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^^mm 0? vkm^v^Nss, 

QyiyiiUsr X.//. 01-/306 






Dr. H. KERN. 






'? k •' / 

In order to complj with the wishes of Dr. Spe^er I take 
the liberty to introduce his work with the students of Sanskrit. 

Indian grammar, which is yiHuallj the same as saying 
Pacini's grammar, superior as it is in many respects to any- 
thing of the kind produced among other cirilized nations of 
antiquity, is professedly deficient in its treatment of syntax. 
As all Sanskrit grammars published by Western scholars are, 
so far as the linguistical facts are concerned, almost entirely 
dependent, either directly or indirectly, upon Paii^ini, it cannot 
be matter for surprise that syntax is not adequately treated in 
them, although it must be admitted that Professor Wbitney^s 
grammar shows in this respect a signal progress. 

Some parts of Indian syntax have received a careful treat- 
ment at the hands of competent scholars, amongst whom Del- 
brflck stands foremost. All who are grateful to those pioneers 
will , it may be supposed , gladly receive this more comprehen- 
siye work, the first complete syntax of classical Sanskrit, 
for which we are indebted to the labours of Dr. Speijer. May it 
be the forerunner of a similar work , as copious and conscien- 
tious, on Vaidik Syntax! 

Lbtobn, 13 July 1886. 


This book aims to give a succinct account of Sanskrit Sjntaz , 
as it is represented in classic Sanskrit literature, without ne- 
glecting however the archaisms and peculiarities of yaidik prose 
(br&hmapa, upanishad, sdtra) and of epic poetrj. Tlie facts 
laid down here have been stated chiefly by my own observa- 
tions in perusing Sanskrit writings, and accordingly by far 
the great majority of the examples quoted have been selected 
directly from the sources, if not, those suggested by tlio Pe- 
tropolitan Dictionary or others hare, as a rule, been received 
only after yerification. Moreover , valuable information was gained 
by the statements of yernacular grammarians, especially of Pa- 
cini, to whose reyerenced authority due respect is paid aod 
whose rules are referred to at every opportunity. For some 
useful intelligence I am indebted to Mr. Anundorau Bobooaii*s 
Biglier Sanskrit Grammar Calcutta 1879. A welcome and pre- 
cious assistance were to me some treatises or occasional hints 
of distingubhed European scholars, who, as DelbrQck, de 
Saussurb, Whitney, have explored tracks of this scarcely 
trodden region of Indian philology. But for the greater part 
of the subjects falling within the scope of this compilation. 


monpgnphieB and ipeeial inTestigatioiis of a soand philological 
and icbolarlike cluuracter an itill wanting, and I havo felt that 
want often and deeply. For this reason I am fallj aware, 
that many defidencies and inaccuracies will certainly be found 
now or appear afterwards in this first Sanskrit Syntax written 
in Europe. Notwithstanding, as I felt conyinced that my 
labour, however imperfect, might prore of some profit by 
facilitating both the access to Sanskrit literature and the study of 
Sanskrit language, and that on the other hand this work might 
afford some base for further iuTestigations on special points of 
Syntax, it is placed before the public with the confidence that 
it may be judged , what it is , as a first attempt , and an attempt 
undertaken by a foreigner. 

In arranging materials I preferred following , as best I could, 
the nature and spirit of the language I was working on, rather 
than clinging too closely to the classification familiar to us by 
the Syntax of Latin and Greek ; in stating facts I have avoided 
generalizing from such instances as did rest only on my own 
limited experience, remembering the wise words of Patanjali 
* i <^ i P< sTO5T?r mmO i uii : ^fttcT^ sr^jrt n?nnfirnnrrTf^^[p?r ^fw- 

II10 whole of this SyuUx la made up of six Soctions. 

SEcnosr L Cieueiml remarks on the stnicture of sentences . . . 1—13 

Secnox II Sjrataxis oonveniontiae and sjntaxis roctioois. 

Chapt I. Concord 13—23 

M II. liow to denote caae-relfttions 24—20 

« lU. Aoeusatife 29—42 

M IV. Ittstniuiental 42—58 

V. Datife 68—07 

VI. Ablative 67—81 

^ YII. Cenitivo 81—101 

^ VIIL LocaUfO 102—113 


Chapt IX. Periphnatic expression of caae-reUtioiii. . . . 113 

I. Prepositions - . 113—134 

' n. Periphrue by means of noun«CMes . . . 134—141 
HI. M w M M participles, gerands 

and the Uke 141—145 

M X. Compoanda 145—178 

Section IU. On the different clashes of noons and pronouns. 

Chapt. I. Substantire. Adjective. Adverb ....... 170 — 1U3 

„ II. Pronouns 193 

1. Personal pronouns and tlieir possessives. . . 193^201 
S. Demonstratives, llelativos, Interrogatives . . 201—215 

3. Pronominal Adverbs. 215—221 

. 4. Pronouiinal Adjectives 221 — 222 

M m. On nouns of number 222—227 

SBcnoN lY. Syntax of the verbs. 

Chapt. I. General remarks. Kinds of verbs. Auxiliaries. Pe- 

riphraso of verba 228—235 

„ II. On voices 235— 2U 

„ 111 and IV. Tenses and moods .241—278 

„ V. Participles and participial idioms 278— 2UG 

„ VI. Gerunds 290—300 

„ VII. luliuiiive. 300—309 

Section Y. Syntax of the itarticles. 

Chapt. L Particles of empluisis and limitation 310—315 

„ II. Negation 315—320 

„ UL Interrogations 320 — 320 

^ IV. Exclttiiiatiou 320—329 

„ V. Connective particles 329—330 

Section VI. On the connection of sentences. 

Chapt I. Coordination 337—340 . 

u II. Subordination. Periods and clauses 347 — 352 

;, III. llelative sentences introduced by pronouns . • . 352 — 357 

IV. llolalive adverbs and conjunctions 358—372 

V. The conditional period 372-379 

„ VI. The direct construction; ^ 379— 3b8 

Amsterdam, July 188G. J. S. Spjlijer. 




Before penuing the book, the reader is begged to chaDg 
p. 18 { 17 Kam. into K&d. 

^ 21 { 31 Mnres to deteraune «, a. t qualify. 

„ 188 R. 1. 

„ 43 and '10,4. 

M bOTM. 

„ 154, R. 2. 

„ 4ro,ii.3. 

w 3C3 in the margi- 
nal note temporal « Berrcs for oonparison. 
Oa p. 34 { 4G U. I wrote I coald adduce no instance of f% with two i 
Afterwarda I met with tliis: 11. 3, 42, 31 eiiruf^M( l > l uft<li|iM ^ITTtv ^ 


} 68 

184 R. 


} 74 R. 






1. 4 






>• 2 . 






tMio, to 


I 2 

471, K. 4 





1. The subject of the sentence >) is put in the homi- 
'^^ native case. The predicate of the sentence is either 
21; noun or verb; WT ^l^JF[ (the horse runs), rT^Tlfr^: 

(the horse is young). 

2. To the noun-predicate the so called verbam sub- 
jr. stantimm is commonly not subjoined; from a logical ' 
i- point of view it is indeed of no use , and its obliga- 


ra. tory employment in modem western languages rather 
to be called an abuse. Pane. 26 ^ ^^m^ snf ?pimT: (bo U a 

lord, wo aro mean people), Nala 1,30 tu ^rft ji\ mfnnt n^ w 7m\ 
eq-:, QAk. I isrftr Mp i r<(fi i ZzH J^^w^: (is perhaps tho head of Iho 
family noar?). It may, howovor, bo added. Pane. 100 nK^Vh 
?cnn^ armdr^f^, KathAs. 16, 115 ^^,^^|dlq(Mf^l (I alone am guilty.) ~ 

1) Vernacular grammar has no term to name the subject of the sen- 
tence or grammatical subject. The term kartr signifies the agent or 
logical tuhJecL In tho same way karma means the loijical object ^ whatMO- 
ever may be its grammatical function ; it thus implies the object of tho 
activft verb as well as the subject of the iKissive or the objective genitive. 
In iuch sentences as »the knife cuts*\ the gr.unuiatic;il subject is both 
k'arir (agent) and karana (instrument). 


2 § 2-4. 

It mutt be added, if »to be** moans >to exiat** or >to be met 
with;** likewise if the grammatical tease or mood is to be ex- 

Rem. It is even wanting sometimes in sueh sentences, as eon- 
tain a predicate in the optative or imporative mood; especially in 
some current phrases, as . i niri^Ii (adoration to him), iT^?r[BC. vnnfj} 
hail to you), ^gnx qpptt (why make mention of — ) ^TTTrTir^or f^rTTr QFi^ 
(v. a. malum ahsit)^ etc. Prabodh. Ill p. 66 the Bauddha monk ontreats 
the (Jaiia to let him enjoy the instruction of his doctrines <iM i Ii<fd 
ftrarr:^ oott Jrf m(^i;ci(^f f^mnj^Cbe you my teacher, I your pupil, 
initiate me into the doctrines of the. Qaiv&s). 

8. Besides fJ^ and ^^JrJ, the verbs f^PIJ^, Piyfd, 

^r\rJ and the participle JTrT may be iised more or 

less as verhum aubsianlivum, Schol. on P. 3, 4, C5 ') %Km irr- 
jKjy (there is something to eat) , Von. Ill p. 94 ntr ^jfmrr froit prfN^T" ^ 
qpj l M ' JkigRfmfTl (hero D. is sitting down under the shade — ), Hit 
107 ai i uH^ i J i crfr wm the king of the crows is at the door). From 
the given examples it however sufficiently appears that the original 
meaning of those verbs has not wholly faded. Accordingly it is 
sometimes not indifferent which verbum subst. to choose. So f^pon 
especially denotes the »being met with** fr. il y a^ likewise ufm^ 
but not iToifTr; nTT oxpresses the »being in or on**, as f^^rnrT: (v* a* • 
painted); girfn comp. Lat. versatur. 

Item. By consequence, iTafrr is the proper verb, if there bo laid 
some stress on the predicate, in other terms, if it be pointed out that 
the subject is invested with the dignity or possesses the quality predi- 
cated of it. Ch. Up. 6, 16, 1 it is said with respect to somebody , seized 
on account of a theft , apparently committed by him n zrf? tV^ CFtrfr 
Uci^ [not frf???] ; Pane. Ill , 57 g. ir P r ;rj^ s^: ^rm iKifFt m^: (when 
the fire bums the wood, wind is his mate), Mhbh. 1,89,2 tt fo i Mm 

4. The same character is exhibited by the predicates 

1) finrr ia this fliitra ia one of the fRrSpfr: (words meaning to be). 

§4-7 8 

made up of a noon and a verb of beeominy ^ growing ^ 

seemng, remaimnff, heiny called ^'considered and the like. 

Comp. 32. 

5, The noun-predicate itself deviates by no means 

||V from the common use of other tongues. It may thus 

'* be any kind of noun either substantive or adjective , 

and is put in the nominative case, provided that it be 

pointing at the same person or thing as is pointed out 

by the subject , as STTrTFTr {TI^J (the night is cold) , for 

in that sentence the subj. JT^** and tlie predicate 'J\ \r\rr\ \ 
are relating to one and the same thing. This we may 
call the noun-predicate proper. Nothing, indeed, 
forbids other nouncases, adverbs and the like doing 

duty of the predicate , as ^T7 r\ iM*1 when = , water is in 

the pit," Pat S4 fl^ inrf&T bFiT^?: (yonder [houBo], whoro that 
crow is) , Hudr. ' 23 rmnT: u^ >| ^*<^*j^ (ho [will] not [bo] ablo to 
blot out [that] stain), R. 2,42,7 qrr^ rimt :r ^ nT (I havo nothin^if 
in common with them nor they with me) and aim. 

3. As to the verb-predioate , the same action may 
Jl be expressed as well by the active voice as by the 
!,■ passive. When active, its agent or subject is put in 
. the nominative case and its object in the accusative; 
^ <^Q|^nJ ^fS" «ri^llrl (N. N. makes a mat). In the pas- 
sive sentence, the object of the action is subject of the sen- 
tence and accordingly a nominative; theagent is invari- 
ably put in the instrumental.^'^^^ ^RZ"! IJfi'Jrl 

(the mat is made by N. N.) ; of ^^rnFT (I sleep) the 

pass, form is *1^l W^^ (it is slept by me), and so on. 

h Sanskrit has a decided predilection for the iiassive 

4 §7-9 

PMtivt voice. In translating from that language it is often 
necessary to transform passive sentences into active. 

For ins*. Pane 43 f^qyr^ ^u «nrT nsrw^n?^:' (it is a long time I 
hear blame you), Da^ak. 133 tottI^ f^wwnr^ »><iirwKqifliRi (a 
maiden of heavenly appearance respectfully approached me), Hit. 
43 fnr 5f:T xpr ^ CT r M f f<f i:i *y i m<m n^f ii hx tTum^ff i; ^prf^ jt: i 

8. Since this preference is of course not limited to tran- 
'"mV sitive verbs , nothing can be more common than the use 
^' of impersonal passives. Hit. 93 drrnfg u i m^wJ.^gi.M fe- 

TjTT (some guardian of the crops was standing aside), Da^ak. 18 
^.H^ f iu qrffTJT f^T^?!r gi.3if^<ii(X| (the lion , after having slain the 
elephant, disappeared), Ven. HI p. 79 ^rttto nwm cT: OZrirvT n'^iwrr 
HTT Rio^J l . Even the verb subst. has occasionally a passive form , 
cp. 32 6). 
Inper- Hem. Apart from the said impersonal verbs, we have to re- 
wXf ^^^^ ^^^ ^^*^ ^"^ genuine impersonals with active or medial en- 
dings and meaning. In classic Sanskrit they are scarcely used, 
being but remnants of a moi'e widely employed idiom of the elder 
language. Ait. Br. 1,9,2 nA wVrHh SR^ oiar Qii*<[ i rM iiorf^ (it 
avails such community, as where is a hotr knowing this), A^v. 
Grhy. 4,1,1 mQf f ifl/ i ^>iMfWH<d<afl^ (if a worshipper in the three 
fires be affected by illness, he should withdraw); — Pane. I m 
^ Tfr ^ P i V - iP i (if it does not succeed notwithstanding the effort — ). 
LikewisiB g^ (it rains) =: ^ mfh (cp. YAju. 1,13C with Kdq. 
on P. 1,4,89) and so on. 

9. Participles, especially those in rTandrT^FrT 
^"'and the krtyfts are frequently employed as 

jjj|y*ff if they were finite verbs, without the at- 

vww t^iK^^Jice of the verb subst. In simple prose 

a great deal of the sentences are moulded in that 

shaiMJ. Uitop. 12 TOT o g j l iym e/J i mP^rl ; iM l (<dy (the tiger killed 
him and devoured him), ibid. 7 nw Qujivrnm ; jsn^j^ nsTT iflei i .^ 
(he entrusted his sons to the foresaid Yishn.), (I&k. I QjiHcium • 

§ 9—10. 5 

golgaiP fFftdi^iif^ :n<r (inrely, the hermitaget thoiild be entered in 
modest dress). 

Rent The participles of the present and the fntnre do not par* 
take of this construction, cp. P. 3, 2, 124 with 126'). 

10. The subject of the sentence is not always 

1S^ expressed. Often it is implied by the verb. For \\\\*^ 

and ^^TFR" are quite as intelligible as V^ ^^11*1 and rl ^- 

^lltij and likewise in the third person the sole <^<^llrl 
suffices, if there can be no doubt as to the giver meant. 
Nevertheless, the personal pronouns denoting the 
subject are not seldom added, even when not required 
for the understanding, certainly much oftener than in 

Latin and Greek. Seo f. inst. Nala 2,19; 3,9; Kathas. 6,133. 

But the omission is impossible , if stress should be laid 
on the pronoun. 
^g«nt In passive sentences , the personal pronouns denoting 


•lied, the agent may be wanting likewise , but of course tliis 
is not by far done so often as in active sentences. 

Pane. 127 ff?T PiRir^j i fTiDrW [sc fffrn], ibid. 327 ijt frtsr f^ar «i^. 
ifm ^ ^'^iVi' l (say) friend, why do [you] run away thus by falso 

The omission is regular with passive imperatives , that 
are expressive of an injunction or commandment in a 
softened or polite manner, as 3rF3fTPT (go),^'4rn*j 

hear) Pane. 87 the panther thus addrossos tho hungry lion, his 

' 1) A vdrtt. to P. 3,2, 124 states an exception for the case, that the 
ncgution XTT is oUdcd to the participle, in order to Bi^nify uu iuiprecu- 
tion. Of this rule applied 1 know but one instance, (^ivupal. 2, iri quoted 
by tho Petr. Diet. «. v. xtt, V p. 080 ; but it is not improbable that iho 
author of that poem has done so designedly to show his own skill by 
applying an out-of-the-way grammatical rule. 

6 S 10—18. 

11. But in sentences without a finite verb the personal 
pronoun denoting the subject cannot .be missing. It may 

'. be said promiscuously ^irfqi*ilt^ and ^ficnfi«^*j^ 

'4irl^ird I^TRT and ^iH*rdW^ and so on. The full 

forms ?r^ ^IrTSTRfPT, rJ ^rirl^ira ivff^ are, of course, 
also available. 

Rem. Occasionally tbey are wanting even then, provided that 
it be beyond doubt, which lubjeet ia meant Pane, 214 the erow 
Sthirajtvin relates to the king of the owlt the iU treatment he haa 
endured from his own king , for sr g^Snuq^ i lMdH*!? ^ ^: [8C. w^f 
aa is perspicuoua by the context] ; ibid. 53 the lover addresses the 
princess p5rj% g^rr [sc. ?5f ] fc^ ott mnftf ; ibid. 38 ^m ipfV^f^ ^mm 
srnro far^*nci: [«c. fsnr]. Cp. ibid. 137, 13; 154, 10. 

12. A general subject may be expressed by using 
the passive form, as S^ZTn (it is said) , ^Url (it is 
taught). Likewise by the plural of the S'* pers. of the 
active as ^1<&J (they say, when = it is said; germ, man 

*^vOf T^* (it is known), ^TT^RR ut is told). But 
not seldom also the singular of the 3*^ pers. of the 
active is employed in this manner. Pane. II, 34 ort^titt- 

r*iiiHi*jfd <f>min<(fi siJrfT^ (it ia not without cause, one becomes 
a friond or a foe). The pronoun omitted is ^ (s=s one, germ, tnaii), 
which is also ^ometimoa added. Pane 1,216 nrm ^ ^ fau^^f^ 
^ I U9 ir«<i R4 (r« q Piii luu rrU : (one must not lose courage evon in 
distress; by courage ono may regain ono*a position in time). 



13* The accessory parts of the sentence , such as are to 
point out the where ^ the when^ the why, the kow of 
the fact related, the qualities and other attributes of 

8 18—14. 7 

the persons or tilings involved » are embodied into speech 
by the same or nearly the same grammatical appa- 
ratus, as serves that purpose in other languages. It is 
the relative frequency or rareness and the distribution 
of these instrumentalities of speech, wliich gives to 
Sanskrit style its proper and peculiar character, the 
main features of which may be sketched as follows: 
14- l>y. Sanskrit, in comparison with western langua- 
!ter g^> ^^>^ ^^^ ^^^^^ itself much of finite verbs. Hence 
^^ abundance of gerunds, participles, absolute locatives, 
!jj nouu-predicates and a relative scarcity of subordinate 
sentences. Accumulating short coordinate phrases is 
likewise avoided by using gerunds. Da$ak. lO m^ •jrrTcr. 

i ici<i^rfHfiM » >Hdcjie|fMj = »I took oflf tho baby from the troo and sought 
for tho fair ono in tho forost, but not discovering hor I carried 
it to my teacher, and gave it over in his hands. By his order 
I now havo brought tho boy to you.** 

In Sanskrit style the predicate of the sentence is 
many times expressed by means of a nomen acltonw, 
to be translated by a finite verb. Pane, 21 ^:rr,m;i t nir- 

fxF7 f»fli4 Pi<^fU l ci^ »! iU l *j[^ (Dam. said: why does my master stop 
and stay here?) 

o o 

Il'y. Abstracts in FIT or 3* may bo made of any 
noun either simple or compound. Since they are available 
in all noun-cases, they afibixl an easy expedient to bring 
a whole clause into a shape as concise as possible and 
to express logical relations in the very sharpest and 
most distinct way. Hence they are often employed in 
treatises, commentaries and similar works. A more 
detailed account of them will be given hereafter. 

8 S 1*. 


IIF7. A great and important place in Sanskrit oom« 
position is filled up by compound nouns. This syn- 
thetic expression of thought is applied to the most vari- 
ous and manifold logical relations, but it is especially 
in the more flowery style of adorned literary compo- 
sition , that they are used at a considerably large extent. 
Relative clauses are commonly avoided by them. 

IV^y. An other characteristic of Sanskrit style is its pre- 
dilection for the oraiio directa. Words and thoughts are 
related just as they have been spoken and thought or sup- 
posed to have been, but they are not moulded into the figure 

of an oratio obliqua. Generally the adverb S^TFT (thus, 
so) is put behind the words or thoughts . related. Ac- 
cordingly the English sentence he asked hu friend y whif 

he had not left this town is Sanskrit ^fFn^FfMIT^ 

wit^rlltlllrl Fnnrp^ so f. mst. Utt. I qq!UM<JM i 5i 

flRdm i fi< ravj f t<iH l ft » Pl (Mylady is tired; for thii reason I bog 
Ilor to tako Iler rest). 

V')'. The system of correlation between relatives and 
demonstratives, though sufficiently developed as to the 
number and variety of combinations, has retained a 
great deal of the unwieldiness and prolixity of its ru- 
dimentary stage. It often reminds of the solemn style of 
old Latin. Mostly the relative clause precedes. Pane. 2 
fxm *m xrrr^: fefs 9T^t dyi i j ' JI^iH i *!^ (act so as to fulfill my 
wishes), ibid. 70 jj\ vrm zTt <sinm? TTTirrm^, and the like. 

VI*3^. Sanskrit likes rhetorical interrogations, that is, 
sucli ns do not put a question, but contain a state- 
ment either positive or negative. As this turn is much 
more employed than in modem languages, such inter- 

8 14^16. 9 

rogations are often to be translated rather freely. So 

^: is not raroly an other expression of »nobody** and qf^ ;r = 
•every body ;** 9i?r: ib frequently = »bectQse.*' Similarly wi f%tT := 
>yes/' vrn^^ and ^r = » certainly /* cp. the idiom )fr «r> • • • • vr «r and 
other turns , more fully to be dealt with in one of the subsequent 
chapters. Compare Engl, why ^ when = »now, well/* Greek euKOU¥» 

VIPx. The predilection for the passive construction has 
been already mentioned (see 7). It is of course not restric- 
ted to the finite verb, but applies also to participles. 

L5. Like all languages, that possess a rich store of in- 
J" flections , SanskHt afifords a comparatively great freedom 
"*•• as to the order of words in the sentence •). Yet, it is 
frequently not altogether indififerentin what order one puts 
one's words. We ought to distinguish between tlie tra- 
ditional or regular arrangement and the various excep- 
tions caused by the exigencies of style , euphony , metre 
etc. Therefore though tmcing a general scheme, we 
must keep in mind, that it bears but on the most 
frequent employment , as it has been observed in jierus- 
ing the best writers, but it cannot claim to be a set 
of fixed rules rigorously to be followed throughout, 
le. The traditional order of words is this. *) 
Jli^' 1. The predicate being verbal, it ordinarily closes 
the sentence, which is headed by the noun-subject, 
when expressed. The other elements of the sentence 
are taken in the midst, but placed so as to make the 

l)ComparePat. I, p.SO.l.lS^f^TIf!!! ( i h^hrU q^ UgH{s<l>fT FTlt Jm^nUFT- 

2) Oa this subject we have an excellent treatise of Prof. Dkliiuuck 
Vie uttimiische Wortfolye aus dem CatajmthaUruhmana 1878. Yet, of 
course, it docs not go beyond the aix-baic i>eriod of Sanitkrit literature. 

10 8 16. 

verb have its object immediately before it /^q^rfs ^i7 

«ri{lPl {N.N. makes amat), ^^ST^fft OT^ H^ TOT- 

f^?I^ ClfeTfT.* (N.K has parted for Pataliputra with 
his brothers). In a similar manner the attributes and 
other accessories of nouns precede them. Moreover, as 
one is inclined in Sanskrit to avoid subordinate sen- 
tences by availing one's self largely of participles , ge- 
runds and the like (14, I), it often occurs, that the 
chief sentence is preceded by a greater or smaller amount 
of accessory elements of the kind, put according to 
the exigencies of grammar and style cither before the 

subject or subsequent to it. This sentence, taken from Pa- 
tanjali (I, p. 39, 10) may illustrate the above statement, cRnrnTrT fiT. 
^mr ?/Hif^iiqifiji: a^Ti i do i 'iit i i i mxjw mOm ^r^m ojpr mt Huwfd w. 
Hero the subject preceded by its attribute stands at the head, 
then follows ^gQa i M i R rr; formally a predicative attribute of the 
subject, but as to its meaning an accessory of the gerund iqQvjf 
3^7 the other accessories of the said gerund, 4lJ the gerund itself, 

5b' the accessories of the chief predicate , finally that predicate itself. 

Rem. In passive sentences the agent, as far as I 
have observed, seems to have the precedence in the tra- 
ditional order of words , not the nominative of the karma. 

Pane. 126 9^v: fTJdJiHp i f^TjW y^ij^^mP ^^T^ir qfidiP r > Hitop. 92 

2. Lf the predicate be a noun, it is put be- 
fore the subject. Pane. 38 fRTT^: nnrfrscr fT i f^r i ^^dirwA 

mfsTV:. Similarly in the passive. Hit, 20 iiyrr doi i j^) m »RTT ^rsm 
nQifWUl ^ (now at all events I must be your companion). 

Rem. Pronouns, it seems, may be put indiscriminately before or 
behind their nouu*predicate : miSu ^^ or fr^ n*pr: 

3. Attributes are put before their nouns. But when 

§ 16-17- 11 

doing duty of a so called predicative attribute, 

they generally follow. Comp. for intt. the proTorb mnjji i m 
tfiwiiflMMi siqf^ (fortune whioh bas arrifed ■poctaneoutlj, grows 
a curse I when neglected). 

Rem. Kot seldom tbey ftre separated from the noun (or pro. 
noun) tbey belong to. Dag. 141 mnfh frnixmr: ^ttott of^Tow: ; when 
translating this sentence one should render wvTf by the adrerb 
lasely or in a ha$e Maftner. Bo Pane. 73 ?t^ /n^^&|(q tmrm ^ f^« 
^>^mM(uTla*l^ ; note the disjunction of ^^trgSr: »nd mn* 

4. The Yocative generally heads the sentence. 

5. The prepositions are commonly preceded by their cases. 

6. In sentences linked to the preceding by means of 
relatives or particles, these words are put first; when 
enclitical, they are affixed to the first word of the clause 
they introduce. 

L7. As it has been stated above (15), this traditional or- 
fl' der of words is liable to be modified by various in- 
fluences of the power to cause the speaker to pre- 
fer an other arrangement. Instead of the subject, the 
word on which stress is laid will head the sentence. 
In this way the verb [or an oblique noun-case or an 
adverb (especially Jwhen of time), are not seldom 
put first, because of emphasis. Hit. 97 ^i>f^iem y?TT sn^: (of 

tho kind there exist many, indood), Da^. 132 «rvTm^i «muh 
fr^TTmr ^ v^; thfju^ij l ri^qfrt^ i JmHH;^ (then I said : lot this mise- 
rablo elephant bo gono, bring an other, a number 1 of tho olophants) ;*' 
Hit. 110 qxT 4i«iPi HW^oiHUhJUri t^; Pane. 39 ^tsTT ronr «t?piA ?t 
vsrsmq^i ibid. 53 tost tph n^ wntm: ferTTur (moot with her still 
to-day). Absolute locatives and the like are also placed at tho begin- 
ning, Bhojap. 8 jT^ in?r CTraFfT: tf^M i i^r^* ^ra?:, Hitop. 131 trpm 
STUTOW •^r^ciiifydi: grTT: , Pauc. 54 ^ Tprfr rrt f^ hdmuMu i%pm mfh* 
Like>vise in connecting sentences it is necessary to 

12 § 17-rl8. 

oommenoe a new sentence or a new clause at the word , 
which relates to somebody or something mentioned in 
the foregoing. Hence demonstratives often head the sen- 
tence. Pane 37 vrfm ^^^flQinjaXi f «irra?n i ?f5r — ^rf^gnrar. 

Rom. In general, the manner in which sentences are linked 
together nay he of some influence on the arrangement of words. 
So the type, represented hy Hit, 110 jrm ilJlPj ' .^M l ^u ^-^^jy 
qf^: I fTT^ m ffPT^ [instead of ?rhEn^] , often occurs , especially in 
polished style. Cp. f. i. Da^. 139 v^....f5rQr wmT^TrTHRPT^ i wjfvsr^ 
Mifr, Ilarsha 11 qrijwfnfwsnrqif i flTOPOW. 

On the other hand similar reasons may expel the 
verb from its place at the rear, substituting for it some 
other word , required there by economy of style , because 
the end of a sentence is also fit to give some emphasis 
to the word placed there. Ratn. Ill ?t ^ ferflPT ^iirai^ 

r^ (in you there is nothing we may not look for), Daq. 97 

you do not restore to the citizens what you have stolen of them, you 
will know hy experience the succession of the eighteen tortures , and 
at last the mouth of death); K&m. I, p. 292 jiff^ f^ uu\^\ STTHcr 

There is much freedom, where to put Ihe negations, 
as will be shown in the chapter, which treats of them. 
18. Sanskrit poets, especially in the more artificial and 
^^' refincil kinds, display a still greater variety in arrang- 
ing the parts of the sentence. We may account for 
it partly by the exigencies of versification , but for a 
good deal it is the effect of their aspiring after an ele- 
gant and exquisite diction. Yet , as deviation from the 
traditional order of words is not striven at for itself, 
the idiom of the iK)ets is rather characterized by the 

§ 18-19. 13 

richness and size of compounds , by the elegancy of words 
and the melodiousness of sounds , by the elevation and 
perfection of style, than by an artificially disturbed ar- 
rangement of words. Such entangled and intricate struc- 
ture, as for example characterizes Latin poetry, is an 
exception in Sanskrit '). There it is chiefly displaye*! in 
the extraordinary great liberty in placing relatives, in- 
terrogatives and negations. 

Rom. Bhythmical wants and euphony , of courao , may also exer- 
cise a greater or smaller influence on the order of wordii. Eflpo- 
cially in the old dialect Here are some instances, Ch. Up. 4,4,2 
^J^ wrnt (instead of jryj wprrT^)t Ait. Br. 1,30,9 i ^ iiVVmU ] ff^m 
MtA^Pfi (instead ot^fxm T7*7TRlypT.) i ^^^^' 2)37,4 mwi ^i7n m^wifh* 
The rhythmical disposition of the words is here prevailing on the 
regular arrangement required by logic, compare the figur hijjter' 
baton y so much employed in Qreek and Latin. — An other 
mark of antiquity is separating prepositions from their verbs, chiefly 
by particles put between them, as Ait. Br. 2, 31,G ttj srr ^M/^'\ 

2IT srrqjfi^. 




Chapt. I. ConcorcL 
10- A twofold agreement is here to be spoken of, one 

1) Kathils. 80,58 may give an instance of poetical arrangemeut. 

qh^ l MI<^il l >7^*4iiHl fU'll^«?U[illclrn*J. 
In prase the words eitx^lr^tiMM'lJlrl would not have been sepanitod. 


U 8 19—20. 

existing between idea and word (I), the other between 

words standing in the same sentence (11). 

Rmi L As a rale, there is agreement between the real 

gram- and the grammatical gender and number. As to the 

sender number, an exception is to be stated for the collective 

nam- noun9 and some pluralia tantum , m vi^: (water), onnr: ftnd 

^'' wm\ Oif<B)f a^: (^^® rainy leaion), in the elder language aleo 

jni5r: (cellar-bone), literT: (neck), i) Rarely the gender disa- 
grees, as the neuter fn? >friend,*' words aa irnf^, cinr »ve88el; 
fit person,** f. L Mhbh. 1,61,3 iSd[ ^\k V ^T?rer5n][^(you are the proper 
man to hear — ) '^uti (n.) and jrgTfT (t) »deity,** etc; — TSJJI: 
mate. plur. »wife** is an instance of disagreement in both gender 
and number '). 

The diminutives generally retain the gender of their 
primitives '): jswr m. as yr, but jfror f. *» jit. 

Rom. Of the collectives some are not always used so; si:t 
f. ex. may as well denote a single individual as a colleetion of 
individuals. Accordingly, in the latter case it may be said as 
well iTT: (aing.) as fpn: (plur.). •) Similarly ^r^x or ^ft^Ki: tpeople, 
U mordty lea gtns^ iniT or iniT: >ofrBpring; subjects.*' 

20. In a general proposition a whole class of individuals Pt». 
^JJJfJ* may be optionally denoted by the singular or by the 


1) Still P^lnioi teems to have known it but as a plural , for in teacbiog 

taddhitaa derived from it, he says g^STVirr [not ^i^snin:] ^qr^^ 4,3,57. 
Compare the similar development of Latin eervix out of the pi. tant cer^ 
rices, sec Qaintilian Villi 3,35. 

2) ;rq- ig used as a singular in the DharmasAtra of Apastamba (see I , 
32. 6; II. 1, 17; 5, 10; 11, 12; 22, 7. etc.). 

3) Words in V have, however, sometimes diminutives in "f. Bo ^jp^ 

(a small dagger = iH^TJ^ Amar. k.) , whereas ttbt (n.) more especially 

4) So Nala C,U mfi ^Tf!RT: TO irfMit: ^ MTpr i piTT^ j^^^l l lU 
mpij but in the subsequent (loka we read j^i htt iu i i i m ^^m^ 

I Plural 


% 20— 28, 15 

plnjral of the common noun, sn^rm: q^^: or vr^nnr: ^m: 

(the bralmuui [that ii, any brahman as far as be it a brahman] 
ought to be honored). Cp. f. inst. BhoJ. IS t^A^ (dwa ii ^w fhr. 

vm^ H^m i j^a fdi i mw.W6mftiM^ti epf : [» kApAlika epeaks] »men , 

bitten bj a serpent, or poiioned, or sick, we release immodiately 
from illness.** 

Pltnl Rem« Proper names occasionally are employed in the plural 

^ number, when signifying one*s family or descendants. Ragh. 1,9 

''"'^ ^^U l l^>di ^m (I will celebrate the family of Raghu). — PAn 2,4, 

I 62-- 70 gives a list of those, that admit of such a plural. 

^ 21. The plural of abstraot nouns is employed in Sans- 
J!","* krit more lai^gely than with us, at least sometimes in 
•tract phrases, somewhat strange to our feeling. KAmond. 1,62 

^ nP^^uia >[qn>Tff?fMn i f;|inf^m : i iraf?fT icif^r ii prewr: sfrSmn rn?:^: 
»if a prince, who keeps his senses under control , follows the path 

of polity, his fortune (fortunce) blazes upward, and his glory (laudeu) 
roaches heaven ," 5^k. VI umu \v i\ f\ QdrM fj) m<if j|P> i ^ ^ frrr: •sloop- 
less ho passes his nights, tossing himself to and fro upon his 
\ couch,** ibid. VII ^ri^ 4>MUN<JM I < ' .'i<i i r'l > nommum sitnilitudhiea. Of 

i the kind are ^fTtH Mhbh. 1, 123, 77 »in timos of distress,*' ii^ 

I (=^RniiF?lj) R. 3, 4, 9 and tho like. 

22. The plural of a people's name is commonly used to ^' 
^f*r* denote the region , where that people dwell. The coun- 
pSt try , inhabited by the nation called V-jfV* is also named 

V^'V* ; in the same way it is spoken of T^TF^J , RrFTIo 

^rTFFrrM'^f^: etc., if the country of Pancala, Mat- 
sya, Eosala, Yidarbha is meant. Compare Latin Vohci\ 

I Par mi ^ Chatti^ Qerm. Polen, Jlessen^ SachseHy Engl. Sweden 

and sim. 

23. The pluralis xnajestaticus is often ased in addressing 
iu! m. pei'sons or speaking of them in a reverential manner. 

jettati- This applies to all words and epithets, such venerable men aro 
designated with. Q&k. II the king asks the messenger ^,i \ uj \ r *v. 


10 § 23—25. 

irf^TT: (*ra joa lent bj mj roTored mother f). R. 1, 68 king J»- 
Bftka telli Dac^^ratha the great exploit done hy his sublime son 
R&ma rpf HIT ipn rRrfSsre^rrfnajTT^: i h^h^qiiiA ^fdPjnfdi rm jarA: 
(your illuitrioui child, my king, has won my daughter, as he 
was eome hero by chance, a companion of Yi^vAmitra). 

Item. Koto tho much employed metaphor of speaking of »the 
feet of „.** instead of the revered master himself. In that case 
the name or title is commonly compounded with ^qr^: — note 
the plural — as Hitop. 96 ;ja r^^^m s w^<. ' i l M^;)fq <6m i <Mffe ( filw(H 
»— insults Your Majesty.*' 

24. Similarly it is a token of great respect, if one is 
addressed by the plural of the personal pronoun, ginfj^ 

or inrrT: instead of TOti^ or the polite iT^rrnr* Da^. 69 a girl thus 
addrcsDcs a holy man ; i; i ci;jVJl h ^hni sfr ^im QtimuPi (Reve- 
rend, she, your servant, toils you of wrong done by mo), (^dk. 
Y the ascetic Q ng&rava says to king Dushyanta m ivaf^:; (Your 
Majesty has hoard — ), Pane. 71 [Damanuka to the lion] ^ i:f^- 

25. The plural ot the first person is allowed to be made w? 
^'^^ use of, when meaning a singular or a dual. Here we 

'*<^ have not a majestic plural , but almost the same liberty 

* as in Latin , to use nos = ej^o. Thus ^^ may liave the 
purport of ?T^^ and ^TT^T^, and W\* may be = ^T^TFT 


or ^v^J. Instances are very common. Mudr. I Cu^akya 

thus addresses his pupil SF^ eh i S i PiJui ^ci i mi' i r^c^ijP j , Pane. 41 a 
monk asks for hospitality with these words irt ^1T sr^ K \ 5 \ h \ vfh' 
tmunnfTfraf w^: i ^ cfiqQnr nw ftrfmu *) Similarly Pane. 58 tho 

1) Punini doea not mention this idiom; did it not exist in his time? 
PaUinjaii also ii silent about it, but the K&^ika-comm. contains the 
vftrtt. (on P. 1,2,59) y»Tf^ JJp&^TOT^ 

2) The given instance does not agree with the statement of some 
grammarian quoted by Pat. 1, 230 WT( mtl i fRXTC: ufdUIUUK^J CRnit ^T. Pat. 
himself allows tho plural of the first person even then, uuless tho pro- 
per name or the jfuvapratya^u l>e added, thus fj^ •»^cl<,W: , not WJ* 

§ 26—27. 17 

plnnl it lued instead of the dual, f^ qmr: friiin^ (what ehall we do 
noir [you and I]P) 

In all periods of the language the dual is the proper pm i. 
and sole number by which duality is to be expressed. 

If the voluminous moss of Sanskrit literature will once be tho- 
roughly examined with irospect to syntactic facts, it is not impro- 
bable there will be put forward sundry instances of duality ex- 
pressed by the plural number. But the number of such excop* 
tions eannot be but exceedingly small, i). For, though the vulgar dia- 
lects and the pali have lost the dual, polished Sanskrit always 
strictly observes its employment and does in no way offer that 
confusion of dual and plural, which is so obvious in Attic Qroek 
and already in the dialect of Homer. 

n. — Concord in case, number, gender and 
person is in Sanskrit the same, as in all languages 
with inflections, that is to say, it does exist between 
all such words, as, while standing io the same sen- 
tence , are to point at the same thing. For this reason , 
the predicate does agree with its subject in case and 
person, the attribute with the noun, it qualifies, in 
case and — if possible — also in number and gender, 
and so on. It would be superfluous to exemplify this 
general rule,») which, moreover, is common to all 

1) I have noticed three insUinces, all of them in poetry, and partly 
fit methinks to be interpreted »o as to confirm the general rule. Of 
them , one K. 2 , 22 , 23 iTq^nsf^ MVU'H 97T>1zr^T: conUiins a , which 
may be accounted for as denoting either the various kinds of siuitium 
and iVo (cp. Manu 7,45—48) or as pointing at the diversity in time, 
space and persons of the manifold instances of holiness lost, so the com m. 
arjsrapf buRi^^rollHN — Kathaa. 107,51 ikjii^yiyj^ luilAj^the majestic plural 
seems to have been employed. - Strange is this passiige: Mhbh. 1,24,C 
^FTrf^fTO^ TTCTT^SITrft •^*[rl (m4I»I^, there being no room for the scho- 
liant's interpretation mfipim ^fTTSrvroTT ^T^Tfi/JlI^irr ^TwoTan^* 

2) Grammatical concord bears with vernacular grammarians the well- 


18 » 27. 

languages It will suffice to notice some more or less 
remarkable features: 

1) Pronouns follow the general rules of agreement. Thus 

it is Sanskrit to say ^ !7!FT* , as it is Latin to say 

haec est guaestiOf whereas Teutonic dialects always put 

the pronoun in the neuter sing. Dutch dai is de vrnag^ 

Germ, das ist die Frage, Pane, 63 WK mu i uH^j^^ (bo is my li- 
velihood), ibid. II, 201 9HT ir^ ^ xrw: (that is tho most im- 
portant counsol), CAk. VII fmvf^ 9JJTg <i<^fHiR JjP j ms^i i; #* tH> i mu i * 
nirf^ H^T l Ho r nii r iH^ (if officers are successful in weighty affairs, im- 
pute it to the virtue of their masters, who honour them with 
the execution). — Tet there may occur instances , where it would 
be not possible to observe this rulei.) 

2) Occasionally the verb will agree with the noun- 
predicate when standing near, instead of agreeing with 
the subject. Pane 263 n^ inrz^ i nruTir f^ irfnsf ?TTfP]^[not ?TTfT:], 

M. 9, 294 nj vn^m ^tTT: njTj ; hJiii-dUd (these [foresaid] seven ele- 
ments are named together the soven-memberod kingdom), ibid. 2,81 
*f<^ i «i« i gfW ; .... fliq^T ^ MifdJ) fariPT 5i^nm gprT^(— and the three- 
mombored advitrt should be considered as the mouth of hrahma). 

choteu name of samdnatlhikaranya , that is >the relation existing between 
$amauadhikttranu$ or words, whose substrate (frfvarTOr) is the same 

(ifll'l) • 

1) See for inst. Ch. Up. 6, 16,2 ^TU^jmx^ ^ rf?^ ^ fTlfXTTflW' 
xiftr aaniffy. Here ^ Wrm »• rendered by Prof. Max Mailer »it is the 
Self,** in a note ho subjoins: >The change of gender in $a for tad is 
idiomatic. One coald not say in Sanskrit tad titmvt it is the Self, but »a 
titmar (Pref. to the Sacr. Books of the Eaet, I, p. XXXVI). Neterthe- 
less, in the words immediately following ?nriTf^, that very idiom seems 

to be neglected, for the neuter n^is the predicate of the masc. rcT^ 
Here the neuter has been preferred, because of tad and tvam there is 
not affirmed a full identity, as it is done with respect to sa and atmu, 
but it is only said, tvam is a phenomenal manifestation of tad: *tad 
(sc. fttm.\) is also in you.** 

f 27-28. 19 

'S) Sometmiei, in eases of diseoidaiiee b e t w e e n the 
gnunmataeal and the real gender or number of knoon, 
its predieate or attribote will agree with the latter 
(constroetio ad wjnBidn)iLt,Si, €2 ^ fa^i»>«i; — fin^u i' 

tgpffi ff9f: (duakiag •! thae — the sabjeete ^ boI tak* food); Imto 
to fRiT:« tkoogk gr—atinJIy a feai., k addad a participla ia tba 
auMcaL 5ate ia Hm azaaipla gaoled the distaaee by wkich Iha 
attnbata ia ■ a para tad froai Iha aoaa, it qaalifiea. 

If the same predieate belongs to more subjects 
or the siame attribute refers to more nouns at 
the same time, the idiom of Sanskrit is almost like 
that of other languages. 

Either the common predicate (attribute) agrees with 
but one and must be supplied mentally Mrith the others , 

aa Prabodh. HI vr^im fih^ ipti^t^ ep. tba lebaL p. 57 ed. Calc 
CQuFr M'iiJiii; D««. 135 ^ i P<wh i ' j l oifaj. vn ^ Ji(dkf*wwu»ijH f^<Jnii^ 
(KAatiflMtl aad tbii kingdom and my own life are at yonr mercy 
from tbifl moBMnt). — Tbii practieally baa tbe same effect as 
applying tbe Rem. on b.) of tbe otber altematiTe, recorded on 
psge 2a 

CT it has a grammatical expression adequate to its 
character of being common to more substantives at the 
same time. In that case: 

a.) the number required is of course the dual when 
relating to two indiyidualsy otherwise the pIuraL tw 
mmtnta n^S \ \} ; — jm\ mm ^ mw^nva sft iftRi:. Cp. the Rom, 
on b.). 

b.) as to the gender there must be distinguished 
between persons and things. When relating to persons 
of the same sex , the common predicate or attribute is of 
the same gender: fw wrm m urn i mnr ^am ^ r ^« When 
applying to persons of different sex , it is always put in 

20 • 8 28—31. 

the masculine: ^mmm mija^* But when belonging 
to inanimate things or things and persons mixed , it is 
neuter. KAnu l, 64 ^mrr ^irrEFmr <irf i i r^^ i ri M^^nwj M. 4,39 
^ry tjsnr lint ^ w ^Tr^iqn^i uH,fviuiifH w3n?T-» 

Rem. If nouter words are mixed with wordi of other gender, ^^^' 
it is allowed to pat their common predicate or attribute in the neuter 
of the singular. Mrcch. V gwfd^.«y«^ qrf^ gc^fnr ?T^: W(v fim^ i 
HM*i i /^H< ' .^fff>^< t mi ^^^^^d (the bird, whose wings are clipped, 
the leafless tree, the desiccated pool, the toothless snake are equal 
in the eyes of men, so the moneyless man). 

c.) as to the person. In the case of difference, the 
first person outweighs the second and third , and the 
second precedes the third (see Pat. I, p. 352,cp. 240, n*'2G, 

KAt.3, 1, 4). Patanjali gives these examples ?cf 9 icrTCTnrr QFTfT: i v^ 

^ ^^^^ • • 

29. The typo Tiberius tt Gaius Gracchi ^ linguae Lafina et Graeca 
is also Sanskrit. Ch. Up. 5,3,2 q r JiJ^a^jMm Rif[<imn<] 9* 

80* Occasionally words connected by »with'* are construed as if 
they were copulated by »and.** R. 2,34,20 ff gf^m^tf ^^^fwit 
ffTgiiT jinmmmt \ ^i^ mmr frrff ^tTTtt: ^Ria^RrT. Here the plural 
'^J^: M*lo i 'JMJ>i^ proves ihat i%iii \ i^nv^ ^^ls the same effect on the 
construction as nirTT ?• 


81. The distinction between predicate and attribute i) 
is chiefly a logical one. Formally both follow the 
same rules of syntax, and it is but by the context, 
partly also by the place it occupies in the sentence, 

1) The term > attribute** in this book is virtually the tame as the 
term viie»hana of Hindu grammariaus. It includes therefore the so 
called »ap|)OMition/* for I found no reason why I should retain the necd- 
leM distinction, which is often made between attribute and apposition. 

8 31-32. 21 

we can leani how to understand a given sam&nftdbi- 

karava, whether ^^J VAril = ,the old father" or = ,the 
father is old," etc 

As to their meaning, then, we may distinguish five 
classes , I the simple atiribuU , cf^: PTfTT = ,the old 

father," 11 the so-called predicative-atiribute ^ as VAr\\ 

Sr^: (= 5r^: H^) .the father, w/ien old," III the/?ott«- 

predicate of the sentence , as ^^J r-|r|| =„the father is 
old," IV the nouUf wanted by the verb for making up 
together the predicate of the sentence, as VAr\ I ^^J 

WJ^ (the father ^roios old) , fTTrTr ^ ^'^ (you 
think the father old), V such a noun, as though for- 
mally agreeing with the subject or some other substan- 
tive, really serves to determine the verb, as DaQ. 141 

Haxm SnrFrTiTl ^\^UJ qf^rtl^:, see above, page 
11 Rem 

Of them the formal agreement of class I and II is 

fully made clear in 27. As to class III see 5. 

82. IV. •— The noun wanted for completing the predicate 

>^ing '^ ^sed in many idioms, the most important of which are: 

bt\e." ^•) ^^ ^^ * nominative, when accompanying verbs of 

»^) • beififff seeming , becoming ^ grovainy , remaining , such passives 

Bonii* , 

Mtive. as to be called y held for ^ considered y appointed ^ made ^Him* 
QAk. I mr CTT Qtl'iiV; ; wr^: (this door has boconio distant), Hitop. 
92 qfwm: ^TBfhm JSTTg: (the birds grow angry), Pane. 51 fTTT^rcPT- 
ehW l fi>^H«' l; ?f?TTrr: (why you have swooned so at a suddon P) ; Priy. 
p. H »^ i Tti^s^ Tsr 5^^ (why do you look so glad?) Pane. 66 ^ 
TT?TT HUhljU i q ; ?KrT: (the king was reduced to the possession of 
nothing but his fortress), Pane. Ill, 152 Jj%Tjft JTi^ifWT (it is the 
wife that is. called one's »homo''). 

22 § 32. 

.Mm b.) it is an instrnmental , if wanted by a yerb of beinf , 

»««tai- becomimff ieeming etc when impersonal passive In this case 

both subject and noun-predicate are put in the instru- 
mentaL Mudr, I htt ^ swum mtt^ = w^ ^rspRmf^TnsrTf^; Da^ak. is 
«n*TOfT M!h^yjm^> i unf^ (the baby was strong enough to endure 
all this toil). 

This idiom is, of course, obligatory with the krtya's of \x. 
Da^ak. 164 fj^^r i jRfd^ i i ( i du^m i if^fioUH^ (the prince doserros to 
be your attendant), Pane. 21 h^ ^ g i v^ i j^<^m g^ i ^tMU f uranj 
(and his strength may be adequate to his voice). 

M ** c) an accus0.tiye, when qualifying the object of 

t»»«. the verbs of calling and naming ^ of ealeeming ^ holding 

for, conifidering y knowing a8 ^ of making ^ appointing , elect' 

ing and the like. M. 2, 140 nm^ araraffr (him they call a 
teacher) , Nala 3 , 22 n^ tj\ f^f^ (know me being Nala) , Mudr. Ill 
5iif?*^" l > w I f r *i'ii / i »^fpjci f j<:^>;^ (CAnakya has made king a (Adra, the 
son of MurA), Pat. I, p. 332 fH i iHur i <^>' i tr^fTr (he boils rice to a 
jelly), Pane. 3 i^mnTOTCf dfr ^riq^i i ^MM^ ' J i i Td^m Ri rim bft^. 

ot^ NB. It is superfluous to give some more instances of 

aio« that well-known type, but it must be observed, that 

Sanskrit has also other concurrent idioms, it often pre- 

fers. Note in the first place, the nominative with TTfT, 
2** the instrumental of abstract nouns. Both are equi- 
valent to the nomin. or accus. of the completing pre- 
dicate. Instead of ^l^uf >f^^ H^^NMIR {1 hold 

you for a brahman), it is also said 54 i^ Ul JjH ^^ 

_. —V O 

or SIF^niT^Fr H^ ; the same of course applies to the 
passive construction. K. 3 , 9 , ll srt jtut^tt Tfrr Unqrf gf^JirFfar^ 
(you have set out for the forest, called Da^fjaka), Kii(. on P. 1, 1,1 
^!^n^si^: MHlf^' i ^7^ (vrddhi is established [here] a grammatical 

toro>). A more detailed account of those idioms will be 
given in the course of this book. 

g 33—36. 23 

83* In the arehaic dialect we frequently meet with two nominaiitet 
Middle eonetrued with eome Terbt in the raidd!e voieei Tis. saoh as signifj 


■tten. to call one's self^ to consider one's self, ') RgT. 10, 85, 3 mtf^^ 

two no- ''^^^^ (^® thinks himself having drunk soma)^ Ch, Up, 5,3,4 
■*'"'*»- feijfTr^ ^^hwiT it <{l*nP r jt Qm^iiy/ nt ^rjfur^ 5rak (why did you 
say you had been instructed? how could anybody, who did not 
know these things, claim himsolf instructed?), Tbr. 2, 3,8,2 rft 
•s^TT^TT fuHG4iM><if l (he, after having created the asuras considered 
himself as if he were a father). ') Similarly it is said in litur- 
gical style ^ m with nom. uto assume the shape of — ", Ait. Br. 
6,35,4 ig^: r^nt wi ^^^^ (having assumed a white horse's shape) , 
Tbr. 1, 1, 3, 3 ^rnisr grg aproTT.') 

R e m« In classic Sanskrit this idiom seems to have antiquated. 
»To call — , to consider one's self" is expressed by means of the 
reflexive pronoun, as auiw.i ir^ i ti i rt^ i rf isr^rf^* Instead of the old 
type isnsh n^ ^tcTT we meet with such compounds as Pane. 326 

84. In the case of a substantive being the attribute of 
predicate of an other substantive, disagreement of gen- 
der or number or of both is possible. R. 2, 115, 15 irpi: 

fkrm qiForT k\^\Ki qrrfr (Bh. put on his head the pledge^ [namely] 
the slippers). 

1) This DomiDative has its counterpart in Greek and in niodem lan- 
guages. So says an illuatrioua German poet (Felix Daiix, Skaldenkunst 
p. 79) »wei8e wilhnt* ich mich, und ach! ein Thor , ein pflichtvergesgner 
Knabe erwies ich mich.** 

2) In a ftiw passages of the upanishads and epic poetry we meet with such 
expressions a qRiirl XRHTTT: » holding one*s self a learned man,** for ex. 

Mhbh. 13 , 22 , 13. They are hardly to be accepted as compounds , like trfit?- 

m^i mn^xjrir and the like (P. 3,2,83). 

3) See the amount of examples in Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, Ml. — Ait. 
Br. 5 , 7 , 2 we have a confusion of the two constructions , the ace. of the 
pronoun <i l f*j l >m being used together with the nom. of the noun 77^ STT 

^Hifii/i^MiriiiM fSrfPrfnT. 

24 § 85—86. 

CflArrKR IL How to denote oaae-relationt. 

85. The manifold relatious betweon nouns and verbs or 
Qonns and nouns are signified by cases , by the pe« 
riphrase of cases, by compounding. As to the 
proportional frequency of the said modes of expression , 
nitde canea are more freely employed in poetry than in 
prose y oftener in the earlier periods of Sanskrit than in 
the latter; whereas periphraalic expression strives at ex- 
tending by the time, the implements of circumlocution 
increasing in number and variety, the nearer we ap- 
proach to our own times. But the faculty of signifying 
case-relations by confining the correlating nouns into 
the somewhat rudimentary shape of compounds has not 
been overturned nor diminished by time. On the con- 
trary, whether we look at their frequency or at their 
manifoldness or at their expansibility, the old dialect 
is by far surpassed by the alexandrinian period of Sanskrit 

86. The same richness B.nd abundance is generally displayed 
in the several constructions^ taken sepamtely. Two or 
more conceptions of the same case-relation being equally 
possible in thought, they mostly are also available in 
speech; there is perhaps no language, where one maybe 
less limited in this respect. Thus we meet side by side with 
a partitive genitive, a partitive ablative, a partitive loca- 
tive. Causality may be denoted by means of the instru- 
mental as well as by the ablative or by various periphrase , 

as ^TTTJ, ^il^UI^T, ^il^UllrJ etc.. The person spoken 
to may be put in the accusative or dative or expressed 

})y means of Mlr| , ^* , TJ^. The verbs of giving are 

§ 36—37. 25 

not only construed with the dative of the person be- 
stowed upon, but also with genitive or locative. The 
dative of the purpose is interchangeable with many a 

periphraee (^EPFT, RFfrFJ etc.) and with infinitives. 
And so on, — Add to this the many implements tor 
l)eriphrasey eiiher prepositions, partly ancient and common 
to the Indo-european mother-tongue, partly new-formed 
in Saaskrit, or nouncases and verbal forms that have 

almost the force of prepositions, as tl'-^ilVI^I H^TrT^ 

etc when = ,to," ^JrT ,on account of," '^5llUr4l or *jn»T 

= ^without ," *1I«»IUI = ,by means of, sim. Moreover , 
in most cases one is free to compound the substantive 
with those words, for ex. to say sTn^rT^fTTJ instead 

of sflNrlW %rfT: (for the sake of life) , MNIUf^f^ = 

MIMIUIt^^TTfr (over a stone) , etc. — Finally it must 
be kept in mind that in a large amount of cases one 
has even the choice of either expressing the case-rela- 
tion, or letting it be implied by a compound , made up 

of the two correlating substantives 4<jMIM«5J = 'AjdVA M 
ftl^J (a lion amonff men) , (T?!^^' == {I^* ^J?^* (the 

king's attendant) , ?rf^^: = ijf^HI ^l (slain b^ 
a serpent), sim. 
87. In consequence, the three geneml classes, we have 
set up, — cases, periphrase, compounds — do but re- 
present one and the same logical category and are 
in piuctice coordinate. For clearness' sake however, 
as they cannot be dealt with promiscuously, they re- 
quire to be treated successively. Accoi-dingly chaptt. 

26 8 37—88. 

Ill — YIl will oontain the syntax of the cases, chapt. 
Vin the periphrastic expression of case-relations; in 
clmpt. IX the different kinds of compounds — including 
also dvandva and karmadhd.raya , though logically be- 
longing to other categories — will be gone through. 

General scheme op the cases. 
W, The nominative or first case C^iM*1l sc RPT- 

SdieoM ^ 

^^' T?!T.*) is expressive of the sentence's subject and predi- 
cate , see 1 and 5. Moreover the nominative is em- 
ployed to denote the noun taken by itself, apart from 
the sentence, as will be shown hereafter. 
The person addressed is pat in the vocative. *). 

1 ) Though the vernacular grammarians have a proper term for the vo- 
cative — dmantrita P. 2,3,48 — and even two for the vocative ot the sing, 
(the voc. fting. especially is named tamluddhi^ ibid. 40} it is however not 
considered a distinct eighth case* but an appendix to the nominative. 
Pani.Hi, after having stated (2,3, 46) mfrrM(^*A l »'iP?ij}Mf^t»mcl-c<^ i Mi5y vmtn 
»the first case serves only to signify the gender and number of the thing 
designated by the word*s rude form or pmtipfttliLa*; thus proceeds : n^i^T 

V (47)i:TTSJ<Tf^3rrT^(48), that is >it serves al^o to address, then it bears 
the name of timantrita** -^ By the way I remark, that in translating 
P.*8 rule on the proper sphere of the Grst case , I have dissented from the 
traditional interpretation. According to the commentaries cjn^lUI means 

• size** or »roea«ure** — such words us ^hlT, miH, fTTG^ are given for 
examples >- and sFbTT is >the grammatical number*' so as to make the 
whole signify: »the first case denotes the mere meaning of the prti- 
ftpudiku, the mere gender, the mere sice (or weight) , the mere number. '* 
See f. ex. the Ka^ika on our sdtra. That interpretation cannot be right. 
In the first place, in the Pftninean terminology, it must be observed, 
prathama does not mean the word put in the nominative case, but 
only the sufKx of that case, just as dvitiyd names the suffix of the 
accus., /r/iya that of the instrumental and so on. Now, to say in ear- 
nest, the prathamii has the, duty of denoting three things apart from the 
purport of the prfitipailika, vis. linga or gender, parimaiia or measure 
and vaeana or number im unacccptiible undalmoiit ridiculous, for the sulHx 
of the nominative cannot give us certain knowledge but as to two of 

§ 38. 27 

Of the six others the general purport') may be 
sketched thus: 

1. The accusative or second case (TSFmT) de- 
notes a.) the whither^ b.) the object of transitives, c.) 
an extension in time or space, d.) it is used adverbially. 

2. The instrumental or third case (rTrliMI 

them, nl. gender and number; the sise or mearare of the thing denoted 
by the pr&tipadika is made at little known by declension, aa its color 
or its age. Moreover gender and namber are grammaticul conceptions, 
measure, size, weight geometrical ones. It is time to ftischargo PaoiNi 
of the absurdity imputed to him by his interpreters , and to show he is 
here as plain and judicious as that great grammarian is wont to be. 
The commentators were misled by SF^^i which they did accept as ex- 
pressing vthe grammatical number*', as , indeed, it very often does. Yet 
here it must be the hhava of afrr in its original meaning the naminy or 

the being named ^ cp. P. 1 , 4, 89 fl|^M<jr<>^ld'«44 (^'<Nf when naming a 

boundary), 2, 1 , 33 ^r3^fu^l*'Iol'c|e| (r= with krtyils, when denoting exag' 

gemtion) , 5 , 3 , 23 uehl^d-M^ «n^ etc. Therefore it is not g^TT , which here 

is carrying the meaning of grammatical number ^ but (ifjiliui; for this 
word may as well be employed in the narrower sense of •size; periphery, '* 
as in the larger of »any measure whatever,** and accordingly it is uiso 
occasionally a synonym of ^^iSQT, (cp. P. 5, 2 , 41 and the passages adduced 
in the Petrop. Diet. .IV, p. 540). For these reasons the sAtra, which 

occupies us, is to be analysed in this way qT^Tqf?;5FnifeT h fwi^qf^Mnii 

(=0" f^^-MWi or n #TJora5r, for ^nHTT and spBTT are both expressive of 

the grammatical number) rTd^or^PnTnr {r9>TT« 

1) PuniNi has short and well-chosen terms to point out their different 
provinces. The category of the accusative he names karma ^ that of the 
instrumental kartr >ugent** and karnna » instrument,** that of the dative 
sampradana , that of the ablative ojtadana^ that of the locative adhika- 
rana. The duties of the genitive have not found an adequate exprestrion. 

With respect to the nominative it must be observed, that Pi*iniui*s 
definition (see the preceding note) does ascribe a larger sphere of em- 
ployment to that case than we do in styling it the ciiso of » the subject 
and predicate.** In this the Indian grammarian is right. Nouns quoted 
or proffered outside the context of sentences are always put in the nomi- 

28 i9S. 

may be called the wUk-CBO^ , for it Hignifies wiik wkai , hy 
wkai^ kow. Aooording to the various applications of 
this fundamental notion, there may be set up divers 
kinds of instrumental. So we have an instrumental of 
accompaniment — the so-called aociaiive — one of the 
instrument, one of the agent, of the way, the means, 
the manner , the quality , of time , of value, and so on. 

3. The dative or fourth (^rFpTT) points out the 
direction of a movement. Mostly it is employed 'in a 
metaphorical sense. For the rest, its employment ad- 
mits of a division into two kinds: a.) the so-called 
dative of interest^ b.) the dative of the purpose, 

4. The ablative or fifth (q^*fl) denotes whence 
there is a starting » withdrawal, separation, distance, 
consequence and the like, it being applied to various 
aitegories of thought. 

5. The genitive or sixth {WtiX) upon the whole 
may be described as the case, which signifies cohesion. 
It chiefly serves to express relations existing between 
substantives ') and according to the logical varieties of 
these relations we may distinguish between the posses- 
sice ffenitivCf the partitive^ the subjective, the objective 
etc. Besides, tlie sixth case is wanted with some ad- 
jectives (as those of likeness, knowing and the contrary) 
and some verbs (as those of remembering). Sanskrit 
also has three more kinds of genitive, each of them 
displacing a particular character, nl. 1. the genitive of 

1 ) In thia book the term Mubslantive has not the limited acceptation it hat 
with the etyuiulogiMt and the lexicographer , but includes any noun that syn- 
tactical I j has the worth of a substantive, at ^Rfft when = > truth/* 

g S8-.89. 29 

He time ^ after wAieA^ 2 the absoluie genitive^ 3. the ye- 
nitive^ wkiek i$ eoneurreni wiik fie dative of iniereet. 
6. The locative or seventh (?THFTT) signifies the 
' where and therefore it generally is to be rendered by 
such prepositions as in, at , to, on. As its employ* 
ment is not restricted to real space , but of course also 
extends to other spheres of thought , there are various 
classes of locatives , for ex. those of time , of circum^ 

stance , of motive (the so-called FTFTTTHfTRT) , the abeo^ 
lute locative. On the other hand the locative is not li- 
mited to the spot y where something ia or happens , but 

it also signifies the aim reached. 

Rem. 1. All nouns are declinable and put in the said cases, 
if wanted. This applies also to such conventional terms and signs, 
as the grammatical roots, affixes, anubandhAs, pr&tipadik&s , etc. 

Rom. 2. Indeclinable are l^y the adverbs , 2^7 some nominal 
derivations of the verb, namely the gerunds and the infinitives 
Why they are devoid of declension is quite plain; for they do 
duty of noun-cases and generally their etymology does agree with 
their employment. 

Chapt. IIL Accusativa 
89, I. The accusative expresses whither something is 

drao- moving. Pane, ^snpj srf^^: (he set out for his home), Nala 1, 22 
^^^ Q<^iir> i i i */vf<, i (then they wont to the country of Yidarbha), M. 
whi- 2, 114 f^r^ w r y^mmf<i i ^ (Knowledge came to the Brahman and said 

' — ). In the instances adduced the movement is real. 
But in a metaphorical sense the accasative is likewise 

available. R. 2 , 82 , 9 5im*T «rnr^ p»T^ , Da^. 40 nfi i ^Hq i ?7?mJFB^ 
(by this solicitude I grew sad). 

This obvious construction is not the only one. 

30 § 39—41. 

The aim striven at may also be put in the dative (79), 
the aim feacked i8 mostly denoted by the locative (1>34). 

Moreover various periphrases by means of W \r\ , %||tI- 

^, fl*l!)IH, HH IMM , iRay etc. are concurrent 
idioms y see chapt. YIII. 
40. From this ace. of the aim the ace of the ob- 
ject is not sharply to be severed. On the boundary are 

stiinding such turns as rTT 'MM \r\ (he bends to you , rests 
on you), T^PJrf CrPnrt (he att^iins knowledge), ^TTRFT- 
IH^FTfT (he moves towards the village). 

VerW Rem. Yorbs of bringing^ carrying y leading ^ conveying may bo 

^Jr construed with two accusatir ob , ono of the aim and one of the ob- 

imf and ject ^jitm^ n?Tf?r T^^ gfrff^ cT^ STT (soe Siddh. Kaum. on P, 1, 4, 

lik«. 51); — I)aC« 83 ^ n^^ fciffU^rWii (let me conduct you to your 

lover), (^i^L V w^'ti^m ^f^'hm f^[fwx (having dit missed (^tkV, to 

the home of her husband). 

4L When construed with a passive verb, the accus. of 
of oie ^^^ ^^™ sometimes remains accusative , as in Latin and 
^JJ Greek, sometimes it turns nominative. So it is good 
VX' Sanskrit to say »W ^TTRT W^, WX\ ITFTt ^\^^\\ 

Kath&s. 25, 210 nfff^ iTfTarT jft a i fiu i Hl tm (now I want to go 
to the city of Benares), Pat. I, 464 Tx^m RT <sit: (the meaning will 
bo understood), cp. ibid. 44 g»,yjiM^eUiji>i if^, ibid. 102 ?jFfr irarTT 

1) Vemacaiar grammar makes no distinction at all between aim and 
object. Both kinds of accusative share the common appellation karma. 
Yet I greatly doubt, whether the ace. of the aim may turn nomin. when 
attending on the passive of aU verbs of moving. I, for my part, am not 
aware of instances of any of them, but for nij. The transitive compounds 
(43) of course are left aside, likewise such verbs, as the vaidik fo^, 
wben = >to be asked for -". 

§ 41—42. 31 

Rem. The aco. of the aim is not changed into the genitive, when 
attending a noun. It is said ^m ^ssrnr ^^^ 0^® transporter of a 
horso to Srughna)| with the aoo. of the aim and the gen« of the 
object Op. Pat. I, p. 336. 

42. 1 r. The aco. of the object. — Upon the whole , the 
hT ob- same category of verbs are transitive in Sanskrit as are 
^"' elsewhere. Yet, some cases of discrepancy and some 
idiomatic turns proper to Sanskrit are to be noticed: 
1. Verbs of si>eaking may admit of the accus. of the i)er- 
son addressed, cp. 46; 2. Many a Sansl:.rit intransitive , 
whose English equivalent is likewise intr., may occa- 
sionally admit of an object put in the accus.; then 
the translation will genemlly differ. Of the kind arc: 

1. Ttfyrr intr. to wocp, tr. to wocp for; 

2. ^Mfr l » to laugh, » to laugh at; 

3. ,wj^ > to rejoice, » to rejoice at; 

4. 5Tt^f7t » to bo sorry, » to pity; 

&• ui^ » to rain , » to rain upon ; 

6. mzrfTt » to fight , » to fight ; 

7* Rj^fiqffl l* to think, » to think of; to reflect; 
8. Verbs of rambling^ erring ^ like wjj wr, Are trans, when =: 
»to walk oyer, to go through", note also such turns as mnrt irtsrf^ 
(he is a hunting) , &et ^^ (he Uves by begging). — 9 >m^Y ' ^ '> ^^^ 
and its compounds, may be construed with the ace. of him to 
whom respect is shown. A complete list of such verbs is difficult to 
giye. Most of thera are to be known by the dictionary. 

Rem. 1. As a rule, the said accusatiyes are not obligatory. So 
the yerbs of speaking admit also of a dat or locat or g#T; — 
TiTi^ and cniT^ Are oftener construed with dat. or gen.; — it is 
said as well g^rf^ m^u rr or sr^mr ^ (^^^ etc.) as j«r^ 51^, 
and so on. 

Rem. 2. Note also the turn ^ttxtt *r?rf?r (this falls to my share) 
and the trans, construction of ^fjufh or umimPi s[miTJ]r^ (?^W!^ etc.), 
see f. inst. Kum&ras. 1, 25; 3,"^63; Ragh. 3, 22; 4, 11. 

82 § 42-44 

S. iim^ (to play) with the ace. of the wager it aa P-M. 
idiom of the brfthmaiMk 

43. Intransitive verbs may become transitive > when being 
venb. compounded with some preposition^); TTH^J'^l'^lrl 

t^. ^^^ 8<^^ *f^r t*^® ^w) , pass. ?FH TTTiT^TF^. This 
^ili chiefly applies to verbs, compounded with tl|r| ?3PT 

COM- ** 

!*■■• JX^ ST CnFT, but also to others Examples: <ifHy.iHfH (to 
transgreAs); iffiraTrr Wsovm frfirf^ry^, cp. P. 1, 4, 46; ^j^M-qfH (to 
pity); n^^iafd r (to partake of-, to enjoy); iuJ i dP i (to Hto by-), 
igeiMid (to dwell near-); g^frfTr (to appear to-); <jdW^(H and frr- 
^ft^xfh (to. rest on , to grasp), mclMfn (to inhabit), ir».mfd (to 
neglect), urfi/^^^ri (to go to meet) etc. 

Rem. This influence of the preposition is eyen seen in the 
ace. attending on some eomponnd adjectives , as fi,iciH > T^TW (Kala 
2, 27 «iiiUfTm^oiri:, R. ^, 50, 1 fpnwngjgw:). 

44. Instances of the so-called etymological or co- 

J^^ gnate accusative are not wanting Da?. iSSsmcnf x?g. 
•?••- a»Jx|sn7T, R.'2, 54, 37 iftm: mx f[ anfrfq (v. a. we have passed the 

five •^ ' » ^ *^ 

night), ibid. 58 , 21 nmmvi e^ qR^ mrj^ (behave yourself pro- 
perly with respect to your mothers) , Mhbh. 1 , 102 , 3 irhTT: TtTZTT: 
mrrs anoiM i; ^orQsrpr* — An example of its passive construction 
is this : R. 2, 58, 20 ^xnr ^TTH dtf^drAddU l ^ { \ Hdrl ; 

Rom. 1. Some of these etymological accusatives touch upon 
the sphere of the adverb and the gerund in ^qit. Sometimes it 
is rather difficult in what category to class them. Of the kind 
are Oh. Up. 3, 15, 2 ;t MS T nl j' l P.fH , Mhbh. 1, 154, 30 osmTTimT- 
pin (ho killed [him] as one kills a beast), P. 3, 4, 43i |j,qc4 i 4 gl^t ^^^* 

Rem. 2. The krts in ^?3r are only available when etvmol. accus. ^:?»^» 
The KA^ika gives these examples : Qu. 9it <i> ! Q*l»|g4 l; Answ. nciT 9)Tf^- 
*i*i'4*i; so ?rt iifliiihiiiiiji: etc. 
46. Some verbs admit of a double construction, which 

1 } Pat. I , p. 107 fl9kl19il Vfv a* MIUH)ll: H**l*l HaPrl* 


§ 45—46. 33 

• is the counterpart of the well-known Latin idiom munm 
f mihi donai » mujiere me donat. Compare for inst 

r faw^: — Mhbh. (ei Calc. 3, 17242) 

* u*Tg farii?i?!mjinrr: jfnrrPTOT: 
(Dharma bestows riches on both 
good and wicked). 

ffjqn. — R. (Gorr.) 6, 11, 11 ^ttst- 
(fim i PwuPd (they utter out be- 
guiling talk). 

^f^. — ^rnjr'imJj^ (he robs the mo- 

YAjfi. 2, 114 [%nr] ^^,^,tt fir^. 
f'jHiw^ sn^ WiTTJiR (a father 
may either bequeath his sons 
as' he likes best , or he should 
bestow the best lot upon the 

M. 8, 270 ^^h^ifHri^d i /T i ' ^ srrar 
d. l (.U f <H fwr^ (ft not-dTija, 
when hurting a dvjja with 
harsh words). 

g«rf?r ^5rTfn?nj^(he robs the owner). 
Both constructions are used side by side in this mantra of 

PAraskara (Grhy. 2, 2, 7) ql^ i a^g^wiTid l M : m^JTK^h^^^^^TP^yr^* 
Rem. The yerb jj^ seems to offer some irregularity of construe- 
tion, but in fact it b not this yerb, which is dealt with in a 
strange way, but it is the common translation of it, which con- 
ceals its proper moaning. One is wont to translate it »to sacri- 
fice/* but its real purport must have been some of » worship- 
ping, honouring, feeding'* or the like. Accordingly the offering 
is put in the instrumental, the divinity fed or worshipped in 
tho accusative. One needs must say (^fau T YoiM^i i ^i^ tok Uoii^ 
AX^iuba. Hiuwt. — ^be real equivalent of our tsacrificing** is 
^ = l^fiv; here the divinity is a dative, and the object is either 
the fire or wheresoever the offering is poured into, or tho of- 
'fering itself; therefore ^^^ ^irfn ^m or j^^ix gm v f ^j<j^ » n T» — 
Moreover the etymoU accus. is of course also available as well with 
jj^ as with ht; it may be said utt Jnrm^, i>f| i ({ i -i gj T fn » But tho 
instrum. of the offering with s; is vaidik according to P. 2, 3, 3 
(see Pat. on that siitra, I, p. 444). 

8, Now, some verbs have the faculty of admitting two 
jl^* objects at the same time. 

It is said as well tFifrt crf^ (ho tells a story) as ^srt u^\ (he speaks 
to you) ; as well sraf 5T7rf?T (he vanquishes the enemy) as jxKn 5T?if7T (he 


34 i 48—47. 

eonqvert a kingdom); •• well (vimiijmif^ f (ht toachei hii pupil) •• 
HMMHV ii ftf f 0^ tetehei the law). By combining both eonfltraetions 
we obtain 1. wiit 9% mfi} 2. aij jm ?rarf^; 8. f^m w*ijw i f^ i * 
This double object may attend a.) verbs of spea^ 

king, as ^, cj^, VJ^ etc, a«ih'»y, as OT^, THSJT 

Ml^eiin, ^^in and sim., ieacking^ especially ^TJ* 

^Hltn and^CP-Mr-IMfri, b.) some others, especially 

W^ (to trim) , ?[tfl^T (/o jwttt) , (^UiMH (io pumsA , io 
ine). See P. 1,4, 51 with the commentaries. 

Examples: speaking: Nala 1, 20 nrfr ^Mrffffih STO CDmir^ ?rw 
nijT, R. 2, 62, 31 i^rfrw gf^ wmrow; — a«i:%, heggit^: Ch. 
Up. 5, 3, 5 ^TB i|T psfSTj; HV>II>IUI^ I <>1^ (that fellow of a rAjanya 
asked mo fire questions), M.8,87 ^Tniv<r^^^ fCtTTT, KathAs. 1, 
31 ^ srr *»*>qMd (he requested a boon of me), Mhbh. 1, 56, 24 
fjsmf prf nro ?t fat ^ r si^^uhm^H. (I do not beg gold of you, my 

king, nor silver, nor cows); teaching R. 2, 39, 27 Vif^ ^dA» 

a \ ^mu \ ii^^j ' jURd m^ (I will do all that , which Mylady enjoins 
me to do) ; ^ f^: Mhbh. 3, 59, 5 rmv ii >u(rig'4*ai f^irarr jni ^ sfi^; — 
2Tj^: KumAr. 1, 2 i iuiiCd ^MiP i J^TWvhfT — jTw&ft^rij^ (they bil- 
ked from' the earth resplendent gems and herbs of great medi- 
cinal power); ^ ^ujq^ : M. 9, 234 H f >^4*i 7;Tija^(he should punish 
them with a fine of a thousand pa^a). 

Rem. Indian grammar adds to them some others, instances of 
which construed with a double object are scarcely met with in 
literature, if at all. Of the kind are f% (to gather), ^(to check), 
m (to rob), sfvi^ (to chum), thus exemplified; c^^ijcifilH^fH en^TTf^ 1 
JiiMii^uiCii ^'B'l^i 5*'^ wi^PifW i^rfpT etc. ). 
47, Yet, with none of the said verbs the double accusative 

is of necessity. Other constructions are quite as usual, 
sometimes even preferable, especially in simple prose. 

1) Here alao Temacular grammariana put the two accos., depending 
OB such Terb«, as :t^, sr^, tee 40 R. 

§ 47-49. 35 

The Terbs of asking are often oonttrued with the ablat, or ffenit, 
of the penon addressed. Those of teaching admit of aee. of the 
person + loc. of the thing taught (Priy. p. 11 jftTf^rq^rrorfi^. . . . 
fuwif^fiarr) f Vlf^^uilri} mR^uiIh and other verbs of enjoining are con- 
strued with ace. of the enjoinment -\. dat (or its substitutes) of 
the person. Those of speaking are often construed with the dative 
of the person addressed, or the genitive, or gf^t. 

NB. Some verbs as W[^Jh <to tell) , ^^^mPi (to make 

kuown) , ?nt^[5TT?T (to enjoin) never comply with the 
double object. 

18. In the passive construction the person asked , addres- 
sed, defeated etc. turns nominative^ the thing asked 
for, spoken etc. remains accusative. Therefore, though it 

may be said separately smx in: a» well as ^JiiiTcnTi ^pTt ^wttt: «• 
well as tT^n': JTT'.i when combined, we get the type ^fTxmrpnrrcr^i 
TOT: JSTT cjwirH^ Examples : Pane. 29 ffrftfrfr XTOT ii5R^ ^cnnr;T?nr- 
^r;r^ (v. a. I have asked my master to grant you his protection), 
Kath&s. 27 , 142 »j | UM gAJudiiP^' ^ mfiirr . (BA^a has prayed 
giva for a foe, fit to fight with); — R. 2, 97, 15 .7 ^ ?r %( 
ciTOT iipfr rrrfwcr Era^: ; — Da?, 80 vmr f sinmH i ^ i igK<<^44 i fli i t^t- 
jmnr^ '— M. 8, 86 ipj^ j ^<'< ' J^jJ - '.Qi(d i w^Jhur«j^iH^ (but when 
bearing false witness, he must be punished with a fine of one 
eighth of his goods). 

This passive construction is often avoided •) by em- 
ploying one of the concurrent idioms, taught in 47. 
Therefore jwr^r^ r^rt srfFf or rfi9'][^> JFTPnTTTforw: 7^: or rcjr^i^ii^rTt etc. 

19. Acousative with causative verbs. •— If the primitive 

1) With some verbs it is, if at all, but rarely met with. Upon the 
the whole , the construction with a double object appears to be the rem- 
nant of an old vegetation, which has almost passed away to be suc> 
ceeded by new stalks and young stems. We may see the same procesH 
at work in liatin, Greek and the teutonic languages. In all of them 
the irtiom of th« double object loses territory time going. 

M i i» 

be an imirmmtUnt Terb, its cansatiTe is oonstnied with 
^^ the ecowatifc of its (the primitiTe^s} sabject. Prim. SfFT 

\^^ Qun. MSI^n l \'^\t\ l^lNelkl. The same ap- 
jdies to Terbs of fou^; then we will have oocasioiially 
two aocosatiTeSy one of the aim and the other, point- 
ing oat the primitiye's sabject Prim. <^c|^t1I m<M«r1- 

^ JI^IH Caas. {rar"^^^ wSri'l^ WdU. 

Bat if the primitiye be a iraMtictj there is diver- ' 
sity of idiom. Often the primitive's sabject is in the 
same manner pat in the accusative, when con- 
straed with the caasative, bat often also in the in- 
stra mental. In the former case we have of coarse 
two aocasatives, •• KatkU. 9, lo n:w^ ^ j^ uwj>jPi*mii: 

(IIm belt of ascetka Made tbe qaees eat a cosseerated porrid^>, 
whertwithcp. tlua UMlaBeeof theiaitraai^tal: Mbbh. 2, lyTn'sm^ 
&>Rjr^> i ;fi;f rS9% (I "luJI "ot be aUe to get aaythmg doae by to«). 

The difference of both constractions is determined by 
the diverse natnie of the notions, carried by them. If 
one wants to say ke eaaset me to do some/Aimf^ ii 

is hff Au impaUe I act , there is room for the type RT 

l^il^r^ilfMin, bat if it be meant I^efeU tometkiu^ dome 
bjf me^ I am omijf ike afeui or iMirmmemt thromgh ttiiek ke 

«c/#, the instrnmental is on its place T^T^r^T^^TFT *1MI, 

.) of two aceasatiTet: Modr. I, p. 43 ww ^^AV^^-^ ' ^ 
W l ,apH 11^: (do BOt tke rieea of 
CaadrafT. atOl reaiad tbe people of tbe foraier kia^H, Da^. 144 
fefTf npn iifia^w i m q iriwai,^OT »T ("J pareau aOowed mm to 
ved tbat giri), Mbbb. 1^ 7S, 28 ir gJl^f^.lwJH ^ <^ u^ tbe bolj 
Bca pay taxes), R. 2, 55, 17 7P|gn: w i ;'wa«Utiij^ (be ordered bcr to 
fbar k), ibid. 2, 94, 2 «7 <M«MUH Maivi^^ ' i^^ i iiraw, I>ac- *15 

S 49^60. 87 

ffror »it ^smiiq* — So always wunqirf^ «f%fnM%nt for this Terb 
at the same time formally ia a eaosatiye and aa to its meaning 
(to teach) it belongs to the category, mentioned in 46. 

b.) of the instrumental of the primitive's subject: Da^. 170 frr 
nm mQtfwiWSNf^ pETT MMl<.V I <ll ^rsFU^ ('**® obtained an order of 
the king who was unaware [of what had happened before] to put 
to death this honest man) ; Mudr. I, p, 87 j^ uy^i^<. i ft> ! ^^W^STT (after 
having got written the letter by (akataddsa) ; Pane. 51 jTmrr fTFT- 
^^^ 5cnpprRPnifj^(the cartwright let him bring home by friends), Ku- 
m&rao. 6, 62 ^r i^^nftuw i q i M gjzrF7Uj^(ho [Himav4n] suffered his zenana 
to be entered by them, that is she opened his zenana to them**), 
M. 8, 371 rTT Sorfir: Wl ^ii^id l (her the king should order to be 
devoured by dogs) '). 

50. In the passive construction these two types are likewise 
possible: 1. i/ie primitive's subject turns nominative, the 
primitive's object remains accusative , as Mudr. V, p. 172 qQw i f^ff i 
cnnTTMTTjT epn^TiTi the active form of which would bo vt,iui wrm- 
^mjjrn ^fpn^nm^i 2. t/ie primitive's subject is instrumental ^ 
but the primitive's object turns nominative , as Mudr. I, p. 22 

1) P&nini gives a different rule about the constructioD of the causa- 
tives. In his sQtra 1,4, 52 he teaches that the primttive*8 subject is the 
karma of the causatives of a.) all intransitives , b.) the verbs oigoimj [moving) , 
c.) those of perceiving and knowing i^fz)* d.) those of feeding ^ e.) those 
of uttering voice, and the following rule declares » optionally also with 
eh l ^qCd and ^neifTp * [and their compounds, see Pat. I, p. 109, I. lOJ. 
With the other causatives, therefore, the primitive's subject is not 
considered an object (karma), accordingly not put in the accus., but in 
the instrumental, according to P. 1, 4, 55 compared with 2, 3, 18. 
Now, to these rules of P&nini, which do not take account of the in- 
ternal difference existing by necessity between the two conceptions, 
but simply set up some outer marks, I have substituted the description 
expounded in the context. Mr. Axakdoram Dorooau preceded me in 
this way. Moreover I have tested P&nini*s rule in numerous instances, 
but found it deficient now and then even when paying due respect to 
the modifications made in it by the different v&rttikas on our sAtras 
(1, 4, 52 sq.), whereas the same enquiry confirmed the exactness of the 
rule as it has been laid down in the context. 

S8 i 50—52. 

mn:7fril9:^ <ij^«rp|. (R. lut killed tke unhappy ParT. by me^M 

of a wishakanyd). The latter type appears to be rare *), 
the former is the general one and is applied even in 
such cases , as would not admit of two accusatives in 
the active form. 

Examples of type 1. — Mudr. VII, p. 222 uw, j.< f MMU^ ff WJC^ 
liisr i^fwrT:! Kttll. on M. 8, 287 ma i ^^aeh wsrf^ mm erq^rhi: (he 
must be caused to pay as much as has been eipended), Da^. 164 
w^ Qhiui<'«,|{|ri ^ Mirtd'i I (^eriM ji( I f^H I ifm (Ko^jadAsa made me enjoy 
a bath, food etc.), Hitop. 96 hhm^ [sc. mni] ^ ^^i^\ virtm wrfpr: 
(then he [the hare] commanded the chief elephant to make his pro. 
stration), R. 2, 62, 1 jj^tj \^\mn \ MJifdH : ^ snsraij; 

Example of type 2. MAlay. I, p. 15 fj y jidwiiicg *misi^FfV *T5fT ^^ 
mw^TFfoiT: (t. a. His Majesty, indeed, has it in his own power to 
make mo release M&dhaTasena). 
ol« Wlien having got a more or less figurative sense, the oansatiyes 
may change their construction. So with ^;mfh (to show) and meiiifi 
(to tell) the person who is caused to see and to hear is sometimes 
put in the ace. as attending on a causative, but it is more eom- 
mon to use the gen. or dat., because they in fact range with the 
verbs of showing and telling. So ar^rrf^ and its compounds are 
never construed with the ace. of the person to whom something is 
made known. 

6S. The accusative of the object is not restricted to the 
^"e finite verb3 , but affects also some active verbal forms , 
^4. which are grammatically classed among the nouns. In the 

^^ first place all participles , gerunds and infinitives with ac- 
Roant. i^yQ signification must have their object put in the accusa- 

1} Apart from the two examples adduced in the context I do not 
remember having met with aoy. In both of them the object and the 
agent are persons. 

S 52. 39 

tive. Hitiierto there is no difference between the syntax of 
Sanskrit and of its sister-langnages. But the accusative is 
also wanted with some classes of verbal nouns , com- 
monly not reckoned among the participles etc., ') nl. p t, t, 

M iq. 

a.) with those in ?, made of desiderative verbs; this 
class of adjectives has indeed almost the nature of par- 
ticiples , ft.) with some in 7^ of kindred signification , 

c) with those in vKt when having the worth of a partic. of the 
future, d,) with some krts in **T5t'), «.) with the krt-». in ®?j, 
when barytona. 

Examples: a.) M. 1, 8 RiMwHafbitf T; tnTT: (wishing to create the 
manifold creatures), Mhbh. 1 , 167 , 48 MdU i Ri€>| l t^nm fn^j: wfknr^ 
j^nnj^; — b,) Dag. 25 m\ i immM t ^m*<Hf<t.ut{^q^ (fts I could not bear 
the harshness of their words) ; — c.) K&(. on P. 2 , 8 , 70 sTtT eh l ^gfi^ 
sfrlrr (he goes to make a mat)*); e.) see 58. 

Rem. 1. Those in 39r are also mentioned by P&^ini as agreeing 
with ace, but this construction has antiquated. Instances of it are 
met with in the archaic dialect. Taitt. S. 6 , 1,6,6 9ns;i9iT un fhniV 
wsrfJTT n ^ ar^, Ch. Up. 6, 2, 2 ^rnpFV ?[ smfr iTarf?T (surely, he 
obtains a dress). 

Rem. 2. Note also the ace. with the adj. fr^ (worth, deserving). 
As far as I know, this idiom is restricted to the epics. Mhbh. 1, 
63 , 4 i>H^*l^l ^ \ ^m riq^ (this king is by his penance worth of 

1) See SiECKK, de genetivi in lingua aanscrita imprimit vedica usu, 
p. 17 0qq. 

2) Especially , if a debt be the object , P. 2 , 3 , 70. Kft9. im ^17^* 

3) Examples in literature are scarce. Woitkey (Grammar § 271 c.) quotes 
Mhbh. 3.73,25 ^STTHTf^icn^: I but the example is doubtml, for the whole 

sentence runs thus: VHTTTt <sf^ iTSTTTTf^ai^: i where it in also poRsible 
to accept the ace. as the aim ot the verb frUTrT:. — R. 3, 10 , 15 H<M^MI- 
sfWTii^^TITWTpWsnfH^: i { f!**f<a would afford an instance of jm^ , con- 
strued with the accusative , if it were not probably a bad reading; ^f!*trdAJ^ 
is to be changed in 7m *IWJA|. 

40 § 62-64. 

Indni*t raok), R. 1 , 53, 12 ;r qf^wiiw^q «im9in9n?!:^(ilie is not worth 
beiag giTon up bj me) *). 

Rem. 8. In the aneient dialect of the Taidik mantrai many more 
kindi of Terbal nouns may agree with aec So for inst. Rgy. 6, 23, 4 
sHm^^ «if^: cfrqr <,(<in ;» Mhbh. 1 , 113, 21 we have even an aeo, de- 
pending on a nomen aetionis f^nkiOT >r^ (bjr his desire to conquer 
the earth) <j i U^r>i(» i Hf<{^ i fj|^ ; likewise ibid. 1, 167, 3 ^r^gf^fir^^ 
(bjT his wish to retaliate Dropa). 
53. The ace. with the barytona in V though not rare in the earlier 
period, seems to protract but an artificial life in classic Sanskrit, 
as it is mot with only in refined stylo and even there side by side 
with the genitive >). Da^^. 199 it is said of a good king, that he 

was ^idf^di gnii fUinafud i ?<dg|iMM<aRiH i ^P^j ^^um i d^rW grr^r (ho- 
nouring the wise, making his attendants mighty, raising his kinsmen, 
lowering his foes); comp. Pane. Ill, 71 H^ufrf>fd l xrh: (a king, 
who rules his subjects). — On the other hand, the examples given 
by K&(. on P. 8, 2, 135 prove that at the time, they were ap- 
plied, at first, the construction with the ace. was obvious and na- 
tural. So giTTRmT^: ^»fd ' j^m>l i vicrf??T g^ jjfeHj^ (the ^rftvishthftyan&s 
have the custom to shave the hair of the young-married woman.) 
Cp. Apast 1, 3, 15. 

84. in. The aoousative of space or time serves to de- p. ». 
^^ * note a continuity of either; it expresses therefore 
,, 9oAai space is occupied or during what lime the action is 


1) lo the classical language ir^ complies with genitive. So Priyad. 
89 iH fd l 'J!foi^<J*l JlM'-im (let her sit down , she is worth half of my seat). 
Likewise 9^. 

2) PuniNi explicitly states (P. 3.2. 134 sq.), that the barytona in ^ 
are restricted to the denoting of lastirg and inherent qualities. But he 
nowhere affirms that the oxytona are not to be employed in that sense. 
Indeed, a genitive with nouns in ^. even when expressing lasting qua- 
lities, is very common in classic Sanskrit. In the same passage Daf. 
190, the example in the context has been borrowed from , we read g^ iRlHI 

oi^. Comp. the Hat of epithets in Kftd. I. p. 2 erfTT Jn^TSnrftnT^ etc. 

§ 54—55. 41 

going on. Compare the ace, ipatii and iemparis in Latin , 
Oreeky German etc 

Examples: a.) space R. 2, 91, 39 91^ f^ «f>fru|^ mi>fiw%i<ft ^ 
fP^ (for the soil became flat over an extent of flye yojana*s in 
eyery direction), Mhbh. 1, 153, 40 Pujfj ff... inrf fi HW i ^^ ' i il &'jVjvT l 
(he seized him and dragged him along oyer a space of eight 

Rem. When naming the dimensions of a thing, one does not 
use this acctts., but avails one's self of bahuvrthi- compounds. 

b.) time Pane. 165 j^pnarf^ f?7?Tf^ rSR^mmin (for so many days 
it was yours), Da?. 96 ii^w; mftwnt wf%?aRT9!»T^ (gentle sirs, please, 
wait a moment). 

Rom. 1. Now and then the ace. of time denotes the time at 
which. R. 2, 69, 1 m^ pfsf h 7^: ufdv i Pi m rU^pti^t irjhn^ rit 
pW ^snt |T?r <sa>Tfvv:) D«M?« 153 or sfq far:****** rvr^ju wij*^ 

Mi'iirid-iiR. ehuQreTi^j}: jmrpn^. Qq^^i Hr«yi»TiHu Cp. 

Ait Br. 1, 22, 12; Mhbh. 1, 63, 40; ibid. 1, 121, 34; Apast. 1, 5, 12. 

Rom. 2. Sometimes ei i <b[ri is put behind the ace, when deno- 
ting the time, during which Hitop. p. 51 t^t <mm9r ix\f^i\\\<^t\ 
eFirrar^ (I am bound to perform during a montli a vow for Durgft). 

Rem. 3. The ace. of time remains unchanged in the passive; 
see Da?. 96 quoted aboye. But occasionally it is dealt with, as 
if it were the object. R. 2, 88, 2 -rj^ fror ij^ i riM ; 9!^ srfiFTT ;mir 
(= here the noble hero has passed the night on the naked earth) 
instead of wxfi srfdri^'). 

56. IV. As a rule, the accusative neuter of any 
»!■•- adjective noun may do duty for an adverb, VITM 

^^* il^lrl (he goes swiftly) , ^ Z W^ (he speaks gently) , 

1) Comp. sach Latin expressions, as Caes. B. 6. 5,39,4 aegre it dit» 
tutUntaiurt anJ the interesting discusRion on the matter Pat. I, p. 445 sq. 
From Putanjali's words it is sufficiently plain , that to say vi\kiir\ mn: 1 

swift 5RT5T: is as good as wmk H\kW 1 STwft ST^SW. From u nether piw- 
sage of the same book (I, p. 338, vurtt. 9) it results, that some made 
the kalaiuirma-vcrbs range with the akarmaka or intranoitiTes. 

42 § 65— 68, 

^ hi^ijri (he amiises himself secretly), t1^<^*1l*i 
^F^R^tFT (he entertains respectfully). 

The ace. of tho mibtt. qrxr (name) is used as a particle =: inamely,** 
sometimes also it answers to Greek SvoftM >of name." Kala 1,1 

*^- A great number of prepositions and the like agree 
also with the accusative , see chapter IX. Of the inteijec- 

tions, m^ is often attended by accusative. 

Chapter IY. Instnimental. 

57. The third case has been styled instrumental after 
its most usual employment of expressing the instrument 
or means or agent [P. 2, s, 18 cp. i, 4, 42], Yet its start- 
ing-point is rather the conception of accompaniment ^ 
and it is for this reason some claim for it the name 
of sociative. ') Nor can there be any doubt, the suf- 
fixes, by which the third case is made, viz. ^//tand a, 
convey the meaning of accompaniment , simultaneous- 
ness and nearness 

58. I. Sociative. — The instrumental is the equivalent 
Mcsul. of our with =r together with , accompanied hy. In this manner the 

J^U^ third case is used f. L Pane. I, S05 ipr ipV: Mj*<j4fi<rH iTTePST irtf^g^- . 
tive. TTTTTfTj: I ^n{rir <rnr: rrfvij: m?^: (deer seek after the comradeship with 
doer, 80 kino with kine and horse with horse, tho fool with the 
. fool and tho wise with the wise). 

•.)wHk Upon the whole however, the instrumental, when 
MtioD*. sociative, is accompanied by some word expressive of 

1) This tenet ba^ boen laid down by B. D£LBfiflCK in his pathmakiog 
treatise AhXativ^ Locaiii, InstrumentaUs ^ 1867. 

$58. 43 

the notion of beiny iogetlter viz. 1^ tlie adverbs H^ 

?FPJ, WJ^» HT^ which may then be considered 

prepositions, as {FTJ tllrlMI H^; 2** such participles as 

tll^rl, n^, "^j t4p^r| and the like, as ^: 

tTlriMI ?ri^: or compounded Hlrl IH f^fTJ . Or the notion 
of the sociative is expressed by a compound, the for- 
mer part of which is W (or H^) as {FT: ^T^ftrT:. Occa- 

sionally the gerund ^ETF^PT (having taken) is also ased. 
in the meaning of mtfu 

The prepositional adverbs ^^ etc. are likewise added 

to the instrumental for the sake of denoting relations 

between different parties as to converse with^ to meddle 

toith, to iffht toitA, to contend with^ sim. 
Examples: a.) ^ etc. expressiye 

1. of concomitancy. Mi'cch. X, p.372 irf^ fvtm ^T^TCW: ^ ft i M»H*M<j l 
(are Carudatta and YasantasenA still alWeP), Mhbh. 1, 113, 20it 

^ MAJMd ^a^ irfTT ffft^TJTr:, KathAs. 4, 136 ^ srrm xpjfim nrRir 

2. of mutual relations. Pane. 78 ^: fr^r^m ?r efr^rfTr; ibid. 257 
W^ ^ fTsr 5^: (▼. •. how are you his friend?), ibid. 281 fi^ 
^ f^^fau^i^ i (disagreement with a friend) , Kathfts. 47 , 88 rr ^ 
fgjf^ ^ 3^ (ho fought with him). Pane. V, 6C xin i T i dP^nuT i ^ - 
rr ffOi^J i Wi^fq I n" «r9f *<fHH i r i y.JifHiJ ^ Note the phrase hn" n;^ <l,v i 'U i ^ 
(Pane. 137, 13; 178, 1) and the type, represented Pane. 43 Trt 
wnnT e^ T^js^Rsik^ ^t:sx (after having fastened her <o the pile with 
a strong fetter). 

ft.) ?T%T and the like: Kath&s. 13, 110 ^gij^ ;p7»T%T: •iwnAsr 
rfrfV ^nfr (he fled from this spot to his home with his attendance), 
R. 2,52,91 SUA prays f^ij^ ilt;M l jJ<i i m^ ^ niTTT: fthat is: 
with his brother and me] irim/jt d^id i M i fUfdy i rt . 

44 I 68— «0. 

R • ■• Am tlegAiit parmphrtse of the tocimtiTtf is oecasionall jr "Rnfa 
«Md it the latter part of a bahvTrtliL So in the Tone quoted Pat I, p. 
426 iR i fijilJu rpwr^ qnna<r^= lalone but for his good sword , he 
went after the PA^^Ava/* I>«C« 159 ^wrJr U ci i jf^fu&fi ▼sr qf^- 
(<Jlf|.«?K i f*fW(f! (yon stand aside as if longing for some you love, 
alone with your lute), Pane. 169 ^ » ti»*<n ^Jifldia i. 

50. Yet the sole instrumental will not rarely suffice. In 
•«t the old yedic dialect, the br&hmanas included, it is 
SiSa very common , denoting as well concomitancy as mutu- 
ality of relations. But in classic Sanskrit it is restricted 
to the language of poetry and poetical prose and to 
some typical expressions. 

Examples: a.) from the archaic dialect Rgf. 1,1,5 ^^ ^;a^. 
jTnxp][^ (mtiy the god como with the gods), ibid. S, 85, 7 *i^f^f|>^ 
nw h fFj; — Ait. Br, 1, 6, 3 w^ ji^pn ssrmi^ (he enjoys food 
with his family), Ch. Up. 5, 10, 9 VT^fm: (conversing with them). 

6.) from classic poetry, etc.: 1, concomitancy R. 2, 27, 15 nr^ rcFTT 
i l f*l*|tej i (*i cTl^ (I shall go to the forest with thoe), ibid. 2, 68, 2 
TOT xnrpnr^..... iqrft cmfh wnrr STjyr; — 2. mutuality of rela- 
tions Daf. 175 nvrf^ ^IcRIVT i '' J* i «Ari( «hpv (he took a great aver- 
sion to his young wife), ibid. 91 rpn ^>i i cM i mj i 'sjrt j MgiJci^^ (with 
this courtesan I made a bargain), R. S, 18, 19 ^/^^>i i 8 ; Anftj^ 
qf^^^m ; vsnTTT 7 9iT9: (Laxma^a, one should make no joke at all 
with cruel and vile people). Pane. V, 62 :t HT^ WraiiirMtf T; (a wise 
man does not keep counsel with women). It is often said Qi,mH 
sijOTT without n^, etc. 

Rem. 1. Note the turn, instances of which are afforded by 
Mudr. Ill, p. 116 tmJ iciJ i oiHM l i l ijid Wlfqm (I have left them 
nothing but life) and Prabodh. V, p. 103 iiRi| r <M l a i (1] Ad 7 
v ifei ' JuPi (in short he will part with his body). 

Rem.. 2. Note Vt^ (quarrel) with the sole instrum. Pane. Y, 74 
nhm iWTi i n i j i l '»^* ^^^^ eooks' quarrel with the ram). 

60. Compound nouns or verbs , whose former part is H, 
?T or ^{^f 2>J many words expressive of the notions of 

§ 60-61. 45 

uniting^ combining, mingling are often construed with the 
sole instrumental, even in prose. This construction is 

the regular one with TsT and its derivates. 

Examples: a.) compounds, commencing by ix etc. Daf, 79 inr^: 
MMii'lH , Hitop. p. 16 uw fi^ Hm^h\f\ \ ' \ \k!\ \ t^ ^ilUcJU l ^ (there it 
not in this world a man more happj, than he, who has a friend 
to converse with), (^k\L IV, vs. 12 tFt^t ^ferTgTTt ^ i dM i P ^ ^iJ (a jas- 
mine , clinging to a mango-tree). Mrcch. I , p. 34 jy^ pnTT nn^^* 

6.) other verbs of uniting, mingling, combining. — M. 1, 26 
^4jui ' 5i<J^T i; Tn?rr:^?nlTfiT: vm\ , Pane. 274 m^f^ ^SRnrTr f»tfl^: (mixed 
with his kinsmen), Q&k. I, vs. 30 ar^ n* ff|iij<i(H *(itl l fr r; (she does 
not join her voice to mine). 

Rom. 1. J | r|(jpf is often =: Lat. afficere alqum alqua re. So Mhbh. 
I (Paushyap.) ni i mirAu in* J i dHij n^ (it was not his intention to 
harass his pupils), op. R. 2, 75, 57. Many times it is = »to bestow 
something upon somebody", f.i. Pane. 3 fr^ rgt d i kmum> ! u \ ^f>VJj \ {i \ 
(I will bestow a hundred of grants upon you). 

Rem. 2. P. 2, 3, 22 mentions the verb irfrTt complying with 
ace. or instrum. , but instances of that idiom seem to be wanting 
in literature; Patanjali gives the example fqrT^ or f^^rT fM l 'Mff , 
but it is not plain what is hero the moaning of (rm* — A similar 
instrum. depending on a compound verb, commencing by ij, is 
taught by P&n. 1, 3, 55 and his commentators, see Pat. I, p. 284. 
According to them it is said ^^ \ m \ ^ uu-eSfl i a ^ j'/U ! HU/j-g^H >he makes 
presents to a servant-maid , to a female of low-caste , etc." the instr. 
Q2, 1>eing used only in the case of illicit intercourse. 

•tram. ^^^® instrumental attends on the adjectives of equalilg^ p.«.8, 
^[^.8^- /i^e;im, identiig and the like, as ^^ , HTFT, fr[5T, 

idjj. of rjr^^. Here however the genitive is a concurrent 
neu, construction , just as in Latin. It is said promiscuously 

equal*- r^ ^^ ^^^ ___ 

'y. «*«• FTfJi or FTirr fPT: JST: 

Examples: R. 2, 118, 35 stttth rFT: (equal to Indra), Hit. I, 22 
q^T: fWIMI: (Hke beasts). Hit. p. 118 wh\ nrsfr CTti :t ijm :t ilfil- 


48 § «1— «2. 

«r^r» XiUT. I, p. 21«jr ^ ^r < i i <.^flM »f y 7j9cr: (he it not eTen equal to the 
dust of Bj feel); Pat. I, p. 327 i^: ^xm iW^i>Mfei(H (he has become 
their equal). — If »to eompare with*' is to be expressed by some 
metaphor, the instrumental will often be of use, so for ex., whon it 
is denoted by the. image of putting on a balance, cp. KumAras. 
5, 84. — Compare also such expressions as Da^. 130 ^: ^ituiP iTg 
^^fT^HTK^: (and I having the same business as these friends of 
mine here). 

of a genitife: Mhbh. 1 , 139 , 16 fi^rer ^ mm ;tt^ e i. faAjt q-;» 
R. 2, 23, S gifr wjsm frr^w 5«?TOr n^^ ^^ ([^"] ^"<^® shone like 
the face of an angry lion). 

02^ As the instrumental is the exponent of the notion 
iMtni- of tacoMpan'unenl and aimuttaneouaness , so it is also avai- 
witk lable with words expressive of the very contrary , namely 
•fuj^a- separalion and diajunciion. In the same way as it is said 
^rai tli^ri: , 5FTT ^?nJ » with you ," ope is allowed 

to say fJTTJ jf^l , SJ^T WMrli: ^without you." •) 
The proper case for expressing separation , the ablative 
is however also available. In some phrases the instru- 
mental is more frequently employed, in other again 

the ablative. The instrum. prevails with I^Msj and most 
of the compounds , beginning with T^** , also with ^l<^r| 
and ^PT, but the ablative with such as *1'^, ?I5y. 

Examples: Pane. 84 grirnT f^npvi: (he was not deprived of life), 

1) Uelbr. 1.1. p. 71 »Der Uegritt trennuiuj \%i swar logisch der gegen- 
■ats voQ suaammeosein, liegt ibm aber desshalb p^ycbologisch Bchrnahe.** 
Or , to tpeak more exactly , it is not the conception of separation , that 
is expreH'ted or signified by tbe instrumental , but the notion of mutu- 
ality underlying both union and separation, finds in it its adequate ex- 
presiiion. We have here therefore the same kind of instrum., which is 
spoken of in 50, li 2. Accordingly words of separation may rIso be con- 
strued with TXil ***• Pane. 57 iHIMUl ^ fsr^TTt nf^JUlfd- Compare 
English to part with. 

g 62~«3. 47 

Da^ 172 j i S^wulwil^w l »<{ y jgH i »l^ (she peeled the gr«int of rioe of 
their husks, so [cleverly] as to keep them entire), Kath4s. 15, S2 
^ftm^arr jirh fa^ Qng^wm^ , (K« forbore the grief caused by his 
. separation from SltA), R. 2, 96, 27 efrg^nr t^^m kfzff^ gfj^^Hi (lot 
tho earth be freed from a great stain), i) 

Rem. The adjectives ji^t ^^, R » 4)r i, ^rnur sim. often are ss 

63. n. By extending the notions of concomitancy , ac- 
Bwui companiment , simultaneousness from space and time 
hw- ^ ^'^ ^^^^ ^^ logical categories, we may understand 
"»»«• how large a sphere of employment the thiinl case occu- 
pies in Sanskrit syntax. Generally spoken, it is always 
used, when it is wanted to express the circumstances, 
instruments, means, ways, properties accompanying 
the action and qualifying it. In other terms , the instru- 
mental has the duty of telling the /tow of the action 
or state, expressed by the verb or verbal noim, it de- 
pends on. 

For clearness' sake the most striking types of this 
instrumental will be severally enumerated: I'y and 2'y 
it is expressive of the instrument (karana) and the 
agent (kartr). These two kinds of instrumental are 
practically the most important, for they are the most 

wanted for. Examples of tho former grrw gnrfn (he cuts with 
a knife) , q^ym JT^fn (he goes on foot); of the latter jjm ^uvt,rw 
(it is done by me) (57). 

1) M. 2,79 affords an instaoce of instrnm. and abl. depcoding on 
the same verb. The latter half-cloka runs thus xj^^flUJ.iHl illMI'H'cidl- 
f^Pclfl-mH (after a month he is released even from a great sin likewiHeod a 
snake from its skin). Here the abl. T^T^: and the instr. ?5r^ are coordinate. 
Compare the like coincidence of aht. and inntr, eaugae. 

48 I 68—64. 

THrdfy^ the instrum. denotes aecompanying eireumsianees 
and jualitiei, like Latin abl. modi and qoalitatis. M.4,3 

frvnrr vtH^w mSbf if:Tnw(n^ (he muit make money, but without 
giving toil to his body), Pane. 129 ^ ^!h»t i Ritfi>i f^^^ p^TPWr- 
pF|^(Ping. exercised his royalty with Dam. as his minister). 

FouriUy^ it declares the test, to measure by; cn^^. 

nrmr^ (you will know it by its fruit). 

fif^t^lyt it expresses the price or value, something 
is rated at , bought , sold , hired for , the 1 huig , some other 
is taken for in exchange, sim. Pane. 158 Tvrm7{ fsrflRhmm: 

o^nvT: (a book sold for a hundred rupees). 

Sixthlif , it denotes the way , by which one goes ; QAk. 

Ill ir.-FlT *J l ^q i <qcr i Bil f g^TT^r n?TT (the tender girl has passed 
a little before along this row of youag trees). 

Seventhly ^ the instrumental denotes the caaBe^ motive 

or reason , by which something is done or happens to be ; 
irbr ^;r?T: (prosperous by wealth), fir<7'7r 0*3?: (fame by learning), 

irrnfynTifrirfT (that person has arrived by my order), nWr zj^m 
(v. a. a present). 

64. It should be kept in mind, however, that these and 
J^^ similar distinctions are but made for argument's sake 
JJJ*^* and do not answer to sharply separated real divisions. 
Julii P'^opcriy speaking , there is but one instrumental in all of 
•^*^* them , just as in English it is the same word mth^ which 
is used in phrases as distant from one another ^aI go 
with jfou y I cut with a knife^ he with his black hat ^ he is 
content with me. For this reason on the one hand no- 
thing impedes increasing the number of divisions and 
subdivisions according to the manifold logical variety 
of its employment, but on the other hand no system 
of divi??ion \\\\\ exhaust it, and more than once we 


§ 64-«6. 49 

may be at a loss under which head to enregister a giyen 

Rem. The being implied of so various logical con- 
ceptions by an implement for expression as small, as 
a case-ending is, has by the time become inconvenient. 
Instead of the simple instrumental, therefore, a more 
explicit mode of expression , signifying more precisely 
which kind of logical relation is meant in every instance , 
is often made use of, namely the periphrase by such 

words as 'TTJITir, STfnT, dTTR, 5^, *l(UMetc. 
Its relative frequency is one of the most striking fea- 
tures of modem , compared to ancient , Sanskrit. 

B5* Some fuller account on the different kinds of instrumental will 

^' 1. instrument or karana. -^ Examples: Pat. I, p. 119 Hi6i i (iHl m 

97 9)T^^ (^ piece of wood , tied with a rope or with iron) , Mrceh. 
I (p. 54) 9^ uicinAm l^ i <^HH^ (cover him with this cloth), Pane. 
^.48 ^?PT mpi fiTwrnrar mjofT^i Mhbh, 1, 144, 18 mii i ^mi<<{ai> ! w>fiA>i 
(he started on a chariot^ drawn by asses), ibid. 1, 120, 19 uhkH 

^d i >J1u rt fd ^ i mmd^m g^r^^ i jS": vni\ f^Fprrf^ vufim^ mn?7rj 
(by sacrifices he propitiates the gods, by study and penance the 

munis, by [procreating] sons and [performing] the funeral rites 
the fathera, by [practising] mildness he propitiates men). 

Persons, when being instruments, are likewise put in the third 
case; consequently the Sanskrit instrumental of a person answers as 
well to Lat per as to Lat. a. Prabodh. VI , p. 132 ttuj 9 flffdrvT^ 
fsH^TP^^ss Lat. compertum est a me per speculatorem. 
)6. 2. agent or kartr. -^ In this meaning the instrumental attends 
a.) on passive verbs, to denote the subject of the action, as has 
been pointed out 6i — h) on verbal nouns , as Bi&lav. I, p. 28 yHfd^*mi f! 
qriiT P i r<;^ | ij[^ (forbearing the blame of others), for »i7tjt frrrriT^r: 
^iruT QPTTf Pi>ti,l*jU In the latter case the so-called subjective genitive 


50 S 66—87, 

is a eoaevmiiC eoMtnieiioii, whieh it erea genermllj preferred unlees 

ambiguity wpald retalt from iti employment, ep. 114. 

Agaat Rem. Liktwin both imtrumental and genitipe are availabU to P* 8 
of ft -71 

kriju. denote the agent with a krtga. As a rale the instrumental is required , 

if the verbal sense prevail, but the genitive, if the krtja have 
the value of a noun adjective or substantive. Examples: instr. 
Pane. 167 wiVBm ^ , Wm\ trist^ (I am obliged to emigrate), M&lat 
II f%»in iPTT 9T^ra^ (what oan I help here?), Vikram. I «clQd4 . 
fdHW if^rf?: (▼• a. the audience are requested to listen with atten- 
tion); — gen. Pane. I, 450 flpJnnt gftiirii Jtttt f^iwqft xt^jht: i ^- 
^in: 7TOm^ M i mif?Mi tRTTf^^rr: (the learned are an object of dislike 
to the ignorant, the wealthy to the poor, the virtuous to the wicked 
and honest women to such as are of a loose conduct) , ibid. p. 268 
m 3in?n: mm ^ ^ntXH\^m\ avrr: (we, domestio animals, are a prey 
for wild beasts). Hence, when compounded with 9) <^: ^^ ^^ ^hoy 
are construed with gen.. Pane. 176 t^wj l ^.l\i<ii^ ^^TTT g^TO ihMiq[ j 
Mrcch. IV (p. 144) jjiTTj m:T'. |piw «rmT H" Riifvi>iuimr r A JprrrnT; 
67* 3. quality, attribute , circumstance '). — When denoting a qua- ^'^^ 
Utrete' ^^^y ^^ attribute it isi =: the abl. qualitatis of Latin grammar, but 
the restrictions as to its employment in Latin do not exist in 
Sanskrit. So it is said (KA^iku) irf^ t ieil»^t^iJiHH i gfTaR57^^(have 
you seen a disciple with a pitcher?), ibid, on P. 2, 3, 37 jft ^ttt^: 
rr if^; so Hitop. 125 qm": ^dr^o '. JU'- r (a treasury with little expen. 
ses) eomm. fdWo>A>i hiu i uu i r|rfniT; R. 3, 7, 3 firravi^: »m> ! 4^ (a 
forest with manifold trees). ^ 

Examples of its attending a verb. -^ Then it has the nature of 
Lat. abl. modi or circumstantiae. R. 2, 64, 47 ^ n fg^oU. i ^ititt ^- 
wrm^^wxtiy Pane. 161 srfr ^t^tTT fei i MU i 'i<>n;i-«^(H (a bridegroom 
approaches with a great noise of music), ibid. 28 jt^ Kiihm n?crr 
WTTTn^JTrsr ; muN i > i f^4Jmn»,u i fr i^ e».v4 i ;MJi4uu i ?I7T^ Sw: [so. r^m] (go 
to him and while living brotherly with him on the same spot. 

1 ) P&a.*8 i»(itr;i U ▼rT»rr?r^rTV ["«c. HrTTui] . which u expounded by Ka^. s= 

^rVhTrTRT ^TETOT *to n.kiito thi* l;»<i or mark, which uiake.s known home- 
body or something :u |x>8:ies8in^ nuch quality, property, nature etc." It 
includes therefore the notions quality ^ attribute, circumatance. 


I 87—70. 61 

fpeU tiM ti»« with Mitiaf , drinkii^r* wMdng togetiiar), ibid. 162 
fihf m ^ mimQi%1n i TV^^m (while diteoeniBg that, the sight pMted 

Ben. 1. Kate ani^ with iBstnim. ito behave ia taeh a auumer,** 
Pane. 66 i^ mUwi^VMW ^Ammnrnt^n- 

Ben. 2. Sueh iiutromental* have often the character of ad- 
yerbt and may be considered to (77). Among others we mention 
compounds in ^^irr ^nd ^TSXTTTy when =5 *as, by the way of.** Mrcch. 
y, p. 187 ^^aHlTt n^ Tnfh a*iyiu i nm^[^(mothinks, the firmament dis- 
solves and fails down as rain). 

B em. 3. In some turns the instrumental of circumstance may show 
something of the fundamental character of the sociative. So B. 2, 37, 
18 wem? i > i Mv i i'^ i ^ n^^ ^nrr (with L, a» your companion go to 

the forest, my son), ibid. 2, 30, 27 ;r ^fir ffsr r.nPT id^lMujf^ lTT^ 
(I should forsako even heaven , my queen , if its attainment would 
be joint with grief of you). Similarly Pane. 309 ^TTrT^^rrTroTTT: Of^r* 
mfKuvi vi I P. ^f ifi.f li fir{fqTnxTnipTT57t fiR^ i^ Hc^iuii nnPTTTfT: (the fiiiher- 

men arrived. with a great number of fishes they had killed 

and bore on their head). Here we are, indeed, on the very boun- 
dary of the sociative and the instr. of quality. 

98. This instrumental is by far not so frequent as its equivalents 
in Latin and Greek, the attributes or accompanying circumstances 
generally finding their adequate expression in the bahuvrihi-com- 
pound , see chapt. X. Qualities and dispositions of temper and mind 
are also signified by compounds , beginning with the particle rjo , as 
Mrm*!^ > H'U(;>ll> l if I cp. 184, B.; occasionally by periphrase, as Kftm. 3, 3 
nnfenr; <hj, i iMJ i ^pn ^T l ^ i H^f*! (with the utmost compassion he must 
succour the distressed). 

69* 4. test or criterion. — Examples: Bagh. 15, 77 fj^dJi^JH grzfrr 'jn>H> l 

Ted ^ ^ 

smsr nr (her chastity was inferred from her pure body), B. 3, 
12, 23 iii>>j')im i cj«i^ i fM f^tiT^ riqfn(t|<ij^ (by the dignity of his 
person I conceive him a vessel of penance and self-control). Cp, 
Lat tnagnos homines virtute metimur, 
70. 6» price or value. — Examples: Pane. 318 rfrfVssnfiT: q;T?fT m 
jj^panfn nT^^rmf^Tr^zarr: , K&5. on P. 2, 3, 18 ^r^irm ir5rwTiTTTf?r» 

52 § 70-72. 

Pane. 3 am^ lauifuvui viiMHVW»iiRi frrtfr» tt» ^» 34, 40 inffifiiTHar war- 
vn^^ ^ (I chooM 0xile, wore it at the priee of all mj wUkei). 
Likewise the iiutruni. is mod to denote that, whieh it given in 
exchange for something: Pane 152 i^^ gifli<gfli^<3iVirtiRdWl>i^ 
(who takes [from me] peeled sesam in exchange for unpeeledP) 

Rem. 1. The last bat one example admits however also of an other 
interpretation, as ^r^vn^ may signify »above all my wishes.** There 
are a good deal of instances proving, that Sanskrit had, especially 
In the ancient dialect, an instrum. of the thing surpassed of the 
same power as the so called ablativus comparationis* More on 
this subject see 107. 

Rem. 2. The verb fj^^ynt (to hire) may be construed either '•^ 
with the instrum. or with the dative of the wages; ^m^ or snrTTir 
frf^^SFtTr: Both conceptions are logically right 
7L 6. way, by which. - Pane. 212 m;^ nSim mt^: mm: (in 
^ Vv^* ^^^ direction the crows have disappeared?). By a common- 
wkaek place metaphor *n7 i m > <r9T tim. are also used to signify the manner, 
in which one acts. Pane I, 414 n^rfim 'g J>Mf<§H <mT ^ inf^ 7* 
72* 7. cause, motive, reason. ->. Examples: Da^. 198 ^if^ qMH^ i ^-^ 
^^••^ IWT fjoT ^ frorr^ (some boy, vexed by hunger and thirst), Ch, 
\jm$inh' Up. 4, 10, 3 9 (^ M l fv i Hr ^?ff5ij 7^ (from sorrow he was not able to 
2^jfj[[ eat), QAk. IV njOfm^f i ifg ^^mnrRn m, m nriH xur: (even when 
'^y injured by your husband you should not oppose him from wrath). 
Causality is also expressed by the ablative^ and in some cases 
the latter is to be employed exclusively. But commonly both con- 
structions are promiscuous and occasionally found together in the 
same sentence. Pane. IV, 34 ;ti^ :t fa^ f^Pd^^i jjiT P i nP^^Tf i 
9WT: ^Tjsr dicijd fWT ^ (da i iM ; (nothing is ambrosia and poison 
at the same time, woman alone excepted, by whose union one lives, 
and the separation of whom causes death), Kath&s. 29, 25 -^m 
sT^T^^n: ipr rrnrT: (it is from joy she has no appetite, not from 

Rem. The ablative is forbidden and accordingly the instrumen- P- S> 

tal is of necessity, if vl the cause or motive be at the same 

time the agent, see 102, 2l7 if it be an abstract noun of the 

§ 72—73. 53 

f$min%n$ gender, ezpreMing a quality. ') It majr that be said jfvqr 
or eHqfawi ; (released by heroUm), bnt only fvnrr o^nfoTT: (be fled 
from fear). Hence often tbe abl. of a mase. and neuter and the 
inttr. of the feminine range together, as R. 2, 70, 25 ismsr ^r^ 

n, p. 31 imm\ ^R'syftr wn ij^\\''r\ ^.: \ nd^ ^ i ^Riu^ ^ jfe i S^h^jMHU i 
9 7 Mm»Uf(ir»i^M l f*< (AS you were a boy , forsooth , I have soen you , 
at the end of the DvApara-ago, now by length of time and by my 
being vexed by old age I did not recognise you exactly). In 
scientific and philosophical works, commentaries and the like, abla* 
tiyes in ^roTTrT alternate with instrumentals in ^rrorr in order to de- 
note the cause or the moving principle. 

/8. Next to the instrumental of causality comes that , which 
'^^'^ signifies by what side. Like the Latin abl. partis it com- 
jJI'"" monly depends on adjectives, but may also be the com- 
plement of the whole predicate. It is especially used 
to point out the poinia of comparison with verbs or nouns , 
which denote superiority or inferiority, likeness or dif- 

Examples: R. 1, 1, 55 ^i^ f^^TFr: (disfigured), Ch. Up. 2, 11,2 
xT^rnfrar qsjf^iisr^ xf^r^fh^, Da^. 77 ■RPnijA: w^ srg^TT snfrrjjV 
^^JS[fi^ (he was rich in various kinds of knowledge and in good 
qualities, but not very bulky in earthly goods), Pane. 274 fvixr- 

^^fm?it gfSiiT ?OTT fsranin^ cFTinJnTT sn* ^: (am I inferior to 
both of them either in valour or in outer appearance or in study 
or in cleverness?). Day. 177 ?rfirsrrT feiOT ^ i d l TU^-^i i d^ T ^ rrarr- 

1 ) P. 2, 8, 25 perhaps admits of two interpretations. The words f^iTTOT x^ 
•sf^TTTT may signify »optional, when expressing a quality, provided 
this quality is no feminine" or •optional ^ when expressing a quality; 
not at atl^ if [the motive be] a feminine."' Moreover the term ftri may 
denote as well all feniinines, as only such, as have special feminine 
endings. — At all event)*, in practice, when signifying causality, the 
ablative with the special femin. ending ^9T: is always avoided. 

64 § 73-74. 

, jrnfhm nfff (^ !■ tiirpAMmg all hit citisem by hi! birth, hif 
wealth and hii being the king's eonfident), f4k. Y v^ncrfir (^ ^^fT 
< i i <M^Twf^ui > 9i*wf?r ^fpim ipnraT ^feTFn^(the tree does tolerate the 
ardent glow of the tun on its summit to assuage by its shade the heat 
of those who come to it for shelter). In the last example , the instr. 
f^nmr mfty 9\»o be accepted as the instrument In practice , indeed, 
the different shades of the how-case do not show themseWes so 
sharply, as they are exhibited by the standard-types, cp. 64. 

Bem. 1. Concurrent idioms denoting the side by which, are 
the ablative and the locatiTO, especially if it be wanted to express 
the points of comparison. It is even allowed to use them side by 
side. So R. 1, 17, 13 two instrumentals are used together with an 

«bl. (^?KTT ourar d i J l ^Hir^mn) , Mhbh. 1, 16, 9 they range with a 

locatiye (cT 3^ feTTcTT n^ TTf^i^ ^ shm u^ ^). 

Rem. 2. The instrumental is of necessity, when naming the ^-jj* 
part of the body, by which one suffers, as mnrr ^nun: (blind of 
one eye), q i fiiun 9;%:, fn^ w^:. Ch. Up. 2, 19, 2 ir ;7sra^?TT^ 
Hr^i^ (he who knows so, is not crippled in any limb). 

Rem. 3. With comparatives and the like the instrumental is 
equivalent to the Latin ablativus mensurae. Da^. 73 j,^iiuMi n » l *l l - 
fTlsrnA H^: (by how much is duty superior to interest and pleasure ?), 
Utp. on YarAh. Brhats (translation of Kern p. 7) vn^ ir^ TrTT- 
afOT^T^ ^inw i H^n M»Tf^ (»«ck a planet moves so many yojanas 
74« above the terrestrial globe). 

^Sr The instrumental is used in many idiomatic turns, 
"^ most of which belong to the general heads described 
in the preceding paragraphs. Of them the most impor- 
tant are: 

1. io ioMouf; to faoour-^ to attend on with. C4k. I 9^- 
^ I Wif^Hol^jrH ngrr •nti'MMi^'ilHoyiHAJirt: (we want to wait upon you 
with a new drama etc.). Pane. Ill, 139 ^iiflbiPf^Psid: [bc. iRrhn^sij:]. 

2. to sicear-, to conjure by, R. 2, 48, 23 ^^ gwm^ (we swear; 
even by our children); Mrcch. Ill (p. 126) vui-e^p^^f^Vt^l yilfOdlsf^; 

§ 74 55 

IChblL 1, 181, 46 ^^ }f ^. ^ Likewise ^ ^?&:r, an elliptical 
phrase » emr nrftnf md m rmsrr (as I have said the truth, by that 
truth), cp. Ch, Up. 3, U, 2; Xala 6, 17-20. 

3. to boaat on. Mhbh. 2, G4 , 1 q^ mro m\m 'jnm fsnj; . 

4. /o /tw by, M. 3, 162 srwlro mf?T (▼• •• an astrologer), ^Ak. 
VII mu i MmPw ^: 

5. to rejoice^ to laugh ^ to wonder etc. at. Mhbh. 1, 138, 71 
Stk ?5Rrr^(you make me glad), Mudr. VII p. 221 jphf gf^tuPTf 
fxm (with whose virtues I am not content), Kath&s. 20, 43 ^h^tt ^ 
^ ;p: (the king laughed at it). Cp. ^ (bravo, well done) with 
instr. MAlat. I (p. 8) ^ er^ ^msFPr *<famrKl » I^^i « 

Rem. In the case of 4. and 5. the ablative may occasionally 
be made use of. That mSt3% iM Jia , utt, ?r:, srsr may be trans* 
itives , has been stated 42, 4 ; the last (^r^^ErfTt) is commonly construed 
so, and does but rarely comply with the instr. 

Rem. 2. With txt, ^f^r and the like the instrum. may be either 
the sociative proper (then rnr, T(rm etc. may be added) or the 
karana. Ch. Up. 8, 12,3 gives a fair instance of its standing on 
the bordering line of both acceptations ii^.^7ii>jiiMlUl ; ^^t^raf ^crf 
mPfPic i f (laughing [or eating], playing and rejoicing with womon, 
carriages or relatives). 

6. to Jill with. Pane. 317 ftrr fitwrf^: ^fvnpnTi^: ^tf^tst; 
Muf^H : (what was left of his store of barley, he had earned by 
begging, therewith he filled his bowl), Mudr. V p. 184 ft ^xr^v. q?i- 
TfH^ — The genitive with words of filling is also met with, yet 
the general use prefers the instrumental, at least with > ij^jp<. 

7. to vanquish in {a battle, ^/c). Pane. 291 rrfT^H^^tl?'' 

8. to carry -, to keep -, to bear on {in, with.) Pane, 
ni, 202 ^TTKT^: ^sHFit iitSt Md l ^i f ii^M l o i v^fj^ ^ (the cartwright carried 
his wife with her paramour on his head). Da?. 140 irfFTrTrsTTTjiprr^ 

Rem. In the cases of 7 and 8 the locative is the concurrent 
idiom. It is said promiscuously n^. and ^:^ flrrrcr^i ^7^ or ^jrr imff^ 
Cp. Kum&ras. 3,22 ; ij|w i *n<wj n^Jr «TH7T: V7m with K&d, I , p. 29 
f^ l ^Rf ghfoim i ^^ But always ?pn7T v *^^ ^^'^ ^^ the balance", v. a. 
»to weigh, to compare." 

5S § 74-77. 

9. It b Mid vjbfbf^ Mid irann^Cbe plays at diea). Cp. alto B. (Qorr.) 
8, S0| 4 ^ftfTvrpf^is&ifV TOT; with Hhbh. 18, 148, 2 qj^oV mp fsni'^ 
q^:, Lat pluii UpidtM or lapidibtii. — Similarly ^m snf^ *nd nq^ 
(to twoar an oath). 

Bern. In the old dialect of the Yedic mantras the instrom. attends 
* OB qniTir and if?r just as the abl. on Latin poiiri and fungi , see 
Dblbr. Abl. Loe. Instr. p. 65. To the instances adduced there I add 
the mantrm in A^t. Orhy. 1, 23, 19 d>*llejf| ^>*< i fda i «] m jtBtAt. 

75. 10.) the set phrases Nt CFTTsFPJ .or^TFR) i^'^J 

sim., or in a negative form »T CITISFFJ etc. are con- 
stnied with the instr. of that, which ^does not matter.** 
Or even it is said simply F^ FFT (what matters this?). 
He, whom it does not matter, is put into the genitive. 

Examples: Pane. 285 fip n^ \ h, \ \^n^ \ {rdi- i inrnPT^ (what profit have 
I being cartwright?), M&Isy. Ill (p. 81) ;t q^ *<Mfd^h^J I «Ff5r?7i: (I 
have nothing 'o meddle with M.), K. 2, 73, 2 f^i ;t crt^ qzr jwn 
(what matters mo the kingdom?), Da^. 140 ^T^^^rarfer Ri'HU l cnc^i 
Hudr. I (p. 21) WEim^ «r q> l f i ; m W nur: W i fM l > i ; U\U l w: (what profit 
may be derived from an anwise and coward [ofiBcor]) though he be 
faithful?), Pat I, p. 7 fH; tt ^ (what matters ns this?), g&k. 

In the same way it b said f^ 9!^tf>r rn^ quid faciam eoY Pane. 
276 nil oorfiirocPT jrtt shQuifM* 

Rom. 1. Like 9^, its doriratiTo vfn^ complies with lustrum., 
when=: » wanting-, being eager for -, coveting." R. 3, 18, 4 m&TT* 
nf (he wants to be married), Mudr. V (p. 166) j^m ifwr wf%;5j: ^w- 
^fTfn q i MP q r i; qifMfeufiu i (some of them lon^ after the foe*s trea- 
sures and elephants, some others are coveting his domains). 

Rem. 2. Note qrs^ with instrum, »dependent on, in the power 

ot;" R. 3, 18, 9 q^^ i .»i i {| ! , MAlat YI (p. 97) q^dMCw mv^. Yet 

gen. and loc. are also available, cp. vnnr 124> 

70. n.) with ?r?PT, ^^PcrTf ^ir|*j the instrum. expresses 
a prohibition or an invitation to cease or to stop. 

S 77-78. 57 

▼ikn». I iwn i »l<i ^ >i (ttop yaw criet), fit I wmx wfr «li^:^ 
(welly BO hetitotion more), MmhAr. K (p. 25) «qt zjm^ nqm (eeaie 
your unparalleled penance). 

n. Many instramentals have more or less the character 
of adverbs , as M IM Ul (mostly) , g^ (easily) , J:^ 

and ^i^UI (hardly), H^TrfRT (with all my heart), 
etc So R. 1, 13, 34 fTcitfirT ^ 2Trisar g K mrj«gif^q i Ri at (one should 
not bestow a gift in a disdainful manner nor in jest) , Pane. II , 204 
(inrTftT 9*\Uiidi ^ e^r i flyq^ i ci^ (l»« makes friends and does not con- 
Terse with them falsely), Micch. VII (p. 237) wjim snr ^r^Fan^ 
(auspicious be your way to your kinsmen), M&lat X (p. 165) ViHT- 
><ef/j i fu ;nrT: of cifM i Q^i i rM iT i RiHeUH^ (nor can K. liye longer either 
without her daughter). 

78. III. The instrumental of time serves to denote in 
Jjj^ wAal lime something is accomplished. Not rarely this con- 
^"^' ception coincides with that of the iiwe^ ajler whkk some- 
thing is happening. m^Rrpm^u^: (the chapter was learned in 
(after) a month). 

The same applies to space. ^R f iiMMdHh^ JM^: ')• 
Examples : Pane. 2 i i <u i R i oi'tfd!if»^ui tott (▼. »• grammar requires 
tweWe years to bo mastered) , ibid. 237 eRfnq^TsrT^t^iiprr T^ 9 ^^* 
d l 'Vic(^ ; (in * few days he [the crow] grew strong like a peacock), 
Da^. 169 n^^^^hmr eh i A' i rnr: (uquf^ui^ jsm^ (after some time 
the king's chief queen was delivered of a son), R. 1, 13, 35fTrr:£f?rr- 
4^I^M(,<w r H »: *T^Tft!rf:, Panc. 282 d^sTl^^riieiiti'i^UMi^UiiUH: *ird-i,0 
HwR ' ^JH l (as they went on, after no more than two yojanas the 
couple came in sight of some river). So f^^: , RciM ; etc. := Bin pro- 
cess of time.*' 

1) The difference between this insirum. o/* fim< and the above meDtioned 
mcc, of time (54) is illniitrated by these examples of the K&^ik& : It is 
•aid syT^RT(enkviMi)e^di9i^^u^: . but tiiH M u)hI s^iQugTi tj -ciuh xj^^'i 
for »if the subject ceases the action before having reached its uim, the iu- 
strumcDtal may not be employed.'* 

58 § 78—79. 

Rem. 1. The fbndameital eoneeption leemt hwe to be that of 
eonGomitanej. Hence it may be explained, how the third ease oceaai- 
onally denotei oTen ai what time, ai R. i, 72, 12 W9!m (*^ ^^^ 
and the tame day) rnijihiTt ^mprt qm7^>][^ wsnft pajirt:, «id 
■uch atanding phrases as f^ wm^% h^^rfm^t which are especially 
frequent in Buddhistic and Jain books. 

Rem. 2. The naxatra or constellation . under which something P> > 
occurs, may be put indifferently in the third or the soTonth case: 
jprUT or jri <j|<!if i *lli>n<Jl<i^ Examples of the instrum. A^v. Grhy. 
3, 5, 1 frmTTT z vji'iwuh^uwf'jvBnt m<i*iQ ^t^tttt....* ^^ stt, Pat. 
I, 231 »f ! ^m ffmrn tm: 

Chapter V. Dative. *) 

79. The dative or. fourth case serves to point out the 
«n"J^. destination , and therefore it generally does answer to £n- 
JJJ'j^f glish to and /or, Latin ad or in with ace. Yet, if it be 
**'•• wanted to express the destination of a real going or mov- 
ing, the accusative (3d) or locative (134) are commonly 
preferred , although the dative may be used even then , 

UIMIM il^H being as correct as mH JF^^TFT. So Ragh. p. i 

with 12, 7 spTW n^ , Dtt9* 76 Tmjim^^mq^ Mudr. II ^Kwn\ \ tx ^*m tra?nf^ 

^of*' (I will send Karabhaka to PAtaliputra), Kath&sT 47,^92 ifTfTir ^ 9^: 

"'^'^' f^Pid ' -J l KT l I t ^sm (after ceasing the battle both armies retired to their 

encampments). — With causative verbs of moving, as those of 

bringing f throwing ^ casting^ this kind of dative is frequent. R. 3, 

25, 27 uKiMj i ^yii.q^'jkJt iFT^i firraj: ' i^* i !hA » jmm pPrNrp"., Mala v. Ill 

(p- 76) vsTTlifTV ^ uR^u il ffi (she lifts up her foot to the a(oka-tree), 

Mhbh. 1, 114, 2 fiRTTT ^ ^TTTTT: yjejm i M ?T3^nT. 

Rem. The aim, reached, attained is never put in 
the dative (39) »). 

1) compare Di£LBRacK*8 monographjr on the employment of the dative in 
the RgvedasaohitTi in Kuhn*8ZsiVxcAr. XVIII, p. 8! — 106. Mono graphics on 
the syntax of ^ho dative in classic Sanskrit are not known to me. 

2) Cp. Pat. I, 448, v&rtt. 4 on P. 2,3,12. 

§ 80—81. 59 

10. Id the great minority of cases the destinatiou purported 
d«^ by the dative, has an acceptation more or less figura- 
IJ^' tive. The different kinds of datives , which display this 

character, may be arranged in two distinct groups, viz^ 
I, the so-called dative of concern or interest ^ II, the 
datioe of the purpose. The former has almost the same 
functions as the* dative of modern european languages , 
the sphere of the latter is that of the dativus finalis 
in Latin. 

Both are but varieties of the fundamental notion, as will be made 
plain by these examples, which contain some datives of the kind 
I and II, construed with the verb to go. I. Hitop. p. 42 ;t Hnv 
7{ fdum ?T epyefr ?r '^u^ x \ ^ ^ wx x ku tpt grfrir sr fyfH^tr^ » n!ic l; (the riches 
of the miser go neither to a god nor to a brahman, nor to his 
family nor to himself, because of firo, thieves, the king). II. R. 
1, 46, 7 Tr^pfrT rra^ ZPTT (after these words he set out to ponanoo, 
viz. in order to do penance), Yen. II (p. 39) jps^ fc(M l <'^dHNni<i (go to 
your business). 

11. I. The dative of concern denotes the person or 
• ^ thing concerned by the action , in whose behalf or against 

whom it is done , or who is anyhow interested by it *). 
It is put 1.) to transitive verbs, as n.) those oigioinff and 
offering y 4.) oi thowing ^ c.) oi telling , speaking ^ announC" 
ing^ promising f etc, d.) o/L doing or wialting good or evil, 
and the like , for expressing the so-called .remote object." 

^^ Examples: a.) R. 2, 40, 14 gu ii vJM^ i mM «r nirrro 55nj^ TJJr; 

wt Pane. 173 ^ ! ^tj^;;j T fimgqipnyHm M*T ' I<Jm i M (the king's officer gave 
the money to Upabhuktadhana), Qak. Ill T^rPrfTcrr*? iU^j i fM , Mrcch. 
I (p. 21) ^ XRH ;[4<ciHu qT saf^: ; — *.) Kath&s. 29, 32 HK)mW^ 
T^a^cm (she presented her friend to her father); — c.) Ch. Up. 3, 


1) Cp. P. 1, 4^ 32 wWt imfiAf^ n HU<MHL and Patanjali oq that 
* sAtra I, 380. 

60 § 81—83. 

It, 4 n^i f j^wyt fRnwnr jsm nfli<i(7MiHd nj mimr*.; KtthAa. 58, 189 
9n*fnr**«. vr^ (the matter wm told to the boy), Qkk, YTL nw^ 
9709^ (ho tolb hor lo); A^t. Orhy. 1, 22, 10 /f<^w ii q i q ki^S^ (ho 
should dolWer to hb teacher [the alms he has reeoiYod]); Nala 8, 1 
n*ir: vfkfm ^m: CRf^ jfh (he promised them, he would do so); 
. d.) Mndr. I (p. 44) gmpir: g^^q; fmrf^i^^^r j i tiM :; Mhbh. 
1, 3, 178 n^ o^tt:^ (requite him this). 
2.) to intransitives as those ot pleating ^ bowiny and 
• Mubmittiny , a^jpeariny etc So Pane. 282 jys^ >l^3'^(it pleases 
me), QAk. V ott npA fra^; Nala 5, 16 ^?r: frrsrf^iAsrT; R. 2, 
25, 4 iiir: nmro «?3r n* ^ risnrfvipirj (and may those , to whom 
you bow, my son, preserve you); Nir. 2, 8 rf^ ?;sr?fT.... inj^^nsr 
(a deity appeared to him). 

82. In these and similar instances it is not the use of the 


«Mr. dative, which should be noticed, but the faculty of eui' 

idioiM. plotting in a large ainodnt of cnacs instead of it some other 

case, mostlg a genitive or a locative (cp. 129 and 145). Some 

words even seem wholly to avoid the dative of concern; 

soT^f^T (to sell) is generally construed with the loca- 
tive of. the purchaser , 5PT (to pardon) with a geni- 

tive, adjectives as TET?!, ^T^RTT, ST^FT, M^ are as 
a rule construed with a genitive, etc 
83. In some special cases the use of the dative U enjoined 
S^'i^y vernacular grammarians; of the kind are: 

l.Thedat.withf^ (good for). Cp. Pat. I, 450; PAn. 5, 1, 5 

' m9 f^^rfir* Even here the gen. may be uaed , see f. i. R. 3, 36, 24. 

2. The dative of the creditor with ^TrpTIFr(to owe). %*j 

3. Some utterances of ritual , almost = .hail" to — 
•• n*r:, ^3T^u ^^VT, ^rxr^^— likewise most phrases of blessing 
and salutation. They are construed with a dative, but • 




§ 88, 61 

some of them*) either wjth dat. or with genitive. !*•'•;• 

wsr 'J5rT?jji jTi^ ^oi^'nm ^nd ^ei^nm. Vikram. p. 62 ^stttf^ ^. In 
the ninth act of the Mrcch. C&rudatta greets the judges with an 
vfvs^TT: ^orf^i wherea the chief jadge answers him ^oiii i H^l l fMJ . 
But R. 8, 24, 21 55rf^ is construed with a gen. ^^rf^ m ^ i ^miMi 

4. Verbs of o^^^r , jealousy, injuring , discontent agree 'a?. * 
with the dative of the object of the animosity. Mhbh. 

1, 3, 186 ;^gfH^ffl!i.m g^ ^ (the king felt angry towards Taxaka), 
KuthAs. 17, 44 Tmi ^^FTV, Apast. 1, 1, 14 rf^ :t ^ ; ^rt».<^M> T (him 
he should never offend), Br. 8, 23, 11 frjtt^ fsnjrr wr^unq gr ^rm 
^ W&jft 5;^, KAd. I, 217 Hjmf^ hFmJw<11 i 1<J (they find fault with 
the advice of their ministers), MahAv. 1 (p. 18) ^^jjifli p% i^ \ \n \ n 
(I am jealous of king Da^aratha). 

Rem. Vet with tJuufH (to find fault with) and ^^^jfrr (to hurt) 
the ace, with those of anger and jealousy the gen. and loc. or 
irf^ are also available. When compounded, ^ and 9^ must agree *j|g, * 

with ace. ^6(<^ i a jwrfrr hut ^sr^Twf^jwTfH. 

5. Some other verbs, enumerated by PAnini, vist. g^frm (to praise), P. 1. 4, 
^ (to conceal), grq- (to swear, to conjure) and ^tt* Here the da- 
tive is required of him, whom it is wanted to inform of some- 
thing, t i. j^oi<H i ^J spmr^ »he praises to N.N.'* [here N.N. is the 
person addressed], Prabodh. Ill, p. 66 isn^i^'. 9TrrsT: TTT (I swoar 

a hundred times to the Buddhas), Naish. 1, 49 <im<^-jm*:<i itttttt f'T- 
amu i^H i *!^ (concealing from the people his unsteadiness). — As to 
^^, it is not plain, what meaning it has here. By comparing 
P. 1, 3, 23 with the examples adduced there by KA^ikA, fff^ with 
A dat. may be=s»he presents or he discovers himself to \" but 

1) Via. fn^> n^t V(^y JOTWi gw, «nf i %T and their syoonym* 
(vArtt. 00 P. 2, 3. 73). 

2) The examples of KA9. on 1, 3, 23 are frl'^ft 9*:^ ^Tsr^: 1 f^reTT ^0^ 

Ipl^^:; here frorf is said to be =UflhlUI<lf(JI^M<l^ 

•2 § S8— 86. 

f)iT with a dat. ouij abo haTe had the meaniiig »to hare faith in — , 
affeetioB to,** QratAcr. Up. 8, 2 ^ f| ^ ;t ^ftjftirnr mj:, Naith. 7, 57- 

6. P. 1, 4, 41 enjoins a dat. with the compound yerbs fl«iiim i ff^ 
and uPn i uuPt , beini^ technical termi of the ritnal »to utter [a 
certain formula] after — , in reply to another.** '). 

7. P. 1, 4, 33 mentions a dat. with rerbs of ca$ting one'i na 
thittf etc., like 7tv» TlTy to denote him, on whose behalf this is 
done. We haye here an instance of the dative of profit, treated 
in the following paragraph. 

84. Sometimes the dative iavolves the notion of some 

^^mo- profit or damage caused by the action (dativua commodi 

iJ!^. el ittcommodi). Ch. Up. 6, 16, 1 H^^ \ >]Tr* X\^% \ Jfr*J \ w \ O i Tvm (he 
"■*^*- has taken something, ho has committed a theft, heat the hatchet 
for him\ Kam. 3, 9 iw i R i amfvjqj^ripj w 9?T oTT fd r ^ ii fvM i ^ f» rrm 
V i fj^ i <j Httf^ *ull-g|'<fj[ ^(fo'' who, indeed, would do wrong for the 
sake of his body, a thing beset by sorrow and disease and de- 
stined to die somo day or other?). Dag. Uttar. page 19 of the ed. of 
Damaruvallabhagarman is^m <^lf<i^MU*lf<i> yy7T TTT (from this day I 
have come in bondage of her), C^^k, III ^y^rH^ H l diri i Pnh STP? •?;- 

Here , as in 82 , it is not the dative , that is remar- 
kable, but the faculty of substituting for it the geni- 
tive , as 5Ak. Ill !i.*.ii<^jr^M>i i|U i| <vicjPrf ^ -iM'T^uaifui Juj^h (whom 
t}iis ointment and those lotus-leaves are sent for?). The dat. 

commodi is often periphrased by tm^ , >A^ , '=Jin sim. 

85, Verbs and nouns of befitting , 9uiting , counterpoising are 
Dat construed with the dative. So the verbs cr^^i ^ttott [v&rtt. 
Zlri» 2 on P. 2, 3, 13], pvrf^, giisn^, the nouns nif, ?r?nj^and the Mike 


ttrpotP' jv ff^Q ^]j lanffUBge aeems to have allowed more of such datives with 
compound verb« , so as to be the couoterpart of Latin instat husti , occurril 
mki and the like. So Apast. I, 14, 15 Q'JMJMIUllj^di -nPic^lMH^ibid. 
II, 11. 3 jm <UiW fffn^TOfT (instead of ^TTTtr]. A curious dative of the 
■ame kind, it seems , is Da^. U9 mSRTJpFDn^ ^clHI^ ufnyifyWlPi. 

8 85— 8S. 63 

[P. 2, S, 16 and Pit. on this tiitra I, p. 450, TArtt. 2]. So Da^ . 78 im^ 
^?T^7Rr 9!^^ O^o ia fit for a eontiderablo tharo of heftvenlj blest* 
ing); ^Ak. VI flhRpqm*<m ii in^ «i??iw srrpip; R. (Gorr.) 5, 25, 7 
iTOT ^Wd^ i dm WTBrf^ f^ ?r ^fP?m (why should you not suit to bo tho 
wife of the king of the infernal regions?); Apast. 1, 12, 13 .n^hKJ TTJifh 
(he becomes fit for hell); Kum&ras. 6, 59 ^dHJii i d-r i t^ i ^j TfTTTPTFr***. 
;nnni g^Tcrf^ k (my body is not slrong enough to bear the joy , 
you have caused me by your homage); Vas. Dh. adhy. 8 wm*^nTm 
UTTO" > i m i Qh i (> i; WTiX^ (if he have the wealth to perform the ayntjA' 
dheya sacrifice, he must keep the fires); Pat. ief^ or gw^^^Tft wm 
(one athlete is a match for another). 

Rem. With some adjectives of competency the genitive may also be 
used, especially with qrHv and ^m^ as Yar. Brh. 32, 4 sniiTs^ 7T\m 
^r^rq-, R. 3, 38, 9 ^w i ;|i><i^ 5ic^ ^fti? qjribf rrer ^^^frr: 
16 It is likely , that the genitive had not encroached 

^'* so much on the dative's sphere of employment in the 
dialect of the brd,hmanas and of ancient epic poetry, 
as afterwards. In some instances the dative is no more 
used in the classical language, after having been em- 
ployed so in the archaic dialect. 

Of the kind are a.) the dative of the agent of krtyas. It seems 
to be restricted to the oldest dialect, that of the vedic mantras. 
Rgv.I, 31, 5 i^fWHi iTorf^ ^xs[m; (you are worshipful to him who 
holds the spoon uplifted). Cp. Delbr.*8 monography, p. 90. 

6.) the dative with the adjectives of friendship and the contrary. 
Rgv. 7, 36, 5 T^ jrm" ^tpt qr^ The classic construction is here gen, 
or locative. See Delbr. 1.1. p. 90. 

c.) the dativo with «nsnr (to have faith, to trust), n (to listen), 
see Delbr. 1. 1. p. 84. 

In classic Sanskrit the person trusted is put in the gen. or loc, 

the thing believed in the ace, and when = »to approve*' or »to 
welcome," ^j^t is of oourse a transitive, as KathAs. 5, 114; 46, 136. 
On the classic construction of ^ see 06, 4 , 126 &). Its deside- 
rative wsTfxk (to listen) is construed with a dat in the ChAndo- 

84 § 86-^7. 

gya UpAiiiihad (7, 5^ 2) if)^ ^jfff^^ ^^^ ^^ elaatifl Saatkrit it ii 
mostly A transitive, even when meaning to obe^^ QAk. IV mmsr 

d,) a dative with sabstantives , to denote ihi po»$e9$or^ epw En- 
glish va son to me.** Rgr. 1, 31, 2 fil MnSitei^ itsrt7 (niler of the 
whole universe); Ch. Up. 4, 8, G tr^ sit ^rr^ T\^m ^FTfT ;jTi^ (you 
have not given the food to him, to whom it belongs). — This con- 
struction has long subsisted in the case of the possessor being a 
personal pronoun, especially in epic poetry. Mhbh. 1, 51, 5 fq^fT 
<r^nj[^ R. 1, 54, 11 w^ ^^V^ instead of i|st; Mhbh. 1, 151, 39 Tn^mt 
^ ^ivfr^: wx^^ ^ ^»^ (Yudh. refuses me the permission of 
killing you), ibid. 1, Hi, 14 ^^ it^ott, R. 1, 13, 4; 2, 32, 8, etc. 


NB. In the br&hmana-works it is sometimes impossible to de- 
cide whether a dative or a genitive has been employed. Both 
cases may formally coincide in the singular of the feminines in °frT> 
*'^> '3 C'^9 °?)* In ^bo dialect of these books the gen. and abl of 
the singular may end in ^n-, just as the dative does; f^^ in the 
br&hmana- works = classic ^^s^ or fnui ;* See Euhn, Zeitachr, XV, 
p. 420 sqq., Aufrbcht p. 428 of his edition of the Aitareyabr&h- 

87. II. The dative of the purpose or aim is of very fre- 


orth^quent occurrence. It may be made use of always, if 

^. one wants to denote either the thing wished for or the 

action intended. Of the former kind are such datives as 

MH^MI "^TFT (he goes out for fruits) , *J^IM ^ 

(wood for a sacrificial stake), ^TFTFTPT K&(^UM*1^ (gold 

for a ring) , Hitop. 95 17JPU sTWHIM. 

In the latter case the nomen adionis itself is put in 
the dative and has the power of an infinitive. 9^k. I 
illrNimid ^^ STf^T ^T H^rjHHIiim' (your weapon 
serves to protect the afflicted, not to hurt the innocent). 
Here of two actions equally aimed at, one is expressed 

§ 87—88. 65 

by the dative of a nomen actionis, the other by an 
infinitiye. The third concurrent idiom is using peri- 

phrase by means of such words as '^^A*\f FTHfT^ = 

,for the sake of." Pfabodh. Y, p. lOO a^M^^miq >i i RH»g\HUfHf |[. 
qrrJ W wernFt ^rf^rinTf^ (the systems [of philosophy] keep together 
for the sake of guarding the Veda and combating the party of 
the atheists). 

Other examples of the infinitire-like dative. — Pane. 5S msjn tif^i^ 

Prabodh. Y, p. US t^t^ ij i d)H i ^<ehf»>a i 1> mir i |ql*io i H^ i *l ; (now, let us 
plunge into the Ganges for the bathing-ceremony for our kinsmen), 
Hitop. 7 ^Hftimmfqsimii >Tifdu ii M^M^u r i<i iisTfT: tnrnnj^ (yo" have full 
power to instruct these my sons in the doctrine of politics so as 
you like best), Ven. I, p. 24 ysTTH k ^^'. w i miciH l ^mKi, Kath&s. 26, 33 

f?T§Tnr m^fUej rmft r\ru \ uh 'srnAsr k (a^ i h smpft^: (thank God, 

that is the town, for attaining which I have placed myself on 

the back of this bird), M&lat VI, p. S7 jnnfft im(J im^i 

Edra. I, 66 jj^ Id^l l fv i iNm &ai^, Mrcch. YII (p. 238) ^ q>i<jHm 
( — till we meet again). 

88. Some idioms, though implied by the general descrip- 
tion , given in the preceding paragraph , are worth special 

1. The datives of abstract nouns , when expressing «to 
serve to,- to conduce to." They often make up the whole 

predicate. — Examples: Pat. I, 11 ^ ?T^ ^TO Uorf^ ^mg^TTHT 
"^Y. a, it is neither good nor evil). Pane. Ill, 103 u^'m^ i ) ; rtwrra 
mijm M^q i i^mj ibid. p. 192 ^fl^e ii nR) imit jmh ilcri^ (even if weak 
people keep together, it may afford protection). Cp. the marriage- 
mantra in A^v. Grhy. 1, 7, 3 ipTmf^ h mmmm ^'^(I take your 
hand for happiness*sake). — Compare Latin haec resjihi est lattdi. 

Similarly nq^d with dat =: »to turn, to change into**, 9iWV 
(to iuit) tee 86* 

Rem. 1. A vArtt' on PAn. 2, 8, 13 gives a special rule on the 

M § 88-90. 

dati?6| when tenring to ezplain a prognoitie m ermrtr 9ri^9TT f^- 
^iwwil?iiwf^»ii I wfT cnw ^rtwr r^nrra: f^tftt war??. 

Rem. 2. The person, to whom tomethini; will eonduee to good, 
aril ote^ ii pnt in the genitive: hShuvk^ (this will be to your 
glory), ep.- 180. — In the archaic dialect, howoTer, we have 
two datiTos, one of the concern and one of the aim, just ai in 
Latin. A. V. 1, 29, 4 pjnr tn^ 5i«Trrt ??^*?r: ^P2& 0©* I pw* i* 
on [Til. the tnani], for acquiring my kingdom for myself and 
defeat for my rivals); Rgy. 2, 5, 1; Ait Br. 2, 8, 3 ^»irt^ q^ 
3 >.^imKJMun<i >i i fd ' ^.d (the sacrificial victims did not stand still 
to the gods for the sake of being used as food and immolated). 

Rem. 3. With q;^ (to hold for) the predicative dative tnay 
be usod instead of the ace. (32, c)» if contempt is to be expressed; 
names of animated beings are excepted and should therefore be 
put exclusively in the ace. So P&nini (2, 3, 17). K&(. tj 7s(\ mn 
or Tfmiu n^i**^^ or ottbt; yot it allows the dat. of S5r7> ?r 
fSrr ^TFT or sp q^. Instances of this dative in literature I 
have but found for mnTT> see Petr. Diet. s. v. and Da^. 88 if^, 
TZlRrfQTTT ijfeJi y jtiffWi^ »Kub. doe» not care a straw for Arth" 

80. 2'y. The dative of the aim aspired after with verbs p« 

of wtsiinffy Htriviny f endeavouring, sim. 

Examples: R. 2, 95, 17 .nJ i m i li ;t jwrm 9T^ (I do not long 
for Ay. nor for .the kingdom), Spr. 128 rr^rf^ jm wgi^ iprnr 
(nevertheless R. aspired after the deer), Qdk. Y ifqhtrnr AVm 
(I do not hope for [the fulfilling of] my wish), R. 1, 18, 57 t^« 
ui»{;[^rfu^ m^ qQ4^i i (it is in your behalf I wish to grow 
mighty), M4Iav. I, p. 15 H^^r^q i j ii a n^m (I will try to find her out)^ 

Kern. All these verbs of course admit also of accu- 
sative, if some thing, and of infinitive if some action be 
aimed at; \^r\ fePT^I^^H HT^^ 
90, 3'y. The infinitive-like dative with verbs oi beginning ^ 
retolving^ being able (f. i. IT^) and with those of (?r^m»y 
to and appointing to. 

Examples: Da^. 157 ^m*iP<(<> i ] RlH l fw( l j(m i <[^M!ftfMtai^ (yon shall 

§90-98. 67 

begin to Moend the ftmeral pile at the gate of the ldng*t palaee), 
ibid. 126 mdrfd wnm (be eommenced to take an oath), Prab. Y 
p. 102 ftar tflJ l ^i i fa arsrf^?W (he has resolYod to die), Da^. 192 
m im mm wQfim r »Junq i v i eh^ (md this tale was fit to win the 
warrior), Eumftr. 4, 39 ^^fsrgpw • feim ^; (Rati, being ready to 
give np life) ; — f&k. I j,f^H(MfHf^MfC».l{ i mf<tfl (having charged 
his daughter with the reception of guests), Kath&s. 15, 82 rrwV- 
f^^ ^3rJ<ftQlH : (he was appointed by the gods to destroy K&- 

Even with verbs of promising, Prabodh. II, p. 24 ufHT»ff m i m i A* ! 
l d i olA>( ndW^riTt^Tnv (Viveka and his minister have engaged them- 
selves to rouse the moon of enlightening). 

01« In short, in Sanskrit datives of nomina actionis 
(bMvavacandni) do often duty of infinitives. As they , 
however, are always felt as noun-cases , they agree with 
the genitive of their object. But in the ancient dialect 
many of them had verbal construction. More ample 
information about them will be given in the chapter 
on t&e infinitive. 

02. Time-denoting datives may serve for expressing a 
iJH^ time to come, when a limit of something to be done. 
^»K MWav. V, p. 139 xmr..... sn^rjvx PidnJlJi Pi(^i^vi(j}*i1 ferf^r: 

(I have set at entire, liberty the horse, that it might be brought 
back after a year). 

Of a similar nature b this dative in R. 2, 62, 17 (KausalyA 
speaks) tiHeiimq jm^ qw^ f j i ^w mnm m Tmn^n^jjbri MWdSigift 
qxT >we count now on R.*s exile but five nights, which seem to 
me as many years." 

Chapter VI. Ablative'). 

03. The jSfth case or ablative serves to denote the u^^^^fcf. 

1) Comp. DELBaaoK AbkUiv, LocaUst Inttrumentalii , p. 1—27. 

«8 § 93-94. 

^^ and is therefofe the very opposite of the dative, 
▼few •# Nevertheless both cases are formally identical in the 
•Uft- dual and the plural.^) In the singular the form of the 
ablative often coincides with that of the genitive. 
It is but the ablatives in ''^TTrT, that are. exclusively 
expressive of the fifth case. Moreover those made by 
meansof the adverbial suffix ^rf: are not seldom preferred 
to the regular ablatives of the singular, ambiguousness 
being wholly excluded from them. 

For easiness* sake we will treat of this case under 
four general, heads, I abl. of separation, II abl. of di- 
stance, III abl. of origin and cause, IV abl. expressing 
,on what side." In all of them, however, the unity 
of the fundamental conception is evident, and some- 
times one may account for the same ablative in more 
than one way. 
94. • I. The ablative , then , is wanted to express , from or 
iitJ^. oui of what place there is a starting and moving ■;: 
JPJJ^ fl.) in its proper sense, as Pane. 21 «<^*n:i<ii> i K^f*iT^ i f*< (I 

tkt wUh to get out of this forest), K&damb. I, 21 f^frwfHnw T - 

from^ ^ ! *HJiUi*i W » y fi (the king got np from his hall of audience), Pane. 

*'• p. 42 \^\mi iiw i <»<JH i H i *j[^ (— returning from the village), Kath&s. 

29, 179 cT^TTrT: ??xTnTffT, C^k. I ^q i >n<>ja^?i>l^ (without moving from 

1) In the dual the same form discharges even the functions of three; 
abl., instr. und dative. As we cannot doubt , that - hhyam and • Myas 
contain the same clement - hhi^ which is in the suffix - fcAit and Greek -^, 
it is upon the neuter territory of the instrumental, that the two con- 
trarious conceptions of abl. and dat. must have met together. 
: 2) Pilnini, in his lively way, gives this definition of the sphere of the 

ablative: VoPrrnr fTIT^TTxr »if there be a withdrawal, that which stays is 

8 94—95. 69 

HhB plAM), Ibid, m :r w %Tf?:8r ^rfl^ fSraft^^ wft f^:n^(«id my 
heart does not eome baok from thence m little m water from 
below), EathAs. 72, 176 f^rpn^Tnwf:, Da^. 29 m><)f^q,ni i tott^ 
(descending from the swing). 

^5. 4.) in its manifold applications to kindred conceptions. 
Of the kind are: 

1. h see, /tear f speak etc. from a spot. R. 2, 7, 2fnm2rt 
*i>*4{ l HWifmmo<"<=^3^^ (MantharA let go her looks over Ay. from 
the platform) *). . 

2. io fall from, to waver from, to swerve from etc. 
^m^yr^x »a beast that has sweryed from its flock". Yar. Brh. 9, 44 

QrT^ 7( k\^fA WTrT (no Water falls down from heayon). So often with 

metaphor, Ch. Up. 4, 4, 5 :t Mf<j l <» i; (you have not sweryed from 

the truth), Kath&s. 25, 179 P i !u<ii>>i tjmm ^: (▼• &• he did not giye 

up his purpose), Mudr. Ill, p. 126 'dm r cTJd ; H^PifU i fat*J4 g^ ^m i Hr 

. m^ (I will easily yanquish the Maurya, for he has withdravm 

his affection from C). Compare the Latin causa cadere, 

3. to take, to receive from. M. 4, 252 igshnr^mpr: n<rT (he 
never must accept but from an honest man), Pane 48 fmrnTTT* 
fWiIjg^ HHlg>m (he took a razor from his tox), ibid. 286 vTfVsf^ 
« P l tf. l if^fe r 4^6U^ l d,KJ (— raised some money from ik money-lender), 
Kath&s. 29,. 47 qgr ^H l «^dm i P i HHid ' Likewise to mdrry from: 
Kath&s. 24, 152 jt ^ qf ;u i m i (X| j'^wijyiHi^'JirH. 

4. to get information -, to hear -, to learn from.^A, 
Pane. 216 ^sRf^m ^dfdi^i i ui gfojTi Da^. 68 ghr i HufOHMH i fru^mr^TTj- *•' 
fT^ir.( — learnt from a group of conyersing people), Ch. Up. 1» 8, 7 
^>H l <^^fl6i[d7ft d<iP i (well, let me know this from the Reye- 
rend) "). 

5. to ask , to wish from. Kath&s. 25, 137 ^:7TxiTt a i Rid imrn^^ 
(who has asked the king for some water?), K&m. t, 41 wi^st uM^ i rf . 
pi^wn' <pft ^\f\r\ aifir (by its eagerness for music the deer seeks 

1) See v&rtt. I and 2 on P. 2, 3,28 in Pat. I, p. 455: 

2) The commentaries explain the rule of P&n. 1, 4, 29, so as to make 
an artificial digtinction between the constructiona with gen. Jind with 
abl., not thought of by Pftnini himself. 

70 i 96-.W. 

defttK from tlie liiiiiter)| lOiblL 1, 159, 17 qwnMt : q^i^^Ji < ifTt ii 5nf^ 

6. the 80 called partitive ablative , see 116 B. 1. 
NB. In the cases 8 — 6 the genitive is the concurrent 
idiom y with those of asking also the accos. (46). 
96' The ablative also attends words of separation and disjoin' 
^wot inff to denote from whence there is a withdrawal, 
T^' as Kathas. 72, 13 H^TSIT l^Mimn: (separated from you). 
As we have shown above (62), the instrumental is here 
the concurrent idiom. 

The following examples may illustrate the various 
applications of this employment. 

a.) lo draw o^, io sever ; to disagree wiiL Pane. 50 ^fj^ 
g M^rJliAumfM , Mudr. IV p. 136 ■fei>^yuM^q^w. i; ?rt: (being disinolined 
to C.) — b.) to release of. Pane. 45 fit tj>t i >nfli}-cej , Mah4v. I, p. 9 
^iPT7 H^n<«^iMi Pnq-bUd (sbe has now been relQased from that sin), — 
c) to deprive of. R. 2, 8, 25 «^ t i<af<i>HP i JnMd jsiV nf6 i mff i gSfrmsr 
^ i dcl ' Jl g (he will bo wholly spoliated [lit. disinherited], your son, 
of enjoyments, yea, of all connection with the royal family), M. 
5, 161 ^TT.... ufH i ^ i l!i.n a ftuTT, Pane. II, 117 ^i i ^uuri (he forfeits 
heaTon), cp.05, 2.> — d.) iho^oi desisting from , stopping^ cea- 
sing. Kum&r. 3, .58 J i ii i /^M^^m (he desisted from his exertions), 

Da^. 132 flqTT enfrnt <s?*fr!cr?ftn»m, Kum&r. 5, 73 PidrtyiWl<M<Of^- 
TTTtTT: (turn away your mind from this bad design). 

Rem. 1. Note a^Rrf^r (to cheat of) ') with abl. Kath&s. 42, 75 
ir^ ™n^: \\ \ \f^\ uV^t\n \ (she, my fellow-consort, has by trickery 
taken away my obtaining a son), Pane. Ill, 117 srgftj grr^^ ^m- 
9n?r (to cheat a brahman of his he-goat). 

Rem. 2. With uM i gPi and the like, the thing neglected is pnt in 
the ablat. (vArtt on P. 1, 4, 24). Taitt. Up. 1, 11, 2 ^m i <j i >h i 
ffiT^:, Pat. I, p. 326 wxTT?«mKrf?r, t m^-^fn (he neglects his duty). 

1) Literally »to caune to tumble out of,** for sr^oRT (cp. StU) is akiu 
to lat. vacilittrtf germ, wanken, dutch waggelen^ 

9 97—98. 71 

97. Likewise the ablative joins verbs or verbal nouns 
*ru of keeping of^ and kindred notions. Of the kind are: 
^^f ^' those of reetraininfff preventing^ excluding from^ as^^** 
^TTT"^ JTT GII^Mfrl (he keeps the cows from the beans) ; 
2. those of protecting^ guarding^ securing from^ as'gj**' 

^P^ ^Tflirl (he protects from thieves); 3. those of p-/'^» 
imy being afraid of and suspecting , especially ^\ and ^l^si , f. i. 

afraid ^-*^ -> r^^ x ^ 

«/• ^npTl ToWTrT. Examples; 1. - KAm. 16, 15 ^ qTt^TT^^TT- 

ZTOiT^ ^H i cUMw srrfpr:, MahAv. I, p. 10 ^ i fi i M^^ i irfTtRivnTrT: ^sro- 
ij^lrf (as his mother's fothor prevented him from taking her [yiz* 
SUA] by violence). 2. — Pane. 298 ?spiT 33ft ^dr ^Hh^ i ^^vrtuTlu ;, 
Mhbh. 1, 82, 21 irwTcm^ xTt p^PT^, MAlav. V, p. 136 -^ qpi^j^tffd : 
(eager for defending her from the wicked [aggressor]), 3. — Pane. 
179 w^tighi^ flmf^ (you are afraid of the huntsman), Mudr. Ill, p. 
102 ftrfSBT >[UrlMH ; ^Ridifft ^ i ^iir^ri) feigi< i <>5i^iu ([a king's servant] 
must not stand in awe of his master only, but of the king's minister) 
of the king's favourite and of others), M. 2, 162 u*^ ! rM^ ;rr;piriV 
Plffl^Rdd Qyj i f^di (a brahman should always shun marks of honour, 
as if they were poison), llhbh. 1, 140, 61 <i ' j | QHi 7r: UTjfT srfjFtwni 
^sr: (he should mistrust those, who are worth mistrusting and 
those, who are not so), KA^. on 1, 4, 28 3^TVTmT7;rivw (he con. 
ceals himself from his teacher). 

NB. The verbs, mentioned sub 3., admit also of the genitive, see 
126 c). 
Rem. Koto nnnH (to shrink from, to shun, to despise) with abl. 
according to a vArtt. on P. 1, 4, 24. Instances are met with in the ar- 
chaic literature. In modern Sanskrit it seems to be exclusively con- 
strued with acoos. — The verb P i fJ^^d . (to bo disgusted with) is 
construed with abl. or instr., sometimes even with ace. and gen. 

98. IT. The point from whence a distance is counted (termi* 
nus a quo) , is expressed by the ablative. Pat. I , p. 455 


72 . t 98. 

«i^ JTSfl^FFr: Hf^litM ^edll^ MIsWII^ (from GaTldhtlma 
to S&nk&Qya fonrycjanas). Hence the ablative joins a.) such 

prepp. as ^, ^WTrT, etc., 4.) the names of the cardinal 


points and those in "^WS, as ^Wt c.) , all words mea- 
ning faff as g^ and the like. 

Ezamplei: — of a.) see in chapter IX. 

h.) Da9. 156 filtf^ n M r rm'^i f^ (east f^oni the ttrth)^ Pat I, P. I 
p. 475 see Rem. 1. on this paragraph. 

c.) Mrcch. VII, p. 234 ^ ^u ] {Uk^^^w% \ ^ ^feTi Mhhh. 1, 152, 

1 v^jf{ ^rrntmrnj ibid. 1, 151, 44 >nf;^^)u i Bm^rqmi A-past 1, 

31, 2 tn^ i t'^dM ^' J l '^MO^ Vr7%^ (he shall Toid excrements far ft'om 
his house). 

Rem* 1. V7ith derived adverbs of the species ^^f^irnrr:) 3WT7T:^) 
the genitive should be employed, not the ablative [P. 2, 3, 30], 
with those in **^ the accusative [ibid. 31]. Hence it is said for 
ex. R 3, 4, 27 <a^*l<i^> l rM i 'jJf i ^m (he dug a hole by his side), Pat. 
I, p. 475 y; i^>^ i Joid f l ^mK ■ !; l frHfU*^» l tf^<f>ol>n<j|^ <fau\.4 f^<4df t^^] m «tt^ 
QuU4^ (what is AryavartaP The country east of Adar^a, west of 

KAlakavana, south of the Himavat and north of P&riy4tra), Ckk. 1 
JCf^A^r ^WoilflthMMN ▼or ?J^. — But the genitive with those in 
^m is also allowed [see K&f. on P. 2, 3, 31], as R. 3, 13, 21 i^lu i lW 
(north of this place). 

Rem. 2. P&nini [2, 3, 34] allows optional construing with abl. or 
gen. all words, meaning far and near^ j^ timm^or vrmmwf^r^ 
in>n7T or nmm . As far as I have observed, an ablative with those of 

1) P. tl '> ^ilrtM S urtl(i>l . — Kft^. gives as inataDcei also Jl^WIrt, T^nff} 
ivf^y i ^ . That OD the other hand the abl. is available, even if the ad- 
verb itself have the ending of that case, is exemplified by this gloka 
quoted by Pat. I, 457. 

i 99--100. 73 

BOtrneM — ezeept eQBipoimds of j;j^ — will bo teareelj met with 
in literature. 

99* When-denoting time, the ablative carries the mean- 
ing of /row, since^ after. Commonly it is attended by pre- 
positions, as "^T, nPTf?r, 3Kp^, 41HHiH, but there 
are instances enongh of the single ablative. So ggrrfr, 

wnvff^ (after a while) = g^^» wirT. Likewise fkjirfj fr^pr, 
^mcFTTCTTTr, eto. and op. 128< — K&(. on P. 2, 3, 54 quotes the Terse 
iffh J i ci>HMM><0 ^ aJwH i <fq (even after hundred years a man may 
enjoy happiness); Mhbh. 1, 170, 3 ^ fen i r^rH^^ i buJ iy ^ , M. S, 108 
JTOT ?^OTrT M^ » ^ l < « 'oi l cfum ^f^iH: I ftHi (if a witness , who has borne 
OTidence, fall ill after a week). 

Rem. 1. This kind of abl. is meant by P. 2, 3, 7, when he 
enjoins the use of a fifth or seyenth case to denote an interyal 
of time or space, f. ex. fro JJJTT Xdiii i w^ mt^ i i i irmx (D. has 
eaten now and will not eat but after two days), ^^wT >s7Rkf7m: 

9R^ (er 5Rhn»T) 9TW (olMjfrf. Cp, 144. 

Rem. 2. Apast 1, 9, 6 and 1, 15, 19 are instances of the single 
ablative = frr -f*' '^^^'y '^^^^ signifying »till.** 

K>. ni. The ablative serves to express from what origin 

l^of there is a rising or issuing. In the first place it joins 

JJS words of being borne , proceeding etc. ; 

'**''" 2*y it denotes the former state or shape ^ out of which 
some other state or shape proceeds or is produced ; 

3'y it signifies the model or pattern , something is imi- 
tated, borrowed, measured from. 

Examples: of 1. — Ch. Up. 1, 9, 1 ^isrffiiT ^ STT ^»TTf?t Mdl><i i »w i id.ei sojil. 
MMfMM>? i (a11 these things proceed from ether alone), M. 1, 8 st^tt** 
f^irM^tUPd l ol tfT: OsTT: (desiring to create the manifold beings out 
of his body) , Kath^s. 25, 43 a i Hl^Hn a drit i (.<fHV'^iI l *?a : (big waves 
rose from the oeean, as it was swept by the wind); Mhbh. 1, 115,5' 
qinft: 5!^ M^r^*^! ^SR**^: JSTT: «Tir — here the name Pdndu is 


74 9 100—102. 

put la the gmiit, for the five loiii did belong to liim, bat 
the d€ii9$$f who had proereated them, are put in the abla* 

8o often with Torbe of being home the name of the fatiier ii 
pnt in the abl., that of the mother in the looative, B. 2, 107, 2 
fimi jfr <.« i ( Hi ^Aiu i Hj M. 10, 64 sgTot 5n^nnrafT?T:. Yet, the father 
ma J also be a gen. commodi (iss) or an instrumental. 

Note Buch phraaes as (Pat. I, 455) qp^Tft irstv^i mn^mnf^ and 
(KathAs. 25, 55) ^sn^m: z i M^s ii w i g JMM < ^^ i <<^q^ (I am the brah- 
man 9<^ktideTa from the town of YardhamAaa). 

2. — Mhbh. I, (Paushjap.) ^ M*j^^MW l ^(.»':loHm^^ » «*i qmq^RT, 
Da^. 141 ^Mfiid i fu Tf ri^^if^d »aif rnprr^ mkui \ m^ i ijd*<i3<<i*i i ^t> ; (and 
mj father, who had come from such a distress to as great a hap. 
piness , as if he had risen from hell to heaycn), Ratn. I^ p. 16 37^- 
a i ^.ffid i ^fi^^JwriH*!^ (v. a. we have festival after festival). — So to 
heal or recover from illness: Pane. V, 91 5Rfrs m>a i <ifi ; fror: (»ll three 
of thom were healed from their infirmity). 

3. — Mfceh. IV, p. 135 njij rm v i p^m u*<mi l fj.oi pr^d frefJT^: 
(this ornament has been made, as if it were, according to the mea- 
sure of your body), M&lav. lY, p. 91 {lr*ToPT: ^noi l J ; (attendance 
according to her rank). Cp. eo* 

^01- In short, the ablative is available in any case, it is 
wanted to express the side, something has come from^ 
whether contained in the foresaid' categories or not 

So R. 2, 26, 31 nr} rciw: Mi^Mi^Pi (she deserves respect from your 
side), Hhbh. 1, 145, 9 dU^hq fnrjrT: a i M i -^ft^iy i ^ rprn (Dhr. cannot 
bear them having obtained the royalty because of their father), 
Pane. 262 m vni 1 w^mw <rfpni: 1 a WTij 1 < i u i ?^i g: (from the side of 
my kinsmen). 

Rem. The last example is at the same time an instance of 
the abL which denotes him, by whom one is defeated or over- 
thrown [P. 1,4,26]; cp. Kath&s. 28,49. 

102* Hence, the cause ^ reason, motive by which, is likewise 
expressed by the ablative namely as far as it is con- 

i 102. 76 

^Ua- oeived m the origin or starting-pointy firom whence 

ios*. some consequence has resulted ^). 

The instrumental , as we have seen formerly (72 ), may 
likewise serve that purpose, and in the case of feminine 
nouns of quality it is even obligatory. For the rest, 
ablative and in>tr. of causality are generally inter- 
changeable, and not seldom they are used side by side. 
SoKathfla. 29,25^fxir H'e^lWl: ^ fjJJrJl (it is from 
joy she does not eat, not from illness) , Mrcch. 1, p. 44 

5EPTsFr5TpT ^m^[^gferr 5T ^TTrT (surely, it has 
been done by taking her for somebody else, not by in- 
solence). But, if the efficient cause be some obligation 
or other binding motive 7y virtue of which some effect 
is produced, the ablative alone is to beused^). Nothing 
impedes concrete nouns to be put in the abl. of cause*) 

1) How easily this traniiition it made, will be plain bj this example: 

M&lav. V, p. 140 aV|rgf^ srs^ ^n fr^mrwjnlOTT:. Literally these words 

signify »tbe name of mother of a hero** touches you from the part of 
your son,** but as to their meaning they should be rather translated 
thus >now you deserve the name »m. of a h.*' becauM of your son." In 
other terms the abl. of origin is at the same time an abl. of cause. 

2) P&nini*s rule, which contains this statement, is too narrowly inter* 
preted by the commentaries. His words fiehri^ur QTS^ [P. 2, 3, 24 J are 
explained thus: the abl. [alone] is to be used, if the cause be a debt, 
provided it be not at the same time the agent ; examples of which are 
adduced as wn^T^fZi (he is confined for a debt of 100), whereas one must say 

Wn srf^iirT:* But why should we restrict rna to its special sense of a 
»debt of money*' and not take the more general meaning of » obligation** 
and >duty**? If it could be proved that Jf^iT implies also the notion of n«- 
cessitift Aviymf, the role would be quite correct, for in the case of direct 
and unavoidable consequence of an efficient cause the ablative alone is to 
be used, even of feminine words. 

8) Speaking plain, neither the ablat. of bh&vavacan&ni nor that of 
concrete nouns is allowed by P&pini's rules. The sOtras 2, 3, 23 -25 name 

7« i 102-103. 

but often they are expressed by periphrasei especially 
by means of %fft: (l®^). 

ExAmplM. — KathAi. 27, 76 f^OTt qyrAg «HM l >*i i jeiAPg (by eons6" 
qiienee of a ourse celestial beings are borae among men) , Pane. 202 
wfrowf: niifaM H U l K^TidJ ^ferffTT:, Pane. 49 HHuuuili^ur: (be is to be put 
to death for haying insulted a woman), Hit 96 HJi f fg^itiH^ (from 
fear he spoke thus), Yen. II, p. 39 fr^****dhfr «sf v<*j>J i jmf i ^ (he is gl^d 
on account of Abh.*s death), Mrcch. I, p. 45 iB i ^ i Pi n^TOTr: (I will 
stand up, on condition — ), KathAs. 30, 112 >i i ^ | j]ri zr^ ^nrT^rRT fTT- 
rmfMrAH ; I <iM i (i<iUim q<n ^f^ymfumiyj rw (as the thief was not 
found, the king sent forthwith for H. on account of the repu. 
tation of his knowledge). Pane. I, 180 ^M^sHojMrHtfjffi nfh: ^T^- 
igrTT ^ i w> ii «|^ i fertnsn y]<i>Hrf>t^ *fi'WlH^ (by bad counsel a prince 
comes to ruin, a holy man by wordliness, a son by spoiling, a 
brahman by not-studying, a family by a bad son), Q&k. I, ts. 22 
zm fH i! >o r ' ' j l '*mi^»<fH : (to seek after the truth [liter, by seeking — ], 
it is I , who have been annoyed by the boe). The examples have 
been selected so as to show, that the different shades of the no- 
tion of causality — cause, motive , reason — are promiscuously signi- 
fied by the ablative. 

Many ablatives of causality have assumed the character 
of adverbs , see 104. 
108. IV. Sanskrit, just as Latin , uses the ablative not only 
^J**j[_for the sake of signifying from what side^ but also on 

^11^ what Me. Here the ending ^rfJ is employed, it seems, 

tiM _ 

tide, o« * " ' " 

which, the inttmmental as the regular case to denote caate or motive , but with 
these eiceptioot, 1^ that if the caase be a quality (xniV) the ablative 

mtni be used too , bat for feminines [or rather — as the term ^ is an 

ambiguous one — only such as have been made by the fern, endings ^i 

•VTlt 2* that the cause being an tna , the abl. m%ut be used , caid not the 
instrum. Now , these rules do not leave any room for neither bh&vavocanfini 
nor concrete nouns , something very strange , because really both classes of 
words are put in the ablative of cause as often and as well astheguna- 
vacan&ni. See the examples adduced in the context* 

i 103—105. 77 

by preference y at least in the case of indicating space 

and direction. So it ii said ^^fwm: (at the right), sTTqrr: (at 
the left), crre^Tr: (at the side), f^i (at the back) etc. — In figu- ^i^^ 
rative lense this abL is likewise used, as Ch. Up. 4, 17,4 {nr^onP.S. 
ffdwj... nf^ OJ^:.... 0^ m^m; (if [the yajiia] would be vicious * 
on account of an re, a yajus, a s&ma), Apast. 1, 1, 15 ^ f^ flr- 
KtVrWf frnrf^ (▼•a. for he is his spiritual father), M41aT. I, p. 25 
ilwrwT wra^ ^ ipn^tiJlrT: qfT-e^y^fd (Your Reverence is even- 
handed; be you, then, the umpire to judge us with respect to 
our qualities and our shortcomings). 

In its metaphorical application this ablativus partis 

not rarely touches upon the abL causae , treated in 102. 

So^ f. i. with the points of comparison , as R. 2, 34, 9 n i iJiS i fMU • 
irrrqxr*. (in depth like the ocean = nby its depth*' or ^as to its depth"). 

04. Ablatives of the cause and of the side often have the 
the characterof ad verbs (77); especially when ending in ^ff:* 

So ^aMToTTrr^ or ^'oFT: (by disposition), tijci i < 7 fi ; (in due order), gfTr- 
crmrT: (in inverse- order), ^<J|5h ; (through one's own exertion), 
srfWfT: (with all one's power), irrqi^ (out of respect), ij-k^xtttt^ (with- 
out motive; on a sudden), and so on. P. 2, 3, 33 gives a special 
rule for the ablatives e^.^ i fj[^ , ^j> ! ff^ , qfrfrpwrTcT, «r?»iTfT being in- 
terchangeable with the instr. »,-ej^m etc.; both sets have the cha* 
racter of adverbs, as n^A or <|<3W4 I '^?K ; (he was released easily). 

Rem. Note Jjm in comparisons =s »by far." Pane. II, 170 
jjTsnf*!. (^y ^*' better), 

05. Ablative of comparison. — The ablative expressive 
re of of the notion on what side, with respect to — is frequently 
|J*J" applied in comparisons to signify the thing compared 

with, provided there be superiority or inferiority or 
discrepancy '). 
It joins 1»' comparatives; then the abl. = our ,than/' 

1) For io the case of identity, likeness, equivalence the instram. or 
gen. is required (62) and the dat. also in the case of counterpoise (85). 

78 • § 105. 

Ptoc 56 HI ff^'^-ft ^RTFrf r ?n% HtI Wrl%I (there is no 

happier man in the world than you and I), cp. Lat. nemo te 

2*J positives of any adjective. DaQ. 141 ^PT^FTt 

^^^1 m ^Uddl^lHlrHHH^mmrl (he considered 

himself fortunate , even in comparison wth Lord Indra) ; 

3*y words , expressing superiority or inferiority , such as 

gr^ (lit. ,the better thing," = better than), ^TRf^ 

(exceeding), ^ (superior), tHrll^^^ri (to excel), mT^- 

^TTrt (to be inferior), sim. Mudr. I, p. 53 ^Hli^JH^T 

>*P<^il G4Ki*i*i (my mind is outweighing hundreds of 

4^y all words, meaning oiAer or different^ as ^FtTj 
^tT^, ^Ejg^, f$I^^ Pane 208 '^I^UMI^^^ ^^^^^^ 

^Itrl (there is some other contrivance , besides the well- 
known six expedients). 

Here are Bome more examplea. Of 1. — Rgv. 8, 24, 20 sr^t 
^^nf*i l <)J » ^N^nr (utterance by Toice being sweeter, than ghee and 
honey); Ch, Up. 3, 14, 3 ^ it <Hf*<Mg^<U ^ uTlu i xfi^df 3orT?gj ^- 
m^ wmnFJCT wmrKfnij^'nsTi^ it <i i f*<M|<ei fgror^fwr ?<ji«jm. 
*^f^W l ttq | ii i r<ei^ f^rnn^wft ^tiwr: (he is the Self within my heart, 
smaller than a com of rice, smaller than a corn of barley, smaller 
than a mustard seed, smaller than a canary seed or the kernel 
of a canary seed. He is the self etc., gfeater than the earth , greater 
than the sky, greater than heaven, greater than these worlds); 
Apasi 1, 13, 19 y^ ^ jftftqr jnr: uJm i rfhMl^H^ieh ' ^d*!^ (by this 
way I have got more learning, than formerly). 

of 2. — Pane, 285 iirof Mdr^1» i <i^fq a^pr H5rf?T (▼. a. one's wife is 
heloTod more than anybody else); Hit 16 m\ H l ^ l ^ ynrsTri^ (com- 

§ 106—106. 79 

pared wiih liim nobody ii happy here); Utt 11, p. 39 mm^ VTTt- 

of 3. — , R. 2, sarga 95*, 63, ^ei.i^-4)'^ ^^ur iMs^ ^pmi:fqr(to 
live, deprived of one member by your weapon, is better than death). 

Pane. 142 cawV^fef: ^J^i g^, Mhbh, 1, 89, 2 j^ sRmr iToHT: (your 
superior by age), R. 2, 8, 18 erTm^^ifft ^f^fp? ^ jr spjOTT a^ (he 
n^tens much to me, and more than to the KausalyA), Kath&s, 
53, 10 ^MTJ^ :t 2^13 ^ ^n>nld ^ f^r^nf^^ (indeed , he did not know 
how to give less than a laxa to an indigent) , M. 2, 95 unu i mi- 
gehWMi uf^riiUM fdfu r ^i?^ (giving up all desires exceeds obtaining 
them). Compare this instance from the archaic literature: Ait. Br, 
7, 17, 4 iTcit grftT STrlTfTT ^i^c^uTl^Jl n^ (you have chosen three hun- 
dred of cows instead of me). 

of 4. — Rgv. 10, 18, 1 q;m] T^ft JePHmT!^ (the other path, 
which is not the path of the gods), Ch. Up. 1, 10, 2 ^ [= ;t -f- ^] 
^^ Qk'd'^ (nor are there others but these). Pane. II, 12 m^^wi 
Pi^ l (i^rJ i qr HfJVi Prabodh. Ill, p. 61 {fi i PinJ l fi MMf^MiTl ' Jel^ l fj^ (the crea- 
tures so different among themselves, yet not different from Qod). 
06* Observations on the abl. of comparison. 

Rem. 1. Our »than" vrith the comparative is to be rendered 
in Sanskrit by the ablative. Such restrictions , as for instance limit 
the faculty of using the abl. of comparison in Latin, do not 
exist in Sanskrit It is impossible to say in Latin dai tihi plus 
fne 33 »he gives to you more than to me,*' but it must be said 
plus quam mihu In Sanskrit nothing impedes such sentences as 
gwor ij{\{r{ xnr irfywj. So M&lat. X, p. 164 ^r^ mTprf^ *wfy*^-i 
ani^cjifM (hence, you must bear more affection towards roe, than 
towards your own mother). 

Rem. 2. Note the abl. with such words as : double , treble etc. 
sim. M. 8 , 289 Ai^^fUW^A i UM ZJTZi (a fine of five times the value). 

Rem. 3. If it is to be said no' other thaUf nobody but^ any 
phrase with the meaning »but for'* may be used instead of the 
abl. Pane. 176 TSTf gjnsfft jt w i wfd (no other but you will know 
it), ibid. 160 fd i id*4>Jl nm ^^m^ ^ :t nQmfd* — Then, the ablative 
may also be nsed even without fRr» &• Kum&ras. 6, 44 qfw>*^M<h ; 

80 § 106—108. 

VEjjmjpff^ »wli«re then' is found no [other] death but the god with 
the flowerj arrows [no other M&ra but MAra ax K&ma].** 

In Patanjali I haye met with some instances of a rather pleonastie 
idiom, the neuter fr^ with abl. = »but for*' put before the ablat, 
though the adj. irt precedes, f. i. Pat. 1, 279 rfr «s;rft ft;^: ^r^niV 
iT^ppn^^iT^ 3Qcm%^ (what else ought to accompany it, if not 
this preposition), cp. p. 445, line 2; p. 447, line*4; p. 323, line 6. 
This adverbial use of «r^ (cp. Qroek «AA«, and such phrases 
as ov^iv ikX», . . . iAA* i) is confirmed by its being named among 
the nip&tAs in the gana f^rpf^ (K&g. I, p. 17, line 10). 

Bem. 4. f^k. VII irErspr: ^Tf rtr><j i fdum i <;[Mj{M^fijc< i rM m' wmh (I 
do not hold myself for deserTing the extraordinary honour be- 
stowed upon me by Indra) is an instance of this abl. with the 
negative v^jq^ (not fit); the abl. would be impossible here, but 
for the negation. 
107* In the archaic and epic dialect an instrumental of comparison 
j^^ is sometimes used instead of the ablative. — So R. 2, 26, 33 m9<\ 

*!■• fnnTrfr ^^ instead of mrJnir:, ibid. 2, 48, 36 n^ rTraTufihFt ^f^ ^. 
I. <s;TSFr (he was to these women even more than their own sons), eomnu 

g^: I fffihrFif I ib. 1, 54, 15 ^ fbrtt ^r^iopr^: i fdvbdmsf ; 

Oesi. Rem: Such passages as R. 6, 24, 28 jfj^ zuj^^ ttw: WT^- 

eonpa- nm m^nm\ (and in archery L. even exceeds king K.), Pane. 28 [and 

ruoB. jj^ 1^ 47^ 22] jTTfef ti ^f i f i iWi Pane. IV, 7 ^l^ | f;^>i^i^ > o^ i ^j r (any woman 

else but I) show that even a genitive of comparison has been used. 

108, In the foregoing the ending r\\ has been considered 
abuti. AS if it possessed the full woi'th of the regular case- 
^^** endings of the ablative. Yet a full and complete iden- 
t'ty between them may alone be stated for the pro- 
nouns. Pilnini gives some rules about ""rl** affixed to 
. pouns, which show that its sphere of employment, though 
mostly coinciding with that of the ablative , is someti- 
mes a different one. 

lly With ^TQH and x? it is forbidden to express the » whence** 

§ 108—109, 81 

by the forms in V:. Therefore gnrfghi^ t MJf»<ei(^<^fH , not wrfrft ^Jj^ 

2^7 Excellixig or being weak tii, blaming on account of^ wicked- 
nesB with respect to is to be denoted by the instrumental, or by 40; 47.' 
Vty not by the ablative proper. — For this reason, in the TerflO 
quoted by Pat I, p. 2 jr^: tpsht: ^oTpTT arofrrt stt (a word , wrong 
on account of its accent or of its sound), ^sr^; and omTrT: are in- 
terchangeable with fgroT and crarr> not with ^^sqirT^ and sniTTr]N 
Likewise, in Ch. Up. 4, 17, 4 — quoted page 77 of this book ~ f^:i 
qgg;i HWd : are synonymous with the instrum , and the abl. iff^u 
2RTV:i ^n^: would not be allowed. 

Rem. It should however be remembered, that this rule does 
not apply neither to the points of comparison — f i. m»^ TlJ i fMm('w<< ; — 
nor to the ablative of comparison. 

Sly If the ablative is to express the •whence'^ — except in the^^*'^* 


case recorded sub ] -. ^: is equivalent with the regular case- 
endings. The same applies to the abl., depending on the prepos. gf?T. 44' ' 

Rem. P&oini does not give any rule about using the abl. in 
?f: with such adverbs and pronouns as imt fiPTTi vnr* Now, abla- 
tives of that kind are certainly not expressing the apdddna^ as 
they are taught in the third chapter of the 2^ adhy&ya, not in 
the fourth of the 1*^. Accordingly it would not be allowed using 
V: vith them. Tet practice is not wholly consistent therewith, 

' i« frr ^j^H: «■ frr 'j^iri^ 

4^y In two cases **n\ is interchangeable with a genitive, but not p %^ 4, 
with an abl. a.) when expressing the standing on one*s side ^131 ^' 
iHsU i d i (or «sMMj) ^^Tar;r> b,) if denoting the disease , against which P. &. 4, 
one applies some remedy or cure: tiu i f^ehiH ; [or ^VtPTT:] 9737 (gi^'o 
something against diarrhoea). 

Chapter VII. Genitive. ') 
h The fundamental notion of the genitive or sixth 

I) On the genitive in Sanskrit » especially in the dialect of the R^;- 
vedamantras , there existn a monography of Dr. Sibcke Je genitive in /in- 
ffua ifanMcritiea imprimis Vedica uiu , Berlin, 1869. 

6 * 

. vet. 

82 § 109—110. 

case ia to mark the beloMgina to, fMrtaking of. In San- 
v>^ skrity it is employed in so manifold and so different ways 
{^■i- as to make it very difficult to give a satisfactory ac- 
count of all of them ^). — The absolute genitive 
will be treated in the chapter on participles. 
110. L With substantiyes , the genitive serves to q\ia- 

'pioT^ lify them , as THT: 7FTJ (the king's man), <^*1MrMi: 

with F5Rcr^: (the self-choice of Dam.), in:^^^!^^? (the ene- 

my's strength), RSTPTirFFT^T (the friend's arrival), 

t1*J^t^^ STTTTIT^ (the drying up the ocean), eraTaTT^RI^J 

(a part of the sacrifice), "^T^^^TT^^fTTmJ (the opportunity 
of fighting). These examples show 1** that the genitive, 
at least in prose, commonly precedes the substantive, 
it is depending upon, 2>/ that, like in Latin and Greek, 

1) KA9. 00 p. 1.1,49 ?r^ f^ TT^vrnf'. k^kfA Mi\Af\ ( MiTiuMM^Qvt I ( 1- 

iKJcJIUI:' — Pikoini neemi to ha?e not sharply defioed the geoitive*a sphere 
of employment, at least if we explain hi« lutra (2, 3, 50) ctt^ ^ with 
the Kilf. as meaning *in all other instances [namely if none of the other 
cases, taught 2,3,1—49, be available], one should use the sixth case/* 
But then it is strange, P. has not said inversely SFT QTT (cp. his con- 
stant use 1,4, 7; 1, 4, 108; 2, 2, 23; 3, 3, 151 ; 7, 2,1*0). Now, Patanjali 
gives a somewhat different explication (I, p. 403) eiiH^MUrfdcl^l STV: 
»the sixth case is required, if the categories object and the rest are not 
to be distinctly expressed'* but tacitly implied. 1 am rather inclined to 
8uppoi»e, that either in framing that siitra PAnini had in view his de- 
finition of the employment of the nominative, which immediately pre- 
cedes ; then ^ would be said in opposition to the uifrlMp^Vi snir 

of s. 46 (note on 38) and mean »fiometUing else, apart from the gender 
and number of the conception, signified by the pnltip.idik.i'\ or ^pj 
may mean aaccessory** (see Petr. Diet. «. r. 1, b)\ then the sutra enjoins 
the ase of the genitive if the conception, signified by the pr&tjpadika, 
is accessory of some other conception. But, which of these acceptations 
should prove the correct one , the intrusion of the term WJ in the follow- 
ing sOtras (51 , etc), as is done by K&9. and others, is to be blamed. 

8110—111. 83 

the most different l(^cal relations will find their ex* 
pression by it. When dividing the whole of its dominion 
by setting up such categories as the fmtemve gen., the 
subjective ^ objective ^ partitive ^ that oloriffin, matter, quan- 
tity etc., it must not be overlooked , that these divisions 
have been made for clearness* sake and do not affect 
the unity of the grammatical duty discharged in all these 
cases by the genitive. For the rest, not i-ai-ely the or- 
dinary logical distinctions may fall short of classifying 
some given genitive, »» in the case of j^wTcTFrcr:, or Utt, 

II, p. 28 wi i Mim^^J Q7^: (the way to the hermitage of A.) etc. 

Concurrent constructions are 1. compounding the gen. 

with the subst., it qualifies {B^^* = {T5T: ^^J, see 
214 , 2. using instead of the gen. the derived adjective , as 

J^nsr-^ 3FR = SfTSTTcFPT or SRHTf ^^FT^ etc. Of these 
substitutions the latter is comparatively rare, when 
contrasted with the utmost frequency of the former. 

Rem. The bo called appoaitional or eptseyetic genitive in not 
used in Sanskrit. It is said qmu^* >m ^*jr , not as in English ^the 
city of Pushp." R. 2, 115, 15 f$r^ ^tstt w^ ^hk^ (Lat. pignua 
goecorum^ the pledge [represented by] the slippers). 

1. When pointing out the genitive as the case to put in 
such substantives as are wanted to qualify other sub- 
stantives, it is by no means said that no other con- 
struction may be used for the same purpose. Verbal 
nouns often retain the verbal construction. So, if a moving 
to or from some place is to be expressed , nouns must be 
construed just as verbs; it is said ^i fUdi i *i> T»j^, jt n^rnj^ not 

Q^TT. Cp. Rem. on 41. 

84 § 111—118. 

Tk«s we mMl with iiutramentala as ^nt^ usiTft: >tlie tep*- 
ration from men as yoa are/* WK:mT tn^F: »iorrow on aeeount of 
a giri;** ^ ablatiTef as g^> ii Mij|^ »fear of falling;^' — datires as 
apnr zy^ »wood for a stake," ozrJV Jid^ i w i u *the fit time for 
being heir-apparent;** — locatires as fsrim ^j: » attachment to the 
world, worldliness;** — prepositions as xrt gf^ ^ntm »anger towards 
me," TPs^tf^ ^tWfm: »partiality for his sake,'* m 5Tfti»lrTT J^JJ^ »* 
contention with a mighty one.** 

Rem. ^&nini has a special rule about the nouns *^i (lord), '- 
^srrfiR (owner), irfw^ (chief), ^iin^ (heir), mf^ (witness), gf^ij^ 
(bail) and cmfr (bom) as agreeing with a locative as well as with 
a gen. So nsrt ^^amt or jfig; cp. Kath&s. 18, 144 ^nw i eh ^sruft 
with ibid. 6, 166 ^srvS^ fsrm. So Mrcch. X, p. 384 ^rfrot McfRi^ l ^g 
»«flMfH<U fvArnrr (let he be appointed prior of all the monasteries 
of the land). 

118. The possessive genitive has nothing remarkable. As 
dHgl^ in other languages , it may be the predicate of the 

"'•••• sentence. M. 7, 96 m n^wi^ mU rm (what one conquers, is 
one's own), ibid. 7, 91 the vanquished warrior surrenders himself 
with these words Hdlfw (I em yours); Mhbh. I, 154,3 qtrt fsm 
(•whose are you?** that is »of what family?**); Mudr. Ill, p. 103 

WF^ mmm E^mi X^^'i}^^ ' (^^^y* forsooth, the QAdraking Can- 
dragupta is his =r is but an instrument in his [C&nakya*s] hand), 
K. 2, 42, 7 (Daf ar. to Kaik ) ^ ^ fejm^^d^dPfi ?n^ Prat :t ^ »R (and 
those, who are your attendance, do not belong to me, nor I to 
them). That it may also denote the party ^ of which one is an 
adherent, is stated above (108, 4). 

118. The gen. of the ma/eria/, something is made of, and 
^^J^;that of the oriff in are not very frequent. Examples: Pat 

frrimt I, 112 VRT Maim STT^Tt gRT (weavo a cloth of this thread), Ch. Up. 

^^^ 6, 12, 2 ff ^VSn^ cr a M ! *ifWfl»*l l «> ^ fr> IMUM ^tTOT a ?fTOat<$ftTJ 

^ M<^' i ><i;r i t i f^wff l (he said to him: my dear, that subtile es- 
sence, which you do not perceive there, of that subtile essence 
this so great nyagrodha-troe exists); — Mhbh. 1, 100, il vf!7m <*. » ui l >n*l 
(a fi8herman*8 daughter). 

§ lis— 115. 85 

Bern. In lAtni-worki there !■ alto a geo. of the authority, 
aeeording to whom tomethiDg is itated. So often v9t^7T>j[^ >aoeor- 
ding to ■ome/* P-'8, 4, 111 g i nhj. l <i>i<!i6i >aceording to (. alone.** 
This gen. depends on the word r^ not expressed » according to the 
opinion of.*' 

14. The Bubjeotive genitive is interchangeable with the ^-^^^ 
^^ instrumental of the agent (66). According to Ptoini , the 
*•*•• latter is necessary^ if the verbal noun be attended by 
its subject and its object at the same time. In this 

manner two genitives are avoided , as •»I'^I \\^\ ^TlMM 

[not JITTFT] (the milking of the cows by the cow-herd). 
We may fairly extend this observation , it seems , to all 
such instances , as where the subjective genitive would be 
used together \vith some other sixth case. R. 3, 6, 23 

Qmh l ^^uHfig | l t 1 ?(il<iH i ni^*j^ (Jn order to put and end to the harm 
caused to you by the r&xasas), M&l.YIII, p. 133^7jnrfeftci^q[^nftn:'); 
Mhbh. 1, 145, 17 a^.... gh i Jij^ l * iisrfrwrTFI?? (if there will occur 
something to do by you for us) [not gh i J^wnh ; icjri i * ii an accumu- 
lation of gen. subj. and commodi]; 

Rem. Some v&rttik4s on this siitra of PAnini contest the exact- 
ness of it. With some krts the subjectiye genitive is said to be 
obligatory, even when being used together with an objective ge- 
nitive , as fe^hrf ffer^U l fl^^^J WTnpj (V.'s desire of making a mat). 
According to some, the gen. of the agent is nowhere forbidden. 

L5. The objective genitive is occasionally interchan- 
Jp. geable with a locative or with prepp. as yirh 3TT^,etc 

iv«- Sometimes it may be used in turns too concise to be rendered 
without periphrase. Mrcch. I, p. 44 sttttt rT^^: (by supposing, it 
was she). 

1) But Mudr. I, p. 49 7^ nSfiimfH ^IflMVi^^U-t^l^'l MSfT:, for here 
Dothiog impedes using the genitive of the agent , the other being avoided 
by compounding. 

86 § lis. 

116. The partitive genitive denotes eiiker the whole, 
tivcg^ ft part of which is spoken of, as 71V •i^I^tM (half of 

ait ire. 

the town), e45tttl|C|Mqei: (a part of the sacrifice), Kftd. 

1 , p. 21 4IMfrHW ^^ (the middle of the sky) or 
it carries the notion of selecting out of a multitude 
as Nir. 1 , 12 c^aiHi^^UlMl^^ ,some of—, among the 
grammarians**. In the latter case , the genitive is inter- 
changeable with the locative: Hj'>-IKni (or H^^^^) 

Examples : of genitive Ait. Br. 1, 5, 25 dv: mMl*l (tbe fore- 
most of his kin)y KathAs. 29, 69 Jirr trroTTT^ (the foremost among 
the wealthy), Pane. Ill , 222 ^ ^^TT isr nSnt rTifHU ii ^HMH^Qfji^ ; — 
of locative KathAs. 24, 47 jr^ ^ j^ng ^.riRjdj M. 5, 18 sarfaw 

From the examples given it will be plain, that in 
Sanskrit, as elsewhere, the partitive cases may not 
* only attend substantives, but all kind of nouns and 

Rem. 1. If there be meant a staking out of,** the 
ablative is to be used , cp. 95 , 2®. — R. 1, 2, 15 flfrff^fj^n^- 

i|^7r: (you have killed one out of the couple of plovers) , cp. Kath&s. 
13, 144; 24, 176; Prabodh. V, p. 102 an: Spnjnn^ srat: SW ^ 
i i' jjjft (one should not leave a remnant of fire , of a debt , of a foe), i) 

Rem. 2. It is very common , especially in simple prose , 
to periphrase the partitive cases by °RW (=gen. or 

loc.) and ^'^JTTrT (= abl). See 191. 

Rem. 3. The partitive construction is unfit to be employed, if 

1) This is the very ablative, eojoined by P. 2, 3, 42. Kft^. is wrong tn- 
terpretiog the sutra otherwise; Patai\jali*8 view (I, p. 459) is correct. 

§ 116-118. 87 

the eoneeptioii of a part teleeted out of a whole be wantiog. 
•All of them*' » iV ^; both of m** wTsn^ *). 
L17« Some tarnty relating to the partitire eoBstraotioii, are to be 
noticed : 

1. option between two things it Tariously expressed: 

a.) both are put in the gen. M. 7, 53 am> f m «r ^rvttr sm^ 
gKVkWJf^ (li^^* *of ^^^ ▼l^^o Aod death, Yiee is called the worse**). 

b.) both are put in the abl. Mrcch. I, p. 18 ?[TfpspnrpiTTrr T^ 
^m fra^ ^ <rrft^ (^' •• ^ prefer death to poverty). 

e,) both are nominatives. Mhbh. 1 , 161, 6 w^vavnrn^jn m inU" 
H l Wciv V mr (t. a. I hold suicide to be preferable to the killing 
a brahman). 

Note the standing prolixity of such phrases, 

2. Of a partitive gon., depending on some word not expressed , 
there are some instances. A^^v. Orhy. 4, 4, 11 mp.fjum m jwm i ^ i 
cHaJm: (or they must enter [the village] while there is still visible 
ever so a little part of the sun), KA^. on P. 2, 1, 8 n i fj^.n^ 
fti l ^/lU l M l *< l M>3l<im (invite of the brahmans according to the number 
of vessels). The partitive gen., that attends verbs (110), may be 
explained in this way. 

3. One, two, three times a day, a week, etc. is expressed P'^> *• 
by the partitive gen., as M, 3, 281 isxrt Q^'vt.m P r JiH i PAr. Orhy. 

li 3, 31 w^n|ifM<af^i^^. Likewise M. 5, 21 MoifM^iS^h*jfu i<]f'ii-e^ fcrr^PT: 
(a pious twice-born man should perform at least one » strong penance** 
a year). 

4. A partitive gen., depending on the neuter of an adjective, 
is rare, even in the old language. Ait. Br. 2, 15, 8 sr^ p^n:- 
In the RgvedasanhitA there are even such gen. as j^ry ^7^*:, u i H^d '.f 
which remind of Lai id temporis and the like; cp. Sieckb p. 65. 

18. II. Several verbs are construed with a 

1. A poBsessive genitive is put to some verbs of owning and 

1) Yet Mhbh. 1,37,8 I have found lEI^ 7: s= >aH of us/* jiist us in 

88 § 118—120 

rulimf^ ▼!■• m, ^ [P. 2, 8, 52], the Tadie p^ Comp Greek 
«#X«i» Ti»^^. — So Rgw. 1, 26, 20 F^ firssRBer ^fvf %nr mv pirfe; 
Qat. Br. 5, 1, 5, 4 y^ii M>*J(^>i i M>S« — M. 6, 2 ^ ijg: iwsrfJr 
5«!« ! JMlil<i l *l (how it it, that Death has power over such as hare 
Mastered the veda and the seiencesF), M&lat. II, p. 88 mrm^ vm: 
9M \ {\m\ vnfnm ^ «r, cp. ibid. IV, p. 70, 1. 2, MAlar. V, p. 143. — 
This eonstnietioii is rare in classie Sanskrit; m with a gen. seems 
to be wholly obsolete. 
XI 9» 2. A partitive genitive is frequently employed in the elder 
literature, and had not yet entirely disappeared in the days of P&nini. 
But in classic Sanskrit such phrases as fnrrnv i/^ \ (ri (he gives of 
the ambrosia), ^ipJu T > it»i rt (he desires of the butter) are out of use. 
In mantra, br&hmana and upanishad it is often attending verbs of 
giving^ begging^ eating ^ drinking and the like '). ^f^y* 10, 85, 3 ^n>f 
1^ eivumn fiRTr fi^jiv ii ffi ^r^rr (of the soma, the brahmans know, 
nobody eats), ibid. 9, 70, 2 ^ ^iifXTTtift HxjrfPT ^T^: (he, begging 
[a share] of the delightful ambrosia), Ch. Up. 1, 10, 3 ypv^ vf ^f^ 
(give me of these), TBr. 2, 2, 9, 3 kw^^ w ^ fo^jpH (they do not 
drink of the ocean), Ait. Br. 1, 22, 6 a aiu r i ^ u 5^fen:it fldV^^H ^ wi^ 
a^pH (of three oblations they do not cut off for the Svish^akrt). 
ftem. To this belong the rules of P. 2, 8, 61 and 63, which 
enjoin the genitive of the oblation a.) in certain formulae, uttered 
at the moment of offering it to the deity, 6.) with TfPf, So f. i. 
fat. Br. 3, 8, 2, 26 frfhmmr.JTt ^fTiror snA [gen. = sPTrar: 86 NB.] 
^Tnt 3 >iiip (announce to Agni and Soma [their shares] of the 
epiploon and the fat of the ho-goat), Kgv. 3, 53, 2 * i mm roTT 27% 
(I have worshipped thee [with your share] of soma), Ait. Br. 2, 9, 5. 

ISO. 3. The genitive serves to denote the objects of some p- 
verbs: a ) FT (to remember), b.) TT" (to have mercy), r.) 

?FI^ (to imitate), iL) some verbs of longing for. With 
all of them , however , the accusative is also available. 

Examples: a.) Mudr. 11, p. 71 (^ ^ rrr ?»TpT h Jl^m-. umH. I- 
;TT^(ah, king Nanda, R&xasa is well aware of your marks of kindness), 

I) See SiKCKK p. 33^37. 

§ 120-121. 89 

Daf. 60 m- fnot ^isrVinTVT:* Compare with those genitivet these 
ftccus. MAlar. Ill, p. 63 ^f^ w]<.W<*q i |>nn^ (should she perhaps 
remember our tuitP), g&k. V m^mln ?at ^ w mfvffft'Sf^ ^ The 
▼erb fs^ (to forget) is construed with ace. ') 

6.) Daf . 97 B^ iMuwiiviol ^PTTm'T^ (^f^y these dear men show 
mercy towards you). It is often construed with ace. 

€,) The person whose deeds etc. are imitated is generally put 
in the genitive. Mrcch. VI, p. 222 i T)Mm i j*f|mi(t| srj: srar irfe^arfn, 
M&lav. Y, p. 141 ;pr VT^T^ a »! i<Jr i JHei»H*l i^» a* the apple falls not 
far from the tree). 

Rem. I. Comp. ti^.iif'^H (to speak after), which is construed si- 
milarly by KAf. on P. I, 3, 49, and ^jj^^f^ y (to take after). Pat. I, 393 
fqH|»4<^jffi (ho takes after his father). 

Rem. 2. According to P. 2, 3, 53 compared to 6, 1, 139 ■ i < j^<»ij,H 
(to take care of) may admit of a genitive. 

d,) Here the ace. is the regular construction , and the gen. but 
scarcely met with, as M. 2, 162 <ii^ri*.Jjoi ^rTWT^{^;snTrTOT ^rarr (he 
must always long for being insulted as if it were ambrosia), Mhbh. 
3, 12630 nr^RT: MefehWM i ijj MAlat. V, p. 72 irf^ i fc»jrt»»u^fi < T HqpH - 
vn^TT: (do you long for Madayantik& P) ; R. 3, 47, 30 gen. with w^;j f ? r. 
81, 4. In the archaic dialect many more verbs may be construed 
with the gen. of their object. P&nini prescribes its being used 
with a) all verbs of remembering'); b) rrPT when rz. »to desire, '55, * 
to hope," cp. 120»<^;0 fi^o verbs of injuring viz. ^hh/jTi , nrrt 
Pm^rj^ , a7»T^, fqq^f d) the verbs of illness — fever excepted — as ^^ • 
^frTTQ' ^irfTT* As he does not add that the gen. with them is restricted 
to the holy texts, it is likely, that it was used so in his days, but that 
it has antiquated afterwards. Sieckc p. 50_52 of his treatiHO on the 
vedic genitive has given tome examples of its being used in the 

1) Tet Bhatt. 17 , 10 it complies with a gen., see Petr. Diet. «. v. p. 1386. 
80 io a prilkrt passage of the Uttararftmacaritra p. 19 QfJ^lQ^J 17^ 
M^ f j W^H^^W 3 IMil^UI >R&.iDa has rosde us forget king Da9aratha.*' 

2) Panini (2,3,52) speaks of mltim , that is »a11, which mean to think 
of.** In classic Saoskrit I greatly doubt instances will be found of any 
other verb but KT. 

90 § 121-122. 

Ri^edaimDhitA with raeh verlM m vv^, vf^i f^i ir7 ete. With 
^pi' (to know; to be aware of, to experience) it often ocean in 
the brAhmana-worki. Ait Br. 2, 39^ 11 tnuft ^ ftP^lsfZl: ^ f^fimt^W^' 
As to the foresaid verbs of injuring, in the RAmAyana also ^spf^ 
(to touch) is construed with a gen., 2, 75, 31 nart w^m <n^> likewise 


Rem. According to P. 2, 3, 51 the rerb frr is construed with 
the gen. of the instrument (karana), then ffr must not be equi- 
Talent with %^. K&9. gives this example Mputil ?[Tn^ = jetTw »(ijm 
{FspiPr. It is not sufficiently plain, what is here the meaning of irr *)• 
X39« 5, The wager with verbs of playing or betting, the purchase* 
money with those of buying and selling is to be put in the gen., 
according to P. 2, 3, 57—60, thus exemplified by K&(;. sdrTCT 5Ua^( Pf 
or qorr or ^TjyjpT. Instances of this rule applied in literature if 
they occur at all, must be scanty. ') With the compounds of f^jsf^ 
the gen. is told to be optional — wj^ or ^ U(^6uff i — , in the 
br^hmaqa the simple f^ is construed with the ace. of the wager, see 
P. 2, 3, 60 with comm. 

1) Cp. the Greek rvyx^Msv, liyyivtiv and aim. For the rest, objective 
genitives with verbs of touching , desiring , remembering are common to the 
whole Indo-germanic family and the most probable ezp>ication, which 
may be given of them is to consider them as having had nt the ontnot 
the character of partitive geniti?6ii. Their fate has been the same in 
Santk'rit at in its sittter-tongues. In the ancient literature they are re- 
latively common ; but gradually they decrease by time both in frequency 
and in extent, and modern Sanskrit has but retained a few remnants of 
that old and once widely-spread idiom. 

2) So the K&vikii. It proffers also a different explication, according to 
which m with gen. « vto ween, to fancy,** for (iim i HMMTlMMd . Patau- 

jali has not expounded the sutra. For the rest , as it runs thus fft 
<s^r;;iW vrnitt nothing impedes reading it rather ^ f^i^ffm vr^. 
Then it is said just the contrary : frr when « ^nr complies with a gen. 
and in fiict, in the ancient dialect frr was not rarely construed so. 

8) A pr&krt passage in Mrcch. II, p. Cd^rrnjsrnnT^^ ^^^^l"" ^^' 
ZW^3[^fm ^TT JfTfTf:! (this player is detained for 10 tuvarnas) may 
afford an instance of it. 

§ 128—124. 91 

L23 6. Verbs ot fidneaa^ repletion^ iatUfaetion ^ as '^Mlrf* 

f|^, ^^ are often construed with a genitive , but more 
commonly with the instrumental. Cp. Latin vas plenum 

tnni vel vino^), Ezamplei of thegenit Su^r. 1, 116, 14 sprim^mn 
{^jtrrn^ (the face is bathed with tears), Pane. I, 148 rnfnmczrf^ 
9iIVMI ri i niiMl iT^tjrf5^:i H l >d» ; MdijHM l ii^ (fire gets not satiated of 
wood, nor the ocean of rivers , nor death of mortal beings). 

NB. But the gen,, of the |>er«on, towards whom kindness is shown 
with gmfTi , ^, unlt^^fH and other similar words is of a different 
kind (181). Mhbh. 1, 229, 32 mt^ ffm ^: (he became well-dis- 
posed to this brahman). Pane. 314 y; Md l ^4^ (I Am satisfied with 
you), R. 1, 33, IS hwiv}V;> ^^isrj^: *)• 

Rem. 1. Yedic mantras contain many instances of other similar 
verbs — as g^, xtt-, of^ etc* — being construed so. Sibcki, p. 44 sq. 

Rem. 2. With Hmfn the loc. is also available. Da^^. 174 mn 
<|i6i l rtmirjU]H (he ate it all). . 

7* With several verbs the genitive does the duty of 
an ablative* See 126. 

8. With several verbs the genitive does the duty 

of a dative. See 131 , 132. 

24. ni. A genitive with adjectives is frequently 

[fj*j* used. When attending adjectives akin to transitive verbs , 

;jj^ it is an objective gen., as Kathas. 29, 55 ^ f^RTTSfPTOT 


ZJA^A (old age, which will destroy this beauty). Among 
them are to be especially noticed: 

1) Both gen. and instmm. seem to be old idioms. Yet it will Heem, 
that the gen. with words of fulneu has got out of use powadajs. R. 2, 89, 17 
frfi^Tjqr beiog coostraed with a gen. — JTrfhmnfiOTTftj WlfllFT [sc. nrrsT:] 
crrrfliw srrf?Rn^ — the commentary deems it necessary to explain the idiom : 
JTlfHu: qxnf ^WTCnf:. Cp. the similar process in Latin (Qnintil. 9, 3, 1). 

2) So Eath&s. 27, 206 }T7t<sf^ STT^; the interpanction in Brockhaus, 
edition is here wrong. 

92 § 124. 

1. Those of knowledge^ $kiU , experience and the con«> 
trary (as ?rf^, ^FTfHST, •*riWH[) and Sf^ {wwi to). 

ICodr. I, p. 34 m^ Jsm\vfi>m\ wwf^ *^^^6ua^ i ( i mi (bravo, my child , 
you ar« well acquainted with the practice of the world), R. 1, 20, 24 
M4JW li|i w% l fd< ; (not skilled in battles); — R. 2, 51, 3 jRirft 5Pr. 
A'J i Miif^ (people who are accustomed to trouble). 

Examples with others: Mudr. IV, p. 146 iSi\\ rm^ inrcr (impa* 
tient of the burden), KAm. 8, 22 ^ fg^p??] jrf^ MdMf6H>MH^ (he 
must speak so as to rejoice all beings). 

NB. With the adjectives of knowledge and «/-f7/ and 
with some others the locative is also used (142).^) ^J 

2. t4IMT1 (depending on) and ^r?) (clinging to). Pane 
231 n^rrirw: ^ tifU^ i ^ ; (that remedy depends on you), ibid. 277 
5W»iTOr n* f»f«'*^<[ifWRff Hf^WJU (give up that, which you have 

taken belonging 'o him). 

3. 'JTir (full) and its compounds. See 123. 

4. Those of likeHeaa and equality. See 61. 

1) The K&9ik& em interpreting this sAtra so as to take Vim and 

QSSOFT, as if they meaot hnt these two words, though it is evident , that A0O 

categories of words are meant by P&nini, that of » occupation** (VTTlvr) and 

that of » skill" (TOTW;. The rule given 1, 1, 68 — ^ ^ Vt^W I U I M,MW » 
— in commonly interpreted in too narrow a sense. It does not purport that 
any word occurring in PAnini's text, but for a sanjndt docs signify but the word 
itself, not its synonymt — if this were so , we should have to enregister its 
violation every moment -~ but simply this: with the exception of such 
algebraical signs , as ^ « 997 , ? « 07 , 7 "■ the suffixes of the grades of 
comparison, lim., the sounds and words of which the vy&karana-sQtra is 
made up, are to be understood such as they are uttered. But it is left 
to the common sense of the reader to infer in each separate case , whether 
the word contained in the grammatical rule is meant as to its outer 
shape or as to its meaning, whether it is to denote but one or a whole 
class of words of the same purport , as irnpfi and !R!JT?T evidently «to here. 
For the rest, the vernacular grammarians themselves are obliged to 
admit of exceptions on their own interpretation of P. 1, 1, 68. See but 
the v&rtt. on that sutro. 

§ 124-128. 93 

Rem. Note f^rfhr with gen., when snbst. = >the match, the 
eounterpart** Pat. I, 445 igm ihRfHiV i W ; (i^ other ox ii wanted like 
thU), Kath&i. 25, 178 <i^I^eHr|<j | i<nu ft??^ 23T^ ^ (^ ^^^^ ^^^^ y®" 
myself the match of this foot-ornament). 

5. A great number of axljectives admit of the dative- 
like genitive, see 129. 


25. IV. Sometimes the genitive is available in such cases 
^ as do properly belong to the category of the ablative, if 
* ^^ there be at the same time room for the conception of 

.belonging to" and that of .proceeding from." Of the 
kind we have already mentioned two instances, viz. 1. 
the genitive of origin (113), 2; that of the starting- 
point (98 , B. 1 and 2). The latter is not limited to the 
!<>■• cases, mentioned above, but is sometimes used side 


rith by side with the ablative even with such nouns as 
the "^ r .... 

"*• 3fr^, ^Rnr etc, Vishnup. 2, 3, ^ ^w^ ^f^j^ (north of the 

26. On this account we may understand how the genitive 
is sometimes used instead of the ablative with a) verbs 
of aakiny , toishing^ taking^ receioing etc, b) of hearing ^ 

learning y c) of being a/raid of. 

a). The abL is here the regular idiom; the gen. not frequent, 

M RAjai 1, ISl ^itIvhwi g?f?TV Qd^ i udj i^wym ^rrfe^^p^ imrw, 

R. 1, 28, 10 v^t^ Tm (accept of me), M 4, 87 jTSf: vfhr^jfTr 'jwm- 
v^ l iMdfHH ; ( — accepts of a king, who is avaricious and a trans- 
gressor of his royal duty). Pane. 225 v^mx m\;,mwi ifgiTO^- 
Rmiiij. So already in the archaic dialect. Gaut. 17, 1 qur^rTTTt 
5srawg fidir?Mi jn^nfr ^mn uPi;|^<!H (a brahman is allowed to 
eat and to accept presents from twice-born men of good behaviour); 

h) R. 6, 31, 2 Ti i j i u i l TTarnr: ^f?7T ffTj prT^(RAvana after having 


94 § 126-127. 

heard fW»ni hU spies the arriTftl of RAma), ibid. 3, 3^ 4 f^asfhr snr 
(be informed from me). So sometimes with grv^ (op. 86«)i m 
R. 2| 100, 7 VkfiKM^MjUM f^: 

c) R. 2, 29, 4*7r5r ^ f^ f^*^ (all are afraid of you), Pane, 
ni, 195 m Hil i fiiM fnm^ (she, who has always an aversion to me). 
R. 3, 46, 29—31 affords an instance of both eonstruetions together: 

Rem. Compare P i rdum (disgusted with) with a gen. Pane. 
^'"•J 171 Mg^hifUlw Pifsium i <<H^ (1 am disgusted with the flesh of mice), 
ite en- cp. 97 , R. 

Lent Now and then this abl.-like genitive seems to have 
J^n been extended beyond its limits by abuse , especially of 
Ji^ modern writers'). 

127. Note the genitive being used in some turns of phrase, 
which might be put as well in the category of the abla- 
tive as in that of the genitive. 

1) But Dot exclugivelj. The older literatare does not lack of instan- 
eea, as R. 3, 51, 27 ^rs^' ^KTWnin w iUikrikfi [instead of yf^mzDiftvi^; 
cp. 3, (>6, 1 1 . — A very striking example is Bhftg. Pur. 8, 6, 21 uuHlfMI^,^ 217^ 

fyi<iriiiif^^(Uj^iij[^i nm i^nm & <*'d4'3*^^*^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^'^ ^^^ B^n* w 

abuHiTelj emplojetl instead of the abl. eimirMIHIrjU M. Dk SAUsauaK , from 
whoae valuable treatiiie de Vemploi du geiutif ah$olu en Sanscrit I borrow 
thitt example (see hia note oo p. 10), proves the impossibility of account- 
ing for that gen. in. a satisfactory way , when starting from the absolute 
construction. Hereby it is however not said that the presence of the 
participle qTrT has not moved the author of the Bbuguvata to employ the 
genitive instead of the ablative. Likewise I scarcely believe Kalhana wonld 
have used a gen. with ^jFeT (R&jat. 1, 131, see 126 a), if the noun were 

not attended by a participle. Similarly with ^ the gen. is preferred , if it be 
wanted to express the hearing somettodij say or utter something^ as Mbbh. 
1,141,18 wn SR/ft vm* in short, it is likely , that the relative frequency 
of genitives of participles in Sanskrit style , especially if compared to the 
rareness of similar ablatives , has favorized the spreading of the ablative- 
like genitive. 

It may alM> be noticed , that in most of such cases pronouns are concerned. 

§ 127—128. 95 


1 a gen. with Terbt of iptokinff ete. to denote him, aboui trAom 
•omething U said, m Pane. 82 Hi| i <OMm i t&fe i 9^ (to he speaks' 
of rae y who am howoTer guiltless '). . 

2° with ^TTorH^ and the like =r »to expect of^ to suppose o/l** 
Mrcoh. IX, p. 297 ^Jum mm ^neOTr (that blockhead is capable 
to everything), Pane. 84 -jt d i gtt^(.muii*ia(d^ if^ ^irai^ (of such 
men one must not suppose such conduct). But the locative is bore 
also available. 

3** with wi^ (to forbear of) etc. R. 1, 16, 7 t^ rim wm^i Pat. 
I| P* 40 UH<eii^MlJ^«*** ^czTrTTi^ — When without object, the 
gen. with 5iT;(]r^ may be considered a dative-like one , as Mhbh. 1, 79, 9 
fu i mm i fumie^j i^ :t Wffm gwirrr (a nian who wishes his wellbeing 
should not forbear a scholar, who does not behave as such). 

28. The time-denoting genitive is likewise standing on 

iJSt ^^® ground of the ablative, for it does always express 

fP' after what time something is happening. It is usually 

restricted to some fixed terms, as F^^TPT or T^"^PT ^" 

5TW = f^HT^ > ^S^rlW = ^s^rllrl etc. g&k. VII tutitt- 
fTRFfV sft" iiuudUi faR l >nM<mi ehwfMrf».Mm [•after a while"] ?r^T- 
\ \ A\x\ \ \^tm (vjt^ Irtlrti 1 R'il^N \ l^l ^fnr, Mhbh. 1, 47, 14 ghPwJJ l ^^VJ (after 
some days), R. 2, 118, 44 grhfer g <f>MW \ mcTi ^q ?^ iff ***< ' * ' <^ ' 

Rem, 1. It is very rare, that a not-time- denoting word is put 
in this gen., as Ven. I , p. 14 qxr fu i '; il |oi = WK ^in^i \ **\\^^di \ \i Ti (since 
my very infancy). 

Rem. 2. A time-denoting word may be attended hy the genitipe of a 
noun -j- participle. By this is denoted the time »siace** some action 
has come to pass. Hrcch. V, p. 172 Rq-: m^ ?fiT»fV ^3pjm eiH>fHM i- 
mi ^l9tTsr i i riw (it is indeed a long time, Maitreya is gone to V.), 
Mudr. IV, p. 13i fPT 5wft *jm^ li f l i<rwjHm (it is to day just the 
tenth month since father died), Ven. I, p. 25 qrv 9iT ^ wm rTW^T' 
oJriTT: ITTJPTT: fi^. . . wnniT ^ 9ffWTT (Sir, it is some time Mylady stays 

1) See De SAUiisuaE 1.1. p. 54 M. 

96 § 128—129. 

here, but yea have not noticed her), Pane. SOS f^qir^ i tfwtfe i Hv 
rnVf VtU IT, ^72; B. 8, 60, 20 1). 


129. 7. The genitive serves also to denote him, who is 

uk^^ concerned by the action or fact , the so-called remo/e object. 

^^i. This kind of genitive, as it stands on the same 

']|[|[||^ ground as the dative, I name dative-like genitive. 

a'wm- Partly it may be substituted to the dative, but in a 
■io^*. great number of cases the dative would even be unavai- 
lable, at least in classic Sanskrit, especially, if the 
person concerned is to be expressed in auch sentences^ 
an ichere. the predicate is nominat {jtubatantive or adjective). 

In such turns as Kathfls. 29, 98 ^^l^^l ^ HPiWf TTrT- 
T^ ^Jlri: (for virtuous wives the only path to follow 

here and hereafter is their husband). Pane- II, 58 

HN^JHI ^: IJ} fClM'^lP^HR (what is too heavy for 
the vigorous 1 what danger does exist for the audacious 1 
what is a foreign country for the learned 1 who is unat- 
tainable for the flatterer?) the genitive is the regular 
idiom , and the dative out of use. Likewise the genitive 
— not the dative — is to be employed, >vith adjec- 
tives of friendnhip and enmity , fitness and unfit nt^as , (food 

and ecil etc . as Pane 331 ^TPT HrWIW'i FRT WX\ 

(a fish-dinner is always welcome to him), ibid. 213 


R" Mn» ^T^FT* (it does not suit you). 

1) This idiom extends also to adj€ctiot»t *^<^ at participle*. Utt. Ill, 
p. 57 ^mx VMU nnTlt CT^: Mf^olKI^: (it is now the twelfth your, 
that the world is destitute of lU queen). 

i 129. 97 

Sxamplat: KomAr. 8, 10 A qiT irf^Rt s^ (who are other arehers 

to meF), Mreoh. VIII p. 246 n^J ^fjj^iciw. imfh ^;^ srr 

Ksfft (the God of Love ii either mild for an honest man or he 

does not exist for him), Khbh. 1, 141, 36 irfiltnrTT irfipziTTT ^^nT^ 

(we shall be unknown to the people), Pane. 200 tiyj i ifd i f^^u rrfm ^ 

^i Vt^rnhr: (one mast not take it ill of a messenger, if he speaks 

plain), QkV. IV ^gfan^mf^ (^^u i rtej i mm inThf nxr: (do not oppose 

your husband by anger, even when offended). 

^Uk ' Among the adjectives , which comply with a gen., note such as 

m. tTTfg, «H«htfl and ufnih^ji, fwr and fgft^r, mrn, nm — and even the 

f^ verb mtm (to suit) — and their synonyms. So Nala 1, 19 9^- 

**• wrffr 7^ fer^i Pane- IH 104 mrfm: ufP(^<yi i fH q^ ^ ^ m-^^d^ (one 
should not do to others, what is grievous to one*s self), Mrcch. 
Ii p. 58 «J>iOP^j eiiiMUi jj^ (this house is not fit for a deposit), 
ibid. X, p. 355 T^^mrf rfcT muwr^rti i ; i;, M&lav. IV, p. 96 ^jTirfRriH T ^tott 
r!T: uu i ^ l (and cold is excellent against this ailment), Mhbh. 1, 15, 4 
?W. ?TOTr K^VJhkH (the same to all beings), M&lav, IV, p. 88 ^ 1^ Qij<i|) 
^^m^FP^ (who is so disinclined to me?), ibid. Ill, p. 75 qdfqliH I dri i 
ghlf*j«-i i *j [ ^ (80 much suffices for persons in love). 

So ^rpr and -sfkrft when = »becoming to, suiting.** R. 2, 30, 41 

I jRiri*^5Hf<}(t<^';miMH^>^ti<)*<^ ' ^^ *® ^ *°^ 'PT^ cp. the foot-note 
on p. 40 of this book. Note also v^jUt ^^ ®^^* ^^^^ a gen. =: 
^guiltless towards**, as R. 2, 49, 7 ?nTrTm?nr:» M. 9, 106 fq7Tinm'7ilT: 
(having paid his debts to the pitaras). 

Rem. 1. Panini teaches, that with participles in ^n the genitive P.S,8, 
must be used, and not the lustrum, of the agent, if the participle 
is employed as a present one. Such genitives as jjfif qfj: (approved 
by the kings), pift gf^: (honored by the kings) fall within the 
limits of this rule. See Mhbh. 1, 141, 36 and Q&k. IV quoted 
above , and cp. Qkk. II faf^fft i ic4UnH4mi<i,ifM<^W ; (your staying here 
is known to the hermits). 

Rem. 2. On the genit. with krty4s see 66 R, According 
to P. 2, 3,69 the genitive is forbidden with the krts ^jspttt, that 
is such as u^n^ hir^i (cp. P. 3, 3, 126 sq.). Kkq, gives as examples 


M § 129—181. 

fv^jRi[V nam 9sr. (^« n^t is leareely to be made hj joa), •hamTV, 
#xit il9^« So R. 8^ 5, 23 9t^ ^^H QkTTsqr »II5^: y<^uh|H: ^"^ ^*®*' 
howerer, ^^9^*1 <uh^i ^^T^i ^*r ato ofton oonitraed with the ge- 
Bitive. Da^. 72 ftmin^ ^i^sr g^ni:, R. 2, 97, 7 ^ nxr »T^ jsSmt, 
Kath&i. 24, 65 f^RT :mr BmTOW f^ JJW^* 

180i When used with the verb substantive expressed 

ukiT or implied, the dative-like genitive is not seldom 

SLw. ^^v^^^^i^t to our verb to have. Pat. I, 427 one aska 

the other ^TfrT H^rrTJ ^: I ^rfFT ^rarft >TFTT: (how 

many children have you? how many wives ?)• Cp. the Latin 

phrase eat mihi fiiius. Ait. Br. 7, 13, 1 nw ^ si^ mor ^nrg.) 9&^ 
I «f^ TTT ^^9^ u ' ^yjijh (I have something else to ask you about), 
Pane. 166 fp?nr luiuu irnr iicrfH (men make money, if they go 
abroad). Likewise in such terms as f^ TTsn^^ (what hate I [to 
meddle, to do] with him?), cp. 88 R. 2. 

131. The dative-like genitive attends even on verbs, ^cch. 
\S^^ X, p. 375 JWm mMWHyiMrllH (what is to be done 

4^ to this wicked man?) and ibid. X, p. 384 JWm IWT: 

l5tJMrn*l (what is to be done for this monk ?) are striking 
examples of the sixth case used so. It is especially verbs 
of doiny good or evil (as 3^, 3H^, ?TT^, ?rT(P{)> 

T^RTfJ^ (to trust), ^^ (to forbear) and some others. which 
partake of this idiom , its concurrent construction being 
the locative , rarely , if at all , the dative *). 

Examples: R. Gorr. 4, 38, 47 frRTOrmqWoft jm (Ri l jM^^ (you 

I) As to VTp^i 3^rri| VTT^i fdViolMj I do not remember haFiDg met 
with aoy initance of their agreeing with a datire; ^r[^ governs a dative 
Bhatt. 4,39. Upon the whole, the dative of profit and damage within 
its narrower limits is verj scarce in Sanskrit, cp. 84. 

§ 181-^182. 99 

must gaard your kingdom by doing well to your friends), ibid« 3, 1, 16 
jTBm w^ (offered hospitality to R.), Pane. 289 fap nqrr /tmiwd i fu 
^T(T^7nx^(in what have I injured her or youP), ^^k. VII ^qn^^*^ 
^f^ RaT^lSTTT: fftfjsm (I haTO sinned against the reverend Kanva), 
Pane. 38 9 q q>mfi<Q>VdfHfd (he trusts nobody), Mhbh. 1, 23, 26 
wSt^ 7: tnn^lffm (be merciful to ns , who beseech thee), M&lat, VII , 
p. 126 d i^S^i liifl^Hdd^JM P^ n' SEnfnr (the wind declares to the young 
men the nearness of young women). 
Rem. In Latin, with such turns as adimo vesiem servo or 

aerviy civium or civibus dolor audits esty the dative and the ge- 
nitive are both available. Sanskrit invariably uses the 
genitive. Pane. II, ui sm^ f^ ftiwrf^ 9TOf% :t *i> ii ^ ; \7t fi^ 

f^f^W gjw ufdU l PH jw «pT: (it is by exertion, that enterprises 
are successful, not by wishing, doer do not enter the mouth of 
a sleeping lion), ibid. p. 145 f^^Tpnrtsf^ M^i'j^^MU tnm^ ?pcn (H. 
made his reverence to M.), ibid. 137 qxr in^ tHtt: tmm (I have 
got great pleasure). 

I. Finally , the genitive t^ allowed to attend all verbs , 


Si as are commonly construed with the dative of concern. 
X Such a genitive may be not \vithout affectation '), it is 

1) So at least is the opinion of Akakdorax Borooah (§ 212 of his ^Higher 
Sanskrit Crammar'*) ~and his opioion may be considered to hold good nowa- 
days in India with Sanskrit-writing people — »the gen. is also occasionally 
Hied for the Dat. or Indirect Object , especially by pedantic writers** and »it 
will be seen from the above examples that sach use besides being pedantic , 
is very ambiguous.**- The ambiguity, however, cannot be very great, for 
as a rule the context will show us how to accept soch genitives, and 
in such cases , as where the context would not enable us to understand him 
plainly, a good writer will avoid all ambignous constrnctions. That 
the dative-like genitive has been known and employed in India of old 
— though not to the extent, it has got in the classic dialect — may 
be seen from some of the examples quoted above. As with other concur- 
rent idioms, there is many an instance of both cases used together, as 

R. 2, 34, 6 irrf^ ^p7f?T h 2?t: I ^n^miwit w^ ^ q^ 3J i' 4j l fd i > ii n^ , schol. 

iMdifc i ^ll ^ TP^XV ^wr. In the comment of Kri9. on P. 3, 3, 1 11 the printed 

100 § 132. 

of frequent oceurrenoe in literature*). So it is found 
with 1. verbs of ymny^ offering^ 2. of telling^ tpeaking^ 
3. of carrying^ sending ^ 4. of shounng^ 5. of enjoining , 6. of 
prompting ^ 7. oi pleanng^ 8. of being angry ^ 9.. of bowing^ 
prostrating one's self ^ etc. 

Example! : 1. Ch. Up. 2, 22, 5 «rt i q?^|iWM < lf(<<S^ l P l (!«* me iar- 
render myielf to Pr.), Pane. 85 x^tn rT^zrr*m ci^w>T (I h^Ye granted 
him safety), ^^^ ^ ^ WM^ mi Pi t l>j*ft<l>?iqw<lf?l, Mrcch. II, p. 80 
w^^H ' ^'^, '^ gsrorm^ oire^ (give but to this very fellow ten 
other piecei of gold). 

2. Mhbh. 1, 12,6 ^^ fqj: (he told hii father^). Pane. 292 
gh » KjiW i tf> ^W^rT^optPrm (relate us of your adventures in foreign 
countries), Mrcch. I, p. 45 jj^ 5 i mm i J'<<l(i<^w > !l iM r w(ti , Pane. 
246 nnJ^: craTcT n?crT rj,j^ ^ mmi f^tmi^ (**>««* *l»«y went all and addressed 
the king of frogs), ibid. 62 ^ rt^HliuJ^Jm^lM d^y ^ M^im i vmm S[^ 

3. i^&k. Ill ei.wi<*jj?n i.j<^g> i iimMejf^ ^ >iRi^Tiqq i fu i ^tait (to 
whom are carried .P), ibid. IV rTFTT trnm qf:ij<{ i j ; (having sent 
her now to her husband). 

4. Kath&s. 29, 18 g ^^um^mi ; ^rfirvnr: (she showed her the puppetfc). 

5. Pane. 289 fr ^ ipT M*l l P^'«^«|^ (and he prescribed me), (^Ak. lY 
il fIl><lKH qn i i| l <';w (show the way to your sister). 

text has iznf Ux^r^ VjSk, the other reading grr^ is mentioned in a 

1) In the vulgar dialects the dative has got obsolete, and the genitive 
has been substituted to it, the few traces of a dative in Prilkrit litera- 
ture being owed to the artificial language of dramatic poetry. See 
Lassen Inst. Unguae pracritieae , p. 299, Varakuci PrdkrtaprakSga 6, 64. 
Ki'HN Beitragt zur Pali Grammatikf p. 70 sq. gires an account of the remnants 
of the datiTC in Pali, which are more considerable, than in the other 
pr&krts, and contaia both iufinitivea in ^tave aad datives in °d^a, 
especially atthaya =; skrt arthdjfa; as a rule, the pali dative serves to 
denote the purpose. The same process hos been at work in Modern Qreek. 
ScuiXAS, Grammaire elementaire du grtc moderne^ Paris, 1829 p. 90: »Ieg^ 
nitif sert de regime indirect aux verbes et rem place le datif: ton |cf» 
^mni doane-moi du pain , kiym rtO npntlO r^v ^iflfuw je dis an juge la v^rit^** 

§ 182, 132*. 101 

6. IC. 9, 99 ^ptm llfminr <{>n>/jm $«A (she hai been promised 
to one and giren to another). 

7. Pane. 235 f^ nsr jWr rcr (does he please yoaF). 

8. R. 2, 100, 33 ipn iwi: oit^rf^ (8er?ants are mo? ed with anger 
against their master), (JJAk. VII *<*[MiH^jf | jf^: 

9. Var. Yog. 2, 32 ^^srm mu i mPh nmf: (people bow to one), R. 
n, sarga 96*, 47 riiqHf^Uh l ^lUcim M^lrMH ; (the crow prostrated himself 
to the magnanimous R&ma). 

Rem. EYon ^t^t (to belioYe) b met with gen. Ait. Br. 1, 6, 
H :t ^dHi T<>n>tiul nMjAy i i^i ho does not belioTO others, howoTor many). 

8^. The dative of the purpose is not interchangeable With 
the genitive^) 

. 1) In the pr&krts even then. It is singalar, that an observer as accn* 
rate, as P&nini is, should have overlooked the important fanction of the 
dative-like genitive. A rule of his, indeed, mentions the sixth case 
^nvT^ sr^iT (2, 3, 62), but the word ^^f^ added and the examples 
proffered bj tradition show that according to the vulgar interpretation 
we have here a very special enjoinment, closely connected to the pre^ 
ceding sdtra (61), not ose of general bearing. Yet I ^proatly doubt 
^he exactness of that explication, by which the word ^TftTT^ is quite 

superfluous , as ^ddU'lu^^M needs must be repeated from s. 61, and this 
suffices for the vulgar interpretation. Perhaps we may remove the 
technical difficulty by an other distribution of the words, that make up 

sfltra 61—63. When read uno tenore, we get uui^cT l ^^fdtf^ <cJHKiU<i,UI 

^m^ U^ ^^{k\ oiriT vrnrt. it would be convenient both to the in* 
temal probability and to the simplicity of the interpretation , it they are 
divided in this but slightly different manner: 61.auj^cri<^fd'il ?^drlK'lU<l^) 

62. Md^f ^ ^^^S^> ^^' ^<^ 2^^ qr^' According to this partition.P&nini, 
after having given in 61 a special rule about the gen. being employed 
in some formulae of sacrificing, adds in 62 the general enjoinment that 
in many cases t cohere the datire is required — mark -drivu vj, which encompass* 

es by far more than mu^M — the genitive is likewise available , either by 

preference, or optionally^ but not in aU, For thus is the meaning of 5rd«i|: 

yf^mqfw: f fe^Tiqfw: jfef2>;TnT y fH<s.;u4a 
fevfawT?r oswT vrnvi ^srrfgw qtc^!* arf:?? 

(see BoiTUUKGK Panini II , p. 82). — As to sQtra 63 ^t^S^ mv CR^HTf 
it offers no difiBculty in itself, but disturbs the methodical arrangement 

102 S 188. 

Chapter Yin. LooatlTe •)• 
183. The seventh case or locative serves to signify the 

five of scene of the action. Its power is expressed by English 
where, prepositions, as iuj on, ai, amwg^ with^ hy^ near. It 
has not only the duty ofpointing out the spot where, 
but also the spot whither. In other terms, someti- 
mes it answers Lat. in with abl, sometimes in with 

A. Locative of the spot where. — Here we must 
make the following distinctions. 
a) the locative conveys the notion of being wiiiin , in. 

M. 1, 9 Hf^Vitf ^cTT 5T^T (in this [egg] Brahman himself was born), 
Da^. 156 n^iMff T fer<^ (sporting in the water of the Qanges), 
ibid. 179 ^rrr^if^ftsr^r^ x^ fent Zj^' 

d.) it denotes a surface, trodden or touched: on ^ upon ^ 
ovetf at. Pane. 307 p^.r: srfio'jnr wuiu i ^\ (an ass was seen on 
that cemetery), B. 3, 6, 10 sznrr] ix^ srTprfHirt wgin^ ^ qwfrr 
(courtesans, holding fans, waYed them OYer his head), Pane. 331 
^ ^ W^n snfir «nxnTRT fm^ (and those fishes are being boiled over 

of the rulefi which treat of the employment of the genitive (2, 8, 50—78). 
For this reason I consider it an additional rule, interpolated at an im- 
proper place — we had rather expected it between s. 51 and 52 — 
so ai to obscarate by its close following the sdtra 62, the right 
understanding of the latter. That there are several rules in our P&ninif 
which did not belong to the original work, but were at the outset 
v&rttikus, which afterwards have been taken up in the text, is a 
fact now universally acknowledged. As concerns the s. 63, I remark, 
thitt many other vaidik gen. partitives with verbs (110) are not mentioned by 
P&nini, and that the seeming anomaly of 9?|[^(cp. 45 R.) must have 
drawn special attention for all that regarded that verb ; in a time as early 
as Patanjali, it was already coodidered to have something peculiar, see 
hU comment on P. 1,4, 32= Pat. I, p. 331 (in the Eri9ika his words are 
wrongly indicated as if they were a v^rttiku). 

1) See DsLBaQcK Aldaliv, LacaUt^ JnstrumentalU p. 27—49. 

§ 188-184. 108 

the fire), Daf. 140 f^ % fe&wwt »jjr froV^Jgj^ (my fkther laid 
down on the naked earth), ibid. 141 fS?^ ^^. 

c.) it signifies the dominion or territory: t«, ai^ on, 
Latin apud^ in. Pane. 1 vfm i \ (ii i muu !i?n^ iin(^i(1 t <i m^ nxr^, 
ibid. 319 ji?a^ <^6itjq*fRd (in the royal palace there was a flock 
of rams) , Kum&ras. 5, 60 q^ ^ ^m (fruits are seen on the trees). 

Bo (TSrm (in the country of the Panc&I&s), w;i^fn^^ (at Benares), 
Mhbh. 1, 31, 18 «<ifI|r^fM^ci^i SirT: (he has boon made Lord oYor 
the three worlds); cp. Ill R. 

d.) it indicates something very near, though not di« 

rectly touched: near^ m^ about •). Mhbh. 1, 170, 3 mM^.n^^ t 
muj«^i<H r; (P&ndu*s sons pitched tents near the Ganges), Hitop. 
29 7TX ^iA \ ^ \ [mx^\A ricT ctI^ cmq i ^RiMJldl (otherwise I will kill my- 
self by starvation at your door). So K&d. I, p. 39 inr is used, 
while meaning » about which spot** 

e.) it is expressive of among y amid. Nala i, 13 n ^ ^ 

irag H l g:JiMdfr i frf%rT^i MMqgfij ^^T^ f^^o^^ STT ^rTT (neither among 
devas nor yakshas nor men nor among other beings such a beauty 
has been seen nor heard of anywhere), Da^. 124 niTzrer JudMMSfrjq 
srnrf (this report spread among the townsmen and the countrymen). 
Cp. lie. 

All these variegations are mixed] up in the general 
notion, carried by the seventh case. Greater precision, 
if wanted , may be obtained by using periphrasing turns , 

as the prepos. ^FrTJ (within), or such words as ^1^> 

FR', 77, ^4i^i>l, ^fFPTT, etc. See 165. 190. 192. 

14. B. Locative of the spot whither. It attends of course 

Tot on verbs and verbal nouns of moving, such as to go^ 

•pot to %tart , to lead, to send. Ch. Up. 2, 24, 5 to & ad<r i > i w 

or. C^TCFT Lf ii f^fi (I shall go to the world of him, in whose behalf the 

sacrifice is performed), Pane. 82 1 n niox x nrT: (he set out to the 

forest), ibid. 41 MjigcirfTPf nn^ Vf^m-.^ ibid. 269 gm u i wM roRTT^ nTfT: 

"» % 

1) This is the so called mnwx WT^n* 

104 § 184, 1S4* 

(jwoL baTe Msdaeted me to a fine fpot), R. 1, 11, 24 ji^ iiCRnsim 

jTrrr (be lent metieiigert to the eltizens), R. 2,7,26 insn^ 

*4^ Tfcr <r^ after baYing remoYed Bharata to your kinsmen — ). 

io enter. Pane 283 x^f^ rrof fffaro, ibid. 62 fBRn e^ m 
fff^RTTfir (witb yon I will go into tbe fire). 

to fall on or in. R« 3, 18, 25 fwrm wmr, C^k. I ^: qrff^..... 
wmn^*iq (tbe dust falls on tbe trees of tbe bermitage). 

to submerge in. KumAras. 1, 3 ^ ^ ^dt nu i Mpimd P i *iyddi><0 ' 
fajii l fN<Li i i- : (for [tbat] one defect disappears in tbe contact witb 
bis Yirtues, like tbe moon's spot submerges in its beams). 

to throw in. Da^. 61 nafer awra* 5P«^ fwfSfTi Pane. 124 n 

to place — , to put in , upon. Mudr. m, p. 91 T^npf ^fv 
<rr n^ frjm (old age bas set its foot on your bead), Pane 146 
nw3[ f^iwjrk f^fvm (— put it in tbat Yory beggar's bowl), Mbbb. 
1, 40, 21 7m CTiJW t^' ^ wit jrm cnmraH, Apast. l, 15, 21 pjrot 
^ :fr77vnrr^ (nor sball be put [fire] under his bedstead). Metaphor: 
Prabodh. V, p. 112 in^rfrsff^ HiTorm ^wf^ P i dQ i H l; egf {jsmiT: 

to ascend. Katb&s. 29, 129 rrfr..... frry^ ?nr jm^ (the r&xast 
climbed in*o the tree). Metaphor: Pane. I, 266 ejfenN.... Mg^ i ^NUlrt 
infij?: (be, on whom the king fixes his looks). 

to strike f to hit. ?&k. I tiiHsiiuiia sr: wk ?r in^SsTrnrRrf KatbAs. 
28, 31 rt(w>vi^> l U I 4^>*|H1 (he stroke the holy man witb bis sword), 
M^cb. II, p. 83 fnnTPrt gf^nint ^^^^^» ^*"®« 295 n fu i (WH i iUfi^ 
And so on. 

Rem. Note ^ witb loc, a Yory common turn = »to pnt in 
or on,'* as pnsir, x^^ mrnrO, vf^ vr (to pot at the bead), sim. 

184*. The spot reached may also be denoted by the accusative. 

Compare witb the aboYo examples these: Ch. Up. 5, 3, 1 H{*(Pw(i i q 
(be came at the mooting). Pane. 143 td ' {Vi< i rmi mxr (after having 
put me on your back), QAk. I m \ a' \ rtldrufdv ii f^ etc. etc. 

]) Cf. P. 1, 4, 77, where it is taught, that (^^dihrtj gmnflh^ are to be 

used when =: vhaving married**, but ^^ m^n » having put ia tbe hand , — 
taken by the hand.** 

§ 184*— 186. 105 

So with verbs of goings bringing ^ carrying^ tending^ 
McemKng^ entering. Those, however, ot falling^ throwing^ 
placing^ fmtting — •■ wji fiw^ 5?j^» Ptdumfd , wtto^ — seem 
to be construed with the locative exclusively. On the 
other hand the accusative is obligatory , if ,to come to** 
is the metaphorical expression of ,to become** (236), 
and in some other standing turns, as ^*^(M i (^ » ^fd. 

According to what has been said 111, it is plain, 
tiiat nothing impedes locatives qualifying a noun. Such 

phrases as WJ t1Jnn*1l*i'UI RT^ are as good Sans- 
krit as , water in the pit,** »a boat on the river*' are 
good English. — Here the* genitive is concurrent. 

In some turns the locative is standing, as in divisions of lite- 
rary works as xf^ Jl^i^ i ^mu i a i f^qgTlq q^um^iuj q^UT: niT:, we say , 
the first sarga of the Aranyakhanda of the R&m&yana of ValmikL 

II. Both kinds of locative are applied in so many 
and in so manifold ways , as to make it hardly practicable 
to enumerate them all distinctly and completely. It 
may suffice to mention the most important and the most 
striking idioms: 

? 1. We will notice in the first place some peculiar 

> phrases. Of the kind are: 

to drink from. Pane. I, 327 5fftw: fer^ ^ ^qyRfXX^'M (men 
drink strong liquor even from a man's skull) i). 

.to feed on, Da^. 174 niw ^dUWHiMieir|tUH (he feasted on the 
rioe, without leaving anything). In metaphorical sense rjpm and 
the like • may also be construed with a locative. Hhbh. 1, 84, 2 
:t cjjt^sfer rfloi^. Cp« 123. 


1) See DsuaacK 1.1. p. 33. 

106 § 186—189. 

to he hem from ; to heget with. The mother is put in 
the locative. Cp. 100, 1. Kmn&raa. 1, 22 m Hw i y^myi- 

to reckon among. Da^. 199 wnKiniM^q (be was reckoned ampag 
the g^s). 

187. 2. The locative in which is put the person, with whom one 


74, 12 nrfmrt f^jejw i f^ ETFWsg :t frafr> Mudr. VII, p. 229 wx 
iiwrfcfr Fjir^^MM^*{fuH i: (I have stayed for some time with Mai.). 
So especially vrn ci^fH (he dwells with his spiritual father), Ch. 
Up. 4, 4, 3 57^pxr5 WTorf?r cifMi l f^ (▼. a. I will be the pupil of the 

i/* c^ice/fe, */fly*. Prabodh. VI, p. 123 ^nmxfi ?arfe d^fin«^ i fl^ (I 
^^ am without protector and wish to stay in your house), Mhbh. 1, 

138. 8. F^ or cTFT with loc = .keeping close to", that is 

^•'^ observing ^ obeying one's precept, principle, judgment etc. 
'^'*'" C&k. VI ;t ir smrr ffi^fo (you do not obey my order), Da^. 72 


mrpR cTrKcT (comply with tho wish of your mother), Cp. Lat. 9tat 

promissit , atat santentiA and K&(. on P. 1, 3, 23 x^ fh^ (it rests 

on mo = I am to decide.) 

189. 4. The locative, which serves to denote the thing 
^J^ touched. It is used with a) verbs oi faatening at — espe- 

\\tl cially 5F^ — as well in their proper as in a figurative 

*"* sense; likewise with the others, b) tho^e of clinging ^ 

adhering to^ as ^1^1, TFTT, H5 etc., c) of leaning on, 

relying on , truitting , e/) of seizing by , e) of falling at one^e 

feet — and in other similar locutions, as f. i. Eagh. 1,19 

RT^ ^4^rrr ^inrn (and the string , bent on the bow), 

CAk. VI 5f| *MHilW clHHdH '-ftUiMHHf TyfPT 
(an antelope's female, rubbing her left eye against the 
horn of her mule companion). 

^ Examples: a) Pane. 23S fT3r q?r qrcir ^si^xtv. ibid. 286 ^T^rpFi- 
A^**- Jioi i qi »n<m itott nffisniT, Fa«. I, p. 40 qr^nfir srzr, Bh&g. Pur. 4, 27, 10 

§ 189—140. 107 

^q^qgwin (he WM atttelied to wordliaeM), Bagh. 3, 4 m^mt^rmfs^ 

f^ SFETV (*1^6 bent her mind to such a deiire). 

of h) Pane. V, 8 wf^ \m^rl it'^P i oi^ i; (crowdg of people cling 

^itS" ^ ^ '^^^ man), ibid. 307 opif^Bnir^ vrsnn\ ^nid (one [of them] falls 

"*^ on his neck), Dag. 76 h^ » *ihi iTTcnnT (he fell in Ioyo with her), Ch, 

My. Up. 4, 14, 3 ^dfdf< ^717 9;xr ^ fwzr^ (no evil deed clings to him, 

who knows so), Pane. II, 131 s!7^rmTf^9j[jiT^~ (a hero, not addicted 

to vices). 

e) 1. to lean cm. B. 2, 46, 27 ^.. . . ^^uc^'^uj^g; uf^n i; (lest thoy 

should sleep, lying down on roots of trees). — With f^ and its 

compounds, likewise with ud i ^uj y the accus. is the regular con* 

struction, not the loc, especially in the metaph. sense »to apply 

one's self to somebody , to implore one's aid." — 2. to rely on. Pane. 

f w^ II, 194 :t Aiidf^ ?r ?TTH ^ ^^ '^ -eiiri^d I (oijyu^wi^ui: ^nt ukRisk 

"J^a* P l (>H( , ?&k. I ^^^a^fii fu i ftifi i > i| iHfi|r^jOfUJi %fT: (even those who pos- 

^<* sess strong learning, mistrust themselves). So with mvf i f i (to hope 

on), fduci^ (to trust), sim. Qdk. II htcrttt g^: ?ronfin^ wnf^ 

flr?r7 J i Jtiiri 9 sir (the gods have confidence in his bent bow and 
in Indra*s thunderbolt), Pane. II, 48 id'^aRifd ?T5{tT. Cp. 131. 
r Mu- d) Pane. 161 qnm ^ci^ (seized by the hand — ), Mrcch. I, p. 
!!^*'* 39 ^T^fTRTt iraig ij^trcTT, Kath&s. 29, 3 ^to fT?n^ (she laid her hand 
«y «/ on her neck). 
?J^' «) tn^TiT: qH^ is a standing phrase. See f. L Q&k. IV fqj: qr^; ott^. 

[40. ^* ^^^ locative, when used in the same way as English 
»• ?^* Jn him I see much skill." So Mhbh. I ^5 n-* i i e<<j i *^iRii» i Mifa^jMf<j 

!ttive * 

B ab- muQTT (I may expect all of him , he can do impossibilities) , yikk. 
t *^ 

II gfe<(^ i m inT!7T ^crrfzif^ (hunting is reckoned to be vicious in a 

prince), Prab. V, p. 109 mHUl l 4t><U I ^ ^: (there is no sin in giving 
a good counsel to the a£9icted), B. 2, 7, 10 sTxT^sfr fk^Cii <n^ 
jTsk m^<f (and she told Kubj& of the great happiness of K&ma). 
Bem. 1. When used as the predicate of the sentence, this 
locative is occasionally carrying the notion of » suiting , befitting." 
Pane. I, 305 M*j i >i « jTMeUMHN fT^tpr (friendship suits similar charac* 
tors and inclinations), ibid. p. 251 riurtJ l iriimw^ i v^ ^hu*i^ (the 


108 § 140—142. 

royal dignity befits a man aecompUfhed in politleal icieneei libe- 
rality and gallantry). 

I^f^ Renu 2. Synonymi explaining the meaning of some word , are 

HMBiif put in the locative, which accordingly =: »in this meaning.*' Amarak. 
eF^irir xrim ^ i ^ qny iftt^d i tiP) (the word kaldpa may have the 
meaning of hhUhhana ornament, barha a peacock's tail, iiintra 
quiver and aamhaii mass or heap), KAm. 2, 17 Qf^viQ fH(<-eUH (vid 
is explained as meaning: to know), Apast. 1, 5, 1 P i uqq ttj-. grs^: 

141. 6. The qualities, arts, science etc in which one excels 
J[jJ^^ or is weak, equal or unequal, when put in the locative. 
*'**?"?" ^* ^* ^* ^^ ^^ ^^ m»rw ^ ^ Q^ciiP i ci i fdg.u|>n crpfr ^ wn?iT 

MM ttc ^RicTki^: iiPT^ umrti i r i ^ «$ ^clW^ ;, Mhbh. 1, 88, 13 njj^: orrFR 
aj^ipsppr fliT:i nu: ^: qtf> i R i f5 « Here the ablative and instru- 
mental are concurrent idioms. 

142. 7. The seventh case attending nouns of a&ilify , skill, 
mwaa of knowledge and the like. Here the genitive is the con- 
*hSfJte. current construction (124, i-). 

Examples of the locative : Ch. Up. 1, 8, 1 sRTt ^T^ eKsr^TT wrg: 
(three men were well- versed in the Word), Kath&s. 24, 187 ^^rf^- 
(vn^mcTT (of one, not being a judge of jewelry), M41av. Y, p. 131 9;^ 
»wiMli<f^ifd»n} | UcVrzrr (what art the ladies are acquainted with?), 
K&g&n. I, p. 2 TTcnx rm srtt (we are skilled in dramatic representa- 
tiona). — It attends also verbs of that meaning. Pat I , p. 280 f^mw 

Bcm. 1. YArtt. 1 on P. 2, 3, 36 gives a special rule for ad- 
jectives in **t:t made of participles in ^fr, complying with locative. 
The examples given by Pat. I, p. 458 vQmi ounh^ii i (well-read in 
grammar), H \ r ^ \^ \ ^.^Jk\ (knowing the theory of metrics) prove that 
kind of locative to belong to the general class of words of ability 
and skill. Cp. Da^. 157 J^ ^ ^ ^ dWk i i wvmr 's^gigroj ir^nft 

Rom. 2. P. 2, 3, 44 teaches the promiscuous use of locative and 
instrumental with the adjectives g^ and 3rq7r (caring for, solici- 

« us, 109 

L43. 8. The locative, which denotes the eireumstanees ^ under 
»titra which the action comes to pass. So ^TFTR* »in time of 

.;^/^ distress", ^FHR" ,in due time," WmTJ ,m fortune" 

^■' and the like. This kind of locative has a very great 

extension and encompasses also the locative of time 

as well as the absolute locative. The former denotes the 

time ai which , the when , as T^RT^ (every day), ^PJIH 

(in the rainy season), f^UnTtTPJ (at night), ETPT^ (at 

daybreak), ^ qm^^;^ (in these days), W^ (at the 

beginning) etc. Ch. Up, 3, 16, 2 ^HfH<>d<ifil (in this ago). 

The latter occurs, if the drcmnstance under which is 
signified by two nouns , one of which is the predicate 
of the other. As the said noun-predicate generally is 
expressed by a participle, it is to the chapter on par- 
ticiples we refer for a full account of the absolute lo- 
cative. Here it may suffice to point out bj an evident example 
its close connexion with the locatives of circumstance and time. 
Mudr. IV, p. 147 fci«^f^tgfeiA ^^nrmrlj :j^ "K ' j^'i'' 3^ 

thus freely translated by Wilson: »But let Your Highness weigh i 

these eircumetancee also your forces are collected, i yourself, 

the heir legitimate of kings, i your adversary but a base usurper; i 
his very capital is hostile him, i in me you have a faithful guide 
at least; I and all appliances and means to boot i provided ; nought 
remains but your command" '). 

1) Compare such locatives, which denote a circamstance by a single 
word , as in the proverb f^^^cii SI^^^Hlorf^ (v. a. misfortune never 

comes singly), Pane. V, 103 ^: ^^f^ ^rnpnn* They cannot be styled 
absolute locatives, but serve just the same purpose as those. 

no § 144— U6. 

144. 9. The locative denoting , at wAiei disianee one thing 
Mt. of or fact is from another. Ait Br. 2, 17, 8 ^r^jfrrgs^ m ^. csnfr 

^^**' vfrar: (heaven, indeed, ig from here at a distance of a thousand 
journeys on horseback), R. 3, 4, 20 -rm SFTf?t. .... vwSmfPi »l^:, 
KathAs. 28, 188 jm h «iFc«lt?RTt ^) jppj^(my house is at sixty yojanas 
from here). Cp. 00 R. 1. 

Rem. Pat. I, p. 455 mentions the promiscnonsness of the tnms 
nSrvm: rt\v;m ^Tsnrf^ JkmiP i or ^igj iftsri^. But if an intoryal 
of time is to be signifiod , the locatiYe alone is available : eh i nfcw r 
wm^^ i quT^ xnrt (the full moon of AgrahAyant is ^ month after that 
of Karttild). 

145. III. Dative-like locative. In 134 it has been shown, 
^ST ^^^ the locative is used with verbs of putting in or (wi, 

J^ placing etc Sanskrit extends that idiom to many kindred 
conceptions, and often uses the locative with verbs of 
giving^ promising ^ buying ^ wiling y telling etc., so as to 
make it concur with the dative or the genitive of the 
remote object. Cp. English to beatou) upon. 

Examples of the datiYo-like locative: R. 1, 68, 16 vJu<rM ^HHJ l ^ 
pirar <li^(^^(Ht ihid. 1, 51, 5 jjq iq i ^^^rUvli Wl mTTTi ibid. 1, 76, 7 
n^inir iifrnTPr (promised it to Indra), Mudr. V, p. 159 st(^ fsrShr 
Urid i f?! (having sold himself to a rich man), Hhbh. 1, 30, 6 ^tft 
^!>iiii^iwr i (thoy gave a name to tho great bird), Kathfts. 28, 34 
^TTf^ fsrfir (this is done to you). Cp. R. 2, 9C, 28 li i ^ifli ui^I^^St^ 

140. .In several phrases the locative may even be a concur- 
rent idiom of the dativua fnalia , especially of the infi- 
nitive-like dative. It is namely put to a) words of 
striving after ^ wishing ^ resolving \ b) to verbs of appointing 

to , ordaining , enjoining , permitting , as t^r-<«i|rl, t4Il^i^J[ 


1) 8o is tho good reading. Bsockhaus* edition laAthaskUtfOJanyamgrham. 

§ 146-147. Ill 

M M 5! , c) to words meaning able. Jit and the like. 

Examples: a) Mhbh. 1, 138, 69 {nrfnrf jwx mn nsr (I haYo co- 

▼eted your kingdom), Pane. IV, 26 m j^<^^ u^ 3* S»5 fft^msRT- 

W<l^H (an enemy, who ha iprepared himself to take off the whole, 
may be appeased by a small gift), Millat III, p. 50 n^s ii (^qu i vr[\ 
(endeaYours to attain at greatness), Mhbh. 1, 141, 2 ^^ ^jfA^^h l i^ff^ 
(he made np his mind to bam [the P&ndaYas]), R. 8, 4, 4 sttt ir^- 
SRrTSV rTW (both made speed to kill him). 

h) M. 1, 28 ehiifti i ^g^, (he has appointed to a task), (^kk, I 
▼^t dtr!h<^v ii Jui Pfo^ (y. a. he obliges her to wear a dress of bark), 
Kathfts. 25, 123 ^ jj^ iT^pr 53 fT^ M*4 i f<aifj; «»»» rfq^ (the king 
designated him to fight the athlete), ibid. 29, 29 VrTrTT fdf<4i'jdiw>'l 
(permission to go to you). — In the same way one says tt^ ^mfnrT: 
(he is appointed to the kingdom), qpir^ a;<]miM Wl^ ("ho chose 
that man to be her husband), Pane. 162 ff uiaihu ^Rffi aid r ^f^ (h® 
anointed that [young man] heir-apparont) and the like. 

c) R. 3, 13, 20 ;TsrR srar: qf^^<nu i (you are able to guard), Pane* 
156 «MH^naq<,wui ^ mM^^ (ho is not able to supply us with food), 
Mhbh. 1, 148, 3 qfiT^ Ti^n i X'^ x iXA (it is time, mothinks, to run away). 

47. IV. Nimittasaptami. As the locative often denotes 
12^' the spot, towards which there is some movement, so 
**^ it may be . used at a very large extent to signify the 
person or thing, towards which some action is directed, 
in other terins, that on account of which something is 
done. Speaking exactly , the dative-like locative, we have 
dealt with in the last two paragraphs , is but a conse- 
quence of this general faculty to denote that, aio/^/ which 
one is engaged. Here are some examples of this idiom: 

KA5. on P. 2, 3, 36 xfijiTii ?tTf^^ ^f^ jj^rprn^PrT *h^\^\ wttj rjii^f ^jfrirT 
^S^ yeti^th l ^: (the panter is killed on account of its skin, the 
elephant for its tusks, yaks for their tails and the musk-doer on 
account of its musk-gland), K&(. on P. 1, 3, 47 fir? Qd<>f r (they 
are at law on account of a field). Pane. 288 unilM<( VcilPj^U Psi^fdu 

lis f 147-149. 

(thb is MAfeaieat for a lord with rospeot to hit attendanti), M. 
8, 107 iHil'j^jli SRHTSuT ^^ ^w ^ni*j» 

148. This kind of locative is sometimes bordering on that, 
taught in 140. 

The nimitiamptami (locative of the motive; locative 
of reference) often serves to qualify such substantives as 

?r^rarr, ^JTrr, [^^m and the Uke. The genitive is here , 
of course, the concurrent construction. 

Example! : Da^. 89 nmX i ^A g^^ deifi^iHf^ Che fomented hii enmitj 
towards Ud.), Mhbh. 1, 155, 9 w^ ^ 9ij irfv (you must hare 
pity on me), (^kV, I wwmPi^ifii ^ <R: (my heart longs for her), 
R. 2, 103, 22 m ^TCiTfeTTT, Hitop. 9 !f!w fd^ fegm:, R. 1, W), 24 
in^wjfri fermr, Pane. 251 ^r ^ ^^^^ aRn^ vkf^pTRp ^: 
(a wise man musi not be eareless about business , howerer small). 

It also attends on several adjectives, part of which 
likewise comply with a genitive, as mM, Mf?i, HfH 

and the inverse of them j ^ (fond of), \^\r\ (delighting 

in) etc, MAlat. X, p. 172 fftfft ^f^ dmif l Q i QAk. II tij^iQfiii 
^crt jSi^fM< ^srfd", Pane. V, 65 7t[^\ euar^ wy<«( prr: 

149. In general, the locative may denote a disposition p-^ 
av0ci. towards Homebody. Then it is synonymous with the prepos. 

!?::?. aFT, as X'gr^* ^^%rix or ^rrFrt srirr (n. n. is 

ti!^ to! good for his mother). 

^^^ Examples: Da^. 144 ufHpcf^T^ ^P^ «^^ ilfTOW (when I shall 
be returned, I shall deal with you as you deserye), G&k. I wn imT 
dl^JMWi l fiJUMmw i '^ff l ^PiT ^TFr][^ (bow , Can it be , that she feels towards 
me, as I towards her?), Pane. IV, 72 iq!i> i f^ t j vi\ txt-v. ^ny^ rfOT 
wt iTTn: I W^ii i O f j v\ cmj: n nnj: Mfl^iVaUfr (if one is good for those \ 
who hare done well to him, what is his merit P only ht is named 

f 149—152. 113 


good by tbo Tirtoonti who does well to his enemief), (gkk. lY 
HSr ^ffroTT qf^fl^ (be kind to your honiehold). 

X Many locatives have the character of adverbs, at m^ 

^ (in. the beginning), j^ (secretly), ^^rt^ (apart), «^ (at the head), 
-U ete., especially snch as denote time or space ')• 

GnAPTER IX. Periphrastio expression of oase- 


^* The apparatus for periphrasing case-relations may 
be classed into three main categories, viz. 1. prepo- 
sitions, 2. noun-cases, S, verbal forms. The 
boundary between the first class and the second is in 
some d^ree unsettled and fioating; of the noun-cases 
concerned here a great deal, indeed — vi«. such words 
as tn.fl] ur , ?m^, m^ m|^, those in **fT; etc. — are construed 
in the same way as the old and genuine prepositions, 

whereas others are always felt as nouns and construed 
accordingly — of the kind are frrftw^, g^nw, snn^i ^:, zj^t 
mo*) etc. 
The third class is made up of gerunds — as trrpv, 


m^9 7?,f57r, wTwnr, gjrr, trfw^, etc. — or participles in rj 
— yhu jw, ^rf^rT, 7%Tf ^> n?r and the like. 

2. L prepositions'). 

Sanskrit prepositions should rather be styled ^post- 

1) Mhbh. 1, 140, 49 the loc. mRf^liT. it fccms, does duty of an ad- 
Terb = » singly t alone.** The chacal ban artfully remoTed hit coropetiiort • 
and now he eats up all the flesh, alone. 

Cp. Dntch: in sgn eentje. 

2) Indian gmmniar, which does not pomets, as we do, that hetero- 

m § 162—158. 

positions ,** as they are generally put behind the nouns , 
they are construed with, ^ being the one, that 
is always put before. As a rule , they are also allowed 
to be compounded with their nouns; in that case, the 
preposition is generally the former member'). 
153. The archaic dialect used more prepositions and used 
them oftener, than the classic language does. The more 
we go back in time, the greater the number and the 

variety of idioms. So for instanoe, in the days of P&nini 
some prepoBitioni — irfvi v^, tt, off — soem to have been in 
common use, but in classic literature they are, if at all, rarely 
met with. 

Rem. The Yaidik mantras contain accordingly a still greater 
number of prepp. and are displaying a still greater variety and 
manifoldness in employing them. So the old words ^rf^: (without) 
preceded by an ace, its synonym ^(^: preceded by an abl., ^nr: 
(with) construed with instruro., do not occur but in the mantras , 
likewise f^: and ot*:, see 160. — The upasargas frsr, f^:, loT 
do not do duty of karmapra?acaniya, but for a few passages; 
P&nini does not mention them in his list of karmapraY., nor are 
they used so in the liturgical books of the Yoda. The once pre- 

geneous set of terms styled parts iff tpeeeh , has no term exactly ans- 
weriog to our » prepositions/* but it calls them by different names 
according to their phonetical, etymological or •yntactical properties. 
When compounded with roots, so as to make up compound Terbs and 
the like, they are styled upasarga. Bat the same particles will be styled 
karmaprmvacaniya, when separate words. For this reason, the karmapra- 
vacaoiya-class does not comprise such prepp., as TTfr, TT:)^* but on 
the other hand it contains some paiticles, which caonot at any rate be 
culled » prepositions,** as vf^, ^. Cp. P. 1, 4, 58; 59; 83— 98. 

1) It is wrong to say that the noun-case, attending on the prepos., 
is governed by it, for it is not the preposition, that causes the case, 
but it is the general bearing of the case , which is qualified and limited 
by the prei^osition. 

I 158—156. 115 

potitioiwl •mployaent of i^ it proved by compomds of the type 
Fwua i fl ii (freek from the loom), FlMMv ii liiw (from Kaut4mbi), if 
compared with i^n^f^, vfrmc (P. 2, 2, 18 with Tirtt.) ete. 

154. The old prepositions are, in alphabetical order: 

1. ^*') «. wj* 11. ^ 16. n^ 

2. ?ra": 1.^* 12.1 ?T^: n. 5r% 

3. ^T* 8. JETT* 13. mt* 18. ^RT 

4. 5ETg* 9. Sq"* 14. 5^ 19. ^ 

5. ?ft: 10. strn; 15. 3;^ 

Of them, nine (the n<» 1, 8, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15) ate 
obsolete or at least used extremely seldom in the classic 


L55« 1« vf^ it rarely uiied as a prepot., however frequent, when P. l.i. 

vf^« mere adyerb =: »exeeeding1j, very.** When prepot. it agrees with ^' 
aecus. Ait. Br. 4, 6, 13 vf^ i^ U^HWM*lf?^ QSToT: (offspring, indeed, 
and cattle hare the precedence above the husbandman himself); 
Mhbh. 1, 110, 1 Bhtshma says ^ 7^: vfim g>^i HfiicquMf n ciiu i ^ l * 
»^R[amfw; i rf|ii > q>^ (our renowned family deserves the sovereignty 
over the earth above other princes). 

Rem. When being compounded with its noun, the compound p. s. 1, 
is adverb: tifHP^if^ (beyond one's sleep). ^ 

L56. 3. frftf i> of frequent^TMscurrence in the archaic and old epic 

^^' writings. In the classic dialect it is still used to express the re« 

lation between the ruler and the ruled, as well the ruling aver P 1.4 


1) Those marked by an asterisk are karmapracaeantya ^ see foot-note 
on p. 1 14. Heoce the other (n«. 2, 5, 10, U, 12, M, 15, 17—19) do not share 
the appellation upasarga, even when put close to a verb. 

2) The K&vikd gires no example of «f^ being employed as a preposition; 
it does illustrate but its beings »too much** or « very well/* P&nini, 
however, must have thought also of the preposition irf^. — Patanjali 
does not comment on this sAtra. 

116 i 156—158. 

at ihi9 sUiidiBg tuuffr; then it is eonttnied with a loeatiTe. It 
ii taid either vfv <tot^ iT^r^t (Brahmadatta [ruling] over the 
PancAlAa) or vfv fi^i^^w <Tir79VT: (the P. under Br.). So Daf. 112 

mi& B^ i (^Juqfi f ( o i j.^1 ?i7?!r. •)• 

When put twice, it agrees with the accusative (171 R.) 
When compounded with its noun, the compound is an adverb and ^• 
is equivalent to the simple locative of the noun, especially to the 
nimittasaptamt (147): wfitfki (with respect to women), irfii^j5rrT^(with 
respect to the deity), etc. 

Rem. In the older dialect irfv is joined by loc, abl. and aec. 
With lac, it indicates the surface »on,'' as in the old verse quoted 
by Pat. I, p. 4 ti^ g! tJ)r>fQfHft f arrf^ (holy bliss is seated on 
their tongues). — With all. it signifies the coming »from'\ — With 
ace, it is =r ^over, on [a surface];** so it is often met with in 
mantras, sometimes in the br&hmanas. Qat, Br. 1, 1, 4, 3 ^pmfTRxrfv 

157. 6. mt with ablat. is mentioned by P4nini (1, 4, 88; 2, 1, 12; 
*^* 2, 3, 10). The standing example of his commentators is fpr fjiiiff^ A 

fSril ^: (it has rained outside Trig.). No other instances are known. 

158. 7* viu and 13. qfr, both with aec,^ are almost synonymous, cp. 
V^ Oreek dn0l and vtpi, 

"^ They had of old the meaning »round, about,** when in meta- 
^' phorical sense, also >concorning, on.** In literature examples of 
on* are extremely rare, if they occur at all; it seems to have 
soon antiquated. Instances of ^r Are met with, especially in the 
archaic dialect. K4(. on P. 2, 1, 14 ^dip^r — or wiixfn [compound 
adverb] — v^m^U: gnpH (the fire-flies hover round the fire); Ch. 
Up. 4, 6, 1 frf;T ?Tnm (about the evening); Kath. 1, 10 JiH^>j^TiiH*ft 
inxrfvr (O. feels no anger against me). 

1) AccordiDg to P. I, 4, 98 in the case of «rfv^ (to appoint over) it 

may bo said optionally either mt »n»Tfw eirf^-tarf?i or W?r <n^«t)f|Uj(rf 

(be will put me over it). The Petrop. Diet — I, p. 142 s. v. vftf 

2) o) fi) — wrongly takes mi][^for the word construed with igf^. It is 

not the ace. qnT but the locttt. 97, which stands in contitruction with 
the prepo»ition, as ia plainly shown by the meaning of the sentence. 

S 168—169. 117 

Rem. 1. PAniiii (1, 4^ 90) ') teachet a fourfold employment of 
frf^ a.) it denotes a mark, b,) it expresaet a quality, e.) it sig- 
nifies that which falls to one's share, d,) it is used in a distrL 
butire sense. The same is stated for m and irf^; also for vfv^T) 
save that it cannot be karmapravacantya in the ease c). The '91. * 
KA(ik& illustrates this rule by these examples: a.) sm <lfr - or gf^ 
or m or frf^ - Q^f i fi^ fdM^l *^''® lig^htning flashes round the tree;** 
*.) ^n^SR^ mrr^fi^ - or 53 or gfrr or qf|- . »N.N. is good for 
his mother;" d.) qwfWTp^ . or fpr or ly^ or irf^ . froffV »he waters 
one tree after another," *) whereas c.) tjjrjf ^f gf^ . or gfTt or in - WT^rr 
<0(iriiq »give me whatever be my share of it," but jnrjf m^rTiTfT^, 
here ^j is upasarga not karmapravacantya. 

In the dialect of the vaidik mantras , indeed , both ir^ und <7f^ 
display this large sphere of employment, almost the same as <hat 
of gfn in classic Sanskrit, see 170. With ir^ cp. the like use of Greek 
dfi^i^ Germ, wm, Dutch om. 

Rem. 2. To the obsolete v^ and qfr classic Sanskrit has sub- 
stituted their derivatives frfTirT: and gfTTT:} which however are only 
used of space. See 186. 

Rem. 3. An ablative is taught with qfr, when = wt (l67)- Then P.S»^ 

the prepos. should be put twice : qf^ fjff Q;iHi qY ^^ ttjs: In literature, p, g ' i^ 

however, qfr with abl. is as little met with as igpj , except the vaidik ^* 

mantras, but there it has a larger employment, being r= Lat ex or ab. 

h 9. 3?r is frequent in the vaidik mantras , afterwards rare. P. 1, 4, 87 

classes it among the karmapravacantya, 1. to denote a » going 

beyond ," then it is construed with a locat. 317 f^t?:^ tfi i fjNU i H^ (by P. >• S. 

a karsh&p. more than a nishka), 2. to denote inferiority, then it 

complies with the aco. -jq u i UhiKJA STTraFf^qiT: 

1) P. 1, 4, 90 W^J l rflMd i WIMilMJluJI^ UplMU'ld: 

» » 91 frfupnn* 

2} When ased in a distributive seoie, frr, frfvT) qfr are rather to be 
considered adverbs; arer ^^^H fM^ifrt is literally =r» he waters tree tree 
successively,** similarly ^'trf^or^vfu f^rar^ »he waters tree treeronnda- 
bout.** Cp. such passages as li. 3, 47, 10 mn^irTT^pd?: » be entreated [her] 
by [offering her] grants after grants** lit. grant:) grants successively. 

118 S 159—162. 

Rem. 1. Aeeording to the eommentariet on P. 3, 1» 6 37» Uko 
m^t oxprotaoi fi«am«M, when eomponnded with its noon: Tm^a^ 
(near the pot). So Da^. 99 iq»>JHMu^ij^ (near the senana). 

Rem. 3. In the Taidik mantras -^ is construed with aeo., loo., 
instr. and is expressiTe of nearness. Rgv. 1, 23, 17 v^^tt ^ in^erT 
^: ^« — With accMs,^ I hare met with this instance in epic 
poetry. R. 3, 37, 21 M&rtca dissuades the rapture of Stt& on ac. 
count of the irresistible power of great R&ma r^roTT^ til rot n^ 
rt<^>H*w J l fdH^i^ (if he will meet you [R&vana] in battle , then your 
life is on its end). 
100* 11. ^: — in form and meaning = Lat. trans — does duty of 
•"(• a prepos. in the archaic dialoct of the br4hmanas etc. It is found 
partly with occ^ => athwart, through , beyond ," partly with abh 
•beyond, out of reach of:'* Qat, Br. 3, 3, 4, 6 f^ rgf ^ ^^ q^. 
^Ui Cp. the ablat with ffi^Wt^^ifn i and other words of conceal' 
ing (07). 

12. gr: (beyond) with instrum., abl. or ace. is restricted to the 
Yaidik mantras. 

13. ofj see 168. 

161* 14. qrr with ablatiwe is a time-denoting prepos. of the archaic 

3T^* and epic dialect It means »before.'* A9V. Orhy. 1, 15j 1 q^ f J^H* 

^fz^iTrT (before his being touched by others), Ch. Up. 2, 24, 3 m 

mdi> i cii!i«WN r <y»^UMH^ (before the beghming of the prAtaranuv&ka). 

Cp. 176. 

Rom. Sometimes qrx may have expressed separation. Rgv. 8, 
44, 30 vrp ^Tt zfpP'V' 3^ ^H^^: war or nr <i i <^cim^ ^ (extend our 
life, Agni, keeping it, wise being, far off from misfortune etc). 
Ait. Br. 2, 6, 14 qp srWTT wftOTt JWl^ff^<H l fl^ (he must cut out 
the omentum without hurting the nsTol). 


162. The other ten are still in common use, though not 
all of them are equally frequent. We will treat of them 
in alphabetical order, adding moreover to each such 

t 162-164. 119 

jonnger prepositions as are more or less its sTnonjms. 
8. [2.] ^W: (below, under). Its synonym is ?TMWIrI^» 
^ a derivative of it. Both are construed with preceding ye- 
I. niiive, ^Ak. I 4)oii^i:*.. *j^TCT9[nTmv: i Pane 211 w^ ??nihw?mr- 

Rem. 1. Sometimos it oompIieB with abL Pane. 145 a;irT^: 
Compare 171 R. 

Rem. 2. To denote a lower place or state the old dialect pos- 
sessed also the adverts vg*: ftod iicHdM ')• Cat Br. 9, 3, 1, 6 wdvi i r^ 

4» [4.] %(»| wiiA accusative i^after.** Like its Latin conn- 

V terpart ^secundum** it is used in various senses: a.) of space 

and rank , b.) of time , c.) = .according to ," d.) = .adhering 

to one's side/* sim. Mostly, at least in prose , it is put 

behind the noun-case as n^^ (thereafter), rFT^ (after 

Its manifold employment may be illustrated by these examples : 
1. after . in space, time, rank . R. 2, 90, 3 dA i mi;| 3f^%T'Lt 
Pane. 203 «^q(M msrg fffwr:, K4^. on P. 1, 4, 86 n^^\ nrsx^i 
(warriors inferior to A.);' — 2. along R. 2, 83, 26 [l\dm i i ^ l *<j tT^ 
(he encamped his army on the banks of the Ganges); ^ 3. » fol- 
lowing** = »adhering to** Mhbh. 3, 12, 45 u^Fsjt ^ ^ »Ttgf^q ^rcH*ij 
^ srm^i — 4 »after** = »acoording to" R. 2, 58, 19 ipr \ htM^luT 
«r ftroif errpr; — 6. o^ow^ Nir. 12, 1 irainfHiTcTOnjfEr^t^mj (about 
the gradual advancing of dawn); — 6. concerning Ch. Up. 4, 17, 9 
BdQ g^ ^ STT mrr ww i m^^i ttttt (oonceming the brahman who knows 
so, it is said in a verse — ). 

Rem. 1. frr may be compounded with its noun. Mhbh. 1, 170, 14 
frnr^ ^r^ (rambling along the Gang4), KathAs. 28, 26 Wjd i aQ * 

1) Conip. the upaaarga fToT and lacu$ Avtrnut^ the Latio deaignatioo 
of tlitt regiouM below. 

120 S 164—166. 

If v,T hate' a distributiTe meaning, oomponnding it obligatory: 
mssi^ (day after day), v^pnni^ ([all ranged] aeeording to the 

Rem. 2. In epio poetry «rr is tometimet found with the abla- 
tive. The instances, I know, are Mhbh. 1, 99, SSsiotot^.... n^i) 
McifM^ l ^M? « ; » w4r«t|rj | twiq (you are cursed, but after a year you 
will be released of the curso); ibid. 14, 71, 6 — the PAndavas enter 
Hasiin&pura and make their compliments to Dhrtar&shtra — tlflTT- 
yr^ «r h »^v<i(V. .. jpnif «r... f^^ l^ifurer i etc.; R. Gorr. 6, 10, 23 
mm im^ 9i \ {U\ i iA (^* ^ nien*s destiny is in proportion to the 
cause, whence it has sprung)'). 

Rem. 3. P&nini treats of m in four siltras: I, 4, 84 — 86 and 
90 The last , which sums up the meanings of m when := qfr 
and gf?r, is quoted 168 R. 1. 

l^*« [5.] »^*Ti?, a very old particle. It is ad^ed to a locative 
for the sake of specifying its meaning .within" (133, a). 
But often also noun 4-^riJ are compounded into an 

avyayihh^iva. — Examples : a) of vpTfi with locat M. 7, 223 
^|uw . j r <>f » ciwPl (he must give audience within doors). Pane. I, 32 
rioiM; i >ff<f;,njl i9^: (the fire, dwelling within the wood), KathAs. 
4, 57 ^zfft >?)rHHMW>d ; <j^t%T: (and the purohita was likewise led 
into the darkness); h) of fTTT: compounded. Pane 144 y^ MR^^I>r !: 
fffa:^: (I entered the water), ibid. 277 iJ i ^^u i Mfli WtTTTf: «ITfmT:, 
K4d. I, 47 iri i i i >Hpfn^HfM<i i; ([birds] which have put their young 
ones between their wings). 

Rem. UTTT: occasionally complies with a genitiye. Y4jn. 2, 104 
vrSij^iMlMfi^i^fH) Kumdras. 2, 5 wi*<>h(.ui a^^fxj. 

166. Kindred forms of tlrfJ are the particles ^TrT^and 

•M.! ^'<i^^r, petrified instrumentals. Both agree witA the 
•^- accusative. They are 1»* = ^between," 2*y= .without," 

TUT* — — — — 

^ 1) The Petr. Diet, reads fi»iM6lr^|lrj[^a!i a compound. 

2) The Petr. Diet, gives also some instances ot n^ with a genitive 
See I, p. 197 $, r. 

t 166. 121 

8«j = .save, but for;*' 4»y SFT^Tir may signify ,with 

respect to, concerning." — Like ^Rv, they are allowed 
to make up a compound with their noun, then the 
noun is the former member. 

Examples: of 1. — Qkk. Ill (Hei(ij.MM^ mid^'^ l ^q i fq (meanwhile 
I will look between [= through] the foliage). YHien construed with 
two nouns, the prepos. precedes, and ^ is put twice. Pat. I, 45 
Vrfin 73\ ^ ttx ^ ahMUi<g ; (^^^ pitcher is between you and mo), 
Cat. Br. 1, 1, 1, 1 <<,r^u i l^cj>Ti<l ^ JTT^ ^'); — 2. Pat. I, 8 
^l>r^uilRi ijH^fTi ; ehM i «^ i ri ^Tq?r^ (oven without the uttering of 
mantras fire heats the plates), R. 2, 11, 18 ?nr rcrt ■p/'J i eju-g^4fffci 
difd l HM^HH (there the enemy threw thee down lifeless); — 3. 
Pane. 60 n^ ^ ^5%^* >hqm*l>f i ] U l oT-ZT: WTfT^(I am sure that Toracious 
beast cannot be killed but by a stratagem), R. 3, 19, 7 nf^ Mtfjmjj 
^?W? m ^tsUm f^[fvpfm^i ^^npr... ^^-iX ("^"® ^'^^ Mahendra); — 
4. Q^k. V. H^^I l I^T oi^MrTiil-H^ m *Ji^< < iM^ R JTfftif^ (therefore 
I have incurred a heavy reproof from her with respect to queen 
Vasumatt) '). 

Rem. 1. Occasionally a genitive is found instead of the ace. - 
with Vfi\ m t aa Mhbh. 5, 16, 29. — Cp. Pat I, 59 g^M^^ih^ii.wii^xil l 
(between these two [families of brahmans] there dwells a family 
of (ildras), here v^tttt complies also with the gen., it seems. 

Rem. 2. Difference between is expressed not by a proposition , 
but by means of two genitives. R. 3, 47, 45 u^^^l fM^^uuiM^i l J^i <JH>flJ 
w<rnh(Mj«^J i; I M { I v<JM I Ji 1 9,*mi:rr\ [ nv?T^ ^M^yj^^rSd ^ (what dif- 
ferente there is between lion and chacal in the forest, between 
a rivulet and the ocean, between ambrosia and the beverage of 
the Sauvtras, that is the difference between the son of Da^aratha 

1) Comp. a somewhat similar idiom in Latin, f. i. Horat. Epist. 1, 2, 11 
Nestor componere lites i inter Peliden festinat et inter Atriden. 

2) So ID this pr&krt passage of the MalavikAgnimitra iV, p. 89 7f^ 

122 i 166^168. 

and yon), MhblL W, 8, 15 i^nlA srrfSiTr^fT^ M^lmiiiiianv w. A« to 
the dfandTA-compoandi in the fint example see 207. 

167. A tynonymoaa prepot. with aee. = » bet ween, throogh** ii q^. 
R. 2, 98, 15 ^uti i w i r ! ffSpf HiTTT* It may be compounded with its 
noun. Pane. 151 inrorftifcffJTO^ f^raFTTTT. 

168. [8] ^ always agrees wM the ablative^ and is put be- 
^' fore its noun. It serves to denote the boundary or limit, 

either the terminus a quo or the terminus ad quem, mostly 
the latter. It is available both in space and in time, and 
may be rendered acconlingly now by .since" and , till" j 
now by .from" and ,to." M. 2, 22 is an example illustra- 
tive of its signifying the two termini T[[ t1*1^m Sf qcfl^i 

(the wise know Ary^varta to be the country between 
the said mountains from.WiQ eastern ocean io the western). 

Other examples: 1. term, a quo, Q&k. I fir ti^ i -fe^ t Hii|^ i (I| (I 
wish to hoar it from tho root); Kath&s. 24, 186 frr g4l«y<j l ^NHI <s;Tsn][ 
(since my childhood I was an ascetic); 

2. ttrm, ad quern, Mhbh. 1, 163| 8 m ^hUnTMel^ : (having his 
mouth split up to the oars) , ^Ak. IV fft^TfrrmiT^nvt ^rfrseprrTcT ^ 
iam\ — CAk. V m WkArXXi^'d f?T^rr (let her stay with us till her 
delivery), A^v. Grhy. 1, 19, 5 igr u i iuil^ [viz. sraf^] sJ i yjtJ i |:^JUiHM : 
CFiT^ ITT ^ i f^'JiinaBi^JW l ^riPaiiUJltfi^J (until the sixteenth year the 
time [is not passed for tho brahman, etc.). — In a figurative sense 
f. L QAk. I m qQfi i u i fiju t 7\ ^ T^ q ern i (l[t»> i i[^ (I do not approve 
the skill of performing a representation, unless the connoisseurs be 

ITT i* often compounded with its noun into an avyaytbh&va. Dag. 
175 wvfm q^ (he drunk his fill, liter. »till his throat"), Eath4s. 5, 
103 v i MMiy d^ l HjfVM^ l fnrUT ^P l ftJd l (for, since tho world exists, 
there is but one thing steady in tho Creation, namoly unsteadiness); 
Pane. 1, 39 vmjm MiTT (a lifelong beggary). 

§ 168—170. 123 

* Rem. In the raidik mantras irr it of the utmost frequency , 
and is pot to different cases, sometimes before, sometimes behind. 
In most instances it is rather a mere ad?erb. '). 

169. Other prepositional words = .till, until; since" are. 
^TfcrrT, ^3[\p^ and !PTH. 

ora?!. MMfi is mostly' attended by the accus., sometimes 
by the abl. Utt. I, p. 6 ferrmsrB? jn5rT^(tiU how long?); Kathis. 
54, 47 TOT roWT OTTOrTt ^STTij inarT (— as far as his house) ; Uhbh. 
If 35, 12 nrr^ f^ %Tnr <j i df^ijii(i^<i i H^ 

Rom. As zncFr is properly no propos., but the ace of the neuter 
of a pronoun, used as an adverb tas long as, as far as,** it is plain 
that it may also signify ^during some time." Pane. 198 «Fi^[Tf%nT^.; 
rUrllc^r^: Md l H l !WfT5nfftir msixu Cp. 64 R. 1, 

170. %4U ^ and CfHTrT toUh preceding ablaUoe are very 
^^ common. The former is properly a gerund = i,beginning-, 

^^* starting from," JTHTFT is construed with abl. by so- 
called syntactic analogy , see Rem. 2. 

Examples of frrpa = since. Pane. 238 xtxt Fjiu|^ r <yi i d^ i { *<i l uT i r^fof- 
crfftiT ^rnigrr; M&lat. VI, p. 88 iiMrti i; wni\ idw i»h Vi^Wi X { * ? (since 
the day I havo seen M. for the first time). 

Examples of ir.rfH = since. Pane. 51 ^iwi i fq;|^ e^^TfrrmiMAlat. 
Ill, p. 50 Ajrii^iN \Aix M I r<dmfij*[fH (since the day of the procession 
in the garden of K&ma); Mudr. II, p. 70 miTFnr cRrT: V^ffrr Vin^nfir* 

Rom. 1. They may also bo used of space. Hit 132 A^fn^rX * 
^ l <^ l (> 7r H5{£<ei( maq^ Kum&ras. 3, 26 fRjrf era: eh^ij ! >(iuneh ; Wh'Wlrtl- 

1) In a period as early as Y&ska, VT with loc. had antiquated, for 
this ezegete deems it necessary to interprete the mantric ezpreMion m 
frr fPT: (water in the cloud) by Vlit <s^ <sfv (Nir. 5, 5). In a subaequeot 
time the very gloM of Y&ska would have required another, for irftf with loc. 
in this meaning being obsolete (I66)»vla4aic Sanskrit would have employed 

fTfT: or ^z^ or have said VMnrTT fTT: 

124 S 170-171. 

Rem. 8. gijfylr U originally a feminine, meaning vorigin, eom- 
meneement** and like its tynonjm vrf^f it ii often nsed* at the' 
ends of bahnTrihia (229, l^). At the outset, therefore, §ttch a term 
M df^Ki^Uijff^ was laid in the Torj same aeeeptation as HtfMWlf^ t 
▼ii. meaning ^ vrrmi trrfTTTRr rT^^ By the time, however, the noan gi^ 
eeasod to be employed as a separate word, and one eommenced to 
look upon the adverbial compounds, ending in V^rf^i fts if they 
were ending in somo preposition, moaning vsinee.'* By this mistake 
it happened that imf^ assumed even the character of a self-existent 
particle construed with ablative , by analogy of vTp^n and the like. 
Hence t L the compound ^um* ^ » since his birth" (M. 8, 90) re- 
presents an older idiom than ?TnT;T: flT^fTT* In such tutns as H< l Ui[fd 
(since then), u<;^mij l 7 i (since when), fr^nr*r%) the true nominal nature 
of {Mf^ is plain , and it is again a misunderstanding to write them 
as two words ?t^ jr»j^ etc. 


171. [10] 3717" (above, over, on, upon) is the very op- 


posite of ^77*', see 163. As a rule, it is construed with 
preceding geuiUvc ^), unless it makes up the latter part 

of a compound: r|t*mmf or rTJTT^- Its employment is 

various, as it is usod a.) of space, (.) of time »upon = immediately 
after," tf.>ofrank, rf.) := »on, upon about, concerning; with respect 
to,** then3«7f7 is concurrent with gffr and with the nimUtasaptamiy e,) = 
•before, under the eyes of.** 

Examples: a.) KA^. on P. 8, 1, 7 snf^ G^mi at WT^f^ (h« carries 
a jar upon his head), Pane. 125 jj^ ^m.^^vi^ iTRrf7nTRreT,*KathAs. 
25, 228 fT pnr t\M\hM ^^TO^rmm.... aFrrTsrm^, Pane. 112 sFWi^iwmf^ 
q<7T7r (moved by anger he made a bolt at him). — Metaphorically 
f. L Pane. I, 166 ^ ^ r M i guf ^ ^rninjTg^rqrr mfaFTrnirT: etc. »tho king 
lives on his dominions, physicians on the sick,** R. 3, 54, 23 ;i^hit 

1) So it is taught by Pftoini, as most be inferred by comparing P. 2, 3, 30 
with 5, 3. 27-34. 

i 171-172. 125 

^^f^ ti JwVif^ a£V (the froth anger frrowt oTer mj forbeAranee, that 
is; goee beyond my forb.); 

i.) KAc* on P. 3, 3, 9 jqf^ *{§ma i gimiqj^<^m<yj[^ (if the teacher 
arriTos after a moment) ■); 

e.) KathAf. 6, 167 nt i(An*[Mf^ T^V^^T^ 0^^ honoared her abofe 
hb qneeni); 

d.) Pane. 142 (d^fii ; Hd l d l ^ ^rturf ^awjnjtqf| (I have now taken 
a dislike to this eountry), Mudr. Ill, p. 105 w^ ^ » duf^d>w i ^nmisr. 
QTPrf^ fdiWf P i l H : (well, the king*s attendance are not friendly 
disposed towards CAnakya), Pane. 116 f^ n? W i' if? Ri>rW i (what 
have you to caro for meP), ibid. 26 t^ j^.nqf) injm: 9wrf^; 

«.) Pane. 266 wmnm dcTwQ ehf^m i fq (I will kill myself beforo 
yoor eyes). Comp. 177. 

Rem. Occasionally jqf^ is construed with a locative. Kath&s. 
3, 58 iqjrd -.q^ m ^ »Hp|f<jri^Wf l* — With ablative it is also somo. 
times met with, as in the passage of Utpala, quoted by Kkrv in 
his translation of YarahaoL Brh. I, p. 7, which has been adduced 73 
R.3'). Even the aeeus. with 3qf|- is not forbidden. P4p. 8, 1, 7 
teaches 3qfr, mv and vu: being put twice, when denoting a close 
nearness, as iuSun tTFVTifP/rf^ «7Tns^; here the accus. is standing 
(see the kilrikil quoted by Kkq. on P. 2, 3, 2). ^^i^up. 1, 4 tj^h^x 
^tft ^^: qjTivfTT, Mhbh. 1, 120, 9 iq^juf^ n^^: shrTRnr^'). 
2* iMi^gid , a derivate of Trf^, is construed , when propos., with 

1) In fall, the eiample given by the Ka^ikft, ii 3^ *idfif^qf; JUn^ 
etc. la the bad excerpt of the Calcutta edition of P&nioi these words 
have been mutilated into J^rrf^qfr, which has deceive<l ISoethljngk in his 
edition of P&oini and in his Petr. Diet. (I, p. 968). 

2) The example of the Petrop. Diet (s.». V, p. 1191), Kath&s. 53, 125 
QlilFUi'lCi^MejillH^ is not convincing. It is rather probable, that the abl. 

should be conttmed with insn^ClBO], ^ifr being a mere adverb « vup- 
ward.** — For the rest, it is not strange that the wavering between abl. 
and gen. in construing adjectives and adverbs of space and time (126) 
appears also in the syntax of prepositions. Cp. 173 R. I* 

3) it is no exception, that Nala 1,2 the gen. is u8ed3T||mTfr cfsonTt 
since the repetition does not imply here the notion of proximity , the 
meaning being » [standing] high above all men.** 

126 S 172-178. 

preeediag ffesitiTe, and generally signiAee »aboTe, upon" in tpaee. 
The archaic dialeet did uie it alflo as a time-denoting word = 
lafter** [cp. 3<rf^« 171 b)], — In the (^ai, Br. it sometimes com. 
plies with the aecnsative. 

Rem. T^jTijsz »aboTe*' is not frequent M. 1, 92 'jjS :mlmr7T7: 
mj: lfr£tfrmu But it is frequent, when of time =r » after," see 174. 


178. {12]. Akin to the old and obsolete 7^: [160] classic 

^; Sanskrit possesses ^T^, T^WrT, ^Jr{* and q^, air 
mm^ of them expressive of the notion beyond. When denoting 
'T^t space, they serve al$o to signify the passing by — especi- 

''^ ally ^^Ul with accus. — and the surpassing — espec. 

^^trllri with genit. When denoting time, they are = 

,after" and comply with ablative. 

Examples: a.) of space and rank. Ait. Br. 8, 14, 3 7 ^ 9 qriir 
Qj[cj.rl sTTf^T: (all countries beyond the HimAlaya); Mhbh. 1, 232, 11 
< i;mu*ll'«f^ (»fKiM by us", ▼. a. »do not harm us"); K&m. 5, 61 ^v?^ - 
leiUciJ r ^^ ?T CT^WTT: ^rpfriJcPr: (— nor does noblo extraction go 
beyond wealth); Mal&v, I » P* 1 7: MJ<Timf?MI*j[^ (who surpasses all 

b,) of time: »after." M. 2, 122 vf^^grr^iTq^ (after the salutation). 
Pane. V, 58 gi^n>j|H ; (after a moment), Utt III , p. 38 ^frffrffmr- 
?q)i|T (after leaving the breast). So the frequent phrases 9?r: <77^» 
?T7T: 77^ and the like. 

Rem. 1. Occasionally they occur, when being attended by a 
genit., even while time-denoting. M. 8, 223 qrijT <ui i <^m [Kull. = 
<v ii v^i^i a^]i Ait. Br. 2, 33, 5 McIHH^^ q^ff i kj. 

Rem. 2. As <t7^ etc. answer to Latin ultra , so irorf^ is the 
equivalent of Lat eitra^ denoting the side next to us. When 
time-denoting, «?nr contrasted with (jpr^ and the like is accor- 
dingly = -before;" then it may be construed with the ablative. 
M. 8, 30 jTTi^cnfTO fpr^ pjiT ant fnvmrj^i ^x^^ ^'^\A[tkrM^ 
qrnT ^qpt^^fl (property the owner of which has disappeared , must 

§ 178-177. 127 

be gnarddd by the king for three jeen^ Before that term, the 
owBer may reelaim it, afterwards it falls to the king). 

174. , After" in time is often expressed by 3?pT or ^FTrlT^ 

•■d wiiA ablative. Of them , ?FT^r['^ commonly makes up the 
*'""* latter part of a compound adverb. KumAras. 6,93 5T^Tpix|^(aft©r 

Tt throe days), Ragh. 3, 7 ^|^imgi;Ni | i( i (;^r | >r^ ^ttTT (a creeper at the 
time it has lost its old foliage), Pane, 52 n^fjj ^rnfTTTT^ (after 
having seen her). So rT^TRT^ (after this) and the like. 

That the single ablative may occasionally express rafter what 
time*' has been stated aboTo (qq). 

175. Another word for ^after" is q^lr|. When prepos., 
''^ it complies wU/i a genitive generally preceding , and is 

mostly used of space and rank. Kuth&s. 6, 134 ^ grfim 
Tm msv9 snaswf; Fane. 181 irsr ^^sn^vu-. g^ (no friend I put 
after him). 

Rem. lAfter** in space may also be denoted by words moaning 
Bwest of" as vRWSRy by (p- (at the rear) and ^wCu x (back). The 
last seems to be restricted to the old liturgical dialect. 

176. [!*]• The very opposite of ^^\r\ is the old adverb 
! 3T*~*^^^ ^^^ ^^ synonyms: «) the kindred y^r|!* 

JRT" ^(WH, b) Wi and ?mfT: (literally ,at the top , at the 
^^^ head"). When prepositions, they comply with ijcnillce 
^^ or are compounded. They are employed l>oth of s^xice and 
fTHT: of time. 

etc. Examples of ^; eto. applied to space. (I&k. V htt: (rfa^rf^ 

ym: J^T^ot W^^ jfrf^rro; A.gv. Grhy. 1, 11, 6?|^ [q^n:] « mfi l jrri|*i, 
^ffTfT (before the victim they bear a blazing stick); Pane. 286 
m^ UTT PiMt i M [bc. qoignP ij (he cast the young shoots down be- 
fore her). — As to their application to time see 178. 

177. They are also often used to denote ^in the presence 
of, under the eyes of* = Lat. comm. In the same way 

128 § 177. 

t1*1^*J and CFn^FT. Moreover words , meaning ,in the 

vicinity of as HFRT etc 

Note the frequent employment of this turn with verbs 
of w^iny^ tellinffy promuing^ even with those oi ginng ^ 
brinifing^ appearing und the like. It is virtually the same 

tosay rR<ira'--,rrPT5;[rr:, W^ etc^-tiMeilH (CrirT- 
SJtnTFr etc.) or FT^ — , rM —, r\ V^ --hydjrl (CTfrT- 
SpnTTFT etc.) 

Examplos: 1. — <tt: etc. := Lat. coram, Da^. 96 ^ d i ><j;iq | >^Ui ' Jd qiT 

jTTrTrrm^Fi; Ratn. Ill, p. 67 ij?n nciT?n& nrrfn *) tXK^^ (fo** shame 

, she lowers her face before everybody); Kath&s. 4, 79 j^ ^UTfnr- 

w i *ii*l>Mij^ni»/l iini3[^ (forsooth in our presence he has avowed [as 

to] the money); Da^. 176 ff^?n: 'rft rn^ (— w«pt before her eyes). 

2. — qr: etc. with verbs ot saying ^ telling ^ bringing etc. Kath&s. 
27> 27 n p^: 3^: n^3nr5i3TrT^ (he told the king all) ; Pane. 274 
m fuJ l jiidV (di^il>ff r 5n^HT?p%l^^: ; ibid. 25 the chacal says to 
the lion f^ ^idiMMMmd z^ \ di\\\iii!\ ] Nala 1, 15 rR?rr: ^"i J 
rp^* nUTCFf: .... ^HVW n^ 2 r^PPfTTf JT:yT: » Kathds. 25, 21 1 ^rir^fnTTTiT 
CcPf ^TTorr: TT:**** 'T^ (^ myself have promised so to (he king). 
Pane. 277 qzf TT^rrar ttTtTT (the basket was brought to the king), 
MahAv. I, p. IS "pxr^i^^W J^: arr^fsFJ rTZ^: = TTW^nw [or ''^^J 

Rem. The inverse of Lat coram ^ viz. elam »at the back of, 
without the knowledge of" is expressed by gfrer^or °if, 17^, it^tt: 
sim. KathAs. 29, 73 m ^^pt- .... *nv^ <T j^<<i^»<J<Jfj[^ (she illtreated 
her daughter-in-law without the knowledge of her son). *). 

1) So I have meodod the bad reading of msa. and edd. ^\uQi. 

2) In the brfthmanas ^TTlWR} '''OnrJ^ when » elam , is also construed with 
initrom. (at. Br. 1 , 5, 2, 7 <lii*<M>| qrmT* Ait. Br. 3, 36, 5 iBlf^rn ^ayh^ 

i 178—179. 129 

78. When of time, 7^*etc.agree likewise withagenitive'). 
Tet ^before** in time is commonly not expressed by 
them, but rather by ST^ or 9^^. both complying with 
the ablative. 

Examples a.) of time-denoting n-; etc. Qik, YII happiness is 
■aid to be the consequence of the favour of mighty persons to 
gm^Ml <T7^ i^i (^vt your favour is anticipated by happiness), 
Mhbh. 1, 232, 1 jpr: <{i-<tj^»MW wknmTfS q^: ; — 6.) of gpiF and 

12, 35 gf Tiim^-iirgJM . (before approaching). 

79, [16] ETFT wiii accusative is, relatively speaking, the 
^' most common among the so called prepositions. It 

generally denotes the direction towards, and for 
this reason it often is a concurrent idiom of the sole 
accusative , dative and locative. It is used a) with words 
of movement to signify the , whither," 6) in such turns , 
as speaking io, bowinjjf to , atrimnff to , looe — , hatred — , anger 
to and the like, c) like the nimittasaptami (147) to 
express ,with respect to, on account of, concerning, 
about, on", (/)=, about," to denote nearness in space 
or time, e) it has a distributive sense, in what case 

one is wont to compound ^\r{ with its noun , as ^ArU^^ 
(every day). 

As a rule, MIrf is put behind its noun, at least in 

Examples: a) Pane. 42 j|^ gf^ q?!^ (he set out homeward), 
Day. 30 ii-e^pH^^^a i gfn; — methaphor. R. 2, 107, 11 irorr qd*lM> | 

1) Note the ablative with witx M. 3, 114 vf^rfm^ 3? ^ihrr^mraTT^* he 
must entertain them even before his guests** [KuUAka vf?ifn^7rr<s7 ^qHT- 

180 8 179—180. 

^r^nfir (by Ofty^i m he direeiad his worship to the |»tterot). 

h). Pane. 159 irf^ wit fff^ WTT; — B. 2, 62, 79 :i;^ ?Tt ^ ^Hmx 

injm?ff^ ^g;^:; — Mudr, I, p. 22 rp^^ nrl^ itft: ; - C&k. Ill ^snpiT- 

^TEiRir Jr sf nt gmjTRnr:; — C^k. VII M^w^iQuf fff?r ;t tctot ^rj: 

WTO:; — R. 8, 54, 23 ^ p7 gf^; — 9«^k. IxF;rTfgsro>ifeT:nTpnT^iTf?r. 

e.) M. 8, 245 ^^ gf?r M^wj) f^cflir (^ * contest have arisen a6ott< 
some bonndary); Nala 2, 6 fri^riawm 7f!^ ^t l ^rk^\ jFTt fif^ (— con- 
uming his daughter); M&lat IX, p. 154 feyf J mc^ fff?r Pl{iuft 
4^; Pane. S Yishnuyarman engages himself to make the king's 
•ons Hdu i ivJi BfwprirtTTSTrT; QAk. I fife jt ^m nm fci<j*iw i Mcififii<mw i *«fd 
^9l«T (should she perhaps be duposed towards me, as I am to 

Kern. Koto the phrase irf crf?r »in my opinion, for my part," 
ft. seloH mot. In full irt vfh ulfM i fH (it looks-, seems to me). Hitop. 

<f,) Mhbh. 1, 8, 7 vKki^ i qTiwr.... ^ im^N... irtiM^J nmwrn ^^- 
Au i l!U*luP< (— «^M^ the hermitage of Sth.); M. 7, 182 mmTiq gi znif^ 
5WTO73rt iifWTt: I «m9nfif snw ^ arr trm fffrr. 

e). Pane. 286 rwi aS irfrr <jrpA* .irraffH (he gives him one 
eamel a year); Y&jn. 1, 110 tr^ afrr (at every sacrifice). — Com- 
pounded t L ^4k. I ufTw i ai^iJ i JiH i ZTrT: (let each actor do his duty), 
Bhojapr. 14 ^ jwt ^ f^T^*ni UriiM^,'th um ^rrr. A concurrent 
idiom is mentioned 168 R. 1. 

280. P&nini enjoins also the ablative with gf^, in two cases viz. P- U 

99; i 
when pointing out a) one's match or substitute, b) something 8.8,1 

given in exchange. The K&$ik4 illustrates our rule by those exam- 
ples: a), iraxr: «RanTr][^or 9?nnrr: vfh (Pr. the match or substitute 
of K.), b). fh^m: {Hft (iT^ff l mW'i ^ (in exchange of sesam he gives 
beans). I have nowhere met with instances of that construction 
in literature, but for one, I borrow toxtually from the Petr. Diet, 
vix. Mhbh. 3, 13287 3irnif qjT ^ m^^ VkmrW\r\ \ ruf^ \ h JRPg. 
Yet there are several instances in the ancient Yedic dialect -as 
.well as in elassic Sanskrit of an aecus, with TfFTi when signifying 
the Buiatch.** Rgv. 2, 1, 8 ^ ^r^mfiir sum ^or ufn (you are equal to 

§ 180-182. 181 

thoBMUidf ete.), KathAa. 45, 400 rr w viWivafM*!* irf^ (nor are yoa « 
matoh for him). 

81, [17] ^TF^! (outside, out) is the very opposite otVrV 
"^* (165). It is more used as a mere adverb than as a preposi- 
tion. In the latter case it complies with preceding ablative^ 

Pane. 176 fsf a^T^ 5if|iisr (get out of the water), ibid. 291 irT^^ 
'Hf^n^W i ^d ;* Or it may be the latter part of a compound: Utt 
rV, p. 73 fTTOJTilfl:. 

Rem. Da(. 77 srf^: is construed with a genitive: n^ «r rnifr- 

82. fl8] t^FIT {toitliout) is construed yai\i instrumental ^v.%,t, 
^^' accusative or ablative. In prose it is commonly put behind 

its case^), in poetiy it often precedes 

Examples: with inttrum. Pane. 266 if^ jsm ^rn ^rnr oR^ 
Sirntfrr (I cannot live here without you); — with aecus. Pane. 
269 m q^ smiT Tort (Irt cmrT^ (but she cannot stay without you), 
R. 3, 9, 20 ;t Urt znf^ i\ ^^VJ^ (be does not go abroad without 
that sword); •— with ablat. Da^. 141 h i <U I U iiTi2l7TCtfa?TT (without 
such a store of happiness), Var. Brh. 44, 17 ^ ^nrfrr r^r nf^*^: 

Rem. 1. Occasionally finn may bave the meaning of vsavo. 
If not". Pane. I, 42 ^qr Mci^iM^fJai ^R?r ?T g f i ^fn , ibid. p. 244 rr ^ 
pirtsf firnT mxrrr^ (there is nobody wiso but Rakt&xa). 

Rem. 2. Just as fsRT are construed mrw and rrrrr » apart from." ^- *• •• 
Of nr^, when a prepos., I can quote no instance from literature, 
of «j(!RF only with an ablat. Bhojapr. 27 jr^m-. ^ ^vjUdiAiiTft^ (tbo 
king's duty lies outside the duty of the scholar), Prabodh. II, 
p. 34, Mudr. I, p. 48. 

1) Bat not always. Modr. VII, p. 223 f. i, ^rW q<r. l <irjm Mj l RfHH 
it precedes, stress being laid. upon it »€vefi mtkuut striking a blow Your 
Excellence has vanquished." 

132 I 183—184. 

188. Separation is expressed by some more prepositions, as 
^ ?FfT^[Tir, ^4Tl(l, ?RI5r, W[, moreover by verbal 

'^- periphrase (202, 2*). About ^FFT^T and 4IH"{ UI see 166. 
?DPT3r with ablative is .except, save," in interroga- 
tive and negative sentences = , but;" W\ is likewise "^j^ 
construed with ablative and generally it is also = ^except, 
save," sometimes = »by default of," rarely = » without." 

Examples: of f^nr* Mhbh. 1, 147,20 ;t ^>iM>ci^m>d ^ >iiHcH - 
%?: I fT^nr fd«i J l M i rfHi < miw<mhM^M l H (and nobody among the cilizent 
did know them, but — ); Oh. Up. 6, 8, 4 rm w ^ m i <;^>^aiMirt^ (and 
where eould be its root except in food f). The proper meaning of 
fT^fnr being of course » else where," the ablat, which attends on it, 
is that of comparison (106). 

of ^, 1. ■^. save, except. Bhojapr. 27 eMf^«>^m i ^H «$^ ^rf^ sT 
n:^, QAk. in lii? rj w^ ^ ftKi i ^UM l ^d unm*<>^H[^ (what other relief 
is there for me, except beholding my sweetheart?); — 2. = by 
default ot R. 2, 66, 27 jr^ g jsTT^ ^ *<^{igfH l (MU>l^ (^^^^ ^^^ 
not approve burning the king's body, no son of his being present); 
Y&jn. 2, 117 it is said that after the death of the mother her 
daughters must have the succession im TTT*^ <s;sRr: (by default 
of them, the descendants); — 3. Ch. Up. 5, 1, 8 »qi<mghHH *|yJifgj*j[^ 
(how did it forbear to live without mo?). 

Rom. Sometimes if^ ia construed with the accusative^ especially 
in epic poetry. Nala 4, 26 uQ i v i ^'l ^ m rm ^ ehHu^j^ ^ ' gdM^ ; i sRrr 

184. [19J Of ^ »with'' and its synonyms fFPT, HT^, 

iuVno. ^I^«*1 ^ f*ill account has been given in the chapter on 
»!■• the instrumental (58;. Mostly they precede the instru- 
mental, they are complying with, but they may also 
be put behind or be separated from it by one or more 

§ 184—186. 138 

intetjaoeBt words'). As they are, when without noun- 
case , adverbs meaning « together /* it is , exactly speaking , 
a pleonasm to put them to the instrumental, as the notion 
of coneomitancy is already carried by that case. 

Rem. Oceastonallj ^^ with instr. m«j even be expressive of 
the instrument. KathAs. 37, 62 Utcll^ i nf ^rl^u^: (after having in- 
flamed the fire by combustibles). This idiom , though not of frequent 
occurrence in literature, must be very old, as it is met already 
in the Ath. Veda, see f. L 8, 1, 11 f^oU^fei l m mfTd^H l ^ (lest 
the Celestial bum thee with his lightning). 

B5. Compounding ^^ with its noun is allowed. Yet in 'A*. 

„^. most cases to tt«^* one substitutes Wf either of them 

»^ being the former member of the compound. It is exactly 

the same to say {FT: flHlrl? or {T^J ^ tTlMrfl. An 

instance of interchanging ^^ and 9' may be Yen II, p. 43 ^. 

Vlr^lilUI Mill'kCT Kisl^k ^rgrf Ut^Mil I W«yW Pl^^H ?nTIjg?T: grniPUT- 

Rem. 1. Some cases are taught by P4nini, where rr^ is re- 
quired to be the compound's former member, not 9, some others 
in which on the contrary 9 must be used. Thus ^^ is wanted 

a) in time-denoting adverbs as M^u<jf^ (the forenoon included), 

b) in blessings as 9^ ^^qainj kdhri imTrT (hail to him with his gi** 
son). Yet the phrases ^oif^iM -, mm -, ^nr^rw ^srftrT innn are »d- ^' •• •• 
mittod as equally good as H^oifMiu and the rest. 

But 9^ — not ^^^ — is required a) in all compound adverbs, 
not expressive of time, therefore exclusively in such terms as m^Vji t^ 
(with anger), M>jg*< | r i q^ (respectfully), Da?, S4 cf^Tssm Kf^pre nnw^rar 
*l i M*imH (he addressed mo in a manner adapted to his shame, to his 7** 
joy and to his excitement) and so often; — b) in some special phrases, 
as wf!^ im^mmflk — not ^^^^ — , a^: Kta^jj:, and the like. 

Rem. 2. tniq^ and cm'T^ are seldom compounded with their noun. 

1) 80 f. i. Da^. 156 ^ fargw \ \ ^9*^UU Ait. Br. 1, IS, 18 St3^ 
M^UWqfff , B. 2, 95*, 29 fiffiyiT frRRRTsr ^. etc 

?1^£^ such noun-cases as have got more or less the character 
■J ■•■■• ^ 

•TaMia. ^f prepositions. Those, we will look upon now, have 
still retained as much of their original and proper sig- 
nificance as to consider them as nouns even from a 
syntactical point of view. Of course all of them comply 
with the genitive or may be the latter part of com- 
188. In the first place: the loc., ace. and abl. of nouns, 


meaning proximii^^ viciniiy, neighbourhood (as ^TFrnFT, 

iwr ?PTT7, H^rW, HFTTT) or the side (TRT) and similar. 
•r^roA- are a means for expressing ^near; to, towards; from.'' 


IS4 S 186—188. 

If tUi be the ease, they make «p the latter member. Pane. 276 
ei i ^^WMM w sn^nriV iftfem m (with these very wordi the wife ef 
the brahman was restored to life). . 

186. Finally we must mention some prepositions , not spoken 
i.^wn, ^f in the foregoing, viz. !•* WVXl and Wm\, both = 

1^,^. ,near. about," 2»y ^TPIfTt, ^1^:, H'^J, HHtIH: 

(round, about, on all sides), 3^Mn J (on both sides). AU ] 

of them agree with the accusative. ' 

Examples: I. Da^. 146 jrtpn rfrvfiTfTr. . . . nnjJTjrmPiH^wraij; 

2. Kath&s. 33, 113 wf^: w?f MMK^ i; R. 2^103, 21 ^feft J^^FTT. 
^tij fciM^ t mP im a?T; KathAs. 18, 5 ff mim>hi ; ^fpft wg^ ii^nun ^sr 
(on his sides his vassals marched, like the hosts of stars round 
the polar-star). 

Rem. 1. A genitiTe with vfiirT:, HT^rT: i* rare, but it seems 
it is regular with im.H i HU Pane. 185 iror ajniWw M*i>Hwf^^*lfH> 

Rom. 2. In modem writings f^rj^ with gen. = »on all sides.** 


187, lu the preceding paragraphs we have already dealt with 


§ 188. 185 

This periphrase is espedally employed to signify a moving 
towards or from a person. ,He has come to me" *i^rfi^ 

\u" [or •%] WJm' or TrH^JTISfFT, Hrf1H>JH. W^im 

etc., ,he is gone from me" •ir-ll^l^^-|f4lri: etc. 

Examples: 1. moving to a person, Accus. and locat of the 
periphrasing noun. — antika: Dag. 19 9m.... ; id<pH»*i l >ilHoiMlM T , 
Pane. 269 Ha i l^A H*lMmi(* r; — sakdga; Mrcch. Ill, p. 125 ^^ jp^ 
aM^M>^ i q i; ^rftsipj^ (M., go to V.), Pane. 262 ir^ rar^rani ^amrnriTT: 
(I have come to you for friendship) ; •— samtpa : Hit. 22 isr^ ^^- 
jqjT^rfJ^, Pane. 178 ijmsfq ^fsr( f^di l ^mfi xttT:; — pdrgva: Pane. 
257 cfM^uiyJ*nmH » ibid. 55 njTonjTpnn: ^pnrTOT^^;^; — samnidhi: 
Dag, 133 ^y^^ 4qr »7JT fefr: ?Tf^TfyiA?T^; — nikata: KathAs. 24, 66 

^n^pnf 71 fciM ' t^c i M ' • • • <!;f5'1^'f*i n^ (then he allowed that brahman 
to go to his daughter), Bhojapr. 60 ^ i dPi»^ ^^ti — * abhyarna: 
Dag. 36 gPiHi» «.« *^ffqH^»<mfx;PiiiM<<j (conducted the woman to my 
father and — ); — upakatUha : Dag. 39 H<<4^hU6 5feq'» '^^^^ ^'^*^ ^^^ 
easily be enlarged. From the archaic dialect I add an instanee 
of 9V being equiTalent with tjj^, Ch. Up. 5, 3, 4 ^ ^vum: f^T- 
f^jTRT (he went sorrowful to his father). 

2^ moving from a person, Ablat. of the periphrasing noun. — 
KathAs. 10, 26 :a^: ^ ^rJSwf^iTlm^mM^H^ (frld. with his friends 
withdrew from him), Ragh. 5, 24 ^: H!MU i l<Ho» l tq WTT i vmi (gone 
from Raghu , without having obtained his desire), Mrcch. X, p. 375 

3. Staying near, Locat. of the periphrasing noun. — Agv. Grhy. 
1, 18, 7 feifd i ^aiu^M i fiMeh i ui arm fsp^i Pane 277 wjrtorqy fa?JFrft 
^rn^i^:, ibid. 160 ytumTjijlT^ = »near the white house.'* When at* 
tending on persons, the periphrasing nouns may of course be = 
»in the presence of,'* thus being synonymous with n*:, vit and 
the like (177). Hence they may occasionally denote the person 
addressed to. R. 3, 10, 9 ^f^ iiiTT an^ firiMP i J r (so I have spoken 
to the brahmans). 

Rem. 1. By so called syntactic analogy h^k i uhh^ i* occasionally 
construed with the abl. instead of the gen. of the noun, it qualifies. 

186 § 188—190. 

YftrAk Brii. 104, 12 rfi^gwuAi qV wk: H^ l V ii Wif^m^inifl i (Maw Ukei 
away th« fniit of thieves and princes). 

Bern. 2. KathAs. 25, 129 we have irfSnftjT =r »near,»» wu i Mm i Ptft^ 

Rem. 8. qT9srpr:» cmhTT:* inRTSTFr: somottmes have the worth of abla- 
tives, but sometimes also that of locaiives, f. L Kath&s. 32, 99 «^n^- 
f^ Ttm jf^ rmva ^n^sm: i JI^ (— and at its side a river), cp. Kala 6, 4. 

1 W. Moreover fPRTSOTTrT — and also , but not so often , wf^pfiTH 

' and qrosr&T^— serves also to periphrase many other kinds 
of ablative, especially if=»from the side of a per8(m*\ 
So Pane. 28 ^snt^TT: H7rTm^i«n!:imtnT ^f i qRif i oU T ["c. jum] (you must 
procure me safety from the side of your master), ibid. 137 itt%- 
waisrw rm rm ^Tuznf^rwnwn ^ i ?pt qir ^^m iffh: ku\u\ \ i fr wh^ i Ri- 
♦iW i fq JsniR fm risr M l' ;dju*{f^i?cl i ^ (well , I have seen how you have 
loosened Citragrtva of his fetters, and I was mnch pleased at this, 
for I too, if perchance I should get into capti\ity, may be released 
from your side); — to receive from: Mrcch. X, p. 341 ^x^mj^ itcFT; 

ntmu — to learn from : M. 2, tO \^ri^^\^imkjrm ^^ttott^^erpjih: i ^ar# 
^ifflf n;m<><{fglc«i BOTTTSTT: ; — to buy from : M. 9, 174 »?mTl<JN^fdUr<J I «[ 
n i fl l FjallS^irfHii l fj irT flRTTTff: f{H^f ! W (ho whom somebody has bought 
from his parents that he might be instead of a son, is called his bought 
son); — to be borne from: Pane. 318 rw ?f>??it ?Twf?T fTrnTTTSTTfjsf T ^ 
» ifll^juffl (he will give me his daughter, of her I shall have a son), — 
Abl. of comparison: Pane. 271 wim M*^ l >i l Rfl T; TOtit ^ f dM^ ^ Ufl 
M5.iu il fiCmuMi<> i (nm?r (from this time he looked on him with favour 
above all rajputs, showing his grace by marks of honour and the 
like), Vajracched. p. 16 lam w^ uu'n*»y w i Pr i!i.i<». M i qra^: ginR^RTW: 
' ; i fff i Jii |i M 9P^ 'U^9\ (forsooth , if compared to the foresaid bulk of 
good works, this second bulk of good works is not equal to the 
hundredth part of it). 

190. In the same way the loc., ace. and abl. of t4Tl^» 

^^^ ^/T, sim. may periphrase the being or the getting , within," 
the moving .from within/' 

§ 190~19S^ 187 

«.) beiag within. Pwie, 259 trfer m*}<^ i >H{ «^>r;^; i^i^ ^7 vpimur 
«1?i|:t: vfk^XPd 7^i — *.) getting within. Pane. 246 ei i ^miMW^H ^ 
J*imM>H ; (he disappeared in a crowd of brahmans) ; ibid. 39 rniT 
.nsno! 7^ n&^anr; — e.) coming from within. Pane. 38 j?*^ qfrwT- 
TTTlwt mwt 7T jnfTT (noTor at day nor at night he draws the money 
out of his belt), ibid. 70 rm: jHttsr^ ^jehmttj' flymr i A ^rrri ^trfhm: 
(then , the echo caused a noise twice as hoaty to go up from the 
interior of the pit). 

Rom. Q:?n- may occasionally be = vwith respect to, concerning.** 
So R. 2, 90, 16; cp. the same meaning of igpffpn 166, 4?, As to 
moR see 167. 

91. RVJ and ^T^^mFT are often used in a partitive sense; 
then they are concurrent idioms of the partitive cases, 

" see 116, Rem. 2. Pane 120 fncpfmw avr^vsnui ibid. 86 ?njt 
nuiTf^Frrar: msn^ (among them, the crow spoke). 

92. The locative denoting ,o« or iVi what spot", is often 
^ specified by means of such words as *?T?t, "3^53ft 

JJ,"^ *Hrr, "rl/*, "TSTsim. When translating such tatpurushas, 
[^ these latter members must generally be rendered by 
prepositions:, m, upon^ over etc Pat. 1,123 ot: ^ m^.rj<i i 
fnaiH ^ frt5i;iT^(H >noHHd i r i <ri (that smoke being in the atmo- 
sphere , it does not go athwart , if the air be calm , nor falls down), 
Da^. 169 eh^uidP l uv idJ l' giiM < j^.tJ^^ i ^H (he saw somebody moving 
on the earth). 

Rom. Likewise Upm may periphrase the metaphorical sense of 
the locatiTo, as Bh&g. Pur. 1, 4, 13 i^n fort fanJr sn^ JpH. (^ 
think you are accomplished in grammar), Pane. 173 ti ^ifj ^ j q iV l Kn 
7 ^^: (one must not be grioTod for the sake of earthly goods). 
So often inr f^niu »in this respect.'* 

98. Several periphrasing words may signify far He sake 
off because o/, /or, viz. 1. ^ifl, used almost as a real 

138 § 193. 

^1^; preposition, 2. %rftt the ablative ») of %rr,motive,"8. 
w,«RipT^!7^, WPTand^, the aoc., dat and loc. of ?PI 
prrtiliTeof (matter, sake), 4. the instrum., accus. and abl. of MrtTI 

eaute, ao« 

tivc.a«. and ^TT^trr .cause, motive." They are construed with 
preceding genitive, if they do not make up the latter 
part of a compound. 

Examples: 1. ^. — Pane. IV, 29 ;t ^sr^qw ^ ijf^ ^m^ (one 
must not spend mueh for the sake of little); Mrcch. IV, p. 131 

JWT w^ iT<ri*i«r. ?pr m^Hii^i F^HHj F*nc. IV, 51 srrr^ jy^ ^: 
(the ass was killed for his Toice). 

2. ^:. — BhagavadgftA 1, 35 ^npnjf ^>f|f*i^ i fX|. ... iif^5r?feap5«rRr 
^: f^ ^ <rfh|7r (them I would not kill.... not even for the take 
of the realm of the three worlds, how much less for the posses- 
sion of land); 54k. V ^ M ^d i P^fTi^m ; f^rro rf l ^V - (^^^'® "^* 
caring for your own pleasure, you tire yourself for the sake of 
your people); Ragh. 2, 47 w^k^ |?n% ^ i jfXlri^rciTii^ijfe ; ufdiJ l fM 
n f9^ (you seem to me a thoughtless fool, that you desire to 
give up much for a trifle); M&lat. IV, p, 65 d)fdfH i m^d i; = ^tfgr. 
frarTOTW. — Note ofPRT ^: (why?), gpTOlf^ f^: (for some motive) 
and the like. 

1) It is not quite plain, how P&nioi did account for ^ftT:* Vet, his 
commentatori and followers consider it a genitioe, and it is very likely, 
he has thought so himself. At least, we may draw the inference. After 
having taught in his sAtra 2,3,26 xrSi ^mnTTTT, that is >the genitive is 

required [instead of the instrum. of causality] when employing ^", he 

adds this clause (s. 27) ^iJ> > m^^f?W f «r »bnt in the case of a pronoun 
of the class uirva etc., either the gen. or the instrum.'* With the said 
pronouns it is therefore allowed to use two idioms promiscuously — f. i. 
^TPJ ^7TT: and TFT ^TpTT — i but for the rest the only idiom available 
is that, which is exemplified by J^OT ^:. Now, as ipT and ^g^TT 
are both instrumentals , it is but consistent that of ^;ks ^rit:. the parallel 
iliom, both elements are meant as genitives. Then, of course u^UMl 
^rfr: mugt also be considered as genitives both. The very words of P&nini 
do not admit of another interpretation. 

« 193. 139 

8. «.) minj, — . Pane. 169 ^smii n^ ufw^WdH^uf : (he it gone 
to the same bank for water), ibid. 212 3W»JTfwV sniroain^ irof^frT: 
(— set ont in order to kill the crows), Mrcch. Ill, p. 116 s|^fnqFiT!TT 
f^tnciuii^ dM>HM>i i i|4 n^rf^, B. 3, 35, 84 <m^Hi>i<i>nJ ^mr( «t^ 
(he made up his mind to fetch the amrta). It is plain, that fnT>][^ 
is in all such phrases the equiTalent of a final dative. Cp. 87. 

*.) wife, — Mhbh. 1, 144, 17 tt TT^Et^jTHT^ <miiawh ?r;f^%T^ 
(they will not reproTO us for the sake of the PftndaTas); Pane. 
Ill, 178 ^ ^ f^fumq rm^ qTnfert jjar: (no ruler but a monarch 
promotes the welfare of his country), here f^rTTTRr is =: f^?TPr» cp. 
Kala 13, 19. 

c.) IT?, ■— Kroch. in, p. 116 nftnRT? iJ i ^Ju i ^r^ frnf^ qiPiH^ , 
Pane. 325 ^m^ irrf^sl^^: f^Torr (it is for evil days, that wealth 
and friends are sought after), R. 2, 118, 53 3>n?«:i l i iVJiHi (^tMU l MJ i iu 
^y(j (U. has been given to L. to be his wife) [ittot? accordingly =r 
imrh or imft op. ibid. 3, 34, 21; Mhbh. 1, 14, 7]. 

4. frtftwJT otc. — Da?. 25 ^^k\i {^M JTrmHarrfrsurT (he has died 
for a brahmau), Pane. 228 ^d?>ri':icimfmic^ i r;^ihurif*iii ir ^iMp^d i ^ i jtjtt, 
Mhbh. 12, 342, 23 ^r^^^mv&QTf^H^ f^ i il fW i ^f^w^jfl l f^r^ ; ffTCPT: (it is 
because of his adultery with Ahaly&, that Indra got a reddish 

Bat however great the authority of P&Dini may be, as it is, when 
he states focta and describes phenomena, there is no plausible reason 
to follow it, where his ezplicatioo of them is wrong. To him, 
who did not know but one language, ^rTT: could appear as a genitive, 
but for us, who have the opportunity of comparing nimilar idioms in 
different languages, f. ex. Latin causa and gratidf English because of, 
it is impossible not to take ^prr: for an ablative of causnUty. By doing 
•o we account for the idiom in question in a quite satisfuctory manner. 
Therefore 9iW ^rfr: is to be compared with Latin cujus rei causa , not with 

qua de causa t the Sanskrit equivalent of which is vtM\/jr\\:» 

9M\\},r\\: reminds me of the vftrtt. on P.2, 3, 27 f^|fI|T>ii^UI<;rPJ 
ncrfcrt UIU<.VI'IM- This precept is strictly true by itself — the word ittt 
shows sufficiently that it must not be urged too much — but it cannot 
be said with some reason, P&nini has left out this rule, as he did not 
want to enjoin it at all. 

UO § 198—195. . 

beard from the tide of Oaatame); — B. 2,90, 12 ^^: wlPi l Pri > >i 
fqsrmr (he, being enjoined by hit father becante of a woman — ); — 
Nala 4, 4 ^rmfif fim {i^iim\»i nar eFT^rnm (for you I will take 
poison ete.) 

1M« The foresaid apparatus for expressing the purpose ^ the 

aim^ the motive^ the aake^ though the most common, 

is not the sole, ^RT, fniHrl, "-fil^lll, ^, ^ etc. 

serving also for this purpose, when being part of a 
bahuvrihi. Dag. 75 t L f6H:*<<i4 ' iifri ; ehM t ^rfr wg^.*^'^l<(T^<id (from 
astonishment and joy people burst out into clamour). A fair sample 
of manifoldness of expression we have in these lines from the 

riifn^i'U'U'ii'iw ?T sq'T: ^f i MSna ; (2, 23, 31), 
in each pAda a different way has been followed to signify the 
aim. In the first ^ti is the latter member of a bahuTrlhi, in the 
fourth ^, in the second the dative of the aim has been used, 
and the third has periphrase by means of w^* Cp. R. 3, 48, 17; 
Nala 14, 19. 

Rem. It is plain that datives as wnh^ frf^wnry ^rrar will signify 
bat the purpose or aim^ whereas ablatives as *i, | 3UHh , instrumentals 
as fn^rirr, compounds in ^t^ are only expressive of the cause. 
But in some of the foresaid implements for periphrase, as 9!H, 
iri^t f^r^TT^f ^: » the contrast , which does logically exist between 
the conceptions »aim** and »cause** is not to be found. Strictly speak- 
ing, they are standing on the neuter territory of the » motive** 
which partakes of both. See the examples given. 

195. The cause — either material or efficient — is moreover 
'^ often periphrased by c|!i||H (or ^UFl) liter. ,by the 

^*^^ rule of" and STFTIfT (or ofFFT) liter. ,by the power of." 
Pane. 43 ^ imrTcnTT^Tiwr spt^, ibid. 327 ^oidurirMUMH ?nnt gumr- 
iixj^; Var. Brh. 2, 4 <iin i /Jj^; pM 5t i i dCi> r crrpr^ (he may perhaps reach 
the other side by the strength of the wind) ; KathAs. 12, 59 m<*[>i ;i 

§ 195—197. Ul 

«^tS* gfi i i*iw » j^ anrraTTPVpoTiT: (Yang, made himself inTisible by 

196, The agent ^ instrument, means may be periphrased by 
phrtM 8uch words as ^l^m (by means of), RTTrUT (by way of), 

^1^ m^Ai*A{ (by a continual line of), ^!^ and q^*i*i 

Z:L\ or ^TcnrT, cl^HIri (by mouth of), ^f^ or ^fUTl?]; 

(by exercising, practising), ^^tt I i Ml (agreeably to), sira. 

Prabodh. II, p. 35 ?bT [sc, M i cifAm ] ^ famf » M (umJi i ^ m i fW'j i A ^r^- 
m^ rF5FT (and ho has spread his doctrine by his disciples and the 
disciples of them); Pane. 239 m^h i yw i Tfm cnm7|^(he went off through 
the sky); Mrcch. VIII, p. 255 ?Tfi[ M>i(.M i >w^w|<ii >i; i p^« i u)>M fffinrr- 
sr: (but if we entered the city of U. by following the lino of 
groves); Pane. 56 ^ pur e^ofti^a i ^ i rrt j%T^^cim; Qak, II ^tH 1 ui; ii «'., - 
imf^ fFT: Ur^T^ Mi^H l ffi (he too [the king] earns tapas day after day 
by his giving protection); Pane. 126 ^prf^ fkm q<^ > rji i ><J^ 'jA?piT- 
mrPT ^nfx gITT^ ( — but because of deeds , done in a former existence 
he was a thief) ; Bhojapr. 3 sRjxf( ^^rtijMUU i (I speak according to 
my opinion). 



197. Some participles in n may serve the want of peri- 
phrase, as: 

ifff 1 . TTrT, often used as an equivalent of the locative , 
as it may be rendered by into , to , towards. Pane. 155 vnm^- 

^pniff fnr!i[^(it has come into our hand), MAlav. I, p. 12 i i cj i ^i i H l f?fTf^ 
(she stands at the window), M. 2, 218 ipjnrTT fir^t sprjTfvrr^F^j 
here i r u i H l ^tett = sm f^UT >the wisdom which dwells in his 
teacher." Pane. 272 a lion takes up the helpless young of a chacal 
holding it between his teeth j^^ i nvqsit^ ^fcn" = i}: i m g ^TcTT. Like- 
wise R. 3, 46, 6 SR WMAIHI 5^: = dHWl^ ^Tfft ^ttT: »the trees in Jan." 

U2 8 197—199. 

Examplte of imf periphmhig the nimittMAptamt (147). B. 3, 48, 46 
ow mwnnt H^^ «ni?wf% nnt ^j^T^CLaxmana, look how fond SttA 
is of the tkin of the antelope), Q4k. I mtim ferl^ <i^fTir. (I will 
ask lomethinj^ concerning your friend). 

Rem. Occaiionally rtfkjrtf ^Itfkm And the like are used in thii 
manner. See Hi. R. 3, 11, 65 and 3, 54, 26. 

198. 2. Such as are expressive of concomitancy or the con- 
tidpiM.. traiy of it, as Hl<^r|, ^n\^ when = , with ," \ |«^fii 

•with tB4 ^> ^ ■*• 

.withimt." ^TR", when = , without." It is a matter of course, that 
we have the right of speaking of them as periphrasing 
case-relations only in such cases, as where the original and 
proper meaning of these participles has &ded away in so 
far as not to admit of their being translated by English 

participles. With them may be remembered the adjecti?e e^^imy 
which is often almost equi?alent to our nwith/* as Pane. 62 isrf^.... 
TH^hjT cwTRf^ranni Wf: (a lake with much water). 

Rem. To them we may add ^, frqiifT, ^rnrT and the like, 
' when being the first members of bahuvrlhis as frmrnPT = •fear- 
less," Da^. 25 uMijX : »pityless." 

3. Some participles in the neuter gender may be met with 
occasionally, used asadverbs with a prepositional function. Mhbh. 
1, 115, 11 nmh ^^^Tfm (without the knowledge of Dhr.); Pane 
272 ^ VMvn »T 53i;9iT7: u^fl l d l > r ; i ii «r^: (in the course of the conrer- 
sation the king asked the potter). Cp. Kath4s. 39, 167. 

199. To them we may subjoin , as they do duty of parti- 
'^^ ciples , the adjectives ?TPTg^, 3^^, fT^^, when point- 

^j-j^, ing out the direction of a movement. Then their proper 
meaning « [having] the face [turned] to" has dwindled 

down to a mere to or towardii = ^\r\. They are often 
used so , either as adjectives , or adverbially. — Examples 

of adjectiTo: Pane. 208 ^u^ i fTm^s ; OTT^ which is identical with 
wjj{ (or wjJ^ trf?f) (id^q; ibid. 299 ing: hjj*.«ii n?T: = mrj: ^r^rrar 
xirT:; — of adverb: Pane. 64 m kd^ii^i x U^^ im^. 

S 300-202. 143 

•0. A mmilar periphiase is exhibited by the gerund 3^T^^> 
as it is expressive of the aim the action is pointing at. 
Therefore ^^I^^U may serve almost the same purpose as 
STIrT, and is available as well in figurative as in literal 

sense. So PaM. 210 ^^t^^Rtfl miH i Rld : (he fled to his homo), 
Mudr, I, p. 8 i< i \MU ! lj4f<iH <TTSli: (tho oooking for the brahmans). In 
the former instance the mere accos. CcHppr would suffice, in the 
latter the gen. or dat ii i ^u i Mf*! ^ or oqTvv.. 

Other examples: R. 3, U, 44 pjT:] trrmiTmfPJj![fiya (- to Agastja), 
KAd. I, p. 19 ^MM*t^(<tfil<ifPi*ii 'I'^ny ([the bird] pronounced this 
krfh with regard to the king), R. 3, 38, 13 <lT<*t^(<«l <Of^H ;, Pane. 
82 fHpl^*i^Q.tfJ njwif^, (he is angry for some cause), QAk. V fiig- 
^ji?^ HHSTrTT gh l tflMH i|f^»im*(N<l ; gfpTT: ^: (for what purpose — ?), etc. 

Rem. Like i^f^uu it is also said Mq^f<^u<i or one makes use of 
kindred nouns , as i^^uj^ , mJ^^um , i|<und^ all = »with regard to." 

1. Some other gerunds, as ^TT^TrT, R^^TRT, JtFt- 

\ri 5FJPT, ^BTTraFT, 3^?T, FP^^TFT may be used in a si- 
^ milar way, viz. to signify in ^regard of^ with reaped to^ 

\j^ concerning f about sim. 

-y Examples: Pane. IV, 70 ferft «r ^(^^ fqif^<><iU i fM ?f^nj (I 

will say something about the friendship, hear it); (^&k. II v^ J 

mro unh'Htyil^^f^ i ^rtl simf^ (but I say so only in regard of the fore- 

said (^.), ibid. I Jn^^wu^ifu^ nWrr^ (sing of the hot season); 

R. 2, 9, 60 35n^ j55TT iT^mx mw( f^Ff srat { w^xn Ti i f^H*!^ (Kubj4 

spoke wefl as far as her words regarded the mother of Bharata, 

but not well with respect to R&ma); ibid. 2, 40, 14 oRomT f^ rn«7Rr 

gmiwm^miM ^limrpFpr^^ ^mA ssr^ ^ (in regard of the 
life in the forest, her father-in-law gave to Stti — ). 

^. Among the other gerunds, which may in some degree 
or other do duty of prepositions, we notice: 

144 § 202. 

•^J*J^ 1. those, expressing concomitancy, as %( I^IM 
and TJ^terr, when = , with ;" 

2. such as are expressive of separation, as nmi, 

^^TF3Rrr, ^n^PTs^ slm., as they are = , save, except, 
but for;" 

3. such as serve to denote the instrument, means, 

manner, in short, to periphrase the third case, as 

n\k>m, srfHpJT, ^ehffst, ^twott; 

4. IcT^PT and ^Irnrd when •.. Lat. prae ,in prefe- 
rence to;" 

5. TUpfl .since." 

wn^Tir, Examples: of 1. — 9^k. Ill fi?T: orUmf^ yjtui i <;,iq q^Mfuiui: 

n^insTT* (enters a sacrificer's disciple with kuyagrass); Pane. 173 Qnm^iei 

nunnTT: (he came with money); B. 3,24, 12 jT^TroTT a^ . . . . n^- 

mma (retire with Stt4 into a cavern). — They are especially of 

use to point out the attributes or tools one takes along. Pane. Ill, 

143 ?r [jj^ipir:] q^^^flh^K i u iTSDT ^ 9!ijT TTftT i PrtiMd srf mfh\ Kath&a. 

21, 134/ 
wmjt arf- ®^ ^* "" -P"**^' 208 «^ gyr ^TRTT i l P^(Rri (there is no other path, 
fOTT, g. «"rwp/ duty); R. 1, 67, 19 fn^rjST ^qi: rfS rtn 5i5^ ^Tif^H in c i dfUfoif 
fn^nv. *^Mcl|' TRTFT JTT ^ TTOsfr (and all the people fell down, confounded 

by that sound , save Vi^Tftmitra , Janaka and the two Raghuides) ; 

Pane. 273 wAA 8yM«? i iurj qQrf]i<i ^ fo>f^fMgi4iH i f<dHL (^ ***^® caught 
to day not a single animal except this brat of a chacal). 
g^. NB. Another implement of the same purport as mj etc. is o^j^, 

always making up the latter part of a compound adverb. Yar. 

Brh. 47, 28 fjfz^ftn ^nfm gnf ^M<fw^n ^ «t?tt f^uiQJi 5-i^>i.oi5*t 
(all that has been told at large by the old seers, I have ex- 
plained, save the repetitions). 

of 3. — R. 1, 16, 2 TTpi: ^ cN rfm {Mku^^7v . g^T: I ^^^ n wn^mn 
ft ^'q i t rfry »Tggrq[^ (what way, ye gods, may lead to the death of 
that prince of RAxasas, by which meant I may kill the disturber 

§ 202-204. 145 

of lioly men?)) Mndr. IV, p^ 186 . :r M<in*iw(i f wc i ^m [t^ 196] 
yn(*nw i w^ f* 5 3pTT^ irmffr c i p^rti (we do not approaeb the 
Prinee by the interfarenee of MinUter R&xtBa but bj that of 
the Commander of the Prinoe*B Annj); H&lay. n, p. 45 ^tstti^- 
. R(U(JM6i<ni44 ^ H^lf^iw*!^ »eourteonsly'\ 

Likewise the participle mf^* Pane, I, 248 :p^5fRRT»nw?>^l^ 

Wf of 4. — 5*k. n. ijA vmAst mmraft^ mf^s^ PJuPh it (> } ( i vn * 
V* ^ (i i (lHJ i f^H*^ft (fool, these holy men strew about a quito dif- 
ferent tributo, which has a greater ralae than eren heaps of 
precious stones); R. 2, 94, 26 «H)H>oft^ ( ''3'^'1 « M Jnfliai^^'^ sm Jsrj- 
H<fl*hW><eft ; (Mount Citrakiita has even mbre roots, fruits and water 
than the land of the Hyperboreans), 
of 5: have been given already 170. 

Ren. This list is not complete. It may happen that some more 

gerunds are occasionally to be rendered by English prepositions 

jir. or prepositional phrases. So ti>< i (i^rq may admit of the translation 

MTf »in spite of,** ffsn^ur may be == Lat. o&, as R. 3, 18, 15 where 

>• ^ilrpanakhil speaks so to R&ma tx^ f?^...«. f^ umifm^tl :t 

srt Tof srj siTzm (it is for that old and ugly wife you do not estoem 

me), etc. 

)8« In determining the site of some locality gerunds are often 

used , which admit of being rendered by prepositions. R. 2, 80, 

21 xfTjaif 2 JEnmmr [p?ixmT:] (the highway is along the Ganges). 

K&(ikA on P. 3, 4, 20 ') gives these instances: vaifzr n$ o^: f^. 

rr: I «rfH9P7 g q^i^ ^ f^frvr (the mount is before the river, but the 

river is beyond the mount). 

(Thafter Xk Compounds. 

^' In western languages compounds are not considered 
a topic of Syntax. The fact of their being made up 

1) The role of P&oini treats only of this idiom when sxpresuvs of 
the notioDs » beyond** and » before.** 


146 8 204. 

of two or more self-existent words — however impor- 
tepie «r tant for the etymologist — has little or nothing to 
do with their employment in speaking or writing. In 
Sanskrit it most be otherwise. Keeping apart such 
compounds as have got any special meaning, which 
stamps them to unities ^) , there exists in that language 
an almost illimited freedom of expi'essing any kind of 
relations, grammatical or logical, by the way of com- 
pounding. Every moment the speaker and especially 
the writer of Sanskrit may have the opportunity of 
substituting compounds to the analytical mode of ex- 
pression For this reason, Sanskrit Syntax has to deal 
with compounds, as far as regards giving an account 
of the part they are acting in the phraseology and of 
the modes and ways how to employ them, whereas 
it is a topic of Sanskrit Etymology to expound their 
structure and their outer shape. 

The three great classes of compounds , set up by ver- 
nacular grammar, are dvandva, tatpurusha, ba- 
huvrthi. They include nearly all varieties as well of 
the simple compounds , which are made up of but two non- 
compound words, as of those, which are most intricate 
and of an immoderate length. Outside of them , there re- 
mains only the class of such compounds as are produced by 
putting together the preposition + the noun-case depend- 
ing on it, as %IRiU6*1 etc (152)*); in most cases 

1) Sach aa f^HMfj when the name of the moantain, xr^TTST^ »iiobIe,** 
irrrr >brahman/* qwr: the weH-known constellation, ^*jm\ > woman/* 
and the like. 

2) Whitket Santkrit Grammar § 1310 calls them > prepositional com- 

8 204- 206. 147 

this foTurth dass coincides 'vrith the aTTaylbhftTa of 
▼emacolar grammar ^). 


105. The dvandva serves to express concatenation and %} ^ 
■^^ addition. Two or more noons linked to another by 
j^and'* may be united into a dvandva. So instead of 

saying ^1*1 1 rf^MI^ we may use the dvandva {TR^T- 
?Wt, instead of %«n c|HI^ ^[?J^ it may be said 

Rem. In the archaic dialect the freedom of making dTandTas 
was very little. At least in the Taidik writings dvandras aro 
almost bound to set formulae and do noTer consist of more than two 
members. Most of them are dvand^as of diTinities, especially in 
the mantras, such as fZi^ i dJim iy ^>^i>T l. See Whithey, Sanskrit 
Grammar § 1255 and 1256. 

lOd. The dvandva has the gender of its last member. Its 
[J^ number is determined by the real number of the per- 
sons or things , comprised by it Pane. I, 4 v^nn^frif^^ixt 
Mrtisi i Hi nrfr UT^ (from the three clasfos of sons: 1 not bom at 
ally 2 sons died, 3. blockheads, the first and second classes are 
to be preferred), ibid. p. 195 munrH^ ^(^ dlUM^cjjhMi apj^ (there 
always is a deadly hatred between crows and owls), Harshac p. 28 
>lffl*rMei l f<^ad l '^ T; (no strangers to dancing, singing and playing 


1) All tompound wioerha, the former member of which b an indecli. 
nable word, are comprehended by the general appellation avyayibhAya 
(P. 2, 1,5 — 16). Moreover this category contains some few kinds of com- 
pound adrerbs, whose former member is a noun-case or an' adj.; they 
are summed up by Punini (2,1,17—21). — But eompound md/eeticei are 
never styled avyaylbbuva, even if their former member be an indecli- 
nable word. So for example when saying ttzt. UHlH'.t we have a » prepo- 
sitional compound** indeed, n^^^: beings^ ^Hdl t bat not an avyayi- 

H8 § 206. 

on iiiitruB0Bti). Ai tkB nomber of tho meaberi is illimited, w% 
ma J hare sneh long dyaadTM •■ 1 L Nala 1| 28 snf ^ ^^nPfcnfqmV. 
(ii^m* ii >^gdi>^ : etc 

But if the dvondva is to represent a real unity or 
if not individuab but cat^ories are linked together, 
it generally is & neuter and & singular. So it is said 
55TT5F][ (children and grandchildrea), IT^Tra^ (kine 

and horses), iJI{imi^ (awl and knife). 

Rem. 1. A full and exhaustiTe account on this subject is giren 
by P&nini (2, 4, 2—17) and his commentators. They distinguish 
between those cases where the dTandva must be a singular and 
a neuter, those where it must not be so, and those in which 
it is allowed to use either idiom optionally. So, among others , 
the singular of the neuter is of necessity with dvandvas signi- 
fying parts either of the body or of musical instruments or of pj 
the army, as xufrmr^^ ^fwwTJtTrntj^i likewise if names of rivers 
and countries, when of di£ferent gender, are linked together, as pj 
i i j l unu i M i gh^eh^Wai^ * On the other hand, dYandyas made up of 
nouns denoting animate beings are not allowed to be put in the 
singular number, save a.) very small animals, as j^vi*iv i e»>*j[^ , h,) such p | 
as by their nature are living in eternal mutual enmity, asqfnrfr. pj 
^[^i^^ »ftoaiu*f , c.) classes of ftkdras, not considered abject'), asp. s 
nirnnsiT^, d,) some others as nsmaxj^, jsrinn]^, ssraqjr^Fnj^, ^gi*i r » p, % 
Ttj, — Dvandvas of contrasting qualities or things are optionally 
put in the singular or in the dual, as ^^:^or %f vTldVunj l ^ or p ^ 
oCQf* And so on* 

Rem. 2. It is forbidden to eompound a genus with its species. 
See Pat I, p. 252. 

Rem. 3. Instead of the dvandva mH i fud(l the simple fq^A may 
be used (so f. L Ragh. 1, 1 juttt: f^rff^ oF^ gidHlM{H«Jd(i. Likewise P. 1 
snjn ^ synonymous with ssrtrecreT^} see f. i. KathAs. 58, 89. — 

§206-207. 149 

DruidTM s ibrpther and sister,** ison and dAoghter** «ra not used, P.S. l^M. 
liora MTTT^i 33V vo of neeessity. — Cp. Latin soe«r> =r 90ur et 
9oeru9^ fratr€$ z=z fruUr H wrw. 

Bern. i. As to tho order, to be followed in patting together 
the links of a drandTa, fixed mles cannot be giren. Tet it is ^J^ 
eoramon to pat at the head either the themes ending in t or 7, 
or those commencing by a rowel while ending in v, or the shortest 

7« Besides its most common duty of expressing coordi- 
'nation, the dvandva is also available, if „and'* connects 
persons or things standing in mutual relation with one 
another. Another species is the distributive dvandva. 

Examples of the dTandva of relationship. — R. 3, 27, 10 r^ 

^"4H^tt^^ \ » *<^^ » (^ ' ^< ' ' M'^^^ifH'jfw^h ; f^ i(^M(<ftf(6 r (then a 
wild battle began between R&ma and Tri^iras , both of extraor- 
dinary strength , as if between a lion and an elephant), M4IaT. I, p. 21 

iRWarrT: ^p?t w^ ^ M^<^ < 4'3«y<Jll|oiM(HL (forsooth, there is as great 
a difference between yon and me, as there is between a pond 
and the ocean), Harshac. 5 f^^nffarftfy^ ^ qg; mcHhJ i r^3!h3i wJ- 
C h^wq^ciQ i; (and like water and fire, so righteousness and anger, 
[when meeting] at the same place, by their proper nature combat 
each other). 

Examples of distributiTO drandra. — M41aT. Y, p. 137 m <|*T- 
idH<s^iqvc^ fui%N^(<RAUr I ^ ^ fa*»l?JmiT vridKUlB>(Ul l Q l d (let them 
rule seTerally the banks of the Yaradd, one the northern bank, 
but the other the southern, as moon and sun share thoir sway 
over night and day); Mudr. I, p. 19 ^jm] 17^ eti i qu f ^^i^r^Mrt ^ 
^M7fi trff^ 9 (I haTO bestowed the double fruit of my wrath and 
my affection on foe and friend); KathAs. 25, 229: Agokadatta by 
his utmost braTory has conquered a golden lotus and presents it 
to the king his master, who puts the precious flower in a silyer 
Yase; on that account the poet makes this comparison ^ifir cFT^rsr^ 

TOT ^ STSWT^ fMrfUUM I Zm:UHIMlfold rTT imTCTTSfrSJTWJn: (and both 

the Taso and the flower shone, one white, the other rod, as if 
they were that splendour and that glory combined , which adorned 
one the king, the other A^okadatta). 

150 §208-210. 

S08. Dvandyas of a4jectiyes are relatively seldom , if com- 
S^^lltd' pared with the freqaency of those made up of sub- 
'•^ stantives. 

mri (thick and loDg), Kum&ras. 1, 35 c(4^i>j<j^ ^ tu^t^ 5!J 0«g« 
round , well-proportioned and not too long), Kath&s. 25, 229 R r nuun 
see 207, Mal&T. V, p. 137 i^^^<^Q l U l see 207. — Pane. I, 204 mv^- 
i !\i,k\[9\\^mmm ^pTTT: (lions with dishevelled mane and frightful 
month) may he an instance of a dvandva of two adjectives, either 
of which is a compound itselC 

209* Two kinds of compounds are reckoned hy vernacular grammar 

among the tatpnrushas, which by their meaning should rather be 

considered dyandvas: 

1. Such as fif^ i fn>(fv r d (eatable and not eatable), ;>,r ii *iid (done and *^ 

OiBbinft- undone; wrought and unwrought), spTTQ^, < i HUf<JMH» Cp. Kathas. wil 

tkiplcst 27, 1 >ifI|fiMn<fi' i fu i fM l (by turns lowering and raising his head). 

*»^f!T5pf 2. Those made up of two participles in ®rT, the compoundmg ^'Z. 

like-' ^^ which declares the two actions being done immediately one 

S.r^TT? after another. The former in time is also the former member. Of the 

ud the i^inci are r ' ^>r^ (as soon lost as it is seen), uiflMf^u (after bathing 
like. c* '••>*« ** 

and anointing one's self). Q&k. lY fpT »(ciu i fr) l MM l fr>Jd : f^rczr: (enters 
a disciple, just arising from his couch), llagh. 4, 37 qr^rsTT TcT ^o** 
ar'JUfiu i ri^'iRfH ; (like stalks of rice dug out and forthwith replant, 
od). Pane. I, 5 ^nrl^rT: (died soon after birth), ibid. V, 7 f^wf^;?^:] 
nnrf dlflld'IVsi ; q <]*i l fl|ci ijxi< ^' ^^^* Kathas. 29, 141 an illness (^:) 
is said to have been tUH l M^TlH : *&> Boon driven out as its nature 
had been recognised." 

2. Tatpurusha. 

210. The tatpurusha serves to express in a condensed shape a 

nuhl! noun — substantive or adjective — together «vithsome other 

noun qualifying it, as rlrH^M? = fTFT ^^M»(hi3 man), 

?ri^^: = ?ri^^ ^: (bitten by a serpent), RSp^- 

% 210—211. 151 

^•T^ = ^ ulq^i*} (the first youth). The noun qua- 
lifying is the former member of the tatpnrusha; the 
noun qualified, which is at the same time the main 
element, its latter member*). 

Rem. The efficient elements of a tatpurusha are not 
of necessity self-existent words. The former part may 

be such a particle as ^, ^:% ^T*, see 218. The latter 

may be a krt, not otherwise used but in compounds, 

M V, "it, *w, "tt, **iT5[^, *irm[i "aRT, '^i *9nrf^, **;TH?rT, * *i}^/i ^ 
etc. Many of these compoands have got a special meaning so as 
to make them indissoluble unities, as um^ »bird/' gfturi^ii »potter,'* 
f%^ vseryant." Yet free compounding is also allowed. So Pane. 
I, 103 nmds ^fH5W may be analyzed into «^'' ^smnr, ibid, p. 28 
^;>^ r <H*HJ l it: ^snm 5^P7ciutito [^ cj^Roi^ jm:]^ Bhojapr. 2 r?Tt^ ^s^r 
xTT Kmit or%, Pane. 41 MHlyciPHPi ?tit^ [= ^nrftr sffttt n***]. 
111. The former member may be either = a noun-case 

(as in rFJ^J, ^l<(*<(*r|J), or = an adjective (as in 

•ic(e4|G|»i*1). In the latter case, there exists gramma- 
tical concord between the two members; such tatpu- 
rushas bear the special appellation of karmadharaya. 
The faculty of combining adjectives with their sub- 

stantives into karmadharayas is theoretically almost 
unrestricted, but in practice not all possible combina- 
tions are used '). Most karmadhd.rayas are terms often 
recurring which eii/ter have got some special meaning, 

1) Pat I, p. 392 ii !i ^g<^ i» Iufe i M^i<j^^ ;. In the same way the dvandva 
is styled SinrrsTTOOTT; , the bahavrthi 4i;{i<l<^|vIu^iM:, and the afyayibh&va 

2) Punioi's rule 2,1,57 fafSjfqtfr faJrdrnr JST^^JT^ plainly shows not all 
combinations of the kind to be allowed. 

162 S 211—213. 

w are wont to be much employed though nothing impedes 
expressing them by the two elements severed. Of the fomer 

kind «ra raeli at gpnTiir (the highost loal), jsrptir: (heir appareiit}y 
of the latter tueh aa vcqr^: (a black serpent), qtyn^r^ (cooked 
riee)| and the great olaas of compound! , a fall account of which 

is given by P&nini in the first adhy&ya of his second ashtakam 
(see espee. the siitras 49, 58, 61, 67 and 70), containing those , the 
former member of which is a pronoun as ^, m , q^, fr^rr, ^, and such 
adjectives as qsr, 3;fraT> »T^^ m«r, itmRi ^nr, (good) etc. To them 
we may add such words as {^, so^, girrr, and even such as 
begin by e^, ^^: and the negation ir^, as n^r^: (an honest man), 
Z^: (a bad man), <nh i Qd (not skilled). 

219. Yet there are instances enough of a freer employment. 

Pane. 327 f^^ (t^ttst^ ^^T7r»m^ (why do you run away thus by 
a false fearp), Pat I, p. 2 sr^: =: 9FE*w:i Pane. 80 «jRiH^ g |l>i 
y ifd f g ;, M41av. I, p. 3 ^4HiiN!h^ ; ch i f^^m^ (of the living poet K.), 
flarshac. 6 s^ j^ ^ sr^ gp QMWUW*i^ (like an actor you are 
displaying in vain a fictitious tranquillity of mind), Bhoj. 28 gnr- 
m>|ghMfr i ^ i (7MH> i » ra^ (in consequence of his deeds in a former 
existence he is now poor), Pane. 37 foi^O^JcitjHH (your orders), M&lav. 
I, p. 28 or^zTTmr: AdciJiQghili (to whom his learning serves only 
for a livelihood), Kath&s. 39, 131 ^;wT oii i Uci*j[ (— gave a best horse). 

Upon the whole , such freer karmadh&rayas are used in a greater 
extent in poetry, also when being themselves but a member of 
some large compound, as f. i. Pane. 37 «> r !hM T gd>i<? i fjyidf^fdWU. 
smn?!^ (by selling fine clothes given to him by many pious people), 
in analyzing which we get ha^\\ y^ [karm.J^ypit ^jy^d^M i mi 
[other karm.] fi^Rtmr oiuiiHh 

Rem. In the case of such words as gm^nf^:) there seems to 
exist a slight difference between the karmadh. and the analytical 
construction of the same purport; q i y>i i (gH ; is >a bad barber*' who 
knows his art badly, but (tf^ >i i fgH ; »* barber of a bad temper." 
See P. 2, 1, 54. 
JIXS. ^^ ^"^ insist on some species: 

0.) such as are made up of a title -|- the noun of its bearer. 

§ 213. 153 

M tilfi^ i m€iu ; (Sir GAaakya), vqrmr^nnr: (lOmiter B&xaM).' So 
Utt n, p. 30 ymwmu fi O^rinoe L.), H&Ut. I, p. 24 qfi^idehlfii l ef^ 
«r^ i^smt (JOQ are the learned Kaagikt, are not jouP), Mrcch. Ill, 
p. 115 ir^ f^ ufu » ghi*i<Pchi Jm!M w jfd i y i P i i but some lines after 
(p. 116) we read in inTene order n<^(H» i i i funhi g f t ©P* Pft»c« 59 ?r^ 
fgfTOi?fFrn3fW7&qT ^ soRioft ^^rTr:i here the proper noon ^r^ it 
followed, not preceded by its epithet In some cases the latter 
idiom seems to be the regular one, as (d i >mMc^ ; (Mount Yindhya). 

6.) those ending in ^sr, the former part being a subst, as 
^^:i j.f^r[dH ;> sjiJsR:. Here jr has sometimes the power of a 
collective , sometimes it denotes the indiWdaal (10 R), ^hrnr: may 
be = » womankind,'* »women** or even one » woman,'* and so on; 

c.) the type frbrf^or^ (half a pepper). It is not allowed to say 

D 41 9t 

f^QT^qviqr, but {^cpf^qt v&Q when compounded it must be irvi^ccT^. ^) i'^%\ 
So f. i. Ragh. 7, 42 iruTnf (halfway). Pane. 203 wtrt^t^u^: (touching 
the earth with the half of his foot). The same applies to q[^, 
9^7} mrr, 3W7} etc. when denoting: the fore-part, the part behind, 
the lower- and upper part. Therefore it is said fjSfrm: (the fore- 
part of the body), cror%: (fore-noon), frtnrnr: (the latter part of 
the night), 3W>1T^ (head), t[v > m^ | iin (the fore-night), and the like. 
So zTur in mxn^i =znzm^:* We have here the same adjectival conception 
as in Latin summua monSf media urha^ Greek fihti^TrdXtt etc. 

Rem. 1. ^, like our »half,*' is also compounded with a par. 
ticiple or some other adjective, as vSrf^i ^Si (the sun, half-rben), . 
Pane, 9 ir3wtif£Hl ^T^pnT: ?r!RT:. 

Rem. 2. As to compounds, commencing by Q,Hiu , rffhfii ^^P* <»>•*• 
or Fjj, whenr= »half, the third — , fourth part,** one may say as 
well Q>f7)(j(i ^ ^ i as fi jtinRci^m ; ^ (half an alms) and the like. The 
same may be stated of vu (top, edge, extremity), as it is said 
as well mrrw (the edge of a nail) as rrwnr (see Petr. Diet a, «• 
and the passages adduced there a, v, vu)* 

1) But it is allowed to say fqciqnTQV: (a portion of a pepper). Pat I, 
407 states vu to be a neater, when meaning »ha]f/' bat a motculine, 
when « »portion, part:" H^ufu^lUI HJcPFifST^ 'SSRrasrrft ^^J' 

154 § 214—215. 

214. A proper species of tatpurushas is made up by those, 

^J^' {. whose latter member is a verbal noon , the noua predicate 

'sj^ud of which is signified by the former member. The com- 

iKetike.tlM , 

former moncst iDstanccs of the kind are adjectives in ^irr{bemg, 
which u a making ap, behaving as). Pat. I, 39 gxTmr*|fr m^: (the teacher, 

' *** who is [the pupirs] authority), Da^. 176 rWH4m*jj[< l ^{U l >jrH (I am 

an example thereof), M. 1, 5 «KHf^/ rmtWrPr. Moreover there in a 

elasB of much used compound Torbs, whose former part is a noun, 

whereas the latter U the Terb ^ or ur; they carry the conception 

of something transformed from one state into another. They will be 

dealt with when treating of the Syntax of the Verb; see 308. 

Among other similar tatpurushos we notice a.) those ending in P* % 

_^ _ witli I 

zw, nqrxprT, ITT, CRrsHrT, !ffT etc. Da?. 61 ^ ^..... frrgTwnTnrm- cob 
«^m r u> TI 'ViH i <imrNU i P i^TPT! (ho, being passionately in love with 
AmbuUk& sumamod: the jewel of womankind); h.) those in ^^ 
(having but the name of) and ^qrrrr and ^jp^ (thinking one*8 P* '• ^ 
■elf — ), as ■M i yJUI'Wo i; »one who claims himself a brahman*' [on ac- 
eount of his birth, but who does not behave as such], qfrHf i ;n»T i 
(wise in one's own opinion), Atharvav. 15, 13, 6 fiqudl sqmrsfUn 
R. 8, 21, 17 syjrrpft n* 'Jjj*:H*jU Da?. 99 ipTppj:^). 

Rem. Somewhat difl'oront is the nature of those, the former 
part of which is not the predicate, but the predicate's attribute, 
A'> i-nu i 'j i u and wm'Swi given as examples by the comm. of vartt 
3 on P. 3, 2, 15 and qju; (going at the head) see P. 3, 2, 19. 

*15. Among such tatpurushas as are made up of « mun- 
^^' ease + i/te noun qualified by it , by far the most common 

mii^ *^ those , whose former part is to be periphrased by 
+""""• a genitive, as {TSPJ^: ={!?[: J^TJ, m^T! = 

1) With them may in some degree be compared such tiitpurushas as 
Kathaa. 9, 48 »Tf^T^TT?rT (holding [her] for a piece of raw flesh), Hit. 93 
snrrT^JTr (taking [him] for a tiger). Here the former member is the 
predicative object of the verbal noun , which is the latter member. 

§215-216. 155 

Sn'^loTT: or 5rf^ or J^I^H IH. As this type is met with 
on every page , it is useless to quote instances from litera- 
ture. Another frequent type is that,represented by ^TT^^rT! 

== ^n^^TT ^rV, Pane. 118 »^.d^ i jTl l d ; = Jj(.d4> i i> i ^ l H ;, ibid. V, 
93 ^ irfM'i^ ij^rT: (seized by the prince of giants), Bhojapr. 7 m^f^ 
rie^icrma 5RTT<^ ^ ITrTTf^ ▼ST H^lpT ToT. ' 

For the rest , any noun-case may Ijecome the former 
part of a tatpurusha, as«im^t<^IUlJ = ^HH ^i^^lUP 
(happy for a month), HMH^ii^P = 'TRT or ^F^'* HT5T: 
(resembling his mother), M^l'^l^ — WRT ^ (wood for 
a sacrificial stake), opfPR^T = cpRTnT or '^^l^ H«PT 
(fear of a wolf or of wolves), ^IV^TVTl^* = ^^UrSTT 
QT^J (cooking in a pot). 

216« Yet, tlioro are some restrictions. For this reason , PAnini when 
treating . of compounds made up of a noun-case -|- noun , gives a 
detailed account of them. The summary of which runs in this 

foraer j^ j^g ^ rule, any genitiTO may be compounded (shashthtsam* P-2,*,8. 

enitive. dsa). Some cases are excepted. Among others it is not allowed 

to use compounds, made up of a genitive -f- a participle or a ge. P>St3«ll* 
rund or a k^ya or an infinitive, nor those consisting of a geni- 
tive -|- comparative or superlative or ordinal noun of number, nor 
such as where a genitive is compounded with some noun in ^n 
or ^'iTOi. Therefore, such phrases as n,| r j!iiml sTTrm: (the most heroic I*.2, 8, IS. 
of men), ^ i ji i u i j iraiT: (the fifth of the disciples), int ^7n (the 
creator of the waters), iir^m ti ^j ^sn^ or »f;f^ or Ui^ i T i ^J^ r or ^nm 
(doing etc. for the benefit of a brahman) are unfit for compound. 

ing. Partitive genitives are likewise excluded, nor is the dative- 
like genitive (120), it seems, as a rule, fit for being compounded. — 

166 8 21C. 

As littio, ■• w leani from PAnini's eommentaion « ) aa obJeetiTo 
genitlTO fat iBeh cmtes, as ^k^nrr ^^m ^: vtM^i Here it is 
not allowed to laj ^m^: u i fu i f^Hi y sinoe botli the sabjeet and 
the object of the action conTO jed by the noon 9^: are expressed , 
for nothing impedes using the compound ^]7^f^: ^ ij^ v^: 1 if 
the agent is not expressed.*). 

1) See K&9. on P. 2, 2, 14; Pat I, p. 415, vftrtt. 6. Pat. himaelf lejocts 
the interpretatioa given there. 

2) The ihoMhthttam^sa it treated by P&ami in the second adhyfcja of 
his 2d book (2,2,8—17), tome statements are also scattered in the third 
book, Bee f.L 3,3, 116. Additions ad corrections on them are of course 
made in the commoiitariei. Bat now and then the cavillations of the 
commentators hare rather obscured the good understanding of some rales. 
So the K&9ik& is wrong loosening sAtra 2, 2, 14 from its adhikftra ^ 

and interpreting this rule — Vi'ff^ 9 — as if it taught something con- 
cerning the objecti?e genitive. Now, as the sutra could in no way be 
explained so as to contain a prohibition of compounding any objectife 
genitive, whatever, as such compounds are very common indeed , the K&fik& 
was obliged to add a clause of its own ^imTiCrTT ehJuT^fd ij^jiT ^ 

{F^qTT* which statement certainly will be correct by itself, but not the 
smallest trace of which is to be found in P&nini. In fact , P&oini has here 
not thought of an objective genitive. When reading the sQtras 12, 13, 14 
at a stretch and without prejudice, one sees plainly that eirqfqT of 14 qua- 
lifies ;ii;T of 12. Sfitra 14 prohibits compounding a ^emdVe-f* a participle 
in ^ with pattive meaning. It is not allowed to say rTS^flfTrPI 
instead of r^m iPil^^ (shown to him), whereas P&nini allows it, when 
representing h^ ^f^lrrfs][^ (shown by him), cp. 2,1,32. 

The following sutras 15 and 16 — r^^TTTTUrt ChH(| iChH(| 9 — afford 
a fair sample of absurd hairsplitting. In s. 15 P&pini had given a rule 
about the words in ®(f and **iBnR when denoting the agent; with them 
a genitive cannot be compounded , save the few instances mentioned 2, 2, 9. 
Accordingly it is prohibited by P&pini to say 3[ji\r{f instead of oldW ^rrf 

(bearer of the thunderbolt) or Vl^^iil^^c instead of ffr^riw m^(^: (one 
who cooks rice). But some schoolmaster, who commented on our great 
grammarian, discovered Panini to have omitted some kind of words in 
*97)t which though not-denoting the agent are likewise forbidden to 

be compounded with a preceding genitive, as McTrr: ftrrfQ^TTT (your lying 
down) cp. P. 3, 3, 111. In order to make our sQtra comprise even them. 

§ 216. 157 

IL eompoaiidiiig tho aeevsatiTo is allowed* PJ,1,M.«) 

o) when being one of time as xmRRFOTor:* So R. 2, 71, 18 mrr- 
wHwt: <rf^, MAlat I, p. 14 ftjj> f^oiM^M^tiH M fuii JPWoJwrf&wT^'TOf 

h) with some participles in V i with aetire or intransitiYe mean- P. 1^ 1. S4. 
ing, as xxmm: (gone to the Tillage), >i|»uf?i i H : (fallen to heU}yP.8,l,Sft. 
(F7f^: (oome to hardship), ^^71^:') sim. In practice, there are 
more. So t L the restriction of wrnue (P* 2, 1, 26) to a reproachfal 
term does not imply the prohibition of compounding ^nfje other- 
wise. See bat Pane. 51 q>^U|ehUfe l» ibid. 30 i|i^pn7T: 

IIL compounding the instrumental is allowed: 

a) if denoting the agent or instrument -|- some yerbal noun,P. S^1,8S. 
Aft *if^<H :» The participles in 'rfcTfl^ are excepted, compounding 
fri^qr 4- ^rTcTT^ therefore not allowed. — Some proTcrbial locutions P. S, 1,18. 
are explicitly named by P&nini, as ^iPj^ q^, gsM^: efPT:, but 

the well-known yo^ovtMa^a-expedient was taken recourse to, and our 
sAtra was split up in two. One made the discovery that !the word 9idf| 
admitted of two acceptations , according to its beiog coDstrued either with 
Hrigf>im i *jt ^ or with the general adhik&ra q^; in other terms, P. could 

mean either Ofiy gtmtwe '■\- agent in ft or WK or the tuhjeetiv gtnitwtJ^ 

ang noun in H or 97)* By combining both and assigning to either an 
own sAtra the Jhto^ felt by the commentator fonnd its a^k. See but 
the artificial interpretation of both in the E&9ik{L. How Patanjali inter- 
preted the rule we do not know, a comment of his on s. 15 and 16 
being wanting; from v^rtt. 2 on I, p. 415 it appears he was acquainted 
at least with s. 15. 

In 2,2,11 it seems strange, that a special prohibition — {hat con- 
cerning the ordinal nouns of number — is enjoined immediately after 
the general one (2, 2, 10) which includes also that special case. 

1) The preceding sAira 28 is too artfully interpreted by Pat. and 
K&9. to have been interpreted well. It is likely , we have here again an 
instance of distortion by yogavthhaga, I am sure, P&nini himself has 
given but one rule ViT^TT 4IHJ«HM(j)ri 9. Patanjali*8 defence (I, p. 384) is 
not persuasive. 

2) I agree with BoEinuirGK and WnmrxT in explaining iiNsH Id Viand 
the like as bahuvrthis. P&nini brings them under the tatpurushas, see 
2,2,4. Inversely such compounds as ^^igld, MlMdld which P. 6, 2, 170 
understands as bahuvilhis, are to be recognised as tatpurushas. 

158 § 316. 

from tliii it sbould not be inferred that it is wholly forbidden to make 
up any other eompoond of inatrumental ^ krtya. Pane. 327 fsn^wV 
<S9 in^: = mnx u^ "f et soeh eompoundi are not frequent. 

b) if the latter member is a word expressive of Ukentsa^ c^no- P.S^' 
fiVy, auperi^niyf tratt^^), see 61 and 73. Of the kind are such 
compounds as fqfffixr: (equal to his father)^ mrpTSir: (resembling 

his mother)| xnnn^: And *HMiei^ ! (earlier .^ later by a month), M. 
8, 217 <i*yuM ^ =■ Hc^eiV i *R^ (e. a. work, almost finbhod), Pane. 23 

c) the instrum. -|- the words gfp^ (quarrel), pijm (clever), ^^ p. s^ 
(mixed), sri^in (lax). KA5. gives these examples: ^ftniprf-:, dli^UI ;» 
jpfinJif <iM l jiw i vUl ;» When extending the rule to all words of the 
same purport, as we may do (see above p. 92 N.), the frequent com- 
pounds in 'fitf^y "tiPdHi **^> **u^, '^TOrT etc. are included, also 
man^ of those, the former part of which is an instrumentaliB 
parlU (73). 

d) in the case of compound adjectives, the former part of which p.S^ 
is an instrumental of causality, illustrative of the adjective it is 
Joined to'). So R. 3, 16, 13 f5r: feH*i l >t f tn^: (a mirror tarnished 

by exhalation), ibid. 3, 55, 20 J^Uf i ii ; (equal by strength), ibid. 2, 1 18, 4 
ipilT'nfzr: (praiseworthy by his qualities), Pane. I, 39 snTilTfSTI^frOT^ 
np^T: = dlr<llP^'ll <l<{lrMI4l Hp^T:, Kumaras. 3, 12 Hq i jMii^r^ (men, 
great by their heroic penance). — Of the same kind are the com- 
pounds, made up of instrum. JL 9f9^(76 B. 1), as Pane. 10 f^ 

1) In Piftniiii*8 text UclM^VHIMMIil ITT ia of coone to be construed 

with each of the members: f^^^ n^7ntr» ^PTTT) ITTTT, cp. p. 92 N. 

2) SQtm 2, 1, 30 is ill-handled by the commeDtaries. They expound 
fJHWI Hf^W> l l} i | l cl'<<>i>l , as if ?lRpmrT were a dyandva =: 7 \ f^'\ -}- 
VTpT. How they have come to this contorted interpretation I did not 
understand before penising Patanjali; from him I hare seen, that his 
very caTillations (1. 3d48q.) must have provoked it. Yet the aim of the 
snthor of oar siktra it unmistakable. He allows the initrumental to 
be compounded with any adjectire (JUIcJH'M), which has its justi6- 

cation by that iostmmental : fir^^mA == OPnferraT rJr?W«l ?pT: WTW^. 
80 in f^:VclHII»Vf Vl^: the instance, I have quoted from the U&m., it 
is the exhalation that causes the mirror to be qualified a tami«hedooe. 

§ 216-.217. 159 

UMMl^m^T Jisr?!^ (>ra you desirous of nothing bat foodf), KatliAs. 
2i, 176 etc 

e) in the ease of food dressed with some ingredient or bj mixing 

P 8. 1 S4 
two materials, as ^yn^:, jpiFTT:. Likewise Da^ 139 f^m»pj[^(em- ^ jj 

poisoned food). 

iatifs; IV. the dative maj be compounded: 

a) the dative of the aim in kuch cases as ^f^^ &= ^^ ^, 9kiT7^« P. S. 1, SO. 

h) the dative of the remote object with the words gf^r (offer- P. 2, 1, S6. 
ing to), f^rT (good for), gw (pleasant for), j^ (kept, guarded 
for) and the like, as QtumRi ;, sfrfeTW, Pane. I, 47 rrr h?n m OiTferTT, 

etc. With them is named 91} tpurpose, aim, scope.*' On the 

compounds in ^fr^ we have treated 104. 
Uativis v. the ablative: 

a) with words expressive of fear^ as s^iinnr^ (fear of wolves), P. 2, 1,37. 
R, 3, 27, 20 oUiMaiM l ^itt: (deer, afraid of the hunter); 

h) with some participles , which signify a withdrawal 1). Daf . 89 
^jriTlP g Hl m mfd^rt (she rose from the dance and went away), M. 2, 89 
H l QjwfHH ; (one who has forfeited the sdvUri), R. 3, 25, 24 f%r^- 

wsttva. YL the locative: 

a) with such nouns as are construed with a' locative of refe- P. 2,1, 40. 
renee, as those of attaekment^ skill and the like (148). R. 3, 19, 22 

HMfT i sn^m^PTT (two men, accomplished at arms). Pane. I, 18 ^ititt- 
twfci'^jximi : (skilled in the commerce of merchandises); 

b) in some cases, when d«ioting a time or a place. Of the 

kind Panini names compounds in ^^rrs (prepared, dressed), ^SFl? P.2.1,41. 
(dried), q^, (cooked), "spvy also parts of the day or night -|- ttt* P. 2, 1, 45. 
as * i iMv<lH<& (prepared in SankA^ya), mdUj ' .^h (dried in the sun), 
Mci I^^.H (done in the forenoon); * 

c) in some standing phrases and proverbial locutions, see P. 
2,1,42— 44; 46—48. 

BlV. This list of possible kinds of tatpurushas, made up of noun* 

1) These eompouods are not frequent V^qv: (P. 2, 1,38). 

180 §217. 

■ * i^H Mi eaM^BovBi if lMw«T«r aot aomplete, ai will tooa appear , if 
•r Flpiai <»e mdertaket to ■ jitematiie the ta^nrnslias oeeuniag in fkitt 
2^ in loiM literary work.') So, among othen, Pinini does not mon- 
tioB the abL of eompariioBy compounded with ip^ and ^rrr; the 
imtmmental ^ words expretsivo of plontj; the aeena. with tho par- 
ticipial adjectiTot in ^7. Then, many more participles, whose former 
part is some nonn-case, are in common use, thongh not neces- 
sarily, if at all, implied by the foresaid rules. 

1. abl. of comparison ^ fr^t especially, if the former part be 
a pronoun, as Hit. 30 113^ qtn 97: ^|<qTqar:, Pane. I, 12 trade 
is said to be the best means for making money, n^rv: [se. sthzt:] 
MUMiHi^ i (any other but this is dangerous). 

2. abL of compar. ^ t^t. Such compounds are an elegant 

paraphrase, while calling something: the contrary of its opposite. 
So ^[fwrq* =s TOff •left," g^WrT^ Tjm: (a difficult expedient), Da^. 
175 rTTT nasvT iUMc^HJ SRTV (he boro his newly married wife a 
heaTy grudge). 

3. instrum. ^ word expressive of plenty. Of the kind are those 
in ^mm, ^n^f. '•^iirf^ etc. Pane. 319 j>m?4j^'^ 3g qii:, ibid. 7 

4. accus. ^ adjectiTO in "7 deriTod of a desideratiTe. Pane. 3 
m^xmfwitj:, M. 7, 197 jtflTr jiOTtg^^rW^:. 

5. Instances of noun-cases ^ participles are manifold and often 
met with. First, such as where the former part represents a socia- 
tive instrumental, as Pane. 1^164 MMMfjaaa ; ^a^if ibid. 1, 229 
mvf q^M; i fi T (a wife, who holdi illicit intercourse with another). — 
Then, such as are expressive of separation (62). Pane. 1, 35 
fia i fdoiP^fd ; (abstaining from attendance), ibid. p. 1 ^ (d^eh^f^rti ; 
(sons, deprived of discernment), ibid. I, 189 MUMfd^M ; ep. 108. •— 
Further locatives ^ f^, nn (cp. 197), snrTi 37^7 etc., as R. 3, 31, 2 
ii>i* >i MR i d i pwTT: (the rAxasas, staying at JanasthAna), Pane I, 128 
M^ciig< ?ft p?TT ifmft Mcd^ *iPaim i 4^ (when being in distress, a king 

1) It would be indeed an interestiog subject-matter for inveitigation 
to compare 00 a large scale theie itatementi of P&uini with the facts 
offered m by the extant Sanskrit Uteiature. 

8 217. ISI 

St alwayi the fnj ef bli miniitenX ibid. I, 104 i^nsx J^^gm i ft 
^pmTi KaihU. 42, 149 iq^fM^: (fallen at their feet). — Or the 
foriBMr member it a datire or loc of purpose: Pane. I, 125 rnv 
W l ift^H^ ^. O^f^i striYing for obtaining the royalty); an acca- 
Bative: ibid, p 87 Md^d^ i ^^ a i ; (attached to 8.); an abl. of origin: 
ibid. p. 2 »wuHdW i (of one bom from a respectable family); a loc. of 
reference: ibid. 1, 15 jfHT^^^i^fH^:. And so on. 

6. As to the compound adjectives, they may genorally be said 
to be comprised by the rules of PAnini, as their former part is a 
genitive or may be accepted as such. Among them are to be noticed 
uimf frprg, tI^tt, nurf , those of skill and ability as ^^irm, fr^nr, 
eh i QiH^ » then such as ^rpr, Wl (cp. 216, III 6). Pane. 17 ptTTijrmj^Pn- 
<J^i<ii>i^ ^Ihiwwm f^Rmwf^, ibid. 21 n^ 9 ui'<M^Nin q^i»«Iim 
iTTosr^ (his strength M'ill be in proportion to his voice), ibid. 27 
iion^cran^j^PTfr , ibid. 13 wm^ ftanrrftm:. Even indubitable dative- 
like genitives are compounded with the adjectives, which they 
qualify. Pane. p. 1 p^rr rfrT^SfTrafagwrrmt^sr (** *be king understood 
they were averse to the ^ lUtras — ). Pane. P* 1 affords even this 
iustanee of a tatpur., made up of a dat. of interest -|- subst, when 
calling some king Meht^ i fyj^hry^^M i (▼• a. a blessing for all the in> 

7. Compounds made up of a genitive -|- agent in ^rf, though 
explicitly interdicted by PAnini, are in fact met with. Fane. I, 2 

^^^ HUUil^eh^iV:! ibid. p. 7 frw MjMe^qi fr U d l fe i f l f^lrfr (two splen- 
did bulls drew his chariot). 

8. Finally we may set up a category apart for such tatpu- 
rushas, the former part of which is a noun-case, doing more or 
less duty of an adverb. Pane. 21 ;r ^rii rarfer: MdN i fJ/l u^ 
mmqj here ua i gifdH = Udi^mTdd »acquirod before," Kathfls. 29, 82 
6U idMUU i ^dfci3d wr (— i* deceived by words faUoly kind), Pane. C3 
fe^pj: (a friendly discourfte), Mhbh. 1, 152, 34 MMf i iiHed^i HTrTn.*** 
7T gmi Oim f fM (I will not awake ray brothers who are sleeping quietly 
in the forest), Kath&s. 42, 149 g^jCmf^QfT ; (embraced by tumft). In 
all but the first of these examples the former part is an instrumentalit 
modi^ used almost as an adverb (77). Cp. the following paragraph. 


182 8 218—219. 

^18. The iomner part of a tatpurusha may also be an ad- 

mteTb ▼^fb O^ ^ particle. Pane. 59 {rn^wTTT: (the matter of late), KathAs. 

■ •^••'^ 6, 165 nPlwtrwrt l ^l ; (flags, waving from eTory home), ibid. 25, 29 
tide, m [Tix. ^] 9 ^ 4 WHiM«ii (and I have to go from necetsitj to 
that town)y Kamirai. 3, 4 r^«Hrfi<rg[^ r M l (^ ; (by Tory long penance). 
Among the particles several are noticed by PAnini, viz. ^spm 
[2, 1, 25], mfh [ibid. 27], the negation w^ [2, 2, 6],* ^ [2, 2, 7], 
f^ [2, 1, 64], 97, the particles styled tgati** and such particles 
as g, n?, ITT when meaning »a little," fT, ^:, wf^ [2, 2, 18] ») cp. 210 
at the end. — So Hi<i*{H t (died of himself), m(ij^ (half done), 
vnvf i A^ l: >no brahman" or >none but a brahman,*^ [u^'.' i r ^ (a little 
elevated), ufqd i ii^ ; (a great-grandfather), ^nrr: (a good man), ;r^: 
(a wicked man), etc. 

219. Some relative pronouns and adverbs are likewise fit for fj^ 
eaber it being compounded with some noun , especially ^'^A\ and 

gj- Ml'^rl. Those be^nning with tPU are the most common , 

they are eU/ier adverbs of the type ^^^TT^nFFT, M^WMJ 
(according to time , — to age), or their second member 
is a participle in FT as M^4 ir!i(assaid)'). Examples :Mhbh« 

1, 146, 16 P i drt^ imn^3^(go back, each to his own house), ibid. 

1, 149, 1 mnuuf<i<l TOmnw ^^^^^^(he sent a man, as was agreed 

before); — R. 3, 18, 25 ei F itgP^fe> i om (on the way, as has been pointed 
out), Da^. 151 -rtftpj r^^Mmutii m i m^f^iih : ?mrfdwf?r (when having 
got the opportunity he will discharge this affair by such means, 
as are fit), Pane. 295 fmrfh^TS: ^rnnw: ^^^m at^zn^* 

Examples of nTcifT. — Pane. 276 ▼??: nuf^ aicT^di^ mum nsm 
lyi: (from this day, I have given my own self to you for my whole 
lifetime), KA^. on P. 2, 1, 8 ej i d<M^ iM l ^/<U i M i *<w>iiq^ (invite of the 
brahnians according to the number of the vessels), Pane. 54 orTonsj" 
wi i q^naifdrk FTT (conformably to the rules, taught by Y&tsy4yana). 

1) Ai to ^, p, ^WJ. in gw^ (eaay to be done), JTBF^ (hard to be 
done) and the like, see P. 8, 8. 126-180. 

2) PAoini (?, 1, 7) n«entiont only the former type. 

§ 220. 1S3 

X The tal^sforosha seires alao to express comparison. Sach 
!' compoonds are partly adjectives , partly substantives. 

l7 The former are of the type ^M^iMIM (cloud-black), ^^- 

•iici (sky-blue). The latter are made up of the thing's 
real name + the image , under which it is represented , as 

Examples of the former type. E&m. 3, 12 doiuiHJ^fi'HM^ J^d'in 
(life, as fickle as the moon, that shines in the water), Da^. 174 
f^xrfirfw^* («» cold as ice), R. 3, 23, 1 w^ii i ^m ; (red-grey as the 
colour of an ass), Mhblu 1, 152,2 uici|yt«y<ui'J<i l M : (as dark as a 
cloud in the rainy season), M41av. Y, p. 122 qQ ' eii i ;.fri^ i fi f:, etc. 

The latter type is adapted to signify either praise or blame. 
Generally the metaphors used are eonventional ones. In this way a re« 
solute , energetic character is called q^ ' qpM^ :! a beautiful face xraipqi^, 
llMH l ifd><4^ sim,, eloquent speech cnxm, heavy sorrow is by a 
standing comparison yf^»mn; ; whieh ocean it is difficult or im- 
possible to pass, and so on. In ancient literature this rather alle- 
gorical style is still employed with moderation and within certain 
limits. But the flowery compositions of medieval India are full of 
them so as not rarely to make the image appear an appendix 
wholly meaningless, if not to please the ear of the reader and to 
display the Taidagdhya of the author. The accumulation of such 
allegorical designations becomes tedious indeed, unless good taste 
direct their employment 

Sometimes the metaphor is worked out Then we may have a 
set of homogeneous images, expressed by compounds. So Pane 
I, 241 iT^qrAsT inmPnfOTJiV sA: 5fS:i?n^a^i here jfwT^ is »king" 
but at the same time it conveys the meaning of > cow-herd,** as 
nt is := tcow** and = >earth,** »he must draw the %;^7ip^ (money- 
milk) of his g?mRt: (subject-cow) by degrees** v. a. »a king must 
draw the money of his subjects by degrees , just as the cowherd 
draws the milk from his cow.** Mrcch. lY, p. 138 3^ MJ*.cJ'iifa'l ; 
Ji^^JSR^T^fT: I f^toCTTsnr^ inf^ dWJlfdi^iMfilHl: (young gentlemen 

164 §220-221. 

often MflM to pPTortyt being spoiled bj eoarteMmt| like great 
treei, the Urnitt of whiek are eaten oat by birds). KathAs. 29, 188 
. a faithful wife is thus eompared to a warrior — her conjugal faith 
is her ehariot| duty h«r charioteer, good behaTioor her armour, 
wit her weapon iT^.TfjifpnTST; ar^^rorn^^^fPfT: i OTETTpwr: m^fiafkt 

Rom. 1. According to Tomacular grammar, this class of com- 
pounds is to be considered a subdivision of tho karmadh4rayas , 
there being sAm&n&dhikaranya between both members. This ex- 
plication cannot be right, for it does not account for the iuTcrso 
order of the two members; one should f. L expect TrpSi instead 
of sgmj^, as in the karmadh4raya the qualifying noun is of course 
put first. In fact, we have here no karmadh&rayas , but shash- 
(htsam&sas. The former member is a gonitive, but it does not 
bear everywhere the same character. Sometimes it is a partitive 
one, as j^rTfrfq: = j^jijitnt (or 3^) frni:, { l ^mw^ ; »an outcast 
among the kings,** cp. the compounds in j^m (best) and ignm (worst, 
lowest). Sometimes, too, it is a genitiTe of tho kind represented 
by our >a jewel of a. woman,** »a hell of a fellow,** Lat. scelus 
AomtNif ; so 2|^iTf^: (Mudr. Ill, p. 102) »a beauty of a house,** 
* f <^ i ei*iqfi^ (Mudr. Ill, p. 121) t. a. »excellent helpers,** niqR|f?ii ][ ^ (P. 
. 6, 2, 126) »a slut of a wife.'* Not rarely both acceptations are 
alike probable; ^V^^iT^f^ i* n>Ay be as well = ^\n j;^^ »a jewel among 
women** as = »a jewel of a woman.** 

Rem. 2. PAnini treats the said compounds severally, see 2, 1, 
53; 5C; 62; 66; 6, 2, 126 sq. — Note ""^ and ^^q^ expressing 
blame, and *^T7r, °qm, **jfj signifying admiration. 

SSI. Tatpurushas, made up of three or more stems, are 
^i'HiSe always dissolvable into two members, either of which 
^Jjt'^may be a compound itself Mrcch. III. p. i252i^:r^Tjpa7rr, 

hero the former part is a dvandva fjjsIJ:^: g^2n:q[^= ^ ^ ^:^ ^. 
Pane. 323 iU9,i3/,^mi [viz. ;rW l H lL ^^'^ ^be former part is a tat. 
purusha itself, n^'i.uAR g |H I being = i^rsro^, that is zm 9TO> fpmr. — 
Pane. II, 153 ^ i ^ i cfjuvifciguui ; (stirred by the sting-like words 

§ 221-222. 166 

of a woman), here Sripnir it the latter momber, the former being 
a tatpnnuha of comparison, the former member of whiofc ^d T dU 
is itself an ordinary shashthtsamAsa. — Mhbh. 1, 155, 24 <rfcq(Tr. 
xjHM^ = tjlwifi-j^qg '^n^y here the former part of the tatpamsha 
is a bahnvrthL — K&m. 2, 43 pdiHld g J^ldrTT (one firmly attached to 
wordliness) is illastrative of the species of those, whoso latlor 
member is a compound, tho analysis being f^nrrf f biqqq crmrtN 


222. The difference between the tatpurusha and the ba- 
^u- huy]^hi is* an essential one. The former implies no more 
I hlhl- than is purported by its constituent elements , but the 
' *■ bahuvrihi always adds something tacitly understood, 

generally the conception of ^having , possessing." ^•"^^J^* 

when tatpurusha = r^^TPT JH^J ^Indra's foe," when ba- 
huvrihi it means ^having Indra for foe, one whose 
foe is Indra;" ^4'=IUn, when tatp. =g^ ^T(\\ „the 
colour of the sun ," when bahuvr. it denotes ,one having 
the colour of the sun." The bahuvrihi, therefore, is 
invariably an adjective^ referring to some substantive *). 
Panini then is quite riglit, when he defines the bahu- 
vrihi as „a complex of elements serving to qualify some 
other word*). 

1) }iy this it is however not asserted, that a bahuvrihi cannot be 
used as a substantive, but only thiR: when uaeil so, they aro to bo 
considered junt a< any other adjective, that does duty of a aubst. 
H^ l fM I when » »a noble-man** is to be compare 1 with tiuch a word as 

<irf%: when meaning »an honest man** or VJ^\ when » »boy.** 

2) P. 2, 2, 23 »q. ^i^Jif^i^g>ij>ng(i^iy . According to that definition, Indian 
grammar does by no means make restriction as to the number of the ele- 
ments out of which a bahuvrihi is made up. This is distinctly expressed 
in a metrical rule of the Katantra (2, 5, 9) 

Like other a4jectiveS| the bahayrlhis may be used 
ftd adverbs I when put in the accus. of the neuter sin- 
gular, see 240. 
888. From a syntactic point of view^ the bahuvrihi, it 

^ TITto ^^y ^ made up of three » four or more elements , does 
Jj^jJ contain but fwo members, virtually identical with the 
*>r/** subject and the predicate of a full sentence, just 
as the tatpurusha represents a main noun with its at- 
tribute. And , as within the tatpurusha the attribute 
is put at the head and the main noun behind (210), 
tim fndi- so within the bahuvrihi the predicate precedes , the 
"di/^tbT subject is the latter member. When analyzing f. i. 
th« Utter the bahuvrihi ^T^I^TPT: we get the clause OFT ^TPT 

Bcaber. f> p 

*i^rl ,he whose strength is great ," similarly ^^ Ul •* = 

ETW ^TJT? ^-ItMq ^he whose colour is like the sun's," 

HrTFRT'FFrFrT^R'J is an epithet of somebody, whose 

eyes are fixed on the earth eJ^ST HrFT '^^I^ FTT^R, 

In these examples, the words c|1m, '^UI, r<il^*i are 
the subjiBcts within the bahuvrihis, that which precedes 
them being the predicates. 

In treatiug of the tatpurushas we have distinguished 
between 1. the karmadhD.rayas , 2. those the former mem- 

rt l 'U^m q^;WT? ?I|^M^: etc. 

Nef ertheleat , io analyzing even intricate bahuvrthia it will appear that , lo- 
gically , there are but two members — predicate and subject — either or 
both of which may be compounds themselves , even if it would not always be 
allowed to use such compounds by themselves as separate words. Pftnini 
himself knows »a class of compounds only allowed for the sake of being 
nsed as the former part of other compounds** [P. 2, 1, 51]. 

S 223. 187 

r^^ ber of which represent9 some noon-case, 3. where it 
is a particle. In an analogous way we may speak of three 
types of bahuvrlhis: a.) those, where there is gram- 
matical concord between subject and predicate, 6.) 
such, whose predicate is a noun-case, c.) such, where 
it is a particle. 

Type a. — Here the predicate is mostly an adjec- 
tive or a participle, as ^^^TST^J , having Tndra for foe." 
When adjective, the bahuvrihi has generally the worth 
of Latin yen, or ail. quaMaiis, or abl. modi So ^TT^T 

o^TSTTT^J = ieroslatopeciore,Faxic.(}2^^' ^cFTfTFFT 
■zzlacua ewiguae aquae. When participle, the bahuvrihi 
not rarely concurs with the gerund, the absolute loca- 
tive and the like. It may as well be said PT^n^PT^ 

vT^TFTT^ CmFI^ as ^731^ PTgTT or PT% ^^ (I 
left the town and set out for the forest). 
Those belonging to type b.) are such as t^^*]*M .'{having 

a horse's tace). Pane- 71 ^sftcnTT ^'^^TPTT^pirgrf^ 

^I^^I^J (Sanj.meditates of doing harm to Your Majesty), 

here Sfl^^fe: = ^^ iTT^FT (or ?n%) ^RT* .whose . 
mind is to do harm.'' 

Those belonging to type c.) are such as ^PTFT^ 


(having one's face cast down), *4T|JfT7T (pregnant), ^- 
JPTT^t {TsTT (a king of such a power). Very common are 
those, commencing by?^^ ^'*, ^•% as ?TT^J (having no 

sons), H^TSTl (having a good son or good sons). 
Type a.) and c.) are much more common than type b). 

168 S 224. 

884. Ezamplet of bahnTrlhit. Typo a.) Nal« 1, 5 ff ft aiMJR^i ^ 

(now the days are appearing with a mild lun, mneh fog and a 
sharp eold). Hit. 90 fr^ tTFrnnr: (he is of a wicked disposition). 
Pane. 150 ^ [so. ^mr^r].... Ivjlim q ifiLfft<( : <^f^< ' nm^*fa^ 'S't?!^ 
(the Pulinda fell down lifeless on the earth , hoping his helhj split 
up by the edge of the teeth of the boar). M&laT. I^ p. 14 jm\ 
H' \ ^ \ {^t\m^im \ th Q i ^dt^ (as the minister has finished his lecture 
of the letter^ the king looks on him). Pane. 71 HX«^HM'd<a ; ^spA' 
smmnTTt znii^ (<m it stung my mind^ I myself am come to toll 
yon of it). 

Nothing impedes, of coarse, both the snbject and the predi- 
cate being concordant substantiTos. Bhoj. 17 psrpT: ehi'^w«yi i jm 
(^'.\{h'h TTT^ (no other kings are successful in their wars but those , 
whose power is a treasury), Pane. 185 rnr c< l ^M^KF^ 'S H'^.^ r thuf|c i i^ ; 
nfdcmfH ?»T [the bahuTr. = uwmJh errnrr: qQcir^ i » whose attendance 
are many crows'*], Da^. 82 friord: e>i'^^<^>t l *< l (a great merchant, 
whose name is Kub.), R. 3, 19, 22 mj^ Jl^e|> ' !.tji i RMH>^jf t» 

Rem. 1. In such bahuvrihis, as have an adjectiYe behind, that 
adjective does duty of a subst. So f. i. ^^k. I frfv ^^q^jHiv i qf^q^ (the 
assembly is for the greater part made up of distinguished people) 
here the bahuvr. r= ismx fri^TTTT iifr^i »niost of which are fr^nqr:/* 
M41at. I, p. 2 iO^ri^ rf^ U^ i \i \ di \ ^\U'l : »the sun bus almost risen,'* 
R. 2, 40, 17 Mlf i if|rn<JM ! t!»l><i ': ^ l (— «*^ ^J*®™ mounted, having 
Stt& as the third), R. 3,55, 15 m<^4<mA ^m '7;tS^:>T7^ (thousand 
men whose main object l*Tr:wr^) it is to carry out my orders). 

Rem. 2. A proper kind of bahuvrthis are such as tif^^i (having 
a sword in one's hand), iiiu'^, i j<i, (sobbing, liter, ^one having tears 
in his throat'*). In analyzing them, the latter part turns out 
a locative, for frfro^: =r umrf^i ^ ^ and ?ng»Rtr6: = <JMJ | Jijfii r 
vin^ nr. For the rest, we have here no exception to the general 
rule on the arrangement of the two members of a bahuvrthl It is 7% 
and m which are predicated, not ^q* nor cFq^, for the intention is 
to say not that M'. so and so has a hand or a throat, but what 

g 224—225. 169 

it is } lie IcMpt within. *) R. 8, 51, 9 SttA hai the epithet mw^ ' ^<i>n 
•haTiag team in her eyee.** Comp. WniTnT § 1303. 

Rem. 8. In lonie bahuTrthis the order of the memben if op- ^A*' 
tional. One may gay promiscnoiuly mn^rnfi i; and fiwq i f^H : (one 
who keept the holy fires) , ?rTri^: or ^tttttT: (one having children). 
Of the kind are ^rrmm or 507^7??, see M. 5, 58 with Kull., Jprfw 
and (u<]Ui (fond of sweetmeats)^, R. 2, 119, 6 gn?T: !rr»TO!TO7n: (her- 
mits with uplifted pitchers). Participles in °fr must bo put behind, 
if the predicate be a weapon, therefore fj^u^H : (with uplifted sword) , 
see Tftrtt. on P. 2, 2, 36. 

Rem. 4. The type a.) of the bahuyHhi in its outer form 
if often identical with a karmadhftraya, for the discrepancies in the 
accentuation are not heeded. In practice, one avoids to use as 
bahuTrthis such compounds as are wont to be karmadhikrayas , as 
H<Sd'i } xT^fiTi WCT^i and inversely such as rrqrsnj, ^ij^, ^- 
9rrj will not have to be otherwise accepted than as bahuvrthis. ^) 
Tet, it often is only the context which will enable the reader 
how to accept a given compound. 
225. Type 6.). Pane. 24 gft< i Rix^ <i<>«h l4qywgryRt ;t^ trirrlY J^^; 

1) Cp. T&rtt. 4 of Pat. on P. 3, 2, 36. 

2) As to fgv, Pat vartt. 2 on P. 2,2.35 teaches the option. Rut it 

seems better to eiplain ITTfOT as l>ein{r a tatpuniiha, beoaufte Ut fwt 
may be not only m » beloved/* but also « » loving/* see Petr. Diet. IV, 
p. 1101 «. i>. Ir). 2\y as P&nini somewhere else [P. 6, 2, 15 sq.) mentions 
some tatjturtakas in ^^. The same may apply to some of the partici- 
ples in ^, if not to all. Slnceqtrrmaynometimes have an active signification 
and sometimes a pansive one, it is plain we are allowed to compound as 
well the tatpurufthii ^i^ulrl: -• the babuvr. q lrl« 1 1 : « lacte poio, 
Comp. what has been said p. 1 57 N. 2. 

Pane. 283 af)ord« a specimen of a kind ofcompounds, in which two iy\)e9 ure 
confounded: Ch l f^Ty^ l lf^^ l A|klft|lli;ijldd<'ll. here the author wftui 

to have blended promiscuously two bahuvrlhi8i|KlfuUi<iJ«'.,'ll and liJirNl. 
MfuUil , either of which would have sufficed. Comp. Huriv. oS\A 

3) See CArPKLLEB ('dmona*J Stilregeln: Kdvyatamaya 7 and 8. 


170 § 226, 226*. 

«n?r« hm 3^0^71;? i* the epithet of one 9who aeeeptt wagee from 
both pertiety** Kath4i. 72, 186 ^er^Tt f9»%^fSl7l^(two siddhas, 
who bore the shapo of flamingoi), M^Ut. I, p. 24 «RTfi(r^ ofnd^ 
(K« wearing the dreta of an aiicetic). 

Rem. OompariiOtt is sometimes expressed by them, as R. 8, 69, 43 
vt »5rt TqiiprKVT (who are you, whose shoulders are like those of a 
bull?). R. 5| 17, 10 RAzasawomen bear the epithet i i it^g^uMi^i ; (with 
the feet of elephants, camels and horses). — But also by type 
fl.) as ^iJ i d^flH'l : (having lotus-eyes), <d>t^M>^ ; (moon- faced). 
225*. Type c.) Prabodh. V, p. 103 ^ MlMdijei^q ^ H*HVkJHu(fl (the 
queen does not comfort me, who am in such a state). Pane. I, 137 

fPfT-.CTT?": irfhrf^hrfSt THIHT (a kingdom is upheld by pithy mi- 

nistors), Knm&ras. 3, 14 the gods bear the epithet i^PJ^ci : (whose 
adversaries are mighty). — Apart from the very common employ- 
ment of 9, q, <;:: as the predicate in bahuvrthis, several particles and 
prepositions may be used so, as 3^^, f^:, ^, vfhy floT ^tc, as ^t^ 
(sapless), i^^vif^ ; »one with folded hands,** Ragh. 2, 74 j}^*jfMHl*M^ 
(a flagged town), Dag. 137 'S^tt: (with uplifted weapon), Ilarbha 9 
H^ri^'jicj: (a leafless tree), Bhoj. 8 <jii|«mq>i>; i wroiT Sfirm- 

Rem. Compounding with ^'*, ^^ and the like has the same 
power, as English -/u/, similarly English • Ze«« is expressed by 
compounds, beginning with fr^ f5t:*, f5^^ fgiTrT*! ^* ctc.^). 

1) Patanjali enumeratei also different species of bahuvrthis: a) those, 
the members of which are sam&n^idhikarana as f^nriTi I) the former part 
of which is an avyaja, as Jji^mif , c) whose former part is a locative 
or something compared us ehU6ehM} J^W^^ d) where it in a gen. gentru or a 
gen, materiae as ehVilMi (with one*8 hair tied up, liter. » [bearing] a knot 
of hair**), CToTQTf^'nnr^ (wearing golden ornaments), e) whose former part 
is one of the gana gni^Q". [P. 1»'4,58] as qw (unleavcd), /) negation-}- 
noun , as gv^. In the case of c) an ellipsis is stated of a middle ele- 
ment, vniTTiT^ representing erixii^^: CFTT^fV^OT and ZJJW being « sjg* 
^ff^ Jil^lsT^. As to e) and /) Patanjali states the option between saying 
in full uufrlrNufi ^: and the abridgment cnnfr ^:» likewifie between 
vfiraiTPTJsr: and llJaT:. Cp. f. i. Da9. 35 aTrFETK^^TT^ ?Txi?j^iT^with ibid. 

176 ^TT 3^&<ltMldH ; here the full TiTT^gft^^ and the short T^^STTPT 

are synonymous. 

§ 226-227. 171 

226. As baknTrfliii of thrM and more memben are exoeMiyely fre- 
||[*^ qsent, we will addaee tome imtanceB of Ihem. 

1. the rabjeet ii a eompomid. Pane. 322 wm i ^ i jfw it (abstaining 
from taking food) here the snbject of the bahuTr. ii frT^rrBszTT, 
a tatpnnuha; YAr. Tog. 1, 8 wRidt i ^i^ T g^ i^sfh (he lotei his wealth 
and hii kingdom) here the subj. it a dvandva irnr^ >wealth and 
kingdom;*' Da^. 78 a Jaina monk ia thus qualified uJ^u?iMq^ ; 
il4lcyi^ui^%l^oUti: u^^H*ifi}f?MM i mR< ;gr; (▼. a. covered with dust and 
mud, enduring a heayy pain by pulling out his hair, suffering 

Tory much from hunger, thirst and the like) here the subjects of 
the three bahuTr. are respectively the dvandva xmqTf^ the tatp. 
» ' Jtig3«> i oa«i i and the tatp. wf^TOTOrTfi;7[:wi[^ and of them the two 
tatpurushas are themselves made up of more than two themes, 
as it is the compound jiUM%)>i which qualifies stttt, and similarly 
the compound wnggiMi(^ , which is the cause of T^^.vsfth 

2. the predicate is a compound. — Instances of this category 
are very often met with, especially such bahuvrthis as exhibit 
this type: qualifying noun-case -|. adjective or participle -|- sub- 
stantive. Pane. 42 nTm «y <,[c(4<^ i *- ;z=qjr;r fd^HUd^ r P igOT n; Kath&s. 

• 72, 180 mquhHHuRi^Hl imr^^, here the bahuvr. is to bo analyzed 
TOUT HTm: f^RKfTT 11^ m [jqrp^:]. But also other typos, as: Mudr. 
Ill, p. 124 vultures (rpiT:) have the epithet «r)Ju i ^<»i*JWti i;i here the 
analysis is ofqf ^hrf Pmhaj i JU qvrT:» the - predicate , therefore, is an 
adjective* dvandva (208). 9^^* ^^^ * curse is said to be frj^tr- 

3. both subject and predicate are compounds. K&d. I, p. 46 ?nr 

fa *t'mfd^HH^>i^i^JM^^ i nj i mvig>P i g»«y»Pi trfrrcmf^ ^ (crowds of 

parrots and [other] birds were dwelling there, building confi- 
dently thousand(s) of nests) ^ here f^ij^^ j Q^f^d i* the predicate 
and th^ i ^Mdti the subject of the bahovrthi , the analysis of which 
is of course ircrt fsrerw fci^rHH i Pi f'^rr] '>.r^i<] i > i i Mt^mfu i [ im]. 

227. In the case ot non-compound words, adjectives car- 
rying the notion of having^ possessiny, as is taught in 
Sanskrit etymology, may be made by putting some 


172 § 227—228. 

J^. derivative sufBxe as "R^, •5FF[, •JTST, •^, •^etc. 

• ^^^ ^^^ 

^ to the substantive, as ^TUFFrT (fiery), ^[R^ (having 
a son) and the like* Of these suffixes , '^•j^is verycommon^). 

Kath&n. 24, 9 %f^ jHZim f2:SDr: ^sqift ^|g| l H^>M*j|>jl^ (a divine person P.|,f, 
descended wearing a diadem, earrings and a sword), ep. R. 3, 50, 21. 
They may also be put to dvandvas. Mhbh. 1, 126, 21 dg l Rf>7l (wea* 
ring tressea and a deer-skin), Pat. I, p. 1 qmMi jr<f<!h!h<g^ Qti i fiiMi 

Now, sometimes,* these suffixes are added even then, if they 
\^^ are in no ways neeossary for the understanding. So R. 3, 15, 11 

^^^^^^ q^: HTftinf^i: T»9T q^n^ (a pond charming by its sweet 

scented lotuses), likewise Pane. 53 the weaver, who has assumed 
the attributes of Vishnu, is said to be fa r mf^QH : = (a^^unfliSj* 
fel?r:, Bhoj. 2 a brahman is said M'».rfirjAIMifi5d l >i^ = Mih«y< i V[ fd^ l M 
^TTTphiT^N In these cases no suffix was required, for the bahu. 
▼rlhis jjT^nirv, fennf^J, *n><?4fdMMlHj would be quite regular 
and plain. Compare Pane. L 46 McmwF.if ii <p^ = M-aiu f' r.u i q^« 
This rather pleonastic idiom is especially used in some standing 
eomponnds. Grammarians teach and practice confirms ^t;?^ being 
readily added to compounds in *5miTt *siT5iTt *m??»T| *ot, *afm, **cnif. ^i^ 

Typical compounds. 

228. So I call such compounds whose latter element is 
almost used in a typical sense, which is more or less 
remote from their primitive meaning. By them the 
great importance of compounding for Sanskrit com- 
position appears best. Such among them, as are 
fit for periphrasing case-relations, have already been 
dealt with in Chapter IX, especially 188-196. Of 

the others the most remarkable are: 1. those in tlll^i 

1) See P. S. 2. 115; 116; 12S with the vftrttikas on them. 

§ 228-229. 173 

*^PZr, '^li^'=ri, TRFT, which are expressive of ,and so 
on," 2. those in "^^H and ^'^T^^'TTJ? which may serve 
to make adverbs of manner^ft.those in "^^^^^^ .formerly — ,". 
4. those in **1l5i*i, which does duty of a limitative par- 
ticle, ^TW^FJ being nearly the same as SnTtcT, 5. 
those in '^fJPT, "^Pfl, "^^^J^, 'Crf?I,to express .nearly, 
almost," 6. those in ''^f^, if ^[T may be rendered by .na- 
mely," 7. those in *^Tl^*j, when having the worth 
of .some" or »other." And soon. 

S9. ^o S^^o A foller aecoant of them, we will treat of them se- 

rrf^ parately. 

** 1. Those in **mfj;, /<i l R.» > 'vkt, '*ai^ are bahavrihiB , meaning 

properly ithe beginning of which is — ,** as is still plain f. L in 
^ 1} 50 M<»H I M nrRTt si^TT^: (the existences , at the head of which 
stands Brahm&, end here). Commonly they are expressive of »otc.; 
and the like." Pane. 8 HMf r gdfi^^hfaui ^ tTiKMff^eh l; Mdm^i.^ (he per- 
formed in his honour all the funeral rites, viz. the Yrshotsarga 
etc.), Hit. 123 v|duici<Jlf< um«M ferrn^ (bestow on them presents 
of the king's favour, gold, clothes and so on), Pane. G2 nir n?^- 
^x^Mil^fWVH QfT^: (All [aquatic animals], fishes, tortoises etc. — )• 
' In these examples the compounds are adjectives , but often they are 
used as substantives too [see note I on p. 1G5], as Bhoj. 64 fr^xrf^ 
iii^jUNai: I fomisr 5raT^ ^rtm ^iiiiuir^ycjifiiRfefSjnnT fnrcjT ;i cI<i<^i^ki. | 
^sn^ iFpT: , Pane. 27 <m u >j f H «u i <M«J^^ i! <!y> faWoT errS^ (from to-day it 
is you by whom faTOur, punishment, etc. are to be admin iatcrcd.) 

n^y 2. When adjectives, those in ^fj^ and °<{f:^ may have the 

^. same purport as those in '^rfS: ©tc. Pane. 20 g!n^^Tf^r^!rj7:n7T: 
lEiS (all of them, tigers, panters, wolves and the rest). When 
adverbs, the latter member is almost meaningless: gifFFT? •mrr = 
uuiid imh. Hit 7 nw u^n^irr.rr^ y i >*i^riificJi> i^ (roHpoctfully he 
gave over his sons to him). 

174 S 229. 

^TOBT 8. ThoM is ^ maj alM tignify »liaTing beea fortnerfy so and 
la tbt go,** bnt now boing lo no more: vtcoti^: >ono who oneo has boon 
rich,** iwm: (of old). K. 1, 13 ;r 7rf%^ p?^ (nover seen before), 
fAk. VI MfUij5><uif ?nwgfft ^T^f^ sij^^FJTT (indeed, I once hare wedded 
secretly the Lady f^k.)*). 
•iinnj* 4. a) Compoands in "m^ Aro bahuTrlhis, used as substantives 
of the neater, and properly hate the meaning «the exact measure 
(msTT) of which is — .'* Yet, as a rule they are used as if their 
latter member were some limitatiYC particle and ^imn^may be trans- 
lated by ibut, only.** Prabodh. I, p. 13 Hhd^M'Ti^JH^Hfi (it is but a Tain 
rumour), Pane. 192 errsf^ h a i mi i unfu ^r^rarar ?T ei>f^mfrt (nobody will 
make you his friend only on account of your voice), R. 3, 71, 22 h » *I*< I j> 
J nrnfsr ^ T^ m? ^^ET^:* This translation, however, does not suit 
all instances. Sometimes ^qnni^ signifies, that the whole class is 
meant, not single individuals belonging to it. Pat I, p. 242 ^ i ^^uh 

?T (j^fica': rjTT ?T q^ 4<i\;.ni i ^i i 3i ^ ^'Un gprnsf ^ ?r Stm (since it 
is said: >one may not hurt a brahman, nor drink strong liquor**, 
one dues not hurt anybody, that is named brahmau, nor drinks 
anythiug, to which the appellation »strong liquor** is applicable). 
Comm. on R. 2, 12, 100 S>jjl((i5>fl i ^ jwJ W^ *JwM Pi><fH (the 
king seeing the foul conduct of K., by his sorrow chides the whole 
Vffl^ fominine sex). — In this meaning ^fnrTi|[^is almost synonymous, as 
Daj. 22 xf I i ig> \ tj. \\ Q^(\k9, t [ d l dM<:li TfT (he obtained the cauda, the upa- 
nayana, in short the whole set of sacraments), Bhoj. 62 nf^^tcrfcr 

0) 'tht is also put to participles; then it is an adjective and 
signifies nas soon as — ." Pane. Ill, 3 ri l d^JM Sl# 0^ n^(one must 
abate a foe , as soon as he has arisen), ibid. p. 58 vu i oin r >iiMUu r >f 
Wf f MlA Shhit: mmii KathiU. 36, 111, etc. 

Rem. The adjectival employment of those in imr is however 


1 ) One is wont to analyze i|7?qor: by qsr HH: and so on, see f. i. Kd/9.on P. 
5, 8, 53, but that analyi^is does not give a satisfactory account of the nature of the ad verb qS were compounded with the noun i^^ one 

would expect ^3iin in the same way i as f. i. M. 9, 267 ^rl^JI:> people who 
have formAflv been thieven.** 

i 229. 175 

not retiriet«d to tlie ease ^at the former member ia a partieiple. 
See but Pane. II, 95 :iT>mnrr n ^rzt f^ in^RT:... tt^i (poor people 
do bat bear the name of men, as they are of no ate whatsoever). 
*m^i 6. • Almost, nearly, like" is signified by *qR^^T, *^, *'^:smr, ^btrt, 
i^StVt which have almost got the nature of pare formal saffixes, and, 
'trnr* indeed, the former three are taught as such by Pilnini (5, 3, 67). Of 
them, those in ^9r?7 and "gnr Are the roost frequent R. 3, 16, 39 
u l ctM i ^ijd'ix^ l Pl (speech like ambrosia), Kum^ros. 3, 14 >rT7 rsm 
TT: »yd^H»^*j[^ (yon have nearly engaged yourself to do our affair), 
Kath4s. 6^ 51 ^^uu 9t^Qji^fh \ Qj.umm i^rferT^ (some 84mavcdin 
was thus addressed by somebody like a rake), M&lat IX, p. 149 
Uof uSciImhu i ^cI n*: cr?mw (in this manner all my hope is almost 
gone), Pane. 202 q*hU ll fg1UlJ ^ HrT: (gone to a country, where 
a good deal of the paddy was ripe), Da^. 78 fd«rd*^iu VJ i*l<M ' 'i^cif*i 
(this way of anrighteousncss , full of deception). Those in ^'gnr 
are, indeed, bahuvrthis^ to be analyzed thus: »the greater part 
of which is — ,'* just as those in °9i^ properly are = »tho man- 
ner or mode of which is — ." 
^ ^pr* 6. Those in \ff are likewise adjectives. As jfjq moans not only 
■shape, form** in general, bat also >a beautiful shape, a beauty,** 
so the bahuvrlhis ending in it admit of either acceptation. P&aini 
(5, 3, 66) mentions the latter, when teaching such compounds 
^ $rT^piIT97:i Q^fn^E^ to be praise-denoting, i) But, in practice, 
those in ^^ are not often met with in this meaning, by far 
oftener they are employed for the sake of qualifying some general 
kind by describing its species. Then we may often translate them 
by means of >f. L; viz.** Instances are chiefly found in commen- 
taries and the like. S4y. on Ait. Br. 2, 37, 1 [p. 272 ed. Aufrecht] 

1) P&pini speaks of °ffT as of a taddhita. K&f. when commentiDg on 

our sfitra shows °^ to be used to sigoify the highest pitch of a quality , as 

jtitfUtM^ Jg W, U^IUJHl 2^ fg4jfd> Blame , inversely , is ezpressed by 

coDipoands in ^qrST (P> 5, 3, 47), as in this verse of Bbojapr. (p. 7)^cni^ Uf 

?T 071^ ^ ^{rzft i^riJUIVI^: (the attendant , who does not exert himself, 
wh#n order^ by his master, is a bad attendant). 

176 % 229—280. 

7. "I9f^* 7* BahiiTrtlut in *«9fv (lu>^iQ b>*7 ^ syiumjmoiM of frrsn^in 
both of ito aeeopUtiom (169 with Rem.). Seo t L Kath4i. 4, 100 
fmnnrnsffv (till I shall ha?o eome'back); 52, 146. 

8.*fg^. B, Tatparushas in ''fli^, when meaning >excelleBt Bpecies/* are 
ezpreasiTO of nomething » first-rate, excellent.** See f. i. Ragh. 2, 7. 

t.^TTrr* 9* Tatpurushas in °<r?T^ aro often to be rendered hj tsome** 
or »other.'* Properly speaking, fr?T^f fsrsro: and i^i mean yariety, 
species,** and a8 a »Tariety of something** is •something different**, 
the transition of meaning may easily be accounted for. -^ M4laT. 
Ill, p. 60 geiw i <ja<b»j {*i\ ( ij^mth i nfsr-Tarm (▼. «. the lady has changed 
her former attitude to another), Pane. 1, 132 sr^mMqp;^ ^pjt ncrrr 
^ei l iv&n'fi; (the fruit of good and evil deeds comes instantly , when 
from the king, but in some other existence, when from Destiny), 
ibid. p. 83 prarnqf^ <^»ii'ii wi cFJ ?T ^sfm i i^mirH^ faruw h Jjjf 
irf^ (one cannot dwell among wicked people, for they will hurt 
you by some means or other). The proper meaning of ^igprrnr is 
not rarely transparent, as in the example quoted first. Likewise 
Pane. 248 i irir^ii i iiM^mii i rtJ i Pane. 205 j^dJuifu]i>d( ^mij spnHJlr 
(I do not hear distinctly, of what kind of things you speak). 

10. *fafiir* 10. Tatpurushas in **f^ftf: may denote, that the action spoken 
of is done lin due form.** Pane. I, 335 or^rrf^fiiRT* • • • • MU l vui^ qfirT'T) 
Da^. 80 HA}u\ z H^^^\^i\iiid i ii \ ^Q i {^mh(ii^^ {in his house I gave a stylish 

This list may be easily enlarged. 

Final observations. 

280. Any Sanskrit compound belongs to one of the great 
classes mentioned before. Now , as not only the members 
of a compound but even their constituent elements 
may be compounds themselves , hence arises an almost 
unlimited freedom of enlarging compounds by taking 
up into them all sorts of nouns or adverbs serving to 
qualify the whole of the compound or part of it. In 
this way, very large and very intricate compounds are 

S 230—231. 177 


Jajto^ available , and in fact they often occur , albeit that the 
field of combinations and images is in some degree limited 
by conventional usage and by the examples of the best 
authors. For the rest the frequency and the nature of 
those intricate and bulky compounds will much depend 
on the style of the literary work. It requires, there- 
fore, a good deal of training to catch forthwith the 
purport of many an intricate compound. 

A few instances will suffice. K&damb. I, p. 15 the king, it is 
said I saw a lady »fqH4^^H i ^ i > i <«^*< i >WH/ » w^fH>M^hHifticj J^hn^ '•who 
was like Rati, stained by the' smoke of Kilma burning by the 
fire of angry Qira,** for when analyzing the complex, we got 

parently a tatpurusha, the former member of which is also a 
tatpurosha the former member of which is also a tatp. and so 
on. Now a bahuvrthi. In the same K&d. (p. 39) a forest a^uni ] boars 
the epithet ^v i ^yjHHP i ivH^J^ Tr^i.^ r>imfiP i i|H; d'TiH^*Jtri-u^H^,rj» PnwM*^ 
(where the roots [of the trees] had been moistened by the abund- 
ant blood of the army of the R4xasas killed by the shots of 
the crowd of sharp arrows [discharged] by the son of Da^aratha), 
here ^[fr^ is the subj. of the bahuvrthi, the preceding complex 
being its predicate, an intricate tatpurusha, as it is thus to bo 
analyzed <<^m|qm wim PifiT i HMi m^iuii Pnh^w rmii^JP^H ;^.?iy^iuii 
51^ rTOT sr^sW ^f^TlT fmPJ. This whole clause is comprehended 
within one compound. And so often. 

31. Case-nouns standing outside the compound are very 

■^ often to be construed with it or with one of its mem- 

elL ^^' '^^^ ^® ^^^ consistent with the whole spirit , which 

"»nj. pervades Sanskrit comjwsition. A great liberty is left 

rued to the speaker to prefer either a i*ather synthetical 

or a rather analytical mode of expression, lie has the 

opportunity of enlarging comj^ounds by making enter 

within them any noun or adverb serving to qualify the 


178 t 231 -233. 

whole or any part of it But on the other hand nothing 
compels him to do so. The qualifying noun may as 
well be a self-existent word having its own. noun- 
case. •) So 9ft,k. V I^H^rfl |i|'(^'-^rd'4il(Udc|||HiT: 
(dwelling in the forests on the slope of mount 
Himav&n)| here |«;^*iqrl I MI^J stands outside the com- 
pound as to its form, but belongs to it by its 
meaning, as it qualifies the member 'S^r^^. Pane. 42 

a wea?er retarnt home to hig wife, otStcT eftu?q{M((il rmr; ^jfiWci i ^ ; 
•having heard evil report on her aecount;** when using a mere 
analytical expression , the author of the Pancatantra would have 
■aid m?TT Wci l < gPSTT or g^ jtott «McIK ©tc., when a mere syn- 
thetical one jqHfi<Mcil< it ^ut he has here availed himself of a mixed 
idiom. — M&Iay. V, p. 140 nn^: i\hn Ur*j \ ^rU * ia '. (8., who had the 
horse brought back by his grand-son) ; Kumdras. I, 37 trWctrl l ^T^- 
j^Jinnfit..... [fre?n] vj^t here ^mcrnr qualifies lErpw the former 
member of the coinpound ; Mah&v. I, p. 6 u'^,rU\ MUUt^tJuM ' gf>iciH| 
here trsnnn also is intimately connected with the compound. These 
few examples will suffice, as the idiom is mot' with on almost every 
page' of Sanskrit 
282. By this equivalence, and to a certain extent also, promiscuous- 
ness of analytical and synthetical expression it is also explained that 
there must be some freedom in using the so called figure of 
ellipsis even in compounds. Nala 1, 13 the beauty of Damayantt 
is said to surpass that of aU other women, even of time past, ;t***** 

rll^^JUdcTi 9»f^rT..«» j;'«:UcllV|cll ^fTT, here ^ is of course z=. %Jr|(4cll« 

By a similar abridgment Malay, Y, p. 137 moon and sun are named 
vTlHU-mfajuu *the hot- and the cold-rayed s)." 

1) I wonder, what reatoos may have induced Whitket (§ 1316) to 
■peak of tbi« idiom as somethiDg irregular. On the contrary, nothing 
can be more regular. 

2) A striking example is afforded by R. 3, 20, 12, if I am right reading 

there |I H H I VH %tj<(]vn>i^dH I gpjXT ^f^fp: UJ^MIUKI: iM(Ai^<l»4l iftjT 

§ 233. 179 




Chapt. L Substantiye. Adjeotiye. Adverb. 

233. In andent languages the difference between adjective 
I^^JJand substantive is generally not so strongly marked 
•*"«»•• as in modem ones. So especially in Sanskrit. Both 
classes of nouns have the same declension, and a great 
number of them have sometimes an adjectival mean- 
ing, sometimes they are substantives They are 
only different as to their gender, substantives being 
nouns of one gender, but adjectives of three , as they 
must take the gender of the nouns they qualify >] : 

W ^^ W W^' W ^^'- 

Adjectives proper, when used as substantives, may 
be distinguished thus: a) the substantivizing results from 

jm ^^W»<yfw4 1 Opr xg;piW J«I^feU(l*1^; the Bomb, edition has ^. 
^C^. There it antithesb between the fr^: [in full q^m*i i fi T;) R&ia»at 
and Rama xiOTT*Tn7:f itnd likeirite between them |;?[qp9Sm:] and lUma 
who wa8 H^^q^ l iMI ;. The $amdhir drskak^^:] [ir]^>q^ l^iiW^is admitted 
in the Ramuyana, tee f. L 2, 51, 8; 74, 13; 3, 64, 2a! 

1) By this waj we may account for the fact, that Indian (grammar, 
f nil at it it of accurate and minnte obtenrations and of acute and sharp distinc- 
tiont, doet not possess proper terms eipressife of categories of words 
at common and as indispensable to Western grammar as » adjective** and 
»tubttantive/* The gunavacana of the vernacular grammarians encom- 
passes more than our » adjective**; neither the ciraryani nor the Jutajfat are 
the exact equivalent of our »snb6tantives*\ The term vi^eskana^ UBe«l by 
PSinini himself, compritet both the apposition and the attributive adjec« 
tive. The only term adopted to point out the adjective at tuch is Trm faM^iJ^ 
»BOttn of three genders.** 

180 g 233-.334. 

the ellipsis of the oonoordant sabst.» as ^\\r\\» [viz. ^FT!] 

.cold water/* crf^rfrfT: [viz. %![rrJ| .grey hairs;*' «)they 
are substantives when having got some special meaning, as 
rFf adj. .thin," subst. fern, .body;" J^T?" adj. .brown," 
snbst. masc .lion; monkey; Indra; Vishnu;" c) 
they are used as substantives while retaining their 
general signification, as VAUl when meaning .a or 

the beloved one," 717* .a (the) wicked man." The last 
category is the sole regarding us here, for any adjec- 
tive may in this way turn substantive. The diver- 
sity of the endings for the different genders and 
numbers enables to express by one single word such 
phrases as .a rich man,** .a young woman," .a 
business of weight," resp. STFT:, rl^nfl, ^=1^. The 
plural of course, if a plurality of things is meant; hence 
rilM .that" when = those things, Lat. ea^ ^^IIUI 

Lat. foKsia^ ST^FT «»«//«, etc. 

Like other sabstaiitiyes, the substantiTized adjeetiveB may be 
an element in conipoundB. Hit. 94 ^^ i Mai gr ^hHdl i ehdoJi i^l^^lMJd : (one 
mnst not genre a weak [master], but join a mighty one), ibid. 102 
«^i|^>UfT)H l MM*I ^ (enough of this chiding the past). 

Abstract nouns. 

134. Abstract nouns are much used in Sanskrit composi- 
•^'^ tion. They are partly derivates of verbs , partly of nouns. 
The verbal abstracts are not rarely to be paraphrased 
in translating, especially if the predicate of the sentence 
be made up by them. Then, our language generally 

prefers finite verbs. R. 3, 2, ll the man.eater Bays to R4ma 


g 234 885. 181 

mk m^^itsf m «m: tm^jon mi (»nd how b it, that you dwell 
with a woman, being ascets ?), Da^. 101 v^n i|>ifW' » W srQT: ^hTT mi 9 
^C^^lPiK^TV (he took an oath, ho would releaae me, and I, not 
to reveal the secret), ibid. 95 mtm f^ ^i)^ ^ iji\{^ui^^ \ i i{(Rifr»fi*.d6i 
van^m, Mrcch. I, p. 32 sr um*rm*j<[f<jm>i<;^H I (the garden-creepor does 
not deserve to be stripped of its flowers), Mudr. Y, p. 180 (Malaya- 
ketu to RAxasa) mS rrm^r •t ^HuJimwM^mlduimml fduttiH^n>«^iM^ - 
WildMl orfmn^r: ^u \ KJ^l ^ ^ ^ tt ^im ^rlfT (sir, it is inconsistent, that 
by purchase from merchants you should have come by precious 
jewels, once worn by my father, especially as they have passed 
into the hands of Candr.). 

235. Of the nominal abstracts the most important are 
those in ^^FTT, **5Fr and ''HT^J, as they may be derived 

of any noun. Of ^J (weak) the abstract .weakness" 

is not only *^\\^*t or *;} 1(^^*1 1 (see P. 5, 1, 122), but also 

^TJrTT, ^n^FT and ♦JS^iq:. Nothing, too,impedesmak. 

ing them of compounds, as ^T^ITTFTrlT or '^SHor'^HI^J 

,the being the child of a «^/" or ^rJ^I^T^ CrU, "^^TcT:) 
,the having four mouths *' \). Hence the abstracts in 
•FIT and 'SFT and their synonyms are a fit means for 
expressing clauses and the like in a concise form , espe- 
cially when attended by a subjective genitive. So \^\T\^A 

^'<MMrMr-4*l = .the fact of N.N.'s being a merchant's 

son ," ^^lUl^ri^^ril .the four-facedness of Brahma." 

Here are some examples of this widely used idiom : Pane. I, 222 
<h>jj l iMf^fei Wc^ TTR 9r^ (it is a calamity to be father to a daughter); 

1) The suflBxes for makiog these abstracts are taught by PaniniS, 1, 
119—136. Those in *;ner are eridently tatpunisbas, utoT meaning >the 
state, the being.** For this reason P&nini is right not mentioning them. 

182 § 235—287. 

ibid. p. 71 jTPT iWTW ^^^9Aa m( i M i ;H l (I yukwt Mratinized the good 
qualitiet of P. at well at his viees); KumAnw. I, 48: if animals 
felt shame y the female yaks, it is said, when seeing the bean* 
tiful hair of fair UmA, would have abated their pride of their tails 

all were drowned because of the ship's foundering); Pane. 73 ?cnrrezr 
Mr^jfci i KKl lsl^ TOOT: qfpwj: (by having him as your friend you 
have neglected the whole of your royal duty); Q&k. II: king 
Dushyanta, as his presence is wanted at different places at the 
same time, says ' t t^uir^.y.yir^W, CvHlcifFt ^ »R:; Utt. II, p. 35 br- 
rj<«^* n?: »the density and the being scattered |'* that is nthe re- 
lative density;" Comment, on R. 3, 42, lO q-^^Mi i ; J l ^ ^ I sle J UHi Idt i u i ^^ir*^ ! 
;nr: (the difference between tlie words patlana and nayara is this 
that the former does not signify the king's residence, the latter 
does). The last example shows also the fitness of this idiom for 
the sake of explaining and demonstrating. By grasping the dif- 
ferent links of a sentence into one single word, scientific or phi- 
losophical mutters may be treated in the very clearest and plain- 
est manner, complex ideas being rendered by complexes of words, 
whereas the relation of the abstract noun with the other words of 
the sentence is sufficiently pointed out by its case-ending. 

236. Some idiomatic employment of the abstracts — chiefly 
TiaJy.*' those in TlTand'f^M — must be insisted . upon. 

Itmf I. Their accusative with verbs of g o i n g and coming 
J^^^^^j is often used to express the passing from one state to 
aehim^j another , cp. 39. llitop. 94 MJiHUi>/<4r i i errfTT (even a mighty 

th the 

u.otan one may become mean), Prabodh. IV, p. 78 quotes the verse qr^TTT: 

wuT* 1?^^ ^ ^ ^"^ Mv^mfi i H^ (— become helpers), Var. Brh. 2, 17 

X-jii i ra irroFir (he becomes an antroleger). Pane. 38 jT^h TnrTcr^f^- 

S^R^ ^nrrt cnnfq (— I will become his disciple), ibid. 62 n^:] 

STRf zm HTPifTT (the lake will soon grow dry), Bhoj. 28 jf^t^ stc^t- 

237. II* Their instrumental, may signify in what quality 
somebody or something acts (67). Then it may be 

f 237. 183 

^•fcU rendered by means <rf .as." So Hltop. 103 ^il^^^l 

Jbom iStTm^T^ WMIri (let some other heron go with him 

nwkaeoi [his] second), Batn. IV, p. 114 ?rPT TITT I'-hH^IW 

" Tcqt^rlMI oRTf (why, my dear, do you behave at 
if you were indifferent even nowt). 

This idiom is mach used with verbs of aeiiny- , behaving^ , 
beiny as\ knotoing-, eonsideriny as , taking for \ ealiing- , eiynt^ 
fying as ; treating as and many others. Instead of the phrase 

5n^nir Srf sTT^HH FRT^R^ may say 

5ll^llWH arf jIHlfH etc. 

Examples : Kath^ 26, 8 ^^onfTTTmr ^rm: (being Bieenman) ; Pn- 
bodh. IV, p. 81 JTOT ?nxr. jm*n eTi^^rWi u(HciiffW i w i r n icj i > i ci PnrrocT: 
(KAma 18 his ehief warrior, it is yon we hare looked for a$ his maieh) ; 
Dft9« 76 ^RigSiW -prt: n m i cd^ i lw^H^ (and the glow [of passion], 
which had been loosened from the holy man, [now] shone as 
twilighf); Ragh. 14, 40 5^ f^ im: 5I%TT M^ l fS-liriRifH yf^JU l: sraifiT: 
(on spotless moon people have thrown earth's shade 6y waif of a spo() ; 
Da^. 112 irf 2 ;r g^Huf^^^f^l fpiWT ?PTT dM l Pl (nobody here A:itotr« 
me a« «krA) ; ibid. 93 fgpjr ri'Jriiii^ rt< 1. 1 Piri. 1 1 v,*pj<yj : (you cannot 
but denounce me at the person , you have got it from); ibid. 144 
Zd' • • • rScT riia il fci*'! MiUhrmrl (<<he has been destintd a wife for yon) ; 
ibid. 94 cr ^ fURgr r l ^A^ fd l H l JuP l ^ ii l «jy ?r (it was the unhappy Arth. 
who was seized as the thief) ; Pat. I, p. 399 when treating of the 
karmadhAraya <htiJ l PM I:, says f^m\i urvri^T fd i cjQifl i Ucif^ »wnt 
(ejv i uu i fd^ i I Kath4s. 52, 60 «s i M i f^^ ii fuqR i rnrnFr; Mhbh. 1, 43, 24 

1) The germ of this much used idiom is found already in the Rgveda- 
mantras, in such phrases as ci^/jhi (in8tr. = 8krt^;p3rmT)*Kgv* 10, 15, 6 
«TT f^frr? m^: fcr fent JR: Vm: JOTTT aFrpr (do us no injury , fathers , 
on account of any offence , that we , after the manner of men [as being 
men], may have committed against you). 

184 S 287—240. 

Rem. In the insUneM quoted the abstniete are ending in ^mx 
and ^lipr. But although these saffizes are the most employed onee, 
any other abstract has the same effect. Da^. 15 rtj)^ ' f»i^iJ>fi^auW » 
anwrgf^ qtV^ifwH l ^^ (I was appointed nurse of the twins, his 
children); KA^. I, p. 16 mfiifd n i fdw> r u i; ^nrni^ aSn (spa is used 
as a designation of kinsmen and property); Pat, I, p. 230 ▼xnnt- 

^i.< i rdf»JHfi>Jj iTT i ff^M f W ii TT^ n^fn^* For this reason, different ab- 
stracts made from one noun are as a rule promiscuous; compare 
t i Kath&s. 13, 132 vmfh ^ ^rfi*J \ with Hit 97 crznrT ^uu^ i , both 
"pmr and ;f i f;j. | signifying >in the quality ot a messenger." 

238. Occasionally — but not often — an ablative will do the same 
f*'*!" duty as the instrumental of 237. R. 3, 6, 10 fd l *imm *<8 1 fMM*l« »«» 
iiliom* uififJU'im g»jR : (~ we will address you, Lord, as supplicants), 

cp. Kathas. 72, 165. 
Locm- The locative of the abstracts may also be used so, as R. 
*** 3, 36, 1 7 5jnT mri m^ i A jrpsnri cj-^^n^im (be informed of the matter, 
which you must perform as my helper on my order). It is espe- 
cittlly used with verbs of appointing^ choosing^ designing to some rank 
or dignity. Pane. 26 ^ji^\ afr ^Rnn^ fTrTT Urra (Hd i d^l i H^ (— I 
will make [him] your attendant); Kala 3, 23 ff um>^idM ^ qfd^ 
a;<Hci ^ (choose one of those devas for your husband) ; Hit. 91 ^ 

Note that of abstracts of the feminine gender the ablative and 
locative are not used so, only the instrumentar (cp. 102). 

239. The dative of the abstracts with verbs of appointing etc. will 
J>ative. occanionally occur. Mhbh. 1, 139, 1 m df l cam k n \ (mh i t {H ( I W U i givfr^*;! 

Kath&s. 38, 153 ^Hd i P<3ifo»<i ntfr irq^r* 

Kern. In the ancient liturgical books we met with two datives, 
one of the person and one of the abstract noun, both attending 

on the same verb , especially ^rr &nd qri^q^* Ait. Br. 4, 25, 8 »^\n 

h ^TTT C^ ' Anm wn x n A\^VHf\ (the devas did not yield to Indra 

as to the eldest and most excellent [of them]) i qt s^TTfrT 'si^^^rr l 

etc., cp. T. S. 2; 2, 11*, 5. Ait. Br. 7, 17, 7 Yi^v&mitra thus ad- 

§ 239—241. 185 

dnsMt hit lOBt !i|uh^H V ^. V WrTp W5f I ww w^pnif w^'ROT 

(— attend on Um [Qoiiahfepba] at your eldest), cp. 7, 18, 8. Note 
the attraetioB in this idiom. ~~ Cp. a Bimilar employment of the loca- 
ti?e: Ait. Br. 4, 25, 9 ^Ajiwid i ^^miirt frrm >hiB kin acknowledge 
hii authority.'* 


!40. Sanskrit adverbs, as far as they are not old words 
,^ of uncertain and forgotten origin — as 55::, ^tf, jjtt, ot, 
vmq^ and the like — are noun-cases either distinctly felt 
as such or in some degree petrified. The accusative of 
the neuter singular is as a rule employed, if adjectives 
be wanted to act as adverbs') (55). 

Bahuvrihis, like other adjectives, may do duty of adverbs, 

when pat in the accns. of the neuter. Da^. 169 m ^ «TrXT- 

(hHSC i O crrrr (and he took no less care for him as for himself); 
Pane. 55 ^f^ d<r<ii mnf^ { WM Ji ;i<JHcdl'irli'M « » oiM (as her mother 
spoke thus , the princess lowered her head for fear and shame and 
said); gkk. I J)olMj i ri{W g[g»> i qd(H m^ Jj^rrfV: ([the stag] runs on 
casting now and then a look on the chariot so as to cause to turn 
its neck ever so neatly); A^v. Grhy. 1, 9, 1 qi fm-Ji^miP^ st^ q f;-^^*! 
here the first word is an adverb ^from his marriage, beginning 
with his marriage.*' 

When derived from substantives , the adverbs are mostly 
modal instrumentals and ablatives (77 , 104). Da^-ise^^-ih 

f^i^wmj i ayj i rtAn m \ n,^Jii{ , here mimuifh' i = » falsely;" R. 3, 61, 20 
PlR^c^^ l »wholly". Likewise qnfJniT »alternately ," HMi yi »jokingly," 
etc., and ablatives, as ^^nHi ^oRTcTTrT. 

41. For the sake of comparison one uses adverbs in ^FT 
urk. They may be made of any noun , and are to be rendered 

1} Adverbs are styled Rfi^llfdliirJiinPi » attributes of verbs.** The ace. 

neuter of an adjective , when used adverbially , is named 977 R»»<l l (ci ' jrJ i JW i 
see f. L K&f . on P. 2, 3, 33. 

18« t 241—248. 

by ,a8** or ^like.** When paraphrased , they are = 9^ 

or 77 with any noun-case wanted by the context, 

therefore fH^cJrJ^ may be = fff^ ^ or ftl^f^ or 

|«i<^IMq and so on. — R. 3, 46, 5 mf^froAnTwijRfsriTfeQTjaH [= 
STjf*^] (ia the shape of a friend, Laxmana, you are like a foe to your 

brother) ; Mhbh. 1, 148, 1 5 «ji%r i >qmi<nn<K i i^q i MW aijsi^Drr urn w^ 
(the innoeent PAndavas he did bum at if they were his enemioB) ; 

KAm. 8, 81 Qcwr^ hmx: w^ i <cidici^^5i>i*iifMd g g^^rw [= ^jam ▼sr 
and mtmnfimu Mhbh. 1, 159, 4 ?t7i^ < icid>*i^j i [= ^rarrsr] (pass oTor 
by me as if by a Tessel); Hit 10 nir[dfM^<i.^S ^(I'^S ^rreOT^ 
fHfUdK i d»jrW 7: fTTlfh cr ofinrT: (he who looks on the wife of another 
as on his mother, on the goods of another as on clay , on all cre- 
atures as on himself, such one is a wbe man). 

Rem. 1. Compare with them Latin adverbs as regaliUr^ whea 
meaning >kingly, like a king.** Mhbh. 1, 145, 1 q i uioi lt iiVSR^ 

Kern. 2. Like other compounds, the adTerbs in ^grr may have 
their former member standing in construction with some other 
word outside the compound. Pane I, 260 frfwirat ^mr vrfTr o^ 
<ifT75ifT = unr cioT q<i/i nifri» 
242* Adverbs in *«jt: involve the dissolution of a whole into many 
parts. Malat VIII, p. 135 mspsf ^ ^TKW riwn^t wfffxT (I will 
cut her into pieces and cause her to die a miserable death). 

As to those in '^tfT see 302 R. 

248. Sometimes — but not so often as in Latin and Greek — 
dioiMg iitj adjectives are used , where one might expect adverbs. 

W MiferiH. Of the kind are f. I rag^ — Lat. tHvitus, fei?^ (mere). Kath&s. 28, 
70 7&IT idcM l CTT i^rflTV (R- disappeared against her will) ; Kathib. 
29, 120 fpTt ^x ^ ilQuf^^ %i,m i^tA i firfw: (that she did not die, 
the cause thereof was nothing but Destiny. Germ, nur das Schick' 
Mafy. Likewise others, which in fact serve to qualify the verb, though 
they do formally agree with some substantive (31, Y). R. 3, 60, 2b t^ 
drxfW: 9Pnn? (tell it me confidentially), M. 3, 101 Tjqnrr i jfii^<gi 

§ 243-245. 187 

cn^HTjjf V ^pffT (gnMf earth, water, and fourthly, fHendlj speech). 
Compare these more instances, taken from the ancient language : Ait. 
Br. 1, 7, 13 ifm i ^f^fA iRffFT (finally he worships Aditi), Oh. Up. 
8| • ^ 'S\sn ^3<0^fH 0* rises upwards), A^y. Grhy. 1, 11, 5 3^ 
rWiPd (they lead [the victim] to the north. 

Degrees of comparison. 

4. Of two persons or things , possessing the same quality , 

"' the comparative is to point out that which is en- '57. * 

dowed with the hyier degree of it : frT^Jr^TfTOTJ (the 

better of these two), cRT 'T^J ^^TT^t^J (words , sweeter 
than honey). Even if the person or thing compared with , 
be implied, not expressed , the comparative may be used. 
We then translate it by ^tolerably, rather*)." Da^. 159 

FTffti^'ft^mT <f>M^( JT^\ fqu^f^J) q:<^fjri (not very long hereafter — ), 
Prahodh. II, p. 30 zniT WI'lf^UM fu^^jjfM u i f^chfi i (I have abandoned my 
wife, though I loYed her very much), Pane. 35 H-e*fcj | fewnr: Ml^.irlJ 
HiidM (after hearing this , P. addressed him in a rather respectful 
manner). — Occasionally the comparative may even express »too.** 
Mhbh. I (Paushyaparva) Upamanyu, when asked by his master 
why he looks fat though ever/ opportunity of getting food has 
been intercepted to him, answers he has drunk the foam, given 
back by the calves after having drunk the milk of their mothers. 
But even that livelihood displeases his spiritual teacher, for ^ 

ffei<jehi^M<j i nmcT^ srmr: twrmf" < ii>i*fpA;rf !i H<u i <if^» dfM i >ii q^^i^ 
QTrrfq* (these virtuous calves give back too much foam, for pity 
on you, for this reason you prevent also their being fed). 

5. The superlative expresses not only the „ highest'' but 
*'' also a ,very high" degree , just as in Latin and Greek. 

OTTT? may be sometimes = rer^ bady sometimes = ///e 
worai. When denoting the highest degree, there is ge- 

1) Cp. V&mana't Slilregeln by CArrsLLEB, ch. (fubda^wUhi, s. 62. 

188 § 246—248. 

nerally some wrord added , as H^TTFJ, FTT^ etc, Mbbh. 

1, 1.43,3 m Wmi flH^NHUr i MHHI ^ (this great 
assembly is the most pleasing on earth). But for the rest 
it signifies excellency among three or more, the com- 
parative being destined for denoting it between two. 

Of two brothers one is theSTFTFT, the other '=ri»HIMl»i' 
of more one the SM^J, another the ^fTFTSfJ. 

240, Yet carelessnoBB in the employment of oomparutive and super* 

GtralcM- lativo in not rare in Sanskrit. ') Sometimes the comparati?e is used 

tkcirem- instead of the superlative. Pat. I, p. 77 wjl rTp^ ^3^ U3iuH<MM>«i 

' '**" ivsron ^ !W: jsfr irf ^ qymr sit & ^h>? i qiPifd — instead of 9*^:. 

Pane. I^ 408 it is said that of the sh&dguuya the danda is the 

worHt expedient , here we find m i m i ^jm , not qTf^:i ihid. p. 305 among 

four indiYiduals one is said the ^r^TTr: ')• 

Sometimes again the superlative is used instead of the com- 
parative. Kath&s. 43, 23 of two brothers one calls himself 9,{Tyn , 
and his brother ?^. Pane. 113 ^mji<ifjj(j|^<i.H*<w fdPm i f l; (a 
misehief of either king or minister). Cp. ibid. Y, 36 Qm^ji nf^ 
?7W<TT (judgment is better than learning), here the superl. is of 
necessity, as the comp. 3<n does not purport the meaning of 
excellency. For a different reason 017x7 a superl. as to its form, 
is the equivalent of both ifirst*' and >former.** So f. L M&Iav. II, 
p. 35 tH Mcifn^M i iiJ i; !|^j jTj^ OTTTf t»,ww. (of whom of these 
two honourable professors shall we see the performance the first P). 
247. The suffixes '^rrr and ^'ht may bo put even to substantives. 
Instances are scarce in the classic language '). Pane. 326 n 9 MsIM . 

1) Farther investigation will decide for how much of that seeming 
irregularity we are indebted to the faults and the sloth of copyists , and 
how much of it is really good Sanskrit. 

2) As to the form cp.Il.2, 12, 2G inr^TT^and Whitney JSantkr, Gram" 
mar § 473. al. 4. «- -^ 

3) They are somewhat more frequent in the ancient dialect , see Whitney 
% 173, al. 1. Cliusic Sanskrit p08se>>i)es some, which have a special 
meaning, as vsOrq*: (mule), STr^rT^: (Ragh. 3, 32) »an older calf.** 

§ 247 250. 189 

uuMd^ijfU ?f jnrswsspf^ f^fimiRi^^': (and he [the horfa-thief] 
examined all the horaes, saw that the r&xasa [who had assumed 
the figure of a hone] was the host of ihom [liter. »the most horse**] 
and mounted him). 

248. The comparative and superlative being wanted to do 
JJJV' duty of adverbs , they are put in the accus. of the neu- 
drerbs. igj. ^ just as is doue with all other adjectives (55). So 

mi is adverb of ^FTFT, 5T^^ of !T^i, etc. Pat. i, p. lo 

^ u ii(,rifjr\\kd mOtn: ui'-^uuui^rU'Hf (will they, who have studied 
[grammar], apply words the better?); QAk. IV;if^ its 7:iwm ^rfhrr. 

249. Degrees of comparison may be made from undecli- 
nable words; then they endin^^rT^T^ and VH(M as ^3"- 

frTTFr (higher). Malay. II, p. 36 9f?FT^5i;rfTC][^(exceedingly charm- 
ing), cp. P. 1, 2, 35. 
erf^Tr- Such comparison is made also of forms , belonging to the ^' ^ ^ 
rrand finite yerb. Instances of comparatiyes , made from the 3*1 
like, person of the present not rarely occur in literature. R. 2, 64, 72 
g^ Mid^Hd^ i H^ (my spirits almost lower). Prabodh. IV, p. 87 Q j r i i ' j i 
FT7enzr ouyjiilHH^i ^ fci>l<<J» (to loso Something gained before grieyes 
more than haying gained nothing at all). Yikram. Y, p. 178 {r*Tc7- 

^H{\ H^^fu i uf l rdu*{^ (eyen of an infant-snake the poison is rather 

strong). Ratn. Ill, p. 74 ^Mu(f^r i | i q » — Kathds. 102, 35 we meet *^r^ 
put to a 3*^ person of the perfect: ^sjjpfijri^M U 

Instances of the superlatiye I do not recollect having met 
with, but they must be or haye been not loss allowed, as both 
degrees are equally taught by P&nini. i). 

!60. T/tan with the comjmrative is expressed by the abla- 
oljt-tive, see 105. But the particles R", R"^, ^rU ^^^* 


are also used for that puriK)se, especially with ^T^' 

1) WuiTKEY § 473, al. 3 says that both compar. and supcrl. of verbal 
forms are » barbarous forms;** for what reasoD, I do not understand. Is 
it perhaps, because Kalidusa wrote barbarous Sanskrit, or because P&Niyi 
did not know well the idioms of his language? 


190 i 250—252. 

KathU. 29, 118 ijrjqiT imj^ ^: yi)wf3 > u<ti ; (death !■ better for me 
than parting with my Tirtne); Pane. 213 gpunrprt^T^Tp^TfOTwr: (not 
beginning at all it better than ceasing after having commenced); 
ibid. I, 451 «iffrTFft^f^ sq* STJT rfSx R^fUhH* ; (a wise foe is OTon 
preferable to a foolish friend ')• 

251. A high degree may be expressed also by several other 
iaiomi. ex. idiomatic phrases, as: 

rti^hV. ^' ^y **9r^*), **^, **?w, **imr, «ee 220, 5*1» inasmuch as 
gree. they are a concurrent idiom of the comparative in one of its meanings: 

2. by putting oj* or q^' before. Pane. I, 191 ^^mdl^; m^ 
i|gfa^ (slander being rather manifold in the world); R. 3, 53, 1 ^rr- 
^ i w^f i T'.fhfrJT U{4rRni; M41av. I, p. 10 some female is said to be 
u^xiPNU ii qin fd'il ^. Properly lor^ means »tolerably, nearly" see 
P. 5, 3, 68, iT7*r* » exceedingly.*' 

3. by such phrases as iUjj i ru<iH;<T (liter. »dearer than dear*' = 
the very dearest) , g«?TFnnrrTpy Mah&v. I, p. 21 ^ml^uuri} n": (we are 
exceedingly rejoiced at it) ; Pone. 326 d; i li; i H; JT^fTT (247). 

4. by putting the word twice, see 252. 

5. by adding ^^, see 220, Q^K 

252. For different reasons a word may bo put twice , eMer 
^QTdimJ. when put two times as a separate word, as^FT* i<MJf 

or when making up some kind of compound, as 7^^7^'')* 

1) la a well-known passage of the Hitop. (p. I, 3) sr^ia construed 
with :t 9 but not followed by a nomin., as one might expect, but by 
the in»trumentali 

The instrum. must be that, which expresses: equivident to ; excbaegeable 
for. » Better is one virtuous son, and [»D0t to be given up for,** that is] out- 
weighing even handreds of stupid ones; one moon dispels the darkness, out- 
weighing even crowds of stars.** Cp. 70* 

2) U'MPlVir'MXI and the like are among the examples of the commen- 
taries on P. 5, 3, 67. Cp. 240* 

3) P&uini deals with this idiom at the commencement of his eighth 

i 252. 191 

1. Adjeciiyes may be put twice, the two making but 
one word, in order to signify our , — like," ,ratlier." 

I>»C« 1^9 HWTl i miF^ j^G i Hl^*nd»<ririf i r i u i du i fa<MU ii fi)MpH>Ti (a woman, 
who though [of a] rather thin [aspect] had by divine power not 
too much lost of the brightness of her colour), R. 3, C7, 14 rr <iTT* 
<l«^eii STT^***** SMRTOrT, Pane. II, 50 ;JhT»TirT: ^ STj'f?^ «r; ferrfTt 
(in the beginning a foe sneaks along very slowly, as one being 
rather afraid). So t^pti^ when = »alone," and cp. such phrases, 
M < l cfild <TCQrn» umiu^ii Q^T^ (they blossom., they ripen the very 
first)!). Instances of adverbs put twice are not rare, as ^: ^: 
(slowly, by degrees), g^^j^: (repeatedly), ^.rp: (again and again), 
etc. Daj. 172 ^n^rr .... *T?r ^PT Erfe^* 

2. In the same way substantives, gerunds, participles 
when put twice, may indicate the non-interruption of 

some time or action. R. 3, lO, 5 ehM*4.Mt^ (in uninterrupted 
time), Malav. IV, p. 105 qf^ rpunfr: f^nrsn mvsn f?tfr*icTf7r ?TimH 
(at the very moment she is standing on the path of my looks , P* *• I» 

adhy&ya (8, 1, 1—15). In interpreting sfltra 9, the commentaries are 
wrong accepting it as teaching the formation of the word y^^ . The 

sfitra wsk ftj^cjif^d^ cannot have this purport; its literal sense is >if a 

unity, [it is] bahuvrlhilike.** If P&nini had meant the uM>r(/ ^^TT, he would 

have written wsn^t not as he does U^t^l} cp. the constant genitives in 
sAtras 5—8. Our siltra refers to the cases, mentioned by s. 
4—8. There the employment is taaght of the •two {i;f* spoken of in 
8, 1, 1. Sfitra 9 teaches, how these two are to be accepted, for it Bays : »[but 
these two may be] one ; then the whole is as if a hahuvrihC* , likewise 
in the cose of s. 10. But from s. 11 the unity is as tf a karmadhdraya, 
P&nini*s words in 9—11 are: ^ yjgif^clH^i irrsntr ^ i TimiT^TIcypfTj. 
From the conclusion of K&9. on P.'s sQtm 9 I infer that the right inter- 
pretation had been proposed by somebody, but that it has been ob* 
jected to bj Patanjali. On the other band, such forms with distributive 
sense as f^riEt: being by necessity instances of the idiom , taught P. 8, 1,4 
afford some evidence for my own acceptation. 

1) See v&rtt. 7 on P. 8, 1, 12 in the commentary of the Ka9ikil. Cp. 
also P. 8, 1, 13, which teaches to say ^^<j<^5 l rj and fuiifuuuii when z= »with 
all one's heart** 

192 9 252—254. 

■he ■oddraly disappoari), IXt^. 95 wt pmrwrf: wrgsfrf or^TfUTT: 

S, Moreover, putting a word twice is also often a'-^ 
proper means for signifying a distributive sense {vipsa). 
Instances of this idiom are frequent KA^ on P. 8. i, 4 

jpi: 3p: frni >i*^Pi (every roan U mortal),Pano.42 q^ qF7?T7T^(8tambl- 
ing at every footstep), Da^. 99 u^^^^jm A^' \ d^ \ U gr* [dl>gM^^>f?^ (offer- 
ing [her] always new presents day after day), ibid. 216 cnnmr rjJTfT^ 
fij-cgrr3,!i, qflfJi^tpH (every sixth month they lose one single feather) ; 
R. 2, 91, 53 fT&T^inir jp vftfrx-, ^ ^^ ^ nnrog: (singulos viros 
Boptenae vol octonae mulieres appetierunt) , Apast. Dh. 1, 13, 18 

^feff^r i T ciffi^ CT CT TRinr maiiI^h wrarSj^ sFTfji M. 2, 20 # ^ 
^rfrif f^rinpl. (t^oy ™*»** 'o*™ every one his own duty). So ^rf^ ^f^r 
(in every region), 9^^: (day after day) and so on. This idiom 
is as old as the Yaidik dialect It is also used of gerunds. Pat 

I, p. 44 XrtrjTTT 3r|Jf?ft?yi il-e^pH. 

Uere as a rule the ease-endings of the former member remain. 

258. Sanskrit likes juxtaposition of different grammatical 
^*2! forms of the same word or of kindred words. Hence 
^?he' the tjrpe manm manum lavai is of course very common 

like. in Sanskrit. Mrcch. I, p. 34 jf^ -^ ^n^ (pearls string with 
pearls), Vikram. II, p. 31 Tf$f^ r^MmKW ftuws iftia^; Pat I, p. 233 
snsfr elui!i^ l <,(lfH (one cloth covers the other) , Pane. 322 srk^ 
f^il^ (he rambles from forest to forest), ibid. 267 M<^ i fM<»^nfg U'df^lH 
7\ gpfrrfTr, Da^. 61 ! F. f^ m: ei»r(mMd ; jriJ (jumping from one elephants 

back on another). 
254. Of a somewhat different nature is the type represented by B. 
2, 12, 8 Hft ^ risr jr^ qw <ito3^ (what evil has B&ma done to 
you, evil-minded woman?)\ cp. the Greek xjcxo; xxku; iiriXoiTO. 
Here the inclination towards homophony is still more pronounced 
than in the idiom of 253. Compare Mhbh. 1, 145, 14 rn^^4 i dif^> l; 
J l j l >^ : l7iifn'^ ; ^i<i>truH ; i idM (tristes tristis est allocutus cives); Kath&s. • 
38, 153 sr^^frn^:.... ??•••• ^TafT^npaTTO" ^^ '^^Hz 

It is here not the place to expatiate upon this predilection of 

9 264— 258. 198 


Saatkrit for brini^iig together words kindred in lonnd and placing 
with the different meanings inherent to them. Nearly all literary 
doeunients from the Yedas to our days afford the most ample evi- 
dence of it. For this reason , one must always be prepared to 
haye to deal with riddles and the most various kinds of quibbles 
and puns. More information on this subject is to bo given by works 
on Sanskrit rhetoric and Sanskrit literature. 

55. It may be of some use to mention here the figure yaihdsam" 
^^^ khffam 1), as it is employed not raroly and as its nature should be 
•M- called gather grammatical than rhetorical. By it a series of sub- 


stances named together with a series of attributes or predicates 
are so to be understood that the first substance is to be construed 
with the first predicate or attribute, the second with the second 
and so on successively. R. 3, 40, 12 w i f^>t^m mxTW irnw srpnw 
^iflftarnr fmr fa^ ^ ^ftcrf 2[irt HMHd i q^ i u i ^qPi M^ifMun pm^r; (the 
kings possess the qualities of the five devas, Agni etc., viz. the 
glow [aushnifa] of Agni, the strength [vikrama] of Indra, etc.), 
Apast Dh, 1, 5, 8 jH^ ^ «RHT srr^ HfjOT sit Mg|i<fg^>m i (jf<J i <^i fl t^* 

mafrt m = flfpsh ^ XTRTT Mg».t^(l>t<J | <jfH ETT^rT oTT H** WT^ ^OT SIT 

^^ <l(iifc|iiVKjfH (whatsoever he, desirous to accomplish it, thinks 
in his mind or pronounces in words or looks upon with his eye). 

Chapt. II. Pronouns. 
I. Personal pronouns and their possessives. 


56. The personal pronouns are less used , than in English 

^9. and many other modern tongues , as they are often not 
expressed, especially when implied by the personal end- 
ings of the verb (10). Nor are their oblique cases always 
wanted in Sanskrit, when undispensable in English. 

So in this sentence Hit. 24 ^m ^713 rra^ Mtoid^HM'uhm ^rrrf- 
xTTThr CTRT^ i6H<fd , the word tif^'j ii d^u i ^ is at the same time ob- 
ject of m^tmr, of vuT i U j of m^; it is of course put once, but 

1) I borrow that designatioo from P. 1, 3, 10, which s. may be compared. 

194 § 256—257. 

the pronooiii nferring to it are omitted as being 'easily sapplied 
by the mind, whereas the English translator is bound to say ishe 
[the eat] reached the young birds, took them to her hole and 
doTOured ihemJ* Cp. ibid. 96 imsrrr m>^hm iroTO" vm^ 9 [«c. i^rnjj 
JT^, Mhbb. 1, 154, 30 pRqt&rf ^^ i f.m QspTTpi^TTpn^r^, where the pro- 
noun CTT^ though being construed with two verbs is put but onee, 
Da^. 152 «^ 9 mr Hpf^H ; faf^^wRj *) Hp i ftiPmuuHf| k ^3fer. 
wt^f^ 5lT^pilT: SJTO: fwH^cj*< » {T^H[^ t 8C. mn, as is plain by the fore- 
going w^ and &. 

Likewise the possessive pronouns may be omitted , 

if there can be no doubt as to the possessor, especially 

of course when referring to the subject. Hit. 7 rm fdtujumu i; 
<nrrr [sc ^syrr] u*<rMf(ci i > i *)» 

** ^ "sT "^ . 

257. !•* and 2'* person. — The short forms of the ace., 

neVtiL gen., dat. ') are enclitic , and used therefore if there is 

fonu. ^^ stress to be laid on the pronoun. It is useless to 

give examples of them, &s they are met with on almost 

every page. The aco. nr and f^rr ^re however not so frequent 
as the dthor enclitic forms ^). 

1) By a common error the priated text has v^^. 

2) So was already taught by Patanjali (I, p. 62) iTT?Tf^ clPdHau fq?Tf^ 

g^f i tfjfMfd i I ;r ^mk ^st^ mrrff ^srfergrr fqrr^ffir M^^v iiS d^md mnm 

3) Epic poetry affords sundry instances pointing to the fact , that the 
short forms of the gen. and dat. were once, it seems, available for all 
oblique cases. At least, R. 3, ^3, 49 ^ is doubtlesa =: TonT't and Mhbh. 1, 

230, 15 XT: = w^mg. The former passage runs thus fra»rirT k iwsmvsmi^ 

(yon must keep watchful in the hermitage), the latter HT far* • • • • H^ 

eiiTdf: ^m^ n^: Cp. V&mana*i Stilregeln ch. (^ahdaptddhi , s. 11. 

4) As XTT and i|t, FSTT and t^ are easily exposed to be confounded in 
manuscripts, it is possible that the enclitical forms have sometimes 
disappeared in our texts, if the following word commenced by a 
consonant. At all events, tbey seem to occur oftener in the ancient 
dialect than afterwards. 

i 257—259. 195 

They are of necessity unayailablei ifsome emphasis of 
the pronoun be wanted. For this reason they are forbidden: 

a) when heading a sentence, or in poetry even a p&da, 

b) when immediately after a vocative, which heads the 
sentence, c) when followed by some particles, that give 
them some emphasis, viz. 9, sj, ^, vrcp, n^. See P. s, 1, 

18; 20; 24; 72. Mhbh. 1, 229, 24 fc4il4»i< l j. ; ydU^d l M l ^rMfdt / JT: 
[here rm would not be allowed]; K&9. on 8, 1, 18 t^ Qud J Ud ^ 
^o^ wscn^ gh^^^d l [oT: instead of umnh^ eannot bo, as it heads 
the p4da]; Hit. 110 p?TT^ 1 q^RTm?«»T;^»TJ m ^TT: [«T»T not q, ac- 
oordin; to b)] ; R. 3, 55, 22 ;ni^ ^^ ^i^S[ (^ none but me); M&lav. 
I, p. 21 fRWoTfT: ftfCT «T»T ^ [not: & ^r] M^^M^^a wu! f(c( \ ^ { *JN 

Rem. According to P. 8, 1, 25 they are also forbidden with verbs 
of seeing, when used in a metaphorical sense. 
!58. The plural of the first person may refer either to a plurality 

lunl ^^ apeakers at the same time or in most cases to we zz I -pothers 
with myself. Similarly the plural of the 2^ person may be used, 
e>en when addressing one, for the sake of signifying you and 
others with you. Pane. 258 the monkey, being invited by the makara 
to go with him, deelines, for says he ^ <birM^ i utMiJu ^ fPrn^ 
rmr (we monkeys are living in the forest, and your abode is in 
the water). Mhbh. 1, 152, 26 Hidimb& says to the single Bhtma- 

sena a^ vfttm wnnr..... fi Mttfu^di *Tm gcirrBrw »I have been sent 
hither by my brother, who is eager to devour the flesh of all 
of you [viz. of your mother, your brothers and yours].*' 

59« The pronoun of the 2"^ person is used without respect to 

^"* social relations ; the singular 3^ is applied to suj^eriors 

""* as well as to equals and to inferiors. The only case of 

mrr denoting a single individual is mentioned before (24). 

Tet, when addressing in a polite manner, one avails 

one's self of H^TPJ, f. Wft, plur. H^^:, f. H^TPT: - 

being a popular reduction both in form and meaning of 

198 § 259—280. 

mW'i .Lord". Like Spanish Utted, Italian BUa, 
H^n^, tiiough being exponent of the second person ; does 
agree with the 3^ person ot the verb, therefore TTi ^^TTrT 
^raFTW'SFfb, when addressing one, TTi ^RcfFfT ^T^Fr^* 

(^^^^[rtl*)f when addressing more*). 

Rem. Both modes of eipressing the 2^ person, either hy the 
pronoun ?g[v or by the title ifsn^ may be used promiscuously. It 
is Tery common to see them used alternately. Pane. 73 Damanaka 
says to the lion ^sSsnr: srrwirm^ Mdi>^Un<Md vr^nwn ([«he bull] 
Sanj. is an herbivorous animal, but you [iisrpr] And your [7\^\ 
subjects feed on flesh); Kath&s. 30, 17 iiufeidlfafl pTT] URlf eti<il^ci ' Pi*i l *jJ 
\ran*'-» vrn nor**** MK<ifff (make her your wife by the G&ndhar- 
▼a-rite , in this way she will become yours). In the first book of 
the Hitopade^a (p. 35 of B. K. Yidy&ratna*s ed.) the sly cat thus 
addresses the blind vulture j^m i rVjJ^tu^fUpatjeiKUjMU ^ «l%tTT: Km 

as to the plural vcmnrt ^mr*n: ^oe 24. 
260. By pointing out itcITtt as the proper term for addressing in a po- 
lite manner, it is bjf no means said it is the sole. Many other 
titles, such as signify air^ lord^ reverend^ master are used ac- 
cording to duty, custom, dignity, age. So holy men are duly 
addressed by ; mciM , f. iiTTsrm, kings by ^:, respectable mer* 
chants and the like by wii\j matrons by vnrft ^^^ ^if^ duly ad- 
dresses her husband by «rm7ar:t the charioteer his prince by mumM 
etc. As a rule a greater respect is shown by such titles than by using 
the general term iisnn (vocat. lir:)* Another difference is this : they 
may as well denote the 3*^ person as the 2** , whereas Worrnr is only 
fit for denoting the 2J person. 

Moreover there are some general terms, made up of ;TorP][^pre- 

1) Instances of narrr construed with the 2d perron of the verb are 
citremely rare and the idiom undoubtedly vicious. So 9&nkh. Orhy. 2, 

2, 8 iiW^lfi WoTP^. initead of $ra^or^[rni{^»8ay , you are a hrakmacarin:* 

S 260-282 197 

oeded by tome pronominal prefix, tii. vn^rsTFr* ?nri?8rpr, hmstts?. 
As fnien^ and hh^wm point at somebody absent, but tbe ^j r ^iaM 
IB always present, so the former two cannot refer but to a 3 ' per- 
son, but uMiiaw may denote as well the person spoken of as 
the person addressed. Utt. 1, p. 1 the director thus addreasea the 
spectators aq- ^.... « i /jftnmPcmw^J t f*i t ^fciMbi^id^Hi Q>'.i^.c?»fj , but 
(J&k, YII Dushyanta when speaking of Qakuntal& says m! wmw- 

61. For the third person Sanskrit does not possess a 


irsoB. proper personal pronoun, like our //e, *//e, «V. Its duties 
!!I^'are discharged by demonstratives. When wanted to be 

emphasized , by ?T, ?Tm*1, iifIT, otherwise by the obli- 
que cases derived from the pronominal roots IT, ^FT, 
^M, or what is pmctically the same, in the ace. by 
^^, ^5TPT, ^^TJT, plur. ^ipTR, ^J, 5^HIH, in 

the other cases by the forms belonging to t^MM. The 

nomin. is not expressed but with some emphasis. See 274. 

B2. The possessive pronouns are relatively less used than 

''• the genitives of the personal ones. One will oftener 

«»• meet with ^PT W^^, ^{^ or ^^3* ^* ^^'^ifMisamfsa 

216, r) than H^^TTFTJ. 

The difference, which exists in English between ;//y 
and 9niney your and yours etc., is not known in Sanskrit; 

*i\i*A or ^ ^TFPT^ may be as well ,my book" as „a 

book of mine," also »the book is mine;" ^rTWT^m 
of course cannot have tlie last meaning , for subject and 
predicate are by necessity unfit for being compounded. 
Rem. 1, Apart from the regular possessives of the 
2 » person 51^ and *V^\VA , there exists also W^f^ 

198 i 262-284. 

deriyed from the polite ^^^M. Ptmc 168 M«j)em i ^&>ii^ jw 

[= mwt: m^* or iwmr^T. 

Rem. 2. The poMeisive of the 3^ person it fi^ (if wanted 

^71^), but here too the genitive of the demonitratif e or a «hath« 

thlfam&sa are generally preferred. 

268. The relloxlva pronouns foT and ^fTFR refer to all 

Kcllci. J 

^^' persons.— l.?n?^, ace illrHIHH, instr. H\rH^\ etc 
is the proper equivalent of English myself , yourself ^ Aim" 
self, herself ^ ilself^ one*s self; ourselves^ yourselves ^ them" 
selves. It is always a masculine and a singular, even 
when referring to a plural or a not-masculine. Properly 

it is a subst meaning »sou1, spirit, individuality'* and in this mean- 
ing it has always remained in common use. But even when pro- 
noun, its origin is moro or less perceptible. Occasionally it may 
bo rendered as well by a pronoun as by a subst. '). 

2. f^T generally - though not always — does duty of 
a possessive; it does denote the subject being possessor 
and may be rendered, according to sense, hymy^your^ 
his , her, our, their. Often it is compounded with its noun. 
864L Examples of vrmn', when a refl. pronoun. •— a) 3d per- 
son: Pane. 263 uWlH l fiM i ^s\mh :fhT: (he himself brought the 
serpent to his dwelling); Var. Yog. 1, 19 sraravnr ^rRia' api^ajrfei 
<HHWii>>[Mfd|iTi^P i ^<a<i^ (if the king be himself not favoured by 
Destiny, he should charge his minister, who is, to destroy his 
enemy); M&lat II, p. 38 eiuic i <? tf jm mmfx fnwT u^^ i f*<u i *i<<i>ii<J 
gpT^l^ (YAsav., though betrothed by her father to king Sanj., gave 
herself to Udayana) ; R. 2, 64, 29 ?fir jgpTTfJTr: fjjt HuRdJ i (both 
of them touched [the body of] their son) ; Pane. 184 q^ i dfflfMoi i fi^M 
i\*ni\ \ A \\ (they feeling themselves as if they were born again); — 

1) Compare the similar use though less developed of Latin animus^ 
frTftrrf farft^Tnf^ =r animumoblecto, Paac. 160xmTr»TTn^TftsenT^(I have given 
him my heart ^ myself). 

i 264—265. 109 

h) !•* and 2d person: Hit 107 ot»R: fv;^%i ^ mwnf^ (why should 
I not eloTate mi^ ouni rank?), ^Ak. I M i j<jmn<i'ji^> i H i d^iHiM frftrr^ 
(in the meanwhile, let us purify ourselves — ), Qtik, IV ;? ^if^i| i fmijg'f 
qghii^jTd i ('Ql^(hy your good actions you hate got a husband becom- 
ing to yourself )\ — c) referring to a general subject: Pane. Ill, 
174 jt: ' Up l if t nr: qi^ ?r HW l fM t H^ few: (who does evil, certainly 
does not love himself). 

As appears from the instances quoted, the gen« wvm^\ or vTrT^ 
in compounds are used to denote the reflexive possessive. There 
exists even a possessive mf4)<i , as K&d. I, 19 <w,ni\\t^\i\ \ ^nfrnvi^ 
(take him [the parrot] as yours). 

Rem. 1. It is plain, that m WRm is said in the same meaning 
as vnm* R. 2, 6, 21 jj^i\ fnTOT ^ mMiri^M jvx jm ^f^vxwsfh* 

Rem. 2. The instrum. nuiuw when added to the reflexive lays 
stress on the fact, that the subject is acting by himself. Mhbh. 
1, 158, 30 fH^(j i f*jMM I f^>H (help yourself); Pane, 276 tj wh \ ^\t*\ \ A ' 
*<m i fMHl ^tjrr^ (I cannot bear my own self); R. 3, 47, 1 nTfTr] 5Wf' 
iUf^uunftHl (Stt& named herself [to her guest]) '). 

865* Examples of. ^. — a) 3«1 person: Nala 3, 13 ^in^^ ^ M»f? l 

tr^it u r fuR ; ^^ fRnrr (scorning as if it were at the moon^s splendour 
by her own brightness); Pane. 230 ipm\ HF^T^ ^TTTff Va i ijv^irjiifi ; (then 
at daybreak ho rose and went out of his house) ; ^&k. I ^f i KH ' if^d'JS - 
Sff^TT: g | UMimMy4 ; Jmrra^: etc. (these girls of the hermitago, 
with watering-pots as to suit their size); — h) Ixt and 2*1 per- 
son: Pane. Ill, 177 z^ ^ g nyjffj r ^iijj^iij^ (I will dry up my 

body); Hit. 137 fUMvJh u^ijPiWMl C or <'J i iUM*ifM j^fjT iifauif?r (when 
residing abroad it will be hard for us to go to our own country); 
QAk. VI ?5mf^ # P i J » ; i x n j;Jj ^ (and you, do your duty without 
fault) ; Vikram. I, p. 2 ^rj ^jhemf^lf^jrm Wcri?:: (you are re- 
quested to listen with attention on your seats). 

Yet ^ is not necessarily a possessive. It may also be equi- 
valent to mrHJ' Hit. 109 ^m { Uiu \ «urHdj r > i ^ = « i fM>h tt**; Pane. 
305 :ttA ^ l u i fdrt ?j^qtfM (I will not give him, what I have earned 

1) fnTiTTT may even stand alone. Kath&s. 25, 133n^^TnnpTTrxrTT(I will 
go [by] myself); Kum&ras. 2, 54. 

200 i 265-.2«7, 

myMlOr hof* whrffo^^ wsrhr* = vr^mhr*; SchoL on B. 2, 40, 
39 jrm mnj[ pinsf ^ urognm ?7caf (R. saw hit mother and the 
king following after himself). This idiom is less ftrequent in elassie 
literature than in eommentariet and the like^)« Note ^spr: 'by 
one*t seir* 1 1 Kath&s. 34, 56; 37, 49. 

Ai m Bifty be := WTftHi it hai alto a poueiiiTe; Tis. cgW* Pane. 

162 |Jl<|(qr^A<lrf(^U 

Rem. 1. ^snT) poss< foT^Wy is a deminati?e of csr and cgW m 
to itB form , but there is scarcely any difference of meaning. Nala 
5, 40 y^r ?f3r imnrnf hni* . • sumr nir^ ^spkh i Pane. 233 ^def i mMd 
irtf^T *J^*i><]ft (it is but your own kin you take regard of). 

Rem. 2. Like Latin suus, ^ also signifies » one's relations,** 
•one's property,"^ therefore, ^gRpn » one's kindred, one's family, 
attendance ," ^ignj^^ tone's goods," Hd^ai*!^ tone's whole property." 

260. As a third reflexive we may consider Msl ^owa,*' as 
it may not rarely be rendered by the possessive pronoun. 

Pane. 56 the king says to his daughter ^rsmdV^^ rSRTT f^nmrrf zmr 
inr v i j>oanHd.u(?f (you must to day exhort your husband, that he 
may destroy my enemies). Inversely ^ may also be = town:" 
Kath&s. 39, 53 ^spR^i 'iiRrf ^nArt frrot wjgw 3^^« 

267. The reflexives are not bound to refer exclusively to 
the grammatical subject. In passive sentences they often 
refer to the agent, in clauses and the like to the main 

subject, instances hereof have already been given in 264 and 
265, viz. Pane. 263; Pane. Ill, 174; K&d. I, 19; Hit. 137; Yikram. 
I, p. 2. Here are some more: Pane. 24 ;t TTTif^ ^ ^f^ zrw^ 
femf J i fa i fM r P mrm (^df<d ;, here frT?mfiRim; is of course iji^ i fM^U 
^fiwnr: ; B. 2, 11, 22 g i UMUi fi^ psTT Smtn ^sRTJr ^: »c. ftisn uwu 
Rem. On the other hand, one may meet with instances of 
pronouns not-reflexive, in such cases as where one might expect 

1) As tt is good Saoikrii, it makes doubtful how to explain ^sr^io 
such compoands as f^nj^) ^clilT:, whether = ^s[m 2|^ or = ^ 1^^ 

2) ^ofpatako^ ed. Zacuabue, vs. 187 ^dUI^I szfif Wl(H*^lf*ilr4)y 

9 2«7-270. 201 

refieziTat. So B. 3, 62, 8 MiMui^9»wi STTwrfw*...... wwpiW^ 5ip( if 

[not «B|^ or «i?ir:] ; KatbAs. 36, 102. 

868. The iodeclinable ^ei*j does nearly the same duty 

^ as Ijatin ipse. It may be added to some otber pronoun. Mbbh. 1, 
161, 8 ;r m^ suptfktJ^ wqI^^ l M<>i ; (nor am I desirous of my own deatb). 

869. The reciprocal pronouns ^EF31^, nTTFTT, 4rl7rw 
proeai have almost assumed the character of adverbs. As a 

touBi: rule, they are used in the ace of the masc. ^FJTPT'T 
iKiira g^^ while being applied to every gender and every 


case-relation. QkV. I 3^ [cfhtt] M^W^Mciw^ghUH ; (the two friends 

look at each other); Yikram. I, p. 18 fp^fptr ^m ^({9Trr: (they shake 
hands); Pane. 216 ^ ^ qj^qj* ^ UfM»m (and in this manner dis- 
cord arose between them); Da^. 151 TTOT m^crfrr ^n^' 

^mrmA ^ IddUd l H (both, either by shame or by confusion, do 
not open their soul to each other); Qank. -on Ch. Up. p. 42 ^htt- 
HfllH^H; mmil^fJ r (the principle of li^e and the sun are identical 
to one another); Pat I, p. 426 mH S ^M i ^^uf^m^J iRiHMi m('l(.f ' ^J i <l 
u(?iy*l i >iMl e>.f^fg^ - w( nsrwV iTsrifr. Cp. also KAm. 2, 42; M&lav. I, 
p. 24; Kath&s. 2, 41 etc. 

Tet they admit also of other case-endings, f. i. Pane. Ill, 29O q^. 
jm *mf(Tii u 5? jsaP^ ?PrTor: (they who do not observe the weak 
points of each other); Harshac. 2 ff tj i M.eil><i^<J fsTcn^: JJTJPJSR (dis- 
putations arose between them). So Nala 5, 32 rfr q^WjH ; o^* Nala 
1, 16 the ace. ^j.J i .qq is depending on the prop. qf^. And so on. 
See Kk^. on P. 8, 1, 12 v&rtt. 9 and 10; vdrtt. 10 teaches the 
optional employment of forms in ^mtf^ if feminine and neuter 
words are concerned f. i. ^d|rf( i q ^ [or *^| t^ 5JT^tir5n?r — TTf ?»t- 

The same meaning is carried by the adverb V\^* 
(mutually), which is not less used. 

2. Demonstratives, Relatives, Intkrrooatives. 
170. In ancient language the demonstratiTCS are often 

202 i 270-271. 

indicating the things they are to point at in a more 
gcMnirt- significant manner than in modem tongues. For this 


reason, when translating from the Sanskrit , it is many 
times indispensable to render demonstrative pronouns 
otherwise, f. i. by the pronoun Ae^ she^ ii^ by the^ by 
adverbs {here^ Here), sometimes even by putting instead 
of them the very noun, they are referring to. In. the 
same way, indeed, the demonstratives of Latin and Greek 
must be translated. 

We will dispense here with adducing instances exemplifying 
each of the somewhat freer translations, as have been named. 
It will suflfice giving a few samples of Sanskrit domonstr. pro- 
nouns to be rendered by English adverbs. Pane. 204 irr ^ Ttf^^^T^T 
Ifcr n^mf TT^ We ii <0 f?r7^ (say, woodcock, here on the river- 
side a holy devotee stands); Yikr. I, p. 15 the king says to his 
charioteer HtT ^ H-^Mivnau i ^ ( — here is that mountain-top) ; C4k. 
lY Kanva atiks ■ where are Q&mgarava and Q4radvata/* they answer 
luvstfhm ^: (Reverend , here we are). From the Yaidik writings I 
add Ath. V. 1, 29, 5 -s?^ mr «:i i <P^< JTm* cTSf: (there the sun 
has risen and here has my spell). 

271. Of the four demonstratives, used in classic Sanskrit, 

ofel^ **4U*^ and '^ are opposite to ?T and ^^^. Their diffe- 

"^MB rent nature is well described by a vernacular gramma- 

rian, when pronouncing that ^T is expressive of near- 

nest but ^STTT. of remoteneiss , and that ^M^ implies pre- 

sence but ^ absence *). Indeed , both 7(^ and tlM*j point 
at something near to the speaker or his time, whereas 

1) See the k&rik&, quoted in a foot-note on p. 188 of (^bIr^imamaya- 
^▲K3UN*s edition of Mrcchakatt (Majumd&r's series): 

§ 271. 203 

^HT and ^ indicate something remote either by 8peice 
or by time. Therefore, the latter couple may be com- 
pared to Lat. We and iste^ Or. Utlyo^ , Engl, that , the ^ 
former to Lat. hic^ Greek o^ro; and olt^ Engl, this. 

The difference between them will appear better when pemting 
Sanskrit texts, than from instances detached (torn the context 
they are taken out Tet, here are several, which may give some 
idea of it 

1. mi and !inm* — Yikram. I, p. 14 Puriiravas points with his 
hand to Urvagt her attendance: bttt: *Ay8. he Rrrr m{ h ^tset: 
quuTd (Lat. Kae amicae ^) ; Nala 3, 4 Indra declares to Nala the 
name of himself and his comrades : w^fM^/^ jonffpsr ri i ^a i qMMi Qfn:i* •• • 
trit^Jmf^ Ml Rid (Lat. ego lndru9^ hie AgnU etc.). 

2. ir^ and ^. — Nala 3, 2 Nala asks the devas, for what pur* 
pose they wish him to be their messenger ei>m*n qw i ^ J^ ff^* 
rr:ifT»i ^ fTsV XTOT 9iT&rTi here both ^rnr and ?fFT answer to Latin i$te\ — 
Mudr. II, p. 77 the minister B&xasa, when hearing from his spy 
that the physician, whom he had despatched to empoison king 
Gandragupta, had been prevented from performing that' plot by 
the vigilance of CAnakya, exclaims giy: w^ m:\\ fPT i=T OT: ?i»^» 
here both ir^ and n Are =: Lat. ilU, 

3. Examples of this and that in opposition to one another. — Ch. 

Up. 2, 9, 1 ajm^qgrr^..... nfwPjmP i Mcf i ft i Jjni^i'cjiu^iiPi (lot 

him meditate on that sun it is on that all these beings [here • 

on earth] are depending upon), ibid. 1} 3, 2 nqfTT 7 ^Tsn^ ^mr 
^rtcqft^eymint^^ (this breath here and that sun there are indeed 
the same, this is hot and that is hot); Utt II, p. 27 «UM* lt cim<f - 
> l Rm ; hoc Hlud studiorum impedimentum vthat well-known hin- 
drance now presents itself.** — In the first act of the Mudrar&xasa 
the minister O&nakya, after having put the jeweller Candanad&sa 
into prison, thus expresses his contentment: ipT^^^7nnVp^fn:i77T: 

d^ci i MjNf^ cmrTT Tip dwif^ Tf tor: 
mix refers to B&xasa, wm and isr^ to Candanad&sa. In Latin 
one would say likewise: ut hie in illiua re adversa suae vitae 

204 §271—274. 

jaetunun ffteit, tie profeeto et ille Titaiii pro nibilo putabit in 
hujus ealamitate. -. In the Yikramorvagt king Pur&ravas designates 
his belofed Urragt by the pronoun wm^ as long as he Imows 
her present and sees her (1*< act), but in the second act, when 
thinking her absent, he speaks of ?r9T vt^rrxr, expresses his disap. 
pointment about her female attendant coining ieH!^ Qijf^^ i ^mJi 
and says on account of her MJfij^-tii 9W?rftT Ri^i^uV i l fnmflTPrf ?T qw- 
frr ^9^^^^K *' i>*j ! ^ — whereas in the first act, when looking at her 
face, he admires -rfr ^qq^, exclaims 7m dufkn^i : ^^it is uneasy, as 
"VPTf iVTKfm is noticed by him. 
272. Though ^ may be stylod the emphatic ira^) both pronouus 
are sometimes used almost promiscuously. Mhbh. 1, sarga 154 Kuntt 
asks Hidimb&, who she is: ^are you a deity of this forest?** g^ 
spim hsunr • Hidimb4 answers lUfit^vjiRi srrrr otc. In the second 
act of the Yikramorva^t the king offering a seat to Citralekh& 
says pfK i Mr i i i u^JrtW t in the first act of the Mudrar&xasa C&nakya to 
Candanad&sa ^<^MKM*< f Vid l *i; 

278. TPJPJ — not ^T — is the proper word , if the speaker 
^^ wishes to denote something belonging to himself by a de- 
JJJ5^«» monstrative rather than by the possessive of the !•* 
P*~*"* person. ?PT ^TT^J may signify .this arm of mine," Sit 

i i^nX^^ f hoc bracchium. Yikram. II, p. 46 Purdravas laments 
g<<jfXwu ;; gM< > *^j|»H : «JV I ^ifi|<*]^ — viz. n»T, Mrcch. IV, p. 141 ?t ?jsr^ 
i|XT fe'TTT: M l wii ^f^^Pj STT (I feel no remorse nor fear on account 
of the rash deed , I havo committed). 

Rom. Hence vh ;rT: a modest phrase to designate the speaker 
himself, cp.' Greek o%t i ivifp. Yikram. II, p. 56 the king when 
taking his leave from Urva^t says f^fWu ar ?rT: ; Mrcch. YII, p. 
238 G&rudatta tells his friend , he longs for Yasantasenft ^ J^ 
^*.i>HMH i <,^j'i>rMj'!tri sq 5m: I D05. 164 nt^?mpniTTxTnfift frnr^fjrjxrnj^: 
(my lord has much gratified his most obedient servant). 

274. Panini teaches , there is some difference in the flexion of P. 1.4 


t4M*1 according to its being used eitlier when referring 
to somebody or something already spoken of before , or 

S 274. 205 

when pointing at or showing. In t he former case I • the cases, 
deriyed trom the root^T are treated as enclitics,2.the 

^^, ^?rR,'^3?rrrinthesingular,^pn^, T^Tt, ^{HIH 

in the plural , ^•Hl, Ip^ in the dual, 3. the instr. of the 

sing. ^^, ^Rarr, 4. the loc. of the dual is ^TT?- 
It is in such instances of anvade^a (reference to some- 
•^ thing already named before), that the pronoun bears 
almost the character of our ^tf,*//^, it, _ i. fPRi etc. enclitic: 
Mrcch. I, p. 55 i^r g iiuuwjq)ririi jtstt ?t^: <|>ff i >fiNf^f !i nWr i 
rT^TCT fHaHua i M OFRrfn^frTni^ (if a man has by Destiny been reduced 
to poverty, then even his friends become enemies to him), Qi\k. I 
^HI^IMf^e^i'^l'iil: ....▼?? ^cTT^WH'H I ^Tift »T g^<4lu i ^njTrT^ (those girls 
of the hermitage approach hither, it is pleasant to look on them), 
Yikram. I, p. 2 qfJyi^fiT 'rcfot etiji-ir jTj^rnr^rvT i w^mvjI <»i i f^<w i i i- 
RiHci<aj> l l n&^T mA^m^J i Mi ; — 2. instances of ^tft^ etc, Mhbh. I, 
Paushyap. Hug f vjj i jjqufi^q u^giM ^tht (he made his compliraont to 
his teacher and spoke to him), Yikram. Ill, p. 12 nh \Zf^ ^^ Vi^^^ 
l:or:.... aToRTmsr^TtTKTiTTS HPwMyifq, Nala 13, 24 nt umiv i ^HMVJ - 
^it<*j i Hi d^jfi i M i m a i^aiTt i i i^eimu i ^^^ ^i^i i PfH^iM ^ (her the king's 
mother saw from the balcony , as she was followed by the crowd , 
and said to the nurse: »go and bring her to me"), Mhbh. 5, 16, 
29 Indra receives a deputation of devas , rshis etc., and after being 
addressed by them id l ri ^ >i i >ufd»imi , Ait. Br. 1, 29 treats of the • 
two ^fd^R (carts in which the soma-herb is carried) in § 6 
<ci<i>H^ ^ ^lj'3 f; HiT^I^, ibid. 1, 30, 3 ^ refers to «;? tr juf r, men- 
tioned before. 

NB. The instr. ^•i^i and ^^PTT seem to be extremely 
rare; SFJFT at least and ?FPTT are regularly used, when 

ancade^a is required. Mtllav. I, p. 14 the minister of king Agni* 
mitra reads a letter from the king of Yidarbha; when asked abont 
its contents, he answers to Agn. i^.f*!'*. I'TiM^n" [not: jp\7(\ gfarfwi- 
f^PfT. And so often. 

206 8 274-275. 

^'*' ^ likewise points at somebody or something known , 

i^»»d and therefore , like WPJ^ it is fit for doing duty of the 
Mt. pronoun ie^ she^ if. Yet, they are not synonymous. 
Like Greek , especially Homeric » ^ , if , W , it signifies , that 
the person or thing referred to is well-known, or has 
been named just before, or will be named forthwith. 
It is therefore never an enclitic , and is sometimes = 
Lat. iiief sometimes = t> ,the afore said/* Hence its fit- 
ness to be rendered by ,the." When referring to the 

relative U, it may be equivalent to ,he," German derjeniye. 

It is also used to indicate the changing of the subject , f . i. 

H^n^or HT>r^>TT^ = ,the other said , answered." Yet it 

may as well point at the same throughout a succession 

of sentences, in which case one is inclined to put it at 
the head, aa Da^. 12 cim^ciHWH fFmrr jnrnng triin^ 5? ijirrr- 

frf g <]W^ *f^fl*rtJ^rl£l!yM *rMr!I.I^JjR|rcll.... JPn^mirT; Nala 1,5 

Bhtma king of Yidarbha has been named , it follows ^, tniT? <T7 OTT- 
iT»r^..... mj-^nr^^^ er^rfcf^pn ;nxT..... n [viz. ^rrf] ^ irk: [the 

aforesaid Bh.] udiehN^luui^iii 5^ brrt ^trt srf* ^. Cp. also 

the examples adduced 271 ,3**. 

Examples: 1. of ^ zz ilU (the well-known, the famous). Qtk, 
VII f ! f^j^ifI%^P ?i uiM l il( u i mrR: (the renowned thunderbolt, Indra*s at- 
tribute, Lat fulmen illud Jo vis). 

2. 9 = >the afore said." Qkk. lY Kanva says to Qakuntal4 
tKiif i f^ii sifror iig^lfjqfTT nsrijar fo^ ^fjrif to ^prsnjf^, here 
^ las she'* means of course Qarmishth4; Kath&s. 27, 109 3^0217- 
HOT ?Kwf%7j^i OT^nirerwor^ fear: ?w ^n^rnrwaTRT:! (110)^ rrrrfeziT- 

JTTUITOt VfJ ^f ^Ji i ijUri : 1 ifWfTl SgIVI( I^Chl HlMjj HlR^uh^H ; I (III)R' 9 

Mfa!y>riMUi i u^ hi'V: wAtm (some teacher of the brikhmana class 
had seven disciples, br&hmanas they too. Onoe because of famine 

§ 276-276. 207 

ha d60p*tobed these disciplee to beg one eow from hii father-in* 
law, who was rieh in cows. They set out, suffering much from 
hunger, to the foreign country, where dwelled that man, and 
begged a cow of the father-in-law of their teacher, in hb name. The 
father-in-law gave them one, fit to procure [them] a livelihood). 
Here we have several instances of cr referring to something men- 
tioned before, and even such accumulation as in vs. Ill ^... ^ 
H^{ \ etc., ^ pointing at the disciples , ff at the father-in-law , htto 
at the teacher. It is, indeed, always allowed to employ ^.many 
times in the same sentence, though pointing at different persons or 
things, f. i. Mhbh. 1, 2, 395 m mm iit-\*Jt»'J[j^m g^rf^ i fOTPT a>i Q>i u 

nm ^^) the last words mean: »of the one as well as of the other.'* 

3. ^ when adj. =: ithe." B. 3, 35, 27 a tall fig-tree is described, 

whose branches are of enormous size: fM l M'iilfi ?q^eft]^.... fi*|.ri i m.q 

fTT: 5TTWT: [»the branches of which]" uiH^ThMqmH l;; Utt II, p. 29 
one asks wf ^ pgfT Rh^iM i ^ ; T^^fh (but what is the king doing 
uowP) another answers ^ jr^ ^Rj^^SEimf: u». i >h ; (^/«« king has 
commenced an a^vamedha). 

4. ^ in correlation with 7 = Germ« derjenige, Mhbh. 1, 74, 40 
m vnuf m ij^ ^m m «T?rf m g ^MH i . Generally the relative clause 
precedes, see 462, 2^ and 466. 

Rem. Now and then ^ refers to persons or things not ex- 
pressed, but only implied by the foregoing. Mhbh. 1, adhy. 157 
it is told, that Kuntt and her strong son Bhtmasena hear cries 
of distress in the house of the worthy brahman, whose hospita- 
lity they are enjoying of. Though the family of the brahman 
has not been named in the foregoing, vs. 10 introduces them by 
the pronoun rrrr. The same idiom exists in Latin. 

76. H may point at a general subject, see 12. Occasio- 
nally it may be rendered by i,such a one.*' Mhbh. i, 158, 31 

il tltfNnvdHM l g*^ ! JJ^mr^ ^ m^ (r&xasas , it is told , know the dharma, 
nor would such a one kill me) ; Kumaras. 5, 83 ;t Uiei^ m TfijrTf 
'StiiTTOH I sjTjfrf^ rtWKfM v. JcT QFr*TT!ir (not only he, who speaks evil 
of the mighty, but likewise he, who listens to a such, commits a sin). 

208 I 276—279. 

Rem. When pat twiee, fr meani » manifold, Tarioas, all ■orto 

of — •' R. S| 9. 31 fn?siT^ Pwww: cRtinjHii wtfitt! i irwrr fnTnivTjf 

ft ^ 

Kathit. 29, 169 n^r^ W ?t^^/H^q<^i1(«q i 44{?^ (— with all sortg of 
eiYilitiet — ). For the rest fr put twice ii mostly met with in the 
apodosis after a double 7: preceding. Nala 5, II inf f^^:^^?i^ 
h^ ^ ^pT (287). Thb repeated fr has accordingly a distributiYe 
meaning, see 262, 3^ 

877. With ^ added to it, H=»the very," oft«ii \the 
^^same," Lat idem. For the rest comp. 398. 

^^** Pane. 172 f n aa IJ JPTT f^Tit iMUrf ; i^he aatne two men keep 
counsel together) ; ibid. V, 26 KuTlP^JHUqQth^lP l rRH ?Tm • m ^fe^ 

fdRjaiHHfi (his senses are the same, without defect; his name is 
the same ; his is the same vigour of mind , the same speech ; yet — 
how curious it is — the self-same man, when having lost the 
splendour of his wealth, becomes forthwith a stranger). The latter 
example shows, that if ^ is plainly conveying the meaning »the 
same," csr may be omitted, cp. Ch. Up. 5, 4, 2 Hf^J^irilw^jiH * 

278. H may be added to other demonstratives , to personal 
pronouns, to relatives. As to the last combination 
^: H,see287.— HT^ar^, H ^ and the like , ^J"^^. 

HT SFT, etc mostly are to express the worth of a con- 
clusive particle, therefore , for this reason , then ," as will 
be shown further on, when describing the connection of 
sentences, see 445. 

979* Some other obserTations on the demonstratives. — 

tfraUvn. ^ ^^ compounds, 7^ and ^7VF[^are considered as the themes, which 

whcnCnt represent fr and ra; likewise im, ra?T, iRSTFr, ufJm^) are respec- 

^^rZ tively the thematic shapes of «^, ?^, oRT^, ^^ - Hzin; and 

I) By this orthography here and elsewhere I follow the rales of Sanskrit 
euphony; etymological reasons would rather reqnirs to write nT» UrTT.etc* 

§ 279—280. 209 

#^ are leldom ued in compoundfy if thej are, the neater (r;^, 
V^r*) is emplojed* Bat, at a rule, ^7?^ and ^ are substitnted for 
them. In other terms: in eompounda, mrff^ has the meaning of 
Lat. hie and ^m that of Lat. is or ille. Mrcch. I, p. 3 the director 

informs the publie qr^ m ij^^^ifi* ^rm inrTTif v^ mufmi: 

M^fd l; ete. , while speaking of the poet of the piece he has named. 
Kath4s. 64, 25 vsnir^ q i j i ri rf^ym (he was proTented from injuring 
them by a passer-by), here ?i?;wt?t^ refers to fniHii:.. ^m^\ [sc. rm^\] 
in Ts. 24. 
I: 2. The idiom , represented by Latin is pavor __ ejus ret pavor i) is 
^ not unknown in Sanskrit. Mhbh. 1, 6, 11 Agni says ^rf?t ^ ^ 

vmr^ ^sFm ^rrh mfrrsnm% here mx aifTn^iM ; = vm [aTFiml arfrr** (who 
is not afraid of my curse, who has an escape from it?). Pane. 
158 a boy has been turned out of doors by his father TT^TfT'.mfTTTu 
The author proceeds ^ xT ^ Pd<: T Xm^{ n?aT, apparently ^tj f' l diX' l 
is here = fiw [f?t; Mi(mw l f^ra v^ »by despair caused by this ex- 
pulsion*'. Cp. Kum&ras. 3, 17, Kath&s. 1, 39. 
i" 3. In formulae one uses iraT as significative of the proper name 
^'' of him, whom the formula is to be applied to. When employing 
them, the proper name is substituted for it. See f. i. P&r. Grhy. 
1, 18, 3 TOT ^ 5rf*^: wmi A^v. Grhy. 1, 20, 5. 
in 4. In the archaic dialect, especially in the liturgical books, 
1^ the ace. of the neuter singular of demonstratives is often used 
i- adyerbially. Ait Br. 1, 9, 6 ^SS ^>tO(^<Qj^ l TaT: ^ ^nfr»T?rar^- 
M^^rT^ inPTTT:.... JEaff ^THFT ?nif^, here ^htt^ means »in this case." 
^ Cp-Tbid. 1, 4, 2; 1, 15, 4, Ch. Up. 4, 2, 1 r^r =- »then," etc. etc 
The classic language has retained adverbial functions of Tfrf^ and 
OH. see 444 and 463. 

>. The interrogative pronoun is ^. Its comparative 
cnn^ and its superlative ^rFT are likewise used. The po- 

1) See f.i. LiVT 21,46,7 Namidae ab tergo se ostenderunt. It pavor 
percttlit Bomanot. Cp. Vibo. Aen, 1, 261, Naros Lyt, 3, 1. 


210 I 280-281. 

i««^ sitive^ aimplv asks ,whot" ,whatt" .which t", ^IrTT 

^'"'^ like Lat. uier, arch. En^.wAefAer , which of the two Y\ ^FfrFT 
» who etc. of many t** They are wanted both in direct ques- 
tions and in the so-called indirect questions. One says, 

therefore, ^ H'SfR (who are you?), ^cf^^n ^r\a\* 

•^ifi^t (which of these two is Devadattat), Vikram. 

I, p. 6 IJ^mrt WFR ^N^4r JR JTrT: H sTTFT: 
(is it known, in what direction the rascal has de- 
parted ?). Cp. 41L 

If wanted , ^ may be the former part of a bahuvrihi. 

Dftf . 30 pf f f'hj,TiiR i uf?i ; f^;TTmRr: (what is the name of the chief of 
this enoampmont?); ibid. 74 — an ascetic speaks — ^yI^i>moil? < f>lf^Ti r 
OT mi OTT fifeyrr Ri.qr^c» i if i f%>in^1 . 

Rem. 1. The distinction between 97, efiTn* and g^rftr is not always 
strictly obserYod. RAm. 1, sarga 3S R&ma asks Yi^Tdmitra, which of 
the two, Kadrik or YinatA will have one illustrious son , and who sixty 
thousand sons ^: tpott: gJTt 5r^P!FT 'UdH^ i iUf/jf^ r, here 97 i« used , not 
^mTT' — Pane. 284 M i n i >ri>iiAjq i <iMl tA ^kwht Hrro: (for which of the 
six well-known expedients , sdma etc., it is now the fit time ?) here vm 
is used within the proper sphere of "RtFT. .. R. 2, 85, 4 Bharata asks 
Qttha ^mpn ; i (^^/J i i^ i >i »i i d i ^ijA <piTi though the country is wholly un- 
known to him, and he, therefore, does not want to be informed » whe- 
ther** but I which** of the many ways will conduct him to Bharadv&ja ^). 

Rem. 2. On the faculty of putting in the same sentence two or 
more interrogative pronouns referring to different things, see 409, 2**. 

281. ^^ ^^^ outset ^ was both an interrogative and 
an indefinite pronoun, cp. Lat. guis, Gr. tU and tU. 
In classic Sanskrit it has occasionally still the function 

of an indefinite; yet, as a rule, ^ is then combined 

1) Cp. 24e and the foot>noto 1) od page 188 of this book. 

§ 28U 211 

iSSlII' ^*^ ^^^ particle: f^FT or ?TfT or ^FT. Hence ViRlr4^^ 
^fT^R", ^^ are the proper indefinite pronouns , ex- 
pressing 8ome{any)body f 8ome{aMj/)i/iinff; some^ any. To 
them we most add ^^, for this word , properly mean- 
ing ^one/" does not j rarely duty as an indefinite, and 
is to be rendered by »some*' and even by the so-called 

article, a." — W^ is .every; all." 

Rfi^9 Instances of TrfiirTt ttsR) ^irtsf^^) it is superfluous to give. As 
**• "^ to ^ = »a." R. 2, 63, 32 ?r^ ^iym ^: (I am hit by an arrow), Da?. 25 
^ * g i !i^ i f^?^q.fw>iM>fi i ^ sT^Rm^^xTprqiyT fsiulMJ*ii'« ijTjT^TWipTT^isr (onco in 
some foredt I saw some brahman being about to bo hurt by the 
crowd of my companions). Even erfnT^^ etc. may be s= na'* : Da?. 
132 m ei>Pdf<: i d' Mf l cirr i (she was delivered of a son). It is consist- 
ent, that n^ may also be combined with some other indefinite. 
Kath&s. 27, 89 ehmM gSCT ^T%5r: nnf: e>./i!h( r ij^ (an honest servant 
in the house of some merchant), Pane. 9 ^^3fm ST^rfirf^^^:* 

Kath&s. 1, 56 may be an instance of the solo 77, bearing the 
character of an indefinite : jtptt cH>nf?i 77: (and nobody else knows 
it)» Cp. R. 2, 32, 42 eju? r m fm %^<t^ 6<Jc > mf^ (choose something else , 
if you have made up your mind), 
fd^er* Rom. 1. The old dialect possessed a synonym of ^, viz. ^nsr; 
in the classic language it is no more used , save in some standing 
phrases as f^rsfir ^ciT:, being the name of some special class of deities , 
^nik !m^ or simply fijuspj »the Universe." 
^!cr» Rem. 2. ^ is = » every" and »each," j^\ r everybody," Txi^^ 
•everything." Nala 20,6 esr: ^ ^ ^M i fd i nfirrr ttu^ gfrnn (not 
everybody does know everything, nobody is omniscient). 

1) According to the Petrop. Diet, the iudofiDiic pronoun ^nr^f^waa made 
in a latter period than the other combinations, as it does not 
occur in the older literature , Manu included (see II , p. 6 a, v, 7;). Yet 

in the MahUbh&rata and the lUm&yana CTT'Sf^ and such adverbs aa Vjf^, 

CRcnrf^ are as well met with as those in °f%rT and ^*^pt. R. 2, 52, 45 9r 

and frf^ are separated by ^, ?rq[ f^Fi ^rf^ 5R?TT^. 

Hi i 282-283. 

282. By adding to the foresaid indefinite pronouns the nega- 
tion ^ one expresses the negative indefinites ,,nobody, 
nothing, no, none.** It is indifferent at .what place one 

puts the negation. Nala 3, 24 vfmm ^ ilt ehfiu^^nwd^ (nobody 
•aw me, at I entered), Hit 95 qRngqrmt^^TT* ^terrnr ?TTfe (we 
have no livelihood), M. 9, 26 tj ^mixsfm ernrr (there is no dif- 
ferenee), Kath4i. 34, 120 <^(^^yr^ tow ^iki^WsI (there nobody could 
be named poor). 

It is not only said 7f wfin^ and qr wt'Sf^, but also qr aprfin^. 
Pane. 71 :? fafa^^u^iiw ai ^^ (he said not a single word). 

288. There are several words for i,other",viz. ^PT, ^STTT, ^T 
kow Zrif . Of these tX^ is the most common and has the 

esfirct- ^ 

w«i- most general meaning. 

1. fRT generally denotes ^somebody or something else.** In such 
phrasoA as n>jjiw>l4P l » »once on a day'* it is almost = ehf4lH » Yet 
it may also signify ithe other.'* So Hit. 102 when a messenger 
wishes to speak secretly to the king, the king removes his attendance 
?!?ft jmt iTWT ^ ft^ ?T3r»fr^ s??nr imx: (— ^*« others withdrew). 

2. vqr properly means >the subsequent, the following;" hence 
it has got also the moaning of « other," but commonly it retains 
its proper nature of signifying what is named in the second place. 
Mrcch. I, p. 55 -rfj m wj^iih l i ^<i^ ? q^! 9iT (this is Badanik&, but this 
other, who is she?). 

3. (TT ^ etymologically related to our far^ and accordingly it 
serves also to denote the opposite of rgf. Hence it displays all shades 
of meaning, as are directly opposite to the notion of »own, pro- 
per." It may be sometimes = »strange" and » stranger," some- 
times = >enemy," sometimes also when used in a broader sense 
= » other." Nala 3, S 9^ ^ diriM'ii^^: fOT^FO^rr «j*«iAi^ii5*ii^yi ajij^ 
(how should a man bear to speak in this way for the sake of 
another to a woman, whom he desires for himself?). Mrcch. I, p. 
55 ;t q^ < if ^i^^il^li i 'UL (it <l«>os not become a man to look on the wife of 
his neighbour). Its adjective fq^f^m = alienus. Q&k. IV ff^T f|; 
VkVT iT'StfS T^r (a daughter is a possession one cannot call one's own). 

I 283-285. 218 

4, jff^^ the eompanitiTe of the pronomiaftl root ▼, bean a strong 
affinity to Latin alier. It i« oied, indeed, to signify »the one** and 
»the other** of two. Brh. At. Up. 1, 4, 4 *JidH(Mei(i.Vsi^u ▼TT^:, cp. M. 
4, 137y Kathit. 19, 50. When dual or plural, it denotes the other 
of two parties. Mfcch. I, p. 33 wm^rcJi\,\kri[{^ ^ mx nrar mdiri} , 
Mndr. V, p. 184 ntit xiA ft 5W: ovrirmT nfwt nfiT m*i(j>h h . . .iztttt fr 
CT ^(biiiH^iiMi i^RfMa OT7&?n^ — Cp. 217, 2. 

Rem. 1. To the foresaid pronouns we may add f;in- »different,** 
as it sometimes may be rendered by lother.'* KA9. on P. 2, 3, 29 

Rem. 2. in;^ and «pr, when qualifying some noun, may be 
nsed in a somewhat particular manner. Pane. p. 77 contains the 
story of the jackal who, being hunted by a band of dogs, fled to 
some dyer*s and there jumped into a pot filled with dye. As he 
got out, he had got a blue colour, Tjwnjf m^ItejUyi *|JM*idM>fft 
OTmrr^f^ !TTxt-:. Here m^" ^njwni means »the other, namely the 
dogs,** not >the other dogs.'* Compare ibid. p. 83 ! hfM4nLl^>r i ^?.y i 
f^: uP^ewf? ^ wi?TOr mI'JtI^i «:^ frfjOTirrnfmnici: n^. Here v^ 
does i\ot mean > other panters etc.,'* but » others, namely a panter, 
a crow and a jackal.*' Cp. R. 2, 71, 61 97777 ^muf := »Bome widow,** 
Schol. iH>?ir(i*.j| fdd;m ^EN^cfh' — The same idiom exists in Latin and 
Oreek, f. i. Od. /3, 411 fAijTtip SV/ct^ oC ri xiiruvrxi^ ottl *IaAai ^fiuai 

L ^Either,** Lat. alieruier, is expressed by 9^ir|^. Mudr. 

T IV, p. 146 fiJ i j^<jV(thd^ sT^rfrr. 

-. c»»fW denotes »one out of many,*' cp. virTxr (280). Pane. 12 
^fdd^[<^MKlr | ^iiJ^3!^J h ^ l dl>l l *^g^■rUM Ufd^J i fii (I will arrange it by means 
of one of the six expedients : saindhi , vtgraha etc.). Likewise v^^-fit 
»see f. i. Daf. 101. 

How »neither" is to be expressed , may appear from these exam- 
ples. Ch. Up. 5, 10, 8 ^Ihmt'. im^ 9,ri\ ur ^rr fH>?H Ti P t iirrrfn itct^ 
(on neither of these two ways these foresaid beings are moTing), 
Pane. 50 ffr ^jsth n* fnpnj: (neither of them will know it). 

i. For denoting ,one. . . . another" one may repeat 
^FT or ^KT5JrT or p'-ti, or use them alternatively; 

?I^ miay also be used, except in the first link. If 

2U i 285—287- 

9:9. ••there are more links, ihej may alternate in yarions 

^ manners. As to 9"^^. . . . WIT^ = .first. • . . secondly'' 
like, see 439. 

Examples: 1. of ir^r. . . . «rv. R. 2, lOS, 15 fjfjr i pi^^uu^ ^^ir- 
Pl^ ; i -^(ri (if what is eonsumed by one, goes into the body 
of another — ), Mhbh. I Paushyap. 174 «rjjf^i<>^i.juT^u 5 «F»fS Qifro^rsmi 
4Ji^ l f<ej i >< i <d ?ar w^ (you do other things, my prince, than 
what you should hare done). — 2. of wsfij 9if^i otc. Pane. 297 
Jrsf^ fn^4Mi>n i^r^^ ^ i^ i mxifhu ri,/^*.r{AjyTi'>,(Xi^ (and as he struck 
them , some of them died , some others had thoir heads broken and 
began to cry violently) , M. 9, 32 w^:* . . • 8rf%<j;q^. • • fejti — 3. 
of more links connected. Var&h. Brh. 32, 1 Q t fTn^itMi^ij^^ A ^^[^^/fT* 

fwh qfMl^>' i eiif l f^jJt I ii{^^ ' ^y. ^i\V\t \ fX|<^i^u ul^^MWjf ; (vsome say that 
an earthquake is caused by some huge animal living in the midst • 
of the waters \ others , however, that it arises when the elephants 
of the quarters , being tired of the earth's load , are taking breath ; 
a wind falling down upon earth with noise, as if struck by another 
wind, say some; others, however, maintain that it is ordained by 
unseen powers; other masters again narrate the following,'* p. 140 of 
Kerx's translation). Cp. Nala 12, 87. 

286. The relative pronoun is ^. A full account of its em- 
*u!rV ployment will be given in the Section , in which there will 
^ be treated of clauses and relative sentences. Here it suffices 

to point out that ^' and ^ ai-e standing complements of 
one another. 

Rem. The comp. and superl. qttt, tn^R are restricted to the 
archaic dialect. 

287. The relative pronoun may be generalized in various 
genl ways : a) by putting ^ twice , then ^\ ^* ^ ^whosoever," 


and it requires fF H in the apodosis ; h) by adding to it 
one of the indefinite pronouns so as to make up the com* 

I 287—288. 215 

bination ^t ^flrFT, ^l ^TSR or m ^47j c) by 

patting together ^ and ^ in the same case, gender and 

number, ^» H* = ^whosoever it may be, any." For the 
rest, cp. 453. 

Examples of a). Nala 5, 11 is quoted 270; Bhojapr. 36 m Tjqt 
^jpJruT M*lfrw(rt M^inw d<^'^Ki i ^un<i nrt^ THRryTT: (the Icing's 
favourites always plot to the ruin of whomsoever the king loves 
and honours in his court). 

b.) Mudr. IV, p. 158 m ehHuei^l (^fli^fn a rcror udu i HifM i (whoso- 
ever it may be, that wishes to see me, you must admit him), Kala 4, 2 
V^ ^ <j^M>*|i| l RH fTTfrr (myself and whatsoever belongs to me). 
This idiom is used so as to be synonymous with the simple indefinite 
pronoun, as Hitop. 10 ^eiufgi^uf wA e^iJlf^.^, ^ i jfrir^ i fl T (I desire 
to give the golden bracelet to whomsoever); Schol. on R. 3, 10, 19 

^ 9?9TT arf^ cr^rat nrfrRrnr ^ sr^rr. *)• 

Rem. The archaic dialect used also 7: 9nr = 7: chf^H . So f. i, 
Ch. Up. 3, 15, 4 gnnV arr ^ ii^ d^ f^ (prdna means all whatever 
exists here). Ait. Br. 2, 6, 5 um ww ^ ^SFTT^r yjj^ Mi?i?T nsr 
^ mIt^Q lff » It occurs also sometimes in epic poetry. So Hit. 20' the 
verse anrf^ ^n^ ^ fnsrrfqr aRrfocnr^ ^xmfh ^ proves by its very Ian- 
guage to be borrowed from some ancient epic poet 

c.) Kath4s. 27, 208 37^ f57?mj P i gfw^jR ?mj frnj • ^frt ftrr: jriwrt. 
?< ':4f^&yH ! H (in this way fortune dwells in any action, done by 
men, when carried out with vigorous energy). 

t. 3. Pronominal Adverbs. 

The pronominal adverbs may be divided into four 
main classes: 1. those in ''?, doing duty as locatives, 

2. those in "fT**, mostly doing duty as ablatives, 3. those 

1) 7: ^<sf^ seems to occur mnch less than the other combinations. 
The Petr. Diet, gives no instance of it, Anumdobax BoaoOAH does not 
mention it. 

218 g 288. 

■iui "^ "^ expressive of time , 4. those in oSJT significative 
vtrbt. ^f nianner. They are derived of the roots ^(^, ^T^ 7, 
fr, a", ?RT, ^^, ?!% etc and display the same diflTe- 
rences of meaning and employment as the pronouns, 
which they are made from; they are therefore in- 
terrogatives or demonstratives or relatives or indefi- 

1. Those in *^are: Interr. ^T^T (where ?); Dem.?T^ 

(here), rR (there), ^Tg^T (yonder); Eel. ^ (where); 

Indef. CPTSr (elsewhere), ^ ^< 5i (1 .at one place,2. some- 

where); H^TST (everywhere), etc. To these we must add 
two of a similar meaning, hut made with different 
suffixes, viz. Interr. Wi = JISTand D e m. r^ (here). — 

By putting *T^^, °^^ or ""tWA to the interrog., one gets 

the indefinites ^l^ri, TlilT^IrT etc. ^somewhere, 

anywhere;" ^ '^\V^t\ (or ^i^imri etc.) = , whereso- 
ever" (287 «). 

2. Those in *?[♦* are: Interr. %rV* (whence?); Dem. 

^STrTt (hence), T^'» (hence), rTFTJ (thence), ^(^^** (from 

yonder); Rel. '^^'^ (whence); Indef. '>A^\r\\ (from 

some other place), ^^ifi.* (from one place, etc.), ti'^rfJ 

(from every place) , and so on. — By putting **I^rl, **^Fr or 

"?TrT to the interrog., one gets the indefinites ^irl- 

fen", Wr>ri7, *riyH; of course ^: •=^ril^r| etc. = 
»from whatever place." (287 A). 

I 288. 217 

8. Those in "^ are Interr. ^ (when?); Dem.rF^ 

(then); Eel. T^ (when); Indef. ?PT^ (at some other 

time), T^K^ (once), W^ (always). Besides, the dem. 

FT^Fn^ is the emphatic ,then ,'* ^<^l*il*| and WV^ = 

,now." — By putting 1^, **^R or "^Tn* to the in- 

terrogative , one gets the i n d e f i n i t e s 4i<^u^r| etc. = 

,at some time ;" U^ ^I'^U^rj etc. = ^whenever." (287 b). 

An other set of temporal adverbs are 9rf^ (when ?), ?fpi», r^Trf^ , 
unj, !Tft e>.n[fH<N Of these, all but jrf^ are restricted to the ar. 
chaic dialect and even in the epics they are seldom used, except 
the phrase rr.... CFrRf%<T (nowhere). 

4. In °^ there are: Dem. FRT (so); Rel. ^^ (as); 

Indef. ^F^T'Tr (otherwise), ^f^RTT (in every manner 
at all events). The Interr. is slightly different, being 
^T^ (how?). Demonstr. are also ^cPT, ^r^ and 

^Irl = „thiis, so, in this manner." — By putting °l^rj^ 

^'^•i or *^mto the interrog,, one gets the i n d ef in i te s 

^n^tPTFT etc. = .somehow;" of course ^T^ ^r^JWl etc 
= .howsoever." (287 4). 

Rem. 1. The archaic idiom q-: TT^t (2^7 R.) is of course also 
represented in the adverbs of the ancient dialect. A^v. Grhy. I, 3, 1 
97 9r 9 ^mj>f^<j l r i (wheresoever he may intend to make oblations), 
Ait. Br. 2, 23, 7 Tim rm ^ 5pro irnprhnn'. 

Rem. 2. The adverbial suffixes are not limited to the adverbs, 
enumerated above. So it is said ctt? *in the world to come** (f. i. 


Pane. 39), wipr (f. i. R. 3, 11, 25), q^; vvn (always), frwrrj (f. L 
R. 3, 5, 18), etc. 

Rem. 3. A negation added to the indefinites 7if%;rt ^hfif^H t 
Cft^if^rTt ehgif^H and their synonyms, serves to express unowhere,*' 

218 § 288—289. 

tfirom no place,** »neTer/' tin no ways,** ep, 282. KathAi. 8, 57 
fern ^ 3pr 9^ Mwf ifpft ?tt(^ h 9f%X.(^ *™ anxioni that nowhere 
there is a fit wife for you to be found); Nala 4, 19 ^^ ;t il^mt fisr 
j i d'^ g j^^l (at any rate, you will incur no sin, my king); Pane* 
34 xnrr*. •• vi^rf^ Riiifl^ i ;r ^rfwrr (I noyer ha?e oaten cucumbers); 
ibid. 149 ^ inn ri^^ ^iHc^;;<J i gif^^iO w^ g^ (aince I am depend- 
ing on you, I have nowhere enjoyed pleasure). 

Rom. 4. The idiom rj: n: = » whosoever, any*' (287 c) has of 
course its counterpart in the adverbs derived from the roots q* and ff. 
Mrcch. X, p. 3G0 fj;uf7u iar?ppgrT ^nr m f^mx art (staying at the king 
of the god^, or anywhere). 

Rem. 5. ^afp^f^frf^ and 7P7<rf^ have also got the sense of Lat. 
vix. Pane. 71 ^rrrni km i Kint v^m^ (after having scarcely recovered 
his spirits). With emphasis, one says even er,yj!hvji][q . — Similarly 
a.^'jfq etc. may be used almost synonymous with our »perhaps." 
Pane. 200 ^gjir^if^fr JU^^Jsi'ti>nf^.^, i fM fWrrr (if one speaks thus [to the 
king of the elephants] he will perhaps withdraw by the force of so 
trustworthy speech). 

Rem. 6. fnum may signify » wrongly, falsely." Hit. 95 a^ritoiRi 
snSrj jm azih ' \ umu Likewise Qkk, I <jr^^H(i>Mi'j | tr^wsT (do not 
take me for another person, as I am). As to isRPij when=: > other- 
wise** see 486 R. 2. 

289. The adverbs in *^ and Jr\* are not restricted to the ^*^ 
miMi denoting of space. Their province is the same , as that 

sdfcrW ^_Mv 

is^ua o^ ^^^ locative and ablative '). Such words as t^rV and 

^* rIfT: have the value of the ablatives ^TFlTrT, nFTTrT 

doing "^ ^ 

tSltJ* ^^» *b^^ IS of the ablat. of the stems ^T and FT in all 

f ci asd 

^**' 1) *Fr: is a common snflfix expressive of the abl., and accordingly put 

also after nouns (108). Locatives in ^ made of nouns are taught by 

P. 5, 4,55 sq. But such forms as jn^ltinrT, ^oHrT, fmWT are only met 
with in the archaic dialect. Tet, though obsolete in the classic period 
of Sanskrit liten^ure, they must have been in common use in the time 

of P&NIKI. 

§ 289. 219 

gender? and numbers. Similarly ^7, rT? are identical 

with the locatives fT^R^. rrf^R^ etc. For this rea- 
son, like the real ablatives and locatives, they express 
not only space , but also time and circumstances, and refer 
equally to persons and things. When pointing to a sin- 
gular , they may even be used as attributes of ablati- 
ves and locatives of substantives. The adverbs ^ and 
l^f though not made vrtth the suffix *3', have similarly 

the functions of the locative of the stems ^ and JT in all 
genders and numbers. 

Examples: 1. of their not referring to space. Kathds. 4, 20 

sAkfi fviujciifi JRTFWrnrit^: mfurrMin ^rs^fzrrnzixun (Varsha had 
a great crowd of disciples; among them there was — ). Mudr. 
IV, p. 145 f{f,(I<<*^|>T l ' T<>^i l U ; ^ ^ h<J*^j5fe^| m><J3J ^r^lU^J I f^ri cTT M^KUU — 

(why has Candrag. now put the yoke of government on [the 
shoulders of] some other minister or his own. ...?). QAk. Ill wf CT 
ft f^^ ^rmTrg^T: I fannj^ iftft Jmt^cW^T^ (he, from whom you are 
apprehending, a refusal, that man stands here longing to meet you). 
Kum&ras. 2, 55 tj^; ^ ^: aNJuir f ^fsrnjf?? wni^ (it is from thia 
man [me , cp. 273] that the Daitya has obtained his glory , there- 
fore it is not I, who must kill him). Mudr. II, p. 86 9ji\Ufj' \ \i\ \» 
fe?Wr HTT I nfbm -ygHlmiXi iisrfmmFJRrfnfeifTT (this ring is engraYod 
with the name of the minister; for this reason, ho will reward 
you with more than [is the worth of] this [ring]). Cp. Nala 13, 44. 
2. of their qualifying some substantive. — Pane. 273 ?nr oT^ 
Mxrn^^ (rambling in that forest), ibid. IV, 71 q^fT^r i ^; pfri ^ (in tho 
other world and in this), ibid. p. 146 fi M i C i O xi fAcT ^i^TFnir ^Twnr 
( — put the rest of tho alms in that very begging-bowl), ibid. 147 
^SKsT gfiVK' l Mj iiJciV^ iTfffr (they slept both on one couch of ku^a. 
grass), Kath&s. 27, 4 7^ i fM (at some emergency), Da(. 80 
W^ ^ f^,(vnmw.J ' .^ ' A \ r{i, jif^fp^Kra (and I laughed somehow at 
some player making a rash move); — Pane. 308 nrr: k ^ u i uK'M ^ a 

220 § 289-291. 

mni (from that place tbej went to their eonntrj), ibid. 286 CR7ft<sf^ 
uPm i faRH ^ mm^w (He took tome money from a moneylender) , 
Prabodh. I, p. 6 vs^s^ % \ imm \ m (by some caoBe), Da^. 96 nt bk?7%- 
<> iq fri^m«' i nr^m(? i (perhaps, it will rescue me from this misadTcnture). 

Rem. 1. It must be meniioned , that in the case of the anvddefa '3 
(274) vy and nTf* are enclitics. So neither t^ nor r^: can be used. 

Rem. 2. Instances of the adverbs in ^^ and ^?r: denoting time, 
are no!; rare. 80 one uses vn: *TnT^= »afterwards .** htt: = >then,'* 
vrf^rT i9;f%?T may be :=» sometimes. .. . sometimes.'* 

2©0. There is no proper adverbial suflfix for the category 
of the .whither." Nor is it necessary. For the locative 
being expressive of the aim and scope with the words 
of ffoin^f arriving f entering and the like (134), it results, 

that one says ^ JT^^TFT, r{^ CTrT^ and so on, as well as 

^Pf^ il^llH, ^Tjfr 5TrT^. Ontheotherhand,sincethe 

adverbs in ""rl** may have the meaning of ,on the 

side of," cp. 103, ^irlJ may be „on what side?" rFTJ 
,on this side" etc Moreover they may even signify ,in,what 
direction," f. i. firfJ = „to wards that place." 

a) Pane. 154 irf^rTm ^ f^ ^rfrm 9? i i Tg i fli , ibid. 289 iH^ ehfjufj^^ 
arror: ^w i q i ff i (if somo tiger come hither), Mhbh. 1, 163, 4 vf^Pft 

h) MAlaT. I, p. 17 TTf JH i mH i *;^ (sit down on this side). 

c) M. 2, 200 ; i .HefU ciT rTrfts^UrT: (or you must go from that plaoe 
to another), KuU. fUin^ i Z^^ ?.u ii >f^ ir^naitj^; — C&k. I ^d i ^Mfa» 
Vk^trt:**.* jn gcrr fiiari>ri ( — are moving on in this direction). 

4. Pronominal Adjectives. 

291, Pronominal adjectives ai'cf : 1. I'^iUtJ (how great , quan- 
2j^ /iwf), Dem. ^TTTT, ruq tI^ and ^rliq-rl^ {tantua), with 
the relat Ml'^'rl „(as great] as." 

§ 291-298. 221 

IL ^t^ (q^alu?), Dem. 1^, rTT^, ^r\\i^\ 

{ialis, such), Rel. ?rr^.[such] as", Indef. H^^liH\ ,Uke 
another." They are also made of personal pronouns : 
^T^ (somebody like me), 5IT^, H^T^ etc — All 

of them may end also in *^5| and in °^[^. 

IL ^FHTT (how many ?), Rel. ^\r{ ,[as many] as ," Indef. 

^ilrll'^rl (some, any). Like the kindred Latin gi^if 
aliquot y they are indeclinable. 

The Dem. rHTT u not used. 
i2« Observations on the pronominal adjectiTOt. 

1. The mutual relationH and combinations of the diflferont claases: 
relatives, demonstratives, etc., are the same as with the pronouns. 
In this way it may f. i. be observed, that jn^ and ^^ are 
to f TT d'H^ and mpr, what wn^ i« to ^\ that insTTj^and m^ require 
an apodosis with frnrn and rTTpr; that such a combination as nu^*U 
W l ^S T; — »of whatever quality" (Pane. I, 420 iu?^ii l l ?T «JT7T9n nv^ 
?n^ 51^); that arfTT wfnf^TT = »howover many," etc. 

2. Those of Group I may be tho former member of compounds in 

*?T^» *^^(^» ^sfT^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^' ^' ^ nh<J<<,^»M »how farP," Rhu^r^^ 
•how long?,** fei?j^ >»how many times?". Bhoj. 28 -^ {'hfit \ ( 
tm i}'i \ iHmiiirh Pane. 63 Pi.<j< i] n ?fc^ l liW ':t Katli4s. 13, 137 -pxfrif 
inn «xfr ^ fTRT;.... wm (for so long a time I did not know this 
duty), Pane. 56 f^rij i ^i i ^H im fog: SHfci: (but how insignificant 
are those enemies of your father). 

3. Instances of ?irf7t, ferrr^ and its adverb feirj^used as inde- 
finites [281] are now and then met with. Pane. 211 9;f^ WN l <<j(fl 
erfn oiT d i i^lfri (he kills some of them, some others he wounds). — • 
Note the compound *hlf \ u»i ^ »8everal , sundry." 

CiiAPT. III. On nouns of number. 

3. As Sanskrit grammars not only teach, which are 
the different nouns of number for the unities, decads 

222 § 29S-294. 

^ etc, bat also how to make the interjacent ones (see 
•?D^. ^* ^* ^^™"^^ 8 ^'l^ ^^^ *77), this point may be passed 

berby OVer here, it will suffice to give some instances of the most 
^^bT ^*"^ idioms for expressing numbers higher than 100. So Yar&h. 
Mtiooi Brk 11, 5 TxmKTfir^- 101, Ch. Up. 3, 16, 7 ^fiTsir dJukf^t , »116 9[ 
years'* piter. a hundred of years , determined by sixteen]. — Of ad- 
dition, as LL or? Tsr 9 = ^rwiyft instances are found yery often, 
especially in poetry. — Expressing numbers by multiplication is not 
rare , either by saying f. i. f^: q^ instead of ^, or by using the 
' type ^mr SffrtrTT: =240 [lit. throe eighties], cp. 296. Mhbh. 1, 32, 24 
.Uf<ji r i cirn4'.i< i Ht ^TcTT (having made 8100 mouths) wo have an 
instance of multiplication expressed by the instrumental of the 

Rem. 1. A very singular manner of denoting numbers between 
200 and 1000, mentioned by Wqitkey § 480, is met with now 
and then in the dialect of the liturgical books and in epic poetry. 
9&nkh. Br. 3, 2 jfrfrrT ^UMlPl mr^q^fn^iqj the moaning of which 
is aSGO is the number of the days of a year,*' not, as one would 
infer from the very form, 3 X 1^0. Q&nkh. ^r. 16, 8, 9 i^ vSt^ 
frnm = 280. So R. 2, 39, 36 spj: u i ftu l Hitf t mT^f; are not = 3 X 150 , 
but = 350, cp. ibid. 2, 34, 13, where the same number is thus ex- 
pressed: 9un<lUTrn: = half-seven hundreds, that is 3'p X 1^* 

Rem. 2. In the ancient dialect cardinal nouns of number show 
in some degree a tendency to become indeclinable words. See 
Whititbt § 486 c ), who gives instances from vaidik works. But 
classic Sanskrit disapproved that loss of flexion and checked it ')• 

294. From 1 — 19 the cardinal nouns of number are ad- 
tkT jectives , but 20 and the rest are proi)erly substantives. So 


•f BSBI4 TcTSTTrTJ does not signify .twenty" fr. vinyl, but ;a 
eon- number of twenty ," fr. une vingtaine. For this reason , 

rgpTTrTJ and the rest, WV^, tf«e^*1 etc. are not only 

1) As a rest of it we may consider, that M.8, 268 and Katb^a. 44,77 
the nom. <T9TW][^does doty of an accusative. 

8 294. 228 

singulars haying a gender of their own , but they are also 
construed with the genitive. Tet, this constraction is 
not used exclusively. By a false analogy side by side 
with the regular conatruction, as J^PJJUT' 'i{i^U*ji, ^FT 
'^^1 Ul It!, one says also RtTFT: '^f^, ?Ff J^, 

instr. ^RFTT ^^^TWr or ^\ IfFR JfTfTTr? or ^:, 
etc The same applies of coarse to the comi)ounds in 

^^r^RTTFTJ, ^'JfTrT^^ etc., expressive of the interjacent num- 
bers. — It ifl a matter of courso, that instead of using tho gonitivo , 
it is allowed to compound the substantive with tho noun of number. 

Examples: 1. a) of a genitive depending on the noun of num- 
ber: Yar&h. Brh. 6i, 75 f^jxm J^irnrw (by 20 men); Ragh. 3, 69 
^ fwifcit ?T5rf^ ^TcTrf yy f »qT7!fT?Tt.... firTR (thus the king performed 
99 great sooriaces); R. 2, 54, 31 ^j^^ ^sir^y Mhbh. 14, 88, 35 ^ 
fknm Ti i Mic^J'JHi fkwi^ nm (300 animals wore then fastoned to 
the sacrificial' piles); Kath&s. 18, 124 jr^.... Q^fj*Mu ni^jf mm' 
iITTJjj Da^. 142 g*i ^ i >Hi|^*hMv(^i<wi4<. -- fc) of compounding: Raj. 1, 311 , 
ij a^MtjiH ip»rr ng»j (after having reigned seventy years), M. 8, 
237 iFr:5[frlH^ (a hundred bow-lengths), Kathfts. 44, 77 i ' ^g^u r f? ! (500 

2. of Hii'j i ld etc. concerding in case with their substantives. — 
R. 3, 14, 10 usiNH^l K^tm ^Tct:.... af%J^^^:, Qaut. 8, 8 ^rvjifjuiff i 
^k*h\l i d?^; (purified by 40 sacraments), M. 3, 40 J t cjPf zm niTT:, 
ibid. 4, 87 «ni7t.. .. ?T^ *»;M*i>rc/ui(?iq^ > Kath4s. 10, 39 oRT Xffm i 'j^ : firm 
<» i j l« jif(M (we are 1000 granddaughters of the chief of Dai ty as, Bali); 
Mhbh. 1, 16, 8 srSr v;^: Hfi i >Mi i i'<i^^ T^mu^i* 

Higher numbers, as ^IMrM, FRT^i* ^mTTJ, are sub- 
stantives, and always construed with the genitive of the 
object numbered. R. l, 53, 21 <^,<ju i *i.i naft 5Frrf7»T^(I give a crore of 
cows); Pane. I, 251 rr iRTTTT ^c^m ?T «r <H^u i d i f^M i xf^ i u?^ mvih 
TTfTt «t^?ui3>r| flrwrf?r (designs of kings, that do not succeed by a 

284 § 294—290. 

thomaBd elephant! nor by a hundred thousand hone, are ■uceeMfal 
by one ttronghold). 

Rem. 1. The double eongtruction of f^jiirf^ etc. it ai old ai 
the Rgveda. Cp. tu Rgf. 2, 18, 5 ^Hir(^Hf ^f^: with RgT, 
6, 18, 5 9 ^ <TirniJT <^j:{VkiMii|; 

Rem. 2. In epie poetry one moots occasionally with a plural 
of the decads instead of the singular. Nala 26, 2 qmmn»^ : (with 
fifty horses) instead of tr^rsTrTT ^:* 

On the other hand, a singular of the substantiye construed 
with zm And ^T^ occurs now and then, as Hariv. 1823 H^^iiu T 
vn^m [instead of ^r^f: or .u i ^iw] , Bh&g. Pur. 4, 29, 24 u$ wm*). 

3 WO. Multiples of T^RnTFT and the rest are denoted by putting 
them in the plural. R. 2, 31, 22 ghm^i fo [<j i < i <if n^ *< i >AiQ,uM(q 

(the princess Kausaly& might entertain even thousands of men 
such as I am) *); R 3, 53, 24 ^m^U f^t^TTT hr K\4» l im ^j^ (by whom 
fourteen thousand R&xosas have boon killed); M. 11, 221 fqijiMi fmrx 
^STin^:**** ^ l ?M I '> i > r (eating in a month 3X^0 balls); Mhbh. 13, 
103, 14 jppTT ti i fiiPP ); — Pane. 253 udrtvA^iTi (even by hundreds of 
endeavours); Mhbh. 9, 8, 41 ;r9r ^ l ikiMi^miti l (and ten thousand horse) ; 
Kath4s. 35, 96 nsr eri is d^nh i rm fiiiwr: vfmvi n:.... r i q^c r. 
206, Numbers , given approximately , are expressed by 

such compounds as ^llti^l'^:^!!* (nearly twenty), ^g^^- si 
fsrSfTTJ (not far from thirty), 37^TJ (almost ten), 
t4p^'-r*^r-4ir<^:?|i: (more than forty). 

•Two or three** is fewrftrr, »three or four" flrajpf^, »five or six" 
cr^roT;. Comp. Da^. 94 the compound adverb fef^^j^» twice, three-, 
four times." 

1) Another singular idiom occnra R. 1, 18, 8 iKfjHl cj^ ^f<l?QJ: (the 
six Reasons passed), as if rj^ meant >a hezad," not asiz." Cp. Verz, 
der Berliner Sanskrithandtchri/'ten , n*. 834. 

2) n^ppr is masc. or neater. See the gana fTeTOrf^ on P. 2, 4, 31. 

3) An irregular plural is K&m. 15, 11 j{j{m>ll <lf}*r^HWli^*^ IW: 
llffel^MlPi ^f^ instead of either qf%!nf1»T^or «if^ UIHlPl. 

S 297—299. 225 


Note the use of the wordi j^ij^ and nw, or fcTnr^aad fmm = 
>eoap1e** and •triad;" itetrad" is wf^m- They are often the lait 
Membert of compounds, M. 2, 76 gjrsiJj^ (the three Vedas), Utt. Ill, 

Putting WT after a cardinal expresses the comple* 
teness of the number. So ^l^N .both of them ," 5(711X17 

.all three of them." One Bayn even ^zffjt rrfpm WJi etc. =r 
»all of them." Bhoj. 91 sr^: 9nqfiiferr»TTfrr Hcim^^Ri 'Brrf^r- 

Cardinals may often be the latter members of com- 
pounds, see 294 and 296. 

When former members , they may make up with their 
latter members the so-called dvigus. This term is ap- 
plied to two different kinds of compounds, viz. 1. the 
collective compounds , made up of a cardinal + a noun 
subst., and employed in a collective sense; they must 
be of the neuter gender, as ^^PT^PT (juncture of four 

roads), but themes in **?r may be feminines in *T as 

well as neuters in °?PT, as J^^T^ or liFTT^ (the %5**' 
three worlds); 2 compound adjectives, which rank 
with the bahuvrihis, but the notion inherent to which 
is not that of .possession,*' but some other. So the 

ivord T^3T itself, meaning .bought for [having the value ''52. ** 

jf] two cows." Ait. Br. I, 1, 6 ^>hW.^jl*k,m^ : <T7tTT5T:''(a cako dressed 
m eight plates). 

Beside this special use, the cardinals may be parts of 
the general tatpurushas and bahuvrihis, especially 

ihe latter. Such bahuvrihis as ^:^ 1 1 HI? (having ten faces), 
^"^UUrJ^n^* (with twenty arms), are, in practice, by 


22ft i 299-80L 

br more frequoit than the acyectival dvigus* Yljfi« 2, 

^gfal^W^itni l; ^jsofaft «il^ q nw< ii; (the lont of a brahman i 
aeeording to the caste fof their mother] fear, three , two and 
portions), Pat I, p. 62 fki^^iit ^le^r^ ; (this bahuvrlhi is of th 

800* Ordinal no'uns of number, when latter members of a ba 
vrlhi, are of course used as substantives (cp. 224 R» 1). So K 
40, 17 MlH r fj(ilqi>iif fe i r^g i (after teeing them mounted, hafing { 
as the third, that u: them two with SttA). — Note the phr 
HWHH i q ; (himself with two others), tii^wuM ; (himself with f 
others) and the like, cp. Greek aMc rplroQ (xiiAxroq), 
instance of the same phrase, but in analytic form, may be Mah 
IV, p. 74 fTTrXTTT ^H I <JH J i eHwfM^UMJ i ui VXT^'.* — As to ^Q,f7 i <i aim 
=: »with** cp. 58 R. 

801. Fraotiona are expressed, as with us, by ordinal numbers, eit 

oM * accompanied by some word meaning •part," as in the proTert 

*>•" phrase ^fpprt rrnffn J l ijT i M (see f. i. Pane. II, 61, M. 2, 86), Rai 

ed. 2, 66 3T»rnir tr^hmsTf: (to enjoy the sixth part of the earth), 

put alone, when substantives of the neuter gender. M. 8, 398 j 

fi^sr 7v^ c[T7v (the king must take the twentieth part of it). 

Moreover, they may be denoted also by compounds made 
of a cardinal number + such a word as iniT) fnr etc. M. 8, 140 v! 
^•nJT hjsIWtti^ (he may take *',,); ibid. 804 wi^wrn: (a sixth p 
of the virtue); Kum&ras. 5, 57 fir> nniii'jiH frrsrm (when but a th: 
part of the night is left); Yar&h. Brh. 53, 25 qirtST: = i >)• 

Very common are iru^ - \ and tn^: = \, Thej are substt 
tives and accordingly construed with a genitive, but often a' 
compounded. Note such turns as Bhoj. 48 mm i ^i^u i h n^^: (125 t 

1) This mode of UeiiiKUutinK fractions i« however not free from a 
bigaouKoeM, as firilTIT Aiay denote also » three part*.** See Mullin. on Kuo 

nu. 5,57. Nor are compoundt, beginning vith mfi always eiempt fr< 

it. So f. i. vvnTf^may be * half a hundred that in 50, or a a hundred 

half of it, that is 150. R, 2. 34. 13 viRi^^nm: i« explained in the Pe 
Diet, at being 750, but Qoaauio \% t\^Vx\. v\i ^dj^^«^Mvcy%''^«^Sik^. 

g SOI— 302. 227 

elepbaati, lit a hundred -|. a foorth of it), R. 2, 39, 36 «iRi^^!7rr: 
Qd^ = half seven-hundred women, that u 330. RAj. 1, 286 hhi ^ i- 
f^tm mvj dg|fmw>d r M i l>i|({l*j[^ (— reigned 45 yeare — ). Such num- 
bers as li, 2} etc. are signified by the compounds irvfcrrhry 
wSr^iv etc., that are adjectifes and bahuvrthis, literally meaning 
•the second, third etc. being [but] half ^). M, 4, 95 jin^Bp^^rorAftri 
*l l MlPdU I iJ^nBTtn^ (for 4} mouth a brahman must study the Tedic 
texts). »One and a half is also mmq^ [literally :::= »with a half 
more*'], as nurirarrfTr ss^ 150. 

Rem. How the interest of money is denoted, may appear from 
this passage of Manu (8, 142^: ft^r fN» «rgc* «r «nffw ^ m ^mti} 
m^m ^Fzr ij ^uiimfH i *i«]^yf : (he may take 2, 3, 4 and 5S a month 
according to the caste). 

2« By being repeated, cardinals or ordinals acquire a 
distributive meaning, see 252 , 3*. Pane. 194 flrflT^fima^: = 

'per ternos speculatores j VAr. Yog. 2, 35 gs^ <ra^ s^ (every fifth 
day^. The same duty may be done by adverbs in **m:^ especially 
by isrpr:) Htmiii cr^^: »by hundreds, by thousands,** also >»in hundred, 
thousand ways, manifold**, jniTsr: (by crowds i, f. i. ^at Br. 14,4, 
2, 24, etc. 

The proper employment of the adverbs in *^ is to in- 
dicate a real division of a whole into so and so many 

parts. M. 7, 173 f^ jsm SRrerr (divided his forces in two parts), 
Eath&s. 106, 133 ttzj h STrWT ^' fd<f^MilH (— into a hundred 

Our adjectives in — fold, etc. ai-e represented in Sans- 
krit by compounds in *TrnT -- see the dictionary — as 

fernr (twofold , douwe), fkm, ^r[jjui, H^^ijui. 

The standard of comparison is here of counte put in tho ablative, 
cp. 109 R. 2. 

1) On this tabject tee the dieputation of Patanjali I, p. 426 who, Mia 
often the ease, rather obMures than illustrates the subject which he treats. 

228 § SOS. 



Ghapt. I. General remark! Kinds of verbs. 
Auxiliaries. Periphrase of verbs. 

803, The verbal flection, which plays a prominent part in 
on*£ books on Sanskrit Grammar, has not that paramount 
'^'^ character in Sanskrit Syntax, at least within the limits 
of the classic dialect. In days of old, the full value 
and the different properties of the rich store of the 
various verbal forms were generally much better un- 
derstood and more skilfully displayed in literature, than 
in and after the classic period. The history of the syntax 
of the Sanskrit verb is a history of decay. Some verbal 
forms get wholly out of use, others become rare or 
are no more employed in their proper way. In this 

manner the conjunctive mood (tRTT) has been lost be- 
tween the Yedic Period and Pftuini , and in post-Pftumean 
times the differences between the past tenses are disap- 
pearing, and upon the whole the tendency of substitut- 
ing participles and verbal nouns for the finite verb — 
see 9; 14, V; 234 — is increasing. Similarly the fa- 
culty of expressing by means of mere flection , not only 
tenses, moods and voices, but also newly framed verbs: 
causatives, desideratives, intensives, denominatives, 
has been much impaired in practice, though it has 
never ceased to be recognised by theory. In fact , it is 
only the causatives that have retained their old elas- 
ticity and are still made of any verbal root, but the 
desideratives and denominatives are as a rule em- 

i 303-805. 229 

plojed within a little circle of fonns often recurring , 
and the intenaives have almost fallen out of use. 

The oansatiTes are expressive of such actions, whose 
subject is not the agent, but he at whose prompting ps.i» 
the agent acts, as ^q^nJ ^ «fil^<i[ri (N. N. gets 
the mat made). They are much used both in the act- 
ive and in the passive voice. Their special construc- 
tion has been dealt with in full (49-51). 

On the middle voiee of , caQtatiTes tee 818, espee. e.). 

Rem. Occasionally the causatives are used without a 
causative meaning, as if they were primitives '). R. i, 5, 9 

qn*ildmu i *i ' H (ho inhabited the town); Prabodh. II, p. 43 ni|9T- 
fTOrg^Tj^:, here bot?rih ifl quite synonymouB with fr;-;T. 

Pane. 168 fw M i i^mwujqfM = - iMM^ i »^»d» 257 irt fe fiRiw 
finS i wml H*im i rf i 3flri ihW i Hngi< JiPTFnrf^ [= rirprrftr]. Thus often in 
the prAkrtB. Sometimes the primitive and its causative are used pro- 
miscuously, as vrfn and vmrfTT, both »to bear." Sometimes there 
is some idiomatic difference , as in the phrase jj^ <Mi(jfH (to exer- 
cise the royal power), here the primitive is not used. Sometimes 
the primitive havinif^ got obsolete, the causative has been sub- 
stituted for it, as Qd l ^af?! (to wed) instead of the archaic f doi^H ; 
of which primitive it is only the participle sq^ that is used in 
the classic dialect. In special cases refer to a dictionary. 

The desideratives are expressive of the „wish of doing" 
the action , which is denoted by the verbal root : I'^^iNlfl p.^ i. 

= <^r|[^'c^[ri (he wishes to do), frHU^H (he wishes 
to obtain). Sometimes they simply denote the i^being 

about:'' .M?FTH ^?k?FT (the fruit is about to fall). 
It is stated in express terms by native grammarians, 

1) This employ meot of the caaaatives it termed by veraacalar gram- 
marians ^iq iui'^ 


230 §805—307. 

that the employment of the desideratives is optional ') 
whereas the causatives cannot be periphrased. Accor- 
dingly f desideratives are less frequent in literature than 
causatives. They are not only met with when being 
finite verbs and participles, but also their derivatives 
in "^ (subst.) and "3 (adj.), which may be made from 

any desiderative, as f^^ilMI (the wish of doing), I^^Rl^ 

(^vishing to do). 

Examples: Da?. 90 *qimPi^u« i gimir ^ «f OToFr falHwlNH j^- 
Jid^MdU i fTivwff ! (>ho does not care for wealth, it is for virtues 
alone that she wisheg to sell her charms and she is desirous of 
behavinj^ herself like a respectable lady), ibid. 25 i?<)<jHc(^^iiUM 
Umiw^M* ♦i HJM^hAj'j^i^J (as I perceived some brahman, whom 
the crowd of my attendants were about to kill), Kath&s. 29, 157 
7T!TT . • . (pT§?rffiirT: (the king being about to die of illness). 

806. The intensives are not frequent in literature. In the , 
L>«. br^hmanas and in the great epic poems they are more 
to be met with than in younger texts. The participles of 
them seem to be more employed than the finite verbs. 

Examples: Mhbh. 1, 90, 4 n^ h Qrrf^ ^ i ^m^i r ^ i:, R. 2, 95, 10 
uw<i^M l 'W^ l >uvj . KathAs. 81, 17 the glow of the sun at the hottest 

part of the day is thus desciibed ^ fk ^fgf^ i IT if Jim Wif<;(wfuK^I - 

^^"t s PLcM t MM :* In Pane. V, p. 321 the ram, that flees into the 

stable, after having been driven away by the cook with a blazing 

stick, is ealled 5TT?5R?rm?Tarf^:. 

oU7* Various classes of denominatives are explained by P&nini (3,i, 

miMti 8—21; 25; 27—30). Among these, some verbs are very common 

'"* in literature, as m>i>uia(d (to hear), flmjjfH (to mix), ufHKid r (to cry), 

but they have nothing remarkable from a syntactic point of view, 

since the speaker uses them ready made and may use them even 

1) P. 3. 1, 7 WTfTT: 93Tm: H*IMe»Ki» l RTgml srr sc. (TTT, to be uoder- 
stood from ■. 5. Bat in P. 3, I, 20, which afitra teaches the form and em- 
ployment of the causatives, the particle of optionality is waotiog. 

i 807—806. 281 

witkont baiag awara of their etymology. Tbo denominativee whieh 
eooeern ua here, are thoie which one ean frame by one's self, 
if wanted y taeh ai vjhrf^ intr. (he wishes a son), ^Mh trans. 
' (he treats as a son), ipnuk 9^7: (the erow behsfos as if he were 
a falcon) and the like. Examples of them are occasionally met 
with in literature. Pane. I, vs. 5 ^ ^»!ti f^ ii^iFTt frpsfq wdM i ad i 
Wirft^f^ <f(4^ i ml ?fi^ j^J> ? md (here on earth eTen non-relatives 
behaTO towards the wealthy, as if they were their kinsmen, but to 
the poor even their own family are rather bad), E&d. I, p. 30 * | JI|^ 
HMiT: ^sm 9i { d<fi)M JlfJij M*|*(H \ ii7\ (everything which is given [to me] 
by the queen herself in her own hand, is as ambrosia), Bhoj. 61 

^ftjPTTO^T ?Br^^fjqTr?r xrfff eh^yu^^^iHJHHL (SomanAtha has become 

a comucopiae to me). p i i 

M Some of those in **vfm convey the notion of coming into some It. ' 
|j. state out of another quite opposite, as ;jgmr^ (to become frequent 
[after having been infrequent], ^q.^md (to grow sorry), gfi^d, 
*<<iu?i . But the number of these inchoatives is limited, see K&9. 
on P. 3, 1, 12. — Cp. 308. 

Inchoatives may be made of any noun, by com- 

p I 4 

pounding it in a special manner with the verb ^' io. ' 

(WfliTNKY § 1094), as ^pftn^r^ (to become frequent), r«%*7 

RPT^TH" (to become white). The same compounds, 

when made up with the verb ^, signify, to bring some- 
thing into a state, the reverse of that, in which it 
was before *)" as ^^il^^TTrT (to make white), ^TOJlT- 

^i^ilfi {to make black). These inchoatives are very 
common. Some of them have got some special meaning , 
as t^l'-Ti (to get possession of), tl^^t^i (to allow), 5Fn2T^ 

(to embrace) see f. i. NAgAn. IV, p. 62. 


and St. 

1) K&9. on p. 5, 4, 50 irSTTi; 5p7: rPTOTT OTJiTir^r^ 1 ?f !F7Tf7T yjJiHh* llr|. 

282 S 808—810. 

Exftsplat: Da^ M fiV!9iH9 ••if!Wf.'jj^*iiwwwi4^> 9^k, II ^gRgtrt* 
ffcr^wsTZ- iS^Hi^fT^ ^ ITT:; — Prabodh. II, p. 42 Krodha tajt irv^- 
ffti' i fii **r5pf ^Qp^j^ft i (I make the world blind and deaf), Hrech. 
VIII, p. 256 ;rc9if fa ^ Jm^ui^JM (it it difficnlt to change poiaon into 

Rem. PAnini allows OTon inchoatiTes , made with the verb irf^. 
From the examplea given by KA^. it is likely, they do exist 
only in the optative: wjiiw i rt^ As far as I know, instances are 
not found in literature. 

809. Another mode of making inchoatives is putting the suffix **mff ^- ' 
to the noun and adding iTcrfrr> resp. vr^tfn* This class is, however, 
limited to 8ttbstantives,for the suffix o^nrr expresses the complete 
transition of one thing into another, as «fI> i M r f.dfH (it vanishes in 
fire), iRtrnTfTrfrfTr (he lays in ashes). According to 308 one may 
say likewise iM,.?McifH , ian:Tbiftf?T, mJ i m i ^ , etc. — Mhbh. 1, 83, 7 

^ JJTif ^fmi l f.d l ^ i Kath&s. 5, 100 p?TT ^ Pin i m fal l *j[q<h>Jill(I>lMli<{ t i 


Rom. 1. In the case of partial transformation one likewise uses P. < 
"^mri 'Sf^pfht iiarf^ and also **^n?x, ^fq»!W f. i. vm\ M> » m i *|fgid>i ^ 
! ;w*i(I> i M l fMU*jrt (in this army all weapons become fiery by a mi- 
racle). See KA9. on P. 5, 4, 58. 

Rem. 2. The same idioms *i=n5j^4- wfH^ , iisri^i wp;m may also ^-J 

signify »to make , resp. to become the property of:'* i i ^m^ 

iRif?T (#to?t) 'it becomes the king's," Eath&s. 38, 157 iJ i wu i M i ^i^d 
cImPh ^srm (she bestowed her estate on the brahmans) , Pane. I, 224 
q^H i f^ri ? kf^rn] (given into marriage). 

Rem. 3. Pane. 45 ^mri^ is construed with the verb ^. It is 
written there [^jstt] »Tt iRJRTFprj. 
809*« '^^^ upasarga 7° prefixed to the verb hat sometimes the power 
of denoting the beginning of the action. K&9. on P. 1^ 2, 21 frEfrfnH: 
or gT7f?yrT: (he commenced to shine), Pane. I, 195 ^j^ u^ki'rUrU 
P^ ^ (A'tU^ ' I (if he laughs, they begin to smile at him, if he 
weeps, they shod tears). 

810. Periphrase of verbs by means of a general verb io do 
with an object denoting the special action meant, is 

§ 310. 233 

not uncommon. It is chiefly ^ that is used for this 
purpose. So ^fT^f *(tH = ^PPTFT, ^ *(^lfrf = 

R^, ?P^^^ wrfrH - ?rf^, eftt-r ^tft (to 

make one's toilet). In the same way the verbs , express- 
ive of being , becoMing etc. are employed for representing 

nominal predicates. Of the kind are H^TrT, ?FRrT^ 

'^Iri^, IH«H, fi'-IMH and the like, cp. 3 and 4. ft is 
proi^r to call them auxiliaries. But the same appel- 
lation should be shared ' by ^ which , in reality , is 

the causative of the former ones : XPT: %raRT H^T?T 

— , WA ^ti rl (the knot is ~ , gets loose) , W^ OTPFT 

•s ^^ 

^fn^TTFr (he loosens the knot). 

Examples: 1. of it and its synonyniB. (&k. I ^ ipT vsv^.: rr^TT: 
(this deer has got out of reach), Pane. 51 RhMoi fd*i*MM l Q.Hfi' i; 
^fsTTTT: (wby did you swoon thus on a sudden?), Nala 9, 19 fr 7^ « ;ri». ii 
HroTT gmrV^ mq^i pf( ^ (they, having turned birds, bereave me even 
of my garment). 

2. of !F. — C^^' I eiit ' jfM*^. i^T^^ i riiM P i a<<i i fM ^ 8rT?nn: gfi^ i j wfrfrr 
(— or shall I conceal myself?), R. 3, 25, 25 H\t \ krA[ 'sr^:.... riii i M j i;» 
KumAras. 1, 48 UifiaMfuUfd i f^rfTP^ wm\ (the female yaks would 
abate of their pride on account of their tails), ibid. 4, 41 frf^prr- 
^gOQ^^R,^ '- ^^HHim^iif l fttdlMri ;, Pane. 58 Vinhnu says %j^?{T7^fxf 

qarTT »r^t>u i n^ (= tid^ i f^i] . Kath&s. 27, 160 bx avvuh m j^ 

wsi ^TFTT ^ [= srOTFTFT w]. (g9>xiV, on Ch. Up. p. 71 explains 

srjl*T: '>y snt J*^'- ^^^ ^o on. 

Rem. Other verbs of similar, though less frequent and more 

limited employment, are r^<» i fd , ^ryiRTf isr^, sowrfFT. One says ^firff 

^ »to listen," ^it i hm <rT ■*<> ^'^P hands," ijipH ^jr »to bolt the 

door;" ^f* gnj »to behave" (cp. R. 2, 12, 8) and the like. Vikr. 

Ilf p. 38 HWd.K^HHI^ Tj^'Ju i fH v{f?T»T ([yo«r] eye does not rent 

on the creepers in the garden); Mhbh. 1, 74, 101 vr^ tt srT§ TqT^- 


334 § 810—811. 

^T^ (70a ought not to ato doeeit); HariT. 531 nrpiraft ^ f^ 
5n^ arfo^lPK^ (Nar. wai aileep — ), Ragh. 2, 7 p?mi# ^%n^:; 
Mudr. IV, p. 137 ii^f i w^wiMmui'tW "snsJt^: (B. it at onmity with 
C); Daf. 19 i|{^h,I%iJ fETwrnr: (being much aitonbhed). And so on. 

^ll* The ferb BubstantiYe has been dealt with. in the opening of 
this book (2 and 3). Here some remarkB may be added: 

•Bploj- I. The negation put to iioH^ or vf^ may signify »iiot to exist 
at all , to be lost or dead.*' Mudr. VI, p. 197 irot q m<i » P^<M i M^f i ^ 
7 nf^ (those, by whose favor I enjoyed all that glory, are now 
dead); R. 3, 31, 31 ^hr^TT ^rf|JTr jvrt ?T..... ii Q i MifH * Even the mere 
negation without verb may have this meaning. R. 3, 41, 19 M&rtca 
dissuades RAvana from carrying oflf SttA, saying ijMRit^fM %7^- 

2. ir^, the 3^ pers. of the present, maj be used almost as 
a particle in the beginning of tales and the like. ^) It is then 
the very first word. Kath&s. 1, 27 Qiva begins to tell a story : 

wfiTT mmf^ ^ 51^ rnp^nmrfTT..... f^xjgwppj^rxisrm:! here trfer 
may be rendered by %well.**') Sometimes it has the force of »it 
happens that," as Fat I, p. 48 vfm ^: yf^^^^at i muciK qfnfoj^ 
ifHlt i^fir ;t •Fsrfn (but it happens also elsewhere that .), ibid. p. 
^44 <j;jMHri^iarJvO ^^?qg ^<i i fdFj Etfm irf^ ^firf^ scfir. 

3. 9flTi the first person, is now and then 'used instead of in^* 
See Potr. Diet. I, p. 536 8, p, 11^6). — Da^. 158 fft^^qf^ 9f- 

rMlui{i|iMi|Ui9il(iJl: g^ H4 l >fi^fWlM*l l ^*<l*^'^»U*l , here v^^fm 

seems to be quite the same as v^v. Likewise wfir and rsnrf^ ^boaj 

1) Cp. the imperativti ing and ;i9h, which are Used to eipress the 
necentity or nuitublenoM of yifldiog to some oatward circumttaDce, like 
Greek itn. But the pretnl vRrf repressntM, that the requeit of him 
who wiRbea the tale to be told, it actually complied with. 

2) The frequent employment of this idiom may be inferred from this. 
In the Paneatantrm ed. Jlv&nanda there are 71 numbered tales Of them, 
15 begin with vflTT. and though in rooiit of them no finite verb it found 
in the fint tentence •- in H cases there it — yet in the great majority, 
if not in all « irflrr it not necettary for the nnderttanding. But in all of 
them . the tale it told at the request of somebody . Ukewite in the two patta- 
get from the KathfttarittAgara, quoted by the Petr. Diet., vis. 1, 27 and 22, 56. 

§ 311— 3U. 235 

h% MMiioBaUj med ass mpr^ m is mentioned by VAmana; see Vdma» 
na*$ 8tilr§g$ln hj Cappiller, ^ahdaguddhi s. 12. 

^, H and ?r^ are also auxiliaries in another sense , 
in as far as they help to form periphrastic tenses /as 
the periphrastic perfect (333), the future in ''^, the 
durative (378), etc The same may be said of some 
others as TrT^TrT, ^r\ rf, %4ltri, when signifying the 
durative, see 378, 

^« . The ancient dialect had the faculty of BOYering proposition and 
▼erb in compound verbs, the so-called tmesis*). The sacred texta 
from the mantras up to the siitras abound in examples. The greatest 
freedom is of course found in the sanhitAs. Ait. Br. 1, 21, 7 iNifyrj>i l; 
ftrar \xm n^ = iBrferft: f&** wt** 3nn^^, Ch. Up. 5, 3, 1 yii^ i g 
rtnlumHuHi = jr* w^ctIwtwt fq?TT, Apast. 1, 25, 10 ^ farfvi^Tti qrrr 3^, 
Classic Sanskrit has lost this faculty^). 

Chapt. II. On voices. 

*• The Sanskrit verb has three voices : the active (TJTm- 

i ^^). the medial (^TTFl^^T^) and the passive. 
^ Of these, the active is formally different from the other 
two , but the medial and passive voices have many forms 

in common. The perfect ^TSfT may be=,he made [for 

himself]" as well as ,he was made," the future yi\\ '/4rl 
is either „he will bear [for himselfj" or «he will be 

1) P. 1, 4, 80--82 '^ imvTrft: if^TTf^T l^sf^ 1 c/JolR^ff l ^ »the»e [vii. the 
upa$argns and gaH»] are put beVore the root; but in gacred tvxtfl (rAonr/a«) 
also behind and separated from it by other words." 

2) Perhaps something like a remnant of the antique tmesis maj oc- 
casionally be met with. In my notes, I find two passages regarding us 
here: Mudr. I, p. 20 rf Jl^^rd^ and R. 2, 9,28 ^vi\ 7\ 7^ m^» 



236 I 314—316. 

borne. ')*' But in the present and ita syBtem (present » 
imperfect t potential or optative, imperative, participle 
of the present) each voice has a different formal ex- 
pression , ^R^ etc serving exclusively for the medium 

but \WAr\ again having exclusively a passive meanings 

315. The participle in TT may have a passive, an intran- 
sitive and a transitive meaning, as will be shown af- 
terwards. See 360. 
^^Y Apart from the system of the present, it is but one 
\m "^ single form , viz. the 3** pers. of the sing, of the aorist — as 

ullir^^f^, *<WIN — which exclusively serves for the 

dcrifcd passive. 

Rem. At the outset even this aorist in **j was a medial tense. 
See Whitvby § S45 and DklbrQck Altind. TempusUhre p. 53 9%^, 
p. 54 s^rf^ etc. P&nini teaches an intransitive employment for 
trnfr 0^^^ arisen, — come forth), iri^Tm (I^m shone), fnrf^ (was born), P. 
iRnfir (has awaked), ispiff (has grown full), frrtrfv (has extended), ' 
igKinfh (has grown big\ In classic literature nq i f^ b not rare. 
Kath&s. 42, 134 ^r^ ST^nf^ rT^ (the giant died). 
816. From thb 3^ person in V, however, it is allowed to derive ^'. 
several passive tenses of all such roots , as end in a vowel , moreover 
of 9«j, 7^ and q:T^) see Whithiy § 998 d. 80 f. i. rvqn, the 

1) Cp. f. i. Mhbh. 1.159,6 the future qf^in^ (I shall rescue) with 
Daf. 96 gf^^uqff (those two will be rescued) or Mhbh. 1,188,18 fo^ 
WT?Tnt ^sPT: (aud Aijuna took the bow) with Katb&a. 71,84 j^ mrr 9tiI7 
W^ (he was embraced by her). It wonid be ao iuterestiDg subject-matter 
for inquiry to draw a statintical account of the common forms of the 
dtmanepadam with respect to their being use I with a medial and with a 
paHHive moaning. It oeems, indeed, that of several verbs these forms, 
especially the perfect, have the tendency of conveying exclusively a 
medial meaning, whereas some others seem to be exclusively passives. 
Before, however, such an account from standard authors will have been 
madp, it would be premature to state something with certainty on this head. 

§ 318—318. 237 

eomnoB fatnra Atmaa. of rgr, may sometimet have a paatiTO meaning, 
aometimet it is medial, bat the future jrf^lraiJV — derivbd from 
v^jr — cannot be used except in a paasite sense. In practice, 
these tenses of an exclusively passive meaning seem to be very 
rare. Dag. 132 nP^m i ^^Hi TWTfnft (I was addressed by the minister), 
ibid, 133 sRnf^ f ?.omg> i (m qh><iutM i w i fiiRi. 
117. The diflference between the active voice and the me- 


KMe dial is for the greater part only a formal one, at least 

twee« in the classic langusige. Many verbs are used in the 

t%r^ parasmaipadam , but not in the d.tmanepadam, and in- 

[J*5L versely. The special rules, given for this by grammar 

"^^^' (P. 1, 3, 17 sqq.), do not belong to Syntax. Even if the 

same root is employed in both voices , it is not always 

difference of meaning, that discriminates them; in poetry, 

for inst., particularly in epic poetry , an other voice than 

the legitimate one is often admissible for metrical reasons. 

Compare the fact, that sometimes the same verb is a fjarasmaip. 
in one tense and an Atmanep. in another. So fxmk (he dies), but 
the future is nflm f^. 

18. Nevei-theless , the original difference between active 
and medial is not lost. Not only the grammarians, 
who have invented the terms parasmai padum and at mane 
padam , but the language itself shows , it is well aware 
of it. Several verbs may be employed in both voices 
in this way , that one avails one*s self of the medial p. i. a. 
especially to denote j,the fruit of the action being for 
the subject," f. i.^of^: ^^ »N.N. cooks for him- 
self ," but CpTTFr, when it is to be told, he cooks for others. 
Of the causatives the medial voice serves always for that 
purpose: ^^ ^RTJeliFT ,he orders a mat to be made^-^*** 
for his own behalf." 

238 S 318. 

Within this proper sphere of the medium some distino- 
of the tioDs may be made. The action may be done a,) by 
alum, the subject himself in his own behalf , as Apast. 1, 25, 10 

l(rl T^n^T^PTf^ TFT 5^^ (they remove the sin from 
themselves — ), /y.) by order of the subject , likewise for 
himself; of the kind is the medium oiU^, Mslrf is -said 
of the patron , who makes the priests officiate for him- 
self and who obtains the fruit of the sacrifice , whereas 

the officiating priests ?TsTFfT, c.) so that the same per- 
son is both subject and object , as Ch. Up. 4, 4, 2 tirM^I*i 

^ sn^lTFrT yf^rm* (you must name yourself —). 
Ck)mpare with a.) such Greek medial verbs as Topi^ofAxt 
,1 acquire for myself," with d.) such as Trxthuetixi riv uUy 
,1 have my son instructed," with c.) such as k^Auttoaa^i 
„I wrap myself." Those in e.) are mere reflexives. 

InHtaiices of medial meaning conveyed by medial forms seem 
to be found especially in the older texts, yet they are not wanting 
in the classic literature. 

a.) PAr. 1, 4, 12 a marriage-mantra contains the words qHnf^ 
sn^: (put on the garment [yourself]), for qfTvf^ would mean *put 
it on another;** Ait. Br. 2, 11, 1 ^r ^ UtWrirdH [for their own 
benefit]; KathAs. 42, 201 <ncHJMfi ^nrwrfft Qm \ \ i ^' ! h'U^ \ (she chose him 
[for her husband]) and in this meaning regularly SfWff f* i* KumAras. 
6,78; R. 1,61, 21 ^ uvu i ^mm xtr (prinfce, take me with you); 
Kath&s. 25, 232 — the king, being presented with a golden lotus, 
puts it into a silver vase, and says: I would I had another similar 
lotus to put it into the other silver vase — «KqNQt& ^r^forf^- 
flft *?mif^ fffTi — Pat. I, p. 281 stfq^ ?mnV (he warms his hands), 
ibid. p. 282 fmr^^ onm (he stretches his hands) ; — Pane. 64 ^iTrr3;TT: 
77 d«^'/7 i ii SRpT (the king*s zenana are sporting in the watery, Mhbh. 
1, 175, 33 m jfr: fdiJoi i' f*<3<w fffSpf cxt^rnmr ^rasr:. 

6.) R. 2, 4, 22 Da^aratha says to his son R&ma rnr (T^sfufV:?^ 

§ 318—319. 239 

(hftfo jounelf anointod — \, and to always with ihu verb; 

e.) Apaat 1, 6, 3 :? 3 i >wliium^Ji« ^ (he shall not atreteh out |his 
feet] towards him); Mhbh. 1, 121, '31 ^rhnor >i^ai fa (show jourself, 
gallant prince); R. 1, 75, 3 m^^: i ^jeiw sittJW «Rrw ^^mnsr w. 

Rem. 1. If a reflezife pronoun be added, one may use the 

active as well as the medial voice. ^'JL*^* 

Rem. 2. P. 1, 3, 68 teaches the use of the medial causatives 

ii^ and fg^xnqv when meaning: >I cause [you] to fear (wonder 
at) myself,*' whereas the regular forms imm^t fdMnqqf?T have 
no reflexive meaning. 

Rem. 3. Reciprocity may be denoted by compound verbs be- 
ginning by aif^^ These must be generally medial verbs. See 
P. 1, 3, 14—16 and Pat. I, p. 277. 

The passive voice is much used in Sauskrit both „ „ , 
personally and impersonally, as has been pointed out ^^* 
7 and 8. 

Moreover it serves to signify such intransitive actions 

as Tire rice boila, the wood splits ^-i^fi ^< i(J*i^ iPPIFr 


'), whereas ,1 boil thence , I split the wood" is 
expressed by the active voice ?ft^ W^iIm I ^FT? TH"- 

■^T'), Fat. II, p. U fFFTW fqgPi^H^ mr<l'. ^npfr (from a river- 
bank, which is about to give way, lumps of earth are breaking 
off) I KumAras. 4, 5 :t ^t^ (▼• a* my heart does not break), Kath&s. 
25, 45 ar^ ^*<^h(iH (the vessel burst), ^a*- Br. 1, 5, 4, 5 7 SPTFTTTtrrt 
q,^g^ l Pi tr^zrnr (the fruits fall down from the trees). Of the kind 
are rgm (to appear, to seem), ig-J)<jH (to increase), ^gJ i /jf f (to 
decrease), mm (to suit, to be fit) and the like. 

1) TUe passive, wheo personal, is styled eRxrfuT (expressive of the ob. 
ject), when impersooal , mar (eipress. of the state), see P. 1, 3, 13; 3, 1, 67. 
WheD having an intran»iti»e or reflexiTe meaning, it is styled ^>,/i!hftQ 
(express, of both subject and object). 

2) Tet one likewise says f. i. rnv ^iTT^ UxiPi (the pot boils wel1),cp. 
Kftf. on P. 3, 1,87. 

240 9 319—320. 

Rom. 1* It h sot allowed, howovor, to oto that intramitiTo P. 8. 
paisive of all vorbt. P4nini exeeptii tho roott rw, j^ and 7m. One ^' 

••y* jTv • not 7^07? - m: ^stA^t ^fwt - Bot nxn^ • zyf^* ^sniks 

kthe cow is milking; the stick bends.*' Patanjali extends the 
exception to others, especially to all cansatives, and mentions a. 
T&rttika of the BhAradv&jtyas which enumerates eren a larger 
list of exceptions. This statement of the Bh&radv&jtyas has been 
accepted by the E&^ikA. At all events, this much is certain, 
that of several verbs the medial voice has also an intrans. meaning. 
A concurrence of medial and passive is taught by P. 3, 1, 62 and 
€3 for the aorbt of roots ending in a vowel and also of ^; with 

• intransitive meaning it may be said vh l H or «9irT| <i^)f^ and 
UTTV, f. L fnfrrfr or wsp^ fisr: ^atmor. 

On the other hand, the pure reflexive — 818 c\ — is occasio* 

- nally expressed by a passive; enpecially u-cuh tto release one's 
self." R. 3, 69, 39 qQi}^^^ ? ttofst. 

Rem. 2. Note the idiom Tmh rW^rtlW ; , a passive with etymo. P. 8. 
logical object. See f. i. M. 2, 167. ^' 

820. Intransitives are often expressed also by the verbs 

■itivct-of the so-called fourth class of conjugation , which chiefly 

«• comprises roots with intransitive meaning, as W^AV\^ 

aVJW, %aT?r, aiPTFT. For the rest, intransitive 
meaning is by no means restricted to a special set of 
lorms and may be conveyed by any. So f. i. t^'-J^ 

,to sleep" is formally an active t^N|r|, ^ ,to lie'' 

a medial ^FT, ^ ,to die" a passive I^Mrl, 

The difference of accentuation which exists between the verbs 
of the 4^^ class and the paHsives, must not blind us to the in- 
contestable fact of their clone connection. At the outset, there 
is likely to ha\e been one conjugation in ^ts^ '^mK with intran- 
sitive function , whence both the 4tl> class and the passive have sprung. 
Nor is it possible, even in accentuated tekts, to draw everywhere 
with accuracy the boundary-line between them, see \VniTvix%1^V^ 

§ 820—821. 241 

eipeoiialy h.) and e.) and 798, ep. also the rale of P. 6, 1, 195. — 
The old language, eipeeiallj the dialeet of Uie Mah&bh&rata, afforda 
many instances of passi? e forms with the endings of the parasmai. 
padam, oTen with passire meaning. See t L Mhbh. 1, 24, 15; 38, 
13; 61, 9; 102, 28; Nala 20, 81 etc"). 

Chaff. IIT. Tenses and moods. 

I. The Sanskrit finite verb comprises the following tenses 
and moods: 1. the f)re8eni (c<i<^), 2. the imperfecl (^{^^ 

8. the perfect (T5TS}, 4. the aorist CT^, 6. and 6. the 
future in tMIrl (F!7) and the periphrastic future C?^), 
7. the imperative lc<ii^),8. the potential or optative (ic<1>^), 

9. the precative (frii'.lRlN), 10. the conditional (rfJU 
To them we must add for the archaic dialect the con- 
junctive (FT^), for the classic language the participles 

in TT and rX^'rA , as far as they d6 duty for finite 
verbs. Of these, 1—6 and the said participles constitute 
that, which we are w6nt to call ,the indicative mood ;" 
the other moods are represented by 7—10 and by the 

Yemacular grammar makes no distinction between tonsos and 
moods, which is, indeed, less deyelope^l in Sanskrit, than it is in 
Latin and Qreek. ') 

1) P. 3,1,90 mentionf two roots, which are Terbs of the 4^'' class, 
parasinaipada , when being used as iDtransitive-reflexivca , whereas thej 
are otherwise conjugated, when transitives. But Panini ezpresslj sta- 
tes that the eastern grammarians teach so, the passiTe of them may, 
therefore, be al8oemployed,f.i. ehmfd or cpajfy ftr^. mu^d (the foot strikes), 

JVX^ or ^in^ sr^ ^srAoT (the garment is dying). Utt. V, p. 102 ^ 

2) In P&nini's grammar the 10 or 11 tenses and moods form ont category ^ 

242 § 822. 

322. Of the tenses » which constitute the indicative mood/ 
the present is represented by oMCf the future by IwOf 
the past by four (aoristy imperfect , perfect, participles). 
Of the two futures, that in tMIrl is the general expo- 
nent of the future. Likewise the aorist and the participles 
are the general exponents of the past. The other past tenses 

and the other future have but a limited sphere of employ- 
ment. We may remark that tho^e limits are quite different from 

what one would expect judging from the names , by which Sanskrit 

tenses have been termed by European scholars. Sanskrit imperfect 

and perfect have nothing in common with their cognominal tenses in 

Latin or French or Greek, and the difference t i. between the employ*. 

ment of Skr. <?tf^H i fl*l And </ i f^mtfIi [ can in no way be compared 

with that which exists between Lat. scripturus 8um and scribatn, 

, Rem. Sanskrit makes no distinction between absolute and re* 

i ^ ^ y v^ ^^ ^ft^i^ o tenses. Hence , if one wants to denote what teas about to 
.'* 1 1>. * be done in the pasti), one employs the same tense which is ex- 

^ \ pressive of what t« about to be done now, viz. the future. Simi- 

larly, the same past tenses, which signify that which u accom- 
plished fiotr, may serve also for the expression of the action, which 
mil be accomplished at some future point of time. N&gAn. III| 
p. 65 fqJr JTE^ fei*< i f*i4^ i|(i^^*ifM ferrafg ^ fafprnnirr ^, tore 
the past tense vnin: has the value of the so-called futurum exac- 
tum of Latin, ego advenero. 

For this reason too, the present does also duty for the dura- 
tiTe of the post (827) and the past tenses are also significatiye 
of the remote past (339). 

bat do not bear a eommon appellation. The Kdtanira names them f^^ifffTy 
by the same term which is used tor the > cases** of the nouns. See K&t. 
3, 1, 11—34 with commentary. 

1) This was at the outset the duty of the so-called conditional, but 
in clai>sic Sanskrit this employment having fallen out of use, it is the 
future that is to express ieripturui srom as well as teripturui turn* Q^^ 347 B^ 

SS2S— 824. 243 

Present. (FTC). 

[8. The present texuie is in Sanskrit what it is every- 
■t where, the expression of f6,cts present or represented 
Bs such. The notion .present" has of course the ut- 
most elasticity. It applies to any sphere of time of 
which ourselves are the centre and it may have as small 
or as great a periphery as possible. Accordingly, facts 
which are represented as happening always and every- 
where are put in the present. It is superfluous to il- 
lustrate this by examples. 
14. Further, the present ^may denote a near past or a near '■ 

rt, future. 

•®*" 1. The present denoting a near future may be compared \\ 

w with such phrases as : I am going on a journey next 
week, instead of: I shall go. So ^!^>J3rn=^ 

M^^, etc 

Bhoj. 42 iH^ :t iroft riV ( i dftd^ l ww i P i MHurn (if we do not 
go, the king's attendantt will turn nt out to-morrow), R. 3, 68, 13 
ffei^ QHiwfd (he will die goon), Pane. 143 vt^i^^ ug>dH i ^ rnr 
9n^ AXXi^ (I un 1^APP7> ^ ^^^^ P*^' ^^® ^^™® there with you). 

In subordinate sentences the present is very often 
employed in this manner, especially in final and conse- 
cutive clauses, as will be sh6wn afterwards. 

Rem. 1. PAnini givee a special mle eonceming the present p. 
denoting the ftitnre with ma^ and j^. Example of enafT^: Pane. 
286 ^ H^ jyr^^Si mcr^ ^imire^ (- till I come back). As 
to vrr it B*7 be 1. an adverb lerelong .** 2. a conjunction = 
Lat priuiquam. The rule holds good for both. Da^. 136 RtuHPi ^ 
JIT ^ fnA ilBF?ni^(and that ungrateful man will erelong kill you) . 
R,2, 116, 19 3^«»«* wififijlMr^Ml nqfeg i<uwPHf| j^tct ri^ 


T^u were not married and I wu heir* 

upon the aieeti, ^^ wL ^m. ^n% the freedom of employing the 
Renu 2. AnotWr hbhui^^ . 'rith j^ (formerly, before). So 

future is exhibited Vy m moi., ^ •777^ smf^* Here the present 
325. 2. Tte prtient demum^ . ^ li, 74 jpjjgir^Tfag:, the im- 
LTt IIMHUI^IIH ,1 anTT*' v.^'^^ "^ Pat. I, p. 6 quoted 
^"*'^ Utt. I, p. 3 wifiM i flv i w stsiTT ^rrsT ^ 
ntw from his seat of justice to te ^mt ^*«:^ 
**"*• are the rules gif en by P&sa. t i - ^ 

ploymont of pre«.nt .«l m«:il -^ '^ V^ tenses One 

you made the mat?", the tmswv a^ ik ,^^ '^tS, aS have not 

or TXTsnin >no, I hate aoc,"* wif 0. mimtm^^ and therefore 
Likowiso with j, w$ ^ «rr» cc, ^skisk iK.»i^^ I)q expressed 

the present: rnj «7Tm .iadeed, I ia»i.' \ ^^^ j^ ^^^^ 

Rem. InTcrsely, it may ha}9«L -aiic 1. Imhmi ^ ^^^ ^^ 
bo rendered by an English |<r<»«sT. m* ikiu : w. M«t::&« * ^ 

236. Moreover, the present is cfteiL z^^^st jl T*aerj5™^* ^^ 
"«r actions. Then we may call :t iirt^rie*^ y-.-^i ^* Aw 
£S! Properly it is distinguished by » imr^^icit S^ ^'J **»« 

but W is occasionally 

m s qi i^JMPJ fwB^ (t^«7 ••■^ 
KathAs. 1, 33 7^71 ?ift! HI ^ '^ 
Tatt, and (iva aaswerc^i, PmcJK a 

lived happily in their dvtd&^p:: ^ 

327. But the most 
P^>t pr^'sent is that rf en 
w As Sanskrit 
i*^ a durative, I3k 

§ 327. 245 

^*f^'ti may be both a synonym of Latin fereham^ 

and of tuli*). But the present ^rW is by its nature a 
durative tense , and for this reason it is eminently 
adapted to signify the durative, even of the past. 
Of course, FT may be added in that case (326), but 
it is not necessary and is generally wanting in the 
body of a narration. Accordingly , ^'{TFT is often = Lat. 


Examples: Pane. 165 a new story begins in this mannorirRrr Trfr^. 

flI5fir?T^ MifXlWih^ ?TT»T Cffr^TW^ SRT^ W (hahiiahat) nr w. . . . ^iTffeft- 
RlHiP ^itoT cT '^mgfM i ^uQ («« testes conficiebat) \ tqr fTCT. . . . ?T ifr?T- 
5n^T?7mirfiHR eh q *<mgi*j[^ w^ (fi^bat)] Ch. Up. 1, 2, 13 ^ ^ ^- 
Jl<JlHl*j<id i 5TJJ^ (/m'Oi^t ^ ^iir: qTFTPTmnrf^ (inccM/afcaO ; Mhbh. 
1| 157, 5 ^tsR^uf^ w ?T^ w^rQT J^ 5T^ ^Tf^T (at that time they 
delivered the food begged to Kuntt every night); Pat. I, p. 5 jp9P?q 

^tT^T^i tTR i hl fm^e hM 5TT^7Tm oU l ^^U l ^mvhm (discebant) mrjj^ 

5T rRH ; Bhoj. 40 rT<;iU»^{frl H" Pl'^lfH JT^ JJ^ H" 9»'lRliRi VJ-sf^jRifilTT: 

f^^?srr f>oi i ri«i f T^^rg^ (from that, time he did not sleep or take 
food or converse with anybody, but with a heavy mind he la- 
mented night and day); Pane. 145 begins the story of some monk, 
who did inhabit (gfrnFTf^ Ct) some monastery, his ordinary life is 
described by a set of present tenses without ^ (rrxrr^^^* • • • ^f^frr*.** 
^Txrnn^RrfTr). — A past tense and the present may even bo put close 
together. R. 2, 63, 14 Da^aratha relates to his queen ^-jfT r^^-r^r 

1) In the br&hmaDas the present with fiTi according to DelbrQck 
Altindische Tempusiehre p. 129, is always = Lat. imperfect , never = Lat. per- 
fect: >Da8 Pr^sens mit smasiehtim Sinne derVergangenheit Jedoch ~ so 
viel ich Behe — nicht so dass damit ein einmaliges vergangencs Ereiguiss 
bezeichnet wQrde. Vielmehr drQckt das Pr&sens mit sroa dasjenige au9, 
was sich Ofters, beoonders was sich gewohnheitsmHssig ereignet hat." 

In the classic dialect, however, m^ C>T is both = /ere^a/ , and = /u/</. 
Plenty of instances may be drawn froas cliUsic literature. Only see the 
examples to P. 3, 2, 118; 119, and Eath&s. 1, 33 quoted 32e. 

248 § 327-828. 

jvpRV unsnm^^ (*t the time 70a wore not nuurriod and I w«i hoir* 

Rom. PAniai oipoeially moBtioni the fraodom of omploying tho 
preient initoad of a pait tenso with ^ (formerly, before). So 
Pane. 202 the erow says »Ri|f^^i i jpt amfq. Here the present 
is used, but the aorist 1 1 Kathfts. 25, 74 J^nj^^rfsv:} tl>a io^- 
perf. 1 1 ibid. 24, 19 wiJaTj^. .... 3^ "(TftT and Pat. I, p. 6 quoted 

Past tenses. 

828. In defining the employment of the past tenses one 

^^ must distinguish between such past facts , as have not 

^^ lost their actuality , and such as .have , and therefore 

^ v^ belong to history. The historical past may be expressed 

by any past tense, but the actual past not. In other 

terms, as a rule, English ie did and Ae had done may 

be rendered by Sanskrit aorist, imperfect, perfect or 

the participle (^KrRT^ , ^!rFR^), but English he has 

done only by the aorist or the participle, not by the 

imperfect or by the perfect. 

H^ I. For expressing the historical past, the four past 

p«t tenses are used almost promiscuously , and the historical 

'S'*^^ present (326, 327) may be added to them as a fifth. 

^^^ Examples: Eath&s. 24, 10 it is told, one asked (n^^^imperf.), 
Ts. 11 the other replied (950^^ aor.), ts. 13 the former a^ked again 
(q«raf port). Ibid. vs. 214 {imx^ n 1 u^ HW i u i g>»d^ ^HiPdMyji^^^i 1 ft 
W««.. HM^^H^ >a8 they could not tell it him [themselves], they sent 
messengers , who told him'*) is an other instance of aor., pert and 
imperf. used promiscuously and without the slightest difference 
of meaning. Pane. 276 we hare this succession of facts: srr^ipnft 

urofefirftrisn^ (participle) trt^wto inmHt^ (aorist) unr a^ 

yUci l f/ihKil ^ir^iTH*|R(u[d (histor. pros, with durative meaning »was 

singing)" I ?T^55?5lT HU i fTif^H*! (partio.) q^j-^e^Jifj^ (import) and so 

I 828-330. 247 

OB. Li an other •tor7 Pime. 51, we haTe thif sueeetiion of facts: 
a ▼eaver and a eartwright dwelled (cr^^^smTT: ^) in the same town 
and lived alwajs together (vrm ^nnr:)* One daj a great festiTal 
took place (m[fr:) and a procession, in the midst of which thej 
beheld U^a^i) a maiden of great beauty. On seeing her, the weaver 
fell in loTO with her and swooned (^r^^ ipm P> ' Wld) « His friend 
the eartwright got him carried home (^snppTTTPTiiTT) and by proper 
treatment he soon recovered (cRrrfy srusr). — Upon the whole , there 
seems to be a tendency to alternate the past tenses in literary com- 

h Now, the imperfect and the perfeot are restricted 
ad to that sphere of employment. They cannot be used 
r«. except of such facts as have lost their actuality for 
^ the speaker *). Both of them are only available for the 
^ historical past. They are to be rendered by our past 

IV tense , both ^^^IrJ^ and ^TST^ being = ,he did." 

^ Both of them are equally applied to facts , that have happened 
but once (Lat. perfectum historicum), and to actions repeated or 
continuous (Lat imperfectum). *) 

3. There is , however, a diflference between the perfect and p^ , |^ 
J," the imperfect. It is taught by Pa,nini in express terms, ^^^' 
sr- that t^e perfect (\^\7*) is restricted to such facts as have 
et not been witnessed by the speaker^ and the practice of 
good authors is generally in accordance with this state'* 
ment. It is somewhat uncommon to meet with a per- 

1) This is meant by P&piui , when he teaches ^r^ (and , as it stands 
nnder the same adhik&ra, also ^nr) to be used UHMd^. P*3, 2, 111. 

2) Cp. KathOs. 24, 21 4 ^H l f^Mqj^<r<<i^ T i ^ ^ ?nT^prT^= nontios mixerunt, 
iique ei dixerunt, with Mbbh. 1,08, 9, which Terse dcftcribes the happiness 
of the subjects of Dushyanta during his reign lEoVyiT \fk\ atnf: 

VlM^ollthHNUi: =hominum ordines suis quisque officiis deleciahantur^ 
erantque ab omni parte tuti. 

248 § 380. 

feet when expressive of an action the speaker has wit- 
nessed himself. 

Qood aathort, aoeordinglj, ftvoid oiing the perfect tense, 
if the facte narrated have been witnessed by the speaker. The 
Da^kumdracarita abounds in stories of adfentnres, told by the 
▼ery persons who haTO experienced them; all past tenses are 
employed promisonously, only perfects are wanting. Bat., in the 
same work, if the author himself is speaking, or if any of his 
heroes is relating a fable of olden times, the perfects make their 
appearance side by side with the other past tenses i). The same 
obiervation may be mide with respect to the Kath&sarits&gara ']. 

Yet, from this one must not infer, that on the other hand 
the imperfect is restricted to the relation of past facts 
witnessed by the speaker'). Even, if Paaini had taught 

1) So there is not a single perfect in the whole story of Apah&ra- 
varma, as he relates his own adreatures; for the same reasoa perfects 
are waDtiog in the stories of other princes. The sixth ucchvilsa, Mitra^ 
guptaearitam , has oo perfects, while Mitragapta tells all what has hap- 
peoed to himself, but as sooa as he is narrating to the giant the four 
little tales of Obdmint etc., perfects abound. 

2} Exceptions may, however, occasionally be fonnd. Da^. 110 and 111 
prince Upah&ravarma, when relating his own adventures, says twice rr^, 
while speaking of a woman , who wept before his eyes. R. 3, 67, 20 the 
vulture Jat&yn informs R&ma, how Havana ^trTPTT^ oi^^ijr<4^irt fan^« 
Q^T^ Kathiis. 6,43 the clever merchant, who has made his fortune by 
trade, uses the perfect ^3^, while relating, that each woddcntter gave 
him two pieces of wood, as he presented them with a fresh draught. 
Likewise N&giin. V, p. 77 wnff instead of the aor. of a fall, which the 
speaker has seen on the same da^ and with his own eyes. But, I repeat, 
such deviations are upon th) whole very rare, at least in good authors. 

3) The term <Trt% for the sphere of the perfect, is a point of dispute 
with the commentators. It is asked, what kind of actions may be said 
to fall under. this category, and as the term, when strictly interpreted, 
sigoiBes »beyond the reach of the eye," it has been deemed necessary 
to give an additional rule in express terms, that » well-known facts fall- 
ing within the speaker's sphere of observation are to bC put in the 
imperfect — not in the perfect — even if they have in fact not been 

§ 380. 249 

80 ^)t sach a role would ba in direct opposition to the 
constant practice of Sanskrit literature up to the Vedas. 
The imperfect is always and everywhere u^ed both of past 
facts which are within the compass of the speaker *3 
experience, and of those which are not. 

witnened bj him/* This ?&rttika seema to be at old m KXiy^yAaa. , it 
is ezpoaoded bj Pat. II, p. 119. 

1) It is not quite sare, that he has. Still, whea looking closelj at 
P&aiQi*s ovrn words aboat the emplojmeat of ^rr^and f^TT and at the 
commentaries and disputes of his scholiasts , we may consider it a tenet of 
the grammarians, that ?T^is not available within the sphere set apart for 

fgr^ From 3, 2, 116 ^TfSSfft^i^^ •with ^ and wstTf^ (forsooth) — cp. 897 
a. 3— ^r^ may also be used within the sphere of f^T^\ cp. s. 115, we 
can draw no other inference, than even this, that in any other case one 
would be wrong in using ^^<TpJr. But it is possible, that this sQtra 
116 did not belong to the original work of P&nini. Indeed setting this sfltra 
apart, the very arrangement of the rules which treat of the suffixes 
and tenses of the past, would rather induce ua to suppoae Pilnini having 
taught the employment of ^q^^both ^jtif l A and qrrir- From 3,2, 84 up to 

123 u^ ii adhik&ra, the suffixes taught there are accordingly expressive 
of »the past.** Now, from Si— 110 this >past'* is not specialized and 
comprises any pout whateoer. With s. Ill the 6rst restriction makes its 
appearance, it is stated that the imperfect (^T?) is used ^^nhh » denoting 

the not-actual past.** From there tf^gHH remains adhikara till s. 119, 
but s. 115 a second restriction is added to the first: the suffixes are not 
only expressive of the past Vri^rl^ but also qqrt<ir. Now the question is 

simply this: Has P&nini meant sQtra HI (employment of ^^ to bean 
exception to 110 (employment of ^^ »aori8t*') and likewise 115 (em- 
ployment of f^T^ an exception to 1 1 1 — or is each of these rules to be 
interpreted separately and considered by itself? According to the former 
acceptation , the aorist is taught to be restricted to past actions that have 
happened to»day, the imperfect restricted to past actions before to-day, 
but witnessed by the speaker; according to the latter, the aorist is ex- 
pressive of any past both actual and historical, and the imperfect of 
any historical past both witnessed and not-witnessed by the speaker. 
The former acceptation is that of Sanskrit grammarians up to Patanjali 
and the author of the v&rttikas , the latter is in accordance with the practice 
of Sanskrit literature. 

260 § 330-331. 

R«m. L Ib potting questions, the diiferenee betweoi perfect 
and imperfect T«nuheS| and it seems, also that between those 
tenses and the aorist. If I rightly nnderstsnd P. 3, 2, 117, the 
employment of both perf. and import in patting qaestions is prescribed 
bj PAnini , eren if the past action be tnear in time** ti i M^HMW* KA^. 
exemplifies this rale thfli^Rj^^ld i fm^ S"a^: i ftnm ^cT^:. R. 3, 
19, 6 Kharaasks his sister ^iirpanakh4 ^stAir M^l cTf^^fc i l fg^t^BHT^ 
^ (what strong man has disfigared yon thus?). Cp. Ch« Up. 4, 14, 2 
quoted 346. 

Rem. 2. Another rale of P&nini — 3, 3, 135 — forbids the im. 
perfect, the perfect and the present with ^i) in two cases: Brtt- 
fTEPurrrqTtZRrr:* According to the gloss of the K&^ikA kriydprahandha 
is » uninterrupted action," sdmipya » the time which immediately 
adjoins the time of the speaker.** In these cases the aorist and the 
participles are stated to be employed, not the other past tenses. 
KAf. gires these examples <i i atJidM> i M<lH (as long as he lived he 
distributed food [to the poor]), m uimUK'J fr rii w%\ku i i}q im \ u\ s j \\ ^ \ i R ft 
(at the next full moon the teacher worshipped the holy fires). 
I do not know how far this injunction is confirmed by the evi- 
dence furnished by Sanskrit literature. For the rest cp. 341 R. 
881* At the outset, the perfect had not the restricted function, ^J'j' 
J^^ which it has in the classic dialect. In the old vodic mantras , like 
of the the aorist, it may denote every shade of the past, and occasio- 
dwleet. Dftiiy it has even the power of a present tense, in the same way 
as for instance Greek f^rificjt oJ^x^ Latin memhii consuevi^ Qothie 
^'^ vait mo^, sim. So Rgv. 5, 60, 3 ^.mr >i8 afraid,** ibid. 1, 113, 3 

^^*" * 7^197?: »they stand still** and the other instances to be found in 
prtteat "^ 

DKLBa&cK AUindische Tempushhre p. 103 sqq. 

The classic language has but two perfects, expres- 
sive of the present, viz. ^\ (he knows) and t{\^ (he says) ; 
the latter may also be used of the past. *) From the litur- 

1) Though not mentioned either by K&9. or by Patanjali, the f^r^ 
and the ^r^ 1^ must needs be implied in the prohibition , for the adhik&ra 
«:i^|7r^ implies them too. 

2) My notes contain, however, two other instances. Pane .246 «||^UI<V 

§ 331-383. 251 

giMl writiiigi — where, for the rest, the employment of the perfect 
if already eonfined within the same limits as afterwards , see DilbbUck 
2. 2. p. 131 — we may addace moreorer ^ the rules** (f. L Ait Br. 
1, 30, 3), STHT^ >he is awake*' Ch. Up. 4, 3, 6 and perhaps some 
others, see t L .Ait Br. 2, 41, 4. 

I82. Prom the above it h sufficiently clear, that the !•* 
and 2^ person of the perfect are hardly met with in 
classic Sanskrit , except of ^ and ^TT^. — For the l«* 

person, Patanjali is at a loss, how to employ, it, unless to re- 
late facts done while being asleep or drank. ') That the 2^ per- 
son of the plural is not used, is evident from a passage of the 
commencement of the Mahdbhdshya ; there it is obsorred, that 
such forms as 3:cr, ^i ^tT) qner exist in theory only, as one does 
not say w 3W but y mrgfom: See Pet. I, p. 8, 1. 23; p. 9, 1. 11. 

133. There is no syntactical difference between the perfect 
An^ simple and that, which is made by periphi'ase with 
•^ ?rrar , ^^U med- ^%, and SPT^. 

In the brAhmanas m» i ^ and ^ are almost exdusirely used 
for this purpose. ') Nor does PAnini teach other auxiliaries. ') 

la used in the lenBe of Greek ffxtt. The serpent declares to the frogs 
rfA >s^ TGTTTi crr^^n^RnnTT'T (by this [vis. the curse of the brahman, 
whose son he had bitten to death] I have come to you in order to be 
your carrier). Id the Gauii recension of the f&kuntala, Y, p. 109 of the 
2^ ed. of Tarkav&gf9a (Calc. 1864) (^ilrngarava says to Duahyanta irfnrq* 

M*juif<.*<l n^hit jHfTf ncngro^ rrnrmr uifdMH i gotJ^^j^ i dq^ in both 

instances the perfect is rather expressive of an actiou finished , than of 
an action past. 

1) The example given is rrirt — or gjt — «s^ f^i^ fOTFrm. — Another 

case of its employment is in strong denials, as when one asks ^RflUMM '! ! 

llfsr7t>s{H and the other answers qr^ ^1%mm ufddU t. See virtt. on P. 3, 2, 
115 in Patanj. II, p. 120; the instance given there is evidently a quo- 
tation from some literary work. 

2) In the Aitar. Bruhm. the periphr. perfect with frPET is used but 
once. See the edition of AuraECHT, p. 429. 

8) To interprete P. 3, 1,40 9i3r:. as if it were a praty&h&raof OP? -U 
^-{^ «^, is, not to mention other objections, too artificial and too subtle , 

252 § 333-334. 

B«t erwi is tlM epie poanu all of tbom are vMd| atpeeiallj 
vnr» whieh Mems alio afterwardi to be the mott fireqaent, whereat 
isnm ii the rarest 

384. n. The aorist CT^I is expressive of any past , either 

historical or actual; ^X^kVJ^ may be = ,1 did," and = 
9I have done." Examples of the historical aorist have 
been given 328. 

When denoting the actual past, that is such past 
acts as are so recent as not to have lost their actuality at 
the time of their being related, the aorist is used side 
by side with the participles in 'H^T^ and ""H; neither 
imperf. nor perfect are then available. «I have seen the 
man" is ^T^Tf^t 7^^ or ^^aTRff ^ [not ^TTJ^'T^ nor 

Examples of the aorist denoting the actual past Ait Br. 1, 6, 11 
HVA|l<.lTHHmwi^^^l(iif^ I ^T fiM<4^v i fMr<ii^M i w ^i^ptfh (for this reason, 
one says to an eye-witness: have you seen it? for if he says »he 
has,** they beliere him); R. 2, 89, 5 Bharata has spent the night 
with Guha, the next morning his host asks him vrfcrTHi^f ^<Offl 
4znr^: aFnKrf^ ar^^ (hare you past the night well ?) ; Mhbh. 1, 
167, 23 king Drupada having lost half his kingdom to Drona, 
goes to some brahman, who may procure him a means for aveng- 
ing himself, and says jnm: qr^^ rrn]^; Da^. 27 : it has been 
predicted to the brahman Miktanga that he will soon meet with 
a prince, now, when he really meets with a prince, he tells 
him this prediction and adds these words H tiM UlM n ur TO ^lti<lil^- 
nt*^ [neither v^rsrr nor stit? are here admissible] ; Q4k. VII M&tali 
congratulates Dushyanta on finding back his wife with his son, 
the king replies WijfrrTr^rTfsrK^Ti^fr k xr^rt^: (my desire is gone 

to be true. Pikaioi koew^'or at least approved, no other periphrastic 
perfect, than that which is made with VT. 

8 834. 253 

into •W6«t ftiUilmrat); Kath&s. 40, 108 f^iit miT ( l iHH^ i fi l (▼• a. I 
luiTe made yon king); Pane. 16 the Jackml begs penniuion to 
appear before the lion, the doorkeeper grants it him with the 
wordi nnrm^trsmf^)' 

Rem. In the archaic dialect of the brAhmanat etc. the aoriit 
seems to serre exclusively for this actual past'). The contrast 
between the historical tenses and the aorist is so striking there 
that it cannot possibly be overlooked by anybody who peruses 
these writings. The most instructive passages are snch, as men- 
tion the same fact twice, first when told by the author, after- 
wards when put into the mouth of one of the actors. Then we 
inyariably find the imperfect or the perfect in the historical ac- 
count, the aorist in the oratio directa. Ait. Br. 7, 14, 5 fiFT ^ ;^:7TT 

irfiif^iff ^ten^nwT stt wot ?TfTT: rror ^ ^ym: ^f^ i ^ iiicjHiur^rr 

err mv ^/rTT: (then he got teeth; then he said to him: »ho has, 

indeed, got teeth" then his teeth dropped out, then ho 

said to him: »his teeth, haye, indeed, dropped out**). Ch. Up. 5, 3 
the following story is told: (retaketu once came (uam) to the 
meeting of the Panc&las. To him the xattrija Prayfthana said 
(3onw)s »bas- your father instructed youF" (frj fsrrfTnf^JrTT) '). The 
other answered: »yes. Sir.** Then Pr. put five questions to him 
tnecessively, none of which he could soWe, and said: »why 
have yon said (fr^t^«rT:) yourself instructed, as you do not know 
these things?** Then (vetaketu, being sad with grief, came (^^nv) 
to his father and said (3on^): »why did you say (i mdUi^JlH ) I 

1) Wo may translate here the aorist bj a present: »a8 jou saj.** Cp, 
5Wt. II, p. 38 ed. Tarkavftgl9a ^ H l ol^>ll ^ dM l fM n^ TsA^Pmr^i (you 
do not know her, since yon speak thus). Cp. Greek r/ iyrJia^cm >wby 
do you laugh?" and the like. 

2) DelbuQck Altind. TempusL p. 128 »NiemalB ateht der Aorist [in this 
kind of works] im erzilhlendem Sinne , wie etwa das Imperf. oder Perf.** 
Yet, Ait. Br. 2, 23, 8 the aor. inRrT is , indeed , used in a historical sense. 

3) Such passages as this plainly show, methinks, that the system of 
the grammarians, according to which >past facts done on ihe fame day 
as they are related** must be put in the aorist, but when done before 
that day, in the imperfect (resp. perfect), is refuted by the very facts. 

254 S 834—836. 

luiTe iastriMtod job («j mrimm) , a iiiBple xattriya hat pat (wnm^ 
Uto questions to mo and I could not (iqmiRRsr) answer OTon one." 
So in the story of Ufasti C&krAjana Ch. Up. 1, 10 ete. the per- 
fect is used while the author himself is speaking, hut 1, 11, 2 
when the king excuses himself to U^asti, that he has not chosen 
him to be his officiating priest, the aorist appears imsr^ STT 9^r^ : 
M'Sf{ i f?Jti : TOfsfj imsmt srr fr^irfawiTJim^f^ (I have looked for you, 
for all these sacrificial offices, but not finding ') Your RoYorence, 
I haye chosen others). Cp. ibid. 6, 13, 1 etc. DblbrIIck, AUindische 
Tempuslehre p. 117 etc. has given a great number of instances from 
the Qafapatha and the Aitaroya. 

885. The aorist is \ised throughout Sanskrit literature in 
both its acceptations, actual and historical. Instances 
of the historical aorist occur as early as the Rgveda- 
sanhitft, though, I confess, not many are recorded'); 
and afterwards it is no less frequent than the other histori- 
cal tenses. For the rest, it may be observed that in easy 
proseworks and in compositions of rather simple style, 
the aorist is comparatively rare, and mostly limited to 

certain verbs often occurring , as ^EPTrT, ^TTFfrT, ^<m- 



Ifj^ Yet, in more elegant style, in the works of such 
writers as Dandin,, Somadeva, the aorist is em- 
ployed as often and with as much ease as the other 
past tenses. '). 
886. The partioiples of the past in ""H and «fio|Tl may 

1) Conatrae imaA' .... V^mT , instr. of friirfw. The reading is good , 
and needs no correction. 

2) A prayer-book, indeed, is not the fittest document from which to 
learn the historical stylo of a language. In epic poetry the historical aorist 
is common* 

3) For thb reason, I am astonished at the statement of WniTKiT (§582 
of his Sanskrit grammar), that the aorist is » seldom" employed in classic 

8 836—337. • 255 

^ dolthe same' duty as the aorist, whether they are at- 

«■ tended by the verb substantive , or without it (9). They 

are expressive of facts done , finished , and it makes no 

Dg" difference y whether these facts belong to the historical 

uTpast or have been done of late and have not yet lost 

**' their actuality, in both acceptations they are of the 

utmost frequency. They represent the younger idiom , 

the aorist the elder one.*) Accordingly they are rarely, 

if at all , thus employed in the archaic dialect. *). 

1. Examples of the historical past. » a.) partic. in V* Eath&s. 
4i 36 nidfand^Hl HI^P(iA l m 3pw^ (when she had gone some 
steps, the purohita stopped her); Pane. 51 ?;^Tf%fT» .... fjU i M^Kia ; 
ein* (once it happened that a religious feast with a procession 
took place) ; Da^. Ill ^r ^stt. .. . firf njwr ^rir "^ ^ ^rwrr irfiTrTT; — 
b) partio. in ''ffspyr. Pane. 148 fshfk^ m^m arrorr^ H i f^fMU i ^ (he 
asked a brahman for lodging); R. 1, 56, 14 hi^a i ^ RrttjeiU i lf^^K^l ; 
(the son of G&dhi threw the 5ra A ma- weapon) ; Hit. 109 spr:. .... 

^a^ uA ?frft G^mixit^ msn i^srer ^jTT^ fejorrrf uu i dd i ^i^ (— made his 
obeisance to his king Citrayarna). 

2. Examples of the actual past — a.) partic. in °r^, R. 3, 17, 24 
QikrpanakhA says to R4ma tt^ rcH. • • • M^i^H i fw (R*) I ftm come to you); 
EathAs. 42, 100 ^rmnft ^ f^sTT ir^ft mr ^'Jnf^i^^ i H^ (how is it that 
our father has brought us that are guiltless , into this state ?) ; Q&k. 
I [the charioteer to the king] mj spfr fsnx^i d^: ; — h,) partic in 
*fT5n?i. R. 1, 76, 2 vjHdMfw Ur^ ^Jridwirw UTTRT (I haTo heard , what 
deed you have done); (^^k. IV Kanva to Anas(iy4 v^pja i i Hoin) 
9t M.^WTJ i HuTi (Anasiky&, the friend and companion of both of 
you has departed); Mudr. Ill, p. 107 C&nakya to Candragupta ^or^ 

1) Hence commeDtaton often explain aorists by participles. 

2) I do not recollect having met with them doing duty as finite Terbs, 
in brfthmanos and npanishads. But, at I have not yet made a special 
inquiry into this subject, I refrain from affirming their entire absence 
from that class of works. 

2M , § SS7-S39. 

8d7« ^^ parlkipie in V may Ih» aometimM oxpretftive of the prMent 
(861). m: mrp ^^^ ^7 ^ asleep, it sleeping" as well as >1ie 
has just awaked from sleep" (actual past) or the slept" (historical 
past). To remoTO all ambiguoasness , one derives participles in 
*?T5P?j^ even firom intransUivei ^ as imsrPT^, mFfsrrr^, Sl^n^; such 
participles serve ezdusiTely for the past. — Yikram. Y, p. 173 
n: g^STTHT^tJ. . . . . ff ^ "irm (tifer^ (— * the peacock, that has slept 
on my bosom), Pane. I, 224 dHJlqen ^jih ^nn^t Kath&i. 81, 51 

mfsrH see 886, 2**, Hit 109 uuHdM see 836, T. 

But if the participle in V has a passive meaning, that in ^Rsi^ 
is its oorresponding active: Tff*^ (it is said, — has been said, -— 
was said), i»,e4 i >[^ (ho has said, he said). More about them 360, 

388« The old and genuine participles of the perfect, as HRqdl«j^ (t 

^^ m^pt) or wJRTt7r:t had the same function as those in ^rfsr^and V> 

eiplet which have almost wholly superseded them in the classic dialect 

^1^' (850, 2^. In the epic poems and in k&vyas several of them — 

at least in the active voice — also do duty as finite verbs ; they 

are then expressive both of the actual past, as R. 1, 58, 2 iMfadM 

(yon have gone to — ) and the historical, as R. 2, 12, 6 qfTrfirT'.i wr^" 

i »i uf^oiM. Cp. KathAs. 85, 41 and Qi^up. 1, 16. 

889. Sanskrit lacks a special tense for the so-called re- 
'^^'mote past or plusquamperfectum. The general past 

tenses are used even then. It must accordingly be inferred 

exclusively from the eontext, in what case a Skr. past tense answers 
to our »remoto past." That t L KathAs. 25, 180 the words q^ ?Txr- 

^iWdiM n^ mean »on the very spot, where he Aa({ got it," 

can only be shown by reproducing the whole story, from which 
they are quoted. — R. 2, 26, 3 R4ma has told his mother the 
cruel order he has just received from his father, to retire into 
the forest; now he goes to Htt&, who did not know anything 
about it i^ ^rf^ n?^ jt gOTsr fwRd i >T) (the unhappy princess had 
not yet heard anything of it). — Da^. 92 ^ ^ fan^r. ?RIC^ 

. 8 889-340. 257 

nAwr = »yimafdaka had indeed alreadj dforUd that verj daj.** 
[t is plain, that gonindi are especially fit to signify the remote 


Sanskrit has two future tenses , L the so-called peri- 
phrastic future (^5)' ^^nlTFT, 2. the future made 
writh «Fq^ (?J7): ^f^'VJlfH. 

The fdrmer is a compound tense , being made up of 
i noun in *?T + a formal element, expressive of the 

person, signified either by the auxiliary (^llt*1 etc.), 
)r by the personal pronoun >). Yet for the third person 
leither is wanted and the simple noun in TT may suf- 

ice: one says ^FTfTTIFr or ^ir|i«^*i, ^TrTTRT or ^RT 

SR", but in the 3^ person the simple ^RrTT is available. 

'n the dual and in the plural »rlT remains unchanged , 

vhen attended by the auxiliary, therefore ^rllt^J, 

hriit^:, but in the 3'* person ^ifil^l, ^fTT^: , and 

1) P&nini does not mention the 1*^ and 2^ penon formed by simply 
miting together the noun in ^ and the peraooal pronoun. Accordingly 
bit mode of formation hat been ezclnded from the official paradigms of the 
leriphrastic future. YetsPfiT^ i> quite as correct and as much used as 

nin#r. That P&pini left it unnoticed, may be due to his system of 

zplaining grammatical forms. To him si^ifni, caAiim: are forms to 
e dealt with, because by the union of both elements a new word 
rises, bearing one accent, but srnr -j- v;[p|[^ and the like are units 
jrntactically only , not so from a formal point of view, ilence , to P&nini 
be noun in ^FTT it not even the nomin. of a noon, but a simple stem 
» which the personal suffixes are to be added. Upon the whole, the 
iformation to be got from him about this future , is scanty, see P. 3, 
, 38; 2, 4, 85 and 7, 4, 50—52, cp. Bozthlixgk*8 note on 7, 4, ri2. 


258 $340 

of course also ^rii(|c|iqm, Wu^ ^P^f sim. Both 
pronouns and auxiliaries are occasionally severed from 
the verbal noun; the pronouns may precede as well as 

follow. Eren the aaxiiiary Bometimes precedes in poetry. 

Examples: 1*^ and 2^ person: Kath&a. 26, 31 i i >H l fw (I sball go), 
R. 3, 69, 40 irfiiirnTfiT 5<^*iR<(m , M&lay. I, p. 15nniTJTW2m^f!rft4^ 
(then I shall release M.), R. 2, 118, 10 m i ^l^^Vi mm ?ar qfrt'jjMjtKi r 
^kjSPi (— you will go to heayen), Mudr. V, p. 175 ^TO^^^rf^iaiAcr 
nw i i >H l » ! (— onrseWes shall start), Mhbh. 1, 136, 39 f^ ^j^ifrt ^i 
0^ ( i sHHi/jfl «F7Tf ^jfer fmr jp, ibid, 1, 120, 26 wm ;ju»m < 4h ^tsut 

3*> person: Ch. Up. 4, 6, 1 vifrrk ort sm (Agni will tell you a 
fourth part [of it]), Mhbh. I, Paushyap. 56 lyfern ^gf^i m XdUiu^ i rsri' 
-dg ' ^lrfl wHffi Bhojapr. 55 ;t 5fFV <Jld>^^Hci f^ci: efer ^ q^, Nala 
7, 5 qpr hn imr^ n%?V hot. 

Rem. 1. The future in ^rn inay be also used with a feminine 
subject — R. 1, 38, 8 ^^sriT ?CT^rTT q^r^ — > but occasionally the fern, in 
*in is used , at least ixf^Sit see f. L Kaih&s. 35, 105. — Some krts 
in ^-r^iy fem. '^ti^, especially mfsFT^* are also significative of a 
future tense (see 350). Yikram. Y, p. 181 M^iH;[Q*i<l imft (a quarrel 
between gods and demons will take place). 

Rom. 2. The medial endings of this future ~ or rather, of the 
auxiliary — are scarcely met with in the archaic dialect (WeirinET, 
Sanskr, Gramm, § 947). In the classic language they seem to be 
no more employed. Without auxiliary, there is of course no for^ 
mal distinction between the active and the medial voices. One 
says vwTT (he will study) from the medial iimhi^, Pane. 161 ir^ 
qfja i d l from qfprm^i «• well as f. L ^ or spni. Even a pas- 
sive meaning may be c'onveyod by this future. Kir&t 3, 22 ^. . . • 
i>qri(urii^ ; UiF4J«fM>i (they will be eradicated by Arjuna), R. 3, 
56, 6 ?ra$.... faoT & wffirrr sr^nrT i srfiyTTT rs ^: wA (if I shall be 
violated by you perforce, you will perish in battle). Of such 
roots, as may have special passive aorists, futures, etc. (316), a 
«pecial passive form is accordingly available, »he will be killed*' 

8 840—341. 269 

nj b0 eitlivr ipfr or vr^^, »it will bo gifen** eith«r jcmr or 
^jfftmt MO KAf. on P. 6,4, 62 = II, p. 311 of the Bentret-edition. 
Rem. 3. Mhbli« 3, 176, 20 this fatvre is eonstmed with an ob- 
eetiTe genitiye i^ nj nart^T (I Bhall mo jon again). Likewise 
^kgkn, lY, p. 65 ^^Mi nsr (nrrri the meaning of which, as ap- 
^ars from the context, is iwho will protect yon, ray sonP** As 
i mle, howorer, the object is pnt in the aocusatiTe. 

As regards its function , the tense in ^rlT cannot be 'i.'* 
ised of every future , but only of such actions , as will 
lot occur soon, in other terms which have not yet 
ictuality. It is, therefore, a remote future. The future 

n *ttl|r1^ on the other hand, is the general future ^ and 
nay be used of any future action, whether intended 
>r not, whether actual or remote. Hence, for the 

uture in "rH one may everywhere substitute that in 

Wirt, but not inversely. 

That the future in 't^lrl may express also purpose, 
ntention etc. will be sh6wn hereafter, see 344. 

The grammarians make the same distinction between ;^ and 
nr as between ^ and ^q^ Both imperfect (^r^) and ^^ are 
estrioted to the «hmh ?t *)* 

1) Commentators explain the tenn ffeiMH^ ilfsctnX^as meaning »futare 
sets, not to happen to-day, but to-morrow and afterwards." According 
them , that which wiU happen to-day cannot be signified by m^ 

Vhen exemplifying this tenie , they are wont to add SqT:. The K&tantra 

lames it even SEr^rTTt. Yet, this explication of UHUHH is no less narrow 
M regards the fatnre, as it has been shown to be for the past, see 
lote 1 on p. 24d and note 3 on p. 253 of this book. Nor are imtances want- 
Qg from literature of M^ denoting facts to happen on the same day. Pane. 
61 some bride has been left alone by her bridegroom and the whole 
aarriage-train , who hare fled at the threatening approach of a wild 

260 g 341-341* 

Kcm. The paU «;)^?ih, m Uaa beon stated above (330 B, 2), 
ii to bo eiproMod hj the general past tenses in two eases, St- ^: 
milarly the future fmiPrV finds its expression bj the general future 
in oT^ in the same cases, vis. > uninterrupted action** and »the 
time adjoining immediately that of the speaker,** therefore utsrS^' 
smjf rrwi7f"[not ;^Trn]t 'hn^ \ i\\a \ ku \ l\ ^ {iu'l^r\w \ ^ \ ^m) i l \ U^^^k^^r1 (at 
the next new moon the teacher will worship the holy fires). Some 
additional remarks are made by P. 3, 3, 136—138 to exclude ^^ 
in a few other cases; but nothing, he says, presents the use of 
Fiyr, if the time be exactly defined by a word meaning »day** or 
vnight.** The employment o(mr together with such words is proved, 
indeed) by instances, drawn from literature. 

341*. I» most cases, therefore, it is indifferent, what fu- 
ture is employed. Often both alternate. R. i, 70, 17 
umj''''" arm?:, but in the following yloka ^^ gtKi i 7 i srfw;i cp. K. 
1, 38, 8 and 2, 8, 22. This alternation is most apparent in conditional 
sentences; then either WT is used in both protasis and apodosis 
(Ait. Ur. 1, 27, 1), or in the apodosis only, but ^[^in the protasis 
(Kathus. 28, 131 nt«w..... irf^ srRif?n rrorrf^ iif^rTTT ijrj:), or con- 
versely (Kath&s. 1, 60 iRT rf^ sK^rrfw i y<i<rri Oci^i i Ri ft^ uiw i Q>4^' 
wtsfOt or the future in ^m^ in both (Eathas. 39, 67). In putting ques- 
tions, in uttering prophecies the future in ^rrr is , indeed , often em- 
ployed*), but the future in ^m^ is even there more frequent 

elephant; then a younj^ man comes to her rescue, takes her by the hand 
and 9iij» ifT ^PT^^ qQal l d !. Praboilh. VI, p. 134 Purusha eiclaims erdlT^ 
J^T^ nQjrllfUl H^:. Inyersely, the other futare is used even with 

ssT:. f. i. Maiav. II, p. 40 fd<0^;i^<vii ssft" ^;;wtmu 

1) DELBKQrK, AltindUche Worifulge p. 6>-8, treats the futare in ^, 
as far as it ii employed in the i^atapathabr&hmana. He concludes that 
it in the >objifC'tive future, denoting the certainty of the future fact, 
apart from any wi«h or desire on the side of the subject.** Though this 
will hold good in the majority of cases, it is not always supported by 
factff. A strong desire, an intention, etc. are occasionally also denoted 
by ^2^ R. 1 , 20, 8 Dafaratha offers to Vi9v&mitra to fight , himself ami 

his army, against the demons: irmT [vix. &?nrT] ^rfijrft Jimt ifhBTl^ 

8 S41**—342. 261 

41**» Aooording to the Ternacalar grammarians the general fttturo^-S*^ 
in ^^ixfh mfty eyen be expressiTe of the past in th^s case, if a 
▼erb of remembtring be added to the past action related. The 
imperfect, then, is forbidden and the future to be employed in- 
stead of it. K4c. give* this instance wfiRTPrrfn zjsp^ g.w i )^ cUTTFT:, 

likewise ft f ^R f, yjT&, HrWKl ST^mrr: = »do you remember, that 

we dwelled ..P** But this substitution of the future cannot be, 113/ 
if the action remembered or reminded is introduced by «!??• A 
third rule of P4nini on this head is explained as allowing both [il 
imperf, and future, if the verb of romombering introduces two 
or more past actions, of which the preparatory action is first 
named, the main action afterwards. See Pat. II, p. 119. 

Of this strange and rather awkward idiom I know no other 
instances but those, adduced by grammarians or such authors, 
as aimed at exemplifying the rules of Pdnini '). 

Chapt. IV. Tenses and moods (continued). 

542. The subjunctive mood is expressed in Sanskrit by 

tife four tenses: 1. TFTJ, called by some optative, by others 

potential , 2. ^lll^ir^ TrT^ the preoative or benedic- 

tive, 3. r^ the conditional, 4. FTT^ the impera- 
tive. The dialect of the Veda (mantra and brahmana) 
has moreover a fifth tense called rf/j by vernacular, 

hT-IUII^^ :i U^i^ol W'fr.UlfijfiflMT WM^^JwItt; when he then adds «nar- 

W i muwfim i ni d l dtflf^ Qvilil^M he must needs use the other future, 
as the action is a permanent one, cp. 341 H. 

1) in fact, I cannot persuade ujyself, that Papiui*t words have been 
well nnderNtood by the com nicnta tors. EBi»ecially the phrase vf^riTToF?^ 
is likely to mean something different. If it could be proved, that i*&nini 
used frfvRTT in the sense of »|»urpope" frfvRTTir. all difficulty of interpre- 
tation would tie removed. Then , indeed , Panini would simply teach the 
future in **?)!if^ doing duty as a future's past (322 R.), Swf?T = </*>- 
htmtt erat. 

252 8 342-*843. 

conjunctive by European grammarians, which was 
already obsolete in the days of P&aini. The duties of 
the missing tense are performed by the imperative, 

partly also by the present (FT5). Nor is the present 
the only tense, which apart from its expressing the 
indicative, may sometimes have the force of a sub- 
junctive; for the future in *ttl|rf — and, in prohibitions, 

even the aorist — is occasionally concurrent with I^T^ 

and ?nZr. That the conditional (^>§) was at the outset 
an indicative tense, appears sufficiently not only from 
its Outer form, but also from its original employ- 
ment. Upon the whole, the boundaries between in- 
dicative and not-indicative are less marked in Sanskrit 
than in Latin and Greek. 
348. The subjunctive mood finds its general expression 
'^^^in the tense termed M^ by Pa^nini , and which one 
« p^ is wont in Europe to name either optative or po- 


it th« tential, though it is not restricted to the expression 
•zponeatof both wishcs and possibility. In fact, any shade 
•ttigune-of meaning, inherent to the Latin conjunctive, may 
mMd. be imported by it. Its manysidedness entails the great 

variety of its translation. According to sense ^^^TFT 
may be= / can (eoulel) do, I may (miff/U) — , will 
{would) — , shall (should) — , must do, lei me do, sim. 

We may make some main distinctions: 

a.) rFI? is used in exhortations and precepts: hor- 

bj) it is expressive of \vishes: optative. 

c.) it is a potential, that is, it may purport a 

lU nibdi- 

§ 343. 263 

possibility, or a probability, on the other hand also 
uncertaiaty and impossibility or improbability. 

d.) it is used in hypothetical sentences. 

e.) it may be used in such relative sentences , as bear 
a general import. 

/.) it may be used in subordinate sentences expres- 
sive of a design or of inevitable consequence. 

•■)kw- a.) Ch. Up. 7, 3, 1 q>aiu i J i J | q (let m© ttudy the mantras), vmrfin ^.Ji*' 
vnsfh (let me do sacrificial acts); Pane. V, 103 ^: ^grrr ^ wirr . 
^w; ?Aj jnxpnj^i ^^fV n" ii"e^<ksn^ 3**iiiif'URiTiy^ (one must not 
take sweetmeats alone, nor wake alone among sleeping people, 
nor must one walk alone nor consider one*B affairs alone); Kum&ras. 
4, 36 53^. . . . rei(<i<f^u i cilHd i t<3 ; (you [Spring] must inflame the 
fire by the breezes of the southwind); Da^. 152 mir ^T^ fm^ 
H\^U'^ Qrm^min^ (ftnd now, I might return to your father). — 
From these examples it appears, that the hortatire f^^^ is ez- 
pressiye of any kind of exhortation. iionnyT^ may be =z »you 
must study** or »you may,*' vyou might,** »you are allowed to 
study,'* »it is your duty, the duo time — ** etc. See P. 3, 3, 161; 
163; 164 with comm. 

*).«P- 6.) K. 3, 19, 20 QArpanakhA utters this wish rWI I M<iUj ^jf ^'^f** 
f OjjJM^^^II^d (o, that I might drink their blood). To this pure *nd 
optative often the particle irf^ is added or isrffj hft- Mudr. II, 
p. 89 frftr ^fm <^ t f*j>mm i cfj<^rHMq>r^;ju i ^rari; R. 2, 43, 9 JHg i «i^ i rTf 
W «rT^: OTT7T..... Q lii l 'UUi^ psra^ (*^ that time were already present 
and I should see R&ma here). — The verb of »wishing** being ^i^* '• 
added, it may also be put in the ^rf* One says either 3^e^Tfxr 

) DO. 2^ ^'^"^ **' \^ S^ iRn^. Op. R. 3, 58, 5. 
»tul. c.) The potential f^ comprises various kinds: 

1. possibility and ability^ as Pane. 226 <t./^^ i rH^^<j "m^/iuh ihlii'^ri 

^uTrT (perhaps this brahman will awake by the lowing of the cows), 

Mrcch. VII, p. 238 rmnx {^[imm \ % vj i ^y^ei i (for princes can 

see through the eye of their spies), Kath&s. 2, 37 M*j,-ej^H*<<l l ^etptt: 

^ •g| | '8 ii ;<l i /f(^ (this boy is able to retain by heart all he has 
heard but once). 

264 . 8 343. 

2. frck^hiia^. Mreeh. Till, p. 268 tlM rake sayt tmar <lf^ n!V 
:nnfr ^>q i j,>i i 4^ (in mj abteneo the eniel man will kill her), EathAi. 
25, 24 srrfhnr^ ^ 5175 ?Tt jf^ (that old man, methinkt, will 
know that town); 

3. doubt, Qik. V f^i^^Q^VJj inrsFiT wrsn^ *iweh i v i *[tiei ; fff^: g: 
(for what reason may the Rererend K. have sent holy men to . 
me?). Pane. I, 215 ^ j^rm^ ciT <><JlRyjg|^ Uj - ^fl l t ^f^^iAMfTl^ gT 
XtpfT Jl^ ^rrranj^ (the arrow shot by an archer may hit one In- 
diridual or may not hit him, but the wit of a witty man hits 
a [whole] kingdom with its ruler); 

4. in negative and interrogative sentences f^in may express 
improhahility or impoasihilittf, Da^. 92 Pwu i Mf^m^hMf/l'&fe l ei M [sc. 
unc^]iefPT ciwry i i ^ (he sought carefully, but did not find him; 
how could hep), Mrcch. VII, p. 236 frf^ um r M^ 5r^t ^ g rsrt 
' j i ;mi;H*{^ (I had rather forsake my life, than you who are a sup- 
plicant to me), R. 2, 37, 32 ^ft^r ^ ^ faro?T m ?T p^mg^:; 

5. A special kind is . the ^r^ being employed for asserting one's ^5 
power the may even do this." R. 3, 49, 3 R4vana boasts ii\d 

ipnut g « i R>TiM*>j^ - Iwr: 1 wrftOT ng^" «r ^ iprr ^ fpi?r:i frS gqt 
?iw^ f^ l\!^t \ ^^ (1 am able to lift up the earth with 
my arms, drink up the ocean etc.). So often with ^^f^ (or ^ 
see P. 3, 3, 152. — But if one says she may even do this,** in 
order to express blame on that account, the present is neces- 
sary, and the fpf? is forbidden (P. 3, 3, 142). K&(. gives this 
example ww — or ^ng — rrawsn^r^ ^[m fl ii dofd (he is even able to 
officiate for a ^ikdra). 
d.) ky« d.) the hypothetical f^T is used, if it is wanted to say, what 
^^T ^i'i happen or would happen , if some other fact occur or should . 
occur. It is used in the protasis as well as in the apodosis of 
hypothetical sentences. Mhbh. 1, 82, 21 (larmishthd says to Yay&ti 

igwtiqrinifft ^ro Wr^ w»%wqiT^ (if I had offspring from you, I 
would walk in the highest path of duty) , Pat. I, p. 2 ^x ^m^* 
^ 5n^ ^^><i ! fg^t srr fi-JKi^ ^fa n^ <i^: WT?r (for he, who should 
kill a brahman or drink strong liquor without knowing it, even 
such a one would be an outcast, methinks), Pane. Ill, 203 irf^ 

§ 343—344. 265 

f^u Cp. 489 and 471 R. 4. 
il)^T^ ^O ^T^ used in relative sentences of general import kqr, 1, 
JjJiJj 3, 1 mr gr 9 ^m>firfl i fi ^ (wheresoever one has the intention of per- 
•«t«i- forming oblations), Pane. I, 105 chMifTufimif mh ?r «pp3^ imf^: i 

CM Ol C >* «^ 

p«»*''»^ eh<' i R<H ?T TO^ i iPmh i ?»f^ ^cnPTT: (the king 'who duly observes 
uiiport. ** 

the time of paying the wages to his oflScials, him ^), ibid. I, 

f.)f^f7 f») f^r? expressive of a design or a consequence. Kath&s. 36, 
"jjj" 106 ^ Wi^mmm Jr ^ ^ 2::m?Tt <{Hilfd>uT l ^li li q^ (I betuko my- 

*^ self to Hari , in order that such grief may never again befall me), 

eatire R. 3, 13, 1 1 mRu i ^ rJT. • . . . STST SRHnT , ibid. 3, 50, 18 T\ IXT7\ ^TPJ ilrTsft 
eUases. _^ ^ ^ 

QT TTj- >4 i dMi<<Jrt (ono must boar only such a burden, as will not 

exhaust its bearer). 

Rom. srr — in epic poetry also jt — with f^T^= »lest.** Cp. 
406 R. 1. 

It needs no argument, that the subdivisions laid 
down here and other simiLir ones are somewhat arbitrary. 

It is one and the same ri^ that is involved in all of 

. them, and it is only for the sake of developing the 

variety of the logical relations , which are signified by that 

so-called .optative" or .potential," that we have tried 

I to distinguish at all. 

344. Apart from the many-sidedness of its employment, 

The ^^ 

idioms it is to be observed, that the PT7 is in most cases not 
*" rent indispensable. The imperative , the present , the future , 


f^^ the krtyas are often concurrent idioms, occasionally 
the conditional. The imperative in the subdivisions «), 
b) and c), as will be shown hereafter (348-352), the 
present in the subdivisions e) and /), as will plainly 
appear when we treat of subordinate sentences (458 6 , 

268 § 344. 

468,471)1). 0nthekrt7a8 8ee857,on the conditional 847. 
^^^^ But it is especially the future in VJTrJ that often is 
ftton employed so as to express a kind of subjunctive mood. 
^ *The difference which logically exists between the posi- 
tive statement of some future fact on one hand and 
the utterance of an exhortation, a wish, a doubt, a 
supposition, sim. on the other, is not so strong a bar 
practically as to keep wholly apart the functions of 
the future tense and the subjunctive mood. Occasio- 
nally the same grammatical form may do duty for 
both. As far as Sanskrit is concerned, we may even 
state that in the majority of cases there is no 
boundary between the two. Indeed , the future in Vmrl 
is available in almost every subdivision, belonging to 
the department of thelrTZT, save the hypothetical mood. 

Examples of the future = subjunctive mood. 

a.) exhortation and precept, R. 1, 61, 2 [l^\i\^\ uUf^m^^j HtmiM< 
717:, from the context it is evident that these words mean: let us go 
to another region, let us do penance there. Kath&s. 43, 86 ^ 1 4,%^ 
<m5 nwro V[i\m ^^mTkl (— you shall return quickly at daybreak). 

h.) wish, R. 2, 96, 21 frf^ ;fT ciui^n i T^f^?iQi<i(fccid^ pfr 1 «rf^ ^wn^ 
UTrizT^ (0 that I might see the banner — , that I might see Bharata). 

I) The iaterchaogeableoeta of present and optative in such relative 
sentences will be made clear hj this. In Pane. I we have a series of 
ten 9lokas (54—63) eipounding what kind of people are fittest for at- 
tending on a king. All of these flokas are framed on the same scheme, 
three p&das being made up of a relative sentence, whereas the fourth 
makes op the apodosis, being the refrain ^ naTHIoRT^T:. Now, in five 
flokas out of the ten, the verb of the protasis is an optative, but in 
three it is a present, in one it is wanting. In the tenth the optative is 
employed logether with the present (I, 55) g^cnn^ foTTf gqiir Ut P i mdqd i 


% 344—344**. 2«7 

e.) pouibtlUy and doubt. Pane. 282 ^nffRmnmr i f^^^HHo i * • • • • 

• rogae reflected: What shall I do with her? And perhaps some- 
body will come after her; then I shall get into great incon- 
Tenience). — Especially the future of the auxiliary, iTf^fsrfTT, often 
expresses prohahility. Mhbh. 1, 76, 32 gjw ^ ijfft snf^ ch-dM i d 
iifgrorf^ (I am sure, father, Kaca will have been injured or has died), 
Pane. 176 the deer Citr&nga tells how himself has escaped the 
hunters, but ^^ m ^aai Sbufa l f^d Mf&imfrf (my flock is sure to 
haye been killed by them). 

Rem. 1. If such phrases, as »I blame,** »I do not believe," 
>I cannot. endure," •! wonder if (?f^V' » I suppose, surmise," lit 
is time" are added to the potential statement, f^ is idiomatic 
(see P. 3, 3, 147^150; 152--153; 168), the future being but rarely 
allowed, cp. P. 3, 3, 146 and 151 with comm. But if the said verbs 
are only implied, the future in ^f^f^ is used side by side with 
the optative.^) 

f,) purpose. Pat. I, p. 7 the master of the house comes to the 
potter and asks him ^ g^ ehPJM^' l flhQfil l J i fH (make me a pot, 
that I may make use of it). Likewise R. 2, 54, 28 BharadTdja 
says to R4ma ^ryrsSt^ ^hm i h fTif^fifwPidf^rdRi (at a distance of ten 
kro0i from here there is a mountain whore you may dwell, cp. 
Lai mona in quo habitea^, Cp. also tt with fut. =: lest" 406 R. 1. 
^*« Inversely a Sanskrit optative may occasionally be rendered by a 
fiiture. Mhbh. 1, 160, 1 Kuntt asks the brahman, at whose house 
she dwells, why he and his family are lamenting [^.m] fdf^fci l* 
QTTSR^ snsF^ ^<mf>rfifj*i (I will remove your. pain, if possible, fr. 
je ehasserai voire douleur). So Pane. 282 , which example is quoted 
above, optative and future alternate; likewise Pane. 65 ^ en^ 

• Even the future in '^m niay sometimes express a subjunctive 
mood. As far as my information goes, this employment is limit- 

1) The sfitra P. 3, 3, 146 is accepted too Darrowly by the commeotators. 
It enjoins the future in ^kufrl for eipressing the notion vto be8ure,cer- 
tainly,*' and t. 147 is to be considered an eiception to iU 

268 § 344**— 345. 

ed to the dominion of the potential mood. Hhbh. 4, 12, 3 9^ 
^flil»nfl(d Ml*WiML*j^iirar Xtjuih ii^jttt foC^fiui: (he examineB my hor- 
des, ho ii sure to be a connoUsear in hones), Pat. I, p. 250 nin 
^r^ ^aninng* jtt srurfV im^ tif^ yife en^^mft frrfro (like- 
wine, if at a distance one sees a person of whom one can on)j 
discern the outline, one is likely to say: it looks like the wife of a 
prince, it looks like the wife of a br&hmana). 

845. Sanskrit makes no distinction between the different 
J^ tenses of the subjunctive mood. The M>$ expresses 
tke/MM/ the past as well as the present, ^R'TTR' may be occasi- 

sft well ^ ^^ 

M tiM onnally = ,1 might, I would etc. Imce done^ Ch. Up. 

f**^' 4^ l4j 2 when the teacher asks his disciple »who has taught you, 
my dear?" ^jro ^ rr tmAWAWl ^ tbe other replies ^Tt rr imfurnnn 
(who should have taught me?), Gaut. 12, 1 sjjt Rti r f7i> l fH<;VjKiU 
f?n<rar d l itt^UiM l ^t^JUM TTgrj m^SFfrnpnrr (a ^Adra, who has inten- 
tionally reviled twico.born men — shall lose the member, whereby 
he has offended), Mrcch. Ill, p. 124 CArudatta speaks f%^7n^ i^^: 1 
<TT ^TTT h %M\^,yti\i TPTTrT (Muitreya tarries; how, if, in his distress, 
he should have done some forbidden thing!). Yet an optative of 
the past may be made by adding mirK or itot to the participle 
of the past, t I Kath&s. 27, 32 fife ivwyhA jmr ;ia?x. (in what 
can I have offended the king?;. ^) Likewise, by putting them 
to the participle of the future one gets the subjunctive mood of 
the future. 

For the rest, Sanskrit can hardly be said to possess some- 
thing like ten8e$ of the subjunctive mood. *) Only a kind of op- 

1) So already in the archaic dialect. Ait. Br. 1,4,1 zr: dGnrrhTTT; 
lOrrai^ (to iuch a one , as has not HucriGced formerly) , f^TFT is the partic. 

of the perf. &tm. of CRT. 

2) The Rgvedamantrat , indeed, contain many optatives, belonging to 
the aorist, some also, which are made of the stem of the perfect. But 
they have early disappeared from the language. — In the archaic dialect 
the conditional may occasionally do duty of the past of the ^T7* see 
347 R. and cp. H..S.3. 14ft. 

§ M6-347. 2«9 

tji(iv« of the aoriii htm snnriTed, bat it it not what we ihonld 
call a tense. It it rather a kind of mood , see the next paragraph. 

The preoatlve or benedictivo (iJlfiUn i?T3). This ^'m^' 

mood is restricted to benedictions, and even thei-e it 

has a concurrent idiom: the imperativa M&lat. Vii, p. 91 

fa^hmpBTT: iT^TipniThrt qQuiPA i eprmr ^J^rKW (may the gods make 
the issue as happy as possible, may I obtain my dosiroV Utt. I, p. 5 

The so called conditional pTS^ is properly the past 

of the future in °VMIrI, In classic Sanskrit its employ- 
ment is limited to the expression of the so called wodus 
irrea/iSf that is the mood significative of what would 
happen or have happened, if something else should have 
occurred, which really has not taken place. Then, 
mostly, both protasis and apodosis contain the con- 
ditional. ') 

Ch. Up. 6, 1, 7 zm^nTS^Tzr^nr % > i idfejei (for if they had known 
it, why should they not have told me so?), Pane. 237 T^Tfr tipx 
Hirmgrffarnfr nrrt ^ ^c^ucu^iq isii Qi^u^^dq i iji^ (for if thoy had done 
according to his words, then not the least misfortune would have 
befallen them), Da^. HI rfr H^h i< {J i ri;,M«^ dkJ'Uidrvjujfiifli^fii ii.iA'i 
na^ cKTlel^^J l ^HjfUHU l (if those two princes should have grown up 
without accidents, thoy would have reached your age by this 

time), Kum&ras. 6,68 mtruminrA httt: OT ^M r f r r^< ; rH i g^i'aMR''ji - 

nnn ^ %rT^ (how would the serpent [^osha] boar the oarth , if you 
[Vishnu] had not lifted it up from the bottom of hell?), Ch. Up. 

1) Nala 17,35 the precative MjjUrT <loef( the duty of an hortative im- 

2) P. 3, 3. 139 f^ljfTm ^fenlTrm. 

HO jj^ ^. — Ka9. im 'ET v^ fwTfiffJw fiTOTf?mfr Tm\ 

270 $ 347. 

1, 10,4 7f ST n i ftfwafllMMm^HL (fowooth, I ihould haye died, if 
I had not eaten them). In the examples glTen, the conditional 
in the apodoeii lometimet denotes a hypothetical past, sometimes 
a hypothetical present, bat in the protasis it is always expressive 
of a past. I do not recollect having met with any instance of 
the conditional denoting the hypothetical present in both members ; 
M. 7, 20 C L it is signified by the fwT in the protasis and by 
the conditional in the apodosis jrf^ tj umu«^ i 'j i ;rjjj ^tt^toft^^tt:! 
gj^ Mf m 1 T l d w%^;j^»J^ Mj gTcnrp; (if the king wore not prompt to 
inflict panishment on those, who deserve it, the stronger would 
roast the weaker like fish on tho spit). For the rest, it is every, 
where allowed to use tho f^r? instead of the conditional, f. I R. 

2, 64, 22 ejgH<ui*r qfr»T ?t ft ^ 9»^: ^ci7PTt QiA>^v ff m h (id'MM ; snw 
f^avT (if you had not told me yourself this evil deed, your head 
would have fallen off in a thousand pieces), ^fifm: &nd xr^^frfjn 
v^filhuii and fnnf^rairT* 

Rem. In the archaic dialect the conditional had a larger sphere 
of employment. Though rarely used in its original meaning of a 
future's past (f. L Rgv. 2, 30, 2 ift ^srnr fd^ i Msiuir^mrf »who was about 
to take away the provision of Yrtra*^), it occurs there occasionally 
as the past of tho f^^, even in not-hypothetical sentences. Maitr. S. 
If 8, 1 CT n^ >nfd><rtii»gr i 5<ii)wi^ (Praj. did not got what he 
could sacrifice)!), ^at. Br, 14, 4, 2, 3 rm ^mm m shmu qrftt- 
rui^^cQ?!^ (from that moment his fear vanished, for of whom could 
he have been afraid?)*). 

1) Even here and in similar instances the conditional shows its origin. 
The sentence qnoted from the Maitr. S. treats of an action put into the 
post, if it were a present one, the sentence would assume this shape ^ 

fll^fri Ql&ttufri or ^vQT^* In other terms, v^tczi?r^ may here be con- 
sidered as the past of ^ml?> . 

2) in a well-known passage of the Chandogya-upanishad (6, 1, 3) the 
conditional is hidden under a false reading 377 H^^I^UIMUI^'I eiH14^H ^ 
ilorf?r etc. ^ankara eiplains frOTW: by ^^oIlelRl . the Petr. Diet, accepts 
it as an aorist, though it is then a barbarism, for if oor., it would have 
been frcn^:** Replace fRTW:* and all is right >had you but asked the 
instruction, by which etc.'* Cp. P. 8, 3,141. 

8 848-349. 271 


8. Sanskrit Imperative (FTTT) comprises more than is 
1^ conveyed by its European name. It is not only the 

equivalent of v^hat we are wont to understand by this 

mood 9 but it is also expressive of wishes , possibility 

and doubt. 

We will treat severally of its different employment: 

^ I. The imperative, like out's, signifies an order or 

^injunctions permission ^ precept ^ exltortation ^ admonition. 
^. Examples: 2'* perion. Kath&s. 81, 56 «WfVii i ^»Tl'^K> i inRcrrfw- 
*" 5^''^ W^ 5^ ^^'' 'T^ («njoy the hospitality of our mistroBS, get 
up, take a bath, thereafter take food), 9&k. IV 2r^;rf?Rn: trnr^* 
*» I ^VKIH^ (my children, show your sister the way), Prab. Y, p. 
103 ^ jii^iT: JT nrTT: OT ?Tr ^ fffffaRii^; — 3^ person. Da^. 132 
WTO^ R^<^!hi^ WJ (lot this wicked elephant withdraw), Nala 17, 
82 OTfTj Rsr ffOTT: ^u<jy[>»m mAxJi (your attendants must try to 
find out Nala), M&lav. V, p. 137 ftt « |> i iej^<l»ji fDn^iij? < ^<^ft ! U i (they 
may rule oyer — ); — 1** person. fAk. Ill qAi>jM><i?^ d^s^^M^ i Qur<l 
CF^isnfnT (if you permit, I will make — ), Mhbh. 1, 146, 29 ^tttxt sm- 
tfT^sns|[ (let us wander oyer this country), Nala 7, 7 ;t^ Ut^ <n977: 

Rem. In exhortations, some particles are often added to the 
2^ person, as vf^, vj, n^ otc. See 418. 

9. In courteous injunctions and requests it is very com- 

It mon to use the imperative of the passive instead of 
u the 2^ person of the active. Then the agent is com- 
monly not expressed (10). Ratn&y. IV, p. lOO king to me8« 
senger ^fjrm wmirfrriarFTpT:, messenger to king ^ ^tFmj^ (listen, 
Sire). Pane. 48 the barber enjoins his wife ;i^ 'J i ^iiu i .nUf i l ^mrr- 
II7S][^ (please, my dear, fetch me my razorbox). Yikram. I, p. 4 the 
apsarasas are bewailing their companion Urva^t, carried off by 
the D4naya8, Purikrayas interyones and says g WM i yir<^?f>l iJTprf 
^^^ waifTt Wfft nsmr: ofhrrnsiT yf^r. — For the rest, usn? »» of 

272 i 349—351. 

courae here likewise a? ailiible (MAlav. 1, p. 4 mjitf ^19T^ *Bd when 
showing respect and reverence , one uses the title of the person 

addressed instead of it (260). So Pane. 86 n^ iff mr^orr ffTHTT- 
TiirpiFr f9im i* * more respectful mode of inviting, than ^srrfn^ 
« l Mi l >tf l ^<l t cp, ibid. 48 spHP?[ ipsrni mim^: (▼. a. I request the 
judges to listen). 

850. Another manner of expressing polite request , equally 
whel frequent, is using the verb ^T^IrT. One says ?rFpF^T?T= 

fh^ ^^FTFf , cp. our ,deign to listen." Nala 3, 7 Nala says to 
tlw«- *^® S^"* ^ ^ uuRifj^^"^ (please, send not mo), QAk. V the door- 
I»ert- keeper to the king ^Xw^ ' ti ' ^ '^- ^ HJM^U I W' ^: ^TgJT^ffTt. 

Rem. The f^r^ and the future in °^rt are concurrent idioms 
with the imperative, the former espocially in exhortations and 
precepts (343, a), the latter, whoa giving instructions (344, a). 
The future does, however, not cease to bo a future; in other 
terms, it is not used in ordurs or permissions to be acted up to 
immediately, but if two or more injunctions are given, then often 
the one prior in time is put in the imperative, the latter expressed 
by the future. MAlav. Ill, p. 79 ;i|^ jxwm » «I*T fiid^rM>j i ^M(*in5fg r ^- 
Urffti^ (you may go, but first hoar — ). Hit. 108 the old jackal 
instructs the others, huw to get rid of the blue jackal, their 
insolent kinsman. When giving the general precept, he uses the 
imperative VR^t but the future chfimq , when giving the special 
injunction, to be acted up at a fixed point of time in the future ')• 

851. 11. The imperative is expressive of wishes and bene- 

11. Im- .. .. 

,»n. dictiona. 
tifces- Examples: Such phrases as ^rf ^1?) Hit. 118 ir^ Qi^Si Msr» 

fliTC of 

1) lo this very meaoiog a few passages of the Mah&bh&rata afford a 
2^ pert. plur. of the medial future id ^^ST^i inatead of%7, in other terms 
a formal difference, which ttampt theite forms as iiaperutioei of the future. 
Dorr, VtrgL Gr. § 729 quotes three instances: Mhbh. 1, 17. 13; 3,228, 
8; 6, 27, 10, see Uolt/.mann, Grammatisches aug dem Mhbhta p. S3. To them 
I can add a fourth, Mhbh. 1, 133, 13: Drona being seized by a shark, 
calls upon his disciples for rescue 9T^ ipcTT g <ltiRI^ ^n^j^* 

% 851—368. 278 

KAgAa. IT, p. 61 ^Ftamf J'n^ {^'^J ^^® prinees be Tictorioai), 
Pane. 16 finsn^ q^iPT: ^pn (▼. a. God speed you on your way), 
Mttdr. Til, p. 231 f%7iiarfj i^ u i rit^M^if^ u — Here the precative 
(846) and the f^rj ure eoncurrent idioms. 

Rem. It is to benedictions that the imperative in ^ni«x^is limited ^'Jj^* 
in the classic language. Da^. 16 ^>im i j^w>h fnyj^pn iiarrfifpRTTTfr. *) 
In the ancient dialect it had a wider employment, only see the 
series of precepts quoted Ait Br. 2, 6, 13—16. ') 

2. TIL The imperative is a kind of potential mood, ex- 
«. pressive oi pombility bxhA. doubt (cp. 344). It is especi- 
^ ally used in interrogations. 

of Examples are frequent of the 1'^ and 8^ person. -^ Pane. I, 
•y 225 it says, a serpent even a not-poisonous one, is to be dreaded 
^ fsi^ uaj m \ ^\^hL\C\^ \ iiOTJ^: (it may have poison or not, the 
swelling of a serpont*s crest is dreadful), Mhbh. 1, 37, 8 iri^ sirsr- 
^mniTT f^ ^ QSTTT i\ \ yC\ (perhaps by deliberation we may find some 
means for rescue), M&lav. IV, p. 117 vxw'sm g i<<<yjm i f»Vitj.f»M i T<iiej^ 
(how may we be roHCUod from this danger?), Utt. I, p. 21 vfitm 
Wct^Sk ("v^ho on earth will believe it?), Vikram. T, p. 184 ;rT 
p?rf^ ir )iv: M wfg m»ynM>i ; (sayi king, what may Indra more- 
over do for you?), Hit. 118 ^^nm iw i Mdi ir^mw: (how may this 
greatJiearted man be prabed [as he deserves]?). 

3. IV. The imperative with m or RTFT serves to ex- 
,;. press pro/iibiiion. Yet this idiom is comparatively little 
^ used , but instead of it eiiAer *IM*1 or ^rlH with the 
I instini mental of a verbal noun, or the aorist without 

1) Another inntADce is pointed out by prof. Kkrn as occurriDg in a 
Sanskrit inacriptioo on a stone, origioatiog from Java, which stooe iR 
now in the Museum of Antiquities at Ciilciitta. Vs. 4 of this metrical 
inscription hag this close: ^ dCIHI^^^Hmi ^: (king Erlanga may be 
victorious). See K£KN*s paper in the Bijdragen van het Inslituut voor tie 
Taal' Land' en VolkenkunUe van NetlerlQwheh Indie ^ 1885 (X, p. 1—21). 

2) DelbrQck, AUiwlUche Wurtfulge^ p. 2— G has endeavoured to prove 
that the imper. in ^rfTrT did duty of an imperative of the future in the 
dialect of the brfthmana-works. 


274 § 363—366. 

otkcr augment, preceded by ^ or TTFT. ,Do not feir" f. L ' 
?^. = ^ ^^f ^ ^T^ or ^ "^^ 

^P'^ Examples : 1. of iroper. with itt and xrRtr. Pane. 294 iit m ^TTT^ 

Drohi- n^, Kath&t. 39, 233 jam mwj^ fnVrT (go on, do not stay here); — 

"* 2. of v^ff{^ and ^rfrn^ with instrumental. Mudr. I, p. 46 ti^mvi^a i 

(no hesitation more), ibid. p. 53 ^tmm Qti r ^H (he not sorry, my 

dear), Pane. 64 n^ j&mWi QAk. I ^ ^ j^^> i ; — 3. of aor. with irr. 

Aoriit Daf . 143 STF^ iVsnA ^: (do not fear, ladies), Mhbh. 1, 153, 34 xn* ^rr 

^^ ^nr: (do not tarry), B. 2, 42, 6 OTTfjr ^wgh i ^ i P i m WTwl: qr^rfrow 

(do not touch my body, you eril-minded woman). 

Rem. 1. fr^>|[^ is also construed with a gerund or an infin. Mudr. 
Ill, p. 124 fRfSFTT^*? (do not censure me any longer), Mrcch. Ill, 
p. 106 iv7% k\UxWi vpsTyfmfti^ (do not awake the sleeping people). 

Rem. 2. In the epic dialect the augment is not always dropped 
in the aorist with xn*. So in the famous imprecation R. 1, 2, 15 
m f^m^ ff^irt tamw : sTro^jrft: Ktmu Cp, Mhbh. 1, 37, 7 itt sr': 9?r?fV 



Rem. 3. With mFT not only the aorist is allowed, but also j 
the imperfect tense, of course without augment. R. 2, 9, 23 xn* 
^ Hri}«nA''i i m ^pm^nmjfn-.f Da^. 160 xnw Tnn w^^^asmi m^^- 

Rem. 4. itt with optative is of course a concurrent idiom. In 
the pr&kfts also ztt with future in '^mfh' Likewise in the epic 
dialect. Mhbh. 1, 30, 15 the three idioms are used side by side 

QaT XfT UI^M ?rrnXTT OTT CT^ciM o'i1l*J^I*TT fat J^vJ- M*AI dl^(^<MI 

854. The aorist with RT is not restricted to prohibition. 

It does occasionally duty as an optative with negation. 
M^cch. VIII, p. 280 dM>riHH Ki^m i ^fM 5nm »fT awT ijFgr f^ g^^i 

Mir^w^u i Mu^i mmt f^^m mrn^ R. 2, 30, 19 xtt snif frdrrt muj. It 
may e? en express a doubt (362): Kath&s. 42, 1 14 i^r^m f^ ^ tn? 
vnr sfT 4fbni^ (^^^ <^<^n a crime, recklessly perpetrated, fail to 
cause mishap?). Or anxiety: Pat I, p. 418 i^ O r ti l fu (lost one 
should decide thus). 

355. In classic Sanskrit the 1*' person of the imperative 


§ 355. 275 

•i*iB less used than the other two (cp. 856). In fact, these 

iv«l** persons belong to another set of forms, viz. theso- 

^ called conjunctive (^). In both dialects of vaidik 

compositions , in mantras as well as in brfithmana-works , 

this conjunctive is still to be met with. But P^nini already 

qualifies it as archaic. In epic and classic Sanskrit , in- 

er-deedy its 2** and 3** persons exist no more » whereas its 1»* 

in. persons are the very forms considered to make part 

bi-of the imperative (?n7). 

^^ This vaidik coDJunctive shows a great relationship both in form 
^'and employment to Greek conjunctive, especially that of the Homeric 
dialect. It may express both, the hortative mood and the op- 
tative, and is much used in subordinate sentences, conveying a 
doubt or A purpose or having general bearing. Here are some 
instances of its. use. Ait. Br. 2, 2, 5 gr^ ^ fFTTif^ Jif^ ^ simft ^^feom- 
ai^ l H UWT7| (whether you are standing or lying down, give us 
wealth), Rgv. 10, 85, 86 the marriage-mantra m u ii ili ^ ^» iiirel i u 
^ ^f^ qwT ?Tf5;f%OTm:, ibid. 39 (Tmfj^^m r v. qP i Jfa i iH st^-. girrr 
(may her husband have a long life, may he reach a hundred 
autumns), TS. 6, 5, 6, 2 itsrn sTTffTrrr 9FTT?r ?r ^«s^ (who shall 
be bom of her, must be one of us). ^). 

Rem. 1. Like tj with optative in the epic dialect /461 R. 1), 
so ^ with conjunctive in the vaidik works may be •=! »lest** 
Nir, 1, 11 Ttfl^j uTxif ?T^ ^TfTTXT (lest by going astray we shall 
go to hell), Ait. Br. 2, 12, 2 h^ ^^^rrfiig^ <.q I' '^ ' ''^ » 'JL ('®** *^®y 
should go to the devas unsatisfied). 

Rem. 2. Some few conjunctives, occurring in the archaic texts, 
belong to the system of the aorist, as ehiW in Rgv. 10, 15, 6 itt 

1) Instances from KgVi, AV., (at. Br., Ait. Br. are brought together 
by DelbbQck in hit treatise Der Gebrauch des Conjunelivs und OptativM 
im Sanskrit und Griechischen Hallo 1871, especially p. 107—190. — It 
may be observed, that the Cbundogya-upaDishad has not a single io stance 
of the ^ in the 2^ or S^ person. 

276 I 356— 356. 

fiffw i^?fp ftsf feyV ^ mn: 3^WfT wp«T (do* u bo iiO<i>7i fetheni, 
on aeeomit of any offeaoe , whioh we • after the manner of men, 
may have eomnitted against you). 

856. Instead of the 1*^ persons of the imperative, classic 

!•* |ier- ^— ^TK 

■o««f Sanskrit often uses the present (t?to),sometimes when 

•"* having the nature of a hortative, as ^1^1*1? when = 
em. »let us go,** but espccially in dubitative interrogations: 
M^'r* f% ^TFT ^ il^lH (what shall I do, where shall I gol) 

tire. <>•) present with hortatire meaning. R. 2, 96, 20 mt^i^ f^TTor: 
^nTrr^^iffTwr (}et us stand still here — ), Pane. S6 HW l f*fU i p - 
jrt^ ^: (let us present him with our body^, Prabodh. II p. 29 

ijcijisfern^ c i ^tjfd i i ii UT [= "farcrrf^], R. 8, 61, 18 gpr ^ fsrf^gsr: 
' (let us search through the whole forest]. «) — The idiom is regular 
with jfTcifT. 9^k. I iTcTjj I <n;57Tr?TfpT TcT fawa^d i msr^^ qsmfn (well, 
I will look on her —), Mudr. IV, p. 138 Malayaketu to Bh&gur&- 
yana h^mmmuI^: spn^^ma?^ (therefore, let us not approach, let us 
rather lUten), Pane 261 ^ jjf f^jH^idifii WT^^r ufirzTf?? Cp. 
jnaTT^ with present 478 al. 2. 

h) present in dubitative interrogations : Pane. 40 f^ SF^rar 

"TTprfxr f* STT fg^T ?RJ^^ f^f oTT q^SuT 5i!im i d,my*r (shall I kill 
him with a weapon, or gire him poison, or put him to death as 
one kills a beast?,), Hit. 95 t; urn: f^T STT jiiT:, Mhbh. 1, 155, 42 
f* Vtfrm^mufmf fiiiSTj ar^Tnnm: (friends , tell me frankly , what 
nhall i do for you —• f^ gh^cuRll **)* An instance of this idiom in 
the passive voice may be Pane. 37 fffHr f^WH [sc. WTam^n^] »what 
shall be done by us?'* 

1) If these instances occurred only in verbs of the lit eoigogation, 
where the formal difference betweeo the endings of the present and 
those of the imperative is a slight one, one could account for them in 
a satisfactory way by supposing errors of the copyists* But, in reality, 
instances being likewise found among the verb* of the 2^ conjugation, 
it mu«t be recognised, as we do, that the present instead of the impe* 
rative is idiomatic for the 1'^ person. Such phrases as a^f; , sjOToTS = 

^UJdiii and ^im i oilfcl should have moved CArp£UEa in his edition of the 

S 867. 277 

K TTA8. 

•7. The krtFft«» as &r as they do duty for finite verbs, 

^ ', may rank with the tenses , which are expressive of 

the subjunctive mood. They have the nature of Latin 

gerundivum, and, like this, they belong to the passive 

voice. But their sphere of employment is wider. They 

signify not only that, which one is obliged to do orP».». 

what is prescribed to be done , but also what must happen nil 

by necessity or that which is//, expecled^ likely to happen. 

J* Examples: 1. rfw^y, precept. YAjfi. I, 117 ^i,i\ \ Q >[um i ri»^|i fTi * 

^' a;^f^mi <ptt ^: (one must make room for an old man, one 

if charged with a burden, for a king, a andtakay a woman, a sick 

^\ man, a bridegroom and one in a carriage), Nala 1, 19 ^T^^ifm 

ot ?T ^ JT^ (do not kill me), QAk. I tmuw^ih ^g ^ (prar: (— may not 

be killed), Pane. 269 gpr^ i^rf i «gM!hdij Hd i rViA HM i ^ r iJifM <Tr 

TSRTT ^yji^|tdy«*tu i WIHoUij^* When substituting for these krtyas the 

actiTC Toice, one would get in the first example ix^nxA i^TTTrTt in 

the second itt snft:, in the third ;t ^FftegT^fn, in the fourth fro* 

2. necessity. Pane. 167 mX'jm <^un>Hi iMomf^ (I must needs go 
abroad), ibid. I, 450 iTwfqit ufuiri r i^ f^fcrrrt iT^nrTT: (blockheads 
are Ihe natural enemies of the learned, the poor of the wealthy). 

3. probability y conjecture y expectation^ etc. Qkk, III <jfW'^i^Hf! i *iUi ' ^ 
iJ^if^fKH rfOT wfoiHotiM (she is sure to be in the neighbourhood of 
the bower). Pane. 240 PM^nu^Ha i MiM i >j> i *^rmii mfm rm ^f^ ^rirrr- 
iM6a*l (the lion reflected: surely some animal will come into this 
hole to-night), Prabodh. V, p. 106 gtR<ju*|.f^i ; SFrnrfrr^T: "^ firra^ 
sfvan (aro they likely to confer any benefit or have they done so 
before or are they doing so nowP). The last example plainly shows, 
that the krtya borders upon the sphere of a participle of the fu- 
ture , en& being here almost =r e>>r;^j*< i m » Thus ♦ ildHd ' J or lum 
may be OTon = ^future," ; ifdH6UHl »the future.*' 

llatnAuali in Bo£TUL1KGK 's Chrestomuthy to leave intact the pre«eots of the 
kind, he has changed into imperatives. 

278 § 857-868. 

4. EveD desert snd MUt^ find their expretsion by tlieiB. KA^ . on ?• 
P. 3. 8, 169 gives thii example Mgrrr ^ wserr rifewT = imnswg 
w:^ a^ =^ u^i^fl<$(2,Ply and on lAtra 172 ^rsnTT ^IW WT^ itsmi = . 
iisrf^ snviN — The krtyas may be alto expressiye of indignatum at 
some fact, not expected. Mudr. Til, p. 220 R&xaia, when hearing 
the glory of hiii foe C&nakya proclaimed in the very streets of P&ta* 
liputra , exclaims ^Tfjrfq ;nxr { miu i ^Ttnsm (and even this B&xasa 
mutt hear!); Da^. 78 the wretched Jaina monk deplores his mis- 
fortune and the necessity , he has been put to, to break with the 

faith of his fathers qq g *<<i( r :fiw wm Guwuimei^Tl^ulfid^' 

xnmanT u JdrM^iM { m\im \ kt\ii^ (thus , on such a road of disbelief, as 
this, which gives no fruit, but rather deception, I must walk, as 
if it were the true faith). 

Rem. Some krtyas are restricted to »neceBsity ,** viz. those in 
*frT9Tf cp. P. 3, 1, 125. — Other irregularities of meaning are caused 
by the improper employment of the passivo voice, as ji^ i J^q, when 
denoting ithe person who deserves a gift," ^fya »one fit to make 
an alliance with" (Pane. Ill, 8), i^^.T)<j »to be dreaded" (ibid. Ill, ^j 
142). Some may have even an active meaning, see P. 3, 4, 68. 

Chapt. v. Participles and participial idioms. 

358. When laying down the syntax ofthe participles, there 
must be distinguished between the participial forms and 
the participial employment. 

^{Ji* Js to their form the participles are adjective nouns , 
derived by constant suflBxes from any verbal root, 
and which are the proper exponents of partici- 

Difff pial employment. Sanskrit possesses I. three participles 

detstt for the continuous action, one in each voice (^iCiH> 

***•■• '4ic||n|:, i;riM*iiulJ), which are named participles of the 
present '), 2. two participles for the future , one in the 

1) In Sanskrit, this term is less improper, than ia many other Ua* 
gnages, becaase its present has chiefly the character of expressing the 
dorative (smxirr), see 826- 

§ 358—359. 279 

actiye voice (^l^v^rfj and one serving both for the 

medial and the passive (^i^'y4*1IUlO» 3. the hrtyaa^ 
which are passive participles for the future, but with 
a special employment , see 357, 4. two participles for 
ike past / to signify what is done, achieved y completed as 

^IfTJ and^rrT^T^, the latter of which has always an 
active meaning, as to the former see 360. 

It must be kept in mind, that the participles, unless they 
themseWes do duty as finite verbs, denote the past, present or 
future only with regard to the time, inTolved by the chief verb 
of the sentence. 

Additional remarks. — 1. As participles of the future 
in the active may be considered also a.) the krts in ^?, derived 
from desideratives , as f^Jiq (wishing to do, being about to do), 
up. 62 a, f. I Da?. 166 ?nr ^ ^isn^ q i ^T^qqulR f sh>' ' ^»w>iy! f r r nQ^^tid ;.^.. 
Ud T Hi l M (find there [on that island] we descended, desiring to 
take sweet water, fuel, turnips, roots And fruits); 6.) soroo in ^^n^i 
mentioned by P. 3, 3, 3, as tt^ mxT3^(one, who will go to the vil* 
lage), they do even duty as finite verbs: Kath&s. 35, 104 7fw7 
fnPiiT^ n ^tft agwf: grr: (get up, my king, a son will be bom 
U> you — ), Vikram. V, p. 181 ^|| i ^|f^ii< l iiT^ = 'n^fTTT; c) those 
in ^inr, when put close to the chief verb; they are expressive 
>f a purpose , cp. 62 c. '). 

2. Further there are the old participles of the past, formed 
irith reduplication, such as ^rT^TTT, f* ^Tnn, &• ^7'5F][^ ^^^ ^^® 
ictive voice, and ^rT^niT: for the passive. In classic Sanskrit they 
lave almost wholly got out of use^ Already P&aini restricts P. s, t, 
;hem to Holy Writ, with the exception of six, viz. ^^otpt, 3:Borr^, 109 

1) I was wrong, in doubting, on p. 39 N. 3 of this book, at thecor- 
ectoess of the example (Mhbh. 3, 73, 25 r= Nala 21,22) UaFrTiTf^cn^: 
[uoted by Woitney. When reading once more not only that passage, 
»at the whole sarga, I clearly saw, that ilSRT^ cannot but depend here 

►n frfi^Qn^Vi:* 

280 9 359—360. 

^j^f^jan^lf tlw eompoundt vrrnRsnsTt i^rfoarFT^ w^jpan^u The partieiple 
in *w7f (stfr) i«9 however, ofkener met with in the pott-PAuinean 
literetare, than would be expected by thit rule, but it oecurt ehiefly 
in epie poetry and in k&ryas. Mhbh. 1, 44, 10 finrfCTT^i ^ 1| 26, 25 

fil^^, Kathii. 25, 72 nU^kU Pw<i/ . J ;, Kum4ras. 2, 4 mrg;^ 

ii^j^^, ibid. 6, 72 < i<*i i mgm ?5rOT, ibid. 6, 64 *^ijftoilvd*lci lJ i^ i Kath&s, 
81, 31, Qi^up* 1| 17 etc. That it may even do duty as finite verb, 
haa been mentioned 838. But the participle of the pa^t in ^«pt has 
wholly antiquated, and is only met with in the archaic dialect, 
see f. i. Qat. Br. 3, 9, 1, 1 ; 11, 1, 6, 8 etc. 

860. Of the participles in "FT the great majority have a 
wpiM passive meaning , hence it is customary to call the whole 
*■ r" class the passive participle of the past. But some others 
•'Jv are not passives, but intransitives , as JTFT (gone), 'JFT 

J*wr(died), M^ (splits Some again may be even transitive 

actives, as M Irl (having drunk). ^ IH (having reached), 

f^rFTrT (having forgotten), T^PT^ (having divided), in 
this case they may generally convey sometimes a passive, 
sometimes an active meaning. For instance: 

mj^ act. Da^, 138 ^mr^ir 9TT^ 

pass. R. 2, 83, 5 gm Mc^i^muudMl 
MUH^fe l P i (the soholiast adds 

With this verb, the active meaning is the more common. 
injTract. Utt. Ill, p. 38fnr < i {ghi « pw*. Ragh. 1, 12 f^^rsm ajferfff 

wrjTr» act. Q4k. I ^.yj^M^iAViMf^ - 
nrnfnr (how, have I offended 
the holy menP) 

fff^T? act. Vikrara. II, p. 29 tn<aM| . 

jiTj act Mudr. f, p. 7 frf*ixirrT *r9n>T- 
ffpm: Vl^: (welcome guests are 
come to my house). 

pass. Kath&s. 17, 48 ^tsit ^d l M^lA 
ri (there is no offence done to 
you by the queen). 

pass. R. (Qorr.) 5, 56, 28 vifsir h 

pass. Hit. 24 irfw^f: H^eii l ^^ 

9 360—362. 281 

Moreover^n accordance to what has been stated above the 
neuter sing, of all intransitive participles may be employ- p- >• ^. 

ed also in a passive sense. Instead of ^PT nrTJ, WT ^^'^ 

one says a* well TrFFT^, *jn*l*i*i. Cp. Pat. i, p. 468. 

Rem. 1. If a participle in "rf is used with intransi- 
tive meaning, then the transitive passive is commonly 
expressed by the corresponding part, of the causative. 

^j^ means »8plit by itgelf" w%t » split [by somebody]," q:^ <• awake" 
but vpshf^ »roused," ^tttt »born" but ^jf^m •engendered," fifnTT •fall- 
en" but ^J^ » thrown" etc. 

Rem. 2. As far as I know , the participles in **:t never convoy 
a transitive active meaning; they are, as a rule, intransitives, as 
MIT, fS^f mx» 

11. Occasionally the participles in ^^ are used of the **jgjf* 
present. They are then expressive of an action achiev- ^^** 
ed, completed, finished. So JTrT and PF^TrT when = 

.being," 5T^ .able," ^ .dead." HIT .broken." 

12. II. We will now treat of the participial employ- 
^{ ment. Before defining it, abstraction is to be made 
^ of the case in which the participles are nothing more 

or less than simple attributive adjectives, as f^^^l 

^W?, when — • »a forbidden law." or even substantives , as 

'T^J when = ,old man ," \^\^A* .when = disciple. 0* Apart 
from this adjectival function, the participles serve to 
express attending circumstances or other qualifications 


1) A special rule of P&niDi (3,3, 114) teaches the neuters of participles 
in ^ to be admissible au douds of action. So Mbbb. 1, 157,41 CTSr: ^ 

vpf OTt 7 W ^ J)Qh W^ (it is better to die together, nor can I bear 

to life). Pat. I, p. 1 1 (^f4«ehHt^(UHehU||u^ I Pi moT ilrjm MdPrt STTOTVj^^aW 
(hiccoughing , laughing and scratching are neither sinful nor pious actions). 

282 § 362. 

of the main action ». whetter temporal or local » causal » 
concessive » conditional » hypothetical » etc In other terms, 
in Sanskrit » as elsewhere , the participles are a concurrent 
idiom of subordinate sentences , of which , indeed , they 
may be said to exhibit the rudimentary form. 

Examplet: 1. the pftrticiple equivaleiit to a timple relatiTe 
clause. Pane. 2 inr 9 ^^pl^ ^f¥ v^hmmI qfDiHU i i qTerai^ f^vf^ (^ore 
are five hundred scholars, who enjoy a salary which I give them). 

2. the participle denoting time, state, condition, circumstance. 
Pane. 268 gpn^T: »1 < J l Ri ' gH*^dM (the jackal being filled with anger, 
said to him), Bhoj. 17 ^ f^> ii f<oUa jarftfr jrarr fff^ eh<,iRl>*|WH*<U 
T^^Tvyxi^QVT^ (bo^i *s the king made such expenses of money 
etc., his first minister once addressed him thus), Mrcch. YI, p. 222 srr 
WHi't^H i »jr?rf i i ip^im ^gmrr (better to die while showing prowess, 
than in fetters after having boon seized). 

3. the participle denoting cause, motive. Pane. 58 ^ fPTT 9i7Tarr 
fxm «i9TPTsjft cpimrn: jesot ^ Ji^frn (thoy must be brought to such 
a pass as to be excluded from heaven , being killed in the flight), 
here the complex q^rnPrfT ^«-<jiiM l; points at the cause of their 
not reaching heaven; R. 1, 1, 99 q&;^mmq i :t^: hir isnf >rfhi?lr 
(by reading the R&m&yana one gains heaven). 

4. the participle equivalent to a concessive sentence. Pane. 
304 lit PifuA^ n<i ! ^!i>v>r i 7f 5{imf^ (though I have dissuaded you 
several times, you do not listen to me). In this meaning, vf^ 
is generally subjoined to the participle, see 428. 

5. the participle expressive of the protasis of a conditional or 
hypothetical sentence. Da^. 140 wm g uiRlliJ l ^ghW iT^>T:7^nmmprr 
UcirTTr^ ^*^iI l <i« T (if I should uot follow the path of my [deceased] 
husband, I should dishonour your family), Kath&s. 77, 92 ff^r^qrft 
?Trnwr fmt Jimfh wnrsr: (if you do not say it, and know it, your 
head will fall off into a thousand pieces). 

6. the participle denoting a purpose, aim, intention. Thus it 
the proper employment of the participle of the future. 
KathAs. 38, 157 Rif!r?ft ?f ^ tn\;^mM i <^d a^ffri mT% (being about 
to leave her country, she ceded her house to the brahmans), 

§ 362— S64. 283 

to bring them back to their natural ttate — ) Mhbh. 1, 163, 16 
e[im i <Kl piw: I fl i jfuMJW^i v?W < j»Hi^J<^^^ ^mi' (the gianfr took a 
tree and ran once more at Bhtma, that ho might strike him). 

As a rule, the mere participle suflBces for this pur- 
pose. Now, as this is by far less done in modem lan- 
guages, different connectives are to be added, when 
translating, as io/fetiy if^ though ^ became^ m^ w/iile sim« 
In short, paiticiples in Sanskrit are as significant as 
they are in Latin and Greek. 

The only particles added are ^, to denote comparison, and 
vf^, the exponent of a concessive meaning. Pane. 54 qyJfUW i p^RF- 
sjmrr: g^tTN^M^ii ^ urftpcPniT ^* < I oU>?t (her body looks , as if 
the were — ), ibid. 278 t jQHi r ^qim i ftl ?T uMi,>^M (though she is boing 
satisfied, she is not kind), ibid. II, 173 M!hf»>«iehqi^> i gHreJ i S ; «7rrTf»i 
(a noble-minded man falls as a ball does, i/ho should fall at all). 

The participial employment is not limited to the par- 
ticiples. Any adjective may be employed as if it were 
a participle. It is then usual to add to it the par- 
ticiple t1*Tj[ (being). Yet , W^ is not indispensable and 
is often wanting, especially ifitisabahuvrthithathasa 
participial employment. 

Examples: a.) of ^prf added. Q&k. IV d>fnhMU ft n^^ft ^Ifaqhw i 
gRpPT (though living in the forests, we know the world), ibid. Ill 
m^ jfgmgyw MH^tfUejiif l d^ (how did you come by that sharpness , 
you, whose arrows are but flowers?^, Kath&s. 24, 67 isrxt nTT nx 
Tmft |T?T fdmrvI^M 5?rTT iMiifTT jpi^ (I »«" that town, indeed, while 
I wandered about when a student), Pane. 44 ^ hv^^w-i^ja i nnV rnr 
TTQ^rfn (bow can I go there, being tied with strong fetters?). 

6.) of the mere adjective. Pane. I, 109 f^ nit,i\miS'i f9» srtefT- 
qchlflui l (what is the use of a faithful [servant], if he be notable, 
what, of an able, if he be not faithful?), Q&k. II two young ascetics 
are approaching , the king , before their being ushered in , knows 
them by their voioe and says vtt S \ {Wi\ \ -fikid!\krm{^(i jM^rTsati^ (by 

284 , § 364-365. 

the ■oand of their Toiee, whieh is atrong and toft at the eaiiie 
time, they maat be inferred to be aacetict), Hit. 91 HWlwwftW 
^ MMH*lu l rf> 3(^ (wiahing to tell it [sc. the newa aTTrfe], I have 
come here). 

Rem. 1. BahuTrthiB, the predicate of which ia a participle, 
generally ahare the participial employment Pane. 130 inr ^ rgr 
' jfi/w> ii aif^xiu^ (when he aaw him, he became anxioua and 
refleeted), Ven. I, p. 25 ^ Hi|Af !| iKjW i riH ! i l H l iM WSTT^ >ftM^ff i d l 
(Madam, by the angry mood I am in, I have not noticed your 
coming here^ Mudr. Ill, p. 112 vvi^ ^^ P r (.^^glUM^m rm 
:sr^ > t iljci jws ^ jU^iPioi (if mylord in this manner orosaos my liberty 
of movement , my kingdom seems a prison to me , not a kingdom). 

Rem. 2. rpn, however, ia occasionally added even to real par- 
ticiples. Pane. 126 FiR ^ruT aM^m 'srz^ wiT' .... ^^rft fsr%T: 
/now, that stupid, monkey, being in an angry temper, gave a 
blow), ibid. 335 m^^ ^ifen^sr feTri: M.H5mmMm4^^j[^ (while stand- 
ing on that very spot, the crab etc.), Mhbh. 1, 166,2 ^. .... 
^JIjd i i i Hi iq^ «UMgH(H fTsli here ?ih^ added helps the understand- 
ing of the remote past. Cp. Pane. 248, 1. 7. 

Absolute cases. 

865. As the participle is an adjective noan , it needs must 
Ute' i^^t on some substantive, of which it is the predicate, 
' and with which it is to agree in gender, number and 
cose (27). We may call this substantive the subject 
of the participle. When being a pronoun, it is often 
not expressed (10), as little when a general subject. 
But, whether understood or expressed, it is likely to 
foim part of the chief sentence, and by its noun-case » 
which is at the same time that of the participle, it 
marks the nature of the logical relation, which exists 
between the principal action and the subordinate one. 
Yet, the participial employment is not restricted to 

§ 365—867. 285 

the case, that the subject of the participle occurs in ' 
the chief sentence. In Sanskrit » like many other lan- 
guages, it extends also to the absolute cases, by 
which name one denotes the participle with its subject , 
if they are but loosely connected with the principal 
sentence, their noun-case not being grammatically de- 
pendent on any word or phrase in the chief sentence. 
Sanskrit has two absolute cases: the locative and the 
^eni/ive. Of these, the former is the geneml one, the 
latter has a much narrower employment. 
B. The absolute locative is a very frequent idiom. It 
J' is the Sanskrit counterpart of the Latin absolute abla- ^'^^* 
I] tive and. the like genitive. of Greek. It shares the whole 
manysidedness of signification of the participial employ- 
ment. In other terms, it is equivalent to any kind of 
subordinate sentence: temporal, mortal, causal, condi- 
tional, hypothetical, concessive, etc. 

Examples: Kath&s. 5, 106 f^oiM t ^ ; i ^e^f^ (time going), ibid. 28, 
134 ^rifw>*jH (h l Md mih rixmr^: (that prince being dead, what 
care I for my own life?), Qkk. I qfr^ si^^mf smrfTr {while a 

Paurava rules the land), Da^. 1 1 8 rnrfir fsqfxiTTT. .... "sfmi wttt^ 

9nif%n' UW>?)<JM* m (when darkness had spread and the moon had 
risen, I went to bed), Q&k. I ^jTrf ?^;5wn^^ ^ ; irj* T Hj i (sho 
hearkens, when 1 speak in her presence), Hit. 9G paHaici f r f ^ (after 
the messenger had thus spoken), Nala 5, 33 qrr rT ^mir ^Wt ^H»i ' j r */n 

tt^tfmi > l ^ l <j l g l ci^K^ ; (Nala having been chosen by the 

daughter of Bhtma, — ), Pane. 17 9m»i^ <^>|gii) frrf^ mwf firjTTfr * 

f. It is not necessary, that the predicate of the abso- 
lute locative be a pailiciple. It may be also a noun 

(adjective or substantive). Often, however, tl-^l, ^FT- 
RR, MrT etc. are added. 

28« § 367-369. 

EzamplM of fir^ete. added to the partieiple or bouil Pane. 242 . 
ffSr^ 4Ai!>it qi ^^a^«S QT^S {^^ day-break, when the owla had become 
blind) [cp. 364 B. 2], ibid. I, 310 jm <0u(ui« l flhlf:flj UM i ^f^d ^ 
/it is at night-time that the light of the lamp is pleasant, not 
when the sun has ruen), ibid. 56 the king says to his daughter 
jfir mf^ ju^dQ d/iiiMMi ^ i maiii wicjf^ dWidQ f^ dfai*icj 350?^ 
!i?OT «nfTOT tmx ^ fert J^^ (""y child, as you are my daughter, 
and Lord Vishnu my son-in*law, how etc.) 

Examples of a nominal predicate without auxiliary. Pane. 62 

^dffi{ ; sim 5tro fTRO^ 1 frferr g^ ^ ?mf utot^ (this lake will 

soon become dry, when it will be dry, they will perish), Bhoj. 
12 ^rftr umiriT vf^: ^vf qtwtt: n^r [viz. tm,] (if the king be vir- 
tuous, the subjects will be yirtuous, if wicked, they too will be 
. fond of wickedness), Q&k. V ^ wfenfa^: ^n\ ^f^df^ ?afir (— 
while you are the protector), Prabodh. II, p. 39 9im%ttfTf^ crfn^nirj 
^.^(j^l^mM Tmrfrt e^frnwRj f^ »ii»icin^dn' f^nijinT ursem (*» Lore, 
Anger etc. are her adversaries, how will she [Yishnubhakti] march 
against them f Nevertheless, no one , who is desirous of victory, must 
be careless , even if his enemy is rather weak). 

^68, Occasionally the subject in the absolute locative is 
understood , as ^ HFT ([this] being so), rPTTgferT 
(after [this] had been performed in this way). Of course, 
it is always wanting with impersonal verbs, as Da^. 

107 ffrm qm i d (after his having consented), Mhbh. 1, 154, 21 n^Tiar 
TT mr w i rjfXi^ STcyo<j[ (since we must start , we cannot stay here long), 
ibid. 1, 150, 4 firf^ «fTp^ tii dj i g r ^ maiii ^UcJi-Miuj^iat^i'i^ 
869. Sometimes the absolute genitive is a concurrent 

i«te idiom of the absolute locative. It is far from bearing 
u^' the general character of the latter. It is limited , in- 
deed , to the expression of some action not cared for 
while performing «the main action. Sometimes the ab- 
solute genitive may be rendered by ^though , notwith- 
standing, in spite of and tlie like, sometimes it is 
simply i)ointing out, which action is going on at the time 

8 869. M7 

when the main action intervenes , then we may trans- 
late it by ,while" or ,as." Other restrictions of its 
employment are: 1. its predicate must have a dura- 
tive meaning, and is therefore in most cases a parti- 
ciple of the present, or at least a partic. or adjectivts 
which does duty as such; 2. its subject must be a 
person. Upon the whole, the absolute genitive is usu- 
ally found in standing phrases ^). 

Aooording^ to P. 2, 3, 38 the absolute genitiTe in expressive of 
some action not cared for, while performing the action of the 
ehief sentence. The commentary illustrates this rule by the example 
If^: mc| l i?)rf , which is interchangeable with ^;rf5t gf», because 
it means r^ M3<lf<^h*<>Mj;rtl uafdd : (he has forsaken the worhl 
not caring for the tears of his family). % 

1) These rules have chiefly been fixed by F. db Saussube in his valuiible 
ind eihauf tive treatise de Cemploi du genitif abiolu en Sanscrit, 

The rule of the subject being a persoD in violated Kumftrat. 1, 27 
H^l^yq^j iTeFtff ^ R^(h^l«U MfdUi&IM^I (though spring has an iin- 
luente variety of flowers, the rows of bees cling especially to the ftmra- 
lower), unless it be supposed that K&lidasa means the personified Spring. — 

[n this passage of the R&mayapa (3, 11,58) mt WMri\ hfjf ( dmu i lf*l > 
rereft«5ia^i3nm^fTOR*«3f?r a participle of the past in ^TfoT^is the pre- 

2) PApiui's sfltra runs thus: cr^ %IM|^^. The preceding s. 87 fim 9 

^n^ M I olWWU I H^ enjoins the employment of the absolute locative. Now, 
I. 88 allows the genitive too, but only for the case, that there is to 
tie eipressed Vr||^:. One may ask, what is the exact meaning of thin 
term. Does it mean xlisregard,** or has it rather a more general im- 
port, that of » indifference?** The former interpretation needs implies the 
participial action being known to the agent of the main action , but this 
is no requisite to the latter. If we consider the practice of Sanskrit 
phraseology , it becomes very probable , we must take IRT^ in its widest 
lense. Then all coses of absohite genitive may range under it. In such 
phrases as R. I, 60, 15 MUl(1^'^ npBT^: i f^ iMim ehiehfM gsn^Tt <IUUHt ?T«^i 
under the eyes of the munis ^ the king [Tri9anku] ascended to heaven) 
^he antUlara is to be found in this, that the chief action is Koi°g oo 

288 §369. 

EzmaplM: 1. th« gWL = thou^fh^ in tpiU of^ noiwithstandit^. 
Pane, 193 tt^ft imx t^i Mf^ivfi^r^ l^ivwiRi tot aim pvimif^ (that I 
have asked them, though yoa were here, waa but to make a 
trial), Mudr. Ill, p. 124 j|5^:.... q«gRr ^ ^m: qswnt pimw (— under 
the Tory eyes of R&xasa), Pane. 152 t^:] qgn^ ^ qf^^tf^ Mhbh. 
1, 102, 70 faR<^dr i Jw^>tin irvniTT ^mi|^>gggi eifiMM i ;nm^ ; n^ ftr%- 
m^:i?nTTT***** qwf l «'^.> i *JL (Vicltravtrya became conBuinptive, when 
being young, and died in spite of the efforts of his friends and 
skilled physicians), R. 2, 100, 4 rt f^ m jftdr l ^wi a><*< l ii>f{*<<[fM (do 
not go to the forest during his lifetime [:= eo vivo]). In the last 
example the notion of disregard appears, if one eliminates the 
negation: »the action of going to the forest though he is living, 
must not be done by yon.*"). • 

2. the gen. is expressive of a situation , existing at the time , 
when the main action intervenes, £ng. while ^ a$. Pane. 131 jm 

diilkriKa CT q*A i i».^aH; i rij frtijrT: fFTFT; ( while he was speaking 

thus, the said hunter came and concealed himself), ibid. 44 the 
barber*s wife asks her friend ^rnf dnrnTT im i i fi i u r jfmni (the 
rogue [she means her husband] has not rison [from his couch] 
during my absonee, has heP), Kath4s. 18, 356 t^ fit^HJjfiww n7 
fi l uW'UKlU ;' » » « fag: (while he reflected thus, females came), ibid. 
3, 1 1 rrat PiciMrft fRT* • • • • msit s^ftrir: jei*t?tto?T' 

Rem. 1. Between "these two different kinds of absolute ge- 
nitive there are, of course, interjacent links. The anddara of 
the action conveyed by the absolute genitive may be more than, 
simple independence and less than full disregard. Mhbh, 1, 153, 7 
w^rf ^^Pimifli iwmxm gmzpr »I shall kill him , beautiful lady, and 

quite independeDtly of the circumttance, that the holy men were its 
spectators. Then, the term an&dara holds also good for the case, that 
the absolute genitive is merely eipresHive of the situation. 

The Mah&bh&shya haa no comment oo our rule, the K&tHotra does not 
mention it at all. see TrilocanadiUa on K&t. 2, 4, 34 (p. 499 orEGG£UKe*sed.). 

1) See DE 8aus»ubx, p. 23. In the same book, p. 63^74 plenty of 
instances prove the frequency of the phrase uuUdiH^ and the like. 

9 869 870. 289 

eyeii in your preienee,** here the absolute tarn denotes the easinest 
of the enterprise. ^) 

Rem. 2. The absolute genitiYO seems to be very rare in the 
archaic dialect *) 

X Apart from this absolute genitive , Sanskrit upon the 
whole shows a preference for employing genitives of 
the participle, either as dative-like genitives (129) or 
when depending on some substantive. The frequency 
of this turn makes it sometimes difficult to distinguish be- 
tween the absolute and the not-absolute construction. 
[ In some phrases both seein to mingle. For them we 
• may use the term of semi-absolute construe-" 
•• tion , for the logical relation between the genitive 
and the principal sentence, though not wholly want- 
ing, is very loose, indeed. ^) Here are some instances. Pane. 
154 ^ Ri>fyjf fr n^Hh^^ T ^ %r^ oufTriiM ; (»be thinking so" or tfor 
him as he thought so'* the day passed slowly), Da^. 144 7^ ? ;ft 
diH>fi)Hl inr^ ^TTT: M^irtiq ; , and so regularly to denote » while some- 
body was doing so and so, some other arrived, the sun rose or 
set, time passed etc.** See f. L Pane. 56, 1. 1, R. 3, 11, C8, KathtU. 
15,123, R. 2, 62, 19, ibid. 85, 14. This idiom borders on that, 
treated 128 R. 2. 

Of a somewhat different nature are such instances as Mudr. 

V, p. 180 Tlr^iJljW f^ig^* 9TTiTf^^fT:i9rf^«Ir!T ^fOr^lt W^UT ilcTTT 

uufj^ (as Candragupta in selling them [the jewels], desired an ex- 

1) Di Saussube, p. 24 and 25 quotes a few passages pointiog to the 
liSct« that the absolute gen. occasionally may answer to fr. pour peu 
fyez:r:for aught, 

2) The oldest instance of it, known to dk Saussube, is Maitr&yanlyo- 

panishad 1, 4 ftoTfr srgsnfci «T^ fzru m^nmr^mv^ ^ii wnmu 

Another instance from the archaic dialect is Ap. Dbarm. 1, 2, 7, 13 
^smtz^t ep. the foot-note on p. 288 aboTC. 

3) See DK Saussure p. 83—41. 


290 i 870—872. 

orbitaat profit, yov, oniol many Imto mado oanelrei the prioe), 
Pane 162 n^ jjrr tm ifterwr mar: mfiif u^tw^, CAk, I ^ srrjssr- 
^WT: ferfn |'f^ciMiiii^<{t N&g&n. I, p. 8 jfiiysrmmnrf^ ?FitepT irJr 
ufsomh^ dMd l Mm i y P i ^fd :* In the first of these examples the 
genitire may he accepted as a datiTO-Hke oae (129), in the re- 
maining it depends on a noun (crrf^r^, xrqr understood , pjjfd ;)* 
Likewise Kala 24, 15, Pane 57 cr^ im ^uM i qy^rfW rj^ii^mfky etc, 
etc. Cp« also the foot*note on p. 94 of this book. 

Rem. The differences between the absolute and the semi-ab- 
solute genitiYes are sometimes very small, indeed. Pane. 156 m 
^ Ri>H^W > ijRTT «m anprt noTRT mrrr:, here the absolute turn would 
be doubtful but for the pronoun of the Ist person repeated. That 
in such phrases, as » while A. was doing this, B. arriYcd/' the 
genitive is thought by Sanskrit-speakers an absolute one , is proved 
by this, that the absolute locative is used too. Mhbh. 1, 169, 1 sft?^ 
nj w^ qmid;^ xn^TFiTgi irT5nTmr?r di^^g arm: , Kath&s. 42, 165 ^fymuf 

871. It is no hindrance to the absolute construction, if its subject 
7^ uT^ is a word, occurring also in the main sentence. Pane. 67 m 
•dmUai" frlni^rlH^ .STOTO" ^^ IR" nrSn" JniF^T d^^lil fi«FT: y hoW ?TOI, the- subj. 
ifiu M? ^^ r^^^JH : means the lion, rTRnd' the same lion. Kath4s. 29, 77 
i*^ ^ ^^. F juPr mmx dciiMj i wiwRi ^^, here the absolute loc. is used, 

eon AIM «« ' ' 

in the though its subject rorfn* ^ *l80 represented in the main sentence 


'■••■' by m. Cp. R. 3, 57, 2; Nala 5, 33. 

372. The semi^absolute employment must also be stated 

•oUte b- for the instrumental. Here are some instances. KathAs. 29, 
•irunea- 55 ^^ ^j^. , |^^'>;\J .., j^ ^ ijf^raxfh (by eating these fruits you will 
enjoy eternal youth), R. 2, 64, 18 n ^rrpFT 5nnFT n<^ m«WlR g |d ; 
{as soon as the arrow had been drawn out , he mounted to heaven). 
Pane. 57 giiit ^xtm-. stj^t^t^^ ^ ^ i ^ i ^Qt^iiPi (my dear, I will 
not take either food or drink until aftet having killed all the ene- 
mies), ibid. 178 iw ^ ^ Tf loijij w fl^fiat Pd^JM 1^ ; (do not fear, with 
^uch friends as we are), Kathus. 55, 213 r^tn ^: /Jd l lH>H f MrTtMift 
HM i tHiffi i Pane. 194 ?Rn^: ^rm-. M f^ T niM srm iismr (Lat hia cog^ 

8 872-874. 291 

niU$ et tut it advertarii tihi obnoxii fmnO. la all of ilieiii the 
abtoluie loeatiTe might haye been uied. The inttrumeiital repre- 
■enU the aetion, expressed by the participle, as the eau$e or motive 
or means of the main action, and in this respect it shows a elote 
affinity to the Latin absolute ablative. 


Other participial idioms are: 

L The participle added to a verb, expressive of some 
affection of mind , to signify the motive of the affection, 

' Pane. 149 f^ 7^ f^^^m us ijdim : (do you not feel ashamed at 
r speaking thus?), ibid. 147 uuRiHoU^d tiS xttT: (one must pity yoo 
for having become proud), ibid. 112 w^mtfS^ ferTSFfT fsm m^ 
^ 7^ (y^^ ^^^® ^^^ ^^°® ^®^' ^y kindling discord between 
them), Mhbh. 1, 145, 9 rn^^m f^rfFT: UNui|H^i ; y1 ^ yzrft (Dhrt. 
cannot endure their having obtained the kingdom from their father's 
side), Mah&v. I, p. 18 ^^^ifl| piy; i^M7d l <l fm ^^T^^nr. 

n. The participle , which expresses the predicate of the 

object of the verbs of seeing ^ hearing , knowing ^ tkinking , feel • 

ling, conceiving^mafiing 2Lni.i\iQ\\ke. Since, ofcourse, it must 

agree with the object, it is an accusative with the 

, active voice, but a nominative with the passive of the 

; chief verb (6). So it is said TT yMiHHH'-IWr| (he saw 

« me enter), pass. ^I^^FFT Cn^rHT^T^iPT. By using some 
other noun instead of the participle , we get the idiom , 
mentioned 32 c), f. i. ^[ Mqi^iM'-^^Mrj^ (he saw me 
being young = he saw, I was young). 

This much used accusative with participle is the 
counterpart of Latin ace. with infinitive, which con- 
struction does not exist in Sanskrit (390 R. 2). Con- 

current idioms are the oratio directa with %Ar\ and re- 

292 . 8 874—875. 

lative sentences with thecoxu'anctions 7^or^^(49i foil). 

Examplet: a.) with an act ire ehief rerb. Pane. 51 q> f f|i^!tf " 
«^ *]u[^ l tf> f . » • • • ^nmnTTt ^ " HHfi i (they saw some princeu ap- 
proaching on elephant's back), Mudr. lY, p. 158 ;r <Tt ^pikl>HfMv^ff> 
mmi^: (the prince does not detire my being far), (}ik, IV kf^ qr 
i ll i^MfaftH^ (you do not know, I am near) , Hit. 2 ^ ajtrffipr^T WrTif^ 
M^q*< i A 9^T9tCV wvm (once the king heard somebody read two 
^lokas), Kathis. 9, 74 miftn ^i^nr« l >rtHf.6Ul ^nf^, C^k. VII fTTcft- 
q^<yH l ^jbt{ciT fq[5%Tp5nTrftr5^ (on seeing the ring, I remem- 
bered that I had wedded his daughter). As to the last examples 
cp. 14, VII»r. 

(.) with a passive chief verb. Mudr. Ill, p. 120 eB Wl<mmi* 
MXW^Nrt^TH ; (why have you overlooked his withdrawal?), R. 3, 
67, 16 Jat&yn tells R4ma, he has seen the carrying off of Stt& 
f ^qniu rr mr jtt \ lauMi Kath4s. 41, 4 f^iror e».fSjH^ 3yTT.«».* v^ 
vmr ZjSXi^ T^i (a friend has now told him, his brother died 
abroad), (}i\L III m^tigm fdd i ^^ i u^ {itirJgh^qghi ; i v^ ^fp^i^ 

Pivii- Rem. If not a chief verb, but a nomen aotionis is attended by 
1^^ the predicate of its object, both the object and its predicate are 
tivt. p„^ Iq iiie genitive [110]. Pane. 67 the animals of the forest have 
engaged themselves to send every day one among them to the 
lion for food ; when it was the turn of the hare , she went to the 
lion and said, she with four other hares had been sent by the 
animals im ^t^n^^j q ^iid i fonmr *fts they knew me to be reputed 
[a] rather insignificant [animal]'*, MAlav. I, p. 18 rnri M^^^Wdic l iftj* 
w rm ; q^euBt Jfdm fd (in the very presence of the king it will appear 
which of us' is superior and which inferior).. 

875. III. In translating Sanskrit participles, it is some- 
^^ times necessary to substitute for them infinitives or 

Vthe nouns of action. So the abs. locat. ^fi TnTFT may 

f»yM be = »after performing the order." This idiom , the coun- 

teq)art of Latin reyeit exacli = exaclio return , is not rare ^ 

§375— 877, 298 

i>M^ especially in the instrumental ')• So £ i. KAgAn. I, p. 5 

to rw fih^H 161^^11 W^fiW ar^ HiH i Su i ^if^rt i (do not jnefleet on tjiit non- 
^*^- aenie, bettor would it be to act after your father*! injanction). 
Pane, I, 5 jrl" fnm^ apif^ ^ w^ sff^m. ....;? vJ i ifd&ir i ^ TT^^ikm" 
nuKiat^^fii TRzr: (better is it, that he dies scarcely after being bom , 
better is the birth of a daughter. .... than an unlearned ton 
etc.). *) So often the participle in <>r with f^or v^. R. 2, 36, 30 
ff^ ^ pxTOT fjCTlT fe^TTOT foWT (therefore cease to destroy B&ma*R 
happiness), Mroch. YIII, p. 244 {^^^^ dlQd> l Huf^>» (why strike 
this poor fellow?). 

Participles attended by auxiliaries. 

76, Sometimes participles are expressive of the chief pre- 
'ra^ dicate. In this case, auxiliaries are often wanted 
Soy?' to denote the person or the tense or the nature of the 
m!w action. The combination of participle and auxiliary 
;|^' effects a kind of periphrastic conjugation, which some- 
times has an emphatic character, and sometimes serves 
to express special shades of tenses or moods , not to be 
pointed out by mere flexion. 

Bem. It is only the past participles, that may do 
duty as finite verbs by themselves, without auxiliary. 
But even this is only admissible , if the subject is evident 
from the context. For this reixson , in the l*^ and 2«* per- 
son the absence of the auxiliary commonly necessitates 
the expression of the pronoun, and inversely. See 11. 

77. We may divide this periphrastic conjugation into the 
following classes: 

1) See BB Saussubk, p. 94 N. 1. 

2) Ad instance from the archaic dialect may be Ait. Br. 1, IS, 8 

294 § S77-378. 

M. I. To the past participle the present ^TJlrr or >T^% 
tie is added ^ f. L Prabodh, V, p. 103 ^ ^^mi m nm: m ^ h 

,na !ifH?iw?w, M&Ui IV, p. 65 ir*yn?TcTrTf^. This idiom falls to- 
■**^*' gether with the employment of the sole past participle 

as a past tense » see 336. 
IL The past participle is attended by another tense 

or mood of ^1^1 or H'^rfFT. 

Here are Bome examples: Da^. 100 -nir «r WUMPalfft ^WT (and 
I addressed him with these words), Kath&s. 7)1, 132 i i dmi^RlHi ^sxim 
= 7T?TTDjfRrT^, MhbK 1, 42, 34 ^ f| PR ?!5?J2^ (for he had heard 
thiM). — QAk. V f^.*^^, f ^'jKi mtOrU ^im^ *liMehlul*{U4] ; ofjm: gj'.f here 
the optative of the past is expressed bj periphrase, Kath&s. 27, 32 
fTsh tTfivxTn jvm *Ta<T (in what can I have offended the king?). 
From the archaic dialect I add Ait. Br. 1| 4, 1 n: qJifrTldM ; lETTTX 
(he, who has neyer before performed a sacrifice). Cp. 346. 

Kem. By putting nQ^j f ri to the past participle , the future per« 
feet may be expressed. Mhbh. 1, 162, 21 imr i r aRi Piwj i vfvfr^* 
ilf^rorf: (both purposes will be performed), Prftbodh. II, p. 45 rrrT:* • • 
ullPfij.MjHl uQmfri (then (^Anti will have departed this life). 

in. The participle of the future is accompanied by 
the auxiliary. 

This idiom is almost limited to the archaic dialect. In tho 
brahmanas the participle of the future not rarely joins with nsrf^ 
and WTH. Ait. Br. 2, 11, 6 ^ !nr P i i^Pmi>H^ iTSi^ ^(i^va^yr^^viwf 
yuKafr ! (on which spot they are to kill [the victim], there the 
adhvaryut hrows sacred grass [barhis]\ ^at. Br. 3, 2, 2, 23 znr ^cToTT 
T^FncTpRr^Tcrfrr (when he, after haying slept, is not to sleep again), 
A^y. Grhy. 1, 3, 1 osT jr ^ ^{ i mrr^ i H * 

87 « IV. The participle of the present with ^TTR^), Irl^Iri, 
c^rirl, ^TTFrT, H^TTrT is expressive of a continuous 

I) Cp. the eimilar employment of Homeric ifH*<. II. a, 133 Ir Il/A«ic 

§ 878. 295 

action and is to be compared with English to be with 
\ the partic. in -i v, f^FPT^T^ or lrr<^lr| etc ,he is re- 

r fleeting," f^FRI^Hrr ,he has been reflecting," f^FT- 

' M5=llttif1^ etc. — Pane 42 ^f^: ^snw Puj^M l e f; n^oTT^ 

(the weaver wai always concealing his dUposition), Kath&s. 42, 140 
^4S|Jnr 8Dij l W (he waa sporting with her); Da?. 156 Tj^mrm J--*. 
^<>Hlef pmzrf^ (but the princess will not cease weeping), Pane. 
330 OT g^ ^Wiim r i fH'j^fri (she is being guarded carefully) ; Bihbh. 
It 11, 5 FR9Ti^ ffqnV wS STFrmw (I was knowing the power of his 
ascese), Uti II, p. 84 ^d^<ci ^ spt. . . .. irf^fTwr f^^Md j^ sfttT: 
(this is the very forest, where we formerly dwelled for a long time), 
R. 2, 74, 2 ITT sj^ ^^ iToT (do not weep for the dead one). 

Rem. 1. The participle in ^rT or a verbal adjective, provided 
that they have the meaning of a present, may be similarly con- 
strued with fn^, (HyfH and the rest. Pane. 285 ^r^^sfcr ?!;r: CcTT. 
kSvs idRH ' ^ffl (everybody is content with his trade), ibid, 283 
H^rnifW: Mf^^ l fHL!t>m u^, fi^TfT VT^ (— is staying outside the water), 
ibid. 160 rPOT jwnm ib^^T^hriii prt m^ tju i Mid^ (— was sleeping 
on that couch), ibid. 318 qQuufu q' 97: Mflif^loifif^ (this pot is filled 

with porridge), R. 2, 75, 29 qr ^ ^ ^ l S8r i 4^h^Kyj*lK7^' i H^ (apd may 

he never see him occupy the royal dignity), Yikram. lY, p. 131 
^D^l^e^Piuumf^l ' j^fT i (— is sitting — ). 

Rem. 2. In the same way verbs meaning not ceasing to do 
are construed with the participle. Pane. 65 p^^] P i rU*igMgh i >^H " 
gl UHM<0"Qm^K^'"'^^(j'^ (*^® ^***'* ^*^ ^'^^ cease killing — ), ibid. 275 

Rem. 3. The archaic dialect expresses the continuous action 
also by the participle with the verb t, occasionally ^ (cp. 

Whitney § 1075, a and fc). Ait Br. 1,25,2 rtt [sc. ▼j] ajy^fifKi T 
JTt fw^^/fT frni^ (it was this, they shot off, and by which they 
destroyed the towns), Pancavimfabr&hmana n^u^j i «<^uiH Hf\^ijf\ ')• 

1). Cp. this passage from a claasic author (Pane. 282) m [sc. ^imfj ;? 

21H» § 378—879. 

B«n. 4. Note that the Mzilieriee may alto be put in the pee- 
sive. See 826. 

Chafp. VI. Gerunds. 

879. The gerunds hold a place somewhat intermediate be- 
tween infinitive and participle. As to their etymology , 
they are petrified noun-cases , and for this jeason they 
are not declinable. 

ownmi I. The gerund in *»3T {^^) is the petrified instru- 

(•,y). mental of a verbal noun. At the outset ^rA\ was, as 

lu ori- i^ yfQYe a kind of infinitive of the aorist. This ori- 
ginal ' 

ginal nature is discernible a,) when the genmd iscon- 

strued with Ri«^ and ?IFFT, b.) if the action conveyed 
by it has a general subject. 

a.) With fvtir and fr^r^i the gerund seryes to express a pro- 
hibition, cp. 853 R. 1. Da^. 187 f^R fm i i ^mfiifd l (><lo not con- 
ceal/' liter, iwhat [profit should be] to you by concealing?**). 
R. 2, 28, 25 fr^ ^ spf XTrcTT (have done going to the forest ^). 

b,) Pane. Ill, 107 e^tlifu^'JI MVII^^rdl WfSTT ^^*<J^*l*j^ilTOar JTOR^r 

^sSi nr^ 9kT nxQH (if by cutting down trees, by killing victims, 


1) Something of the kind, indeed, is contained in a rule of P&niDt 
(3,4,18) v^m^i vfmvm: cn^ ^IiT 'according to the eastern gramma- 

riabB the gerund it to bo put with iSfWl^ ^^"^^ ^^ • ^^ ^^7 expreis a 

The following i&tra (3,4,19) i^rn\ infr aiHl^l^ has been wholly 
misunderstood by the commentators e?en up to Patanjali. Not the ver- 
bal root xtt, but the particle of negation is meant. I am convinced , our 
sfitra does not contain a new rule, but it is the continuation and at 
the same time the eiplanation of the preceding, in other terms, it is 
an old varttika. The eastern grammarians, it is said, teach the use of 
IF^ir^ and (?V?T in prohibitions »in exchange for [^= instead of] (szjdi^l}) 

ITT* prescribed by the Northern ones." In fact, fr^q!?QrT=:iTT9rr7f:. — 

Of ^!SM thus used I know no instances from literature. 

§ 879—380. 297 

bj theddiDg ttrMiiif of blood, if thus one gooi to beaToni bj 
what way does one go to hellF). 

But in its. most common employment the gerund 
may be said to do duty as a past participle of the 
active. like the absolute locative and the other par- 
ticipial employment it enables the speaker to cut short 
subordinate sentences and to avoid the accumulation 
of finite verbs (1^,1). Indeed, it has the full function 
of a participle. As a rule , it denotes the prior of two ^'^^^ 
actions, performed by the same subject. Accordingly 
its subject is that of the chief action. So it usually 
refers to a nominative, if the chief verb is active, 
or to an instrumental , if it is a passive. Nothing , 
however, prevents its being referred to other cases , since 
the main subject may occasionally be a gen., locat., 
dative etc. 

1. Instances of the gerund referring to a nominative or to 

an instrumental are so common as to be found on almost every 

page. Pane. 8 vmm p?rT frf ufmrt ^rsrr. . • . . n^ m^ Hr^Mi^KW^i 
qrt Pdfdijitfu i *^ (then the king having heard this promise, en- 
trusted the princes to him and was highly satisfied with this), 
here grsiT and ^^jrfi refer to p?iT; — Pane. 70 ipt ^ ^ UTJ nrdlrMi'*! 
HW i gQ uRdm qruTT: qf^f<jaii ;> the gerunds nrsrr and vfwTS refer to nrr. 

2. Instances of the gerund referring to other noun-cases : 1. to 
an ace us. R. 3, 41, 18 vifi\u } ^ ^ firfe poTT mmxT^ (be awaro 
that yourself will be lost, when seizing Sit4) ; — 2. to a genitive. 
Nala 3, 14 jtot rgcT cX^j 9mr??Tt -h i ^.^ i Rm i h^ (his love increased as 
soon as he had beheld the fair one). Pane. 69 ^ qfTiTt ^^ i l^'i^lW 
H i *<MJ^fdp4/d T i i rfi^ (it does not befit mylord to go before having ex- 
plored his strength); — 3. to a dative. Kum&ras. 2, 18 f^mH CSTTT- 

fc Tn^i i ^ r^c i ^r^ sr: i jn^njiir: (welcome to you, mighty onoH , 

who uphold your offices by your power); — 4. to a locative. Pane. 
125 cTTH^ S7!T^ rMfoii ?i^ f^R^WT) the loc. is the absolute one: ^as 

298 § 880—881. 

the monkej haring brought the fan, was fanning**, -^ The •objeot 
of the gemnd is eomparativelj often a genitive or a locatire, 
owing to the ftrequent employment of the datiye-Ulce genitive (129) 
and of the absolute locative. For the rest, it is only from the 
context, that the subject of a given gerund is to be known. That 
f. i. Bhoj. 96 ^^^fprj pjjT fcir^Mii] ^-^rpjFf^rqtinw ipm k^mm^fi qjhr- 
i<}!'M! 9rH%5; ^..... gn^ the gerund i^ refers to aRrfsFTi bnt 
7^ to jwJf can be learned no otherwise. 

8. The gerund may even refer to a subject not expressed, 
but understood. Utt. lY, p. 72 kd i uwru S^ <rsm: i from the con- 
text it is plain, that rsmx i> implied. Likewise N&g&n. Y, p. 91 

^ 5*TT^ jjf snmiAsft oT^r ^ qf^fUsU iromr [so. jsrh]. Or to a 
general subject, as f. L R. 8, 48, 23. Cp. 379 6). 

Rom« Like the participles, the gerund may serve to express 
different logical relations, as is evident from these examples. Da^. 
149 iiijfiii rfWrfr e i iciim r iUtKi i Pf iTfenaruT (I shall not rise before 
having learned what this really is), R. 3, 21, 10 rrpirxfr m(?^hkw i » »«* 

sr^^t^mrr^iicRTxr (when I saw great fear arose within me), Pane. 

HI, 77 s^rsh ?rrf?f efiFSTT f^rr ^: f^<Q^iifdMj(7 r (what profit shall we 
have, if we make the owl our king?). Cp. 362. 

881. Not always the gerund can be said to denote a past 
tspm- action , done previously to the chief action. Sometimes 
tiatti! there is simultaneousness. R. 8, 43, 9 ^ i^nm wrjrw jy^am 

•^•"'"" gf%fo?fTTi35n^ niffT, here uPh i S and gcnunj^ are simultaneous, 
»Laxmana thus speaking and dissuading her." Cp. Da^. 159 ^ srr 
Pi Pi^>hKic<*M i^fM!»i i>d v iaMfihfuAf T ^. . . . . frvafri (by what cause do 
you keep apart, not caring for the feast, as if longing for some- 
body?), ibid. 182 v$ <^ai<u»m (MHci.mPi^iHj n^itStSt ufT i dMiPi (by 
your orders I guard the cemetery and in virtue of this function 
it is there that I dwell). — Cp. also the idiom, taught 203.* 

Hence the gerund, in the same way as the parti- 
ciple of the present (378), may even attend such verbs 

as ^TRrT, In Win, '^^rl rl , to signify a continuous action. 
Kum&ras. 1, 1 ^d i h(\ mufhOi smr^ fl^rT: ^fnarr ▼sr MM<;^ui i (ex- 


§ 381-882. 299 

tandfaig to both oooans, the eastern and the weetern, [Movttt Him&* 
laja] Btandi as the measuring stick of the earth). Da^. 177 ns^- 
pni^hvr SR^ (he is the foremost of all the townsmen *\ M. 7, 195 
iU^m i flmM^ff (he [the king] must keep the enemy inrested). 

Hem, Oecasionally the gerund is even expressive of a predi- 
eative attribute. R. 8, 19, 4 ^nrmqm e*m!?Br wqi ntin^r ^ram (he 
is unaware, he has fastened the rope of Death round his neck), 
M&lav. V, p. 124 ^ I n<qwmj^rti i >wi urf^inn qJ-HP^^ : qnTToOfT ^SrW 
(my Ariend, you only think so from Dh. haying acted up to my 
desire by her former actions !). R. 2, 73,4 tfj^nuim.^ ^ f^ M^iidHJAciKi * 

^ 11. The other gerund , that in *'?FT, is as to its origin 

^ the ace. of a verbal noun. It denotes] some concomitiint 

action and is comparatively seldom employed. When 

put twice , it is expressive of repeated or uninterrupted action. '• >• 4* 

fel*fei^jH«if^f^inq>l^ mo" >iii(^l^f l fMlH^ (the king of L&ta always hearing 
of the matchless beauty of the daughter of the monarch — ), 
ibid. 95 QRcrr^Tmon^ (savouring without interruption '). 

For the rest the gerund in ^qj^ is limited to standing phrases , 
at least in classic Sanskrit. P&nini (3, 4, 25—64) gives a list of 
them. Of the kind are 1*. 3, 4, 29 »>q i «»^af srnxfh (as soon as he 
sees a girl , he woes her), ibid. 52 u i rf l fy - i i u U T cifr i (after rising from 
his couch he runs) , ibid. 50 j, ' Jdl4 ^M^ (▼• a. they fight seizing 
each other by the hair), Da^. 144 ^loRn^pni^'Txr (I captured him 
alive) cp. P. 3, 4, 36, Mudr. II, p. 76 ^Vg Uirf ^ft: (was killed by 
lumps of earth) cp. P. 3, 4, 37, Mbbh. 1, J 54, 30 p i Rq ' 3» i >j^ t j imr 
M^iUJHijlidH^ (he pressed him violently to the earth and killed him 
as one slaughters a victim), 'Kum&ras. 4, 26 ^d' l M'jm*!; I ;mFT (she 
beat her breast, injuring her bosom), cp. P. 3, 4, 55. Likewise 

1) Cp. 3rlk with tlie instrumental 07 K. 1. 

2) The same purpose is served by putting twice the gerund in ®?9T- 

Pat. passim SMr^tU:^rtl ^t^^9!f llx^f^ (frogs move by jumping). See P. 
3, 4, 22 and cp. Pane. Il, 100. 

800 § 382—884. 

* • 

immwi sz ijcmif ubi^» Me t L Yiddba^. II, p. 86. From tlie arehaic 
dUleet I add Ait Br. 1, 21, 11 iij-MM l wimiifi i if^wf<(^<llfui Tvrfh 
(he depotitf in him the mental and motive powers, while calling 
each member by its nsime), ep. P. 3, 4, 58. In all these expres- 
sions the gemnd b the final member of a compound. — Another ' 
idiom is the employment of it with qr^i vmnf or. wit f then both 
the gerund in ^w*T and that in ^?srT are available,- as qu i y ir i si' T (or 
^^Iit) ^al7r(he eats first, then he goes). 

Rem. . Upon the whole the gerund in ^WT is oftener used in the 
archaic dialect of the br&hmanas , than afterwards , and it is even in 
such eases as are not specialized by P&ninL Ait Br. 2, 19, 7 u^mu j * 
^*Miiq » ft (if he pronounces ihem piecemeal), Qat Br. 12, 8, 8, 7 
y ^iMM if P^j.ntirt i ^ : (people will go and see in crowds). — PAn. * 
3, 4, 12. speaks of the gerund in **<rir with the verb sivr as a 
vaidik idiom. Maitr. S. 1, 6, 4 ?rfff & hn fst^m ^HUHhoi^ — law* 
H l' jyoi^ju Op. TBr. 1, li 5, 6. 

Chapt. VII. Infinitive. 

883. Sanskrit infinitive is a much employed form. It' 
i^i"^. serves to denote aim and purpose , almost to any extent 
Jj,"iJJ:and without restriction. As a rule, the infinitive in 

i2t 5^ ™*y ^ P^^ ^ ^^y predicate , just as the dative 
of the purpose, to which it is equivalent. In 87 we 
have quoted a striking instance of this equivalence, 

(jak. I iJIrNIUIlM ^: S[T^ 5T JT^^H-HlillH. other 

examples of the infinitive being expressiYo of the aim may be Mhbh. 
1, 160, 15 ;t 9 ^ fe^ firw cfig jttt jrfiin (and I have no* money 
to buy some man somewhere), R. 2, 52, 9 ftcT. • • . . rT^ ?!TiTpTTf^:ft 
rf l f^qx i ^ (here is a ship for you to cross the river), Da^. 40 ;r^. 

^wf Pi^'fj i(<(,Mi«j: ehf%i.Mq i ferU^ (I devise some gentle means 
for killing that scoundrel), R. 1, 42, 24 fff & VTTfng { \ ^^ \ uu cnmf^ 
gr^rrr: (I know no ono but Qiva, to bear her [the Gang&]). 

384. Sanskrit infinitive, like ours, acts in some degree 
OS a complement to the main predicate^ PdJiini ^\v^vcaw 


9 884. 301 

its being put to words of beina able, ventwrina, lnomno, f-t,*, 
being irksome , being ft , undertaking, taking , going , toie" 
rating, deserving, being met with, those kA sufficing , being p • a 
a match for, and in such phrases as : there is an oppor- ^* 
tunity, a time for doing something. Of course, these ^ic?.^ 
injunctions do not exhaust the sphere of the infinitive^s 
employment , and may easily be enlarged. With the 
verbs of wishing the infinitive is likewise mentioned by ^\^' 
PdJiini , but as he adds in express terms , provided that 
the subjects of both the infinitive and the verb of wishing 
are the salne. 

Examples: Mhbh. 1, 150, 23 ipg t^ snpr: (we cannot go), i*ane. 
70 9)^ vijm ^h% H>m': (who is able to sustain your splendour?), 
Kum&ras. 4, 11 sRrfH fwr cRrft^rt fwmrsrj^ tntrfng 9; i^'- (who, 
Bxcept you, my beloved [K&ma], has the power of conducting 
khe loving maidens to their lovers?); — Ven. I, p. 36 M^J f ^^>>nfMirrf t 
nrf& fdTiif^j qfliidl : qm^ < {^ l; (the sons of P&ndu are skilled 
in acquitting themselves on the battle-field); — Mrcch. VIII, p. 
256 TcsFrf* f^r^nrriffhvu^ (it is difficult to change poison into modi- 
sine); '- Pane. 315 ir^ ?crt U)^m i ;m ; (I have come to you in order 
M> ask), R. 2, 96, 17 vToTt ^ ^mi^zrfr^ (he approaches in order to kill 
is); — Pane. 195 nS xTsffilfpn^f^WT: (all began to deliberate), Prabodh. 
[, p. 7 qfyjoumiQ^fJ f^i'<fi*f{M«i|«J ^^nr: (it is his intention to csta- 
)lish his sway on the earth), Da^, 112 ; iei i > i M i | y?rMiu i ^qMM i ^RJ l r| 
^q?f: (you are decided to cross to-day the shoreless ocean of sorrow), 
J. 8, 9, 25 ;t ^n ' ^'X m cRwf. .... rsmri •ulAiiJ fsrrr ^ ^iwi i > i ^ (yott 
lOTor should make up your mind to kill — ) ; — R. 2, 44, 26 ttt;^ t^ 
frfig 5;^ (you do not deserve to mourn); — Da^. 178 Smr^ ^fh 
I feel ashamed to live) ; — Kum&ras. 5, 2 7777 m !r;7p][^(Bhe wished to 
nake); — 5^k. VI grwg ^ <i^< i r^^ ii 575 fenTTTJTfq (my tears, however, 
lo not allow me to see her even in a picture), Mulav. II, p. 45 ^ 
i<0<if^< » -Tf n fT i i i ^Gj^/rrAUij imr^: fernrTij^ (Sire, do me the favour 
►f looking now at my dramatic performance); — Da^. 203 mg ifpfir 
f 9r»i?ir (he gets a bath and food). 

302 § 384-386. 

With mm «id the like, f. I Nala 20, 11 m* mmt fiw^rfeij^ 
5^k. VII Hi i (*i>jm5 r i g<fii{|*ix^ni*^ '! D ilcnf^ (I am looking out 
for aa opportunity of introducing you to the teacher of Indra), 
Yikram. V, p. 172 wf^ ?a?n ^fM<; i m*iM<. R>f?)q*immiR>3 mm:* 

Rem. 1. Among the words of sufficing ^ the particle tr^rzr is to he 
noticed. It is used with infin. sometimes in its proper sense 
of »heing enough,'* as M. 2, 214 <ifdiiw(^* mii: Qiki^fg an jp:i 
wry ^^ n7m» sometimes also v^n^ with infin. expresses pro« 
hibition, just as fr^ with gerund (363, R. 1). R. S, 59, livm ^J^* 
snt XTfW (do not despair), Mrcch. Ill, p. 106 ig^ gj^ »*J)dnij*£ » In 
tho same way ^uj^ with infin. Mudr. Ill, p. 107 ;Rrrf: f^ f|,.?i i >dmJM 
aiiMM'Ul ; ^<i.H^i<nirl4^ (why should you worry your vojce and mind 
by striving for success?). 

Rom; 2.; Instances of an infinitive with a verb ot rememheriny 
may occur now and thon. In this case the infin. is expressive of a 
past action, previously done by the same subject *). 

885. When depending on a noun, the infinitive is not 
Winff allowed to be compounded with it, save the nouns 

com- ^iln and nn*. Bahuvrthis made up of infin. -|- either of thom 

'*****^ are often used. M&lat III, p. 49 Peftf^H l WiWHWlH^M^l l fw (I ^ish to 

tell something worth telling), Mhbh. 1, 146, 16 trnnf mit ^xv^rnr: 

v^T^TT: (P. desires to bum me). Pane. 71 f^ 6 r ii»*<Hi ^lon^ (what 

do you intend to say?). 

386. The infinitive has preserved its original nature of 
ekarae. being a noun-case. The only difference , that exists be- 
tween it and the datives and locatives*) of nouns of 

1) Ot this idiom prof. Kisax has pobted out to me some passages, 
borrowed from an inedited Buddhistic work , written in good Sanskrit , the 
Jataka-mdla (see Hodgson, Ettayt p. 17). Somiebody, who has practised 
the virtue of ahimtd , says of himself ^^ifxi OrT VIrillA 97T: in^^sf^ 

limfn^ unf^idM i f^ ^if^rm crrfornr P^^j J^* Another, famous for 

his munificence declares ;r % ^J^IA^pKIHUUIrlMmiVllfailMUrM^HU^Iiruii 

f4^ l PM3 l fUff4j[-^Mi nJITf^^Jm^ gWT^ eFgjJ (▼. a. l do not remember 
to have daappiiinud the eipectatiou ot those , who came to me as sapplicants), 

2) When depending on substantives , the noun of action may also be 
a genitive (llO)t f- i* afTW; U^JMfU or UMMI<I or uv4l^ or n^ngjt 

§ 386—887. 303 

action in •^•i, •?[, •FT etc, is that the latter are con- 
stroed with the genitive of their object, but the in- 
finitive with the accusative. For the rest, thev are 
synonymous. It is the same, whether one says ?^ 

5T^ or ?RTPr WHN m^MIri, sPTPT orltj ^FFt. 

Rem. A gen. of the krtya, doing duty as inf., is rare* Pane. 242 
sfTBT daicflW aFTTW: (it is now no time for telling it), ly Cp. srpi^ 
with krtya 389 R. 

:?• Like the nouns of action, the infinitive by itself 
^' neither belongs to the active voice nor to the passive. 
55 It may be construed with both classes of verbal forms, 
\ and seems to have an active meaning , when it is the 
~" complement of an active verb, but a ptissive, when 

J; of a passive. Pane. 258 we read ^^ ![RJR FTST JTrpT. 

- sc ^FTT^fT, which is just as good as ^R^ ^H-iy^^ilin 

b. ^ 

fRT «»l'dH; in the former sentence the subject is denoted 
by an instrumental, in the latter by a nominative, but 
in both it is the self-same infinitive, that completes 
the finite verb. Likewise it is equally correct to say 
^m ^FT?:: ^ J^nrarrT as ^T^ J^TFT ^JT ^^f^r^. 

Instances of the infinitiye attending in this manner a passiye, 

are exceedingly frequent with ^ j dfdrh srsRi:) OTcrsFT (388)f occasio- 

. nally also with other rorbs. Hit. 6 inrr ntfrr ^i^Rjfj shisptt (by 

me they can be taught politics), R. 2, 86, 11 tt ?.&i i *rT : nif: snj^r: 

v» > 

H^f^j {rfv (he cannot be withstood by all the devas and asuras to- 
' gether); — Prabodh. VI, p. 1 19 Sn: ftrrnH: ' ' ' <Q^" « • • • • <. » ^T^^>«jn 

1) The krtya doing duty as noun of action is an idiom not rarely 
found in the pr&krts. Especially in the type, represented by this pas- 
sage of (Jiik. I ^IT rW f^Hnd^oalHI ^f?i<b9lHI cTT (v.a. who are you, that you 
should dismiss me or stop me?). 


804 § 887—388 

(how many haT« not endeaToured to bring me into bondage?), 
Viddhaf. I, p. 15 vr^faf^ H" «TTfj?tr f^ tj^ i ^j^jH (I could not hold her, 
much less appeaie her). Op. also Kumdras. 7, 67. This idiom is even 
mod in such sentences, as Hit. 50 «^ij.d>(iA ^f*i^^ na i PmfOc' !; 
(it is you who hare been chosen to be anointed king in this forest), 
and Madr. Ill, p. 106: Candragupta has sont for his minister CAna- 
kya. When arrired, the minister asks the king, for what reason 
he has been sent for; after hearing the reason, ho replies orti^riTTT* 
PT^ rrf^ SRr^lTTrTT; (then I have been ordered here to he upbraided). 
Rem. With those participles in °(T, which have sometimes an 
active and sometimes a passive meaning, the infinitive is ac. 
eordingly used in both senses. Cp. (passive) Pane. 275 raRTT fa^TT ^7 
^i\^ \ m'^d u^^ I { ->X f{^ with (intransitive) Pane. 276 w?T rfT 5T^ okrT 
d' l' li^lT l iRTTOrcrT iTjpTTfS'efT. Of w^ however, there exists a partio. 
STnRrTi which is exclusively to be used with an infinitive in the 
passive voice, whereas gr^ is a.ways active^). Likewise er^, not 
oWi is put to the infinitive, when bearing a passive meaning. Mhbh. 
1, 154, 9 WiJ ^ ff^riV ^ ^ g i Rhrf i xnrr. 

888. The krtya SfFRT may be construed in two manners, 
^^ It is equally correct to say ^ WR'* — , W Wf^ VS^ 

as WfZ ^ (or HT) ?r75 »^°® ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^'' 
In the latter case IlfFRFT is a neuter and remains un- 
changed. There is even room for a third idiom, which 
is effected by construing W^^ with the instrum. of 

its subject and the accusat. of its object , as iiiV^ IMI 

?r(orr!t) ?:^. 

Examples of the indeclinable gr^RF^: a.) with nom. M&lav. Ill, 

1) K&9. on P. 7,2, 17 teaches the form strf^uT for the passive, bathe 
adds, that sfniT may also be used even then: ^TTriTT: 9?^% Pyi'jJ W*f|- 
r fil^Prt fa^T^iSrfeft ur: ^g^israi^ urs ^ft^ but when impersonal 
passive, one always says STJIif ibid. iiTor tT MaT^ToT i lURiM»IH* 

§ 389. 306 

pt W ^ mimaii^ m jt f^ snwi^fig jrf^ (for, being to loTing, she 
mutt Boi be diidAined in her anger), Daf . 58 ^nmt f^ tI^^^ firrr* • • • 
<VM«^< 7^ y^^f^fl*;. (tiiese lips cannot bo kissed against my will), 
R. 2, 62, 16 v i «!lU*luilP^d t ^^ ff^rft f^^g^^FfTT; i Ml^nwfdrt : sfhf?: ggjiiV 
*f^ ?T TOW^; — ft), ^th instram. Pat I, p. 39 fmraraar <auf>iim> i JA>i 
iff^m^ (there not a single letter can be meaningless), R. 3, 40, 4 
Wik^>S n xft fd^ uw [mkfi ^f^ (but your words cannot withhold 
me from the struggle with R&ma). 

9. Another similar turn is the infinitive with Mni*1 



h' (it is fit, it suits). If neither the subject nor the object of 
the action befitting is expressed , there is no difficulty ; one 

should needssayf.i. ^T MfliM*^ t^ilrj^, no other turn of 
phrase being available. But when the subject or object 
or both of them are to be expressed, there is variety 
of idioms. 1. The object may be an accusative) 2. the 

object may be a nominative construed with MfT)*1; 3 the 
object may be a nominative^ whose gender and number 
are transferred also to the adjective 4^* As to the 
subject, it is put in the instrumental or in the geni- 
tive; *) the latter seems to be more frequent. 

Examples: 1 of wm^ with an accus, Mudr. I, p. 30 ;t qiVi m^H*<fM 
fjUHd^ l rt*! (it is not judicious to disdain evon a mean enemy), Yar&h. 
Bf hats. 47, 2 j^ d^ l ^(iif^(Mi ^ g i iil^flrfhJM (V. ought not to treat 
the same matter again), Mhbh. I, Paushyap. 118 ;t ^ M6 i fH;i*lU[R4 
Z^ v^h^sm ZJrm (it does not become you , after having given un- 
elean food, to return the curse); 

2. of fS^ftf{^ with a nomin, Mhbh. I, Paushyap. 106 ;r ^ 
^blH I ^*<>i H>ri ' <iT< fl H^^ (it is not right that you should treat me with 
lies) ; ') 

1) Cp. the promiscuousneas of geo. and ioittr. with the krtyas (66 R.). 

2) Cp. this pr&krt-passage of 9&kaotala III fpi h vfl^mfV wf^'IRj. 
rrr skrt. arffiXRin' fF^I<flIift-s^HP<Jj*j|^» 


800 § 389—390. 

8, of vnr agreeing ia gender and niunber with the nomin. 

K a th li. 22, 169 vhiT qQii^HnJi xm (▼• a. she suits me as a wife). 
^^ Rem. 1. In tiie same way t^wj with infinitive admits of two 
*^^* oonstmetions. Sometimes it is a neater with the ace. of the ob« 

ject, as B. (Gorr.) 6, 38, 28 7f 7m( mif sffTW SlJ^I (i* »« not 

allowed to curse one*s own grand-son in this manner), sometimes 
it is construed with a nomin. of the object, the gender and number 
of which itself adopts, and the instrum. of the subject, as Ragh. 
2,65 TO.... ruTOT JRIT iftwfnj nsrw: (it is right she should be 
released from you by me). 
^tk Renu 2. With the turn wm^ with nomin. may be compared 
"tt the nominatiTo with infinitive, attending such adverbs as iJHiUdM 

v^iv. *"^ ^^Vk K"™*>^*«* 2, 55 Qiqe^^ift ^ftr J^rsiw ?srar ^^*jMiuH*j [ ^ (even a 
-_ poisonous tree should not be cut down by him, who has reared 
it); — M&lav. Ill, p. 55 sf^: iramt STf Q^>f|*JL (** " better, that 
a love to which one is accustomed , should be repressed — ), Daf . 
94 a^mfiii ihmHiHXjr (it is better to defend ourseWos). With npi^ 
one may also meet with the nom. of the krtya almost doing duty 
as infin., 1 1 NAg&n. IV, p. 58 ar| ^r^rprr: ^r^rm JT^mni (better is 
it to go to the encounter of the princess). ^ 

390. The original nature of the infinitive has not been^ 

neter obscured in Sanskrit. It has everywhere the character 

krit*" rather of an adverb , than of a noun "). Not only on 

^^"^' account of itiS etymology, but also of its standing in 

some degree outside the common system of declension 

and conjugation, it may be called the counterpai*t of 

the . Lat. supine'). It has no voices, no tenses. If^^ 

nowhere serves to express the subject, predicate orob- 

1) Id Temacalar grammar the infinitive always ranks with the avyajfa* 
class. Likewise the gerund. 

2) Occasionally , eren the employment of Latin supine borders on that 
of Sanskrit infinitire. Cp. such phrases as venalum eunt^ spectatum 
veniunt with Skrt. aprf^ M^IK^f fHIFFT: ^ftftjjf' 

§ 390. 307 

jeet of a aentenoe *)• In such sentences as ^to give is 
better than to receive,** Sanskrit avails itself of diffe- 
rent idioms, chiefly by using nouns of action, but 
avoids using the infinitive '). 

Rem. 1, Sometimea the 3*^ person of the present or theoptatire may 
be equiTalent to our infinitive. Pane. II, 51 Zj^j^ ufni^^ i fH jpc- 
mwT^ T3^i*pt^ iihra^ SbsT n^^siv Sifhmmw{^(to give, to receive, 
to tell one*s secret, to ask it, to be guest and host, these are 
tiie six tokens of friendship). Cp. R. 3, 47, 17 ^rrrr ufHi i ai<Jifi<fq 
mi^ M r >iHH^ i j^ m^fm ji^m gn tj,T:T3^iii3r^(to give, not to receive, 
to speak the truth, not to speak falsehood, this is the sublime vow, 
brahman, practised by R4ma). 
; Rem. 2. Sanskrit has not the turn: accusative with infinitive '). 

1) Id such expressions as fir^iTT Mt^s^, 9TM^ ^i^J^^^ ™^7 "P^k of 
the infinitive as the subject and object of the finite verb, bat this is 

nly so from a logical point of view ; and it is , indeed , not contUUred so by 

2) P. i. ^ qfdij^f f ifuimi^ oir A ^jr^ ^J^ ufH^jjr i ^ rt^U<lip<< i HL 

or ET^ ^4 JT 5 fffmilj!. 

3) Jolly, Ge$ehiehte dtt Infinitioi, p. 253 aq. asserts its existence. He 
quotes but two examples: Kath&s. 20, 172 ^\m\A Mlj«aT and 8&v. 5, 10 =r 

Mhbh. 3, 297, 102 i|t ^ rilGjlMx^Rl . In the latter passage both the Calc. 
and the Bomb, edition of the Mhbh. read <|t w il)o|rHf^° and in the 
former cnHST is an obvious misprint for MMM- The participle is in both 
cases indispensable. So K&9. on P. 3, 3, 158 after giving ^t^fd ifbfP^ 
(he wishes to eat) as an example of the infinitive, contrasts with this 
the participial idiom Xd^^ 1|^mP|'^(h iTfT^: (Mr. B. wishes Mr. A. ' 

to eat). — Likewise R.3, 24, 13 ed. Bomb, ufd^hpt jPj'^^ l fll qf^ g i cMflrj; 

jfgiar the text is corrupt, the correct reading being ufTiChfoiH^t do^ >* the 

infin. HfHghQlHM^ but fffHW^rfagJJ^ A fourth instance would be Da9. 104 

^ ^{l}i\ • ciWm\M'\m\ua\ ^ ^UI^ «Tt atfaj oreT^rnrjj: (if I do not obUiu 
this beautiful maiden, the God of Love will not suffer me to live), 
yet as UMjfrf is as a rule construed with ace. and parUeipU (see but 
Mhbh. 1, 145, 9, M. 8, 346, Mhbh. 1, 95, 68, ibid. 4, 16, 28), I am convinced 
we have here likewiue an error in the text, and sHelflM must be put 

308 §390 --392. 

Verbf 9i pereeiTing, thinkiiig, telling ete. are eonstraed with the 
ftceoMtiTt with partieiple (874). 

891. ^e infinitiTe in *m ii the sole remnant of a great many 

(glij. similar forms, which ezbted in the ancient language, especially 

^**' in the old dialect of the Yaidik mantras. Whithit, Sanskr. Oramm. 

I 970 gives a detailed account of them. All of them are ohlique 

eases of noons of action. We call them infinitiTos, because they 

share the construction of the Terb, from which they are deriTed. 

Most of them were obsolete as early as the period of the br&h- 

mana- works, some indeed survived, but adopted the construction 

of the nouns. In such passages t L as Rgv. 9, 88^ 2 fr ^ jnt 

5T >jffqT3?W^ x?^: p[fqT mm sr^ (like a much-bearing chariot he 

has been horsed, the mighty one, to bring us abundant boons), 

we are inclined to call mem an infinitive, for it has its object 

put in the aceuaative; likewise still Ait Br. 2, 1, 1 nftm RhRj^ * 

frjunm umih > since fehf^H is the object of vmA* Biit in such 

passages as Ait. Br, *, 17, 8 ^smm c?fnrw wr^ (in order to gain 

heaven), the object is a genitive ^ and wrsh can no more be called 

infinitive. Now, the genitive with them is predominant in the 

brAhmanas and afterwards it is the sole idiom. 

892* Two old infinitives, however, are still employed in this br&hmanas, 

.^ ^*- those in "sft: and in "rr^. Of the latter I have even met with an in- 

^^ * stance in a writer of so comparatively recent a date, as Patanjali >)• 

*f^, 1. The infinitives in °nt: are either genitives or ablatives. When 

genitives, they are hardly found unless depending on ^^sq* '). The 

phrase T^gq- with genitive in "^ft: means )>able to'* or ■ liable to.*' 

instead of n^^l^; I Bhould not wonder, if the good reading were found 
in msB. 

1) Pat. I, p. 2 mm^ fn^pAsr ^ ^f^^rA >n<lil l fe<dS . The infin. is 
here equivalent to the krtya, according to what ia prescribed by P&nini 

2) 1 know but one instance of a genitive depending on an other word. 
Ait. Br. 2, 20, 21 irots Tfl^^y^ ^ ([if he] thoald strive after obtaining glory). 
In another passage Ait. Br. 6, 30, 7 the interpretation of the inf. vt^t^i 


§ 892—393. 809 

It mult be remarked that in this idiom W^ sometimes tgrees 
witii its subject in gender and nnmber, sometimes the mase. fsarr: 
is used irrespective of the gender and number of its subject, as if 
it were an indeclinable wood. Ait Br. 1, 10, 2 fsvTT ^ ^ err 
(^^ i fg m iT%ft: (they are able to check him or to crush him), 
ibid. 1, 30, 11 ^ssfr.^ m ^ mm^ f^%ft:; - ibid. 3, 48, 8 f^sfi 
^im faw ^ST vprfr: (it may be that the gods are not gratified 
by his offering), Q^i, Br. 5, I, 1, 9 f r MJUd^ ; «RTT mSfun\ iTfarjV:. 

When ablatives, they are employed after the prepp. m and 
m. Then, however, they are commonly construed with the ge- 
nitive of their object. Ait. Br. 2, 15, 9 grr srm: Udf<f?^i4^ ; [▼iz. 
ni ^^jftHCH t], ibid. 7, 2, 6 vr u i pj i mmi^H l;. 

2. The infinitive in °n^ is said by P&nini to be synonymous '|^* ' 
with the krtyas. This statement is confirmed by what we know 
about them from the ancient texts. In the Qatapatha they are 
much used, less often in similar works. Qat. Br. ij<yfi>«'e^^5 ^^TTr]^ 
(he must order the roots to be cut off.) 
3, Both classes of infinitives also admit of an other construction. 
The subject etc. of those in °?ft** and the object of those in ^ft^ may 
be put in the same case, which is represented by the infinitive, 
but difference of number, when existing , remains. Apast. in S&ya- 
na's comment on Ait. Br. 2, 15, 15, p. 260 of Aur right's ed. njj snw: 
2^ STT snftwi: Udf<fft : (— before the crying of birds), ibid. 2, 7, 6 
^ssrfV ^mr m^ ^^miV ^rfnrrt: (verily, his voice is liable to be- 
come the voice of a raxas), ibid. 2, 1, 3 msm ir^^M^ ^rfftk (to 
overthrow him, whom he is willing to overthrow'). 

Rem. A third class of infinitives, those in V:* which. we are 
entitled to call infinitives of the aorist , as they are made of the most 
contracted form of the root, are occasionally construed in the same 
way, f, i. the vaidik phrase qrr sTr|'^ VTrp^: quoted by Kkq, on P. 
8, 4, 17. Other instances may be met with in the Rgveda-mantras. 

•eems Bomewhat doubtful to me; the wordu Ur^Ht^«f1l^4^are likeljr to 

mean >I am, indeed, able to anderttand" , as if t^ett: thould be supplied. 
1) Cp. the well known idiom of Latin geruodiyum. And even Latio 
affords instaDces of concord in gender and case, but disagreement in 
nnmber. Cic. Philipp. 5, 8, 6 facvUaa agronim wis latronibus ttmdonandi. 

310 § 394—395. 


894 After treating the syntax of nouns and verbs , we 
now oome to the words which are d^oid of inflection. 
Part of them , indeed , have already been dealt with , viz. 
the adverbs in Ch. I of the Third, and the prepo- 
sitions in Ch. IX of the Second Section. The rest 
are the so-called particles , most of them old little words 

as^. % '^,^. ^, whereas some others, as 

^1*1*1, rfiqri, M^*J, are petrified noun-cases. As to 
the employment of the particles, they serve different 
purposes , but they may he brought under two general 
heads : modality and connection. When modal , they are 
expressive of emphasis , negation , interrogation , excla- 
mation and the like , when connective they are wanted 
to connect either whole sentences or paiis of them. 

The diitinotion between these two classes of particles is, however, 
not an essential one. The same word may be sometimes a modal, 
sometimes a connective. So «f^ may be a particle of interroga- 
tion, but also of copulation, grr commonly a disjunctive, serves 
occasionally to express emphasis. And so on. 

Sanskrit likes putting together and even combining 
two or more particles. 

Chaft. I. Particles of emphasis and limitatioii. 

805, Affirmative sentences do not want to be marked as 
such by special particles, i\& is necessary with nega- 
tive and interrogative sentences. Yet, strong afBrma- 
tion, so-called emphasis, is expressed by such words as 


§ 396-^396. 311 

j^ English indeed^ mrefy^ verily, viz. TgTJ^ f%^, ^^' 
t SrrS^, PlUHtJ, ?!HR or in full MHirM^^. Of them, 

^Po^ and the rest rather bear the character of 8uch ad- 
verbs, as .certainly, undoubtedly." Mudr. Vll, p. 223 tp^Rft 

Rem. srr^ is especially used in answers k yes, indeed**. Kath&a. 
24, 67 one asks iRftryn m eiiH^fi^p j;^! the other answers ^sn^ 
iFTT m Tmp ^* »Yes** is also rrrr. KathAs. 81, 19 the king aska 
his attendant to fetch him some water, the other answers tptt; 
in full , he would have said ?pn fejfr <j y 4 ! t< » MufH ^:, of which sen- 
tence all biit Tfm is understood. Sometimes the relative sentence 
fl i WlM<ifrt dto. is expressed, but the rest understood. — vn Bfis? 
is also = »yos** >). Mudr. II, p. 78 ?r wg fdRdl^ f^SFTrrsmirao^- 
7T9CTifm f%)ST^ (R&zasa asks: the accursed C&nakya does not know 
they dwell in PAtalip., does he? Answ. Tea, he does). 

^* •Jr^*i> ^^> ^^^^ J^^f ^^ are the most frequent 
emphatic particles. The last three of them are not 

put at the head , but ^FFT and »T^ are usually the 
first word of the sentence, at least m prose. Da^. 130 

TTftmi cmirPtsFj^: fiRirft ^^ iri^FfH, Pane. 204 ^ ^^insrriVs^iTnF 
( — but now, indeed, I did not remember it), ibid. I rritspmf^m 

Miidr. V, p. 173 frfWqrtr^ nr^r ri)( i NW i [g j^^ror M^iyr^iwuiH: 

7^ is properly an interrogative, which does duty as an em- 

Rem. 1. The said emphatics are of course not wholly syno« 

1) Literally, as it seems, >bat how [do you doobtof it?]*\ Op. Latin 
Roga» t 

2) Tet H^ accompanies even the imperative. Kom&ras. 4, 32 ^ qt 

312 § 396—397. 

Bymoiiiii Hi* slight differeneat which exist betwMn them, makiiig 
it oeeasioiially necessary to use one and to aroid another. It is also 
to be obsenred, that sometimes and in some degree the emphatics 
may act as a kind of coimeotifes, in as far as they, too, are 
a means for linking sentences together. In the example quoted 
from Pane. 204 , rrr may be called with some right a causal par<- 
ticle^ likewise mm and {%^ in the two, quoted from (^&k« I. On the 
other hand, the connective f^ is sometimes a more emphatic 

Rem. 2, Emphatic particles are sometimes used in an ironical 
sense, especially tttt And BtcT* See f. L Kum&ras. 5, S2. 

SOT- Ancient literature abounds in emphatic particles, 
many of which are obsolete in the classic dialect. Besides 
W^f ^TFT, I^, we meet in archaic and epic works 

with ^, ^, FT, g, "5, 3rr, ^\. Often these little 
particles only slightly strengthen' the sense , and rather 
serve either to enhance the dignity of the style or to 
utelr fill up the metre. Then we may call them expletives *). 
But they are not always used in this way, and each 
of them at the outset had its proper meaning. 

Accumulation of them is not rare, as ^ ^, ^ i^, ? <!T^ etc. 

Rom. 1. 9 is especially used to lay stress on the word im- 
mediately preceding. It is excessively frequent both in liturgical 
and in epic writings. Still Patanjali used it sometimes. Pat. 1, p. 
107 wnrrnr w^ & ^t^^: ^ttoft iisrf^ (nay, even intransitiTos 
become transitives, when compound). But afterwards it seems to 
be obsolete, at least in prose. — srT = ^ is occasionally found 
in epic poetry. 

Rem. 2. ^ and jpf are much liked at the end of a p&da , the 
former after a finite verb , 377 in the phrase Tmrr. But they may 

1) And no does veroacalar grammar. Even as aocieot an author as Yftska 
knows of particles which serve MI<MI iA« 

§897—398. 313 

alto kftvt other plMef; ^ is rery firequent in the brAhnuma m 
well M ia the epiet.') 

Requ 8. Some, at snem and enVi ^ra found in the brihmanaa, 
but not in the epies. The emphatie and also restrictite particle w^ 
if often met with in the mantras and in the Qatapathabr., f^Tj^, 
T^ and 9Si|r^ are restricted to the mantras. 

^ The enclitic 1^ is put after a word, in order to 
denote : even this , not anything else. We may , there- 
fore , call 7^ a restrictive. It is exceedingly frequent , 
being hardly ever omitted, when any stress, however 

slight, is to be laid on a word. Pane. 212 w^ ghf^ r ju i f^ 
(I myself will do it), M&lar. I, p. 18 ^nrf^i^rv ^gni n^Jffw^g cr^nr- 
erphsr (one is able to undertake a difficult task, only with a com- 
panion), ^Ak. I ^^u f r l ^ i d iigfrT^ j^TFpfr^ftJT (the rery sight of the 
ladies honours me), Pane. 186 P i fulj i ci Pr^ i mM M*4rtim<fgfH».<> i vrfrfhf 
Mhbh. 1, 168, U Hidimba forbids Bhtma to eat, but the othor, 
not oaring for this , continues eating jym rt*<> ii j^m ijrm ^ trprpT:, 
Kath&s. 30, 3 fT nt f^ t^ 5TiTfwri?mt%TW i inu smw. As appears 
from the instsnces quoted , na admits of manifold translations ; it is 
often not translated at all. After pronouns it is sometimes ::= 
»the same, the very.** Nala 2, 12 ^Hfwfjd CFm (at that very 
time). Pane. 324 agh^a (at the same time). Cp. 277. 

Rem. 1. In poetry ns is sometimes omitted. R. 3, 25, 39 Tw^TrjTt 

SfJFotTTfei^^^ Ui^^fl*lf-J[^i Q^'JAJIUI 07^^ ^IWHIW w^T^^rTT:, here 
the scholiast is right in expounding Q».J*nm*^«ai , >tho r&zasas 
did not see him charging his arrows nor discharging them, they 
saw him onlif keeping his bow bont [bo swiftly R&ma was shoot- 
ing].** So Var&h. Yogay. 1, 18 iisr^ ^cj^^MJ f^f^: = if** ^djH^i^^oi 
f^f?:, cp. Kerk*8 annot. in the Ind, Stud. X, p. 200. 

I) P. 8, 1,60 mentions ^, when denoting disapproval at some infrin* 
goment on good manners. K&9. illustrates this rule a. o. by tbe example 
mix 5 J^ inf^iSTTwrm M^lfrl xnnrfH. In this sense also W^ is used 
[P. 8, 1,61], moreover, when orders are given to diflfereot persons at the 
same time , f. i. 7S^ ZU4 IT^ 1 Hm^\ ( UU n^ (Kft^.). 

3U § 398-399. 

lUn. 2. In th« mantnu -^ ^, f^, «^ maj do tlie 4ntj 
of ^. 

^399- The other restrictives are%^r?rj, 7^, *IH^ and 
•»a" rmr\. Of these, %^rP3[ and ^^[^ are = ,only, at 

"^' least, but" Pane. 812 7f afe rar irl^ Asr?^^, KtthAa. 32, 143 
yiii-yw-^ ^^TOT ^rot nsTT iiraf ^^tft ?t5[ jpjni* • • • • fWii^ AjfAiiwAm 

«Ti|*r« Virnsf mostly announces some adTersative partkle, being al- 
most :=: sto be sure'* (442, 1^). It is but seldom used without 
adversative sentence. Da^. 126 ?ra^^qrtf^: v i iit^h mr^s^ fT»l^ (if 
you have intercourse with apsarases, so). 

mOT. rTT^FT has a peculiar employment. Properly it is 
an ellipticsil phrase, for at the outset it must have 
meant something like this: «as much [is certiiin]." Accor- 
dingly it advances a statement which is asserted „at 
all events'* or ,,at least** or „before others.*' As it is 
often an enclitic , the said translations are generally 
too forcible. In expositions of many links one likes 
to put Frr^FT to the first of them, then it may be 
compared with fr. „d*abord ,** cp. 439. It is also much 

used in exhortations and with imperatives. 

Examples: Kath4s. 28, 60 ig^ wnm^raray&iri ^ ma^m^S i (o! 
who may this beautiful woman be? She is, at all events ^ not 
a mortal). Pane. 318 a brahman thus reflects fTf^q;^4zf EriFnam- 
w^iar^iff^ jfw «5rl^ 7f^^ ^towrrnt uw»jwuH (mvW, this pot is 
filled with porridge, now if there should be a famine, then —X 
ibid. 37 Damanaka says to Kara^aka frrsTt d l d<UUMHl nrf^ i J^ f^* 

^TFi: »:io^JW i ;q^ l i|<<l ; »TiTTrT:i^3ftr ^([lA'h XTrT:ifTf?W fviflk («» 

the first place we have lost our influence , next our king has be- 
come averse to his duty, and finally all his attendants are gone, what 
is to be done in these circumstances ?),* ibid. 23 rt^ i ciYdMlf*< efrRnv 
9T^: (therefore, I will know at least, whose voice it is). Mndr^ 

I 399—401. 816 

m, PL 114 Qn^fofft m»5 ^bm^ (only, girt vp the letter), ^k. 
YI the king eegerlj exclaims iFi^nsr?^^ (mj bow! = •! went to 
heT^mj bow and to hare it 8oon"N ; likewise MAUt. I, p. 20 the king 
greets the daneing^masters kd \ m ^fsninri then taming to his 
attendance he continues wmk msr^jSMsAif cp. Vikram. V, p. 180 

r. Rem. ;nj, an old emphatic particle, seems to be restricted to 
poetry and almost to negative and interrogatiTO sentences: ;r frm 
»not at alL** Sometimes it may be almost = »perchance, perhaps.** 
KathAs. 25, 24 ii i Jleii^ q^V sTTJ rft jfW. Sometimes fsm is affixed 
to H, see 402. 

Chapt. II. Negation. 

0. Sanskrit has three negative particles: ^, ^ and the 
». prefix ^(R)**. Of these the last mentioned is only used 
' in compounds, RT is the special particle of prohibition. 

1. The general negation is ^. It negatives as well single 
' words or notions as whole statements. In the former 
• case it is put immediately before the word denied. 

. Pane. 147 mI^^ i h^ e^r? h|^ (I haye clearly experienced you to 
^ be an nnfriend). 

When denjring the whole statement , one is tolerably 

free where to put the negation. Commonly, two places are 
preferred: either at the head of the whole sentence — so regu* 
larly for rhetorical purposes, as in the case of antithesis, epanaphora, 
also in emphatical denials — or just before the rerb. Tet, as has 
been said, any other place is admissible and rery often mot 
with, especially in poets. 

Examples: ;r heading the sentence. Pane. 26 ;t ^^ittrf^ iTi^FrT: 
»m>f?)fH ;t 7^ ^ riqifdd : (as men of superior rank do not feel 
angry towards a wretch, he has not killed you), Mudr. lY, p. 
137 ;t iwt ^^R<^mRj ^r^rpirfT hn sn9m9Tsfim?T: (though I have 
been reflecting on it quite a while, I do not understand what 

816 § 401—402. 

it Uf they speak of); — of rr jvit before the Terb: Pane. 48 Tn^A 
€rfe ar mxTWSf Hit, 95 vysararrA -swrar fnspm sfrfw* 

anaphora: Pane. I, 4 rr m Iott JT ?t^ ?tt :? ?fl^pT*^ m 
aw!Ti«frffft^ ?I7^ wfypTt ffj jfte^ (no knowledge, no mnnifi. 
eonee, no skill, no art, no persoTerance can be imagined which 
is not praised in the wealthy by those who desire profit of them); — 
emphatic denial: Pane. 54 the weaTor, who acts the part "of 
Vishnu says to the princess gair ;n4 J^^prm i|i>|mmi n^rf^. 

Instances of another place, than at the head or be- 
fore the Terb: Da^. 198 d*<</l*<fHl . ^Mj^qAjM (I am not able to 
rescue him), Hit 9 fr|..*.. ;t ^ f^'ioi l Mijpl ;> Kum&ras. 5, 5 g?Tt 

5i7Tnrr im ^ f^w^gymr^i Pane. I, 27 f^r ^ ?ng frrhr wt- 

(^^frt :t ?r: ^sim du r vj i 4> iSRft tot; ibid. II, 168 snrsfr f^temSr 
TO: = rifffdfaf i ^**; KathAs. 24, 171 f?^ rsmsr Jjrm^ ii^l^m^ui 

Rem. ;r is sometimes by itself the whole predicate, the verb 
being implied. Da^. 156 ^ ^fi^^^H \ iirirm{kl^ ^ (she was destined 
for him, not for another), Pane. 116 ^mft: fwrmnm ?m^ HTOwV: 
(education turns to advantage in a good man, but in a wicked 
one not so). 

402. The combinations of 'T with indefinite pronouns or 
'^^^ pronominal adverbs to express none^ no, neither^ nowkere 
^^^ and the like are treated 282 and 288 R* 3. 


K^ When accompanying connective particles, ^ precedes 
them as a rule , as ^T^ [cp. Latin neque), ^ ^, •illH, 
^» ^ 5» ^ 3^s ^r[=q' + 3r|. Cp. 429. With 
^ it becomes the interrogative particle M^ (^1®)- 

,Not even" is ^ W^, ^. . • . T^\ .not at all" 

^ STTrJ; ,not indeed" ^T tsF^, ^T ^fl^, ^ HrMHetc.; 

„not yet" 'T RT^FJ^J. Pane. 30 7\ (n i qmjR i yi^ (even at night 
he did not find his rest); — M. 2, 94 ;t jnj WTXT: eftWH I *}M4^I^^ VWS^ 

9 402—404. 317 

(Init If b J BO BMuif qnenehed by eDJoyment); here f«|}^ is not 
Ttatlj added, m Mhbh. 1, 49, 4 ^Rromf. uP^ucW i P^ f&^rfWr ^ jng 
f^\ — 5Ak. I ^ frvj 7 f^ srnrr: Mp i q i wl 3 !in(w>*tj:Pi *(»v i p^ ; — 

R. 2, 80, 85 ;t ewiy — Mhbh. 1, 24, 14 jt moT^ |W^ ^: (the eun 
If not yet Titible). 

Rem. 1. rrt at the outset terved to signify the negation J^ the 
advenetiTO particle =r »bat not'*, yet ? having almost got obsolete 
in the classic dialect, nt is sometimes considered almost a synonym 
of the simple ;t And is used chiefly in poetry instead of it either as an 
emphatic negation, or for metrical purposes. See f. L Mrcch. IV, p. 
135 ;f^ mmmj'dtfi l *{^ otc ; ibid. IX, p. 314; Pane. II, 153; V, 24. 

Rem. 2. The archaic dialoct possessed a negation ^ := ;t -j- 
Tjff, It is sometimes a mere negation, but commonly it is -.^z »lest*', 
tiien it is construed with the conjunct! ?e mood (^), cp. 366 R. 1. 

3« The negation ^T** — ^FT — is only used as the first 


• member of compounds, both bahuvrihis, and tatpu- 
rushas, see 218 and 223 c). In tatpurushas its force is 
not always the same, t^rl^i f. i. not only denotes ,not 

a friend" but also the very opposite of IM^l, yiz. »foe." 

Of the latter kind are sundry common words, as ift?^ (much), 
«^ (many), wm: (dishonour). The former type iuToWes iden- 
tity of meaning with the separate negation ;T) f* i. Daf. G9 o Qihm 
H^miii l flH srnVjsr^ (I am no vessel for wordly pleasure), Pane. C2 
ifet fkniTf ^^i^ki^i : = "^^r wvi.t Da^. 199 *<if^<«^(^rjtuii ipftj (not 
a single moment [he was] not thirsting for virtue). 

Further fr° in tatpurushas may denote nail except this ,** wsn^un: = 
•anybody but a brahman.** M. 5, 18 in the list of eatable animals 
it is said ihzttt..... <iid|>^;yi3 i »d^«i^H ;t Kull." comments frnjcrPsS- 

Rem. ;r is not wholly excluded from compounds, but it b ra- 
rely used BO, f, i. riRi'^m = <ifa^m (soon) etc.; -uQi^\ (not far), .iyiy 
(eunuch; [the] neuter [gender]). 

L ?r may be compounded with verl)al forms, viz. par- 

318 §404—406 

tidples , gerunds and infinitives. Pane. 67 vf^^i^ (thongh 

not wifhing it); Kvm. 1, 37 P&rTatt being taken in hii arms by 
QiTa, is said to ascend his shoulder w>t>^>i i j^gMiJitiiii-ij i ^ (— not 
to be cherished by other women); — Pane. 69 ;r tpm VoIiIm^wW 
m*ma*^fdf<^d l m^ (»* does not befit my master to go without 
having experienced his strength), Da^. 76 ^» ici>ww3d i «i*{RiMiimff ; — 
R. 2, 48, 1 1 ^ v i fu^fHeir^jH (they cannot help honouring him), 
Pat I, p. 230 wm^ 7TXT: STcraV m^^ (thb rule , too , might have 
remained unsaid). Of v° with inf. I know no instances except 
such as are construed with the yerb gg^ 

Rem. A v&rtt oh P. 6, 3, 73 allows v° also put to the finite 
verb, provided that it be intended to express blame, asira:sr%r3r 
STT?sT} AB if we should say: »you miscook*' = »you do not cook well." 

^*» RT is the proper negation to be used with the im- 
perative and its concurrent idioms; in other terms it 
expresses prohibition , or in a wider sense the desire to keep 
off. Examples of its employment with imperative, op- 
tative, aorist without augment have been given 353 
and 354. A strong prohibition is not rarely expressed 

by the sole RT or by H^^ (not so) with ellipsis of 
the verb; m Fn^rT signifies reprobation, as MAlav. l,p. 3. 

With imperative qr is also used , if tho imperative expresses 
doubt or uncertainty. Mhbh. 14, 6, S jt^ stt >TT arr (you are free 
to go or not [as you like]). In the same meaning also with %t, 
as Pane. I, 225 fir^ ^ISIJ m ijTlTX^ (there may be poison or not). More- 
over ITT with %^ may express solicitude. Mrcch. Ill, p. 124 li^ 
%pif?T )^:iin JfTiT 3gidUI<^>i l <f wzrk (Maitreya tarries long, in his 
distress I hope he will do nothing unbecoming). As to qr With 
the future in epic poetry and in the prakrts , see 363 R. 4. 

Rem. 1. When subjoined to some chief sentence, qr admits 

of being translated by tlest,*' as Mhbh. 5, 37, 45 itt oR f^^ CTSZTT^ 
ITT anoT >7i>iui><biri i H (do not destroy the forest with tigers, lest the 
tigers should disappear from the forest), cp. ibid. 1, 30, 15 quoted 

§ 406-407. 819 

868 R. 4.1). In other termt, iit with f^, aoritt or futuro maj 
be fynoaymoiis with erqr ^ or o^r ;r*— In epic poetry :t with 
optatiTe it alio n«ed=: »lett;** inttanees are not rare. Hhbh. 1, 
154, 35 siftif n«^ ii5[ ff ^ ^ fsTOTfgjyhrT: (let ut go instantaneously, 
lest Dnryodhana should know of us), ibid. 1, 56, 23 rTW ^^ srr 
fgti :t PdTf^jfa , R. 2, 63, 43 ft hh i ^u ^ fsrt aA7T» Nala 14, 14 etc.i). 
Rem. 2. ;r; not itti is the negation to be used with the po- 
tential mood, in hypothetical sentences, in general precepts and 
with the f^ taught 848 e.). *). Nala 13, 42 Damayantt says the 
conditions upon which she will be a maid-seryant: Tf^^^imnri 
ST cpif m^fc ii oT'^^ nT ^sti^ ^^ii^rm?cr*mfj%i here n^ not itti is in its 

6. Two negations in the same sentence are equivalent to a strong 
B affirmation. Ch. Up. 4, 4, 5 ^H<^44 i ^uh f^oTiixr^frT (no one but a brah- 
is man can thus speak out), R. 2, 30, 31 ;r ^rm^^ ^ ^^^ (^ cannot 
J*" but go, indeed), ibid. 2, 32, 46 ;t rT5r ?pfsFr srijoT nftlrT: (there was 
> no one there but was made content), M&lav. epilogue m i JimjiT i ff t- 

p- (dlilMUi^fTl BsTTTt MMfWIH ?T W9T jfwfj 'llfllf^sff COmm. 7X tj^ ^'itlrf'Jrf 

^' 1^ ^iirf^ 5 ki^md ^ *). 

7. If two or more negative sentences are to be con- 
nected, the negation is often put but once. So 

1) Pane. 325 iff ^» lest** is construed with a present: ^Uil^lf<^ m 
q^fiu«^Mim>iyi HSrf^. Instead of Msrf^ one woald rather eipect ii^. 

2) Sometimes :? is construed so even with the future in 'wld. Mhbh. 

1,146,30 iftxf w ^mfAs[ ^r^am g^^riiri ^ ?to!w j?mT: wuuwPi. 

8) ITT* • • • • Jr^= »if °ot" I have met with M&lat. IX, p. ICO : uViQuit^^M^ 
U l wfHfHMh(>u\6( OT I mH^^OW^ ?!W IT^ H^f^Upq»T). But mu* may be 
a false reading instead of ;nu^* 

4) E. 3, 47, 8 :Trsr utw ST W Vd^d ^T QOT JT eh^ivw is an instance of 
emphatic denial by means of repeating the negation , unless the reading 
be false and we must read q* gRU W eh^W-^. — In Pane. 116 the word e 
Wf <M^»a*<yiUdj»^'4 t UmPhmIu ^ &^ are erroneously resolved thus trmrsr^ 
qT7TT:*t they are = TOn5nT^4" ^'f*****' 

820 § 407—408. 

'JjJ" R". . . . . ^ may be = .neither. .... nor, not. . . . nor"; 

^ ^....?rR= .not. . not even;** ?T.... SfT^^not... 
nor*\ This omission of the negation in the second 

link is necessary in the idiom ^. . • . um or ^<7 .not. . . . 
no more than.*' R. 2, 59, 8 jwrftr... H i frMi^wwn^ulQ ^mrf^ w 

irmTi^ (the flowers do not glisten. .... nor do the frnits as he- 
fore), M. 4, 56 nrc^ ^ jfW ST tIst^ ST Qfjr^rrT^ (neither nor..... 

nor), Pane. IV, 53 innT vm r^ JfTf^ mrf ^ f Qqa i RA igpA ^ iT- 
T^eisttU — Bhoj. 15 JT flr ^ i dMlMT^Pfi tmr: quiPici %?r: (such a king 
b not desired by his subjects, no more than a eimuch is by 
women); R. 3, 47, 37 pj^ sjgar fsraT w^mr(.f«w tWT imr (— no more 
than the sunshine). 

But, in asyndetical eonnection of negative sentences the nega- 
tion is always repeated, cp. Pane. I, 4 in 401. 

Chaff. III. Interrogationa. 

408. Interrogative sentences are twofold. Sometimes it 
wjr ^ ^^^ whole action or fact, which is put in question , 
^^*^ as yis he gonel*', sometimes it is not the tact itself 
but one of its elements, that is asked after, as: , where 
does he dwell 1 who has seen him V Questions of the 
latter type are introduced by interrogative pro- 
nouns or adverbs, those of the former !•* by par- 
ticles, which partly are also derivatives from the inter- 
rogative pronoun, 2^y the interrogation is signified by 
the mere mode of pronouncing. 
later. I. The interrogative pronoun is 7, the interrogative 

rog»- . ^ ^»s ^»s 

^^ adverbs, as SfT, ^J, I^Min (whyl), are its deriva- 
•^ tives. As a rule they head the sentence, at least in 

•a- prose; in poetry they may be piit anywhere. Pane. 126 
. <f)»iiuiii«lcji \pi ^f , Da^f. S2 cftt^ sng jp orf^ > Pat. I, p. 427 wf?? 


§408—409. 821 ' 

HWfy unrf:; — Mrech. EC, p. 302 lA^ CFf^H^ y imr; Pane. 

Rem. Like other pronouns the interrogatiTO may be part of a 
oomponnd. Mrech. IX, p. 302 fisfpntfyti wsm ^IW^ (▼• ^ w^ftt ia the 
name of her loTor?), Da^, 74 a^pr: q ^Hitfih i M^ i fif^P mT anf ft?ft %m 
f^nriT nhMf^a i f i firo^ft ^ (as long as I live , I hare been anao- 
quainted with the course of [those two objects of human pursuit] 
Profit and' Pleasure, and I should like to know what is their 
shape, who are their attendants and what fruit they yield), Pat. 
I, p. 6 ehvj^ i rT^Jigh 3r^: tsf^kax: g>>v i mc?^u» t ^$050^: (rule and excep- 
tion being wanted, what is the nature of either?). 

Other remarks on the interrogative pronoun and 
its derivatives. '— 1. They may depend on participles, ge- 
runds and the likci also subordinate sentences. Mhbh. 1, 162, 11 rmf 
MeifMH^uri ^f^mv^ i ei !rt rcRH (▼• a. what motive has made you 
decide to abandon this [man]?), Mudr. I, p. 28 zrf^ f^i ^zn7[^(if what 
would beP). 

2, Nothing precludes the presence of more interrogatives , re- 
ferring to different things, in the same sentence. Pat. I, p. 241 
^cfw gM6u r 'a< | .^<JVif^ (what sounds do they employ [and] in what 
meanings?), Kath&s. 41, 87 ert^qf vmik w: f* ^ f* (O^rt i flifrf 
(who is indigent? who begs [and] for what? to whom should be 
given [and] what?). 

8. Some particles, viz. sr^ flarjt T^i 3> 7i 7TnT> are subjoined 
to them , in order to express some interest taken in the question 
by the speaker. Cp. the like duty of Lat. - nam and tandem , Qrook 
flrwi , French done. Q&k, I nrpiVj 9W srr w i <w yror ^iisr: (is it 
then possible , that such a beauty should be of human origin ?) ; 
Mhbh. 1, 91, 8 9rf^ fe^ gn?T: aprfn JmiT i ^rrjrTi iisTfTrfrr ci^iMW 
tf r- jfii i ^iij^ SRT^; R. 2, 38, 8 fm^\\ ^;f^zx h 9,( \ (^\ d'i*UMdi (what 
possible injury can Janaka's daughter do you then ?) ; Ch. Up. 4, 
14, 2 y^^Q< ▼cT mrzt h jp mfh i grr 3 rg i jurjiifi (friend , your face 
shines like that of one who knows Brahman ; who has taught you ?); 
Kath&s. 16, 9 Itr ?ttxt ?T e^ f^ u;^»tj|iT: 97?TT^T:. 

4. Note the phrase errt^zTq^ (who is it , that ~~ here ?), f. i. Hit 

822 I 409—411. 


ft. f^^mty do duty m a particle, tee 418, 3^ 

^^^ Sanskrit has a pronounced predilection for rhetorical 
rimi questions (14, VI). Hence, the interrogative pronouns 
tl^ and adverbs are often to be translated rather freely. 

Her© are some examples : R. 2, 44, 7 fcR ;r nw¥mui\^ : =: e5 flrT*f 
Hit 22 tuPiiiMu i f* gftRmw H ^^ jrf^TT^ (▼. a. nobody is punished 
or honoured anywhere on account of his birth alone), Kath&s. 28, 
iO ^^ 9 <T^m. .... VTffrrf^ ^^u i oi^ ^: wt sqro v^ v;m (the 
Buddha has given up his own self like a grass-blade for the benefit 
of his neighbour, how, then, can thore be question about [giving up] 
wretehod riches?). Cp. Mhbh. I, 74, 27, Q&k. I, ts. 19 etc. Cp. also 
fPT ftw= ryes," f% 5:= »but" (441), f?fr ^ = »moroover" (437). 

w^ In a similar way ^T^PT and ^TrTJ frequently precede 
^^, the cause, reason or motive , when expressed by a new sen- 

^ tence. For this reason , ono may sometimes render them by sin- 
deed." Mudr. V, p. 167 fn^ fdrHalfHi'.4 i mcfti>T i ? r; 1 JcT: the reason is 
given in the. strophe, which immediately follows, ibid. I, p. 29 Vi^ 

m V... Rem. The idiom Sf7 "7. . . • 97 ? serves to denote a 
•..jRW. great discrepancy between two things. Da^. T^ f m: ^ 

^ ^f^TV^ (▼* a. to be an ascetic and to weep are incompatible), 
R. 2, 106, 18 ^ ^Tpjh w ^ wm w 5tct: w ^ OT^Ji^nr, C'^^k. I g» 5r?T 
^f^ui!>iMi mkn %i i fd^^ i <?f 1 j? ^ f^fiiiHPwHi ; m(Uj i; s imw . Op. Kath&s. 
28, 6, R. 3, 9, 27 etc. 

411. In indirect questions the interrogatives are 
wSrtil employed, but instead of them the relatives are also 
wlat!? admissible. Kath&s. 39, 174 q^ sHETO 9r!!r»]r^(soe, how I delude him), 
»•• > Pane. 65 irrafTt fiwfTt aPT^Rirm sr^ (be informed of what these guards 
net are telling). On the other hand Kath&s. 39, 87 rf^ ^r^. .... or^r* 
tlim] atfinrr^nr ?r?Tn?Wir UW JBTT *n^; (he told her everything, who ho 
was, of what name, whose king*s son), the direct question would 

§411^412. 323 

iMTe been m^ fm^m^mi'9!m ^u Likewiie MAIat II, p. 39 fq^ 
h insTTftr Aim cnpnrt B» 8> 52, 60 ajijj. .... ii^ «rt hnnfh jfW^:. 

!• IT. In sttch interrogative sentences , as put the whole 

' &ct into question , interrogative particles are sometimes 

. added , sometimes omitted. When they are omitted , the 

verb mostly heads the sentence. When added , it is they 

that are usually put at the head. The said particles 

are ^Erfq", 'SPf, f^ and ^171^. 

a). Examples . of questions without intorrog. particle: Pane. 21 ift 
ii\r\ni gjtrftf^ 5T^ ^Trnr^TrT^Csay, Dam., do you hear a noise distant 
and great?), ibid. 326 irRfT rfw JTTrJnr: fffrifivtqt?r: e^Rki f j^ (is there 
any means for checking that scoundrel?), M&lav. IX, p. 159 ^rm 
fftsrfH ^ fwTT (say, does my sweetheart live?). 

6). Examples of questions with intorrog. particle: 

1. 9f^. — Pane. 35 «f^ imTf: f^Toi^(v. a. are you in good health ?), 
ibid. 25 ^ wm (is it true ?), Kath&s. 24, 208 irfq sTrm (do you 
know?), Vikrain. IV, p. 142 frfq ^^dMfn xm fert sft. 

2. 3rTf ill simple questions very rare and obsolete, it seems. 
Kkq. on P. 3, 3, 152 3rT ^fTT. ifmtfh (will the stick fall?). As to 
its use in alternatives see 414. 

3. fej. — Da^. 1 70 gprtf^ fer = Lat potesne ? 

4. efrftrr. — R. 1| 52, 7 cprflriT jrai^ p^rr. .... arft^i' fdfdfi i; ^ 

frnsr: (are you in good health , king ? have you subdued all 

your enemies?), Mhbh. 1, 5, 1 tj^ i u i i^Pj^^^ mfT ftrTT^stfWrjjTi «rrfii- 
wqf^ rTrnJm?^ f cp* Nala 4, 24, Kath&s. 75, 93 etc. 

Rem, Like the other interrogatiVes (400, 3o) the said particles 
may be strengthened by adding to them some other particle as 

Tar, arr, g* ^» ^^^^' ^^ *^® ^^^^ ** ^^ ^"^» f?F 3, f^ 3 «^» 
f^fij l oi and the like. — (JJ&k. I uf^ jtht 'Ji'^mr i f; ^Mf i^ i MWaifU icrT iiarr 
(can she have boon born to the chief of the family from a wife 
of a different caste?); ibid. VII f% m zt v^ i ^rUV J i\u^{ l K^ \ (i» Qak. 
perhaps the name of his mother?); Bhoj. 64 nm ^fepif^rppi^TiflFj 
"^rm mvT^i Mhbh. 1, 151, 28 p^? jp'JTrT^ si^ mr ^^rv. g^(what 

S24 § 412^414. 

MB I tee more nahappy than thitf); Mhbh. 1, 162, 11 vrflr^ ^:)^- 

412*f Many times the particle RfTT may be. compared to 

Latin num , ba it makes a negative answer to be expected. 
Kathib. 28, 7J ^r^nw?TTf% f* ffsm QikJiPiS f m ?iHarrf i fcrajmt iwTmirt 

Ufj^cl g i ^t*^^ i M (Lat num Vifp, vita excessit ?), Mudr. I, p. 27 

f^ Moii> i Wj.mmm i <P) wfanm: (aw you even more learned than 
oar teacher?). 

418. On the other hand , ^ put into the question annoimces 
an a£Brmative answer, like Latin nonne. It generally 
attends some interrogative particle, viz. wT or 1^*1^, 

but may also be used by itself. By combining ^ and 

^ one gets •^M which is to be considered a new par- 
ticle, fully answering to Lat. nonnCf Greek oukouv^ and 
which for this reason has also the force of an em- 
phatic (396). Examples: Ch. Up. 1, 10, 4 rr fe^iigf^^ ^ 
(were not these [beans] also left [and therefore unclean] P); — R. 2, 
72, 5 igfq rmsTOiT: 5?W ^^^iMHrt^i^ (are you not tired with the 
long way, having driren quickly?); — Ratn. Ill, p. 79 f»f» qpror rf% 
^r ^f^ > i <j>M>K fsww ?T %^ [vi*. dji<Mci ] (does not [the splen- 
dour of your faco] outshine the brilliancy of the white lotus and 
does it not cause delight to the eyes?); — R. 2, 22, 22 ;r^ ^^im m 
HrT^ (is not that the effect of Destiny ?). 

Rem. Yet,^ put to ^!JW[ = F^R^ num , since ^i I Br\ 
alone may be rather = nonfi^, R. 2, 72, 44 cFfe?r ^n^snmR |^ 

jimt ^.wRid , cp. ibid. 1, 74, 21; 2, 67, 7; Mhbh. 1, 23, 10. 

414, Disjunctive interrogations are characterized by a great 
tite^iir variety of pailicles. Commonly the former member 
tioM. begins with Ri*i, but there are many other combina- 
tions* Here are some instances: 

1. In the former member fifj^j in the latter srr or f% srr or 

§ 414—415. 326 

wwsn or 3IT Of wn^ or 3mi^* — Da^. 140 fcmnf «9^: f* ^i^fx^ 
9T (!• thifl a Tuion or is it delusion P), Pane. 230 f^><ii^nq 
^novsrr ^w9«r ngj^ ITO'^ MW l ^qiPl (shall I rise and kill him 
or shall I slaj both of them while sleeping ?), Hrech. Ill, p. 113 
^ WW^u^H q(mq^i|fX|j ' ?7W (are these two men sleeping indeed, 
or counterfeiting sleep?), ^Ak. I arwrm feror sfrFTT o^tttft..... 
fi&(dHoU4^ i gnFfmgr* « » « « ot^ PidcwfH ^ ^fpnTj^irfif: (must she 
keep the vow of chastity up to her marriage or is she to dwell 
with the antelopes of the hermitage for oTer?). — To either member 
or to both another particle may be subjoined, f. L instead of fTjr 
one may say f^) fTTt ^, in the second member instead of 377, 
VT^ or 3m^, also fg^rT, 3rTferH, m^f l f^H ©*«. Mrcch. X, p, 367 
f^ 3 WilTf^H ; m^..... f^t|Hl>i<J*<niH l (is she come back from 
heaTon , or is she another [Yasantasen&] ?) , Pane. 202 f^ ehd i iq 
min 5TS iH l ^tl^^fAHlfu bUW l fg.H ; (has anybody caught him in a 
snare or has anybody killed him?). 

2. The former member contains some other particle, not f^. 
So fi i. 3« • • • • 3 KumAras. 1, 46 TfOT jt^ 3 *{» i j}>iii<j^Hl tj^ g 
nnnTrrfu: (has she borrowed it from the antelopes, or the ante- 
lopes from her?);— cdiR..... m Mhbh. 1, 162, 3; — SFf,,,,, arr 
Eum&ras, 4, 8; — srr* • • • • arr Pat, I, p. 6 ^Hrui^sn?^ ^ff^m Pirift 
arr wtpktot arfTT [sc. 5T52[:]. 

3. The former member it without particle. Of the kind are Pane. 
294 ewt^ir ?gj: f^ ^^^tmi Mfamfd ;? mmi C^k. V ^: ^jjiit^Ii r j i 
err ad.C^^i T (either I must be out of my wits or she must lie); 
Q&k. I uToHTfT arMPi njf^ 3 aiQ'iw* 

Rem. If the second member is »or no,*' one says ;t srr* Pane. 
329 fnsT ufnfat i MxifM ^ ar (is there any remedy or no?), Day. 140 
j^ & MfHwaw^ftm 7T af^ Io I MoJ dMifri. — -Yes or no" is ar ?T ar. 
Nala 18, 24 rrf^ ^ tiiuri ^hft n^ didffi ar ?t at. 
[5« Disjunctive interrogations of three or more members of coarse 
show a still greater variety of interrogative particles. Kum&raa. 
6, 23 f^F ^ ^dff i apjigrT o^r feifti rTfT^nm fsrea^ Tf^rrf irnr: aFTiiT 
ro ?r (▼. a. are you Brahm&, VishnU or Qiva?);Panc. 332 f^? ^^ 
aiftnpnRJT: eh>>dm crnrnft ^sprm ar *wRjfi (is it I, against whom 
the plot is laid or is it the hunchback or anybody else?); Day, 

82« § 415-417. 

(I^mHV *j fvr^ :t H l di<iiWMeJ J^mm^ (was it a dream or a delusion 
or perplexity of mind or was indeed the Btore of my good worka 
exhausted}'); Pane. Ill fvj; frnnf^r. frft d/J i M i f^H 3?T w^3.( i! id i 
i?r?^ mfhA JTFTffsrA an >idf{Uiwwiifi^ ; Kath&s. 72, 185 ; Pat. I, p. 5, 
L 14 fTPT..... mt{ i Rdtf; «» . frnjtferj^; Pane. 48, 1. 19; etc etc. 

Chapt. IY. Ezolamation. 

416. Exclamation is eiihr signified by simple inteijec- 
-ti tions , as ^ (alas), cTrT (ah), ^ET^ (oh !) ^ETT?, ^T^both 

JH^ot expressive of surprise and strong emotion , 1^^ (fy), 

matioii. and nouns used as such, as ^TTR* (it is a pity, alas). 


P^^ (thanks to God), W^ (well done), 411^^4 

(marvellous) , JHTrFT or SfTRT TTT^ — see Rem. on 2 — 
or expressed by a full sentence, commonly beginning with 
one of the said interjections or exclamative particles. 

Exclamatiye sentences, introduced by interrogative pronouns 
or pi'onominal adverbs are, not nearly so often met with in Sanskrit 
as in our language. Still , the idiom exists. Da^. 67 king R&jahamsa 
rejoices when seeing again his comrades and exclaims ^ ^m^ u^ 
fli3i; i u i; ^mmnf; bkV .^n*<iu*i»jj<<i ;» Ven. I, p. 25 Sahadeva to Bhtma 
WT w^ &»TT HalWsirtJ l; UTJTOT: (how long it is, indeed, since Mylady 
is here!). 

Here are some examples of exclamativos: Pane. 25 ^^^ sfftn^ 
nvjfhTjtiy here ^ is expressive of joy, but R. 2, 115, 3 ; i hjU'Ij{^ 
f^ p?fT it expresses sorrow; — R. 2, 12, 73 Sf^ ^tt ^ nunraV- 
^srm f T jRimfd ; — KumAras. 3, 20 v^ and 5pt together: ^r^ ^jr i if^ 
w<;uTiqJi5 ;; — Mhbh. l, 157,41 trqT to^Rt irfTT rcTsr i i ftif ^ 1 fl^ ; Pane. 
158 ftixrm Tsr* (for shame, you blockhead, you — ); — > Mudr. Ill, 
p. 104 9T iTTrn|[^ (o I remember); Prabodh.. passim wfi QT^ (0, you 
rascal!); — Mudr. II, p. 84 f^;^ j;^^% ti^Qui^HJ m^ 

*1^* ^J^ and V^i are often construed in a particular 

g 417—418. 327 

v^ manner. VT^ is apt to be used with the nominative 

J^l^ of an abstract noun , expressive of the &ct which causes 

f^ the astonishment. But T^ — or, in full , T^^ltrl — is 

^^^ attended by the accus. (sometimes also, but not so 

often, the nomin.) of the person or thing, which causes 

the indignation or anger. 

Examples: 1. of «^ with nomin* — Nala 3, 17 Damayantt, 
when seeing on a sudden the beautiful appearance of Nala, ex- 
elaimu ^ ^tirr^ eh i rH^Ci l ^ *<< l f*<> l;> Mudr. I, p. 38 Cilaakya takes 
the letter, glances OTer it and says praisingly g^ <^ui>M<ifHTfl^ \ u \ m 
(an excellent hand indeed), Pane. 92 the Ocean disapproving the 
words of the bird, which ho has OYorheard, exclaims isn^ n^: 
qfwifli^^ l W ) Mudr. YI, p. 197 B&xasa, when entering the old garden, 
being sad with grief, laments ^ Ji i j i mMW H i Pi^MU?md i (how 
little charm this old garden has!). 

2. of fvw with ace. Mhbh. 1, 131, 23 fvJtfTt ar: WRTT^nrrT (shame 
over your skill at arms!), R. 2, 49, 4 jx^ fwr^ZTpr thww cTJmrfk^frmj 
ibid, 2, 47, 4 ftog m^ f^r^i" m^ (v. a. cursed sleep!), K&d. I, p. 18 
fu (Tdmn I { ^kip\k\^\i Hh 1 4 ui^j — of fSrw with nom. Pane. 156 fvHro 
<i^r^^H l, ibid. I, 174 fyirm: CF^TOOT:. 

Rem. 1. Occasionally fv!F occurs with a gen. Hariv. 8722 ^i^- 

Rem. 2. Pat I, p. 443 ^j Xa^l i ii^ affords also an instance of ^ , 
construed with the accus. 

418. Some particles are used in exhortations. They of 

'y* course, attend imperatives and such tenses as have the 

^ meaning of imperatives. The principal of them are 

%r^^ ^rT both = , well, come," Lat. aye and af/edum. 

Kath&s. 24, 143 ^ryr au i ^ l 'W rW. With the 1»* person = fr. allona. 
Ch. Up. 5, 11, 2 !T ^:m* qmT^wPi ft ^^mrrg: (»Well, lot us go to 
him." Thus speaking, they went to him); R. 2,96, ISfryT^^RsrrirfH^ 
(come, look here, Laxmana). — Among others, n;j and irf^, as 
Kum&ras. 4, 32 Jij irt vnm q <j}^Pf f !».HL (<^Q> ^"ng me together with 

828 §418—419. 

my hoBbaad), KAf. on P. 1, 4, 96 «i% f^, ep. KA^ on P. 8, 1, 88 
v^ OS' (p^7) readJL — Like our teome,** the iraperat. vf^ maj Mtnme 
the nature of a partiele, f, L Kath&t. 87, 200 ^ mai^m'^- • insr 
(come, let ut go to him) and bo already at so remote a period as 
when the marriage-mantras have been composed, kqj, Gk-hy.!, 7, 6 

Rem. Neither ir^ nor ;pr ftro however limited to this employment. 
Occasionally they accompany also the indicative mood. K&9. on P. 8, 
2, 96 ^3^ jr^pryr ^TOT ST^ (I say, my friend , you say the thing 
that is not), Mudr. I, p. 88 fp?T flirft ii??^!^:. When addressing some 
person, while offering him something, ono uses ^^fT, fr. vot'/d. SchoL 
on P. 8, 2, 99 nt ^ ^^ wt: iipr nr jr^. 

All interjections readily join with vocatives. Two, 

Ilia *<IM and ^, are especially employed so, since they serve 

to draw the attention ofthe person addressed, in a word, 

like HT: the vocat. of H^TFT (259) — and Lat. Aem. 

KuruAras. 4, 28 igrf^ ^gf^t ^ ^^SR mj^ (come, K&ma, show your- 
self now), Hit. 9 an^ iciM 1 snrr r «it»t. — vtfir i» especially fit for 
gentle address > prithee- ')**. 


1) vfor is also asserted by lexicographers to be a particle of interro- 
gation. I greatly doubt the correctoess of this statement. vf7 may 
easily be confoooded in mss. with frf^, and, in fact, it is not rarely a 
various reading of the interrogative isrf^, see the passages of 9&lc* Quoted 

by the Petr. Diet. s. v. irfv 2). The Petr. Diet, adds five more in- 
stances: a) three from the Kum&raa., b) one from the Mrcch., .c) one 
from the Pancatantra. Of them , a) Kum&ras. 4, 3 vf^ J)Q l fl«>M 1 ^6»(h , 

thoagh Mallin. comments thus on it frfd^^Mi^riy y | [^ fn Qud : ivfu H^*^* 

crrfifTf^ 9if%f<.(rkf it is by no means necessary to accept here vfv as 
an interrogative, better it is to keep to its duty as an inteijection 
irf? dlRjd^im »o, my Lord** ^hrf^ >are you alive?'* So Mallin. himsel 
explains Kuni&ras. 5, 62 vmi^ vTlM^I^'^iluk. As to the remaining pas- 
sage ibid. 5, 33—35 , the edition of Prof. T&ronfttha has vf^, not frf^* — 
h) In the two editions of the Mrcch., I have at hand , the particle vfoT 
is wanting, instead of irfv ^U \\ h they ha?e ii7 sTR)^. — c). As to 

§ 419-421. 829 

▲ eofrnate particle k «^, tometimM z= «ft) ■ometimM ezpretsiTe 
of MtoaUhmeni. ^Ak. YI king Dashyanta, when perceiTing on a 
■ndden the cliarioteer of Indra standing near, exclaims n^ iTTrrf^:* 
Op. Mrecli. I, p. 17 inr noWRT^rf^ar hsHT: ittj:» 

0. As to the vocative, it is generally put at the head, 

^ at least in prose , for poets may give it any place, 
according to the exigencies of the metre or rhythm. 

In flowery style the ToeatiYe is not rarely attended by epi- 
thets , as M&Iat. VI, p. 87 VT ^{ \ r^r^ \ t^r' \\ {:l{^^^ 6«w » Rf ii wj>(^ muar- 
■ ^Fi9r (accursed Midhava, thou who hast murdered our teacher 
because of the wretched M&latt). In ordinary prose they are avoided, 

Chapt. v. Connective particles. 

1. The most important connective particles are five mono- 
iff syllables : ^, ^, 3, FJ, I^, and four dissyllables ?PT» 

•* ?lf^, 7^ andSTT. Of these, ^, WJ/^Pf and 3rT 
have the most general bearing, as they are simply 
copulating words = ,and , also , farther," though they 
often admit of some special modification of meaning, 
so as to get the force of adversatives , concessives etc. 

For the rest, m is the disjunctive, ?[ and the ar- 
chaic 3 are adversatives, I^ is causal, ^^ is the 
particle of comparison. 

In the classic language ? and 3?t are no more used alone, 
but in some combinations they are, cp. 402 R. 1; 442, 2^ and 
4*. That vf^i 7 and sn may also be interrogative particles, has 
been shown above 412 and 414. 

Side by side with the said connective particles one 

Pane. p. 88, 6, quoted by the Petr. Diet. = p. 44 , lost line of Vidy&gii- 
gara*8 ed., this editor signifies by his very interpunctioD » that he coosiders 
9^ an eiclamative, not an interrogative, as he has irfir! f^Tof iJUTUJ; 
(my dear, has no harm befallen you?). 

830 §421—422. 

uses sereral adverbs, serving the same purpose, as 
?PT^and ii^rl or ^ERW .further, moreover,** ^T^ 

.but, yet," fTOT .likewise, and," the oonclusives rT^ 

and rHFIR .therefore ," the causal ^r^': .for," ^FT! i,on 
. the other hand, again, but." They have completely 
assumed the nature of conjunctions. 
Combinatidns of these particles either with each other 

or with other particles are excessively frequent. So ^ 
and ?Im , ^J^ and ^J, ^^ wid Ft are very often 

combined, ^ is often added to ^, ^tRT, STT, H. Some 

of them may be considered as units, as ?ET^T^ when = 

.indeed ," r\mVA .nevertheless." 
422. As the connection of sentences is the subject-matter 
of the last Section of this Syntax , it will here suffice 
to give a succinct account of the connective particles 
severally , especially with regard to their linking together 
words within the cotnpass of one and the same sentence. 
V. 1. ^ is the copulative particle par excellence .and." 

It is as a rule subjoined to the word annexed, as ^IH 1 

FT^R^r^, but if it annexes a complex of words or a 

whole sentence, it is affixed to the first word, as I'^ril 

h\ry^ fgrnr (father and mother's sister). Pane. 225^^] 

SFfwr r^:i^T ^ ^. .... ^n«5J^« 'A'l»" ©'^©"^ " seldom inverted 
in prose (f. i. Pane. 126 pirr sn«t ftwT im jTfd IrTir instead of 
ipni trtt), oftener in poetry. Nala 1, 2l! pgrj^ n(,f*4'H: m ^j^ ^ 

fn>; i U !l . 'Ti Kath&s. 44, 3 : the preceding sentence is ^ fqrjjf^ 

ticjMf*j<ii« Tt then there follows i^vu^ fuj^ i w rr f^»irni 3^ t^ «Er:. 

Sometimes in poetrj ir is put between the two links connected 

1 422—428. 881 


by It Mhbli. 1, 148, 2 vr jfwfv^: i iBi?&:n|fft *JV inft Aarw (then 
Yadh. addretiiod Bhlm., Aij. and the twins), M. 9, S22 t^ wm 
snS^ (he becomes great in this world and in the other). 

In poets , ^ is not <«rely put to each of the members connected, 

also in archaic prose; see f. L Ch. Up. 1, 3, 2, and cp. r# r# 

of Oreek poets. But if it is necessary to state that the same thing 
is endowed with different qualities etc. at the same time , this idiom 
is also used in prose. Pat. I, p. 430 (jiftf^mtf 3meh^m%i (he is an 
accomplished sacrificer as well as a grammarian), Prabodh. I, p. 
. 15 qtt sPm^ ^ MUl^ufd IT (it procures joy and perplexes at the 

same time). As to 9. . . . . ir expressive of simultaneousness , 

see 438 R. 2. 

Rem. 1. If three or more terms are to be connected, 9 is gene> 
rally put but once, and with the last of them. Pane. 6 fq^RF «^ufici<i I 
^RiehMUU (d'i)Mi<H: i aic i ^ l ^ ilT ^ (by begging , by attending on the 
prince, by agriculture, by turning one*s learning into money, and 
by trade), Da^. 78 gim;f ^ »tTr ^girrei ^^i(w fjiiUKd <xi)i.<i^q ^ci^rfir- 
nw 9 MdUoip ^TTT* Then ^ is rarely wanting, sometimes in rhetorical 
style, as Pat. I, p. 431 w^^^.fej^ i H i nnm JTpJ <I5J^, R. 3, 69, 32 
CRTT^zit f^fo i ^JMl^ >mrtlrgfa«nj ii »*jH l 'i > and in some phrases, as Mroch. 
I, p. 20 mnT5RW ft iPnfrr iiar^ ot^t (▼. a. as soon as they have 
come, they disappear), Bhoj. 10 fr^ ^ irq" anfv m du ii fn ^ TftirT:. 

Rem. 2. Sometimes ^ must be translated by a more energetic 
particle than »and.*' It may be =: veven." R. 1, 1, 4 9iW fb^vfn 
^eii-ju (of whom are even the gods afraid?), it may be a slight 
affirmative and even have adversative power, cp. 441. 

^23. 2. ^W may be 1. = ,and, too, moreover, also," 2. = 

.even ," 3. = .though". Like ^, it is commonly subjoined 

to the word — or first of the words — connected by 

it; in poets, it not rarely precedes. Examples of 1. Pat 

I, p. 125 rTsrrasfV ?T^ *|ii ii u jnx ^tv: (your horse is lost and my chariot 
is burnt). Pane. 246 the king of the frogs mounts on the back 
of the serpent Mandavisha; seeing this, the others too do so grrr 

882 § 428—425. 

ft^m^ff. A. — I wovid Mk jon oiiee nore); — of 2« Hudr. I, pi. 80 
7f ^ vmpwf^ n^MM fi igH^ (it it not adTisable to'despbe a foe, not 
oTon a meaa one); — of S. KathAt. 42, 28 ^nmnm w rt rnnrhrf^- 

• tEipf^ (uid, though reluotaatly, he followed him). 

In poetry howe?er, vf^ occoBionall j precedes the word it attends 
instead of being subjoined to it. Mhbh. 1, 76, 52 m syp^mr ^ 
^4^Mlr^i|^ (#hom would not the hurting of a' brahman consume? 
e?en Indra), KumAras. 6,69 HimavAn sajs wf^ AUi^jf^^iMiPi qrr^pr^ 
cnisf^ h (my limbs though stretching in all directions, have no 
power — ), Pane. Ill, 92 jgfq ^ instead of ^ifq etc Another 
instance of poetical license is such an arrangement as we have 
Nala 1, 30 m^id ?r9T a^ instead of fsmar ^^sf^ sr; (speak in this 
way also to X). 

Rem. AJNirt from being a conhective, irfg has many more mean- 
ings. It may be a) an interrogatiYO particle, see 412; b) with 
imperatiTO it strengthens the exhortation, see K&9. on P. 1, 4, 96 
vf^ fnir:(do, pour out); c) it often precedes the ^7, when doing 
duty as an optative (343 , b) or in the idiom mentioned 348 e) 5^ 
in these eases irf^ heads the sentence. — In other meanings again 
it is used, when .subjoined to nouns of number (298), or when put 
to the interrogative- pronouns and. ad verbs, see 281 and 288. 

Moreover iriRr, when of time, may be r= 1. »only, but," as 
js^fnfq vmt^fm (wait but for a moment), 2. tstill," f. L Kath&s, 

• 8, 18 STR^ii^ »when still a boy.** 

424L 3. StT is almost a synonym of VVA. In the classic 

^^^ * 

^* language it is obsolete. As to its employment as an inters 
rogative particle see 412, 2 and 414, with optative it is also used 
like «rf^) soe 848 c) 5*, and cp. P. 3, 3, 152. — As a connective 
it is found in the old liturgical and epic literature. Mhbh. 1, 90, 
24 UM i lT i ^^N^H i\uw\'i * ii >M i J)fi^ff «Trnm:» At the close of verses 
or pAdas, 37? And nom ftre rather emphatics or mere expletives. — 
In classic prose one uses fwm (4*2 , 4**) and ngrT (*42, 2**). 

429. 4. TPJ serves to introduce some new element (person , 
"* thing or fact). It may be wholly =: ^, and connect 

§ 425—426. 338 

even single words, t L Pane y, n anf^^ OTyft?r f^mfw^ 
nsjsfT I flpninS^wr «?irr jtt. fajV fSr^^w:, horo fw i» oqulTalent to ir* 
Occasionally «if may be a dUjunctiTe, at Kath&t. 79, 24 mH^ 

Its most common employment , however, is to annex 
a new sentence , especially if there be a change of subject ; 
hence it is not rarely an adversative. Sometimes it 
introduces the apodosis, sometimes it has a temporal 
meaning ^afterwards ," ^) moreover it may do duty as 
a conditional conjunction , as mil be more fully explained 
in the last Section of this book. 

Note its employment at the beginning of a book or 
chapter or section , where it is the traditional opening- 

word in profane writings , like the syllable t4l*1 in Holy 

Writ. Pancatantra IV t L commences cr^^w^ ^fEvafmrgf ?n»T 
m^ rF^t^l^ (now begins the 4^^ tantra --). 

In prose it is the first word, but in poetry it may 
hold any other place. 
6. 5EPT combines with other particles. So we have ?mTT, 

W( ^, Wrt (= ^ + 7), see f. i. Ur. Grhy. 1, 1, 3; R. 3, 

. 11,74; Pane, rv, 73. But the Commonest of those combi- 

iT. nations is WJ^ which is almost looked upon as a unit. 
It is used for the sake of correcting one's self. It in- 
troduces, therefore, a statement more exact than the 
preceding one; in accordance with the nature of the 
contrast between the two, one may translate JX^J^\ 

1) Especially in the archaic dialect. Ait. Br. 2. 25, 1 J^'jiqiRi OTTFTfu- 

qgMi smjJW Jm»T; Ur^MMrim'^ ^n PlaJIol^'Ulldmnw-ir (of them — Agni 
reached the aim the first, after him Ind.ra» Men Mitra and Varuna, then 
the A9Ym8). 

884 t 426—429. 

by »or rather** or ,on the contrary" or »no** or ,but," 

t L Pmm. 23 wmt a|!rrf>rifPisrr ^ri^^w?? (I will go to another place. 
But that wiH not io\ B. 8, 60, 29 ^ ^rr ^TfiwarT f^f^ wr^j^rfirq^ 
(inrelj, it b not the, no, the has been hurt, my graceful lady). 
At to vif fvi^i M« 9es R* 

27. rPIT ,90,** when = .likewise" that is ,and » too /* may 
'^'^^ also be reckoned among the connect iyes. This employ- 
ment is chiefly poetical 
For the rest , tTPT, ^ and rPin may be strengthened 

by T^ and may mingle together. Hence arises a great 
variety of combinations , especially in verse , m wd^, «rf^ 
V, mf!^\ ^. ^ w; fPb, rim ^ etc. 

88. The enclitic ^J, like ^, is subjoined to the word 
^' which it annexes. It is the disjunctive particle ,or.*' 

^ Sr ^j or you." .Either. or" is ^J ^OT. 

If. 3, 26 tfm^mux f^4n ur roid r <{ i (the two modes of marriage either 
performed severally or conjoined), KathAs. 31, 39 :t f^ ^vjfh 7jy orr 

Rein. Instead of srr* • .. • srr one says also srr irf^ ar* B. 3, 11, 
90 nnr irrsF^m^n^ ?jrp srr vf^ srr 5Ty:i?pRT: «nqi^ srr (here no liar 
can live, n^r a cruel man, nor a rogue, nor a barbarous one nor 
an evildoer), cp. B. 2, 109, 4, Pane. I, 118. — Likewise one uses 
arr*** «f^ srr or srrf^, etc. As to m in interrogations , see 409, 
3^ and 412 R., On its force as an emphatic 397 R. 1. 

89. ^, T^ and the enclitic "S are, like ^ and ^fT, sub- 

d ?. joined to the first word of the sentence. T^ was at 
the outset an emphatic , a weak ^indeed ," but generally 
it is a causal particle, at least in prose; r^ and "S are 

adversative ,bat; on the other hand." 3 is no more 
used in the classic dialect ^ save when added to some 

S 429-430. 885 

other particle, •• ^s^r-f-?, fray = vif-f?» ep> ^oi B. 1. 

^0. TSf ^like , as** is the particle of comparison. It is 
always put after the standard of comparison, [k\^ 1^ 
^FT^TF^f (strong like a lion). Mrcch. I, p. 4S irict ^f^^ 

• ••• ^ crn?r (she has disappeared, like the sight of the blind , like 
the health of the sick, like the wisdom of the fool, like the 
prosperity of the sluggard, like the learning of the dull and dis- 
sipated), (^kk, VI ef irf i <^<(fliai QmHoi i HRi 78^ (have you perhaps for- 
gotten it, as I have?). If the standard of comparison or the simile 
consists of more words, rsr likes to be put in the midst of them. 
QAk, VII f* g wj ^rm ^ fw^^n^M ▼sr jw fH«^fH ^ *rT:. Exceptions 
as to the place of ?sr may occasionally be found in poets. 

WT. The other particle of comparison is the relative M^4I. 
It is especially used , if the standard of comparison is 
expressed by a full sentence , but it does the same duty 

as ^^. 

Rem. 1. It is a matter of course, that 7? and M^l 
have no influence at all on the case of the noun they 
are construed with. Both the noun compared and the 
standard of comparison are put in the same case. 

Kum&ras. 4, 25 S: < lQ^^Qd l ^'^|<<l R^i^av i '^Qd l ^H ; (struck by those 
lamentations, as if they were poisoned arrows); Kala 2, 2S ff ^y^, ... 
MnrcTTT nm T^ih^ (on seeing him who was bright like the sun). 

Rem. 2. Note the idiom vnmrn Tor *he appears like,** f. L 
Kum&ras. 7, 3 [ng^] ^ ^srraimT. 

Rem. 3, tiet and tpjx are often used in similes. In this case they 
may be strengthened by adding to them such epithets as min<X^(in 
person), Tciiiii'iir^i or fe^rf^ (embodied), f^jmr, WJ1( (cp. Lat. Mars 
alter) and the like. Nala 1, 4 the hero is said to have been an 
excellent archer and ruler of his subjects ^nrrf^ sg: foRH^^ >m 

8S6 S 4Sp^43S. 

if 1m w%m UtaoL Klmtelf,** Da^. 116 a bMotiftil woman b called 
^^f^ %lrf^ (ihd goddoM Rati embodied), Mhbh. 1, 85, 5 mnf^: 
MIWUWIH mi fi f<^ ▼arq-;. Cp. Kum&rai. 6, 11, Ragh. 2, 16, M&lav. 
I, p. 24, KAm. 3j 30, ete. 

481. Moreover, 1!^ is used to soften some expression, in 

the same way as (rerman eiioa^ our rather^ almost^ eu 

if it were, Mudr. II, p. 58 f a<i,<flfMci (mmu<jr i M^;ni^ i Pt (I perceive 
that the exei^ioni of R. are almost fraitlosd), R. 2, 85, 7 r^ fV q^ 

488. Our ,as,** when not expressing likeness, is not ren- 
dered at all in Sanskrit or by FTFT with gen. But 

ifqHT. ,as" = ,for instance, namely*' is FFIPn'. Mudr, III, p. in 

^W 3^ Wg f^pmt llfrDrii Q,Q|V llfrlfdk/rn" rW^lrlil^l pNi«^*if^ 

(well, Yrghala, there are two means to be put into effect against 
disaffected subjects, viz. favour and force). 



488. In Section IT — V we have treated of the different 
constituent elements of the sentence. This last part 
of the Syntax will deal with the various ways, in which 
sentences are linked together. Two main categories are 
here to be distinguished, 1. coordination, when — 
grammatically speaking — there is equality of rank be- 
tween the sentences conjoined, 2. subordination, 
that is such a union , as makes one of the links depend 
upon the other, so as to constitute a period made up 
of a chief sentence and a clause or subordinate sen- 
tence. The former class is generally characterized by 
such particles as have been dealt with in the last chapter 

§488-486. 887 

of the preceding Section, the latter class by relatives. 

Oeeasionally Sanskrit prefers coordination in such eases in which 
car language would rather ose the other mode of junction, and 

Example of coordination in Sanskrit, subordination with us: 
Mrcch. Ill, p. 116 ^fi<,r^ff 9»iT fi< l f*l ^ wfrfir ^ (though blaming 
it I do it). 

Example of subordination in Sanskrit, coordination with us: 
Da?. 30 7H «3*Ai«jiw*|^ifi^T^T!r nTsrT gh'^>nmM^i>j^*i » j^{fym/w i jttjj- 
xnrT:-**** f^7rrf7 ^e fi afR vflr?: otc. In translating such sentences 
as this there is, as a rule, a greater deal of coordination in English, 
f. L »I saw there [in the water] a jewel, I took it and went on, until 
being tired by the exceeding glow of the sun, I entered some tem- 
ple." Cp. 14, I. 

Ohapt. I. Coordination. 

J4' Coordination, though chiefly expressed by little par- 
ol- tides, as ^, is not exclusively signified by them. The 


J" demonstrative pronoun , especially ^, may be a fit in- 
strument for annexing a new sentence. Sometimes both 
particle and pronoun are wanting, and sentences are 
simply put together: the so-called asyndeton. 

)5. I. As to the demonstrative , some instances have been 

the given 275. I add one more from the beginning of the Panca- 
ra- tantra vfu^ ^ifwnxrfj ?FTa^ i^f^cdi^iuj rrm ;iii^ii^i rTsr* • • • • fW^Trfemr 
'* Jim snjcnrnCT sw: jsrr: 'sr.jr^.. Nothing prevents the employ- 
ment of both dem. pronoun and particle together. So often mzfi. 

The ace. neuter FFT and the abl. neuter ri^irf, 

when = .therefore , for this reason ," have wholly got 

the nature of particles. Likewise r|*i. 

^6. 11. The asyndeton is mostly met with either in short 

statements , to express antithesis , or for rhetorical pur- 


ft88 S 436—487. 

*• ^ poses y especially where the speaker is excited. Pane. 26 

detoa. IRmsj ^ in[T7>ir oTtf ^^mTT: (so it IS, he is a Lord and we are wretches), 
ibid. 113 ;r^<^y^ <S7 ^^ i fr<»h ^: (it is not your fault, but that of 
your master), Mudr. Ill, p. 106 v^Mflri ^3d>munWrl (this is already a 
real possession, not an expected one), Da^. 16 f^rr gr^ff^ 9r n^^T^ 
njf^/ t f^^i^^Hi T (what shall I do? whither shall I go? have you not 
seen [him] ?), Pane. 134 Mfdi^ l i i ^ ^ I b^i inrRPnTfef > here the second 
sentence enunciates the reason of the former one, but there is no 
causal particle. In a similar way sn* is omitted in the passionate de- 
claration of Damayantt (Nala 4, 4) jif^ psf MsTxnnt qt UfU i <w l wR l m^i 
f d ^ j^Jpu ?l^ ;sd*I I ^K<i fRT eh l im i ft , likewise KumAras. 6, 12 ^ 
<ji| f riHj>ll^Ml anr f^ qf^ ^''tTP^ (whether man or woman , it matters 
not — ). 

487. in. When treating of sentences connected by par- 
*'icC* tides it is best to keep apart the logical categories. 

Co|Mi- Mere copulation is denoted by ^, ^FT, ^^ — either 

i*£; single or combined, as WT ^, ^TTFT, 5RTFT — , by 

f% % ?rTpT, ?F5ra, by rTFr: and FFra. They an- 
swer to English and, also , likewise , moreover j further, then , 
thereupon etc. They are not quite synonymous , and each 

of them may have its proper sphere (as rUHIt to sub- 
join what is subsequent in time , F^ ^, ^STT^i ^-^'^^^ 

to signify the importance of what is added , ?T^ to im- 
port a change of the scene , of the action , of the actors 
etc.), yet it is neither easy nor necessary to draw the 
boundary-lines sharply between them. 

Examples: 1. ^. Da^. 83 frrfSt cnrfw jfif gfirTT gTTP ^$(u HKUhl 
^Jfai"^ Hi I — 2. irf^. Mudr. II, p. 69 (uuci<y»» ...» fein^mt <TfY5rrT i rsr- 
^f7 ^i^zrfvTiTpnpf ^ (^^iy*) ™7 attendants may keep their rest and 
you, discharge your duty); — 3. fPT. R. 3, 14, 4 jpr n* f^rppTW rrroTT 
^^?nm»T p^rar:«.... frw j^manurr m^ nm ^, Pane. 3 the king 
first spoke to. Vishnu^arman , ^then the other replied** gay Id l Mj i uwf 

g 437-439. 339 

• • 

ff (MlW^glf — ^ Wf W» Pwic. 214 f%^ ftisim I vfiimnnillf ^flW: 

th« reason! y why ho b to be killed are then giTon: tmi 

f% W. • • . • 39&« • • • • ^t^ V (for. . • . . moreoyer. .... then one layt. . . . 
it b alBo taught); ^ 5 mtpj. Pane. 135 tj^rem: ^ ^ srp^ST; i fwf 
*^*A*^ cf^TUTT CfinrirTT: (aH these poor fellows are depending on me, 
besides they- have left their families in order to join me), ibid. 
rV, 65 f^ ^(Ijairtl ?nf!»w|' (secondly) ^ f^m ^ 3[<^*i>u> y ^ (moreoyer) 
arrosi^; — 6. irtv- Pane. 168 a heavenly being prevents Somilaka 
from suicide , and says to m^jk w^. .... rR^ ^^ gf^ i w:?tw iisr^- 

?5teT f r <lii(.f^H^i f i ^ 3MlUH ^f^omr: (you must make mo enter, then 

recall our father into life and act in the way that shall please him). 

Rem. 1. fni b not seldom = mow", ftr. or. Pane. 94 ?rftxirfn«T- 

jfixr (in some pond there were three fishes. Now , one day fishermen 
passed, looked at that pond and said). 

Rem. 2. 9, i7f7, fnr are sometimes to be rendered by but, yet^ 
nevertheless. See 441. 


as ;" ,not only but also." Utt II, p. 29 fsFj^^r. 

mv i MlPadi 'S;nrf^: (not only the sacrificial horse has been loosed 
to roam at will, but also guards have been appointed to it ac- 
cording to the ritual, and Laxmana's son has been sent after it). 

Rem. 1. The archaic dialect has also the combination s^. . . • 
3?T. The old verse 3?t fsr: qspJT ^j^ dfMjjrt fsr: gjncrn •jjuf^r»j.iiij^ it 
commented on by Y&ska in thb way fr^: uwj^ i tjgfj^ cJMMfM 
^ li[Udr>i s^UMriH i H^ (800 Nir. 1, 19). 

Rem. 2. A repeated ^ may occasionally denote simultaneous" 

ness. Kum&ras. 3, 58 jgn ^ W^^: kW \ »Klw. v^TUTTiifm i <JlilifM ^. . . . 
j^ f A ^ i n (Um& reached the entrance of Qiva*s hermitage, and at 
the same time Qiva ceased his mystic exercises), cp. ibid. vs. 66, 
Ragh. 3, 40; 10, 6; Kath&s. 18, 120. 

9. The foresaid particles are also used to connect three 
or more links. In enumerations, it is regular 

S40 § 4S9-44). 

to put rficffi in the first link (cp. 899). Pane. 281 ^• 

Wlif^^ifJ WM^VdRiiR f^WTOT ir^ RwlSu^U: (in the firat pl«e« the 
lost of my dwelling, then the alienation of such a friend as you). 
The complete set of particles is: ^ mufij 9V^ msTT^or jro»f msr^ 
in the first link, wrpj^ or fnr or nn: or ^mn etc in the second 
and other links. Pane 67 the lion chides the hare, who has been 
despatched to him by the other animals ^ rTTcHr ^: mit ^^ 
Sw i PiyJ^m , Pane. 181 vj^ rtiafe^^ ii u i wd : <jQcin»fu i ^fn ^'J i rfim^in r 
U r afeiJu iiy Mudr. in p. 173 the three links of an argumentation 
are marked by mmt rm: and ir??:. 

^^' Disjunctive sentences are characterized by ^, or 

^^ ^J.....^J,^J ^T^^J.Wm. see 428 ana 428. 
Another kind of disjunction is that represented by 

^some others others again** and the likcHere 

indefinite pronouns are to be employed , as ^il'^rl 

*NrJ; ^iNrl or 1^. .... wfff ^^ etc. Likewise 
the adverbs made of them. Mudr. IV, p. 138 n^T^ im^mi 

441. Antithesis may be variously denoted. In the first 
place it may be expressed by advei*sative particles , viz. 
n (429), ^T^, TR"**, also by such combinations asf^ 

5» 'r5» ^^5- Further ^ ,?JR, W[ may be = 
on the other hand^ on i»y-, your^^ his part^ again etc., or 
if stronger antithesis is implied, = bat , yet. Nor is the 
asyndeton rare, in which case it is the mere arrange- 
ment of the two contrasting ideas, by which the anti- 
thesis appears , see 436. 

Examples: a.) antithesis expressed by adversatiYO particles. — 
J. Mrcch. IV, p. 141 xnii fi^ ;fTXT wwa?TT rwaf^d qRjiH i; ij^^int 
n q i fuifi i u il «j!iaciwf<tfjd (womankind, indeed, are wise by nature. 

I 441. 341 

Irat to men wiidoin it to be taught by UMUiiiaU); — nv. Pane* 
815 99^71?^ mrrf^ i|f|uTf ^b^ (»* ^ •«, yet I will ask my wife 
nevertheleBB); — f* w. Hit 106 ^ w i cif<<*i r d Ri; l wf4?i(MH*ln^ 
«r5?^:ifw M^>*jmO<l MTOsrnj^ mi^: frofm (well, thii great lake 
has been very aptly ehosen to bo our fortress, bot yon mast lay 
up provisions in the island in the midst of it); — cr^ g. Pane 

304 a ri w i ( Tim: f^ j g f^^f^d f; » — <Tr f* 3« P*"*®- 1^ Mf<j^HcM( 
f^ 5® (this is true, but — ); — jpr:. Pane. 72 to spsnrrg^ <,<m<ii<m! 
OR: v i sion MimfuM ; (he is an herbiYorous animal, but your enemies 
are carnivorous). 

Rem. 1. mr:, like ^, is generally subjoined to the first word 
of the sentence. It must be kept in mind that its adversative 
power is but secondary; properly it means nagain,** and may be 
used in the weakened meaning of >on the other hand, yet," just 
as again in English*). 

Rem. 2. Of the adversative ? instances are often met with in 
such works as the Aitareyabr&hmana and the Ch&ndogyopanishad , 
occasionally even in the epic poems. It mostly joins with some 
particle or relative. Ait. Br. 2, 39, 11 msmt 3" ?T d l HMi a«^ h 
iTsrf^iTOTj ?T a^ f^w h ot: (— but those, of whom ho has no 
knowledge , ^ what is to become of them ?), Ch. Up. 6, 4, 6 inr. . . . 
{77, ibid. 4, 15, 3 m s »but he.*' Sometimes it is almost := ^, 
for it has less adversative force than n, 

h). tT) iH^ or 9fr = hui^ yet, nevertheless, Nala 1, 5 Bhtma bears 
the epithet of ud l »m :i to which are added the words ft ^nnr: 
•beloved of his subjects [and at the same time vdosiring to have 
children"], yet childless**. R. 3, 37, 2 gFr*iT: J^T { \ i \ 'K \ rU\ fti(jg il P.> i; i 
v^wim ^ miwi 5niT iibirr ^ jTcT*!: (they who always speak things 
pleasant to be hoard are easy to bo found, but it is as diffi- 
cult to meet with one who speaks an unpleasant yet whole- 
some word, as with one who listens to such a one), Mudr. Ill, 

1) Tet, like »agnin/* it may occaMonally bead the Bentence. Pane. 8 

842 ^ 441*-442. 

p. 105 CAnakya to tho oKief of tho eoBiielit «i^ ^KTll^ff'^Wl <«Tqr^ 

arowmff (a£wfmw ;tfwr w ywR/iwff i (tho king't attendoatt are 

indeed CAnakya*! eneiniei. Bui .where b the (ddra-kingf). Like- 

wUo 999? » op. 486, 

448. ObtorTations on the adTorsatiTO particlei. 

nUfn ^* '^^ erophasixe the antithesis, a limitative particle may pre^* 

•ttcwer- cede in the foregoing sentence. Then we have the type of Greek 

*?■{•* M^y )^> Latin quidem 8ed or vero. Such limitative par- 

t»tim u^ji^jg in Sanskrit are msHt wW, fer^, cktxuj^, fifJFTi ??firq^, crpj. 
Pane. 313 ir^ Hi^jf«3iMiw*i*gwi i !ii<J i f*i • m jt: ^aw^ jm w^ (I will look 
out for the farmer, but you — ), ibid. 195 vmr^ r \\ dit' i r\fl\ psTTi 
?r w..... 7f 9rmi^ fax ii MWHii wfr^ (it is true, wo have a king, 
Qaruda, but he does not care for us), Mhbh. 1, 48, 6 ^nifT ^ im 
7f 7mm nj rcit ^romprfif^r j *iJiiCw*^d!flH^f6ii^A<H^«iAr^(to be sure, 
it does not bofit me to ask you about sucli a matter, but ow- 
ing to its great importance I have ventured to urge you). Pane. 
. lily 171 IT f^if^K fa^ i f^^i*^ 7T n 7f «?T^w?fr ^r: (he accused himself, 
but not the fowler), Kath&s. 39, 21 aam ^ 5?^: m 'Susnrat nStm' 

2. if the preceding sentence is negative, the adversative par. 
tide must be rather strong. Such strong adversatives are f^ g, (t^ ^, 

vl^ jvvf? J and cnyr *on the contrary.". Pane. 203 ;r mt it ^ 3 '^y 
•^ Da? 77 n ajSg err qvd<j^*<Ri 3 mii ' ^i i fiJnhmi > JJ i d>r i f^ a: ^ jqrr^ 

^^S^* (neither external beauty nor riches are the result of manhood, 
no, he is a man who is loved by the foremost courtesan), ibid. 
100 jj^ Fsrt. . . . >r i ^fwfrt cr?g?T umflmirUci u i a^ i imi^ (he will [not 
only] not kill yon, but he will even make you heir-apparent). 

3. ;r TiSRtiT in the former, 9, vf^ etc. in the latter member are = 

9. . . . 9 snot only but also. *' Pane. I, 33 tt i,d^i\K \ mA ^^lik 

^ fers^nw, N&g&n. V, p. 85 ^ ufnt JufHd i ^^^ii ?T isr^ fwr gfgfT 
qy i mf^^ ii TH^ fl i uiu i a u5qwjqMf^r<yfd (not only my son Jtm. 
here is alive, nay ho is even respected by Oarudaj as a pupil 
reverences his teacher), Ragh. 3, 31 ;t ft?7^ rij^pTTTffor: fwrnr- 
>^9»vpJfT5f^ CT:. — Similarly 7^ g^.... gf^ or ^ or g?^ sim.,' 
see f. L KathAs. 33, 138. As to :t tni^.. .. ^ncTT^ see 480. 

g 442-443. 843 

Rem. If OB the other hand rr preeedot and J!sr9fir or <rp|[^ 
introdaee the second sentence, these particles may be almost = 
•bat." Pane. 122 :? ^srfe m ??55PT: ihsm ^ \ ^^^&{fk^ (yon are not 
an honest man, yon are but an OTil-minded follow), Prabodh. lY, 

p. 84 VPit ^ m^ fuUM! ST Sjwf :T f^WTFJT 5T H-hTdM^: • H" ^Tlf'T f^^- 

R.^H4«iii: W!TOIT «T^ !r7iv?w -s^WT (in the subduing of anger not 

fatigue of voice, nor head-ache etc., but I [forbearance] alone am 

to be praised). 

ifj, 4. The phrases f^, fijr j, f^ JT:, fsRjrT and jpt: have the 

PvT meaning of Lat. nedum >how much moro*' or ihow much loss,** 

i^r; when heading the second member of a complex sentence. This 

"^ idiom is much liked in Sanskrit. Utt. Ill, p. 39 ;rr rsmmfhr^' 

ike. frn^. . . . . d^^arf i Jsrft :? ^wPh f^ ^J^mfi (not even to the deities 

of the forest you will be visible, how much less to men?), R. 

2, 30, 21 ^ f^ mR^^ 5fr#i ♦jv^finr^ 'iirM^ I f^ jj'M^yi «Muffui mfnr ^rr 

tT ^if^TrTT (I cannot boar this sorrow not even for a moment , how 

much less for fourteen long years), Hit. 2 KAth^mje i ^jfa fsm wsf 9^?^ 

(even each of them by itself suffices for mischief, how much more 

to him, who possesses them all four), R. 2^ 48, 21 ;t f^ ^ jHO i rNn y t ; 

^f^', <ni': ?F7TT Uhu 

^^ ^ >» 

18. The causal particle is T^ (429). It may be com- 
IJ* pared with Greek y«p, since like this it has a rather 
rti- general employment when annexing sentences which 
contain some motive, reason, cause or even a mere illu- 
stration of that which precedes. For this reason , it may 
sometimes be rendered by ,for'* or »because"or , since/* 
sometimes with less emphasis, sometimes it is not to 
be translated at all. At the outset it was, indeed, a 
mere affirmative particle. Yiddha^. I, p. 7 f^: tr^iv fsn^rt 

CFTTHV^: (pure wisdom is indeed a cow of plenty; it milks bles- 
sings , it repels mishap , it produces glory, it cleanses the dirty, etc.) 
Kdd. I, p. 20 the king has declared his astonishment at the great 

S44 § 448<- 446. 

filt of tpeoeh of tho parrot which htt been offered to him; in 
reply to thie he is toid fenr f^ixji^ f^ sprgirfpFWWwV fe^jfsr- 
imx nnvoff amn m Huf^ (why wonder at this? since parrots, mag- 
pies and the like birds well repeat the words they have heard), 
Hit. 4 «ii^v^Pi{i;mi^ w mM ! >(jiiHf<fj{fii>* i ^ lunH^ i iSr f^ fkuiMfy*! 

For the rest, if it be necessary to signify the cause 
or motive as such, the relatives Urt* and ^fTTrT are 
used. See 467. 

ML As conclusive particles, we may consider the de- 
iw monstratives FlrT and FTFITrr, FFrTJ, VrV. rTTT* ,there- 
»«. fore, hence, for this reason,'* Hit. 5 qj^rin^H vA n^ l^df^fn 

45. Especially rTFT is exceedingly frequent , and in drawing 
re inferences it is always added. 

Rem. In tho archaic dialect many other accus. neuters of do- 
(pro- * 

n ^. monstratiYO pronouns wero to some extent used as particles: rhtti 
v^'.y ▼T»I^ almost = ^5n3[, t?^, -r^. See f. i. Ait. Br. 1, 9, 6; 14, 6; 
Ch. Up. 4, 2, 1; 6, 8, 3. 

Even the pronoun ^, when conjoined with another 
pronoun, especially a personal one, may import a con- 
clusive meaning. Mhbh. l, 146, 29 Yudhishthira advising his 
brothers tliat it is necessary to keop themselves hidden from 
Duryodhana, concludes thus tt sdx *liiq i ';7i^ i ^^ i7 <aH ' « <» i^*< T^Q^^' 0®^ 
us therefore ramble over this country , being intent on hunting), Q&k, 
II Dushyanta is requested by his mother to return to his capital, 
but he wants to remain in the hermitage, to defend which from 
the evil spirits he has been entreated by the hermits; now he 
decides to stay there himself and to send his vidiishaka home in 
his stead , with these words crw «miar mrr^P^jf^v. ^ ^ ^^'« ^ 
MciiPw i; uPiP i c(«'q . .«■ ?nr> igfTi> it < j s> 'i> i 5*ij ' ^ i |]*i4f? l (friend M., my 
mother treats you too as a son, therefore^ do you go back homo — ), 

ee of 

§ 445^-447. S45 

XJt^ Ii P- 11 SltA pereeiyei tho portrait of tho deity OangA; Rftma 
praiiei tlie deity and eoncludes m fsmsw. .... n^rrnrt fvi l d i jaMM^ i 
iisr (be, then^ mother, propitioos to Stt&). Another initance illui- 
tratiTe of this idiom ii Ragh. 1, 5, but it is too long to be quoted, 
for to translate it correctly the whole passage would have to be 
given. Cp. also Mhbh. 1, 153, 4. 

Rem« Occasionally ^ is used so , OTen without the personal pro- 
noun added. Da^. 141 jsr inn^ fm^vs(: <iTOn ofpnimn (9,ipihi i 
^wQ^ ^ ^}H\^^^ ^ af[^kA (I have abandoned you, my son, as soon as 
you were born, why^ /Aen, do you welcome thus your cruel 
mother?). Cp. f. i. Ait Br. 1, 7, 3 jett & aV sq- ^. 

446, Neceri/teleaa ^ however^ yet is FFTTrT* It commonly 

' introduces the apodosis after a concessive protasis (483), 

but sometimes it may usher in a new sentence , as Pane 

332 ;fT: Hfjjlif f «i 3di' i !»t<yiHa i n^ !»i^iin MUMfiifmrf^ "OTtyr fT?Tt srarf 

** ^ ^ C"- >a 

(mS^I (it cannot be denied, that every success occurs according to 
Destiny , nevertheless a man ought to perform the prescriptions of 
tho good), ep. 315, 1. 22. 

147. When connecting a negative sentence with an affir- 
lectiBg mative one , the negation , as a rule , precedes the con- 
u?J nective particle. Therefore, R" ^ = Lat. Meyue^ ^ cfT, 

With ^ ^' ^^' '^^^ ^^^'' likewise J^T :^ J^ + 3, ^ ^, 

utive n Tn. Nala 3, 16 uvi'jijn yuirii tt^ nx: [»c. u^iii^.ii:] n" ^^- 

*"*"• JTi^JTiTFjTrT (tho women praised Nala, but did not address him), 

Pane. 241 rr^^rt aiT^i.iR^»l fk^ fkyr vffwxfh tj ^}f rr&r i^'i. i fj-Au i f^r i 
(day after day he throws down a little piece of wood, the stupid 
owls not being aware of it); ') M. 2, 87 vk,5u^,n^ \ STT »i»J% (he may 

1) Occa»ionttlly this order ia inverted: 9 tt or 9*... tj. Pane. 285 rr;?- 
^»|rit Q4^.drll4Jr|i1fi|!lil JJ^: ^Tf?fT »m «T nTHT (— bnt not io have i), 

B. 2. 26. 3 3f^^ m^ Hi^ rr mm* 

846 ft 447-448. 

Mt •therwiae w aot); Da^. HI Jbar ^ijaiwrfpift i ?if^ mprt v^ 
mr^ ghWUWWH{H i f?t wifrfeut crrj^ (ihe has done well, for a per- 
lon like me does not deserve — ); Vikram. IV, p. 148 ijSyTii ii a i^ 
' wsn^ fh^ k ^jrif Tf y^Rfi ^y^srm: (— my heart is content, 
yet I cannot belie?e it to he true); H. 9, 270 7t ^^ ^prf ^T^ 
u i fie i Air^gr i Tp: (indeed, a righteous king must never put to death a 
thief, unless the stolen objects [are found with him]). Cp. :t 
%?? 485. 

«46. If the sentences connected are both negative, the 
M^. negation of the latter may be omitted. Yet the nega- 
tion is often refined; and, if there is some antithesis 
between the two links , moreover in causal and in con- 
clusive sentences , it may not be wanting. One needs says 

^ ^ r{ and ^TI^ and R" 1^*. 

Examples of negation omitted are given 407. To them may 
be added M. 2, 98 ;t upifh i i Kifrt oTT (is neither rejoiced nor sad). 
This idiom is especially employed, if two or more negative sen- 
tences precede, to annex a last link. Nala 1, 13 tt ^^rq :t um 
rW^iPi-jrU yf^L* M l ^^ ' ^Fi wrij g i feuji i qei i g?!T (neither among gods 
nor among yaxas nor among men and others such, a beauty had 
been seen or heard oO* 

Examples of negation i^tained: Pane. 44 ygui^Pf iic( i f^ f t!ft*H] i 
^ 5ipFJ :t 9 irm crrfn (from this day forth you shall not bo a 
gadding nor speak harsh words), ibid. 29 q- qTtsf^ HK<hSh>nRl t<H[A 
ZTT ^TXf^ Vnt oTT. 

Examples of tt,,.,. rrf^, :r ^ J ate. Pane. I, 48 zfy ;r ?fw 

lyj ii ^m^j ST flf hhf q (Tiid ;i;T^ rmn^nm fSir^T, Da^. 91 ipn^ s? 
nrhJ'A'U 5^i«.(irfi TT^ M r|< | ij i m^*/jq; i 'egP i (her kinsmen do not cede [her] 
unless for money, but she does not accept [a lover] who buys 
her for money). 

Examples of asyndeton :t ^ »ueither nor.** M. 4, 55 

fjT5»JT^i Pane. Ill, 98 >HH:^ i /^uid «RTft?r ;t <u i MV i g> » <i<^*jU sj-?: J^JJ^ (• 
dog*s tail neither covers the privy parts nor does it propel the 

§ 449. 347 Subordination. Periods and (danses. 

9* When subordinating some fact or action to some 
other one, there are two di£ferent manners for bring- 
ing this relation to grammatical expression, either by 
synthesis or by analysis. The synthetic expression 
takes up the clauses into the frame of the chief sen- 
tence, while denoting them by verbal nouns or no- 
minal forms of the verb, as participles, gerunds, in- 
finitives and the like. Then, the sentence contains but 
one finite verb significative of the principal action, 
the other actions appearing in the shape of nouns and 
nominal forms which by their noun-eases and moda- 
lities are to represent the relations existing l>etween 
the main action and the secondary ones. By the ana- 
lytic structure, on the contmry, both the principal 
and the subordinate fact are evolved into lull sentences , 
either of them containing its finite verb. Then, the 
clause is marked by a relative, which by its form or 
its referring to some demonstrative , or even by the place 
occupied by it , points out the chief sentence on which it 
depends. A relative sentence by itself is nonsense, it 
demands some main sentence to depend upon , of which 
it is logically but a detached link. 

Exactly speaking, it is the analytic expression alone 
that constitutes Huhordination of HenteHccH. The synthe- 
tical expression of clauses does not create new sen- 
tence. For this reason, the participles etc. are no 
subject-matter of this chapter, and have been dealt with 
in Section IV. 

In Sanskrit both modes have been used frooi time 

348 g 449—452. 

immeniorial. We KaT6 no evideaee to decide whieh may be the 
oldett For the rest, the relative lyBtem stands to participles, 
infinitives etc., almost as prepositions to noun-cases, as auxilia- 
ries to verbal flection. 
>0. Sometimes the logical equivalence of a gerund , a participle etc. 
to the protasis of a period is grammatically expressed by a subse. 
quent fw or ?ffT:. Ch. Up. 6, 13, 1 <fidmS i H«tv.» isrwTirwr *tt 5rT?rr^- 
npTfTT: (v. a. place this salt in water, and then wait on me in the 
morning), Kath&s. 13, 144 jjt^ u^ i Rw.! f i w li fu i ^.t' < 4:<TiH ' i^q h]^ . . . ITT^. 

WmTOTT, Nttia 5, 10 ff i ;r T ^ TO mr a^yy^ ?Tr* <id i > iT >^<J i qa^ (m 

Damayantt contemplated them,- sho did not recognize king Nala), 
ibid. 2, 14 rUHHUir^Jl ^UcJI fTfT: ^I'JI^ildJU if4U-eS(l-^n^J ^ftf^ fWt:, M. 

11, 91 ?FiT ' fd'iiN ^TTW Tpim (h,r^c»mmrV . (by this fp^^nance] such 
a ono, when hiB body is wholly burnt, is then roleased from sin). 

►!• Subordinate sentences, then, are characterized by 

live relatives. By this name T designate the pronoun a 

with all its derivatives, whether they may be called 

pronouns as ^* (who), MI'^M (Lat. quantun\ ^T^JH''' 

(Lat. qualu), or pronominal adverbs as JlrT' (whence), 

^ (where), ePIT (as), and conjunctions as TT^ (if). They 
have in common the property of referring to some 
demonstrative, either expressed or implied in the 
main sentence. Such a couple of relative and demon- 
stmtive, standing one in the clause the other in the 
main sentence, may be compared to a system of hook 
and eye holding together two different parts of a piece 

of clotlu Of the kind are ^: fT, ^TI^: FTI^s 

^ rTSr, ^ fT^, ^ FTfT: or FT^ or 

?r?T etc. 
S. From observing the pi-actice of Sanskrit authors the 

8 452. 849 

following general rales about the relative sentences 
may be laid down, 

*»p~" !• The demonstrative is chiefly the pronoun W, HT, 

r{rl and its derivatives, as FRT, rPfTT, r^r, FFTJ. Yet, 
it must be kept in mind that relative adverbs do not 
necessarily require demonstrative adverbs of the same 
category; in other terms, one is not compelled to use 

the type ^^* rlrTJ, ^^ FTST alone, but some- 
times some other demonstrative , f. i. a noun-case ot 
the pronoun may answer to the relative adverb, as 

^^ SR^ffJ ^ \JTT (Hml'4: (it is a charming country 
where you dwelled). 

2. Sanskrit likes to put the relative sentence first. In 
this case we have a period consisting of a protasis or 
former member, which is the relative sentence , and an 
apodosis or latter member, the principal sentence. 
This order is the regular one and much more used than 
inserting the relative senteuc>e in the main one , as is ge- 
nerally done in modern European tongues. The demonstr. 
is commonly expressed, sometimes it is understood. 

Examples : Pane. II, 20 jrxtw 5.t set ?t^ ^ iTOT ^ Ofr m=n ?nr w 

(good and evil works of the individual are so requited by the 
Divine Power as to reach [the performer] by the same cause, by 
the same agent, at the same time, in the same way, at the same 
spot, and to be of the same quality and quantity), M. 1, 42 }jrj\ 
3 m^ %^ virTTTT^ JiPfM I rHTOT oTT ^f^nm^n^ (now , what duties 
are assigned to the different beings in this world, I will tell you), 
Utt. Ill, p. 42 ?nr ^m vf^ nm frf^ stot ^i m^ fmrm^Tficipnir- 

airM^j^rrrfn wfn ^r^ Plui t ^-^^ i fui \*iX'i\u (^1^0 *.i | w frr; wiiTh Pane. 48 
n^ u^stm rifhiUTT'^ (do to him that which is fit to be done). 

360 8 452. 

Sometimes, however, the relative sentence follows 
after the principal one. In this case, the demonstra- 
tive is often omitted. Krceh. I, p. 19 j^ qt ^t^^ <i^(iHw<Oi »i 

mrnfim^Tini: qQilJuPr (thit aiU mo, that — ), Nala 2, 25 to [m. 
w i 'i. ' j l 'i^ l;]. . . . fe^ii^nrJjpTf UrV. TO. n^tfwf: (all of thorn went to 
Vidarbha, whither all princes were on their way). 

3. Like the interrogative (280), the relative may be 
part of a compound. Mrcch. Ill, p. lu nftmd mf^ (fVp: =: 

JIW fsR«rBr**, Ch. Up. 4, 4, 2 m i ^^^cM u^ uii^krcm^i (I do not know of 
what gotra you are), Von. II, p. 44 H< l ?^ ' j l <i rrrrr^ U^f^n ; iM* lrt ). 

4. Nothing prevents the relative depending on a ge- 
rund, participle or absolute case. Ch. Up. 5, i, 7 ^ ^ trnm-, 

mfu^d^f^-j •TOTrT cr 5r: irs^ ^ (the [five] senses wont to their father 
Praj&pati and said-: »Sir, who is the best of us?'* He replied: 
>he by whose departure the body seems worse than worst, he 
is the best of you"), Bhoj. 26 tut^ QMidtj 9i»Tf^ ^*5iii<if<j1 -mmd 
r i ^W ^pr^ n^ j^mi (the minister looked about the town , but did not 
find any illiterate person to expel from his house , in order to give 
it to a man of learning). — Kumftras. 1, 3 the pronoun 27^ is to be 
construed with the former part of a tatputusha qt^ f^ tt m'»XTnt- 
^FTtI^ fHrin (v. a. whose happiness [of Himav4n] is not disturbed 
by the snow), Mrcch. Ill, p. Ill the thief speaks: drihfw^u i <u?f]mn - 
cmDI'W' i^ ffsfr rf <iR>wJ en^ ir[T: (on what spot, then, shall I 
show my skill, which the citizens will admire to-morrow when 
looking at it?). 

5. In prose, the relative is, as a rule, the first word 

of the relative sentence. Pane. 53 jnr ^^zTTrriq^ srrq wnr hm^j 
a&!nt zfm 7ni*j ibid. 62 "h: n;^ qfzr n?T: q?cr ^jQrijjH *' (they, with 
whom I always stayed, with whom I grew up and played — ). 
In poetry it may bo put anywhere. Yar&h. Brh. 32, 4 the Earth 
says to the Creator wnrnnr xrh^rtt ^ ii^tt^ rP?r ?Tm^ (0 Lord, 
the name of firmness which thou hast bestowed upon me, is vain). 
The 9lokas I, 54-63 of the Pancatantra, which have been quoted 

§ 452-454. 851 

for a different parpoie on page 266 of this book, majr alio giTe 
■ome illustration of the poetical license in putting the relatiTe; 
in one ^loka (vs. 62) the relative heads the sentence , in. two it 
is wanting, the seven others exhibit the utmost variety. *) Pane. 
1,414 the relative sentence runs thus: rrpfw »ri^sM i ' i cirrT>ft qirr* 
^f^^ q?n rr mf^ h R. 2, 28, 26 we have this order snr j nj rr 
WrTT Mfni^ i 5Wcr jrkm nKJ m^p^^i ^ ?tot ^^ sr^ ^W instead 

of JT^T rT J IMUI SFT ^TJ Mfd-I 2RrTT rTST Jmrn" cTOI SRTT ?T ibiv»I(» Cp. f. i. 

KathAs.IzO, 183. 

As the demonstrative ?T may have a general mean- 
ing (276), ^ may have it likewise and of course also 

the derivatives of both. Accordingly U» ^ is not sel- 
dom = ,who or whosoever. . . . [he]." There are , however, 
various ways for emphasizing the generality of import, 
which are mentioned above (287). *) 

In general propositions, the relative sentence is not 
rarely characterized by two or more different relatives 
placed close together. When translating them , all of 
them, or at least all but one, become indefinites or 
must be rendered in some different way. Pauc. Y, 9 q^ 

JT":! faM=r: ^^nTror.rRj fSwrt mf^ (if a person is wealthy for some 
time, they become his servants for so long), M. 7, 96 m u^n^ i 
ma r^ (that which one captures , is one*s own), Pat. I, p. 123 nioit 
f^oTEf Hl^rWreri m ZTWT: cHTcfr nsrfFt ht ^ ST^ (the cows when 
having grazed by day-time, lie during the night each with her 

1) Vs. 54. **aFrfVf7T P i rcf^^i^yq ar: ^ iia^r^rsr^pT: 

55. ovruiM^d few yuisj ux riillsVJfJ^. . . . . ?f* 

57. rjH m qq^f !! » r l^Ifl. <T** 


2) To the iDstances given 287 I add Pane. 1, 389 WJ JPTTcra^i 

i^]^ <i)'WI«^l'l*Ij ®P- ^^^ °^^® ^° p. 215. 

S52 8 454—456. 

own ttit), Pane, 1, 48 ifl 7 afk noniTOr n ft ^ff (iftiff: (• *!•« 
man mutt not attend on such a one, ai does not know hit 
qualities), Hit 106 m enr "smm: mS rt nw f^PwIdW. 

Chapt. III. Relative {sentences, introduced hy 


455. The general rules laid down in 453 for all kinds of 
d^M relative sentences are especially applicable to those 
rtutive whose relative is the pronoun ^ itself. It is , there- 
Im. fore, regular to make the relative precede. In Sans- 
krit, as a rule, it is not the demonstrative which is 
the antecedent of the relative , but inversely. Pane. 319 
m] ^. .... <i<( i > i M irfliw awwfHf tjr^ iTwrfrri rt ^ wi^m^ i !rf?sFr- 
f^Pinf uiw^H hrm rUiu^ y Mudr. V, p. 180 n v i Jjkri *i^ snrf^rrft- 
TTmf: ncrwT: (ask ono who is a honourable man, not me who 
have now turned dishonest), Bhoj. 9 tj qiTT f^?nn" SMcl l M I 'M ?cir^ 
ehf fi M SKf h fi|f|,f:i i ^TTTTT: (the ponances and fasts which I have 
performed in your behalf, have now proved fruitless). 

This precedence is, indeed, but the consequence of 
the entire employment of relative pronouns in Sans- 
krit composition. They are not used , as in many other 
• languages, where the relative sentence may be a con- 
current idiom of participles and adjectives and a means 
for paraphrasing. But in Sanskrit only such attributes 
as are of importance to the understanding of the main 
sentence, are fit for analytical expression by means of 
relative sentences. *) 
456. Sometimes the relative protasis + demonstrative apo- 

1) Di Saussure cU Vemploi du g/nitif abtolu^ p. 38: »la proposition 
relative, en effet, contient toajoun en sanscrit one donn^e importante, 
et modifie fooei^rement la port^e de la proposition principale.*' 

g 456—457. 953 

dosis, even serves the purpose of emphasizing a simple 
sentence. In this case , the relative sentence is but the 
paraphrase of the main subject. Instead of ^TT'J^I 

^ TrfJ (my horse has died) it may be said ^\ H^i 

?T TrfJ. This periphrastic idiom is especially employed 


in giving definitions , and in general , if the chief pre- 
dicate is nominal, it is a tit means for distinguishing 
the subject from the predicate by pointing out the 
former as something already known, The archaic mo- 
numents offer plenty of instances of this idiom. In 
classic literature , though far less common , it is however 

not wanting. Examples: a.) from archaic texts. Ch. Up. 1,3,3 
m umiiyMUT: firfyr: a arrft m am: m cit^. Cat. Br. 14, 7, 1, 33 u^f n 
SIFT «T;iwiimwi'Ki: ^ ^!Fr: ftrTurr f?TrT?fni7rnJTrr^:, Muir 0. S. T. I, 
p. 46 translate.? this passage thus: wnow a hundred pleasures of 
men are one pleasure of the Piiris who have conquered the worlds.*' 
Mhbh. I, Paushyap. Uttanka asks his teacher about some strange 
apparitions ho has come across, while executing the orders of his 
teacher. The other answers gr ^ f^rtfr iHrTT fsNJrn «r (the two women 
[you have seen] were the Dhatr and <ho Yidh&tr) ^ ^ ft 'snmn: 
^ H l </l^lsl<yf ] i yj^>i) (and the black and the white threads [they 
were weaving] were day and nighi) and so on: w, <^: ^ ^^u 

iftiasr: ^'Sfitiiir wt.t: a ^psrrfr ^nii^i/^iyW'Wftff^: 3^: <t h^: ; — 

b,) from classic literature. Pane. 62 irsr cr;?: W^ n ^ihtI^ i m rAlk^rW . 
^f^ (but in this lake the aquatic animals are brainless), Mudr. Y, 
p. 172 yi»<ci^-^UMJ sftrr ri-^vjCl'l ^TTfTm (give me one of these very 
three ornaments you have bought). 

57. If the relative sentence folloics^ the inverted order 

cT* may be accounted for by some special reason. Mrccb. 

^•'- IV, p. 138 y j Riif f u? T jTroT mr\ h n ;^ ^ ?i^ ^ fjirjfirV f (I hold 
those unwise, who rely on women and fortune), here the stress 
laid on the predicate ^qfOifi i; has caused the chief sentence to 
be placed before. Likewise Kumftras. 2, 51 the gods entreat BrahmA 


854 S 457—468. 

* ST^^ iftwfiiffiimrrtar^ wyA «xOP*< g warfw^ The opening-line 
of the Knra&raiambhaTa i« nv^^^ i ^ml f^ <<id i w i f^mm Jim Jimfw* 
p?: ete^ the glorj and the magnificence of Himavftn are extolled 
in the following sixteen ^lokas (1, 2— 17) each of them adding 
a new ornament to his splendour. In all of them it is the re- 
lative alone, which connects the different links of the eulogy, 
referring as it does to the preceding f^xTT^nr: of the chief sen- 
tence in (1. 1. And so often, if somobody or something is oha- 
racterized by a series of clauses , the relative sentences follow after 
the main sentence. In the last instances quoted the demonstra- 
tive in the main sentence is wanting and it is the noun alone that 
does duty as what we are wont to call the relative's antece- 
dent Sometimes, however, it may happen that there is no other 
antecedent to be supplied than just the wanting demonstr. R. 3, 
19, 7 ^ ^ uuqmit^ ^^ n: jjttxiit fefwnj^(I am not aware of [anybody] 
in the world , who can do evil to me). 

458. The relative pronoun must follow the main sentence , 
uii^ if it introduces a clause of a special character, especi- 
MM ^lly & causal one, yet it may also import a conae- 
Ufl% f^^ftc^f a disposition^ or even a purpose. In other terms, 
<?am!> ^^® relative pronoun is sometimes used , where one would 
**'^' expect a relative adverb or conjunction, ^J being al- 

•*^!f most = TJ[r^ (that he) or = ^^ ?T (in order that he), 

or= MI^i(l* (such as to — )• Cp. IoAh qui z^ quum is oni. 
fui'j=:ui is. 

a.) The relative clause implies a cause, motive or reason. So 
especially after sueh verbs and nouns as signify a disposition either 
glad or sad, either benevolent or malevolent, either content or 
discontent, and the like. Pane. 250 v f i Jjcii^rdMd l Rl (JMJl^W ^mn^ 
Mflimfrt (you are fortunate , indeed , for whatever you undertake suc- 
ceeds), Da^. 90 ^ ypm nfu i » i < r f{!M mro UcRttt jf^ iPiQuM ("he 
is to be congratulated that it is she, who is the object of your 

S ^&S* 355 


(it is iUJadged of the Reyerend Kanya to order her — ), Pane. 
55 iTOT fpTPw: jl^rit tihnzji fas^nr > D*5« 135 if^irsr JijV -s^^rst oFfsr* • • • 

Rem. Note the idiom fTts^} erffoTT in such causal clauses. B. 
2y 69, 82 vsjHpf ift'S^fq^TO jroar fi^^fi*iiurt n* !?w ^m^uih^ (it is a 
pitj that I do not find R&ma and Laxmana), Mrcch. Ill, p. 125 
?rr5 ?;f^:i2iw «w f^idi'UiHT unrf g^'.^^ggiTsn^r. . . . . (I am not 
poor, since I have — ), R. 2, 44, 26 ;nqf m uni^j ^ qMj i ^i ^ursr: 
HfT:, Likewise ir to, 5^^* ^^^ ^^ cra^swsnft yi*rH*flii ^^ crrrr 'rf^'^Tf^ 

auM T qiT ^ f d^^c[H ^fri. Cp, the kindred idiom ms^ 

etc. (445) >). 

6) the relatiye clause impoits an ability, consequence or design. 

Pane. 1S>2 rU,im f^q^'l rSTTT ChHUrf 1^1*1: MJ^IftiyUliyf or fdMrUrli*!^ Sli^lfrl 

(y. a. you must apply to somebody, who is ablo to defend you), 
ibid. 91 euT ittsTT eg^Tff rft nx? ^qfq r qfd ff^;fn^(what is the Ocoan, 
that he should hurt my offspring P). In thoso examples from the 
classic dialect the present is used or the future. In the old and 
epic style such clauses require the optative mood (i?r^) cp. 344 /). 
Mhbh. 1, 157, 25 rrf^ mrr crrorTf^ rpt ^-Aumui^ : (I see no means, 
indeed, how to get rid of distress), R. 1, 54, 8 gi^run iT eifny'^ ! fvmti 
gxT^TrJTTTi eiTf ^lili{i^<f.^ l fptRT ipT^if^TFTT (why has V. left me, to 
bo captured by the king's attendants P), ibid. 3, 13, 11 ^nf^ST h 
^ K\\ifh gjqfrFrTJj^i enmmq^ ^frsrr sr^ f^r^: jprj. 

Rem. The pronoun zr, therefore ^ may even be correlative to 
a preceding fr^, {Tsf^TrT ftnd the like. In all such cases the clause 

I) The combination V: ^ serves different wants. Sometimes it gene- 
ralizes the relative, so as to make it an indefinite r: ieToTi see 287 e.) and 
Mrcch. X, p. 360 wst rHT RviHI » staying anywhere.** Sometimes it is to be 
resolved into 9 (the >renowned** or the > well-known** etc.) a:, as Mhbh. 
1,67,71 u^S; ^ a^ ^ rf ft d<(d<0 fsrrtia^^ In the same way 
V UVy U irm are to be resolved. Modr. Ill, p. 115 miim nsmzJirrssTT^ 
UTITT* • • • • IJfTT Wg etc. 

858 S 458-460. 

beart • eontaentiTe eharaeter more or lest espretied. Hit 6 wfm 

0* there any learned man so cleyer, a$ to — ), Kndr. Y, p.*166 

w^ /if^ f fiif i ^a q^iffl i m>ii{<gj4if^ (of what nature are those im- 
portant affairs, thai you should transgress the king's orders f), 
3fhbh, 1, 157, 14 ^hi6I !'<{(. CJMM ^ qfw>> i riwifd. 

459* Some other special idioms may be noticed: 

1. the idiom nrnm^^ ▼• a. »surely*\ cp. 305. Yon. I, p. 19 UrKuil . 
qiifajfiniei tf pTF^ (my heart trembles , indeed); 

♦jF*«r: 2. the type, represented by R. 2, 44, 14 ot wt: sftS ^ p»TOT iTT 

«^- "! w ^TFOTTiT ^rWfTTifnawninRmr: ^ fro i M*ld i tw(d (considering Rftma*s 
^. happiness, his heroism and his virtue, he will soon recover his 

'**(' kingdom), cp. Latin qua trat dementia Caesar^ vietoa conservavit 
hostea and the like; 

n: = 3» ^'' = «ri?: ^fkirfj as M. 2, 95 aj&rf i >flwaif^idf>^Jir[ i ^d^iwi ^i 
ir^ ui<4miHioi9.wiirii uQf(j i ih fd i fU i md ; here the repeated or: = »if some- 

9;f|py body** and »if some other,** cp. Mhbh. 1, 79, 6. In this and simi- 
lar constructions the noun or the demonstrative referred to are 
understood. Cp. 2ncr^= »as far as*' and the like (460 R. 1). 

460. The pronominal adjectives M l^'tj , ''TT^SfT and the ' 

«r«**'like, are as a rule used along with their demonstra- 
te de- 

mon; tives fTT^^, rW^m etc* KathAs. 78, 130 u i junMerid ; ^f!m m. 

_, Tsft ^tmn ^i (one may judge a cloth from its conntituent threads 

^^_^ T. a. ex ungue leonetn), Mhbh. 1, 167, 34 ^ jsr: l^uirf ?rfewt ;[l d>i lf d r ft l 

J^ h rmrf^u: (such a son as you wish will be born to you), M. 8, 155 

and the q i eif?> ^^ id^fA^i l drTf ZJf^^ifh (he must pay as much interest as appears 
[from the documents]); 

Rem. 1. uidri t when subst. neuter, is sometimes employed 
in a somewhat elliptical way, f. L Yikram. Y, p. 181 tct ^iiirSt 
q i 6 i <igW f Mi^Wti i f^u?) naj (and Urva^t here will be your wife 
for the whole time of your life), Da^. 74 qr^d i ;^rcim e»df<^ ^• 
n^Tf^f 9 (and its train consists of all that is charming and splendid 
here on earth).** Cp. Lat quantum est hominum venustiorum and 

8 460^461. 357 

the like. Cp. alio the turn ^ fnrnj^ (*• aiueh ai), frequent with 

Rem. 2. A coonterpert to the idioms mentioned in 459 , are 
qrr^ and tmr^ when connected rather looielj with the main 
Kontonce. R. 3, 24, 6 inj^trr ^ *^Pri oftrort STT^rf^TTf: i vw^ jft 
im om^ (coniidering the shouts of the birds here, some danger is 
near us). So especially orsTrX^uid ^noFTT = *as far as, in as much 
as/' cp. 470. 

Rem. 3. If the relative sentence import a reason ^ a consequtnce^ 
a purpose^ it is tho pronoun 7 that is the correlatiye of mTST* 
not Trpr and its synonyms. See 458, h) and 460« 

Chaft. IV. Relative adverbs and oonjunotions. 

461, Some noun-cases of ^ may be used quite adverbi- 
Uve ally and even assume the nature of conjunctions, as 
fJrtt. ^fT, ^, ^fTl and flFTFr, moreover aTP^FT and MWrll- 
With them rank such as are derived by means of ad- 
verbial suffixes , ^^, M<^I, Ml^. All of them serve to 
introduce various kinds of clauses and subordinate sen- 
tences. If we except JI^, restricted to temporal clauses , 

and TT^ exclusively employed in conditional and hypo- 
thetical protases , we cannot say that each of the named 
conjunctions has its own logical sphere of employment. 
So for instance, ^r[ may sometimes express a reason, 
sometimes a circumstance, now it points to a pur- 
pose, now it merely paraphrases a fact. Similarly 
^n^FT may be time-denoting or it may indicate a 
proportion. And so on. 

358 8 462—468. 


a.) ^^; a^; ^r(i AND Ut^ in. 

462 ^rJ and the rest have nearly the character of such 

^' conjanctions as Lat. guod and guo^ Engl. tAat. At the 

outset they were cases of the neuter of the pronoun. 

Compare f. i. these two sentences : Kum&ras. 4, 9 u<^dWm<o i P> Arrsn3[^ 
(that which you said, I understand it to be falsehood) with QAlc 

(that you hare wedded my daughter by mutual agreement, I for* 
give it both of you). In the former, q?!^ is the ace. of the pronoun 
and expresses the object of the relative sentence, in the latter 
it is a mere conjunction serving to introduce the periphrase of 
the subject of the main sentence, expressed by the demonstr. 7^ 
but it is no essential element of the proposition. 

^8. The conjunction ^r\ is chiefly employed to para- 

Its cm- "^ 

|iioy. phrase a fact, especially if this fact be an important 


element of the main sentence : subject or object. As a 
rule, the demonstrative is added. 

Pane. 147 rkn?:^ nyn >miMM l 5> l ^ppj^ (you are not aware, 

you have deserved hell), Yikram. I, p. 18 rr^ gHiui ^ s^UMdfidCi^ 
dufh I7^T7 ^^rr: (it is, forsooth, the glory of the Thunderer, that 
his warriors triumph over his adversaries), Mhbh. 1, 150, 23 r^: 

^'^^^ ^ 3 f^ ^npT sFTi^nr ^ fcid i >7l*r i n:^ ^sr ^ ai^: (what 
can be more miserable than this, that — ), Pane. 56 (u>i|ei ZRH^ 
WTO QTfJsn Tpn n^ f^tztil ^hjpf i (is this rijjht, that all kings are 
making war against me?), (^ok. II jr^i iet ^ wfcRt qP^Ud i; fnurf^ 
M^ ^m (it is the highest glory for an archer, that his arrows 
hit a moving aim). *). — In the following instances , the relative 

1) In the archaic dialect the indeclinable nrj^ occasionally serves, like 

the pronoun 9, for the periphrastic expression of simple nominal i^redi- 

cates (466). Ch. Up. 1, 1,8 ^ usr M*{f^5^..>jTl l. Max Mailer translates 
»now permission is gratification". Cp. also the passage of Mab&v. quoted 
466 R. 

8 463-466. 869 

•enieaee preeedet. Pane 113 9W *lPi i fdnfi > << ! qlM Fi^xajiR^ (thtt you 

eoTet the rank of miniBter, thii too it unbecoming), Nala 18, 10 infrri^ 

qfpirmT nw ^ %iAi^^1r \ (she must not be angry, that he has left her). 

404. The object of the words of aayiny^ ihinking^ believing 

etc. is often paraphrased by a clause, introduced by 
the conjunction ^f\. Cp. 494. Likewise by ^TJJ (472) 

or ^rT:. 

Examples: Pane. 58 ^(w>^?^ TOT «?ft aQ^^ld (ifWijrmQl^rjRiaJ i 
a i g^oft JT^nr f^q i TftH : (he being killed^ people will say that V&s. 
and Gar. haye been killed in a battle with a great number of 
warriors), ibid. 201 f^ff ;t &fw iiarirniiT <If^^^fy^s?^^(you know, indeed, 
that these are my subjeets), Ch. Up. 4, 10, 5 fdiyHri i m^ ^VT^nrrft 
;7^ (I understand that breath is Brahman), (^kV, VI 7\ Br^ ^ 
gsnwrt a^rRrfSrTS^fTT^ IcTOT simrr tFrnrft^rW (have you not hoard, 
indeed, that even the trees of Spring obey to the order of Ilis 
Majesty P). 

Aem. The well known Greek type oI'^ol rhv Mp* on ^Uxidf hrt 
is also good Sanskrit. i*anc. 280 in i Hirci irtrr {ntm? ziw ^rtcn^: ^QrliUt 
Nala 17, 40 ^ tt^-. ^rsriT hxi ersrmr jr w sfitt, R. 3, 3, 8 rsrt j arf^Tjfq- 
^IcT: «F^ ^Tf^ <Ui!>i l >ij Mhbh. 1, 168, 9 <i>^diij ^ dMiPl xr^^ff^ 
srr vjTfi (but of my brothers I do not know, whether they will 

go or not). 

465. Sometimes the sentence introduced by ^^ has a 
^ • more or less causal character. When, thus employed , 
P«rii- Jj[fj 18 sometimes = ///«/, f. i. after such phrases as I 
am happy t glad^ ead^ ii is goody I wonder etc, what 
have I done to you? and the like, sometimes it is=r 
because^ since ^ as. Cp. the pronoun ^ with causal mean- 
ing (458). 

Examples: Pane. 143 «rm^^ qf^iH l fu f?^ Prar ^rm ^rorfx? (I am 
happy that I shall still pass the time there in your company), 
here a^~ it^^(*68, a R.), Pane. 203 rr Tum g?*!J «iT «•*!*! ic4M»i^»ir- 

360 8 465^466. 

^ vfirTtsflr (yon have not done well to haye entered m j dwell* 
ing-place), Mrcch. V, p, 188 fmvj; U^i^hrd i fnm ^jmm km n^- 
mf ^Pifi f r i irKlf&fSlT wrp^: q( Kp i f^l (cloud, thou art cruel, at 
thou frightenest me first hy thy thunder, then layest Tiolent 
haadt on me, attacking me with showers of rain, while I am 
going to my sweetheart), R. 2, 113, 16 ^fTft#. .... ?r^ rSTfa" f^TTJ^ 
(it is no wonder, that — ), ibid. 2, 63, 38 fHrr rvsrrj^ p^Tssr^ PieWd i 

JTTTi ir«ri^ HiQH^fciq i (in what have I offended you that you 

should have slain meP), ibid. 2, 61, 9 a^M i ^MJi nrj |^ ^ 7r^?TQ:i 
WlVFTm 7t 7f n^ th ^ r li ) ^ n^PWT (certainly, my heart is of the hardest 
stone, since it does not burst into a thousand pieces now that 
I do not soe him [my son]), Mudr. II, p. 79 f»fr Jrow il^OTiT ?T sr^if^ 

it be inferred that] ^csha does not suffer from his burden, be- 
cause he does not throw off tho earth, or [that] the Sun does 
not feel tired , because he is not motionless ?). R. 2, 68, 2 htt^ (since) 
precedes, jirf (for this reason) follows. 

Rem. Occasionally qtt and jpr: are used like orT in such phrases 

as tl am happy that" and tho like. Prabodh. IV, p. 81 yT^sfhf 

ITT itJ l fl r 'Mv^rvj HilifilfT: (I am happy, that my master has in this 

way honoured mo). Pane. 296 r?r cTO g uy.m T MM FTT nn mM^aiu i ?rfrfnr 

(are we the equals of brahmans, that you call us to dinner f). 

tm; ia occasionally put to verbs of knowing , saying , etc. (404). 

16. tniy common as it is as a causal particle, is somewhat rarely 

ft found as a final or consecutive conjunction, that =z An order that,*' 

*■ or 1= >in consequence of which." Pane. 199 fifjUfit rrat 9;?r «RTf%T 
•I _ ^ f. \ 

wi- feltfoTT Uf^iii i i l R ^STTSTT M^PJlPf l (frighten them in some way or 
other, that perchance they may not return somehow), Kd^. on 
P. 3, 2, 36 explains fpwwiT ^h i ^j^r . in this way ^ ;Tm im 
mnhf\f^ ^ MVjPf i (being indeed so closely guarded as not to see 
tho sun), Kum&ras. 1, 37 uu^jrw {rn^ (in so much that). Cp. Mjrcch. 
V, p. 201, whore CArudAtta exclaims cPTUTfTmrJ ^f^ >lM(d^fl- lT7 5TrT^ 
rrrj • vrnft^J^^im n^ i^wn «7f^Xcnr: (let the rain descend inces- 
santly and lot the lightning flash for ever, in consequence of 
which I hold my beloved in my arms, her who was unattainable 
to somebody like me). 


8 466-467. 361 

Rem. HahAT. 11, pw 21 the rAxaaa says w^ ^ sV nw^><iqn>qMt 
J^mr T^t tko literal lente of which it >to give her to another 
i« mischief to you/* but when translating more freely »woe to 
yon, if she should be given to another.** In the archaic dialect rp^ 
is occasionally a full synonym of q^. Only see- these passages of the 
Ch&ndogya-upanishad : 5, 15, 2 KU^iih l «JuTl^JM>*]l » i » i ltim ; (your body 
would have perished , if you had not come to mo), and G, 1 1, 2 nX*h \ 
arrnrt n^ ^^^ i ffi n srczrfn (if tho life leaves one of the branches [of 
the tree], that branch withers). 

In this passage of A^val. Qrhyas. (3, 4, 7) tp^ j> 1 61^1 i mi^ft frrr- 
W l uiRjU^ ^: (the cases of prohibition to study Holy Writ are two- 
fold : impurity of person and impurity of place) n^ may be ac- 
cepted = >if,*' but one mny also account for it by referring to 
the idiom mentioned in the foot-note on p. 358. 

B7. Of 3rr«* and Mt*1lrl the causal employment is more 

ad strongly marked than of mtT. They not only denote 

^•the reason, but also the efficient and matei*ial cause: 

/or, because. The period is sometimes expressed in full 

MfHIrJ fTFTTrT, ^: fTFT: sim., sometimes the 

demonstrative is not added. Pane. Ill, 105 uH^M i MdVi wnf 

UUnfM(7.(.< Tgrr;i yiiMfgim<'J IT <r i f^ f»Mn?finf^ ^ITOTT (since the wise have 
doclurod clemency the highest virtue, one must protect even tho 
smallest insect8),ibid. p. 107 UfT^sTjcrrsfir ofniff htt: gfj yi ii f r jtft iifeorffTj 

ibid. 72 f i (^M ii >* i fcTurfrr ?m: (this does not hold good , because — ), cp« 
KathAs. 30, 39. — Both nn; and tim i fi are excessively frequent, when 
adding the causes to facts already mentioned before. Then thoy are 
concurrent with f^, and like this, thoy may be snid to serve for 
coordination rather than subordination. F. i. Pane. 241 v^^n^m' 

^ l m*^ l 'ilHMRy^^^ q<^ a ii^ i JTrr-.i nfT: ^ ;^frw?r ^ ^n?m: (it is good for 

us , that KaktAxa is gone, for ho is wise but these [others] are stupid). 

Rem. With the same function are used tho full phrases ^ 

«FT^m^, iRrnr5»TfTm?T, UfgflT^mJT^ and the like. Pane. 21G v^^m!^ nA 
mm !T gf H Hc U jfx ^jm^w^*\T^n n<^\ (you must not stay with 

862 i 467-470. 

m, for w« hare taken potMMion af thh lake), ibid. 21$ in>RTTTi^ 
ST ^uiN i fil 7f mm := Lftt nam snpplex non interfieitar, 

iSB. The conjunction ePT is chiefly expressive of purpose 

^' or intention. One might, therefore, expect it to be 

construed with the optatiye or the future, and indeed 

so it is, yet the present is oftener employed , especially 

in simple prose. The same applies to ^'^, when a final 
particle, see 471. 

1. with f^: KathAs. 36, 106 df^^ l Jf sr^ ilrarT ^ ftHmM|Ji4<j i i^T 
wt ^ ^:WT:Tt iinr?? ^^rftrm^^ (therefore I wiU retire to the forest 
now and pray to Ilari, that I may never more be exposed to 
such misfortunes); — 2. with future: Pane. 329 ^frnr^ ir-e^ i fl| ^^ ^ 
^m M ' ^^rr/jp f (T will go more swiftly, that he may not overtake me); — 
3. with present: Pane. 327 g?nr qt ^ it^ i i ^e^ i flj (dismiss me, that 
I may go home), ibid. 52 !i^l%^ ;![- Ai^» i ^U[ JTC^ &^ Hf?i» f ( ; fawTT. 

When the demonstrative precedes , the sentence iutrodjacod by q^ 
inay be also a consecutive one, as it points to the direct consequence 
of the action signified by the main sentence. Kath&s. 12, 100 rpn* 
^ i?T ?T:i i| ^jM i i > ficif?r i (act 80 that he will retire from ray house), 
Hit 10 the tiger speaks ^q ^f TT d iT ^ ^ffgr^ ht w^idv/i^jfi i gsnn- 
9)7tif or^ 97FTf%^ ^ifjfljT^ i flj i (I am so free from covetousness, aa 
to wish to give — ). 

69. On the other hand, ^^ — as it properly signifies 

,by the which" — may introduce also a cfl//«^i/ sentence. 
Kath&s. 36, 121 inrs^ * ig > fnjf T:i firfw raTfr irdr mt nai'iK^Ufiif^ifd (be- 
cause you have struck me — ), Pane. 274 f^^fTT*^ if^ un ^ig ' ^ ^ Md; 
(am I inferior to them, that they should laugh at me?). Cp. 465 R. 

b.) ^^. 

70 The employment of ^^ bears a great resemblance 

to that of Latin «/. Like this, ^^ has originally been 
a particle of comparison ,as," the correlative "of which 
is the demonstrative ^so, thus." Yet its duty is ttot 



8 470. 863 

limited to the expression of equation, but extends to' 
many other logical relations, chiefly eoneequence and 
purpose or aim , though it may answer sometimes our causal 
or merely epexegetical ,that.** 
a.) When used in its proper sense for the sake of 
jjf' comparison , the parallelism of JRTT. .... FPTT or its syno- 
nyms (^^PT, ^PiPT) is frequent, although the omis- 
sion of the demonstr. is not excluded. Pat. I, p. 5l m^fh 

rmr^ (be it so , as you desire), Utt II, p. 27 (Uff^P l n^: wm ftrat 
un^ rmr sir (^l^e teacher bestows his learning on his sluggish disciple 
just as he does on the keen-witted one), R. S, 19, 18 *iimd»^i i «T i f f ^ 
{mT<s:TFrr<scmT mn (I am reduced to this state, as [if I were] a 
woman of bad conduct who has no protector), Hit. 108 ;^oi*M ' ^JJ 
imr a< i f*t ; — demonstr. omitted: Nala22, 4 ^< ] i^> i 5Km^ rgr «nnf- 
iil-dA zmr (speak to him as ParnAda spoke), Mhbh. 4, 2, 5 AMJ>f i ^t 
imr n^Tir (they will consider me like a king). 

Rom. 1. tmj may also be =r »in so far as." R. 3, 5, 18 RAma 
admires the knightly attitude and the vigour of Indra and his 
men, who appear like youths of twenty-five, ^ ^smfh says ho to 
Laxmana mffik ^^^d^i \ ^r^d^ ^ ^u^li^ ' ^ * m^ ^(.ywi^T fw^Jr f^ Ur^Ji'U : 
(they bear the shape of youths of twenty-five, in so far as we 

may judge from their outward appearance). Hence :t ?mT imr = 

Lat. non tarn quam, 1. »not so much as," f. i. KumAras. 

H l rciu ;, 2. »not exactly but," f. L M, 2, 96 tj n^f lT(rr [sc. z^' 

Rom. 2. In protestations and oaths ipTT h^x ^mn := »m 

sure as so surely." R. 2, 64, 40 wtrmifrr nm <nr ^t^: tfth^iiiti 

hi mn jvs^m n ^inTm^mf^rrm^ (as sure as you being sinless 
have been killed, my son, by an evil-doer, so surely may you go 
swiftly to the abodes of the warriors), cp. Nala 5, 16-20. 

Rem. 3. um wilh ff?r^ may be = »as il" (343, d). Ch. Up, 
5, 24, 1 qfTrj m> » *i > 'M ii^xrf^ jgnTwi^^nrwrn (this would be as if a 
man were to remove the [live] coals and pour his libation in [dead] 

864 g 470-471. 

•sbet. R. S, 51, 34 the Tvltnre Jat&ya U faid to hare fallen upon 
RATana in the fame way *at if acme mahaunt mounta a wicked 
elephant** irf^f^ TJfnft^ tim WT^ j:^ c4miHi^ 

Rem. 4. tFC^**** TfVf ere equiyalcnt to zyilT***** rmr* With 
optatiTO v^ is also = »as if.'* YarAh. Brh. 2, 19 WTTTTT^ft^W 
qiH<n< < ^<i l R<fHf ; m?^ui^Hf>^ttM l 'i^ (a prediction by ignorant men is as 
useless as if one were to question a clod of earth at the town-gate). 

^71. 6.) M^m points to the result, either effected or aimed 
*^ at. The resu/i effected is set forth by M^^l construed 

' with a past tense and preceded by rim. The result 
aimed at or (what is often identical) the jmrpose is ex- 
pressed by *A^A\ construed with an optative (M^-)» 
a future or, as is oftener done, a present (cp. 468). 
In both categories of sentences the demonstrative rim 

is generally added. 

Examples: 1. jpn points to the result effected. KathAs. 25, 

(and by degrees he became such a master in this art [boxing], 
that no adversary on earth could yanquish him), Pane. 318 ng- ^ 
i»iFTf?»iFrT fAar qi<»^H^ i n ^ jpit w srrr inr*. (»» he was thinking 
so, he gave the pot such a kick that it broke). See also Kum&- 
ras. 5, 15. 

2. tmj signifies the result aimed at, the purpose. Here the 
present usually follows. Pane. 2 jpir im TTT^T: fMpA ?nf^ fmr- 
TTTTQfTFr (act 80 as to cause my wishes to bo fulfilled), Kath&s. 26, 42 
gsTT ^ y^ rPn fin^^m qwrfit ?Tt gmf^drRi^ T ^Hi^ (cause me to see your 
queen to-day), Pane. 151 ^r^' ?t»tt ;iinnfiT imr * j <j>^ j < t P i ^ qnnamn* ^grfn^ 
(I will eat [of it] in such a watjy us to be supported by it for many 
days), 5»^k. I ar^jxraniT vmi ^ iiarf?r fTOT^qf^ !Tf?t^ (I too will take 
care, that there may be done no harm to the hermitage), Ilii. 108 
JTTTTf nu?rf?T TT^^fi^ fewj; — Yet , the o p t a ti y e (^^) is also found , 
especially in ornate style and in ancient literature. Mhbh. 1, 163, 3 
fxm f7crj: ^ ^^2^|T 5in^aTfti^:i nnm gi^inT ai^: (but this brahman 

S 471—478. 366 

fhould be WArned , that the townsmen may not become aware of it), 
KathAi. 13, 55 ^ ^Tjsft frgf^rrTOsrrnr inimt^fiaki^mT w^JwV ^ tsm 
wi<Ri(T^^i Vikram. II, p. 38 ri<v t qnu>^<iHi unr MUiWUi^ih ^totjj. — 
Instance of the future: Fane. 105 mrrm^ riTiirt* • • • M^^t ii fuf^fft 
JPIT imt^f^ ^*^H'H\ilikiknu ^ (inrl \ tj <wR t (I have made thorn so discor* 
dant that you will see them never more deliberate together). 

The future is of course wanted, if the main sentence has a future. 
Nala 1, 20 /HJiefTiisHhrji jsrf wifh'jn^ii ^md um fstjtbt tot ?t m rfwf?t 
ghr^f^r f* Likewise the optative, if the main sentence has an op- 
tative. Dag. 138 Tpu fga ?rrnii7j um JJfT ^rq^^ l ^Jfi (I will arrest the 
poison, but in such a manner, that he will be left for dead). 

Rem. 1. If the demonstrative is not added, iprr = > [in order] 
that." Pane. 56 TOhjfti^ mm f^*irTf iPTT ^m ^URTmvn^fh (you must 
exhort your husband, that he may kill my enemies). Cp. Nala 1, 20. 

Rem. 2. Instead oftptj tt with optative, epic poetH often umo the 
simple ;t (406 R. 1). Moreover, sTTmay be =± j»lest," when it agrees 
with aorist or with optative , in epic poetry oven with the future, 
cp. 406 R. 1. — In affirmative sentences the omission of itttt m 
very rare, yet there are instances of it. R. 1, 39, 11 rTwnr fvnrrm 
^^Rnfti^^: Wffr iT^ (make the sacrifice to be accomplished with- 
out flaw). 

'2. c.) ^^ serves to paraphrase the object of knowing, 

r». ^ayifty, declaring etc. just as MfT (464). KumAras. 4, 36 ^j^ 
'^ ^ ^ imr m^: wuiMUi^f^^ r n irt fe:n (you know, certainly, that 
t. K&ma cannot be without me, even for a moment), M41at. lY, p. 

69 v^ nsn^TOr urn iif^^Tsr qMrn^UU ^ ^twIft (»ay, did you be- 
lieve that it was Bh(kr. who will give me M&lati?), Pane. 200 
dMIrUor UdM^J iy icJ l f^rn Jri^ ^ ^i ^FfTJlhl:, Mhbh. 1, 42, 34 Ka^yapa 
starts to the rescue of king Parixit ^ f^ hn [sc <i. i vj'g* i] rT^^ram ?f 

Rem. In the first and the last of the instances quoted we are 
free to translate um by »how," Indeed, this employment of unT 
does not lie very far from that, mentioned 411. 

3. (/.) Finally, ^^ may sometimes have the nature of 

SOe i 473—475. 

ntf ft causftl particle. This seomf to hate been more usual in 

■•ancient literature, than after wardf. Ch. Up. 6, 18, 1 /t^wi^wi :t 

r- ' firdrf tnx faf^rw^ i ^ (he [the son] having looked for it [the salt , 

'* he had placed in the water] did not find it, for, of course, it 

was melted), R. 8, 57, 19 RAma surmises , Slt& will have incurred 

some harm, rrafin wrKmmt %ryT irflfrTT mf^ \ mSa^^ i ^ i Q fl tufrernT- 

7n3[ ijfw V(TT mgMcird ^ (— as it is chiefly prognostics of evil, 

that appear to me). 

This causal meaning of epiT i* sometimes indicated by adding 
f^, the exponent of causality. R. 3, 11, 47 WrT^jarcmni sp ftw^..* 

In the instances quoted the clause with tsm follows the main 
sentence. If it precedes, we may translate it by as much aSy con- 
tillering y etc. Nala 21, 8 jj^rm ^'iPiSm ; Ujejf^ i oi ^f^^ki i|iHg|<^(ji^ 
«r7Tt 71^ t^ xr^nrfTT: (considering the joy, which causes to me the 
sound of the chariot, I know it is Nala). 

c.) ^^ AND Umrf. 
^ e^r is a temporal conjunction = our .when." Its de- 
monstrative which is generally not omitted , is r^T »then." 

Pane. 303 tijrj prjr p^mfhr^l^. ... vh^t qm ^mrnifT:! Mrcch, I, p. 55 

fijrj repeated is of course = »whenover." Kathds. 25, 216 t^^' 

Q^ »at the very time that." Ven. I, p. 24 jr^ dt<bi<MUUd l rlbat 

•since.** R. 2, 116, 13 fgf ?i?:Tai{^ ^rferrrait mrT aiSiri rT^rou^ ^^iR f 
fa u^i^i f i WMM (for the hermits are being vexed by the r&xosas 
since the time, that you stay hero). 

5. Ml'^rl is chiefly used of time. Then the parallelism 

^ M|C4r| Fn^FT is generally expressed in full. Two 

cases are here to be distinguished. Either simuUaneousneaa 

8 476-476. 867 

of the two actions is denoted , or the action with fil'^ri 
is precedent to the other. 

TO^ I. If msnr..... FTT^, or inversely FTT^..... ^[^ 

•'^^are expressive of simultaneousness , ^TT^FT properly = 
wiT^* ^0^9 ^*> M^Z/i/tf. Yet, it is also expressive of at which 

timCf whe/if sometimes it may even be rendei'ed by as 

soon 08. 

1« VToF][^ <M ^n(f 09, while*). In this meaning it is eonstruod 
with the present, eren when expressiye of past facts, cp, 327. 
Hit 6S ^ OTsr^ jBdifM monrfr ^ crSshj (as long as I liye, you 
ought not to fear), Pane. V, 64 H i df^J i fi|tiM»iK(i^fn6ij.^i<^i 77t;i^> 
rfrfqrft mspJT spn^ srat ^:. In both instances incTj;.... rn5rfj^= 
•during which time. .... during that time.*' But not rarely its 
meaning is »during which time in the meanwhile.*' Pane. 290 

spn^: k\mmi\ , ibid. 42 ju^ ^or^?'^^^ ^5t^ rTTcniTTTf njpt JTJjIi^- 
??TTJ: M^iil i fr^ (as she is going to her sweetheart , she oomes across 
her husband >). 

2. uTcTX^ at which time. Pane. 277 md? l i [^CT»?] if<4 l J!.uP t mcrir if 
^7ryp( (as he opened the basket, he saw the paralytic), Kath&s. 
4, 36 q i drrthR<«j>Hi f ! ie<(^ i ^.A i m jftvnr (a« 'be went on a little, 
she was stopped by the priest). 

3. mg^ «« soon as. Pane. 313 (j i g^ i M ^ <^v^M^ l d^lJi^4 l |^f T; (as 
soon as the ass was seen, he was beaten with sticks). 

76. II. If the sentence introduced by MWH is expres- 
sive of an action , subsequent in time to that expressed 
by the main sentence, two cases are possible: 

1 ) Cp. the similar employment of 2ncnx< when prepoiition (64 R. 8 and cp. 

2) ei i ol^ l dfjN ... rtlol^ l eJfJ[ ^= >for every time.... for this time** (cp. 
262,3*). Mudr. IV, p. 143 q i oimdf^Hiiiflmmclu^H^^^^iJti r ^ g^fagfn 


S 476-477 

0?!^ a.) U|c<r| =/i7/ wiai time^ until. 

^^^ man i"*'<^ >* generally coDstrued with the f^r^ or with iti 
equivalent, the present (468). Then it ezpressei the inUMion^ 
but when stating a faet^ past tenses are admissible (cp. 471). 

Examples: 1. with f^. Da^. 156 &fn i Mgild(.^ i ei i eim<a i iqid^ >* 
fjin d i ci<m r *Hl nvs^m-. trrfriTiJrT^^WTnWT (therefore you must pro- 
tect her, until I bring her husband here), Mudr. V, p. 167 Hl^eiHi 
m «jmcJf* i J^'M TTPirr *t^ (lot him be beaten until he has con- 
fesscMl the whole); 2. with the proHent. Pane. 276 nV3^ vmr^ n^rg r 
M^u i ^ii*! fTTcTSir fSRTT ^^PiSTST (you must stay here, until I return 
with food), ibid. 286 r \\ rj^r\ \ OTJ^T ^ iflUM J l OTcTr^iTTfrjfif ^ftrsri 
»W i ; i TS i fxr , 3. with the future. Da^. 72 urTiRT^ eh f ^ i f^ j; ^^nl^ e ] ia i <tf 
rTTJTiTr««»« a ^ni r ci ?mw^; — ^' ^ith past tense, stating a fact. 
Kathas. 4, 58 m ii^ jfrf^:] mgrwfraFJTf^Tfsmr^T: i < iT 5»^fnq ff^ 
;i; n j i rj ' 4ffif n i *lfj[ ^ (the maid-servants beguiled the priest, until at the 
third pnihara the judge came). 

r7. if.) it is simply stated that the action of the main 
^sentence has liappenetl ie/ore the other. This is done 

^by the phrase rlic^rj JTT^Fr with negation, the 

'] literal meaning of which is : one action happened , as 
long as the other did not liappen. It is to be noticed , 

that ^ has no fixed place, but may precede Ml'^rl 
or follow it, either close to or separated from it by 
otiier words. 

Examples: of nv3Pj=:zbeforey Lat. priuaquam. Pane. 74 u\a^ 
gifilif^ i fTT d'cg i O i T mr f W (go away soon, before anybody knows of 
it), Mhbh. 1, 202, 1 1 jncTT qn^ l ^^ f A onnTOTT:. .... d l dftl^^uD^i l V I (you 

must strike them , before they have taken root); — ensFr ^* 

N&gAn. II, p. 37 :t H i d^^mfM mu^rm pTTSFTift fuMKi i *i i ^«vi;Ml ?T qwfn 
(I do not let go [your hand], before you see my sweetheart painted 
on the stone). Pane. 67 nrsrf f^!^ <j f -ai«^* T < | g \ f \ iuh tj Hr^u^iQ i uj fh 
(tell it me quickly, before I make a bite of you), M. 2, 172 ^fkvi f^ 
MmH i dM » <a&<^ ^ ?rmn (before he is born in the Veda, he is equal 
to a \;4dra) ; — :t QTqFT* Pane. 320 the chief monkey gives to hit 



i 477- 480, 369 

band the eomuel of fleeing away ;? q r arwiei t mwii iwfff mm^n^}' 
fU]^ JRWW 8R ii^iim.y ibicL Hi 191 vviw 2/"^ ^ jna^jH n^ipT'9^ 

Rem. Another word answering to Latin prttit^tiam is (rrr. Indeed, 
like our »before/' qnrr is sometimes a preposition, sometimes an ad* 
Terb, sometimes a conjonetion (ep. 324 R. 1.). In the classic dialect 
it is almost obsi^ete. 

fS. c). When construed with the !•* person of the present , 
^ Miqrl may also denote the purpose. In this case , the 
'*'l main sentence which generally precedes, is only ex- 
pressive of some preparatory action to be completed 
»about the time" at which the action purposed is in- 
tended to take place; n mr\ is as a rule omitted. CAk. 

I ^ fTT^mtr^hft' qr •♦ j^Rj^d jv wrqir ^l l ci^aH^ l f* ! (charioteer, in 
order to aToid disturbing the hermitage , you must stop here , thai 
1 may descend), Kath&s. 16, 38 ujajm <y%: sin? mPSTT q t at'Jj^J^H^ Ccook 
an excellent meal for me, quickly, [that I may take it] when I come 
here after bathing), Yikram. Y, p. 162 king to chariotobr rMMlk? i 'JU 

Rem. In this passage Ji r dTff is construed with the 3^ person of 
the imperative. Mhbh.3, 72,4 frnj^hsr.... ^fiMH i >i ».««i a i Mj i o i u \ dil/ \ 

79. Not rarely the purpose is set forth by ^'I^FT in an 
almost elliptical way, no main sentence being expressed. 
In other terms, amr\ with the !•* pers. of the pre- 
sent is used in self-exhortations, such as are ex- 
plained 356. Sometiiiles we may translate it by ^in 
the meanwhile." Mudr. II p. 59 u l c^*^^M| ^ «H hott^ (well, let 

me wait on Minister R&xasa), (^&k. I md<.fHV^l<j l f^MM» faf? fffrnr- 
(ytmfq , Vikram. IV, p. 114 <j i ej<f^>^.UM felt u^ i Vs l ^J.^UfJ i fll . 

JO. M mr\ is not always time-denoting, it is also aeon- 
junction of manner =: as far as , in so much aSf as is , 


370 8 480-481. 

9ig7|^ indeed , ^dent from its etymology. MAiat m, p. so q i di<4md i 

" ^ ** in?!r^* • • • • ^Q(rt (in 10 far M I haye heard, M. was the caase), 
KAthai. 6, 136. In this meaning tnx is Ai*o available, see 470 R. 1. 
Rom. 1. Note these phrases: 1. :r msTT***.* msm >not so 
much..... but rather.*' E&thas. 26, 23 ar msRm ^ eft>nh^jp ^.mnx 
jfti?!!^ rrsmr mun^ zi^t^i^ >Mfu f H ; (▼. a. ^instead of seeing that 
OoM-city, I myself am lost and I have made the chief of fiHiiormon 
to perish also,'* liter. I haye not so much seen Oold-city, but I 

have rather — ); — 2. ;t <T7^ or q- Adi^^j . »« « » <i i aH vnot only 

but also." Kath&s. 28, 160 cjUKr f W f^ f^iTf rj^ tj j^fx^ erTsrnftrsr- 
inwft (not only the wound did not heal, but it became even a 
fistula), Pane. 36 rr 4aR% nspnr ^r^njm' q Ur ^ ^ M^ l M^ l f i^di w^w[ iiwmS 
K\ i n\ 0, Q ;.u i Tj f^ i y (T r (it is not only the attendants , who are so natured, 
but the wholo of the creatures of this earth stand to each other in some 
relation, friendly or otborwise, for obtaining food), cp. 470, R. 1. 
Rem. 2. Pat I, p. 9 (Utuui fiTsr^; g^rr u?^H i v;n.Mfd< ; « ; !i «Cim i j " 
fir^ifr (we say: they exist, only in so far as they who know the 
theory [of grammar] employ them in their theories) affords an 
instance of msr^***** tn?^ instead of nToTr^**** oioFX: ^or analogous 
phrases see 468 b). 
480** In both acceptations , of time and of manner, one will meet oc- 
casionally with u i arU = qra?!; Instances of eiidH l = »m far as" are 
found especially in Patanjali, of trnrTT == * whilst; as ," moTrTT ^ = 
> before" in the Bhflgav. Pur. and elsowhere. 

d.) ^f^. 

481. ui^ (if) is chiefly employed in the protasis of con- 
'^■'^•' ditional periods. This main function will be treated in 

verb* of * 

^ni/My, the following chapter. But, moreover, like our -if," 

•**• Greek *J, Lat. *i, m\ serves to introduce the relative 

sentence which is the object of verbs of doubting ^ in^ 

quiring^ observing^ expecting^ telling and the like. ^i^MIM 

^f^ = 

I will see if (whether)." 

Examples: Pane, 200 fri^jomt jrrxttj; MiMi^Pijiih i (inquire, if 

§ 481-482. 371 

there !• aaj opportmiitj of being relieTed from this mUfortune), 
ibid, 121 9nnr ^ iRifef »f«j q K!^nfl^na ii q (tell me if—), Mhbh. 1, 154, 4 
nf^ srror 8f?w m zjsRfT jt^ srFq[T:iwmi5r nn (tell me whether you 
are the deity of this forest or an apsaras), (Jk\u VI f^M i Snl 9f^ 
WTf%^m?mT 7WX WTirfg wt^ (reflect if not one of his wItos may 
be in the family-way), Kum&ras. 6, 44 epr ^^ it^.^M><^H f ^<»t i ferinsrfr 
<JM(iUM<i CRP^ (say, if the splendour of the evening-sky illumined 
by moon and stars, does befit Aruna). — Sometimes ofr and ott 
are equally available, f. L with f%9r7 (wonder), and with such phrases \^i * 
as / cannot bear, I do not believe, (^hk. III fenr f%ar n^ fETHvk J",? 
glsnT^^ *<> i df»fi (what wonder is it , that the two stars of the astcrism 
Vig&khA join the crescent?), R. 2, 51, 14 tort d^ msr^ to ?t (I 
do not think, they are alive), ibid. 2, 86, 15 we have the like sen- 
tence , but the verb is an optative (^^v:). Cp. also R. 2, 73, 8 
^!0!nj[ eif^ sft&rTW, and the like. 

Note also zjf^ with verbs of stoearing, cursing and the like. 
Pane. 75 t^ ^ip^: 5iq^: nmif^ n^TBTR^nfir (I niay be cursed 
•by gods or parents, if I taste of it). 
e82. Sometimes the clause with rt^ is used in a somewhat ellip- 
tical way, viz. without apodosis. Q&k. VII Dushyanta considers 
whether he shall ask the boy, whom ho already suspects to bo 
his son, about the name of his mother: d^ mcT^ funrmfTT^ TTTHrT: 
ujfe^dx r (if I should ask now the name of his mother?). In a Hi- 
mil ar way, if hope is uttered. R. 2, 59, 3 viwn uf?^ irt jm: v^i 
WM. l ^^f<^ (hoping : »perhaps R4ma will again address me**), ibid. 
3, 54, 3 SitA when being carried away by RAvaiia casts off her 
upper-garment and her jewels among a little band of apos «H^ iw i tj 
CT Uqfr frr (perhaps they will show them to Rama). <). Such sentences 
require the optative (f^r?) because of the nature of their contents. 
A difi'erent character is displayed by such ellipsis, as is shown 
R. 3, 17, 21 , where QArpanakh& says to Rama ^Tcrnrt ^ttxt h mtht 

1) Cp. the similar employment of Latin «i, f. i. in the Aeneid, book 
VI, vs. 187 ii nunc ie nobis Ule aureus arhore ramui ottendat nemore in 

372 § 48Z-484. 

gf^i^ fftaW i Jlfl: (»7 iHrother is named R&TMia| whom perhape yoa will 
haye heard of).'). 

483. By adding ?rfir to ^, we get a*aV4, the conces- 

^^' sive particle tiouffi , although. Its correlative in the 


apodosis is rl^im nevertheless^ however » yet^ either ex- 
pressed , or omitted. Pane. 37 enrfg ^<0<^^^-f ^ «Rf^ fwrf^ 
mw i CcRft^HTSTTzr cTRzr: (oTen if he does not listen to your words, yet 
you muiit blame your master that he may amend his faults), Kath4s. 

52, 375 srm ird^ srprar ?i>(iqRff ^ h siji fmrft ^ FdiMK^J i siirohi- 
q»^ Tur (my child, though you are yaliant and have a great army, 
you must never trust to the victory in battle, since it is inconstant), 
^ak. I wck ^ tojifd jnf^ ^ a^Tfit:i OTf^^TT^rfTinw irfn" ma*i i u r (though 
she does not join in the conversation, yet she listens attentively, 
while I am speaking). 

Rem. irfg zjf^ instead of ^nrf^ i^s poetical , as f. L Prabodh. I, 
p. 10 irf^ nf^ iafyr<i(!: Wi\K\A stt jnxm?! Mf|^ » *j( pmrf^i »m di i <Pj<ti^ 
(though my [Kama's] bow and arrows are made of flowers, never- 
theless the whole creation with gods and demons is mine). 

Chaft. y. The oonditional period. 

484. The conditional period is a compound sentence , made 
^^ up of a protasis and an apodosis. The protasis contains 
period. ^^^ condition^ whereas the apodosis states what will 
hcippen imder the said condition. The grammatical ex- 
ponents of the protasis are ^1^ or ^IrT. Of these, Nl^ 
^ since it is a relative , heads the sentence^ at least in 
^ prose. But, as a rule, ^rl is not put at the head, it 

is often the last word of the sentence ; yet, ^, ^, ^ sim. 
being used, it is put close after them. 
In the apodosis no correlative is necessary. Yet it is 

1) Cp. Lat. ft, f.i. Aeneid, book II, vs. 81. 

8 484. 378 

^Jwjjj often expressed , viz, rTFTJ or rT^ or r^f^ or rTr*^, occa- 
1:;SJ- sionally ?PT. 

thTtno- Szamples ofo^ and ^: a.) without eorrelatlTe in the apo- 
dowfc dofis. Da^. 105 tn^r^ m^rft W5T «Tvhf i|t^ (if I am a thief, fetter 
me, gentlemen), Da^. 72 n^ iww^i^ijwf ?t grpfr sn ^mM^fj ^rr ffj^nrraT 
fl<juq)dt ; (if Your Holinesa does not afford me protoction , the god 
of fire must be my refuge); — KathtU. 25, 19 lurarsrJJr kfk %rT (say 
it, RoTOrend, if you know it), Kumilras. 5, 40 ;t "^^^^W MfTlr^nw i Jilt 
(answer me, prithee, if it is no secret). 

b.) with correlative. Hit 23 uk^^ rrrf^ FTJT ^JlH> i ifq sraoT tIV-jp^' 
^tfn: 937: (if food is wanting, one must entertain one's guest at 
least with kind speech), Da^. 90 iiH^ rf t/'iifTnH ' iMr r rm q^r^ iigfr 
(if she should be brought to reason, that would bo charming); — 
Mhbh. I, 43, I Taxaka says to KA^yapa uf^ ^ xfj^ ?^ 5nr: f^ftrfw-. 

fef^rgi rraV ^ *mT zy^fm irtsm *iii'4»4; — Pane. 334 wcm dt ^t^t^ 

rT^ri chJiO ^f^ KT^m: (if [yovi] are obliged to go, even this crab may be 
your companion), KatliAs. 24, 146 ;t ^rff.^jRl fif7t».r^rq. rr ^raPPTT- 
m^tf (if you are not angry, I have something to entreat of you); •— 
Pane. 16 qt i ci^P(i|(^ rrf^ fu i d l ^i Q?m^: ^; -- QAk. VII ^ ^nj^- 
cnmrtsofTT cnV^^ fetm^u i; (if ho is not the son of a muni, what, 
then, is his name?). 

Rem. 1. In most cases the protasis precedes. Sometimes, however, 
the main sentence is put first, f. i. Da^. 91 nf^.n^ f rprr ^•it 7^ 7f\ 
ulT^M } r n*lVf^'^ (I »»» bound to deliver you the magic skin, pro- 
vided that Rilgamanjarl be given in return to mo), K&d. I, p. 101 

Rem. 2?R. 3, 43, 19 isf^.... j^^if..... at least." SUA to 

RAma jfterr tif^ ?ts;^ ir^ jpr^mxTn ^%f ^rmf^r ^rf%^ g iifsparfTti 
r i ^fim i ^J irrw^ (even if the precious doer should not bo taken alive, 
its skin at least will be a beautiful spoil). — JT^?y^r:= »if but." 
Ratn. Ill p. 81 the king throws himself at the feet of his queen: 
the reddish glow of your feet, says he, caused by painting, I Hll 
take off with my bent head , but the glow of anger on your cheeks 
I am able to drive away qr^ g^ >i.;,u ii q^ ctttt^ tonly in case, 
that you show mercy to me." Another instance is Kath&s. 34, 261. 

874 8 484—486. 

Ron. 9. The combinatioii ir^ wf It tometimei foand in epie 
• poetiy, t L R. 2, 48, 21 , Mhbh. 1, 104, 37. In fact, ^hu not been 
at the outset a conjanction, nor is it a relative, though in the classic 
diaiect it may bear this character. It is properly a combination of 
ff 4- 77T the emphatic particle (308 R. 2) *). In the archaic dialect 
OYon the simple ^ does occasional duty as a conditional particle '). 

485. ?f 51^ is rather to be looked upon as a unity, like 
^^ Latin nm. Da?. 97 rr m^Rm^h huvau-c^Ri ^ %?j rrntfpiiTniTf^- 

not give back the magic akin., or if you do not restore to the 
townsmen the objects, you have stolen from them, you shall pass 
through the eightoon kinds of torture and finally you shall see 
the door of Death). 

^^ Instead of T W^ it is also said RT ^FT, that is ^ 

-}- the advers. 3^ + ^TrT, but the adversative force of 3 
is not always conspicuous. R. 3, 40, 26 rfr ^r^(1Fj Jirfm x^ 

^ai*l^^M 3r (if you do not do it, forsooth, I'll kill you to day). 

Rem. 1. Note ;ft inr making up the wholo protasis. So it is 
especially used in threatening like Lat. ai minus ^ Germ. widrigtH' 
fallit, f. L Pane. 76 ^ irTraT fcrar?! siwr:irft %wt ai i m<f5mfH (you must 
kill him, otherwise ho will kill yon). For the rest, u^m is equally 
good. Pane. 124 nwr h *jf i *MJ HT ykn^i'id P i d i <UJmiP< (surrender mo 
my son , otherwise I will prefer charges with the king's court). 

Rem. 2. The very opposite of nr %F|[^ ia ejMd^ t which is like- 
wise often used by itself It expresses concession and assent <iif 
that is so" V. a. »in that case." Da^. 101 e j i i gq f^. . . . rd l M^ ^l-dHimifij 
(in that case, come, I will set you free). 

488, When. proposing an alternative , it may be said Ul^ . . . • 

1) Cp. ^ (866 R. 1) = ^ + ^ 

2) P. 8, 1, 30 it is termed ^UT. Kft9. comments: WHT^ ftlftfir^t^^ %^ 
smt WU «r qf^arfFTiOT ^'^^r^WHlrUq:. See Petr, Did: U, p. 005, 
8. V. fr 8). 

8 486. S75 

^^ ^^J like Latin sive. . . . «»e, or Mi^ 4- adversative par- 

^^ tide. Bat commonly the relative is wanting in the second 

protasis , and instead of it the adversative is employed 

alone, especially ?T2T or its compounds (^EPT^i^TTJ* 

^PJTn). In other terms, ?W etc. are virtually the 
Sanskrit expression of 6ui if, Lat. sin. 

Examples of 1. ^rf^ rotainod in tho socoiid protasis. Pane. 85 

W l f^^f l aVf^oET tPT^f^ rFT ^^1 (Lord, if you kill him, to whom 
you havo granted security, it is a sin, but if from attachment to 
your Lordship he offers you his own life, it is not a sin), cp. 
Pane. 45, 1. 13 irf^. .. . ^Enrsu 2r^« 

2. iPT etc. = »but if, and if." Pat. I, p. 8 «rf^ ^H^ .nu^?!. i mnv 
jJiiT ^ ?T^ ^r^T Mmyi i J&fT r foinPlfMA^^ (if they are, they [can]not 
[bo said to be] not employed, and if they are not employed, they 
are not; [to say,] they are and at the same time one does not 
employ them, is a self-contradictory statement); — Qdk, Y ufrTum 

mih f^fmrnm fcrrfrt f^ (yr|(rrj'yi'ii r^m\mr 5 ai^r sjfir c|fi*i i f*i> i; 
«Tf7r5r?r ?TcT ^ i m j mPj wrn^ (if thou art what the king says, what 
will thy father care for thee, who hast disgraced thy family? 
But if thou knowest thyself chaste and pure, even slavery in 
thy husband's house is to be borne by thee); — Pane. 172 ?rf^ ^ 

7V^*vn^t^ sfTTTR (if you want riches not to enjoy them, I will 
make you [like] Guptadhana, but if you want riches which give 
enjoyment, I will make you [like] Upabhuktadhana). 

Rom. Sometimes in an alternative the former assumption is not 
expressed in tho shape of a conditional period. Yet even then 917 =: 
but iff Lat. sin is nevertheless available. R. 2, 60, 3 Kausalyd, 
the mother of Rdma, entreats his charioteer Sumantra to conduct 
her into the forest to Rdma, Stta and Laxmana, fr^i sbe adds, 
HMkM-^lIti ^ifMvjif^ mRtm (but, if I do not reach them, I will 
die), (/uk. Yll Dushyanta being informed by the nurse: »nobody 
oxoept his father, his mother or himself is allowed to tako up 

876 S 48«— 488. 


the BAgie herb of tiie bey SarTadamaiia,** «ski vr ijsrfi^ (and 
if one f hovld take it up — )• 

487* Oeeationallj the protaaia of a conditional period is not In- 
^|2U^ troduced by any particle at all. Thii asyndetic constrootion is not 
«•• Tory common,. bat it exists in Sanskrit, as it does in many other 
tio». languages. Jnst as we say: ahould he have done it = if he should etc., 
or as the Latin poet Horace (Epp. 1, 1, 33) fervet avaritia mist" 
roque eupidine pectus : sunt verba et . voces , quibus hunc lenire do* 
lorem possis^ so the Sanskrit poet, quoted Hit. 98, writes m^i 
q>AP i 7^ m cn?rf?r nivq (should a rascal do eyil, the conse- 
quences will certainly bo felt by honest people^). 

2. Another typo of asyndetic connection is that exemplified 
M^cch. V, p. 184 qgr sn^g n^ *|:d>rdi; i P[*ia stti i i umPVi ?t minm 
vinnf^m^: f^: (the clouds may pour out rain, thunder and 
lightning, women who are going to their sweethearts do not care 
for the weather). Here . the protasis is expressiye of the possible 
obstacles and still the chief action passes. The imperatiye in the 
protasis is, it seems f not necessary, cp. Pane. Y, 25 grr; qi^: 

giTira Emm sw i fu i u i T.^ i fu ! Q r ^ i ^^^Pn wi fe^ ^ mm jtpt ^mfh 
tmtiif ^'\'Ji^\^ (suppose one to be gallant, welUshapen, happy 
in loYo, eloquent, a master at all kind of arms and in all bran- 
I'hes of learning, yet, without money no man on earth will aohieve 
glory or honor). 

3. A third type of asyndetic construction is an imperatiye 
followed by a future, when exhorting to an action and foretell- 
ing its result, CL do so and you will be happy ziz do so, [for 
if you do so] you will be happy. So R. 1, 46, 5 Kdgyapa says 
to Diti srf^iTcT frrhrri ti> i f<imlM jw r^ gri^4>rt4*i i >^5 » 

488. As to the tenses and moods, employed in the con- 
ditional period , it is to be kept in mind that the con- 
ditional period does not import an absolute statement, 
but rather an assertion in such a manner, that its correct- 

1) Compare Pat. I, p. 31 ^g^tssvt jr^s^m^rn^^vro *X\ri^^k\m^ 
»one blind maa being unable to see, a collection of blind ones will 
likewite be unable.** 

8 488—489. 377 

ness is made to depend upon the correctness of some other 
Mo^ statement presupposed. Now, we must distinguish ac- 

I MB* 

utuH cording to the intention of the speaker, between three 
riod*. cases: 1. the speaker neither affirms nor denies the 
reality of the fact supposed, 2. he presupposes some- 
thing known to himself and to his audience to be a 
real fact, 3. he assumes something impossible or at 
least improbable, at all events something not real. 
Hcmce it follows, from a logical point of view there 
are three categories) of conditional periods : 

r. those, whose protases contain a condition , which the 
speaker leaves undecided whether it be correct or not ; 
2*. such as warrant the correctness of the main as- 
sertion by the well-known correctness of the protasis; 
3^. those, whose protases import an evident untruth, 
in other terms, such as affirm what would happen if 
some fact occurred or had occurred, which however 
cannot or will not occur or have occurred. 

In the first and second categories the fact presupposed 
is put in the same tense or mood, as would be re- 
quired, if it were really asserted. In other terms: the 
employment of past, present and future tenses, of in- 
dicative, imperative and M^ is determined by the yey/e- 
ral character of their significance and idiosyncrasy, which 
has been treated in Chapt. Ill of the fourth Section. That 
the present often, sometimes also the optative (1^13), 
are used instead of a future tense, can scarcely be 
said to be an exception, cp. 468 and 324, T. 
^89. Conditional periods of the third category require the 
employment ot the optative (TrTT); if they are, however. 

378 8 489. 

expressive of a supposition , which cannot be realized be- 
cause the proper time has already passed, the conditional 
is also available, cp. 347. 

Examples: Ut category. 9&k. V ir^ 9^ 8j^ flr^W^Fm fsmfe 

here the present tense is expreBsive of present time: » if yon really 
are.,..., but If you are knowing;'* — Pane. 278 the minister's wife 
makes this condition to her husband uf^ f^rrr MUifUfd l ^R ^TT^Trtfjf- 
'ifTf^r T^ UM l ^^lP TTp^ iTcTTfn (if you fall at my foot with shayen head, 
I will be kind again), here the present tense signifies something 
to be fulfilled in the future. But ibid. 113 nf^ rsnr^T ?t^ ^rfirOTf^ 
n^;T5ffT*f^ giRj.j i m nnftr ng^^r: nqcrffr (if you shall be his minister, 
then no other honobt man will come near him) the future tense ' 
is used of future action. Likewise Nala 20, 15 ^snirt ^ h ^if^vj i f^ t 
fpm dwRi iSTTTTTif^^Tferfr uuctv^ rrS rlffhrufh ^ there is a future 
in both the conditional clause and the main sentence. Cp. 341*. 

Rem. In conditional periods of this category the fhr^ is wanted, 
if for some accessory reason there be a tendency for employing 
it, f. i. in suppositions of a general bearing (343 e), as Yar&h. 
Yog. 1, 4 mrf^f^TTi^ %?TrT ^ TO ?TTsr srrrfFt (if but one [of the 
aforesaid conditions for the success of a prince] be deficient, the 
whole perishes). 

2^ category. Mhbh. 3, 297, 98 Sitvitrt prays ?rf^ ^^f^r 7m^ flf^ 
zyr ^ nf^t 'j-jMju-j ' jj^iif^u i l jht ju^tt'TJ ^rift (if I have done penance , 
bestowed gifts and poured out libations — [and so I have] — this 
night may be propitious — ), Mrcch. Ill, p. 121 uf^ rU-lr^SfU^n vm' 
nt^ h tpT:i% n4< i >Tf ;pRr»T ^fpnrf^ jfTrrr (if thou hast loved till 
now my fortune only, why, destructive Fate , hast thou now without 
mercy profaned my virtuous name?). 

3^ category. Mrcoh. Ill, p. 113 ^ wrf^ ^ Jnn^l3«!T witjVJ^O 
irf^ [sc. ^77^] (nor would they bear the light being brought near 
to them, if they only feigned to sleep), R. 2, 67, 36 isn^ rm 7^ 
wrr vffTm fHFr^^Ti^TsTr ^t* irir^ri firiisT^rm^rmf^ (darkness as it 
were would be on earth, and nothing would be discernible, if no 
king were in the world, to discriminate between good and evil). 

g 489—491. 379 

KnmArat. 6, 61 ^at A ;t qsrrf^ wrilwfe A^mk (I know nothing, 
I eoald do for you; if there should be, all if granted). Other 
instances of f^ see 343 d), instances of conditional 347. 

0. Sometimes the protasis is implied in a participle(362, 5**). 

Pane. I, 32 f^craFT> ff<f(.ft» wyiV srf^ g farf^TTT: (the fire may bo pass- 

ed when hidden in the wood, not, when blazing). — Likewise in an 
adjectire which does duty as a participle. Mhbh. 1, 8, 221 rcmmrfjcFi^ 
FTT^ g^ *'^5'^'J, 0^ I kttd a child by you, I should walk the 
highest path of duty). Or the protasis may be an absolute loca- 
tive. Pane. II, 198 it is said of a friend that he is gra ;i^ qrfrw 
srniT? >a shelter, if danger have appeared.*' 

Chapt. VI. The direct oonstruotlon ; rfrT. 

L. A special kind of subordination is the so called in- 
„ direct construction, representing words uttereil or re- 
J;* flections made by another, not in the shape they ori- 
ginally did bear, but transformed according to the spea- 
ker's iK)int of view. This mode of quoting speech or 
thought of another, although it is not wholly unknown 
in Sanskrit, is not idiomatic. As a rule the Sanskrit 
speaker avails himself of the direct construction; that 
is, he does not change the outward form of the words 
and ideas quoted, but he reproduces them unaltered, 
just as they came from the mouth or arose in the 
mind of their authoi*s. Instead of saying, as we do, 
you have said you would come, one says rather in this 

>vay / will come, so you have said ^TTyTr^T^TFrTr^^- 

It is but one idiom, the accusative with participle ^ that can 
be set apart for the indirect construction , see 374. As to the subor- 
dinate sentences, introduced by m^ ?rTT, "hn or irT: = »that," ?jf^ — 
»ir* (481), in a great many cases there will be no formal diffe- 

3S0 §491-498. 

repce whatever between the direet and the indirect eonttmotion, 
owing among othert to the faculty of expressing the predicate 
bj a nonn; where there may be such a difference, the direct 
construction is , as a rule, employed, cp. 404. 

[2. The direct construction is characterized by the par- 
ticle ^ir| generally added to the words or the thought 

quoted : ^^Ujf^r^^VTtrW^\^* (you have said you would 

come), ^ qf ^f^rMy^MrilH NrlMIrl (he thinks nobody 
sees him). 

"^ is properly a demonstrative adrerb, meaning »thus, so, in 
this manner** ') and for this reason a synonym to 7F«rij[i ^c^|^ Rg^* 
10, 1 19, 1 xfrr 5rT rfft XT JTiV xtftsst M»j<iif*<fH l (so. indeed, so is my thought, 
that I may obtain kino and horsos); Ratn. Ill, p. 70 the parting 
. sun taking his leave from tho white lotus is represented by the 
simile of a lover, who goes away from his beloved, to come back 
the next morning mm sfe g^.icj<rr mmt mn rni mcx iiarcft « fd'U N'T i dj 1 1 
vmmTumfknvi ^f i ^.R^uu f; ^^ ^wvr-f.f. i f^ ' ^th^ ; qfrfrf^ (I go, lily- 
face, it is my time, [yet] it is I who will awake you out of 
sleep, in almost this way the sinking sun comforts the water- 
lily). But as -r^ is almost exclusively employed for quoting one*8 
thought oc the utterance thereof S), it is often not to be rendered 
at all. Moreover we often use the indirect construction. Nala 3, 1 
^•zr: ufridiei rr^: qhf^m ^ (Nala promised them , he would do so — ). 
Sometimes ^f^ abounds even in Sanskrit, tho pleonasm TfiFon^and 
the like being allowed, cp. 496 R. 

8. In short, the direct construction with ^Irt is not 
only necessary, when quoting one's words spoken or 

1) Lat. iia is both formally and as to its meaoiog the same word as rf^* 

2) I recollect but one instance of ▼f^=:»BO, thus/* used as a pure 
demonitrative, vis. Pane. 327 aM^^ sfg (7iv(rl OTT wsrri^ (the monkey 
stood, just as you do). Note also the employment of Tf?r at the close 
of literary compositions, f. i. T^ UII^kH^T n^^^J: (here ends the first 
act ot the 9&kuntala), just as fPT is used in the beginning. 

» 493. 381 

I- written, but it is also idiomatic to express by it the 
It object of knowing , thinking , believing , reflecting , doubt- 
^* ingy rejoicing, wondering and the like, to expound the 

fact which acts as a cause or motive, to signily the 

object of purpose and wish, etc 

Examples of the direct conitruction with t^: a.) when 
quoting words spoken or otherwise uttered. M&lat. I, p. 11 tf,fqriqo i. 
rflRhdm *J<HmM XTrft qiWoT ^ (A. had told me, M. was gone to 
the grove of Kilma); Dag. 68 ir^. . . . c»,nn<Rr i mmnwh^urv^m^' 
^^(lf^r(fa *j^rJr(f?r ^hRukmuhI riHM*Thl l «iq^> q (tt8 I hoard from 
some people oonvorsing, there was in the country of Anga — ); 
Mudr. I, p. 37 ;t Mlivieji^^ rumcrJ i gr iaqfT i fff (he must not be in- 
formed that it is Canakya who has it written by him); Mrcch. 
VIII, p. 242 iF?j^ ^{uu^foifiifd HoTfT ^rfrfTr. 

(.) when expressive of the contents of one*s thought Mhbh.l, 74, 
29 qs^iH ^T^^ vnfm ^ »f4iiB< mfmh (after doing some evil one thinks , 
nobody knows me as such), Pane. 8 ^arrfe^^OT WfcT^KT^wrfiKg 
MWcl l <mii ?Vg ^ JTfolT orferr rFTST: (master, that [bull] Samjivaka 
has died; now, as we thought the merchant liked him, we have 
consumed his body by fire), Ilit. 24 itttt^ ^ SAsr d^'k^'iiw i ^ ctTcTFT: 
mfisi \ jf^ ^: qftff^nr^r^i flifciftai jpFr aim i P^H ; (after this, all 
the birds, understanding that it was Jaradgava himself who had 
devoured their young ones, killed the vulture by joint exertion), 
5^k. V ^: ^^m^Mtj T arr d<P*jw)fd mia (I am at a loss whether 
I am perhaps astray, or that she lies). Pane. I, 222 e jJifTf mnfT 
JT^rT^ fern «R^ q^ijfH JTi^TfhiTO:i2TrT jpr uvAuCd m ^ k^f NAgan. 
V, p. 80 e»><ir^;MU mn ^ M] inrciT yf^ry^ujM'jy:* 

c) when setting forth the motives of emotions (rejoicing ^ won* 
dering and the like) and of judgments (approbation ^ disapproval) ^ 
the contents of a bargain, a convention etc., in short, in all such cases 
as also admit of being expressed by a clause introduced by qtt. 
Hit. 11 :? WA l ^ q^rl^fd gf. l ^u i M (that he reads the law-books, is 
not the cause), Pane. V, 26 g^: rr ^ uvp: win Uunifh fsrf^aT- 
^Irfrl (it is singular, that the very same man [having lost his wealth] . 
should forthwith become a stranger), (JJilk. I fnri a i ^^i.Uci : u ii u-ud jr^jrfnr 

882 8 493—494. 


wfer z^ mm mif iwnw^fn 9WW?f^(how !• it, that, Kftnya olMorring 
a hoi J life for trer, jonr friend should be his daoghter?), Hit. 
10 mift «Trp w l ^fMf?! mtsRTOsn^: (that the tiger eats the man is 

slanderous gossip). Da?. 116 mv^It spr: ^mt^ir^muti jaawT: jrof 

rf^FjnTilT jf^rTT J%^ (the two [queens] made this bargain, that if 
one of them should become mother to a son, and the other to a 
daughter, thej would make thoir children marry each other). 

d,) when signifying a purpose or a wish. Here it is clear, the 
reflections quoted are put in the imperative, the future, the op- 
tative (^). Nala 26, 6 jn: q ei/ i d i ^i^jfkfh ff ^^m idh: (I am decided 
to take up the game again), Pane. 301 e^ rTsr u i ^i^ l nw w^TTfyfegaf 
nfa '' J!jf?ifii '! j f^npi: (we have made up our minds to go to a country 
where we have the chance of getting either money or death); — 
Pat. I, p. 76 qfrnnfm ^ frrt;?if?rT i ^or^ ^ *3^t^ (what is to be done 
does not succeed , yet it is wished to be done). 

e,) as to 3f?f , when expressive of motive or cause , see 407. 

4. As it appears from the instances quoted, the direct 
construction may precede the chief predicate as well as 
follow it. In the latter case, the relative conjunctions 
^r\ or ^T, like our ,that," may introduce it, but 
its direci character remains unchanged by them. For 
this reason even when using eIrT or ^SfT, ^Irl may be 
retained '). Pane. 159 m mit <\t^^iVl\ nrsrr sfmOT^i ti^ y-^d^eii 

rIcllPrl'ii uRirfl V|fi|M ^ f^ fffpf xTSTf VI^Wl f6l^<VM MW UTcW ^ifOTTcWTT 

STTT (the friend went to him and hastily said to him: >Candr&- 
Tatt has sent me to you and tells you, Kama has almost made 
her die with love by causing her to see you"), ibid. 102 ff sr^ ip^^ 
umt g [<(>liuiWf^yjM fT^TTriT^ (tell him , he must appoint some other 
of his servants , instead of me, to be his carrier) ; — Mudr. YII, 
p. 229 fd f <Hti [ ey am uh ^tsMX^A l fiiife^rT^FrTTgfqfrTT: (it is cer- 
tainly known [to you] that I stayed for some time with Malaya- 

1) Compare the similar employment of Greek Iht with the direct con- 

g 494—496. 383 

keta), Mfeoh. II, p. 82 mM w «i»r fwrara^*T STpawefer wn fiwnir- 

Rem. 1. Occasionallj also ^ or inr: are used for this purpose. 
Pane. 266 jtpot Hr^i^iivuT-** ftferoT «w ^f^ 9!fnr ^^TUFiimTOTfqfnfTf^ 

Rem. 2. In a similar way ^^ may be added to rolatiTO or 
interrogatiye sentences , depending on some word of sa}fing or know- 
ing (411). QAk. I fTTOifn fferj^ ^ ^TTf?ir JiJffu.u ii j- ^ (you will 
know how mighty my arm is to protect otc), NAgun. V, p. 73 

495. As a rule , in prose rFT is put immediately after the 
direct construction. But sometimes an other arran- 
gement is preferred, especially in poets and for me- 
trical reasons. So in epic poetry such phrases as jmuj^y TPnii: 

sometimes precede the words quoted, sometimes they follow after 
them. F. i. R. 1, 47, 8 the line idM qT?T F? ! c T f eyg fnrT^<^HM/v' i: precedes 
the very words quoted, Da^. 191 the sentence fiiur f ^iT i r^JuT i rj ^^r\ »in 
all regions this was told of me** precedes , the contents of the rumour 
follow. Cp. Kum&ras. 4, 27 j^ ^l^ [sc. craPfirr] 3cIT^ ^:fWTT i n^: 
q^ cRTrr fw Rqriij^ , etc, — On the other hand, R. 1, 27, 26 it 
has been said first what was spoken to Ruma, then follows who 
said so. Nor is it rare to put Tfn in the midst of the words 
quoted. Pane. Ill, 160 m ^TT^ r^ sprr ^ 'bj^u i r i f? ! itrkpn = trrr 
ilfrtjfj i q^ f?f vbe not moved with anger towards him [while think- 
ing]: it is he, who caught my sweetheart.** R. 1, 55, 11 xj q^^Hi 
y x -n y n qrr^wfir fng??! ^ \ ^Si Ma^JSu i cpmrniinKnT, here the direct 
construction is qrvRl ^RicTf ^TsJVJTOT. 

496. STTFT, though it is the commonest contrivance for 
M^ai expressing the direct construction , is by no means in- 
«'^i dispensable. Other demonstratives, as 1^^, ^r'<4^, 

the pronouns ^^, t4MM, ^^yi may likewise serve that 
purpose. Nothing, too, forbids quoting without using 
any demonstrative at all. 

8^ i 496^4d7. 

Szamplef: a.) of the direct eonttr. tet forth bj a demonitra- 
tiTo other but ^, Pane. 18 ^o i nijd i a^ f%^ jsjjV (my maater 
speaka thua: >it b long ago since I saw you'*), ibid. I, 302 fri| 
f^TOfr ptfV g ^»?aj^^J^; iggirsr^; g fe^ Q i iiiuiMr^gird fT;. B. 2, 61, 1 
wm^UT ^t^tR fiTrif ii fif^Pi^Mi^cn^ i ▼■• 2-26 Contain the Tory words 
of the quoon, vs. 27 rirt fn^ < i (.mui^^iifii[Hi frrsmssr..... ?frT: w sttr 
Ukldv r <rrf^:, here ^^and Tinxj^ point to the words spoken, not -rf^. 

Rem. The pleonasm ^fl i d^jj ^a etc. is frequent. See Mhbh. 
1, 119, 38 , Kath&s. 35, 50, M. 2,15* otc. etc. 

h.) neither -rf^f nor any other demonstrative is . used. So very 

often in dialogues ^ ibh^ nV^czn;^ and the like. Nala 8, 7 rtrm 

^isrf: a^Tnft ftnth n T ^qfi >» m :i 'asr^y^Wfirii ^ ^ drUrH- i '^ri (Damayantl 
informed Nala , that his oflBcers had come to him a second time , but 
he did not care for it), Pane. I, 150 ifr *rt<^ » >i<>/jrt ^ prar «FT »ifi|rT^ i 

CT rRTT dVUH fhrTJ iiafrj^, R. 8, 7, 15 llclU'^lclsf TraiT^T: Md«|Hf^Pll pT:i 

VP^mnr Slpr^ (that you are etc., has been told by ^Ar^^^^A^^^^)- 
As to such constructions as ?nTifr h (or ▼'^rf^) iT^in — or u^arf — 
iiciFT^ (I wish you to eat), h" rrv i T do r flf fnM dUim qa^ emra^ (I do 
not believe, indeed, I do not, he will sacrifice for a ^Adra) etc. 
see K4^ on P. 3, 3, 145, 153 and 157. 

^'* It is of frequent occurrence that the verb of speaking ^ 
aL knomnffy thinking ^ deliberatint/ etc. is not expressed, but 

^- ZTrf alone is the exponent of the direct construction. 

In this case, ^Irf is of great importance for the sense , 
and its translation is various , according to the relation 
which exists between the main action and the contents 
of the direct construction inserted. For instance , if it hap- 

pens that some motive is denoted by it , then ^TfT may be 
translated by because ^ since or by therefore j for this reason. 
Another time the direct construction may be expressive of 
something to be done , then rTFT requires being ren- 
. dered. by in order, that , sim. Sometimes again this some- 

§ 497. 385 

what elliptical idiom serves only to enhance the vivid- 
ness of the style. 

In full , one says also JljTT WISIT (lit. ,thu8 doing)'* = 
^thos thinking, considering, reflecting.** 

Examples: B. 1, 55,11 ^ jsnrr pwrar QT^rai?t ^jpr wi^jfnarf fisiu? iii 
dl>lI|ci i »«MMff| ^ere ^f^ f^rj^g- =r »with these words he appointed him'*. — 
Mrcch. I, p. 38 C&rudatta apostrophizes PoTertjr i i flu sr^^^ri^ Hd-rAd ' 
MVi-t^fi^ ^^Qfj^pj^rj i (»in this way I mourn, Poverty, for thee, who 
hast dwelled with me as a friend**, lit. considering mo your friend). — 
Mudr. Ill, p. 126 ^m i ci-jff ; H*<foiH«4R>*i4 jpJT hm^ xTrnfafT f tmfri er: 
irpii'.i i^: Hitrirj iTSTrTT (the dissension you have plotted, thinking yon 
would easily vanquish Candragupta, if his faith in C&nakya should 
be shaken). Mhbh. 1, 153, 42 jr.rfift y<flili./i fsFTTO JTQrrsFTnm ar^: 
n(,it»ij i Hi Miff ml ^ ^ igf^P l (again , the strong Bhtraa shook him [but in 
such a way], that no noise might awake his brothers who slept 

quietly), R. 3, 10, 3 wQl)uf<Pi ^Errtrt >iMV f vO ^ idl<f? T (the warriors carry 
their bows in order to rescue the distressed), R. 2, 52, 28 ;t xrnprnft- 
^rrf^ ^re^niTT ?t ^ 5Ft^f?r i fnAumnTjfTrn^ stt SR^nmifh ar (neither 
I nor Laxmana mourns for our having been expulsed from Ayo- 
dhy& or for having to dwell in the forest), Mrcch. I, p. 19 j^i^nm^Oii 
wiu i l'ffHf^jRlHq ; Mf^dfiuP^ (guests shun my dwelling, because wealth 
has vanished from it), Pat. I, p. 99 :t f^ ^jwsnr: wmfh WP^ nrfeiV- 
ir^ :? ^ »pT: MrfT l fri 11^ jfwPFt (we do not abstain from cooking, 
considering there are beggars, nor do wo abstain from sowing, 
considering there are antelopes), Utt I, p. 2 5<f^i*i? i SOTtfTT q-g^ i fq 
(as I am a stranger to this country, I question [you]), MAIuv. I, 
p. 3 q^muMffid ?r m^ Km ?t '^rf^ ^rtot ;icTfer5rnj^(not every old poem 
is to bo approved only for its age , nor is new poetry to bo blamed 
only because it is new) ; — f)&k. II ^rfjpiT g^; wr ^f<jg>i| i n 7T^ 

fwTT tf>mfe^g M< i Pl nrcTT (when she had gone some steps, she stopped 
on a sudden feigning her foot was hurt by a blade of grass), 
Kathds. 62, 49 nrir ^ 7m ^mm fsRHJi: 3^J3; ^' (« quan^el arose be- 
tween them on account of the nest, lit. »[both of them saying] the nest' 
is mine, not yours**), and compare the altercation, which is found 


386 § 497. 

in the opening •tanza of the. Mndr&rAxaMy and is intended to 
display the eimning of CiTa: 

ynn OT fWFTT rT fvi^fH Ul(ui9i^l fife J r1ll)^^^|: 

the last p&da Bighifies: »may the craft of the Lord protect yen, 
[who] desirous of concealing Oang& from Dovt, his wife, [acted] thus,** 
how ho acted is set forth in p&da 1—3, containing the questions 
of Umft and the answers of i^^ivo. 

Hem. 1. Among the most common applications of this freer con- 
struction, note ^m to express consent, lit. ^[saying] yes/'^ftrfTt* why ?" 
lit. »[a8king] what?" — Comments and glosses are marked by rf^ 
(zfh mUtXy rfh iiTsr: etc.), quoiations by -m with the name of the 
author or his work. Objections, which may be made, are repre- 
sented by Htt %?t — in full jf?T %7:arT — > fi. SAy. on Ait. Br. 
1, 20, 3 rnfi i ' j l vtcilr^jfei JKl^rfTT %rT i rW, ^f f (now, as one might ask 
why it [the navel] is denoted by the word ndhhiy etc.) And so on. 

Rem. 2. 7f?r is also used when imitating sounds, as qf^ eirnfTT* *(•' 
Nttla 2, 4 ^ n?fr ^ ^:srT st^ i^ ^fh ^j^ jn:. 

Rem. 3, PAnini teaclies: The 2*1 person sing, of the impera* ^''* 
tiTo put twice with ji^ may be added to the narrative tense of 
the same verb, in order to denote. the action being done with 
intensity or repeatedly ^?TTfi[ ^^' T i^Ji f aaj q^nfTTi^mf^ ^ g^ ^^lrT^ q W-^PH * 
Likewise this hiiigular number of the imper. repeated may express 
the performing of several actions at the same time. Kd^. exem« 
plifies it by this instance wrj-nr «T5JT7: ^^\^z w \ rmT^ ' r i\ A^um ?arnrfei 
qoTRTTTii tnnTTT) to represent the hurry and bustle of people occu- 
pied in the kitchen. Instead of the same verb put twice , also syno- 
nyms may be used, (^i^up, 1, 51 <^pqci^^< H^T i Q n?^ y^ r m ^r}if;i 

For the rest, it is not the repetition of imperatives alone, that 
serves to bring forward the idea of tumultuary action. In such cases 

as Pane. 62 ' ipr fr 777 Q'j^JUHiM'ji^ui mrpT widQ Pi gsmnr fr^j^- 
x T ^ q J firfh nxrnTFnfTrTW:, the repeated words vii ^^ serve the same 
purpoHc. And so often. 

§ 498^499. 387 

W. Since ^rri quotes or pretends to quote speech or 
ive thought, the direct construction, which is distinguished 

-^ by it from the main framework of the context, is a 
sentence or a complex of sentences , not a mere complex 
of words. Yet, these sentences are not always given 
in full, they are sometimes elliptical and may even 
consist of one single word. When a noun , this is of 
course a nominative. So f. i. Nala 16, 8 Fit..... rri«M|- 

TIH H*illrl (her she guessed to bo the daughter of 
Bhima, lit. she guessed [thinking: »she'is] the daughter 
of Bhlma"). There is a predilection for using such a no- 

minative with ^Iri, in order to express tlie predicate of 
the object of verbs of calling ^ *^j^^'«^> considering , holding for 
and the like (32 , c). Nala 2, 20 Q^/i^un r%TT <M<j>fT) fFr nrgm, 
Pane, 1 Tv^ snr: <nrr: oTxprmmt *Jvi'^if^i;iii'^ir>i;'i.rivini.iifrMiin.ri ^.rq:, 

Mhbh. 1, 155, 9 ^r^ wrt ^ ^ ^TtSTT m^ (show mercy to 

mo, think I am out of my wita), Prabodh. VI, p. 115 ^nitj jfir 
oPiP^ Oi y j*Mi4i^ ; ^^Sm (it is of punishment you ought to have Hpoken 
and you ask about her reward), Kumtiras. 5, 28 u ^^,tm^\ \^ ^ rTFl^(tlioy 
call her Apar^^A), Pane. 103 ^ rnn q»nnT KJc^x^^' S \\^\ 0»ow can I 
know him to bo evil-minded P), Mhbh. 1, 34, 3 h^ft »porT ?J fT^ *rfr 
a^j i m^ fa?n (-— but considering you a» my friend, I will tell it 
you in reply to your question), cp. ibid. 1, 77, 17. 

). Similarly nominatives with 4 |r| may specify general 

'terms (cp. 493, c). Pat. I, p. 41 1 the essential quulitios of a 
brahman are thus enumerated ?prr xfrr: 'Ji-^ulHir. Plirrf: ^H^^iar 


Now, as according to 496 ^|r| may be wanting here, 

we get also a kind of anacoluthon, nominatives 

agreeing with oblique cases. K&m. 2, 19 urj^m'nafT g^ hjvj/.m 

vSiVJ% \\ qf^si^f^j; Hi y j^m' i A ^< je»nfM '. here the nom. TnrnviFrT and 

i77^s7<7:' nro tho /»pocification of the accus. ^rftrapnT. Pane. Ill, 220 ^rwf 

388 § 499—500. 

y^;,M. 5, 138 irfiryT fb>yjy^ i <n i\ \ {^ ', ^pwqr; « y^^ fcil^t (DiJ w«f hxnfk 
Ptn(uw» A similar character is displayed bj the nqminatiTOs , which 
poriphrase a partitire case. One instance has been giTcn in the 
chapter on the genitire (117, 1°), here is another: lihbh. 13, 22, 14 

•those two pat in a balance, a hundred agramedhas and Trath, 
I am not sure whether the sacrifices would reach half the weight 
of Truth," 

500. Some verbal forms as ^PT (I think), sTH (I know, 

^» I think), ^ (1 guess), iliaCH (I trust), Cp^T (look) 

^. .. often have no influence at all on the sentence even 

■•'^- when put in the midst. Likewise such phrases as 

?r HST3r*, •rrar ^isjUl v. a. .undoubtedly, no doubt." 

Kath4s. 25, 166 gjT ^ fS^m ^ »mu^n»if^ Qjaui (a heavenly 
woman, methinks, spoke to me, whon asleep), N&g4n. II, p. 35 thHiwfM 
firag m 7f T^ 5m:i«f>9wf?r Kt ^ h u i ui^^oi^tf ^rnr (this [hand] of 
yours , which hardly I think would gather oTon a flower^ how can it 
serve to put a halter round your neck?), R. 2, 84, ISgrOT VcJlfu i H i j^ 
arWf^J' i l ^»lTcr(W^ (I trust the army being well supplied with food , 
will stay [with mo] for the night), fAk. VI sr^ V^fH mfisfq ^rf^- 
^rTmrvTi^ ST7^(^^o>^ KAma, I bolieve, draws back his arrow), Kath&s. 

Fane. 48 the wife of the barber cries qN>M> i r | t^ M<^M i ic4rf?>H l; 

Rem. T^ , jTR And the like not seldom express irony, in which case 
may be applied what is taught by PAnini (1, 4, 106 and 8, 1, 46) 
about B^ Trh with the 2^ person of the future ^ ^;?j m^ iuwm 
•now, indeed, you will eat rice,** if the meaning of the speaker is : 
»you think you will, but it cannot be, there is no rice to be eaten. ^)** 

1 ) The explication of PAnini , zr^ is uaed imtead of TRih, cannot be 

accepted. The idea »you think falsely*' is not purported by CF^. but it 

is implied by the ironical form of utterance. In sentences of the kind J^ 
hiM Almost prot the character of a particle. 


The nnmben refer to the paragraph!. 

w"" negation 403 , 404 ; - 21 1 , 

525, 2i5»R. 
ms 301. 
•fwr 359; -52. 
mmi 176, 177. 
TO 150;- 176, 178 N. 
v^ 418. 

97f^ the Tei'b — trans. 42. 
m: >tbeii" 439, >theroforo** 444. 
wfH 155, 225», 313 N. 
nfT i f^ieq^V 105* 
mftm 202. 

Wsl^^CJlr l ^ 260. 

V7f 425, 426; 437, 439;- = 
»now," fr. or 437 E. 1 ; — ad- 
Yersatire 441, espeo. b)\ -> in 
the apodosis of a condit. sen- 
tence 484; — in the protasis 
of the 2** member of an altor- 
natiTo 486; — ^TTrf^, nn ^ 
etc. 426. 

frqoTT 426, 440; — in interroga- 
tions 414, 1^; — in the pro- 
tasis of the 2*^ member of an 
altematiro 486. 

wv: and frv^TTT 163. 

frfi^ 156. 

irfihrr 105. 

fffw^w 201. 

frfvrrf^ with loc. or gen. Ill R. 

wf^hrtTTi fTwrnSri frfwf^rf^ 43* 

frRrmr 202. 

WsHWifk with two ace 46. 

o o 

QTT Boe fr • 
wm with gen. 129. 
fRTrrpj^ 174. 
irTT|7?r 202 R. 
ITT 164. 

ti>Mi.f l fH l with gen. 120 c.) 
fTriTT^ with gen. 129. 
iA.ivt7vx \ with loc, 148. 
<f> ir j«?h 106 R. 4. 
frrf7 with gen. 82, 129^ 
iff^ 120 c.) R.I. 
vrvqn 43 R. 

g iv ri fvi with two ace. 46. 
tijM i ^u i 196. 
v^;^ I20c.)R. 1. 
fjprnf with gen. 1 29. 
IFfT: 165. 

^PrTT at tho end of compounds 
190; - 229, 9^ 



w^ffp tnd mm^ 166; 183. 

v^nr terref to periphnwe nowi- 
oasei 188, 189; - vfkmCii 
^9iTi^liow eonsirued 98 R. 2. 

IRT 283, 285 ; — with ablat. 105 ; 
217> l^j — in dlsjunctiTe sen- 
tencos 440. 

w:?nr »morooTer" 421, 437, 439. 

«:Q?|^whon used adTerb. 106 B. 3. 

fTJnc 183. 

9npiT288R.6.;485B. I. 

V'Ui'U 269, 


fTT 157. 

V4!h("ifd with gen. and loe. 131. 

frqnTT 198 R. 

WT1[ 283, 285; — with abL 105; 
— in coDiparisoDB 430 B. 3 ; — 
in dlBJunctive sentences 440. 

impj^ »moreover" 421, 437, 439. 

uq-pv^ (verb) with gen. and loo. 

*TOT^ 250 R. 2. 

^lq^^^^^ with abl. and gen. 1 26 a.) 

irfq 423 R.; — part, of copulation 
423, 437; — part, of interro- 
gation 412, 413; — adversa* 
tiTo 441, espec. &.); 442, 3""; — 
witii optative 343 i.) a^^ 343c.) 
• 5';^ — with cardinals. 298 ; — 
w^,„ frfq etc. 438; iifq ?j 442, 
2*; — frfqnTi|4l2R.;343 6.) 


vf^ir and wffim with gen. and loo. 
124, 1«; 142. 

vf^. 186. 

wf^jw 199. 

frfir^TT^ with loc 148. 

v*9Tir i88. 

VQi|[^270— 274; 279, 1 and 2. 

frfv 419 with K. 

fTOrf 294. 

mi 419. 

«i7 at the end of eomponnds 194; 

-— ^^ii with instr. s e e or* 
«i7xr84, 87, 193. 
frauT 193. 

^F^^75R. !;216IHd.) 
^84, 193. 
«U »the side** 188. 
v%f »part** and m >hair* 213 e.)' 

with R.1; 301. 
w^fH see ^. 
frrfrsFT 173 R. 2. 
w^ with aoc- 52 R. 2 ; •— with gen. 


ir^ (verb) when periphraiing the 

imperative 350. 
9^l2r with instrum. 76, 353; — 

with gerund and infin. 353 

R. 1 , 379, 384 R. 1 ; — with 

dative 85. 
TO 225 •. 

9snrT with loo. 148. 
TOfv 229, 70. 
«ciqi*"J i H with ace. 139,6.) 
ViJ i ^^Ji 202. 
fRT^MT 202 R. 
fiEy: and tid^i^ 163 B. 2. 
fpfTtti?Txj^389 R. 2. 
Vk\ii{d (verb) with dat. and aee, 

*1b3, 4^ 



wA 870,271; 279, !• and 5« 
«rf^ Terb anbttantiTe 3 ; 1 — 12 ; 
511;^ perf. frm periphr, 533 ; 

— wfl?T when a particle 311,2*; 

— iKrT 311 N.: -— with instr, 

ir^ 397 R. 2 N. and B. 5. 
ir^ 416. 
w^ 416, 417. 


9T9ihf?T with aoe. and g^n. 120 d.) 

mjtldfd 74, tf R. 

Atmanepada 314; 317, 318. 

in7<TT , the reflexiTe 263, 264, 267; 

— <iiHif|T7)<i etc, 500. 
in^ with locat 1 48. 
v^vi 58, 202. 
**flT^228;229, P. 

mf^u i ^f construction of — 47; 

132, U**; — 90; 146 6.) 
fTT^ 1 60; — • m^ rnar^459. 
•fmr see oiBrrf?;. 
vm^ with gon. 1 24, 2®. 
vmtft with gen. and loc. 124 K. 
QTHT^ with in£ 384. 
wrjyu 170. 
^ttt^Itt with loc. and aeo. 134 

and 134^. 
viviKf ^ with dat. and aeo. 89; — 

with loc. 139 c.); — with irf^ 

or ?nT 481; — frrff^ »I trust, 

I guess" 500. 

WT! 416. 

mk (Terb) expretiee eontiauova 

aetion 378, 381. 
WTWW 202. 
WT^ with two ace. 46 ; — perf. doingr 

duty as a present .^31, 332. 
in^414, 10;415. 

^ (the Terb), ^ with ace. 59, 236; 

— a means for periphrase 378 

or. Aoristin — 315, 310. 
T^fTT (Terb) with ace., dat. Ice. 

89, 1 46 ; with infin. 384 ; 390 

T?,^ 283, 4«»; — with abl. 106; 

— at the end of componndii 
217, 2^ 


jfh 14, IV; -292-299. 
•^(krt) 62, 359; — (tddh.) 227, 
▼ST) part of comparison 430, 3G3 ; 

— =: » almost" 431 ; — in in- 
terrogations 409, 3^; 4 1 2 R. 

▼cqj 52. 

^ (the Terb) with gen. and loe, 
118; — with infin. 384. 

-f^r^ with gen. and loc. 1 1 1 R.; — 
with infin, 384; — with infin. 
in ""A: 392. 

7 adTorsatiTO 429, 441 R. 2; — 
expletiTe 397 ; — in interroga- 
tions 409, 3^ 412 R.; 414, 1^ 

•t (krt) 52, 369. 

03^ (krt) 52 R. I. 



3f%?r with geo. 82; 124, 1«; 

37jo in compounds 225 \ 
3rT copulatiTO 424; — ozpleiiTe 

397 with R. 2; — in intorro- 

gations 412; 414, I"*; 415; — 

3fT....37T458R. 1; — 3?Twith 

opt 343, c.) fio. 
3m^4l4, 1*»;415. 
iKfiQ^Pf with ace and gen. 

120 «l.) 
3W^ and its doriTatiTOs 98 R. 1 ; 
• 12S. 
3WifT see n\uru 
3?g9r 142 R. 2. 
3?;^ 200. 

3?;^ 192; - 3?^ etc. 200. 
zfciTTwith abl. and gen. 97, 5*; 

1 2C c). 
3:3^ 43 R.; 199. 
3^ 159. 
a^tiiUA 188. 

iM^i>{^[H how constroed 151. 
sn^ferfFt 43. • 
■ i^i^^f^ t with ahl. 96. 
i « jP^ ' <; i rf ^I72. 

iM^.i>;,d with gen. 1 20 R. 2. 
•sha 201. 

3iPIrT: 186. 



^ •one'* and »a** 281, 285; ^ 

in disjonctiTO sentences 285, 

^im^ «nd ^9iriii 284. 

^% \ ^ 150. 

^THT^when ad?. 279, 4®. 

G^mj L.iui^ etc. 261, 274. 

^ 398; — subjoined to ^277; 
with ^, ?T»IT, wfq 427. 

^ 270-272; 279, r. 

H^ used almost as a particle 418* 

9r interrog. pronoun 280, 28 1, 408; 
— when indefin. 281; — part 
of compound 408 R.; — ^s^a 
409, 4*; - «^5*: and fw mt- 
ir^ 7 5. For the rest see f^m 

9rflr^412, 413 R. 

fTrfT and JSFin^ 280 with R. 1. 

?rfn29I;292, 5^ 

VifrlMU 292, 0®. 

^, r rS' } and 5FnTfer][ 288, 4® with R. 
3 and 5. 


ehgiulTf how construed 47; 81, e; 

I «!.«, ^ • 

STTT. CRT — 2 R. 

eiiAfr i (verb) general rerb for peri- 
phrazing 310, 312; — facti- 
tives made with it 308, 309; — 
with gen. 131, with loc 134 ' 
R.; 145. 
^9nT in periphrastic perfects 

<fii|ulH 49 N. 

Karmadh&raya. 211. 

?lTO7 59R.2;216IIIe.). 



wm 2M, 5«. 

w^ (Terb) with dat 85; 88; 

w>d vrfini^with their deriTa<> 

tiTM 281; — in disjanotioni 

285, 440;-ir:wfOT]^etc,287; 

— ^ wfitifj »no, none" etc. 282, 

288 B. 3. 
ftTxr* InfinitiTe compoand with — 

111^399; 442, I*. 
ijm 193, 194; — J;r »uA>i 

etc. 467 E. 

>w. — f^r PR etc 75, f^jr risn^ 

etc. 130; — f^pqr^ with gerund 

379, with inf. 384 R. 1 ; — irw 

1^396; - f^« 408 B.; - 

f^fxrfH »why" 408. 

f^p:][^ particle of interrogation 

f^ig, f* g, f^r jst: »how much 
more (less)'* 442, 4*^. 

fHi 9 >and" 437. 

fiR3»but"441;442, 2^ 
far^291 ; 292, 3*. 
ffgT395, 396;442, 1^- 
Stt 220 R. 2. 
^: 408; 410; — ;= »how mueh 

more (less)" 442, 4® ; — Jfrfwi^ 

288, 2** with R. 5. 
czHh (Terb) how construed 83| 4^ 

with R.; 132, 8«. 
Sd^ with gen. and loo. 124 N.; 

^etc. 77, 104. 

I !p[«r with instr. 76, 353. 
^ when a prepof. 193, 84. 
Krtyai 357 ; how eonitrued 66 R. 
^tm with loc. 1 48. 
*4iw*j[^399; 442, 1 ; — »Tm.. ^srtt^ 

442 R.; — :t crst^i^**... %ff^ j 

etc. 44i, 3®; — :tto^..... 

in5FT480R. 1. 
q$tsf% etc, see 7lflIrJ^ 
*ilt 294. 
wrtiR: 124, V. 
^Kizf7\ 74, 5® R. 2. 
^Rvafh (Terb) how construed 83, 4^ 

with R.; 1 32, 8**. 
jr 408; — % ^.... ?ff ^ 410 B. 

97f%rT288, l*»withR. 3. 

VVUIIrf, wit^ 99. 

vm^ (verb) how construed St; 1 27, 

3*; 151. 
fwifFi (verb) transit. 45; — with 

dat and loo. 79, 134 and 


^ 395, 596; 442, l»; - with 

gerund 379 N. 
WT see sjw. 

ws^ (verb) with ace. 39, 236; its 
passive 41; — with dat 79, 
80; — withlocat 134. 
jTrT = being, (ho) is 3 ; = t«, 
on etc. 197. 

i^ \ {ri and compounds with loe. ito 
seize by'M 39 tf.) 




W 422, 437; — with adTenatiTe 

foree 441, etpi. (.); 442, 3^ 

9. . . . 9 etc. 438, with R. 2. 
wjiff (Torb) with ace. 42; — ex- 

presiive of eontinuoui action 

378 R. 3. 
fei^ with uri^or arf?: 48 1. 
fa^lPi 46 R., cp. Introd. p. VI. 
fcr^iT^29«, 2*; — R^^iH) Ri^ui 99; 

{k\ka 128. 
^ 484, 485; 488, 489; - ;t «pr 

485; — nt %pr 485; — ^fn %;^ 

497R. 1. 

flU'M ^75 R. 

?PT 19 R.; — *?PT 215 6.). 

iTirfTt (Torb) with two ace. 46. 
o ■■ ■■■ 9<i>Q 40 

siiriH --J*, ' . 

fTTjj 399 R.; — 343 c) 5®; — sring 


tt l . ii fd (Terb); its medial Toiee with 
gen. 121 R.; — ^ (methinks) 

frnrrr (verb) how construed 1 00, 1®; 
1 36. 

m^ (verb) with abl. 97 R. 

%. Participles in — 360; — when 
ezpressiTO of the present 361, 
378 R. 1 ; — when doing duty 
as finite Terbs 0, 328, 337. 


?f7T adverb 279, 4®; — = » there- 
fore" 444, 445; — correlatiye 

to m 463, to nft «nd m 484. 

n?r: >then, further*' 437, 439; — = 
•therefore** 444; — in the apo- 
dosis of a conditional sentence 


Tatpurusha 210 foil. . 

nvrr 395; 497 R. 1 ; — when co- 
pulative 427; — ;t fffn..-. TOT 
470 R.l. 

nwrf^ 446. 

^^ -474; — in the apodosis of a 
condit. sentence 484. 

7f^ 262 R. 2. 

HM'JI 432. 

riUid rftr: 5 1 9 R. 2. 

^Frp^ and T^qm 249. 

^ff^ temporal 288, 3*; — eonclu- 
sive 444; — in the apodosis of 
a condit. sent 484. 


•ffoPTj; Participles in — 358, 337; 

— when doing dutj as finite 
verbs 9, 328, 336, 337. 

V. 93, 103, 104, 108; — prono- 

minal adverbs in ^rd 289. 
?nin^ conclusive 444. 
^?fT. Abstracts in — 235—239. 
•?n?T. Imperative in — 351 R. 
?ncrrT^399; — in enumerations 439; 

— = Greek fih, 442, 1®; — rf 

flfolrf«» . . . Uldrl 480 R, 1 . 

%: 160. 

?t429, 441; — f*?T see fisr,— 

cTf 2 s e e frp^Ty — uf^. • • • J 

484 R. 2. 



m^ti^ dat imtead* of hbt gen. 

86 <f.) 
jw 61. 

mv^ (Terb) how eonstraod 123. 
o^. Konns in — 52, 359. 

fp<H (Terb) with initr^ gen^ loo. 

123, 136. 
%. Pronominal adTorbf in — 

"^fSf. Abstracts in — 235— 239. 

^m. Pionominal adverbs in — 288. 

<,RiuiH: f fi^ffuftn otc 98 B. 1 ; 

<»^UiafH with two ace. 46. 

^^ i P r with its compounds and sy- 
nonyms, how construed 81, 
131, 145; — employed for 
periphrazing Terbs 5 1 R. 

?rwTf^ see irr. 

^m with gen. or ace. 1 20 b.) 

^wjfh how construed 51, 81(.) 

^^. Pronominal adverbs in — 288. 

^vm^ with gen. or loc. 1 1 1 R. 

ft^OT 416. 

^Ooufd how construed 42 R. 3 ; 74, 
9^ 122. 

^^ and ^vf;^ 1 29 R. 2. 

^ m 

r^, ^Hri with two ace. 46; — ^ 
instead of ;r^ 319 R. 1. 

?n» ?iTO' ?r^» ?t ^^^»*^ ^" ' 

and 2 ;— «»gj^f.i. (»qj^^i||^ 292, 
2*; — ^jm »by far" 104 B. 

*^?^r. "^ 229, 5^ 


5^^ 83, 4« with R. 

Dvandva 205—208. 
{^i^i^^u 202, 
Dvigu 299. 

fl:rTW with gen. 1 24, 4« B.; — at 
the end of eomponndt 58 B« 

«T, ?>(T^ 310 B. 
t imifd with dat. 83, 2^ 
tfTsrfrr 42. 
1^416, 417 with B. 1. 

7^ negative 401, 402, 405 B. 2; 
325 ; — put twice 406; — put 
once though belonging to two 
connected sentences 407; — in 
compounds 403 R ; «. in inter- 
rogations 415; — with inde* 
finites 282, 288 R. 3 ; — with 
connectives 447, 448; — tj 
%?T see 4r|. 

^, :t ji rr 9 after comparativoa 
= Uhan" 250. 

;T2 596, 413; — 325. 

rR^ 42; 74, 5^ 

Twi^ how construed 42; 81, 2**; — 
nzFT instead of T^m 319 R« 1. 

7^1 ^3, 3®. 

>i*^Wi{" i (h 42, 9*. 

Tmfh with two ace. 40 B.; 41 B. 

.■mT?T,**^(verb)120d.), 121. 



7^^ M6* 55 ; — {Murtiel« 396 ; 409, 

Pi*i 188. 

^tiinT ^86. 

f?m 266, 267. 

^T^yTmi34«nd 134*. 

fniXTW serTes to periphrase 87, 1 93, 

wyrf*{^ 39«*. 

r^jj^*> ^ramwrfir 90, 1 46 A.) 
f=t^ withloc. 148. 
frtf-um and f^f^Jinn 97 R., 126 R, 
^^n^ with abl. 96 d.). 
Pd^^nfd with dat. or gen. 81 ; 

1 32, 2^ 
dd ' .KjfH 134 and 134*. 
^: 225 •. 
71 part, of interrogation 409, 3^; 

412 R.; 414, I® and 3*; — 

3 •••• 3 ♦•^^ 2-; 415; - 3 
when expletive 397; — vrith 
present 325. 

:j7?^395, 396. 

5171^555 R. l,40iR. 2. 

;ft"402 R. 1 , 447; ^ qt *n^485. 

TOPifh 134 and 134*. 

^((Q do9 R. 1 • 

drT^ with loe. 134 and 134*; — 

fiTjTit:.— 139«.). 
(iTOTrr 74, 9 R. 
xr^ and fT^>m 283, 3®. 
^Tf^: 173. 
Tpr prepoi. 1 73; — limitatiTe 399; 

442, l^erftg;^484R.2;sr 


frpi 442, 3* and 480 R. 1 ; — 
adyenatlTe 421, 44];(rf'jTand 

^^ f*3 441;442,2%:t. 

0^442 R. 
tnrrf mOI, S . 
v(min 196. 

g^psr^vith instraia. 75 R. 2. 
g^: and «i;[TmH 160; 173. 
<T^[Frpj^ -69. 

Parasmaipada 3 1 4; 3 1 8. 
^f^ 70 R. 2. 
qrfpr: 186. 
qn[fata 202. 

qf^^fiH 105. 
M^ui 173, 

q^rKr with dat or gen. 81^ with B, 

ft ** 


rm (look) 500. 

<IT, nrfh with abU 97; — ql^r aei 

and pass. 224 N« 2. 
<IT» f^ln^ 136, 1 • 
«n^ »a fonrlh" 301. 
qxjTxfh 386. 

UlVid loo, lo9. 

QTr: adyers. 44 1 with R. t. 
^: 176,177. 
^: 176, 177. 
q^fj^fg 201. 

^:(i5rn?[^176, 177; cp. 98 K. 

^:^'229, 2^ 

m prepos. 161; 393; — idTerlr 
324 R. 1 ; 327 R.; — eenjvno- 
tion477R., 324R.I. 



qjiyfi^ and ^ 74, 6»; 125. 

^ with abU 105; — *»^ 229, 2* 

and 3^. 
^p][^prepos 178. 
(pi^ with two aec. 46, 
tTfTE 182 R. 2. 
ipycrl 177 R. 

^175R.; 177R.;-'fj^l92. 
ffsiT 19 R. 
tiu i ^fd how conitraed 42; 81, 2^; 

1 32, 9^ 
d^ 179, 180. 
»fH<i><?i 129. 
ufridM i fd with gen. dat loo. of the 

person 81 c); 132, G^"; 14!>; — 

with dat of the purpose 90. 
g^ with gen. or loe. 1 1 1 R. 
gfTlimrfn with abl. 97. 
CFror^ 175 R» 
HHi^nj 177. 
ngrT 442, 2® and 3**. 
U7m 246; — vfm msm 459. 
tdiaik with dat 85; — with gen. 

1 1 8; — with int 384, 386. 
ITU with dat 85; — with gen. 112; 

— with inf. 384. 
mjt^ 170; - o„i^ 229, P. 
oii i AjH 96 R. 2. 
mr^fh see ^^rf^. 
wr i d>i*j[ ^ see fer. 
{Tsn^ with dat 90^ — with inC 384. 
wfav i iH 134 and 154* 
!rf^l42R. 2. 

«TO?T 111 R. 

ffTW 178. 

«crm 229, 5». 

crrauT 77, 

irTOf?T 46. 

f^v with gen. 82, 129; — with 

loeat 148; — in compounds 

224 K. 2. 


mrfh and its eompoonds^ with loe. 

1 59 a); — mffrf a moans for 

periphrase 510 R. 
^mm and 5r^ 1 95. 
5r%: 181, 
Bahuvrthi 222—226; ^ 564 R. 

1 ; — 68. 


i?f3 (ft^' i fd with dat and loe. 89 ; 

iidifn with two accus. 46; — with 

dat gen. )oc. etc. of the person 

addressed 81 c.); 152, 4<>; 145; 

179 6. 

ism with two nomin 55. 

im and vrf^- with loe. 148. 

iTsffn with ace. 42 R, 2. 

urnf?? see cP3r» 

175; ff 2 R. 

inr see ;tt. 

iTsrf^ = >to be*' and »to become** 
5; 5 10 — 512; — employed aa 
a means for making periphraMtio 
tenses 577, 578, (oirar) 555; — 



im 311 K; — iaelioatiTet in 

^mrfn 508, 509. 
um^iQ 262 R. I* 
vTsrrr expreMiTe of the i* person 

nm 501. 

""ifHT. AbstrMto in — 255—239. 
fvrwT with two ace 46; — with 

abl. 95, 5^ 
fCiTT with abl. 1 05; 285 R. I . 
i'ftf f»Tirf7f with abl. or gen. 97, 3**; 

1 26 c). 
inr vedic constr. 74, 9® R. 
^ifTf 214; cp. inchoatiTOB in iTof^. 
Mxr^ with ace 42. 
vzfjfh with abl. 95, 2**; 96, 62. 

>rf7r 977Tf^ with dat and loc. 89; 

ifTirfTT 46 R. 

xnm^, sror 190, 191, cp. II6R.2. 

nwnp?r 201. 

qwT 167. 

ojTTT:. Infin. -| 585. 

Oip?i 214. 

rpTTT with two nomin, 53; — with 
dat. or ace. 88 R. 5 ; — t(^ 
^methinks*' 500 with R. — For 
the rest see ^innrfrr 

ir^Tf instead ottm 86 d.). 

ITT negative 405 ; with ^^fuid fut. 
555 R. 4 ; — with imperative 
and aorist 355 — 554 ; — with 
imperfect 555 R. 5 ; — tn ^ 
with aoriHt 555. 

•nTsr 229, 4'. 

innuT 196. 
fSw: 269, 
fsrf^fT 60, 
froufnr 60. 
gwT 202. 

3^96, 62; — 5«i^ feaex, 319 

R. 1. 
mmrfh 46 R. 
JT^THT, •rriiTf ^fm 99; 1 28. 
V 194. 
cnairT 1 27, o « 

a the relatiTe pronoun 386; — its 
employment 456, 457| 459, and 
of the whole relative system 
451 — 454l — 9 ^^^^ causal, 
final, eonsecutlve force 458; -— 
n after t^, mpn etc. 458 R.; 
460 R. 5 ; 466; 480 R. 2. 
tf put twice 287 a.); — ff: wfn?3L 
etc. 287 6.), 288 R. I ; — 
ir:^287c.);288R. 4;458N, 

ffilf^ 45 R.; 119 R.; — its medial 
518 6.). 

977^ particle 462—466; — almost 
'^= 5f^ 466 R. 

97^ with dat 89; — with loc. 
1 46 a.); — with inf. 386. 

II7T: causal 467 (cp. 445); used as 
on 464 and 465 R. 

07^ 595; 459, 1*. 

truT part, of comparison 450, 470; 
= ir 470 R. 5 ; — final 
and consecutive 471; -r- causal 



473; — QVT paraphmat th« 
the objeet 472; — !mT.«.~ i^ 
^!^ 470 R. 2. 

Yath&samkhyam 255. 

a^ 474. 

<H^ 48 1 , 482, 484—486, 488,489. 

oifH »a8 far as" 470 R. 4, 

en^zn^ causal part. 467, cp, 443. 

in, infh »to go" with aec 39; 236; 

— with dat 79, 80. 

<iMfd how construed 46; 95, 5^; 

126 a.). 
m^ 460, esp. R. 2, 
incirT^prepos. with ace. and abl. 54 

R. 2; 169; — particle 475— 

480; — with present 324 R. I. 

UTcTfT^ _j- ^ =: priusquam 477? 

7f fHTT or ;t Ac!f^M « .... mwl 

\ "^ .^ ^^^ 

480 R. 1. 
Cllold 219. 

eiiddi 480 ♦. 

ma>H[^ relat. pronoun 460, esp. R. 

2 ; — its neuter ejToRT 460 R. 1. 

m ^apt, fit, proper" 129; 1 46; 82; 

— with infin. 389; — z= "ador- 
ned with, with" 58, 1 98. 

n^ with instr. 60; — mart »it is 
^fit, proper" 1 29. 

J l siofd with instr. 60 R, 1 . 
jwrf^r 42 R. 1. 
QTT rolatiye particle 468, 469; — = 

UTT 465 R. 
q i i i iH t errrrr 1 96. 
innr 1 -9. 

^^ with abl 97. 

pdhwithloc. 139 ft.) 

•^ 220 R. 1 and 2. 

^ with instrum. 74, 5<» R. 2 ; — 

with loc. 1 48. 

^^ -- .without" 62, 198. 
p'wrf^ 85. 
j^ with dat or gen. 8 1 , 2'';1 32, 7^ 

^46 R. 

^ ^.d3. 
7 419. 

'9T7 294. 

^fTjfh with loc. 1 39« 

Lat or present tense 321; 323-— 

527; 342; 344; 356; 468, 

471,476, 489 I't cat. 
Lau or imperfect 321; )28— 330. 
Lit or perfect 521; 328—333. 
Lin = optative or potential 321; 

342—345; — Afishi lifi or pre- 

catiTO 346. 
Lttt or periphrastic future 321; 

340— 341*; 344 ♦♦. 
Lun or aorist 32 1 ; 528; .)34 — 355. 

9W, q*^(rl ^5. 

g»ir^ 89. 

Lyt or future in *wf7t 321; 340 — 

341 ♦♦; 342; 344; 350 R.; 489 

I"* cat. 
Lrn or conditional 342; 347. 
Let or conjunctiTO 342; 355. 



Lot or ImporatiTe S42; 344; 348 
—353; 355; — - its t* person 
of the sing, repeated 497 K. 5. 

s^with two ace. or with dat., gen., 
nf^46;8l,c.); 127.1^1796.) 


srev^withabl. 96R. 1. 
€R see EFst. 

sr^ with abl. 105; — with sr,sr w 
etc. 250; — with infin. 389 R. 2. 
Qf^cifn see ^^uiifri* 
ERm 202, 2». 

arrSr "to be" 3, 310; 367j — with 
partic. of the present 378; — 
with gerund 381; — with locat. 

uifk 42; 74, 9^ 

STTTn^j cjiiM 1 95. 

Enrf^ with locat. 1 37. 

€l<^fr| 310 R. 

Uj disjunctiTO 428, 440; — in in- 
terrogations 409, 3''; 412 R^ 
414, 1«— 3»; -. «rT..^OT414, 
2*; 428; — ^OTi ST^TtTT 414 

R.;— srTarf?:OT428R.,440. 

at = i^397R. I.. 
srrrT 292 R. 2* 
8rTprf?f with abl. 97. 
ma 397 R. 3. 
fe* Compounds with — 225 ♦; — 

construed with instmm. or abl. 

62, 96. 
^nn^ with locat 145. 

nnm 198 R.; 225* R. 

^nr^jBPn^ fifiif^ 430 R. 5. 

far its construction with gen. 121; 
— its perf. ar^ 331, 332; — 
its caus. see s^vfn* 

faq^ .to be" 3; 367. 

•firfv229, 10^ 

fspn 182. 

reirfnfii 129. 

f&irafnr 45. 

fcii{*.«i 129. 

fejsR 6i. 

fa^mkt feftiRffi^ 62; 96. 

flr5vi7r59; 148; I79>.). 

fersrsr 245. 

Qr.mjft , farfifr^ etc. 105, 3*; 62; 

**feirei 2i9, 8*» and 9*. 

isnanj 1 39 «.) and 1 48. 

f5re5r280R. I. 

fe wR i P t and ^nam how eonstmed 
131; 139 c.); 148. 

fdu^ 192 R. 

idU9! 1 86 R. 2* 


aW 1 98 R.; 225 •. 

VtpsA 252. 

e^ui i fTi with two aeeos. 46; •— with 
abl. 95, 5^; -^ with dat or loe. 

• 90, 1 46 ».) 

S i <mPi and. its compounds, how con- 
strued 47, 51;81«.); 132, 2^ 

a397R. 1. 

^58,59; 148; 179(.) 

oQirl d 1 O R. 3* 

cfl i ^^fH iee a^ 



ijtifrt 59, 236. 

SRv; with dai, loe^, int 90; 1 46 c.)$ 

584; — svcri^ and OTtf whh 

info. 387, 588. 

ifm 8B B<; — fpratid srff^ 
587 R. with K« 
grTTJr with abl. 97; — str^ (it teemt, 

methinkfl) 500. 
mfh 74, 2<> and 9^; — 85, 5*. 
SQ«iQ^d97 A. 3. 

m^fm^ B.; 416. 

RofUrT ^42. 

jjT^ 86 c.); 126 6,) 

rfrd^42;74R. 1. 

5iST» 4irj^^yi(d 86 c); 1 32 R* 

fo, ?nr^ ▼ith aoe. 40; — with 

loc, 159 c.) 
g, sjnftfTT with ace, gen., abl. 9B, 

4""; 1 26 6.); — with gexu of the 

partic 126 N; — fnsRrfTt^l. 
RFmm 74, 3«; 83, 5^ 
I^I^Tcr with compounds and dema- 

tives 159 c.) 

7 demonstr. pronoun 271; — .its 
employment 275--278; 279, 
1" and 2^; — its relations to tx 
286 and cp. 451, 455; — ^ 
the general pronoun 12, 276; 

— ^r ^276 R.; — n a means 
for connecting sentences 455; 

— ^ with conclusive force 445. 
ET* 58; 60; 185. 

Mr\k 510. 

<ciuKi:« 7 •••., :nw«««« 500. 

MViTUi 188, 189. 

^THi with gen. 1 24, 2"*; — with lo«. 

#Hn?r 20K 

4nT?r 58. 

^Rim or i^fUff 1 59. 

Mdldf ^sfTOfT 510. 

^m (verb) 60 R. 2 ; — 259 R, 
?TRr^595; —442, 1*. 
^TpT with instrum. or gei. 61,1 29* 
^T^ participle of irflTT 564 with 

R. 2; 567. 
i^f^fv 188. 
iT [=r^] 60. 

^17 with instrum. or g«ti. 61, 129. 
WfWT 177. 

^nTrrFT., ^fXPfTTfl^ 1 86. 

^^Ts^^prepoB. 58, f64, t86 ILit^ 

wwf 186. 

^^ with dat. or loe. 90; 1 46 «.)$ 

— with inf. 584. 
cnrrr with instfum. or gen. 6i, 
MhIm 188. 
fm^jH »to become** 510; — with' 

dat. 85, 88. 
Mue^'cs^!^ 60 R. 2. 
mmufh 52, 257; - with gen. 

127, 2«. 
CToT 28 1 , esp. R. 2. 
^rarf: 186. 

UdfrXI.II 77. 

^ 58, 60, 184, 185. 
^T%T »with'* 58, 198. 



IT 58, 184. 
frrniT^in similet 430 R. S, 
frrf^f^ll t R. 
*^n7T 309. 
mv adjectiTe with loc orgfir 149; 

— particle 416, 
nTwl>8, 184, 185 R.i. 
Ttvi 1 S9 R* 2. 
rjTsrJT 77. 
^.T 1 29 R, 2. 
m^ 148. 
^»7T, ^T^ with loc. 138; — =: »to 

be" 3, 310; — f^ expreu. of 

the predicate 367; — fTrvfn 

with partic. of the pros. 378, 

with gerund 381. 

fh^ with dat. 83, S""; 239 R. 
?»n?t = »a»" 432. 
imvinfh 134*, 146 6.) 
^319K. 1- 
ro<;qf? f with dat. aoe. gen. 89; 

1 20 d.) 
lEiT 397; — put to the present tense 

326, 327; — put to qr seeivT* 

9qi?T with gen. or «oe. 120; — 

with iniln. 384 R. 2 with N. 
m 263, 265, 267. 
mm,m^ 265 R. 1. 
^ciinr 8j, o . 

^SRTzr 268; — in similes 430 R. 5. 
?OTf^ 1 1 1 R. 
^1^1 83, 3 , 

f^409,3O;414, l';415. 
j^ 265. 

^ 397 with R. 2. 


^^ 42. 

^r particle 416, 417 R. 2. 

^T(nfh 49 N. 

f^ 429, 443. 

%r with dat. 85, 1*; 216, IY6.) 

1^62, 198. 

^Wf 96. 

^, g^ 45 R. 

^ 194. 

^t: 193. 

f 83, 5^