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Lie LIBR. 1 




Afler Engraving by De Bruyan. 







Author of "The Mines of Mexico", "Yucatan", "Sonora", 
"Sinaloa", "Mexico", etc., etc. 

Drawings by H. H. Hallihav 

orena studios 



' THE NFwT^"! 


Copyright 1920 


John R. Southworth, f. r. g. s 






ALFRED SIMSON, f. r. g. s. 


By John R. Southworth, F. R. G. S. 

SoNORA, The State of, Spanish and English Text. 
SiNALOA, The State of, Spanish and English Text. 

Baja California, The Territory of, IViih Map. 

San Diego, Spanish and English Text. 

Vera Cruz, The State of. With Maps. 

Mexico, Distrito Federal, Illustrated. 

Puebla, The State of, Spanish and English Text. 

The Mines of Mexico, Spanish and English Text. 

Yucatan, The State of, Spanish and English Text. 

Oaxaca, The State of. Spanish and English Text. 

Banker's Directory of Mexico, 4 Vols. 

Official Mining Directory of Mexico. 

Official Directory of Mines and Haciendas of Mexico. 

Vancouver, British Columbia. 


The object of the present work is to narrate 

in a concise form, the principal events in the history 

of Santa Barbara and Montecito, and to point out 

and illustrate their natural attractions and beauties 

to those unacquainted with them, who in many cases 

have neither time nor inclination to wade through 

the many ponderous and learned volumes already 


J. R. S. 
Orena Studios, 

Santa Barbara. 
December. 1920. 

[The absence of accents is due to the fact that it"1 
was impossible for the manufacturers to supply them I 
at the needed time. The Sciiaukr Printing Studio. J 



Ames, (John G.), Report on Mission Indians of California. 

Archivo de Santa Barbara. Mss. 1 1 Vols. 

Baegert, Jacob. An Account of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Cali- 
fornia Peninsula. 

Bancroft, H. H. History of California, 7 Vols. 

Bartlelt, J. R. Personal Narrative, New Mexico, Texas and California. 

Bausman, W. Early California. 

Beechy, F. W. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific, Etc., in 1825-8. 

Bell, H. Reminiscences of a Ranger. 

Bliss, W. R. Paradise in the Pacific. 

Caballeria, Fr. Historia de la Ciudad de Santa Barbara. 

Capron, E. S. History of California. 

Crespi, Juan. Viage de la expedicion de terra de San Diego a Mon- 

Davis, W. W. H. El Gringo. 

De Mofras, Duflot. Explorations de I'Oregon, des Californias. 

Englehardt, Fr. Zephyrin, O. F. M. Missions and Missionaries of Cali- 
fornia, 4 Vols. 

Evans, R. S. Cabrillo's Voyage. 

Ferrelo, Bartolme. Cabrillo's Voyage. 

Forbes, A. History of California. 

Hakluyt's Voyages. The principal Navigators. 3 Vols. 

Hittell, Theo. H. History of California. 

Holder, Chas. F. Channel Islands of California. 

Humboldt, Alex. von. The Kingdom of New Spain. 

King, T. B. California; The Wonder of the Age. 

Mason, Jesse D. History of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties. 

Morgan, Lewis. Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines. 

Nordhoff, Chas. California. 

Neve, Felipe de. Regulations for the Government of the Province of 

Palou, Francisco. Noticas de la California. 

Powers, Stephen. Aborigines of California. 

Richman, Irving B. California under Spain and Mexico. 

Robertson, W. History of America. 

Robinson, A. Life in California. 

Royce, Josiah. California. 

Tuthill, F. History of California. 

Valencia. Noticias de la Provincias de las Californias. 

Venegas, Miguel. Noticias de la California. 

Venegas, Miguel. Natural and Political History of California 


PART I Page 7 

Expedition of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo — Cus- 
toms and Religion of the Santa Barbara Indi- 
ans — Second Expedition under General Sebas- 
tien Vizcaino — Saint Barbara — Foundation of 
Presidio by Padre Junipero Serra — Establish- 
ment of Santa Barbara Mission by Padre 
Fermin F. de Lasuen. 

PART II Page 37 

History of The Santa Barbara Mission — 
Spanish Supremacy — Mexican Occupation 
— American Acquisition — Early Days in 
Santa Barbara. 

PART III Page 147 

Present Day Santa Barbara — City Govern- 
ment, Public Utilities — Financial Institutions 
and Commerce — Hotels — Education, Hospit- 
als and Charitable Organizations — Churches, 
Societies and Clubs. 

PARl^ IV Page 230 

Montecito — Miramar — Sandyland — Carpin- 
teria — Goleta — Mountain Trails — Outdoor 

PART V Page 256 

The Channel Islands. 


PART I Page 7 

PART II Page 37 

PART ill Page 147 

PART IV Page 230 

PART V. Page 256 



St. Barbara, from engraving by De Bruyan Frontispiece 

Santa Barbara in 1810 " 

Flagship San Diego, off Santa Barbara 17 

Saint Barbara, (from mediaeval print) ^' 

Presidio, 1 788. Legend of Santa Barbara 27 

Franciscan Friar, (from an old print) 33 

Spanish Galleon 36 

Peaceful Days at the Mission 39 

Corridor of the Mission 45 

Old Arch, Mission Canyon 47 

Indian Attack on Santa Barbara Mission facing 48 

The Mission in Colonial Days facing 49 

The Mission Fountain 57 

High Wall of the Mission 61 

Spanish Coat-of-Arms 64 

Mexican Coat-of-Arms 74 

American Eagle and Flag 82 

Colonel John C. Fremont 83 

Fremont's Headquarters 87 

Castle Rock, Santa Barbara 101 

Veranda, Casa de la Guerra 107 

Casa de Aguirre 1 23 

The Court, Casa de Aguirre 125 

State Street in 1885 133 

Santa Barbara's First Court House, 1871 134 

Bird's Eye View of Santa Barbara, 1887 135 

Santa Barbara in 1883 140 

Spanish Treasure-Chest 145 

General View of Santa Barbara Mission 146 

Plaza del Mar, and Cabrillo or West Boulevard 148 

Orena Studios 1 49 

A Cottage at El Encanto Hotel 151 

City Park from Booth's Point 1 52 

Pergola, El Encanto Hotel 1 53 

Automobile Club of Southern California 157 

Residence of Major John H. H. Peshine 159 

Residence of Carl Oscar Borg 1 60 

Harbor, St. Peter Port, Guernsey 163 

State Street, Santa Barbara, 1920 169 

Federal Building and Post Of&ce 171 

View of American Film Company's Plant 187 

The Historic Arlington 190 

Arlington Hotel. 1920 191 

Ambassador Hotel, from Santa Barbara Bay 193 

El Encanto Hotel, Mission Ridge 195 

State Normal School 203 

The Tower, Santa Barbara Girls School 205 

Lower Corner from Playground, Santa Barbara Girls School 206 

Corner of Residence and Driveway, Santa Barbara Girls School. . . 207 



St. Anthony's Seminary 209 

General View of the Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital 211 

The Historic Arrellanes Adobe. Home of the Associated Charities. 217 

First Presbyterian Church 222 

First Church of Christ Scientist 223 

Channel Drive to Montecito 231 

Residence at Montecito 233 

Entrance to Residence of Mr. David Gray, Montecito 235 

Country Club, Montecito 236 

Famous Grape Vine in Montecito, 1876 237 

The Deane School, Montecito 240 

Mountain Drive, Santa Barbara 250 

Headland, Santa Cruz Island 262 

Valdez Cave, Santa Cruz Island 263 

Views of Anacapa Island 265 


Expedition of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo — Cus- 
toms and Religion of the Santa Barbara In- 
dians — Second Expedition under General 
Sebastien Vizcaino — Saint Barbara — Foun- 
dation of Presidio by Padre Junipero Serra 
— Establishment of Santa Barbara Mission 
by Padre Fermin F. de Lasuen. 

OMANCE should be accredited 
with inspiring the charming 
name given to California. In 
the year 1510, a novel was pub- 
lished in Seville, Spain, in 
which ''California" was given 
as the name of a mythical isle 
rich in minerals and precious 
stones, and said to be inhabited 
by a tribe of Amazons. This 
book, entitled ''Las Sergas de 
Esplandian" (The Exploits of 
Esplandian) was written by 
Garcia Ordonez de Montalvo 
as a sequel to the famous novel 

"Amadas de Gaula" by Lobe- 
ira, which he had translated. The two works 

were printed in the same volume, and evidently 

were widely read in Spain. That their contents 

were familiar to the early explorers of America 


is proved by the fact that Bernal Diaz, compan- 
ion of Cortez and recorder of the conquest of 
Mexico, often mentions the "Amadas" to which 
the story of ''Esplandian" was attached. The 
passage containing the famous name is as fol- 
lows : — 

''Be it known unto you that at the right hand 
of the Indies there w^as an island formed of the 
largest rocks known and called California, very 
near to the terrestial Paradise. This island 
v/as inhabited by robust dark women of great 
strength and great warm hearts, who lived al- 
most as Amazons, and no man lived among them. 
Their weapons and the trappings of the wild 
beasts which they rode after taming them were 
entirely of gold, and no other metal existed on 
the island. The people lived in well-hewn caves. 
They had many ships in which they made ex- 
cursions to other countries, where they caught 
men whom they carried away and subsequently 
killed. During periods of peace with their 
neighbors they commingled with them without 
restraint. When children were born the females 
were preserved, but the males were killed at 
once, saving only those required to guard against 
depopulation, so that their domination over the 
land would be securely maintained. 

'There were many griffins on the island, and 
they were a great torment. There were also an 


infinite number of wild beasts which are found 
in no other part of the world. When these ani- 
mals had young the women went to fetch them 
and carried them, covered with heavy skins, to 
their caves, and there bred them and fed them 
with the men and male children. The women 
brought up these animals with such skill that 
they knew them well and did them no harm, and 
they attacked and killed any man who entered 
the island and ate him; and when their appetite 
w^as sated they would take them up flying into 
the air and let them fall from great heights, 
killing them instantly." 

The above extract, from a once well known 
book, is interesting, if only to show what a Span- 
iard of the sixteenth century considered the at- 
tributes of women with ''great warm hearts." 

So, when the early explorers came upon this 
smiling land, which they mistook for an island 
separated from the mainland by a long gulf, 
they named it in honor of that imaginary isle 

The Spaniard did not hold this land of gold 
quite long enough to see his visions fulfilled, but 
California has developed far beyond his wildest 

Expedition of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo 
The discovery of Santa Barbara dates from 
the expedition under Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, 
which sailed from Puerto de Navidad, Mexico, 



June 27, 1542, with two vessels, the flagship 
'\San Salvador" and ^'La Victoria." The object 
of this expedition was the search for a shorter 
route, in a westerly direction, from Mexico, be- 
tween the north sea and the south sea. He relied 
on the supposed existence of a strait v/hich 
would enable him to sail on a direct voyage to 

The result of Cabrillo's investigations con- 
cerning the imaginary passage impelled him to 
direct his course northward until he reached 
latitude 36 degrees, where he found himself in a 
channel which he supposed must lie between two 
continents, but upon making explorations he 
found that the land to the west consisted of a 
group of islands, which he subsequently navi- 
gated. It appears from the record kept of this 
voyage that Cabrillo miscalculated the size of 
the islands, but from the degree of latitude given 
and other particulars, there is no doubt that the 
channel and islands mentioned are those that 
front Santa Barbara. 

The log of the voyage shows that on October 
13, 1542, these adventurers visited an uninhab- 
ited island, and mention is also made of an island 
fifteen leagues in length; on the 14th and 15th 
they passed to the mainland, where a lovely val- 
ley nestling in an amphitheatre of hills (Santa 
Barbara) met their vision, and after exploring 
a mountain (Santa Ynez) with keen interest, 



they retraced their steps. After noting their ob- 
servations in the log, the expedition resumed its 
course towards the north, but owing to Cabrillo 
sustaining a broken arm, due to a fall, a lengthy 
stay was made at one of the islands (San Mig- 
uel), where from the effects of unskilful surgery 
and exposure, the hardy navigator passed away, 
on January 3, 1543. He is supposed to have 
been buried on the shore of Cuyler's Harbor, 
San Miguel, but no trace of his grave has been 
found. His companions named the island ^^uan 
Rodriguez," but he has been deprived of even 
this slight tribute to his memory. It would be 
•a slight token of regard if the State would name 
the island ^'Cabrillo"; San Miguel has been 
well remembered in California, and could well 
spare an island. 

On his deathbed, Cabrillo urged his succes- 
sor, the pilot Bartholome Ferrolo, to continue 
the explorations, which he did with much cour- 
age -and daring. About the middle of February, 
1543, he left the harbor and voyaged to the 
northward, discovering the capes of Mendocino 
and Blanco (the latter in the southern part of 
what is now the state of Oregon) , but the weather 
became so cold and stormy that he was obliged 
to turn back, and after suffering many hardships, 
reached Navidad in April, 1543. In virtue of 
the discoveries made by Cabrillo and Ferrolo 
the Spaniards claimed the territory on the Pa- 


cific coast of North America up to the fort>- 
second degree of latitude, a claim which they 
maintained for nearly 300 years. 

Customs and Religion of the 
Santa Barbara Indians 

At the time of the arrival of Cabrillo, the 
shore of the Santa Barbara channel is said to 
have supported a larger native population than 
•any other part of California, and in his log the 
explorer states that he was well received and hos- 
pitably treated by them. 

It has been proved by research into history 
that the Santa Barbara Indian was by no means 
dull of intellect, and was in fact superior to the 
Indian of the Atlantic seaboard, and of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. Cut off by the mountains from 
the fierce tribes to the north and south, his life 
was peaceful, and his whole happiness \vas 
bound up in his affections and in his immediate 
surroundings. The use of arrows was at first 
hardly understood, his amusement consii>ting 
rather in dancing to music that was anything but 
tuneful, than in active pursuits of nn athletic 
or military nature. He rarely went beyond the 
limits of his district, but preferred to remain at 
home with his kinsfolk. 

It is authoritatively stated by several writers 
that not only were the native houses skilfully 
erected, but the Indians showed ability in the 



manufacture of all kinds of useful articles. Pots, 
mortars, and other kitchen utensils, although not 
artistically finished, nevertheless portrayed that 
skilled hands had fashioned them; their knives 
and grindstones were of flint, and their musical 
instruments adapted from bones and shells. 

They generally ate seeds and fruits, varied by 
fish and locusts. There was some hunting of the 
hare, rabbit, and deer, the meat of the latter, 
after being cut in strips and hung to dry on trees, 
being one of the favorite articles of diet; their 
principal triumph in this direction, however, 
was in the serving of acorns, which were first 
ground, then placed in a sieve made from woven 
weeds, rinsed several times, after which the paste 
was well stirred and then boiled. Thus the bit- 
ter taste of the acorns was eliminated, and the 
Indians were able to bake a very good substitute 
for our present day bread. They were also very 
fond of wild plums, blackberries, prickly pears, 
and wild onions, as well as some varieties of 
seeds, and though alcohol was not known, an ex- 
ceedingly bitter drink is affirmed to have been 
extracted from one kind of seed, the name of 
which has unfortunately been lost. These in- 
genious natives are even known to have dried and 
smoked a root called 'Tispibata" in pipes, a good 
substitute for our modern tobacco. They were 
also known to have employed certain herbs for 



medicinal purposes, although no record is left 
as to the results of these. 

Contrary to the usual rule among savage peo- 
ples, the women usually remained at home, the 
men going out to gather wood and obtain provis- 
ions; housekeeping, however, does not appear to 
have been a serious problem, as large quantities 
of necessaries were acquired and stored, and 
when these were used, the same program was 


Long hair was considered a sign of beauty in 

both sexes, and this was carefully tended and 
decorated with ferns, flov/ers, and rings of stone; 
their necks were also decorated by strings ot 
beads, some of them very beautiful, consisting of 
shells carefully bored through the center. It 
has been said that these shells took the place or 
money, but it is proved that their trade was car- 
ried on by a system of barter of food and useful 

There was no king in the land, each village 
01 tribe governing itself, under the patriarchal 
system, and as they were not at all warlike, and 
had nothing to quarrel about, war was unknown. 

Their outstanding virtue was love for parents 
and relatives w^ho were mourned in some cases 
for years after death. Unlike many of the 
northern tribes, who either practised cremation 
or did not bury their dead at all, the Santa Bar- 
bara Indians had cemeteries which were the ob- 



jccts of particular care and devotion; these bury- 
ing places were enclosed by a brush and post 
fence, the bodies being placed in the grave face 
downward and covered by the various posses- 
sions of the deceased. In a succeeding para- 
graph it is shown that the Indians believed in a 
future life, and that the articles used on this earth 
would also be needed there. 

Their religious beliefs were more rational 
than in the case of most savage races. Chupu, the 
creator, was the deification of good; Nunaxus, 
their Satan, the personification of evil. Long 
ago, Chupu had created Nunaxus, who rebelled 
against his creator, and treacherously tried to 
overthrow him. Then Chupu, the almighty, 
punished the rebel by creating man upon the 
earth, who, by devouring the animal and vege- 
table products thereof, checked the physical 
growth of Nunaxus, who had hoped by liberal 
feeding to become like unto a mountain. Foiled 
in his ambition, Nunaxus ever afterwards hated 
mankind, and sought to injure him. 

To secure the protection of Chupu, offerings 
were made to him, and dances instituted in his 
honor, flutes and other instruments being played 
to attract his attention. When, however, Nun- 
axus brought calamity upon the Indians in the 
shape of dry years, which caused dearth in the 
land, or sent sickness to afflict them, their old 
men entreated Chupu to protect thcni, and to ex- 



orcise their Satan they shot arrows and threw 
stones in the direction in which he was supposed 
to be. 

Their conception of Paradise was that death 
transferred the Indian to Chupu's court at Ala- 
pa, and as, when he was buried, his brethren also 
interred all his possessions with him, he entered 
into the beautiful land equipped to hunt, fish, 
and live in happiness. The evil Nunaxus had 
no power there and the wonderful land over- 
flowed with an abundance of all kinds of pro- 

No form of idolatry was practised among the 
tribes inhabiting Santa Barbara, and the only re- 
ligious rite consisted of dancing to obtain the 
favor of Chupu. 

Paintings made by the Indians were always, 
curiously enough, of animals, due to the fact that 
it was believed such pictures would take the at- 
tention of Nunaxus from man, and that he would 
wreak his vengeance on the brute creation in- 

To those who are interested in the manual 
work of the Indians before Santa Barbara was 
on the map, a visit to the Santa Barbara Museum 
of Natural History, located at 930 Anacapa 
Street, open between the hours of 10 a. m., and 
5 p. m., will be amply worth while. 

The exhibits consist of soapstone carvmgs of 
whales, seals and fishes, stone mortars, cooking 



jars, ollas or water jars, bake stones, basket work, 
shell ornaments and many rare articles too nu- 
merous to mention. 

Second Expedition 

While there are evidences that other navigat- 
ors, among them the redoubtable Drake of Dev- 
on, later visited this shore, nothing of a definite 

Flagship "San Diego" Off Santa Barbara 

character is known concerning Santa Barbara 
until the record of the voyage of General Don 
Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602. This was a notable 
expedition, the object being to establish some 
station from the mainland that would shorten 
the long voyage across the ocean from Mexico to 
the Philippine Islands. With this view, Viz- 
caino sailed from Acapulco on May 5th, 1602. 


with three frigates, the flagship San Diego, San 
Tomas, and Los Tres Reyes, together with a 
transport conveying the necessary provisions of 
food and water. He was accompanied by a 
corps of geographers and surveyors, at the head 
of whom was an able draftsman named Antonio 
de la Asencion of the Carmelite Order, who also 
acted as chaplain of one of the ships. 

This expedition entered the Santa Barbara 
Channel on December 4th 1602. It was the 
custom of Padre Asencion to name new localities 
in honor of the saint on whose festival day the 
discovery took place; consequently, the Channel 
received the name of Saint Barbara, to whom the 
4th day of December is sacred. Asencion's 
maps and drawings were very complete, and the 
names affixed to the various bodies of water and 
points of land have been officially recognized 
ever since. 

Vizcaino visited the mainland near Point 
Concepcion, where the Indian Chief of a popu- 
lous settlement offered each Spaniard who 
would become a resident of his town ten wives, 
but this generous offer was rejected. Vizcaino 
then sailed northward, and after encountering 
much bad weather and enduring many hard- 
ships, returned to Acapulco March 21, 1603. 

A letter from Vizcaino to King Philip III of 
Spain, dated May 23, 1603, appears to furnish 
the earliest known specimen of California 



^'boom" literature. An extract from this com- 
munication says: — ''This land has a genial clim- 
ate, its waters are good, and its soil fertile judg- 
ing from the variety and luxuriant growth of 
trees and plants, and it is thickly settled with 
people, whom I found to be of gentle disposition, 
peaceable and docile," and he was very anxious 
for the king to consent to his founding a colony 
in this delightful land. After many delays, 
Philip III in 1606 ordered the viceroy of New 
Spain to fit out immediately an expedition for 
the occupation and settlement of parts of Cali- 
fornia, but before this could be done, Vizcaino 
died, and his colonization scheme perished with 

Saint Barbara 

The biography of Saint Barbara, in whose 
honor the fair city of Santa Barbara is named, 
appears in the Greek and Muscovite Sanctorals 
and the Roman Breviary, from which the fol- 
lowing brief summary is taken. 

Saint Barbara was born in Nicomedia, Asia 
Minor, A. D. 218. Her father, Dioscorus, a 
Roman official under the Emperor Maximin, 
had been instructed to exterminate all Christians 
in his territory. St. Barbara had been educated 
in the Christian religion without the knowledge 
of her father, by the venerable Origen, one of 
the early members of the faith. Observing how 



the Christians were being martyred by her 
father, she pleaded with him to spare them; this 
so enraged him that he had Barbara imprisoned 
in a tower, and in order to awaken her passion, 
sent several dissolute young nobles to her, who 
w^ere very persistent in their advances with the 
object of seeking her hand in marriage. Barbara 
had, however, previously dedicated herself to 
God, and nothing would change her resolution 
to remain true to her vows. This so incensed her 
father that he had her arraigned before tlje 
Judge Marcian, who assigned her to the execu- 
tioners for martyrdom. In the midst of her 
torture, she fainted, and Dioscorus seeing that 
his daughter was not dead, as he had thoui';ht, 
drew his own sword and decapitated her. On 
the consummation of this atrocious act, it is 
stated that lightning and thunder burst forth 
with terrible intensity, destroying Dioscorus in 
its fury. 

The head of Saint Barbara may be found 
preserved as a relic for veneration in the temple 
of All Saints at Rome. She died on December 
4th, A. D. 235. 

It may be added that besides being the pat- 
roness of Santa Barbara, she is also claimed as 
the patron saint of artillery soldiers, and archi- 

All good Barbarenos will be glad to learn 
that their City does not derive its name from a 



St Barbara. 

(From Mediaeval Print) 

mythological source, but from an illustrious and 
invincible Christian martyr whose name appears 
in the records of the Church. 

}* oundation oj Presidio by Padre Junipero Serra 

Tt is somewhat remarkable that so attractive 

a country should have remained a terra incog- 



nita for more than a century and a half -after the 
voyage of Vizcaino, but Spain had a vast amount 
of colonial territory at that time, and no gold or 
silver had been discovered in California, which 
would account for her neglect. 

In 1767, however, the report that the Rus- 
sians were coming down from the north to take 
possession of Alta California, inspired the Span- 
ish Government of Carlos III to attempt at once 
the colonization of the country, and the convers- 
ion and civilization of the Indians. The Jesuits 
had taken up this work in Lower California, but 
the members of the Order having been expelled 
by the king's decree from Spain and all her 
American colonies, the Franciscans were select- 
ed, and by an agreement between the Spanish 
Viceroy and the Superior General of the Fran- 
ciscan Order, Padre Junipero Serra was ap- 
pointed to have charge of the work. 

Miguel Jose Serra, who may with propriety 
be called the Apostle of California, was born of 
humble parents on the Island of Majorca in the 
Mediterranean on Nov. 24, 1713. Like the 
prophet Samuel, he was dedicated to the priest- 
hood from infancy, and having finished his stud- 
ies in the Convent of San Bernardino, he wished 
to devote himself to the immediate service of 
God, and went to Palma, the capital of the prov- 
ince, to acquire the higher learning necessary for 
the priesthood. At his earnest request, he was 



received into the Order of St. Francis, at the age 
of sixteen, taking the name ''Junipero," after a 
favorite disciple of St. Francis, and, at the end 
of one year's probation, made his religious pro- 

Padre Junipero Serra 

fession, Sept. 15, 1731. Having finished his 
studies in philosophy and theology, he soon ac- 
quired a high repuation as a writer and orator, 
and his services were sought in evcrv direction; 



but while enjoying these distinctions at home, his 
heart was set on his long-projected mission to the 
heathen of the New World. He sailed from 
Cadiz for America August 28, 1749, and landed 
at Vera Cruz, whence he went to the City of 
Mexico, joined the College of San Fernando, 
and was made President of the Missions of 
Sierra Gorda and San Saba. 

In 1767 he was made President of the Mis- 
sions which had been established in Lower Cali- 
fornia, on the expulsion of the Jesuits. On his 
appointment, he immediately entered upon act- 
ive duties, and proceeded to carry out his grand 
design of the civilization of the Pacific Coast. 
Under instructions from the Viceroy of Mexico, 
the vessels San Carlos, San Antonio and San Jose 
were fitted out and despatched to California; of 
these, the San Jose was lost, the San Antonio 
reached San Diego on the 11th of April 1769, 
and the San Carlos on May 1st, the crews having 
been well nigh exhausted by starvation, thirst, 
and scurvy. 

The plan for the occupation of the new terri- 
tory contemplated forts -at San Diego and Mon- 
terey, as the extremities of the domain, with a 
settlement midway between, as headquarters for 
the colony. In pursuance of this plan. Padre 
Serra in July 1769 established a Presidio and 
Mission at San Diego, and then sailed north to 
perform a similar duty at Monterey. He, how- 



ever, failed to locate the place and returned to 
San Diego. After receiving some reinforce- 
ments, he again made an effort to reach the site 
of Monterey, which was successful, and there 
established the northern outpost of the colony. 
While selecting Monterey and San Diego as the 
military outposts. Padre Serra had constantly in 
mind the establishment of a central settlement, 

and for this purpose had selected Santa Barbara 
for many reasons, among them being the gentle 

character of the natives, the wonderful salubrity 
(f the climate, the transcendent beauty of the lo- 
cation, the fertility of the soil, and the safe har- 
bor afforded by its sheltered position on the 

Gomez, who was connected with one of 
Padre Serra's expeditions as a botanist and met- 
eorologist, writes that he here found an abund- 
ance of wild roses, and termed the place a ''de- 
lectable paradise." 

It was not until about the middle of April, 
1782, that the indefatigable Padre Serra was able 
to secure the assistance he desired in order to 
found the Presidio of Santa Barbara. With fifty 
men commanded by Captain jose Francisco Or- 
tega and accompanied by Governor Neve, he left 
San Buenaventura (now Ventura) and traveled 
i'long the Indian coast trails, which were the 
only roads existing thefi. A few Indian villages 
were passed, but when the pioneers crossed Rin- 



con Creek and entered the fertile valley of Car- 
pinteria these villages were more numerous. At 
last they reached the lagoon which formerly ex- 
isted in the lower part of this city, and here a 
spot was selected for the Presidio, on ground 

now bounded by Canon Perdido, Garden, Fig- 
ueroa, and Anacapa Streets, but every trace of 
this early settlement has now been swept away. 

On the birthday of Saint Barbara, April 21st, 
1782, under the direction of Padre Serra, the 
simple ceremonies took place. The soldiers clad 
in leathern waistcoats and leggings, their faces 
bronzed by exposure, were assembled, under the 
command of Governor Neve and Captain Or- 
tega, and from the many villages throughout the 
valleys the Indians had come, impelled by curi- 
osity and awe; and it must have been with great 
interest that they watched the newcomers and 
wondered at their purpose. 

Padre Junipero, clad in alb and stole, stood 
in a hastily constructed chapel of brush before 
a roughly hewn table used as an altar. The sol- 
diers, under the command of Governor Neve and 
Captain Ortega, then formed in a square, and 
having laid aside their shields and lances, knelt 
with bared heads while the reverend padre with 
uplifted hands invoked the blessings of heaven 
upon the congregation and their undertaking. 
After the dedication of the spot, the cross was 
raised, mass was celebrated, and an impressive 



sermon preached. With these simple ceremon- 
ies was founded the Presidio of Santa Barbara; 
and a record of the events, in the handwriting of 
Junipero Serra -and signed by him, is pre- 
served among archives of the parochial church. 
An enclosure about seventy-five yards square 
was then made of palisades, in the form of a 

18 < 




— t— 

9 ■■ 

■ 3- 







• .9.. 







- 3- 



. 3- 







■ 9- 

9 - 


- 9- 


Legend of Santa 

1 — Entrada Principal. 
2 — Almacenes. 
3 — Living Quarters 
4 — Traverse. 
5 — Church. 
6 — Sacristy. 
7 — Ensign's Quarters. 
8 — Comandante's Quarters. 
9 — Family Houses. 
10 — Padre's Room. 

Barbara Presidio, 1788. 

II — Sergeant's Quarters. 
12 — Guard Room. 
13 — Corrals, Kitchen, etc. 
14 — Comandante's Corral. 
15 — Chaplain's Corral. 
16 — Western Bastion. 
17 — Eastern Bastion. 
18 — Corrals. 
19 — Oficinas. 



stockade, enclosed by a wall of stone and adobe 
twelve or fourteen feet high, cannon being 
mounted at strategical points for the defense of 
the Presidio, the heaviest in a position command- 
ing the harbor. Within were the barracks, 
store-house, a church for the soldiers, and the 
comandante's residence. On the outside was a 
trench twelve feet wide and six feet deep, the soil 
thrown out from the ditch serving as an out- 
work. The Presidio was entered by two gates, 
open during the day and closed at night. The 
buildings were well constructed of adobe and 
mortar, resting on good foundations, the main 
entrance which faced the channel being twenty 
feet in width. 

The plan will give a better idea of the con- 
struction than words, although it must be remem- 
bered that straight lines were not followed as the 
plan would imply, the buildings presenting a 
very irregular appearance, which added to the 
picturesqueness of the Presidio, and was in keep- 
ing with the surroundings. 

The soldiers on guard wore, over their uni- 
form, a suit of buckskin like a coat of mail reach- 
ing almost to their feet, which was supposed to 
be impervious to Indian arrows. The horses also 
were encased in leathern armor, like those of the 
knights of old. If there was fighting to be done, 
a leathern buckler, worn on the soldier's left arm, 
was added to ward off arrows or thrusts from a 



spear; while defending themselves with sabre 
and lance, firearms were useless. In addition to 
the duty of guarding the coast, four or five men, 
under a sergeant, accompanied the padres when 
they went abroad on any business. 

The Indians were friendly, and through their 
chief, Yanonali, who controlled thirteen ranch- 
erias (Indian villages or settlements) details of 
them were secured to assist the soldiers in the 
work of building, the natives being paid for their 
labor by gifts of food and clothing. Irrigation 
works were constructed, consisting of a general 
reservoir made of sand and cement, and arrange- 
ments made for conducting water to the Presidio. 
It has been said that the soldiers were usually of 
an idle class, although some of them who had 
families cultivated small gardens, which added 
to their support. After the erection of buildings, 
the necessary attention to flocks and herds, and 
the cultivation of the soil, the soldiers soon 
learned to employ the Indians for every service 
except military duty. 

Captain Jose Ortega was in command of the 
Presidio for two years after its founding, and 
was succeeded by Lieutenant Felipe de Goycoe- 

Historians and (nhers have located the center 
of the Presidio as having been situated at the 
corner of Canon Perdido and Santa Barbara 



Establishment of Santa Barbara Mission 
It was the expectation of Padre Serra, who 
was entirely absorbed in the advancement of the 
Church, to found the Mission of Santa Barbara 
as soon as temporary dwellings were provided 
for the soldiers, but he was unable to secure the 
co-operation of the Governor, who felt that their 
position among unknown tribes would be inse- 
cure until the fortifications and buildings of the 
Presidio were at least partly completed. Find- 
ing, to his great disappointment, that nothing 
could be done then towards carrying out his 
long-cherished plan to found here his grandest 
Mission, Padre Serra left the garrison in charge 
of Padre Dumetz, and started for the Mission of 
San Carlos at Monterey, on foot, as was his cus- 
tom, although he was at that time nearly seventy 
years of age. Arriving there, he rested for a lit- 
tle while, and then began a visitation of all the 
Missions that he had founded, confirming the 
Indians who had been instructed and baptized. 

On the 1 8th of August, Padre Palou ( recalled 
to Monterey from San Francisco, found Serra 
suffering from trouble of the chest, and from a 
recurrence of his old trouble of the leg. He found 
him distressed also by rumors of an impending 
displacement of the Franciscans in Alta Califor- 
nia by the Dominicans. On the 27th, fever su- 
pervened, and at the church, attended by Indians 
and cuirassed men, the Father-President received 



the last Sacrament. On the 28th, the fever 
increasing, he was visited in the morning by 
Captain Jose Canizares, whose ship lay at anchor 
in the bay; and between one and two o'clock in 
the afternoon, having drawn about him his cloak 
and composed himself on his bed of planks, he 
resigned his spirit. His funeral, which took 
place on the 29th in the presence of mariners, 
soldiers, and neophytes, was conducted with sol- 
emn pomp. The body, covered with roses of 
•Castille, and attended by guardsmen with light- 
ed tapers, was borne amid chanting about the 
plaza to the Mission of San Carlos. September 
1-, Padre Serra's garments were cut up, and dis- 
tributed among the devout as amulets. 

His death further delayed the founding, as 
his successor Padre Palou, was advanced in 
years, and also desired to visit Mexico in order 
to publish a biography of Padre Serra. Conse- 
quently it was not until the appointment of Padre 
Palou's successor in 1785 that anything was done. 

This successor was Padre Fermin F. de 
Lasuen, and he decided that his first official act 
should be the carrying out of the cherished wish 
of Padre Serra. 

The Channel Missions, San Buenaventura 
and Santa Barbara, were intended bv the Gov- 
ernment to be modeled after the Colorado pu- 
eblo Missions, that is, the Indians were not to be 
tnken from their ranchcrias, exccptiiig a few at 



a time, if they could be persuaded to live at the 
Missions, and the Padres were to confine them- 
selves solely to their religious and mental in- 
struction. The reason given for this was the 
small amount of land under cultivation in pro- 
portion to the number of inhabitants, and the 
danger of uprising of the dense population in 
case any attempt was made to break up or re- 
arrange the distribution of it. This plan, al- 
though a good one, meant the complete over- 
throw of the Mission system, and the Padres had 
too much influence in Mexico and Spain to per- 
mit it to succeed; the government of these two 
missions, therefore, differed in no respect from 
all the rest. 

In October, 1786 all was ready and Governor 
Pedro Pages wrote Padre Lasuen that the ma- 
terials for the important event were on hand at 
Santa Barbara; the latter replied that he felt he 
would more fully carry out the w^ishcs of Padre 
Serra if he waited until Saint Barbara's day, the 
4th of December; Padre Serra had been espec- 
ially devoted to this virgin martyr, as he firmly 
believed it was through her intercession that he 
had once been saved from immediate death by 
shipwreck. Padre Lasuen was also desirous that 
the patroness of the new Mission should be the 
fairest saint in all the calender. 

Padre Lasuen, with two other missionaries, 
started for Santa Barbara in November 1786 ar- 



living there on the 22nd of that month. They 
looked the ground over thoroughly, and finally 
decided to erect the Mission on a plateau about 

Franciscan Friar — From an Old Print. 

a mile north west of the Presidio. Comandante 
Goycoechea wanted the Mission erected nearer 
the Presidio ,and wrote Governor Fages to that 



effect, but Padre Lasuen and his associates dis- 
regarded his wishes, as they had full authority to 
please themselves as to site, and went on with 
their preparations. It is more than likely that 
the main reason for building the mission some 
distance from the Presidio was the desire of the 
Padres to keep their Indian converts free from 
tlie influence of the soldiers, whose morals were 
not of a character to afford a good example to 
the childlike and imitative native. 

The location finally selected had a plentiful 
supply of water from what is now known as Mis- 
sion Creek, but which was then called the ''Ar- 
royo Pedregosa." On the site were a large num- 
ber of boulders which led to the name "Tayna- 
yam" being given it by the natives, and ''El Ped- 
regosa" by the Sp-aniards, both terms signifying 
"stony ground" or "place of stones." 

Everything being in readiness for the founda- 
tion. Padre Lasuen and his coadjutors consecrat- 
ed the ground to its holy use. 

Governor Pages, on receiving the letter from 
the Comandante referred to above, decided to 
visit Santa Barbara and personally inform him- 
self on the situation. He arrived ten days after 
the founding, and was so well satisfied with the 
selection of the site that he at once ordered a hut 
to be built beside the cross, in which mass was 
celebrated and a sermon preached by Padre An- 
tonio Paterna. 



The entry in the records of the parochial 
church relating to this event was written and 
signed by Padre Lasuen, President, and reads: — 
''Commenced on the appropriate day of the holy 
titular patroness, December 4th A. D. 1786. On 
the afternoon of which day, no higher solemnity 
having been permitted, I, the undersigned, Fr. 
Fermin Franco de Lasuen, President of the xMis- 
sions of said and by said College Apostolic, pro- 
ceeded accompanied by three other missionaries, 
from the Presidio to this place, blessed water and 
thereupon dedicated the land to God, our Lord, 
and in like manner blessed a large cross which 
wc raised and venerated. We then recited the 
Litany of the Saints, chanting the Antiphone, 
with a prayer to our holy patroness. His Excel- 
lency the Governor arrived on the I4th of the 
above named month and year and removed the 
restraining order imposed upon us and conclud- 
ed to remain and witness the founding already 
begun in this place. On the 16th, after prepar- 
ing a brush hut near the cross, I, in the presence 
of the Governor, sang Mass first in this spot, in 
which the Rev. Fr. Apostolic Antonio Paterna 
also officiated and likewise delivered a short ad- 
dress on the subject. May it be for the higher 
honor and glory of God, the exaltation of His 
most holy name and the good of souls." 

Owing to the lateness of the season no build- 
ings were commenced until the spring of 1787, 



when a house for the missionaries, about 15 by 45 
feet in size was erected; also a chapel about 15 
by 40 feet, a servants' room, granary, house for 
unmarried women and one for unmarried men. 
irhese buildings were of adobe with walls about 
three feet thick, having roofs of heavy rafters to 
which were tied long poles or canes. On these 
was spread soft clay covered with a thatch of 
straw. These roofs were only temporary until 
tiles could be made, which was done the follow- 
ing year. 

■ •••- "W^ W«- *'♦«,^ <•* 




History of The Santa Barbara Mission — 
Spanish Supremacy — Mexican Occupation 
— American Acquisition — Early Days in 
Santa Barbara. 

T THE time of founding the 
Mission, large tracts of land 
were acquired, which were nec- 
essary to support the Mission 
settlement. Some of this land 
was divided into ranches to be 
used for herding stock, and for 
growing various crops. In ad- 
dition to wheat, barley, corn, 
peas, beans, etc., grapes and 
other fruits and vegetable! 
were raised, all under the supervision of the 

By the end of 1787, one year from the found- 
ing, one hundred and eighty-five Indians had 
been gathered at the Mission. The natives had 
at first looked upon the padres with bewildered 
gaze, but their doubts soon subsided as thej 
found the missionaries so kindly, and sometime! 
they came with gifts for the workers. These at- 
tentions were reciprocated on the part of the 
padres by presents of sweetmeats, toys and calico. 



Thus they gradually became friendly, and when 
the padres asked them to assist in the work they 
were doing, the natives consented and were re- 
warded with more gifts. 

Little by little more restraint was imposed 
on them ; they were not allowed to leave the Mis- 
sion, except for occasional visits, limited to six 
weeks a year for each one, and were duly in- 
structed, not only in the religious tenets of the 
Church, but in civilized methods of labor and 
the use of tools. The trades taught them were 
those of mason, carpenter, blacksmith, farmer, 
miller, shoemaker, tailor, and last but not least, 
the art of cooking. The making of adobe bricks 
was also taught them, and later, how to make 
roof tiles. The girls and women learned to spin 
yarn, weave cloth, and make clothing. They 
proved quite adept in acquiring these mechani- 
cal arts and before the Mission had been found- 
ed ten years, natives skilled in every ordinary 
line of industry were to be found there ; such was 
the patience of the padres. The comforts of 
civilized life, the abundant and regular food, 
soon reconciled the Indians to the restraint of 
being confined to a certain settlement, and by 
preference, they came to dwell with the mis- 

At first they were placed in houses built for 
the purpose near the Mission. These dwellings 
were arranged in regular order facing roadways, 



■.■"it. * ~ ' 


Peaceful Days at tl\e Mission. 



and when a road had a certain number of inhab- 
itants the padres instituted a sort of local govern- 
ment for them, and a mayor, or alcalde, was ap- 
pointed to have jurisdiction over his respective 
road. Rules were adopted for sanitation, order, 
and discipline. It was the policy of the padres 
to settle the natives finally on a parcel of land; 
this was held out as a reward to the faithful and 
industrious. Farming implements and stock 
were provided by which these allotments might 
be cultivated, and the native become a self sup- 
porting farmer. 

That the Indian might not be defrauded by 
white traders doing business with him, the pad- 
res selected certain conscientious persons who 
alone were authorized to have dealings w^ith 
them. There is no doubt that the system organ- 
ized by the padres for dealing with the Indians 
not only demonstrated their disinterested labor, 
but their philanthropic spirit and warm relig- 
ious faith and zeal. 

The Indians were divided into squads of 
laborers. At sunrise the Angelus was rung, and 
mass held in the church, after which came the 
morning meal and the work of the day began. 
From eleven until two o'clock there was a recess 
or siesta, during which the principal meal of the 
day was served. In the evening, an hour before 
sunset, the Angelus was again rung, and the In- 
dians then had supper and attended evening de- 



votions, after which they were left to their own 
diversions, consisting of games and dancing. 

The relation of the padres to the Indians was 
paternal; they labored to develop the moral in- 
stinct and taste for labor, and succeeded in teach- 
ing them the main principles of religion in a 
manner adapted to their comprehension. They 
encouraged faithful work in the fields by dis- 
tributing gifts among the laborers when the sea- 
son of gathering crops was ended, and in teach- 
ing the Indians obedience, persuasion rather than 
coercion was generally used, which resulted in 
their condition being much superior to that 
usual with a subject race. 

The original Mission edifice proving too 
small for the worshippers, it was enlarged in 
1788 to 15 by 90 feet; also other buildings were 
erected, including a large granary. By the end 
01 that year, four hundred and twenty-five In- 
dians were receiving instruction, and thereafter 
such was the rate of progress that the church 
again proved too small, and in 1792 a still larger 
and more substantial adobe structure was com- 
menced, 125 by 25 feet, with a sacristy 15 by 27 
feet. This church had a brick portico, was well 
plastered on its exterior and interior walls, and 
roofed with red tiles. It was finished the fol- 
lowing year, at which time the Indians under the 
care of the padres had increased to five hundred 
arid forty-nine. 



In this year also occurred the death of Padre 
Paterna, who had assisted Padre Lasuen in 
founding the Mission, and who had been ap- 
pointed its first priest. 

The growth of the settlement continued with- 
out any check, new houses, granaries and shops 
being erected from time to time, until at the end 
of the century (1800) there were fifty-one dwel- 
lings, and the native population had increased to 
eight hundred and sixty-four. There were thirty- 
one houses built in 1801, the same number in 
1802, and a tannery. In the latter year, the Mis- 
sion possessed 2100 head of cattle, 9082 sheep, 
642 horses, and 58 mules. The crops for that 
year amounted to 2876 centals (one hundred 
pounds) of wheat, 40 centals of barley, 40 cen- 
tals of corn, and 10 centals of garbanzo (chick 

In 1806, the reservoir northeast of the Mis- 
sion was constructed, and the following year a 
dam was built -across Mission Creek, about a 
mile and a half above the Mission. The aque- 
duct was constructed of stone and mortar, fol- 
lowing the contour of the canyon walls, and was 
a most admirable piece of work; it delivered the 
water to the mill reservoir, and from there it 
passed into the mill by a gate, from whence, after 
performing its work of grinding the grain, it 
passed into the large reservoir. Consequently, 
no water was wasted in the development of the 



power necessary to grind the wheat and the corn. 

In 1808 the stone fountain in the Mission 
yard was built, and in 1812 improvements were 
commenced on the church building, which were 
never completed, as on December 21st and 22nd 
occurred the severest earthquake shocks that this 
valley ever experienced; these so injured the 
walls of the church that it was considered wiser 
to build a new church than attempt the repair of 
the old one in its shattered condition. The tak- 
ing down of the old church and the erection of 
other buildings occupied the years 1813 and 
1814, and the new church was commenced in 

This time the church was built of sandstone; 
its walls are nearly six feet through, and to guard 
against any future earthquake, heavy stone 
buttresses were constructed at each corner and 
at intervals along the sides. Its length is 165 
feet, width 42 feet, and height outside 30 feet. 
It was dedicated on September 10th, 1820, and is 
the most substantially built Mission in Califor- 
nia, which together with the constant labor of 
the padres, accounts for its splendid state of pre- 
servation at the present day, when most of the 
other Missions are but shadows of what they 
formerly were. 

In a niche over the west door stands a statue 
of Saint Barbara, sculptured out of the native 
sandstone. At each angle and at the apex of the 



door are statues of Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
their almost obliterated features showing the 
ravages of time. 

The double towers, an outstanding feature 
of this Mission, are thirty feet high, and are a 
solid mass of stone and cement twenty feet 
square. A narrow winding stone stairway leads 
through the left tower to the belfry, where, as in 
olden times, the bells call the devout to worship. 

The architecture is of the same general type 
as that adopted by the Franciscans for all the 
more important Missions, and has become a 
style in itself. It is a composite of Roman, By- 
zantine, Moorish and Spanish, modified by the 
limitations of its adapters in having to rely on the 
unskilled efforts of the Indians. Of late years 
the. ''Mission style" has become a generic name 
in structural designs for all kinds of buildings, 
from palatial mansions to railway depots. 

Adjoining the church on the southwest is a 
large stone structure 36x240 feet, tw^o stories 
high. The facade is supported by eighteen 
arches of Roman design, under which is a paved 
corridor upon which the cloisters open. 

In an angle at the back of the dwelling formed 
by its junction with the church, is a beautiful 
garden, dedicated to the private use of the mem- 
bers of the Franciscan Order, and from which 
women are rigidly excluded; only one or two ex- 
ceptions, in the case of prominent personages, 



have been made to this rule. A view of this 
garden may, however, be secured from the 
church tower. 

The east garden is part of the old burying 
ground, and here lie the remains of more than 
4,000 Indians. In it are also strong concrete 

Corridor of the Mission 

vaults, in which are buried the Franciscans who 
have died at the Mission. Near the center of the 
cemetery is a large Crucifix, embowered in a 
niche of cypress trees, and there are also many 
rare plants and trees, as well as roses, geraniums, 
and other (lowers. 



The interior of the church at once arrests the 
visitor's attention. The length of the nave, ex- 
clusive of the choir, is 138 feet, and the breadth, 
inside measurement, thirty feet. On the ceiling 
are some very interesting cedar wood carvings 
and designs of original Indian work, Thor's 
Thunder Bird, or Winged Lightning, occurring 
many times. 

Besides the High Altar, which is 12 feet 
wide and 15 feet high, there are tw^o chapels and 
two side altars. The two former, which are near 
the entrance, are in small oratories built in the 
solid walls, which are here twelve feet thick. 
The one on the right is dedicated to Our Lady 
of Sorrows, and over it is a very large and ancient 
painting representing Hell. The chapel oppo- 
site is dedicated to St. Francis, founder of the 
Franciscan Order, and over this is another very 
old painting representing Purgatory. On the 
right side, next to the chapel of Our Lady oi 
Sorrows, is an altar dedicated to St. Anthony, 
and beyond that one to Our Lady of Guadalupe, 
over w^hich is a fine oil painting. The altar on 
the left side is dedicated to St. Joseph. The 
fourteen Stations of the Cross are very old oil 
paintings brought from Spain in 1793, and the 
four large oil paintings on the walls were also 
brought at the same time. The first, on the right, 
represents the Assumption, and that opposite the 
Crucifixion. The picture on the right, inside 



the sanctuary rail, represents Our Lady of the 
Scapula, while that on the left is a copy of 'The 

Old Arch, Mission Canyon 

Last Judgment,'' the original of which hangs 
in the Escurial at Madrid, Spain. On the right 
side of the altar is an oil painting of "The De- 



scent from the Cross," and on the left a life-size 
picture of Jesus. Over the altar is -a statue of 
St. Barbara, while at the back of the altar arc 
statues of the Virgin and St. Joseph. 

The library, which is situated in the cloisters 
adjoining the church, with windows opening 
upon the arched corridor, contains a valuable 
collection of old books sent from different Mis- 
sions when they were abandoned, among which 
are some remarkably fine Spanish manuscripts, 
containing various records. There are also a 
set of surveyors instruments and a telescope, 
both gifts from the Emperor Maxmilian to Pad- 
re Romo, Superior of the Mission from 1872 to 

In the curio room, which adjoins the library, 
in a glass case, are three large volumes of parch- 
ment containing the principal offices of the 
church as recited by the Missionaries; these vol- 
umes represent years of labor, the lettering 
which is large and richly ornamented, being all 
traced by hand. Also in this room are preserved 
the Maniple, Stole, and Burse belonging to 
Padre Junipero Serra, and many other relics, in- 
cluding statues, vases ,and two chandeliers made 
by the Indians, a writing set belonging to the 
first Bishop of California, one of the first Stein- 
way pianos ever seen in California, a brass bound 
walnut writing desk, and chests containing many 
robes and vestments, made of the richest mater- 




' in 


ials. There is also a case containing several 
volumes of ancient music sung by the Indians, 
the notes being in different colors, an idea orig- 
inating with one of the Padres, after he had tried 
many other ways of teaching the Indians to sing. 

The Mission continued to prosper, and grow 
in wealth and influence, and in 1821 the records 
show that 4288 Indians had been baptized, and 
there were 947 settled families of Indians and 
483 families of whites. Of stock there were 
27,432 head of different kinds, and 14,000 trees 
had been planted. 

In 1821 Mexico became independent, and 
California was proclaimed a Mexican depend- 
ency. It -at once became involved in the many 
pronunciamentos and rebellions that character- 
ized Mexican history dow^n to the time of the oc- 
cupation of Califorflia by the Americans in 1846. 

Hardly had the Mission been completed than 
the work of persecution began. In 1822 the 
Mexican Government, jealous of the power held 
by the Franciscans, passed their first law aimed 
at their destruction, and from this time on, with 
short intervals of comparative prosperity, they 
declined in authority and as producers of wealth. 
Their Indians were set free, villages depopulat- 
ed, revenues confiscated, and the Mission land 
parcelled out among Mexicans. 

Early in 1824, a revolt occurred amon^ the 
Indians, due to discontent and the complaint 



that they had to work to feed the soldiers, noth- 
ing being paid them for their labor, aggravated 
by many petty acts of injustice and cruelty on the 
part of the latter, which might have proved for- 
midable had a strong leader been in command. 
The prime cause of the outbreak was the punish- 
ment of a neophyte by order of Corporal Cota at 
Santa Ynez. A conspiracy was formed among 
the Indians for revenge, and broke out on Satur- 
day afternoon, February 21st in an attack on the 
Mission, which was repulsed, although consid- 
erable damage was done to the buildings. On 
the same afternoon, the fugitives from Santa 
Ynez joined the rebels at Purisima and attacked 
the Mission there, which after keeping the Indi- 
ans at bay all night, was obliged, owing to lack 
of ammunition, to surrender in the morning. 
Four soldiers who had arrived at the Mission on 
their way to Los Angeles, and being unaware of 
the revolt, were killed. 

Word was sent early on Sunday morning by 
the Santa Ynez rebels to the Indians of Santa 
Barbara that they should arm themselves, which 
they did, and formed in front of the Mission. 
Padre Ripoll, upon finding the crowd of excited 
Indians all armed with bows and arrows, par- 
leyed with them, and tried to dissuade them from 
committing any overt act. They listened re- 
spectfully, but still appeared uneasy owing to the 
presence of three soldiers armed with muskets; 


seeing this, Padre Ripoll invited the crowd to go 
with him to the guard house, and there handed 
to the soldiers an order from Comandante de la 
Guerra instructing them to withdraw to th' 
Presidio. As they were marching off, one of the 
Indians exclaimed ''Let them leave their weap- 
ons behind," and some of the neophytes tried to 
snatch the guns from the soldiers, two of the 
three who resisted being slightly wounded by a 

Padre Ripoll accompanied the soldiers to the 
Presidio, but Comandante de la Guerra went 
with a body of troops to punish the Indians at the 
Mission; thev were received with a vollev from 
firearms and a shower of arrows, and after a 
skirmish lasting for three hours, the soldiers 
were ordered to retire. It is related by a local 
descendent of one of those present that de la 
Guerra retired from his attack on the Indians 
due to one of their number through force of 
liabit having ascended to the belfry in the Mis- 
sion tower and rung the bell for the noonday 
meal; the Comandante then retired to the Pres- 
idio for dinner, which must have been particu- 
larly good, since he forgot that a fight was on 
until advised by one of his soldiers that the Indi- 
ans had retired to the mountains, taking with 
them all the clothes they could carry from the 
sacked warehouses of the Mission. He then sent 
ten soldiers there, \\\\(\ on the following Tuesday 



another squad of soldiers arrived, both parties 
committing some very cruel murders on the few 
aged Indians who had not been able to get away, 
in addition to breaking open and sacking the In- 
dian houses, and also taking from the storehouse 
at the Mission anything that pleased their fancy. 

In the meantime the fugitives from Santa 
Barbara, with a few from other Missions, re- 
treated to the Tulares, and eighty men were sent 
to bring them back. Several skirmishes took 
place during i^pril, but eventually the soldiers 
returned to Santa Barbara. 

Another expedition was then organized 
against the rebels, and this, composed of sixty- 
three soldiers and a field piece, set out from 
Santa Barbara on June 2nd, a detachment of fifty 
men with a cannon also starting from Monterey 
at the same time, the two parties uniting six d-ays 
later on the plain of the Tulares. Padre Ripoll 
had been requested to go with the expedition, but 
declined as he did not wish the Indians to see him 
with the soldiers, but was eventually persuaded 
to do so. 

The Indians who were encamped at San Em- 
gidio, now expressed themselves as willing to re- 
turn, but were afraid to give up their weapons 
lest they be punished; the padres and the com- 
mander, however, assured them that all would be 
forgotten, and they at length accompanied the 



soldiers back to Santa Barbara, where by the end 
of June, all was again quiet and peaceful. 

A few of the Indians had separated them- 
selves from the main body and fled to the moun- 
tains to join a chief called Valerio (for whom 
one of the streets in Santa Barbara is named) 
and formed a band of outlaws who sallied forth 
from time to time to avenge themselves on their 
persecutors. Some remarkable caves in the vic- 
inity of the San Marcos Pass are accredited by 
tradition as having been the resort of this famous 
chief and his men, and certain rough paintings 
found there are believed to have been the work 
of those resolute and independent mountaineers. 

Padre Ripoll left Santa Barbara in 1827 at 
the close of the ten years for which he had volun- 
teered, as he felt he could no longer remain to 
witness the outrages being perpetrated on the 
Christian Indians. 

Despite the many protests and efforts of the 
Franciscan padres to prove that the Indians were 
not fit subjects for secularization, the first law 
in this connection passed the Mexican Congress 
on August 17, 1833, and other measures soon fol- 
lowed. Of the ten California Missions secular- 
ized in 1834, Santa Barbara was one. The Cali- 
fornians themselves, however, were the prime 
instigators of the ruin of the Missions, -as they 
appear to have compelled Governor Figueroa, 
then a very sick man, to put into effect the dc- 



crees of August 9th and Nov. 4th 1834, notwith- 
standing the fact that the Mexican Government 
had expressly forbidden this. 

Also, the Mexican leaders and politicians 
looked with envious eyes on the rich Californi-a 
missions; to secure this wealth they had recourse 
to the subterfuge of inciting the Indians to rebel- 
lion, and then holding the padres responsible. 
In this way they w^re eventually able to secure 
the passing of the above-mentioned decrees, 
which practically turned the Mission properties 
over to the tender mercies of greedy government 
officials. In the majority of cases, everything 
of value was taken, and the lands and stock dis- 
tributed among the Indians, to subsequently be 
taken from them when a suitable opportunity 
presented itself, the gentle training of the padres 
rendering the Indians quite unfit to trade or 
barter with the wily officials, who soon defraud- 
ed them of the property turned over to them. 

Owing to the fortunate circumstance that the 
Franciscan Superior in Mexico City had sent to 
Santa Barbara some priests who were natives of 
Mexico and not Spanish, this Mission suffered 
less than the others, for it was not sold, and re- 
mained in the hands of the Franciscans, who 
never allowed the light upon its altar to go out. 
The Mission lost many of its secular possessions 
and some of its buildings fell into decay, yet the 
church and cloisters were preserved, and other 



Missions, which were sacked, books and records 
burned and valuable old manuscripts used for 
gun wadding, sent what treasures they could save 
to Santa Barbara for safe keeping. 

From 1786, the date of founding, to 1834, 
when secularization took place, the Santa Bar- 
bara Mission records show that there were 
5,679 baptisms, 1,534 marriages, 4,046 deaths. In 
1803 was recorded the largest population, name- 
ly, 1792. The largest number of stock of all 
kinds was 16,090 in 1809. 

An inventory of the Mission made in March 
1834, by the newly appointed Commissionado, 
showed: credits $14,953; buildings $22, ,936; 
furniture, tools, goods in storehouse, vineyards, 
orchards, corrals and animals $19,690; church 
$16,000; sacristy, $1,500; church vestments $4.- 
576; library $152; ranchos $30,961 ; with a debt 
to be deducted of $1,000. 

In 1839, Pope Gregory XVI elevated Cali- 
fornia to the dignity of a bishopric, and appoint- 
ed Padre Francisco Diego Garcia, a Mexican 
Franciscan, to the See. 

Upon his arrival in 1842, Bishop Garcia 
made Santa Barbara the headquarters of his 
Episcopal See. Like the majority of govern- 
ments, that of Mexico failed to keep its promises 
to the Bishop for the betterment of the Mission 
and his diocese, and alter some years of useless 
protest, his grief and mortification of spirit wore 



him out, and he died in 1846, being laid to rest 
near the epistle side of the main altar. 

In 1843 an effort was made to restore the 
Mission system in Santa Barbara; it was, how- 
ever, too late, as the conditions under w^hich the 
Mission system could exist had been completely 
changed, and could not be restored. Debt cov- 
ered nearly all the Mission properties, and their 
incomes were not sufficient to maintain public 
worship and care for the Indians, who, generally, 
were in a very sad condition. 

In 1844, according to Padre Duran's report, 
he kept at Santa Barbara barely 300 Indians, and 
these with the greatest difficulty. Mr. Hart- 
nell, the official visitor of Missions, reported 
that the Missions were almost entirely in ruins, 
and could never be brought back to their former 

Under a proclamation dated October 28, 
1845, regarding the sale of nine Missions and 
the leasing of the others, including Santa Bar- 
bara, the property of the latter was leased to 
Nicholas A. Den and Daniel Hill for an annual 
rental of $1,200, the lease covering all the build- 
ings of the Mission excepting the church and 
cloisters, and this small sum was all that was 
available to support the Bishop, Padres, and such 
of the Indians as were left. The inventoried 
valuation was $20,843, and it comprised over 
3,000 head of stock, the San Jose vineyard north 


ot Goleta (what is now known as the ''Sisters 
Ranch"), the San Marcos Ranch in the Santa 
Ynez Valley, and all the store houses, their con- 
tents, the shops, vineyards, orchards, and the 
tannery in the vicinity of the Mission. 

The Mission Fountain 

In 1846, Colonel John C. Fremont came over 
the mountains by way of the San Marcos Pass, 
while the Mexican defenders of Santa Barbara 
waited in vain to meet him at the Gaviota Pass. 
The city was taken without a fight, and thus 
passed into the hands of the Americans. From 
this time the Mission has been free from any of 
the annoyances and persecutions which charac- 



terized the Mexican rule, but its great estates 
were gone and only a titiie of its once wide pos- 
sessions remains. 

After the death of Bishop Diego, Padre Gon- 
zales Rubio became administrator of the w^hole 

diocese of California, and in 1850 surrendered 
control of same to the Right Reverend J. S. Ale- 
many, who made him Vicar-General of the Dio- 
cese. During this administration, in 1853, an 
effort was made to establish a Franciscan college 
for the education of young men for the priest- 
hood in California, and Bishop Alemany recom- 
mended Santa Barbara for that purpose. At a 
meeting of the Franciscan Order held June 7, 
1853, the Mission was selected as the place for 
the establishment of an Apostolic college, and 
Padre Jimeno of the College of San Fernando 
was selected as the first President. He did not 
consider the buildings at the Mission suitable 
for the purpose, so with the approval of the Bish- 
op he purchased a site in the City of Santa Bar- 
bara, and commenced the erection of an edifice 
at the corner of State and Figueroa Streets; this 
was completed and dedicated on July 23rd, 1854, 
under the title of the Apostolic College of the 
Blessed Virgin of the Seven Sorrows. 

Bishop Alemany's successor was the Right 
Rev. Thaddeus Amat, who upon his arrival pre- 
ferred to have his diocesan residence in the city 
rather than at the Mission. After some negotia- 


AND M O N T E C I 1^ O 

tions, a transfer was made whereby the Mission 
buildings, church, orchards, vineyards and other 
property, passed to the perpetual use of the 
Franciscan padres, while the church and resi- 
dence in the city became the property of the 

Affairs at the Mission ran on with varying 
interest until Padre Jose M. Romo, having re- 
ceived letters patent as Guardian, arrived in 
January, 1872. He found the college in need of 
novices and later made a trip to Mexico in the 
hope of being able to secure some candidates 
there to help him carry on the work in Santa 
Barbara. He was unable to do so and returned 
quite discouraged. His experience now con- 
vinced him that the College at Santa Barbara 
was too isolated from other houses of the Order, 
and not sufficiently strong of itself to make any 
satisfactory progress. To remedy this, he wrote 
CO the General of the Order setting forth the cir- 
cumstances, and requesting him to have the Mis- 
sion and College annexed to some eastern prov- 
ince from which it might receive aid and mem- 
bers. In response, a delegate named Padre Fer- 
dinand Bergmeyer was sent by the Genernl, and 
upon his report being made, a decree was issued 
changing the College from its independent state 
and annexing it to the Province of the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus, with IVovincial headi]uarters at 
St. Louis. This decree was signed at Rome May 



5th, 1885. The Mission was then placed in the 
care of a Commissary who represented the Prov- 
incial at St. Louis, and who, in connection with 
the Council at the Mission decided all minor 
matters that arose. 

On December 4th, 1886, the centennial of the 
foundation of the Mission was celebrated. The 
citizens of Santa Barbara took a whole-souled 
interest in the event, and a considerable sum of 
money was raised for the proper observance of 
this important anniversary. There was suffic- 
ient left over after the celebration to make some 
very necessary repairs to the front of the church 
and arches of the church dwelling. 

The connection with the Provincial House at 
St. Louis proved very beneficial to the Mission. 
New enthusiasm was infused into the work of the 
padres, old buildings restored, and new onci 
erected; this union, however, was dissolved about 
1915, and Santa Barbara Mission is now the 
mother-house of the Franciscan Province of San- 
ta Barbara of the Pacific Coast, comprising the 
states of California, Arizona, Oregon and Wash- 

Although, perhaps unfortunately, much of 
the influence of the mission system on the life of 
California has passed away, yet the padres must 
be given all credit for what they accomplished 
in their own day. The Crusaders of old had aa 
easy task compared to these paladins of the 


1 liijli \X'»II i)f ihr Mi»»i.)ii. 


Cross, who came practically alone into an un- 
known country, and introduced there what has 
developed into modern civilization; they ruled 
a very large native population with the help of 
only a very small body of soldiers; they built up 
an agricultural system which for many years was 
the only source of food supply for the people of 
Spanish California, and last but not least, they 
formed the nucleus of communities which lived 
their lives in serene contentment. 

It was no uncommon occurrence for the Mis- 
sion to purchase an entire cargo of goods from 
American traders, and such were their known 
resources, and the uniform punctuality and hon- 
esty of the padres, that these cargoes were fre- 
quently delivered to them with no other security 
than their verbal promise to pay. Indeed, these 
Franciscan padres, who entered this country clad 
in their brown habits with sandals on their feet 
and the cross in their hands, were men whose 
equals in power, courage, and moral intrepidity, 
it would be difficult to find in these days. 

In the heydey of their power, one might have 
looked from the Mission tower and beheld a 
landscape covered with flocks and herds grazing 
on the hills and in the valleys within his range of 
vision ;orchards laden with fruits, vineyards pur- 
ple with grapes, fields yellow with ripening 
grain, and villages active with all the pursuits of 
a widely varied industry would have lain at his 



feet. Mills, wherein the grain was converted 
into meal and flour, tanyards where hundreds of 
hides were made into leather, hand looms that 
wove the wool of thousands of sheep into blank- 
ets and cloth, buildings in which were manufac- 
tured pottery of several kinds, would have spok- 
en of the thrift and good management of the 
padres. Fountains would have sparkled in the 
"Sunshine, the limpid waters supplying them 
flowing through aqueducts of stone from the 
mountains, coursing its way to the statue of a 
bear, through whose open mouth it gurgled with 
never failing plenty into a reservoir of solid 
masonry six feet wide and seventy feet long. The 
cellars were filled w^ith good wine, the granaries 
bursting with corn, and the gardens carpeted 
with flowers. 

How is the scene changed! Hill and valley 
are as beautiful as ever, with the sweep of the 
great ocean at their feet as steady and as strong. 
Cattle still graze on the foot-hills and the liar- 
vests still respond to the appeal of the laborer^ 
who sow and gather them; grapes and oranges 
ripen in the sun, and flowers bloom in ever-in- 
creasing profusion, but the glory of the Francis- 
can has departed, and others reap what he has 
sowfi. 'I'he Spaniard has been succeeded bv the 
Mexican, the Mexican supplanteii by the Ameri- 
can, and the Indian has vanished altogether from 
this c(rast. In the valley, where the devout were 



gathered by the beils in the old towers of the 
Mission to a common worship in its chapel, now 
rise the spires of many another church. 

For a comprehensive account of the Mission 
period of Californian history, the student is rec- 
ommended to peruse the four interesting vol- 
umes compiled by Padre Zephyrin Englehardt, 
of the Franciscan Order. 

Spanish Supremacy — 1796-1832 

California under the regime of the Spaniards 
dates from the arrival of Caspar de Portola, who 
afterwards became its first Covernor, in 1769. 
Owing to lack of supplies of all kinds, and es- 
pecially foodstuffs, possession of the country was 
almost given up on several occasions, in fact, 
their straits were such that the soldiers had to 
depend on the Indians for food, trading their few 
ragged garments in exchange. The land and 


AND MO xN T E C I r O 

climate were well suited to agricultural wealth, 
but the richest land cannot be developed without 
men, animals, or machinery to do the work, since 
the province lacked everything from a plough or 
a smith's forge to a piece of cloth or a nail; 
everything of this nature had to be imported 
from New Spain (Mexico) by way oi San Bias. 
One of the best narratives of this time is an ac- 
count published by Portola at Madrid on Sept. 
4th, 1773. It would appear that until after they 
had passed the last Mission in Baja California, 
the expedition experienced no hardships worth} 
of mention, and although Portola took nearly all 
the supplier in possession of the Mission, yet he 
lacked sufficient to reach San Diego, and had to 
resort to hunting and hshing, and his party had 
to go without water for several days. Upon ar- 
rival at San Diego, they learned of the horrors ot 
the voyage of the other half of the expedition 
who came by sea. 

A meeting was held, when it was deciticd to 
send back the San Antonio to San Bla< for sup 
plies and men, leaving the San (^irlos and the 
sick at San Diego, while Portola marched in 
search of Monterey. He took with him the small 
number of "skeletons" whom the scurvy, thirst, 
and hunger had spared, and who were suffic- 
iently strong for the march. In his narrative, 
Portola remarked that the country was composed 
oi rocks, underbrush, and rugged mountains ct)v 



ered with snow; moreover, he and his men did 
not know where they were, and their food sup- 
plies had given out. They almost felt certain 
that they had reached Monterey, and yet, such 
was their hunger, that they resolved to return to 
San Diego, eating on their way, twelve of the 
mules. To use Portola's quaint phrase, literally 
translated, they arrived "smelling of mules." 

The San Antonio, which had sailed for San 
Bias in July 1769, did not return to San Diego 
until late in March, 1770, most of its crew having 
perished from scurvy, but despite this fact, Por- 
tola and his men derived great benefit from the 
cargo of maize, flour, and rice, which they ate 
with avidity, as a change from the geese and fish 
upon which they had had to subsist for over two 

It is said that Portola was about to abandon 
Alta California but was prevailed upon by Padre 
Junipero Serra to delay his departure with the 
result that the San Antonio was sighted the very 
day before Portola planned to leave. There is 
no doubt Portola was not enthusiastic over the 
new country especially after his forced mule 
diet, without the aid of salt or other condiment, 
so it is probably correct that it was Padre Serra'a 
obstinacy in refusing to leave which saved the 
California settlements in their first hour of need. 

Again Portola led a force by land, and finally 
succeeded in erecting establishments at Mon- 



terey, after which, in March, 1770 he returned to 

Caspar de Portola was succeeded by Felipe 
de Barri as Governor of the Californias, who 
resided at the quaint town of Loreto, on the Gulf 
of California, which was the capital of both 
provinces, and had the distinction of being tht 
only Governor who never visited Alta Californi.i 
while under his control. The actual manage- 
ment of affairs in this province was in the hands 
of Pedro Fages, and between this autocratic sol- 
dier and Padre Serra there w^as continued fric- 
tion, which resulted in a temporary triumph for 
the padre in 1774, when Fages was removed and 
the command of the upper province placed in the 
hands of Rivera y Moncada, who remained in 
power from May 25, 1774, to Feb. 1775. 

The latter w^as also a soldier, but much more 
diplomatic and less aggressive than his prede- 
cessor, and succeeded in getting along very well 
with the Father--President by letting him ha\c 
his own way. 

In August, 1775, the King of Spain ordered 
that the capital of Baja and Alta California 
should be removed from Loreto to Monterey, 
and that the Governor should reside there, the 
Lieutenant-governor residing at Loreto. 

Felipe de Neve, who succeeded Rivera j 
Moncada, — who had been sent south to assume 
the lieutenant-governorship at Loreto— was the 



first Governor to reside at the new capital. He 
presided over the destinies of the province with 
marked success until July 12th, 1782. During 
his governorship, a new arrangement went into 
effect by which the northwest provinces, includ- 
ing Alta and Baja California, were joined in a 
district under a comandante-general, which re- 
sulted in a great deal of local independence for. 
the governor of the upper province. He was 
well qualified to carry this responsibility, being 
naturally of a judicial mind, and constantly plan- 
ning measures for the betterment of the people 
under his charge. 

He found the representatives of the church, 
the army, and the civil authority all striving for 
the mastery, and by promulgating a codified plan 
for settling vexatious questions, he managed to 
bring a semblance of order into what had hith- 
erto been a state of chaos. 

During Felipe de Neve's administration, he 
had a passage-at-arms with the indomitable 
Padre Serra, on the subject of the right to admin- 
ister confirmation to the Indian neophytes. Ac- 
cording to law, this power was limited to bishops, 
but Padre Serra felt that it was very unlikely any 
bishop would visit California to administer the 
rite of confirmation to the thousands desiring it, 
and therefore he should be granted the power. 
His persistence succeeded in securing the grant 
through the intervention of the Franciscan Col- 


lege of San Fernando in Mexico City, which he 
had visited in 1773, and he proceeded to admin- 
ister confirmation to large numbers of Indians. 
Upon the Governor hearing of this, he issued an 
order suspending all confirmations, and reported 
the matter to the comandante-general, who, 
knowing of the authority granted to Padre Serra, 
ordered the latter to show his papers to de Neve, 
and settle the matter. This, however, it was im- 
possible to do, as the papers had been sent to the 
College of San Fernando, and the whole matter 
fizzled out, Governor de Neve being appointed 
in 1782 to the position of comandante-general of 
the northwestern provinces, which position he- 
only occupied for a few months, before his death. 

Now comes on the scene again the arch- 
enemy of Padre Serra, Pedro Fages, who wa>. 
appointed Governor July 12, 1782. 

Fages was of little intellectual capacity, 
though a conscientions and well-meaning soldier, 
and the padres found it a fairly easy matter to do 
what they wanted, regardless of his wishes. This 
fact is well set forth by the circumstances attend- 
ing the founding of the Channel missions, San 
Buenaventura, Santa Barbara, and Santa Ynez. 
Governor de Neve had not opposed the found- 
ing of the first-named, but he did not wish to 
have two more Missions in that neighborhood a> 
well, and therefore refused to sanction them un- 
less the system was so modified as to permit of 



only a few Indians living at each Mission at a 
time, and these only for short periods. This ar- 
rangement, however, the padres did not approve 
of, and much to Governor de Neve's satisfaction, 
refused to build the Missions under these con- 
ditions, but Pedro Pages had not been in office 
long before the three Channel missions were 
built, and flourishing under exactly the same con- 
ditions as the older ones. 

When Pages resigned in 1791, Jose Antonio 
Romeu succeeded him, but the latter only lived 
to serve one year, during which time he was too 
ill to take an active part in affairs. 

Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga then took charge 
of California as acting Governor until 1794, 
when the new Governor, Diego de Borica came 
on the scene. 

This Governor is the first man reported to 
have shown enthusiasm over the Golden State, 
he having written to a friend that ''one could 
live better here than in any court in Europe"; it 
may have been, however, that he had a more op- 
timistic disposition than his predecessors, and 
was one of those people who could have been 
comfortable anywhere. In addition to being 
very popular and influential he was a good 
worker, and very like Governor de Neve in his 
dealings with the padres, although he did noth- 
ing to stop the development of the Missions. On 
the contrary, the work, which had proceeded 



slowly under the two previous administrations, 
now took fresh life, and Padre Lasuen, who was 
now Father-President, with the help of the Gov- 
ernor, established five new Missions within two 


Governor Borica resigned in 1800, and was 
succeeded by Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga, who had 
previously acted as temporary Governor. Dur- 
ing his administration, which lasted fourteen 
years, Alta California was made a separate prov- 
ince, under a decree dated August 29, 1804. 

When Arrillaga was in power, great good 
feeling existed between the civil and religious 
authorities, this being due in a large measure to 
the Governor realizing the fact that the Missions 
were "cornering" the food supply, and that ere 
long the whole province would be dependent on 
them. Some time before the end of his rule, 
supplies and money had ceased to come up from 
Mexico, and the presidios and settlements were 
face to face with starvation. As, however, the 
Missions were flourishing, and had an ample 
supply of wheat and other food, and large num- 
bers of cattle, the Governor took the only course 
open to him, and forced the Missions to turn over 
their surplus, paying them with drafts on the 
Spanish government. The padres, of course, ob 
jected strenuously at first, but linally came to sec 
it was the only thing to do, nnd at the time of the 
downfall ol the Spaniards, they held worthless 



paper to the tune of many thousands of dollars. 

After the death of Governor Arrillaga, in 
1814, and until the arrival of Pablo Vicente de 
Sola, and tenth and last Spanish Governor of 
California, in 1815, Comandante Jose Dario Ar- 
guella of Santa Barbara, was acting Governor. 

The inauguration of the last of the Spanish 
Governors of California at Monterey in 1816, is 
well worth recording. 

The ceremonies opened with a military dis- 
play in the plaza, and next came a reception in 
the casa real. Twenty beautiful senoritas, rep- 
resentatives of the famous Californian families, 
Estudillo, Estrada, Vallejo, and others, kissed 
the Governor's hand, and received in return 
boxes of Mexican sweetmeats. Then followed 
a banquet, the tables decked with roses, and laden 
with all kinds of fruit, cordials and wines. After 
an open-air feast for the populace, a bull versus 
bear fight was organized on the grand scale. 

Two days later. Sola and his suite, a glitter- 
ing company of cuirassed cavaliers and lovely 
ladies, set forth for San Carlos Mission. Thcv 
were passing through a wood, when suddenly 
there appeared a band of monks attended by In- 
dian acolytes, followed by padres from all Cali- 
fornia, bearing upon a platform an effigy ot 
Christ, and accompanied by many hundred Indi- 
ans. Sola and his officers dismounted, kissed the 
feet of the Christ, and amid the perfume of in- 



cense from censers swung by the acolytes, entered 
the Mission, where they listened to a sermon by 
Padre Amoros. A sham battle by the Indians 
ended the festivities. 

Governor de Sola had been an officer in the 
Spanish army, and was unfitted in a large degree 
for the difficult task he had to perform, in solv- 
ing the problems facing the civil administration. 

It was not until March, 1822 that Governor 
de Sola heard of the new Empire in Mexico 
under Iturbide; he at once called a meeting of 
his officers and the Father-President of the Fran- 
ciscans, to help decide whether they should give 
their allegience to the new order. They all de 
cided in favor of the new regime, and took oath 
to that effect, the flag of Spain being lowered at 
the Presidios throughout California, and that of 
the Mexican empire raised in its stead, without 
any disorder. Fifty three years had passed since 
Gaspar de Portola had raised the blood red and 
yellow flag of Spain, and it fell, as it was raised, 
without bloodshed or strife. 

Mexican Occupation - 1 822- 1 847 

The most notable event arising from the 
Mexican occupation of California was the re- 
moval of the ban on trading, which caused a 
great expansion of commerce and the organiza- 
tion into towns of the military Presidios. 



The decay of the Mission system commenced 
during the Governorship of Luis Antonio Argu- 
ello in ]825, with the acceptance of the new con- 
stitution which was modelled after that of the 
United States, and made California a territory 
of the new Republic of Mexico. The padres, 
however, managed to put off the evil day when 
they must be deprived of their secular powTr. 
and to enjoy the fruits of their labors for nearly 
ten years after the establishment of the republic; 
although actual secularization did not come until 
later, the towns had long succeeded the missions 
as the dominating factor in the life of the terri- 

Conditions existing in these infant cities 
were anything but happy; the advent of republi- 
canism causing much unrest, disorder, and even 
open rebellion. Supplies and pay for the army, 
which had dwindled during the last few years of 



Spanish rule, altogether ceased under the repub- 
lic. Upon the troops stationed in California fell 
the full burden of the change in government, and 
they were almost reduced to a state of beggary. 

Mexico at this period had the bad habit of 
sending her surplus criminals to California, 
which provoked much antagonism on the part of 
the inhabitants, and caused never ending trouble 
to the authorities. Much bitter feeling began to 
arise against the Mexican Government by the 
native Californians, and this feeling grew stead- 
ily, and really paved the way for the easy acqui- 
sition of the country by the United States in 1847 

A number of opera boufTe revolutions and 
powder play battles, in which casualties hardly 
ever occurred (excepting a stray horse or mule) , 
took place at this period, but nothing really stir- 
ring happened, the happy and indolent life of the 
majority of the Spanish-Californians being the 
opposite of war and its attendant horrors. 

Mention of Santa Barbara as the favorite 
resort of all the Governors of California is fre- 
quently made, and had her claims to become the 
capital of the state been adequately represented 
in March, 1840, when Pio Pico was advocating 
Los Angeles for that honor against Monterey, 
she would doubtless have been successful, and 
the politicians would have been able to attend to 
the business of the state the year round. It would 
have meant government under ideal climatic 



conditions, and would have made our law-giverj> 
progressive, patriotic, and unselfish representa- 
tives of the people. Who knows but that some 
day in the future, Santa Barbara will come into 
her own, and reign as the Capital City of the 
State of California? 

Santa Barbara was a great favorite with Jose 
Figueroa, who was the sixth Governor of Cali- 
fornia. His death at San Juan Bautista on Sep 
tember 29th, 1835 was the occasion of impres- 
sive funeral rites at Santa Barbara, where he was 
laid to rest in a vault at the Mission. 

Following Figueroa's death, Alvarado, a 
native son of Monterey, organized a revolution, 
and advanced on Santa Barbara with one hun- 
dred men. The garrison only mustering thirty 
ill-armed men, the mayor called the town 
council together, and on the advice of Coman- 
dante de la Guerra and Padre Duran, accepted 
him as Governor. Alvarado was noted for be 
ing longheaded; he knew that if Santa Barbara 
accepted him, the rest of the State would fall in 
line, which it did. As a recompense, he con- 
vened the first Californian Congress to meet at 
Santa Barbara on April 1 1th, 1837. There were 
present besides himself, Jose Antonio de la 
Guerra y Noriega, Antonio Buelna, Manuel 
Jimeno Casarin, Jose Ramon Estrada and Fran- 
cisco Xavier Alvarado. The Congress readily 
approved of all that had been done, and for the 


AND xM O N r E C 1 T O 

purpose of carrying out the spirit of the arrange- 
ment made with Los Angeles, it decreed that the 
Governor should prepare and transmit to the 
supreme government at Mexico a petition for the 
reestablishment of the federal system and the 
recognition of California as a sovereign federal 
state, free to administer its own internal con- 

Governor Alvarado had the Mexican habir 
of writing proclamations and pronounciamentos, 
but the most remarkable of these was one issued 
at Santa Barbara on July 9th. It is rare to find 
among these Californian or Mexican proclama- 
tions anything worth preserving; only here and 
there, as a general rule, can a few words, or 
sometimes a paragraph, be found of sufficient in- 
terest to transcribe, and then chiefly on account 
of its extravagance. Alvarado's paper, however, 
besides its value as a historical document, was 
remarkable as the work of a native Californian, 
only twenty-eight years of age, who had substan- 
tially educated himself in secret. Referring to 
himself as citizen Juan B. Alvarado, Governor 
of the Department of Alta California, and ad- 
dressing all its inhabitants as fellow-citizens, he 
said : — 

''Compatriots! Liberty, peace and union arc 
''the triune intelligence by which our destiny is 
"to be governed. Our arms have given us the 
"first; a wise congress will secure to us the sec- 



''ond, and upon ourselves alone depends the 
"third. But without union there can be no per- 
"manent liberty or peace. Let us, therefore, 
''preserve indissoluble this union — the sacred ark 
''in which lies enshrined our political redemp- 
"tion. War only against the tyrant! Peace 
"among ourselves! 

"The solidity of a building consists in the 
"union of its parts. A single stone displaced 
"from one of its arches causes the columns to 
"topple and precipates into ruin a fabric, which, 
"if the materials composing it remained united, 
"might mark the age of time. Such is the effect 
"of disunion upon a physical edifice. It is in no 
"respect different in its ruinous effect upon the 
moral edifice of society. 

The territory of Alt-a California is immense 
in extent. Its coasts are bathed by the great 
"ocean, which, by placing it in communication 
"with the nations of the world, give encourage- 
"ment to our industry and commerce — the foun- 
"tains of wealth and abundance. The benignity 
"of our climate, the fertility of our soil, and, I 
"may be permitted to add, your suavity of man- 
"ners and excellence of character, are all so 
many privileges with which the Omnipotent, in 
the distribution of his gifts, has preferred it. 
"What country can enumerate so many conjoined 
"advantages as ours? Let us see that it occupiej^ 




'^as distinguished a place in history as it occupies 
''upon the map. 

"The constitutional laws of the year '36 guar- 
''antees the inviolability of our rights, and even 
''extend them beyond our moderate desires. The 
"august chamber of the nation's representatives 
"is ready to listen to any legislative proposition 
"we may present to it calculated to promote our 
"well-being and prosperity. Our votes may 
"avail in favor of the deserving citizen whom wc 
"may deem worthy to fill the supreme national 
"magistracy. And what more can you wish? 
"The same laws assure us that we will not again 
"become the spoil of the despotism and ambition 
"of another tyrant like Don Mariano Chico. The 
"Department of Alta California can henceforth 

be governed only by a son of its soil or one of its 

own citizens. 

"Yes, my friends, the enthusiasm and joj 
"caused in you by the promising outlook is en- 
"tirely just. I myself feel the same emotions of 
"pleasure. There is no need any longer to do 
"yourselves the violence of restraining your rc- 
"joicing. Let it have scope and join with me in 
"exclaiming: Long live the nation! Long live 
"the constitution of the year '36! Long live the 
"congress which sanctioned it! Long live lib- 

'^erty! Long live union!" 

A brief resume of the various Governors and 

other public officers who were identified with 



California, will serve to illustrate the feeble hold 
which Mexico had upon the political affections 
of so remote and neglected a dependency. 

Pablo Vicente de Sola was the last Califor- 
nian Governor under the Spanish flag, and the 
first under the Mexican. In 1823 he was ordered 
to Mexico, and Luis Antonio Arguello was 
named Governor with all the powers of his pred- 
ecessor, and remained so until the arrival of Jose 
Maria de Echeandia in November, 1825. Eche- 
andia had command until the arrival of Manuel 
Victoria, in 1831. Victoria continued in power 
until December of that year, when the Califor- 
nians under Portilla revolted against his rule, 
and after a battle which resulted in one killed 
and one wounded, the latter being Victoria him- 
self, he, believing that discretion was the better 
part of valor, gave up and departed for Mexico. 

At that time Pio Pico was the senior member 
of the Territorial Department and by law be- 
came Governor pro tempore. 

Echeandia, meanwhile, had remained among 
his friends at San Diego, probably expecting 
some speedy change in political affairs, and with 
the departure of Victoria assumed the military 
command. Both he and Pico continued in office 
until the arrival of Jose Figueroa in 1833. He 
was the most progressive of all the Mexican 
Governors, and died in 1835, presumably from 
overwork. During his last illness, he delivered 



the civil command to Jose Castro, and the mili- 
tary to Nicholas Guiterrez. These remained in 
office until the arrival of Mariano Chico on May 
3rd, 1836; in August of the same year the latter 
was sent away by the Territorial Department, 
and previous to his departure left the military 
and civil command with Guiterrez. 

On the 6th of November, 1836, the Califor- 
nians, assisted by some foreigners under Captain 
Graham, an American, and Captain Coppinger, 
an Englishman, revolted against Guiterrez, and 
the latter was forced to leave the country with all 
his officers except those who had taken part in 
favor of the natives and wished to remain. 

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo played an im- 
portant part in this revolution, and became com- 
mander of the forces, while his nephew, Juan 
Bautista Alvarado, was made civil governor, 
which positions they held until the arrival of 
Manuel Micheltorena in 1842. 

Early in 1845, Micheltorena was sent away 
by the Californians, after forming a sort of treaty 
with them (he being desirous to proceed to 
Mexico), leaving Jose Castro with the military 
command. Pio Pico, who was again the senior 
member of the Territorial Department, then be- 
came Governor. These two continued in power, 
as military and civil heads respectively, until 
August 10th, 1846. 

From October 31st, 1846, to January 11th. 



1847, Jose Maria Flores was Governor, and di- 
rected the military operations against the Ameri- 
cans between San Pedro and Los Angeles. He 
was succeeded on January 1 1th, 1847, by Andres 
Pico, brother of Pio Pico, who had the distinc- 
tion of being Commander of the Californian 
forces in the field, and Governor of California 
for two days; on January 13th 1847, he termin- 
ated his career as Governor, and signed the treaty 
of peace with Colonel John C. Fremont. 

In 1843, Thomas O. Larkin w^as appointed 
the first, and became incidentally the last, Am- 
erican Consul in California. He also held vari- 
ous other official appointments under the United 
States Government up till 1848, v/hen California 
was admitted to the Union, becoming an Ameri- 
can State, with all its privileges. 

American Acquisition 

Although historians differ regarding the re- 
spective merits of General Stephen W. Kearny, 
Commodore Robert F. Stockton, and Lieutenant 



Colonel John C. Fremont, relative to the con- 
quest or acquisition of California by America, 
looking at it from an impartial standpoint, it 
must be conceded that this became an accom- 
plished fact due in a great measure to the true 
American dash and persistency of the ^Tath- 
finder," by which title Lieutenant Colonel Fre- 
mont is almost universally remembered. 

Colonel John C. Fremont. 

He first became known in connection with 
scientific and exploring expeditions to the 
Rocky Mountains in 1842, and another to Ore- 
gon and California in 1843 and 1844, being made 



Captain in the United States Topographical En- 
gineers in 1844 for his services, and later Lieu- 
tenant Colonel. 

Fremont had the good fortune, as a young 
man, to win the hand of Jessie, a talented daugh- 
ter of Thomas H. Benton, United States senator 
from Missouri. The latter opposed his daugh- 
ter's choice, but the young couple were very- 
much in love, and finally they eloped and were 
married. Fremont thus became the husband of 
a bright woman and the son-in-law of one of the 
most able and influential statesmen of his day; 
and it may have been partly to these connections 
and the influences they exerted on his behalf that 
he owed his rise to the prominent positions he 
afterwards occupied. 

Senator Benton had always taken a great in- 
terest in California, and had many schemes in his 
mind for its acquisition. With far-sighted intel- 
ligence, he saw that the time was coming when 
the country would somehow be Americanized, 
and then there would be a great future in the new 
State for an enterprising man who knew how to 
take advantage of circumstances. His son-in- 
law was such a man, young and active, with 
plenty of assurance and endurance, and besides, 
a man of much scientific and general knowledge. 
There were, of course, defects in his character, 
among which was a lack of caution, but never- 
theless, he was the right kind of man for Cali- 



fornia; he knew the country well, having already 
been engaged in explorations of it. The reports 
of his expeditions, which were very ably written, 
were published by the United States Govern- 
ment, and under the skillful management of Ben- 
ton, Fremont acquired an almost world-wide 

Lieut. Colonel Fremont, in 1846, had been 
engaged in topographical survey work in the 
Sacramento Valley, when a party of adventurous 
settlers, chiefly Americans, revolted against 
Mexico and raised the standard of the ^'Bear 
Flag" Republic at Sonoma, near San Francisco. 

Overtures were made to Fremont to join 
forces with them, and although not openly sup- 
porting the revolt, he diplomatically kept in 
touch with them. 

On the fourteenth of June, 1846, at Sonoma, 
while Fremont and his men were encamped near 
the Buttes, the ''Bear Flag" Republic of Cali- 
fornia came into being, William B, Ide appoint- 
ing himself Commander, and issuing a bombas- 
tic proclamation. June 2Sth saw the arrival of 
Fremont at Sonoma, and although a commis- 
sioned officer of the United States Army, the rev- 
olutionary body on July 4th, named Fremont its 
Commander, its late Commander Ide becoming 
a full private. The *'Bcar Flag" revolutionaries 
and Fremont's scouts were now formed into a 



force called the ''California Battalion" of about 
two hundred and fifty strong. 

Fremont and two hundred men marched to 
Sutter's fort to begin a campaign against Gen- 
eral Castro; after many slight skirmishes in the 
vicinity of San Francisco bay, in which Kit 
Carson, one of Fremont's scouts, distinguished 
himself by shooting down three Spanish Cali- 
fornians in retaliation for the killing of two of 
the revolutionaries, he spiked ten cannon in the 
old Presidio of San Francisco, took the Coman- 
dante of the fort prisoner, and made his way to 
New Helvetia. 

On his arrival, having received word that 
Commodore Sloat had hoisted the American flag 
and taken possession of Monterey on July 7th, 
1846, Fremont promptly followed suit at New 
Helvetia, and at the same time severed his con- 
nection with the ''Bear Flag" Republic of Cali- 
fornia. Reaching Monterey, Commodore Stock- 
ton, who succeeded Sloat on July 23rd, accepted 
a tender of services from Fremont and his men, 
and appointed him Major of the newly formed 
"California Battalion of Mounted Riflemen," 
which included scouts and "Bear Flag" revolu- 
tionaries. This command embarked for San 
Diego, and Stockton sailed for San Pedro, where 
he landed his forces. General Castro and Gov- 
ernor Pio Pico made a show of defence, but on 
the approach of Fremont and Stockton, who had 



joined forces, fled, and on August 13, Los Ange- 
les was occupied. 

Learning a few days afterwards that war had 
actually broken out between the United States 
and Mexico, Stockton immediately declared 
California to be United States territory, and set- 
tled matters by placing the whole country under 
martial law and appointed Fremont its military 

The picturesque appearance of Fremont's ir- 
regular cavalry has been frequently commented 
on, and its visit to Santa Barbara when Fremont 
was on his way North to enroll recruits, is still 
remembered by one or two of the few remaining 
Barbarenos of that time. They state that Fre- 
mont's force was composed of fierce looking 
frontier trappers dressed in buckskin, many of 
them Indians, armed with rifles, bowie knives 
and revolvers, and mounted on wild looking 
horses. They encamped three blocks west of 
State on Carrillo Street, and Fremont made his 
headquarters at the corner of State and East Car- 
rillo St., his officers staying at the St. Charles 

After a brief sojourn, Fremont went north to 
obtain recruits, and was successful in enlisting 
some Walla Walla Indians and Canadian trap- 
pers as American soldiers at twenty-five dollars 
a month; he then proceeded to San Francisco 
where he met Commodore Stockton. 



At the end of September, word reached 
Stockton that the Spanish Californians were in 
revolt, and that Lieut. Gillespie, who had been 
left in charge at Los Angeles, had capitulated, 
having been guaranteed against molestation 
while he withdrew with his men to San Pedro 
and embarked on the merchant ship Vandalia. 
His evacuation was followed by that of the small 
garrison at San Diego. Also, on September 25th, 
Lieutenant Talbot, who with ten men had been 
left in charge at Santa Barbara, had been called 
upon to surrender, but although surrounded by 
a large body of horsemen, he refused, and duriui^ 
the night escaped to the mountains. The Cali- 
fornians tried to smoke out the little party by 
setting fire to the brush, but fortunately they had 
taken refuge in a canyon, and after a few days, a 
friendly Indian guided them to the San Joaquin 
Valley. From there they made their way to 
Monterey, arriving in a half-starved condition, 
having traveled over five hundred miles. 

By this time, all Southern California was up 
in arms against the invaders, under the leader- 
ship of Jose Maria Flores, who directed the mil 
itary operations when Captain Mervine, of the 
U. S. S. Savannah landed at San Pedro on Oc- 
tober 6th. With a force of three hundred and 
fifty marines he started out to re-capture Los 
Angeles, expecting to obtain mounts for his men 
on the way. The Californians, however, hod 


denuded the country of horses, although ther 
themselves were well mounted. 

The Californians were two hundred strong, 
tnd had one small cannon, which was trained on 
the road which the Americans had to traverse. 
As soon as they came within range the gun was 
fired and then quickly hauled out of reach, to be 
again fired when the Americans appeared. The 
elusive tactics of the Californians made the brav- 
ery of the marines — who advanced again and 
again — of no avail, and Captain Mervine 
ordered his men to retire, which they did, carry- 
ing with them the dead and wounded. 

Stockton, on hearing this news, sent Fremont 
with his men by land to Los Angeles, and he him- 
self embarked for San Pedro, arriving there on 
October 23rd. After endeavoring to obtain 
horses for his men, without success, and not wish- 
ing to repeat Mervine's experience, he re-em- 
barked, and sailed for San Diego, to await Fre- 
mont, who had stopped at Monterey for recruits. 

A force of over eight hundred men, the larg- 
est body of troops seen in California up to that 
time, was gathered early in November at San 
Diego in preparation for a move on Los Angeles. 

During the progress of these events, early in 
December, General Stephen W. Kearny had 
entered California from New Mexico over the 
Colorado River. He had left Santa Fe in com- 
mand of over three hundred men with orders to 



proceed to California, and hold the territory for 
the United States. On his way to the coast he 
met Kit Carson, the famous scout, bearing des- 
patches from Stockton, and learned from him 
that California was already in American posses- 
sion; Carson also told him that the native Cali- 
fornians were all cowards, and would not fight. 
On the strength of this General Kearny sent 
back to Santa Fe all but one hundred and twentv 
of his men. 

Unfortunately, Carson had left Los Angeles 
on his mission to Washington before the actual 
revolt in the south had commenced, and knew 
aothing of the disturbances which had broken 
out there. General Kearny went for\vard with 
his weakened force into the midst of a situation 
for which he was unprepared, and was soon 
brought to a realization of his mistake. 

Captain Andres Pico had been sent by Gen- 
eral Flores to harass Stockton at San Diego, and 
to keep horses and supplies from the Americans. 
On the night of December 5th he encamped with 
his small body of horsemen at the Indian pueblo 
of San Pasqual, in the immediate neighborhood 
of Kearny's troops, without being aware of their 
close proximity, and the American general de- 
termined to advance and drive back what he 
thought was a band of raiders. His command, 
and more especially his animals, were almost ex- 
hausted from their trip across the desert, and in 



no condition to fight; many of his men were even 
mounted on mules, but Kearny was convinced 
that a demonstration would be sufficient to defeat 
the Californians. 

The following morning, December 6th, 
Kearny with his dragoons, and Gillespie's men, 
one hundred and sixty in all, with three guns, 
prepared to attack the Californians. It is re- 
lated that Acting-Lieutenant Beale of Gillespie's 
party endeavored to prevent this, on account of 
the bad condition of the men and horses, but 
Kearny paid no attention to him. 

As the first fifteen Americans reached the 
hilltop overlooking Pico's encampment, Kearny, 
with the confidence born of ignorance, ordered 
a charge, expecting to see the enemy flee. 
They certainly did so, but first killed Captain 
Johnston, who was commanding the advance 
guard. The Americans, flushed with what they 
thought was success, galloped in reckless pursuit, 
but soon their weakened condition began to tell, 
and the Californians easily outdistanced them. 

Suddenly, the apparently defeated Califor- 
nians turned on their pursuers, and as the strag- 
gling line of Americans came within reach, the 
long lances did deadly work. The firearms car- 
ried by the Americans had been discharged in 
the first attack, and they had not thought it neces- 
sary to reload ; sabres and guns without ammuni- 
tion in the hands of tired and poorly mounted sol- 



diers were no match for long sharp lances in the 
hands of the finest horsemen in the world, and 
although the Americans, coming up in numbers, 
finally drove off the enemy, eighteen of their men 
were killed and nineteen more seriously 
wounded, while the Californians lost about a 
dozen wounded. The Americans camped on the 
field, and could perhaps claim the day, but it was 
an empty victory. 

The morning after the battle, Kearny de- 
cided to march his weary troops towards San 
Diego, but he had not advanced far before he 
was surrounded by a large body of Californians, 
who kept him cooped up for several days. Kit 
Carson and Lieutenant Beale managed to get 
through the enemy's lines to Commodore Stock- 
ton at San Diego, and advised him of the pre- 
dicament of General Kearny. A relief force 
was at once despatched, the Californians retreat- 
ing on the approach of the reinforcements, and 
Kearny's command resumed its march to San 
Diego, arriving there on December 12th in a pit- 
iable condition. 

Leaving San Diego on December 29th, 
Stockton with six hundred men advanced to re- 
capture Los Angeles. After a skirmish with the 
enemy at San Gabriel on January 8th, 1847, he 
engaged in an artillery duel with Flores' men on 
the outskirts of the city, and although the Cali- 
fornian cavalry charged repeatedly, they were 



finally routed, and Los Angeles entered the fol- 
lowing day. 

In the meantime, Fremont had recruited 
some four hundred and twenty men of all nation- 
alities, including some reformed Californian 
horse thieves (it would seem that reform socie- 
ties were busy even in those days) and with them 
left Monterey on November 17th to aid in the re- 
conquest of Southern California. 

After several skirmishes of no special inter- 
est, San Luis Obispo was captured, and ex-Com- 
andante Jesus Pico taken prisoner at a ranch 
near by, and sentenced to death; however, upon 
the intercession of his wife and fourteen child- 
ren, Fremont pardoned him, much to the disgust 
of his scouts. 

Without any further incident, Santa Barbara 
was again entered, no opposition being offered, 
as most of the young men had gone to Los Ange- 
les. Fremont gave his men a week's rest here, 
and it is related that during his stay a plot was 
hatched to kidnap him at a dance given to the 
officers under his command, but Comandante dc 
la Guerra hearing of this he forbade it, doubtless 
fearing reprisals on the part of Fremont's men in 
the event of its success. 

Continuing his march from Santa Barbara, 
January 3rd, 1847, Fremont slowly advanced, 
and exchanged shots with a party of Californians 
at Ventura, without any casualties, arriving at 



San Fernando January 8th, the day before Stock- 
ton, who had advanced from San Diego en- 
countering but slight opposition, entered Los 
Angeles, where the Stars and Stripes wak 
hoisted, never to be lowered again. 

While in camp at San Fernando, Fremont 
made preparations for a treaty of peace with the 
Californians, due to the efforts of Jesus Pico who 
had been sentenced to death and pardoned br 
Fremont; Pico visited the camp of the Califor- 
nians in the hills and repaid his pardon by induc- 
ing its leaders to accept Fremont's terms. 

On the 13th of January, 1847, at a point near 
the Cahuenga Pass, a treaty was drawn up for 
the restoration of peace, and settling the future 
rights of the Californians. This bore the signa- 
tures of Comandante Andres Pico for the Cali- 
fornians and Colonel John C. Fremont for the 
United States; Governor Flores, and Commo- 
dore Stockton as the United States Commander- 
in-Chief assented, and the treaty was an accom- 
plished fact. 

Commodore Stockton, in pursuance of in- 
structions which he had communicated to the 
Government in September (1846), now ap- 
pointed Col. Fremont governor of the territory, 
and Wm. H. Russell, secretary. It is painful to 
relate that unfortunate disputes arose as to the 
right of Fremont to the hii^h dignity of governor. 
General Kearny produced a commission ap- 



pointing himself to the office. His pretensions, 
however were opposed by both Stockton and 
Fremont, who contended that a new train of 
circumstances had arisen since the produced 
commission had been granted. The instructions 
to General Kearny from the war department, 
(^^should he conquer the country"), Commodore 
Stockton considered as anticipated by himself: 
and of course the resulting action prescribed by 
those instructions contingently, (^'to form a civil 
government,") as devolving on himself, the real 
conqueror of the territory. In these views of 
Stockton, the Government entirely acquiesced, — 
so far as respected the approval in mass of his 
whole conduct, — the secretary of the navy spec- 
ially thanking him for anticipating the wishes of 
the Government. It is not a little singular, that 
although the validity of Stockton's acts was thus 
sanctioned, yet Colonel Fremont, for obedience 
to his orders, was tried by court martial, and con- 
victed of disobedience to the orders of General 
Kearny. His sentence was suspension from the 
service; but the President, in consideration of 
his many services and mitigating circumstances* 
was pleased to remit the punishment, and 
ordered him to be restored to his former rank. 
Fremont, however, being of the opinion that he 
had done no wrong, refused to accept this clem- 
ency, and accordingly resigned his commission^ 
and retired from the American militarv service, 



Whatever may have been the merits of this case, 
il is certain that Fremont showed himself a true 
hero, in his efforts to overthrow the Mexican 
power in California, and is deserving of the 
gratitude of American settlers in that territory. 
As an adventurous, persevering and talented ex- 
plorer, who laid open practicable and easy paths 
to a great country that had long been closed 
against the boldest pioneers, he deserves the ap- 
probation of the civilized world. 

*'The Pathfinder" again engaged in explor- 
ation work, and once more visited California in 
1849, where he was enthusiastically received. 
Such was his popularity that he was elected V. 
S. Senator for California in 1850, and in 1856 re- 
ceived the nomination for President by the new 
Republican Party. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War he was ap- 
pointed Major General of Volunteers, May 
14th, 1861, resigning his command on June 4th, 

He was appointed Governor of Arizona in 
1878, and was placed on the Army retired list as 
Major General early in 1890, by special Act of 
Congress, dying shortly afterwards, July 13th. 

Whatever his detractors may say, the fact re- 
mains that John C. Fremont freely contributed 
his services in adding to the domain of the 
United States, and he will always live in the 



memory of young America as ''The Pathfinder.'' 
a sobriquet he earned by his explorations and ac- 
tivities on behalf of his country. 

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in the be- 
ginning of 1848, confirmed the possession of Cal- 
ifornia to the United States, and ended its history 
as a Spanish community. The Spanish Califor- 
nians might have continued to form the larger 
part of the population, like the French in Louis- 
iana, had not the discovery of gold in the Sacra- 
mento brought an overwhelming flood of treas- 
ure-seekers from every land under the sun, until 
today, very few of the old school are left. 

Early Days in Santa Barbara 

Some thirty years ago, the task of construct- 
ing a scene of the early days of Santa Barbara 
would have been comparatively simple, but to- 
day almost all of those who then figured in his- 
tory have passed away, and only their descend- 
ants are left, from whom much of the following 
material has been gathered. 

It is probably true that the old Californians 
were, so far as merely material existence is con- 
cerned, perhaps the happiest people who ever 
lived upon the face of the earth. They were 
few in number in a country of inexhaustible 
natural wealth; the climate enabled them to live 
out-of-doors all the year round, and made exer- 



cise a pleasure, for it is neither too warm nor too 
cold at any season. The cattle, horses, and sheep 
fed on the richest pastures, and were never cared 
for as it is necessary to do with animals in the 
East. If more land was needed, it could be ob- 
tained for the asking; a man dowered his daugh- 
ters from the public domain, and had only to 
take the trouble to select what he thought the 

Poverty, in the sense in which it is understood 
today was unknown, for he who was poor lived 
on his rich relations; the houses were always 
open to every one, and at the table sat uncles, 
cousins, and nieces, to the farthest degree re- 
moved, welcome with the family to the chili con 
carne, beans, tortillas, and dukes which com- 
posed the ample meals. 

Indians were their servants, or rather part of 
the family, since they were paid no wages in the 
sense of the word; on feast days they would be 
given a new blanket, scarf or petticoat, and a lit- 
tle money to spend. Illness and doctors' bills 
were unknown. When the ranchcro traveled he 
found a free hotel at every house; and when his 
horse was tired, he simply lassoed a fresh one out 
of the first pasture he came to, turned his own 
adrift, and went on. 

Their few wants were mostly supplied from 
their own lands, and inr such luxuries as tea, 
coffee, sugar, or bright dress stuffs for the wo- 





men, they sold hides, horns and tallow to the 
Boston traders. 

But they had none of the energy and ingenu- 
ity of civilized life. They merely lived and had 
no thought for the morrow; they planted no 
trees, few fields were plowed; and a soil which is 
the richest in the world, and a climate in which 
the orange, the vine, and olive flourish, served 
them merely for pasture. Is it to be wondered 
at that the few old Californians still living re- 
gret the change? 

In the early forties, the citizens of Santa Bar- 
bara relied on the visits of trading vessels for 
everything in the way of luxuries, which were 
exchanged for hides, etc. In those days there 
were no wharves, the buyers being conveyed 
from shore to ship by sailors dressed for the oc- 
casion in blue flannel shirts, with white stars on 
the collars, blue cloth trousers, leather belts, and 
with bare feet. The ^'jackies" of those days had 
lots of fun in carrying the ladies in their arms 
and depositing them in the stern sheets of the 
boat, for the trip to the ship, the surf at times 
being heavy, and drenching the fair cargo before 
pulling away from the shore. Then the excite- 
ment of boarding the treasure ship, which con- 
tained the latest fashions from Boston, and bar- 
gaining for anything which took their fancy. All 
had open accounts, to be paid for at some future 
period in hides and tallow, and such was the 



honesty that characterized the trading, that very 
few bad debts were made, the balance of account 
usually being in favor of the trader — the New 
England variety which held the trade in this 
section being unusually keen. 

How the senoritas did chatter as they looked 
over the treasures, always under the watchful 
gaze of an elderly duena, to keep them out of 

Castle Rock, Santa Barbara. 

mischief and the men at a distance, but all pre- 
cautions were vain at times, since love laughs at 
duenas and other impediments, many a love- 
match and subsequent mnrriage resulting from 
visits to the ships of these Boston traders. 

The cargoes usually consisted of clothing, 
hardware, boots and shoes, jewelry, clocks, 
shawls, combs, furniture, and liquors and groccr- 



ies of all kinds. The import of assorted cargoes 
and the export of hides and tallow became a 
great trade on the coast, and constituted the chief 
commerce of the country down to 1849, when the 

gold rush started. 


The people seemed happy and content; their 
wants were few, and ^^Sufficient for the day" was 
their motto. Though the land around Santa Bar- 
bara was very rich, it lay idle, for the most part. 
Each family raised a little corn; or rather, they 
had Indians raise it for them. The corn they 
ground in a rude manner between two stones 
before each meal, and out of it made tortillas, 
and with these and dried beef and yerba buena 
tea, they were satisfied. Of course, the rich fam- 
ilies lived better. 

Boston merchants had the whole trade of the 
coast. Almost every ship that came hailed from 
Boston; so they thought Boston was the United 
States. The only thing they had to export was 
hides and tallow. Once a year the large ranch- 
eros slaughtered their fat cattle, dried the beef, 
and saved up the tallow and hides, and trans- 
ported all to a shipping point. For a good dry 
hide they could get $2.50 in trade, or $1.25 in 
cash. Sometimes when they had a surplus of 
dried beef they sold it for export to the islands 
or Chile. 

When the killing time came on at the large 



ranches, Indians were gathered, and they did ail 
the work. Each Indian would have about a 
dozen dogs, and all would live high during the 
killing time, and go away fat. The buzzards 
would gather in great numbers, and devour what 
the Indians and dogs would leave. It was 
against the law to kill a buzzard, and they 
seemed to know it, as they were without fear. 
They were sometimes so gorged that they could 
not rise from a level piece of ground, but would 
have to waddle up to some elevation and then 
float ofif. The sports of the people were horse- 
racing and cock-fighting, their amusement the 
fandango, while monte was their only gambling 
game. Deer-hides furnished a good part of the 
wearing apparel of the men, though they had 
some sheep, the wool from which was woven into 
blankets by the Indians. The clothing of the 
women, which was very simple, came from 

^ ^ 4^ ^ ^ "^ ^ "^ 

A very old inhabitant of Santa Barbara re- 
members the time, some eighty years ago, when 
her brother traded some deer skins for a gun and 
four tooth-brushes, with an American captain. 
The tooth-brushes were the first seen in this parr 
of the world, but after rubbino; their teeth and 
gums with them till the blood came, the family 
decided they liked best the brushes made of 
pounded willow-root that they had always used. 



After the trading ship went new dresses were 
cut out, and made up by the Indian women, and 
the old lady still remembers how proud she was 
of some large brass buttons with eagles on them, 
with which her mother trimmed one of the new 
garments, and how she used to polish them every 
day with the tooth-brush and some of the pow- 
dered egg-shell which her sisters and all the 
Spanish ladies used on their complexions on state 
occasions. One of the neighbors, who came from 
several miles away to see the new purchases, of- 
fered to give her a fine colt for six of the buttons, 
but they were much too precious to be bartered 

The only form of dwelling in early Santa 
Barbara was the adobe with tiled roof; it was 
well calculated to keep cool in summer and 
warm in winter, and is today in many respects 
the most suitable houses for the climate. 

The interior of the houses was plainly fur- 
nished, the chief luxury being generally found 
in the furnishings and decorations of the senora's 
room, no matter how simple her domicile. 

Objects of pride with the California house- 
wife were the family garments stitched and em- 
broidered to a nicety, but objects of supreme 
pride were the beds. Not less than luxurious 
must they be, with ticks filled with down, silken 
counterpanes, and satin pillow-covers edged with 
lace or embroidery. 



In the old days it would be difficult indeed to 
find a community in California who got more out 
of life than the citizens of Santa Barbara. The 
commonest dress had a picturesque air, since 
rich and poor usually wore a silver or gold 
braided wide sombrero, which with the gay col- 
ors of jackets and breeches, made up a costume 
which, though grotesque in the present day, was 
eminently suited to the period. 

Silks, satins, and richest brocades of such ma- 
terial as would last a lifetime (not like the pres- 
ent day flimsy affairs) characterized the ladies' 
dresses; in a trousseau it was not uncommon to 
find as many as forty dresses of silk and satin, be 
sides embroidered Philippine shawls, scarfs, and 
fine linens. 

The costume worn by women of the middle 
class consisted of a bodice with short embroid- 
ered sleeves, often richly trimmed with lace, a 
muslin petticoat flounced with scarlet or other 
bright color, and fastened at the waist by a band 
of the same hue, shoes of velvet or satin, a cotton 
reboso or scarf, necklace and ear-rings of pearls 
or other stones, with the hair falling down the 
back in broad braids. The English style was 
affected by some women of the wealthy class, and 
instead of the reboso, a rich shawl of silk or satin 
was worn. There was something graceful in the 
management of the reboso which the Spanish 
woman alone can impart, and the perfect non- 



chalence with which it was draped about them, 
added much to its beauty. 

*Jt^ ^ ^ Jk j^ ^ jk. 

/J* ^j> ^r* "i* "T* '•• "I* 

Barbecues, meriendas, or picnics were a fav- 
orite diversion, and the time passed pleasantly in 
dancing, music, and games; hot refreshments 
were usually served, consisting of tamales, en- 
chiladas, roast polios (chickens), and often a 
calf, deer, or kid barbecued whole on the spot. 
The generous fare usually concluded with an as- 
sortment of dulces (cakes and candied fruits), 
fresh fruits, nuts, and native and foreign wines. 

Relations between mistress and maid were in- 
deed happy in those days; although servants, es- 
pecially old retainers, were permitted many 
privileges, the master and mistress were re- 
garded with the greatest respect, as being respon- 
sible for their welfare. The favored servant, 
who usually waited at table, would often be per- 
mitted to break into the conversation, much to 
the astonishment of guests who were unac- 
quainted with this custom. An old Spanish 
proverb bearing on this is as follows : — ^'Un buen 
criado sabe cuando callar y cuando meter su 
cuchara" (A good servant knows when to be 
silent and when to put in his spoon) . 

*4t 4t 4tt ^ 'It -ke 'Ite 

«1% ^» *f* ^» *J* •!» I* 

Some of the great ranches were like the an- 
cient feudal estates, one of the most notable being 
that of Captain Jose de la Guerra y Noriega, a 




^ .-^., 


Spaniard, and founder of the de la Guerra fam- 
ily of Santa Barbara. Very wealthy, he owned 
fifty leagues of land, 20,000 head of cattle, and 
12,000 horses. Both he and his wife, who was of 
the family of Carrillo, were ardent supporters of 
the church, and devoted to its interests; so good 
were they to their less fortunate brothers as to be 
called ^'defender of the poor" and "that most 
charitable lady." An American visitor to Santa 
Barbara early in last century is reported to have 
said on her return home that she found two su- 
perlatively good things in California. '*La 
Senora Noriega and grapes." It is also told that 
Captain Noriega when about to pay for merch- 
andise brought in by ship would take his creditor 
to the attic of his house, a room which was used 
solely for storing his treasure. Here were two 
ancient Spanish chairs, and at intervals were 
standing over a dozen coras (Indian baskets) the 
largest holding about half a bushel, all of which 
contained gold, some being almost full. It is also 
told how the sons of Captain Noriega removed 
two or three tiles from the roof under which 
stood these baskets, and then, with a home-made 
tool, raked out the sum desired; surely a novel 
way of tapping their father's banking account. 

The Spanish-Californians were noted for 
their extreme politeness, even to the point of su- 
perfluous ceremony. It was customary for each 



member of the family to meet and embrace an 
acquaintance on entering a room. This cordial- 
ity was extended to the stranger as soon as the 
members of the household recognized him as a 

This ease and grace of character extended to 
all classes of people, the poorest often exhibiting 
a courtesy that would become a prince, in their 
attitude to each other as well as towards strang- 

A guest upon entering a house was immedi- 
ately assured that everything was at his disposal, 
the usual salutation being: — '^es casa de usted" 
(this house is yours), though it was not to be as- 
sumed that this offering was to be taken literally; 
still, their inborn hospitality always made the 

visitor feel at home. 


First American Settler in Santa Barbara 

The honor of being the first American-boni 
permanent settler in Santa Barbara undoubtedly 
belongs to Joseph Chapman, he having been en- 
rolled as a colonist by Governor Sola in 1818. 

Originally from Boston, where he had 
learned the trade of a shipwright, he became a 
sailor, and landed at Buenos Aires just in time 
to be impressed as a member of the crew of the 
Argentino privateer captained by the French- 
man Bouchard, who raided the coast of Califor- 



nia in 1818. A party of buccaneers was landed 
at *'E1 Refugio," the Ortega ranch about thirty 
miles north of Santa Barbara during these raids, 
and while engaged in plunder, were attacked by 
soldiers from the Presidio. A fierce skirmish 
took place, several pirates being killed and 
driven into the sea, and two taken prisoners. 

These two were taken into the Ortega ranch, 
one of them being Joseph Chapman, and Senor- 
ita Guadalupe Ortega, a girl of sixteen, dressed 
the wounds he had received, and at the same 
time lost her heart to him. A few days later, 
when Chapman was tried by court-martial, the 
young Senorita went to Santa Barbara to plead 
for his life; the comandante of the Presidio, be- 
ing a kind-hearted man, said that if anyone 
would be responsible for the appearance of the 
prisoners when called upon, they should go free, 
and Capt. Antonio Lugo, agreed to be responsi- 
ble for Chapman, and to take him to Los Angeles 
in case some harm should befall him here. 

Jose Chapman, as he was afterwards called, 
being ingenious and of an industrious disposition, 
as well as possessing good manners and deport- 
ment, gained the favor of the Californians, and 
a year after his landing as a prisoner, he came 
from Los Angeles to Santa Barbara, and wedded 
Senorita Ortega at the Santa Barbara Mission. 

He became noted for the success attending 
every project which he planned, and the padres 



said he could get more work out of the Indians 
when superintending them than all the major- 
domos of the missions put together. 

A ship being needed for the use of the Mis- 
sion of San Gabriel, Chapman, under the direc- 
tion of Padre Jose Sanchez, undertook to build 
one, undeterred by the fact that he would have- 
to obtain the necessary timber from the moun- 
tains some thirty miles away from tidewater. He 
made a selection of the best trees suitable for the 
purpose, had them cut down, hewn into planks, 
and transported to San Gabriel, where he framed 
the vessel into sections for fitting together. When 
this unique work was completed, he conveyed the 
many parts down to the beach at San Pedro, and 
with great ingenuity assembled them, the result 
being a sixty-ton schooner. It was most success- 
fully launched and christened ^'Guadalupe,'' 
amid the cheers of a large number of people who 
had gathered from far and near to witness the 

From the records of land grants in Santa Bar- 
bara County, it would appear that 4,440 acres 
were deeded to Jose Chapman in 1838, and sub- 
sequently confirmed to his wife, Guadalupe Or 
tega de Chapman. 

Later, when the first American adventurers 
came to Santa Barbara, they found Jose Chap 
man, with fair-haired children around him, in 
business as a carpenter and millwright, and a 



great favorite of the padres. He died in 1858; 
many of his descendants still living in Santa Bar- 
bara and engaged in commercial activities at the 
present time. 

^ -^ ^ -t- * ^^- * * 

Famous Wedding at Santa Barbara 

To Santa Barbara belongs the distinction of 
having celebrated within its Mission church, in 
1822, with all due pomp and ceremony, the first 
great wedding taking place in California during 
the Mexican regime, that between Don Luis Ar- 
guello, one of the most interesting men in early 
California history, and Dona Maria Soledan 
Ortega, of the Rancho del Refugio, Santa Bar- 

For months many Indian girls had been busy 
making silks and satins into gowns, and fashion- 
ing fine drawn-thread work on bedspreads and 
undergarments, while a dozen girl friends of the 
bride-to-be embroidered the flowers of the coun- 
try, particularly the red gold poppy, on various 
dainty white garments. 

The bridegroom had sent to the City of 
Mexico for the customary donas, or presents, 
consisting of silk stockings, mantillas, fans, laces, 
sashes, high combs bound with gold, pearls from 
Baja California, a topaz necklace, a rosary of 
amethyst beads, and, most important gift of all, 
which if forgotten would have cost him his bride. 



six camisas or smocks, fine as cobweb, richly em- 
broidered and trimmed with precious lace. 

The wedding dress of the bride was made in 
the prevailing fashion, with long pointed bodice 
and full skirt, with a mantilla hiding her blushes 
and flowing nearly to her little feet. The bride- 
groom w^ore his most gorgeous uniform. 

The Rancho del Refugio, where the wxdding 
festivities were held, faced the sea, and the guests 
from Monterey and San Francisco came by ship, 
while those from the ranchos traveled on horse- 
back or by carreta, a low wagon made from solid 
sections of trees, springless, and drawn by bul- 
locks; evidently anything but a comfortable con- 
veyance. Among the numerous guests were rep- 
resentatives of all the well-known Old California 
families, Carrillos, Orenas, de la Guerras, Estu- 
dillos, Vallejos, Alvarados, Castros, Picos, Es- 
tradas, and more Ortegas; those who could not 
be housed even half-dozen in a bed in the great 
adobe house met the wedding party at the Mis- 
sion, and then rode over for the three days and 
nights of dancing and festivity, when beds, no 
doubt, were superfluous. 

When the happy pair had departed for San 
Francisco, the older members of the party said 
a governor's wedding in the cathedral of the City 
of Mexico could not have been more gorgeous, 
but the memories of the younger generation did 
not extend beyond the good times they had had in 



merrymaking and treading the ''light fantastic 

Calif or nian Indian Musical Instruments', 
Songs, Dances and Games. 

One of the most popular musical instruments 
among the Californian natives was a flute of 
elder wood or deer's horn, which was played 
like the dulce. It was entirely open from top 
to bottom, and made in different sizes. It pro- 
duced eight tones perfectly, and on it were 
played various tunes, nearly all in one measure, 
most of them merry. 

They had also another stringed instrument, 
consisting of a wooden bow to which a string of 
sinew was bound, producing a note. 

Their songs, whether happy or sad, were 
usually all in the same tone, though sometimes 
they would raise and lower the voice in thirds, 
fifths, or octaves; they had no idea of part sing- 
ing, excepting when many sang together some 
would go an octave higher than the rest. Most 
of their songs were merry, though some were sad 

in parts, but if the song was one of vengeance 
or bad wishes — from which many a fight would 

result — they would sing and dance at the same 

time, speaking ill of those with whom they were 

on bad terms, and mentioning their defects, or 

anything they knew to their disadvantage. 

In dancing, they would stand in a circle, and 

without moving from the spot, bend their bodies, 



move their feet, and make many contortions; 
whether this was intended to strengthen their 
own courage for the fray, or to frighten their 
enemies, history does not say. 

One of their favorite sports was playing with 
a ball made of hard wood. The Indians belong- 
ing to the Presidio would play those from the 
Mission, as many as 300 playing at a time; boun- 
dary lines were established between the contend- 
ing parties, the object being to drive the ball over 
the boundary lines of their opponents. Great ex- 
citement attended these games, the wooden ball 
used often laying out a player as in the modern 
games of football or baseball. Many of the 
fatigued or injured Indians would afterwards re- 
tire to the ^^Temascales" (the Indian Turkish 
bath) to heal their bruises or sleep off their 

In Santa Barbara County the major portion 
of the population lived on the ranchos, which 
contained anywhere from 5,000 to 50,000 acres, 
the owner of each rancho possessing from 1,000 
to 10,000 head of horned cattle, and from one or 
two hundred to 3,000 or 4,000 horses, broken and 
bronco. Money was plentiful, the country pros- 
perous, the rancheros were well dressed and 
housed, and had an abundance of stores, b(Uh 
home produce and imported. 

The hospitality at the ranchos was wonderful. 
Anyone, stranger or no, could travel the length 



of the country without cost, being furnished with 
a fresh horse as every rancho, and leaving the one 
previously ridden. To charge a traveler for an}^- 
thing received would have been considered the 
height of meanness. 

Monotonous as was ranch life, social inter- 
course and amusements were not wanting. Re- 
ligious fiestas were celebrated frequently at the 
Mission with much pomp and ceremony, the 
most important of these being during H0I3' 
Week, and on Corpus Christi and St. John's Day. 

Also, on the occasion of a wedding a grand 

fiesta would be given either at the rancho or 

Mission, to which all were invited. Some of the 

guests came many miles, families traveling in 

their elaborate carretas, and the beaux taking 

the belles before them on their fine saddles, the 

young man sitting on the croup with his bridle 

arm on the shoulder of his fair passenger, or 
round her dainty waist. 

These marriage celebrations would last for 
three or four days, and after much feasting and 
dancing the guests would scatter to their ranches, 
where the major-domo and Indian vanqueros 
had carried on as if the owner himself had been 

Hardly was a child born in Spanish-Cali- 
fornia before it was hurried to the priest for 
baptism. When eight or ten years of age, it was 
often betrothed; and, if a girl, married when 



thirteen or fourteen. Fathers made the mar- 
riage contracts and the wedding festivities were 

One of the quaint customs which was always 
observed at weddings was to wind a silken tas- 
selled string or a silken sash, fringed with gold, 
about the necks of the bride and groom, binding 

them together as they knelt before the altar. 

The bridegroom's present to the bride, or 
dona, consisted of at least six changes of raiment, 
and on no account did he forget the "camisa.'' 
Such an oversight would be construed into a per- 
sonal insult to the bride, and he therefore sought 

these with as much earnestness as the Peri the 
gift which was to unlock Paradise. Having 

found six which were neither too full nor too 
slender, he packed them up daintily, often in 

rose-leaves, and sent them to the lady as his last 
bridal present. 

On the wedding-day, two fine horses, pro- 
cured especially for the occasion, were led to the 
door, saddled, bridled, and pillioned. The bride- 
groom took up before him the godmother, and 
the godfather the bride, and tluis they went to 
the church, where the priest received them at the 
altar. On the return journey, after the cere- 
mony, the bridegroom took his bride before him 
on the pillion, steadying her in the saddle with 
his right hand, and holding the reins in his left, 
and thus they returned to the home of the bride's 



parents, being generally received with a dis- 
charge of musketry. Two persons, stationed at 
some convenient spot, would then rush out and 
seize the bridegroom by the legs, and before he 
had time to dismount, take off his spurs, which 
he was compelled to redeem with a bottle of 

The newly-married couple would then enter 
the house,where the near relatives were waiting, 
in tears, to receive them, and the parents of the 
bride would solemnly bestow their blessing. 
Then would commence the dancing and merri- 
m^ent, which continued often for three days, with 
only brief intervals for refreshment, but none 
for sleep, the wedded pair being expected to be 
on their feet practically the whole time. 

A most charming custom among the middle 
nnd lower classes was for the groom to make a 
pair of satin shoes for the bride. The Benedict- 
to-be approached his betrothed a few weeks be- 
fore the wedding, and requested a measurement 
of her foot, since it was the invariable rule that 
he had to make the shoes with his own hands; it 
was then the dutv of the ''best man" to deliver 
them to the bride on her wedding-d-ay. 

Spanish Calif ornian Dances 
Among the many pleasures popular in Span- 
ish-California, easily the most popular was the 
dance, and more particularly the folk-dance. 


The scene might be either a sala indoors, or the 
open air; the performers, caballeros with 
braided hair, and senoritas with flowing locks; 
the instruments, the violin and guitar, the figures, 
la jota (danced by four to sixteen couples), la 
zorrita, el caballo, el jarabe, and el fandango. 

When a lady danced w^ith unusual grace, the 
m-ale spectators often showed appreciation by 
throwing coins and trinkets at her feet. 

The use of cascarones was commonly prac- 
tised at all great entertainments, cascarones be- 
ing egg-shells filled with finely-cut gold and sil- 
ver paper, cologne, or harmless colored water. 
Sometimes, prior to the formal opening of the 
carnival, on the journey or at the arrival, cas- 
carones were broken upon one another, and fre- 
quently the sport became so boisterous that the 
dresses of the ladies and the faces of the cabal- 
leros suffered. At the ball this mirthful play 
was frequently dispensed with, but it is related 
by travelers that it was the cstom at the dance 
for the senoritas to break cascarones of cologne 
water upon the heads of their favorites, this often 
being an invitation to dance, or a challenge to a 
mild flirtation. 

The old Spanish serenades, once sung every- 
where in C^ilifornia are rapidly disappearing; 
the following is probably one of the most beau- 
tiful examples of a lover's song: 



So Calm the Night 

So still and calm the night is, 
The very wind's asleep ; 
Thy heart's so tender sentinel 
His watch and ward doth keep. 
And on the wings of zephyrs soft 
That wander how they will, 
To thee, oh woman fair, to thee 
My prayers go fluttering still. 

Oh take the heart's love to thy heart 
Of one that doth adore! 
Have pity — add not to the flame 
That burns thy troubadour! 
And if compassion stir thy breast 

For my eternal woe. 
Oh, as I love thee, loveliest 

Of women, love me so! 

A Country House in the Olden Days 

The patio would be full of servants of both 
sexes, but principally women, and one wondered 
what they all found to do. It would seem, how- 
ever, that the mistress of the house had two ser- 
vants for her exclusive use, and each child, boy 
and girl, had one whose sole duty it was to care 
for him or her. Four or five would grind the 
corn for the tortillas, and six or seven serve in 
the kitchen; nearly a dozen attended to the 
sewing and spinning, and five or six were kept 



busy with the laundry. As a rule, the Indians did 
not find it easy to learn more than one duty; the 
cook would not wash clothes, and a good washer- 
woman considered herself aggrieved if asked to 
sew or to spin. No fixed pay was given, the 
mistress giving them what was needed; when 
sick the servants were cared for; when their 
children were born ,the master and mistress acted 
as godparents ,and l-ater attended to their in- 
struction . 

Education was usually the thing about which 
the Californian, priest or layman, troubled him- 
self least. For girls it usually consisted of 
dancing, music, religion, and amiability. One 
of the belles of 1840 relates how she went to 
school in an adobe house in Santa Barbara, 
where a Spaniard taught them many new things, 
but when he said the earth was round ,they all 
laughed out loud! 

Some of the more liberal Californians, how- 
ever sent their sons out of the country to be edu- 
cated, some to Europe, and some to parts of the 
United States. 

La Casa de Aguirre 

It is a pathetic fact that today very little re- 
mains of the old adobe houses reminiscent of thr 
early days of Santa Barbara. 

Such was that belon^^ing to the Aguirre fam- 
ily, which once faced the site of the present 
Chamber of Commerce building on Carrillo 



Street, and was the scene of many gay festivities. 

The old mansion was built under the super- 
vision of Don Jose Antonio Aguirre for his bride 
elect, Senorita Maria Estudillo, daughter of Jose 
A. Estudillo of San Diego, whom he brought 
there in 1842. 

The house was quadrangular in shape, con- 
taining nineteen large apartments, with the usual 
patio in the center, and built on a raised stone 
foundation. Its spacious rooms, whose deep 
windows were set with tiny panes of glass, and 
barricaded on the outside with heavy wooden 
shutters, were handsomely furnished; the large 
sala, some thirty feet long, was filled with fine 
furniture, pictures and tapestries, most of which 
had been brought from Spain and other coun- 
tries There were fine antique tables of rich 
woods, sofas and chairs to match; pictures set in 
massive gilt frames, rarely seen in those days, 
adorned the frescoed w^alls, and three large chan- 
deliers with crystal pendants, hung from the 

The ample grounds were encircled by a stone 
wall which enclosed the well, fruit orchard, 
flower and vegetable gardens. The court, the 
nucleus of many historic associations, was forty 
feet square. The railing and fluted columns, 
continuous around its sides, which bordered the 
porches fifteen feet in width, were covered with 
rare exotics and brilliant tropical climbers. En- 



trance and exit, excepting through the main 
door, and into the store on the southwest corner, 
were through this court. Protected alike from 
the heat and the wind, and secluded from the 
passers by, the family would gather for a social 
hour. Guests would take advantage of its 
porches for a quiet promenade amid the frag- 
rance of flowers and melody of the native birds. 
In times of fiestas, anniversaries or balls given 
to people of celebrity a canopy shut out the sky 
and the court was converted into a large hall. 
Sometimes wandering M<7row<7j (Mexican strol- 


Casa de Aguirrr 

ling actors) acted their various attractions before 

admiring audiences. On the ocasion of balls 

the Senoras and their daughters appeared in rich 

brocades, silk rebosas and antique jewels which 

were only brought out of the treasure chests on 

notable assemblies. Hither came the Hills, the 



Dens, the Carrillos, the de la Guerras, and oth- 
ers of social prominence adding honor and dig- 
nity by their presence. It is said that the famous 
beauty Concepcion Arguello came with the in- 
mates of La Casa Grande to partake of the hos- 
pitality of those who occupied La Casa Aguirre. 
Its owner removing to San Diego in 1850, it stood 
for a long time vacant. Early in the civil war, a 
local company, the Mounted Rifles, kept their 
armory in this house; and later, Capt. Copley, of 
the First California Volunteers, used the build- 
ing as a barracks while in Santa Barbara. The 
first celebration of the Fourth of July, with its 
usual program, took place on the front corridor. 

On this wide verandah Sherifif Twist assemb- 
led his posse when he undertook to eject Jack 
Powers and others from the Arroyo Burro under 
a process issued by the Supreme Court. During 
the fight several men were wounded, Pat Dunn 
was killed, the Sheriff severely wounded, and the 
ends of justice defeated for the time being. A 
compromise to the satisfaction of the interested 
parties was effected eventually. 

The Sisters of Charity transferred their 
school from Las Cienguilla to the Aguirre house 
for a short period. In 1846, during the Ameri- 
can occupation, Lieut. Col. Fremont was enter- 
tained, his headquarters being a short distance 
away, on the site now occupied by the artistic 



edifice of the County National Bank and Trust 
Co., of Santa Barbara. 

During the Mexican war, Lt. Henry Burton., 
in command of the 1st Battalion of the 1st New 

The Court. Casa de Aguirrc. 

York Regiment, U. S. A., garrisoned the town 
in 1847; he and his ofTiccrs were frc(]ucntly en- 
tertained by the Aguirre family. A hiippv re- 
sult of this visit was the marriage of one of Lt. 
Burton's daughters to n ^on of Don Jose Aguirre. 



When the parish church was burned in 1865, 
leaving the padre with no place to administer to 
his flock, they gathered in the drawing room at 
the right of the main entrance. 

An Italian named Lobero, who sought relax- 
ation in music from real estate deals, used the 
house in which to drill his orchestra. He formed 
an amateur local opera company, with himself 
as manager, director and chief soloist, and made 
the old house echo with selections from the great 
masters of Italy. 

In April, 1868, the public schools gave their 
first evening entertainment here, in which eleven 
nationalities and nearly every family in the town 
were represented. Shortly afterwards, the 
ladies of Trinity Church, gave a festival in the 
house which netted them the munificent sum — 
for those days — of five hundred dollars. The 
Rev. E. M. Belts of the First Congregational 
Church, was ordained and installed by Dr. Stone, 
the silver-tongued orator from San Francisco, in 
this building, the people crowding into the court, 
the porches, and even taking possession of the 
private rooms. 

Even elections were held at this central and 
now public place, the most noted was that held 
for local option in 1874, at which the ladies were 
permitted to vote. 

It is quite a coincidence that Mr. Janssens 
the com padre of Don Jose Aguirre in early 



days, was the last person to wholly occupy the 
house. He kept the post office in the corner of 
the house first used as a store, where about 1867. 
the mail which was brought overland by stage 
or semi-monthly by steamer, was handed out to 
the townspeople. With the death of Mr. Jans- 
sens the house became deserted and fell into 
ruins, and was finally demolished to make w^a\ 
for the modern dwellings that now occupies this 
historic site. 

A Thousand Peso Bribe 
A. story is told of a visit made by a typical 
keen trader of those days to Governor Alvarado, 
who happened to be at Santa Bar^ ira, early in 

The trader was anxious to get his goods sold 
quickly, without the tediousness of passing the 
Customs, so early one morning, in company with 
a sailor shouldering a bag containing one 
thousand Mexican pesos, a visit was paid to Don 

The approach to the Governor's house was 
guarded by a fierce looking soldier, armed with 
an antiquated musket; ''No admittace here," 
shouted the sentry, fearing the trader had a bill 
to collect, but on being assured it was the other 
way about, lowered his musket and permitted 
them to enter. A short parley with Alvarado — 
who had the itching palm in excelsis, as the 
padres at the Mission could tell were they alive 



-and the trader departed with the necessary 

signed papers for the unloading of his cargo, and 
the loading of hides and tallow, without the 
usual tardy formalities. 

A lady writing of the early days, refers to the 
visit of Governor Alvarado, and represents him 
as being a full-blooded handsome Spaniard, with 
coal-black curly hair, and ^'clad in broadcloth 
and whiskers"!! What a sensation he would 
make if he could only come back and walk down 
the State Street of today!! 

Golden Days in Santa Barbara 

When gold was discovered in California in 
June, 1848, an era of great prosperity dawned 
for the ''cow counties" as parts of Southern Cali- 
fornia, including Santa Barbara County, were 
called. Every bullock was worth a bag of silver 
dollars, and the cattle which had been slaugh- 
tered for their hides and tallow to be exchanged 
for foreign goods, would have brought their 
owners great fortunes had they still been alive. 
There were, however, still vast herds around 
Santa Barbara, and the Guadalupe ranch alone 
had 40,000 head. The de la Guerras wath more 
than tw^o hundred thousand acres of land had 
still more, and it was not uncommon for the 
monthly sales of cattle to total many thousands 
of dollars. 

The simplicity of living practised by the 
Californians hitherto was now revolutionized by 



the sudden wealth that had come to them, and 
they appeared to be dazed by the greatness of 
their prosperity and like the present day 'Svar 
millionaire" had more money than they knew 
what to do with. The selection of dress, jewelry, 
and furniture, horse-racing, gambling, bull- 
fights, cockfights, and all kinds of festivities, 
made up their days. Mirth and vanity reigned 
over every other sentiment, and life to them was 
just one diversion after another. 

We are told that the ladies, in those golden 
years, never deigned to draw on a stocking less 
fine than silk, and the clay floor of the adobe 
house was no stranger to the sweep of regal satin; 
purple and fine linen were worn regardless of 
time, place, occasion or occupation. 

The demand for cattle, and the fabulous 
prices paid, brought one long gala day to the in- 
habitants of Santa Barbara. They moved about 
like so many bright birds, the caballeros in their 
dashing array, and the senoritas with their re- 
bosas of fine silk. There was food for all, and 
no thought of want entered their minds. 

This delightful state of things continued for 
;i few years, but eventually some enterprising 
people began importing large herds of cattle into 
California from the east; these bullocks could be 
purchased in the prairie states at $10 a head and 
sold in California at $100 a head, so it was a 
profitable occupation. It resulted, however, in 



lowered prices, and by 1862, beef was sold in the 
mines at two cents a pound, live weight. Cattle 
from Santa Barbara, which had to be driven 
many hundred miles before reaching the market, 
were at a great disadvantage and there was little 
demand for them. 

With the large numbers on hand and no mar- 
ket, an arrangement was made to reduce the 
herds by -a w^holesale slaughter; this took place 
close to the sea-shore at Montecito, and a hun- 
dred thousand cattle were sacrificed, the average 
price received for them being $5.00 a head. 

This slaughter to a certain extent relieved the 
market, but caused great losses. The great 
drought in 1863-4 completed the ruin of the 
California cattle owners. The great herds were 
no more, and Santa Barbara, whose assessment 
roll in 1863 showed over two hundred thousand 
head of cattle, had less than five thousand to eat 
the new grass that grew when the rains came 
again in 1864-5. 

The great stock owners, who, in many in- 
stances, had already become mortgaged on ac- 
count of low prices, were completely ruined by 
this stroke of ill fortune. Scarcely one was left 
with the estate which he had purchased or in- 
herited, and their lands passed to far-sighted new 
owners who had taken advantage of their neces- 
sities to acquire vast tracts for small laans. This 
obtains even in these so-called advanced days. 



In Santa Barbara in the eighties, the Cali- 
fornian still rode his fiery steed, and d-ashed 
down the main street as if riding a steeple chase, 
with young America not far behind. Graceful 
ladies, riding side-saddle, galloped fearlessly 
along; phaetons, English dog-carts, elegant car- 
riages, buck-boards, omnibuses, and country 
wagons of various makes and in all states of re- 
pair, conveying all sorts of people, drawn by well 
and ill-bred horses of all degrees, filed past and 
made life most interesting for the tourist of those 
days who was fortunate enough to have made t 
point of including Santa Barbara in his itinerary. 

At that time Santa Barbara was 85 miles 
from the nearest Railroad station, Newhall, on 
the Southern Pacific. 

The Mule Car 

An incident typical of the go-as-you-please 
days, when tomorrow was more in demand than 
today, is that of a still active member of the Com- 
mercial Club, who arrived here a very sick ma» 
in 1886. 

He embarked on the mule car expecting to 
land at the Arlington Hotel, paid his nickel to 
the driver-conductor, and off they started up 
State Street. After going about half a block, the 
car stopped and the mules were unhitched, and 
the pasesnger after waiting some little time, gol 
ofT the car to investigate. Finding the driver 



about to start off with the mules, he stopped him 
and enquired when the car would proceed on its 
journey, and was told '^In an hour or two, as the 
mules had to be shod." Asking why he had col- 
lected the fare, w^hen he knew he was not going 
on, and threatening a report to the management, 
the conductor said: "Well, stranger, I need the 
nickel, and if you have any report to make you 
might as well make it right now; Tm President 
and General Manager of this 'ere mule-car, so 
there you are." 

The owner of the mule-car was Bud McFale 
who is now in the furniture line in Reno, 

The sick man long ago recovered his health, 
and is now in the pink of condition, and a mem- 
ber of the School Board. 

Advent of Southern Pacific Railrodd 

The railroad movement started in 1 868 by the 
incorporation of the ''Santa Barbara Branch of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad," with some 
thirty citizens of Santa Barbara as incorporators, 
who proposed to build a road to connect with the 
Southern Pacific atl'uhire, and received a grant 
of land from Congress. Due to the fact that no 
road was constructed, no patents for this grant 
were issued, and for the next two years there was 
much discussion on the subject, without effect. 

In the early seventies, shortly after the com- 


pletion of the Central and Union Pacific roads, 
various schemes for other trans-continental rail- 
roads were promoted. Two companies, the At- 
lantic and Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific, 
were organized, and there was much agitation as 

~ ■ f^W^^^^^ fi^ 

Santa Barbara's First Court House in 1871, with Present 
Court House in Background. 

to which of these would have its terminus at 
Santa Barbara, but nothing came of it. 

Then a proposal was advanced for a road 
from Ventura through Santa Barbara to San 
Luis Obispo, and an effort made to have the Leg- 
islature authorize an election which had for its 
object the issue of bonds to finance the project, 
but without success. 



Finally, the disappointed railroad advocates 
proposed to build a road from Santa Barbara to 
connect with the Southern Pacific at Newhall, 
and while this was the most reasonable proposi- 
tion yet advanced, it never got beyond the talk- 
ing stage until the Southern Pacific Company 
itself constructed the road in 1887 and connected 
Santa Barbara with the rest of the world by rail. 

Bird's Lye View of Santa Barbara, 1687. 

The Boom Days of W^ and 1887 
Projects for railroad building were not the 
only excitement in Santa Barbara during the 
'seventies; a real estate boom, probably the first 
of its kind on the Pacific Coast, developed in the 
early years of that decade, and for a time exor- 
bitant prices were paid for land. 

The immediate causes of this were the publi- 
cation of several books on the beauties of Cali- 



fornia and an advertising campaign carried on 
by the Rev. J. A. Johnson, owner of the 'Tress", 
who not only filled his paper with information 
as to the climate and resources of Santa Barbara 
and sent copies to all parts of America, but also 
delivered illustrated lectures in the cities of the 
east on the same subject. 

Also, the prospect of being the terminus of a 
trans-continental railway made Santa Barbara 
real estate look very attractive to those w^ith 
money for speculation, and soon a great influx of 
people took place, every steamer from San Fran- 
cisco being crowded. It then became so diffi- 
cult for the newcomers to obtain lodging that 
frequently men had to walk the streets during the 
night, private houses w^ere opened, and tempor- 
ary beds spread on the floors. 

Naturally the price of real estate began to 
soar as the volume of travel increased. City 
blocks that in 1870 were a drug in the market at 
$100 apiece, readily sold for $5,000 or even 
more. Gone were the days of land at twenty-five 
cents an acre; $100 was a more common figure. 

Then, in consequence of the increased popu- 
lation, began a building boom, and many substan- 
tial structures, among them the old Arlington 
Hotel, and a number of business blocks and fine 
private residences, indicated a degree of energy 
and enterprise remarkable in a community that 
in 1870 consisted of less than three thousand peo- 



pie, two-thirds of whom were Spanish-Califor- 

However, highly colored descriptions of pro- 
ductive soils and magnificent climate will not 
feed the hungry, and furnish work for the unem- 
ployed, and soon the departing steamer took 
away as many as the arriving steamer brought, 
'i'he boom gradually died, and during the year 
1876-7 when but four and a half inches of rain 
fell on the land, there was a very marked drop 
in prices, not only in city lots but of farm lands 
as well. 

In spite of the ''boom" the number of inhabi- 
tants in Santa Barbara only increased seventeen 
per cent between 1870 and 1880, and it was not 
until 1885 that a distinctly upward tendency was 

When the Southern Pacific railroad came to 
Santa Barbara in 1887, the old "boom" was 
revived, and that of 1874 faded into insig 
nificancc beside the raise in real estate values 
that now took place. Lots purchased todav 
were sold at a greatly increased price tomor- 
row, and many grew suddenly rich by fortu- 
nate deals in property. The most staid and con- 
servative citizens caught the fever of speculation, 
•and nothing was heard but talk of "lots" and 
"sub-divisions." Blocks in the suburbs of four 
nnd a hall acres, without streets, water, or light, 
sold as high as :f30,()0() or moce. and <>0 per toot 



frontage was a common price on unimproved 
streets; also, much farm land was subdivided 
into city lots, and sold to speculators, who were 
eager to unload on someone else at an advance. 

The apex of the ^'boom'' was reached on 
August 17th, 1887, when the first train arrived 
in Santa Barbara. The occasion was declared 
a general holiday, and many festivities took 

The increased prosperity expected to come 
from the inauguration of a railroad service did 
not put in appearance, and early in September 
came a lull in real estate and many big options 
were forfeited. A short time later when the 
railroad company had finished the line a few 
miles west of the city and the hope of connection 
with San Francisco vanished, the ^^boom" was 
dead. The wrecking of the mushroom fortunes 
left many in a sad plight, and few were as well 
off as when the orgy of speculation began. 

The depression lasted for about ten years, and 
only in the latter 'nineties was there any demand 
for real estate. The long delay in connecting 
Santa Barbara with San Francisco by rail 
caused the former to become a rather sleepy old 
town, but when in 1901, this was done, many im- 
provements followed, and many fine residences 
were built, both in the city and at Montecito. 

In 1906, at the time of the San Francisco 
earthquake and fire, houses were being built in 



Santa Barbara at the rate of one a day, but the 
calamity so disrupted all enterprise on the Pa- 
cific Coast that Santa Barbara suffered with the 
rest. Many San Francisco capitalists who had 
interests here, lost so much in the fire that they 
were unable to carry out their plans, and the 
high wages paid workmen in the efforts made to 
rebuild the stricken city, drew men from this 
part of the country, and construction for a time 
was practically at a standstill. 

About 1908 some improvement in conditions 
was manifest, and real estate values became 
firmer. A little later improvements such as the 
construction of the San Marcos building, the re- 
organization of the street railway system, the 
building of the Federal Post Office -and the 
erection of the State Normal School, were car- 
ried out, and today there is no speculation in land 
values, lots being usually purchased with a view 
to improvement, and farm lands for use and in- 

Origin of Santa Barbara Street Names 
The many uncommon names given to the 
streets of Santa Barbara no doubt puzzle the 
tourist and stranger, but the clue to these lies in 
the many events of the past which have been 
commemorated in this way, and a great deal of 
the city's history may be learned by a study of thr 
meaning and derivation of these titles. 

Quinientos, tiic name of a street near the 



beach, is the Spanish word for five hundred, and 
this street was so named in 1852, when Captain 
Salisbury Haley made his survey of Santa Bar- 
bara. It appears that when Colonel J. D. Stev- 

Santa Barbara, 1883 

enson's regiment arrived here in 1847, a brass 
twelve pounder cannon had been placed on the 
beach to be forwarded to the fortifications at 
Monterey, but one night some of the Californians 
removed it, either throwing it in the sea, or bury- 
ing it in the sand. When search failed to pro- 
duce it the Californians told the military author- 



ities that some sailors from the vessel on which it 
was intended to send it to Monterey had lost it 
overboard from the boat on its way from the 
shore, but they were not believed, and the muni- 
cipal officers were ordered to restore the cannon, 
or pay for it. As the cannon was not forthcom- 
ing Governor Mason imposed a fine of $500 on 
Santa Barbara, and each one of the property 
holders was ordered to pay a certain portion of 
this sum, according to his capacity, and in ad- 
dition a company of soldiers was sent from Los 
Angeles to see that the fine was duly paid. Some, 
however, of those assessed refused to pay, and 
property to the value of their share was seized 
and sold by auction. 

San Buenaventura, at the northeast of the 

city, is so named because, although thirty miles 

away, it was nearest to the village of that 

name when the street was made. Pitos Street 

was named from the carisos or reeds growin;^ 

there, from which flutes (pitos) were made; 

Punta Gorda, because it ran into a high bank; 

Indio Muerto, because an Indian was found 

dead in the neighborhood; Cacique, the title 

given U) the Chief of an Indian tribe. Carpin- 

tcria, because it was on the route usually taken 

in going towards the village of that name, the 

origin of which dates back to the time when Por- 

tola's expedition coming up the coast, found near 

the mouth of Rincon Creek a number of Indians, 



making canoes, paddles, and other articles of 
wood, hence Carpinteria, a wood-working estab- 
lishment. Mason St., was named after Governor 
Mason, who imposed the above-mentioned fine 
of $500. Yanonali St., is named after a famous 
old Chief of the Santa Barbara Indians. Mon- 
tecito St., points in the direction of the beautiful 
valley of that name. Gutierrez is called after 
Don Octaviano Gutierrez, once a member of the 
City Council. Haley St., was named after Sal- 
isbury Haley, who made the famous "Haley 
survey." Cota Street, Ortega Street, and De la 
Guerra Street were named after famous Spanish 
Californian families. Canon Perdido is Span- 
ish for hidden canyon, and when the street was 
made, such a canyon existed in line with its 
northeastern end. 

Carrillo St., was named in honor of Don 
Joaquin Carrillo, first District Judge after the 
organization of Santa Barbara County. This is 
one of the eighty foot streets provided by the 
Haley Survey, the other being State Street. 
Figueroa was named after the famous Governor 
Jose Figueroa. Anapamu was named after an 
Indian chief whose power extended from Santa 
Ynez to San Fernando. Victoria was named 
after Governor Manuel Victoria; Sola Street 
after Governor Vicente de Sola; Micheltorena 
St., from Governor Manuel Micheltorena, and 
Arrellaga St., from Governor Jose Joaquin de 



Arrellaga. Valerio St., was named after a fam- 
ous Indian robber chief, who with his band lived 
in a cave in the Santa Ynez Mountains. Islay 
was the name given to a fruit which the Santa 
Barbara Indians were accustomed to eat. Ped- 
regosa means ''stony," and was so called because 
the Arroyo Pedregosa or ''stony creek" cut 
through it. Mission Street, is so called from its 
proximity to the Mission of Santa Barbara. 

As to the streets running from southeast to 
northwest across the city: Salinas St., used to run 
into a salt pond; Canada used to run into a Can- 
ada or ravine. When Solcdad received its name, 
that part of the town was solitary and uninhab- 
ited. Voluntario ran into the hill on which Fre- 
mont's army of volunteers were camped. Aliso 
was named from the alisos or sycamores growing 
there. Milpas St., was at one time the sowing 
ground of the Indians, "milpa'' meaning a sow- 
ing patch. Nopal St., was named from the 
prickly pear, or Indian fig, which grew there. 
Quarantina St., received its name because some 
vessels were once put in quarantine at the foot of 
it. Salsipuedes (Sal si puedes "get out if you 
can") at one time crossed several ravines and 
rough places, rendering traveling very difficult. 
Canal, or Channel St., was at one time the first 
street on that side going down to the canal or 
channel of Santa Barbara. Laguna St., ran into 
the lake or lagoon which was formed during the 



rainy season by the backed-up waters of Mission 

Creek. Jardinez or Garden St., once ran thi ough 

several gardens, among them that belonging to 

Captain de la Guerra. Santa Barbara St., was, 

oi course, named from the city itself. Anacapa 

St., points towards Anacapa Island in the Santa 

Barbara Channel; the meaning of this Indian 
word is mystery. Chapala St., is named from a 

Mexican town, from whence some early settlers 
came to Santa Barbara. De la Vina, or Vine- 
yard St., was laid out originally through a vine- 
yard planted in 1802 by Governor Goycochea. 
Banos or Bath St., was so called because it leads 
to the bathing beach. Castillo or Castle St., led 
to the hill on which was an old Spanish fort, 
mounted with cannon. At Rancheria St., there 
was once an Indian ^'rancheria" or settlement. 
San Pasqual St., commemorates the battle of San , 
Pasqual between the Californians and Ameri- 
cans in 1846. San Andres is rather doubtful, 
some authorities stating that it takes its name 
from Andres Pico who commanded the Califor- 
nians at the above-named battle, and who sub- 
sequently signed the peace treaty with Colonel 
Fremont, though from whence he obtained his 
title of San or Saint, is not clear. Chino St., is 
supposed to have derived its name from the 
"Rancho del Chino" near which the battle of San 
Pasqual was fought. Gillespie St., was named 
from Captain Gillespie, one of Fremont's right 


A N D M O N T P: C I T O 

hand men and prominent in the battles of San 

Pasqual and San Gabriel. Robbins St., was 
named after Captain Thomas Robbins, who 

came here in 1827, owner of the Las Positas y 

Calera ranch, now called the "Hope'' Ranch. 

State Street is, of course, the principal street in 

Santa Barbara, and is named for the state of 





Present Day Santa Barbara — City Government, 
Public Utilities — Financial Institutions and 
Co77U7ierce — Hotels — Education, Hospitals 
and Charitable Organizations — Churches, 
Societies and Clubs. 


ANTA Barbara, Queen of all 
coast cities, by reason of her un- 
equalled and charming posi- 
tion, is fast becoming renowned 
as the home city of the traveled 
American and Britisher. Al- 
most encircled by picturesque 
hills, which are being rapidly 
tr.iQSiormed imo residential es- 
tates, her situation is superb; 
such a combination of moun- 
tain and sea is without parallel. 
If a map of California be ex- 
amined, it will be seen that the 
general trend of the coast-line 
is from north-northwest to 
\ south-southeast; at Point Con- 
cepcion it makes a sharp and 
sudden turn and runs to Rincon Point below 
Santa I)arbara, nearly due east and west. Thus 
Santa Barbara faces directly south, but this is 
not the only advantage gained from the tiiifi in 
the coast-line. The harsh and foggy north and 
north-west winds which make the coast north of 
Point (\)ncepcion disagreeable, are entirely cut 



off from Santa Barbara by the coast range, 
between 3,000 and 4,000 feet high which comes 
almost to the shore line at Point Concepcion, and 
stretches along the coast, but two or three miles 
back from it, to Ventura. 

These natural advantages give to Santa Bar- 
bara its wonderful climate, which though per- 

Plaza del Mar and Cabrillo or West Boulevard. 

haps equalled, is not surpassed the world over. 
Even in the early days of 1793, records show that 
a large number of invalids from all parts of Cali- 
fornia were sent to Santa Barbara to recuperate 
in its soft and invigorating air. 

The Santa Ynez chain of mountains form a 
background to the city, marking the skyline in no 
tortuous manner, but presenting lines of symetry 
and grandeur never wearying to the eye. Seen 
at any hour of the day, fresh pictures are un- 
. folded; as the sun marks his course, the play ot 



light and shade constantly changes the aspect of 
the scene, and even the seasons reveal unsus- 
pected differences. In summer, the sunset turns 
the mountains to gold, while in autumn, their 
rugged peaks are bathed in royal purple. 

Though a strictly modern and progressive 
city, the old charm of Santa Barbara remains, 
as in the days of long ago, when the Spanish-Cal- 
ifornian town was simply a point on a badly cut- 
up road from San Diego to San Francisco. A 
few of her historic and romantic old adobe build- 
ings are still in existence today; their owners, 

Orenn Studios, East dr la Guerra Slrcc(. 

fortunately, not having their commercial in 
stincts tof) highly dcvclopcil, have spent thous- 
ands of doUars in preserving tliese relics of by 
gone days, when the land from IVrii to Alta Cal- 
ifornia was under the dominion of Spain. 



Transportation facilities have increased won- 
derfully since those days; the trans-continental 
traveler comes without change in his private car 
or Pullman from the far East, the North or 
South, or the middle West, while the autoist ap- 
proaches Santa Barbara over a sea-level road, 
built partly upon a viaduct out of reach of the 
surf that dashes against Rincon Point, as it did 
in the early days when many a poor wayfarer 
was caught by the tide and drowned. 

Santa Barbara is the principal trading center 
of the County, although situated on its southern 
edge, the advent of the automobile having made 
this possible. The large property owners in the 
rich farming districts and oil fields in the Lom- 
poc, Santa Ynez, Los Alamos and Santa Maria 
Valleys, reside in, and direct their business op- 
erations from here. 

The influence of these productive valleys is 
strongly felt in the commercial life of the city, 
which is its due, since the development of this 
back country has been facilitated through the 
necessary capital having been supplied by its 
progressive and far-seeing business men. 

Some day in the near future, the many little 
valleys between Rincon on the east and Naples 
on the west, will become '^Greater Santa Bar- 
bara," since the interests of all these localities 
are the same, the climate is nearly identical, and 
the growth of the past few years is an indication 
of what the future holds in store, and the neces- 
sity for expansion. 

The artistic value of the suburbs of Monte- 
cito and Miramar to Santa Barbara is inestim- 
able; wealth has been freely poured out on artis- 


A N D :vl O N 1^ E C I T O 

tic adornment, and it will be lavishly spent in the 

future, since no place in the world is more 

worthy. : ?ii 

In the development of the road plan for 


'■"■0' Vi 



A Cottage at El Encanto Motel, Mission Ridyt-. 

Santa Harbara County, the Board of Supervisors 
has rcco):^nizcd tliat tliis section is blessed with 
one of tlic most ideal climates in the I'nitei] 
States. As a result, wealthy people resort liere 



from everywhere, some of them to escape the 
rigors of the eastern winter, merely tarrying for 
a few months, while others have bous;ht and de- 
veloped extensive estates costing thousands of 
dollars for permanent occupation. With a cit- 
izenship of this character, the building of pleas- 
ure drives becomes of great importance, for so 
keen is the competition -among the counties of 
Southern California to secure the winter travel, 
w^hich totals millions of dollars yearly, that the 

■^■,>f > '■' 



City Park From Booth's Point. 

county without good roads rapidly falls behind. 
Santa Barbara in this respect is unique, and fur- 
nishes a splendid example of well-planned and 
consistently carried out highway tree-planting. 
This policy is in evidence especially around 
Santa Barbara, Montecito, Carpinteria and Go- 
leta, which have developed into attractive pleas- 
ure drives, and here one road particularly com- 
pares with any scenic boulevard in the State. 



This road, built mainly by the City of Santa Bar- 
bara, climbs up the hills to the north, in an ever- 
increasing height, until at the summit one of the 
most wonderful views in California is disclosed. 
Spread far below, and seeming like some Lilipu- 
tian village, is Santa Barbara with its historic 
mission, great hotels, handsome homes, and tree- 
lined streets, while beyond in the blue expanse 
of the ocean, San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa 
Cruz, and Anacapa Islands, float a few miles off 
the coast. To the east are Montecito and Car- 
pinteria, almost hidden in the heavy foilage of 
trees, while to the west the curving shore line 
dims into the distance measured by high bluffs 
thrusting out into the sea. 

The material advance of Santa Barbara dur- 
ing the last decade has been most notable; the 
census of 1910 gave the number of the city's 
inhabitants as 1 1,569, while that of 1920 gave it 
as 20,159 showing an increase of 75 percent. 
If the past is any criterion, the increase during 
the next decade should be astonishing, since the 
demand for homes has never been so great as it 
is today. Many new subdivisions are being 
opened up, particularly in the Riviera section, 
and these are being extensively purchased as res- 
idential sites. 

A new and exclusive residence district ad- 
joining the Riviera, is that of El Cielito (Little 
Meaven). This property is being improved 
with roads, and will only be sold in lots of five 
acres or more. It is the intention of the owners 
to sell only to people who will improve the prop- 
erty, so that at no distant iiate the entire liillsidc 
will be covered with beautiful homes and irar- 



dens. El Cielito has wonderful views of the 
ocean, mountains, and valley, and is connected 
with Montecito by the Sycamore Canyon Road. 

In the same district is the McAdoo Tract, 
which is being rapidly sold and developed. In 
the near future, the beautiful foot-hill region of 
Santa Barbara will rival the famous Riviera in 
Europe in point of beauty and picturesque sur- 

The park system is unique, and comprises the 
Alameda Plaza, the Plaza del Mar, Oak Park, 
and Athletic Park. 

Alameda Plaza is a beautiful park of ten 
acres, located in the heart of the city, having 
frontages on Anacapa, Micheltorena, Garden 
and Sola Streets, and is reached by the ^^M" car 
of the electric street railway. 

Oak Park lies at the terminus of the "O" car 
line, and is famous for its natural grove of oaks 
and sycamores; it is a popular place for picnics, 
barbecues, and patriotic gatherings, and a favor- 
ite playground of the city children, who, from 
their own small contributions, erected a bronze 
tablet at the entrance to the memory of the late 
Mr. Henry Tallant, who was instrumental in se- 
curing the park to the city. 

The Plaza del Mar adjoins the handsome 
structure called ''Banos del Mar," where all the 
delights of sea bathing may be enjoyed; after- 
wards, one may sit under the shade of waving 
palms, relax, dream or read as fancy pleases, or 
revel in the view of the blue sea and the Santa 
Barbara chain of Islands beyond. 

The Palm Boulevard which extends along 
the Neapolitan curve of Santa Barbara's sea 


AND M O N T E C I T () 

front, is the rendezvous of residents and visitors 
without the noise and confusion incidental to so 
many Californian seaside resorts. After the 
sunset glow has faded, the whole length of the 
Palm Boulevard is chan2:ed into a veritable 

Pergola. El Encanio Hold. 

fairy scene by thousands of lights, and the strains 
of music and the hiUaby of the surf complete the 

The Chamber of Commerce has established, 
through the energy of its secretary, .Mr. Cliarles 
W. Kirk, an auto camp on the coast highway to 
the north of the city. It contains a spaciou.^ 
building, which has every C(^nvenience for cook- 



ing, a laundry equipped with electric washing- 
machine, porcelain bath tubs, a Ruud heater, en- 
suring constant hot water, shower-baths, sanitary 
toilets and lavatories with towels, and is elec- 
trically lighted throughout. Even the children 
of visiting autoists have been provided for, in 
that there are swings and a large box of sand for 
them to play in. Then there is a wash stand for 
cars, w^ith pit, and an attendant constantly on 
duty. All of these privileges are included in 
the fee of fifty cents per day per car, regardless 
of number of passengers, no extra charge of any 
kind being made. 

Santa Barbara abounds in beautiful scenic 
drives, both for the motorist who enjoys trips of 
short duration and the more hardy motorist who 
enjoys a days trip over the mountains and along 
the sea. 

The most famous of the short drives takes one 
by the Santa Barbara Mission, the finest of all 
the old missions, over the Mission Ridge road 
from which can be seen the city lying in the val- 
ley below and in the distance the Santa Barbara 
Islands, making a picture which can never be 
forgotten. From the Mission Ridge the road 
leads to what is know^n as the Mountain Drive, 
winding in and out of canyon after canyon at ap- 
proximately the same level until it comes out in 
the beautiful Montecito Valley famed for its 
beautiful drives and lovely estates. Any number 
of ways may be pursued through this beautiful 
spot and the return trip can be made by way of 
the Ocean Boulevard to the place of starting. 

For the motorist who wishes to travel further 



afield, the San Marcos Pass offers a trip unex- 
celled for beauty of scenery, with Santa Barbara, 
the Goleta Valley, the Pacific Ocean and the is- 
lands on one side and the ragged cliffs of the 
Santa Ynez river on the other leading to the 
valley of the Santa Ynez where is located the 
historical Santa Ynez Mission amidst fertile 
farming country. 

Automobile Club of Southern Cnlifornia. 

From Santa ^'ricz the road passes through tlic 
thriving little town of Los (^livos over what is 
known as the Foxcn Canyon road to Santa Maria 
the most northerlv citv in Santa Barbara Countv. 



The return trip can be made by way of the State 
Highway and the historical Gaviota Pass, along 
the sea shore to Santa Barbara. The entire trip 
covers about 150 miles and should not be missed. 

Another beautiful trip for a day's outing is 
over the Cacitas Pass to the Oj-ai Valley, return- 
ing by way of the Rincon Sea Level Highway, a 
paved boulevard, which follows the ocean for 
mile after mile. This trip is also one which will 
never be forgotten by the motorist w^ho enjoys 
beautiful scenery. 

There are any number of trips which can be 
planned for the motorist and that is one of the 
functions of the Automobile Club of Southern 
California, which in 1919 issued 68,173 maps to 
members and visitors covering motor trips 
throughout California. 

The above sketch of the club office show^s that 
a very successful effort has been made to carry 
out the Mission type of architecture so typical of 
Santa Barbara. Here are furnished rest rooms 
for the motorist, and here he receives road maps, 
touring information, insurance at cost on his au- 
tomobile, and many other services, for the Club's 
motto is ''Service." 

The ''Clifif Drive" in and about Santa Bar- 
bara is one of the most picturesque in the world. 
Starting from the sea front, it avoids the business 
portion of the city, working its way through the 
shaded streets, lined with flower embowered 
homes, until the limits of the municipality are 
reached. Thence it skirts the low hills between 
rows of pepper, eucalyptus, orange and palm 
trees, then winds among orchards of orange. 



plum and walnut trees for nearly two miles 
further. Here it swerves sharply to the left, and 
entering an avenue of frouded palms, opens on a 
scene as alluringlv beautiful as anv to be found 
on the Continent. This is the entrance to Hope 
Ranch, a domain of more than two thousand 
acres. The ''Drive" extends for several miles 
through this property, twisting between the hil- 
locks and creeping up the canyons until it rises 
to the top of the ''Palisades," as the superb cliff 
frontage on the sea is called. Along this bold 



Residence of Major John \\. H. [•'cslune. 

headland, with the broad Pacific in the one hand 
and the swelling slopes of the ranch lands on the 
other, it wends its way back to the city. It is 
from the latter portion of the route that the 
famous driveway takes its name. 

Santa Barbara Bay has much in common 
with the famous Bay of Naples, which it greatly 
resembles in contour, hut its surroundings arc 
even more beautiful From the lighth'Uisc, 



which stands like a white sentinel at Point Santa 
Barbara, eastward to Rincon Point, the shore 
sweeps in a circle of uniform curve, extending 
fifteen miles, now with wave-kissed sandy shore, 
then rising into low palisades, that skirt mesas 
covered w4th oak and sycamore trees. 

The Bay opens to the wide channel of Santa 

Barbara, some 
seventy miles i n 
length, with a 
width of from 
twenty- five to thir- 
ty miles. Its water 
maintains a won- 
derfully even tem- 
perature, the dif- 
ference being but 
ten degrees the 
year round; the 
breezes passing 
over its surface 
serve to cool in 
summer and warm 
in winter the love- 
ly Santa Barbara 

For yachting and boating the Santa Barbara 
Channel offers the finest stretch in the world, 
with ample sea room, yet so protected by the 
mountainous island chain on the south and the 
elevated shore of the mainland on the north, as 
to be entirely safe at all times. Fishing in the 
Santa Barbara Channel is a feature that appeals 
to sportsmen, and some wonderful catches are 

Residence of Carl Oscar Borg. 



Santa Barbara stands pre-eminent for sea 
bathing facilities over any other sea coast town 
in California. The water is of so mild a tem- 
perature that an ordinarily healthy person can 
enjoy a dip in the sea every month in the year. 
Sheltered as the harbor is on all sides, it is a rare 
exception for the sea to be rough or the breakers 
at all high. Twenty-nine days out of the thirty 
(with the exception of February) the sea is a's 
smooth as a mill-pond, and the most timid bather 
need have no fear of battling with the surf; the 
bete notr of the swimmer, the undertow, is ab- 
sent. The slope of the beach is so gradual that 
the bather can wade out quite a distance without 
getting out of his depth. The highest tempera- 
ture of the water has been 66 degrees in the mid- 
dle of the summer, and in the winter has never 
fallen below 59 degrees, the latter figure being 
but rarely reached. 

To use a well-known citizen's phrase: ''Santa 
Barbara must be beautiful, for she pleases dailv, 
outlasts novelty, survives long knowledge and 
scrutiny of years." 

''Inner Harbor'' Project 

There are many points of similarity between 
St. Peter Port, Guernsey, the most picturesque of 
the English Channel Islands, and Santa Barbara, 
and before the inner harbor and promenade at 
St. Peter Port were constructed, the similarity 
was even greater. Both have charms in common, 
but give Santa Barbara an inner harbor and 
promenade, and her growth would more than 
double in the next decade. She would also at 



tract a larger number of permanent homeseekers, 
and because of the added attraction of a prom- 
enade and yachting, visitors would remain for 
longer periods. 

Following are the details of the "Inner Har- 
bor project: — 

Santa Barbara Harbor is an open roadstead. 
A wharf extends from the foot of State Street for 
about 1,200 feet; there is 26 feet of water at the 
end of this wharf at low tide, and the United 
States Government engineers have stated that in 
normal seasons vessels can lie here for 360 days 
in the year. 

Owing to the outlying mountainous islands, 
the fetch of the sea is only 26 miles, but a semi- 
enclosed harbor of refuge would make the city 
an ideal place for the yachtsman. 

It has been proposed to take the beautiful 
harbor of St. Peter Port, Guernsey, as a model. 
The exposure at Santa Barbara is much less, for 
storms never occur from April to November. 

At St. Peter Port the area enclosed is 73 
acres. At Santa Barbara a mole extending 700 
feet out from Castle Rock point, thence a break- 
water about 2,500 feet long parallel with the 
shore line extending nearly to the wharf, would 
enclose 100 acres. 

Such an improvement would afford still 
water bathing at the present bath house, with i 
good surf beach west of Castle Rock. There 
would be a fine fair-w^eather walk along the top 
of the breakwater, with 24 feet of water for 
mooring ground inside, perfectly safe in all 



The construction could be undertaken on a 
progressive plan, the mole to be built first and 
the breakwater later, on the unit basis, each unit 
to consist of one or more re-enforced concrete 
caissons, built on the shore, launched like a ship, 
floated to position, filled with rock, and finally 

Harbor, St. Peter Port, Guernsey. 

Such harbor works are now in existence at 
many ports all over the world. There are some 
fine examples built during the past two years on 
the Great Lakes. 

A unique opportunity is here presented for 
some public-spirited man to carry this project 
to a successful conclusion, and to build himself t 
monument for all time. 

City Government 

When Santa Barbara was a Spanish pueblo 
its affairs were administered by an Ayuntamicnto 
consisting of an Akakie and two Rcgiciores, cor- 
responding to a Mayor and Council. 

By an act of the Legislature of the State of 
California, it became a City on April 9, 1850, 
and Luis T. Burton was the first President of the 


Board of Trustees then elected. In 1851, Joa- 
quin Carrillo became the first Mayor. 

In 1874, a new charter went into effect, and 
at the first election thereafter Mortimer Cook 
was elected as Mayor. After 1876 the Mayor's 
term was extended to two years. 

Another new charter came into effect, after 
being submitted to the electors at a special elec- 
tion in September, 1915. Under this charter all 
the powers of the City are vested in a Council of 
five members, except as may otherv\'ise be pro- 
vided, and this Council elect one of their num- 
ber to serve as Mayor for a term of two years. 
The only compensation allowed members of the 
Council is a fee of $5 for each meeting actually 
attended, not exceeding three meetings in one 
month; all meetings of the Council and all its 
records are open to the public, and any citizen 
has the right personally or through counsel to 
present grievances or offer suggestions for the 
betterment of municipal affairs. Any citizen 
having a vote has the right to have his name 
placed upon the official ballot at a general or 
special election, by filing with the city clerk a 
petition accompanied by a fee of $10, and signed 
by not less than one and not more then two per 
cent of the number of electors registered at the 
last general municipal election; this must be 
done not less than twenty days before the date of 

The Council appoint the following executive 
officers and boards: — Manager, clerk, treasurer, 
auditor, assessor, tax-collector, police judge, 
board of water commissioners, board of park 



commissioners, library trustees, and board of ed- 
ucation. Those appointed by the City Manager 
include: — Purchasing agent, engineer, superin- 
tendent of streets, superintendent of water dis- 
tribution, chief of police, chief of fire depart- 
ment, board of health, and inspector of build- 
ings; the city attorney being appointed by the 
manager with the approval of the Council. 

All appointive officers and members of 
boards whose terms of service are not specified, 
serve at the pleasure of the appointive power. 

The City Manager is the administrative head 
of the municipal government, and it is his duty 
to see that all laws and ordinances of the City are 
enforced; he attends all meetings of the Council, 
keeps the Council fully advised of the business 
and financial condition of the City, and its future 
needs; he also prepares a budget of the estimated 
needs of all departments under his control. 

All books and accounts of the City are 
audited annually by a certified public account- 
ant, chosen by the Council. 

The City Council or any officer with appoint- 
ive power is prohibited from appointing to a 
lucrative position under the municipal govern- 
ment any person who is a relative by blood or 
marriage within the third degree. 

Powers are reserved to the people to adopt 
or reject ordinances at the polls independent of 
the Council. 

The Mayor of the City is Harvey T. Niel- 
sen; Councilmen: 'I'itus Duncan, j. E. Sloan, 
G. M. McGuire, and S. L. Buck; the City .Man- 
ager is F. L. Johnston. 



The Health Department of the City includes 
a Pathological Laboratory, which has proven of 
inestimable value, not only to the Health Depart- 
ment, but to the public in general, and the medi- 
cal profession in particular. The laboratory 
tests on an average five samples of water a week, 
and issues warnings to the public if any contam- 
ination is found. 

The Health Department also makes inspec- 
tions of dairies, restaurants, bakeries, and meat 
markets; in addition nearly 2,000 miscellaneous 
inspections are made in the course of the year. 

The Health Officer is Dr. O'Banion, and the 
City Physician Dr. Robert W. Hartwell. 

Any needy person requiring medical atten- 
tion, and unable to pay for it, can obtain an order 
from the Superintendent of the Associated Char- 
ities, and receive free treatment from the City 
Physician. In this way, hundreds of cases have 
been attended, both in their homes and in the 

In an effort to reduce infant mortality, a Baby 
Clinic has been established, to which mothers 
can bring their babies for expert assistance, and 
the results have been most encouraging. 

It is a well-recognized fact that the best 
Police Department is the one which maintains 
law and order with the least number of arrests, 
and that it is a matter of greater credit to arrest 
crime than to arrest criminals; in the Santa Bar- 
bara Police Department, these principles are 
carried out, under the efficient leadership of 
Chief W. J. Wall. 

According to the last report of the Depart- 



ment, every automobile stolen from the City has 
been recovered, and a large number of stolen au- 
tomobiles brought here from other places have 
been captured and restored to their owners; in 
addition, out of a total property loss reported to 
the police of $11,797.70, recoveries amounted to 
$10,885.75, which constitutes a record for any 
Police Department. 

The Santa Barbara Fire Department was 
first organized in 1874, with -a volunteer com- 
pany, and the following year a ''Hook and Lad- 
der" company was formed. 

Conditions have changed much since then, 
and today the Fire Department, with its up-to- 
date apparatus and efficient men, sets an example 
to other communities. The members, in addi- 
tion to their ordinary duties, save the taxpayers 
money by executing repairs to City property, a 
case in point being the re-equipment of the City 
Jail, where heating, sewage and ventilation ar- 
rangements were carried out 

The Chief Engineer of the Fire Department 
is A. H. Cooley. 

A Perfect Water System 

To Comandante Jose Francisco Ortega is due 
the credit of having established the first water 
supply to Santa Barbara; early in 1790, he built 
an a(]ucduct to convey water from Mission Creek 
to the Presidio, their former supply having been 
brought from the de la (nierra Springs. 

After the establishment of the Mission, a por- 
tion of the wnter was re(]uired there, nnd the re- 



mainder was conducted in a ditch to the Presidio, 
continuing to flow there long after the Presidio 
was in ruins. 

The Mission authorities, in 1872, conveyed 
to the Mission Water Company all their rights 
to the waters of Mission Creek, reserving suffic- 
ient for their own use, and the new Company 
laid a system of pipes into the town, which had 
previously been dependent upon wells for its 
domestic supply. 

In time, owing to the growth of the town, new 
arrangements had to be made, and artesian wells 
were sunk adjacent to the de la Guerra Springs, 
near Ortega and Garden Streets. As these wells 
w^ere developed, they soon supplied more water 
in summer than the Mission Creek, so an amal- 
gamation of the water interests was formed un- 
der the name of the Santa Barbara Water Com- 

In 1896, the question of an ample municipal 
water supply became urgent, and Mr. E. S. 
Sheffield brought before the City Council a pro- 
ject for boring a tunnel into the Santa Ynez 
mountains. An appropriation of $10,000 was 
made, and the result of this, and further appro- 
priations, was a tunnel 5,000 feet into the moun- 
tains, which developed a daily supply of 300,000 

Daring minds, looking into the future, then 
suggested bringing the Santa Ynez River to 
Santa Barbara; despite opposition, work was 
commenced on a tunnel through the Santa Ynez 
Mountains, which when completed in 1912 after 
nine years work, had a bore 19,560 feet long, con- 


Crete lined where not driven through solid rock. 
The mouth of the tunnel is 1,185 feet above sea 
level, and half that altitude above the highest 
point within the city limits. This means devel- 
opment of the higher levels within the city, and 
eventually its suburbs; it also means the develop- 
ment of enormous electrical energy, there being 
at least five power sites within the territory em- 
braced by city holdings. 



State Street. Santa Barbara, 1920. 

The first days of October, 1919, saw the com- 
pletion of the Gibraltar Dam undertaking, 
which is the key to the city's unlimited water 
supply. It is a concrete structure, rising to a 
height of 150 feet above the bed of the Santa 
Ynez iliver, and its foundation is in solid rock 
for 25 feet below. The core wall is 75 feet thick 
at its base, and contaiFis 53,000 cubic yards of 
concrete. The dam is provided with a spillwav 
280 feet in length, 10 feet deep, and the flood 



water that can pass over this before even the 
crest of the dam is reached far exceeds the 
measurements of the great freshet of 1914, which 
showed a maximum flow of 20,000 cubic feet per 
second, but even should the spillway fail to pass 
the water, the flood could sweep over the Dam'« 
crest without damage. The capacity of the pipe 
line to the south portal is 26,000,000 gallons per 
day, that of the pipe line south portal to surge 
chamber 16,000,000 gallons per day, that of 
power house to Sheffield Reservoir 9,000,000 
gallons per day. The present domestic con- 
sumption of 3,000,000 gallons per day flowing 
from the surge chamber to the Sheffield reser- 
voir, will develop 1,125,000 kilo-watt-hours per 
annum, which is about three times the amount 
now used by the city for street lighting and sew- 
age pumping. A constant flow of 6,000,000 gal- 
lons per day, which is a safe output for the pres- 
ent reservoir, will develop 2,500,000 kilo-watt- 
hours per annum, which if sold at 3-4 of a cent 
per kilo-watt-hour at the switch board, will 
bring $18,750 per annum. Additional power 
can be developed from this flow by carrying the 
surplus tail water from the power house one and 
one half miles down Mission Creek and using it 
a second time under a head of 350 feet. 

At the back of the reservoir is a catchment 
area of more than 200 square miles, lying wholly 
within the boundaries of the National Forest, 
and protected from pollution by the Forest 

Gibraltar Lake, covering an area of 380 acres 
has an average depth of 42 feet, and a capacity 



of five billion gallons. This beautiful sheet of 
water has come into existence by empounding the 
waters of the Santa Ynez River, until they reach 
the top of the spillway of the great concrete con- 
struction which the Water Department of the 
city has thrown across the river, at a point where 
nature had left rocky precipices, as though to 
aid the engineer in his task. Close to the shore 




i| V' 



Federal Building and Post Office, Santa Barbara. 

of the lake is one of the most beautiful trails in 
the Santa Barbara National Forest, and well 
worth the hike over the mountains to visit. 

What effect the lake will have on the climatic 
conditions in the immediate vicinity is a ques- 
tion which has been much discussed bv the For- 
est Rangers and persons familiar with tlie 
mountains. While some insist that the river 
valley near Gibraltar Lake will be cooler, others 
believe that the valley wind currents are too 



Strong to be appreciably tempered by an arti- 
ficial body of water. 

In addition to the Gibraltar Dam, the city 
owns 4,600 acres covering the sites of the Mono, 
Blue Canyon, Juncal, and Main River Reser- 
voirs, lying within the great cachment area de- 
scribed above. These reservoir sites are of future 
value as the growth of the city requires their de- 
velopment for additional storage. 

If in the future Santa Barbara should require 
more water than can be furnished by the present 
capacity of the Dam, the core wall can be ex- 
tended another section, and twice the quantity 
be obtained; also by building dams on the addi- 
tional sites before mentioned, the amount of 
water storage would be so immense that the most 
dense population, spread over the largest possi- 
ble area this side of the mountains, could be pro- 
vided for without any fear of a series of dry 

Future work in connection with the water 
project includes the building of a wagon road 
over the mountains to Gibraltar Dam. This will 
cost about $150,000. Such a road will be re- 
quired over which to haul materials for raising 
the height of the present core wall at Gibraltar, 
and building other dams as the need demands. 
A permanent fireproof roof will be placed over 
Sheffield reservoir. 

To James R. Chapman, Chairman of the 
Board of Water Commissioners, under whose di- 
rection the water project has been brought to a 
successful completion, Santa Barbara will al- 
ways owe a debt of gratitude. He has unselfishly 



and without recompense devoted his great en- 
gineering talents unstintedly to the task of sur- 
mounting the difficulties attendant on the devel- 
opment of a great and permanent supply of 
water to the city. 

Mr. Chapman is a member of the leading 
engineering societies of this country and abroad. 
After a strenuous career in this country as a rail- 
road builder, which included the construction of 
the Denver and Rio Grande, and other lines, he 
was summoned as chief engineer of the great en- 
terprise which provided London with its sub- 
ways. He resided there for nine years, and on 
completion of his difficult undertaking, he re- 
tired, and returning to this country selected 
Santa Barbara as his permanent home. 

The water system of Santa Barbara, as now 
perfected is the embodiment of concerted effort 
on the part of its citizens, continued over a 
period of twenty-five years. It is unique, and 
stands alone as an example and education to 
other communities, since in proportion to the size 
of the city ,it has no equal in the West. 

The Superintendent of the Water Depart- 
ment is V. E. Trace, who reports the consump- 
tion of water to be as follows : 

Municipal purposes, 40,000,000 gallons, con- 
sumers 760,000,000 gallons. 

The Santa Barbara National Forest is the 
largest national forest in Southern California. 
It includes the eastern and western divisions of 
Pine Mountain and Zaca Lake Forest Reserva- 
tion, the Santa Ynez Forest Reserve and the old 
Spanish grant "Los Prietos y Na jalayegua." The 



reservation contains about two million acres of 
mountain lands, for the most part covered with 

The street car system is thoroughly modern, 
and is operated by the Santa Barbara and Subur- 
ban Railroad Co. There are three lines, all 
starting from the Plaza del Mar, the ''M" Line 
running to the Old Mission, the ''O" Line to Oak 
Park, and the Haley Street Line. In addition, 
there is a line of buses running to Salinas Street 
and HoUister Avenue. 

Motor-buses are also operated to Montecito 
by the Lloyds' Transportation Co., 436 State 
Street, and to Goleta operated by Henry Spreitz, 
636 State Street 

The City Engineer and Street Superintend- 
ent is Geo. D. Morrison. His department, with 
its asphalt paving plant, has been able to elimin- 
ate the disagreeable feature of having to wait 
until there is sufficient work to make it worth 
while to employ a contractor; in consequence, 
the streets of the City are kept in good condition. 
A fully equipped street grading plant is also 
maintained, as well as a sewage disposal plant. 

The telephones of the City are under the 
control of the Santa Barbara Telephone Com- 
pany, which maintains an efficient local and 
long-distance service. 

The Santa Barbara Electric Company main- 
tains offices at 918 State Street. The hydro-elec- 
tric power is developed 250 miles away in the 
High Sierras, and in conjunction an auxiliary 
steam plant is maintained in Santa Barbara in 
case of emergency. 



The number of consumers is 7,400; 154 elec- 
trical ranges, and 107 water heaters have been in- 

The Southern Counties Gas Company of 
California are the successors to the original Gas 
Company of Santa Barbara, and commenced op- 
erations under the management of Frank H. 
Bivens, in March, 1919, at 16 E. Canon Perdido 
Street. They supply 5,355 consumers, and 
20,000,000 cubic feet of gas is used monthly. 

The Santa Barbara Free Public Library 
owes its beginning to several sources. In 1870 
Dr. Harry W. Bellows of All Souls' Unitarian 
Church, New York, sent out a box of two hun- 
dred books and wrote to Miss Sara A. Plummer : 
^Mt is a happy thought to take up the work of es- 
tablishing a public library." This enterprise 
became a combination of public and circulating 
library and literary center. In the course of a 
few years a collection of books, some two thous- 
and volumes, was purchased from the Odd Fel- 
lows and for a time, served the needs of the city. 
But in 1882 Santa Barbara took steps to establish 
a free public library, supported by taxation. 

Victor Hugo says: ^'A library is an act of 
faith.'' The story of our library is indeed a 
?tory of faith; faith in the hearts of men like Dr. 
S. B. P. Knox, Hugh Vail, H. K. \\'inchestcr, 
Dr. L. N- Dimmock, Judge W. A. White and E. 
S. ShcOlchi; men whose interest and vision 
prompted gifts of money, books and time that the 
library might have an auspicious beginning. 

The first library occupied rooms in the Odd 
Fellows' building. It was moved to more com- 



modious quarters in the Clock building in Oc- 
tober, 1884, and in May, 1891, took possession of 
its own building on Carrillo Street, now the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Through twenty- five years, the w^ork of the 
library steadily increased until the old building 
became inadequate and in August, 1917, the new 
Library was opened for use. 

The building is in the style of the Spanish 
Renaissance, presenting a facade unbroken ex- 
cept with an entrance arch, while each of the 
sides consists of great windows, expressing the 
large reading room. Only the furniture and use 
divide this room, which is 134x78 feet. To the 
right is the children's section; beyond is the de- 
partment of ready reference; in the center of the 
room are the current magazines and the whole 
left end is a book room, having a mezzanine floor 
over its area. By the windows of the book room 
is a ^^browsing strip" comfortably seated for 
those who wish to read in the north light. Open- 
ing out of the main room is the stone-paved cano- 
pied reading court. 

The plastered walls and ceilings in all the 
rooms are decorated in soft ivory tones harmon- 
izing with the rich texture of the oak. Particu- 
lar attention has accomplished a soft effective 
reading light both by day and at night. 

The cost of the building with site and fur- 
nishings is approximately $100,000.00* The 
Carnegie donation to the building was $50,000. 
Henry Harnbostel of New York was the con- 
sulting architect, and Francis W. Wilson of 
Santa Barbara, the architect of the building. 



The first annual report g-ave the total number 
of volumes as 3,473 with a circulation of 5,633; 
the thirty-eighth annual report, for the year end- 
ing June, 1920, showed that the 65,188 volumes 
of the Library had a circulation of 241,028. 

The Library serves all the residents of Santa 
Barbara County. In 1910, the County Depart- 
ment was established under contract with the 
Board of Supervisors. Twenty-seven Branches 
are maintained in the County towns and sixty- 
one Branches in schools. 

The Library is affiliated with the State Lib- 
rary at Sacramento from which books not in our 
collection may be obtained upon special request. 

The development of the Library is the prooi 
of faithful service by successive boards of trus- 
tees and many different staff workers; the gener- 
osity of many donors of books; the co-operation 
of newspapers of city and county; the confidence 
and interest of city councils and county super- 
visors and the substantial and intelligent reading 
of our people. 

The librarian in charge is Mrs. Frances B. 


The Morning Press, Santa Barbara's one 
morning newspaper, is the oldest publication in 
Southern California. It is a member of l^ic 
Associated Press which serves it with a full niirht 
report of the world's news over its own leased 
wire, in addition, The MorniFig Press is repre- 
sented in the neighboring towns and communi- 
ties by its own special correspondents. 



It is Republican in politics and constructive 
in policy. The constant aim of its publisher, 
Reginald G. Fernald, a native of Santa Barbara, 
is that The Morning Press shall be fearless, ac- 
curate, unbiased and interesting in the presenta- 
tion both of news and comment on current events. 

The Press was established as a weekly in 
1863 and as a daily in 1872. The first number 
of the Daily Press consisted of four pages of 
three columns each. In 1920 the daily edition 
ranges from eight to sixteen pages and the Sun- 
day edition up to twenty-six pages. 

Many men of distinction have contributed 
to the upbuilding of the paper. Among those 
who at various times directed its policies were 
General Harrison Gray Otis, Colonel W. W. 
HoUister, Stephen McGlashan, California his- 
torian, and R. Cameron Rogers, author of ^'The 

The Daily News and Independent, Santa 
Barbara's only evening nevrspaper, is a merger 
of the Daily Independent, having a history of 
forty years behind it, and the News which wns 
started twenty-six years ago. 

In 1878 Fred. A. Moore, B. W. Keep and E. 
Boust started the Democrat, a weekly, with War- 
ren Chase as editor. In 1880 Keep took over 
the paper, and joining in a partnership with G. 
P. Tebbetts, they changed the name to the Inde- 
pendent, and began issuing daily. Mary G. F. 
Wood was editor, and Frank Sands reported. 

Keep and Tebbits continued as publishers of 
the Independent until 1890, when William La 
Vies took the Independent over under a mortg- 



age. In 1894 Sands and Tebbits started the 
Daily News. La Vies conducted the Independ- 
ent for several years, finally leasing the paper to 
Clio L. Lloyd, at present Santa Barbara County's 
assessor, and Charles Donahue, now a resident 
of San Francisco. La Vies finally took over the 
Independent again, and conducted it until his 
death in 1900. 

In July of that year the Independent was 
bought by Thomas INI. Storke, who continued as 
editor and publisher, with C. A. Storke as edi- 
torial writer, until May 1910, when he sold the 
Independent to Fred. A. Sherman, a newcomer 
from Port Huron, Michigan. Frank Sands con- 
tinued to publish the Daily News until May, 
1913, when the paper was bought by Thomas M. 
Storke, and in August of the same year Mr. 
Storke bought the Independent, and consoli- 
dated the two papers under the n^me of the 
Daily News and Independent. 

Democratic in its politics the newspaper is 
independent in its policies. When the two news- 
papers were consolidated they had a combined 
circulation of 3,000, which on November Isi, 
1920 had increased to 5,500, and extended to all 
sections of the county. The paper carries the 
full Associated Press service, and has the most 
complete newspaper plant north of Los Angeles 
or south of San Jose. 

The home of the Daily News and Independ- 
ent is unicjue. The buihling ()\vn{Hl by the pub- 
lisher is one of the few rcmainin<r adobes of earlv 
Spanish days. It was the home of the Santa 
P)arbara Gazette, the fir<t newspaper issueil ifi 



Santa Barbara, long since defunct, and before 
becoming the Gazette building witnessed many 
a brilliant Spanish social gathering. It is said 
that the building, which is splendidly preserved, 
was at one time the leading gambling house of 
the pueblo, and that the young blades of the 
period saw many -a fortune won or lost on the 
turn of chance. 

Financial Institutions and Commerce 

There is no city in the United States with a 
population of 20,000 which has banking facilities 
superior to those in Santa Barbara. This is 
largely due to the character of the permanent 
population, and the wealthy class of visitors who 
make their homes here for part of each year. 
Every accommodation that banking houses of 
New York or any other metropolis can offer, is 
available here. 

A characteristic of the banks of Santa Bar- 
bara has been their conservative management, 
which has won the steadfast confidence of the 
citizens. During the famous panic of 1893, 
when every bank but one in Los Angeles closed 
its doors, and many banks in San Francisco sus- 
pended, there was not even a ripple of distrust, 
or any indication of a ^^run". 

The combined resources of the banks in 
Santa Barbara on June 30th, 1920, amounted to 

Below is given a brief history of each institu- 
tion, as a matter of interest and reference. 

The First National Bank of Santa Barbara 
was the first bank in Santa Barbara County, and 



commenced business as a private bank in the year 
1871 under the name of The Bank of Mortimer 
Cook in a small and unpretentious building near 
the corner of State and Carrillo Streets. 

In 1873 it was incorporated as The First Nat- 
ional Gold Bank, with Mortimer Cook as Presi- 
dent and A. L. Lincoln as Cashier. 

In 1880, the bank dropped the word ''Gold" 
from its name and became The First National 
Bank of Santa Barbara. At this time, too, the 
records of the bank became simplified, as under 
the old system each customer kept two accounts, 
one a Currency Account and the other a Gold 

From its original location The First National 
Bank moved to a site just above Ortega Street on 
State Street; in 1880 it moved to its present lo- 
cation, on which the handsome building it now 
occupies was erected in 1912-13. 

The First National Bank is the oldest national 
bank south of San Francisco and the third nat- 
ional bank in the State of California, and has 
been a prominent factor in the history of the City 
of Santa Barbara. 

The ollicers are: — S. A. Kccnev, President, 
H. P. Lincohi, Vice-President, J. D. Lowsley, 
Vice-President and Cashier, [\ E. Hodges, Vice- 
President and Trust Olliccr. 

The County National Bank and I'rust Com- 
pany of Santa Barbara, was organized as the 
Santa Barbara County i^uik under the state law 
on July 26, 1S7.V The lirst board of directors 
ccjnsisted of A. L. McCurdv, A. Garhuid, fohn 
Kdwards, Win. A. White, W. M. Kddy, j. F. 
Morris, and S. R. W'cldon. W. M. Kddy was 



the first president and E. S. Sheffield was the 
first cashier. The capital stock was fixed at 

On the 21st of February, 1880, the institution 
became a national bank. Mr. Eddy was presi- 
dent until his death in 1904, and was succeeded 
by Mr. Sheffield, who died in 1905; Mr. Chas. 
A. Edwards then became president, being suc- 
ceeded by Mr. James M. Warren in 1920. 

In 1916, to fill a growing need, a trust com- 
pany was formed in connection with the bank, 
and the name changed to The County National 
Bank and Trust Company of Santa Barbara, and 
the capital surplus increased to $500,000. 

The bank commenced business in a building 
in lower State Street between Ortega and Cota, 
but in 1881 removed to its present location at the 
corner of State and De la Guerra Streets. Shortly 
it will take up its quarters in the new building 
now being erected at the corner of Carrillo and 
State Streets. 

It is not usual to figure artistic values as an 
asset to a financial institution, but in this case the 
directors have given a distinct asset to Santa Bar- 
bara in the erection of a building that not only 
recalls the early days, but is an adornment that 
will attract the attention of the stranger, and in 
all probability his account. 

The Commercial Bank was incorporated 
August 15, 1887 with John H. Redington as pres- 
ident, its banking quarters being located on the 
corner of State and Victoria Streets. In 1890 
Geo S. Edwards succeeded as president Geo. W. 
Coffin and a second home was erected in a more 



central location, 826 State Street. This building 
was occupied until 1903 when a larger and more 
commodious banking house was built on the cor- 
ner of State and Canon Perdido Streets. Changes 
were m-ade in the interior of this new building 
several years after to accommodate the bank's 
rapid growth. 

In 1920 a new building was erected twice the 
size of the old, giving ample accommodations 
for the requirements of the bank, which changed 
its title to Commercial Trust and Savings Bank, 
with branches at Lompoc and Carpinteria. 

In 1919, Mr. Geo. S. Edwards was elected 
Chairman of the Board and Mr. Alfred Ed- 
wards succeeded him as President, Mr. John S. 
Edwards becoming Cashier. 

The Central Bank and Central Savings Bank 
were organized in March, 1903, the capital stock 
of the Central Bank being fixed at $50,000 and 
the savings department at $10,000. 

A. H. McKay was chosen first president, and 
W. B. Metcalf, who, up to that time had been 
cashier of the Commercial Bank, was made 

The bank commenced business in the build- 
ing at southwest corner of State and De la 
Guerra Streets, but soon found they must have 
larger premises, and in 1914 the present bank 
building at the west corner of the same streets, 
was constructed. 

Mr. T. W. Dibblee is the president, and W. 
B. Metcalf is secretary and cashier. 

In July 1914, the Fugazi Popolare Bank, of 



^in Francisco, establish a branch in Santa 

fjarbara at iW State Street, vvhich has been very 
successful under the mar of Mr. T/ 

Dardi. As soon as completed, the L^.k hopes tr^ 
occupy a nevv building at the corner of State and 
Cota Streets, which will enable them to take care 
of their increasing volume of business. On June 
2(hK 1920, the assets amounted to $ 1 4,9 1 9,592,92, 
a branch is also maintained at Oakland, 

7'he Santa Barbara Mutual Building and 
Loan Association was incornorated in 1901, 
with a capital stock of $IL . .0, and its direct- 
ors and officers are as follows: J. M, Warren, 
C, A, Edwards, H. P, Maguire, Burt Moore, H 
T, Nielson, L, I, Tilton and W, G. Griffith, at- 
tornev. The funds of the Association are de- 
posited with the County National Bank & Trust 
Company of Santa Barbara, Interest of 6/r 
has been paid on deposits for the past fifteen 
years. Loans are made on improved real estate, 
repayable in monthly installments covering a 
period of years, the purpose being to encourage 
thrift and owning of homes, a plan which is pe- 
culiarly adapted tr> working and salaried men, 
"The man who rents is onlv camping out^' Its 
cs, Jul V I St, 1920, were's ! //A ^'40.59. Loans 
on mortgages, $948,238.70. 

The Loan & Building Association of Santa 
Barbara^^ offices at 1014 State Street, was incor- 
porated in 1887, and its officers and directors arc 
as follows: H. L. Stambach, Alfred Edwards, 
W, R, Kearney-, J. M, Abbott, J. J. Squier, F. A, 
Conant, James Birss, H. L. Fredrick, F, L, Kel- 
logg, J, C, Hassinger. The object of the asso- 

A X D M O N T I C I T O 


i*:*'^^, is to provide i whereby ihz.iz i\iij 
be ."^ ; :::::ed amoPig :he people, and the funds se- 
cured by this meins -:;.p.ed to other people to 
heir ::v:::: to gun .1 home upon a pa\Tnent each 
n : r. .irnourit : .:^er than would be 

; .. .;. :ol rent. 

Its Assets, July Ist, 1920, were 3612,710.68. 

There are mo Abstract Companies in Santa 
Barbara. The Wright Abstract Company^ and 
the Santa Barbara Abstract & Guarantee Co. 

The tirst-named was established in 1875, by 
Paul R. Wright, and was incorporated in 1899. 
Mr. C. W. Rasey has :z-: :::.;;-..; _:r: :;- the past 
eighteen years. The otRces are -:.\:-.i at 1? 
East Carrillo Street. 

The Santa Barbara Abstract 5: Guarantee 
Co., was established in I^0>. and has offices at 
1014 State Street. M: W S. Porter, manager. 

Xearly every life, fire, accident, surety and 
other forms of Insurance Companies are repre- 
sented in the city by competent agents. 

The commercial life of Santa Barbara is well 
represented by handsome stores of all kinds that 
would be creditable to a far larger city. Its mer- 
chants and business men are noted for their en- 
terprise and public spirit, and any project for 
the advancement of the city's interest is sure of 
their hearty co-operation. 

The trade in automobiles is exceptionally 
well represented, most manufacturers haWng of- 
fices or representatives, while garages and oil 
stations have been established ia every locality. 

It will come as a revelation to many that the 
American Film Company, Inc., one of the larg- 



est moving picture companies in America, has 
been established in Santa Barbara since 1912. 

They commenced by making one and two- 
reel and serial films, but for the past four years 
have confined themselves exclusively to big fea- 
ture productions. The company believe in us- 
ing brains in the business, and catering to what 
the public wants, not what they think is w^anted; 
so in marking time occasionally and not making 
films, they wait until the public taste has been 
ascertained, then make films to suit that taste. 

The spacious studios, which cover six acres 
of ground, have had as many as fifteen companies 
in operation at the same time. All the details 
necessary are co-ordained into one harmonious 
whole, so that there is no interruption of contin- 
uity in setting up a production, and every modern 
apparatus and facility is provided. 

Some of the most famous moving-picture di- 
rectors have received their post-graduate course 
here, including: Allen Dwan, Frank Borzage. 
Wm. D. Taylor, Marshall Neilan, Henry King, 
Ted Sloman, Lloyd Ingraham, Geo. L. Cox, 
Chet. Withey, and among the stars developed by 
this company may be mentioned : J. Warren Ker- 
rigan, Mary Miles Minter, Mav Allison, Har- 
old Lockwood, William Russell, Kolb & Dill, 
Jack Richardson, Tom Chatterton, Anna Little, 
Margarita Fischer, Seena Owen, Richard Ben- 
nett, Allen Forest, Douglas McLean, Marguer- 
ita Sylva. 

In addition to the magnificent studios here 
the company maintains laboratories in Chicago 
and London. 















Mr. S. S. Hutchinson, of Chicago, is the 
President and is prominently identified with nu- 
merous motion picture enterprises; the Secretary 
is Mr. J. R. Freuler, of Milwaukee, who has 
diversified film interests, and Mr. R. R. Nehls, 
General Manager, so favorably known in the 
film world, resides in Santa Barbara. 

The establishment of the American Film 
Company in Santa Barbara means much to its 
development, since in addition to the large sum 
of money spent here annually (between $500,000 
and $1,000,000) it is one of the best forms of ad- 
vertisement a city can have, and all who believe 
in a greater and more widely known Santa Bar- 
bara should appreciate its value. This is en- 
hanced by the fact that only star films are pro- 
duced, and what will appeal most is the excep- 
tional character of the artists appearing in same. 

Santa Barbara Tea Rooms 

The Barbarenos, in their fondness for after- 
noon tea, outvie the English, but this may be due 
in some measure to their New England ancestry. 

No matter where the stranger wanders, he will 
find such attractive places as '^The Studio," in 
the old de la Guerra mansion, ^'The Patio," also 
in an historic adobe on East de la Guerra Street; 
'The Carrillo Adobe," ''Cozy Corner," "The 
Sign of the Cypress." Then in the attractive 
shops up and down State Street, and in the Large 
hotels, afternoon tea is also served. 

The same obtains at the clubs, and the discus- 
sion so dear to the heart of all womankind finds 
an outlet in afternoon tea parties the year round. 



At one of these a very precise and scholarly lady 
who had been much ''talked over" in her absence, 
remarked to one of her dear friends: ''How I do 
long for dear old Boston, small towns are all ears 
and big ones have none." 

Altogether, a tour of the places where tea is 
served in Santa Barbara is most interesting, and 
■an education in itself. It is not so much what 
you see, as what you hear — tow^n talk and — but 
there, make the round yourself, it's a cure for 

We have all heard of the "Blue Bird," and 
have observed how often it has been used as an 
advertisement for this and that, but a Santa Bar- 
bara lady now proposes to establish a new tea 
room to be known as the "Blue Cow"; it is to be 
hoped that, on its opening day, she will not pun- 
ish her patrons by giving them milk to match. 


It can be safely asserted that no city of its size 
in the United States can compare with Santa 
Barbara in its unique hotel accommodation for 
the traveling public and permanent guests. 
There are rooms to suit -any purse, and the wel- 
come extended to the visitor, no matter where he 
may sojourn, is characteristic of the city, which 
has won a very enviable reputation in this re- 

The palm for being the first in the field, 
noted for its hospitality towards its guests, must 
be awarded to the historic Arlington Hotel, 
which was erected in 1875 by a stock company at 
a cost of $200,000, a large sum of money in those 



days, and, with its broad piazzas and stairways, 
was famous in the early eighties as being the 
finest hotel on the Pacific Coast. 

'^rC :r J y. ^?>^ 

~ - - - «.v? -. 










After many vicissitudes, the late Colonel 
HoUister became owner of a majority of the 



shares in the Hotel, and the late Dixie W. 
Thompson became its capable manager. 

The Hotel was run at a loss for about five 
years, due to the exceedingly good fare provided 
at low inclusive rates, which necessitated assess- 
ments being levied on the stock holders, until one 

Arlington Hotel, Santa Barbara, 1920. 

by one they either gave away their stock or sold 
it to Colonel HoUister, who became the sole 
owner, he subsequently selling the Arlington to 
the Hawleys, who managed it until it was des- 
troyed by fire in 1909. 

It was felt at this time that Santa Barbara 
had lost its dearest possession, but Phoenix-like, 


SAN T A 1^ /\ R H A R A 

out of its ashes arose the present splendid fire- 
proof edifice that represents the best in the Mis- 
sion style of architecture in California. 

The traditions of the historic Arlington are 
maintained by the new proprietors Messrs. A. I.. 
Richmond and John J. Hernan, reminiscent of 
the best period in its history, when Colonel Hol- 
lister gave his guests that personal attention that 
served to endear him so much in the minds of his 
fortunate guests. 

The site on which the Ambassador Hotel 
stands was originally known as Burton Mouild, 
and was the spot on which in the old days stood 
one of the largest Indian villages in the County, 
under the chieftainship of Yanonali. 

In 1901, the Potter Hotel Company was or- 
ganized, and constructed the Hotel, which was 
completed in 1902. 

For years the immense hotel catered to ex- 
clusive people from all quarters of the globe, but 
in 1919 it w^as taken over by the Straus interests, 
and re-named the Ambassador. The property 
has been greatly modernized, and its thirty-acre 
park has been beautified with semi-tropical vege- 
tation of all sorts. 

The location of the hotel on the ocean front 
is one of infinite cbarm. The hotel is under the 
expert management of Mr. David H. Boice. 

El Mirasol (The Sunflower) is one of the 
most perfectly appointed hotels of its kind in 
America today. It is designed for those w^ho 
desire rest and quiet; who want to live as though 


A N D M O N T E C I T C) 












at home, without the responsibility and fatigue 
of keeping house, but who dislike the publicity, 
the noise and promiscuity of a large hotel. 

Here, people live in their own bungalows, 
which are so designed as to be readily adapted, 
to any arrangement of suite desired, from a 
single room and bath, to an entire bungalow, 
with sitting room and bed rooms, complete; each 
room with its own private entrance opening di- 
rectly "out of doors." 

The main building, a beautiful adaptation of 
the mission style of architecture, surrounds a 
patio with fountain in the center; being thus 
charmingly reminiscent of early Spanish days.. 
To the rear of this is El Mirasol's private park, 
surrounded by the bungalows, beyond which one 
has a superb view of the Santa Ynez mountains 
and intervening foothills; the vv^hole forming a 
picture of restfulness and charm h-ard to dupli- 
cate, even in California, outside of Santa Bar- 

El Mirasol is not for the sick, chronic in- 
valids being positively not accepted. The intent 
is to provide a home for a limited number of 
those Vv^ho are lovers of sunshine, natural beauty 
and real comfort; and to such it ofTers, in its sur- 
roundings, appointments and service, a place ab- 
solutely unique in the hotel history of the world. 

Mr. F. Clifts is the owner, and Mr. C. D. 
Wilson manager. 

El Encanto 

There can be no doubt in the minds of those 
who have been fortunate enough to sojourn in 
the hospitable shelter of ''El Encanto," that its 



name has been aptly chosen, since ''enchantment" 
rests with its happy dwellers. Nestling upon the 
crest of Mission Ridge, in the Riviera, five hun- 
dred feet above sea level, and near the Old Mis- 
sion, it looks down upon the fair City of Santa 
Barbara, with its wealth of picturesque scenes. 

El Encanto Hotel, Mission Ridge, Santa Barbara. 

In the valley -at its feet, can be seen, in addi- 
tion to the City, beautiful Montecito and the 
Goleta valley, and the coast line for many miles; 
the peaceful Santa Barbara Channel lies below, 
and in the distance the dim shapes of the islands, 
and the expanse of ocean. 

Towering overhead, to the north, are the rug- 

eed Santa Ynez mountains, their 





changing, their lofty summits seen in vistas 
through the foliage of giant eucalyptus. 

In the main hotel are drawing room, dining 
room, kitchen and twelve guest rooms. The cot- 
tages adjoining accommodate fifty guests, the 
rooms arranged in suites of two to five in number, 
with bath. 

The furnishings of El Encanto are artistic 
and harmonious, rendering it restful and charm- 
ing to the eye, w^hile the simple and delicious 
meals still further complete the illusion of home. 

The management of the hotel is in the hands 
of Mrs. Anne Stow-Fithian and Mr. N. S. Mul- 

With the opening of The Samarkand on 
January 1st, 1921, a new word in hotel life will 
have been spoken. The word will have a world 
meaning — a composite word from all languages 
signifying comfort and beauty. A world of 
beauty in a garden of thirty acres will have been 
created, where a hundred guests may find every 
comfort of home with no domestic care. 

Single rooms and rooms en suite are fur- 
nished in exquisite taste, and open on to an 
arched corridor which leads to the main build- 
ing. Beautiful painted Persian screens separate 
the corridor spaces into private terraces, one for 
each suite of rooms. These guest rooms are 
built around a terraced garden, where the rarest 
of tropical plants bloom throughout the year; 
the sitting rooms look into this garden, while the 
bedrooms have mountain, meadow, mesa, and 
ocean views. In each garden is a lily pond, like 
great Persian carpets, dripping from one terrace 



to the terrace below, until a small lake, bordered 
by a rock garden, is reached. A rose pergola 
surrounds the lake, and beyond is the bowling 
green — two acres of perfect lawn. Near by are 
the tennis courts, and clock courts for golf. La 
Cumbre Golf Club is only six minutes away. 

In the main building, on the ground floor, 
are the lounge, ballroom, dressing rooms, game 
and writing rooms, and a small theatre, perfectly 
appointed, opening into the lounge, where from 
time to time plays will be given for the guests 
and their friends. The dining-rooms, with 
breakfast and tea terraces, are on the third floor, 
reached by elevators. This part of the Samark- 
and has reached the ultimate of beauty in ap- 
pointments and decorations. The walls of the 
main dining room are violet gray. Large Per- 
sian blue baskets of fairyland flowers, fruits and 
birds painted on a gold ground form a decoration 
over the windows. On the blue metal gauze cur- 
tains, which hang from the moulding at the top 
of the painted decoration, wool flowers and fruits 
are embroidered in motifs similar to the forms 
in the baskets. Wedgewood china in three col- 
ors is the service used — yellow at breakfast; lav- 
ender blue at luncheon; and the Queen's Edme 
pattern at dinner. Colored linens are used to 
harmonize with the china. The kitchens are 
pronounced by experts to be the most perfect in 
the country, with every feature designed to con- 
tribute to efficient service. 

The entire building is of reinforced concrete, 
and is fireproof; the architects, Messrs. George 
Dennison and Frank Ingerson, have achieved a 



wonderful result in creating a building which 
breathes the spirit of Persia. 

With the management in charge of Mr. Al- 
fred K. Bennett, service in every department will 
be unexcelled, and the meaning of the Persian 
word — ''Samarkand" — ''A place of one's heart's 
desire" will be fully realized. 

Among other hotels are: — The Neal, adjoin- 
ing the Southern Pacific Railroad Station, The 
Barbara, 537 State Street, The Gregson, 1600 
Garden Street, El Camino, 318 State Street, De 
Riviera Hotel, 125 West Carrillo Street, and 
The Upham, 1404 De la Vina Street. 

The largest and most artistic apartment 
house is the Edgerly Court, which occupies the 
corner of Chapala and West Sola Streets, and is 
under the efficient management of Mrs. M. S. 
Scott. Other apartment houses are: — The 
Brackett, on State and Arrellaga, The Bruns- 
wick, East Haley Street, The Morehouse, 1123 
Ch-apala, Hillside Apts., 1811 Loma, La Mor- 
ada, 7 E. Valerio, Resthaven, 1 135 Chapala, and 
the Sahm, 125 W. De la Guerra Street; there are 
also several ''Courts" of bungalow residences. 

The earliest mention of a school in Santa 
Barbara is that of a girls school in 1817, and in 
1819 it w^ould appear from old records that 
Diego Fernandez was receiving fifteen dollars 
a month for teaching. Governor Echeandia, in 
1828, considered this a useless expense, as no 
scholar attended the school, so the comandante 
was ordered to compel parents to send their 



children. Whether this effort was successful, 
the records do not state. 

Later, in 1829, the government records show 
that there were two schools in Santa Barbara, 
one at the presidio with 67 scholars, and one at 
the mission with 44, but these do not appear to 
have been very successful ow^ng to lack of funds 
and the impossibility of obtaining suitable teach- 
ers. No progress was made, due to Governor 
Echeandia being unable to contend against the 

indifference of the people and the poverty of the 
treasury. The cause of education -again declined; 
the schools in California, few in number and 
presided over by incapable teachers, were only 
open for about one-third of the time, at irregular 
intervals, and for brief periods, according to the 
condition of the treasury. 

In May, 1834, Governor Figueroa reported 

to the Mexican Goverment that there were only 

three primary schools in the State, among them 

one -at Santa Barbara, and these were taught by 
ill-qu-alified, inexperienced men, and attended 

by but few children. These schools were for 
boys, for girls none existed, nor for several years 
had any attempt been made in connection with 
female education. These facts were set forth by 
the governor in a speech delivered shortly after- 
ward at the opening session of the assembly, 
whereupon that body asked from the supreme 
government an annual sum for the support of 



public schools, to which request no attention was 

Very little more was done in connection with 
education in Santa Fiarbara uritil, in 1844, Gov- 
ernor Micheltorena issued a decree by which the 
schools were again established in several cities, 
among them Santa Barbara. The plan adopted 
provided for teaching reading, w^riting, and the 
elementary rules of arithmetic; -also that girls 
should have lessons in making and mending 
clothes, and to a certain extent in embroidery and 
vvxaving by hand. All children betw^een six and 
eleven years w^ere to attend, unless they were be- 
ing taught at home, or there w^as some other 
valid reason. The Governor also at this time 
issued a proclamation calling upon the patriot- 
ism of officials and people to support the schools, 
and announced that they would be opened on the 
first Monday in June, but it does not appear that 
schools were even opened at all the places pro- 
posed, -and even w^here they w^ere established, it 
was found impossible to raise money to pay the 
teachers. Within a year of its adoption, this 
scheme w^as found to be impracticable, and once 

more the question of education w^as shelved. 

During his term of office, Governor Pico also 
made an attempt to establish schools, but was 
unable to do so, owing to the same difficulties en- 
countered by his predecessors, want of funds, 
lack of teachers, and indifference on the part of 



Such was the condition of education in Cali- 
fornia up to the time of the American acquisi- 
tion; the Californians of 1846 were hardly more 
learned than those of 1786, with the exception of 
those who had been educated in Mexico or 
abroad; or w^ho had received instruction from 
private teachers. 

As soon as California was organized under 
American rule, steps were taken to establish -a 
public school system, and half a million acres of 
public lands were donated for that purpose by 
congress. From sale of this land and from a 
proportion of the state poll tax, the schools were 
supported; later, each school district was author- 
ized to levy a tax for school purposes. 

In 1855 the public school in Santa Barbara 
met in the old Presidio chapel, poorly lighted, 
damp and half ruined. About forty pupils at- 
tended, and were taught by a man who only knew 
Spanish and received $80 per month for his ser- 
vices. The earthquake in 1857 practically de- 
molished the old chapel and rendered the erec- 
tion of a new school house necessary, which was 
built of brick at a cost of $1,500. 

Any sort of a building that would house the 
pupils, except the brick building above men- 
tioned, was used for school purposes in those 
days, and this state of affairs continued until the 
erection of the Lincoln school in 1870. 

In 1869 a joint stock company of citizens was 



organized, which founded the Santa Barbara 
College; this school flourished until 1881, when 
owing to financial difficulties it ceased to exist. 

Arrangements were then made for the estab- 
lishment of a high school, and for some years 
this w^as housed in a portion of the Lincoln 

School building, but in 1901 it moved to its pres- 
ent site. 

The construction and equipment of schools 
has of late years been much extended to meet the 
needs of the city; devotion to the cause of educa- 
tion has ahvays been a marked feature of Santa 

Barbara, and it is today famous in the land as an 
educational center. 

The Santa Barbara State Normal School is 
an outgrowth of the Blake Manual Training 
School founded in 1909 ''to furnish to the people 
of both sexes such professional training in Man- 
ual Arts and Home Economics as shall fit them 
to teach in the public schools of the state in the 
departments of Manual Training and Home 
Economics." This early school was a commun- 
ity project aided very materially by the city 
Board of Education and later by the Chamber of 
Commerce. The Legislature made its first ap- 
propriation in 1911 for building and equipment, 
but it was not until two years later that the school 
was moved to its present site on the ridge over- 
looking the city. 

A conspicuous frontage of several white ce- 
ment buildings attracts the eye, and stands agree- 
ably prominent from any quarter of the city. 
The architecture is essentially Spanish, and thor- 



oughly in keeping with the traditional atmos- 
phere of this Mission City. A charming patio 
with graceful eucalyptus mirrored in a large rec- 
tangular pool is surrounded by a cloister and 
pergola, whose pillars are half hidden by climb- 
ing roses and graceful vines. 


State Normal School, Santa Barbara. 

The growth in buildings and equipment has 
been commensurate with increased enrollment 
and wider scope of the work offered. An Art 
Department was added because it was needed as 
a complement to Manual Arts and Home Econ- 
omics, then the Physical Education department 
was organized to meet increasing demands for 
teachers trained in this line. Again, in 1919, 
another enlargement of the scope of work of the 
institution was made by legislative action in the 
interest of General Professional training. The 
name of the institution was changed at this time 



to the Santa Barbara State Normal School, and 
the course of study was made to include the gen- 
eral professional training of elementary teachers 
as well as special teachers in Manual Arts, 
Home Economics, Art, and Physical Education. 

Keen appreciation is felt by the institution 
and by the public of the services of Mrs. Ednah 
Rich Morse, the founder and first president, 
whose vision and devoted service in the face of 
overwhelming difficulties fostered the ideals of 
the school during the first years of its existence. 
Possessing a fund of amazing vitality and bound- 
less energy, Mrs. Morse faced almost alone the 
educational and legal criticism opposing the es- 
tablishment of her school, but later enjoyed the 
fruits of her labors in a well-established institu- 
tion realizing her ideals. The scholastic stand- 
ing of the school was assured and, the training 
in special subjects was accredited at the univer- 

The second president was Frank Holland 
Ball, whose one year of service was greatly han- 
dicapped by his ill-health; during his adminis- 
tration, however, the enrollment was greatly in- 
creased, and it was through his instrumentality 
that the gymnasium with its full equipment was 

Under the progressive policy of the third 
president, Clarence L. Phelps, the State Normal 
School ofifers still greater opportunity through 
a more extensive development and scholastic 
growth. The service of the school to the com- 
munity and to the state at large is the first con- 
sideration, and with several prospective build- 



ings, a broader curriculum, and a closer integra- 
tion of work with the universities, this service is 
greatly magnified. President Phelps has been 
able, through sound policy and wise judgment, 
to bring all the normal schools of the State to- 
gether as a unit of education; thus at the pres- 
ent time, the outlook is optimistic. 

Santa Barbara Girls School 

In the spring of 1914, a few people in Santa 
Barbara having daughters of school age, felt the 
need of a superior school for girls which would 
rank with the best in the countrv. 



The Tower, Santa Barbara Girls School. 

The undertaking of establishing such an in- 
stitution was a tremendous task, but being per- 
sons of courage, high ideals and large vision, 
they went to work with vigor to accomplish 
their aim. A stock company was formed with a 
Board of Directors to manage the school affairs. 
Fortunately they were able to secure Miss Mar- 
ion L. Chamberlain, of Boston, as Principal, 
without whose unselfish service, high standards, 



and unfailing loyalty it would have been impos- 
sible to achieve such a success. 

During the period of the war, it was only 
possible to have the school in private houses, 
w^hich soon became insufficient for its growing 
needs. In a few years the resident department 
grew from four to twenty-four pupils, and the 

Lower Corner from Playground, Santa Barbara Girls School. 

day-school from thirty-five to one hundred and 
fourteen pupils. 

Early in 1919 the school company w^as re- 
organized into a corporation of twenty-one Trus- 
tees, all of whom are representative people of 
this community, who take a keen interest in the 
progress of the institution. They have issued 
bonds to finance the purchasing of a beautiful 
property known as Miradero, located at Con- 
stance Avenue at the end of Santa Barbara 
Street, formerly the home of Miss Anna Blake 
of Newport. In this large homelike residence 
with a w^onderful view of mountains, valley, and 
sea, there is accommodation for twenty-five girls, 



all of them sleeping in porch dormitories. An 
adjoining property has been purchased for the 
day-school, and new buildings — most of them 
open-air class rooms — have been completed. A 
basket ball field -and several tennis courts are 
also on these grounds, together with a charming 
wooded canyon beside a stream. As the equable 
climate of Santa Barbara makes it possible for 
riding, swimming, and all open air sports the 
whole year round, the majority of the pupils of 
this school avail themselves of the country day 
school plan of staying for luncheon at the resi- 
dence, and having an afternoon of supervised 
sports under a trained director. 

Corner of the Residence from Driveway. 

The scope of the school is from the kinder- 
garten to college preparatory classes, and very 
special effort is made to provide a really good 
teaching staff. The gradu-ates of the school who 
have gone to college have been well prepared to 
take their place in all college activities. 

The Santa Barbara Girls School, situated as 



it is on one of the most beautiful sites in Santa 
Barbara, with a climate conceded to be one of 
the finest in the world, appeals to Eastern parents 
who wish their children to enjoy continuous out 
of door life during the entire school year, and to 
the Western parents who desire the standards of 
education maintained in the best Eastern schools, 

St Anthony's Seminary 

In Part Two of this work will be found a full 
historical account of the establishment of the 
Santa Barbara Mission by the padres of the 
Franciscan Order, and of the incorporation with 
the new province of Santa Barbara, which, in 
addition to the California coast, embraces Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, Oregon and Washington. 

Most of the laborers in this wide and ever in- 
creasing field of activity are graduates of St. 
Anthony's Seminary. This Institution, first 
known as St. Anthony's College, was founded at 
the Santa Barbara Mission in 1896. 

In order to accommodate the increasing num- 
ber of students, a new building was erected, sub- 
stantially built of stone, and modern throughout, 
w^hich has been the home of the Seminary since 

It is beautifully situated on the crest of a line 
of foothills overlooking the city of Santa Bar- 
bara and here, in the shadow of the Old Mission, 
within earshot of the Mission Bells, which still 
hang in their massive towers and speak of the 
glories of the past; surrounded on all sides by a 
matchless panorama of ocean and mountain, 
wooded canon, and rolling hills; drawing inspir- 


AND iVI O N T E C 1 T O 

ation from an environment so rich in the associa- 
tions of history and the charms of nature, the 
students of St. Anthony's Seminary preparing to 
follow in the footsteps of the padres are being 
educated for the priesthood in the Franciscan 

The College Faculty is as follows: — Rev. 
Father John, President; Rev. Father Peter, Rev. 
Father Adrian, Rev. Father Louis, Vice- 
President; Rev. Father Joseph, Rev. Father 
Charles, Rev. Father Lawrence and the Rev. 
Father Bernard. 

St. Anthony's Seminary. 

Students who desire to enter and who have a 
sincere intention of eventually joining the Order 
in the Province of Santa Barbara, must be bod- 
ily, mentally and morally sound, and between 
twelve and sixteen years of age, besides having 
the consent of their parents or guardians. 



Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital 

The Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital was in- 
corporated in 1888. At that time the institution 
consisted of a group of small cottages accommo- 
dating ten patients. 

Soon after a large frame building was 
erected. This building, with a capacity of 35 
patients, was the pride of all who had to do with 

In 1913 a new building, the central unit of 
the present Cottage Hospital, was erected. It 
is of fireproof construction and splendidly adapt- 
ed to its purpose, and is located at the corner of 
Third Avenue and Bath Street and is reached bj 
the electric street car. A wing for obstetric pa- 
tients only, was opened in 1918. This feature 
of the hospital is unique and has attracted wide 
attention. Expectant mothers and mothers arc 
so well cared for that it is ahvays crowded and its 
enlargement will soon be necessary. At that time 
Miss Florence C. Johnson was appointed Super- 
intendent and has occupied that position ever 

A second wing, organized by the late Nath- 
aniel B. Potter, M. D., and called the A4emorial 
Metabolic Clinic was opened in 1919. This 
unit has an individual stafT of doctors, nurses and 
laboratory technicians. It is devoted exclusively 
to the study and treatment of a group of illnesses 
known as metabolic diseases which are difficult 
to deal with. This group includes such con- 
ditions as nephritis, gout, diabetes, thyroid and 
other glandular troubles, etc. The expense of 
maintaining this department has been borne by 















S A N r A B A R H A R A 

private donors and by the Carnegie Foundation 
for the Advancement ot 7"eaching, Dr. W. D. 
Sansuni, late of Chicago, having been recently 
appointed to have control and direct this depart- 

About this time a third wing was added to 
the main building, given over entirely to the 
X-Ray department. The appointments of this 
unit and its equipment are as excellent as any on 
the coast and a physician specializing in X-Ray 
work devotes his entire time to this branch. 
Thereby, physicians and the general public h-ave 
the advantage of accurate X-Ray advice. 

Very completely equipped clinical, chemical 
and pathological laboratories h-ave been estab- 
lished. The clinical and pathological labora- 
tories employ three assistants working under the 
supervision of a full time pathologist. The 
chemical laboratory has tvv^o assistants and is 
under the direction of a research chemist of na- 
tional prominence. 

A new departure in hospital management 
has recently been inaugurated, the services of a 
medical director. Dr. Frank Nuzum, having been 
obtained. The medical and research w^ork of the 
entire hospital is under his supervision. The 
Board of Directors have provided attending 
physicians with every modern method of diag- 
nosis and treatment. They have further assured 
the general public that only the best work pos- 
sible is to be done in the hospital and with this 
in view they hold the medical director respon- 
sible for the standard of the medical work ac- 



A further departure in the activities of this 
institution is the establishment of a research de- 
partment. Work of this l^ind has from the first 
been done in the Metabolic Clinic and will now 
be extended to other medical branches. The 
prosecution of investigative work is rarely un- 
dertaken by small hospitals and the citizens of 
Santa Barbara may feel proud that they have in 
their midst an institution that is broad enough in 
its policies to undertake such a task. 

Owing to the rapid growth of the hospital, 
plans have already been prepared for further 
additions. Among the improvements contem- 
plated is the erection of a new home for nurses. 

The Cottage Hospital owes its splendid 
quarters and equipment to the foresight of a 
group of benevolent men and women who for 
years have given money and time to its needs. 
The present Board of Directors, of which Mr. 
George Owen Knapp is the president, is com- 
posed of nationally prominent business men who 
have been especially liberal and have effected 
for Santa Barbara an institution of which the 
city may be justly proud. The aim of the Di- 
rectors is that the service of the Hospital shall 
be so uniformly good that no better treatment 
can be ofifered to the millionaire than is given the 
patient without means. 

The Santa Barbara General Hospital (and 
Farm) was founded in July, 1918, on a site of 
350 acres off Hollister Avenue, to the north of 
the city. There are at present 87 inmates, in- 
cluding 22 Tubercular patients, which are 



housed in a commodious and well-appointed sep- 
arate building. 

In addition to a flower garden, all the vege- 
tables used in the Hospital are raised, as well ab 
beans and walnuts; 187 tons of hay w^ere also 
harvested this season. New barns have also re- 
cently been built, with housing for pigs, cows, 
and horses. 

The Institution is under the capable manage- 
ment of Mr. and Mrs. Vandever. 

St. Francis Hospital 

St. Francis Hospital of Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia, is under the management of the Francis- 
can Sisters of the Sacred Heart, w^hose head- 
quarters are at Joliet, Illinois. The hospital was 
founded in the year 1906 by a board of physi- 
cians, and w^as taken over by the Sisters in the 
year 1908. 

Few hospitals an}^vhere in the United States 
or, for that matter, in the world, can boast of 
such an ideal setting. Surrounded as it is by 
gardens typically Californian in vegetation, and 
built on high ground, safely removed from the 
noise of traffic, St. Francis Hospital has advan- 
tages all its own. From the veranda running 
along the front of the building, and from most 
of the rooms, the view^ is an arresting one. The 
tow-n is just below^, sloping dow^n from the foot- 
hills and spreading out into the valley; hedged 
in on the other side by a long line of gently roll- 
ing hills. To the left the view broadens out 
over the placid waters of Santa Barbara Chan- 
nel — placid usually, because of their island bar- 



riers which stretch for many miles along the dis- 
tant horizon, and deeply blue as they reflect the 
abundant sunshine of this favored clime. 

The buildings of St. Francis Hospital, 
though unpretentious in appearance, are well ap- 
pointed in the various departments necessary for 
efficient service. The rooms are all pleasant; 
neatly furnished, and open to sunlight. Spotless 
cleanliness is everywhere in evidence; in fact, the 
hospital is justly noted for the extreme care 
which the Sisters take in this regard. The sur- 
gical and the X-ray department, which are 
housed in a new fire-proof wing, are spacious 
and furnished throughout according to the most 
modern standards. Operating-room, X-ray, and 
laboratory are each under the supervision of a 
Sister specially trained for the work. 

In connection with the hospital, the Sisters 
also conduct a training school for nurses, which, 
being accredited by the state-board, is empow- 
ered to grant the regular diploma for trained 
nurses. Competent doctors have been appointed 
as lecturers, and co-operate admirably with the 
Sisters in providing the student-nurses with an 
education tending towards an efficient as well as 
a devoted service of the sick. 

People of every race and every creed have 
learnt to appreciate the presence of the Sisters 
in Santa Barbara. Very seldom is there an 
empty room in the hospital; scarcely does a pa- 
tient leave when there is another waiting to take 
the room vacated. More than this; during the 
past year especially, the call for space in the hos- 
pital has been so great, that many had to be re- 


AND M () N T E C I l O 

fused for lack of room. The Sisters, therefore, 
are very eager to provide a new building for 
their ever increasing number of patients. The 
necessary ground has already been secured and 
the building will be constructed as soon as suf- 
ficient funds are subscribed. 

The Associated Charities 

The interesting Old Adobe at Santa Bar- 
bara and De la Guerra streets houses the equally 
interesting activities of the Associated Charities. 
More than one newcomer to Santa Barbara has 
exclaimed ^'Why a charity organization here? 
Surely there is no misery or poverty in the 
midst of all this beauty." But the mother whose 
sick child is crying for the milk which she has no 
money to buy, cannot hear the music of the 
waves. The aged gentlewomen quietly starving, 
too proud to ask assistance, can no longer see, 
with their dimmed vision, the wonderful blue- 
ness of the sky. To the frail wife left suddenly 
penniless and alone with five little ones, the 
mountains are but pitiless piles of stone unless 
their strength is interpreted to her in terms of 
human sympathy and helpfulness. Tragedies 
like these explain why the community, desiring 
to make life beautiful within as well as without, 
maintains the Associated Charities to relieve 
distress wherever found, and to prevent it when- 
ever possible. 

In contributing its share to the community 
welfare the work of the Association falls rather 
naturally into the following divisions: 

1. The meeting of emergencies; tiding over 
hard places, discovering and eliminating condi- 














;\ N D M O N T E C I T O 

tions which arc causing poverty and misery. 
Many and varied are the troubles and perplexi- 
ties which are brought to the hospitable old 
building, each requiring special thought and di- 
agnosis and treatment. The solving of human 
problems is not a simple task; the re-establish- 
ment of broken homes is not accomplished in a 
day; the straightening and strengthening of 
warped and sagging lives requires more than 
food and clothing, but is it not -a service infinitely 
w^orth while'? 

2. Administering the County aid in this su- 
pervisorial district, investigating all applica- 
tions for assistance, and acting as friendly ad- 
visor to all those dependent on the community 
for support, helping them back to self mainten- 
ance whenever possible. This group includes 
the old folk w^ho can never again be self support- 
ing; the family whose wage earner is incapaci- 
tated by sickness, and the deserted or wadowed 
mothers with tiny children. 

3. The educational work among the foreign 
speaking families. Repeatedly w^e find those 
w^ho enter the new land full of hope failing to 
become adjusted. Handicapped too heavily by 
ignorance of our language and customs, they be- 
come bewildered, disheartened and dependent, 
unless somew^here a friendly contact is made. 
The mother who understands no English is quick 
to recognize the interest taken in her baby, and 
comes eagerly to the Industrial classes at the 
Old Adobe to learn how to sew, how to prepare 
wholesome, well balanced meals for her family 
and neat attractive clothing for her children; 



paying for the material not in money but in sew- 
ing on other little garments which by being sold 
to more fortunate mothers, help to support the 
department. Her children meantime, who are 
too young for school, play in the sunshine, dig 
in the sand pile, and frolic freely about the old 

4. The distribution of the milk which 
means health and strength for undernourished 
children, tubercular families -and convalescents, 
weakened by illness. Started first as an emer- 
gency measure, the Milk Fund has proven of 
such value that, under the sponsorship of the 
Native Daughters, it has received most generous 
support from the entire community. 

5. Acting as the local agent for the State 
Board of Charities and Corrections in supervis- 
ing family boarding homes for children, in order 
to insure each child who must needs be cared for 
outside his own home adequate care and protec- 

6. Representing the Children's Department 
of the State Bo-ard of Control by keeping in close 
touch with those families in which orphans or 
half orphans are receiving aid from the State. 

7. Co-operating in all efforts toward social 
and civic betterment to the end that Santa Bar- 
bara may be indeed wholly beautiful in the mak- 
ing and the living. 

Santa Barbara Visiting Nurse Association 

This Association was organized in 1908, with 
the object of making a visiting nurse service 
available in the community, and furthering the 
interests of public health in all ways possible. 



In 1910 a building at 133 E. Haley Street was 
purchased, and the Association was incorpor- 
ated. The following year a General Dispensary 
was opened, the work of which was taken over 
in 1917 by the Cottage Hospital, in order that 
the Association might devote its energies to 
home-nursing. At present the organization em- 
ploys a supervisor and four nurses, and has the 
use of three Ford cars; the registrar also acts as 
Spanish interpreter. The nurses work in co- 
operation with the city physicians, the Clinics, 
and the City and County Health Departments; 
special attention is given to maternity patients, 
and to infant and child welfare. In this connec- 
tion, a w^eekly meeting is held, with physician in 
attendance, to which mothers may bring their 
babies for advice and care. From 1914 to 1916 
School nursing was done by the Association, 
when the Board of Education incorporated the 
school nurse in the school system; work in the 
parochial schools is still done by the visiting 
nurses, and a dental clinic for children main- 
tained by them for two days weekly. Other ac- 
tivities of the Association include the mainten- 
ance of an open-air school for delicate children, 
a clinic for the examination of persons suspected 
of having tuberculosis, and a summer day camp 
for children. 

Santa Barbara Churches 

Until the sixties the only regular church ser- 
vices held in Santa Barbara were those at the 
Mission and the Parochial Church at the corner 
of State and Figueroa Streets, Catholicism being 



the religion of all the inhabitants of the County, 
including the Indians. 

The first Protestant church to be organized 
here was the Trinity Episcopal on March 28, 
1867. For the first two years services were held 
in a little brick schoolhouse in the yard of the 
Lincoln School, after which the church building 
was erected on Guiterrez Street near Anacapa. 
In 1875 there was division in the congregation, 
and one faction built a new church for itself 
called St. Marks at the corner of Anacapa and 
Micheltorena Streets, but the new venture did 
not last long, and in 1888 the re-united society 
built another church at the corner of Anacapa 
and Anapamu Streets. This was burned dov/n 
in 1903, and the congreg^ation then held services 
in the Parish Hall. Finally in 1912 the present 
church was erected, at the corner of State and 
Micheltorena Streets. 

The next denomination to organize in Santa 
Barbara was the Congreg-ational, this event tak- 
ing place on the 8th of September, 1867. On 
May 19, 1870 a church was dedicated on a site 
near the corner of Ortega and Santa Barbara 
Streets, this being used for about twenty years, 
when a new building w^as erected at the corner of 
Anacapa and Figueroa Streets, the latter being 
sold to the Lutherans when the present Congre- 
gational church on State Street near Sola, was 
built in 1906. 



In 1869 the First Presbyterian church was 
organized, and the present edifice of that congre- 
gation on Anapamu Street opposite the Public 
Library, is the most imposing church building in 
Santa Barbara. 

The First Baptise 
church was organiz- 
ed July 5, 1874, and 
a small lot with a 
building on it near 
the corner of Ortega 
and De la Vina 
Streets was purchas- 
ed from the Presby- 
terians when they 
moved to their new 
church in 1875. In 
1882 the church 
property known as 
St. Marks, was pur- 
chased by the Ban 
tists, and continued 
to be used until the 
erection of the pres- 
ent edifice at the corner of Victoria and Chapak 

The Unitarian Society of Santa Barbara was 
organized August 13, 1885, the present church 
at the corner of State Street and i\rlington Av- 
enue being erected in 1890. 

The First Christian Church of Santa Barbara 


First Presbyterian Church. 


was founded in 1888, by B. F. Coulter of Los 
Angeles with a charter membership of thirteen. 
The old Episcopal building on East Gutierrez 
Street was the place of worship for several years, 
after which a church was built on the corner of 
Carrillo and De la Vina Streets. This property 
was sold in 1919, and a site on the corner of Cha- 
pala and Carrillo Streets purchased with the idea 
of sometime building a fine place of worship. 

First Church of Christ Scientist. 

The First Church of Christ Scientist, was or- 
ganized October 2, 1900, though a small com- 
pany of persons of that belief had been holding 
services for some seven or eight years before. 
In 1902 the former Unitarian chapel on State 
Street near Victoria was purchased, and in 1906 
removed to its present location at the corner of 
Anacapa and Micheltorena Streets, where it has 
been greatly enlarged. 


S A N r A BAR H A R A 

Other societies of a religious nature are to be 
found in Santa Barbara, representing almost all 
sects, as well as a fine edifice housing the Young 
Men's Christian Association, at the corner of 
Chapala and Carrillo Streets. 

Recreation Center 

The Recreation Center, in East Carrillo 
Street, is the home of many organizations and 
clubs, and besides reading and billiard rooms for 
men, contains transient rooms for women, en- 
dorsed by the Y. W. C. A., and an information 
bureau. The building is open daily, Sundays 
and holidays included, from 7 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. 

National and international groups make Rec- 
reation Center their headquarters for mass 
meetings of various kinds; school plays, political 
gatherings, community singing and concerts, lec- 
tures, and supervised public dances are frequent 
occurrences, and many children of both sexes are 
always to be seen in the gymnasium, and in folk 
dancing and first-aid classes. 

A public bath house for children, the only 
one of its kind in the city, has been conducted on 
the beach for some years, and its popularity is 
evidenced by the fact that over 5,000 baths were 
taken during a period of six wrecks this season. 

The transient rooms at the Center, endorsed 
by the Y. W. C. A., are in constant demand. The 
w^oman or girl seeking work not only finds a safe 
place to stay until she secures a position, but here 
too, come many girls who are stranded in the 
city, friendless and without money. It is no un- 



common occurrence for a midnight telephone 
call to be received from the station master or one 
of the police, seeking shelter for some belated 
traveler, or for some wa3rvvard girl who wants 
another chance. 

One of the special features of the Center is 
the Open House held every Saturday night, 
which is very popular with the public, the usual 
attendance averaging between five and six hun- 
dred. Visitors not caring to dance may pass the 
time pleasantly in the attractive club rooms, 
watching the dancing, or listening to the music 
with their families and friends. 

Santa Barbara Clubs 

Club life is well represented in Santa Bar- 
bara, as a perusal of the following list will show. 
Membership is drawn from all classes of society, 
and exemplifies the social life of the community: 
Automobile Club of Southern California, 1425 
State Street; Caledonian Club, 15>^ E. Anapamu 
Street; Commercial Club of Santa Barbara, 10 
E. Carrillo Street; Little Town Club, 27 E. Car- 
rillo Street; Nature Study Club, 513 E. Pedre- 
gosa Street; Overseas Club, Kitchener Branch, 
15>^ E. Anapamu Street; Progressive Business 
Men's Club; Rotary Club, 1025 State Street; 
Santa Barbara Club, 1 105 Chapala Street; Santa 
Barbara Rifle Club, 1022 State Street; Santa 
Barbara Country Club, Channel Drive; Santa 
Barbara Kennel Club; Santa Barbara Athletic 
Club; Santa Barbara International Polo Club; 
Santa Barbara Driving Club, 711 Chapala 
Street; Santa Barbara Woman's Club, 1419 An- 



acapa Street; Town & Country Club, 1113 State 
Street; University Club, 25 E. Micheltorena 
Street; Women's Shakespeare Club, 1200 Gar- 
den Street. 

La Cumbre Golf and Country Club 
La Cumbre Golf and Country Club is pictur- 
esquely located in grounds of 140 acres just west 
of the city, and wonderful views of mountain 
and valley may be obtained both from the 
grounds and from the windows of the very at- 
tractive club house. There is a membership of 
300 and a waiting list, including not only men 
and women of leisure, but bankers, professional 
men, and business men of Santa Barbara. Mem- 
bers enjoy the game over a beautiful and well 
laid out course, which is exceptionally green. 

Santa Barbara Country Club 
The Santa Barbara Country Club was organ- 
ized twenty-six years ago, and during that period 
many of the most prominent personages in the 
country have been entertained at its club house 
and have played golf over its links. The club 
is located at Montecito, and has a very fine club 

La Primavera Association 

La Primavera Association is a city organiza- 
tion for the perpetuation of the memory of the 
early Spanish occupation of Santa Barbara. This 
is done through an historical pageant which is 
presented in the spring of each year. 

Community Arts Association 
The Santa Barbara Community Arts Associ- 



ation is an organization with an executive com- 
mittee composed of the leading citizens of the 
city, for the furtherance of the community the- 
atre plan. 

Their production of ''The Quest" on the oc- 
casion of the dedication of the Outdoor Com- 
munity Theatre at the Plaza del Mar in July was 
wonderfully successful. The play was undoubt- 
edly one of the prettiest ever given in Southern 
California, the setting wonderful, and the cos- 
tumes and talent excellent. 

Commercial Club of Santa Barbara 

This club of business men was incorporated 
February 23, 1905, and has been of great service 
to the merchants of the city. It is very active, 
and its bi-weekly luncheons are cheery affairs, 
well-attended, and questions of importance to the 
community are discussed. J. A. Walton is Pres- 
ident and G. M. Mickelson, Secretarv. 

The Rotary Club 

The Santa Barbara Rotary Club was organ- 
ized on October Sth, 1917, and has a member- 
ship of seventy-one. The President is Winsor 
Soule, Secretary, Byron Z. Terry. They arc 
prominent in many activities, and are now en- 
gaged in promoting the re-building of the East 
Boulevard, and aiding the Boy Scout movement 

Boy Scouts of America 

No movement is more worthy of support 
than the Boy Scouts of America. The local 
branch at Santa Barbara was organized in No- 
vember, 1919. There is now a membership of 
159, but great plans are being made to increase 



this membership to a total of 300 by next year. 
The boy of today is the citizen of tomorrov/, and 
the lessons of service and citizenship taught in 
youth are never forgotten. The President of 
the Boy Scout Council is Wm. H. Conklin, and 
the offices in The First National Bank Building 
are under the direction of E. J. Richards. 

Chamber of Commerce 

The nucleus of the Santa Baibara Chamber 
of Commerce was the establishment, on Septem- 
ber 22nd, 1872, of an Immigration Bureau. On 
March 22nd, 1873, the Daily Press announced 
that ''the Chamber of Commerce" had called a 
meeting for April 10th, at w^hich the subject for 
discussion was the need for a first class hotel. 
This discussion finally resulted in the formation 
of a stock company, and the building of the 

For some time the activities of the Chamber 
of Commerce were quiescent. On December 
4th, 1886, Vi temporary organization was made, 
which, later, was perfected by the appointment 
of permanent officers and adoption of by-laws. 
The collapse of the boom of 1887 carried dov:n 
with it the Chamber of Commerce. At the City 
Hall, January 4th, 1895, an organization known 
as the Board of Trade of Santa Barbara County 
came into being, which took an active interest 
in everything for the betterment of the city, un- 
til in March, 1899, the name of the organization 
was changed to The Chamber of Commerce of 
Santa Barbara County, and on May 25th, 1899, 



the Chamber was incorporated under the laws of 
the State of California. 

The limits of this sketch preclude mention of 
the activities of the Chamber of Commerce dur- 
ing the twenty-one years which have elapsed 
since its incorporation; sufficient to state that its 
sphere of activity has touched the public life at 
every point, and every interest in the community 
has felt the inspiration of its vitalizing influence. 
The membership, numbering 900, is composed 
of the leading men and women of the city; the 
President is Frank A. Hoefer, and Secretary, 
Charles W. Kirk. 

The Progressive Business Men's Club 

One of the most recently organized Clubs in 
the city, is the Progressive Business Men's Club, 
a branch of the National organization, with a 
membership of the leading business and profes- 
sional men of the city. The President is Dr. R. 
Manning Clarke. 

The American Legion 
The Santa Barbara Post No. 49 of the Ameri- 
can Legion was organized in July, 1919, with a 
membership of thirty-three ex-service men; in 
August this membership had increased to fifty. 
The first meetings were held at Recreation 
Center, but later the basement of the old Presby- 
terian Church in State Street was fitted up into 
comfortable club-rooms. Owing, however to 
this building being demolished the Legion is now 
occupying temporary quarters downtown, but 
hope soon to remove into a permanent building. 
The membership of the Post now numbers over 
600 and is steadily growing. 




Montecito — Miramar — Sandyland - 
teria — Go I eta — Mountain Trails- 

- Carpin- 

ONTECITO is situated in a 
beautiful wooded valley ad- 
joining the City of Santa Bar- 
bara on the east, and is prac- 
tically a residence suburb. It 
has become the home of manv 
wealthy eastern people, whose 
attractive, and in many instan- 
ces, magnificent residences are 
found in all parts of the valley. 
These homes are often sur- 
rounded by a treasure of flow- 
ers and shrubs, making the 
whole neighborhood a delight- 
ful place to live in. 

Montecito was originally a 
part of the Santa Barbara Pu- 
eblo lands, and allotments there were given to 
soldiers whose terms of enlistment at the Pre- 
sidio had expired, and also to new settlers from 
Spain and Mexico. 

The first American resident was Wilbur Cur- 
tiss, who came in 1855; later a number of edu- 
cated Americans took opportunity to establish 
themselves in the valley, and erect homes. 



To Mr. Curtiss belongs the distinction of 
having discovered the valuable qualities of the 
Montecito Hot Springs. He had ruined his 
health in mining enterprises, and in wandering 

j.. , 



Channel Drive to Montecito. 

through the countryside hoping that the pure 
air and outdoor life would restore him, he came 
upon a party of Indians at the mouth of a canyon. 
One among them who claimed to be over one 



hundred years old, led Mr. Curtiss to the 
springs, and intimated that by bathing in the 
waters he would grow well and strong. Mr. 
Curtiss remained, drank and bathed in this veri- 
table pool of Siloam, and was healed. He then 
took up a claim there and began to develop the 
property, which today has become a little moun- 
tain village. 

These springs, some twenty in number, arc 
situated in a picturesque canyon of Mount Agua 
Caliente, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above and 
three miles distant from the ocean, six miles from 
Santa Barbara. The temperature of the waters 
ranges from 60 to 120 degrees, and they are con> 
sidered very efficacious in the healing of many 
diseases, and are especially good in rheumatic 
cases. Their best endorsement is perhaps that 
they are not only much resorted to by people 
from abroad, but also by the residents. 

Visitors to the springs are always taken to 
^'Lookout Point,'* which is reached by a winding 
trail on the mountain side; from here may be 
obtained a magnificent view of the valleys of 
Santa Barbara, Montecito and Carpinteria, and 
(^f the ocean and islands beyond. 

The air of Montecito, and more especially 
that of the foothills overlooking this famed 
beauty spot, is so tonic in character and efifect 
that some of the residents of the many delightful 
homes remain the year round 

On the east and v/est of Montecito, and iso- 
lating it from its neighbors, are rounded ridges 
that run from the bay back to the mountain 
range. The slopes are thickly covered with 








oaks, and in winter with bright green grass, 
which in summer turns to brown and offers a 
striking contrast to the coloring of the oaks. The 
southwest exposure is upon the bay, and on the 
northwest are the mountains, from the foot-hills 
of which the land slopes to the sandy beach. No 
matter in which direction one looks, the pros- 
pect is varied and beautiful. Far ofi across the 
bay are seen the rugged forms of the islands; 
near by are the mountains, with canyons covered 
with semi-tropical vegetation; down in the val- 
ley are smaller vales, separated by low elevations 
filled with orange and lemon groves. The peace 
of nature pervades the atmosphere, and the place 
seems designed for quiet contemplation, rest, and 
study. In winter and summer flowers and verd- 
ure are everywhere, along the roadside, in the 
fields, and over all the ever-green foilage of the 
trees. Nature has been bountiful in giving 
Montecito a fertile soil which is adapted for the 
cultivation of almost anything that will grow. 
The native trees are sycamores and oaks, to 
which have been added specimens of every 
known variety, from the pine of the north to the 
palm of the south. 

Montecito is a colony of magnificently land- 
scaped estates, set in surroundings unrivalled in 
America, and interwoven in every direction by 
smooth highways, which make it a paradise for 
the motorist and seeker after scenic charms. 

In this colony live many people of national 
and international repute, making their homes 
here for the greater part of the year; social lead- 
ers known in all the capitals of the world; re- 



tired millionaires and famous professional lead- 
ers who have all searched the world over for a 
perfect spot to dwell in and have chosen Monte- 
cito as the realization of their dreams. The 
social life during the winter season is brilliant. 

The spiritual needs of Montecito are well 
provided for, there being three churches, Car- 
melo Catholic Church, Valley Road, Presby- 
terian Church, Valley Road, and All Saints 
Episcopal Church, Eucalyptus Lane. 


Entrance to Residence of Mr. David Gray, Montecito. 

The only civic features in Montecito are a 
town hall, library and a well equipped fire sta- 

Montecito Park, consisting of nine cottages 
artistically grouped within an area of four acres, 
is situated along the waterfront in the most pic- 
turesque section of Montecito. The spacious 
park fronts on the beach for a distance of more 



than 900 feet. A pleasure pier, 500 feet long, 
stretches out from the middle of the sea wall, 
which extends along the entire frontage of the 
Park. The pier is for the exclusive use of the 
occupants of the cottages, as also are the bath 
houses, which stand at the other end of the prom- 

The world-famous international polo club 
has its headquarters at Montecito, and some of 
the finest stables in America will be represented 

,.-*,^S;«??5'" '**■•«/; 

Country Club, Montecilo. 

when the mid-winter tournament opens early in 
January. The presence of at least four polo 
teams from New York, Toronto, Calgary, and 
Vancouver, B. C, is assured for the Santa Bar- 
bara tourney, and also a number of individual 
players. All these players expect to be here for 
the inaugural matches commencing on January 
1st, 1921. A large number of other teams, in- 
cluding Del Monte, Pebble Beach, Midwick, 



San Mateo, and Riverside, will also participate. 

The president of the club is Mr. Clinton 
Bennett Hale. 

Other Montecito clubs include: — The Santa 
Barbara Country Club, with its fine golf course 
and club-house; the Montecito Home Club oh 
San Ysidro Road, and the Hot Springs Club. 

Montecito is especially celebrated as having 
been the home of a mammoth grape vine, which 
upon its death was taken east and exhibited at the 
Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. 
This vine was twice as large as the famous vine 
at Fontainebleu, France, larger than any found 
among the villas in the vicinity of Rome, and 
surpassed any of which Pliny gives record in his 
history and travels. The King's Vine at Hamp- 
ton Court, England, the largest and most noted 
in the Old World, only equals in diameter one of 
the main branches of this vine. 

The history of the Montecito vine is both 
curious and interesting; various theories respect- 
ing its origin are based on tradition, and al- 
though founded on fact, have an air of romance. 
A pretty story in this connection is entitled ^'The 
Legend of the Montecito Grapevine," which re- 
lates that a beautiful Spanish lady named Sen- 
orita Marcelina Feliz had been given a grape- 
vine cutting to be used as a riding switch on her 
journey from Los Angeles to Santa Barbara by 
her lover Don Carlos de Dominguez; at the con- 
clusion of her journey, by his parting request, 
she planted it as a living memento of their 
plighted faith, carefully selecting the most suit- 
able spot for the cultivation of the grape in Mon- 



tecito valley. The vine began to grow and 
flourish as no other vine had ever done, and its 
rapid progress was regarded by Marcelina as 
evidence of the constancy and prosperity of her 
absent lover, who, when he had amassed a for- 
tune, was to return and claim her hand. Two 
years later, her parents wished her to marry a 
rich old Spaniard, and having no news of her 
lover, she was about to do so, when on her bridal 
morn, Don Carlos returned from Mexico, where 
he had made a fortune. The next day, her par- 
ents having consented, the fair Marcelina went 
as a willing and happy bride to her adoring Car- 
los. Years passed away, and reverses deprived 
Carlos of his wealth, his Mexican mines having 
ceased to produce silver; but strange to say, the 
faithful vine, once a token of fidelity between 
the lovers, now became their sole means of sup- 
port. So prolific had it become and so little did 
the indolent Spaniards about them turn their at- 
tention to the culture of the grape, that its fruit 
brought an income sufliicient for their needs. 
Carlos and Marcelina died at a ripe old age, 
leaving behind them many descendents, and the 
mammoth grapevine. 

The vine measured fourteen inches in diame- 
ter three feet from the ground, and nearer to the 
root had a diameter of eighteen inches, or fifty- 
six inches in circumference, while its foliage 
covered a space equal to 10,000 square feet, and 
there was room beneath its branches for a dozen 
couples to dance at one time. The produce from 
this vine often reached the immense quantity of 
7,500 clusters, of an average weight of one and 



one-half pounds each, or nearly 12,000 pounds. 
It was of the variety known as the Mission grape. 

The Deane School 

On the west side of Palm Avenue, not far 
from the Sycamore Canyon Road, is the Deane 
School. Situated as it is, in the foothills of the 
Santa Ynez Mountains, six hundred feet above 
the Ocean, the location is admirably fit for a 

t:\^'^- '-■ 

.. -u . - . 

— • •• ..•iJ»v•^:i.•i- 
- --: " •,. rrv'.-i.':-..'.--;, 

TKe Deane School, Monteclto. 

boys' school. One enters the grounds over a very 
rough road lined with trees and shrubbery; but 
he is amply repaid for his jolting by the glimpse 
he gets of the grounds and buildings. If it is in 
the morning, the quietness of the place may give 
him the impression that it is deserted, or, at least, 
merely the habitation of a few people. But if he 
comes in the afternoon, he will be greeted by the 



sight of seventy boys at play having a wonder- 
fully good time. If he is sufficiently interested, 
It IS worth his while to visit the large living 
room, which is also used as a chapel; and to in- 
spect one of the large sleeping porches, where 
the boys sleep in all seasons and in all sorts of 

The school was founded bv Mr John H 
Deane Jr., in the fall of 1912. ''in spite of seri- 
ous losses by flood and fire, he persevered in his 
work and succeeded in building up one of the 
best schools on the Pacific Coast. The numbers 
have grown from twenty-five to more than sev- 
enty. But in allowing this increase no conces- 
sion has been made to inferior work or to boys 
whose personalities were undesirable. At the 
end of the spring term in 1920, Mr. Deane re- 
linquished his control and turned over his inter- 
ests to Mr. Harrison Townsend Jr., and Mr 
Hewitt Reynolds, who had served under him as 
junior masters. They are assisted by six other 
young men, who not only preside over the class- 
rooms, but share the daily life of the boys and 
are vitally interested in their welfare. In ad- 
dition, a hostess and a resident nurse look after 
the health and food and other comforts. 

The school is unique in many respects The 
splendid climate of Santa Barbara and its vicin- 
ity makes it possible to spend most of the time 
out of doors. The result is that one is impressed 
by the sturdy appearance of the lads. Another 
unusual feature is that a group of boys earn their 
education by taking care of the dormitories and 
waiting on the tables. But they share all the ad- 



vantages of the others and generally are the most 
respected in the school. The discipline is of the 
highest order. Impudence is almost unknown. 
Naturally, however, boys give way to their im- 
pulses. To curb this lack of restraint it is cus- 
tomary to require those who have transgressed 
to spend Saturdays at manual labor instead of 
enjoying a ride or a hike or a ball game. The 
remedy is effectual; and besides, it causes them to 
appreciate what work is. But in this a sullen 
spirit is seldom shown. So if the question were 
put, '^What is the most distinguishing feature?'' 
The answer would undoubtedly be, ^'The splen- 
did, happy spirit of the boys." 


Miramar is four miles from Santa Barbara, 
on the main coast line of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad; it is picturesquely located on an ocean 
bluff, a gentle descent leading down to a hard 
white sandy beach, from whence bathing may be 
safely indulged in the year round. Paved roads 
lead from it to Santa Barbara, to Los Angeles 
through Ventura County, and into the mountain 
fastnesses through Montecito Valley. 

The Miramar Hotel and Bungalows, owned 
by Mr. H. J. Doulton, located in the midst of a 
twenty-five acre garden of trees, shrubs, and 
flowers, faces the rising sun, and the blue Pa- 
cific. A more charming environment cannot be 
imagined. Boating, bathing, fishing, golf, ten- 
nis, and horseback riding over the most pictur- 
esque mountain trails in the State, may be in- 
dulged in throughout the year, and the well- 
kept roads recently built throughout the entire 



Montecito Valley are a constant delight to every 

Sandyland is practically owned by residents 
of Montecito who have built very attractive 
Bungalows, with bath-houses attached, the beach 
at this point being particularly good. 

The Carpinteria valley lies to the east of 
Montecito, separated from it by Ortega Hill — 
a long, low, oak-covered elevation rising sud- 
denly at the water's edge. From the top of this 
rise, Carpinteria is seen extending eastward to 

This valley is one of the richest tracts of land 
in California, and enormous crops of walnuts 
and lima beans are harvested there. The trees 
are mainly live oaks, and the houses are set 
among gardens rich with flowering shrubs. 
Nearer the mountains, which rise steeply along 
its northern side, the valley rises into low hills, 
which merge into the range through many can- 
yons, clothed with vegetation. 

The marshes, seen from the dunes, offer a re- 
markable picture, especially with the roofs of the 
village nestling in the trees, across their broad 
wastes. The three-mile stretch of beach is iu 
most places three or four hundred feet wide at 
low tide; at high tide, the breaking power of the 
wide flat and the bar outside pile up a grand surf, 
even when the other parts of the coast near by 
are becalmed. This large surf breaks far out, 
and there is no undertow; consequently, bathing 



is safe, and at the same time exciting, as the 
Hawaiian diversion of surf-board riding can be 

The first American family in the valley was 
the Taylors, who arrived in the 'forties. Henry 
Daily came in 1853 and married into a resident 
Spanish family. Colonel Russell Heath came 
in 1858, and specialized in walnuts, eventually 
possessing the largest walnut grove in California. 
Henry Lewis came in 1860, the Olmsteads in 
1863, J. H. Blood in 1867 and in 1868 O. N. 
Cadwell, who was the most enterprising horti- 
culturist the valley has known and to whom the 
community owed much of its fame as a fruit 
growing section. The Bailards came in 1869, 
and had much success in the growing of beans. 

The townsite of Carpinteria was laid out in 
1887, about a mile east of the old town where the 
post ofRce, blacksmith shop and store were lo- 
cated. For some time the growth of the new- 
town w^as slow, but later, the old town practically 
ceased to exist, and the new one is flourishing, 
with some substantial buildings, which would be 
creditable to any community. The paving, plant- 
ing, and beautifying of Linden Avenue, the town 
hall, high school, and the system of good roads, 
indicate a spirit far in advance of most places of 
its size. 

The Commercial Trust and Savings Bank of 
Santa Barbara have recently completed a new 
home for their branch in Carpinteria, occupying 
a commanding corner at the intersection of Lin- 
den Avenue and the coast highway. The build- 



ing is in the mission style of architecture, and 
harmonizes with other new business structures 
and residences going up in the locality; the ex- 
terior is of a character to suggest the prosperity 
of the district and the spirit of progress which is 
now directing the development of the commun- 
ity. A project is also on foot for a community 
building committee to aid in the rebuilding of 
stores and other structures along Linden Avenue, 
in the Mission style of architecture. 

The religious needs of Carpinteria are well 
provided for, there being the Presbyterian 
Church, Christian Science, First Methodist 
Church, and St. Joseph's Catholic Church, in 
charge of Fr. Serra. 

A weekly newspaper is published by Arthur 
M. Clark called the Carpinteria Herald, giving 
the news of the valley and vicinity. 


Goleta is situated about seven miles from 
Santa Barbara, in the heart of a flourishing dis- 
trict devoted to general farming and fruit cul- 
ture. It is about a mile from the ocean, and two 
miles from the foothills of the Santa Ynez moun- 

The Goleta rancho originally contained 
4,440 acres and was granted to Daniel Hill in 
1846. The origin of the name Goleta, Spanish 
for schooner, is somewhat doubtful; one tradi- 
tion is to the effect that Don Luis T. Burton con- 
structed a schooner there in the 'fifties when 
there was sufficient water in the estuary to float 
small vessels; another story states that a schooner 



was wrecked there. In the vicinity of Goleta 
Point are extensive sloughs, which in winter fur- 
nish sportsmen with good duck shooting. 

The village was laid out in 1875, and about 
1877 the Goleta landing was built, and was a 
shipping point for stock and farm produce, des- 
tined for San Francisco, and also the asphaltum 
from a near-by deposit, now unworked. 

Among the early settlers was James McCaf- 
frey who came in 1852j and later owned a vine- 
yard near the entrance to San Jose Canyon. Jos- 
eph Sexton came in 1867 and was the originator 
of the variety of walnut known as the Santa Bar- 
bara Soft-Shell now most popular. F. E. Kel- 
logg came in 1876, purchased some of the best 
land in the valley, and made a reputation for 
raising the greatest pumpkins ever known. One 
of these reached such proportions that when bi- 
sected, the cavity was found large enough to al- 
low the halves to be placed together enclosing 
his eighteen-year-old daughter; hence the story 
went abroad that Goleta squashes sometimes con- 
tained young and charming girls, and led to nu- 
merous requests from parties at a distance (pre- 
sumably bachelors) for some seed of that re- 
markable variety. 

EUwood Cooper, the pioneer grower of 
olives, eucalypti and almonds, came in 1870, and 
his work in this connection was of great value to 
the whole State. 

The oldest tax payer in Santa Barbara county 
has just been discovered in the person of Mrs. 
Louisa Ygnicia, aged 106, who formerly owned 
the Indian Orchard property at Goleta, a pos- 



session of her family for many years. She is of 
pure Indian stock, and is said to be one of the few 
Indians remaining who can speak the ancient 
language of the tribe that once populated Goleta 

Los Dos Pueblos (The two villages) now 
generally known as Naples, is on the coast in the 
Goleta district about sixteen miles west of Santa 
Barbara, and is the point where, on October 
16th, 1542, the Cabrillo expedition landed to as- 
cend the high peak near by, known as Mt. Santa 
Ynez. There was then an Indian village on 
each side of the creek, the inhabitants of each 
village being of a dififerent race and language, 
those on one side being short, thick-set, and 
swarthy, and on the other tall, slender, and not 
so dark. The depth of the deposits on the site 
of these two villages indicates that the Indians 
had lived there for many years, and were con- 
temporary with the mound builders. 

The Dos Pueblos rancho, containing ovei 
15,000 acres, was granted to Nicholas Den in 
1842. In 1887, some San Francisco capitalists 
purchased a tract on the east side of the creek and 
laid out a townsite which they named Naples, 
and a good many lots were sold here during the 
"boom" in that year. 

Mountain Trails 

To the equestrian and pedestrian alike, one 
of the lures of Santa Barbara is the close prox- 
imity of innumerable mountain trails within easy 
distance of the city. The Santa Ynez mountain 
range is one of the highest in America adjacent 



to the ocean, and this immense playground is, 
to all intents and purposes, part of Santa Bar- 

There are over two hundred miles of direct 
and lateral trails within a few miles from the 
business center of the city. This wonderful 
maze of trails unfolds some of the prettiest scen- 
ery imaginable. Each turn and angle brings to 
view some new wonder — enticing waterfalls and 
shady nooks embowered in ferns and sweet-smel- 
ling mountain flowers; precipitous craigs; a 
magnificent view of the ocean; while just around 
the turn will be a picturesque shaded canyon, 
and a little further on the city will nestle at 
one^s feet. 

Perhaps the most used trail of the entire sys- 
tem is the Canoas Canyon Trail, which is really 
the key to the trail system. This trail not only 
leads to many beautiful sections of the moun- 
tains, but to the very summit of the Santa Ynez 
Range. Here, far below, are spread out two 
worlds; one a world of ocean, beautiful Santa 
Barbara and suburbs linked by winding boule- 
vards; the other the wild grandeur of mountain 
and valley for forty miles round to Gaviota Pass; 
all spread out in an entrancing view, which re- 
sembles a mirage on the great Colorado desert. 

Canoas Canyon may be reached from either 
the lower Mission Canyon or from the Mountain 
Drive. It is three miles from the foot of the trail 
to Tin Can Shack, constructed from old oil cans, 
the former home of a hermit. The grades are 
easy and the trail is good, and many beautiful 
views repay the slight exertion in the three miles. 



From Tin Can Shack it takes about half an 
hour to walk up the west fork of the canyon to 
the top of the ridge overlooking picturesque 
Mission Canyon. La Cumbre, the highest peak 
in the range, raises its head just beyond. 

From the ridge may be followed the well- 
known and frequented Tunnel Trail, which re- 
ceived its name from the fact that it starts up- 
ward from the point where the tunnel is cut 
through the Santa Ynez Range, for the pure 
water supply to the city. 

By following the Tunnel Trail, and passing 
the South Portal of the water tunnel, a return 
may be made to the city. By continuing upward, 
the summit of majestic La Cumbre, four thous- 
and feet above sea level, is reached. 

The Chamber of Commerce Trail, one of the 
most popular, leads up the north fork of Canoas 
Canyon, beginning some six hundred feet up 
from Tin Can Shack. By this trail also, a re- 
turn to the city maybe made, passing many inter- 
esting points, and giving a fine view of Cold 
Springs Canyon, just back of fair Montecito. 
On the other side of Cold Springs Canyon, there 
is another lovely trail, five miles long, which 
leads to the summit of La Cumbre. 

A choice of several routes may be made at 
Cold Springs Canyon. By continuing about two 
miles to the east to the Mountain Drive, a de- 
scent into the canyon may be made; if it is de- 
sired to return to the city by a nearer route, con- 
tinue on the Chamber of Commerce trail where 
it turns to the west. 



By following the latter, many inspiring views 
are passed, which no true lover of nature will 
soon forget. The trail leads to Inspiration Point, 
overlooking Canoas Canyon, a short distance 
from the starting point. If the route described 
is followed, the mountain side will have been en- 

Mountain Drive, Santa Barbara. 

circled, and many miles of picturesque scenery 

Another route to the summit of La Cumbrc 
leads up through Canaas Canyon for about a 
mile to a level spot occupied by the Floras Cabin. 
From this point a trail leads westward for about 
two miles, where it crosses the Tunnel Trail; by 
following it for another mile, the summit of La 
Cumbre is again reached. 

This grand mountain range is now part of the 
government system of Forest Reserves, and is a 



great park of the people. Locations for camps 
can be rented. Trails lead to its heights and 
traverse its summits, and at San Marcos Pass, 
fourteen miles west of Santa Barbara, a wagon 
road, famous for the beautiful scenery along the 
way, crosses to the valley beyond. 

Mountain scenes have a charm that never 
tires and a fascination all the greater from close 
acquaintance, and this mighty park of nearly a 
million acres just in Santa Barbara's suburbs, is 
a heritage that will for all time be one of her 
most valuable attractions. 

The Outdoor Life 
Motoring Along Santa Barbara County 

Coast Line 

With a western and southern shoreline ap- 
proximating 120 miles in length, Santa Barbara 
County's sea-front is not eclipsed in mileage by 
any of the fourteen California Counties touching 
on the Pacific Ocean. Its 2740 square miles, 
only about one-half of which is mountainous, 
embraces a grandeur of scenery which has long 
been a magnet for tourists and travelers both 
from Europe and America. Owing to topo- 
graphical conditions, the bulk of the highways 
in the County follow the valleys. Short stretches 
of mountain roadway holding exceptional scenic 
possibilities are found, but the State Highway, 
the trunk line route from Ventura County on the 
south to Santa Maria, at the border of San Luis 
Obispo County to the north, is a road of but few 
unusual grades, and an easy one to travel in a 
motor car. 



Beginning at the Ventura County line at Rin- 
con Creek, this highway includes a part of the 
noted Rincon Drive. This drive takes one 
within sight of the ocean almost all of the way 
from Rincon Point to Santa Barbara. A more 
beautiful piece of roadway can scarcely be imag- 
ined. Inland rise the foothills, rapidly ascend- 
ing towards the mountains, and over the moun- 
tain peaks float cloud or mist, purpling into 
shadow as the sunset approaches, or bathed in 
molten gold in the rays of the noon-tide sun. 

Seaward there is a never ending panoramic 
change of picturesque novelty. Long rollers 
curve in, tipped with snowy crests, and break on 
the low beaches into shimmering webs of 
threaded silver. Back of them the great heart 
of the Pacific beats, sending these liquid pulsa- 
tions inland with unvarying regularity. All day 
long curlews fly from point to point or stalk laz- 
ily along the sands feeding in the receding shal- 
lows along shore. Flocks of sandpipers are oc- 
casionally seen, whirling by in a mass of greyish 
hue, their rapid flight carrying them swiftly out 
of sight. High up, a solitary pelican is some- 
times posed, soon dropping like a plummet to 
the water to seize some luckless fish, while a 
wandering sail may infrequently be sighted, 
veering and tacking beyond the tumbling bil- 

This portion of the State Highway is an end- 
less delight to even the most '^case-hardened" 
globe-trotter. It passes by Carpinteria and Sum- 
merland before reaching Santa Barbara City 
Approaching Santa Barbara it affords many 



views of superb residences on both sides of the 
roadway, close to the Coast. Reaching Gaviota, 
some 30 miles from Santa Barbara, the highway 
trends sharply towards the north, to Las Cruces. 
From Las Cruces it turns northwesterly, then 
due north, and then for a short distance north- 
westerly again until it reaches Zaca. Leaving 
Zaca, the road winds in a northwesterly direc- 
tion to Harris Station, and from there goes north 
to Santa Maria, on the border-line between 
Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. 

This skeletonized outline of the State High- 
way through Santa Barbara County gives, of 
course, nothing but the approximate course of 
the roadway. Its length is about 113 miles. It 
traverses Carpinteria, Santa Barbara, Goleta, 
Los Alamos, San Antonio, -and Santa Maria Val- 
leys, in its course, all of which are remarkably 
fertile valleys, producing millions of dollars 
worth of agricultural products annually. Very 
little climbing is necessary in covering the en- 
tire route. 

All along this highway the traveler will find 
scores of scenic marvels following and blending 
into one another with kaleidoscopic brilliancy. 
He will turn from vista after vista of deep-cav- 
erned oak-clad canyons, to mountain summits 
cloud-capped and fading into the blue; and by a 
mere turn of the head he will be enabled to look 
far out to sea and view long lines of breakers 
flashing and curving along the shingly beaches. 
There is something about Santa Barbara County 
almost enigmatical in its haunting loveliness. 
Each valley seems like the enchanted valley of 



Rasselas; each vista of undulating ocean-curve, 
^'Charm'd magic casements opening on the foam 
of perilous seas in faery lands forlorn." 

There is, too, the infinite joy of flower and 
fruitage to entrance the beholder. The contrast 
between these Eden-Valleys and the ice-bound 
country of the Mid-Western, Northern and far 
Eastern States can only be appreciated by one 
who has experienced those differences in mid- 
winter months. To such a wanderer, far from 
the delectable land of Santa Barbara County, 
and locked in the grip of relentless January in- 
clemencies, will come readily the stanza aflford- 
ing the comparison : 

^'For you the fig and olive shine 
The green Leaf spreads, and waters run, 
With trailing banners of the vine 
And Gleam of liz-ard in the sun; 
For me the leafless tree and black 
The iron weight of winter's ire. 
And some cold meteor's baleful track 
That sails beyond a wake of fire." 
Every mile of this highway was long ago 
thoroughly signposted and protected by the signs 
of the Automobile Club of Southern California. 
Signs of warning, signs of direction, curve and 
grade signals, railway crossing signs and warn- 
ings, cross-road and city signs, everything to 
guide and give information to the traveling 

The Santa Maria, the Santa Ynez, and the 
Sisquoc Rivers are the main streams in the 
County, with a drainage area close to 2,000 
square miles. In the Lompoc Valley, drained 



by the Santa Ynez River, and justly celebrated 
for its wonderful beauty and fertility, the people 
of the district are now contemplating building a 
modern-constructed highway, from the neigh- 
borhood of Solvang, at the State Highway, to 
Lompoc Junction on the Coast, near the mouth 
of the Sant^ Ynez River. 

Santa Barbara and Santa Barbara County, 
while already of both national and international 
repute, are destined in the future to become even 
more famous. Good roads will be the control- 
ling factor in the advancement of both city and 
county, and Santa Barbara was a pioneer in the 
modern highway movement in California. The 
county has still many diversified marvels of 
natural beauty which remain to be explored and 
enjoyed, as the highways are constructed and ex- 
tended. Taken in its entirety, the country has 
more than the grandeur of Switzerland, or the 
diversity of scenery in any country in Continental 
Europe. It has the eternal panorama of the sea, 
the cathedraled stateliness of mighty forests, the 
flash and mists of dropping mountain torrents, 
lakes, rivers, and winding canyons, and blending 
with all these the pastoral charm of orange and 
olive-crowned lowlands shining in the sunlight. 

There is only one Santa Barbara, even in Cal- 
ifornia, and it rests where the broad ocean leans 
against the land; encircled by the hills rock- 
ribbed and ancient as the sun, a city of rare and 
surpassing individuality — a jewel in its setting 
of varying lights and shadows — a veritable 
dream city, the Naples of the West. 




The Channel Islands 

THE islands of the Santa 
Barbara Channel are fam- 
ous the world over for 
their scenic beauty and 
wonderful climate, being 
visited annually by pleas- 
ure seekers from every 
land, who seek diversion in 
hunting and fishing. Fish 
of various kinds are found 
everywhere, and the big 
game fish, taken with rod 
and reel, made the islands 
famous years ago. The 
angling is so remarkable 
that it is difficult to con- 
vince the stranger that it 
is no joke; yet there is al- 
ways abundant evidence of its truth. 

The islands of the group are four in number, 
San Miguel, often fog-bound, lying farthest 
west, then Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, which is 
finely wooded, and Anacapa. 

The Spaniards discovered the islands in~1542^ 
and in those days they were all inhabited; that 
life was easy to maintain is evident by the extra- 
ordinary wealth of shell fish, including abalones, 
which constituted the principal food of the ab- 


AND M O N T E C I 1 O 

All the islands are bathed by the Japanese 
Gulf Stream, the Black Current, which sweeps 
up the coast from the south, crosses to Alaska 
then flows down the California coast. It is said 
by scientists that the presence of this stream is 
not responsible for the wonderful climate of the 
Channel Islands, but that this is due to the mod- 
erating power of the ocean, but it is at any rate 
more interesting, if not strictly accurate, to be- 
lieve that the Black Current gives to the Pacific 
Coast its mild winters, and a climate that has all 
the beauty of Southern Europe without its ex- 

Santa Rosa and San Miguel derive their 
names from the Saint whose festival the church 
commemorated on the day of their discovery. 

Anacapa, meaning deceptive vision, was the 
name applied by the Indians to the island. This 
is rather appropriate, for Anacapa is very 
changeable in appearance, sometimes standing 
out as a single peak, then changing to a long 
table-like plateau, sometimes broken up into 
arches and columns like the remains of some 
mighty temple, — all these changes due to the 
mysterious laws of light refraction in an air 
charged v/ith mist. 

Santa Cruz was originally called La Gente 
Barbada by Cabrillo, and is said to have received 
its new name in the following manner: — When 
the padres first visited the island, a large crucifix 
was forgotten when they left. The boats were 
putting ofif from shore when a number of natives 
appeared, making signs to the missionaries to re- 
turn. When they did so, they found one of the 



Indians carrying the crucifix they had left, and 
treating it with great reverence; in token of this, 
Padre Gomez, who was in charge of the party, 
re-named the island ''Santa Cruz,'' meaning 
Holy Cross. 

According to Professor H. L. Burton, the 
Channel Islands have the same enviable reputa- 
tion as the Emerald Isle — no snakes — and a 
small red fox which leaves hen roosts alone, 
surely a fox to be preserved if only for his skin. 

The Channel Islands, especially Santa Cruz, 
are treasure houses for botanists, as here are 
found many plants peculiar to the mountains that 
seem to rise from the sea, and many more that are 
indigenous only to the islands. 

When the east is in the icy grip of winter, and 
a large part of the continent is enduring gales, 
frost, ice and snow, the Channel Islands are ver- 
itable gardens of the sea. No fairer picture can 
be imagined than Santa Cruz in midwinter as 
one floats along the blue sea; then to land, and 
climb the rugged hills, and look across to Santa 
Barbara in the distance. At such times the ang- 
ler may wish he were a botanist, that he might 
take in all the beauties of the plant life of these 
islands. Although at first sight sometimes the 
islands appear barren, treeless and without ver- 
dure, when the rain comes, the rocky slopes are 
transformed into green glades. Even on for- 
saken San Nicholas, which is farther offshore 
than the Santa Barbara group, charming flowers 
grow, fighting the fierce winds that threaten to 
end their existence. 

The person who supposes that fishing is the 



sole attraction of the islands, loses the essence of 
their charm in summer. To enter fully into en- 
joyment of their beauties, one should leave the 
haunts of men and wander off on a voyage of 
discovery, seeking out the unknown spots. 

Due to their unusual climate, the islands have 
plants in bloom every month in the year. The 
first rains come in October or November, and in 
a short time the brown ground is tinted with 
green; this lasts perhaps until April or May, 
when the green grass turns to hay and the land 
takes on deep brown tints, and new flowers 
bloom. All this time the chaparral or brush 
never fades, so the island and canyons are always 
green in sheltered places, and always attractive 
whether in green or brown. 

The winters on the islands are delightful, 
and the summers are practically perfect. There 
is no rain between May and November, no 
storms, and the days and nights are almost invar- 
iably cooler than any seaside resort on the Atlan- 
tic Coast between Nova Scotia and Florida. A 
few hot days come now and then, as this is not a 
real Paradise, but taking the summer as a whole, 
the islands have no equal for absolute comfort 

San Miguel lies to the west of the Santa Bar- 
bara group, three miles from Santa Rosa, and is 
so near Point Concepcion that it is more exposed 
to winds than the others, and is a dangerous place 
for shipping. It is just over seven miles long, 
east and west, and about two miles wide, the land 
rising in two peaks in the centre, these peaks be- 
ing just over eight hundred feet high. It has 



few beaches; its shores are bold and rocky, and 
at the west end, when the wind blows hard, there 
are many sand dunes. There are no trees, and 
but few bushes of any kind, the chief verdure be- 
ing long coarse grass. After the rains wild flow- 
ers appear, and it may be assumed that many 
years ago San Miguel may have been as well 
wooded as the rest of the islands, but is now be- 
ing blown into the sea. The devastating winds 
are causing rivers of sand to flow into the harbor, 
and upon these rivers tobogganing and sliding 
can be enjoyed as upon snow. 

As San Miguel is approached from Santa 
Rosa, the east end is seen to be a clifif about forty 
feet high, known as Cardwell Point, from which 
a reef reaches out for about half a mile. About 
two and one-half miles northwest from here is 
Cuyler's Harbor where Cabrillo is said to lie. 
Many attempts have been made to find his re- 
mains and give him suitable honor as the discov- 
erer of California, but so far without result. 

There is landing for small boats at various 
places, but the island abounds in rocks, small 
islands and shoals, and should be approached 
carefully, especially in rough weather. On it 
are the same kind of mounds found on the other 
islands, showing that in the early days the place 
was the home of many Indians who lived well 
and easily on the vast fish supply of the surround- 
ing waters. San Miguel will impress the vis- 
itor by the many little rocky islands spread abour 
it, often needle-like peaks rising out of deep 
water, the home of the eagle or osprey, and 
where no doubt many a ship has met its doom. 



Santa Rosa, one of the most attractive of the 
Santa Barbara Islands, has been the scene of 
many a romance. In 1834 it was granted by the 
Spanish Crown to Don Carlos and Don Jose 
Carrillo, members of the famous Santa Barbara 
family. Don Carlos had two daughters, famed 
for their beauty and grace; J. P. Jones, U. S. 
Consul to the Hawaiian Islands, met one at the 
Casa Carrillo at Santa Barbara, and married her, 
while the other sister married Captain A. B. 
Thompson. The dowry of both brides from 
Don Carlos was joint ownership in the island of 
Santa Rosa, practically forty-five thousand acres, 
seven or eight miles long and ten in width, well 
watered, made up of mountain, valley and mesa, 
with bountiful fisheries. A princely gift, even 
in those early days. 

The two families owned the island jointly, 
and for years carried on a profitable business in 
sheep-raising. The island ranch house was the 
scene of many gay entertainments, especially at 
shearing time when parties were taken over and 
the event celebrated with music and dancing. 
In time disagreements arose, and after some liti- 
gation, Santa Rosa passed into other hands, and 
is still used as a great stock ranch. 

Santa Rosa is a delightful place to visit for 
an outing, and a month could be spent in explor- 
ing all the interesting points. Like the rest of 
the islands, Nicalque, as it was called, had a 
large native population, and its great sand dunes 
were formerly strewn with relics of the past. 
Utensils of bone, wood, stone, and clay, and many 
articles made from abalone shells — the meat 



from which formed their chief diet — have been 
gathered and sent to the great museums. 

One of the aboriginal towns appears to have 
been three miles in length. A large quantity of 
Indian implements and relics of various kinds 
have been exhumed, and many tons forwarded 
to the Smithsonian Institute -at Washington. 

From the highest peak, Monte Negro, 1565 
feet, a wonderful view is obtained. To the north 

Headland, Santa Cruz Island. 

are the Santa Ynez mountains, and the other 
islands are seen east and west. The shores are 
precipitous clififs, abounding in great caves and 
little bays and sand-dunes often two hundred 
feet high, always changing in the strong wind. 
The extreme northern end of the island is called 
Carrington Point; for nearly a mile it faces the 
sea with a bold front at least four hundred feet 
high, a notable sight from a long distance. 
Nearly the entire island is surrounded by kelp 
which is a refuge for innumerable fishes. 

The island is famed for its fishing, and the 



rocky shores abound in shellfish. The animals 
found are similar to those on the other islands; 
there are extensive sea-lion rookeries, and sea- 
birds of many kinds make their homes here. 

On Santa Rosa the verdure is similar to that 
on the neighboring shore — no large trees, but 
moist canyons filled with many interesting plants. 
After the rains grass covers the open spots, and 
in a short time flowers are in bloom, and the is- 
land resembles a garden. The island is wxll- 
watered; in one of its charming little valleys a 
tiny river ripples musically on its way to the sea. 

Valdez, Cave, Santa Cruz Island. 

Santa Cruz is twenty-one miles long, extend- 
ing almost east and west, with an average width 



of five miles. On the western end a peak rises 
a little over half a mile, and another at the east- 
ern end to over fifteen hundred feet; on the is- 
land are several peaks rising to thirteen, four- 
teen and fifteen hundred feet, and some to the 
north to a height of over twenty-four hundred 

In climate the island may be compared to 
the European Riviera, and there are here none 
of the hot winds from Africa and cold ones from 
the Alps. The eastern end, San Pedro Point, is 
twenty-one and one-half miles from Santa Bar- 
bara and four miles from Anacapa, and the chan- 
nel between the islands abounds in fish. 

Santa Cruz Island is densely wooded com- 
pared to the rest of the group ; owing to the dense 
fogs, the hills are wxll covered. Trees have been 
brought from Italy by property-owners, and 
there are groves of eucalyptus, pines, and firs, 
and many fine oaks. On Santa Cruz, as well as 
on Santa Rosa, there are many luxuriant growths 
of ferns. 

A visit should certainly be made to the caves 
w^ith which Santa Cruz abounds, among them 
the famous Painted Cave. This cave, more re- 
markable even than the grotto of Capri, is really 
beneath the mountains. Passing through the 
Gothic arch at the entrance, the name is well 
understood, as the salts have dyed it in a fantas- 
tic manner, in brilliant yellows, soft browns, reds, 
greens, and white. The first room opening from 
the sea is about sixty feet high, the walls beauti- 
fully colored. From this lead other caves, some 
of which are unexplored. The cave known as 


Views of Anacapa Island. 


Cucva Valdez, toward the east end on the north 
side is quite as remarkable as the Painted Cave. 
This is partly on land, and will hold several 
hundred people. One entrance opens on the 
little bay, the other on a sandy canyon leading up 
into the mountains 

Almost everyvvhere on the islands have been 
found relics of the primitive inhabitants, and no 
one can look upon the really beautiful objects 
which have been discovered, beads, weapons, 
carved cups and musical instruments, without 
crediting these extinct races with imagination, 
and as having been exponents of the principle 
that beauty is an essential to happy life. 

In explorations made during the summer of 
1916 by Professor Outhwaite, anthropoligist of 
the University of California, he found over 1,000 
mounds. One near Prisoner's Harbor is ISO feet 
wide, 300 feet long, and some 18 feet in depth. 
He intimates that at least one thousand persons 
lived on the island from the evidence found in 
the mounds. 

The canyons in Santa Cruz are beautiful, 
filled with beds of ferns and giant brakes, banked 
with verdure, with the music of running water 
and the song of birds. 

Nowhere is there more of a contrast of ver- 
dure in winter and spring, and barren desolation 
the rest of the year, as at Santa Cruz. One may 
leave the fruit-laden valley, climb the hills, and 
look down on drear sand-dunes and on rocks 
broken by the sea. 

It may not be generally known that there are 
colonies of wild pigs on the islands of Santa 



Cruz and Santa Rosa, and the hunting of these 
provides exciting sport. These pigs, some of 
which attain great size, being adapted to their 
life in the steep canyons and on the mountain 
slopes are very active, and hunters on foot have 
to exercise care, as the charge of a wild boar 
down a mountain slope might have serious con- 
sequences for the person charged. How these 
pigs came into the islands is not known, but it is 
likely that they are descendents of hogs brought 
there decades ago by the Spaniards. 

The Island of Anacapa, the smallest of the 
Santa Barbara group, is the most easterly, and 
is not over eleven miles from the mainland at the 
nearest point. To all intents and purposes it is 
one island, but when approached, it mysteriously 
divides itself into three or more; doubtless the 
divisions have been eaten in by the insatiable 
tooth of the sea. The island forming the east end 
is the lowest, about a mile long and a quarter of 
a mile wide, with an altitude of about two hun- 
dred feet. The middle island or link in the An- 
acapa chain is nearly three hundred and twenty 
feet high, about a mile and a half long, and a 
quarter of a mile wide. The largest island lies 
to the west. Its peak, nearly a thousand feet 
high, can be seen for several miles on a clear day; 
the others can also be sighted from afar, and are 
so peculiar in appearance that they resemble a 
mirage. The island, like many others, rises out 
of deep water and is surrounded by kelp, which 
afifords refuge for innumerable tuna, bonito and 

The coast is a maze of strange caves eaten 



into the rock; one of great size is supposed to 
have been used by the pirates of old, and until 
late years was the refuge of seals. Many of the 
caves are beneath or just on the surface, and are 
constantly hissing like living things, spouting 
water in great jets with the tremendous force of 
compressed air. 

There are several anchorages, and a small 
boat can, with care, land almost any^vhere. 

To the eye the island is arid, but all the pools 
and crevices are filled with animal life, and beau- 
tiful anemones line the rocks. There are also 
colonies of sea-birds, the royal tern, cormorant 
and brown pelican breeding in large numbers. 

Anacapa was no doubt thrown up by some 
upheaval of the earth's crust; that it had a popu- 
lation long ago is apparent, as deposits of ancient 
shells and relics have been found there; now, it 
is no doubt an island in the last stages, fighting 
for its life against the ever-increasing ravages of 
the sea. 

: F I N I S : 

0^ . 

DEC 2 b .j'c