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r. , if- 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885, 
By E. D. PERRY, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 


(ffamposition lip 


Jprrssto-ir!*. ij) 


university press. 

Cambridgf, Mass. 

t c (OI 


In the preface to the work* of which the following is a revision, 
Prof. Bithler writes as follows: 

"The following Leitfaden was written last winter [1881 — 82], 
and, printed in manuscript form, was used in the instruction of 
quite a large number of scholars. It is based upon the purely 
practical method of Sanskrit instruction, which was introduced at 
Haug's and my own instance into the Indian secondary schools, 
and has become established there by means of R. G. Bhandarkar's 
text-books. The attempt to transfer this method to European uni- 
versities is justified by the practical success which, as my ex- 
perience shows, is to be gained thereby. For I have found that 
beginners master the first difficulties of Sanskrit very rapidly, and 
that learners take the most lively and continued interest in the 
study, if opportunity for activity on their own part is given them 
from the very first, and they are. introduced at once into the living 
language. Moreover, the question of economy of time is made the 
more weighty by the fact that the elements of Sanskrit form an 

* Leitfaden fur den Elementarcursus des Sanskrit; mitUebungs- 
stiicken und zwei Glossaren. Von Georg Buhler. Wien, 1883. — 
I have translated above a little freely. 


important aid to students of Classical and Germanic Philology, yet 
to a large number of such are accessible only when the subject 
can be mastered in a short time. On the other hand, the disad- 
vantages necessarily entailed by the purely practical method may 
readily be removed later by a short methodical exposition of the 

grammar The verses in the exercises are taken chiefly 

from Boehtlingk's Indischen Spruchen; the sentences are in part 
derived from various Sanskrit works, or modelled after passages 
contained in them. To the last lessons no Sanskrit exercises have 
been appended, since the reading of the Nala or of some other 
easy Sanskrit work may very well be begun as soon as the form- 
ation of the perfect has been learned." 

After using the Leitfaden for some time in the instruction of 
a class, I was convinced of its great merits as a practical intro- 
duction to the language; while on the other hand it seemed very 
unfortunate that it held throughout to the native system of grammar, 
which, since the appearance of Prof. Whitney's work, we in 
America at least have learned to distrust. Under these circum- 
stances it seemed advisable to attempt a combination of Buhler's 
practical exercises with Whitney's theory; and to this end the 
book has been really rewritten. An introduction has been added, 
giving a general view of the structure of the language; the exer- 
cises have been pruned here and there, chiefly to remove forms 
which seemed too unusual or doubtful to have a just claim on 
the beginner's memory; and the number of lessons has been re- 
duced from forty-eight to forty-five, by condensing the description, 
needlessly full for beginners, of the aorist, precative, and second- 
ary conjugations. I have endeavored to retain nothing but what 
would supply the real wants of those for whom the book is de- 

signed; yet here and there, having in mind those who may take 
up this study without a teacher, I have added explanations which 
I should otherwise have left for oral communication by the instructor. 

A detailed explanation of the changes in the grammatical part 
of the book would require too much space to be given here. They 
may be summarized in the statement that I have striven to remove 
all forms at present "non- quotable". In the explication of the 
rules I have sought to be brief, but never to the sacrifice of clear- 
ness. In very many cases not only the substance but also the 
words of Prof. Whitney's rules have been incorporated into those 
of the Primer, which was done with his sanction. It seemed quite 
needless to designate all such borrowings by quotation-marks. 

Many acknowledgments are due to those whose aid has made 
possible the appearance of the work. Prof. Buhler's ready gene- 
rosity in consenting to the rendering of his book into a very 
different form from that which he gave it deserves most grateful 
mention. To Prof. Whitney I owe deep gratitude for many valu- 
able suggestions; he was kind enough to look over the work in 
manuscript, and, later, to put at my disposal the advance sheets of 
his invaluable collection of verb -forms. To Prof. Lanman I am 
equally indebted ; as well for many useful hints as for the arduous 
task of looking over proof-sheets, which he imposed on himself 
with characteristic readiness. My pupil, Mr. A. V. W. Jackson, 
assisted me not a little in the compilation of the Glossaries. My 
acknowledgments are also due to the printers, Gebr. Unger 
(Th. Grimm) of Berlin, for the careful manner in which their part 
of the work has been done. 

From V. S. Apte's "Guide to Sanskrit Composition" I have 
derived occasional examples. 


The appearance of the book has been delayed considerably 
beyond the date originally planned for it. The printing was 
begun in November last, but was interrupted by my illness, and 
a resulting stay of considerable length in the West Indies. 

I shall esteem it a favor if any who may use this book 

will notify me of misprints or inaccuracies of any sort which 

they may remark. 

E. D. P. 

Berlin, August, 1885. 


In this edition errors have been corrected in the plates 

wherever possible, otherwise noted in a list of corrections and 

additions at the end of the book. My thanks are due to 

Prof. Lanman and Prof. H. F. Burton of Rochester for 

corrections furnished. 

E. D. P. 
New York, September, 1886. 


The revision of the book for the new impression I owe to 

Dr. Louis H. Gray, to whom I am glad to express my hearty 

thanks for his kindness in undertaking and performing this 

irksome task. 

E. D. P. 
Munich, July, 1901. 

Table of Contents, 

in systematic grammatical arrangement. 

The figures iu heavy type refer to paragraphs. 

Introductory suggestions, p. xi. 

I. Alphabet and Sounds. 

Characters, 1—20. — Classification of Sounds, and Pronunciation, 
21—47. — Light and Heavy Syllables, 48. — Accent, 56. 

II. Changes of Sounds. Guna and Vrddni. 

III. Bales of Euphonic Combination. 

Rules of Vowel Combination, 105, 106, 156—161, 164. — General 
Laws concerning Finals, 239—242. — Deaspiration, 242. — 
Transferral of Aspiration, 244, 249, 428. — Surd and Sonant 
Assimilation, 147, 148, 266, 267. — Combinations of Final 
s and r, 95, 117—123, 129. — Conversion of s to », p. 27 (note**), 
191, 192, 342. 352. — Conversion of n to n, p. 32 (note**), 166. — 
Conversion of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatals, 149, 150, 
p. 99 (note), 342. — Combinations of n, p. 29 (note), 138—140, 
184. — Change of ch to cch, p. 27 (note*), 165. — Combinations 
of m, p. 29 (note). — Final n [and n] 184. — Final k, t, p, 266. 
— Final t, 148—151. 

IV. Declension. 

Gender, Number, Case, 83—89. — Case-endings, 90, 91. — 
Paefo-endings, 91, 241. 

V. Substantives and Adjectives. 

Stems in a, m. n., 103, III. — Stems in i, m., 113, 115; n., 114, 115. 


— Stems in u, m., 128; n., 136, 137. — Stems in i and w, f., 
185—187. — Stems in a, z, u: (a) Root-words. In a, 212, 213; 
in i, 189, 212, 214; in fi, 197, 212, 214. (b) Derivative Stems, f. 
In a, 162; in I, 183; in u, 198. — Stems in r, 201—205, 208. — 
Stems in Diphthongs: go, 209; nau, 211; rai, 277. 

Consonant-stems : 

General, 237—242. — (a) Root-stems, 243, 244, 246—250. — 
(b) Derivative Stems. In as, is, us, 252—254. In an (an, man, 
van), 265. — In in (in, rain, vin), 251. — In ant (ant, mant, vant) 
256—264. — Perfect Participles in vans, 268. — Comparatives 
in yas, 255. 

Irregular Nouns: 269 — 284. 

Comparison, 337 — 345. 

Formation of Feminine-stems, 187, 251, 255, 262—264, 268. 

VI. Numerals. 

VII. Pronouns. 
223—236, 285—288, 413. 

VIII. Conjugation. (fM) 

Voice, Tense, Mode, Number, Person, 57—65. — Verbal Ad- 
jectives and Nouns, 66—68. Secondary Conjugation, 69 — 70. — 
Mode and Tense-stems, 71. 

IX. Present-System. 
Conjugation Classes, 72 — 80. 

First Conjugation. 

General, 383—387. 

I. Root-class (Hindu second or ad-class), 404—412, 414 

II. Reduplicating Class (H. third or Au-class), 430—440. 

III. Nasal Class (H. seventh or rudh-c\a,ss), 441 — 446. 

IV. Nu and ^-Classes (H. fifth and eighth, or su and tan- 
classes), 388—395. 

V. iVa-Class (H. ninth or &n-class), 399-403. 


Second, or a-Conjugation. 

VI. a-Class (H. first or Mu-class), 92—94, 97—102, 134, 

135. 152—154, 178—182, 188, 193—196, 199, 200. 206, 

207, 210, 222, 260. 
VII. Accented a-Class (Hindu sixth or tad-class), 107 — 110, 

152—154 etc. (as for a-class). 
VIII. va-Class (H. fourth or tfw-class), 124—127, 131—134, 

152 — 155 etc. (as for a-class). 
IX. Accented yd-C\ass or Passive Conjugation, 168 — 176, 

188, 199, 200, 210, 222. 
[Causative and Denominative Conjugation (partly = H. tenth 

or cur-class), 141 — 146, 152 — 154 etc. (as for a-class); 

also 215—221.] 

X. Perfect-System. 
447—471, 474. 
Periphrastic Perfect, 472, 473. 

XI. Aorist-System. 

General, 486. — Simple Aorist : Root-aorist, 487; a-aorist, 
488. — Reduplicated Aorist, 489, 490. — Sibilant Aorist: 
s-aorist, 491; is-aorist, 492; m-aorist, 493; sa-aorist, 494. — 
Aorist Passive, 495, 496. 

XII. Future-System. 

General, 475. — Simple Future, 476—481. — Conditional, 482. 
— Periphrastic Future, 483—485. 

Xm. Verbal Adjectives and Substantives: Participles, Infinitive, 

Passive Participle in ta or «a, 289 — 301. — Past Active Par- 
ticiple in tavant or navant, 302, 303. — Gerunds : Absolutives, 
304—313. — Infinitive, 314—322. — Future Passive Participles: 
Gerundives, 323—327. 

XIV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugations. 

General, 497. — Passive, 498. — Causative, 507, 508. — 
Intensive, 499 — 502. — Desiderative, 503 — 506. — Denomina- 
tive, 509, 510. 

XV. Periphrastic Conjugation. 

Perfect, 472, 473. — Future, 483-485. 

XVI. Vcrhal Prefixes: Adverbs and Prepositions. 
81, 82, 167, 190, 395—397. 

XTII. Formation of Compound Stems. 

Classification, 346—353. — Copulative Compounds, 354—357. — 
Determinative Compounds, 358; Dependent, 359—361; De- 
scriptive, 362—365. — Secondary Adjective Compounds, 366— 
370; Possessive, 371—377; with Governed Final Member, 378. 
— Adjective Compounds as Nouns and Adverbs, 350, 379—381. 
[Z?t;awGfoa-compounds, p. 136 (note); Ta^wrusa-compounds, p. 137 
(note **) ; A'armaJAara^a-compounds, p. 137 (note *) ; Dvigu-com- 
pounds, 380; Bahuvrlhi-compounds, p. 142 (note); Avyayibhava- 
compounds, 381.] 

XVIII. Syntactical Rules. 

Position of Modifiers, p. 35 (note). — Repetition of Words, p. G7 
(note*). — Agreement of Adjectives, 245. — Force of Cases, 
104, 112. — Prepositions with Cases, 82, 130. — kirn with 
Instrumental (and Genitive), p. 89 (note). - Construction with 
Comparatives, 345. — Numerals, 333. — Pronouns, 225, 234 
—236. — iti, p. 47 (note). — Force of Tenses: Present, 96; 
Imperfect, 182; Perfect, 474; Aorist, 486. — Force of Modes: 
Imperative, 194—196; Optative, 207. — Causative, 221. — 
Passive, 177. — Past Passive Participle, 290. — Past Active 
Participle, 303. — Gerund, 311—313. — Infinitive, 320—322. — 
Future Passive Participle, 327. 


Hindu Names of Letters. — Modern Hindu Accentuation of 

Suggestions for using the Primer. 

The Primer can be finished by earnest students in sixteen or 
seventeen weeks, reckoning three lessons per week, with here and 
there an hour for review. After that Lanman's Sanskrit Reader, 
an introduction to which this work is partly intended to be, should 
be taken up. Students are strongly recommended to provide 
themselves with Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar at the outset. 

It seemed advisable to leave the Introduction undivided into 
lessons, as different teachers may prefer to impart the alphabet, 
etc., to their scholars at different rates of speed. Some of the 
exercises for translation may be found rather too long to be com- 
pleted in one lesson. In such cases it will probably be better, 
after requiring the translation of only so many sentences as the 
pupil may reasonably be expected to master in the preparation of 
one day's lesson, to proceed directly to the next lesson in. the 
following hour, leaving the untranslated sentences for a review. 

The vocabularies prefixed to each exercise are not exhaustive, 
since words which have been treated of immediately before are 
sometimes omitted from them. The glossaries at the end of the 
book will, it is hoped, be found complete for the exercises; but 
the meaning of compound words must in most cases be learned 
from their elements; and proper names have often been omitted, 
their Sanskrit forms being discernible from the transliteration. 

The table of contents in systematic grammatical arrangement 
is designed to facilitate the finding of any desired article; it may 
also be found useful as an outline for a rapid grammatical review. 

Arrangement of Vocabularies. The vocabularies are arranged 


in strict alphabetic order (see below). All nouns, whether sub- 
stantives or adjectives, are given in the stem-form. All verb-forms 
are placed under the root; prepositional compounds of verbs like- 
wise, and not in the alphabetic place of the preposition. Of 
verbal adjectives and nouns, some important ones have been given 
in their alphabetic places, but the meaning of most of them must 
be learned from their respective roots. Pronouns are given generally 
in the form of the nominative. • 

Alphabetic Order. The alphabetic order is that given in § I, 
but the following points are to be noticed here: 

The visarga stands next after the vowels; but a visarga re- 
garded as equivalent to a sibilant and exchangeable with it has 
the alphabetic place of that sibilant. 

The sign n, representing "the anusvdra of more independent 
origin", has its place before all the mutes etc.; thus dang and 
danstrd stand before daksa. 

The sign m, representing an assimilated m, is placed according 
to its phonetic value. 1. If m, resulting from the assimilation of 
m to a semivowel, sibilant, or h, represent a nasal semivowel or 
anusvdra, then its place is like that of n. Thus purhs comes before 
punya and samgaya before sakrt. 2. But if m be the product of 
m assimilated to a mute, representing n, n, n, n, or m, then its 
place is that of the nasal so represented. 



I. Sanskrit is commonly written in what is called the 
Devanagarl alphabet. The characters of this, and the European 
characters which will be used in transliterating them, are as follows^ 





^ a & 
palatal ^[ i 

labial ^ u 

lingual ^ r 

dental *J / 



^ u 


Visarga : h. 

Anus vara — n or m. 

a. +7* TJ e 

\| at 


surd sr.rd asp. sonant sonant asp. nasal 

guttural ^ k T§ kh 7[ g Ti gh >gp w 

palatal ^ c ^ c£ ^ j ?J jh "5f n 

lingual <r * -J ^ ^ d % dh 1$ n 

dental 7{ t ^ th ^ d \f ai> *[ n 

labial T( p qj ph ; b M M * »» 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 1 


I 3 

* 9 

2 Introduction. 

c ,1 palatal *J y lingual T r 

Semivowels s 

r/ " V-' w» r \ dental ^ I labial ^ v. 

Sibilants: palatal If p; lingual If -y, dental ^J 8. 
Aspiration ^ //. 

2. The above order is that in which the sounds are catalogued 
by native grammarians ; and European scholars have adopted it 
as the alphabetic order, for dictionaries, etc. The writing runs 
from left to right. 

3. The theory of the devanagari mode of writing is syllabic 
and consonantal. That is, it regards as the written unit, not the 
simple sound, but the syllable; and further, it regards as the sub- 
stantial part of the syllable the consonant (or the consonants) pre- 
ceding the vowel — this latter being merely implied, as is the 
case with short ^J a, except when initial, or, if written, being 
written by a subordinate sign attached to the consonant. 

4. Hence follow these two principles: 

A. The forms of the vowel- characters given above are used 
only when the vowel forms a syllable by itself, or is not combined 
with a preceding consonant: that is, when it is initial, or preceded 
by another vowel. In combination with a consonant, other modes 
of representation are used. 

B. If more than one consonant precede a vowel, forming 
with it a single syllable, their characters must be combined into 
a single character. 

5. According to the Hindu mode of dividing syllables, each 
syllable must end in a vowel, or visarga. or anusvdra, except at 
the end of the word; and as ordinary Hindu usage does not divide 
the words of a sentence in writing, a final consonant is combined 
into one syllable with the initial vowel or consonant of the following 
word, so that a syllable ends in a consonant only at the end of 
the sentence. 


Thus the sentence ksetrem siktdbhir meghdndm adbhir dhdnyarh 


prarudham — ' by the water which drops from the clouds upon the - 
tields the grain grows tall' — would be considered as consisting of 
the syllables kse tre m si kta bhi rme ghd nd ma dbhi rdhd nyam 
pra ru dham. Each of these syllables would be indicated by a 
single group of signs, without any reference whatever to the di- 
vision of the words composing the sentence; and the syllables 
are always written independently, with more or less closeness of 
approach; either like this: 
%%|jfa WrfaW^T IT *T f^ ^T *J "H ^^^ — or thus:^J- 

ftnfrrfaifV w ru te 3rau^s*c- 

6. In Sanskrit works printed in Europe, the common practice 
is to separate the words so far as this can be done without any 
alteration of the written form. Thus, ^«£j«[ 5W indrdya namah ; 
but 7f(^f f^ rf^^ igj T^ tat savitur varenyam, because the final ?^ I and 
T" r are not written with their full forms. But some few works 
have been printed, in which, by a free use of a sign called virdma 
(see below, § 8), the individual words are separated. In translite- 
rated texts there is no good reason for printing otherwise than 
with all the words separated. 

7. Under A. Vowels combined with preceding consonants 
are written as follows: 

1. a: Short a has no written sign at all; the consonant-sign 
itself implies a following «, unless some other vowel-sign is 
attached to it (or else the virdma — see below, § 8). Thus 
the consonant-signs given above are really the signs for ka, 
klc ca, clta, etc. (as far as ^ ha). 

2. a: cRT & '^T cd. \tf dha etc. 


3. i and I: f^R hi. fx? pi. f** dhi. — eft kl. tft pi. \ft dhx. 
The hook above, turning to the left or to the right, is histori- 
cally the essential part of the character, having been originally 


4 Introduction. 

the whole of it: the hooks were only later prolonged, so 
as to reach all the way down beside the consonant. Observe 
that the i-hooks and the M-hooks, respectively above and 
below the line, are analogous in turning to the left for the 
short vowel and to the right for the long. 

4. u and u: <K ku. ^ cu. ^ bu. — gj ku. ^f cu. «f bhu. Owing 
to the necessities of combination, consonant and vowel-sign 
are sometimes disguised; thus, ^ du, H" du; ^ ru, ^ ru; ^ 
or ^ hu, Jg hu. 

5. r and f : 3 kr. Xf pr. — cfi kr. 7{ tr. With the fi-sign, 

a <z g g 

the vowel - hook is usually attached to the middle ; thus, 
f hr. 6. I: mkl. 

7. Diphthongs, e : ift ke. ^ pe. ^ ye. di: % kdi. \f dhdi. 
o: ^[ ko. 3ft bho. du: ^" kau. ~^t rdu. 
In some printed texts the signs for o and du are separated, 
the ior^. being placed over the consonant-sign, and not over the 
perpendicular stroke; thus, %T ko, %f kau. 

8. A consonant-sign may be made to signify the sound of 
that consonant alone, without an added vowel, by writing beneath 
it a stroke called the virdma ('rest', 'stop'); thus, eft k, || h, ^ d. 
Strictly, the virdma should be used only at the end of a sentence; 
but it is often used by scribes, or in print, in the middle of a word 
or sentence, to avoid awkward or difficult combinations; thus, 
•f%sgfij: Jidbhih. f^&m litsu, 

9. Under B. The combinations of consonants are in general 
not difficult. The perpendicular and horizontal lines are common 
to almost all; and if two or more are to be combined, the following 
method is pursued. The characteristic part of a consonant-sign 
that is to be added to another is taken (to the exclusion of the 
perpendicular or of the horizontal framing -line, or of both), and 
they are put together according to convenience, either side by side, 

Introduction. 5 

or one above the other: in some combinations either arrangement 
is allowed. The consonant to be pronounced first is set first in 
the one arrangement, and above in the other arrangement. Only 
the consonant at the right of a horizontal group, and that at the 
top of a perpendicular group, are written in full. 

Examples of the horizontal arrangement are: 

TJJ gga, ^ jja, TJ[ pya, «U nma, ^BT ttha, «j bhya, "^R ska, 
■QJT sna. 

Examples of the perpendicular arrangement are: gj kka, f| eca, 
^ kva, fT nja, fT pta, ft tna. 

10. In some combinations there is more or less abbreviation or 
disguise of the independent form of a consonant-sign. 

Thus, of ^j k in JQ kta\ and in ^TIJ kna, ^Sf kya etc.; 
of ?£ ^ in iff tta; 

of ? d in |f dga, W dda, ^ ddha, ^ dbha etc.; 
of *\ m and IT y, when following other consonants, 

thus, ^%kya, ^f kma, ^T nma, "%J dma, ^T dya, ^(hma, 

W %a, gj thya, ST dhya ; 
of JJ p, which generally becomes *T when followed by 

a consonant; thus, ^f fca, "*T <;na, "Q gla, ^?r gya. 

The same change is usual when a vowel- sign is 

added below; thus, *| f«, "*J $r. 

11. Other combinations, of not quite obvious value, are ^T nna., 
H §t a > TJ stha; and the compounds of ^ h, as ^ hna, jj" hna. 

12. In a case or two, no trace of the constituent letters is 
recognizable; thus, ^ km, "^ jna, 

13. The semivowel "^ r, in making combinations with other 
consonants, is treated in a wholly peculiar manner, analogous with 
that of the vowels. 1. As the first of a group of consonants it is 
written with a hook above, opening to the right (like the subjoined 
sign of r) ; thus, ^ rka, J( rpta. When a compound consonant 

6 Introduction. 

thus containing r as its first member is followed by one of the 
vowels i, I, e, o, ai, au, with or without a nasal symbol, the r- 
sign must stand at the extreme right; thus, T%rke, %f rko, %f r&aw, 
fsjj rki, ^f rki, ifi rkam, oRt1% r£a?i«, *ff rbhim. 

2. If pronounced after another consonant or consonants, r is 
indicated by a slanting stroke below, to the left; thus, Tlgra, If pro, 
?jf sra, jj£ rfra. And, with modifications of the preceding consonant- 
sign like those noted above, "^ tra, ^r gra. In the middle of a 
group, r has the same sign as at the end ; thus, JZf grya, ^ srva. 

3. "When "^ r is to be combined with a following ^J r, it is 
the vowel which is written in full, with its initial character, and 
the consonant in subordination to it; thus, ^g rr, fa-'ttfa nirrti. 

14. Combinations of three, four, or even five consonants (this 
latter excessively rare) are made according to the same rules; thus, 
^ ttva, ;gr ddhya, gr dvya, 51 drya, X^ psva, fljr tsya, *gr ?c ?/a, 
Wf sthya; ~\|? nksva, SJJ s?r#a, r^Rr tsmya; cfzH rtsnya. 

15. Both MSS. and type-fonts differ considerably in their 
management of consonant-combinations, but a little practice will 
enable one who is thoroughly familiar with the simple signs and 
with the principles of combination to decipher, as well as to make 
for himself, all such groups. 

16. A sign ($) called the avagraha, or 'separator', is used in 
printed texts to mark the elision of initial a after final e or (see 
below, § 119, 158): thus % SW^l. te 'bruvan. But some texts, 
especially those printed in India, dispense with this sign. 

In our transliteration this sign will be represented by the 
inverted comma, as in the example just given. In the MSS. the $ 
is also used as a hyphen, and sometimes as a mark of hiatus. 

17. The sign • is used to mark an omission of something easily 
understood (whether from the context, or from previous knowledge), 

Introduction. 7 

and thus becomes a mark of abbreviation ; thus, 1RR£ °<P^ ^*T 

^ctas -tarn -Una, i. e. gatam gatena etc. 

18. The only signs of punctuation are | and ||. 

19. The numeral figures are 

q 1, ^ 2, ^ 3, g 4, q 5, $ 6, <0 7, "C 8, q. 9, 0. 
In combination, to express larger numbers, they are used precisely 
as are European digits; thus, ^g 24, gtrq 485, ^§^0 7620. This 
system of notation originated in India, and was brought to Europe 
by the Arabs, who call it the Indian system, as we style it the 

20. In writing Sanskrit the Hindus generally begin at the left 
of the letter, and make the horizontal top-stroke last; thus, 7, *J, 
Tj *> *i> ID •' ■•> ""• But °ft en tne horizontal stroke is made 
first, and the perpendicular stroke added without raising the pen 
from the paper; thus, "T, ^; 1, ^u, 

System of Sounds: Pronunciation. 

21. The Sanskrit is used in India to this day very much as 
Latin was used in Europe in the previous century : it is a common 
medium of communication between the learned, be their native 
tongues what they may, and it is not the vernacular of any district 
whatever. Hence it is not strange that the pronunciation of San- 
skrit words varies greatly among scholars from different parts of 
India ; and probably no one system represents the true ancient 
mode of utterance with much exactness. 

I. Vowels. 

22. A. The a, i, and u-vowels. These three occur both short 
and long, and are to be pronounced in the ' Italian ' manner — as 

&t(or-)gan and father, pin and pique, pull and rule, respectively. The 

8 Introduction. 

a- vowel stands in no relation of kindred with any of the classes 
of consonantal sounds. But the i- vowel is distinctly palatal, and 
the w-vowel as distinctly labial. 

23. B. The r and /-vowels. Both of these are plainly the 
result of abbreviating syllables containing a "^ r or ^T I along with 
another vowel: r is to be sounded like the re in the English fibre, 
I like le in able.' 

24. C. The diphthongs. 1. The e and o, which are always 
long, should receive the long e and o-sounds of the English they 
and bone, without true diphthongal character. In their origin, both 
were doubtless in the main pure diphthongs (e = a + ?', o = a + u); 
but they lost this character at a very early period. 

2. The ai and au are spoken like the ai in English aisle and au 
in German Baum (ou in English house) ; that is, as pure diphthongs 
with long prior element. They were originally, doubtless, distin- 
guished from e and o only by the length of the first element. 

II. Consonants. 

25. A. Mates. In each series of mutes there are two surd 
members, two sonants, and one nasal (also sonant); e. g., in the 
labial series, the surds p and ph, the sonants b and bh, and the 
sonant m. 

26. The first and third members of each series are the ordinary 
corresponding surd and sonant mutes of European languages; thus, 
k and g, t and d, p and b. 

27. Nor is the character of the nasal any more doubtful. 
What m is to p and b, or n is to t and d, that is also each other 
nasal to its own series of mutes: a sonant expulsion of breath into 
and through the nose, while the mouth-organs are in the mute- 

28. The second and fourth of each series are aspirates; tj 


Introduction. 9 

beside the surd mute k we have the corresponding surd aspirate 
kh, and beside the sonant g, the corresponding aspirate gh. It is 
u9ual among European scholars to pronounce both classes of aspi- 
rates as the corresponding non- aspirates with a very closely fol- 
lowing h; e. g., th nearly as in boathouse, ph a6 in haphazard, dh 
as in madhouse. This is inaccurate ; but the question of the original 
pronunciation of this entire group of sounds is one of great difficulty, 
and still unsettled. 

29. The aspirates are not double letters. 

The several mute-series will now be taken up in detail. 

30. 1. Gutturals: k, kh, g, gh, n. These are the ordinary 
English k and g (' l hard")-sounds, with their corresponding aspirates 
and nasal; the last, like ng in singing. 

31. 2. Palatals: c, ch, j, jh, n. This whole series is derivative, 
being generated by the corruption of original gutturals. (The palatal 
mute c and the sibilant c often represent two successive stages 
of corruption of A;; the corresponding degrees of corruption of g are 
both represented by j.) For this reason the euphonic treatment 
of the palatals is in many respects peculiar. The palatal mutes 
c and j are pronounced with the compound sounds of English 
ch and j, as in church and judge. See also § 28. 

32. 3. Unguals: t, th, d, dh, n. The lingual mutes are said 
to be uttered with the tip of the tongue turned up and drawn back 
into the dome of the palate, somewhat as the English (or rather 
American) smooth r, e. g. in very is pronounced. In practice 
European Sanskritists make no attempt to distinguish them from 
the dentals : t is pronounced like t, d like d, and so on. 

33. 4. Dentals: t, th, d, dh, n. These are practically the 
equivalents of our so-called dentals t, d, n* 

* But the Hindus generally use Unguals to represent the English 
dentals; thus, <?JUsg«I landana - 'London.', 

] Introduction. 

34. 5. Labials: p, ph, b, bh, m. These are exactly the equi- 
valents of the English p, b, m. 

35. B. Semivowels: y, r, I, v. 1. The palatal semivowel y 
stands in the closest relationship with the vowel i (short or long): 
the two exchange with one another in cases innumerable. Very 
probably the Sanskrit y had everywhere more of an i-character 
than our y. 

36. 2. The r is clearly a lingual sound. It thus resembles 
the English smooth r, and like this seems to have been untrilled. 

37. 3. The I is a sound of dental position, quite as in Euglish. 

38. 4. The labial v is pronounced as English or French v by 
the modern Hindus — except when preceded by a consonant 
(except r) in the same syllable, when it sounds like English w; 
and European scholars follow the same practice (with or without 
the same exception). But strictly the v stands related to an u- 
vowel precisely as y to an i-vowel: that is, it is a w- sound in the 
English sense, or perhaps more like the ou in French out. The 
rules of Sanskrit euphony affecting this sound, and the name "semi- 
vowel", have no application except to such a w-sound : a v- sound 
(German w) is no semivowel, but a spirant, like the English th 

A Af ' € -tour fer»;*Af*A *ri ,?/<;*.;. 

sounds and/. ne otA - r 

C &rtJlf~. f^ot-r. 

39. C. Sibilants: p, s, s. 1. The s is of plain character: a 
dental, and exactly like the English s (as in lesson — never as 
in ease). 

40. 2. The s is the sibilant pronounced in the lingual position. 
It is, therefore, a kind of s^-sound, and by Europeans is pronounced 
as ordinary English sh, no attempt being made to give it its 
proper lingual quality. 

41. 3. The y is by all native authorities described as palatal. 
It is the usual sh- sound of English, though the Hindus are said 

Introduction. 11 

to speak it somewhat differently nowadays. By Europeans it is 
variously pronounced — perhaps oftener as s than as sh. 

42. All three sibilants are always surd. 

43. D. Aspiration: h. This is usually pronounced like the 
ordinary European surd aspiration h. But its true value in the 
euphony of the language is that of a sonant. It is not an original 
sound of the language, but comes in most cases from an older gh, 
in some few cases from dh or bh. It appears to include in itself 
two stages of corruption of gh: one corresponding with that of k 
to c, the other with that of k to g. 

44. E. Yisarga: h. The h appears to be merely a surd breath- 
ing, a final h- sound (in the European sense of h), uttered in the 
articulating position of the preceding vowel. The visarga is not 
original, but always a mere substitute for final s or r. 

45. F. Anusvara. The anusvdra, n or to, is a nasal sound 
lacking that closure of the organs which is required to make a 
nasal mute; in its utterance there is nasal resonance along with 
some degree of openness of the mouth. European scholars give 
the anusvdra the value of the nasal in the French -an, -on, -en, -in, 
etc., which is a mere nasal coloring of the preceding vowel. 

46. Two different signs, Jl and 2L, are used in the MSS. to 
indicate the anusvdra. Most commonly _1 is employed; 2L will 
not often be met with in printed texts, except to mark the change 
of a nasal mute to anusvdra before a following semivowel, parti- 
cularly I; thus, HT^lf ^WT't. tdnl labdhdn. Cf. § 139. 

47. It is convenient in transliteration to distinguish the assi- 
milated to (in all cases) by a special sign to, from the anusvdra of 
more independent origin, represented by n. 



Light and Heavy Syllables. 

48. For metrical purposes syllables (not vowels) are dis- 
tinguished as 'heavy' and 'light'. A syllable is heavy if its vowel 
is long, or short and followed by more than one consonant ("long 
by position "). Visarga and anusvara are here counted as full con- 
sonants. The aspirated mutes, of course, do not count as double 

Changes of Sounds. Guna and Vrddhi. 

49. The changes to which both the vowels and the consonants 
of Sanskrit, are subject are very numerous. Among the vowel- 
changes, the most regular and frequent are the so-called guna and 
vrddhi, which are of frequent occurrence in derivation and inflection. 

50. The following table exhibits these changes: 

Simple vowels 

~%<i ^n a 

\i t* 

^ U ^| M 



^H a "95IT a 


^r o 

^rjT ar 


, ?TT a 

T£ ai 

^stt a> u 

"^TT ar 

51. Theoretically the changes of r would coincide with those 
of r, and the vrddhi of / would be al; but actual cases of these 
are quite unknown. The guna of / is al (just as that of r is ar), 
but it occurs only in one root, kip. As will be seen in the sequel, 
the <7wna-sound coincides with the result of the combination of 
an ^ a with the simple vowel corresponding to that guna; thus, ^J a 
combines with a following f; i or ^ l into TJ e, which is also the 
guna of ^ i and ^ *• The vrddhi, in like maimer, is identical 
with the result of combining an ^ a with the corresponding 
guna; thus, ^J a combines with a following XJ e into X[ ai, the 
vrddhi of ^ i and ^[ I. For the present the table is to be learned 

52. In all gunating processes ^ a remains unchanged — or, 

Introduction. 13 

as it is sometimes expressed, ^J a is its own guna; ^n & remains 
unchanged for both guna and vrddhi. 

53. The guna- increment does not, except in exceedingly rare 
instances, take place in a heavy syllable (see § 48) ending in a 
consonant: e. g., f%t^ tit may become %<^ cet, and «ft nl may 
become % ne; but f^«fT tint or fa«^ mntf or iffa 7'w may not 
become ^fnf cent or ipB wenrf or ^^ jev. 

V V N 

54. Other changes of vowels and consonants occur very fre- 
quently, in the making-up of single words from roots, by means 
of suffixes and endings, and in the formation of compound words 
by the union of two or more stems — a process of the very 
greatest frequency in Sanskrit. Furthermore, in the form in which 
the language is handed down to us by the literature, the words 
composing a sentence or paragraph are adapted to and combined 
with each other by nearly the same rules as those which govern the 
making of compounds, so that it is impossible to take apart and 
understand the simplest sentence in Sanskrit without understanding 
those rules. The most important of the rules for such combination 
will be given piecemeal in the lessons. 

Roots and Stems. 

55. A knowledge on the student's part of the meaning and 
application of the terms root, stem, personal ending, etc., is pre- 
supposed. The formative processes by which both inflectional 
forms and derivative stems are made, by the addition of endings 
to bases and roots, are more regular and transparent in Sanskrit 
than in any other Indo-European language.* 

In the present work, which aims preeminently to give the 
student considerable practical acquaintance with the language 
within a brief compass of lessons, not every given form will be 
explained by analysis. But wherever any explanation of forms is 
given, it will of course be according to this method. 

14 Introduction. 


56. The phenomena of accent are, by the Hindu grammarians 
of all ages alike, described and treated as depending on a variation 
of tone or pitch; of any difference of stress involved, they make 
no account. These accents are marked only in certain Vedic texts, 
and employed only in their recitation, whereas the accents used 
nowadays by Hindus in the pronunciation of Sanskrit (and left 
undenoted in writing) are mainly ictus-accents, i. e. variations of 
stress. The principles of the latter system will be given in an 
appendix. The older system of accents has great etymological im- 
portance; the latter none whatever; and only the older system 
will be referred to in the following. Here it will be enough to state 
that the primary tones or accent-pitches of the older system are 
two: a higher, or acute; and a lower, or grave. A third, called 
svarita, is always of secondary origin, being ordinarily the result 
of actual combination of an acute vowel and a grave vowel into 
one syllable. It is uniformly defined as compound in pitch, a union 
of higher and lower tone within the limits of a single syllable. It 
is thus identical in physical character with the Greek and Latin 
circumflex, and fully entitled to be called by the same name. 
Whenever, in the sequel, accent is mentioned, without further de- 
finition, the acute accent is to be understood; and it will be de- 
signated by the ordinary acute sign. 

Conjugation of Verbs. 

57. The Sanskrit verb exhibits the closest analogy with that 
of Greek, being developed in tense-systems, as outgrowths of certain 
tense-stems. In the older stage of the language, i. e. in the so- 
called Vedic period, the modal ramifications of each tense -stem 
are as numerous as in Greek; but in the later stage, the Sanskrit 
proper (also called the classical language), these outgrowths have 

Introduction. 15 

been lopped off to so very great an extent, that with one insigni- 
ficant exception, the precative or aorist optative, only the present- 
system still retains any modal variety whatever. 

58. There is a simple or ordinary conjugation of verbal roots, 
which we call primary; and there are certain more or less fully 
developed secondary or derivative conjugations (§ 69). 

59. Voices. There are two voices, active and middle, which extend 
throughout the whole system of conjugation. For the present- 
system alone there is a special passive inflection; the middle forms 
outside that system, and sometimes even within it, are liable to 
be used likewise in a passive sense. An active form is called by 
the Hindu grammarians parasmdi padam 'word for another'; a 
middle form, atmane padam 'word for one's self.' Some verbs are 
conjugated in both voices, others in one only; sometimes some of 
the tenses are inflected only in one voice, others only in the other 
voice, or in both ; of a verb usually inflected in one voice sporadic 
forms of the other occur; and sometimes the voice differs as the 
verb is compounded with certain prepositions. 

60. Persons and Numbers. There are three persons: first, 
second, and third; and, as with substantives, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns, three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. All these persons 
and numbers are made from every tense and mode — except that 
the first persons of the imperative are really subjunctive forms. 

61. The native grammarians denote as the first person what 
we call the third; and as we are wont to speak of the verb Xeyuj, 
the verb ^o^uou, the verb aino, etc., so the Hindus use for instance 
M<tfa bhdvati (3rd sing. pres. indie, of j bhu) to signify the whole 
system of verbal forms from that root, since ^^fa heads the list 
of forms in the native grammar, as Xeyw, or sp-^ofxxi, or amo, does 
in Greek or Latin. The Hindus even make substantives out of ' 

1 6 Introduction. 

such catchword forms, and inflect them according to the needs of 

62. In the following, the conjugation -class of verbs will be 
indicated by the 3rd sing. pres. ind., placed in parenthesis after 
the root ; thus, V bhu (*r^"frT bhdvati). 

63. Tenses and modes. The scheme of tenses and modes put 
forth by the Hindus holds good only for the later language, and 
even there utterly confounds the ideas of mode and tense. 

64. The only logical arrangement of the modes and tenses in 
Sanskrit is shown in the following table (which includes only the 
classical speech): 

I. Present -System: a. Indicative, b. Imperfect, c. Imperative. 
d. Optative, e. Participle. 
II. Perfect- System, a. Indicative, b. Participle. 

III. Aorist Systems (of triple formation), a. Indicative, b. Op- 
tative (sometimes = "Precative"). 

IV. Future Systems. 

A. Sibilant Future, a. Indicative, b. Preterit(= "Conditional''). 
c. Participle. 

B. Periphrastic Future, a. Indicative. 

65. The tenses here distinguished as imperfect, perfect, and 
aorist receive those names from their correspondence in mode of 
formation with tenses so called in other languages of the family, 
especially in Greek, and not at all from any differences of time 
designated by them. In no period of the Sanskrit language is 
there any expression of imperfect or pluperfect time — nor of 
perfect time, except in the older language, where the "aorist" has 
this value; in the later speech, imperfect, perfect, and aorist (of 
rare use) are so many undiscriminated past tenses or preterits. 

Introduction. 17 

Verbal Adjectives and Substantives. 

66. Participles. The participles belonging to the tense-systems 
have been already indicated in the table at §64. There is, besides, 
a participle formed directly from the root of the verb, which is 
prevailingly of past and passive (sometimes neuter) meaning. 
Moreover, future passive participles, or gerundives, of several 
different formations, are made, but without connection with the 

67. Infinitive* The classical Sanskrit has a single infinitive. 
It is really an accusative case of a verbal noun, having nothing 
whatever to do with the tense-systems. 

68. Gerund. A so-called gerund, or absolutive, is especially 
frequent, and is, like the infinitive, a stereotyped case -form (in- 
strumental) of a derivative verbal noun. Its value is that of an 
indeclinable active participle, with indeterminate, but oftenest past, 
temporal force. 

Secondary Conjugations. 

69. The secondary conjugations are as follows: 1. Passive; 
2. Intensive; 3. Desiderative; 4. Causative. In these, not the 
simple root, but a conjugation-stem, underlies the whole system 
of inflections. Yet in them all is plainly visible the character of 
a present-system, expanded into a more or less complete conjuga- 
tion; the passive is palpably a present-system. Compare § 58—59. 

70. Under the same general head belong: 5. Denominative 
conjugation, which results from the conversion of noun-stems, both 
substantive and adjective, into conjugation-stems; 6. Compound con- 
jugation, resulting from the prefixion of prepositions to roots, or 
from the addition of auxiliary verbs to noun-stems ; and 7. Periphrastic 
conjugation, from the looser combination of auxiliaries with verbal 
nouns and adjectives. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. n 

18 Introduction. 

71. The characteristic of a proper (i. e. finite or personal) 
verb-form is its personal ending. By this alone is determined its 
character as regards person and number, and in part also as regards 
mode and tense. But the distinctions of mode and tense are 
mainly made by the formation of mode and tense-stems, to which, 
instead of to the bare root, the personal endings are appended. 

Conjugation - Classes. 

72. Of the whole conjugation, the present -system is the im- 
portant and prominent part. Its forms are very much more fre- 
quent than those of all the other systems together. As there is 
also great variety in the manner in which different roots form their 
present-stems, this, as being their most conspicuous difference, is 
made the basis of their principal classification; and a verb is said 
to be of this or that conjugation, or class, according to the way 
in which its present-stem is made. 

73. Of these conjugation- classes there are nine, including the 
passive, which is really a present-system only. The first five 
exhibit coincidences enough to justify their inclusion into one con- 
jugation, and the remaining four will compose likewise a second 
conjugation. The chief distinctions between the two groups are 
as follows: 

74. In the first, the classes have in common, as their funda- 
mental characteristic, a shift of accent : the tone is now upon the 
personal ending, now upon the root or the class-sign. Along with 
this goes a variation in the stem itself, which has a stronger, or 
fuller, form when the accent rests upon it, and a weaker, or briefer^ 
form when the accent is on the ending. We distinguish these 
forms as the strong and the weak stem-forms respectively. 

75. In the second conjugation, on the contrary, the accent 
has a fixed place, remaining always upon the same syllable of the 

Introduction. 19 

stem, and never being shifted to the endings ; and the distinction of 
strong and weak forms is unknown. Moreover, the present-stem 
of every verb in the four classes of this conjugation ends in ^ a. 
There are also other points of difference. 

76. The classification current among the Hindu, and hitherto 
among the European , grammarians comprises ten conjugation- 
classes, arranged according to no intelligible principle whatever. 
The native "tenth class" is really no present-class at all, but a 
causative, i. e. a derivative conjugation, which extends beyond the 
limits of the present-system. Probably the fact that by no means 
all conjugation- stems formed by the causative sign had really a 
causative value induced the natives to adopt such a present- class. 
The Hindu scheme also quite omits the passive. 

77. The Hindu first, sixth, fourth, and tenth classes form the so- 
called first conjugation of their scheme, which corresponds, except as 
regards the tenth class, with our second conjugation. The remainder 
of the classes form the natives' second conjugation, which agrees 
in the main with our first. 

78. The classes are then as follows: 

First Conjugation. 

I. The root-class (second or orf-class, of the Hindus); its 
present-stem is coincident with the root itself; thus, ^1^ ad, 'eat'; 
\h 'go'; f^TO dvis, 'hate'. 

II. The reduplicating class (third or /m-class) ; the rool is 
reduplicated to form the present- stem; thus, *fW juhu from \'\ hu, 
'sacrifice'; ^^T dada from Ida, 'give'. 

III. The nasal class (seventh or rudh-d&ss); a nasal, extended 
to the syllable na [na] in strong forms, is inserted before the final 
consonant of the root ; thus, ^«tr rundh (or ^ZOV runadh) from 
^V rudh, 'hinder'. 


20 Introduction. 

IV. a. The ww-class (fifth or su- class); the syllable «f nu is 
added to the root; thus, H«I sunu from j/^J su, 'press.' 

b. A very small number of roots (only half-a-dozen) ending 
already in «^ n, and also one very common and irregularly inflected 
root not so ending (efi kr, 'make'), add ^ u alone to form the 
present-stem. This is the eighth or tan- class of the Hindu gram- 
marians; it is best ranked as a sub-class, the u-class; thus, <T5T tanu 
from l/<f^ tan, 'stretch.' 

V. The nd- class (ninth or kri- class); the syllable «fT nd (or, 
in weak forms, «ft ni) is added to the root; thus, SJffan krlnd (or 
sftllH krini) from \'^\ kri, 'buy'. See note**, p. 32. 

Second Conjugation. 

VI. The a-class, or unaccented a-class (first or &M-class); 
the added class-sign is a simply ; and the root, which bears the 
accent, is strengthened by guna throughout, if it be capable of 
taking guna (see §§ 52—53); thus, 1^ bhdva (through the inter- 
mediate stage bho-a) from y vbhu, 'be.' 

VII. The a-class, or accented a-class (sixth or tud- class) ; 
the added class-sign is a, as in the preceding class; but it has the 
accent, and the unaccented root is not strengthened by guna; thus, 
7Tq[ tudd from \ ! Tfir tud, 'thrust.' 

VIII. The ya- class (fourth or ofty-class) ; ya is added to the 
root, which has the accent; thus, d\<H divya from l'^fa^ dlv (by 
the Hindus given as "fe^ div), 'play.' 

IX. The passive conjugation is also properly a present-system 
only, having a class-sign which is not extended into the other 
systems; though it differs markedly from the remaining classes 
in having a specific meaning, and in being formable from all tran- 
sitive verbs, but with endings of the middle voice only. It forms 

Introduction. 21 

its stem by adding an accented yd to the root; thus, from j'^TCT ad, 
^JTir adyd; from j/^ff rudh, ^pzr rudhyd. 

79. Roots are not wholly limited, even in the later language, 
to one mode of formation of their present-stem, but are sometimes 
reckoned as belonging to two or more different conjugation-classes. 

80. The verbs of our second conjugation show much greater 
simplicity of formation and inflection and are far more frequent 
and numerous than those of our first; their paradigms will there- 
fore be given before those of our first. 

Prepositions and Prepositional Prefixes. 

81. Prepositions, or, more strictly speaking, adverbial prefixes, 
are used with verbs quite as frequently in Sanskrit as in Greek; 
and more than one may be prefixed. Thus when v'^V budh -f- TjT9f 
anu is given in the vocabulary, this signifies that the preposition 
^l«J is prefixed to the proper verbal form; and the 3rd sing. pres. 
ind. act. of the verb would then be ^Sf«T^t\jf?f anubodhati; so dhd 
+ ^^-^TT (or ^WT) sam-d, 3rd sing. ^mi^VJTfrT samadadhati. The 
rules prevailing in Greek for the prefixion of prepositions, etc., to 
verbal forms will be found to hold good in Sanskrit. 

82. There is in Sanskrit no proper class of prepositions (in 
the modern sense of the term); no body of words having as their 
exclusive office the "government" of nouns. But many adverbial 
words are used with nouns in a way which approximates them 
to the more fully developed prepositions of other languages. Words 
are used prepositionally along with all the noun-cases, except the 
dative (and of course the nominative and vocative). But in general 
their office is directive only, determining more definitely, or 
strengthening, the proper case-use of the noun. 

22 Introduction. 


83. The declension of substantives and that of adjectives cor- 
respond so closely that the two classes of words must be treated 
together. The pronouns and numerals, on the other hand, exhibit 
here as in the kindred languages many striking peculiarities. 

84. Numbers and Genders. There are three numbers, singular, 
dual, and plural; and the usual three genders, masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. The dual is used much more extensively than in 
Greek, where it appears in a moribund state. 

85. Cases. The cases are eight in number, given generally in the 
following order : nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, 
genitive, locative, and vocative. The object sought in the arrange- 
ment is simply to set next to one another those cases which are 
to a greater or less extent, in one number or another, identical in 
form; and, putting the nominative first, as leading case, there is 
no other order by which that object could be attained. 

For the uses of the cases in detail see Wli. §§ 267—305. 

86. The stems of substantives and adjectives may for convenience 
be classified as follows: I. Stems in ^ a. II. Stems in \i and ^ u. 
III. Stems in ^TTd, % I, and ^? u: namely, A. radical- stems, and a 
few others inflected like them; B. derivative stems. IV. "Stems in 
^g[ r (or ^J"^ or). V. Stems in consonants. 

87. Strong and weak cases. In stems ending in consonants, 
and those in ^jf r (or ^T^ ar )-> tnere * s 9een a distinction of stem- 
form in different cases. Sometimes the stem-forms are two, when 
they are called strong and weak respectively; sometimes three: 
strong, middle, and weakest. As is the case with verbs, this variation 
of stem-form often goes hand-in-hand with a shift of accent. 

88. In the masculine and feminine, the strong cases are the 
nom. and ace, both sing, and dual, and the nom. pi. The rest 

Introduction. 23 

are weak ; or, if there be the distinction of three stem-forms, then 
the instr., dat., abl., gen., and loc. sing., the gen. and loc. du., 
and the gen. pi. (all of which take endings beginning with a vowel), 
are weakest; and the instr., dat., and abl. du., the instr., dat., abl., 
and loc. pi. (whose endings begin with consonants), are middle. 

89. In the neuter, the only strong cases are the nom. and 
ace. pi. ; if there be the triple distinction, then the nom. and ace. 
sing, are middle, and the same cases in the dual are weakest. 
Otherwise the cases are classified as in the masculine. 

90. Case-ending's. The normal scheme of case -endings, as 
recognized by the native grammarians (and conveniently to be 
assumed as the basis of special descriptions), is this: 





m. f. 


m.f. n. 

m. f. n. 




au i 

as i 



du * 

as i 




















It applies entire to consonant-stems, and to the radical division 
of I and w-stems ; and to other vowel-stems, with considerable 
variations and modifications. The endings which have almost or 
quite unbroken range, through stems of all classes, are bhydm and 
os of the dual, and bhis, bhyas, dm, and su of the plural. 

91. Pada-endings. The case-endings bhydm, bhis, bhyas, and 
su — i. e. those of the middle cases — are called pada ("word")- 
endings. The treatment of stem-finals before them is generally the 
same as in the combinations of words with one another. 


24 Lesson I. 

Lesson I. 

92. Verbs. Present Indicative active. Unaccented a-class. A 
number of roots conjugated in this class have medial short ^ a. 
Inasmuch as "^ST a is its own guna", these roots merely add an ^Jf a 
to form the present-stem; e. g., ^? vad, present-stem ?T? vdda. 
The final ^| a of the stem is lengthened in the three first persons. 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

i* «ldlPH vddfcmi c(rf M^ vdddvas ^d\MH^ vdddmas 

2. <f£'f4| vdda/si cj^VJJ^ vddajthas o|^\i| vddatha 

3. ^<?f?l vdddti c|dr1^ vddakas '^fnT vddantt 

93. The ending of the 3rd plur. is properly ^jf«rT a«#; it suffers 
abbreviation, however, by the loss of its ^ a, in verbs whose stem 
ends in ^ a. 

94. As a heavy syllable ending in a consonant cannot be gunated, 
a root like ^H jiv makes its 3rd sing, ^fffafff jlvati; f«i«d nimi 
makes f«i«d (d nindati, etc. See § 53. 

*>W. v*U»' 95 Euphonic rule. At the end of a word standing in the 
final position of a sentence, or alone, ^ s and T r always become 
visarija ', h; and generally also before 3 k, *§f kh, T£ p, VH p/i, and 
before sibilants [T([ p, IT s, ^T s], whether these stand in the same 
word, or as initial in the following word; e. g. ef^cTO tj«fT 
vadatas punar becomes always eftf iff: q*H vadatah punah. 

96. Force of the present. The present indicative signifies 
1. Present time. 2. Immediate futurity. 3. Past time, in lively 
narration ("historical present"). 

-» *. 

Lesson I. 


Vocabulary I. 

Verbs to be conjugated like ^^ vad: 

^"^ oar (intr.) go, wander, graz 

(ofcattle);(tr.) perform, commit. 
Sffa jlv live. 
f€T5T tyqj leave, abandon. 
5TB dah burn. 
\JT^ dhav run. 
•p^ nam (intr.) bow, bend one's 

self*; (tr.) honor, reverence. 
TJ^r pac cook. 

■^ pat fall ; fly. 

"STSf yaj sacrifice (c. ace. pers. et 

instr. rei). 
"5TJW raks protect. 
^Z vad speak, say. 
^^ vas dwell. 
^^ vah (tr.) carry, bear; (intr.) 

flow, blow, proceed. 
■5^ <;ans praise. 

*MTU{ atas 

hence TTfT?^ t°t a 

Adverbs and Conjunctions. 





^T^ atra • here 
^ iha j hither 

X^^ittliam f 

in this way 


«pra; kutas \ 


^SSWTT a'ihuna now 
^SRI adya to-day 
Tr^T^ eram so, thus 
TP^ eva just, exactly 

fpl tatra 

TTOT tatha 

ara kutra 
gi kva 






y<» titer 

in that way 


^fff^ yatas 

^m yatra 



I in w 

which way 

r\d\ tada then 

ORT^ sarvatra everywhere 

^f?T iti so, thas 

^ ca (postpos.) -que 

Ifzn yalh 

t%*4*y katham how? 
^RTf kada when? 

Qd\ yadd wl 't 
...»n .akes pla* 

**^1 a stem, whether 

*T 'f as converted into 


vr** instead of ^f*T<^ 

26 Lesson I. II. 

Exercise I. 

15. *Today x they abandon 2 . 16. Now 1 ye go 2 . 17. Always 1 / 
protect 2 . 18. We two bow 1 again 2 . 19. Whither 1 runnest 2 thouJ 
20. We sacrifice. 21. They ttoo cook. 22. Ye abandon. 23. He 
burns. 24. Now 1 we live 2 . 25. Ye two praise. 26. Why 2 do ye 
bend 1 ? 27. There 1 they fly 2 . 28. Where 1 do ye dwell 2 ? 

Lesson II. 

97. Verbs. Unaccented a- class, cont'd. Roots of this class 
■which end in a vowel, and consonant- roots not forming heavy 
syllables (§53), gunate their vowels in forming their present-stems; 

J-* e e. g., faji and «ftni fc> rm %./ e an d % 7<e >' 3" dru and *1 Mw form 
~> ^ jft rfro and ^t bho; ^ff smr forms *jq"^ smar; f^ft^ cit and ^\^ budh 
I ' **** form %c^ cet and ^t^ *orf/f; oT^ vrs forms ^^ wars. 

98. With the class- sign tQ a, a final TJ e of the gunated root 
unites to form ^STO aya — see § 159; so ^ff o with ^ « becomes 
^f ava; ^fT ar with ^ a yields ^n; ara. Thus, f^ ji, 3rd sing. 

>l WSTR!i%«-^; 1 °^ Wm bkdvati; ^T smr W^m smarati. 

99. Roots in consonants: ^ST^ 6wdA, 3rd sing. ^farf?T bodha'i ; 
f^<^ c#, %rTf?T cetati: efq wrs, cmfrT vdrsati. 

* The superior figures indicate the position in the Sanskrit 

sentence of equivalents for the words so designated. By this indi- 

, , aiao - s pyojdej tne necessity of applying euphonic rules 

96. Force <> en stated. The order of words in Sanskrit is very 

, „ . influences the meaning of the sentence. From the 

l resent i ini (b . 

^r of words required in the Sanskrit sentence will 

narration ("histori Words in Ital ; M are QOt t0 be trans i ate d. 


Lesson II. 27 

100. The roots IPR^ gam and 7f1{ yam make the present-stems 
If^ gdccha and HvQ ydccha*. 

101. The root ^fT sac/, 'sit', makes the present-stem ^fte sida. 
The root ^J^ at/A, 'hide', makes *I«frl guhati. 

102. Several roots in final t5U a form their present-stem by a 
peculiar process of reduplication ; thus, ^fT sthd, 3rd sing, frf8(d 
ththati**; TTT pa f^f?T pibati ; 1JT ghrd fayfd jighrati. 

103. Masculines and Neuters in ^ a. 

a. Masculines: <*^ deva, 'god'. 

Singular. Dual. v Plural. 

N. ^^^ devas %^ devdu \^TT^ devas 

Ace. ^"?RF^ devam „ ^^T'l, devdn 

Voc. ^ deva " Je</«* farr.) 

b. Neuters: Tfffi phala, 'fruit'. 

N. RPH9{ phalanx n% phale (a + 1) lMlf«1 phaldni 
Ace. r> » » 
Voc. Ttf^f phala. t* " 
— -v - l <*^ <% a-// Ae* 1 * "*'">** soc^f.'c 

* As a rule, the grammarians do not allow ^ ch to stand in 
that form after a vowel, but require it to be doubled, becoming 
x§g" cch. An aspirate is doubled by prefixing the corresponding 
non-aspirate. Cf. § 165. 

** The dental sibilant ^ s is changed to the lingual H «, if 5-*$ 
immediately preceded by any vowel save ^Sf a and tJIT a, or by 
"a k or T t — unless the ^ s be final, or followed by "^ r. Thus, 
f/d^lTd ti-stha-ti becomes fjfgffff tisthati (the change of ^T th to 
"S th — a process of assimilation — will be explained below). So 
■^rf^TO agni-su becomes <*|ftlM agnisu; and V*nHT dhanus-d becomes 
\HMI dhanusd. 

The nasalization of the alterant vowel, or in other words, its 

jg followed by anusvdra, does not prevent its altering effect upon 

o own s ibii an t. thus, ^cHffq havimi. And the alteration takes place 

in the initial of an ending after the final "8 s of a stem, whether 

the iatter be regarded as also changed to H s or as converted into 

rga; thus, ff%^ havu-su or ^Tfa:*| havih-su instead of fftT^J 



Lesson II. 


CX+ e 

■ at- 




104. Force of cases. 1. The nominative is casus mbjectivus. 
2. The accusative is casus objectivus, denoting chiefly the nearer or 
direct, sometimes however the more remote, object; sometimes also 
the terminus ad quern, and extent of time and space. 
105. Euphonic combination of vowels. 

1. ^f a or^a+^lor "31T = "^ff- e. g. l[r{J ^fa gata api 
= IfTTfa gataJpi. 

2. ^or^fl+S; * ort^i = X[e. e. g. TOTT + tfTT^ = ifftfftgateZii. 

3. "^T or "?rr + ^ m or ^3> S = ^ o. e.g. iffU + ^r{ uta 
= Tfftfl gatoHa. 

4. "% or "9HT + ^J T = ^TJ a,r. e. g. UfT rnaha + ^-rfa: rsih 
= *T^"fa. maharsih. 

5. ^ or ^IT + TJ e or TJ a/ = t[ at. e. g. T[<{\ + ^ ewa 
= Jfrfa gatdi 'ua. 

6. ^1 or ^TT + ^ o or -^ft a« = ^ft au. e. g. 3T7TT + ^qfvr. 
osadhih - Jlfff^f^H gafau ''sadhih. 

106. It will be the practice everywhere in this work to 
separate independent words in transliteration, but not in the deva- 
nagarl text; and if an initial vowel of a following word has 
coalesced with a final of the preceding, this will be indicated 
by an apostrophe — single if the initial vowel be the shorter, 
double if it be the longer, of the two different initials which in 
every case of combination yield the same result. To aid the be- 
ginner, a point ♦ will sometimes be placed, in the devanagarl, 
under a long vowel formed by two coalescing vowels; thus, ^rfa- 
•nO*!!'IJi agnina 'rtnam. 

Verbs, a- class : 
1&{ gam {gdechati) go. 
VTT ghrd (jighraii) smell. 

Vocabulary II. r^- 

fSfiji (tr. and intr.) conquer, to 
j| dru run. '<}****** / the 

•ft nl lead, guide. ( nij/**' ' ^ 


Lesson II. 


XH pet (pibati) drink. 
9f bhu become, be, exist, fciuix^i 1 
Tff^ yam (ydechati) furnish, give. 
■gTf vrs rain, give rain; (fig.) 

shower down ; overwhelm. 
TfH smr remember, think on. 


^rj s th® (tisthati) stand (intr.). 

Subst. Masc: 
3T5J gaja elephant. 

J[9^ gandha odor, perfume. 

TTW grama village. 

•T^ nara man (vir and homo). 
•TXf nrpa king. 
tr^ pnira son. 

Neut. : 
^H"^ kxira milk. 

*r^ grha house. 

^^ jala water. 

^TT dana gift, present. 

•TTT nagara city. 


^ he O, ho. 

Exercise II. 
^t^t ^rpi ^iTf^T i q i *i * *\T*k\*\: Ri^ra fxRfTf 5^: i ^ i 

^n fsrarfa i^pr: i <=io i ^ ^ttt. i <rt i w* ttrt ^fai i <k i 
7n ^% *R<!: I ^ i *pN ^Mifa ^tf^fT •pn: II <*8 n 

15. The man 1 drinks 3 milk 2 . 16. The king 3 leads 2 the elephant 1 . 
17. Two houses 1 fall 2 . 18. The god 3 gives 2 water 1 . 19. Ye both 
think 2 on (?U) the two gods 1 (accus.). 20. The king 3 wins 2 the 
village 1 . 21. The two elephants 1 smell 3 the perfume 2 . 22. They 
cook 2 fruits 1 . 23. The man 3 reverences" the gods 1 . 24. The two 
elephants 1 live 2 . 25. The gods"' give 1 rain C^T). 

* Final ?^ m is commonly written as anusvdra if the fol- 
lowing word begins with a consonant; but the Hindus pronounce 
it as <R[ m in such cases. At the end of a sentence anusvdra should 
at be written for ?^ m, though this is a habit common in the MSS. 
Final radical ?^ m, in internal combination, is assimilated to a 
following mute or spirant. In the former case it becomes the nasal 
• n jime class with the mute; in the latter it becomes anusvdra. — 
tne idical «^ n, in internal combination, becomes anusvdra be- 
mS6 ibilant. 


30 Lesson III. 

Lesson III. 

107. Yerbs. Accented a'-class. Roots of this class form their 
present-stem by adding an accented H d to the root, which is not 
gunated. The inflection of these stems is precisely like that of 
stems belonging to the preceding class, except as to the position 
of the accent ; thus, f^p? ksip, present-stem fcjlj ksipd, pres. ind. 
f^prrf*T ksipdmi, f^PTftl ksipdsi, f^trffT ksipdti, etc. 

108. Several roots in ^J r of this class (by the Hindus written 
with "3f£ f) form stems in ^X[ ?ra > e. g., oR kr, 'strew', f^RTTfiT kirdti. 
The roots in ^ i and ^ u and ^J u change those vowels into 
fit iy and ^t uv, respectively, before the class-sign ; thus, f^J ksi, 
f^j^rfTJ ksiydti; Jf su, *raf?f suvdti : \J dhu, \sT^HT dhuvdti. 

109. For the root ^[^ ?.s, 'desire', «j[^ ich is regarded as a 
substitute in the present-stem; thus, ^$frT icchdti (§ 100, note). 
Likewise, ^J r makes its present -sfj-^frf rcchdti ; and T(T§ prach, 
sometimes given as XJ^ prch, makes H^fa prcchdti. 

HO. A number of roots following this class are strengthened 
in the present by a penultimate nasal; thus, f^ra sic, present ind. 
f^fijffTT siiicdti. The nasal is always assimilated in class to the 
following consonant; thus "31 n is used before palatals, «^ n before 
dentals, ?^ m before labials ; and _L n before sibilants and jf h. 
III. Masculines and Neuters in ^ a, cont'd, 
a. Masculines : 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 

L ^^•T devena rf^l^jJ^ devdbhydm ^q^ devais 
D. ?<(|{{ devdya » » ?c(M]^ devebhyas 

Ab. d«!T<i. devdt » „ » » 

G. 2T*3 devasya d^M\{{^ devayos %«U"I|J^ devdndm 

L. %% deve » » %%^ devesu 

b. Neuters follow exactly the declension of masculines in the 
above cases ; thus, Xfi%«T phalena, QtWTtl pbaldya, etc. 

Lesson III. 


112. Force of cases. 1. The instrumental answers the questions i>*^ 
wherewith? and whereby? and expresses accompaniment, agent, 
or means. 2. The dative denotes the remoter object, and direction. D"?- 
It is also used as dativus commodi ; very frequently also to denote 
end or purpose. Sometimes (and oftenest with copula omitted) 
it is predicative, in the sense of 'makes for, tends toward'. 3. The fll>i. 
ablative answers the question whence ?^ and very frequently denotes 
cause. 4. The genitive is casus adjectivus, denoting all kinds of $*"• 
belonging (e. g. gen. subjectivus, objectivus, partitivus). 5. The lo- *<><.• 
cative denotes the place where, or the time when, an action occurs. 
It is often used absolutely, in agreement with a participle expressed 
or understood, as the ablative is used in Latin and the genitive 
in Greek. ' (?*"£?£. 

■ e i > r> 

i nus siH 

* t,i c-0*>r\. 

Verbs, a-class: 
^TO is (icchdti) wish, desire. 
^Jff krs (krsdti) plough. 
f%pj ksip (ksipdti) hurl, cast, 

fTT\ die (diedti) show, point out. 
Tf^prach (prcchdti) ask, ask about. 
f^TT vie (viedti) enter. 

Vocabulary III. 

ffjT^ sic (sinedti) drip, drop 

Subst. Masc: 

efi'J kata mat. 

^*ft kunta spear. 

"^T^f bala> child, boy. 

^"PT marga road, way, street. 

%^f megha cloud. 

IJ"^ cava arrow. 


^T5f srj (srjdti) let go; create, 
Sjpr (sprcAli) touch; (in certain 

connections) wash, 
1[%guh (guhati, § 10I) hide, conceal. 
T$Z sad (sidati, § I0I) sit. 

^TsT hasta hand. 


%"^ ksetra field. 

\J«T dhuna money, riches. 
^fT^H langala plough. 
f^TO visa poison. .,„«.*/ 
T^sukha fortune ' 





Lesson III. IV. 

Exercise III. 

it* i m srer f^rfTT ^ i i i ^t iprf*r^fnT itt: i ^ i I- 
^nft: ^ir fire<r: I "« \*m i%t *prfa i e i *nft ^z #^r: i w \ 
wftr ^rrft: f^rfar i <w i T*re; -pt frar*: i «R i it: g^W 
*n3f *n^fa i <^ i iTT**[wf7r ^r: n <*8 n 

15. The boy 4 asks 3 the men 1 about the road 2 (ace). 16. The 
clouds 1 drop 4 water 3 on the fields 2 (loc). 17. The two men 1 go 4 
% fa;o roads 2 (instr.) into the city 3 . 18. The king 4 gives 3 the two 
men 1 money 2 . 19. The man's 1 sons 2 sit 4 on mats 3 . 20. The gods 4 
give 3 the water 2 of the clouds 1 . 21. We wash 3 (use ^JJ\) both 
hands 2 with water 1 . 22. Both men 1 lead 4 their sons 2 (dual) home 3 
(TO). 23. The taw boys 3 point out 4 the road 2 to the city 1 (gen.). 

Lesson IV. 

113. Masculines in ^ i. "3Tfa «</«*> 'fire'. 




■^rftreL a 9 nis 

D. -4IM'4| agnaye 
Ah^C^ agues 

L. ^|M1 agnau 


^TfrWR^ agnibhydm 
•n n 

■^T^ agnayas 

^^rfqf^^ agnibhis 
^rfq«I^ agnibhyas 

r 1) 

^'•fHlH agnlnam 
^jf^J agnisu* 


* See note to § 102. 
The dental nasal ^ n, when immediately followed by a vowel, 
or bv «l n or Jf in or ^f w or ^ v. is turned into the lingual > v 
""» n if preceded in the same word by the lingual sibilant or semi- r v»*i 
abo» s _ J, [ D y xf ?) y r, ^J f, or ^[ r: and this, not 

Lesson IV. 33 

114. Neoters in ^ ?'. ^TTT vari, 'water'. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N. ^ifT v< ^ n cUf^uH vdrini ^lOHU vdrini 

A. n d w » » r» 

I- «1 I f\<l! I vdrind* «TTf^^Tf^ vdribhydm cUf^f^^ vdribhis 

D. «| 1 f\^! vdrine » » cflPl^H. vdribhyas 

Ab. cUfiUlH. carinas r> „ n » 

G. » « TTfTTlft^ vdrinos << 1 0^1*1 warffmm 

L. «dfXfUj vdrini » » <||P^li vdrim 

v. ^nr y<5re or ^rfr y< ^ n 

115. Masculine and neuter adjectives in T i are declined like t-~*dS' 
the substantives above. But neuter adjectives (never substantives) 

may, in the dat., abl., gen., and loc. sing., and the gen. and loc. 
dual, substitute the corresponding forms of masculines. 

116. Euphonic changes of ^ s and "^ r. These two sounds 
stand to each other in the practical relation, in external combination, 
of corresponding surd and sonant: in countless cases ^ s becomes 
"^ r in situations requiring or favoring the occurrence of a sonant; 
and, less often, "^ r becomes ^ s where a surd is required. In 
internal combination the two are far less interchangeable. The s 
is extremely common as an etymological final, the r not common. 

117. A. Final ^C. s. 1. Before a sonant, either vowel or conso- $•** 
nant (except f r — see below), ^ s is changed to the sonant T r 

— unless, indeed, it be preceded by ^S( a or ^STT d; thus, 41 fa^ 

only if the altering letter stands immediately before, the nasal, but 
at whatever distance before the latter it may be found: unless, in- 
deed, there intervene a palatal (except If y), a lingual, or a dental. 
Thus, •fJfl'^TJJ' nagareua, f{\J^ mdrgena, TjT,q"jfx?r puspani. 

* See preceding note. c ch j fh .V 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. ' fj t >j j t /V ■ I* o 

t m a <h n J 

34 Lesson IV. 

agnis atra becomes -^jfai^ agnir atra; -4jfaf^ '^f^T ognis 
dahati becomes TMfi^c^f^f agnir dahati. See also § 95. 

118. 2. Final ^J^ as, before any sonant consonant or before 
initial short ^ a, is changed to ^ft o — and the initial ^ a is 
dropped ; thus, •P?^ W?rf?T nrpas jayati becomes «pft WTfTT nrpo 
jayati ; «PTC ^T^ nrpas atra = •pft <S^ nrpo Hra. 

119. It is the practice in our system of transliteration to render 
the sign 4, which denotes this dropping of an initial ^ a, by an 
inverted comma. 

120. 3. Before any initial vowel other than short nR a, final 
"^^ as loses its ^ s, becoming simple ^JJ a; and the hiatus thus 
occasioned remains; thus, «(lfH T^f^T «/y<M icchati becomes «TH 
^^fff nrpa icchati; <TrT^ v d<^<*fl s tatos udakam = <fff 3?<fi7^ tata 

121. 4. Final ^H^ as before any sonant, whether vowel or 
consonant, loses its ^ s, becoming simply ^JT «; ana< tne hiatus 
thus occasioned remains; thus, •nTT^T S^f^T nrpas icchanti = •pn 
X^$ftH nrpa icchanti ; •JUTO W^ff^T nrpas jayanti = •fXTT -alilfWl 
nrpa jayanti. 

ar- 122. B. Final ^ r. 1. Final ^ r in general shows the same 

form which ^ s would exhibit under the same conditions: thus 
TFTK, punar standing at the end of a sentence becomes TT*T punah ; 

p*£kyj ift^ <7«S 'JV. gih- But original final "^ r, after ^J a or ^(7 « 5 
maintains itself before vowels and sonant consonants ; thus, JpTC^ 
punar atra, iH^^fd punar jayati. 

m ht , 123. 2. A double "^ r is nowhere admitted: if such would 

occur, either by retention of an original "^ r or by conversion of ^ s 
to T r, the first ^ r is omitted, and the preceding vowel, if short, 
is made long by compensation; thus, y\^\ TJW. punar rdmah = 
JTT 7T*J* puna rdmah; ■% r f*T^ Tt^% a 9 nis rocate - ^pcft Tfa<T 
agnl rocate ; ^^ OWd dhenus rocate = $»T <H*<* dhenu rocate. 


Lesson IV. 



^f^ krt (krntdti) cut, cut off. 
?Jx£ muc (muncdti) free, deliver, 
HUfq agni, m., fire; (as proper 

name) Agni, the god of fire. 
^S(fX c.ri, m., enemy. 
^Hf|f asi, m., sword. 
tHftf rsi, m., seer. 
efifcj &ari, m., poet. 

fjrf'C S"' n 'i m, i mountain. 
oprf 7«na, m., man; (pi.) people. 
^*3 duhkha, n., misery, mis- 

Vocabulary IV. 

"^t? ruh (rdhati) grow, 
f^TR^ Up (Umpdti) smear. 
^i^ lup (lumpdti) break to pieces, 
devastate, plunder. 

TJTfW pant, m., hand. 

Trrq papa, n., sin. 

^\H rdma, m., nom. pr., name of 

a hero. 
^J vrksa, m., tree. 
ffT^ pie a, m., now. pr. name of 

a god. 
~m$satya, n., truth, righteousness. 
^f^ Aon, m., nom. /w., name of 

a god. 

Exercise IV. 

^^rfaf^lr^ T^fa I ? I f«ft itlRTT:* TTTCft |inTf?T I 8 I ^*ft 
flT Ui^fni | M | H{M\ «MMI VT H^fni 1^1^ TOT: (abl.) 

^ttHt i ^ i irrrf^f^ f*r*m i c i y^ t t^- ftff% i <£. i ^nsfr: 
irsft <hj *rrc fire*: i qo i ffc: ^Rfwt <Hlfa *n^fa I 99 I 

^fcRft (§ 123) XWt ^RTfTT I 9* I ^fiHlO WT pTfll *pT! 

^ft% i 93 i fir ^flTW ^nr: n 98 n 

15. Qiva 1 dwells 3 in the mountains 2 . 16. Both enemies 1 hurl 4 
spears 2 at the king 3 (dat.) 17. Rama 1 touches 4 his two sons 3 with 
his hands 2 . 18. Fire 1 burns 3 the trees 2 . 19. Seers 1 speak 2 the 
truth 3 . 20. Through righteousness 1 happiness 3 arises 4 (^) for man- 

* Modifiers generally precede the word which is modified. 



Lesson IV. V. 

kind 2 (^T, gen. pi.). 21. The seer's 1 two hands 2 touch 4 water 3 . 
22. Fruits 1 are 3 {use ^J) on the trees 2 . 23. People 1 remember 2 
Hari 2 . 24. Rama 1 hurls 4 the sword 3 from his hand 2 (abl.). 

Lesson V. 

124. Verbs. Unaccented ya- class. Roots of this class form 
their present-stem by adding ^f ya to the root, which bears tbe 
accent. Thus from «fij? nah is made the present-stem «TfT ndhya; 
from <5p| lubh, <5THT lubhya. 

125. The inflection of stems of this class follows the model of 
g(& vad. 

126. Certain ^rr a-roots, because of their peculiar exchanges 
with <f i and f^ 2-forms, especially in the formation of the present- 
stem, are given by the Hindu grammarians as ending in TJ e or 
l| di or ^ft o (cf. § 132), and by them assigned to the V bhu, or 
a-class. Thus ^sTT rfAa, 'suck' (Hindu ^ dhe), forms ^T^ffa dhdyati ; 
the root ^ hu or gT hvd (Hindu ^ hve) forms ,£<6(ffT hvdyati; 
^TT gd (Hindu 3f gdi) makes J||4(f?T gdyati. 

-127. For the root ^TFT drg, 'see', is substituted in the present- 
system another root VfiX V a 9i which makes M^frT pdgyati. 
128. Masculines in ^3 u. *ff«j bhdnu, 'sun'. 


HT*TO bhdnus 

3JTT bhdnu 


^H«f^ bhdnavas 



M\*\*{ bhdnum 

n » 

*4M»i bhdnun 


*il«1«tT bhanund 

*Tr«n5TR^ bhdnubhydm 

^T"Tf*R^ bhdnubhis 


M\*\^ bhdnave 

r> n 

WW^M an?<6 %as 


• WTt^ bhdnos 

n r> 

W fl 


y> » 

HT^t^C. bhdnvos 

*tt"«MIH. bhdnundm 


M\*\\ bhdndu 

n » 

<HT*T3 bhdnum 


*n^ft bhdno 


Lesson V. 


Masculine adjectives in ^ u are similarly declined. 

129. Euphonic Changes of ^ s, cont'd. 1. Final ^ s, the dental 
sibilant, whether original or representing final "^ r t before the palatal 
surd mutes [^ c, 1§ ch], is assimilated, becoming palatal ^T g. Thus 
•TT^ tj^firl naras carati becomes •T^rfTf'T narag carati; T^ 
3j^«f naras chalena becomes «T^ 3C ^%*f narag chalena. 2. Before 
a lingual surd mute [Z U ~& $]> in 'ike manner, it would become 
lingual H s, but the case almost never occurs. 3. Before the dental 
surd mutes [?^ t, W th], since it is already of the same class with 
them, it of course remains unchanged; thus, ^HTOt f*i»fa rdmas 


130. The preposition ^STT « is sometimes used with the ablative 
(much less often with the accusative), in the sense of 'hither from', 
'all the way from'; but far more usually to signify 'all the way 
to', 'until'. As a prefix to verbs, ^TT « means 'to', 'unto', 'at'. 

Vocabulary V. 

■^T^ as (dsyati) throw, hurl. 
^|T^ kup (kupyati — w. gen. or 

dat.) be angry. 
W^jJ krudh (kriidhyati — w. gen. 

or dat.) be angry. 

1(J{ gam -f ^STT a (dgdcchati) come. 

7T tr (tdrati) cross over. 

* *)■**}-! 

TT1 rcap (ndgyati) perish. 

XHT V ac (pdfyati) see. 

^| ruh (rdhati) rise, spring up, 

+ "Vl « (drdhati) climb, mount, 

fay Mich (likhdti) scratch; write, 
gpi lubh (lubhyati — w. dat. or 

loc.) desire, covet. 
in gus (gusyati) dry up. 
fj^m snih (mihyati — w. gen. or 

loc.) feel inclined to, love. 
f[ hu or JT hva (hvdyati) call. 

^fTO vayu, m., wind. 

f^XJjr visnu, m., nom. pr. name of 

a god. 

38 Lesson V. 

Subst.: |f^[ fetou, m., sun. 

^r^j anna, n., food, fodder. Tfl!!' raani, m., jewel 

^pg apya, m., horse. "^^ ratna, n., jewel. 

^rffVsJ udadhi, m., oeean. TTT3T r< M? m -5 heap. 

3T^ guru, m., teacher. 

in^ pattra, n., leaf, letter. 

TT^J parapu, m., axe. 

TJ"P? pada^ m. , foot; quarter ; j 1T3 f a ^", m? enemy 

ray, beam. f^PUT pikhara, m., summit. 

^TC 6aAu, m., arm. \ f^H gisya, m., pupil, scholar. 

fcj'rf bindu, m., drop. ^^} sukta, n., Vedic hymn. 

Exercise V. 

cRcf^ft \pi *j«rfnT i <* i ^^1^: fwrfa wf?f m ^ fij- 
tq^t: ^rerrr: i $ i •pnr 'srfw fswf^r 1 8 1 ^fat^vf* firef* i m i 

*jtt. ftr^Tnrf fwf^r i <w i ^rrcrr ipnfr sfarr ^rOer i <k i 
*rrat ^r% tnt Rj^fd i <*$ i wrr nm\*ri Tnftff^fnT i <w i 

^jf £*rfa tt: i «^> i 3i%: ipfr ^nr^r *rr*f T*i xnsra: ii qc n 

19. Now 4 the sun's 1 rays 2 climb 5 the mountains 3 . 20. A drop 2 

of water 1 falls 4 down from the cloud 3 . 21. O 1 men 8 , we see 4 

the city 3 . 22. Both kings 1 love 3 poets 2 (gen. or loc). 23. The 

wind 1 blows 4 (^W) from the summits 3 of the 'mountains'. 24. The 

Icing 1 hurls 4 spears 3 at his enemies 2 (dat. or loc). 25. The scholar 1 

bows 3 before his teacher 2 (ace). 26. Tiro men 1 come with their 

sons" (instr.). 27. The two kings 1 desire 4 the poet's 2 jewels 3 (dat. 

or loc). 28. O 1 seer, 2 we sacrifice 4 to Visnu 3 {ace). 29. The two 

* Orthodox Hindus maintain that the Vedic hymns, etc., were 
revealed to their reputed authors, who thus 'saw' them. 


Lesson V. VI. 39. 

cook 3 food 1 with fire 2 . 30. The seers 1 praise 4 Visnu 2 with hymns 3 . 
31. In the city 1 the king 2 calls 4 his enemies 3 . 

Lesson VI. 

131. Verbs, //a-class, cont'd. The roots of this class which end 
in ^S[^ am lengthen their ^J a in forming their present-stem ; thus, 
"retain, rll*4jfd tdmyati; Vf^ bhram, ?JTRrf?T bhrdmyati — but this 
last makes ,some forms with short ^ a. The root UW mad has 
the same lengthening: *n««jf?T mddyati. 

132. Certain a-roots (five — by the Hindus written with final 6) 

make present-stems with an accented yd; thus, ^T das '<Hf7{ dydti. ketJ-o.S'*- 

133. The root cjra vi/adh is abbreviated to fzm vidh in the 
present-system : fclvyfTT vidhyati. 

134. The root sfij^ kram, said by the natives to form its 
present-stem according to this class, really forms it only according 
to the a-class, and the root-vowel is lengthened in the active voice, 
but not in the middle; thus, $THf?l krdmati, but middle ^fJR% 

135. The root xpi^ cam, used only with the preposition ^rr «> 
forms ^rT^TTWin acdmati. 

136. Neuters in ^ u. ?ffc| madhu, 'honey'. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

$T. ?TO madhu Ttpf) madhuni ^TOf'T madhuni 


I. ^VTT madhuna ?T\WI7^ madhubhydm ^TOTH^ madhubhis 

D. *?*J«J madhune B „ TT^R^T madhubbyas • 

Ab. ?TO«T^ madhunas „ „ „ „ 

G. „ „ T^ft^ madhvnos fT%PTTI( madhundm 

L. ^r^ffvf madhuni „ M ***J9 ma dhi<?u 

V. *T\j or 3J\Tt 

40 Lesson VI. 

137. Neuter adjectives (but not substantives) in xf u may take 
the forms proper to the masculine in the dat., abl.-gen., loc. sing., 
and gen. -loc. dual. 

138. Changes of final «^ n. Before initial 91 j and ^ f, 
•^ n becomes "5J n; thus, TfTt. 44«f I *V. tan jandn becomes <n- 
%HI"t. tdnjandn ; 7f[% ^T^l. ^ n P°^ n = dl»^I'^ , l s tan gatrun. In 

th» last case, however, ^ch is almost always substituted for the initial 
TTT p; thus, fM'b^»4V ^ chatrun. 

139. Final «^ n, before an initial «J /, is assimilated and becomes 
nasalized /, which is written ^f nl, or (what is the same thing) 
— n} thus <fT^ ^t^TTt tan lokdn becomes TfT^T *"Tl<*l«l tdnl lokdn 

or Tfi Wt 5 BFTT s tan lokdn. 

c f * 

140. Before the surd palatal, lingual, and dental mutes there is 

inserted after final i^ n a sibilant of each of those classes re- 
spectively, before which if^ n becomes anusvara; thus for cfT 5 ^ ^T 
tan ca we find 7TP5T tdnc ca; for TTTt. WG\ tan talhd, <rNRTT *aw« 




^f r (rcchdti — § 109) go to; fall 

to one's lot, fall upon. 
Hf*^ Arra?n + ^TT a (dkrdmati) 

stride up to, attack. 

Vocabulary VI. 

tJJ^ cam + ^Tf d (dcdmati) sip, 
drink, rinse the mouth. 

<f^ tarn (tamyati) be sad. 

7TO £us (tusyati) rejoice, take 
pleasure in (w. instr.). 

yfa^ dlv (divyatij play. 

* This rule really involves an historic survival, the large ma- 
jority of cases of final ^ n in the language being for original ns. 
Practically, the rule applies only to ^ n before ^ c and c^ t, since 
cases involving the other initials are excessively rare. 

Lesson VI. 


1SCH bhram (bhrdmyati — § 131) 

wander about. 
*f^ mad (mkdyati) get drunk, 
ejra vyadh (vidhyati) hit, pierce, 
^i^ gam (gamyati) become quiet, 

be extinguished, go out, cease.. 


TSfT^ gram (gramyati) become 

^ hr (hdrati) take away, steal, 



^f^ aksa, m., die, dice. 

-4|VJ<$ adharma, m., injustice, 

•*lfrjf all, m., bee. 
^ra agru, n., tear. 
-fj^ r£.?a, m., bear. 
, TajftT? %>a, m., anger. 

<fat| ksatriya, m., warrior, man 

of the second caste. 
•mfif nrpati, m., king. 
•T^ rcefra, n., eye. 
Jf\% madhu, n., honey. 
JT?5 mukha, n., mouth, face. 
??|n mrtyu, m., death. 
^W rasu, n., wealth, money. 

Exercise VI. 

^n ^^ ^Nrfar i 3 i ^ifatfy-ii Jrrerra 1 8 1 *rcr f^wrirf 
f^rf^r i m i tjtc ^f^n^n:^rr?irRf7f i $ i ^ P>tt!miq if- 
*tpr: i ^> i ^r^ft ^trt ^gf*r frt^T i c i *nft ^5*^<s i e i 

T^t m*!W. i <k i ^: ftpsra mimm i «iE t i ^ \ wr *hit *rr- 
^rf^r i qg i *wr ^frrw ^ $<*f^ *rran: it <m 11 

16. The warriors 1 play 3 for money 2 (instr.). 17. The king's 2 
horses 3 become weary 5 on the road 4 to-day 1 . 18. The warrior 1 
pierces 4 his enemy 3 with the spear 2 . 19. Bees 1 are fond of 3 (Tf^ ) 
honey 2 . 20. The water 2 of his tears 1 moistens 4 (1^Q his feet 3 . 
21. There 2 bees 1 are flitting about 3 (*J*0- 22 - ^ w0 meQl are cook- 
ing 5 honey 2 and 4 fruits 3 . 23. When 1 the teacher's 2 anger 3 ceases 4 , 
then 5 the scholars 7 rejoice 6 . 24. Tears 1 stand 4 in the warriors' 2 

42 Lesson VI. VII. 

eyes . 25. The enemies 1 overwhelm 4 (cfTf) the king 2 with arrows 


A V 

26. A quarter 3 of the injustice 1 falls upon 4 ("^g) the king 3 (ace). 

Lesson VII. 

141. Causative Verbs (native -'cur-class "). The Hindu gram- 
marians describe a certain present-system which they assign to a 
so-called "cwr-class". This is, however, in fact no present-class 
at all, but a causative or secondary conjugation, which is not con- 
fined to tke present-system. But many formations of this sort have 
no causative value; and it is chiefly these that are grouped by the 
Hindus in their cur-class, which also includes some denominative- 
stems in dya, with causative accent. For practical purposes it is 
well enough to consider these verbs here. 

142. The causative-stem is formed by adding "^f^f dya to the 
root, which is usually strengthened; and the strengthening process 
is in the main as follows: 

143. 1. Medial or initial ^[ i, ^ u, and ^g r have the guna- 
strengthening, if capable of it; thus, ^"^ cur, ^tTTfa cordyati ; 
f^fi? v id> c(^ij(7f veddyati ; but iffe pld, lfl\gtjfrT piddyati. 

144. 2. A final vowel has the rreWfa'-strengthening ; thus, 
\jj dhr, \nTTfH dhdrdyati. Before "^S^aya, T£di and njn" au become 
VJIT*! ay and ^TTW dv respectively; thus, *ft bin, HfmZfflf bhaydyati ; 
V bhu, ^TT^SlfTT bhavdyati. 

145. 3. Medial or initial ^!J a in a metrically light syllable is 
sometimes lengthened, and sometimes remains unchanged; thus, 
^J^ ksal, caus. ^M"*lffT Jcsdldyati; but ^T^ jan, caus. WRjfrf 

146. The inflection is the usual one of a-stems. 

147. Rales of euphonic combination. In external combination 
an initial sonant of whatever class (even a vowel or semivowel or 
nasal) requires the conversion of a preceding final surd to a sonant. 

Lesson VII. 


148. Final <^ r. 1. Final ^ t becomes W d, before any initial £~-><x- 
sonant, except the palatals, the nasals, and *f /: thus, 4^1^ "^T^ 
meghat atra becomes 5R^T7^ meghdd atra; M I M 1 cf^ T^f^T pdpdt 
raksati or >J753|'f?r bhramyati or ^ftHl^fTT gopdyati becomes trrqT- 

gT^fffT pdpdd raksati or MIlfl^T+trfrT pdpdd bhramyati or M I M IsTt MT~ 
Vffl pdpdd gopdyati. 

149. 2. Final c^ t is assimilated to an initial palatal, lingual, y- v ^ SSl 
or *f I in the next word ; thus it becomes tE^ c before x^ c and 

H? ch, ^ j before ^ j, and W I before ^T I: e. g., *mid s ^ meghdt ca 
becomes +(V1|^f meghdc ca; "i\i%\<\^ 5f^f*^ meghat jalam becomes 
*jy |T3JHH meghdj jalam; XJTXn?^ ^tefc|<^ papdt lokdt becomes 
papal lokdt. 

150 3. Before initial ^T c, final <^ t becomes ^ c, and the 

t* c 

<* C-¥ch 
T\ c then becomes ^ ch; thus, HMIc^ !£% nrpat catruh becomes ,rch 

^1||t^^; nrpdc chatruh. 

151. 4. Before initial nasals ?(_ t becomes «^n: thus, *J^T?^ ^"^^L 

"Rlf?f gvhat nayati becomes OTTT?Rlf?V gfhan nuyati. But the change 

into 7d is also permitted, though hardly used; thus, J|^|<j<|fH 

grhdd nayati. 

Verbs : 

^\"HH kathaya (denom. stem — 

kathdyati) relate, tell, 
"^f ksal (ksdldyati) wash. 
Tp^jf ganaya (denom. — gandyati) 

number, count. 
^1^ cur (cordyati) steal. 
(l^tad (tdddyati) strike, beat. 

Vocabulary VII. 

rT^T tul (toldyati) weigh. 

f* l^Zf dandaya (denom. — da- 

nddyati) punish. 

•ft + ^HT ni + a (andyati) bring. . 

Trfe ptd (plddyati) torment, vex. 

Till puj (pujdyati) honor. 

, devils) 

JJpr (pdrdyati) overcome.; prevail. 


44 Lesson VII. VIII. 

bH3t janaka, m., father. 
^Tf5 danda,m., stick ; punishment. 
trail punya, n., merit. 
T5^f phala, n., fruit; reward. 
ra]^| rdmdyana, n., a noted 

^Xn rupaka, n., gold-piece. 
«f|cfi loka, m. , world, people 

(sing, and pi.). 
TSV$ sddhu, m.. holy man, saint. 
3Rn$ swyarna, n., gold. 

~^r\ suta, m., driver, charioteer. 


%5f stena, m., thief. 

Adverb: ^ iva as, like (postpos.). 
Exercise VII. 


%?r. ^t| w^t prqfrcqfft iqi ^^ flrqtqrnwrfmi 

wrt Tqf^ 1 m 1 «nft ^mifui ww i$ 1 yrrowri ^^ 
^^rf^i^iTW^^^^TTJrRiw^Rm: i c i f^if iirfor- 

^qrff ^far: winfd 11 9? 11 

14. Thieves 1 steal 4 the people's 2 money 3 . 15. The two boys 
wash 3 their mouths 2 . 16. The father 1 tells 5 his sons 2 (dat.) the 
reward 4 of sin 3 . 17. The scholars 1 honor 3 and 5 reverence 4 their 
teacher 2 . 18. Ye both bring 3 fruits 1 in your hands 2 and 5 count 4 
them. 19. Merit 1 protects 3 from misfortune 2 (abl). 20. The char- 
ioteers 1 strike 4 the horses 2 with sticks 3 . 21. In anger 1 (abl) the 
king 2 pierces 5 the thief 3 with a spear 4 . 

Lesson VIII. 

152. Verbs, a- conjugation. Present Indicative Middle. The 

present indicative middle of verbs whose stems end in a is inflected 
as follows: 

Lesson VIII. 45 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

1. ^£ vdde rcFV^ vdddvahe 1^TO% vdddmahe 

2. ^ST% vddase ^179 vddethe 33^q vddadhve 

3. <Jd"rl vddate ^^n vddete ^rf^ vddante 

153. The ending of the 3rd pi. is properly ^r% ante (cf. f^T 
n# for Tlrf^fT aw^' in t|J B): before the TJ *> of the 1st sing, the 
.stem-final is dropped. ^^^ ethe and XJTf ete are hard to explain. 

154. With verbs inflected in both voices, the chief force of the 
middle is this, that the action is performed for the benefit of the 
actor himself; thus, ^JWfjf ydjati 'he sacrifices' (for some one else); 
^J^% ydjate 'he sacrifices for himself. But many verbs are 
conjugated only in the middle, like the Latin and Greek deponents. 

155. The verb J{ mr, 'die', makes fjytjd mriydte in the pres- 
ent; and 5T«^ jan, 'give birth', substitutes as present mid. 9TRra 
jayate, 'be born'. 

156. Combination of final and initial vowels. Two simple i*~i ■ 
vowels, either or both of them short or long, coalesce and form ?< 
the corresponding long vowel. For the a-vowels, see above, § 105. 
Thus : 1. ^ % or \% + ^ % or \% — \ ?; e. g. ^T^f^T ^f?T gacchati 

iti becomes ?T^£r?Vf?T gacchati 'ti. 2. ^Mor^M+^Mor^fM 
= ^i u; e. g. ^TTV ^HHWC sddhu uktam becomes Q | y JRIf^ sadhu 

157. The /-vowels, the u- vowels, and ^Jr, before a dissimilar y^^^y 
vowel or diphthong, are regularly converted each into its own &*-•* 
corresponding semivowel, Jly or ^ v or \r. Thus, KlTTm ^S(% ' 
tisthati atra becomes ffRTftPI tisthaty atra (four syllables); •fiJT'^r^ 

nadl atra becomes «RI^ nady atra; *ra ^SC^ rnadhu atra becomes 
Hl^l madhv atra; ^JTT ^^ kartr iha becomes Zfff^ug kartr iha. 

* And theoretically 3. ^S r + ^gr= "^f. but probably this has 
no occurrence. 

/ I 

46 Lesson VIII. 

*a.'' &oe-z, 158. Final TJ e and "^ft o remain unchanged before an initial 

short "^ a, but the "% a disappears. Thus, ^T ^J^ ^cme otfra be- 
comes ^?f $^ wane 'fra; ){|«ft ^5^ Marco afra becomes WTt S^f 
6/fdno 'Jra. By far the commonest case of final ^ft o is where it 
," 7> " W Represents final ^ a* (see §118). 
^*-*ay 159. The final ^ < or ^ w-element of a diphthong is changed 

+ h-0 to its corresponding semivowel T( y orrHp, before any vowel or 

diphthong, except when the rule of § 158 would apply. Thus, TJ e 
becomes ^1 a y, an ^ \ di, ^SIT?! ay; ^SCt o becomes tJT^ av -> aQ d 
■^ aw, ^1«| dv. Thus, in internal combination, ^-"^f ne-a becomes 
•f^J«ay/a; ^fif- - ^ bho-a becomes ^^ bhava ; so •T-^r^I nai-aya yields 
STRT3 ndy-aya y and ^ft-^^pjr bhdu-aya yields VTT^!? bhdv-aya. 
cxtcrnd owi). |60. In external combination, the resulting semivowel is in gen- 
*+/ < ->>A.+i eral dropped; and the resulting hiatus remains. Thus, ^% ^m 
- , ^^.^J vfl rne ift' becomes ^*T ^fTT *?««« to' (through the intermediate stage 
<t«rfqf 7T vanay iti); *TT«ft Tf^ bhdno iti becomes 3JTT Tf?f bhdna 
iti (through *TT«rfaf7T bhdnav iti). The case of final T£ e is by far 
the more frequent. See also § 164. 
j sM/= 161. Certain final vowels maintain themselves unchanged be- 
fore any following vowel. Such are 1. ^l, ^f u, and T£ e as dual 
endings, both of declension and of conjugation; thus, f^T^" ^ <7*' r * 
iha, WTW W3 sddhu atra; Xfi% ^1 phale atra. 2. The final, or 
only, vowel of an interjection ; thus, f \*% he indra, *% ^t he ague. 

Vocabulary VIII. 
Verbs (deponents) : spring up (mother in loc). 

"^HN arthaya (denom. — art/id- J^f bhas (bhdsate) speak. 

yate) ask for (w. two accus.). T( mr (mriyate) die. 

^ Iks (iksate) see, behold. Ttf{yat(ydtate) strive for (w. dat.). 

W*{ kamp (kdmpate) tremble. ^V yudh (yudhyate) fight (w. 

^T 5 ^ jan (J ay ate) be born, arise, instr. of accompaniment). 

Lesson VIII. 


^W rabh + ^JJ a (drdbliote) take 

hold on, begin. 
■5^^ ruc(rocate) please (dat., gen.). 

^•^ vand (vdndate) greet, honor. 
■fjr^T piles (ciksate) learn. 
T£% sah (sdhate) endure. 

wfH fabh (Jdbhate) receive, take. | ^f^ sev (senate) serve, honor. 

H*\tl anartha, m., misfortune. 
^f^f^l udyoga, m., diligence. 
<4i^||(!j kalydna, n., advantage ; 

tf^ taru, m., tree, 
f^f dvija, m., Aryan. 
f^^TTf^ dcijati, m., Aryan. 
VJlf dharma, m., righ' ; law ; virtue. 
^p$ dhdirya, n., steadfastness. 
ip*J />apw, m., beast, 
^f bala, n., strength, might. 

¥Mm manusya, in., man (homo). 

^JyT yajna, m., sacrifice. 

^TT uana, n., woods, forest. 

fc|«Jif vinaya, m., obedience. 

cfVf^" vici, m., wave. 

IJf^f pos£ra,n., science; text-book. 

Tjj^ pudra, m., man of the fourth 


f^TT Aito, n., advantage. 
Adverb: «T na, not. 

Exercise VIII. 

^rt *rnre i * i ^n Tnf^f wt^R^fr &fcrfi i 3 i ht# (§ iei) 

^tto i ^ i t^wt: (abi.) ^% ^ft *wi i ^ i ^fWi«f ^^ i q i 
wtft t^ ^t*t: i qo i vfci v*l *m^ ^t?i i w I ¥^r «nrt: 
Tjr^t ^tpsit: %*r#t i <r i xr% ^ TT^n^r^r *nwtf%scT: i ^ , 
W?r w$ *rra i <te i ^# wf% i <w i ^fw w$t 
%*r% II 9$ II 

17. The two houses 4 yonder tremble 6 by the power 3 (instr.) 

^frf, -thus', is very commonly used as a particle of quotation, 
following the words quoted. 


Lesson VIII. IX. 

of the ocean's 1 waves 2 . 18. The father 3 beholds 4 his son's 1 face.' 
19. "We strive 3 after the advantage 2 of the scholars 1 ;" thus 4 
(Xf^) speak 6 the teachers 5 . 20. The children 2 ask 4 their father 1 
for food 3 (accus.). 21. In the forest 1 yonder 2 elephants 3 are 
fighting 5 with bears 4 . 22. The two Qudras 3 serve 4 the two Aryans 1 
here 2 . 23. Fruits 1 please 3 the children 2 . 24. Whence 1 do ye receive 3 
money 2 ? 25. Now 1 the two seers 2 begin 4 the sacrifice 8 . 

Lesson IX. 

162. Feminines in ^n" a, declined like %TT send, 'army. 

Singular. Dual. 



%ifT send %% sene (a 4- ») 

%1l«^ sends 


%*TR^ sendm » « 

» » 


%5Rn senayd %*TTOT7{. sendbhydm 

^'Trf'TO sendbhis 


«^ *^ 

^Tnmr sendbhyas 


*H|4| senayai » „ 


• *l4\M\^senayds » » 

r> -n 


j> » %T^t^ senayos 
%*fl*IIH. sendydm » » 

%TT*ITH sendndm 


4MI4J sendsu 

V. %% sene 

163. Adjectives in ^Sf a are declined in the raasc. like flT^, in 

the fern, like <M|, in the neuter like HRf. But often the fem. 

stem ends in % I, and is declined like •T^' (in Less. XI). 
..• - 164. Final ^ m and ^h" «^, according § 159, become ^TRf % 

- . ^^ s and ^TTf «w respectively before any following vowel or diphthong. 

The II or 3 may then be dropped, leaving a hiatus. The II is 

in fact always dropped, but the ^ not often. Thus, %TRT ^SHI 

becomes, through the medium of 4f«f|«J|4| ^T^, %STRIT ^HT; 

^cft tSH| becomes ^TR"^- 

165. Initial *§, after short vowels, the preposition ^TT, and the 


Lesson IX. 


prohibitive particle TOT, becomes ^g": thus, TO^l $|<|| becomes TO^ 

166. An initial ^ of a root generally becomes TO after a TL^y ">> 
verbal prefix containing ^, either original or representing ^; such 
as ^RT?C 'between', f^, l?TX etc. Thus, jpprf*> f*n!!TOfiT. 

167. The following prefixes are often used before verbs: TOT 
'after, along, toward'; TO^I 'down, off'; ^3^ 'up, up forth or out'; 
TO^J 'to, toward'; fsf'down; in, into'; f^TTO. 'out, forth'; HXj 'to 
a distance, away'; tJTT 'round about, around'; TJ 'forward, forth'; 
TOTO 'along with, completely.' 


Vocabulary IX. 

icef - 

,r.S - 

pro. - 

Actire Verbs: 

3JTO + TO^" (avagdcchati) under- 

H + TOTO (avatdrati) descend. 

*ft + ^f (upandyati) introduce, 
consecrate. *-> ~ 

+ Tff^(parindyati) lead about; 

^<^ + ^^ (utpdtati) fly up. 

TO^ + TO?T (avardhati) descend. 



3TTO. + ^C (saingdcchate) come 
together, meet. (•*• ** a ^ rM j 

Subst. : 

X^ m., arrow. t-SU. 
TOTOT t't daughter, maiden. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 

f^J t T^CT (pardjdyate) be con- 
quered (rarely w. act. sense: 

Xf% + J( (prapddyate) flee for re- 
fuge (ace.) to (ace. of person). 

f*?q(bhiksate) beg, get by begging. 

Sra|l| (denom. — mrgdyate) hunt 
for, seek. 

W<^ (vdrtate) exist, subsist, be, 

"mi (cdbhate) be brilliant, shinej 
be eminent. 

ipfj gaiigd {.,, the Ganges. 
n^TOT m -i householder, head of 
family. ffdt&ffi&S 


Lesson IX. 

^"PETT f., shade. 

1HTP1 m «? nom. pr., Prayaga (a 

city, Allahabad). 
^T?T n., fear. 
ifj^T f., wife, woman. 
*fTGrj f., speech, language. 
■fir^T f., alms. 
^rjTTT f-), Yamuna (a river, 

the Jumna). 
"^TJf m., n., battle. 
<*HJ f., street. 

f^ETT f-j knowledge, learning. 
■fa^J m., bird. 
^TTO m - 5 hunter. 


^"^T![ n., protection. 
WW[ f., twilight. tj£» 
*cf3J m., heaven. 
^*{ n., heart. hrda.y«- 

"spm, f. ©tSTT, black. 
UTTj, f. ©^jt> bad, wicked. 
TRTfT- f- ^TT, much, abundant; 

Os. ' 

pl. many. 


^f^ together with (postpos. , w. 

■HlfSrT suddenly, quickly. 

Exercise IX. 
rqTff^T I * I *raf f^J JpTCTnT ^^?: I $ I fT^ ^TT TW *rft- 

■ag^ <«ii»ui<ul inre^ i $ i f**w*n ttt^t fsr^ft ^^ i ^ i 

^T WW[ Trref t^T^ fT^T ^Pl *TH^ I «= I 5*^1^1 (§«64) ^ 

f^irh-ti wrf ^t Tr^T^faT t <^*=i i *% fwr *ptw Twng 

15. The two scholars 1 beg 6 much 2 alms 3 from the wives 5 of 
the householders 4 . 16. At Prayaga 1 the Ganges 2 unites 4 with the 
Yamuna 3 . 17. Bad 1 men 2 do not 4 reach 5 (*T*I ) heaven 3 . 18. O 
Visnu 1 , to-day 3 Civa 2 marries 7 Gaiiga 6 , Harps 4 daughter 5 . 19. In the 
battle 1 the kings 3 fight 4 with arrows 2 and 6 conquer 7 their enemies 5 . 

* "Birds of a feather flock together". 

Lesson IX. X. 51 

'20. Here 2 in the street 3 the two kings 1 dismount 6 from their black 
horses 5 . 21. The seer's 2 two sons 3 are eminent 4 in learning 1 (instr.). 

22. From fear 3 of the wicked 1 hunters 2 (abl.) two birds 4 fly up 5 . 

23. At twilight 1 (loc. du.) the seers 2 (§ 13, 3) reverence 4 the gods 3 . 

24. In the street 2 of the village 1 the teacher 3 and 5 the scholar 4 meet 6 . 

25. We two sacrifice 2 to the gods 1 for ourselves; we do not 4 sacri- 
fice 5 for Hari 3 . 

Lesson X. 

168. Verbs. Passive Inflection. A certain form of present- 
stem, inflected with middle endings, is used only with a passive 
meaning, and is formed from all roots for which there is occasion 
to make a passive conjugation. Its sign is an accented Jf yd added 
to the root, without any reference to the classes according to which 
the active and middle forms are made. The inflection is precisely 

•v *v *""- 

like that of other a-stems. Thus, 7FQ tanye, r\m^( tanydse, rRTrT 
tanydte, etc. 

169. Outside the present-system middle forms may be used in 
a passive sense; but there is a special form for the aor. pass, in 
the 3rd sing. 

170. The form of root to which the passive-sign is appended 
is usually a weak one. Thus a penultimate nasal is dropped; and 
certain abbreviations which are made in the weak forms of the 
perfect, or in the past passive participle, are found also in the 
passive present-system. E. g. from ^f^ , pass. tR^TT; from ^*J, 

171. In the roots ^W. «^. ^t^, q^, ^"^, and ^1^, the ^ va 
becomes ^ u in the pres. ; thus, "^^fl, >4U|ri; ^tild (see note to 

§ 102), ^pSHJ. Similarly, ^J^T makes ^stjfl, and 1X\ and TJ^ make ya, ^ u 
*TU^ and ^Pffi; TTCI: makes f^ffi. T tV ^ ¥• 

52 Lesson X. 

\Oo+ channel -tot- p*~ts/ve CenJ. 


172. Final ^ and ^ of roots are generally lengthened; thus, 

173. Final ^B is in general changed to fT> thus, ^, f?Rint; 

h -*>Zr but if preceded by two consonants it takes guna; thus, ^H, 4£J«H- 
The roots in "variable r", which the natives write with "^ f, 
change ^J to %"^, or, if a labial letter precede, to ^TT; thus, H, 
iftftfi; $, ' strew', ^t$ft; but 9, xHjft. 

fi^Z '74. Final "^n" of roots is usually changed to ^; thus, «?T, 

^JfajTT; TT> wWf ; VT, VW^- But MR makes WT*Rh and so some 
other roots in ^. ' ' 

175. The roots <f^ and Hiari^ usually form their passives from 
parallel roots in ^n"; thus, dl*H- But rTHJd and 1&&1 occur. 

176. Verbs of causative inflection, and denominatives in "^J, 
form their passive by adding H to the causative or denominative 
stem after "^Jf has been dropped; thus, '-c^ifr) 'is stolen'; IfWTl 
' is counted '. 

177. The personal passive construction, with the logical subject 
in the instrumental, is particularly common with transitive verbs ; 
and not less so the impersonal passive construction, both with 
transitive and intransitive verbs. Thus, •f^lJJ' (tpff ^W% ' Heaven 
is reached by the man'; -4||J|44|?( 'one comes hither'; WQfQ 'one 
sleeps'; VVTO 'it is heard', i. e. 'they say'. The predicate to the 
instrumental subject of such a construction is of course also in- 
strumental; thus, {Jtjqjfi^QJI ^31% 'Rama lives as a seer'. 

Vocabulary X. 

Verbs, with passives: 

W (p. kriydte) make, do, perform. 
*sSH[khdnati; p. khaydte,khanydte) 

lfl(gdyati; p. giydte) sing. 

TfW(p.grhydte)take, receive, seize. 
TTT (ddgati; p. dagydte) bite. 
2Z"T (dydti; p. dlydte) cut. 
£\<4 (dlvyati; p. dlvydte) play. 
l^ff (p. dhiydte) put, place. 

Lesson X. 


2\sTT (dhdyati; p. dhlydte) suck. 
YE[\ (dhyayati ; p. dhydydte) think, 

1TJT (p. plydle) drink. 
Ill (Hindu TJ; p. purydte) fill. 
^**J (p. badhydte) bind ; entangle ; 

ITT (p- mly ate) measure. 
^^ (p. ucydte) speak. 

Subst. : 
■3 It] | f., command. &\^&J 

TffTUT f-, hope. 

efiTH n., fagot ; wood. TilS ifou- 

* * 

^ftrT n., song. 

^J m., pot, vessel. 

^HT n., melted butter; ghee. 

^TRT n-, grain. 

XTnj m., noose, cord, snare. 

<^ (vdpati; p. upydte) sow, scatter. 

SJHJ1 (p. fisydte) rule; punish. 

?T (p. qruydte) hear. 

^f (p. stuydte) praise. 

^T^ (p. supydte) sleep. 

l^T (p. hlydte) abandon, give up; 

*T or 57 (hvdyati; p. huydte) call. 

+ ^TT call, summon. 

HTT m -5 burden. */&* 
f*f^ m., beggar, ascetic. 
IffOH m., servant. 
TT^rr f-, garland. 
<Ja*J n., kingdom. 
flTT m., child. 
^JH m-, snake. 

f%^fa, f. 0, ?rT, obedient. 

Exercise X. 


^^ ^T ^Effi | $ | fafTR Ml^4w(ni | 8 I ^I^TT T«T% | M I 

^t ^5^ i c i *n|<rr f^i ijjf^rer *rHNr f*r^ft ^to% i o. i 

^t§t ^wt: fijsRf i <te i hhji: ^T^rri *nft ^Tg f tgH i ^m i 
^?r%f *rer *fftnt i <\§ i **5fiir tt^t f^m ^xjj- i q^> i ^w 

54 Lesson X. XL 

(Use passive constructions throughout.) 
20. Grain 2 is scattered 3 for the birds 1 . 21. Garlands 1 are twi- 
ned 3 (use ^5tj ) by the maidens 2 . 22. Again 2 Hari 1 is praised 4 
by Rama 3 . 23. Visnu 1 drinks 4 water 3 from his hand 2 . 24. 'Pleas- 
antly 1 («^j*t) one sleeps in the shade 2 '; so 4 say 5 the people". 
25. Both seers 1 sacrifice 2 . 26. The father 1 sets 4 hopes 2 on his child 3 
(loc). 27. The scholar 3 neglects 4 the teacher's 1 command 2 . 28. The 
two scholars 1 think 3 about their text-book 2 (nom.). 29. Grain 2 is 
sown 3 in the fields 1 . 30. They play 2 with dice 1 (impers. pass.). 

31. The king's 1 commands 2 are received 5 by the obedient 3 servants 4 . 

32. The man 1 digs 3 in the field 2 . 

Lesson XI. 

178. Verbs. Imperfect Active, a- con j ligation. The imperfect is 
formed from the pre^nt-stem by prefixing the augment ^f, and adding 
a set of secondary endings. 

179. If the present-stem begin with a vowel, the augment unites 
_ with it to form always the crddhi-vowe\, not the guna: thus^-r^ 

or X or TI = "5; ^ + ^ or ^f = ^jt; ^ + ^ - ^TTT- 

180. If a preposition be prefixed, the augment comes between 
preposition and verb, as in Greek ; thus, from ^JT?-«ft, impf.-stem 
jgM H, i. e. ^T? + ^ + «W5 f^Mfc impf.-stem ^JVf^r. is? 

181. The inflection in the active is as follows: 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

1. -*H^*i tivac pm ^SR^T^ dfackjm. *RR[T*T dvad p,ma_ _ 

2. ^R^. dvadhs ^STW^fTt dvad Ltam ^R«£cl dvadfita 
3- "SR^ dvadtrt. ^R^ WTH dvadatam "^R^t dv adjhn^ 

182. The imperfect is the tense of narration ; it expresses past 
time simply, without any further implication. 

183. Polysyllabic Feminines in $" i. declined like ?T^L 'river.' 

!c(ysy \\a\tic Y*VAiv\yy\es 

•T?\ nadi 
*\d\l{ nadtm 
«f<j ( nadijd 
•T^f nadydi 
•T^n^C nadyas 

Lesson XL ^^ , rJwCr , 










Dual. Plural. 

Iran nadydu •RJ?^ nadyas 

•T^l^l 1*1. nadlbhydm' •f3lf^^ nadibhis 

•Tcffaf^ nadibhyat 


•1^1*1IH nadlndm 
•fi^Cf nadisi 


•T^JTt n ^dydm r> » 

184. Final nasals. The nasals ^. HI , and «^, occurring as finals 
q/Yer a sfor£ vowel, are doubled before any initial vowel: thus, t£- 
"firet ^5R becomes ^rf?r?9% 

7r } *m 

n. ) nn 

qjf^ + TJI^f (avakrntdti) cut off or 


TfS (pdthati) recite, read. 

Vocabulary XI. 

fsfTl + T[ (pravi^dti) enter. 

+ ^XJ seat oneself. 
H + "^TT (dhdrati, -te) fetch, bring. 


^TSjm., purpose; meaning; wealth. 

^«£ m., worn, pr., the god Indra. 
^•j^JUfj f., 7*om. j?r., the goddess 

^iT^ n., poem. 
^J«SI m., literary work, book. 
Ql^ln) f-i mother. 
^|+J| f-? female slave, servant, 
rfcft f, goddess, queen. 
^TTt f-, city. 
ITT^ £j woman, wife. 

xjj^7 f., wife, consort. 
I XT^t f., daughter. 
TT^^j n.. book (manuscript). 
TJ^ m., flood, high water. 
mH!|41 f-j earth ; ground. 
^TI|JW na., priest, Brahman, 
♦irtjsj m-j fish. 
«| IMl f, cistern. 
^T^JT f, council, meeting. 
%«n f-, army. 
^jft^T n., song of praise. 

56 Lesson XI. XII. 

Exercise XI. 
HMfd^JlO *H<JI^«J<t I S I liTC WRIT ^i7^H«MM4«l I ^ I 

^q^fguu : i ^ i ^tot TWTf wrtoi«mih i c i ^rar 
itt 4ihi^^ i <n i ^r far^t f^^ ^TOJnram <t^t§ tt^t- 

14. When 1 ye besought (ITRT) the kingf for protection** (ace), 
then 5 ye were 7 (*HT) in misfortune 6 . 15. In the two rivers 1 Ganga* 
and* Yamuna 3 it is 6 (^effi) high- water 5 . 16. The two women 1 sang* 
a song of praise 3 about Rama 2 (gen.). 17. O 1 seers 2 , why 3 do ye 
both sacrifice 6 to the goddesses 4 with melted butter 5 ? 18. The q ueen's 1 
women-servants 2 brought 6 jewels 3 and 5 precious stones*. 19. In 
anger 1 (abl.) the teacher 2 struck* the scholar 5 with his hand 3 . 

20. The two servants 1 brought 5 water* from the cistern 3 in pots 2 . 

21. Ye cut off* (imp/.) wood 3 from the trees 2 with the axe 1 . 22. The 
seer 1 praised 6 IndranI*, Indra's 2 consort 3 , with hymns 5 . 

Lesson XII. 

185. Feminine Substantives in ^ i and ^3 u are declined as in 
the paradigms on the next page. The two series of forms exhibit 
complete parallelism: where the one shows t, y, e, or ay, the other 
shows respectively u, v, o, or av ; cf. §§ 50, 51. In the D., Ab.- 
G., and L. sing., these stems sometimes follow •<<£) ; thus matydi, 
-yds, -yam; dhenvdi, -vds, -vdm. 

186. Feminities in ^[ i and ^ u : ?rf7T 'opinion'; \I|«T 'cow'. 

Lesson XII. 


Sing. Dual. 

N. ^TfcRi; matte ?Tfft matt 

A. JTftm. matim „ „ 

I. TOT fflfl 'F if^lHTRt matibhydm 

D. f?nt mataye (<«<*ty««')„ „ 

Ab. VT^^ mates i-/* s ) „ „ 

L. ^fft - wwtfaw ty**") s s 

V. jfr[ mate 

TrT^R^ matayas 

*Tf7W?^ matibhyas 

» » 

HlffaTt matlnam 
JjfrTM matim 

VT dhenu 

N. V*!^. Menus 

A. ^1 jl dhenum 

I. ^J^TT dhenva 

D. VT% dhenave C-\fti] „ „ 

Ab. V*fftt dfonos (-v^s) „ „ 

G. » » " ^NfaC. Menvos 

L. ^fM^flau (-v*"} „ 

V. ^f^t rf/<«MO 

187. Adjectives in ^[ i and "^ « are often inflected in the fe- 
minine like 3Tf?f and \j«T. But adjectives in ^ u preceded by one 
consonant often form a derivative feminine stem by adding ^ 7. 
Thus, ^p" 'much', N. masc. «nn^, f. ^jft, n. ^^; *J?X 'heavy', 
m. 5\H. £ T^T, u- T5- This fem. is then declined like «T«^- 

\[«fe(f( dhenavas 
VT^ dhenus 
\piTOn^ dhenubhydm T$*ffi&{^ dhenubhis 

\f«pjF^ dhenubhyas 

n n 

%j<l*IIH dhenunam 
VHJ dhenum 


m (kdlpate) be in order; tend 

or conduce to (10. tfa£.). 

Vocabulary XII. 

f^TTT + ~*&Q (upadicdti) teach, in- 
2fcH* (vinddti, vinddte) acquire. 





Subst. : 

cfiT^T n., poem. 
^f?f f-, glory. 
aftTj m., cowherd, shepherd; 

inffT f-- birth; caste; kind. 
VfrT f«) decision of character; 

tTTf^N' na„ prince. 
^fjT f., prudence, intelligence. 
*Tf^f f., devotion, honor. 
*TTT m., part, piece. 
*T"f7T f., prosperity, blessing. 
9jf7T f., earth, ground, land. 

Lesson XII. 

I^f^iT f-, fty, gnat- MiLKUKd. 
Jjfrti t"., salvation, deliverance. 
zrfg f., stick, staff, t,^* ^ 
^f^Ff m., ray; rein. 
TTN f-, night. 
sRT m., wound. tfrA***' 
^fTT% f-, repose. 
^rf?T f> hearing ; holy writ. 
CTfrT f., tradition; law book. 
^?T m., sleep; dream. 
f^J f., jaw. 

«ffa, f. o^TT, low. 
gigr, f. o^rr, principal, first, mukhu^ 
v%& m., f., n., or f. °^^, light. ~" ( 

M *1 £" C ov4 

1^ c{ £ OpiA^ov- 

Exercise XII. 

^TT: ^^Tff»?^f^rT ITTf*rTf*r^f*rT OTTO II S II 

^% i r i Tnsn ^rcr t ^wrf i $ i srifT ^VfS ^srrfa^w^- 
frr: 1 8 1 3^ Tffm *nra i m i ^^f^T% ^XmNm^cjHt: i $ i 
? ^T^rgt *rf t irsrMi^<iH. i ^ i ^^^srr ^f^^rrwr <*h^> 
mwFl f«= i y^ri *nn*n *fhn *pti?r% i o. i fswnffai wrf<p$ 
srr^pjn *j*3rr: noi iwi'^ ^raiB i«n i wran ^f^reft" Wrf% i <r i 
*$*Am wt^wt^ i *i ^r*nf«N: i «i$ i ^c^r ^ot«pwr^- 
<rg n <*8 ii 

15. Visnu 3 rejoices 4 at the devotion 2 (instr.) of the pious 1 (pi), 
and 6 gives 7 deliverance 5 . 16. Men 3 of many 1 castes 2 dwelt 5 in the 
city 4 . 17. The birds 1 see 3 the hunter 2 , and 5 fly up 6 from the 
ground*. 18. By the power 2 of intelligence 1 we overcame* advers- 

Lesson XII. XIII. 59 

ity 3 . 19. The cowherd 1 guards 4 the cows 3 in the wood 2 . 20. By 
intelligence 1 and 3 diligence 2 ye acquire 6 much* glory 5 . 21. The 
poem 1 tends 4 to the poet's 2 glory 3 (two datives). 22. For prosperity 1 
we bow before 3 Civa 2 (ace). 23. The reins 1 are being fastened* 
(^W ) to the horse's 2 jaws 3 (loc). 24. In the night 1 we both read 3 
(imp/.) holy writ 2 . -iN 

Lesson XIII. <>( 

-./ f 



188. Verbs, (/-conjugation. Imperfect Middle. The imperfect 
middle of verbs in a is as follows: ^ r~ff ."?•-•«. »*& *iw.:wV| *»* { *«■*■ • 

aiijVv Clftt^Att' receive- t^ rjeT 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

•**" 1. ^R dlabhe (a + i) °^T^ff dlabh avahi °*TFflf% dlabh amahi 
i. d 2. TOPTOTTOC dlabh athds 5fsn$^ dlabh etham °lf^R^ dlabha dhvam 
ff ^ 3. <4H+(r| dlabhata °5^<n^ dlabhetam °H«fl dlabh antg. 

With Q^TP^ and UrilH °f tne dual, c *- U^f ana " THT or> the 

pres. ind. mid. 

ft<?V\0<ylM»fc , aU q* ^ac^rs} 

189. Boot -words in f" / are declined as follows: 4hl wvi«ie«rst'<^<^\> 
Sing. Dual. Plural. 

N. V. tsTftC «*^Js f^Rft dhiyau f^RC. dhiyas 

A. fSRHl c?%ow? „ „ „ „ 

I. f^RIT dhiyd TSftWYf^ dhlbhydm MTf^EI. dhlbhis 

D. f\J% d%e (~y5i) „ „ ^^T^. dhlbhyas 

Abl. ftPTSt d%«* 0« 3) » » » » 

G. « ft J.y» ftRfftt d % os t^raTR: d%aw f-r«s»i) 

L. f^rf^T aVu'^' -yi* ft « ^jfal ^ifM 

In the D., Ab. -Gen., and L. sing., and G. pi., these stems 
sometimes follow •frf 7 | ; thus, dhiyai, dhiyas, dhiydm, dhlnam. Cf. 
§ 185. Observe that where the case- ending begins with a vowel 
the stem -final i is split into iy. 


Lesson XIII. 

<X^V\t _- 

<Kv\r\t - 



r«.4"i — 

?o~t initial: 

190. The following additional prefixes are used with verbs: 
^Tfa 'over, above, on'; ^rfq 'unto, close upon'*; ^rf*l 'to, unto', 
'against' (often with implied violence) ; f^f 'down, into, in'; nf^ 
'back to, against, in return ' ; f% 'apart, away, out'. 

191. Both in verbal forms and in derivatives, the final ^[ or ^ 
of a prefix ordinarily lingualizes the initial ^ of a root to which 
it is prefixed; and, in a few cases, the T| remains even after an 
interposed ^J of augment or reduplication; thus, from ^J? + fsj, 
faMl^fd; ^TT + "^rfa, pres. pass. ^rfasfaffi, impf. pass. ^paj- 

192. The final ^ of prefixes in ^^ and ^g^ becomes II be- 
fore initial ^j, Tj^, T^, TJj; thus, from V^+ f*TCj;, fatM'ifrt 

Vocabulary XIII. 

lim. + ^jfrT (atikr&mati, -krdmate) 

pass beyond or by, transgress. 
«P^ + ^33 (ujjdyate) be born, 

arise from (abl.). 
+ U arise, come into existence. 
VT + ^jflf cover, keep shut. 
•TOT + fW (vindcyati) disappear, 

•Tf + ^H^. ( samndhyati) gird; 

^ + f^ (nispddyate) grow; 

arise from (abl.). 

WJ + Tf^T (pratibhdsate) answer 

(w. ace. of pers.). 
m+J( arise; rule. - »* 'chi^T*') 
^ff (racdyati) arrange, compose 

(a literary work). 
f^TO +T(fr{(pratisedati)hold back; 

%«T + f*f (nisev ate) dwell; devote 

oneself to; attend. 
^TT + ^Tfa mount, stand above 

or over; rule, govern. 
^«^ + JTf?T hinder ; injure; offend. 

Sometimes, with the verbs *T^ and \rr, abbreviated to "fa; 
but in classical Skt. most commonly used as a conjunction: 'also', 
' too '. 




Lesson XIII. 


tSTT^T f-i permission, anujrv 
t^T m., god; lord. 
<*Mt^ m., dove. 

qiiH m., love, desire. 

cft| ^jf n., reason, cause. 

^tWT m., anger. 

9TTCV n., net. 

^ f., understanding, insight. 

•TTir m., destruction. 

Tj^f in., n., lotus. 

Q^Q rn., man (homo). 

JTfTTTST m -> g reat kin g- 
^f^f m., sage; ascetic. 

^T^TT f-, girdle. 

*ft^ m., infatuation. 

T^l ni., wagon^ c k<xv-<i o~fc 

^"^T m., desire, avarice. 

^qfTI f., dwelling. 

^ft f., luck, fortune, riches; as 

nom. pr., goddess of fortune. 
3RT3 rn., ocean. 
^jf5 f-j creation. 
j^" f., modesty, bashfulness. 

^<^, f. o-^rr, whole. 

^T?[, f. °"^, beautiful. 

^T' f- °^TT 5 steadfast, brave. 

%<7, f. o; ?rr, white. 

Exercise XIII. 

wt^tt i * i *ftr g^t f%ro ^r f*f^f#r i $ i Tnt^^rrwt ir% 

^IcM^dl+i I 8 I TO fW &«*•) ^RTfa: | M | f^Rft ^%*T *JW 

15. *The goddess of fortune was born from the ocean. 16. Why 
did ye hold your ears shut? (j)ass. constr.) 17. "The Qudras spoke 

SN •. 

As the principal euphonic rules have now been stated and 

62 Lesson XIII. XIV. 

the language of the Aryans": thus answered (impers. pass.) the 

Brahmans. 18. By its cleverness the dove was freed from the 

•4 1 4 i t~ } 

net. 19. The teacher girded"M>oth hoys with the girdle. 20. When 

the scholar's modesty disappeared, then the law was offended against. 

I ± ^3 > 

21. Whence did ye get (<5W ) the white cows? 22. The whole 

earth was ruled by the greafking. 23. For prosperity (dat.) we 

% 1- *. ' 

took refuge with the king (JT-T*«f). 24. Two law-books were com- 

posed by Visnu. 25. The milk of the black cow is drunk by both 

Lesson XIV. 

193. Verbs, a- conjugation. Present Imperative Active. The 

inflection of this mode is as follows: 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

1> ^d'lfa vdddni SRTTO vdddva ~^d\*\ vddama 

2. ^»" vdda c|ddH. vddatam e|«^r1 vddata 

3. cj^'fi vddatu <4<2dlH. vddatdm ej<J«ri vddantu 

194. The three first persons are properly subjunctive forms, 
and accordingly often express a wish or future action. 

195. The second and third persons of the imperative express 
oftenest a command; sometimes a wish or future action. The 
negative used with the imv. is J{J- \* *1 

196. A rare imv. form, either 2nd or 3rd pers. sing, (or plur.), 
is made with the ending rfHT.; thus, VMdlcl- Its value is that of 
a posterior or future imv. (like the Latin forms in to and tote). 

197. Root-words in ^3? S, inflected like Mf., 'earth 1 . 

exemplified in* the exercises, no further .indication need be made, 
except in special instances, of the position of the words in the 


„ . r ■ Lesson XIV. 



^^ bhuvdu 


NV. ^; 6Afis 

A. }pm. bhuvam „ „ 

I. M^T Mwwa 9^n^ bhubhyam 

D. *T% JAttwe b>*iA<sX; „ „ 

Ab. ^^^(. bhuvas „ „ 

g. r> » •> ^cm. hhuvos 

L. *rf*T 6Aut7 bhltvXrn fl „ 

*T^TT bhuvas 

n n 

*TfHTT bhubkis 
*p?r^ bhubhyas 

TOTTOt bhuvam hhunZ.™ 
are & 

In the D., Ab.-G., and L. sing., and G. pi., these stems some- 
times follow «T<J^; thus, bhuvdi, bhuvas, bhuvam, bhunam. Cf. 
§§ 185, 189. 

198. Polysyllabic Feminines in ^3T «*, inflected like ^| f., 
4 woman '. 





cnjnr vadhus 

^*^ vadhvdu 

■^eT^ vadhvas 


cJVJM vadhum 

n n 

^"tj^ vadhus 


^3T vadhvd 

^TOT*^ radhubhyam ^Hlf*^ radhubhis 


cT^ vadhvai 

r> 7) 

^333^ vadhubkyas 


^cTPEC. vadhv>ds 

n r> 

r> n 


•n i) 

^\£ftj^ vadhvos 

srejTTFt vadhunam 


^fe^TH. vadhvam 

n n 

d\re vadhwu 


^TV vadhu 

Vocabulary XIV. 

Verbs: ?^T in pass. (dr<;ydte) seem, look. 

^TO^ + ^STfa (abhydsyati) repeat, ^^+ f*\ (nivdsati) inhabit ; dwell, 
study, learn. ^R^ + "R (pravdrtate) get a-going, 

+ H (prasyati) throw forward or | break out, arise. ' 
into. *pT (j,6cati) sorrow, grieve. 

Rjm + ^JT (adigdti) command. *T^ + f*T (nisidati) seat oneself. 


Lesson XIV. 


"^rf?Tf^T m., guest. 
■^•HT n., untruth. 
3PSTTO Q1m study; recitation 
^T^ST m --> command, prescript i 
-4(1 4H n., seat, chair. 
5fgf f. , spoon, esp. sacrificial 

VTS Q3-5 lecture, lesson. 
TTWT f-> creature; subject. 
W f., earth, ground. 
9TC1Q n., ornament. 
?J f., eyebrow. 
^U f., woman, wife. 
%f? f., altar. 
' s 3^r f., mother-in-law. 

■^ffH f., song of praise; praise. 
^jj^T f-> daughter-in-law. 

^?R^, f. o^SIT, lower; other. 
TJX\ f. °tSTT, highest; other, 
^sjf, f. °"^rT, crooked, bent. 
^•^ <, f. %, beautiful. 


~Mm$ I founder, underneath (gen.). 

^T*{ l° n g (°f time). 

^1*1*^ far, afar. 

?JT prohibitive particle, like Greek 

^t>j, Latin ne. 
^T (postpos.) or. 
£MH near by. 

Exercise XIV. 
%?| 'q cf? fr<HMH I R I *p^tf (gen.) ifeft ^% ^7* I 3 I 

f*T I SS 1 % ^V TRU ^HTPRI I «R I Wgj ^ct f?TCf?T I S3. I 
wftTWlW ^WTT II S8 II 

15. The women sing the praises (singular) of Indrani (pass, 
constr.). 16. "Study ye holy writ and the sciences, speak the 

Lesson XIV. XV. 65 

rite truth, honor your teachers": thus 1 is the prescription 3 of the 
text-books 2 for scholars 4 (gen.). 17. Let kings protect their sub- 
jects and punish the wicked: thus is the law not offended (fTT pass.). t 
18. O women , reverence your mothers-in-law. 19. Let not the 
coachman strike or torment the horses. 20. "Bring the jewels": 
thus the two maid-servants were commanded by the queen. 21. Let 
us with two spoons drop water on the altar. 22. "Let us play with 
dice for money" (instr.): thus spoke the two warriors (pass.). 
23. "To-day let me initiate (imv.) my two sons": thus says the 
Brahman. 24. Let the men dig a cistern. 

Lesson XV. 

199. Verbs, a- conjugation. Present Imperative Middle. The 

present imperative middle is inflected thus: 

Sing. Dual. Plural. ' c ' -' 

1. *W labhdi <^*| 1 4^ Idbhavahai "5WTT% labhamahai 

2. *W^ labhasva *RT^TPF^ Idbhetham vPfh3(1{ Idbhadhvam 

3. H+4dl*i labhatdm ^RtffTIT Idbhetdm ^WrTTt. Idbhantam 

200. The first persons are really subjunctive forms. The in- 
flection of the passive imv. is precisely similar; thus, ftfiq, fsfc*|^, 

f^fi^rllH' etc - 

201. Nouns in ^J r. These stems, like many belonging to the 

consonant-declension, exhibit in their inflection a difference of 
stem-form: strong, middle, and weak. (For the cases called strong, 
etc., see Introd., § 87). In the weak cases (except loc. sing.) the 
stem-final is ^J r, which in the weakest cases is changed naturally 
to Tr. But as regards the strong cases, the stems of this declension 
fall into two classes: in the one — which is much the larger, 
comprising all the nomina agentis, and a few others — the ^£ is 
vriddhied, becoming ^STf"^ dr; while in the other class, containing 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 5 


Lesson XV. 

most nouns of relationship, the ^| is gunated, becoming ^r^ **r. 
In both classes, the loc. sing, has ^T^ ox as stem-final. The abl.- 
gen. sing, is of peculiar formation ; and the final ^ r is dropped 
in the nominative singular. 

202. Nomina agentis in ^J r, like cRrl m., ' doer '. 


N. "^RcTT karta 

A. eficfn^ kartaram 

I. cfi^lT kartra 

D. m^f kartre 

Ab. cR<T^ kartur (or -us) 

L. ^ifTf^ kartari 

Dual. Plural. 

"«*<$ TVl kartarau «ftnl<^ kartdras 

„ „ ^R*^ £ar£fn 

cfi«i^ITH -trbhyam efirTf*W kartrbhis 

„ „ 1H)^ kartrbhyas 

ejnrn^ kartros 

^idUJ}*^ kartrndm 
^5fT^ kartrsu 

eft<i^ kariar 

203. Two nouns of relationship, ^^f f'., "sister", and •ffT m., 
'grandson', follow this declension: but ^^f makes the ace. pi. 
*cj^<^ svasf-s. > 

204. The nouns of agency are sometimes used participially, 
or with adjective value. The corresponding feminine-stem is made 
in ^t, and declined like «nft; thus, cR^fif kartri. 

205. The grammarians prescribe a complete neuter declension 
also for bases in ?T, precisely analogous with that of cfrfT or Ttjs 
but such forms are rare. 

Vocabulary XV. 


TF^ + ~W*\ (ami(jdcchati) follow. 
^"^+^^-■^7 (samdcdrati)commh, 
perform, do. 

"SfZ + f^ (viv ddate) dispute, argue. 

t^T + ^TT (dcrdyate) go for pro- 
tection to. take refuge with 

Lesson XV. 


•4JMl4 m., teacher. 

oficT m , doer, maker, author: as 


adj., doing, making. 
chM m., time. 

XJ? n., step. 

UTZrf^TT n., penance, expiation. pvvi«j*Mj**1fc 

}f?T m., supporter, preserver ; lord, '^fy-fcjjtt*. 

husband ; master. 
"^f^TH m., protector. 

SPTOT n., honor, glory (o/ten as 

cfitrr f-. graciousness, pity. fc^f>*ejr^|T^ m., trial, law-suit. Vua^ cxhckVO^ 
3TTT m., giver; as aa}'., generous. 9J[*rl ra., punisher. governor. ^^ « 
S^«f m., scamp, rogue. <5fu*jaVm^5n| m., creator. JrASf/' 
5*"g m., seer, author (of Vedic 

books); as adj., seeing. 
"VTTf m-, creator. <*"«*'•. 
VH^Q m., decision^ certainty. 
%ff m-j leader. frie-XTir 
MfU^<T m -5 learned man ; panditd^ betterfw. foWg abL) . 

Exercise XV. 

indecl., w. folVg dat.\ . 

^fK^> f - °^rr> poor. &**'<< Lk& -' 

cp^, f. ^TT, best, most excellent : si/vsta^ 1 

w ^irfrT ^rr%^ 1^1^ ^ ^ :: ii 8 n 

rTft* * f%T TT^T ^^f^rT I 8 I >^R ^TRTSTRfT WRJ ^T^ 

*pro (da«.) 3^ : ^% : ^ T ^^^|^rr l^rar** i % i «p«TC: 
wrt Tfwrft ^trt ^ Trwrft ^tfnrro; i ^ i m^rer 3F% n 
mfiin*! t5r: i ^ i ^rar^r ^wt ^*p*f ^Tm^r ^^ft *r*ft 
*m: ii e ii 

* Words are often repeated, to give an intensive, a distributive, 
or a repetitional meaning. So here: "at every step". The po- 
sition of ^ is very unusual; it would naturally follow 4ll|4g. 

** Loc. absol. — supply " being''. 

68 Lesson XV. XVI. 

10. Let the wife love her husband. 11. Let the warriors follow 
their leaders and fight with the enemy (pi). 12. At the river the boy 
is to meet his two sisters (instr.). 13. The world was created by 
the creator. 14. In the houses of pious givers alms is given to 
ascetics. 15. King Bhoja was (^J^cT) generous toward the author 
(loc.) of the eulogies. 16. Let servants always be useful to (%cTj 
their masters (ace). 17. For protection 4 (ace.) betake yourselves 5 
to the gods 3 , the protectors 2 of the pious 1 . 18. Men live by the 
graciousness of the creator. 19. O generous one, the poor bend 
before thee\ 20. The man leads his sisters to the city (pass, 

Lesson XVI. 

206. Verbs, a-conjugation. Present Optative Active. The 

present optative is formed from the general present-stem by the 
addition of a mode-sign, after which are used secondary end- 
ings (in 3rd pi. act. ^^ us, in 1st sing. mid. ^ a, in 3rd pi. mid. 
^•^ ran). After an a-stem, this mode-sign, in all voices, is % t, 
unaccented, which blends with the final a to XT e (accented, or 
not, according to the accent of the a) : and the TJ is maintained 
unchanged before a vowel-ending (^(^, ^^, "411^1*^, -*IMIH) b y 
means of an interposed euphonic T( y. The inflection in the active 
voice is as follows: 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

1. «=(^^H vddeyam cf^ vddeva "3%*f vddema 

2. ^^C vddes ^HH vddetam ^rf vddeta 

3- «T<|f(, vddet ^dl*t vddetam ^T^C vddeyus 

Similarly, fallt^ vigeyam, Sfffc?{ ndhyeyam, ^\{^\m^ 
cordyeyam, etc. 

Lesson XVI. 


207. The optative expresses: 1. wish or desire; 2. request or 
entreaty; 3. what is desirable or proper; 4. what may or might, 
can or could be. It is also largely used in conditional sentences. 
The subject is often indefinite and unexpressed. The negative used 
with the opt. is «T na. Both the prescriptive and the prohibitive 
optative are very common. 

208. The nouns of relationship in ^J (except ^*? and •TJf — 
see § 203) gunate ^J in the strong cases; thus, fxjTT m., 'father', 
4-f Tr| f., 'mother', declined as follows: 


twf( *rnrft 



n. frjTrr Tmrrr 

A. (MHT*i *IHKH 
I. 1W W[WI 


V. ftr^^TfT^ 

209. The stem Jf\ m., f., 'bull' or 'cow', is declined thus: 

etc. etc. 

NV. ^ft^ gaus 
A. JJ|4^ yam 
I. TTT oawa 
D. ife gave 
Ab. ^ft^ gos 

G"- » » 
L. *rf^ aar< 

iftHTPH gobhydm 

T*faj. 0flwo« 

jfl^H. gobhyas 

*PFPH gavam 

JT"^ (mdnyate) think, suppose. 
?T7 (modate) rejoice. 
lf^ (pdnsati) proclaim (see also 
in Vocab. I.). 

Vocabulary XVI. 

B (smdrati; p. smarydte) re- 
member; think of; teach, asp. t'n 
pass, 'it is taught', i.e. 'tra- 


Lesson XVI. 


ift m., f-> bull, steer, cow ; f., 

4\\^ n., ox-nature; stupidity. 
VJT4J ™., fodder, hay. 
STTTTC "i-j son-in-law. 
<|fl£<J f., daughter. 
~9G.»X«,T[^F n., mud, bog. 

fXT?T m., father; du., parents; pi., 

inftW m., user, arranger. 
^\f m., wise man, sage. 
^TRI uiv brother. 
^TTff f., mother. 
7TTO m., month. 
<H**i n., pair. 
"?T^P![ n., protection. 
'-H\$ n., an oblation to the manes, 

accomplanied by a sacrificial 

meal and gifts to the Brah- 


^rfcra?, f- 0: ?fT, more, greater, 

«*m^V|, f- 015 5rT, granting wishes; 
as f., sc. VT> the fabulous Won- 

^U^rfti f. °^TT, badly arranged 
or used. 

TTmS- f. °^T, arranged, used. 

%¥, f- ^TT, best. 

OT f-, she, it. 

Adv. and Conj.: 

%<^ if. 

f«lrt|*^ always, daily. 

^ if. 

^4^'cfi well, properly. 

Exercise XVI. 
*ft*ff: chi^^yi* ^tr^r wmT ^rat ^v: I 

^rgirr u«iiit^ iRfr^: ffa ^rfn 11 m ii 

*ffiTt **<H fwt *TRT ^ Wt ^Tf^ ^5^ n I TT T%S"- 

^N ri^T fti% w f%r%^r i $ i fxm^t *n% tt% ^rre *rf|^: 1 8 1 

* Predicate. Play upon words throughout the verse. 

Lesson XVI. XVII. 71 

rit f*mft T%*ri ^^TTt vmit\ *tt*: y^na T%*j: i « i ^ 
wi ii ^ ii 

13. By Rsabhadatta, son-in-law of Nabapana, many cattle and 
villages and much money were given to the Brahmans. 14. Thou 
shalt give the mother's jewels to the sisters (opt. or imv.). 15. Let 
the coachman bring (^T*W) fodder for the horses ; let him not tor- 
ment the horses. 16. Of the father's property a greater part is to 
be given (imv.) to the eldest of the brothers. 17. "Children, bring 
wood and water into the house daily"; thus was the father's com- 
mand. 18. Let the cows graze in the forest. 19. Let both live on 
the milk (instr.) of the black cow. 20. The wagon is drawn by 
two steers. 21. The seer rejoices over the pair (instr.) of white 
steers. 22.Hari andCiva marry two sisters, the daughters of Rama. 

Lesson XVII. 

210. Verbs, a- conjugation. Present Optative Middle. The 

optative middle (and passive) of «-stems , formed as shown in the 
preceding lesson, is inflected as follows : 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

1. *Rf*T Idbheya ^nTcrf% Idbhevahi *W*lf^ labhemahi 

2. ^Rfarret Idbhethas t^ij<J|V2J|j^ lubheyatham ^pf*^ Idbhedhvam 

3. *RTrT Idbheta <«H4*Jldl*i Idbheyatdm ^WTI Idbheran 

Similarly ^T*HT coryeya. ^j^T^I^T samgaccheya, etc. 

211. Declension. The stem ^T f., 'ship, boat', is entirely reg- 
ular, taking throughout the normal endings, as given in § 90. 
Thus: *fpE(, TTfH, TRT, etc; ^TWT, •H*illH' etc -? TH^, 
^f»^, etc. 

72 Lesson XVII. 

212. The stems ending in long vowels (^STT, f^, ^) fall into 
iwo well-marked classes: A. root-stems — mostly monosyllabic — 
and their compounds) with a comparatively small number of others 
inflected like them ; B. derivative feminine stems in ^jrr and ^, 
with a few in ^f, inflected like 5TPTT, *T<?^ and ^J. The stems 
of class A take the normal endings throughout, with optional ex- 
ceptions in dat., abl.-gen., and loc. sing, fern., and with «^ inserted 
before "411*^ of the gen. pi. The simple words are as nouns with 
few exceptions fern. ; as adjectives (rare), and in adjective com- 
pounds, they coincide in masc. and fem. forms. The declension of 
the simple words in f^ and ^f has been given (in §§ 189, 197); 
those in "^ are so rare that it is not possible to make up a whole 
scheme of forms in actual use. 

213. When any root in ^JTT or % or ^fi" is found as final member 
of a compound word, these root -finals are treated as follows: 
1. Roots in ngfT lose that vowel before vowel-endings, except in 
the strong cases and in the ace. pi., which is like the nominative. 
Thus, f^T-tn hi., f., 'all- protecting': 

Sing. Dual. Plural. 

N.V. fcjjyun^ -pas f^^ft -pau f^THEC. -pas 

a. fqi^m^ -pam fH^m\m\*{ „ „ 

I. f^rePTT vigvap-a fapjJTJfat vifvap-os f^RTTrf'WC etc. 

214. 2. Roots in % and ^J change their final vowel, before 
vowel-endings, into Jf and ^, if but one consonant precede the final 
vowel; but if two or more consonants precede, the change is into 
^[IJ and ^R . Thus, ^J^-9|ft m., f., 'corn-buying': nom.-voc. JfS[- 
s£j{^, ace. TJ^f^W; ^5f-^ m., f., 'street-sweeper': nom. sing. 
^HM^, ace. *sJHM*i- 

Lesson XVII. 


f^T 4- TTfrT (praUkmte) expect. 
«p? -f ^S(fV[ (abhindndati , poet. 

-tej rejoice in, greet with joy 


Vocabulary XVII. 

"^^ (rdmate) amuse oneself. 

+ f^f (virdmati) cease from (abl.)', 

■JUT + '^•T (anutisthati) follow out, 


d<^H n., garden. 
cftfty f., agriculture. 
sftfarT n., life. 
fsfglj m., command, 
qpflj^l n., cattle-raising. 
tr^tf^TTm., domestic priest, chap- 
^f^pJJ' n., eating. 
^7T3R ni., servant. 
^T^JI n M death. 

f*T^ n., friend. 

lf% n., battle. 

^Tfarai n., trade. 

f^ffV m., rule; fate. 

^J"*TT m., father-in-law. 

"WZ, f. °^Tf> good, pleasant, dear; 
as n. subst., fortune. 

^Tf^rej, f. o^TT, doubtful; un- 

Exercise XVII. 
^^ ITrft^rT f^t ^^t ^T* II $ II 

vn rif t fNn: irrprawu * i ^ *TO ^ ^"^ twN^frft- 
$<d< i *nvfa: p^ i * i Star frerr ^ifti^w ^rgm^r ^t 
^f?^ i ^ i *f^ nri ire Trffl^ 1 8 i ^ tiftct ^Tfrftr fa- 
%«4 rT^T ^rf *w«to: i m i srurrrTT: ^ii-^Mi: ^<£n?*n^ 
Yms fwr %^Tn i $ i ^rww^T^t^^ *W*i i ^ i *r*fM 

m \ <W Wt tf^T ^itrT WT ^t^rT I *= I ^fift ^TftfHgWSTT- 
WTH I 0. 1 ifa gwn^rt; I «i0 I ^T^TR^TI <*I^MI*i II <W II 

* Rule for an ascetic, who is to put aside all earthly desires 
and passions. 

74 Lesson XVII. XVIII. 

12. Let fodder be brought (^TT-i|) (opt., imv.) by the brother 
for the horses of the all-protecting king. 13. May ye see good 
fortune (pi.)', may ye acquire (^mj glory. 14. The king with 
his warriors crossed the sea in a ship. 15. Tell (opt., imv.) where 
our friends may meet with their brothers. 16. You may amuse 
yourselves in the garden, but cease eating (abl. of MMW) the fruits 
(gen.). 17. Mayest thou be saved by the all-protector from thy 
misfortune. 18. To-day let the king's two sons be consecrated 
(opt., imv.) by the house -priest. 19. Ye both shall greet (opt., 
imv.) your parents. 20. It we two should speak untruth, then we 
should be punished by the king. 21. May I conquer the enemies 
with my brave warriors: thus is the king's wish (use ^TJ pass.). 
22. May we receive the reward of virtue. 

Lesson XVIII. 

215. Causative. The chief points to be noticed in the form- 
ation of causative- stems have been given already (in Less. VII); 
some additional ones follow. 

216. Most roots in ^T and "^| add T^ before the conjugation- 
sign ; thus, ^"PTOfc! from l^T; T^P^fa; 1TM*lfil; vfarfa from 
^J. ?n makes 3MM4|(dj "^Tand^T* sometimes UW^jf^ etc., some- 
times IJTTOffT, etc. 1XJT, 'drink', makes M'itfilfrl (as though from 
X(\). A few roots in ^ and ^ take the same T^, with various 
irregularities ; thus. ^T^TT^Tf?! from ^Tf\J-^[. 

217. Medial or initial ^f in a light syllable is commonly length- 
ened, but sometimes remains unchanged. Thus, TJc^, TJ i <i q fcT ; 
«K*t, ofiliHiJd; ^FC, -m 41^(71. But most roots in ^JJ^, and ^, 
^■^, TP5 j ^T , with other rarer ones, generally keep the tST short ; 

thus, *nn;, *r*ref<r 

Lesson XVIII. 75 

218. Final vowels take vrddhi before ^^', thus, W, *TM*lfd; 

219. Some verbs of causative meaning are by formation de- 
nominatives ; thus lJMtlf?T, 'protect', called causative to 2TJT; fit- 
iprfTT, to fit; M^RrfTT, to *JT; ^TrHrfa, to f^. 

220. For the passive of causatives, see Less. X. 

221. The causatives of intransitive verbs are transitive. The 
causatives of transitive verbs are construed sometimes (a) with two 
accusatives, sometimes (b) with an ace. of the object and an in- 
strumental of the agent. Thus, "he causes the birds to eat the 
cakes" may be rendered either (a): fq^n^ fMU^I«V, H^'*J Id, 
or (b) fcffffc fqo 1T<>. 

222. Participles. The general participial endings are ^f«rl 
(weak form ^fT) for the active, and "il^Vf for the middle. But 
after a tense -stem in ^ST, the active suffix is virtually «fT, one 
of the two "^T's being lost; and the middle suffix is fTVH (ex- 
cept ^rrT sometimes in causative forms). Thus, ^q«rl bhdvant, 
Tl^nT tuddnt, <^"3|«fr dlvyant, y^\ <*J«rT^ cordyant; \{d(i\\*[ bhdva- 
mdna, etc. For the declension of the participles in ^fT see below, 
Less. XXIII. 

223. Pronoun of the First Person. The pronominal declension 
exhibits some striking peculiarities which are not easily explained. 
The pronoun of the first person is declined thus: 







*n«K, ^ 






^H^, * 

r> . *ft 

^W*> T*C 






^XX^Btt^ 'ft 

^r^i«**i, *rcr_ 





Lesson XVIII. 

224. The forms *TT, *?, «ft, •TCC. are enclitic, and are never 
used at the beginning of a sentence, or before the particles ^, 

225. In pronouns of the first and second persons the plural is 
often used for the singular. Pronouns (and other words as well) 
show in Sanskrit a curious tendency to agree in form with the 
predicate rather than with the subject to which they refer. 

Verbs, with causatives: 
tJP^ eat; caus. (dcdyati) make 

eat; give to eat. 
^[ + ^SlTSl study, read ; caus. (<z- 

dhydpdyati) teach, 
cfiain caus. (kalpdyati,-te) make; 

ordain, appoint. 
5f5^ in caus. (jandyati) beget. 
fff + ^n in caus. (ajndpdyati) 


Vocabulary XVIII. 

ff die; caus. (mdrdyati) kill. 

Tf& sacrifice; caus. (ydjdyati) 
make to sacrifice; offer sacrifice 
for {ace.*). 

^T+ ^rfH in caus. (abhivadayati) 

f^7 know; caus. (veddyati) in- 
form (dat.). 

+ f?f in caus. inform (dat.). 
I H\J (vdrdhate) grow ; caus. (var- 

l^T give; caus. (dapdyati) make 

give or pay. 
~%*{ see ; in caus. (darcdyati) show. 
l^TT + *TfT> i° caus. (-dhdpdyati) 

Jmake put on, clothe in(two ace). 
•ft + ^SR load away (caus. apa- 

WS[ in caus. (prathdyati) spread, 


dhaydti, -te) make grow; bring up. 
qEPZT in caus. (vyathdyati) torment. 
i& hear ; in caus. (cravdyati) make 

hear, i. e. recite, proclaim (ace. 

of pers.). 
TUT stand; in caus. (sthapdyati) 

put, place; appoint; stop. 

+ IT (pratisthate) start off; in 

caus. (prasthapdyati) send. 

* The priest who performs sacrifice for the benefit of another 
person is said to "make that person sacrifice", as though the 
latter (who is called <Ja|44M) were celebrating the sacrifice for 

Lesson XVIII. 



W^RV n., nectar. 

^L|«f «j«f n., initiation, investiture. 

eff^ m., hand; trunk ('of ele- 
phant) ; ray ; toll, tax. 

BRTfcfirra m -> nom - P r ~> a noted 

«M3fl f., nom. pr., the city of 

TTOr m., quality ; excellent quality, 

^IJTTf m., nom. pr. (Rama's 

dm m., slave, groom. 
^1[ m., messenger, envoy. 
HTZtiPni n., nom. pr., the city 
of Patna. 

^<3 n., garment. 
f^f\J m., Brahman (the deity). 
^efi m., wolf. 

ife m., science, knowledge ; esp. 
sacred knowledge, holy writ. 

«n?H f. o^JT, new. 
^, f. °^rT, own, one's own. 

Exercise XVIII. 

*ra i ^t^rt mw T?m i 9 i ^«niiiM*«f5T %^: n * ii *ti- 

w^TT^prcf^: i m i ^m*H ^TFrraffaTfa «^ifin qtrvT- 
ti^g: i $ i >rr?rfr TOiwrt irrcgntr*r^ i vo i ^?*rn: ^n»i^«n> 

fa IT® «*M<*Jd I *= I ^l*fl4*R fTTTt S^T^nf i a i ^fwr *j% 
^O^K^^ T I 90 I ^5^ft S^?T3i Jj(lllrH^^: W\f% ^ ^RPJ- 

frfa ^rrf^tfr^m i 99 i ^i wr*r fawrfa ttt: ^rwt fra- 

f<TI 9^ I ^ft ^TWt T31% *F^ TWW %^^TR: II 93 II 

14. I cause a mat to be made (caus. pass.). 15. Show me 
(dat.) the books. 16. Let Brahmans teach us both and offer sacrifice 
for us. 17. The king determined (ordained) the taxes in his kingdom. 
18. I have my field ploughed by slaves. 19. Give me water and 
food. 20. They had the boy taken (led) away from me (abl.). 
21. The kings sent envoys to Pataliputra. 22. Thieves stole our 
(gen.) cows, and wolves killed our* flocks. 23. The king made the 
* The expression of possession, etc., on the part of pronouns 


Lesson XVIII. XIX. 

poet recite (use cfciqeiHr) a eulogy of Visnu. 24. We torment our 
hearts with wishes. 25. Both scholars greet the teacher. 

Lesson XIX. 

226. Pronoun of the Second Person. This pronoun (for which 
the natives assume T^^ and ^T^ as bases) is declined thus: 






wr*c, ^rr 




<p^, % 




to fT 



^*fta;, tr: 


227. The forms ^T, ^ TT*{. ^t. are enclitics, subject, to the 
same rules as TR, 5^, etc. (§ 224). 

228. The Pronoun of the Third Person (for which the natives 
assume rf^f as base — the base is really <T) is declined as follows 
(note uom. sing., m. and f.): 

Masculine : 




























4 1 




























is made almost entirely by the genitive case, not by a derivative 
possessive adjective. But often the unemphatic possessive pronoun 

of the English is omitted in Sanskrit. 

Lesson XIX. 79 

Neuter : 













TO; e 

<f^[ etc., as in the masculine. 

229. The nom. sing, rnasc. ^p^, and its compound OTER^, lose 
their final ^ before any consonant; before vowels, and at the end 
of a sentence, they follow the usual euphonic rules. Thus, ^J T\- 

230. The third personal pronoun is used oftenest as a weak 
or indefinite demonstrative, especially as antecedent to a relative; 
and often like the English "definite article." 

231. Like cf are declined: (a) TJcf, 'this', formed by prefixing 
TJ to the forms of 7f, throughout; thus, nom. sing. m. TJ*l^, f. TPErr, 
n. T£rTC; (^) tae relative pronoun (and adj.) Jf, 'which, who'; 
(c) comparatives and superlatives from pronominal roots, such 
as ^rfTS which (of the two)?' and 3ffiffl 'which (of the many)?' 
So JfWK. an d ^RWj TT^kTH 'one of many'; tJRT other', with its 
comparative -4|*t|rT<j and ^cfi, 'different'. — Yet other words are 
so inflected, but with ^rj^ instead of ^JT in nom.-acc.-voc. sing. 
neut. : as, ^rgf, f^f, w all ' ; TJeJf 'one', in pi. 'some'; \d*j"SJ, f. °^ft 
(only sing, and pi.), 'both'. 

232. The interrogative pronoun ^} (for which the Hindus give 
the base as f^R^) follows precisely the declension of 7f, except 
nom. -ace. sing. neut. f?R?^; nom. sing. in. ^j^, f. ^TT. 

233. A number of words follow the pronominal declension in 
some of their significations, or optionally ; but in other senses, or 
without known rule, lapse into the adjective inflection. Such are 
comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems, as tST^TT 
'lower', H^m 'lowest'; tf^ : chief, tf^ 'earlier', ^5tTT 'upper', 

80 Lesson XIX. 

'northern', Tf^fW 'southern', etc. Occasional forms of the pro- 
nominal declension are met with from numeral adjectives, and from 
other words having somewhat of a numeral character, as ^q 
'few', ^9Sn| 'half, etc. 

234. Peculiarities in the use of relative pronouns, etc. The 
Sanskrit often puts the relative clause before the antecedent clause, 
and inserts the substantive to which the relative refers into the 
same clause with the relative, instead of leaving it in the antecedent 
clause. In translating into Sanskrit, a relative clause is to be 
placed either before or after the whole antecedent clause; 
but not inserted into the antecedent clause, as is done in 
English. Thus, "the mountain which we saw yesterday is very 
high " would be in Sanskrit either : *j T($Q ^f ift SWPR *Tt 
tfffa rff:, or: * T^rft tfffa «T#T V ift SWT*; but not * 
*T^rTt ^ ^*T lift CTWW ) etc -> according to the English idiom. 

235. The relative word may stand anywhere in its clause; 
thus, f*Jcf MU fifflM T % ^Tr: "the gods whose chief is Qiva". 
Sometimes relative or demonstrative adverbs are used as equivalents 
of certain case-forms of relative or demonstrative pronouns; thus, 

236. The repetition of the relative gives an indefinite meaning: 
'whosoever, whatever'. The same result is much more commonly 
attained by adding to the relative the interrogative pronoun, with 
(or, less usually, without) one of the particles % ^«T, f^[, ^"fa 
■^T- Sometimes the interrogative alone is used with these particles 
in a similar sense. Thus ; ^T^T ^T^fa '' whatever this woman 
relates''; ^ff ZJ^f Vfm: ^TR^ "whatever any one's disposition may 
be"; ^TO ^i^ fxf^^fd "he gives to some one or other"; <<<ain*- 
^f Hfe j fl «3T»ffi "he takes from no one whatever". 

Lesson XIX. 


Vocabulary XIX. 

Verbs: ! ^^ say, speak; name; in caus. 

^T^ sit; in cau9. (asdyati) place, (vdcdyati) make (a written leaf) 

ltrr drink; in caus. (pdydyati) 

give to drink, water. 
2TTT protect; in caus. (pdldyati) 


speak, i. e. read. 
^T^ (sdhate) endure. 
f^TW (sidhyati) succeed; in caus. 

(sadhdyati) perform, acquire. 

jft rejoice; in caus. (jprlndyati)\^\ kill; caus. (ghatdyati) have 
make rejoice, please. killed. 

}ft fear; in caus. (bhisdyate, bhayd- 
yate) terrify, frighten. 

57 call; in caus. (Jwaydyati) have 

«4)|tj n., business, concern. 

^TSJF m., n. pr., a god. 

^ftaPST f., n. pr. 

irfTf f., gait; refuge. 

^TTTCjr m., n., foot, leg. 

gng" n., umbrella. 

73^ n., milk. 

%^ejft f., n. pr., Krsna's mother. 

qn4^ k f', earth. 

TS(\, as prefix to proper names, 
has the meaning 'famous', 'ho- 
norable '. 

*inrr?r m., companion, helper. 

"3Rf other. 

TrTT other. 
f^^ all (Vedic).. 
*$ all. 
^ 14 sweet. 

Indecl. : 

tJ|04 also, even. 

f^a\\ without (w. instr. or ace; 
often postpos.). 

Exercise XIX. 

*rfa ^fa ^ ftraft fw?r: ni^: ffM¥ mh^Ph * ht- 
f*fcr^fti*nrt^%*PftT^*n*i j J^"^hi^i*i^i8i 

Perry, Sanskrit Primar. c 

82 Lesson XIX. XX. 

ir^r ^rf>: cfimf^Rmr^ 11 qg 11 

15. The husband 6 of that 5 (gen.) Kausalya 2 (loc), of whom 1 
(loc.ftm.) Rama 3 was born 4 , is called 8 Dacaratha 7 . 16. The teacher 4 
rejoices 3 at thy 1 diligence 2 (abl). 17. Why ( cft^ | <^ ) speakest thou 
so? 18. Others than we could not endure this suffering. 19. The 
teacher teaches** us holy- writ and the law-books. 20. May all 8 
those 7 kings 2 who 1 protect 6 their subjects 5 according to 4 (^rw, post- 
pos.) the law 3 {ace.) be victorious 9 . 21. The fruits of all these 
trees are sweet. 22. May the glory of all women, who honor their 
husbands, increase (imv.). 23. In this kingdom the king's punishment 
terrifies the wicked. 24. Which of the two fruits do ye wish? 25. My 
father had gold given to me, cows to thee, to the other brother 

Lesson XX. 

237. Declension of Stems iu Consonants. All noun -stems in 
consonants may well be classed together, since the peculiarities 
shown by some concern only the stems themselves, and not the 
endings. Masculines and feminines of the same final are inflected 
precisely alike; and neuters are peculiar (as usually in the other 

1 "Other than thou". With ^pjj, as with comparatives, the 
ablative is used. 

** "Makes us read" (^rf^Ho caus.). 

Lesson XX. 83 

declensions) only in the nom.-acc.-voc. of all numbers. But the 
majority of consonantal stems form a special feminine stem by 
adding % (never tSTT) to the weak form of the masculine. 

238. Variations, as between stronger and weaker forms, are 
very general in consonantal steins: either of strong and weak stems, 
or of strong, middle, and weakest. The endings are throughout the 
normal ones (Introd., § 90). 

239. The general law concerning final consonants is as follows: 

1. The more usual etymological finals are ^, X!? 1> "l,* <T,5 
^i, K.5 Z; sporadic are ^, tjJ , OT as finals. 

2. In general, only one consonant, of whatever kind, is allow- 
ed to stand at the end of a word ; if two or more would etymo- 
logically occur there , the last is dropped , and again the last, 
until but one remains. 

3. Of the non-nasal mutes, only the first in each series, the 
non-aspirate surd, is allowed as final; the others — surd asp., and 
both sonants — are regularly converted into this , wherever they 
would etymologically occur. 

4. A final palatal, or ^, becomes either ?R , or (less often) ^; 
but ^ in a very few r cases (where it represents original \J) be- 
comes c^. 

240. According to 239. 2, the ^ of the nom. sing., m. and 
{., is always lost; and irregularities of treatment of the stem-final, 
in this case, are not infrequent. 

241. Before the pada-vn dings, WTP^., f*J^ ^^ a "d ^ a stem- 
final is treated as in external combination. 

242. An aspirate mute is changed to its corresponding non- 
aspirate before another non- nasal mute or a sibilant; it stands 
unaltered only before a vowel or semivowel or nasal. Hence such 
a mute is doubled by prefixing its own corresponding non-aspirate. 

243. Consonant-stems of one form in c^, ^, \J and H . Be- 

84 Lesson XX. 

fore suffixal If , both <T and \J as stem-finals become ~Z; 1/t as 
stem -final becomes^. Examples: i\\c^ m. , l wind'; ^SIT^ £» 
'misfortune'; ^*R^ n., 'the world'. 

Sing. Plural. 

n.v. *^ i ^rre^ i snra; 11 t^to: i w\v^ i surfer u 

a. *twc i ^iim^h i ^nm; n „ 

i. insm i -4im<i 1 srhtt n *^flrct i ^mHsfi i oHiffiu. 11 

d. *ro i ^rn^ i spnr ii tws: i ^rnrsra: i wrsra; 11 

Ab. *4M^ i ^rro^i: i *hm*ui 

g. „ „ „ *<vii*i i ^im<ih i si'nrro; n 

l. *^f?r i ^rnrf^ i ^RTfa n jt^j i ^rrw i sprraj n 

N.A.V. ^^rfr | *MH<fl | ^f^TTft II 

i.D.Ab. jt^wt^ i w^rm; i snnwr^ u 
g.l. «vft<i i 4iih<{1h. i annfrtc ii 

For the «^ inserted in nom.-acc. pi. neuter, cf. phaldni, ma- 
dhuni, etc. 

244. In a few roots, when a final sonant aspirate (TET , V , W ; 
also ^, representing T21 ) loses its aspiration according to §§ 239. 3, 
242, the initial sonant consonant (JI , ^, or h) becomes aspirate; 
thus, TJ\J, nom.-voc. sing. *jt^; 3T5PE0 ^**J' 

245. Agreement of adjectives. If the same adjective qualify 
two or more substantives, it will be used in their combined number; 
if the substantives are masculine and feminine , the adj. will be 
masc. ; but in a combination of masc. or fern, subjects with neuter, 
the adjective will be neuter. 

Lesson XX. 



■^i? grow; caus. (rohdyati or ro- 
pdyati) make rise or grow; 

Vocabulary XX. 

^fW , in caus. (lambkdyati*) make 
receive or take ; give. 


Subst. : 
^MHlMi f-, name of certain Vedic 

■^XT^TT n -> sacred cord (worn by 

the three higher castes). 

BTCFZ f., stone. 

firafTTf., contentment, happiness. 
T^ERi ni., supporter, maintainer. 
VTO<T m., king; mountain. 
*<f^ m., wind; as pi., n. pr., 

the Storm-gods. 
■^"TfT m., wind. 

fcJJJjm m., trust, confidence. 
^f m., n. pr., a demon, Vrtra. 

IJTf n., a hundred. 
^"^7 f., autumn; year. 
^rf^T^ f., fagot. 
^Rfi. f- 5 river. 
41^7 m., friend. 


^TSJ^r, f- °^TT> skilled, learned. 
f^raW m., f., n., threefold, triple. 
cpfo, f. °^S(J, hard to find or 

reach; difficult. 
*T3f, f. otSTT, devoted, true. 

Indecl. : 
<4|(t| also; even. 

Xjjy |f^ behind (w. gen.). 

Exercise XX. 

f ftps *rf*ret ^TT^Tfr i ^ i ^rf«ra<s *j^h! ^qrf^- 

* If a nasal is ever taken in any uf the strong forui8 of a 
root, it usually appears in the causal. 

See § 225 ; ZHT = tffm^l and ^^T^; see § 235. end. 


86 Lesson XX. XXI. 

^: I $ I ?* sfta t^: Wt | *S I WrT: (gen.) fajT§t cRI- 

*nf*i: ^frf^ - : *rr^r i o. i Tnft <if^f^ra i qo i wm: 

14. Indra, with the Maruts as his companions, killed Vrtra. 

15. Without a companion no one can perform a difficult business. 

16. One (express in pi.) should plant trees on all the roads, for the 
sake of the shade. 17. Those friends who are true in misfortune 
are hard to find in the three worlds. 18. The girdle and the sacred 
cord of Aryans are to be made threefold (neut. dual). 19. Put 
(JUT caus.) this stone behind the fire. 20. The ocean is called by 
the poets the husband of rivers. 21. All subjects must be protected 
(imv.) by their kings. 22. Some of these Brahmans are learned in 
the Upanisads, others in the law-books. 

Lesson XXI. 

246. Declension of Consonant-stems, cont'd. Stems in pala- 
tals, etc. 1. Final ^ of a stem reverts to the original guttural 
when it conies to stand as word-final, and before the /wda-endings. 
becoming ^j when final, and before, ^T, and If before 3? . 2. Final 
«f is oftenest treated exactly like ^ — for cases of other treat- 
ment, see below. 3. In the roots* fZTT» ^TT a "d ^JTCT\ the ^T is 
treated in the same way. 4. The ff of ^ becomes "Ef after efi . 

* In classical Sanskrit not many root-stems are used as inde- 
pendent substantives; but they are frequently employed, with 
adjective or (present) participial value, as final element of a com- 
pound word. 

Lesson XXI. 87 

thus. °^. E.g. TF^ f-, 'speech, word'; *Jf"3 f., 'illness'; f^"*^ f., 
'direction, point of the compass': 

Sing. Plural. 

n.v. <tto i ^ i f%* ii ^rr^ i ^^ro: i f^c ii 

A. «TN?l I ^R I f^lR II » „ 

i. ^-rt i wr i f^tn ii ^tTt^b: i ^f^ro: i f^frwi; u 

L. wrf^f I ^fw I t^ftr || TTf I ^f I f^J II 


Tnft i ^ft i f^fr ii 
ciN«ii*i i ^rarm; i f^ron^ n 
Tnfr*; i ^Fr*t i f^afm: 11 

247. 1. Final ft of a stem regularly becomes the lingual mute 
(^3 or "£) before 3"f an ^ "H, and when word-final. For exceptions, 
see § 246, 3. 2. The final "5T of the root-stems T"T"^ , 'rule', "?|<3 , 
'sacrifice', and "IT"5r , with others; and 3. the final f of a number 
of roots , are treated like 1\ above. Thus, f%$ m., 'enemy'; 
"fat, m. pi., 'people', the ' Vaicya- caste'; f%fi^ m., f . , (adj.) 

Sing. Plural. 

N.V. f^z I fWZ II f^TO I f^TO I I f^Tf^ II 

A. f"^"**. I fa^H II -n j> r> 

i. f^n i f^rfT ii fwfftm i f^ffa* i t^f^: ii 
l. f^-fa I fsrff ii ftg* i fwz* i fa^J II 


ff^ft i "f%#t ii 

fl^lT^ I f^l^TR: II 

f^fta i f^rf-ra: ii 

248. But '"gf^Jt ni., priest*, though containing the root H^ , 


Lesson XXI. 

makes 3gf^R etc.; and ^5T f., 'garland', though containing 
i/*!U , makes ^^ etc. 

249. 1. Nouns having the roots Y^, 'burn', and T^, 'milk', 
5^ 'be hostile', with others, as final element, and also ^fuil^' f. 
(name of a certain metre), change the final ^ into ^{ and It. 
Thus, <#iy<?tf, 'wood -burning', makes nom.-voc. sing. ^TTT^RR; 
^TPTCf £j ' granting wishes ', nom.-voc. sing. ^TW^cti, ace. °^*^, 
loc. pi. °\T^; f*H^ 'friend-betraying,' nom.-voc.-sing. f?Hh 
Ijf^ etc. 2. In words with •fi?, 'bind,' as final element, where ^g 
represents original ^T , the ^ becomes ^ and <^ ; thus, ^MH^ f-, 
'shoe, sandal,' nom.-voc. sing. \dMMr^, ace. °«T^*^> instr. du. 
"TgTR, loc. pi. ©•fig. 


<*T{ in caus. (damdyati) tame; 

5^ (druhyati) be hostile; offend. 
>J in caus. (dhdrdyati) bear. 
V{ (bhdrati, -te) bear, support (lit. 

and Jig.). 

Vocabulary XXI. 

*TW + ^? (utsrjdti) let loose or 
out; raise (the voice). 

^T^ +lTfT(P an ^4/ a * e *) em brace. 

tf + 3? (prahdrati) strike out ; 

■^Ti^J m. pi., n. pr., a people in 

-^£-e^ f., verse of the Rigveda ; in 

pi., the Rigveda. 
-slflMViJ n., medicine. 
<^Tt «r|«| m., nom. pr. 

^TJ f., look, glance; eye. 

f^TO m., enemy. 

^T^q m., tears. 

Jreflre m., bee. 

VTTOqf n., sweetness. 

"^51 f., sickness, disease. 

GHETTO ™., great king, emperor. 

^!3" and a few other roots, whose nasal is not constant 
throughout their inflection, lose it in the present-system. 

Les9on XXI. 


CTTTnT m., vassal. 

<HM<fi in., one who has taken a 

certain ceremonial bath. 
*37WTT "!•? private recitation (of 

sacred texts). 

^TrsfiTnT, t °^n (pass. part, of 
«FT.+ "^TT)? attacked, smitten. 

i^r, f - °^n 5 rich - 

oRT'fr?^ m. f. n., granting wishes ; 

as f. subst., the Wonder-cow. 
?f^T!J,f. '^n',rigbt hand; southern. 

healthy, well. 
xnaf, f. °^TT, wholesome (gen.). 
^t^re, f- ^STT, strongest. 
^-, f. o^TT (pass. part, of ^J ), 

besieged, surrounded ; suffused. 
f^f^S, f- ^ST[ (pass. part, of 

f%% + f^), hated, detested. 
*Tf, f. o^jt (part, of ^\* ), old. 

^Tftra, f. °^rr, sick, in. 

H*TfT, f. ^TT, provided with. 


3i^T*H. ^Tt^ffT:, ^i^Tfa, ever. 

Exercise XXI. 
*T^ri: *piwt f^raft (abl.) cfff^ I «* I TOTWt $fo Tim 

f^ffM«Ns*m 1 ^i ere *rr^ <*iIh<i* *rrv3 ^<T7r i 3 i ^r 

^tr^%r: i ^ i f^TT^ wri faftrs: i o. i ^rftwrrrsri *wn: 
^t $^?ra ii <^ ii 

14. In the private recitation of the Veda an ascetic must 

* f^RJ^ (interrog.), with some other words expressing u9e or 
need, take9 with it an instrumental of what is used or needed, and 
a genitive of the user. So here: "of what use to a well man are 

90 Lesson XXI. XXII. 

raise (opt. or imv.) his voice. 15. That one among the priests is 
called hotr, who recites the Rigveda. 16. A snataka must wear 
shoes and a garland, and carry an umbrella. 17. "Among my 
friends Rama is the strongest": thus spoke Ravana. 18. Let an 
emperor keep his vassals in check C?J^ caus.), and protect (TJT 
cans.) the people in all the earth. 19. In the Rigveda occurs (^TT 
pass.) the Usnih. 20. The father's glance fell upon me (loc). 
21. Among the betrayers - of - friends is named (^nSf^T pass.) 
Vibhisana. 22. The seer praises Indranl with verses of the Rig- 
veda. 23. The emperor smote his enemies (ace, dat., or loc.) 
with the sword. 24. In the battle Krsna was killed by his en- 
emies. 25. " May our enemies be tormented by diseases " : thus 
spoke the Brahman in anger (abl .). 

Lesson XXII. 

250. Declension of Stems in "J. The stems in ^ and ^ 
lengthen the vowel before consonant- endings, and in nom.-sing., 
and the ^ of the nom. is lost. In the nom.-sing. the final X 
then becomes ^ (or visarga) under conditions requiring a surd 
as final (see § 95. 116). Thus, farj f-, ' voice ' ; J^ f., ' city'. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N.v. iftx i tjt; ii f*nft i *nft h far*; i gr*C h 

A. f*TT*l I ST** II » » » » 

i. fanj i tjtt ii ifM'R i ^R ii *ftf*rarjtf*fci: ii 
l nrfn i jft ii farta: i yfrs: h ^tH i ^5 

251. Stems in ^tf^ [and in f?T«^ and f^(J. These are masc. 
and neut. only; the corresponding feminine is made by adding ^; 
thus, \|f*1*fl* They lose their final «^ before consonant- endings; 

Almost any noun in ^H may form a possessive derivative with. 

Lesson XXII. 9 1 

and also in the nom. sing., where the masc. lengthens the ^[ in 
compensation. Thus, ^Tf^nt. m -> n -> 'rich'. 

Masculine. Neuter. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. 

A. Vfii«t*i „ » „ „ y, 

I. Vf*Ml ^rf^WT^ ^f*rf*TCC as in the masculine 

l. \rf^t*i ^nffa; ^fsre 
v. ^rfat 

252. Derivative stems in tJT^- T^t> ^^C.- The stems of this 
division are mostly neuter; hut there are a few masculines and 
feminines. Their inflection is nearly regular (for ^t, ^"^, ^T be- 
fore Vf see § 241 ; for the loc. pi. , p. 27, bottom of page). Masc. 
[and fern.] stems in ^R^ lengthen the ^f in nom. sing.; and the 
nom.-acc. pi. neut. also lengthen ^ or ^[ or ^ before the inserted 
nasal (anusvdra). Thus, Jf*RT n., 'mind'; ^fa^ n«, 'oblation'; 
VT^ n., 'bow'. 

Singular. Dual. 

N.A.V. *t-to; i ^f^ | ^r^ || jt^ \ ^fcpft \ \*«pft II 

i. *wr i f f^Ti i ^R^r u *Rt«rro; i ffwro i v^t^ ii 
l. *r*rfs i ffafa i \i*rfa n *wfa; i ifafrtc i ^*jtTt^ ii 


n.a. jnrifa i f^-rq i vrfcr ii 

i. T^tt^: i ff^ra: i ^fn^ ii 

L *w i ff^f i v^*3 n 

<>r *nr:g I or ffeng I or ^«j:j || 

253. ^^rf^f"^^ m. (name of certain mythical characters): nom. 
sing- VftHTO, ace. ^rf^^H,, instr. ^f^^T, voc. ^P^<^; 
nom.-acc. pi. ^STf^fT^^.- 

the suffix ^•Tj thus, from ^f n., 'strength', «jf^«^, 'having 
strength, strong'. Stems in fa^ and fc|«^ are very rare. 


Lesson XXII. 

254. Adjective compounds having nouns of this class as final 
member are very common. Thus, 4J*H^ 'favorably-minded.' 

Singular. Dual, 

m. f. n. m. f. n. 

N. «*HI*t °T^ 3*M*H °# 

a. ^^rr: °*to; , 

^IVJI^y 'long-lived': 

Singular. Dual. 

A. <f|vh*JMH °*ra: 

I. ^NlTW etc. ^Kh^R etc. 

m. f. n. 

n n 






^J^ (sdjati; but often pass. : sajjdte 

Vocabulary XXII. 

for sajydte) hang on, be fastened 
on (as thoughts — w. loc. ). 

Subst. : 

^WT^C f-i heavenly nymph. 
i^lft f*j n - P r -i an Apsaras, Ur- 
f^f^TT m., king. 
f^T^ f., voice; song. 
^^C n., eye. 
^Tf^WC m -> moon. 

^tt m -> s py- 

W\ f-, bowstring. 

sii^fim. n., light; star; heavenly 

rf^T^I m., pond. 
^["IT f., door, gate. 

\sl«r^ n., bow. 

«J|<4J f., pipe, conduit. 

H^J^ n., milk. 

Y^ f., city. 

TO»^Rc(, m., n. pr., Pururavas. 

Snf^PC ni., (living) creature. 

H<d*slU^ m., n., pr., India. 

*H^ n., mind. 

Iffs^*^ m., minister (of state). 

3fCTT n., sacrificial formula, text. 

^Wl n -> g lor y» fame - 

^fllRT m., merchant. 
^"^T^ n., age. 
HH*\H {., flower. 

Lesson XXII. i)3 

^pf in., sun. asceticism; asm. subst., ascetic. 


^(M n., place, spot, locality; TTSff^^ courageous. 

JOTftVT, m -? possessor, lord. 
^f%^ n., oblation. 


■^n^re, f- °^rr (part, of ot +^n)- 

drawn, bent (as a bow). 

inaw, f. o - ^, first. 

f{rf, f. °^rT (part, of *?), dead, 

f^pT, f. o^jj (part, of ^JT), 




TPTf^pr suffering, doing acts of! cf to be sure, in sooth. 

Exercise XXII. 

r ^ ^ smmri i m i ifnwm v-rft wrjt: wt s*rt: htwt 
-5nr% q+nqfamfrd i $ i infxprr +nifa wtf^m *r*rf% i ^ i 

<rra; 1 w 1 

11. Raise ye the voice in praise (dat.) of Hari. 12. In the 
cities of India dwell rich merchants and courageous warriors. 
13. The praise of Pururavas was sung by Kalidasa. 14. The king 
gave orders (^T-IJT cans.) to have his minister called (use or. recta). 
15. The minds of ascetics must not dwell (*JW ) on riches (^", loc. 
sing.). 16. At night the moon gives light to all creatures. 17. One 
should sacrifice to the gods (cf. Tf& in Voc. I) flowers, fruits, and 
milk, not living creatures. 18. The Apsarases lead into Heaven 
warriors fallen in battle. 19. In age (instr.), not in knowledge, 

94 Lesson XXII. XXIIL 

Civa is the eldest among his brothers (loc, gen.). 20. The gods live 
by the oblation. 21. A merchant wishes wealth (^ft% a warrior 
fame, an ascetic deliverance. 22. The woman's eyes are suffused 
with tears. 

Lesson XXIIL 

255. Declension. Comparative Adjectives. Comparative ad- 
jectives of primary formation have a double form of stem for mas- 
culine and neuter: a stronger in Tart^ (usually %SjftO' in the strong 
cases, and a weaker in ZR^ (usually |^4|^), there being no 
distinction of middle and weakest cases. The voc. sing. masc. 
ends in ^«l. The feminine-stem is made with %■ from the weak 
stem-form. Thus, %STTO\ 'better 1 : 

Masculine. Neuter. 

Sing. Dual. Plural. Sing. Dual. Plural. 

n. %*ttt; 51 h\h\ %^t*ra: n.v. %^^ %wt 3<j'ifa 

A. ^fa-RHP* v *i*mtl n v r, 

I. %?TOT ^ft^rrn; ^frf^C like the masculine. 

l. ^rfa '^refa: %*m °*i:*r 

Fem. stem %inft declined like *\d\. 

256. Stems in ^«tT (or nJR^) fall into two divisions: A. those 
made with the suffix ^f«rT (^SHO^ being, with few exceptions, active 
participles, present and future; and B. those made with the pos- 
sessive suffixes *TnT (or t{c[J and ^IfT (or ^cQ. They are masc. 
and neuter only, the fem. being formed with $\ 

257. A. Participles in ^sprf (or ^ffi). E. g. sJfanT^ m., n M 
'living. ' 

Lesson XXIII. 95 

Masculine. Neuter. 

Sing. Dnal. Plural. Sing. Dual. Plural. 

N.V.^e^ aforef t ^fanT^ ^T^ Wfanft sft^f^T 

A. ^m „ ^\qci«, v r . n 

I. wfa*TT sfhntTTH Whrf^ as in masculine. 

l. ^fafw ^t^rffa; afcng 

258. The strong form of these participles is obtained, me- 
chanically, by cutting off the final ^ from the 3rd. pi. pres. (or 
fut.) ind. act. ; thus , «T^f^rT gives strong form of pres. act. part. 
•PJnT, weak ?Rl^; fasfnT. frTC^ and ftBc^J— ffjf^ TIT** 
and ^HH^; — ^T!^srf«tT, ^H^i|«d and <^l!^^c^; — *Tf%^jf?tT 
(fut.), ^f^UJ«r1 N and ^ff^T^. 

259. But those verbs which in the 3rd. pi. act. lose the «^ of 
the usual fJ?T (as e. g. the verbs following the reduplicating class 
in the present-system), lose it also in the present participle, and 
have no distinction of strong and weak stem. Thus, from j/^", 
3rd pi. pres. ind. act. 5TJTf?T 5 part, (only stem -form) ^T^Tr^: nom.- 
voc. sing. masc. Wgc^, ace. Sl^rJH ; nom.-voc.-acc. du. ^,$[ cTt, 
pl- «TS7T^.; nom.-voc.-acc. sing. neut. -aj£^, du. ^|[<ft pi. ^JSffa- * 

260. Only the present participles of verbs of the a -class, the 
ya-class, and causatives, invariably insert «^ in nom.-voc.-acc. du. 
neut. Present participles of the a'-class, of the root-class when the 
root ends in tSTT, and all future participles, may either take or 
reject it; thus, neut. -sing. f^?7T.> du. fsfr^cfT or fi*<«<ft; <*{\ **!<!. 
(fut.), du. ^fX^J «ft or wf^nft ; ^Tc^ (pres. part, from IfJ, 'go'), 
du. m£\ <>r H | wrO . Participles of all other verbs, and all other 
stems in ^HT.? leave out the «^ in the du. neut.; thus, ^JfiJ<^ (^R^ 
'eat', root-class), du. t5T<^ cT^. 

261. The adj. ?T^«fT , 'great', takes in strong cases the stem- 

The grammarians, however, allow these verbs to insert the 
■^ in the nom.-voc.-acc. pl. neuter of the present participle. 

96 Lesson XXIII. 

form *i^i«n: nom.-sing. masc. *Tf "R; (see § 239, 2), ace. iffT^ n ^, 
voc. JTpl; da. neut. JTftft, pi. JTfTf^rT Otherwise the inBection 
is like that of participles. 

262. The feminine of participles and adjectives in ^|nT (or 
~^7[) is always made with j[, and the form is always identical 
with the nom. dual neuter. 

Vocabulary XXIII. 

"Verbs; 1$ + "'sSfXf (apasdrati) go away; in 

f«l«^ (nindati) blame. caus. (apasdrdyati) drive away. 

JJB(r&jate) shine; rule. 

Nonns (subst. and adj.): 
Wf«((4| m., sun. 
TT^TRC. (comp.) very honorable. 
^c^ (pr. part, of ^T) giving. 
«<flll\i^j f- ^ - , bright, glistening; 

(act.) illuminating. 
^rf, f. °^TT; become (past. pass. 

part, of 3J); as neut. subst., 

^T m., calf. 

%^rt^. better, best ; as neut. subst., 

^fnT (neut. Uftj being, existing; 
as masc. subst., good man; as 
fern. (*Trft), faithful wife.* 


^J^ to-morrow, 
being, creature. \ f% surely, indeed. 

Exercise XXIII. 
ifta*: (ace. pi.) %*r% ^*k i R i vf-msmfewt ^ ^r: 

* Especially a widow who immolates herself on the funeral- 
pile of her husband ; whence Anglo-Indian suttee. 
"Even though they exist". 
"^R in composition often conveys the idea of imitation. 


Lesson XXIII. XXIV. 97 

m^mI farnft" <pzra: i m i *rrfr (gen. du.) -?^fr *nr*rr *nct- 
*rnt i 5 i tott ^fwr ^RTfa *TfTfar ^% i ^ i ^sra *rr 

firfN 5 N<Tt*lTrn;: f4«K4i trct3*Ri ^nf**ft i ^*j: i qo i 

14. We blame the driver who strikes (part.) the horses. 15. The 
king who punishes (part.) the bad and gives (part.) food to the 
good is praised. 16. The warrior who conquers (part.) in battle 
attains great fame. 17. Among the heavenly bodies the sun and 
moon are the two great ones. 18. In the field I saw birds flying. 
19. He who lives (part.) to-day is dead to-morrow. 20. The word 
of the good must be followed (done). 21. Dwell among good men. 
22. A maiden, making (W^ ) garlands, sits on a stone. 23. A hus- 
band shall punish a wife who steals (part.) his property. 24. The 
child (gen.) was afraid (use subst. , no copula) of the bees (abl.) 
flying about (*&{) in the house. 

Lesson XXIV. 

263. Declension. Stems in ^(^ (or 1R{), cont'd. B. Stems in 
jp?r (fjr[) and ^*<^ (^fO- Adjectives formed with these suffixes 
are possessives. They are declined precisely alike ; and differ in 
inflection from the participles in ypt{ only by lengthening the ^J 
in the nom. sing. masc. The feminine is made in ^; thus, ^ft- 
*nft. In the dual neut. «^ is never inserted. Thus, 3 if\4{«d , 
' rich ', ' celebrated : ' 

* The two adjectives ^<J«ri , 'so great', 'so many', and f^- 
IprT , 'how great?' 'how many?' are similarly declined. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. ~ 

98 Lesson XXIV. 

Masculine. Neuter. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. 

n. ^fant ^fNnft 5 H*Mtt nv. ^fta^ ^fonft ^ft*rf^ 
a. ^fonw*t » «H*i*i^ » » » 

I. ^ffacTT *FI*l*mH -sn+ir^t^ as in the masculine. 

l. ^forf* sftoii^ -sfftraj 

V. 31>*K 

264. A stem *T^nT* (to be carefully distinguished from *f«Tn^, 
pres. part. act. of W) is frequently used in respectful address as 
a substitute for the pronoun of the second person. It is con- 
strued with the verb in the third person. Its nom. sing. masc. is 
*T3Tt (fem. *T^*ft); and Ht^ 5 the contracted form of its older 
voc. ^^^, is a common exclamation of address: "you, sir!", "ho, 
there!"; and is often doubled.** 

265. Derivative stems in "^r 5 ^- These are made by the suffixes 
^rs^, *p^, and ^^, and are, with one or two exceptions, masc. 
and neut. only. The stem has a triple form. In the strong cases 
of the masc. the vowel of the suffix is lengthened to ^JT, in the 
weakest cases it is in general dropped; in the middle cases the 
final ^ is dropped, and it is also lost in the nom. sing, of all 
genders. In the neuter, the nom.-acc. pi., as being strong cases, 
lengthen the vowel of the suffix;- the same cases in the dual (as 
weakest cases) lose ^ — but this only optionally. After the ^ 
or ^ of J^ and ^^, when these are preceded by a consonant, 
the •*% is retained in all the weakest cases, to avoid too great an 
accumulation of consonants. Examples: TT^ffi m '» 'king'; «TT*T*t 
n., 'name'; ^||4H m., 'soul, self; sTlF* n., 'devotion'. 

* Probably contracted from *J7R^ 'blessed'. 
** ^fr^ loses its final ^ before all vowels and all sonant con- 
sonants; thus, *ft *ft ^pj(. 

Lesson XXIV. 


Singular. Dual. 

Plural. Singular 

TT^T <NI«n 

twtci; tw 



Dual. Plural. 

or WT^\ 

a. <NH*i „ Trsra; 

L. \\*U Tr^C TT5W -lmft 4\*A\¥i TTTO 

or ^rftr or ?rrfa 

v. xr^-^ wm^i or ?rm 

a. wrarroi » wrimt » " » 

i. ^ii<4hi ^rrwwrR ^narf^^ ww^t ww^rm; warfare; 
v. ^rreit wwt or *w 

266. Euphonic rules. Final ^j, "Z and T{_ remain unaltered be- 
fore initial surd consonants; before sonants, whether vowel or con- 
sonant, they become respectively If , ^, ^ . Before nasals they 
may be still further assimilated, becoming the nasals ^, TO, ?^. 
Thus, TTT<s<I4 1 becomes either Tjf^^T^ or Trf^sfTTJJ; U«|«* T 
becomes 4J44JM or ^n^T^- The latter method is much more usual. 

267. Before initial W a final mute is made sonant; and then 
the ^ may either remain unchanged, or be converted into the so- 
nant aspirate corresponding to the preceding letter; thus, either 
*l«HS*sr: or qiqpTO:; either <\*#\$ f^TT^ or d«a!^«dK. In 
practice the latter method is almost invariably followed. 

When a dental mute comes in contact with a lingual or pa- 
latal mute or sibilant, the dental is usually assimilated, becoming 
lingual or palatal respectively. Thus, tisthati from ti-stha-ti; rdjnd 
instead of rdjnd. 



Lesson XXIV. 


ft^ + ^ra cut off. 
jf^l in caus. (mdrjdyati) rub, rub 
off, polish. 

Vocabulary XXIV. 

^TJJ^f (denom. — varndyati) de- 
scribe, portray. 

f^T +^% in caus. (udvejdyati) 


^JT3I«T. ni., soul, self; often as sim- 
ple reflexive pronoun ; in geni- 
tive, his, etc.; one's own. 

m$P{ n., deed; ceremony; fate. 

Tflf*^ n., hide, skin; leather. 

W1F{ n-, birth. 

tft"^ n., bank, shore. 

f^]|*l f., name of a metre. 

f^T n., day. 

<f«j<*H n., temple. 

«T^i m., hell. 

Tjf^}«^ m., bird. 

XTT^ n., pot, vessel. 

STSPl, (brahman) n., devotion; 
sacred word (of God) ; sacred 
knowledge; the world-spirit. 

9|$r«l (brahman — a personifi- 
cation of the preceding) m., the 
supreme All-Soul, the creator. 

^^•l. n "> ashes. 

Tffft m., ascetic. 

<M«t m -> kin g« 

^tT 5 !. n«j hair. 

^"Bf n., year. 

^TTTTT m., meeting, encounter. 

^fl^*^ f., border, boundary; oat- 

tpfT m., slayer, killer. 

nSJTEWrT long-lived (often used 
in respectful address). 

^<M«d so great, so much (263). 

P**l«d how great? how much? 

gmU!, f- °^rr, poor; niggardly. 

diq^n so much, so many. 

f%fc(> f - °^T, second. 

fH«J«MH kind - 

fil^qi-e^ saying pleasant things, 

<4^c(«rl v strong, mighty. 

*f?TcjnI,f.^<f^,honorable; blessed. 

*TT^«fT shining, brilliant. 

TTffTRnT shrewd, prudent. 

zrr^«rT how much, as many. 

l^f, f. o^RT: harsh, rough. 

f^*T, f. °*«ft, pervading, far- 
reaching; omnipresent; mighty. 

fcf, f - 01? Srr (pass. part, of ^5f) 

MI^TUI commonly. 

Lesson XXIV. 101 

Exercise XXIV. 

TTTf'TT fcT^l MUn^4lU| ^t*rrf*T f^I^ HNfnl ^^TfW I MT 
TTf? ^%^ I ^ I Vein TO^nT <MM**lijmfafTT ^nj | R | HT- 

^* 1^ ^ ^ f^Trro: ^nr^ i 3 i f^nft ^rreT^TP^T- 

^rrf^r *rf?m<ft ^fr^r^wt (gen) * ?rfa: i $ i *rfa TTfsr 
fdBwra ^fwf ^ wri to t f^rrf^ i ^ i ii<fcR*i3i*iir«i 
St it^t ^wre^r rf ^ar^i ^4i^«j'M0renft f%ftft wnf*\ 
fl[5n<pft *reg: i ^ i *t% tjfcwr^r fire 3% itfT**JT*wir wr- 

5T?ra: wz\ ^%5 ^f^ i «w i ^p^fwt ^rro *ftof*r ^n% <v- 
^Rxrerni ii «r ii 

13. Brahmaus have their shoes made (use efi caws.) of leather 
(instr.) or wood. 14. A temple of blessed Visnu stands in the 
outskirts of this village, on the bank of the river. 15. Let him 
rub off the vessels diligently with ashes (jpL). 16. The servants 
announced to the king that the two celebrated poets were 
coming (use or. recta with XftO- !?• O children (du.) , tell me 
your (-4(|(4H > gen- du.) names. 18. The world-spirit is described 
in many Upanisads. 19. It is said by the seers that the world- 
spirit is omnipresent (use or. recta). 20. That part of the world-spirit, 
which is encompassed by the body, is called the soul of man (cf. 
§ 234). 21. Candragupta was the mighty emperor of the whole 
earth. 22. All the mighty warriors who fought in Krsna's army 
were killed in battle by the enemy. 23. In the Rigveda (^Jr[ pi.) 
occurs (f^TT pass.) also the Tristubh. 24. The king of Pataliputra 
is by birth a Qudra; let him not marry the beautiful daughter of 
the ascetic Mitratithi. 


Lesson XXV. 

Lesson XXV. 

268. Declension. Perfect Active Participles in ^t^. The 

active participles of the perfect tense-system are quite peculiar as 
regards the modifications of the stem. In the strong cases the 
suffix is TRiC.? which hecomes ^Tt. in the nom. sing, masc, and 
is shortened to ^«^ in the voc. sing. In the weakest cases the suffix 
is contracted into \JU ; and in the middle cases it i3 changed to 
^cT- A union-vowel ^, if present in the strong and middle cases, 
disappears before ^11 in the weakest. Radical ^[ and f^, if preceded 
by one consonant, become JJ before ^, but if preceded by more 
than one consonant, become ^TJ ; whereas radical ^3 always be- 
comes ^ before ^3TJ , and radical ^?, "^. Thus, f^«Tlqn^, f*T- 
fU T^"^' WJ ^ITr^i ^^- The feminine stem is 
formed with % from the weakest stem -form; thus, fa«gqV 

1. f^T^ 'knowing': 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

n. fa^Tt; f^rcft f^ranw^: 
a. f^fwi; „ f^ra: 
i. t^^rr f^srro; f^rf^r 
l. fa^fa fwf^c f^i 
v. f^r. 

'2. wf*H ej i^[ 'having gone'* 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

n.v. f%^ "fa^fr ft$ \ UA 

-n y> n 

as in the masculine. 

Another form of pert. part, of this verb (3TJRQ makes the 
strong and middle stems OIJMJ^ and SRP^; the weakest form 
is as above, KTira . 

Lesson XXV. 103 

Masculine. Neuter. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. Singular. Dual. Plural. 

n. wft^Tt ^fuHjtO °^"Rra: *tft*H<t wro^fr *in*Hifa 
a. ^n^«ii^H » «n{jmi » » » 

I. 3N*jMT °«f^I11 °TT^a: as in the masculine 

L. ^rmfa «N*jMt*t ^fr^^r 

V. *ffr*TcR 

269. Stems "^«^, ^T^«^. The stems ^5^ m., 'dog', and 
?m*{ m., n., 'young', have as weakest stems "sp^ and ^jffi; in 
the strong and middle cases they follow tj^inj voc. *?f«^, SPPT- 
Fern. *pft and ^fTT. 

270. The stem If^qn. m -> 'generous' (in the later language 
almost exclusively a name of Indra), has as strong stem JJTPfpT, 
mid. o^T, weakest T^ffr Norn. sing. «|V|c|'|, voc. °^«^. Fem. 

271. The stem ^^5^ n., 'day', is used only in the stroug and 
weakest cases, the middle, with the nom. sing., coming from ^WT 
or ^STf^ Thus : 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 

N.A.V. ^f^ (o^) ^ft or ^[f\ ^^Tf«I 

L. ^Tft«T or ^rf> H£\*{ ^TfW or ^f TO 

272. Compounds with \W^ or ^T^- The adjectives formed 
from this root with prepositions and other words are quite irregular. 
Some of them have only two stem-forms : a strong in ^SH3 and a 
weak in ^pr^; while others distinguish from the middle in <4|-d a 
weakest stem in x^, before which the tR is contracted with a pre- 
ceding ^ (T( ) or ^ (^) into $" or ^f. The fem. is made with ^ 
from the weakest (or weak) stem ; thus , fefM-41- The principal 
stems of this sort are as follows : 

104 Lesson X 

TTT^ 'forward', 'eastward' 3JT1I 
^K^ra 'downward' ^RTTOf 



Weak (weakest) 

^^w 'northward ^J^W 
IT^TW 'backward '/westward' TTSf^r 
JSTtf 'low' *^L 

^5P3^ ' following V^[ 
fff^n? ' going horizontally ' fTT^f^ 



Verbs : 
^m + " ! M*j(*i (astamgdcchati) go 
down, set (lit'ly "go home" — 
used of the heavenly bodies). 

+ "&£ (udgdcchati) rise. 
^jr^ (sprhdyati) desire (dat.). 

Snbst. : 
*fft;^ n., weight; dignity. 

Q|9|7f n., that which lives. 

<T^jf|j«!jff., n. pr., a city (Taxila) 

in India. 

f?p|9 m., n., animal. 

<3^J m., n, pr., a god, Tvastar. 

MfiM^ f«5 assembly. 

OTRK^g n., Baroch (a holy place 

in India). 
JTERPC. m., Indra. 
*T^ m., n., young; f. gifa. 
fqm«U m., ripening; recompense. 

■?HR m., pains, trouble, 
ftjf m., lion. 
<sTM n., bathing, bath. 
^f^TJT m., gazelle. 

TJ(*ftrT» f-, °^5T, learned, studied. 
fffffl c| fw having stood; as n. 

subst, the immovable, 
f^ft'fl. three-headed. 
<^TJ> f- °HT, (part, of ^TfT ) bitten. 
"^•!<iHfa«t s forest-dwelling. 
fc(^i^ knowing, wise, learned. 

^ inserted, irregularly, in weakest forms only. 
1 irregular (f?TT^+ , *reG- 

Lesson XXV. XXVI. 105 

Exercise XXV. 

flRRTl *T«f?r *pf f^TT *pN W^ || q$ || 

iTT^rt f^fir ^r<f\'^^f^T 3Tdl^m«siJi^rm i q i f^flr- 
^r f^jt ^r^fr ^srra^ i r i wsf^sfHm vi tim«ii«ik<i^ i $ i 
^ft ir^r ^fwM^SidiH i 8 i :s 3 , n ^r fs*ifa; «nm**i- 

yrnrafq g^ *npif*?T i ^ i trt: <tiMm f^n%*r f^cftSr «rt- 
fsf frnsN grrgia Tfa ^if^ : i c i t^NY fa^: ^f wr*t«i 

^ m4fci^ wm v^iri fa*ra *<Wi ^fw infNi ^1- 
^raw: 11 «w 11 

12. Vrtra was killed (TpL, caws. />ass.) by Magbavan and the 
Maruts. 13. Young women sang a song. 14. Two learned Brahmans 
dispute. 15. Sarama is called in the Rigveda the dog (/.) of the gods. 

16. Great forests are found in the west (expr. as pred., nom. pi). 

17. In the assembly let the best among the learned teach 
(^J-ftpTT) the law. 18. Those who have committed evil deeds 
must stand by day (ace.) and sit by night. 19. Glory was attained 
by the young warrior. 20. Turned toward the east (nom. sing.) let 
one reverence the gods; the east (Hm1) is the quarter (t^T() °f 
the gods. 21. Day by day one must worship (VR) the sun. 22. The 
gazelle has been killed by dogs. 23. The lion is king of forest- 
dwelling animals. 

Lesson XXVI. 

Some Irregular Substantives. 

273. 41Jcj| f., k mother': voc. sing. ^<R. 

274. 1. ^rt^T m., 'friend': sing. num. TOT, ace. TOI*1R, inst * 
TOTT, dat. ^(§r, abl.-gen. ^TCfTCt, loc. *Hstf|, voc. *r% ; du. «<aicT|, 

106 Lesson XXVI. 

^r<a**NH> OTft*U pi- nom. ^r^T^C., ace. *«|^, instr. ^rNfij^; 
the rest like ilfa- — 2. trfff m., is declined regularly (like ^ifM) 
in composition, and when meaning 'lord, master'; when meaning 
'husband', it follows ^rf^f in the following forms: inst. sing. VRll, 
dat. Tfiif, abl.-gen. M<*|^, loc. T^ft. 

275 . The neuter stems tJ(^J«^ ' eye ' , -4|*-vy«^ ' bone ' , ^VJ«^ ' curds ' , 
fl^^T 5 ! 'thigh', form only the weakest cases; thus, -^tI^T? 3"W3C.i 
^r=r1|f^T or 4ffcf>U{, etc. ; the rest of the inflection is made from cor- 
responding stems in X; thus, nom. sing. TjrfW etc. 

276. 1. ^p^ft f« ? 'goddess of fortune', makes nom. sing. Ht^TI^- 
— 2. ^jsftf., 'woman', follows a mixed declension; thus, nom. sing, 
■%ft, ace. f^q*^ or ^fr{, instr. f^TT- dat.f^ff, abl.-gen. f^qit^, 

loc. fM<IIH; du - ft^ft* W\ «J 11 > f^foU pl. nom - f^RH> 
ace. fijKI^ or ^^, instr. ^t^t., etc. ; gen. *$Tl«m*v 

277. 1. ^|T^ f., 'water', only pi.; its final is changed to <*" be- 
fore W; thus, nom. -4Hm^, ace. ^PHJ., i nstr - ^f^^ dat.-abl. 
^T?H> g en - ^^TTR;, loc. ^n§- — 2. f^ f.,* 'sky', makes nom. 
sing, ^ffa^, du. ^TTTt pl- (sometimes) ^TT^^; the endings are the 
normal ones , but the root becomes ^T before consonant-endings : 
thus, ace. sing. f<^1, nom. -ace. pl. f^^, instr. ^"f^l- Not 
all the cases are found in use. — 3. Stem "^ m. (rarely f.), 'wealth': 
sing. -*J*[, ^TCI, TT^TTetc.; du. Tj^ft, TTWT^, TTOtl; pl- 
T^l (nom. and ace), ^ff^^ etc. 

278. 1. "SR^f or ^Pff m., (from ^R^ + ^Bff ' cart-drawing', 
i.e.) 'ox': strong stem -4M^li£\ mid. ^5f«f^2 , weakest •«f«i^|! ; 
nom. sing. "4T*f^fT«^, voc. ^SRIOT. — 2. The stem TJ«SR m., 'road', 
makes all the strong cases, with irregular nom. sing. M««Ht^; the 
corresponding middle cases are made from nf%J, and the weakest 
from TJ^; thus, ace. sing. tJ38n«}^, dat. XJ%, ace. pl. TO^b 

In the older language oftener masculine. 

Lesson XXVI. 107 

dat. qf^|ttf{^. [The stems JR^^ ra., 'stirring-stick', and Vft*^ 
m., an epithet of Indra, are said to follow l|d!|«^.] 

279. The stem tfaj m., 'man', is very irregular. The strong 
stem is MtUt^, mid. TJ*^, weakest xj^. Thus, sing. l|4J|«^, M^l^^l 

q^rr, etc., voc. tpr^ ; du. iprftfT, jj*«rm;, Y^t^c; pi- ^Ti^, 
5^^, ijftns; etc., ij*. 

280. For the stem 5RJ f • , 'age', may be substituted in the 
cases with vowel -endings forms from <q4<fl f. ; thus, ST^TI or 

281. ||^ n., 'heart', does not make nom.-voc.-acc. of any 
number (except in composition), these being supplied from £<£41 n. 

282. The stem T[£ m., 'foot', becomes VJ'S in strong cases; 
and, in compounds, in the middle cases also; thus, nom. sing. XJT?, 
ace. Mld*^, instr. TJ^T, etc. From f^'? 'biped', ace. sing. f^[- 
xn^, pi. f^M<^, instr. pi. f^nf^- [The stem XTT^ m., 'foot', 
has the complete declension of a-stems.] 

283. The root ^5^ 'slay', as final member of a compound, 
becomes Iff in nom. sing., and loses its «^ in the middle cases 
and its ^f in the weakest cases (but only optionally i : loc. sing.). 
Further, when ^ is lost, ^ in contact with «^ reverts to its original 
Tl ; thus, ^J^«^m., -killing a Brahman', makes nom. sing. 3fi|rC> 
ace. °flp^*, instr. WisT^T, etc., loc. W^f^ or °ffl»r, voc. °f^; 
du - TOlHlft °f«IT^ etc.; pi. nom. fTTJ^, ace. °^^. 

284. The stems UM«^ m., n. pr., and 3r$RT*t. na. , n. pr. (both 
personifications of the sun), make the nom. sing, in ^tt, but 
otherwise do not lengthen the ^J; thus, nom. VRJ, ace. TjpEpTJ?^, instr. 

In compound words, an altering cause in one member some- 
times lingualizes a «^ of the next following member. But a 
guttural or labial in direct combination with «^ sometimes prevents 
the combination, as in the instr. S^f^TT. 


Lesson XXVI. 

Vocabulary XXVI. 


■^ move ; in caus. (arpdyati) send ; 

put; hand over, give. 
if^ (guhati) in caus. (guhdyati) 

hide away, conceal. 

?m (tfpyatO De pleased or satis- 
tied, satisfy or satiate oneself. 
«jTt^ -f f^ (vildpati) complain. 

"^rWl (^rN) n., eye. 
^STsTtta m., faithfulness. 
n!|W^ m., demon. 
f^rT n., notice, thought, mind. 
l»'t|lfll f., divinity, deity. 
THHQ (weakest \$faQm.,w./w\, 

a Vedic saint. 
TfZ m., foot. 
M|t«M n., protection. 

ITTT3 m., man (homo). 

sT?T n., vow, obligation, duty. 

•qjTW f- 3 °^TT, one-eyed. 
^ff^T^ four-footed, quadruped, 
fl^ m., biped. 
f^ffi, f- °^n (part, of f*!-*nO, 

ordained, fixed, permanent, 
ftp?, f. ^TJ, beneficent, gracious, 


Exercise XXVI. 

wt *rfw^ft ^HuiHsfti^ *ifcwii sTtto; i 

WRf *TT*TC %W f^RIff £^fTi sTTTO; II «*8 II 

«H<4«riicH^i£) hi^H wi <tpr; I S I flTTr% tpSJT'TO: I ^ I 

H^r4^HI^| I ^ I 1%bt rpRTFtK WW WRTfa I 8 I W!W*ri ^FH- 

<f<^ src^snw; i q i %*r xren wfrwt «gHii*< i $ i ^t 

TRT^n^^T I ^) I jfoi: *Tf WTTPT+I^isrc I *= I I g*P*Wi 

* ^jfa i Q. i ^rf^": Trfr ^w*<5iM ^VKjnz i «io i wt ^ 

f^T I ^ I €t: fqcIT ^TWt ^ *?TrTT Wt T^TR I S? I iffT $M\M\ 
$<(§$ TR ^f^rf^T | q8 I W^^T T WR<T T ^ rTTTtym^^l- 

^W i «m i ^*f^t ^prrsrre^T \^wi: vr*ri u\$M<n cnfa^ 

Lesson XXVI. XXVII. 


18. The meeting of the men and women took place on the 
road. 19. In the Veda they call the sun Pusan, Mitra (m.), Aryaman, 
and Savitar. 20. Water also is named (*N!J4J, pass.) among the 
deities in the Rik (use HMHQ ana< in the sacrificial formulas. 
21. Be gracious, O Civa, to biped and quadruped. 22. The seers' 
view is , that fire is to be found in the water (use ^p^ , and make 
a direct statement with ^ff?f). 23. The Asura was slain by Maghavan 
with a bone of DadhyaSc. 24. Who knows the wind's path (pass.) ? 
25. Mother, satisfy (fft^ cans.) the child with curds. 26. Have 
food brought (use ^n-«ft, cans., pi.) from our friend's house. 
27. The Maruts are Maghavan's friends. 

Lesson XXVII. 

285. Demonstrative Pronouns* Two demonstrative-declensions 
are made up with particular irregularity: they are those of the 
pronouns -4|i|4^ and ^TOT (for which the natives give the stem-forms 
as $rf|^ and ^T2^ respectively). The first is a more indefinite de- 
monstrative: 'this' or 'that'; the other signifies especially the re- 
moter relation. 

286. ^rcro; (XP0> 





















-H\*U IH 





























Lesson XXVII. 

Neuter: Nom.-acc. sing. <^H> du. ^^t pi. ^** ff*t 5 the rest 
is like the masculine. 


287. ^raTO*^:): 

Masculine. Feminine. 

Sing. Dual. Plural. Sing. Dual. 


A. TMH „ W^ ^RHl 

i. ^nprr ^ijjuiih wffiro: ^r^n 
d. w^ „ wM^: ^^m^ 

l. -^rgfispt „ -sufttj ^nn; 


©v ©•» 


Neuter: Nom.-acc. sing. HdU, du. ^Sfjf, pi. ^5TTF*T; the rest 

^ ©\ ©s 

like masc. — The final $^ of ^l^ft is unchangeable (cf. § 161). 

288. There is a defective pronominal stem 1J«T , which is 
accentless, and hence used only in situations where no emphasis 
falls upon it. The only forms are the following: Sing. ace. m. 
inj^, n. TT«n?> f- IpTl^C; instr - m -> n -> ^T> f - 11*1*1 1- Du. acc - 
m. T|^T, f .) n -> TJ%; gen.-loc. m., f., n., ^«i«Ti^. PI- » cc - m - H.ii«l,> 
n. Tpn'f'I, f. TpTT^- — These forms may be used only when the 
person or object to which they refer has already been indicated by 
a form of HM*{ or TJ^. Thus, ^[Sr ^JT^JH^IT^'T «MI«h<*U- 
H m 1 M *| "this one has read the art of poetry ; teach him grammar". 

289. Past Passive Participle in TTor «T. By the suffix 7f — or, 
in a comparatively small number of verbs, «T — is formed, di- 
rectly from the root of the verb, and unconnected with any tense- 
stem, a verbal adjective called the past passive participle. The 
fern, ends always in °^S[J. When this participle is made from 
transitive verbs, it qualifies something as having endured the action 
expressed by the verb; thus, ^tT dattd, 'given'; ^5 uktd, w spoken'. 
When made from an intransitive or neuter verb , the same par- 

Lesson XXVII. Ill 

ticiple has no passive, but only an indefinite past, sense; thus, JHTt 
gone', Wf, 'been'; TJTffrT, 'fallen'. 

290. This participle is often used as an adjective. Very com- 
monly, also, it supplies the place of a finite verb, when some form 
of nfl^, 'be', or ^ is to be supplied; thus, ^ *fcf: 'he is gone"; 
*niT Wft fcfRsId^ "by me a letter was written". The neuter is 
frequently used as a substantive ; thus, ^tH^ ' a gift ' ; ^7^1*^ ' milk ' ; 
and also as nomen actionis. Sometimes it has a present significa- 
tion, particularly when made from neuter verbs ; thus, f^gHT (from 
^gn) often 'standing'. 

291. A. With suffix «f M> The suffix «T is taken by a number 
of roots. Thus: 

1. Certain roots in tSTT, and in i and u- vowels; thus, X5fT or 
ift 'swell, be fat', lft«T; TfT 'abandon', |JT*T; ^T 'wither', ^TPf; 
f^ destroy', ^\U[; ^J or f% 'swell', *T*T; «T 'cut', 5R. 

2. The roots in variable ^ (so-called f-rootsj, which before 
the suffix becomes ^^ or ^f^\ as in the pres. pass.; thus, 2effi 

(fa$, ^; H, <W; 15 (u$ 'fill', iw- 

3. A few roots ending in 5f (which becomes *J before the «T) ; 
thus, J^ 'break', ^; 1*J5^ 'bend', *J^; *TST V 'sink', W, 
"^5f 'be sick', ^f; f%5T 'fear', f^Cf. Also one or two others 
which exhibit a guttural before the «f: ^ffl 'attach', ^J; ^*J 

'cut up', ^wm 

4. A number of roots, some of them very common, in W 
(which becomes ^ before «T): ^ , jg^ ; (f?j_^r, f^^;) f^r 
'cut', fa^.* 

292. Some few verbs make double forms; thus, *3["^ 'hasten', 
?nt or t^Rd; f^TCjT 'acquire', f^ or f^rT- 

Commonest exceptions: <=U f«( H from *slT^ ' e »t ' j Trf from 
*^5 *jfli(rl from ?T^ 'rejoice'; ^f^cT from ^ 'weep'; ^ff^cl 
from ^^ * speak'; fcf'f^'cf from f^^ 'know'. 


Lesson XXVII. 

^? + ^T (upeksate) neglect. 
2eF + f^ (vikirdti) scatter. 
3RER1 + ^T^ (den. — avagandyati) 

^^ + \3^ , in cans, (uccardyati) 

pronounce, say. 
<? + ^Sf^( (avatdrati) descend. 

+ ^^ (uttdrati) emerge, come 

TJT or TEn (pyayate) become stout 

or fat. 

Vocabulary XXVII. 

}^T (bhaksdyati) eat. 

Vffi break. 

2^*r + ^R enjoy. 

*f + xrfT (paribhdvati) despise. 

*{V3\ (mdjjati) sink. 

^pT in caus. (yojdyati) yoke, 

^PI Qdgati) attach; bang, cling, 

^T^ (sldati) sit, settle down; be 

overcome, exhausted. 


"^JpyHt m. du., nom. pr. , the 
Acvins (the Indian Aio? xovpoi). 

•M\-q\^ m. , "walk and con- 
versation"; conduct of life, ob- 

^PJ n., debt. 

qrcrH] m., n. pr. a mountain. 

^pj f., hunger. 

^W^Th n « > life of holiness, i. e. 

religious studentship. 
*ft*l«l n., meal-time, meal. 
H^Tni.,, a Vedic personage. 
*^l|e$ m., sweet drink. 
JpffT t, pearl, 
^l^jtl na.., demon. 
mJH na.j acquisition, gain. 

f«J<JlU m., wedding, marriage. 

^UfV ra., illness. 

IT^rj m., car. 

I|«(T i'-, bed. 

^f m., n., plough. 

^TT m -i chain, garland. 

^TJF (part, of 2f^J) reduced, de- 
cayed ; ruined. 

rffa f- ^ST[, great, strong, violent. 

iffa (part, of tft) fat. 

5(^^rF<«t studying sacred know- 
ledge; as m. subst., Brahman 

Iffa (part.) abandoned; wanting 
in ; and so sometimes w. instr., 
= 'without'. 

Lesson XXVII. XXVIII. 113 

Exercise XXVII. 

6 Cs. 

5r*Rrf^T *RJ <ftw <*IIVj^l^(TT: li <N II 

gWrT i <n ^ft irar**^* Tf^wrrf^^rot ifw^: r i ^ 
t: frrar ttt^cW: *wr *f *Rrra*rarftraf?r i ^ i ^r^w 
fN g*rre f^rNww^Tnnsrf^r **r: i 8 i ^ft *rci f^wnif 

WECQi I $ I M*U<«1<* "^ WX I ^ | *pWMM*H«t^f: W I *= I 

ttwf&h i <\o i t^I** vrerofimT ^rro ^T^T^rnt *rw$ t^ 
%<t II «w II 

12. Have medicine given quickly (use pass. part, of ^^, in 
nom.) to these sick persons. 13. This is that mountain Kailasa, on 
which Qiva dwells. 14. In order to attain (5TW, dat.) this and 
that other world (gen.*) the priest offered sacrifice for me (?f3( caus.). 

15. The flowers in the garlands of these women are withered. 

16. By that king, who was praised by us, we were delighted with 
these jewels. 17. The peasant yoked two fat oxen to the plough. 

18. The learned Brahman emerged (pass" part.) from the water. 

19. Here comes (pass, part.) the queen. 20. A chain of pearls 
hung (pass, part.) on the neck of this demon. 21. What sin is 
not committed by persons reduced in fortune? 22. This garden is 
filled with men and women. 

Lesson XXVIIL 

293. Past Passive Participle, cont'd. B With suffix <f. 

I. Without union-vowel ^. Much more commonly this parti- 

* "I am so-and-so; N. or M." 

** Translate the pronoun-forms by 'here', and cf. § 225. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 


114 Lesson XXVIII. 

ciple is made by adding the suffix <l to the bare root ; thus, "%Tr[ 
from ^TT; "fa?T from f^; f^Jf from f^\; ^r{ from ^ (or ^rr); 
1FH from ^c^. 

294. If the root end in a consonant other than 35, <^, X^, ^, 
the ordinary rules of euphonic combination apply as follows : 

1. Final ^ and 51 become "^; thus, ffjtjfi from f^f^; ^"35 
from ^fj Tjffifi from (Zf^. 

2. Final TT becomes TJ , after which, as also after radical 
final "q, ?^ becomes Z; thus, ^g from ^*{; f^J from f^TJ . *nj 
and W2 are made from ^f and Tfir , and f^r from Tfvl , contrary 
to 1. Jfi£ makes THJ; and cT^, rfH- 

3. Final \r becomes 2", and H , ^ ; and the following W be- 
comes \J ; thus, ^U frorry q^r , ?:3tT from ^fW . 

N <i tf s ^ 

4. Final ^ is treated in various ways, according to its his- 
torical value, a. Sometimes ^ combines with c^ to form <|, before 
which short vowels (except ^J) are lengthened ; thus, *n<g from 
TTf, ^ft(S from f%f, "^5 from ^f ; Tf% from ?T^; but ^g from 
"%%• W% forms W{i£. b. Where ^ represents original TJ , the com- 
bination is TOJ; thus, <n*J from ^f; ftTHf from f<r%; q[rfcf from 
*&%. The root 31^ forms also 7(JVf. c «fijj , where ^ represents 
original \f , makes «HJ. 

295. The root before rf usually has its weakest form, if there 
is any where in the verbal system a distinction of strong and weak 
forms. Thus: 1. A penultimate nasal is dropped; e. g., ^STfS from 
^^5 W3 from ^j ^T from ^^ (or ^RO; ^T from jfo. 
2. Roots which are abbreviated in the weak forms of the perfect 
suffer the same abbreviation here; e. g., ^f^i from ^x£> ^f{ from ^T^, 
5Rf|from^T^, ^f5 from^^; ^gfrom"?^ (the same form from ^151 ); 
f^U from ^T^j ; rrg from JH£. 3. Final ^SR is weakened to %■ 
in ifVtT from 1[J 'sing', tfttf from 1X(J 'drink'; to ^ in f^StH from 
1&1> f^fi fr° m ^TT 'put' (with \J also changed to ^), f^T<T from 

Lesson XXVIII. 115 

?TT 'measure', and a few others. 4. A final ^ is lost after "H in 
TFT, T?Tj Trf, T<T (from *rj^ etc.); and likewise final ^ in ^J<T, 
rHT, <HrT, ^rT, ^rT (from ^J«^ etc.). 5. Isolated cases are flJIJ 
from ^JTH; ^TcT from sfa 'play'. 

296. More irregular are the following: 

1. Some roots in tSUI. make participles in ^TnT> thus, ^T«rT> 
^»TnT, TRT, clTnT, ^TnT, HT«rT- ^TTnT, from cfi^ etc. 

2. Sf^, ^«^, and ^pf^ make WTTT etc. 

3. The root l^T, 'give', forms ^TtT (from the derivative form 
'S'Z)- The contracted form ^f is widely found in composition, 
especially with prepositions; thus, JfZy\ or TTrf, f^^TT or «?TtT> e tc 

297. II. With union- vowel ^. The suffix with ^, or in the 
form \J{, is regularly used with the derivative verb-stems in se- 
condary conjugation, also often with roots of derivative character 
(like fll^ , f^^), and not infrequently with original roots. 

298. When \t{ is added to causative and denominative verb- 
stems the syllables ^J are dropped ; thus, rT^, pass. part, ^tf^tf; 
*I«!!*J, Tftpf; <F3, fTTf^rT; *T, caus. *nx*Tfa> caus - P ass - P a,t - 
*lll\ci; ft, caus. ^TfTCfH, ^TfacT 

299. Among the original roots taking ^7J may be noticed the 

TI^ 'fall', TjfacT; ^, ^[fxjcf; ^ 'dwell', ^f^cf; ^1, 
^m; ^\ 'thirst', ^fer?f ; f^ x , f^ff^rT; t^ s , tf^rT; ^Tf, 
^t^<T- ^If makes *j{\t{; iff 'lie' makes Tjfarf. 

300. A few roots form this participle either with or without 
the auxiliary \; thus, Tf^\ and 4-1 f<f ^ from ?T<*. 

301. The grammarians reckon as participles of the na-formation 
a few derivative adjectives, coming from roots which do not make 
a regular participle; such are ^T*T 'burnt' (Wl)i ofil[ 'thin', 'hag- 
gard' (|i*0; 1*1? ' ri P e ' O^C); T^ ' dry ' (^FQ> 5^ 'expanded' 




Lesson XXVIII. 

302. Past ActiTe Participle in rH^ (or «fqvO - F ron » the 
past pass. part, is made, by adding the possessive suffix ^*f^ (f. 
•qrfr), a secondary derivative having the meaning and construction 
of a perfect active participle ; thus, ^d^t^, TTf^JT?^'?^. 

303. This participle is almost always used predicatively, and 
generally without expressed copula, i. e., with the value of a per- 
sonal perfect-form. Thus, *TT 1 «*Py£ S^l^ "no one has seen 
me"; or, with copula, tngtftT^g MIH^^f^f "thou (fem.) hast come 
into great misery". This participle comes to be made even from 
intransitives; thus, ^T 4|<f4|riV "she has gone". 


fl + U in caus. {pratardyati) de- 


*1i$+f!ft{(sa7iindkyati) equip one- 

TT%+ f^-^lTin caus. (vydpaddyati) 

Tj^rfjj * (pdldyate) flee. 

23T5T enjoy, eat. 

HH+Wl honor. 

Vocabulary XXVIII. 

T{^{muhyati) be confused or dazed 

or stupid. 
^£*l s + ^STO besiege. 
^^ + JT (prardhati) grow up. 
f^t, + II (pravigdti) penetrate, 

3f^ + Tf in caus. (pravartdyati) 

f^TGf + , 3Sf^ remain over, survive. 

^jj + ^JTJ bestrew. 

Snbst. : 
"^Tfrl in., end; in loc, at last. 

^gTJRll n -, n - V r -> Delhi. 

T^ m., ass. 

5TTfT f-, cave. 

^rfT*T n > behavior, life. 

Tre<f|"4jyi m., nom. pr. 

xhr, m -> citizen. 

nmn^ m -> palace. 

^J^»f m., Greek, barbarian. 
■sjTTT^f m., jackal. 
^Tf^r^i m., soldier. 
%f?I n., army. 
^f*JTt m -> elephant. 

A ^u<m'-root from ^ 'go' + H^T 'away'. 




*{*&£ (comp.) more. In neut. 
sing, as adv.: mostly. 

f%TCT (part, from f%^) affectio- 

Exercise XXVIII. 
gfrnft (abl.) TT^: ^*T%TfH: 3ffafafTHTf% ^fa ^«TTf^ I ^ I 

fafifw n?n(\d: faw^i jj<i«ii4<hm3<i i*: 1 8 f3faj firarr- 
faiNrRTRf^M n^*i i m i ^rren*jfwfrwf*r. irr^Tftr 

f^ft (abi.) *h3mtji^<*j ^aftTra V£H*gi<CMM *if I5- 
^rrnr: i >2> i xrf^r «Ji^«tff^ft: *rf trg^ pm i ■« i 
Trf^PTTwr <Kifrd: ^ff ^t ffonfr wrt trf^nfr ^t^flfcriN 
*Tfta: irgrwrftRT ^rrfira: n o. n 

(In the following render all finite verbs by participles.) 
10. Many of the soldiers were killed; some tcbo survived fled 
into the city. 11. The gates of the city were shut fast (^'ST "^Tfa- 
ft?rn)> the citizens equipped themselves for battle. 12. The Ya- 
vanas approached and besieged the city (pass.). 13. Finally the 
Yavanas , proving victorious {past act. part.), entered the city by 
force. 14. The young and old men were mostly murdered; the 
women made slaves ; the great possessions of the citizens plundered, 
the palaces and houses burnt with fire. 15. The end of Prthvlraja 
has been described by the Yavanas, and his previous life sung 
by the poet Canda. 

Lesson XXIX. 

304. Gerund, or Absolutive. The gerund is made in classical 
Sanskrit by one of the suffixes ^T and Jf. 

118 Lesson XXIX. 

305. A. ^X To uncompounded roots is added the suffix <3T. 
It is usually added directly to the root, but sometimes with the 
vowel ^ interposed. With regard to the use of \, and to the form 
of root before it, this formation closely agrees with that of the 
participle in rf or »f. A final root-consonant is treated as before 
7J. Roots which make the past pass. part, in «T generally reject ^ 
before ^J. 

Examples. 1. Without inserted ^: -sJMI, fw&H, •ft^T, ^*TT> 
H^T; f^f^T from ^n, ffWT from l^T 'place' (cf. ffTf) and from 
fT, ^WT from ^T (cf. ^tT), ?ft^T from *TT; ^^[ from ^, 
-g^iT from ^3fj *I^T from *r*t, *?^7 from J?^, f%T^T from 2f^ 
'find'; cTtdl from 7{ (cf. tffaf), TJ^ft from TJ (cf. tnjf); "SJH from 
1*1' ITT from f* i TTT from ^ (cf. § 295, 2), ^fT from ^Sf , 
*f®«rT from ^f*^, ^Tt^T fr° m ^f- 

2. With inserted^: f^f^TTfrom lf^^'know', ^f^T from 
TO 'dwell', Iff^T from ^ (cf. Iff^rT), nftWi from Tf^ (cf. 

306. Some verbs make both forms; thus, from T^«^ either 1^- 
f^T or ^HT; from ?^ either >*f*?WT or **T^T- 

307. Causatives and denominatives in ^f make ^jf^I^T ; thus, 

ttt, ^tTf^^rr; fT3, <rrefa*rr; wmf?r, wrfimT. 

308. B. ^J. Roots in composition witb prepositions (or some- 
times with elements of other kinds, as adverbs or nouns) take the 
suffix T(, before which ^ is never inserted. A root which ends in 
a short vowel adds <T before Tf. Thus, MpLUp*^ ^R*nT; — f%- 

fwaj, ^f^fw, wta (*rf%r-t) *fa?w- 

309. Roots in ^J^ and ^J»^ whose pass. part, ends in "^Jrf 
form this gerund in ^T3I; thus, 7f^i, °^3J. But such cm-roots 
(not aw-roots) may preserve the nasal; thus, °*r*Sr Final change- 
able ^g becomes ^T or ^5JT; thus, °t?V^ °9h« Final ^TT remains 
unaltered; thus, flJT3"RT- Some roots show a weak form before 

Lesson XXIX. 119 

this suffix; thus, H*JfJ, ^^^5 "flt^I (T?-"^^l) from tf-cjxT ; ^~ 
*Rr from ^-^f ; 3jW from f^-^f. 

310. Causals and denominatives in tJRI reject those syllables; 

thus, HtfU^fH, WPS; ttpttsj; itwto; ^r^TT^r; qrprrerefa 

O^TT-'ft). liWWi- But if the root ends in a single consonant and 
encloses short ^f which is not lengthened in the causative, then 
the gerund of the caus. ends in ^rgr, to distinguish it from the 
gerund of the simple verb; thus, ^^-*n^, ger. "31^7^; caus. tJT^- 

aprerfo g er - ^r^w^r. 

311. The gerund or absolutive is used generally as logical ad- 
junct to the subject of a clause. It denotes an action accompanying 
or (usually) preceding that which is signified by the verb of the 
clause. (In the later language it is not always confined to the 
grammatical subject of the clause as an adjunct.) It has thus vir- 
tually the value of an indeclinable participle, present or past, qual- 
ifying the actor whose action it describes. 

Thus, cT^ ^TTcfi^ ^HT (U^iT ^H^T ^Tf ^TcH " having heard 
this, having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his 
own house".* 

312. The gerunds of some verbs have not much more than 
prepositional value; thus, <4||<^|i| 'having taken', i. e. 'with', like 
Greek Xafiwv, tfuw, 3J^TT 'having released', i.e. 'without', 'except'. 

313. Before all gerunds may be used the privative ~^S[\ or ^J; 
thus, TsjrjjoTwfX" without having received"; -4Mle£tf "without having 
summoned. " 

Vocabulary XXIX. 

Verbs: ~%n\ acquire, attain, reach. 

tST^ + f^T (nydsyati) entrust (to ^ + U go forth ; die. 
one's care). 

Of course the absolutives are often best rendered by relative 
clauses, or even by clauses coordinate with the principal clause. 


Lesson XXIX. 

35 + ^rfV put at the head, ap- 

point as ruler over (Zoc). 
^T + 1? (pracdlati) move on, 

fxf«Sr^ (cintdyati) consider. 
^ (cydvate) totter, fall. 
3[T + ^TT take. Cf. § 312. 
VT + TO^-^TT lay or place on. 
•ft + f*!^ (nirndyati) bring to an 

end, determine, settle. 
*HI + f% (vibhdjati, -redistribute. 
sf5| + H(pravrdjati) vvauder forth ; 

leave one's home to become a 

wandering ascetic. 


^f^TSTRT m., plan, design. 
^TfT^ n., bringing. 
qfflj m., monkey. 
"SRfT'C ra, j elephant. 

gf!J m., victory. 

■rf^^TT f., misfortune. 

Tp5r m., wing,' side; party. 

5fa m., frog. 

^raHT f-, w. p*-j Ceylon. 

^rr^ m., hero. 

•H 1 V4«f n., means, device. 

Tfrf m., bridge, dike. 

f«np^ni.,, a monkey-king. 

3»7T3J^ (nom. °V^) m., fire. 


^"HpT disagreeable. 

^!ITH responsible, trustworthy. 

t$V( du., both. 

W$T, f. ^TT, little, small. 

(TO, f. o^STT, daily, regular. 

THif^r on tbe head. 

TTfri (postpos., with ace.) against. 

Exercise XXIX. 

sr^psft ^t^T?c i <* i ^j^rr Tft^T %tt tth *pn: i R i >ft*mt *- 
fn=mimiwi yif*i3 f^^r *pft f*nsi»T«T: i 3 i *n§rr f^mr- 
%g ^»fxrf*i: *rorfr ^n *refr %<j ^t w^i Trfm ^ Tr*fr TT- 

Lesson XXIX. XXX. 121 

11. After the king had conquered the vassals of the western 
kinds he marched (pass, part.) against the eastern vassals. 12. The 
merchants, in joy (pass, part.), took the money and gave the jewels 
to the king (use ger., and pass, constr.). 13. "After adoring the gods 
at twilight, and placing fagots on the fire, bring water from the 
cistern": thus having spoken, the teacher seated himself (pass, part.) 
on the mat. 14. The hero fought (ger.) with his enemies and gained 
(part.) great glory by the victory over them (gen.). 15. The Brah- 
man, abandoning hisown(pZ-), became an ascetic (if- sf^f , pass. part.). 
16. When the merchant had imparted (f^T-'fa^, caus:) his plan to 
the servant, he sent him into the village. 17. The master of the 
house had money brought (ger.) and distributed it to the poor. 
18. Let not kings decide law-suits without hearing the arguments 
(e||xQ of both sides. 19. Whoever despises powerful foes, and 
fights with them without considering the means to victory (gen.), 
perishes. 20. Whoever becomes an ascetic without having studied 
the Veda, attains (ger.) not salvation, but falls into hell (loc). 

Lesson XXX. 

314. Infinitive. The later language has a single infinitive, the 
ending of which is 7Rf£ (or <rj*0- The root takes guna, when 

315. The ending THT is added directly: 

1. To almost all roots ending in vowels, except those in ^R 
and changeable ^. Thus, tfT, VWRf{ ; 3[T, ^MH; f^J> 3<JH5 

2. To a number of roots ending in consonants. As root- 

122 Lesson XXX. 

finals, g», c^, t^ and ^ remain unchanged before <TJ^; thus, ^R, 

'curse', TTH**.; 3 ^C 'dwell', ^p^. — Other finals are changed 
according to the rules given in Lesson XXVIII for the con- 
version of final consonants before the participial suffix 7f. Thus, 

tt^, nw*; m\, anp;; Tl* ^I*t*; ^' ^fl*5 f\> 

Final «* becomes <^, and final J{, \; thus, n5T|[, -*tj+U f^Tcf 
'know', %rpt (also %f\<J*0; T^, T^- 

316. The ending cj^; with ^ (in the form *TJ*0 is taken by 
roots in final long ^» and the root ^, with a few other vowel- 
roots; by the majority of roots in consonants; and by verbs of the 
secondary conjugations. Thus, *f, »?fW7fF{; ift, ^farj*U X^ v > 

317. Causatives and denominatives in "^J have ^rftirj*^ the 
root being treated as iu the present; thus, ^"^, ^V<f*M+iJ ^W » 

318. Some roots in consonants insert or reject 5^ at pleasure; 
thus, TO , JJlf^rJH. or TT^**- The root ^ makes ^J^rT^. 

319. The rules for the use of ^ in the infinitive agree closely 
with those governing its use in the formation of the s-future and 
of the vomen agentis in H. 

320. Uses of the infinitive. The chief use of the infinitive is 
as equivalent to an accusative, as the object of a verb, especially 
of the verbs ^5 'be able', and tJI^ be worthy', 'have the right 

* The increments of ^ are sometimes ^ and "^ instead of 
tR"^ and ^JT^; especially where a difficult combination of consonants 
is thu9 avoided. 

** In all the tense-systems, and in derivation, the root 3J^ 
exhibits often the vrddhi instead of the ^wna-strengthening. 

Lesson XXX. 123 

or power'; thus, cfiUjfad IJ^ftfrT "he is able to tell"; sftrj+lffrT 
efi^TT* *'the prince ought to hear it". n!f^ is often thus used with 
the infinitive to express a respectful request or entreaty, as in the 
last example. The infinitive is also often found with verbs of 
motion, and with those meaning 'desire', 'hope', 'notice', 'know', 
and the like. 

321. But often the infinitive has a case-value not accusative. 
Thus, a dative value: IT^frT ^ftWTW^ "there is food to eat" i. e. 
"for eating"; a genitive value: ^f5|^rr TfHJ, "capable of going". 
Even a construction as nominative is not unknown. 

322. In certain connections the infinitive has a ^uasi-passive 
force. Thus, ofm*J|^dej: " begun to be made " ; ^TfT T 4jWd " it is 
not fit to be heard." This is especially frequent along with the 
passive forms of ^r^i; thus, mJR «f IJdiYfil "he cannot abandon", 
but <5J# »f ^^r^ "he cannot be abandoned"; «nft 1[Wf^T^<p^ 
"the two men can be brought hither." 

323. Future Passive Participle, or Gerundive. Certain deriv- 
ative adjectives, mostly secondary, have acquired a value quite 
like that of the Latin gerundive; thus, cfc|{j (from qj) 'to be done', 

faciendus. They may be made from every verb. The ordinary 
suffixes are three: ^3f, Tf^r, and '^vflif. 

324. A. Suffix ^f. a. Before this suffix final radical ^TT be- 
comes X[; thus, from 3"[\ 2"^T; J^\, if^T. b. Other final vowels some- 
times remain unchanged, sometimes have the guna or even the 
vrcWfo'-strengthening; andTJ often, and ~^st[ always, are treated before 
H as before a vowel; thus, from fgj, 5f?J and 5T5I; from *ft, *J^J 
and HftS; from ^r, Tsjgj and ^TtcB; from q?, ^TRI; from *J, \jRI; from 
*T» 3?T^T — c. In a few iustances, a short vowel adds <T before 
the suffix; thus, ^J(^), ^2T(fJ (^f), ^R2T (3R). d. Medial 1Q remains 

The original value of this suffix is ia. Hence the conversion 
of TJ to ^J and of ^jft to ^Rf before it. 

124 Lesson XXX. 

unchanged in one class of words, and is lengthened in another 
class; thus, ^K(, ^3T, ^RT, but TTlZf (*T^)> TT^T (^)- 
e. Initial or medial i, u, and r- vowels are sometimes unchanged, 
sometimes have the (/Una-strengthening; thus, f^J, T?T, *T^T; %3T, 
^^TST ^THf- /• The root ^JT^C makes f^TSJ. A form ^8f (from 
the defective root ^J ) is assigned to ^«^. < 3TT-<qTO makes ^TRP9 
and -4IM+33T- g. Causatives and denominatives in ^r are treated as 
in the present, but omit the syllables ^J; thus, ^T, ^Y^- 

325. B. Suffix ffolf. This is a secondary adjective derivative 
from the infinitival noun in <f. Hence, both as regards the form of 
root and the use or omission of ^, the rules are the same as for 
the formation of the infinitive; thus, ^3)^1, ^faq^r, cJi^rfH^T ^f'?- 
?F*t (ift). 

326. C. Suffix -^m [^Hlfter]- Generally radical vowels 
will be found gunated before this suffix; causatives and denomin- 
atives in ^STO are treated as in the present- system, without the 
syllables ^T; thus, ^\ + \i\ (^T), J|l«fl*J (*TT), ^TWfa (^), *ft- 

327. The gerundives in "Jf^f are common in the impersonal pas- 
sive construction described in Lesson X, and not seldom have a 
purely future sense ; thus, H«J ^TT ^jf^sRT Hf^W^ " with that 
thou shalt be happy". 


^3J^ (drhati) have the right, etc. 

(cf. § 320.) 
^TR^ + *J*t finish, attain. 
|l+^PMSrT pay. 
1H + ^ITf*f (abhigdcchati) visit, 


Vocabulary XXX. 

TTf + ^5^ (avagahate) dive under 

cfx^ (tdpati, -te) burn (tr. and 

intr.); pain; in pass., suffer, 

do penance. 
\JT + fW arrange, ordain, order. 
•T?^ (nftyati) dance. 

Lesson XXX. 


» + TJ be mighty, able ; valere. 
^c^ + Tf (pravdrtate) continue, 
go on. 

apffall m., husbandman. 
^ftcf n., song, singing. 
r\m^ n., heat; self-torture. 
•TTZ«R »•> drama, play. 
»PtT n., dance, dancing. 
^TJ^ n., body, figure. 
CTTT3I m -> convention, company. 
3J"TO«^ n., Vedic melody, song; 
pi., the Samaveda. 

Tppr, f. °t, young, delicate. 

XTg stout, fat. 

fM^cj|f^«^ acceptably speaking. 

Ifi^rq^ fruitful. 

^f-sj?! destined or suitable for 

f^ffcf (part, of f%-\TT) ordained. 
^Tr^f, f., o^|T, capable, able. 
*^^W self-existent; as m. subst., 

epithet of Brahma. 


"^JJ^H enough, very; iv. instr., 
enough of, away with; w. dat., 
suitable for. 

*<^H at pleasure. 

Exercise XXX. 

f^t mwwi ^g ^mft **r^ Tfn fJrenrrf^fr wr <nh*j- 
??» w: i r i tnm^n^rrf^^t f^mrt- i3^rn *rr*rrf*r tt %- 
*nf*r i ^ i cfVsf <re^i7j ^f?NfcrR? jrf^w. i 8 i WTOPCtf*r§*n 

*tt ^trg ^f^nft rat ^ref^nw^ Tfa Tr^rf^ira i c i i- 
w wrr tt^^rj ^i^m (§ 322) 1 e 1 g^T^^rrt" mat ^\w 

(Sentences with must may 6e rendered either with ^fif or ««$ 
gerundives). 12. A Brahmacarin must not visit any companies 
to see (Tr-t^j) dancing or to hear singing. 13. Remembering 
that works will be fruitful in the other life (use "thus thinking", 
after or. recta), a man must strive to perform what is ordained. 

126 Lesson XXX. XXXI. 

14. The maidens seated themselves (pass, part.) in the garden to 
bind wreaths. 15. True friends are able to save from misfortune. 

16. The daughters came (pass, part.) to bow before their parents. 

17. How is the delicate body of this fair one capable of enduring 
penance? 18. You must become a scholar (use H^«rT , end cf. 
§ 177). 19. You must bring a boat to cross the river. 20. Who 
is able to stop the mighty wind? 21. The gentlemen (use 3^«rT ) 
are to read this letter. 22. Having finished the Veda, he went on 
to study the other sciences. 

Lesson XXXI. 

328. Numerals. Cardinals: TJ^5 1, ^ 2, fs| 3, ^7T$ 4, tR| 5, 
^ 6, *?? 7, ^ 8, *fcf 9, ^t 10. - Trqrr^jr 11, ^t^t 12, 
^Pt^ST 13, ^rf^ 14, TJ^r 15, ^t^H M, *TF^IT *?, WT^ 18, 
•pr^r 19, fSftjfa 20. — TJcRf^rcifa 21, 3[Tf<nif?T 22, etc. — 
fWt 3 0, ^Wlft^l 40, WTCT3: 50, trfE W Utffa 70, ^nft- 
frT 80, ^fa 90, ^ 100. — f^ or \ lf% 200. — *f^ 1000, 

U , m ** or 1 ^% 2000, nmw* or *n^ J00 ooo. 

329. The numbers between the even tens are made by pre- 
fixing the unit -number to the ten; thus, XJ^"fBf^jf<f 25. But note: 
U.«*"T^, not ^<% 11- 42, 52, 62, 72 and 92, either f^tj^l- 
nCU|ct, or^T^ -0 , etc.; 43—73, and 93, either fao or ^"jr^^T etc.; 
48—78. and 98, either ^re<> or WT^WT etc. 96 is XfT^fTT. 

330. There are other ways of expressing the numbers between 
the tens. Thus: 1. By the use of the adj. ^Tf 'deficient', in com- 
position; e. g. T|cfft»jf^jfrT '20 less 1', i. e. 19. This usage is 
not common except for the nines. Sometimes TJejj is left off, and 
^STTf^nrfTI, etc., have the same value. 2. By the adj. ^srfV«G or 
^tR[ 'more', also in composition; e. g. , ^HntVofi'T^f?! (also 
^lETfW 'Pffa) 98. 

Lesson XXXI. 127 

331. The same methods are used to form the odd numbers 
above 100. Thus, J^f^T^lOl, TOnpff('0#< ugTfSRi 71^105, 

332. Inflection of cardinals. 1. T^} is declined like vT^T, at 
§231 (pi.: 'some', 'certain ones'). The dual does not occur. 
TJ^j sometimes means 'a certain'; or even 'an, a', as an indefinite 

2. \ (dual only) is quite regular; thus, nom.-acc.-voc. m., ^\ 

f. n. \, 3T*rR, 3*fr*:- 

3. f^ is in masc. and neut. nearly regular; the fern, has the 
stem "ffTO. Thus, nom. m. ^i|{^, ace. m. "^ft"!, nom.-acc. n. 
■^frrf; instr. fV*i^, dat.-abl. fw^, gen. ^TnWT^, loc. f^TJ. 
Fem.: nom.-acc. ffT^t- instr. t^T^f*ra^- dat.-abl. frT^Wl^, gen. 

4. xj«i< has ^^TT in strong cases; the fem. stem is ^7T*T. 
Thus, nom. m. ^cTn^, ace. m. ^TTT^.; nom.-acc. u. ^STTfT; 
instr. ^7lfifo[ etc. Fem.: nom.-acc. ^rT^^ instr., etc., ^rRTfH^, 

A w G ™ 

(5 — 19.) These numbers have no distinction of gender. They 
are inflected with some irregularity as plurals. Thus: 

5. 7, 9, 10. V^, H^f^ra:, °«ra\ -q^T^T^. tfWf • ^ ^ 
^Jl, and compounds of <^r, are similarly declined. 

6. t5jt^ as follows: T3c$, T^ffa^, ^wrac, wr*k ^Zf- 

8. " ! ?rS may follow TRj|\ or be declined thus: ^Tlft ^T2TfK^» 

20, 30, etc. f^ljfTT, f^^, etc -> are declined regularly as 
fem. stems, in all numbers. 

100, 1000. 1J7? and ^J^f are declined regularly as neut. 
stems, in all numbers. 

333. Construction of numerals. 1. The words from 1 to 19 
are used as adjectives, agreeing in case (and in gender, if possible) 

128 Lesson XXXI. 

with the nouns. 2. The numerals above 19 are usually treated as 
nouns, either taking the numbered noun as a dependent genitive, 
or standing in the sing, in apposition with it; thus, ^T?t ^(tJlii*!. 
or ^Jff SUffc "a hundred female slaves"; H&U 3|<rt4 "in sixty 

334. Ordinals. "J^TR* 'first', f^ftn, <pfta> ^<f«h W*> 
TO, ^7T*J, ^TS*T, ^TT, ^5TT, U«M<^U| (to iM, the same as the 
cardinals, but declined like <ra, etc.); f^J or f^jfTRTT 20th; 

f^TT or f^TJrra 30th i etc - Note also U«*l'lt^5r or ^fa^ 
U«J^RS{ffldRor^vrpij«j{f?TCT*T, 19th. The shorter forms (fchx etc.) 
are by far the commoner. 

335. STO7T, f^cffa and rTcfT^I make their fem. in °"31T; the 
rest, in $\ Occasional forms of the pronominal declension are 
met with from the first three; but the usual declension of nouns 
is the normal one for ordinals also. 

336. Numeral adverbs. 1. <Q^K^ 'once'; fl[^. 'twice'; f^^ 
'thrice'; ^di^ 'four times'; TJ^4i<«i^ or m^TT*^ 'fi ye times'; 
and so on, with °^i^^ or °<ll<^. — 2. T£ofi\TT 'in one way'; 
f^TT or ^n 'in two ways'; fWT or ^TT, ^cpiT, ^^fJ, VtZI 
or^T^TT, etc — 3. U4)3{^ 'one by one'; ^JTUT^ 'by hundreds', etc. 

Vocabulary XXXI. 

^5«5I -f ^i^ (sarhkaldyati) put to- 
gether, add. 
«Ft + ^ssrfTJ pass (of time). 
^^J(jdlpati) speak, chat. 

W5T in caus. (bhojdyati) feed. 
f%^. + ^^rfH (abhisincdti) anoint 

as king. 
^+^<*-'^n' cite, mention. 

<4|\!|c(^|^ m., the fourth Veda. 

* XRI forms no ordinal. 

^Rf^MId** n., n. pr. a city. 

Lesson XXXI. 


qrflRjra n., the "Iron Age" of 
the world. 

^fsfi n., wheel. 

5?fYfrTO n -i astronomy; astrono- 
mical text-book. 

?«j|«f n., philosophical system. 

•f^f n., lunar mansion. 

qrrQS^r m «? n - P r -> descendant of 

TJ<J(!J n., one of a class of works 
on the creation of the world. 

f^sfPRTf^W ni., n. pr., a famous 

■JTefi ra., Scythian. 

TJT^T f. , branch, edition, re- 

^^nSTT m., year. 

■^'InlXt (w. abl. — often post- 
pos.) after, immediately after. 

fflf^Tf^ sometimes (in altern.). 

rT^r^TT namely, to wit. 

*HHJdH at present. 

Exercise XXXI. 

H<*Mi<u\ : n<(\*jnl <Mftnf*i *m wpt ii <^ ii 

qHHI ^M hM irfKTfW f^fW TraTRTf^ JW%* II 9 U 
^^Tft %^T 1%3I% SBT^II JTTWTf^T *C^f^r5[rTC *Ff ^TT* 

'ftfrT f^rt jtcto; i s i ^jqfi %^nri <j *if^: irn=rT ^rf#r i 3 i 
<ra*rr i ^<^i vs in^T ^f^^i ^i^aftfTT: *n*^«g *ttt- 
*r#%^ ^r%frT 1 8 1 *nrf : s^rarai ^Htrlt ^rf TITWPTT ^£J% II M II 

*HdA tt^ttt Tr^rrf^f^ai: i ^ i ^ w wst^i wrfa ^rrfr 

^ TpfTRf TT^ft ^^Iftr Trnf^I II «= II ^VfW *RTfW ITT *ft^T 
^"nRT^^H^%^ WTfiPJNt ^TTTf^T I <> I * nw *f? ^ iptoi^ 

susiuiMTOHtaun. ii w ii 

11. The wagon of the Acvins is fitted (^pj , part, pass.) with 
three wheels. 12. The Acvins are praised by the seer with four 

* i. e., in the seven stars of the Great Bear. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 

1 30 Lesson XXXI. XXXII. 

Rik-verses. 13. Krsna is the eldest of six brothers. 14. Arjuna 
is the third among the five Pandavas. 15. Some think there 
are eight sorts of marriage (pi.); others, six (model after 2nd 
sentence in Sanskrit above). 16. Twenty-seven or twenty-eight lunar 
mansions are mentioned in astronomy. 17. One should consecrate 
a Brahman in his eighth year, a Ksatriya in his eleventh, a Vaicya 
in his twelfth. 18. Two great lights shine in the sky. 19. The 
teacher, having taught the fifth Rik- verse, recited the sixth. 

20. Qakyamuni Buddha died in the eightieth year of his age (life). 

21. Sometimes 33 gods are reckoned in the Veda, sometimes 3333. 

Lesson XXXII. 

337. Comparison of Adjectives. Derivative adjectives having 
comparative and superlative meaning — or often, and more origin- 
ally, a merely intensive value — are made either (A.) directly from 
roots (by primary derivation), or (B.) from other derivative or com- 
pound stems (by secondary derivation). 

338. A. The suffixes of primary derivation are ^J^ for the 
comparative, and ^J for the superlative. The root before them is 
accented, and usually strengthened by guna (if capable of it), or 
sometimes by nasalization or prolongation. — In classical Sanskrit 
few such formations are in use; and these attach themselves in 
meaning mostly to other adjectives from the same root, which seem 
to be their corresponding positives. In part, however, they are 
connected with words unrelated to them in derivation. 

339. Thus %tffajW and ^fTO (j/f^PO attac ^ themselves to 
f^n? 'quick'; ^0*1*1. and «rf<8 (V^t 'encompass'), to "^ 
'broad'; (TptY^Rit an( * TTpTOj 'worse' and 'worst', to the subst. 
^TO; M«il*J^ and Tjfe^, to q^ skilful'; ITffta^ and jffgg to 

LessoD XXXII. 131 

TffTj qJqHqH, and ^f^TO, to «|fa^ or ^t^jt ; ^T^T^ and 
*?Tfa¥ to KTV 

340. The following are examples of artificial connections: 
•^rf^^fi'near', %^t*r^, %T^¥ ; ^F3I ' little', ^sfaTCt, ^fTO 

(but also ^^f| i\^, ^rf^i^); ^ heavy', ^"O^C. ifT*; T^ 
'long', ^ivfttj^ ^TfaS; "H^I^ 'praiseworthy', 'good', fr^ 
'better', %^ 'best'; fTRf 'dear', ifaw, jftj; ^1T 'much', *RIH 

**f*re; g^: 'young', *xft^, *rf?re; ra 'ow, ^flfaret, ^- 

fa^J. Sl| l^fff ano - ^HJ correspond sometimes to 1T9P3T or ^TT^' 
sometimes to ^njJ. 

341. The stems in Jj% are inflected like ordinary adjectives 
in ^Sf, with the fem. in 1R; those in f"ST3[. ha\e a peculiar de- 
clension, with a strong stem in l^jf^, and fem. %^RTt, for 
which see § 255. So also 5STTTH an d WTO.« 

342. B. The suffixes of secondary derivation are cfT and <\H, 
They are of almost unrestricted use. That form of stem is usually 
taken which appears before an initial consonant of a case-ending. 
Stems in ^^ are always unchanged; final ^-^ and ^-^ become 
^BF and ^'q' , after which the c^ of the suffix becomes ^. 

Thus, firenrr^, frrsnrnsT °wt; ^rf*f*t, ^Trn;, °cw; fa- 

343. Some stems which are substantives rather than adjectives 
are found to form derivatives of comparison; thus, JTTfTrffl 'most 
motherly ', ipfR ' most manly ' , *HfrT*T ' most like an elephant. ' 

344. Comparison of Adverbs. Adverbs are compared by adding 
the suffixes in the forms cHT^ and r|4{|^; thus, ^ 'well', *TcT- 

345. Construction. With a comparative (and sometimes with 
other words used in a similar way) the ablative is the regular 
construction; thus, lH|r+«4JT rT^T TTEI?ft "a daughter is dearer 
to him than a son"; *rfa^ «?<?fls?0*J*n "intellect alone is 



Lesson XXXII. 

stronger than force". After the superlative either genitive or locative 
may be used. The comparative often has the force of a strength- 
ened superlative; thus, J| *J I *l 'most honorable'. 

Vocabulary XXXII. 

fljsq m., n. pr., the Indus. 


Jptjcfm., one of a band of celes- 
tial singers, a Gandharva. 
^5J m., n. pr. 
^CT^T n., running, course. 
MMHcH^ n) -> the world-spirit. 
jft^J m -j deliverance, salvation. 
OR*lH f-, n. pr. 
^"^ n., metal; iron. 
eH'tJH m., crow. 

^^T«ff m., a system of philosophy . 
TT<5«fl<!H f., n. pr. 

WfJH m., drunkard. 
%7T«tT m., winter. 

^JI!T little, small; as n. subst., 

H"PJ swift. 

tfl' f - t?*ft> such. 
ipTO f. o^rr and o^, old. 
^ffl«^ abiding, being. 


^ sometimes in sense of if. 

Exercise XXXII. 
#ft WTT fUcTT TTfa ^ f^T ITO^fTT I 

*t^to^ i $ i ^ThroY w*if ^trw^er. i 8 i ^ #bhtt *rr- 

*TR1T 3if^re: 3ft 5rr%<T cf^T * TpT ^ ^^J *TR *TO^^t I M I 

^T^idiiuTtiuiuD^i^^dl sf<? *r#ten^<wg ^wr i $ i tr^- 
f^rmfM^fH: *f *rct: f%^%T^n ^fa T^ftrpf isra i ^ i 
*n ^aifa^fa^^r ff?<T<jy«5?.*<*H trfwtawi^ri TtffJSft 
^: ^^ i ^ i fm*n f<jm: mimWr: ^Ht^r i o. i m- 
^■rt TnmFra wot i 90 i ir^ft ^Ham *£t^zr^R *r- 
«R ii 99 n 

* Translate as though genitive. 

Lesson XXXII. XXXIII. 133 

12. Of the three wives of Dacaratha, Kausalya was older and 
morehonortd(*p§, comp ) than Kaikey! and Sumitra. 13. In winter the 
nights are very long. 14. Not very many (express as pred.) such 
jewels are found on earth. 15. Among those kings of the North 
Prthvlraja was the mightiest. 16. The poems of Kalidasa are 
sweeter than the works of Bana. 17. Anathapindika was the richest 
among all the merchants in Rajagrha. 18. Iron is lighter than gold, 
but heavier than wood. 19. In running the horse is the swiftest 
of quadrupeds. 20. Qakuntala was more beautiful than all other 
women of that time, and became the wife of the mightiest monarch 
(^PEJT^T ) of the whole earth. 21. The crow is called the shrewdest 
of birds. 

Lesson XXXIII. 

(Part I.) 

346. Compounds. In all periods of the language the combination 
of stems of declension with one another, forming compounds which 
are treated in accent, inflection and construction as if simple words, 
is one of the most striking peculiarities of the Sanskrit tongue. 
In the Vedic period compounds of more than two elements are 
rare. In the later language this moderation is abandoned; and 
the later the period, and especially the more elaborate the style 
of composition, the more unwieldy and difficult do the compounds 
become. To such an extent is this carried that the advantages 
of an inflective language are often deliberately thrown away, and 
a clumsy aggregation of elements replaces the due syntactical 
union of inflected words into sentences. 

347. Sanskrit compounds fall into three principal classes: 

I. Copnlative or Aggregative compounds, of which the members 
are 93 ntaciically coordinate: a joining together of woids which in 

134 Lesson XXXin. 

an uncompounded state would be connected by 'and'. E. g. ^5- 
ctl <*dH 'done and undone'; ^Tn^^TT^TT: 'gods and Gan- 
dharvas and men'. The members of such a compound may obvi- 
ously be of any number, two or more. 

II. Determinative compounds, of which the former member is 
syntactically dependent on the latter, as its determining or quali- 
fying adjunct: being either a noun limiting it in a case-relation, 
or an adjective or an adverb describing it. Thus may be distin- 
guished two sub-classes: A. Dependent, and B. Descriptive, com- 
pounds; their difference is not absolute. 

Examples are: of dependents, 1 ?rf*R%Tr 'army of enemies'; 
M l <ft<<* 'water for the feet'; ^cJiH 'made with hands'; — of 
descriptives, HfTTT^'g reat king'; fJWEPH (§353, 2) 'dear friend'; 
^^EfifT 'badly done'. 

348. The character of compounds of classes I. and II., as 
parts of speech, is determined by their final member, and they are 
capable of being resolved into equivalent phrases by giving the 
proper independent form and formal means of connection to each 
member. But this is not true of the third class, which accordingly 
is more fundamentally distinct from them than they from each 

349. III. Secondary Adjective compounds, the value of which 
is not given by a simple resolution into their component parts, but 
which, though having as final member a noun, are themselves ad- 
jectives. These again are of two sub-classes: A. Possessive com- 
pounds, which are noun-compounds of the preceding class (II. A. 
or B.), with the idea of 'having' added, turning them from nouns 
into adjectives ; and B. compounds in which the second member is 

* This class of compounds is of comparatively recent devel- 
opment; only the other two are common in others of the related 

Lesson XXXIII. 135 

a noun syntactically dependent on the first: namely, 1. Participial 
compounds (only Vedic), of a present participle with its following 
object; and 2. Prepositional compounds, of a preposition and fol- 
lowing noun. This whole sub-class B is comparatively small. 

Examples : T^%«T ' possessing a hero-army ' ; TTSTRTRT ' having 
desire of progeny'; 'JfffTRTPI 'excessive'. 

350. The adjective compounds are, like simple adjectives, some- 
times used, especially in the neuter, as abstract and collective 
nouns; and in the accusative as adverbs. Out of these uses have 
grown apparent classes of compounds, reckoned and named as such 
by the Hindu grammarians. 

351. A compound may, like a simple word, become a member 
in another compound, and so on indefinitely. The analysis of a 
compound (except copulatives), of whatever length, must be made 
by a series of bisections. Thus the dependent compound (jqb|«41- 
Vif, ' done in a previous existence ', is first divisible into ^kT and 
the descriptive Tj^rgjtjrw, then this into its two elements. 

352. Euphonic combination in compounds. The final of a stem 
is combined with the initial of another stem in composition according 
to the general rules for external combination. But: 

1. Final ^^ and ^T^ of a prior member become ^TO and ^tf 
before surd gutturals, dentals, and labials; thus, otHfdMic^. 

2. Final ^J^ of a prior member often remains unchanged under 
similar circumstances. 

3. After final 7» ^> ^&, an initial ^ often becomes lingual. 

4. Pronouns generally take the stem-form of the neuter; for 
the personal pronouns are oftenest used Zfe and t^f in the sing., 
^T9?^ an d ^P*^ in the pi. 

5. For Tj|f»rT , in the prior member of descriptive and possess- 
ive compounds, is used J(^\. 

6. A case-form in the prior member is not very rare. 

136 Lesson XXXIII. 

353. In all classes of compounds, certain changes of finals are 
liable to appear in the concluding member; generally they have the 
effect of transferring the compound as a whole to the a-declension. 
Thus: 1. A stem in ^pr^ often drops the final *^, as in °^TW, "^l^ 
°T*t, °TT5T- 2. An ? or f is changed to ^J, as in ©Wf, °TT% °^RT, 
•TTSJ. 3. An ^ is added after a final consonant, sometimes even 
after an w-vowel or a diphthong, as in °^T|f (^HpO, T^ (^ft)- 

The separate classes of compounds will now be taken up. 

(Part II.) 

354. I. Copulative compounds. Two or more nouns — much 
less often adjectives, and once or twice adverbs — having a co- 
ordinate construction, as though joined by ' and ', are sometimes com- 
bined into a compound.* 

355. The noun-compounds fall, as regards their inflective form, 
into two classes: 

A. The compound has the gender and declension of its final 
member, and is in number a dual or plural, according to its 
logical value as denoting either two, or more than two, individual 
things. Examples are: sTtf^TO^" 'rice and barley'; "^TT«R- 
XU^" 'Rama and Krsna'; -3|3||c('<q: 'goats and sheep'; Wfi|P!r^rfa m 
^pt^PTsTH 'Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaicyas and Qudras'; ftjfTPJ^t 
(§ 352, 6) 'father and son'. 

B. The compound, without regard to the number denoted or 
to the gender of its constituents, becomes a neuter singular collective 
(so-called samahara-dvandva). Thus, TITfTUMId*^ 'hand and foot'; 
QvPniW{ 'snake and ichneumon'; ^"-cftUM^H (§353,3) 'um- 
brella and shoe'; '^nftTT^'^ (§353,2) 'day and night'. 

356. The later language preserves several dual combinations 

This class is called by the Hindus dvaudva, 'couple'; but a 
dvandva of adjectives thev do not recognize. 

Lesson XXXIII. 137 

of the name9 of divinities, etc., which retain their earlier forms; 
thus, 'STRWfa^ft and <£|l«M*T7ft 'Heaven and Earth'; f*fTT- 
^^Uft 'Mitra and Varuna ' ; ^SJ^fftftTT 'Agni and Soma'. 

357. Adjective copulative compounds are made likewise, but 
are rare. Examples are: *pffcP*»T 'light and dark'; cpfpftl ' round 
and plump';* ^TrTrTf^ffT 'bathed and anointed'. 

358. Determinative compounds. A noun or adjective is often 
combined into a compound with a preceding determining or qual- 
ifying word — a noun or adjective or adverb. The two principal 
divisions of this class are, as indicated above, A. Dependent, and 
B. Descriptive, compounds. Each class falls into two subdivisions, 
according as the final member, and therefore the whole compound, 
is noun or adjective. 

359. A. Dependent compounds. 1. Noun -compounds. The 
case-relation of the prior to the second member may be of any 
kind, but is oftenest genitive, and least often accusative. Thus, 
<T7*J^ = cT^I *JW ; ^sNpTTf^ 'hundreds of fools'; — Ml<\<«* 
(="<n^r ^<<**l) 'water for the feet'; — f^rn*T 'money (ob- 
tained) by science'; ^n^WTf^ (= ^Srn3J«n SHf 331*1) 'likeness with 
self; — ^fa^TC (=^CK 1^*1*0 'fear of a thief; — qorshlTT 
(= «f% 3^°) ' sport in the water ' ; — «HKWR?T (= WC 1°) ' going 
to the city'; ^l^^rfff 'lord of speech', n. pr. (§352, 6.). 

360. 2. Dependent adjective compounds. Only a very small 
proportion of the compounds of this class have an ordinary adjective 
as final member ; usually the final member is a participle, or a de- 
rivative of agency with the value of a participle (§ 204). The 

* The Hindus reckon these as kormadharayas (see next note). 

** The whole class of determinatives is called by the natives 
tatpurusa (the name is a specimen of the class, meaning 'his man'); 
the second division, the descriptives, bears the special name karma- 
dhdraya, a word of obscure meaning and application. 

138 Lesson XXXIII. 

prior member stands in any possible case-relation. Thus, ^TTTTTfcf 
'gone to the village'; ^Tf^T 'Veda-knowing'; — ftpjTf^RJ 
'protected by Civa'; ^ftf^W (= 3jif f^rlO 'good for the cow'; — 
M^Mfdd 'fallen from the sky'; rT^^^U^TcTT 'more mobile than 
waves'; — ■f^<jTtii*l (= fl^WTTRl. ^3tW) 'best of Brahmans'; — 
4g|l<dlM€h 'cooked in a pot'. 

361. Compounds of this sort having as final member the bare 
root — sometimes modified in form, and, if it end originally 
in a short vowel, generally with an added f^ — are very numerous: 
thus, %^f%T above (§360); "^*§I 'standing in the wagon' (or 
simply 'in the wagon'); *T\J1 'on the head'; TToRH 'only-born'; 
cHtH (§ 352 > 6) ' forest-dwelling'; *lf%lfST 'firm in battle'; ^T- 
fj-TSf k born in the heart' (i. e. 'love'). 

362. B. Descriptive compounds. In this division of tbe deter- 
minatives, the prior member stands to the other in no distinct case- 
relation, but qualifies it adjectively or adverbially, according as the 
final member is noun or adjective. Thus, fl|4KI<sl (§ 353, 2); ^f^irl 
'well-done'; ZiA^ 'evil-doing' (adj.). 

The compounds of noun-value cannot well be separated in 
treatment from those of adjective-value. 

363. The simplest case is that in which a noun as final member 
is preceded by a qualifying adjective as prior member. Thus, m- 
H!j|jy (= «ftmH <f^0 'black horse'; tfifnTCq 'great man'. Instead 
of an adjective, the prior member is in a few cases a noun used 
appositionally or with a gwasz-adjective value; thus, 3^|fM 'priest- 
sage'; ^TWf^ 'king-sage'. 

364. Sometimes compounds of this sort express a comparison; 
thus, VHSiJUT 'black as a thunder -cloud' (cf. 'coal-black', etc.). 
Reversed, TJ^'q'^lTEf 'man-tiger', i. e., 'a man fierce as a tiger';* 

Literally, a tiger which is not a tiger after all, but a man. 
Or, perhaps better, ' tiger of (or among) men ' (so Whitney). 

Lesson XXXIII. 


•TCftr^ 'man-lion'; M|^M<| 'foot-lotus', i. e. 'a foot lovely as a 

365. The adverbial words most commonly used as prior 
members of descriptive compounds, qualifying the other member, 
are the verbal prefixes ("prepositions"), and the words of direction 
related to them; likewise the inseparable prefixes tJP^ or ^r priva- 
tive, ^f 'well', ^TW 'ill', etc. These are combined with nouns (in 
^uasf-adjectival value) as well as with adjectives. Thus, <4|cftd 'not 
done'; ^mftS^rT 'not a scholar'; TR^TBf 'misfortune'; "^rfw^^ 
'more than a god ' ; ^I'fd'^T 'exceedingly far'; ^ffTPTO ' excessive 
fear'; KfrlM^ 'opposing side.' 

■411 H^ + ^T*^ complete. 
^*l + f*J station, place, appoint 

Vocabulary XXXIII. 

T*T + ^T (anurdjyati, -te) be 

devoted to, inclined to (loc). 
^^4 -IT go away (on a journey). 
^<^ + f^f return home. 


^t^tst m -' air » sk y- 

^"P^TST m., hermitage. 

^j*!3 m., n. pr. 

^TTT m., boy, prince. 

"5RT^T f-, game, sport. 

fcT^feR m., ornament (often Jig.). 

TfTSf n., b,athing-place; place of 

f^^cfi n., o^t f., the threefold 


$*N41 m., n. pr. 
^|fM«j^ m., panther. 

TJ^ n., step; place. 

TJ^ m., n. pr. 

*lf^«=n f- queen. 

ZpHTI f»5 <-'hase. 

TT^T 1 "-* march, journey; support. 

■^^r m., race, family. 

<^TTl«rl m., state of affairs; news. 

CTgrT f-, female friend. 

*Jc=Mi! m., hospitality. 

^•HEl?, f. o-sjrr, suitable. 

3ifW, f. o^TT, adopted. 


Lesson XXXIII. 

^T7«tr^ 5 f- °%, in the manner of, 
or suitable for, tbe Gandharvas. 
f«raf, f. °T!rr, heavenly, divine. 
4JMM, f- °t", human. 

'^M\ % f- °^IT, near; as neut.subst., 
vicinity, nearness, presence. 


TT^T earlier, formerly. 


Exercise XXXIII. 

««<l«H TTf^n I R I crf^% f^nfT 4*1 <* I «^u y f*M$l fa <t 
*TR TWt i^T^T *T^<ffT f^TSTO^ l^TR I 8 I ^re? 

jrraTrrf^hrr u $ n 

(Form compounds of words joined by hyphens). 
7. When he had seen her, brilliant (JJ^i pres. part.) with di- 
vine-beauty, as though ($$) more-than-human, the heart of the 
king-sage was inclined (pass, part.) toward her. 8. Thereupon, 
having learned that she (ace.) was the dayghter-of-an-Apsaras (ace), 
he married her by the gandharva-ceremony (f«H|^) snitable-for- 
Ksatriyas. 9. Dussanta, after dwelling very many days-and-nights 
in the hermitage, abandoned Cakuntala and returned to his-own- 
city. 10. Afterwards, when Kanva had finished his pilgrimage, 
and returned to the hermitage, learning (f%«T) the news^of-his 1 - 
daughter's 2 -marriage 3 , he sent her into-the-presence-of-Dussanla. 
11. The royal-sage at first disowned (THSTT-^sST^r.) Cakuntala when 
she was come^to-the-city 1 ; but at last he put (fsT-'3I5T , part, in °^trT ) 
her in-the-place 3 -of-the-first 1 -queen 2 . 12. In the course of time 

* "To engage in the sport of hunting"; cf. below, §375, 3. 

Lesson XXXIII. XXXIV. 141 

(3RT*Ff T^f>rTT) a beautiful-prince, named Bharata, was born to 
her (loc). 

Lesson XXXIV. 

366. III. Secondary Adjective Compounds. A compound with 
a noun as final member very often wins secondarily the value of 
an adjective, being inflected in the three genders to agree with the 
noun which it qualifies, and used in all the constructions of an 
adjective. The two divisions of this class have been given above 
(§ 349). 

367. Certain changes are sometimes necessary in the stem of 
the final member to make possible the inflection in different genders. 
Masc. and neut. stems in ^f, and fem. in "^Sfj, generally interchange; 
thus, from Tf + ^T comes the compound tftftgl 'with excellent 
hands ', nom. sing. 4j^H- °^T, °^R. ; so also (from f^ + f^JTT) 
faf*!£f*,, °£T, °^ ; and (from *J + "qj^r n.) Sp?t^, °^T, o*nR\ 
The same holds good for masc, fem., and neut. stems in ^ and ^, 
and stems in consonants. 

368. But often a fem. in f^ is used by the side of a masc. and 
neut. in ^f; thus, f^tnjj - 'two-leaved', f. f^THlfT. 

369. Very frequently the suffix c?; (attenuated into an element 
of indefinite value) is added to a pure possessive compound , to 
help the conversion of the compounded stem into an adjective; 
especially tojfem. stems in %" and ^Jf, and to stems in ^J; and in 
general, where the final of the stem is less usual or manageable 
in adjective inflection. Thus, ^^fe^cfi 'rich in rivers'; ;RrT*n^JTf., 
'whose husband is dead', i. e. 'widow'; H^I^Jir^ (nom. masc. 
and fem. °?fTQQ or *T^Rrer^ff. 

370. Sometimes the possessive-making suffix ^^ is added to 
secondary adjective compounds, without effect upon the meaning; 
thus, J|^*Hlf^«t (= °«TR£) ' having an ass's voice. ' 

142 Lesson XXXI V. 

37!. A. Possessive compounds. The possessives are determin- 
ative compounds to which are given both an adjective inflection 
(as just shown) , and also an adjective meaning of a kind best 
defined by adding 'having' to the meaning of the determinative. 
Thus, the dependent ^^^TJ n., 'beauty of a god', becomes the 
possessive Y^?|JJ, °^TT, m. f. n., 'having the beauty of a god'; 
the descriptive ^"^T^Tjf m. , 'long arm', becomes the possessive 
?|^ 131 m. f. n , 'having long arms'.* 

372. Dependent compounds are, by comparison, not often thus 
turned into possessives. But possessively used descriptives are 
extremely frequent and various; and some kinds of combination 
which are rare in proper descriptives are very common as pos- 

373. An adjective as prior member takes the masculine stem- 
form, even though referring to a feminine noun in the final member; 
thus, ^M <=l ^ I M (from ^TT^T) 'possessing a beautiful wife'. 

374. As prior members are found: 

1. Adjectives proper; thus, <3|«iq^»q ' of other form'. — 2. Parti- 
ciples; thus, ^r|J4H<ft 'whose mother is slain'. — 3. Numerals; 
thus, ^cW! 'four-faced'; fa^xM 'three -eyed'. — 4. Nouns 
with quasi- adjectival value; thus, f^^W^T 'gold-handed'. Es- 
pecially common is the use of a noun as prior member to qualify 
the other appositionally , or by way of equivalence. These may 
well be called appositional possessives. Thus, cfiuyMT^*^ ' having 
"Krsua" as name'; ^T^TJ^TiJ 'having men who are heroes'; 
^TT!^"W^. 'using spies as eyes'; ^T<TfT 'having thee as mes- 
senger'. — 5. Adverbial elements (especially inseparable prefixes); 

This ehiss of compounds is called by the natives bahuvrihi; 
the name is an example of the class, meaning 'having much rice'. 
— The possessive may generally, in accented texts, be distinguished 
from the original determinative by a difference of accent. 

Lesson XXXIV. 143 

thus, -4H«r1 'endless'; -*|IH 'childless'; Wi^ 'with excellent 
sons'; 35rf5q 'ill -savored'. The associative prefix ^f (less often 
^f^) is treated like an adjective element; thus, 3%JJ 'of like form '; 
WTl or 3fTCnf v with a son', or 'having one's son along with one'; 
33fT*rai*t (^T + '^•TeR^T n.) 'favorable'. — 6. Ordinary verbal pre- 
fixes; thus, TTSf^^ 'of wide fame'; ^J^f 'limbless'; f^Nf 
'powerless'; 3TO§ 'with uplifted face'. — 7. Ordinary adverbs; 
thus, ^frj-rf ' with mind directed hither '. 

375. Certain words, very frequent in the compounds mentioned 
at § 374, 4, have in part won a peculiar application. 

1. Thus with TSrrf^ 'beginning' (or the derivatives -H\<H or 
■^nf^^i) are made compounds signifying the person or thing de- 
signated along with others — such a person or thing et cetera. 
Thus, ^TT ^«£|<^*j: 'the gods having Indra as first', i. e. 'the 
gods Indra, etc' Often the qualifying noun is omitted; thus, 
^dMMI^Tfa 'food, drink, etc' — 2. Words like Tf$ (TT^NO etc, » 
are used in the same way, to denote accompaniment; chiefly ad- 
virbially. — 3. The noun "^J 'object', 'purpose', is used at the 
end of a compound, oftenest as a neut. subst. (ace or instr. or loc), 
to signify 'for the sake of, and the like; thus, ?7fi|nil^ 'for 
Damayantrs sake'; ITSIT^T 'for a bed'. (See below, § 379). — 
4. ^nT"^ (as neut. subst.) often means 'other' in possessives; thus, 
%^fT5rTT "•> 'another region' (lit. 'that which has a difference of 
region '). 

376. In appositional possessives , the final member, if it de- 
signate a part of the body, sometimes signifies the part to which 
belongs what is designated by the prior member : that on or in 
which it is. Thus 2TfTT}^ffa with necklace on neck'. Such com- 
pounds are commonest with words meaning hand ; thus, ^f f4j M | fUJ 
'with sword in hand'; ^T3^I 'with club in hand'. 

377. The possessives are not always used with the simple 

144 Lesson XXXIV. 

value of qualifying adjective. Often they have a pregnant sense, 
and become the equivalents of dependent clauses; or the 'having' 
implied in them becomes about equivalent to our 'having' as a 
sign of past action. Thus, JJIH^JT^R 'possessing attained ado- 
lescence', i. e. 'having reached adolescence'; ^MfcHM9i IfcJ 
'with unstudied books', i.e. 'one who has neglected study'; ■JTrTTTTCT 
'whose breath is gone', i. e. 'lifeless'; ^TRTWT(2J 'to whom death 
is come near'. 

378. B. Compounds with governed final member. 

1. Participial compounds, exclusively Vedic. 

2. Prepositional compounds. Thus may conveniently be called 
those compounds in which the prior member is a particle with true 
prepositional value, and the final member a noun governed by it. 
Thus, , ?rf?RT^ 'lasting over night'; ^STf^WT"^ 'beyond measure', 
'excessive'; 3|flJcfiT!J 'next the ear'. 

379. Adjective compounds as nouns and adverbs. Compound 
adjectives, like simple ones, are freely used substantively as ab- 
stracts and collectives, especially in the neuter, and less often in 
the feminine ; and they are also much used adverbially, particularly 
in the ace. sing, neuter. 

380. The substantively used possessive compounds having a 
numeral as prior member, with some of the strictly adjective com- 
pounds, are treated by the Hindus as a separate class, and called 
dvigu*. Examples of such numeral abstracts and collectives are: 
f^pi n., 'the three ages'; f^ft^PT n., 'space of three leagues'. 
Feminines of like use occur in the later language ; thus fatsfteft 
(by the side of °^i n.,) 'the three worlds'. 

381. Those adverbially used accusatives of secondary adjective 

The name is a sample of the class, and means 'of two cows' 
(said to be used in the sense of 'worth two cows'). 

Lesson XXXIV. 


compounds which have an indeclinable or particle as prior member 
are considered by the Hindus a separate class of compounds, and 
called avyayibhdra . 1. The prepositional compounds are especially 
frequent in this use; thus, TTfa«(tM*^ ' at evening'; CTTOTT 'in 
sight'; ^njpr^ (=^^7^ "3R) 'along the Ganges'; ^W§^ 
'on the G. '; Hfd^MH. 'every year'. — 2. A large class of avyayi- 
bhdvas is made up of words having a relative adverb, especially 
*reT, as prior member. Thus, ^rt^r^, ^^ToRTW;, ^I«j^*i' 
'as one chooses'. And, with other adverbs: ^TN^D'ciT^ 'as 
long as one lives'; ^T^3il*IH 'whitbor one will'. 

382. Occasionally quite anomalous compounds will be met 
with. For such, cf. Whitney, § 1314. 


Vocabulary XXXIV. 

| 2cf (vardyate) choose, select. 

f^f + f'TO determine, decide. 
^T + f^( in caus. (viddrdyati) tear 

try (pdtdyati) split open. 
*T + ^?f*T overpower. 

^T^T + ^T (dsidati) approach. 

+ l$Wl in caus. (samdsdddyati) 

meet with, encounter. 
H"ET (hdrsati; hfsyati) rejoice, be 



"3J"3? n., limb, member, body. 

4II4K m > form > fi S ure - 
^=ar m., moon. 

■^7; n., belly. 

ififT m., banner. 

cR^tZ f- 5 peak; point, tip. 

^gT f.. top-knot, scalp. 


^fT«T n., knowledge; insight. 

<fT5f n., palate. 

fltigT f-» thirst, desire. 

^y>\ f., tooth. 

3lfrT f-, brilliancy. 

Tjrq'ff m., mountain. 

uRi«d m., a tribe in India. 

U^TT m «, stroke, shot; wound. 

TTTW ni., breath, life (often pi.). 

mni n., head. 

* The word means 'conversion to an indeclinable'. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. .n 


Lesson XXXIV. 

*fi«! m., fish. 

ZT^CT n., chest, breast. 

^TTf ™~> boar. 

juncture (§ 375, 4.) 
TJ^ skilled. 

^t*t, f- °^rr, young. 

q^TI *•> pain. 

^Tra m., tendon; bowstring. 


^«T^I, f. °^rr, blameless, fault- 

^TSJ then, thereupon. 
7T? (adw. ace.) therefore. 
?TRRr so long; often merely = 

done, dock. 

VTOra, f- 4II , favorable; as 

neut. subst., favor. 
WCi f- °^5T> inner; as neut. 

subst., the interior, middle; 

interval, difference; occasion, 


grpfgr as long as, while; as soon 

^J asseverative particle; gives to 

the present the force of an 

historical tense. 


o c 

^f^ina^r yfa«^: jif<H4i 

(h ^ i s i ^ ^«*<i *ni*H «*3 

3rf^JrT: I R I Wf %f TW^TT (pres. part.) lWfafi(<sK leftist TfT" 

TTTf : ^RT^rrf^rT: I $ I cj J%T «*<l!(«rtl<*£i3!TW *r %t wr- 

fe<ft^T: ^f^r^r TfTmuft wrrni^ im^r *rra ^rrnre 
^Trfr «fxi ih«*k«<«ht *<t: i $ i iprf^Rnif^ ^f3r^rew*raj: 

^^t^*nT^v: i «^ i fTrrg ^f^ ^nsft cn^ Ri<i$ v^T- 
f^^^r^T fa"* Ml M8 i ^r ^t ttt: imm 11 


16. Those-who-have-done-evil must do penance twelve-days, 

Lesson XXXIV. XXXV. 147 

six-days, or three-days. 17. Pururavas, Iudra's-friend, married the 
moon-faced*, faultless-limbed* Apsaras Urvaci. 18. Bhrgukaccha 
is situated (epfj on the Narmada. 19. There stands the lorg- 
armed, broad-chested king-of-the- Angas , sword-in-hand. 20. The 
path-of-knowledge is better than the path-of-works. 21. In-the- 
opinion-of-the-ancient-seers (cpd in loc. or instr.) one-whose-hus- 
band-is-dead may choose a second at-pleasure. 22. Love is bodiless, 
and tears-a-fish-in-his-banner ; so say the poets. 23. TbeBrahman's- 
daughter, Sita-by-name*, is lotus-eyed. 24. The king, although 
(''IffM) many-wived, is childless. 25. The eloquent** pandit has 
arrived with-his-scholars. 2G. With-upturned-face (v3«JT'(3') Cataka 
prays for rain-water. 

Lesson XXXV. 

383. First Conjugation of Verbs. Present System.*** In this 
conjugation the optative act., the 2nd sing. iniv. act., and the 3rd 
pi. mid., are formed otherwise than in the a-conjugation. 

384. Strong forms. The forms in which the stem assumes its 
strong form are these : the three persons sing, of the pres. and 
impf. indie, act., all first persons of the imv., act. and mid., and 
the 3rd sing. imv. act. All other forms of the present system 
are weak. 

385. Endings. For the middle endings W^, , 3TnT> and -*MIH. 
are substituted ^frf, ^Tff, and -4MIHJ and after reduplicated stems 
(and a few others) ^SffH, ^ffi, and ^^ are substituted for the 

Secondary adj. cpds., fem. in %. 
Dep. cpd, "skilled in speech". 

For a comprehensive view of the ways of forming the present- 
stems of verbs following this general conjugation, see Introduction, 



Lesson XXXV. 

active endings "4|f«ri> ^|«n, and "^Sf^ (impf.). The 2nd sing. imv. 
often takes the ending f^ or f^. Otherwise the endings are the 
same as in the a-conjugation. 

386. Optative mode-sign. The sign of the opt. act. is JR yd, 
with secondary endings; but ^£ is the ending in the 3rd pi., and 
, 3STT is dropped before it; thus, °TH{. 

387. Present participle middle. In the first conjugation this 
participle is made with the suffix -4JM [^TTWL before which the 
stem takes the same form as before the 3rd pi. pres. ind. The fem. 
is always in ^J. 

388. Class IV. A: nw-class. The present-stem is made by adding 
to the root the syllable if nu [W nu\ , in strong forms «ft no 
[^t ?d]. The ^3 of the class-sign may be dropped before ^ and 
J^ of the 1st du. and 1st pi. endings, except when the root ends 
in a consonant; and the ^ before a vowel-ending becomes ^f or 
1T3" , according as it is preceded by one or by two consonants. 
The ending f^ of the 2nd. sing. imv. is dropped if the root end 
in a vowel. 

389. I. Roots in vowels. JS 'press'. 










N»N» ^ 





























The forms ^P3^, ^EPSTOj ^«^%» ^^Wi a re alternative with 
those given above for 1st du. and pi., and occur oftener. 

Lesson XXXV. 





2. ^ijpfta: w^tw; ^HJ<r ^J^TO ^prrwi °-p*R 

3. *IU«iH ^5-H^ldlH ^^ ^J-Jr* ^l*MMI*i °^fT 

The briefer forms ^W^f, ^f^p^ ^'SP^ff , ■*J«»^ff, are al- 
lowed and more usual. 


sundvdni sundvdva 



2. *R 




3. wtg i^ttr: 



sunavdma sunavdi 
sunutd I sunusvd 
sunvdntu sunutdm 







1. *H*JIH *pJ*TR °^TR *pffa f^fff 

sunuydm sunuydva sunuydma sunvlyd sunvtvdhi 


390. II. Roots in consonants. , ?JT T t 'acquire'. 


Active. Middle. 

1. ^rrstf*T ^IH«l*t TTSW5. ^^STT^ 'TTSpt 

3. ^TTftfrT ITSpm. ^TRI ^TJpT ^TS*n7t 



The augment, without any exception in verbal conjugation, 

is the accented element in the verbal form of which it makes a part. 

** The rare imv. in rTTcf^ (cf. § 196) would be formed thus: 


Lesson XXXV. 


1. , *rr5nrrfa ^rraTre ^rrcnrR ^ts% ^rra^T^f °^m% 

3. ^Hifld *MMdlH W*r*J WrTTR; ^imqicim. °^nn*t 


The other forms of this tense follow the model of *J. 

391. 1. The root -g, 'hear', contracts to *J before the class- 
sign, forming *njft ^rno and 3qm crnu as strong and weak stem; 
2nd sing. imv. act. "stm; 2nd du. ind. act. *U!|cm or "*F5P^, etc. — 
2. The root "«[ shortens its vowt-1 in the present-system. 

Vocabulary XXXV. 

y er K S . i^J (dhundti, dhunute) shake. 

^p^ (acnute) acquire, obtain. l^(rr«o7/, vr«ute')coYer,surround. 

+ "^Tr cover, etc.. 

+ (BWfl obtain 


^TR^ (apnoti , rarely apnute) ac- 
quire, reach. 
+ ^R, "R, or ^, reach. 

f^" (cindti, cinute) gather. 
+ JJ or ^TR;, gather. 
+ f^ or 'faf«rHj decide, con- 

^T + Tf (pracoddyati) urge on. 

«[ (dundti), intr., burn, feel pain 
or distress; tr., pain or distress 

+ ^JUT open. 

+ f^ explain, manifest. 

+ ^fH shut. 
•jrgj (cakndti) be able. 
TS( (crnoti, crnute) hear. 
w (strnoti, strnute) scatter, strew. 

+ ^XJ scatter. 
f^ (hindti) send. 
W+Jf^E[t(jpratyaJidratt) bring back. 

^rrf TT m., food. 
f^^cT m., day. 

^r:^T m., doorkeeper. 

trflTrm. pi., n. pr., certain demons. 

TT3TTW m., might, power. 

Lesson XXXV. 151 

HR m., enjoyment. 

<R^T n., root. 

"^J m., taste, feeling. 

TTfH^ ni -> a Brahman in the 

third period of his life. 
f^TT m., Brahman. 
1(5^ m., sound; noise; word. 

•TO, f. o^T, new. 

TJTgi, f. °^n, meritorious, holy, 

°^T*I sharing. 

JRtfT> f- 0- ^lT, entrancing, agree- 

T?ER«fl , f. ^tft, tasteful. 

^7J, f. •%, similar; worthy. 

Exercise XXXV. 
^rRTTTf^Tt RTTT ^ ^tR*|*npf I 

TOir: JTOTf § *Rci: *TfT*rR7^R ^n^TT ^iT^^jpn Tj&fa- 

f^fT^: irofa 1 8 1 ^rw^^-r^j ^r«fr: ^^ tot** *r£*ttr- 

•jto i m i TO^wftrw ^it>(5r *rt: ^*f ^^nnrr ^ f%3rr^n- 

^TCrRTTRR I $ I ^f%^ ftrp^f^fTT ^^m *ftlj ^^"R I 9 1 
W^R TTTR lifter ^$f^?TO WBHJ RTTflT^T*RTO- 

q en c i **p?i*nf^ to ^twttto irf^MK^MfeR: i Q. i *jf^cf: 

11. Having entered the temple of the worshipful(H*R<^)- 
Visnu we heard the ear-entrancing 03Tf?T*Rt^T) song-of-the-young- 
women (use *r*T at end of cpd). 12. Listen to this word of a de- 
voted (f%^, pass, part.) friend. 13. The greedy (wT*T , pass, part.), 
who are always gathering riches, never attain the enjoyment of 

* Infin. of <J. 

** The instr. is sometimes used to express the medium, or space 
or distance or road, traversed. 

152 Lesson XXXV. XXXVI. 

them. 14. By tasteful, well-composed poems ye may attain glory 
in the ten regions of the world (f^Q. 15, Cakuntala, mayest thou 
get (imv.) a husband worthy-of-thee. 16. My-ftoo-brothers deter- 
mined to travel to Benares. 17. May the king's-sword bring grief to 
(«[, imv. or opt.) the hearts-of-the-wives-of-his-enemies. 18. Clouds 
cover the sky. 19. Let the doorkeeper close the door. 

Lesson XXXVI. 

392. Verbs. Class IV. B. wclass. The few roots (only six) 
of this sub -class end already in ^ — except one, ^J, of consid- 
erable irregularity — and so add only ^J as class-sign. The in- 
flection is quite that of the rm-class, the ^ being gunated in the 
strong forms, and dropped (optionally, but in fact nearly always) 
before ^f and ^ of 1st dual and plural. 

393. Thus rf^, 'stretch', makes <fftf*T, rfftfa, etc.; 1st 
du. rf;^ (or d«J«NO> 1st pi. 71*3?^ (or 7f«J*T*0; mid. TT^T, cT^%. 
cTfT%, etc. — all like a vowel-root of the raj-class. 

394. The root lcfi, 'make', makes the strong stem cjf^t, weak 
3^; the class-sign ^ is always dropped before ^ and ?^ in 1st 
du. and 1st pi., and also before ^T of the opt. active. Thus : 


Active. Middle. 

l- ^iftfa ^pf*c «5^ *b^ $$% ^r% 

2. ^RTtfci 44|V!|^ ^^r f^ ^#t§ ^^ 

3. ^iftffT $M«i ^NT 3g^ ^^TH ^frf 


i. ^ran^m; ^^f ^$* ^^ ^ra^ff *$tfff 

2. ^«*0h. ^gVR ^<*M ^<*W*l ^*4l«ll^ ^f^^R* 

Lesson XXXVI. 153 

1. <*TTTftr sfiTTR *RTWT* *fiT% ^T^N% W^T^Tf 

3 3rfT<J $MT*l ^j3*T <«Wl ^4lHI*i <$4dl*l 


i. splm ^i^ ^fa ^^t*r ^^Nrff <pf?*frr 

etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. 


395. This root sometimes assumes (or retains from a more 
original condition) an initial ^ after the prefix ?J7{*; thus, ^P^i- 

396. The adverbial prefixes ^Jlf%^ and *n<p*,> 'forth to sight', 
'in view'; f?R3J. 'through', 'out of sight'; XR^ 'in front, 
forward'; and the purely adverbial "^^T^ 'enough, sufficient', 
are often used with cG, and with one or two other verbs, oftcnest 
^r^ 'be' and H 'become'. 

397. Any noun or adjective-stem is liable to be compounded 
with verbal forms or derivatives of the roots cfj and W, in the 
manner of a verbal prefix. If the final of the stem be an a- vowel 
or an e-vowel, it is changed to f"; if an w-vowel, to ^ Conso- 
nantal stems take the form which they have before consonant- 
endings — of course with observance of the usual euphonic rules; 
but stems in ^S^ change those letters to f^. Thus, ^T«fiO fd ' ne 
makes his own', 'appropriates'; ^^chOfa (*PH i O ' he CDan g es 
to ashes', i. e. 'burns': ^roft^frT 'becomes a post' 05RT); 
^r^jf^ffi 'becomes pure' ("Tf^); ^TT^r^ttfT 'makes holy'. 

398. The suffixes TfT (f.) and ^ (n.) are very extensively 
used to form abstract nouns, denoting 'the quality of being so- 

* Also sometimes after XJT\ and "^t|. 


Lesson XXXVI. 

and-so', from both adjectives and noons. Thus, ^rf^WTI ^i 
^ff^SI^ D-> 'the rank of a Ksatriya'. 


^R (karoti, kurute) do, make. 
+ nJIXJ do evil to , harm (gen., 

loc, or ace). 
+ ^F5TH P re pare. adorn 

Vocabulary XXXVI. 

+ MI4H. make known, or visi- 

+ WC (§ 395) prepare, adorn ; 
^•^ (ksanoti, ksanute) wound. 

+ "^Tf^^ (dviskardti) make cT«^ (tanoti, tanute) stretch, ex- 
known, exhibit. tend (tr.); perform (a sacrifice). 

+ xJTJ do good to, benefit (gen., + tJJT cause, bring about. 

loc). + jj spread abroad (tr.). 

+ f^T^T. hide; blame, find fault 

with (ace). 
+ *n^ put at the head. 
+ T?fFT pay, recompense; punish 

(ace. ret, gen., dat.orloc. pers.). 

T^f (diisyati) be defiled. 
T\*{ (manute) think, consider. 

Subst.: ^ffa '»•• fault. 

^fvTjftf^ rn., priest of a cer- •ftfW f.. conduct of life; ethics; 

tain kind. politics. 

^Ttf^J m., progeny, descendant. ! VTWH m., king. 
^jfHlTmni-5 plan; view; opinion. *T*TT«T^r n-» kitchen. 

<3^^ n., breast. 
cRf%^ m., name of a tribe. 
oRTf^cT f-, charm, grace. 
^It^FFT m., astonishment. 
^T«J*H«$| n., a certain sacrifice. 
^nfra m -> name of a tribe. 
fHT^rftTjft f-, veil. 

HTfH n., flesh. 
^f^TJT n., salt. 
<*l3H n., spice. 
3J^TT m -> trade. 
TiT^Ef m., doubt. 
JfS m--, cook. 

^}*1, f. «^IT, blind. 
^TCTO, f. °^, necessary. 
°ir, f- °^n^ knowing. 
°"H^ enjoying. 

Lesson XXXVI. 155 

^WT, f- °1- dear. 
=5^5, f. °^JT, wrong, false. 
*T*f. f. o^, good, proper. 
^l^T. f. o^STT, ready. 

Exercise XXXVI. 

^wft 3j*ftarT"fa tj: firsr: fr?^r to* w. i 
*?r tt^r: ^fttlwrf ?rf^jrr*rfwrRt "sj*n ^rf^r fTc^f^M 131 

f^fWT ^rfaT^J^T ifa-sjMUM *4H«IIHM|J|^f^T II ^ II 

8. Every-year an Agnihotrin must perform the Caturmasya (pi.)- 
9. Mayest thou, O Great-King, protect thy kingdom, benefitting 
thy friends and harming thy enemies. 10. Brahmans find fault 
with the trade-in-salt. 11. What thou didst (mid.), that distresses 
thy friends even now. 12. May I recompense him (dat.) who has 
done me a service. 13. By the command of the great-king consecrate 
the four princes according to the law (f^TO, instrS). 14. The 
Caulukyas held sway (TJ*$ ^d) in Anahilapataka 247 years. 
15. By-the-charm-of-her-face the lotus-eyed eclipses (fflTTfO even 
the moon. 16. If one consecrates a scholar , teaches him , makes 

* Poss. cpd, cf. § 374, 5. 



him holy, then this one becomes his child (H^l). 17. The king- 
of-the-Kalingas wounded his enemy in the breast with an arrow. 

Lesson XXXVII. 

399. Verbs, rca-class. The class-sign is in the strong forms 
the syllable «TT ^a [TJJT ?a], accented, which is added to the root; 
in the weak forms it is «ft m [TJ^ nt] ; but before an initial vowel 
of an ending the ^ l of «ft nt [Tjft nl] disappears altogether. 

400. Thus, ^ft 'buy': strong stem sflUJJ krind, weak shl^jfl 
krtni (before a vowel, sffan krln). 


Active. Middle. 

«fW^i «tIHu^ 




2. wftrra: ^to; ^sflufld °wt«ito: 

3- WfarTri; 4|shl<in<TTR: -41shl<!H °TlfTfr 


1- sfluufa ^RTCT^ sRtcm «RT% 

2- ^Wff ^WfT^ ^Wf? shYufr^ 
3. ^T<5Tfl[ shKHd'R; WfrT«rT W\W\t\TH sfH <!T I <T 1T«=C sfl«!!ril*i 


i- ^teftaro; sflufl^r^ ^NfNrr* ^NfNj ^VnfNff aifcffrTf i 

etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. 


401. The ending of the 2nd sing. imv. act. is f^, never f%f; 
and there are no examples of its omission. But roots of this class 

Lesson XXXVII. 157 

ending in a consonant substitute for both class-sign and ending in 
this person the peculiar ending tSJTT and; thus, ^\fT»T ^JIJT'T' , 5T- 
TR, ^fTTIT (see §§ 402, 403). 

402. The roots ending in ^f shorten that vowel before the 
class-sign ; thus, TJ, TJ«nf?I, UfTivJ. The root TCZ is weakened to 
*Jf ; thus, J|^,|fa- 

403. A few roots which have a nasal in some forms outside 
the present-system, lose it in the present; thus, U7t or 1J7VI , ^T- 
^TffT; «!**, ^ifa; W v or ^n», ^T^rrf^T- Similarly, ^T makes 

404. Root-class. In this class there is no class-sign; the root 
itself is also present-stem, and to it are added directly the per- 
sonal-endings; in the opt. (and subj.: §60, end) of course combined 
with the mode-sign. The root-vowel takes guna, if capable of 
it, in the strong forms. 

405. Roots ending in vowels. Roots in ^T of this class are 
inflected only in the active. In the 3rd pi. impf. act. they may 
optionally take as ending ^3^ instead of , ?J^, the ^JT being lost 
before it.* 

406. Thus, *n 'go 

3 . 

Indicative. Imperfect. 

i. *nf?r *trs: *rre^ ^^tr: *wi4 ^rrt 
3. ^nt>i ^rrcra: *nf*?r ^?n<i ^^rRrm; ^rcn^ 

or "^H^EC 

The same ending is also allowed and met with in a few 
roots ending in consonants; viz. lf^^ 'know', ^f, f?^ , Spg, 

158 Lesson ] 


1. ^Tf^f *TR *IT* 


^rrerro; ^trttc h[h\h 

2. ^rrff <jmh vm 

*rnrra: ^rreTcm ^rnrra 

3. ^ng *lldl*i ^^T 

^t^t^ ^TOTfTro; *n^ 

Part. ^TnT, f. *TTnft or *n<ft (260). 

Vocabulary XXXVII. 


«SJ + ^TT (apldvate) drench. 

2^pT (afndti) eat. 

^5W (badhndti, badhntte) bind; 

■?ft (krinati, krinite) buy. 

catch; join; compose. 

^J^ (grathndti) string together; 

3fT (bfidti) gleam, glance. 


?TT (mati) measure. 

^H» (grhnatty grhnlte) take, seize. 

+ f^T^ work, create. 

+ f^f hold, restrain, check. 

TPj (rnusndtt) steal, rob. 

+ irfrT take, receive. 

2^J (^W) + f^ steal. 

1J7 (Jan&ti, janite) know. 

2^ (wrnfte': also vardyati, -te) 

+ ^f«T allow, permit. 


2TJT (p® ( protect. 

fljl? + ~^S remain over. 

TTGf (pusndti) make increase or 

■^f (strndti, strnlte ; see also in 

2 " 


Vocab. XXXV) strew. 

TJ (jmndti, puntte) clean. 

^"f (sndti) bathe. 

J(\(prindti, primte), act., delight; 

^•H + W? remove. 

mid., rejoice. 


cffij f., crescent. 

^5j^f% m., a gesture of respect- 

ef\f?[ f., work (literary). 

ful greeting. 

efctl| m., treasure; treasury. 

^5T f-, wish. 

^plf m., n., moment; time. 

xj<^<{ m., rise. 

■^T*Tta\ "-, gold. 

The two hands hollowed and opened, and raised to the 

Lesson XXXVII. 


TTT^ m., demon. 

•TTT m., snake. 

^T^f n., leading-rope, cord. 

*W^ (§ 278) m., stirring-stick. 

*l«rfT m., n. pr., a mountain. 

IJTJ m., sacrificial post. 

rjf^li n., forehead. 

1^"^ [yard) m. , suitor, bride- 

2~^X (vara) m., choice, privilege, 

^JH m., n. pr., a snake -demon 
who supports the earth. 

^PJ^kT f-i height, elevation ; high 


■55«<S|rl«1* of to-day. 
\nf^R right, just. 
"JT^W (P art °f "T-^T^) kindly dis- 
°f^S knowing. 
fd|cjf«ti , l. shrewd. 

^RHJH before, in the presence 
of (w. gen.). 

Exercise XXXVII. 

fefTf TffRWfff ^T^iTf^nfrf^^ II *M II 
^feraTHfa^*l*!*fH: n^iT %^fa^ ^lf^> |#rTT^I <\ I 

^%^ M^?l«ijdg ^53 T^WNfsrT II * II ^"PTT «*lMlfM 

w 2^*J ii m ii n^vjsra ^T^rr^f WT"nrr ^ viM f?rr \^V~ 

1TT **m3 ^Tt^RTT^: II $ || *raT H^ ^^ HTfa cTOT 
TTMMM^rtJ JI^UNI^ffT TTT fwf'rT II ^ II ^fcT*T^P^f JJ^<II- 
?^IHWf5f5iWT!rT II « II 

9. Allow me to go now. 10. Take these jewels which I have 

With the suffix cT«T (sometimes «^) are made adjectives from 
adverbs, especially of time; thus, Tfijf 'ancient', HIHt^M 'early', 
1}4$M ' of the morrow'. 

1 60 Lesson XXXVII. XXXVIII. 

given you (pass, constr.). 11. Let the great poet weave ("?T»2J, 
^«tj ) a verse-wreath of word-pearls (instr.). 12. E very-day two 
thieves robbed the king's treasury. 13. He who receives (pari.) 
gifts from every one is polluted (H'q ). 34. The Creator formed 
the world by his will Oft^^TT) a l° De - 15- Betake thyself (^fT) for 
salvation to the gods' protection. 16. Let kings restrain the wicked 
by punishments. 17. We saw Rama's daughter coming out 
(pres. part.) of the house. 18. Let the bridegroom grasp the maid- 
en's hand before the fire. 19. An Aryan must not eat an- 
other's leavings (^^-fspi , pass, part., neut. sing.). 20. One must 
bathe daily in unconfined (part, from f^T- - ?^) water. 21. May the 
three-eyed god, the great-lord (f^nO whose-forehead-is-adorned- 
with-the-crescent, protect yon. 

Lesson XXXVIII. 

407. Verbs. Root -class, cont'd.* Roots ending in an i-vowel 
or an w-vowel (except \/^ 'go') change these into ^f and ^a 
before vowel-endings in weak forms, when not gunated. 

408. Root ^ 'go' (act., but used in mid. with the prep. ^rfVT : 
'go over for oneself, i. e. 'repeat, learn, read'; the ^ then be- 
comes ^Tf , as above). 


Active. Middle. 

i- irf*J t^c. T*ret ^ft% "wfa% "wN% 

A number of roots belonging to this class accent the root- 
syllable throughout, in weak as well as in strong forms — except 
of course in the imperfect. 

Lesson XXXVIII. 161 


(for augment cf. § 179.) 

3- %t ^<Tm: ^STR^ ^TW<T ^JW^TrTm: ^T^HT 


i. wrfa -4j4iici wmv ^ji? ^rsj*rre% ^rw^TRt 

<i,q\*{ etc., 3rd pi. ^J^ ^^fftfftr etc. 

^TnT, f. ^nffr ^farR, f- °^IT 

409. The root ^ (mid.), 'lie', has guna throughout; thus, ^J^Sf, 
?!%, ijfr SNf etc - 5 impf. ^TClf*?, ^^T^ etc. ; opt. VJ*fl±I etc., 
part. Tr^nT- Other irregularities are the 3rd persons pi.: indie. 
t[T7T, imv. ^fTR;, impf. ^TCp;?T- 

410. The roots of this class ending in ^ have in their strong 
forms the vrddhi instead of the ^wna-strengthening before an ending 
beginning with a consonant. 

411. Thus, ■**? 'praise': 


Active. Middle. 

i. ^Tfa ^rar, ^F*C ^ ^f* ^f 

2. ^frfa ^nm ^ ^% wr% ^^ 

3. ^PrfTT ^?ra: ^^fr ^ ^^ ^% 

Imperfect. Act.: 1. 4|*d4*t, 2. ^^ffar^, 3. ^ra^, 3rd pi. 
^^^^. Mid.: 1. ^THr, 3rd pi. ^TcTcr 

Imperative. Act. : ^efTR, ^ff , ^ffa, *3TR etc. , 3rd pi. 
^jR^T Mid.: ^f, ^p^, ^rfTT*C, ^TWT^f etc., 3rd pi. ^pTcTT?{- 

Optative, ^J^TT^ etc. fejcH'tf etc. 

Perry, Sauskrit Primer. . . 

162 Lesson XXXVIII 

Participle. Act.: t^ct *T . f. °^rft Mid.: %HH - 

412. The root ^, 'say', takes the union-vowel Rafter the root 
when strengthened, before the initial consonant of an ending.* Thus: 


Active. Middle. 

1. sT^frfa W^ 5W*C 3% ^5f ^<R% 

Imperfect. Act.: ^rsre^, ^sffl^ ^TW^t^; ^5T^ etc.; 3rd 
pi. ^Tsf^l.- Mid.: ^fa, ^5T^ etc -5 3rd P 1 - *W^T- 

Imperative. Act.: sHnfrf, ff$> snfftj; sfTR etc.; 3rd pi. 
5pT*J. Mid. : sT%, sj^ etc. 

Optative. Act. : $H\t{ etc. Mid. : Wcffa etc. 

Participle. Act. : JC^ift . Mid. : WTI«T- 

413. Emphatic Pronoun. The uninflected pronominal word 
«S«4*^ signifies 'self, 'own self. It is oftenest used as a nomin- 
ative, along with words of all persons and numbers; bnt not 
seldom it represents other cases also. 


+ ^TTV (adhUe) repeat, read. 
+ Um (apditi) go away, depart. 
+ '^rf^ approach. 
+ ^1 *sm set (of heavenly bodies). 
+ ^^ rise (of heavenly bodies). 
+ ^TJ approach. 
^f (braviti, brute) speak, say, state. 

Vocabulary XXXVIII. 

+ Tf explain, teach ; announce. 

+ fa explain, etc. 
"^ (rduti) cry, scream. 

+ fa scream. 
^ (fete) lie, sleep. 

+ ^lf\sl lie asleep on (ace). 
?J (sute) bring forth, bear. 

+ TJ bring forth. 
■*jl (stautt) praise. 

Special irregularities in this verb are occasionally met with, 
such as sj[f*T W^fa- Some of the verbs in ^J are allowed to be 
inflected like 3\ but forms so made are rare. 

Lesson XXXVIII. 


f^i«Tm.,, a name of Buddha. 

f^^T f., tongue. 

^(TJf m., logic. 

tjtti n., flower. 

JT*r m., question. 

*TP f rcr n- 5 sense, understanding. 

■^V m., killing, murder. 

"^•rfpT m., n. pr. 



>ft f., 

^nf^T'l. m » witness. 
^TT^I m -> crane. 

^<T, f- °^, ready. 
7 3^ftf«T 5 ^ diligent, energetic. 
oR^TJT, f. °"^n, lamentable. 
°W\ fX*i, making, doing. 


^^T^. below, down, on the 

Exercise XXXVIII. 

^rtt^ wmi* Jfajwfa wmmi n *.% ii 

(§ 264) Xf <T II ^ II ^lf5T ^TT^TlW ^5WT FR^Nm I $ I *rRT^tf% 

*nf ^*rrf*T ^n«fiHci,i^MfTr^fT^i */% if JTOfa ii 8 11 ^frft*rr- 
^Frf^fr^f^T^tf^^TSWt ^ f^f^: II m ii ^3ftf*re 
j^rfai ^^*pf?r *r<3ft: ii $ n *t fm^i m f^M ^ftfir fff^Ti 
*rf55i% t^i n ^ n ^T^rHh: fwr*re u^m n c n ^ ct*f^tt: 
*nwn ^w f^rNr n o. n $\*\£\ TrafHTT^rn: ^fr^crr: 

11. The three wives of Dacaratha bore four sons. 12. Rama 
and Laksmana, followed-by-Slta, went (^) into the forest. 
13. Women whose-husbands-are-dead must sleep six months on 
the ground. 14. A witness stating anything other-than-what-was- 
seen-or-heard is to be punished (Jut. pass. part.). 15. All guilt 
departs from one-who-has-done-penance. 16. One must not look 


164 Lesson XXXVIII. XXXIX. 

at (1?-%^ ) the rising or the setting sun. 17. Why hast thou come 
(■^rfjJ-T) to-my-house with-wife and with-children? 18. "Praise 
Varuna'': thus the gods addressed Cunahcepa who was bound to 
the sacrificial post. 19. Always speak the truth. 20. In a kingless 
land the rich do not sleep in peace 0FR§«T). 

Lesson XXXIX. 

414. Verbs. Root-class, cont'd. Roots ending in consonants. 

The endings of the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. act. are generally dropped, 
and the resulting root-final treated according to the usual rules for 
finals. Cf. §§ 239, 242. But a root ending in a dental mute some- 
times drops this final mute instead of the added W in the second 
person; and, on the other hand, a root or stem ending in ^ some- 
times drops this ^ instead of the added <^ in the third person: 
in either case establishing the ordinary relation of ^ and fT in 
the second and third persons. 

415. Roots in ^ and 5? substitute ^j for those letters before 
c^, ^f and ^ (which then becomes ^ ); and 31 before V • Thus, 
^^ 'speak': ^f^T, ^TW> *(flfi (only these three forms used). 

416. Root lf^^ 'know, (act. only): 

Indicative. Imperfect. 

i. %fa fa^e; f^ret w§%*t ^3 ^if%?r 

Imv.: %^Tf5T, f%rfe, %^j; %^R, f^rTR;, f^TR*; %^T*, 
f%rt, f^J- — Opt.: f%3TPR;, etc. 

* In the inflection of roots with final consonant, of this class and 
the reduplicating and nasal classes, euphonic rules find very fre- 
quent application. The student is therefore advised at this point 
to read carefully the chief rules of euphonic change in Whitney's 
Grammar, §§ 139 — 232 (the two larger sizes of print). 

Lesson XXXIX. 165 

417. This root also makes a perfect without reduplication (but 
otherwise regular) which has always the value of a present. The 
forms of the indie, are: 

Sing. 1.%^, 2. ^f, 3.%^; du. 1. f%^, 2. f^J^, 3. f^fT^; 
pi. 1. fro 2. f^, 3. f^^. The participle is f^^T^, f. faf^ 
(cf. §268). 

418. The root tJT?, 'eat' (act.), inserts If before the endings 
of the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. ; thus, -41 1 <^, ^TT^fl.- 

419. The root ||^, 'kill' (act.), is treated somewhat as are 
noun-stems in ^f^ in declension (§ 283). Thus: 

Indicative. Imperfect. 

2. ffa f^RC f^ ^WK ^cH* ^frT 

3. ff^rT frTO: ^Tf*rT ^1^ ^ffTm; ^^ 

Imv.: f^TTfa, *rff*, f^s f^T^, fcP*, fcTO*; fTR, f<f, 
^ffT. — Opt.: i<H\l{ etc. — Part.: ^«a , f. Wt 

420. Roots in% ^ , ^ , substitute ^ before ^ (which then 
becomes W), ^ before ?^ and W x (which become "Z and ^), and 
^ before \^ (which becomes £)• Thus, f^ 'hate' (act. and 

Indicative Act. Imperfect Act. 

2. if^ f^*; f^ ^ ^rf^i ^f^H 

3. Its firs*: f^rfa ^z ^sro; ^fs^ 

Imv. Act.: %crrfr!\ flFff%> 3f 5 %^T^ etc. 

421. ^, 'see' (mid.): Pres. Ind.: ^%, ^%, ^TJ; ^T^f%, 

^nrra, ^T?h TOf, ^ff. ^W — Im P f - : *Wfa> w*»k«u 

* Anomalous dissimilation. 


Lesson XXXIX. 

422. 1. $"*^, ' rule ' (mid.), inserts ^ before endings beginning 
with ^ and \r ; thus, 2nd sing, ffipt — 2. ^*^, ' wish ' (act.), is in 
weak forms contracted to xj*^ ; thus, 3rd. pi. ^Sjf^J. 

423. *T5f , 'rub', 'clean' (act.), has vrddhi in the strong forms, 
and optionally also in weak forms when the endings begin with a 
vowel. In the treatment of the root-final this verb follows the 
roots in *T. Thus, ind. 3rd sing. JTrfSj du. 3TH^, pi. 4J?|f*f or 


%t (*>'? e ) ru ' e 5 own ( w - gen.). 
^5T (ca'.ste)+^TTrelate ; call, name 

+ cf(\ explain. 
f$^( (dvesti, dviste) hate. 

+ TI hate extremely. 
ff^t (mdrsti) rub, wipe. 

+ ^m wipe away, off. 

Vocabulary XXXIX. 

+■ TT wipe off. 
^TTO + "^PJ (aparadhnoti) do 

^*^ (vdsti) wish. 
lf^(Z (vetti; veda) know, consider. 
Tpt+^rfH smite. 

+ fif kill. 

^t^ m., lip. 

~^H m., decay, destruction. 
^^ n., eye. 
%7f m., conqueror. 
^■€TT £ } compassion, pity. 
vmif m., destruction. 
*f«T ni., n. pr., a name of (piva. 
7T«ftm., sacred text; spell, charm. 
^HU m., watch (of the night). 

^TtT d-i conduct. 


3JT3iTW n -s grammar. 

CQ1J3 m.j n. pr., a Rishi. 

^IWT f-, hesitation. 

■^Tq m., n. pr., a name of Qiva. 

^Tc! n., learning. 

JfT[ m., creation. 

f^lfff f., condition, existence. 

^r^T, f. °^n, blameworthy, cul- 

Lesson XXXIX. 167 

Exercise XXXIX. 

n%fH ^rrwwrrrg *r ^i^nif^r «i^dTH ii ^ 11 
tjw TO*ra ffsR TIT ff*W 'NM3 I 
TtrWgT-pT fT>T *^T ^MHd* II **= II 
*HI ^TTTnT ^TT| -d^N^g*i II q II irf Tt^ THW> fipRT- 

^^ w t<*K3: ii % ii xrf^qcft" *rretf f^ *ri %^T<?jsNTf*r- 
f^« ii 3 n grwg f^j^rerot%fd « h m i ^t*t *tr% 1 8 i *it 
^iT^fs *j ^ *rt f^rerefw^f *tpr ii mi ^t W3R$ -mR^i 

^WT^trTtfr ^TTf^f^ ^TOl <T ^^t^^i WTrTO t^: II $ II 

*mm<i^' fT^r^^ruf ^f *ft: *J"nrra^ *rf if* 11 ^ n ^t>- 
fa*rn ii g. n it wen' ^t# *nwta u qo u ^*fa tpftrn* 

fa^JT (§ 374, 6) zr^TT ^TWI^ II <M II 

12. Hear the words of the learned man who explains (pres. 
part.) the-scienee-of-grammar. 13. Know that Rama (ace.) is the 
son, famous in the-three-worlds, of Dacaratba, and the conqueror 
of Ravana, lord-of-Lanka. 14. Having sipped (^TT-^*0 water 
thrice, one wipes the lips twice; according to others, once.** 15. Two 
warriors smote (^rf^-IpO w i tn arrows the king-of-the-Angas, who 
had murdered their companions. 16. Kill without-hesitation even 
("^(m) a teacher who approaches (past. pass, part.) in order to kill 
you. 17. Why dost thou consider (f%^) me a £udra, though know- 
ing (iCT ger.) my learning-and-conduct? 18. Do not hate the sons- 
of-Pandu. 19. The women w^ose-sons-u:ere-dead, having lamented 
greatly, wiped the tears from their eyes. 20. Thou, O Lord, rulest 
over bipeds and quadrupeds (gen.). 

* Refers to false witness before a court. An untruth where 
small beasts (sheep, etc.) are concerned, involves the destruction 
of five ancestors ; where cattle are concerned, of ten, etc. 

108 Lesson XL. 

Lesson XL. 

424. Verbs. Root-class, cont'd. ^STl^ 'sit' (mid.): Indie. 

^rr%> ^rrir, ^rr%; ^rrefetc.; ^rr^ff, ^n^*, wm% impf. 
^rrf^, "^rr^rT^, ^rx^r etc. im?. ^rr%, ^rre^r, ^i^ih etc. Part. 

irrafcT (unique). 

425. The root 3Jf^, 'command' (act.), substitutes in the weak 
forms with consonant- endings the weakened stem fj^f ; thus, 
indie, sing. mf^I etc.; du. f^risg^ etc.; but 3rd pi. U}iqfi f. 
Iinpf.: ^ntTOt, WRT^ W^**; ^rf^ etc.; but 3rd pi. 
Wrercr- Imv. 2nd sing. ^TfV; 3rd pi. STTOrT- 

426. The extremely common root l^f^, 'be' (act.), loses its 
vowel in weak forms, except when protected by the augment. The 
2nd sing. imv. is TjfV; in the 2nd sing, iudic. one ^ is omitted; 
in the 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. ^ is inserted before the ending. 

1- "?fW ^ ^ 

2. 'STfa ^T*t W 

1. ^WTf^T ^TCTR ^TCTR Opt.: ^TR etc.; 3rd pi. ^\ 

2 ITfa ^W[ ^1 Part.: ^nT , f. ^rft. 

3. wm wm. *r*r 

427. Roots in ^ (except f^^ and ^^) combine ^ with <^, 
^ and >J into <g, and then lengthen preceding "% ^, ^; before 
^, |f becomes ^B; in 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. act. (where the 
endings are dropped) the ^ becomes ^. Thus, f^Jf 'lick' (act. 
and mid.): Impf. act.: ^%f^, "3T%Z, ^Z; ^f^5, wte**, 

Or ^fT^f. So ^ITin^ or "30"*^ (imv., impf.). 









** o 

See § 414. tSNJTc^ is said to be used in 2nd pers. also. 

Lesson XL. 169 

428. In the two roots ^^", 'milk' (act. and mid.), and fs^, 
'smear' (act.), the final ^ represents an earlier guttural which 
reappears in the inflection. Thus, from «gt|: 

Indicative. Imperfect. 

2. ^jtrV fierce ^r wn« ^1^1 ^ti^ 

3. ^TfHf** ^l^ ^f*fT ^TV^R ^f^TOR; 1*$$^ 

Ind. mid.: ^|, T*%, ^3$; o[£f etc. Impf. mid.: ^Tfff, 
^^TRC, "^f^T; Wf^ff etc.; ^^frff, ^TW^, ^TffcT- 
Imv. mid.: ^tf, ^^, ^Tm;; ^tfT^f etc.; ^lW|, V* 1 ^, 

429. The roots ^^, 'weep', 5<^tJ, 'sleep', ^Ft, 'breathe', 
■g^, 'breathe' (all act.), insert ^ before all endings beginning 
with a consonant, except ^ and ?^ of 2nd and 3rd sing, impf., 
where they insert either ^Sf or %. Thus, ?£<?: Pres. indie: - ^- 
f^f*T, frf^fa etc., 3rd pi. ^firT. Impf.: ^jft^, ^ft^ or 
°^ftr > , ^ or °^rT; ^^f^ etc.; 3rd pi. ^q[^\ Imv.: ^t- 
^lf% ^[f%, Ttf^ etc. Opt.: ^n^Cetc. (^TT being mode-sign). 

^St% (dniti) breathe. 
+ TT (prdniti) live. 
^R^ (dsti) be. 

Vocabulary XL. 

^m. (aste) sit. 
-f ^TJ sit by ; wait upon ; at- 
tend; reverence. 

* cf. §§ 244, 249. 

* When the final sonant aspirate of a root is followed by ?^ 
or 7f of an ending, the whole group is made sonant, and the aspir- 
ation of the root-final is not lost, but is transferred to the initial 

of the ending. 


Lesson XL. 

^^ + JT-fa (pravicdlati) move, 

stir (tr.). 
fe? (degdhi) smear. 
«T^ (dogdhi, dugdhe) milk. 
*fl«jl v + f^f (nimllati) shut (the 

■^^ (roditi) weep. 
f^T^f (ledhi, lldhe) lick. 

+ ^m lick. 

f%TT v + ^iWT approach. 
^JT^C. (f&ste) command, govern. 
^^ (gvdsiti) breathe. 
+ ^SfT or J&HJ breathe gently, 

+ f% be confident, trust (w. gen. 
or loc. of pers.) 
TfTT + ^^* (uttisthati) arise. 

^XJJ^J m., enjoyment. 
■^■Jf m., hair. 
^7T n., gift, generosity. 
mm f., girl, maiden. 
3flre^T m., n., club, pestle. 
T$ftpt n -> blood. 
TUtH n., sacrifice. 
*jfacT m. , n. pr., the sun -god 
Savitar; the sun. 

33ff*CT m., shoulder. 

\JYT!i f- 0, ?IT firm, resolute. 
RlUlj , f - °^n, shrewd, skilled. 
^TRZT, f- 0, ?rr, right, proper. 
H+ITI, f- ° , ?n', careless. 

3?TfT?3 ear b r > m toe morning. 
VTSP^ greatly, much. 

Exercise XL 
^le^lrM^: TTfT^jffirT ^ ^ *ftTT: II ^Q. II 

%*fr Tpoti ^u% f *rr BrJi^sft TT5rr*mw Trfa *Tfa- 
fm*n<l ii q n f*rewf u% i froftrfa «rflr*n^ ii * ii *fr- 

After ^, the initial ^ of ^fT and ^PW is dropped; thus, 
^WTH^ for ^r^JTfW;. 

Lesson XL. XLI. 171 

^TfatlT J|«rJ*HTjl<fr $TO^*IT *PsTRt snTTrt II M II *R[fT 

^ ii $ ii jj^s^vjf^ftrn: fwr ttR ^■R^m n ^ n ^ 
*rer: ^H^% ^rt f%rs: ^gig nfw faTT ^rft irrcprr: ii ^ u 

wsr^t ^Tf^r ii w ii 

11. Long may the great-king govern the earth according to 
law. 12. There was a mighty king Nala by name («TTfl), son of 
Virasena. 13. The lion, satiated-with-the-blood-of-the-slain-gazelle, 
licked his mouth with his tongue. 14. Let the householder say to 
the guest: "where didst thou sleep during the night"? 15. The 
cowherd milked the cows twice daily. 16. The boy, beaten by 
his father, wept bitterly (^nj^). * 7 - Whose daughter art thou, 
girl? 18. Know that that by which thou livest, and the whole 
world lives, is the world-spirit. 19. Having arisen in the morning, 
reverence the sun (^jf^rf)- 20. If you do not praise Rama, there 
will be no salvation for you (use ^PEt> in pres. opt.). 

Lesson XLI. 

430. Verbs. Reduplicating Class. This class forms the present- 
stem by prefixing a reduplication to the root.* 

431. The rules governing the reduplication are as follows: 

1. The consonant of the reduplicating syllable is in general 
the first consonant of the root; thus, 27, <^2JT- But, (a) a non-as- 
pirate is substituted for an aspirate; and (b) a palatal for a guttural 

* Only a small proportion of the roots of this class retain the 
accent on the root-syllable in the strong forms. In the great ma- 
jority, the accent is on the reduplication, both in the strong forms 
and in those weak forms whose endings begin with vowels. 

172 Lesson XLI. 

or ^; thus, V[\, ^TT; f^Tf, f^f^; jft, f«n£t; (<0 if the r00t 
begin with a sibilant followed by a non-nasal mute, the latter is 
repeated (with observance of a), not the sibilant; thus, ^gfT, fT^T- 
2. A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicating syllable; 
and ^g is replaced by T; thus, <*^T and ^TT above; *ft, f%*ft; 

**, fw 

432. The present-stem gunates the root-vowel in the strong 
forms; thus, f^ft, strong f&; fro, strong f^TT- 

433. The verbs of this class lose the «^ from the endings of 
the 3rd pi. in the active as well as in the middle; and in the 3d pi. 
impf. act. always take ^^, before which a final radical vowel has 
guna; thus, ^f^T^t- 

434. Root W, ' bear, carry '. For 2nd and 3rd sing. impf. act., 
cf. §§ 122, 414. 


Active. Middle. 

i.f*re?3 f^ra; f%wr^ f^ f^f| f*w*% 
2.f%i*f^ fwrs; faare fkm fwro fa*ra 

3.f^Hf(i f^HtT^ fsrefa f*WT f*Wm f%**H 


i. 'srfsFRTc ^if*npr ^rf^^fl ^srfafsr ^rfa^rff °*|*rff 


G O G O C 

3.f^Hg f^Hcn^ f^rag f^jfni fsraicroR: f^rem*; 

Opt. act.: f^rj^rf^ etc -5 mid.: fsr^T^T etc. 

Part, act.: fsp*^ (§ 259), f. f^nffr; mid.: f^WTCT- 

435. Thp roots l^T, 'give', and i.Tjrr, 'put', lose their radi- 
cal vowel in the weak forms, leaving the weak stems ^^ and ^el . 

Lesson XLI. 173 

In the 2nd sing. imv. act. they form ^f^ and vtlf- The inflection 
of >n is as follows :* 


Active. Middle. 

l- ^nfa ^ret ^*?s; ^v ^wf| ^r% 
3. ^rrfa ^ttto: ^^rfTT \r% ^erra ^m 


i. ^«r\n^ ^^^ ^^*rr ^fa ^^cf% ^^rff 

2. ^^*T*t ^hiti^ ^nrrr ^rawr^ ^^nm*c ^ras*t 

3. ^^Tfi: ^ttpr: ^^ ^^rarr ^vTcrnR: ^r«^ra 


l- ^rrfa ^tr ^nw ^ ^rnrf ^nrf 

Opt. act.: <Jfc£||i^ etc.; mid.: ^'vfl"^ etc. 
Part, act.: t[V^, f. ^\ffiT; mid.: ^^TR- 

436. The root 1^7 is inflected in precisely the same way, but 
with change everywhere of \J to W, except where V belongs to 
the ending. 

437. The root l^f, 'quit, abandon' (act.), drops the ^TT in 
weak forms where the ending begins with a vowel, and in the opt.; 
thus, indie. 3rd sing. ^frf^T, pi. Wff^T; impf. 3rd. sing. "^fT^, 
ph ^J5TF^ ; opt. aniJTft.- The 2nd sing. imv. is SfifTff or 5jff ff . 
In the other weak forms before consonant-endings the stem is either 
^tfT or *|ff ; thus, 5Tffa^ or Wff*TO> 

438. HIT, 'measure' (mid.), and 2^f, 'move, go' (mid.), form 

* In combination with <^ or H of an ending, the TI of ^y( 
does not give U, but follows the general rule of aspirate and of 
surd and sonant combination ; and the lost aspiration is thrown 
back upon the initial of the root. 


Lesson XLI. 

f*Tift and "fal^D before consonant-endings, f*i*^ and f^nf before 
vowel-endings; thus, 3rd persons indie. fij*ft%, f*f*n%, fWJffi. 

439. ^ 'pour, sacrifice' (act. and mid.), makes the 2nd sing. 
imv. 5prf%i; 3rd persons impf. "SpSpft^, ^ksMUH,, ^^1^^- 

440. 1. }ft, 'fear' (act.), may shorten its vowel in weak forms; 

thus, -faHtos: or t%fa*^, fwftrm: or Wotr^- — 2. #, < be 

ashamed' (act.), changes its weak stem f5frjf^ to fafg^I before 
vowel-endings; thus, indie. 3rd persons f^ffa, fajfl<R0 fsj- 


lyr (ddddli, datte) give. 

+ Tf entrust. 
l^TT (dddhdti, dhatte) put, place 

+ ^Sffx? close, shut. 

Vocabulary XLI. 

+ ^STTputon; (mid.) take, receive. 

+ f%( arrange, ordain. 

+ ^f J^ unite, put together ; lay on. 
lW\(jdhati) quit, abandon, neglect. 
j^" (jihreti) be ashamed. 

^SmU n., safety; feeling of safety. 

^J&X m., demon. 

^T¥f?T f-, oblation. 

*rff^ m., n. pr. 

JflJ m., gazelle. 

f^Tf n., possessions, wealth. 

1J^ m., n., rest, remainder. 

tfTRra m -5 ° ne wn ° nas p er " 

formed the ablution customary 
at the end of religious pupilage. 


^, f. of^, divine. 
faf^JH> f- °^T> excellent, remark- 


<QT^TC at evening. 

Exercise XLI. 

^^<lf % Msfswfr WT^STTf* f^*T f^% I 

Lesson XLI. XLII. 175 

uw thrift ^nol^H^ii# ^r?f fsrefa 11 ^ u 

^ r**#T T WlfrT II 9 II *m 3nrT#H^Tf^ TTOf *rf*WreTTr^- 
^ToC II ^ II % 1 ^T^T fWrT% *f<ft 5lfrf<T^t ^r^tf^T II $ II 

^ejj ^t^# ^TT^^^Trnf^^n^T ii 8 ii ^"Rrf^rrgTw"^ 

fa (voc. sing, f.) tfrfrT ^f^ft fH^f ^T^^ll $11 ^TT WW 
^T?RTnt Tjffi ^ WSlfo 1 WIH^ II ^ II *R *reU!H<*di ^TT 

^rnft (part., ace. pi.) ffT ^^fwfa^ \r3fr: *?rerrrra; II o. II 
HT*iPa-rrro svn* WTinffaT WFf^T II W || 

11. Let the Adhvaryus pour the sacrificial offerings into the 
fire. 12. The seers ordain forty sacraments in the law-books 
(^TffT)- 13. Dacaratha entrusted his sons to Vasistha as scholars. 
14. Meeting a woman in the forest, one should say to her: "Sister, 
be not afraid". 15. Let a Snataka carry (wear) a garland, and an 
umbrella-and-shoes. 16. One who takes (part.) roots-fruits-or-grain 
from a strange-field, is to be punished. 17. Let the two doorkeepers 
close the door. 18. Do not neglect the teacher's command. 19. The 
royal-sage, who wore much jewelry, shone (f^-HT) with great- 
brilliancy, like the sun. 20. The scholars who-have-not-learned- 
i/ieir-lessons are ashamed before their teacher (ace. or gen.). 

Lesson XLII. 

441. Verbs. Nasal class. All roots of this class end in con- 
sonants. As class-sign they insert a nasal before the final con- 

* With the suffix IJJl, f. °^, are formed adjectives signifying 
'made or composed or consisting of. — In the second line, 'bear 
the name ' merely, i. e. are not in reality such. 


Lesson XLII. 

sonant, unless one be there already (as in *fff ); this nasal is 
adapted to the consonant, except in the strong forms, where it is 
expanded to the syllable «T [T£], which bears the accent. 

442. The combination of the final radical consonants with 
those of the personal endings is in accordance with the rales al- 
ready given for the root and reduplicating classes. 

443. Thus, ^r^ 'join'; strong stem ^JT^, weak ^ff . 



*pf5* ^^ *p^rs: ^t 
gut* ^f ^^* ^* W 
yfa TO* TO** si 








wf "^^^"ra: -*i^ny(*t ^*K 4 ^^ 

^ra^irT'w: ^j^r 






^m^ *TO 

TO ^ 

W^ TO 1 * 

Opt. act.: ^piZTTTT. etc.; mid.: ^Jlffa etc. 

Part, act.: ^«rT N , f. ^<fh mid.: *J^R. 

444. Root ^J 'obstruct'; strong stem ?[T!ra, weak ?[«tf . 


Active. Middle. 

Tartar ^^^c ^*ra; ^t ^"M| v»ft 
^wf^ ^¥^ ^rf^fT ^--% ^ifrl ^5^ 

* Instead of ^T^cp^l^, S^tS?, and the like, it is allowed 
(and more usual) to write sy^VtJ^, Spg^f etc; also ^**l^, ^%Jetc, 
instead of ^g'^C. etc.; in each case omitting the consonant im- 
mediately following the nasal. 

Lesson XLII. 



^r\nfa wwr w*tr ^jr^ ^wr^t "^trI 

Imperf. act.: ^Tir^R;, ^Uf^, ^ppfc^; ^V^ef etc.; mid.: 
T5T^f«^ etc. — Opt. act.: ^F^rR etc.; mid.; ^«*ffal etc. — Part, 
act.: ^I^T, f. "^Tffh mid.: ^ITR- 

445. Roots ftT9, 'grind, crush' (act.); and f|f^, 'injure, 
destroy' (act.): 


^rfarz ^rftre**; ^fro ^rff^R; ^rft**R *rfw 

^rt^rz ^srfqFR *rfM«H ^rf^R: or «>^ ^rf^rR; ^xTi *rc; 

Ind. 2nd persons: ftRf%, ftfe^, fTO; — ff^fW, fiNR;, 
fTO- ImT * 2nd persons: fwft, ftfe^, ftfe; — fff**, ff^R,, 

446. 7{% 'crush' (act.), combines HUfff with f?f and H into 
<1%f% and rf%S- 

^J (inddhe) kindle, light. 

fl^ {chindtti, chinddhe) cut, cut 


+ "^JT take away, remove. 

+ ^3^ exterminate. 
oTRPC^l ( caus - stem) awaken. 
fcrq (pindsti) grind, crush. 
^^ (bhandkti) break, destroy. 
f^fi? (bhindtti, bhinddhe) split. 
*Hf (bhundJcti, bhunkte) eat, enjoy. 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 

Vocabulary XLII. 

^J3T (yundkti, yunkte) join; yoke, 
+ f^ appoint, establish. 

T^f (rundddhi, runddhe) obstruct, 
check; besiege. 

ftra (find.sti) leave, leave re- 
+ f^ set apart, distinguish. 

f^ + ^ unite. 

f^^ (hindsti) injure, destroy. 


178 Lesson XLII. 

•^cJ^IT f-, condition, state, 
^q*^ f., dawn ; also personified, 
Usas, the Dawn. 
^jT^^R m., thorn; enemy. 
^"PE! m., bite, mouthful. 
<TX^T m-, rice. 
XTRT^i n., crime. 
xn"^ m., grandson. 
^«*| m., relative. 

^flg«f n. } writing, copying. 
f^#H«d m., the Himalaya Mts, 

^at^fT high. 

^JT^ suitable for Ksatriyas. 
3[]|J domestic. 

Hf7fc69r, f. °^TT, unfavorable. 
TjpT, f. "^STT, splendid, beautiful, 

Exercise XLII. 

rt^lJnrfieirt-1 *ft* ff^f^ T t^f^T n 3^ || 
fRit ci^rm^wr^t frwsr wnrrsra 11 33 11 

^fRTr^^ ^t %*T fa?^ cfT T TT II 38 II 

^ m ff^fnr ?rt** ifta urof^i f^rfn aqmri tt 
tff^i 11 «* 11 ^T^f^fHt ^Hhi<i f^m»^<* TTsif ^j^fir «M*n 
'•h<kmji3<k 11 ^ n ^rr Tnfr ^t%t ^tp^j^ieN *? % fl^fr 
t^t 11 3 11 t% iprf^fcr*rre: *rs <*i Pa feM f »n; foH<3>M i 

fa^^MI<lf<<***f*MlfaMct II 8 II g RI TfWyTOI ^^TT 

*i wrrfa wkPsjh fr^% t% wh" "*r^ T«f^ «nw n m 11 *fr 
tt *pjsf: wm 11 $ 11 ^ft irfTT^t fafafffiprfs irffcti 

11. After Jayasinba had long besieged Girinagara, he destroyed 

The antecedent of this relative is the subject of ^r?TTTTtf?T' 
Translate as though dative. 

Lesson XLIII. 179 

(*^) it at last. 12. An ascetic shall eat only 240 raouthfuls in a 
month (loc). 13. "Kindle the fire; cut branches for firewood 
(*lf*t*4*J*0; m 'lk the cows; grind grain": thus said one priest 
to another early in the morning. 14. The teacher entrusted (f^J-?I5T ) 
the scholars with the copying of the books (cpd., dat.). 15. The 
mountain - range Himavant checks the coarse of the clouds 
with its exceedingly-high peaks. 16. The doers-of-right (°eRJ) 
are happy in Heaven, enjoying the fruits-of-^e/r-works. 17. A 
king who has conquered a foreign realm must not exterminate 
the royal-family. 18. Aryans must kindle the domestic-fire at the 
time-of-the-wedding. 19. Women pounded the rice with pestles. 

Lesson XLIII. 

447. Verbs. Perfect-System. In the later language the perfect- 
system comprises only an indicative mode and a participle, each 
both active and middle. Its formation is essentially alike in all 
verbs; its characteristics are: 1. reduplication; 2. distinction of strong 
and weak forms; 3. endings in some respects peculiar; 4. the fre- 
quent use of the union-vowel i. 

448. Reduplication. 1. Initial consonants are reduplicated ac- 
cording to the rules given in Less. XLI for the reduplicated pre- 

2. Medial and final vowels, short and long, are represented by 
the corresponding short vowel, diphthongs by their second element ; 
but ^J (or ^T^) is represented always by "^f, never by ^[ as in the 
reduplicated present-stem. Thus, sfpF^, -qsn*^; WT, cHHT; fa "4., 

3. Initial ^f, followed by a single consonant, becomes ^T 
(through =5-^0; thus, ^1^, ^TT^- 

4. Initial ^ and ^ follow the same analogy ; but in the strong 

180 Lesson XLTII. 

forms, where the root-vowel is ganated, the reduplicating vowel is 
protected from combination by the insertion of ^J or "Gf ; thus, 
^n , strong perfect-stem f^fc (}-y-e§) weak ^Tf (i. e. i-is) ; ^^, 
strong g^t'^ (u-v-oc), weak ^^ (u-uc). 

5. Roots beginning with vowels long by nature or position do 
not in general make the ordinary perfect-system, but use instead 
a periphrastic formation (see below). But ^(J\ is an exception, 
making the constant perfect-stem ^TPC ; and a few roots with initial 
^J or ^J show the anomalous reduplication "3TT"t. in the perfect.* 

449. Strong and weak forms. In the three persons sing. act. 
the root-syllable is accented, and exhibits usually a stronger form. 
As regards the strengthening: 

1. In roots with medial vowels long by nature or position, 
and in those with initial ^f, the difference of strong and weak forms 
does not appear, except in accented texts. 

2. Medial and initial vowels are gunated, if possible, in the 
strong forms ; thus, f^T, w. f^*rf|T, s- f^l^T ; |TT , w. $T^, s. 
^%i* ; ^, w. ^, s. ^3<ft^ (§ 448, 4). 

3. Medial ^J before a single final consonant is vriddhied in the 
3rd pers., and optionally in the 1st; thus, from TJtT, in 1st sing, 
either TJTT^ or WF^, in 2nd T?TJ^\ m 3rd tJUT^- 

4. A final vowel takes either guna or vrddhi in the 1st person, 
guna in the 2nd, vrddhi in the 3rd; thus, from «ft, in 1st f^fST or 
f*T%, 2nd f*J%, 3rd fa%. 

450. The root m makes, irregularly, the perfect-stem mi, and 
adds "^ before a vowel-ending. 

451. Some roots, instead of strengthening the vowel in the 

* The grammarians prescribe (doubtless falsely) this redupli- 
cation for all verbs beginning with ^Jf or ^J followed by more than 
one consonant. 

Lesson XLIIT. 181 

strong forms, weaken it in the weak forms; some few even do 
both. See below. 

452. Personal Endings. The perfect-endings are these: 

Active. Middle. 

1. a vd md e vdke mdhe 

2. tha dthus d se dthe dhve 

3. a dtus us e ate re 

But roots ending in a take du in 1st and 3rd sing. act. ; thus, 

453. Union-vowel. The endings beginning with consonants 
are in classical Sanskrit usually joined to the base by the union- 
vowel ^. The most important rules for the use of ^[ are as 
follows : 

1. The"^ of 3rd pi. mid. always has ^ before it. 

2. The other endings beginning with consonants, except ^J, 
take it in nearly all verbs. But it is rejected throughout (except 
from "^) by eight verbs: viz. 13fi 'make', It 'bear', W 'go', 
2^ 'choose', ^T 'run', "*£ 'hear' , TjT 'praise', ^ 'flow'. 

3. For its use or omission in 2nd sing. act. the rules are too 
complicated to be given here. 

454. With the union-vowel ^ a final radical ^[ or %" is not 
combined into ^, but becomes H or (if more than one consonant 
precede) ^TO ; thus, from «ft, f^rfa?^ ni-ny-i-va. 

Examples of inflection. A. Roots in final vowels. 

455. I. Roots in ^ or %. The T[ and XT of gunated and vrid- 
dhied vowels become ^sr^r and ^TT^T before the vowel beginning 
an ending. See also § 454. 

Thus, 1. *ft: Act.: Sing. 1. (^Hq or f^TTO, 2. f^rftra or 
■faSTO, 3. fqWW, du. 1. f^f^cr, 2. f^RJW^, 3. f%*nj^; pi. 1. 
f^rfcrjT, 2.f^^,3.f^^T v . — Mid.: Sing. l.f^TO, 2.f?rfcR, 3.fsy^; 


182 Lesson XLIII. 

du. i. f^rf^f , 2. fvRn%, s. fwm; pi. i. t^f^mf, 2. f^fara, 

2. sfiT: Act.: Sing. 1. "fasfRT or fasfiltf, 2. f^-*R|«| or f^lfa, 
3. fTCRT; du. 1. f^f^f^^, 2. f^f^I^, 3. °^H^; pi- I- "N- 
t%f^T, 2. f^f^R^, 3. frfogCl- 

456. II. Roots in 3 or ^S follow the model of the last- mentioned. 
Thus, ^J: Act.: Sing. 1. rJE^ or <JB"nT, 2. <JET«T (not HSfa*l — 
see § 453, 2), 3. <JFR; du. l.£§*, 2.^^, 3.*J^7J^. - ^: 
Act.: du. ^rf^ etc. 

457. ^ is irregular in the perfect. (Cf. § 450): 

Active. Middle. 

2. ^jf^ra ^J5^ ^5 *ajM «r^n^ ^jf^ 
^T* ^npw ^^ ^? ^^ *S^ 

458. III. Roots in^. 1. m (see § 453, 2): 

2. ^TO ^«fi^ ^«R ^J** ^^iT% ^|T^ 

3. ^^rn; ^ra»<js. ^pc *ra ^^rm ^f^r 

So also *T, *J, 2"^ 'choose'. 2. The other roots in "^ make the 
first persons thus: from V, ^TT or ^TFTr ^f^T^, ^fOT; ^t 

459. If the final ^J be preceded by more than one consonant, 
the formation is as follows: ^, 1. *T^nC or ^TOTT; 2 - HW$> 

3. Mm\K ; du. TOft^ *H4K«|«l> etc. — the ^ being gunated. 

460. IV. Roots in ^TT (including those written by the natives 
with TJ or ^ or Tjft). These take ^ft i" 1st and 3rd sing, act.; and 
the ^5T is lost before vowel-endings and X- 1- 1^TT : 

i. ^ft ^ftre ^P** ^ <f*wi ^Pwl 

2. ^n^i, ^ftro ^r^c ^ ^fW% ^rro ^fw 

3. ^ ^th^ ^^ ^ T*n* ^^ 

2. "RTT, ^T, and similar roots, make their weak forms from the 

Lesson XLIII. 183 

simpler root-forms ift, "g etc.; and "£"[ makes its strong forms also 
from "g; thus, ^l^^ or 5fifra etc. 

B. Roots in final consonants. 

461. I. With medial vowel capable of guna. 

1. fHf : Act: Sing. 1. f^^, 2. fwf^ZI, 3. fsW^; du. fafa- 
f^ etc.; pi. f^rfaf^T etc. Mid.: fwfa^ etc. 2. So from tf^: 
^ffr^ etc.; 3. from f*{: 1. ^^f, 2. ^flfa or ST^S, 3. ^Tt; 
du. ^^f^f^ etc. 

462. II. With initial vowel capable of guna. 

1. ^: Sing. 1. T^T 2. ^fTTO, 3. ^?; du. 1. ^facf, 
2. t^^C' 3 - t^^5 pi. I- TfW, 2. ^, 3. f^. 2. ^: 
^cpfTj etc. 3. The root ^, 'go% also follows this rule, forming 
^gfra etc. , 3rd. pi. f^J^- 4. ^^ makes (see § 448 , 5) ^TTfir 
^TRf^T etc. 

463. III. With initial ^. 

"31^, ^TRT etc.; ^T, ^rT^ etc. But "3P^ (originally ^FTj 
makes ^n«TI[ etc. (§ 448, 5). 

464. IV. With medial ^f. 

1. sR^: Act.: sing. 1. ^^j*T or ^sRT*T, 2. ^if*TO, 3. ^TR; 
du. ^grfjf^ etc. Mid.: ^3i5t etc. 

Thus all sucb roots beginning with more than one consonant, 
or with an aspirate, a guttural mute, or ^. 

465. 2. Roots in general having medial ^f before a single 
final consonant, and beginning also with a single consonant which 
is repeated unchanged in the reduplication — i. e. not an aspirate, 
a guttural, or ^ — contract with the reduplication into one syllable, 
with TJ as its vowel, in the weak forms; and this is allowed also 
in 2nd sing. act. when the union-vowel ^ is taken. Thus, H^T, 
s. MMx| and Ml||-^, w. TJ^: 

* Several roots not having the form here defined are said to 
undergo the same contraction, most of them optionally. 

184 Lesson XLIII. 

TjTjcj*j, ^f^ "q^W^ *^T ^f^ft ^tTT% ^fW 

466. 3. Certain roots beginning with ^ va (also one with Jf ya) 
and ending in one consonant, reduplicate with the syllable ^f (the 
one root just mentioned, with ^[), and abbreviate the ^ (^J) of the 
root to ^ (X) * n weak forms. They are treated like roots with 
initial ^ (\: § 463) but retain the full root form in the strong 
persons. These roots are ^\ ^, ^, ^"J^, cf^ 'dwell', and 
^f ; also ZJ5T Thus, ^t^: Act. sing. 1. ^^ or ^T^, 2. ^3^- 
^^J or ^5^f%f^r, 3. ^T-eJ; du. v*fa^ (u-uc-i-va) etc. Mid. ^>% etc. 
- -?r^: Act. sing. 1. JZ(^ or {t||4> 2. J^ or ^£*rf^ 3. fin*!; 
du. ^fsre etc. Mid. ^% etc. 

467. 4. Several roots which have medial ^ between single 
consonants, but cannot follow the rule of § 465, drop out the ^J 
from the weak forms. These roots are, in the classical language, 
?|[*^, TTj^, ^T^, ||«^; and also of«^, which might be expected to 
follow § 465. They form the weak stems ^f, ^JTJ^, ^IW , 5f^J ; 
and 5fU . Thus, ^SfW^ or ^"sTTT etc., ^fri^ etc. lp^ makes its 
strong stem ^JV|«^ and ^J^TT^- 

468. 5. The roots ^J\iJ , ^t^, and one or two others, redupli- 
cate from the semivowel, and contract If and cT to ^ and ^ in 
weak forms. Thus, strong ^TEgf 1 ^ or '<Qbe||i^, weak ^T*P£. 

469. 1. The root ^Hf[, 'speak', is found only in this tense, 
and only in the following forms: sing. 2. -H\JH, 3. "4||^; du. 2. ^J"J- 
*fST^, 3. ^IT^d^; ph 3. -411^4^- These forms have only the value 
of the present. — 2. The root lf^T, 'know ', makes a perfect without 
reduplication, but otherwise regular, which has only present-value; 
see § 417. 2f^T, ' find ', forms the regular f^%^. 

470. The roots f^(, f^f^, f^f, and f^, form as perfect-stems 
f%faj, f^f^, f%Tf9T, and f^rf%T 

Lesson XLIII. 185 

471. Perfect participle. 1. Active. The ending of the pf. part, 
active is ^T^ (mid. ^?^, w. ^f), which is added to the weak per- 
fect-stem.* When this is monosyllabic the union-vowel ^ is inserted 
(but not in the weakest cases, before ^TJ). Thus, a. from ^, 
strong stem of part. ft^RT^. mid. $f*^, w. t^; from TJ^, 

^f^rrac., mR^ . ^f\> from ^> ^rf^rfafc *fa«H, ^* > 
from ^r, ^f^rrct, ^f^*C> ^T* • But ' from *ft> f*rofarrcfc f*~ 

^&!<l, f^TO 5 from ^, JfTRC <J^^, 31f\» from f**f > t^~ 
fH^rfa;, f^f*T3[cT\ faf*l$H/ — 6. The root ^ makes as its 
strong stem of pf. part. arflTTTfar, or 3R7crfcr^ mid. arfTinRC or 
gjTf;^, weakest only 3f7*pr Similarly, from <fp^, ^Tfaqi^ or 
araarfaTo ^f^tl or SR^, ^^ — c. lf^ff , « know ', makes 
■^ra: etc.; 2f^, 'find', f%f^^ etc. 

2. Middle. The pf. part, middle is made with the suffix ^TT, 
which is added to the weak stem as this appears in the middle 
voice; thus, ^\J , «MMM ; >*T, S^TR; 3> ^^TW; *ft f^RTR; 

Periphrastic Perfect. 

472. Most roots beginning with a vowel long by nature or po- 
sition adopt a periphrastic formation in the perfect tense; the same 
is also taken by the secondary conjugations, and optionally by a 
few primary roots not falling in the above category. It is made 
as follows: 

473. To the accusative of a derivative noun-stem in ^TT, made 
from the present-stem which is the general basis of each conjugation, 
are added, for the active, the perfect active forms of "^j or ^f^ (or, 
very rarely, of if); for the middle, only the perfect middle forms 

* Mechanically, the weakest participle-stem is identical with 
the 3rd pi. act. (of course, ^ instead of ^). 

186 Lesson XLIII. XLIV. 

of|i. Thus, from '-^Hl'trf*, pf- ^fH«n«TO or ^TT^ri^^n:; 
from ^, t^t^%- 

474. Force of the Perfect. In classical Sanskrit the perfect 
coincides in meaning with the imperfect, as a tense of narration, 
but is less often met with. 

Lesson XLIV. 

475. Verbs. Future-System (aud Conditional). The verb has 
two futures: I. The simple, or s-future, which is by far the older, 
and much more common, than the other; and II. the periphrastic 

476. I. Simple Future. This tense contains an indicative mode 
and a participle, active and middle. It may be made from all 
verbs. The tense-sign is the syllable Tgg, added to the root either 
directly, or by the union-vowel ^ (in the latter case becoming ^5J). 
The root has the gwna-strengthening when possible; and some roots 
with medial ^g gunate with ^ instead of ^. The inflection is 
precisely like that of the present indicative of a verb of the 
a-conjugation ; thus, from *?, ^rf^raf^, o^. 

477. When ^ is not taken, final radical consonants suii'er the 
same changes before ^J as before ^ in the inflection of the root- 
class or reduplicating or nasal class. Thus, from ^f, \ftwffT; 

%^fff7l; ff* , l^lfrT; ft, ^^Tf!f. The root cf^ ' dwell ', makes 

478. 1. Most roots ending in vowels reject \; thus, TT, 37- 
^Tfa; JTT, TT^rfTT; fa, %t*rf?T; ^T, ^TTSTflT. 2. But all roots in 
^T take Xi thus, ^, ^f*TqfrT; <J , tT fX m P d; and also the roots *ft 
(iff^lfrT) and ^(HfTOfa). 3. ^ makes Hffcrflr . 

Lesson XLIV. 187 

479. In general, the verbs which take ^ in the infinitive and 
periphrastic future (see below), take it also in this tense. But the 
accordance is far from complete; and these parts should be learned, 
as a matter of usage, for any given verb. 

480. Stems of causative inflection, and denominatives in tST^\ 
make their future-stems in ^f^TO; thus, ^TT, ^tTf^f^rf?T- 

481. Participle. The participles, act. and mid., are made from 
the future-stem precisely as from the present-stem; thus, W[, "ZJ- 
^P<T (f. °^Trft), ^RRTT; f, 3ifWtT, qrfTTZOTR. Cf. §§ 260, 

482. Conditional. A tense called the conditional (indie, only) 
is made from the stem of the simple future precisely as the im- 
perfect is made from the present-stem, and similarly inflected. 
Thus, ^T^f^, ^^jfT^FC ; ^T#, -4|c|,(\5}. It is of extremely 
rare occurrence. 

483. II. Periphrastic Future. This tense, which is allowed to 
be made from ail verbs, contains a single indicative tense, active,* 
It is formed by the nomen agentis in <J, having the value of a future 
active participle, to the nom. sing, of which (cfT) are added, in the 
1st and 2nd persons of all numbers, the corresponding inflected 
forms of the pres. of l^R^ *be\ In the 3rd persons the nomen 
agentis is used alone, in the proper number, without the auxiliary. 

484. The root has in most cases the same form before the 
suffix ?f which it takes before the TfTT of the infinitive. Thus, 

*rnj; f% %<t; ^, ^rt<T; *r> Hf^*r; **, ^fij; ^rcre, <*«ilej7T. 

485. The inflection is then as follows: 

The Hindus also prescribe a middle formation ; it has, how- 
ever, practically no existence. 

188 Lesson XLIV. 

1- Wrf% ^<TT^T*C «*«$H*m. 

3. ^rTT <*dlO «*<1K«, 


486. The aorist comprises three quite distinct formations, each 
with certain sub-varieties; but all are bound together into one 
complex system by certain correspondences of form and meaning. 
In classical Sanskrit aorists are comparatively rare. Their value 
is quite that of impf. or pf. as tenses of narration. But they are 
used also (though not nearly so often as the prohibitive opt.) with 
the particle *n, in prohibitions, the augment being then omitted; 
thus, *TT ^T. 'do not give'; TfJ *Nfc 'do not fear'. With this ex- 
ception the aorist always has the augment in classical Sanskrit. 
The tense comprises, in the later language, only an indicative mode.* 
The main varieties of aorist are three: I. Simple Aorist; II. Redu- 
plicated Aorist ; III. Sibilant Aorist. 

487. I. Simple aorist. (1) Root aorist. This aorist is precisely 
like an imperfect of the root-class. It is limited to the active voice 
of a few roots in ^[J, and of W. E. g. 

2. ^to: ^7<n* ^^Tri ^wa; ^r^c ^ct 

3. ^TcC ^l<idm; ^^ ^r^ ^W?T*l "^^t 

Like ^T: \rr, ^3^- WT, ^RITrt; *TT, ^^5 TT 'go', ^~ 

488. (2) The a-aorist. This is like an imperfect of the a-class, 
active and middle. Thus, from 1%^ 5 1st persons ^f fa ■<*{,, ^tf^TTTW* 
^TftpTW; ^ffa%, ^Tfax||ejff, ^rf^TTff- In general the root 

The precative is strictly a peculiar aor. optative; but it is so 
rare that its formation need not be explained here. 

Lesson XLIV. 189 

assumes a weak form ; but three or four roots in final ^g take guna. 

Thus, nsrr^, ^n^; ti^, ^ji**^; >j% ^rercr^ ; w^ s , w^; 

^, ^RP^; ^> "**!«*<tj ^TC^ ^HN*K- — Irregular: T^TT, ^31- 
*§RU ST> ^QPl» ^T- WScl; Tim, ^rf%T^^; 2 ^RC 'throw', ^T- 
^fc^ (anomalous). ^^ s makes ^|^tx|c^, and TJc^, ^5m^c^, which, 
with one or two others, were doubtless originally reduplicated 

489. II. Reduplicated Aorist (3). This aorist differs from all 
others in that it has come to be attached nearly always to the deriv- 
ative (caus., etc.) conjugation in 'Optf, as its aorist. The connection 
is not formal, as the aorist is not made from the stem in ^f, but 
from the root. Its characteristic is a reduplication, of quite pe- 
culiar character. 

490. The reduplicated aorist is very unusual in classical San- 
skrit, and it will be sufficient for the present to give an example 
or two of its formation. Thus, ^«^ makes ^ftSTTc^ ; W^, ~^Xf^- 
^JTCpt > WTi ^rffff^Rt,- The inflection is the usual one of imper- 
fects of the a-conjugation. 

491. III. Sibilant Aorist, of four varieties. (4) The s- aorist. 
The tense-stem is made by adding ^ to the augmented root, which 
usually has its vowel strengthened. E. g. «ft: Act.: sing. 1. ^J%- 
VP%, 2. ^1%^^, 3. ^3mH; du. 1. W3, 2. ^3?%^ 3. ^tefPR;; 
pi. 1. ^R*Jf, 2. ^r%, 3. ^%^- Mid.: sing. 1. ^Rfa, 2. ^f%T^, 

3. ^?te; du. i. ^Tzrff, 2. ^^t^to;, s. ^sRimrra;; p 1 - l ^* 

^ff, 2. ^%!*t, 3. -41^ Md- — *TW (mid.only): sing. 1. wf^, 
2. ^MdcJItt 3. ^JS* etc. 

492. (5) The *s-aorist. The tense-stem is made by adding ^ 
by means of an inserted ^[. The root is generally strengthened. 
E. g. TJ 'purify': Act.: sing. 1. ^TOff^R^, 2. "^tn^W, 3. WT- 
^; du. 1. WFf^zr, 2. WTfa^, 3. o^rjrj pi. i. of^, 
2. °Ore, 3. f^^. — Mid. sing. 1. WTfrfa 2. ^nif^"^, 3. ^- 

190 Lesson XLTV. XLV. 

inf^re; du. i. »f^ff, 2. °fcpn*rw;, 3. °cnra;; pi. i. °f*nwff, 

2. °fcjd*^, 3. °"ftffc(cf. — This is the only aorist of which forms are 
made in the secondary and denominative conjugations (but for 
causatives and denominatives in Iffi, cf. § 489). 

493. (6) The sw-aorist is active only, the corresponding middle 
being of the s-forra. An example will suffix here. JJJ: sing. 1. "^J- 
qiRjMH. etc., quite like the inflection of the ts-aorist. 

494. (7) The sa-aorist. f«j^: Act. sing. 1. '-4|f<j[^l^, 2.°^^, 

3. °^t^; and so on ; like an impf. of the a-conjugation. But in the 
mid. the grammarians prescribe the 1st. sing, ^H'fef^!', and 2nd and 
3rd du. Wf^TTTH and °fTR;. 

495. Aorist Passive. Generally the middle forms of aorists 4, 
5, or 7, are used also for the passive. Roots which do not ordin- 
arily take aorists of these forms, may make them like 4 or 5 espe- 
cially for the passive. 

496. But a 3rd pers. sing., of peculiar formation, has become 
a recognized part of the passive conjugation. It is formed by add- 
ing ^ to the root, which takes also the augment, and is usually 
strengthened, in some cases by guna, in others by vrddhi. After 
final nSTTis added *J. Thus, ift, 4MlRl; ^J, ^r^TTf^; g, ^^5TfT; 
^, ^RTfa; — but ^, ^f*T; f^, ^fifr; ^T, ^Tfa. 

Lesson XLV. 

Derivative or Secondary Conjugations. 

497. Secondary conjugations are those in which a whole 
system of forms, more or less complete, is made from a derivative 
conjugation-stem , this whole system being usually connected with 
a certain definite modification of the original radical sense. These 
conjugations are: I. Passive. II. Intensive. III. Desiderative. 
IV. Causative. V. Denominative. 

Lesson XL V. 191 

498. I. Passive. The present-system of the passive has been 
described; as also the peculiar 3rd pers. sing, used as aor. pass., 
the past pass, participle in 7\ or «f, and the fut. pass, participles 
or gerundives. In all other parts of the verb middle forms are 
used, if necessary, with passive meaning. 

499. II. Intensive. The intensive conjugation signifies the 
intensification or the repetition of the action expressed by the 
primary conjugation of a root. Forms outside the present-system 
are too rare to need notice here; indeed, even within that system 
they are by no means common in the later language. Intensives 
fall into two classes. 

500. 1. The verbs of the first, class (only act.) form their in- 
tensive-stem by reduplication, and the reduplicating syllable is 
strengthened, a. Radical ^SJ and ^| are reduplicated with 1R, ^ 
and ^ with TJ, ^ and ^ with ^; thus, TT^, ^TcT, %«ft, "Sft^J^- 
b. Sometimes the reduplicating syllable has a final consonant, taken 
from the end of the root; thus, T^rf"^, TfTf^f. c. Sometimes the 
reduplication is dissyllabic , an i-vowel being inserted after the 
final consonant of the reduplicating syllable; thus, ej^d^. — 
The model of inflection is the present-system of the reduplicating- 
class, but deviations are not rare; in particular, an "^ is sometimes 
inserted between stem and ending. 

501. 2. From the intensive-stem as just described may be formed 
another , formally identical with a passive-stem , by the suffix ^Ef. 
It takes middle inflection, but has no passive value, being used 
precisely as is the intensive just mentioned. Thus, TRvf , Tfflslffi. 

502. A few intensives , having lost their value as such, come 
to be used as presents, and are treated by the native grammarians 
as simple roots. Thus W[1t, really intensive of 3T 'wake', is 
assigned to the root-class : pres. 5TITf*T etc. , du. ^XT^^C. etc - » 
impf. 1. 4HHIMl> 2. ^WTTJ, 3. 1M|J|^; du. WRp T etc. So 

192 Lesson XLV. 

also rf(\j* |, intens. of "gj 'run', used as a present with the sense 
'be poor', fsf^ 'wash', and some others, use the intensive 
present -system in the same way, and are assigned to the re- 
duplicating class; thus, 3rd sing. ^%fr?i, 3rd pi. %f%«rffT- 
Intensive forms outside the present-system are very rare. 

503. III. Desiderative. By this conjugation is denoted a desire 
for the action or condition denoted by the simple root; thus, 
fxRrrfrr 'I drink', desid. fwnnf*T 'I wish to drink'. 

504. To form the desiderative-stem the root is reduplicated, 
and adds ^f, sometimes ^[^ . The consonant of the reduplication 
is determined by the usual rules: the vowel of reduplication is ^ 
if the root has an o-vowel, an ^-vowel , or ^g, and \3 if the root 
has an u-vowel. Thus, ^JT, t%RT^rf7r; *ft f^P^fafTT; W, ^g^ffl; 

w, f^reHfa; fire, fafa(*rf?r; f?r^, fafirw 

505. A number of roots form an abbreviated desiderative- 
stem ; thus, W^> t^ff^; ^T> f^rfa- 

506. The conjugation in the present-system is like that of 
other a-stems. Outside of that desiderative forms are quite in- 
frequent. The perfect is the periphrastic. The aorist is of the 
t's-form; thus, %"^J, Tjf^Plft.; ^TffTf^f^ 2- The futures are made 
with the auxiliary vowel \; thus, ^f^'RlffT, frfWcTTf^- The 
verbal nouns are made with ^[ in all forms where that vowel is 
ever taken. A passive may be made; thus, ^x^ffi 'it is desired 
to be obtained'; part. %f^J7?. 

507. IV. Causative. 1. The present-system of the causative 
has been treated of already. 2. The perfect is the periphrastic, 
the derivative noun in ^TT being formed from the causative-stem; 
thus, ^nT^rf ^^TFX' 3. The aorist is the reduplicated, made in 
general directly from the root, and formally unconnected with the 
causative-stem; thus, \J, ^3T*JT^> ^PfW^t- ^ n a ^ ew instances, 
where the root has assumed a peculiar form before the causative- 
sign, the reduplicated aorist is made from this form, not from the 

Lesson'LXV. 193 

simple root; thus, ^TT, ^I'R^fTT, ^f^f^^ft.. 4. Both futures are 
made from the causative-stem, the auxiliary ^[ replacing the final 
^; thus, \nTj^rsrf?T » \TTTf*J ft I !%• 5 - The verhal nouns and 
adjectives are in part formed from the causative-stem in the same 
manner as the futures, in part from the causatively strengthened 
root-form; thus, pass. part. ^nf%cT; fat. pass. part, (gerundive) 
fTOf^rra, ^J"TO; inf- sftWftnpi; gerund fM^fiMI, °^?TO, °1- 
VTQ (§ 310). 

508. Cansative passive and desiderative. These may be made 
from the causative-stem as follows. 1. The passive-stem is formed 
by adding the usual passive sign ^J to the causatively strengthened 
root, the syllables ^§Rl being omitted; thus, \sTT3ffi- 2. The desider- 
ative-stem is made by reduplication and addition of the syllables 
^q, of which the ^ replaces the final ^f of the causative-stem; 
thus, f^jTfcnxf^T^f^T, f^HT^T^ff^- This is a rare formation. 

509. V. Denominative. A denominative conjugation is one 
that has as basis a noun-stem. In general, the base is made from 
the noun-stem by means of the conjugation-sign Jf , which has the 
accent. Intermediate between the denominative and causative con- 
jugations stands a class of verbs plainly denominative in origin but 
having the causative accent. Thus, from ?Tn^, iTn^T cf mantrdyate ; 
from ^ftfr?, «$Yr|i|fii klrtdyati. See § 76. 

510. The denominative meaning is of the greatest variety; 
e. g. 'be like', 'act as', 'regard or treat as', 'make into', 
'desire, crave' — that which is signified by the noun-stem. 
Examples: from ?TM^ 'penance, asceticism', rfmirfH 'practise 
ascetism'; from «f*{^, «T7T^rf?T 'honor'; c(iUyi*J% 'blacken'; 
^■^"T^rfH 'seek horses'; ^TTTT^jf?! 'play the herdsman, protect'; 
^^4j(7T ' desire wealth ' ; fH^WfrT ' pl a y the physician, cure' ; M^«*i- 
5Rrf?T 'desire a son', from the poss. cpd. (PTOFR 'desiring a son'* 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. 



I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

Glossary to the Exercises. 

For the alphabetic order of Sanskrit words see p. xii. 

I. Sanskrit-English. 

Adjectives in -a form their feminine in -a, unless otherwise stated. 

aksa m., die, dice. 

aksan (aksi:275) n., eye. 

agni m., fire ; as n. pr., Agni, the 

god of fire. 
agnihotrin m., a kind of priest. 
agra n., front; tip. end. 
anga n., limb; body. 
angiras (253) m., certain mythical 

anjali m. , a gesture (Voc. 37). 
anu a., small; as n., atom. 
atas adv., hence. 
ati adv., across, past; in cpds, 

to excess. 
atithi m., guest. 
atra adv., here, hither. 
atha adv., then ; thereupon. 
atharvaveda m., the fourth Veda. 
adas (asdu : 287) pron., that one ; 

adya adv., to-day. 
adyatana adj., of to-day. 
adroha m., faithfulness. 
ad /tar ma m., injustice, wrong. 

adhas adv., below, down. 
adhastat adv., below; prep., w. 

gen., underneath. 
adhi adv., over, above, on. 
adhika a., additional ; superior. 
adhita part, of adhi-i. 
adhuna adv., now 
adhvaryu m.. priest who recites 

the Yajurveda. 
\ an (dniti: 429) breathe; h 

pra breathe; live, 
an, before cons. a. negative prefix. 
anaduh (278) m., ox. 
anantaram adv., after, immediately 

afterward ; as prep., w. abl., 

right after. 
anartha m., misfortune. 
anavadya a., faultless. 
anahilupataka n., n. pr., a city. 
ami adv., after, along, toward. 
anukula a., favorable ; as n., favor. 
anujna f., permission. 
anurupa a., suitable. 
aneka a., several. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


anrta n., untruth. 

anta m., end ; in loc, at last. 

antara a., inner ; as n., interior, 
middle; interval, difference; oc- 
casion, juncture. Cf. 375, 4. 

andha a., blind. 

ondhra m., n. pr., a people. 

anna n., food, fodder. 

any a (231) pron. adj., other. 

anyatra adv., elsewhere. 

anvanc (272) a., following. 

anvaya m., descendant, progeny. 

ap (277) f. pi., water. 

apara (233) pron. adj., hinder; 

apt (190) adv., unto; further; as 
conj., also, even. 

apsaras f., heavenly nymph. 

abhaya n., feeling of safety ; safe- 

abhi adv., to, unto. 

abhipraya m., plan, design ; view. 

abhydsa m., study, recitation. 

amrta a., immortal; as n., nectar. 

amba (273) f., mother. 

ay am same as idam. 

ari m., enemy. 

artha m., purpose; meaning; 

y arthaya (den. : artlidyate) ask 

for (w. two ace); + pra idem. 
aryaman (284) m., n. pr. 
]/ arh (drhati) deserve; have a 

right to ; w. inf. (320), be able. 
alam adv., enough; very; w.instr., 

enough of, away with; w. dat., 

suitable for. 
ali m., bee. 
ava adv., down, off. 

avagya a., necessary. 

avastha f., condition, state. 

avanc (272) a., downward. 

\/ lap (apnute) acquire, obtain; 

1- nam-upa idem. 

j/ 2af (agnati) eat; caus. (dedya- 

ii) make eat, give to eat. 
afiti (332) num., eighty. 
agru n., tear. 
agva m., horse. 
agvin m. du., n. pr., the Acvins 

(the Indian Aioc, xovpoi). 
asta (332) num., eight. 
astadaga (332) num., eighteen. 
astavingati (329,332) num.,twenty- 

I las (dsti : 426) be, exist. 
V 2as (dsyati) throw, hurl; 

-1- abhi repeat, study, learn ; — 

-I- m entrust; — + pra throw 

forward or into. 
a si m., sword. 
asura m., demon. 
asau same as adas. 
asthan (asthi: 275) n., bone. 
asmad same as vayam; as stem 

in cpds, cf. 352, 4. 
ahan (ahar, ahas : 271) n., day. 
aham (223) pron., I. 
ahita a., disagreeable. 
aho excl., oh ! ah I 
ahoratra n., a day and a night. 

a (130) adv., hither, unto; as prep., 

w. abl., hither from; until. 
akara m., form, figure. 
akdga m., air, sky. 
akrsta part, of a-krs. 
akranta part, of a-kram. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

dgamana n., arrival. 
dcdra m., "walk and conversa- 
tion"; conduct; observance. 
deary a ra., teacher. 
djiid f., command. 
dtman m., soul, self; often simple 

reflexive pronoun. 
ddi m., beginning; in cpds, cf. 

375, 1. 
aditya m., sun. 

ddega m., command, prescription. 
Y dp (dpn6ti,dpnute) acquire, reach; 

r ava, pra, or ami pra, idem ; 

+ sam idem ; finish. 
opad f., calamity. 
dpta part, oi dp, trustworthy; fit. 
dyusmant (263) a., long-lived. 
avista, part, of vig + d, entered 

(by), i. e. filled (with). 
dgd f., hope. 
dgu a., swift. 
dgrama m., hermitage. 
\' as (dste: 424) sit; caus. (a- 

sdyati) place; \- upa sit by; 

wait upon; reverence. 
dsana n., seat, chair. 
dharana n., bringing. 
dhdra m., food. 
dhuti f., oblation, offering. 

\/i (eti [-tie: 408]) go: — + adhi 
mid., go over, repeat, read; 
caus. (adhydpdyati) teach; — 

4- anu follow ; \- apa go away ; 

\- abhi approach ; h astam 

(lit'ly go home) set (of the sun, 
etcj ; \- ud rise ; + upa ap- 
proach; y pra go forth; die. 

icchd f., wish. 

tiara (231) pron. adj., other. 

tias adv., hence. 

iti adv., thus, so. 

ittham adv., in this way, so. 

idam (285-286) pron., this, this 

\'idh, indh (inddhe: 444) kindle, 

indu m., moon. 

indra m., n. pr., the god Indra. 
indraprastha n.. n. pr., Delhi. 
indrdni f., n. pr., a goddess. 
iyant (263) a., so great ; so much. 
iyam fem. of idam. 
iva adv., postpos., as; like. 
y'lis (icchdti: 109) wish, desire. 
isu m., arrow. 
iha adv., here, hither. 

]/ iks (iksaie) see, behold ; — 1- upa 

neglect; \-prati expect. 

tdrg, f. -J, a., such. 

\l\g (iste: 422) rule, own (gen.). 

igvaram., master; lord; rich man. 

ucchrita part, of ud-gri, high. 
ud adv., up, up forth or out. 
udaiic (272) a., northward. 
udadhi m., ocean. 
udaya m., rise. 
udara n., belly. 
udyata part, of ud-yam, ready. 
udydna n., garden. 
udyoga m., diligence. 
udyogin a., diligent, energetic. 
upa adv., to, toward. 
upanayana n., initiation. 
upanisad f., certain Vedic works. 
upabhoga m., enjoyment. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


upavtta n., sacred cord of the 

three higher castes. 
updnah (249) f., sandal, shoe. 
ubha a., du., hoth. 
uras n., breast. 
uru, f. urvi, a., wide. 
urvaci f., n. pr., an Apsaras. 
usas f., dawn; as n. pr., Usas, 

goddess of the dawn. 

\r (rcchdti: 109) move; go to; 

fall to one's lot, fall upon; caus. 

(arpdyati) send; put; give. 
rksa m., bear. 
rgveda in., the Rigveda. 
re f., verse of the Rigveda; in 

pi., the Rigveda. 
rna n., debt. 
rtvij ni., priest. 
rsi m., seer. 

eka (231) num., one; pi., some; 

eke • • eke, some • • others. 
ekadd adv., once upon a time. 
ekddaca (332) num., eleven. 
ekddaca (334) a. eleventh. 
etad (231) pron., this, this here. 
eva adv., just, exactly. 
evam adv., so, thus. 
esa same as etad. 

ostha m., lip. 

ausadha n., medicine. 

ka (232) pron. 1. interrogative, 
who, what; kim w. instr., cf. 
note on p. 89. — 2. indefinite, 
adj. and subst., chiefly w. parti- 

cles ca, carta, rid, api, some one 

or other; so also w. relatives; 

oftenest in neg. clauses : no one 

whatever (236). 
kata m., mat. 
kantaka m., thorn, enemy. 
kantha m., neck. 
kanva m., n. pr. 
katham adv., how ? 
\kathaya (den.: kathdyati) relate, 

kadd adv., when ? (- cana, rid, 

api, at some time, ever; often 

w. neg. 
kanistha a., youngest. 
kaniyas a., younger. 
kanyd f., daughter, maiden. 
kapi m., monkey. 
kapota m., dove. 
yjkamp (kdmpate) tremble. 
kara m., hand ; trunk (of elephant) ; 

ray; toll, tax. 
karin m., elephant. 
karuna a., lamentable. 
karna m., ear. 
kartr m. , doer, maker (202); 

karman n., deed; ceremony; fate. 
\/ kal + sam (samkaldyati) put 

together, add. 
kalaha m., quarrel. 
kald f., crescent. 
kalinga m., n. pr., a people. 
kaliyuga n., the "Iron Age" of 

the world. 
kalydna n., advantage; salvation. 
kavi m., poet. A-«Wi",,»'. p»ei 

kana a., one-eyed. 
kdnti f., charm ; grace. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

karna m., desire, love ; as n. pr., 
the god of love. 

kdmadugha a., granting wishes; 
as f. subst., 8c. dhenu, the fab- 
ulous Wonder-cow. 

kdmaduh a., idem. 

kdya m., body. 

karana n., reason, cause. 

-kdrin a., causing, making. 

kdrya n., business, concern. 

kola m., time. 

kdliddsa m., n. pr., a poet. 

kdvya n., poem. 

frap* f., n. pr., a city, Benares. 

kastha n., fagot; wood. 

kdsthamaya a., made of wood. 

kirn neut. of &a ; w. tu, however. 

kiyant (263) pron. adj. , how 
great ? 

klrti f., glory. 

&utas adv., whence? why? 

kutra adv., where? whither? 

kunta m., spear. 

Y kup (kupyati) be angry (gen. 
or dat.). 

kumdra m., boy, prince. 

kugala a., able; clever; learned. 

{/ ikr(karoti, kurute: 394-5) make, 

do, perform; 1- adhi put at 

the head, make ruler over (loc.) ; 

h apa do evil to, harm (gen., 

loc, ace); — + apa-d pay; — 

+ alam prepare, adorn ; \- avis 

(dviskarotf) make known, ex- 
hibit; \- upa do good to, be- 
nefit (gen., loc); \-tiras (<«'- 

rask.) hide ; blame ; 1- puras 

put at the head ; 1- prati pay, 

recompense, punish (ace rei, 

gen., dat., or loc. pers.); — 

+prddus make known or visible ; 

1- sarn (395) prepare, adorn. 

]/2kr (Jcirdti) strew, scatter; — 

+ vi, idem. 
]/krt (krntdti: 110) cut, cut off; 

— + ava idem. 
krti f., work (literary). 
krtrima a., adopted. 
krtsna a., whole, entire. 
krpana a., poor; niggardly. 
kfpd f., graciousness, pity. 
]/ krs (Jcdrmti) draw ; V a draw 

on or up; — (krsdti) plough. 
krsi f., agriculture. 
krsivala m., husbandman, peasant. 
krsna a., black; as m., n. pr., the 

god Krsna. 
^ kip (kdlpate) be in order; tend 

or conduce to (dat.); caus. (kal- 

pdyati, -te) ordain, appoint. 
ketu m., banner. 
ke$a m., hair. 

kdildsa m., n. pr., a mountain. 
koti f., peak ; point, tip. 
kopa m., anger. 
kosa m., treasure ; treasury. 
kdunteya m., n. pr. 
kdusalyd f., n. pr. 
]/ kram (kramati, krdinate: 134) 

step; — + ati pass beyond; 

transgress; pass (of time); — 

+ d stride up to, attack; — 

-I- nis go out. 
\/ krl (krlnati, krintte) buy. 
krldd f., game, sport. 
tfkrudh (krudhyati) be angry (gen. 

or dat.). 
krodha m., anger. » 

I. Sanskrit- English Glossary. 


kva adv., where? whither? + cit 
sometimes, ever. 

ksana m. n., moment; time. 

ksatriya m., warrior, man of the 
second caste. 

kmya m., decay, destruction. 

) ksan (ksanoti, ksanute) hurt, 

\/ksal (ksaldyati) wash; \- pra 


ksatra a., suitable for Ksatriyas. 

\/2ksi (ksindti) destroy. 

ksitipa m., king. 

yksip (ksipdti) hurl, throw. 

kstna part, of 2ksi, reduced, de- 
cayed, ruined. 

kstira n., milk. 

ksudra a., little, small. 

ksudh f., hunger. 

ksetra n., field. 

V khan (khdnali) dig. 
khara m., ass. 

gangd f., n. pr., the Ganges. 

gaja m., elephant. 

}' ganaya (den.: gandyati) number, 
count; — + ava despise. 

gaii f., gait; course. 

gandha m., odor, perfume. 

gandharva m., a Gandbarva, one 
of a band of celestial singers. 

V gam (gdcchati : 100) go ; f- anu 

follow; h abhi visit, attend; 

1- ava understand ; Y astam 

go down, set (cf. i + astam) ; — 
+ a come; — + ud rise; — 
+ nis come forth; proceed from; 

h sam (mid.) come together, 

meet (instr.). 

gariyas comp., very honorable. 

\/2gd (ghyati) sing. 

gandharva, f. -i, a., in the manner 
of Gandharvas. 

\l gah (gdhate) plunge; — + ava 
dive or plunge -under (ace). 

gir f., voice, song. 

giri m., mountain. 

glta n., song; singing. 

guna m., quality, excellence. 

guru m., teacher. 

y guh (guhati: 101) hide, conceal; 
cau8. (guhdyati) idem. 

guha f., cave. 

grha n., house. 

grhastha m., householder, head of 

grhya a., domestic. 

go (209) m., f., bull, steer, cow; 
as f., 6g., speech. 

gotva n., ox-nature, stupidity. 

gopa m., cowherd, shepherd; 

1 9°Vdya (den. : goptdyati) be keep- 
er ; guard. 

gdurava n., weight; dignity. 

]/ granth (grathn&ti) string to- 
gether; compose. 

granth a m., literary work, book. 

] ' grah (grhnati, grhnlte) receive, 
seize ; — + ni hold, restrain, 
check ; 1- prati take. 

grama m., village. 

grdsa m., bite, mouthful. 

ghafa m., pot, vessel. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

ghdsa m., fodder, hay. 

ghrta n., clarified batter; ghee. 

\fghrd (jighrati: 102) smell. 

ca encl. conj., and, also, re, -que; 

sometimes =if. 
cakra rc., wheel. 
Y cafes (caste: 421) see, behold; 

— + a relate; call, name; — 
+ vi-d explain. 

caksus n., eye. 

catur (332) num., four. 

caturtha, f. -I, a., fourth. 

caturdaca (332) num., fourteen. 

catuspad (282) a., quadruped. 

catvdrincat (332) num., forty. 

candra m., moon. 

candramas m., moon. 

\/cam, used only with a (dedmati), 

sip; rinse the mouth. 
camatkara m., astonishment. 
\' car (cdrati) go, wander; graze 

(of cattle); tr., perform, commit; 

Yd perform, complete, do; 

— + sam-d idem ; \- ud caus. 

(uccdrdyati) pronounce, say. 

-cava a., moving, going. 
carana m., n., foot, leg. 
carita n., behavior, life. 
carman n., hide, skin; leather. 
carmamaya a., leathern. 
\' cal (cdlati) stir; — + pra move 

on, march ; [-pra-vi, tr., move, 

cdturmdsya n., a certain sacrifice. 
camtkara n., gold. 
car a m., spy. 
cdru a., beautiful. 
\ ci (cinoti, cinute) gather; \- 

nis or vi-nis decide, conclude ; 

+ pra gather; — + vi idem ; — 

+ sam collect. 
citta n., notice ; thought; mind. 
i cint (cintdyati) consider. 
ciram adv., long, a long time. 
j/ cud + pra in caus. (pracoddyati), 

y cur (cordyati) steal. 
cudd f., top-knot, scalp. 
ced adv., postpos., if. 
\/cest (cestati, -te) stir, be alive. 
cdulukya m., n. pr., a people. 
\/cyu (cydvate) totter, fall ; \-vi 

fall away. 

chattra n., umbrella. 

chdyd f., shade. 

\' chid (chindtti, chinddhe) cut, cut 

off; — + ava idem ; f-« take 

away, remove ; — + ud exter- 

jagat n., that which moves ; men 
and beasts; the world. 

,. • ffsljj* . , trey fas. 
Vjan (jdyate : 155 ; janayati) trans. 

(jandyati and active forms) beget, 

produce; intrans. (jdyate and 

middle forms) be born (mother in 

loc), arise, spring up; (- ud 

(ujjdyate) be born, arise (abl.); 

h pra or sam idem. 

jana m., man; pi., and coll. in 
sing., people, folks. 

janaka m., father. 

janam f., mother. 

janman n., birth, existence. 

jaya m., victory. 

jaras (280) f., old age. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


jara (280) f., old age. 

jala n., water. 

X'jalp (jdlpati) speak; chat. 

j jdgaraya (caus.) awaken. 

jati f., birth; caste; kind. 

jamatr m., son-in-law. 

jaya f., woman, wife. 

jala n., net. 

\ ft (jdyati) trans, and intrans., 
conquer, win; — + para, mid., 
be conquered (cf. in Voc. 9). 

jina m., n. pr., a name of Buddha. 

jihva f., tongue. 

\ jiv (jivati) live. 

jivita n., life. 

juhu f . , spoon, esp. sacrificial 

jetr m., conqueror, victor. 

-jna a., knowing. 

\ jna (janati, jdnite : 403) know; 

— + anu permit; Yd caus. 

(djnapdyati) command ; \- vi 


jndna n., knowledge; insight. 

jya f., bowstring. 

jyestha (340) a., best; oldest. 

jyotisan., astronomy; astronomi- 
cal text-book. 

jyotis n., light; star; heavenly 

ta (228-230) pron., he, etc. ; that, 
both subst. and adj. ; also as 
def. article. 

taksapild f., n. pr., Taxila, a city. 

\/ tad (tdddyati) strike, beat. 

tadaga m., pond. 

tadit f., lightning. 

tandula m., rice. 

tatas adv., thence, therefore; there- 
tatra adv., there, thither. 
tatlid adv., in that way, so. 
tad nom. and ace. s. n. to ta; as 

adv.. therefore. 
tada adv., then. 
tadyatha adv., namely, to wit. 
\ tan (tanoti, tanute), tr., stretch, 

extend; perform (a sacrifice); 

Yd cause, bring about; — 

-f pra extend. 
\/tap (tdpati, -te), tr. and intr., 

burn; pain; in pass., suffer, do 

tapas n., heat; self-torture. 
tapasvin a., practising ascetism ; 

as m., ascetic. 
]/ tam (tdmyati: 131) be sad. 
taru m., tree. 

taruna, f. -I, a., young, delicate. 
tasthivans pf. part, of stha; as n., 

the immovable. 
tadrg a., such. 
talu n., palate. 
tdvant adj., so great, so much; 

tavat as adv., so long, so much ; 

often concessive, like done, dock, 
tiraskarinl f., veil. 
tiryanc (272) a., going horizontally; 

as subst., animal. 
tilaka m., ornament (often fig.). 
fir a n., bank, shore. 
tirtha n., bathing-place; place of 

tivra a., great, strong, violent. 
tu conj., but, however. 
\/tud (tuddti) push; strike. 
ytul (toldyati) weigh. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

y'tus (tusyati) rejoice, take pleasure 

in (w. instr.). 
y'tr (tdrali) cross over; \- ava 

descend; + ud emerge; — + pra 

in caus. (pratdrdyati), deceive. 
trtiya, f. -d (335), a., third. 
V trp (tfpyati) satisfy oneself. 
trsnd f., thirst, desire. 
tejasvin a., courageous. 
\/tyaj (tydjati) leave, abandon; 

+ pari leave off, give up. 
trayodaga (332) num., thirteen. 
tri (332) num., three. 
tringat (332) num., thirty. 
triloka n. , -kl f. , the threefold 

trivrt a., triple, threefold. 
trigtrsan a., three-headed. 
tristubh f., name of a metre. 
tryaglti num., eighty-three. 
tva stem of pron. of 2d pers. (226 ; 

cf. 352. 4). 
tvad so-called stem of pron. tva. 
tvastr m., n. pr., a god, Tvastar. 

\/ dang (ddgati) bite. 

danstrd f., tooth. 

daksa m., n. pr. 

daksina a., right-hand; southern. 

danda m., stick; punishment. 

y dandaya (den.: danddyati) pun- 

dadhan (dadhi: 275) n., curds. 

dadhyanc (weakest -d/ric) m., n. pr. 

]/ dam (damyati : 131) control ; caus. 
(damdyati) tame; compel. 

dayd f., compassion, pity. 

daridra a., poor. 

dargana n., philosophical system. 

daga (332) num., ten. 

dagaratha m., n. pr. 

dasta part, of dang. 

]/ dah (ddhati) burn. 

j/lrfd (dddati, datte : 436) give; in 
caus. (ddpdyati) make give or 

pay; Yd take (312); — +pra 

entrust; give in marriage. 

]/ 2da (dydti : 132) cutj qvve 

ddtr m., giver; as adj. (204), gen- 

ddna n., gift, present; generosity. 

ddnava m., demon. 

ddsa m., slave, groom. 

ddsi f., female slave, servant. 

dina n., day. 

div (277) f. (rarely m.), sky. 

divasa m., day. 

divya a., heavenly, divine. 

y/ dig (digdti) show, point out; — 
4- a command ; — + upa teach, 

dig f. , point, cardinal point; 
quarter, region ; direction. 

j/ dih (degdhi : 428) smear. 

dlrgha a., long; — am adv., afar. 

dlrghdyus a., long-lived. 

Y div (divyati) play. 

\ du (dunoti), intr., burn, feel dis- 
tressed; tr., distress (ace). 

duhkha n., misery ; misfortune. 

dugdha n., milk. 

durjana m., scamp, rogue. 

durdagd L, misfortune. 

durlabha a., hard to find or reach; 

\' dus (dusyati) be defiled. 

dusprayukta a., badly arranged. 

dus&anta m., n. pr. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


dus insep. prefix, bad; hard. 

yduh (dogdhi, dugdhe: 428) milk. 

dukitr f., daughter. 

duta m., messenger, envoy. 

|/ dr in caus. (ddrdyati) + vi tear 

\'drg (127) see; cans, (dargdyati) 

show ; pass, (drgydte) seem, 

drf f., look, glance; eye. 
deva m., god; f. -I, goddess; 

devakl f., n. pr. 
devakula n., temple. 
devata f., divinity, deity, 
ctefa m., region, land. 
ddiva, f. -i, divine. 
dosa m., fault. 
dyuti f., brilliancy. 
dravya n., property ; object. 
drastr m., seer; author (ofVedic 

hymns, etc.). 
X 1 dru (drdvati) run. 
\S druh (driihyati) be hostile, offend. 
d«a (332) num., two. 
dvahstha m., doorkeeper. 
dvdr f., door, gate. 
<fo?/a m., Aryan. 
dvijdti m., Aryan. 
dvitlya (335) a., second. 
dvipad (282) a., biped. 
|/dn'.s (dvesti, dviste) hate; h 

pra hate extremely. 
dvis m., enemy. 
dvis adv., twice. 
dvlpin m., panther. 

dhona n., money, riches. 
dhanin a., wealthy. 

dhanus n., bow. 

dharma m., right; law; virtue. 

j lrf^a (dddhdti, dhatte : 435) put, 
place; — + opt close, cover, 

keep shut; yd put on; mid., 

receive; — + sam-d lay or place 
on; — -f ni lay down; — -f 
pari in caus. (-dhdpdyati), make 
put on, clothe in (two ace); 
— + vi arrange, ordain; — + 
sam put together, unite; lay on. 

\/2dhd (dhdyati: 126) suck. 

dhdtr m., creator. 

dhdnya n., grain. 

dhdrmika a., right, just. 

\' dhav (dhdvati) run; — + anu 
run after. 

dhdvana n., running; course. 

dhl {., understanding, insight. 

dhimant a., wise, prudent. 

dhlra a., steadfast, firm, brave. 

V dhu (dhunoti, dhunute: 391), 

\' dhr in caus. (dhdrdyati) bear. 

dhrti f., firmness; courage. 

dhenu f., cow. 

dhdirya n., steadfastness. 

]/ dhyd (dhydyati) think, ponder. 

na adv., not ; with opt., cf. 207. 

naksatra n., lunar mansion. 

nagara n., -I f., city. 

nadl f., river. 

I nand (ndndati, -te) + abhi re- 
joice in, greet joyfully (ace). 

\'nam (ndmati), intr., bow, bend; 
tr., honor, reverence (ace). 

namas n., honor, glory. 

nara m., man (vir and homo). 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

naraka m., hell. 

narmada f.,, a river in India. 

nala in., n. pr. 

nava a., new. 

nava (332) num., nine. 

navati (332) num., ninety. 

navadaga (332) num., nineteen. 

navlna a., new. 

]/nap (ndgyati) perish; — + vi 
perish; disappear. 

X'nah (ndhyati) bind; — + sam 
gird, equip oneself. 

ndga m., snake. 

ndtaka n., drama, play. 

ndraan n., name; ndma adv., by 

ndri f., woman, wife. 

ndll f., pipe, conduit. 

ndga m., destruction. 

ni adv., down; in, into. 

nitya a., constant; daily; -am as 
adv., always, daily. 

nidega m., command. 

\ f nind (nindati) blame. 

nipuna a., shrewd, skilled. 

niyata, part, of ni-yam, ordain- 
ed, fixed, permanent. 

nirdaya a., pitiless. 

nirvrti f., contentment, happiness. 

nis adv., out, forth. 

nigcaya m., decision, certainty. 

\fnl (ndyati; caus. ndydyati) lead, 

guide ; 1- opa lead away ; — 

+ a bring; — 4- upa introduce, 
consecrate, initiate; — + nis 
bring to an end, determine, 
settle; — + pari lead about; 

nlca a., low. 

niti f., conduct of life; ethics, pol- 
niruj a., healthy, well. 
nilakantha m., to. pr, 
\/nrt (nftyati) dance. 
nrtta n., dance, dancing. 
nrpa m., king. 
nrpati m., king. 
netr m., leader. 

netra n., leading-rope, cord; eye. 
nau f., ship. 
nyanc (272) a., low. 
nydya m., logic. 
nydyya a., right, proper. 

paksa tn., wing, side; party. 
paksin m., bird. 
panka n., mud, bog. 
|/pac (pdcati) cook. 
panca (332) num., five. 
pancadaga (332) num., fifteen. 
pancapanedga (334) a., fifty-fifth. 
panedgat (332) num., fifty. 
l/pa£ (pdtdyatt) split open. 
pa£u a., skilled. 
l/pa^A (pdthati) recite, read, 
pam m. pi.,, certain demons. 
pandita m., learned man; pandit. 
)/pat (pdtati) fall, fly; \- ud 

fly up. 

pati (274) m., lord, master; hus- 

pattra n„ leaf, letter. 

patnl f., wife, consort. 

pathi same as panthan. 

pathya a., wholesome. 

parf (282) m., foot. 

\/pad (pddyate) go; f- v?'-« in 

caus. (vydpdddyati) kill; H 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


nis (nifpddyate) grow, arise from 

(abl.); \- pra flee for refuge 

to (ace.). 
pada n., step; place. 
padma m. n., lotus. 
panthan (278) m., road, path. 
payas n., milk. 

para (233) a., chief, highest; other. 
paramatman m., the world-spirit 
para^u m., axe. 
para adv., to a distance, away. 
pari adv., round about, around. 
parivrdj (247, 2) m., wandering 

parisad f., assembly. 
parvata m., mountain. 
V paldy (pdldyate: cf. p. 116, note) 

V 'pa? (pdgyati: 127) see. 
pa^u in., beast. 
pagedt adv., behind (w. gen.). 
\/\pd (pibati: 102) drink; caus. 

(paydyati) give to drink, water. 
\/2pd (pali) protect; caus. pdld- 

yati) idem. 
pdtaliputra n., n. pr., the city 

pdtha m., lecture, lesson. 
pdni m., hand. 
pdnini m., n. pr. 
pdndava m., descendant of Pandu. 
pdtaka n., crime, sin. 
pdtra n., pot, vessel. 
pada m., foot ; quarter ; ray, beam. 
papa a., bad; as n. subst., sin. 
pdrthiva m., prince. 
pdrvatl f., n. pr. 
palana n., protection. 
pd$a m., noose, cord, snare. 

pdgupalya n., cattle-raising. 

pitr m., father; du., parents; pi., 

\/pis (pindsti) grind, crush. 

y pi same as pyd. 

plna part, of pi, fat. 

]/ptd (piddyafi) torment, vex. 

purhs same as pumdm. 

punya a., meritorious, holy, aus- 
picious; as n., merit. 

putra m., son ; -tri f., daughter. 

punar adv., again, but. 

pumans (279) m., man, male. 

pur f., city. 

purd adv., earlier, formerly. 

pur ana, f. -a and -I, a., former, 
ancient; as n., one of a class of 
works on the creation, etc. 

purusa m., man (homo). 

pururavas m., n. pr., Pururavas. 

purohita m., domestic priest. 

pidinda m.,n. pr., a tribe in India. 

\lpus (pusndti) make increase or 

pusta part, of pus, stout, fat. 

puspa n., flower. 

pustaka n., book (manuscript). ■ 

y ' pu (pundti, puntte) clean. 

ypuj (pujdyati) honor. 

pura m., flood, high-water. 

puru m., n, pr. 

pumn (284) m., n. pr., Ptisan, 
the Sun-god. 

prthivl f., earth, ground. 

prthu a., broad, wide. 

prthvi f., earth. 

prthvirdja m., n. pr. 

\'\pr (ptparti) fill. ,V")p>; fpaV^/^^' i?t/6 « 

po?aka m., supporter, maintainer. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

pdutra m., grandson. 

pdura m., citizen. 

\'pyd (pydyate) swell, get stout. 

pra adv., forward, forth. 

prakdgxn a., bright, glistening; 
act., illuminating. 

\/prach (prcchdti) ask, ask about. 

praja f., creature, subject. 

prati adv. and prep., back, back 
again ; towards (postpos. , w. 

pratikula a., unfavorable. 

pratyanc (272) a., backward, west- 

pratyaham adv., daily. 

\lprath in caus. (prathdyati), 
spread; proclaim. 

pralhama (335) a., first. 

prabhdva m., might, power. 

prabhuta a., much ; many. 

pramatta a., careless. 

praydga m., n. j)r., Allahabad. 

prayukta part, of pra-yuj. 

prayoktr m., arranger, user. 

pralaya m., destruction. 

pragna m., question. 

prasanna, part, of pra-sad, well- 

prahdra m., stroke, shot; wound. 

prdnc (272) forward, eastward. 

prdna m., often pi., breath, life. 

prdnin m., living creature. 

prdtar adv., early, in the morning. 

prdyagcitta n., penance, expiation. 

prdyena adv., commonly. 

prdsdda m., palace. 

pn?/a a., dear. 

priyakarman a., kind. 

priyavdc a., saying pleasant things, 


priyavddin a., idem. 

V'jjri (prindti, prtnlte), act., de- 
light; mid., rejoice; caus. (pri- 
ndyati), make glad, please. 
\/plu (pldvate) + a drench. 

phala n., fruit, reward. 
phalavant a., fruitful. 

]' bandh (badhndti, badhnlte) bind; 

entangle, catch; join; com- 
bandhu m., relative. 
bala n., strength, might. 
balavant a., strong, mighty. 
balistha a., strongest. 
bahu a., much, many. 
bdla a., young; as m., child, boy; 

f. -a, girl. 
bdspa m., tear, tears. 
bdhu m., arm. 
bindu m., drop. 
buddha part, of ftucM, awakened ; 

buddhi f., prudence, intelligence. 
buddhimant a., prudent. 
Y budh (bodhati, -te ; budhyati,-te), 

wake ; know. 
budha m., wise man, sage. 
brahmacarya n., life of holiness, 

esp. religious studentship. 
brahmacdrin a., studying sacred 

knowledge; as m. , Brahman 

brahman n., devotion; sacred word 

(of God); sacred knowledge; 

brahman (a personification oibrd- 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


hman)m., the supreme All-Soul; 

Brahma, the Creator. 
brahmahan (283) m. , killing a 

brahmana m., priest, Brahman. 
y'bru (braviti, brute), speak, say; 

\pra explain, teach, announce; 

— +vi explain, announce. 

bhakta a., devoted, true. 
bhakti f., devotion; honor. 
\'bhaks (bhaksdyati) eat. 
bhaksana n., eating. 
bhagavant a., honorable, blessed. 
y'bhaj (bhdjati, -te) divide; — +vi 

\'bhanj (bhandkti) break, destroy. 
bhadra a., good, pleasant; as n., 

bhaya n., fear. 

bharatakhanda m., n. pr., India. 
bliartr m., supporter; preserver; 

lord, master; husband. 
bhava m., n. pr., a name of Civa. 
bhavant, f. bhavati; in voc. bhos, 

f. bhavati; used in respectful 

address instead of pronoun of 

2nd person. Cf. § 264. 
bhasman n., ashes. 
] bhd (bhkti) gleam, glance; — 

-I- a or vi idem. 
bhdga m., part, piece, share. 
-bhaj a., sharing. 
bhanu m., sun. 
bhara m., burden. 
bharyd f., wife, woman. 
\ bhds (bhdsate) speak; — +prati 

answer (ace. of pers.); \-sam 


bhdm f., speech, language. 
bhdwant a., shining, brilliant. 
\' bhiks (bhiksate) beg, get by beg- 
bhiksd f., alms. 

bhiksu m., beggar; ascetic. 
}'bhid (bhindtti, bhinddhe) split. 
\'bhl (bibheti) fear; in caus. (bh'i- 

sdyate, bhdydyate) terrify. 
[ 2bhuj (bhundkti, bhunkte) eat, 

enjoy; caus. (bhojdyati) feed ; — 

+ upa enjoy. 
-bhuj a., enjoying. 
bhujyu m., n. pr., a Vedic persorf. 
bhuvana n., world. 
\/bhu (bhavati, -te) become; be, 

exist; — + abhi overpower; 

— + pari despise; 1- pra 

arise; be mighty, rule; valere. 
bhu f., earth, ground. 
bhuta part, of bhu; as n. subst., 

being, creature. 
bhuti f., prosperity, blessing. 
bhubhuj m., king. 
bhubhrt m., king; mountain. 
bhumi f., earth, ground, land. 
bhuyas (340) comp. adj., more; 

-yas adv., mostly. 
bhusana n., ornament. 
\ bhr (bhdrati, -te) support (lit. and 

bhrgukaccha n., n. pr., Baroch, a 

holy place in India. 

bhrtaka m., servant. 

bhrtya m., servant. 

bhr^am adv., greatly, much. 

bheka m., frog. 

bhoga m., enjoyment. 

bhojana n., meal. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

bhos see bhavant. 

)'bhram (bhrdmyati : 131) wander 

about, flit ; 1- pari idem. 

bhrdtr m., brother. 
bhru f., eyebrow. 

maksikd f., fly, gnat. 

maghavan (270) m., Indra. 

I majj (mdjjati) sink ; — + ni id em. 

mani m., jewel. 

mati {., mind. 

matimant a., shrewd, prudent. 

matsya m., fish. 

mathi same as manthan. 

mad called stem of aham; cf. 

352, 4. 
\/mad (mddyati) get drunk; — 

+ pra be careless. 
madhu n., honey. 
madhuparka m., sweet drink. 
madhulih m., bee. 
madhyaa., middle; as n., middle; 

]/man (mdnyate; manute) think, 

suppose ; 1- sam honor. 

manas n., mind. 
manusya m., man (homo), 
manoratha m., wish. 
manohara a., agreeable; entranc- 
mantra m., sacred text; spell, 

mantrin m., minister; councillor. 
\' manth (mathnati) stir. 
manthan (278) m., stirring-stick. 
mandara m., n. pr., a mountain. 
marana n., death. 
marut m., wind; pi., n. pr,, the 


mastaka n., head. 

mahant (261) a., great. 

mahdnasa n., kitchen. 

mahardja m., great king. 

mahisa m., n. pr. 

mahisi f., queen. 

j/lma (jndti; mimite: 438) mea- 
sure; J- nis work, create. 

m a adv. and conj., not; used in 
prohibitions, etc., like Lat. ne, 
greek ^uvf; cf. 195. 

mdhsa n., flesh. 

mdtr f., mother. 

madhurya n., sweetness. 

mdnava m., man (homo). 

manasa n., sense; understanding. 

mdnusa, f. -£, human. 

marga m., road, way, street. 

mfl/« f., garland. 

fflajB m., month. 

mitra n., friend. 

mitradruh (249) a., friend-be- 

mina m., fish. 

tfmtl (milati) wink; + ni close 
the eyes. 

muktd f., pearl. 

mukti f., salvation, deliverance. 

mukha n., mouth, face. 

mukhya a., principal, first. 

\/muc (muncdti: 110) free, release; 
muktvd, without (312). 

]/mud (modate) rejoice; h anu 


muni m., sage; ascetic. 

[' mus (musndti) steal, rob. 

musala m. n., club, pestle. 

\/muh (muhyati) be confused or 
dazed or stupid. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


murdhaga a., on the head. 

murdhan m., head. 

mula n., root. 

\'mr (mriydte: 155) die; caus. (md- 

rdyati) kill. 
mrga m., wild animal; gazelle. 
\lmrgaya (den.: mrgdyate) hunt 

for, seek. 
mryayd f., chase, hunting. 
y/mrj (rndr&ti: 423) rub, wipe; 

caus. (mdrjdyati) rub off, polish; 

h apa, pari or pra, wipe off. 

mrta, part, of mr, dead, fallen. 

mrtyu m., death. 

»nrrf f., earth, dirt. 

mekhala f., girdle. 

megha m., cloud. 

moksa m., deliverance; salvation. 

»<o/ja m., infatuation. 

ya (231) rel. pron., used as subst. 
and adj., who, which, what; cf. 
234 ff. 

V yaj (ydjati, -te) sacrifice (ace. 
pers., instr. rei); caus. (ydjd- 
yati) make to sacrifice, offer sa- 
crifice for (ace). 

yajus n., sacrificial formula, text. 

yajna m., sacrifice. 

yajniya a., suitable for sacrificing. 

y'yat (ydtate) strive after (dat.). 

yatas adv., whence; wherefore. 

yati m., ascetic. 

yatna m., exertion. 

yatra adv., where, whither. 

yathd adv., in which way ; as. 

yadd adv., when, if. 

yadi adv., if. 

•\Jyam (ydechati: 100) furnish, give ; 

Perry, Sanskrit Primer. P* 

(- ud undertake ; \- ni or- 
dain, fix, appoint. 

yamundf., n. pr., the river Jumna. 

yavana m., Greek, barbarian. 

yapas n., glory, fame. 

yasti f., stick, staff. 

\' yd (ydti) go; with abstracts, 
come into such and such a state; 

— + a approach. 

ydtrdt, march, journey ; support. 
ydma m., watch of the night. 
ydvant a. , how much or many ; 

ydvat as adv., as long as, while; 

as soon as. 
yuga n., age of the world. 
yugma n., pair. 
Vyuj (yundkti, yunkte) join, yoke, 

harness; caus. (yojdyati) idem; 

h ni place, appoint, establish ; 

— + pra arrange ; use. 
yuddha n., battle. 

\yudh (yudhyate) fight (instr.). 
yuvati f. to yuvan. 
yuvan (269) a., young; f. yuvati. 
yusmad called stem of yuya?n; as 

stem in cpds. (352, 4.), you. 
yupa m., sacrificial post. 
yuyam (226) pron., you. 

yraks (rdksati) protect. 

raksana n., protection. 

raksitr m., protector. 

y'rac (racdyati) arrange, compose 

(a literary work). 
rajju f., cord, 
j ranj + anu (anurdjyati , -te) be 

inclined or devoted to Hoc). 
rana m. n., battle. 
ratna n., jewel. 



I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

ratha m., wagon. 

rathya f., street. 

\/rabh (rdbhate) grasp; — -fa 
take hold on, begin. 

\/ram (rdmate) amuse oneself; — 
+ vi (virdmati) cease (abl.). 

rapmi m., ray ; rein. 

rasa m., taste, feeling. 

raxavant a., tasteful. 

raksasa m., demon. 

\/rdj (rdjati, -te) direct, rule; 
shine; be illustrious. 

rajan m., king. 

rajya n., kingdom. 

ratri f., night. 

\' rddh (radhnoti) succeed ; — -f apa 
do wrong. 

rdma m., n. pr., a hero. 

ramdyana n., a noted poem. 

ravana m., n. pr., a demon. 

rap m., heap. 

\iru (rduti: 410) cry, scream; — 
-f vi idem. 

\/ruc (rocate) please (dat., gen.). 

ruj f., sickness, disease. 

yrud (roditi: 429) weep. 

ruddha, part, of rudh , besieged, 
surrounded; suffused. 

\/rudh (rundddhi, runddhe) ob- 
struct, check, besiege; \- upa 


rudhira n., blood. 

}/ruh (rohati) rise, spring up, 
grow; caus. (roJidyati, ropdyati) 
make rise or grow, plant; — 
+ ava descend; — + a climb, 
mount, ascend ; — + pra grow 

ruksa a., harsh, rough. 

rupa n., form, beauty. 
rupaka n., gold-piece. 
rat (277) m., rarely f., possessions, 

rohini {., n. pr. 

laksa n., a hundred thousand. 

laksmi (276) f. , goddess of for- 

] lag (lagati) attach, hang, cling. 

laghu, f. -ghu or -ghvt, a., light; 
small, little. 

lanka f., n. pr., Ceylon. 

\ lap (lapati) prate; \- vi com- 

[ labh (Idbhate) receive, take; 
caus. (lambhdyati) make receive, 

lalata n., forehead. 

lavana n., salt. 

Jangala n., plough. 

labha rn., acquisition, gain. 

]/ likh (likhdti) scratch, write. 

]/ lip (limpdti) smear. 

\'lih (ledhi, lidhe: 427) lick; — 
+ ava idem. 

X'lunth (lunthdyati) + nis rob. 

\ ; lup (lumpdti) break to pieces; 
devastate ; plunder. 

j lubh (lubhyati) covet (dat, loc). 

lekhana n., writing, copying. 

loka m., world ; sing, and pi., 

lobha m., desire, avarice. 

loman n., hair. 

loha n., metal; iron. 

vahga m., race, family. 
vakra a., crooked, bent. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


vaksas n., chest, hreast. 

\/vac (vdkti: 415) speak, say; 
name; caus. (vdcdyati) make (a 
written leal) speak, i. e. read. 

vanij m., merchant. 

vatsa m., calf. 

I'vad (vddati) speak, say; — 
+ abhi in caus. (abhivdddyati) 
greet; — + vi (mid.) dispute, 

vadha in., killing, murder. 

vadhu f., woman ; wife. 

vana n., woods, forest. 

vanavdsin a., forest-dwelling. 

]/ vand (validate) greet, honor. 

\ ! vap (vdpati) scatter; sow. 

vapus n., body; figure. 

vayam (223) pron., we. 

vayas n., age. 

lvard m., suitor, bridegroom. 

2vdra m., choice, privilege; favor. 

Zvara a., best; better (w. abl. : 

vardha m., boar. 

varuna m., n. pr., a god. 

varna m., color ; caste. 

\ varnaya (varndyati) describe, 

vartin a., abiding, being. 

varsa n., year. 

vallabha a., dear. 

\ ra<; (vdsti) wish. 

\'vas (vdsati) dwell; \- ni in- 
habit, dwell ; V pra go away 

on a journey; — + prati in- 

vasati f., dwelling. 

vasu n., wealth, money. 

vasudeva m., n. pr. 

vastra n., garment. 

y'vah (ydhati) tr. , carry, bear; 
intr., proceed; flow; blow. 

vd encl., or. 

vac f., voice ; word. 

vdcya a., blameworthy, culp- 

vanijya n., trade. 

vata m., wind. 

vdnaprastha m., a Brahman in 
the third stage of his life. 

vapi f., cistern. 

vdyasa m., crow. 

vayu m., wind. 

vari n., water. 

vi adv., apart, away, out. 

vinca (334) a., twentieth. 

vincati (332) num., twenty. 

vincatitama (334) a., twentieth. 

vikramdditya a., n. pr., a king. 

\/vij (vijdti) tremble; h ud in 

caus. (udvejdyati) terrify. 

tu'tta n., possessions; wealth. 

\/vid (vetti; veda: 416 — 417) know, 
consider; caus. (veddyati) inform 
(dat.); h ni caus., idem. 

\/2vid (vinddti, -te) find, acquire. 

-vid a., knowing. 

vidya f., knowledge, learning. 

vidoans a., knowing, wise. 

vidvista pass. part, of vi-dvi§, 

vidhi m., rule, fate; Brahma. 

vidheya a., obedient. 

vinaya m., obedience. 

Btnfi prep., without (with instr. 
or ace, often postpos). 

vipaka m., ripening; recompense. 

vipra m., Brahman. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

vibhu, f. -bhvi, a. pervading, far- 
reaching; omnipresent, mighty. 

vivdha m., wedding, marriage. 

vivekin a., shrewd. 

[/vig (vigdti) enter; — + sam-d 
approach; — + upa seat one- 
self; 1- pra enter, penetrate. 

vig m. pi., people; the Vaicya- 

vigista part, of vi-gis, excellent, 

vigruta part, of vi-gru, famous. 

vigva (231) a., all (Vedic). 

vigvdsa m., trust, confidence. 

visa n., poison. 

visnu m., n. pr., a god. 

vihaga m., bird. 

vihita part, of vi-dhd, ordained. 

]/ lvr (vrnoti, vrnute) cover, sur- 
round ; 1- d cover ; r apa-d 

open ; f- vi explain ; manifest ; 

1- sam shut. 

\/ 2vr (vrnlte ; vardyati, -te) choose, 

vrka m., wolf. 

vrksa m., tree. ,^ 

yvrt (vdrtate) turn; exist, subsist, 
be, become; — +m return home; 

\-pra get a-going, break out, 

arise; continue; caus. (act.) con- 
tinue (trans.). 

vrtta n., conduct. 

vrttdnta ra. , state of affairs ; 

vrtra m., n. pr., a demon. 

rrddha part, of vrdh, old. 

]/ vrdh (vdrdhate) grow ; caus. 
(vardhdyati , -te) make grow; 
bring up. 

[ vrs (vdrsati) rain , give rain ; 
fig., shower down; overwhelm. 

veda m., science, knowledge; esp. 
sacred knowledge, holy writ. 

vedand f., pain. 

veddnta m. , a system of philo- 

vedi f., altar. 

vdi assev. particle, to be sure, in 
sooth; often untranslated. 

vdigya m., man of the third caste. 

vyanjana n., spice. 

yvyath in caus. (vyathdyati) tor- 

y'vyadh (vidhyati) hit, pierce. 

vyal'ika a., false, wrong. 

vyavahdra m., trial, law -suit; trade. 

vydkarana n., grammar. 

vydghra m., tiger. 

vyddha m., hunter. 

vyddhi m., disease, illness. 

vyddhita a., sick, ill. 

vyasa m., n. pr. 

\/vraj (vrdjati, -te) proceed; — 
-f wander forth ; become an as- 

vrana m., wound. 

vrata n., vow, obligation; duty. 

]/gans (gdnsati) praise; proclaim; 

\- pra proclaim. 

\'gak (gaknoti)be able; sometimes 

pass., cf. 322. 
gaka m., Scythian. 
gakata m., car. 
gakuntald f., n. pr. 
gankd f., hesitation. 
gata (332-333) n., a hundred. 
gatatama a., hundredth. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


gatru m., enemy. 

gabda m., sound, noise, word. 

y gam (gdmyati) become quiet, 
be extinguished, go out. 

gayyd f., bed, couch. 

gara m., arrow. 

garana n., protection. 

garad f., autumn; year. 

garlra n., body. 

garva m., n. pr., a name of Qiva. 

fafc/?a f., branch; edition, red- 

gdnti f., repose. 

j/pds (paste) command; rule; pun- 

gdstr m., governor, punisher. 

gdstra n., science; text-book. 

V'piArs (giksate) learn. 

gikhara m., summit. 

p?'ras n., head. 

firaa., beneficent, gracious; bless- 
ed; as m., n. pr., a god. 

gigu m., child. 

\' gis (gindsti) leave, leave remain- 
ing; — + ava remain over, sur- 
vive; — + ud idem; — +vi set 
apart, distinguish. 

gisya m., pupil, scholar. 

y gl (gete: 409) lie; sleep; — 
+ adhi lie asleep on (ace). 

git a a., cold. 

]/ guc (gocati) grieve, sorrow. 

guci a., pure, clean. 

gunahgepa m., n. pr. 

]/ gubh (gdbhate) be brilliant, shine. 

gubha a., good; splendid. 

\ ; gus (gusyati) dry up. 

gudra m., man of the fourth caste. 

gudratva n., condition of a Cudra. 

gura m., hero. 

grgala m., jackal. 

gem m. n., rest, remainder. 

gesa m., a fabulous snake sup- 
porting the earth. 

}/ gram (grdmyali: 131) become 

grama m., pains, trouble. 

grdddha n., oblation to the Manes 
(cf. in Voc. 16). 

}/ gri + d (dgrdyate) go for pro- 
tection, take refuge with (ace). 

grl f., luck, fortune, riches; as |>(ess 
n. pr., goddess of fortune ; as 
prefix to proper names, famous, 
honorable, etc. 

grlmant a., rich ; famous. 

\ ' gru (grnoti, grnute: 391) hear; in 
caus. (gravdyatf) make hear, i. e. 
recite, proclaim (ace. pers.). 

gruta part, of gru; as n., learning. 

gruti f., hearing; holy writ. 

greyas a., better; best; greyas as 
n., salvation. 

gvan (269) m., dog. 

gvagura m., father-in-law. 

gvagru f., mother-in-law. 

gvas adv., to-morrow. 

y gvas (gvdsiti : 429) breathe ; — 
■\-sam-d breathe gently: revive; 

\-vi be confident; trust (gen. 

or loc.). 

gveta a., white. 

sattringat (329) num., thirty-six. 
sadag'iti (329) num., eighty-six. 
sas (332) num., six. 
sasti (332) num., sixty. 
j saslha, f. -7 (334), a., sixth. 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

sodaca (332) num., sixteen. 

samyukta part, of sam-yuj, pro- 
vided with. 

sairwatsara m., year. 

sampaya m., doubt. 

sakrt adv., once. 

sakthan (sakthi: 275) n., thigh. 

sakhi (274) m., friend. 

sakhi f., female companion, friend. 

sajja a., ready. 

y sanj {sdjati ; sajjdte: cf. in Voc. 
22) hang on, be fastened on 

satkdra m., hospitality. 

sattra n., sacrifice. 

mtya n., truth, righteousness. 

\' sad (sidati) sit; settle down; be 

overcome or exhausted ; \- a 

approach; \-sam-d seat one- 
self; caus. (saddyati) meet, en- 
counter; \- ni sit down; — 

+ pra be favorable. 

sadd adv., always. 

sadrpa, f. -e, a., similar; worthy. 

sathdigdha a., doubtful; unsteady. 

samdhyd f., twilight. 

sant, part, of las, being, existing ; 
good ; as m., good man ; as f. 
satl, good woman, especially a 
widow who immolates herself. 

sapta (332) num., seven. 

saptati (332) num., seventy. 

saptadapa (332) num., seventeen. 

sabhd {., council, meeting, court. 

sam adv., along with; completely. 

samaksam adv., before, in the 
presence of (gen.). 

samartha a., capable, able. 

samagama m., meeting, encounter. 
samdja m., convention, company. 
samidh f., fagot. 
samlpa a., near; as n., vicinity, 

nearness, presence. 
samudra m., ocean. 
samunnati f. , height , elevation ; 

high position. 
sameta a., provided with. 
sampurna part, of lpr + sam, 

samyak adv., well, properly. 
samrdj m., great king; emperor. 
sarit f., river. 
sarga m., creation. 
sarpa m., snake. 
sarva (231) a., all. 
sarvatra a., everywhere. 
savitr m., n. pr., the Sun-god Sa- 

vitar; sun. 
l/saA (sdhate) endure, 
sa^a adv., together; prep., often 

postpos. , with , along with, 

sahacara m., companion; -l f., 

sahasa adv., suddenly, quickly. 
sahasra n., a., thousand. 
sahaya m., companion, helper. 
saksin m., witness. 
sddhana n., means, device. 
sddhu m., holy man, saint. 
sdman n., Vedic melody, song; 

pi., the Samaveda. 
sdmanta in., vassal. 
sdmpratam adv., at present. 
sdijam adv., at evening. 
sdrasa m., crane. 
smk m., lion. 

I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 


y sic (sincdti) drip, drop, moisten ; 

\-abhi anoint as king. 

yisidh (sedhati) repel; — +prati 

hold back; forbid. 
V 2sidh (sidkyati) succeed ; in caus. 

(sddhdyati) perform; acquire. 
sindhu m., n. pr., the Indus. 
siman f., border, boundary; out- 
su adv., well ; easy ; very. 
\ su (sunoti, sunute) press. 
sukha n., fortune, luck, happiness. 
sundara, f. -z, a., beautiful. 
sumanas a., favorably-minded ; as 

f., flower. 
surdpa m., drunkard. 
suvarna n., gold. 
suhrd m., friend. 
y su (sute) generate, bring forth; 

— +pra generate. 
sukta n., Vedic hymn. 
suta m., driver, charioteer. 
suda m., cook. 
surya m., sun. 
]/ sr (sdrati) flow; — -\-anu follow 

up; \-apa go away; in caus. 

(-sdrdyati) drive away. 
\/ srj (srjdti) let go, create; — 

+ ud let loose or out ; raise (the 

y srp (sdrpati) move ; — \-pra idem. 
srsti {., creation. 
setu m., bridge, dike. 
send f., army. 
y'sev (sevate) serve, honor; — + 

ni dwell; devote oneself to; 

sdinika m., soldier. 
sdinya n., army. 

soma m., the intoxicating ferment- 
ed juice of the Soma-plant. 

skandha m., shoulder. 

y stu (stduti: 411) praise. 

stuti f., song of praise; praise. 

| str (strnoti, strnute; strnati, 
strnite) scatter, strew ; — 4 upa 
scatter, bestrew. 

stena in., thief. 

stotra n., song of praise. 

strl (276) f., woman. 

y sthd (tisthati) stand, intr. ; be in 
or on, etc., be situated; caus. 
(sthdpdyati) put, place; appoint; 
stop; — + adhi mount, stand 
over; rule, govern; — + anu 
follow out, accomplish ; (cf. also 

p. 96, last note); 1- ud arise, 

rise (cf. Voc. 40); \- upa ap- 
proach, reach; — + pra mid., 
start off; in caus. (act.), send ; — 
+ sam in caus., cause to remain 

sthdna n., place, locality; stead. 

sthita part, of sthd; cf. 290, end. 

sthiti f., condition. 

}' snd (snati) bathe. 

sndtaka m., one who has perform- 
ed the ablutions customary at 
the end of religious pupilage. 

sndna n., bathing, bath. 

sndyu m., tendon, bowstring. 

snigdha part, of snih, affectionate. 

y snih (snihyati) feel inclined to, 
love (gen., loc). 

snusd f., daughter-in-law. 

y sprg (sprgdti) touch. 

ysprh (sprhdyati) desire (dat.). 

sma encl., slightly assev. ; often 
accompanies a present tense, 


I. Sanskrit-English Glossary. 

giving it the force of an histor- 
ical tense. 

y smr (smdrati) remember; think 
on ; call to mind ; teach ; esp. in 
pass, smaryate 'it is taught, i. e. 

smrti f., tradition ; law-book. 

sraj f., garland. 

srasjr m., creator. 

sva a., own ; one's own. 

V svanj (svdjate) embrace; \- 

pari (Cf. Voc. 21) idem. 

svadrq a., similar. 

y svap (svdpiti: 429) sleep. 

svapna m., sleep, dream. 

svayam pron., own self, self. 

svayambhu a., self-existent; asm., 
epithet of Brahma. 

svarga m., heaven. 

svasr f., sister. 

svddu a., sweet. 

svadhyaya m., private recitation 
of sacred texts. 

svdmin m., possessor, lord. 

svdiram adv., at pleasure. 

hata part, of han. 

y han (hdntix 419) kill; caus. (gha- 
tdyati), have killed; — + apa 
remove; — + abhi smite; — 

-1- sam-d wound; h ni kill; 

\-prati hinder; injure, offend; 

— + sam write. 

-han (283) a., killing. 

hanu f., jaw. 

hanumant m., n. pr., a monkey- 

hantr m., killer, slayer. 

hari m., n. pr., a god. 

harina m., gazelle. 
hala m. n., plough. 
havis n., oblation. 
hasta m., hand. 
hastin m., elephant. 
y lhd (jdhdli) abandon, give up; 
neglect. ChTytx^e (f <•**.) 

)/2hd (jihite: 438) move. 

]/hi (hinoti) send; \-pra idem. 

hi assev. particle, surely ; causal, 
for, because. 

\' hins (hindsti) injure, destroy. 

hita part, of ldlid; as adj., ad- 
vantageous ; as n., advantage. 

himavant a., snowy; as m., the 
Himalaya Mts. 

hma part, of \hd, abandoned; 
wanting in; w. instr., without. 

]/ hu (juhoti, juhute) sacrifice. 

hutabhuj (nom. -bhuk) m., fire. 

y hu see hvd. 

\ hr (Jidrati) take away ; steal ; 
plunder; — + apa idem; — + 
a act. and mid., fetch, bring; 

h ud-d cite, mention; h 

praty-a bring back; — + ud 
save, rescue. 

hrd (281) n., heart. 

hrdaya n., heart. 

y hrs (hdrsati, hfsyati) rejoice, be 
delighted; h pra idem. 

he interj., O, ho. 

hemanta m., winter. 

hrasvam adv., near by. 

\'hri (jihreti) be ashamed. 

hrl f., modesty, bashfulness. 

yhva (hvdyati) call ; in caus. (hvd- 
ydyati) have called ; — +d call, 

II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 


II. English -Sanskrit. 

abandon, to: tyaj; Ihd. 

able: samartha; galcya. 

able, to be: cak. 

according to : anu, postpos. 

acquire, to: labh ; dp. 

Acvins: acvindu, du. 

address, to: bru. 

adore, to: nam + pra. 

adorn, to: \kr + alam. 

advantage: hita n. ; kalyana n. 

adversity ; duhkha n. 

afraid, to be : bhl. 

afterward : tatas. 

again: punar. 

against : prati. 

age: vayas n. 

all: sarva; (entire) vicva. 

all-protecting: vicvapd. 

allow, to: jiid + anu. 

alms : bhiksd f. 

alone (adv.) : eva. 

also : api. 

altar: vedi f. 

although : api. 

always : sadd, nit yam. 

amuse oneself, to : ram. 

ancient: pur ana. 

and : ca, postpos. ; tathd. 

anger: kopa m.; krodha va. 

animal: tiryanc m. 

announce, to: Ivid+ni, caus. 

answer, to: bhds + prati. 
appoint, to: kip, caus.; yuj + ni. 
approach, to: gam + d; yd+d. 
argument (reason): vac f. 
arise, to: bhu; (get up) sthd+ ud. 
arm: bdhu m. 
army : send f. 
arrive, to: gam + d. 
arrow : gara m. ; isu m. 

Aryan: dvija m.; dvijdti m. 

ascetic : muni m. ; yati m. ; pari- 
vrdj m.; tapasvin m. ; — to be- 
come an a., vraj+pra. 

ashamed, to be: hrl. 

ashes: bhasman n. 

ask, to (inquire): prach. 

ask for, to: arthaya. 

assembly : sabhd f. ; parisad f. 

astronomy : jyotisa n. 

attain, to: labh ; 2vid; lac; dp; 
Qp -\-ava or pra. 

attainment : labha m. 

author: kartr in.; (of Vedic 
hymnns, etc.) drasfr m. 

axe; paracu m. 

bad : papa. \ V\ ^ w 
bank : tira n. 
banner: ketu m. 
barbarian : yavana m. 
bathe, to: ma. 


II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 

battle: rana m. n. ; yuddha n. 
be, to: bhu; vrt; (be situated) 

bear, to: bhr ; (bring forth) su; 

su +pra. 
bear : rksa va. 
beat, to: tad. 

beautiful: sundara; rupavant. 
beauty : rupa n. 
become, to: bhu; vrt. 
bee: alt va. ; madhulih m. 
beg, to : bhiks. 
begin, to: rabh + d. 
behind : pagcdt (w. gen.), 
behold, to: tks. 
Benares : kdfi f. 
bend, to: nam. 
benefit, to; lkr + upa. 
beseech, to: pad+pra. 
besiege, to: rudh; rudh + upa. 
best : crestha; jyestha. 
betake oneself, to: yd; cri + d. 
better : creyas ; jydyas. 
bind, to: bandh. 
biped : dvipad. 
bird : vihaga va. ; paksin m. 
birth : jdti f. ; janman n. 
black : krsna. 

blame, to: nind; lkr + tiras. 
blessed : bhagavant ; (as prefix) 

blood: rudhira n. 
blow, to (intr.) : vah. 
boat: ndu f. 
body: garira n.; vapus n. ; kdya 

m. ; (heavenly : sun, etc.): jyotis n. 
bone: asthan n. 
book: (manuscript) pustaka n.; 

(work) grantha m. 

born, to be: jan; jan + ud. 

both : ubha du. 

bow, to : nam. 

boy : bdla m. ; kumdra m. 

Brahman : brdhmana m. ; dro/'a m. ; 

drijdti m.; y/pra m. 
branch : Qdkhd f. 
brave: dhira. 
breast: «ras n.; vaksas n. 
bridegroom : uar« m. 
bring, to: m + a; hr + d. 
broad : prthu ; uru. 
brother: bhratr m. 
burn, to : dah. 
business: kdrya n. 
but: tu; kimtu ; punar. 

call, to: hvd; (name) vac; vad. 

capable: samartha. 

caste : jdti f. 

cattle : go va. pi. 

cease, to: gam; ram + vi. 

celebrated : vicruta ; crimant. 

chain : hdra m. 

charioteer; suta m. 

charm : kdnti f.. 

check, to: dam, caus. ; rudh. 

chest: vaksas it.; uras n. 

child: bdla m.; cicu m. 

choose, to: 2i\r. 

cistern : vdpi f. 

citizen : pdura m. 

city : nagara n. ; -j f.; pur f. 

cleverness: buddhi f. 

climb, to : ruA + a. 

close, to : lur + sam ; lcMa + apt. 

cloud: megha m. 

coachman: suta m. 

come, to: graw + a; ya + 6; t -f 

II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 


abhi or a; come out: gam + nis; 

yd + nis. 
command, to: dig+d; jnd+d caus. 
command : Txjnd f. ; nideca m. 
commit, to : car + a ; \kr. 
companion: sahdya m.; sahaca- 

ra m. 
company: samdja m. 
compose, to: rac. 
conduct: vrtta n. 
confine, to: rudh + ni. 
conquer, to: ji. 
consecrate, to: ni + upa. 
consider, to : cint ; Ivid. 
consort : patnl f. 
cook, to: pac. 
copying: lekhana n. 
cord, sacred: upavita n. 
count, to : ganaya. 
courageous : tejasvin. 
course: gati f. 
cover, to : \vr (mid.) ; \vr + sam 

cow: dhenu f. ; go f. 
cowherd: gopa m. 
create, to : srj. 
creator: dhdtr m.; srastr m. 
creature: prdnin m. ; jagat n. 
crescent: kald f. 
cross, to: tr. 
crow: vdyasa m. 
curds: dadhan n. 
cut, to: krt; chid. ■ t di,-?(i 

cut off, to : kft + ava; chid + ava. 

daily: nitya; (adv.) nityam ; pra- 

dancing: nrtta n. 

daughter: kanyd f . ; putri f . ; f/u- 

tor f. 

day: divasa m. ; rfma n. ; ahan n.; 

d. by d. : dine dine ; pratyaham ; 

a day and a night: ahordtra n. 
dead: mrta; vipanna. 
decide, to (settle) : nl + nis. 
deed : karman n. 
deity : devatd f. 
delicate: taruna. 
delight, to (tr.): tus, caus. 
deliverance : mukti f. 
demon: rdksasa m. 
depart, to : i -f apa. 
describe, to: varnaya. 
desire, to : lubh. 
destroy, to: bhanj. 
despise, to : man + ava ; bhu -f pari. 
determine, to: ci + nis or vi-nis. 
devoted: bhakta; snigdha. 
devotion: bhakti f. 
die: aksa m. 

die, to : mr ; i + pra ; pad + vi. 
difficult: durlabha; duskara. 
dig, to: khan. 
diligence: udyoga m. 
diligently: bhrcam. 
disappear, to : nac + vi. 
disease : ruj f. ; vyddhi m. 
dismount, to : ruh -f ava. 
disown, to: khyd -f- prati-d. 
dispute, to: vad + vi. 
distress, to : du. 
distribute, to : bhaj + vi. 
divine : divya. 
do, to: \kr ; car -f sam-a. 
domestic: grhya. 
dog : cvan m. ; cum f. 
door: dvar f. 


doorkeeper: dvdhstha m. 
dove : kapota m. 
draw, to: vah. 
drink, to: \pd. j.t<\ 
driver: suta m. 
drop, to: sic. 
drop: bindu m. 

dwell, to: Bvas; vas + ni; dwell 
on (fig.) : sanj. 

II. English-Sanekrit-Glossary. 

p. 7? 

ear: karna m. 

earth : prthivi f. ; bhu f. ; bhumi f. 

east, eastern : prdnc ; the E. : prdcl 

f., 8c. die. 
eat, to; ad; 2ac; bhaks; bhuj. 
eating: bhaksana n. 
eclipse, to : \kr + tiras. 
eight: asta. 
eighth: astama. 
eighty: aciti f. 
eightieth: acltitama. 
eldest: jyestha. 
elephant : gaja m. ; hastin m. 
eleventh : ekadaca. 
emerge, to : tr +• ud. 
eminent, to be: cubh. 
emperor: samraj m. 
encompass, to: Icr ; chid + ava. 
end: anta m. 
endure, to: sah. 

enemy : ari m. ; catru m. ; dvis m. 
enjoy, to: bhuj. 
enjoyment: bhoga m. 
enter, to : vie -f pra. 
entrancing : manohara. 
envoy: data m. 
entrust, to: Ida + pra. 
equip, to : nah + sam. 
eulogy: stotra n. 

even (adv.): api. 

every: sarva. 

evil (adj.): pdpa\ (subst. ) papa n. 

exceedingly: ati. 

explain, to: bru + vi\ \vr + vi; 

caks + vi-d. 
exterminate, to : chid + ud. 
eye: netra n. ; caksus n. ; aksan n.; 

locana n. 

face: mukha n. 

fagot : samidh f. 

fair: sundara. 

fall, to: pat; pat + ni ; fall to 

one's lot: r; fallen (killed): 

patita; mrta. 
fame : kirti f. ; yacas n. 
family: vahga m. 
famous: vicruta. 
fast (firm): drdha. 
fasten, to: bandh. 
fat: pina; pusta. 
father: janaka m. ; />?7r m. 
fault, to find : Ikr + tiras. 
faultless: anavadya. 
fear: bhaya n. 
field : ksetra n. 
fifth: pancama. 
fight, to: #«dA. 
filled: puma; sampurna. 
finally: ante. 
find, to: 2y»d. 
finish, to: dp + sam. 
fire: agni m.; hutabhuj m. 
firewood: samidh f. 
first: prathama; at first 

fish : tnatsya m. ; mina m. 
fit, to : «/w;'. 


II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 


five: paiica. 

flee, to : paldy. 

flit, to: bhram. 

flock : papu m. pi. 

flower: puspa n.; sumanas f. 

fly, to: pat; fly up : pat + ud. 

fodder : ghdsa m. 

foe: ari m. ; catru m. 

follow, to: <7a?w + anu; i + anw. 

fond, to be: tus. 

food : anna n. 

foot : pada m. ; pad m. 

force : bala n. 

foreign: para. 

forehead: lald{a n. 

forest: vana n. 

forest-dwelling: vanavdsin. 

form, to : lwd + nw. 

formula (sacrificial): yajus n. 

generous : ddtr. 

get, to: /aM; lac; dp. 

gift: dana n. 

gird, to: nah + saw*. 

girdle: mekhald f. 

girl : kanyd f. ; 2>a7a f. 

give, to: yam; Ida. 

giver: ddtr m. 

glance: drc f. 

glory : ktrti f. ; yacas n. 

go, to: car: yd; gam; i; go on 

(continue): vrt + pra. 
god : deva m. ; goddess : devl f. 
gold: suvarna n. 
govern, to: pas; rajyam kr. 
good: sddhu; sant. 
gracious: civa. 
graciousness : krpd f. 
grain : dhdnya n. 

fortune : crl f., often pi. ; goddess grammar : vyakarana n. 

of f. : crl f. 
forty: catvarincat f. 
four: catur. 
free, to: muc. 
friend: mitra n.; sakhi m.; su- 

hrd m. 
friend -betrayer : mitradruh. 
front: agra n.; in f. of: agre, 

samaksam (gen.), 
fruit: phala n. 
fruitful: phalavant. 
full: purna; sampurna. 

gain, to: ZaM. 
garden: udydna n. 
garland: «ao/a f. ; sraj f. 
gate: drar f. 
gather, to: ci + sam. 
gazelle: harina in. ; wroa m. 

grasp, to . grah. 

graze, to : car. 

great: mahant. 

great king: mahdrdja m. 

greater: mahlyas; adhika. 

greatly: bahu; bhrcam. 

greedy : lubdha. 

Greek: yavana m. 

greet, to : vand ; vad + abhi, caus. 

grieve, to: du. 

ground ; bhumi f. ; on the g. : adhas. 

grind, to: pis. 

guard, to: raks; gopdya. 

guest: athiti m. 

guilt: papa n.; enas n. 

hand: kara m.; pdni m.; hasta m. 
hang, to : sanj ; lag. 
happiness: sukha n. 


II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 

happy, to be: mud. 

hard to find : durlabha. 

harm, to : \kr + apa. 

hate, to : dvis ; dvis + pra. 

hear, to: gru. 

heart : hrdaya n. ; hrd n. 

heaven : svarga m. 

heavy : guru. 

hell : naraka m. 

here: atra; iha. 

hero : gura m. ; vtra m. 

hesitation: gankd f. 

high: ucchrita. 

high water: pura m. 

hold shut, to: Idha + apt. 

holy: sddhu. 

holy writ: gruti f. 

home (adv.); grham. 

honey : madhu n. 

honor, to: puj; nam; sev. 

hope: dgd f. 

horse: agva m. 

house : grha n. : master of the h., 

grhastha m. 
householder : grhastha m. 
house-priest : purohita m. 
how?: katham. 
human: mdnusa. 
hunter: vyddha m. 
hurl, to: 2as; ksip. 
husband: pati m.; bhartr m. 
hymn: swfcto n. 

injustice: adharma m. 
intelligence: buddhi f. 
iron: io^a n. 

I : aham. 

impart, to : Void + ni, caus. 
inclined, to be: snih. 
increase, to: vrdh. 
India: bharatakhanda m. 
initiate, to: ni + upa. 

jaw: hanu f. 

jewel : mani m. ; rafria n. ; bhu- 
sana n. 

kill, to : mr, caus. ; han ; Aan, caus. 

kindle, to: idh. 

king: nr/ja m.; nrpati m.; pa- 

rthiva m. ; ra/an m. ; bhubhuj 

m.; bhubhrt m. 
kingdom : rdjya n. 
know, to: lvid;jnd. 
knowledge: m'cfya f . ; jnana n. 

lament, to: Jap + tri. 

land: depa m. 

language: bhdsd f. 

last, at: ante. 

law: dharma m. ; w'dfo" m. 

law-book: «mrti f.; dharmagd- 

stra n. 
law-suit: vyavahdra m. 
lead, to: m. 
leader: netr. 
learn, to: #«?« + ava; Ivid; i + 

learned : vidvdhs ; pandita ; kugala. 

learning: wicfya f. 

leather: carman n. 

leavings: ucchista n. 

lesson: adhydya m. 

lick, to: &7t; fo'A + ara. 

life : jivita n.; ayws n.; carita n. 

light: jfyoft's n. 

light (not heavy): laghu. 

like: ioa. 

II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 


limb: afiga n. 

lion: sinha xa. 

lip : ostha m. 

listen, to: cru. 

live, to : jlv ; vrt ; an + pra. 

long: dirgha; (adv.) dram. 

look at, to: Iks + pra. 

lord: icvara m. ; pati m. 

lotus: padma m. n. 

love, to : snih. 

love, god of 1. : kama m. 

lanar mansion : naksatra n. 

maiden : kanyd f. ; bald f. 

maidservant: ddsl f. 

make, to: \kr. 

man (w>): nam m.; pumdns m.; 

purusa m.; (homo): jana m.; 

mdnava m. ; manusya m. ; wara m. 
mankind: jiawa m. pi. 
many: 5aAw; prabhuta. 
march, to: cal+pra. 
marriage: vivdha m. 
marry, to : rat + pari. 
master: bhartr m. ; pafi m. 
mat : Acta m. 
means: sddhana n. 
medicine: dusadha n. 
meet, to (intr.) : jam + sam (mid.), 
meeting: samdgama m. 
melted butter: ghrta n. 
mention, to : hr -f urf-a. 
merchant: vanij m. 
merit: punya n. 
mighty: balin; balavant; vibhu. 
milk, to: <iuA. 
milk: fcszra n.; payas n. 
mind: manas n.; waft" f. 
minister: mantrin m. 

misfortune: duhkha n.; a/»arf f. 

modesty: Art f. 

moisten, to: sic. 

monarch; samrdj m. 

money: dhana n.; rasu n. 

month: mdsa m. 

moon: candramas m.; candra m.; 
inaw m. 

mostly : bhuyas. 

morning, in the: prdtar. 

mother: mdtr f . ; amfta f. 

mother-in-law : cvacru f. 

mountain : giri m. ; parvata m. 

mouth : mukha n. 

much: prabhuta; bahu. 

mo-ithful : grdsa m. 

murder, to : mr, caus. ; han ; han, 

must: arh; cf. §320 and Exer- 
cise 30. 

name: ndman n. ; by n. : ndma. 
name, to: vac; vad; (reckon) 

neck: kan\ha xa. 
neglect, to: \hd. 
net : jala n. 
never: na kadd + api, cid, or 

news: vrttdnta m. 
night: rdtri f. 

no one : na ka + api, cid, or cana. 
north, northern: udanc ; the N. : 

wdw f., sc. dig. 
not: way ma. 
nothing: na kirn + api, cid, or 

now : adhund ; sdmpratam. 


II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 

O: he. 

obedient: vidheya. 

oblation : havis n. 

occur, to: drc, pass.; 2vid, pass. 

ocean : udadhi m. ; samudra m. 

offend, to: han+prati; Via. 

offering (sacrificial): havis n. 

old: vrddha; older: jydyas. 

omnipresent : vibhu. 

once : sakrt. 

one: eka. 

only: eva. 

opinion; mati f . ; mata n. 

or; vd, postpos. ; athavd. 

ordain, to: kip, caus. ; ldha + vi; 

ordained: vihita. 
order, to: jna + a, caus. 
other; anya; itara, apara. 
outskirts: siman f. 
overcome, to: 2pr. ».<^3 
overwhelm, to: vrs. 
own, one's own: sva. 
ox : anaduh m. 

pair: yugma n. 

palace: prdsdda m. 

parents: pitr, m. du. 

part : bhdga m. 

path : mdrga m. ; panthan m. 

pearl : muktd f. 

peasant: krslvala m. 

penance: tapas n.; prdyagcitta n. 

people : ./ana, pi. ; loka, s. and pi. 

perform, to: sidh, caus.; car; 

car + sam-d; (a sacrifice) tan. 
perfume: gandha m. 
perish, to: nac + vi. 
pestle: musala m. n. 
pierce, to: vyadh. 

pilgrimage: iirthayatrd f. 

pious: sddhu. 

place, to : ldhd ; dhd + sam-d. 

place: pada n.; deca m. 

plan : abhiprdya m. 

plant, to : ruh, caus. 

play, to : div. 

please, to: rue. pAl 

pleasure: sukha n. ; with p., pleas- 
antly: sukhena ; (wish, choice) 
icchd f. ; kdma m. ; at p. : sve- 

plough: larigala n.; hala m. n. 

plough, to : krs. 

plunder, to: lunth; hr ; lup, 

poem: kdvya n. 

poet: kavi m. 

point out, to; die. 

polluted, to be: dus. 

poor: daridra. 

possessions: dhana n. 

post, sacrificial: yupa m. 

pot: ghata m. 

pound, to : pis. 

pour, to: hu. 

power: bala n. 

powerful: balinj balavant. 

praise, song of p. : stutii. ; stotra n. 

praise, to: gam; stu. 

pray for, to : arth. 

prescription: ddeca m. 

presence: samlpa n. 

previous ; purva. 

priest: rtvij m. 

prince : kumdra m. 

property: vasu n.; dhana n. 

prosperity: bhuti f. 

protect, to : raks ; 2pd ; pa, caus. 
protection; carana n. 

II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 


protector : raksitr ra. 
punish, to: dandaya ; gas. 
punishment: danda m. 
put, to: stha, caus.; ldhd; yuj 
+ ni. 

quadruped : catuspad. 

quarter: pdda m.; (of the sky) 

dig f. 
queen: devl f. ; rajni f.; mahisl f. 

rain : vrsti f. 

rain, to (give rain) : vrs. 

raise, to (the voice) : srj + ud. 

ray: pdda m. ; ragmi m. 

reach, to: labh ; dp + pra. 

read, to: i + adhi; (aloud) path; 
vac, caus. 

realm : rajya n. 

receive, to: labh; grah; grah 
+ prati; Ida + a. 

recitation (private): svddhyaya m. 

recite, to: path; (tell) kath. 

reckon, to: ganaya. 

recompense, to : \kr + prati. 

reduced (in fortune): kslna. 

region: die f. ; deca m. 

rein : racmi m. 

rejoice, to: tus; mud. 

remember, to: smr. 

restrain, to : grah + ni. 

return, to : vrt + ni. 

rice : tandula m. 

reverence, to: nam\puj; ds + upa. 

reward : phala n. 

rich: dhanin; crimant; vasumavt 
(comp. and sup. sometimes va- 
sty as, vasistha). 

Perry, Sanskrit Piimer. 

riches: dhana n.; vasu n.; crii. ; 

rdi m. 
righteousness: satya n. 
right (subst.): dharma m. 
Rigveda: rgveda m.; rcas f. pi. 
rise, to (of sun, etc.): gam-\ ud; 

i + ud. 
river: nadi f . ; sarit f. 
road: mdrga m.; panthan m. 
rob, to: mus, lunth. 
root: inula n. 
rub, to : mrj ; wir;', caus. 
royal: raja-, in cpd. 
rule, to : stha + adhi ; Ig. 
run, to : d//a<; ; dru. 
running: dhdvana n. 

sacrament: samskdra m. 
sacrifice, to: yaj; (for some one) 

ya;', caus. 
sacrifice: yajna m. 
sacrificial formula : yajus n. 
sage: rsi m. 
sake of, for the: artha in cpd. 

(cf. 375, 3). 
salt: lavana n. 

salvation: muktii.; bhutii.; hitan. 
satiated : trpta. 
satisfy, to : trp, caus. ; (oneself) 

save, to : hr + ud. 
Savitar: savitr m. 
say, to : vad ; vac ; bru. 
scatter, to: 2kr. 
scholar: gisya: (learned man) 

pandita m. 
science: gdstra n. 
sea : udadhi rn. ; samudra m. 
seat oneself, to : sad + ni. 


II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 

second : dvitiya. 

see, to: pac; drc; ties; Iks + pra. 

seer: rsi m. 

send, to: sthd+pra, caus. 

servant: bhrtya m.; bhrtaka m. 

serve: sev. 

set, to: (place) \dhd; (intr., of 
sun, etc.)? 4- astam; gam + astam. 

shade: chdyd f. 

she, etc. : sd, f. of ta. 

shine, to : cubh ; rdj ; bhd + vi. 

ship : ndu f. 

shoe: updnah f. 

show, to: drc, caus. 

shrewd: patu. 

shut, to: \dhd 4- api; \vr + sawi. 

sick : vyddhita ; rugna. 

side: paksa m. 

sin : /?apa n. ; enas n. 

sing, to: 2gd. 

singing: gita n. 

sip, to : cam -f a. 

sister: swasr f. 

sit, to: sad\ sad + ni. 

situated, to be: vrt. 

six: sas. 

sixth : sastha. 

skilled: patu. 

sky: div f. ; die f. pi.; akdea n. 

slave: c/aso m. ; ddsl f. 

slay, to: wr, caus.; Aan. 

sleep, to: svap; ci. 

smell, to; ghrd. 

smite, to: hr + pra; han + abhi. 

so: *fo"; evam: tathd. 

soldier: sdinika m. 

some (pi.): eka pi.; some ■ ■ oth- 
ers: ke cit ' • ke tit. 

sometimes: kva tit. 

son : putra m. ; suta m. 

son-in-law : jdmdtr m. 

song: gir f . ; gita n.; (of praise) 

stotra n. ; stfwto' f. 
soul: dtman m. 
sow, to: vap. 
speak, to: vad: vac; bhds. 
spear: kunta m. 
speech: vac f . ; bhdsd f. 
spoon : juhu f. 
stand, to (intr.): sthd. 
state, to: 6rS. 
steal, to: cur; mm; lunth. 
steer: go m. 
stick: danda m. 

stone : drsad f. ; (precious) mani m. 
stop, to (tr.): rudh. 
strange (another's): para. 
street : rathyd f. ; mdrga m. 
strike, to: tad. 
strive, to : yat. 
strongest: balistha. 
study, to: i + adhi (mid.); 2as + 

subject: prajd f. 
such: idrc. 
suffering: duhkha n. 
suffused: ruddha. 
suitable: anurupa. 
summit: cikhara m. 
snn : bhdnu m. ; dditya m. 
survive, to : cis + ud. 
sweet: svadu. 
swift: dcu. 
sword: asi m. 

take, to: da + a; grah; grah + 

take place, to : jan; bhu 

II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 


take refuge, to: pad + pra. 

tasteful: rasavant. 

tax: kara m. 

teach, to: i + adhi, caus.; dig + 

teacher : guru m. ; dcdrya m. 
tear: agru n.; bdspa m. 
tell, to: kathaya; vad. 
temple: devakula n. 
ten : daga. 
tend to, to : kip. 
terrify, to: bhi, caus.; vij + ud, 

text-book: gdstra n. 
that: ta; ay am; asau. 
then : tadd. 
there : tatra. 
thereupon : tatas. 
thief: stena m.; caura m. 
think, to: tint; man; think on: 
smr; dhyd. 

third: trtiya. 

thirty: tringat. 

thirty-three : trayastringat. 

this: ta; ay am. 

thou: tvam. 

three : tri. 

threefold: trivrt. 

thrice: tris. 

thus: iti; evam; tathd. 

time : kdla m. 

to-day: adya. 

to-morrow: gvas. 

tongue : jihvd f. 

torment, to : pid; vyath, caus. 

touch, to : sprg. 

trade : vyavahara m. ; vdnijya. 

travel, to : vas + pra; sthd + pra 
n. (mid.). 

treasury : kom m. 

tree : vrksa m. ; taru m. 

tremble, to: kamp. 

true: satya; (faithful) bhakta. 

truth : satya n. 

twelfth: dcddaga. 

twelve: dvddara. 

twenty-eight : aMdvihgati. 

twenty-seven : saptavihgati. 

twice: dvis. 

twilight: sandhyd f. 

twine: bandh. 

two: dva. 

umbrella: chattra n. 
understand, to: gam -f- ava. 
unite, to (intr.) : gam + sam (mid.), 
untruth : anrta n. ; asatya n. 
upanisad : upanisad f. 
useful, to be: sev. 

vassal : sdmanta m. 

Veda: veda m. 

verse : gloka m. ; (of Rigveda) re f. 

vessel : pdtra n. 

victorious, to be:,;i. 

victory: jaya m. 

view (opinion): mati f. ; mata n. 

village: grama m. 

virtue : dharma m. ; punya n. 

visit, to : <7<zw + abhi. 

voice : vac f. ; gir f. 

wagon: ratha m. 
warrior: ksatriya m. 
wash, to: ArsaZ; «pff. 
water : jala n. ; ran n. ; ap f. pi. 
wave: vlci m. 




II. English-Sanskrit Glossary. 

wear, to : dhr, caus. ; bhr. 

weary, to become: gram. 

weave, to: granth ; bandh. 

wedding: vivdha m. 

weep, to: rud. 

west, western: pratyanc; the 

West: pratici f., sc. dig. 
what (rel.): ya. 
wheel: cakra n. 
when (rel.): yadd. 
when ? : kadd. 
whence?: kutas. 
where (rel.): yatra. 
where?: kva; kutra. 
which (rel.) : ya. 
which (of two) ? : katara. 
white: gveta. 
whither?: kva; kutra. 
who (rel.): ya. 
who?: ka. 
whoever : ya ka + api, cid or 

cana; often by rel. alone, 
whole: krtsna. 
why?: kutas; kasmdt. 
wicked: papa. 

wife : bhdryd f. ; nan f. ; patnl f. 
win, to : ji. 
wind: vdyu va. ; vdta ta. 

winter: hemanta m. 

wipe, to: mrj; mrj + apa or pari. 

wish, to: is. 

with: saha, w. inst.; or by instr. 

withered : mldna. 
without: vind (instr., ace), 
witness: saksin m. 
wolf: vrka m. 
woman: ndrt f. ; vadhu f . ; strl f. ; 

jay a f. 
woman-servant: ddsl f. 
wood: kdsthan.; (forest) vana n. 
word : vac f. ; gabda m. 
work : karman n. ; (literary) gra- 

ntha m. 
world: loka m.; jagat n.; bhu- 

vana n. 
world-spirit: brahman n. 
worship, to : _pfi;'. 
worthy: sadrga. 
wound, to : ksan. 
wreath : maid f. ; sraj f. 

year: samvatsara m.; varsa m. n. 
yoke, to: ^iy, caus. 
yonder: tatra. 
young: yuvan. 


Hindu Names of Letters. 

The Hindus call the different sounds, and the characters re- 
presenting them, by the word kara ('maker') added to the sound 
of the letter, if a vowel, or to the letter followed by a, if a con- 
sonant. Thus, a (both sound and character) is called akdra ; u, 
ukara; k, kakara; and so on. But sometimes kara is omitted, and 
a, u, ka, etc., are used alone. The r, however, is never called ra- 
kara, but only ra or repha ('snarl'). The anusvara and visarga 
are called by these names alone. 

Modern Hindu Accentuation of Sanskrit. 

In the pronunciation of Sanskrit almost all Brahmans employ, 
with insignificant variations, an ictus-accent, which is quite different 
from the older musical accent (svara) described in Indian and 
European grammars, and employed nowadays exclusively in the rec- 
itation of the Yeda The older system, moreover, as marked in 
the Vedic texts, has been subjected to very considerable modi- 
fications by the Hindus in the traditional recitations of the Vedic 

The modern ictus-accent is weaker than that of English. The 
more important rules governing its use are as follows: 

1. a. In primitive verbs and derivatives from them the root- 
syllable is usually accented, b. But the accent never goes further 
back than the fourth place, and seldom back of the third. It may 
rest on the third syllable only if the penult be short; on the fourth, 
only if both antepenult and penult be short; thus, kdranam, kdranat, 
but karanena ; bodhati, kxipasi, nflvyatha, but bodhdvah, ksipdmah, 
napydnti; duhitd, duhitaram, but duhitfndm. 

2. Derivatives from nouns generally retain the accent of the 

230 Appendix. 

primitive, with the limitations given in 1. b.; thus, rdnku, rankava; 
gdrga, gdrgyah, but gargyayani. A naturally short vowel in the 
penult, if followed by a group of consonants containing y or u, 
does not generally become long by position; thus, prdbala, prdba- 
lyam; ukta, uktatvat. 

3. In verbs and verbal derivatives joined with prepositions, in 
augmented and reduplicated forms, and sometimes in declensional 
forms, the accent is recessive, if the root or stem-syllable be short ; 
thus, dgamat, dnatam, anusthitam, but utkfstam, niruktam ; dgamat, 
dksipat, but bibhdrti, tustdva,jagdu. Polysyllabic prepositions, when 
prefixed to other words, retain their own accent as secondary accent; 
thus, upagacchati, upagdmatdm. 

4. In compounds, unless the first member be a monosyllabic 
word, each part generally retains its own accent, but that of the 
principal member is the strongest ; thus, rdjapurusam, pdrvatagi- 
khardkaram ; but unmukham, diggajam, pragisyam. 

The division of syllables is much more apparent in Sanskrit 
than in English. In reading Sanskrit prose the Hindus generally 
drop into a sort of sing-song recitativo. Verses are always chanted. 

Corrections and Additions. 

P. 10. At end o/§ 38 add: The four semivowels are always sonant. 
P. 27. Add to § 102 : The final ^S({ a of the root is shortened in 

the reduplicated stem, except in the first persons. — Add 

to § 103 : In the dual and plural of all declensions the 

vocative is like the nominative. 
P. 31. Add to § 112.5: It is also used as terminus ad quern. 
P. 39, 1. 7. For: makes some forms with short If a read: makes 

also forms according to the unaccented a - class : thus, 

^rTf?T bhrdmati etc. 
P. 40, 1. 7. At beginning of line insert: the. 
P. 43, Vocab., s. v. tj pr. After: overcome insert: (evils). 
P. 49, Vocab., s. v. ifj^ + ^n^. After: meet insert: (w. instr.). 
P. 53, 1. 9 from below. After 'WSffi insert : \ <\. 
P. 56, 1.10. For: besought read: beseech. — L. 11. For: were 

read: are. 
P. 59. At end of § 188 add: The impf. pass, is similarly inflected. 
P. 60, 1. 19. For: pratisedati read: pratisedkati. 
P. 65. Dele the first word (the) of the page. 
P. 70, 1. 10 from below. Bead: accompanied. 
P. 72, 1. 12. After: are insert: so. 
P. 73, 1. 9 from below. For: «nT« read: ^TH- 
P. 74, 1. 7. After: saved insert: (ud-hr: cf. § 267). 
P. 87, 1. 12. Bead: Final ^ and ^ of a stem regularly become. 
P. 90, last line. Bead: possessive. 
P. 117, 1. 6. For: T^TT read: Trf^fSTT. 

P. 119, Vocab. Insert in last line: + ^r^— "^JT come together, join. 
P. 126. Add to § 329 the following: Note also: $1<^3| 12, etc., but 

for 82 only gnftf?!; ^ftf^lTfTT 23, WM*K 33 > for 

83 only ^nfffil; ^H #i M^RujfH 26, etc.; ^TTT- 

f^hrfa 2#, ^Tf^nrct 38, ^anflOi 88. 

Corrections and Additions. 

P. 135, 1. 5. For: ^^ read: 41 <*R . 

P. 137, 1. 2. Bead: yrWTf fi Pft- 

P. 138, 1. 1'2. Z)eZt! ^fcrfST 'firm in battle'. 

P. 180, 1. 17. For: f^rf^ read: f%f^. 

P. 182, 1. 1. For: fM5*rf read: fafacQ. 

P. 186, 1. 1. .Kead: ^T^fff. 

P. 190, 1. 6. For: suffix read: suffice. 

P. 192, 1. 13 from below. For: qf^jM^ read: \*1$ \ \ . 

P. 196, col. 1. S. v. \fi, insert: + sam-d come together, join. 

P. 197, col. 1. Insert: rsabhadatta m., n. pr. 

P. 199, col. 1. S. v. \/gam, insert: + upa-a come near. 

P. 205, col. 2, 1. 2 from below. Read: ]< lpr (piparli; caus. purdyati) 
fill. Also insert in Vocab.: j/2 pr (pardyati) overcome 
(evils); prevail. 

P. 207, col. 2, 1. 5. Read: bhiksa f., begging, alms. 

P. 208, col. 1, 1. 2. Read: \/bhram (bhrdmati, -te; bhramyati: 131). — 
Col. 2, 1. 11. Read: Greek w ; cf. 195, 486. — L. 9 from 
below. After: release insert: let fly. shoot. 

P. 209, col. 2, 1. 2. Insert: + pra give, give in marriage. — S. v. 
\/yuj + ni, add: caus. set (as jewels). 

P. 212, col. 1, 1. 5. Insert: + pra idem. — Col. 2,1.15 from below. 
Read: + pra wander forth. L. 9 from below. Read: 

+ pra idem. 

P. 214, col. 2, 1. 9. Read: sameta (| i + sam-a) a., followed by, pro- 
vided with. 

F * "I " 7P /*<V*4 



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