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. I. Crow ley 
University of Maine 
Orono, Maine 









Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 
















THE results of comparative philology are now so generally incorporated 
into our modern classical grammars, lexicons, and text-books, that even a 
slight knowledge of Sanskrit, if it be accurate so far as it goes, is of great 
service to the classical teacher in making his instruction interesting and 
effective. As independent disciplines, moreover, Sanskrit and comparative 
philology, and the literatures and religions of India, are constantly gaining 
in importance, so that, for example, Sanskrit is now taught at all but one of 
the twenty universities of the German Empire. 

The design of this work, then, is twofold. In the first place, it is to 
serve as an introduction to these subjects for the students of our colleges 
and universities. The excellent Chrestomathy of BOEHTLINGK has no 
vocabulary ; and few persons can be expected to buy the costly dictionaiy 
of WILLIAMS or that of BOEHTLINGK AND ROTH, at the outset, when the} 7 
are uncertain whether Sanskrit will be of sufficient interest or use to them 
to warrant their continuing its study. What the beginner needs is an 
elementary work comprehending both text and vocabulary in a single 
volume. And accordingly, this Reader is meant to furnish ample material 
for about fifty weeks' reading, in a course of three hours a week, and, 
with the text, the appropriate lexical apparatus. The Reader is made as 
a companion- volume to WHITNEY'S Sanskrit Grammar, and these two books 
supply all that is needed for the first year's study. 

This Reader is designed, in the second place, to render a knowledge of 
Sanskrit accessible to the classical teachers of high-schools, academies, and 
colleges. These teachers, if they pursue this study at all, usually do so 
without the aid of an instructor. And it is especially the requirements of 
unaided private study that I have taken constant pains to meet. I state this 
fact thus explicitly, because, both here at Cambridge, and during my con- 
nection with the Johns Hopkins University (where the plan for this work 
was formed) , numerous inquiries for such a book have been addressed to me 
by persons very remote from any of the higher institutions of learning. 

If, incidentally, this work should help to correct some of the false 
notions which are prevalent respecting the relations of Sanskrit to other 
languages of the Indo-European family, and to save the literature from 

undue depreciation and from exaggerated praise, it will have served a 
worthy object. 

So cumbrous or so meagre have been hitherto the appliances for acquiring 
even a moderate knowledge of Sanskrit, that classical students, when seeking 
such knowledge as an auxiliary to their special work, have found the labor 
discouragingl}' great. These students unquestionably have a legitimate and 
sufficient reason for undertaking Sanskrit, and I venture to hope that the 
difficulties of the beginning (see p. xv) have been so materially lessened 
that they will now find even a modicum of Sanskrit well worth the trouble of 

In making my selections 1 from the various Sanskrit writings, I have had 
two practical aims in view : first, to provide abundant material for thorough 
drill in the language of the classical period ; and, secondly, to furnish a 
brief introduction to the works of the Vedic period, Mantra, Brahmana, 
and Sutra. Accordingly I have not sought to give any thing new, but 
rather that which is best suited for beginners. The easy Nala is the 
Xenophon's Anabasis of Sanskrit students, and quotations from it appear 
very often in the grammars. And the first five chapters here given form a 
complete story. For an elementary reader, the Hitopadea is unrivalled, 
and to leave it out would have been an inexcusable omission, unless, indeed, 
its place were taken by the Panchatantra. From this latter work I attempted 
to prepare some selections ; but the text is in so unsatisfactory a condition, 
that I relinquished the plan. And so, although the Hitopadega has been 
printed very often, I have given a considerable part 2 of it here, choosing the 
fables on the ground of their intrinsic excellence and their interest as 
originals of well-known occidental stories. 3 For similar reasons the six 
tales from the Katha-sarit-sagara were selected. On account of their easy 
style and simple narrative, they furnish admirable matter for exercise in rapid 
reading. The selections from " Manu" are so made as to illustrate some of 
the most important and interesting matters of Hindu custom and belief. 4 

Among the Vedic hymns (or Mantra-material) are, first, some of the 
easiest 5 ; then some taken on account of their poetic 6 or dramatic 7 merit, or 

1 These include 68 pages of classical San- which was appealed to as scriptural author- 
skrit and 37 pages of Vedic Sanskrit. ity for the practice of widow-burning. Com- 

2 Nineteen fables : there are forty-three pare also the notes on 28 28 , 57 3 , and 65 9 ff., 
in all. with those on 65 6 , 91 16 , and 97 2 respec- 

8 See the introductions to the fables in tively. 

the Notes. 5 Such are selections xxxi. (Rigveda i.l), 

4 Compare the table of contents. The xxxiii., xxxviii., xxxix., xli., xlv.,xlvi., andlix. 

text-selections are intended to be mutually 6 Selection xxxii. is the best, 

illustrative as far as may be. Thus the 7 Selections xxxv., xxxvii., and Ivi. are in 

passage 64 8 ff. is given for its interesting dramatic form (see WHITNEY, page xviii). 

bearing on Rigveda x.18.7 (86 n ), the verse and are among the most difficult. 


their ethical interest l ; and finally some taken because of their historical im- 
portance. 2 For the most part, a repetition of the hymns given by DELBRUECK 
and by BOEHTLINGK in their Chrestomathies has been avoided. The 
Brahmana pieces are chosen in such a way as to show the relation of this 
kind of literature to the hymns or Mantras. 3 The selections from the 
Grihya-sutras are the two most interesting chapters of Indian private 
antiquities, the wedding and the burial service. These texts are, to a 
certain extent, rubrics, and prescribe that numerous specified stanzas of 
the Rigveda be repeated at these ceremonials. Care has therefore been 
taken that all the stanzas here cited by their first words should be given 
in full among the selections from the hymns. 4 

Concerning the text, little need be said. It would have been either 
folly or idle pretense to make elaborate text-studies for the short extracts 
of which the Reader is composed. 5 I have accordingly contented myself, 
in the main, with reprinting the text of the best editions. Misprints have 
of course been corrected, and I have endeavored to make the orthography 
conformable to the best standard 6 and consistent throughout. 7 Of some 
slight emendations, due mention will be made in the Notes. For the Nala, 
I followed the edition of BUEHLER in his Third Book of Sanskrit 8 ; for 
the Hitopadega, the text of BOEHTLINGK in the second edition of his 
Chrestomathy, 8 and MUELLER ; for the Katha-sarit-sagara, BROCKIIAUS ; 
and for " Manu," LOISELEUR DESLONGCHAMPS. I regret that the results 
of the studies of BUEHLER, BURNELL, HOPKINS, and JOLLY on the text of 
" Manu" are not yet available. 

1 Such are the Varuna-hymns, selections from Rigveda x. 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 53, 154, 
xliii.-xlv. and 155 (selections xlix.ff.), and i. 97 (selec- 

2 Such are the hymns for the dead and tion xxxiv.). This last hymn is mere trash, 
the wedding-hymn ; likewise selection xxxvii., and would not have been included among 
and selection xxxvi. (which contains the the texts, had not A9walayana (at iv.6.18) 
Savitri). Selection Ixii. is the Maitrayani prescribed that it be used as a burial-hymn ; 
version of the Hiranya-garbha hymn, Eig- but I could not allow room for the " Sun- 
veda x. 121, and is given partly in order that hymns" (sauryani) and the "Blessings" 
those who possess copies of the Rigveda (svasty-ayanani), which are also mentioned 
may study the two versions comparatively, at iv.6.18. 

3 Thus the Brahmana selections Ixvi., 5 See A. WEBER, Indische Studien, ii. 151. 
Ixvii., Ixviii., and Ixxii. stand in connection G Especially in the use of anusvara and of 
with the Mantra selections Ivi., xlvii., Ixii., the nasal mutes, of b and of 5. I have 
and xlvi. respectively. written ccb. where WHITNEY (see 227) 

4 The stanzas required for the wedding writes ch. 

ceremonial are given in selections Iviii., Ivii., 7 But some of the interesting orthograph- 

and lv. From this the student will see why ical peculiarities of the Maitrayani Sanhita 

there are some selections consisting of only I have allowed to stand, 

one or two stanzas. The burial-stanzas are 8 See the " Brief List," page xvii. 


It is a pleasant duty to acknowledge my thanks to BOEHTLINGK, who, in 
a way no less generous than unexpected, volunteered to look over all the 
proofs of the classical part of the text. For the well-established and well- 
edited Vedic texts, such help was of course not needed. 

For the Rigveda, AUFRECHT'S second edition was made the standard. 
For the selections from the Maitrayanl Sanhita, I am indebted to the kind- 
ness of its editor, 1 Dr. LEOPOLD VON SCHBOEDER, of Dorpat. The extracts 
from the Brahmanas naturally follow the editions of WEBER and AUFRECHT. 
The chapters from Acwalayana are a reprint from STENZLER'S edition, witt 
some unimportant t} T pographical licenses. 

The vocabulary, it is almost needless to say, is based on the great Lex- 
icon of BOEHTLINGK AND ROTH. I should of course deviate from it only 
with the utmost circumspection ; but I trust that I have not followed it 

As for the extent of the vocabulary, it is designed to be complete for 
the text given in the Reader, and also, it may be added, for the text in the 
Appendix to the Grammar. 

It is proper to mention here several matters touching the general plan of 
the vocabulary. It is not a mere list of the actually occurring Sanskrit 
words with their English equivalents. So far as possible, it aims to do with 
thoroughness two things : 

First, as regards the forms, To enable the student to trace every word 
back to its root, by giving references to WHITNEY'S chapters (xvi. and 
xvii.) on word- formation, and by giving the root itself, and, in the case of 
secondary and tertiary derivatives, the intermediate forms, even when these 
do not occur in the text at all. Thus, for the complete explanation of 
mithyopacara (p. 217), are given, first, mithya, then the older form thereof, 
mithuya, 2 then the adjective mlthu from which the adverb is derived, and 
finally the root mith, although neither the adverbs nor the adjective nor 
an}- verbal form of the root occurs in the text. In like manner, car + upa 
is given solely on account of upacara. 

Secondly, as regards the meanings, To enable the student to trace every 
signification back to the radical idea, b}* giving not only the meaning 
required for translating a particular passage, but also, if this is a secondary 
or tertiary or later meaning, the intermediate meanings, and in their logical 
order of development. Thus the only meanings of the word pada, as it 

1 He gave them to me in manuscript, attention drawn to the peculiar form and 
before he himself began printing. accent of the adverb and will find the ex- 

2 By looking out the reference to 1112e planation thereof, 
(under mithu), the student will have his 


occurs in the text of this Reader, are ' foot' or ' leg,' in ten passages, and 
'verse of a three- versed stanza,' in one passage (60 12 ). The history and 
uses of the word may be clearly understood from BOEHTLINGK AND ROTH. 
The original meaning ' foot ' was extended to that of ' leg ' ; then specialized 
to the meaning ' limb of a quadruped ' ; then generalized to the meaning 
'quarter' (as, conversely, the English word quarter is specialized to the 
meaning 'fourth part of a quadruped, including a leg,' e.g., in quarter of 
beef} ; once more it is specialized to the meaning ' quarter of a four- versed 
stanza,' i.e. ' verse ' ; and then, at last, the use of the word is illogically 
extended, and it is made to denote a verse of even a three- versed stanza. 
To have given the meanings ' foot, leg, verse,' in three words, and perhaps 
in the order ' verse, leg, foot,' would have sufficed, it is true, for the purpose 
of making a translation ; but such translation demands of the student onl}' 
the most thoughtless and mechanical labor. On the other hand, by in- 
dicating briefly the development and connection of meanings, the attention 
of the student is directed to the processes which are constantly going on 
in the life and growth of language ; and thus, although Sanskrit is a dead 
language, the study of Sanskrit may be made a study of life and growth. 

The illustration of the transitions of meaning by analogies from the 
English and other familiar tongues would, it seemed to me, greatly increase 
the interest and usefulness of the vocabulary. And so, considerable space 
has been devoted to this matter. Thus under vyama (p. 254, top) , ' a 
stretch-out,' i.e. ' a fathom,' are adduced the closely parallel English fathom, 
from Anglo-Saxon /ceSm, ' the extended arms,' and also opyvid and French 
toise, both meaning ' fathom,' and of common origin respectively with 6/>eyw 
and Latin tender e, ' stretch.' 1 

In a book intended partly for persons whose chief interest in Sanskrit 
is from the side of its relations to the classical languages and to our mother- 
tongue, etymological comparisons are plainly called for. Accordingly, the 
kindred words from the Greek, Latin, Anglo-Saxon, and English have been 
given, 2 and alwa}*s along with their meanings. It is hoped that these com- 
parisons, presenting, as they do, many familiar words with which the learner 
can associate what is new and strange, will prove a useful aid to the mem- 
ory. Et} T mology is a subject in which there is large room for reasonable 

1 For other parallels, compare, for exam- to find how these words are parallel in 

pie, abharana, barhis, bhavana, vanga, specialization and metaphor. On this sub- 

varna. Sometimes the understanding of ject in general, compare CURTIUS, Grund- 

the parallelism depends on a knowledge ziige b , pp. 111-116, and BRINKMANN, Die 

of the etymology of an English word ; thus Metaphern, Bonn, 1878. 

under root nud + vi, are adduced the Eng- 2 To give them without their meanings 

lish di-vert, dis-port, and s-port, and a refer- and without showing the connection of 

ence to SKEAT'S dictionary or to WEBSTER'S ideas is, for an elementary book, a useless 

may be necessary for the student, in order task. 


difference of opinion on matters of detail, and on such matters well-recognized 
authorities often disagree. I have tried to use the standard works of refer- 
ence in the light of the best and latest etymological criticism at my command, 
and to distinguish with care between what is certain and what is mere conjec- 
ture. In the revision of the greater part of my manuscript for the press, I 
had the benefit of KLUGE'S valuable dictionary. 1 His acceptance of the cur- 
rent comparisons has often given me assurance, and his sober judgment has 
often confirmed me in scepticism or silence on doubtful points. In the 
numerous cases where the undoubtedly allied words are too many to be 
given in full, I have usually selected those forms which were the simplest 
or the most interesting, or those whose kinship was clearest. 2 

These comparisons include only genuinely cognate words, as distinguished 
from borrowed words ; the latter have as a rule been excluded, or, if given, 
have been characterized as borrowings. 3 Thus eras, Latin sen-ex, and 
English sen-green are given on page 266, all as genuine cognates of sana; 
the words senate, senator, senatorial, senescent, senile, senility, senior, sire, 
sir, seigniorage, etc., are not mentioned, because they are not genuine 
English cognates, but only more or less ancient borrowings or more or less 
direct derivatives from the Latin. 4 So under the root srp (p. 276) are given 
Latin serpens and reptilis, and it would be superfluous to add the borrowed 
English serpent and reptile. 

The accents of all words have been regularly marked in the headings of 
the articles, so far as the accents are known from the occurrence of the 
words in any accentuated texts of the literature. 5 But in addition to these 
words, the verb-forms immediately following the root have been uniformly 
accented, according to the rules, except in a few doubtful cases ; and a 
number of compounds occurring on the pages of Nala have been accented, 

1 Entitled Etymologisches Worterbuch der 6 For these accents I have relied on 
deutschen Sprache. Strassburg, Karl J. BOEHTLINGK'S Sanskrit-Wdrterbuch in Kiirz- 
Triibner. 1883. Royal 8. Price 10 Mark erer Fassung as far as it has appeared, i.e. 
50 Pfennige. to the end of bh, and for the rest of the 

2 Thus under sana (p. 266) might have alphabet, on the great thesaurus of BOEHT- 
been given, in addition to Latin senex, the LINGK AND ROTH. There are many words 
words senior, senectus, senilis, senesco, senator, accented in more than one way (e.g., rajya, 
senatus, etc. ; but these are readily suggested rajyk, rajya, asana, asana, daridra, dar- 
by senex. idra, daiva, daiva, bhuti, bhuti, vrsti, 

8 Thus the interesting compound sene-schal vfsti, vend, v6nu) ; such have generally 

is added under sana, not as a genuine Eng- been left unmarked ; but of a few common 

lish cognate, but as a borrowing through words like manu, dvipad, pati, papa, and 

the French from Continental Germanic, mati, the prevailing accent is given, espe- 

where its first member is indeed a genuine cially, if (as in the case of bhrti or patrl) 

cognate. the other accent is rare, or (as in the case 

4 Compare note 2 , above. of gtiska) not authenticated. 


according to the rules, in order to make more tangible the difference between 
homonymous determinatives and possessives. 1 

What form should be given to the headings of articles is often a question. 
For denominative verbs, I have chosen the stem-form (e.g., mantraya rather 
than mantray) ; to this is prefixed the root-sign (V), merely in order to 
catch the eye ; the sign must not be understood as meaning that such stems 
are in any wise co-ordinate with roots. The stems of the perfect active 
participle and of the primar}' comparatives are given as ending in vans and 
yans, but without any implication that these are theoretically better than the 
weaker forms. Roots with medial or final ar or r are given in the latter 
form, and so are the stems in ar or r. 2 

The synopses of conjugational forms which follow each verbal root are 
based on the collections, still in manuscript, made by Professor WHITNEY. 3 
These were placed at my disposal by him with the greatest kindness. They 
include all the verb-forms cited by the St. Petersburg Lexicon and BOEHT- 
LINGK'S Abridgment, as occurring in the actual literature, besides very 
extensive gleanings made independently by Professor WHITNEY from texts 
represented in the Lexicon, 4 and from others published since its completion, 5 
or even not yet published. 6 In the description and classification of the forms, 
I have followed WHITNEY. It often happens that there are several forms in 
actual use for the same tense ; in such cases, the commonest one has been 
given, or else the one prescribed by the Hindu Root-book (dhatu-patha) , or 
sometimes more than one form. Although in the case of many roots the 
uorist is confined almost exclusively to the Vedic language, I have neverthe- 
less given the aorist in such cases in order to fill out the conjugational 
scheme, since this seemed desirable from a pedagogical point of view. For 
pedagogical reasons, also, the secondary conjugations have been for the 
most part omitted. Many roots which are conjugated regularly in only one 
voice show forms of the other voice in the Epos, especially where the metre 
demands them. It is very difficult to say just how far such forms should 
be included, and my course in accepting or rejecting them has been, I fear, 
not wholly consistent. 

The Notes, which form the third part of this work, will be issued as soon 
as is practicable. It is designed that they shall be as brief as possible, but 
shall render ample assistance in the interpretation of difficult passages and 

1 Compare bhimaparakrama and bhima- * For example, the C/atapatha and Aita- 
parakrama, p. 206. reya Brahmanas. 

2 See WHITNEY, 107 and 108, and com- 5 Especially GARBE'S edition of Apastam- 
pare 370. ba's Qrauta Sutra, and VON SCHROEDEK'S 

8 See Proceedings of the American Oriental Maitrayani. 
Society for May, 1882, p. xiii. 6 The Jaiminiya Brahmana. 


the explanation of allusions to the antiquities of India. The plan includes 
also concise literary introductions to the various selections. 

An open acknowledgment of my thanks is due to the printers of the 
vocabulary, Messrs. J. S. GUSHING & Co. They have performed their part 
with such intelligence, accuracy, and skill as to merit most cordial 

In conclusion, I desire to make public expression of my gratitude to my 
honored teacher, Professor WILLIAM D WIGHT WHITNEY, for his constant 
interest in this undertaking and for his generous aid. I can only hope 
that the book may do something to further the cause in which he has labored 
long and devotedly, and that it ma} 7 help to enlarge the scope of classical 
teaching, to quicken the interest in the history of our mother-tongue, and to 
make Sanskrit study among us increasingly fruitful. 

C. R. L. 



December, 1883. 


THE references to Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar which are given in Parts II. and 
III. of this book are, I believe, absolutely correct throughout for the first edition 
of the Grammar. The second edition of the Grammar did not appear until after the 
plates for Parts II. and III. of the Reader were made. The section-numbers of 
the second edition of the Grammar (see Whitney's Preface thereto) are substantially 
unchanged from those of the first; but there are some slight alterations, notably 
in the sequence from 98 to 108, and again in the sequence from 708 to 713 
(whereby the references to the section on the important verb cru are thrown out 
of gear). Occasionally, too, a statement has been taken from one section and put 
into another and more appropriate section: thus the euphonic treatment of bhos 
has been shifted from 176a to 174b. Moreover, the subsections are much 
more thoroughly marked (with a, b, c, etc.) in the second edition. Users of the 
second or third edition of the Grammar will often have to make a slight allowance 
for these changes, seeking, for example, 844 8 under 844a, 371 12 under 371k, and 
the like. It seemed hardly worth while to alter the plates to suit these changes ; 
a little practical common sense will usually offset the apparent inaccuracy. Men- 
tion of these matters has already been made by me below, in the Postscript, p. 405; 
but as it seems usually to be overlooked there, I have thought it well to repeat the 
mention in this more conspicuous place. C R L 

JUNE, 1903. 



Introductory suggestions xv 

Brief list of books for students of Sanskrit ..... xvii 


A. From the Maha-bharata. 


I. The story of Nala and Damayanti ....... 1 

B. From the Hitopadec,a. 

II. Preface and introduction 16 

III. The old tiger and the traveller 20 

IV. The deer and the crow, and the jackal ...... 23 

V. The blind vulture, the birdlings, and the cat 27 

VI. The ass, the dog, and the thief 30 

VII. The lion, the mouse, and the cat 31 

VIII. The crows and the serpent 31 

IX. The lion, the old hare, and the well 32 

X. The birds and the apes 33 

XI. The ass in the tiger-skin 34 

XII. The elephant, the hares, and the moon 35 

XIII. The blue jackal 36 

XIV. The two geese and the tortoise 37 

XV. The three fishes 38 

XVI. The herons, the serpent, and the ichneumons . . .39 
XVII. The hermit, and the mouse that was changed to a tiger . . .40 

XVIII. The heron, the fishes, and the crab 41 

XIX. The Brahman and his jar 42 

XX. The Brahman with the goat, and the three rogues . . . .43 

XXI. The Brahman and his faithful ichneumon 44 

C. From the Katha-sarit-sagara. 

XXII. King Putraka and the seven-league boots 45 

XXIII. Story of Mousey, the thrifty merchant 46 

XXIV. King Qibi, the falcon, and the dove ....... 48 

XXV. Story of Ahalya 48 



XXVI. The king who didn't know his Sanskrit grammar . 
XXVII. The pathetic history of the stories 

XXVIII. D. From the Manava-dharmac.astra.* 


. 49 
. 53 



The four ages of the world 

. 58 










E. From the Rigveda. 


i. 1 




Indra slays the dragon 

. 70 


i. 50 

To Surya, the Sun-god 

. 71 


i. 97 

To Agni ......... 

. 72 


i. 165 

Indra and the Maruts 

. 73 


iii. 62 

To Savitar ........ 

. 74 


iv. 42 

Indra contests the supremacy of Varuna 

. 75 


iv. 52 

To Ushas, the Dawn-goddess 

. 75 


v. 24 

To Agni 

. 76 


v. 40 

Indra and Atri, and the Sun eclipsed by the demon 

. 76 


vii. 55 

Magic spells to produce sleep 

. 77 


vii. 56 

To the Maruts or gods of the storm-winds . 

. 77 


vii. 86 

To Varuna 

. 78 


vii. 88 

To Varuna 

. 79 


vii. 89 

To Varuna 

. 80 


viii. 14 

To Indra. Indra and Namuchi .... 

. 80 


viii. 85 

Indra and the Maruts, and Vritra .... 

. 82 


viii. 91 

To Agni 

. 82 


x. 9 

To the Waters 

. 83 


x. 14 

Funeral-hymn ....... 

. 83 


x. 16 


. 84 


x. 17 

Funeral-hymn ...... 

. 85 


x. 18 


. 86 


x. 33 

The aged priest to the young prince . . . 

. 87 


x. 40 


. 88 


x. 52 

The gods install Agni as oblation-bearer . . 

. 88 


x. 53 

Burial and wedding-stanzas 

. SD 


x. 85 



x. 137 



x. 154 



x. 155 

, 91 

* For detailed synopsis, see Notea. 


F. From the Maitrayanl. 


LXIL Hiranya-garbha. The god Ka or Who 91 

LXIII. Legend of Yama and Yami. The creation of night . . .92 
LXIV. Legend of the winged mountains ....... 92 

LXV. The potency of the sacrifice ........ 93 

G. Other Brahmana-pieces. 

LXVI. Legend of Agni the oblation-bearer, and of the fish 93 

LXVII. Legend of Indra and the Maruts, and Vritra ..... 94 

LXVIII. Legend of Indra and the god Ka or Who 94 

LXIX. The two kinds of deities, the gods and the Brahmans ... 94 

LXX. Truth, untruth, and silence 95 

LXXI. How the gods got immortality and how Death got his share . . 95 

LXXII. Legend of Indra and Namuchi 97 

LXXIIL Nirukta on KV. i.32.10, selection xxxii 97 

H. From the Grihya-sutras. 

LXXTV. Wedding-customs and the wedding-service 98 

LXXV. The customs and ritual of cremation and burial . . 101 


Vocabulary Ill 

Explanations and abbreviations ....... 289 

List of abbreviations .... . , 293 


Notes .... c ..... . 297 


IT is chiefly at the beginning that the difficulties of Sanskrit present them- 
selves. The variety of forms, the strange alphabet, the peculiarities of word and 
sentence combination, all these simultaneously confront the student at the very 
outset. Accordingly, the plan followed with my classes, and for which provision 
is here made, is to distribute these difficulties over the first few weeks of the 
course. The common paradigms of nouns and verbs should first be learned. These 
are given by the Grammar in transliteration. The reading of the first four pages 
of the N"ala in Roman letters should then be taken up. The Reader gives these in 
transliteration on an inset conveniently facing the same text in nagarl letters. The 
student may thus become familiar with the form and sound of the vocables, without 
being embarrassed by the alphabet and the running together of the words. Next, 
the same familiar text should be read aloud over and over again in nagarl letters. 
I am convinced that the easiest way to master the alphabet is to read frequently 
in it words which one already knows. The next step will be the reading of 
pages five to nine without the help of a transliteration, but with the aid given 
by the typographical separation of the words, which has been carried out so far as 
is practicable, though in violation of Indian usage. Finally, from this point on, 
the reading may be continued without other help for the difficulties of euphonic 
and graphic combination than is offered by the notes. 

After finishing the Nala, the student should take up the Hitopade9a. Selec- 
tions xvii., xx., and xi. are very easy and are good to begin with. The remaining 
short ones from vi. to xxi. may then follow in order ; and finally the long selections 
ii. to v. 

It is recommended that the student use the stories from the Katha-sarit-sagara 
for exercise in rapid reading, as soon as he has acquired a f ah vocabulary from what 
precedes. The passages from " Manu " may be read as they stand. 

Of the Vedic selections, the easiest are numbers xxxi. (Rigveda i. 1), xxxiii., 
xxxviii., xxxix., xli., xlv., xlvi., and lix. ; and it is advisable to read these first 
and in the order here mentioned. Selection xxxii., as being one of poetic merit and 
not over-hard, may next be taken up, and after it, the Varuna-hymns, selections 
xliii.-xliv. ; then the hymns in dramatic form, selections xxxv., xxxvii.,, and Ivi 


After these, selections xxxvi., xl., xlii., xlvii., xlviii., liv., and Ixii. may be rapidly 
read. There will then remain the selections for the burial-service, xlix.-liii., ML, 
lx., Ixi., and xxxiv., and those for the wedding, Iviii., Ivii., and Iv. These may 
properly be read last, in order that they may be fresh in the mind when reading the 
Sutras, where constant reference is made to them. 

The Brahmana pieces may be read in the order in which they are printed ; but 
selections Ixvi., Ixvii., Ixviii., and Ixxii. ought not to be taken up, unless selections 
Ivi., xlvii., Ixii., and xlvi. have previously been studied. 

It is very undesirable to attempt to read the Sutra chapters until one is familiar 
with the burial and wedding stanzas just mentioned. It is advisable to write out a 
translation of these chapters, and to insert therein each mantra in its proper place, 
writing out the original of the mantra in full, and its translation, the latter also in 
metre, if possible. 

Since the synopses following each verbal root in the vocabulary represent the 
great mass of all the forms in actual use (rather than those simply prescribed by the 
grammarians), and so correspond to the "principal parts" of the Latin and Greek 
verbs, the student should make it his duty to learn the synopsis for each root when 
he first meets verbal forms of that root in the text. 

Attention is called to the explanations and abbreviations (pages 289-294)} 
these should be looked over carefully before using the vocabulary. 


THIS list has a purely practical aim, 1 and is restricted to a few of the 
more important and useful books and 2 to such as are neither rare nor 
out of print. It includes (a) a grammar, (6) readers, (c) dictionaries, 
(d) classical works, books for the study (e) of the Rigveda and its litera- 
ture, and (/) of the Atharvaveda, and last (g) some books on antiquities 
and the history of the literature and the religions of India. 

1. Whitney, William Dwight. A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical 

language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana. Leipzig, Breitkopf 
and Hartel. London, Trubner & Co. 1879. 8. Price (bound in cloth) 
12 shillings. 

This may be had in Boston of Ginn and Company. The work exists also in a German 
translation, which may be had of the Leipzig publishers. 

2. Biihler, Georg. Third Book of Sanskrit. With a glossary by Vishnu P. 

Shastri Pandit. Second edition. Bombay. 1877. 12. 128 pages of text 
and 97 of glossary. Price 9 annas. 

This book can be procured from Trubner & Co. in London (price 3 shillings). It contains 
the entire Story of Nala (26 chapters), Da^aratha's Death (Ramayana, ii. <>3-64), and four 
stories from the Panchatantra. For beginners, the typography proves troublesome and the 
glossary too meagre ; but the little volume is inexpensive and contains excellent material for 
easy and rapid reading, and so is highly to be recommended to those who have finished the 
classical part of this Reader and wish to continue their Sanskrit. For such students the glos- 
sary would be quite sufficient. 

3. Bohtlingk, Otto. Sanskrit-Chrestomathie. Zweite, ganzlich umgearbeitete 

Auflage. St. Petersburg. 1877. Large 8. 372 pages. Price 4 Mark 
80 Pfennigs. 

This work and the two following are publications of the Russian Imperial Academy, and 
should be ordered through the Academy's agent, Leopold Voss, of Leipzig. The volume contains 
selections from the Veda (Mantra, Brahmana, and Sutra), from the Maha-bharata, Ramayana, 
Vishnu-purana, Katha-sarit-sagara, Hitopade(;a, "Manu's Laws," and Panini's Grammar, and 
from various other books ; a rich collection of proverbs ; the Vedanta-sara, a philosophical 
treatise, in text and translation : and the entire drama, Ratnavali. The Vedic hymns are all 
translated in the volume mentioned below, no. 15 ; and the notes show where many of the 
other selections may be found translated. Like all publications of the Academy, this is sold 
at an extremely low price. Since the book has no vocabulary, the student will at this point 
need to get a dictionary. 

1 Hence the prices are included. Both the Mark cent. The books will cost the American purchaser 

and the shilling may be reckoned as a quarter of a somewhat more or less according to his facilities for 

dollar. The prices given with the titles are pub- obtaining foreign books. 

lishers' prices. To these prices, except when given - With perhaps one exception, no. 18, which can, 

in dollars, should be added the duty, which is 25 per however, be had of second-hand dealers. 


4. Bohtlingk, Otto. Sanskrit- Wb'rterbuch in kurzerer Fassung. St. Petersburg. 

1879-. 4. 

To be ordered through Voss (see above). Parts I. to IV. have appeared, and reach to the 
end of bh ; they cover 1167 pages, i.e. nigh two-thirds of the whole, and cost 34 Mark 80 
Pfennige. The rest may be expected in the course of 1885. The manuscript is ready as 
far as varna. The work is an abridgment of the following. 

5. Bohtlingk, Otto, and Rudolph Roth. Sanskrit- Worterbuch. St. Petersburg. 

1855-1875. Seven volumes. 4. Price 177 Mark 90 Pfennige. 

To be ordered through Voss (see above). This work, which is often called the "St. Peters- 
burg Lexicon," is by far the most important production of Sanskrit scholarship. To such as 
wish to make any special study of the language and literature, it is absolutely indispensable. 

6. Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, etymologically and philo- 

logically arranged, with special reference to Greek, Latin, Gothic, German, 
Anglo-Saxon, and other cognate Indo-European languages. London and 
New York, Macmillan and Co. 1872. 4. 1186 pages. Price 94 shillings 
6d. in England, or $24 in the United States. 

This is the only dictionary of Sanskrit into English which approaches completeness. It is 
in one compact and handy volume and is very convenient for reading works of the classical 
period. Unfortunately, the common meanings of a word are not distinguished from those 
which are seldom or never found. All Sanskrit words are given in transliteration, and the 
roots and more important words in ndgarl letters also. 

7. Williams, Monier. S'akuntala, a Sanskrit drama in seven acts, by Kalidasa. 

Second edition. London and New York, Macmillan and Co. 1876. 8. 
339 pages. Price 21 shillings in England, or $5.25 in the U.S. 

This gives literal English translations of all the metrical passages, explanatory notes, and 
the Sanskritization of the Prakrit passages, and all on the same page with the text of this, 
the most famous of the plays. 

8. Kielhorn, Franz, and Georg Buhler. Panchatantra. Edited with notes. 

Bombay. 1868. 8. 

The work constitutes numbers IV., III., and I. of the "Bombay Sanskrit Series." Number 
IV. (comprehending book I.) appeared in a second edition in 1873. The book may be had of 
Triibner & Co., London. The price of the entire work is 8 shillings ; but the first book may 
be had separately for 3 shillings. The Panchatantra is easy and entertaining reading. It has 
been admirably translated into German by Benfey : Pantschatantra. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus. 
1859. 2 vpls. 8 '. Price 24 Mark. The translation is accompanied by a very valuable history 
of fable-literature. 

9. Delbriick, Berthold. Vedische Chrestomathie. Mit Anmerkungen und Glos- 

sar. Halle, Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses. 1874. 8. Price 3 Mark. 

This contains 47 hymns from the Rigveda. Of these, only five are repeated in this Reader. 
Both text and glossary are in transliteration. On account of the small price of the book, its 
mention may prove useful to such as do not wish to buy the two complete editions following 
(numbers 11 and 12). 

10. Windisch, Ernst. Zwolf Hymnen des Rigveda. Mit Sayana's Commentar. 
Text. Worterbuch zu Sayana. Appendices. Leipzig, S. Hirzel. 1883. 8. 
Price 5 Mark. 

This gives the text, and the comment of the great scholiast, both in ndgarl letters. The 
text is printed with the genuine accentuation (as in this Reader). The book serves a useful 
purpose as introduction to the native Hindu or traditional exegesis of the Veda. The vocabu- 
lary does not cover the hymns themselves ; but 
the little book mentioned below, no. 15. 


11. Aufrecht, Theodor. Die Hymnen des Rigveda. Herausgegeben. Zweite 

Auflage. Bonn, Adolph Marcus. 1877. 2 volumes. 8. Price 20 Mark. 

The entire sanhita text is given in transliteration, and extracts from the pada text at the 
foot of each page. The exceedingly valuable appendix contains lists of the poets, divinities, 
and metres, and a complete table of first lines of every stanza, with references to the concord- 
ant texts of other Vedas. 

12. Miiller, F. Max. The Hymns of the Rigveda, in the Samhita and Pada texts, 

reprinted from the editio princeps. Second edition. London, Triibner & 
Co. 1877. 2 volumes. 8. Price 32 shillings. 

This edition gives the two texts complete on parallel pages and in nayarl letters. The 
names of the poets, divinities, and metres are given at the beginning of each hymn. 

13. Grassmann, Hermann. Wdrterbuch zum Rig-veda. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus. 

1873 [-1875]. 8. Price 30 Mark. 

This is not only a dictionary, but also a complete concordance to the Rigveda. It is a work 
of wonderful industry, method, clearness, and accuracy. Aside from the St. Petersburg Lexi- 
con, this dictionary stands next in importance, for Vedic students, after the Vedic text itself. 

14. Grassmann, Hermann. Rig-veda. Uebersetzt und mit kritischen und erlau- 

ternden Anmerkungen versehen. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus. 1876. 1877. 
2 volumes. 8. Price 24 Mark. 

This translation is entirely in metre, except for a few corrupt or difficult hymns. The 
student can almost invariably see just what word Grassmann intended as the rendering of any 
given word of the text. This work is especially useful as giving a convenient general view 
of the contents of the Rigveda, and as enabling the student to grasp easily many matters 
touching the metres, the arrangement, and the textual condition of the original. 

15. Geldner, Karl, und Adolf Kagi. Siebenzig Lieder des Rigveda. Uebersetzt. 

Mit Beitragen von R. Roth. Tubingen. H. Laupp'sche Buchhandlung. 
1875. 12. Price 3 Mark. 

Thirty-six of the seventy hymns of which this book gives metrical translations were 
later incorporated by Bohtlingk into his Chrestomathy (no. 3, above). 

16. Aufrecht, Theodor. Das Aitareya Brahmana. Mit Ausziigen aus dem Com- 

mentare von Sayanacarya und anderen Beilagen herausgegeben. Bonn, 
Adolph Marcus. 1879. 8. Price 11 Mark. 

This Brahmana belongs to the Rigveda. The text is in transliteration. The translation of 
Haug (London, Triibner & Co. 1863) would be of help ; but it is inaccurate and hard to get. 
A good many passages are translated in volumes I., II., and V. of Muir (below, no. 26). Using 
these as an introduction, and the St. Petersburg Lexicon for help in hard places, an advanced 
student can make good progress with this text. 

17. Stenzler, Adolf Friedrich. Indische Hausregeln. Sanskrit und deutsch heraus- 

gegeben. I. A9valayana. Erstes Heft. Text. Leipzig. 1864. 8. Price 
2 Mark. Zweites Heft. Uebersetzung. 1865. Price 3 Mark. 

Published by the German Oriental Society, in volumes III. and IV. of the Abhandlungen 
fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes. To be ordered through the Society's agent, F. A. Brockhaus, 
In Leipzig. These are the Grihya-sutras belonging to the Rigveda. 

18. Roth, R., und Whitney, "W. D. Atharva Veda Sanhita. Herausgegeben. 

Erster Band. Text. Berlin, Ferd. Diimmler. 1856. Royal 8. Price 28 Mark 
50 Pfennige. 

This is the most important and interesting of the Vedas, after the Rik. It is full of magic 
incantations and other products of curious superstitions. 


19. Oarbe, Richard. Vaitana Sutra. The Ritual of the Atharvaveda. Edited with 

critical notes and indices. London, Triibner & Co. 1878. 8. Price 5 shillings. 

20. Garbe, Richard. Vaitana Sutra. Das Ritual des Atharvaveda. Aus dem San- 

skrit iibersetzt und mit Auinerkungen versehen. London, Triibner & Co. 
1878. 8. Price 5 shillings. 

Since this is the only Qrauta-sutra published with translation, and since it is to be had 
easily and cheaply, it is recommended as an introduction to the works of this class. 

21. Weber, Albrecht. The history of Indian Literature. Translated from the 

second German edition by John Mann and Theodor Zachariae. Second 
edition. London, Triibner & Co. 1878. 8. Price 10 shillings 6 pence. 

This is a systematic treatise covering both the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit literature. 
It gives abundant and practical bibliographical information. As a guide and as a work of 
reference it is of the utmost value. 

22. Zimmer, Heinrich. Altindisches Leben. Die Cultur der vedischen Arier. 

Nach den Samhita dargestellt. Berlin, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. 1879. 
8. Price 10 Mark. 

Under the different categories geography, climate, minerals, plants, animals, agricul- 
ture, commerce, dress, food, amusements, family relations, art, etc. the Vedic texts touching 
these subjects are discussed, and the results deducible from them are put together in a very 
readable and pleasant way. 

23. Kagi, Adolf. Der Rigveda. Die alteste Literatur der Inder. Zweite, umgear- 

beitete und erweiterte, mit vollstandigem Sach- und Wortregister versehene 
Auflage. Leipzig, Otto Schulze. 1881. 12. Price 4 Mark. 

This contains an account of the Vedic writings in general, descriptions of the gods in 
language agreeing closely with the actual words of the original as cited in the notes, and 
sketches of some of the more important phases of Vedic life and thought. The numerous notes 
are highly useful as a guide to the already extensive literature of these subjects, and point out 
many interesting parallels of custom, belief, and expression to be found in biblical and classi- 
cal antiquity. 

24. Earth, Auguste. The religions of India. Authorized translation by Rev. J. 

Wood. London, Triibner & Co. 1882. 8. Price 16 shillings. 

The subject is treated in five chapters corresponding to the five grand phases of religious 
development in India : the Vedic religion ; Brahmanism (ritual, philosophic speculation, de- 
cline) ; Buddhism ; Jainism ; and Hinduism (the sects and their great deities, Vishnuism 
and 9ivaism, reforming sects, cultus). The copious references to the literature of the sub- 
jects in hand add greatly to the value of the work. 

25. Oldenberg, Hermann. Buddha; his life, his doctrine, his order. Translated 

from the German by William Hoey. London, Williams and Norgate. 1882. 

8. Price 18 shillings. 

Oldenberg has recently finished editing (in five volumes) the Yinaya Pitakam, one of the 
most important among the Buddhist sacred books. He has a wide and deep knowledge of the 
original Pali sources, and in his use of them he is guided by rare critical acumen and good 
common-sense. His account of Buddha's life, doctrine, and order contains the best results of 
his studies and they are presented in an extremely attractive form. 

26. Muir, John. Original Sanskrit texts on the origin and history of the people 

of India, their religions and institutions. Collected, translated, and illus- 
trated. London, Triibner & Co. 1872-1874. 5 volumes. 8. 

The first four volumes have appeared in a second edition, and the second volume in a 
third edition. The third volume costs 1(5 shillings. The price of each of the others is 21 shil- 
lings. The first volume discusses the origin of caste. The fifth is devoted to the cosmogony, 
mythology, religious ideas, life, and manners of the Indians in the Vedic age. 


Transliterated Text of Sanskrit Reader. 

[Page 1.] 
atha nalopakhyanam. 

brhadagva uvaca. 

asid raja, nalo nama, virasenasuto ball, 
upapanno gunair istai, rupavan, agvakovidah. 
6 atisthan manujendranam murdhni devapatir yatlia, 
upary upari sarvesam aditya iva tejasa ; 
brahmanyo, vedavic, churo, niaadhesu mahipatih, 
aksapriyah, satyavadi, mahan aksauhinipatih ; 
ipsito naranarinam, udarah, samyatendriyah, 
10 raksita, dhanvinam gresthah, saksad iva manuh svayam. 
tathaivasid vidarbhesu bhimo, bhlmaparakramah, 
^urah, sarvagunair yuktah, prajakamah, sa caprajah. 
sa prajarthe param yatnam akarot, susamahitah. 
tarn abhyagacchad brahmarsir, damano nama, bharata. 
15 tarn ssrbhimah, prajakamas, toaayam asa, dharmavit, 
mahisya saha, rajendra, satkarena, suvarcasam. 
tasmai prasanno damanah sabharyaya varam dadau, 

[Page 3.] 

tato 'ntariksago vacam vyajahara nalam tada: 

hantavyo 'ami na te, raj an; karisyami tava priyam; 

damayantisakage tvam kathayisyami, naiaadha, 

yatha tvad anyam puruaam na sa mansyati KarM cit. 
5 evam uktas tato hansam utaasarja mahipatih. 

te tu hansah samutpatya vidarbhan agamans tatah. 

vidarbhanagaiim gatva, damayantyas tadantike 

nipetua te garutmantah, sa dadarca ca tan ganan. 

sa, tan adbhutarupan vai drstva, sakhiganavrta, 
10 hrata grabitum khagamans tvaramanopacakrame. 

atha hansa visasrpuh aarvatah pramadavane. 

ekaika^as tada kanyas tan hansan samupadravan. 

damayanti tu yam hansam samupadhavad antike, 

sa, manuslih giraih krtva, damayantim athabravit: 
15 damayanti, nalo nama, nisadhesu mahipatih, 

agvinoh sadrgo rape ; na samas tasya manuaah. 
"" tasya vai yadi bharya tvam bhavetha, varavarnini, 

saphalam te bhavej janma, rupam cedam, suinadhyame, 

vayaih hi devagandharvamanasoragaraksasan 
20 drstavanto; na casmabhir dratapurvas tathavidhah. 

tvam capi ratnam narinam, naresu ca nalo varah ; 

vigistaya vigistena samgamo gunavan bhavet. 

evam ukta tu hansena damayanti, vigam pate. 

[Page 2.] 

kanyaratnam, kumarang ca trin udaran, mahayagah, 
damayantim, damam, dantam, damanam ca suvarcasam, 
upapannan gunaih sarvair, bhiman, bhimaparakraman. 
damayanti tu rupena, tejasa, yagasa, griya, 

5 saubhagyena ca, lok|u yagah prapa, sumadhyama. 
atha tarn, vayasi prapte, dasinarii samalamkrtam 
gatam, gatari? sakhinam ca, paryupasac, chaclm iva. 
tatra sma raj ate bhaimi, sarvabharanabhusita, 

-^akhimadhye, 'navadyangi, vidyut saudamani yatha, 
10 ativa rupasampanna, grir ivayatalocana. 

na devesu, na yaksesu, tadrg rupavati kva cit, 
manusesv api canyesu, drstapdrvatha va grata, 
cittapramatbini bala devanam api sundari. 
nalag ca naragardulo, lokesv apratimo bhuvi, 

15 kandarpa iva rupena murtimau. abhavat svayam. 


tasyah samipe tu nalam pracagansuh kutuhalat, 
naisadhasya samipe tu damayantim punah punah. 
tayor adrstakamo 'bhiic chrnvatoh satatam gunan ; 
anyonyam prati, kaunteya, sa vyavardhata hrcchayah. 
20 agaknuvan nalah kamam tada dharayitum hrda, 
antahpurasamipasthe vana aste raho gatah. 
sa dadarga tato hansan jatarupapariskrtan ; 
vane vicar atam tesam ekam jagraka paksinam. 

[Page 4.] 

abravit tatra tarn hansam : tvam apy evam nale vada. 
tathety uktvandajah kanyam vidarbhasya, vigam pate, 
punar agamya nisadhan, nale sarvam nyavedayat. 
iti nalopakhyane prathamah sargah. 

6 brhadagva uvaca. 

damayanti tu, tac chrutva vaco hansasya, bharata, 
tatah prabhrti na svastha nalam prati babhuva sa. 
tatag cintapara, dma, vivarnavadana, krga, 
_ babhuva damayanti tu, nihgvasaparama tada. 
10 urdhvadrstir, dhyanapara, babhuvonmattadargana, 
panduvarna ksanenatha, hrcchayavistacetana. 
na gayyasanabhogesu ratim vindati karhi cit. 
na naktam, na diva gete, ha heti rudati punah. 
tato vidarbhapataye damayantyah sakhijanah 

16 nyavedayat tam asvastham damayantim naregvare. 
tac chrutva nrpatir bhimo damayantisakhiganat, 
cintayam asa tat karyam sumahat svam siitam prati. 
sa samiksya mahipalah svam sutam praptayauvanam, 
apagyad atmana karyam damayantyah svayamvaram. 

20 sa samnimantrayam asa mahipalan vigam patih: 
anubhuyatam ! ayam, virah, svayamvara iti, prabho. 




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106 SUTRA. 



[.For Explanations and Abbreviations, see pages 289-294.] 



1 a, pron. root, see idam and 502. 

2 a , negative prefix, see an. 

anga, m. (that which one gets, i.e.) one's 
portion ; and so, generalized, portion, part. 
[Vlag, 'get.'] 

angii, m. juicy internodium or shoot of the 
Soma-plant ; and so, shooting ray (of 

ahQumant, a. rich in beams, radiant ; as 
m. the sun, 16*. [angii, 1235b.] 

a n s a , m. shoulder, [perhaps, ' the strong ' 
(part), Vam, 1197a: cf. 3>/j.-os, Lat. um-erus, 
Goth, amsa, 'shoulder.'] 

a-kasmat, adv. without any "wherefore "; 
without apparent cause ; unexpectedly ; 

akasmad-agantu, m. an accidental ar- 
rival, a chance comer. 

a-kara, m. the sound or letter a. [Whit- 
ney, 18.] 

a-karana, n. lack of cause; -am, adv. 

a-kirti,/. non-fame, disgrace. 

akirti-kara, a. causing disgrace, dis- 

a-krta, a. not done; uncooked. 

aktii, m. I. ointment; 2. light, beam 
of light; -3. night, [for 2, cf. cutris, 
' beam.'] 

a - k r i y a m a n a , a. not being accomplished. 
[Vlkr, 'do,' 770c.] 

a-krura, a. not harsh. 

1 aksa, n. for aksan at end ofcpds [1315a]. 

2 aksa, m. a die for playing, [named, 
perhaps, from its 'eyes' (1 aksa) or 
' spots.'] 

aksa, m. axle. [cf. &tav, Lat. axis, AS. 
eax, Eng. axe (i.e. 'axle'), and axle.'] 

a-ksata, a. unhurt, uninjured; unbroken-, 

as m. pi. unbroken or unhusked grains, 

esp. of barley, 
aksata-kesara, a. having an uninjured 

aksata-deha, a. having an unhurt or 

perfect body, 
aksan [431], n. eye. [cf. uir-unr-a, 'have 

seen,' dty, ' eye ' ; otrcre, *bic-je, ' eyes ' ; Lat. 

oc-ulus, 'eye'; the kinship of AS. edge, 

Eng. eye, remains to be proved : cf. Viks.] 
aksa-priya, a. beloved of the dice, i.e. 

lucky at gaming. 
a-ksama, a. not equal to a thing ; unable, 

w. inf. 

a-ksaya, a. imperishable. 
aksayatva,n. imperishability, [aksaya.] 
a-ksara, a. imperishable; as n. word; 

syllable; the sacred syllable, om, GO 14 ; 

sound, letter, 61 4 . 
aksara-nyasa, m. the commitment to 

letters, the writing. 
a-ksara, a. not pungent. 
aksaralavana, n. that which is not pun- 
gent and not salt, [alavana : 1253b.] 
aksaralavanagin, a. eating that which 

is not pungent and not salt, abstaining 

from seasoned and salted food, [agin.] 
aksi [431], n. eye; see aksan. 
aksauhini,/ a complete army. 
aksauhinl-pati, m. master of an army; 


a-khila, a. without a gap, entire ; all. 
a - g a d a , a. not having disease, well, healthy, 

whole ; wholesome ; as m. medicine. 
a gar a, m. n. house, 
agni, m. fire; esp. a sacred fire; the god 

of fire, Agni, mediator between men and 



gods, messenger who carries the sacrifice 
to them, protector from the terrors and 
spirits of darkness, and keeper of house 
and hearth, [perhaps, ' the quickly mov- 
ing or agile one,' V aj, 1158 : cf . Lat. ignis, 
' fire/ agilis, ' agile '; akin, poss., is aty\ri, 
' flashing light.'] 

agni-kunda, n. round hole hi the ground 
for the sacred fire. 

agni-vela,^ fire-hour, time for kindling 
the sacred fire ; afternoon. 

agni-hotra, n. fire-sacrifice (a burnt- 
offering of fresh milk). 

agnihotra-havani, /. fire-sacrifice 

agny-adh6ya, n. placing or setting up 
of the sacred fire, [acct, 1272.] 

agr a, n. 1. front ; agre, in front, before, 
in presence of, w. gen.; 2. beginning; 
agre, in the beginning, in the first place, 
first; 3. tip, end. [perhaps, 'that 
which goes before, leader,' V aj : cf . &yu, 
'lead,' ffTpar-rryos, 'army-leader.'] 

agratas, adv. in front [1098c 3 ]; before 
(one's self) ; w. kr, place in front, cause 
to lead, [agra, 1098b.] 

agrya, a. foremost, best, [agra, 1212c.] 

agha, a. distressful, harmful ; as n. harm, 
trouble, evil; sin; sorrow, [like anhii, 
' narrow,' and anhas, ' distress,' from 
v- angh or anh, ' straiten ' : cf . KX OS > ' dis- 
tress ' ; &yx.a>, Lat. ango, ' strangle ' ; AS. 
ange, ' anxious,' Ger. enge, ' narrow,' Angst, 
' distress ' : for connection of mgs, cf . Eng. 
straiten, ' to narrow ' and ' to distress.'] 

V agha y a (aghayati). harm; plan mis- 
chief, [agha, 1059b.] 

a-ghoracaksus, a. not evil-eyed. 

d-ghnya, m. bull (the animal that is 
' hard to overcome,' or more exactly, ' not 
to be slain'). 

& g h n y a , f. cow. [formed as a pendant 
to aghnya.] 

anka, m. 1. the bend at the groin made 
by taking a sitting position, lap; 2. the 
bend just above the hip (where babes, sit- 
ting astride, are carried by Hindu women 
see aroha) ; 3. hook; 4. (like Eng. 
pot-hook) mark, sign. [Vane: for 1, cf. 
v, 'bend in arm or wall or shore'; for 

3, cf . oyxos, Lat. uncus, AS. ongel, ' hook ' ; 
cf. Eng. angle, not a borrowed word.] 

V ankhaya (ankhayati [1056, 1067]). 
hook on, grapple, [from anka, ' hook,' 
despite the aspiration.] 
+ pari, clasp, embrace. 

V ang. move, in derivs. 

a n g a , asseverative particle, yad anga, just 
when ; te anga, they only. 

anga, n. limb, member; by synecdoche, 
body, person, form. [Vang: for mg, cf. 
angiili, angiistha.] 

a n g a n a , n. court, [orig., perhaps, ' gang- 
way,' ^ang.] 

ang ana, f. a (fair) form, i.e. a woman, 

angara, m. coal. 

angiras,7n. 1. orig., probably, messenger ; 
esp. messenger between gods and men ; 6^ 
eminence, Agni; 2. as pi. Angirases, a 
name applied by the Hindus to a certain race 
among their forefathers (perhaps because 
their intercourse with the gods was con- 
ceived as very intimate), these forefathers 
being regarded as half divine ; 3. as s. 
the (mythical) ancestor of the Angirases. 

angiili, f. finger. [Vang, 1191: for mg, 
cf. anga.] 

angustha, m. thumb, [for mg, cf. anga.] 

V ac or a no (acati, aiicati ; akna, ancita ; 
-acya). bend. [cf. anka and vbl anc.] 
+ a. bend. 

a -car a, a. not moving; as subst. plant (as 
distinguished from animals). 

a-cala, a. immovable; as m. mountain. 

a-cit, a. not knowing; unwise; foolish. 

a-citti, f. unwisdom; folly. 

a-citva, grd. without piling. [Vlci.] 

a-cintya, a. incomprehensible. 

accha, vbl prefix, to, unto; hither; w. VV 
2 nag, ya, vah, vrt ; often accha, 248a. 

V aj fajati, -te). drive. [orig. 'put in 
motion ' : cf . Lat. ago, ' lead, drive ' ; &y<a, 
'lead': cf. also agra, ajira, aji.] 
+ ud, drive out. 

a j a , m. he-goat, [prob. ' the agile one,' 
V aj : cf . af, ' goat.'] 

a-jara, a. not aging; ageless. 

aj aramaravat, adv. as if ageless and 
immortal, [ajara-amara, 1107, 1257.] 



a-jasra, a. not dying out; perpetual 
(of fire). 

aja,/. she-goat, [see aja.] 

a-jata, a. unborn. 

ajina, m. goat-skin; pelt, [aja: cf . alyls, 
' goat-skin, Aegis,' w. aff , ' goat.'] 

ajira, a. agile, swift. [Vaj, 1188e: cf. 
Lat. agilis, ' agile.'] 

V ajiraya (ajirayate). be swift; press 
swiftly onward, [ajira, 1059b.] 

a-jna, a. not knowing, ignorant; foolish; 
as m. fool. 

a - j L at a , a. unknown. [Vjna : cf . &-yv<aros, 
Lat. i-gnotus, Eng. un-couth, ' unknown.'] 

ajnata-kulagila, a. whose family and 
character are unknown. 

a-jnatva, grd. without knowing. 

a-jnana, n. ignorance; -at and -atas, 
out of ignorance. 

V anc, see Vac. 

anc, as vbl at end of cpds [see 407-9], 
turning, directed ; e.g. ud-anc, directed 
upward. [for ing, cf. Eng. -ward (in 
to-ward, etc.), which is akin w. Vvrt, 
' turn.'] 

V arij or aj (anakti, ankte; anaiija, anaje 
[788]; anjit; akta; aktva; -anjya, -ajya). 
1. smear; anoint; 2. adorn, [cf. aktu: 
cf . Lat. ungo, ' anoint.'] 
+ a , anoint. 

+ v i , 1. anoint ; 2. adorn ; and so, bring 
to notice ; vyakta : adorned, fair ; mani- 
fest ; caws, make clear or manifest. 
+ s a m , 1. anoint; 2. adorn; 3. unite 
by anointing, 89 19 ; 4. generalized, unite 
with, take to one's self (e.g. food), 88 10 . 

an j all, m. the two hollowed and open 
hands placed side by side ; the hands so 
placed and raised to the forehead, i.e. a 
gesture of reverent salutation; a double 
handful (as measure). 

aiijas, adv. quickly, suddenly, [prob. adv. 
ace. or instr. of an obsolete subst. anjas, 
' a slippery way or a gliding motion,' V anj .] 

V at (atati, -te ; atisyati; atita ; atitva). 
wander about, [cf. Vat.] 

at an I, f. the notched end of a bow. 

a t a v I , / forest, [perhaps, ' roaming-place,' 

anda, n. egg. 

anda-ja, a. egg-born; as m. bird. 
V at (atati, -te; atita). wander about, [cf. 

a-tandrita, a. unwearied. 

atas, adv. 1. (as abl. ofpron. root a [1098], 
and synonymous w. asmat) from it; .so 22 9 , 
sc. pankat ; ato ' nya, other than it, 68 12 ; 
-2. from this (place), 83 15 ; -3. from this 
(time), 96 21 ; cf. iirdhvam; then, 40 16 ; -4. 
from this (cause), 35 10 ; therefore, 27 3 , etc.; 
w. correl. yatas, 36 8 ; hence ; and so, 39 4 , 
42 21 ; so then, 73 12 . [pron. root a, 502.] 

dti, adv. across, beyond, past, over, as vbl 
prefix; in cpds, to excess, excessive, see 
1289b ; as prep, beyond, over. [cf . K-n, 
' further, besides ' ; Lat. et, ' besides, and.'] 

atikrama, m. act of overstepping or over- 
coming. [Vkram + ati.] 

atithi, m. guest, ['wanderer,' Vat.] 

ati-durvrtta, a. excessively wicked. 

ati-dura, a. very far or distant; as n. 
great distance. 

ati-bhara, m. excessive burden. 

ati-laulya, n. excessive greediness. 

ati-vrsti,yi excessive rain. 

a-tisthant, a. not standing; restless. 

ati-samcaya,m. excessive accumulation. 

ati-samnidhana, n. excessive nearness. 

atlndriya, a. transcending the senses ; as 
n. soul, spirit, [ati + indriya, 1310a.] 

ativa, adv. exceedingly; very, [ati + iva.] 

a-tyajya, a. not to be abandoned. 

aty-ugra, a. extraordinary. ['exces- 
sively strong.'] 

atyugra-punyapapa, a. extraordinar- 
ily good and bad ; as n. pi. extraordinarily 
good and bad deeds. 

atra (atra, 248a), adv. 1. (asloc.ofpron. 
root a [1099 4 ], and synonymous w. asmin) 
substantively : in it, 97 10 ; in this case, 31 5 ; 
in that case, 18 n ; on this point, 29 2 ; 
adjectiv ely : w. antare: in this interim, 
meantime, 24 19 , 45 2 , 50 22 , 55 4 ; on this 
occasion, at this juncture, 19 n ; atra 
sarasi, in this pool ; 2. in this or that 
(place); here, 25 16 ; there, 33 5 , 89*; in 
that world (opp. to 'in this world'), 
87 !' 7 ' 9 ; -3. in that (time), then, 56. 
[pron. root a, 502.] 



Atri, m. Atri, name of a famous Rishi. 

atha (atha, 248a), adv. expresses a sequence, 
temporal or resultant : then ; so ; so then ; 
accordingly; thereupon; 1. temporal: 
e.g. ati drava, atha upehi, run past, and 
then go unto , 83 18 ; in apodosis after 
yada, 84 5 ' 6 - 7 , 96 22 ; 2. resultant: e.g. ma- 
rudbhih sakhyam te astu, atha jayasi, 
make friends with the Maruts, and then 
(if thou dost) thou shalt conquer, 82 2 N. ; 

3. very frequent as a simple continuative : 
now; so; then; usually at beginning of sen- 
tence (e.g. 20 1 ) or cloka (e.g. 2 6 ); sometimes 
within the cloka (e.g. 3 14 ); exceptionally at 
the end, 13 9 ; at beginning of section or book, 
now, 98 16 ; here beginneth (cf. Hi), I 1 ; 
sometimes much attenuated in meaning ; often 
almost equivalent to a capital letter, to mark 
the beginning of a new clause, e.g. 94 18 ; con- 
necting parts of sentence, 4 n ; 4. pleonas- 
tically w. tatas, 13 9 ; mere verse-filler, 10 19 ; 

5. atho, i.e. atha u, and also, 90 16 ; 6. 
serving as a point d'appui for an enclitic, 
which may thus precede its word : e.g. devo, 
' tha va yaksas, a god or a Yaksha, instead 
of devo, yakso va, 8 18 ; so 2 12 ; in this use, 
va : atha va : : que : atque ; cf. 27 21 ; cf. 
va; 7. atha va, or rather, 26 7 N. [pron. 
root a, 1101, 502; later form of adha 
(which is more common in the Veda) : cf. 
Lat. at, ' then, further, but.'] 

V ad (atti; atsyati; attum). eat; consume, 
[cf . 8eo, Lat. edo, AS. etan, Eng. eat : cf . 

ad, vbl. eating, consuming, in cpds. 

a d a , a. eating, in cpds. [vf ad.] 

a-danstrin, a. without tusks or large 

a-datta, a. not given. 

a-dantajata, a. not having teethed, 
['not having grown teeth,' for a-jata- 

adds [501], pron. yon, yonder, that, that 
there, in opposition to the one here or just 
mentioned.- e.g. asau, 22 7 , that one (the 
traveller last mentioned at 20 19 ) ; so 31 10 ; 
asav amutra, ayam asmin, that one in 
that world, this one in this, 103 7 ; that one 
(correl. ya), 7 6 , 37 n ; as designation of per- 
sons not to be named, so-and-so, N. or M. ; 

asav aliam. I am so-and-so, 61 14 ; 60 21 ; 
103 5 ; follows at a distance the word to 
which it refers, thus emphasizing it, 23 1 . 
[see 501 and 503.] 

aditi, a. without bond or limit; infinite; as 
f. infinity, the endless heaven, 79 19 ; infin- 
ity, personified as a goddess, Aditi, 75 8 . 
[apparently a -f *diti, acct, 1304a 2 : diti, 
'bond,' would be a reg. deriv. of \/3da, 
'bind,' but does not occur as such, 
although there is a word diti, q.v., of 
quite different rug and origin.] 

a -din a, a. not depressed. 

adinatman, a. with cheerful spirit, un- 
daunted, [atman.] 

a-durmangala,/. -I, a. bringing no bad 
luck. [for declension, cf. sumangala, 
-gali, and 355b.] 

a-dfsta, a. unseen, unnoticed. [Vdrg.] 

adrsta-kama, m. love for one not yet 

a-deva, m. non-god, who is no god. [1288a 4 .] 

adbhis, see 393. 

adbhuta, a. wonderful; as n. wonder, 
[despite anatidbhuta, prob. from at(i)- 
bhuta, ' transcending what has existed/ 
1310a : cf. ambara.] 

adbhuta-rupa, a. having wonderful 

adya, adv. to-day; adya nii, in this night 
(just past), 61 8 ; now; adya yavat, until 
now ; adya^arabhya, from now on. [per- 
haps from *a-dyavi, ' on this day,' 1122f, 
see dyu : cf . Lat. ho-die, ' to-day.'] 

a-dravya, n. non-thing, unworthy object. 

adri, m. rock; stone; esp. Soma-stone (for 
bruising the Soma) ; missile stone. 

adrivant, a. having or armed with the 

adha (adha, 248a), Vedic adv. expressing a 
sequence : then, so, 79 8 ; so then, 89 18 ; 
adha yad, just then when, 76 14 ; (then, 
i.e. besides, i.e.) and, 77 18 , 78 6 . [1104 8 : 
cf. atha.] 

a-dhanya, a. not rich; poor. 

adhama [525], a. lowest; worst, [cf. adhas 
and 474 : cf . Lat. infimus, ' lowest.'] 

adhara [525], a. lower, [cf. adhas and 
474: cf. Lat. inferus, 'lower'; Eng. under.'] 

a-dharma, m. unrighteousness. 



adhah-gayin, a. lying low, i.e. sleeping 
on the ground. 

ad has, adv. below; down. 

adhastat, adv. below; as prep., iv. gen. 
[1130], under, [adhas, HOOb.j 

ad hi, adv. over, besides, in addition, 96 16 ; 
as prep, above, over, on; w. instr. (of snii 
only), away over, 79 u ; w. abl. from, out 
of, 103*; w. loc.: over, 90 7 ; on, 70 13 ,92 n . 

adhika, a. (like Eng. over in adj. uses) ad- 
ditional ; surpassing the usual measure, 
superior, extraordinary; as n. surplus, 
[adhi, 1222a.] 

adhika-rupavant, a. surpassingly or 
most beautiful. 

adhikanuraga, m. superior affection or 
most affection, [anuraga.] 

adhikara, m. authority; office; duties of 
office. [\f 1 kr + adhi, ' put over or in 

adhij ya, a. having the bow-string up or on, 
i.e. strung. [2jya, 1305.] 

adhi -pa, m. lord; ruler, ['over-keeper,' 
1289a : cf. 354.] 

adhi-pati, m. over-lord; sovereign. 

adhi-pa [352], m. lord, ['over-keeper,' 

adhisthana, n. standing-place; (of the 
soul) a dwelling-place or manifestation. 
[\lstha + adhi.] 

adhuna, adv. now. 

adho-nivita, a. having the sacred cord 
(worn) low. [adhas.] 

adhyayana, n. reading; study, esp. of the 
Veda. [Vi + adhi, 1150. la.] 

adhyaya, m. reading; study, esp. of the 
Veda; (like Eng. lesson), lectio, chapter, 
66 16 , 58 15 , etc. [\| i + adhi, 1 148. 2.] 

adhvara, m. religious or liturgical ser- 
vice ; sacrifice, esp. Soma-sacrifice. 

V adhvarya (adhvaryati). perform sac- 
rifice, [adhvara, 1059d.] 

adhvaryii, m. priest, who did the actual 
work of the sacrifice, and appears in the 
oldest period as companion of the hotr 
see rtvij. [V adhvarya, 1178h.] 

an, before consonants a, negative prefix. 
[1121a; acct, 1288a, 1304a: cf. w-, a-, 
Lat. in-, Eng. un-.] 

V an (aniti [631]; ana; anisus ; anisyati ; 
anita; anitum; -anya). breathe, blow; 
live, [cf . anila, &ve/*os, Lat. anima, ' cur- 
rent of air ' ; Goth, an-an, ' breathe.'] 
+ p r a , breathe. 

ana, pron. stem, see iclam. 

an-agha, a. faultless. 

an a (I v ah [404], m. bull, ['cart-drawing/ 
anas + vah.] 

an-adhigata, a. un-studied. 

an-anusthana, n. non-observance, neg- 

an-antara, 1. a. having no interval; 
immediately adjoining; -am, ado. imme- 
diately afterwards, afterwards ; thereupon ; 
2. as n. non-interval, in sam-. 

an-amiva, a. without sickness or trouble, 
well ; as n. weal, [amiva, 1304a.] 

an-arghya, a. not to be priced, priceless. 

anarghyatva, n. pricelessness. [1239.] 

an-artha, m. non-advantage; disadvan- 

anala, m. fire. 

an-avadya, a. not un-praiseworthy ; 
blameless, faultless. 

anavadyanga,_/. -I, a. having a faultless 
body, [anga.] 

an-aveksa, a. without any looking 
around ; -am, adv. without looking around, 

an-aveksamana, a. not looking around. 
[V Iks + ava.] 

an-agru,a. without tears, [agru, 1304a.] 

a-nasta, a. not lost. [\/lnag.] 

anasta-pagu, a. who loses nothing from 
his herd. [prop. ' having a not lost herd.'] 

anas, n. cart for heavy burden, [cf. Lat. 
onus, 'burden.'] 

an-agata, a. not arrived; not (yet) come, 
impending, future, [\lgarn. + a.] 

anagatavant, a. having to do with the 
future. [1233.] 

anagata-vidhatr, m. arranger for the 
future ; Forethought, name of a fish. 

aii-agas, a. without sin. [acct, 1304a 2 ]. 

an-adhrsyd, a. un-approachable. [acct, 

an-amayA, a. without disease, healthy; 
as n. health. 

an-amayitnii, a. not sickening; healing. 



an-ayudha, a. weaponless; defenceless. 

[ayudha, 1304a.] 
an-aruhya, yrd. without going into 

( danger) . [V ruh + a.] 
anil a, m. wind. [Van, 1189.] 
a-nivigamana, a. not going to rest. 

[acct, 1283.] 
a-nivegana, a. having no resting-place, 

unsettled, [nivegana, 1304a.] 
an-ista, a. undesired; disagreeable; un- 

approved, unlawful. [V 1 is.] 
anista-cintana, n. the thinking about 

something unlawful. 

an-istva,<7rJ. without sacrificing. [Vyaj.] 
anika, n. 1. face; 2. Jig. appearance; 

3. of a hatchet (face, i.e.), sharp edge; 

4. front, and so, by synecdoche, troop. 

[so Lat. acies has mgs 3 and 4.] 
a-nitijna, a. not knowing discreet con- 
anu, prep, after, along, toward; w. ace. 

along or over ; after, i.e. according to. 
anugati,/. a going after. [V gam + anu.] 
an u car a, a. going after; as m. attendant; 

companion. [\l car + anu.] 
anu- jivin, a. living upon, dependent; as 

m. a dependent. [V jiv + anu.] 
anu-tta, ppl. see VI da + anu. 
a-nutta, a. un-moved, i.e. invincible. 

anuttama, a. most highest; best, most 

excellent; supreme. [lit. 'most best,' 

formal superl. to anuttara, which is itself 

logically a superl.] 
an-uttara, a. not having a superior, i.e. 

best, [for mg, cf. nihgreyasa.] 
an-udita, a. not arisen. [Vi + ud.] 
an-udyoga, m. non-exertion, 
anunaya, m. conciliation. [Vni + anu.] 
an-upakarin, a. not doing or unable to 

do a friendly service. 

anu-purva, a. following the one preced- 
ing, one after another ; -am, adv. in regular 

order. [1310a.] 
anumati,/. approbation; favor (of gods 

to the pious) ; personified, Grace. [Vman 

+ anu.] 
anumana, n. the forming of a conception. 

[V 1 ma + anu, ' conceive.'] 
anur a ga, m. affection. [Vraj+anu.] 

anurodha, m. regard. [V 1 rudh + anu.] 

anurodhin, a. having (some) regard for. 
[V 1 rudh + anu.] 

an-ulbana, a. not lumpy; smooth or per- 
fect (of a weft). [1288a 4 .] 

anuvrtti, f. sequence, and so, continu- 
ance. [V vrt + anu.] 

anu-vrata, a. acting according to the 
will or command (of another), obedient; 
devoted to, w. ace. [272], 6 16 , 100 4 . [1310a : 
cf. apavrata.] 

anugaya, m. repentance, [perhaps 'that 
which lies down after one or follows one 
to his bed': Vgi +anu.] 

anusthana, n. devotion to, observance. 
[V stha + anu.] 

anustheya, yrdv. to be accomplished, 
[see Vstha + anu, and 963a.] 

anusarana, n. a going after, a searching. 
[V sr + anu.] 

anustarana, a. strewing over, covering 
over; f. anustaranl (sc. go), a cow, 
slaughtered at the funeral ceremony, and 
the pieces of which are used for covering 
over the corpse, limb by limb. [V str + 

a n u can a, see 807 and 784. 

an-rta, a. untrue; anrta, n. untruth; 
wrong, [rta, 1288a.] 

an-eka, a. not one, i.e. more than one; 

anekadha, adv. many times. [1104.] 

anekagas, adv. in large numbers. [1106.] 

a-nedya, a. not to be blamed; blame- 
less, [acct, 1285a.] 

an-enas, a. free from guilt. [enas, 

an-omkrta, a. not having om uttered, i.e. 
unaccompanied by om. [see omkrta.] 

ant a, m. 1. vicinity, proximity; 2. 
border; limit; end. [see anti: cf. Eng. 

antah-pura, n. inner stronghold or 
citadel; inner apartment of the royal 
citadel, gynaeceum, harem, 2 21 . [antar, 

dntaka, m. ender (death). [anta, 

anta-kara, a. end-making; as m. de- 



.4 u tarn a, a. nearest, very near; as m. in- 
timate, companion, [see anta, mg 1, and 
474 : cf . Lat. intumus, ' inmost.'] 

antar, adv. inward, inwardly, within; 
prep., w. loc. : between, among, within ; 
along with, 78 12 ; cf. Mi, gam, dha. [cf. 
Lat. inter, 'between.'] 

1 antara, a. very near, only in V. and B. 
[see anta, mg 1, and 474.] 

2 antara, a. inner; as n. 1. the interior, 
middle ; jala^antare, in the middle of the 
water = in the water, 50 7 ; vana^antara- 
samcarin, wandering in the forest, 49 13 ; 

2. interval see atra; 3. distance be- 
tween two things; the difference, 29 7 ; 

4. difference, at end of cpds [1302c5]: 
-antara, that which has a difference 
of -, i.e. another -, 33 l , 38 12 - 23 , 43 6 ; -5. 
occasion, juncture, 19 u . [antar: cf. 
fVTfpa, ' inwards, guts.'] 

antar-atman, m. the in(-dwelling) soul; 
heart. [1289.] 

antari-ksa, n. the atmosphere, see 92 9 N. 
[' lying or situate in the middle ' between 
heaven and earth : antar + ksa : for mg, 
cf. rb fj.effrjyv, as used of the aerial space 
traversed by Iris.] 

antariksa-ga, a. moving in the air ; as 
m. bird, [for mg, cf. khaga.] 

antariksa-loka, m. atmosphere-world 
[1280b] ; the atmosphere, regarded as a 
separate world. 

antar-gata, a. gone within, i.e. being 
within ; hidden. 

antardhana, n. abiding; disappearance; 
w. i, disappear. [V 1 dha + antar, q.v.] 

a n t a r - 1 a j j a , /. inward shame. [1289. ] 

antar-vedi, a. situate within the sacri- 
ficial bed ; -di, adv. within the sacrificial 
spot. [1310a.] 

anti, adv. opposite, in front, before; near. 
[see anta : cf . avrl, ' opposite,' &vra, ' face 
to face'; Lat. ante, 'before'; antlcus, 
'former, ancient'; AS. and-swaru, Eng. 

1 antika, n. neighborhood or presence; 
used like samipa, q.v. [anti.] 

2 antika, for anta at end of cpds, 1222, 
1307 ; grahana^antika, having acquisition 
as its conclusion. 

antima, a. last. [anti, 474: for mg 
(' endmost "? ), cf. anta 2, and antya.] 

ante-vasfn, m. pupil, [lit. 'abiding in 
the vicinity,' 1250c.] 

antya, a. being at the end, last; lowest; 
of lowest caste, [anta.] 

antya-jati, a. having lowest birth. 

antyajatita,yi condition of having low- 
est birth. [1237.] 

antya-stri, f. woman of lowest caste. 

a iid. ha, a. blind; blinding (of darkness). 

and has, n. darkness, [cf. andha.] 

anna, n. food ; esp. rice, usually boiled, the 
chief food of the Hindus; grain. [Vad, 
1177a: cf. eJSap, Lat. esca, *ed-ca, 'food'; 
ador, ' spelt ' ; AS. dta, Eng. oat.~\ 

anna-pragana, n. rice-feeding, the first 
feeding of an infant with rice. 

anna-rasa, n. food and drink. [1253b.] 

annavant, a. provided with food, 

any a [523], pron. a. another, other, else; 
anyac ca, and another thing, i.e. again, 
see ca 3 ; other than, different from, w. abl., 
3 4 , 24 19 , 68 12 , 104 u ; otiose, 2 12 ; yad an- 
yat kim cana, whatever else, 9 16 ; anya 
or eka anya, the one the other, 90 13 , 
29 8 . [cf. evioi, 'some'; Goth. an-\>ar, 
'other,' Eng. other, .] 

anyatama, a. one of several, some one. 
[anya, 525 3 .] 

any at as, adv. from another direction 
[1098b], otherwise; elsewhere [1098c 3 ], 
to another place, [anya.] 

any at ha, adv. otherwise, 18 9 ; w. bhu, 
become otherwise, suffer change, 17 5 ; 
otherwise than ,it really is, falsely, 35 20 ; 
otherwise (i.e. if not), 48 8 . [anya.] 

anya-hrada, m. another pool. 

anye-dyus, adv. on the next day. 
['altero die': 1250c.] 

anyonya, pron. a. one the other, for 
any 6 'nya [175a], the first part being a 
crystallized nom. s. m. [1314c] ; w. value of 
gen., anyonyam prati hrcchaya = anyas- 
ya^anyam prati h., love of one towards 
the other, 2 19 . [see paraspara.] 

an vane [409c], a. directed after, following 
after, being behind, [ami + anc.] 

anvita, see Vi + anu. 



ap [393], f. plurale tantum. water; waters. 

[unrelated to Lat. aqua, 'water/ Goth. 

ahva, ' stream.'] 
a p a , prep, away, forth, off ; opp. of lipa, 

see VV i, kr. [cf . air6, Lat. a&, ' from ' ; 

Eng. off", of.] 

apakara, m. injury. [Vlkr + apa.] 
apakarin, a. injuring, [do.] 
apacara, m. going off; absence. [Vcar 

+ apa.] 
d-patighni, a. f. not husband-slaying. 

[402 : acct, 1288a.] 
apatya, n. offspring; child; young (of 

animals), [apa, 'off,' 1245b.] 
a -pad [391], a. footless. [cf. &iro5-es, 

'halt': 1304a.] 
a p a b h r a s t a , . fallen off ; deviating ( from 

good grammar) ; provincial. [Vbhrang + 

ap a ra [525], pron. a. hinder, opp. o/purva ; 

following a former one (purva), 86 13 ; 

later ; westerly, opp. to purva cf. pranc ; 

a following one, i.e. an other ; aparaih ca, 

and another thing, and further, see ca 3 ; 

apari [cf. 355b], f. pi. the future 

(days), the future, [lit. 'remoter,' fr. apa, 

a-paranmukha, a. not having an averted 

face, i.e. not turning the back, 5 19 . 
a-parajita, a. unconquered; w. dig, the 

northeast quarter, 99 23 N. [Vji.] 
aparadha, m. sin. [s radh apa.] 
a-parijata, a. not completely grown (of 

an embryo), i.e. prematurely born, still- 
born, [see pari-jata and ref.] 
a-pariniya, grd. without any leading 

around. [VnL] 
a-parimita, a. unmeasured, unlimited. 

apa-vrata, a. disobedient; stubborn. 

['away from command,' 1310a: cf. dnu- 

apas, see ap. 
a p a s , n. work, [perhaps from V *ap, ' reach, 

take hold of see Vap: cf. Lat. opus, 

' work.'] 
a pay a, m. a going away; what takes one 

from the mark (cf. upaya) ; danger ; 

disadvantage ; diminution. [Vi + apa, 

1148. la : for mg, cf. Eng. untoward.] 

a -par a, a. boundless, [para: acct, 1304a.] 
dpi, indecl. unto, close upon or on; 1. 
prep, to, w. Vgam; 2. adv. (thereto, be- 
sides, i.e.) further, also; connecting clauses 
(63 23 ) or words (65 11 ) ; connecting sentences, 
api ca, and besides, 29 9 , see ca 3 ; api 

api, both and, 54 23 ; % ca api, 
and, 5 12 , 26 5 ; ca, capi, both and 
also, 12 1 ;,' caiva, capi, 65 15 ; capi, 

ca, 3 21 , 16"; capi, ca, ca, 16 6 , 
60 10 ; na , na_api % neither , nor , 
9 9 ; na , na capi, 22 v - ; na , na , api 
ca, neither , nor , nor also , 2 12 ; , 

va, va^api, either , or , or even , 
62 2 ; 3. also, too, immediately following 
the emphasized word, 6 12 , II 3 , 21 18 , 24 21 ; 
mam api, me too, 41 20 ; 4. even, imme- 
diately following the emphasized word, and 
often marking a circumstance under which a 
thing is true where this is not to be expected : 
e.g. 2 13 , 28 7 - 18 , 33 19 ; tatha^api, so even, i.e. 
nevertheless, 21 u ; concessively, although, 
29 \ 21", 61 1 ' 6 ; w. na, not even, 19 15 ; w. 
indefinites, kada cid api na, not ever at 
all, 31 w , 32 s ; -5. but, immediately follow- 
ing a new subject, after change of subject, 
6 15 , 28 21 , 32 22 , 41 .; -6. at least, 
28 9 ' U ; 7. converts an interr. into an indef. 
[507]; so ka, 17 n , etc.; katham, 51 *. 
[cf . M, ' on, upon ' ; perhaps Lat. op-, ob-, 
'unto, on.'] 

a-pidayant, a. non-oppressing. [Vpid.] 

a-purv4, a. having no predecessor; un- 
precedented ; incomparable. [purva : 
acct, 1304a.] 

apeksa,/ regard; expectation. [Viks + 

a-praja, a. having no offspring, childless, 
[praja, 367b.] 

a-prajnata, a. undistinguished or not 
clearly to be known. [Vjna.] 

a-pratarkya, a. un-imaginable. 

a-pratima, a. without match or equal; 
unequalled, [pratima, 367b.] 

a -prat it a, a. not gone against; not with- 
stood; invincible. [Vi + prati.] 

a-pratta, a. not given (in marriage). 
[Vlda + pra, 1087e.] 

a-prayucchant, a. not heedless; watch- 
ful. [V2 yu + pra, q.v.] 



a-priya, a. not dear; disliked; disagree- 

apsaras,yi one of a class of semi-divine 
beings, wires of the Gandharvas ; an Ap- 
saras, 67 12 N. [1151. 2d.] 

a-buddhimant, a. unwise; foolish. 

abda, m. lit. water-giving; (then, perhaps, 
rainy season, and so) year, [ap + da, but 
w. irreg. acct, 1269 : for rag, see varsa.] 

a-bhaksya, a. not to be eaten; as n. 
that which ought not to be eaten. 

a-bhaya, a. dangerless ; as n. safety; 
feeling of safety; superl. greatest safety. 
[bhaya: acct, 1304a 2 .] 

a-bhava, m. non-existence; absence; lack. 

a-bhavin, a. not about to be, not destined 
to be. 

abhi, adv. to, unto; against; frequent as 
vbl prefix ; as prep, unto, w. ace. [cf . a/*4>/, 
' around ' ; Lat. ambi-, amb-, ' on both sides, 
around ' ; AS. ymbe, Ger. um, ' around ' ; 
for mg, cf. abhitas.] 

abhijna, a. knowing, acquainted with. 
[Vjfia + abhi, 333.] 

abhitas, adv. on both sides; on all sides, 
101 10 ; around ; near, [abhi.] 

abhidroha, m. offense. [Vdruh + abhi.] 

abhidha,/. name ; cf. akhya. [V 1 dha + 
abhi, q.v.] 

abhidhana, n. name; designation, [do.] 

abhidhyana, n. the thinking upon. 
[Vdhya + abhi.] 

abhinivega, m. inclination towards. 
[Vvig + abhi-ni.] 

abhibhasin, a. addressing. [\fbhas + 
abhi, 1183 3 .] 

abhibhuti,/. superiority; as a. [1157.2], 
superior. [V bhu + abhi.] 

abhibhuty-ojas, a. having superior 

abhimati,/! hostile plot; concrete, plot- 
ter, foe. [Vman + abhi, 1157. Id : a 

abhi-mukha, a. having the face towards ; 
facing ; turned towards. [1305.] 

abhivada, m. salutation; at 60 22 , signifi- 
cation. [Vvad + abhi.] 

abhivadana, n. salutation, [do.] 

abhivadin, a. signifying, [do.] 

abhivadya, grdv. to be saluted, [do.] 

abhi-giras, a. having the head towards, 

w. ace. [1305.] 

a-bhita, a. fearless; -vat [1107], fear- 
abhipsu, a. desirous of obtaining, w. ace. 

[s/ap + abhi, 1178f, 1038.] 
abhy-adhika, a. additional; more, 
abhy-antara, a. situated in the inside 

[1310a]; as n. interior ; interval, 
abhy-atma, a. directed towards one's 

self [1310a] ; -am, adv. towards one's 

self [ISlOd]. 

abhyasa, m. study. [V 2 as + abhi, q.v.] 
abhra, n. rain-cloud, [cf. o/j.Bpos, 'rain'; 

Lat. imber, ' rain ' : cf . ambhas and ambu, 

' water.'] 

abhravakagika, a. (having, i.e.) afford- 
ing an opportunity for the rain, exposing 

one's self to the rain, [abhra + avakaga, 

V am (amiti [634] ; ame; amayati). press 

on violently; harm; cans. [1041 2 ], harm; 

be sick. [cf. ansa.] 

a ma, pron. this; he. [503*: cf. ama.l 
a-mantii, a. without intention, [mantu: 

a-mara, a. deathless; immortal; as m. an 

immortal, a god; -vat [1107], adv. like a 

god. [mara: 1304a !! end.] 
amarottama, a. chief of gods. [uttama.J 
amaropama, a. like a god. [upama, 


a-martya, a. immortal, 
a-marsa, m. non-endurance; impatience; 


a-mahatman, a. not high-minded, 
a ma, adv. at home, chez soi; ama kr, keep 

by one. [ama, 1112a and e.] 
amatya, m. inmate of the same house, 

relative, [ama, 1245b.] 
a-maya,,/! no guile; sincerity, 
ama-vasa, m. a dwelling (of the moon) 

at home (i.e. with the sun). 
amavasya, a. of amavasa ; f. -a, w. or 

without ratri, the night of amavasa, i.e. 

night of new moon. [1212d4.] 
a-mithuna, a. not forming pairs (of both 

a-mimansya, a. not to be called in 




am iv, a, n., but generally -a, f. plague, dis- 
tress ; as m. tormenting spirit. [V am.] 

amlva-catana, /. -I, a. driving away 
disease. [1271.] 

amiva-han [402], a. slaying the torment- 
ing spirits. 

a mil, pron. root, see adas. [503 2 .] 

a m u t a s , adv. from there, opp. of itas ; 
there, [amu.] 

amiitra, adv. there; in the other world, 
opp. of iha or asnxin (loke). [amii.] 

amuya, adv. so. [amii, 1112a, e end.] 

a-mfta, a. immortal; as subst. an immor- 
tal; as n. immortality; the drink of im- 
mortality, apfrpoffia. ['not dead,' mrta, 
1284a : cf . &-fj.&poTos, ' immortal.'] 

amrtatva, n. immortality, [amrta.] 

ambara, n. garment; sky. [prob. 'cover- 
ing, envelope,' Vlvr + anu, for an(u)- 
vara: cf. adbhuta.] 

ambu, n. water, [see abhra.] 

ambu-ja, a. water-born; as n. lotus. 

ambhas, n. water, [see abhra.] 

ay a, a. subst. going, a going. [Vi, 1148. lab.] 

ay ana, n. a going; place of going, way; 
course; esp. course (of the sun from one 
solstice to the other), i.e. half-year. [Vi, 
1150. la.] 

ay as, n. metal; iron. [cf. Old Lat. ais, 
gen. ais-is, Lat. aes, ' metal, bronze ' ; AS. 
dr, 'bronze/ Eng. ore; perhaps AS. tsern, 
iren, Eng. iron, ' f errum, f erreus.'] 

ayasmaya, a. iron, [see maya.] 

a-yiij, a. not paired; in uneven numbers, 
[cf. S-fv|, 'unyoked.'] 

a-yuj a, a. not paired, uneven, [cf. &-vyos, 
'unpaired'; also vya t> &Cvya, the game 
' even or odd.'] 

a-yuddha, n. no fight. [1288a.] 

a-yoddhf.m. non-fighter, coward. [1288a 4 .] 

ara, m. spoke, [vfr, caus. 'fit in.'] 

arana, a. distant, strange. 

a r a n i , f. piece of wood for kindling fire 
by attrition. 

aranya, n. wilderness, forest, ['strange 
land,' fr. arana.] 

aranya-rajya, n. forest-sovereignty. 

aranya-vasin, a. dwelling in the forest. 

aranyani, / wilderness, [aranya, cf. 

a -rap as, a. without infirmity; whole, 
[rapaa, 1304a.] 

aram, adv. so as to fit or suit, ready, at 
hand, enough; w. kr, make ready, serve, 
79 2 ; w. gam, attend upon. [adv. ace. of 
ara, Vr, lllld: cf. alam.j 

a-rati, f. non-favor; malignity; personi- 
fied, pi., malign hags, [acct, 1288a.] 

arf [343d], a. 1. eager, esp. in one's re- 
lations to the gods, and so, pious; 2. 
greedy; 3. hostile; as m. enemy. [\/r, 
' go for ' : cf . arya.] 

a-riata, a. unharmed. [Vris: acct, 1284.] 

aristatati, f. unharmedness, health, 
[ariata, 1238.] 

aruna, a. ruddy; as m. Aruna, name of a 
teacher, 95 u . [cf. aruaa.] 

a-rundhatf,/ Arundhati, name of the 
faint star Alkor in Ursa Major, conceived 
as consort of the Seven Rishis. [ V rudh, 
691 : acct, 1283a.] 

aruaa,/. arual, a. ruddy, [see 362b 2 : cf. 

are, word of address. Ah! [voc. of ari, 
1135c : cf. re.] 

a-roga, a. not having disease, diseaseless. 

arka, m. the sun. [<Jrc, 21(3.1.] 

argha, m. worth, price. [\/arh.] 

arghya, a. of price or that may be priced, 
[argha, 1212.] 

\1 arc, see Vrc. 

arcis, n. flame. [Vrc, 1153.] 

V arj , see V2rj. 

arjana, n. acquisition. [V2rj, 'get.'] 

arjuna, a. silver-white. [V3rj, q.v.] 

art ha, m. 1. aim, object, purpose, er- 
rand, sake; artham and arthe [1302c4], 
for the sake of, on account of, for, esp. 
frequent at end of cpds ; 2. (object, i.e.) 
thing, matter, affair, cause, business ; 3. 
(object, i.e.) advantage, profit (w. instr.), 
wealth, property; 4. aim, intent, mean- 
ing, 59 15 . ['that which one goes for,' Vr, 

artha-tattva, n. true state of the mat- 
ter or case. 

\f art hay a (arthayate, -ti). seek for an 
object, [artha, 1067.] 
a bhi, ask, entreat. 
+ p r a , desire, sue for. 



artha rj ana, n. acquisition of an object, 

art hin, a. having an object, desiring, 
seeking; (begging, i.e.) needy, [artha.] 

arthya, a. wealthy, [artha.] 

ardha, a. half; as m. the half. 

ardharca, m. half -stanza, [ardha + rca.] 

ardhika, a. amounting to half, [ardha.] 

arpana, n. the sending, consignment, en- 
trusting, [caus. of Vr.] 

arbuda, n. a hundred millions. 

arbuda-gikhara, m. Million-peaks, 
name of a mountain. 

arya, a. faithful; attached, kindly, 79 3 . 
[' going eagerly to,' Vr : cf. arya.] 

arya man [426a], m. bosom-friend, esp. a 
bridegroom's friend, irapavvfj.<t>ios ; Arya- 
man, name of an Aditya (invoked at the 
wedding, and often with play upon the 
appellative mg of the word), [arya.] 

arvak-kalika, a. belonging to hither 
or nearer time, posterior ; -ta, f. posteri- 
ority, [arvanc (1249a) + kala, 1222c2.] 

arvanc [409a], a. directed hitherwards; 
w. kr, bring hither ; w. nud, thrust hither, 
i.e. downwards. 

V arh (arhati, -te; arhayati). deserve; 
have a right to ; w. inf., be able ; w. inf., 
as a weak imperative, 7 17 ; caus. give a 
right to, present with. 

arha, a. deserving; worthy; fit. [Varh.] 

a-laksana, a. without any characteristic 
mark ; without special mark, i.e. plain, 
unornamented. [laksana.] 

a-laksita, a. unnoticed. [Vlaksaya.] 

a-labhamana, a. not catching. 

a 1 a m , adv. enough ; sometimes equiv, to an 
adj., adequate, fitting, ready; w. instr. 
enough with, have done with ; w. Rr, 
make ready, adorn ; sv-alamkrta, well 
adorned; sam-alamkrta, well (samz'ntens., 
1077b) adorned, [later form of aram.] 

a-lavana, a. not salt. 

a-lasa, a. not lively; without energy; 
slothful; tired. 

a-lobha, m. non-greed; absence of cu- 

alpa, a. small. 

alpa-dhi, a. small-minded, of small in- 

alpagas, adv. to a small degree, [alpa.] 

V av (avati ; ava; avit; avisyati; uta; 
-avya). 1. set a-going; 2. further, 
favor, wish well ; 3. refresh ; 4. have 
pleasure in (ace.), [cf. Lat. avere, 'have 
pleasure in,' ave, ' hail.'] 
+ p r a , show forth favor ; then, be atten- 
tive or heedful (as, conversely, in Eng. at- 
tention Aas come to mean ' act of kindness 
or courtesy'). 

ava, vU prefix, down; off. 

avaka, f. grassy swamp-plant, Blyxa 
octandra Richard. 

avakaga, m. 1. open place; 2. (place, 
and so) opportunity. [Vka t- ava.] 

avajna, f. contempt. [Vjfia I- ava : for 
mg, cf . avamana.] 

avatar a, m. descent, esp. of supernatural 
beings to the earth ; an epiphany ; in- 
carnation, Anglo-Indian avatar. [Vtr + 

avatta, see 1087e. 

avadana, n. cutting off. [V2da + ava.] 

a-vadya, a. un-praiseworthy ; as n. imper- 
fection. [1285.] 

V avadhiraya (avadhlrayati). despise; 

a-vadhya, a. not to be harmed, inviola- 
ble, [vadhya, 1285.] 

avadhya-bhava, m. inviolability, 35 21 . 

avanata-kaya, a. with bent down body, 
34 17 . [Vnam.] 

avamana, m. contempt; self-contempt, 
50 u . [Vman + ava : for mg, cf. avajna.] 

avalambitavya, grdv. to be held on to. 
[V lamb + ava.] 

a-vaga, a. not willing or submissive; un- 
controlled, [vaga: acct, 1288a 4 .] 

avagyam, adv. necessarily, surely, [fr. 
an unused adj. a-vaya, 'unyielding.'] 

avas, n. furtherance ; grace. [\/av.] 

avas, adv. downwards; w. abl. [1128], down 
from. [cf. ava.] 

a v a s a , n. refreshment, nourishment. [V av, 

avasara, m. occasion. [Vsr + ava: for 
mg, cf. Lat. casus, ' occasion,' w. cadcre, 
' fall,' and Ger. Fall, ' case, instance,' w. 
fallen, 'fall.'] 

avasana, n. place of rest. [^Jsa + ava.] 



avastha, f. state, condition. [V stha - 
ava t for mg, cf. Lat. status w. stare.'] 

a-vahant, a. not flowing, standing. 
[V vah, mg 4.] 

a-vacya, a. not to be spoken to. 

4 vane [409a], a. directed downwards; ace. 
s. n. avak, adv. downwards, in depth. 

avi, m. sheep; as f. ewe. [cf. 6is, *uFis, 
Lat. ovis, ' sheep ' ; Eng. ewe.'} 

a-vicchindant, a. not severing. [Vchid.] 

a-vicchinna, a. not severed, continuous, 

a-vijnaya,gfrc?. without discerning. [Vjna.] 

a-vijneya, a. unknowable, [do.] 

a-vidasin, a. not drying up, perennial. 

a-vidvans, a. unwise; as TO. fool, [acct, 

a-vidhava, f. not widow, [vidhava: 
acct, 1288a 4 .] 

a-vidhanatas, adv. not according to 

a-vipluta, a. not dishonored; unsullied. 
[Vplu + vi, q.v.] 

a-viveka, a. without discrimination. 

avivekata,/ lack of judgment. [1237.] 

a-viganka, a. without hesitation, unhesi- 
tating, [viganka, 334 2 , 1304a.] 

a-visaya, m. a non-province; something 
out of one's line or that one has no busi- 
ness to do ; unlawful thing. 

a-vrka, a. not harmful; -am, adv. harm- 
lessly, lovingly, [vf ka : acct, 1288a *.] 

aveksa, /. a looking around. [Viks + 
ava, 1149 3 .] 

a-vyakta, a. not manifest; as TO. The 
All-soul, 67". [Vanj.] 

a-vyaya, a. imperishable; not subject to 
change; unbroken. [1288a.] 

V lag, orig. ang (agn6ti, agnute ; ananca, 
anag [788 4 ] ; asta ; asti ; agitum). 
reach ; attain ; obtain, get. [cf . iroS-Tji/e/c- 
fis, ' reaching to the feet ' ; tfy-ryK-a, ' car- 
ried': see also the closely related V2nag.] 
+ upa, attain to. 

\f 2ag (agnati; aga; agit; agisyati; agi- 
ta; agitum ; agitva ; -agya). partake of ; 
taste ; eat. [a specialization of V 1 ag : 
cf. &K-O\OS, 'bit': for mg, cf. bhaks.] 
+ pra, partake of; cas. feed. 

1 a-gaknuvant, a. not being able. [Vgak.] 

a-gakya, a. impossible. 

a-ganka, a. without hesitation, [ganka: 
cf. aviganka.] 

agana, n. food. [V2ag.] 

a-guci, a. impure. 

a-gabha, a. disagreeable. 

a-geva, a. not dear; hostile. [geva: 
acct, 1288a,] 

a-gesa, a. without remainder, entire; -tas, 
adv. entirely, without exception. 

a g man, TO. 1. stone; 2. thunderbolt; 
3. vault of heaven, 79 9 . [cf. aK^iav, 
' anvil, thunderbolt ' ; kinship w. Eng. 
hammer uncertain.] 

agmanvant, a. stony, [agman.] 

agru, n. tear. 

a g v a , TO. horse ; agva, f. mare, steed, [cf . 
TTTTTOS-, dialectic IKKOS, Lat. equus, Old Saxon 
ehu, AS. eh, eoh, ' horse.'] 

agva-kovida, a. well skilled in horses. 

agva-medha, TO. horse-sacrifice. 

agvin, a. horsed; as dual m. the A9vins, 
gods of the morning light, 85 15 N. [agva.] 

agvya, a. consisting of horses ; of a horse, 
[agva : cf. 'hnrios, ' of a horse.'] 

ast [483 3 ], num. eight, [cf. OKT<!>, Lat. 
octo, AS. eahta, Eng. eight.] 

a s t a md, a. eighth, [asta, 487 8 .] 

asta-vidha, a. of eight sorts; eight-fold, 
[vidha, 1302c 5.] 

astanga, n. eight members. [anga, 

astanga-pata, TO. a fall on eight mem- 
bers/ i.e. on hands, knees, feet, breast, 
and face, i.e. a most profound obeisance. 

asti,/^ attainment. [Vlag.] 

V las (asti [636]; asa). -1. be, exist; be 
present or on hand; take place, happen; 
asti, asit, there is, there was, very frequent 
at beg. of stories ; 2. be, w. predicate pos- 
sessive gen., i.e. belong to; asti mama, 
I have ; observe that Skt. has no verb for 
' have ' ; 3. most frequent as simple copula ; 
further, w. ppls: e.g. prapto 'si, art thou 
come, didst thou come, 9 1 ; hantavyo ' smi, 
occidendus sum, 3 2 ; gepano 'smi, I have 
sworn, 97 7 ; redundantly [303b 4 end] : e.g. 
tatha^anusthite sati, it being thus per- 
formed, 35"; so 37 13 , 39 16 - M ; prahrstah 



san, being pleased, 48 12 ; 4. w. advs : 
tusnim asit, kept silent; evam astu, so 
be it ; w. pradus, see s.v. ; 5. become, 
96 19 . [w. as-ti, s-anti, ' is, are,' cf . ftr-n, 
' is, exists,' fieri, Doric tv-ri, *'ivTi, ' are,' 
Lat. es-t, s-unt, AS. is, #is-t, s-ind, ' is, are,' 
Eng. is ; cognate are a-m, ar-t, are.] 

\1 2 as (asyati, -te ; asa ; asisyati ; asta; 
asitum ; asitva ; -asya). throw, cast, 
shoot ; throw aside, [cf . asf, ' the bran- 
dished ' sword j Lat. ensis, ' sword ' ; dlea, 
*aslea, 'die,' like Ger. Wiirfel, 'die,' fr. 
werfen, ' throw.'] 
+ vy-ati, throw over, cross. 
+ abhi, throw (one's self) upon, direct 
(one's attention) to, study, [for rag, cf. 
irpoaf^eiv without rbv vovv.~\ 
+ ni, throw down; deposit; commit. 
+ pari-ni, throw down over, stretch 

+ nis, throw out; root out; destroy. 
+ vi, 1. cast asunder; cast or throw 
away ; 2. break in pieces, 70 14 . 
+ s a m , cast or put together. 

a-samhradayant, a. not causing to 
rattle, [Vhrad.] 

a-satyasamdha, a. unfaithful, treach- 

a-sant, a. non-existing; as n. non-exist- 

a-sapinda, a. related more distantly than 
in the sixth generation, see sapinda. 

a-samartha, a. unable. 

a-sampatti,/. non-success. 

a-sambaddha, a. un-connected, in-coher- 
ent, w. same fig. mg as in Eng. [s/bandh.] 

a-sambandha, a. not having relation- 

a-sambhavya, a. unsupposable, impos- 

a -sail a, a. impatient. 

asu, m. vital spirit; vigorous life. [VI as.] 

a-sutfp, a. insatiable. [1288a 4 .] 

asu-tfp, a. life-robbing, [vbl of V2trp.] 

asu-nlti, f. the leading or continuing of 
life (in the other world); spirit-life; spirit- 
world, [acct, 1274.] 

a-sunva, a. not pressing (Soma), i.e. 
indifferent to the gods, godless. [see 
1148. 3b and 716.] 

a sura, 1. a. spiritual (used of the gods, 
and designating esp. the difference be- 
tween celestial and mundane existence) ; 

2. as m. a spirit of life, a god; asura 
adeva, spirit that is no god, demon, 82 6 ; 

3. later, demon (45 6 ), enemy of the 
gods, an Asura, a not-god (as if the word 
were a-sura whence, by popular ety- 
mology, the pendant sura, 'god'), [asu- 
ra, 1226 (cf. 1188f), and as-u fr. VI as, 

asurya, a. godlike; as n. pi. godhead. 

[asura, 1212d4.] 

V asuya (asuyati). be impatient, 
asuya,/. impatience. [Vasuya, 1149 6 .] 
asrj [432], n. blood, 24 22 . [cf. Cyprian tap, 

' blood.'] 

a sail, see 501 and adas. 
asta, n. home; astam, w. i, gam, ya, go 

home ; esp. of the sun [see 1092b], set. 

[prob. V 1 as : for mg, cf . bhavana.] 
asta-mauna, a. having thrown aside or 

abandoned silence. [V2as.] 
a,sii,f. being. [Vlas.] 
asthan [431], n. bone. [cf. oareov, Lat 

stem ossi-, *osti-, nom. os, ' bone.'] 
a-sthavara, a. not standing, 
asthi, see asthan. 

a-sprgant, a. not touching. [Vsprg.] 
as ma [494], prow. stem, we, us. [cf. rjfj.f'is, 

Lesbian &, 'we.'] 
as mad, as stem in cpds [494], our; as pi. 

majestaticus, my. 

asmaka, a. of us; our. [asma, 516 4 .] 
a-svapant, a. not sleeping. [Vsvap.] 
a-svastha, a. not well, ill; not self-con- 
tained, not master of one's self. 
a-sveda, a. free from sweat. 
V ah (attha, aha, ahathus, -tus, ahus 

[801a]). say; call; ahus, they say. [cf. 

Lat. aio, ' say,' ad-ag-ium, ' saw, proverb,' 

nego, ' say no.'] 

+ pra, declare to be. 

1 aha, assev. particle, certainly, of course; 
namely, [pron. root a: cf. 1104 3 end.] 

2 aha, for ahan in cpds. [1209a, 1315a.] 
a-hata, a. 1. not beaten; 2. (since 

Hindu washermen wet the clothes and 
pound them with stones) unwashed, of a 
garment, i.e. new. [Vhan.] 



ahan, ahar, ahas [430a], n. day (as opp. 
to night), e.g. 92 16 ; day. 

a ham [491], pron. I. [cf. ly&, Lat. ego, 
AS. ic, Eng. /: see 491 and ma etc.] 

ahar, see ahan. 

ahar-niga, n. day and night, wx^rifj-fpov ; 
-am, adv. constantly, [niqa : 1253b.] 

ahaly a, / Ahalya, Gautama's wife. 

ahas, see ahan. 

a-hasta, a. handless. [hasta, 1304a.] 

ahaha, excl. of joy or sorrow. [1135a.] 

a-harya, a. not liable to be stolen. 

aharyatva, n. non-liability to be stolen. 

a hi, m. serpent; esp. the dragon of the sky, 
often identified w. the demon Vritra. [see 
under agha : cf . ex is > I>at. anguis, ' ser- 
pent ' ; fjx f ^ vs > ^ a *' anguilla, ' eel.'] 

a-hinsa,/. non-injuring (any creature). 

ahi-gopa [352], a. having the dragon as 
their keeper. [1302 *.] 

ahivat, adv. as a dragon. [1107.] 

ahi-hatya, n. the slaying of the dragon; 
the (victorious) fight with the dragon, 
[acct, 1272a, 1213c.] 

a-hrnana, a. not being angry. [V2hr.] 

aho, excl. of astonishment, pleasant or un- 
pleasant. [1135a : euphony, 138f.] 

aho-ratra, n. day and night, vu 
[ahas + ratri, 1253b : see ratra.] 

a, adv. 1. hither, unto, as prefix w. verbs 
of motion ; 2. conjunctively, thereto, be- 
sides ; ca a, both and, 85 5 ; 3. as- 
severatively, (up to, i.e.) quite, entirely, 
73 *; 4. as prep., w. abl.: hither from, 
all the way from ; ana* then [293c], all the 
way to, until, 49 13 , 64", 103 M , 105 6 , 106 2 ; 
as far as, 105 10 . [cf . Lat. a, ' from,' which 
is not akin w. ab, 'from.'] 

akara, m. 1. accumulation, abundance ; 
2. mine. [V3kr + a, q.v.] 

V akarnaya (akarnayati ; akarnita ; 
akarnya). listen; give ear to; hear, 
[denom. fr. the possessive adj. *akarna, 
' having the ear to, i.e. listening.'] 

akarsaka, a. attractive; f. -ika 
[1222d], Pleasanton, as name of a town. 
[Vkrs + a.] 

akarsikakhya, a. having the name 

akarsika. [akhya.] 
akara, m. make ; shape ; appearance. 

[V 1 kr + a : cf . akrti.] 
akaravant, a. like the Eng. shapely. 

akaga, m Veda, m.; later, n. free or open 

space; sky. [prop, 'outlook, clearness,' 

Vkag + a.] 
akula, a. 1. bestrewn, covered, filled; 

2. fig. confused ; agitated. [V3kr + a, 

V akulaya (akulayati). confuse; aku- 

lita, at one's wit's end. [akula.] 
ak ut a, n. intention. [Vku + a.] 
akrti, f. make ; shape ; appearance. 

[V 1 kr + a, 1157. Id : cf. akara.] 
akhu, m. mold-warp ; mouse, ['burrower,' 

Vkha + a, 1178a end.] 
akhya, f. name; at end ofcpds, having 

as name. [Vkhya + a.] 
akhyana, n. tale. [Vkhya + a, 1150.] 
agantavya, grdv. seeVgam T a. 
agantu, m. arrival; and so, as in Eng., 

person arriving. [V gam + a, 1161.] 
a g a m a n a , n. a coming hither ; w. punar, 

a returning. [V gam + a.] 
a gas, n. sin. [orig., perhaps, 'a slip,' 

V afij : cf . &yos, ' guilt ' : different is ayos, 

aghrni, a. glowing, beaming. [V2ghr, 

'glow/ -fa, 1158.] 
angirasa, a. descended from Angiras. 

[angiras, 1208a.] 
acamana, n. the rmsing of the mouth. 

[V cam -f a.] 
acamaniya, m. dish for use in rinsing 

the mouth, [acamana, 1215.] 
a car a, m. walk and conversation; conduct; 

usage ; observance. [V car + a.] 
a car y a, m. teacher, esp. of the Veda. 

[perhaps, ' the man of observances,' fr. 

acara, 1212d 4.] 
ajar as am, adv. to old age. [from the 

phrase a jaras-am.] 
ajarasaya, adv. to old age. [dat. (1113) 

formed fr. the preceding, as if that were 

ace. of ajarasa.] 
aji, m. race; contest; battle. [Vaj, 1155. 

cf. ay-wv, 'contest.'] 



& j n a , /. order ; command. [V jna + a.] 
ajya, n. clarified butter (for anointing, 

etc.); cf. ghrta. [Vanj fa, see 100 20 : 

for mg, cf . Eng. noun smear, ' ointment,' 

and verb smear.] 
ajya-gesa, m. n. rest of the clarified 

ajyahuti,/. oblation of clarified butter. 

anjana, n. ointment. [Vanj + a: cf. Lat. 

unguen, ' ointment.'] 
adhya, a. wealthy; rich, [perhaps fr. 

at, adv. thereupon; ad Id, then indeed. 

[lit. 'from that,' abl. of a, 1114a.] 
atithya, n. hospitality, [atithi, 'guest,' 


a t m a , for atman in cpds, 1249a 2 . 
atmaka, for atman in mg 4 at end of cpds 

[1222, 1307]; e.g. mara^atmaka, murder- 

natured, murderous, 
atman, m. 1. breath; 2. spirit; soul 

(cf. 84 8 N.), as principle of life and feeling; 

3. self ; very often so used as a simple 
reflexive pron. [514] ; e.g., myself, 36 16 ; 
thyself, 26 15 ; himself, 4 19 ; in genitive: 
his, 17 16 ; her, 46 5 ; one's own, 21 18 , 58 22 ; 

4. nature, character, peculiarity; esp. 
at end of cpds, see atmaka ; 5. the 
soul KO.T Qoxfy, the soul of the uni- 
verse, 66 8 . [cf. a.vT/j.j)v, 'breath'; ar/j.6s, 
' vapor ' ; AS. wj>m, seftm, ' breath ' : for 
mg, cf. irvtvfia and Lat. anima, 'breath, 

atma-paksa, m. one's own party. 

atma-prabha, a. having his or their 
own splendor, [prabha, 354.] 

atma-bhava, m. the coming into exist- 
ence of one's self. 

atma-mansa, n. one's own flesh. 

atmavat, adv. as one's self, [atma, i.e. 
atman : 1107.] 

atma-gakti, /. one's own power. 

atma-gonita, n. one's own blood. 

atma-samdeha, m. danger of one's self, 
personal risk. 

atma-hita, n. one's own welfare. 

atmaupamya, n. likeness to one's self, 
i.e. a putting one's self in another's place. 

adara, m. respect, notice, care. [V2dr + 
a, 'regard.'] 

a cl ah an a, n. burning-place, place of cre- 
mation. [V dah + a.] 

ad ana, n. receiving. [Vlda + a, 'take,' 

adi, m. 1. in-ception, beginning, 60 8 ; 
adim adatte, he makes a beginning; adav 
eva, just before, just now; 2. esp. at end 
of adj. cpds [see 1302c 1] : -adi, having 
as the beginning, i.e. and so forth ; 
or, the qualified noun being omitted, and 
the adj. cpd being used as subst., and 
so forth. [undoubtedly f r. V 1 da + a, 
'take,' 'a taking hold of, i.e. beginning,' 
1155. 2e: for mg, cf. Lat. in-cipere, Ger. 
an-fangen, ' take hold of, begin.'] 

adika, equiv. to adi in use 2. [1222, 1307.] 

ad it y a, m. 1. son of Aditi, name ap- 
plied to the gods of the heavenly light, 
Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, etc. ; 2. Adit- 
ya, name of the sun-god, son of Aditi ; 
the sun. [aditi, 1211.] 

ad in, a. eating, devouring. [Vad, 1183 3 .] 

adevana, n. gambling-place, 98 ' 3 . [VI diy , 
' play,' + a.] 

adya, a. first; equiv. to adi in use 2. [adi, 

adhipatya, n. sovereignty, [adhipati, 
1211 2 end.] 

adhrsya, grdv. to be ventured against; 
approachable. [Vdhrs + a, 963d.] 

adheya, n. a placing, esp. of the sacred 
fire. [V 1 dha + a, ' put,' 1213c.] 

adhvaryava, n. service of sacrificing 
priest, [adhvaryii, 1208c.] 

anaduha, a. of a bull, taurine. [anaduh, 
weak form of anadvah, 404 ; 1208a.] 

anana, n. mouth; face. [prop, 'the 
breather,' Van: cf. fyea-, 'face,' in irpoff- 
i)vi)s and air-rivfjs, ' with face turned to- 
wards,' ' with face averted ' : for mg, cf . 
nay an a.] 

V ap (apn6ti; apa ; apat ; apsyati ; apta ; 
aptnm ; aptva ; -apya ; apyate ; ipsati 
[1030]; apayati). reach; win; get; 
bring upon one's self; apta: 1. having 
reached ; extending over ; and so, ade- 
quate, suitable, fit; 2. having reached, 
i.e. being near or intimate, and so, as m., 



a friend; Ipsita, whom or what one 

desires to obtain, sought for, desired. 

[prob. for a-ap, 108g, see apas: cf. tfirtos, 

' approachable, friendly ' ; Lat. ap-iscor, 

'reach/ ap-ere, 'seize, fasten'; airrta (Va< 

for air), 'fasten.'] 
abhi, reach to a thing, attain; desid. 

strive to win ; cans, cause to reach the 

mark, i.e. carry out fully, 96 n . 

+ a v a , come upon, fall in with ; obtain, 

acquire ; take upon one's self ; incur. 

+ pra, reach; arrive; come upon; catch; 

win, obtain, get ; incur; prapta: reached, 

found, caught, obtained ; reached, arrived, 

having come ; cans, cause to arrive at, 

bring to, 53"; prapamya, to be brought 

to, 53 1& . 

+ vi, reach through, pervade, 66 9 . 
apana, m. market. [Vpan + a.] 
a p a d , f. misfortune, [lit. ' a getting into ' 

(trouble), V pad + a: for specialization of 

mg, cf . arti, and Eng. ac-cident, lit. ' a hap- 
pening' (of trouble).] 
apas, see ap. 
api, m. friend, ['one who has reached or 

stands near another' (cf. apta), Vap: cf. 

tfirtos, s.v. ap.] 
apta-daksina,a. having or accompanied 

by suitable presents, [daksina, 334 2 .] 
abdika, a. annual; -abclika, -ennial, 

lasting years, [abda.] 
abharana, n. ornament (jewels, etc.). 

[' what is worn,' V bhr + a : for mg, cf . 

<t>apos, ' garment,' w. <pfpw, and Ger. Tracht, 

' dress,' w. tragen, ' wear.'] 
am a, a. raw. [cf. wfj.6s, 'raw'; Lat. am- 

drus, 'bitter.'] 

amay a, m. injury; disease, [caus. of v'am.] 
amayitnu, a. sickening, [caus. of Vain, 


amisa, n. flesh, [cf. ama and amis.] 
amisagin, a. flesh-eating. [ain.] 
amis, n. raw flesh ; flesh, [cf . ama.] 
ara6da, a. gladdening; as m. fragrance. 

[s mud + a.] 
ayatana, n. foot-hold; resting-place; esp. 

place of the sacred fire, fire-place. [Vyat 
^ +.] 
ayata-locana, a. having long eyes. 

[Vyam + a.] 

ayasa, a. metallic, of iron; as n. metal, 
iron, [ayas, 1208a.] 

ay am a, m. like Eng. extent, i.e. length. 
[Vyam + a, 'extend.'] 

ayu, a. active, lively. [Vi, 1178a: prob. 
akin are ^vs, tty'v-s, tvs, ' active, doughty, 
mighty,' -, 'strongly,' e5, generalized, 
'well': for mg of ayii, cf. the phrase 
" full of go."] 

ayudha, n. weapon. [Vyudh + a.] 

ayusmant, a. having life or vitality; 
long-lived; old. [ayus, 1235a.] 

ayus, n. (activity, liveliness, and so) life; 
vitality ; personified as a genius, Ayus, 85 18 ; 
period or duration of life ; long life ; (like 
Eng. life, i.e.) living creatures. [Vi, 1154, 
cf . ay-ll : cf . al-wv, Lat. ae-vu-m, AS. sew, 
&, ' life-time, time ' ; AS. dwa, d, Eng. aye, 
' ever ' ; AS. sef-re, Eng. ev-er.~] 

aranyaka, a. pertaining to the wilder- 
ness; as n. forest-treatise (to be read in 
the solitude of the wilderness Whitney, 
p. xvi.). [aranya, 1222e.] 

aradhana, n. the gratifying, propitiation, 
service. [V radh + a, caus.] 

arogya, n. lit. diseaseless-ness, i.e. health, 

aroha, m. the swelling hips or buttocks of 
a woman, [prop. ' the seat ' on which a 
child is carried astride by its mother, 
Vmh + a, 'get upon, take one's seat 
upon ' : see anka and cf . the words of an 
ogress, MBh., aruha mama Qronim, nes- 
yami tvam vihayasa, ' get upon my hip, 
I will carry thee through the air.'] 

arta, a. visited, esp. by trouble ; afflicted; 
stricken; distressed. [Vr + a, q.v. : for 
mg, cf . American slang phrase gone for.] 

arti,^ a visitation (of evil), i.e. trouble, 
misfortune, see 93 15 N. [Vr + a: for mg. 
cf. arta and apad.] 

ardra, a. wet. 

ardra-vasas, a. having wet garments. 

arya, a. belonging to the faithful, i.e., as 
m., man of one's own tribe, an Aryan, as 
designation of a man of the Vedic Indian 
tribes ; as aay. Aryan ; noble ; reverend 
(used in respectful address), [arya, 1208f : 
cf . Avestan airya, ' Aryan ' ; New Persian, 
Iran, 'Persia'; Hdt. vii. 62, o M^Soi &co- 



\eovro W\ai 'Aptoi; Keltic nom. m'w, ace. 
en'nn, name of Ireland ; Eng. Ir-ish : cf . 
ari, arya.] 

alasya, n. sloth, [alasa.] 

alasya-vacana, n. sloth-dictum, as 
designation for the ignava ratio or fatal- 
ist's argument. 

alapa, m. talk; conversation. [Vlap + a.] 

alokana, n. the beholding. [Vlok + a.] 

ava, pron. stem, 491. 

avis, adv. forth to sight, in view; w. kr, 
make visible. [1078.] 

a vft,/. a turning, [\fvrt-fa.] 

aga, TO. food. [ V 2 ag, ' eat.'] 

a gay a, m. lying-place; abode. [Vgi + a.] 

a 9 a 8 , f. wish, hope, [gans + a .] 

aga,/. hope, [younger form of agas.] 

aga,y. region; quarter (of the sky), [spe- 
cialized from 'place, objective point, that 
which one reaches,' V 1 ag, ' reach.'] 

agavant, a. hopeful, [aga.] 

agin, a. eating, in cpds. [\[2ag, 1183 3 .] 

agis [392], f. wish or prayer, esp. for good. 
[v/gas + a, 639, 225 2 : cf. pragis.] 

aglr-vada, m. expression of a (good) 
wish, i.e. a benediction, [agis, cf. 392.] 

a g I r v a d a bhidhanavant, a. containing a 
designation of a benediction. [agir- 
vada + abhidhana, 1233.] 

a g u , a. swift. [cf . UKV-S, ' swift ' ; Lat. 
oc-ior, ' swifter.'] 

agcarya, n. wonder; prodigy. 

a gram a, m. 1. (place of self-castiga- 
tion, i.e.) hermitage; 2. stadium in a 
Brahman's religious life (of which there 
are four : that of the student or brahma- 
carin, that of the householder or grha- 
stha, that of the hermit or vanaprastha, 
and that of the beggar or bhiksu), see 
65 S N. [Vgram + a.] 

agraya, m. that on which anything leans 
or rests ; support ; refuge ; protection ; 
authority. [V ri + a.] 

agray a-bhuta, a. having become a pro- 
tection, i.e., as m., protector. [1273c.] 

a s , excl. of joy or of displeasure, ah ! 

V as (aste [628], aslna [619 s ]; asam cakre; 
asista ; asisy ate ; asita ; asitum ; asitva ; 
-asya). 1. sit; seat one's self; settle 
down, 93 J ; -2. abide; dwell, 85 19 ; stay; 

remain ; continue, 64 u ; 3. w. ppl. 
[1075c], continue (doing anything), keep 
on, 32 u - 18 . [cf . TJO--TOI, ' sits ' ; Lat. anus, 
*ds-nu-s, ' seat, buttocks ' ; Old Lat. asa, 
Lat. dra, ' family-seat, hearth, altar.'] 
+ a d h i , take one's place in, i.e. visit, 49 16 ; 
get into (shoes), i.e. put on, 45 1T . 
+ upa, sit by (in sign of readiness to 
serve), wait upon (a command), 92 4 ; sit 
by (expectantly), sit waiting for, 91 4 . 
+ pary-upa, sit around, surround, 2 7 . 

a sana, n. sitting, 4 12 ; seat. [Vas.] 

asara, m. (like Eng. colloq. a pour, i.e.) 
pouring rain. [Vsr +a, 'run.'] 

a sura, a. demonic; as m. demon, [asura, 

as6cana, n. cavity (into which one pours). 
[Vsic +a.] 

asecanavantfCf. having a cavity, hollow, 

ahati,/. blow. [V ban + a, 1157 J and Id.] 

a hands, a. swelling, fermenting, foaming. 

ahavana, n. oblation. [Vhu + a.] 

ahavaniya, a. of or for the oblation; ?r. 
agni, oblation-fire ; as m., without agni, 
oblation-fire (the one that receives the 
oblation), see 102 2 N. [ahavana, 1215.] 

ahara, m. the taking to one's self (of 
food), eating; what one takes, i.e. food. 
[Vhr + a.] 

ahara-dana, n. giving of food. 

ahara-parityaga, m. relinquishment 
of food. 

aharadi, n. food and so forth. [adi, 

ahararthin, a. seeking food, [arthin.] 

ahitagni, a. having a set or established 
fire ; as m. one who is keeping alive a 
sacred fire, [ahita, \f 1 dha + a, ' set ' : 

ahuti,/. oblation, offering (used both of 
the act and of the thing offered) ; cf. the 
later word homa. [\f hu + a : w. -huti, cf . 
X'u-ffi-s, ' a pouring.'] 

ahvana, n. call ; invitation. [Vhu or 
hva + a.] 

i, pron. root, see idam ana" 502 3 . 
V i (eti [612]; iyaya, iyiis [783b 2 ]; esyati; 
itd; eturn ; itva ; -itya). 1. go; go 



to or towards ; come ; enter ; 2. move 
on, 88 12 ; pass; 3. go to, i.e. attain (a 
thing or condition) ; iyase [1021 2 ], goest 
hither and thither, 90 15 ; -Imahe [1021 2 ], 
(like Ger. an-gehen) we approach with 
prayers, beseech, [w. i-mas, cf . f-/, Lat. 
i-mus, ' we go ' ; Goth, i-ddja, AS. code, 
'went'; radically akin, perhaps, is AS. 
gdn (stem gd for *ga-i, ga- being the in- 
separable prefix), Eng. go, Ger. gehen : see 
also ayii, ayus.] 

+ ati, go beyond or past or over; over- 
whelm; transcend; leave behind, get rid 
of, 68 9 ; escape. 

+ adhi, come upon, notice; take notice, 
87 18 ; middle adhite [612 note], go over 
for one's self, repeat, learn, read ; ppl. 
adhita : w. act. mg, learn-ed, 18 6 ; w. pass, 
mg, learnt, 21 15 ; cans, adhyapayati 
[1042e], cause to learn, teach. 
+ upa^adh.i, in upadhyaya. 
+ a n u , go along or after ; accompany ; 
ppl. anvita, accompanied by, endowed or 
filled or connected with. 
sam-anu, the same. 
+ an tar, go within; retire, withdraw. 
+ a p a , go off ; slink away. 
+ abhi, go unto; become embodied in. 
+ ava, approach. 

+ a , come near or unto or hither ; w. 
the adv. punar, go back. 
+ abhy-a, approach, go near. 
+ u p a_a , come unto. 
- s a m - a , come near to together ; as- 

+ ud, go up, rise (of the sun). 
+ ttpa, go unto; fall to the lot of; 
ppl. upeta, gone unto, attended by, pro- 
vided with. 

+ sam-upa, come hither. 
+ n i , go into or in ; cf. nyaya. 
+ para, go away or forth; depart. 
+ anu-para, go forth along (a path). 
+ vi-para, go away separately. 
+ pari, circumambulate; walk round 
(the fire). 

+ pra, 1. go forward or onward, 83 n ; 
esp. go forth out of this world, and so (like 
Eng. depart), die ; pretya, after dying, i.e. 
in the other world (opp. of iha) ; preta, 

dead; 2. come out, stick out, be prom- 

+ prati, go against, withstand; go back 
to; recognize, 98 16 ; pratita, recognized, 

+ vi, go asunder; separate; disperse, 83 15 ; 
spread one's self over, i.e. pervade, 72 2 ; 
vita, at beg. of cpds, having departed , 
i.e. free from . 
+ s am, come together ; assemble. 

iccha,y; wish; desire; inclination. [VI is, 
'seek': cf. AS. iesce, 'an asking.'] 

ij, vbl. sacrificing, in rtv-ij. [Vyaj, 252.] 

ijy ,,_/! sacrifice. [Vyaj, 252.] 

itara [523], pron. a. other; the other; 
another ; other than, i.e. different from, 
w. abl. [pron. root i, 502 3 : cf. Lat. iterum, 
' another time.'] 

it as, adv. 1. used like the abl. of a pron. 
[1098c 2 ], 24 18 ; -2. from this (place), 
from here; here; from this (world), 5 8 ; 
itas tatas, here and there ; 3. from this 
(time), now, 41 8 . [pron. root i, 502 3 .] 

iti, adv. see 1102a. 1. in this way, thus; 
so; iti deva akurvan, thus the gods did, 
96 9 ; 2. used w. all kinds of quotations 
made verbis ipsissimis : tatha^ity uktva, 
upon saying " Yes," 4 2 ; sa prstavan kau 
yuvam iti, he asked, "Who are ye," 45 5 ; 
evam astu iti tau dhavitau, with the 
words, "So be it," the two ran off, 45 16 ; 
so EV., 85 12 ; so MS., 92 15 ; ity akarnya, 
on hearing (so, i.e.) the preceding clokas, 
17 16 ; cf. 18 10 ; 2a. designating something 
as that which was, or under the circumstances 
might have been said or thought or intended 
or known, sometimes (46 1S ) preceding it, but 
usually following it : martavyam iti, at the 
thought, "I must die," 29 9 ; gardabho 
'yam iti jnatva, recognizing (the fact), 
" This is an ass," 34 20 ; 2b. interr. in 
place of the exact quotation : In'm iti ; alleg- 
ing or intending what, under what pretext, 
with what intention, 30 4 , 41 5 ; 2c. used 
in giving an authority: iti dharana, so (is) 
the rule, 62 "; ity eke, so some folks 
(say), 101 9 ; 2d. used in citing a Vedic 
verse by its first word (60 13 ) or words (98 20 , 
etc. ) ; 2e. at the end of a section or book 
(cf. atha), here endeth, 4 4 ; 2f. w. verbs 



of naming, considering, etc., the predicate, 
marked by iti, is nom., sometimes ace. 
both constructions at 61 22 ; damayanti^iti 
vigruta, known as or named " D.," 6 3 ; 
3. used to include under one head or as 
in a list several separate objects, 2 1 7 , 100 8 , 
105 7 ; 4. evam superfluously added, 61 12 ; 
iti doubled, 60 "; -5. iti ha = iti, 12 8 , 
61 18 . [pron. root i, 1102a: cf. Lat. iti- 
dem, 'just so.'] 

itihasa, m. story, legend. [agglomera- 
tion of iti ha asa, ' thus, indeed, it was ' : 

ittha (V. only) and ittham, adv. in this 
way ; so ; kim ta ittha, how does this 
happen thee ? 73 8 . [adverbs made from 
the ace. sing, neut., i-d, of the pron. root 
i, see 1101 : cf. Lat. itd and item, 'so.'] 

ity-adi, at end of possessive adj. cpds used 
substantively, that which has " " as its 
beginning, i.e. " " and so forth, [see 
1302c 1 end.] 

id, V. pel. just; exactly; even; emphasizing 
the preceding word and to be rendered by 
laying emphasis on that word. [ace. of 
pron. root i, lllla: cf. Lat. i-d, 'it.'] 

1 id am [501-2 forms made from four 
stems, a and ana, i and ima, those from a 
being often unaccented, see 74 9 N.], pron. 
this, this here, rJSe, e.g. 20 9 , 86 10 , 87 8 ; 
contrasted w. asau, ' that one,' 103 7 ; asmin 
loke, in this world, 66 12 ; without loke and 
contrasted w. amutra, 103 8 ; iclam vic,vam 
bhuvanam, this whole world, 85 12 ; idam 
sarvam, this entire (world), 63 21 ; so 66 19 ; 
so idam, rb irav, 56 15> n ; iyam prthivi, 
this earth, 10 10 ; iyam alone, this earth, 
93 1 > 2 ; refers very often, like rdde, to some- 
thing following (just as etad and TO.VTO. to 
something preceding), e.g. 13 22 , 26 7 , 45 u , 
51 6 ; occasionally refers to something imme- 
diately preceding, e.g. 10", 24 9 , 74 12 , 79*; 
joined w. pronouns : ko ' yam ayati, who 
comes here ? 27 12 ; yo ' yam drc,yate, 
which is seen here, 46 17 ; mam imam, me 
here, 76 16 ; nom. to be rendered here is or 
are, 56 l , 4 21 ; imau vatas, blow hither, 
90 12 . [cf. Lat. i-d, Goth, i-ta, Ger. es, ' it.'] 

2 idam, adv. now, 86 19 ; here, 80 9 , 96 9 . 
[lllla: cf. 502.] 

idanim, adv. now. [pron. root i, 1103b.] 

V idh or indh (inddhe [694]; idhd [783b] ; 
aindhista ; indhisyati ; iddha ; -idhya). 
kindle, [cf . atO-ta, ' burn ' ; Lat. aed-e-s, 
'fire-place, hearth, dwelling' (cf. stove and 
Ger. Stube, ' room ') ; aestus, *aid-tu-s, 
' heat ' ; AS. ad, ' funeral pile ' ; dst, Eng. 
oast, ' kiln for drying hops or malt.'] 
+ sam, kindle, trans, and intrans. 

idhma, m. fuel, [v/idh, 1166: for mg, cf. 
Eng. kindlings.] 

idhma-citi, /. fuel-pile. 

V in (in-6-ti, prop. i-n6-ti [713]). drive; 
force ; in enas. [cf . V inv.] 

indra, m. Indra, name of a Vedic god; in 
the later language, the best of its kind, 
chief, prince, [none of the numerous 
proposed derivations is satisfactory.] 

indra-purogama, a. having Indra as 
leader, preceded by Indra. [1302c2.] 

indra-loka, m. Indra's world, heaven. 

indra-gatru, a. having Indra as his 
conqueror. [1302.] 

indra-sena, f. Indra's missile weapon; 
personified as his bride, RV. x. 102.2; 
hence, name of a woman, see 16 n N. ; m. 
-a, name of a man, formed as a mere pen- 
dant to the fern, [indra + 1 sena.] 

indragni, m. Indra and Agni. [indra + 
agni : acct, 1255b.] 

indra-brhaspati, m. Indra and Brihas- 
pati. [acct, 1255a.] 

indrayudha, n. Indra's weapon, the 
rainbow, [ayudha. ] 

indriya, a. belonging to Indra; as n. 

1. the quality pertaining especially to 
Indra, i.e. great might, power, 73 18 , 97 6 ; 

2. in general, one of a man's powers, i.e. 
a sense or organ of sense, [indra, 1214b.] 

V indh, see idh. 

V inv (invati). drive; send, [secondary 
root from i, 749b, 716 : cf. in.] 

ima, pron. stem, see idam. 

iyacciram, adv. so long, [iyant (1249a) 
+ ciram.] 

iyant [451], a. so great; so much. [fr. 
pron. root i, 502.] 

iras, n. ill-will; anger; assumed as basis of 
'the following denom. [V r, ' go for ' in hos- 
tile sense : cf . Lat. Ira, ' anger.'] 



V irasya (irasyati). be evil disposed. 
[iras, 1058.] 

irasya, /. ill-will ; wrath. [Virasya, 
1149 6 : cf. irsya.] 

frina, n. a run or runlet; gulch; gullied 
and so desert land. [Vr, 1177b: for mg, 
cf . Provincial Eng. run, ' brook.'] 

iva, end. pel. 1. as; like; 2. used to 
modify a strong expression, in a manner ; 
so to speak, 56 16 ; as it were, I 10 ; perhaps; 
almost, 34 13 ; 3. sometimes (like eva), 
just, quite ; nacirad iva, right soon, 
[pron. root i, 1102b.] 

V lis (icchati [753]; iy6sa, isiis [783b] ; 
aisit ; esisyati ; ista ; estum ; -isya). 
seek ; desire ; esp. w. inf. [981 3 ] ; pass, be 
desired; be approved or recognized, and 
so pass for, 59 18 ; ista, desired, i.e. desir- 
able, 1 *. [radical mg, ' go, go for,' V 2 is 
being merely a causative of V 1 is : cf . 
iptpos, *tfj./j.epos, ' desire ' ; w. iccha, ' desire,' 
cf. AS. *dsce, 'petition,' whence dscian, 
Ger. (h)eischen, Eng. ask: icchati for *is- 
skati, cf. Vvanch.] 
+ anu, seek after. 

+ abhi, seek for; ppl. abhista, desired, 
dear, 21 18 . 

V 2 is (isayati [1042a 2 ]; also isyati [761c] ; 
iyesa, isus [783b] ; isita ; isayitum ; 
-isya). send; set in swift motion; im- 
pel, 74 19 . [caus. of V 1 is, q-v.] 
+ pra, 1. presayati: send forth; send, 
e.g. 9 10 ; 2. pr6syati : drive forth, impel ; 
start up (e.g. game) ; praisam [970a] 
aicchan, sought to start up, 93 16 ; and so 
3. presyati: call upon or summon (tech- 
nical term used of the chief priest's calling 
upon another to begin a text or action), 
103 6 . 

is,/, refreshment; strength; vigor; w. urj, 
drink and food, like Ger. Kraft und Saft. 

is A, 1. m. = is [399]; 2. as a. vigorous, 

Isu, m. f. arrow. [V2is, 'send': cf. 16s, 
*la6s, ' arrow.'] 

1 ista, see V 1 is, ' desire.' 

2 ista, 1. offered; 2. as n. offering, 
sacrifice, holy work. [Vyaj, 252.] 

istaka, f. brick used in the sacred fire- 
pile. [2 ista.] 

ista-labha, m. acquisition of a desirable 
object. [1 ista.] 

ista-purtd, n. what is offered (to the 
gods) and bestowed (upon them), i.e. what 
a man offers to the gods for his benefit 
after death, and so, by metonymy, such fruit 
of these offerings as can come to him, 
83 13 N. [2 ista, 247, 1253b.] 

isti, f. sacrifice (simple offering of but- 
ter, fruit, etc.), 101 6 . [Vyaj, 252, 
1157. la.] 

iha, adv. here, opp. of atra (87 l ) and 
amutra (64 6 ) ; hither, 9 2 ; here on earth, 
id has, 27 2 ; opp. o/pretya (Vi), 59 2 , 58 "; 
in this book, 17 6 ; w. loc. [cf. 1099*], iha 
samaye, in this case, 41 10 , 42 15 . [pron. 
root i, llOOa.] 

V Iks (iksate ; rksam cakre ; aiksista ; 

iksisyate ; iksita ; iksitum ; iksitva ; 

-iksya ; Iksyate). look; look at; see; 

behold, [desid. of V*a, ' see,' contained in 

ak-san, 'eye,' etc., 108g: see aksan.] 

+ a p a , look off to (like Ger. es absehen 

auf ) ; regard ; expect. 

+ ava, look after; look after one's self, 

i.e. look behind or around. 

+ u p a , w. two mgs, like Eng. overlook : 

1. look over, i.e. inspect; and 2. (more 

commonly) look beyond, i.e. neglect. 

+ nis, look out or after; contemplate. 

+ pari, look about one; investigate; 


+ vi, look; look on; viksita, beheld. 

+ s am, look upon; behold; perceive, 
iksaka, m. beholder; spectator. [Viks, 


iksana, n. a look; glance. [Viks.] 
V inkh (inkhati, -te ; inkhayati, -te 

[1041 2 ]). move unsteadily. 

+ pr a, rock or pitch onward. 
V id (lie, ilise, itte [628, 630] ; perf. ile ; 

ilita). supplicate ; call upon ; praise. 

[Whitney, 54.] 
idya, grdv. to be praised. [Vid, 963 2 and 

d : pronounced ilia, Whitney, 54.] 
idfa, a. of this sort; such. [502 end, 

and 518.] 



Ip sit a, a. desired to be obtained ; desired, 
[desid. of Vap, 1030.] 

im, end. 1. as ace. s. of pron. root i, him, 
her, it ; him, 79 7 ; 2. indef., ya im, 
quicunque, RV. x. 125. 4 ; 3. ka im, who 
pray? 77 18 ; 4. to avoid hiatus: between 
atha and enam, 84 5 ' 6 . [see lllla and 
502 end.] 

V ir (irte [628]; irna; irayati, -te; irita). 
set one's self in motion; cans, set in 
motion ; cause to go forth, i.e. : 1. bring 
into existence; 2. utter (a sound), 14 23 . 
[near akin w. V r.] 

+ ud, rise up; cans, rouse; send out; 
utter ; announce, 53 16 . 
+ sam-ud, cans, utter, declare. 
+ pra, cans, drive or steer onward (ship). 
+ s am, cans, bring together, i.e. into shape 
or being; create, 75 6 ; samerire", estab- 
lished (as an ordinance), instituerunt, 88 5 N. 

Irsya, f. ill-will; envy; jealousy, [con- 
tracted fr. irasya, q.v. : cf . girs-an and 

V ig (ige [628]; igisyati). own, be master 
of, w. gen. [cf . AS. dg-an, ' possess,' Eng. 
owe, ' possess ' (so Shakespere often), 
'possess another's property, be in debt'; 
thence the participial adj. dgen, Eng. adj. 
own, ' proprius ' ; thence the denom. dgnian, 
Eng. verb own; further, to ah, preterito- 
present of dgan, is formed a secondary 
past tense, dhte, 'possessed,' Eng. ought, 
'possessed' (so Spenser), 'was under obli- 

iga, 7?i. master; lord, [Vig.] 

i g v a r a , m. master ; lord ; prince ; rich 
man, 22 2 . [Vig, 1171a.] 

Vis (Isate ; ise; isita). hasten from, flee 
before, w. abl. [if not desid. of Vi 
end), perhaps akin w. VI is, orig. 'go.'] 

u , Vedic end. copula. 1. and ; also ; fur- 
ther; used in one (oftenest the latter) of two 
douses or sentences containing things alike 
or slightly contrasted (e.g. 78 u , 79 9 ), esp. in 
anaphora (e.g. 79 5 , 90 9 ) ; 2. now, straight- 
way, w. verbs present and past and w. im- 
peratives or imperative subjunctives, 71 10 , 
85 15 , 85 5 , 87 8 ; often followed by sii, right 

soon; pragrhya [see 1122a 2 , 138c] when 
combined with atha (90 16 ), lipa (78 u ), ma 
(87 9 ) ; for 83 9 and 84", see notes ; -3. in 
classical Skt. only w. (atha, kim, and) na, 
and not, 2 1 14 , 27 n . 

u-kara, m. the sound u. [Whitney, 18.] 

ukta, see Vvac. 

ukti, f. expression; declaration, 53 16 . 
[Vvac, 1157. la.] 

uktha, n. utterance, esp. of devotion; 
praise ; hymn of praise ; invocation. 
[Vvac, 1163a.] 

uktha-vardhana, a. strengthening,^, 
refreshing or delighting one's self with 
hymns of praise, [acct, 1271.] 

V uks [252] or vaks (uksati, -te ; atiksit; 
uksisyati; uksita ; -liksya). sprinkle; 
besprinkle ; drop, intrans., 75 7 . [secondary 
form (108g end) of V *uj or ug: cf. vy-pos, 
'wet'; Lat. uvens (*ugvens) caelum, 'the 
dropping sky ' ; w. uksan, ' besprinkler, 
impregnator, bull,' cf . Goth, auhsa, ' bull,' 
Eng. ox, and for mg, Vvrs.] 
+ p r a , sprinkle before one by way of 

ugra, a. mighty; exceedingly strong; ter- 
rible. [Vvaj, 252, 1188; see 6jas.] 

ugra-gasana, a. having a terrible way 
of ruling ; as m. a, strict ruler. [1298a.] 

V uc (licyati [only w. preps] ; uv6ca [783b], 
ucivans [803]; ucita). be pleased; be 
wonted ; ucitd : 1. with which one is 
pleased ; proper ; suitable ; 2. accus- 

ucca, a. lofty; uccais, adv. [1112c], high; 
of sound, loud. [fr. ucca, adv. instr. 
(1112e) of lidanc.] 

u c c a y a , m. heap, pile, collection. [V 1 ci + 
ud, ' heap up.'] 

u c car a, m. evacuation ; excrement. [Vcar 
+ ud.] 

uccavaca, a. high and low; various; 
diverse, [ud + ca w. ava + ca, 1314b.] 

ucchista, ppl. left; as n. leavings, esp. 
of a sacrifice or of food. [V gis + ud.] 

ucchedin, a. destroying. [Vchid + ud.] 

ujjayini, /. Oujein, name of a city, 
Ptolemy's 'O^vrj. [fern, of ujjayin, 'vic- 
torious,' Vji + ud, 1183 3 : of like mg are 
NtKo-TroA.(j and Cairo.'] 




V unch (linchati, unchati ; unchitum). 
sweep together, glean, [for *unsk, *vansk, 
orig. ' wipe, or whisk, i.e. sweep ' : cf . AS. 
wascan, 'wash,' Eng. wash and whisk.~\ 
+ p r a , wash away ; wipe out, 23 2 . 

tin gist a, same as ucchista. 

uta, conj. and; also; even; connecting 
words, clauses, and sentences ; repeated : 
uta uta (uta), both and (and) ; 
at beg. of verse, 78 12 ; uta va : or even, 
87 20 ; or, 84 u (cf. atha, 6) ; apy uta, also. 

utkarsa, m. elevation, [v/krs + ud.] 

uttama, a. 1. up-most; highest; best, 
esp. at end ofcpds; excellent; chief; 2. 
(out-most, i.e.) ut-most; extreme; last (see 
67 6 x. ) , 99 20 . [lid, ' up, out,' 473.] 

uttamagandhadhya, a. rich in ex- 
cellent odors, 15 19 . [uttama-gandha + 

uttamadhama madhy ama, a . highest 
and lowest and midmost ; best and worst 
and middling. [uttama + adhama + 
madhyama, 1257.] 

uttara [525 2 ], a. upper; higher; 1. being 
above, (opp. adhara) 70 18 ; having the 
upper hand, victorious, 81 2l ; 2. north- 
ern (on account of the Himalayas, cf. 
udanc) ; a^uttarasmat, as far as the 
north (side), 105 10 ; 3. the left (because 
in prayer the face is turned eastward: 
cf. daksina), 99 22 ; 4. (like Sffrepos) the 
latter (opp. purva) ; later ; following, 
99 22 ; -am, as adv. finally, last, 104 12 ; -5. 
as neuter subst. the final element of a 
phrase of salutation, 60 3 ; 6. answer, 
retort, [ud, 473: cf. Sarrepos, 'latter'; 
Eng. comp. ut-ter, 'outer.'] 

uttaratas, adv. northward; to the north 
of; w. gen. [1130], 105 13 . [uttara.] 

uttara-dayaka, a. giving answer ; con- 

uttara-pagcima, a. north-westerly. 

uttara-purastat, adv. north-east of; 
w. gen., 1130. 

uttara-loman,a. having the hair above, 
with the hairy side up. 

uttara, adv. northerly, [uttara, 1112e, 
330 4 .] 

uttara-patha, n. the northerly way; 
the north country. 

uttar ena, adv. northerly; north of, w. 

ace. [1129], 102 5 . [uttara, 1112c.] 
uttarottara, 1. a. higher and higher 

[1260]; -am, as adv. more and more, 24 3 ; 

2. as n. answer to an answer [1264]; 
wordy talk, 24 9 . [uttara + uttara.] 

uttha, see 233a. 

utpala, n. a Nymphaea, i.e. water-lily or 
lotus. [Vpat + ud.] 

utpadana, n. procreation. [caus. of 
V pad + ud.] 

utphulla, a. wide open. [Vphal + ud, 

utsava, m. 1. an undertaking, begin- 
ning; 2. feast-day, festival, 25 4 , 49 16 . 
[\/2su + ud, 'set a-going'; but the devel- 
opment of 2 from 1 is not clear.] 

li d , prefix, never used alone ; up, up forth, 
out. [cf. AS. ut, Eng. out: see uttara, 

N/ ud or und (unatti; unna, utta; -lidya). 

1. spring; boil or bubble up; flow; 2. 
wet, bathe, [cf . Lat. und-a, ' wave ' ; w. 
ud-an, 'water,' cf. v8-cap, Eng. wat-er ; w. 
ud-ra, 'otter,' cf. SS-pa, 'water-snake/ 
Eng. otter.'] 

-t-s am, flow together; wet. 
uda, n. water. [Vud.] 
udaka [432], n. water. [Vud.] 
uda-kumbha, m. water-jar; jar with 

udag-ayana, n. north-course (of the 

sun), or the half-year from the winter to 

the summer solstice, [udanc.] 
lidagdaga, a. having the seams upward. 

[udanc + daa, ' fringe, border, seam.'] 
udan-mukha, a. having the face to the 

north, [udanc, 1249a, 161.] 
udanc [409b], a. directed upward; directed 

northward (on account of the Himalayas), 

cf. uttara), northerly ; in cpds, udak, 

1249a. [ud + afic, 407.] 
udaya, m. a going up; rising (of the sun). 

[Vi (1148.1a)+ud.] 
udara, n. belly, [orig., perhaps, 'rising, 

swelling,' V r + ud : for mg, cf . the relation 

of belly to AS. belgan, ' swell.'] 
udara, a. (like Eng. exalted, i.e.) noble, 

excellent. [\'r + ud, 'rise.'] 
udara-carita, a. of noble behavior. 



u d i t A, , see V vad ; ud-ita, see V i. 

lidici, see407 3 , 409b. 

udumbala, a. brown. 

u d d i 5 y a , at, towards, see V dig. 

uddhata, see 163 and \ h.-ui. 

lidbahuka, a. having the arms out or 
extended, [ud + bahu, 1305, 1307.] 

udya, grdv. to be spoken or pronounced. 
[Vvad, 1213c end, cf. 963c.] 

udyama, m. raising (of the hands to 
work) ; exertion. [Vyam + ud.] 

udyana, n. 1. a walking out; 2. (place 
for walking out, i.e.) garden, park. [Vya 
+ ud, 1150.] 

udyoga, m. undertaking; exertion. [Vyuj 
+ ud, 216. 1.] 

udyogin, a. active ; energetic, [udyoga.] 

udvigna-manas, a. having a terrified 
mind, distressed. [Vvij.] 

unmatta-dargana, a. having a frantic 
look. [Vmad + ud.] 

unmarga, m. by-way, evil way. [ud -f 

unmarga-gamin, a. going in evil 

lip a, 1. vbl prefix, to, unto, toward; opp. 
of apa ; 2. prep., w. ace., unto, 81 15 ; 
iv. loc., in, 77 5 ; 3. in noun cpds [1289b], 
denoting something near, accessory, or subor- 
dinate, [cf . inr6, Lat. s-ub, ' under.'] 

upakanisthika (sc. anguli), a. f. next 
to the little, i.e. the third (finger), [upa 
(mg 3) + kanisthaka, 1222d.] 

upakartr, m. one who does kindness; 
benefactor. [V 1 kr + upa, q.v.] 

u p a k a ra , m. friendly service ; kindness. 
[V 1 kr + upa, q.v.] 

upakaraka, a. doing friendly service. 

upakarin, a. the same ; as m. benefactor. 
[Vlkr + upa, q.v.] 

up a car a, m. a coming to or waiting up- 
on ; pregnantly, (polite) attention ; (cor- 
rect) procedure, i.e. duty. [V car + upa.] 

upatya, a. lying under, [upa, 1245b : cf . 
vir-Tio-s, ' lying under, supine.'] 

upatyaka,/. land lying at the foot (of a 
mountain), [upatya.] 

upadega, m. a pointing out to, a direc- 
tion; instruction; advice. [V dig + upa.] 

upadegin, a. giving (good) instruction. 
[Vdig + upa.] 

upadestavya, grdv. to be taught, [do.] 

upanayaiia, n. investiture. [technical 
term, see Vni-+upa.] 

upapf c, a. clinging close to, w. gen. [Vprc 
+ upa.] 

upabhft, f. wooden cup (used in sacri- 
fices), see sruc. [' td-bringer,' Vbhr (383b) 
+ upa.] 

upabhoga, m. enjoyment; eating. [V2 
bhuj + upa, q.v.] 

up am a, a. highest, [upa, 474.] 

upama-gravas,a. having highest glory; 
as m. Upama9ravas, a name like MeyuTro- 
K\TJS or "T\j/i-K\rjs. 

u p a m a , f. comparison, image ; and so like- 
ness, resemblance; at end of cpds, having 
likeness with , like . [VI ma + upa, 
' compare.'] 

upamartha, m. purpose of an image; 
-ena, figuratively, [artha.] 

upayoga, m. ap-plication ; use; utility. 
[Vyuj +upa.] 

upari, adv. above; as prep., w. gen. [1130], 
above; at end of cpd [1314f], upon, 39 16 . 
[cf. vwfip, #vTTfpi, Lat. s-uper, ' over.'] 

li p a 1 a , f. upper mill-stone ; cf. drsad. 

upavancana, n. a tottering unto, a fal- 
tering approach, [vlvanc +upa.] 

upavana, n. small forest, i.e. grove, [upa 
(mg 3) + vana.] 

lipavlta, ppl. wound about, esp. with the 
sacred cord; as n. [1176a], the being sur- 
rounded with the sacred cord ; the cord 
itself. [V vya + upa, 954c.] 

upavega, m. a sitting down. [Vvig + 

dpavegi, m. Upave9i, name of a man. 

upagama, m. stopping; cessation. [V2gam 
+ upa, ' stop.'] 

upasamgrahana, n. the clasping and 
taking to one's self (the feet of another), 
as sign of great respect. [Vgrah + upa- 

upaseva,/. a serving; a being devoted 
to. [Vsev + upa.] 

upasevin, a. serving; revering. [Vsev 
+ upa.] 

upastha, ///. lap, groin. 



upakhyana, n. subordinate tale ; episode, 
I 1 , [upa (mg 3) + akhyana.] 

up ad an a, n. the taking to one's self; 
appropriation. [V 1 da + upa^a, ' take.'] 

npadhyaya,m. teacher. [Vi + upa^adhi.] 

upanah, f. sandal; shoe, ['under-bond,' 
Vnah + upa (247): for mg, cf. uW-Sr^a, 
' sandal.'] 

up ant a, n. proximity to the end; edge; 
immediate neighborhood, [upa (mg 3) + 

up ay a, m. approach; that by which one 
reaches an aim ; means ; expedient, 39 * ; 
stratagem ; advantage, 39 6 . [Vi + upa, 
1148. la: for mg, cf. Eng. to-ward, as an 

upayana, n. approach. [Vi + upa, 
1150. la.] 

upara, m. transgression. [Vr + upa.] 

upeksa, /. overlooking; neglect, [Vflts 
-f upa.] 

up o sit a, ppl. having abstained (i.e. from 
food), having fasted; as n. [1176a], fast- 
ing. [V3vas +upa, q.v.] 

V ubh (ubhnati, umbhati [758]; ubdhd; 
-ubhya). unite; couple, [cf. ubha.] 
+ a p a , bind, fetter. 

ubha, a. both. [cf. /*<&>, Lat. ambo, AS. 
nom. fern. neut. bd, Goth. nom. neut. ba, 
nom. masc. bai, w. dental extension, bajo\>s, 
all meaning ' both,' Eng. bo-th : orig., per- 
haps, 'couple,' and akin w. Vubh.] 

ubhaya [525 *], a. of both sorts; both, 

ubhaya-kama, a. desirous of both. 

ubhayatas, adv. from both sides; in 
both cases, [ubhaya, acct !] 

ubhayatah-sasya, n. having a crop 
at both times, i.e. bearing two crops a 

ura-ga, m. serpent, ['breast-going,' ura 
for uras : for mg, cf . khaga.] 

liras, n. breast, [perhaps, 'a cover/ from 
VI vr, 'cover,' 1151. Ib, w. a specialization 
like that in Eng. chest, ' thorax.'] 

urii, f. urvi, a. (prop, encompassing, and 
so, like Eng. capacious) extensive, wide, 
great; as n. (like Ger. das Weite) the dis- 
tance. [Vlvr, 'encompass,' 1178a: cf. 
tvpv-!, 'wide.'] 

uru-vyacas, a. having wide embrace, 
wide extending, [acct, 1298b.] 

V urusya (urusyati). to distance, i.e. 
escape ; put another in the distance, i.e. 
save, [urti, 'the distance,' 1061 2 .] 

uru-nasa, n. having broad snouts, [uni 
(247) + nas, 193, 1315c : acct, 1298b.] 

ulukhala, n. a mortar. 

ulba ana* lilva, n. enveloping membrane 
of an embryo, [for *ur-va, V 1 vr, ' en- 
close,' 1190- cf. Lat. vol-va, 'covering, 

ulbana, a. lumpy, knotty, thick, massy, 
[ulba, for *urva, hence n, 189.] 

V us (6sati ; uv6sa; auslt ; usta). burn, 
[for cognates, see the collateral form 
V 1 vas, ' light up,' also usas, usra, etc. : 
cf . fva>, ' singe ' ; ouo>, ' kindle ' ; Lat. ur-o, 
'burn,' and ustus = usta-s ; AS. ys-le, 
'glowing ashes.'] 

usas [415b], f. morning-red ; dawn ; per- 
sonified, Dawn. [V 1 vas, ' light up, dawn,' 
252 : cf. i)<as, Aeolic aScas, Lat. aurora, 
*ausos-a, 'dawn'; radically cognate also 
is Eng. eas-t, ' the point where day breaks': 
see us and usra.] 

ustra, m. camel. 

usna, a. hot. [Vus, 1177a.] 

usra, a. bright; of or pertaining to the 
dawn ; as /., usra, dawn. [V 1 vas, ' light 
up/. 252, 1188, 181a : w. us-ra, cf. Old 
Germanic Aus-t-ro, a goddess of the (year- 
dawn, i.e.) spring-light, and AS. Eos-t-ra, 
the name of whose festival, caster, 'Easter- 
day/ occurring in April, was transferred 
to the Christian festival that replaced it ; 
for t between s and r, see under svasr: 
see us and usas.] 

utl,y. furtherance, help, blessing; refresh- 
ment, food. [Vav, 1157.] 

udhan, udhar, udhas [430b], n. udder, 
[cf. oJflap, Lat. iiber, AS. uder, Eng. 

tin a, a. lacking, [cf. ffivis, 'bereft'; AS. 
wan, ' lacking/ wanian, ' decrease/ Eng. 

urti, m. thigh, [prob. 'the thick' of the 
leg, from urii.] 



u r j , f. sap ; strength ; vigor ; nourishment. 

[\[*varj, 'swell with, be full of: cf. opydca, 

'swell with, abound'; Lat. virga, 'swelling 

urn a, n., and wcna,,f. wool, ['cover,' Vlvr, 

'cover' (cf. 712): cf. tlpos, tt-Fp-os, Lat. 

vellus, Goth, vulla, Eng. woo/.] 
urna-mradas, a. having the softness of 

wool, soft as wool. 

urna-stuka,y! braid or plait of wool. 
V urnu, see 712, and Vlvr. 
urdhva, a. tending upwards; upright; 

elevated ; -am, as adv., upwards ; over ; 

beyond; after, w. abl, [1128]; ata urdh- 

vam, from now on. [cf. Lat. arduus, 

' lofty.'] 
urdhva-drsti, a. having an upward 

gaze. [1298.] 

urmi, m. wave. [lit. 'roller, rolling bil- 
low,' V*VT, ' roll, turn hither and thither ' : 

cf. ZAAco, *FI-F\-O>, Lat. volvo, ' roll ' ; Ger. 

Welle, ' wave.'] 
V luh (uhati; auhlt; udha, uhita ; uhi- 

tum ; -uhya). remove. 
V 2uh (6hate [745a]; uh6; aiihit, aiihista; 

uhitum; -uhya). notice. 

+ a p i , grasp ; understand, 88 10 . 

V r (iyarti [643c] ; rn6ti ; rcchati [753 
end, 608] ; ara [783a 2 ] ; arat; arisyati ; 
rta ; rtva ; -ftya ; arpayati [1042d]). 
move, as trans, and as intrans. ; 1. rise, 
73 10 ; come upon or unto, reach, attain ; 
2. raise (e.g. dust); cans, send; put; 
fasten ; fit in. [w. r-n6-ti, cf . up-vvcn, 
' rouses ' ; cf . Lat. or-ior, ' rise,' or-tus, 
' risen ' ; S>p-ro, ' rose,' = ar-ta, 3d sing. 
aor. mid. ; w. r-ccha-ti, cf. fy-xe-rcu, 
' goes,' also i\-8e?p, ' go ' ; w. caus., cf . 
ap-api(TK<a, ' fit,' Lat. ar-tu-s, ' well-fitted, 
close, narrow ' ; see also rta.] 
+ a, 1. get into (trouble), 93 15 x.; 2. 
(like the American go for, 'treat harshly 
by word or deed ') visit with trouble ; ppl. 
arta, visited by trouble, distressed. 
+ ud, rise ; raise. 

+ u p a , go against, transgress, [for mg, 
cf. rna.] 

+ nis, (go forth, i.e.) dissolve connection 

+ sam, come together, meet; go along 
with, 73 9 ; caus. send; deliver to; con- 
sign, entrust. 

rkti, /. praise, in su-v-rkti. [Vrc.J 

rg-veda, TO. the Rigveda (each stanza of 
which is called an re in distinction from 
a yajus and a saman). 

V re (arcati; anarca, anrce [788]; arcis- 
yati ; arcita ; arcitum ; arcitva ; -arcya ; 
arcayati). 1. beam; 2. praise; sing 
(praise); sing (of the winds); honor; 
caus. [1041 2 ], salute, [cf. arka.] 

fc, /. 1. hymn of praise; esp. a stanza 
that is spoken, as distinguished from one 
that is sung (saman) or from a sacrificial 
formula (yajus); 2. stanza or text to 
which a certain rite or explanation has 
reference, 98 5 ; 3. the collection of re's, 
the Rigveda, 57 ", 63 3 . [V re.] 

rca, for re, at end ofcpds [1209a, 1315c]. 

v/ Irj or rnj (rnjati, -te ; fjyati, -te). 
reach out, esp. in a straight direction 
(and so, the opp. of Vvrj, 'bend, turn,' q.v. 
and see rju), stretch out, intrans. ; press 
on; with this root, compare the root raj, 
mg 1. [cf . opey-co, ' reach out ' ; Lat. 
reg-ere, ' direct ' ; Eng. right, ' straight, not 

V 2rj (arjati; arjayati [1041 2 ]; arjita). 
reach, and so, get or obtain, [the same 
as Vlrj, but w. another conjugation and 
w. trans, mg : for mg, cf . Eng. reach, in- 
trans., w. reach, trans., and Ger. langen 
and erlangen.] 

V3rj, in rj-rd, 'ruddy,' arj-una, 'silver- 
white ' ; see also the root raj and root raj, 
mg 2. [cf . apy-6s, ' bright ' ; Lat. arguo, 
' make clear ' ; w. rajata, ' silver,' cf . 
apyvpos, Lat. argentum, ' silver.'] 

rjisa, a. on-rushing. [Vlrj, 1197b.] 

rjisin, a. on-rushing, [rjisa, 1230a.] 

rjii, a. straight, right, opp. of vrjina, 
' crooked, wrong.' [Vlrj, 1178a.] 

sf rnj, see Vlrj. 

rna, a. (having gone against or trans- 
gressed, and so) guilty; as n. [1176a and 
1177], guilt; debt, 25 2 . [Vr: cf. Lat. 
reus, 'guilty' : for mg, cf. upara.] 



rta, a. fit, right; true; as w. [1176a], 1. 
established order; esp. eternal or divine 
order; 2. order in sacred things, sacred 
custom, pious work, 69 15 , 74 9 ; rtasya 
yoni or sadana, central place of sacred 
work or belief : in this world, the altar, 
89 8 ; in the other world, the holy of holies, 
75 7 ; -3. truth, 98 8 - 9 ; -rtena, rightly, 
[prop, 'fitted, made firm,' Vr: for form 
and mg, cf . Lat. ra-tu-s, ' settled.'] 

rta-sap [387a], a. following after right, 

rta van, f. -vari, a. true to established 
order (of regularly recurring natural phe- 
nomena, e.g. dawn), 75 17 ; true to sacred 
law, pious (Manes), 91 10 ; holy, sacred 
(god), 75 8 . [rta, 247 : for fern., 435, 
1171 2 .] 

rta-vfdh, a. rejoicing in right, holy 
(Manes), [rta, 247.] 

r t u , m. 1. a fixed and settled time ; esp. 
time for sacrificing; 2. time of year, 
i.e. season; 3. the menses. [Vr, 1161a: 
cf . aprv-oa, ' fit together, prepare ' ; Lat. 
artu-s, 'joint.'] 

rt6, prep, without ; except. [1128 end, 1129 

rtv-ij, a. offering at the appointed time; 
as m. priest ; in the ritual, pi., priests, of 
whom there are four, h6tr, adhvaryti, 
brahman, and udgatf. [rtii + ij.] 

fddhi, f. welfare; blessedness. [Vrdh, 

V rdh (rdhn6ti; anardha, anrdhe [788]; 
ardhiayate ; rddha ; rdhyate). thrive; 
succeed ; prosper, both as intrans. and as 
trans, [cf . M edh, radh : cf . &\6ofj.a.i, ' get 

sani , pass, be prospered, i.e. fulfilled. 

V Irs (araati; anarsa [788]). flow; glide, 
[cf . &ty-oppos, ' flowing back,' tra.\iv-op<Tos, 
' darting back.'] 

V 2ra (rsati; rata). push; thrust. 

fai, m. 1. singer of sacred songs, poet; 
priestly singer ; regarded by later genera- 
tions as a patriarchal saint or sage of the 
olden time and as occupying a position 
given in other lands to the heroes and 
patriarchs; one of those inspired poets 
who "saw" the Vedas, which were "re- 

vealed " to them ; 2. sapta^rsayas : 
the many Rishis ; later, the seven stars of 
the Great Bear; 3. a Rishi, i.e. a person 
renowned for piety and wisdom, 100"; 
see note to 1 u . 

r a t i , f. spear. [V 2 rs.] 

rsva, a. lofty. 

e, pron. root in eka, eta, ena, eva, evam. 
eka [482a], num. 1. one; only; alone 

(by one's self) ; alone (excluding every 

one else); sole; single; solitary; advly 

in cpds, solely; 2. one (of two or more) ; 

the one, followed by anya, dvitiya, para ; 

eke eke, some others ; eke, some 

folks, some ; 3. later, a certain, quidam ; 

or almost as an indef. article [482a 3 ], a or 

an, 20 8 . [pron. root e.] 
eka-tatpara, a. solely intent on, 45*. 
ekatra, adv. in one place, [eka, 1099.] 
eka da, adv. at one time, simultaneously, 

at 37 9 ; elsewhere, at a certain time, i.e. 

once upon a time, [eka, 1103.] 
eka-dega, m. a certain place, and so, a 

place or spot or part. 

eka-nakaatra, n. lunar mansion con- 
sisting of a single star or one whose name 

occurs but once, see 104 8 N. [naksatra, 

eka-patni, f. wife of only one man, 

faithful wife, [acct, 1267a.] 
eka-pada, f. -I, a. having (i.e, taking) 

one step, 
eka-bhaksa, m. sole food; at end of 

cpds [1298], having as sole food, eating 


eka-mati, a. having one mind, unanimous . 
eka-varna, a. having one color, not 


ekakin, a. solitary, [eka.] 
ekanjali, m. one handful, [anjali.] 
ekadaga, num. eleven. [eka + daga, 

476 2 .] 

ekadaga, a. eleventh, [ekadaga, 487 7 .] 
ekanta, m. an end; a retired or secret 

spot, [anta.] 

ekapaya, m. diminution by one. [apaya.] 
ekartha, m. one purpose, i.e. one and 

the same purpose, [artha.] 
ekaha, m. one day. [2 aha.] 



ekaika, a. one by itself; one singly; 
each one singly ; every single one. [eka 
+ eka.] 

ekaikagas, adv. one by one; severally, 
[ekaika, 1106.] 

ekona, a. lacking one. [una, 477a.] 

eta, see etad and cf. 499b with 497. 

6ta, a. rushing; darting; as m. deer. [Vi, 

etat-sama, a. equal to this. [1265.] 

etat-samlpa, n. presence of this one. 

etad [499b], pron. this here, prop, referring 
to something near the speaker (e.g. 18 8 , 19 u , 
51 19 ) ; this ; refers almost always to what 
precedes (e.g. 6 9 , 19 3 , 51 18 , 68 5 ), has just 
happened (e.g. 20 n , 25 12>13 ), or has just 
been mentioned (e.g. 7 5 , 25 18 , 28 n ), as being 
nearer the speaker; very seldom 28 6 , 92 19 , 
96 5 to what follows ; joined with other 
pronouns: w. yad, 94 15 ; w. tad, 45 9 , 95 6 ; 
w. aham to be supplied, 52 9 . [pron. root 
e, 499b : in usage, etad : idam : : Tav- 
ra : ra5e.] 

etad-artham, adv. for this purpose ; 
therefore. [499b 2 , 1302c 4 .] 

e tar hi, adv. nowadays, [eta, 1103c.] 

eta-drg, a. such; etadrk, ace. s. n., such 
as I have, 82 ". [518.] 

eta-drga, a. such ; et. yat, such 
that. [518.] 

etavant, a. thus much, 12 9 ; etavan 
yena, so great that, 21 10 . [eta, 517.] 

V e d h ( 6dhate ; edham cakre ; aidhista ; 
edhita ; dhitum). thrive; prosper, 
[ident. w. v'rdh, q.v. : cf. geha w. 

en a [500], end. pron. used only substantive- 
ly ; unemphatic him, her, it, them. [pron. 
root e.] 

en as, n. sin. [perhaps, ' deed of violence,' 

enasvant, a. sinful, [enas.] 

en a, adv. in this way; here; para ena: 
beyond here ; beyond, w. instr., RV. x. 
125. 8 ; there ; yatra ena, whither 
thither, [pron. root a, see idam, and cf. 
502 2 andlll2a.] 

eranda, m. Ricinus communis, i.e. castor- 
oil plant or Palma Christi. 

eva, adv. 1. in this way; so; in this sig- 
nification Vedic only, its place being supplied 
in post-Vedic l>y evam ; yatha eva, as 
so, 86 13 ; eva^id, in very truth, 74 6 ; 

2. just, exactly, etc., emphasizing the 
preceding word; in this sense Vedic (69 5 , 
85 J , 87 1 , 91 5 ) and post-Vedic; requires the 
most various translations sometimes mere 
stress of voice : precisely; no more nor less 
than ; nothing short of ; no other than ; 
merely ; quite ; without exception ; andha 
eva, blind outright; vasudha^eva, the 
whole earth ; mrtyur eva, sure deatli ; 
musika eva krtas, was changed back to a 
simple mouse ; cintayann eva, just while 
he was thinking; uktam eva maya, just 
what I told thee ; lokaih kimcid vak- 
tavyam eva, folks will be sure to say 
something ; eka eva, entirely alone ; pu- 
mansa eva, only males ; in connection w. 
pronouns and adverbs: etad eva, this very; 
tatha^eva, all so, i.e. also ; na^eva, by no 
means ; w. very attenuated mg in ca^eva, 
and also, and eva ca, and also, the latter at 
end of a cloka, 58 15 . [pron. root e, 1102b : 
sometimes eva, 248a.] 

evam-vld,a. knowing so or such, i.e. well 
instructed, knowing what's what. 

evamvidha, a. of such sort, such, [evam 
(1306) +vidha, 1302c 5.] 

evam, adv. in this way ; so ; post-Vedic, and 
supplying the place of eva in my 1 ; used 
first w. V vid : ya evam vidiis, who know 
thus, have this knowledge, 97 1>3 ; yatha 
evam, as so ; very frequent w. uktva 
or grutva, upon saying or hearing this ; 
evam ukta, thus addressed ; w. impers. 
used ppl., 7 8 , 39 22 ; evam astu, so be it ; 
ma^evam, not so ! yady evam, if that's 
the case, 48 n ; evam, in that case, II 4 ; 
evam, likewise, 103 7 ; refers back (e.g. 28 21 , 
52 8 ), or forward (e.g. 31 5 , 37 8 , 50 6 ) ; used 
superfluously w. iti, 61 12 ; as eguiv. to evam- 
vidha, 15*. [pron. root e, 1102b.] 

evam-bhuta, a. such, [see 1273c.] 

eso, a Prakrit form for esas, 49 8 

aikamatya, n. unanimity. [ekamati, 



aitihasika, m. teller of old legends, [iti- 

hasa, 1222e 2.] 
aindr abarhaspatya, a. belonging to 

Indra and Brihaspati. [indrabfhaspati, 


6kas, n. wonted place; home. [Vuc.] 

om-krta, a. having an uttered om, accom- 
panied by om. [the natural order would 
require krtaum: order inverted to avoid 
such an undeclinable stem.] 

6jas, n. strength; power. [Vvaj oruj, 252, 
cf. ug-ram 6j-as, 78 6 : cf. Lat. augus-tus, 
' mighty, i.e. august.'] 

o jo-da [352], a. strength-giving. 

o d a n a , m. n. grain boiled with milk ; por- 
ridge. [Vud: for mg, cf. Eng. broth and 

opaga, m. top-knot; plume, [perhaps for 
*ava-pac.a, V2pa.] 

6m, a word of solemn asseveration and rev- 
erent acknowledgment, somewhat like &/j.-fii>; 
a sacred mystic syllable, uttered at the beg. 
and end of Veda-reading ; cf. pranava. 
[origin uncertain.] 

6sadhi, later 6sadhi, /. herb; plant; a 

aupamya, n. similitude; likeness, [upa- 

ma, 1211.] 
aupavegi, m. patronymic of Aruna. [lipa- 

vegi (or upavega?) : cf. 1221.] 
a u sad ha, a. consisting of herbs; as n. 

herbs collectively ; simples ; medicine. 

[6sadhi, 1208d.]' 

I ka [504], pron. 1. interrogative, who, 
what; used as subst. (7 6 - 7 ) or as adj. 
(18 17 ); kim w. instr.: e.g. kim yuddhena, 
what (is there) with fighting, what's the 
use of fighting, 45 14 ; so 17 19 , 24 9 ; so ko 
'rthas, 17 18 ; kim w. instr. and gen. : e.g. 
nirujah kim ausaclhais, what has a well 
man (to do) with medicines, 22 3 ; so 32 21 , 
61 z ~* ; ka w. particles : ko nama, who in- 
deed ; ko nu, who pray ; ko va, who pos- 
sibly, 18 1; 

2. indefinite, both adj. and subst., chiefly 
in negative clauses and w. the particles [see 

507] ca, cana, cid, api; 2 a. w. ma: ma 
kasmai dhatam abhy amitrine nas, de- 
liver us not over to any foe ; 2b. ka ca, 
some, any, adj. or subst. ; kim ca, any- 
thing; w. relative, yag (ca) kag ca, (and) 
what soever, 68 10 ; 2c. w. ca na and 
cana : ka ca na, also or even not any ; 
esp. after a negative : na tarn gaknuvanti 
vyahartum api, kim ca na, can not even 
speak to him, not even anything, i.e. can 
not even speak anything to him, 8 19 ; so 
96 21 ; and so (the feeling for the negation in 
cana in such collocations becoming lost), ka 
cana means any, anything, cf. cana ; w. 
relative, soever ; yat kimcana, whatsoever, 
9 16 ; 2d. very often ka cid: any body or 
thing; certain, 18 u ; often w. negative: e.g. 
99. 2411 (twice with, twice without) ; kimcit 
kimcid, each a little, 27 9 ; w. relative, ya 
ka cid, whosoever, whatsoever, any soever, 
21 n ; kani kani cid, any soever, 82 15 ; 
2e. ka api, something, somebody, 17 n ; 
some, a or an, a certain, 21 2 ; na ka api: 
nothing, 39 21 ; no, no one", 20 10 ; 

3. derivs of ka, see 505 ; 4. exclam- 
atory, at beg. of cpds : cf., e.g., ka-purusa, 
kim-prabhu, ku-drsti, ko-vida, and see 
506, 1121e ; 5. for kim as adv., see kim. 
[for the stem-forms ka, ki, ku, see 505 : 
cf. Ionic /co-, Attic TO-, in K6-Qev, KUS, etc., 
'whence, how'; ri-s, rl, Lat. qui-s, qui-d, 
AS. hwa, hwas-t, Eng. who, wha-t ; w. ka- 
tara, 'which of twain,' cf. it6-Tepo-s, Lat. 
uter, AS. hwce-^er, Eng. whe-ther, ' which of 
twain ' ; w. ka as indef ., cf . n-s, ' any one.'] 

2 ka, m. Who, as name of a god, 94 15 - 16 N. 

kansa, m. metallic vessel; as collective, 
metallic implements. 

kaksa,/. 1. region of the girth; 2. 
girdle, cincture ; 3. (like French ceinture) 
circular wall ; and so the enclosed court, 
[cf. kankana : cf. Lat. cinc-tus, 'girded'; 
for 1, cf. coxa, 'hip'; for 3, cf. canc-er, 
' fence.'] 

kankana, n. ring-shaped ornament, brace- 
let, [cf. kaksa.] 

kankala, m. n. skeleton. 

kaccid, see kad. 

kaccha, m. border; shore; marsh-land ;. 
the district Cutch. 



kaccha-pa, m. tortoise, ['keeping, i.e. 
inhabiting the marsh/ vbl 2 pa.] 

kataka, m. n. dale. 

kana, m. a small grain (as of dust or rice), 
[cf. kanistha.] 

kantaka, m. thorn. 

kantaki-ksirin, m. pi. thorn-plants and 

kantakin, a. thorny; as m. thorn-plant, 

k at ham, Vedic katha, interr. adv. how? 
in what way ? katham etat, how's that ? 
kathaih nu, how indeed ? katham cana, 
in any wise soever (emphasizing a preced- 
ing negation) ; katham api, somehow, [ka, 

\l kathaya (kathayati). tell ; talk about ; 
pass, be called, pass for. [lit. ' tell the 
how,' 'rb oiroas \tyeiv' : denom. fr. katham, 

1 katha, see katham. 

2 katha,/. 1. story, tale, fable ; discus- 
sion; 2. personified, Story, 56. [prop. 
' the how, TO oirtas,' 1 katha.] 

katha-chala, n. cover or guise of a 

katha-pitha,n. pedestal of Katha, name 
of the first book of the Katha-sarit-sagara. 
[2 katha, mg 2.] 

kathavatara, m. incarnation of Katha. 
[2 katha (mg 2) -j- avatara.] 

katha-sarit-sagara, m. Story-stream- 
ocean, title of Soma-deva's collection. 

kad, interr. pel. nonne, num; w. cid, nonne, 
num ; kaccid drsta, was she seen ? [crys- 
tallized ace. s. n. of ka, lllla.] 

kad a, adv. when? na kada cana, not at 
any time soever, never ; kada cid, once on 
a time, one day ; kada cid api na, never. 
[ka, 1103.] 

kadru, a. brown; kadru [355c], f. brown 

V kan or ka (cake; akanit). be glad. [cf. 
v'kam and Vcan.] 

kanaka, n. gold. 

kanaka-sutra, n. gold cord or chain. 

kanaka-stambha-r ucira, a. shining 
with gold columns. 

kanistha, a. smallest ; youngest, [cf . the 
following words and kana and kanya.] 

kanisthaka, a. smallest; f. -ika [1222d], 
sc. anguli, the little finger, [kanistha.] 

kanistha-prathama, a. having the 
youngest as the first. 

kanlyans, a. smaller; younger. [cf. 
kanistha and 467 2 .] 

kandara, n. cave, [perhaps 'great cleft/ 
kain (see ka4) + dara.] 

kandarpa, m. the god of love, [perhaps 
'of great wantonness/ kam (see ka4) + 

kanyaka,/ girl, [kanya, 1222b.] 

kanya, f. girl; maiden; daughter, [cf. 

kanya-ratna, n. girl-jewel, excellent 

kapata, m. n. fraud. 

kapata-prabandha, m. continued se- 
ries of frauds; machination, plot. 

kaparda, m. small shell used as a coin, 
80 = 1 paua; -aka, m. the same. 

kapala, n. 1. cup or dish, 102 13 ; 2. 
cover or lid, 104 16 ; 3. cranium, [for 
mg, cf . Lat. testa, ' earthen pot/ w. French 
tete, 'head.'] 

kap6ta, m. dove. 

kam, pel. 1. emphasizing the preceding 
word, 79 ; -2. interr. pel., 88 10 . [ka, 
lllla : cf. kad, kim.] 

V kam (cakame; kamisyate; kanta [955a] ; 
kamayate, -ti [1041 2 ]). wish; will; de- 
sire; love. [cf. v'kan and Vcan.] 

kamandalu, m. water-jar. 

V kamp (kampate ; cakampe ; kampita; 
kampitum; -kampya). tremble or shake. 

kambala, m. woolen cloth. 

kambu, m. shell. 

kambu-griva, m. Shell-neck (i.e. having 
folds in the neck like a spiral shell), name 
of a tortoise, [griva.] 

1 kara, 1. a. doing; making or causing 
or producing, at end of many cpds ; 2. as 
m. the hand (lit. the busy one) ; 3. as m. 
nomen actionis, the doing, performance, in 
duskara, sukara. [V 1 kr : cf . Lat. cerus, 
' creator.'] 

2 kara, m. ray, beam. [prob. same as 
1 kara 2 : the rays of the heavenly bodies 
are conceived as their hands and feet, cf. 
pada 4.] 



kara-vari, n. water from the hand, 
karuna, a. mournful, pitiable; -a, f. pity, 
karuna-para, a. compassionate. [1302b.] 
karkata, m. crab; -aka, the same. 
karna, m. ear. 
karta, m. (earth-) cut, ditch. [Vkrt: see 

k a r t f , m. doer ; accomplisher ; officiating 

priest, 101 . [Vlkr.] 
kartavya, grdv. to be done or made, w. 

the various mgs of \f 1 kr. [V 1 kr.] 
k a r t a v y a t a , /. the to-be-done-ness ; -tarn 

bruhi, tell me what I must do. [1237.] 
karpura, m. n. camphor, 
karpura-pata, m. Camphor-cloth, name 

of a certain washerman, 
karpura-vilasa, m. Camphor-joy (lit. 

having pleasure in camphor), name of a 


karma, for karman in cpds, 1249a 2 . 
karma-ccsta,/". deed-performance; ac- 
karma-ja, a. deed-born, resulting from 

the actions of a life. 

karma-dosa, m. deed-sin, sinful deed, 
karman, n. deed, work, action ; sacred 

work (as sacrifice, ablution); rite, 59 l . 

kar hi, adv. when? karhi cid, at any time. 

[ka, llOSc.] 
V kal (kalayati). drive, [cf. Kf\f rat, ' urges 

on ' ; &ov-ic6\os, ' cattle driver ' ; Lat. celer, 

(like colloq. driving, i.e. ' hurrying ') ' swift.'] 
- anu-sam, lead along after, 
kal a, a. dumb; indistinct; -am, adv. gen- 
tly, and so pleasantly (of humming), 
kal ah a, m. strife, contention, 
kal a, f. a small part, esp. a sixteenth, 
kalpa, m. ordinance, precept; manner, 

way ; etena kalpena, in this way. 
kalmasa, n. spot, stain; Jig., as in Eng., 

kalmasa-dhvansa-karin, a. sin-de- 

struction-causing, preventing the commis- 
sion of crime, 
k a 1 y a , a. well, healthy, [cf . ica\6s, ' fair ' : 

prob. not akin are AS. hdl, Eng. hale, 

kal y an a, /. -ani [355b], a. fair, lovely. 


kalyana-kataka, m.n. Fair-dale, name 

of a place. 
kavi, a. wise, possessed of insight (of gods, 

esp. Agni) ; as m. wise man, seer, sage ; 

poet; pi. wise men of eld (whose spirits 

hover about the sun), 91 12 . [prop, 'seer,' 

Vkii, 'see,' for *sku: cf. BuoaKdos, *-<TKOFO-S, 

' inspecting the sacrifice ' ; Lat. cav-ere, 

' look out, be cautious ' ; Ger. schauen, AS. 

scedwian, 'look,' Eng. show, 'cause to look 

kavi-kratu, a. having the power or in- 

sight (kratu) of a wise one ; intelligent. 

V kas (kasati; kasta ; kasayati). move. 

+ vi, move asunder; open; bloom; caus. 

pass, be made to bloom. 
kas mat, adv. why? wherefore? [ka, 

kansya, a. brazen; as n. brass, [kansa.] 
kaka, m. crow; f- kaki, crow-hen; cf. 

vayasa, 'crow.' 
V kanks (kanksati, -te ; cakanksa ; 

kanksita). desire, long for. [desid. of 

\ kam, but reduplicated somewhat like an 

intens. (1002), *kam-ka(m)-s.] 
kaca, m. glass. 
kaca-mani, m. rock-crystal, quartz, [lit. 

' glass-jewel.'] 
kancana, n. gold. 
kana, a. one-eyed; perforated (of the 

eye), blind. 
kana-bhuti, m. Kanabhuti, name of a 

Yaksha, see 53 3 N. [lit. ' Blind-luck.'] 
kanda, m. n. section; joint of a stalk 

from one knot to another ; arrow. 
kantara, m. n. great or primeval forest. 
kanti, f. loveliness. [Vkam, 1157, cf. 

ka-purusa, m. miserable man, coward. 

[see Ika4, and 506.] 
kam a, m. wish, desire, longing; love; at 

end of possessive cpds [1296], having desire 

for , desirous of ; kaniain, see s.v. 

[V kam.] 
kama-duh (-dhuk, -duham, -dhugbhis, 

etc. [155]), 1. a. yielding wishes, grant- 

ing every wish ; 2. as f., sc. dhenu, the 

fabulous Wonder-cow.' [for 2, cf. the 

horn of Amalthea.] 



k jtm am, adv. at will; if you please; 

kamam tu na tu, if she please, , but 

by no means , 64 12 . [kama, llllb.] 
kamin, a. subst. affectionate (spouse). 

[kama. ] 
kamini-sakha, a. in the company of 

his wives, [see sakha.] 
kaya, m. body. [Vlci, 'build,' Whitney 

43 : for mg, cf . 5e'/*as, ' body, form/ and 

Sffjica, ' build,' and Eng. noun build, as used 

of ' a man's figure.'] 
kayika, a. corporeal; performed by the 

body, [kaya.] 
kara, a. making; as m. maker; deed, 

action; sound, [\llkr.] 
k a r a n a , n. that which makes or occasions ; 

cause, 57 7 ; occasion; reason; sake, 10 1 ; 

ground for a judgment, 22 n . [Vlkr.] 
karin, a. causing, [do.] 
karii, m. praiser, poet, singer. [V2kr, 

' mention with praise.'] 
karttikeya, m. metronymic of Skanda, 

god of war (so called because he was 

nourished by the Pleiads, krttikas) : cf. 

kumara and svamikumara. [ krttika. 

karya, grdv. to be done, faciendus, w. the 

various shades of mg belonging to V 1 kr ; 

requiring to be instituted, 4 19 ; requiring 

to be shown; as n. what is to be done; 

business ; work ; matter, 4 n ; affair ; duty ; 

emergency. [V 1 kr, 963b.] 
karya-kala, m. time for action, 
karya-hantr, m. business-destroyer, 

karyaksama, a. unequal to or unfit for 

work, [aksama.] 

kala, m. 1. the right or proper or ap- 
pointed time ; 2. time in general ; 3. 

Time, as the destroyer, i.e. Death, 
kala-paga, m. snare of Death, 
kavya, n. poetry; poem, [kavi.] 
kavyagastra-vinoda, m. entertainment 

with poetry and science, [kavya-gastra, 

V kag (karate; cakag ; kagita ; -kagya). 

be visible ; shine. 

+ ava, be visible, lie open. 

+ a , look on. 

+ pra, shine out; become clear. 

kaga, m. visibility, in sakaga. [Vkag.] 
kastha, n. stick of wood; log. 
kastha-ccheda, m. dearth of wood. 


kastha-bharika, m. wood-carrier, 
kastha, / race-course; course; track of 

the winds and clouds in the sky. 
kasthika, m. woodman, [kastha.] 
ki, cf. Ika 4, ana* 504. 
kim-suhrd, m. a bad friend, [see 1 ka 4, 

and 506.] 
kit ava, m. gambler; f. -vi, as a., addicted 

to gaming, [poss. kim + tava, ' what of 

thee ? ' ' what is thy stake ? '] 
kim, 1. as nom.acc.s.n. to kd, see Ika; 

-2. as interr. adv. [lllla], how? 73 8 - 

why? 18 10 ; 3. as interr. pel.: num; kim 

aham ajnas, am I a fool? 39 21 ; an, 78 13 , 

4. in connection w. other pels: kim ca, 

moreover, see ca 3 ; kim tu, however, 20 12 ; 

kim cana, somewhat, 46 9 ; kim punar, 

how much more (or less)? 17 15 . [see 

under 1 ka.] 
kim- art ha, a. having what as object; 

kimartham, as adv. why ? [1302c4.] 
kim-prabhu, m. a bad master, [see 

Ika 4, and 506.] 

kim-bhrtya, m. a bad servant, [do.] 
kiyad-dura, n. small distance; -re, as 

adv. [1116], a little way. [kiyant.] 
kiyant [451], pron. a. 1. how great? 

how much? what sort of a? 45 10 ; 2. 

(how great, in a derogatory sense, i.e.) not 

great ; small, 46 l . [1 ka or ki, 505, 

1172 2 .] 

kiyambu, n. water-lily, perhaps, [cf.ambu.] 
kila, kila [248a], adv. indeed, emphasizing 

the foregoing word. 
kis, interr. pel. so at 88 10 . [Ika, 504 2 : 

see 1117: cf. nakis.] 
kit a, m. worm; caterpillar, 
kidrg-vyapara, m. what business. 

[kidrg, 145.] 
kidrgvyaparavant, a. having what 

business. [1233.] 

kidfg, a. of what sort? [see 518.] 
klri, m. praiser. [V2kr.] 
V kirtaya (kirtayati [1056, 1067]; pass. 

kirtyate). 1. make mention of; tell; 

-2. repeat; call, [kirti, 1061 '.] 



+ pari, tell around, announce. 

+ s am, announce, 
kirti,/. mention; esp. good report, fame. 


ku, see Ika4, and 504. 
kukkura, m. dog. [younger form of 

the onomatopoetic kurkura.] 
kutumba, n. household; family; -aka, 

the same. 

kuttani,/. bawd. 
k uncla, n. round vessel; round hole in 

the ground (for water or sacred fire), 
kundala, n. ring, esp. ear-ring. [cf. 

kunda and 1227.] 
kiitas, adv. from what place? whence? 

wherefore? why? how? 19 ". [Ika or 

ku, 505.] 

kutuhala, n. 1. interest felt in some- 
thing extraordinary ; eagerness ; -at, as 

adv. [1114b], eagerly; 2. interest caused 

by something remarkable, 56 u . 
kiitra, adv. where 1 ? whither? [Ika or 

ku, 505.] 

ku-drsti, f. a bad or false view; hete- 
rodox philosophy. [see 1 kd, 4, and 

kunti,/ Kunti, one of the two wives of 

V kup (kupyati ; cuk6pa; kupita). 1. 

become moved or agitated ; boil ; and so 

2. Jig., as in Eng., be angry ; boil with 


+ p r a , the same. 
kumara, m. 1. new-born child; boy; 

youth, 51 10 ; -2. The Youth, epithet of 

Skanda, the eternally youthful god of 

war see karttikeya ; f. -ri, girl. [cf. 

kumara-datta, m. name of a man. 

[' given by the god Kumara.'] 
kumbha, m. jar; pot; urn. [cf. Ki5/xr?, 

' vessel.'] 

kumbha-kara, m. pot-maker, potter, 
kumbhika,/ pitcher, [kumbha.] 
kuru, m. as pi. the Kurus, a people of 

India ; as sing. Kuru, the ancestor of that 

kuru-gravana, m. name of a prince. 

[lit. ' glory of the Kurus,' like nv6o-K\rjs : 

acct, 1271.] 

kill a, n. 1. herd or large number or 
swarm (of quadrupeds, birds, insects) ; 

2. race ; family ; and so, as in Eng., 
good family, noble stock. [V3kr, q.v. : 
cf. akula.J 

kula-gila, n. family and character. 

kiilala, m. potter. 

kii-liga, m. axe. [perhaps ' cutting 
well,' see Ika 4, and 506.] 

kulina, a. of good family, [kula, 1223d.] 

kulira, m. crab. 

kugd, m. grass; esp. the sacred grass, Poa 
cynosuroides, with long stalks and numer- 
ous pointed leaves. 

kuga-pifij ula, n. tuft or bunch of Ku?a. 

k u a la, 1. a. in good condition; equal 
to or fit for a task ; able ; clever, 46 18 ; 

2. as n. welfare, well-being ; kugalam 
te, hail to thee. 

kugalin,a. well; prosperous. [kuala 2.J 

kuga-hasta, a. having Ku9a in the 
hand. [1303.] 

V ku (kuvate). found only w. a, and per- 
haps meaning see, look. [prob. for #sku, 
see under kavi.] 

+ a , look forward to, i.e. intend, [see 

kuta, 1. n. horn; 2. m. n. peak, [for 
mg 2, cf. the Swiss peak-names, Schreck- 
horn, Wetter-horn, etc.] 

kup a, m. cave, hole; well. [cf. KUTTTJ, 
' cave, hut/ Lat. cupa, ' vat,' ' niche for 
the dead,' borrowed Eng. coop, ' vat/ 
whence cooper.^ 

kurma, m. tortoise. 

V Ikr (Vedic, krn6ti, krnute [715]; later, 
kar6ti, kurute [714]; cakara, cakre; V. 
akar, akrta [831, 834a]; later, akarsit; 
karisyati ; krta ; kartum ; krtva ; -kftya ; 
kriyate ; cikirsati; karayati, -te). do, 
make, in the various meanings and uses of 
these words; thus, 

1. perform, 59 21 ; accomplish; cause; 
effect ; prepare, 83 15 ; undertake, 52 2 ; 
commit, 29 12 ; show: e.g. honor, 5 6 ; fami- 
liarity, 9 n ; compassion, 21 19 ; love, 42 18 ; 
favor, 52 21 ; contempt, 54 16 ; attend to : 
an affair, II 4 ; engage in: trade, 46 n ; a 
quarrel, 42 19 ; 2. do something (good or 



bad) for a person (yen.), 3 2 , 9 15 ; -3. 
make or procure for another, 82 4 ; grant ; 

middle: get for one's self; assume: 
human voice, 3 u ; take on : form or shape, 
48 3 , 49 6 ; 4. execute; follow: advice, 
40 7 ; 5. work over, prepare : food, 68 3 ; 

6. accomplish; be good for, 18 5 ; 7. 
make : a sound, 26 n ; utter : the syllable 

om, 60 8 ' 9 ; 

8. (like Eng. do in don, doff) put in 
or on; w. loc., 81 >, 43 6 ; set, 105 U ; w. 
adverbs : see agratas, ama, avis, tiras, 
puras, bahis ; 9. make a person (ace.) 
to be something (ace.), 79 12 ; transform 
into, 40 13 ff . ; render, w. factitive predicate 
ace., 18 8 ; w. the predicate in composition 
[1094]: e.g. sajji-kr, make ready, 34 17 ; 
10. w. adv. in -dha, divide in parts, 
57 10 ; 11. do, go to work, proceed, 37 8 ; 
pass, impers., 30 16 ; 12. do, esp. sacred 
work ; with karma, 97 2 ; without karma 
(like pefciv Off and facere), to sacrifice, 
93 12 _ see also krta. 

desid. desire to perform; ppl. [1037], 
cikirsita, that which is sought to be done, 

cans, cause to do or make or be done 
or made ; see to it that a thing takes 
place, 16 1 ; pass, tena sa pranamam 
karitas, by him he was caused to make 
obeisance, 36 7 ; caws, equiv. to simple verb, 

[cf. ai>To-Kpd-T<ap, ' self-actor, indepen- 
dent ' ; Kp6-vos, an old harvest-god, ' Per- 
ficus, the Completer, Ilipener ' ; Lat. cer-us, 
' creator ' ; Kpaivu, ' accomplish ' ; Lat. 
credre, ' create ' : see kratu : orig. root- 
form, perhaps, skr, 1087d.] 
+ ad hi, put over; put in office. 
+ a p a , put off ; injure, opp. of upakr. 
+ a ram or alam, see these words. 
+ a , bring hither, 74 10 ; prepare, fashion, 

+ v y - a , separate, analyse. 
+ up a, bring something to some one; do 
a service, act as an auxiliary, opp. of 
apakr. [w. the use of upa, cf. that of sub 
in subvenire, ' aid.'] 

+ pari, (poss. surround, deck, and so) 
make ready ; adorn. 

+ pra, 1. carry forward, accomplish; 
effectuate, cause ; 2. mid. set before ; 
put before one, i.e. make the subject of 
discussion or treatment ; w, buddhim, put 
a plan before one's self, i.e. decide. 
+ prati, work against, counteract. 
+ sam, 1. put together; conficere, 
prepare ; 2. treat according to the 
sacred usages, administer a sacrament 
to, see samskara; consecrate, 106 3 ; 3. 

V 2kr (akarit; intens. carkarti). mention 
with praise. 

V 3kr (kirati [242]; cakara, cakre; akarit; 
karisyati; kirnd [957b] ; -kirya). pour 
out or scatter abundantly (e.g. hail-stones) ; 
cast forth (missiles); strew; cover or fill 
with. [cf. kula, ' swarm.'] 
+ vy-ati, pass, be scattered in various 
directions; be brought to confusion, [cf. 
vyatikara, 'disaster.'] 
+ ava, strew (loose earth); throw in. 
+ a, scatter abundantly ; cover over, fill ; 
aklrna, bestrown, covered, [cf. akara, 
'abundance, mine/ akula, 'full.'] 
+ sam-a, bestrew; cover. 

krcchra, a. distressful; troublesome; as 
n. trouble. 

krcchra-karman, n. hard work; drudg- 

V krt (krntati, -te [758] ; cakarta ; akrtat; 
kartisyati, kartsyati ; krtta ; -kftya ; 
krtyate). cut; cut off. [cf. kata (for 
karta, 'cut, depression in the head,' i.e.), 
'temple,' and Kpdr-cupos, 'temple'; Lat. 
curt-us, 'docked, short.'] 
+ ud, cut out or off; cut up, butcher. 

1 krt, vbl in cpds. making; doing; caus- 
ing; as m. maker. [Vlkr, 1147c.] 

2 krt, a time, in sa-krt. [perhaps fr. 
Vlkr, 'a doing, a time': cf. kftu, 'a 

krta, a. 1. made; done; 2. prepared; 
3. attained, 4. well done, and so, 
good; 5. as n. deed; 6. (perhaps 
made, i.e. won) and so, the side of the 
die marked with four spots, the lucky 
or winning one ; 7. the golden age, 
name of the first yuga, see 58 2 N. 



krta-krtya, a. having one's duty done 

or end attained, 
krtakrtyata, f. condition of having 

performed one's duty. [1237.] 
krta-buddhi, a. having a made-up 

mind, of resolute character. 
krta-mauna, a. having a kept silence, 

krta-samketa, a. having an agreement 

made, agreed upon as a rendezvous, 
krtanjali, a. having a made gesture of 

reverence, with reverent gesture, [anjali.] 
krtanna, n. prepared or cooked food. 

krtavajna, a. having contempt (done, 

i.e.) shown to one, disdained, [avajna.] 
kfti, f. 1. the doing, the production; 

2. a production, literary work, [v'lkr.] 
kftu, a doing, a time; only in ace. pi. 

-krtvas, and that at the end of cpds. 

[Vlkr, 1105 .] 
krte, as prep, on account of, for the sake 

of, for, w. gen. [1130] or in composition. 

[loc. of krta, lit. 'in the matter of (cf. 

mg 5), 1116.] 
kftti, f. pelt, hide. [Vkrt: for mg, cf. 

Sfp/j.a, ' hide/ and Seipw, ' flay.'] 
kfttika, f. pi. the Pleiads, [cf. krtti : 

perhaps the constellation was conceived 

as having the shape of a pelt.] 
krtya, grdv. to be done; as n. that which 

ought to be done or is to be done, and so, 

duty, purpose, end; f. -a, action, deed. 

[v'lkr, 963beni] 
krtvas, adv. times; see krtu. 
krtsnd, a. whole; entire. 
V krp (kfpate [745b]). mourn, lament, 
krpa,/. pity, compassion. [Vkrp.] 
kfmi, m. worm. 
V kr (kfgyati [761a] ; cakarga; krgita). 

grow lean. [cf. KO\OK-O.VOS, 'long lank 

person/ /co\ooWs, #KO\OK-JOS, ' colossus ' ; 

Old Lat. crac-entes, Lat. grac-iles, 'lean, 


krc_a, a. lean, haggard. [Vkrg, 958.] 
V krs (karsati; krsati; cakarsa ; akrk- 

sat; karaisyati; kraksyati, -te; krsta; 

krastum ; krstva ; -kfsya). 1. kars- 
ati : tug, draw, pull; 2. krsati: draw 

furrows ; plough. 

+ a, draw on, attract; draw from (a 


+ u d , pull up, elevate. 

+ pra, draw forward, place in front. 

krsti, /. pi. people, folk. [Vkrs, mg 2: 
orig. ' tillages, tilled lands/ then ' settle- 
ment, community.'] 

krsna, a. black, dark; w. paksa, the dark 
half of the lunar month, from full to new 
moon; as m., sc. paksa, the dark lunar 

kfsna, m. the black antelope. 

krsna-paksa, m. the dark lunar fort- 

krsna-sarpa, m. a very poisonous black 
Cobra, Coluber Xaga. 

krsnajina, n. skin of the black antelope, 

',' krsnaya(krsnayate). blacken, [krsna, 

v' kip (kalpate; caklp6 [786]; kalpsyate ; 
klpta ; kalpayati, -te). be in order; be 
suitable or serviceable to ; help ; klpta, 
in order, fixed, settled; caus. put in 
order; ordain; arrange; dispose; fix (in 
the manifold applications of this word as 
used colloquially). [prob. not akin are 
Goth, hilpan, Eng. help.~\ 
+ upa, caus. prepare; furnish; provide. 
+ sam, caws, arrange together; deter- 
mine ; will ; purpose. 

klpta-ke^anakhagmagru, a. having hair 
and nails and beard in order, i.e. trimmed. 
[kea-nakha-gmacru, 1252.] 

klptanta, having its end prescribed; 
limited, [anta.] 

k6ta, m. intention; desire; will, [v'cit, 
' look, be intent upon.'] 

ketu, m. brightness; pi. beams. [Vcit, 
' look, appear, shine ' : cf . Goth, haidu-s, 
('appearance, manner/ i.e.) 'way/ AS. 
had, ' way, manner, condition/ Eng. -hood, 
-head (as in maidenhood, godhead), Ger. 
-heit : cf. under maya.] 

k 6 v a 1 a , a. exclusive ; excluding all else ; 
alone ; -am, adv. only. 

ke"qa, m. hair (of the head); mane, [see 

kega-paksa, m. du. the two sides of 
the hair of the head ; the temples. 



k e g a - gmagru-loma-nakha, n. pi. hair of 
the head, beard, hair of the body, and 
nails. [1253a.] 

keg ant a, m. hair-end; long hair hanging 
down ; locks. 

kegfn, a. maned, with flowing mane, 

kesara, m. hair; mane. [written also 
kegara, cf . kega : cf . Lat. caesaries, ' hair, 
mane/ but not Eng. hair.'] 

kesaragra, n. ends of a mane, [agra.] 

kaivarta, m. fisher. 

kotara, n. hollow of a tree. 

kotta, m. fort. 

ko-danda, in. bow (of an archer), ['good- 
stick,' see Ika4, and 506.] 

kodandatani, f. the notched end of a 
bow. [atani.] 

kopa, m. anger; -at, adv. [1114b], angrily. 

kopakula, a. full of anger, [akula.] 

kolahala, m. n. uproar, confused cry. 

ko-vida, a. well knowing or skilled, [see 
Ika4, and 506.] 

kautuka, n. curiosity, eagerness; -at, 
adv. [1114b], eagerly. 

kaunteya, m. son of Kunti, i.e. king 
Yudhishthira. [metronymic, 1216.] 

kauravya, m. descendant of Kuru, i.e. 
Yudhishthira. [patronymic, 1211 : cf. 

kaulala, n. pottery, [kiilala.] 

kaugala, n. cleverness; ability, [kugala.] 

kratu, m. power, whether of body or of 
mind or of both: 1. might, 73 n ; 2. 
will, 75 ' 2 ; understanding, 80 5 cf. daksa ; 
inspiration, insight, esp. for sacred songs 
and acts; 3. sacred deed, sacrifice, 16 7 ; 
ceremony, cf. yajnakratu. [Vlkr, 'do, 
effect,' 1161 : orig. sense of word in mgs 1 
and 2 was prob. ' an effecting, a power to 
do or carry out': for mg 3, see \flkrl2 : 
cf . uparvs, ' mighty,' AS. heard, ' strong, 
hard,' Eng. hard.~] 

\! kram (kramati [745d], kramate ; ca- 
krama, cakram6 ; akramit ; kramisyati, 
-te, kransyate ; kranta [955a] ; krami- 
tum, krantum ; kramitva, krantva ; 
-kramya ; kramyate ; kramdyati, kram- 

ayati [1042c 2 mid.]), step; go; go to- 

+ ati, step beyond; excel; overcome. 

4 sam-ati, excel, [sam intens., 1077b 


+ a, step near to; come upon; attack; 


+ ud, go out; depart (of the vital spirit); 

cans, cause to disembark. 

+ abhy-ud, caws, cause to step out. 

+ up a, step unto; approach, 3 10 . 

+ nis, go out. 

+ para, step forth; advance boldly; 

and so, show one's strength or courage. 

[hence parakrama, ' valor ' : cf . kram + 


+ pari, go around, circumambulate. 

+ pra, step forward; set out; start 


+ vi, move away or on; proceed; attack 

boldly ; and so, show one's courage. 

[hence vikrama, ' valor ' : cf . kram + 


-fsam, come together; approach; enter 

(a zodiacal sign, said of the sun). 
krama, m. 1. step; regular progress or 

order; -ena, -at, gradatim, cf. yathakra- 

mam; 2. procedure; method; way, 36 21 . 

[V kram.] 
kramagas, adv. step by step; gradually; 

in order. [1106.] 
kravya, n. raw flesh; corpse; carrion. 

[v'*kru, which perhaps means 'coagulate, 

become stiff ' : w. kravis, ' raw flesh,' cf . 

Kpeas, *KpeFas, ' flesh ' ; w. kru-ra, ' bloody, 

raw,' cf . Lat. cru-dus, ' bloody, raw,' cruor, 

' blood ' ; cf . AS. hrdw, ' corpse ' ; Eng. raw, 

Ger. roh, 'raw.'] 
kravy a- vahana, a. carrying off the 


kravyad, a. consuming corpses, [ad.] 
kravyada, a. the same, [ada.] 
k r i y a , f. action ; performance ; doings ; 

labor, pains. [V 1 kr, 1213d.] 
\/ kri (krmati, krmlte; kresyati; krita; 

kretum; kritva; -kriya). buy, ic. instr. 

[281b] of price, [perhaps akin w. Vlkr, 

and so meaning ' do business, trade.'] 

~ u p a , buy. 

vi, sell; sell for (instr.). 




V krid (kridati, -te; cikrida, cikride; 
kridisyati; kridita; kriditum; -kridya). 
play, sport. 

kr Id a, /. play, sport. [Vkrid.] 

kritotpanna, a. bought or on hand (of 
food), [utpanna, Vpad.] 

V krudh (krudhyati, -te[761]; cukr6dha; 
akrudhat ; kruddha ; kr6ddhum ; krud- 
dhva). be angry. 

krudh, /. anger. 

krudhmi or krudhmin, a. wrathful. 
[V krudh: cf. 1167 and 1231: paroxytone.] 

V krug (kr6gati ; cukr6ga ; akruksat ; 
krusta; kr6stum ; -kriigya). cry out; 
call ; howl, [cf . Kpav-rf, ' cr y/ f r *KpavK-r) : 
for y in place of K, cf '. r-fiyavov, ' crucible,' 
w. rtj/cw, ' melt.'] 

krura, a. bloody; raw; fig. harsh, [see 
under kravya.] 

kroda, m. 1. breast, bosom; 2. in- 
terior, [for mg 2, cf. garbha2.] 

kr6dha, m. anger. [V krudh.] 

kr6ga, m. call; calling distance; Anglo- 
Indian a Kos. [Vkrng.] 

kr ogamatr avasthita, a. stationed at 
the distance of a Kos. [kroga-matra -f 

V klig (kligyate, -ti ; ciklega ; klista ; 
klestum; -kligya). be distressed. 

klega, m. pain; trouble. [Vklig.] 

kv&, V. kua, adv. 1. where? whither? 
kua babhuvus, what has become of ? 2. 
kva cid : anywhere ; in any case, ever, 
27 20 ; w. na, never. [ Ika, 505.] 

k s a , as collateral form of V 1 ksi in ksa-tra, 
and as vbl of the same, w. the mg ' abiding, 
situate,' in antari-ksa. 

ksana, m. instant; moment; -ena, -at. 
as advs [1112b, 1114b], instantly, [prob. 
' the time of a glance,' a shortened form 
of Iks-ana, ' glance ' : for mg, cf . Eng. 
"in the twinkling of an eye," and Ger. 
Augen-blick, ' glance of an eye, i.e. mo- 

ksanika,/. -I, a. momentary, [ksana.] 

k s a t , ppl. of V ksan. 

ksatra, n. 1. rule, dominion, power, 
86 M ; 2. later, the temporal power, im- 
perium (as distinguished from the spirit- 
ual power, brahman, 'sacerdotium') ; the 

second or princely caste or a member of 
it. [from ksa = v 1 ksi 2 : cf . ksatra-pa, 
' governor of a dominion, satrap,' and the 
borrowed ffarpd-injs.l 

ksatra-bandhu, m. one who belongs to 
the ksatra or second caste. 

ksatriya, m. 1. ruler, 75 l ; 2. one 
who belongs to the ksatra or princely 
caste, a Kshatriya, 57 16 N. [ksatra, 1214a.] 

V ksan (ksan6ti, ksanut< ; aksanista ; 
ksata). harm ; hurt ; break, [closely 
akin w. V 2 ksi, q.v.] 

ksantavya, grdv. to be put up with or 
pardoned. [Vksam, 212.] 

ksa pa, /. night. [cf. oW, 'cover,' 
<//e'4>os, ' darkness ' : for ^, cf . V ksar.] 

ksapaha, n. a night and day, wxd-fi/J-fpov. 
[2 aha, 1253b.] 

v' ksam (ksamate, -ti; caksame; ksam- 
isyate, ksansyate ; ksanta [955a] ; ksan- 
tum ; ksamyate). 1. be patient; en- 
dure ; put up with ; ksanta, patient ; 2. 
forgive ; pardon. 

ksa ma, a. patient; bearing or enduring; 
ana" so, equal to a thing, able, [v'ksam.] 

ksama,y. patience; long-suffering, [do.] 

1 ksaya, m. dwelling-place. [VI ksi.] 

2 ksaya, m. destruction; decay. [\'2ksi.] 
V ksar (ksarati, -te ; caksara ; aksar 

[890]; ksaritd). -1. flow; -2. liquefy; 

melt away ; and so, perish, [for *skar : 

cf. tyeipca (tffireipw) = <p6eip<a, ' destroy,' 

4-<p0dp-r), ' perished ' : for i^, cf . ksapa, 

ksiti: foT<p0, cf. 2 ksi.] 
ksar a, a. perishable. [Vksar.] 
V ksa (ksayati [761dl]; ksana). burn, 
ksara, a. pungent; saline. [v'ksa: cf. 

i)p6-s, 'dry': for mg, cf. Eng. caustic, lit. 

' burning,' fig. ' pungent.'] 
V Ik si, with two meanings, 'dwell,' and 

' rule,' attaching themselves to the steins ksi 

and ksaya respectively ; thus, 

1. kse-ti, 3d pi. ksi-y-anti : abide or 
while or dwell, esp. in quiet and safety, 
79 18 ; inhabit, [cf. ksiti, 1 ksaya, ksetra, 
ksema 1, ' dwelling-place ' ; a^(pi-Kri-ovts, 
'dwelling around,' Kri-ai-s, 'settlement.'] 
+ up a, rest on, be dependent on. 

2. ksaya-ti : pos-sess , be-sitzen ; be 
master of; rule, 71 9 . [cf. ksema 2, 'pos- 



session ' ; K'-/cTrj-yuai, ' am master of,' KTO- 
ofiai, 'get.'] 

[cf. the collateral form ksa : for con- 
nection of 1 and 2, cf. the relation of Lat. 
sedere, ' sit,' and pos-sidere, ' be master of,' 
and of Ger. sitzen, ' sit,' and be-sitsen, ' be 
master of.'] 

l/ 2k si (ksinati, later ksin6ti; aksesta; 
ksita, ksind ; -ksiya ; kslyate ; ksapa- 
yati [1042e]). destroy; make an end of; 
exhaust ; pass, wane ; ksina, ruined, 
lost ; caus. weaken, [cf . <pOtvw, *<t>Qwvia, 
' perish, wane,' <t>6l-pei>os, ' dead ' : for <f>0, 
cf. ksar : w. the secondary ksa-n, cf. 
KTa.-fj.evos, 'slain,' Kreivu, *Krev-jta, 'slay.'] 
+ apa, pass, be afflicted, suffer loss. 

k s i t , i-bl. inhabiter or ruler, at end of cpds. 
[v'lksi 1 and 2: see 1147c.] 

ksitf, f. dwelling, abode, 79 18 ; piece of 
ground or land; the earth, the ground. 
[V 1 ksi 1 : cf . Krl-ffi-s, ' settlement.'] 

ksiti, f. destruction. [V2ksi: cf. tyi-ai-s 
= <f>diffts, ' decay ' : for fy, cf. ksar.] 

V ksip (ksipati, -te ; ciksepa, ciksipe ; 
ksepsyati, -te; ksipta; kseptum; ksip- 
tva ; -ksipya; ksepayati). dart; cast; 
throw , caus. cause to fly or burst, 84 4 . 
+ a, 1. throw at; 2. fig. (like Eng. 
fling, make flings at), deride, put to shame, 
8 10 ; 3. draw towards one's self, call out 
(a person to vindicate himself), 55 6 . 
+ ni, throw down (one's self, one's body). 
+ vi-ni, lay down separately or orderly. 
+ sam, dash together in a heap; de- 

ksipta-laguda, a. having the cudgel 

ksipra, a. darting ; quick ; -am, adv. 
quickly. [Vksip.] 

ksira, n, milk. [prob. Vksar.] 

ksirin, a. milky ; as m. milk-plant, 

ksirodaka, n. milk and water, [udaka: 

V ksud (ks6dati, -te ; cuks6da; ksunna; 
-ksudya). shatter; stamp upon; grind 

ksudra, a. small, [\lksud.] 

ksudra-buddhi, m. Small-wit, name of 
a jackal. [1298.] 

ksud-vyadhi, m. hunger and disease. 
[ksudh: 1253a.] 

V ksudh (ksddhyati ; ksudhita). be 
hungry ; ksudhita, hungry. 

ksudh,/. hunger. [ V ksudh, 383a.] 

k s u d h a , f. hunger. [V ksudh.] 

ksudharta, a. distressed with hunger, 
[ksudha + arta.] 

ksetra, n. dwelling-place, 87 n ; piece of 
ground; field. [Vlksil.] 

ksetra-pati, m. master of a field; 

ks6ma, m. 1. abode; place of rest; 
security; well-being, 61 8 ; 2. possession; 
kseme yoge, in possession in acquisi- 
tion, i.e. in the enjoyment of what we 
have got and in the getting of more, 
[v/lksil and 2: for *ske-ma, 1166: cf. 
Goth, haim-s, ' village ' ; A.S. ham, Eng. 
home, and -ham in place-names; perhaps 
also (if for K^JUTJ"?), 'village.'] 

kha, n. 1. hole; hollow; 2. opening; 

3. hole in the hub of a wheel ; 4. void 
space; the sky. [Vkhan, cf. 333.] 

kha-ga, 1. a. moving in the sky, flying; 

2. as m. bird, [for mg 2, cf. antariksa- 
ga and kha-gama, 'bird,' ura-ga and 
bhujam-gama, ' snake,' and turam-ga, 
' horse.'] 

kha-gama, the same. 
khanda, a. broken; as m. a break, sec- 
tion, piece ; khandaka, m. lump-sugar. 

[hence, prob., through the Persian, Arabic, 

Italian, and French, the Eng. candy. ,] 
V khandaya (khandayati). break; 

khandita, broken (of a command). 

[khanda, 1055.] 
V khan or kha (khanati, -te ; cakhana, 

cakhnus ; akhan [890] ; khanisyati ; 

khata ; khanitum ; khanitva, khatva ; 

-khaya; khanyate, khayate ; khanayati). 

dig ; caus. cause to be dug. [if for *skan, 

cf . Lat. can-alls, ' ditch, canal.'] 

+ a , dig, burrow, in akhu. 
khara, a. harsh; as m. ass (so called from 

his harsh bray), 67 19 . 
khala, m. 1. threshing-floor; 2. a 

mean, low-lived fellow. [the tertium 



comparationis for 1 and 2 is perhaps 
' dirt.'] 

khalu, pel. 1. now (confirmative) ; atha 
khalu, now; 2. indeed (emphasizing the 
preceding word), 55 s ; 3. to be sure (con- 
cessive), 98 3 . 

V kha, see khan. 

V khad (khadati; cakhada; khadisyate ; 
khadita ; khaditum ; khaditva ; khad- 
yate; khadayati). chew; bite; eat, esp. 
of animals; feed on, 24 16 ; devour, 2 1 11 ; 
khadita, eaten, 23 3 , etc. [if for *skand 
or sknd, cf. Kvifa, V/cvtS, 'bite, sting,' 
Ki/i5ij, ' nettle,' but not Eng. nettle.'] 

khaditavya, grdv. edendus. [vkhad.] 

V khid (khidati; khinna; -khidya). de- 
press, but only fig. 
+ u d , pull out. 

khila, 1. . piece of waste land between 
cultivated fields ; a bare spot ; 2. a 

khu, a Prakrit form for khalu. 

khe-cara, a. moving in the sky. [kha, 

khecaratva, n. power of flying (by 
magic). [1239.] 

kheda, m. depression, sorrow. [Vkhid.] 

kheda-vaga, a. having depression as 
one's controlling influence, under the do- 
minion of sorrow. 

V khya (khyati; cakhyau; akhyat [847]; 
khyasyati ; khyata ; khyatum ; -khyaya ; 
khyayate ; khyapayati, -te [1042d]). 
simple verb only in pass, and caus. pass. 
be well known ; be talked of ; caus. 
make known, [orig. mg, perhaps, 'shine, 
appear or look (intrans.), see (trans.)'.] 
+ abhi, look at; behold, 78 13 . 
-fa, 1. show, tell; narrate, 55 19 ; 2. 
designate, name ; caus. : act. tell ; mid. 
have told to one's self, 105 7 . 
+ praty-a, (lit. show back, i.e.) turn 
away, repulse, reject, 9 20 ; refuse, [the 
Ger. zuriick-weisen has just the same 

+ v y - a , show to discriminately, i.e. ex- 

+ s a m , tell together, i.e. reckon up. 
-pari-sam, reckon up completely, 

khyati, f. the being well known; fame; 
khyatim gam, become famous. [Vkhya.] 

g a , vbl. going, in many cpds ; situate, e.g. 
in madhyaga ; as m. nomen actionis, the 
going, in durga, suga. [v'gam, cf. 333.] 

gagana, n. sky. 

gang a, f. the Ganges. [fr. \'gam^=ga, 
w. intens. reduplication, 1002b.] 

g a j a , m. elephant. 

gaja-yutha, m. herd of elephants. 

gajendra, m. a great elephant. [see 

gana, m. 1. troop, (of Maruts) 90 18 ; 
crowd, (of friends) 3 9 ; host (of stars) ; 
flock, (of birds) 3 8 ; 2. pi. troop-deities, 
inferior deities which regularly appear not 
singly, but in troops, 67 n ; esp. those that 
compose the retinue of Qiva ; then, as sing., 
a single one of Qiva's attendants, a Gana, 
55 20 ; 3. a number. 

ganana, /. a numbering, calculation, tak- 
ing into account, ['' ganaya.] 

v' ganaya (ganayati). number, calculate, 
[gana, 1055.] 

ganita, ppl. calculated; as n. [1176a], 
calculation, arithmetic, [v ganaya.] 

gata, ppl. 1. gone, 2 21 ; departed; ?<-. inf. 
snatum gata, gone to bathe, 44 2 ; so 41 2 ; 
2. often at beg. of cpds, see these ; 3. 
gone to: w. ace. 5, 15 20 ; w. prati ana" 
ace., 23 15 ; 4. (having arrived at, i.e.) 
situated in : w. ace., 62 15 ; w. loc., 5 u ; in 
cpd, e.g. svahasta-gata, situated on my 
own hand; 5. gone to a condition, see 
Vgam4; attained to, (fame) 56 12 ; -con- 
ditioned, in durgata, sugata. [v'gam, 

gata-prana, a. whose breath is gone, 

gata-samkalpa, a. whose purpose or 
will for the moment is gone, purposeless. 

gatanugati, f. the going after him who 
has gone (before), the following in the 
old ruts, [anugati.] 

gatanugatika, a. addicted to following 
in the old ruts, [gatanugati, 1222a.] 

g a t a s u , a. whose life is gone, [asu.] 



gati, /. 1. a going, way of going, ability 
to go; 2. progress, 18 18 ; eventus, issue, 
20 13 ; 3. way of escape, refuge, 52 15 ; 

4. the way or course esp. of the soul 
through different bodies, metempsychosis ; 
and so, a condition of the soul during thesL 
transmigrations, a man's lot or fate, 53 lv , 
65 10 ,G6 6 ,66 21 ff. [Vgam, 1157: cf. ySo-o-i-:. 
'going, power to go.'] 

V gad (gadati; jagada; gadisyate; gad- 
ita; gaditum; -gadya). speak. 
+ n i , say. 

gad a, m. disease. 

gantavya, grdv. eundum, used impers. 

g and ha, m. smell ; pi., w. gubha, per- 

gandharva, ?. 1. orig., perhaps, the 
deity of the moon, the Gandharva; 2. 
in Epos, pi. Gandharvas, heavenly singers 
belonging to Indra's court ; as sing, one of 
these, a Gandharva. 

gabhira ( V., later) gambhira, a. deep. 

V gam (gacchati, -te [747, G08] ; jagama, 
jagme ; V. agan [833], later agamat ; 
gamisyati, -te ; gata ; gantum ; gatva ; 
-gatya, -gamy a ; gamy ate ; jfgamisati ; 
gamayati, -te). 1. go, move; go to, 
3 6 ; go towards ; go away, 28 n , 36 6 ; come ; 
w. pratipam, go wrong ; 2. go by, pass 
(intrans.): of time, 20 3 ; of days, 29 13 ; 

3. come unto, i.e. arrive at, w. ace., 3 7 , 
84 7 ; reach, w. loc., 69 8 ; come into, w. loc., 
71 6 ; get at, 95 19 ; 4. go to a state or 
condition : w. pancatvam, go to dissolu- 
tion, i.e. die, 32 21 , etc. ; so to destruction, 
29 6 ; despondency, 44 18 ; w. nijaiii gatim, 
(went) to his own proper condition, i.e. 
became a Yaksha once more, 53 12 ; 5. 
manasa gam, (go with the mind, i.e.) per- 
ceive, 15 10 . 

[cf. fialvca (*0avjw, *yFf/jj<a), 'go'; Lat. 
vSnio, #gv&mio, 'come'; AS. cum-an, Eng. 
come ; for the kw which is to be expected 
in Germanic as answering to the old gv, 
cf . Ger. be-quem, Old Eng. cweme, ' con-ve- 
nient, fit, pleasant': cf. gaccha and &daK, 
'go thou'; gata-s, 'gone,' and PUTO-S, 
'(gone over, i.e.) passable'; gati-3 and 
jScuri-?, 'a going': see also v'ga.] 

+ adhi, 1. go to; attain; 2. get at, 
learn, study, read cf. Vi + adhi. 
+ anu, go after, follow. 
-i- antar, go within, enter. 
i- a pi, go unto, join, 91 5 ff. 
+ abhi, go unto, 1 u ; go. 
+ a ram, see s.v. 
lava, come down. 

-i-a, 1. go to, 6 10 ; come to; come 
hither, 5 2 ' 2 , 10 2S ; 2. return (52 22 ), ?<SM- 
allij w. punar, 4 3 , etc. ; agata : 1. ar- 
rived, come, 7 9 ; w. inf. c,rotum agata, 
come to hear, 28 5 ; so 27 10 ; arrived (as 
guest), 28 7 ; -2. returned, 24 17 ; -3. 
having gone to a condition, e.g. death, 
46 3 ; agantavyam, grdv., as impers. 
pass. w. anena, this one will come hither ; 
-=- desid. desire to return, 101 5 . 
+ abhy-a, come unto, visit; abhyagata, 
as subst. guest. 
+ upa_a, approach. 
+ sam-upa_a, go to together. 
+ sam-a, assemble; meet, 61 8 . 
+ u d , go out, proceed from. 
+ u p a , go unto, approach. 
+ nis, proceed from (abl.), 51 n ; nirgata, 

+ prati, come back, return. 
+ vi, go asunder; vigata, gone, vanished. 
+ s a m , mid. come together, meet ; unite 
one's self with; and so, come to enjoy; 
cans, assemble, as trans. 

gam a, a. going, at end ofcpds. [v'gam.] 

gambhira, a. deep; cf. gabhira. 

garut, n. wing. 

garutmant, a. winged; as m. bird, [for 
mg, cf. paksin.] 

v g ar J (garjati; jagarja; garjita ; garj- 
itva; -garjya). roar. 

garj ana, n. roar. 

garta, m. (earth-) cut, ditch. [younger 
form of karta, q.v.] 

gardabha, m. ass; -i,/. she-ass. [1199.] 

garbha, m. 1. uterus concipiens, the 
conceiving womb ; abde garbhad eka- 
dage, in the eleventh year from (the 
womb, i.e.) conception; 2. (as in Mil- 
ton's Earth's inmost womb) the interior, 
inside, 34 5 , 43 2 , cf. kroda ; at end of cpds, 
having in the interior, containing , cf. 



padmagarbha; 3. conceptum, fruit of 
the womb; garbham dadhanas, conceiv- 
ing fruit, 92 12 ; embryo, 46 5 , 93 7 ; scion; 
and so 4. a new-born child. [Vgrabh, 
' concipere ' : with garbha in mg 1, cf . 
Sf\<(>vs and 8o\<pds, 'womb,' a-Se\<(>6s and 
a.-Se\<f>e-i6-s (= sa-garbh-ya-s), 'of the 
same womb, i.e. brother'; in mg 3, cf. 
PpeQos, ' embryo,' and Eng. calf in moon- 
calf: in mg 4, cf. Goth. Icalbo, Eng. calf.'} 

garbhavant, a., in fern, only, pregnant. 
[garbha 3: see 1233.] 

garbha-stha, a. being in the womb, un- 

V garb, (garhate ; jagarhe ; garhita; 
garhitum; -garhya). blame, reproach; 
garhita, despised. 

V gal (galati; galita). -1. drip; -2. fall; 
galita, fallen out, gone (claws, teeth, 
eyes), [hence Jala, 'water': cf. V/3a\ in 
interns, mg, e.g. norap.'bs els a\a /SaAAcop, 
'river flowing into the sea'; Ger. quellen, 
'flow, spring,' Quelle, 'fountain.'] 

gava, equiv. of go, 'bull, cow, beeve,' in 
cpds. [see 1209a.] 

gavyuti,/. pasture-land ; generalized, ter- 
ritory, abiding-place, [lit. 'having food 
for cattle,' g6 + utf , see go 4: the y is 
euphonic, cf. 258.] 

V ga (jigati ; agat). go; come, [collat- 
eral form of gam, q.v. : w. jfgati, cf . La- 
conic &ifidri, 'strides'; w. agat, cf. &ri, 
' went.'] 

+ a b h i , go unto ; w. gramam, become 

gatu, m. 1. motion, movement, course; 
2. progress ; equiv. to the Eng. -fare in 
wel-fare (for mg, cf. verb fare, ' get on, 
go') see sugatuya; 3. (place of re- 
course, i.e.) refuge, abiding-place, 83 9 . 
[Vga, 'go,' 1161.] a, n. 1. (means of moving, i.e.) a 
limb of the body ; 2. by synecdoche, the 
body. [Vga, 'move,' 1185a.] 

gamin, a. going, going upon, going to. 
[Vgam, 1183 3 .] 

garbha, a. relating to the embryo or to 
pregnancy (of sacrifices), [garbha, 1208f.] 

garbhika, a. relating to the womb, pre- 
natal, [garbha, 1222e2.] 

garhapatya, 1. a. pertaining to the 
householder; as m., sc. agni, the house- 
holder's fire, 102 2 N. ; 2. as n. the being 
head of the house, 89 6 ; the housekeeping, 
89 17 . [grhapati, 1211.] 

gir [392], / 1. invocation, praise, 74 12 ; 

2. sing, and pi. speech, words, 87 16 , 49 9 ; 
- 3. voice, 3 ". [V 1 gr, 242 ' 3 .] 

giri, m. mountain, 55 8 . 

V gu (intens. j6guve [1007 3 ]). cause to 
sound, proclaim, [cf . y6os, /3o-fi, ' cry ' ; 
Lat. bovare, ' howl.'] 

gun a, m. 1. a single thread of a cord; 
a string ; esp. bow-string ; 2. quality ; 
adscititious quality, as distinguished from 
the real nature (svabhava, 'ingenium'), 
22 20 ; 3. as philosophical technical term, 
one of the three pervading qualities of all 
nature, to wit, sattva, 'goodness,' rajas, 
' passion,' and tamas, ' darkness,' 66 8 ff . ; 

4. as specialization ofmg 2, a good qual- 
ity, virtue, 1 4> 12 , etc. ; excellence, [for 
play on ings 1 and 4, see nirguna and 
18 5 .] 

guna-deva, m. Gunadeva, a pupil of 
Gunadhya. [lit. 'having virtue as his 
god,' 1302.] 

gunavant, a. virtuous, 18*; excellent, 
3 22 . [1233.] 

gunagalin, a. possessing virtues, excel- 
lent, [see galin.] 

gunadhya, m. Gunadhya, see 53 3 N. [lit. 
' rich in virtue,' adhya.] 

gunanvita, a. endowed with excellence ; 
(of an asterism) lucky, [anvita, Vi.] 

gunin, a. virtuous, excellent, [guna.] 

V gup (jug6pa; gopsyati; gupita, gupta ; 
g6pitum, g6ptum; gupyate; jugupsate, 
-ti). keep; guard; desid. seek to keep 
one's self from, i.e. shun, detest ; ppl. 
jugupsita, detested, inspiring aversion, 
59 12 . [prob. a secondary root, originating 
in the denom. verb-stem gopaya : see this 
and go-pa.] 

guru, a. 1. heavy; and so 2. fig. (like 
Eng. weighty), important; 3. worthy of 
honor, 28 13 ; 4. as m. the one to be 
honored /car' f^o-^v, the teacher or Guru, 
60 4 ff. ; loc. gurau: in the house of the 
Guru, 61 23 ; in case of a Guru, 104 4 . [cf. 



the comp. garlyans : cf. ftapvs, Lat. gravis, 
*garu-i-s, Goth, kaurus, ' heavy.'] 

v' guh (guhati [745c] ; juguha [793f], 
juguhe ; aghuksat [910, 155] ; gudha 
[222 3 ]; guhitum; -giihya). hide; gulha, 
hidden, 76 15 . 

+ apa, hide (trans.) away from, w. abl., 
85 u ; put away, get rid of, 77 1 . 

giih, /. hiding-place; instr. guha: used as 
ach-. guha [1112e], in secret. [Vguh.] 

giiha,/. hiding-place; cavern, [do.] 

giihya, grdv. cclandus ; secret, hidden, 

guhyaka, m. one of a class of demigods, 
who, like the Yakshas, wait on Kubera, 
god of wealth, and, dwelling in mountain 
caverns (guha), keep his treasures, [so 
named from their living in caverns or 
hidden places : 1222.] 

V Igr (grnati, grmte; jagara; garisyati; 
girna[957b]; -glrya). 1. invoke, call; 
2. salute, praise; 3. speak out, say. 
[cf . gir, ' speech, voice ' ; yypvs, ' speech, 
voice ' ; Doric yapvev, ' speak ' ; Lat. garrio, 
' talk ' ; Eng. call.'] 
+ sam, chime in with, agree. 

V 2gr (girati ; jagara; agaiit ; girnd 
[957b] ; -girya). swallow. [cf. &opd, 
' food,' j3i-/3p(a-(rK<i>, ' eat/ Sy/jio-fidp-o-s, 
' folk-devouring ' ; Lat. carni-vffr-us, ' flesh- 
eating,' de-vordre, ' swallow down, de- 

+ ni, swallow down; devour (the sun in 
an eclipse), 76 16 see Vgras. 

V 3gr (nor. ajigar [867]; intens. jagarti 
[1006]; caws, jagarayati). 1. intens. be 
awake; wake, intrans.; jagrhi [1011], be 
thou watchful, have a care for, w. dat., 
89 n ; wake up, intrans., 30 16 ; 2. caws, 
wake, trans., 30 5 . [for the history of the 
word, see 1020 : for 1, cf . t-yp-f)-yop-a, ' am 
awake,' e-yp-ero, 'awoke' (intrans.); for 
2, cf. tyflpca, 'wake' (trans.).] 

gftsa, a. clever; wise. 

V grdh (gfdhyati; jagardha ; agrdhat ; 
gardhisyati ; grddha; grddhva). 1. 
take long strides ; 2. be eager or greedy 
for. [for *ghrdh : cf. Eng. greedy.] 

gfdhra, 1. a. greedy; 2. m. vulture. 
[\/grdh, 1188a: the Ger. offers an exact 

parallel : Geier, ' vulture,' is prop. ' the 
greedy (bird),' from Gier, 'greediness.'] 

grdhra-kuta, m. Vulture-peak, a moun- 
tain in Magadha. 

grha, in V., m. ; later, m. in pi. ; otherwise, 
n. house, 28 7 , 79 15 ; w. mrnmaya, house 
of earth, the grave ; grham gam, go home, 
52 10 ; so 40 3 , 68 n ; as pi. the house as con- 
sisting of various rooms and buildings, 
89 12 ; mansions, 87 7 . ['that which re- 
ceives one,' V grah : cf . geha.] 

grha-pati, m. master of the house, [acct, 

grha-patni, f. mistress of the house, 

grha-stha, a. abiding in a house; as m. 
householder or Brahman in the second 
stage of his religious life, see agrama. 

grhagrama, m. house-stage, second stage 
in a Brahman's life, see a^rama. 

geha, n. house, [ident. w. grha: cf. the 
ident. Wrdh and edh.] 

g6 [361c], m.f. 1. a beef in its old sense 
of bull or cow ; pi. beeves, kine, cattle ; 
the Vedic type or symbol of all welfare 
and blessing and riches (e.g. 80 IB ), like 
" milk and honey " with the Hebrews ; 2. 
beef in the derived and now usual sense oj 
flesh; pi. pieces of flesh, 84 16 ; -3. (the 
milch cow of kings, i.e.) the earth, 63 7 ; 

4. observe that gavyiiti, gotra, gopa, 
gopati, gomaya, and many other cpds of 
go lose their special reference to cattle and 
take a more general mg. [cf. /3ovs, stem 
OF, ' a beef, ox, cow ' ; Lat. 6os, stem bov, 
'ox, cow'; AS. cu, Eng. cow.] 

go-ghna, a. kine-killing ; as m. co.w- 

g6tama, m. Gotama, a Vedic seer of the 

tribe of Angiras. 
gotra, n. 1. cow-stall, cattle-pen; 2. 

perhaps, pen of cattle, and so 3. group 

in general (see go4) ; 4. esp. family, 19 16 ; 

5. family name, 103 19 , see naman2. 
[from go : mgs 2 and 3 are not authenti- 
cated by the literature.] 

gotra-ja, a. born in the family; as m. a 

go-pa, m. 1. cow-keeper, cow-herd; 2. 

keeper in general (see go 4). [2 pa.] 



g6-pati, m. 1. lord of kine; 2. lord 
in general (see go 4). [acct, 1267a.] 

V gopaya (gopayati, -te). be keeper, 
keep, [gopa, 1055.] 

go -pa [351], m. 1. cow-keeper; 2. 
keeper in general (see go 4), 85 16 ; protec- 
tor, 69 15 . [2 pa.] 

V gopaya (gopayati, -te). be keeper; 
keep, 91 12 . [gopa, 1055.] 

gomaya, 1. a. bovine; as n. 2. cow- 
dung, 103 22 ; 3. dung in general (see 
go 4) ; w. anaduha, dung of a steer, 
105 3 - 20 . [see maya.] 

go - y u k t a , a. yoked with cattle ; w . cakra, 
wagon drawn by cattle. [Vyuj.] 

go-raksaka, m. cattle-keeper, cow-herd. 

g6-sakhi [343a], a. having cattle as com- 
panions, rich in cattle, [sakhi, 186.] 

go-stha, m. cow-stall, byre, [stha, 186.] 

gaunika, f. -I, a. standing in relation to 
the three guna's, see guna 3. [guna, 

gautama, m. patronymic from Gotama; 
Gautama, name of various men. [g6tama, 

V grath or granth (grathnati; granthi- 
syati; grathita; -grathya). 1. string 
together, connect; 2. put together, i.e. 
corn-pose (a literary work), [for mgs, cf. 
Lat. com-ponere, ' put together, compose ' ; 
also serere, 'connect, entwine/ w. sermo, 
' discourse.'] 

granth a, m. 1. (a string of words, i.e.) 
verse or couplet, 53 6 , etc ; 2. a corn-posi- 
tion, book, work, 17 8 . [V granth : for mgs, 
see under grath, and for 1, cf. Lat. serere 
w. series, 'row, string.'] 

granthfn, a. subst. having books, bookish, 
book-reader, [grantha.] 

V grabh, in Rigveda; later, grah. 

from grabh : grbhnati, grbhnite ; 
jagrabha, jagrbh6; agrabhlt, agrabblsta 
[900]; grbhita; grbhltva; -gfbhya. 

from grah: grhnati; jagrahajagrhe; 
agrahit, agrahista [900]; grahisyati, -te; 
grhlt& ; grahitum ; grhitva ; -gf hya ; 
grhyate ; grahayati, -te. 

1. grasp ; seize with the hand ; hold ; 
take ; w. hastam or panim, take the hand 
(of the bride at the v.-edding), 89 5 ; take 

hold on (loc.), 14 18 ; grhita ke^esu, seized 
by the hair ; used of a rabbit taking, i.e. 
leading with him a lion, 33*; 2. take 
possession of, take, 46 22 ; get, 44 5 ; 3. 
receive, accept, 20 10 , 56 1 ; 4. of fluids, 
take in the ladle, 94 1 ; 5. of names, take 
upon the lips, mention, 64 13 , 103 19 ; 6. 
fig., as in Eng., grasp, i.e. perceive, know ; 

7. get, learn; caus. cause to learn. 
[see under garbha: connection w. Eng. 
gripe, Ger. greifen, exceedingly doubtful.] 
+ pari, 1. hold on both sides; and so 

2. become master of ; master, overcome, 

+ prati, take hold of, 59 23 ; accept. 
+ vi, 1. hold asunder; separate ; make 
a division; and so 2. quarrel; fight. 
+ s am, hold together, clasp. 
+ upa-sam, clasp with the hands. 
V gras (grasate ; jagrase ; agrasit; gras- 
isyate ; grasta ; grasitva ; grasyate ; 
grasayati). 1. swallow; devour, 10 10 ; 

2. of the demon Rahu, who swallows, 
i.e. eclipses sun and moon, 23 *. [perhaps 
akin w. V 2 gr, ' swallow.'] 

V grah, see grabh. 

graha, m. seizure (with a claw, i.e.), bite. 

grab, an a, n. the grasping, i.e. acquisition. 

[Vgrah 6, 7.] 
grabh a, a. subst. grasping, grasper. 

[v 1 grabh.] 
grama, m. 1. inhabited place, hamlet, 

village, see 98 16 N. ; 2. the inhabitants, 

grama-kama, a. having desire for the 

village, fond of abiding in the village. 
gravan, m. stone; esp. stone for pressing 

the Soma. 
g r a h a , a. subst . grasping, grasper, in cpds. 

grahya, grdv. to be grasped; perceivable. 

griva, /. nape of the neck; neck, [for 

#ga e rva : cf. Aeolic Seppa, #5epFa, Epic 

Sfipil, 'throat, neck.'] 
gnsnia, m. summer. 

g h a , form of ghan, i.e. han, in cpds. [1143c, 



ghat a, m. a jar. 

g liana, m. 1. slayer; 2. slaughter; 
3. a compacted mass, lump ; 4. cloud. 
[\( ghan, i.e. ban : cf . <p6vo-s, ' slaughter.'] 

g bar ma, m. warmth, heat. [\/2ghr: cf. 
6ipfjLo-s, for #(j)opij.6s, li&t.formus, 'warm.'] 

V gnus (gh6sati, -te ; jugh6sa ; ghusta ; 
-ghusya ; ghosayati). sound ; make a 

V Ighi (jigharti; ghrta; gharayati). be- 
sprinkle; be-drop; drip (trans.); ghrta, 
see s.v. 

+ praty-abhi, cans, sprinkle over re- 
+ vy-a, sprinkle here and there. 

V 2ghr, glow, be warm, in a-ghrni, 'glow- 
ing,' and gharma, tj.v. 

ghrta, H. 1. butter, clarified and then 
hardened, Anglo-Indian ghee, much used 
for culinary (cf. 68 *) and religious (cf. 
88 ") purposes : cf. ajya, 'butter in a 
melted state ' ; 2. butter or fat in general, 
also as symbol of fruitfulness and abun- 
dance. [Vlghr, 'drip,' 1176a: for mg, cf. 
Eng. dripping, 'fat which falls in drops 
from meat in roasting.'] 

ghrta-pagu, m. sacrificial beast made 
of ghee. 

ghrta-gciit, a. dripping with (ghee, i.e.) 

ghor&, a. awful; dreadful; horrid. 

ghor a- caksus, a. having an evil eye. 

ghorakrti, a. having an awful form, 

gh6sa, m. noise. [Vghus.] 

ghna, a. killing; destroying; removing. 
[\f ghan, i.e. han : see 21(3. 9.] 

ghnya, grdv. to be slain, in aghnya. [do.] 

V ghra (jighrati [749a]; jaghraii; ghrata; 
-ghraya; ghrayate; ghrapayati [1042d]). 
smell ; snuff at. 

c a , end. con/, and, also, re, que ; 1 a. is 

found, esp. in the older literature, with both 
parts to be connected (e.g. 71 5 ' 7 , 97 7 ' 11 ; so 
13 5 , 16 12 , 17 3 , 19 10 , 38 7 , 9 2 ); or only ivith 
the latter, as is oftenest the case in the later 
language (e.g. 2 1 - 7 , 3 8 , 8 8 ; 82 8 , 84 16 ; 98 16 ) ; 
1 b. in case of three or more parts to be 

connected, ca occurs: with the last only (e.g. 
three parts, 13 2 , 17 2 , 31 , 44 ; 71 8 , 72 10 , 
83 15 ; 106 5 ; /our parts, 2 2 , 17 7 , 28 10 ; Jive 
parts, 2 5 , 21 5 , 25 3 ) ; with the last two (7 6 - 7 , 
22 5 , 37 15 , 45 7 ; 77 12 ) ; sometimes after each, 
(29 S> *); very rarely after the jirst of a scries 
(26 6 ; 21 22 ); various irregulcf combinations 
on page 67 passim ; see a/so 21 20 N. ; 

2. variously combined : w. eva (e.g. 
13 21 ; 9 16 , II 9 , 14 15 ; 5 9 , 12 5 , 14 2 - 8 - 20 , 15 16 , 
25 4 ; 30 u ), and w. api (see examples under 
api) ; ca, tatha, ca, both , like- 
wise , and, 10 8 ' 9 ; ca, a, both , 
and , 85 5 ; sa ca, often at beg. of clause 
(e.g. 24 23 ; so 34 1S ; 41 7 ); -3. anyac ca, 
api ca, kim ca, tatha ca, joining two prov- 
erbs of like drift, moreover, further, like- 
wise ; 

4. otiose, 6 9 ; 5. connecting things 
contrasted: but, 8 16 , 17 20 , 18 '- :1 , 19 2 ; and 
yet, I 12 , 3 20 ; 6. (even, concessively, i.e.) 
though, 26 12 ; 7. (like Eng. and or an, 
and Icelandic encla, 'moreover,' 'if') if 
see ced ; 8. iv. interrogatives, rendering 
them indef., see ka, kim. 

[cf. re, 'and'; Lat. que, 'and'; Goth, -h 
and Ger. -ch in ni-h and no-ch, the exact 
equivalents of Lat. ne-que, 'and not, nor': 
for ca8, cf. -re and -Ka in TTO-TE and Doric 
TTO-KU, ' at any time ' ; Lat. quis-nue, ' any, 

cakra, n. 1. wheel; chariot-wheel, wagon- 
wheel; 2. by synecdoche, wagon, in pitha- 
cakra. [prob. reduplicated form, ca-kra, 
fr. \/*kr or *kl, 'roll,' cf. KU\LW, 'roll': w. 
ca-kra, cf. KV-K\OS, #KF6-/cAos, AS. hweohl, 
hwedl, Eng. wheel. ] 

V caks (caste [628]; cacakse; castum; 
-caksya). 1. appear; 2. look upon, 
behold; 3. (cause to appear, i.e.) an- 
nounce, tell, [reduplicated form of v'ka, 
see 675 and lOSg 1 end.] 
+ a, 1. look on; 2. show, tell, 63 l . 
+ vi, appear far and wide, shine. 
+ sam, look upon, consider. 

caksas, 1. perhaps adj. beholding, see 
1296 3 end; -2. n. look; eye. [Vcaks.] 

caksuh-plda, f. eye-ache. 

cdksusmant, a. possessing eyes. [1235.] 

cdksus, n. eye. [Vcaks. 1154.1 



cancala, a. moving to and fro; trembling, 
[v/cal, 1148.4, w. in tens, reduplication, cf. 
1002b : cf . Kiy-Ka\-os, ' wag-tail ' ; Lat. 
quer-quer-us, ' shaking with fever chills.'] 

c a n c u , f. beak, bill. 

canaka, m. chick-pea. 

canda, a. impetuous; wrathful. 

candala, m. a Chandala or man of the 
most despised class of society (born of 
C, udra father and Brahman mother), [cf. 

V cat (catant; catta; caus. catayati). get 
off ; hide ; caus. drive away. 

catasr, fern, to catur. 

catur [482d], num. four. [w. catvaras, cf. 
rerrapes, Lat. quattuor, Goth, fidvor, AS. 
feower, ~Eng.four.~] 

catur-aksa, a. four-eyed, [see 1300b.] 

caturtha, /. -i, a. fourth; -am, adv. the 
fourth time, [catur, 487 5 .] 

catur-yuga, n. the four ages. [1312.] 

catur-varga, m. group of four. 

catur-vidha,a. of four kinds; four-fold, 
[vidha, 1302c5.] 

catustaya, a. of four; as n. a collection 
of four, a quaternion, [catur, 178 : 1245a.] 

catus-patha, m. n. place where four 
ways meet, quadrivium. [catur, 178, 187 : 

cat us-pad, a. quadruped; as n. s. collec- 
tively, the four-footed beasts, [catur, 178 : 

catus-pada, f. -I, a. having (taken) four 

catvara, m. n. quadrivium. [catiir.] 

catvar, strong form of catur, q.v. 

V can (acanit). be glad in ; gladden, [col- 
lateral form of Vkan: cf. v'kan, kama, 

can a, adv., immediately following the em- 
phasized word. 1. not even; svapna 
cana, not even sleep, 79 * ; 2. w. pre- 
ceding negation, even ; na devanam ati 
vratam, gatatma cana, jivati, not beyond 
the decree of the gods, (not) even if hun- 
dred-lived, does one live, 88 *; hence, the 
feeling for the negation in cana in such col- 
locations becoming faint, 3. even, at all, 

w. interrogatives, emphasizing their indefinite 
sense ; na kim cana, not any thing even 

or at all, 8 19 ; see esp. 1 ka 2c, also katham, 
kada, and kim. [cf. Lat. -quam and -can- 
in quisquam, quicunque, ' any one ' ; Goth. 
-hun in ni hvas-hun, ' not any one.'] 

candra, a. shining, shimmering; as m. the 
moon ; the moon-god, [for c_candra, q.v.] 

candramas, m. the moon; the moon-god, 
[orig. a descriptive cpd, stem candra-mas 
(383d 6), nom. candra-mas, and so with 
long a throughout, but transferred to the 
as-declension (cf. 418).] 

candra-varna, a. of shining hue. . 

V cam, sip, only with a. 

+ a (acamati [745d]; acacama; acanta 
[955a] ; acamya ; acamayati). sip (water), 
i.e. rinse the mouth. 

camasa, m. beaker; cup, made of wood, 
square, and with handle. [Vcam, cf 

campaka, m. Michelia Champaka, a tree 
with strong-smelling yellow blossom. 

campakavant, a. abounding in Cham- 
paka trees ; as f. Champakavati, name of 
a forest. [1233.] 

V car (carati, -te; cacara, cerus, cere; 
acarit, acarista ; carisyati ; carita ; car- 
itum; caritva; -carya; caryate ; cara- 
yati, -te). 1. move, 77 12 ; go; wander; 
wander about ; used of men, beasts, waters, 
heavenly bodies; 2. (like Eng. proceed 
cf. Lat. pro-cedere, ' go on ') act ; w. ppl. 
[1075b], go on, i.e. keep on (doing a thing), 
96 u ; 3. (like Eng. go about, i.e.) under- 
take, set about; bhaiksam car, go beg- 
ging, beg; undergo (troubles), 88 12 ; per- 
form (a vow, duty) ; observe (silence) ; 
commit (offense or injustice), 80 9 , 63 7 ; 
sasyam car, feed on corn, 34 16 ; carita, 
see s.v. [cf. vfpi-Te\-\o/LLfv<ai/ tviavriav, ' as 
years go round,' and Trfpi--ir\-o/^fi/uv eVzv- 
TUV, ' as years went round,' with T before 
a palatal and ir before a non-palatal ; also 
ird\-os, Milton's ' turning sphere ' : see 
also car + ud, and the younger collateral 
form cal, and under cancala : akin is also 

-f a n u move along after, follow. 
+ a p a , go off, be absent. 
+ abhi, go against, trespass against; esp 
be unfaithful (of a wife). 



+ a, 1. move unto, approach, 86 3 ; 2. 
go to (an undertaking), set about; and so, 
do, 10 6 , 64 ", 66 u ; practice (virtue); per- 
form (vow); follow (rule); 3. proceed, 
conduct one's self, cf. acara, ' conduct.' 
+ ucl-a, rise up out of (abl.), 77 14 , of the 

+ sam-a, proceed; do; perpetrate. 
+ ud, go up, rise, of the sun; cans, cause 
to go out, evacuate, cf. uccara, ' evacua- 
tion.' [cf. suryam uc-carantam w. tf\iov 
ava-Tf '\\ovra, ' the rising sun.'] 
+ upa, 1. come to; 2. come to, esp. 
in order to serve, and so, attend, wait upon 
politely; 3. proceed with, undertake. 
+ p a r a , move away from, 86 3 . 
+ vi, move in different directions, spread 
over; of waters, overwhelm ; wander about; 
caws, cause to go hither and thither in 
thought, balance, ponder. 
+ s am, go, walk, wander. 

car a, . moving; as subst. animal (as dis- 
tinguished from plant). [Vcar.] 

car ana, 1. m. n. foot; 2. as n. a wan- 
dering. [V car : for 1, cf . nayana.] 

carita, 1. ppl. done; 2. as n. sing. 
[1176a], (like Ger. Wandel and Enrj. walk) 
behavior; proceedings; deeds. [Vcar.] 

carita-vrata, a. having his (marital) 
duty performed. 

care a, f. a going over, repetition (of a 
word in a school-boy's Veda-recitation) ; 
a troubling one's self about, [perhaps fr. 
V car.] 

carman, n. skin; pelt. 

carya, be accomplished; f. -a, 
(like Eng. walk) way of life; a perform- 
ing, busying one's self with. [V car.] 

V carv (carvita, curna; carvitum). chew, 
crush with the teeth. 

carsani, a. active, busy; as f. pi. busy 
mortals, men, folk. [Vcar, 1159b end.] 

V cal (calati ; cacala, celiis ; calisyati ; 
calitA ; calitum). move ; start off. 
[younger form of Vcar, q.v. : cf. Kf\-eu6os, 
Lat. cal-lis, 'path.'] 

cal a, a. moving. [Veal.] 

candala, m. a Chandala. [see candala 
and 1208f.] 

catana, a. driving away. [Vcat, caus.] 

caturmasya, n. a sacrifice to be made 
every four months, i.e. at the beginning 
of each of the three seasons, [catur + 
masa, 1211.] 

candrayana, n. with or without vrata, 
the Chandrayana observance or lunar 
penance, 65 6 N. [lit. 'connected o?- ac- 
cording with the moon's course,' candra 
+ ay ana.] 

carana, m. wanderer; csp. wandering 
player or singer, [carana.] 

car in, a. moving; observing; busying one's 
self with. [ J car.] 

caru, a. gladsome; dear; pleasant; fair. 
[Vcan, q.v., 1192: cf. Lat. cd-rus, 'dear.'] 

caru-hasin, a. sweetly laughing. 

V lei (cin6ti, cinute ; cikye' [787]; acet ; 
cesyati, -te ; cita ; cetum ; citva ; -citya ; 
ciyate). 1. arrange in order; pile up; 
build ; construct, esp. the sacrificial altar ; 
active, if the priest builds for others,- middle, 
if the sacrijicer builds for himself; 2. 
gather together, collect ; get possession 

+ ud, heap up, collect. 
+ sam, gather together, collect; accumu- 

V 2ci (cayati, -te). 1. hate; 2. avenge, 
take vengeance on, punish, [cf. Arcadian 
airv-reita, Attic O.TTO-TLVUI, ' pay off,' cnrorivo- 
/nai, ' get paid to myself, take vengeance, 
punish,' -iroiv-fi, 'penalty.'] 

V 3ci (ciketi; cikaya, cikyiis [~$~]; acet; 
cesyati; cetum; -citya; ciyate). 1 
notice, observe; 2. look, investigate, 
[cf. Vcit.] 

+ nis, (search out, i.e.) ascertain; deter- 
mine ; consider as certain or settled. 
+ vi-nis, (look out this way and that, 
i.e.) ponder, consider, 13 19 . 
+ pari, investigate thoroughly, find out. 

cikitii, prob. f. understanding. [Vcit, 

cikitvit, adv. with understanding, [ci- 
kitii, 1109.] 

V cit (cetati, -te ; ciketa, cikite; acait ; 
citta ; cetayati, -te). 1. look at, notice ; 
observe ; consider ; 2. be intent upon, 
intend; 3. understand, know; perfect, 
ciketa, has understood, knows ; cikitvans, 



wise ; caus. make to know, instruct, 
[extension of V3ci: the Vcit shows an 
intrans. aspect, 'be noticeable or bright,' 
in ketu : cf . V cint.] 
+ pr a , know. 

cit, vbl. knowing. [V cit, 383a.] 

citi,/pile. [VI ci.] 

citta, n. notice; thought; mind. [lit. 
'noticed,' Vcit, see 1176a.] 

citta-pramathin, a. disturbing the 

citti, f. understanding; wisdom. [Vcit.] 

citra, a. 1. noticeable, excellent; 2. 
clear; bright; bright-colored; of sounds, 
clear, i.e. loud ; 3. variegated, 10 8 ; 
varied ; 4. as n. a bright-colored thing, 
a picture. [V cit, 1188.] 

citra-gravas, a. whose praise is loud or 
whose fame is excellent. 

citra-stha, a, being in a picture ; 

citranga, m. Dapple-coat, name of a deer. 
[' having a variegated or mottled body ' : 

cid, end. pel. 1. emphasizes, sometimes 
very gently, the preceding word : even, 
78W.15. j ust> 74 2 ? 794. yg cid, what 
very ones, 70 16 ; at least, 79 M ; 2. gen- 
eralizes a pron. : y6 cid tang cid, what- 
soever , unto all those, 91 10 ; so far 
Vedic ; 3. in classical Skt., very common 
w. an interr., rendering it indef. : kag cid, 
a certain; na ka cid, not any; see ka, 
kad, kada, karhi, kva. [ace. s. n. of 
pron. root ka, ki (505), w. palatalization: 

V cint (cintayati, -te ; cintayam asa ; 
cintayisyati ; cintita ; cintayitva ; -cint- 
ya). 1. think, reflect, have a certain 
thought; 2. set one's thoughts upon, 
think upon or of, consider, turn one's at- 
tention to ; 3. call attention to ; make 
an observation, 35 9 . [younger form of 
Vcit: cf. 255 and 240.] 
+ vi, reflect. 
+ s a m , think to one's self. 

cintana, n. a thinking upon. [Vcint.] 

cint a, f. 1. thought; 2. esp. (like, anxious or sad thought; sorrow; 
-3. plans, 43 s . [Vcint.] 

cinta-para, a. having sad thought as 
one's chief thing, sunk in sad thought. 

cintavisa-ghna,a. destroying the poi- 
son of sorrow. 

cintitopasthita, a. which approached 
as soon as thought of. [lit. ' thought of 
and (immediately) at hand,' cintita + 
upasthita, 1257.] 

cintya, grdv. to be thought of, compre- 
hensible. [V cint.] 

cir, a. long, of time; -am, -at, as adverbs 
[llllc, 1114c], long, for a long time. 

cira-mitra, n. an old friend. 

clt-kara, m. the sound cit, i.e. the bray- 
ing of an ass. [cit, onomatopoetic.] 

cira, n. strip of bark or cloth; rag. 

V cud (c6dati, -te ; acodit ; codayati, 
-te). drive on; speed; excite; caus. the 
+ pra, caus. drive on; further; inspire. 

V cur (corayati). steal. 

cur a,/ theft. [Vcur.] 

cud a, f. tuft of hair left on the crown 
of a child's head after the ceremony of 

cuda-karman, n. ceremony of tonsure, 
59 19 . 

curna, m. n. meal, powder, [v'carv: for 
mg, cf. pista.] 

V curnaya (curnayati). powder, crush 
fine ; crush ; smash, [curna, 1055.] 

V crt (crtati; cacarta ; crtta ; -cftya). 
fasten together. 
+ pra, loosen, untie. 

cetana, a. noticing; cetana, f. conscious- 
ness; mind. [Vcit.] 

c6tas, n. consciousness; mind; heart. 

c e d , adv. never at beg. of sentence, claiise, 
or half-verse, if ; apodosis, if it follows, 
marked by tad (37 4 ), tatas (52 5 ), or not 
marked (32 21 , etc.), or marked by -na, if 
negative (18 9 ); na ced, if not, 52 8 ; no ced, 
forms a shortened but complete clause, and if 
not, 27 ". [ca + id, 1133 5 : see ca 7.] 

V cest (cestati, -te ; cic&sta ; cestita ; 
cestitum; cestitva). move the limbs; 
bestir one's self ; be active ; act. 

c e s t a , f. activity ; performance. [V cest.] 



cestita, ppl. performed; as n. s. [1176a], 

deeds. [V cest.] 
c6dana, n. an impelling; order; precept. 


cauda, n. ceremony of tonsure, [cuda.] 
caura, m. thief, [cura.] 
V cyu (cyavati, -te ; cucyuve; acyosta ; 

cyosyate; cyuta; cyavitum; cyavayati). 

1. move, bestir one's self; 2. go off, 
disappear ; 3. come to nought, 68 12 ; 

4. fall (from, all.), 51 9 ; 5. set agoing, 
undertake, moliri, 74 3 . [akin, perhaps, 
are f-trcreva, ' impelled/ and Sopv-acroos, 
' lance-brandishing.'] 

+ pra, cans, move or lead onward. 

V Ichad (channa; chadayati; chadayam 
cakre; chadita; chadayitva ; -chadya). 
cover ; cover over. 
+ a , cover over ; conceal, 25 10 . 
+ pari, envelope, cover over. 
+ pra, cover; clothe one's self with 

V 2 chad or chand (chantti; cacchanda ; 
acchan [890 2 ] ; chadayati [mgs 1, 2]; 
chandayati [mg 31 ; chandayam asa ; 
chandita). 1. appear, seem; 2. seem 
good to, please; 3. (please a person, 
ace., with a thing, instr., i.e.) offer a per- 
son, ace., a thing, instr. [prob. ident. w. 
\[ gcand.] 

chand a, m. pleasure; will. [V 2 chad.] 

chala, m. n. (perhaps cover, i.e.) guise, 
disguise ; pretence, deceit, [perhaps fr. 
VI chad.] 

chaga, m. goat. [for *skaga: cf. Ger- 
manic skepo-, for #skeqo-, Ger. Schaf, AS. 
scedp, Eng. sheep.~] 

chaya, f. shade ; shadow ; image, [cf. 
ffKid, ' shadow.'] 

chaya-dvitiya, a. having one's shadow 
as second, accompanied by one's shadow. 

C chid (chinatti; ciccheda; acchaitsit ; 
chetsyati ; chinnA ; chettum ; chittva ; 
-chidya ; chidyate). 1. cut off; hew 
down ; sever ; cut in two ; nibble ; 2. 
divide. [cf. o-x''^! Vo-xiS, 'split'; Lat. 
scindo, scidi, 'cut'; AS. sceddan, 'divide,' 

Eng. water-sAec?, ' the divide between two 


+ ud, 1. cutout; 2. destroy ; pass. 

be cut off, fail, be lacking. 

+ vi, cut asunder; sever. 
chidra, n. hole ; defect ; weak spot. 


chucchundari, m. musk-rat, 
cheda, m. cut; cutting off; failure, dearth 


ja, i'bl. born; born from; occasioned or 

produced by; only in cpds. [vjan, 333: 

cf. ja, the older form, 354.] 
jagat [450d], a. movable; as n. all that 

moves, men and beasts, [v'gam: cf. 383b 3 


jaghana, m. n. the hinder parts, the but- 
jaghanya, a. hindermost ; last; lowest 

or worst, [jaghana, 1212d -4.] 
jangama, a. movable; as subst. all that 

moves, equiv. to the ancient jagat. [Vgam, 

1148.4, cf. 1002b.] 
j a n g h a , f. lower half of the leg, from 

knee to ankle ; shin. [prob. fr. v' 1 ha, 

'move/ 1148.4, cf. 1002b.] 
j at a, f. matted hair ; tangled locks. 
jathara, n. belly; womb. [akin are 

Goth. ~kil\>ei, 'womb/ AS. did, Eng. 

V jan (jayate [772]; jajana, jajne[794d]; 

ajanista ; janisyati, -te ; jata ; janayati, 

-te ; ajljanat). see 761b end, and 772. 

1. transitive, janayati and active forms : 
beget ; bring forth ; generate or produce ; 

2. intransitive, jayate and middle forms : 
be born ; be produced ; come into being ; 
be born again, 18 1 ; be, 86 2 ; jajne, natus 
est, ortus est ; jajnanas, children ; for 
jata, see s.v. [cf. ye-yov-ws, 'born/ e-yev- 
ero, 'became'; Lat. genui, 'begat'; AS. 
cennan, ' beget, bring forth ' ; AS. cy/m, 
Eng. kin, ' race, family ' ; AS. c//n-iny, 
Eng. king, 'the man of (noble) kin' for 
mg, cf. kulina w. kula2: cf. also jana 
and jani.] 

+ abhi, pass, be born unto, be destined 
unto from birth. 



+ a, caus. cause to be born for some one, 
w. dot. 

+ upa, mid. be born, arise. 
+ pra, mid. be born; ca us. procreate. 
+ 8 am, mid. be produced; samjata, hav- 
ing arisen. 

jana, m. creature; man; person; in pi. 
(e.g. 40 16 ), and collectively in sing. (e.g. 
77 u ), folks; a people or race or tribe; 
daivya jana, heavenly race, the gods. 
[Vjan : cf. ytvos, Lat. genus, Eng. kin, 
' race.'] 

jana-pada, m. ( tribe-place, i.e. ) district ; 

jani [343c], f. woman; wife. [Vjan: cf. 
yw-fi, Eng. quean, 'woman': for mg, cf. 

janitra, n. origin. [Vjan, 1185d.] 

janitva, n. wifehood. [jani.] 

janiman, n. production, creation. [Vjan, 

jani,^ same as jani. 

j a n u s , n. origin ; ingenium, nature ; crea- 
tion. [Vjan, 1154 2 .] 

jantu, m. creature; man. [Vjan.] 

janman, n. birth; production; creature, 
72 . [Vjan.] 

V jap (japati; jajapa; ajapit; japisyati ; 
japita, japta; japitum ; japitva, japtva). 
say in under-tone ; mutter. 

jamad-agni, m. Jamadagni, a Rishi, 
friend of Vi9vamitra, and foe of Vasish- 
tha. [jamant, unclear : see 1309 4 .] 

jambuka, m. jackal. 

j a r a , a. growing old, aging. [V jr.] 

jarad-asti, a. long-lived, [jarant, see 
1299b end.] 

jarad-gava, m. Old-bull, name of a vul- 
ture, [jarant.] 

j*ar ad-das a, m. old slave or servant, 

jarant, ppl. aging ; old. [V jr : cf . ytpovr-a, 
' old man.'] 

j a r a s , f. the growing old ; old age. [Vjr : 
cf . "fftpas, ' old age.'] 

jaritf, m. invoker; singer. 

jala, n. water, [see V gal.] 

jala-dhara, m. rain-cloud, [lit. 'water- 

j a 1 a 9 a y a , ?. water-abode ; lake. [ac,aya.] 

V jas (jasyati; jajasa ; jasayati). be ex- 
hausted or tired to death ; caus. exhaust ; 

jasra, a. dying out. [Vjas.] 

ja [352], vbl. born, at end ofcpds. [Vjan or 
ja : cf. ja, later form of ja.] 

V j a g r , same as \ 3 gr, see 1020. 

j a t a , ppl. born ; grown ; come into being, 
present ; at beg. of cpds : arisen, existing, 
manifest ; produced, aroused ; as n. a liv- 
ing being ; birth. [Vjan, 955b.] 

jata-karman, n. birth-ceremony. 

jata-rupa, a. having native beauty; 
splendid ; -pa, n. gold. 

jata-vivasa, a. having arisen confi- 
dence, inspired with confidence. 

jata-vedas, m. Jatavedas, epithet of 
Agni. [perhaps, 'having knowledge of 
all beings, i.e. of gods and men,' or, better, 
'having all beings or things as his pos- 

jata-samkalpa, a. having a purpose or 
desire arisen, feeling a passion for another. 

jatamarsa, a. having anger aroused, 
vexed, [amarsa.] 

jatavamana, a. having arisen contempt, 
filled with self-contempt, [avamana.] 

jati, f. birth; position or rank. [Vjan, 
1157 '.] 

jati-matra, M. mere rank, [see matra2, 
and 1302c3.] 

j atu, adv. at all, ever; na jatu, not at all. 
[Vjan, lllld: development of mg unclear.] 

jatersya, a. having jealousy aroused, 
jealous, [irsya.] 

janu, n. knee. [cf. y6w, Lat. genu, Eng. 
knee, whence kneel. ~\ 

jamadagnya, a. of Jamadagni ; as subst. 
descendant of J. [Jamadagni, 1211.] 

jaya,^ wife. [Vjan: for mg, cf. jani.] 

jar a, m. paramour. 

jala, n. net. 

V Iji (jay ati > -te; jigaya, jigy6 [787]; 
ajaisit, ajesta; jayisyati, -te ; jesyati, -te ; 
jita; j6tum; jitva; -jitya). overpower; 
conquer; win (battles); win by conquest 
[cf. t'o, 'force,' &iaw, 'to force'; Lat. rir. 
*gvis, ' force ' : cf . V jya.] 
+ u d , conquer ; be victorious. 
+ para, jxzss. be conquered. 



+ vi, mid, be victor; conquer (con- 
quests) ; subdue. 
V2ji (jin6ti). enliven; quicken; hence 

[716], v'jinv. [for *gvi: cf. &ios, 'life': 

see also Vjiv.] 
j i j n a s a , f. investigation. [' effort to find 

out/ fr. desid. of Vjna, 1149 4 .] 
jitapsaras, a. having the Apsarases 

conquered, surpassing the Apsarases. 


jitendriya, a. having the senses con- 
quered, having the passions subdued. 

V jinv (jinvati; jijinva; jinvisyati ; jin- 

vita). be lively, hasten; trans, quicken ; 

speed onward, [secondary root fr. V2ji, 

see 716.] 

jivri, a. old. [for jirvi, Vjr, 1193 2 .] 
jihva, f. tongue. 

jihvagra, n. tip of the tongue, [agra.] 
jimuta, in. thunder-cloud. 
jlra, a. quick, [\f2ji, 1188: cf. Vjya.] 
jira-danu, a. having swift drops, swift 

dripping, i.e. well watered. 
Vjiv (jivati, -te; jijlva, jijiv6 ; ajivit ; 

jivisyati, -te ; jivita ; jivitum ; jivitva ; 

-jivya ; jivayati). live; be alive; caus. 

make alive, [see V2ji: cf. Lat. viv-ere, 

' live ' ; AS. cwicu, ' alive/ Eng. quick, 

' alive, lively.'] 

+ anu, live after, be dependent on, live 

jiva, a. living; as m. the principle of life, 

the individual soul, 66 4 . [Vjiv: cf. Lat. 

vlvus, 'alive.'] 

jivana, n. existence. [Vjiv.] 
jivana-hetu, m. cause of existence, i.e. 

means of subsistence. 
jiva-pati or -patni, a. f. having one's 

husband yet alive, 
jiva-praja, a. having one's children yet 

alive, [praja.] 
jiva-loka, m. the world of the living (as 

distinguished from that of the Manes), 

86 18 , 23". 

jivita, ppl. alive; as n. [1176a], life. [Vjiv.] 
jivitavya, grdv. vivendum ; as n. impers., 

see 999. [Vjiv.] 
jivita^a,/. the wish for life, hope to save 

one's life, [aga.] 

jlvin, a. living. [Vjiv.] 

V jus (jusate, -ti; juj6sa, jujus6; ajosista; 
justa). taste, esp. with pleasure; relish; 
take pleasure in or accept graciously, [cf. 
yevo/*a.i, t ' taste'; Lat. gits-tits, 'taste'; AS. 
ceosan, Eng. choose.] 

j list a, a. acceptable. [ppl. of Vjus, w. 
accent altered as in dhurta.] 

juhu [356], f. sacrificial ladle for pouring 
the melted butter into the fire, cf. sriic. 
[Vhu, 1147b-.] 

V ju (junati [728]; jujava [786 4 ]; jutd). 
speed, intrans. and trans.; incite, inspire; 
further, assist to. [cf. V2ji.] 

Vjr ( F. jarati ; later, jiryati, -te ; jajara ; 
ajarit ; jirna [957b]). decay; grow frail 
or worn out or old. [cf . jarant, ' old/ and 
ytpovr-a, 'old man'; jaraa and yrjpas, 
'old age.'] 

J6gii [352], a. loudly singing; praising, 
[fr. intens. of Vgu, 1147b a , 1002a.] 

J6sas, n. pleasure. [Vjus.] 

jna, vbl. knowing, at end of cpds. [Vjfia, 

V jna (janati, jamte [730]; jajnau, jajne ; 
ajnasit [911], ajnasta; jnasyati, -te ; 
jnatA ; jnatum ; jnatva ; -jfiaya ; jna- 
yate ; jiiapayati, -te, jnapayati, -te 
[1042d 2 ]; jnapta). know; have knowl- 
edge of a person or thing ; recognize ; be- 
come aware of ; learn ; notice, [cf . 6-7^01, 
Lat. co-gnovit, 'knew'; AS. cann, 'have 
learned, i.e. know, am able/ Eng. can; 
AS. ge-cndican, Eng. know."] 
+ sam-anu, wholly acquiesce in ; ap- 
prove ; give leave ; dismiss. 
+ abhi, recognize; know. 
+ praty-abhi, recognize. 
+ ava, look down upon ; despise. 
+ a, attend to, notice; caus. command. 
+ p a r i , carefully observe ; find out. 
+ pra, know; esp. know one's way or 
bearings or how to go to work; prajnata, 
clearly to be known, well known. 
+ p r a t i , recognize, allow ; promise ; 

+ vi, distinguish; understand; know; 
recognize; consider as; observe; find out; 
pass, vijnayate, in stating a dogma, is 
well known or recognized (by good author- 



ities) ; caus. make any one know or un- 
derstand ; make a representation to, with 
a request or question or proposal ; memo- 
rialize ; interrogate. 

jnati, m. kinsman; relative. [Vjan: cf. 
Kaffi-ymriTos, ' brother-born.'] 

jnana, n. knowledge; wisdom; esp. knowl- 
edge of the higher truths of religion and 
philosophy. [Vjna, 1150.] 

jnanin, a. wise; possessing jnana ; under- 
standing (what one reads), 68 15 . [jnana.] 

j n e y a , grdv. to be known or considered as. 


V jya or ji or jl (jinati; jijyau [785]; 
ajyasit; jyasyati; jita). <; over- 
power, [cf. 1 jya, 'power/ and Vlji, 
' overpower.'] 

1 jya,/. superior power ; ftia. ; force. [ V jya : 
cf . j8/a, ' force.'] 

2 jya,/. bow-string, [cf. &i6s, 'bow.'] 
jyayans, a. stronger or superior; older. 

[comp. of jya, ' being strong or superior,' 

thevblof Vjya, 470 2 - 3 .] 
V jyut (jytttsAi; -jydtya). light, [fr. 

j y e s t h a , later jyestha, a. best ; principal ; 

first; oldest, [superl. of jya, the vbl of 

V jya, 470 3 - see jyayans.] 
jyestha-prathama, a. having the old- 
est as the first. 
jyotis-kft, a. light-making. [jyotis: 

jy6tismant, a. full of light; light. 

[jyotis: 184b.] 
jy6tis, n. light (of sun, dawn, etc.); as pi. 

the heavenly bodies ; stars. [V jynt.] 
jy6tsna,/. moonlight, [jyotis: cf. 1195.] 
j ray a s, n. stretch; expanse. [Vjri.] 
Vjri (jrayati). perhaps, go, stride; used 

only w. upa, stretch out to. 
V jval (jvalati, -te ; jajvala ; ajvalit ; 

jvalisyati ; jvalita ; -jvalya ; jvalayati, 

jvalayati, -te). burn bright; flame; caus. 

kindle, make to fiame. 

+ pra, caus. kindle. 

jhat-iti, adv. with a jhat, as quick as one 
could say " boo." [jhat, onomatopoetic : 
seell02a 2 mid.] 

jhalla, m. a cudgel-fighting athlete (de- 
scended from outcast Kshatriyas). 

thio, a Prakrit form for sthito. 

V dhauk (dhaukate; dudhaukS ; dhauk- 
itd; dhaukayati). approach; caws, bring 
+ u p a , bring to ; provide. 

t a [495], pron. he, she, it, they ; that, those ; 
both subst. and adj., I 15 , 3 8 - 9 ; 1. correl. 
of ya, which usually precedes [512], 3 14 , 
9 18 , 10 5 , 22 5 , 29 15 , 32 10 , 70 16 , 77 13 ; but sa 
ya, 17 22 , 33 16 , 73 9 ; otiose, 18 M , 20 u ; 

2. in connection w. a pron. of the 1st or 2d 
pers. : e.g. tarn tva Imahe, thee, who 
art such a one (as aforesaid), we beseech, 
i.e. therefore we beseech thee, 76 13 ; cf. 
82 9 ; tebhyo nas bruhi, to us, who are 
these (unsuccessful ones just described), 
tell thou, i.e. do thou tell us then, 96 13 ; 
similarly, w. a verb in the 1st or 2d pers., 
whose subject is not expressed, 69 n , 73 2 , 
76 12 - 17 , 83 l , 95 13 , 99*, 100*; -3. w. other 
pronouns: tasya etasya, of this, 95 6 ; 
yat tad tad, what (was) that , that, 
57 7 ; ya ta, whoever, anybody, 18*; ya 
ya ' ta ta, whoever that, 13 12 ; cf. 45 13 ; 

4. attenuated in mg (like the Greek 6) to a 
simple article: te devas, the gods, 92 u ; 
sa bhimas, Bhima, 1 15 . [w. sa, sa, tad, 
cf. 6, 7], TO, Goth, sa, so, />ata, AS. se, seo, 
^cet, 'he, she, it,' Eng. that; cf. also Lat. 
is-tud, 'that.'] 

V taks (taksati; tataksa, tatakse; ataka- 

It; tasta; -taksya). hew; work (wood); 

make (of wood or other material) ; fashion. 

[cf . taks-an and TCKT-WV, ' carpenter ' ; 

f-TfK-ov, 'produced'; Lat. tignum, 'log': 

cf. Vtvaks and toka.] 
taj-jivana, n. his subsistence, [tad.] 
V tad (tadayati ; tadayam asa; tadita ; 

-tadya). beat. 

+ p a r i , strike ; pelt, 
tata, m. father. [cf. Terra, Lat. tata, 

'papa': Eng. dad, though of similar 

make, has of course no direct connection.] 



tatas, adv. 1. (as abl. of pron. root ta 
[1098], and synonymous w. tasmat) out of 
it, 36 13 ; -2. from that (place), from 
there, 103 15 ; thence ; there ; itas tatas, 
here and there, hither and thither, 25 n , 
2915,17. _3 f rom t h at (time), thereupon, 
2 22 ; then, very often, e.g. II 11 , 20 u , 56 17 ; 
correl. w. yad, 92 13 ; w. yada, 37 9 ; w. ced, 
52 5 ; tatah prabhrti, from then on, 4 7 , 
32 "; 4. therefore; 5. otiose, 47 n ; 
5 2 ' 11 , II 16 ; then, w. otiose tada, 3 1 , 4 8 . 
[pron. root ta, 497, 1098.] 

tat-ksana, m. that moment; -am, adv. 
in that moment, straightway, [tad.] 

tat-tira, n. its bank, [tad.] 

tattva, n. (that-ness, i.e.) essence, real 
condition or state of a thing, [tad.] 

tattva -jna, a. knowing the essence or 
the truth or what's what. 

tat-para, a. having that as highest ob- 
ject ; given over to, intent upon, [tad.] 

tat-pargva, n. his side, [tad.] 

tat-prahrsta, a. pleased with that. 

tzitra, adv. 1. (as synonymous w. loc. of 
tad in all numbers and genders) in or among 
or on this or these or them, 13 7 , 21 8 , 38 n , 
57 '"; in this matter, 37 8 ; herein, 98 2 ; 
-2. there, often, e.g. 2 8 , 5 6 ; thither, 6 6 , 
II 14 , etc.; correl. w. yatra, 24 4 ; 3. on 
that occasion, in that case, then, 4 1 , 14 22 , 
40 1 . [pron. root ta, 497, 1099.] 

tatra-stha, a. abiding there. 

tat-samnidhana, n. his presence, 

tat-sapatni,/. her co-wife, [tad.] 

tat-samipe, adv. near him. [tad: see 

tat-sahacarin, a. accompanying him. 

tatha, adv. 1. so, thus, II 4 , 24 16 ; in 
this way, 99 20 ; w. yatha, yatha regularly 
preceding: yatha tatha: as so, 21 1B , 
61 6 , 77"; in order that thus, 30 16 , 37 7 ; 
but tatha yatha, so as, 22 13 , 43 20 ; 
yatha yatha tatha tatha, to what 
degree to that degree, the more 
the more, 48 14 ; yatha tatha, in one way 
or another, 62 9 ; 2. particle of assent, so 
be it, yes,4 2 , 8 6 , 48 12 , 94 5 ; that is so, 52 16 ; 

3. so, in like manner, 19 8 ; or, simply 
conjunctive, also, likewise, 10 8 , 12 13 , etc.; 
tatha^eva, just so (cf. Middle Eng. al so, 
i.e.), likewise, also, I 11 , 7 10 ; tatha ca, 18 20 , 
see ca 3 ; 4. tatha^api, so even, even 
under those circumstances, nevertheless, 
21 . [pron. root ta, 497, 1101.] 

t&tha-vidha, a. of such sort, in such 
condition, [tatha ( 1306 ) + vidha, 1302c 5.] 

tad, 1. as nom. ace. s. n. to ta, see ta ; used 
also in cpds and derivatives, see 497 ; 2. 
as adv. there ; yatra tad, where there, 
103 18 ; -3. then, in that case, 27", 36 5 ; 
ced tad, if then, 37 5 ; so yadi tad, 
37 12 ; tad yad, then when, 71 2 ; sim- 
ply continuative : tat ko vrtras, who then 
is V., 97 19 ; so 24 2 ; 4. in this way, i.e. 
therefore, accordingly, 18 8 , 19 13 - 22 , 27 u , 
etc.; yad tad, since therefore, 17 6 ; 
so yatas tad, 37 7 . [cf . 495.] 

tad-anga, n. his person. 

tad-anantara, a. immediately adjoin- 
ing that; -am, adv. [1311], immediately 
after that ; thereupon. 

tad-abhimukha, a. turned towards 
him; -am, adv. [1311], towards him. 

tad-abhivadin, a. signifying that. 

tad-ardhika, a. amounting to or lasting 
half of that. 

tada, adv. at that time; then, 2 20 ; in that 
case ; often otiose in Epos, 3 7 ; so after 
tatas, 3 1 , 4 9 ; yada tada, when then, 
26 n ; yada yada tada tada, whenso- 
ever then, 31 u ; yadi tada, if then, 
25 9 . [pron. root ta, 497, 1103.] 

tad-akrti, a. having the appearance of 
them (i.e. of Picachas). 

tad-ajna,y! his (the moon-god's) com- 

tadahara-vartman, n. the way of that 
food, [tad-ahara.] 

tad-ipsita, a. desired by those two. 

tadlya, a. pertaining to him, her, it, of 
them; such, [tad, 497.] 

tad-upadea, m. his advice. 

tad-grha, n. his house. 

tad-bhaya, m. fear of it or them. 

tad-bhasa,/ that language. 

tad-rasa, m. the essence of it. 

tad-vacana, n. his words. 



tad -vat, adv. in this way, so; likewise, 
[tad: 1107.] 

tad-vid, a. knowing that; as m. connois- 
seur or judge. 

tad-vrksa, m. that tree. 

tad-vrddhi,/. the interest of them. 

V Itan (tan6ti, tanute ; tatana, tene 
[794e] ; atanit ; tansyate ; tata ; tantum ; 
tatva ; -tatya ; tayate [772]). 1. 
stretch, trans, and intrans. ; extend, reach ; 
spread over ; 2. continue, endure, 79 13 ; 
3. stretch (a weft or a line); continue 
(the line of a family) ; 4. metaphorically, 
of sacrifice and supplication (which are 
compared with a weft), perform, make, 
[cf . rdvufuu, ' stretch ' ; Lat. tenere, ' hold,' 
tendere, ' stretch ' ; AS. \>enian, Ger. dehnen, 
' stretch ' : see also tanu.] 
+ a, spread over; overspread (esp. with 
light), beshine; stretch (a bow). 
+ pari, stretch around; surround; en- 

+ v i , stretch out ; spread out, cover ; 
vitata, stretched, hung, dependent, 92". 
+ s am, hold together, intrans.; bind to- 
gether ; make continuous ; samtata, (just 
like Lat. con-tinens) uninterrupted. 

V 2 tan (tanyati). resound. [cf. r6i>os, 
' tone ' ; Lat. tonare, ' thunder ' ; AS. noun 
\>unor, ' thunder/ whence denom. verb 
\ninrian, Eng. thunder; AS. \>unres dceg, 
Eng. Thurs-day, 'day sacred to the Old 
Germanic god of the thunder-storm, >onar 
or Thor ' : see tanyatd, ' thunder.'] 

tanu, f. [344 2 ] tanu, tanu, tanvi, a. thin, 
tenuis, slender; tanu or tanu [decl. 356], 
as subst. f. body, 56 3 , 89 18 ; person ; one's 
own person, self, used like atman [514] as 
reflexive pron., 73 12 , 78 12 ; outward form 
or manifestation, 84 u . [prop, 'stretched 
out, thin/ VI tan: cf. raw-, 'extended, 
long/ in cpds ; Lat. tenuis, Eng. thin, Ger. 
dtinn, 'thin.'] 

tanu-trana, n. body-cover, 34 1T . 

tanu-madhya, a. having a slender mid- 
dle, i.e. slender-waisted. 

tanu-tyaj, a. abandoning the body, risk- 
ing life, brave. 

tanti, f. cord; esp. a long line to which 
calves are tethered by means of short 
ropes ; tanti, the same. [V 1 tan.] 

tantu, m. thread, 89 *; metaphorically, of 
the thread, i.e. course, of a sacrifice. 
[VI tan.] 

tantra, n. thread; warp of a web; Jig. 
fundamental doctrine ; division of a work. 
[VI tan.] 

V tand (tandate). relax, grow weary. 

tandra,/ fatigue. [Vtand, 1188c.] 

tandrita, a. wearied, only w. a-, [tand- 
ra, 1176b.] 

tannimittam, -ena, see nimitta. [tad.] 

tanyatii, m. thunder. [v2tan.] 

V tap (tapati, -te ; tatapa, tepe [794e] ; 
atapsit ; tapsyati ; tapta ; taptum ; tap- 
tva; -tapya; tapyate, tapyate [7Glb^). 
1. be warm ; burn, intrans. ; 2. heat ; 
make glowing; burn, trans.; 3. Jig. (like 
Vuc), distress, pain ; 4. pass, suffer; 
suffer voluntarily, castigate one's self, do 
penance, [cf. Lat. tepere, AS. \>ejian, ' be 

+ upa, heat; become sick; sicken, used 
impers., w. ace. of the person, 101 s . 
- sam, heat ; pain. 

tapah-prabhava, m. efficacy of devo- 

tapas, n. 1. heat, fire; 2. voluntary 
suffering (see tap 3, 4), self-castigation, 
self-torture (64 21 ), mortification, asceti- 
cism, devotion. [Vtap.] 

tapasvant, a. full of devotion; pious. 

tapasvin, a. the same. [1232.] 

tapo-ja, a. asceticism-born, whose ele- 
ment is asceticism, [tapas.] 

V tarn (tamyati, -te [763]; tatama; atam- 
at; tant [955a]). become darkened, of 
the eye ; become powerless, deadened, 
stupefied, numb, or inactive, [orig. mg, 
prob., 'be dark/ see tamas: cf. tamisra, 
' darkness/ Lat. tenebrae, ttemsrue, ' dark- 
ness/ Old High Ger. dinstar, ' dark ' ; Old 
High Ger. demar, 'dusk/ Ger. ddmmern, 
' become twilight/ but not Eng. dim.'] 

tamas, n. 1. darkness; 2. spiritual 
darkness, infatuation ; 3. darkness as 
one of the three pervading qualities of all 
' existence, see gunaS. [Vtam.] 

tamo-nistha, a. resting or founded on 



tamo-nuda, a. darkness-dispelling. 

tamo-bhiita, a. dark, enveloped in dark- 
ness, [lit. ' become darkness,' tamas : 

tar a, m. crossing, passage. [Vtr.] 

taram-ga, m. wave; wave as subdivision 
of a work entitled " ocean," 56 13 , cf. 45 ' x. 
[lit. ' which goes crossing the water ' : 
taram, grd of V tr, 995, cf . 1250a.] 

tarani, a. pressing onward. [Vtr, 1159b.] 

taru, m. tree. [prob. a modern form of 
daru, q.v.] 

taru-kotara, n. tree-hollow. 

taruna, a. young; tender; -ka, n. sprout, 
[cf . Tspriv, ' tender, fine.'] 

taru-tale, under the tree, see tala. 

V tark (tarkayati [1041 2 ] ; tarkayam 
asa ; tarkayisyati ; tarkita ; tarkayitum ; 
tarkayitva; -tarkya). 1. think over, 
13 16 ; reflect, 13 13 ; -2. form an idea of. 
[orig. mg, 'turn,' and so (like Lat. volvere 
animo), 'turn over or revolve in one's 
mind ' : cf . tarku, ' spindle ' ; rpeTr-co, Lat. 
torqueo, ' turn ' ; Old High Ger. drahsil, 
' turner,' Ger. drechseln, ' turn.'] 
+ p r a , form a conception of. 

tar hi, adv. at that time; then; yadi 
tarhi, if then. [pron. root ta, 497, 1103c.] 

tala, m. n. 1. surface; -tale, at end of 
cpd, eouiv. simply to on, 6 17 , 46 n ; 2. the 
surface or place under an object, e.g. a 
tree ; -tale, at end of cpd, equiv. simply to 
under, 34 l , 43 8 ; 3. sometimes otiose in 
cpds, e.g. nabhas-tala, sky-surface, i.e. sky. 

talpa, m. couch; bed. [for *star-pa, Vstr, 
1201 * end : for mg, see under str.] 

talpa-givan,/ -vari, a. lying on beds. 

tavisa, a. powerful. [Vtu, 1197b.] 

taskara, m. robber. 

t asm at, adv. from this (cause), hence; 
therefore ; yad tasmat, since there- 
fore. [pr6n. root ta, 1114a.] 

tat a, m. used in voc. s., to a father, but gen- 
erally to a junior or an inferior, my dear. 
[cf. tata.] 

t a d i t n a , rtV then, [perhaps instr. ( 1 1 12d ) 
of *taditna, and this f r. *tadi-tna, ' of that 
time,' and this fr. *tadi (1245e), correl. of 

tadfg, a. such, [see 518: for declension, 
see dfg.] 

t a elf 5 a, a. such, [see 518.] 

tap asa, m. ascetic, [tapas.] 

tamaaa, a. dark; pertaining to darkness 
or the guna called tamas. [tamas.] 

tayii, m. thief, [cf. stayii.] 

tar a,/, star, [form of transition to the 
a-declension (399) from tf, see under 

t a v a c - c h a t a , f. -I, a. having 07- embrac- 
ing so many hundreds, [tavant (1249a) 
r ata.] 

tavat-krtvas, a dr. so many times, 
[tavant, 1249a.] 

tavant [457], 1. adj. so great; so much; 
so many, 105 * ; extending so far, 101 9 ; 
lasting so long, 58 9 ; correl. w. yavant, 
101 9 , 105 4 ; 2. tavat, as adv. so much; 
so far ; to such an extent, 95 u ; so long ; 
for a while, 19 l ; yavat tavat : as long 
as so long, 15 6 , 32 :i , 40 18 ; when then, 
44 15 ; just as then, 22 7 ; tavat yavat, 
so long as, 19 2 , 42 3 ; 3. at once; now, 
24 20 , 34 6 , 53 17 ; -3a. w. 1st per s. pres. ind., 
first, before doing any thing else, at once, 
20 18 , 23 8 , 38"; - 3b. w. imperative: at 
once, 24 23 ; tavat tatas or pagcat, first 
then or afterwards, 27 18 , 38 4 ; 4. con- 
cessively, iha samaye, tavat, in this case, 
one must admit, 41 10 ; 5. emphasizing, 
like eva, what precedes, 30 4 , 25 T . [pron. 
root ta, 517.] 

tigma, a. sharp. [Vtij, 216.5.] 

V tij (tejayati; tejayam asa ; tejita). be 
sharp, [orig. *stig : cf. arifa, ' prick/ 
ffrly-fta., ' prick ' ; Lat. in-stlgdre, ' prick on ' ; 
Eng. stick, 'to pierce.'] 

tithi, m.f. a lunar day (of which there are 
15 in a half-lunation). 

tiras, 1. prep, through; across; 2. as 
adv. crossways, sideways; aside; w. kr 
[171 3 , 1078*], put aside, treat disrespect- 
fully, scold. [V tr, ' cross ' : cf . Lat. trans, 
' across.'] 

tiras-kara, . a scolding. [V kr + tiras : 
171 :i .] 

tiryaktva, n. condition of a beast, 
[tiryak, middle stem of tiryanc, 1249a: 




tiryanc [409d], 1. a. directed across; 
horizontal; 2. as subst. m. n. beast (going 
horizontally, as opposed to man, who walks 
upright urdhva) ; 3. ace. s. n. tiryak, 
as adv. across, [tiras or tir, w. ane, 409d : 
tir, like tiras, is akin w. Vtr.] 

til a, m. I. the sesame plant, Sesamum 
indicum; 2. its seed, which is eaten, 
and furnishes good oil. 

tisr, fern, to tri, see 482c. 

tir a, n. shore or bank. [prop, 'place of 
crossing or going into the water,' Vtr.] 

V tu (taviti [633]; tutava [786*]). have 
power ; be strong, [orig. ' swell, grow ' : 
cf. rv-\i], 'swelling, lump,' Corcyraean 
rv-/j.o-s, ' mound ' ; AS. \>uma, ' the big 
(finger),' Eng. thumb; further, tiim-ra, 
' fat, strong ' ; Lat. tum-ulus, ' mound,' 
tum-or, 'swelling.'] 

td., pel. never at beg. of sentence. 1. w. 
imperative, pray; 2. in sooth, 78 10 ; 3. 
but, 8 12 , 26 13 , 34 10 , etc. ; on the other hand, 
20 * ; tu tu, on the one hand on the 
other, 2 16 ' " ; so % tu, tu, 60 3 ; na tv 
eva tu, but by no means, 63 10 , 64 3 ; ka- 
mam tu na tu, see kamam ; kirn tu, 
nevertheless, 39 5 ; 4. used loosely: as 
equiv. to ca, 58 l ; often as a mere expletive 
[1122a], e.^.4 9 , 64 13b . 

tu, pron. root of2ndpers , see tvad. 

tuc, / progeny, [cf. toka.] 

V tud (tudati; tut6da; tunna). strike; 
push, [cf . TiiSfvs, ' The Hammer, Martel ' ; 
Lat. tundo, tu-tud-i, ' strike, struck ' ; Goth. 
stautan, Ger. stossen, ' strike.'] 
+ a, strike at, pick at. 

V tur (turati, -te). press onward swiftly 
[subsidiary form of Vtr (242) and allied 
w. Vtvar.] 

1 turd, a. 1. swift, esp. of horses; -am, 
as adv. swiftly, in turaihga ; 2. quick, 
ready, willing, 78". [Vtur.] 

2 tur a, a. strong, mighty, 78 9 . [Vtu, 

turamga, m. horse. ['swiftly going,' 
turam + ga, see 1 tura : for mg, cf. 

turiya, a. fourth, [for *ktur-ia : catiir, 
487 5 , 1215.] 

V tul (tolayati; tola yam asa ; tolayisyati; 

tolita; -t61ya). 1. raise up; 2. esp. 
raise up a thing so as to find its weight; 
weigh ; 3. counterpoise ; 4. equal, 
[orig. mg, ' bear, i.e. hold up ' : in the cog- 
nates, the mg ' bear, i.e. endure ' appears : 
cf. Lat. tul-i, ' endured ' ; Goth. \>u/-an, 
Eng. thole, 'endure'; Ger. Ge-dul-d, 'en- 
durance ' ; also e-rA.Tj-j', ' bore,' iroAu-rAd-s, 
' much enduring ' ; Lat. Idtus, *tla-tus, 
' borne.'] 

t u 1 a , f. balance ; weight; equality. [Vtul: 
cf. Anglo-Indian tola, about 180 grains 
troy : cf . rd\avrov, ' balance, weight.'] 

tulya, a. keeping the balance with ; equal 
to; like, [tula, 1212d4 end.] 

tulyakrti, a. having like appearance; 
alike, [akrti.] 

tuvl, a. in cpds. mighty; much; many. 
[Vtu, 1155.] 

tuvi-badha, a. distressing many (ene- 
mies) or besetting (them) sore. 

tdvismant, a. mighty, [tuvis.] 

tuvis, n. in derivs. might. [Vtu, 1153.] 

V tus (tiisyati, -te; tut6sa; tusta; t6s- 
tum; -tiisya; tosayati). become quiet; 
be satisfied or pleased ; cans, satisfy ; 
+ sam, caus. satisfy. 

tusti.y^ satisfaction. [Vtus.] 

tusnim, adv. silently, in silence, [prob. 
fr. an obsolete *tusna, 'silent,' Vtus, 

V tr (tarati, -te; tirati, -te; tatara, teriis 
[794e] ; atarit ; tarisyati, -te ; tirna ; tar- 
tum ; tirtva ; -tirya ; tarayati). 1. cross 
over (a water, the sky); 2. get across or 
to the end ; get through, escape ; survive, 
[cf. rtpfjiuv, Lat. terminus, ' boundary ' : 
see Vtra and tiras : for treatment of root- 
vowel, see 242.] 

-fava, descend, esp. from heaven to 
earth ; come down, esp. of divine beings 
who become incarnate as men ; alight ; be- 
take one's self to ; caus. take down or off. 
+ u d , come up out of the water. 
+ abhy-ud, come out of the water unto, 
cross the water unto, 89*. 
+ pra, take to the water; start on. 
-t-vi, cross through ; traverse. 

tr, m. star, see sir. 



t r c d , m. n. strophe of three stanzas, [tri + 

're, 243, 1315c.] 
trna , n. grass, [of. (6p6va = ) rp6va, 'flowers, 

herbs ' ; Eng. thorn ; Ger. Dorn, ' thorn.'] 
trtiya, a. third, [fr. tri, through trita, 

243, 487 4 : cf. rpi-ros, Lat. ter-tius, Eng. 

thir-d, Ger. dri-tte, ' third.'] 
V t r d (trnatti, trntt6 ; tatarda, tatrde' ; 

trnna; -tfdya). split; bore; open. 

+ anu, bore after (waters), release, make 

V Itrp (tfpyati, -te [761a]; tatarpa; atrp- 

at; trapsyati; trpta; -tfpya; tarpayati). 

be satisfied; become content; cans, sat- 
isfy, please ; nourish, [cf . repTrw, ' satisfy, 

please,' rpe'^w, 'nourish.'] 

+ a , become content or glad. 
V 2trp, steal, not actually occurring in vbl 

forms, but rendered probable by the deriv. 

trpu, ' thief,' the cpds asu- and pagu-trp, 

and by the Avestan Vtrf, 'steal.' 
V trs (tfsyati; tatarsa ; atrsat; trsita; 

tarsayati). be thirsty. [cf. repa-opai, 

'become dry'; Lat. torret, *tors-et, 'grows 

dry, scorches ' ; Eng. noun thirs-t ; Ger. 

dorr-et, ' grows dry ' ; also Lat. terra, *ters-a, 

'the dry (land).'] 
trsa,/. thirst, [v'trs.] 
tfsna,/. thirst. [Vtrs, 1177a.] 
tejas, n. 1. sharpness, edge; 2. tip of 

flame or ray ; gleaming splendor, 1 6 ; fire ; 

3. (splendor, i.e.) beauty of person, 8 10 ff.; 

4. (like Eng. fire, i.e.) energy, vigor,power; 

5. moral or magic power, 11 23 ; influence, 
dignity, 95 8 ; majesty, I 6 , 2 4 . [Vtij: ob- 
serve that a.K/j.-f) has mgs 1 and 4.] 

t&na, adv. in that way, 47 1T ; so; therefore, 
18 7 , etc.; yatas or yad or yena tena, 
for the reason that , therefore, 30 8 , 57 6 , 
64 9 . [pron. root ta, 1112a : of like deriva- 
tion and mg is r<p.] 

tail a, n. sesame oil. [tila, 1208fi end.] 

toka, n. creation, progeny, [cf. Vtaks and 
Vtvaks, and tiic.] 

t o r a n a , n. arched portal ; arch. [' passage,' 
Vtur, subsidiary form of Vtr, 'cross, pass.'] 

tya [499a], pron. that; that well-known (like 
Lat. ille). 

tyakta-jivita, a. having life set aside, 
risking one's life, brave. 

tyaktajivita-yodhin, a. bravely fight- 
ing. [1279.] 

\f tyaj (tyajati, -te ; tatyaja, tatyaj6 ; 
atyaksit; tyaksyati, -te; tyakt; tyak- 
tum; tyaktva; -tyajya; tyajyate; tyaj- 
ayati). 1. withdraw from ; leave in the 
lurch ; abandon (dove, goat, tree) ; 2. re- 
nounce (passions, use of a language) ; 
relinquish (exertion) ; lay aside (a certain 
form, an earthly body) ; set aside, i.e. risk 
(life), [cf. <re&onai, 'shrink back from in 
awe, revere.'] 

+ pari, leave to one's fate (a jackal); 
abandon; leave (one's party); relinquish 
or give up (play, food, affairs) ; pari- 
tyakta, (abandoned by, i.e.) separated 
from, 66 3 . 

tyaj, vbl. abandoning, w. tanu-. [Vtyaj.] 

tyajya, grdv. to be abandoned. [Vtyaj, 

tray a, a. triple, threefold, 57 13 ; as n. triad, 
triplet, rpias. [tri, 489 *.] 

V tras (trasati; tatrasa, tatrasiis, tresiia 
[794e 2 ] ; atrasit ; trasisyati ; trasta). 
tremble ; fear, [cf . rpew, TpeV-tre, ' tremble, 
trembled '; Lat. terreo, ' affright '; a-trastas 
and &-rpe<TTos, ' unterrified.'] 

trasadasyu, m. Trasadasyu, a generous 
prince, the favorite of the gods, and de- 
scended from Purukutsa. [perhaps for 
trasad-dasyu, ' affrighting the evil beings,' 
see 1309 4 - v'tras.] 

v' tra (trati, trate [628]; trayate [761c] ; 
tatr6 ; atrasta ; trasyate ; trat& ; tra- 
tum; tratva). protect; rescue; rescue 
from, w. abl. [collateral form of Vtr 
('get through or across'), w. a caus. mg, 
'bring through or across (trouble).'] 

tratr, m. protector, saviour. [Vtra.] 

trasa, m. terror. [Vtras.] 

trasadasyava, m. descendant of Trasa- 
dasyu, 87 12 . [trasadasyu, 1208c.] 

tri [482c], num. three, [cf. rpris, rpia, Lat. 
tres, tria, Eng. three, Ger. drei, ' three.'] 

tringat [485], /. thirty, [cf. tri.] 

trikadruka, m. pi. perhaps designation 
of certain Soma-vessels, three in number, 
[cf . tri and kadru.] 

tri-kala, n. the three times, present, past 
and future, [kala, masc. : 1312.] 



trikala-jna, a. knowing present, past, 

and future ; omniscient, 
tri-daga [declined like kama, 330], m. pi. 

the three times ten, the thirty, a name in 

round numbers for the 33 deities ( 12 Adit- 

yas, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 2 A9vins), i.e. the 

gods, [tri + daga, 477c : cf . tringat.] 
tridagegvara, m. pi. lords of the gods, 

i.e. the four chief gods, Indra, Agni, Va- 

runa, and Yama. [Igvara.] 
tri-diva,n. the triple or third i.e. highest 

heaven, [div, 1315c : 1312 3 .] 
tri-dhatu, a. having three parts, tri-par- 

tite, threefold, [acct, 1300c.] 
tri-pada, / -I, a. having (taken) three 

tri-ratra, n. space of three nights, tri- 

noctium. [ratri, 1316b, 1312 3 - 4 : cf. the 

Eng. usage in sen-night, fort-night.] 
tri-vidya,y. the three sciences, i.e. Vedas. 

[1312 3 .] 
tri-vidha, a. of three sorts, threefold. 

[vidha, 1302c 5 : acct, 1300c.] 
tri-vft, a. threefold, tri-partite. ['turn- 
ing thrice, with three turns.'] 
tri-veda, in cpds and derivs. the three 

Vedas. [1312 3 .] 
tri-aavana, a. pertaining to the three 

Soma-pressings ; -am, adv. at morning, 

noon, and evening, [savana.] 
tris, adv. thrice, [see tri: cf. rpis, I^nt.ter, 

*ters, ' thrice ' : Eng. thrice is a gen. form, 

cognate in root only.] 
traividya, n. study of the three Vedas. 

traivedika, a. relating to the three 

Vedas. [triveda, 1222e2.] 
try-adhiathana, a. having three mani- 

tva, pron. stem qf2dpers., see tvad. 
V tvaks, work, principally in derivs., and 

ident. w. taka. 
tvac, /. skin. 

t v a j - j a r a , m. thy paramour, [tvad, 494.] 
tvat, abl. of tva, and used in place of tva 

in cpds : by Hindus written tvad, q.v. 

tvat-krte, for the sake of thee. [1314f, 

1130 : tvat represents the stem tva, and 

in gen. relation.] 

tvad [491], so-called stem [494] of 2d pers. 
pron. thou ; see tvat. [w. the real root tu, 
cf. Doric TV, Lat. tu, AS. "Sii, Eng. thou, 
Ger. du, ' thou.'] 

V tvar (tvarate; tatvare; turna [cf. 957b], 
tvarita; tvarayati). hasten; tvarita, 
having hastened, in haste, [see Wtur, tr.] 

tvara,/. haste. [Vtvar.] 

tvastr, m. 1. wright, workman, 75 6 ; 

2. Twashtar, the artificer of the gods 
(70 s ), former of fruit of the womb, giver 
of growth and long life (86 15 ), father of 
Saranyu (85 12 ). [V tvaks, 221.] 

tvavant, a. like thee. [tva, 517.] 
tvastr a, m. descendant of Twashtar. 

d a , vbl giving, in cpds. [V 1 da, 333, 354.] 

V dang or dag (dagati [746]; dadanga ; 
dagisyati ; dasta ; danstva ; -dagya). 
bite. [cf. SaKvca, 'bite'; Goth, tahjan, 
' rend, tear.'] 

danga, m. gad-fly. [Vdang.] 

danatra, m. large tooth; tusk; fang. 
[Vdang, 1185b.] 

danstrin, a. having tusks or large teeth, 

V daks (dakaati, -te ; dadakae; dakaia- 
yate). act. suit; mid. be able or dexterous 
or strong, [cf. daksa and daksina.] 

daksa, a. able, dexterous, strong; as m. 
ability, faculty, strength, power; esp. spir- 
itual power, will; daksa and kratu, will 
and understanding (as faculties of the 
manas, ' soul '). [V daks : cf . Sei6s, ' clever, 
right,' and daksina.] 

dakaina, a. 1. clever, able; and so 

2. (as opp. to awkward, gauche), right, 
of the hand, hasta, e.g. 102 n ; so pani, 
60 5 ; foot, pada, 60 5 ; side, pargva, 102 12 ; 

3. southern (because in prayer the face 
is turned eastward: cf. uttara3), 105 8 ; 
sc. agni, southern fire, 102 3 N. ; 4. as f., 
daksina, sc. go, the able, i.e. fruitful cow, 
milch cow; milch cow as the customary 
reward for conducting a sacrifice ; then, 

5. in general, any reward or present for 
the sacrificing priest, see 106 5 ; so 95 2> 3 ; 

see also adv. daksina. [Vdaka: cf. 

, Lat. dexter, ' clever, right ' ; Goth. 



taihsva, ' right hand ' : from daksina in 
mg 3, comes Deccan, name of the country 
south of Hindustan, lit. ' the South.'] 

daksina-pacjcima, a. southwesterly. 

daksina-purva [525*], a. southeasterly. 

daksina, adv. southerly ; toward the 
south, [daksina: acct, 1112e.] 

daksinagni, m. the southern fire, 103 ' 2 , 
cf. 102 2 N. 

daksinapara [525 2 ], a. southwesterly, 
[daksina + apara.] 

daksina-pravana, a. sloping to the 
south, [daksina, adv.] 

daksinabhimukha,a. facing southerly, 
[daksina (adv.) + abhimukha.] 

daksinayana, n. south-course (of the 
sun), or the half-year from the summer to 
the winter solstice, [daksina -f ayana.] 

daksinaranya, . the southern forest 
(a forest in the Deccan). [daksina + 

daksinavant, a. abounding in gifts to 
the priests, i.e. (from the point of view of 
the priests) pious, [daksina: see dak- 
sina 5.] 

dagdha, a. 1. burned; 2. pained, tor- 
tured ; 3. wretched, good-for-nothing, 
cursed, damned, [ppl. of V dah : for mg 2, 
cf. Vcuc.] 

dagdhodara, n. one's cursed belly, 
[dagdha + udara.] 

danda, m. stick; staff (of Brahman), 59 M ; 
mace, 97 8 ; rod as symbol of dominion 
and punishment, [cf . SevSpoy, ' tree.'] 

danda-bhaya, m. fear of the rod. 

<l and in, a. bearing a staff; as m. warder, 

datta, a. given; as m. (a son) given (by 
his parents to others for adoption) ; com- 
mon at end of proper names, esp. of Vaiqyas. 
[ppl. of Vlda, 955c.] 

dadrh, a. firm; dadhfk, ace. s. n., as adv. 
firmly. [Vdrh.] 

dadhan [431], n. sour milk; curds, [orig., 
perhaps, ' milk,' f r. V 2 dha.] 

d a d h i , supplementary stem to dadhan. 

dadhi-karna, m. Curd-ear, name of a 
cat. ['having curd-ears, i.e. ears as white 
as curds.'] 

dadhfk, see dadrh. 

dant [396], m. tooth. [cf. bUvra, Lat 
dentem, Goth. tun\>us, AS. toft, Eng. tooth, 
Old High Ger. zand, Ger. Zahn, 'tooth.'] 

dant a, m. tooth, [dant, 399.] 

V dabh or dambh (dabhati ; dadabha, 
dadambha, debhus ; adabhat ; dabdha ; 
dabdhum). harm with guile ; hurt ; deceive. 

dabh a, m. deception. [Vdabh.] 

Vdam (damyati [763] ; danta [955a] ; 
damitva; -damya ; damayati). 1. be 
tame ; 2. tame ; conquer ; become mas- 
ter ; control. [cf . 8a/j.d(a, Lat. domdre, 
' tame ' ; Eng. tame, Ger. zahm, ' tame.'] 

dam, n. house. [cf. 8, 'house': see 
under dama.] 

da ma, m. n. house, home. [cf. S6fj.os, Lat. 
domus, ' house, home ' : it is not certain 
whether dama comes from Vdam and so 
means lit. 'the place where one is mas- 
ter, one's Gebiet,' or whether it is to be 
connected w. Sf/j.<a, 'build': in the latter 
case, it would mean lit., like Ger. Ban, ' a 
building,' and should be connected w. AS. 
timber, *tem-ra, 'building-material, a build- 
ing,' Eng. timber, 'building-material,' Ger. 
Zimmer, 'building-material, a building, a 

dama, 1. a. conquering, at end ofcpds; 
as m. 2. Dama, i.e. Victor, name of a 
son of Bhima; 3. self-control. [Vdam: 
cf. 'l-7nr6-Sa/j.os, 'Horse-tamer,' etc.] 

da man a, 1. a. conquering, at end of 
cpds ; 2. as m. Damaua, i.e. Vincent, name 
of a priestly sage, and of a son of Bhima. 
[Vdam: cf. Lat. dominus, 'master.'] 

damayanti, f. Damayanti, i.e. Victoria, 
name of Bhima's daughter. [' conquering 
(men),'fr. Vdam, 1043.5.] 

dam-pati, m. master of the house; as 
dual, master and mistress, man and wife; 
pair, [acct, 1267a.] 

dambha, m. deception. [Vdabh.] 

V day (day ate ; day am asa ; dayita). 
1. part; allot; 2. take part in; sym- 
pathize with ; have tender feeling for ; 
love ; dayita, loved, dear ; as f., -ta, 
wife. [for 1, cf. Kpta Saiero, 'parted, 
carved the meat'; for 2, cf. Salerat faop, 
'heart is divided or takes part in (?), i.e 



daya,/ sympathy ; compassion. [V day .] . 

d a y a 1 u , a. compassionate, [daya, 1227 3 . ] 

dayavant.a. compassionate, [daya.] 

day it a, see Vday. 

dara, m. cleft, hole. [VI dr.] 

daridra, a. wandering about; mendicant; 
poor ; as m. poor man. [fr. intens. of 
Vldra, 'run about,' 1147b 2 : for mg, cf. 
Eng. tramp, in its American sense of 
' vagrant beggar.'] 

d a r p a , m. . vvildness ; wantonness ; impu- 
dence; pride. [Vdrp.] 

darbha, m. grass-tuft; grass used at sacri- 
ficial ceremonies, esp. Ku9a-grass, Poa 
cynosuroides. [Vdrbh.] 

darga, m. sight; the moon when just be- 
coming visible ; the new moon ; the day 
or festival of new moon. [Vdrg.] 

dargaka, a. 1. seeing; 2. (fr. caus.) 
showing, making clear. [drg.] 

dargata, a. to be seen; visible. [Vdrg, 

dare, an a, a. seeing; as n. the beholding, 
sight; the becoming visible, 103 20 ; ap- 
pearance, 4 10 . [V drg.] 

darga-purna-masa, dual in. new and 
full moon ; the days and the festivals of 
new and full moon. 

d a g a [483 4 ], num. ten. [cf . Se'/ca, Lat. decem, 
Goth, taihun, Eng. ten, Ger. zehn, 'ten'; 
Eng. -teen in six-teen, etc.] 

dagama, f. -i, a. tenth; dagaml, sc. tithi, 
tenth day of a lunar half-month. [daga, 
487 .] 

daga-gata, n. ten hundred ; a thousand. 

dagagakha, a. having ten branches, i.e. 
fingers, [daga + gakha : acct, 1300a.] 

daga, f. the threads projecting at the end 
of a weft, fringe ; lamp-wick ; fig. wick of 
life, course of life ; time of life. 

dagaha, m. space of ten days, [daga + 
2 aha, 1312 4 .] 

V das (dasyati; dadasa ; adasat ; dasta ; 
Hasayati). suffer lack, [cf . V das, dasyu : 
also 8eo>, 'lack.'] 
+ vi, become exhausted. 

dasyu, m. demon, foe of gods and men. 
[cf. Vdas, dasa.] 

V dah (dahati, -te ; dadaha, dehe; adhak 
sit ; dhaksyati ; dagdha ; dagdhum ; 

dagdhva ; -dahya; dahyate). 1. burn 
with fire; burn; 2. pass.: be burned; 
be pained or tortured; 3. dagdha, see 
s.v. [for *dhagh : cf . Goth, dags, AS. dceg, 
Eng. day, Old High Ger. tak, ' day.'] 
+ a , in adahana. 
+ vi, injure by burning, 84 17 . 
+ sam, consume. 

V Ida (dadati, dadati [668]; dadau, dad6; 
adat, ddita [884] ; dasyati, -te ; datta 
[955c], -tta [1087e] ; datum ; dattva ; 
-daya ; diyate [770b] ; ditsati [1030] ; 
dapayati). give ; bestow ; grant ; impart ; 
w. ace. of thing and dat. or gen., later also 
loc., of person, 1 n , 23 20 , 21 n ; varam da, 
grant a wish; gapaih da, (give, i.e.) pro- 
nounce a curse ; saubhagyam da, (give, 
i.e.) wish conjugal felicity; da, (give, i.e.) 
sell, w. instr. of price, 47 4 ; uttaram da, 
make answer ; graddham da, perform a 
graddha, 44 3 , 104 n ; punar da, give back ; 
desid. desire or be ready to give. [cf. 
Si'SoiyUj, Lat. da-re, 'give.'] 
+ anu, (like Ger. nach-geben, 'yield,' and 
so) grant, admit; ppl. anutta [1087e], ad- 

+ a, take (opp. of give), 28 n ; grasp, 70 6 ; 
adaya, having taken, equiv. to with. 
+ u p a_a, receive, appropriate. 
-f p a r i , deliver over ; commit; entrust. 
+ pra, give; grant; impart (sciences); 
ppl. f. pratta [1087e], given in marriage, 

V 2 da (dyati [761d3]; dad6; adat, adita 
[884] ; dina [957a], -tta [1087e] ; -daya ; 
dlyate). cut. [cf. Vday, daya.] 
+ ava, cut off, esp. a part of the sacri- 
ficial cake ; ppl. avatta [1087e], as subst. 
that which is cut off. 

-f-sam-ava, cut in pieces and collect 
them ; ppl. samavatta, as subst. gathered 

V 3 da (dyati[761d3]; dita[954c]; -daya; 
diyate). bind. [cf. Sew, Si'Srjyui, 'bind.'] 

da, vbl. giving, in cpds. [VI da.] 

datavya, grdv. dandus. [Vlda.] 

datr, m. giver; as a. [375 3 ], generous, 21 4 , 
48*. [Vlda.] 

dan a, n. giving, imparting; gift. [Vlda, 
1150: cf. Lat. donum, 'gift.'] 


dana-dharma, m. the virtuous practice 

of alms-giving. 
danava, m. child of Danu, a Danava, one 

of a class of demons, foes of the gods ; 

Titan. [Idanu, 1208c.] 

1 danu, /. Danu, name of a demon, 70 18 . 

2 danu, n. dripping fluid, drop, dew. 
danta, a. tamed, mild; subdued (as to 

one's passions) ; as subst. Danta, name of 
a son of Bhlma. [ppl. of v dam, 955a.] 

1 daman, n. a giving, gift. [\/lda, 1168.] 

2 daman, n. bond. [V3da, 1168.] 
dambhika, a. subst. deceitful, deceiver. 


1 day a, a. giving. [VI da.] 

2 day a, m. portion, inheritance. [V2da: 
cf. Scis, 'portion, meal.'] 

d a y a k a , a. giving. [1 daya.] 

dara[264 2 ], m. pi. wife. 

daridrya, n. poverty, [daridra.] 

daru, n. wood; log or billet of wood; stick. 
[see the equiv. drii and taru : cf. 56pv, 
' wood, beam, shaft ' ; Spvs, ' tree, oak ' ; 
Goth, triu, ' wood, tree ' ; Eng. tree, ' wood ' 
(so Wyclif), ' a large woody plant' (usual 
mg), 'a wooden bar' (in whiffle-free).] 

da r una, a. hard; dreadful. 

V dag (dagati; dadaga, dagvans [790b]). 
grant, offer ; esp. serve or honor a god 
with offerings ; dagvans, as subst. a pious 
servant of a god, 69 u . [w. dadaga, cf. 
SfSwKa, ' granted, gave ' ; e-Sco/c-a is an im- 
perfect indicative without thematic vowel, 
corresponding to #a-dag-am ; but both 
Greek forms became connected in the 
popular mind with 5i'5ayu, 'give.'] 

V das (only with abhi, abhidasati). bear 
ill-will to ; try to harm, [cf . V das, dasyu, 

das a, m. 1. foe; esp. supernatural foe, 
evil demon; 2. (in opp. to arya) foe of 
.the gods, infidel ; used like Caffre and 
Giaour; 3. (subdued foe, i.e.) servant, 
slave, 79 2 ; dasi,/. female slave. [V das : 
cf. \Jdas, dasyu.] 

dasa-patni, a.f. having the demon for 
their master, [acct, 1251b, 1295.] 

diti, f. Diti, name of a deity without defi- 
nite character, a mere pendant to aditi as 
sura to asura, and formed by popular 

etymology as sura from asura. [see 

aditi and daitya.] 
didfksu, a. desirous to see. [fr. desid. 

of Vdrg, 1178f: acct!] 
didyu, HI. missile, [see Vldivordyu, and 

1147b 2 .] 
didhisu,a. desirous to win; as m. suitor; 

husband; esp. second husband, [fr. desid. 

of Vldha, 1178f, 1028d.] 
din a, 1. perhaps adj. clear, in su-dina; 

2. as n. day. [perhaps ppl. of Vdi or 
di, 'shine,' w. shifted acct.] 

dina-traya,n. day-triad, triduum, space 

of three days. 
V div: there is no verbal root div in Sanskrit: 

cf. noun div and W 1 and 2 div or diii. 
div [361d], 7/1. 1. sky, heaven, e.g. 72 ' 2 ; 

la. Heaven, personified as Father, e.g. 51.5; Ib. duhita divas, of the 
Dawn, daughter of the sky or of Heaven, 
75 16 ; -2. day, e.g. 70 8 , 79 13 ; -3. observe 
that div is sometimes fern, in Veda, so 92 1>s , 
RV. x. 125. 7. 

[w. gen. div-as, cf. the genitives Ai6s, 
*AtF-6s, Lat. JSv-is, and AS. Tiw-cs in 
Tiwes dozg, Eng. Tues-day : (Tiiv corre- 
sponds to the old Germanic Tin, no longer 
a god of the sky or bright day, but rather 
a god of battle or fighting, the chief occu- 
pation of our early forefathers:) w. nom. 
dyaiis, cf. Zeus, *Aj-r)vs : w. voc. dyaus 
pitar, cf. Zev Trdrtp, Lat Ju-piter, ' Heaven 
Father ' : w. duhitar divas, cf . Ovyartp 
Aids, &fj.&por' 'A.6dva, Oedipus Rex 159 : cf. 
also 87os, ' heavenly ' ; Lat. nom. Diovi-s, 
'god of heaven,' Jdv-em, 'Jove'; sub dio, 
1 under the sky ' ; Eng. Tewes-ley, ' Tiw's 
lea,' a place in Surrey.] 

diva, n. heaven; day, in dive-dive, day by 
day. [div, 1209a.] 

diva, adv. by day. [f r. the instr. div-a, w. 
shifted acct, 1112e.] 

divaukas, m. caelicola, god. ['having 
heaven as a dwelling ' : diva + okas.] 

d ivy a, a. heavenly ; divine, [div.] 

V dig (digati ; didega ; adiksat, adista 
[883] ; deksyati ; dista ; ddstum ; -digya ; 
digyate; degayati). point ; direct ; show, 
[cf. Se'iKWfj.1, 'show'; Lat. dico, 'show, 
tell'; AS. tdh, Ger. zieh, 'pointed out (as 



guilty), accused'; Ger. zeigen, 'show'; 
also AS. tdh-te, ti&h-te, Eng. taught, ' showed, 
instructed ' ; AS. tdcn, Eng. token.'] 
-f apa, show; make a false show of. 
+ vy-apa, make a false show of. 
+ a , point out to, give a direction to, 

+ sam-a, point out to, direct; com- 

+ u d , point out ; aim towards ; uddicjya, 
tr. ace., with an aiming towards, equiv. to 
the prep, at, 26 22 . 

+ upa, show to, teach, instruct; give ad- 
vice to, advise. 
+ pra, point out, designate; direct. 

dig, f. just like Eng. point, i.e. cardinal 
point, quarter of the heaven (N., E., S., 
W.) ; astau digas, eight regions (N., E., 
S., W., and NE., SB., SW., NW.), 57 . 
[Vdic,, 'to point.'] 

V dih (degdhi ; didihe ; digdha ; -dihya). 

1. stroke, touch lightly ; 2. smear ; 

3. besmear, pollute, [for *dhigh: cf. 
ZOiyov, ' touched ' ; Lat. Jingo, ' form, fash- 
ion, esp. with the hand in soft material ' ; 
Goth, daigs, ' moulded mass of clay or 
bread-paste'; Old Eng. dag, Eng. dough.] 
+ s am, pass, (be plastered together, be 
indistinct, and so) be uncertain, doubtful. 

V di (dideti [676] ; didaya [786 3 ], didi- 

vans). shine, glance, gleam. 
V diks (diksate; didiksa, didikse ; adiks- 

ista ; diksisyate ; diksita ; diksitva ; 

-diksya). consecrate one's self, esp. for 

performing the Soma-sacrifice. [perhaps 

desid. of V daks, ' make one's self suitable 

or ready ' : 108g.] 
d 1 1 i , f. glance, flame, actually occurring only 

in su-diti. [vdi, 1157. la.] 
dldivi, a. shining. [Vdi, 1193.] 
din a, a. scanty; cast down, sad; wretched, 
dinata, f. scantiness; smallness. [dina.] 
dinar a, m. denarius, name of a certain 

gold coin, [borrowed fr. Lat. denarius, a 

silver coin worth ten asses."] 
J dip (dipyate ; didipe ; dipta ; -dipya ; 

dedipti ; dipayati, -te). blaze; flame; 

caws, kindle ; intens. blaze brightly ; fig. be 

radiant, [cf. Vdi.] 

+ ud, blaze up ; caws, cause to blaze up. 

dirgha, a. long, in space and in time; 

-am, as adv. ; comp. draghiyans, superl. 

draghistha. [v ; dragh : cf . SoAixo's, ' long.'] 
dirgha-karna, m. Long-ear, name of a 

dirgha-rava, m. Long-yell or Far-howl, 

name of a jackal. (Their howling is both 

long-continued and far-reaching.) 
dirgha-var na, m. a long vowel, 
dirghavarnanta, a. having a long 

vowel as final, [anta.] 
V Idiv (dlvyati; dideva [240 3 ]; adevit ; 

devisyati ; dyutd ; devitum ; -divya). 

dice; play. [prop, diu, see 765 1 and 2 : 

orig., perhaps, 'throw,' cf. didyu.] 

+ a , in adevana. 
V 2div (devati [240 3 ] ; dyunA [957a] ; 

devitum; devayati, -te). lament, [prop. 

diu, see 765 l and 2 .] 

+ pari, moan, bemoan ; caus. the same. 
duhkha, a. miserable; as n. misery, pain, 

sorrow, [cf. sukha.] 

duhkhita, a. pained, [duhkha, 1176b.] 
ducchiina, f. calamity; harm, [dus + 

Quna, 'mis-fortune, ill-luck,' 168 3 .] 
V ducchunaya (ducchunayate). seek to 

harm, [ducchuna, 1058.] 
dur-, the form taken by dus before sonants. 
dur-atikrama, a. hard to overcome. 

[' having a hard conquest,' cf . 1304b.] 
dur-atman, a. evil-minded; bad. 
dur-ga, a. whose going is hard, hard to 

go through or to, impassable; as n. diffi- 
cult place ; danger. 

dur-gata, a. ill-conditioned ; unfortunate. 
dur-jana, m. evil person; scoundrel. 
dur-danta, a. overcome with difficulty; 

as m. Hard-to-tame (AUO-M'KTJTOJ), name of 

a lion. 
dur-nivara,a. whose warding-off is hard ; 

hard to get rid of. 
dur-bala,a. of (poor, i.e.) little strength; 

durbuddhi, a. of (bad, i.e.) small wit; 

dur-bhaga, a. ill-portioned, ill-favored; 

-a, f. ugly woman, [acct, 1304b.] 
dur-bhiksa, a. (time) having its alms- 
getting hard, i.e. in which alms-getting is 

hard ; as n. famine, [bhiksa.] 



dur-mangala, a. of bad luck, bringing 
bad luck. 

dur-mati,/. ill-will. 

dur-mada,a. badly intoxicated ; drunken, 
[acct, 1304b.] 

dur-vijneya, a. hard to distinguish. 

dur-vipaka, m. evil issue (of one's des- 

dur-vrtta, a. of evil life, wicked. 

V dul (dolayati ; dolita). heave upwards ; 
swing, [cf. Vtul.] 

diivas, n. gift ; oblation ; worship. 
[V 1 du.j 

d vivas, n. perhaps same as dtivas, but see 
74 10 x. 

V duvasya (duvasyati). reward with a 
gift; honor or worship (a god) with an 
offering, [diivas.] 

+ a. perhaps bring or entice hither by 
worship, but see 74 10 N. 

V dus (diisyati; adosit; dusta; dusayati 
[1042a 2 ]). spoil, [see dus.] 

dus-kara, a. whose performance is hard, 
hard to be performed, [dus.] 

dus-krta, n. evil deed ; sin. [dus.] 

dust a, a. spoiled; bad, morally; cross, 
[ppl. of V dus.] 

dus, inseparable prefix, characterizing a thing 
as evil, bad, hard ; forming w. action-nouns 
cpds w. the same mg as if compounded w. a 
future pass, ppl., e.g. dus-kara, ' having its 
doing hard, i.e. difficult to be done.' [cf. 
\ dus: also Svs-, 'mis-', see 225 2 .] 

dus-tara, a. having its crossing hard, 
hard to cross. 

V duh (d6gdhi, dugdhe ; dud6ha, dudub.6; 
adhuksat, -ata [918] ; dhoksyate ; dug- 
dha ; d6gdhum ; dugdhva; dohayati). 
1. milk; then, generalized 2. get the 
goodoutof a thing; 3. extract; 4. give 
milk ; 5. in general, give or yield any 
good thing, 80 16 ; cans., like simple, milk, 
extract. [for mg 2, cf. a^f\yeaQal nva, 
'milk a person dry.'] 
+ nis , milk out of; extract from. 

duh, rbl. yielding, in kama-duh. [v'duh.] 

duhitf [373 3 ], f. daughter, [derivation 
uncertain, 1182d: cf. Ouydrrip, Goth, dauh- 
tar, Eng. daughter, Ger. Tochter, ' daugh- 

V 1 d u , subsidiary form of^l da, in diivas, 
duvasya. [cf. Wstha and ga w. their 
equiv. collateral forms sthu and gu.] 

V 2 du, go to a distance, in duta and dura, 
[cf . $fvo/, ' am at a distance from some- 
thing, fall short of.'] 

dudabha, a. hard to deceive, ['whose 
deceiving is hard ' : for duzdabha, i.e. 
dus + dabha, 199b 3 .] 

duta, m. messenger ; ambassador, envoy, 
[V2dii, 1176a.] 

dura, a. far; as n. the distance; case- 
forms as adverbs: -am, to a distance, far 
away ; -e, in the distance, afar ; at or from 
a distance; -at, from afar. [v2du, 1188.] 

duri-kr (durikaroti). put far away; 
send off. [dura, 1094.] 

durva,_/. millet-grass, Panicum Dactylon. 

dulabha, same as dudabha, Whitney 54. 

V Idr (drnati ; dadara, dadre ; adarsit ; 
dirna; -dirya; diryate; dardarti [1002b] ; 
darayati, darayati). burst, trans, and 
intrans. ; cans, and intens.: split; tear, 
w. gen. [cf . Sepca, Sfipw, ' flay ' ; AS. teran, 
Eng. tear, Ger. zerren, ' tear, rend,'] 

V 2dr (driyate ; adrta ; drta ; -drtya). 
used only w. a, see 773. [cf. V5eA in Sfv- 
Si\\o>, ' glance at ' ; AS. tilian, ' be intent 
upon, attend to, esp. the earth, i.e. till (the 
soil),' Eng. till; Ger. zielen, 'aim at'; AS. 
eorlS-tilia, ' earth-tiller.'] 
+ a, (look at, i.e.] regard; pass, be re- 
garded, i.e. respected. 

drdha, see Vdrh and 224a. 

drti, m. bag of leather; bellows, [v'ldr: 
for mg, cf . Sfp/j.a, ' skin bag or bottle.'] 

V drp (drpyati; adrpat; darpisyati, drap- 
syati ; drpta ; darpayati). be crazed, 
wild, proud, insolent, or arrogant. 

V drbh (drbhati ; drbdhd). make into 

V drg (dadirga, dadrge; adraksit, adrsta; 
draksyati, -te ; drsta ; drastum ; drstva ; 
-dfgya; drgyate; didrksate; dargayati). 
see ; behold ; pass, be seen ; be or become 
visible; appear; caus. cause (a person, 
ace., 33 3 ) to see (a thing, ace., 33 6 , 35 7 , 
36 7 ); show (w. gen. 63 2 ); w. atmanam, 
show one's self, appear, pretend to be (e.g. 
frightened, 41 4 ). [present forms supplied 


by \f 1 pa, q.v. : w. dadarga, cf . 

' saw ' : cf . Goth, ga-tarh-jan, ' make a show 


+ prati, pass, appear over against one 

or before one's eyes. 

-f v i , pass, be seen far and wide. 

+ s am, behold; caws, show; w. atmanam, 

show one's self, appear, pretend to be (e.g. 

df [218 3 , drk, dram, drgbhyam], 1. vbl. 

seeing, looking ; 2. as f. the seeing ; 

drgfi, as inf. [970a], for beholding ; 3. in 

cpds [518], look, appearance. [Vdr.] 
drga, m. the seeing; in cpds [518], look, 

appearance, [do.] 
drgi.y. the seeing; drc_aye, as inf. [970f], 

for beholding, [do.] 
dfgya, grdv. to be seen; worthy to be 

seen, splendid. [Vdrg, 963d.] 
d r s a d , f. stone ; esp. nether mill-stone, 
drsad-upala, dual f. the nether and the 

upper mill-stone. [1253a, 1258.] 
drsta, ppl. o/Vdrg, q.v. 
drsta-purva, a. seen previously, [equiv. 

to purvam drsta, see 1291.] 
df sti, /. 1. seeing; 2. sense of sight; 

3. glance, look; 4. view. [Vdrg: cf. 

8e'p|is, ' sense of sight.'] 
Vdrh (dfnhati, -te [mg 1, cf. 758] ; dfhyati, 

-te [mg2, see 767] ; adrnhit ; drdha [224a] ; 

drnhayati). 1. act. make firm or steady 

or enduring ; establish ; mid. be firm ; 

drdha [1176a], firm; -2. be firm; -3. 

caus. make stable, [cf . Old Lat. forc-tis, 

~La.t.fortis, 'strong.'] 

drib. a, same as drdha, Vdrh, Whitney 54. 
d e y a , grdv. to be given or granted. [V da, 

deva,/. devi, 1. a. heavenly, 74 14> 16> 18 , 

92 T ; as subst. 2. god, goddess; 2a. pi. 

the gods (in later times reckoned as 33, cf. 

tridaca ) ; 2b. vfgve devas, all the gods ; 

also all-gods (a term comprehending into 

a class all the separate gods, cf. All-saints, 

and see vigvadeva) ; 2c. devi, The God- 
dess, i.e. (Diva's wife, Durga ; 2d. -deva, 

at end of Brahman-names, having as god, 

so, e.g., gunadeva ; 3. m. manusya-deva, 

god among men, i.e. a Brahman, see 95 x ; 

similarly, -4. m. king, 19 12 , 50 4 , 51*- 7 -"; 

so used of a lion {32 15 ) or even of a jackal 
(36 21 ); / queen, [perhaps fr. the noun 
div (1209i): cf. Lat. deus, 'god': the al- 
leged root div, 'shine,' has no existence.] 

deva-kama, a. having love for the gods, 
[acct, 1293 *, 1295.] 

devata, f. godhead or divinity, both as 
abstract and as concrete ; devata, instr., 
with divinity (collective), i.e. among deities, 
73 [1237.] 

devat va, n. divinity, abstract only. [1239.] 

deva-duta,m. messenger of the gods. 

deva-daivatya, a. having the gods as 
divinity, (of hymns) addressed to the 

deva-pati, m. lord of the gods, i.e. Indra. 

deva-pana, a. serving the gods for 
drinking, [lit. ' god-drenching, i.e. gott- 
trankend': acct, 1271, 1251c.] 

deva-yana, n. path of the gods, on which 
the intercourse between gods and men 
takes place, [acct, 1271, 1251c.] 

devara, m. husband's brother, [devf, 

deva -raj a, m. king of the gods, i.e. Indra. 
[rajan, 1315a.] 

deva-linga, n. god-characteristic, mark 
by which a god may be distinguished from 
a man. 

deva-garman, m. Deva9arman or God's- 
joy, name of a certain Brahman, [of like 
mg is f6-xapis.~\ 

deva-samnidhi, m. presence of the gods. 

deva-huti, f. invocation of the gods, 
[acct, 1274.] 

devi, see deva. 

devi-krta, a. made by Durga. 

devi-kotta, m. Goddess-fort, name of a 

devi-vinirmita, a. laid out by Durga. 

devf [369 2 ], m. husband's brother, [cf. 
Sa-np, Lat. levir, ' husband's brother.'] 

dea, TO. 1. (point, i.e.) place, 41 18 ; 
2. country, 24 5 , see 98 16 N. ; 3. place, 
pregnantly, as in Eng., i.e. proper place, 
22 5 ; 4. as in Eng., place or region of 
the body, see muska-, skandha-. 
' point.'] 

dialect of the country. 



destr, m. pointer, guide, instructor; /. 
ddstri, Instructress, as a deity, 90 9 . [Vdi, 
1182: cf. +SfiKTrip in SeiKr-fipios, 'pertain- 
ing to one who shows.'] 

deha, m.n. body; mentioned w. manas and 
vac, 65 9 . [v'dih, 'stroke lightly so as to 
mould or form/ and so, prob. ' the figure, 
form, shape,' like the Lat. figura, ' shape, 
form,' from the cognate ^Jig, Jingo : see 

dehin, a. connected with the body, 65 n ; 
as m. a living being, man. [deha, 1230.] 

daitya, m. descendant of Diti, q.v. ; a 
Daitya or demon, [diti, 1211.] 

d a i t y a - danava-mardana, m. Daitya-and- 
Danava-crusher, epithet of Indra. 

daiva, a. of the gods, 57 21 ; coming from 
the gods ; divine ; as n. divine appoint- 
ment, i.e. fate, 18 1Z , etc. [deva, 1208f.] 

daivata, a. pertaining to a divinity; as n. 
1. a divinity or, collectively, the divini- 
ties, esp. that or those celebrated in any 
Vedic hymn; -2. idol, 62 18 . [devata, 

daivatya, at end of cpds, having as 
divinity, addressed to , 63 5 . [devata, 

daivika, a. of the gods; divine, [deva, 

daivya, a. of the gods; divine, [deva, 

dola, m. a swinging; f. dola, a dooly 
(Anglo-Indian term), a little bamboo chair 
slung on four men's shoulders, [V dul.] 

V dolaya (dolayate). swing like a dooly ; 
waver, [dola.] 

dolayamana- mati, a. having a wavering 
mind. [V dolaya.] 

1 dosa, m. 1. fault, defect; bad con- 
dition, 55 5 ; 2. sin, transgression, fault, 
II 8 , 18 n , 65 21 ; dosam avap, incur a 
transgression, 68 4 ; 3. harm; evil con- 
sequence ; dosena, dosat, by or as a bad 
consequence of, by, faute de, 23 21 , 35 2 . 

2 dosa, m. evening, dark ; f. dosa, evening, 

dosa-vastr, m. illuminer of the dark- 
ness; or, as adj. [cf. 375 3 ], lighting up in 
the dark. 

dautya, n. message, [duta, 1211.] 
dyava-prthivi, dual f. heaven and 

earth, [div + prthivi, 1255 and a 2 .] 
dyu, same as div, 361d. 
V dyut (dy6tate ; didyut6 ; adyutat ; 

dyotisyati ; dyutta ; -dyiitya). gleam; 

lighten ; shine, [akin w. noun div, q.v. : 

cf. also V jyut.] 

+ vi, lighten, 
dyuti, /. sheen, 19 7 ; lustre; dignity. 

dyumant, a. heavenly, bright, splendid. 


dyuta, n. gambling. [VI div, 1176a.] 

dy6, sa/e as div, 361d. 

dravina, n. movable property (as opp. to 

house and field), wealth. [Vdru, 1177b.] 
dravya, n. 1. property; 2. in general, 

thing, object ; 3. esp. worthy object. 

[Vdru: see dravina.] 
drastavya, grdv. to be seen. [Vdrg.] 
V Idra (drati; dadraii ; adrasit; intens. 

[1002c, 1024 2 ] daridrati). run ; intens. 

run about, run hither and thither, [cf. 

Si-Spd-ffK<a, ' run ' : see Vdru.] 

+ a p a , run off. [cf . cwro-Spaj/at, ' run 

V 2 d r a (drati ; dray ate ; dadraii ; adrasit ; 

drasyati; drana). sleep, [cf. tSpaBov, 

' slept ' ; Lat. dormlre, ' sleep.'] 

+ ni, go to sleep; sleep. 
V dragh, only in derivs. drag, draw; draw 

out ; extend ; lengthen, [poss. for #dhragh 

(cf. Vdhraj), and akin w. Eng. drag: but 

see dirgha.] 
draghiyans, a. longer, as comp. to dirgha. 

[V dragh, 467.] 
V dru (dravati, -te ; dudrava, dudruv6 ; 

adudruvat [868] ; drosyati ; druta ; dr<5- 

tum ; drutva ; -driitya). hasten; run ; 

run away, flee, 94 7 . [ident. w. Vdram, 

' run,' and w. V 1 dra, q.v. : cf . eSpd/ie and 

fSpd, 'ran.'] 

+ ati, run past or by ; escape. 

+ a , run unto, make an attack, charge, 

94 5,6. 

+ u p a , run unto. 

+ sam-upa, run unto, rush at, 3 12 . 
drii, m.n. wood, [see daru.] 
drugdha, see V druh. 



druta, ppl. having hastened [952 2 ]; -am, 
as adv. hastily, rapidly; quickly; imme- 
diately. [Vdru.] 

drum a, m. tree, [drti: cf. Spvfj.6s, 'a wood.'] 

V d r u m a y a ( drumayate) . pass for a tree. 
[drama, 1058, 1059b.] 

V druh (dnihyati ; dudr6ha ; adruhat ; 
dhroksyati ; drugdha ; dr6gdhum ; -druh- 
ya). hurt (by deceit, wile, magic); strive 
to harm ; ppl. drugdha : as m. one who 
has striven to harm, hurtful foe ; as n. 
misdeed, [if for *dhrugh, cf. Old High 
Ger. triukan, Ger. be-trugen, ' deceive so as 
to harm.'] 

abhi, offend against. 

dvd [482b], num. two. [cf. Svo, Lat. duo, 
Eng. two.~\ 

dvamdva, n. pair; quarrel, [dvam-dvam 
is the repeated nom. s. n. of dva : cf . 
1252 *.] 

dvaya, a. twofold; of two sorts; as n. 
couple, pair, [dva : cf . 8oi6s, ' double.'] 

dvadaga [483*], cardinal, twelve, [dva 
ilaca. 476 3 : cf. SudtSeica., Lat. duodecim, 
' twelve.'] 

dvadaga, /. -i, ordinal, twelfth, dva- 
dagi (sc. tithi), twelfth day of a lunar 
half month, 59 9 . [dvadaga, 487 7 .] 

dvadaga-ratra, n. space of twelve 
nights, [dvadaga + ratri, 1315b, 1312 3 - *.] 

dvadaga-sahasra, cardinal, n. twelve 
thousand. [481.] 

dvadagasahasra,. consisting of twelve 
thousand, [dvadaga-sahasra, 1204c.] 

dvar [388c], /. door, [perhaps 'the clos- 
ure,' f r. V dvr, ' close,' for #dhvr : cf . 6vpa, 
'door'; lot. for is, nom. s., 'door'; Eng. 

dvar a, n. door, [dvar, q.v. . 399.] 

d vara-paksa, m. side of the door. 

dvi, form o/dva in composition and deriva- 
tion. [475 .] 

dvi-ja, a. twice-born; as m. member of 
one of the three upper castes, re-born by 
virtue of investiture (see Vni + upa), 60 2 , 
68 2, 59 *, 62 7 ; in a narrower sense, a Brah- 
man, 21 ", 43*, 55 , 64 16 . 

dvi-janman, a. having double birth ; as 
m. same as dvija ; man of one of the three 
upper castes, 59 l . [acct, 1300c.] 

dvi-jati, a. ana* as m. same as dvijan- 
man ; man of one of the three upper 
castes, 59 19 . 

dvijottama, m. the highest of the twice- 
born, i.e. a Brahman, [dvija + uttama.] 

dvita, a. second, [dvi.] 

dvita, adv. just so ; so also; equally. 

dvitiya, a. second, [dvita, 487 4 , 1215d.] 

dvidha, adv. in two parts,in twain. [1104.] 

dvi-pad [391], a. having two feet; as m. 
the two-footed one, man, 16 2 ; as n. sing. 
that which is two-footed, collectively, men, 
90 1 - 3 , 92 3 . [cf. SiTroSa, Lat. bipedem, 'bi- 

dvi-pada, f. -i, a. having (taken) two 

dvi-pravrajin, f. -ni, a. in f. going 
after two (men), unchaste, 98 14 . 

V dvis (dvesti, dviste; didv^sa; adviksat, 
-ata; dvista ; dvestum). hate; show 
hatred ; be hostile, [cf . o-Sva-avro, ' be- 
came wroth,' w. prothetic o.] 

dvis, vbl. hating, in cpds; asf. hate; as m. 
concrete, hater, foe. [Vdvis.] 

dvis, adv. twice, [see dvi, dva: cf. Si's, 
Lat. bis, *dvis, ' twice ' : the radically cog- 
nate Eng. twice is a gen. form.] 

dvipa, m. island. 

dvipi-carman, n. tiger-skin, [dvipin.] 

dvipin, a. having islands or island-like 
spots ; as m. leopard ; tiger, [dvipa.] 

V dvr, cover, close, in derivs. [see dvar.] 

dvedha, adv. in two, in two kinds, [for 
*dvayadha, fr. dvaya, 1104 2 .] 

dvesa, m. hatred. [Vdvis.] 

dvesas, n. hatred ; concrete, hater, foe. 

dha, vbl. bestowing, granting, in vasu-dha 

V dhan (dadhanti). set in motion, [cf 
V dhanv.] 

dhana, n. 1. the prize of the contest; 
not only the reward put up for the victor. 
but also the booty taken from the foe 
Vedic; so w. Vji, win booty by conquest, 
81 2 ; then, 2. in general, wealth, riches, 
property, money. [V dha, ' put ' : cf . fo^o, 
' thing put up as a prize,' and for the mg 
also Ger. Ein-satz, 'stakes.'] 


[V 1 dha 

dhanu, m. bow. [fr. dhanus, a transfer 
to the u-declension.j 

dhanus-kanda, n. bow and arrow, 
[dhanus : see 1253b.] 

dhanus, n. bow. [Vdhan, 1154.] 

dhanya, a. wealthy; fortunate, [dhana.] 

\f dhanv (dhanvati; dadhanve ; adhan- 
vit). set in motion ; run. [secondary 
form of v'dhan.] 

dhanvan, n. bow. [Vdhan, 1169. la.] 

dhanvin, a. subst. having a bow, bow- 
man, [dhanvan, 1230b.] 

V dh amor dhma(dhamati [750] ;dadhmau; 
adhmaslt ; dhamisyati ; dhamita, dhma- 
ta; -dhmaya). blow, breathe out; blow 
(pipe, shell, bag-pipe, bellows), [see 108g 
and 750.] 
+ a , blow up ; adhmata, fig. puffed up. 

dhara, a. holding; bearing; keeping; 
wearing. [Vdhr.] 

d harm a, m. 1. custom, 98 18 ; usage, 
99 u ; right; duty, 28 6 ; virtue, 21 7 , 10, 
15 17 , 29 1 ; (virtue, i.e.) good works, 29 5 , 
63 n ; correct course of conduct, II 3 ; 
dharme, in a question of right, 21 u ; 
la. dharmena, adv. : as was right, 14 17 ; 
dutifully, 16 5 ; 2. law; prescription, 
rule; the law (as a system), 28 5 , 58 16 ' 19 ; 
-3. personified, Virtue, 67 n , 48*. 

[a post-Vedic word, taking the place of 
V. dharman: dharma is fr. v'dhr (1166b), 
perhaps in mg 6, and thus designating 
ancient custom or right as 'that which 
holds its own, which persists or endures ' ; 
but it may come fr. Vdhr in mg 1, so that 
dharma is 'that which is established or 
settled'; in the latter case, cf., for the 
mg, 0(/, ' that which is established as 
custom or law,' w. riOrifu, ' set, establish/ 
and Ger. Ge-setz, ' law,' w. setzen, ' set.'] 

dharma-j iia, a. knowing the law or one's 
duty or what is right. 

dharma-j naiia, n. knowledge of the 

dharmatas, adv. in a way which starts 
from dharma, i.e. in accordance with good 
usage, 59 19 ; by rights, 61 16 . [dharma, 
1098c 3 .] 

dharman, n. established ordinance; stead- 
fast decree (e.g. of a god), 80 10 ; dhar- 

mana, according to the established order 
of things, in a way that accords with 
nature, 84 8 . [Vdhr, 1168. Ic: see under 

dharma-mula, n. the root or foundation 
of the law. 

dharma-vid [391], a. knowing the law 
or one's duty, 1 15 ; acquainted with good 
usage, 61 10 . 

dharma-gastra, n. authoritative or ca- 
nonical compend of dharma, 58 18 ; law- 
book; law-shaster. 

dharmatman, a. having virtue or right 
as one's nature ; just, [atman.] 

v' dhav (dhavate). run. [see under Vdhu, 
and cf. dew, \10eF, 'run.'] 

dhavala, a. dazzlingly white. [V 2 dhav, 
'rinse,' 1189, 1188.] 

\/ Idha (dadhati, dhatt6 [668]; dadhaii, 
dadhe; adhat, adhita [884]; dhasyati, 
-te; r. -dhita, later hita[954cl; dhatum; 
dhitva ; -dhaya ; dhiyate ; dfdhisati, 
dhitsati; dhapayati ' L 1042dl). 

-1. put, 86 10 ; set; lay, 39 u ; -2. put 
in a place, bring to, u\ tatra, 85 19 ; w. loc., 
89 s , 95 5 ; w. dat.,83 1 ; -3. put upon, di- 
rect towards ; dharme dha manas, set the 
heart on virtue, 66 7 ; 4. put something 
for a person (dat.), i.e. bestow upon him, 
grant him, 84 1 , RV.x. 125.2; 5. put in 
a position, i.e. appoint, constitute, w. double 
ace., 88 12 ; 6. make, cause, produce ; 

7. hold, keep, 86 6 ' 9 ; 8. mid. take to 
one's self, receive, obtain, win ; esp. gar- 
bham dha, conceive fruit in the womb, 
92 12 ; 9. mid. assume, 19 7 ; maintain ; 

10. hita, see s.v. ; 11. desid. act. desire 
to grant; mid. desire to win. 

[The original meaning of the root is 
'put'; but, from the proethnic period, a 
secondary development in the line ('set,' 
' establish,' and so) 'make,' ' do,' is clear. 
The secondary mg has even won the more 
prominent place in Germanic and Slavic. 

For the primary mg, cf . rieri/j.i, ' put ' 
(the parallelism of its mgs is remarkable 

dfo-av KiOov, ' they set a stone ' ; OfaOai 
v!6v, 'conceive a son,' etc., etc.) ; Lat. ab- 
de-re, 'put off or away,' and con-de-re, 'put 
together, construct, establish ' ; Eng. do, 



'put,' in the contract forms doff, don, dup ; 
Ger. weg-thun, ' do away or put away.' 

For the secondary mg, cf . 9tivai TWO. &a- 
trjAe'o, 'make one a king'; AS. don hine 
to cyninge, ' make him a king ' ; Lat. flo, 
' am made ' ; Eng. do, deed ; Ger. thun, 
' do ' ; Slavic de-/o, ' deed ' : observe that 
ff-eri, ' become,' is to f&-c-ere, ' make,' as 
i-re (V/a), ' go/ is to ja-c-ere, ' make to 
go, throw.'] 

+ antar, 1. put into the interior of 
a thing ; and so 2. hide, conceal. 
+ a pi, put close upon; cover (a jar with 
its lid); apihita, closed up. [cf. ewiriOrifu, 
'put upon.'] 

-f abhi, put on; put a name upon, desig- 
nate; address; speak to, 43 10 ; say, 42 20 ; 
abhihitam, (it was) said, 38 13 . 
4-ava, put down in; esp. duck (trans.) 
into the water; avahita, fallen into the 
water ; cans, cause to be laid in. 
+ a , 1. put or lay or set in or on, w. loc., 
77 \ 79 12 , 88 15 , 90 5 , 102 ; -2. put on 
(wood on the fire), 82 15 ; 3. mid. set for 
one's self on (the hearth a sacred fire), 
95 12 ; _ 4. mid. put on one's self, take on, 
74 6 ; _5. take, i.e. take away, 87 10 . 
-t-vy-a, pass, be separated; be uncom- 
fortable or sick. 

+ s a m - a , put upon ; w. manas, concen- 
trate the mind upon one thing ; samahita, 
intent, eager, 1 13 . 

-fupa-sam-a, set together (wood) unto 
(an already burning fire), put (fuel) on, 
100 16 , 105 10 . 

+ u p a , put on (esp. a brick or stone 
on the sacred fire-altar or enclosure), 
96" ff. 

+ ni, lay down, 87 8 ; set down (sacred 
fire), 85 6 ; w. kriyam, put labor upon 
(loc.), take pains with, 19 u ; nihita, put 
down, lying low, 70 19 . 
+ sam-ni, lay down together; put to- 
gether ; pass, be near together ; samni- 
Mta, near, impending, 25 15 . 
+ pari, put around; esp. put (part of a 
sacrificial fence) around (an altar), 105 13 ; 
put around one's self, put on, (garments) 
103 19 , (shoes) 45 u ; clothe. 
4-puras, see s.v. 

+ p r a , set forward, [cf . pradhana, pra- 

+ vi, 1. part, mete out, distribute; 
- 2. spread abroad, RV. x. 125. 3 ; - 3. (like 
Lat. dis-pdnere) arrange, determine; pre- 
scribe, 59 7 ; vihita, ordained, 14 4 ; 4. lay 
out, make, build; prepare, 54 18 ; 5. ac- 
complish, 56 12 ; make, do (in a great 
variety of applications) ; vadham vidha, 
do slaughter, slay, 32 u ; pujam vidha, do 
or show honor, 28 13 ; pravrttim vidha, 
make an advance into, w. loc., expose one's 
self to, 20 12 ; upayam vidha, employ an 
expedient, 39 2 ; kim vidheyam, what's to 
be done, 31 6 ; tatha vidhiyatam, so let 
it be done, II 4 ; yatha , tan maya vi- 
dheyam, I must take such a course, that , 
37 6 ; cf. 38 22 . 
+ grad, see grad. 

-t-sam, put together, unite; embroil in, 
w.loc., 73 ". 

V 2dha(dhayati[761d2]; dadhaii ; adhat ; 
dhasyati ; dhita ; dhatum ; -dhiya ; dhi- 
tva). suck; drink, 63 1 . [cf. dadhi, dhenu: 
also 0-fiffaTo, ' sucked ' ; ya\a-0rji'6s, ' milk- 
sucking ' ; 0ri-\-ti, ' breast ' ; Lat. fe-lare, 
'suck'; Goth, dadd-jan, 'give suck.'] 

1 dha, in cpds. as vbl. bestowing, grant- 
ing ; as subst. place. [V 1 dha, ' place, 

2 dha, in cpds. as subst. drink. [V2dha, 

dhatu, m. layer, as part of a composite 
whole. [V 1 dha, ' put, lay.'] 

clhatf, m. establisher; creator; Dhatar, as 
name of a deity, 90 9 N. [VI dha.] 

dhana, a. holding, containing, [v/ldha, 

dhana, f. pi. corns, i.e. grain. 

dhanya, a. cereal (adj.); as n. cereal 
(noun), grain, [dhana.] 

dharana, a. holding; as n. a holding, 
keeping ; wearing, 14 u ; -a, f. established 
ordinance ; rule, 62 ". [Vdhr.] 

dhara, / stream, jet. [v/ldhav, 'run, 

dharasara, m. pi. stream-pourings, vio- 
lent pourings, [asara.] 

dharin, a. holding; possessing, 22 23 ; re- 
taining, 68 u . [vdhr.] 



dharmik a, a. righteous; virtuous, [dhar- 

V Idhav (dhavati, -te; adhavit; dhavis- 
yati; dhavita; dhavitva; -dhavya). run 
(of fluids), stream, pour; run (of animate 
beings), [see under Vdhu.] 
+ anu, run after. 
+ upa, run unto, 
-f sam-upa, run on unto, 3 13 . 
+ pra, run forth, flow; run. 

V 2dhav (dhavati, -te; dadhave; adhav- 
ista; dhauta; dhautva; -dhavya). rinse. 

dhi, vbl. containing, granting, in cpds. 
[Vldha, 1155. 2e.] 

dhik, excl. fie! w. ace. 

V dhi (didheti [676] ; didhaya [786 3 ] ; 
dhitd). think, [see v/dhya.] 
+ anu, think over. 

dhi [351], /. -1. thought; dhiya-dhiya, 
with each thought, every time it occurs to 
one; 2. (like Ger. An-dacht, lit. 'think- 
ing upon,' and then 'devotion') religious 
thought, devotion, 69 13 , 74 19 , 82 " ; observe 
that mati, manas, manisa, mantra, and 
manman show this same specialization of 
mgi prayer, 74 15 ; 3. intelligence, in- 
sight, mind, 89 l ; understanding, skill. 

1 dhiti, f. perhaps draught, see 82 7 x. 
[V2dha, 'drink,' 1157. la.] 

2 dhiti, / 1. thought; 2. devotion; 
-3. skill. [Vdhi: for 2, cf. dhi 2.] 

dhimant, a. gifted with understanding, 
wise, [dhi.] 

1 dhira, a. wise, 78 3 - 10 . [Vdhi, 1188a.] 

2 dhira, a. firm; resolute, 48 2 . [Jdhr : 
cf . Lat. Jir-mus, ' firm.'] 

dhlvara, m. 1. a very clever or skilful 
man; -2. a fisher, [dhi, 1171.] 

dhiini, a. shaking, stormily moved, bois- 
terous, wild. [f r. quasi-root dhun of 
dhun6ti, sfdhii.] 

V dhu (dhun6ti, -nut6; later, dhun6ti, 
-nut6 [see 711] ; dudhava, dudhuve ; 
adhusta [887a] ; dhavisyati ; dhuta, later 
dhuta; dhutva; -dhuya). 1. move 
quickly hither and thither ; shake ; 2. fan 
(a fire) ; 3. shake off. 

[orig. ' move violently, agitate ' : cf . 6vu, 
6vvw, 'rush on'; Ovpos, 'agitation, anger, 

passion, spirit': 0i5a>, 'sacrifice,' is poss 
akin w. V dhu as a generalization of mg 2 : 
closely akin w. V dhu is V 1 dhav, ' run,' 
and also Vdhav, 'run' (cf. 0eo>, V0F, 'run'): 
see also under dhuma.] 
+ ava, shake down; mid. shake off from 
one's self. 

dhuma, m. smoke; vapor. [cf. Lat. 
fumus, ' smoke ' : smoke has no such " swift 
eddying motion" as to make it easy to 
connect these names for it w. \ldhu, q.v. ; 
but on this connection their identification 
w. 6v/j.6s should seem to depend : more 
prob. is the explanation of dhumi as ' the 
enveloping or blackening,' fr. s/ldhvan, 
as vama fr. Vvan.] 

dhumaka, m. smoke, at end of cpds [1307] 
for dhuma; / -ika [1222d], the same. 

dhurta, a. subst. shrewd, sly, cunning; 
rogue, [ppl. of Vdhvr, 'harm by deceit' 
(cf. 957b 2 ): according to the gramma- 
rians, dhurta, w. acct altered as in jiista: 
for a somewhat analogous development 
of mg, cf. Middle Eng. schrewen, ' curse,' 
whence schrew-ed, 'cursed, bad,' Eng. 
shrewd, 'bad, artful.'] 

dhurta-traya, n. rogue-triad, trio of 

dhusara, a. dusted over, dusty, dust- 
colored, gray. [Vdhvans, dhvas, 1188d: 
cf. 181a.] 

v' dhr (dadhara [786], dadhre ; adhrta ; 
dharisyati, -te ; dhrtd ; dhartum ; dhr- 
tva ; -dhf tya ; dharayati ; adidharat). 
rngs of cans, forms ident. [1041 2 ] w. those of 
simple forms; hold, in its various mgs, 
trans, and intrans. ; 

trans. 1. hold, bear, support, 33 n , 
39 3 , 75 s - 7 , 87 9 , 92 J; make firm, 92 10 ; 
carry, 62 12 ; wear; -2. hold fast, 22 10 , 
33 : ; hold in check, bear, withstand, 2 20 , 
8 12 ; -3. keep (a cat), 31 9 ; -4. set or 
lay or place in or on, w. loc., 33 12 , 41 21 ; 
5. hold or make sure or ordain for some 
one (dat.) ; mid. be ordained for some one 
(dat.), belong of right to, 75 3 ; 

intrans. 6. mid. hold, i.e. remain, con- 
tinue; w. this mg, even in the active, 15 5 . 

[cf. 6p&-vos, 'support, seat,' 6pa-vos, 
'bench,' dp-fi-a-aa-Oai, 'sit'; Lat. fre-tus, 



'held or supported by (hence iv. abl.), 
relying on,' fre-num, 'holder, bridle.'] 
+ ava,cas. 1. set down, fix; 2. (like 
Eng. hold) assume as certain, 44 u . 

V dhrs (dhrsn6ti; dadharsa; adhrsat ; 
dhrsita, dhrsta; -dhfsya; dharsayati). 
be bold or courageous; dare; venture, 
74 2 ; caus. venture on some one or 
something; offend; overpower; dharsita, 
overcome, [cf . Opcur-vs, ' bold ' ; Lat. fas- 
tus, 'pride'; Goth, ga-dars, AS. dearr, 
Eng. he dare (all 3d persons sing, of a 
preterito-present) ; AS. dors-te, Eng. 

+ a , venture against. 
+ prati, hold out against, withstand, 
82 5 . 

dhrsnii, a. daring; courageous, doughty, 
78 ?;' bold, 84". [v/dhrs, 1162.] 

dhenii, f. milch cow; cow. [v'2dha, 
'suck,' 1162.] 

dheya, n, the giving. [v'ldha, mg 4, 
' bestow, give ' : 1213c.] 

dhairya, n. firmness; earnest or resolute 
bearing. [2dMra, 1211.] 

V dhma. see s dham. 

V dhya (dhyati, dhyayati [761dl]; da- 
dhyaii ; adhyasit [911] ; dhyasyati ; 
dhyatd ; dhyatva ; -dhyaya) . think upon ; 
meditate, [see Vdhi and 108g.] 
+ abhi, set the mind on something; 
sink one's self in thought, 57 l . 

dhyana, n. meditation. [Vdhya, 1150.] 

dhyana-para, a. having meditation as 
highest object, absorbed in contempla- 
tion. [1302b.] 

V dhraj (dhrajati; adhrajit). draw on- 
ward, advance, intrans. [see v'dragh, of 
which this is poss. a collateral form.] 

V dhru, collateral form of s'dhvr. 

dhruti, /. a deceiving ; infatuation . 

dhruva, a. 1. holding or continuing, 
i.e. remaining fixed in place ; as m. 
the pole-star, 100 8 ; 2. of abodes 
certain, safe, 79 18 . [Vdhr in mg 6: see 

dhruva, / sacrificial ladle, 102 13 , see 
sriic. [lit. 'holder,' vfdhr in mg 1 : see 

V dhvans or dhvas (dhvansati, -te; da- 
dhvansa, dadhvase ; adhvasat ; dhvasta ; 
-dhvasya). 1. fall to dust, perish ; 
dhvasta, exhausted, hurt, impaired; 2. 
vanish, be off; 3. only in ppl. dhvasta, 
bestrewn, covered over, esp. with dust, 
[cf. Eng. dits-t ; prob. also AS. dw&s and 
dysig, ' foolish,' Eng. dizzy, Old High Ger. 
tuslc, ' foolish.'] 

dhvansa, m. the perishing; destruction. 
[V dhvans.] 

v' Idhvan (adhvamt; dhvanta; dhvan- 
ayati). 1. cover one's self; dhvanta, 
dark ; 2. become extinguished ; caus. 
1. envelope, cover over; 2. blacken, 
[perhaps akin w. V dhvans: see dhuma: 
cf . AS. dunn, Eng. dun, ' dark, brownish- 

V 2 d h v a n (dhvanati ; dadhvana ; dhvantd 
[955a]). sound, resound, [cf. Old Eng. 
dune, Eng. din.~\ 

dhvani, m. sound. [v'2dhvan.] 

V dhvr (dhvarati). bend or make crooked ; 
cause to fall; harm by deceit. [see 
dhurta and dhruti : cf. AS. dwellan, 
' lead astray, cause to delay,' Eng. dwell, 
intrans., ' delay, linger, abide ' ; Eng. dwaul, 
'wander, rave,' dwale, 'stupefying potion'; 
Dutch dwaal-licht, ' ignis f atuus ' ; Goth. 
dvals, 'foolish'; Eng. dull, dol-t ; Ger. 
toll, ' mad.'] 

na [491], end. pron. root of 1st person, see 
aham. [w. nas, 'us,' cf. v&, 'we two,' 
Lat. nos, 'us.'] 

na, adv. 1. not [1122b], 3 2 ; -la. in 
connected sentences or clauses : repeated 
simply: 97 8 , octies ; 62 u>15 , quinquies ; 
63 13 - 14 , 71 4 , ter; 4 13 , 17 18 , 74 J , 80 ", bis; 
with ca : na , na ca, na ca , 62 16 ; 
na , na ca , na % 63 J ; with api : see 
api2; with u, 21 u ; Ib. not repeated, 
but replaced by api ca or va^api (see these), 
2 12 , 63*; Ic. combinations: na ca, 8 16 ; 
na ca, 13 7 , 62 16 ; naiva, 22 10 , 23 19 , 96 10 ; 
na vai, 92 15 ; na va, 96 12 ; na tu, 64 13 ; 
na tv eva tu, see tu ; na ha, 95 1T ; na_iva, 
not exactly, 93 5 ; Id. tantamount to a- 
in negative cpds [1122b 4 ], as nacira, na- 



tidura, nadhita, etc. ; le. at beg. of 
adversative clause: with adversative con/., 
34 10 ; without, 22 20 , 41 13 , 92 16 ; -If. in em- 
phatic litotes, 21; Ig. substantive verb to 
be supplied, 32 5 (asti); Ih. na precedes 
ced, if it belongs to the protasis, 63 9 ; if it 
immediately follows ced, it must be joined to 
the apodosis, 18 9 ; li. for prohibitive nega- 
tive, see ma; Ij. na, 'not,' coalesces met- 
rically in Veda w. following initial vowel, 
e.g. 70 12 , 71 4 , 83 9 ; 

2. like [see 1122d and d 2 ], in this sense 
Vedic only, 70 15 ' 18 , 71 7 ' 9 , etc.; na, 'like,' 
does not coalesce metrically in Veda w. fol- 
lowing initial vowel. 

[cf. vr\-, Lat. n&-, negative prefix in 
i/T)-/cep8es, 'gain-less,' nff-fas, 'not right, 
wrong'; AS. and Old Eng. ne, 'not'; AS. 
na (ne +d), 'not ever, never, no,' Eng. no; 
Eng. na- in nathless, AS. na \>e Zees, ' not 
the less ' ; Eng. n- in n-ever, n-aught, etc.] 

nakis, indecl. subst. pron. 1. no one, 78 1 , 
73 M?. _. nothing, 73 '"I; -3. et-en as 
ae?y. [see 1117], never, 75 n . [na + kis, 
see 504 2 end.] 

nakula, m. Viverra ichneumon, an animal 
like the polecat, often domesticated, and 
a bitter foe of serpents and mice. 

nakta, n. night; -am [llllb], by night, 
[cf. vvl-, stem VVKT, Lat. nox, stem nocti, 
Eng. night.'] 

V naks (naksati, -te; nanaksa, nanakse). 
attain unto; w. dyam, mount up to 
heaven. [collateral form of V2na, 
' attain.'] 

naksatra, n. 1. sidus, heavenly body, 
in Veda, of sun as well as of stars ; star, 
13 3 , 71 12 ; sing, collectively, 78 n ; constel- 
lation; 2. asterism of the lunar zodiac, 
59 10 . [perhaps the stars are they that 
'mount up' to heaven, cf. Vnaks w. 

nakha, m. n. nail (on fingers or toes); 
claw; talon, [cf. uvv, stem o-wx, Lat. 
unguis, ' nail, claw ' ; AS. ntEgel, Eng. nail.~\ 

nakhin, a. having claws; as m. beast with 
claws, [nakha.] 

nagara, n., and -ri,f. town, city. 

nagaropanta, n. neighborhood of the 
town, [upanta.] 

na-cira, a. not long; -at, adv. [1114c], 

soon. [1122b 4 .] 
nata, m. dancer, mime, actor (these form 

a very despised caste), [Vnrt.] 
nada or nala, m. reed. [Whitney 54: cf. 

2 nada and nala.] 
V nad (nadati ; nanada, nede; nadita; 

-nadya). sound ; roar ; bellow. [see 

1 nada and nadf.] 

1 nada, m. the bellower, i.e. bull. [Vnad.] 

2 nada, m. reed, rush. [cf. nada.] 
nadi,f. roaring stream ; river. [Vnad: cf. 

Ne'Sa, Ne'Scoi/, names of streams.] 

nanandr [3G9 2 ], f. husband's sister. 

V nand (nandati, -te; nananda; nandis- 
yate; nandita; -nandya). be glad, 
-i- abhi, be glad in; greet joyfully. 

nandana, a. gladdening; causing joy ; as 
m. son, 21 n ; as n. Nandana, or Elysium, 
the pleasure ground of the gods, esp. of 
Indra, 49 18 . [caus. of Vnand.] 

nandi, m. The Gladsome One, euphemis- 
tic epithet of the dreadful god, Qiva- 
Rudra. [Vnand: cf. giva.] 

nandi-deva, m. Xandideva, name of a 
Brahman, ['having (yiva as his god.'] 

nap at, naptr [370], m. 1. in Veda, de- 
scendant in general; son; grandson, 87 18 ; 
2. in Skt., grandson, 63 9 . [declension: 
in Veda, napat, napatam, naptra, naptr- 
bhis, etc. ; in Skt., napta, naptaram, nap- 
tra, naptrbhis, etc. : see 1182d : cf . vt-rroSfs, 
'young ones'; Lat. nepotem, 'grandson'; 
AS. nefa, ' son's son or brother's son ' 
supplanted by Old French neveu (Eng. 
nephew], which in Old Eng. meant 'son's 
son' as well as 'brother's son.'] 

napti [356], /. daughter, 72 6 ; grand- 
daughter. [/. to napat : acct, 355b.] 

V nabh (nabhate). burst; tear. 

nabhas, n. 1. mist, clouds; 2. atmos- 
phere, sky. [cf. vefyos, ve(j>f\T), ' cloud, 
mist'; Lat. nubes, 'cloud,' nebula, 'mist'; 
AS. nifol, ' misty, gloomy ' ; Ger. Nebel, 
'mist': for mg2, cf. Ger. Wolken and AS. 
wolcnu, 'clouds,' w. Eng. welkin, 'sky.'] 

nabhas-tala, n. sky-surface, i.e. sky, see 

V nam (namati, -te; nanama, neme [794e]; 
anansit; nansyati; nata [954d]; nami- 



turn, nantum ; natva ; -namya ; nama- 

yati). bow (intrans.), bend one's self; aim 

at a person (gen.) with (instr.), 73 15 ; nata, 

bowed down, bending over, 68 19 K. ; cans. 

cause to bow, subdue; namyate, is sub- 
dued, 31 6 . 

+ ava, bow down, 34 17 . 

+ a , bow down to. 

+ u d , raise one's self up, arise. 

+ s a m - u d , rise. 

+ nis, bend out; contort one's self. 

+ pra, make obeisance before (ace.). 
namas, n. bow, obeisance; adoration (by 

gesture or word); reverence; used also 

like the Lat. gloria in the Gloria patri. 

[V nam.] 
namas-kara, m. a making of namas; 

adoration. [171 3 .] 
namas -kr (see Vlkr). do homage, 9 U . 

[171 3 , 1092a.] 
V namasya( namasy ati ) . pay reverence. 

[namas, 1063, 1058.] 
namuci, m. Namuchi, name of a demon, 

foe of Indra, 81 16 , 97 6 . 
nay ana, n. eye. ['leader, organ of sense 

that leads/ sfni, 1150. la : for mg, cf. 

anana, gatra, car ana, netra.] 
nara, m. man, 3 21 , etc.; at 57 5 , the primal 

man or spirit. [transition-stem fr. nr, 


nara-nari,y. man and woman. [1253a.] 
nara-pati, m. lord of men ; king. 
nara-vahana, a. subst. having men as 

his team, drawn by men; epithet and 

name of Kuvera, god of wealth; name 

of a king, successor of Qalivahana. 
naravahana-datta, m. Naravahanadat- 

ta, name of a son of king Udayana. 
naravahanadatta-carita, n. adven- 
tures of X. 
naravahanadattacaritamaya, f. -i, a. 

containing the adventures of N. [1225 : 

see maya.] 
nara-vyaghra, m. man-tiger, i.e. brave 

and noble man. [cf . naragardula : 1280b.] 
nara-gardula, m. man-tiger, i.e. best 

among men. [cf. naravyaghra : 1280b.] 
nara-grestha, a. subst. best of men. 
nara-sunu, /. daughter of the primal 

man or spirit. 

naradhipa, m. lord of men, i.e. king 

prince, [adhipa.] 
naregvara, m. lord of men, i.e. king, 

prince. [Igvara.] 
narottama, a. subst. best of men. [ut- 

narmada, a. granting or causing fun; 

making gladness; f. -da, Xarmada (called 

also Reva), the modern Nerbudda river. 

[narman + da.] 

narman, n. fun. 
n a 1 a , m. reed ; Nala, name of a prince of 

Nishadha. [cf. nada, Vedic nala.] 
nalopakhyana, n. Nala-episode, I 1 . 


1 nava, a. new; of an earthen dish, (fresh, 
i.e.) unburned. [prob. fr. mi, 'now/ q.v. : 
cf. vfos, Lat. novus, Ger. neu, Eng. new."] 

2 nava [483 *], num. nine. [cf. tvvta, Lat. 
novem, Ger. neun, Eng. nine.'] 

n a v a t i [485], f. ninety. [2 nava.] 

nava-nlta, n. fresh butter. [perhaps 
' fresh-brought/ as we say ' bring the but- 
ter, i.e. make it come/ in churning.] 

navedas, a. perhaps well-knowing, cogni- 
zant of (gen.), [apparently fr. an affirma- 
tive particle na-, and vedas : see 1296 3 

V Inag (nagyati ; nanaga, negus; anagat ; 
nanksyati [936]; nasta; nagayati). be 
missing ; get lost ; vanish ; perish, be 
ruined, [cf . ven-pos, ' dead ' ; Lat. nex, 
' death ' ; nocere, ' harm.'] 
+ vi, get lost; perish; caus. cause to dis- 
appear; bring to nought, 81 20 . 

V 2nag (nagati, -te; nanaga; anat [833]). 
attain ; reach, come up to, 74 J ; w. accha, 
draw hither, 76 u . [see V 1 ag, ' reach ' : cf . 
Lat. nac-tus sum, ' am having reached ' ; 
AS. nedh, comp. near, superl. nedhst, Eng. 
nigh, near (as comp., Macbeth ii. 3. 146), 
next ; AS. ge-neah, ' it reaches, es reicht, it 
suffices'; ge-noh, Eng. e-nough.~\ 
+ pra, reach to, hit; fall upon, 78 8 . 

nas [397], /. nose. [nom. dual, nasa: cf. 
Lat. nas-turcium, ' nose-teaser, nasturtium ' ; 
ndr-es, ' nostrils ' ; AS. nosu, Eng. nose ; 
nos-tril, 'nose-thrill, nose-hole.'] 

nas [491], end. pron. form of \st pers. [cf. 
v(>, ' we two ' ; Lat. nos, ' us.'] 



nasa, for nas in cpds [1315c]. 

V nah (nahyati [761c]; naddha [223 8 ]; 
-nahya). bind; join, [despite naddha (a 
poss. false formation), and Avestan nazda 
( Morphologische Untersuchungen, iii. 144), 
probably for *nagh : cf. Lat. nec-t-ere, 
+ u p a , tie on, lace. 

nahi, adv. not, to be sure; nahf me asti, 
to be sure, I have no . [na + hi, 1122a 
and b 4 : acct of verb, 595d.] 

nahusa, m. Nahusha, name of an ancient 
king, [perhaps 'neighbor,' from nahus, 
and in that case a transfer-form (1209b).] 

nahus, m. neighbor. [Vnah.] 

n iika, m. vault of heaven, firmament. 

natidura, . not very far. [na + ati- 
dura, 1122b 4 .] 

V nath (nathate ; nathita ; nathitum; 
-nathya). turn with supplication to. 

nath a, n. a refuge; as m. protector; 
lord, [v/nath.j 

nadhita, a. un-learned. [na + adhita, 
v'i: 1122b 4 .] 

nabhi, f. 1. navel; 2. nave or hub. 
[cf. ofj.cj>-a\6s, Lat. umb-ilicus, AS. naf-ela, 
Eng. navel ; also AS. naf-u, Eng. nave.'] 

nabhi-vardhana, n. the cutting of the 
navel (-string). 

nama-dheya, n. the name-giving, nam- 
ing, 59 9 ; name, 17 9 , GO 22 , [naman.] 

Hainan, n. 1. distinguishing character- 
istic; form; -2. name, 13 8 , 60 21b , 78 9 , 
61 9 ; nama grah, (take i.e.) mention the 
name, 64 13 ; personal name (e.g. deva- 
datta), as distinguished from the gotra 
or ' family name ' (e.g. kagyapa, ' descen- 
dant of Ka9yapa'), 103 19 N. ; at end of 
cpds, having as name, named , so 11 
times, e.g. 19 u ; 3. nama, adv. [llllb], 
by name, so 19 times, e.g. I 3 , 60 2U , 94 16 ; 
also munna, 56 5 ; w. interrogatives, pray, 
54 16 . [origin unknown: cf. o-po/xa, Lat. 
nomen, Eng. name.] 

nara, 1. a. human; 2. as m. man; 
narl, /. woman, I 9 , 86 18 , etc.; wife, 
[nr, 1208b : for mg 2, cf . manava.] 

nara da, m. Narada, name of an ancient 
devarsi (see note to 1 u ), who often appears 
on the earth to bring news from the gods, 

and returns to heaven with reports from 

n a r a y a n a , m. Narayana, son of the pri- 
mal man. [simply a patronymic of nara, 
see 1219.] 

nava,/. ship, [transfer-form (1209,399) 
fr. nau, nav.] 

nag a, m. loss; destruction, [v/nag, 'be 

nasa, dual f. the two nostrils, the nose, 
[transfer-form (399) fr. nas, strong nas.] 

nasika,/. nostril; dual, the two nostrils; 
the nose, [nasa, 1222c 1.] 

nastika, a. subst. atheist, infidel, not be- 
lieving the Vedas and Puranas. [fr. 
na + asti, ' there is not,' 1314b.] 

nahusa, m. descendant of Xahusha, pa- 
tronymic of Yayati. [nahusa, 1208 and f .] 

ni, prep, down; in, into. [cf. tvi, 'in'; 
Eng. ne-ther, be-nea-th.'] 

nikata, a. near; as n. neighborhood; 
presence. [1245g.] 

nikhila, a. entire; all. [perhaps for 
nih-khila, ' without a gap,' nis + khila : 
1305 - end.] 

nija, a. own; belonging to our party, 24 6 ; 
nijo ripus, foe in one's own camp, 37 15 ; 
often used as reflexive possessive pron., my 
own, his own, our own, etc., or rather, 
my (47 17 ), his (50 u , 53 12 , 56 4 ' 6 ), etc. 
[perhaps 'in-born,' fr. ni +ja.] 

ninya, a. inner; hidden, 70 20 ; as n. secret, 
78 3 . [ni.] 

nitya,a. 1. own (Vedic), 79 16 ; 2. con- 
stant; eternal, 57 7 ; -am, adv. constantly, 
always, 17 16 , 64 19 . [in mg 1, fr. ni, 'in,' 
1245b, and so signifying 'inward, not 

nitya-kala, m. uninterrupted time ; -am, 
adv. always, under all circumstances, 60 6 . 

nitya-snayin, a. constantly making 
sacred ablutions. [1279.] 

V nid or nind (nindati; nininda ; anindlt; 
nindita ; -nindya). blame ; reproach, 
[cf. ovfiSos, ' reproach.'] 

n i d r a , /. sleep. [V 2 dra, ' sleep,' + ni.] 

nidhana, ra. n. end; death, 5 19 . [perhaps 
f r. V dha + ni, ' put down or out of the 
way,' ' make an end of.'] 

v nind, see nid. 



nindaka, a. subst. scoffer. [Vnid, nind.] 

nibandhana, n. a binding, ligation, 59 3 ; 
that on which a thing is fastened or 
rests or depends, condition, means, 46 7 . 
[Vbandh + ni.] 

nibhrta, a. (borne down, lowered, i.e.) 
hidden; -am, adv. secretly. [Vbhr + ni.] 

nimajjana, n. bathing. [Vmajj +ni.] 

nimitta, n. mark (for shooting at) ; sign, 
token; occasion or cause; -am, -ena, ad- 
verbially, because of; tannimittam, -ena, 
because of this, on account of this. 

nimesa, m. closing or winking of the eyes. 
[Vmis -t-ni.] 

n i y o g a , m. a fastening on ; injunction, 
and so, commission ; business, 30 6 . [V yuj 
+ ni: for mg, cf. alicui injungere labor em, 
' fasten or impose a task on a person.'] 

nir , for nis before sonants [174] ; see nis. 

nir-antara, a. without interval or free 
space ; completely filled, 53 10 ; continuous ; 
uninterrupted, 56 12 . 

nir-apaya, a. without failure or danger; 
infallible or safe. 

nir-apeksa, a. without regard or expec- 
tation ; regardless, 52 20 ; not expecting 
anything from another, independent, 31 n . 
[apeksa, 334 2 .] 

nir-amisagin, a. not meat-eating, [see 
nis 3.] 

nir-ahara, a. without food, abstaining 
from food. 

nir-ukta, a. spoken out; loud; clear; 
os n. explanation ; etymological interpre- 
tation of a word ; esp. Nirukta, title of a 
commentary to the nighantavas or Vedic 
Glossary. [V vac + nis. ] 

n i r - r t i ,/. dissolution ; destruction. [Vr + 
nis, 1157. Id.] 

nir-guna, a. without a string, 18 5 ; void 
of good qualities, 18 5 ; worthless, bad. 

nir-nama, m. contortion, sinuosity. 
[V nam + nis.] 

nir-dhana, a. without money. 

nir-buddhi, a. without wit, stupid. 

nir-bhara, a. 1. without measure, 
much ; -am, adv. very ; -am prasupta, 
fast asleep ; 2. full of. 

nir-niala, a. without impurity; pure; 

nir-laksya, a. not to be perceived, 
avoiding notice, [see nis 3.] 

nir-vanga, a. without family; alone in 
the world. 

nir-vata, a. windless; sheltered. 

nir-vigesa,a. without distinction; undis- 
tinguished; alike; like. 

nirvigesakrti, a. having like appear- 
ance, looking just alike, [akrti.] 

nivara, m. the warding off. [Vlvr, 
'cover,' + ni.] 

nivita, ppl. hung, i.e. draped, with hang- 
ings, esp. with the sacred cord ; as n. 
[1176a], the wearing the sacred cord about 
the neck ; the sacred cord itself. [V vya + 

nivrtta, ppl. 1. turned away; esp. of 
an action which is turned away, i.e. not 
directed (to any ulterior purpose or ob- 
ject), free from hope of reward in this 
world or the next, disinterested, opp. of 
pravrtta, q.v.; 2. having turned away 
from, and so abstaining from, 29 3 . [Vvrt 

niv6gana, n. a going in and settling down 

to rest ; resting-place ; sleeping-place, bed, 

105 8 ; dwelling, 8 6 . Vvig + ni: for mg, 

cf. bhavana.] 

nig [397], /. night, [cf. nakta.] 
n i g a , f. night, [cf . nig, nakta.] 
nigcaya, m. (ascertainment, determina- 

tion, i.e.) a fixed opinion or a firm resolve. 

[poss. fr. v!3ci, 'notice, look,' + nis; but 

better, perhaps, fr. V 1 ci + nis, and so, 

' an un-piling, i.e. discrimination, determi- 

nigcala, a. not moving, [nis + cala : see 

nis 3.] 
nigcita, ppl. determined, decided; -am, 

adv. decidedly, surely, [see under nig- 

nihgreyasa, a. without a superior, i.e. 

best; as n. final beatitude, [nis + grey- 

asa: acct, 1305 3 .] 
nihgvasa, m. breathing out, expiration; 

sigh. [V gvas + nis. ] 
nihgvasa-parama, a. having sighs as 

chief thing, much addicted to sighing. 

nisadha, m. pi. the Nishadhans, name of 



a people ; Nishadha, name of a country, 

1 7 N., 4 3 . 

nisadhadhipa, m. .ruler or king of the 
Nishadhans. [adhjpa.] 

nisudana, m. finisher (in its colloquial 
sense), one who makes an end of, de- 
stroyer. [V sud + ni.] 

niseka, m. an injecting, esp. of semen, 
impregnation; the ceremony performed 
upon impregnation. [V sic + ni.] 

nisevin, a. devoting one's self to; co- 
habiting with, 67 22 . [Vsev + ni.] 

niskramana, n. the stepping out; esp. 
the first going out with a child. [Vkram 
+ nis.] 

nistha, a. resting upon. [Vstha + ni, 

nisphala, a. fruitless, 63 10 ; vain, 68 ". 
[nis + phala.] 

nis, adv. prep. 1. out, forth; 2. in 
cpds [1305 2 end], having away, with- 
out , e.g. nirantara ; 3. in cpds, not, 
e.g. nigcala. 

V m (nayati, -te ; ninaya [800b], ninye ; 
anaisit, anesta [882]; nesyati, -te; nita; 
netum ; nitva ; -niya ; niyate ; naydyati 
[1042b]). lead, 24 15 ; guide; conduct, 
85 20 ; carry, 39 19 , etc.; carry off, 36 15 , 
43 17 ; vyaghratam ni, bring to tiger-ness, 
change into a tiger ; vagam ni, bring into 
one's power. 

+ anu, (draw along toward one, i.e.) 
try to win or conciliate by friendly words. 
-f abhi, bring hither to. 
+ a , bring to, 29 u ; bring, 31 9 ; bring 
(one liquid) into (another, loc.), mix, 101 u ; 
caus. cause to be fetched, 50 5 . 
+ u d , bring up ; rescue (as a drowning 
man from the water), 90 10 . 
+ u p a , take unto one's self, of the 
teacher who receives a youth of one of 
the three free castes as pupil, and at the 
same time invests him with the sacra- 
mental cord, thus conferring spiritual re- 
birth, and making him a full member of 
his caste ; see upanayana ; upanita, in- 
vested with the sacramental cord. 
+ pari, lead around (a cow, steer), 91 u , 
105 M ; esp. lead a bride around the fire 
(as wedding ceremony), page 99. 

+ pra,l. bring forward ; 2. as litur- 
gical terminus technicus, convey the sacri- 
ficial fire and water to their places on and 
near the altar; pranitas (sc. apas), holy 
water; 3. bring forward (one's feelings), 
i.e. come out with or manifest one's affec- 
tion, 9 15 . 
+ vi, lead; guide; train; discipline. 

ni [352], vbl. bringing, in vaani. [Vni.] 

nica, a. low, not high ; morally and 
socially low. [inorganic transfer-form 
(1209a) fr. nic-a, q.v.] 

nica, adv. down, low. [adverbially ac- 
cented instr. instead of nic-a, 1112e 
fr. ny-anc.] 

nica-vayas [418], a. whose strength is 
low; exhausted. [1306.] 

nida, Vedic nila, m. n. 1. (place for 
settling down, i.e.) resting-place; 2. esp. 
bird's nest, [for ni-zd-a, i.e. ni-s(a)d-a 
198b 3 V sad + ni : cf . Lat. nidus, 
Ger. Nest, Eng. nest: for 1, see Whitney 

nida-garbha, m. nest-interior. 

niti,/. 1. co'nduct, esp. right and saga- 
cious conduct; the knowledge of all that 
governs virtuous and discreet and states- 
man-like behavior; political and social 
ethics ; 2. leading. [V ni, ' conduct.'] 

niti-jna, a. knowing how to conduct 
one's self discreetly. 

niti-vidya, f. knowledge of niti or 
political and social ethics, esp. as it con- 
cerns princes. 

niti-Qastra, n. doctrine or science of 
political and social ethics. 

nitha, m. a leading; nitha, n. (way, and 
so, like the German Weise) a musical air, 
song. [Vni, 1163a.] 

nira, n. water. 

nirasa, a. sapless, dried up; tasteless; 
insipid, 54 ". [nis + rasa, 174, 179.] 

niruj, a. without disease; healthy, 22 s . 
[nis+riij, 174, 179.] 

nila, a. dark-colored, esp. dark blue; as n. 
indigo ; nfli, / indigo, [hence, through 
the Arabic an-nil, for al-nil, 'the indigo- 
plant,' come Eng. anil and aniline.'] 

nila-pata, m. dark garment. 

nlla-varna, a. blue-colored. 



nilasamdhana-bhanda, n. vat for the 

mixing, i.e. preparing of indigo, 
nillbhanda-svamin, m. indigo-vat-pro- 

nivara, m. wild rice; sing, the plant; pi. 

the grains, 
nil a, see mda. 
> nn (navate; nunava: anusta; nuta; 

-mitya). cry aloud; shout; exult; praise. 

+ pra, murmur; hum; esp. utter the 

sacred syllable om. 
nu, adv. la. now, at once, temporal ; Ib. 

now, confirmative ; adha nu, so now, 79 8 ; 

Ic. now, introductory, 70 * ; Id. so 

then, in encouraging or summoning; le. 

now, pray, in questions, 5 21 , 7 18 , 51 20 , 74 8 , 

78 12 ; 2. asseverative : nakir nu, surely 

no one or nothing, 73 20 ; ma nu, in order 

that surely not, 86 10 ; 3. w. relatives : 

ya nu, whatsoever, 74 2 ; yan nu, i.e. yat 

nu, as long soever as, 79 13 . [in V. often 

nu: cf. vv, vvv, Lat. nun-c, Ger. nu, nun, 

AS. nu, nu, Eng. now: see also nava, 

nutana, nunam.] 
V nud (nudati, -te ; nun6da, nunud6 ; 

anutta [881]; notsyati, -te; nutta, nun- 

na; -nddya). push; thrust. 

--par a, thrust away; move from its 


+ p r a , push forward ; set in motion. 

4-vi, drive asunder or away ; turn away, 

esp. from cares, like the Eng. di-vert; 

amuse. [for mg, cf. also dis-port and 


n u d a , a. dispelling, in cpds. [V nud.] 
nutana, a. of now ; recent ; young, [nu, 


niinam, adv. now. [nu, 1109.] 
nf [370, 371 5 - 9 - 10 ], m. man; hero; used 

also of gods: of the Maruts, 74*, 77 18 . 

[cf . arfip, stem avtp, ' man ' ; Old Lat. nero, 

stem neron, 'manly, strong'; Lat. Nero.~\ 
nr-caksas, a. men-beholding. [1296 3 .] 
V nrt (nftyati, -te ; nanarta ; anartit ; 

nartisyati ; nrttd ; nartitum ; nart- 

itva). dance. 

nrti, /. dance. [Vnrt, 1155. 1.] 
nr - p a , m. protector of men, i.e. prince, king, 
nr-pati, m. lord of men, i.e. prince, king. 

[acct, 1267a.] 

nrmna, n. virtus, manliness, courage, 

strength, [fr. nr (1224c), as virtus fr. 


nr-Qansa, a. man-cursing; malicious. 
netavya, grdv. to be carried. [Vni.] 
netra, n. eye. ['leader,' Vni, 1185a: for 

mg, cf. nayana.] 
n 6 d , adv. lest, in order that not, w. accented 

verb (595d) in the subjunctive (581c), 84 ". 

n e d y a , grdv. to be blamed. [V nid, 963d.] 
n e mi, / felly, rim. [nam, 1155.] 
nairukta, a. pertaining to the Nirukta; 

as m. an etymologist, [nirukta, 1208f .] 
naisadha. a. pertaining to Nishadha ; as 

m. prince of the Jsishadhans, i.e. Xala. 

[nisadha, 1208f.] 
n6, adv. and not, 21 u ; no ced, and if not, 

see ced. [na + tu] 
nau, see 491. 
nau [361a], /. boat; ship. [cf. vavs, Lat. 

navis, ' ship ' ; perhaps AS. naca, ' skiff ' : 

perhaps 'the swimmer,' Vsnu, cf. Vsna.] 
nyag-r6dha, m. Ficus indica, banyan 

tree. [ ' downwards - growing ' : nyanc 

(1249a) + rodha.] 
nyanc [409b], a. directed downwards, [ni 

+ anc, 407.] 
nyayd, m. 1. (that to which a thing 

goes back, i.e.) rule, norm; 2. (that in 

which a thing goes, i.e.) way; 3. esp. 

the right way, propriety. [Vi + ni, 

nyayya, a. regular, normal, right; -am, 

adv. rightly; properly, [nyaya, 1211.] 
nyasa, m. a putting down, commitment. 

[V 2 as + ni, ' throw down.'] 

1 pa, vbl. drinking, in cpds. [VI pa, 333.] 

2 pa, vbl. keeping, keeper, in cpds. [V2pa, 

paksa, m. 1. wing, 93 2 ; 2. side, of a 
door or of the hair of the head ; 3. half, 
esp. of a lunar month, 27 1 , 57 19 , cf. krsna-. 
gukla-; 4. side, i.e. party, 37 18 . 

paksa-bala, n. strength of wing. 

paksin, a. winged, 92 19 ; as m. bird, 2 M . 



paksimrgata, f. condition of bird or 
of beast. [fr. paksin + mrga : 1237, 

paksi-c,avaka, m. young of a bird; 
birdling. [paksin.] 

pa iika, n. mud, mire. 

panktf, f. set or series or row of five; 
row in general, [panca, 1157.4.] 

pankti-krama, m. order of a row; 
-ena, in a row, 39 M . 

V pac (pacati, -te; papaca, pec6 [794e]; 
apaksit; paksyati, -te; paktum; pak- 
tva). cook, by baking or boiling or 
roasting ; ripen. [cf . irfffcrw, ' cook ' ; 
vfv-wv, 'ripe'; Lat. coquo, 'cook'; bor- 
rowed AS. noun coc, Eng. cook.'] 
+ v i , cook thoroughly ; pass, be brought 
to maturity; ripen (of an action), i.e. 
come to its consequences or issue. 

panca [483 3 ], num. five. [cf. ireVre, Aeolic 
ire'yuire, Lat. quinque, Goth, fimf, AS. flf, 
Eng. Jive.'] 

panca-tantra, n. Panchatantra, name 
of a collection of fables, ['having five 
divisions or books.'] 

panca-tapas, a. having five fires, of an 
ascetic who sits between four fires, one at 
each cardinal point, and with the burning 
sun above. 

pancatva, n. fiveness ; esp. dissolution 
of the body into the five elements (earth, 
water, fire, air, ether, see bhuta and 66 5 N.), 
i.e. death; w. gam, die. [panca, 1239.] 

panca-pada,/ -I, a. having (taken) five 
steps, [acct, 1300.] 

pancama, f. -i, a. fifth, [panca, 487 6 .] 

panca-yama, a. having five courses, 
[acct, 1300.] 

panca-girsa, a. five-headed. [girsan, 

V pat (patayati, etc.). split, slit. 
+ ud, open out. 

pat a, m. woven stuff ; cloth; garment. 

patala, n. veil; cover, [cf. pata.] 

p a t u , a. 1. sharp ; and so 2. Jig. 
(nearly like Eng. sharp), clever. 

V path (pathati; papatha; pathita; path- 
itva; pathayati). read aloud, 54 23 , 55 9 ; 
recite, 17 11 ; repeat to one's self, study, 
22 u ; cans, teach to talk, 19 15 . 

V pan (panati, -te; panita). 1. bargain; 
buy; 2. bet, wage, stake, play. [prob. 
for *paln : cf . irfpinj/^L and ir<a\f(a, ' sell ' ; 
Ger.feil, 'for sale, venal.'] 
+ a, in apana, ' market.' 
+ vi, sell. 

pana, m. 1. bargain, stipulation, 45 u ; 
2. wage, gage, prize; 3. a certain 
coin, 47 16 . [Vpan.] 

pani, m. 1. bargainer, who gives nought 
without return ; chafferer, haggler, and so 
2. niggard; esp. one who is stingy to- 
wards the gods, an impious person ; 3. a 
malicious demon. [Vpan.] 

pandita, a. learned; as m. learned man, 
Anglo-Indian pandit. 

pandita-sabha, /. assembly of pandits. 

panya, grdv. to be bargained for or bar- 
tered ; as n. article of trade. [Vpan, 963.] 

V pat (patati, -te; papata, petus [794e]; 
apaptat ; patisyati ; patita ; patitum ; 
patitva ; -patya ; patayati, -te). 1. fly ; 
move swiftly through the air; 2. de- 
scend, let one's self down ; cast one's 
self at, 26 8 ; 3. fall down, tumble down, 
34 8 , 40 2 - 5 ; fall (morally), fall from one's 
caste; fall down (dead); 4. fall upon, 
be directed to, 13 6 ; 5. fall or get into, 
22 s - 9 ; cans, cause to fly; hurl (a curse), 
49". [cf. vfTOfuu, 'fly'; vl-vru, 'fall'; 
Lat. peto, ' fall upon, make for, seek ' : see 
also pattra.] 
+ a n u , fly after, pursue. 
+ ud, fly up. 

+ sam-ud, fly or spring up together, 
3 6 , 8". 

+ ni, fly down; light, 3 8 ; tumble into, 
36 1S ; caws, cause to fall; kill, 32 n , 33 17 . 
+ s a m - n i , fall together, 99 20 ; come 
together; cans, bring together or convene, 
9 19 . 
+ para, fly off, 93 l . 

patatra, n. wing. [Vpat, 1185d.] 

patatrin,a. winged; as m. bird, [pata- 

pa tana, n. fall. [Vpat.] 

pati [343b], m. 1. master, possessor; 
lord; ruler, 4 2 ; 2. then (like Eng. lord), 
husband, 9 7 , 89 5 , 86 19 , 64 ". [cf. w6 ff is, 
'husband'; Lat. impos, stem irn-pot, 'not 



master of; Goth.fafrs in bru}>-fa\>-s, 'bride- 

pati-ghni, a. f. husband-slaying, [for- 
mally a fern, to pati-han, 402.] 

patitva, n. condition of spouse; wedlock. 

pati-loka, m. husband's place, abode of 
the husband in the future life. 

pati-sthana, n. husband's place. 

pat isthaniya, a. belonging to or in 
the husband's place ; as m. husband's 
representative, [patisthana, 1215.] 

pattra, n. 1. feather; wing; 2. 
(plumage of a tree, i.e.) leaf for mg, cf. 
parna ; 3. a leaf for writing on ; a 
written leaf, 54 19 . [V pat : cf . irrep6v, 
'wing'; Lat. penna and Old Lat. pesna 
(for *petna), 'wing'; Ger. Fed-er, Eng. 

pattra-aka, n. leaf -vegetable, a vege- 
table consisting chiefly of leaves. 

patni, / 1. mistress, lady; 2. then 
(like Eng. lady), wife. [fern, to pati, just 
as Trd-rvia., ' lady/ is to ir<J<m.] 

patsutah-gi [352], a. lying at the feet. 

patsutas, adv. at the feet. [fr. patsii, 
loc. pi. of pad, 1098b.] 

path [433], same as panthan. 

patha, for path in cpds [1315c]. 

path! [433], same as panthan. 

pathi-raksi, a. guarding the paths, 
[panthan, 1249a : acct, 1276.] 

pathya, a. (pertaining to the way, course, 
or progress of a thing, and so) suitable, 
wholesome ; pathya, f. pathway, [path, 
1212d 1.] 

V pad (padyate; papada, ped6 [794e]; 
apatta [882] ; patsyate, -ti ; panna 
[957d] ; pat turn ; -padya ; padayati). 
1. go, step, tread, only w. prepositions 
and in derivatives; 2. fall, sink down 
(from fatigue), perish, [connection be- 
tween 1 and 2 not clear: uncompounded 
verb very rare : see under pdd and 

+ a, come unto; get into (a condition); 
esp. get in trouble. 

-I- v y - a , fall away, perish ; cans, destroy ; 
+ ud, go forth or out of; come into 

existence ; be produced ; utpannam an- 
nam, food (not cooked for the occasion, 
but) already on hand, 104 l ; utpanne 
karye, when the emergency has arisen, 
38 u ; caws, engender, 23 8 ; produce ; 
get, 42 17 . 

-t-praty-ud, in ppl. pratyutpanna, 
ready or on hand to meet an emergency. 
+ upa, fall upon; happen, take place, 
100 10 ; come to, get at, reach ; upapanna, 
(having gotten at [952 2 ], i.e.) in posses- 
sion of, endowed with, 1 *, 2 3 . 
+ prati, 1. step to; enter upon, 66 18 ; 

2. get into (a condition), 49 15 ; get at, 
acquire, attain, 98 n ; get back again, 60 17 ; 

3. go to meet, and so (like the Lat. 
ac-cedere), accede, yield; say yes to; con- 
sent, 48 12 . 

+ vi, fall asunder, 93 9 ; come to nought, 
get into trouble. 

sam, 1. turn out well, succeed, 
prosper; 2. become, 45 12 , 47 18 ; 3. fall 
together, be united with; sampanna, en- 
dowed with, 2 10 . 

pad [391], m. foot. [V pad : cf . W5-o, Lat. 
pffd-em, Eng.ybof.] 

pada, n. -1. step, 17 21 , 99 s23 ; -2. foot- 
step; 3. foot, 86 6 ; 4. standing-place, 
stead, place; home, 56 4 ; station, position, 
41 1 . [Vpad: cf. WSov, 'ground'; Lat. 
op-pedum, op-pidum, 'town, (on or over the 
field)'; peda, 'footprint'; AS. fozt, 'step, 
going, journey,' whence fetian, 'go for,' 
Eng. fetch.] 

p a d m a , m. n. lotus, Nelumbium speciosum 
(not the plant, but the flower, which closes 
at evening). 

padma-garbha, a. containing lotuses; 
Lotus-filled, name of a lake, [see garbha 

padma-raga, a. having the color of a 

lotus ; as m. ruby. [1296.] 

panthan [433], m. road, path, way. [cf. 
TTOTOS, ' path ' ; Lat. pont-em, ' path, bridge ': 
Eng. path and Ger. Pfad, if they belong 
here at all, must be regarded as very early 
borrowings, fr. the Greek irdros, or poss. 
from the Scythian.] 

pant ha [433 5 ], same as panthan. 

pay as, n. milk. 



payo-mukha, a. having milk on the 
face or surface, [payas, 1303.] 

para [525 4 ], a. 1. far, distant, more dis- 
tant, further off, 86 4 ; -2. following, 
later, future ; 3. being beyond, surpass- 
ing, summus ; chief, 68 7 ; best, 36 10 ; ut- 
most, 1 13 ; greatest, 44 17 ; highest, 103 u ; 
at end of cpds [1302b], having as chief 
thing, given over to , devoted to ; 

4. a. and subst. other, 64 13 ; eka para, 
the one the other, 53 19 ; another, 30 22 ; 
strange, hostile ; stranger, 24 6 ; foe, 29 10 , 
37 19 . [V 2 pr, ' bring across ' ; cf . Wpd, 
' beyond ' ; Lat. peren-die, ' the day after/ 
i.e. ' day after to-morrow ' ; Eng. far and 

par a -d a r a, m. pi. another's wife, 
para-dravya, n. pi. another's property. 
para-pakaa, m. party of the foe. 
para-patni,/. wife of a stranger. 
par am, adv. beyond; w. abl. [1128], after, 

60 2 \ [para, llllc.] 
pa ram a [525 3 ], a. 1. farthest, extreme, 

last ; of heaven, highest, 83 13 ; so 85 3 ; 

2. chief est, 29 l ; supreme; most excel- 
lent, 15 1T ; at end of cpds [1302b], having 
as supreme object, devoted to ; 3. 
advly in cpds, before an adj. [1279], highly, 
exceedingly, [para, 474.] 

parama-gobhana, a. exceedingly beau- 

paramangana,/. most excellent woman, 

paramegvara, m. supreme lord. [15- 

parame-athin, a. standing in the high- 
est place ; supreme, as epithet of Praja- 
pati. [parame (1250c) i-sthin, 186.] 

para-loka, m. the other or future 

paras, adv. far; in the distance; beyond; 
w. advly used instr. [1127] ena, beyond 
here, i.e. beyond, RV. x. 125. 8. [see 

parastat, adv. beyond; afterwards, at 
the end. [pards, HOOb.] 

paras-para, one another; parasparam 
and parasparatas, adv. with one another ; 
mutually, [an agglomeration (1314c) of 
paras (nom. s. m. of para) and para: the 

syntactical forms sometimes correspond to 
the logical relation of the two parts so, 
e.g., in parasparam nindanti, ' they scold, 
the one the other ' but have come to 
be stereotyped and used often where the 
logical relation would require other case- 
forms : cf. anyonya.] 

parasparadin.a. devouring one another, 

para, adv. to a distance, away, forth, [cf. 
irapd, w. gen., 'away from, from beside 'j 
Lat. per- in per-lre and Ger. ver-in ver-ijehen,, 
'pass away, perish '; Eng. for- in for-bear,, 
'hold off from.'] 

parakrama, m. s. and pi. bold advance; 
courage; strength, [v'kram + para.] 

paran-mukha, a. having the face 
averted; turning the back upon, avoiding. 
[paranc, 1249a, 217, 161.] 

paranc [409a], f. paraci, a. directed away ; 
averted; turning the back, [para + anc, 

parartha, m. the sake of others; -am, 
-e, adv. for others, [artha, 1302c4.] 

paravat,/. the distance, [para, 383d 1, 

pari, adv. around; prep. w. abl.: from 
around, 87 8 ; from, 75 15 . [cf . irepl, 
' around.'] 

parigha, m. iron bar for locking a gate. 
[Vhan + pari, 1143c, 333: for mg, cf. Ger. 
Schlag, ' coach-door/ and schlagen, ' strike ' : 
force of prep, unclear.] 

parighopama, a. like iron bars, fupama, 
334 2 .] 

pari -j ana, m. the surrounding folk, 
TrepiVoAoi , retinue. [1289a.] 

p a r i - j a t a, a. completely grown. [1289a/J 

parineya, grdv. to be led around. [Vni 
+ pari.] 

parityaga, m. relinquishment. [v'tyaj 
+ pari.] 

paridevita, n. lament. [V2div, 'lament,' 
+ pari, 1176a.] 

paridhi, m. (a put-around, i.e.) enclosure, 
fence, protection, 86 10 ; in the language of 
the sacrifice, the three green sticks laid 
about the altar fire and supposed to hold 
it together, 105 13 - 3 . [\fldha, ' put,' + 
pari, 1155. 2e.] 



paripanthin, a. besetting the path; as 
m. waylayer. [pari + panthan, 1310a 
and c end.] 

paribhu [352], a. being around, encom- 
passing. [Vbhu + pari, 323.] 

pari-vatsard, m. a full year. [1289.] 

parivartin, a. turning round, circling, 
constantly returning into itself. [V vrt + 

parivara, m. that which surrounds, i.e. 
retinue. [V 1 vr, ' cover,' + pari.] 

pari grit, f. (encloser, i.e.) one of the 
little stones by which the sacrificial altar is 
surrounded. [Vgri + pari, 'enclose': 383b.] 

parisamkhya, f. complete tale or enu- 
meration ; sum. [V khya + pari-sam.] 

par us a, a. knotty, rough, harsh, [parus, 

parus, n. knot ; joint, of a plant or of the 
body, [perhaps ' a fullness,' V 1 pr, ' fill ' : 
cf. parvan.] 

par6ksa, a. beyond the eye, out of sight, 
invisible ; -e, adv. [1116], behind one's 
back, [for paro 'ksa, i.e. paras + aksa, 
'eye': 1310a.] 

paroksartha, m. invisible thing, the 
invisible, [artha.] 

parkati, f. waved-leaved fig-tree, Ficus 

parna, n. 1. wing; plume, feather; 

2. leaf for mg, cf. pattra. [v'*spr 
(1177a), see under Vsphur: cf. Lithuanian 
spdrna, ' wing ' ; Ger. Farn, Eng. fern, so 
called (like irrepis, 'fern,' cf. irrepSv, 
'feather,') from its feathery fronds.] 

paryalocana, n. deliberation; -&,f. plan, 
consilium. [Vloc + pary-a, 1150. 2a 2 .] 

parvata, 1. a. consisting of knots or 
ragged masses, used of a mountain, giri ; 
as m. 2. mountain, 27 6 , 92 19 ; hill; 

3. cloud-mountain, 70 2 ; 4. rock or 
bowlder, 86 n ; 5. Parvata, name of a 
Rishi, companion of Narada (q.v.), 5 9 . [fr. 
parvan, cf. 1245c: cf. Tlappaffia (ttrapfarta), 
sc. ir6\is, i.e. ' Hil-ton.'] 

parvata-kandara, n. mountain-cave, 
parvata-gikhara, m. n. hill-top, 
parvatopatyaka,/. mountain-lowland, 

lowland by a mountain range, [upat- 


parvan, n. knot, joint, ['fullness,' Vlpr, 
'fill,' 1169. la: cf. parus. J 

pargu,/ rib; sickle. 

V palay (palay ate; palay am cakre ; apa- 
layista ; palayisyati, -te ; palayita ; 
palayitum; palayya). flee; depart, cease, 
40 19 . [quasi-root f r. v' i, ' go,' + para, 
' away,' see 1087c and c 2 : quite different 
is V palaya, ' protect.'] 

palay ana, n. flight. [V palay.] 

pavana, n. instrument for purifying; 
winnowing-fan. [v'pu, 1150.] 

V Ipag, orig. spag (p4gyati, -te; in Veda: 
paspage ; dspasta [834c] ; spasta ; later : 
dadarga, etc.). 1. see; 2. perceive; 
behold; -3. look; -4. look on, 39 7 ; 
gaze, 13 7 ; 5. (see, i.e.) experience, 20 1G , 
35 !; -6. look upon, 21 , 40 15 ; consider 
as; 7. see with the spiritual eye (as 
seers and poets), 94 9 . [for the initial s, 
see the perfect and vi-spasta: cf. <rKr- 
r-ofuu, ' look about ' ; Lat. specid, ' behold ' ; 
Ger. spoken, ' spy,' Old High Ger. spehon, 
whence, through Old French espier, the 
Eng. espy, and shortened spy.'] 

anu, look along or spy out (e.g. a 
path for some one, i.e.), disclose or show, 
83 7 . 

-f v i, see in places apart, distinguish, see 
clearly ; vispasta, clear. 

V 2pag, fasten, bind, in derivs, see pagii, 
paga. [cf . irdffffa\os, #ira.K-ja\os, ' peg ' ; 
Lat. pac-iscor, 'bind myself, agree'; pax, 
'agreement, peace'; pang-ere, 'make fast/ 
pac-tum, 'agreed upon'; Goth, fah-an, AS. 
Jon, tjoh-an, ' fasten on, take hold of ' ; 
Eng. verbyan^, ' seize,' noun yam?, ' seizing- 
tooth'; connection of fing-er ('grasper, 
holder'?), doubtful: cf. also Goth, fagrs, 
'fitting,' AS.fcegr, Eng./azV;, 
Eng. /ay, Ger.fuyen, ' fit together,' trans., 
and Eng. fudge, ' fit together or agree/ 

pagti, m. cattle, 90 2 a single head or a 
herd; domestic animal (opp. to mrga, 
'wild beast'), 67 2 ; esp. beast for sacrifice, 
101 6 . [prop, 'tethered (beasts)/ V2pac, 
'fasten': cf. Lat./jec-u, Ger. Vieh, ' cattle/ 
AS. feoh, 'cattle, property/ Eng. fee.. 
orig. 'property/ then 'payment.'] 



pagu-ghna, a. slaying cattle; as m. 

pagu-tfp, a. cattle-stealing. [vbl of 

pagu-bandha,?n. animal sacrifice, ['bind- 
ing of beast' to sacrificial post.] 

pagumant, a. rich in cattle. [pagu, 
1235 and b.] 

pacu-roman, n. a hair of an animal. 

pagu-vadha, m. slaughter of animals. 

page a, a. hinder; later; west; pagcat, 
as adv. [1114c] : -1. behind ; after, 39 23 ; 
-2. later, afterwards, 29 17 , 38 4 ; there- 
upon, 36 13 , 39 17 , 40 12 ; pagcat, as prep. w. 
gen. [1130]: -3. after, 51 2 ; -4. to the 
west of, 98", 100 ", 105 11 . [pacca is an 
inorganic transfer-stem (1209a) fr. pagca, 

pagca, adv. behind; later; west, [adver- 
bially accented instr. instead of pagc-a, 
i.e. pas-(a)c-a, 1112e fr. *pas-anc (407) : 
with pas cf . Lat. pos-terus, ' later,' etc.] 

pagcat, see pagca. 

pagcima, a. last, 52 16 ; westerly, [pagca: 
cf. 1224a and b.] 

V lp a (pibati, -te [671, 749]; papaii, pape; 
apat ; pasyati, -te ; pita [954c] ; patum ; 
pitva ; -paya, -pfya). drink, [cf. W- 
TTU-KO., ' have drunk ' ; TlT-ffa, ' The Burn, 
The Fountain ' ; Lat. po-tus, ' drunk ' ; 
bibo, *pi-b-o, ' drink.'] 

V 2 pa (pati ; apasit; patum). protect; 
keep ; for so-called cans., see palaya. 
[cf ., ' have kept, possess ' ; tru>-v, 
' herd ' ; Lat. pa-sc-o, ' keep, pasture ' ; see 
+ p a r i , protect around. 

1 pa, vbl. drinking, in cpds. [\/lpa.] 

2 pa, vbl. keeping, keeper, in cpds. [V2pa.] 
pansu, m. pi. dust. 

paka, a. 1. of a calf, young; 2. sim- 
ple, [lit. ' sucking,' V 1 pa, ' drink.'] 

paka-durva, f. young millet-grass. 
[paka + durva : acct, 1280 2 .] 

patala, a. pale red ; as m. Bignonia 

p a t a 1 i , f. Bignonia suaveolens or trumpet- 
flower, [cf. patala.] 

patali-putra, n. Pataliputra, capital of 
Magadha, at the old confluence of the 

Sone (gona) and Ganges, the Ila\t&oOpct 
of Ptolemy, 17 9 N. 

patava, n. sharpness; cleverness, [patu, 
q.v.: 1208c.] 

p a n i , m. hand. [prob. for *palni : cf . 
TrctAci/uTj, Lat. palma, AS. folm, ' palm, 
hand ' : radically akin is AS. fel-an, Eng. 

pani-graha, m. hand-grasper, i.e. (see 
89 5 N.) husband. 

pandava, m. descendant of Pandu. [pan- 
du, 1208c.] 

panditya, n. learning, erudition, [pan- 

pandu, a. whitish, pale; as m. Pandu, 
name of a prince of the Lunar Race. 

pandu-nandana, m. son of Pandu. 

pandu-varna, a. pale-colored. 

pata, m. fall. [Vpat.] 

pataka, a. causing one to fall (from 
caste); as n. crime, [fr. caus. of v/pat.] 

patra, n. 1. instrument of drinking, 
cup; vessel; 2. in general, utensil (cf. 
bhanda), 102 n ; -3. Jig., as in Eng. (cf. 
sthana5), a fit vessel or worthy person, 
22 5 ; patri [364], /. sacrificial vessel. 
[\/lpa, 'drink,' 1185a: cf. 362b 2 .] 

pada, m. 1. foot; leg, 26 10 ; 2. limb 
of a quadruped, i.e. quarter (as, conversely, 
in Eng., quarter means ' fourth part of a 
quadruped, including a leg') ; then quarter 
(of anything); 3. esp. quarter of a 
(four-versed) stanza, verse; then verse 
(even of a three-versed stanza), 60 12 ; 
4. (foot of a heavenly body, i.e.) ray, 
beam see 2 kara. [transition-stem (399) 
fr. pad, ace. pad-am, to which, as if it 
were pada-m, is formed the nom. pada-s, 

pada-pa, m. plant, esp. tree. [lit. 'drink- 
ing with its foot, i.e. root.'] 

pa da -raj as, n. foot-dust. 

padika, a. amounting to or lasting one 
fourth (of a time), [pada.] 

paduka, f. shoe ; slipper. [cf. pad, 
' foot.'] 

pana, 1. n. the drinking (esp. of strong 
drink); 2. perhaps as vbl adj. drench- 
ing, i.e. trankend. [V 1 pa, ' drink,' 



paniya, grdv. to be drunk, for drinking ; 

as n. drink; water. [VI pa, 'drink/ 965: 

prop. fr. pana, 1215b.] 

paniya- varsa, m. water-rain, down- 
pour of water, 
pantha, m. wayfarer; viator, [panthan, 

1208a 2 end.] 
papa, a. bad; evil; as m. bad fellow, 46 19 ; 

as n. trouble; harm, 26 8 ; evil (deed), 

27 2 . 
papa-karman, a. of evil deeds; as m. 

papa-gila, a. having evil as one's nature, 

prone to evil, 
papiyans, a. worse; very bad. [papa, 


papman, m. evil; sin, 93 11 . [cf. papa.] 
para, n . the further bank or bound. [V 2 pr, 

' bring across.'] 
paramegvara, a. of the supreme lord 

(Qiva). [paramegvara.] 
parusya, n. harshness, esp. of speech. 

parthiva, a. of or belonging to the earth ; 

as m. king, [prthivi, 1208d.] 
parthiva-suta, /. king's daughter, 
parthivendra, m. most excellent of 

kings, [indra.] 
pargva, n. 1. side; ana* so 2. as in 

Eng., immediate neighborhood. [pargu, 

' rib/ 1208c : so French c6te~, ' side or 

ribbed part/ Medieval Lat. costatum, fr. 

Lat. costa, 'rib.'] 

pal a, m. protector. [V2pa, 'protect/ 


V pal ay a (palayati). be protector; pro- 
tect; keep. [pala, 1042f: acct, 1067: 

quite different is Vpalay, 'go away.'] 

+ pari, protect around, 
pavaka, a. pure; clear; bright. [Vpu, 

1181b and a : cf . gvapada.] 
pavana, a. purifying; freeing from sin. 

[Vpu, 1150b.] 
paga, m. bond; snare; trap. [V2pag, 

' fasten.'] 
V pi, same as pi. 
ping a, a. reddish brown. 
pin gal a, a. reddish brown. [pinga, 

pinjula, n. tuft of stalks ; grass. 

pfnda, m. 1. lump; ball; lump (of 
earth), 98 8 ; 2. esp. lump or cake of 
meal offered to the Manes; 3. mouth- 
ful, 65 5 ; pindi, f. meal-cake. 

pitamaha, m. father's father, grand- 
father ; great father, [pita (nom. s. of 
pitr) + maha, 1314c and d.] 

pitf [373], m. -1. father; -2. pi. father 
and his brothers (cf. French parent, ' rela- 
tive'), 61 n ; 3. pi. the fathers, spirits 
of the forefathers, the Manes, 67 16 , 83 13 , 
etc. [origin unknown, see 1182d : cf. 
irar-ftp, Lat. pater, Eng. father.] 

p i t r t a s , adv. on the father's side, [pitr, 

pitr-mitra, n. father's friend. 

pitr-yajna, m. sacrifice to the Manes, 

pitrvya, m. father's brother, patruus. 
[pitr, 1228c : cf . irdrptas, Lat. patruus, AS. 
fsedera, ' father's brother.'] 

pi try a, a. of one's father; of (our) 
fathers, 78 18 ; of or belonging to or sacred 
to the Manes, [pitf, 1212b : cf. irdrpios, 
Lat. patrius, ' of one's father.'] 

v' pin v (pinvati ; pipinva ; pinvita). cause 
to swell or stream. [V pi or pi : 749, 749b, 

pipasa, f. desire to drink, thirst, [fr. 
desid. (1026) of VI pa, 'drink': 1149 4 .] 

pipila, m. ant. [perhaps for *piplda, 
' pressed in or constricted in the middle/ 

V pig (pingati, -te [758]; pipega, pipig6; 
pistd). adorn, [cf. irojKt'Aos, AS. fah, 
' many-colored ' ; Lat. pic-tor, ' painter.'] 

piganga, a. reddish brown. [Vpig.] 

p i g a c 4 , m. one of a class of demons (perhaps 
personifications of the ignis fatuus); goblin. 

piguna, a. backbiting, slanderous, [cf. 
iriKpos, 'bitter.'] 

V pis (pinasti; pipe>a, pipisd; apisat 
peksyati; pista; pestum; pistva; -pis- 
ya). crush; grind, 47 5 ; mill. [cf. Lat. 
pinsere, pisere, 'crush': of doubtful kin- 
ship is mia-ffd}, ' pound, husk.'] 
+ sam, crush together or to pieces. 

pista, ppl. milled; as n. meal. [Vpis: for 
the mgs, cf. pis, pista, and molere, mola, 
with mill, meal.'] 



pista-pagu, m. effigy of a sacrificial 
beast made of meal. 

V pi or pya (pyayate [761dl]; pipaya 
[786 s ], pipyiis; apyasit; pita, pina). 
swell; overflow, [hence pi-van, iri-onv, 

pit ha, n. 1. seat; 2. pedestal (of an 
image of a god). 

pitha-cakra, n. seat-wagon; wagon with 
a seat. 

\ piid (pidayati [1041 2 ]; pidayam asa; 
pidita; pidayitum; pidayitva; -pidya). 
press; oppress, pain, [for *pizd, *pisd, 
198b 8 : cf. Vpis.] 
+ a, press out, 103 20 . 

pida, f. pain, ache. [Vpid, 1149 3 .] 

pin a, a. thick, brawny. ['swollen,' ppl. 
of Vpi, 957a.] 

pivas, n. fat. [Vpi: cf. irlap, i.e. -itt-fap, 

pums, same as pumans. 

puta, m. n. fold; cavity; nose (of a bas- 
ket), [for #plta : cf. -ir\affios, *ir\rjos, in 
St-TrXafftos or Si-ira\TOs, Eng. two-fold.] 

ptinya, a. prosperous; happy; lucky, 
faustus, auspicious, 12 13 , 59 1>10 ; right, 
good ; as n. good work ; sing, collectively, 
good works, 28 n ; merit (from good 
works), [perhaps fr. v'pus.] 

piinya-gandha, a. of good or pleasant 

punya-papa, n. pi. good and bad deeds. 

punya-loka, a. of good fame; as m. 
Punya9loka, epithet of Nala. 

puttika, f. white ant. ['the doll-like 
insect ' : for putrika.] 

putra, m. -1. son; child, 98 20 ; -2. 
whelp; 3. shortened form for Putraka 
as proper name. 

putraka, /. 1. little son (as term of 
endearment), boy; 2. Putraka, other- 
wise Putra, name of the founder of Patali- 
putra-pura, 45 2 ; -putrika, /. [1222d], 
daughter; doll (of wood or lac), [putra.] 

putra-dara, n. son and wife. [1253b.] 

piinar, adv. 1. back; home; tv. a-gam, 
go back, 4 3 , 41 18 ; so a_i, 83 14 ; w. vac, 
reply, 19 19 ; -2. again, 8 8 , 40 21 ; anew; 
punah punar, again and again, 2 17 ; 

punar, equiv. to punah punar, 4 13 ; 3. 
confirmative, again, further, 29 n ; more- 
over, 16 8 , 57 21 ; besides or in turn, 10 10 ; 
kim punas tu, but what besides, how 
much more, a fortiori, 17 15 ; longer, 84 s ; 

4. but, 46 2 - 10 ; on the other hand, 20 17 . 
[cf. the similarly connected notions of 
iteration and opposition shown by Trd\iv, 
Eng. again and against, Ger. wieder and 

punar-garbhavati, a. f. again preg- 

punar- janman, n. re-birth. 

punah-sara, a. coming back (as a ghost 
from the other world exactly like the 
French revenant), and so ghostly, uncanny, 
[punar, 178.] 

pumans [394], m. man; a male, 59 7 ; opp. 
o/stri, e.g. 104 9 ; pumansah putras, male 
children, 98 2 \ 

1 pur,/, fullness, [vf Ipr, 'fill.'] 

2 pur [392], /. stronghold; castle; forti- 
fied town, [cf . ir6\is, ' city.'] 

pura, n. stronghold; fortified town; city. 
[2 pur, 399.] 

puramdhi, 1. a. courageous, high- 
spirited, exalted ; 2. as m. perhaps as 
name of a god, Purandhi ; 3. asf. exal- 

pur as, adv. in front, forward, before; at 
first, 54 18 ; compounded [1078 6 ] esp. tv. kr 
and dha : w. kr, put in front, appoint ; w . 
dha, put in front or in charge, esp. of the 
priestly duties. [see pra: cf. -rrdpos, 
' before.'] 

puras-karya, grdv. to be appointed or 
commissioned, praeficiendus. [see puras 
+ kr: also963b and 171 3 .] 

purastat, adv. 1. before; in the front, 
85 18 ; -2. previously, afore, 98 6 ,101 ' 13 ; 

3. before, i.e. (see pranc) eastward; 

4. prep. w. gen. [1130], before, in the 
presence of, 20 l . [puras, HOOb.] 

purah-sara, a. going before; as m. fore- 
runner; at end of cpds [1302c2], having 

as forerunner, i.e. accompanied by ; 

-purahsaram, adv. with or after . 
pura, adv. formerly, 46 2 , 79 14 ; once upon 

a time, 38 9 , 48 20 ; prep. w. all. [1128], 
before, 95 17 , 104 19 . [see pra.] 



purana, a. former, belonging to old 
times ; as n. things of the past ; tale 
of old times, \6yos and pvGos. [pura, 

pur is a, n. crumbling earth, as opp. to 
fluids; rubble; loose earth, ['fillings or 
heaps,' fr. V 1 pr, in the sense ' fill, i.e. 
heap': 1197b.] 

puru, a. much, many. [Vlpr, 'fill,' q.v. : 
cf. iro\v, AS.fela, 'much, many.'] 

purutra, adv. in many places, [puru, 

purusa, m. 1. man; 2. (as in Eng., 
man, i.e.) servant; 3. the personal and 
life-giving principle in man and other 
beings, soul, spirit ; then 4. personified 
as The Supreme Spirit, Soul of the Uni- 
verse, 57 8 . 

purusa-kara, m. deed of a man, human 
effort, as opp. to claiva, 'fate.' 

purusa-sinha,m. man-lion, stout-hearted 

p u r u c i , a.f. many, abundant ; long, [for- 
mally fern, to a stem *puru-ac, 'directed 
or reaching in many ways, abundant ' : cf . 

puro-gama, a. going before; as m. 
leader; at end of cpds [1302c2], having 
as leader, accompanied by . [puras.] 

puro-gava, m. fore-bull, and so, general- 
ized (see g64), leader; purogavi,/. leader, 

pur6-hita, ppl. set before or in charge 
(esp. of priestly service) ; as m. priest, 
house-priest of a prince, [see puras with 

pulkasa, m. one of a despised mixed 

V pus (pusyati, -te ; pup6sa ; apusat ; 
pusta). 1. thrive; bloom; 2. trans. 
cause to thrive ; develop ; unfold, display, 

! 78*. 

puska, bloom, a word assumed as probable 
on account of puspa, 'bloom,' piiskara, 
'lotus blossom,' and puskala. [Vpus, 
1186 2 .] 

puskala, a. abundant, [prob. 'blooming,' 
fr. *puska, 1227.] 

pusta, ppl. having thrived ; strong ; fat. 
[Vpus, 955 2 .] 

pustanga, a. fat-limbed, [anga.] 

pusti, f. thrifty growth ; prosperity. 
[V pus.] 

p lisp a, n. bloom ; flower. [poss. for 
*puska, q.v. : cf. 1201 2 end.] 

puspa-danta,m. Pushpadanta or Flower- 
tooth, name of an attendant of C,iva, see 
53 3 N. 

puspamoda, m. fragrance of flowers, 

p u s t a k a , m. n. manuscript ; book. 

V pu (punati, punite ; pavate; pupava; 
apavit; puta; -puya). 1. make clear 
or bright ; purify ; KaQaipfiv ; puta, pure ; 
2. mid. clear itself, flow clear, [cf . irv-p, 
Eng. fire (rb irvp Ka.6a.ipfi): w. puta, cf. 
Lat. putus, ' clear,' purus, ' pure.'] 
sam, purify, clean. 

pu, vbl. purifying, in cpds. 

puga, m. betel-palm, Areca Catechu; as 
n. betel nut. 

V puj (pujayati, -te; pujayisyati; pujita; 
-pujya). honor. 
+ abhi, do honor to. 

piijaniya, grdv. to be honored. [Vpuj, 

p u j a , f. honor. 

pujya, grdv. to be honored. [Vpuj, 

purna, ppl. filled; full. [Vlpr, 'fill,' 
957b: cf. Goth, fulls, Eng. full.'] 

purna-masa, m. full moon and the full- 
moon sacrifice. 

purta, ppl. filled; bestowed, fulfilled; as 
n. [1176a], fulfilment; reward; merit. 
[Vlpr, 'fill,' 242.] 

purva [525*], a. being before in place or 
time: 1. east (cf. prafic) ; 2. prior; 
preceding, 86 13 ; purva uttara, former 
latter, 21 8 ; ancient, 57 6 ; of old time, 
69 8 , 83 10 ; first spoken, 60 2 ; w. past pass, 
ppl. [1291]: drsta-purva, seen before; 
purvam, adv. before; beforehand, 60 9 ; 
previously, already, 7 21 , 25 n ; in former 
times, 48 1 ; long ago, 46 3 ; first, 103 6 ; 
purvam uttaram, first last, 104 12 ; 
3. at end of cpds, (having as preced- 
ing thing, i.e.) accompanied by , or 
simply with , 8 21 . [connected w. puras 
and pra.] 



purvaka, f. [1222d] -ika, a. 1. preced- 
ing ; 2. used like purva 3. [purva, 
1222c and 1307.] 

purva -janman, n. former birth, pre- 
vious state of existence. 

purvaksara,o. with the preceding letter, 

purvya, a. ancient, [purva, 1212c.] 

pusan [426a], m. Pushan, a Vedic divinity, 
keeper of flocks and herds, and bringer of 
prosperity. [Vpus, 1160c.] 

\f Ipr (prnati; puryate; purna [957b]; 
pass, puryate; purayati, -te; etc.). fill; 
bestow abundantly ; sate ; puryate, be- 
comes sated [see 761b]; cans. [1041 -}, fill; 
make a thing (ace.) full of (gen.}, 102 18 . 
[for treatment of root-vowel, see 242 : cf . 
-jri'-7rA.7j-jut, Lat. plere, ' fill ' ; po-pul-us, 
'folk'; Eng. fol-k (doubtful): see also 
purna and Vpra.] 

+ pra, intrans. prapuryate, becomes 

+ sam, intrans. sampuryate, becomes 
full ; sampurna, full. 

V 2pr (piparti; parayati, -te; etc.). pass, 
trans.; bring across, [cf. Trepctco, 'pass 
over, cross ' ; Tropos, ' passage, i.e. ford, 
ferry, bridge ' ; Lat. por-ta, ' gate ' ; Eng. 
fare, ' get on ' ; ferry, for-d ; Avestan 
peretu, ' bridge,' and E.v-<ppdrr]s, ' the well- 
bridged (stream)'; also B6<T-iropos and 
+ a t i , bring across. 

vl 3pr (prn6ti; prta; priyate; parayati). 
be busy; only w. a, see 773. 
+ a, in aprta, busied. 
+ v y - a , in vyapriyate, is busied. 

V prc (prnakti, prnkte; paparca ; aprak- 
sit, aprkta [882] ; prkta; prcyate). fill; 
mix ; put in connection with, [perhaps 
connected w. V 1 pr, ' fill.'] 
+ up a, put one's self close to, be near. 

pft,/. fight, battle. 

p ft an a, f. battle, [cf. ptt.] 

V prta nay a (prtanayati). fight; present 
ppl. fighting; as subst. enemy, [prtana, 

V prtanya (prtanyati). fight; attack; 
present ppl. fighting ; as subst. enemy, 
[prtana, 1059d.] 

V prth, collateral form of prath, in derivs. 

prtha, m. the flat of the hand, irAon-eio. 
[V prath, 241.] 

prthak, adv. separately, 105 1G ; severally, 
65 4 ; for one's self, 64 8 . [perhaps 'di- 
rected widely (apart)': cf. prth and see 


prthivi, f. the earth as the wide and 
broad, [fern, to prthu, 344 2 , and standing 
for prthvi, as the metre shows it is to be 
pronounced at 92 10 : for mg, cf . mah-i, 
s.v. mah.] 

prthivi-ksit, a. earth-ruling; as m. 

prthivi-pati, m. lord of the earth, king. 

prthivi-pala, m. keeper of the earth, 

prthii, f. prthvi, a. wide, broad, [v 1 prath, 
241: cf. Tr\arvs, 'wide': akin are Old 
Eng._/?aJ?e, Ger.Fladen, 'broad, thin cake,' 
Old High Ger. ace. s. fladon, ' sacrificial 
cake,' whence, through French flan, ' flat 
cake,' comes the Eng. Jtawn, ' flat custard 
or pie': V prath has no connection w. AS. 
brad, Eng. broad.] 

pfgni, a. speckled; dapple, esp. of kine; 
as f. Pri^ni, mother of the Maruts. [cf. 
irepKvds, 'dark colored'; Old High Ger. 
farhana, whence Ger. Forelle, ' trout.'] 

prsad-ajya, n. speckled butter, ghee 
clotted with curds, [pfsant.] 

pfsant, a. speckled. [450c.] 

prstha, n. 1. back, of an animal; 2. 
the upper side, surface ; 3. top, of a hill 
or palace, [cf. Ger. First, 'ridge of a 
house ' ; AS. first-hrof, ' ridge-pole ' : ob- 
serve that VWTOS has mgs 1, 2, and 3, that 
Lat. tergum has mgs 1 and 2, and that 
Eng. ridge has mgs 1 and 3.] 

prsthatas, adv. a tergo, from behind; 
with the back, with averted face, 30 17 . 
[1098c 3 .] 

prstha-mansa, n. back-flesh; w. khad, 
in double sense, bite the back-flesh and 

peya, n. a drinking. [VI pa, 'drink,' 

paiQaca, f. -I, a. of the goblins, [picacd, 

paigunya, n. slander, [piguna, 1208f.] 


p6sa, in. thriving, development; welfare. 

p a u m s y a , n. manliness ; manly deed, 
[pums, 1211 2 .] 

paurusa, n. manliness ; manly deed, 
[purusa, 1208f.] 

V pya (pyayate [761dl]; apyasit [882]; 
pyata). swell; overflow. [a collateral 
form of Vpi, q-v.] 
+ a, become full of or rich in. 

pra, prep, forward, onward, forth, fore, 
[cf. irp6, 'before'; Lat. prff, later pro, 
' before ' ; Eng. fore : see also the follow- 
ing articles, and puras, pura, and purva.] 

prakarana, n. treatment ; discussion ; 
subject of discussion, what's being talked 
about. [V 1 kr, ' do, put,' + pra.] 

prakarsa, m. (preference, advantage, 
i.e.) superiority. [Vkrs, ' draw,' + pra: 
for mg, cf. Eng. preference; also Ger. 
Vor-zug, ' preference, advantage,' with 
vor-ziehen, ' draw forward, prefer.'] 

prakaga, a. sliining out, clear; open; 
-am, adv. openly, aloud. [Vkag + pra.] 

prakrti, f. that which one pre-supposes 
(voraus-setzt), i.e. the original or natural 
form or condition ; nature. [V 1 kr, ' do, 
set,' + pra.] 

prakopa, m. a boiling with rage; anger, 
[v'kup + pra.] 

prage, adv. early in the morning. 

pracrtta-gikha, a. with loosened 
braids or flowing hair, [gikha.] 

pracetas, a. knowing, wise. [Vcit + 
pra, cf . 1151. 2b.] 

V prach (prcchati, -te; papraccha [794c]; 
apraksit ; praksyati ; prsta ; prastum ; 
prstva ; -pfcchya). ask; ask after, in- 
quire about; ask some one (ace.) about 
something (ace.), 61 7 . [true root-form 
prag (see 220, 241, and Vvrgc), orig. 
*prk : cf . Qfo-irpoTr-os, ' asking the gods ' ; 
Lat. prec-es, ' prayers,' proc-us, ' suitor ' ; 
Old High Ger. frdh-en, Ger. frag-en, ' ask ' : 
prcchati is a sk-formation (*prk-sketi), 
cf. Lat. poscit, *porc-scit, Old High Ger. 
forskot, *forh-skot, ' asks for,' Ger. forscht, 
'inquires into.'] 
-f- pari, ask. 
+ vi, find out by inquiry. 

a am, mid. consult with, converse or 
talk with. 

praja,^ 1. procreation; 2. offspring, 
children, descendants ; 3. creatures, 
57 1 ; esp. 4. folk, subjects, of a prince, 
16 5 . [Vjan or ja -f pra, 1147.] 

praja-kama, m. desire for offspring, 
[praja -f- kama, 1264 : acct, 1267.] 

praja-kama, a. possessing prajakama, 
i.e. desirous of offspring, 93 c , I 1 -. [1296, 

praja-pati, m. 1. lord of creatures; 

2. genius presiding over procreation, 
89 19 ; 3. lord of creatures, i.e. creator 
or Prajapati, 60 10 , see note. [acct, 

prajarthe, adv. for the sake of offspring, 
[artha, 1116, 1302c4.] 

prajfia, f. understanding. [Vjna-pra.] 

prajnata, ppl. well-known. [Vjna ~ 

pranaya, m. manifestation of one's af- 
fection. [V ni + pra : for n, see 192a.] 

pranayana, n. 1. a fetching; 2. 
means for fetching, vessel, [do.] 

pranava, m. the sacred syllable om. 
[Vnu 4^ pra, q.v.] 

pra n am a, m. bow, reverent salutation, 
[v'nam 4- pra.] 

pranita, ppl. see Vni + pra; -as, f. pi. 
holy water. 

pranita-pranay ana, n. the fetching 
of the holy water. [1250e.] 

prataram, adv. further, longer, [pra, 
473 2 , llllc: cf. Tfp6repov, 'before.'] 

prati, prep, hi reversed direction, back to, 
back against, against, in return ; 1. to, 
towards, w. ace., 2 19 , 23"; -2. with 
reference to, in respect to, w. ace., 4 7 - 17 , 
13 2>) ; 3. over against, i.e. like ; 4. in 
cpds [1313a] : before ; on, w. idea of con- 
stant repetition ; at; (back-, i.e.) reflected; 
see the following words, [cf. vporl, 'to'; 
Lat. par- (*port) in por-rigere, 'reach out 

pr atij na, f. promise. [Vjna -f- prati.] 

prati-dinam, adv. on (each) day, daily. 
[1313a, 1310a and d : cf . pratyaham.] 

pratipatti, /. the acquiring. [\fpad + 



prati-bimba, n. reflected disk (of sun 
or moon in the water) ; image. 

pratima, f. match ; image ; likeness. 
[V 1 ma + prati, ' make (so as to be a 
match) against ' : for mg, cf. Eng. counter- 
feit, ' imitated/ fr. French contre-fait, 
whose elements go back to Lat. contra 
and facere.~] 

pratimana, n. that which is made or 
put over against, a match, equal. [V 1 ma 
+ prati.] 

pratistha,/. stead; standing-place; then 
(like Eng. standing), position, i.e. celebrity. 
[V stha + prati.] 

pratisthana, n. stead; then (like Ger. 
Stadt, 'place, town'), The Town, name of 
a town on the Godavari, the of 
the Greeks. [V stha, + prati, 1150: cf. 
H 'amp-stead. ,] 

pratihastaka, m. proxy. ['person at 
one's hand/ prati + hasta, 1310a, 1222c.] 

pratikara, m. counter-action, remedy. 
[V 1 kr, ' do, act/ -f prati, ' against ' : 

praticina, a. backward ; being behind ; 
following, i.e. future, [pratyanc, 1223d.j 

pratlta, ppl. see \fi + prati. 

pratipd, a. (against the stream, i.e.) con- 
trary ; -am, adv. contrarily, frowardly. 
[prati + ap, 1310a, ISloc, cf . samlpa : 
for mgs, cf. Eng. contrary. .] 

pratta, see 1087e. 

pratyaksa, a. before the eyes, plainly 
visible ; -e, adv. before one's face, [prati 
+ aksa, 1310a.] 

pratyaksa-dargana, . a seeing be- 
fore one's eyes ; the ability to see any 
one (e.g. a god) bodily, 15 13 . 

pratyag-daksina, adv. (west-southerly, 
i.e.) southwesterly, [pratyanc, 1249a.] 

pratyan-mukha, a. having the face 
westward, turned to the west, [pratyanc, 
1249a, 161 : 1306.] 

pratyinc [408], /. [410] pratici, a. -1. 
(directed back, i.e.) turned backwards ; 
moving in reverse direction or away, 87 n ; 
2. turned westward (see pranc), west- 
erly; 3. (being to-ward, i.e.) with the 
face towards, w. ace., 71 18 . [prati + anc, 
407 : see anc.] 

praty-abhivadana, n. return-saluta- 
tion, Gegen-gruss. [1289b.] 

praty-aham, adv. on (each) day, daily. 
[1313a, 1310a and d: 1315a: cf. pra- 

pratyakhyana, n. refusal. [Vkhya + 

pratyutthana, n. rising up to meet (a 
person), respectful reception. [Vstha + 
praty-ud, 233a.] 

pratyutpanna-mati, a. having wits 
ready to meet an emergency ; as m. Ready- 
wit, name of a fish. [Vpad + praty-ud.] 

pratyrcam, adv. at or with each stanza, 
[prati + re, 1313a, 1310a and d : 1315c.] 

V prath (prathate, -ti; paprathe; apra- 
thista ; prathit& ; prathayati ; apapra- 
that). broaden, intrans.; cans, broaden, 
trans.; spread out, 78 n . [see under 
+ vi, cans, spread out wide, 75 8 . 

prathamd, a. first; primal; -am, adv. 
at first, [lit. ' fore-most/ for *pra-tama, 
superl. of pra, 487 3 , 473 2 .] 

prathama-ja [352], a. first-born. [1286.] 

prada, a. giving; furnishing. [Vlda + 
pra, 333.] 

pra-daksina, 1. a. moving to the 
right ; 2. -am, adv. to the right, so that 
the right side is towards an object (a sign 
of respect), 60 1 , 99 1 ; w. kr, put (an 
object) to the right ; 3. adj. standing 
on the right, 62 19 . [perhaps the use as 
adv. (mg 2) is the primary one, lit. 'for- 
ward to the right.'] 

pradana, n. a giving. [Vlda + pra.] 

pra dig, f, intermediate region (between 
the cardinal points see dig), [pra + 
dig, 'fore-point.'] 

pradega, m. direction; and so, place. 
[V die + pra.] 

pradosa, m. evening, nightfall, ['fore- 
dark/ pra + doaa.] 

pradhana, n. prize of the contest; the 
contest therefor ; battle. [V 1 dha + pra : 
cf. dhana.] 

pradhana, n. (that which is put forward) 
the important or chief thing; at end of 
cpds [1302], having as chief thing, de- 
voted to . [VI dha + pra.] 



pra-patha, m. (forth-path, i.e.) onward 
way, 85 18 ; journey in the distance or 
distant journey, 86 2 . 

prabandha, m. uninterrupted connec- 
tion; continued series. [Vbandh + pra.] 

prabhava, m. origin; atendofcpd [1302], 
having as origin, originating with . 
[Vbhu fpra.] 

prabha, /. splendor; radiant beauty. 
[v bha +pra.] 

prabhata, ppl. begun to be light; as n. 
[1176a], day-break, [s bha + pra.] 

prabhava, m. superior might, of gods, 
of ascetics, of asceticism. [Vbhu + 

prabhu, a. being before or superior to 
others; as m. ruler; master; lord; hus- 
band, 52 14 . [later form (354) for Vedic 
prabhu : Vbhu + pra.] 

prabhutva, n. lordship, power. [1239.] 

prabhrti,/. 1. lit. a carrying forward 
or on, i.e. continuance; used esp. at end 
of cpds [1296], having continuance from 

, i.e. continuing from ; 2. then in 
such cpds used in ace. s. n. adverbially 
[1311], continuing from , beginning 
with , from ; 3. then as an adv. 
uncompounded, prabhrti, w. abl., from 

on ; tatah prabhrti, from then on. 
[Vbhr + pra, 1157. Id.] 

pramada, m. pleasure. [V mad + pra.] 

pramada-vana, n. pleasure-grove (of a 

pramada-vana, n. pleasure-grove (of 
the wives of a prince), [a quasi feminine 
to the preceding.] 

pramana, n. measure, extent (57 w ), 
scale, standard ; something by which to 
judge, 54 11 ; norm, rule of action, 21 a ; 
authority, 12 10 , 19 * 2 . [VI ma, 'measure,' 
+ pra, 192a : hence, through the Persian 
farmdn, the borrowed Eng. firman, 'an 
authority or decree,' esp. of the Sublime 

>/ pramana y a (pramanayati). regard 
as an authority; take a person (ace.) as 
authority in a matter (loc.). [pramana, 

pramanabhava, m. lack of anything to 
judge by. [abhava.] 

pramathin, a. stirring; agitating. 
[V math -f pra, 1183 3 .] 

pramrsta-mani, m. polished or bright 
gem. [Jmrj-f-pra.] 

pramr stamani-kundala, a. possess- 
ing bright-gem ear-rings. 

prayatna, TO. effort, pains ; -ena, -at, 
adv. carefully. [Vyat + pra, 1177a.] 

prayana, n. a going forth (from home), 
journey. [Vya -f pra, 1150, 192e.] 

prayotf, TO. remover. [V2yu, 'keep off,' 
+ pra.] 

pralaya, m. dissolution; esp. dissolution 
of the universe, [v II -f pra.] 

pra lap a, m. unintelligible or childish 
or lamenting talk ; chatter. [V lap + 

pra van a, a. prone; sloping, [pra, 1170 
(cf. 383d 1): cf. irpijvrjs, Doric irpavos, Lat. 
pronus, 'inclined forward.'] 

p r a v a t , f. slope, of a mountain ; height, 
83 7 . [pra, 383d 1.] 

pra-vayas, a. having (forward, i.e.) ad- 
vanced age; aged. [1305 2 .] 

pravartaka, a. causing to roll onward 
(as a wheel), setting in motion, promoting; 
as m. promoter, prompter, [caus. of v'vrt 
+ pra.] 

pravada, m. a saying or an on dit. [Vvad 
+ pra.] 

pravibhaga, m. division. [Vbhaj + 

pravina, a. clever. 

pravinata, f. cleverness, [pravina.] 

pravrtta, ppl. 1. having turned for- 
ward; directed forward (to a specific 
object), esp. of an act performed with a 
view to the attainment of some advantage, 
i.e. interested, opp. of nivrtta, q.v. ; 2. 
engaged in. [V vrt + pra.] 
pravrtti,/. a moving forward or taking 
an active step, 20 15 ; advance into or ex- 
posure of one's self to (danger, loc.), 20 12 . 
[V vrt + pra.] 
pravrddha, ppl. grown up, great. 

[v'vrdh + pra.] 
pravega, m. entrance. [Vvig + pra.] 

Ipravrajin, a. going forth or after, in cpd 
dvi-. [Vvraj + pra, 1183 3 : for mg, cf. 
(71^) irfpiSpopos, ' lewd woman.'] 



prais [392], /. command. [V gas + pra, 
639, 225 J ' 2 : cf. ais.j 

praraya, m. respectful demeanor, ['an 
inclining forward,' fr. Vgri + pra.] 

pra-savya, a. moving to the left; -am, 
adv. to the left cf. pradaksinam. 

prasada, m. grace; favor; prasadam 
kr, do favor, be gracious. [V sad + pra, 

prasiti, f. continuation; extended path 
(of life, for example). [V sa + pra, 250.] 

prasiddhi,/. success; celebrity; a being 
known ; ato me aaiika iti prasiddhis, 
therefore I am known as "Q.", 36 8 ; cf. 
prasiddha. [V 2 sidh, ' succeed,' + pra.] 

prastara, m. 1. stramentum, straw; 
2. rock, 33 10 . [V sir, ' strew,' + pra : 
for mg 1, cf. Eng. straw w. strew: connec- 
tion of mg 2 unclear.] 

prastava, m. beginning, introduction. 
[\lstu + pra, 1148.2.] 

prastuta-yajna, a. having one's sac- 
rifice begun ; as m. Prastutayajna, name 
of a Brahman. [V stu + pra.] 

prastha, m. n. table-land on a mountain, 
['that which stands forth from the sur- 
rounding country,' fr. Vstha (333) + pra.] 

pra-svadas, a. (lit. having advanced 
agreeableness, i.e.) highly pleasing. 
[1305 2 .] 

prahara, m. a stroke (on a gong, an- 
nouncing the lapse of a watch), and so 
a watch (of about three hours). [Vlhr + 

prahartavya, grdv. to be struck ; impers. 
one must strike, [do.] 

prahrsta-manas, a. having a delighted 
heart, [v'hrs 4 pra.] 

V pra (prati; papraii; apras [889]; pra- 
ta). fill. [Vedic collateral form of \l 1 pr, 
' fill,' q.v. : cf . ir\-t)-pr)s, Lat. ple-nus, ' full.'] 
+ a, fill. 

prak, see pranc. 

prakrta, a. natural; usual; common; 
vulgar; as n. the vulgar (language), lan- 
guage of the vulgus, the Prakrit, [pra- 
krti, 1208d : for mg, cf . Ger. deutsch, Old 
High Ger. diut-isk, '(language) of the 
people (diot), i.e. German' (as contrasted 
with the Latin of the Church and with 

the neighboring Romance tongues) ; cf. 
also f) Kotrf) (sc. StoAe/cTos), ' the Common 
(dialect),' as opp. to Doric, etc.] 

prag-griva, a. having the neck directed 
eastward, [pranc (1249a) + griva.] 

prag-daksina, adv. east-southerly, 
south-easterly, [pranc, 1249a.] 

prangana, n. fore-court, Vor-hof ; court- 
yard, [pra + angana, 1289a, 193.] 

p r a n - m u k h a , /. -1,0. having the face di- 
rected eastward, [pranc, 1249a, 149, 161.] 

prajna, a. wise; as m. wise man. [pra- 
jna, 1208e.] 

pranc [408], /. praci, a. I. directed for- 
wards ; w. verb of motion, onward, 86 9 ; 
2. east, eastern (since the Hindus, in 
naming the cardinal points, began with 
the east, as we do with the north, and 
conceived it as before them, as we do the 
north) ; praci dig, the eastern quarter, 
101 3 ; 3. prak, ace. s. n. as adv. before: 
(in place) before one's face, 26 8 ; (in time) 
formerly, 20 21 , 51 7 ; (in order) before, w. 
abl. [1128], 59 7 . [pra + afic, 407.] 

pranjali, a. having an anjali (q.v.) before 
one, i.e. in a posture of reverent saluta- 
tion, [pra + anjali, 1305.] 

prana, m. breath; vital breath, 60 16 ; 
vital spirit, 63 21 ; then (like Eng. breath), 
life; esp. in pi. pranas, life, 15 5 , 2 1 18 , 
29 8 . [Van + pra, 192b.] 

pranin, a. having life; as m. living being, 
[prana, 1230.] 

pratar, adv. 1. early in the morning; 
then 2. (like the Ger. morgen and Eng. 
morrow) on the next morning, on the 
morrow, to-morrow, [pra, 1109: cf. irpoo-i, 
Ger. frtih, ' early.'] 

pradiis, adv. forth to view; w. as [1078 6 ], 
be visible, appear, reveal one's self. 

prantara, n. a long and lonely road. 
[' an advanced interval or long distance,' 
pra + antara, 1289.] 

prapaniya, grdv. to be brought to. 
[caus. of V ap + pra, 965, 192e.] 

prapta-kala, m. arrived time, favorable 
moment. [\' ap + pra.] 

prapta-yauvana, a. possessing at- 
tained adolescence, having reached a 
marriageable age. [see 1308.] 



praptavya, grdv. to be obtained, about 

to be got. [Vap + pra, 964.] 
prapti,/. a reaching, arriving at. [Vap 

+ pra.] 
pray a, m. 1. a going forth or out; 

2. that which sticks out or is prominent ; 
the principal part of a thing; the most 
part; at end of cpds [1302], having for 
the most part, having for its predomi- 
nant characteristic, like , 22 16 . [V i + 
pra, 1148. la.] 

prayagas, adv. for the most part, 
[praya, 1106.] 

pray as, adv. for the most part, almost, 
50 22 . [prop. ace. s. n. (lllld) of a neuter 
noun *prayas, 'that which is predomi- 
nant' (see praya), Vi + pra, 1151. 1.] 

pravi, a. attentive, heedful, zealous. 
[Vav + pra, 1156 3 , 355b end.] 

pra 5 a n a, n. 1. the eating; 2. the 
giving of food, feeding, [in mg 1, fr. 
V2ag, ' eat,' + pra; in mg 2, fr. caus. of 
the same.] 

pragitf, m. eater. [V2ag, ' eat,' + pra, 

pragitra, n. the portion of ghee to be 
eaten by a Brahman at a sacrifice, 
['that which belongs to the pragitr,' 

pragitra-harana, n. vessel for hold- 
ing the pragitra. [' pragitra-holding,' 

prasada, m. lofty seat; building on high 
foundations, palace, 20 l . [V sad + pra, 
perhaps in the sense ' sit forward or in a 
conspicuous place ' : see 1087b.] 

priya, a. la. dear, 79 16 ; beloved of, 
w. gen. (296b), 84 18 ; -Ib. priya,/. the 
beloved, the wife, 32 6 , 33 10 ; -2a. desired, 
pleasant ; agreeable, 58 <22 ; priyam kr, 
do a favor, 3 2 ; 2b. as n. that which is 
desired, one's wish, 89 1T ; 3. (like Ho- 
meric <]>l\osl to which one is attached or 
wonted, 76 8 , 86 8 ; own, 78 9 ; wonted; 

4a. loving, devoted to; 4b. as m. 
friend. [Vpri, q.v., 1148.3: cf. irpaos, 
' gentle ' ; Goth, freis, ace. s. m. frijana, 
AS. fri, Ger. fret, Eng. free : although the 
modem mg ' free ' is common also to the 
Goth, and AS. words, yet the orig. mg 

must have been 'loving or loved, kindly 
treated, spared' (and so 'free'), as is 
shown by the Goth, abstract frija-\>va, 
AS. fredd, ' love ' : for mg Ib, cf . AS. 
free, ' woman ' : cf . also Old High Ger. 
Frla, ' The Loving One,' in frld tag, Eng. 
Fri-day, ' dies Veneris.'] 

priya-vadin, a. saying pleasant things. 

priyapriya, n. comfort and discomfort, 
[apriya: 1253b.] 

V p r I (prlnati, prinit6 ; priyate ; pipraya, 
pipriy6; apraisit; prita; pritva). la. 
prlnati, gladden, show favor to, propi- 
tiate ; Ib. prinati, have pleasure in ; 
Ic. prinlt6, be glad or content ; 2. 
priyate, be glad or content ; have pleasure 
in ; love, be favorably inclined to ; 3. 
prit : glad, pleased, satisfied ; loved, 
dear, [cf . Goth, frijon, ' love ' ; frijonds, 
AS. freond, ' loving, i.e. friend,' Eng. 
friend; also AS. freo-\>o, 'a sparing or 
indulgence, favor, grace, peace,' Ger. 
Friede, 'peace'; Goth. Frtya-reiks, Eng. 
Frede-rick, ' grace-ruler, gracious prince ' : 
see also under priya.] 

priti, /. 1. pleasure; pritya, with pleas- 
ure, gladly; 2. friendship. [Vpri.] 

priti-vacas, n. friendship-talk, friendly 

prenkha, a. rocking, pitching; as m. n. 
unsteady boat, skiff. [Vinkh +pra.] 

pr6ta, ppl. gone onward, i.e. departed, 
dead; as m. 1. dead man; 2. ghost. 
[Vi + pra.] 

pr6tya, grd. after dying, i.e. in the other 
world (opp. to ilia). [Vi + pra, 992.] 

prestha, a. very pleasant. [Vpri, 470 4 : 
serves as superl. to priya.] 

presya, grdv. to be sent; as m. servant. 
[V 2 is, ' send,' + pra.] 

praisya, n. servitude, [presya, 1208f.] 

pr6stha, m. bench or couch. 

prosthe-gaya, a. lying on a couch. 
[1250c, 1270.] 

plava, a. swimming; as m. swimmer, 
name of a kind of duck. [Vplu: cf. 
ir\6os, *7rAoFos, ' a sailing.'] 

Vplu (plavate, -ti; puplava, pupluve ; 
aplosta ; plosyati, -te ; plutA ; -phitya, 
-pluya). float through water or air: 



1. swim; 2. bathe; 3. sail; 4. 
hover ; fly ; 5. fly off ; hasten away ; 

6. spring ; pluta, floating, and so (see 
Whitney 78), protracted, of a vowel. 

[cf. ir\fw, *7rA.eFo>, ' float, sail ' ; Lat. 
pluere, ' rain ' : for mg of pluere, cf. the 
Eng. intrans. float, ' swim,' w. trans, float, 
' cover with water,' and the intrans. bathe 
w. trans, bathe : 

closely connected w. Vplu is the ex- 
tended form plud as seen in Lithuanian 
plud-iti, ' swim, float ' : w. this, cf. AS. 
fleot-an, ' swim or float about,' Eng. verb 
fleet, 'float, sail, hasten,' Ger. fliessen, 
sometimes ' swim,' but usually ' flow ' ; 
further, AS. fleot, ' raft, ship, fleet,' Eng. 
fleet, ' ships ' ; also AS. flota, ' ship,' Eng. 
float, ' a thing that swims on the surface 
of a fluid, e.g. a raft' (verb float is a 
denom. of this), Ger. Floss, 'raft'; finally 
Eng. fleet, ' streamlet or bay,' whence The 
Fleet, as name of a small affluent of the 
Thames at London and of a famous prison 
thereon, and Fleet Street, which crossed 
The Fleet.] 
+ a , bathe, intrans. 

+ sam-a, 1. bathe, Intrans.; 2. 
bathe, trans. ; inundate ; suffuse, 10 19 . 
+ u d , spring up. 
+ upa, hover unto. 

+ vi, float asunder; drift in different 
directions ; be dispersed ; be lost ; be 
ruined or dishonored. 

V phal (phalati ; paphala ; phalita ; 
phulla [958]). burst, split, intrans. [prob. 
for *spal, of which Vsphat (i.e. *sphalt), 
' split, break,' is an extension : cf . Ger. 
spalten, Eng. split. ,] 

4-ud, burst out or open; utphulla [958], 
expanded, wide open. 

V phala (phalati). bear fruit ; fruit ; 
phalitam, impersonally, it is fruited, fruit 
is borne (by a thing, instr.), 24 2 ~>. [denom. 
of phala, 1054.] 

phala, n. 1. fruit; 2. then (like Eng, 
fruit), the good or evil consequences ol 
human deeds ; result ; reward or punish- 
ment, [perhaps ' the ripe and bursting 
fruit,' fr. Vphal.] 

phalavant, a. fruitful; yielding good 
results, [phala, 1233a.] 

phulla, a. burst open, expanded, bloom- 
ing, [see Vphal and 958.] 

phullotpala, a. having blooming lo- 
tuses ; as n. Blooming-lotus, name of a 
lake, [utpala.] 

ph6na, m. foam. 

V banh or bah (badhd [223 s ] ; cans. 
banhayate). be thick, firm, strong; caus. 
make strong, [perhaps for *bhagh: see 
bahii and bahu.] 

baka, m. heron, Ardea nivea. 

baka-murkha, m. heron-fool, fool of a 
heron. [1280b.] 

baddha-mandala, a. having con- 
structed-circles, i.e. ranged in circles. 
[V bandh.] 

v' bandh (badhnati, badhnit6 [730] ; 
babandha, bedhe ; bandhisyati, bhant- 
syati ; baddha ; bandhitum, banddhum, 
baddhum ; baddhva ; -badhya). 1. 
bind; fasten; catch; esp. bind (a victim 
for the gods, i.e.), sacrifice; baddha: 
bound ; caught ; fastened ; 2. bind to- 
gether, join ; and then (iv. a specialization 
of mg like that seen in the Eng. joiner), 
construct, e.g. a bridge; compose (verses, 
cf. Lat. serere). [for *bhandh: cf. -rrevO- 
ep6s, 'connection (by marriage)'; ireTo-^a, 
*irfv0/j.a, ' rope ' ; Lat. of-fend-ix, ' knot ' ; 
fld-es, ' string ' ; foed-us, ' league ' ; Eng. 
bind, band: for mgs, cf. Eng. connection 
and league w. Lat. con-nectere and ligdre, 
' bind together.'] 

+ ni, 1. bind; fasten; 2. (bind down 
together, put down connectedly, i.e.) put 
into written form, write down, 53 6 . 
+ p r a , bind on ; connect onward, form 
an advancing connection, form a continued 

+ sam, bind together, con-nect ; sam- 
baddha, con-nected, co-herent (w. the same 
flg. mg as in Eng.}. 

bandha, m. 1. a binding; esp. a binding 
to the sacrificial post (see bandh 1), sac- 
rifice; 2. band, string. [V bandh: cf. 
Eng. band.~] 



bandhana, a. binding; as n. bond or 
bonds. [-Jbandh.] 

baiidhu, m. 1. connection or relation- 
ship; 2. (concrete, as in Eng.) a connec- 
tion, relative ; friend ; one who belongs 
to (a certain caste, for example). [Vbandh, 

barbara, a. stammering, balbutiens ; as 
m. 1. pi. foreigners, ot SapjSapoj, name 
applied by Aryans to non-Aryan folks 
(as Welsh ana* Walsch by English and 
Germans to folks that speak a strange 
tongue) ; 2. sing, a man of lowest origin; 
a wretched wight, wretch, 30 10 . [cf. 
&dpf}a.pos, 'foreign, outlandish'; Lat. bal- 
bus, ' stammering,' whence Spanish 6060, 
' blockhead,' Eng. booby.] 

bar ha, m. n. tail-feather. [prop, 'pluck- 
ings,' v' 1 brh, ' pluck ' : cf . the no less 
arbitrary specialization of mg in Eng. 
pluck, 'that which is plucked out after 
killing a beast, its liver, lights, heart,' 
and, fig., 'courage.'] 

barhina, m. peacock, 68 2 . [transition- 
stem fr. barhin, 1223f, 1209c.] 

bar bin, m. (having tail-feathers, i.e. the 
tail-feathered bird KO.T' f^o-^v,) the pea- 
cock, [barha.] 

bar hi s, n. grass or straw of Ku9a-grass, 
spread over the sacrificial ground to serve 
as a place for the oblations and as a seat 
for gods and offerers, [prop. ' that which 
is torn up, vulsum, pluckings,' v'lbrh, 
' tear, pluck ' : for mg, cf . Eng. hay, 
'cuttings,' from hew, 'cut.'] 

bala, n. 1. might, power, strength, force ; 
balat, forcibly ; 2. then, as in Eng., force 
(for making war) ; forces, troops, 5 4 . [for 
*vala : cf . Lat. valere, ' be strong, well.'] 

bala -da [352], a. strength-giving. [1269.] 

balavant, a. powerful. [1233a.] 

baladhika, a. superior in strength, 
[adhika: 1265.] 

balanvita, a. connected with power ; 
suggestive of power, [anv-ita, Vi.] 

bali, m. 1. of-fering, tribute; 2. esp. 
portion of a daily meal or sacrifice offered 
as tribute to gods, semi-divine beings, 
men, animals, esp. birds, and even inani- 
mate objects, 65-. [perhaps fr. vbhr: 

if so, cf ., for the mg, <f>6pos, ' tribute,' w 

<t>fpw, 'bear, bring.'] 

balin, a. mighty, I 3 , [bala, 1230a.] 
balistha, a. most mighty; very strong. 

[balin, 468 2 .] 
balonmatta, a. frenzied or crazed with 

power, [unmatta, \'mad + ud.] 
V bah, see banh. 
bahis-karya, grdv. to be put outside, 

to be banished. [bahis and kr, 'do, 

put/ 1078 7 .] 
bahis-krta, ppl. put out, expelled. 

[bahis and kr, 'do, put,' 1078 7 .] 
bahih-paridhi, adv. outside the en- 
closure (see paridhi). [1310a.] 
bahis, adv. [lllld], outside; as prep, out- 
side of, w. abl. [1128]. 
bahii, a. much, many; bahu man, consider 

as much, think much of, esteem. [Vbanh 

or bah : cf . TT&XVS, ' thick.'] 
bahudha, adv. many times. [bahu, 

bahumana, m. esteem, respect. [Vman 

+ bahu.] 

bahumana -pur ahsaram, adv. with re- 
spect. [1302c2, 1311.] 
bahula, a. 1. thick; 2. abundant; 

much. [in mg 1, perhaps directly fr. 

Vbah, 1189, and in mg 2, fr. bahu, 1227.] 
bahulausadhika, a. having abundant 

herbs, [osadhi, 1307.] 
V badh (badhate ; babadb.6; abadhista ; 

badhisyati, -te ; badhita ; badhitum ; 

-badhya). press hard; distress; beset. 

[see Vvadh: cf. Lat. de-fend-ere, 'press 

or ward off ' ; of-fend-ere, ' press hard 

upon, hurt.'] 

+ n i , press down heavily, 
badh a, a. distressing ; as m. distress. 

bandhava, m. (having connection or 

relationship, i.e.) a relative ; friend. 

[bandhu, 1208c.] 
bala, a. young, not grown; as subst. m. 

and f. 1. child (distinguished from 

yuvan, 'young man,' 28 12 ); boy; girl; 

2. applied to a grown person (cf. Eng. 

childish, puerile), child or booby, w. double 

my, 61 21 . 
balaka, a. young; as m. child, [bala.] 



balapatya, n. young offspring, of men 
and of animals, [apatya.] 

baspa, m. tears. 

baspakula, a. agitated by tears, [akula.] 

bahu, 7/1. arm; esp. fore-arm; of beasts, 
the fore-leg, csp. the upper part thereof, 
101 1D . [for *bhaghu: cf. -x?ix' JS > Doric 
TTO.XVS, *(j>ax.vs, ' fore-arm ' ; AS. bog, ' arm ' 
and ' arm of a tree, i.e. branch,' Eng. bough, 
' arm of a tree/ Ger. Bug, ' shoulder, hip ' ; 
also Dutch boeg, Eng. bow, ' shoulder of a 
ship/ bow-sprit, ' bow-spar.'] 

bahu-yuddha, n. arm-fight, wrestling. 

bahulya, n. abundance; commonness, 
state of being usual ; concretely, usual 
order of things; -at, from or in accord- 
ance with the usual order of things, in 
all probability, 24 21 . [bahula, 1211.] 

bahya, a. being outside, external; at end 
of cpds, equiv. to Eng. extra- at beg. of 
cpds. [bahls, 1211: cf. 1208a 2 end.] 

bid a la, m. cat. 

bimba, m. n. disk of sun or moon. 

bila, n. cleft; hollow. [perhaps fr. Vbil 
or bid, collateral forms of bhid, ' cleave.'] 

bija, n. seed, of plants and animals. 

buddha, ppl. awakened; illumine; en- 
lightened ; esp., as m. The Enlightened 
One, epithet of Gautama of the Cakya 
tribe, [v/budh: for budh-ta (160), the 
formal equivalent of -irvd-ro- in &TTV<TTOS, 
'not having learned.'] 

buddhi, f. 1. insight, understanding, 
intellect; mind, 13 13 ; wit, wits; 2. 
mind in the sense of opinion (as in Eng.); 
belief ; at end of cpds : vyaghra-buddhya, 
with tiger-belief, (mistakenly) thinking 
that it was a tiger, 34 15 ; 3. mind in the 
sense of purpose, resolve (as in Eng.); 
buddhim kr, make up one's mind, 58 12 ; 
buddhim pra-kr, mid., put a plan before 
one's self, decide, 9 11 . [v'budh, 1157: 
for budh-ti (160), the formal equivalent 
of TfvffTis, *irjO-Ti-s, ' an inquiring.'] 

buddhi -jivin, a. living by one's mind, 
employing one's intelligence, intelligent. 

buddhimant, a. possessing understand- 
ing; intelligent. 

V budh (b6dhati, -te ; biidhyate ; bub6dha, 
bubudh6 ; abuddha [160] ; bhotsyati, 

-te ; buddha ; b6ddhum ; buddhva ; 
-budhya). 1. be awake; 2. come to 
consciousness ; hence 3. notice ; give 
heed to, w. gen., 76 1 -; 4. notice, i.e. 
perceive ; and so, become acquainted with ; 
understand ; 5. rarely, (like Eng. re- 
member a person, i.e.) present a person 
with a thing (instr.); cans. 6a. cause 
to notice or understand ; 6b. teach ; 
announce to. 

[for *bhudh, orig. ' be awake/ cf. 
Church Slavonic bud-eti, ' be awake ' : the 
cognate words of the related languages 
agree closely in form, but show consider- 
able diversity of mgs : mg 4 mediates 
the transition to the idea of the Greek 
V IT j0, *<pv6, in irv0ecrda.i, ' find out ' : mgs 5 
and 6 form the bridge to the principal 
Germanic mgs, ' offer ' and ' command ' : 
cf . Goth, ana-biud-an, (prob. ' give notice 
to/ and so) 'command/ AS. beod-an, 
' announce, offer, command/ Eng. bid, 
' announce, offer in words, offer in general, 
esp. at an auction, declare, proclaim, com- 
mand, invite/ Ger. biet-en, 'offer'; (from 
an entirely different root is Eng. bid, AS. 
biddan, Ger. bitten, 'pray/ as in bid beads, 
'pray prayers';) cf. also Eng. noun bode, 
' announcement/ whence denom. verb 
bode, ' foretell ' : for mg 5, observe the 
analogy of Ger. Jemand bedenJcen, 're- 
member or take notice of a person esp. in 
one's will, i.e. make a bequest to.'] 
+ ni, attend to, 58 J ; understand, know, 
7 9 . 

+ pra, come forth (from sleep) to con- 
sciousness ; awake, intrans. 
+ prati, awake, intrans.; awake, trans., 
76 3 . 

budh. a, a. awake; intelligent; wise ; as m. 
wise man. [v'budh.] 

bubhuksa, f. desire to eat, hunger, [fr. 
desicl. of v2bhuj, 'frui/ 1149 4 .] 

V 1 1 b r h , collateral form of V vrh, ' pluck/ q.v. 

V 2 brh (brnhati, -te ; babarha; brdha ; 
cans, brnhayati, -te). be thick, great, 
strong, in brhant, q.v.; cans, make great, 

brh, / prayer, conceived as a swelling and 
filling of the heart in devotion. [ :?brh.] 



brhat-katha, /. Great-Story, title of a 
collection of stories ascribed to Gunadh- 
ya (gunadhya), and abridged by Soma- 
deva under the name Kathasaritsagara. 
[brhant, 1249a, 1279.] 

brhad-aijva, a. possessing great or 
powerful horses ; as m. Brihada9va, name 
of the sage who narrates the story of Xala 
to Yudhishthira. [brhant (1249a) + agva, 
1298 : cf. *Me7aA.-(7T7ros, which is similarly 
compounded and of like meaning.] 

brhant [450a], a. great; mighty; lofty, 
[present ppl. of V 2 brh, ' be great.'] 

bfhas-pati, m. Brihaspati, name of a 
divinity in which the activity of the pious 
in their relations towards the gods is per- 
sonified, the mediator between gods and 
men, and the type of the priest and of 
the priestly dignity ; later, god of wisdom 
and eloquence, ['lord of prayer,' brh- 
as + pati : for cpd, see 1250 and d, and 
1267d; for acct, Whitney 94b ; for eu- 
phony, 171 2 .] 

baijika, a. pertaining to the semen; of 
guilt, inherited from one's father, [bija, 
1222e and e2.] 

brahma-carya, n. life of holiness 
(brahman), walk and conversation of a 
Brahman student (brahman), esp. chas- 
tity ; religious studentship, the first of 
the four periods of a Brahman's life, see 
agrama. [brahman (1249a 2 ) or brahman 
(probably both) +carya, equiv. of carya: 
acct, 1272, 1213c.] 

brahma-carin, a. (busying one's self 
with, i.e.) studying sacred knowledge ; 
as m. Brahman student, 65 8 ; as adj. esp. 
observing chastity, 64 u , 100 21 . [brah- 
man, 1249a 2 .] 

brahmanyk, a. pertaining or attached 
to the holy life and study (brahman), i.e. 
pious ; attached or friendly to Brahmans 
(brahman). [1212dl.] 

brahma-daya, m. sacred-word heritage, 
heritage consisting of the sacred word, 
[brahman, 1249a 2 .] 

brahmadaya-hara, a. receiving the 
sacred word as a heritage. 

brahma-dvfs, a. devotion-hating, god- 
less, [brahman, 1249a 2 : acct, 1269.] 

braliman, . 1. devotion (conceived as 
a swelling and filling of the soul with 
adoration for the gods), worship, in gen- 
eral, any pious expression in the worship 
of the gods ; hymn of praise, praise, 73 6 - 10 , 
744.11. prayer, 76 15 ; 2. sacred word, 
word of God (opp. to the profane), 60 8 ; 

3. divine science, 57 13 ; sacred learning, 
theology, theosophy; 4. holy life, i.e. 
chastity ; 5. the (impersonal) spirit 
that pervades the universe. [v'2brh, 
1168. Ic : brahman (n.) is to brahman (m.) 
as prayer ('supplication') is to pray-er 

brahman, m. 1. pray-er, 76 18 ; wor- 
shipper ; priest, 88 9 , RV. x. 125. 5 ; pray-er 
by profession, Brahman ; 2. the imper- 
sonal universe-pervading spirit (brdhman 
6), personified as a god, i.e. Brahman, the 
Supreme All-soul, 57 * 8 ; in the theological 
system, the Creator of the world, 67 17 . 
[V2brh, see brahman.] 

brahmarsi, m. priest-sage, priestly sage, 
see 1 14 N. [brahman (1249a 2 ) + f si, 127, 

brahmavarcasa, n. pre-eminence in 
sacred learning or holiness, [for brah- 
mavarcas, which occurs only in derivs : 
brahman (1249a 2 ) + varcas, 1315c.] 

brahmavarcasvin, a. eminent in 
divine knowledge. [' possessing brahma- 
varcasa,' q.v. : 1232.] 

brahma-vedin, a. knowing divine 
knowledge, [brahman, 1249a 2 .] 

brahma-han [402], a. Brahman-slaying; 
as m. murderer of a Brahman, [brah- 
man, 1249a 2 .] 

brahma,y. -I, a. 1. pertaining to brah- 
man, divine ; holy, 59 6 ; spiritual, 61 15 ; 

2. pertaining to brahman, in loth its 
senses, i.e.: 2a. of Brahmans; 2b. of 
Brahman or (anglicized) Brahma, the 
Creator, 57 s3 , 58 9 . [brahman and brah- 
man, 1208a 2 end.] 

brahmana, m. (having to do with brah- 
man or prayer and praise and divine 
science, i.e.) priest, 84 15 ; theologian, 
Brahman, 57 16 ; f. brahmani, woman 
of the priestly caste, Brahmanee. [brah- 
man, w. usual shift of acct, 1208a.] 



brahmana, n. (of a brahman, of a priest 
or Brahman, i.e.) the dictum of a priest 
on matters of faith and cultus ; esp. a 
Brahmana, as designation of one of a 
class of Vedic writings which contain 
these dicta. [brahman, w. usual shift 
of acct, 1208a.] 

brahmana-vada, m. a statement of 
the Briihmanas. [brahmana.] 

V brii (bravlti [632], brute: the second 
clause of 632 should read " before the 
initial consonant of an ending"). 1. act. 
say ; w. dot. of person and ace. of tiling, 
10 21 , 96 14 ; iv. ace. of person and either 
oratio recta (12 5 , 60 7 - 23 , 98") or else ace. 
of thing (95 13 ) ; speak to, w. ace. of person, 
3 14 ; speak of, iv. ace. of person, II 18 ; 
say, i.e. announce, tell; w. vacas, tiros 
flirelv, 10 18 ; u: punar, answer, 8 3 ; 2. 
middle, brute (used esp. to introduce oratio 
recta and without designation of the person 
addressed], says, inquit, 20 18 , 28 *, 30 5 - 10 - 12 , 
35 18 . 

+ apa, remove (the thought or recollec- 
tion of a thing or person, ace., from a 
person, abl.) by speaking, i.e. try to con- 
sole a person (abl.) for the loss of a thing 
or person (ace.), 92 14 . [this locution is 
apparently like the Eng. colloq. phrase 
"I'll talk it (his opinion) out o/him."] 
+ pra, tell forth, proclaim, 75 13 ; an- 
nounce, 88 7 ; then (like the Eng. tell of, 
bad and colloquial tell on), inform against, 
betray, 93 1; . 
+ prati, speak back to (ace.), answer. 

V bhaks (bhaksati, -te; bhaksita; bhak- 
situm ; -bhaksya ; bhaksayati [1041 2 ]). 
(partake, enjoy, i.e.) eat; consume; de- 
vour, [old desid. of vfbhaj, 108g end: of. 
bhiks, and for mg, V 2 ag, ' eat.'] 

bhaksa, m. the enjoying, eating or drink- 
ing ; food ; at end of adj. cpds, having 
as food, living on . [V bhaks.] 

bhaksaka, m. eater. [V bhaks: see 1181a 

bhaksitavya, grdv. to be eaten. 
[V bhaks, 964 2 .] 

bhaksin, a. eating. [V bhaks, 1183 8 .] 

bhaksya, grdv. to be eaten, eatable; 
as n. proper food. [V bhaks, 963.] 

bhaga, m. 1. (he who deals out, i.e.) 
dispenser ; rich or kind master ; lord, fre- 
quent epithet of Savitar so 74 17 ; 2. 
esp. Bhaga, name of an Aditya, from 
whom welfare is expected and who brings 
about love and institutes marriage, 89 ; 

3. portion ; lot (w. dur-, su-) ; fortune ; 
esp. (as in Eng.}, good fortune, happy lot; 
-4. loveliness. [Vbhaj, 216.1: -1. cf. 
Old Persian l>aga, 'God'; 807010$ Zcvs 
$pvyios ; Slavonic bogii, 'God'; for mg, 
cf. Eng. lord, AS. hldf-ord (Maf-weard?), 
' loaf-ward, loaf -keeper ' ; 3. for mg, cf . 
the relation of /j.6pos, ' lot, fate,' to e^uop-e, 
'gat a share.'] 

bhagavant,a. 1. fortunate, possessing 
a happy lot, blessed ; then 2. (like Eng. 
blessed) heavenly, august, lordly, applied 
to Indra, Brahma, The Self-existent, the 
Wood-deity, Sun, Moon, Earth, etc. ; used, 
esp. in voc., as a form of address, so 94 8 , 
26 4 . [bhaga.] 

bhagin, a. fortunate; happy; splendid; 

bhagini, f. sister (the happy one 
so far forth as she has a brother). 

bhagiratha, m. Bhagiratha, name of an 
ancient king, who brought the Ganges 
down from heaven, [perhaps fr. bhagin 
+ ratha, ' having a splendid chariot.'] 

bhagna, see 957c. 

bhagna-bhanda, a. having broken pots 
or [1308] who broke the pots. 

bhagnaga, a. having broken hopes, dis- 
appointed. [aa, 334 2 .] 

bhanga, m. a breaking, [v'bhafij, 216. 1.] 

V bhaj (bhajati, -te; babhaja, bhej6 [794el; 
abhaksit, abhakta [883] ; bhajisyati,-te; 
bhaktd ; bhaktum ; bhaktva ; -bhaj y a ; 
cans, bhajayati). 1. deal out; appor- 
tion ; divide ; then (as Eng. share means 
both 'give a part of and 'have a part of) 

2. middle, have as one's part, receive ; 
have or take part in ; 3. give one's self 
up to; 4. (choose as one's part, i.e.) de- 
clare one's self for, prefer, 15 3 ; 5. be- 
take one's self to ; turn to ; go to, 20 10 ; 

6. belong to, be attached to ; revere ; 

V bhanj] 


love, 9 2; caus. cause to have a share, 
w ace. of person and yen. of tiling, 83 8 . 

[cf . (pay-flv, ' get one's portion, eat/ 
w. a specialization of mg like those seen 
in Eng. partake and take as used with the 
implied object food or drink, in bhakta, 
' thing divided, portion, food,' and in 
bhaks : akin are the names of the two 
food-trees yielding eatable nuts (acorns, 
buck-mast), Qdyds, (p-ny6s, 'oak,' ~La,t.fagus, 
'beech,' AS boc, Eng. buck-, 'beech-,' in 
buck-mast, beech-nuts,' and buck-wheat (so 
called from the likeness of the kernels to 
beech-nuts), AS. bece, Eng. beech: with hoc, 
' beech,' is ident. hoc, ' book,' orig. ' runes 
scratched on branches of a fruit-bearing 
tree,' see Tacitus, Germania, x. ; such a 
branch was called by a name which became 
in Old High Ger. puah-stap or buoh-stab, 
and meant orig. ' beech-staff ' , but the 
word came to be used for the significant 
thing on the branch, ' the rune or letter,' 
AS boc-stsef, Ger. Buch-stabe.~\ 
+ a, act., sometimes mid., deal out to, give 
a person (ace.) a share in a thing (loc.). 
+ v i , part asunder ; divide. 
+ pra-vi, divide. 

+ 8am-vi, 1. divide a thing (ace.) 
with a person (instr.) ; give a share; 
2. present a person (ace.) with a thing 

V bhanj (bhanakti; babhanja; abhank- 
sit ; bhanksyati ; bhagna [957c] ; bhank- 
tva ; -bhajya). break. [opinions are 
divided as to whether Mbhanj, 2bhuj, 
and bham (see these) orig. began w. bhr- ; 
cf giri-bhraj, 'breaking forth from the 
mountains ' : if bhanj does stand for 
*bhranj, then Lat. frangere, 'break,' 
nau-frag-a, ' ship-breaking ' (tempestas), 
and Ger brechen, Eng. break are akin.] 

bhattara, m. lord. [a transition-stem 
(399) fr bhartr : corresponding to the 
strong ace. s. form bhartar-am, taken as 
if it were bhartara-m, is made the nom. 
s bhartara-s, etc. ; both transition to 
the a-declension, and assimilation of rt 
to tt are regular in Prakrit.] 

bhattaraka, m. lord, fi-'.plied to gods 
and learned men. [bhattara, 1222c 1.] 

bhattaraka- vara, m. lord's day, Sun- 

bhadra, a. 1. praiseworthy, pleasing; 
gladsome, 76*, 90 n ; 2. good, happy, 
84 3 ; voc. f., good lady, 9 r) ; bhadram, 
adv., w. kr or a-car, do well, 22 n , 23 19 ; 
3. favorable, auspicious, 86 8 ; as n., 
sing, and pi., welfare, prosperity, 20 16 ; 
w. kr, grant welfare to a person (dat.), 
bless, 69". [Vbhand, 1188a.] 

bhadra-kft, a. granting welfare; bless- 
ing. [1269.] 

V bhancl (bhandate). receive jubilant 

bhandistha, a. most loudly or best 

bhaya, n. 1. fear, anxiety; in composi- 
tion w. the thing feared, 10 12 , 31 9 , 46 5 ; 
fear of a thing (abl.), 40 w ; bhayat, from 
fear, 20", 36*, 41 17 ; then, as conversely 
in Eng., fear (orig. ' danger,' so Job 39. 22) 
has come to mean 'anxiety,' 2. danger, 
peril, 25 19 , 42*4. [Vbhl, 1148. la: for 
mg 2, cf. samdeha.] 

bhayarta, a. stricken with fear, [arta.] 

bhara, m. 1. a bearing, carrying; 2. 
burden ; weight, 50 J ; 3. mass, quan- 
tity; 4. (w. specialization as in Lat. 
pondus, ' weight,' then also ' pound ') a 
particular quantity or measure, in nir-. 
[Vbhr: cf. <f>toff-<t>6po-s, Lat. luci-fer(u-s), 
' light-bringing ' ; AS. horn-bora, ' horn- 
bearing, trumpeter ' : for mgs 2-4, cf . 
Eng. weigh, orig. 'bear up, lift,' as in 
weigh anchor, AS. wegan, ' carry, bear,' 
and weight, ' burden,' then ' mass,' then 
'definite mass.'] 

bharata, a. to be supported or main- 
tained ; esp. to be kept alive by the care 
of men, as epithet of the god Agni ; as m. 
Bharata, name of a patriarchal hero. 
[Vbhr, 1176e.] 

bhargas, n. radiant light ; glory. [Vbhrj 
or bhraj , q.v., 216. 1 8 : cf . QXtyos, n., 
' flame ' ; Lat. fulgur, ' lightning.'] 

bhartr, m. 1. bearer; 2. supporter, 
maintainer; lord; husband, 10 21 . [Vbhr, 
1182b: cf. Lat./ertor, 'bearer.'] 

bhavd, m. the coming into existence. 



bhavat-purva, a. having bhavant as 
first or preceding; -am, adv. [1311], in a 
way having bhavant first, i.e. with the 
voc. s. f. of bhavant at the beginning of 
one's begging formula. 

bhavadaharartham, adv. for your 
food, ['in a way having your food as 
object,' 1311, 1302c 4 : bhavant + ahara 
and artha.] 

bhavaduttaram, adv. with bhavant 
as last (word of one's begging formula), 
[ace. s. n. of adj. *bhavad-uttara, 1311.] 

bhavana, n. dwelling, abode, house, 
[prop. ' an existing,' then ' place of exist- 
ing,' v'bhii, 1150. la. so Eng. dwelling and 
abode and Lat. man-sio meant ' a waiting, 
an abiding,' and then ' abiding-place, 
maison ' : cf . also mandira and asta.] 

bhavant [456], a. lordly; used in re- 
spectful address as substitute [514] for 
pronoun of the second person, and trans- 
latable by your honor, thou (e.g. 6 23 ), ye 
(e.g. 7 6 , 12 10 ) ; used in the pi. of a single 
person to express greater courtesy, 19 * 2 , 
28 4 - 5 ; used in the voc. s. m. (bhavas, con- 
tracted) bhos, f. bhavati, as word of 
address, (lord, master, mister,) sir, lady, 
[prob. a contraction of bhagavant : cf . 

61 M N.] 

bhavan-madhy a, a. having bhavant as 
middle (word) ; -am, adv. [1311], with the 
voc. s. f. of bhavant as the middle (word 
of one's begging formula). 

bhavitavya, grdv. deserving to become, 
destined to be, about to be ; impers. [999], 
maya bhavitavyam, sc. asti, I must be, 
23 13 ; bhavitavyam, it must be, 27 14 . 
[Vbhu, 964.] 

V bhas (babhasti [678]; bhasita). chew, 
bite ; crush ; devour, consume ; bhasita, 
consumed to ashes, [cf. <pa.n-fj.ri, *<f>acr-fj.ii, 
' barley-groats ' : w. the 3d pi. ba-ps-ati 
cf . the collateral form psa and tyd-/j.a-0os, 
' sand.'] 

bhasman, n. ashes, ['consumed': see 
V bhas.] 

V bha (bhati; babhau; bhasyati; bhata). 
be bright, shine ; appear. [cf. <^TJ-^, 
Lat. fa-ri, ' make appear, reveal, say ' ; 
Eng. ban, 'public proclamation, manda- 

tory or prohibitory,' ' notice (of mar- 
riage),' etc.: cf. v'vbhas, bhas.] 
+ a, shine upon ; illumine. 
+ u d , shine out, become manifest, 56 20 . 
+ nis, shine forth from (a&/.), Jig. 
-l-pra, shine forth; begin to be light 
(of the night). 
+ v i , shine far and wide. 

bhaga, m. part: 1. allotted part, 96 20 ; 
share, 84 10 ; lot ; esp. happy lot ; 2. in 
post-Vedic, portion (not lot), 64 22 ; 3. 
place, spot (cf. Eng. parts, 'regions'), 

bhaga-dheya, n. (bestowal or allotment 
of a part, i.e. ) portion, 88 7 ; esp. bestowal 
of a goodly lot, blessing, 82 4 . [1213c.] 

bhagagas, adv. part by part; gradually, 
[bhaga, 1106.] 

bhagiratha, a. of Bhagiratha; -i, /. 
the stream (nadi) of Bh., the Ganges, 
[bhagiratha, 1208f.] 

bhagya, n. lot; fate; esp. happy lot; 
luck; bhagyena, luckily, [bhaga, 1211.] 

bhajana, n. vessel, dish. [lit. 'receiver,' 
Vbhaj, mg2: 1150. lb.] 

b hand a, n. 1. vessel, pot; vat; dish; 
2. generalized (like patra), Utensil ; 
wares or ware. 

bhanda-miilya, n. capital consisting of 
wares ; stock in trade. 

bhanu, m. light; beam. [Vbha, 1162.] 

v' bham (bhamita). rage, be angry, 
[orig., perhaps, 'be agitated,' and so, a 
Prakritic form of bhram, q.v. : for loss 
of r, see under Vbhanj.] 

bham a, m. rage, fury. [Vbham.] 

bhara, m. burden. [Vbhr.] 

bharata, a. descended from Bharata ; 
as m. descendant from Bharata, epithet 
of Yudhishthira, to whom Brihadacva 
tells the story of Nala. [bharata, 1208f.] 

bharika, m. carrier, [bhara.] 

bharya, grdv. to be supported or main- 
tained ; -a, / wife. [Vbhr, 963b.] 

bharyatva, n. condition of being wife 
or (among animals) mate, [bharya.] 

bhava, TO. 1. the becoming, 61 2 ; exist- 
ence, 15 18 ; being; in cpds, used as equiv. 
to the suffix tva or ta, condition of being , 
35 21 , 49 12 ; -2. (way of being, i.e.) con- 



dition; 3. (way of being, i.e.) nature; 
4. natural disposition ; feeling ; 5. 
feelings ; heart, 30 18 ; 6. the existent ; 
existent thing, 66 9 . [V bhu, 1148. 2.] 

bhavin, a. becoming, coming into exist- 
ence; about to be, destined to be, 18 9 ; 
future, 38 13 ; -ini, f. a beautiful woman. 
[Vbhu, 1183 s end.] 

\f bhas (bhasate ; babhase ; abhasista ; 
bhasita; bhasitum; bhasitva; -bhasya). 
speak; talk; say. [perhaps for *bhask, 
a sk-formation fr. Vbha: 182a.] 
+ abhi, speak unto, address, w. ace.; 
speak, without object. 
+ prati, speak back, answer. 

bh as a, /. speech, language, [vfbhas.] 

bhasita, ppl. spoken; as n. [1176a], what 
is spoken, the words. [Vbhas.] 

V bhas (bhasati, -te ; babhas6 ; bhasita). 
shine, [cf. Vbha.] 

+ prati, shine over against, make a 
show, appear well. 

bhas, n. light. [Vbhas: but cf. 1151. lc 2 .] 

bhas-kara, m. the sun. [' light-making ' : 
171 3 .] 

V bhiks (bhiksate; bibhikse; bhiksisye; 
bhf ksitum ; bhiksitva). desire to have 
a share for one's self, wish for ; then (like 
the Eng. desire, 'express a wish for'), re- 
quest; beg; esp. go begging for food, 
[old desid. of Vbhaj, lOSg 1 end: cf. 

bhiksa,/. 1. the act of begging, beg- 
ging ; 2. that which is got by begging, 
alms. [Vbhiks, 1149 4 : w. the relation of 
1 to 2, cf. that of Eng. getting, 'act of 
getting,' to getting, ' that which is got.'] 

V bhid (bhinatti, bhintte; bibheda, bi- 
bhid6 ; abhet [832] ; bhetsyati, -te ; 
bhinnA [957d] ; bhettum ; bhittva ; 
-bhidya). cleave, cut asunder; break in 
twain, 102 14 ; smite sore (in battle), 81 5 ; 
pound, bruise, crush (as a reed), 70 15 ; 
pierce. [orig. 'split, crush': cf. Lat. 
ftndo, 'cleave,' perfect fidi; Ger. beissen, 
Eng. bite; also bit, 'morsel,' and bit, 'part 
of a bridle ' ; bitter, used of a sword, w. a 
trace of the orig. mg, Beowulf, 2705 ; 
caus. bait, in bait a bear, ' make dogs bite 
him,' and bait a horse, 'let him eat.'] 

-t- pra, split forth or open. 

+ vi, split asunder; break to pieces, 


bhiyds, m. fear, [v'bhi, 1151. 2c.] 

V bhisaj (bhisakti). heal. 

bhisaj, a. healing; as TO. healer. [V bhisaj, 

V bhi (V. bhayate; V. and later, bibheti ; 
bibhaya ; abhaisit ; bhesyati ; bhitA ; 
bhetum ; cas. bhisayate [1042f]). fear; 
be afraid of (abl.) ; bhita, having feared, 
frightened ; caws, affright, [w. bi-bhe-ti, 
cf . Old High Ger. bi-be-t, ' trembles,' whose 
bi- is syllable of reduplication, Ger. bebt, 
AS. beofa^S, ' trembles ' : the connection of 
these words with <t>f-ft-o/, 'am afeard, 
flee in fright,' and tp6&os, ' fear,' is still a 

bhi [351], /. fear. [V bhi, 348.1.] 

bhita, ppl. feared; as n. [1176a], fear. 

bhima, a. fearful, terrible; as m. Bhima, 
name of a Vidarbhan king. [Vbhi, 

bhima-par akr ama, m. terrible 
strength or courage. [1264, 1267.] 

bhlma-parakrama, a. possessing 
bbima-parakrama, 1", 2 3 . [1293.] 

bhima-gasana, n. command or sum- 
mons of Bhima. [1264, 1267.] 

bhirii, a. timid. [Vbhi, 1192.] 

vf Ibhuj (bhujati ; bhugna ; -bhujya). 
bend; turn; make crooked, [so far as 
the meaning goes, the following words 
may well be taken as cognate: ipvy-e'iv, 
Lat. fug-ere, ' turn about, flee ' ; AS. bug-an, 
'bend, turn about' (intrans.), sometimes 
also 'flee,' Eng. verb bow (as in bow down), 
' bend ' ; AS. boga, Eng. bow, ' arcus,' el-bow, 
rain-bow ; Ger. bieg-sam, ' pliable,' Old Eng. 
buh-sum, 'pliable, yielding,' Eng. buxom, 
' lithe, lively, vigorous ' : but the Ger- 
manic g raises phonetic difficulties which 
are not yet satisfactorily cleared up.] 

V 2bhuj (bhunakti, bhunkte ; bubhoja, 
bubhuj6 ; abhujat ; bhoksyati, -te ; 
bhukta ; bh6ktum ; bhuktva). 1. en- 
joy; in Veda, (have use with, i.e.) have 
the use of a thing (and so w. instr.) ; 
2. in later Skt. (like Ger. geniessen, cf. 
also bhoga and bhojana), enjoy esp. food, 


[v bhu 

K;. ace. ; 3. without object, take one's 
meal; then 4. enjoy (things that are 
not food), w. ace., 10 9 ; 5. reap the fruit 
(of sin) at the hands of a person (gen.), 
791"; _6. cans, cause to take food, feed, 
[if f or *bhruj (but this is doubtful see 
V/bhanj), then cf. Lat. frui, *frugvi, 'have 
use with' (a thing, hence instr.-abl.), 
'enjoy'; frug-es, 'fruit'; AS. brucan, 
' enjoy' (food or drink), 'use,' Eng. brook, 
orig. ' use,' now ' put up with.'] 
+ anu, reap the fruit (of good or evil 

+ upa, 1. enjoy, esp. (enjoy food, i.e.) 
eat; 2. reap the fruit (of good or evil 

bhuj am-gama, m. serpent. ['going 
with bending or with crooking': bhujam, 
grd of V Ibhuj, 995 : for mg, cf. khaga.] 

V bhur (bhurati). make short and quick 
motions, twitch, jerk, kick, struggle, stir, 
[cf . <t>vpu, ' stir around, mingle ' ; (p\vw, 
' bubble ' ; Lat. fur-ere, ' be agitated, rage ' ; 
de-frustum, 'boiled off'; Eng. brew, 'boil'; 
bro-th, 'bouillon.'] 

bhurana, a. (like the Encj. stirring, i.e.) 
both 1. moving quickly and 2. active, 
busy. [Vbhur, 1150. 2c.] 

V bhuranya (bhuranyati). be stirring, 
busy, [bhurana, 1059d.] 

bhu van a, n. 1. being, existence; 2. 
world ; 3. with vigva : sing., tout le 
monde ; pi., all beings. [v'bhu, 1150. 

bhuvana-traya, n. world-triad, i.e. 
heaven and atmosphere and earth. 

b h u v a s , the second of the so-called " utter- 
ances" (see vyahrti), bhuvas!, interpreted 
as air or atmosphere, on account of its 
position between bhur and svar. [prob. 
nothing more than the voc. pi. of bhu, 
' ye spaces.'] 

v' bhu (bhavati, -te ; babhuva [789a] ; 
abhiit ; bhavisyati, -te ; bhuta ; bha- 
vitum ; bhutva ; -bhuya ; caus. bhava- 
yati, -te). become, 93 3 , 40 21 , 57 3 , 67 21 , 
3 n ; come into being, 92 17 ; arise, happen, 
take place ; exist ; very often to be ren- 
dered simply by be, 2 15 , 3 18 - 22 , 7 1 ; 
purvam abhud raja, once there was a 

king, 48 * ; tatha bhavatu, so be it, 27 14 ,- 
so 32 1T ; pranjalir bhutva, (having be- 
come pranjali, i.e.) assuming suppliant 
posture, 13 22 ; w. possessive yen., become 
(the property) of a person; adhipatyam 
tasya babhuva, lordship became his, he 
attained lordship, 37 : ; seldom w. dat., 
96 2l) ; imperative, bhavatu: (be it, i.e.) 
good ; enough ; what's the use of talking, 
30 16 , 42 2 ; the thing is clear, 23 7 , 31 6 ; 
tad bhavatu, never mind that, 34 6 ; 

bhuta, see s.v. ; in self-explaining 
periphrases iv. ppls, 49 19 , 52 n , 99 21 ; 

desid. bubhusati [1027], desire to be, 
70 14 . [w. abhut cf. e<t>v, 'became, grew' ; 
cf. Lat. fu-it, 'was' ; Old Lat. fa-at, 'may 
be ' ; AS. beam, ' am ' ; Eng. be.~] 

+ anu, 1. (perhaps be along after, 
and so) come up with, attain; 2. ex- 
perience; enjoy, 24 9 ; 3. (experience, 
i.e.) make practical acquaintance with, 
come to understand; perceive; hear, 4 21 . 
+ abhi, be against [1077 8 ], oppress, 
and so overpower. 

+ ud, arise up, make itself perceptible. 
+ pari, 1. be around, surround, en- 
compass ; 2. (like the Eng. colloq. get 
around, i.e.) get the better of, prove 
superior to ; be superior to, and so 3. 
treat with contempt, 37 s . 
+ pra, 1. come forth into being; 
arise; 2. be before (others), have the 
power ; have power, be strong. 
+ vi, (become asunder, i.e.) expand, de- 
velop ; pervade ; caus. cause to expand 
or open ; discover ; vibhavita, discovered, 
found out. 

+ sam, 1. (unite [intrans.] together, 
and so take form, i.e.) be shapen in its 
old sense, be created ; be born, 97 2 ; come 
into being ; become ; originate ; sam- 
bhuta, sprung from, 19 12 ; 2. exist, 
39 2 ; be, 39 5 ; sambabhuva, am, II V. 
x. 125. 8; 3. happen, 20 12 ; occur; pass 
current, 52"; caus. 1. (cause to be 
together, bring into form, i.e.) make, 
accomplish; 2. honor, 30 12 ; 3. (bring 
together, and so, like Eng. con-jecture) 
suppose, [development of caus. mg 2 



+ abhi-aam, (lit. become unto, i.e.) 
attain (e.g. a condition) by a process of 
change, enter into (e.g. wifehood), 86 19 ; 
be born unto (immortality), 97 8 . 

bhu [351-2], a. at end of cpds, becoming, 
being, existent; as f. 1. a becoming, 
being; 2. the place (for mg, cf. bha- 
vana) of being, the world, space ; pi. 
worlds, spaces (cf. bhuvas) ; 3. the 
earth, as distinguished from heaven and 
atmosphere; bhuvi, on earth; 4. the 
land, lands. [Vbhu, 347.] 

bhuta, ppl. 1. become, been, i.e. past; 
real; 2. having become, being, used in 
composition w. its predicate as a grammati- 
cal device to give the predicate an adj. form 
w. number and gender [1273c], 6 7 , 19*, 29*, 
56 15 ; _3. os n. (that which has become, 
i.e.) a being, divine (90 19 ) or human or 
other ; creature in general, 21 18> **, 57 18 , 
63 12 ; created thing, 58 10 ; world, 91 10 ; 

4. as m. n. uncanny being, ghost, gob- 
lin, 55 19 ; 5. as n. element; panca 
bhutani, five elements (earth, water, fire, 
air, ether, of which the body is composed 
and into which it is dissolved), 66 5 , 68 9 ; 
so 66 ! 8 . [V bhu : cf . $6-r6-v, ' plant, 

bhuta-grama, m. sing, and pi. commu- 
nity of creatures. 

bhuta-bhasa, f. language of the gob- 
lins or Picachas. 

bhu-tala, n. earth-surface, ground, earth, 
[cf. tala.] 

bhuti, f. being, esp. well-being. [Vbhu: 
cf . (pva-ts, ' a being, nature.'] 

bhu-pa, m. protector of the earth or land, 
king, prince. 

bhu-pati, m. lord of the land, king, 

bhu-bhaga, m. spot of the earth, place. 

bhu man, n. earth; world. [Vbhu, 1168. 
Id : for mg, cf. bhu.] 

bhumi,/. -1. earth, 57"; ground, 43 18 ; 

2. land; 3. place, 23 14 ; esp. fit place, 
proper vessel (cf. sthana, patra), 21 6 , 
28 3 . [Vbhu, 1167 : for mg, cf. bhu.] 

bhumi-pati, m. lord of the land, king, 

bhumi-bhaga, m. spot of ground. 

bhumi-stha, a. standing on the ground, 

bhuyans,a. more; greater, ['becoming in 
a higher degree, increasing/ Vbhu, 470 2 .] 

bhur, the first of the three "utterances" (see 
vyahrti), bhur!, O earth. [crystallized 
voc. sing, of bhu.] 

bhuri, a. abundant; much. [Vbhu, 1191: 
cf. bhuyans.] 

bhuri-kala, m. longtime. 

bhuri-sthatra, a. having many sta- 
tions, being in many places. 

bhurni, a. stirring, and so vigilant, jealous 
(of a god). [Vbhur, 1158.2, 245b.] 

V bhu s (bhusati; bhusayati [1041 2 ]). 
1. bhusati, be busy for ; 2. bhusayati, 
(make ready for, i.e.) adorn. 

bhusana, n. ornament. [v'bhus, mg 2: 

V bhr (bibharti [645] ; bharati, -te ; T*. 
jabhara, jabhr6 [789b] ; later, babhara ; 
abharsit ; bharisyati ; bhrta ; bhartum ; 
-bhftya). bear (cf. the various senses of 
bear in Eng.): thus, 1. hold, and so pos- 
sess; 2. bear (in the womb); abharat, 
she bare, 85 15 ; 3. endure ; 4. carry, 
convey; 5. (bear, i.e., as in Latimer) 
win; 6. bring (as an offering, cf. of-fer), 
69", 82 14 ; w. udhar, offer the breast, 
suckle, 78 8 ; 7. (bear, i.e.) support; 
and so (like Eng. support), furnish sus- 
tenance to, 22 2 ; maintain, RV. x. 125. 1 ; 
so also, keep (on hire) ; 8. wear (as Ger. 
tragen means 'bear' and 'wear'); w. 
nakhani. wear the nails, keep them un- 
trimmed, 64 19 . [cf. <>>cp<a, Lat. fero, Eng. 
bear, 'bear' in its various mgs, Ger. ge- 
bdren, ' bring forth ' : AS. bear-n, Eng. 
bairn, 'child,' is an old ppl., lit. 'that 
which is borne or born ' ; cf . also $<&p, Lat. 
fur, ' carrier off, thief ' : see also under 
the derivs, bhara, bhartr, and bhrti ; cf . 
bhara and the following.] 
+ a p a , carry off, take away, airo^e'po). 
+ ava, bear down (an assailing weapon), 
ward off. 

+ a, bear unto, bring to. 
+ upa, bring unto. 

+ ni, only in ppl., nibhrta, (borne down, 
lowered, i.e.) hidden. 



+ pra, act. mid. bring forward; offer; 

prabhrta, brought forward, made ready. 

[cf. irpocpepw, Lat. profero, ' bring for- 
vl bhrjj ( bhrjj ati ; bhrsta ; bhrstva). 

rpast ; parch, esp. grain, [cf . <ppvyw, Lat. 

frigere, 'roast ': akin w. v'bhraj.] 
bhrti, /. the supporting, maintenance. 

[Vbhr, 1157. la: cf. Ger. Ge-bur-t, Eng. 

bhrtya, m. (one who is to be maintained, 

i.e.) servant, [grdv. of Vbhr, 963b.] 
bhrga, a. powerful, 
bhrga-duhkhita, a. (powerfully, i.e.) 

exceedingly pained, 
bhetavya, grdv. to be feared ; bhetavyam, 

impers. [999], timendum est, one should 

fear, 42 3 ; na bhetavyam, never fear. 

[Vbhi, 964.] 
bheda, m. fissure, split, breach; a creating 

of divisions, [v'bhid.] 
bhesaja, f. -i, a. healing; as n. healing 

(subst.). [bhisaj, 1209i.] 
bhaiksa, n. begging; bhaiksam car, go 

a-begging, [bhiksa, 1208e.] 
bhaima, a. descended from Bhima; /. -i, 

Bhima's daughter, Damayanti. [bhlma, 

bhairava, a. fearful, i.e. awful; as m. 

Terrible, name of a hunter. [bhirii, 


bho, see 176a (in 2d ed., see 174b). 
bh6ga, m. enjoyment; use; esp. use of 

food, i.e. eating. [V2bhuj, 'enjoy,' 216. 

bho gin, a. enjoying or having enjoyment; 

esp. enjoying food, well-fed. [not di- 
rectly fr. vf2bhuj, but fr. bhoga, on 

account of the g, 1230c end.] 
bh6jana, n. the enjoying, esp. of food; 

the eating; then (like Eng. eating), food. 

[V2bhuj, 'enjoy,' 1150. la.] 
bhojya, grdv. to be eaten; as n. food, 

supply of food. [V2bhuj, 'enjoy, eat,' 

bhobhavat-purvaka, a. accompanied 

[1302c2] by bhos orbhavant; -am, adv. 

[1311], with bhos or bhavant. 
bho-bhava, m. the becoming bhos; w. 

namnam, the becoming bhos of names, 

i.e. the use of bhos instead of a person's 
real name. 

bhos, excl. of address, thou, sir !, !, ho !, 
halloo ! ; often repeated, e.g. 6 2;? . [for ori- 
gin, see bhavant : for euphonic combina- 
tion, see 176a (in 2d ed., see 174b).] 

bhoh-gabda, m. the word bhos. 

V bhrang or bhrag (bhrangate; bhragyati 
[767]; abhragat; bhrasta). fall. 
+ apa, fall off; see apabhrasta. 

bhranga, m. fall; ruin; loss, [\fbhranc_.] 

V bhram (bhramati, -te; bhramyati, -te 
[763]; babhrama ; bhramisyati ; bhranta 
[955a] ; bhramitum, bhrantum ; bhran- 
tva; -bhramya, -bhramya). 1. move 
unsteadily or without aim; wander; roam, 
36 12 , 23 5 ; flutter, of insects, etc.; 2. 
move in a circle, rotate ; 3. Jig. be wan- 
dering (of the mind) ; be agitated or con- 

[the orig. meanings seem to have in- 
cluded irregular and aimless and rotary 
motion as applied to water, wind, and 
fire, and also to have been transferred to 
the sound thereof : cf . the derivs bhfmi, 
' whirlwind,' bhrama, ' whirling flame ' and 
' whirlpool,' and bhramara, ' bee ' : cf . 
ftpfH-fiv, 'rage,' 'roar' (of storm and 
wave), Ppopos, 'rage, roar'; Lat. frem-erc , 
' rage, roar ' ; Ger. brummen, ' hum, rum- 
ble'; AS. brim, 'surf, surge,' Eng. brim, 
' place of surf, edge, margin ' ; Old Eng. 
brim, ' flame, fire,' preserved in Eng. 
brimstone, 'fire-stone': see also Vbham.] 
+ pari, wander around. 
+ sam, be much confused ; sambhranta, 
agitated, perplexed, in a flutter. 

V bhraj (bhrajate, -ti; babhraja ; abhrat 
[890 or 833?]; bhrajisyate). shine; be 
radiant ; flame ; Jig. be radiant (with 
beauty or glory). [cf. (p\fy-ia, 'flame, 
burn'; tf>\(y-^a, 'flame'; Lat. flam-ma, 
*flag-ma, ' flame '; fulg-ere, 'shine, lighten'; 
AS. bide, 'shining, splendid' (of fires and 
flames), then 'white' (of the dead), Eng. 
bleak, ' pale ' ; bleach, ' whiten.'] 
+ vi, shine. 

bhratr [373], m. brother. [origin un- 
known, cf. 1182d: cf. <f>pa-Ti)p, 'brother, 
esp. one of a brotherhood or clan,' and 



so, ' clansman ' ; Lat. frailer, ' brother ' ; 
Eng. brother.'} 

bhratr-sthana, a. (having, i.e.) taking 
the brother's place ; as i. representative 
of a brother. 

bhruva, for bhru at end ofcpds, 1315c. 

bhru [351], f. brow. [cf. b-<ppv-s, 'eye- 
brow ' ; AS. bru, ' eye-lid ' ; Eng. brow.~\ 

ma [491], pron. root, see aham. [cf. /te, 
Lat. me, AS. me, Eng. me.~\ 

V manh (manhate). make great or abund- 
ant a thing (ace.) for a person (dot.), 
grant abundantly to. [for *magh, cf. 
magha : orig. ' be great,' and trans, 
'make great or high/ and essentially 
ident. w. Vmah: see under \ruah: for 
mg, cf. Lat. largus, 'large, liberal/ w. 
larglri, 'give liberally/ and Eng. large 
with largess."] 

manhistha, a. granting most abundantly, 
most generous. [Vmanh, 467.] 

ma-kara, m. the letter m. [Whitney 18.] 

makha, a. jocund, [cf. Vmah.] 

magadha, m. pi. Magadhans, name of a 
people ; Magadha, name of their country, 
Southern Behar. 

magadha-dega, m. the land of Magadha. 

V magh, see manh. 

magha, n. liberal gift ; bounty. [V magh, 
i.e. manh.] 

maghavan [428], a. 1. abounding in 
liberal gifts, generous; esp., as m., gener- 
ous (patron), designation of the rich lord 
who institutes a sacrifice and pays the 
priests, 88 J cf. suri ; applied in particular 
to Indra, as Rewarder (of priests and 
singers), 70 6 , 71 5 , 73 20 , 75 10 ; -2. in the 
Epos, The Generous One, standing epithet 
of Indra, 5". [magha, 1234.] 

manga la, n. 1. welfare, luck; 2. any- 
thing lucky, auspicious, or of good omen ; 
3. old or traditional usage, 59 18 . 

mangalya, a. lucky, auspicious, of good 
omen, [mangala, 1212d4.] 

mac-chisya, m. pupil of me, my pupil, 
[mad + gisya, 159, 203.] 

V majj (majjati, -te ; mamajja ; amajjit ; 
manksyati, -te ; majjisyati ; magna 

[957c] ; majjitum; -majya). sink under; 
dip one's self ; dive ; duck or sub-merge, 
intrans. [perhaps orig. *mazgh, ' get 
into': cf. madgu, 'duck'; Lat. merg-ere, 
' duck ' ; merg-us, ' diver ' bird : for the 
phonetic relations, cf. majjan, Avestan 
mazga, Church Slavonic mozgu, AS. 
mearg, Eng. marrow, Ger. Mark, all mean- 
ing ' marrow/ and, as meaning originally 
' the inmost part or pith/ prob. from this 
root : see rajju.] 
+ u d , e-merge. 
- n i , sink down ; dip one's self, bathe. 

majjao, Prakrit for marjara-s ('cat') 
and for maj-jara-s ('my paramour'). 

mathara, a. perhaps persistent; as m. 
Mathara, name of a man. 

mani. m. 1. pearl; jewel; 2. water- 

manika, m. large water-jar, [mani.] 

mandapa, m. n. open hall or pavilion. 

mandapika, /. small shed or shop, 
[mandapa, 1222 and d.] 

mandala, n. disk, circle, ring. 

manduka, m. frog; f. manduki [355b], 
female frog. 

mat!,/ 1. (thinking upon, i.e., like the 
Ger. An-dacht, see dhii'j devotion; pious 
hymn or song of praise, 73 10 , 79 6 ; 2. 
thought ; thoughts, 49 3 ; purpose, 73 5 ; 
mind ; intention ; 3. opinion ; 4. un- 
derstanding, 19 9 ; intelligence. [Vman, 
q.v. : cf . Lat. mehs, stem men-ti, ' mind ' ; 
AS. ge-myn-d, ' mind/ Eng. mind.'] 

mati-prakarsa, m. wit-superiority, i.e. 
a fine dodge. 

mat ay a, m. fish. ['the lively one/ 

V math or manth. (mathnati, mathnite ; 
manthati; mathati [746]; mamatha, ma- 
mathus. mamanthus, methiis ; amath- 
It ; mathisyati, -te, manthisyati ; math- 
itd ; mathitum ; mathitva ; -mathya). 
1. stir or whirl ; w. agnim, produce fire 
by whirling the stick of attrition in a dry 
piece of wood ; 2. shake, agitate, dis- 
+ pra, agitate. 

v mad fmadati ; madyati ; mamada ; 
amadit ; madita, matta ; maditum ; mad- 



ayati, -te). 1. bubble, undulate, of 
water, and as a type of joyousness ; 
apam urmir madann iva stomas, praise 
(joyous) as a bubbling water-wave, 81 10 ; 
boil, be agitated; 2. Jig. be (pleasantly 
excited, i.e.) glad; rejoice; w. instr., 83 12 ; 
be exhilarated or intoxicated with joy ; 

3. esp., as describing the life of the 
gods and the blessed, be in bliss ; w. cog- 
nate ace., 83 18 ; 4. trans, gladden, rejoice, 
75 12 ; intoxicate ; matta, drunk ; cans. 

1. act. gladden; 2. mid. take delight, 

[the rather rare physical mg (1) is 
prob. the orig. one, w. a transfer to fig. 
use, as in Eng. bubble over with joy or 
mirth: cf. /xo8-ao>, 'be moist'; Lat. mad-ere, 
'be soaked, full, drunk'; mat-ta-s (mg 4) 
and Lat. mat-tu-s, ' drunk ' : see the colla- 
teral form Vlmand, and Vmud.] 
4-ud, be out (of one's senses) with ex- 
citement; be frantic. 
+ pra, take pleasure. 

mad, so-called stem of 1st pers. pron., 494. 

mad a, m. excitement, inspiration, intoxi- 
cation, 81 4 ; pi. intoxicating drinks, esp. 
Soma-draughts, 81 1J . [Vmad.] 

madly a, a. mine, [mad, 494 3 , 1215d.] 

madgii, m. a water-fowl, ['diver,' Vmajj, 

madhu, a. sweet; as n. sweet food and 
drink : esp. Soma ; milk and its products ; 
oftenest honey, 26 18 . [cf. peOv, 'wine'; 
AS medu, Eng. mead.'] 

madhura, a. sweet; of speeches, honeyed, 
[madhu, 1226a.] 

madhya, 1. as n. middle; w. nabhasas, 
middle of heaven, mid-heaven ; madhye : 
in the middle, 57 12 ; w. gen. [1130] or at 
end of cpd, in the midst of , in , 18 7 , 
2 9 ; 2. m. n. (the middle, i.e.) the waist; 

3. as adj., used like Lat. medius : samu- 
dram madhyam, in medium mare. [cf. 
fj.<Tffos, */j.f6-jo-s, Lat. medius, Goth, midjis, 
AS. mid, Eng. mid-, ' middle.'] 

madhya-ga, a. situated in the middle 
of, tarrying among. 

madhya-carin, a. moving in the mid- 
dle of (w. gen., 1316 2 ), i.e. moving 

madhyam&, 1. midmost, situated be- 
tween; 2. of middling quality, size, etc.; 
.3. as m. n. the middle (of the body), 
waist; 4. as n. the middle (of anything), 
[madhya, 474: cf. 525 3 .] 

V man (manyate; mene [794e] ; amansta; 
mansyate, -ti ; mata ; mantum ; matva ; 
-manya, -matya ; desid. mimansate). be 
minded : 1. think, believe, imagine, 34 18 , 
43 16 ; conjecture ; yadi nanyatha man- 
yase, if thou art not otherwise minded, if 
thou art agreed, 25 8 ; manye, inserted 
parenthetically, methinks, 51 13 ; expect, 
52 n ; 2. consider something (ace.) as 
something (ace.), 13 12 , 37 7 , 55 2/) , 79 8 ; 
praptakalam amanyata, considered (sc. 
it) an arrived time, thought that the time 
had come, 13 20 ; bahu man, consider as 
much, esteem, honor; 3. think fit or 
right, 10 16 ; 4. think upon, set the heart 
on, 3*; 5. have in mind or view, 88 6 ; 

cans., see manaya ; desid. consider, 
examine, call in question, [cf. fj.f-fj.ov-a, 
'mind, i.e. fix the thoughts on, wish, 
strive' (see man 4); Lat. me-min-i, 'keep 
in mind'; AS. prcterito-present man, 'am 
mindful,' and the indirectly connected 
miKnan, Eng. mean, 'have in mind, in- 

+ anu, (be minded after another, i.e.) 
follow another in opinion, assent, ap- 
prove ; consent ; give leave, w. ace. of 
person, 49 4 ; permit, 62 6 . 
+ abhi, 1. put one's mind upon, de- 
sire ; abhimata, desired, agreeable ; 2. 
have intentions against [1077 8 ], plot 

+ ava, (mind, i.e. regard downwards, i.e.) 
regarder de haut en bas, look down upon, 
like the Lat. de-spicere, despise, treat with 

manas, n. mind, in its widest sense as 
applied to the powers of conception, will, 
and emotion : thus, 1. the intellect ; the 
thoughts, 8 16 , 10 5 , 66 7 ; understanding, 
82 17 ; mind, 10 16 , 15", 65i 2 -i 3 ; -2. re- 
flection ; excogitation ; perhaps the thing 
excogitated, praise, or (like dhi2) devo- 
tion, 73 7 ; 3. wish, inclination towards ; 

4. desire; 5. feelings; disposition; 




heart, 78 7 . [V man : cf . n*vos, ' mind, 
spirit ' ; Lat. Miner-va, the goddess ' gifted 
with understanding.'] 

manisa,/. 1. thought ; understanding ; 
instr. manisa, adv. wisely; 2. expression 
of thought and wisdom in saw, prayer, 
and hymn (cf. dhi2). [Vman, 1197b.] 

man! sin, a. 1. having understanding, 
wise; 2. prayerful, devout. [manisa, 

manu, m. 1. man; collectively (as in 
Eng., and like Hebrew adam), man, man- 
kind, 73 19 ; -2. (like Hebrew Adam) The 
Man tear' f^ox'fi", Manu, father of man- 
kind ; Manu, as originator of prayer, 
praise, and sacrifice, 89 2 ; Manu, as type 
of piety and majesty, 1 10 ; Manu, sup- 
posititious author of the law-book of the 
Manavas. [cf. Goth, manna, Ger. Mann, 
AS. man, Eng. man : the noun is general- 
ized to a quasi pronoun in AS. man, Ger. 
man, like Lat. homo in French on, but 
retains a distinct form as noun in Ger. 
Mann (as homo does in French homme) : 
cf. also Mannus, mythical ancestor of the 
West-Germans (Tacitus, Germania, ii.) : 
perhaps related are Mtw-s and MiVo>s, 
mythical Greek forefathers : the deriva- 
tion of manu fr. Vman, 'think,' is unobjec- 
tionable so far as the form goes (1178b), 
but the usual explanation of manu as 
'the thinker' defies common sense.] 

manu-ja, m. man. [prop, adj., 'Manu- 
born, sprung from Manu/ 1265.] 

manujendra, m. (prince of men, i.e.) 
prince, king, 1 5 . [manuja + indra, 1264.] 

manusya, 1. a. human; 2. as m. man. 
[manus, 1212d 1 : cf. manusa : for mg 2, 
see manava.] 

manusyatva, n. condition of being man. 
[manusya, 1239.] 

manusya-devd, m. human god [1280 1 ] 
or man-god [1280b] or god among men 
[1264], i.e. Brahman, 95 *. 

manusya-loka, m. world of men. 

manus, m. man. [cf. manu and 1154.] 

mano-ratha, m. wish. [lit. 'heart's 
joy,' manas + 2 ratha.] 

mano-hara, a. (heart-taking, i.e.) cap- 

mantu, m. counsel, i.e. deliberation; then 
(like Eng. counsel), result of deliberation, 
plan, intent. [Vman, 1161a.] 

mantra, i. 1. thought; esp. thought as 
uttered in formal address, in prayer or 
song of praise (see dhi2), or in pious text; 

2. usual designation of the hymns and 
texts of the Vedas ; 3. later (when 
these Vedic texts came to be used as 
magic formulas), spell, charm; 4. like 
mantu, deliberation, plan, [v'man, 1185b: 
for mg 3, cf. Lat. carmen, ' solemn utter- 
ance' (see v'gans), then 'magic spell,' 
whence Eng. charm.'] 

mantra-da, a. giving, i.e. imparting the 
sacred texts, i.e., as m., Veda-teacher. 

V mantraya (mantrayate [10G7]). 1. 
speak with solemn or formal utterance ; 

2. deliberate. [denom. of mantra 
see its various mgs.] 

+ anu, follow with a mantra, accompany 

with a sacred text, like Lat. prosequi 


+ abhi, address a spell unto; charm or 


+ a , speak unto ; esp. bid farewell to, 


+ ni, invite, [for mg, cf. (under Vbudh) 

Eng. bid, 'make formal announcement 

of,' and then 'invite.'] 

sam-ni, invite together, 4 2D . 
mantravant, a. accompanied by sacred 

texts, [mantra, 1233.] 
mantr a-varna, m. the wording of a 

sacred text. 
V Imand (mandati: mamanda; amand- 

it). gladden, 74*. [collateral form of 

V mad.] 
V 2m and or mad (mamatti ; madati). 

tarry, loiter. [amplification of *man, 

'remain,' the congener of p.ev-(iv, Lat. 

man-ere, 'remain.'] 
m a n d a , a. 1. tarrying, slow ; 2. 

(sluggish, and so) weak ; insignificant ; 

little; 3. (like Eng. colloq. slow) stupid. 

[V2mand, 'tarry.'] 
manda-bhagya, a. having little luck, 


mandara, m. Mandara, a sacred moun- 



mandadara, a. having little regard for 
(w. loc., 303a), careless about, [manda + 

mandara. m. n. 1. coral tree, Erythrina 
indica; 2. m. used, perhaps, as name of 
a man, Mandara. 

mandira, n. dwelling; house; palace. 
fV 2 mand, 'tarry,' 1188e: prop, 'a wait- 
ing, an abiding,' and then 'abiding-place, 
mansion': cf. /j.dvS-pa, 'fold, stable,' later 
' monastery ' : for mg, observe that Lat. 
mansio, stem man-si-on- (fr. man-ere, 
'tarry'), meant first 'a tarrying,' and 
then 'a stopping-place, mansion,' French 
' maison ' ; see also bhavana.] 

manmatha, m. love; the god of love, 
['the agitator, distresser,' intensive for- 
mation fr. Vmath or nianth, 1148.4, 

manman, n. thought; esp. (like dhi2) 
An-dacht, devotion, prayer or praise. 
[Vman, 1168.1a.] 

man-mahsa, n. my flesh, [mad, 494.] 

man yd, m. 1. mood, i.e. temper of 
mind; then 2. (like Eng. mood) anger, 
heat of temper. [Vman, 1165a.j 

mama, see 491 and ma. 

may a, 1. called a derivative suffix (see 
1225, 161 3 ), but really a nomen actionis 
meaning formation, make, used as final 
element of a cpd, having as its make, 
made of , consisting of , containing 
in itself ; 2. nomen agentis, maker, 
former; esp. Maya, The Former, name of 
an Asura, artificer of the Daityas, and 
skilled in all magic, 45. [fr. mi, weak 
form (cf. 954c, 250) of VI ma, 'measure, 
arrange, form,' 1148. la and b: so the 
Eng. deriv. suffix -hood, -head, Ger. -heit, 
was once an independent noun, see under 

may as, n. invigoration, refreshment, cheer, 
gladness, joy. [prop, 'a building up,' fr. 
V 1 mi, ' establish,' or fr. the weak form mi 
(cf. 954c, 250) of the kindred and partly 
equivalent V 1 ma, ' measure, arrange, 
form, build,' 1151. la.] 

mayo-bhu [352], a. being for or conduc- 
ing to mayas, i.e. refreshing, gladdening. 

mar a, m. death. [\/mr, 'die.'] 

marakata, n. smaragd or emerald, [cf. 
0-fj.dpa-ySos, whence Lat. smaragdus, Old 
French esmeralde, French e'meraude."] 

marana, n. death. [V 1 mr, ' die.'] 

marlci, f. 1. mote or speck in the air, 
illuminated by the sun ; 2. later, beam 
of light, [cf. mariit.] 

marici-mala,/. garland of rays. 

maricimalin, a. having a garland of 
rays, [maricimala, 1230a.] 

m a r li , m. a waste ; desert, [perhaps ' the 
dead and barren' part, whether of land 
or water, V 1 mr, ' die ' : cf . 'A./j.(j>l-jjiapos, 
son of Poseidon; Lat. mare, 'sea'; AS. 
mere, ' sea, lake, swamp,' Eng. mere, ' lake, 
pool,' Winder-mere, mer-maid ; AS. mor, 
Eng. moor, ' marshy waste, heath.'] 

mariit, m. pi. the Maruts or gods of the 
storm-wind, Indra's companions, selections 
xxxv., xlii., xlvii., Ixvii. [perhaps ' the 
flashing ones,' as gods of the thunder- 
storm, and connected w. a V*mar seen 
in fj.ap-/j.aip-(i>, 'flash.'] 

maru-sthall,/. desert-land, desert. 

martavya, grdv. moriendum ; imperso- 
nally, see 999. [V 1 mr, ' die,' 964.] 

m arty a, m. like Eng. a mortal, i.e. a 
man ; as a. mortal. 

mar dan a, m. crusher; fig., as in Eng., 
subduer. [Vmrd, 1150. la.] 

marma-jna, a. knowing the weak spots. 

mar man, n. mortal part, vulnerable or 
weak spot, lit. and fig. [cf . V 1 mr, ' die.'] 

marya, m. man, esp. young man; pi. (like 
Eng. men, Ger. Mannen), servants, at- 
tendants, henchmen. 

marsa, m. patient endurance. [Vmrs.] 

mala, n. m. smut; impurity, physical and 
moral, [cf . p.4\-av, ' dark ' ; Lat. malu-s, 

malla, m. the Mallas, a people ; 
2. professional boxer and wrestler ; one 
who engages in the irayKpdnov, pancra- 

magaka, m. biting and stinging insect, 

masi, f. 1. bone-black; 2. ink, made 
of lac or of almond-charcoal boiled in 
cow's urine. 


masy-abhava, m. lack of ink. 

V mah (mahate; mamahe [786]; mahita; 
mahitva; cans, mahayati, -te). orig. be 
great or high, and so 1. mid. be glad, 
rejoice; then (trans, make great or high, 
and so) 2. act. elate; gladden; exalt 
(mid.), 74 8 ; 3. esteem highly, honor. 

[for *magh, cf. magha, also v'manh: 
for orig. mg, cf. participial adj. mahant, 
' great ' : for mgs 1 and 2, cf . American 
colloq. use of high as 'high in spirit, 
elated, esp. intoxicated': 

with orig. v'*magh in the mgs 'be 
great, mighty, i.e. powerful or able,' trans, 
'make able, help,' cf. pox-\6s, 'helping- 
bar, lever'; /ir/x-aHj, 'means'; Goth, mag, 
AS. mseg, 'am able,' Eng. may: 

with the collateral form *mag, whose 
deaspiration is prob. Indo-European, cf. 
fJLty-as, Lat. mag-nus, AS. mic-el, Eng. 
mickle, ' great.'] 

mah, /. mahi, a. great; mighty, 78 8 ; 
strong ; mahi, as subst. the great, i.e. the 
earth; for mg, cf. prthivi. [cf. Vmah: 
see 400 2 .] 

mah a, a. great. [Vmali.] 

mahant [450b], f. mahati, 1. a. great 
(in space, time, quantity, or quality, and 
so), large, long, mighty, important; sig- 
nificant, 6 n ; as m. great or noble man, 
19 21 , 36 10 ; -2. m. (sc. atman), the intel- 
lect, 66 9 , 67 17 . [orig. ppl. of Vmah, q.v.] 

maharsi, m. great Rishi. [maha + rsi.] 

mahas, n. greatness; might; glory; glad- 
ness; mahobhis, adv.: with power, 79 u ; 
joyfully, 73 13 . [Vmah, see its various mgs.] 

mah a, used as prior member of a cpd, instead 
o/mahant, 1249b, 355a. [Vmah.] 

maha-katha, f. great tale. 

maha-kavi, m. great poet. 

maha-kula, n. (great, i.e.) noble family. 

maha-guru, a. exceedingly reverend 
[1279] ; as m. person worthy of unusual 

maha-tapas, a. (having, i.e.) practising 
great austerity; asm. Great-penance, name 
of a sage. 

mahatman, a. having a (great, i.e.) noble 
nature, noble ; magn-animus. [maha + 

maha-dhana, a. having great wealth, 
very rich. 

maha-panka, m. n. (great, i.e.) deep 

maha-pandita, a. exceedingly learned 

mahaparadha, m. great crime, [maha 
-f aparadha.] 

maha-praj na, a. very wise [1279]. 

maha-bahu, a. great-armed [1294], i.e. 

maha-bhuta, n. grosser element, i.e. 
earth, air, fire, water, or ether (as dis- 
tinguished from a subtile element or rudi- 
mentary atoms). 

maha-manas, a. great-minded. 

maha-muni, m. great sage. 

maha-yajna, m. great sacrifice, 59 6 w. 

maha-yagas, a. having great glory, 

maha-raja, m. great prince. [raj an, 

maha-rava, m. great howl. 

maha-vikrama, a. having great might 
or courage ; as m. Great-might, name of a 

maha-vira, m. great hero. 

maha-vrata, n. great vow. [1267.] 

maha-vrata, a. having a mahavrata, 
having undertaken a great vow. [1295.] 

maha-sinha, m. great lion. 

mahi, a. great. [Vmah.] 

mahitva, n. greatness, might. [1239.] 

mahiman, m. might; instr. mahina, see 
425e. [Vmah, 1168. 2b.] 

mahisa, a. mighty; mahiso mrgas, the 
powerful beast, i.e. buffalo, RV. ; as m., 
without mrga, buffalo, 55 3 ; mahisi, /. 
[acct, c/!362b 2 ], the powerful one, as desig- 
nation : of a woman of high rank ; of the 
first wife of a king, I 16 ; sometimes of any 
queen of a king, 50 1 . [Vmah, 1197b.] 

mahi, see under mah. 

mahi-ksit, m. earth-ruler, king. 

mahl-pati, m. earth-lord, king. 

mahi-pala, m. earth-protector, king. 

V mahiya (mahiyate). be glad, happy, 
blessed, [prop, 'be great, high,' denom. 
of mahi (1061), with the modification of 
mg mentioned under Vmah, q.v.] 



mah end r a, m. 1. Great-Indra ; 2. 
great chief, 10 15 (w. mg 1 also), [maha 
+ indra.] 

mahendratva, n. the name or dignity 
of Great-Indra. [1239.] 

mahegvara, m. great lord; esp., as pi., 
designation of the four lokapalas, Indra, 
Yama, Agni, and Varuna. [maha + 

mahaujas, a. having great strength, 
mighty, [maha, + ojas.] 

V 1m a (minute [660-3]; mamau, mame; 
amasta ; mitd [954c] ; matum ; mitva ; 
-maya). 1. measure; 2. measure 
with, compare ; 3. mete out ; 4. ar- 
range, form; build; make, 72 2 . [for 1, 
cf . fj.4-rpov, ' measure ' ; Lat. ni-mi-us, ' not 
to be measured, excessive'; for 4, cf. 
fj.d-p-ri and Lat. ma-nu-s, ' former, i.e. hand ' ; 
ev-/j.api')s, 'handy, easy': see also the col- 
lateral form VI mi, 'build, set up,' and 
under matf and mas.] 
+ anu, (form after, i.e.) re-create in 
imagination, conceive. 
-f- u p a , measure with, compare. 
4- nis, fashion or make out of (abl.); con- 

4- vi-nis, lay out (garden). 
-i- pari, measure around, limit, 
-f pra, measure. 

4-prati, make (so as to be a match) 
against, cf. pratima. 

4-vi, measure out; then (like Eng. meas- 
ure), pass over, traverse (the sky). 

V 2 ma or mi (mimati [660-3]; mimaya). 
-f vi, bellow or cry aloud. 

m a , adv. and conj. not, mostly in prohibitions 
[1122b] : 1. regularly w. subjunctive, i.e. 
augmentless form of a past tense [579-80], 
76 16 , etc.; in order that not, 53 7 ; 2. w. 
imperative, 22 2 , 35", 50 4 ; 3. rarely w. 
optative, 79 17 ; 4. w. evam, not so, 38 5 ; 
5. w. u, mo, see u. [cf. ^, Elian p.a, 
'not, that not.'] 

mans and mansa [397], n. meat, flesh ; used 
also in pi. [cf. Church Slavonic meso, 
Prussian mensa, 'flesh': cf. 64 7 N.] 

mansatva, n. the being meat, the etymo- 
logical meaning of mansa. [1239.] 

mansa-ruci, a. having pleasure in meat, 
greedy for meat. 

mansa-lubdha, a. desirous of meat 

mangalya, a. bringing happiness, pleas-. 
ant. [mangala.] 

maciram, adv. (not long, i.e.) shortly, 
straightway, [ma + ciram, 1122b 4 .] 

mathara, m. Mathara, name of a man. 
[mathara, 1208f.] 

manava, m. boy, youngster, [not akin 
w. manu, ' man ' : perhaps for * malnava : 
cf. Prussian malnyx, 'child.'] 

manavaka, m. manikin, dwarf, [man- 
ava, 1222b.] 

matarigvan, m. Matari^van, mystic 
name of Agni. 

matula, m. mother's brother. [matr, 
1227 2 : cf. fj.-f)Tpws, Doric Carpus, 'mother's 

matf [373], f. mother; applied also to the 
earth, the Dawn, the sticks of attrition 
(82 9 ). [perhaps 'the one who metes 
out' food to the household, or else 'the 
former' of the child in the womb, 
VI ma, 'measure or mete,' 'form,' 1182d: 
cf. /j.-firrip, Doric fj-ar^p, Lat. mater, 
AS. moder, Eng. mother ; also pata, 
' mother.'] 

matrtas, adv. from the mother, on the 
mother's side, [matr, 1098b.] 

matrvat, adv. as one's mother. 

matr a, f. 1. measure; at end of adj. 
cpds [see 1302c3], having as its measure, 
so and so long or high or large, etc. : 
janu-matra, knee-deep ; vyama-matra, a 
fathom broad; 2. the full measure, 
i.e. limit ; at end of adj. cpds, having as 
its limit, not more than ; and then, these 
adj. cpds being used substantively (1247 
III 4 ), merely, only, mere , 27 , 
50 9 ; such a cpd as first member of an- 
other cpd, 34 8 , 37 6 ; hence 3. from 
this frequent use of matra at end of 
cpds in the form matra (334 2 ), the quasi- 
stern, matra, n. measure, i.e. height, 
depth, length, breadth, distance (43 12 ). 
[V 1 ma, ' measure,' 1185c : cf. 
' measure.'] 

mada, m. revelry, [v/mad.] 

1 mana] 


1 mana, m. n. 1. opinion; 2. (like the 
Eng. opinion) estimation, esp. good esteem ; 
-3. honor. [Vman, 1148.2.] 

2 mana, m. like the Eng. building, and 
. so structure, castle. [V 1 ma, ' make, 

bund,' 1150. la.] 

3 mana, m. 1. like the obs. Eng. maker, 
trotirrfo, poet; 2. as name of Agas- 
tya's father, Mana. [do.] 

man a -da, a. (giving, i.e.) showing honor 
(to others); as m. honor-giver, address of 
a woman to her lover. 

V ma nay a (manayati). honor, [denom. 
of 1 mana: cf. 1067.] 

manava, 1. a. human; descended from 
man or Manu (see manu); 2. as m. one 
of the sons of men, a man; 3. m. 
Manava, name of a school of the Yajur- 
veda. [manu, 1208c: for mgs 1 and 2, 
observe that Old High Ger. mennisch, 
though prop, an adj. fr. man, 'homo,' and 
meaning 'humanus/ is used also as a 
subst. meaning ' man,' and used in its Ger. 
form Mensch, 'man,' as subst. only: cf. 
also nara, manusya, manusa.] 

manava-dharmagastra, n. law-book of 
the Manavas or Manava-school. 

manasa, a. sprung from the mind; of the 
mind, [manas, 1208a.] 

manusa, f. -i, a. pertaining to man, hu- 
man; as m. man (cf. manava). [manus, 
1208a end : cf . manusya.] 

manusa-daivika, a. of men and of 
gods. [1257.] 

mandarya, a. descended from Mandara ; 
as m. descendant of M. [mandara, 1211.] 

m a n y a , a. descended from a poet or from 
Mana ; as m. the poet's son or Mana's son. 
[3 mana, 1211.] 

mama, a. lit. of mine; voc. s. m., as word 
of address of a dog to an ass, uncle, 
[mama (491), 1208f.] 

may a, f. 1. (a working, ana" so) a 
power ; esp., in Veda, supernatural or 
wonderful power ; wile ; 2. later, trick ; 
illusion. [V 1 ma, ' make, i.e. have effect, 
work,' 1149, cf. 258.] 

maya-kapota, m. illusion-pigeon. 

mayakapota- vapus [418], a. having 
the form of a phantom-pigeon. 

may in, a. wily, [maya.] 
mayobhavya, n. gladness, happiness. 

[mayobhu, 1211, cf. 1208c.] 
mar a, m. a killing, murder. [Vlmr, 

marakata,/! -I, a. smaragdine, emerald 

(adj.). [marakata, 1208f.] 
mar ana, n. a killing; w. pra^ap, incur 

killing, get killed, [caus. of V 1 mr, ' die/ 

1150. lb.] 
maratmaka, a. having murder as one's 

nature, murderous. [mara + atmaka, 

marga, a. of or pertaining to game or 

deer ; as m. track of wild animals, slot ; 

then, in general, track, way, path, [mrga, 

marja, adj. subst. cleaning, a cleaner, in 

cpds. [Vmrj, 627 1 - 2 .] 
mar jar a, TO. cat. ['the cleaner,' so 

called from its habit of cleaning itself 

often : fr. marja : formed like karmara, 

malava, m. Malwa, name of a country in 

west-central India. 

malava-visaya, m. the land of Malwa. 
m a 1 a , f. crown, wreath, garland, 
malin, a. crowned, wreathed, [mala.] 
malya, n. crown, wreath, [mala, 1210.] 
mas [397], m. 1. moon, see candra-mas; 

then (as in Eng.), a moon, i.e. month. 

['the measurer/ VI ma, 1151. lc 2 : cf. 

HT}-vT], ' moon ' ; Lat. Mena, ' menstruationis 

dea ' ; Goth, mena, AS. mono, Eng. moon ; 

AS. monan dseg, 'dies Lunae/ Eng. Mon- 
day; also ft,i\v, stem /j.evs, Lat. mens-i-s, 

' month ' ; AS. mdnaft, prop. ' a lunation/ 

Eng. month."] 
mas a, TO. 1. moon, see purna-masa; 2. 

month, [transition-stem fr. mas, o99.] 
masa-traya, n. month-triad, three 

masa-aatka, n. month-hexade, six 


mahina, a. glad, blithe, [\rnah, 1177b.] 
V 1 mi (min6ti, minute; mimaya; mita; 

-mitya). build; establish; setup (a post, 

pillar), [collateral form (250a) of VI ma, 

' make, build/ q.v. : cf . mit and Lat. me-ta, 

' post ' ; mu-n/s, ' wall.'] 



V2mi o?- mi (minati, minati; mimaya, 
mimye; amesta; mesyate; mita; -mlya). 
minish, lessen ; minish, bring low ; bring 
to nought. [cf. fjii-vv-ta, Lat. mi-nu-o, 
' lessen ' ; AS. positive min, ' small ' ; Old 
High Ger. comp. minniro, *minv-iro, Middle 
High Ger. minre, Ger. minder, ' less ' ; 
neiwv, *(j.ri-i<av, ' less ' ; Lat. min-or, ' less ' ; 
per-mi-t-ie-s, ' ruin ' : fr. AS. min comes 
perhaps Eng. minnow, ' very small fish.'] 
+ p r a , bring to nought ; pass, come to 
nought, perish. 

V migh, see mih. 

mit, f. post, pillar, prop. [V 1 mi, ' set up/ 
383b 3 : for mg, cf . Eng. post, Lat. postis, 
with ponere, ' set up.'] 

mitra, 1. m. friend, comrade (Vedic 
only) ; esp. 2. Mitra, name of an Aditya; 

3. n. friendship (rare and Vedic only); 

4. n. friend (commonest meaning and 

mitrabandhu-hina, a. destitute of 
friends and relatives. [1265, 1252.] 

mitra-labha, m. Friend-acquisition, as 
title of the first book of the Hitopade9a. 

mitratithi, m. Mitratithi, name of a 
man. [' having Mitra as his guest ' or 
else ' guest of M.' : the mg of the cpd 
depends on its accent (see 1302 : and 
1267 J ), and this is not known: mitra + 

mitra-vdruna, nom. du. m. Mitra and 
Varuna. [see 1255 and a, and Whitney 

V mith (methati ; mime'tha ; mithita ; 
mithitva). 1. meet together as friends, 
associate with, pair ; 2. meet as rivals, 
dispute, wrangle, altercari. [observe that 
Eng. meet is just such a vox media and 
means both 'harmonize' and 'have a 

mit has, adv. together, mutually, among 
each other; in turns. [V mith, 11 lid.] 

mitliu, a. wrong; false; used only in the 
adv. ace. s. n. mithu (lllld), and instr. 
s. f. mithuya (1112e), wrongly, falsely. 
[Vmith: for mg, observe that Ger. ver- 
kehren means both ' to turn the wrong way ' 
and ' to associate with,' whence Verkehr, 
' intercourse,' and verkehrt, ' wrong.'] 

mithuna, 1. a. paired, forming a pair ; 
2. m., later n. pair (consisting of a male 
and female), pair of children; pair (of 
anything). [Vmith, 1177c.] 

mithuya, adv. falsely. [see mithu: 
acct !] 

mithya, adv. wrongly, falsely, [younger 
form of mithuya.] 

mithyopacara, m. false service or simu- 
lated kindness, [mithya + upacara, 1279, 
mithya being used as a quasi-adj.] 

V mil (milati; mimela; milisyati; militd; 
militva; -milya). meet; assemble, [cf. 
Lat. mille, 'assemblage, host, thousand,' 
pi. mll-ia, whence the borrowed Eng. 
mile, 'a thousand (paces), mllia pas- 
suum ' ; perhaps mll-it-es, ' going in com- 
panies or troops ' and so, like Eng. troops, 
' soldiers.'] 

V mig, mix, in the desid. mimiks (see 1033), 
and the deriv. migra or migla. [cf. 
fj.iyw/j.i, # P.IK-W-JJ.I, Lat. misceo, *mic-sc-eo, 
' mix ' ; Old High Ger. misken, Ger. 
mischen, 'mix'; AS. miscian, *mih-sc-ian, 
whence Eng. mix for misk (like ax, for- 
merly good English for ask); also Eng. 
mash, 'mixture' esp. of grains, whence 
verb mash, ' mix, and esp. make into a 
confused mass by crushing.'] 

migrA, a. mixed. [Vmig, 1188.] 

migribhava, m. the becoming mixed, 
the mingling (intrans.). [migribhu.] 

migribhava-karman, n. mingling-action, 
process of becoming mixed. 

migribhu, become mixed, [migra, 1094.] 

migla, same as migra. [1189.] 

V mis (misati; mimosa; amimisat; misita; 
-misya). open the eyes, have the eyes 
+ ni, close the eyes ; fall asleep; wink. 

V mih or migh (me'hati; amiksat; mek- 
syati; midhd [222 3 ]). make water, [fr. 
migh (223 3 ) come ppl. meghamana, and 
noun megha, 'cloud': cf. o-mx-fw, Lat. 
ming-ere, AS. mig-an, 'make water': orig. 
mg, ' pour out,' whence on the one hand 
'mingere' and on the other 'rain, drip, 
drop' (cf. noun mih); then, fig. 'drop 
fatness, bestow richly' (see under mldh- 



mih,/ mist. [Vmih: cf . a-pix-hri, ' mist ' ; 
AS. mist, *mig-st, Eng. mist.] 

midhvans, a. bestowing richly, bountiful, 
[said to be perfect ppl. of Vmih, 222 s , 
790b, 803 2 .] 

mimansya, grdv. to be called in question, 
[fr. desid. of v/man, 1028e, 963.] 

mllhuse, see midhvans and Whitney 54. 

mukta-gapa, a. having a laid aside 
curse, leaving his curse behind him. 

mukha, n. -1. mouth, 39 3 , 40 M , 51 12 ; 
jaws, 18 & ; 2. visage, countenance, 
face, 13 3 ; snout or face of an animal, 
44 12 ; at end of cpds, esp. w. an adj. 
[1298a], or adjectively used prep. [1305], 
or adv. [1306] denoting direction: udan- 
mukha, having a northward face, turning 
northward ; abhi-mukha, having the face 
towards; 3. (like Eng. face) surface, 
25 21 ; 4. (like Eng. head, and like chief 
from caput) the head, i.e. chief, best, 
most excellent, 51 22 . 

nnikhya, a. (at the mouth or front, and 
so) chief, most excellent, [mukha, cf. 
mg4: 1212a.] 

\f muc (muficati, -te [758]; mum6ca. mu- 
nuice; amucat; moksyati, -te; mukta; 
m6ktum; muktva; -mucya; mocayati, 
-te[1041 2 ]). release; free; let go; let 
loose, 34 14 ; lay aside ; release esp. from 
the bonds of sin (93 13 ) or existence; (let 
go, i.e. emit or) utter, e.g. sounds; shed 
(tears); discharge (phlegm, urine, ordure, 
smells), [orig. mg, 'to free or clear': 
specialized in Greek and Latin ' to clear 
the nose, to snot': cf. airo-fivffffw, *-/AVK-j<a, 
Lat. e-mung-o, 'snot'; pvK-r-fip, 'snout, 
nose'; Lat. muc-us, 'snot': for mg, cf. 
relation of snout to the cognate verbs snot 
and snite.] 

+ nis, let out; release. 
+ pra, let go forth from, release from, 
w. dbl. 

+ vi, loosen, e.g. a bond (ace.) from (abl.), 
79 18 ; untie ; free ; pass, be freed or sep- 
arated from, be deprived of, w. abl., but 
also w. instr. (283 2 ). [for last mg, cf. 
Eng. loose with lose.~] 

munja. m. sedge; esp. Saccharum Munja. 

V mud (mddate ; mumude ; modisyate; 
mudita). be glad, rejoice ; mudita, glad, 
happy, [cf. s mad and V Imand.] 
+ a, in amoda. 

miini, m. 1. pressure, the pressing on- 
ward, impetus, 78 7 ; 2. a man driven on 
by inward pressure or impulse, person in 
a (religious) ecstasy, enthusiast; later 
3. any distinguished sage or seer or 
ascetic, esp. one who has taken a vow of 
silence (cf. mauna) ; hermit, 40 9 , etc. 

mumursu, a. wishing to die, about to die, 
moribund, [fr. desid. of v'lmr, 1028b, 

vmus (musnati; mumosa; amosit; mus- 
ita; musitva; -musya). rob; steal, [cf. 
mus, ' the thief, i.e. mouse ' ; jj.vs, ' mouse,' 
and from the shape, 'muscle'; Lat. mus, 
'mouse,' whence diminutive mus-culus, 
' muscle ' ; AS. mus, ' mouse ' and ' muscle,' 
Eng. mouse; Ger. Maus, 'mouse' (whence 
denom. mausen, 'steal,' in which we are 
brought back again to the orig. mg of 
the primitive), and also 'muscle of the 
thumb ' ; further, yumo, */*u<na, Lat. mus-ca, 
' fly ' : see also muska.] 

musk a. m. 1. testicle; 2. pudenda 
muliebria. [from noun mus, i.e. (383a 2 ) 
mus, 'mouse': for mgs, see under Vmus: 
cf. piiff-xov rb av5pe7ov Kal yvvaiKe'iov popiov: 
w. muska, cf. also Persian mushk, Eng. 
musk, 'perfume got from a bag behind 
the navel of the musk-deer.'] 

muska-dega, m. region of the testes, 

musti, m.f. fist. 

miisala, m. n. pestle. [181c.] 

v'muh (muhyati, -te ; mum6ha, mumuhe ; 
amuhat; mohisyati; mugdha, mudha). 
be confused; err; lose one's senses; 
mudha, foolish, and as subst., fool, simple- 
ton, [cf . Lat. mug-er, ' false player.'] 

miihus, adv. suddenly; in a moment; 
muhur muhus, at one moment at 
another, i.e. repeatedly. [' in a bewilder- 
ing way,' s'muh, lllld.] 

muhurta, m. n. 1. moment; 2. thir- 
tieth of a day, an hour (of 48 minutes), 
59 10 . [muhus.] 

mudha, see Vmuh. 



mutra, n. urine. 

murkha, a. stupid, foolish; as m. fool. 
[V march, mg 3.] 

murkha-gata, n. fool-hundred. 

V m u r c h ( mur chati ; nmmurcha ; mur- 
chita, murt [220 2 ]). become rigid: 
1. coagulate, acquire consistency; and 
so 2. take shape, be formed ; 3. (be- 
come stiff, numb, torpid, and so) become 
stupid, senseless. [for mg 3, cf. Eng. 
torpid, ' numb,' and then ' dull, stupid ' : 
see miirti and murkha.] 

m u r t i , f. firm body, definite shape, em- 
bodiment. [Vmurch, 220 2 .] 

murtimant, . having bodily form, in- 
carnate, [murti, 1235.] 

murdhan, m. forehead, skull ; head ; 
oftenest figuratively, highest part; mur- 
dhni, at the head. 

mala, n. root; fig. (like Eng. root), that 
from which a thing grows or proceeds, 
root, basis ; capital. 

mulya, n. price, 47 3>u ; capital, 46 14 . 
[properly, perhaps, adj. 'pertaining to 
the root, radical, basal,' and then, as 
subst., ' basis ' of a transaction : fr. mula, 

mus, m. f. mouse. ['the thief,' Vmus, 
q.v.: see383a 2 .] 

musaka, m. thief; mouse, 46 n ; Mousey, 
as name of a man, 47 21 . [Vmus, q.v.] 

miisakakhya, f. the name Mousey. 
[akhya: 1280b.] 

miisika, m. mouse, rat. [Vmus, q.v.] 

musika-nirvigesa, a. undistinguished 
from a mouse. 

V Imr (mriyate [773]; mamara ; amrta; 
marisyati ; mrta ; martum ; mrtva). 
die; mrta, dead. [w. mrta, cf. @po-r6s, 
*fj.poTos, ' mortal ' ; cf . <p\.b i-fj.ap-a.v-6t], 
' flame died away ' ; Lat. mor-i, ' die ' ; 
mors, stem mor-ti-, ' death ' ; Goth, maur- 
\>-r, AS. morftor, Eng. murther, murder : 
see amrta.] 

+ abhi, (lit. die against, i.e.) affect un- 
pleasantly by dying; guruna^abhimrta, 
(affected by a teacher by dying, i.e.) 
bereaved by the death of a teacher. 

V 2mr (mrnati; mrnati [731]; murna). 
crush; smash. [cf., 'fight,' 

used of " bruisers," Odyssey 18. 31 ; fj.v\-Tj, 
'mill'; Lat. mol-a, 'mill'; Eng. meal (for 
mg, cf. pista) ; AS. mol-de, Eng. mol-d, 
'fine earth' (for mg, cf. mrd): cf. also 

V 3mr, exists perhaps in marut. [cf. fj.ap- 
[j.aipcii, *fj.ap-/j.ap-j(, ' flash ' ; Lat. mar-mor, 
' marble.'] 

mrga, m. 1. (like AS. de5r) wild animal, 
beast of the forest, as opp. to pagu, 
'cattle,' 67 2 ; then 2. (w. the same spe- 
cialization of mg as in Eng. deer) animal 
of the genus Cervus, deer, gazelle, [per- 
haps 'the ranger, rover,' v'mrj, q.v.: for 
2, observe the use of deer in the more 
general sense in King Lear, iii. 4. 128, 
"rats and such small deer."] 

V mrj (marsti [027]; mamarja; amarjit, 
amarksit ; marksyate ; mrst ; marstum ; 
mrstva ; -mfjya ; also marjitum, mar- 
jitva, -marjya). rub off ; wipe away ; 
clean; polish. 

[original meaning 'move hither and 
thither over ' : then, on the one hand, 
1. 'range, rove, streifen,' as in Avestan 
meregh, and Skt. mrga ; and, on the 
other, 2. 'go over with the hand, i.e. 
rub, wipe, strip (a tree, a cow), milk': 
for 2, cf. o-/j,6py-vvfj.i, 'wipe off'; a-fifpy-ca, 
'strip off, pluck'; a-/j.\y-eiv, Lat. mu/g- 
ere, ' to milk ' ; AS. noun meolc, Eng. 

+ apa, wipe away; also jig., of guilt, 
[cf . diro/j.6pyvv/j.i, ' wipe away.'] 
+ pra, wipe off, polish. 

V mrd (mrlati, mrlayati [1041 2 ]). be 
gracious ; forgive, [for 1, see Whitney 

mrlika, n. grace, mercy. [Vmrd, 1186 4 , 
Whitney 54.] 

mrta, ppl. dead ; as n. [1176a], death. 
[V 1 mr, ' die.'] 

mrta vat, adv. as if dead. [mrta, 

mrtyii, m. death. [Vlmr, 'die,' 1165a: 
see 95 16 .] 

V mrd (mrdnati; mardati, -te ; mamarda; 
mardisyate ; mrditd ; marditum ; 
mrditva; -nifdya). press or rub hard, 
squeeze, crush, smash, destroy. 



[extension of V2mr, 'crush': cf. a-/j.a\S- 
vvto, ' destroy ' e.g. a wall : w. mrdti, ' soft, 
weak,' cf. Lat. mollis, *molvis, *moldv-i-s, 
' soft, weak,' and &pa$vs, *npaSv-s, 'slow' 
(for rag, cf. Ger. weich, ' soft,' w. Eng. 
weak, and Lat. len-is, 'soft,' w. len-tus, 

with v' mrd in hima-mardana, ' melting 
of the snow,' we might compare f*.f\8ia, 
' melt,' Eng. melt ; but the s of the col- 
lateral form smelt makes this doubtful : 
see also mradas.] 
+ vi, destroy. 

mfd, /! earth; loam; clay; mound of 
earth, 62 18 . [prop, 'crumbled earth,' 
Vmrd: similar specializations of mg are 
frequent : thus AS. mol-de, 'crumbling 
earth, dust,' Eng. mol-d, come fr. a Vwza/, 
the cognate of V2mr, 'crush, crumble'; 
Ger. Grand, 'sand,' is fr. the same root 
as Eng. grind; Ger. Scholle, 'clod,' and 
zer-schellen, ' break to pieces,' go back to 
the same root ; logd and losta, ' clod,' 
are derivs of Vruj, 'break.'] 

mrdu, a. soft; weak. [V mrd, q.v.] 

mrnmaya, a. made of earth; w. grha, 
house of clay, the grave, [mfd -f- maya : 
see maya.] 

V mrc, (mrgati, -te ; mamarca, mamrg ; 
amrksat ; mrsta ; mar stum ; -mfgya). 

1. touch, mulcere, stroke ; grasp, take 
hold of; 2. take hold of mentally, 
consider. [cf. the Hesychian Bpaice'iv, 
V *npaic, ' grasp, understand ' ; Lat. mulc- 
ere, ' stroke.'] 

+ abhi, touch. 

V mrs (mfsyate, -ti; mamarsa, mamrse; 
amarsista ; -mfsya ; caus. marsayati). 
-1. forget, 92 16 ; -2. (like Eng. not 
mind) disregard, treat as of no conse- 
quence, bear patiently. 

m e k a , a setting up, in su-m6ka. [V 1 mi, 
' establish.'] 

mekhala.y! girdle, see 59 8 K. 

meg ha, m. cloud. [Vmigh, see mih.] 

medas, n. fat. [v'mid or med (761a), 
medyati, 'be fat.'] 

medha, m. 1. juice of meat, broth; 

2. sap and strength, essential part, esp. 
of the sacrificial victim; 3. sacrificial 

victim ; animal sacrifice. [cf. \ mid 
under m6das.] 

medhas, wisdom, m su-medhas. [equiv. 
of medha.] 

medha, f. wisdom. 

melaka, m. assembly; w. kr, assemble. 
[Vmil, 1181.] 

modaka, m. small round comfit, sweet- 
meat, [prop, 'gladdener,' s'mud, 1181: 
so Eng. cheer and refreshment are applied 
esp. to eatables.] 

maurija, a. made of Munja-grass; f. 
-I, sc. mekhala, girdle of Munja-grass. 
[munja, 1208f.] 

maunji-nibandhana, n. ligation of 
the Munja-girdle. 

mauna, n. silence, [muni, 1208d.] 

mna, uncertain verbal. minded; assumed 
on account of sumna. [V mna.] 

V mna (manati ; amnasit; mnatd). col- 
lateral form of v' man, ' be minded,' 108g. 
[see V man : cf . ni-/j.vh-fficoi, ' keep in 

V myaks (mydksati ; mimyaksa [785]; 
amyak). be fixed in or on; be present. 
sam, keep together, 73 4 . 

mradas, n. softness. [Vmrad, collateral 
form of Vmrd, q.v.] 

V ml a (mlayati ; mamlaii ; amlaslt ; 
mlana). wither. [collateral form of 
V 1 mr, ' die,' and so ' perish, decay, 

mlana-sraj, a. having a withered gar- 

V mluc (m!6cati ; muml6ca ; mlukta). 


+ a p a , go off, retire ; apamlukta, re- 
tired, hidden. 

mleccha. m. barbarian. [Vmlech.] 
v' mlech (mlecchati). speak unintelligibly 
or barbarously, [root *mlek : mlecchati 
is for *mlek-sketi, like prcchati, q.v., for 
*prksketi : cf. a.-/ji(^)\aK-e1v, V/uAeuc, 'err, 
miss ' ; j8A.c^, &\a.K-6s, ' stupid.'] 

4 [509], relative pron. 1. who, which; 
sometimes following its -correlative: 7 6 , 17 18 , 
29 6 , 30 15 , 33 16 , 52 ", 73 9 , 78 10 , 79 7 ; 
evambhuto vidvan, yas samarthas, 



tarn doctus qui possit, 19 4 ; 2. but 
muck oftener preceding its correlative: ya 

ta, 77 12 , 69 7 , Sis, 1713, 2 123 ( 22 4 , 30 n , 
32 10 ; yam esara, 74 3 ; yac ca^ucyate 

, etad alasyavacanam, and (what is 
said, i.e.) as for the saying , that is 
[fatalists' ] sloth-talk, 18 8 - n ; 

3. converting the subject or object of a 
verb into a substantive clause : sometimes, 
perhaps, merely for metre : 29 3 , 38 "', 58 6 ; 
but often for emphasis: 9 18 , 56 19 , 57 7 ; y6 
paksa asans, te jimuta abhavan, what 
were wings, those became clouds, for t6 
paksa abhavan jimutas, 93 3 ; ay dm y6 
h6ta, kir u sa yamasya, who this priest 

[is], is he also that of Yama, 88 10 ; so 
yad, even w. words of different gender and 
number, as, prajapater va etaj jyestham 
tokam, yat parvatas, of P. that [was] the 
first creation, what the mountains are, 
921 9 ; so95 15 , 97 1 ; 

4. which, what, as adj. pron. agreeing 
w. incorporated antecedent : na^asmai vid- 
yiit sisedha, na yam miham akirad 
dhradunim ca, not for him did the light- 
ning avail, not what mist he scattered 
abroad, and hail, 71*; so 7 1 21 to 72 2 , 74 4 , 
79 9 1, 83 3 , 88 ~; as subst. pron., the ante- 
cedent not being expressed, 74 1>2 , 78 18 ; 

5. ya in special connections : ya ya 
[511], whoever, whichever, whatever, who- 
soever, etc., 13 12 , 45 13 ; so ya ka ca, 68 10 ; 
ya ka cid, 60 ^ 68 12 ; ya ka cana, 9 16 ; 
ya ka cid, anyone soever, no matter who, 
quilibet, 21 n ; so ya ta, 18 4 ; 6. two or 
more relatives in the same clause : yo 'tti 
yasya yada mansam, when (who) some- 
one eats the flesh of (whom) someone, 
29 '; so 37 n, 66 i g ; -7. ya, if anybody, 
si quis (really an anacoluthon) : so 79 16 ; 
-8. ya, and he, 74 15 ; -9. for further 
illustration, see 512, 511 ; for derivatives, 
510 ; for influence on the accent of the verb, 
595 ; cf. yad, yasmat, yat, yena. 

[orig. and primarily a demonstrative 
(like Eng. that and Ger. der) : cf. 6s, 'he,' 
in ^ 8' os, ' said he ' ; 8>s, ' so,' in oi>5' Sis, 
'not even so'; secondarily a relative 
(like Eng. that and Ger. der}: cf. 8s, a or 
5;, o for *j8, 'who, which'; hence yat, 

with which cf . is, ' as ' ; but these com- 
parisons are rejected in toto by some.] 

V yaks (yaksate). perhaps an extended 
form o/*yah (*yagh), 'stir, move quickly ': 
and so, on the one hand, pursue, esp. pursue 
avengingly, avenge, and on the other, dart 
swiftly (as a suddenly appearing light), 
[see the following three words and s'*yah : 
kinship of Ger. jag-en, ' pursue, hunt,' is 

yaks a, n. spirit or sprite or ghost; as /. 
a Yaksha, one of a class of fabulous genii, 
attendants of Kubera. [perhaps ' a rest- 
less one,' Vyaks: for connection of mgs of 
root and deriv., cf. the converse relation 
of Eng. spirit or. sprite to sprightly, 'brisk, 
stirring,' and cf. Scott's "restless sprite."] 

yaksin, a. avenging. [Vyaks.] 

yaks ma, m. disease, [perhaps, the sin- 
avenging Varuna's 'avenger,' Vyaks. 

V yaj (yajati, -te ; iyaja, Ij6 [784 3 ]; 
ayaksit, ayasta ; yaksyati, -te ; ist& ; 
yastum ; istva ; caws, yajayati). honor 
a god (ace.), 99 12 ; worship; worship 
with prayer and oblation (instr.) ; and so 
consecrate, hallow, offer ; sacrifice ; in 
Veda, active, when one honors or sacrifices 
(e.g., as a paid priest) on account of another, 
and middle, when one sacrifices on one's 
own account; yajamana, as m. one who 
institutes or performs a sacrifice and pays 
the expenses of it; caus. cause or help 
or teach a person (ace.) to worship with 
a certain sacrifice (instr.) ; serve a person 
as sacrificing priest, [cf . 07-0$, ' worship, 
sacred awe, expiatory sacrifice'; afoucu, 
*, ' stand in awe of,' e.g. gods ; 
ay-vos, 'worshipped, hallowed', w. yaj- 
ya, ' colendus,' cf . 07-105, ' to be wor- 
shipped, holy ' : different is &yos, see 

+ a , get as result of sacrifice a thing 
(ace.) for a person (dat.), einem etwas 

yajatra, a. venerable, holy. [Vyaj, 

yajiyans, a. excellently sacrificing, right 
cunning in the art of sacrifice. [Vyaj, 
1184, 468.] 



yajur-ved.4, m. the Veda of sacrificial 
texts, Yajurveda. [see yajus.] 

yajusmant, a. (possessing, i.e.) accompa- 
nied by sacrificial texts ; f. -mat! (sc. 
istaka), Yajushmati, name applied to 
certain bricks used in building the sacred 
fire-pile, and so called because each was 
laid with the recitation of a special text 
of its own. [yajus, 1235.] 

yajus, n. 1. sacred awe; worship; 2. 
sacrificial text, as distinguished from 
stanza (re) and chant (saman); 3. the 
collection of such texts, the Yajur-veda. 
[Vyaj, 1154.] 

yajna, m. worship, devotion (so in Veda); 
later, esp. act of worship, sacrifice, offering 
(these the prevailing mys). [v'yaj, 1177a, 

yajna-kratti, m. sacrifice-ceremony, 
i.e. rite. [1280b.] 

yajna-cchaga, m. sacrifice-goat, [cha- 
ga, 227.] 

yajna-patra, n. sacrificial utensil. 

yajnartham, adv. for a sacrifice, [ar- 
tham, 1302c4.] 

yajniya, a. 1. worthy of worship or 
sacrifice, reverend, holy, divine ; 2. 
active or skillful in sacrifice, pious ; as m. 
offerer, [yajna, 1214.] 

yajfiopavita, a. the sacrifice-cord, sacred 
cord worn over the left shoulder, [upa- 

yajvan, m. worshipper, sacrificer. [Vyaj, 
1169. la.] 

V yat (yatati, -te ; yete ; ayatista ; 
yatisyati, -te ; yatita, yatta ; yatitum ; 
-yatya). 1. act. join, trans.; 2. 
mid. join, intrans.; range one's self in 
order, proceed in rows, 86 w ; 3. mid. 
try to join, strive after; take pains ; 4. 
cans, (cause to attain, i.e.) requite with 
reward or punishment. [perhaps orig. 
'reach out after' and akin w. Vyam.] 
+ a , reach to, attain, get a foot-hold. 
+ pra, (reach out, i.e.) make effort, take 

yat as, adv. from what (time or place or 
reason): 1. where, 6 14 ; 2. because, 
for, 28 2 s , 38 5 ; esp. common as introducing 
a proverb or the first (only) of a series of 

proverbs motivating a preceding statement 
or action, e.g. 19 7 ; yatas tena, since 
therefore, 30 "; so yatas atas, 36 2 ; 
yatas tad, 37 6 ; cf. tatas. [pron. root 
ya, 510, 1098.] 

1 yati [519], pron. as many, quot. [pron. 
root ya, 510, 1157.4.] 

2 yati, m. ascetic, man who has restrained 
his passions and abandoned the world ; 
see agrama and 65 3 N. [' striver, one who 
takes pains, one who castigates himself,' 
Vyat, 1155: its mg was perhaps shaded 
towards that of ' restrainer ' by a popular 
connection of the word with \fyam, 
1157 1 , cf. 954d.] 

yatna, m. a striving after ; effort; pains; 
w. kr : take pains ; bestow effort upon 
(loc.), have a thing (loc.) at heart, I 13 ; 
yatne krte, pains having been taken. 
[Vyat, 1177.] 

yatra, adv. where, e.g. II 10 ; whither; 
-correl. w. tatra, 24*, 85 19 ; w. ena, 83 10 ; 
yatra yatra, where soever; catuspathe, 
yatra va, at a quadrivium, or somewhere 
(else), 104 21 . [pron. root ya, 510, 1099.] 

yatha, rel. adv. and con/. 1. in which 
way, as ; sometimes following its correlative : 
tatha yatha, 22 14 , 43 2, 44^; evam 

yatha, 37 8 ; 2. but much oftener pre- 
ceding its correlative: tesam sam hanmo 
aksani, yatha^idarh harmiam, tatha, 
of them we close the eyes, as (we close) 
this house, so, 77 13 ; so 61 6 , 27 14 , 21 16 - 18 , 
etc.; yatha evam, 18 18 , 95 7 - 9 ; yatha 

eva (Vedic),8Q l ^ s ; 

3. correlative omitted: buddhim pra- 
kurusva, yatha^icchasi, decide (so), as 
thou wishest, 9 n ; 5 2, etc. ; so with verbs 
of saying, etc.: tad brohi, yatha 
upadadhama, this tell us (viz. the way) 
in which we are to put on , 96 u ; so 

88 6- 7; 

4. without finite verb, as mere particle 
of comparison, as, like, e.g. 6 19 ; so enclitic 
at end of a pada, 71 12 - M, 87 ", 1 6 , 2 , 31 1, 
43 4 ; in solemn declarations: yatha ', 
tena satyena, as surely as , so, 13 w ff . ; 

5. combinations (cf. ya 5); yatha 
yatha tatha tatha, according as so, 
the more the more, 48 13 ; yatha tatha, 



in some way or other (cf. ya5 end), at 
any rate, 62 9 ; 

6. in order that, so that, ut, (so) 
that : in Veda, w. subjunctive, 88 14 , 
89 5,10,15^ 90 19. i ater> w _ opL> J49. w ,f ut , 

ind., 3*; w. pres. ind., yatha svami ja- 
garti, tatha maya kartavyam, I must 
act so, that the master wakes, 30 16 ; so 
37 5 ' 7 , 38 22 , 39 !; -7. that, w. verbs of 
saying, knowing, etc., 30 7 ; for influence 
on accent of verb, see 595. [pron. root ya, 
510, 1101 : cf. article ya.] 

yatha-kartavya, a. requiring to be 
done under given circumstances ; as n. 
the proper course of action, 41 n . 

yathakamam, adv. according to wish, 
agreeably, 16 2 ; in an easy-going way, 
slowly, 49 14 . [yatha + kama, 1313b.] 

yatha-karya, = yathakartavya. 

yathakramam, adv. according to order, 
in regular series. [yatha + krama, 

yathagata, a. on which one came ; 
-am, adv. by the way by which one came, 
[yatha + agata, Vgam, 1313b.] 

yathangam, adv. limb after limb or 
limb on limb ; membratim. [yatha + 
anga, 1313b.] 

yathatatham, adv. as it really is, ac- 
curately, [yatha + tatha, 1313b, 1314a.] 

yathabhimata, a. as desired, that one 
likes, [yatha + abhimata, Vman.] 

yathabhimata-dega, m. desired place, 
place that one likes. [1280 *.] 

yathayogyam, adv. as is fit, according 
to propriety, [yatha + yogya, 1313b.] 

yathartha, a. according to the thing or 
fact, true ; as n. the pure truth, [yatha 
+ artha. ] 

yatharha, a. according to that which is 
fit ; -am, adv. suitably, according to one's 
dignity, [yatha + arha, 1313b.] 

yathavat, adv. according to le comment, 
comme il faut, duly, [yatha, 1107.] 

yathavidhi, adv. according to prescrip- 
tion or rule, [yatha + vidhi, 1313b.] 

yatha-vrtta, a. as happened; -am, w. 
verb of telling: either the actual occurrence 
or circumstances (as nom. or ace. s. .), 
or as it really happened (as adv., 1313b). 

yathagraddham, adv. according to in- 
clination, as you will, [yatha + graddha, 
1313b, 334 2 .] 

yathepsita, a. as desired ; -am, adv. 
according to one's wish, [yatha + Ipsita, 

yathokta, a. as (afore-)said ; -am, adv. 
as aforesaid, [yatha + ukta.] 

yad, 1. as nom. ace. s. n. to ya, see ya; 
used in cpds and derivs, see 510; 2. as 
conjunctive adv. that ; tan na bhadram 
krtam, yad vigvasah krtas, therefore 
it was not well done (herein), that trust 
was reposed, 22 n ; ninya ciketa, prgnir 
yad udho jabhara, he knoweth the 
secret, that P. offered her udder, 78 3 ; 
introducing oratio recta, 38 l ; yad , tad, 
as for the fact that , therein, 36 1 ; so 
94 1G ; yad vai tad abruvan, as for the 
fact that they said that, indeed, 96 ' 23 ; 

3. in causal connections: like Eng. that 
(i.e. on account of which), 78 16 ; yad- 
tad, since therefore, 17 5 ; yad 
tasmat, inasmuch as therefore, 15 3 ; 
since (i.e. considering that), 79 14 ; pur- 
pose: in order that, 78 9 , 72 12 ' 14 ; result : 
that, 71 e - 7 ; etadrga dharmajna, yan 
mam hantum udyatas, so understanding 
the law, as to undertake to slay me, 
28 5 ; 

4. temporal : as, 86 6 ; tad yad, 
then when, 71 2 ; yad tatas, when 
then, 92 12 ; so yad taditna, 70 7 ; 
correl. often lacking: yad '",', when , 
(sc. then), 75 12 ; so 80 3 , 81 17 ; while, 71 5 ; 
hence, the temporal use passing insensibly 
(cf. yad vaama, when or if we will, 73 17 , 
and Eng. when w. Ger. wenn) into the 
conditional, - 5. if, 80 9 - 10 ' n ; -yad placed 
within the dependent clause, 78 8 (quoted 
under 2), 79 14 ; for influence on acct 
of verb, see 595. [pron. root ya, 510, 

y a d a , adv. when ; yada tada or tatas, 
when then ; yada atha, Vedic, 
84 s, 6, 7 . y a da yada, quandocunque, see 
tada. [pron. root ya, 1103a.] 

ya,di, adv. if; 1. w. pres. ind. in protasis: 
apodosis has pres. ind., 20 17 , 37 12 ; 42 14 , 
43 7 , 65 23 , 99 21 ; has fut., 39 20 , 44*; has im- 



perative, 10 16 ; has no finite verb, 18 n , 25 8 , 
28 9 , 40 1 ; 2. w. fut. in protasis and apo- 
dosis, 9 20 , II 3 ; 3. w. pres. opt. in protasis 
and apodosis, 3 17 , 98 20 ; 4. w. no finite 
verb in protasis: apodosis has imperative, 
32 17 , 48", 84 9 ; has no finite verb, 27 18 , 
28 12 , 63 9 ; alternative conditions : va, 
yadi va , va, whether , or , 
or , 28 12 ; apodosis introduced by tada 
(e.g. 25 8 ), tad (37 12 ), tarhi (32"), or 
without adv. (e.g. 3 17 ). [pron. root ya, 

yadbhavisya, a. who says yad bhavis- 
yati, (tad) bhavisyati or " What will be, 
will be " ; as m. fatalist ; Yadbhavishya or 
Whatwillb', name of a fish. [1314b.] 

V yam (yacchati, -te [747]; yayama, 
yeme" ; ayamsit, ayamsta ; yamsyati ; 
yatd ; yamtum ; yamitva ; -yamya). 
hold ; hold up, sustain, support ; hold 
back, restrain ; hold out, offer, grant, 
furnish ; show (the teeth), 77*. [cf. 
C*?/"'a, 'restraint, i.e. punishment.'] 
+ a, hold out, i.e. extend, and so (like 
Eng. extend), lengthen; ayata, extended, 

+ ud, 1. raise (the arms, weapons), 
35 20 ; 2. (like Eng. take up, i.e.) under- 
take or set about (a thing) ; udyata, 
having undertaken, w. inf., 28 6 . 
+ sam-ud, like ud-yam [1077b]: 1. 
raise; 2. set about; samudyata, hav- 
ing set about, w. inf., 40 20 . 
+ u p a , hold on to, take hold of ; esp., 
middle, take to wife, marry, 98 8 . 
-I- n i , hold, restrain ; niyata, having re- 
stricted one's self (to a certain thing), all 
intent upon one definite object. 
+ pra, hold or reach out, offer, give; give 
in marriage (as a father his daughter), 
98 7 . 

+ prati-pra, offer in turn, pass (food), 
w.gen., 100 2 \ 

+ vi, hold asunder, stretch out. 
-t-s am, hold together, co-hibere, hold in 
check ; samyata, restrained. 

yama, 1. a. holding, restraining ; 2. m. 
(holder, i.e.) bridle. [Vyam.] 

yama, 1. a. paired, twin, geminus; as m. 
a twin; 2. The Twin, Yama, who, with 

his sister Yami, constituted the first 
human pair, selection Ixiii. ; honored as 
father of mankind (cf. also manu) and as 
king of the spirits of the departed fathers 
(pitaras), see 83 *N. ; in later times, re- 
garded as the 'Restrainer' (Vyam) or 
' Punisher,' and ruler of death and of the 
dead in the under-world, 7 11 ; yaml, f. 
Yami, twin sister of Yama. [so Thomas, 
Hebrew t e om, means ' twin.'] 

yama-rajan, a. having Yama as their 
king ; as m. subject of Yama. [1302a.] 

yayati, m. Yayati, a patriarch of the 
olden time, son of Nahusha. [perhaps 
'The Striver,' Vyat, cf. 1155.2c: or from 
Vya, 1157.1c.] 

yava, m. orig. prob. any grain or corn, 
yielding flour; later, barley-corn, barley, 
[cf . ejo, *oF-w(, ' corn.'] 

yava-madhyama, a. having a barley- 
corn middle, i.e. big in the middle and 
small at the ends, like a crescendo-dimin- 
uendo sign; as n. the Yavamadhyama, 
name of a candrayana or lunar penance. 
[1297, 1280b.] 

yavistha, a. youngest; esp. of a fire just 
born of the sticks of attrition or just set 
on the altar, [superl. to yiivan, q.v., but 
from the simpler *yu, 468.] 

yavisthya, a. = yavistha, but always at 
the end of a pada and as diiambus. 

yaviyans, a. younger. [comp. to 
yiivan, q.v., but from the simpler *yu, 

yagas, n. fame, honor. [1151. 2a.] 

yagas, a. honored, splendid. [1151. 2a.] 

yasti, f. staff, [perhaps 'a support,' fr. 
yacch, quasi-root of the present system 
of yam: cf. 220, 1157.] 

V yah, stir, move quickly, inferred fr. yaks, 
q.v., and yahva, 'continually moving, 

V ya (yati; yayau; ayasit[911]; yasyati; 
yata; yatum; yatva; -yaya). 1. go, 
39 l ; yatas, avasitasya, of him that 
journeys (and) of him that rests, 71 8 ; w. 
astam, 62 u , see astam ; 2. go to, w. ace., 
43 17 , 91 6 ; w. dot. 49"; -3. go to, i.e. 
attain to (a condition) : e.g. devatvam ya, 
attain to godhead, i.e. become divine, 



19 21 ; so 17 22 , etc.; -4. yatu, lot it go, 
no matter, 44 8 . 

[collateral form of Vi, 'go,' 108g: 
hence yana, ' passage, way,' w. which cf . 
Lat. janus, 'passage, archway/ and the 
god thereof Janus: fr. Vya comes also 
ya-ma, ' period or watch of the night ' ; 
Hi-pa, ' time, season,' Eng. year, show a 
development of mg like that of yama, 
q.v., but their connection w. Vya is 
doubtful (see 2 vara).] 
+ a n u , go after, follow. 
+ a , come hither or to or on. 
+ s a m - a , come hither together ; assem- 
ble ; samayata, come. 
+ ud, go forth or out. 
+ up a, go or attain unto. 
+ pra, go forth; set out. 

V yac (yacati, -te ; yayace ; ayacista ; 
yacisy6 ; yacita ; yacitum ; yacitva ; 
-yacya). make a request; ask a person 
(ace.) for a thing (ace.), 46 u ; ask a 
thing (ace.) of a person (abl.), 55 21 . 

yat, adv. as; temporally, so long as, .79 13 . 
[abl. of pron. root ya, 1114a, 510: see 
under ya.] 

yat ana, f. requital ; esp. punishment, 
pains of hell. [Vyat, 1150.] 

yatr, m. avenger. [' pursuer,' Vya, 1182.] 

yana, m. way; as n. wagon. [Vya, 1150.] 

yama,/. -I, a. of or coming from Yama. 
[yama, 1208f.] 

yama, in. 1. course or going, 78 5 ; 2. as 
in Eng., course (of a feast); 3. watch 
of the night. [Vya, 1166: for mg 2, cf. 
irtpi-oSos, 'way around, circuit, course at 
dinner/ and Ger. Gang, ' course ' : for 
mg 3,' cf. irfptoSos, 'time of circuit.'] 

yavant [517], 1. a. as great, 101 9 ; as 
many, 64 4 , 105 4 ; as much ; preceding its 
correl. tavant; 2. yavat, adv. as long, 
while ; tavat yavat, so long as, 
19 2 , 42 3 ; yavat tavat : as long 
as , so long, 15 5 , 32 2 , 40 18 ; as soon 
as or the moment that , then, 44 15 , 
22 7 ; 3. yavat, as quasi-prep, w. ace.: 
during; up to (in space or time); sarpa- 
vivaram yavat, as far as the serpent's 
hole, 39 13 ; adya yavat, until to-day, 
24 ". [pron. root ya, 517. cf. tavant.] 

yavayad-dvesas, a. driving away foes. 
[V2yu, 'keep off': see 1309.] 

V lyu (yaiiti [626], 3rd pi. yuvanti, mid. 
yute ; yuvati, -te ; Jinite forms Vedic 
only; yuta ; -yuya). fasten, hold fast; 
draw towards one, attract ; join, unite. 
+ s am, unite; samyuta, connected with, 
i.e. having reference to, 59 14 . 

V 2yu (yuy6ti; yucchati [60S 2 ]; ayauslt; 
yuta; -yuya; cans, yavayati). repel, 
keep off or separate, trans. ; sometimes 
keep off or separate, intrans. ; a Vedic 

+ pra, remove; prayucchant, removing 
(intrans.), moving away, and so (like Eng. 
absent), heedless. 

yu, root of 2d pers. pronoun, cf. 494. [cf. 
v/j.e7s, Lesbian tf/u/ues, 'ye': kinship of 
Eng. ye, doubtful.] 

yukti, f. 1. a yoking, harnessing; 
-2. yoke, team. [Vyuj, 1157, 219: cf. 
eC|iy, *evy-<ri-s, ' a yoking.'] 

yuga, n. 1. yoke; 2. couple, pair; 
3. esp. w. manusa, a human generation 
(as that which is united by common 
descent), -yei/os avdpwirccv ; 4. and so, in 
a temporal sense, an age of the world, see 
58 l y. [Vyuj, q.v., 216. 1: cf. yugma.] 

yugapat-prapti,/ simultaneous reach- 
ing or arriving at. [1279 and a.] 

yugapad, adv. simultaneously. [ap- 
parently ace. s. n. of an adj. *yuga-pad, 
' pair-footed, even-footed, side by side/ a 
possessive form (1301) of a descriptive 
cpd (1280b) *yuga-pad, 'pair-foot.'] 

yugma, a. paired, even; as n. pair, 
couple. [Vyuj, 1166, 216.5: for mg, cf. 
couple, Lat. copula, *co-ap-ula, Vap + co-, 
'fit or join together.'] 

V yuj (yunakti, yuakt ; yuyoja, yuyuj6; 
ayukta ; yoksyati, -te ; yukta ; y6ktum ; 
yuktva; -yujya; yojayati). -1. yoke; 
harness ; make ready for draught, used 
of wagon (101 1T ) as well as of steed (72 6 ) ; 
then, generalized, 2. make ready, set to 
work, apply; use, e.g. the Soma-press- 
stones, 76 18 ; yukta, engaged upon (loc.), 
busied with, 62 u ; 3. unite ; middle, 
unite one's self with (instr.); yujana, in 
company with, 73 12 ; 4. passive, be 


united with (instr.), i.e. become possessed 

of, 60 15 ; yukta: possessed of (instr.), 

1 12 ; having , at end of cpd, 65 J - ; 

5. pass, be joined or made ready, and so 

be fitted, suited; yukta, fit, suitable, 

right, proper, 23 19 ; yuktam, adv. fitly, 

rightly, etc., 36 2 ; -6. yojayati [1041 2 ], 

apply ; lay on, 102 u . [cf . ^eiry-yy/zt, Lat. 

jung-o, 'yoke, harness, join'; w. yuga, 

'yoke,' cf. vy6v, Lat. jugum, Ger. Jock, 

Eng. yoke : for euphony, see 219.] 

+ ud, mid. make one's self ready, set to 

work, exert one's self. 

+ up a, mid. harness, put to, 73 13 ; apply, 


+ ni, mid. 1. fasten to; 2. put (a 

task) upon, commission; caus. [1041 2 ], 

set, lay, e.g. snares, 24 n . [for mg 2, 

cf. niyoga; also Eng. en-join w. its Lat. 

predecessor in-jungere.~\ 

+ pra, apply, use; w. namaskaram, 

employ, i.e. do adoration. 

+ s am, join together, unite; samyukta, 

at end of cpd: joined with, i.e. endowed 

with, 34 4 ; connected with, i.e. having 

reference to, 59 12> u . 

yuj [389, 219, 386b], -1. a. yoked to- 
gether; as m. yoke-fellow, and so comrade, 
88 s ; 2. a. paired, even. [Vyuj: see 
ayuj and ayuja.] 

yujya, a. united, combined. [Vyuj, 

yuddha, ppl. fought; as n. [1176a], fight, 
battle, contest. [Vyudh, 1176, 160.] 

yuddha-varna, m. a sort of battle; a 
battle, so to speak. 

Vyudh (yiidhyate; yuyudh6; ayuddha ; 
yotsyate; yuddha; y6ddhum ; -yiidhya). 
fight, [cf . vo-fj.ii'Tj, *\>9-fjuvri, ' battle.'] 
+ a, fight against. 

yiidh,/. fight. [Vyudh.] 

yudhi-sthira, m. Yudhishthira, son of 
Pandu and Kunti, to whom Brihadacva 
tells the story of Nala ; see 1 14 N. [' firm 
in battle,' yudh-i (1250c) -f sthira.] 

V yup (yuy6pa; yupita; yopayati[1041 2 ]). 
set up an obstacle, block or bar the way ; 
hinder, thwart, 80 10 ; obstruct or clog, see 
86 OK. 

yuvd, pron. stem, 2d pers. dual, 491. 

yuvati, serving as a feminine to ydvan. 
young woman; maiden. [1157.3 end: 
perhaps pres. ppl. of V 1 yu, ' attract.'] 

yuvan [427], a. young; as subst. young 
man (distinguished from bala, 'child,' 
28 12 ); youth (used even of youthful 
gods). [perhaps fr. v'lyu, 'attract,' 
suffix an, not van, 1160 : see yaviyans, 
yavistha, yuvati : cf . Lat. juven-i-s, 
'young'; w. juven-cu-s, 'young,' cf. Ger- 
manic *yuvunga, ijnnga, Eng. young ; also 
Old Eng. yung-fye, Spenser's youngth, Eng. 

yusm, see 491. 

yutha, m. n. herd. [prop, 'a union,' 
v'lyu, 'unite,' 1163: for mg, cf. also Ger. 
Bande, 'gang or set of men,' and Eng. 
band, 'company,' both indirectly fr. the 
root of bind.~\ 

yutha-natha, m. protector or leader of 
the herd. 

yutha-pa, m. keeper or protector of the 
herd; esp. the elephant that leads the 

yutha-pati, m. lord of the herd; esp. 
the elephant that leads the herd. 

yunas, see 427. 

yuyam, see 491. 

yena, adv. 1. wherefore, 6 2 ; 2. yena 
tena, because therefore, 64 9 ; 3. 
that, ut, introducing a result and corre- 
sponding to a ' such ' or ' so' expressed 
(21 10 ) or implied (II s ). [pron. root ya, 

yestha, pronounced yaistha, a. (best 
going, i.e.) swiftest. [Vya, 470 3 , 468.] 

y 6 g a , TO. 1. a setting to work ; use ; 
appliance (act of applying); 2. appli- 
ance (thing applied), and so means; esp. 
supernatural means, magic, 56 8 ; 3. (the 
applying one's self to a thing, and so) 
pursuit or acquisition (of a thing), cf. 
ksema ; 4. connection, relation ; -yogat, 
at end of cpd, from connection with , i.e. 
in consequence of . [Vyuj, 216. 1.] 

y6gya, a. of use, suited for use, fit, fit- 
ting. [y6ga, 1212a.] 

yoddhr, m. fighter. [Vyudh, 1182, 160.] 

yodhin, a. at end of cpds, fighting. 
[Vyudh, 1183.] 



y6ni, m.f. 1. lap; womb or birth-place ; 
2. place of origin; origin, 93 4 ; 3. 
birth-place, i.e. home ; place of abiding ; 
place, 86 17 , 89 8 , RV. x.125.7; -4. (like 
Eng. origin or birth) family, race; form 
of existence (as man, Brahman, beast, 
etc., in the system of transmigrations) as 
this form is determined by birth, 67 ~\ 
[' the holder ' of the born or unborn babe, 
v'lyu, 'hold,' 1158. 2 2 : cf. the analogous 
metaphors in Lat. con-cipere, 'take, hold, 
conceive'; and in volva, 'cover, envelope,' 
and so ' womb,' fr. a root cognate with 
1 vr, ' cover.'] 

yonitas, adv. from birth, by blood, [yoni, 

yosit, f. young woman, maiden, [per- 
haps ' the attractive one,' fr. V 1 yu, 
'attract,' 1200a, 383. 3 (through the inter- 
mediate form y6-sa, 1197, of the same 
mg) : cf. yuvati.] 

yauvana, n. youth, period between child- 
hood and maturity, adolescence (of man 
or maid), [yrivan, 1208a.] 

yauvana-daga,/*. time of youth. 

V ranh (ranhati, -te). 1. make to run; 
hasten, trans. ; 2. mid. run ; hasten, in- 
trans. [for *rangh : cf . the forms langh 
and raghii, and see under laghii.] 

rakta, ppl. colored; esp. red? as n. blood. 
[Vranj, 954a.] 

V Iraks (raksati, -te; raraksa; araksit; 
raksita ; raksitum; -raksya). de-fend, 
protect ; keep, i.e. both retain and main- 
tain; take care of (as a sovereign), i.e. 
govern ; guard, ward ; save, [a desid. 
extension of V*rak or ark: cf. dAe-o!, 
' ward off,' which bears a similar relation 
to VaAK or apK in &\-a\K-f, 'warded off,' 
apK-fca, 'ward off, protect'; cf. also Lat. 
arc-eo, ' ward off,' arx, ' stronghold of de- 
fence, citadel ' ; AS. ealh-stede, ' defence- 
stead, strong-hold ' ; ealgian, ' protect ' : 
for the two chief mgs of \ raks, cf. Lat. 
de-fendere, 'ward off, protect.'] 
+ pari, protect around ; save. 

V 2 r a k s , harm, in raksas. [perhaps only 
another aspect of 1 raks, ' ward off/ i.e. 
'beat away.'] 

raksaka, /. keeper; warder; protector. 
[Vlraks, 1181.] 

raks ana, n. protection; preservation. 
[Vlraks, 1150.] 

raksas, n. 1. harm; 2. concrete, 
harmer, name of nocturnal demons who 
disturb sacrifices and harm the pious. 
[V 2 raks, 1151.2a.] 

raksa, f. protection; watch. [Vlraks, 

raksi, a. guarding, at end of cpds. 
[Vlraks, 1155.] 

r a k s i t r , m. protector ; watcher. [V 1 raks, 

raghii, 1. a. running, darting, swift; 
as m. runner; 2. m. Raghu (The Run- 
ner, Apo/tevs), name of an ancient king. 
[Vranh, q.v.: older form of laghii, q.v.] 

ranga, m. 1. color; 2. theatre, amphi- 
theatre. [Vraj or rafij, 216. 1 : connection 
of mg 2 unclear.] 

V raj or ranj (rajyati, -te; rakta; -rajya; 
cans, ranjdyati). 1. be colored; esp. 
be red; rakta: red; dyed; as n. blood; 

2. fi(j. be affected with a strong feeling 
(cf. raj + vi) ; esp. be delighted with, 
have pleasure in, be in love with; cans. 

1. color; redden; 2. delight, please, 
make happy. 

[orig. 'be bright or white' (whence 
rajaka) ; then 'glow, be red": see the 
ident. V3rj and its cognates tipyvpos, etc.; 
and cf . V f>ey in aor. f>tai, ' dye/ and 
peyevs, 'dyer': w. this root may be con- 
nected the root raj in its mgs given 
under 2.] 

+ anu, 1. be colored after, take the 
tinge of ; 2. feel affection towards. 
+ vi, 1. lose color; 2. be cold or 
indifferent towards (loc.), 45 s . [for mg 
2, cf . the senses of the simple verb : the 
metaphor may be either ' not glowing/ 
and so, as in Eng., ' cold/ or else ' color- 
less/ and so, ' indifferent.'] 

raj aka, m. washerman, who is also a dyer 
of clothes. [' whitener ' or else ' dyer/ 
Vraj, 1181.] 

rajas, n. 1. atmosphere, air, region of 
clouds, vapors, and gloom, clearly dis- 
tinguished from heaven (dyaus, 72 2 ) or 



the ethereal' spaces of heaven (rocana 
divas, 81 8 , or svar), "where the light 
dwelleth," these being beyond the rajas, 
just as the ai&fip is beyond the a-f)p; 
used loosely in pi., the skies, 71 7 ; the 
sky conceived as divided into an upper 
and a lower stratum, and so dual, rajasi, 
75 5i12 ; so far Vedic; 

2. post-Vedic: like the Greek d-fip, the 
thick air, mist, gloom, darkness ; 3. 
dust, e.g. 14 13 ; 4. in the philosophical 
system, darkness (cf. 2), the second of the 
three qualities (see guna), soul-darkening 
passion (popularly connected with raga, 
'passion'), 66 8 - 16 . 

[since the orig. mg, as indicated by 
usage, is ' the cloudy (region), region of 
gloom and dark' as distinguished from 
the everlasting light beyond, the word is 
prob. to be derived f r. V raj in the sense 
'be (colored, i.e.) not clear': cognate are 
f-pe0os, 'darkness, Erebus,' and Goth. 
riqis, neut., ' darkness ' : for connection of 
mgs 2 and 3, cf . Ger. Dunst, ' vapor,' and 
Eng. dust.'] 

T & j j u , f. cord ; rope. [V *razg, ' plait ' : cf . 
Lithuanian rezgis, ' plaited work, basket ' ; 
Lat. restis, *resctis, *rezg-ti-s, 'rope': see 

V ranj, see raj. 

ran a, m. pleasure, gladness. [Vran.] 

ranva, a. pleasant, lovely. [Vran, 1190.] 

rati, f. 1. rest, quiet; 2. comfort, 
pleasure. [Vram, 1157, cf. 954d.] 

ratna, n. 1. gift; blessing, riches, 
treasure, as something bestowed or given 
(cf. ratna-dha); so far Vedic; 2. post- 
Vedic: precious stone, jewel, pearl; fig., 
as in Eng., jewel, i.e. the most excellent of 
its kind. [V Ira, 'bestow.'] 

ratna-dha [352], a. bestowing bless- 

1 rath a, m. wagon, esp. the two-wheeled 
battle-wagon (lighter and swifter than the 
anas, ' dray ') ; car or chariot of gods 
(72*-, 89 u ) as well as of men (87 14 ). 
[Vr, 'move,' 1163: for mg, cf. Lat. currus, 
' chariot,' and currere, ' run.'] 

2 ratha, m. pleasure, joy. [Vram, 1163, 
cf. 954d.] 

V ran (ranati ; rarana ; aranit). be 
pleased; Vedic. [ident. w. Vram.] 

rap as, n. bodily injury; disease. 

V rabh (rabhate; rebhe; arabdha ; raps- 
yate ; rabdha ; rabdhum ; -rabhya). 
grasp ; take hold of. [prob. a collateral 
form of Vgrabh, and ident. w. labh, see 
these : cf . TO \d<p-vpa, ' spoils, booty ' ; 
f"i-\r](t>-a, ' took ' ; Lat. lab-or, ' undertaking, 
labor ' ; perhaps ^\<p-ov, ' gat, earned.'] 
+ &, 1. take hold upon; touch, RV. 
x. 125. 8 ; 2. take hold of, i.e. under- 
take, 14 6 ; w. yatnam, undertake an effort, 
i.e. exert one's self, II 2 ; 3. (like Ger. 
an-fangen and Lat. in-cipere) begin ; 
arabhya : w. abl., beginning from , or 
simply from , 39 13 ; w. adya, from to- 
day on, 36 19 . 

+ anv-a, take hold of from behind, 
hold on to. 

+ sam-anv-a, hold on to each other 
(said of several) ; sam-anv-arabdha, 

sam-a, undertake (see a-rabh) to- 

sam, take hold of each other (for 
dance, battle, etc.), hold together; take 
hold (of a thing) together. 

V ram (ramati, -te ; rarama, reme ; 
aramsit, aramsta ; ramsyate ; rata ; 
ramtum; ramtva; -ramya; ramayati). 

1. act. stop, trans. 2. mid. stop, in- 
trans. ; rest ; abide ; stay gladly with ; 

3. mid. (rest, take one's ease or com- 
fort, and so) find pleasure in ; rata, w. loc., 
or at end of cpds, taking pleasure in, de- 
voted to ; 4. caus. bring to a stand-still, 
stay, 73 7 . [cf. ii-pfp-a, 'quietly'; Goth. 
nmis, ' quiet ' ; tpa^ai, eparai, *m-/, 
*pm-rai, 'love, loves'; i-pa.-r&-s, 'lovely,' 
formally ident. w. ratd : for mgs 2 and 3, 
cf. \'2gam.] 

+ abhi, mid. 1. stop, intrans. ; 2. find 
pleasure ; please, intrans., 106 1 . 
+ a , act. stop, trans. 

-up a, stop; uparata, ceased, (of 
sounds) hushed. 
+ v i , act. stop, intrans. ; pause, 
ramaniya, grdv. enjoyable, pleasant. 
[Vram, 965, 1215.] 



ramya, grdv. enjoyable, pleasant. [Vram, 

rayi, m. wealth, treasure. [prop, 'be- 
stowal' (cf. 70 n ), fr. ri, a weaker form 
of Vlra, 'bestow,' 1155.1: cf. ratna and 

ravi, m. the sun. 

r a g a n a , /. cord ; strap ; rein, [cf . ragmi.] 

rag mi, m. 1. line, cord; 2. Jig. (line, 
i.e.) ray, of light; beam, [so Eng. ray 
involves a metaphor, its Lat. predecessor 
radius meaning orig. 'staff' and then 
' spoke ' : cf . ragana and ragi.] 

rasa, m. la. the sap or juice of plants 
(36 18 ), and esp. of fruits ; fruit-syrup, 68 l ; 
Ib. fig. the best or finest or strongest 
part of a thing, its essence or flos, 44 7 , 
83 3 ; Ic. sap, generalised, fluid, liquid ; 
drink, 15 1T ; 2a. taste (regarded as the 
chief characteristic of a liquid); 2b. 
taste, i.e. relish for, 97 6 ; 2c. object of 
one's taste, esp. that which pleases one's 
taste, e.g. the beauties (of a story), 56 n . 

rasa, f. 1. moisture ; 2. Rasa, a 
mythical stream supposed to flow round 
the earth and atmosphere, [cf. rasa.] 

rasika, a. tasty; as m. connoisseur, [rasa, 

V rah (rahita; rahitum). leave, give up, 
+ v i , abandon, separate from, in viraha. 

r alias, n. solitude; lonely place; as adv. 
[llllbj, secretly. [Vrah.] 

V Ira (rarate; rarau, rare; arasta; rata), 
give, grant, bestow, [see rai : cf . rayi.] 

V 2ra (rayati [761dl]). bark; bark at. 
[cf . Lat. in-ri-re, ' growl at.'] 

raksasa, a. demoniacal; as ??j. a demo- 
niacal one, a Rakshas. [raksas, q.v., 

rag a, m. 1. coloring, color; 2. affec- 
tion, feeling, passion. [Vraj, 216.1.] 

raghava, m. descendant of Raghu, i.e. 
Rama, [raghii, 1208c.] 

V raj (rajati, -te ; raraja, reje [794e 2 ]; 

1. direct ; rule ; be first ; be master 
or king of, w. gen. ; 

2. shine ; be illustrious ; distinguish 
one's self ; caws, cause to shine. 

[orig., perhaps, two distinct roots, 
but no longer distinguished in form, 
and with the two sets of mgs partly co- 
incident: w. raj 1, cf. Vlrj, 'reach out'; 
w. raj 2, cf. V3rj, 'be bright,' and Vraj: 
see under raj an.] 

+ v i , 1. become master of, master (gen.), 
81 u ; 2. shine out; ca;/s. adorn, 12 17 . 

raj [nom. rat], m. king. [Vraj.] 

r a j a , at end of cpds for rajan, 1249a 2 . 

raj a-kula, ?. 1. royal family; in pi., 
equivalent to princes; 2. (as conversely 
in Eng., The Sublime Porte, lit. ' the high 
gate,' is used for the Turkish government) 
the royal palace. [1280b.] 

raja-dvara, n. king's door, door of the 
royal palace. 

rajan, m. 1. king, prince, I 8 , etc.; ap- 
plied also to Varuna, 83 12 , 75 s , 76 1T , 
78 19 , 80 1 ; to Indra, 71 8 ; to Yama, 83 12 ' 8 , 
84 20. _2. equiv. to rajanya, a ksatriya 
or man of the military caste, 59 13 - 22 ; 3. 
at end of cpds : regularly raja ; sometimes 
rajan, 6 s , 84 20 . [Vraj, 1160c: cf. Lat. 
reg-em, ' king ' ; Keltic stem rig-, ' king ' : 
from the Keltic was borrowed very early 
the Germanic *rilc-, ' ruler ' ; of this, Goth. 
reiki, AS. rice, 'dominion,' are dcrivs ; so 
also Goth, reiks, AS. rice, ' powerful,' 
Eng. rich: rice, 'dominion,' lives in Eng. 

rajanya, a. royal, princely; as m. one of 
royal race, a noble, oldest designation of 
a man of the second caste; see ksatriya. 
[rajan, 1212dl.] 

raja-putrd, m. king's son, prince, [acct, 

raja-putra, a. having princes as sons; 
-tra, f. mother of princes. [1302 : acct, 

raja-purusa, m. king's man, servant of 
a king, royal official. 

raj as a,/. -I, a. pertaining to the second 
of the three qualities (see rajas 4), pas- 
sionate, as terminus technicus. [rajas, 

rajendra, m. best or chief of kings, 
[raja + indra.] 

r a j n I , f. queen, princess, Anglo-Indian 
rannee ; ruler, [rajan, 1156.] 



rajya, n. kingship, [raj, 1211.] 

rati, a. ready to give or bless; gracious; 
as f. grace, [v'lra, 'give.'] 

r a t r a , n. for ratri at end of cpds. [1315b.] 

ratri, later ratri, /. night, [perhaps fr. 
s'ram, 'rest.'] 

V radh (radhn6ti; radhyate [761a], -ti ; 
raradha ; aratsit ; ratsyati ; raddha ; 
raddhva ; -radhya; radhayati). 1. be 
successful ; prosper, have luck ; be happy, 
103"; 2. trans, make successful or 
happy ; gratify ; cans, accomplish ; make 
happy, satisfy, [akin w. Vrdh.] 
+ apa, 1. hit away (from the mark), 
miss (the mark), fail; 2. be at fault, 
be to blame ; offend, sin ; aparaddha, 
guilty, to blame, 33 l . [for 1, cf. the 
simple verb, ' succeed,' i.e. ' make a hit ' : 
for 2, cf. the relation of Eng. fail and 
+ a, caus. make happy, satisfy. 

radhas, n. gracious gift, blessing. [V radii, 
' gratify ' : for mg, cf . French gratification, 

ram a, a. dark; as m. Rama, hero of the 
epos Ramayana ; cf. raghava. 

rayas-posa, m. development, i.e. in- 
crease of wealth, [gen. s. of rai, 1250d : 
171 2 .] 

rava, m. cry; yell; howl. [Vru, 1148.2.] 

r a 5 i , m. troop, host ; heap. [perhaps 
akin w. rac.mi, q.v. : for connection of 
mg, cf. Eng. line and French cordon, as 
applied to soldiers.] 

r a s t r a , n. kingdom ; sovereignty. [V raj 1 : 
see 219 5 , 1185a.] 

rastri, f. directrix, sovereign, [v'raj 1: 
see 219 5 , 1182 2 .] 

rastriya,a. belonging to the sovereignty ; 
as m. sovereign, ruler, [rastra, 1215.] 

rahu, m. The Seizer, Rahu, who is sup- 
posed to seize and swallow sun and moon, 
and thus cause eclipses, [prob. fr. Vrabh, 
1178 2 .] 

V rior ri (rinati; riyate [761c]). 1. act. 
cause to run or stream, let loose ; 2. mid. 
flow; run; dissolve, [cf. Lat. rl-vus, 
'stream, brook'; provincial Eng. run, 
' brook,' as in Bull Run ; Ger. rinnen, Eng. 
run: see also VII + pra.] 

V ric (rinakti; ricyate [761b] ; rir6ca, 
ririce; araiksit, arikta; reksyati; rik- 
ta ; pass, ricyate ; caus. recayati). 1. 
leave ; 2. let go, let free ; 3. very 
rarely (like Eng. colloq. part with), sell. 

[w. rinakti cf . Lat. linquit, ' leaves ' : 
cf . t-\iit-e, ' left ' ; Lat. lic-et, ' it is left, i.e. 
permitted' (Eng. leave means 'permis- 
sion ') ; AS. Icon, <dlh-an, Ger. leih-en, ' leave 
a thing to a person for a time, einem 
etwas iiberlassen, i.e. lend'; AS. lain, 
' gift, loan,' Eng. noun loan, whence denom. 
verb loan; fr. Isen comes liSnan, 'give, 
loan,' Old Eng. Jen-en, preterit len-de, 
whose d has become part of the root in 
Eng. lend (though good usage has not 
sanctioned the precisely similar blunder 
in drownd-ed).~] 

+ ati, mid. (through pass, sense be left 
over) surpass ; predominate ; cans, cause 
to be in surplus ; overdo, 96 12 . 

V rip (rirepa ; ripta). 1. smear; stick; 
smear, and so 2. as in Eng., defile ; 

3. (with the same metaphor as in the 
Ger. an-schmieren) cheat, impose upon, 
[the old form of Vlip: see under Vlip.] 

ripii, m. impostor, cheat ; later foe. [Vrip, 

ripra, n. defilement; impurity. [Vrip, 

ripra-vaha, a. carrying off or removing 
impurity, [acct, 1270.] 

V ri (rinati, -te; rista). 1. pull; 2. 
pull or bite off, crop, [older form of 

V ris (resati; riayati, -te [761a]; rista ; 
caws, resayati; aririsat). be hurt; re- 
ceive harm ; caus. harm. 

V ri, see ri. 

V ru (rauti [626]; ruvati; mrava; aravit; 
ruta ; r6tum). cry ; yell ; howl ; hum, 
26 9 . [cf . w-pu-o/xcu, ' howl ' ; Lat. raucus, 
' screaming, hoarse ' ; AS. ryn, ' a roar- 

in g-'] 
rukma, m. ornament of gold; as n. gold. 

[V rue, 1166, 216.5.] 
V rue (r6cate, -ti; ruruce, rur6ca; arucat, 

arocista ; rocisyate ; rucita; r6citum). 

1. shine; be bright or resplendent; 2. 
appear in splendor ; 3. appear beautiful 


[V rupaya 

or good, please, [cf. d/j.<f>i-\vK-r), ' twi- 
light'; \fvK-ds, 'bright'; Lat. lux, lumen, 
for */wc-s, */wc-men, 'light'; ^wna, *luc-na, 
'moon'; AS. /eoVi-, Eng. light; cf. also 
Lat. /uc-us (a lucendo, after all!), 'a clear- 
ing (Eng. of U.S.) or Lichtung (Ger.) or 
glade or grove ' ; AS. leak, Eng. lea, ' field, 
meadow'; -ley in Brom-ley, 'broom-field/ 
and -loo in TFaer-foo.] 
+ prati, appear good unto, please, 74. 

riici,/. pleasure. [V rue, 216.2.] 

rucira, a. splendid; beautiful. 

ruciranana, a. fair-faced. [anana: 

V ruj (rujati ; ruroja ; rugna ; ruktva; 
-riijya). 1. break, break to pieces; 

2. injure, pain. [cf. \vy-p6s, 'painful, 
sad ' ; Lat. lug-eo, ' grieve.'] 

riij, / pain, disease, [v/ruj: for mg, cf. 
Ger. Ge-brechen, ' infirmity,' w. brechen, 
'break'; also roga.] 

r u j a n a , f. perhaps breach, cleft, rift 
(of the clouds). [Vruj.] 

V rud (r6diti [6311, rudanti; rur6da; rod- 
isyati ; ruditd ; r6ditum ; ruditva ; 
-riidya). 1. cry, weep; 2. weep for, 
lament. [cf . Lat. rud-ere, ' roar ' ; AS. 
reot-an, ' weep.'] 

rudra, a. connected by Hindus w. Vrud, 
'cry,' and so howling, roaring, terrible, 
applied to Agni and other gods ; true 
meaning uncertain; as in. la. sing, in 
the Veda : Rudra, leader of the Maruts or 
Storm-gods, 77 18 , RV. x. 125.6; -Ib. in 
pi. The Rudras, a class of storm-gods, 
RV. x. 125.1 ; 2. sing. Rudra, received 
into the Hindu Trinity in the later mythol- 
ogy, and known by the name Qiva, q.v. 

V Irudh (runaddhi, runddhe ; rur6dha, 
rurudhe ; arautsit, aruddha ; rotsya- 
ti, -te ; ruddha ; r6ddhum ; ruddhva ; 
-riidhya). 1. hold back; obstruct; 
hold ; 2. keep off ; hinder ; suppress ; 

3. shut up ; close. 

+ anu, as pass., or mid. intrans., i.e. as of 
the ya- or ya-cZss, anurudhyate, also -ti, 
be held to, keep one's self to ; be devoted 
to, practice, 10 13 ; have regard for. 
+ ava, 1. hold off; 2. mid. (hold 
apart for one's self, lay up, and so) 

obtain ; desid. mid. desire to obtain, 


+ ni, hold; stop; shut up. 

+ vi, hinder or disturb. 
V 2rudh (r6dhati). grow, [collateral form 

of V mh, q.v. : cf . Lat. rud-is, fern., ' rod, 

staff': for mg, cf. w. Vrudh and Ger. 

wachsen, ' grow,' the nouns vi-rudh and 

Ge-wdchs, ' a growth, i.e. plant ' : kinship of 

Eng. rod, ' a growing shoot, rod, measure 

of length,' older rood, ' measure of length 

or surface,' is improbable on account of 

the o of AS. rod.'] 
v' rus (r6sati ; riisyati ; rusita, rusta). 

be cross or angry, [cf. AiWr, *\v<r-ja, 

' rage.'] 

rus [rut, rudbhyam], / anger, [\frus.] 
V ruh (r6hati, -te ; rur6ha, ruruh< ; 

aruhat, aruksat ; roksyati, -te ; rudha ; 

r6dhum ; rudhva ; -riihya ; riiruksati ; 

rohayati, later ropayati [1042e]). 1. 

rise, mount up, climb ; 2. spring up, 

grow up ; 3. grow, develop, thrive ; 

cans. 1. raise; 2. place upon, [see 
v'2rudh: for euphony, see 222 3 .] 

+ ad hi, cans, cause (e.g. one's body, 
ace.) to rise to (e.g. the balance, ace.), i.e. 
put (one's body) upon (the balance), 
48 1S . 

-fa, mount or get upon (a stone); seat 
one's self upon; climb (tree); ascend to 
(the head, hill-top, life, place) ; embark 
upon (boat, ship); Jig. get into (danger) ; 

cans, cause to get upon (stone, pelt) or 
into (wagon, boat), w. ace. of person and 
ace. or loc. (105 n ) of thing; desid. 
desire to climb up to. 

rupa, n. 1. outward look or appearance, 
as well color as form or shape ; Lat. 
forma; form, 48 1T , 77 2 , 96 12 ; rupam kr, 
assume a form, 14 8 , 49 6 ; (reflected) image, 
62 17 ; 2. (like Lat. forma, and Eng. 
shape in shape-ly) good form, i.e. beauty, 
2 4 , etc.; 3. appearance, characteristic 
mark, peculiarity, [cf . varpas : see also 

V rupaya (rupayati [cf. 1056, 1067]). used 
esp. in theatrical language (to have the 
look or appearance of, i.e.) act. [rupa, 



+ ni, 1. like Eng. look into tenta- 
tively, i.e. : investigate, 20 18 ; seek, 29 17 ; 
search, 33 12 ; 2. look into successfully, 
i.e.: find out, 44 17 ; discover, 26 10 ; -3. 
net, see simple verb. 

rupa-jitapsaras, a. surpassing the 
Apsarases in beauty. 

rupavant, a. like Eng. shape-ly and 
Lat. f ormosus ; beautiful, handsome, 1 4 . 
[rupa, 1233.] 

rupa-sampad, /. beauty of form, i.e. 

ru pa-samp anna, a. endowed with 
beauty, beautiful. [Vpad.] 

re, word of address. O; ho. [cf. are.] 

V rej (rejati, -te). 1. act. shake, trans. ; 
2. mid. shake, intrans. ; tremble, [per- 
haps akin w. V \iy in -A.e-A.i|e, ' caused to 
tremble, shook.'] 

renu, m. dust, [perhaps connected w. Vri, 
' dissolve, go to pieces,' just as Ger. Staub, 
'dust,' w. stieben, 'fly asunder': 1162.] 

r e v a , f. Reva, a river, the same as the 
Narmada, q.v. 

rai [361b], m., rarely f. possessions; wealth; 
prosperity, [stem strictly ra : prop. ' be- 
stowal,' V 1 ra, see 361b and rayi : w. ace. 
ra-m, cf. Lat. nom. re-s, 'property.'] 

roka, m. brightness, light. [Vruc.] 

r6ga, m. infirmity, disease. [Vruj, 216.1 : 
for mg, see noun ruj.] 

roc ana, a. shining, light ; as n. light ; 
the place of the light, ethereal space or 
spaces, 71 17 , 81 4 - 8 ; see rajas for further 
description. [Vruc, 1150.] 

rocisnii, a. shining, bright; Jig. blooming. 
[Vruc, 1194a : or rather perhaps fr. rods, 

rocis, n. brightness. [Jruc, 1153.] 

r6dasi, dual f. the two worlds, i.e. heaven 
and earth. 

rodha, a. growing. [V2rudh, 'grow.'] 

r op ay a, see 1042e end. 

r6man, n. hair on the body of men and 
beasts (usually excluding that of the 
head and beard and that of the mane and 
tail) ; later Ionian, q.v. 

romanta, m. loc. -e, in hair- vicinity, i.e. 
on the hairy side (of the hand), [roman 
(1249a 2 ) + anta.] 

raukma, a. golden, adorned with gold, 
[rukma, 1208f.] 

laksa, n. 1. rarely, mark, token; 2. 
a hundred thousand, an Anglo-Indian 
lac; 3. (like Eng. mark) mark which 
is aimed at. [Vlag, 'be fastened to,' 
1197a: for mg 1, cf. connection of Eng. 
verb tag, 'fasten,' w. noun tag, 'attach- 
ment, appendage,' and so, esp. as used 
in modern shops, ' a mark or label-tag ' ; 
for 2, cf. the specialization of Eng. marc 
or mark as 'a weight' (of gold or silver) 
and as ' a money of account ' ; also that 
of Eng. token as ' a coin ' and as ' ten 
quires printed on both sides.'] 

laksana, n. 1. mark, token; charac- 
teristic ; attribute, 66 u ; character, 101 12 ; 
essential characteristic, 41 u ; special 
mark ; esp. lucky mark, mark of excel- 
lence, 62 7 , 98 7i 8 ; mark in the sense of 
determinant at S8 23 ; 2. (like Eng. 
designation) name, 57 14 ; 3. form, 
kind, 65 12 . [fr. the denom. laksaya 
(1150. 2a), or rather fr. the simpler 
but very rare form of the same denom. 
(1054), \' laksa.] 

V laksaya (laksayati [1056]). mark, 
note, notice. [laksa, 1053 : so Lat. 
notare fr. nota.~] 
+ u p a , mark, notice ; see ; pass, appear. 

laksasamkhya, a. having lacs (see 
laksa) as their number, numbered by 
hundred-thousands, [laksa + samkhya.] 

laksmi [363 2 ], / -1. mark, sign; -2. 
with or without papi, bad sign or omen, 
something ominous, bad luck; 3. oftenest 
a good sign, in the older language usually 
with punya; good luck; prosperity, 18 14 ; 
wealth, 46 2 ; (royal) splendor, 51 19 . [fr. 
laks (1167), the quasi-root of lak-sa, 
which is a deriv. of V lag : for connection 
of mg 1 w. v'lag, see laksa: as for 2 
and 3, observe that Eng. luck sometimes 
means ' bad luck,' but of tener ' good 

laksya, grdv. to be noticed or seen; to 
be looked upon or considered as, 41 u . 
[derivation like that of laksana.] 



V lag (lagati; lagisyati; lagna [957c] ; 

lagitva; -lagya). attach or fasten one's 

self to ; lagna, attached to, put upon. 

[cf. laksa, laksmi, linga.j 
laguda, m. cudgel. 
laghii, younger form of raghii, a. 1. 

swift, quick; 2. light, i.e. not heavy; 

3. (light, i.e.) insignificant ; small ; 
contemptible ; low. 

[for derivation, see raghii and V ranh : 
cf. -\axv-s, 'small/ ^AOXI^TOS, 'smallest'; 
Lithuanian lengvas, ' light ' ; Lat. Iffvis, 
*lenhu-i-s 1 , ' 1. swift, 2. light, not heavy, 
3. insignificant, small ' (mgs quite parallel 
w. those of laghu) ; AS. lung-re, 'quickly ' ; 
Eng. lungs, 'lights': kinship of AS. leok-t, 
Eng. light, ' not heavy,' lights, ' lungs,' not 
certain : for connection of mgs 1 and 2, 
observe that swift and light, just as 
slow and heavy, name qualities naturally 
associated : for light, 'not dark,' see 

laghu-krama, a. having a quick step; 
-am, adv. [1311], quickly. 

laghu-cetas, a. small-minded. 

V langh (langhayati ; langhitd; -langh- 
ya). spring over, [see V ranh, and under 

V lajj (lajjate; lalajje"; lajjita; lajjitum). 
be ashamed. 
+ vi, be ashamed. 

lajj a,/, shame. [Vlajj, 1149.] 

lajjavant, a. having shame; embar- 
rassed. [1233.] 

V lap (lapati; lalapa ; lapisyati ; lapita, 
lapta ; laptum; -lapya). chatter; talk; 
lament. [cf . o-\o<t>-v-s, ' a lamenting ' ; 
6\o<pvpo/, ' lament ' ; perhaps Lat. Id- 
menta, ' laments.'] 
+ a , talk to, converse with. 
+ pra, talk out heedlessly or lament- 

+ v i , utter unintelligible or lamenting 

+ sam, talk with; caus. (cause to talk 
witli one, i.e.) address, 26 J . 

V labh, younger form of rabh (labhate ; 
Iebh6 ; alabdha ; lapsyate ; labdh ; 
labdhva ; -labhya). 1. catch; seize; 

2. receive; get. [see under Vrabh.] 

+ pra, 1. seize; take; 2. dupe; 
fool. [for 2, cf. Eng. colloq. take in, 
' gull,' and catch, ' ensnare.'] 
+ v i - p r a , fool, 37 6 . [see V labh + pra.] 

V lamb (lambate; lalambe'; lambisyati ; 
lambita ; lambitum ; -lambya). 1. 
hang down; 2. sink; 3. hang upon, 
hold on to; cling to; and so 4. (like 
Eng. stick) tarry, lag. [younger form 
of V ramb, ' hang down limp ' : cf . Ao/8-<fo, 
'lobe or pendent part' (of ear, liver); 
Lat. Idb-i, ' sink, fall ' ; limbus, ' fringe, 
border ' ; AS. Iseppa, ' loosely hanging 
portion,' Eng. lap (of coat, apron); Eng. 
limp, ' hanging loosely, flaccid ' ; %>-ears, 
'hanging' ears (of a rabbit).] 
+ ava, 1. hang down; 2. sink; 3. 
hang upon, hold on to. 
+ vi, lag, loiter, [see v' lamb 4: for mg, 
cf . also Eng. hang, in hang Jire.] 

\1 lal (lalati, -te; lalita). sport, dally, 
play ; behave in an artless and uncon- 
strained manner ; lalita, see s.v. 

lalata, n. forehead. 

lalita, a. artless, naive; lovely, [prop. 
' unconstrainedly behaved,' ppl. of Vial, 
952 2 : so Eng. behaved has rather adjec- 
tival than verbal coloring.] 

lavana, n. salt, esp. sea-salt; as a. salt. 

V las (lasati; lalasa; lasita). gleam, 
glance. [orig. 'glance,' but, like Eng. 
glance, with the subsidiary notion (see 
lasa), 'move quickly hither and thither,' 
and so, 'play' (see the cpds w. preps.): 
conversely, Eng. dull means ' slow,' and 
then, 'not glancing': cf. Lat. lasc-lvus 
(through *las-cu-s), 'wanton.'] 
+ ud, 1. glance; 2. play; 3. be 
overjoyed, 24 23 . 

+ vi, 1. glance; 2. play; 3. be 
joyful or wanton. 

lasa, a. moving quickly hither and 
thither; lively. [Vlas.] 

laja, m. pi. parched or roasted grain, 
[perhaps akin w. v'bhrjj.] 

labha, m. the getting, acquisition. [Vlabh.] 

V likh (likhati; lilekha; alekhit ; likhis- 
yati; likhita ; likhitva; -likhya). - 1. 
scratch ; furrow ; slit ; draw a line ; 2. 
write ; write down ; delineate, [younger 



form of v rikh : cf . t-pe'iK-w, ' furrow ' 
(x.06?a, 'ground'); t-ptx-Ou, 'tear, rend'; 
Lat. rima, *ric-ma, ' slit, crack ' : for mgs, 
observe that Eng. write is fr. the same 
root as Ger. ritzen, ' scratch.'] 

linga, n. mark (by which one knows or 
recognizes a thing), Kenn-zeichen, char- 
acteristic, [connected w. Vlag in the 
same way as laksa, q.v.] 

linga-dharana, n. the wearing of one's 
characteristic marks. 

V lip (limpati, -te [758]; lilepa; alipat, 
alipta; lipta; -lipya). 1. besmear or 
rub over a thing (ace.) with a thing 
(instr.); 2. smear a thing (ace.) over 
or on a thing (loc.); stick (trans.) on to; 
pass, stick or stick to, intrans. 

[younger form of Vrip : orig. nig 
' smear, stick ' : cf . rb \iiros, ' grease ' ; 
d-A.efy>-&>, ' anoint ' ; Lat. lippus, ' blear- 
eyed ' ; \~nrap6s, ' greasy, shiny ' : 

further akin are the following words, 
but with curious divarication of rag : 
\lTrapfto, like Eng. stick to, i.e. ' persist ' ; 
AS. be-lif-an, Goth, bi-leib-an, Ger. b-leib-en, 
(lit. 'stick,' i.e.) 'remain'; AS. libban, 
Eng. live, Ger. leben, 'be remaining or 
surviving, superstitem esse ' ; AS. llf, 
Eng. life ; finally AS. lief-an, Eng. leave, 
' cause to remain.'] 
-f anu, smear over, cover with. 
+ vi, besmear. 

lipi,^ 1. a rubbing over; 2. writing. 
[Vlip, 1155. 1.] 

V lie, (ligate ; lilige ; aleista ; lista). 
tear, break, [younger form of Vrig.] 

liga, tearing, breaking, ana" so cutting, in 
ku-lica. [Vli.] 

V II (layate; liyate; Iily6; alesta ; Una; 
-liya). 1. cling to; 2. stick; 3. 
(stay, i.e.) of birds and insects, light upon, 
sit upon ; 4. slip into ; disappear. 
+ ni, 1. cling to; 2. light upon (of 
birds); 3. slip into; disappear; hide. 
-I- pra, go to dissolution, [cf. Vri.] 

HI a, /. -1. play; -2. (like Eng. child's 
play) action that can be done without 
serious effort ; lilaya, without any 

v! luth (luthati; Iul6tha ; luthita). roll. 

V lup (lumpati [758]; Iul6pa ; lupta ; 
16ptum; luptva ; -lupya). 1. break; 
harm; 2. attack; pounce upon; 3. 
rob, plunder, [younger form of ' rup : 
cf. Lat. rumpere, 'break'; AS. reof-an, 
' break ' ; reaf, ' spoil of battle, booty, 
armor, etc., esp. clothing, garments,' Ger. 
Raub, ' robbery, booty ' ; AS. reafian, 
'despoil, rob,' whence Eng. reave, ppl. 
reft, and be-reave: fr. Old High Ger. 
roubon, 'rob,' through Old French rober, 
'rob,' comes French oV-rooer, Eng. rob, 
and fr. Old High Ger. roub, 'robbery, 
booty, esp. pillaged garment,' in like 
manner, French robe, ' garment,' Eng. 

lubdhaka, in. hunter, [lubdha, vlubh.j 

\l lubh (lubhyati; Iul6bha, lulubhe ; 
lubdha; 16bdlium). 1. go astray; 2. 
be lustful ; have strong desire ; lubdha, 
longing for. [cf . r) AnJ/, *\uf>-s, ' longing ' ; 
\tir-r-o/, ' long for ' ; Lat. lub-et, lib-et, 
' is desired or agreeable ' ; libens, ' willing, 
glad ' ; libido, ' desire ' ; AS. leof, ' dear,' 
Eng. lief, ' dear, gladly ' ; Ger. lieb, ' dear ' ; 
also Eng. love.'] 

V lul (161ati; lulita). move hither and 

v' lu (lunati [728]; lulava ; luna). cut 
(e.g. grass, hair) ; cut off ; gnaw off. [cf. 
\v-ta, 'separate, i.e. loose'; Lat. so-lu-tus, 
' loosed.'] 

lekha, m. a writing ; letter. [Vlikh'.] 

V lok (16kate ; luloke ; 16kitum ; cans. 
lokayati [1056] ; lokita ; -16kya ; only 
cans, forms are in common use, and these 
only with ava, a, and vi). get a look at ; 
behold; -cans. [1041 2 ] -1. look, look 
on; 2. get a look at, behold. [on 
account of the guttural k, prob. a sec- 
ondary root fr. roka (Vruc, 216.1): for 
connection of mg, cf. Aewc-o'j, 'bright,' 
and \evff<rw, *\fvK-jo>, 'see'; Lat. lumen, 
'light,' then 'eye* (see under Vruc); 
also locana : no connection w. Eng. 

+ ava, caus. 1. look; 2. look at or 
upon ; 3. behold, see, perceive. 
+ a, caus. 1. look at; 2. see, per- 



+ vi, cans. 1. look; 2. look at, in- 
spect, 25; -3. behold. 

loka, perhaps a younger form of uloka 
(which appears regularly in the oldest texts, 
but divided as u loka, 84 ai ), m. 1. open 
space ; free room ; place, 83 15 ; 2a. the 
vast space; the world, 103 8 ; any imagin- 
ary world or worlds, 15 1G ; cf. antariksa-, 
indra-, jiva-, pati-, para-, manusya-, 
svarga-loka ; 2b. used of heaven : svar- 
go lokas, the world situate in the light, 
103 5> Ui 1G ; so sukrtam ulokas, the world 
of the righteous, 84 u ; later, sukrtasya 
lokas, world of virtue, 89 8 ; so 5' 20 ; 2c. 
of earth : loke krtsne, in the whole earth, 
5 18 ; asmin loke, in this world (cf. 
ilia), 66 12 ; in same sense, loke, 57 8 , 63"; 
2d. with senses merging imperceptibly into 
those given under 3, e.g., in the world or 
among men, 26 2 , 36 3 , 47 21 ; -3. (like 
Eng. world and French monde) people ; 
folks; men or mankind; sing. 6 7 , 21 13 ; 
pi. 2 5i 14 , 39 19 , 57 15 . [etymology uncer- 
tain : no connection with Lat. /ocs, Old 
Lat. stlocus, ' place.'] 

loka-kft, a. world-making, world-creat- 
ing. [1269.] 

loka-pald, m. pi. world-protectors, either 
four in number (regents of the four 
quarters of the world), or eight (regents 
of the cardinal points and four points 
mid-way between). 

loka-pravada, m. world-saying, com- 
mon saying. 

lokam-prna, a. world-filling; f. -a (sc. 
istaka), Lokamprina, name applied to the 
common bricks used in building the sacred 
fire-pile, and so called because all laid 
with the recitation of the one general 
formula, lokam prna, 'fill thou the 
world.' [1314b : for prna, V 1 pr, see 

loga, m. clod (of earth). [Vruj, 'break,' 
216. 1 : for mg, see under mfd.] 

V loc (locayati; locita; -16cya). used only 
with a., [derived fr. Vruc; just how, is 
unclear: see Vlok.] 

+ a, 1. rarely, cause to appear or be 
seen; 2. usually, bring to one's own 
sight or mind, consider, reflect ; matsyair 

alocitam (impers.,999), the fishes reflected; 
ity alocya, thus reflecting. 

~+pary-a, see loc + a ; reflect, delib- 
+ sam-a, see loc + a; reflect. 

locana, 1. a. enlightening; 2. as n. 
eye, usual mg. [Vloc: for mg, cf. lumen, 
under Vlok.] 

lobha, m. strong desire; greed, avarice. 

lobha-viraha, m. freedom from avarice. 

16 man, n. hair on the body of men and 
beasts (usually excluding that of the 
head and beard and that of mane and 
tail), [prop, 'clippings, shearings,' Vlu, 
'cut,' 1168. la: cf. roman.] 

lola, a. 1. moving hither and thither, 
uneasy ; and so 2. anxious for, desirous 
of; greedy, [v'lul.] 

lostd, m. n. clod (of earth). [Vruj, cf. 
222*: for mg, see under mrd.] 

loh A, a. reddish; coppery; as m. n. red- 
dish metal, copper, [cf. 16hita, r6hita, 
and rudhira, all meaning 'red': with the 
last, cf. e-pvQ-p6s, Lat. ruber, rufus, Eng. 
ruddy, red.~] 

lohayasa, n. coppery metal, any metal 
alloyed with copper, [ayasa.] 

laulya, n. greediness, [lola, 1211.] 

lauhayasa, a. metallic; MS n. metallic 
ware, [lohayasa, 1208f.] 

vana, m. I. cane or stock or stem, esp. 
of the bamboo ; 2. (like Eng. stock, and 
stem [rarely], and Ger. Stamm) lineage, 
family, race. 

vana-viguddha, a. 1. made of per- 
fectly clear or unblemished bamboo ; 
2. of pure lineage, [lit. ' vanga-pure, 
pure in its or his vana,' 1265 : v'gudh.] 

V vak (vavakre [786, 798a]). roll, [akin 
w. Vvanc, q.v.] 

vaktavya, grdv. to be said or spoken; 
see 999 end. [s/vac, 964.] 

vakra, a. 1. crooked; 2. fig. (nearly 
like Eng. crooked) disingenuous, ambig- 
uous. [Vvak, 1188.] 

vaksana, f. pi. belly; bellies (of cloud- 



V vac ( vakti; uvaca, ucus [784, 800e]; 
avocat [847 end, 854] ; vaksyati, -te ; 
ukta; vaktum; uktva; -ucya; ucydte; 
vacayati). say or speak (w. ace. of per- 
son, 10 22 ; or w. ace. of person and ace. of 
thing, 7 19 ); announce or tell, 66 19 , 98 17 ; 
name or call, 58 ~ ; punar uvaca, replied, 
19 19 ; ity uktva, with saying so, i.e. with 
the words " ," saying " ," 4 2 ; 
so saying, 19 ^ etc.; 

ukta, 1. spoken, said; impers. pass. 
[999 raid.], kakena^uktam, the crow said, 
24 13 , etc. ; uktam, introducing a proverb, 
't is said, 19 9 , 20 16 , etc.; 2. spoken 
unto; evam ukta, thus addressed, 3 5 , 

caus. 1. mid. cause or ask (e.g. the 
Brahmans) to pronounce for one's self 
(e.g. a benediction), 101 2 , 106 4 ; 2. cause 
(a written leaf) to speak, i.e. read, 54 20 . 

[cf . two, tFoK-ja, ' voice, rumor ' ; Lat. 
vffc-dre, ' call ' ; Ger. er-wah-nen, ' mention ' : 
w. vac-as, 'word,' cf. eiros, stem *Feir-<r, 
' word,' w. labialization : w. avocam, 
%a-va-uc-am, cf. ttitrov, *e-Fe-nr-ov, 'said': 
w. nom. vak, *vak-s, stem vac, 'voice/ 
cf. Lat. vox, *vdc-s, 'voice/ and <ty, for 
*flty, i.e. Ftav-s, ' voice.'] 
+ anu, 1. repeat or say (sacrificial 
prayers, etc.) for some one (gen.); 2. 
mid. say after (the teacher), i.e. learn, 
study ; anucana, perf. mid. ppl., who 
studies, studied, learn-ed. 
+ abhy-anu, say with regard to or 
with reference to something ; describe 
(an occurrence) in (metrical and Vedic) 

+ nis, speak out or clearly; explain. 
+ pra, 1. tell forth, proclaim; tell, 
announce, mention ; and so 2. (as con- 
versely laudare, 'praise/ comes to mean 
'mention') praise; 3. tell of, colloq. tell 
on, i.e. betray, 93 18 ; 4. say, 45 9 ; 5. 
declare to be ; name, 57 5 . 
+ prati, say in return, answer. 
+ s a m , say together. 

vacana, n. 1. speech; words, 9 18 , etc.; 
dictum ; 2. (like Lat. e-dictum and Eng. 
edict and word) command ; injunction, 
26 18 . [Vvac, 1150.] 

vacas, n. 1. speech, 4 6 , etc.; words; 

word; counsel; 2. language, 54 n ; 3. 

(like Eng. word) order; request, 53 3 . 

[Vvac, 1151. la: cf. TTOS, 'word.'] 
V vaj (vajayati). probable root, with the 

meaning be strong or lively, inferred from 

ugra, 6jas, vajra, vaja ; see these words; 

vajayant, hastening, 75: cf. Vvajaya. 

[cf. vy-rhs, 'strong, healthy'; AS. wac-ol, 

' awake ' ; Eng. wake, ' not to sleep ' ; 

perhaps Lat. vig-ere, ' be lively or strong/ 

vig-il, ' awake.'] 
vajra, m. Indra's thunderbolt, 70 8 , 88 15 . 

[orig., perhaps, a mere epithet, 'The 

Mighty' (Vvaj), like Miolnir, 'The 

Crusher/ name of Thor's hammer.] 
vajra-bahu, a. having the thunderbolt 

on his arm (of Indra), lightning-armed. 

vajrin, a. having the thunderbolt (of 

Indra). [vajra, 1230.] 
V vane (vancati ; vancayati ; vancit&). 

totter; go crookedly; caus. (cause to go 

astray, i.e.) mislead, deceive; cheat, [cf. 

Lat. vacillare, 'totter, be unsteady'; AS. 

woh, 'crooked, wrong/ whence Eng. woo, 

'incline to one's self, court.'] 

-f up a, totter unto. 

vancaka, m. deceiver, [\fvafic, caus.] 
vancayitavya, grdv. to be deceived; 

as n. a to-be-practised deceit, w. objective 

gen. (296b beg.), 26 2 . [Vvanc.] 
vat a, m. Ficus indica ; cf. nyag-rodha. 
vanik-putra, m. merchant's son. 


vanij, m. merchant. [Vpan, 383.5.] 
V vat (vatati; vatdyati). only with api. 

understand ; caus. cause to understand or 

know, reveal, inspire (devotion). [cf. 

Lat. vat-es, 'wise seer': see under vata.] 
vatsa, m. young; esp. young of a cow, 

calf. [prop, 'yearling/ from a not quot- 
able watas, 'year': with watas, cf. 

F'TOS, 'year/ Lat. vetus- in vetits-tu-s, 

' bejahrt, in years, old ' : akin are Lat. 

vit-u-lu-s, 'yearling, i.e. calf/ and Eng. 

weth-er : for mg, cf . x'M a P ox > ' g at / prop. 

'winter-ling' (see hima) : see vatsara.] 
vatsara, m. year; personified, 67 15 . [cf. 

vatsa ; also pari- and sam- vatsara.] 



V vad (vadati, -te; uvada, ude [784]; 
avadit, avadista ; vadisyati, -te ; udita ; 
vaditum ; uditva ; -lidya ; vadayati). 
-I. speak, 95 7 > 9 ; say, 20 19 , etc.; speak 
to, w. ace., or w. loc. (4 1 ) ; 2. communi- 
cate ; announce, R V. x. 125. 5 ; speak of ; 
udita, stated (authoritatively), 58 16 ; 3. 
tell, i.e. foretell, predict, 103 12 ; -4. 
designate as, 55 5 ; name. 
+ abhi, speak to, salute; signify, in 
the derivs abhivadin, abhivada ; cans. 
speak to ; salute. 

+ praty-abhi, caus. mid. salute in 

+ a , speak to ; vidatham a-vad, give 
orders to (the household), rule (as master 
or mistress). 

+ p r a , 1. speak forth ; say ; 2. de- 
clare to be. 
+ vi, mid. contradict. 
+ s am, mid. talk or take counsel with 
one's self. 

vadana, n. 1. mouth; 2. face, 
['organ of speaking/ Vvad, 1150: for 
mg, cf. nayana.] 

vaditavya, grdv. to be spoken. 

v a d y a , grdv. to be spoken of, worthy of 
(favorable) notice, and so praiseworthy. 
[Vvad, 963 8 c.] 

V vadh (avadhit, avadhista ; vadhisyati, 
-te). 1. strike; harm; 2. (just as 
AS. slean meant first ' strike ' and then 
'slay, i.e. kill') slay, kill, [see Vbadh: 
cf . wd-fw, ' push ' : see vadhar.] 

vadh a, m. 1. murderer; 2. weapon 
of death, esp. Indra's bolt; 3. slaying, 
slaughter. [V vadh. ] 

vadhar, n. weapon of death, i.e. Indra's 
bolt. [Vvadh.] 

vadhasna, only in instr. pi. weapons 
of death, i.e. Indra's bolts. [vadha, 

vadhu, /. 1. bride; 2. woman, [prop. 
' the one fetched home ' by the bride- 
groom, Vvah, q.v.] 

vadhu- vastra, n. bride's garment. 

vadhya, grdv. 1. to be struck, i.e. 
punished, 27 21 ; to be harmed ; 2. to be 
slain, 27 18 . [V vadh, 963 3 c.] 

vadhri, a. whose testicles have been 

crushed ; emasculated, opp. of vrsan. 

[Vvadh, 1191.] 
V van (van6ti, vanute; vavana, vavne ; 

vata). 1. hold dear, love ; desire, 

seek, beseech, 79 19 ; 2. get; 3. win. 

[cf. Lat. ven-ia, 'favor'; Ven-us, 'The 

Lovely One ' ; AS. winnan, ' exert one's 

self, strive,' Eng. win, ' gain by striving ' ; 

AS. wen, ' hope, expectation, supposition,' 

whence wen-an, Eng. ween, ' suppose ' : see 


vana, n. wood; forest, 
vanana,/ desire. [Vvan, 1150. 2b 2 .] 
vananvant, a. having desire, desiring. 

[perhaps fr. vanana, 1233, w. irreg. loss 

of final a: both mg and derivation are 

vana-prastha, m. n. forest-plateau, 

wooded table-land. [1280b.] 
vana-vasa, m. the living in a wood ; 

-tas, owing to (his) forest-life. 
vanas-pati, m. tree, ['lord of the 

wood ' : see 1267 and a and d : perhaps 

vanas stands for vanar, a subsidiary 

form of vana, cf. 171 3 .] 
V vand (vandate ; vavand6 ; vandita ; 

vanditum ; vanditva ; -vandya). 1. 

praise; 2. salute reverentially, [orig. 

ident. w. Vvad, 108g.] 

+ abhi, make reverent salutation unto; 


vanditf, m. praiser. [Vvand.] 
V Ivap (vapati, -te; upta; -upya; vapa- 

yati). shear (hair, beard); trim (nails); 

caus. cause to be clipped, or simply 

[1041 2 ], clip. 
V 2vap (vapati, -te ; uvapa, up6 [784, 

800e]; avapsit; vapsyati; upta; uptva; 

-lipya). 1. strew; scatter, esj>. seed, 

sow; 2. (like x^ w ) throw or heap up, 

i.e. dam up. 

+ a p a , cast away ; fig. destroy. 

+ abhi, bestrew. 

+ a , throw upon, strew. 

+ ni, throw down. 

+ nis, throw out, esp. deal out (from a 

larger mass) an oblation to a god, dat. ; 

vapa, f. caul, omentum. 



vpus, a. 1. wondrous, admirabilis ; 
2. (like Eng. admirable) exciting wonder 
mixed with approbation, esp. wondrous 

as n. 1. a wonder ; wonderful ap- 
pearance ; vapur drgaye, a wonder to see, 
Oavfjia ISfffOcu, 79 9 ; 2. beautiful appear- 
ance ; beauty, 8 8 ; 3. appearance ; form, 
48 s - 4 . [for 2 and 3, cf. the converse 
transition of mg in rupa, 1, 2.] 

vayam, we, see 491. [cf. Ger. wi-r, Eng. 

1 v d y a s , n. 1. fowl, collective ; 2. bird, 
[see vi, ' bird.'] 

2 v ay as, n. food, meal. [prop, 'enjoy- 
ment,' v'lvi, 'enjoy': for analogies, see 
V 2 bhuj, ' enjoy,' and V 1 vi.] 

3 vayas, n. 1. strength, of body and of 
mind; health; 2. the time of strength, 
youth; marriageable age, 2 6 ; 3. gen- 
eralized, any age or period of life ; years 
(of life), [akin w. vi-ra, q.v.] 

v a y a , f. strengthening. 

1 v a r a , m. choice ; wish ; a thing to be 
chosen as gift or reward, and so gift, re- 
ward ; varam vr, wish a wish, make a 
condition, 94 1 ; varam da, give a choice, 
grant a wish, I 17 ; prati varam or va- 
ram a, according to one's wish. [V2vr, 
' choose ' : cf . Eng. well, lit. ' according to 
one's wish.'] 

2 vara, a. (like Eng. choice or select) most 
excellent or fair, best, w. gen. or loc., 16 2 , 
3 21 ; w. obi., most excellent as distin- 
guished from , i.e. better than , 68 14 ; 
varam , na ca , the best thing is , 
and not , i.e. is better than , 17 20 . 
[V2vr, 'choose': for mg, cf. AS. cyst, 'a 
choice,' and then ' the best,' with ceosan, 
' choose.'] 

varana, n. a choosing. [V 2 vr, ' choose.'] 

vara-varna, m. most fair complexion. 

varavarnin, a. having a fan- com- 
plexion; -ini, f. fair-faced woman, [va- 
ravarna, 1230.] 

varangana, f. most excellent woman, 

vararoha, a. having fair hips or but- 
tocks; tca\\iinyos. [aroha.] 

varaha, m. boar. 

varivas, n. breadth; fig. freedom from 
constraint, ease, gladness, w. kr. [belong- 
ing to uni, 'broad': see 1173 3 , 467 2 .] 

varlyans, a. very broad, wide extended. 
[Vlvr, 'cover, extend over': see 467 ' 2 
and 11 73 3 .] 

varuna, m. The Encompasser (of the 
Universe), Varuna, name of an Aditya; 
orig. the supreme god of the Veda (see 
selection xxxvii. and notes), and so called 
king as well as god, 83 12 ; omniscient 
judge who punishes sin and sends sick- 
ness and death, selections xliii., xliv., xlv. ; 
later, god of the waters, 7 10 . [a personi- 

fication of the ' all-embracing ' heaven, 
Vlvr, 'cover, encompass,' 1177c : cf. 
oi>pav6s, ' heaven,' and Ovpavds, ' Heaven,' 
personified as a god.] 

varutha, n. cover; and so, as in Eng., 
protection. [Vlvr, 'cover,' 1163c.] 

varuthya, a. protecting. [varutha, 

varenya, grdv. to be desired; and so, 
longed for, excellent. [V2vr, 'choose,' 
1217 1 - 2 - 3 , 966b.] 

varga, m. group. [Vvrj, ' separate,' 
216. 1 : for mg, cf. Eng. division, ' a sepa- 
rating into parts,' and then 'the part 
separated, group.'] 

v arc as, n. vitality, vigor; the illuminat- 
ing power in fire and the sun; and so, 
splendor ; fig. glory, [perhaps akin with 
rue : cf . varpas with rupa.] 

varna, m. 1. outside; external appear- 
ance ; color, 36 19 , 37 6 , etc. ; complexion ; 
2. (color, and so, as in Eng.) kind, 
species, sort, 98 2 ; 3. (sort of men, i.e.) 
caste, 28 18 ; 4. letter; sound; vowel, 
59 16 ; syllable ; word, 98 8 . [V 1 vr, ' cover,' 
1177a: for mg 1, cf. Eng. coating, and 
coat (of paint), and Lat. color, prop, 
'cover or coating,' cognate w. oc-cul-ere, 
' cover over.'] 

V varnaya (varnayati). 1. color, 
paint; 2. fig. (like Eng. paint), depict 
describe ; tell about ; pass. 12 8 . [varna, 

vartana, n. prop, an existing, and so 
(like Eng. living), means of subsistence. 
[Vvrt, mgs 3, 5: cf. vrtti.] 



vartf, m. restrainer, stayer. [\/lvr, 
'cover/ mg 3, 'restrain': 1182.] 

v art man, n. wheel-track; path, 43 9 ; 
vartmana, at end of cpds : by way of, 
39 14 ; or simply through ; akaga-vart- 
mana, througli the air, 39 a . [v'vrt, 
1168. la.] 

vartra, a. warding off, liolding back; 
as n. a water-stop, dam, weir. [Vlvr, 
'cover,' q.v.] 

Ivardhana, a. I. increasing, trans.; 
as m. increaser ; 2. delighting in. 
[Vlvrdh, 'increase,' q.v.] 

2vardhana, n. the cutting. [\/2vrdh, 
' cut.'] 

varpas, n. assumed appearance; image, 
form, [akin with rupa : cf . varcas.] 

vArman, n. envelope; coat of armor; 
protection ; at end of Kshatriya-names, 
59 1S N. [V 1 vr, ' envelop/ 1 168. la.] 

varsa, n. 1. rain; 2. (rainy-season, 
i.e.) year; varsa, f. pi. 1. the rains, 
i.e. the rainy season; 2. very rarely, 
rain-water, 104 14 . [Vvrs : cf. e-fpvai, 
1 rain-drops ' : for mg 2 of varsa, cf . Eng. 
"girl of sixteen summers," "man of 
seventy winters," abda and garad.] 

varsa-karman, n. the action of rain- 

varsa-satka, n. year-hexade, period of 
six years. 

var smaii, m. height; top; crown of the 
head, [see 1168. lc 2 and 2b.] 

vala, m. prop, an encloser, and so 1. 
(enclosure, i.e.) cave; 2. personified, 
Vala, name of a demon who shuts up 
the heavenly waters to withhold them 
from man and is slain by Indra, 81 5>7 . 
[Vlvr, 'enclose.'] 

vala-vrtra, m. Vala and Vritra. [1252.] 

valavrtra-nisudana, m. destroyer of 
Vala and Vritra, i.e. Indra. [1264.] 

valavrtra-han [402], a. slaying Vala 
and Vritra ; as m. slayer of Vala and 
Vritra, i.e. Indra. [1269.] 

valmika, m. ant-hill. 

vavri, m. prop, cover, and so 1. place 
of hiding or refuge ; 2. corporeal tegu- 
ment (of the soul), i.e. body. [Vlvr, 
'cover/ 1155. 2c.] 

V vac. (vasti, uganti [638]; uvaga [784]). 
1. will, 73 17 ; 2. desire, long for; 
ppls, pres. ugant, perf. vavagana [786] : 
willing or (when qualifying subject of verb) 
gladly, 83*, 85 6 ; longing, 78 a ; -3. (like 
Eng. will in its rare or obsolete sense 
'order') order, command. [cf. l/c&Jy, 
stem *FeK-oj/T, ' willing.'] 

vaga, a. willing, submissive; as m. 1. 
will; 2. command; and so controlling 
power or influence. [Vvag.] 

vaga-ni [352], a. bringing into one's 
power ; as m. controller. 

vaga, f. 1. cow, esp. farrow cow; 2. 
female elephant, Elephanten-kuh. [per- 
haps 'the lowing' beast, fr. wag: cf. 
Lat. vacca, 'cow': usual name for 'cow' 
is g6.] 

vagin, a. having command or control; 
as subst. m. or f. master, mistress, [vaga.] 

vagi-kr, make submissive, enthrall, en- 
snare, [vaga and V 1 kr, ' make/ 1094.] 

vagya, grdv. to be commanded or ordered, 
and so obedient, submissive, yielding, 
[vag, 963 8 c.] 

vas, end. pron. you, 491. [cf. Lat. vos, 
'ye, you.'] 

V Ivas (ucchdti [753, 608]; uvasa [784]; 
vatsyati [167] ; usta). grow bright ; 
light up (of the breaking day), dawn, 
[for cognates, Lat. us-tu-s, ' burned,' east, 
Easter, etc., see the collateral form us, 
'burn/ and the derivs usas, usra, va- 
santa, vasu, vasara : cf. also ^ap, *Fe<r- 
fj.ap, ' day ' ; tap, *Fetr-op, Lat. rer, we-er, 
*ves-er, ' dawn of the year-light, i.e. 
spring'; Ves-uv-ius, 'the burning' moun- 
+ vi, shine abroad, 75 15 ; light up, 97 13 . 

V 2 vas (vaste [628]; vavase ; avasista ; 
vatsyati ; vasita ; vasitum ; vasitva ; 
-vasya). put on (as a garment), clothe 
one's self in. [cf. fwv/j.i, *FO--VV-IM, 
'put on'; e-eff-To, 'had on'; sfyuo, 'gar- 
ment ' ; Lat. ves-tis, ' garment ' ; Goth. 
ga-vas-jan, ' clothe ' ; AS. wer-ian, Eng. 

V 3 vas (vasati ; uvasa [784]; avatsit 
[167] ; vatsyati ; usita ; vastum ; usitva ; 
-tisya; vasayati). stay in a place; esp. 

v 1 4 vas] 


stay over night, 38 2 , 100 8 (with ratrim) ; 
dwell, abide ; lire. [cf. JUTTV, *F<NT-TU, 
' dwelling-place, town ' ; Lat. ver-na, ' one 
who lives in the house, i.e. slave ' or 
'one who dwells in the land, i.e. native,' 
like Eng. domestic, ' servant,' and domestic, 
' not foreign ' ; AS. wes-an, ' be ' ; Eng. 
was, were.~] 

+ , take up one's abode in (a place), 
occupy; enter upon, 62 8 . 
+ ud, cans, (cause to abide out, i.e.) 
remove from its place, 97 u ? . 

up a, 1. stay with; wait; 2. (with 
a specialization of mg like that in Eng. 
abs-tain, 'hold off, esp. from food or 
drink') wait, and so stop (eating), fast. 
-f ni, dwell (of men and of beasts). 
+ p r a t i , have one's dwelling. 

V 4 vas (vasayati; vasita). cut. [cf . Lat. 
vomis, *vos-mis, vomer, ' plow-share, colter.'] 
-f- ud , cut away or off, 97 14 1. 

vasanta, m. spring. ['the dawning or 
lighting-up' year-time, Vivas, 11 72 s -*: 
see 1 vas : cf. <eap, *Fe<r-ap, Lat. ver, *ve-er, 
*ves-er, 'spring.'] 

vasistha, a. most excellent, best; as m. 
Vasishtha, name of one of the most 
famous Vedic seers, 78 19 N. [formed as 
superl. to vasu, fr. Vivas as a verbal 
(467), the verbal having the same trans- 
ferred sense as the adj. vasu, q.v.] 

vasu, a. excellent, good; 1. as m. good 
(of gods), 76 11 ; -2. as m. pi. The Good 
Ones, the Vasus, a class of gods, RV.x. 
125. 1 ; 3. as n. sing, and pi. good, 
goods, wealth, [prop. ' shining, i.e. splen- 
did,' V 1 vas, ' shine,' but w. a transfer of 
mg like that in the Eng. splendid as used 
by the vulgar for ' excellent ' : connection 
w. r t vs, tvs, 'good,' and *l, 'well,' is im- 
probable, see ayu.] 

vasu-dha [352], a. yielding good; vasu- 
dha [364], / the earth ; the land. 

vasudhadhipa, m. (lord of the earth, 
i.e.) king, prince, [adhipa.] 

vasum-dhara, a. holding good or 
treasures ; -a, /. the earth, [vasum + 
dhara, 1250a: we should expect vasu 
(ace. s. neuter, or stem), not vasu-m 
(masculine!), 341.] 

vasu-gravas, a. perhaps [1298a] hav- 
ing good fame, or else [1297 and 1280b] 
having wealth-fame, i.e. famed for wealth. 

vasu-sampurna, a. treasure-filled. 
[Vlpr, 'fill.'] 

V vasuya (vasuyati). crave good, [de- 
nom. of vasu, 1058 1 , 1061.] 

vasuya, f. desire for good; longing. 
[V vasuya, 1149 6 .] 

vastr, TO. illuminer; or, as adj., lighting 
up. [Vivas, 'shine,' 1182, 375 8 .] 

vastr a, n. garment, piece of clothing; 
cloth. [V2vas, 'clothe,' 1185a.] 

vastra-vestita.a. covered with clothes, 
well dressed. 

vastranta, m. border of a garment, 

V vah (vahati, -te; uvaha, uhe; avaksit; 
vaksyati; udha[222]; vodhum; udhva; 
-lihya; uhyate). 1. conduct, 84 u ; 
carry, esp. the oblation, 85 1 , 93 M , 94 *; 
bring with team, 73 n , 81 u , or car, 72 *, 
87 w ; draw (wagon), guide (horses) ; 2. 
intrans. travel; proceed (in a wagon); 
3. pass, be borne along ; 4. flow, 
carry with itself (of water) ; 5. (like 
Ger. heimfiihren) bring home to the 
groom's house, wed; 6. carry, 43 Ui16 , 
52 9 ; bear, 26 * ; carry far and wide, i.e. 
spread (a poem, fragrance), 54 2 . 

[for *vagh : cf . ox os > *FOX OS > ' wagon ' ; 
OXOA"" 'ride'; Lat. veh-ere, 'carry'; vehi- 
culum, 'wagon'; AS. weg-an, 'carry, bear,' 
whence Eng. weigh, 'lift' (as in weigh 
anchor), 'find weight of by lifting' (cf. 
bhara) ; AS. ivsegn or wxn, Eng. wain, 
Dutch wagen (whence the borrowed Eng. 
wagon), 'that which is drawn, i.e. wagon'; 
further, Lat. vi-a, ve-a, *veh-ia, ' that which 
is to be travelled over, way'; AS. weg, 
Eng. way, ' that which carries ' one to a 

+ a , bring hither or to. 
+ ud, 1. bear or bring up; 2. esp. 
lead out (a bride from her father's house), 

+ pari, 1. lead about; 2. esp. lead 
about (the bride or the wedding proces- 
sion), wed. 
+ p r a , carry onward. 


[V vajaya 

+ vi, lead away, esp. the bride from her 

parents' house, and so wed, marry; mid. 

get married. 

+ s a m , carry together ; carry, 
vah, vbl. carrying, drawing, in cpds. 

vahatii, m. wedding procession ; wedding. 

[Vvah, 1161c.] 
vahya, n. portable bed, litter. [Vvah, 

1213 : for mg, cf. Eng. bier and verb 

vahye-gaya,a. lying on litters, [vahya, 

1250c : acct, 1270.] 
V Iva (vati; vavati; avasit [882]; vas- 

yati; vata; vatum; vapayati [1042d]). 

blow, [cf . aiifj-t, *a-Frj-ytti, ' blow ' ; Goth. 

va-ian, Ger. weh-en, AS. wdwan, 'blow'; 

aii-pa, ' breeze ' ; cb?p, *aFr)p, ' air ' ; Lat. 

vetitu-s (a participial form which has 

made a transition to the vowel-declension 

cf. vasanta and 1172 3 ' 4 ), 'wind,' Eng. 

wind; AS. we-der, Eng. wea-ther, 'wind 

(e.g. in weather-cock), condition of the air ' : 

see vata and vayii, ' wind.'] 

+ a, blow hither. 

+ nis, 1. (blow out, intransitively, i.e.) 

go out, be extinguished; 2. intrans. 

(blow till one gets one's breath, and so) 

cool off; cans. 1. extinguish; 2. 

cool off, transitively, i.e. refresh. 

+ para, blow away. 

+ p r a , blow or move forward, intrans. 

+ vi, blow asunder, i.e. scatter to the 

V 2va (vayati [761d2]; uvaya [784 2 ]; 

vayisyati; uta; 6tum; uyate). weave, 

interweave, both lit., and also (like Lat. 

serere), fig., of hymns and songs; plait. 

[orig. idea perhaps ' wind ' or ' plait ' : 

root-forms are u, va, and vi : cf. iVe'o, 

*p;T6o, ' willow ' ; ola-os, ' osier ' ; Lat. vi-ere, 

' plait ' ; vi-men, ' plaited work ' ; olvii, 

' vine ' ; olvos, ' wine ' ; Lat. vlnum, ' wine ' ; 

vi-tis, ' vine,' Eng. withy or withe, ' pliant 

twig,' Ger. Weide, ' withe, willow.'] 
va, enclitic particle, following its word. 1. 

or; va, va, 50 17 , 64 *>, 96 i 2 - 23 , 

9718,19. % va, 77 6 , 24 6, 59 9 ' 29 , 64 18 , 

972.3.16^ 10 42i. similarly, 35 6, 59, 84 9 ; 

;; va, 20 4 , 91 9 ; -further: 

va, yadi va , va, 28 12 ;, va, 
va_api, 62 2 ; , (va omitted), 
va, va, 61 23 , Q2 1 ; finally, na, 
va^api, ca, neither , nor , nor , 
63 4 ; atha va, see atha 6; uta va, see 
uta ; 2. va, for eva, 59 10 N. ; 3. with 
interrogates: kim va, what possibly, 
17 19 ; so 18 i. [cf . Lat. -ve, ' or.'] 

vakya, n. 1. speech, words; 2. as 
technical term, periphrasis, e.g. virasenasya 
sutas/or virasena-sutas. [Vvac.] 

v a g - d o s a t , by or as a bad consequence 
of his voice, i.e. because he was fool 
enough to let his voice be heard, [vac : 
see dosa.] 

vaghat [like dasat, 444 2 ], m. the pledg- 
ing one, i.e. institutor of a sacrifice, not 
the priest, but the yajamana. [perhaps 
akin are ttf^-oyttcu, Lat. vovere, *vogv-ere, 
' vow.'] 

vanmaya, a. consisting of voice or 
utterance. [vac : see 1225 2 and 

vac [391], f. 1. speech, voice, word, 
utterance, sound ; vacam vy-a-hr, utter 
words, 3 l , and vacam vad, speak words, 
94 9 , verb-phrases, used like a simple verb 
of speaking, and construed w. the ace. of 
the person (see 274b) ; perhaps (utterance, 
i.e.) sacred text, 91 2 ; 2. personified, The 
Word, Vach, Aoyos. [v/vac, q.v.] 

vacam-yama, a. restraining or holding 
one's voice, silent. [1250a, 1270 1 and b.] 

vacaka, a. speaking ; as m. speaker. 
[Vvac, 1181.] 

vacika, a. verbal, consisting of words, 
[vac, 1222e.] 

vacya, grdv. 1. to be spoken; 2. to 
be spoken to. [Vvac, 1213a.] 

v aj a , m. 1. swiftness ; courage, esp. of the 
horse; 2. race, struggle; 3. prize of 
race or contest; booty; reward in general; 
treasure, good. [prob. akin w. Vvaj, q.v.: 
orig. ' strength and liveliness,' ' that in 
which strength and courage show them- 
selves,' and then 'the result of quick 
and brave struggle.'] 

V vajaya (only in ppl., vajayant). crave 
treasure; seek good, 74 16 ; cf. Vvaj. 
[denom. of vaja, 1058.] 




V vanch (vanchati; vanchita). wish, [for 
*vansk, orig. inchoative (cf. V 1 is) to 
v'van, q.v. : cf. Ger. Wunsch, 'a, wish'; 
AS. wusc, 'a. wish,' whence verb wyscan, 
'wish,' whence Eng. verb wish, whence 
noun wish.'] 

vanijya, n. merchant's business, trade, 
[vanij, 1211.] 

vata, m. 1. wind; air; 2. Vata, god 
of the wind. [V 1 va, ' blow ' : acct, 
1176c : cf. Icelandic OS-inn, AS. Wod-en, 
Old High Ger. Wuot-an, names of the 
highest Germanic god, Odin: the name 
still lives in the Eng. Wednes-day, AS. 
Wodn-es dseg : some connect Woden w. 

V vat, ' inspire, excite.'] 
vata-svanas, a. having the roar of the 

wind, i.e. blustering, exhibiting noisy 
violence, tumultuous. 

vataikabhaksa, a. having wind as sole 
food, i.e. fasting, [vata - ekabhaksa.] 

vada, m. speech, expression, statement. 

vada-yuddha, n. speech-fight, i.e. con- 

vadayuddha-pradhana, a. devoted to 
controversy ; as m. eminent controver- 

vadin, a. speaking. [Vvad, 1183 3 .] 

vanaprastha, m. a Brahman of the 
third order, who has passed through the 
stages of student and householder (see 
agrama) and dwells in the woods, 65 3 N. ; 
hermit. [vanaprastha : for mg, cf. 
tpr)/j.lrr)s, Eng. hermit, and iprift-la, 'soli- 
tude, desert.'] 

vanara, HI. monkey, ape. 

vapl, f. oblong pond; lake. [V2vap, 
' heap up, dam up,' and so, perhaps, orig. 
'a dam' (cf. x^A" 1 * 'dam,' from x<ta, 
'throw or heap up'), and then, by me- 
tonymy, 'the pond made by the dam.'] 

vapi-jala, n. lake-water, [perhaps the 
first element is here to be taken in its orig. 
sense of ' dam,' so that the whole means 
prop. ' dam-water,' and so ' pond-water.'] 

vain, see 491. 

yam a, a. lovely, pleasant; as n. & lovely 
thing, a joy. [Vvan: cf. dhuma and 

I 1 dhvan.] 

vayasa, m. 1. bird; 2. esp. crow; 
-si, f. crow-hen. [Ivayas, 'bird,' 1208a.] 
vayii, m. wind, [v'l va, 'blow,' 1165.] 
var, n. water, [cf. ovp-o-v, orig. 'water,' 
and so, as hi Eng., ' urine ' ; Lat. urlndri, 
' stay under water ' ; ur-lna, ' urine ' ; Ur-ia, 
' Water-town,' a port in Apulia ; prob. 
akin is AS. wser, 'sea.'] 

1 var a, m. tail-hair, esp. of a horse, 
[prob. akin w. ovpr], 'tail.'] 

2 var a, m. 1. choice treasure; 2. 
moment chosen or determined for any 
thing, appointed time, turn; 3. time 
(as used with numerals); varam varam, 
time and again; 4. the time or turn 
(of one of the planets which rule in suc- 
cession the days of the week), and so, 
day of the week, day. [V 2 vr, ' choose ' : 
identified by some w. &pa, ' time, seasqn,' 
see under Vya.] 

var ana, a. warding off (those that attack 
it), and so strong or ungovernable (of 
wild beasts); as m. elephant. [\lvr, 
'cover, ward off,' 1150. lb.] 

varanasi, f. Varanasi, the modern 

vari, n. water, [see var.] 

vari-stha, a. situated in the water, t.e. 
(of the sun's disk) reflected in the water. 

vavd, particle, emphasizing the word which 
it follows. surely, just. [for double 
acct, see Whitney 94.] 

V vag_ (va^yate [761c] ; vavae ; avi- 
vagat [861]; vacita ; vagitva). bleat; 
low; cry (of birds), [see vaa, Lat. 
vacca, 'cow,' and vagra.] 

vac_rA, a. lowing (of kine). [Vvac,, 

vasd, m. 1. prop, a staying overnight; 
2. an abiding, 32 5 ; 3. abiding-place, 
23 2 \ [V3vas, 'dwell': for mg, cf. 

vasa-bhumi.y. dwelling-place. 

vasara, 1. in Veda, as adj. of the 
dawn ; ritptos ; 2. in classical Skt., 
neuter, used as subst., also masculine, (prop. 
time of dawn, as distinguished from 
night, and so) day in general, [prop, a 
secondary deriv. (1188d) fr. an obsolete 
*vaa-ar, ' dawn/ V 1 vas, ' dawn ' ; see 


[V 1 vid 

1 vas : and for the form vas-ar, cf . eap 

and i-er, there given, and ah-ar, udh-ar, 

vasa-veman, n. chamber for spending 

the night, sleeping-room. 
vasas, n. garment. [V2 vas, 'clothe.'] 
vasin, a. dwelling. [\/3vas, 'dwell,' 

1183 3 .] 
vast a vy a, a. belonging to an abode; 

as m. inhabitant, [vastu, 1212(12.] 
vastu, m. n. dwelling. [\/3vas, 'dwell,' 

vastos-pati, m. lord or Genius of the 
dwelling, 77 2 N. [vastos, gen. of vastu 
(1250d) + pati: acct, 1267a and d.] 
vaha, a. carrying; carrying off. [Vvah.] 
vahana, a. carrying off; as n. 1. beast 
of burden, 56 s ; beast for riding; team; 
vehicle ; 2. the carrying, 34 13 . [\/ vah, 
1150. lb.] 

1 vi [343e], m. bird. [cf. olwvos, *bri- 
cavos, Lat. avi-s, ' bird.'] 

2 vi, preposition. apart, asunder, away, 
out ; denoting intensity in descriptive cpds 
(1289), cf. vicitra, vibudha; denoting 
separation or non-agreement in possessive 
cpds (1305), cf. vimanas, etc. ; similarly 
in the prepositional cpd (1310a), vipriya. 

vingati [485], f. twenty. [cf. eftcoo-i, 

Boeotian FI/COTJ, Lat. vlginti, ' twenty.'] 
vikata, a. 1. exceeding the usual meas- 

ure; and so 2. (like Eng. enormous) 

monstrous, hideous; as m. Hideous, 

name of a gander, [cf. 1245g.] 
vikrama, m. a stepping out, appearance ; 

esp. bold or courageous advance, courage, 

might. [V kram + vi.] 
vigata-samkalpa, a. with vanished 

purpose, purposeless. [V gam. + vi : 

vigulpha, a. abundant. [origin un- 

vigraha, m. 1. separation; and so 2. 

division; and so 3. discord, quarrel, 

war. [V grab + vi.] 
V vie (vinakti; vikta; vektum; -vicya). 

separate, esp. grain from chaff by win- 

nowing ; separate, in general. 

+ vi, separate out or apart; vivikta, 

isolated, ana* so lonely. 

vicaksana, a. appearing far and wide, 
conspicuous; or, far-seeing. [\/caks + vi.] 

vi-citra, a. 1. very variegated; 2. 
differently colored, varied; 3. (full of 
variety and surprises, and so) entertain- 
ing, beautiful, [in mg 1, vi- has perhaps 
intensive force ; in 2, perhaps variative.] 

V vij (vijate; vivij6; avikta [834c]; vijis- 
yati; vigna). move with a quick darting 
motion, aiaaeiv ; (like Eng. start) move 
suddenly from fear. [cf. AS. wlc-an, 
'give way'; Eng. weak, 'yielding, soft, 

. + u d , start up ; be affrighted ; udvigna, 

vij ay a, m. victory; personijied, Victory, 
name of a rabbit. [Vji + vi.] 

vijiti,/. conquest, [v'ji + vi.] 

vijitendriya, a. having the organs of 
sense subdued, [vijita + indriya.] 

vijneya, grdv. to be known or considered 
as. [Vjna + vi, 963 3 a.] 

vin-mutra, n. faeces and urine, [vis, 
226b, 161 : for cpd, 1253b.] 

vitatha, a. false, ['differing from the 
so,' vi + tatha, 1314a.] 

vitathabhinivega, m. inclination to- 
wards that which is false, [abhinive^a.] 

vitasti, f. a span, about nine inches or 
twelve fingers, [prob. fr. Vtan + vi, and 
so ' a stretch ' from the tip of the thumb 
to that of little finger: for mg, cf. Eng. 
noun span and verb span, 'extend over/ 
and see vyama.] 

vitana, m. n. 1. spreading out, exten- 
sion ; 2. canopy. [V tan + vi : for mg 
2, cf. Eng. expanse (of heaven) and ex- 

vitta, ppl. gotten; as n. (like Lat. quaes- 
tus) gettings, that which is got, property. 
[V2vid, 'get.'] 

Vivid (v6tti; v6da [790a] ; avedit ; 
vedisyati, -te ; vetsyati, -te ; vidit& ; 
veditum, v6ttum ; viditva ; -vidya ; ve- 
dayati). 1. know; understand; per- 
ceive ; ya evam veda, who knoweth thus, 
who hath this knowledge, frequent formula 
in the Brdhmanas,$7 3 ; vidyat, one should 
know, it should be known or understood ; 
2. recognize as ; nalam mam viddhi, 

V 2 vid] 


recognize me as N., know that I am N. ; 
3. notice ; be mindful of, 75 ls ; bethink 
one's self, 94 6 - 10 ; 4. believe; assume; 
consider a person (ace.) to be (ace.), 
43 19 ; ppl, vidvans, see s.v. 

[whh v6da, vidma, cf. oT5a, fSyuev, AS. 
tc wat, we witon, ' I know, we know ' ; Eng. 
/ wot, gerund to wit, noun wit, ' under- 
standing ' : cf . also flSov, tiFtSov, ' saw ' ; 
Lat. videre, ' see ' ; AS. untan, ' see ' ; 
whence wlt-ga, 'seer, soothsayer, wizard' 
(Icelandic vit-ki, 'wizard'), wicca, 'wizard,' 
wicce, ' witch,' Eng. witch, masc. and fern. : 
v6da is an old preterito-present, 'have 
seen or perceived,' and so, 'know' see 
V2vid: the forms of the other tense- 
systems are comparatively modern.] 
+ anu, know along, i.e. from one end to 
the other, know thoroughly. 
+ ni, caus. cause to know; do to wit; 
announce; communicate. 

V 2 vid (vindati, -te [758]; viv6da, vivid6; 
avidat, avidata ; vetsyati, -te ; vittd. ; 
v6ttum ; vittva ; -vidya). 1. find, 
4 12 , etc.; get, 74 13 ; obtain (children), 
l(X)5-9 ; _2. get hold of, 80 7 ; -3. pass. 
vidyate : is found ; later, equiv. to there is, 
there exists; ppl. vidana [619 8 ], found, 
73 2) ; ppl. vitta, see s.v. 

[orig. ident. w. Vivid, of which this is 
only another aspect, namely that of ' see- 
ing esp. an object looked for, i.e. of 
finding': see Ivid.] 
+ .anu, find. 

vid, vbl. knowing, at end of cpds. [V 1 vid.] 

vida, a. knowing, at end of cpds. [do.] 

vidatra, a. noticing, in cpds. [Vivid, 

vidatha, n. directions, orders, [prop. 
' knowledge given, i.e. instructions,' 
Vivid, 1163b.] 

vidarhha, 1. m. pi. the Vidarbhans, 
Vidarbha, name of a people, and of their 
country, which was south of the Vindhya 
mountains, and is now called Berar; 2. 
m. sing. Vidarbha, i.e. a king of Vidarbha, 
4 2 . [for mg 2, cf. "Norway, uncle of 
young Fortinbras," Hamlet, i.2.28.] 

vidarbha-nagari, f. city or capital 
of Vidarbha, i.e. Kundina (kundina). 

[vidarbha- does not stand in the rela- 
tion of a gen. of appellation : see 295 a .] 

vidarbh,a-pati, m. lord or king of 

vidarbha-raj an, m. king of Vidarbha. 

vid a sin, a. becoming exhausted, drying 
up. [V das + vi, 1183 3 .] 

vidya,/ 1. knowledge; a discipline or 
science; esp. trayi vidya, the triple 
science or knowledge of the holy word, as 
hymn, sacrificial formula, and chant, or 
the Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Samaveda; 
2. esp. the science /car' e&xhv, i.e. magic; 
a magic formula, spell. [V 1 vid, 1213d : 
for mg 2, observe the equally arbitrary 
specialization in Eng. spell, which in AS. 
meant ' a saying.'] 

vidya-dhara, a. keeping or possessed of 
knowledge or the magic art ; as m. a, Vid- 
yadhara, one of a class of genii, who are 
attendants on Qiva, and reputed to be 

vidya-mada, m. knowledge-intoxication, 
i.e. infatuated pritle in one's learning. 

vidyavayo-vrddha, a. grown old in 
knowledge and years, distinguished for 
learning and age. [vidya + 3vayas, 

vidyut, 1. a. lightening; and so, as in 
Eng., 2. /. lightning. [Vdyut + vi, 

vidvaj-jana, m. wise man. [vidvans, 
1249a, 202.] 

vidvans [461], ppl. knowing; wise, 17 18 , 
etc.; learned; tvasta vidvan, a cunning 
workman (cf. Eng. cunning and Old Eng. 
cunnen, 'know'), 75 6 . [Vivid, 'know,' 
790a, 803 2 .] 

V 1 vidh (vidhati). worship a god (dat.) 
with (instr.) ; honor (ace.) with (instr.). 
[cf. vedhas.] 

V 2 vidh (vindhate). lack or be without a 
thing (instr.), viduari; be bereft or alone, 
[see vidhava.] 

V 3vidh, see Vvyadh. 

vidh, vbl. boring through, wounding, at 
end of cpds. [V 3 vidh or vyadh, 252, cf. 

vidhdva,/ widow. [V 2 vidh, ' be bereft,' 
1190: cf. ii-i6eos, 'youth without a wife 



bachelor ' ; Lat. viduus, vidua, ' widower, 
widow ' ; AS. widwe, wuduwe, Eng. widow."] 

vridha, /. proportion, measure; way; and 
so kind, sort ; esp. at end of cpds [see 
1302c 6] : e.g. tri-vidha, of three kinds, 
three-fold, [prop. ' dis-position, arrange- 
ment, order, method,' see V 1 dha + vi.] 

vidhatavya, grdv. to be shown. [VI dha 
+ vi, mg 5.] 

vidhatf, m. dis-poser, arranger. [VI dha 
-f vi.] 

vidhana, n. a dis-position, ordering, ordi- 
nance; vidhanatas, according to (estab- 
lished) ordinance. [VI dha + vi, 1150.] 

vidhi, m. 1. a dis-position, ordinance, 
prescription, rule (65 7 ), method; 2. 
(method, i.e.) way, 3S 23 ; procedure; 3. 
(the supreme disposition or ordaining, i.e.) 
destiny, fate. [Vldha + vi, 1155. 2e, 
345 2 : for mg 3, cf . Lat. destinare, ' estab- 
lish, ordain,' and Eng. destiny."] 

vidhivat, adv. according to rule; equiv. 
to Lat. rite, [vidhi, 1107.] 

vidhu, a. lonely (of the moon that 
wanders alone among the star-hosts) ; 
as m. moon. [prob. fr. V2vidh, 1178.] 

vidhura, a. 1. alone, bereft; 2. suf- 
fering lack, miserable ; 3. disagreeable ; 
as n. trouble, [prob. fr. V2 vidh, through 
the intermediate vidhu, 1188f.] 

vidhnra-dargana, n. sight of adversity. 

vidheya, grdv. to be done, [see VI dha 
+ vi, mg5: also 963 8 a.] 

vinaya, m. 1. training, breeding, i.e. 
formation of manners; and so 2. trans- 
ferred (like the Eng. breeding), manners, 
good breeding, politeness. [Vnl + vi.] 

vina, prep, without, w. instr. or ace. [1127, 

viniti, f. (good breeding, esp.) modesty. 
[Vni + vi: see vinaya.] 

vino da, m. exactly like Eng. di-version; 
amusement, [see V nud + vi.] 

V vind, see V2vid. 

vindhya, m. Vindhya, name of the 
mountain-range crossing the Indian pen- 
insula and separating Hindustan from 
the Deccan. 

vindhyatavl, /. the Vindhya-forest. 

V vip (vepate; vivipe ; avepista; vepa- 
yati). be in trembling agitation; tremble 
or shake ; cans, shake, trans, [cf. Lat. 
vibrdre, 'shake, brandish/ from *vib-ru-s, 
mvip-ru-s, 'shaking'; AS. wsefre (formed 
like *vip-ru-s), ' moving this way and 
that,' whence Eng. waver; Eng. frequen- 
tative whiffle, ' veer about, blow in gusts ' ; 
whiffle-tree, so called from its constant 
jerky motion (-tree means 'wooden bar,' 
see daru).] 

vip ana, m. trading-place, shop; -I, f. 
shop. [Vpan + vi, 1156.] 

vipatti,/. a coming to nought, destruc- 
tion. [Vpad + vi, 1157.] 

vipad, / misfortune, trouble. [Vpad + 
vi, 383a.] 

vipaka, m. the ripening, esp. of the fruit 
of good or bad deeds, and so the conse- 
quences ; the issue, in general. [Vpac + 
vi, 216.1.] 

vipra, 1. a. agitated, inspired; as subst. 
he who gives utterance to pious emotion 
at the altar, poet, singer, 74 11 - 18 ; 2. 
a. (inspired, i.e.) gifted with superior 
insight, wise, of a god, 79 13> 17 ; 3. as TO. 
a Brahman, 60 15 , etc. [Vvip, 1188a: 
mg 3 is to be taken directly from 1.] 

vipriya, a. not dear, unpleasant; as n. 
something disagreeable, an offense. [2 vi 
+ priya, see vi and 1310a end.] 

vi-budha, a. very wise (vi- is intensive, 
1289) ; as m. a god. 

vibudhanucara, ?H. attendant of a god. 

vibudhevara, m. a lord of the gods. 

vibhava, m. 1. development or growth; 

2. (the result of growth, i.e.) power, 
ana* so lordship, majesty, high position ; 

3. sing, and pi. (like Ger. Vermogen) 
property, possessions. [V bhu + vi : cf . 
vibhu and vibhuti.] 

vibhavan, f. -vari, a. shining far and 
wide. [Vbha + vi, 1169. Ib and 2 2 , 

vibhidaka, m. n. the large tree Termi- 
nalia Bellerica; one of the nuts of this 
tree, which were used for dicing; a die, 
dice, [perhaps 'the destroyer,' fr. Vbhid 



+ vi : if so, we must suppose that the 
name was first given to the die as die, 
and applied secondarily to nut and 

vibhii, a. 1. pervading, far-reaching; 
unlimited, 74 2 ; 2. powerful, mighty, 
of Indra, 6 12 - 15 ; as subst. lord or ruler. 
[Vbhu + vi, 354: for 2, cf. vibhava 1 
and 2, and vibhuti.] 

vfbhuti,y. 1. development or growth; 
2. (the result of growth, i.e.) power, 
esp. of a lord or ruler. [Vbhu + vi, 1157d : 
cf. vibhava and vibhu.] 

vi-manas, a. (having an away-removed 
mind or heart, i.e.) out of one's senses or 
disheartened. [1305.] 

vimarda, m. destruction; (of sleep) dis- 
turbance. [Vmrd+vi.] 

vimana, a. traversing, esp. the sky; 
as m. n. a palatial car of the gods that 
moves through the air, sky-chariot. 
[V 1 ma + vi, ' measure/ q.v. : 1150.] 

vi-mukha, a. having the face away; 
vimukha yanti, they go (with averted 
faces, i.e.) homewards. [1305.] 

vi-rajas, a. having dust away, dustless, 
pure. [1305.] 

viraha, m. 1. abandonment, separation 
from ; 2. absence, freedom from. [V rah 
+ vi.] 

virama, m. stop, end, pause. [Vram+vi.] 

virodhin, a. hindering, disturbing. 
[Vrudh + vi, 1183 3 .] 

vilasa, m. joy. [V las + vi.] 

vivara, m. n. opening; hole (of creatures 
that live in the ground). [Vlvr + vi, 
'uncover, open.'] 

vi-varna, a. having the color away, 
colorless, pale. [1305.] 

vivarna-vadana,a. pale-faced. [1298a.] 

vivasvan, a. lighting up; vivasvabhis, 
as adv. [1112c], so that it lights up ; as n.; 
perhaps, flash, spark. [V 1 vas + vi, ' light 
up,' 1169b.] 

vivasvant, a. lighting up; as m. Vivas- 
vant, name of a god of the dawning day- 
light or morning-sun, father of the twins 
Yama and Yami and of the A9vins, 
8513.H. [Vlvas + vi, 'light up,' see 

vivaha, m. fetching home of the bride, 
wedding, marriage. [Vvah + vi.] 

vivaha-catustay a, n. marriage-qua- 
ternion, i.e. the marrying of four wives. 

vivahagni, m. wedding-fire, [agni.] 

vividha, a. having different kinds, i.e. 
of different sorts, various. [2 vi + vidha, 
334 2 , 1305.] 

vivrddhi, f. growth; increase in size; 
increase. [Vvrdh + vi, 1157. Id.] 

viveka, m. 1. a separating apart ; 2. 
discrimination, discernment, good judg- 
ment. [Vvic + vi, 216.1: for mg 2, cf. 
discrimination w. Lat. discrimindre, ' sepa- 
rate/ fr. discrimen of the same root as 
discernere, ' separate ' ; cf . also discernment 
with discernere. .] 

V vi (viati, -te; vivea, vivic^ ; aviksat; 
veksyati, -te ; vista ; vestum ; -vigya ; 
vegayati). settle down; go in; go into, 
enter, [with vea, 'house/ cf. O!KOS, 
'house' (analogous to entry from enter); 
Lat. vlcus, 'settlement, village/ whence 
the borrowed AS. wlc, ' village ' ; Goth. 
veihs, ' village ' ; Lat. villa, *vic(u)la, ' small 
settlement, farm': see further vfg and 

+ a, go into, enter; pervade, KV.x. 125.6; 
avista : actively, having entered ; passively, 
entered by, filled with ; caus. cause to 
go into, put into, communicate. 
+ upa, settle down upon; sit down; 
upavista, seated. 

+ ni, mid. go in; go home (to house or 
nest) ; settle down to rest. 
+ abhi-ni, settle down to ; be inclined 
towards, fig., as in Eng. ; be bent upon, 
-fpra, enter, get into; w. ace., 85 2 ; 
w. loc., 18 23 ; without expressed object : 
enter, 8*; go in, 33"; go home, 103 21 ; 
penetrate, pierce ; caus. cause to enter. 
+ sam-pra, go in;w. grham, go home; 
w. niveganam, go to bed ; enter, w. loc. 
+ s a m , enter together, i.e. make their 
appearance together or come hither to- 
gether, 86 16 ; caus. cause to enter upon, 
put or set upon. 

viQ (vit, vigam, vidbhis [218 3 ]), / - 1. a 
settlement, i.e. dwelling-place ; ana" so 
house ; 2. a settlement, i.e. the com- 



munity, clan, folk; vigam patis, lord of 
peoples, i.e. simply prince ; tribe or host 
(of gods), 71 18 , 78 4 ; -3. the folk, as 
distinguished from the Brahmans and 
Kshatriyas, the third caste, later called 
vaigya; a man of the third caste, 59 22 . 
[Vvig, q.v. : cf. Acapiees Tpixd-w-es, ' three- 
tribed Dorians'; also Keltic vie in Ordo- 
vlc-es, people of North Wales, and Lemo- 
vlc-es, people of modern Limoges.] 

viganka, f. hesitation. [Vgank + vi, 

vigakha, a. having spread-asunder 
branches, i.e. forked ; -e, dual f. Viyakhe, 
name of an asterism. [2 vi + gakha, 
1305, 334 2 .] 

vigakhila, m. Vi9akhila, name of a mer- 
chant, [vigakha, 1227 : perhaps named 
after the asterism because various green- 
grocer's commodities belonged to it.] 

vigala, a. capacious, spreading, broad. 

vigistata, f. condition of being distin- 
guished, distinction, superiority, [vigista, 
1237 : see gis + vi.] 

vigesa, m. 1. that which separates or 
distinguishes one thing from another, 
distinction or difference ; and so 2. (like 
Eng. distinction) eminence, excellence ; 
vigesena, as adv. [1112b], to an eminent 
degree, i.e. very much, especially, like 
French par excellence. [V gis + vi.] 

vigesatas, adv. 1. at end of a cpd, 
according to the difference of , 66 28 ; 

2. (like vigesena, see above) especially, 
[vigesa, 1098b.] 

vig-pati, m. master of the house. 

[euphony, 218 5 : acct, 1267a: cf. Old 

Prussian wais-patti-n, ' house-mistress ' ; 

Lithuanian vesz-pat-s, ' lord.'] 
vigrabdham, see Vgrambh. 
vigrambha, m. confidence. [Vgrambh 

+ vi.] 
vigrambhalapa, m. confidence-talk, 

familiar conversation, [alapa.] 
vigva [524], pron. adj. la. all, every; 

every one ; common in Veda, but replaced 

in the Brahmana and later by sarva, q.v.; 

Ib. vigve devas : all the gods, 82 l ; or 
the All-gods (as a class, see deva 2b), 
88 G - 8 , 90 8 ; -Ic. vigvam, as n. The All, 

T& TTOJ', 92 12 ; 2. sometimes, entire, whole ; 
so 71 17 . 

vigva-caksas, a. all-beholding, [see 
1296 3 : acct, 1298c.] 

vigvatas, adv. from or on all sides, 
everywhere, [vigva, 1098b: acct, 1298c.] 

vigvato-mukha, a. having a face on 
all sides, whose face is turned every- 
whither. [1306.] 

vigva-dargata, a. to be seen by all, 
all-conspicuous, [acct, 1273, 1298c.] 

vigva-deva, m. pi. the All-gods (see 
deva2b), EV. x. 125.1. [vigva + deva: 
acct, 1280a, 1298c.] 

vigva-bhesaja, a. all-healing, [vigva 
+ bhesaja: acct, 1280a, 1298c.] 

vigva-gcandra, a. all-sparkling, [vigva 
+ gcandra: acct, 1280a, 1298c.] 

vigva-sfj, a. all-creating; as m. pi. All- 
creators, name of certain creative beings. 

v i g v a d , a. all-consuming, [vigva + ad.] 

vigvayu, assumed as stem of vigvayos, 
75 1 , prop, a form of transition to the u- 
declension of the stem vigvayus, and mean- 
ing either friendly to all, all-friendly (if 
taken with mama, i.e. varunasya), or else 
all living creatures (if taken with rastram, 
'lordship over') ; see vigvayus 1 and 2. 

vigvayus, 1. a. belonging to or appear- 
ing to all life or living creatures, i.e. 
either friendly to all or all-known (applied 
to gods), or else dwelling in all (of the 
Genius of Life), 85 18 ; -2. as n. all-life, 
i.e. all living creatures, men and beasts, 
[vigva + ayus, acct, 1280a, 1298c : for 
mg 1, see 1294 2 .] 

vigvasa, m. confidence. [Vgvas + vi.] 

vigvasa-karana, n. reason for con- 

vigvasa-bhumi, /. proper vessel for 
confidence, one who may safely be 

vigvaha, adv. always, for evermore, 
[vigva, see HOOa and cf. 1104 2 - 8 : acct, 
cf. 1298c.] 

V vis (vivesti; viv6sa; veksydti, -te; 
vista; -visya). work, be active, accom- 

vis (vit, visam, vidbhis), f. excrement, 



visa, n. poison. [prop, 'the potent or 
overpowering,' Vvis: no less arbitrary is 
the specialization in Eng. poison, fr. Lat. 
potionem, 'draught': cf. Us, Fjo-or, Lat. 
virus, 'poison.'] 

visa-kumbha, m. jar of poison. 

visaya, m. 1. prop, working, and so 
sphere of activity or influence ; 2. one's 
department or line or peculiar province ; 
and so, generalized 3. province, field, 
domain, empire, country; 4. field of 
activity of one of the sense-organs (e.g., 
sound is the visaya of the ear), a mere 
specialization of mg 1 ; object of sense, 
pleasure of sense ; 5. object in general. 
[Vvis: but the formation of the stem is 
not clear.] 

visada, m. despondency, dejection. [Vsad 

visu, adv. on both sides. 

visuvat- samkr anti, f. equinox-passage 
(of the sun from one zodiacal sign to the 
next) ; the time of equinox-passage, the 
equinox, [visuvant.] 

-vi suv ant, 1. a. having or taking part 
on both sides, i.e. keeping or being in the 
middle; 2. m. middle day (e.g. of a 
long sacrifice); 3. m. n. esp. middle 
day between the solstices, the vernal or 
autumnal equinox. [visu, 1233c and 
b end.] 

V vist (vestate; vistita; -vSstya; vesta- 
yati). wind one's self about; caus. wind 
around, envelope, wrap up, dress. 

vlsnu, m. Vishnu, name of a god, whose 
chief work in the Veda is the measuring 
of the sky in three paces, and who became 
one of the Hindu Trinity, and extremely 
important in the later sectarian devel- 
opment of India; cf. brahman 2 and 
giva. [prob. 'the mighty worker,' Vvis, 

visnu-garman , m. Vishm^arman, 
name of a sage. [' having V. as his 
protection' or else 'the delight of V.': 
the mg of the cpd depends on its accent 
(see 1302 1 and 1267 : ), and this is not 

visnugarma-naman, a. possessing vis- 
nuQarman as name, named V. [1249a 2 .] 

visvanc [408], a. directed in both ways or 
parted asunder, [visu + anc, 407.] 

visa rj ana, n. the letting go ; evacuation. 
[Vsrj +vi.] 

vispasta, see VI pag + vi. 

vispastartha, a. having clear or intel- 
ligible meaning, [artha.] 

vismaya, m. astonishment. [Vsmi + vi.] 

vismayanvita, a. filled with astonish- 
ment, [anvita, V i + anu.] 

vi-hasta, a. 1. having the hands away, 
handless ; and so 2. (like Eng. un- 
handy) awkward; and so 3. perplexed, 
confounded. [1305.] 

viharin, a. wandering about. [Vlhr + 
vi, 1183 8 .] 

V Ivi (veti; vivaya, vivye; vita). 1. 
seek eagerly; 2. accept gladly; enjoy; 
3. strive to get; 4. fall upon. 

[cf . Lat. vendri, ' hunt,' a denom. of 
*ve-na, ' hunt ' ; AS. wci-ft, ' hunt ' ; Old 
High Ger. weida, ' 1. the seeking, esp. of 
food, i.e. hunting, fishing, and then 2. place 
for getting food, pasture, and 3. food, 
fodder ' ; weida appears w. mg 1 in Ger. 
Waid-mann, 'hunter' (also as family 
name, Weidmann, 'Hunter'), and w. mgs 

2 and 3 in Weide, ' pasture, food ' : per- 
haps 2 vayas, ' food,' q.v., comes f r. V vi 
in mg 1, ' seek for, hunt,' and in this case 
the development of mg is like that of 
weida 3 and like that of Lat. venation-em, 
' hunting, game,' whence Eng. venison."] 

+ upa, seek after. 

V 2 vi, see vya. 

v i n a , f. lute. 

vita, see Vi + vi; also referable to roots vi 
and vya. 

vita-darpa, a. having one's pride de- 
parted; humbled. [Vi+vi.] 

vita-raga, a. having one's passions de- 
parted, i.e. having conquered one's pas- 
sions, [do.] 

vira, m. 1. man; esp. man of might, 
hero ; in pi. Manner ; 2. hero, applied 
to gods; 3. pi. (like Eng. men) re- 
tainers, Mannen, 86 6 . [cognate with 

3 vayas, ' strength ' : cf . Lat. vir, AS. wer, 
' manly or heroic man ' ; Eng. were-wolf, 
' man-wolf.'] 



V viraya (virayate [1067]). be a hero, 
show one's self brave, [vira, 1058.] 

viravant, a. having or rich in men or 
heroic sons, [vira, 1233a.] 

vira- su [352], a. bringing forth heroes 
(as sons). 

virasena, a. possessing a virasena or 
hero-army ; as subst. m. Virasena, king 
of Nishadha, like the Greek 'Hp6-crrpaTos in 
formation and mg. [vlra-sena, 334 2 , 
1297 : acct, 1295.] 

virasena-suta, m. Virasena's son, I 8 . 

vlra-sena,/. hero-army, army of heroes, 
[vird + s6na, 1280b : acct, 1280 2 .] 

virya, n. 1. manliness, courage; 
strength ; 2. concrete, heroic deed, 
[vira, 1212 d 4.] 

vihasta, for vihasta, q.v., 52 12 . [see 
1087 b.] 

V Ivr (vrn6ti, vrnut6; vavara, vavre; 
avarft ; vrtd ; varitum, vartum ; vrtva ; 
-vftya; varayati). 1. cover, enclose, 
encompass; surround, i.e. guard, 11 2 * ; 
2. offensively, keep in, hold back or 
captive ; vrta, pent up, 75 14 ; 3. de- 
fensively, hold back, keep in check (75 n ), 
ward off, hinder, restrain ; cans. 
[1041 2 ], keep back, hinder, stop. 

[cf. f-f\-/j.evos, 'enclosed' and 'held in 
check,' referred to elfAco, Aeolic e\\<a, 
*F \-vta ; el\ap, *Fe\-ap, ' cover, defense ' ; 
Lat. ver-eri, 'be on one's guard, fear'; 
vellus, '(cover, i.e.) pelt, fleece'; vallum, 
' defense, palisaded rampart, wall,' whence 
the borrowed Eng. wall ; Eng. ware, wary, 
' on one's guard, cautious ' ; Ger. wehren, 
'check, ward off'; Wehre, 'defense'; 
with vartra, ' stopping,' and then ' a dam,' 
cf Ger. Wehr, AS. wer, Eng. weir, '(water-) 
stop, dam ' : for other cognates, see uru, 
urna, varuna: cf. the derivs vala, vrtra, 
variitha, varna, etc.] 
-t-anu, cover over. 

+ a p a , uncover, open, [cf . the relation 
of Ger. decken, ' cover,' and auf-decken, 
+ abhi, cover. 

+ a , cover ; avrta : covered, 33 2 ; con- 
cealed; encompassed, surrounded, 3 9 ; 

(covered with, i.e.) filled with, provided 
with, 66 1. 

+ s a m - a , cover ; samavrta, surrounded. 
+ ni, keep down, suppress, ward off; 
cans. [1041 2 ], stop, 98 4 . 
+ n i s , in ppl. nirvrta, pleased, con- 
tented, free from care. [prop. ' uncov- 
ered, not covered over, i.e. not dark or 
gloomy,' and so ' clear, bright ' : cf . 
V 1 VT + vi, which shows a similar meta- 

+ pari, surround. 
+ p r a , cover. 

+ sam-pra, mid. cover completely. 
+ v i , uncover, open ; make open or clear, 
illume, [cf. vllvr + nis.] 
+ s am, 1. cover over; 2. keep to- 
gether or in order, and so put in order, 
gather up, 26 2 \ 

V 2vr(vrnite; vavre; avrta; varisyate; 
vrtd ; varitum [254 3 ] ; varitva ; caus. 
varayati, -te [1042b 3 ]). choose; prefer; 
desire, wish ; choose for one's self, make 
one's portion, 70 5 , 86 u ; varam vr, wish 
a wish, make a condition, 94 1 ; caus. 
[1041 2 ], choose. 

[cf . Lat. volo, ' will ' ; Old Eng. wol, wul, 
' will,' still living in / won't, ' I wol not ' ; 
Ger. Wahl, ' choice, selection,' whence 
wahlen, ' select,' Chaucerian wail, ' select ' ; 
Ger. wohl, Eng. well, 'according to one's 
wish ' (see under 1 vara) : perhaps akin 
are f3ov\o/, *fio\, Epic &6\, 
'will,' and f)f\-repos, 'choicer, better,' 
but this is disputed.] 
+ a , choose, desire. 

vfka, 1. a. tearing, harming, in a-vrka; 
2. m. (the tearer, i.e.) wolf. [\/*vrk or 
*vrak, simpler form of V vrac : cf . \VKOS, 
*F\VKOS, Church Slavonic vluku, Lat. lupus, 
Eng. wolf.] 

vrkka, dual m. the kidneys. 

vrksa, m. tree, ['that which is felled,' 
V*vrk (1197) or *vrak, simpler form of 
Vvragc: for mg, cf. bar his.] 

vrksa-traya, n. tree-triad, three trees. 

vrksatraya-tale, under three (sepa- 
rate) trees, see tala. 

vrksopari, on the tree. [upari: see 



V vrj (vrnakti, vrnkte; vavarja; avark 
[832]; varksydti, -te; vrkta; -vfjya; 
varjayati). 1. turn; twist off; 2. 
turn or set aside; 3. (turn aside, i.e.) 
di-vert or keep away or alienate something 
from some one ; 

cans. [1041 -] 1. (set aside, i.e.) 
abandon, shun; avoid, 25 21 , 104 3 ; -2. 
(set aside, take out, and so, like ex-cipere) 
except; varjayitva, with an excepting, 
i.e. with exception of, 54 22 ; leave out, 
exclude, separate. 

[orig. ' bring out of its original direction 
or position, by bending or diverting or 
keeping in ' (in this last sense, cf. vrjana, 
'enclosure/ and l-fpy-w, 'shut in'), and 
so the opposite of Vlrj, 'stretch or reach 
straight out,' q.v. : cf. also Lat. vergere, 
'bend, turn'; Eng. wrick, 'to twist,' and 
wriggle ; prob. cognate is wring, ' twist ' ; 
also Eng. wrong, 'twisted, crooked' (as in 
wrong-nosed, Wyclif), 'bad,' which shows 
the same metaphor as vrjina and French- 
Eng. tort, from Lat. torguere, ' twist.'] 

vrjana, n. enclosure, esp. enclosed settle- 
ment, and so, either dwelling-place (74 13 ) 
or the dwellers. [Vvrj, q.v.: 1150. 2c.] 

vrjina, a. crooked, wrong, opp. of rju, 
'straight, right.' [Vvrj, 1177b: for the 
mg, see Vvrj.] 

V vrt (vartate, -ti; vavarta, vavrte [786]; 
avrtat ; vartisyati, -te ; vartsyati, -te ; 
vrtta ; vartitum ; -vftya ; vartayati, 
-te). 1. turn or roll or move as does a 
wheel; in general, move or come from 
(all), 76 14 ; -2. (like Eng. take its 
course) go on, take place; happen; eka- 
payena vrt, go with a diminution-by-one, 
i.e. decrease by one, 58 5 ; 3. (move 
one's self about in a place, and so) abide, 
exist, be, be present ; murdhni vrt, stand 
at the head, be chief in importance, 22 21 ; 

4. be in a certain condition, case, occu- 
pation ; be concerned with (loc.), 10 s ; 

5. live; live by (instr.), i.e. live upon, 
104 2 ; 6. proceed, behave ; 7. atten- 
uated in mg from sense 3 to that of a simple 
copula, be, 51 4 ; vrtta, see s.v. 

[cf . Lat. vert-ere, ' turn ' ; AS. weor'San, 
'become,' Eng. worth, 'become, be to' (in 

wo worth the day), Ger. werden, 'become'; 
for transition of mg in Eng. and Ger., cf. 
Eng. turn, which also means ' become ' (as 
in turn traitor): cf. also Eng. -ward, as 
in go south-ward, i.e. ' turned to the south, 1 
fly up-war d, i.e. 'directed up,' etc. (see 
anc) ; also Ger. Wirt-el, ' spindle-ring ' ; 
Church Slavonic vret-eno, ' spindle ' : 

further akin is, prob., AS. wriZan, 
' twist,' whence come : Eng. writhe ; AS. 
wr&ft, 'a twisted band,' Eng. wreath; u-rist, 
earlier hand-wrist, *-wri$-st, 'hand-turner': 

with vrtta, cf . Lat. versus, ' turned,' 
whence versdre, ' turn much ' : for mgs 
3-6 of vrt, cf . Lat. versdri, whose senses 
are quite parallel, and the Eng. phrase 
" in whom we live and move and have oi:r 

+ anu, roll after; follow; and so, con- 

+ a, act. turn hither (trans.), 73 6 ; so at 
74 n (sc. ratham vas, 'your car'); mid. 
turn (intrans.), roll back, 63 8 . 
' + upa_a, turn hither unto, 93 19 . 
+ abhi-pary-a, turn around unto. 
+ vy-a, turn away, intrans.; separate 
from or part with (instr.), 86 8 , 96 22 . 
-sam-a, turn back to meet; go home, 
used esp. of a religious preceptor's pupil 
who has finished his studies. 
+ ud, turn out (centrifugally), intrans., 
fly asunder ; caus. burst asunder or open. 
+ ni, 1. turn back; 2. flee; 3. 
turn away ; 4. turn from, abstain ; ni- 
vrtta, see s.v. 

+ prati-ni, turn back from (all.). 
+ nis, roll out, intrans., and so (with a 
metaphor like that in the Eng. e-volve itself 
and Ger. sich ent-wickeln) develop, come 
into being, 92 1S ; caus. e-volve from, i.e. 
create from (abl), 57 16 . 
+ pari, turn around; move in a circle. 
+ p r a , 1. turn or move forward ; 2. 
set out; 3. begin, set about; 4. en- 
gage in; pra vrtta, see s.v.; caus. set 
in motion. 

+ vi, turn away; part with (instr.), 88 3 ; 
caus. whirl about, trans. 

sam, unite, intrans., and so take shape, 
form itself, come into being. 



vf t, vbl. turning, in cpds. [\fvrt.j 

vrtta, ppl. 1. happened (Vvrt2); tad 
vrttam, that took place ; 2. existing 
(vrt 3); as n. 1. thing happened, 
occurrence (vrt 2); 2. life, behavior 
(vrt 5, 6). 

vrttanta, m. occurrence, adventures, 
story, [anta: force of anta not clear.] 

vrtti.,/1 prop, an existing, and so (like 
Eng. living) means of subsistence, sup- 
port. [Vvrt 3, 5: cf. vartana.] 

vrtti-nibandhana, n. means of sup- 

vrtta uj as, a. possessing existing strength, 
i.e. mighty, [ojas.] 

vrtra, 1. n. that which wards off or 
holds in check, i.e. the enemy, 75 14 ; 2. 
m. coverer, encloser; personified, Vritra, 
demon of drought and darkness, principal 
personification of the malign power that 
covers or darkens the sky and encom- 
passes (70 16 ) or withholds the heavenly 
waters, selections xxxii. and Ixvii. ; slain 
by Indra, 73 1S ; see 82 * and 97 19 . [V 1 vr, 
'cover,' 1185b.J 

vrtratara, comparative to vrtra (see 
473 1 ). the arch-withholder. [acct ir- 
regular, 471, 1242a 2 .] 

vrtra-putra, a. having Vritra as son; 
-a, /. the mother of V. [1302.] 

vftha, adv. at will, at pleasure; for 
pleasure, i.e. not for the sake of the gods. 
[V2vr, 'choose, will,' 1101.] 

vrtha-pagughna, a. slaying cattle for 
pleasure ; as m. one who slays cattle for 
pleasure, i.e. not for sacrifice. [1279.] 

vrddha, ppl. I. grown, become great; 
increased (of wealth), 42 1G ; 2. as adj. 
grown up, opp. of young; old, aged; as 
subst. old man, 28 12 ; 3. (grown great, 
and so, like Lat. altus) eminent, distin- 
guished. [Vvrdh, 160.] 

vrddhatva, n. condition of being old, 
old age. [1239.] 

vrddhi, /. 1. growth, increase; 2. 
interest (on money lent), 46 20 ; 3. the 
(second) increment of a vowel, see 235-6. 
[V vrdh, 1157. la, 160.] 

V vrdh (vardhati, -te ; vavardha, va- 
vrdhe ; avrdhat, avardhista ; vartsyati ; 

vrddha ; vardhitum ; vardhayati, -te). 
act. trans.: 1. elevate, make to grow, 
make greater, strengthen; 2. Jig. ele- 
vate inwardly, excite pleasantly, cheer, 
inspire (cf. the metaphor in slang Eng. high, 
'slightly intoxicated'), used of the effects 
which the homage and sacrifices of men 
are supposed to have on the gods ; 

mid. intrans. : 3. grow, 24 3 ; thrive, 
69 16 ; vardhate, he thrives, i.e. it goes 
well with him, 65 ' 2 ; grow strong or greater 
or mighty, 81 2 , 82 3 ; increase, 8 11 , 60 19 ; 
4. Jig. be pleasantly excited, take de- 
light in ; be inspired ; 

caus. 1. make to grow; make 
strong; bring up (a child), 46 8 ; increase, 
trans., 64 21 ; 2. fig. excite pleasantly, 
cheer, inspire; distinction between the 
physical and jig. mgs not always to be made, 
so 80 19 . 

[cf. B\a.aTi], *F\ad-Ti), ' growth, a shoot,' 
fi\acndv<a, ' grow ' ; op66s, *Fop6os, ' up- 
right ' ; Lat. verb-er, ' a shoot, rod ' ; verb- 
ena, '(sacred) twig.'] 

+ pra, grow on, grow up; pravrddha, 
(like Lat. altus) exalted. 
+ v i , grow, increase, 2 19 . 
+ sam, grow; caus. make to grow; bring 
up ; nourish, feed. 

vrdh, vbl. being pleased, rejoicing. 

V vrs (varsati, -te ; vavarsa, vavrse ; 
avarsit ; varsisyati, -te ; vrsta ; varsi- 
tum; vrstva, -vrsya). rain; varsati 
[303b], VOVTOS, while it is raining, [orig., 
perhaps, more general, 'to pour down,' 
esp. either the fructifying water of heaven 
(masc.) upon the earth (fern.), or semen 
of the bull or male animal upon the 
female : with varsa, ' rain,' cf. e-fpo-at, 
' rain-drops ' ; with vrsan and vrsabha, 
' bull,' cf . Lat. verres, *vers-es, ' boar,' so 
named from his great generative power, 
just as the sow (see su) from her fe- 

vrsa, used only at end of cpds [1315a] in 
Veda, but later independently, instead of 

vrsan [426b], adj. and subst. describing 
or denoting all that was distinguished for 



its strength and virility: 1. man, as 
opposed to a castrated person, 70 u ; 2. 
of animals : stallion ; bull ; boar ; 3. of 
gods : manly, mighty, great ; of Indra, 
74 5 ; of the Maruts, 73 5 ; of the Sun or 
Sun-horse, 79 7 . [Vvrs, q.v., 1160c: cf. 
apffTjv, stem *Fapfftv, ' male.'] 

vrsabha, essentially the same as vrsan, 
q.v. : esp. 1. bull ; with sahasra-grnga, 
the thousand-horned steer, i.e. the sun or 
(77 u ) the moon; 2. bull, as type of 
greatness and might; most mighty one, 
of Indra, 73 is. [Vvrs, 1199.] 

vrsala, m. prop, manikin, i.e. little man, 
and so, as term of contempt, a low person, 
esp. a Qudra. [vrsa, 1227.] 

V vrsasya (vrsasyati). desire the male, 
be lustful, [vrsa, 1059e, 1058.] 

V vrsaya (vrsayate). act as a vrsa, i.e.: 
show one's manly strength or courage ; 
be lustful; or simply, be eager. [vrsa, 
1059b, 1058.] 

vrsti,/rain. [Vvrs, 1157.] 

V vrhorbrh (vrhati; vavarha; avrksat; 
vrdha [224a] ; -vfhya). pluck, tear. 

venu, m. reed, esp. bamboo-reed. 

veda, m. 1. understanding, knowledge; 

2. esp. the sacred knowledge, handed 
down in triple form of re, yajus, and 
saman, see these, and cf. (trayi) vidya; 

later, the well-known collections called 
Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Samaveda 
(63 6 - 6 ), the holy scriptures, held to be a 
revelation and so called gruti, 58 18 . 

veda, m. tuft of strong grass (kuga or 

mufija) tied so as to form a broom, 62 18 . 
veda-traya, n. the three Vedas. 
veda-nindaka, m. one who scoffs at 

the Veda, infidel, 
veda-punya, n. Veda-merit, sanctity 

acquired by Veda-study, 
veda-bahya, a. being outside of the 

Veda, i.e. extra- Vedic, differing from or 

conflicting with the Veda. [1265, veda- 

being in an abl. relation.] 
veda-vid[391], a. Veda-knowing. [1269.] 
1 vedas, n. knowledge; possibly adj., 

knowing, cf. na-vedas. [VI vid, ' know ' : 

cf. 1151.2a,b.] 

2 vedas, n. (like Lot. quaestus) gettings, 
property, cf. vitta. [V 2 vid, ' get.'] 

vedadhyayana, n. Veda-study, scrip- 
ture-reading, [adhyayana.] 

v 6 d i , f. sacrificial bed, i.e. a spot of ground 
excavated two or three inches and covered 
with straw and serving as a kind of altar. 

vedin, a. knowing. [Vivid, 1183 3 .] 

vedi-purisa, n. loose earth of the vedi. 

vedhas, subst. adj. 1. worshipper of the 
gods, worshipping, pious, devoted; 2. 
generalized, faithful, true, used of Indra, 
75 18 . [Vlvidh, 'worship a god,' 1151. 

vela, f. 1. end-point, limit; 2. esp. 
limit of time, point of time, hour. 

vega, m. 1. settler; neighbor. 2. (set- 
tlement, i.e.) dwelling, house. [Vvig: cf. 
O!KOS, 'house,' Old Lat. veicus, Lat. vlcus, 
' houses, quarter of a town, village ' : hence 
the borrowed AS. wlc, ' town,' as in Eofor- 
vnc, Eng. York, prop. ' Eber-stadt ' or 
'Boar-town,' and perhaps in Nor-wich, 
' Nor-ton.'] 

vegman, n. (settlement, i.e.) dwelling, 
house, abode, chamber. [Vvig, 11 68. la.] 

vai, postpositive particle, emphasizing the 
preceding word, e.g. 3 17 , 96 13 ; rare in 
the samhita, 90 2, 103 4 (in a quoted man- 
tra) ; excessively common in the brahmana 
(92 H.19, 93 6 } 944,13,18^ 956.15) and Epos 

(7 6 , etc.); in brahmana often marking 
the preceding word as the Jlrst of its clause 
(cf. atha, near end of ma 3): so 94 6 , 95 12 , 
96 12 , and in the examples just given; often 
used, esp. in Epos, as a mere expletive 
[see 1122a 4 ], so at end of a pada, 3 9 , 10 9 , 
68 9 . 

vaicitrya, n. variety, diversity, [vici- 
tra, 1211.] 

vain a v , f. -I, a. of reed, esp. of bamboo, 
[venu, 1208c.] 

v a i d a r b h a, f. -I, a. belonging to Vidar- 
bha; as m. the Vidarbhan, i.e. king of 
V.; asf. the princess of V., i.e. Dama- 
yanti, 8 7 , etc. [vidarbha, 1208f.] 

vaidika, a. Vedic, prescribed by or con- 
formable to the Vedas. [veda, 1222e 2.] 

vaidya, 1. a. having to do with science, 
learned; and so 2. as m. (with a tran- 



sition like that from Lai. doctor, 'teacher, 
learned man,' to Chaucer's doctour of 
phisik) physician, doctor, [vidya, 1211.] 

vaimanika, a. riding in a sky-travers- 
ing car called vimana, q.v. [vimana, 

vaivasvata, a. descended from Vivas- 
vant; as m. son of V., i.e. Yama. [vivas- 
van t, 1208 and a and a 2 .] 

vaigya, adj. subst. man of the vig or folk 
or third caste, 57 1G . [vig, 1211.] 

voc, quasi-root, see 854 and Vvac. 

vyansa, a. having the shoulders apart, 
i.e. broad-shouldered ; as in. Viansa, 
Broad-shoulder, name of a demon, slain 
by Indra. [vi + ansa, 1305.] 

V vyac (vivyakti [082]; vivyaca [785]). 
embrace, encompass, extend around. 
[cf. 1087f 2 , 108g.] 

vyacas, n. compass, extent. 

v y a t i k a r a , m. a mixing, confusing ; con- 
fusion, disaster. [V3kr, ' scatter,' + vi.] 

v' vyath (vyathate ; vivyath6 [785] ; 
avyathista; vyathita). 1. move to 
and fro, rock, reel ; 2. Jig. (like Eng. be 
restless) be disturbed in mind, be pained. 

vyath. a, f. feeling of painful unrest, 
discomfort, sorrow. 

V vyadh or vidh (vidhyati; vivyadha 
[785] ; vetsyati ; viddha ; veddhum ; 
viddhva; -vidhya). bore through, pierce, 
hit (with a weapon), [akin w. Vvadh: 
cf . Lat. di-vid-ere, ' part asunder, divide.'] 

vyapadea, m. the making a false show 
of, an unauthorized referring to or using 
the name of (a person of high position). 
[V dig + vy-apa.] 

vyaya, a. going asunder or to pieces, 
perishing, w. a-. [Vi + vi, 1148. lb.] 

vyalkaga,/. Vialkafa, a certain plant. 

vyavasaya, m. determination, resolve. 
[Vsa + vy-ava.] 

vyavasayin, a. determined, resolute, 

vyavahara, m. 1. procedure, conduct, 
way of acting ; 2. (way of acting with 
others, i.e.) intercourse, 24 12 . [\flhr + 

vyasana, n. prop, a throwing one's self 
away (upon a thing), and so 1. passion- 

ate devotion to a thing (whether good or 
bad, e.g. alms-giving, scripture-study, 
gambling); hobby; 2. an overpowering 
passion, esp. for something bad; vice, 
20 4 ; 3. (a throwing one's self away, 
i.e.) misfortune, adversity, 25 8>4 . [V2as 
+ vi.] 

V vya or vi (vyayati, -te [761d2]; vi- 
vyaya [785], vivye; vita; -viya). mid. 
envelope or hide one's self. [orig. ' wind 
around ' as with robe or girdle, and so a 
a doublet of Vvi, i.e. V2va, 'weave,' 

+ upa, hang about, esp. wind the sacred 
cord over the left shoulder and under the 
right arm ; upavita, see s.v. 
+ ni, wind about, hang (e.g. garland, 
cord) about (e.g. neck, shoulders) ; nivita, 
see s.v. 

+ pari, act. envelope around or com- 
pletely; mid. wind something as cover 
around one's self, envelope one's self in ; 
perhaps in sense of act., 84 1G . 

vyakarana, n. the putting asunder, and 
so analysis, grammar. [V 1 kr, ' do, put,' 
+ vy-a.] 

vyakhyatr, m. explainer. [Vkhya + 

vyaghra, m. tiger; like ardula and 
sinha, as type of noble manliness, in cpds, 
see nara-vyaghra. [perhaps fr. V 1 ghr, 
' besprinkle,' + vy-a, ' the sprinkled or 
spotted one.'] 

vyaghra-carman, n. tiger-skin. 

vyaghrata, f. tigerhood, condition of 
being a tiger. [1237.] 

vyadha, m. hunter, [v' vyadh.] 

vyadhi, m. disease. [V 1 dha, 'put,' + 
vy-a, 1155. 2e.] 

vyadhita, a. diseased. [vyadhi, see 

vyapada, m. destruction, [v'pad + vy-a.] 

vyapadayitavya, grdv. to be destroyed 
or killed, [caus. of Vpad + vy-a.] 

vyapara, m. 1. business, i.e. occupa- 
tion; 2. (as in Eng.) business, i.e. con- 
cern, 30 4 ; 3. activity, exertion. [V3pr 
+ vy-a, ' be busied.'] 

vyapara-ata, n. exertion-hundred, a 
hundred attempts. 



vyama, m. prop, a stretch-out, the dis- 
tance covered by the stretched-out arms, 
a fathom, about six feet, [for vi-yama, 
V yam + vi : for mg, cf . the precisely 
parallel Eng. fathom w. AS. fseftm, ' the 
extended arms ' ; opyvid, ' fathom,' and 
opt-yea, ' stretch ' ; French toise, Medieval 
Lat. tesa, ' fathom/ from Lat. tensa, ppl. 
of tendere, ' stretch.'] 

vyama-matra, a. having a fathom 
as its measure, see matra. [matra, 

vyahrti, f. 1. utterance; 2. esp. 
one of the three sacred and mystical 
exclamations, bhur, bhiivas, and svar, 
which see. [V 1 hr + vy-a. ] 

vyoman, n. heaven, sky. 

V vraj (vrajati; vavraja; avrajit; vrajis- 
yati ; vrajita ; vrajitum ; vrajitva ; 
-vrajya). march, proceed, go. 
+ a, come hither, go unto, 
-fpraty-a, march or go back. 
+ pari, march round about; wander 

-1-pra, march forth; go unto; wander; 
esp. leave one's house to wander about as 
an ascetic, 65 2 . 

vrata, n. 1. will ; devanam ati vratam, 
beyond the will of the gods, 88 2 cf. 
inrep Aibs ctiffav ; decree, command or 
Gebot, statute ; and so 2. (as Eng. 
command is applied to the forces under 
one's command) that over which one 
exercises command, domain, Gebiet ; 
further, directly from the root again 3. 
choice, determination ; firm resolution, 
14 6 ; 4. esp. resolve (to keep a religious 
or ascetic observance) ; vow or holy work 
(e.g. of chastity, fasting, etc.), 28 m , 59 5 , 
61 28, 64 8 , 65 8 ; -5. religious duty, duty 
in general. [V2vr, 'will, choose': for 
mg 2, observe that Ger. Gebiet formerly 
meant 'command' and now means 'do- 

V vragc (vrgcati ; vrkn4 [957c] ; vrstva ; 
-vfgcya). hew off; fell (a tree); cut to 
pieces, [orig. form is vrk, as in vfk-a, 
vrk-na, vrk-sa, which see: vrgc is prop, 
only a quasi-root of the present stem 
vrgca, for vrk-ska, formed like the 

present of Mprach and mlech, which see: 

see 221 2 and cf. 220.] 

-f vi, cut asunder or to pieces. 

V 9 ati s (gansati, -te ; gagansa, gaganse ; 
agansit ; gansisyati ; gasta ; gastva ; 
-gasya). orig. say in a loud and solemn 
way, and so: 1. recite, esp. a sacred hymn 
or text to a god by way of praise ; and 
so 2. generalized, praise; gasta, see s.v.; 
3. rarely, make a solemn wish, whether 
blessing or curse (see gansa), like impre- 
cari ; 4. announce ; communicate, 52 13 . 
[cf. Lat. carmen, teas-men, 'an utterance 
hi solemn, measured, or melodious way, 
i.e. song, oracle, magic charm ' ; Camena, 
*casmenja, name of the goddess of song ; 
cens-ete, ' declare, pass judgment on ' ; AS. 
herian, 'praise.'] 

+ a, 1. wish, esp. in the noun agas or 
aga, ' wish,' q.v. ; and so 2. hope in, put 
one's trust hi (ace.); 3. pronounce a 
blessing upon, wish good to (ace.), 101 4 . 
[mg 1 may be a mere specialization of 
the mg 'speak solemnly unto ' (cf. Vgas + 
a), and mg 2 a further development of 
mg 1 ; for mg 3, cf. the simple verb, 

+ pra, tell forth; praise, 2 1G . [cf. 
simple verb.] 

gansa, m. 1. solemn utterance; 2. im- 
precatio, blessing or curse; as adj. 3. 
cursing. [V gans.] 

V gak (A. gakn6ti; gagaka, gekus [794e]; 
agakat ; gaksyati, -te ; gakta; pass. 
cakyate, gakita ; 

-B. desid. gfksate [1030, lOSg 1 end]; 
caus. of desid. giksayati ; pass, of desid. 
and of caus. of desid. giksyate, giksita). 

A. simple verb : 1. be strong ; be 
able, 8 19 ; in pass. : impersonally, it is 
possible ; with infin. [988], be able, by the 
instrumentality of some person or thing 
(instr.), to become the object of an 
action ; maya mtim grahayitum gak- 
yante, they are able to be caused by me 
to get hold of niti, 19 13 ; 2. rarely (be 
strong for a person, i.e.) be serviceable or 
helpful, help, w. dat.; 



B. desiderative : 1. desid. to A. 1, 
(strive to be able, i.e.) practice; learn; 
caus. cause a person (ace.) to learn a 
thing (ace.), 51 23 , 52 3 ; pass, of caus.: 
giksita, caused to learn or taught a thing 
(ace.), 46 10 ; without noun, taught, 52 5 ; 
giksyamana, instructed, 51 1T ; 2. desid. 
to A. 2, be willing to help; aid; (of 
gods) bestow blessing upon (dat.), 80 13 ; 
grant, give. 

[cf. Lat. cac-ula, 'servant' (like help as 
sometimes used in America for 'ser- 
vant'); w. gagma, *gak-ma, 'helpful, 
friendly,' cf. Lat. comis, *coc-mi-s, 'friend- 
ly ' : prob. akin is Ger. be-hag-en, AS. on- 
hag-ian, 'suit, please' (cf. gak, A. 2).] 
+ upa, (bring unto one's self by giving, 
i.e.) attract, 76 18 . [for mg, see the un- 
compounded verb, B. 2.] 

gakala, 1. m. n. chip; piece; 2. n. 
half (of an egg-shell). 

gakuna, m. bird. 

gakti, f. ability, power. 

gakya, a. 1. possible, practicable, 33 16 ; 
common with the infinitive : gakya being 
used 2. impersonally; or 3. in agree- 
ment with the subject, in which case the inf. 
[988] is to be translated as a passive, 29 la . 
[Vcak, 1213.] 

gakra, 1. a. powerful, mighty, standing 
epithet of Indra; 2. as m. The Mighty 
One, i.e. Indra (just as we use The Al- 
mighty as a name for 'God'). [Vgak, 

V gank (gankate ; agankista ; gankita ; 
gankitum ; -gankya). 1. be anxious 
or suspicious ; 2. hesitate. 
+ vi, hesitate. 

ganka,/. hesitation. [Vgafik, 1149 8 .] 

gaci, f. 1. might or help (esp. of the 
helping deeds of Indra); 2. Qachi or 
Might, as wife of Indra (derived from the 
misunderstood gaci-pati, q.v.), 2 7 . [Vgac, 
collateral form of gak.] 

gacl-pdti, m. 1. Vedic, lord of might 
or of help, epithet of Indra, 80 13 ; 2. 
later (pati, q.v., being misunderstood as 
'husband'), husband of Might or Qachi, 
name of Indra, 15 14 , 49 4 . [acct, 1267a 
and d, Whitney 94b.] 

gat ha, a. false. 

V gat (gatayati; gatita). cut in pieces; 
make to fall off. 

gat a [485 2 ], n. hundred; also as expression 
of a large number; for construction, see 
486b. [cf . t-Karov, ' one-hundred ' ; Lat. 
centum, AS. hund, neut., 'hundred'; Eng. 

gatatman, a. having a hundred lives, 
[gata + atman: acct, 1300a.] 

gatru, m. 1. (victor, i.e.) victorious 
opponent ; 2. foe, enemy, in general. 

[if mg 1 is the orig. mg, we may take 
the word fr. Vgad and as standing for 
*gat-tru, 1185e, 232: 

if mg 2 is the orig. mg, we may analyse 
thus, gat-ru (1192), and compare Church 
Slavonic Icot-ora, Irish cath, ' battle ' ; AS. 
heaft-o in cpds, as heafto-weorc, 'battle- 
work,' Old High Ger. had-u in names, 
as Hadu-brant, 'Battle-flame,' Hadu-wlch, 
'Battle-strife,' Ger. Hedivig ; Ger. Hader, 
' strife ' ; cf. also the Keltic proper name 
Catu-rig-es (rig under rajan), 'The Battle- 

gatru-nandana, a. causing joy to one's 

gatru-samkata, m. danger from the foe. 

V gad (gacada, gagade [786]). distinguish 
one's self; get the upper hand, prevail; 
Vedic only. [cf. KfKaff/^evos, Doric Kf-KaS- 
/uifvos, ' distinguished.'] 

ganakais, 00*1'. quietly; gently; slowly, 
[instr. (1112c) of an unused stem *ga- 
naka, diminutive to *gana, see ganais.] 

ganais, adv. quietly; gently; slowly; 
gradually. [instr. (1112c) of an unused 
stem *gana, which is prob. connected w. 
\f2gam, 'be quiet.'] 

g a mt at i,/ benefit, [gam, 1238.] 

V gap (gapati, -te; gagapa, gepe; gapis- 
yate; gapta; gapitum; gapitva). 1. 
curse, usually act., 93 n ; 2. mid. (curse 
one's self, i.e.) assert with an oath, swear, 
vow, w. dat. of person, 97 7 . 

gapatha, m. curse; oath. [Vgap, 1163b.] 

gabala, a. brinded. 

gab da, m. 1. sound; cry; noise; gab- 
dam kr, make a noise, raise one's voice ; 
-2. word, 50 9 , 61 1 . 


gabda-gastra, n. word-theory, word- 
compendium, i.e. grammar. 

V lg am (gamyati; gagamS ; agamista; 
gamita). get weary by working, work, 
[cf . KOL/JL-VU, ' get weary by working.'] 

V 2 <jam (gamyati [763J; gagama, gemiis; 
agamat; ganta [955aj; gamayati). be 
quiet or still or content ; stop ; Jbr these 
senses, cf. \ ram ; ganta, see s.v.; cans. 
quiet, still ; euphemistically, kill. 
-f u p a , be quiet ; stop. 
+ pra, come to rest; stop; go out; 
praganta, extinguished. 

V 3gam (gammte). harm. 

V 4 9 am (ganta; -gamya; gamayati, gama- 
yati). used only with ni. observe; per- 
ceive; hear. 

gam [384 2 ], n. welfare; happiness; bless- 

gam a, a word of doubtful mg at 71 8 : 
perhaps tame (cf. s'2gam, caws.) or indus- 
trious (cf. VI gam). 

gamayitr, m. slayer. [V2gam, caus.] 

garni, f. a fabaceous plant, either Prosopis 
spicigera or Mimosa Suma; a tree from 
which the sticks of attrition (arani) were 

gamimaya,/ -I, a. of or made of Qami- 
wood. [see maya.] 

gami-gakha, f. Qami-branch. 

gami-sumanas, / Qami-flower. 

gamisumano-mala, /. garland of 

gamya,/. staff, 102 16 . 

gay a, a. lying, sleeping, at end of cpds. 
[Vgi, 1148. la.] 

gay ana, n. a lying, sleeping. [Vgi, 
1150. la.] 

gayaniya, 1. a. serving for lying; 
2. n. bed, couch, [gayana, 1215.] 

gayya,/. 1. bed; 2. a lying, sleep- 
ing. [Vgi, 1213d, cf. 963 8 b.] 

gar a, m. 1. reed, esp. of the Saccharum 
Sara, used for arrows ; 2. arrow, [ob- 
serve that Lat. arundo means ' reed ' and 
' arrow.'] 

gar ana, 1. a. protecting, affording 
refuge, 87 7 ; as n. 2. shed, that gives 
cover from the rain ; Ka\id, hut ; 3. 
protection; refuge, 50 n . 

[garana presupposes a root *gr or *gl, 
'cover, protect'; w. such a root agree 
well in form and mg as derivs, garira, 
garman, and gala, see these : 

further agree as cognates Ka\td, ' hut, 
barn'; AS. heal, Eng. hall; KoA-u|, 'husk, 
pod ' ; Ger. Hiille, ' covering ' ; Eng. hull, 
' covering ' of grain ; AS. hel-m, ' protec- 
tor' (used of God and Christ), 'head- 
protector, helmet,' Ger. Helm, Eng. helm ; 
Lat. oc-cul-ere, 'cover'; color, 'color' (see 
varna) ; eel-are, Ger. hehl-en, Chaucer's 
lid-en, later hele, ' conceal ' ; further, 
K a \inr-r-to, ' cover,' and the ident. KPVJT-T-OI, 
' hide.'] 

garanagata, a. come for refuge, seeking 
protection with any one. [agata.] 

gar ad, /. autumn; pi. poetic for years 
(cf. varsa). 

gdrava, m. n. flat earthen dish. 

gdrira, n. the body, as distinguished from 
the vital breath or from the immortal 
soul (so 96 21 - 22 , 29 6 ) and from the soft 
viscera and inward fluid secretions, of 
which things the body, or the firm red 
flesh with the bones, forms as it were 
the hollow cover (67 l ), tegument, or 
Hiille; used also in pi., 84 9 ; body in 
general ; mrtam gariram, corpse, 63 n ; 
so 84 4 . [prop. ' the corporeal tegument ' 
of the soul, V*gr, 'cover' (1188e 2 ), see 
under garana: for mg, cf. the cognate 
Ger. Hiille (under garana) in sterbliche 
Hiille, ' mortal envelope, i.e. body ' : cf. 
97 16 N.] 

garira -j a, a. (born of, i.e.) performed 
by the body. 

garirantakara, m. destroyer of the 
bodies, [anta-kara.] 

garu,/. missile, either spear or arrow, [cf. 

garkara, m. brown sugar, [fr. the Pra- 
krit form sakkara comes on the one 
hand, through Arabic sokkar and Medie- 
val Lat. zucara, the Eng. sugar, and on 
the other ffdicxapov, Lat. saccharum, all 
borrowed words : cf. khanda.] 

V gardh (gardhati). be strong or defiant. 

gardha, m. troop, host. [cf. Ger. Herde, 
Eng. herd.'] 


carman, n. 1. cover; protection; shel- 
ter ; refuge ; 2. comfort, joy ; 3. 
common at the end of Brahman-names, 
19 n , 42 n , 69 13 N. [see under garana.] 

garmavant, a. containing (the stem) 
garman. [1233.] 

garva, m. Qarva, name of an arrow-slay- 
ing god ; later, a common name for the 
god Qiva. [garu, 1209, cf. 1209g.] 

garvara, a. variegated; f. garvari, the 
night (as variegated with stars). [cf. 

garva- varman, a. having Qiva as his 
protection ; as m. Qarvavarman, name of 
a man. 

gala, m. 1. staff; 2. prickle (of a 
hedge-hog), [cf. gara.] 

galya, m. n. point of spear or arrow; 
thorn ; prickle. [cf . gala, gara : cf. 
K?]\OV, ' missile.'] 

galyaka, m. hedge-hog, [cf. galya.] 

gavas, n. superior might; heroic power; 
also pi. [Vgu, 1151. la.] 

gavistha, a. most mighty. [Vgii, 468.] 

gaga, m. hare; the Hindu sees, not "a 
man in the moon," but rather, a hare 
or a gazelle. [for *gasa (see Vgus and 
gvagura) : cf. Ger. Hase, Eng. hare.~\ 

gagaka, m. hare, rabbit, [gaga, 1222b.] 

gaganka, m. the moon. [prop., adj., 
'having a rabbit as its mark/ gaga (q.v-) 
+ anka, 1302a.] 

gagin, m. the moon, [prop., adj., 'having 
the (picture of a) rabbit,' gaga, 1230.] 

gagvant, a. ever repeating or renewing 

V gas (gasati; gagasa; gasisyati; gasta; 
-gasya). cut to pieces; slaughter, [see 

gasta, a. praised, esteemed as good or 
lucky; equiv. to happy, cheerful, 52 u . 
[prop. ppl. of Vgans.] 

gastra, n. knife; sword; weapon. ['in- 
strument of cutting,' Vgas, 1185: gas-tra 
is ident. in form and mg w. the Lat. stem 
*cas-tro, which appears in the denom. cas- 
trdre, prop, 'cut,' and so, like Eng. cut, 
' castrate.'] 

gastra-pani, a. having a sword in the 
hand. [1303.] 

gastra-vrtti, a. having weapons as 
one's means of subsistence, living by 
military service. [1302a.] 

gaka, n. an edible herb ; vegetable food. 

gakha,/. branch. 

gatayitr, m. one who cuts in pieces, 
destroyer, 97 19 . [caus. of V gat, 1182c.] 

ganta, a. quiet; still; stopped, [ppl- of 
v'2gam, 'be quiet.'] 

ganti, f. a ceasing, stopping; esp. the 
absence of the evil results of some word 
or thing of evil omen. [V 2 gam, ' be quiet,' 
cf. 955a.] 

ganti-karman, n. a ceremony for avert- 
ing the results of something ominous. 

gapa, m. curse. [Vgap.] 

gapadi, a. having the curse as its first; 
as n. curse and so forth. [1302c 1.] 

gapadi-cestita, n. curse-and-so-forth 
doings, i.e. adventures including the curse 
et cetera. [1280b.] 

gap ant a, m. end of the curse or period 
during which the curse has effect, 

gayin, a. lying, sleeping, [v'gi, 1183 3 .] 

garira, a. corporeal, of the body, [garira, 

gardula, m. tiger; at end of cpds, like 
vyaghra, the best of . 

gala, f. hut ; house ; room ; stable, [see 
under garana: cf. the derivs Ka\id and 
Eng. hall, there given.] 

galin, a. 1. possessing a house; 2. at 
end of cpds, attenuated in mg so as to sig- 
nify merely possessing . [gala.] 

galmall,/. Salmalia malabarica, the silk- 
cotton tree. 

gava, m. the young of an animal, [see 

gavaka, m. the young of an animal, 

gagvata, a. continual ; eternal, [gag- 
vant, 1208a, a 1 .] 

V gas or gis ( Vedic, gasti, gaste [639]; 
Vedic and Epic, gasati ; gagasa ; agisat 
[854 3 ] ; gasisyati, -te ; gasita, gasta, 
gista [954e] ; gasitum, gastum ; gasitva ; 
-gasya, -gisya). 1. chasten, correct; 
2. instruct, teach; direct; 3. (like 
Eny. direct) give order to, rule, govern. 



[perhaps reduplicated form of cans, 675 : 

for the weak form gis, cf. 639.] 

+ a, mid. wish or pray for, cf. agis and 

V gans -^ a ; make supplication, 73 u . 

+ pra, instruct; direct; command, cf. 

simple verb, and praxis. 

5 as an a, n. 1. government, way of rul- 
ing; 2. command. [Vas.] 

gasitr, TO. teacher. [Vgas.] 

gastra, n. 1. instruction; 2. rule; 
theory ; compendium (of an art or 
science) ; a scientific or canonical work ; 
science, 17 18 . [Vgas.] 

V giks, see 1030 and v'gak. 

cikhara, 1. o. peaked; 2. m. n. peak, 
[gikha, 1226.] 

gikha, f. 1. tuft or braid of hair; 
2. (like Eng. crest) top in general, 

githira, a. loose; flaccid; unsteady, 93 2 ; 
opp. of drdha, 'firm, hard.' [perhaps 
fr. Vcrath, 1188e: for loss of r, cf. 

gibi, TO. Qibi, name of a king. 

giras, n. head. [cf. >capo, 'head'; Lat. 
cerebrum, *ceres-ru-m, ' brain ' : w. the col- 
lateral form girsan, q.v., cf. Ger. Him, 
Old High Ger. hirni, *hirsni, 'brain': akin 
is also icpaviov, ' skull.'] 

girisa, m. the tree Acacia Sirissa; as n. 
the blossom. 

giro-mukha, n. head and face. [1253b.] 

gila,y! stone; crag. 

gila-bhava, TO. condition of being stone; 
-am ap, turn into stone. 

gill, f. the beam under a door. 

gili-mukha, TO. Block-snout, name of a 

giloccaya, TO. crag-pile, i.e. craggy hill, 

giva, 1. a. kind, 90 2 ; friendly; gracious; 
agreeable, lovely; opp. o/ghora; 2. m. 
The Friendly One, name euphemistically 
applied to the horrible god Rudra, who 
under this name (Qiva) becomes the third 
person of the Hindu Trinity, [for mg 2, 
cf. Eu/tej/jSej, 'The Gracious Ones, i.e. the 
Furies,' and nandi.] 

gigu, m. young; child, [see Vgu, and 
1147b and b 2 .] 

V Igis (ginasti; gigise; agisat; geksyati, 
-te; gista; gistva; -gisya). leave, leave- 

+ ud, leave remaining. 
+ vi, (leave apart or by itself, i.e.) sepa- 
rate, distinguish ; vigista, (separated, and 
so, like Eng. distinguished) eminent, ex- 

V I 2gis, subsidiary form to Vgas, q.v. 
gisya, grdv. to be taught; as TO. pupil. 

[V gas, weak form gis.] 
V Igi (gete [see 628-9]; gigye; agayista; 

gayisyate, -ti; gesyate, -ti; gayita ; ga- 

yitum; gayitva; -gayya). 1. lie still; 

lie; 2. sleep. [w. ge-te, cf. Kfl-rat, 

' lies ' : cf . also Koi-r-rj, ' bed.'] 

+ adhi, lie in or on; dwell in. 

+ anu, lie down after another. 

+ a, lie in. 

+ u p a , lie by. 

+ sam, be undecided or in doubt, [lit. 

' lie together ': metaphor unclear.] 
V 2gl, simpler form of Vgya, q.v. 
gi, vbl. lying. [Vgi.] 
git a, a. cold; as n. cold, [ppl- of Vgya 

or 2gi.] 
g i t a k a , f. gitika, a. cool. [gita : cf . 


gitala, a. cool, [gita, 1227.] 
gltarta, a. distressed with the cold. 

gitikavant, a. cool. [as if from fern. 

of gitaka: 1233, cf. b.] 
gipala, m. n. Blyxa octandra, a common 

girsan, n. head. [girs-an is to giras 

(q.v.), as irs-ya is to iras-ya, see 

gila, n. 1. natural or acquired way of 

being; character, 23 m ; habit or habits, 

58 u ; in composition [1302] with that to 

which one is inclined or accustomed, 21 4 , 

60 18 ; 2. (character, i.e., as in Eng.) 

good character, 98 7 . 
givan, a. lying. [V Igi, 1169. la.] 
guka, TO. parrot, [prop. ' the bright one,' 

on account of its gaudy colors, V guc : 

cf. 216.1,1 s .] 
guka vat, adv. like a parrot. [guka, 



gukra, a. clear, bright, 76 9 . [v/guc, 
1188a, 216.7.] 

gukla, 1. a. clear; bright; white; with 
paksa, the bright lunar half-month, from 
new to full moon; 2. as m. (sc. paksa), 
the bright lunar fortnight, 65 5 . [see 
1189 and 2 .] 

gukla-paksa, m. fortnight of the wax- 
ing moon. 

guklapaksadi, a. having the bright 
lunar fortnight first, beginning with the 
bright lunar fortnight, [adi, 1302c 1.] 

guklambara, a. having a white garment, 

V guc (g6cati, -te; gug6ca; agocit; gocis- 
yati; g6citum; gocitva). 1. flame, 
light, beam ; glow, burn ; 2. Jig. suffer 
burning pain; grieve; grieve at (loc.), 
66 13 ; intens. flame brightly, [for mg 2, 
cf. Vtap, dagdha and Vdah.] 
+ apa, intens. [1002a], drive away by 
flaming brightly, 72 8 . 
+ a blii, burn, trans. 
+ a , bring hither by flaming, 72 8 . 

giici, a. 1. flaming, beaming ; Jig. beam- 
ing (of a smile) j-light, bright; 2. Jig. 
clear, pure; holy (of a god), 80 5 ; honor- 
able (in business), 25 2 ; pure (in a ritual 
sense), 62 10 . [v/guc, 1155. 2a, 216.2.] 

guci-smita, a. having a beaming smile, 

guddhd, a. pure. [ppl. of \lgudh, 160.] 

guddha-mati, a. pure-minded. 

gudh or gundh (gundhati, -te; gudhyati; 
guddha). 1. gundhati, -te : act. purify; 
mid. become pure ; 2. gudhyati, become 
pure. [orig., perhaps, ' to clear,' and 
akin w. V gcand, q.v.] 
+ v i , vigudhyati, become entirely pure ; 
viguddha, perfectly clear. 

guna, a. grown, prosperous, fortunate; as 
n. [cf. 1176a], growth, prosperity; luck, 
[perhaps fr. Vgu, 1177a.] 

V gundh, see gudh. 

gundhyu, f. -yu [355c], a. pure; un- 
blemished; fair. [\f gundh, 1165b.] 

V Igubh or gumbh (gumbhate). glide 
along lightly; move onward, 73. [per- 
haps akin w. -oD</>os, ' light, nimble.'] 

V 2gubh or gumbh (g6bhate; gumbhate; 

gumbhdti ; gugubhe ; gobhisy&ti). act. 
adorn; mid. adorn one's self, 73 12 ; look 
beautiful, appear to advantage, shine 


1 giibh, f. a gliding onward, esp. through 
the sky ; onward progress ; so, perhaps, 
78 5 ; course, 73 4 ; dat., infinitivally [982], 
so as to glide onward, 79 n . [sflgubh.] 

2 giibh, f. beauty; so, perhaps, 78 5 . 

gubha, a. 1. fair, 9 11 ; beautiful, agree- 
able to the eyes, 15 13 , 45 18 , 62 13 ; -2. 
agreeable (to other senses than the eyes) ; 
gubhan gandhan, perfumes ; 3. agree- 
able in general, 20 13 ; 4. of good quality, 
(54.12. _5_ fortunate, auspicious, 12 13 . 
[V2gubh, 'adorn.'] 

gubhanana, a. fair-faced, [anana.] 

gubhagubha, a. agreeable and disagree- 
able, agreeable or disagreeable ; good and 
bad, good or bad, in ethical sense, 65 19 . 
[agubha, 1257.] 

gubhagubha-phala, a. having agree- 
able or disagreeable fruit, resulting in 
weal or woe. 

gubhrd, a. beautiful; clear (of sounds). 
[V2gubh, ' adorn,' 1188a.] 

V gus (giisyati; -gusya). be dry, dry up. 
[for *sus (see gaga), as shown by Avestan 
V hush, ' dry ' : cf . av<a, ' dry ' ; Syracusan 
(Tav-K6s, 'dry'; AS. sedrian, 'dry up/ 
denom. of sear, Eng. sear.'] 

giiska, a. dry. [Vgus, 1186 2 : see 958.] 

giisma, m. 1. whistling, 73 5 , 78 7 ; 2. 
exhalation, i.e. (fragrant) odor (of the 
Soma), 73 10 ; -3. (exhalation, breath, 
and so, like Eng. spirit) courage, impetu- 
osity, 82*. [Vgvas, 252, 1166.] 

V gu o?- gva or gvi (gvayati ; gugava 
[786*]; gund[957a]; gvayitum). swell; 
be greater or superior or victorious. 

[orig. sense of root, ' swell,' but with 
two diverse ramifications : 

1. negatively, ' be swollen, i.e. hol- 
low, empty ' ; cf . guna, '.vacuum ' ; Kv-ap, 
' hole ' ; Lat. cavus, ' hollow ' ; caelum, 
*cav-i-lu-m, ' heaven's hollow vault ' ; KOI\OS, 
' hollow'; 

2. positively, 'be swollen, i.e. full, 
strong'; with special reference: (a) to 




the womb and its fruit; cf. gi-gu and 

gava, ' young ' ; KVG>, ' be pregnant ' ; Lat. 

in-ciens, 'pregnant'; (b) to strength and 

growth in general; cf. gura, 'man of 

might ' ; gavas, gavistha, guna ; Kvpos, 

' might ' ; K/IO, ' swell, billow.'] 
gudra, m. a man of the fourth caste, a 


guna, n. emptiness. [Vgu, 1177a.] 
gar a, a. mighty, bold ; as m. man of might, 

hero. [Vgu, 1188c: gura is parallel w. 

*icv-po-s, ' mighty,' whence T& Kvp-os, 

'might' (cf. aiffx-pt-s w - T0 aftrx-os)-] 
gurpa, n. a plaited basket for winnowing 

V Igr (grnati; gagre ; agarit; garisyati, 

-te ; girna [957b] ; -girya ; giryate). 

crush; break; tear. [cf. Eng. har-m, 

which answers to a Skt. *gar-ma.] 

+ vi, pass, be broken to pieces; perish, 

60 9 . 

+ s am, break (a bow); like zusammen- 


V 2gr, see era, 'boil.' 
grnga, n. horn. 
g r n g 1 n , a. horned ; as m. horned beast, 
grta, see Vgra. 

geva, a. kind; dear. [cf. giva.] 
gesa, 1. m. n. rest, remainder, 68 17 ; 

gese, like Ger. im Uebrigen, for the rest, 

12 10 ; 2. a. remaining, 55 15 . [Vlgis, 

' leave.'] 
gesas, n. offspring, ['those whom one 

leaves behind him, one's relicts,' V 1 gis, 

' leave.'] 

g6ka, m. pain, grief. [Vguc, 216. 1.] 
goka-ja, . grief-born; gokajam vari, 

grief-born water, i.e. tears, 10 19 . 
gokarta, a. sorrow-stricken, [arta.] 
ocis-kega, a. having flame-locks, with 

locks of flame. [gocis, 187: 1297, cf. 

g6cistha, a. most or bright flaming. 

[Vguc, 468.] 
gocis, n. flame; beam; heat. [Vguc, 

g6na, 1. a. red, deep-red; 2. m. Sone 

or Red River, affluent of the Ganges. 

[prop. ' flame-colored ' . cf . t-icav-aa, 

'burned,' /caC-/io, 'heat.'] 

gonita, n. blood; also pi. [g6na, 1176d.] 
c o b h a n a , a. beautiful. [V 2 gubh, ' adorn,' 


g6bhistha, a. most swiftly moving on- 
ward or most beautiful, 78 5 , according as 

the word is referred to VI gubh or to 

V 2 gubh see these. [468.] 
V gcand (intens. ppl. canigcadat [1002c]). 

shine, glance, [for *skandh : cf . av0-6s, 

' gold-yellow ' ; xa.9a.p6s, Doric KoO-ap6s, 

' clear, clean, pure ' ; KdvS-apos, ' coal ' ; 

Lat. cand-ere, ' glow.'] 
gcandra, . shining. [Vgcand, 1188a: cf. 

vigva-gcandra, and candra.] 
V gcut (gc6tati ; cugc6ta ; acugcutat ; 

gcutita). drip. 

gcut, vbl. dripping. [Vgcut.] 
gmagana, n. the place for burning the 

corpses and for burying the bones, 


gmagru, n. beard. 
V gya or gi (gyayati, -te [761dl]; glta, 

gina, gyana; giyate). freeze; coagulate, 
gyena, m. eagle; falcon; hawk. [cf. 

I-KTIVO-S, ' kite.'] 
V grath (grathnite; gagrathe; agigrathat; 

grthitd). become loose, 
grad, indecl. meaning perhaps orig. heart; 

used w. dha ('grant, give,' see Vldha4) 

and dot. of person, thus, grad asmai 

dhatta, (your) heart to him give ye, i.e. 

trust ye him, have faith in him, RV. ii. 

12.5; ppl. grad-dadhat, trusting, trustful, 

26 2 ; cf. 1079 2 . 

[cf. KctpSi'a, icrip, *(CTjp5, Lat. cor, gen. 

cord-is, Lithuanian szirdis, Ger. Herz, Eng. 

heart: further, w. grad-dha, cf. Lat. 

credgre, *cred-dere, ' trust ' : the regular 

Skt. word for ' heart ' is hfd, and this can 

not be connected w. the above words, 

since they require in the Skt. an initial g, 

*grd or grad.] 
grad dha, f. trust, faith; desire, [see 

grad: 1147.] 
graddhiva, a. credible. [graddbjt, 

V gram (gramyati [763]; gagrama; agra- 

mit ; granta ; -gramya). be weary ; 

take pains ; esp. castigate one's self, 


+ a , in agrama, ' hermitage.' 

-f-pari, weary one's self exceedingly; 

parigranta, tired of, disgusted with. 

gram a, m. weariness. [Vgram.] 

V grambh (grambhate; grabdha; -grabh- 
ya). used only with vi. put confidence 
in ; vigrabdha : confiding, 26 3 ; -am, adv. 
confidently, without distrust or hesitation, 

gravana, 1. m. ear; 2. n. hearing; 
3. n. fame. [V gru, 1150. la : f or mg 3, 
cf. gravas and esp. under V gru.] 

gravas, n. 1. sounds; esp. loud praise, 
91 15 ; -2. glory, 74 6 ; fame, [v/gru, 
'hear,' 1151. la: the precise equiv. of 
K\eos, stem K\fF-es, ' fame ' : for mg, see 
V gru.] 

V gra or gri or gr or gir (grinati, grinite; 
gigriye; grata, grita, grta, girta). cook; 
boil ; grid, cooked, done. 

graddha, n. an oblation to the Manes, 
accompanied by a funeral meal and 
gifts to Brahmans. [graddha, 1208e : 
according to the Scholiast, 'a thing of 
trust,' because the gift for the Manes 
is as a matter of fact entrusted to 

granta, ppl. wearied; as n. [1176a], weari- 
ness. [Vgram, 955a.] 

grantagata, a. wearied and arrived, i.e. 
arriving wearied, [agata : 1257.] 

V gri (grayati, -te; gigraya, gigriye; agi- 
griyat ; grayisyati, -te ; grita ; grayitum ; 
grayitva; -gritya). 1. act. lean, trans. ; 
lay against or on ; rest on, trans. 2. mid. 
lean upon, intrans. ; rest upon, or, simply, 
be lying or situated upon, 70 3 ; 3. mid., 
act. betake one's self to, esp. for help or 
protection, 48 5 . [cf. K\I-VW, 'lean'; 
Kf-K\i-aTat, 'rest on'; Lat. clindre, 'lean'; 
AS. hlinian, Eng. lean; K\I-TVS, 'incline, 
slope, hill'; Lat. cli-vus, 'hill'; AS. hlsew, 
hldw, Eng. -law, -low, 'hill,' in Mood-law, 
Lud-low ; KA?-yua|, 'ladder'; AS. hlse-der, 
Eng. ladder, .] 

+ a , lean upon, intrans. ; seek support 
and protection with or from; agrita: 
depending upon (another) ; as m. a de- 
pendent or subordinate, 30 18 . 
-fupa, mid. lean against; brace one's 

self, 87 6 ; upagrita, (leaned upon, equiv. 
to) laid upon or in, w. loc., 79*. 
+ pari, act. lay about; enclose. 
+ p r a , lean forward. 

gri [351], ./. 1. beautiful appearance; 
beauty, 78 5 , 2 4 , 8 8 ; -2. welfare; -3. 
personified, Qri, goddess of beauty and wel- 
fare, 2 10 ; 4. as honorific prefix to proper 
names, the famous or glorious , 54 1 . [cf . 
greyans, grestha.] 

V gru (grn6ti, grnut6 [243]; gugrava, gu- 
gruv6 ; agrausit ; grosyati, -te ; grut ; 
gr6tum ; grutva ; -griitya ; gruyate ; 
giigrusate; gravayati). 1. act. hear, 
86 5 ; know by hearing; w. gen. of person, 
6 2 ; listen; give heed to, 25 14 ; hear (a 
teacher), i.e. learn, study ; gugruvans, 
having studied, i.e. learned, 94 18 ; 2. 
mid., in Veda, with pass, sense, be heard of 
(as subject of talk), i.e., like Lat. cluere, 
be called, be famed as, 75 w ; 

3. pass.: be heard; gruta: heard; 
heard of, 2 12 ; impers.: gruyatam, let it 
be heard, i.e. hear ye ; evam gruyate, 
thus it is heard, there is this saying, 31 6 ; 
grutam maya, I've heard (your story), 
33 9 ; 4. cans, cause (hearers, ace.) to 
hear (a thing), i.e. proclaim to; recite to, 
54 20 . _ 5. desid. be willing to hear, and 
so (cf. Eng. obedient and Lat. ob-oediens 
with audire), obey, 64 9 . 

[with gru-dhi, 'hear thou,' cf. K\v-6i, 
' hear thou ' ; Lat. clu-ere, ' be called ' ; 
cluens, cliens, 'who hears or obeys, i.e. a 
dependent ' ; with gru-ta, ' heard, heard 
of,' cf. K\v-r6s, 'famed,' Lat. in-clu-tus, 
inclitus, 'famed,' Old High Ger. hlu-do in 
Hludo-wlg, ' Loud-battle,' Ger. lau-t, AS. 
hlu-d, Eng. lou-d ; 

with the subsidiary form grus, as in 
grus-ti, 'a listening to, compliance,' cf. 
AS. hlos-nian, ' listen,' hlys-t, ' the hearing,' 
whence hli/st-an, Eng. listen : for the mg 
' famed ' of gruta, etc., cf. gravana, gra- 
vas, and gloka.] 

+ prati, answer, say yes to; make a 
promise to (gen.), [prop., like Eng. hear, 
' give a hearing in return to what is said,' 
i.e. 'not turn a deaf ear to/ and so 
' answer.'] 



+ vi, pass, be heard of far and wide, be 
famous; vigruta, known as, named, 6 3 . 
+ sam, 1. hear; 2. like Eng. hear, 
accede to the request of, make a promise 
to (loc.). [cf. gru + prati.] 

gruta, ppl. heard; heard of; as n. that 
which is heard from the teacher, that 
which is learned ; learning. [V gru.] 

grutavant, a. possessing learning, 
learn-ed. [gruta.] 

griiti, /. 1. a hearing; 2. ear; 3. 
the thing heard ; sound ; 4. report, 
hearsay ; 5. utterance ; esp. a sacred 
utterance handed down by tradition, a 
religious prescription, a sacred text, the 
Veda, 58 18 N. ; 6. learning ; prob. in- 
correct for gruta. [Vgru, 1157. la.] 

grutimant, a. possessing learning ; prob. 
incorrect for grutavant, q.v. [gruti.] 

griitya, a. worthy to be heard (of a 
hymn), goodly. [Vgru, 1213a.] 

greyasa, for greyas (greyans) in cpds, 

greyans, a. fairer; more beautiful or 
excellent; better; as n. (the better, i.e.) 
welfare, prosperity, 35 1 . [from an un- 
used root gri corresponding to the noun 
gri, 470 4 : cf. Kpeiuv, 'superior, ruler.'] 

gr6stha, a. fairest; most excellent; 
best: w. gen., I 10 ; w. loc., 68 10 ; at end 
of cpd, 11 9 ; best as distinguished from 
(abl.), equiv. to better than, 68 u . [see 

grafsthya, n. supremacy, precedence, 
[grestha, 1211 2 end.] 

gr6tra, n. ear; hearing, [Vgru, 1185a.] 

gr6triya, a. studied, learned (in sacred 
tradition) us m. & Brahman versed in 
sacred lore, [grotra, 1214c : for mg, cf . 
Vgru, mg 1, and gruta, s.v.] 

glaksna, a. slippery ; smooth. [cf. 

V glagh (glaghate; gaglaghe ; glaghita). 

1. have confidence in; 2. talk con- 
fidently ; brag, praise one's self ; 3. 

glaghya, grdv. to be praised, praise- 
worthy; honorable. [V glagh.] 
g!6ka, m. 1. (thing heard, i.e.) sound; 

2. fame, for mg, cf. V gru ; 3. strophe ; 

later, esp. the anustubh-strophe, the epic 

gloka, in which, for example, the story 

of Nala is composed. [Vgru, 1186 2 .] 
V gvanc (gvancate). open itself; receive 

in open arms (as a maid her lover). 

+ ud, open itself out, open, 87 4 . 
gvdn [427], m. dog. [cf. KVOIV, Lat. can-i-s, 

AS. hun-d, Eng. hound, ' dog.'] 
gvagura, m. father-in-law. [for *sv&- 

gura : cf. tKvpos, Lat. socer, socerus, Church 

Slavonic swekrii, AS. sweor, *sweohor, Ger. 

Schwdher, ' father-in-law ' : for g in place 

of s, cf. gaga and Vgus.] 
gvagru [355c], f. mother-in-law, [gva- 
gura, 355c : cf . ficvpd, Lat. fern, socrus, 

AS. sweger, Ger. Schwieger, 'mother-in 

V gvas (gvdsiti [631]; gvasati; gagvasa ; 

gvasisyati ; gvasita, gvasta ; gvasitum ; 

-gvasya ; gvasayati). 1. blow, blus- 
ter, whistle, snort ; 2. breathe ; 3. 

sigh. [cf. AS. hweos, preterit to thwiesan, 

Eng. wheeze."] 

4 a, get one's breath, become quiet; 

caus. quiet, comfort. 

+ n i s , breathe out, sigh. 

+ pra, blow forth. 

+ abhi-pra, blow forth upon, ace., 

94 \ 

+ vi, have confidence, be unsuspecting; 

caus. inspire confidence. 
gvAs, adv. to-morrow, on the next day; 

gvah gvas [1260 2 ], from day to day. 
gvasatha, m. a snorting. [Vgvas, 

gv&stana, a. of the morrow; as n. the 

morrow, 92 n . [gvds, 1245e.] 
gvapada, m. a beast of prey, 84 u . [to 

be pronounced gvapada (cf. pavaka, 

1181a) : prop., perhaps, ' having the feet 

of a dog,' gvan + pada.] 
gvavidh [nom. -vit], m. porcupine, [gvan 

+ vidh, ' dog-wounding.'] 

satka, 1. a. consisting of six; 2. as n. 

a whole consisting of six, a hexade. [sas, 

1222a, 226b.] 
sat-tringat [485], /. six and thirty. 




sat-pada, / -I, a. having (taken) six 

steps, [sas: 1300a.] 
san-masa, n. semester, six months. 

[sas : prop. ' that which has six months,' 

see 1312.] 
sas [483 8], num. six. [see 182b 2 , 146 3 : 

cf. e, Lat. sex, Eng. siar.J 
sastf, /. sixty, [sas, 1157.4.] 
sastha, a. sixth, [sas, 487 5 : cf. (K-TOS, 

Lat. sex-tus, AS. six-ta, Eng. six-th.] 

1 s a , pron. see ta and 495. 

2 sa, inseparable prefix denoting similarity, 
community, or connection numerous ex- 
amples on the pages following ; esp. common 
w. an adj. value in possessive cpds [see 
1304c], having an accompanying , 
with . [1121b : prob. ident. ultimately 
w. 3 sa.] 

3 sa, one, in sa-krt, sa-hasra. [for *sm 
(vocalic m), root *sem: cf. els, *<re / u-s, 
/j.ia, *(Tyu-ja, ' one ' ; f-Kar6v, ' one-hundred ' ; 
a-ir\6os, ' one-fold ' ; Lat. sem-el, ' once ' ; 
sim-plex, ' one-fold ' ; &-\ox<>s, ' having one 
(i.e. one and the same) bed, spouse ' ; 
o-irarpos, 'having one (i.e. one and the 
same) father'; d-SeA^xfe, see under gar- 

samyatendriya, a. having restrained 
senses, self-controlled, I 9 . [samyata 
(\fyam, 1085a) + indriya, 1298.] 

s a my a ma, m. restraint, control, 68 6 . 
[V yam + sam.] 

samvatsara, m. year, [sam + vatsara, 

samgaya, m. 1. doubt; na samgayas, 
(there is) no doubt; 2. danger, 20 16 . 
[V gi + sam.] 

samsad, /". like Lat. consessus, a sitting 
together and those who sit together, i.e. 
assembly. [V sad + sam.] 

samsarga, m. mixture, union; contact. 
[Vsrj + sam, 216.1.] 

samsara, m. the wandering of the soul 
from one existence to another, metem- 
psychosis ; transmigration, 66 18 ; the cycle 
or round of existence, 18 l . [Vsr + sam.] 

samskara, m. 1. a working over, a 
preparing or purification ; esp. a technical 

proceeding with a thing ; an adorning or 
adornment, 17 5 ; 2. a domestic religious 
rite to be performed upon or observed by 
every member of the three upper castes, 
prop, his preparation or purification ; sac- 
rament, consecration, 59 2 N. ; 3. im- 
pression; an impression produced on the 
mind or a disposition formed in the mind 
by something past (e.g. deeds of a former 
existence, a past conversation, etc.), but 
which has ceased to work on the mind, 
40 *. [\f 1 kr, ' do,' + sam, 1087d.] 

samskrta, ppl. 1. prepared; adorned, 
fine, cultivated ; as n. the cultivated lan- 
guage, as opposed to the low vernaculars, 
Sanskrit, 52 6 . [V 1 kr, ' do,' + sam, 1087d. ] 

samhita, ppl. put together; -a, f. a 
putting together; a text whose sounds 
and words are put together according to 
grammatical rules. [V 1 dha + sam, 954c.] 

sa-kacchapa, a. having tortoises along 
with them, i.e. along with tortoises. 

sakala, a. having its parts together, i.e. 
all, entire ; .as n. everything, one's entire 
property, 46*. [sa + kala, 1304c, 334 2 .] 

sakaga, m. presence; tasya sakagam 
gam, go to the presence of him, i.e. go to 
him ; -sakage, at end of cpd, in the pres- 
ence of , before , 3 3 . [sa + kaga : 
orig., perhaps, ' having visibility, present/ 
and then ' presence.'] 

sakft, adv. for one time, a single time, 
once. [3 sa + 2krt.] 

sa-kopa, a. angry; -am, angrily. [2sa, 

s a k t u , m. coarsely ground parched grains, 
grits, esp. barley grits. 

sakha, for sakhi at end of cpds [1302], 
having as attendant, accompanied by 
. [1315b.] 

sakhi [343a], m. attendant, companion, 
82 1 ; comrade ; friend, 23 16 , etc. ; in con- 
nection with a fern., 75 18 - 19 , 100*. [Vsac: 
for mg, cf. lir-T7js and soc-ius, under 
V sac.] 

sakhi [364], f. female companion, friend 
(of a woman), [sakhi: cf. 362b 2 .] 

sakhi-gana, m. (friend-crowd, i.e.) 



sakhi-jana, m. (friend-persons, collec- 
tively, i.e.) friends. 

sakhya, n. friendship, [sakhi, 1212c.] 

sa-gana, a. with (their) troops (of at- 
tendants). [2sa.] 

sagara, m. 1. the atmosphere, Luft- 
meer; 2. Sagara, name of a mythical 

samkata, 1. a. narrow, strait; 2. m. 
Slender, name of a gander, 37 21 ; 3. n. 
narrow passage, a strait; 4. Jig., like 
Eng. strait, a difficulty, 52 14 ; danger, 25 4 . 
[cf. 1245g.] 

samkalpa, m. a decision of the mind; 
the will or wish or purpose proceeding 
from such decision, a definite intention, 
[vlklp + sam, 1148.1, 236.] 

sariiketa, m. agreement; esp. a meeting 
agreed upon with a lover, a rendezvous, 
[prop. ' co-intention,' sam + keta.] 

samkranti,/. an entering, esp. entering 
of the sun upon a new zodiacal sign. 
[Vkram +sam, cf. 1157 l w. 955a.] 

samkhya,^ the tale or number. [Vkhya 
+ sam.] 

sang a, m. 1. a sticking to or hanging 
upon; 2. Jig. an attachment (of the 
mind) to anything, desire for a thing; 
sange, in case of desire, 64 2 ; pi. lusts. 
[\/sanj, 210.1.] 

samgama, m. a coming together, union. 
[Vgam + sam.] 

samgama 11 a, f. -I, a. subst. causing to 
assemble, gatherer, [caus. of Vgam + 

saihgara, m. agreement, promise. [Vlgr 
4- sam, ' chime in with.'] 

sanigha, m. (a combination, i.e.) com- 
pany, crowd. [V han + sam, 333, cf . 
216.9 and 402.] 

V sac (sisakti; sacate ; sagcus, sagcire 
[794d 2 ]). -1. be with, be united with; 
be together, have intercourse together, 
79 14 ; 2. accompany a person (ace.) to 
a thing (dat.), i.e. help him to it, 69 18 ; 
3. be attached to; Jig. follow (a com- 
mandment), 75 2 ; follow up, i.e. attend to, 

[orig. ' accompany,' i.e. 1. ' go at the 
side of, with help or favor,' and 2. ' go 

after, seek, follow': cf. fV-o/ucu, 'accom- 
pany/ e-oTr-cyUTji/, ' followed ' ; Lat. sequ-or, 
' follow ' ; sec-undus, ' following, second ' ; 
also fir-ertjs, ' attendant,' Lat. soc-ius, 
'comrade': further, AS. seon, *seh(w)on, 
Eng. see, Ger. seh-en, ' (seek, look for, 
follow with the eyes, i.e.) see.'] 

saciva, m. attendant, supporter, [v'sac, 
1190, with union-vowel i.] 

sa-j6sas, a. (of like pleasure, i.e.) unani- 
mous, harmonious; kindly disposed, 86 15 . 
[1304c 3 .] 

sajja, a. 1. as used of a bow, having its 
string on, strung, ready for use (the string 
being wound around the bow when this 
is not in use) ; 2. generalized, ready, as 
used of persons and things, [for sajya, 
q.v., with assimilation as in sajyate, 
sajj ate see v' sanj . ] 

sajji-kr (-karoti). 1. make strung, 
string (a bow); 2. make ready, 34 1T . 
[sajja, 1094.] 

sajya, a. having its string on, strung. 
[2sa + 2jya, 'bow-string.'] 

samcaya, m. a piling together, accumu- 
lation, esp. of wealth; supply (of food), 
[v' 1 ci, ' pile up,' + sam. ] 

samcayana, n. the gathering (of the 
bones of the dead), [do.] 

samcayavant, a. possessing an accu- 
mulation (of wealth), rich ; with arthais, 
rich with money, i.e. having capital, 

samcarin, a. wandering. [V car + sam, 
1183 3 .] 

samciti, f. a piling; pile, [,'lci, 'pile 
up,' + sam.] 

v sanj or saj (sajati; sasanja; asankslt; 
sakta; saktum; -sajya; pass, sajyate 
or sajjate). stick to, be attached to; 
sakta, attached (of a glance), immov- 
able, [cf. Lat. seg-nis, 'sticking, i.e. slow, 

4-pra, be attached to; prasakta, ad- 
dicted to. 

sat at a, only in ace. s. neut., -am, as adv. 
continuously, constantly, always. [for 
samtata, see Vtan + sam: for mg, cf. 
Lrt. con-tinens, ' con-tinuous.'] 

sat-kr, scs sant 6. 



satkara, m. good treatment, esp. kind 
reception of a guest, hospitality, [satkr.] 

sattama, a. best, [sant, 471.] 

sattva, 1. n. condition of being, being- 
ness, being, existence, essent-ia; 2. n. 
condition of being good, absolutely good 
being, goodness, the highest of the three 
qualities (see guna), 66 8 N. ; 3. m. n. 
a living being, creature, 28 u , 48 2 . [formed 
from sant (1239), just as the artificial 
Lat. essent-ia, ' being-ness, that on which a 
thing depends for being what it is,' from 
essens, a quasi-ppl. of esse.'] 

satpati, m. strong ruler; master, [sant 
+ pati, 1280, cf. 1267a.] 

satya, 1. a. real; true; existing in 
reality, 45 12 ; truthful, trusty, faithful, 
69 9 ; 2. n. the real; the true; reality; 
truth, 95 end of line; truthfulness, 21 6 , 
95 6 near mid. of line; faithfulness, 69 12 ; 
yatha , tena satyena, as , by this 
truth, as truly as , so truly, 14 l ff . ; 
3. n. vow, promise, oath; satyam bru, 
swear, 10 21 , 15 6 ; satyam cikirsamanas, 
desiring to keep his promise, 8 12 ; 4. 
satyam, adi\ truly, indeed, 49 10 . [sant, 
1212c : radically akin w. ereo-s, ' true/ 
but of different formation, since the 
Cyprian shows that 3re6s stands for 

satya-radhas, a. having real blessings, 
bestowing real blessings. [1298.] 

satya-vadin, a. truth-speaking, truth- 
ful. [1275.] 

satya-vrat, n. vow of truthfulness. 
[1264, acct 1267.] 

satyavrata, a. having, i.e. keeping a 
satyavrata, always truthful, 6 23 . [1296, 
acct 1295.] 

satya-samgara, a. having, i.e. keep- 
ing a true agreement, i.e. true to his 

satyasamdha, a. having, i.e. keeping a 
true agreement, i.e. faithful, [satya + 

satvara, a. with haste; -am, adv. quick- 
ly, immediately. [2sa + tvara.] 

sat-samnidhana, n. a being near to 
the good, intercourse with the good, 

V sad (sidati, -te [748]; sasada, sediis 
[794e]; asadat; satsyati; satta, sanna; 
sattum; -sadya; sadayati, -te). 1. 
sit; seat one's self; 2. settle down, 
sink beneath a burden ; be overcome ; 
get into trouble; be in a desperate pre- 
dicament, 18 7 ; despair; not know what 
to do, be unable to help one's self ; 

cans. set. [w. sidami, *si-zd-ami, 
si-s ft d-ami, cf. ?o>, *a-j-c5-ai, *<n-cr S-a>, 
' sit,' Lat. sld-ere, ' settle down ' ; cf . also 
sed-ere, 'sit'; Eng. sit, caus. set; sad-as, 
e'S-oj, e5-pa, Lat. sella, *sed-la, AS. set-l, 
Eng. settle, ' a seat.'] 

+ ava, sink down, get into trouble, be 
in distress. 

+ a, 1. sit upon; 2. lie in wait for, 
89 :3 ; 3. get to, reach (a place); asan- 
na : approached ; near, neighboring, 33 10 ; 

caus. 1. set upon; 2. get to, arrive 
at, reach ; find, obtain, gain, 23 n , 46 2 ; 

3. asadya, often so attenuated in mg as 
to be equiv. to a mere preposition : nimittam 
kimcid asadya, (having obtained some 
cause or other, i.e.) by or in consequence 
of some cause or other, cf. V dig + ud. 

+ ni, 1. sit down; take one's seat, esp. 
of the hotr at the sacrifice, 88 6 - 8 ; -2. 
act. and mid. set, install as, trans.!, 
82 12 ; caus. act. and mid. set, install as, 

+ pra, be favorable or gracious; pra- 
sanna, kindly disposed, 1 n ; caws, make 
kindly disposed, propitiate, 36 6 . [behind 
the mg ' be gracious ' lies doubtless the 
physical mg ' settle forward, incline to- 
wards, e.g. a suppliant.'] 
+ vi, sink, used (like the Eng. be de- 
pressed) of the spirits, be dejected ; de- 
spond, 35 n ; come to grief, 31 1 ; visanna, 

+ sam, sit together. 
sadadi, adv. always, 93 3 . [cf. sada.] 
s a dan a, n. seat; generalized, like Eng. 
seat and Lat. sedes, place (75 7 ), dwelling. 

sadas, n. seat. [Vsad: cf. e5os, 'seat.'] 
sadasat, n. existence and non-existence. 
[sat + asat, the subst. used neuter stems 
of sant and asant, 1252.] 



sadasad-atmaka, a. having existence 
and non-existence as its nature, whose 
nature it is to exist and also not to exist 
at the same time, [sadasat.] 

sad a, adv. always, [cf. 1103a 2 .] 

sad-acara, m. the conduct or practices 
of the good, [sant.] 

sa-dfga, a. of like appearance; equal, 
used (296b) M;. gen. [518.] 

s a d y a s , adv. on the same day ; imme- 
diately, [see 1122f.] 

sadha, adv. equiv. of 1 saha, see 1104 8 . 

sadha-mada, m. co-revelry, <rv/j.ir6(Tiov, 
common feast; sadhamadam mad, revel 
in bliss with, w. instr. [1290.] 

sadha-stha, n. (orig., perhaps, co-place, 
i.e. place of union, but generalized to the 
simple mg of) place. 

sana, a. old. [orig. 'of long standing, 
long continued': cf. eVo-s, 'old'; Lat. 
sen-ex, 'old man'; Goth, sin-ista, 'oldest'; 
AS. sin-ceald, ' perpetually or extremely 
cold'; AS. and Old Eng. sin-grene, 'ever- 
green,' Eng. sen-green, ' (extremely green, 
i.e.) house-leek': from a not quotable 
Goth. *sina-skalks, Medieval Lat. sini- 
scalcus, 'oldest house-servant,' through 
intermediate Romance forms, comes Eng. 
seneschal; Ger. Siind-flut, 'sin-flood,' is a 
popular interpretation of Old High Ger. 
sin-vluot, ' the long-continued flood, the 
Noachian deluge.'] 

s d, n a , adv. of old, always, [instr. of sana, 
1112c, not a.] 

sanat, adv. from of old, always, forever, 
[sana, acct 1114d.] 

sanatana, a. everlasting, eternal, [sana, 

sa-nila, a. having a common nest or 
origin, affiliated, united. [1304c.] 

sane mi, adv. always. [perhaps from 

sant, 1. ppl. being; otiose, 24 16 , see 
\1 1 as ; existing ; 2. a. real, genuine ; 
true, good; 3. of people, good, noble, 
excellent, 19 8 ' 20 , 28"; -4. sati, /. a 
true, good, virtuous wife (hence Anglo- 
Indian Suttee); 5. n. the existent; 
existence ; 6. sat-kr, make good, treat 
well, receive kindly. 

[present ppl. of V 1 as, ' be,' q.v. : cf . 
fiav, stem tovT, 'being'; Lat. absens, stem 
ab-sent, 'being off'; sons, stem sont, 'the 
real doer,' ' the guilty one ' ; Danish sane?, 
AS. soft, ' true,' Eng. sooth, ' true, truth ' : 
for mg 2, cf. the mg of satya, of rbv 
iovra \6yov, 'the true story/ and of 
Eng. sooth.~\ 

samtati, f. 1. continuation; 2. esp. 
continuation of one's race or family, i.e. 

samta'pa, m. 1. heat; 2. pain, sor- 
row, [vftap + sam.] 

samtapavant, a. sorrowful. [1233.] 

samdrg, / a beholding; sight. [Vdrg + 

samdeha, m. 1. doubt; -at, from (by 
reason of) uncertainty [291 2 ] ; 2. dan- 
ger, 20 15 . [V dih + sam : for mg 2, cf . 

samdha, f. 1. covenant, agreement; 
2. promise. [V 1 dha, ' put,' + sam : for 
mg 1, cf. ffwO'fiKri, 'covenant,' and vw- 
riOiifu, the counterpart of samdadhami.] 

samdha n a, n. a putting together, avv- 
Offfis, mixing. [V 1 dha, ' put,' + sam : 
paroxytone, 1150. lc.] 

samdhi, m. 1. a putting together, ativ- 
Offfis; 2. like samdha, compact, alliance, 
41 13 ; peace, 17 7 ; 3. the putting together 
of sounds in word and sentence (see 
Whitney 109b 2 ), euphonic combination, 
50 9 ; 4. junction (of day and night), i.e. 
morning or evening twilight. [V 1 dha, 
' put,' + sam, 1155. 2e.] 

samdhya, a. pertaining to samdhi or 
junction; samdhya,/. 1. time of junc- 
tion (of day and night), morning or even- 
ing twilight ; du. morning and evening 
twilight; 2. morning twilight (of a 
yuga), 58 3 . [samdhi, cf. 1212b.] 

sarndhyanqa, m. (lit. twilight-portion) 
evening twilight of a yuga. [anga.] 

samdhya-samaya, m. twilight-time, 

samnidhana, n. (a putting down to- 
gether, juxta-position, approximation, and 
so) a being near; contiguity; presence; 
neighborhood, 40 9 . [VI dha, 'put,' + 
sam-ni, 1150: cf. samnidhi.] 



samnidhi, ?. presence. [Vldha, 'put,' 
+ sam-ni, 1155. 2e : for mg, cf. samni- 

V sap (sapati, -te ; sepiis). follow after; 
be attached or devoted to. [identified by 
some with V sac.] 

sap, vbl. following after, in cpds. [Vsap.] 

sapatnl, a. f. having a common hus- 
band ; as subst. one of two or more wives 
of the same man, co-wife, fellow-wife, 
concubine. [sa + pati, but in the fern, 
form, since the masc. would not be used : 
1304c: cf. supatni.] 

V saparya (saparyati). pay devotion to, 
worship. [denom. of a not quotable 
*sapar, ' devotion,' from V sap.] 

sa-pinda, a. subst. having the pinda 
(q.i'. ) in common, said of persons who 
have a common ancestor not more than 
six generations back to whom they offer 
a pinda together, persons related in the 
sixth generation. [1304c.] 

sapta [483*], num. seven, 53 6 , 99 2S ; also, 
as a favorite sacred number, the expression 
of an indefinite plurality, e.g. 71 3 , 72 4 ' 6 . 
[cf. eirrd, Lat. septem, AS. seofon, Eng. 

saptakathamaya, f. -I, a. consisting 
of seven narrations, [sapta-katha : see 

sapta-tantu, a. having seven courses. 

sapta-pada, f. -I, a. 1. being for 
seven, i.e. many or all, steps (see 1294 2 ), 
i.e. being at every step, constant ; 2. 
having (taken) seven steps; see 100 4 N. 
[1300 a.] 

sa-pragraya, a. with respectful de- 
meanor; -am, adv. respectfully. 

sa-phala, a. fruitful, fruit-bearing. 

sa-bandhu, a. having a friend. 

sa-baspa, a. tearful. 

sa-brahmacarin, m. fellow-student. 

sa-bhaya, a. fearful; -am, adv. in 

sabha, f. house or hall for public meet- 
ings, esp. gambling-house ; assembly, 19 3 ; 
society, 19 l . [orig., perhaps, 'family': 
cf . Goth, sibja, ' relationship,' AS. sibb, 
' relationship, related ' ; Old Eng. god-sib, 
'related in God,' i.e. ' a sponsor in baptism/ 

Eng. gossip, ' sponsor, familiar friend, 
tattler ' ; Ger. Sipp, masc., ' relative/ 
Sippe, fern., 'relationship, kindred.'] 

sabharya, a. having his wife with him, 
i.e. with his wife, 1 1T . [2 sa + bharya, 
1304c, 334 2.] 

sam, prep, along, with, together, [cf. 2sa.] 

1 sama [525 4 ], end. pron. any; every, 
76 12 ; cf. samaha. [cf. a^-flei/, 'from 
some place or other';, 'not any'; 
ov8-a/j.ios, 'in not any wise'; AS. sum, 
' some one/ Eng. some.'] 

2 sama, a. -1. even; -2. like, 63 17 ; 
equal, 48 10 ; w. gen. (296b), 3 16 ; -am, adv. 
equally with, along with, with, w. instr., 
29 6 ,26 5 ; -3. like or equal (to the usual), 
i.e. not distinguished, common, mediocre, 
19 10 . [cf. apa, Doric a/xd, 'at the same 
time ' ; o^os, ' one and the same, common ' ; 
6fj.a-\ds, ' even, equal ' ; Lat. simi-lis, 
'like'; AS. same, 'in like manner'; Eng. 

samata, f. equality; mediocrity, 19 10 . 

[2 sama, 1237.] 
samad, f. fight, contest, [sam, 383d 4 : 

cf ., ' confused voices of men, din 

of battle, throng.'] 
sam-adhika, a. having a surplus with 

it ; masatrayam samadhikam, three 

months and more. [1305.] 
sam-anantara, a. with a non-interval, 

immediately adjoining ; -am, adv. im- 
mediately thereupon. [1305.] 
samaya, m. 1. (a coming together, i.e., 

like Eng. con-vention) agreement; 2. 

(like Eng. juncture) a point of time ; and 

so time or season, 49 16 ; occasion; 3. a 

con-currence (of circumstances), i.e. a 

case see iha. [Vi + sam.] 
samayocita, a. suitable to the occasion ; 

-am, adv. as the occasion demands. 

[ucita, Vuc.] 
samara na. n. battle; Treffen. [prop. 'a 

coming together/ Vr + sam, 1150. la : just 

so, Eng. verb meet sometimes means ' come 

together with hostile purpose/ and Eng. 

noun encounter is used mostly of ' a hostile 

sam -art ha, a. (having an agreeing or 

accordant object [1305], i.e.) suiting its 



object, and so suitable; capable; able, 
w. inf. 

sam-alamkrta, a. well adorned, [see 
alam : sam intensive, 1077b end.] 

samavatta-dhana, a. containing 
gathered pieces, [see 1087e.] 

s am ah a, accentless adv. somehow, 80 5 . 
[Isama: cf. HOOa and 1104 3 .] 

samagama, m. 1. a coming together, 
meeting; 2. meeting with, i.e. inter- 
course. [ V gam + sam-a. ] 

samana, f. -i, a. 1. like; one and the 
same, 78 15 ; -am, adv. in the same way, 
103 13 ; 2. common (to different persons 
or countries), 73*, 98 17 ; united, 73 16 . 
[2 sama, 1245d.] 

sam ana -grama, m. the same village. 

samanagramiya, a. belonging to the 
same village, [samana-grama, 1215.] 

samasa, m. 1. a putting together; and 
so (cf. Lat. con-trahere, ' draw together,' 
then 'abridge') 2. a condensation; 
abridgment; -ena and samasatas, suc- 
cinctly. [V 2 as, ' throw,' + sam.] 

samidh, f. (like Eng. kindlings) fuel. 
[\/idh + sam, 'kindle.'] 

samlpa, 1. a. near ; 2. as n. near- 
ness, neighborhood, presence ; used like 
antika, q.v. ; 2a. samipam, w. gen. or in 
cpd, (to the presence of, i.e., simply) to, 
w. verbs of going, 6 W , 27", 33*, 44 u ; 
2b. samlpe, w. gen. or in cpd (in the 
presence or neighborhood of, i.e., simply) : 
before, 2 16 ; near, 25 9 ; hard by, 34 14 ; 
by, 40 3 . [cf. pratipa.] 

samipa-stha, a. in cpd, situated in the 
neighborhood of, near. 

samutsarga, m. an ejecting, discharge. 
[Vsrj + sam-ud, 216.1.] 

samudra, m. a gathering of waters, a sea, 
an ocean, ['a con-fluence/ Vud + sam, 

samunnati, f. arising; elevation, i.e., 
Jig., distinction. [V nam + sam-ud, 1157 
and d.] 

samrti.y. (a coming together, and so) 
col-lision, shock, [Vr + sam, 1157d: cf. 

sampatti, /. success; prosperity; abund- 
ance, 17 14 . [Vpad + sam, 1157d.] 

sampad, f. 1. success; 2. (a falling 
together, co-inciding, and so a fitting of 
the parts to each other, i.e.) correct pro- 
portion, beauty. [V pad + sam.] 

sam put a, m. hemispherical bowl or dish; 
round casket (for jewels) ; sampute likh, 
write a thing (ace.) in the strong-box of a 
person (gen.), i.e. credit it to him. [sam + 
puta, ' a together-fold,' 1289a.] 

samprati, adv. 1. just opposite; and 
so 2. (to the same limit) even, exactly; 
3. (like Eng. even) at the very time; 
and so just now. [sam (intensive, 1077b 
end) + prati, 1314a.] 

sam-priya, a. mutually dear, [priya, 

sambandha, m. con-nection ; and so, as 
in Eng., relationship. [V bandh + sam. ] 

sambhava, m. origin; at end of adj. 
cpds, having as its origin, originating 
in . [VbM + sam.] 

sambhavya, grdv. to be supposed, sup- 
posable. [caus. of V bhu + sam.] 

sambhrama, m. extreme agitation, haste 
arising from excitement. [V bhram + 

sam-mila, a. corn-mixed, mixed with, 
united with. [1289a.] 

sam-rajnl, f. complete, i.e. sovereign 
ruler ; mistress. [for sam, see 1289b 
end, and 1077b end : for m instead of m, 
see 2-13a 2 .] 

sa-yatna, a. (having, i.e. taking pains 
to, i.e.) trying to, w. inf.; engaged in, 
w. inf. 

sara, a. running, moving, going, in cpds. 

sarana, a. running; as n. a running. 
[Vsr, 1150. la.] 

V saranya (saranyati). run, hasten, 
[sarana, 1059d.J 

saranyu, a. hastening, swift ; -yu [355c], 
f. Saranyu, daughter of Twashtar, and 
spouse of Vivaswaut, to whom she bare 
Yama and Yami, 85 15 N. [V saranya, 
1178h: cf. 'Eplvv-s, 'the swift' goddess of 

s a r d m a , f. the bitch of Indra or of the 
gods ; cf. 83 n N. [' the runner ' or ' mes- 
senger,' Vsr, cf. 1166.] 



saras, n. lake, pool. [orig. 'fluid, i.e. 
water,' from Vsr, 'run,' just as fluidus 
from fluere, ' flow, run.'] 

aaras-tira, n. bank of a pool. 

sarasvant, 1. a. rich in waters ; -vati, 
/. : 2. Saraswati, name of a mighty 
stream, probably the Indus ; 3. Saras- 
wati, a small stream in Madhyade9a, to 
which the name and attributes of the 
great stream were transferred ; 4. 
Saraswati, the goddess of voice and 
speech, learning and eloquence, [saras.] 

s a r 1 1 , f. stream. [V sr, ' run, flow,' 383. 3 : 
for mg, cf . Ger. Fluss, ' stream,' w. fliessen, 
' flow,' and Eng. stream under V sru.] 

sarga, m. 1. shot; 2. stream or spurt 
or jet; 3. a letting loose; 4. that 
which is let loose, esp. a herd let loose 
from the stall, 76 4 ; 5. chapter of an 
epic poem, a Jig. use of the word in mg 1 
or 2. [Vsrj, 216.1.] 

sarpa, m. (like serpent from serpere, 
'creep') the creeper, snake, serpent, 84 14 . 
[V srp, q.v.] 

sarpis, n. clarified butter, either warm 
and still fluid or cold and hardened, and 
so not differing from ghrta, ' ghee.' [orig. 
' fluid ' butter, or ' the slippery, fat ' 
stuff, from V srp, ' creep, move gently, 
slip,' 1153: see Vsrp and srpra: akin are 
Hesychian e \ir-os, ' olive oil, fat,' and 
<!\<j>-os, 'butter'; Ger. Salbe, AS. sealf, 
Eng. salve.~\ 

sarva [524], pron. 1. entire or complete, 
50 2 \ 95 18 , 96 2 ; salvus, integer, un- 
harmed ; 2. adj. all, every ; 2a. subst. : 
sing, m., everyone ; sing, n., everything ; 
pi., all ; 2b. common at beg. of cpds 
instead of an adj.: thus sarva-gunair 
yuktas, for sarvair gunair yuktas, I 12 , 
cf. 2 3 ; so cf. 10 15 w. 10 23 , 32 15 w. 32", 
51 22 w. 52 23 ; similarly 6 4 , 17 1 - 9 , 2 1 23 , 
etc. ; 2c. idam sarvam, 63 21 , see idam ; 
so for 66 19 ; 

observe that both mgs, 1 and 2, are 
common to the post-Vedic literature ; that in 
the oldest parts of the Veda, sarva occurs 
only in mg 1, while for mg 2 the proper 
Vedic word is vigva, q.v.; but see 77 11 K. 
[cf. o\os, Epic ov\os, *oA.A.os, *O'AFO-S, 

' whole, entire ' ; Lat. salvus, ' whole, un- 
harmed, well ' ; Oscan sollu-s, ' entire ' ; 
Lat. stem sollu- in cpds, e.g. solli-ferreum, 
'all-iron (weapon),' soll-ennis, 'of every 
year, annual,' used of religious cere- 
monies : no connection w. Eng. (w)hole, 
see also kalya.] 

sarvam -sah a, a. patiently bearing all 
things, [sarvam, 1250a, 1270b.] 

sarva-gata, a. (gone to all, i.e.) uni- 
versally prevalent. 

sarvatas, adv. 1. from all sides; on 
all sides, 93 12 ; in every direction, 3 11 , 
101 12 ; 2. omnino, altogether, 56 16 . 
[sarva, 1098b : acct, cf. 1298c.] 

sarvatra, adv. 1. everywhere or in all 
cases, 21 19 ; 2. at all times; always, un- 
interruptedly, 5 14 . [sarva, 1099: acct, 
cf. 1298c.] 

sarvatha, adv. 1. in every way; 2. 
by all means. [sarva, 1101.] 

sarvada, adv. always; constantly; for 
ever, [sarva, 1103.] 

sarva-deva, m. pi. all the gods. 

sarvadevamaya, a. containing in him- 
self all the gods, i.e. representing or being 
in the name of all the gods, 28 19 . [sarva- 
deva: see maya.] 

sarva-dravya, n. pi. all things. 

sarva-bhava, m. the whole heart. 

sarvabhutamaya, a. containing in 
himself all beings, 56 20 . [sarva-bhuta : 
see maya.] 

sarva-yosit, f. pi. all women. 

sarva -1 oka, m. the entire world. 

sarva-vira, a. with unharmed heroes or 
with all heroes, i.e. having lost none. 

sarvagas, adv. wholly, altogether; all 
together, 6 6 ; together, 65 15 . [sarva, 

sarvanavadya, a. entirely faultless, 
[anavadya, 1279 *.] 

sarvanavadyanga, a. having an en- 
tirely faultless body, [anga, 1298.] 

savana, n. a pressing, esp. of Soma. 
[Vlsu, 'press out.'] 

sa-vayas, a. of like strength or age; 
m. pi. (like fjAt/cej, fi\iKiurai, ' equals in 
age, comrades') comrades. [3vayas.] 



sd-varna, a. 1. having the same ex- 
ternal appearance, exactly similar, 85 H ; 
2. of the same caste, 62 7 . [for rags, 
see varna.] 

sa-vitana, a. having a canopy, with a 

savitf, m. 1. (with the two mgs of 
Eng. quickener) impeller, enlivener ; 2. 
The Enlivener, Savitar, name of a god, 
selection xxxvi. ; 3. the sun, 23 13 . 
[V2su, 'impel.'] 

sa-vinaya,". with politeness ; -am, adv. 

sa-vigesa, a. possessing distinction, dis- 
tinguished; -am, adv. in a distinguished 
way, especially. 

savya, a. left, 101 19 , 102", 103 2 ; as m. 
the left hand or foot, 60 5 . [prob. for 
*syavya (as would appear fr. the Church 
Slavonic form suj, 'sinister'), and so per- 
haps akin with trKaws, *<TKaFio-s, Lat. 
scaevus, 'left.'] 

savyatha, a. with sorrow or trouble, 
[sa + vyatha.] 

savyavrt, a. with a turn to the left, i.e. 
turning to the left, [avrt.] 

sa-gisya, a. with his pupils. 

V sas (sasti). sleep, slumber. 

s a s a , m. or n. herbs ; grass. 

sasamdhya, o. with the morning twi- 
light, [samdhya.] 

sa-samdhyanga, a. with the evening 

sa-sambhrama, a. with excited haste. 

sa-sarpa, a. with a serpent. 

sasya, n. standing crop; produce of the 
field, grain, [cf. sasa.] 

sasya-ksetra, n. field of grain. 

sasya-raksaka, m. keeper or watcher 
of the standing crop. 

V s ah (sahate; sasaha, sasahe ; asahista; 
sahisyate ; sodha [222 3 ] ; sahitum, s6- 
dhum ; -sahya). 1. overpower, 99 8 ; 
be victorious, 78 4 ; 2. hold out against, 
withstand ; and so bear ; endure patiently, 
32 7. 

[orig. 'be powerful, withstand, hold 
back, hold': cf. the collateral Vsagh, 
'take on one's self, bear': cf. tax", *<"- 
<rx-a>, ' hold back ' ; ex, %-<r\-ov, ' hold or 

have, had ' : w. sahas, *sagh-as, cf . the 
Germanic stem seg-oz, as it appears in 
Goth. neut. siyis, AS. sigor, prob. neuter, 
all meaning ' victory ' ; the stem appears 
also in Seges-tes, name of a Cheruscan 
prince (Tacitus, Annals), and in Sigis- 
mund : cf. also AS. sige, Ger. Sieg, 
' victory.'] 

+ ud, 1. hold out, endure; 2. be 
able, w. inf. ; katham svartham utsahe, 
how can I (sc. do, prosecute) my own 

1 saha, 1. adv. together; saha na etad, 
in common ours (is) that, i.e. we'll own 
that together, 97 10 ; 2. prep, with, along 
with, w. instr., I 16 , 89 8 . [cf. 2sa, and 
1104 3 .] 

2 saha, a. 1. powerful ; 2. enduring, 
patiently bearing. [Vsah.] 

saha-carin, 1. a. going together, ac- 
companying; 2. as m. comrade, [for 
2, cf. sahaya.] 

saha-jd, a. born together, con-nate, in- 
born, natural. 

saha-bha sman, a. with the ashes. 

saha-vatsa, a. with the calf. [1304c.] 

saha-vahana, a. having their teams 
along, with their teams. [1304c.] 

sahas, n. superior power; might, 75 u ; 
victory ; sahasa, adv. (with violence, 
i.e.) suddenly, straightway, [see under 

sa-hasta, a. having hands. 

sahasya, a. powerful, [sahas, 1212dl.] 

sahasra, n. a thousand; esp. a thousand 
kine ; a thousand, in the sense of a great 
many, 87 6 ; for constructions, see 486. 
[prop. ' one-thousand,' 3 sa + hasra : witl 
hasra, cf. -xl\o-, *xei\o, *x<r/\.o (in SeKoi- 
Xf\ot), and ^l\ioi, ' thousand.'] 

sahasra-nitha, a. having a thousand 
songs, rich in songs, [nitha, 193, 1300a.] 

sahasradaksina, a. having a thousand 
kine as his gift or as its reward ; as m., sc. 
yajfia, a sacrifice at which such reward is 
given, 87 15 ; of persons who offer such 
gifts, 91 9 . [daksina, ISOOa.J 

sahasra-dvar [388c], a thousand- 

sahasra-^rnga, a. thousand-horned. 



sahasrangu, a. thousand-rayed; as m. 
the sun. [angu.] 

sahasrangu-sama, a. sun-like. 

sahasra-magha, a. having thousand 
gifts. [247.] 

sahasvant, a. mighty, [sahas.] 

s ah ay a, m. companion, attendant. [lit. 
' going together or with/ saha + aya : for 
mg, cf. Lat. comes, stem com-i-t, Vz, lit. 
'going with, i.e. companion,' and also 

sahayatana, a. along with the fire-place. 

sahita, a. united; pi. in company, all to- 
gether. [quasi-ppl. from 1 saha, like Eng. 
downed from dou-n. 

sahela, a. with levity; -am, adv. play- 
fully. [2sa + hela.] 

V sa or si (syati [761d3] ; sinati; sisaya ; 
asat ; sisyati ; sita ; situm ; -saya ; 
sayayati). bind; used almost exclusively 
with ava and vi. [cf. 1/j.ds, stem *ai-n.a.vr, 
' strap, thong '; AS. si-ma, 'bond'; Church 
Slavonic se-tt, Lithuanian se-tas, AS. sd-da, 
Ger. Sai-te, ' string ' ; Church Slavonic 
si-lo, AS. sd-l, Ger. Sei-l, 'rope': see also 
V siv and snayu.] 

+ ava, 1. unbind or unharness (a 
team); and so turn in; go to rest; go 
home, 101 6 ; avasita, having turned in, 
at rest ; 2. come to a stop at, i.e. decide 
upon (e.g. a dwelling-place). 
+ adhy-ava, cans, bring one's self to 
a stop at, i.e. decide upon, undertake, 

+ ud-ava, set out, esp. from the place 

of sacrifice, cf. sa + ava, 1 ; betake one's 

self, w. he., 101 4 . 

+ v y - a v a , decide, determine, cf. sa + 

ava, 2. 

+ pra,.zn prasiti, 'continuation.' 
sakuta, a. having a (definite) intention; 

-am, adv. significantly, impressively. 

saksa, a. having or with the eyes; used 

only in abl. saksat, as adv. 1. with the 

eyes ; 2. plainly, actually, 51 14 ; exactly, 

58 23 ; 3. (in reality, i.e.) in propria 

persona, embodied, in person, I 10 , 6 18 . 

[aksa: 1114c.] 

sagara, m. ocean, [cf. sagara: accord- 
ing to the legend, a basin hollowed out 
by the sons of Sagara, and filled by 
Bhagiratha with the water of the Ganges.] 

sagnika, a. having Agni with them, with 
Agni. [sa + agni, 1304c : for -ka, see 
1222c2 2 and 1307.] 

sangustha, a. with the thumb. [an- 

sata, m. Sata, name of a Yaksha. 

sata-vahana, . having Siita (in the 
form of a lion) as his beast of burden, 
riding on Sata ; as m. Satavahana, name 
of a king, 49 1T . 

sattvika, f. -I, a. 1. (really existent, 
i.e.) real, 22 5 ; 2. standing in relation 
to the quality sattva (q.v.), proceeding 
from sattva, governed by sattva, good, 
[sattva, 1222e2.] 

sadana, n. dwelling. [Vsad: for mg, cf. 

sadara, a. with respect; -am, adv. re- 
spectfully, [adara.] 

V sadh (sadhati, -te; sadhitum; sadha- 
yati). 1. come straight to one's aim, 
attain one's object; 2. bring straight to 
one's object; cans. 1. bring to its 
object or end; accomplish; 2. attain, 
win. [cf. v' 2 sidh, 'succeed.'] 

sadhu,/. sadhvi, a. 1. leading straight 
to the goal; straight (path), 83 17 ; 2. 
good or noble (of people) ; faithful (wife), 
64 10 ; as m. noble man, 21 19 ; as f. excel- 
lent woman, 46 7 ; 3. as adv. right; 
regularly, 86 12 ; well; as excl. bravo! 14 22 , 
48 16 . [Vsadh, 1178a.] 

sadhuya, adv. straight, directly, [sadhii, 
1112e end.] 

sadhya, grdv. to be won; as m. pi. 
Sadhyas, a class of deities. [V sadh.] 

sanu, n. m. top; surface; ridge; back, 
[cf. snu.] 

sanugaya, a. full of repentance, [anu- 

sama-dhvani, m. sound of the saman. 
[1249a 2 .] 

saman, n. song; as technical term, esp. & 
Vedic stanza as arranged for chanting, a 
saman ; the collection of saman's, the 



samarthya, n. ability; -am kr, do one's 

utmost ; strength, 41 4 . [samartha, 

sama-veda, m. the Veda of saman or 

chants, 63 6 . [1249a 2 .] 
samprata, a. of now, present; -am, adv. 

at present, now. [samprati, 1208d.] 
s a my a, n. equality. [2sama, 1211.] 
samyata,y. condition of equality or like- 
ness, [samya.] 
say a, n. 1. a turning in, going to rest; 

2. evening; sayam, adv. at evening, 
sayaka, a. suitable for hurling, missile. 

[V2si, 'hurl,'1181a.] 
saranga, a. dappled; as m. antelope, 
sarameya, m. descendant of the bitch 

Sarama, name of certain dogs, 77 *, 83 17 . 

[sarama, 1216a.] 
sard ha, a. with a half; dve gate sardhe, 

two hundred and fifty; sardham, adv., 

generalized, together ; as prep, along with, 

w. instr. [ardha : the generalization of 

mg is paralleled by that seen in galin.] 
savitra, f. -i, a. belonging to Savitar; 

with or without re, a verse to Savitar, esp. 

Kigveda iii.62. 10 (= 74 14>15 ), regarded as 

the most sacred in the Veda, and called 

also gayatri, 60 13 . [savitf, 1208b.] 
sagru, a, tearful; sagru, adv. [llllc], 

tearfully, with tears in (their) eyes, 54 19 . 

sastangapata, a. having or with an 

astangapata, q.v. ; -am, adv. with pro- 

foundest obeisance, 
sasuya, a. with impatience; -am, adv. 

impatiently, [asuya.] 
sahasra, a. consisting of a thousand, 

milliarius. [sahasra.] 
sahayya, n. office of attendant, and so 

(like Eng. attendance) service, aid. 

[sahaya, 1211.] 
V Isi, bind, see Vsa. 
V 2 si, hurl, in pra-sita, 'darting along,' 

sayaka, ' missile,' and sena, ' weapon.' 
sinha, m. lion; at end of cpds, the best of 

, noble or brave ; cf. vyaghra. [' the 

powerful ' beast, V sah.] 
V sic (sincati, -te [758]; siseca, sisice ; 

asicat, -ata ; seksyati, -te ; sikta ; sek- 

tum ; siktva; -sicya ; sicyate). 1. 

pour out; sprinkle, 49 20 ; 2. esp. semen 
inf undere f eminae ; 3. (like Eng. found) 
cast, e.g. molten metal; phenam vajram 
asincan, they cast the foam into (the 
shape of) a thunderbolt, 97 12 . [cf. 
(ic-/ub, ' moisture ' ; AS. seon, *sih-an, 
' filter, flow,' Ger. seih-en, ' strain ' ; Church 
Slavonic slc-ati, Ger. seich-en, ' mingere ' : 
cf. also Swedish sila, *sih-la, ' strain,' 
whence Eng. sile, 'drain, strain,' whence 
sil-t, ' drainings, sediment.'] 
+ abhi, 1. pour upon, sprinkle; 2. 
sprinkle in token of consecration, and so 
(like Eng. anoint) consecrate. 
+ ava, pour upon. 
+ a, pour into. 

+ ni, pour down or in; semen inf undere 

sic, f. hem of a garment or robe. 

siddha, a. perfected; as m. pi. the Sid- 
dhas, a class of demi-gods, with super- 
natural powers, esp. that of flying through 
the air. [see V 2 sidh, ' succeed.'] 

siddhi,/. 1. success, 36 10 ; accomplish- 
ment (of a wish), 24 21 ; successful per- 
formance, 57 14 ; attainment of an object, 
52 u ; 2. (perfection, i.e.) magic power, 
[prop. ' the reaching an aim,' V 2 sidh, 
'hit the mark,' 1157. la.] 

siddhimant, a. possessing magic power. 

V Isidh (sedhati ; sisedha ; setsyati ; 
siddha; seddhum; -sidhya). drive off; 
scare away. 

V 2 sidh (sidhyati, -te; sisedha; setsyati, 
-te ; siddha). 1. reach an aim, hit the 
mark; 2. succeed, 18 n ; be accom- 
plished, IS 22 ; become realized, 18 19 ; be 
of advantage, boot, avail, 71*; siddha, 
having reached one's (highest) aim, hav- 
ing attained perfection; esp. perfect in 
the sense of having attained supernatural 
or magic powers ; as m. a Siddha, q.v. 
[cf. v'sadh.] 

+ p r a , succeed ; prasiddha, known, cf. 
prasiddhi ; aham prasiddho musaka- 
khyaya, I go by the name of M., 47 21 . 

sindhu, 1. in V., m. stream; 2. in V. 
and later, f. The Stream, i.e. the Indus 
(incolis Sindus appellatus Pliny); 3. 


[1 suta 

the land on the Indus and its inhabitants 
(pi.), [cf. the Old Persian form hindu 
(in an inscription of Darius Hystaspis at 
Persepolis), as name of the land on the 
Indus : hence, w. loss of aspiration, the 
classical form 'Ij/SJ-s ; hence also Persian 
Hind, ' India,' and Hind-u-stan (stem = 
sthana, 'abode, land').] 

sisrksu, a. desirous to create. [fr. 
desid. of V srj, 1038, 1178f : euphony, 
184c 2 .] 

V si v (sivyati ; syiita ; -sivya). sew. 
[prop, slu (765): cf. v' sa, si, 'bind,' su- 
tra, ' thread,' sucf, ' needle ' : cf . Kaff-avu, 
*KaTo-<ruco, 'sew down, stitch together, 
cobble ' ; Lat. su-ere, ' sew,' su-tor, ' shoe- 
maker'; AS. siw-ian, seowian, Eng. sew; 
AS. seam, Eng. seam, Ger. Saum, 'hem, 

V Isu (sun6ti, sunute; susava; savisyati, 
sosyati; suta; -siitya). press out, ex- 
tract, esp. the Soma or extract ; sunvant, 
as m. the Soma-presser ; suta, extracted ; 
as m. the extract, i.e. Soma-juice, 70 5 ; 
draught of Soma, 73 10 . 

V 2su or su (suvati ; susuv6 ; dsavit; 
suta, suta ; -siitya). impel, set in 
motion ; bring about ; occasion ; give 
authorization to; w. loc., perhaps set, at 
KV. X. 125. 7. [cf. <?<*, *o-eF-cia>, ' let .go, 
permit'; aT/ta GV-TO, 'the blood shot or 

+ ud, impel upwards; set a-going, begin, 
in utsava. 
+ p a r a , drive away. 

V 3 s u , generate, bear, see V su. 

sti, 1. adv. [1121d], well; with stha, stand 
well, i.e. firmly, 87 6 ; asseverative or em- 
phatic, and to be rendered variously: we 
pray, 79 4 ; ni su svapa, sleep in peace; 
with u, 'now,' just now, right soon, 80 l , 
74 11 ; -2. inseparable prefix [1304b, 1288b], 
with force of either adv. or adj., well or 
good; sometimes intensive, as, su-dustara, 
' very bad-to-cross.' [no prob. connection 
w. e5, 'well'; see ayii.] 

sukumara, a. very delicate. [cf. ku- 

sukumaranga, f. -I, a. having very 
delicate limbs, [anga.] 

s u - k r t , a. well-doing, righteous ; as m. pi. 
the righteous ones /car' Qoxhv, i.e. the 
departed fathers (85 19 ), who enjoy the 
reward of their works in the world of the 
pious sukftam u loke, 84 n . 

su-krta, n. a good deed, good works, 
63 16 ; sukrtasya loka, world of righteous- 
ness, 89 8 , modernized substitute for the old 
phrase sukftam u loka. [1288 and b: 
acct, 1284a.] 

su-keganta, a. fair-locked. [1304b.] 

su-ksatra, a. having a good or kind 
rule ; as m. kind or gracious ruler, [ksa- 
tra, 1304b.] 

su-ks6tra,n. fair field. [ks6tra, 1288b.] 

V suksetriya (*suksetrlyati). to desire 
fair fields denom., found only in the fol- 
lowing word, [suksetra, 1059c and c 2 .] 

suksetriya, f. desire for fair fields. 
[V suksetriya, 1149 6 .] 

sukha, a. pleasant; comfortable; as n. 
pleasure; comfort; joy; bliss, 58 n , 66 1 ; 
sukham, -ena, adverbially, pleasantly, 
with pleasure, in comfort, happily, well 
or easily, 24 9 , etc. [cf. duhkha.] 

sukha-duhkha, n. weal or woe. 

sukhin, a. having comfort, being in com- 
fort, [sukha.] 

sukhocita, a. accustomed to ease, 
[ucita, Vuc.] 

sukhodya, a. easily pronounceable, 

sukhopavista, a. comfortably seated, 
[upa vista, Vvic,.] 

su-gd, a. having the going or approach 
easy; easy to attain ; as n. good path. 

su-gata, a. well-conditioned, i.e. having 
had a goo.d time. 

su-gatuya,/! desire for welfare, [pre- 
supposes a noun *su-gatu, ' wel-fare ' 
(see gatu), whence the denom. verb-stem 
*sugatuya, 'desire welfare' (1061), whence 
this noun 1149 6 .] 

su-cira, a. very long; -am, adv. very 

su-janiman, a. having good productions 
or creations ; skillfully fashioning. 

1 suta, ppl. extracted; as m. extract; 
sea \l 1 su, ' extract.' 


2 suta] 


2 suta, m. son ; suta, f. daughter, [prop, 
'generated, born,' ppl. of V3su, see Vsu: 
for mg, cf. sunii, and Eng. bairn (under 

su-tfp, a. easily satisfied. [vbl. fr. 
\f 1 trp.] 

su-dargana, a. having a beautiful ap- 
pearance, handsome, eu-<j)wfis; as m. Su- 
darfana, name of a king, 'Ei><f)dvr]s. 

su -daman, a. having good gifts, bestow- 
ing blessings ; as m. cloud, as source of 
rain and therewith connected blessings, 
blessed rain-cloud. 

su-dina, a. very bright or clear; as n. 
(like Lat. serenum) clear weather. 

sudinatva, n. (like Lat. serenitas) clear 
weather; fig. auspicious or blessed time, 
always in the phrase -tve ahnam, in der 
Gliickszeit der Tage, in the happy days. 

su-ditl, f. beautiful flaming or flame. 

su-dustara, a. very hard-to-cross, hard 
to get over; (of a promise) hard to per- 

1 sudha, f. (good place or position, i.e.) 
well-being, [sii + 1 dha.] 

2 sudha, /. (good drink, i.e.) drink of the 
gods, nectar, [sii + 2 dha.] 

su-nasaksibhruva, a. having beauti- 
ful noses-and-eyes-and-brows. [for na- 
saksibhru (1315c), i.e. nasa + aksi + bhru, 

su-nigcaya, a. having a very firm re- 
solve, very resolute. 

sundara,yi -I, a. beautiful. 

s u n v a , a. Soma-pressing. [V 1 su, ' press ' : 
see 1148. 3b and 716.] 

supatni, a. f. having a good husband, 
[su + pati, but in the fern, form, since 
the masc. would not be used : 1304b : cf. 

su-parna, a. with good wings; as m. bird 
of prey ; eagle, vulture ; mythical bird. 
[parna, 1304b.] 

su-putra, a. having good sons, [putra, 

su-pratisthita, a. properly set up. 

su-pravi [355b], a. very zealous. [1288b.] 

sii-prita, a. well pleased. [1288b and 

su-baddha, a. well or fast bound. 
[1288b and 1284a.] 

su-buddhi, a. having good wits; as m. 
Bright-wits, Good-wits, name of a crow. 

su-bhaga, a. having a goodly portion, 
fortunate, happy ; esp. loved (by one's 
husband), 89 10 ; charming; amiable, 61 12 . 
[bhaga, 1304b.] 

siimakha, a. jocund. [perhaps sii + 

su-mangala, /. -gall [355b], a. having 
or bringing good luck, [mangala: acct 
irregular, cf. 1304b 2 end.] 

su-madhyama, a. fair-waisted. 

su-manas, a. 1. good-hearted, well- 
disposed, 90 2 ; kind; 2. (having good, 
i.e. happy feelings, i.e.) cheerful; glad, 
78 13 ; -3. as / pi. (the cheerful ones, 
i.e.) the flowers; in cpd, 19 2/) . [cf. the 
second part of eu-jueHjs, stem fv-/j.fves, 
' well-disposed.'] 

V sumanasya, only in ppl. sumanas- 
yamana, being cheerful ; joyous, [su- 
manas, 1063.] 

sii -mah a nt [450b], a. very great or 
important. [1288b.] 

sumahakaksa, a. having very-great 
(enclosures, i.e.) halls or rooms. [su- 
maha + kaksa, 1298a, 334 2 .] 

su-meka, a. (having a good setting-up, 
i.e.) firmly stablished. 

su-medhas, a. having good insight or 
wisdom, wise. 

sumna, n. favor, grace; welfare, [per- 
haps neuter of an adj. su-mna, 'kindly 
minded ' see mna : but cf . 1224c.] 

sura, m. a god. [a pendant to asura, 
formed by popular etymology from 
asu-ra, as if this were a-sura, ' non-god ' 
see asura.] 

su-raksita, a. well-guarded. 

su-ratna, a. having goodly treasures, 
[ratna, 1304b.] 

surabhi, a. sweet-smelling, fragrant. 

surabhisrag-dhara, a. wearing fra- 
grant garlands, [surabhi-sraj.] 

sura-sattama, the best of the gods. 

siira, f. spirituous, ana" esp. distilled, 
liquor ; brandy ; liquor. [V 1 su, ' express ' : 
cf. Isuta and soma.] 



su-radhas, a. having goodly blessings, 

surottama, a. subst. chief of gods, [ut- 

su-lalita, a. very lovely; (of meat) 


su-locana, a. fair-eyed, 
su-varcas, a. having good varcas, i.e.: 

full of life, 83 1 *; blooming, 90 2 ; fiery, 

2 2 ; glorious, 1 16 . 
su-varna, a. having a beautiful color; 

as n. gold, 
suvarna-kankana, n. gold-bracelet. 

su-vidatra, a. kindly noticing, i.e. 

taking kind notice, kindly. [1288b.] 
suvidatriya, a. kindly. [suvidatra, 

su-vira, a. having good heroes; rich in 

retainers, 87 l ; heroic, 78 4 , 88 14 . [vird: 

acct, 1304b 2 end.] 
suvrkti, f. excellent praise, goodly 

hymn, [su + rkti, with euphonic v.] 
su-eva, a. very kindly. [Qeva, 1288b.] 
su-glaksna, a. very smooth, 
su-samcita, a. well-gathered; -am, 

adv. susamcitam samcitya, having gath- 
ered (in a well-gathered way, i.e.) 

sii-samahita, a. very intent, entirely 

concentrated upon one thing. [V 1 dha, 

'put': acct, 1284 2 .] 
su-stha, a. (well situated, i.e.) safe and 

su-hrd, m. friend, [prop, adj., 'having 

a good heart, kindly disposed.'] 
suhrd-bheda, m. a creating of divisions 

among friends, separation of friends, 
suhrd-vakya, n. (speech, i.e.) words of 

a friend. 
V su or su (sute [628]; susava, susuve; 

asosta ; savisyati, -te ; sosyati, -te ; 

suta, suta; sutva ; -suya). generate; 

bring forth ; bear ; so perhaps at RV. x. 

125. 7. [cf . 2 suta, ' bairn ' ; vt6s, *<n/-jo-s, 

'son'; for pronunciation as trisyllable, 

&-i-6s, cf. Boeotian ovitis : see also under 

su and sunii.] 

+ pra, bring forth; prasuta, born of 


su [351], vbl. bearing, in virasu ; as f. 
mother. [Vsu, q.v. : with su-s, cf. o-C-s, 
v-s, Lat. su-s, AS. su, Eng. sow (qua pecude 
nihil genuit natura f ecundius Cicero, 
cf . verres under V vrs) ; also AS. swin, 
*su-ina, Eng. swine, prop, a diminutive of 

sukara, m. swine, boar, [origin uncer- 

siik am a, a. fine, small; subtile, intangi- 
ble, atomic, 56 19 . 

\/ sue ay a (sucayati). indicate; sucita, 
made recognizable, [suci, mg 3 : 1061 2 .] 

suci and suci, f. 1. needle; 2. general- 
ized, a pointed object; and so 3. (like 
Eng. pointer) indicator; index, [prob. fr. 
Vsiv, sm, q.v.] 

sutra, n. I. thread; cord; 2. brief 
rule or book of such rules (so called, per- 
haps, because each rule was a short 'line' 
or because the collection was a ' string ' of 
rules), cf. Whitney xvii. [Vsiv, q.v.] 

\f sud (sudayati). 1. lead straight on, 
keep a-going; 2. bring about, finish; 
3. finish (in its colloquial sense), put an 
end to, destroy. 
+ ni, destroy, see simple verb. 

sunara, f. -I, a. gladsome, joyous, [cf. 

sunii, m. son; once (a57 6 ), as/, daughter. 
[Vsu: cf. Church Slavonic synu, AS. 
sunn, Eng. son : for mg, cf. 2 suta.] 

sunfta, a. joyous, gladsome, kind ; -a, 
as / jy- [sunara : see 1237 3 .] 

sunrtavan,/. -varl, a. joyous, [sunfta, 
1234 and 3 : for fern., 1169. 2 2 .] 

supa, m. soup, [despite the identity of 
mg, no etymological connection has as 
yet been discovered.] 

supa-kara, m. soup-maker, cook. 

supavancana, a. (having an easy 
faltering-approach, i.e.) to which one 
easily or gladly totters (of the grave), i.e. 
easy of approach or not repulsive, [upa- 
vancana, 1304b 2 .] 

supayana, a. (of easy approach, i.e.) 
easy of access, [upayana, 1304b 2 .] 

sura, m. the sun. [cf. svar, gen. sur-as, 
' sun ' : perhaps a transfer to the a-declen- 
sion, 399.] 




suri, TO. (prop, impeller, inciter, i.e.) he 
who engages priests to perform a sacrifice 
for his own benefit and pays them for it, 
a sacrifice-master ; the same as maghavan 
(g.v.) and the later yajamana. [V2su, 
'impel/ 1191.] 

surya, m. the sun, selection xl. ; the Sun, 
personified, selection xxxiii. ; surya, f. 1. 
the Sun, personified as a female ; 2. the 
hymn of Surya's wedding, RV. x. 85, selec- 
tion Iviii. [fr. svar (sur), 1212a.] 

aurya-vid, a. knowing the Surya-hymn, 
RV. x. 85. 

V sr (sisarti; sasara, sasr6 ; asarat ; sa- 
risyati; srta; sartum; srtva; -sftya ; 
sarayati, -te). run swiftly, glide, flow; 
ecus. act. set in motion, [cf. fy>-/t^, 'rush, 
onset, spring,' whence dpudta, 'rush on'; 
Ox-pa, ' spring ' ; a\Xoft.a.i, ' spring ' ; SA-TO, 
' leaped ' ; Lat. salire, ' spring ' ; cf . saras, 
'pool,' sarit, 'stream,' and, for the root 
with 1, sal-ila, 'flowing' and 'fluid, i.e. 

+ anu, run or go after. 
+ apa, go off ; caws, remove; take out. 
+ ava, go down, in avasara. 
4- a , run unto ; run. 
f u p a , go unto, approach. 
+ nis, go out; cans, drive out or away. 
+ pr a , go forth ; caws, stretch forth or out. 
+ s a m , 1. flow together ; 2. go 
about, wander, sam intensive, 1077b end ; 
esp. wander from one existence to another 
(of the soul). 

s r k a , m. perhaps missile, lance. 

srgala, m. jackal. 

V srj (srjati, -te; sasarja, sasrje; asrak- 
sit ; sraksyati, -te ; srsta ; srastum ; 
srstva; -sfjya; sisrksati). 1. let loose 
(from the hand), dart, hurl; throw; 2. 
let go, pour out (streams, rain), discharge; 
3. let loose (herds); 4. spin or twist 
(cord or garland); 5. (discharge from 
one's self, cf. 57 J , and so) procreate, en- 
gender ; create. 

+ ava, 1. shoot off (arrows) ; throw or 
put in, 57 2 ; 2. let loose (streams); 
loose (from a bond), 78 19 ; deliver over, 
84 12 ; -3. (like Eng. colloq. let slide) let 
pass unnoticed, forgive, 78 18 . 

+ ud, 1. cast ; hurl (a bolt) ; 2. pour 
out, 103 18 ; 3. cast off; lay down (a 
corpse) ; 4. let go, 3 8 . 
- sam-ud, let go, discharge. 
+ upa, (hurl at, and so) plague, dis- 
tress, vex ; aditya upasrstas, sc. rahuna, 
the sun vexed by Rahu, i.e. eclipsed. 
+ vi, 1. throw away, 105 17 ; 2. dis- 
charge; (let go from the hand, i.e.) lay 
down, 103 2 ; mid., w. vacam, let go the 
voice, i.e. break silence by saying , 
100 8 ; 3. create, 57 8 , cf. simple verb. 
+ sam, (let go together) mix, unite. 

sfj, vbl. creating. [Vsrj.] 

v' srp (sarpati, -te ; sasarpa ; asrpat; 
sarpsyati, srapsyati ; srpta ; sarpitum ; 
srptva; -sfpya; sisrpsati). creep, crawl; 
glide ; used of gentle and cautious motion, 
[cf . e/wr&i, ' creep, go ' ;. Lat. serp-ere, 
' creep ' ; repere, *srep-ere, ' creep,' rep-ti-lis, 
' creeping ' ; AS. sealf, Eng. salve, so 
named from its slipperiness, like sarpis 
and srpra, see these ; cf. also tpTr-rrAv and 
Lat. serpens, 'snake': no connection w. 
Eng. slip.~\ 

+ u d , creep out or up ; rise ; desid. wish 
to rise. 

+ upa, go gently unto, approach gently. 
+ vi, 1. move asunder, disperse; 2. 
move about. 

srpra, a. slippery, fatty; smooth, [v'srp, 

1 sena, /. a missile; weapon. [V2si, 

2 sena, f. line of battle; acies; army, 
[akin with sita, ' furrow,' siman, ' parting 
of the hair ' : from these a root *si, ' draw 
a straight line,' may perhaps be inferred.] 

sersya, a. with jealousy; -am, adv. with 
jealousy, [sa + irsya.] 

V sev (sevate; siaeva, siseve; sevisyati; 
sevitd; sevitum; sevitva; -sevya). 1. 
stay by (loc.), the opp. of tyaj ; 2. stay 
by, and so (like Eng. wait upon) serve or 
reverence, 30 17 ; 3. devote one's self 
to; practice, 21 , 66 2 , 68 9 . [no connec- 
tion w. fff&ofjiai, 'reverence,' see Vtyaj.] 
-I- u p a , reverence ; be devoted to. 
+ ni, be devoted to, i.e. cohabit with. 
+ sam, practice. 


[V stigh 

sevana, n. practice. [Vsev.] 

a e v a , f, a serving or reverencing. [V sev, 

sainika, a. belonging to an army; as m. 
soldier; champion or fighter. [2sena, 

s6daka, a. with water, containing water, 
[udaka, 1304c.] 

s6ma, 7?i. 1. extract, esp. of certain 
species of the Asclepias family, see 70 5 N. ; 
Soma, both literally, and also personified as 
a god ; as pi. Soma-draughts ; 2. the 
moon, see 70 6 N. [Vlsu, 'extract/ 1166.] 

so ma -pa [352], a. Soma-drinking ; asm. 

soma-p6ya, n. a drinking of Soma; dat. 
in order to drink the Soma, see 1213c, 982. 
[acct, 1272a.] 

somya, a. having to do with Soma, i.e., 
as m. : Soma-offerer ; pi. the Manes, 84 18 . 
[s6ma, 1212c.] 

saudamani, f. lightning; prop., f. of an 
adj. *saudamana, 'of the rain-cloud, 
cloud-born/ and to be taken in its adj. 
sense, as epithet of vidynt, at 2 9 . [see 
suclaman and 1208a.] 

saiibhaga, n. happiness. [subhaga, 

saubhagatva, n. condition of happi- 
ness; weal and blessing, [saiibhaga, 

saiibhagya, n. happiness, esp. conjugal 
felicity, 89 16 ; charmingness, 2 6 . [su- 
bhaga (1211, 1204c) see its rags.] 

saumya, a. 1. of or relating to Soma; 
Soma-, 96 6 ; 2. (moon-like, i.e.) having 
a mild and kindly influence on senses and 
feelings, and so mild, gentle ; 3. voc. 
sing, saumya, O gentle sir, 61 8 . [s6ma, 

saury a, a. pertaining to the sun; neut. 
pi, sc. suktani, hymns to Surya. [surya, 

sauvarna, a. golden, [suvarna, 1208f.] 

V s k a n d ( skandati ; caskanda ; askantsit ; 
skantsyati; skanna; -skandya, -skd- 
dya). intrans. dart, spring, spurt; drop, 
be spilled; fall. [cf. <riiv5-a\ov, 'trap- 
stick' (cf. Ger. Falle, 'trap, pit-fall/ w. 
fallen, 'fall'), and 'stumbling-block'; Lat. 

scand-ere, 'climb,' de-scend-ere, 'climb 
down ' ; scdla, *scad-la, ' ladder.'] 

skandha, m. shoulder. 

skandha-dega, m. region of the 
shoulder, i.e. shoulder. 

skandhas, n. ramification; branches of 
a tree, tree-top. 

stana, m. the breast of a woman. 

stabdha, a. immovable, rigid, stiff. 
[Vstabh, 954, 160.] 

stabdha-locana, a. having immovable, 
i.e. unwinking eyes. 

stabdhl-kr, make rigid or stiff (as if 
dead), [stabdha, 1094.] 

V stabh or stambh (stabhnati; tastam- 
bha, tastambhe; astambhlt; stabdha; 
stabdhum; stabdhva ; -stabhya). 1. 
make firm or steady, prop or uphold 
(heaven or earth); 2. mid. become 
firm or immovable or rigid; stabdha, 
immovable, rigid, [cf . ffTepfy-vKov, ' olives 
pressed hard, oil-cake ' ; ffTf/j.ft-fiv, ' mal- 
treat,' collateral form of ff-rt'tfl-eij>, ' stamp 
on, tread ' ; Eng. stamp : for connection 
of mgs, cf . tyfiSw, ' make steady or firm, 
fix firm, plant.'] 
+ u d , prop up. 

+ vi, 1. prop asunder, 78 10 ; 2. 
(make immovable, i.e.) bring to a stand- 
still, stop, 6 21 . 

stambha, m. prop, post, column. 
[V stambh.] 

V sta (stayant). be stealthy, [see stena, 

stayii, m. thief. [Vsta, 1165: cf. tayri.] 

V stigh (stinn6ti). proceed, stride; esp. 
proceed against, attack. [cf. o-reixw, 
'proceed, march, go in line,' rarely 
'mount up'; Church Slavonic stignati, 
' hasten ' : the root is wide-spread in Ger- 
manic, but often shows a specialization of 
mg, ' proceed upward, ascend, climb ' ; cf . 
AS. stlg-an, which often means simply 
' proceed, go,' but also ' ascendere,' and 
even ' descendere ' ; Ger. steig-en, ' mount 
up ' ; AS. stKg-er, ' a step to climb by/ 
Eng. stair; AS. stigel, 'step or steps for 
climbing over a fence/ Eng. stile; AS. 
stig-rdp, sti-rdp, 'mounting-rope/ Eng. 
stirrup ; Ger. Steg-reif, ' stirrup ' ; AS. 



stigend, ' rising or sty,' Eng. sty, ' swelling 
(on eye-lid)': for change of gh to n in 
present, cf . 161 l and *.] 
+ pra, get ahead in attacking, succeed 
in one's attacks, 93 5 - 10 - ". 

V stu (stauti [626], state 1 ; tustiva, tu- 
stuve ; dstausit, astosta ; Astavit ; 
stavisydti, -te ; stosyati, -te ; stuta ; 
stdtum ; stutva ; -stiitya, -stuya ; stu- 
ydte). praise; extol (a god); stuvant, 
(praising, as subst.) worshipper. 
+ pra, 1. praise; 2. bring forward 
as object of mention or subject of con- 
versation (cf. Lot. laudare, prop. ' praise,' 
but also 'mention'), and so 3. general- 
ized, introduce, begin. 

stuka, /. lock or tuft (of wool or hair), 
[see stokd.] 

V str (strnati, strnit6, in mg 1 in Veda; 
strn6ti, strnutS, in mg 2; tastara, ta- 
stare ; astarit [900] ; starisyate ; strta, 
stirna [957b] ; strtva, stirtva'; -stftya, 
-stirya). 1. strew, esp. the sacrificial 
straw, 88 1T ; spread out; 2. (like Lat. 
sternere) overthrow (an enemy). 

[cf . ffr6p-vv-fjn, Lat. ster-n-ere, ' strew, 
spread out'; a-rpw-fj.a, (like Eng. spread) 
'bedding,' <rrp<a-[j.v4), 'bed,' Lat. strd-men, 
' straw,' storea, ' straw mat,' torus, *stor-u-s, 
' bed ' ; AS. strea-w, streo-w-ian, Eng. straw, 
strew ; ffTpca-r6s, Lat. strd-tus, ' bespread ' ; 
(via) strata, ' (way) bespread' with stones, 
i.e. 'paved,' whence borrowed AS. street, 
Eng. street; Old Lat. stld-tus, Lat. Idtus, 
'spread out, spreading, and so broad, 
wide ' ; see also under noun str.] 
+ ana, cover over. 
+ a , spread out. 

+ upa, spread upon, spread as a cover; 
as technical term of the ritual, with or with- 
out ajya, pour the sacrificial butter over 
(e.g. the hand) so as to make a coating, 
+ pra, spread out. 

stf [371 12 , taras, stfbhis], m., plural only. 
the stars, [if fr. Vstr, we may interpret 
the name as meaning either (a) 'the 
light-strewers,' or (b) 'the scattered' ones, 
those that are ' spread out ' over the vault 
of heaven ; but the connection w. V str is 

very uncertain: cf. arr^/>, stem a-a-rtp, 
Avestan star, Lat. stella, *ster-la, Ger. 
Stern, AS. steorra, Eng. star: see also 

stena, m. thief. [Vsta.] 

stokd, 1. m. drop; 2. as adj. small, 
insignificant, [akin with stuka, ' tuft ' : 
from these, a root *stu, 'drop, dribble, 
run together, be compacted into a round 
mass,' may perhaps be inferred: for mg 
2, cf. Eng. dribble w. driblet.'] 

stotf, m. praiser (of a god), worshipper, 
singer, [v'stu, 1182a.] 

st6ma, m. praise, song of praise, [sfstu, 

stoma- vArdhana, a. delighting in 
praise, [acct, 1271.] 

stri [366], f. woman, female individual, 
wife, opp. of pumans, e.g. 104 9 . [prob. 
for *sutri, ' generatrix,' V su, 1182 2 .] 

stri-kama, a. having desire for female 
(children). [1296.] 

sth, 1. vbl in cpds. standing; and so, 
generalized (like Eng. stand, 'be situated'), 
situated, staying, being; 2. sometimes, 
perhaps, substantively, place (like Eng. noun 
stand, 'place'), in go-stha, sadha-stha. 
[Vstha, 333: sometimes -stha, 186.] 

sthala, n. dry land (as opp. to water), 
terra firma, Test-land ; sthali, f. place, 
[prob. akin w. V stha, ' that which stands 

sthdvira, a. 1. firm, thick, massy, 
sturdy; 2. full-grown, old; as m. old 
man. [from sthii, collateral form of 
Vstha, 1188e: for mg 1, cf. Eng. steady, 
cognate w. stand, and cf . sthira ; for 2, 
cf. Eng. of long standing.] 

V stha (tisthati, -te [671, 749a]; tasthaii, 
tasthe; asthat, asthita [884]; sthasyati, 
-te ; sthita ; sthatum ; sthitva ; -sthaya ; 
sthlyate; sthapayati, -te [1042d]). 

-1. stand, 13 18 , 25 16 , 47 6 , 80 7 , 87 , 
98 18 ; stand still, 70 19 - 21 ; remain stand- 
ing ; 2. stand by (a friend) ; hold out 
faithfully, 25 5 , 63 13 - 14 ; -3. remain, 64 W; 
wait, 54 6 ; abide, 39 10 , 46 6 ; pass., impers.: 
sarvaih sthiyatam, let all remain, 24 10 ; 
atra sthiyatam, stay here, 39 21 ; 4. 
remain or be in a condition, continue in 



an action [1075c]; w. adj. or ppl., 28 3 , 
30 3 ; vyapaditas tisthati, lies dead, 44 1G ; 
iv. gerund, 26 1G ; w. instr., 41 6 ; 

5. exist; be present, 10 3 , 45 13 ; 6. 
be situated, be, I 5 , 26 13 , 33 4 ; -7. (remain 
standing, i.e. unmoved or untouched, and 
so, like Ger. dahingestellt bleiben) remain 
unconsidered or unmentioned ; thus, dure 
tisthatu tadvrddhis, (let the interest of 
it stand afar off, i.e.) to say nothing of 
the interest of it, 46 2) ; 8. sthita,see s.v.; 
9. cans, cause to stand, set ; put, 41 19 . 

[for *sta: cf. Doric inf. crra-nev, Epic 
crrri-vai, Church Slavonic sta-ti, Lat. std-re, 
Old High Ger. std-n, Ger. steh-en, ' stand ' : 
this old form of the root appears also in 
Ger. Statt, AS. stede, Eng. stead, 'place': 
the prevailing form of the root in Ger- 
manic is stand; cf. AS. stond-an, Eng. 
stand; Ger. preterit stand, 'stood': with 
a-stha-t, cf. S-O-TTJ, 'stood'; w. ti-stha-mi, 
cf 'l-ffri)-fu, ' set,' Lat. si-sti-t, ' sets ' : for 
mgs of Vstha, cf. in general those of 
Eng. stand.~] 
+ adhi, stand upon. 
+ anu, 1. (stand along by, i.e.) take 
one's place along by, and so support, 
help ; 2. devote one's self to a thing, 
e.g. virtue, 58 16 ; devote one's self to (an 
undertaking), and so carry out (a plan), 
33 14 ; accomplish ; pass, impers. : evam 
anustheyam, it must be done so, 37 8 ; 
so 38 15 ; tatha^anusthite, it having been 
thus accomplished, this being done, 33 14 ; 
see 303b* and cf. 35 1G , 37 13 , 39 15 - 22 . 
+ abhi, set the foot upon, vanquish; 

+ ava, -1. stand off, 105 20 ; -2. 
stand ; 3. remain, abide ; avasthita : 
standing ; posted, 43 12 ; situated ; abiding, 
dwelling; caus. (cause to stand apart, 
i.e.) leave behind, 44 2>9 . 
+ a, take one's place at; resort to, 10 x . 
+ ud, stand up; rise up (from sleep or 
inactivity), 30 20 ; spring up, 26 n ; get out 
of (abl.), 36 13 ; caus. cause or bid to rise, 
102 7 ; pull out (of a mire, a vat), 22 9 , 
36". [a lost, 233a.] 

+ praty-ud, rise up to meet (in token 
of respect). 

+ sam-ud, rise up, spring up. 
+ upa, 1. stand by, 94 9 ; set one's 
self near; stand opposite, 59 23 ; 2. ap- 
proach, esp. with reverence or supplica- 
tion; upasthita : (having) approached 
or appeared ; near at hand, 41 8 . 
+ anu^upa, mid. approach one after 
another; w. ma (the pronoun), come to my 
side, 94 4 . 

+ sam-upa, approach; fall to one's 
lot; samupasthita, on hand. 
+ ni, stand in, rest on. 
+ pari, stand round about, encompass; 

+ pra, mid. arise, and so set out to go; 
go off ; prasthito 'bhavat, prof ectus est ; 
caus. send away, dismiss, 36 9 . 
-fprati, stand; be established; get a 
place or foot-hold, 84 9 ; pratisthita : es- 
tablished, resting upon ; set up ; caus. 

+ vi, mid. (stand asunder, i.e.) spread 

+ anu-vi, spread one's self over, per- 
vade (ace.), RV.x.125.7. 
+ sam, mid. 1. remain with; 2. in the 
ritual, come to a stand-still (sam, inten- 
sive), i.e. get through, finish; samsthite, 
loc. absolute, if he (end, i.e.) die, 101 6 . 

sthatra, n. station, place. [Vstha, 1185: 
for mg, cf. Eng. stead w. root sta under 
V stha.] 

sthana, n. 1. a standing; 2. a re- 
maining, abiding ; 3. standing, i.e., as 
in Eng., rank; 4. an abode (see bha- 
vana) ; place, 35 5 , etc.; 5. pregnantly 
(cf. patra), a proper place ; 6. a proper 
occasion ; concrete, a proper object for 
giving occasion to anything ; tatkavya- 
sya^arpana-sthanam ekah s-, of this 
poem S. is the sole consignment-occa- 
sioner, i.e. the only one worthy of having 
this poem entrusted to him, 54 1 . [Vstha, 
1150. 1.] 

sthana-bhr anga, m. abode-ruin, loss 
of abode. 

sthavara, a. standing; not endowed with 
the power of locomotion, and so, as col- 
lective n. sing., the plants, 63 22 ; as m. pi. 
plants, 67 a . [Vstha, 1171a.] 



sthavarata, f. condition of being a 
plant. [1237.] 

sthita, a. 1. standing (as opp. to going, 
lying), 14 18 ; 2. (of animate and inani- 
mate beings) standing in a place; abid- 
ing; sthitas (supply, as is often necessary, 
some form o/Vas, 'be'), was abiding, i.e. 
abode, 29 18 ; situated; bhutale sthitam, 
being on the earth, i.e., simply, on the 
earth, 6 17 ; impers. : sthitam, it was 
waited by (instr.), i.e. (he) waited, 34 18 ; 
3. existing ; present, 6 18 ; 

4. being or remaining in a situation 
or condition (cf. Vstha 4), which is ex- 
pressed: by an adj. in the same case, 13 10 ; 
by an adv.; tatha, 26 18 ; kah sthito 'tra, 
who (is) being here, i.e. who is here, 49 7 ; 
by a gerund; atmanam acchadya sthitas, 
after concealing himself (was) remaining, 
i.e. kept hidden, 25 10 ; so 86", 38 19 , 41*; 
upavigya sthitas, waited sitting, 43 9 ; 
yair vyapya bhavan sarvan sthito 
mahan, with which the intellect, pervad- 
ing all beings, stands, i.e. with which it 
constantly pervades all beings, 66 9 . 

[ppl. of V stha, 954c : cf . o-Ta-r6-s, Lat. 
sta-tu-s, ' standing, set ' : for mgs above, 
cf. Vstha.] 

sthlti,^ 1. a standing; 2. a remain- 
ing by a thing; and so 3. devotion to 
(loc.), 15 17 ; 4. (like Lat. status) con- 
dition; and so 5. way, method of pro- 
cedure, 26 7 . [Vstha, 1157. la, cf. 954c.] 

sthin, vbl. standing, in cpds. [Vstha, 

sthira, a. steady; steadfast, 81 9 ; firm; 
also of persons, 99 7 ; enduring (of might), 
78. [Vstha, 11881, cf . 9 54 C: for mg> cf . 

V sthu, assumed as collateral form of stha, 
cf. sthavira, and see under V sna. 

s than a, f. post, pillar, [for *stul-na, fr. 
v'*stul or *stal, an extended form of 
V*sta, Skt. stha: cf. Ger. Stolle(n), Old 
High Ger. stollo, *stol-no, 'prop, post'; 
<rrv\-os, ' post, pillar ' ; these words, like 
<rrtj\ij, Doric trrd\a, ' prop, post,' presup- 
pose the root in causal mgs, 'cause to 
stand,' i.e. (a) 'keep from falling, prop 
up/ and (b) 'set up,' as a pillar: the root 

appears also in Ger. Stall, Eng. stall, 
'stand, i.e. standing-place,' and in Ger. 
still, Eng. still, ' standing, not moving.'] 

V sna (snati; sasnau; snasyati, -te; 
snata; snatum; snatva; -snaya). bathe; 
perform a religious ablution, esp. at the 
end of religious studentship (62 6 ) or of a 
vow. [orig. sna or snu (so stha, sthu) : 
cf. V ffvv in Hwfov, *t-ffv*f-ov, 'swam'; Lat. 
nd-re, ' swim ' : see also under naii.] 

snataka, a. who has performed the 
ablution customary at the end of religious 
pupilage, [snata, 1222.] 

s nan a, n. a bathing, religious ablution. 
[Vsna, 1150.] 

snana-glla, a. (having bathing as a 
habit, i.e.) practicing religious ablutions. 

snayin, a. performing religious ablutions. 
[Vsna, 1183 s , 258.] 

snayu, f. n. 1. sinew, 25 7 . [perhaps 
' ligament,' from V sa or si, ' bind, ligare,' 
q.v. : if so, it is formed from the present- 
stem sina (see 1148. 3b and cf. sunva), 
abbreviated to sna, with suffix u (1178b) 
and interposed y (258) : cf. Old High 
Ger. se'nawa, Ger. Sehne, AS. sinu, Eng. 
sinew, which point to a Goth. *sinava: 
that sna-yu and its older equiv. sna- van 
are abbreviated forms (for sina-) would 
appear from the Germanic cognates.] 

snayu-bandha, m. sinew-band, i.e. bow- 

V snih (snihyati ; snigdha). 1. be 
supple, greasy, moist ; and so 2. stick 
to, i.e., as in Eng., be attached to, be 
fond of. 

snu, n. collateral form o/sanu. surface. 

sneha, m. 1. stickiness; 2. viscid and 
smooth stuff; oil; fat; 3. attachment, 
love, friendship, [v'snih: for connection 
of 1 and 3, see snih.] 

V spa 5, older form of V 1 pac,, q.v. 

V sprdh (spardhate ; pasprdhe ; spar- 
dhita; spardhitum). contest the pre- 
cedence among one another ; emulate ; 

spfdh, f. rival ; opponent; foe. 
[V sprdh.] 

V sprg (sprgati, -te; pasparga, paspr6 ; 



aspraksit, asprksat; spraksyati; sprstd; 
sprastum; sprstva; -spfgya). touch. 
+ upa, 1. touch, 103 22; reach to, 
RV. x. 125. 7 ; 2. w. apas, touch water, 
technical term for symbolical purification, 
by dipping the hand in a dish, by rinsing 
the mouth, or by washing, 104 17> 22 ; word 
for water to be understood, 65 6 . 

sprastavya, grdv. to be touched. 
[Vsprg, 241.] 

V sphur or sphr (sphurati, -te; aspharit; 
sphurita). make a quick or jerky 
motion: 1. dart, trans.; with the foot, 
kick; 2. dart, intrans.; twitch (of the 
eye, arm) ; 3. (of the lightning) flash. 

[for *spr, ' quiver, jerk, kick, flutter ' : 
cf. a-cnratp-oi, 'struggle convulsively' (as 
a fish just out of water) ; Lat. spernere, 
' kick away, reject ' ; Eng. spur, ' goad 
with the heel ' ; spurn, ' kick away ' : see 
also under parna.] 
+ p r a , shake, tremble. 

sphya, m. wooden splinter, shaped like a 
knife and as long as the arm, for use at 
the sacrifice. 

sma, enclitic and slightly asseverative par- 
ticle, 79 17 , 6 8 ; accompanying a verb which 
is in the present tense but has the value of a 
past, 2 8 , 8 19 , 12 21 ; explained at 778b 
and}) 2 . 

V ami (smayate ; sismiye' ; asmayista ; 
smita; smitva; -smitya). smile; smile 
bashfully; blush, [cf. <t>i\o-fi/u.etS-fis, 'fond 
of smiles,' stem 0-/m8ej, as in Hesychian 
jueTSos, ' smile ' ; yue8ao>, ' smile ' ; Lat. 
ml-ru-s, ' wonderful,' mlrdri, ' wonder ' (for 
mg, cf. smaya, 'wonder'); Middle High 
Ger. smie-r-en, smie-l-en, ' smile ' ; Eng. 
smile, smirk.'] 
+ v i , be astonished. 

smita, a. smiling; as n. [1176a], a smile, 
[ppl. of \fsmi.] 

smita -purva, a. previously smiling, 
with a smile. [for irreg. order, see 

V smr (smarati; sasmara ; smarisyati; 
smrta ; smartum ; smrtva; -smftya). 
1. remember, both keep in mind and 
call to mind ; 2. call to mind, i.e. hand 
down by memory, hand down by tradi- 

tion, hand down see the important word 

smrta : 1. remembered ; 2. 
handed down by smrti or taught by 
tradition ; and so 3. declared to be , 
61 2 ; passing for ; regarded by tra- 
dition as , 63 6 ; to be variously para- 
phrased ; margo 'yam smrtas, this is, we 
are taught, the path, 21 " ; called, 22 5 , 
57 6 . 

[cf . fj.fp-fj.fp-a fpya, ' memorable works ' ; 
fifpipva, ' anxious thought, care ' ; /j.dp-Tvp, 
' rememberer, witness ' ; (j.f\fiv, ' care for ' ; 
fj.t \\eiv, ' hesitate, delay, be going to 
do ' ; Lat. me-mor, ' mindful ' ; memoria, 
' memory ' ; mor-a, ' hesitation, delay.'] 
+ vi, forget. 

smrti, f. 1. remembrance; 2. tra- 
dition (see Vsmr2); tradition which is 
handed down and accepted as authorita- 
tive (except gruti, q.v.} ; defined, 58 18 , see 
note; a work based on such tradition; a 
law-book. [Vsmr.] 

smrti-gila, dual n. tradition and habits 
(habits in collective sense, i.e. usage). 

s y d [499a], pron. that ; cf. tya. 

V syand or syad (syandate; sasyandS; 
asyan [890 2 ] ; syantsyati ; syanna ; 
syanttum; syattva; -syadya). run (of 
animate beings and of fluids) ; flow. 
+ abhi, flow unto. 
+ p r a , flow forth or away. 

syona, a. soft; mild; tender. 

srakva, m. corner of the mouth; mouth, 

sragvin, a. wearing a wreath, [sraj, 

sraj, f. wreath, garland. [Vsrj, mg 4, 
'twist,' just as AS. wristf, Eng. wreath, fr. 
AS. wrlftan, Eng. writhe, 'twist' (under 

sravanti, f. flowing (water), stream, 
[ppl. of Vsru.] 

V sru (sravati; susrava; asravit; sravis- 
yati; sruta). 1. flow, stream; 2. 
flow or trickle away, waste away, become 
lost, 60 9 . [cf. pew, *o-peF-ta, Lithuanian 
srav-j-u, ' flow,' Irish sruth, ' stream ' ; cf . 
also Church Slavonic stru-ja, 'stream,' 



Ger. Stro-m, Eng. strea-m, with t between 
s and r (see under usra and svasr) : 
further pev-/j.a, 'stream'; Lat. Ru-mo, 
'The River/ old name of the Tiber: w. 
a-srav-a-t, cf. Uppee, *^-<rpeF-e-T.] 

sruc, f. one of the large sacrificial ladles 
(as long as the arm), of which there are 
three, juhii, upabhrt, and dhruva, see 
102 u N. ; used for pouring ghee in the 
fire, [akin w. v'sru.] 

sruva, m. a small sacrificial ladle (a cubit 
long), used for dipping from the pot and 
pouring into the sruc. [akin w. Vsru.] 

sr6tas, n. stream. [Vsru, 1152a.] 

svd [525*], 1. pron.adj. own; my own, 
73 18 } 7812,20. thy own> 69 16 , 86*; his 
own or his, 4 1T , 45 3 , etc. ; her, 8 10 ; their 
own or (each) his own, 14 8 ; indef., one's 
own, 58 w , 66 6 ; very often at the beginning 
of cpds: my, 10 **, 21 10 ; his, 31 9 , etc.; 
their, 27 9 ; our, etc., see following words; 

2. m. kinsman, friend ; 3. (like 
atman) one's self, see 513 2 ; one's natural 
self or condition ; 4. n. (like Goth, sves) 
possessions, property, [cf. EC'S, *<7eFo'-s, 
and 6's, ?}, ov, and ff<p6s, ' own ' ; Old Lat. 
sovo-s, Lat. suu-s, 'own'; Goth, sve-s, AS. 
swies, ' own ' ; also ?, cr<f>f, Lat. se, Goth. 
si-k, Ger. si-ch, ' self.'] 

svaka, a. own; his own, etc. ; equiv. to 
sva. [sva, 1222a.] 

sva-ksatra, a. (having self-rule, i.e.) 

sva-cchanda, m. own will, [chanda, 

svacchanda-vanajata, a. (by its own 
will, i.e.) spontaneously wood-grown, i.e. 
growing wild in the wood. 

V svaj (svajate ; sasvaje ; svajisyate ; 
svakta ; svaktum; svajitva; -svajya). 
+ pari, embrace. 

V svad (svadati, -te ; sasvade; svatta ; 
svadayati, svadayati). 1. act. make 
savory, season ; fig. make agreeable ; 
2. mid. be savory, relish, intrans,; 3. 
mid. relish, trans. ; take pleasure in. [cf . 
ayS-avw, 'please,' aorist evaSe, W-oTaS-e, 
'pleased'; ^8o/w, 'rejoice'; see also 
under svadu.] 

sva-dharma, m. own duty. 

1 svadha, f. 1. wont, habit, custom, 
76 7 ; rule; <l9os; 2. accustomed place, 
home, %6os; 3. (wonted condition, i.e.) 
comfort; joy; bliss, 83 12 ; pleasure, 73 u ; 
svadham anu nas, according to our 
pleasure, i.e. exactly to our wish, 73 13 ; 
svadhaya and svadhabhis : in wonted 
wise; with pleasure, gladly; (gladly, i.e.) 
willingly, freely, 84 n . [cf . e0os, ' custom,' 
^Qos, ' wonted place, haunt,' ef-a>0-a, ' am ac- 
customed ' ; AS. sidu, Ger. Sitte, ' custom.'] 

2 svadha, f. sweet drink; esp. a libation 
of ghee to the Manes. [perhaps for 
2 sudha : for the etymology, cf. sva- 
dha adhayat, ' he drank the sweet 
drinks,' RV.] 

svadhavant, a. 1. (having his wont, 
i.e.) keeping to his custom, faithful, con- 
stant; 2. (having bliss, i.e.) blessed, 
78 17 , 79*- 1 5 . [Isvadha, 1233: see mgs 1 
and 3.] 

svadhiti, m. f. axe. 

V svan (svanati, -te; sasvana; asvanit, 
asvanit ; svanita). sound, resound, roar, 
[cf . Lat. sonus, ' sound ' ; Old Lat. son-it, 
' sounds ' ; AS. swinsian, ' sound ' ; Eng. 
swan, so named from its song; similarly 
in Ger. the cock is called Hahn, a name 
akin w. Lat. can-ere, ' sing ' cf . Hamlet 
i. 1. 160, " the bird of dawning singeth."] 

svana, m. sound; roar (of wind). 

svana s, n. roar, [do.] 

V svap (svapiti [631]; susvapa [785 8 ] ; 
asvapslt ; svapsyati ; supt& [954b] ; 
svaptum; suptva; svapayati). sleep; 
fall asleep; supta, sleeping; cans, put 
to sleep. [cf . Lat. sop-or, ' sleep ' ; w. 
caus., cf . Lat. sopire, ' put to sleep ' ; see 
also under svapna.] 
+ ni, go to sleep; caus. put to sleep. 
+ pra, fall asleep; prasupta, fallen 
asleep, asleep, sunk in sleep. 

svapas, a. having good works, i.e. wonder- 
working, [su + apas, 1304b.] 

svapu [352], f. perhaps besom, [perhaps 
for su-pu, ' cleaning well ' : for va in 
place of u, cf. 2 svadha: for mg, cf. 



svapna, m. 1. sleep; 2. dream. 
[Vsvap, q.v. : cf. vir-vo-s, Lat. som-nu-s, 
' sleep ' ; AS. swef-n, ' sleep, dream ' ; 
Chaucerian swefn, ' dream '; Lat. somnium, 
' dream ' : for connection of 1 and 2, cf . 
61 9 , where either sense fits.] 

svapna-manavaka, m. the Dream- 
manikin, name of a certain magic whose 
performance brings dreams that become 
realized, 51 8 . 

sva-bhava, m own way of being, in- 
herent nature, ingenium, as distinguished 
from acquired qualities, see. guna 2, and 
22 21 ; svabhavat, by nature [291 2 ], 

svabhava-dvesa, m. natural hatred. 

svayam-vara, m. self-choice; esp. free 
choice of a husband, which was allowed 
to girls of the warrior (ksatriya) caste, a 

svayam [513], pron. own self, self; him- 
self, etc. ; referring to subject, 48 3 , etc ; all 
by itself, of its own accord, 93 9 ; referring 
to predicate, 1 10 . [from sva with nom. 
case ending -am (cf. tv-am, a-y-am), and 
interposed y, cf. 258.] 

svayam-bhii [352], a. self -existent ; asm. 
epithet of Brahma. 

svayam-mrta, a. dead of himself . 

sva-yukti,//> own team [acct, 1274: 
for mg, cf . the Dutch and the American 
Eng. span (of horses) w. AS. spannan, 

V svar (svarati ; asvarsit ; asvarit). 
sound, [cf ffvp-iy^, 'pipe, flute'; Lat. 
su-sur-ru-s, ' a humming '; Eng swar-m^\ 

svar [388d], pronounced siiar in the Veda, 
n. 1. the sun, 71 19 ; 2. sunlight, sun- 
shine; light, 79 9 , 3. (the place of the 
light, cf. rajas) heaven, 91 6 , 92 8 ; 4. 
one of the three " utterances," see 

[cf. Sfip-ios, 2efp, ' sun, dog-star' ; 
ffe\-as, 'light'; (Tf\-i\vr\, 'moon'; Lat. 
ser-enus, ' bright ' ; sol, AS. sol, ' sun ' ; 
AS swel-an, Eng. sweal, 'burn, glow, waste 
away by heat ' ; and the kindred swelter, 
' be overcome by heat,' whence sweltry or 
sultry: if the forms with r and / are fr. 

extended forms of a root *su, ' to light,' 
and if svar is a direct deriv. of the same 
V*su (sii-ar), we may compare Ger. Sonne, 
AS. su-nne, Eng. sun, AS. sunnan dxg, 
Eng. Sun-day. ~\ 

sva-riipa, n. own form or shape; true 
nature, 40 19 . 

svarupa-bhava, m. the becoming or 
being the true form (of names), i.e. the 
use of the true form (of a person's name). 
[1280b : svarupa is used predicatively.] 

svar-ga, 1. a. going or leading to the 
light or to heaven ; situate in the heavenly 
light, heavenly ; esp. w. loka, svargo lo- 
kas, the heavenly world, heaven, 103 5> 14> 16 
also as one word, see svargaloka ; 2. 
m. without loka, heaven, 64 9 , GO 1 . 

svarga-gamin, . going to or attaining 

svarga-loka, m. the heavenly world, 
heaven, 103 ". 

svar-bhanu, m. Suarbhanu, name of a 
demon causing the eclipse of the sun, 
cf. the later rahu. [poss. 'having, i.e 
withholding the sun's rays.'] 

s vary a, pronounced svaria, a. sounding; 
of a thunderbolt, whizzing. [V svar, 

svalamkrta, a. well adorned. [su + 
alamkrta: see alam.] 

svava, a. with goodly horses. [sii + 
ava, 1304b.] 

svasr [373], f. sister. [cf. Lat. sdror, 
AS. sweoster, swuster, Eng. sister : cf. 
369 2 and 1182f : for t between s and r, 
cf. Easter, under usra, and stream under 

V sru.] 

svasti, pronounced suasti in Veda, 1. 
f. (like the Eng. well-being, i.e.) welfare; 
blessing; 2. svasti, instr. [336 3 end], 
with luck, happily; hence 3. the inde- 
clinable nom.-acc. neut. svasti, luck, hap- 
piness, 84 l ; svasty astu te, a blessing on 
thee. [sii + an unused asti, ' be-ing,' fr. 

VI as, 'be,' 1157 la. acct, 1288b.] 
svasti-da [352], a. bestowing welfare, 
svastyayana, n. sing, and pi. (luck- 
progress, i.e.) wel-fare, prosperity; bless- 
ing; and so benediction, 101 2 , 106 4 ; 
pi. the blessings, i.e. Vedic hymns con- 



taining the word svasti, 106 8 . [svasti + 
ay ana: acct, 1271: with -ay ana, cf. -fare 
in wel-fare.'] 

sva-stha, a. being in one's natural con- 
dition, self-contained, healthy, well. 

svadas, n. agreeableness, t'n pra-svadas. 
[Vsvad, 1151. Ib: cf. ^5os (sic), Doric 
55oy, 'pleasure.'] 

svadu, a. tasting good, savory; sweet. 
[Vsvad, q.v., 1178a: cf. rjSvs, Doric a8w, 
*<rFd5i>-y, Lat. svdvis, *svadv-i-s, AS. swete, 
Eng.' sweet.'] 

svadhyayd, m. the reading or repeat- 
ing to one's self, study (of the Veda), 

svami-karya, n. master's business. 

svami-kumara, TO. the Lord Kumara, 
name of Skanda, god of war, see kartti- 
keya and kumara. 

svami-guna, m. ruler-virtue. 

svamin, m. owner, proprietor, master, 
lord ; opp. of servant, subject, wife, [sva, 
'own,' 1231.] 

svami-seva, f. the serving one's mas- 

svami-hita, n. master's welfare. 

svartha, m. own affair or cause, [artha.] 

sv ah a, excl. used when making oblations, 
hail, w. dot., 103 s ; at the end of an invoca- 
tion, like Amen, 99 13 . 

V svid (sv6date; svidyati, -te; sisvide; 
svinna). sweat. [svidyami=i8ta, 'sweat'; 
cf. T5os, IS-pws, 'sweat,' ISpow, 'sweat'; 
Lat. sudd-re, 'sweat,' denom. of *sudu-s, 
'sweat'; sud-or, 'sweat'; Lettish swidrs, 
' sweat ' ; AS. noun swat, Eng. sweat : 
observe that though there is a word for 
'sweat' common to most Indo-European 
tongues, there is no such common word 
for ' be chilly.'] 

sveccha,/. own will ; svecchaya, accord- 
ing to one's inclination, at will, [iccha.] 

sv6da, m. sweat. [Vsvid.] 

h a , enclitic and slightly asseverative particle, 
64*; in the Veda, 78 , 79*, 02"; the 
Brdhmanas, 94 8 , and very often (so pages 
95-6), 103 15 (quotation from a Brdhmana) ; 
in the Sutras, to be sure, of course, desig- 

nating that the author agrees with the view 
or method mentioned, 99 19 , 101 s , 103 1 *- 16 ; 

very common at end of half-cloka, 7 15 ; 

esp. after a 3d sing. perf. ( w w ), 9 4 , 10 2 ; 

so iti ha, 12 8 ; combinations: iti 
hovaca, " ," he said, 61 18 ; so hovaca, 
hocus, 95 18 , 96 18 . [this word appears 
also as gha in the Veda : cf . 7, Doric 70, 
enclitic asseveratives.] 

hansa, m. goose, gander; perhaps applied 
also to the swan and like water-fowl, 
[prob. a consonantal stem, transferred 
(399) to the a-declension, and so orig. 
*ghans : cf . x^ v > Lat. ans-er, Lithuanian 
sast-s, Irish ^oss, Ger. Gans, AS. ^ros, 
Eng. ^roose : even the s of *ghans may be 
derivational ; cf . AS. gan-d-ra, *gan-ra, 
Eng. gander; Old High Ger. gan-azzo, 
' gander ' ; AS. gan-et, Eng. gannet, ' sea- 
fowl.'] - 

hatd, see 954d. 

hatya, n. slaying. [Vhan, 1213c and a 
(middle), cf. 954d.] 

V han (Mnti [637] ; jaghana [794d] ; 
hanisyati; hatd [954d]; hantum; hatva; 
-hatya; hanyate ; jighansati [1028f]). 

1. strike ; strike down ; smite or slay, 
70 2 , etc.; kill, 28 6 , 35 14 , etc.; overcome; 

2. destroy, 37 19 ; bring to nought; (of 
darkness) dispel, 18 8 ; desid. wish to 
smite or afflict, 78 16 ; 

hata, 1. smitten, slain, 98 4 ; killed, 
23 21 ; 2. destroyed, ruined; lost, 27 18 , 
42 !; 3. pounded. 

[with han-mi, cf . Odva, *9ft>-jw, ' smite ' ; 
w. ja-ghn-us, cf . %-ire-q>v-ov, ' slew ' ; w. 
hata, *ghata, cf . <par6s, ' slain ' ; w. ghana, 
q.v., ' a slaying,' cf . <f>6vos, ' slaughter ' ; w. 
ha-ti, ' a smiting, slaying,' cf . Old High 
Ger. gun-d, AS. gitfS, ^wn-iS, ' battle ' ; AS. 
guft-fana, Old High Ger. gund-fano, ' battle- 
flag'; fr. the last form (not fr. the AS.), 
through the French, comes Eng. gonfanon, 
gonfalon ; for mg of gift, cf. Ger. schlagen, 
' smite, slay,' with Schlacht, ' battle ' : for 
senses under 1, observe that AS. sledn 
(whence Eng. slay) means 'smite' and 
then also ' slay.'] 

+ ava, strike down ; bring to nought. 
+ a, strike upon; hurl (a bolt) upon (loc. 


[VI ha 

w. adhi) ; mid. strike (one's thigh with 

one's hand). 

+ ud, force up; uddhata [163], raised. 

-fni, strike down; slay. 

+ p a r i , strike around ; encompass. 

+ prati, strike back at (ace.); strike 

against so as to transfix, to broach (on a 

lance, loc.}. 

+ sam, strike together; (of the eyes) 

close ; unite, combine. 

ban [402], vbl. slaying, slayer, in cpds. 

hanta, interjection, come! goto! 

hantavya, grdv. to be slain, occidendus. 
[Vhan, 964.] 

hantf, m. slayer, destroyer. [\/han.] 

V liar (haryati, -te). be gratified, take 
pleasure; take pleasure in (ace.), and so, 
desire, long for. [perhaps a transfer (see 
761a and b) from the yd-class, with 
change of accent, and so properly an 
irregular pass, to V 1 hr, ' take ' (reg. 
hriyate) ; for the mg, cf. Eng. be taken, 
i.e. ' be charmed/ and hara 2 : some take 
Vhar as representing Indo-European *ghel 
(ghicel), and connect it w. 0e'\o>, 'will,' 
Eng. will; cf. also V2vr.] 
+ p r a t i , long for, entice. 

hara, a. 1. taking, receiving; 2. (like 
the Eng. carrying away, taking) charm- 
ing ; 3. carrying off, removing, destroy- 
ing ; as m. Hara, the Destroyer, a name 
of (^iva, 55 21 . [V 1 hr, see its mgs.] 

ha ran a, a. holding. [Vlhr, 'hold.'] 

haras, n. grip; esp. the seizing or devour- 
ing power of fire. [V 1 hr, ' hold.'] 

h.d,ri, a. fallow, pale yellow, yellowish; 
greenish ; as m. du. (cf. Eng. pair of bays, 
i.e. bay horses) the fallow steeds, esp. of 
Indra, his coursers. [V*ghr, *hr, 'be 
yellow,' is inferrible, but not quotable : 
cf . x^ w -P^ s > ' greenish-yellow ' ; X^T], 
'verdure'; Lat. helus or holus or olus, 
' greens, vegetables ' ; helvus, ' grayish- 
yellow'; AS. geolo, Eng. yellow; also 
gol-d (cf. hiranya).] 

harit, a. fallow, yellowish ; asf. fallow 
mare, esp. of the Sun-god. [V*ghr *hr 
under hari: 383d 3.] 

harivant, a. having fallow steeds ; asm. 

lord of the coursers, i.e. Indra, see hari. 
[hari, 1233.] 

harmya, n. a strong building; dwelling. 

harsa, m. joy. [Vhrs.] 

halahala, m. n. a certain deadly poison. 

hava, m. call. [Vhu.] 

havani, f. sacrificial ladle, [prop. fern, 
of a substantival nomen agentis, havana, 
Vhu, 1150d, 'the sacrificing' instrument.] 

havfsmant, a. having an oblation ; asm. 
offerer, [havis, 1235.] 

ha vis, n. oblation, which, as gift for the 
gods, is offered wholly or partly in the 
fire ; generally, grain (parched, boiled, as 
porridge, or as baked cake), milk in 
divers forms, fat, and best of all 
Soma. [Vhu, 1153.] 

havya, n. oblation, [prop, grdv., 'offe- 
rendum,' Vhu, 1213.] 

havya, grdv. invocandus. [Vhu, 1213a.] 

havya-vah [403], a. carrying the offer- 
ing (to the gods) ; as m. oblation-bearer 
(used of Agni), selections Ivi., Ixvi. 

V has (hasati, -te; jahasa, jahase ; hasis- 
yati; hasita; hasitum; hasitva; -hasya). 

+ p r a , laugh out, laugh. 
+ vi, laugh out. 

hasa, m. laughter. [Vhas.] 

hasta, m. hand; (of an elephant) trunk; 
(of a tiger) paw; at end of cpds [1303 2 
end], having in the hand. 

hasta- gfhya, grd. taking by the hand. 

hasta-grabha, a. grasping the hand, 
[acct, 1270.] 

h a s t i n , a. having hands ; w. mrga, the 
beast with the hand, i.e. trunk, Vedic 
designation of the elephant; as m. ele- 
phant ; Hastin, name of an ancient king, 
[hasta, q.v.] 

hastinapura, n. Hastinapura, a town 
on the Ganges, home of the Kurus, said 
to have been founded by king Hastin. 
[cf. pura.] 

h a s t i - r a j a , m. elephant-king, leader of 
a herd of elephants. 

hasti-snana, n. ablution of an elephant. 

V lha (jihite [664]; jahe; ahasta; has- 
yate ; hana; hatum). move, intrans., 
run away, yield. 



V 2 ha (jahati [665]; jahau; ahasit [913] ; 
hasyati ; hind [957a] ; hatum ; hitva ; 
-haya; hiyate, hiyate). 1. leave, i.e.: 
quit ; leave in the lurch, 82 l ; desert, 
86 13 ; leave behhid, 85 15 ; abandon, cast 
off ; lay aside, 83 u ; relinquish ; 2. 
hiyate, be forsaken or left behind; fall 
short or be deficient; become deficient, 
decrease; deteriorate, be lowered, 19 9 ; 

hind: 1. forsaken; 2. (like Eng. 
abandoned) vicious, low, low-lived, 19 9 ; 

3. at end of cpds, abandoned by , 
i.e. destitute of , free from . [cf. 
xn-po-s, '(forsaken) destitute/ x^-P a > 
' widow ' ; Lat. fa-mes, ' lack, hunger.'] 

+ pari, 1. forsake; 2. pass, be 
lacking, decrease ; come to an end, see 
simple verb. 
-f vi, leave; vihaya, passing over. 

ha, excl. of pain or astonishment. [1135a.] 

harya, grdv. to be taken away or stolen. 
[Vlhr, '86126/963%.] 

hasin, a. laughing. [Vhas, 1183 8 .] 

hasya, grdv. to be laughed at; as n. 
laughter; ridicule. [Vhas, 963 8 c.] 

V hi (hin6ti, hinute; jighaya; ahaisit; 
hesyati ; hita). set in motion, drive, 
-fpra, send off or away ; deliver over. 

hi, particle. 1. asseverative : surely, 
verily, indeed, 18, 22 2, 23 21 , 28 15 , 
35 21 , 83 l , etc.; 2. giving a reason: 
because; f or, 3 19 , etc., 53 2 , 70 ; -3. w. 
interrogatives, pray, II 1 , 13 14 ; finite verb 
accented w. hi [595d], 72 18 ; hi never at beg. 
of sentence. 

V hins (hindsti [696]; jihinsa; ahinsit; 
hirisisy ati ; hirisita ; hinsitum ; hinsitva ; 
-hinsya). hurt, harm, slay, [perhaps, 
orig., desid. of v'han, see 696.] 

hinsa, f. a harming, injuring, [vhins, 

hirisra, a. harming; asm. a savage or 
cruel man. [Vhins, 1188a.] 

hita, ppl.,adj. 1. put, set; placed; and 
so 2. pregnantly (like Eng. in place, i.e. 
'in the right place,' and Ger. gelegen, 
'lying aright, i.e. convenient'), fit, con- 
venient, agreeable ; yadi tatra te hitam, 
if it suits thee there ; advantageous, salu- 

tary ; 3. as n. welfare, safety. [V 1 dha, 
' put,' 954c : -dhita in Veda : cf . 6cr6s, 

hita-kama, a. wishing one's welfare, 
well-wishing, [see kama.] 

hiteccha, /. desire for the welfare (of 
another), [iccha.] 

hitopadega, m. salutary instruction ; 
Hitopade9a, name of a collection of 
fables. [upadeQa.] 

him a, m. the cold; winter. [the stem 
*X<AIO, 'winter,' appears in x'M-P-* lit- 
'winter-ling, i.e. a one-winter-old or year- 
ling goat,' named x'Ay o * precisely as is 
the dialectic Ger. Ein-winter, ' a one-winter- 
old goat ' ; cf . xfy""P> ' she-goat, chimera ' ; 
see similar names under vatsa : cf . further 
-XM- i Q Sva-xw-s, ' very wintry ' ; Lat. 
-himu- in blmits, *bi-himu-s, ' of two winters 
or years'; also x'^" 'snow,' x e 'A"' l '> 
' winter ' ; Lat. hiems, ' winter.'] 

hiranya, n. gold, [akin w. hari, q.v.] 

hiranya-garbha, m. fruit or scion or 
child of the gold (i.e. of the golden 
egg, 57 3 ), Hiranyagarbha or Gold-scion, 
name of a cosmogonic power, the personal 
Brahman, 91 16 . 

V hid (Vedic forms [Whitney 54, 240 s ] : 
helant, helamana; jihlla, jihile; hilita; 
Epic, helamana). be angry ; be incon- 
siderate or careless. 

hind, see V2ha. 

V hu (juh6ti, juhute; juhava, juhve; 
ahausit ; hosyati ; hut a; h6tum; hutva). 
pour into the fire, cast into the fire; and 
so offer; make oblation even of things 
not cast into the fire ; huta : offered ; as 
n. oblation. 

[orig. *ghu: cf. x"> *X 6F - CO > 'pour'; 
-s, ' liquid, juice ' ; w. hu-ta, cf . 
-TJ-S, ' poured ' ; w. a-hu-ti, cf . x"~ (Tt ~ s i 
' a pouring,' Lat. fu-ti-s, ' water-pot ' ; 
further, fons, stem font, *fov-ont, 'pour- 
ing,' i.e. ' fountain ' : 

with the extended form *ghud, cf. Lat. 
V/wa 7 in fund-ere, 'pour,' AS. geot-an, Ger. 
giessen, ' pour ' ; provincial Eng. gut, 
'water-course'; and Eng. gut, w. like 
sense, in Gut of Canso.] 
+ &, offer in (loc.) ; ahuta : offered; laid 



in the fire (of a corpse), 84 12 ; as n. obla- 

huta-homa, a. having offered oblation. 

hutaga, m. fire; tlie fire-god, Agni. [prop, 
'having the oblation as his food,' aga: 

hutagana, m. fire; the fire-god, Agni. 
[prop, 'having the oblation as his food,' 
agana: 1302.] 

V hii or hva (havate and huvate, Vedic ; 
classical, hvayati, -te [761d2]; juhava, 
juhuve; ahvasit [912] ; hvayisyati, -te 
[935c] ; huta; hvatum, hvayitum; hutva ; 
-huya). call; call upon; invoke, esp. a 
god [orig. *ghu: w. hu-ta, 'called upon, 
invoked,' some identify the Goth, stem 
gu-\xt, gu-da, ' God,' AS. and Eng. God.'} 
+ a, 1. call to or hither; summon, in- 
vite ; 2. mid. challenge. 
+ upa, mid. 1. call or summon to 
one's self ; 2. call encouragingly unto. 

huti,/. invocation. [Vhu.] 

v' Ihr (harati, -te; jahara, jahre; aharsit, 
ahrsta ; harisyati, -te ; hrta ; hartum ; 
hrtva ; -hftya; hriyate; jfhirsati). 1. 
carry, 102 5 , 104 25 ; hold; -2. carry unto, 
bring ; offer, 105 9 ; 3. carry away ; 
remove, 85 3 ; 4. esp. take away by 
violence or unlawfully, 46 4 , 63 7 ; steal, 
30 2 , 67 23 , 68 4 , 97 6 - 9 ; seize; -5. take 
lawfully, receive (a gift) ; come into 
possession of (as heir), 45 8 - 15 ; 6. get 
hold of, 96 22; become master of; 7. 
(like Eng. take) charm, captivate; 8. 
(carry off, i.e. remove, and so) destroy. 
[cf. x f/l P> dialectic xV s > 'hand'; ev-xtp- 
fis, ' easy to handle ' ; Lat. Air, ' hand ' ; 
heres, 'heir,' see root, mg 5.] 
-f ava, (carry down, i.e.) move down. 
+ vy-ava, move hither and thither, go 
to work, proceed, act. 
+ a, 1. bring hither, 34 3 ; fetch; fetch 
or get back, 97 10 - 11 ; 2. receive, 47 12 ; 
accept; 3. used (like Eng. take) esp. 
of food, take, eat ; desid. be willing to 
get back, 97 10 . 

+ ud-a, bring out, and so utter, say, tell. 
+ praty-a, get back again; at II 6 , in- 
correct reading for pra-vy-a-. 
+ v y- a , bring out, and so utter ; 

with vacam, speak words to a per- 
son (ace.), 3 1 ; similarly, 8 19 . 
+ pra-vy-a, utter ; speak. 
+ u d , take out. 
+ pari, carry around. 
+ pra, 1. (bring forward, i.e. reach 
out, e.g. feet, fists, and so) strike, attack, 
deal blows ; 2. throw, esp. into the fire. 
+ anu-pra, throw into the fire or on a 

+ v i , 1. take apart, divide ; 2. pass 
(part of one's life), 64 22 ; 3. pass one's 
time, esp. pleasantly; wander about for 
pleasure, enjoy one's self, 16 9 - 12 , 49 18 ; 4. 
wander about. 

+ s a m , bring or draw together, contract ; 

+ upa-sam, bring or draw together to 
one's self, mid.; withdraw. 

V 2hr (nrnltd). be angry. 

hrcchaya, a. lying or abiding in the 
heart [1265]; as m. love, 2 19 . [hrd + 
gaya, 159, 203: acct, 1270.] 

hrcchaya-pidita, a. love-pained, love- 

hrcchaya-vardhana, a. increasing or 
arousing love. 

hrcchaya vista, a. entered by or filled 
with love, [avista, V vig, 1085a : acct of 
cpd, 1273.] 

hrcchayavistacetana, a. possessing a 
love-filled mind. [hrcchayavista + c6- 
tana, 1298a, 334 2 .] 

hfd [397], n. heart; esp. as seat of the 
emotions and of mental activity in gen- 
eral; also, properly, region of the heart, 
[see under grad.] 

hfd ay a, n. heart; 1. prop, heart, as an 
organ of the body, 100 21 ; 2. fig. heart, 
as seat of the feelings. [see hrd and 

V hrs (hfsyati, -te [761a]; jaharsa, jahrse; 
hrsita, hrsta ; -hfsya; harsayati, -te). 
be excited, esp. with pleasure or fear; (of 
the hair) bristle or stand on end by rea- 
son of fright or pleasure ; be impatient ; 
hrsta, delighted; hrsita: (of the 
hair) standing on end; (of flowers) not 
drooping, unwithered, fresh ; intens. be 
very impatient, 84 1T ; caus. excite pleas- 

hrsitasragraj ohina] 



antly, gladden, [for ghrs : cf . Lat. korr- 
ere, hors-ere, 'bristle, shudder'; hirsiitus, 
'bristly, rough'; hor-deum, Ger. Gers-te, 
' barley/ so called from its bristly ears.] 
+ pra, give one's self up to joy, exult; 
prahrsta, delighted, glad. 

hr sitasragrajohlna, a. having unwith- 
ered garlands and free from dust, [hrsita- 
sraj + rajo-hina, 1257.] 

hetu, m. 1. prop, an impeller, and so 
occasioner, causer, occasion, cause ; hetos, 
(like Lat. causa) on account of; trasa- 
hetos, from fear ; 2. reason, argument, 
proof i -3. means, 41 16 . [Vhi, 1161a.] 

hetu-gastra, n. reason-book, rational- 
istic work ; dialectics. 

he ma or heman, n. gold. 

hemanta, m. winter, [cf. hima: 1172 4 .] 

he la, f. carelessness; levity, [for hela, 
from v hid, q.v.] 

haima, a. golden, [hema, 1208f.] 

h6tr, m. 1. priest, chief priest, whose 
assistant in oldest times was the adhvar- 
yu; Agni, as the chief est hotr, 69 2 , 88 6 ; 
2. in the highly developed ritual, the first 
of the four chief priests, see rtvij. [prop. 
' offerer/ from V hn, ' offer ' : but the sense 
of 'invoker/ naturally suggested by his 
function in the ritual, was popularly asso- 
ciated with it and the word thus connected 
with VM, 'invoke.'] 

hotr a, n. offering, sacrifice, both the action 
and the thing offered. [Vhu, 1185a.] 

h6ma, m. a pouring into the fire; oblation; 

sacrifice; observe that the older word is 
ahuti. [Vhu, 1166.] 

hrada, m. pool, lake. [cf. Vhlad.] 

s hras (hrasati, -te; hrasita, hrasta ; 
hrasayati). become less; cans, dimin- 
ish, [w. hras-iyans, 'less/ cf. x f ' t P< av > 
*X*P ff j< av > 'worse/ and for the mg, 
cf. Lat. detero, ' lessen/ w. deterior, 
' worse.'] 

V hrad (hradate ; nradita ; hradayati). 
sound (of drums); rattle (of stones or 
dry bones). [for *ghrad : cf. KOX^O^CO, 
*/ca-xA.(8-j'a), ' sound ' (of liquids, breakers, 
rain), Ke-xAd5-<Js, 'resounding' (song of 
victory) ; AS. gr&t-an, obsolete Eng. greet, 
'cry, lament'; xap^S-po, 'noisy mountain 
torrent': see hraduni.] 
+ sam, strike (intrans.) together so as to 
rattle ; caws, cause to rattle. 

hraduni, /. hail-stones, hail, [so called 
from its rattling sound, V hrad : cf . xaA.aa, 
*Xa*.a5-ja, Church Slavonic gradu, Lat. 
grando, stem grand-in, ' hail.'] 

V hlad (hladate; hladayati, -te). cool 
off, intrans., refresh one's self ; cans, cool 
or refresh, trans. 

hladaka, /. -ika, a. cooling, refreshing. 
[Vhlad, 1181 and a 3 .] 

hladikavant, a. rich in cooling, [from 
fern, of hladaka, substantively 1 ?] 

V hvr (hvarati, -te ; ahvarsit; hvrta ; 
hvarayati). go crookedly; bend over, 
+ vi, fall; caus. overturn. 



All numbers below 107 refer to the text of this Reader, which is cited by page and 
line ; thus, 79 2 means page 79, line 2. When still more precise reference is needed, the 
first half of a line is designated by a and the second by b . 

All numbers above 107 refer to the sections of Whitney's Grammar. Observe, 
however, that reference is occasionally made to grammar-sections preceding 107, and 
that the word " Whitney " is then prefixed to the number to show that the Grammar is 
meant. The grammar-sections sometimes have subdivisions unmarked by letters or 
numbers. In referring to these, a small superior number is used, and designates the 
(typographical) paragraph as counted from the last lettered or numbered subsection. 
Thus 330 6 refers to the paragraph beginning " PI. : nom.-voc. masc." ; 371 12 begins with 
" From ait come " ; 1222 3 , with " The accent of derivatives " ; 1222c 2 2 , with " In the 


The root-sign (V) is prefixed to roots and quasi-roots to catch the eye or as an 
abbreviation. It is also set before denominative verb-stems, although these are of 
course in no sense roots. 

The plus-sign ( + ) is set before prepositions with which verbs appear in composition 
and before certain other elements used as prefixes. 

A star (*) signifies that the word or stem or root to which it is prefixed does not 
actually occur in that form. 

A half-parenthesis on its side ( v ) is used to show that two vowels, which, for 
the sake of clearness, are printed with hiatus in violation of the rules of euphonic 
combination, should be combined according to those rules. 

A hyphen is sometimes used to avoid the repetition of an element of a compound ; 
thus in the article loka, p. 235, para- stands for para-loka. 

In Greek words, the old palatal spirant yod is represented by j, pronounced of course 
as English y. A very few Slavic and Lithuanian words occur, in which the actual or 
original nasalization of a vowel is denoted by an inverted comma, thus, e, a. Anglo-Saxon 
SB has the sound of a in man. 


It is hoped that most of these, if not all, will be found self-explaining. To preclude 
any misunderstanding, however, a complete list of the abbreviations is given below, p. 293. 

But certain abbreviations and words are used in an arbitrary way and require 
more explanation than is given in the list. 

When both the letters, m. and n., follow a stem, they mean that it shows both 
masculine and neuter case-forms. 



An "etc." following a reference that stands after a certain definition signifies that 
the word is of common occurrence in that meaning. 

The abbreviation [do.] is used to avoid repetition of identical items in the square 
brackets at the end of articles ; for examples, see the three words following abhivada, 
p. 119. 

The etymological cognates are usually introduced by the conventional "cf."; this 
implies that the words which the reader is bidden to "compare" are akin. The fact 
that two related words are compared implies as a rule only that they are radically akin, 
and not that their formative suffixes are identical. Thus with anta is compared English 
end, although this corresponds strictly only to the Sanskrit secondary derivative antya. 
So asthan, oo-Tfov, and os are radically identical, though not of entirely parallel formation. 

On the other hand, where it is desired to call attention, not to radically kindred 
words, but to words analogous only in metaphor or in transfer of meaning, the brief 
phrase, " for mg, cf .," is used ; and this is to be understood as standing for the phrase, 
"for a parallelism in the development of meaning, compare," or, "for an analogous 
instance of transition of meaning, compare." 

Specially important references to the Grammar are marked by the word "see": 
thus under narayana (p. 181), special attention is called to 1219, which shows that 
this word is a simple patronymic of nara, and is not what the text (at 57 6 ) says it is, a 
compound of nara + ayaiia. 


The order of the articles is strictly and solely alphabetical (see below). Respecting 
words whose alphabetic place changes with their inflection, the following remarks may be 
made for beginners. 

All nouns, whether they be substantives or adjectives, are given under the stem. In 
order to know the stem, a preliminary study of the more important paradigms and rules 
of euphonic combination is necessary. Thus the nom. sing, raja must be looked for 
under raj an, and the ace. sing, nama under naman (Whitney, 424) ; but nalo, as standing 
for nala-s (175a, 330), must be looked for under nala. The stems in r or ar are entered 
in the form r. The stems of the perf. act. ppl. and of the primary comparatives are 
given as ending in vans and yans. The stems in at or ant are given in the fuller form, 
ant, and similarly those in mant and vant ; and the f eminines of these and of the in-stems 
are not given, since they are always made in anti or ati, mail, vati, ini. 

All verb-forms must be sought under the root. Thus asit will be defined only under 
the root 1 as (636), and not in the alphabetic place which the augment gives it, under 
long a. Likewise prepositional compounds of verbs will be found under the roots (see 
1076), and not in the alphabetic place under the preposition. The beginner is advised 
to make himself thoroughly familiar with the list of prepositions (1077) at the outset. 

Of the verbal adjectives and nouns (Whitney, chapter xiii., p. 307 ff.), only the 
gerundives (in ya, tavya, and amya) have been given regularly in alphabetic place. 
The participles in ta and na are usually given under the roots ; but in some cases, where 
they have assumed a distinctly adjectival or substantival coloring or have an incon- 
veniently large variety of meanings and uses, they are treated at length in alphabetic 
place; such, for example, are rta, krta, gata, jata, nivrtta, bhuta, sthita, hita, etc. 
Gerunds with a- or su- (e.g. a-citva) are of course treated in alphabetic place. 

Such adverbs as are merely case-forms of substantive or adjective stems, are 
generally to be sought for under those stems. Those from pronominal stems (e.g. kirn, 
tad, yad) receive separate treatment. 


The pronouns of the first and second person would require a dozen different arti- 
cles apiece if all their forms were given alphabetically. The same is true to a greater 
or less extent of the other pronouns. The student should therefore learn, as early as 
possible, the forms given at 491, 495, 499b, 501 (especially ayam : asau is less important), 
504, and 509. The uses of sa-s, etc., esa-s, etc., and ayam, etc., are given under ta, etad, 
and idain respectively. 

As for compounds, they are given with completeness for the Vedic selections, and 
with great freedom for the remaining texts, especially for the Nala. The meaning of 
such as are lacking can be easily learned by looking out their component parts. 


The order of the letters is given by Whitney at 5 (compare 7); but several 
matters which are frequent occasions of stumbling, may be noticed here. 

The visarga lias the first place after the vowels. Thus antah-pura (for antar 
+ pura) stands next after anta, p. 116, and not after antardhana. But the visarga 
which is regarded as equivalent to a sibilant and exchangeable with it (Whitney, 7 2 ), 
stands in the alphabetic place of the sibilant. Thus the visarga of adhah-gayin, as 
equivalent to g (172), brings this word just before adhas (p. 115, top), and not between 
adha and adhanya. 

The sign n, as representing " the anusvdra of more independent origin" (Whitney, 
73 3 ), has its place before all the mutes etc. (Whitney, 5). Thus in ang-a, the n repre- 
sents a nasalization of the radical vowel, and the word comes immediately after a. So 
hansa comes just after ha, p. 284; dang and danstrin, at the beginning of the letter d. 

The sign m, as representing an assimilated m, is differently placed, according to its 
phonetic value. On the one hand, if m, as product of a m assimilated to a semivowel, 
sibilant, or h (see 213c, d), represent a nasal semivowel or anusvara, then its place is like 
that of n. Thus samyatendriya follows sa, and samhlta comes just before sakacchapa 
(p. 263), and pums before puta (p. 191). 

On the other hand, if, for instance, as product of a m assimilated to a guttural, the 
sign m represent guttural n, then its place is that of n ; and a similar rule applies 
to all the other cases under 213b. Thus samkata and samkalpa follow sagara, and 
saihgama follows sanga, p. 264; so samcaya (whose m = n) follows sajya; and sariitati 
(whose m = n) follows sant, p. 266. 

Vedic 1 is placed after d, and Ih after dh. 


Homonyms, unless differentiated by accent, are distinguished by a prefixed number 
(cf. anga, vayas) ; similarly homonymous roots (cf. kr). 

References to the Grammar in square brackets immediately after a declinable stem 
refer to some peculiarity of declension. Occasionally, typical cases of stems are given. 
Thus under drg are given the nom. and ace. sing, and instr. dual ; from these, the other 
cases (drk-su, drg-a, etc., drg-bhis, etc.) are easily known. 

Each root is followed by a synopsis of its conjugational forms, so far as they actually 
occur in the literature. The finite forms are given in the third person singular of the 
indicative, and in the order in which they are treated in the Grammar, namely, present, 
perfect, aorist, and future ; then follow the past participle, the infinitive, and the two 
gerunds (e.g. apta, aptum; aptva, -apya: observe the alternation of the accents); then 
follow in order the third sing, present indicative of the passive, intensive, desidcrative, 
and causative, so far as they seemed of importance for the users of this Reader. 



Meanings which are synonymous or nearly so, are separated by commas; those 
which differ considerably from each other, are separated by semicolons or by full-faced 
dashes and figures ( 1., etc.). The colon is often used to show that several meanings 
which follow it and are separated by semicolons are co-ordinate with each other. Thus 
on p. 268, under samipa 2b., the meanings " before," " near," " hard by," and " by " are 
co-ordinate, and are equivalent to " in the presence or neighborhood of " ; cf . suvarcas. 

The arrangement for matter in heavy brackets at the end of articles is : in the case 
of primary derivatives, first, the root from which the word comes, with reference, if 
necessary, to the section giving the suffix of derivation; second, cognate words from 
allied languages ; and third, words showing a development of meaning analogous to that 
shown by the Sanskrit word or illustrative of it. If the derivation of a simple word is 
not given, it is because it is unknown or too uncertain to be worth mentioning. In the 
case of secondary derivatives, the primary is given, with a reference to the section showing 
its treatment. The analysis of compounds is often indicated by a hyphen ; but if one 
member ends and the next begins with a vowel or diphthong, the latter member is given 
in square brackets at the end of the article ; cf . nalopakhyana. 

Where words of different languages are given together, separated only by commas, 
the definition given after the last applies to them all ; or, if no definition is given, the 
English word in italics at the end is both a cognate and a definition of all at the same 
time; for examples, see aksa ('axle'), asta, urna. 

The references to the Grammar may seem too numerous; but they are really a 
device for avoiding the frequent repetition of explanations which would otherwise have 
to be given in full. It would take half a dozen lines to explain the etymology of 
manmatha, for instance ; but the references to 1148. 4 and 1002b make this needless ; 
cf . the references under daridra, c,iu, sunva. 

It often happens that the statement in the section referred to does not directly cover 
the point aimed at in citing it ; but a moment's thought will show what is meant. Thus 
under samkranti, the two references to be compared mean that the derivative suffix is 
ti, and that before it the root-vowel suffers the same peculiar change that is seen in the 
past participle. Under samyatendriya reference is made to 1298, which states that 
possessive descriptives " are very much more common than [simple] descriptives of the 
same form." The real point of the reference is plainly, not to bring out this fact, but to 
show the beginner in what category of compounds this word belongs. So 1290 states 
that " other compounds with adverbial prior members are quite irregularly accented " ; 
but the section is cited, e.g., under sadha-mada, to indicate that this is a descriptive 
compound (see the heading of the preceding right-hand page, 441) hi which the first 
member is an adverbial element with the function (cf. 1289) of an adjective. Many roots 
form verb-stems in aya, but without causative signification ; this is briefly indicated by 
the reference 1041 2 . In the case of secondary derivatives in vant, mant, ta, and tva, a 
simple reference to one of the sections treating of these endings (1233, 1235, 1237, 1239) 
is put instead of a repetition of the primitive. 


a adjective. 

abl ablative. 

ace accusative. 

acct accent. 

act active, actively. 

adj adjective, adjectively. 

adv adverb, adverbial. 

advly adverbially. 

aor. aorist. 

AS Anglo-Saxon. 

assev asseverative. 

B Brahmana. 

beg beginning. 

caus causative. 

cf compare. 

colloq colloquial. 

comp comparative. 

conj conjunction. 

correl correlative. 

cpd, cpds . . . compound, compounds. 

dat dative. 

denom denominative. 

deriv., derivs . derivative, derivatives. 

desid desiderative. 

e.g for example. 

end enclitic. 

Eng English. 

equiv equivalent. 

esp especially, especial. 

etc and so forth. 

excl exclamation. 

f., fern feminine. 

ff and the following. 

fig figuratively, figurative. 

fr from. 

fut future. 

gen genitive. 

Ger German. 

Goth Gothic. 

grd gerund. 

grdv gerundive. 

Hdt Herodotus. 

ident identical. 

i.e that is. 

imf imperfect. 

impers impersonally, impersonal. 

imv imperative. 

ind indicative. 

indecl indeclinable. 

indef indefinite. 

inf infinitive. 

instr instrumental. 

intens intensive. 

interr interrogative. 

intrans intransitive, intransitively. 

irreg irregularly, irregular. 

Lat Latin. 

lit literally, literal. 

loc locative. 

in., masc. . . . masculine. 

MBh Mahabharata. 

met metaphorically, metaphor. 

mg, mgs .... meaning, meanings. 

mid middle. 

N note. 

n., neut neuter. 

nom nominative. 

num numeral. 

opp opposed, opposite. 

opt optative. 

orig originally, original. 

pass passive, passively. 

pel particle. 

perf perfect. 

pers person, personal. 

pi plural. 

poss possibly. 

ppl participle. 

prep preposition. 

pres present. 

prob probably, probable. 

pron pronoun, pronominal. 

prop properly. 

q.v which see. 

reg regularly, regular. 

RV Eigveda. 

S Sutra. 

s singular. 

sc scilicet. 

sing singular. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

subst substantive, substantively. 

superl superlative. 

s.v sub voce. 

trans transitive, transitively. 

U.f uncombined form or forms. 

vbl verbal. 

V Vedic, Veda. 

voc vocative. 

w. , . with. 

For abbreviations of titles, see next page. 


See also pages 315-16, 332, 340, 359, 398, 402. 

RV Rigreda Samhita. AB Aitareya Brahmana. 

SV Samaveda QB Qatapatha " 

AV Atharvaveda PB Pancavin9a_or Tandya Br. 

MS Maitrayani TA Taittiriya Aranyaka. 

TS Taittirlya AGS. . . . A^valayana Grhya-sutra. 

VS Vajasaneyi C,GS. . . . Qankhayana " 

K Kathaka. PGS. . . . Paraskara " 

JASB. . . . Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

JA Journal Asiatique. 

JRAS. . . . Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

JAOS. . . . Journal of the American Oriental Society. 

PAOS. . . . Proceedings " " " 

ZDMG. . . . Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 

AJP American Journal of Philology ed. B. L. Gildersleeve. 

Ind. Ant. . . Indian Antiquary ed. James Burgess. 

ISt Indische Studien ed. Albrecht Weber. 

KZ Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung ed. A. Kuhn. 

ASL History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, by Max Miiller. 

BI Bibliotheca Indica publ. by the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

BR Bohtlingk and Roth's Sanskrit- Worterbuch see Brief List, p. xviii, no. 5. 

GKR Geldner, Kaegi, and Roth's Siebenzig Lieder see p. xix, no. 15. 

HIL History of Indian Literature, Weber see p. xx, no. 21. 

IA Indische Alterthumskunde, by Christian Lassen. 

ILuC Indiens Literatur und Cultur, Schroeder see p. 359, 100. 

OLSt Oriental and Linguistic Studies, Whitney see p. 359, 100. 

VP Visnu Purana Bombay text; or Wilson's translation, ed. 1 or ed. 2 (F. Hall). 

SEE Sacred Books of the East transl. by various scholars and ed. F. Max Miiller. 

Vol. Vol. 

i. T.'panisnds. .1. xv Upanisads. 2. 

ii. Laws. 1. Apastamba, Gautama. xxiii A vesta. 2. Yashts, etc. 

iv. Avesta. 1. Vendidad. xxv Manu. 

vii. Laws. Yisnu. xxvi < 'atapatha Brahmana. 2. 

x. Dhammapada_, etc. xxix Grbya-sutras. 1. yG8., AGS., PGS. 

xii. Qatapatha Brahmana. 1. See p. 356, N.9. xxx Grhya-sutras. 2. 

xiv. Laws. 2. Vasistha', Baudbayana. xxxi. Avesta. 3. Yaana. etc. 

La religion vedique see p. 359, 100. 

Der Rigveda see p. 352, 70. 

Der Rigveda see p. 359, 100. 

Original Sanskrit Texts see p. xx, no. 26. 
Si-yu-ki . . . Buddhist Records of the Western World. Transl. by S. Beal, London, 1884. 
Zimmer . . . Altindisches Leben see p. xx, no. 22. 

Kaegi . . . 
Ludwig . . 
Muir . 

The Vocabulary will often serve as an index to the Notes. 




1. The trend of Aryan migration in India has been from the extreme north- 
west to the south-east, across the region drained by the Indus and its affluents, and 
called the Panjab or Land of the Five Rivers; and again south-east, down the valleys 
of the Jumna and Ganges. One prominent group of Aryan immigrant tribes was 
that of the Kosalas, Videhas, and Magadhas, who settled in the lower valley of the 
Ganges, east of its confluence with the Jumna, in the districts now named Oudh 
and Behar, the Palestine of Buddhism. 

2. Another group of tribes had their home on the upper Indus, in the north- 
west of the Panjab. Theirs was the religion and civilization of which the Vedas 
are the monument. Later we find them advancing south-eastward, and establishing 
themselves on the upper course of the Jumna and Ganges, in Madhya-deca, The 
Mid-Land. Foremost among them are the tribes of the Bharatas, the Kurus, and 
the Panchalas. Here arose the system of Brahmanism ; here' the simple nature- 
religion of the Vedas developed into a religion of priests and sacrifices ; here the 
Bharatas attained a kind of religious primacy and the lustre of a great name, 
although gradually merging their tribal individuality with that of kindred tribes ; 
here were fought the battles of the Bharatas ; and here, to ever-ready listeners, in 
school or forest-hermitage, at a sacrifice or a burial, were told the tales of these 
battles and their heroes. These are the tales that form the nucleus of the Great- 
Bharata-Story (maha-bharata^akhyana, or, more briefly), the Maha-bharata. 

3. These tales were probably first circulated in prose, until some more clever 
teller put them into simple and easily-remembered metrical form. The date of 
these first simple epics we do not know. They may well have existed several 
centuries before our era ; but neither their language nor the notices of the Greeks 
afford any satisfactorily direct evidence upon the subject. Around this nucleus 
have been grouped additions, historical, mythological, and didactic, until the 
Great-Bharata, as we now have it, contains over one hundred thousand distichs, or 
about eight times as much as the Iliad and Odyssey together. 

4. Only about one-fifth of the whole poem is occupied with the principal 
story. This, in the briefest possible summary, is as follows. The two brothers, 
Dhritarashtra and Pandu (dhrta-rastra, pandu), were brought up in their royal 
home of Hastina-pura, about sixty miles north-east of modern Delhi. Dhritarashtra, 
the elder, was blind, and so Pandu became king, and had a glorious reign. He had 
five sons, chief of whom were Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna. They are called 
Pandavas, and are the types of honor and heroism. Dhritarashtra's hundred sons, 
Duryodhana and the rest, are usually called the Kuru princes, and are represented 
as in every way bad. After Pandu's death, his sons are brought up with their 


cousins. The kingdom devolved on Dhritarashtra, who in turn made his nephew 
Yudhishthira the heir apparent. 

5. Yudhishthira's exploits aroused the ill-will of his cousins, and, to escape 
their plots, the Pandu princes went away to the king of Panchala, whose daughter, 
Draupadi, became their common wife. In view of this strong alliance with the 
Panchalas, Dhritarashtra thought it best to conciliate the Pandus. So he divided the 
kingdom, and gave Hastina-pura to his sons, and to his nephews a district to the 
south-west, where they built Indra-prastha, the modern Delhi. Here the Pandavas 
and their people lived happily under king Yudhishthira. 

6. On one occasion Dhritarashtra held a great assembly of princes at his 
capital. The Pandavas were invited and came. Yudhishthira was challenged to 
play with Duryodhana, and accepted. The dice were thrown for Duryodhana by his 
uncle (^akuni. Yudhishthira loses everything wealth, kingdom, brothers, wife. A 
compromise, however, is made, by which the Pandavas give up their part of the 
kingdom for twelve years, and agree to remain incognito for a thirteenth. With 
Draupadi, they retire to the Kamyaka forest, on the Saraswati. 

7. For twelve years the Pandu princes dwell in the wood. Many legends are 
told to divert and console them in their exile ; and these stories, with the description 
of the forest-life of the princes, combine to make up the third or ' Forest-book,' the 
vana-parvan, which is one of the longest in the whole poem. 

8. The thirteenth year arrived and passed. " Then in the fourteenth the 
Pandavas demanded back their possessions, but received them not. From this arose 
the conflict. They overthrew the ruling house, slew prince Duryodhana, and then, 
although losing most of their warriors, they got back again their kingdom." MBh. 
1.61.51=2280. Thus ended the Bharata, doubtless, in its oldest and simplest form. 

9. The poem, as we now have it, spins out the story of the combat through 
several books and through thousands of distichs. At length Yudhishthira is crowned 
in Hastina-pura, and Bhishma, the leader of the Kurus, although mortally wounded, 
instructs him, for about twenty thousand distichs, on the duties of kings and on 
other topics, and then dies. In the seventeenth book, the Pandus renounce the king- 
dom, and in the next, the last, they ascend to heaven with Draupadi. 

10. The Nala-episode illustrates very well how loose is the connection of the 
episodes in general with the main thread of the Bharata. The story of Xala is one 
of those inserted in the third book (above, 7), and its setting is as follows. Ar- 
juna had gone to the heaven of Indra to get from him divine weapons. The other 
Pandavas, remaining in the forest with Draupadi, lament their brother's absence and 
the loss of their kingdom. Meantime the fierce and stout-armed Bhima addresses 
his brother Yudhishthira, and offers to go out and slay their deceitful cousins. 
Yudhishthira counsels Bhima to wait till after the thirteenth year, and is trying to 
calm his impetuous brother, when suddenly there arrives a mighty sage, Brihada9wa. 
The holy man is received with honor and with the customary guest's-dish of milk 
and honey. When he is seated, Yudhishthira sits by him, bewails his sad lot, and 
asks, " Hast thou ever seen or heard of a man more luckless than I am ? I believe 
there never was one more unhappy." " On this point," replies the sage, " I will tell 
thee a story of a king who was even more luckless than thon. King Xala was once 
cheated out of his kingdom by a false dice-player, and dwelt in the forest, and 



neither slaves, chariot, brother, nor friend was left him ; but thou art surrounded by 
heroes, brothers, and friends, and oughtest not to grieve." Thereupon Yudhishthira 
begs him to relate the story at length. Accordingly, to console the king, and to 
show him that there is hope of regaining his kingdom, just as Xala regained his, 
Brihada9wa begins as in the extract given in the Reader (1 s ). 

11. CHAPTER 1. Xala was a prince of Xishadha. Damayanti was the 
lovely daughter of Bhima, the king of Vidarbha. By the miraculous interposition 
of swans, the prince and princess become mutually enamored. 

12. CHAP. 2. Bhima accordingly holds a swayamvara (' self-choice ') for 
her. The neighboring kings are invited, and she is permitted to choose for herself 
her husband from them. The chief gods hear of it and determine to go also. On 
their way, they meet Xala, who is bound on the same errand. 

13. CHAP. 3. The gods request Xala to sue for them. Reluctantly consent- 
ing, he enters the chamber of the princess and tells how the gods desire her hand. 

14. CHAP. 4. Damayanti refuses to listen to the arguments in favor of the 
gods. She desires that the swayamvara be held in the usual form, and that the 
gods be present, and informs Xala that she intends to show openly her preference 
for him. All this Xala reports to the gods. 

15. CHAP. 5. The gods and kings assemble. The four chief gods assume 
the appearance of Xala. Unable to distinguish the real Xala, the princess, dis- 
tressed, prays to the gods, and they, in answer, resume their proper forms and 
peculiar attributes (see 14 12 N.). Thereupon she chooses Xala. The kings express 
their sorrow, and the gods their delight. The gods give Xala the magic power of 
having fire and water whenever he wishes, and a wonderful skill in cookery. The 
wedding-feast is celebrated. Xala returns to Xishadha with his bride. They live 
happily, and have a son and daughter. Here the extract in the Reader ends. 

16. CHAPTERS 6-26. These tell of Xala's misfortunes, and their final happy 
issue. He loses everything, even his kingdom, by gambling, and wanders, hungry 
and half naked, in the forest. He is transformed into a dwarf, and becomes chari- 
oteer of Rituparna, king of Oudh. Damayanti, at her father's in Kundina, is led by 
certain tidings to suspect "that Xala is at Oudh. By way of stratagem, she holds out 
hopes of her hand to Rituparna, if he will drive from Oudh to Kundina, some five 
hundred miles, in a single day, knowing well that only Xala's skill in horsemanship 
(see I 4 ) is equal to this task. Rituparna gets Xala to drive him thither through the 
air. Xala receives as reward perfect skill in dicing. His wife recognizes him by his 
magical command of fire and water, and by his cooking. He resumes his true form, 
plays again, and wins back all he had lost, and lives happy ever after.* 

17. When Brihada9wa had finished the story of Xala, Yudhishthira, pleased, 
asked him for perfect skill in dicing ; and the hermit, granting him his prayer, departed. 

18. This story is unquestionably one of the oldest and most beautiful 
episodes of the Maha-bharata. It was extremely popular in India; and to this is 
due the fact that it escaped the bad influence of Vishnuism, whose adherents have 
worked over the vast epic, changing and interpolating, and always for the worse. 

* The student mav read the entire story in any 
of the numerous translations by Milrnan, Bopp, 

the very spirited English rendering of Edwin Arnold, 
in his Indian Idylls, Boston, Roberts Brothers, 1883, 

Riickert, and others. The most easily obtained is $1.00. 



19. Even the Xala, especially in the first chapter, has suffered much from 
later hands ; but on the whole it is one of the least corrupted episodes. Its antiq- 
uity is shown by the simplicity of manners implied in its incidents the prince, for 
example, cooks his own food, by the character of Indra (cf. 14 22 x.), and in other 
ways. See Holtzmann's Indische Sagen, Stuttgart, 1854, p. xiv. Bruce has 
attempted to reject definite passages throughout the poem, and has published, at 
St. Petersburg in 1862, a text of the Nala, reduced from 983 to 522 distichs. 

20. The story begins at iii.53.1 (folio 58 b) of the Bombay edition of 1877, 
and at iii. 2072 of the Calcutta edition of 1834. 

21. THE METRE. The stanza (cloka) or distich consists of four octosyllabic 
verses (pada). The first and second padas form together a half -cloka or a line, 
divided at the middle by the caesura: likewise the third and fourth. The more 
important rules follow. 

a. Odd padas end usually with a first epitrite, ^ , or antispast, w w- 

b. Even padas end in a diiambus, v^_w , or second paeon, w ww. 

So the type of the half-9loka is o o o o | ^ w || o o o o | \^ w ^- But 

c. In no pada may the syllables 2, 3, 4 form a tribrach, w ^/ w, or anapaest, ^ w ; 

d. Nor, in the even padas, an amphimacer, \j . 


LINE 1. atha, see p. 114, s.v. atha 3. 
nalopakhyana-m, nom.s.n. (see 330) of 
nalopakhyana : this last is a compound 
stem, see s.v., p. 180 : its analysis is indicated 
in the manner mentioned at p. 292, paragraph 
2, end : the second member is upakhyana, 
as given in the square brackets, p. 180 : its 
initial, u, has evidently combined with the 
final vowel of the first member to o : accord- 
ing to the important rule 127, that final 
must have been an a-vowel (a or a), and, 
since there is no stem nala, the first member 
must be nala : since this logically determines 
the second member, i.e. distinguishes the 
' Nala-episode ' from all other episodes, the 
compound is to be classed as a determinative, 
see 1262. 

2. brhadagva, u.f. brhadagva-s (175b), 
nom.s.m. of brhad-ava, see s.v., p. 202 : as 
shown in the square brackets, the first mem- 
ber of the cpd is brhant, which, by 1249a, 
enters into composition in its weak form 
brhat : by the law of regressive assimilation 
(159, the most important rule of Sanskrit 
phonetics), the t becomes d. The combina- 
tion brhad-agvd, with the accent on the 
ultima, means 'a great horse'; the same 

combination, with the acct of the prior 
member, is a secondary adjective cpd, and 
means 'having great horses': here the sec- 
ondary adjective is used as a substantive, 
' (man) having great horses, i.e. Great-horse ' : 
see 1293 2 and cf. the difference between a 
great heart and Bunyan's Mr. Great-heart. For 
the ligature gv, see Whitney 13 G . uvaca, 
v/vac, p. 236, perf. act. 3d sing., see 800e. 
For the connection of this line with the 
story, see p. 298, 10. 

3 a . asid, u.f. asit, by the law of regres- 
sive assimilation, just mentioned : as was 
said at p. 290, paragraph 8, the meaning 
must be sought under V 1 as, p. 122 : the 
form is imf. 3d sing., 636. raja, see p. 
290, paragraph 7, and for declension, 424. 
nalo, u.f. nala-s, 175a: declension, 330. 
Nominatives in as are extremely common, 
and so of course is the change of as to o. 
nama, acc.s.n. (424) of naman, see s.v. 3. 

3 b . virasena-suto, u.f. -suta-s, 175a : 
the word is a dependent noun-cpd and = 
virasenasya sutas, see 1264 : the stem vira- 
sena (see s.v.) is itself also a cpd, and of 
the same kind as brhad-agva. ball, see 


) PAGE 1. 

4 a . upapanno, u.f. upa-panna-a (175a), 
\fpad+upa, p. 186. As a prepositional cpd, 
this must be sought under the root, not 
under the preposition read p. 290, para- 
graph 8. For the form panna, see 957d : 
lit., it has only an indefinite past sense, not 
a passive sense, see 952 2 . gunair, u.f. 
gunais, 174: declension, 330. istai, u.f. 
istais, which becomes iatair (174 again) 
before the following sonant initial; and 
since this is r, the final r is dropped see 
179: is-tais ppl. of VI is, 953: the t of ta 
becomes tby progressive assimilation (197), 
which is far less common than regressive 
assimilation. The half -line means, 'en- 
dowed with (desired, i.e. desirable or) excel- 
lent virtues.' For the use of the instr., see 

4 b . rupavan, see 452 and '453, and cf. 
447. For rii, cf. Whitney lOd. agvakovi- 
dah, u.f. agvakovidas, 170a, an extremely 
common change. Nala's skill in the manege 
is a point of prime importance in the story 
seep. 299, 16. 

5 a . atisthan, u.f. atisthat (161) is 3d s. 
imf. act. of Vatha, 742. [The a is augment, 
585 : ti is reduplication (for t, see 590c ; for 
i, 660) : the i alters s to a (180 and 184c), 
and this a involves the conversion of th to 
th (197 cf. iata). Orig. stha belonged to 
the reduplicating class (671 cf . 'L-a-ri}-^, 
'[-(TTij-s, 1-ffrri-fft), but has been transferred 
(749) to the commonest of all classes, the 
a-class, and is inflected as if the stem were 
tistha, i.e. as if we had in Greek 1-arca, 
1-<TTfis, f-o-rej.] manujendranam, 
of manujendra : after the lingual r, the n 
of the ending is changed to lingual n see 
189 and 190a : for the combination of ma- 
nuja+indra, see 127; for dr, Whitney 14. 

5 b . murdhni, loc.s. of murdhan, 424: 
for rdh, see Whitney 14. devapatir, u.f. 
devapatia, 174 : declension, 339. yatha, 
see s.v. 4. 'He (stood, i.e.) was at the head 
of princes, as Indra (sc. is at the head of 
gods)': i.e. 'He was as much superior to 
other princes as Indra to other gods.' " As 
handsome as Indra" was a proverbial ex- 

6 a . upary, u.f. upari, 129: the word is 
repeated for emphasis, 1260 : ' above, above,' 
i.e. 'far above.' sarveaam, of 
aarva, 522 and 524 : for construction, see 
s.v. upari and 1130 end. 

6 b . aditya, u.f. adityaa, 175b. tejasa, 
414 : as referring to the sun, it means ' splen- 
dor,' and as referring to Nala, it has the 
transferred mg, ' majesty ' : the instr., prop, 
the 'with '-case, is here best rendered by 
'by,' i.e. 'in virtue of.' The force of 
atiathat extends through the gloka or dis- 
tich. ' He was far above all in majesty, as 
the sun (is) in splendor.' 

7 a . vedavic churo, u.f. vedavit Quras : 
the final t is changed to the palatal c, before 
the palatal sibilant 9 (regressive assimila- 
tion, 203), and the sibilant g is also changed 
to the mute ch, 203 : the same changes 
appear in paryupasac chaclm, 2", abhuc 
chrnvatoh, 2 1S , hrcchayah, 2 19 , and tac 
chrutva, 4 6 , 4 16 : vedavit is nom.s.m. of 
vedavid (391), the d being changed to t 
(159) before the a of the case-ending, which 
last, however, is dropped see 150. 

7 b . niaadheau, ' among the Nishadhans ' 
or ' in Nishadha '. mahlpatih, u.f. mahi- 
patia, 170a : declension, 339. 

It is not known where Nishadha was. 
Vidarbha, the modern Berar, is at the head- 
waters of the Tapti, between Nagpore and 
the Nizam's Kingdom, and about five hun- 
dred miles from Oudh. The general run 
of the story makes it highly probable that 
Nishadha was between Berar and Oudh. 
From chapter ix., it would seem to have been 
north of Oujein (ujjayim). From an allusion 
in the Qatapatha-brahmana, ii.3.2, Weber 
thinks it is in the south (i.e. from Madhya- 
de9a). These premises give some ground 
for the inference that Nishadha was in the 
valley of the Sind, which traverses Gwalior 
State, Central India. On the Sind is Nar- 
war ; and local tradition connects this place 
with "King Nala" in a story whose leading 
features bear a striking resemblance to those 
of our poem. Finally, Nala is said, chap, xv., 
to have reached Oudh on the tenth day after 
quitting Damayanti, and this time suits the 

PAGE 1. < 


distance some two hundred miles very 

8 a . aksapriyah, u.f. aksapriyas, 172: 
for ks, cf. Whitney 13 end. satyavadi, 
norn.s., 440. As a dependent cpd (1265), 
aksapriya may mean, 1. ' dice-beloved, 
lucky at gaming,' or, 2. ' dice-loving, friend 
of dice, fond of gaming': on the whole, mg 
2 is perhaps to be preferred. 

8 b . mahan, nom.s., 450b. 

9. See ipsita, which is ppl. (1037) of the 
desid. nara-narl, declension, 364: for n, 
cf . I 5a N. end : nan, see under nara : for use 
of case, 296b. udarah, 172 again, like aksa- 
priyah, 1 8 , and gresthah and manuh, next 
line, etc. etc. samyatendriyah, read p. 
291, paragraph 6: samyata, Vyam, 954d. 

10. raksita, 373. dhanvin-am, 440. 
saksad, u.f. saksat, 159. manu-h, 341. 
Render 'as it were, Manu himself, in vis- 
ible presence.' 

11. tathaivasld, u.f. tatha eva asit, 
127, 126, 159: see tatha, mg 3. -bhlma- 
parakrama, possessive form of the descrip- 
tive cpd bhima-parakrama : see references 
in vocab. 

12. sarva-gunair, u.f. sarva-gunais, 174, 
cf . 1 4a N. : for mg, see sarva 2b : a de- 
scriptive cpd, 1279. yuktah, u.f. yukta-s 
(170d), ppl. (953, 219 and 217) of Vyuj: 
see Vyuj 4, 'yoked with' (hence instr., 278), 
and so ' possessed of '. prajakamah, ob- 
serve accent and references in vocab. sa 
caprajah, u.f. sas ca aprajas, 176a (as ex- 
ception to 170c) : for sa-s, 495: ca, though 
coalescing with aprajas in euphony (126) 
and in print, is really an enclitic and so be- 
longs w. sa: 'and yet he (sc. was) childless.' 

13. akarot, 3d s. imf. of Vlkr, 714. 
' He (in the matter of, i.e.) for the sake of 
children made the greatest effort,' i.e. he 
performed pious rites, etc. ; or else, ' He had 
the matter of children greatly at heart, all 
intent (upon it).' 

14. tarn, 495, 274a. abhy-agacchad, 
\fgam+abhi, see references after pres. form 
gacchati in vocab. : this is 3d s. imf., 742. 
Respecting the spelling cch, see Preface, p. 
v. note 6. brahmarsi-r : for r, 174: de- 

! clension, 339 : formation, see references in 
vocab. There were three kinds of Rishis 
(see rsi) : the rajarsi, or prince who adopted 
a life of devotion ; tlie devarsi, or sage who 
was also a demigod, as Narada ; and the 
brahmarsi, or priestly sage. 

Bharata, like rajendra, kaunteya, 
vigam pate, prabho, maharaja, raj an, 
pandava, kauravya, etc., is an interjected 
vocative, addressed by Brihada9wa, the nar- 
rator, to Yudhishthira, see p. 298, 10. 

15. sa, see p. 291, paragraph 1, and 
vocab., s.v. ta4. tosayam asa, periphras- 
tic perf. of caus. of Vtus, 1070, 1071a: the 
auxiliary is the 3d s. perf. (800a) of Vas, 
'be.' dharma-vit, nom.s.m., declined like 
veda-vit, I 7 . 

16. mahisya, instr. (364) of mahisi. 
suvarcas-am: declension, 418: goes with 
tarn. 15-16. 'Along with his queen, 
Bhlma, desiring children (and) knowing his 
duty, gratified him (tarn, Damana), the glo- 
rious, with hospitality.' 

17. tasmai, 495. pra-sanno, Vsad+ 
pra, cf. upa-panno, I*N. sabharyaya, 
dat.s.m. with tasmai, 'to him having an 
accompanying wife, i.e. to him and his wife ' : 
observe that bharya shortens its final a in 
composition, 334 2 . dadau, Vda, 'give,' 


1. kumarang ca, u.f. kumaran ca (208), 
or rather, kumarans ca (170c) ; for the so- 
called " inserted sibilant " is in the a 
historic survival, the original ending having 
been ns. trm, 482c. maha-yagas (418) 
goes with damanas. 

2. damayantim, 364. 

3. Cf . I 4 and I 11 and notes. 

4. tejas-a, 414 : so yagas-a. griy-a, 
stem gri, 351. 

5. prapa, 3d s. perf. Vap+pra, 783c 2 , 
800a. 4-5. ' Fair-waisted D. won fame 
among men by her beauty, majesty, fame, 
grace, and comeliness.' Reprehensible tau- 

6. tarn, 495. vayas-i prapte, loc. ab- 
solute, 303b: prapta, ppl. of Vap+pra. 
dasinam, 295 end. 


I PAGE 3. 

7. paryupasac chaclm, u.f. pary-upa_ 
asat gaclm, see I 7a N. : asat, 3d s. imf. of 
a-class (742 augment 585) fr. Vas; this is 
reg. of the root-class, G28, and mid. voice. 

6-7. Lit. 'Now, her marriageable age 
having come, of slaves an adorned hundred, 
and a hundred of friends sat around her 
(tarn.), as (they do) around (^aci.' 

8. raj ate, Vraj, 735. sarva^abharana- 
bhusita, 'adorned with all (her) jewels,' a 
dependent cpd (1265), whose first member, 
sarvabharana, is itself a cpd, like sarva- 
guna, see I 12 N. 

9. sakhi-madhye, see madhya 1. ana- 
vadyangi, initial elided, 135 : the cpd is the 
possessive form of a descriptive, 1297-8. 

vidyut, 391. The Hindu epos often likens 
maiden beauty to the brilliantly flashing 
lightning of the rain-cloud. 

10. rupa-sampanna goes with bhaimi. 
U-f. grl-s (174) iva ayata-locana, 'like 
long-eyed Qri.' 

11. U.f. tadrk, nom.s.f. rupavati, 
nom.s.f. of rupavant, 452. 

12. U.f. manusesu (129) api ca anyesu 
drsta-purva (sc. asit) atha va gruta. 
api ca continues the force of the preceding 
negatives, 'nor also.' For drsta-purva, 
see reference in vocab. : drs-ta, ppl. of 
Vdrg, 218. atha va, see atha 6. gruta = 
gruta-purva, 1316 3 . 

Omission of copula (asi, asti, smas, 
santi, asit, 'art, is, are, was/ etc., 636) is 
extremely common ; esp. so w. past pples, 
which thus do duty as finite verbs cf. 
3 19 N., 7 6 - r N. So also in German. 

13. citta-pramathim, fern., 438, 440 end. 
devanam, 1316, first example. Lines 
11-13 belong together : ' Neither among gods 
nor Yakshas (sc. was) such a beauty seen 
before or heard of, nor also among other 
beings, (namely) mortals': bala is added in 
apposition to the subject. 

14. nalag, 170c. -bhuvi, 351. 

15. kandarpa, 175b. murtiman, 453. 

abhavat, 742. 'In beauty he was like 
K. himself incarnate or having bodily form ' 

w. pregnant mg, since K is said to be 
'bodiless,' an-anga. 

16. U.f. tasyas, 495. pra-gagansuh, 3d 
pi. perf. (800a) of v/gans+pra, p. 254: sub- 
ject indef ., ' they ' or ' messengers.' 

17. punah punah, u.f. punar punar, 178. 

18. tayor, 495. ' bhuc chrnvatoh, u.f . 
abhut grnvatos, see 1 7a N. : abhut, 829 : gr- 
nv-at-os, loc. du., 447, of pres. ppl., 705, of 
Vgru, 71(J. 

19. anyonyam, see vocab. kaunteya, 
see I 1 * N. end. vy-avardhata, Vvrdh+vi, 

20. a-gak-nuv-an, negatived pres. ppl., 
705 (cf. 697 3 and 129 2 ), of Vgak. -dhar- 
ayitum, inf., 1051 6 , of Vdhr, whose pres. 
is made from a caus. stem, 1041, 1042b. 
-hrd-a, 391. 

21. antahpura-, read p. 291, paragraph 
4. vana, u.f. vane, 133. as-te, 612. 

gata-s, ppl. of Vgam, 954d. 'Stays in a 
wood near the harem, having gone secretly.' 

22. dadarga, 3d s. perf. Vdrg, strong 
stem dadarg, weak dadrg, 792, 793c, 800. 

hansaii, 202 2 . -pariskrtan, ppl. of V 1 kr 
-fpari, 1087d, 180. -'Gold-adorned' = 'of 
golden plumage '. 

23. vi-caratam, gen ( pi, of pres. ppl. of 
Vcar+vi. tesam, 495. jagraha, 3d s. 
perf. of Vgrah, 590b, 800. 


1. vacam etc., see under vac. vy-a- 
jahara, 590b, 800. 

2. Lines 2-4 are the words of the bird. 
asmi, 636. te, enclitic, and tava, are 
gen.s. of 2d pers. pron., 491 : use of case, 
296b. -rajan,424. -karisyami,933. -See 
priya 2a. 

3. tvam, 491, object of kathayisyami, 
fut. of denom. stem kathaya, 933. Supply 
tatha as correl. of yatha na, 'ut non', 
next line. 

4. See yatha 6. -tvad, 491, abl. w. 
anya, 292b. mansyati, 933, v'man, mg 4. 

5. ut-sa-sarj-a, Vsrj+ud, 800. 

6. te must be from ta, 495, since the en- 
clitic te (491) could not stand at beg. of 
verse. sam-ut-pat-ya, gerund of Vpat + 
sam-ud, 990. Note how the gerund, as 
instr. of accompaniment of a verbal noun 



(read 989), gets its mg : 'with a flying,' i.e. 
'flying' or 'having flown.' vidarbhan, 
274a. agamahs, u.f. agaman, 208, aor. of 
V gam, 840. 

7. ga-tva, gerund again, 991 : the root, 
gam, shows the same form as in the ppl. 
ga-ta, 954d. U.f. tada antike. 

8. nipetus, Vpat+ni, 800d, 794e. da- 
darga, 2 22 x. 

9. drs-tva, v'drg, 991, 218. -U.f. sakhi- 
gana^avrta, 'surrounded by (her) friend- 
crowd,' 1265 : sakhi- is demanded by the 
metre, instead of sakhi-, p. 300, 21d: a-vr- 
ta, ppl. of v' 1 vr+a. 

10. hrs-ta, ppl. of v'hrs, 197. grabl- 
tum, inf., 968, 972 3 : used here with verb of 
motion (vkram see 981 3 ) , Latin, 'subiit 
captum'. khagamans, u.f. -an, 208; but 
the s is here a true historic survival, cf . 2 l >*. 
U.f. tvaramana upa-, 127: Vtvar, 741: 
upa-ca-kram-e, v'kram+upa, 590b, 800a, 3d 
s. mid. 

11. See Vsrp+vi, and 800. 

12. ekaikagas refers to both subject and 
object 'singulae (puellae) singulos (an- 
seres).' sam-upa_adravan, Vdru, 742. 

13. sam-upa^adhavat, Vdhav, 742. 
antike, ' in the presence, i.e. near,' is super- 
fluous with ' ran on unto.' 

14. kr-tva, Vlkr, mg 3, and 991. -a- 
bravit, 3d s. imf. of Vbru, w. ace. of person, 
274b. -13-14. Observe that the relative 
clause comes first, w. incorporated antece- 
dent, ' ad quern anserem D. accurrit, is ... 
dixit ' : cf . 512, and vocab. ya 4. 

15. With mahipatis supply asti, ' there is 
a prince . . .' : cf . 2 12 s. end. 

16. The first half-line goes w. line 15 : 
supply santi in the second. The two geni- 
tives are explained at 296b. 

The caesura, be it observed, here marks 
the beginning of a new clause. This is often 
the case. So 3 ^ 8 - 18 - 21 , 5 6 , etc. 

17- bharya, predicate nom. U.f. bha- 
vethas, 177, 738. var-, voc.s., 364, fern., 
440 end. 

18. bhavej, u.f. bhavet, 202, 738. 
janma, 424. U.f. rupam ca idam, 'pul- 
critudoque haec'. 'Fruitful (of good) 

would be thy birth, and this beauty (of 
thine),' i.e. it would then prove a fortunate 
thing that thou wast born and art so 

19. For the long cpd, see 1247 I 2 : divide 
-manusa-uraga-, 127 : the whole is object of 
drsta-vant-as (supply smas, 'sumus' 2 12 
x. end), which is exactly like the Eng. ' (are) 
having seen ' = ' have seen ' : read 959 and 
960. In the later mythology, the serpents 
are divine beings with human face, whose 
beauty is often praised : cf . 13 1 . 

20. U.f. na ca asmabhis (491),'neque a 
nobis.' drstapurvas, supply asit and see 
N. to 2 12 . tathavidhas, substantively, of 
course : ' (a man) of such sort '. 

21. U.f. tvam ca api, supply asi, as in 
2 u N. narinam, 364, in vocab. under nara 
nalo, supply asti, as in 2 12 N. 

22. U.f. vigistayas, 177, gen.s.f., ppl. of 
v'gis~vi. For use of instr., 284. 'Ex 
imiae cum eximio congressus.' For sam- 
gama, read p. 291 1 7. 

23. For vigam pate, ' prince ', s.v. vi 
2, see 1 14 N. end. 


1. abravit, see 3 M N. nale, 304a. 
' Do thou speak so to Nala also ' (sc. as 
thou hast to me). The api ought to follow 

2. See iti, mg 2, and tatha, mg 2. 
uktva, <J vac, 991 : the root shows same 
weak form^as in ppl., 954b cf. 217. 

3. a-gam-ya, 990. nale, as in line 1. 
See VI vid+ni : imf. 3d s. of caus., 1042a, 
cf. 1043. -2-3. 'The bird, saying "Yes" 
to the maid (274b) of Vidarbha, . . . ., com- 
municated all to Xala.' 

4. See iti, mg 2e. In this poem, adhy- 
aya (not sarga) is the proper word for 
' chapter.' 

6. For tac chrutva, see N. to I 7a : tat, 
495: cru-tva, 991. bharata, see N. to l u 

7. prati, here used as a true " preposi- 
tion", or rather postposition, connecting 
nalam with svastha see 1123. babhuva, 
Vbhu, 789a. 


< PAGE 5. 

8. U.f. tatas, 170c. For an explana- 
tion of the nature of these and the following 
long cpds, look up the references under them 
in vocab. 

9. nihgvasa-, read p. 291 If 4. 

10. unmatta-dargana, 1299 : for un-, 

11. U.f. ksanena atha. The complete 
analysis of the long word is indicated by ref- 
erences in vocab. 

12. First cpd, see 1253a. vindati, 
V2 vid. 

13. gete, VI 1, 629. -U.f. "ha ha" iti. 

See v/rud and 619. See punar 2. 

15. asvastham: observe the use, com- 
mon in Skt., of a predicate adj. or subst. 
instead of subordinate clause : thus, ' an- 
nounced D. as ill', where we should say, 
'announced that she was ill' : so 4 19 karyam. 

naregvare (like nale, 4 L3 ) is loc. w. ny- 
avedayat and in logical apposition w. the 
dat. vidarbhapataye, despite the difference 
of case. 

16. See N. to 4 6 . Observe how the 
idea of 4 14b is here put in one cpd. 

17. cint-, see N. to I 15 . 'Considered 
this important matter (in respect to, i.e.) 
concerning his daughter.' 

18. See Viks and 992. -prap-, see 1308. 
' Considering his daughter who had reached 
nubility,' i.e. taking fully into account the 
fact of her marriageability (though he knew 
it well enough before). 

19. apagyad, 759, 760.6. See atman 3, 
and 514. ' Saw D's swayamvara requiring to 
be instituted by himself, saw that he must 
hold D's sw.' : cf . N. to 4 15 . 

20. Periphrastic perf. of denom. man- 
tray a +sam-ni, 1070, 107 la. 

21. anubh- is 3d s. pres. imv. pass., Vbhu 
-fanu, 771.4. ayam, read p. 291 1 1, and 
see 501. iti marks the four preceding 
words as the precise words of Bhima's invi- 
tation : ' Let this swayamvara be heard or 
taken notice of, O heroes, i.e. Understand 
ye that one will take place here.' prabho, 
841, see I 14 N. end. Observe that we have 

_/ w w as the first half of the first 

pada, a not infrequent irregularity. 


1. sarve, 524, cf. 495. 

2. abhijagmus, v'gam+abhi, 590b, 794d. 
- For abl., see 291 2 . 

3. The aggregative cpd hasty-agva-ratha 
(1252) makes w. ghosa a genitively depend- 
ent cpd (1264): hasti for hastin, 1249a 2 . 
purayantas (Vlpr), agrees w. subject of 
preceding clause. 

4. Divide, vicitramalya+abharana, as 
descriptive, 1280b. - balais, 279. -'(They 
came) . . . with troops, splendid (and) well 
adorned with variegated-garland-ornaments.' 

5. tesam (495) parth-, objective gen. w. 

6. akarot, I 13 x. te begins new clause 

see 3 16 N. -U.f. avasan, 135, 208, \/3vas. 

7. U.f. etasmin, 210, 499b : see vocab. 
under etad. 'The two best of the Rishis 
(1264) of the gods': the verb is in line 10. 

8. See \/at and 741. U.f. mahatman- 
au, 134. -gatau, 954d. 

9. U.f. ca eva, 127, see eva, end. maha- 
stands in adverbial relation to -prajna 
('greatly, i.e. very, wise '), since the whole 
is a descriptive adjective cpd see 1279. 

10. Third pers. dual, perf. mid., Vvig, 
800a. See sii 2, inseparable prefix. 

11-12. U.f. tau, 495. arc-, gerund from 
caus. stem of v'rc, 1051 7 . papraccha, 590, 
794c. U.f. anamayam ca api. -gata 
(like -bhuta, see 6 7 N., and 1273c) is a mere 
means of turning sarva- [=sarvatra] into 
attributive form : so also in sarvatragatam, 
line 14, which should be printed as a cpd, 
and means, like sarvagatam, ' under all cir- 
cumstances, i.e. in all their goings and do- 
ings.' Amend vocab. accordingly. 

'Saluting them, Maghavan then asked 
after the welfare unbroken and also disease- 
less of them two under all circumstances 
he, the mighty one': i.e. (cf. the principle 
explained 4 15 N.) 'asked if it had gone con- 
stantly well with them and if they had been 
entirely free from sickness.' 

14-15. avayos, 491. Copulas omitted 

2 12 N. 'Of us two (there is) welfare, 
j O god, under all circumstances, O lord : and 



in the whole (krtsne) world, Maghavan, 
the princes (are) prosperous, O mighty oue.' 
18-2O are prefatory to the question 
proper in line 21 a : 'The princes (proleptic 
nora. independent) . . . , who (509) go to 
death by the sword (280) . . . , this (501) 
imperishable world, i.e. heaven, (is cf. 2 12 
N. end) granting every wish of them, just as 
(yatha^eva) of me (it grants every wish).' 
The idea is, Since the brave warriors can 
here obtain their every wish, why do they 
not come up ? 

21. 'Where now (are) those princes, 
heroes ? ' Observe caesura : cf. 3 16 N. 

22. agacchatas, Vgam+a, 741, 447, 
agrees w. tan. 


2. crriu, 710, 703. -me, 491, 297b. - 
drgyante, 768, 771. 

3. Supply asti, ' there is ' (a daughter) . . . 

See iti, mg 2 f . Vcru+vi. 

4. Ppl. of Vkram+sam-ati (955a) 'having 
excelled = excelling.' 

5. tasyas, 495. bhavita, 944. 

7. See bhuta 2, and reference, 1273c, 
and cf. 5 12 N. Pres. ppl. of denom. stem 
arthaya+pra, 1068. 

8. kanksanti governs tarn. 

9. 'While this (499b) is being told' 
(pres. ppl. pass, of kathaya, 1068, cf . 1052a), 
loc. absolute, 303b. Study references un- 
der sagnika, an important kind of cpd : lit. 
'having an accompanying (sa-) Agni', where 
sa- is equiv. to an adj. Others in line 13. 

10. Vgam+a, cf. 5 2 N. 

11. Vgrn, 3d pi. perl, 800b. 

12. U.f. grutva eva ca abruvan (632) 
hrstas. gacchamas: for tense, 777a. 

13. maharaja, see I 14 N. end. 

14. yatas, supply asan, ' were.' 

15. kaunteya, see I 14 . end. 

17. path-i, loc.s., 433. - dadrcus, 2 & N. 

sthitam, superfluous, see sthita 2. 

18. 'In reality almost, the god of love, 
present (see sthita 3) with definite shape, 
(by reason of beauty =) so handsome was 
he.' Cf. 2i*x. 

2O. tasthus, 590c\ 794f, 800c. -Vsmi+vi. 

21. vistabhya, v stabh+vi, 185. 992. 

22. rajann, 210: see l u N. end. -Vtr 
-f ava, 992 2 , 242. 

23. U.f. bhos, see 176a. bhavan, see 
bhavant and 456, and supply asti, 514. 


I. 'Do thou (714) assistance of us' (491). 
Observe caesura. 

4. Vjna, 989. -U.f. karisye, 133, 933. 
'Nala, promising them "I will do (the 
assistance) ", . . .'. 

o. etan, 499b. v'stha-fupa, 954c. 

6-7. Now review declension of pronouns 

very frequent hereabouts : interrogatives, 
ke, kas, kirn, 504 ; demonstratives, tad, 495, 
ayam and asau, 501 ; personal, aham, maya, 
asman, and vas, tvam, tvam, 491. 

Note frequent omission (2 12 N.) of copula : 
u.f. ke bhavantas (santi, 514) ? kas ca 
asau (asti), yasya aham ipsitas (asmi) 
dutas? kim ca (asti) tad vas maya kar- 
yam ('mihi faciendum')? yasya dutas, 
'as messenger to whom.' kath-, 1068, 

8 a . See303b 4 . 

9. Vbudh+ni, 739. 'Know us as gods, 
i.e. know that we are gods' cf. 4 15 N. 

See artha. 

10. U.f. aham indras (asmi), ayam ag- 
nis ca (asti), tatha eva ayam apam patis 
(asti). ayam, ' this one here', with a ges- 
ture of introduction, apam, see ap. 'Lord 
of waters ' is Varuna. 

II. nfnam, of nr, 371 s . U.f. 
yamas ayam (asti). 

12. 'Announce us as assembled' cf. 

4 15 N. 

The last three lines (13-15) of Indra's 
speech contain in oratio recta the message 
which he wishes Nala to deliver. 

13. Lit. 'The world-protectors, having 
Great-Indra as first, i.e. Great-Indra and the 
other world-protectors ' : for this important 
kind of cpd, study 1302c 1, and adi in vocab. 

Vya-i-sam-a, 611. See reference under 

14. 'The gods seek (VI is, 608) to win 
(Vap, 968) thee.' 



15. 'Choose thou', V 2 vr, 1043.4. 

17. 'Me, come hither (sam-upa-itam, 
\'i^ for one and the same purpose.' Inf. of 
V2 is rpra, 1051. 

18-19. 'Pray how can (Vsah+ud) a man 
who is in love say (V vac, 968) such a thing to 
a woman (striyam 360, 274b) for another 1 ' 

20. ucus, Vvac, perf., see references. 

21. sam-c,ru-tya, 992. For loc., 304a. 


I. kar-, 933. Observe caesura. 

4. veg-, object of pravestum, which is 
inf. of Vvig+pra, 218. 

5. U.f. pra-veksyasi (Vvig, fut., 932, 218) 
iti . . . eva abhy-. 

6. Vgam. See iti, mg 2. 

7. Third word is vaidarbhim. See 
VI vT+sam-a. 

8. Vdip, intens. 1000, 1002a, 1016. - 
vapus-a, 414. 

10. Vksip+a, 752.5. 

II. Join tasya w. kamas, and tarn w. 
drstva. -Vvrdh, 800. 

12. See satya 3. cik-, VI kr, desid., 
1027, 1028b. -Vdhr, 1070, 1071a. 

13. Vbhram+sam, 955a. 

14. Vpat+sam-ud, 794e. Vdhrs. 

16. U.f. na ca enam, see ena and 500. 

18. U.f. kas ayam (asti) ? For rest of 
line, see atha 6 and 948 2 end. 

19. Vcak, 697 li8 . -See Vhr+vy-a: inf. 
-See Ika2cand507. 

20. of lajjavant, 452 3 . 
21-22. 'Then to him smiling, Dama- 

yanti with a smile addressing unto the 
hero Nala spake, amazed.' 


1. U.f. praptas (Vap) asi, 636. -'Thou 
art having come like a god, i.e. thou earnest 
invisibly?' Observe caesura. Vjna, w. 
gen. te, 'get acquainted with thee.' 

2. U.f. ca iha (asit). Caesura. U.f. 
asi na laksitas (ppl. of laksaya), 'wast 
thou not noticed.' 

3. Caesura. U.f. ca eva ugra-. 

5. viddhi = 1a8t : see V 1 vid 2 and 617. 
6-7. Cf. 7 14 ' 16 . -gobh-, voc.s.fem. 

8. U.f. pravistas aham (asmi), Vvig. 

9. Vvig, 752.5. -See 1 ka 2d and 507. 

U.f. apagyat, na api avar- (Vlvr caus.). 

10. presitas (asmi), V2 is. 

11. VI kr+pra, 2d s. imv. mid. 714. 

14. From here on, the use of virama 
with a final consonant to prevent its com- 
bining in print with a following initial is 
given up. Thus in nalamabravit, we allow 
the a, which if unannulled by virama is 
inherent in the nagari sign for ma, to serve 
as the first letter of abravit. Cf. 9 4 with 
the identical 10 2 . 

See 992 for the two cpd gerunds. 

15. Vni + pra, 739: for n, 192a. -See 
v' 1 kr 2, 714, 578. 

16. U.f. yat (202) ca anyat (161) mama 
asti: see VI as 2. 'For both I and what 
other good soever I have ' 

17. 'That all (is) thine.' kuru, 714. 
Igvara = Nala. 

18. Explained at 512a, q.v. 

19. Vpat+sam-ni, pass. ppl. of causa- 
five, hence long a, 1051. 

20. Vkhya+praty-a, 932 : 948 2 examples. 


1. asthasye, Vstha+a, 932. Suicide by 
hanging etc. is referred to : so also Pan- 
chatantra iv. fable 2. 

2. Identical with 9*. 

3. VsthaS: loc. (741), absolute, 303b. 

'The gods being present, how seekest thou 
a man (as husband, in preference) 1' 

4-5. As at 3 13 - 14 (see N.), the relative 
clause comes first, with incorporated ante- 
cedent: lit. 'Of what world-creating noble 
lords I (am) not equal to the foot-dust (instr., 
see 281a), let thy mind on those be busied ' 
(Vvrt 4, 739). More natural to us would 
seem tesu lokakrtsu igvaresu mahatmasu. 
" He's not as good as the dust on my feet" 
was prob. a proverbial expression of re- 
proach : so Malavika, act i. 

6. U.f. hi acaran, pres. ppl. devanam 
limits vipriyam, 296 b. rcchati, see Vr. 

7. Vtra, 617. -Cf. 2 9 N. and 7 15 N. 

8. See tatha 3. Nala tells her (lines 8-9) 
what she may enjoy if she chooses a god. 



9. devan prapya, V ap, 992, ' by obtaining 
gods (in wedlock).' bhunksva, v2 bhuj, 

10. U.f . yas : its antecedent is tarn, 
imam, 501. Vksip, 992. SeepunarS. 

12-13. Explained 291 2 . yasya limits 
only danda-, not the whole cpd, 1316. Yama 
is meant here. 

16-17. kriyatam (770c) varanam, 'let a 
choice be made '. yadi manyase, \ man 3. 

suirdvakyam. crnu, 6 2 x. 

19. Vplu+sam-a, past ppl., instr. dual. 

See atha 4. See vari and 339. 

21. V2vr, 718. Declension of bhartr, 
373. satyam etad bravimi, see satya 3. 

22. Vvip, 741. krtanjalim, here fern., 

23. agatya, Vgam, 992. U.f. iha ut- 
sahe : see V sah+ud 2. 


1. U.f. hi aham. -For gen., 297a. 

2. SeeVrabh+a2. katham, epanalepsis. 

3. U.f. esas (176a) dharmas (sc. asti), 
forms a clause. bhavita, 944. See 949 2 
near end. 

4. See >/ 1 dha+vi 5 and 770b. 

6. See VI hr+praty-a. 

7. ' Here is a safe means (seen in the 
mind, i.e.) thought out by me.' 

8. bhavita = bhavisyati, line 12. 
9-10. U.f. tvam ca eva . . . devas ca 

. . . ayantu (Vya, 611) : verb agrees w. near- 
est subject. Observe caesura in 10. With 
yatra supply asti. 

11. For samnidhi(m=n), read p. 291 IT 7. 

12. var- governs tvam. U.f. na evam. 

14. U.f. punar, 178. End, supply asan. 

15. U.f. tarn apagyan (208) tatha 
ayantam (619). 

16. U.f. ca enam, 500. 

17. For kaccid (kat cid, 202), see kad. 
18 a . ' And what did she say to us all? ' 

20. U.f. bhavadbhis, 456. -See Vdic, 
-fa. niv-, with pra vistas. 

21. ' Guarded (vr-tam) by warders ' 

22. U.f. na kas cid (1 ka 2d) drstavan 
(sc. asti) naras, see 959, 960, this example. 


1. U.f. sakhyas (364) ca asyas (501)... 
tabhis ca api ... Copula twice omitted. 

2. U.f. sarvas, nom.fem. vib-, voc. 

G. ' While ye are being described by me,' 

4. V2vr, 718. -sur-, voc. -Cf. 10 21 . 

5. In the words ayantu to bhavita, line 
8, Nala repeats substantially D's plan 
(II 9 - 12 ), but in oratio recta. Hiatus (113) is 
allowed at the caesura ; otherwise bala 
(unless it had lost a final s, 177) would co- 
alesce with the following initial. Cf. 16 u y. 

8. mah-, voc. bhavita, II 8 N. See 

9-1O. U.f. etavad (nom.n., 453) uda- 
hrtam (Vhr, sc. asti) maya, full stop. 
' For the rest, ye (are) an authority, gods ' : 
i.e. it's your affair alone now. 

13. The three substantives are locatives 
absolute with prapte, 303b 3 . 

14. Vhu+a : w. 782 cf. 643b. - For 
loc., 304. 

16. Vgam+sam-upa^a, 1080. For ace., 
dam-, 271a. 

18. U.f. vivicus (cf. 5 10 N.) te nrpas . . . 

19. U.f. asanesu . . asmas, 619 8 . 

2O b . The cpd is a possessive form (1301) 
of a descriptive cpd, 1280b. 


I. Second word is suglaksnah. 'Like 
the five-headed serpents ' because the hand 
is quinquepartite. Cf . 3 19 N. 

5. Vmus, 724: fern, irreg., 449c 8 : 'be- 
guiling' cf. K\eirrfiv v6ov. prabhaya, 
364. caksiinsi, 414 end. 

6-7. U.f. tesam drstis, . . . patita, . . . 
sakta (v'sanj) abhut (829) caesura : na ca 
(drstis tesam) pagyatam cacala. 

8. ' While the names are being an- 
nounced' loc. absolute, 303b, pres. ppl. of 
pass, of denom. kirtaya-f sam. 

9. See atha 4. - See p. 299, 15. 

10. Viks-rsam, 992. -See sthita 4. 

II. U.f. samdehat (m=n, p. 291 1 7) 
. . na abhy-ajanat, Vjna, 730 2 , 725. 

12. See ya 5. See Vman, 794e. 
'For whichever she saw of them, him she 
thought (to be) king N.' 

13. U.f. buddhya, 339. -tark-, cf. I 15 N. 

14. Optatives (577) of v/jfia, 721, and 
VI vid, 616. 

17-18. ' What marks of the gods [(are) 
my heard ones (296b) =] I have heard of 
from old men, these I do not notice as (being 
of, i.e.) belonging to even one (ekasya api) 
of those standing here (iha) on the ground 

19. V3 ci+vi-nis, 992. -Vcar+vi, 1051. 

20. 'Thought (it) an arrived-time, i.e. 
thought that the time had arrived (cf. note 
to 4 15 ) for refuge (of the) to the gods.' 

22. pra- is predicate adj. w. bhu-tva, 
991. See Vbhu. U.f. vepamana idam. 

23. 'As surely as N. (was) chosen by me 
on hearing . . : ' see yatha 4. 


1. patitve, ' in marriage,' goes with vrtas. 
- See satya 2 and 280 end. - U.f . tarn = Nala. 

2. U.f. na abhicarami. 

4. 'Ordained (as my, i.e.) to be my hus- 
band' Vldha+vi 3, and 954c. 

6. 'As this ceremony (vrata) was under- 
taken by me (in the =) for the winning of 
Nala . . '. v/rabh+a : rabh-ta = rabdha, 160. 

8. Vikr 3,714: should be mid. See p. 
299, 15. ' 

9. See yatha 6. v/jna f abhi, 721. 

10. V4 gam, 992. -U.f. tad. 

11. vflkr, 800f. 

12-13. ' She saw (apagyat) all the gods, 
free from sweat (asvedan), unwinking, hav- 
ing unwithered garlands and free from dust, 
standing (see sthita 1) without touching 
(asprgatas) the ground.' The "unwinking 
eyes " are a survival of the old Vedic con- 
ception of the gods that "neither slumber 
nor sleep." The other marks of anthropo- 
morphic divinity are natural enough. The 
opposites of all five attributes are ascribed 
to Nala, besides a shadow. 

14. U.f. mlanasrak, nom.s.m., 391. 
rajah-sveda- (1252), in instr. relation, forms 
a cpd (1265) w. sam-anv-itas, Vi. 

[3091 J NOTES TO 

I PAGE 15. 

15. 'And (ca- eva) the Nishadhan, . . 
line 14 . . , (was) made recognizable, (by) 
standing on the ground, and (ca) by winking.' 

17. V2vr, 1070. -pandava,see IN. end. 

18. See Vgrah 1. -Cf. 2 10 . 

21. 'The cry "Ah, all" (ha hajti 
cf. 4 18 ) was uttered (Vmuc).' 

22-23. Same construction. 'The cry 
'Bravo" was uttered (iritas, Vir) by ... 
praising (Vgans) N.' Note the generous 
magnanimity of the gods. 


1. kauravya, see I 14 N. end. 

2. Vgvas+a, caus. imf. U.f. antar- 

3. See yad 3 : correl. in line 4. 
4*. Cf. 9 5 and N . 

4 b . 'Delighted (Vram 3) with such (see 
evam, end) words of thine' (as thou hast 
spoken in choosing me). Loc., 303. 

5. See yavant 2. SeeVdhr6. 

6 a . Vbhu, construed prop. w. loc. of 
thing (e.g. dane), means 'be in or on' (e.g. 
giving), i.e. ' devoted to ' (charity) : here the 
construction seems extended in like mg to a 
person. ' So long will I be devoted to thee ' 

tvayi. - Line 6 > = 10 21 b . 

7-8. See vac (391) and nand+abhi. A 
line, containing the principal verb with Nala 
as subject, seems lacking. 

9-1O. V pri 3. U.f. tu agni- : see -puro- 
gama. See Vgam 5. 'But the two, 
mutually pleased, beholding Agni and the 
others, perceived those very gods as their 
refuge, i.e. perceived that the gods had been 
good to them.' 

11-12. vrte, 303b. -U.f. nalaya astau 
(483 3 ) . . dadus (800c). -The four gods 
give each two gifts, and, besides, one gift in 
common, a couple of children (mithunam, 
19). It is by his exercise of the supernatu- 
ral powers now given to Nala that Dama- 
yanti in the sequel (chap. 23) recognizes her 
lost and transformed husband. In passing 
through a low door-way, he does not stoop 

the lintel rises ; when he wants fire and 
water for cooking, they come at his wish ; 
and he seasons the food exquisitely. 

PAGE 15. 1 


13-14. U.f . gatim ca an-, ' and a most 
excellent gait ' : this includes the ability to 
pass through the low door-way, as above. 
-s/pri2, 760.5. 

15. The god of fire and the god of the 
waters (18) give N. magic power over their 
respective elements see above and p. 
299, 15. -U.f. pra-adat (VI da, 829) 

16. U.f. lokan atmaprabhan (208) ca 
eva: ' places-in-heaven, having his (the 
Fire-god's) splendor, or a splendor of their 
own' (heaven has "no need of the sun, 
neither of the moon, to shine in it ") r this 
amounts, perhaps, to ' hopes of future bless- 
edness'; but the Hindus make a deal of 
loose talk about ' worlds ' (lokas). 

17. U.f. yamas tu. anna-rasam, 'sub- 
tle taste for food ' as the sequel shows 
see above : vocab. wrong. 

18. With apam patir supply pradat and 
see? 10 *. 

19. U.f. srajas ca ut-. 

20. U.f. evam pra-daya (992) asya 
(501), explained 297a. 

21-22. Construe, anu-bhuya vivaham 
asya damayantyac, ca : ' learning of the 
wedding, i.e. that it would take place duly ' 
they went back home. 


1. Vlkr, caus., 1070, 1045. 

2. usya, V3 vas, irreg. (990 2 ) for usitva. 
4. U.f. bhrajamanas anguman : after 

elision (bhrajamano 'ncuman), the anu- 
swara belongs to the o, and so in nagari 
has to be put over the o and to the left of 
the avagraha. 

6. U.f. ije (Vyaj) ca api. Yayati was 
an ancient king, whose piety is celebrated 
even in the Rigveda, where the gods are be- 
sought to bless the sacrificer with their 
presence, as in old time they did for Yayati. 
His story is told MBh. i., chap. 75. 

7. U.f. anyais ca bahubhis, dhlman, 
kratubhis ca aptadaksinais : the second 
ca seems superfluous. 

8. U.f. punar (178) ca . . . upavanesu 

9. Vhr+vi, cf. 3 1 N. and 16 12 . 

10. Vjan, 1070, 1045: w. loc., 'begat 
upon (the body of) D.' 

11. Observe hiatus at the caesura cf. 
12 s N. By penance the great ascetics 
could become as gods and thrust even Indra 
from his throne. The anxious god's most 
effectual means to defend himself from the 
power of their austerities was to seduce 
them by sending a nymph so lovely that 
they could not resist her charms. ' Indra's 
weapon ' (indrasena, see vocab.) is therefore 
a very complimentary name for Nala's 
daughter. To name her brother, a corre- 
sponding masculine was formed, which has, 
of course, no other than grammatical appro- 

12. U.f . viharan ca, 208. 



22. The first book ever printed in Sanskrit was Kalidasa's ' Seasons ' (rt u - 
samhara), edited by Sir Wm. Jones, and printed in Bengali letters in 1792. The 
first Sanskrit book ever printed in Nagari letters was the Hitopade9a. It was edited 
by Carey, and printed at Serampore in 1803. The publication was undertaken, said 
Henry T. Colebrooke, "to promote and facilitate the study of the ancient and 
learned language of India in the College of Fort William." It was chosen as the 
first for this purpose because of its easy style and intrinsic interest and because two 
English translations of it existed, one by Wilkins (Bath, 1787), and the other by 
Jones (London, 1799). To pedagogical reasons, accordingly, may be assigned in 
great part, the importance of this work : it has become important in the West, 



because the text is so well suited for tyros in Sanskrit ; and in the Orient, because 
of the intrinsic value of its contents. 

23. The book belongs to the ethico-didactic class of literature, and is what 
the Hindus call a niti-astra or ' conduct-work.' The term niti (see this in the 
vocabulary) came to have special reference to the conduct of kings in their domestic 
life and in their foreign relations ; a niti-gastra is, accordingly, a ' Prince's hand- 
book of political and social ethics,' a kind of ' Mirrour for Magistrates.' The Hito- 
pade9a consists of mingled verse and prose. The verses are mostly proverbs and 
maxims often of the choicest practical wisdom; and their validity is proved, 
illustrated, and enforced by the fables, which are in prose. 

2-i. The frame in which the woi'k is set is simple and meagre. The sons of 
King Sudar9ana of Pataliputra 1 (Patna) are ignorant and vicious. He therefore con- 
vokes the wise men and asks if any one is able to reform the princes. Visnu9arman 
offers to do so, and accordingly takes them in charge, and relates to them the stories 
which make up the body of the collection. 

25. The Hitopade9a is not an original work, but, rather, an excellent com- 
pilation of ancient material. The time of its composition has not been even 
approximately determined. The palm-leaf MS. brought by Mr. Cecil Bendall from 
Xepal was written in the year 493 of the Nepal era or A.D. 1373. And Professor 
Peterson's 2 old paper MS. from Jeypore is of about the same age. At present we 
can hardly say more than that the work is at least 500 years old. In the working 
over of the material, the metrical portions would naturally be changed less, on the 
whole, than the prose ; and in fact, many of the proverbs can be traced back in their 
identical form to works of antiquity. And travellers report that just such proverbs 
are current to-day in the talk of the lower classes of India. 

The author or editor of this collection of fables, according to the colophon 8 of 
the Jeypore MS., was named Narayaiia, and his patron and publisher was the prince 

26. The sources of this compilation are expressly said (end of the preface, 
17 8 ) to be "the Pancatantra and another work." The first part of this statement 
is borne out by the fact that, out of forty-three fables in the Hitopade9a, twenty-five 
are found also in the Pancatantra. The latter work, as its name implies, consists 
of five books ; while the Hitopade9a is divided into four, whose titles are given in 
the preface, 17 7 . The correspondence is as follows. The first book of the Panca- 
tantra answers in its frame-work to the second of the Hitopade9a and the second of 
the Pancatantra to the first of the Hitopade9a. Five stories from the third book 
of the Pancatantra, along with seven from the first, are scattered through the last 
two books of the Hitopade9a. From the fourth book of the Pancatantra only one 
story, "The ass in the tiger-skin," appears in the Hitopade9a; and from the fifth 
book, only three. It thus appears that, in the main, only the first three books of 
the Pancatantra were drawn upon by the author of the Hitopade9a; and Somadeva. 
in his Katha-sarit-sagara (chapters 60-64, much of whose substance is from the 
Pancatantra, i.-iii.), has followed a similar course. 

27. What the "other work" is we can hardly say with entire certainty. In 
it ought to be found together if the statement of the preface is accurate at least 

1 From this point the spelling of proper names 2 See Preface to his Hitopadeca, p. i, ii, v. 

will no longer be anglicized. 

3 Peterson's ed., p. 161 : cf. p. iv, v. 



the eighteen fables of the Hitopadeca which do not occur in the Pancatantra. 
Had the preface said " other works," the problem would be easier. Thus the story 
of the two giants, iv. 9, may be traced to the Maha-bharata, and the prototypes of 
other single stories are doubtless to be found in one and another ancient collection. 
Professor Peterson 1 thinks that the " other work " is the Nitisara of Kamandaka. 
The identification deserves further study. 

28. The contents of the Pancatantra have been made the subject of one of 
the most important contributions to the literary history of the world by the late 
Professor Benfey. His principal results were published in his Pantschatantra (1859, 
see above, p. xviii, no. 8), and in his introduction to Bickell's edition of the Kalilag 
und Damnag (1876). The latter contains, pages VI-X, a brief resume of these 
results. The summary given by Keith-Falconer (1885, see p. 315) is a systematic 
and lucid account of the history of the fables, and is the one most to be commended 
to English-speaking students. Some of the most important items follow. 

A. The Indian original. In the sixth century of our era, there existed in 
India a Buddhist Sanskrit work, in thirteen chapters, treating of the conduct of 
princes. 2 Its doctrines were inculcated in the form of beast-fables, or stories in 
which animals play the part of human beings. 

B. This Indian original was translated by a Persian physician named Barzoi, 
into the Pehlevi, the literary language of Persia, by command of the Sassanian king, 
Khosru Anushlrvan, called The Just (531-579 A.D.). 

29. Cl. Both the Indian original and its Pehlevi version are irrecoverably 
lost ; but from the latter were made two very notable translations. The first was 
into Syriac, made about 570 A.D., and called Kalilag and Damnag after the two 
jackals, Karataka and Damanaka, who figured prominently in the introduction of 
the Sanskrit original. A single notice of this version had been preserved in a 
catalogue of Syriac writings made by Ebed-jesus (died 1318), and published by 
Assemani at Rome in 1725. A Chaldean bishop, Georgius Ebed-jesus Khayyath, 
on his way to the ecumenical council in 1870, stumbled upon a manuscript of this 
Syriac version in the episcopal library at Mardin. Through the mediation of Ignazio 
Guidi in Rome, and by a wonderful combination of lucky accidents and persistent 
efforts, the existence of " the lost manuscript " was made known to the eager in- 
quirers in Europe, 8 and at last published in text and German translation by Bickell. 

30. C2. The second translation from the Pehlevi was the Kalilah and Dim- 
nah or Fables of Pilpay in Arabic, made by Abd-allah ibn al-Moqaffa, a Persian 
convert to Islam, who lived under the caliph al-Mansor and died about 760. This 
version was published, though not in the best recension, by Silvestre de Sacy at 
Paris in 1816, and an English translation of it was given by the Rev. Wyndham 
Knatchbull, Oxford, 1819. 

According to the Arabic introduction, Dabshelim (deva-Qarman) was the first 
king of the Indian Restoration after the fall of the governor appointed by Alexander 

1 See his Introduction, p. 29, 43, Notes, p. 3. The 
Nitisara was edited by Rajendralala Mitra, in the 
Bibliotheca Indica, vol. iv. 

2 Such was Benfey's conclusion. It was ques- 
tioned by Weber, Indische Streifen, iii. 437. Bar- 
zoi's Pehlevi version (B.) may have been based on 
several different works among them a Paficatantra. 
Indeed, from the second chapter of the Arabic Kalilah 

and Dimnah, The mission of Barzoi ' (Knatchbull, 
pages 40-41; cf. Keith-Falconer, p. xii), and from 
other evidence (Keith-Falconer, p. liv f), this is the 
much more probable view. 

3 The story of the discovery is told by Benfey, 
in BickelPs book, pages Xn-XXIII, as also in vari- 
ous periodicals there cited, p. XXII note, e.g. Lon- 
don Academy for Aug. 1, 1871. 



at the close of his campaign in the Panjab, B.C. 326. When firmly established, 
Dabshelirn gave himself over to every wickedness. To reclaim the king, a Brahman 
philosopher takes up his parable, as did Nathan before David, and at last wins him 
back to virtue. The wise man is called in Arabic bid-bah l and in Syriac bid-vag. 
These words are satisfactorily traced by Benfey, through the PehlevI, to the Sanskrit 
vidya-pati, 'master of sciences.' Accordingly, bidbah, which has become Bidpai or 
Pilpay in our modern books, is not really a proper name, but an appellative, applied 
to a ' Chief Pandit ' or ' Court-scholar ' of an Indian prince. 

The Arabic version is of prime importance, since from it have flowed other 
versions, which have been of the utmost influence in shaping the literature of the 
Middle Ages. 

31. D. These versions are: 1. The Later Syriac, made in the tenth or 
eleventh century, edited by Wright, and translated by Keith-Falconer; 2. the 
Greek one, made about 1080, by Symeon Seth, a Jewish physician ; 3. the Persian, 
made some fifty years later, by Nasr Allah of Ghaznl ; 4. the Hebrew, ascribed to 
Rabbi Joel, and probably made before 1250, and published, with French translation, 
at Paris in 1881, by Joseph Derenbourg; 5. the old Spanish, made from the Arabic 
in 1251, and published at Madrid in 1860 by Gayangos. 

32. E. Of the descendants in the fifth degree from the original, only two 
need be mentioned : 3. The Persian Anwar-i Suhaill or ' Lights of Canopus,' a sim- 
plified recast of Nasr Allah's, made about 1494 by Husain Waiz al-Kashifi. English 
translations of this have been published by Eastwick and by Wollaston, see below. 
4. The Directorium humanae vitae, made from the Hebrew about 1270 by John 
of Capua, and printed about 1480. 

33. F. From John of Capua's version flowed the famous ' Book of examples 
of the ancient sages,' Das buck der byspel der alien wysen. It was made at the 
instance of Duke Eberhard im Bart, whose name and motto, EBERHART GRAF z[u] 
WIRTENBERG ATTEMPTO, appear as an acrostic in the initials of the first sections. 
It was first printed about 1481, and has since been admirably edited by W. L. 
Holland, Stuttgart, 1860. Holland used, besides three manuscripts, two printed 
editions sine loco et anno, and enumerates 17 dated editions that appeared between 
1483 and 1592. Four dated editions appeared at Ulm between 1483 and 1485 ! The 
great number of editions of the work and their rapid succession are the best proof 
of its importance as a means of instruction and amusement in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 

Another offshoot from the Directorium is the Italian version of A. F. Doni, 
entitled La moral filosophia, and printed at Venice 2 in 1552. This is of special 
interest, because from it came (G) the English translation of Sir Thomas North, 
London, 1570. 

It may here be added that La Fontaine, in the second edition of his Fables 
(1678), which contains eleven books, says 8 that he owed the largest part of his new 
material (books vii-xi) to Pilpay, the Indian sage. The edition of Henri Regnier 
(Paris, Hachette, 1883-85, 3 vols.) gives abundant references to the sources of each 
fable, and is especially to be commended to those who would compare the well- 
known French offshoots with the Indian originals. 

1 See Benfey, in Bickell, p. XLIII f. Avertissement prefixed to book vii, Regnier ii. 

* With wood-cuts. Harvard College has a copy. 




34. From Benfey's investigations it appears that the truest extant repre- 
sentative of the Indian original is the Syriac version, Kalilag and Damnag. Next to 
the Syriac stands the Buck der Beispiele, which, besides, is in language remarkable 
for its dignity, strength, and beauty ; upon this latter version, moreover, are based 
almost all the printed ones previous to 1644. To the German version almost exclu- 
sively, therefore, is Europe indebted for the wide-spread knowledge of this cycle of 
literature from the last part of the fifteenth to the middle of the seventeenth century. 

35. After this account of the direct descendants of the Indian original in the 
Occident, it remains to speak of the history of that original in India, and of its 
sources. Whether Barzoi translated from one work of thirteen chapters (cf . 28) 
or from several independent works, the fact remains that the originals of all of his 
sections may be certainly identified on Indian ground save thi-ee : l five, namely, 
form the Pancatantra ; two other sections figure as a supplement to the first book 
of a later recension of the Pancatantra; and yet other sections, three in number, 
appear in the Maha-bharata. 

The first three books of the Pancatantra (above, 26) were recast by Somadeva 
about 1070 A.D., in his Katha-sarit-sagara, chapters 60-64. Somadeva's abstract of 
these three books shows that they had the same form then as at the time of the 
Pehlevi translation (570). As representatives of the Indian original, the offshoots 
of the Pehlevi version surpass even the Indian offshoots. These latter, as respects 
their truthfulness in reflecting the Indian original, are arranged by Benfey as follows : 
first, the recension of the Indian original used by Somadeva ; second, the one on 
which the Southern Pancatantra (of Dubois) is based; third, the one from which 
the Hitopade9a is made ; and last, the one from which proceed the common Sanskrit 
recensions of the Pancatantra. 

36. At the time when Barzoi made his Pehlevi version, Buddhism was already 
on the decline in India, and Brahmanism regaining its lost supremacy. It was not 
to be expected on the one hand that the Brahmans would allow a work of such great 
artistic merit as the original Mirrour for Magistrates to be lost and forgotten, nor, 
on the other, that they would preserve it without transforming its whole spirit, which 
was that of fanatical hatred for Brahmanism. They have, therefore, omitted or 
transformed such parts as showed most Buddhist animus, leaving, however, many 
marks uneffaced which betray its Buddhist origin. 

In one other way, too, the original was modified. In most of its sections a 
doctrine was inculcated by means of a single fable or story, and only a sparing use 
was made of inserted apologues. But gradually the means became an end ; into the 
main story were inserted others, and others still into these, until the main story 
became a mere frame, and the result was comparable to a set of Chinese boxes. 2 

37. Respecting the sources of the Indian original only a general statement 
can be made. There were current among the Buddhists, fables and parables which 
they ascribed to Buddha, and whose sanctity they sought to increase by identifying 
the best character in any story with Buddha himself in a former birth. Hence the 
tales were called Jatakas or ' Birth-stories.' There is evidence of the existence of a 
collection with that name as early as the Council of Vesall, about 380 B.C. ; and in 

1 Of the remaining three, one is shown by its 
spirit of deadly hatred towards the Brabrnans to be 
the work of Buddhists, and the other two are in 
Benfey's judgment genuinely Indian. 

2 Pedagogical reasons forbade the retention of 
this arrangement, except by way of specimen. Thus 
selection ix is boxed intoviii, and xv and xvi into 




the fifth century after Christ the Jatakas were put into the form in which they now 
appear iu the Sutta-pitaka. They are distinguished for quaint humor and gentle 
earnestness, and teach the duty of tender sympathy with animals and even of 
courtesy to them. With these stories may be identified many if not all of the 
fables of the Hitopade9a. 

38. The relation of the earliest Greek and Indian fables has been the subject 
of much discussion. Wagener tried to show that the Greeks derived their apologues 
from the Hindus ; Weber, that the Hindus got many from the Greeks. Correspon- 
dences there undoubtedly are ; but the difficulty is that the earliest forms of the 
fables which would furnish the only safe basis for comparison are irrecoverably 
lost. Aesop and his fables are mentioned by Plato and others as very well known : 
but whether he was a Phrygian, a Jew, or an Egyptian is matter of dispute ; and 
even the Mu0fa/toi Aiffdnrtioi, of Babrius (ca. 100 A.D.), which tradition offers us as the 
oldest extant collection, are removed some 700 years from the traditional date of 
Aesop. The collection on which the common modern fable-books are based was 
made by the Byzantine monk Maximus Planudes, ca. 1325. 

At all events, the oldest extant documentary collections of Greeks or of Bud- 
dhists are much later than Alexander's invasion; and considering the of 
the Greeks with India after that event, it is quite possible that the influence and 
borrowing were in both directions. 

39. We have seen how, under the New Persian Dynasty, and afterwards 
under the Caliphs, with the spread of Islam, the Indian stories were carried over 
western Asia and all southern and western Europe. But this is not all. The pious 
pilgrims to India from China took home with them Buddhist apologues, which were 
translated into Chinese, and wandered then to Korea and Japan. They have since 
been translated from Chinese into French by Stanislas Julien (Les Avaddnas, Paris, 
1859). Among the Mongols, too, Benfey has discovered many of these apologues; 
and through the Mongols during their supremacy these stories came to the Slavic 
peoples, and even to the Finns and Samoyeds. 

40. BIBLIOGRAPHY. First the titles of some books cited often below. 

[1. Pali.] The Jataka, together with its com- 
mentary, being tales of the anterior births of Gotama 
Buddha. For the first time edited in the original 
Pali, by V. Fausboll. London, Triibner & Co., 1877-. 

Buddhist birth stories; or Jataka tales. Trans- 
lated by T. \V. Rhys Davids. London, Trubner & 
Co., 1880. Vol. 1 (the only one) goes to Jataka 40. 
It contains very useful lists of books illustrating the 
history and migrations of Buddhist tales. 

[2. Sanskrit.] Pantschatantra : Fiinf Bucher 
indischer Fabeln, Marchen und Erzahlungen. Aus 
dem Sanskrit ubersetzt rait Einleitung und Anmer- 
kungen von Theodor Benfey. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 
1859. 2 volumes. See p. xviii, no. 8. This work is 
cited as "Benfey." The fables are cited by the 
numbers of Benfey and Kosegarten. 

[3. Old Syriac version.] Kalilag und Damnag. 
Alte syrische Uebersetzung des indischen Fiirsten- 
spiegels. Text und deutsche Uebersetzung von 
Gustav Bickell. Mil einer Einleitung von Theodor 
Benfey. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1876. 

[4. Arabic.] Kalila and Dimna, or the fables 
of Bidpai. Translated from the Arabic. By the 
Rev. Wyndhnm Knatchbull. Oxford, 1819. 

Calila und Dimna, oder die Fabeln Bidpai's. Ver- 
deutscht von Ph. Wolff. Stuttgart, 1839. 2 vols. 

[5. Later Syriac version.] Kalilah and Dim- 
nah or the fables of Bidpai : being an account of 
their literary history, with an English translation of 
the later Syriac version of the same, and notes. By 
I. Q. N. Keith-Falconer. Cambridge University 
Press, 1885. Price 7 shillings 6 pence. 

[6. Persian.] The Anvar-i Suhaili; or, the 
lights of Canopus; being the Persian version of the 
fables of Pilpay : literally translated into prose 
and verse. By Edward B. Eastwick. Hertford, 
1854. There is another translation by A. N. Wollas- 
ton, London, 1877. 

[7. Latin.] Directorium humane vite alias 
parabojle antiquorti sapientu.) By John of Capua. 
(Sine loco et anno, gothic type, folio, 82 leaves, 
quaint wood-cuts.) Copy in Harvard College Library. 
Printed about 1480. Joseph Derenbourg is now pub- 
lishing a critical edition of this work, with notes, 
Paris, Vieweg, 1887-. 

[8. German.] Das Buch der Beispiele der 
alien Weisen. Herausgegeben von Dr. W. L. Hol- 
land. Stuttgart, 1860. 



41. THE LITERARY HISTORY of the Indian apologues has often been treated. 
So by Silvestre de Sacy, Loiseleur Deslongchamps, H. H. Wilson (Works, London, 
1864, iv. 1-159), Lancereau (in his Pantchatautra, Paris, 1871), Max Muller (On the 
migration of fables, Chips, London, 1875, iv. 145-209), Rhys Davids (Introduction 
to his translation of the Jatakas, London, 1880), J. Schoenberg(in the very readable 
introduction to his German translation of the Hitopadeca, Vienna, 1884). Keith- 
Falconer's account is on the whole the best ( 40). 

The French translation of the Hitopade9a by E\ Lancereau (Paris, Maisonneuve, 
1882) is especially useful on account of the full and convenient references to the 
books where the analogues of the different fables may be found. This book is 
intended by the citation " Lancereau." 

42. EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS. The most accessible text edition is that 
of Professor Peter Peterson (Bombay, Government Central Book Depot, 1887. Price 
1 rupee 10 annas). It contains an introduction most helpful for reading the text 
in course. It forms no. xxxiii of the Bombay Sanskrit Series. The text edition 
used most often as a standard of reference is that of Schlegel and Lassen (Bonn, 

A literal English version has been given by Fr. Pincott (London, W. H. Allen, 
1880). A cheap reprint of Wilkins's translation appeared in Henry Morley's Uni- 
versal Library (London and Xew York, Routledge, 1885). 

43. METRES. Aside from the common cloka see p. 300, 21 there occur 
in this book several other metres requiring description. The following five are 
monoschematic i.e. the stanza consists of one metrical scheme four times repeated. 
The first two are simple and natural iambic-choriambic rhythms and are common in 
the Veda. The name vasanta-tilaka means 'Grace of the spring-time'; malini, 
' Garlanded ' ; rathoddhata seems to mean ' Car-proud.' 

a. ^^.\j^-\\j\j\\jl.\j jagati, 22 1 *. 

b. L/.V\VVJ!.\^JLV tristubh, 26*. 

c. _Zw-^|^vyw|-il^v^-^|v/^_ vasanta-tilaka, 18 1 *, 26 s . 

d. v4v^vy|<$^^|-_H-vyj| v I malini, 22 23 . 

e. ^wZ|v^ww^|wZw^ rathoddhata, 56 11 . 

The tristubh is simply a catalectic form of the jagati; but the catalexis gives the new 
cadence a trochaic effect instead of iambic. The rhythm of the vasanta-tilaka is 
closely analogous to that of the tristubh. The rathoddhata is essentially similar 
to a jagati without its anacrusis. 

44. THE arya METRE is based on the number of morae not on Thus: 
the number of syllables. See Whitney, 76-79. A light syllable counts - 
as one mora; a heavy syllable, as two. In general, the ary-foot con- _ ^ w 
sists of four morae. These appear either as two heavy syllables, or with w ^ 
one heavy one at the beginning or at the middle or at the end, or as wv/ 
four light syllables. In each half-stanza, a caesura occurs at the end of ^ 

the third foot, and the eighth or last foot of each half-stanza is catalectic. 
The sixth foot of the first half-stanza must be an amphibrach, \j \, t and that 


I PAGE 17. 

of the second must be a single light syllable. No odd foot may be an amphibrach. 
The metre occurs at 26 3 and 56 6 to 56 10 . The scheme is : 

Applying this scheme, for example, to 56 s - 6 , we have, with the proper resolutions 


LINE 16. SELECTION II. Preface and intro- 
duction to the Hitopade9a. U.f. samskrta^ 
ukti, ' cultivated expression.' 

17. See Vlda. ca belongs to nitiv-. 

19. grh-, 956*. iva, 'as if.' Join 
mrt- w. grh-. 


1. 'Just wisdom (is) the best thing, they 
say' (Vah). 

2. ' By reason of ' the qualities denoted 
by the three ablatives, 291 2 . 

3. ' The knowledge (of) weapons and the 
knowledge (of) books (are) two kinds-of- 
knowledge (for acquisition) that one may 

4. ' The first (is) for laughter is ridicu- 
lous.' This dative is explained at 287 mid. : 
similar uses 17 15 , 20 U . Vdr+a. 

5-6. U.f. yad nave na anyatha 
tad iha. ' Since ornamentation put upon 
an unburned dish does not change, therefore 
to children (297a) niti is communicated 
etc.,' i.e. as one decorates a dish before burn- 
ing it, in order to have the result permanent, 
so worldly wisdom should be taught to chil- 
dren while they are still young. Cf . Horace, 
Epist. i.2.67-70. -See iha. 

8. U.f. tatha anyasmat granthat. 7-8. 
' Friend-acquisition is delineated (by the 
author) drawing (his materials) from .' 
See page 311, 26. 

9. The Ramayana (i.36-44 = 37-45) and 
MBh. (iii. chap's 106-109) tell why and how 
Bh. brought the Ganges down from heaven. 
See also M. Williams, Indian Wisdom, p. 363. 

'Town having P. as name,' 1302. In 

Buddhist books it is called Patali-gama, 
'Trumpet-flower Village.' Wilson thinks 
Patali-putra is a mere corruption of Patali- 
pura, ' Trumpet-flower City.' This certainly 
accords well with the K'usumo-pulo (Skt. 
Kusuma-pura, ' Flower-City ') of the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrims see Beal, Si-yu-ki, ii.83- 
85. The Katha-sarit-sagara (chap, iii.) gives 
a legend telling how the town was founded 
by a king Putraka and his wife Patali. 
This is perhaps an invention suggested by 
the corrupted form. 

The site of P. is discussed at length in 
Cunningham's Archaeological Survey of India 
Reports, viii.1-34 and Note prefixed to the 
vol. See also Journ. As. Soc. of Bengal, 
xiv.HSTf, with map. 

10. Divide thus, sarva-svamiguna ; not 
sarvasvami-guna : upeta, Vi+upa. King S. 
need not be regarded as a historical person. 

11. gugrava, Vgru, 793a, 800b. 

12-13. Construe yasya na asti (see 
v'las2) gastram, andha eva (see this) sas 
(asti) : -ucchedi and dargakam are attri- 
butive adjectives to gas-, and loc- is in 
apposition w. gas-. 

15. 'One by itself, even (api), is harmful 
(17 4 N.) ; but how much more (kim4) all four 
together ! ' 

16-17. See iti2 and akarnaya. 'The 
king, distressed (udvignamanas, 418) by the 
shaster-neglect (-ananusthanena) of his (at- 
manas) sons, who did not study books (see 
1308 2 ) 

18. See Ikal. 'What profit (is there) 
with a son born, i.e. in the birth of a son, 
who '. 

Observe the use of the ppl. where we 
use a verbal ncun : this is common in San- 

TO j 

PAGE 17. i 


skrit, e.g. 17 22 , 25 12 , 3S 23 , and also in Latin, 
e.g. post conditam urbem. 
19 b is the answer to 19 a . 

20. ' Of (the three,) an unborn (i.e. no 
son at all), a dead one, and (1253a) a fool, 
' : see 2vara. See ca5. 

21. U.f. duhkhakarau (supply stas) 

22. See ca3. jato, lit. '(is) born'; 
pregnantly, 'is born in reality or to some 
noble purpose.' 


1. Respecting the metempsychosis, see 
65 9 to 68 8 and notes, va marks the rhe- 
torical question as a rejoinder to an objec- 
tor's statement. jayate, lit. 'is born,' 
sjan, refers to the mere physical fact of 
issuing from the womb. 

Render the proverb: 'He (alone) is 
born in reality, by whose birth (see 17 18 N.) 
his family attains to distinction : or (if you 
object to that), who, in the circling round of 
existence, when dead, does not come out of 
some womb again 1 ?' True, every one does 
so issue ; but the fact by itself has no noble 

The entire point lies in the antithesis 
between the mg of jayate and the pregnant 
sense of jato. Such pregnant uses of a word 
are common in gnomic poetry : so 21 23 , 22 5 . 

2. ' The best thing is one good son ; but 
(ca5) not with even hundreds of fools (is 
there any profit).' The ellipsis though 
harsh and condemnable is made clear by 
such phrases as that at 17 18 and the others 
under Ika 1. 

3 b . Supply tamo hanyate. 

4 a . See ta3. For gen., 296b. -'Though 
born (of whomsoever = ) of humble parent- 

5. See Vlkr6. Note the puns in vanga- 
viguddhas and nirgunas, which words thus 
stand in covert and playful contrast w. yasya 
tasya prasutas and gunavan. 

6. U.f. na adlnta (see vi+adhi) etasu. 

7. See vidvans. See go. Vsad2. 
Send. Passives, 770c, 769. U.f. yad 

ca ucyate, explained under ya2. 
9. ' What is not to be, that will not be : 

if it is to be, then it will not be otherwise' : 
the do-nothing argument or ignava ratio. 
See ced: na, if it belonged to the protasis, 
would precede ced. 

10. ' This remedy, embraced-in-the- 
words (=iti) " What otherwise," why 
is it not drunk ? ' Vlpa, 770b. 

Lines 9-10 are in apposition w. yad (end 
of 8), and contain the "sloth-talk" con- 
demned in line 11. 

12. ' One should not give up his exertion 
(udyogam), thinking, "Fate (will do or pre- 
vent all)."' 

14. Metre, vaaanta-tilaka, p. 316, 43. 
U.f. upa^,eti laksmis. 

16. Vhan+ni, 992 2 . -kuru, 714. -atma- 
has the force of a possessive of the second 
person here: cf. atman-'J. 

17 The loc. absolute expresses one con- 
dition, and yadi na sidhyati a second. 

20-21. The collective result of a man's 
words and thoughts and deeds is his kar- 
man ; this alone exists after death and is a 
powerful determinant of his course in the 
next birth. kuryat, cf. 25 21 N. 

23. suptasya, 954b. 


1. See tavant2. 

2. See tavant2. U.f . kim cid na. 

3. kar-, made (959) from the past pass 
ppl -f the cans, of Vlkr, 1051 3 . 

4. See Vgru3 and 770a. asti kag cid 
'is there anyone ? ' see yal. 

5. putranam limits punarjanma. Cf 
17 16 . 

7. dhatte, Vldha9, 668. 

9. Myate, cf. piyate, 18 10 and N. 

11. See atral. Long cpd is analyzed 
at 1248 2 . 

Visnugarman, if not the name of a real 
person, is chosen as a reminder of the synon- 
ymous Visnugupta, an epithet of Canakya, 
the wise and famous minister of Candra 
gupta = 'SavdpoKVTTTos or 2a vdpditoTTos. See 
Benfey, Pantch. i.31, and Bohtlingk, Indischc 
Spriiche, 2d ed., no. 7061. Cf . above, p. 311, 

13. U.f. tad, 161. -Explained vfgakAl 

14. U.f. na adravye. nihita, 954c. 


PAGE 31. 

15. Pass, of caws, of Vpath, 1052a. 

16. U.f. asmin (208) tu na apatyam. 
20. U.f. -sangat, 'by sticking to ,' 


22. ' You (are) an authority for .' 

23. For gen., 297a. sam-arpitavan, 
like karitavan, 19%. : Vr+sam, 1042d. 


2. ' By way of introduction.' 

3. See \fgam2. 

5. 'Tale of the crow, tortoise, and so 
fortli ' (-adi2), not given in this Reader. 

7. Vstu+pra (770a) cf . prastava. 

8. SELECTION III. The old tiger and the 
traveller. Hitopadepa, book i., fable 2. 
The motif of this tale is feline hypocrisy 
(whether of tiger or of cat), and appears 
again in selection v., as also in Pancatantra, 
iii.2, Kalilag und Damnag, p. 65f, MBh.v. 
160.15-43 = 5421-49, Jataka, i. p. 460, no. 128. 
Cf. 21 23 N. 

aham, namely, the Pigeon-king, who 
tells this story to dissuade his followers 
from taking the rice with which a snare was 
baited. carann, 210. See ekaS. The 
ablution and sacred grass were intended as 
outward symbols of inward piety. A pre- 
tender to virtue is called ' one who acts like 
a cat,' see Manu iv.195. 

11. Observe the impersonal construction 
(999), which will now be extremely fre- 
quent. Logical subject in instr., 282. See 
Vkrs fa and Vloc+a. 

12. See kim4. asminn, 210. 

13 a . 'In getting even a desirable (object) 
from an undesirable (source) ' e.g. brace- 
let from tiger. 

14. Observe caesura and exact order of 
original. mrtyave, ' (is) deadly/ 17*N. 

16-17. Nothing venture, nothing have. 
Join na w. pagyati (16). Both gerund- 
clauses are conditional. 

18. U.f. tad. -See tavantSa. 

19. pra-sarya, 1051 and 5 . 

20. U.f. prak eva, 'formerly,' w. em- 
phasis : eva, as much as to say, ' not now, 
of course' preliminary hint at a general 
reformation of character. 


1. Note how Brahmans are distinguished 
from men : so 95 1 . U.f. -vadhat me, 'from 
my killing , because I killed.' 

2. Another me need not be expressed with 
putras and daras : whose they are is clear 
from nirvango 'smi. 

3. upadistas: the upadega consisted of 
the three words marked by iti. 

4. U.f. -upadegat, ' in accordance with 
(his) advice,' 291. 

5. katham na, sc. asmi. 

6. Cpd, 1253a : 2d member, adhyayana. 

7. See iti 3. "The noble eight-fold 
(astavidha) path " is a favorite Buddhist 
topic. Buddha defines it in the famous 
" Sermon at Benares." See smrta3. 

8. See tatra 1 : ' among those (eight 

9. U.f. na a-mahatmasu, emphatic litotes. 

10. U.f. ca etavan, 206. See gata4. 
11-12. Seeya5. -Seetatha4. -'The 

common saying, " vyaghro khadati " 
is .' 

13-14. Third word is kuttamm. See 
pramanaya. Cow-slaying is a heinous 
offence (64 8 ), coordinated with man-slaying, 
21 1 . A dvija's 'second or spiritual (61 15 ) 
birth ' is when he is invested with the sacred 
girdle, Manu ii.169. 

'The world keeps on in the old ruts, 
and does not, in a question of right, take as 
authority a bawd who gives good advice as 
(quickly as it does) a Brahman, even if he 
be a cow-killer.' People heed the social 
position of the adviser rather than the real 
character of the adviser or the intrinsic 
value of the advice. 

15. adhltani, Vi+adhi: cf . 20 n N. 

16 b . ' So (is) food (in = ) to a hungry man.' 

17. ' To a poor man (304a) is given a 
fruitful gift,' i.e. fruitful is the gift given to a 
poor man cf. 22* and St. Luke vi.33-36. 
Observe that the logically important idea 
is often put in a grammatically subordinate 

18. See atman3 and Vlis+abhi. Cf. 
Dhammapada, stanza 129, and SEE. x.36. 

20. Note the use or the omission of ca 

PAGE 21. 


according to the convenience of the metre : 
so 221 8 , 26 1 - 2 , 32 4 ' 5 . 

Lines 18-21 are positive forms of the 
Golden Rule : cf . St. Luke vi.31 ; interesting 
negative forms appear at MBh.v.39.72-73 
1517-18, at the beginning of the Aidaxb T&V 
dtadexa a.voffr6\u>v, in the Confucian Analects 
xv. 23, Legge's edition, and in the Babylonian 
Talmud (Story of Hillel). 

22. matrvat = mataram iva : similarly 
the rest. The accusatives are objects of 
the first pagyati (Vlpag6). 

23. Second pagyati, pregnantly, cf. 18%. 
This proverb, along with the one quoted 

I by the cat at 29 s , is quoted in substance by 
the hypocritical cat in the tale of the ' Cat 
as Judge,' Kalilag, p. 66. Cf . 208s. 

2t>. U.f. pra-yaccha (747) igvare, 304a. 

3. See Ika 1. The idea is identical with 
that in St. Luke v.31. 

4. datavyam (999) iti, ' with the thought 
"It ought to be given (impers.), i.e. giving 
is a duty." ' 

5 a . Words used pregnantly, cf. 18 1 N. 

6. v'grah+prati, 722 end. 

7. U.f. yavat asau (= panthas) tavat 
ni-magnas (v'majj). 

9. See atasl. v'stha+ud, 233a, caus. 

11. Metre, jagati, p. 316, 43. -'The 
fact that " He reads the law-books " is not 
a ground for a judgment ' that the reader 
be he man or tiger has a good and harm- 
less nature. 

13. 'Just the inherent nature here (atra) 
is the surpassingly predominant thing (Vric 
+ati) so . 

14. 'as by nature cows' (361c) milk is 
sweet.' Religious study will not change 
the bad inborn nature of a man or a tiger 
any more than sugar would turn sour milk 
back into sweet milk again. Compare lines 

15. ' Of those having uncontrolled senses 
and mind, the (religious) action is like the 
bathing of elephants,' i.e. is mere external 
action and without significance as an index 
of character. One might infer from their 

frequent ablutions that the elephants were 
very religiously minded. Cf . 36 6 N. 

16. 'Knowledge, without action (to cor- 
respond), is a burden, like .' 

17. Explained under yad2. 

18. Use of ca, 21 20 N. Instead of -pani- 
nam, we have, for sake of metre, -panlnam, 
as if from -panin. 

19. See eva. Note that the gen. and 
loc. here express the same relation. So the 
dat. and loc. above, lines 4-5. 

20. Viks+pari, ' are considered ' (namely, 
by wise people) = ' should be considered': 
so Malavika i.17, karana-kopas, ' are (only) 
cause-angry ' ' should not be angry with- 
out a cause.' Cf . 41 13 >\ 

21. vi+ati, 992. See guna2, and note 
the difference between that and svabhava. 

22. Metre, malini, p. 316, 43. 


1. 'Even yonder (asau) moon (sky- 
wandering, etc., p. 22) is eclipsed (grasyate) 
.' The demon Rahu got a part of the 
drink of immortality cf . 32 12 N. The Sun 
and Moon betrayed him to Visnu, who cut off 
his head. The head, grown immortal, avenges 
itself on Sun and Moon by swallowing them 
at times. Cf. introd. to selection xl. 

2. ' Who is able to wipe out (Vunch) ? ' 
The Hindus thought that every one's destiny 
was written on his brow, although invisible 
to human eye. Like enough the sutures 
of the skull, which look very similar to the 
written characters of some Indian alphabets, 
gave rise to this belief. Now-a-days, writing 
materials are placed beside the new-born 
babe in the lying-in room, in order that 
Vidhatr may write the child's destiny on its 
forehead. See Shib Chunder Bose, The 
Hindoos as they are, 2d ed., p. 25. 

4. SELECTION IV. The deer and the crow, 
and the jackal. Hitopadera, book i., fable 
3. In the Indian fables, the jackal plays 
the role which the fox plays in the Euro- 
pean ; see Pane, book iii., stanza 73 ed. Kose- 
garten, = 76 ed. Bombay. 

5. bhramyan, 763. 


j PAGE 25. 

7. U.f. etad. bhavatu, see this under 

8. 'I'll first get his confidence.' -U.f. 
upa-srtya, 992. 

11. a-sadya, grd of cans. 

12. adhuna etc., explained at 999. 

13. astam gate etc., loc. absolute. 
17-18. 'This (ayam) is the jackal, (who 

is) come seeking (icchann) .' 

19. See VyujS. 

20. ' (Is) not to be given to any one (gen. 
297a) whose .' 

21. The story which is announced in this 
line, and which the crow tells to serve as the 
" example " to the saw of line 20, is inserted 
in the original between this line and ity 
akarnya (24 1 ), but is here taken out for the 
sake of continuity and given separately as 
selection v. cf. p. 29 end. 


1. iti refers to the story in selection v. 
Vah. mrgasya, subjective gen. w. 
-dargana-. U.f. bhavan api, 'you (= the 
crow) too ' no less than I (the jackal) now. 

2-3. U.f. adya yavat (see yavant 3) 
etasya ( = mrgasya) sneha^anuvrttis. 

5. Ppl. of v'2as+nis forms possessive cpd 
w. padape, see 1299. -U.f. dege, 133. 

6. ' " ayam va " is the ganana of / 
i.e. only the small-minded take into account 
or stop to ask whether or not a man belongs 
to their own party or race. 

7. See eva. The proverb expresses a 
truth that underlies the doctrine of free- 

9. U.f. kim (see Ikal) anena (501) ut-. 
Join anu-bhavadbhis (741) w. sarvais. 

10. sthiyatam, see VsthaS ; imv. pass., 
770b, used impers., 999. ' Let all remain in 
one place, enjoying pleasure by means of 
familiar conversations.' 

11. 'No one is any one's friend, no one 
any one's foe ' i.e. by nature ; we must 
have actual dealings (vyavahara) with each 
other to bring out the friendship or enmity. 

14. U.f. etasmin eva vana^ekadege = 
(see 1316) etasya eva vanasya ekadege, cf. 

16. tatha sati, read 303b 4 and cf . Vlas3. 

18. U.f. baddhas, 160. mam, object 
of tratum. Join itas (= asmat) with 

19. (ko) rait r ad any as, 'who other than 
my friend who but him." 

20. U.f. a-gatya upa-sthitas. See 
denom. \phala 

21-22. U.f. etasya ( = mrgasya) utkrt- 
yamanasya (Vkrt) mansa_asrg-anuliptani 
asthini (431) maya . 

23. v'las+ud, cf. 162. - chinddhi, Vchid, 
689. -Seetavant3b. 


2. U.f. janiyat (730, 721 ' one may 
recognize'), yuddhe guram, rne gucim. 

3. bharyam, ' a true wife,' one who has 
really taken her husband "for richer for 
poorer." V2ksi. 

4-5. A friend in need (as well as in joy) 
is a friend indeed. 

6-7. 'Firm-bond-bound indeed (see ta- 
vant5) is this deer.' The jackal 'thought' 
this he did not say it aloud. 

7. -nirmitas, Vlma+nis. Properly, the 
Hindus designated the days as first, second, 
third, etc. of the lunar half-month see 
tithi. For the (comparatively modern) 
names of the days as governed successively 
(like those of our week) by the seven planets, 
see JAOS. vi.176-7. 

8. etan = pagan : cf . the ecclesiastical 
prohibition of meat on Fridays. End, see 
Vmanl . 

9. U.f. yad tvaya ucyate, tad , ' what 
you say, that I'll do.' 

10. See sthita 4. 

11. U.f. mrgam anagatam (cf. 4 15 N.) 
ava-lokya, itas tatas anv-isya, tathavidh- 
am drstva, uvaca. Note how the gerunds 
mark each the end of its clause ; so 26 16 . 

12. avadhirita-, under the denom. Vava- 
dhiraya. ' This is the result of rejected 
friend-words = (17 18 N.) of rejecting them.' 

15. ' His trouble is near ' (Vldha+sam-ni). 

18-19. 'The fact that "I've done no 
wrong " that is not a ground of confidence 
(cf. 22 11 ); for there is (V2vid3), from the 
malicious, danger even for the good : ' al- 
though having done to the bad no wrong 

PAGE 25. ' 


calling for revenge they might fairly ex- 
pect to be let alone. 

21. Vvrj, 'one should shun' subject in- 
definite : this is very common, when the 3d 
pers. optative is used ; e.g. 18 21 , 26 5 , 30 17 . 


1-2. Metre, tristubh, p. 316, 43. -Note 
use of ca cf. 21 20 N. Vlap+aam, pass, 
ppl. of cans. See grad and 668. The 
four genitives refer to arthinam. See 
kim3. Line 2 b , ' Is there a to-be-practised- 
deceit of the needy, i.e. ought they to be 
deceived 1 ' 

3-4. Metre, arya, p. 316, 44. -' Who 
perpetrates wrong upon (loc.) .' U.f. 
a-satyasamdham. bhag-, voc. e.fem. 

5. See 2sama 2. kar-, see Vlkr, caws, 
end, and 25 21 N. 

6. U.f. ca angaras : see calb end. 

7. atha va = ' or rather, to express myself 
more to the point, this (iyam) is the way 
(sthitis) of scoundrels.' 

8. Metre, vasanta-tilaka, p. 316, 43. 

9. ' In your ear pleasantly something 
beautiful he gently hums (Vru).' 

10. Gerund of v/riipaya+ni. 

12. Anacoluthon: 'a scoundrel, though 
(see ca 6) saying pleasant things, that is 
not a ground of confidence (= 25 18b ) : ' i.e. 
'a scoundrel may say ; but that's no 
reason for trusting him.' 

14. U.f. laguda-hastas (1303 2 ) tarn 
agacchan ava-. 

16. See Vdr+3am and Vlpr. Note how 
the three gerunds mark each the end of its 
clause : cf . 25 U N. See Vstha4. 

17. utthaya, 233a ; gerund. 

17-18. 'The deer waited just so as the 
crow said.' 

18. U.f. harsa^,utphulla-locanena, ' hav- 
ing joy -expanded eyes, his eyes wide open 
with joy.' 

19. asau = the farmer. 

19-2O. Note the position of the gerunds 
as a help to the correct phrasing. 

20. U.f. bandhanat, 290 ; not ace. 

21. 'The farmer having withdrawn,' Vi+ 

22-23. See die, -Hud, 'The jackal was 
killed by the farmer, throwing the cudgel 
at him in anger.' 

1-2. ' One reaps the fruit right here on 
earth, (with = ) after three , (or) three 
days,' i.e. sooner or later. 

3. In the original, the fables always begin 
with the moral, which is then repeated at the 
end, in abbreviated form, with the introduc- 
tory words, ' Therefore I say.' This arrange- 
ment is retained, e.g., 32 10 -33 7 . 

4. See 1181a end. 

5. 'Trap-caught (from the jackal, 291 = ) 
by his plots.' 

6. SELECTION V. The blind vulture, the 
birdlings, and the cat. Hitopade9a, book i., 
fable 4. Cf . 20 8 N., 21 23 N. 

The Vulture-peak, Pali Gijjhakuta, is 
near Rajagrha, and famous as a sojourn of 

7. 'From the evil issue of fate = as hard 
fate would have it.' 

8. Instr., 280 end. 

9. U.f. sva^aharat. See Ika 2d and 
1260. -Vlda, 668. 

10. Use of inf., 981 3 . 

11. U.f. tarn a-yantam, 619. 

12. See lidam near end: ' rts 8' ovros 

14. U.f . api : the idea is, ' To say nothing 
of my disappointment at not getting the 
young birds to eat, I'm so very near the 
vulture that even escape is impossible.' 

15. Same phrase at 23 8 . 

17. U.f. duram apasara (classical pres. 
imv. Vsr+apa) : no ced, ban- (163). 

20. ' Is any one ever punished (or) hon- 
ored on account of mere rank ? ' 


2. The lunar penance is described 65 5 ~ 8 . 

3. U.f. acaran tisthami, see v'stha4. 
U.f. yusman ( = vulture, respectful plu- 
ral) object of stuvanti. dharma-jnana- 
ratan, see v/ram3. 

5-6. 'And you (it seems, are) such (eta- 
drgas, q.v.) a jurisconsult that you (have) 


i PAOB 3O. 

undertaken (Vyam + ud) to slay me a 
guest ! ? ' 

6. U.f. esas (see etad) refers forward 
here ! On the duty of hospitality, see Manu 
iii. 99f. Vir+sam-ud. 

7. 'To an enemy (arau, 304) even, 
should be shown.' So Plautus says, Trin. 
679 and Rud. 438, that one does not withhold 
fire and water even from a foe. 

8. U.f. chettum api ag- na up-, 'even 
(in the case of one = ) from one come to hew 
(it) down .' 

lO b . ' And joyous or kind (sunrta, as adj., 
omitted in vocab.) words as a fourth thing.' 
11. U.f. na uc-, Vchid+ud, 202. 
13 b . See v'gam+abhy-a, and guru3. 

14. Render loc. by ' towards.' Cf. 21 19 . 

15. cand-, loc. as in 28 8 . 

16-17. yasya limits grhat and refers to 
tasmai (and to a tasmat, understood w. 
ardaya). sa = atithis. dat-tva, 991 cf. 
955c. See Vgaml. 

21. First evam, ' so,' namely as at 27 17 . 

21-22. Touching the feet (Nalaxxiv.) or 
the head (Manu viii.114) was a kind of ordeal 
used in solemn asseverations in order to call 
down harm on the one touched in case of 
falsehood ; at Hitopade9a, p. 122 5 = book iv., 
fable 11 (cf. Pane, book i., fable 11), touch- 
ing the ground and ears seems to be a sign 
of detestation for a suggestion just made. 
Here the touching seems to partake of both 

23. U.f. -ragena idam adhy-ava- 
sayitam, Vsa. 

1-2. U.f. iti atra aika-: see atral. 'The 
law-books, though contradicting (Vvadivi) 
, have unanimity on this point, " ahinsa 
paramo dharmas : " ' ahinsa is a cardinal 
virtue among Buddhists. 

3. See nivrtta. See ya3. 

4. svarga- : for lingual n, see 193. 

5. 'There is just one friend, virtue, 
who ; : ' cf . 63 18 N. and 18 ; also 21 28 N. 

6. U.f. sarvam anyad hi (163) 'for all 
else' (but virtue). 

7-8. See ya6, 2antara3, and Vmuc+vi. 
9-1O. See iti2a and c,akya3. -Lit. 'What 

sorrow (of a=) in a man arises at , by 
this f orming-of-a-conception : ' we should 
expect tad-anumanena as cpd, ' by forming 
a conception of this (sorrow).' If we will 
think how we should feel if we were in our 
enemy's place and about to die, it is possible 
that we may spare even his life. 

11-12. Vlpr+pra, 770c. -kah kuryat 
(714), rhetorical question, cf. IS 1 ?*. 

13. vi-gvasya, grd of caus., 1051 and 8 . 

15. U.f. yesam , tais vi-lapadbhis. 

16. Vrabh, 160. -U.f. kotarat. 

18. -asthini, 431. U.f. " anena ( = 
grdhrena) eva khaditas " iti nic,citya, 

21-22. The story winds up with the dis- 
tich given p. 23 end, cf. N. 

1. SELECTION VI. The ass, the dog, and 
the thief. Hitopade9a, book ii., fable 3. 
Weber thinks that the attribution of stupid- 
ity to the ass in the Sanskrit fables is wholly 
un-Indian and due to foreign (western) in- 

4. tj v.-m. -i in, 427. aha, 801a. See 
tavant5. See iti2b. 

5. See V3gr and 1020, and cf . 30 16 . 

6. mama, Bohtlingk's suggestion; MSS. 
read mama. janasi, 730. 

7. See yatha7. etasya ( = rajakasya) 
limits grha-, 1316. See yatas2 : correl. 
tena. See Vlvr+nis. 

8. Second mama (gen., 297a) depends on 
-dane, 1316. 

12. U.f. sam-bhavayet (caus. ) yas tu kar-, 
'who honors them (only) in the time for 
action, i.e. waits till he is in a strait before 
he treats them well.' 

13. SeeVri+a. Caesura here divides a 
cpd ; this is very unusual. 

15. U.f. paplyan (208,464) tvam (sc. asi). 

16. Explained under yatha6. 

17-18. U.f. sevayet, subject indef., cf. 
25 21 N. -U.f. a-mayaya. -19. Readso'tiva. 

2O. U.f. -kopat, abl. 291. 'Because of 
anger at , he got up (992) and beat (Vtad, 
1070) .' 

22 and 31 1 . U.f. para^adhikara- 
-icchaya. See Vsad+vi. 

PAGE 31. 1 



2. SELECTION VII. The lion, the mouse, 
and the cat. Hitopac^a, book ii., fable 4. 

3. See Vlgi+adM, 629, and 619. 

4. buddhva, 991, 160. -4-5. 'Not 
catching the hole-hidden mouse .' 

6. U.f. bhavet yas tu, vikramat na , 
lit. ' Who is a % he is not subdued by might/ 
with a play on the name of the lion. 

8-9. Note position of gerunds, each mark- 
ing the end of its clause. ' A cat was kept 
(dhrtas) by him (tena), reflecting, going, 

satisfying, bringing.' mansa^adi- 
ahara, 'flesh-etc.-food.' 

9 end. U.f. tad-bhayat, ' from fear of it 
(i.e. the cat).' 

1O. \sr-r nis, Epic present, 734. U.f.asau. 

13. U.f. samcaran, 208. 

14. See kada end. 

15. See 17"N. -U.f. tada (correl. of 
yada) upayoga^abhavat tasya : the gen. 
depends (297a) on -dane (1316); cf. 30 8 N. 

18. 'A servant, making (=if he made) 

, would be or fare (syat, 636) like D.' 

19. SELECTION VIII. The crows and 
the serpent. Hitopadefa, book ii., fable 10. 
It is told by Damanaka to Karataka (see 
p. 312, 29), and into it is inserted the story 
of the lion, the old hare, and the well (selec- 
tion Lx., see 32 12 N.), told by the crow to the 

Selection viii. answers to Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 6, which is told in like manner 
by Damanaka. He makes the crow and 
crow-hen ask a jackal for advice, and the 
latter tells them the inserted story of the 
heron, the fishes, and the crab (= selection 
xviii.). Damanaka then finishes his story 
about the crows (= selection viii.), and fur- 
ther enforces its moral by the story of the 
lion (selection ix.). The motif of selection 
viii. is analogous to that of selection xvi., 
cf . 39 8 N. A few references for further 
comparison : 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 12, 13. 

Arabic. Knatchbull, p. 113, 115. Wolff, 1.40, 44. 

Later Syriac version, p. 23-26. 

Anvar-i BuhailT, book i., story 11. 

Directorium, Cap. II., p. 7 and p. 9 of signature c. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 353, sgie. 
Benfey, i.167 f ; ii.57. Lancereau, p. 332. 

U.f. kasmin cid tarau apatyani. 


1. ' By a tree-hollow-abiding-black-serpent' 
see v'stha+ava. 

2. tyajyatam, 771.4. 

3. U.f. tavat avayos (491) : see kada. 
4-5. U.f. bhrtyas ca ut-. ca, cf . 21 20 N. 

mrtyus is predicate. See eva. 

6. etasya = sarpasya. 

7. sodhas, v'sah, 954, 222 3 , 224b. -aha, 
801a. anena, 501. 

9. See alam w. instr. : anaya, 501. 

10. Knowledge is power. ' Whose is wit, 
might is his ; but of a witless one, whence is 
the might ?' Repeated at the end, 33", as a 
quod erat demonstrandum. 

11. Just as before (23 21 , see N.), this line 
announces the tale which serves as an 
" example " to the aphorism of line 10. 

12. SELECTION IX. The lion, the old hare, 
and the well. Hitopade9a, book ii., fable 
11. See31 19 N. 

Selection ix. answers to Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 8. The Buddhist version, the 
Banyan Deer Jataka, has deep moral sig- 
nificance as showing the beauty of self- 
sacrifice and the excellence of loving "all 
things, both great and small." This Jataka 
is mentioned by name and illustrated on the 
bas-reliefs of the tope or Stupa of Bharhut, 
Cunningham, plate xxv, dating from 200 
B.C. or earlier. In the Sanskrit forms, the 
Jataka has developed into a simple story 
that shows how the weak animals get the 
better of a powerful tyrant, not by force, 
but by cunning. Somadeva gives the story 
at lx.91-107. Compare further 

Pali. Jataka, no. 12: translation, i. p. 205. 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 14. 

Arabic. Kalila. Knatchbull, p. 117. Wolff, i.46. 

Later Syriac version, p. 27. 

Anvar-i Suhaill, book i., story 14. 

Directorium, Cap. II., p. 10 of signature c. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 37 1 . 

Benfey, i.179 ; ii.62. Lancereau, p. 333. 

The first three phrases of this line (12) 
are specimens of the regular conventional 
way of introducing the fables. The myth- 


i PAGE 34. 

ical mount Mandara was used by the gods 
as a churning-stick when they churned the 
ocean to get the drink of immortality cf. 
23 ! N. In this book, a real hill may be in- 
tended, namely Mandara, a little south of 
Bhagalpur, on the Ganges, east of Magadha. 

14. See Vdha+vi5 and Vas3. Note that 
the gerund krtva goes with the logical sub- 
ject of the sentence. 

15. See Vjna+vi, cas., and 1042d 2 . 

17. 'If that is agreeable to you .' 

18. v'klp+upa, caus. See Vas3. 
2O-21. See hetu, ced, Ikal, and anu- 

naya. " I would put on my good be- 
havior, if I thought I had any chance of 
my life." 


1. U.f. apa-raddhas (v'radh) dhrtas 
agre. See 2antara 4. 

2. Note use of ace. w. caus., ' to cause my 
master to know : ' so mam, next line. 

4. tam=sinham. grhitva, seeVgrahl, 
and 254 8 . 

5. U.f. " pagyatu svami " iti uktva. 
tasmin kupa-j ale = tasya kupasya jale, 
cf. 24 14 N. tasya (= sinhasya) eva, 'his 

6. dare,-, 959, from caus. . U.f. asau 
(= sinhas) darpa^a-dhmatas (Vdham) tasya 
(= pratibimbasya) upari ('upon') . 

7-8. ' Therefore I say (the proverb) 
having yasya buddhir balarh tasya as its 
beginning,' 32 10 N. See ity-adi. 

9. The main story of the crows and the 
serpent is here resumed : cf. 31 19 N. 

10. .See vsad+a. a-gatya, 992. 

11. Vtr+ava, ppl. of caus. U.f. cancva 
dhrtva, aniya, 

12. ni-rupyamane, loc. absolute, pass. 
ppl. of denom. 

13. Gerundives have future force. 

14. 'That (plan) was carried out; that 
being done, that (predicted result of the plan) 
took place:' see under \stha ami _', and cf. 

16. U.f. kuryatConemaydo'J.yadna- 1 . 

18. SELECTION X. The birds and the apes. 
Hitopadeca, book iii., fable 2. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 18, which is itself only a sub- 
sidiary form of fable 17. This latter is given 
by Somadeva Ix. 205-210. Compare Jataka, 
no. 321 (vol. iii.), and further 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 28. 

Arabic. Kalila. Knatchbull, p. 150. Wolff, 1. 91. 

Later Syriac version, p. 55. 

Anvar-i Suhaill, book i., story 24. 

Directorium, Cap. II., p. 1, 2 of signature B. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 55". 

Benfey, i.269-271 ; ii.112 and 111. 

19. 'In the interior of constructed (\ma 
+nis) nests.' 

20. 'The sky being covered (a-vrte) with 
cloud-veils, as it were with dark-garments, 


1-2. U.f. avasthitan (203) gltartan 
kampamanan : 'by the birds, seeing , 
it was said.' 

3. ' We have constructed nests with straws 
brought hither (-ahrtais) by the beak- 
merely ' (see matra2, and references). 

4. 'Endowed with hands, feet, and so 
forth (see adi 2), why are you in distress 

6. U.f. tavat (see tavant3) vrstes upa- 
gamas, ' now there is a stopping of the rain.' 
Better perhaps, without the punctuation- 
bar after bhavatu: 'So let there be for a 
while a stopping of the rain,' i.e. 'wait till 
the rain stops a bit and we'll see about it.' 

8. bhagnas, Vbhafij, 957c. U.f. andani 
ca adhas. 

10. U.f. vidvan eva upa- : caesura ; na 
avid van tu. 

11. U.f. upadigya ajrian , yayus 
(Vya, 800c). 

12. SELECTION XI. The ass in the tiger- 
skin. Hitopade9a, book iii., fable 3. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book iv., fable 7, which has been worked 
over by Somadeva, lxii.19-23. Its oldest 
Hindu form is the Lion-skin Jataka. It 
seems to have been lacking in the Pehlevi 
version. Plato makes Socrates say, " Since 
I have put on the lion's skin, I must not be 
faint of heart " Kratylos, 411 A. The tale 

PAGE 34. 


appears in the Chinese Avadanas, vol.ii.,p. 
59, no. 91. Compare also 

Pali. Jataka, no. 189 (vol. ii.) ; transl., 1. p. v. 

Fab. Aesop., 'Ovos \eovryv <t>fptov, no. 336, ed. 

Lucian, Piscator, 32. [Halm. 

La Fontaine, book v., no. 21; Regnier, i. p. 431. 

Benfey, i.462-3; ii.308. 

13-14. ' By the washerman, covering (him ) 
with a tiger-skin, that one (asau=gardabhas) 
was let loose .' pracchadya, see v'l chad 
-t-pra, and 227. See v'muc, and 1051 8 . 

15. Seebuddhi2. 

16. See v'car3. -16-18. The instr. is 
logical subject of the impers. pass, sthitam: 
see sthita2 end, and 999. ' Having a-gray- 
blanket-made body-cover (1293), i.e. having 
covered himself with a gray blanket.' U.f. 
sajji-kjtya (992), avanata-kayena (v'nam), 

18-19. ' The ass, seeing , thinking 
" gardabhi iyam," making (714, ppl.) , 

20. See iti 2a end. 


1-2. See \'car3. See greyans and 464. 
paricchannas, Vlchad, 957d. 

3. SELECTION XII. The elephant, the 
hares, and the moon. Hitopadefa, book iii., 
fable 4. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book iii., fable 1, and is given by Somadeva 
at lxii.29-44. It is unquestionably of Hindu 
rather than Greek origin, since it turns on 
the Hindu belief that there is a hare in the 
moon (36 3 N.). Compare 

Old Syriac version. Ealilag, p. 63-65. 

Arabic. Knatchbull, p. 223. Wolff, i.192. 

Later Syriac version, p. 135-137. 

Anvar-i Subaili, book iv., story 4. 

Directorium, Cap. V., p. 10-11 of signature H. 

Bucb der Beispiele, p. 104 23 . 

Benfey, 1.348; ii.226. Lancereau, p. 337. 

U.f. varsasu api, vrstes abhavat, 
trsa_artas aha. 

5-6. ' And we, who from want of bathing 
are almost blind, where shall we go, or ? ' 

7-8. U.f. tattira^avasthitas -ahatibhis 
bahavas curnitas, ' were crushed in great 
numbers by the (blows, i.e.) tread of .' 

9-1O. a-huya, gerund. See sakulaya. 

U.f. eva atra agant-, see Vgam-i-a end. 
vinanksyati, see \lnag. 

11. visidata, see ssad, and 185. 

13. ' How shall I speak f ' See 

14. sprgann, etc., 210. See v'ghra. 
16-17. See v ! las3 and Vstha-anu, end. 
19. ucyatam, 769. 

2O-21. ' Even when the weapons are 
raised (udyatesu, \yarn), an envoy speaks 
not falsely ; always, because he is inviolable 
(sada eva avadhya-), he is, surely, the 
speaker of pure-truth.' 

1-2. The moon-god's message goes from 
yad ete to prasiddhis. See yad2. 'As 
for the fact that these hares, , by thee 
have been driven away (\'sr+nis, caus. pass.), 
therein not rightly (see Vyujo) hast thou 

3. See prasiddhi, and cf. gaga, gaganka, 
and gagin. The Jataka tells how the rabbit 
offered up its own life for C, akra and how 
C,akra in grateful recognition placed the 
hare's image in the moon's disk as an en- 
during memorial of the self-sacrifice see 
Jataka, no. 316, vol. iii., p. 51, and S. Beal, 
Si-yn-ki, ii. p. 60. 

4. U.f. bhayat idam (rdSf, see idam) 
aha: idam ( = 'my misdeed, just men- 
tioned') . 

5-6. See atral. pra-namya, 192a. 
See v'gam 1. 

6-7. tena (gagakena), nitva, etc. See 
v'lkr, caus. Here the elephant is made to 
worship the moon; but Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
viii.l, gives a curious belief about the volun- 
tary moon-worship and religious ablutions 
of elephants. Fa-hian, the Chinese Buddhist 
pilgrim, chap, xxiii., records a like story, 
Beal, Si-yu-ki, i. p. Ii. 

8-9. The rabbit is the elephant's spokes- 
man : deva, ' O (moon-)god.' U.f. ajnanat 
eva anena (=gajena) ; tad ksamyatam. 
-pra-sthapitas, 1042d, 1051 3 . 

12. SELECTION XIII. The blue jackal. 
Hitopade9a, book iii., fable 7. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 


I PACK 37. 

book i., fable 10. It is not found in the 
Arabic version nor in Somadeva, and so was 
probably not a part of the Indian original 
Benfey, i. p. 223. But cf. Jataka, no. 188. 
The motif is similar to that of the fable of 
the whitewashed jackdaw among the doves, 
KoXotbs Kal trfpiartpai, Fabulae Aesopicae col- 
lectae, ed. C. Halm, no. 201 b . See La Fon- 
taine, book iv., fable 9, Regnier, i.208f. 

svecchaya bhraman: same phrase, 
w. the other form (763), at 23 5 . 

13. tatas (=bhandat, 1098), see tatas 1. 

13-14. ' Kept priMi-nding to be dead : ' see 
Vdrg+sam, caus., and sthita4. 

14-15. U.f. -svamina asau (= srgalas) 
utthapya (1051 5 , 1042d). The two gerunds 
go witli the logical subject, -svamina. 

15-16. Note how the gerunds, gatva, 
avalokya, mark each the end of its little 

16. uttama-varnas, w. double mg, 'of the 
best color' (royal purple), and 'of the 
highest caste' (cf. 28 18 ). See atman2, 
and note how it is used as reflexive of all 
three persons here ' myself .' 

17-19. Construe: aham (asmi) abhisik- 
tas (v'sic) -devataya aranya-rajye sarva_ 

19-2O. U.f. adya arabhya (see v'rabh+a3 ) 
asmad-ajnaya asmin . ' By our command 
conduct must be made = you must do as I 

20. vfgista-varnam, 1299. 

21. U.f. pra-namya (192a) ucus (800e). 
yatha ajnapayati devas, ' as the king com- 
mands ' fsc. so will we do), is a common 
response in the drama. 


1. U.f. aranya-vasisu. tasya, pred. 
poss. gen., see Vbhu. 

1-3. Construe : svajnatayas durikrtas 
avajnaya tena, (see -adi) prapya, 

3. vi-sannan, Vsad, 185, 189. 

4-6. U.f. evam ced anena anitijnena , 
tad yatha ayam , ' if thus by this (we're 
treated with contempt), then that this one 
:' see Vldha+vi5 end. nagyati: for 
mode, see 581c 2 and cf. yathaG. 

6. ami, 501. varnamatra-vipralabdhas, 
'fooled by (his) mere color,' see matra2, 
and v'labh+vi-pra. 

7. amum, 501. See V3ci+pariand 770a. 
6-8. yatas kuruta: the sentence is 

constructed like the sentence evam vidhe- 
yam, lines 4-6. 

8. See Vsthafanu2. 

9-1O. tatas tena_api gabdas karta- 
vyas, 'Then he too will raise a howl.' 

11. U.f. syat, tasya asau (= svabhavas). 
' What inherent-nature anyone (yasya) 
may have, that (nature asau) of Jiim is 
hard to overcome : ' see ya6. 

12. U.f. tad kim na agnati. ' If a dog 
(427) is made well-fed, i.e. put on good 
rations, will he not then gnaw a shoe ? ' 

13. ' He'll be killed by (some) tiger, 
recognizing (him) by his howl.' tatha 
etc., cf . 33 U and N. and references : for sati, 
see Vlas3. 

16. 'And (consumes) destroys, as (does) 
a hidden fire (antargatas analas) a dry 

18-19. ca, used loosely to connect ratas 
with the logically, but not grammatically, 
coordinate parityajya. See v'ram3. 
mudhas, see 223 4 . -vat, see 1107. 

20. SELECTION XIV. The two geese 
and the tortoise. Hitopade9a, book iv., 
fable 2. 

This story appears in the Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 13, and is given by Somadeva, 
lx.169-177. The Pali form of the fable is 
probably the oldest, and corresponds in moral 
and incident with the Chinese form, Avaddnas, 
vol. The Aesopian form, Xf\tavr) 
Kal herds, Babrius, no. 115 of Schneidewin's 
ed. (cf. no. 419 of Halm's collection), differs 
in both these respects. Compare 

Pali. Jataka, no. 215 (vol. ii.) ; transl., i. p. viii. 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 24. 

Arabic. Knatchbull, p. 146. Wolff, 1.85. 

Later Syriac version, p. 49. 

Anvar-i Suhaill, book i., story 23. 

Direetorium, Cap. II., p. 10 of signature D. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 52 7 . 

Benfey, 1.239; ii.90. Lancereau, p. 340. 

La Fontaine, book x., fable 2. Regnier, iii. p. 12f. 

21. mitram, nom. neuter: the name-adj., 
kamb-. agrees in gender with kurmas. 

PAQE 38. ' 


1-2. yad, untranslatable, like on, intro- 
ducing a direct quotation : cf . ol tie tiirov on 
inavoi IfffjLtv ; so St. Luke viii.49, etc. U.f. 
adya asmabhis atra usitva (see V3vas). 

Lit. 'Now once by fishers, going there, it 
was said, " By us, staying (over night to-day=) 
over this night here, to-morrow the tortoises, 
fishes, and so forth shall be killed." ' 

4. ahatus, 801a. See tavant 3b. 'Let 
the facts be ascertained first ; afterwards, 
what is fitting (yad ucitam, Vuc), .' 

5. U.f. ma evam. Tor I (am) having a 
seen disaster here= (1308) have seen a .' 

7-8. For the three names, see vocab. 
The third is of a kind with which Biihler 
compares the early Christian name ' Quod- 
vult-dea,' and the Puritan ' Fight-the-battle- 
of-faith,' etc. U.f. dvau edhete (Vedh). 

'Both Forethought and who (is) Keadywit, 
these two : ' the yas merely fills out the 
metre, see ya3. 

9. SELECTION XV. The three fishes. Hito- 
pade^a, book iv., fable 3. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 14 ; see Benfey, ii. p. 137 and 
91. Very similar is book v., fable 6. Soma- 
deva gives a version at lx.179. An ex- 
cellent version occurs in the MBh. xii.137. 
1 = 4889. Cf . also 

Pali. Jataka, no. 114, vol. i. 

Ol'd Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 15. 

Arabic. Knatchbull, p. 121. Wolff, i. 54. 

Later Syriac version, p. 31. 

Anvar-i SuhailT, book i., story 15. 

Directorium, Cap. II., p. 12 of signature c. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 393'. 

9-1O. U.f. pura etasmin eva evam- 
vidhesu upasthitesu (303b) -trayena. 

11. tatra = tesu matsyesu, see tatra 1. 

12. See 2antara4. 

13-14. See vldha+abhi. 'In a matter 
(still) future, from lack of anything to judge 
by, where shall I go? ' = since the danger is 
vague and uncertain, I'll keep still for the 
present. See s'pad+ud. 

16-17. Explained in notes to p. 18, lines 

18. See v'dr+sam, and cf. 36 13 ' 14 . 

19. U.f. apa-saritas (pass, of caus.) 

21. U.f. -ityadi refers to lines 7 and 8 
above. Cf. note to 33 ; - 8 . 

22. SELECTION XIV., continued. 'There- 
fore (tad), this to-day (tad adya) must be 
brought about, that I reach (yatha prap- 
nomi) : ' cf . passages cited under yatha') 

23. prapte, ' reached = in reaching,' see 
17 18 N. Similarly gacchatas te, ' of you, 
going = of your going.' 

1. U.f . bhavadbhyam saha. Seevartman. 
3. kastham is subject of avalamb-. 

5. ' That is an expedient ; but .' 

6. 'A wise man should consider the (ex- 
pedient or) advantage (of a certain course), 
and likewise the (inexpedient or) disadvan- 
tage of it he should consider.' Note the 
etymology of upaya and apaya, and the 

7 a . Gen. absolute, 300 2 . 

8. SELECTION XVI. The herons, the ser- 
pent, and the ichneumons. Hitopade9a, 
book iv., fable 5. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 20. Cf. also introduction to 
selection viii., 31 19 . Somadeva gives the 
story very briefly at lx.235. Cf. also 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 30. 
Anvar-i Suhaill, book i., story 26. 
Buch der Beispiele, p. 57 s4 . 

9. Since this Vulture-peak is placed near 
the Nerbudda, we can hardly identify it with 
the one famed in Buddhist story (27 6 N.), 
which was near the Ganges. 

13-14. U.f. amya, arabhya (see 
v'rabh+a 3), yavat (see yavant 3), 
pankti-kraraena dhatta (668). 

15. svabhava-dvesat : the enmity of ich- 
neumons and serpents was proverbial : " They 
fight like cats and dogs ; " cf . Pancatantra, 
p. 110 22 f, ed. Kosegarten, = book ii., p. 7 u f, 
ed. Bombay ; and selection xxi. 

15-16. tatha etc. = 37 18 : cf. 33 W N. 

17. U.f. tais (=nakulais) a-ruhya, 
sarve . 


| PAGE 41. 

18. avam, 491. -Cf. 33 7 -N. 

19. SELECTION XIV., concluded. See 
eva2 near mid. 

2O- uttaram da : cf . uttara-dayaka, 32*. 

21. U.f . sarvatha atra eva. See kim3. 

22. U.f. evam anusthite sati, 803b*. 


1. sam-uhyate, Vvah, 769, 252. aha, 

2. U.f. tada, atra eva paktva, khad-, 
'Then he shall be eaten, with a cooking (of 
him) right here ' = we'll cook and eat him 
on the spot. Note that the gerund, as simple 
instr. of accompaniment of an action-noun, 
is generally the adjunct of the logical sub- 
ject of the clause, although the latter (as 
here) is not always expressed. 

4. vismrta-samskaras, 1299. 

5. vadann eva, cf. cintayann eva, s.v. 

7-8. Construe : yas na karoti iha vacas 
suhrdam , sas etc. bhrastas, Vbhraruj. 
-With line 7, cf. 25". 

9. SELECTION XVII. The hermit, and the 
mouse that was changed to a tiger. Hito- 
pade9a, book iv., fable 6. 

This story, and the one at MBh. xii.116. 
1 = 4254, are ultimately identical with Pan- 
catantra, book Hi., fable 12 (Benfey,ii.p.262, 
281), although very different from their pro- 
totype and inferior to it. Benfey traces the 
connection in a most interesting way, i. p. 373. 
To his references, add Somadeva, lxii.125, 
Kalilag, p. 72, Later Syriac, p. 149, Beispiele, 
p. 116. 

9-1O. U.f. tena ag- drstas, 'he 

11-12. khaditum(981 3 ) anu-dhavan: inf. 
hantum used similarly, 40 20 , 4l 2 . 

12. tapah-prabhavat : the austerities of 
the holy men gave them supernatural powers, 
cf. 16"N. 

13. bidalas, predicate. See Vlkr9. 
kukkurat, 292a : so vyaghrat, next line. 
See Vbhi and 643b. 

15. ' Looks upon even the tiger as a 
17-18. See Vni. -yavat etc., see 999. 

19. U.f. svarupa^akhyanam, ' report 
about my true-nature.' 

20. Seevfyam+sam-ud. See v/lkr, desid. 
20-21. U.f. " punar musikas bhava " iti 

uktva. See eva. 


3. SELECTION XVIII. The heron, the 
fishes, and the crab. Hitopade9a, book iv., 
fable 7. See note to 31i 9 . 

The story occurs in the Pancatantra, 
book i., fable 7. Somadeva has it at lx.79. 
The Buddhist form appears in the Jataka. 
A hypocrite is called ' one who acts like a 
heron,' Manu iv.196 (cf. 20 8 N.). 

Pali. Jataka, no. 38; translation, 1. p. 317. 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 12. 

Arabic. Kalila. Knatchbull, p. 113. Wolff, 1.41. 

Later Syriac version, p. 24. 

Anvar-i Suhaill, book i., story 12. 

Directorium, Cap. II., p. 8 of signature c. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 35 1 *. 

Benfey, i.174; 11.58. Lancereau, p. 344. 

La Fontaine, book x., fable 3. Regnier, iii. p. 18. 

Arabian Nights: Night 717 (Weil, iii.914). 

4. U.f. tatha ud-vignam iva, ' so. as if 
terrified.' See Vdrg, caus., and cf. sthita4. 

5. prstas, 220. -See iti 2b. 

7-8. U.f. te ca atra avagyam eva. ' And 
these here very surely will be killed : I 
heard (Vakarnaya) a plan to that effect 

8-9. See itas3. U.f. -abhavat asmad- 
maranam. krtas, 'am made = have be- 

10-11. See iha and tavant4. -'This 
(heron, ayam) appears to be actually (eva) 
our benefactor ; therefore let him be asked 
(Vprach, 768) .' 

13-14. U.f. upakartra arina samdhis. 
'Alliance (is proper cf. 22 20 N.) with a foe 
who does us a service, not with a friend who 
injures us (apakarina cf. 39N.); surely 
service and injury are to be considered as 
the essential characteristic of these two.' 
The fact that one is called foe and the other 
friend is of no account. laksyam agrees 
with predicate. 

18-19. U.f. kasmin cid dege, 'in a cer- 
tain place.' -sthapitas, 1061 8 , 1042d. 

2O-21. U.f. bakas api apurva-kulira- 
mahsa^arthl kuliraa api : the api's m;iy 

PAGE 41. < 


be rendered by ' and ' or ' but,' as the sense 
requires cf. api5. 


I. -akirnam, v'3kr+a. 

3. ' One should/ear danger (bhayat, 292a) 
so long (only) as the danger is future.' 

5-6. U.f. pagyet na kim cid hitam (163). 
mriyate, 773. ' Surely, if one sees not 
any salvation for himself (in a non-fight =) 
without a fight, then .' 

9 b is one copulative cpd adj., utta-, 1257. 

II. SELECTION XIX. The Brahman and 
his jar. Hitopade9a, book iv., fable 8. Count 
not your chickens before they be hatched. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book v., fable 9. The history and literature 
of the fable are treated at length by Max 
Miiller, Chips, iv.145-209. 

The tale recurs in the Arabian Nights, 
Night 716 (Weil, iii.910) : and the Barber's 
story of his fifth brother, Night 166 (Weil, 
i.540: Lane, chap. V.) is essentially similar. 
Ultimately dependent on the Indian original 
are Grimm's Lazy Heinz and Haggard Liese, 
Marchen, no's 164 and 168. Compare also 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 53. 

Arabic. Kalila. Knatchbull, p. 269. Wolff, ii.3. 

Later Syriac version, p. 170. 

Anvar-i Suhaill, book vi., story 2. 

Directorium, Cap. VII., p. 7 of signature K. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 130". 

Benfey, i.499; ii.345. Lancereau, p. 345. 

La Fontaine, b'k vii., fable 10. Regnier, ii. 145,495. 

For -garman in names, see 59 18 and N., 
and see visnugarman in vocab. 

11-12. The feasts of the winter and 
summer solstices ( corresponding to Christmas 
and Midsummer), originated in the worship 
of the sun at his 'entrance' (samkranti) 
upon his ' north-course ' and his ' south- 
course' respectively, and were celebrated 
with lavish alms-giving, as appears from the 
Pancatantra, book ii., fable 2 (where Kose- 
garten, 119 1 , reads uttarayana-, and the 
Bombay ed., 14 21 , reads daksinayana- : see 
this last in vocab.). 

The vernal equinox was also the occa- 
sion of great festivities, whence, doubtless, 
the fulness of the Brahman's jar. This feast 
survives as the Boll or Indian Carnival 
described by H. H. Wilson, Works, ii.222-43. 

12-14. U.f. tataa tarn (= garavamja daya, 
asau (devagarma), gayya-niksipta-dehas 
(1297) san (redundant, v'las3), ratrau acin- 
tayat. The long cpd: 'in a dish-filled- 
pot-maker's-shed-part ( ekadege ) .' 

14-17. Construe: yadi aham. imam 
vikriya, prapnomi, tada (introduces verb 
of apodosis, karomi) tais (= kapardakais) 
caravan tatas ghata^adin upakriya 
vikriya, anekadha vrddhais -adikam 
upakriya, utpadya, karomi. As a 
help to the correct phrasing, note that the 
interjected adverbial clauses end each with 
its gerund, tatas, line 15, ' then,' equiv. 
to ' and ' : ' dishes and jars and so forth.' 

17-18. U.f. tasu ya adh-, tasyam : 
'who among those wives (is) most beautiful, 
on her I bestow .' 

18-20. 'Thereupon, when her co-wives 
(tat-sapatnyas), jealous, quarrel, then I 
(will) beat them so' (ittham, said while he 
throws the cudgel to show how). U.f. 
abhidhaya utthaya. 

1-2. 'By the potter, (who came = ) who 
was brought by the noise of the breaking of 
the pots, seeing that, the Brahman, scolded 
(see tiras), was expelled (bahis-) .' 

5. SELECTION XX. The Brahman with 
the goat, and the three rogues. Hitopade9a, 
book iv., fable 10. 

This story occurs in the Pancatantra, 
book iii., fable 3, and, as usual, in a more 
elaborate and better form. Somadeva has 
it at lxii.62. Of the frequent imitations, 
Gesta Romanorum, Cap. 132 = 124 (see ed. of 
H. Oesterley, p. 486 and 733) may be men- 
tioned. Compare also 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 67. 

Arabic. Kalila. Knatchbull, p. 233. "Wolff, i.205. 

Later Syriac version, p. 141. 

Anvar-i SuhailT, book iv., story 7. 

Directorium, Cap. V., p. 2 of signature I. 

Buch der Beispiele, 109 2 . 

Benfey, i.355; ii.238. Lancereau, p. 363. 

6. U.f. grama^antarat (202) gacchan. 
7-9. U.f. dhurtas"yadi esas (176a) 

chagas (227) supply asmabhis, kena api 
upayena (tarn chagam) prapya, khadyate, 



tada bhavati " iti alocya, upavigya, 

sthitas (see sthita4). 

1O-11. abhi-hitas, see v'ldha. See iti 

2b. U.f. skandhena uhyate, 769 and 252. 
12. tad eva, ' just that ' = ' the same thing.' 
14. dolayamana- : Grierson, Bihar Peasant 

Life, p. 45, gives a good picture of the dooly. 

16. U.f. "nigcitam eva ayam k-" iti 

17. snatva, to remove the supposed im- 
purity arising from touching a dog. 
yayau, 800c. Read cchagas for -go. 

19-2O. See Vlvid4. vancyate, pass, 
of caus. chagataa, see 1098c 3 . 


1. SELECTION XXI. The Brahman and 
his faithful ichneumon. Hitopade9a, book 
iv., fable 13. 

This story corresponds to Pancatantra, 
book v., fable 2. It is undoubtedly of Bud- 
dhistic origin Beal, Academy, Nov. 1882, 
p. 331. It is discussed by Benfey, i.479, 
who gives a Mongol version and a Tamil 
imitation. Somadeva has the story at lxiv.3. 
Lancereau mentions numerous versions and 
imitations, p. 384. Especially famous is a 
parallel story, which is told of Llewellyn 
the Great and his faithful hound Gellert, 
and goes back to 1205. It is familiar to 
English readers through the well-known 
ballad of Wm. R. Spencer. A highly inter- 
esting English version is found in Ye Seven 
Wyse Maysters of Rome, printed by Wynkyn 

de Worde, in 1520, reprinted London 1885, 
ed. G. L. Gomme, p. 28. Compare also 

Old Syriac version. Kalilag, p. 54. 

Arabic. Kalila. Knatchbull, p. 268. Wolff, ii.l. 

Later Syriac version, p. 169. 

Anvar-i Suhaill, book vi., story 1. 

Directorium, Cap. VII., p. 8 of signature K. 

Buch der Beispiele, p. 131". 

Benfey, i.479; ii.326. Lancereau, p. 384. 

Through ujjayini ran the prime meri- 
dian of Hindu astronomers. 

2-3. 'For (see krte) the Br., from the 
king, a call to offer a graddha came.' 
graddha, see p. 402. 

4. sahaja-daridryat, ' from connate pov- 
erty = a born beggar as he was.' 

6-7. 'Of receiving, , quickly, (if it is), 
not done, Time drinks the juice of it : ' i.e. 
if you have anything to receive or give or a 
deed to do, do it quickly or it'll not be worth 

9. U.f. cira-kala-palitam -raksartham. 

11. Natural enemies cf. 39 15 N. 

12-13. U.f. asau- ayantam. 'Having 
blood-smeared snout-and-paws.' 

14. See Vdhr-fava: his conclusion was 
" mama bhaksitas : " anena = nakulena. 

15-16. U.f . asau upasrtya. SeeVstha4. 

16-17. ' Finding out that the ichneumon 
was his benefactor, (and) possessing a dis- 
covered (Vbhu+vi) deed (krtya), i.e. dis- 
covering what he had done, with a pained 
heart (418) .' 

19-20. 'Who, without (a-vijnaya), 
goes to or gets under (gatas) the power of 
passion '.' 


45. The work from which the following extracts are taken holds a rather 
exceptional place in Hindu literary history, inasmuch as its date and authorship are 
quite definitely known. According to the author's fancy, it unites in itself all 
stories as does the ocean all rivers, and he therefore calls it the ' Ocean of the 
Streams of Story ' or Katha-sarit-sagara. Following out the metaphor, he divides 
the work into one hundred and twenty-four chapters, called tarangas or ' billows.' 
By another division, independent of the one just mentioned, the work is broken into 
eighteen books, called lambakas, which Brockhaus, without authority, conjectured 
to mean 'surges.' The work contains about 22,000 distichs, that is, about one- 



quarter as much as the Maha-bharata, and not quite twice as much as the Iliad and 
Odyssey together. An analysis of its contents is given by H. H. Wilson, Works, 
vol. iv. 109-159. 

46. BIBLIOGRAPHY. The following discussions connected with the literary 
history of this work should be mentioned. 

Fitzedward Hall, the Vaaavadatta, Calcutta, 1859, 
Introduction, pages 22, 23. 

George Biihler, On the Vrihatkatha of Kshemen- 
dra, Indian Antiquary, i.302f, Bombay, 1872. Cf. 
Weber's Remarks, ibidem, ii.57. 

George Biihler, Detailed Report of a tour in search 
of Sanskrit MSS. made [in 1875] in Kacmir etc., pub- 
lished at Bombay in 1877 as an Extra Number of the 
Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, with vol. xii. Preliminary reports had ap- 
peared in the Ind. Ant., v.27f, and vi.264f. 

George Biihler, Ueber das Zeitalter des Kacmi- 
rischen Dichters Soniadeva, SitzungsbericMe der 
phi). -hist. Classe der Kais. Akademie der \Viss., 
cx.545f, Vienna, 1885. 

Sylvain Levi, La Brihatkathamafijari de Kshe- 
tnendra, Journal Asiatique,, vii.!78f. Vol. 
vi. contains chapters 1-8 in text and translation. 

The text has been edited by H. Brockhaus, 
Leipsic, 1839, 1862, and 1866. A complete trans- 
lation has been given by C. H. Tawney, Calcutta, 

47. The concluding verses of the work were printed from new and trustworthy 
manuscript material by Biihler. a From them it appears that the author was named 
Soma, i.e. Somadeva, and was the son of the virtuous Brahman Rama. Somadeva 
says that he made this collection of stories to please the queen SuryavatI, and gives 
some of the facts relating to the royal house of Kacmir then regnant. These facts 
are supplemented and confirmed by the Rajataranginl or ' Chronicles of Kacmir,' 
written by Kalhana, about 1148-1157 A.D. 2 Combining these sources, Biihler 
reaches conclusions which may here be summarized briefly. 

48. In the year 79, i.e. 4079, of loka-kala, 8 Saiiigramaraja, a descendant of 
Satavahana (or C.ata-), succeeded to the throne of Kacmir. This was A.D. 1003. He 
was followed in 1028 by his son Ananta. Anantadeva is described as weak-minded, 
rash, and impetuous, but as brave even to fool-hardiness. He married SuryavatI, 
daughter of the king of Jalandhar (jalamdhara). She brought him entirely under 
her power, and induced him, in 1063, to abdicate in favor of his son Kala9adeva. 
He soon repented his hasty step and got control of the government again. Mean- 
time, Kalaca abandoned himself to every vice, and, in rage, his parents determined 
to punish him, and give over the kingdom to his eldest son Harsa. In fact, Ananta 
retired with his court to Vijayaksetra, the modern Bijbahar, in [41]55 = A.D. 1079, 
and after two years of feud with Kalaca, took his own life in 1081, leaving the power 
in the hands of Kalaca, who held it till 1089, when he was succeeded by Harsa. 
SuryavatI burned herself on the funeral pile of her husband Ananta. Now since, 
according to Somadeva, Kalaca was king when the work was finished, and since it 
was written for SuryavatI, the date of the composition must fall between Ananta's 
first abdication and bis wife's death, i.e. between 1063 and 1081 A.D. 

49. The real source of the Katha-sarit-sagara is stated by Somadeva 4 to be 
the Brhat-katha or ' Great Narration ' of Gunadhya. This work, according to 
Biihler, 6 goes back to the first or second century of the Christian era ; but no manu- 
script of it has yet been published. On the other hand, important evidence of its 
general character and contents is afforded by the two works that have flowed from 

1 Ueber das Zeitalter etc., pages 547-549. 

4 Biihler's Report, p. 52f ; Zeitalter, p. 554, 557. 

8 The popular calendar (loka-kala) of Kacmir 
is counted from a date corresponding to 3076 B.C. 
The era is connected in some real or fanciful way 
with Ursa Major (saptarsayas see rst'2), and so 

is called the Saptarshi era. It is still in use. In giv- 
ing a date, the hundreds and thousands are usually 
omitted. See Report, pages 59-60. 

4 See Katha-sarit-sagara, i.3 and cxxiv.250, and 
Reader 56". 

* Report, p. 47. Cf. "Wilson, I.e., p. 119f. 



it, the Brhat-katha-inanjari and the Katha-sarit-sagara. Each is a recast of Gun- 
adhya's original. The former was made by Ksemendra Vyasa-dasa, a contemporary 
of Somadeva. Its date is not far from the year 1037 A.D., and it is therefore some 
thirty or forty years prior to Somadeva's work. 1 Both Ksemendra and Somadeva 
distinctly assert that they translated from an original in the paigaci bhasa or 
'Goblin dialect'; and internal evidence 2 confirms their assertions, and, further, 
makes it certain that each worked independently of the other. But Somadeva seems 
to have been well aware of the faults of his predecessor, and his work is a decided 
improvement upon that of Ksemendra, whose recast is only about one-third as long 
as Somadeva's, and sacrifices poetic merit in the effort to be brief. 

50. Although Somadeva was a Brahman, there are yet many remaining traces 
of the Buddhist character of his original, and even direct allusions 8 to the Buddhist 
Birth Stories occur. Indeed, Weber maintained 4 that Gunadhya was a Buddhist. 
The name paigaci bhasa seems to have covered a number of Low Prakrit dialects 6 
spoken by the most ignorant and degraded classes in many different parts of India. 
In one of these dialects the Brhat-katha is actually written. 

51. It remains partly by way of introduction to selection xxvii. to com- 
plete and summarize the half-mythical account there given of the origin of the stories. 

In a retired spot on the Himalayan peak Kailasa, the god (/iva, to please his 
wife ParvatI, w r as telling her (Katha-sarit-sagara, i.48) the adventures of the Seven 
Fairy Kings. Unfortunately, he was overheard by his Gana or attendant (see gana), 
Puspadanta. Puspadanta foolishly told the tale to his wife, and she recited it in 
turn to ParvatI. This made it appear that Qiva had palmed off upon her an old 
story. Even on learning the truth, she was still exceedingly enraged, and cursed 
Puspadanta to be born as a mortal. She also inflicted the same curse on the Gana 
Malyavant who interceded for him. 

At their entreaty, however, she set a limit (anta) to the curse of each, speaking 
(i.59) to this effect : " There is a Yaksa named Supratika, who, cursed to become a 
mortal, is living in the Vindhya as a Pi9ca, under the name of Kanabhuti. When 
thou, Puspadanta, shalt see him, and tell him the tale which thou overheardest Qiva 
telling me, then thou shalt be released from thy curse. When Kanabhuti shall have 
told it to thee, Malyavant, he shall be released. And when thou, Malyavant, shalt 
have published it to the world, thou shalt be free also." 

52. Puspadanta, accordingly, is born as Vararuci or Katyayana, meets Kana- 
bhuti, narrates to him the seven stories of adventure in seven hundred thousand 
stanzas (ii.26), and is released. 

Kanabhuti, meantime, remained in the Vindhya, waiting the coming of Malya- 
vant. The latter is duly born as a Brahman (vi.19, 20), with the name Gunadhya, 
at Supratisthita (vi.8) in Pratisthana. 6 This is identified with Paithan on the 
Godavarl (vi.72), about 150 miles from Bombay, east by north. After travelling in 
the Deccan, Gunadhya returns to the splendid royal city of Supratisthita (vi.24) and 
is appointed a minister (vi.70) of Satavahana, the king of whom the story in selec- 

i! 3 .43f , esp. p. 48 and 50. Cf . also Jacobi, Ausgewahlte 

Le>i, Journ. As., 8.vii.218-220. 

* Ind. Ant., i.308-309. Journ. As., 

8 E.g., at lxxii.120, to the Boar Jataka. See Weber, 
Jndische Streifen, ii.367. 

Ind. Ant., ii.57. 

8 For the views of the Hindus and others concern- 
ing these dialects, see Muir, Grig. Sanskrit Texts, 

Erzahlungen in Maharashtrl, Einl. 2, 15. 

Its Prakrit form la Paitthana; this is the II A I- 
9ANA of the Utpiirkovt and the 'BaiOava of Ptolemy. 
See McCrindle, Ancient India as described by Ptol- 
emy, pages 175-6, and J. Burgess, Arch. Survey of 
Western India, iii. (Bldar, etc.) p. 55. 



tion xxvi. is related. In consequence of a wager with his colleague Qarvavarman 
(52 3 ), Gunadhya forswears the use of Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the local vernacular. 
Since he knows no other language, he is forced to keep silence, and so to give up his 
position as minister. With two pupils he retires to the Vindhya, and, falling in 
with a host of Pi9acas (vii.26), learns their dialect. In this he addresses Kanabhuti, 
who exists himself at the time as a Pi9aca. Kanabhuti tells the tales in ' his own 
dialect' (svabhasaya, 53 4 ), i.e. Pai9aci, to Gunadhya. The hearer writes them down 
in Pai9aci, and with his own blood, since he had no ink by him. Kanabhuti is then 

Gunadhya, in order to " publish the stories to the world," sends the manuscript 
to Satavahana. The king, puffed up by his newly-acquired knowledge of Sanskrit 
grammar (52 28 ), rejects the stories on account of their dialect. Gunadhya, overcome 
with grief, reads aloud to his two pupils six hundred thousand distichs and casts the 
manuscript, leaf by leaf, into the fire, while the beasts stand about in a circle and 
listen with tears in their eyes. 1 One hundred thousand couplets Gunadhya keeps, 
because they especially pleased his pupils. At last the king hears of the strange 
proceeding, comes, and takes what is left, 1 namely the Brhat-katha. The pupils 
expounded the poem to the king and he composed the first book or lambaka, called 
Kathapitha (56 10 N.), to serve as a general introduction to the rest, after Gunadhya 
had ascended to heaven (56 4 ), released. 2 

1 Compare the stories of Orpheus and of the | 

2 According, then, to Somadeva (and to Kseinen- 
dra, as well, Ind. Ant., i.307), the TrapdSocris of the 
tones is, in turn, from 

1. Civa, to 

2. Puspadanta (= Vararuci, Katyayana), 

3. Supratlka (= Kanabhuti), 

4. Malyavant (= Gunadhya), 

5. Satavahana, and 

6. The world. 


and the seven-league boots. Katha-sarit- 
sagara, Taranga iii.45. Ksemendra gives 
the tale in his Brhat-katha-manjari, at ii.48. 
Tawney, i.14, adduces many parallels, among 
them, Grimm's Fairy Tales, no. 197, The 
Crystal Ball. See also Jataka, no. 186 (vol. 
ii.) ; transl., i. p. xvi.f. 

2-3. Seeatral. King Putraka's uncles 
had bribed assassins to kill him. By a 
greater bribe and a promise to go far away, 
the king induces the murderers to spare his 
life : this in explanation of the " meantime," 
the " promise," the " Vindhya," and the " dis- 
gust." For Putraka, see 17 9 N. See 
Vraj + vi. 

4-5. The sense-divisions do not correspond 
with the metrical divisions here as they do 
in the Epos. U.f. bhraman ava_apa asau 
-ekatatparau purusau dvau ; tatas tau etc. 
see iti2. 

6. U.f. maya_asura-sutau avam sc. svas. 

8. 'On account of this (is) our fighting. 
Who (is) mighty (= proves to "be the strong- 
er), he may take it.* Brockhaus reads 
tannimittam against the metre. 

9. U.f. etad tad-vacanam pra^uvaca. 

10. U.f. pumsas (394) ? tatas sam- 
avocatam (see v'vac, and 854 and 847 

11. U.f. pari-dhaya ('by putting on') 

12. U.f. yad (162) likhyate: see ya6. 

13. SeeyaS. -'Is thought of.' 

14. avadit, Vvad, 898, 899c. Aorists are 
not very uncommon in this poem, though 
very few have been met before in this 
Reader. See 826. U.f. kim yuddhena? 
astu ayam panas. See Ika 1. 

15. U.f. sas eva etad (= dhanam) haret 

16. See under iti2. -mudha, 223*. 

17. U.f. adhy-asya, ud-apatat vyoma. 
19. Vtr+ava, with abl. 


PAGE 48. 


1. SELECTION XXIII. Story of Mousey, 
the thrifty merchant. Katha-sarit-sagara, 
Tarafiga, vi.28. It is introduced as a story 
which Gunadhya hears on his return to 
Supratisthita see p. 383, 52. It may be 
called a kind of pendant to selection xix. 
It is identical with the Cullaka-setthi Jataka, 
no. 4(vol.L), transl., i.p.168. 

2. 'By me, utterly without (vina eva) 
capital, wealth was gained' (v'sad+a, caus.). 

4. man-matus, abl., 'from my mother:' 
man-, 161, 494. 

5. tad-bhayat: tad- (494) =tebhyas, i.e. 
gotrajebhyas. See garbha3. 

7. 'And there was I born, (as the=) to 
be the means of support of that excellent- 
woman. 1 

8. See Vvrdh, caus. kurvati, 714 5 . 
9-1O. U.f. atha abhy-arthya. See 

v'gakB 1. Lit., ' And then by her, the sad 
one, having entreated a teacher, I was grad- 
ually made to learn writing and ciphering 

13. For gen. w. v'da, 297a. 

15-16. agamam, 846. so 'pi marks 
beg. of new clause and is little more than a 
6 df with vicjakhilah. 'Thus (i.e. as fol- 
lows, lines 17-20) spake (854) to a certain / 

17-18. See 1 idam, near end. panyena, 
appositive to etena. 

19. punar : the antithesis is between a 
dead mouse and good hard cash. 

The Roman denarius had long been 
known to the Hindus. The borrowed word 
appears, e.g., in an inscription of the time 
of Kumiira Gupta (ca. 430 A.D., Ind. Ant. 
xv. 192), given by Gen. Cunningham, Arch. 
Survey of India Reports, iii. 54-56. 

20. See \stha7. te 'pi (sc. dinaras), 
' even the principal.' 

22. tvattas, 1098a. 


1-2. Construe: asya sampute (see this) 
tarn ( = ' mouse') likhitva, gato 'bhuvam 
(829) aham, so 'pi ahasat. 

3-4. -yugmena, instr. of price, 281b: 
mul-, appositive. marj- depends on krte; 
and the other genitives go w. dattas, 297a. 

7-8. Construe : aham grantagataya 
-samghaya adam (829) ambhas, etc. 

9-1O. dve dve, see dva : ' two apiece,' 
1260. -U.f. vikritavan (960) apane. 

11-12. See tatas5 : the second is a mere 
stop-gap. See Vhr+a. 

13-14. maya, logical subject of kritam : 
tebhyas, abl. 

15-16. Loc. absolute. The rains made 
the roads impassable for the wood-men, 
-pan-, 486b. -gatais, 281b. 

19-20. ' A golden mouse was sent (1042d) 
by me, making (it), to that V.; and he gave 
(adat) .' 

21-22. See Vsidh-fpra. -U.f. laksmls 
iyam. sata, ' being.' 


1. SELECTION XXIV. King Cibi, the fal- 
con, and the dove. Katha-sarit-sagara, Tar. 
vii.88. This story is famous, old, and wide- 
spread. It is of distinctly Buddhistic origin 
and character see S. Beal, Si-yu-ki, i. p. 125 
and note. Benfey, Pancatantra, i. p. 388 f, 
gives a great many Buddhist and other 
parallels. It occurs in the Jataka as no. 499 
(vol. iv.). It is frequently figured on Bud- 
dhist sculptures : so on the tope of Amarava- 
ti see James Fergusson, Tree and Serpent 
Worship, 2 plate Ixxxiii. 1, and p. 225, and 
plate Ix. left, and p. 194 ; also on the great 
Javan temple of Boro Boudour. The Ama- 
ravati tope dates from about the beginning 
of our era see J. Burgess, Arch. Survey of 
Southern India (Amaravati, etc.), p. 12, 101. 

In the Cariya-pitaka, Pali text, ed. 
Morris, p. 77, C, ibi appears as an incarnation 
of the Future Buddha. Sakka, in the form 
of a blind old beggar, asks him for one of 
his eyes, and he gladly gives up both of 
them. This is represented in a mural paint- 
ing of a cave at Ajanta J. Burgess, Cave 
Temples of India, p. 315. Beal gives a 
Chinese version of the story in his Buddhist 
Literature in China, p. 31-41. And the tale 
occurs in Mohammedan forms with Moses 
in place of C, ibi, and Michael and Gabriel in 
place of Indra and Dharma (or Agni). 

In Sanskrit works the C,ibi-story is 
common. We find it in the Southern Pan- 

PAGE 48. ' 


catantra, French version by J.-A. Dubois, 
p. 173. It occurs three times in the MBh. 
It is told at iii. 130.21 = 10557, of Uclnara, 
the father of Qibi (translated by P. E. Fou- 
caux, Le MBh., Onze Episodes, p. 231); a^ 
iii.!97.1 = 13274, of Qibi himself; and at 
xiii.32.3 = 2046, of Vrsadarbha, the son of 

C/ibi Asmara is the traditional author 
of RV. x.l 79.1, and seems to be the heros 
eponymos of a clan that dwelt between the 
Indus and Akesines. See Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, p. 130, 431. 

1. King Su9arman, having been deceived 
by a Gana in the form of a Brahman, says, 
" This is no Brahman, but a god come to 
deceive me ; for such things are constantly 
happening in this world ; and so (tatha ca 
introducing the following story as a similar 
instance), in old times, there was (abhtlt) a 
king, etc." 

2. U.f. sarva-sattva^abhaya-pradas, 
' giving a feeling of safety to all creatures : ' 
see 29%. 

3-4. The inf. denotes purpose: cf. 987 
w. 982. ' Indra himself, having taken on 
, pursued (anv-apatat) Dharma' see 

5. U.f. ankam aQicriyat: see VgriS; for 
aorist, 859, 864. 

7. 'This (is my) proper food. Surrender 
(758) to me (297a) .' 

8. For Indra and the reader, who know 
the secret of the dove's real nature, there is 
a play upon the word dharmas. 

9-1O. U.f. enam (274b) a-tyajyas; tad 
('therefore') dadami anyad tava (297a). 

11. See evam. atma-, see 18 16 N. See 

13. See yathaS. Vkrt+ud. aropayat, 
1042e end. 

15-16. See Vruh+adhi. - U.f. " tu 
etad " divya vak ud-abhut. ' " That in- 
deed is equal"', referring to the promise 
contained in line 10, etat-samam. 

18-19. U.f. tustau aks- (pred. adj.) 
dattva (991, 955c) ca anyan tau 
iyatus (783b2). 

2O. SELECTION XXV. Story of Ahalya. 

Katha-sarit-sagara, Tar. xvii.137. C, aci is a 
pattern of wifely virtue, but Indra does not 
requite her with equal fidelity. His amours 
are as notorious as those of Zeus. Indra is 
invoked with the words ahalyayai jara, as 
early as the QB. (iii.3.4 18 ). He is reproached 
for his affair with Ahalya, at MBh. v.12.6 = 
373; and this is narrated at length in the 
Ramayana, i.48 Schlegel, or i.49 Gorresio. 
His attempt upon Ruci is told at MBh. xiii. 
40. 16 = 2262, excerpted by Muir, Texts, i 2 .466. 
Later books smooth over these immoralities 
by interpreting them allegorically see 
Miiller, Ancient Skt. Lit., p. 529. So Holtz- 
mann, ZDMG. xxxii.302 (cf. 294); Muir, 
Texts, iv 2 .48. 


2. U.f. -lubdhas (Vlubh) tarn. - See 
Varthaya+pra, 959 and 960. 

3. Construe : matis pra-, vibhuti-andha, 
dhavati avisaye. 

4-5. U.f. sa anu-mene (794e) ; tad 
('that occurrence') ca prabhavatas (1098, 
291 2 ) buddhva (160), tatra agat . 

6-7. SeeVlkr3. -See sthita4. 

8-9. ' She answered her husband with a 
speech, (provincially ambiguous, i.e.) am- 
biguous on account of its dialect, (but yet) 
having some regard for (verbal) truth, " This 
is, of course, a cat or my lover"' see 
majjao. Gautama takes it in the latter 
sense and replies tvaj-jara. 

11. ' He caused to fall on her a curse, 
truth-regard-limited' (-klptantam), i.e. not 
an endless curse, but one with a definite 
limit, because she did not lie outright. 

12. The curse. ava^apnuhi, 703. 

13. The limit cf. p. 333, 51. -See 
a 4 and 293c. -See 2antara 1. -'Until 
forest-interior-wan dering-Raghava-sight, i .e. 
till thou seest R. wandering in the wood.' 
" Rama removed the guilt of Ahalya by 
merely looking at her," says the Visnu- 
purana, iv.4.42. 

14. datta-capas, 1299, 1308. -yayau, 

16. SELECTION XXVI. The king who 
didn't know his Sanskrit grammar. Katlii- 


I PAGE 58. 

sarit-sagara, Tar. vi.108-164, omitting 111- 
112, 124-133a, 154-158, 161-162. Ksemen- 
dra gives this story in brief at vi.35-52, 
Journ. As., 8.yi.446. The king is called 
Satavahana ; but this is merely the family 
name of a dynasty that reigned in the north- 
west of the Deccan in the first and second 
centuries of our era. See Oldenberg, Ind. 
Ant., x.225 f. Carvavarman was a prote'ge' of 
this family p. 334, 52. Somadeva, as 
we saw, makes Harsa a descendant of C,ata- 
vahana ; and for the last, he adds (vii.13), 
C/arvavarman wrote the easy grammar called 
Katantra Biihler, Report, p. 74. 

16-17. Gunadhya, who had been inter- 
rupted by Kanabhuti, resumes his story here 
with tatas. adhy-asta, 620. tad, 
'that' (garden), whose creation by Durga 
(see deva2c), Gunadhya had narrated a little 
before (vi.84). It was just outside of the 
capital of Pratisthana (p. 333). 

19. Vtr+ava, 957b. Inf. of purpose. 

2. ' C, irisa-delicate-limbed, i.e. having 
limbs as delicate as a C. blossom.' U.f. 

4. 'She said "Don't with water (ma 
udakais cf. line 8) pelt me." ' He under- 
stands it as " With comfits (modakais) pelt 

5. anayayat, \lni+a, caus. imf. 

7. rajann, 210. See 2antara 1. 

8. The order of the words is inverted to 
remove the ambiguity. iti uktam tava 
(297a), < Thus I said to thee.' 

9. 'Knowest thou not the mere (matra2) 
euphonic combination of the ma-word and 
the udaka-word ? ' 

12. hasati, present ppl., loc. absolute. 
-akrantas, 955a. See jhat-iti. 

13. ' Having abandoned-water-play,' 1308. 
14-15. U.f. pra_avigat muhyan 


17-18. Construe: " garanam me ('sti) 
p- va, mrtyus va" iti . 'Having 
bed-thrown-limbs,' v'2as+pari-ni. 

19-2O. Construe: parijanas, drstva, 
abhavat sambhrantas, "kim etad" iti 
(' saying " What's that ? " '). 

21-23. aham, i.e. Gunadhya. tarn, 
i.e. avastham. pary-ahiyata, 770b. 
pratar avam (' I. and C/.'). 


1-2. sarvasya, subjective gen. w. pravege, 
which is loc. absol. w. ruddhe. See ka- 
tham. mama begins new clause. See 

3-4. Construe: nrpas vijnaptas (1042d 2 ) 
maya, upavigya . See Vvrt7. 

5-6. 'S., tho' he heard it, kept silent 
(just so, tatha eva, i.e.) nevertheless.' See 
Vlas4. U.f. tatas ca idam. 

7-8. U.f . kuru " iti prak tena 
adya nigi see adya. 

9-1O. See svapna. U.f . nabhasas cyu- 
tam (nom.) see Vcyu4. See Vkas+vi. 

11-12. tasmat= ambujat. dhavala^ 
ambara, like the one Socrates sees, Crito4A. 

13. iyat (451) drstva. See vmanl. 

15-16. ' Q. having thus announced his 
vision' see \[lvid+ni and 1308- U.f. 
asta-maunas avadat. 

17-18. The question goes to pandityam. 

See Vgak Bl, pass, of caus. of desid. 
kalena: for instr., 281c. Similarly var- 
sais, line 21. 

19. tena = pandityena. esa, 'this' 
that you see about me. na pratibhasate 
= ' sordet.' 

20. Observe caesura, and see Ika 1. 
' What pray has a fool to do with power, as 
it were a block with ornaments ? ' i.e. he has 
no more to do , than a block . 

21-22. In the introduction to the PaS- 
catantra, also, the time needed for learning 
Sanskrit grammar is put at twelve years. 

See muklin I. 

23. See Vgak Bl, caus. tad = grammar. 


2. kuryat, Vlkr 1. 

5-7. Protasis ends w. ced : tatas begins 
apodosis ; ' then by me are renounced (tyak- 
tam) these three languages which pass cur- 
rent ' (\/bhu-fsam3). See p. 334, 52. See 
tadvat. Ksemendra (vi.52) has apa- 
bhranga for Somadeva's degabhasa. Both 
of these terms denote indeed a Prakrit 

PAGE 52. 


dialect; but, in contrast with the word 
prakrtam in this connection, they denote a 
vernacular of a lower order than prakrtam. 

8-9. U.f. na ced evam , -abdan (276) 
vahami esas : esas, emphatic, ' I, this 
one/ 'I, (y. here, (will) carry .' 

10-11. tasminn=C.. agamam. 846. 

See vman 1. 

12. ca vihastah is Boehtlingk's emen- 
dation for cavfhastah. 

15. ' Without S., no other way of escape 
appears.' She is led to look to S. or Kumara 
for help, because a kumara (see this) opened 
the lotus (51 10 ). Tawney. Weber con- 
jectured that the war-god Skanda owed his 
name and existence to Alexander the Great. 

18. Caesura. 19. prapa, 783c 2 . 

21. ' Showed (Vlkr 1) favor to him (tasya, 
297a), i.e. to C. .' 

22-23. ' Having magic power by K.'s gift.' 

See cintitop- : for a like magic, see 45 13 . 

1-2. U.f. pradus asan ca tas (sciences) 
tasya ( = dat.) tatksanam. hi (163). 

3. SELECTION XXVII. The pathetic his- 
tory of the stories. Katha-sarit-sagara, Tar. 
viii. It forms Ksemendra's eighth chapter 
(of only 16 couplets), Jour. As., 
For a general explanation of the Taranga, 
see p. 333, 51f . 

3-4. 'So, by G's request (vii.113), that 
tale was told by K. in his own (pigaca) 

5-6. 'And by G., likewise in (lit. with) 
that dialect, in (lit. with, 281c) seven years 
(varsais), it (sa) was written down as seven 
couplet-lacs' (appositively). 

7-8. U.f. ma (580) harsus (882) iti : 
' Thinking " Let them not steal it," i.e. Fear- 
ing lest they might.' 

Both Somadeva and Ksemendra state 
that the stories were written down in blood : 
S. gives the lack of ink as a reason; K. 
gives none. But the statement may rest on 
a popular superstition like the Germanic 
one which ascribes peculiar virtues to pure 
spittle (cf. also St. Mark viii.23) and to 
blood. Life rests in the blood, the " vital 

fluid " ; from it a drink of immortality is 
made; and with it pacts are made or sub- 
scribed (cf. Faust, 1. 1383). 

At present (1878), all available informa- 
tion points to a Phoenician-Aramaic origin 
of the Indian alphabets. Writing was prob- 
ably introduced not earlier than 400 B.C., 
and was, certainly, little used in India before 
250 B.C. So says Burnell, Palaeography, 2 p. 9. 
See also Whitney, 2. The material was 
the palm-leaf, and in Ka9mir, birch-bark. 
Paper was introduced by the Mohammedans, 
i.e. not till after 1000 A.D. For ink, see 
masi in vocab. 

9-1O. ' The sky (ambaram) became filled 
(nirantaram) with S. etc., who came (aya- 
tais) to listen, [became filled or covered] as 
if (iva) with a canopy.' 

12. See v'gam4. K. was orig. a yaksa, 
see p. 333, 51. gapa-muktas would be 

15-16. ' I must make my B. famous on 
earth; and this business (of making it so) 
was enjoined on (lit. announced to, ud-Iritas) 
me by Durga when she told how my curse 
would end (lit. in the declaration, -uktau, of 
the end, -anta-).' See p. 333, 51. 

19-20. The two nominatives in 1. 19 are 
in partitive apposition to gisyau ubhau, 
the subject of ucatus. 


I. Explained under sthana6. 

4. pra^ahinot, 192c. -dattva: cf . 991 
w. 955c. 

6. The garden mentioned at 49 17 see N. 

7-8. ' That MS. was shown to S. (geni- 
tive, 297 a 2 ) with the words "This is G's 
work.'" The gender of the pred. deter- 
mines that of the subject, esa. 

II. See pramana. " The length of the 
poem (700,000 distichs) is a weighty argu- 
ment in its favor, but " This is quite in 
accord with later Hindu taste. As if the 
100,000 distichs of the extant MBh. were not 
enough, the preface (MBh. i.l.!06a = 104c) 
tells us that there was a version of 3,000,000 
couplets for the use of the gods. Fortu- 
nately their years were lengthened out so as 
to give them plenty of time to hear it see 


I PAGE 56. 

68 8 N. The Manes had to get along with a 
version of 1,500,000. Gunadhya is said 
(54- 2 , 56 1 ) to keep only one-seventh of his 
poem ; but even this is an exaggeration (it 
contains less than 22,000 couplets p. 331). 
Similarly Manu is said to have been abridged 
from 100,000 to 12,000 and then to 4,000. 
It contains less than 3,000 strictly, 2685, 
cf. p. 341, 56. 

18. vivikta-ramya-, 1257 : Vvic+vi. 
bhubhagam, in appos. w. gil-. 

19-2O. Viks+vi. Mvac and gru, caus. 

23. U.f. tasmin pathati, loc. absol. 


1-3. These three lines and the preceding 
line make one sentence ; the last word is the 
subject. pari-tyakta-, ' having abandoned 
grass-food, quitting their pasturage.' U.f. 
asan abhyetya (Vi+abhy-a, 992) : cf. sam- 
etya, line 10. 

Compare the story of Orpheus. In the 
MBh., iv.39.6 = 1290, horses shed tears. The 
horses of Achilles lament the death of Pa- 
troklos, II. 17.426 : cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii. 
42 = 64. 

5. See Vvad4. Seeja. 

8-9. U.f. ucus girau ko 'pi . 

14-15. ' He saw him completely (abhitas) 
overspread (V3kr) with tangled locks, (that 
were) like (iva) the smoke of what was left 
of the fire of his curse, which was [practi- 
cally] extinguished ' [but still smouldering ; 
for G. was almost, but not quite, released 
from his ban p. 334]. 

Lit., 'as it were, the smoke-of-extin- 
guished-remaining-curse-fire.' The long cpd 
receives a fern. pi. ending to conform w. 
jatabhis; but it is a genitively dependent 
subst. (1264 not adj.) cpd, whose prior 
member, praganta-gesagapagni, is a descrip- 
tive noun cpd (1280); gesa-gapagni, again, 
is a descriptive noun cpd (1280) ; and gapa_ 
agni, finally, is a descriptive noun cpd 
(1280b),with a bold metaphor. Cf. Katha- 
sarit-sagara, xix.104. 

18 a . ' (The adventures) of himself as P.': 
there is no objection to this grammatically 
(cf. Tji ^ufj X e 'pl nauAoy) ; but G. and P. were 
never identical see p. 334. The reading 
puspadantasya ca svam ca would be correct 
in sense and metre. 

19. katha^avataram tarn is in apposition 
w. -cestitam; 'the adventures (which were 
that coming down, i.e.) which were the occa- 
sion of that coming down of the divine story 
from heaven to earth.' 

20. See gana2. ' Recognizing him 
as .' U.f. pada^anatas, \narn. See 
p. 333, 61. 


1. See lidam, end. ' But here are 100,000 
(making) one story ; take that.' Compare 
the story of the Sibyl. 

3-4. See Vmantraya+a, and pada4. 

5-6. Metre, arya, p. 316, 44. -U.f. 
adaya agat (830) nija-. The long cpd 
(q.v.) goes w. katham. 

7-8. Metre, as before. The dual cpd 
is in the accusative see Vbhaj +sam-vi 2. 
For the long cpd, see 1253a. 

9-1O. Metre, as before. ' And with 
(the help of) those two, King S., having 
comforted that Katha, in order to narrate 
(vaktum) her or its descent-to-earth in that 
(paigaci) dialect, composed (cakre) the 
Kathapltha.' This is the name of the pre- 
fatory lambaka ; but there is a double mg, 
' he made the pedestal of Katha (personified), 
the next book being called ' head of K./ 
Kathamukha. He consoles ( Vgvas + a, gerund 
of caus.) Katha or Story, by studying it, 
and so atoning for the indignity he had 
offered it, 54 12 . 

11-12. Metre, rathoddhata, p. 316, 43. 
'And that Story, full of varied beauties, 
made men forget the stories of the gods 
[lit. (was) possessing forgotten god-stories], 
by reason of its interest (kutuhalat, 291 2 ). 
Then (atra3), after accomplishing that in 
the city, it attained to uninterrupted fame 
in the three worlds.' 





53. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL. The Manu literature is now very extensive, 
several of the most important and recent works need be mentioned here. 


Arthur C. Burnell and Edward W. Hopkins. The 
ordinances of Manu. Translated from the Sanskrit. 
With an introduction. London, Triihner & Co. 
1884. 8. Price 12 shillings. 

George Biihler. The laws of Manu. Translated 
with extracts from seven commentaries. [= SBE. 
vol. xiv.] Oxford, at the Clarendon Press. 1886. 
8. Price 21 shillings. The volume contains an 
elaborate and valuable introduction. 

Julius Jolly. Manava Dharma-castra, the code of 
Manu. Original Sanskrit text, with critical notes. 
London, Triibner & Co. May, 1887. 8. Price 10 
shillings 6 pence. 

Burnell's introduction contains an argument on 
the date of our Manu text. Professor Hopkins has 
summed up and criticised this argument (JAOS. 
xiii. p. xxviii = PAOS. May, 1885), and concludes 
that it brings us not one step nearer a solution of 
the problem. 

Biihler's introduction (p. civ-cxviii) givesalearned 
discussion of the date. Of this, Hopkins makes a 
resume (JAOS. xiii. p. cxcviii= PAOS. May, 1887). 
He finds Biibler's conclusions probable, but does not 
think them absolutely proved by .the proofs adduced. 

The text-edition of Loiseleur Deslongchamps 
(Paris, 1830) is hardly obtainable now. It is safe 

to say that Jolly's robs all preceding ones of their 
value, inasmuch as it is the result of far-reaching 
critical studies. The principal places in which Jolly's 
text varies from that of the Reader are i.97; ii.11,76, 
125; xii.23,37,42,45,90,95,96. 

The general theory of the origin of the Laws of 
Manu was summed up and criticised by Whitney 
(JAOS. xiii. p. xxx = PAOS. May, 1885). Meantime, 
however, BUhler's Introduction has put the question 
in a new light. 

The relations of our text to the Maha-bharata are 
ably discussed by Hopkins, JAOS. xi.239-275 (cf. 
PAOS. Oct., 1883). Here may be found, conveniently 
assembled, quotations from Manu in the Sutras and 
inscriptions, the legendary material about him in the 
Epic, and a careful discussion of the passages in the 
Epic which profess to be the declarations of a per- 
sonal Manu. 

By way of calling attention to the interesting sub- 
ject of the knowledge of the Greeks concerning India, 
occasional citations are given. The references to 
Strabo's TeiaypafaKa. (of which book xv., chap. 1, 
1-73 describe India) follow Casaubon's paging. 

The following introduction is in the main a brief 
abstract of some of the more important points of 
Biihler's introduction. 

54. The native tradition respecting the origin of the Manava-dharma-castra 
takes the book to be the work of an individual law-giver. In accordance with this 
tradition, until quite recently, it has been usual for English writers to call the 
treatise ' The Laws of Manu.' And this designation may still be used, provided 
only it be used with an intelligent mental reservation, which takes due account of 
the results of modern criticism. For in the light of critical study, the figure of 
Manu, as a historical person, fades away ; but, on the other hand, we find that Manu 
as a name is one of the greatest and most reverend of the Hindu antiquity. Ques- 
tions thus arise : Whence the greatness of this name ? What was the real origin of 
this law-book, and how came it to be called Manavan ? 

55. The word manu originally means simply ' man ' (see vocabulary). As 
we speak of human beings as the ' children of men,' so the Rig-veda speaks of them 
as the 'offspring of man ' (manu) ; and in this way arose the conception of a personal 
Manu, the father of mankind. He is, in fact, the heros eponymos of the human race. 

In the Veda 1 he appears as ' Father Manu, child of the Sun,' as a holy seer, the 
originator of prayer, praise, and sacrifice, and as the object of the special favor of 
the gods. In the Brahmanas, Manu is the progenitor of the new race after the flood. 
That he was regarded as a type of wisdom, is evidenced by the ancient saw, ' What- 
ever Manu said, that is medicine ' (TS.ii.2.10 2 ). And again, that he was an eminent 
type of goodness appears from the fact that his actions came to be looked upon as 

1 For the Vedic legend of his birth, see 85 15 N. The 27-31. For ancient legends about Manu, see Buhler's 
ancillary books make Manu the author of RV. viii. Manu, p. Iviif; Muir, i 2 .161f, and esp. 181f. 



examples highly worthy of imitation. Thus the Veda says (TS.iii.1.9 4 ), 'Manu 
divided his property among his sons ' ; and this is quoted by Baudhayana in his 
Dharma-sutra as such an example. Such simple beginnings are entirely natural ; but 
they are also sufficient to show how, with the growth of legal literature, the authors 
of law-books came to cite all kinds of (supposititious) sayings and doings of Manu as 
authoritative precedent. For, after the custom of referring to Manu as authority 
was once started, the oftener he was thus cited, the greater his factitious authority 
and the temptation to cite him would become. Accordingly, if we examine the four 
oldest Dharma-sutras, we find much more frequent reference to Manu in Vasistha, 
the latest of them, than in Gautama, the oldest. And thus, at last, what had been 
a mere name, a part of the traditional inheritance of the mythical past, attained to 
greatness as a personal authority and actual law-giver. 

56. Before proceeding to our other questions, let us rehearse briefly the native 
account of the origin of the work. In Sanskrit, the book is entitled manava : and 
this may mean either 'of Manu ' or ' of the Manavans.' The Hindus say, 'of Manu ' ; 
and accordingly the opening stanzas represent the great sages as approaching ' Manu, 
the son of the Self-existent,' and asking him to declare unto them the law. He 
accedes ; but deems it necessary to go back to a time before the Creation, in order 
to show how he derives his lineage (Manu i.33), and hence also his authority, 
directly from the Supreme One, Brahmdn. 'He,' says Manu (i.58-60), 'composed 
this law-book, and taught it to me alone in the beginning ; I taught it to Bhrgu ; 
and Bhrgu will recite it to you.' 

Bhrgu accordingly takes up Manu's cosmogonical discourse, continues with an 
account of the Four Ages and of other matters, dwells on the excellence of Manu's 
Laws, and ends book first with a table of contents of the twelve books of which 
the treatise consists. And in order that we may not forget that it is all (or all but 
i. 1-60) put into the mouth of Bhrgu, we are frequently reminded of the situation 
by an ' I will next declare ' or the like, especially at the beginning of books v. and 
xii., where Bhrgu is mentioned by name as the promulgator of the laws in question. 
In accordance with all this, the work is entitled the Bhrgu-samhita of the Manava- 
dharma-castra, and it may conveniently be so designated. It contains 2685 9lokas 
or 5370 lines ; compare 54 U N. 

57. For the incredibility of this native account the reasons are near at hand. 
First, all the passages involving Bhrgu as promulgator of the work can be separated 
from the rest as easily as a picture-frame from the canvas which it surrounds. 
Indeed, the entire first book is a most palpable later addition. And, more than this, 
Bhrgu himself is cited (at iii.16), with three others, as an authority on a disputed 
point. Clearly, the later editors of the work were nodding here ; else they would 
have expunged this stanza. And who knows how many more of a like sort they 
may have expunged ? 

Moreover, against the claim that Manu (to say nothing of the Supreme Spirit), 
was the author and the first law-giver, the case is equally plain. For the work 
appeals to the authority of Manu here and there, just as the other works of its class 
do, thus showing that its earlier editors at least did not pretend that Manu was the 
author of the whole. NOT .was he a law-giver without predecessors or rivals ; else 
we should not find, as we do, divergent opinions of other ancient sages cited along 
with what purports to be his. Moreover, the work itself (ii.6 = 58 14 f) admits that 



the law is based on the Veda, the usage of virtuous men, etc.; and it plainly men- 
tions (at iii.232) Dharma-^astras, which must be either contemporaneous, or else 
earlier than itself. 

58. Secondly, then, What was the real origin of the work ? The first half of 
the answer is as follows. The Vedic works, as explained below, fall into the three 
classes of Samhita, Brahmana, and Sutra. Chief among the works of the last class is 
the Kalpa-sutra, or ' Ceremony-rules.' No Kalpa work had catholic validity among 
all Brahman families. On the contrary, many of the most important old families 
had each its own Kalpa-sutra. In these clannish differences, doubtless, originated 
the Caranas or ' Schools,' in which Brahman science was cultivated and sacred tradi- 
tion handed down from generation to generation. Thus among the adherents of the 
Black Yajur-veda, we find the family of Apastamba; and, bearing his name, we find 
not only a Brahmana, but also a complete Kalpa-sutra in its three subdivisions 
of Qrauta-sutra or ' Rules for the fire-sacrifices,' Grhya-sutra or ' Domestic usages,' 
and Dharma-sutra or 'Sacred law.' The Kalpa-sutra of Baudhayana doubtless had 
a similar make-up. Good editions of various Grhya- and Dharma-sutras are now 
accessible in text and translation. They treat l of the sacraments, of the duties of a 
Brahman in the various stages of his life, as student, householder, hermit, beggar, 
of the duties of a king, of the law of inheritance, and so on. 

Now these are the very subjects treated also in the Dharma-<;astras. But there 
is one great difference, the difference of form. The Sutras are in mingled prose and 
verse, the latter including both tristubh and anustubh stanzas; while the C.astras are 
in the ordinary epic gloka. To a mind acquainted with the veriest rudiments of 
criticism it is quite clear from their form and language alone that the Qastras are 
later than the Sutras a view which is in entire accord with the stanza ii.6=58 14 , 
cited above. The conclusion, then, that the Dharma-9astras, in general, as shown by 
their contents and form, are the outgrowth, by a very natural process of evolution, 
from the Dharma-sutras, is unimpeached. 

59. The other half of our answer is that the Manava-dharma-9astra, in par- 
ticular, is a later metrical recast of a lost Manava-dharma-sutra : in other words, that it 
is the 'Law-book of the Manavans.' This is a particular thesis, quite different from 
the general conclusion just stated ; and, although very widely accepted, it is not 
universally so. The theory 2 of this connection proceeds as follows. Among the 
schools of the Black Yajur-veda, especially among those of the Maitrayaniya branch 
thereof, we find the school of the Manavans. 8 According to the investigations of 
Dr. von Schroder, 4 the Maitrayaniya seems to have been one of the oldest and most 
important of all the schools of the Yajus-period. 5 Of these Maitrayanlyas there are 
.still some representatives surviving in Western India ; and their Sutras are entitled 
Manava-sutras. Manuscripts of the Manava-crauta-sutra and the Manava-grhya- 
sutra are still extant. 6 

60. Unfortunately, the Manava-dharma-sutra, the link most important to 
connect our Bhrgu-saihhita with the Vedic schools, is still missing. The researches 

1 Compare p. 358, 96f, below. 

2 This theory was hroached by "Weber (I8t. i.69) 
and Miiller (see SEE. ii. p. zi) in 1849. It was con- 
firmed or elaborated by Johantgen in 1863, Das 
Gesetzbuch des Manu, p. lOOf ; by West and Buhler 
in 1867, see Digest, p. 27; by Schroder in 1879, Mo- 
natsberichte der Berliner Akad. for 1879, p. 700, and 

in 1881, ed. of Maitrayanl-samhita, i. p. XVIII; and 
finally by Buhler in 1887, in his Manu, p. xviii-xlv. 

3 Bee Carana-vyuha, I8t. iii.258. 

4 In the places just cited. 

8 Compare p. 356, 90, below. 
See ZDMG. ixxvi.442-48, where von Bradke 
describes some of them, and states their contents. 




of von Bradke, 1 too, failed to show any striking correspondences between the 
Manava-grhya-sutra and our treatise. But, on the other hand, Buhler has dis- 
covered 2 important correspondences between it and the Manava-^raddha-kalpa. 
Moreover, as has been repeatedly pointed out, 8 the Dharma-sutra of Vasistha con- 
tains a quotation (iv.5-8) which has every appearance of being a veritable fragment 
of the original Manava-dharrna-sutra. In this quotation we have, first, the prose 
rule (5) ; next, the stanzas which support it (6, 7), and which agree entirely or 
nearly with Manu v. 41 and 48; and, last, a Vedic passage (8) to support both rule 
and stanzas. This is the arrangement usual in the Dharma-sutras. And the prose 
rule (5) is characterized by the words iti manavam as a quotation from the Sutra 
of a special school ; for works valid for all Aryans are not so cited. 4 

61. Other quotations 5 are found in Vasistha at iii.2, xiii.16, xix.37, and xx.18, 
in close correspondence respectively with Manu ii.168, iv.117, x.120, and xi.152 of 
our text, and introduced by the formula, ' And on this point they quote a Manavan 
stanza.' From this, one might think that Vasistha was quoting from our Bhrgu- 
saihhita. But this inference is barred by the evident posteriority of our text, as 
shown by its form and by other general considerations, and in particular by the fact 
that the stanza at xix.37 is in the tristubh metre. We conclude, then, that the 
Manava-dharma-sutra known to Vasistha closely resembled our text, but was not 
identical with it. 

62. Now granting all that precedes, there is a very strong inherent probability 
in the conclusion that our Bhrgu-samhita is a metrical recast of the Dharma-sutra 
of the Manavan school. More than this cannot be said; for it is not a necessary 
conclusion. Its probability, however, has been greatly increased by the considerations 
respecting the occasion and method of the recast adduced by Buhler. 

63. The occasion was the development (beside the sectarian schools which 
studied exclusively a single branch of the Veda and the rudimentary works ancillary 
thereto) of the non-sectarian schools of special sciences, whose teachings claimed 
validity for all Aryans. In the old Vedic schools, the pupils had to learn the texts 
of the Mantras and Brahmanas of their sect, and the short ancillary treatises, on 
ritual, etymology, metre, etc., called Aiigas or 'Limbs' of the Veda. With the 
development of these subjects to elaborate disciplines, it became impossible for a 
student to master them all. He must either content himself with a thorough verbal 
but unintelligent acquaintance with the texts and short treatises of his own sect ; or 
else he must become a specialist in the ritual, the law, or some other subject, and 
renounce an extensive knowledge of the sacred texts. 

64. That this truly describes the course of things is shown by the present 
state of learning in India. A good Vaidik is able to recite all the texts of his branch 
of the Veda. But in order to have an elaborate sacrifice performed, there is need of 
a Qrotriya specialist, who, though ignorant of the other Aiigas, is yet a master of 
the ritual. In the case of two of the Angas, grammar and astronomy, the Vedic 
schools possess no sectarian text-books of their own. These subjects, it would seem, 
had been abandoned to the specialists at an early period. For a good while longer 
the sacred law was cultivated in the Vedic schools, as appears from the existence of 

1 In the ZDMG. xxxvi. 417-77 (1882). 

2 Buhler's Manu, p. xlf. 

3 See Buhler, 8BE. xiv. p. xviii f and esp. 26; 
Manu, p. xxxi. 

4 See BUbler's Manu, p. xxxvii. 
* See Hopkins, JAOS. xi.242-43; and cf. Buhler, 
8BE. xiv. p. xviii-xx. 



the numerous sectarian manuals on the subject. But even in these (see Biihler, 
Manu, p. lii, p. xxv,N.3) we find mention of persons who know several different law- 
books, that is, who were specialists in the law. And this fact alone would lead us 
to infer the existence of special law-schools. 

65. Granting the existence of these schools, we have precisely the combination 
of circumstances which would lead to the production of such a work as our Manu- 
text. The schools had before them plenty of Sutra-material, sectarian, of only local 
validity, unsystematic, and incomplete. In the very nature of things, the schools 
would tend to be non-sectarian, to widen their influence, and to systematize and com- 
plete the work of their predecessors. And this is exactly what they have done in our 
Manu-text. It is absolutely non-sectarian. As contrasted with its forerunners, it 
emphasizes the practical rather than the moral side of the law, treating strictly legal 
topics at much greater length. It shows the signs of being a school-book. And 
finally, it aims at general validity among all Aryans. This explains the fact that 
our Manu shows so little correspondence with the texts of the Vedic Manavan 
schools. The recast was the work of men whose interest in their subject exceeded 
their interest in a sect. 

66. Finally, the greatness of the name of the legendary and semi-divine Manu 
suggests the reason why a special law-school should have chosen the Manavan 
Dharma-sutra rather than any other as the basis of their new manual. In con- 
structing a treatise that aspired to universal acceptance, they must ipso facto with- 
draw any claim thereto which rested on the high standing of the Sutra-original as a 
sectarian work. The problem then was, in accomplishing this task, to avoid too 
violent a break with tradition. Had they taken the Gautama-sutra, and recast it, 
waiving for it all claim to general validity on the score of Gautama's authority, it 
would indeed have been a bold proceeding to father it upon Vyasa or Manu or any 
of the great sages of yore. By choosing the Manava-sutra, after their silent waiver 
on the one hand, they had only, on the other, to interpret its title expressly as 
meaning 'of Manu,' when, presto without the smallest offense to tradition or 
grammar, they had a name of unsurpassed authority to commend their work to the 
Aryan world. 

67. A great deal of the recast Biihler, p. Ixxiii, thinks one half cannot 
have been derived from the Sutra-original. The entire first book is most clearly such 
a later addition ; and such is likewise the twelfth book, whose classification of actions 
and existences according to the three gunas (66 8 f) is based on the teachings of the 
Samkhya, Yoga, and Vedanta systems of philosophy. 

What now is the source of these later additions ? The Maha-bharata offers very 
many correspondences with our Manu-text. A comparative study of the two works 
shows that the editors of the latter have not drawn on the former, but rather that 
both works have drawn upon a common stock of popular metrical maxims (Hopkins, 
JAOS. xi.268), which embodied much of the traditional legal lore, and were ascribed 
(as is attested by extant inscriptions) now to one and now to another of the ancient 
mythical sages Vyasa, Manu, and the rest. 

68. As for the method of conversion of the Sutra into our Manu-text, Pro- 
fessor Biihler is of opinion (p. xcii) that it took place at one time, and that our text 
is not the result of many successive recasts. 

69. Coming, finally, to the date of the recast, Professor Biihler concludes 


PAGB 57. 

(p. cxiv, cxvii) that it existed in the second century A.D., and was made between 
that time and circa 100 B.C. General considerations make this conclusion seem far 
from improbable. Our Manu-text is doubtless the oldest of the class of secondary 
law-books, like those of Yajnavalkya and Narada, to which it belongs (p. civ). And 
again, while it is doubtless posterior to the older portions of the Maha-bharata, our 
Manu-text in some form or other is probably prior to the later portions of the 
great Epic, books xii. and xiii. But we do not know the time of Yajnavalkya nor 
of the Epic; and at present it seems quite vain to seek for an accurate date. 


Darkness. The Self-existent 56 

Creation of light and of water 56 18 

Mundane egg. The Vedas. The castes . . . 57 J 

Divisions of time for men ; for Manes ; for gods 57 17 

The four ages of the world 58 2 

Age of the gods. Day of Brahman .... 58 s 

Praise of Hrahmans 58' 

Foundations of the Law 58 14 

The Sacraments (see Note) 59 1 

Name-giving. Names 59 9 

The Brahman's staff. Begging S9 23 

The student. Om. Savitrl 60* 

Etiquette of salutations 60 16 

Dignity of Veda-teacher. Story of Kavi . . 61 15 

Terms of study. Marriage 61 23 

The householder. Precepts and prohibitions . 62 8 

Virtue is the only true friend 63 7 

The struggle for existence 63 21 

Wanton life-taking. Etymology of maftsa . 64 2 

Women. The faithful widow 64 

The forest-hermit. Self-castigation .... 64 16 

The pious mendicant 04 22 

The four orders 65* 

The lunar penance 65 5 

Classification of actions 65 B 

Rewards and punishments 65 19 

The three gunas. Acts classed thereby ... 66 s 

Triple orders of transmigration 67 1 

Transmigrations entailed by special sins . . . 67 19 

Means of gaining bliss 68 s 

Warning against heterodoxy 68 10 


15. This account of Creation (9lokas 5-18), 
with others, is given and translated by Muir, 
iv 2 . 30f. -See idam. -'Darkness ' cf. 
RV. x.129.3. 

16. adhya- 1, i.e. prathamo 'dhyayah. 

17-18. ' He, (himself) not-manifest, mak- 
ing manifest (vy-anjayann) this (universe), 
the grosser elements and so forth, revealed 
himself (u.f. pradus aait). 

19-2O. U.f. yas aaau ati- etc., aaa 


1-2. Join the ablatives w. siarksus. 
U.f. apaa adau. Primeval waters: cf. 
Muir, iv 2 . 24f ; also Strabo, xv.59, p. 713. 

3-4. 'That (seed) became a golden (u.f. 
haimam) egg, having sun -like splendor 

(prabha).' Brahman is conceived as too 
distant to be a father; cf. ZDMG.xxxii.295. 

The idea of the mundane egg may be 
traced to the Veda cf. 91 16 . It plays a 
part in divers Indian cosmogonies : see 
C,B. xi. 1.6 1 ; Chandogya Upanisad, iii. 19 
(SEE. i.54) ; Vianu Parana, i.2.52f (see esp. 
Wilson's Transl. 2 , i.39f and notes); these 
passages are given by Muir, iv 2 .24f, 41f . Cf. 
also Preller, Griech. Mythol., i 8 . 35f; and 
Pott's Anti-Kaulen, 68f. 

5-6. ' The waters are called " naraa," 
(because) the waters are indeed the offspring 
of the Primal Spirit (nara). Since these 
were his ancient place of motion (ayana), 
therefore is he called Narayana' ('having 
the nara = naraa as his ayana,' 1302). This 
oft-recurring etymology, as found in MBh. 
and Puranas, is discussed at length by Wilson 
and Hall in notes to Visnu Purana, i.4.6, 
Transl. 2 , i.56-8. Cf . Lassen, IA. i 2 .769. For 
correct derivation, see narayana. 

7-8. 'What (was) that cause (etc. see 
sadaaadatmaka), thence-created (was) the 
Purusa, (and) in the world he is called 
" Brahman." ' Cf . ZDMG. xxxviii.193-4, 206. 

9-10. atmano dhyanat, 'by his medita- 
tion' (291 2 ). -See Vlkr 10. 

11-12. See Vlma+nia. -See di. 

13-14. U.f. -ravibhyaa. See brahman 
3. U.f. yajna-aiddhi-artham rc-yajus- 
saman-laksanam. Cf. AB. v.32. 

15-16. The -taa puts the whole aggrega- 
tive cpd hi an ablative relation (1098b). 
The older designation of the second caste 
was rajanya, which term is used at RV. 
x.90.12, of which stanza this <;loka is a para- 
phrase. For many other mythical accounts 
of the origin of the castes, see Muir, i 2 .7- 
160, esp. p. 10 and p. 159. 

18 b . ' Day (is) for performance of works. 


PAGE 57. 1 


19-2O. The dark and light lunar fort- 
nights (= one human month) form respec- 
tively the day and night of the Manes ; for 
with them everything is reversed. See C. B. 
ii.4.2 or AJP. iii.403. They are fed once a 
month. The older Greek division of the 
month was in two fortnights (cf. Hesiod, 
Works and Days, 780): gukla = /*V lardnevos ; 
krsna = priv <f>6iva>v. 

21-22. U.f. ahas tatra (= ratry-ahnos) 

23 f. Lit. 'Attend ye to that (tan) which is 
the extent both of a night-and-day of Brah- 
man and of the ages.' 


1. See tu 4. Respecting the ages, see 
Roth, Ueber den Mythus von den funf Men- 
schengeschlechtern bei Hesiod und die indische 
Lehre von den vier Weltaltern, Tubingen, 1860. 
The conception of a past golden age is com- 
mon. The scheme of ages as here presented 
is post-Vedic (see Roth, p. 24f ), and based 
on the simple descending arithmetical pro- 
gression, 4, 3, 2, 1. Description of the four 
ages, MBh. iii.149.11 = 11234, f. Criticism 
and numerical details : Whitney, JAOS. vi. 
152f; Visnu Purana, i.S.lOf, Transl. 2 , i.49f; 
Monier Williams, Indian Wisdom, 333. Gold- 
en age described by the Brahman KoAacoy, 
Strabo, xv.64, p. 715. 

2-3. ' Four thousand of years, they say, 
(is) the krta yuga (see krta). Its morning 
twilight has just as many hundreds ; and its 
evening twilight is similar.' 400+4000+400 

4-5. itaresu, sc. yugesu, i.e. the Treta, 
Dwapara, and Kali, which last respectively 
3600, 2400, and 1200. Total of all four, 
12,000. See v'vrt2. 

6-7. See adi 1. - ' What is that quad- 
ruple-age, just now reckoned up completely, 
that, consisting of 12,000 (years), is called 
an age of the gods.' Cf . Whitney, I.e., 154 top. 

8-9. sahasram etc., cf. Psalm xc.4; II. 
Peter iii.8. brahmam ekam ahar: here 
then are distinguished periods of Brahman's 
repose (universal death) and of his activity 
(" new heavens and a new earth ") ; see 
ZDMG. xxxviii.191, 25. 

1O-13 = MBh. v. 6. 1-2 = 109-110, with 

14-15. No real difference between gfla 
and acara. See also Biihler's Manu, p. Ixvii. 
tad - vidam = veda - vidam. atmanas 
tustis may decide in cases where no rule of 
morals and no usage is involved. L. 14 
agrees exactly with Gautama's Dharma- 
fastra, i.1-2, except that it is in metrical 

16-17. -uditam, Vvad. See vi+pra. 

18-19. Observe that gruti and smrti (see 
these) or ' revelation ' and 'tradition' have 
come to be important technical terms. Con- 
cerning their significance, see M. Miiller, 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 86f. dharma- 
gastram, collectively : see Biihler's Manu, 
p. xxv. U.f. sarva^arthesu am-. 

2O-21. mule : Jolly reads tu_ubhe. 
U.f. hetugastra^agrayat, 'from support of 
or relying on hetugastras.' Such^ treatises 
on dialectics are mentioned a number of 
times in the Si-yu-ki (Beal), e.g. ii.218f. 

22-23. ' What is agreeable to one's own 
self ' same as atmanas tustis. See 
laksana lend. 


1-2. ' The body-consecration, having the 
niseka as its first (rite), is to be performed 
etc.' Samskara (see this) is here collective, 
including the various single sacraments. 

Observe that there are rites for all 
stages of a Brahman's existence from before 
his birth till after death. Megasthenes gives 
an interesting account of the Brahmans (pre- 
served by Strabo, xv.59, p. 712f ), and notes 
that even from the time of conception in the 
womb (^877 eii&vs Koi Kvofjitvovs) they are under 
the care of wise men. 

The samskaras or ' sacraments.' 

1. garbha^adhana, ' conception.' 

2. pum-savana, 'male-ceremony.' 

3. simanta^unnayana, ' hair-parting.' 

4. jata-kannan, ' birth-ceremony.' 

5. nama-dheya, ' name-giving.' 

6. niskramana, ' going out.' 

7. anna-pragana, ' rice-feeding.' 

8. cuda-karman, ' tonsure of scalp.' 

9. upanayana, 'investiture.' 

10. keganta, ' tonsure of beard.' 

11. samavartana, 'return from study.' 

12. vivaha, ' marriage.' 


| PAGE 6O. 

Most of these are described at length, 
AGS. i.!3f or SEE. xxix.!79f or 46f or M. 
Williams, Indian Wisdom, 246, 201. Number 
2 is done to bring it about that the child 
prove a male. No. 3 is a consecration of the 
pregnant woman by the parting of her hair. 

3-4. garbhais homais : ' the oblations 
relating to pregnancy ' are involved in sacra- 
ments 2 and 3. The ligation of the girdle 
accompanies investiture (9). U.f. enas 

5-6. See vrata4. U.f. ijyaya, 'offer- 
ing ' to Gods, Rishis, and Manes, while he is 
a student. sutais: procreation of sons is 
a duty. ' A Brahman is born laden with 
three debts. He owes Veda-study to the 
Rishis ; sacrifice to the Gods ; and sons to 
the Manes.' TS. vi. 3. 10 5 . - The ' great 
sacrifices ' are five, to the Gods, Beings, 
Manes, Brahman, and men : enumerated 
QB. xi.5.6 1 or AGS. iii.l (= SEE. xxix.217) 
orManuiii.69f. yajnais, such as a certain 
Soma-ceremony called jyotistoma, says a 
Scholiast. U.f. brahmi, 'holy, fit for 
union with Brahman.' 

7^8. See pranc3. 'Feeding of gold- 
rubbings, honey, and ghee/ See AGS. i.15.1. 

9. karayet : note that in Manu the pre- 
scriptive use of the optative with indefinite 
subject (' a man ' or ' one ') is very common. 

10. Here the va's are = eva and mean 
' just.' Scholiast. 

11-12. Subject, nama. See Vyuj 4 sam. 
See Vgup. "Nomen, omen." This is 
an old belief : cf . QB. iii.6.2 2 *. The QGS., 
i.24.4-6, mentions two names, one of which 
is kept secret by the parents to protect the 
child from witchcraft. See Stenzler's note 
to AGS. i.15.8. Cf. Weber's 2d Naksatra 
essay, Abh. der Berliner Akad., 1861, p. 316f. 

13-14. The scholiast Kulluka gives as 
examples : Cubha-Qarman ; Bala-varman ; 
Vasu-bhuti; Dina-dasa. 

15-16. Sc. nama syat. See airv-. 

17-18. U.f. yad va istam (see VI is) etc., 
' or what passes for auspicious in the family,' 
sc. tat kartavyam. The rules allow some 
latitude for diversities of customs in fam- 
ilies, villages, etc. See 98 16 and note. Cf. 
Manu viii.46. 

21-22. See garbha 1. garbhastame = 
garbhad astame. upanayanam . this 
most important ceremony is described AGS. 
i.19-22 or SEE. xxix.!87f. 


1. prad-, see 99*N. -U.f. pari^itya (992). 

2-3. bhavatpurvam, see vocab. The for- 
mulae are : bhavati, bhiksam dehi ; bhik- 
sam, bhavati, dehi ; bhiksam dehi, bhavati. 
Similar distinctions, 61 7 N. 

4-5. vyatyasta-panina (V2as), 'by (sc. 
the pupil) having crossed hands.' 

6-7. adhy-esyamanam (Vi, 939) etc., 'To 
(the pupil) about to recite, the teacher should 
say, "Ho, recite (617)!" and should stop 
(a-ramet) him with the words .' 

India presents a thousand striking and 
interesting contrasts with the Occident. So 
especially in her way of handing down lore 
from age to age. This is described by the 
RV. Prati9akhya, chap. xv. ; and reported 
by Weber, ISt. x.!28f; Zimmer, 210; Kaegi, 
Fleckeisen's Jahrbiicher, 1880, p. 451. Or see 
SEE. xxix.l!2f,119f. 

8-9. brahmanas (see brahman 2) limits 
adau and ante. See Vlkr7. sravati, 
subject brahma. Vlgr+vi. 

1O-11. a+u+m = om. Prajapati belongs 
to the period succeeding the RV., and is later 
supplanted by Brahman. nir-aduhat, 635. 
Seeiti4. Compare 57 18 . 

12-13. aduduhat (856) see vduh, caus. 
' Extracted one verse of the stanza begin- 
ning with "tad" (74 14 ) from each of the 
three Vedas.' U.f. tad iti rcas. 

14. etam, sc. ream. 

16. hi, ' for,' has pertinence only as con- 
necting this 9loka with 119. U.f . sthavire 
a-yati (619), loc. absol. 

19. Hiatus, without combination, at cae- 
sura: cf. 12 5 N. 

2O-21. See param. ' Saying " I am so- 
and-so by name," he should announce his 
name.' The older one or the one superior 
in station speaks or salutes first. Thus, when 
the great Yayati is falling from heaven and 
meets in mid-air Astaka and others, Astaka 
asks him, " Who art thou ? " but not without 
excusing himself, as the inferior, for bold 

PAGE 6O. ' 


incivility in speaking first. MBh. i.88.10 = 
3573. SoOd. 3.24: 

aiSojj 5' o3 veov &vSpa ycpairepov QfpftffOai. 

22-23. See abhivada. na janate, 
from ignorance of Sanskrit. Cf. Burnell, 
Introduction, p. xxvii. striyas : thus in 
the prologue to act iv. of the Qakuntala, 
Durvasas, behind the stage, cries out to the 
women, ayam aham, bhoh, ' Ho there, it 
is I.' 


1-2. 'The word bhos one should repeat 
(at the end of = ) after one's name in salu- 
tation. For the use of bhos instead of a 
person's real name is declared by the Rishis 
(to be the same as) the use of the true form 
of a person's name.' See bhobhava and 
svarupabhava. The bhos is of course in 
lieu of the name of the person addressed. 

4. ' And the rowel a must be pronounced 
(added) at the end of his name, with the 
previous syllable protracted ' reading piir- 
vaksaraplutah (see Buhler). Thus Deva- 
datta and Harabhute are to be pronounced 
Devadatta3a and HarabhutaSya see 
Whitney, 78. 

7-8. This rule is observed, e.g. in the 
drama, by the Rishis and the king, Qakuu- 
tala, mid. of act v. For other differences 
in the modes of address used for or by the 
different castes, see 60 2 N.; C.B. i.1.4 12 (or 
SEE. xii.28 or Weber's Ind. Streifen, i.49). 
The rule is disregarded in the Epos, e.g. at 
MBh. 1.71.5 = 2899. 

Analogous distinctions : E. W. Hopkins, 
Mutual relations of the four castes, 6f ; Weber, 
ISt. x.llf ; Manu, viii.88 and 113. 

9-1O. 'A d- is not to be addressed by 
name even if he is younger (cf. x. to 60 20 ) ; 
but with bhos or (some case-form from the 
stem) bhavant a dh- should speak to him 
(enam).' Thus, bho diksita ! idam kuru! 
or, bhavata yajamanena ! idam kriyatam ! 
For the long adverb, see vocab. 

11-12. U.f . " bhavati " iti evam : see iti4. 

13-14. U.f. rtvijas. ' One should say [to 
those in line 13] " asau aham," rising up to 
meet (them, even if they are) the younger.' 

15-16. The ' second ' or ' spiritual birth ' 

of the 'twice-born' (see dvija) is the upa- 
nayana. The teacher is the spiritual father. 
See SEE. ii.3,174; xiv.9. 

17-18. U.f. adhy-apayam asa (1042e, 
1045) pitfn (see pitr 2) cjigus. See ha. 

19-2O. 'They, (having arrived-anger=) 
getting angry, asked the gods about the 
matter. And the gods, assembling (sametya), 
said (ucus) to them etc.' 

22. See iti2f and 1102a 2 near end. 

23. See sattringat and abdika. The 
Brahmanical school-term lasted 4J months, 
began with the upakarman and ended with 
the utsarga see Biihler's Manu, p. xlvi, 
and note to iv.95. See guru4. ' The 
course (vrata) in the three Vedas is to be 
followed, (lasting 36 = ) for 36 years.' 
Twelve years for each Veda (see veda2), 
AGS. i.22.3. This is sober earnest for a 
Hindu. The idea would make a Greek laugh 
cf., e.g., Lucian's 'Ep^Tjyuos, chap. i.f, and 
esp. vi. 

Not even mighty Indra can absolve 
those who fain would know the Veda from 
the necessity of studying it. See the charm- 
ing tale of Yavakrita, MBh. iii.135.15-42 = 
10706f, outlined at ZDMG. xxxii.318. 

Caesar's account of the Druids (E.G. 
vi.14) comes near the truth for the Brahmans 
in several respects. Magnum ibi numerum 
versuum ediscere dicuntur. Itaque annos 
nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent. Etc. 
Cf. also Roth, KZ. xxvi.53. 


1. See 2antika: adjectives go w. vratam. 

2-3. vedan (as contrasted w. dual and 
sing. ) = ' 3 Vedas.' AV. not included. 
yathakramam, first the Mantras, then the 
Brahmanas, in order. Two principal ele- 
ments characterize the ' course ' or vrata, 
viz., study (adhy-ayana) and holy living 
(brahma-carya). adhi^itya a-vaset: 
cf. Megasthenes, in Strabo, xv.59, p. 712, 
T77 5' tvra (!) Kal -rpuSuiovra. oSrtas ftffWTM 
avaxwpeiv < r^v eavrov KTijffiv fKcurrov etc. 

4-5. ' Him ( = the student), approved (on 
account of [280] his = ) for doing his duty, 
he ( =the "father," sc. pita) should pre- 
sent with a cow.' pitus, ' from his father,' 


| PAGE 03. 

meaning his spiritual " father," i.e. (61 15 N.) 
his teacher, who may also be his natural 

6-7. See Vman+anu. snatva, techni- 
cal, see s'sna. He thereby becomes a snataka. 
sam-a-vrttas, technical see sacrament 
no. 11, p. 340. savarnam : OVK ea-ri ya/j.f'iv 
e aAAou yevous, Strabo, xv.49, p. 707. 
laksana-, cf. 98 7 - 8 . 

8-9. ' Let him give up all affairs which 
hinder his study (296b), but (be) teaching 
anyhow (see yathaS) ; for that is the con- 
dition of having done his duty or of having 
attained his end.' 'Teaching anyhow,' i.e. 
'maintaining himself as best he can while 

1O-11. uklambara3: 'Ivdovs iaOijri \tvi<fi 
XfTJffOo-i Kal ffivSdffi Aeu/ccus /coi Kapirdffois etc., 
Strabo, xv.71, p. 719. The castes wore 
clothes of different colors. The priests 
regularly wore white during religious cere- 
monies. See yuj2. 

12-13. There is so frequent need of water 
for ceremonial purification that a Brahman 
should never be without it (see Baudhayana, 
i.6 and 7, esp. i.7.1, or SEE. xiv.!60f ) ; hence 
the jar. See veda not v6da. 'Gold 
ear-rings : ' xP u(TO< t >0 P " vra M eT P' ws ^" T0 ' s *'^ 
Strabo, xv.59, p. 712. 

14-15. U.f. na ikaeta ud-yantam. See 
\fsrj +upa and 23 1 x. See gatal. 

16-17. See Vvrs. Seerupal. 

18-19. ' Let him make (to be) stand- 
ing on the right' see 99%. Prad- is an 
adj.; and is neuter, since sexless things are 
among the substantives. Places where 
four ways meet have been the object of awe 
and of many superstitions : cf. W. Menzel, 
Die vorchristliche Unsterblichkeitslehre, i.145, 
163. vanaspatin : for an instance of tree- 
worship, see Katha-sarit-sagara, xx.26. Cf. 
also J. Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship, 

20. U.f. vayu-agni-vipram. apas : a 
similar respect for the waters (which are 
divinities 83 1 ) was shown by the Persians 
(Hdt. i.138; Strabo, xv.3.16, p. 733) and the 
Greeks (Hesiod, Works and Days, 757 ) . 
pagyans, ' facing.' 

22-23. If the earth be regarded as a Sat 

surface, under which the sun passes by night 
in the same plane of motion as by day, the 
sun will be to the north of the dwellers of 
Northern India at night, just as it is to the 
south of them in the day. 

The point of the prohibitions is that the 
parts of shame be not turned to the Sun-god 
or (as at 62 20 ) any other sacred or venerable 
thing. The prohibition recurs in very many 
Sanskrit books (e.g. MBh.xiii.l04.75=5029,f ; 
VP. iii.ll.10f ; for other parallel passages, 
see SBE. vii.194), and may be traced, with 
similar ones, back to the AV. (xiii.1.56). 

Entirely identical is the Pythagorean 
irpbs Tfi\Lov rfrpa.nij.fvos fa^i oSpn Frag, philos. 
Graec., ed. Miillach, i. p. 506. This coinci- 
dence, with others, is discussed by L. von 
Schroder, Pythagoras und die Inder (Leipzig, 
1884), 31-39. But Weber points out that 
the same thing occurs in Hesiod, Works and 
Days, 727. Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxviii.6 
end = 19. 

1-2. a-caksita, 616. 'Nor let him tell 

(the fact that she is drinking V2dha) to 
any body ' (297a). U.f . divi in-. 

3-4. U.f. -dhvanau ('at the sound of) 
rg-yajuai (1253a) na adhi^iyita (616) 
adhi^itya va api antam etc. See va 1 end. 
Respecting this and the next gloka (SV. 
impure), see Muir, iii 2 .25f, Aufrecht, Rig- 
veda^, i. p. xxxviii, and Hopkins's note to 
Burnell's Manu, iv.124. 

7-8. See go3. ' Like the earth, iniquity 
done in the world does not bear fruit at 
once; but etc.' See Vvrt+a. mulani: 
same figure at Proverbs xii.3. Vkrt. 
Cf. MBh. i.80.2 = 3333,f. 

9-1O. ' If (punishment falls) not on (the 
doer) himself, (it falls) on his sons, etc.' Cf. 
the second command of the Mosaic deca- 
logue. See tu3. 

13. Lines 13-20: these and 29 5 - 6 (= Manu 
viii.17) are translated by Muir, i 2 .380; and 
(with classical parallels) in the same author's 
Metrical Translations from Skt. Writers, p. 26. 

17-18. See 2sama2. vimukhas, very 
naturally ! but the rules also forbid looking 
around (103 17 ). 


PAGE 63. ' 


21-22. See idam. 

23 f. See api 2 beg. -"Thus gazelles 
eat herbs ; tigers eat gazelles ; men eat fish ; 
lions eat elephants." Scholiast. 


2-3. U.f. kuryat, 59 9 N. - See sanga2. 

6-7. U.f. bhaksayita (1050, cf. 944) 
iha admi aham. ' Me eat in t'other world 
will he, whose meat in this world eat do I. 
That the wise declare to be the meatness of 
meat = That is why meat is called meat.' 
An example of Hindu etymologies, which 
are often little better than mere puns as 
here, mam sa and marisam. Hopkins notes 
that this is given in varied form, MBh. xiii. 
116.35=5714. Cf. Whitney, AJP. iii.402; 
also 94 16 . 

8-9. See uposita. See Vcru, desid. 

See yena2. Cf. Strabo, xv.59, p. 712: 
TCUS Se yvvai^l rats ya/j.frals (ify <rvfji<j>i\o(ro<t>e?v 
rovs BpaxM"" aj etc. Notable exceptions to 
this statement are found in the ancient 
legends of Maitreyi and Gargi SEE. xv. 

1O-11. ' Any thing disliked of her husband 
(296b), displeasing to him.' It is note- 
worthy that widow-burning (see p. 382) is 
quite ignored here. It is not mentioned 
anywhere in Manu; and the same is true of 
Yajnavalkya, Narada, Gautama, Apastamba, 
and most of the others. Jolly, Sitzungs- 
berichte der Bairischen Akad., 1876, p. 447. 
He thinks it originated among the lower 

12-13. See kamam, adv. V2ksi, caus. 

See Vgraho. parasya limits nama. 
14-15. U.f. asita (616) a maranat. 


16-17. evam, ' so,' as described in book iii. 

18-19. Prescriptions quite the reverse of 
those at 62 10 . 

2O-21. U.f. pancatapas (see vocab.) 
varsasu abhra-. Compare, e.g., the penances 
of Yayati after he retires to the forest, MBh. 
i.86.11 = 3544,f ; and those exhibited to 
Alexander, Strabo, xv.61, p. 714; and see 
xv.63, p. 715. 

22. vihrtya, 


2. pra-vrajan, technical (see vocab.), 
describing the pravrajaka. 

3. THE ORDERS. See acrama. Perhaps 
the best English names are: 1. 'Student,' 
for brahmacarin; 2. 'Householder,' for 
grhastha; 3. 'Forest-hermit,' for vana- 
prastha ; and 4. 'Ascetic ' or ' Pious mendi- 
cant,' for yati. 

The last is often called ' Beggar ' (bhiksu) 
or 'Wanderer' (pra- or pari-vrajaka). 

5-6. Lit. ' One should diminish one mouth- 
ful at a time in the dark fortnight etc.,' i.e. 
' diminish one's food by one mouthful etc.' 
See trisavana. This, the diminuendo- 
crescendo form of the lunar fast, is called 
pipilika-madhya or ' ant-middled.' 

7-8. 'One should follow the same rule 
entire, in (case of) the yava-madhyama 
(see this), intent, performing (carancj the 
lunar penance with the bright fortnight 

These are fully described, e.g. by Gau- 
tama, xxvii. (transl. SEE. ii.296f), and by 
Baudhayana, iii.8 (SEE. xiv.303f). . 

9f. Cf. below, p. 357, 90. -For a 
summary of this schematic exposition of 
the doctrine of metempsychosis, see Indian 
Wisdom, 280. 

9-1O. ' Resulting in weal or woe (is our) 
karman, which originates in mind, voice, 
and body.' Thus qualified, karman com- 
prehends ' virtuous and sinful thoughts, 
words, and deeds.' See gati4. 

11-12. taaya, sc. karmanas. See api2 
beg. See dehin. ' One should know 
that the mind is the prompter in this world 
(iha) of this (action) which is three-fold 
[viz. best, worst, and middling, cf. 65 10 ] and 
has three manifestations [viz. as thoughts, 
words, and deeds, 65 9 ], is connected with 
the body, (and) has ten kinds [3+4+3 kinds, 
enumerated in 9lokas 5, 6, 7].' 

17. avidhanatas : hereby are excluded 
from this category injuries to sacrificial 
victims when required by the ritual, or to 
a man when inflicted as a lawful penalty. 

19. U.f. manasa eva ayam (lit. 'this one 5 
= ' a man ') upa-bhunkte. See v'2bhuj +upa2 


I PAGE 68. 


1. 'And (ca) he [if he does right for the 
most part and wrong a little] enjoys bliss in 
heaven, invested (Vlvr+a) with those very 
elements (see bhuta5), i.e. with a corporeal 
body.' ' Those very ' before-mentioned at 
Manu xii.16. 

3. ' Deserted by the elements ' = ' after 
death.' Scholiast. 

4-5. See jiva. See the mention of the 
five elements, Strabo, xv.59 end, p. 713. The 
spirit, after purgation, takes on a human 
form again. The purgatorial idea is promi- 
nent in book xviii. of the MBh. 

6-7. 'Considering (drstva) these gatis 
(which result) from right-doing and from 
wrong-doing' (1098). -See Vldha3. 

8-9. See sattva2, rajas4, tamas-3, and 
esp. guna3, and also atmano, and mahant2, 
all technical terms here. ' One should 
know goodness, passion, and darkness as 
the atman's three qualities, with which the 
mahant constantly pervades all these exist- 
ent things without exception.' See p. 344, 
67. Line 9 is explained under sthita4. 

10-11. ca ca : the sense requires ' or 
or.' '"As having the quality of darkness 
as its attribute : ' tamasam modifies only the 
prior member, guna-; the verbally strict 
phrase would be tamo-guna-laksanam (cf. 
line 15). 

14-15. 'What (deed) one wishes (to be) 
known by everybody etc.' jnatam: con- 
jecture of BR. at vi.489. lajjati, metri 
gratia, for -te. 

18-19. See ya6 and sarva2c. ' But 
the transmigrations which (a man) enters 
upon by reason of any (quality of them=) 
of these qualities, these (of all, i.e.) through 
all this world in order I will briefly state.' 

2O-23. A summary of the scheme fol- 


1-18, clokas 42-60. Scheme of the nine 
sets of gatis. On him who is governed by 
it, each guna entails a gati : to wit, 

I. tamas, the gati of a beast (42-44) ; 
II. rajas, the gati of a man (45-47) ; 
III. sattva, the gati of a god (48-50). 

Each gati is of three kinds : 
a. lowest; b. middling; c. highest. 

The scheme is not strictly adhered to. In 
line 1, for instance, 'plants' are put among 
the beasts ; and in 15, the ' Vedas,' among 
the gods. But we are not surprised to find 
' Qudras ' (line 3)among the beasts, and ' Brah- 
mans' (line 13) among the gods (see 94 18 ). 

6. U.f. tamasisu (sc. gatisu) uttama. 

7-8. See jhalla. vsanj+pra. 

11-12. ye merely fills out the verse see 
ya3 beg. 'Likewise all Apsarases.' On 
the Apsarases, see Holtzmann, ZDMG. 

17. Technically used words see vocab. 

19-2O. 'A Brahman-slayer enters the 
womb of dogs (cjvan), swine, asses, camels, 
cows, goats (aja), sheep (avi), etc.,' in order 
to be born therefrom as dog, etc. 

22-23. U.f. pretas antyastri- : pronounce, 
pretantyastri-, in violation of 177. 'By 
stealing grain, one becomes a mouse; (by 
stealing) water, (one becomes) a duck; etc.' 
The same construction runs on to 68 3 . Note 
that some of the gatis have a special 


45. ' Women also in like manner (see 
kalpa) by stealing would incur guilt. They 
become mates of these very creatures (men- 
tioned above).' 

8-9. See pravrtta and nivrtta. eti, 
'one attains to.' aty-eti etc., 'gets rid of 
the five elements,' i.e. ' obtains final libera- 

10-11. ' And whatsoever heterodox philos- 
ophies (there are).' See Ika2b: the first 
ca = ' and.' 

12-13. 'Whatsoever doctrines (yani kani 
cid, sc. gastrani), differing (anyani) from 
this (atas = vedat), spring up and come to 
nought, these (tani) etc.' 

14-15. See crestha and 2vara: and for 
abl., 292b. vyava-, 'the resolute' who 
practice what they learn. 


specimens of vakrokti, ' play on words ' or 

Norss TO i 
PAGE 68. ' 


' Calembourg/ Both come from the Subha- 
sitarnava, and are taken by me from Bo'ht- 
lingk's Indische Spriicke, 2d ed., no's 1428 
and 6846. Other specimens are no's 4042 
and 6389. 

16-17. 'Nineteen wives went to the wood 
to play. Twenty came home. The rest were 

eaten by a tiger.' Solution : ekona vingatir 
naryah = ' wives twenty lacking one ' (477a) ; 
or, dividing eko na (stem nr ), ' one man (and) 
twenty wives.' 

18-19. U.f. mama ajnaya. Solution: 
na tena, ' not by him,' when joined, gives 
natena (v'nam), 'by him bending over.' 



70. Selections xxxi. to Ixxv. comprise Mantra 
(or " Veda" in its narrower sense), Brahmana, and 
Sutra. They are taken for the most part from the 
Rigvedic literature (or " Rigveda " in its broader 
sense). Professor Kaegi's little work, entitled Der 
Rigveda (2d ed.), and described above, Brief List, 
p. zx, no. 23, is recommended as a most useful intro- 
duction to Vedic study, on account of its general 
excellence, and, in particular, on account of the ful- 
ness of its bibliographical details. It is, moreover, 
now easily accessible in an English version by Dr. 
Robert Arrowsmith, published by Ginn and Co., 
Boston, 1886, price $1.65. Kaegi's book will be fre- 
quently cited in the sequel, as " Kaegi," with the 
page-number of the translation first, followed by that 

of the original in parenthesis. The Note-numbers 
are alike in both. 

71. For grammatical forms peculiar to the Veda, 
reference to Whitney will be made when needful; 
but the student should read systematically the sec- 
tions that describe Vedic noun-inflection and verb- 
conjugation. For the former subject, the small-print 
lines of 330, 340, and 342 are important ; and for the 
latter, the paragraphs on the subjunctive, 557-563, 
736, 700, and those on the mode-forms of the different 
aorists, chap. xi. The accent, explained by "Whitney, 
80-86, is important for the exegesis and otherwise. 
The accent-rules are given at 92-97, 314-320, 591-598, 
1082-86. The notation of the accent is explained at 

72. The Vedic literature is based on the songs of the early Aryan tribes 
immigrant into India. These tribes were life-loving, brave, and warlike, and show 
their nature clearly in their songs. But they were remarkable above all for the 
strength of their religious instinct. This is a cardinal fact the prime determinant 
of the character of the early Indian literature ; for that literature is one of prevail- 
ingly religious content. The Veda is thus distinguished from the later literature 
of the Epic and the Classical periods by its contents, and also no less by its 
language and style. But within itself, the Vedic literature (or "Veda" in the 
broader sense of the word) shows differences which serve to divide it into three 
great groups. 

73. To assign a definite chronological period for each of these groups is 
neither feasible nor necessary. 1 But it is interesting and quite possible to establish 
an inner chronologic sequence among the groups themselves and the sub-groups, and 
even among individual books and parts of books. To the first group belong the 
ancient songs themselves, which are in metrical form and are known as the Vedic 
hymns or Mantras. The term " Veda " is often used in a narrower sense to denote 
them. To the second belong the Brahmanas, the oldest Indo-European prose extant, 
which presuppose and are dependent on the Mantra-literature. The third group 
comprehends the Sutras, collections of brief rules upon liturgical and other subjects, 
which, in turn, presuppose both of the foregoing groups. 

1 Indeed, to do so would give a very false impres- 
sion. The periods overlap; and the styles of litera- 

ture shade off from one into another so, for 
example, in the Yajurveda. 



74. A great mass of Mantra-material originated and was handed down by 
memorial tradition orally from generation to generation long before the existence 
of any such collections of Mantras as have come down to us. 1 The Mantras fall into 
several different classes. To one belongs the hymn-stanza (fc) ; to another, the 
sacrificial formula (yajus) ; and to another, the magic charm (brahman). From the 
stock of Mantras of one class for example, the yajus a certain collection with 
definite arrangement became established by popular usage in a certain community, 
and thus arose a Veda, for example, a Yajurveda not a certain definite book, but 
some one of many possible and probable collections of Mantras of a certain definite 
class. From the same stock of the same class another collection was formed in 
another community, and thus arose another Veda, for example, another Yajurveda. 
The period in which the oldest hymns of the Rigveda originated may be set back 
into the second pre-Christian millennium; 2 but this only on certain general con- 
siderations not as a matter of precise argumentation. Geographically, the early 
Vedic Aryans may be referred to Kabul and the Panjab. 8 

75. The Mantras have come down to us, for the most part, in several collec- 
tions, diverse in form and purpose. There was, besides, more or less Mantra-material 
which was never embodied in any collection, 4 but of which we find remnants scattered 
about in various books. The great collections of Mantras are the Rigveda, the 
Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda. The text of the Mantras forms 
what is often called a Sarhhita. To each Samhita is attached a body of dependent 
or ancillary works of the Brahmana and Sutra groups : so that the oldest Indian 
books are classed, first, according to the Veda to which they belong; and, secondly, 
according to their character as Mantra, Brahmana, or Sutra. It is to be remembered 
that "Veda" has a narrower and a broader sense, and that "Rigveda," for instance, 
may mean either the Rigveda-samhita or also the entire body of works belonging to 
that Veda. 

76. The Sauihita of the Rigveda is a historical 6 collection. It consists of 
1017 hymns, each containing on an average about ten double lines, 6 so that the text is 
in volume somewhat less than that of the two Homeric poems together. There is 
a purely external and mechanical division of the text into 'Eighths,' 'Lessons,' 7 
' Groups,' and ' Stanzas ' (astaka, adhyaya, varga, re) ; but this need not specially 
concern us now. Of deep historical significance is the other division into ' Books,' 
' Chapters,' ' Hymns,' and ' Stanzas ' (mandala, anuvaka, sukta, re). 

77. There are ten ' Books ' (literally, ' Circles '). And of these, books ii. to 
viii. are the so-called "Family-books" that is, they contain each the hymns 
ascribed to a single family or clan, in which they doubtless originated, and by which 
they were handed down as a sacred inheritance. Thus, book ii. contains the hymns 
of Grtsamada and his clan. Those of Vi9vamitra and his tribe follow in book iii.; 
and then in order those of Vamadeva (book iv.), Atri (book v.), Bharadvaja (book 
vi.), Vasistha (book vii.), and Kanva (book viii.). The ninth book is made up of 

1 See Roth's Atharvaveda in KascJimir, p. 9-10. 

2 See Whitney in The Century Magazine, 1887, 
xxxiii. 921 ; or Kaegi, note 38. Cf . Ludwig, iii. 178f . 

See Whitney, I.e., p. 913; Kaegi, note 39; Lud- 
wig, iii. 198f. 

The Hindus say that the Vedas are infinite. See 

8 As distinguished from a liturgical collection 
see 86. Respecting the purpose of the RV. collec- 
tion, see Roth, KZ. xxvi. 56. 

6 For the number of stanzas, words, and syllables, 
and for some convenient tabular statements, see 
Muller, ASL. p. 220f. 

Ludwig, iii. 15; Muir, iii 2 . 17. " There are eight ' Lessons' in each ' Eighth.' 



hymns addressed to the deified drink Soma. The tenth comprises hymns ascribed 
to very different authors ; 1 while the first consists of fifteen 2 minor groups, each 
attributed to some ancient poet-sage. 

78. The general history of the text of the Rigveda was touched upon by Pro- 
fessor Roth in a very instructive little essay 8 entitled Vedische Studien. Some of 
his conclusions may be briefly stated. The assembling of the Mantras into a collec- 
tion was accomplished by the aid of writing. 4 The first Rik collections were probably 
single books and parts of books, each an aggregation of material of such moderate 
compass as to be easily handled by a single collector. The small collections were 
later united into one large collection, which, completed by the addition of books ix. 
and x., and uniformly edited, constitutes our RV. Samhita. 

79. Roth recognizes three stages in the tradition : 1. the oral transmission 
from the authors to the time of the collectors ; 2. the reduction from the oral form 
to the written form; and 3. the transmission of the written text to us. We may 
admit that in the last stage the text carefully preserved as it was, see 98 has 
suffered no very important corruptions. The collectors themselves, however, did 
not by any means write down the texts precisely as they heard them. The reciters 
from memory must have recited rhythmically. The collectors (writers redactors 
or diaskeuasts) have often destroyed the rhythm by putting the texts into the 
strait-jacket of the rules of grammar, and especially by writing the words accord- 
ing to the later rules of samdhi. To the first stage are to be referred the many 
mistakes which are ascribable to carelessness in listening, 5 and which may be called 
blunders of the ear rather than of the eye. 

80. That the hymns themselves are of diverse origin, both in respect of place 
and of time, is probable a priori and is shown by internal evidence. 6 Accordingly, 
if we find, for example, two hymns involving inconsistent conceptions of the same 
deity or of different deities, this is to be deemed quite natural, inasmuch as they 
originated among clans dwelling in diverse regions. Moreover, after the aggregation 
of the small collections into the large one, interpolations and later additions were 
still made. To discriminate between the different elements that now make up the 
canonical Vedic text is therefore an important problem. 

81. Again, in the course of time, and in part as a result of the wrangling 
pedantry of narrow teachers, the stock collections became ramified into slightly 
divergent recensions. These were called gakhas or ' branches,' because so related to 
each other as are different branches from the same tree-stock. The (gakhas often 
supply to criticism the various readings for which the classical philologist looks to 
good and independent manuscripts. The community in which such a Qakha attained 
definitive authority was called a carana or ' school.' There once existed, presumably, 
many branches and schools 7 of the R\ r . The school of the Qakalas, 8 however, seems 

1 The orthodox Hindu conception of the hymns is 
that they had existed from eternity; it recognizes no 
human authors. The Hindus do not call Atri, for 
example, the "author" of a given hymn, hut rather 
the " Rishi," i.e. the " seer," who was so fortunate 
as to " see " it the last time it was revealed. Muller, 
A8L. p. 95. 

* Bergaigne, JA. viii.8.263 (= Tl). 

s Published, 1883, in KZ. xxvi. 45-68. See espe- 
cially p. 52-62. 

1 This is entirely consistent with the facts that the 

tradition in the schools was oral and by memory, and 
that the open use of a written text was disgraceful. 
Compare, e.g., Sarva-sammata Ciksha, ed. A. O. 
Franke, rule 36. But this thesis 'of Roth is denied 
by some scholars. 

8 Such as ndmasa for mdnasa, etc., Roth, I.e., 
p. 62. 

6 Cf. Ludwig, iii. p. IX. 

i See Muller, ASL. p. 368. 

s See Muller, RV. Prati9akhya, Einleitung, p. 7. 



to have gained exclusive predominance, and the extant recension of the RV. Samhita 
bears their name. The Qakha of the Baskalas is also mentioned. 

82. The manuscripts of the RV. Saihhita exhibit almost no diversities of 
reading ; so that, in the absence of akha-differences, the criticism of the text has 
to rest on intrinsic evidence, and on a comparison of the other Samhitas, and on a 
study of the RV. citations in the RV. Brahmanas and Sutras. Other criteria have 
been brought to light by the study of the arrangement of the collection. Thus, 
within each of the books ii.-vii., the hymns addressed to the same deity are grouped 
together and arranged according to the decreasing number of stanzas of each hymn. 
The same simple principle goes farther, governing, for example, the order of the 
groups within a book. 1 Violations of the principle may arouse suspicion as to the 
originality or genuineness of the passages concerned. 

83. The first written form of the text would seem to have been the samhita- 
patha or ' combined reading,' wherein the words are combined according to the more or 
less artificial rules of grammar. 2 These combinations often admit of several different 
resolutions. To obviate the resulting uncertainties, there was constructed the pada- 
patha or ' word-reading,' which aims to give each word in its true independent form 
without reference to any rules of combination. The Pada-text of the published RV. 
is attributed to (^akalya, 8 and is the oldest conscious exegetical work upon the Veda 
now known. It is far from infallible. 4 For its secondary use, see 98x. 

84. The Samaveda is a Veda of samans. A saman is properly a 'tune* 
not a text ; but in this connection the word means an re so modified 6 as to be better 
adapted for chanting, especially during the ceremonies of the Soma-sacrifice. Of 
the 1549 stanzas of the Samaveda, 1474 occur also in the Rigveda. 6 The SV. 
exhibits many variations from the readings of the RV. Sarhhita, some of which 
are of value for the criticism of the latter text. 7 In general, the relations of the 
SV. to the RV. still present many difficult problems. 8 

85. The Samhita of the Atharvaveda, as compared with that of the RV., 
represents a lower plane of life and thought, as it is also later in respect of form 
and language. It contains magic incantations for the warding off of the most 
diverse malign influences, and prayers and charms for success in the various affairs 
of life, as love, gaming, quarrels, journeys, and the like. It has a high degree of 
interest for the student of popular superstitions. The Samhita has come down to us 
in at least two recensions. The one is called the Paippalada Qakha. 9 The other was 
published in 1856 by Roth and Whitney. 10 About a sixteenth part of the RV. stanzas 
occur also with more or less interesting variants in books i. to xix. of this text. 
Shankar P. Pandit of Bombay is now editing the AV. with Sayana's comment. 

86. The Yajurveda belongs to the period 11 of the highly developed ritual, 
and originated in the sacred and famous Madhyade9a. 12 The Sarhhitas contain the 

1 For details see A. Bergaigne, Recherches sur 
I'histoire de la samhita du RV., JA. 8.viiU93f 
(esp. p. 199), and 8.ix.l91f. Cf. also Oldenberg, 
ZDMG. xli.508f ; and Bergaigne, JA. 8.x.488f. 

2 This is the text given in the Reader. 
See Weber, HIL. p. 32f. 

4 A critical estimate of its exegetical value is given 
by Roth in the afore-mentioned essay, KZ. xxvi.45-52. 

6 By protraction of vowels, insertion of sundry 
sounds, repetitions, etc. Whitney, OLSt. i. 13-15. 

6 See Whitney, ISt. ii.347-63. 

7 Whitney, JAOS. xi. p. clxxxiv=PAO8. Oct. 1883. 

8 See Oldenberg's interesting discussion, ZDMG. 
xxxviii.439-80, and esp. 464-65. 

Described by Roth, Der Atharvaveda in Kasch- 
mir, Tubingen, 1875. 

10 See Brief List, p. xix, no. 18. For bibliography 
of translations, see Kaegi, note 13. 

11 The civilization of this period is treated with 
especial fulness in Schroder's Indiens Literatur und 
Cultur eee below, 100. 

" Cf. p. 297, 2 : also Schroder, ILuC. p. 163. 



formulas (see yajus in vocab.) which accompanied the sacrificial ceremonials, and 
are, as it were, the hand-books of the adhvaryus or priests who did the actual 
manual labor of the sacrifices. 1 With the growth of ritualism and its spread over 
a wide extent of territory 2 there naturally grew up many differing usages in con- 
nection with the sacrifice, and many centres of ritualistic study. 8 In this wise it 
happened that the sectarian schools of the Yajurveda were especially numerous and 

87. The Black Yajurveda. The various schools of this, the older Yajurveda, 
bear the names of men reputed to be the pupils directly or indirectly of Vai9am- 
payana, a name great in the Epos. At least five schools 4 possessed special Sariihitas, 
of which four are still extant : to wit, the Sariihita of the Kathas (Kaftuoi) or the 
Katbaka; that of the Kapisthala-Kathas (Ka//./?i<T0oXoi) ; that of the Maitrayanlyas ; 
and that of the school of Apastamba, a subdivision of the Taittiriyas. The one last 
mentioned, the Taittiriya Samhita, was the first to be printed in a scholarly edition. 6 
The Maitrayam Samhita has recently been published by Dr. L. von Schroder, Leip- 
zig, 1881-86. The others are still unedited. In all these texts of the old Yajus 
Samhitas, the sacred formulas are commingled with prose passages, explanatory and 
prescriptive. A single such passage is a Brahmana, 6 ' the dictum of a brahman or 
priest,' ' a priestly discourse.' 

88. The White Yajurveda. To remedy this confusion, a new school of 
Adhvaryus, called the Vajasaneyins, arranged a Samhita of ' clear formulas ' (guklani 
yajunsi), i.e. a text in which the formulas or Mantras were separated from the 
priestly discourses or Brahmanas. 1 Not without some little animus, doubtless, they 
turned to account the double meaning of gukla, 'clear' or 'white,' and fixed the 
name of "Dark" (krsna, 'dark' or 'black') upon the mingled or uncleared texts of 
their older rivals. The Samhita of the White Yajurveda or Vajasaneyi Saiiihita has 
come down to us in the recension of the Kanvas and in that of the Madhyaihdinas, 8 
and was published by Weber, Berlin, 1849-52. 

89. The separate collections of the formulas naturally suggested a similar 
treatment of the priestly discourses. In the school of the Vajasaneyins, the result 
of this treatment was a collection of the formerly detached Brahmanas, which collec- 
tion is itself also called a Brahmana, 9 and is practically an encyclopedic digest of the 
wisdom of their school. 10 

90. The oldest collection of Mantras, the Rigveda, is in the main the reflex 
of the life of a vigorous, active, and healthy people a people that prayed most for 
length of days, for sturdy sons, abundant cattle, doughty retainers, and victory over 
their enemies ; a people whose religion was a simple worship of the deified powers 
of nature. But even during the Vedic period, there comes a profound change. The 
Yajurveda represents a turning-point in the development of the Hindu character. 
The centre of Vedic life is shifted to Madhyadeca; and here were made the first 

Ludwig, iii.27. 

1 Schroder, ILuC. p. 164-5. 

Cf. Schroder, ILuC. p. 88-89: also Eggeling, 
SEE. xii. p. xxv f. 

* Schroder, Einleitung to his ed. of MS., book i. 
p. IXf. Of. ILuC. p. 89. 

By Weber, as vol's xi. and xii. of ISt., 1871-72. 

See this in vocab. and cf . it with brahmand. 

7 See Eggeling, SEE. xii., p. xxvii; also CB. xiv. 
9.4> or SEE. xv.226. 

Or HaStavSivoi: see HIL. p. 106. 

8 Specifically, the Catupatlia Brahmana. It was 
published by Weber, Berlin, 1855. Books i.-iv. 
have been translated by Eggeling, SEE. xii. and 
xx vi. 

10 Eggeling, SEE. xii. p. xxiif. 



great advances in the arts and institutions of civilization, in trade, and in science. 
Here also priestly families and warrior-families attained to such importance as to 
assert their independence of the people, and so bring about the strongly marked 
class-distinctions that grew into the rigid system of caste. And here, with the 
waxing power of the priesthood, the old Vedic religion was converted into an 
infinitely complex system of sacrifices and ceremonies. To this period belohgs the 
belief in metempsychosis a dreadful and universal reality to the Hindu mind. 
With the growing tendency of the Hindu character towards introspection comes the 
system of hermit-life and the asceticism which are so prominent in -the Hindu 
Middle Age, and which in turn led naturally to the habit of theosophic speculation. 
The sultry air of Ganges-land has relaxed both the physical and the mental fibre of 
the Hindu, and he has become a Quietist. 

91. The Hindu character has been transformed almost beyond recognition. 
The change is wonderful. It would be also incomprehensible, but for the literature 
of the Brahmanas. 1 As a whole and by themselves, they are puerile, arid, inane. 
But as the sole and faithful reflex of an immensely important phase in the develop- 
ment of an ethnic type, they have a great interest an interest heightened by the 
fact that the annals of human evolution hardly present another type whose history 
can be studied through so many centuries in unbroken continuity. 

92. The sacerdotal class, ever magnifying its office, has invested the sacrifice 
with a most exaggerated importance and sanctity. The sacrifice has become the 
central point of the Brahman's life and thought. About it he has spun a flimsy web 
of mystery, and in each of its events he sees a hidden symbolism. 2 Everything is 
not only that which it is but also that which it signifies. So lost is the Brahman in 
these esoteric vagaries that to him the line of demarcation between " is " and " signi- 
fies " becomes almost wholly obliterated. 8 What we deem the realities of life are as 
pale shadows. The sacrifice and its events are the real facts, and to fathom their 
mysteries 4 is omnipotence and salvation. 

93. It must not be forgotten that the phases of development represented by 
the Mantras and Brahmanas are not separated by hard and fast lines. The oldest 
Yajus texts are of the transition type. They are called Saihhitas, and contain 
indeed Mantras in abundance ; but the Mantras are mingled with prose passages 
which are the first Brabmanas. Descriptions of the sacrificial ceremonies, attribu- 
tions to them of hidden meanings, accounts of their origin, legends to illustrate their 
efficacy such are the contents of the older Brahmanas. Conscious philosophic 
speculation plays a subordinate part : its beginnings we can trace to the RV. 
Samhita; 5 but the great mass of it is contained in the later Brahmana literature. 

94. In this, the later Brahmana period, the descriptions of the ritual are 
relegated to systematic treatises ( 95) ; and the theosophic and philosophic passages 
become more lengthy and important, and receive as containing material appro- 
priate for the meditations of the vX6/3ioi or Forest-hermits the special names of 
Aranyakas 6 or ' Forest-treatises ' and Upanisads. 7 Some of the best of these have 

1 Characterized by Eggeling, SEE. xii. p. ix f, esp. See selection Ixll. and N. 

p. xxii-xxv. Enumerated by Kaegi, note 14 a. 8 See Deussen, System des Vedanta, p. 8; Miiller, 

2 See Oldenberg, Buddha, 19(20)f. ASL. 313f; or Kaegi, note 16. 

3 A point of prime importance in reading the end- " Upanisad : lit. ' a sitting at the feet of another,' 
less identifications of the Brahmanas. and then ' the hidden doctrine taught at such 

4 Hence the constant refrain, ya evam veda cf. session.' 



been handed down by tradition as separate works with separate names ; and other 
tracts of the same general style and contents have been written ; but it must be 
remembered that the original Aranyakas and Upanisads were integral parts of the 
digested Brahmanas. 1 

Brahmanical speculation culminates in pessimistic Pantheism, in the doctrine of 
the misery of all earthly existence, from which we can hope for redemption only 
through reabsorption into the universal All-in-One. This is the result of Brahmanical 
thought, on which as a foundation was built up the doctrine and order of Buddha ; 
this the link that unites the Brahmanic and the Buddhistic chains of development. 2 

95. The Brahmanas presuppose a thorough acquaintance with the course and 
details of the sacrifice, and do not undertake a systematic exposition thereof. But 
when the ceremonies had grown to tremendous length and complexity, it became 
necessary to have manuals giving full and orderly directions for the use of the 
celebrant. Such works are the ' Rules for the sacrifices ' or Qrauta-sutras, so called 
because they stand iu most intimate relation to the Veda or ' sacred texts ' (gruti), 
and continually cite these texts, and prescribe the manner and the occasions of their 
employment with the various ceremonies. 

96. Usage and observance, crystallized into sacred ceremony, invest the whole 
life of an Aryan Hindu nay, even his pre-natal and post-mortem existence. These 
usages differed considerably in different localities, and in the lesser details among 
the different families of the same locality. In part, perhaps, to counteract the 
tendency to diversity, books were made describing the observances recognized as 
normal in a certain school or community. They are called Grhya-sutras, or ' Rules 
of domestic usages.' Here, too, as well as in the sacrifice, everything proceeds with 
the recitation of Mantras ; so that these books also attach themselves to certain 
Vedas or Vedic schools. The legitimate subjects of these Rules are the ' Sacraments' 
(samskaras), and the 'Simple-sacrifices' (paka-yajnas) of the householder. 

97. There is also a third class of Sutras, called Dharma-sutras, which pre- 
scribe rules for the every-day life of those who would conform to the example of the 
virtuous. Since they have to do with ' agreement-conduct,' i.e. the ' conduct ' (acara) 
which has for its norm the 'agreement' (sam-aya, lit. ' con-vention ') of those who 
know the law, they are also called Samayacarika-sutras. The matters belonging 
more properly to the Grhya-sutras are sometimes treated also in the Dharma-sutras. 
But the legitimate subjects of the latter are far more varied than those of the former. 
They embrace all sorts of injunctions and restrictions relating to etiquette, to 
eating and sleeping, to purification and penance, and to the details of the daily life 
of the student and householder and hermit, and even extend to the duties of the 
king and to the beginnings of civil and criminal law. In the order of development 
they are plainly posterior to the Grhya-sutras. 

98. As the sacred texts of the Mantras grew in sanctity, their dialect and 
style of thought became obsolescent. For the transmission of the sacred lore, a 
learned apparatus became necessary. To preserve the written text of a given 
'branch' (gakha) of the Veda from any change in "one jot or one tittle," by 
establishing the relations of the samhita and pada pathas ( 83) of that branch, 
there were composed the phonetic treatises, which, because attaching each 'to a 

1 See Whitney, AJP. vii.1-2. I manism is admirably sketched by Oldeuberg,Buddha, 

1 The genetic relationship of Buddhism to Brah- , Introd., chap's ii.-iii. 



(certain) branch' (prati-gakham), are called Prat^akhyas. 1 These give with the 
utmost minuteness of detail the rules for the retroversion of the pada to the samhita 
readings, and thus enable us to establish with great accuracy the text as it was 
in their day. 2 

99. To preserve the knowledge of the sense of obsolescent words, there were 
made collections of synonyms and of hard words (yA.o><r<nu), called the Nighantavas, the 
oldest Vedic Glossary. Upon the Glossary there was written, by the ancient sage 
Yaska, a comment called Nirukta, which is the oldest extant work of formal Vedic 
exegesis, but which itself acknowledges a number of predecessors. Among its 
successors, the most famous is the great commentary of Sayana 8 Acarya, ca. 1350 A.D. 
The Anukramams are little works which give the divinity, the "seer," and the 
metre of each hymn of a Samhita. 

1 See Whitney, JAOS. vii.339-40; iv.259-60. 

2 The word -texts were thus converted "from in- 
struments more especially of exegesis, into a com- 

plete and efficient apparatus for securing the 
preservation of textual purity." L.c. iv.260. 
3 Weber, HIL. p. 41-42. 

100. It remains to give a brief bibliography of the literature of the Rigveda 
Samhita with mention of the principal ancillary works appertaining to it. For the 
bibliography of the other Saihhitas, reference may be made to Kaegi, notes 8-26, 
or to Weber's History of Indian Literature. 

1. Rigveda. Saiiihita. a. Text-editions. The 
first complete edition was issued by Aufrecht, 1861- 
63, as vol's vi. and vii. of the ISt. Miiller's great 
six-volumed quarto, with the full Sarahita and Pada 
texts, Sayana's commentary, an index, etc., was 
begun in 1849 and completed in 1874. Then came 
the editions mentioned at the beginning of this 
Reader, in the Brief List, no's 11 and 12. 

b. Exegesis. The greatest achievements in Vedic 
exegesis must be ascribed to Roth. They are con- 
tained principally in the St. Petersburg Lexicon, 
Brief List, no. 5. Grassmann's Dictionary and his 
Translation are described in the List, no's 13 and 14. 
Professor Alfred Ludwig of Prague has published a 
large work in five volumes (Prag, Tempsky, 1876-80) , 
entitled Der Rigveda. Vol's i. and ii. contain a 
translation of the hymns arranged according to deities 
and subjects. Vol. iii. contains an introduction to 
the translation, entitled Die Mantra-litteratur und 
das alte Indien. Vol's iv. and v. contain a com- 
mentary on the translation. 

c. General "Works. Abel Bergaigne's work en- 
titled La religion vedique (Paris, Vieweg, 1878-83. 
3 vol's) is a systematic and encyclopedic exposition 
of the religious and mythological conceptions of the 
RV. The work of Geldner and Kaegi (List, no. 15), 
and those of Weber, Zimmer, and the rest (no's 21- 
26) , all bear more or less directly on the study of the 
Veda. Whitney's Oriental and Linguistic Studies 
(New York, Scribner, Armstrong, & Co. 1st series, 
1873) contain among other things valuable essays on 
the history, interpretation, and contents of the RV. 
Very recently has appeared a book by L. von Schro- 
der, Indiens Literatur und Cultur in historischer 
Entwicklung (Leipzig, 1887), the first third of which 
is devoted to the Veda, and especially to the period 
of the Yajurveda. 

2. Rigveda. Brahmanas etc. The .Aitareya 
Brahmana was edited by Aufrecht see List, no. 16. 

Haug had already published the text with a trans- 
lation (Bombay, 1863), criticised and corrected by 
Weber, ISt. ix.177-380. 

The Aitareya Aranyaka is associated with the 
Brahmana of the same name. It has five books and 
was edited with Sayana's comment by R. Mitra in 
the Bibliotheca Indicd, 1876. See 8BK. i. p. xci f. 

Aitareya Upanisad is the name borne by certain 
parts of the Aranyaka, viz. book ii., chap's 4, 5, 6 
see SEE. i. p. xcvi. The text was edited and trans- 
lated by Roer, BL, 1849-63. Miiller gives another 
translation, SEE. i.200f. 

The (pahkhayana or Kausltaki Brahmana was 
edited by Bruno Lindner (Jena, Costenoble, 1887). 
A translation is soon to follow. 

The Kausitaki Brahmana Upanisad was edited 
(with amkara's comment) and translated by Cowell, 
BI., 1861. Another translation, by Miiller, SEE. 
i.271f ; introduction, ibidem, p. xcviii. 

3. Rigveda. Sutras etc. Afvalayana's rauta- 
sutra was edited by R. Vidyaratna, BI., 1874. 

A9valayana's Grhya-sutra was edited (with trans- 
lation) by Stenzler see List, no. 17. English ver- 
sion by Oldenberg, SEE. xxix. 

ankhayana's Qrauta-sQtra was edited by Alfred 
Hillebrandt, BI., 1886. 

ankbayana's Grhya-sutra was edited in 1878 by 
Oldenberg, ISt. xv.1-166, with translation. English 
version by Oldenberg, SEE. xxix. 

No Dharma-sutra is certainly known to be attached 
especially to the RV. Samhita. 

The RV. Prati9akhya was edited by Regnier (JA., 
1856-58), and by Muller (Leipzig, 1856-69). Each 
editor gives a translation . 

The Nirukta, with the Nighaijtavas, was edited 
and elucidated by Roth (Gottingen, 1848-52). 

The Anukramani of Katyayana was edited with 
valuable accessories by Arthur A. Macdonell in the 
Anecdota Oxoniensia, Oxford, 1886. 

PAGE 69. { 



Selection XXXI. KV. i. 1. Hymn to 
Agni, the Fire-god. Translated by "Whit- 
ney, Century Magazine, 1887, xxxiii. 915. 
Respecting Agni, see Kaegi, p.35(50)f, and 


THE METRE is gayatri. Each stanza 
(re) consists of three octosyllabic padas with 
iambic cadence see Kaegi, p.24(34) and 
N.85. Observe that, if the stanza be a triple 
one, the strophe usually consists of three 
stanzas and the hymn of a multiple thereof. 

In respect of frequency, the order of 
the metres in the RV. is : first the tristubh 
(about | of RV.); then the gayatri (about 
J) ; then the jagati (about \ ) see Haskell, 
JAOS. xi.p.lx = PAOS. May, 1881. 

LINES 1-2. ile, v'ld : accentless, 592 : for 
the new letter, see p. 291 If 8, and Whitney, 
5 end. RV.x.2.5 plays on the etymology 
of rtv-ij thus : agnlr devan rtu-g6 yajati. 
For superl., 471. 

3. purvebhis, 330, Vedic instr. : for r 
final w. initial r, Whitney, 14 end. 

4. U.f. devans a ihd. This interesting 
combination is really the result of a historic 
survival, and is fully explained at 209. 
Observe that an, though transliterated with 
two letters, is a simple nasalized vowel, 209 a. 

a vaksati : position of prefix, 1081 ; 
accent of verb form, 1082 ; v'vah, aor. sub., 
893 1 . 

5-6. agnavat, 700: use of mode, 576: 
subject indefinite, dive-dive, 1260. 
yagasam, 1151.2a. 

7-8. agne, acct, 314 3 . asi, acct, 595 a. 

Position of clauses, 512a. Locative, 
304 a. 

1O. a gamat, true aor. subjunctive (836 2 ), 
corresponding to the ind. agan (833): see 558. 

11-12. tvam may be read tuam. Observe 
that in the Veda, when rhythmically read, 
hiatus is common 113 3 . agne is at the 
beg. of a new pada, 314 3 . U.f. tava id 
tad satyam. Lit. 'Just what pleasant 
thing thou wilt ( wiliest to) do for the 
pious man, of thee' indeed that (is) real or 
unfailing ' i.e. ' Whatever blessing thou 

dost purpose to grant, that thou never fail- 
est to bestow/ 

13-14. U.f. upa tva (491 3 ) agne (accent- 
less) a imasi (548 1 ), Vi+upa^a. 

15-16. The accusatives are to be taken 
w. tva. We may pronounce adhvaranaam 
(113 3 ), or leave the pada catalectic. U.f. 
gopam. In pada c, we must pronounce 
sue, in order to produce an iambic cadence. 

17-18. S& bhava, see ta 2. - U.f. 
sunave agne: for treatment of the acct in 
combination, see 135, example 4. 

Observe that as the metre here shows 
padas a and 6 are always independent of 
each other as regards euphonic combination, 
and that as here the written text, with 
perverse consistency, always combines them 
when this is possible. 

sacasva, pada, sacasva, 248 c. Pro- 
nounce su-astaye. 

SELECTION XXXII. RV. i. 32. Indra 
slays the dragon. Respecting Indra and 
the natural significance of the myths about 
his battles, see Kaegi, p. 40(57)f, N.141f; 
and Perry, JAOS. xi.H7f. 

The "hymn" appears to consist of two 
separate pieces see N. to 70 20 . The catenary 
structure is noticeable in some pairs of stan- 
zas (1-2; 3-4) see Kaegi, p. 24(34). 

THE METRE is tristubh. The old Vedic 
tristubh is much more free than that of the 
classical Sanskrit; but its most important 
feature, the cadence, is the same see p. 
316, 43. 

For statistics, see Haskell, JAOS. xi.p.lxii 
= PAOS. May, 1881. For a discussion of 
its development, see Oldenberg, ZDMG. 

1. Pronounce viriani and (line 3) svariam, 
and see Whitney, 84 b. pra vocam, aug- 
mentless aorist (847 end), as improper sub- 
junctive (563), with future mg (576). 

2. U.f. ahan (637) ahim; anu apas ta- 
tarda. Note juxtaposition of perf. w. impf. 
and see 823 2 . -pri abhinat, vlrtiid, 692. 



3. gigriyanam, 807. Indra's special 
attribute is his " beloved thunderbolt," of 
which the Epos fables much, ZDMG. xxxii. 

4. ' Like lowing kine, flowing suddenly 
to a sea, down came the waters.' The point 
of comparison is the noise. samudrdm, 
perhaps ' to a gathering of water, so as to 
form one ' not necessarily ' to the ocean.' 

5 a . Pronounce avrmta, 135 4 (important): 
in the AV., ii.5.7, the augment is written. 
Cf. 70 17 N. -s6mam: see Kaegi, p. 72(99), 
and notes 288-94 ; also Roth, ZDMG. xxxv. 
680f and xxxviii.!34f. 

5 b . Pronounce trikadrukesu a-, and ob- 
serve that final -u is almost never to be 
pronounced as -v when so written. Cf. RV. 
ii.15.1, which seems to consist of reminis- 
cences of the beg. of this hymn. 

6. ' The Rewarder took the missile bolt 
smote him, the first-born of dragons.' 
ahan (593) has for direct object the enclitic 
enam, ' him,' or, more correctly, ' im,' since 
the English pronoun him loses its h when 
enclitic. The enam is then explained by an 
appositive. So 79 7 . 

7-8. U.f . yad indra ahan , at mayinam 
aminas pra uta . ' When, O Indra, thou 
smotest , and (uta) thereupon broughtest 
to nought the wiles of the wily, thereupon 
bringing forth the sun, the day, the dawn, 
then soothly foundest thou no enemy.' 

The first at continues the force of yad 
through pada b, as the acct (595a) of aminas 
(\/2mi) shows. Position of pra, 1081 2 . 
Order in pada c is unnatural : expect ' dawn, 
sun, (full) day.' Pronounce suriam. 
dyam, 361d: vocab., under div. usasam 
and kf la : see references in vocab. ; the pro- 
longations are in the even syllables of the 
cadence. vivitse, 798a. 

9. Pronounce viansam : cf . Whitney, 84a. 

10. kuligena, 248b. vi-vrkna, nom. pi. 
neut., common in Veda, for -and: Vvragc. 
gay-a-te, transition-form (749) from root- 
class, for ge-te (629). 

11. a hi juhv-e (alternative form for 
juhuv-e), Vhu+a: acct, 595d: subject, Vritra. 

12 a . ' He (Vritra) did not escape (Vtr, 
899a) the shock of his (Indra's) weapons.' 

12 b . 'The (cloud-) rifts he crushed 
together, who had Indra as his conqueror.' 
That is, the monster, in his retreat or his 
fall, crushed into a shapeless mass his 
already riven cloud-castles. This is forced. 
If we dared emend the air. \. rujanas to 
rujanas (840 3 ), we might render, ' Broken, 
he was (then) completely crushed* (998b). 

indra-gatru: later books, e.g. C,Br. i.6. 
3 10 , lay great stress on the correct accentu- 
ation of this word ; indra-gatrtL, ' conqueror 
of I.,' would be blasphemy. See Indische 
Studien, iv.368 ; or Roth, Nirukta, p. xix. 

13 b . U.f. a asya jaghana, see Vhan+a. 
Subject here is Indra. 

14. See vfsan. See \bliu, desid. 
agayat, 629. Pronounce vi-astas, Whit- 
ney, 84a. 

15. 'Over him, lying so, crushed like 
(na) a reed, the waters go, flowing for man- 
kind (lit. the waters of man, flowing, do go).' 
So Pischel, ZDMG. xxxv.717-24. P. thinks 
that the original text was manoriihanaati, 
i.e. manos (cf. 73 19 ) uhanas (Vvah4, pres. 
mid. ppl., 619 8 ) ati, and that the author of 
the pada text divided it wrongly, mano 
ruhanas, changing, of course, n to n. 

If manas, like anjas, could pass for an 
instr., we might render ' (With a will, i.e.) 
Lustily rising, the waters overwhelm him.' 
amuya, 'so,' w. a sneer: cf. atra, 89*N. 

16. pari-atisthat, acct, 595a, 1083. 
tasam limits only the first member of the 
foil. cpd. 

17. Note relation of acct and mg in 
vrtraputra. U.f. indras asyas: observe 
the accordance between the written and 
spoken form here see 135 4 , and cf . TO 5 *!*. 
vadhar, 'weapon' of V's mother, not of 

18. Translated, 777b. danus, fem.,= 
V's mother. gaye, see 613 : similarly 
duhe, 80 16 , ige, 92 8 . 

19-2O. ' The waters overwhelm V's hid- 
den body, that was put down in the midst 
of . In long darkness lay (a^agayat, 
629) he who was vanquished by Indra.' 

Here the narration comes to an end, 
Stanzas 1-10 form a brief but complete epic. 
The same general theme is treated again by 


PAGE 7O. i 


stanzas 11-14. Rik 15 seems to be a later 

21. dasapatnis: after I's victory, the 
waters are called (x.43.8) arya-patnis, ' hav- 
ing the Aryans as masters,' or ' having a 
gracious (god) as master.' panineva 
gavas (see g6) : the rain-giving clouds are 
often called ' cows.' These are pent up by 
a malicious demon (Pani), and their milk, 
the refreshing water of heaven, is withheld 
from man. 

Curiously, the natural basis of this simple 
myth is so far forgotten that the myth itself 
is here made to furnish a simile for the very 
phenomenon from which it is the poetic 


1. 'The orifice of the waters which was 
closed up he who slew (805, 209) Vritra 
opened that.' Waters conceived as if pent 
up in some mighty cask. 

2-3. ' A horse's tail becamest thou then , 
O Indra, when on his lance he (V.) impaled 
thee. As god alone, thou conqueredst . 
Thou didst let loose the seven streams (but 
see sapta) to flow' (lit. 'for flowing,' v'sr, 
970b, 982). 

In fighting with demons, Indra some- 
times gets roughly handled for a while (so 
iv.18.9). Such I conceive to be the situa- 
tion here. Pada a is the crux. Possibly a 
magic transformation is intended. V. im- 
pales I. on his lance; but straightway the 
god becomes a great sweeping trail of vapor. 
Very differently Bergaigne, Eel. Vd. iii. 

It seems unavoidable to join deva ekas 
withe: cf.i.33.4andi.!65.6 = 73 1 *. -Second 
ajayas begins a new clause : hence acct, 593" 2 . 

4. Explained under ya4 : asmai means 
Vritra. -akirad dh-, 163. -Cf. what is 
said of Yahve at Psalm xviii.13,14. 

5. yuyudhate, 800a. U.f. ut apari- 
bhyas (see apara). vi jigye, 787. 
' Indra was victor (both for the time) while 
he and Ahi fought and (utd) for the future.' 

6-7- ' What avenger of Ahi sawest thou, 
Indra, when in the heart of thee having slain 
(him) fear did come when nine and ninety 

streams as an affrighted hawk the skies thou 
didst cross 1 ' This may refer to a time 
when after all the aerial commotion (i.e. 
Indra's battling) the rain refused to fall 
and the uncleared heaven signified Indra's 
retreat. Reminiscences of this legend occur 
at TS. ii.5.3: cf. MBh. v.9.27 = 255 and 
10.43 = 334,f. -jaghnusas, 805. 

8-9. See \ya 1 and \sa. U.f. sas id u 
(176b) aran na . -Gen., 297c. - 
Tenses, 823 2 . 

SELECTION XXXIII. RV. i.50. To Surya, 
the Sun-god. Respecting Surya, see Kaegi, 
p. 54(76). The hymn is rubricated at 106 3 . 
It is still used in India, at the Midday Ser- 
vice. It was made the text of a linguistic- 
mythological comment of 225 pages by W. 
Sonne, KZ. vol's xii.-xv. ! 

In the textus receptus, the hymn has 13 
stanzas. I have given only 1-9. In the 
first strophe, stanzas 1-3, the god is men- 
tioned only in the 3d person. In the second 
strophe, he is addressed in the 2d person; 
and so also in the third strophe, excepting 
as often the final stanza (9). 

That stanzas 10-13 are later additions is 
proved by their contents and language and 
their (differing) metre. This proof is con- 
firmed by the fact that the corresponding 
passage of the AV., xiii.2.16-24, has only 
stanzas 1-9 ; and also by the fact that only 
1-9 are prescribed to be used in the ritual 
see Bezzenberger's Beitrage, viii.198, ZDMG. 
xxxviii.475, JAOS. xi.p.cxcii = PAOS. May, 
1884, and AGS. ii.3.13 and comment, and cf. 
87 10 N. Moreover, the addenda are at the end 
of an anuvaka cf. JA. S.viii. 207=15. 

1O. See u2. jatavedasam, see vocab. : 
although 'All-possessor' was very likely the 
primary mg (Whitney, AJP. iii.409), yet the 
mg 'All-knower' also seems to have been 
associated with the word early and commonly 
(Eggeling, SEE. xxvi.p.xxxi). For analogous 
cases, see h6tr and yama in vocab. 

In the present very unusual applica- 
tion of the epithet to Surya, 

&s ira.vr' e'cpopa /cal KO.VT' tiranovfi, 
the latter phase of mg predominates. 


PAGE 72. 

11. ' That every man may see the sun, 
lit. for every one for beholding the sun.' 
See dig and read 969, 970a, and 982. - 
vigvaya, 524-. 

12-13. ty6 belongs logically with nak- 
satra ni;, but is conformed in gender to 
tayavas. With this simile, cf. RV. x. 
189.2. See yatha4. yanti, no acct, 
595a 2 . suraya, 'for the sun, i.e. to make 
way for the sun.' Render: 

Off like as robbers slink away 
Yon constellations with their beams 
Before the all-beholding Sun. 

14. adrgram (834b end) vi (1081 2 ) 
passively, 998b : equiv. to vy-adrksata, 882. 
janan, 209. 

18-19. See pratyancS. Pronounce de- 
vanaam, 113 3 . pratyann, 210. Pro- 
nounce siiar (Whitney, 84b) : reg. written 
siivar in TS. siiar drge, 'a light to be- 
hold' (cf. 6av/j.a Itieadai), here equiv. to 'a 
glorious light.' 

2O and 72 1 . yena, 509 end. pavaka: 
see ref "s in vocab. ; this word the redactors 
persist in miswriting ; it is a typical mistake 
belonging to the second stage of the tradi- 
tion see p. 354, 79, and KZ. xxvi.60. 

janan anu : if joined w. ppl., render 
'stirring or busy among (so RV. viii.9.2b) 
his fellows;' if w. pagyasi (acct, 595a), 
'over the peoples thou dost look on busy 
man.' Pronounce tuam. 

STROPHE 2, stanzas 4, 5, 6. Some join 
6 with 7 possible, but very hard. It is 
better to regard 6 as a parenthesis in which 
the poet turns suddenly from Surya to 
Varuna. The latter is the personified vault 
of heaven, and the sun is naturally his eye 
(RV. vii.63.1), and to mark the deeds of 
restless man is his proper function [Kaegi, 
p.65(90)]. Yena then refers to stiar, and 
cakaasa is in explanatory apposition w. 
yena. We may render 4, 5, 6 thus : 

Thou goest onward, all-beheld. 
Thou makest light, god Suria. 
Thou shinest to the end of heaven. 
Turning thy face upon the folk 
Of gods, of men, or all the world, 
Thou risest up, thou glorious light 
With which, as eye, bright Varuna, 
Over the peoples thou dost look, 
To mark the deeds of restless man. 


2-3. U.f. vi dyam (see div) esi, rajas 
(171*) prthri, aha (425d) mimanas (Vlma4: 
see 661, 655) aktiibhis ('with beams'), 
pagyan (202 2 ). 'Beholding (in pregnant 
sense) the generations, i.e. while generations 
come and go.' 

4-5. J. Burgess, Arch. Survey of Western 
India, Kdthidwdd and Kacch, p. 216, men- 
tions temple-images of Surya with a halo 
(cf. gociskega) and borne by 'seven steeds,' 
see plate lxv.2. Cf. Kaegi, N. 205. 

6-7. ayukta (834b), 'hath just yoked.' 
See 356 and 356*. svayuktibhis, Sayana 
rightly, svaklya-yojanena. 

SELECTION XXXIV. RV. i.97. To Agni. 
See Preface, p. v, note 4. Rubricated at 
106 3 . Recurs AV. iv.33. The refrain or 
burden, pada c, of each stanza, is a mere 
repetition of pada a of stanza 1 ; it has no 
necessary connection with the rest of each 
stanza, although it happens to fadge well 
enough in the first and in the last three. 

Grassmann and Ludwig make apa 
g6gucat of the refrain a 3d s. subjunctive 
(1008 2 ) ' let him drive ' ; but this would 
require an accentless gogucat. 

We may therefore disregard the refrains 
entirely and group the remaining eight 
couplets [each consisting of two octosyllabic 
verses], two and two, into four stanzas of 
four verses each. 

8-11. See Vguc+apa and guc+a: apa 
g6gucat is pres. ppl. of intensive conjuga- 
tion (1012) no nasal, 444. U.f. gugugdhi 
a, perf. impv. of primary conjugation, 813. 
Three instrumentals (line 10), 365.1. 

STANZA 1 [made by grouping stanzas 1,2] 
may be rendered: 

Driving away with flames our sin, 
Airni, bring welfare with thy light. 

{Driving away with flames our sin.] 
With prayer for fertile fields, for wealth, 
And prayer for good, we sacrifice 

[Driving away with flames our sin.] 

12. With pra, supply jayeta in a and 
jayeran in 6. bhand-isthas (superl. to 
bhad-ra, v/bhand, 467) ,' brightest, luckiest ' * 
asmakasas, 330 end. 


PAGE 73. i 


14. pr& yat sc. jayeran (760.3), 'that 
they may be propagated = that offspring 
may go forth from them ' and so in the 
other clauses of lines 12 and 14. 

In lines 12 and 14, the yad's seem to 
introduce final clauses expressing the pur- 
pose of yajamahe, line 10. In line 16, 
Whitney makes yad= ' as, just as.' For all 
the yad-clauses, Grassmann seeks principal 
clauses in the refrains. 

STANZAS 3^ and 5$. ' [We sacrifice,] in 
order that (offspring may go) forth from 
the luc