTtfTf I IMP. ^re^ or 

Ao. 1 ^^ 

I rr. JfTf I PS. q^ I PP. *7T I CD. 


st r , g cover/ Vj> T IX, iguHPf or Ijlfllfd 

Rqln I PS. ^4<) (as if from ^f str, 58) I PP. 

i GD. ^r, ^nr i cs. *dKeii?i n 

' stand/ I, 17tR| || PP. ?f^ | AO. ^^7^ I FT. 

i M - ^Bhi% i AO. *rorfa i PP. f^m i GD. f^rerr, 
INF. ^rnj^ i cs. wnrrfTT i M. f?igi4jf?t u 

'touch/vi, p. ^f?r n PP. T^n| ; i^j: { A0 . 

FT. ^^I7i i PS. ^pg^ i pp. ^ | OJD> 

; ami, 'smile/ I, A. mrfft U PF. 
pp. T^ta \ GD. fccir, oftrar | cs. ^iM<(f?f or ^Jl^^fJT II 

amr, 'remember/ I. P. ?JTTf?T d PF. ^RTT I rr. 

i PP. ^TTI GD. r, o^ , 

syand, ' drop^I, A. ^^?t tt PF. ^^p%; I PS. 
I cs. 4*^4ft 
, flow/ I, P. ^nrf?I | PF. ^HW I FT. *f^Zrf?T I ^ H 


j, 'embrace,' I, A. ^nfa N ^-1% I . ^Hff I 
svap, ' sleep,' IT, P. ^ftf* H PF. ^IM ; gfflj: \ AO. 
I ST. 4|M4l(7l I PS- ft I AO. "HOiR | 

<"> ^MSI I nsrr. *3H I ^IM^ffl I i. ^gnifn H 

; w^j I OP. I^TRC N . ^^rpr I 
i FT. ff^najfn i w. ^q?t i PP. f?r i 
nrr - I^HL i w*i*if!i i M. RIM l*i Ri n 

fT bS, 'leave,' HI, P. ^TfTfiT ; Tft^f I XFV. 

t PP. ift f ^rff^r or ^rw i AO. ^nrl r 
i TS. ^q?t i PP. fN i OB. ftwr, 

( M. Rlfl*l(d B 

' strike,' VH, P. t^Tf% I mp. 

, fff*r, ftn^ i OP. ff 

FT. ffftrarfn i . tlN^ i ftf^m i 

JT hu, * sacrifice,' III, ^ftft (p. 9 6 ) ^ * ^ff^ or 

^RTT i AO. ^^nfWt^i FT. ft^fif i PS. **ft i 

IKF - ^I 1 ^ I . fl^fa I DS. ^imRl I 

1 hr, 'take,' I, ^f?f, ?T I 

i w. f*frtfit, 

i <">. iwr, 

hri,'be asbamed,' HI, P. 

rf^^ i w. ftfts i OP. 
: i PP. ^tar or ^ i . i^rt?r i - 

PS. snft ( PP. inn e. amr^ ^^^ i BW - 



The versification of classical Sanskrit differs considerably from 
that rf the Vedic hymns, being more artificial, more subject to 
strict rules, and showing a far greater number of varieties of metre. 

Classical Sanskrit metres are divided into 

I. those measured by the number of syllables; 

II. those measured by the number of morae they contain. 
Nearly all Sanskrit poetry is written in stanzas consisting of 

four metrical lines or quarter- versea (called pada, 'foot's: quarter). 
These stanzas are regularly divided into hemistichs or half-.versea. 
Quantity is measured as in Latin and Greek. Vowels are long 
by nature or by position. Two consonants make a preceding short 
vowel long by position, Anumra and Visarga counting as full 
consonants. A short vowel counts -as one mora (matru), a long 
vowel (by nature or position) aa two. 

X. Metres ueaiured by Syllable* 

These consist of 

A. two half-verses identical in structure, while the quarter- 
verws i and 3 differ from 2 and 4. 

B. four tiBarter-vewea all identical in structure* 

A. The &loka. 

The Sloka (' song, 1 from sru, ' hear '), developed from the Vedio 
Anusjnbh, is the Epic verse, and may be considered the Indian 


verse par excellence, occurring, as it does, far more frequently 
than any other metre in classical Sanskrit poetry. It consists of 
two half-verses of sixteen syllables or of four padas of ei^bt 

Dividing the half -verse into four feet of four syllables, ire find 
that only the second and the fourth foot are determined 4s to 
quantity. The fourth is necessarily iambic (^ - w *), while tibe 
second may assume four different forms. The first and the third 
foot are undetermined, except that ^ ^ v ^ i* always excluded 
from them. By far the commonest form of the second foot U 
w ^ (in Nala 1442 out of 1732 half- verses). 

The type of the Slota may therefore be represented t3 

E.g. Asid raja Nalo nSmi | VMs&i&auto baE } 

up&pann5 gunair istai I rtipavSn asvakorld^ 1 

It is only when the second foot has ^ ^ that tb fiol fat 

may assume all its admissible forms. When the seeood *** Jw 
any of the other three forms, the first foot is limited, t 
m the following table : 

i. ii. m. iv. 

I. ***lw 



I I 

3. * w w\j 

4- 1-, * 

The first (typical) form is 
called VipulS, axe in the above 
frequency of occTirronce. Oat of 
KalidSsa (Eaghu-vainsa and KumSr 
and Bilhana, each of the fofir ftdmirffete 
above order claims the foBoiriiig afeaw: 


In the table a dot indicates an undetermined syllable: a comma 
marks the caesura. 

The end of a pada coincides with the end of a word (sometimes 
only with the end of a word in a compound), and the whole Sloka 
contains a complete sentence. The construction does not run on 
into the next line. Occasionally three half-verses are found 
combined into a triplet. 

B. An Four Pada* identical in Form. 

i. Of the numerous varieties developed from the Vedic Tri- 

(n syllables to the pada}, the commonest are 
A Indravajra : -- w [ -- w ] w w | -- fl 
A. Upendravajra :w-w| -- w| w v\ -- j[ 
c. TTpaj&ti (a mixture of the above two) : 

e. Bathoddhata s-w~|www| w |w || 
3. The commonest forma of Jagati (ia syllables to the pa 


d. Pmtavilaonbita 3 wwwl ww| v-/^| <u II 

i * i " 

3. The commonest variety of Sakvari (14 syllables to the 
p5da) is 
Vasantatilaka: --w|-wu|w-w|w-w|-|| 

4- The commonest form of Atiiakvan (15 syllables to the 
pada) is 
Malim: wwwwi^w -- -w -- ^ ^ 

5- he commonest varieties of Atyasti (17 syllables to the 


<?. Xandakranta : 

--- j~, uujwuu|-,-v|~-wj-*|| 

6* The commonest form of Atidhrti (19 syllables to the 
pada) is 

v w - 


7* The commonest variety of Prakrti (*i syllables to the 
pada) is 


II. Metres measured by Morae. 


The Vaitaliya contains 30 wwnw in the half-verse, 14 ib the 
first pada, 16 in the second. Each pada may be divided into 
three feet, the second always consiating of a choriambus, and the 
third of two iambics ; while the first foot in the fiwt p5da consists 
of a pyrrhic, in the second p5da of an anapaest. The half-verse 
thus contains 21 syllables. The following is the scheme of the 

B, Metres in which the number of marae in each foot (gaija) 
is specified (Gana-cchandab). 

Arya or Gatha has 7} feet to the half-verse, each foot con- 
taining 4 morae (= 30 morae altogether). The 4 morue may take 
the form w w u \j y -- > w v, or v o j in the 2nd and 4th 
they may also become w u ; in the 6th they appear as v w w o 
or w - v. The 8th foot is always monosyllabic; the 6th of &e 
second half-verse consists of a single short syllable. Hence the 
second half-verse contains only 27 



1. As several stages can be distinguished in the development 
of the Vedic language, some of the following- statements are 
strictly applicable only to the Rig-veda, the oldest and most 
important monument of Vedic literature. 

The Alphabet. 

2. The sounds are tie same as in Sanskrit, with the exception 
of two additional letters. Cerebral ^ d and ^ dh between vowels 
regularly become cerebral 3, 1 and Sg lh ; e. g. fjjfe a<J= f^ Ide', 
'I praise'; M\af minuses tftnudhu'se, 'to the bountiful.' 


3. A. Vowels. Hiatus is not avoided either within a word, 
or between the members of a compound, or between the words 
of a sentence; and, in particular, initial a after e and o (21 a) is 
only occasionally elided ;-e. g. suriasya, ' of the sun ' ; au-aBviam, 
wealth in horses' ; Vaninasya Agn& ' of Varuna (and) Agni ' ; 
bhf eti, 'he goes towards '; vfpro aksarat, 'the priest poured out. 5 
* The e of the pronominal forms (dat., loc.) tve", 'to or in thee,' 
M4 to or in ns/ yusm^, 'to or in you,' remains unchanged 
before Towels; as doee the final o produced by the coalescence of 
tte particle u, as in atho (ithan), m<5 (m|j,), n6 (n&). 
The final syllables an, In, un, rn are treated 

they were am, (cp ^ fi ^ ^ ^ . 


i.e, an becomes am (except in tbe 3. pi. subjunctive, ^bere it 
represents an original ant), while In, un, fn become ink, uBr, 
rmr; e.g. mabam asi, 'tbou art great* (fait a gacchan tittar& 
yugani, 'later agea will come'); rasmimr iva, 'like reins.* 

*. Sometimes rules which in Sanskrit apply internally only, are 
extended to the initials of words ; e. g. sah6 sti nab (cp. 67). 


4. A. findings. Singular, a. Instr. S is sometimes added 
to stems in a, leas commonly to feminines in a;- e.g. ya-jfi^ m - 
'sacrifice/ instn yajftena and yajfla; manisa, f. 'wisdom, 1 inatr. 
mantsiiya and manlsa. The a of ena is also often lengthened. 

Stems m -man sometimes do not syncopate tbe vowel of the 
suffix, while when they do, the m or the n is occasionally dropped ; 
e. ?. bhu-miina and bhu-n-a for bhu-mn-a ; dra^h-m-^for 

lioc. Stems in i take a, though less commonly than au ; 
e. g. agnf, m. 'fire/ loc. agniu itnd agna. 

Stems in -an usually drop the i; e.g* bn&mani and brahman. 
They never syncopate the a. of the suffix; e.g. rajani on y 
(cp. 90). 

c. Voe. Stems in -mat, -vat, -vas, -yas regularly form their 
vocative in -as ; e. g. nom. bhanuman : voc. bhinumas ; harivan : 
harivas; cakrvan: cdkrvas; kiniyan: kaniyas. 

Dual. a. The nom. ace. voc. take 5 mm usually than au - 
e.g. asvlnS, 'the two Asvins'; dvara, i 'the two door*'; 3 ~ 
1 the two rivers.* Femininea in derivative I reanain 
e. g. devf, *the two goddesMfi/ 

b. The personal pronouns of tbe i. ttsd a. 
cases ; e. g. N. yuv&n ; A. yuvam ; * 
Ab. ynv^d ; L. yuv6s. 


Plural. BTom. & Masculine stems in -a often (feminines 
in -a rarely) take asas beside as ; e.g. martyasab, 'mortals.' 

b. Feminine stems in derivative I take s only; e.g. devflt, 
' goddesses/ 

c. Neuters take a, T, u (sometimes shortened to &, i, u) as well 
as 5ni, ini, uni; e. g. yuga, 'yokes ' (cp, Lat. juga, Gk. (vyd). 

Instr. Steins in -a take ebhis nearly as often as ais ; e. g. 
dev^bhih and dev&b. 

B. Inflexional Type, The main difference in type of 
declension is in the polysyllabic stems (mostly feminines, with a 
few masculines) in T and u, a considerable number of which are 
inflected like the monosyllabic stems dhl and bhu(ioo), excepting 
the gen. pi., where they take nam. (Stems in derivative I other- 
wise for the most part follow nadl and vadhu as in Sanskrit; 100.) 

E. g. rathi, m. ' charioteer ' ; nadi, f. 'river ' ; tanu, f. ' body.' 























Du. N.A.V. 

rathla nadfa 
rathibhySm nadibhyam 
rathios nadlos 


PL N.A, 








5* Augment, a. This prefix is in some cases permanently 
long, in others metrically ; e. g. a-var, 3. sg. aoiiflt of vr, f he 
has covered'; a-raik, 3. eg. aorist of ric, 'she has given up.' 

it. The augment can always be dropped without changing the 
meaning. Unaugmented forms are, however, often used as in- 
junctives : this use has survived in Sanskrit with the prohibitive 
particle ma (128 a). 

6. Verbal Prefixes. These generally precede, but sometime** 
follow the verb. They can be separated from it by particles and 
other words ;-. g. tvS visantu, ' let them enter thee ' ; gtfmad 
vajebhir a s na^i, * may he come to us with riches.' 

7* Ending*. . The primary termination of the I. p*rs. pi. 
active, -ma*i, is much commoner than -mas ; e. g. i-masi and 

ft. In the 2. pi. th.ana and -tana often occur beside -tha and 
*ta ; e. g, ya-thi and ya-thana, 'ye go' ; y5-t^ and ya-ttfoa, 'do 
ye go/ 

c. The 2. sg. Impv. has a not uncommon alternative ending in 
-tat (added to the weak stem), which expresses an injunction to 
be carried out in the future ; raksa-tSt, * protect f ; bru-t5t, *ay * ; 
dhat-tat, ' place ' (cp. Gk. ^cpc-r, Lat. lege-tdd). It is sometimes 
"used for the 2. du. and pl, t or i. and 3* sg. 

f. The 3. pers. sg, pres. middle {like the perf. middle, 136) is not 

uncommonly identical with the i.; e.g. stfy-e, 'ne Kes* (=ee^e}. 

8. Reduplication. Many roots reduplicate with a long TOWC! 

in the perfect ; . g. dhr, 'support*: dwUiftr-a; vas, c <OoObe*: 

vS-vas-e; tu, 'thrive': tu-45v-a, 

Q. Tense*. & There is a pluperfect, which doe* not, feawevw, 
occur often. It is formed from the perfect stem by pre&ing tie 



augment, and adding the secondary terminations; e. g. from cit, 
'appear/ i. &g m -ciket-am, 3. a-ciket. 

&. The periphrastic future does not exist ; the periphrastic 
perfect is not known to the Rig-veda. 

IO. Moods, a. There is a subjunctive, which is much com- 
moner than the optative. Its meaning is imperative or final; it 
is also often equivalent to a future indicative. Its stem is formed 
"by adding -a to ihe tense stem. Tn the a-conjugation it therefore 
endd in a ; e. g. bh&va*. la the second conjugation -a is added to 
the strong stem, which remains throughout ; e. g. from Icr, * do * : 
krnay-a. The endings are partly primary, partly secondary. 
Thus the subjunctive of bhu, ' be/ and suppress out, 9 are formed 
as follows: 

Par. i. bhva-ni 

2. bha*va-si, bh&va-s 

3. bhtfva-ti, bhava-t 
Atm. i. bha*v-ai 

2. bhava-se 

3. bhjfva-te 

Par. i. suna*v-S-ni 

2. sun^v-a-s 

3. suna"v-a-t 
Atm. i. sun4v-ai 

2. suniv-a-ae 

3. sun^v-a-te 























b. Not only the present, but the perfect and aorist as well, 
have all the tliree moods, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. 

E. g. pf. subj. of stu, * praise * : tu-st&v-a-t j opt. of vrt, ' turn ' : 
va-vrt-yat ; impv. of mnc, ' release ' : mu-mug-dhi ; of bhu, ' be ' : 
ba-bhu-tu ; Atm. 2. sg. of vrt : va-vrt-sva. 


Aor, aubj. nl, 'lead* : 3. *g. n&-a-ti orne's-a-t; budh, 'wake*: 

ddhif-a-tivid/find*: vid-a-t; kr,'do*: kar-a-tiorkar-a-t Opt. 

fvid: vid-et; ae.'reaoh': aa-yat;bhaj/ share*: bhakI*ta. Impv. 

f av, * favour ' : 2. sg. avid-dhf, du. avis-tarn, pi. avis-tana ; 3. sg* 

vis-tu; sad/sit down ': 3. sg.sada-tu J dTi.sada-tain,ph sada-ntu; sro, 
hear* : 2. sru-dhl, wru-tdm, sru-ta"; 3. grtf-tu, sru-tam, ftruv-antn, 

H. Participle*. In addition to those surviving in Sanskrit 
he Veda has an aorist participle, both active and middk; e.g. 
?ar., from kr, 4 do': kr-tot; gam, 'go': guv-ant; stta.'atand*: 
rthant; Atm., kr: kr-ani; budh: budh-fin^. 

*. The part, in -ta-vat ia not known to the Rig-veda. 

12* OeroncUi. ID addition to the gerund in -tva, there ie * 
commoner one in -tyf^ and a very rare one in -tvija, TW 
vowel of the forms used with prefixes, -ya and -tya, ifl geaormBy 

13. Infinitives. About a dozen kinds of infinitives era be 
distinguished, having the form of an ace., dot, abL, gcvu> or tar* 
The last three cases are rare. The vast majority are dfti. iafini- 
tivea, these being about twelve times as common as th ace, 

A. The aoc. inf. is formed either from the rooi or fine* * 
verbal noun in -tu (the latter being very rare in tbe ' 
e.g. sam-idh-am, 'to kindle'; prsti-dhi-m, 'to plwe 
pra-tfr-am, *to lengthen ont*; kir-tinn, i 
"to give.* 

b. The dat. inf. ie formed from the rooi or from 
in -as, -man, -van, -tu, or -dhi ; e. , di-^, to i 

8 to believe * (cp. e tftra-^oi); jiv-rfs-i 

' to know * ; d5-vn- (&xww from 

kir-tav-^i (with double accent), ' to do* ; gir&*i, ** jpS 

c. Examples of the other ease* are : *T*-f*&*^ t*WH**m ; 
da-tos, 'to give*; 



14. The genuine prepositions are used only with the ace., loo., 
and abl. (apart from a few isolated instances of the instr.). 

a. With ace. rfti/ beyond '; lidhi/onto' ; 4nu, ' after '; antar, 
'between'; dccha, abhi, a, lipa, prdti, 'towards 1 ; pdri, 'round'; 
tiras, ' across * ; purrfs, 'before.' 

b. With loc. dhi, - on'; antr, 'within'; api, a, and tipa, 
' near ' ; puras, ' before, 1 

c. With abl. dhi, ' from upon 5 ; anta>, 'from within * ; a, ' away 
from ' or * up to ' ; p$ri, ' from (around) ' ; pur^s, ' before.' 


15* The accent is marked in all the texts of the four Vedas, as 
well as in two Brahmanas. Of the four different systems of 
marking it, that of the Eig--veda is the most important. Here 
the ohief accent, the acute (udatta, 'raised*), or rising tone, in 
not marked at all, probably because it comes midway between the 
grave or low tone (an-nd&tta) which precedes, and the rrarita, 
or felling tone, which follows it and marks the transition from an 
accented to a toneless syllable. The amidatta preceding the acute 
is marked with a horizontal stroke below, and the svarita following 
it, with a vertical stroke above ; e. g. llfrl t ag-nl-na*. The 
Bo-oaHed independent svarita (originally also preceded by an acute, 
which disappears by removal of hiatus in the written text, but 
nas often to be restored in pronunciation) is marked like the 
enclitic onei^e.g. jjf kvfc (=ktia); the anudatta being also indi- 
cated onder the preceding syllable ; e.g.^^f^viryam (=vlrfam). 
If an independent svarita precedes an udatta it is marked with 
tfee numeral <| (i) w ten the syllable is short/ with $ (3) when it 
S* >c**& the %are bearing both the svarita sign and the anudatta 
**^ precede* ike mfctta; 


r*jr* 'v<ui^ Ur4)6 avantb), A* accented lyBaWe 
Hi th f*fti?miiijt rf Joi remain* unmarked ; til grave ylfeblee 
atthe taffimita* nf a tenteure prertding an acute moat be marked; 
And ail jtrav** folio *iog **ariU are left unmarked till th* one 

16. Xaelittoft* * The fwrticU u, dd, ivid, itt, glu, 3u, ca ( 

e. Th dmon*imtire ptoo, to^t ftd Isn, tlrn. A Th* indefinite 
jrono*ini t v A, ( Another*; Mm^'Aom*.* 

17, VttMMNmtedi Vtewui. * Tbt demoattrmtire pron. , 
nhtn unruphiir M rt|iUt Jag a HOOD ; .g. wy j4oimial f ' hii 
(Agni%) birtht'; but wjA ufto^/ of tUt 
*, The vootiT loMt l 
the Imglh of th 

Ko|4, * hither, y two ovirtljpi gturditni of great 
order, 1 

l8 The rmplnymrnt of the SOOemt Jn declension and con- 
jitgnticitt may lie gathered from the pandlgmf given in the 
prr**]in xnunmai j but the following pexmliftxittee of it* uae 
in tbt Mtt4mo fchouW be noted. 

A The **o*to* it invarUbly empUaited on the first iylUble 
only, alt the other tytlablee of complex expreaiion losing 
their accent* *~**g. boHar yaYlf^h* lakrtto, *0 nooit youthful 
wie aacrificer *i tfijo napit eahaeirau (nom.firj6 nrfp*t sihwRvfi), 
A. The ftaito Trb of a principal etate U on*ocnted, unleas 
ft txgftii the eenteoce ;,. Agnfm I]N ' X pnOi* Agnf,' Sinoe 
ft voo. do not count in a eenteno*. a verb foHowicg It it accented ; 
~e. g. ierul-karva, tfrodfat Wvaa f * tbon of lit tening ean, hear 
owr oaJK* A eentenoe being regard** * opeJ>le of baying only 
one verb, all terbe ijiftlMticftUj oonaaeted with tbe f*me tabject 



(j jayati, Mi, p%ati ( 'sfiil he conquers, rules, thrives/ 
c, In SH borlinate ekes (introduced by tie relative or ita deri- 
vatives, and the particles hf, 'for/ ca and ced, 'if/ ne'd, ' lest/ 
tovid, Whether') tie verl) is always accented;-* g, yam yajip 
parlur asi, Vhat sacrifice thou protected Wien h f o principal 

clauses are in a relation of antithesis, tie first is often treated as 
subordinate, and its verhccented, 
i In principal eta the veiU prefix is separated from the 
wrb and accented; in subordinate clw it k compounded with 
the verl and loses its accfint;-e,|;,a jncclati/he comes/ but yi 


Tola index contains all Sanskrit words and affixes occurring fe the 
^mar except the numerals (104-108), unless declined, and the verbs 
ppendul. The former can be found at once owing to their numerical, 
e latter owing to their alphabetical order. Indifferent words occurring 


The figures refer to paragraphs unless pages are specified. 


A, ~ adjective, adv., adverb, adverbial, ao., aorist. od., compound, 
cj., conjnnction. opv., comparative, cs., causative, dem., demonstrative, 
aen., denominative, da., dcsiderative. encL, enclitic, In., foot-aote. 
"future participle passive, ft, future. gd,, gerund. ., interjection, 
j indeclinable, inf., infinitive, int., intensive, inter., interroga- 
LPT., imperative, irr., irregularities, w., note, n,, neater, no*., 
^nmu, numeral, nom., nominal. ord v ordinal, par, paradigm. 
Pol-, particle, per., periphrastic, pt, perfect post,, possessive. ; 
Pwt passive participle, pr., present, pri, primary, pm., prowmn, ; 
nominal, prp,, preposition, prepositional. p., passive, pt, participle. 
1 8uffi ^ pv., superlative. l*p., Tatpurusa. v,, vocative. vK^vorfeal 
^, with, 

A-vowel, pronunciation of, 15, i. 

, pronominal root, m. 

a-, augment, ia8. 

a, sf. of rat conj% 1 34 ; pri nom. sf ., 

*8*, I 6; sec. nom. sf,, p. 163; 

nominal sterna in, 97. 

having fire,' 85. 
-ta, adv. before/ 177 
, ' in front of pip. adv., 177 i 
g, pel' pray/ iSof 

iras, m. a proper name, 
c, ' -ward/ adjectives in, 
A^J, *noinV 134 D (p. i>7 
anu, adj. 'minute, 1 cpv, o^ 103^ *. 
-at, stems in> 85 ; 156; i8a, I fr. 
. ail, aoi> i. 

195, it, 

ad, ' 

y jwu * awr/ 130*. 
adfea, adv. prp. 'Wow/ 177*1 
adv. f*p- ( feetp 



an, ' breathe, 134 A 3 a (p. 106). 
-an, pri. nom. suffix, 182, i 6 ; stems 

in, 90; iiregular, 91. 
anafl-vah, m. ' ox ', 96, 2, p. 54. 
au-antaram, prp. adv. ' after/ 177 c. 
an-Sdara, m. ' disregard for/ 204 d. 
-anlya, fp. suffix, 102, 3; 182, i 6. 
ami, prp. 'after/ 176, i. 
anu-kr, ' imitate/ w. gen., 202, i b. 
an-udatta, m. grave accent, p. 242. 
anu-nasika, m. nasal, 7. 
anu-yrata, a.' devoted/ w. aoc.,TQ7,3. 
anu-ifo/ instruct/ w.two acc.,i 9 8> 2. 
anu-ivara, m., 4, f.n. x ; 7 ; xo; 15, 

& A 39 ' 3; 3<5 ' *'* 43 B; 65; 
66 A a; 144,1. 

anHcana, pf. pt 'learned/ 159. 
*ntar, prp. 'within/ 46, f . n. i ; 

176, a CL 

antara, prn. a* 'outer/ 120 c. 
antara, n. difference/ 1 87 <? (p. 1 73) . 
antara, prp. adv. 'between/ 177 a. 
antarena, prp. adv.'between/ 177 a. 
antika, n. 'vicinity/ 178; a. 'near/ 

103, 2 5. 

anna, n. < food/ p. 26, f.n. i. 
any*, prn. a. ' other/ 120 a; w, abL 


anyac ca, adv. 'moreover/ 180. 
anya-tara, prn. a. ' either/ 120 *. 
anya-tra, prp. adv. 'apart from, 1 

anyo f nya, prn. ' one another/ 188, 

2 cL 

anvaSSc, adj. follo-wincr/ 03 a. 
P, f. pi. ' water/ 96,!. 
apa-kr, * injure/ w. gen., 202, i c. 
apara, prn. adj. 'other/ 120 cj w. 

abl., 201, a b. 

nparam, adv. * besides/ 180. 
apwidh, injore/ w. gen., 202, i e. 
api, pel. ' also/ 180 ; w. pt, 206 ; w. 

potential, 2160. 
abLi, prp. against/ 176, 2 a. 
abni-jBa, a. ' versed in/ w. gen., aoa, 

abW-taa, prp. adv. around/ 177 . 
abhi-laaa, m. 'desire/ w. loi., 204 * 
am, gemnd suffix, 166. 
ami, prn. nom. pi. those/ 25 ; 112. 

amba, f. 'mother/ p. 55, f.n. 5. 
-aya, sec. vb. sf., 125, 4; 151 a, 2 ; 

ayam, prn. 'this/ ill ; 195, 2 a. 
ftyi,ij. 'prithee/ 181. 
aye, ij. ' ah ! ' or vocative pel., 181. 
are, ij. 'sirrah J ' 181. 
arc, 'praue/pf., 139, 6. 
artha, m. 'need of/ w. inst., 199, 
i ^ ; adv. at end of cd. - ' for the 
sake of/ 187 c?. 
ardha, prn. a. 'half/ 120 d. 
ardha-rStra, m. ' midnight/ 188, a 0. 
arpaya, cs. ' hand over to/ w. dat., 


arvak, prp. adv. 'before/ 1770. 
arh, 'deserve/ w. inf., 211 a. 
alani, adv. enough/ 180 ; 184 1 ; w. 
inst., 199, iff; 3154; w. dat. 
200 Baa; w. gd., aiod. 
alpa, prn. a, 'little/ 103, 2 6; .. 
ava-graha, m. mark of elision, 9. 
avara, prn. a. ' posterior/ 120 c. 
ava-lambya, prp. gd. 'resorting to/ 

ava-sara, nu ' opportunity/ w. inf., 

an (p. 204). 

avac, adj. ' downward/ 93 6, 
avyayibhava, m. indec. cd., 188, 3 a. 
ad ,'eat/ds., 170, a. 
Aaoka, king of India, a. 
aa$&, nm. 'eight/ 106 ?>. 
as, be/ 134 A 2 6; pr. pt., 156(7 ; 
w. per. pf., 140; w. per, ft., 352 ; 
w. dat., 200 Bio; w.j geii., 302, 
I a. 

as, ' throw/ ao., 147 a. 
-as, pri. nom. suffix, 83 ; 182, i 6. 
asuya, 'be angry/ w. dat, 200 A a. 
asrj, n. 'blood/ 79. 
asau, prn. m. f. ' that,' I la ; 195, a 6. 
astam, adv. ' home/ 184 6. 
asti, 'is/ omitted, 191 b; w. pr. pt., 


asthi,n. 'bone/99,3, 
asmad, prn. stem of 1st pers., 109. 
asmadiya, poss. prn. 'our/ 116. 
~\ '**y/ p, I39> 5 J w. two ace., 

198, a. 
-ah becomes o in Sandhi, 69 o. 



ahan, n. < day/ 91, a ; 188, a c.- 
aham, prn. ' I,' 109. 
ahar, n. 'day/ 46, f.n. I ; 500. 
ahar-gftna, m. ' series of days/ p. 49, 


ahar-pati, m. e lord of day/ 50 a. 
ahaha,ij. <ha!' 'alas!' 181. 
aho, ij. 'ohl* 181. 
aho-ratra, m. n. 'day and night/ 

p. 49, tn. x; 186, i. 

A, i. ij. 'ah!* 181 (p. 158). 

a, a. prp. 'from/ w. abl., 176, a; 

compounded w. gam and d&, 

184, f.n. 
-5, see. s, 182, a (p. 163) ; items in, 

97; roota in, pf., 136, 4 ; 137, ' ; 

137, *<*. 

ah, ij. 'ah!' I8i(p. 158). 
fi-oam, 'rip/ 1 33 A I. 
a-tta, pp. of a-da, ' take/ 160, a 6. 
atman, m. 'soul/ '.self/ 90 ; 115 I. 
fttmane-pada, n. 'middle voice/ 1 ai. 
a-daya, prp. gd. ' taking/ 179. 
adi, TO. ' beginning/ 189 A. 
a-di, 'enjoin/ w. dat., 198, a a; 

aoo B a. 

adya, adj. 'first/ 189 &. 
-ana, pt. sf., 158 a; i8a, ifc; ipv. 

sf., i 3 i, 4 a(p.9<>> f '*v 
-am, sec, sf., 182, a (p. 163). 
ap, * obtain/ pf., 135, a ; ds., 170, a. 
Rpah, f. pi. 'water/ 193, $d. 
a-yatta, pp. ' dependent on/ w. gen., 

2oa, a 6. 

-ayana, sec. if,, i8a, a (p. 163). 
Syria, n.< life/ 83. 
a-rabhya, prp. gd.-' since/ 179, a. 
5-rudha, pp. 4 ridden ' and ' riding/ 

ao8 b. 

ftryS, f, a metre, p. 335. 
av&m, prn. ' we two/ 109. 
avis, adv. * openly/ 184 5. 
a-saina, 'reckon on/ w. loc., 203 e. 
a-tis,f.' blessing/ 836. 
S-fotya, prp. gd.' resorting to/ 179, x. 
aniru, 'womiae/ acxD A I a. 
as, ' sit/ per. pf., 140, 1 ; 158 J w - 

pr. pt., 307. 
fc-sth&ya, prp. gd. ' resorting to/ 179. 

I, 'go/ pr., 127, i ; pf., i3^ a t ft-* 

1510; per. ft.; 153 a; 153* P*- 

154, a. 

i, prn. root, 'this/ xn. 
-i, pri. sf., 182, i 6 ; seo, sf., i8a, a; 

stems in, 98. 
itara, prn. a. ' other/ iao a ; w. abl., 

aoi, a &. 
iti, pel. 'so/ 180 (p. 148); 194, I ; 

196 ft; 305,. i c; air. 
ittham, adv. 'thus/ 205, i <J. 
idam, dem. pm. 'this/ xxx. 
-in, sec. rf. f i8a, a ; 189 j ; stems in, 


indra-vajrS, f, a metre, p. 334, 
iyat, a. so much/ 86 b ; 1 18. 
iva, end. pel. ' like/ 180 (p. 149). 
is, ' wish/ pr., 133 C a ; pf* 135* 3 J 

136, i; w. inf., air. 
-is, aorist suffix, 142 ; 145. 
-iajha, spv. sf., 103, a ; i8a, i b. 
-is, pri* nom. suffix, 83 ; x8a, i b. 

1, flea sf., r8a, a ; feminines in, 95; 

loo ; 103, i a; 107; 188, a a. 
ik|,'see/per. pf., 14^1 1 J ds.,i7o,2. 
Id,* l praise/ pr., 134 A$Z> (p. 100). 
iSirksa, -driS, -dr^a,pnu ' such/ r 1 7. 
-Ina, "secondary suffix, p. 164. 
ipsa, ds. stem of ap/ obtain, 170,2 ; 

-lya? poss. sf J 107 ; ord. s, 116. 
-iyas, cpv. sf., 88 ; 103, 2 ; i8a, i b. 

aoa, i a. 

IT, pel. 'und/ 180 (p. I49X D 
-u, pri. sf., 183, i 6; stems in, oS. 
tKrita, pp. 'accustomed to, w. gen 

aoa, a c. 
ujjh, ' forsake/ per. pf., 140, r. 

nttara, prn. a. c subsequent/ iao c. 
uttarena, adv. 'north of, w. gen., 

aoa, 4. 

ndaRc, a. ' upward/ 93 a. 
ud-atta, m. 'acute * accent, p. 242. 
ud-dya,prp.gcL-'towardJi, 179>'- 
ud-vij, shrink from, w. abL, 201 a* 
-una, pri. suffix, 182, i $. 



md, 'wet,' pr. and impf., 128. 
upa-kantha, m. ' vicinity, 1 178. 
upa-kr, ' benefit/ w. gen., 202, i e. 
npa-jati, f. a mixed metre, p. 234. 
upa-dhmaniva, 6, f. n. 4. 
uj>a-ram, desist/ 207 a. 
upari, prp. ady. * over, 1 177 d. 
uparistat, prp. adv. 'above/ 177 d. 
upSUnah, f. 'shoe/ Si. 
upendra-vajra, f. a metre, p. 234. 
nbha, pm. 'both/ p. 81, f.n. 
ubhaya, pro, a. both,' 120 6. 
ubbava-tas, prp. adv. ' on both aides 

V 177 
UP, ending of gen. sing., 99, i. 3 ; 

101 ; of 3. pi., 131, 6; 136 ; 142 ; 


tiaanaa, m. a proper name. 83 a. 
*Bas,f. 'dawn/ 83 rt . 
Uinih, f. a metre, St. 
-us, pn\ suffix, 83 ; 182, i b. 

0, pri. sf. f 182, i Z>; Btema IEL 100. 
tlna, pp. 'diminished/ 104 Z>. 
Brj, f. ' strength/ 796. 
ttrdhvam, prp. adv. ' above/ 177 c . 

S> 'go/ pr. impf., ia8 ; pr., 133 C 2 ; 

C*., 1O8, 2. 

-F, stems in, 101. 

Tte, prp. adv. ' without/ 177 c. 

Ttvij, m. 'priert/ 79 Z>. 

E, ai, t>, rooti ending in, 1 29, 8. 
eka, run. ' one/ 105, i ; 120 6 ; 192. 
eka-tama, pro, a. *one of many/ 


eka-tara, prn. a. 'either/ i2o&. 
etad, dem. prn. 'thia/ no a. 
eta-vat, prn. * so much/ 118. 
edh,/ thrive/ per. pf., 140, i. 
e-dhi, 2.Bg.ipv. of as, 'be/ 134 A 2 k 
ena, prn. he, ahe, it/ 112 a. 
* v * P L > 8 <> (P- H9) J w. pt., 205, 

evam, pcL 'thia,' 180; w.pp^ 205, 

i c* 
ea, dem. prn. 'thw,' 48; ii a a; 

195, 2 a. 

Ai, o, aa, nominal stems in, 102. 
Au, ending of i. 3. 0g pf., 136, 4. 

Ka, inter, prn. * who ? ' 113; with 

api, cana, old, 119. 
kakubh, ' region/ 78. 
kac cid, inter, pel. ' I hope/ 180. 
ka-tama, prn. a. * which of m&nj ? * 

1 ao a. 

ka-tara, pro. a. ' which of two ? ' 1 20 a. 
ka-fci, prn. .* how many ? ' 1 18 a. 
kati-payay prn. a. 'some/ laorf. 
kathaya, den. 'tell/ 175 a; 198, 

2 a ; 200 Ala. 

kadS, inter. ' when ? ' 1 13 a ; w. cid 
and cana, 119 a. 

kanis$ha, spv. ' least/ 103, 2 6. 

kanlyae, cpv. 'lesser/ 103, a b. 

kain, Move/ 125, 4 ; pp., 160, 2 c. 

karma-dharaya/descriptivecd./! 88. 

kalpa, m. 'manner/ iSp/. 

kas-cid, indef. pm.' some,' 119 ; 192. 

kaatam, ij. 'alns! * 181 (p. 158). 

kanta, pp. ' beloved/ 97 ; 160, 2 c. 

-kama, compounded w. inf., 2 lib. 

kamam, adv. pel. indeed,' 180. 

kala y m. 'time/ w. inf., 211 (p. 204). 

Kalid&aa, the poet, 185 ; p. 333. 

kirn, inter, 'what?' 113 ; 180; 199, 
i; 210 d. 

kiyat, prn. * how much ? ' 86 b ; 
113 a; u8. 

kiJa, pel. 'indeed/ 180 (p. 150). 

kl-dri -dr4a, prn. what like ? ' 1 1 7. 

kirtaya, 'celebrate/ 1 75 a. 

ku, prn. as first member of a cd,, 
113 . 

kn-tra, inter. ' where ? ' 113 a. 

kup, * be angry/ w. dat., 200 A a. 

kuiala, n. ' health/ 200 A 3. 

kr, *do/ pr,, 127, ,5 a; 134 B 
(p. 107); p, 135, i f 136 a; 136, 
2; 137, i; 138, 2; 140; pf. pt., 
157; o., 1430; 144, a; ft., 151, 
i j per. ft., 152 a ; p*., 154, 3 ; 
*54 7; 155; PP-, 160,3; fp. t 
162, i 6; 162,3; gd., 163; inf., 
167; cs., 168; w. inL, 199, iff; 
w. loc., 204. 



Jqrt, 'cut/ pr., 13301. 

krtam, adv., 180; 199, 3 gr; 215 <?. 

krta-vat, act. pp. ' having done/ 89, 

f.n. 3; 161. 

krte, adv. * on account of,' 177 d. 
-krtvas, adv. af. fonning muitiplica- 

tivea, 1080. 
kr, 'acatter/ pf., 137, 1 a; pa., 154, 

kip, ' tend to/ pf., 135, i j w. dat., 


kevalam, adv. ' only,' 180 (p. 151). 
ko 'pi, indef. pnu 'some one, 1 119. 
kovida, a. ' akffledin/.w. gen., *oa, 

a c. 
kram, 'etride/ pr., i33Ai; gd., 

1650; int., 1730. 
kii, 'buy,' pr., 127, 6; par., p. loa; 

pr. pt, 156. 
krudh, *be angry/ w. gen., aoa, 

I ; w. dat., 200 A a. 
krostr, m, 'jackal/ 101 c. 
kva, inter. ' where?' 180 (p. 151) ; 

w. api, 1190, 

kaain, forbear/ w. gen., aoa, I c. 
'ksip, ' cast/ w. dat., aoo A I b ; w. 

loc., 204. 
ksudra, a. mean/ cpv. of, 103, a. 

g,' pt, 137, a &; !. 
., 160, ad; gd., 1650. 
khalu, pel. 'indeed/ 180 (p. 151). 
khya, ' teU/ ao., 147 a; CB. w. dat., 
aoo A 10. 

Gata, pp. 'gone/ in cda>, p, 171, 

gam, go/ 89 6 ; pr., 133 A a ; pf., 

137* at; 138,7; per. pf-, 140; 

per. ft., 152 a ; ps. ao., 155 a j pp., 

160, a; fp., 162, a; gd., 163; 

164 a; i65a;ds., 171,1; w.acc., 

197, 1 a. 

garlyan, cpv. ( heavier/ 88. 
gavjwva, n, Dvandva cd., 186. 
ga, i. sing/ pf., rap, 8; pa., 154, * 
gft, a. 'go/ aoriEt, 148. 
g&tha, f. a metre, p. 235. 
gir, f. voice/ 8 a. 
guna, r vowel-atrengthening/ 170; 

19; ai; 101 ; 135, 1.4; 137,1. 

3.4.5; i34Aic; 135,3; 136, 

i. a; 143; 147 a, 3; 1510; 155; 

162, i $, 0,3.3; 173. 
guru, a. ' heavy/ cpv. of, 88 j 103, a. 
gnh, ' conceal, pr., 133 A i. 
gr, ' awake/ int. of, 1 74. 
gfhltva, prp. gd, ' with/ 179, X. 
go, m. f. 'boll/ 'cow/ loa. 
gopaya, den. 'protect/ 175. 
gai,<ring/pf., 129, 8; pa., 154, i. 
grah, 'seize/ pr., 134 Fa (p. 108); 
pf., 137, ac; ft., 

303 e. 

grama-prapta, pp. Tp. cd., 187, 1. 
'gravan, m. '*tone/ 90, 4. 
gla, 'languish,' ca., 168, irr. i. 

Gbiw, *eaVp, 137* a &; da^ 171, 5- 
ghnat, pr. pt. 'killing/ 156 a. 
ghrj, 'sniell, 1 pr., 133 A 3. 

N, doubling of final, 53. 

Ca, end. pel 'and/ 180 (p. 151). 
cakas, ' shine/ pr., 134 A4 (p. 106); 

per. pf M 140, a. 

cairvas, pf. pt. ' having done/ 89, 
caka, ' say/ w. dat, 200 A I a. 
catur, nnu * four,' 105, 4. 
catv&nniiftt, nm. 'forty/ p. 63, 

f.n, 4. 
car, 'move/ cs. gd., 1640; int., 

1 74 a. 

carama, prn. a4j. ' laat,' 120 d. 
ci, gather/ pf., 13$* 45 P^ X 54i ; 

fp., i6a, 3; dfl., 169, i; 171,4. 
diaaya, gen. adv. 'after long/ aoa, 

cnr, 'steal/ pr., 125, 4; ft., 

ced, pel 'i^ 1 180 (p. 151); 218. 

Ch, initial, donbled, 51. 
chid, ' out ohy ao., 143, a. 

Jaks, 'eat/ pr., 134 A3, 4 (P;^ 
jaganvas, pi p*. ' having gone/ 89 6. 



jagmivas, pf. pt. ' having gone/ 80 6. 
jaghmvas, pf. pfc . 'haviSg killed/ 

09 0. 
jan/be^orn/ pr, i 33 B^ p, i 37> 

^ 193, 

, , . 

jala-mStra, n. 'water only,' 180 7. 
jala. m uc,m. 'cloud,' 79 i.' *" 
jato, 2. Bg i pv . of han, 134 A 2 c. 
jagr/awake,' 4 6,f. n . i; p 

f. 'string,' 100, 4. 
, f. 'sloth/ioo 1 
tap, 'be hot/ int., 1 73. 
tarn/ languish,' pr., 133 Br. 

jatu, pel. 'ever,' 180 . 
, 'by birth/ 199 


jftfina-vat, a. knowing/ 86. 
jy^s. cpv. 'superior; io 3l a a . 
Jje?tQa, 8p v^ eldest,' io 3> 3 o. 

T ' 

34 ; before palatals 
3 8 ; 30. *^ 

- o,a; 182, 1 1 
i. * carpenter/ 90. 
. v. ' thence,' 180 (p. ic a ^ 
pm-'iomany/iiSa 5;> 
mm " - J " itcd.,i87. 

tanao-bhttta, pp. 'dark,' 188, i c. 
-tara, cpv. B f., 103; p. 164. 
-tavat, pp. act., as finite verb, ao8 * 
; p. 341, ii a . 
f '< 162,3; 182, 16. 
, pf. p t., 'having stood/ 
09 a, o. 
-t5, sec. suffix, p. 164. 
t5d, 'strike/ w. loc., 204. 
-tfit, Vedic 2 pL ending, p. a 39 . 
ta-drksa, -dri -drsa, prn. such like/ 

tfivaka,poss. P rn.'thy/ii6a. 
Wvat pm * much> , Ij8 . ^ 

'solong/&c.,i8o(p. 153). 
-ti,pri.sf., 182, 

3 ; 

tn, pel 'buV 180(^.152). 

-tu, pn. sf., 182, i 6 (p. !62); inf. 

sf., 167. 
tnlya, a. 'equal/ w. inst, 199, 2o . 

w.gen.,202, 2d. **' f 

tr, pn. sf., 182, i ft ; stems in, 101 ; 

., , . 

u, des.a.,w. ace,, 197, 3 . 
j prp. 'across/ p. 5^ f . , 

tjryanc, a,' horizontal/ 93 a . 

trtiya,nm. 'third, ' 

tris, adv. 'three times/ io8a- 
gen., 202, 5 a. ' 

. _ ~f iwu tH, UO fl. J..T '-..f 

' Wy ' (Vedic), p. 338, J*^' J^gJ?' P- I6 4- 


tvad, prn. stem, 109. 

tvadlya, posB. prn. ' thy/ 116. 

tvam, prn. 'thou,' 109. 

tvfi, enol. ace. of tvam, 109 a; 195, 

-tva, gd. Buffix, 163. 
tva-drsa, prn. 'like thee/ 117. 
-tviya, Vedio gd. sf., p. 241, la. 
-tvl, Vedio gd. if., p. 341, ia. 

-Tha, pri. sf., 182, i &; see. sf., p. 164; 

ord. suffix, 107. 

-thana, Vedic a. pi. ending, p. 339. 
-thama, ord. suffix, 107. 

Dams', 'bite/ pr., 133 A 4; cs., 168, 

irr. 4. 

daksa, a. ' skilled in/ aoa, a c; 2O3/. 
dakeina, prn. a. ' south/ 120 c. 
daksina-tas, adv. * to the south of,' 

w. gen., 202, 4. 
dan^aya, den. 'fine/ w. two ace., 

198, a. 

datta, pp. ' given,* 160, a 6. 
dadhi, n. 'curds/ 99, 3. 
day, 'have mercy, w. gen., 202, i o. 
daridra, ' be poor/ pr., 134 A 4 ; int., 

darsaya, cs. 'show/ 198, 49; 200 


davlyas, cpv. of dOra, ' far/ 103, 2. 
dah, ( burn/ 69 a ; ao., 144, 5 ; ft., 

151 a, i ; ds., 170, i; int., 174, 
d&, 'give/ pr., 134 B i ; ao., 144, 3 J 

148, i; ft., 151; pp., 160, 20; 

fp., 162, ia; 162, a j c., 168 a ; 

<&., 171, 3; 200 A i. 
daty, m. ' giver/ 101. 
datri, f. 'giver/ 101 e. 

t, m. pL ' wife/ 193, 3 d. 

div, i. f.'Bky/99,4. 

div, a. 'play/pr., 125, 5; 133 Bi. 

diva-naktam, adv. 'day and night, 

1 86, 3. 

di4, i. f. ' point,' 7-9. 
di4, a. ' to point/ 141 tf- 
djstyS, inet. * by good lock/ 181. 
dih, ' anoint/ 69 a- 
dip, 'shine/ ao., 1490, a. 
dlTgha, a. ' long/ opv. of, 103, a. 

dirghayuB, a. 'long-Eved/ 83 a. 
duh, * milk/ ao., 141 b ; d., 1 70, i a ; 

w. two ace., 198, a ; a. milking/ 

55. 8r.- 

dtti-a, a. ' far/ 103, a ; 201 c, 
dr^, ' Bee/ pr., 133 A 5 ; ao, 144, 4; 

147 a ; ft., 151 1, I ; 1p., 102, i c; 

inf,, 167 ; int., 173 &- 
-did, a. 'seeing/ 79 <i. 
drata-pOrva, a. 'teen before/ 188, 


drh, 'be firm/ 69^ 
deva-datta, m,Tp. cd, 187, a. 
deva-nagari, script, 3; 4; 6; 8. 
dehi, a. sing, ipv^ 134 B i. 
dot, n. *arm/ 83 c. 
dyava-prthivyau, dn.I>vidv cd, 


dyu,f. 'Ay/ 99,4- 
dyo,f. 'sky/ zoao. 
dyaoh, nom, of div and dyv, 99, 4; 


dra, 'run; mt^ 1746. 
dru, 'run/ pf., 13^ J > *49- ^^ 
druta-vilambita, n. a metee ( 4 fiwt 

and ilow*), p- 334- 
drumaya, dn. 'ramk as a tree,' 175. 
drub, ' injure/ w. dat., 200 A *. 

dva, am. * two,' 105, a. 
dvand va, n. < aggrej^r 

dvaya, pm. - 

p. 170, f. a. i. 

n. ' ioa 



dl*, 'place/ p. 27, f. n. ij pr., 
134 B I ; pf. 136, 4 ; 138, 3 (par.) ; 

*>, i443; 1481 PPviSo, 

ds., 171, 3- 

-dha, adv. sf. of manner, 108 6. 
-dhi, a. ring, ipv, sf., 131, 4. 
dhik, ij. ' fie, 1 181 (p. 158). 
dhi, f. thought, 1 100 (p. 60), 
dha, shake, 1 pr., 134 C 3 ; 134 F I ; 

., 168, 3. 

dhebi, 2. sing, ipr, of dha, 134 B I. 
dhma, 'blow,' pr., 133 A 5. 
dhvan, 'sound/ pp., 160, yd. 
-dhvam, 2. pi. sf., 144, a; when 

changed to -dhvam, ibid. 

, . , F 36 ; 40 ; 4 1 ; 

52; palatalized, 63 c ; cerebralized, 

65; not cerebralized, 92, f. n. 2; 

changed to Anutvara, 66 A 2 ; in- 

sorted i* nent. pL, 71 c. 
na,neg.pcl. 'not/i8o(p. 153). 
-na, pri. sf., 182, i 6; pp, sf., 160. 
uadi, 1 'river/ 100 (p. 60); Yedic 

declension of, p. 238. 
nanu, inter, pel., 180 (p. 153). 
naptr, an. 'grandson/ 101 a. 
nam, * bend/ gd., 165 a. 
namas, n., 1846; w. dat., 200 A 3. 
namai-ya, den. ' adore/ 175. 

rtmt < KA Imrf * ft J? 

naa, end. prn. A.D.G. pi. of aham 

*; i-., 154- 

Bigari, Sanskrit wript, ^ 

dv. pel., 180 (p. 153). 


, n. ' proximity/ 178, 
ttx-kasi, prp. adv. ' near/ 177 a. 

; 2040. 

/ with loc., 204. 
J act., 89 5. 

w. dat f 

144, 2; fp,, 162, i &; cs.,r68; int., 
173; V- two ace., 198, 3. 

ni-tva, prp^gd. = ' with/ 1 79. 

no, pel. 'now/ 180 (p. 153). 

-nu, pri. sf., 182, i b. 

nud, 'push/ pp., 160, la. 

nflnam, pel. 'indeed/ 180 (p. 154). 

nr f in. ' man/ 101 6. 

nrt, 'dance/ ds., 169, a; int., 
1.73 & 

netlistha, spv, 'nearest/ 103, a &. 

nedlyas, cpv. 'nearer/ 103, 2 b. 

no, neg. pel. 'not/ 180 (p. 154). 

nau, i. ' ship/ 102. 

nau, a. enol. dual pru., 1090; 195, 
i 6. 

nyafic, adj. 'downward/ 93 a. 
nyayya, a. 'suitable/ w. inf., ail d. 

Pac, 'cook/pf., 137, a a . 
paBca, nm. ' five/ 1 06 6. 
pafica-guna, a. 'fivefold/ aor, a c. 
pat, ' fall/ pf., 137, 2 a; ao., 147 a ; 

pp., 160, a ; 204. 
pati, in. 'husband/ oo. j. 
patm, f. 'wife/9^ i. 
pathja, f. the typical &oka metre, 

P- 333. 
pad, 'go/ ao, pa., 155 ; ds. f 171, 3 ; 

int., 174 b. 
pada (or middle) endings, 16 a ; 56 ; 


panthan, m. 'path/ 91, i. 
paya, cs. sf., i68rt. 
para, a. ' subsequent/ 1 20 c ; ' chief, ' 

para-tas, prp. adv. ' beyond,* 1 77 c, d. 
param, ^prp. adv. 'after/ i77c; 

parama/a. ' chief/ 189 /. 
paraetat, prp. adv. 'beyond/ 177 d, 
paras-para, ' one another/ 188, a rf. 
uai-pada, 121; 187 a (p. 172). 
. c, a. 'averted/ 93 b. ' 

pari, prp. before lr, J34E. 
pari-tas, prp.^dv. 'around/ 177 a. 
pan-tyajya, prp. gd. ' except,* 1 70 
panvrSj, m. mendicant,' 79 c. 9 
parena, prp. adv. ' after/ 177 a , <-. 
pascit, prp. adv, 'after/ 177 rf/ 

. 'ride,' 

adv. ' 

puras, prp. 
, prp 

' 'P rior '' 



*7i,a; w. two aoc., 198, 3. 
prati, prp . 'towarda,' i76Ti. 

dv. 'before/i, / ~ 
aao, a. 'backward/ 73 a; 03. 
prathama, HDL 'tot/ laol 9 
pra^a, 'grant/ w. dat., gm, 202, 
* c. 








budh, 2. a. 'wise,* 55. 
brahman, m. ' creator/ po, 3. 
brahma-han, m. 'brahman-killer 1 


brahnu, Indian writing, 3. 
brtl, speak/ pr., 1^4 A 3 o ; w. two 

ace., 198, 2. 

Bha, sec. sf., p. 164. 

bhagavat, a. ' adorable/ 49 a. 

bhagoh,v. of bhagavat,49 a (Sandhi). 

bhaj, ''snare/ p, 139, r. 

bhanj, < break/ pr., 134 D; pa., 154, 

5; pp., 160, 1 1. 
bhartr, ID. * husband/ xoi a. 
bhavat, I, m. 'your Honour/ 49; 

86 a; 950, n. x; 193, ia\ 

195, I o. 

bhavat, a. pr. pt. ' being/ 86 a ; 156. 
bhavati, ( ia/ as copula, 191 6 ; with 

pr. part., 207. 

bhavadiya, poss. prn. 'your/ 195, 3. 
bhavaa, old v. of bhavat, 49 ; 86 a. 
bhavitavya, ft), 'that must be, 1 aogb. 
-bhaj, a. 'sharing,' 76 6. 
bhfivatka, prn. your/ 1 16 a ; 195, 3. 
bhSvya, fp. ' that must be/ 209 b. 
bhid,' cleave/ pp., 160, i; fp., 162, 

I c; 162, a. 

bhinna, pp. * different/ 201, 2 o. 
bhisaj, m. ' physician/ 79 6. 
bhi, 'fear/cs., 168^.3; w.abl., 201 a. 
bhuj, ' bend/ pp., 100, I b. 
bhfl, i.'be'; pr., 125, i ; 132 ; pf., 

i39> 7 ; P^. pf., 140; ao., 148, 2 ; 

ft, 151; per. ft., 152 a; 153; 

I*-i I54i pr., 156 ; 158 ; pf. 

pt. t 89 &; 157; 159; fp. t Kfa, 

l&; 162,2; 162, 3; 162, 3 a; 

gd,, 164 ; inf., 167 ; ds., 169 ; int., 

172; w. dat, 2cx> B i a ; w. gen,, 

202, i a; fp. w. mat, 209; par., 

P*9 a ; PS-, P- 130. 
-bhata,pp.'being/T88, ic. 
bhtlyaa, cpv. * more/ 103, 20* 
bhttyistha, spv. * most/ 103, 2 a. 
bhy, 'bear/pt, i 3 6aj 140,3; ds., 

170, i. 

, of bhi,v*t, 49 ; 86 a; p. 158. 

tf, ' fall/ pr., 133 B 2. 
bhrajj, 'fry/pr., 133^3- 
bhram, ' wander/ pr., 133 B I ; pf., 

139* J - 

bhratarau, m. du. 'brother and 
sister/ 186, 3 o. 

M, Sandhi of final, 42; internal 

Sandhi of, 68. 
ma, pri. sf., 182, i b- } sec.sf., p. 164; 

ma. sf., 107. 

maghavan, m. ' Indra/ 91, 5. 
majj, 'sink/ ft., 151 6, 2; pp., 160, 

-mat, sec. sf., p. 165 ; stems in, 86. 
mata, pp. 'approved/ w. gen., 202, 

3 a. 
mati, f. ' thought/ 98 a. 

-math, adj. * destroying/ 77 a. 
ad, i. 'rejoice/ pr., 133 B i ; 


mad, 2. prn. stem, 109. 

madlya, posa. prn. ' my/ 116. 

inadhu, n. ' honey/ 08 b. 

madhu-lih, m. ' bee/ 8 1. 

man, ' think/ ao., 144, i ; gd., 165 a } 

da., 171, i. 
man, stems in, 90. 
manas, n. compounded w. inf., 211 fe. 
manasvin, adj. ' wise/ 87 a. 
mantraya, den. ' take oounsel/ 175 a. 
manth, churn/ pp., 133 A 4 ; 134 

mandSkrantS, f. ( l approaching 

riowly'), a metre, p. 235. 
-maya, sec. suffix, p. 165. 
-mas!, Vedio ending of i. pi. pr., 

P- 239. 

mahat, a. * great/ 85 ; 188, 2 o. 
maharaja, m. 'great king/ 188, 2 o. 
ma, i. measure/ pr., 134 B 2 ; da., 

mft, 2. proh. poL, 128; 180; 

3. end. aoo. of aham, 109 a ; 

195. i *> 
mfita-pitarau , m. du. 'father and 

mother/ 186, 3 c. 
matr, 1 'mother/ IOT ; 186, 3 c. 
-matra^n. compounded,ao5 3 1 d. 



matra, f. 'measure,* . 

mo-dila, prn. ' like me/ 117. 
-m&oa, part, si, 158 ; 182, I b. 
mSmaka, posa. prn. 'my,' n6a. 
xnalini, f. ( garlanded'), a metre, 

P- 3 34- 

-mi, pri. if., 182, i b. 
mitra-varunau, m. du., 186, 3&. 
-min, eteniB in, 870. 
mil, ' wink/ ao., 149 a, 3. 
muktva, prp. gd. ' without,' 179* 
muo, 'loosen, 1 pr., 133 C i; ao v 149, 

2 ; ps, ao., 155. 
muh, ' be confused/ 69 Z>. 
muhuh, adv. 'again, 1 180 (p. 154). 
xnurdhan, m. head, 1 6 ; go. 
xnurdhanya, a. ' cerebral/ 6* 
my, * die/ da., 169, i; int., 173$. 

, ., , ., 

mrj , ' wipe/ pr. } 1 33 A i ; 134 A 1 6. 
mrta-bhartrka, a. f., 189,7. 
mjdu, adj.* soft/ 98. 
me , end. gen. dat. prn., 109 a ; 1 95,1 1. 
mna, ' study,' pr., 133 A 5. 
mla, ' fade/ pp., 160, i ; cs., 168, i. 

Ya, rel. ' who,' 114 ; with ka, 119 o; 

-repeated, 119*?. 
-ya, pa. af., 121 ; 154 i fp- t, 162, i; 

i8a, i b ; gd. if., 164; int. af., 172; 

den. sf v 175; sec- nominal af, 

p., 165; ordinal sf., 107. 
yaj, 'sacrifice/ pf., I35> 4J Z 37 

3 o; ps., I546; pf. pt-, I57J PP-> 

x6o, 2; IQ9IJ(P- 188 )' 
yat, ' strive, w. dat., 200 B 2 ; w. 

loo., 204 c. 

-yat, sf. of quantity, 1 1 8. 
ya-tae, adv. 'whence/ 180 (p. 155)- 
yati, prn. as many,' 1 18 a. 
ya-tra, adv. 'where,' 180 (p. 155)- 
yartha, adv. ' as,' 180 (p. 155)- 
yad, cj. ' thaV 18 (P- ^S)- _ 
yadi,ci.'if/i8o(p. 155); 8 - 
yam, 'restrain/ pr., I33^ a ; P*- 

139, 2. 

yaviyaa, opv. ' younger, 103,2. 
ya&bB, n. 'fame/ 83. 
-ya, cpv. sf., 103, 2 a. 
y5, f go/ 131, 6 ; ao., 146 J w. ace., 

197, i a. 

yao, 'ask,' w. two aoc., 198, 2. 
yadrs, y adrsa, prn. * what like/ 117. 
yavat, pro. 'as much/ 118; adv., 

'just/ 212, 2; cj., 180 (p. 156); 

prp. adv., 1770. 
yu, 'jorn/ pr., 134 Ai a; p, 137, 

i a. 

-yu, pri. sf., 182, 1 1. 
yukta, pp. * prepared/ w.loc., 204 c; 

1 fitting,' w. int, 2ii <f. 
yuj, 'join,' fp., 162, i c; pe. w. loc,, 

204 c; w. inl y inc. 


yuvatlj i * maiden,* 95 . 
yuvan, m. * youth/ 91, 4. 
yuvam, iu 'ye two,' 109. 
yusmad, pm. stem, 109. 
y osmadiya, posa. prn. ' your/ 1 16. 
yuyam, prn. you/ 109; 193, 3. 
yena, cj. ' that,' 180 Qp^ 156). 
yojana, n. dittonca of 9 mfos, 197, 
2; 203 j. 

R, as original final, 46, f.o. I ; 47 > 

50 ; stems in, 82. 

-ra, pri. si, p. 163 ; sec. !, p. 105. 
rac, ' fashion/ ao, ps., 155 
rata, pp. ' delighting in/ 204*- 
ratua-bhata, pp. 'being * 

I88,i<?; 184, N. 
ratni-bhQta, pp. 'become * 

184.. ir. 

n. 'charioteer* (Vedic), 

rathoddhata, f. a metre, p. 234. 
rabh, 'seize/ p. a, 5SJ <** 

ram, ''be glad,' ao., 144. *- 
raj, * shine,* pi, 1 39* J - M 
rSjan, m. ' king/ 90, i; 188, a a. 
raja-putra, m. ki^s owm,' i89. 
rawrsi,m. royal sage, 1:89,1. 
rfiftri, 1*1 

-ru, prL sf., p. 1 

sst t .3S5: 

w. geaa., 202, I . 
' s . 

.108, a ; ds., 170, i . 
rai,m.' wealth/ 102. 


^fc-'^/S i ^. ;#*:** 

'ft 3 "i, *5^ & Par* | p. loo. I 2io b * 

fj OB., vartainana,, 205, i &. 
' varsjUi, f. pi, * rains/ 193. a tf 

varsistha, spv. < oldest/ 103, td 

-La, see. auffix, p. ifa \ l^T?' ^ <older >' 10 3, 2 5. 

laksml, f. - proi^ritj ' '" ioo 4 ' I?**' ^34 A 2 a. 

lag, cling to/ w. loc.', 203 'e. Va !'. X ' ft ^ ' J^' J 37i 2 c ; no., 144, 

- ^ w*,3;pp. f ifio, 3 ; 

,a.'wear/pf., .^, .. 
**,-Bcratcvpp., 160,3. ' " I ' tf^f *"%' IO9a; I9 5' r 6 

^/sy^; fe^ I; nom , ^Sf^f.i 8 ^ 

^ooAT^' *' jl6a >3J w-aat., vfi,^cL 3 C j.'or/j8o(p.i 5 6V 

1U. ' cut/ pr,, 134 p j ( Io8 ^ . vficTf 111 '' *" ' elo ? uenfc '' 8 7 * 

loka,m!V.pL ' world ' TA* r vaoaB-pa^m.'iord ofepeech/iS? a. 

g. PL, world, 193, i. v g m> enoL pnLj ^ f 7* 

-Va, pri. .uffix, p. 163 * '^^ A f-n. i. 

vajp^a^tha, f. a metre" D I*A ^l- n \ W ^*f r ^ 8 *' 3 ' 
vac, ' apeak/ pf., i 35 ' P j 3 . 4 : ae I W "f?Y' d1 ' W ' ^^ gen " loc '> 

pf' ^Jo 40 ;* ^ 7 B L 1 "" J ? 4 ' , 6 ; ^ ^le/ pp., 160, i b 

jfts 164; ;. twoaco 2 .; iVi 2 g ' ^;'?S f> ' w - ^ 20 , 4& - 

vaficaya, 'cheat/ w. abt, 201 ft f know '' 3* pL ampf., 131, 6 ; 

" v *^ x - Beo - 8 f-, p. 165; stems in^ 86; ^JS-'d?' ?6* pf *. pt "' I 57 a ? CB., 

vidyate, * exiBts/ w. gen., 202, i a. 
vidvat, pr. pf. pt. * knowing/ 89 b. 
-Tin, sec. , p. 165 ; sterna in, 87 a 

S- p ?^ v ;: w ! th u yi77fc. " 

teins m , 90,. fem . of 
p, 'strew/ p, 137, a', 

, f. a fonn of the ^loka metre 
233- ' 

PP ' W * ^^ Wld ps - 8ense 

'separate/ w. abl., 201 &. 
vi-rSma, m. stop/ 9. 
.< settler/ 79. 


vi-tasa, m. ' difference,' at end of cd., 

1870; w. gen., 202,6. 
viiSva-jit, a, ' aU-^uering; 187 6. 
vi-im, 'trot,' w. gen,, 202, ic; 

w. loo., 203 e. 


m, 'confidence,' w, loo,, 


viavanc, a. all-pervading,' 93 a. 
vwjarga. in. 'bard breathing,' 4, 

f.n.i; 6,f.n. i; 15,8; 27; *9 

^am, * cease,' pi-i 

-^13, diEkibutive adv. rf., lolc. 

metre, p, J35- 

a metre, p. 234. 
f. a 

48;49;& 2 ;P',49> fl 

vi-srj, send away,' w. two ace., 198, 

3'; w. dat., 200 Aib, 
vi-smrta, pp., w. act. and pa, sense, 

vr, 'choose,' pf. f 136 a; w. loc., 

204 c. , 

vrt (vartate), w. loo., 203, 


vrddhi, f. ' strongest vowel graaa- 
'tion,'i7a;i95": 3 3;99>4; 101 ; 

136! a. 3J^I I44) } 4J *45*J 

!au, ____-, --- ( 
MO, 'be weary; 

'hcreaang,' 77 a 

veda^a, ca. 'tell,' w. dat. or gen., 

198, 2 a, 4 a. 
vai, expletive pcL,i8o,p, 157- 

m. pi 

gon/ 189 c. 

eary/ j 


n ^0H Ti 



193. 3 


sakta, pp. ' attached/ with gen. and 

Inc., 303, a&; 203*. 
sakthl,n. 'thigh/99, 3. 
akhi, m. ' friend/ 99, 2 ; 188, 3 c. 
akhi, f. c Mend,' 99, a, 
safij, * adhere,' pr., 133 A 4 ; w. loc., 

203 e. 

wvt, pr. part.' being/ 156 a 205, 1 a, I. 
satyam, adv. f truly/ 180 (p. 1^7). 
ad, 'sink/ pr., 133 A I ; cs., 168. 
sadrja, a. 'like, 1 w. inst. or gen,, 

199, 2 c. 
fam-dhi, in. ' euphonic combination/ 

i<> J I44 5. 

fam-nidhi, m. ' vicinity/ 1 78. 
sa-patnl-ka, a. ( accompanied by hu 

wife/ iSgj. 

am, prp., before kr, < make/ 134 E. 
ama, a. ' equal/ w. inst. or gen., 

199, 2 c\ 302,*2 d. , 
sam-aksam, prp. aJv. 'before/ 177 rf. 
samanta-tas, adv. * around/ 177 a. 
samam, prp. adv. * with/ w. inat., 

177 7 >J 199,2. 
amaya, prp. adv. 'near/ w. ace., 


Bamartha, a. ' able/ w. loc., 304 c ; 
w. inf., an. 

amana,a. 'equal/ w. inst v 199, 2 c. 

samlpa, n. 'vicinity/ 178. 

Sam-pad, ' tend to/ w. dat., 200 B i. 

Bam-prasftran&, reduction of the 
syllables ya, va, ra, to i, u, r,,f.n. i; p. 32, f.n. I; p. 51, 
f.n.i; 91, 3-4-5J 96> a.' P r - 
13333,03; 134 A a a; pf., 135, 
4* I37 a c J ps-i I54 6 J PP-i l6o 
a. 3a; ds., 171, 2. 

tam-bh5vayft, cs. ' expect, 1 w. cren. 
or loc., 202, i if; 303^. 

samyaHc, a. * right/ 93 a. 

0amraj, m. ' lovereign/ 79. 

aaura, prn. a. ( all/ 120 o. 

arva-tas, prp. adv. 'around/ 177 a. 

aah, 'bear/ pp., 696; inf.. 16*7, 

saha, prp. adv. ' with/ w. -inst., 
1776; 199, 2 (p. 188). 

sahaoram, n. ' thousand,* 106 c. 

aakam, prp. adv. 'with/ w. inst, 
1 77 F) ' T 99' - 

aadhu, adv. 'well/ 181 (p. 158). 
tayam-pratar, cd. adv. r evening and 

morning/ 186, 3. 
Birdham, prp. adv. ' with/ w. inst., , 

1776; 199,2. 

sic, ' spnnkie,' pr,, 133 C i ; ao,, 147, 
-sifl, aoriet suffix, 142 ; 146. 
su,' 'press out/ pr., 127, 4 ; 134 C i ; 

par., p. 98. 

BU-manaSj a. 'cheerful/ 33 a. 
su-hrd, m. ' friend/ 77 ; 189 b. 
BT, ( go/ pf., I36- 
srj, 'create/ ao., 144,4; ft-, 151^,1; 

d*. t 170, i. 

srp, 'creep/ ft., 1510, i. 
stu, 'praise/ pf., 136^; 137, i; 138, 

5 ; ds., 169, i. 
rtr, 'strew/ pf., 137, i; ps., 154, 

4; pp., 160, i 

stri, f. ' woman, 100 a (p. 62). 
stha, 'stand/ pf. pt., 896; pr., 

133 A 3J ^- 144, 35 J 48; pp., 

160, 2; inf., 167; cs., lOStf; <!H., 

170, I ; w. loc., 203 c. 
sthita, pp. -sat w. pt., 205, 1 1. 
sthira, a, *finn/ cpv. of, 103, 2 a. 
sn&, 'bathe/ cs., 168, irr. i. 
snih, 'be oily/ pp., 69 a. 
aprs*, ' touch/ ao., 144, 4 ; ft., 15 1 b, r . 
-spra, a. ' touching/ 79 d. 
spr'b, ' desire/ w. dat., 200 A 2. 
Bma, pel, used w. pr., 212, i a. 
smr, 'remember/ ps., 154, 3 ; w. gen., 

202, 1 1. 

-sya, future suffix, 151. 
srag-dharil, f. (' wearing a garland'), 

a metre, p. 235. 
sraj, 'garland/ 79 b. 
sro^ 'flow/ pf., 136^. 
snic, f. ' lndle, J 79 a. 
flva, refl. prn. ' own/ 115 c ; 1 20 o. 
svap, 'steep/ pr., 134 A 3 a ; pf., 

I37i '<?; ps,, 154,6; pp., 160, a; 

<ls.j 171, 2. 

avayam, prn. ' self/ 1150. 
avar, 'heaven/ 46, f.n. I. 
Bvarita, ' falling accent/ p. 242. 
svar-pati, m. 'lord of heaven/ 50 a. 
, f. 'sister/ 101 a. 
i, ij. 'hail/ i8r (p. 158), 



av-agatam, adv. ' welcome,' w. dat., ' 

200 A 3. 

svamin, m. 'master, 1 87 a. 
av&mi-ya, den. < treat as master/ 175. 

H, 6, f.n. 3; 29, 6; aspiration of 

initial, 54 ; internal Sandhi of, 69 ; 

noun stems in, Si. 
lia, encl. pel., 180 (p. 157). 
ban, 'kill/ pf. pt., 89 1; 92; pr., 

134A2C; pf., 136,3; 137, 2&; 

139, 4; per. ft., 152^; pr. pt., 

1563; pp., 160, a ; gd., 165^; OP., 

168, 5 j da., 171, 1.4. 
hanta, ij. 'pray/ 181 (p. 159), 
harini, f. a metre, p. 234. 
havis, n. ' offering/ 83. 
hasta, in. ' hand, 1 at end of {MM*, cde?., 


haste-gata, pp. * held iu tlie hand/ 

p. 171, in. 4. 
hasty-as'van, m. dn. Dvandva cd. 

c elephant and horse/ 186", i. 
La, I. ' depart/ pr., 134 B 2- 
h5, 2. ' abandon/ pr., 134 B 2 a ; ps. 9 

201 b. 

ha, 3. ij. 'alast' 181 (p. 159). 
hi, i. ' impel/ pf., 139,4. 
hi, 2. cj. 'for/ 180 (p. 157). 
-hi,ipv. sf., 131,4. 
lums, ' injure/ pr., 134 D. 
hu, ' sacrifice/ pr., 127, 2 ; pt, 156 ; 

158 a; fp., 102, i fi ; par., p. 
hfl, 'calT-hva, int., 172 a. 
hrajiyas, opv. ' shorter, 103, 2. 
hva (hve), 'call/ pf., 136, 4; per. 

pf., 140, 3; pa., 154 3; '"** 
172 a. 


The abbreviations uccurriug in this Index have boon explained at the 
beginning of Appendix I and of the Sanskrit Index. 

The figures refer to paragraphs unless pages are specified. 

Abbreviation, sign of, 9. 
Ablative, syntactical use of, 201; 

with prepositions, 176, 2 ; 177 a, 

6, c; 179, 2. 
Absolute cases, 205; participles with 

eva or -mati-a, 205, i tf 
Accent, 15, 10; 104 d\ 107; 109 a\ 

112; 169; J75J 1 7<5, f.n.; App. 

III,i5-i8; shift of, 72 a, 6; 860; 


242-4; of the vocative, p. 243; of 
the finite verb, pp. 243-4. 

Accordance with, expressed by the 
instrumental, 199, i&. 

Accusative, syntactical use of, 197 ; 
double, 198 ; with infinitive, not 
used in Sanskrit, an; with pre- 
positions, 176, I ; 177 fl, 4, c, d ; 

Action nouns, 182, i. 

Active, voice (Parasmaipadft), 121 ; 

sense of past passive participle, 
208 a, f 1 - 

Adjectives, 86; 87; 88; 93; 0,50; 
pronominal, 120; expressing iden- 
tity, equality, likeness construed 
with inst., 199, 2 c j with gen., 
202, 2fl ; construed with $be in- 
finitive, 211. 

Adverbial compounds, 186, 3 ; 188, 
3 ; particles, 180. 

Adverbs, 180; numeral, 108 tf-o ; 
indefinite, 119 a; prepositional, 
177 ; constructed with gen., 202, 4* 

Agent, expressed by instr., 199; 
noum, 101 ; 152 ; 182, i. 

Aggregative numeral nouns, 108 . 

Aiyn of an action, expressed by dat., 
200 B i, 2 ; by loc., 2O4i an. 

Alphabet, arrangement of the, 4 ; 
6; table facing p. I ; the Vedic, 
p. 236. 



Analogy of feminines in i, p. 55, 1 n. 
5 ; of stems in -an, p. 56, N. 2 j 
of stems in -u, p. 57, f. n. 2 ; of 
stems inr,p. 58, f.n. i. 

Aorist, 141-9 ; fla- ao., 141 a ; s- ao., 
143; 144; is- ao., 145; sis-ao., 
146; second ao.: form with the- 
matic -a, 147 ; root ao., 148 ; re- 
duplicated ao., 149; passive ao., 
155 ; syntactical use of, 213 c. 

Apodoris 1 in conditional sentences, 
216 d; 218. 

Apposition in descriptive compounds 
188, i. 

Article, 192; 1955. 

Articulation, place or organ oF, 29. 

Aspiration, 20, 6; 30, 2 ; initial, 
4* (4), 53$, 55 (n) ; loss of, 62 ; 
compensationforlossof,^; 620,6. 

Assimilation, 16 ; p. 67, f. n. i; of 
fc*lti34; 37; 38; 39,' of final n, 

A 30, 2-4; 37; 40; of final 00,42 B. 

Attraction in gender, 194, 30; in 
number, 194,40. 

Augment, 128; Sandhi of, 230; 128; 

Avesta, 131, 6; 134, 2&; 137,3 a , 
f. n. 

Bahuvrfhi compounds tised parti- 
cipially, 206 a ; with infinitive as 
first member, ai I 6. 

Benedictive (Precative), 150; 217. 

Cardinal points, 201 c. 

Cardinal!, 104; declension of, 105 ; 

106; syntax of, 1060. 
3ase-6ndings,normal, 71; sometimes 

retained in compounds, 187 a. 
Cases, TOC; 176; strong, 73,- eyn- 

tacfecalueeofthe, 196-204. 
Causative, 168 ; its suffix dropped, 
; 160,3; i62,3a; 
*, 1*3*', 164 a 

of the, 198, 4. 

of dentals, 

, 201, i. 

ternal Sandhi of, 64 ; 65 ; 67 ; 
nominal stems in, So; Vedic 1 gnd 
lh, p. 236. 

Changeable consonant stems, 84-96: 
in -at, 85 ; in -mat, -vat, 86 ; in 
-in, 87; in -lyas, 88; in -vas, 89 ; 
in -an (-man, -van), 90, 92, 96 ; 
in -ac, 93 ; feminine of, 95. 
Cognate accusative, 197, 4. 
Collective, compounds, 186, i; 188, 
2 a ; words expressing plural sense, 
193, I- 

Comparative, in -lyas, 88 ; 103, 2 ; 
in -tara, 103, i ; 181, 2 ; abl. after, 
201, 2 a. 
Comparison, degrees of, 103; in 

compounds, 188, i & ; 180 e. 
Compounded verb, 164, 165 (gd.); 


Compounds, 184-9; verbal, 184; 
nominal, 185 : co-ordinative 
(Dvandva), 186; dependent (Tat- 
purusa) determinatives, 187 ; de- 
scriptive (Earmadharaya) deter- 
minatives, 1 88; powessives (Ba- 
huvrili), 189 : ending in -in and 
-ka, 189 /. 
Concomitance, expressed by inst,, 


Concord, 194. 
Conditional, 153; its syntactical 

use, 218. 

Conjugation, 121-75 : two kinds of, 
4 ; 131; first: 125; 133; 
second: 126; 127; 134; para- 
digms of the present system, 132. 
ConjugationaLclasses, ten, 134-7. 
Conjunctive particles, 180. 
Connecting vowel -a, 147 ; 149 ; -i, 
136 a; 1520; 157; 160,3; 


Consonant stems, 75-96. 

Consonants, 6-13 ; changes of, 32 : 
37i classification of, 20; ao; 
Doubling of 51 (oh) ; 52 >, ) 
fc^'7; a8; 31; 33; 33. 7 g. 
loss of final, 28; 61 ; conjunct \ 
ii ; la ; list of compound, 13 ; 
quality of, 30 ; changes in quality 
of, 32; Vedic Sandhi of, pp. 236-7. 



Contracted forms, 133 A i; p. in, 
fin. i; 137, a a; 14704; 170,2; 
171* 3- 

Countries, names of, 193, 30. 

Dative case, syntax of, aoo ; 202, 
I e ; with causatives, 198, 4 a. 

Declension, 70-120 ; of nouns, 74- 
102 ; of numerals, 104-8 ; of pro- 
nouns, 109-20; Vedio, pp. 237-8. 

Demons trati ve pronoun agrees in 
gender with predicate, 194, 3 c. 

Denominative, 175. 

Dentals, 15, 6. 7 ; 34-41 ; palatal- 
ized, 38 ; 40 ; 63 c; cerebralized, 
39 ; 41 ; 64 ; nominal stems in, 77. 

Derivative verbs, 168-75. 

Desiderative, 169; 170; 171; ad- 
jectives, 197,3. 

Diphthongs, 5, 3. 4 ; 6. 

Dissimilation, 96, 2 ; 66 B I a. 

Distance expressed by ace., 197, a ; 
by loc,, 203 j, 

Distributive adverbs, 108 c; relative, 

Doubling, of ch, 51 ; of n or n, 52. 

Drama, 153. 

Dravidian dialects, 2. 

Dual, its syntactical use, 193, a ; 
Vedic, p. 237. 

Dvandva compounds, 186 ; con- 
tracted, 189 e ; elliptical, 186, 3 c. 

Elision of initial a, 9 ; 2 1 a ; 45, 2 &. 

Enclitic words, 1 09 a; 112 a; p. 243. 

Endings, in declension, 70; conju- 
cational, 131 (table); of the per- 
fect, 136 ; Vedic, pp. 237, 239. 

Epics, 26 ; 153; 180 (uta). 

External Sandbi, 17-55. 

Feminine, formation of, 73, f.n. i; 

83 ,-830? 95S9 8 e99' 1 - 9 ' 10; 
101 t ; 103, i a ; 105, 3. 4 ; 107 , 
1 17 a; 118; special terminations 
of (in I and u stems), 100, 2 ; p. 60, 
f.n.i; loo a; suffixes, 1830. 
Final consonants allowable, 27; 28; 
61 ; how treated in unchangeable 
terns, 76. 

Fitness for, expressed by loc., 2040. 

Frequentative, see Intensive. 

Future, simple, 151; 214 (in syn- 
tax); periphrastic, 152; 214 (in 
syntax;; used imperatively, 2140. 

Gender, 70 a; 186, i; rules of; 183; 

in syntax, 194; natural instead of 
! grammatical, 194, 3 b ; attraction 

in, 194, 3 c- 

Genitive, absolute, 205, 2; with pre- 
positions, 176, a a; 177 <J; 178; 

syntax of, 202 ; with causatives, 

198, 4<i; double, 202, 6. 
Gerund, 163-6 ; ita syntactical use, 

210; Vedic, p. 241. 
Gerunds equivalent to prepositions, 

179; aio c. 
Goal of an action, expressed by the 

ace., 197, i ; by the dat., 200 Ai 6 ; 

by the loc., 204. 
Gutturals, reversion to, 81 ; 92 ; 

134 A 2 c; 160, i ft; 171,4- 

Hard sounds, 6,tn. 5 ; 31, i ; 3* 33- 
Hiatus, 16; 21 b; 22 ; 45; 4*J 49* 
Historical present, 212, i ; 213. 
Hypothetical clauses, 216 d; 218. 

Imperative 2. sing., formation c 
131, 4 J syntactical use of, 215. 

Imperfect, syntactical use of, 21 3 1. 

Impersonal construction, 205, I o; 
2080; 209 fc; 2io<; 2150. 

'In respect of,' expressed by the 
inst., 199, i/. 

Indeclinable, words, 176-81 ; parti- 
ciple, 163-6 ; 210. 

Indefinite pronouns, 119. 

Indirect object, expressed by dat., 
200 A; aoa, ic; by loo., 204^ 

Infinitive, 123; 167; its syntactical 
UK, 21 1 ; no passive of, 211 0; 
Vedie, p. 241. 

Inscriptions, 2. 

Insertion, of vowels: a, i, I, 134 A 3 
(pr. stem); I, 134 A 2 b (imp.) ; 

1 73 a; 173*; ^frJ^J x f 
consonants : k, 35 ( in Sandhi) ; t, 
36 A 6 (in Sandhi); n, 66 A 2 (in n.); 105,4; io6a(ma.pL); 



168, 3 (.); 174 & k int O; n r 

na, 1 37 3 (?* stem); p, i68 
(ca.); y, 155 (ao. ps.); r, 134 Ai 
(pr. Btem) ; S, a, s, 36 B i (in 
Sandhi) ; B, 150 (prec.) ; nasal, 
151 1 2 (ft.) ; 168, 4 (.). 

Instrumental, with prepositional ad- 
verbs, 1776; syntactical use of. 
199; 302, I/; Vedic, p. 237, 

Intensive, 127, 2 a; 172-4. 

Interjections, 181. 

Irregularities, of vowel Sandhi, 23 ; 
of consonant Sandhi, 48 ; 49 ; in 
declension, 91 (an stems) ; 92 ; 
99 (i and u stems); in conjuga- 
tion: 133, 134 (pr. stem); 139 
(pf.) ; 144 (s- ao.) ; 147*3 (second 
ao.); 149 a (red. ao.); 151 1 (ft.); 
i68(cs.); 17 

Labials, stems in, 78. 

Locative, with prepositions, 1 76, i a ; 
absolute, 190 ; 205 ; syntactical 
use of, 203 ; "Vedic, p. 237. 

Loss of sounds : of initial a, 2 1 a ; 
45 3 & i 134 A 2 b ; of medial a 
(see Syncope) ; of medial u, 1 34 C 
i ; 134 E; of-final n, 90 ; 94, 2 
(nom.); of radical nasal, 139, 6 (pf.)l 
133 A 4 (pr.) ; 168, 4 (cs.) ; 160, 2 
(pp.) ; 105 a (gd.) ; of n in 3. pi, 
ending, 131, 5 ; 156 (pr.) ; of Vi- 
sarga, 45 ; 48 ; 49 (in Sandhi) ; 
of B (nom.), 100,4 (i-stems). 

Manner, expressed by inst., 199, 2 a. 
Masculine suffixes, 183. 
Metathesis, 103, 2 (cpv.) ; 144,4 fa 

ao.); 151 &, i (ft.); 167 (inf.). 
Metre in classical Sanskrit, pp. 232-5. 
Middle, case-endings, 16 ; 76; 

tern, 72, 73 (declension); voice, 

121 ; verbal endings, p. 89. 
Moods, 122 ; 215-18 (syntax); Ve- 

dic, p. 240. 

Morae, metres measured by, p. 235. 
Motive, expressed by ablative, 201, i. 
Multiplicative, adverbs, 108 a ; 

words with *bl., 201, 20; with 

gen., 202, 5 a. 

Nasals, 29, 3 ; final, 35. 

Need ' of,' expressed by inst., 199, 

I ff- 
Neuter, 73 1 ; of adjectives in i and 

11, 98 a ; loitf; suffixes, 183 &; 

its syntactical use, 194, 3 <(. 
Nominal stem formatiou, 182. 
Nominative, syntactical use of, 196 ; 

with iti sometimes = ace ., 194, i ; 

ig6 fc. 

Nouns, declension of, 74-102. 
Number, 706; 121 a; 193 (in syntax). 
Numeral, adverbs, 108; compounds, 

1 88, 2 a. 

Numerals, 104-8 ; 202, 5 a. 
Numerical fig-urea, 1 4. 

Objective genitive, 202. 

Optative (Potential) in syntax, 


Order of wonlp, 191. 
Ordinals, 107. 
Organ of articulation, 29; 31; 37. 

Pada or middle case-endiugH, 16 a ; 

73 ; 75 J 76. 
Palatals, origin of, 6, f.n. J ; 15, 4- 

7 -, nominal stems in, 79 ; repre- 

sent gutturals in reduplication, 

129, 3- 

Pfdi language, 2. 
Participles, 122; 156-62; senses 

inherent in, 206 ; used with gen. 

absolute, 205, 2 ; with loc. abso- 

lute, 205, 1 1 \ pr., 85 ; 156 ; 158 ; 

207 (in syntax) ; ft., 85 ; 156 ; 

158; ptfSp; }57" '59; 

160 ; 208 ; 213 ; 213 c (syntax) ; 

with gen., 203, 3 a ; ft. ps., 162 ; 

202,3?; ; meaning and construction 

of, 209; fern, of pr. and ft., 95 a,7> ; 

attraction in gender to predicate, 

194, 3 c ; Vedic, p. 241. 
Partitive genitive, 202. 
Passive, xai; 154 (paradigm) ; ao., 

155; construction, 190; 196; 198, 

4 b; 199,26; 210. 
Paxt, participles used as finite verb*, 

208; tense*, 213. 
Perfect, 135-9; endings of, 136 ; 



paradigms of, 138; irregularities 
of | 139 ; syntactical use of, 213. 

Periphrastic forme : perfect, 140; 
future, 152 ; in syntax, 214; non- 
existent in the Rdg-veda, p. 240, 

Pluperfect, not need in Sanskrit, 
213 e\ Vedic,p. 239. 

.Plural, its syntactical me, 193, 
3 a-c ; words used only in, 193, 
3 d ; used for singular, 195, i c ; 
Vedic, p. 238. 

Positive for comparative, 199 ; with 
abl., 20 i t 2 a. 

Possessive genitive, 202. 

Postpositions, 176. 

Potential (Optative), 216; in condi- 
tional sentences, 216, id] 218. 

Prakrit dialects, 2. 

Precative (Benedictive), 150; 217. 

Predicative nom., 19-6 a; part., 
207 o. 

Prefixes, verbal, 184 a; ' Vedic, pp. 
239, 244. 

Prepositional adverbs, 177; norms, 
178; gerunds, 179. 

Prepositions, 176; Vedic, p. 242. 

Present, system, 123-34; tense, 213 
(syntax); participle in synfcix, 207. 

Price, expressed by inst., 199, r c. 

Primary endings, 131 ; suffixes, 182, 
i ; 182, ib. 

Pronominal declension, 109-20; its 
influence on nominal forms, p. 55? 
f.n. 2. 3 ; 120. 

Pronouns, 109-20 ; personal, 109 ; 
195, i (syntax); demonstrative, 
110-12; 195, 2 (syntax); inter- 
rogative, 1 1 3 ; relative, 114; re- 
flexive, 115; possessive, 116: 195, 
3 (syntax); compound, 117; of 
quantity in -yat, -vat, Ac., 118; 
indefinite, 119; 195 (y****) S 
Vedic forms of personal, p. 237. 

Pronunciation, 15. 

Proper names, 1 88, I a ; 1 89 f> ; 1 93 . 


Protasis, 216, 2<7; 2I& 

Punctuation, 9. 

Purpose, expressed by dat , 200. 

Tleason, expressed by Inat., 199, I a ; 
by abl., 201, i. 

Reduplication, general rules of, 129; 
special rules of, 130 (pr.); 135, 
1-4 (pf.); 149 (>0; *7(<k ; ); 
173 (int.); with an-, 1 39, 6; with 
final radical nasal repeated, 173 a 
(int.); with nasal inserted, 1740, 
1} (int.) ; Vedic, p. 239. 

Rhythm in red, ao., 149, 2 ; 149 a, T . 

Root as nominal stein, 182, i a. 

Sandhi, nature of, 16 ; 1. external : 
of vowels, 18; 19; 20; of diph- 
thongs, 21 ; 22; irregular, 23; 
absence of, 24-6 ; of consonants, 
27-55 : of final k, t, t, p before n 
or m, 33 ; of final t before 1, 34 ; 
before palatals, 38 ; before cere- 
brals, 39 ; of final nasals, 35 ; of 
final dental n, 36 ; 40 ; 41 ; of 
final m, 42 ; of final Visarga, 43 ; 
44; 49; of the final syllable ah, 
45, 2 ; 46 ; 48 ; of the final syllable 
afc,45,i; 46? offinalr,46; 47; 
50 ; 3. internal : 56 ; of vowele, 
57? 58; of r, 58; 154,3; off, 
58; 154, 4; of diphthongs, 59; of 
consonants, 60 ; of palatals before 
consonants, 63 ; of dentals after 
cerebrals, 64 ; of dental s, 67 ; of 
in before y, r, I, v, 68; of h before 
s, t, th, dh, 69; Vedic, pp. 236-7. 

Sanskrit and Vedic, I. 

Secondary endings, 131 ; suffixes, 
182, 2. 

Semivowels, J 7 B i ; ao ; 29, 4. 

Sibilants, 29, 5. 

Soft sounds, 6, f.n. 5 ; 30, i. 

Space, extension of: expressed by 
ace., 197, 2. 

Spirants, 29, o. 

Stem formation, nominal, 182. 

Stems, classification of nominal, 74 ; 
endingin consonants, 74-56; noune 
with two, 85-8 ; nouns with three, 
89-93; ending in vowels, 97-102. 

Strong stem in declension, 72 ; 73 ; 
in conjugation, 124; 126 (pr.); 
134 (PO J * 



Subjective genitive, 202. 

Subjunctive, surviving forms of, 
132 a; 215 a; its meaning ex- 
pressed by the optative, 216; 
Vedic, p. 240. 

Suffixes, primary, 182, 1 ; secondary, 
182, 2 ; 16 a. 

Superlative suffix in -tama, 103, ij 
in-istha, 103, 2. 

Syncope, 90 (-an sterna) ; 134 A 2 c 
(pr,); 134 A 4 (radical); 137,2!) 

(ft); I7ii3(<k); Vedic, p. 237, 
Syntax, 190*218 ; characteristics of 
Sanskrit, 190. 

Tenses, 122; 212-14; past, 213; 

Vedic, p. 239, 
Terminations, see Endings. 
1 Than/ expressed by abl., 201, 2 a, 
Time, gen, of, 202, 5; loc/of, 203 i\ 

duration of, 197, 2 (ace.) ; within 

which, 199, i (I (inst,) ; after 

which, 201 d (abl.). 
Transitive sense of some perfect 

passive participles, 208 J* 

Unaccented pronouns, 109 a ; 112 a ; 

1956; Vedic forpra, p. 243. 
Unaugmented forms, Vedic, p. 239. 
Unchangeable consonant stems, 75- 

' Use of,' expressed by Snst,, 199, 1 g. 

Vedio, i; outlines of its grammar, 

pp. 236-44. 
Vehicle 'on* which, expressed by 

inst,, 199,16. 

Verb, concord of the, 194, 2. 4; 

Vedic accent of, p. 243. 
Verbs of going (with abstract sub- 
stantives), 197, i a; of fearing, 
201 a (abl*) ; of separating, 201 6 
(abl.), 199, 2 b (inst.) ; governing 
geru, 302, i, 

Vernaculars, modern Indian, 2. 
Vocative, 710; 72 a; 76 a; 94,3; 
986; Vedic, p.237; accent of,p.243. 
Voice of the verb, 121. 
Vowel declension, 97-102: stems 
in a, a, 97; ini,u, 98; in i,u, 
100 ; in r, 101 ; in ai, o, au, 102. 
Vowels, 5; classification of, 17; co- 
alescence of, 18; 19; lengthened, 
82 (i, u), 83 (nom, pi n t ), 85 a 
(mahat), 86 (-mat, -vat stems), 
87 (-in stems), 92 (han), 94, i 
(nom. masc.), 154, 2 (i, u in ps,), 
155 (ps. ao.), 160, 2 c (p*. pt.), 
162, ic (ft. pt. ps,), 169, i (<k), 
184, N, (I for a, 5, i) ; liquid, 
1761; 20; shortened, 94, 3 (v.); 
129, 6(red.syll.); 131, f.n. I (pr. 
stem); 182, ia(ti); 1876 (a); 
stems ending in, 97-102 ; Vedic 
Sandhi of, p. 236. 

Way 'by* which, expressed by the 

inst., 199, i e. 
Weak stem, in declension, 72; 84; 

in conjugation, 134 A 2 ; 137 (pf.) ; 

160, 2 (pp.) ; in compounds, 185 a. 
Writing, origin of Indian, 3; of 

vowels,5; of consonfints s 8; u; 12.