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'^^fiRAB^^^ 



N5« 



SANTA FE COUNTY 



The Heart of New Mexico 
Rich in History and Resources 




Written by 
MAX. FROST and PAUL A. F. WALTER 



Published by Authority of 

THE BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION 

OF NEW MEXICO 



1906, 



SANTA FE COUNTY. 



Santa Fe County is the heart of New Mexico, geographically, 
geologically, ethnologically, climatologically, politically, ecclesias- 
tically and historically. It is an epitome of the Territory, and with- 
in its confines are exemplified the climatological conditions, the in- 
dustrial possibilities, the growth and the development of the entire 
Southwest. It is an oblong table land, almost seventy miles long 
from north to south, and thirty miles wide from east to west, at 
no point less than a mile above the level of the sea and reaching 
an elevation of almost two and a half miles in MouDt Baldy. This 
tableland slopes from the northeast to the west and southwest. In 
its northeastern corner is massed the • terminus of the Sangre de 
Cristo Eange, the "Alps" of the Southwest. In its southwestern 
corner tise the Ortiz, the San Pedro and the South Mountains, 
less massive and less lofty, but very important geologically and 
mineralogically. This tableland is furrowed by a dozen rivers and 
scores of periodical streams and arroyos, all tributary to the Eio 
Grande system, although a massive backbone in the eastern por- 
tion sends some of the waters into the Pecos, which does not 
join the Rio Grain de until after a course of nine hundred miles. 
Along these streams are fertile valleys, which attracted the Pueblos, 
and after them, the white settlers, hundreds of years ago. One- 
tliird of the area of the county consists of mountains and valleys, 
the other two-thirds are broad mesas, which furnish excellent range 
for stock. The settlements are found i'n the valleys which have 
been formed by the folds of the mountains or by the rivers eating 
into the mesas and forming canons, most of them quite narrow. 

From the summit of Mount Baldy the surface of the county pre- 
sents a panorama of mountains, mesas and valleys, with streams 
of watei- rushing down high mountain shoulders, over precipices 
and boulders into deep and narrow gorges and widening valleys, 
flashing in the sunlight like ribbons of silver in their race to the 
Eio Grande on the west, and with the mountain peaks of southern 
and 'northern New Mexico, swimming in the blue air of the dreamy 
distance. The main range of the Eockies, or the Sangre de Cristo 
system on the west shelters this favored locality from violent witids 
a-nd renders the climate remarkably mild and equable considering 



X6OT1l^ 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 5 

tliat the altitude of the valley varies from 5,500 to 7,500 and more 
feet above sea level. This eirciinistance, together with the fertility 
of the soil, excellence of the water, plentitiide of timber, and the 
many marked manifestations of rich veins and deposits of gold 
i\nd silver-bearing mineral, prompted the intrepid - Spanish ex- 
])lorers to locate a permanent colony and mission at Santa Fe, or 
the "City of the Holy Faith of St. Francis" as early as 1G05. 

The wisdom of this selection has been demonstrated dnring four- 
centuries which have since melted into the past. With the excep- 
tion of the twelve years following the bloody and transiently suc- 
cessful revolt of the Pueblo Indians in 1680, Santa Fe has been 
I'ver recognized as one of the important outposts of civilization 
and commerce in the southwestern country, being continuously 
the political, ecclesiastical and military capital of this region, under 
both Spanish and Mexican rule, and, though it has seen the fron- 
tier line of the United States carried thousands of miles out into 
the Pacific Ocean, it still maintains its supremacy as the capital 
city of Xew Mexico, the county seat of Santa Fe County, and the 
most delightful residence city in the Rocky Mountains. Bathed 
in sunshine winter and sunmier, swept by fragrant breezes from 
the pine-clad hills, colored with the hues of the sunset, hallowed 
by the romance of the Cliff Dwellers, the Pueblos, the Conquista- 
dores and the Franciscans, amply watered by the "Xile" of Xew 
Mexico — the Rio Grande — and a score of its mountain tributaries, 
endowed with untold mineral wealth, Santa Fe County is an em- 
pire within itself, self-sustaining and self-sufficient, so far as min- 
eral wealth and resources are concerned. Xowhere else in the world 
is there found a more perfect climate, ard but few sections can 
boast of a climate as good. It is not only a lovely day now and 
then, not only a fine summer or a ])leasant winter, but a perfect 
all-the-year-round climate which is making this section the sani- 
tarium of the world, the refuge of those stricken by one or the 
other of the many forms of lune, throat ard nervous troubles, and 
of invalids froii> other causes. It is this fact which must be borne 
constant) V in mind when read in <r of Sar«ta Fe County's resources, 
develo])ed and undeveloped wealth, and its industries. 

THE MOUNTAINS. 

The great bulwark of the Sangre de Cristo Range in the north- 
east is visible from every part of the county. The capital city of S\ 
Santa Fe lies in its lap^ for directly northenst of the town rises 
\ Santa Fe Baldy to an altitude of 12,023 feet; beyond looms its twin 
peak — Pecos Baldy — to 12,400 feet, while nearer to the city is Lake 



E^&7 




SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 7 

Peak, 12,380 feet high, in whose finely formed crater nestles the 
Holy Ghost Lake, the source of the Santa Fe River. Nearer the 
city and directly east of it is Thompson's Peak, 10,546 feef high, 
and the Dalton Divide, over 10,000 feet high. Still nearer the 
town, in the same direction, is Talaya Mountain, almost 9,000 feet 
high. To the southeast are Penacho Peak, about 9,000 feet high, 
and the Glorieta Mountains. Still farther to the southeast is 
Escobas Peak, over 8,000 feet high. Far to the north, on the Taos 
County line, rises Cobra Negra, over 10,000 feet high, at the foot 
of which nestles Chimayo, Just across the county line and with 
foothills extending into Santa Fe County, are the Truchas Peaks, 
the highest in New Mexico, rising to elevations of 13,275, 13,140 
and 13,0G0 feet respectively, and adjoining them is Jicarilla Peak, 
12,944 feet high, while surrounding is a circle of peaks from 10,000 
to 12,500 feet in altitude. 

The Ortiz Mountains in the south, rise to 8,928 and 8,360 feet 
respectively, while a spur, standing like a sentinel toward the east 
and known as Lone Mountain, has an elevation of 7,310 feet. 
Just south of the Ortiz Mountains and separated from them by 
a narrow and picturesque valley are the San Pedro Mountains, 
rising in two peaks to 8,376 and 8,325. feet respectively, and at 
the foot of which lie the ,in4ning camp^ of Golden and San 
Pedro. South of the San Pedro Mountains stands South Moun- 
tain, over 8,000 feet high, from the foot of which stretches the 
beautiful Estancia Valley of 5,000 square miles. These mountains 
on their southern exposure are mottled like a snake. j 

Directly west of Santa Fe, but across the county lines of Sando- 
val and Eio Arriba, rise the Valles, the Cochiti and the Jemez 
Mountains, over 10,000 feet high, from the eastern base of which 
extend the broad mesas and flat-topped buttes of the Pajarito Cliff 
Dwellers' Park to the Rio Grande. 

Inside of the county line, near the Rio Grande River, is 
am isolated extinct volcano, known as Tetilla, almost 7,000 feet 
high, while nearer the city of Santa Fe is an extinct volcano with 
a bottomless crater. The Rio Grande has eroded a deep canon in 
the northwestern part, known as White Rock Canon, whose walls 
at points are 1,500 or more feet high. Just north of Cerrillos 
are the Cerrillos Mountains, rising in three peaks to an elevation 
of 7,036, 6,980 and 6,500 feet respectively. Southwest of Galisteo 
h the Cerro Pelon, which juts into the Galisteo Plain and Divide 
like a bold promontory, although its height is only 6,874 feet. In 
the far southeastern corner of the county the Mesa de la Mula at- 



<. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 9 

tains an elevation of 7,424 feet, and on the southern boundary 
El CuerTo Butte is 6,968 feet high. 

These mountains, besides protecting the greater part of Santa Fe 
County from blizzards and sand storms, give an extensive drainage 
area. Most of them are wooded, therefore serving as water conser- 
vators, assuring to the county a perpetual water supply which will 
ultimately multiply the area under irrigatioD at least five times. 

THE RIVERS. 

The principal and only river system of the county is that of 
the Eio Grande, cutting across the northwestern part from Santa 
Clara, where the Espanola Valley begins to iDarrow, to the middle 
of White Rock Canon, opposite the Pajarito Canon, the lower half 
of the flow in the county being useless for irrigation purposes on 
account of the steep declivities of the White Rock Canon, making it, 
however, a good reservoir site owing to the river's strong and steady 
flow, which would prove invaluable for water power. The Santa 
Clara is the only important tributary of the Rio Grande in the 
county from the west. Its waters are utilized by the Indians of 
Santa Clara pueblo, the river being entirely confined to the Santa 
Clara Indian Reservation. 

The most important, also the most northern tributar\^ of the Rio 
Grande from the east in Santa Fe County, is the Santa Cruz, which 
drains the steep declivities of the Truchas and surrounding peaks 
It is formed by the junction of the Chimayo, the Rio Medio, the 
Panchuella and the Rio Chi quite. It flows in a general north- 
easterly direction to the point where it leaves the mountaiiis at 
Potrero, thence westward to its junction with the Rio Grande. 
Irrigation along this stream is confined to that portion lying be- 
tween Potrero,'-where the valley widens, and the Rio Grande. The 
irrigated lands occupy the valley proper and extend almost con- 
tinuously on both sides of the river between the limits mentioned. 
The total acreage under ditch and served by the stream' is 2,500, 
of which 900 acres are wholly within the upper portion of th« 
Santa Cruz Valley. The remaining 1,600 acres, although- drawing 
their water supply from the Santa Cruz, are really a portion of 
the Espanola Valley. The flow of the stream during the fall, 
winter and spring is large and is more than sufficient for all de- 
mands upon it. With storage, the area under irrigation could be 
greatly increased. There are several fine reservoir sites on the 
river. Several of these could be utilized at small expense. 

To the south of the Santa Cruz is the Las Truchas, a stream 




NAMBE FALLS. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 11 

with a very small flow, emptying into the Rio Grande near Santa 
Clara. Less than 200 acres are irrigated by the stream. 

Next to the Santa Cruz, in volume of flow, is the Pojoaque, 
formed by the junction of the Tesuque and the Nambe Rivers. 
On the Pojoaque the irrigated lands^are confined to the rich bot- 
toms on either side of the stream from a point half a mile 
above El Salto del Agua to the mouth of the river near San Ilde- 
fonso. At San Ildefonso the Indians have re-enforced their supply 
by bringing water from the Rio Grande through the Hobart Ditch. 
The total acreage under ditch is 1,200 acres, all of which is in 
cultivation. During the fall, winter and spri-ng there is a large 
surplus of water which might be stored above El Salto del Agua 
at a small cost and would increase the irrigable area by at least 
2,500 acres. In the Xambe are fine falls, which can be used for 
power purposes. It rises on and drains the slopes of the two 
Mounts Baldy, upon which snow is found the year round. 

The Tesuque is formed by several forks draining the Lake Peak, 
the most important of which are Bishop's Creek, the large Box 
Camon and the small Box Canon. Several hundred acres are under 
cultivation along its course, and there is at least one excellent 
storage site along the stream. One of its tributaries is the Chupa- 
dero, along which, however, only small patches are under culti- 
vation. 

South of the Tesuque is the Santa Fe River. It rises in Lake 
Espiritu Santo, under the crest of Lake Peak, and, after flowing 
ten miles in a southwesterly direction through deep canons and 
over high precipices, veers to the west, and flowing nine miles 
further between canon walls, which widen at intervals, enters the 
Santa Fe Valley. Twenty-five miles from Santa Fe it empties 
into the Rio Gra'C-de, just north of Pena Blanca, its flow reach- 
ing the Rio Grande, however, only at flood times. Its waters have 
been in use for irrigation from the first settlement of the city by 
the Spaniards, indeed, even prior to that time by the Indians of 
the ancient pueblo which then did and had previously occupied 
the site of the present city. The irrigated lands are in two sec- 
tions, the first extending from Perry's Ranch, nine miles above 
Santa Fe, to Agua Fria, nearly six miles below, while the second 
extends from Cieneguilla to La Bajada, on 'the lower stretch of 
the river. On the upper section, in the canon above the reservoir 
of the Santa Fe Water and Light Company, irrigation is confined 
to small patches of land, the total area under ditch and in cultiva- 
tion amounting to about 100 acres From this point, to two miles 
below the city, the acreage under ditch is 2,400 acres, all of which 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 



13 



iS in cultivation. About Agua Fria the area is 800 acres, making 
a total- of 3,300 acres -on the upper portions of the stream. From 
Cieneguilla to La Bajada, including La Golondrina Springs and 
Alamo, or Bonanza, the land does not depend upon the Rio Santa 
Fe for water, but upon springs, the flow of which is constant. The 
cultivation along the Eio Santa Fe is as intense and the duty of 
water higher, perhaps, than in any other section of the Territory. 
Many additional reservoir sites, however, are to be found in the 
Santa Fe Canon and tributary arroyos, and the amount of flood 
water annually running to waste is immense. In' 1892-3 a dam 
was constructed across the river, north of Santa Fe, at the mouth 
of Santa Fe Canon with an impounding capacity of 500 acre-feet. 
Xevertheless, the annual surplus flow averap:es 2,500 feet, enough 
to supply Ave such reservoirs with water. The Eio Santa Fe has 
one important tributary, the Arroyo Hondo, along the headwaters 
of which irrigation is practiced to a limited extent, only about 200 
acres being under cultivation. There are several excellent reser- 
voir sites on this stream, one of which has been surveyed. If con- 
structed, it will have sufficient storage capacity to irrigate 8,000 
acres, of land. Its cost would be $15,000. 

South of the Santa Fe is the Galisteo, which, in flood seasons, 
has a tremendous flow. Irrigation is at present confined to the 
upper portions of the stream and to small valleys opening into it, 
the greater area being in the vicinity of the settlement of Galisteo. 
From the head of the streajru in the Glorieta Mountains to Cerril- 
los- there are 1,200 acres under ditch, while on the San Cristobal, 
a tributary, 400 acres are cultivated. 

There are several lesser streams, such as the Manzanares and 
the Canon cito, while along the San Miguel County boundary flows 
the Holy Ghost Creek, carrying a large volume of water. On this 
watershed also rise the ^lacho, the Dalton, the Indian Creek and 
other tributaries of the Pecos. 

In this connection must be mentioned tlie underflow in all the 
river valleys and the ease with which water can be pumped from 
a small depth in many parts of the county, but especially in the 
valleys of the streams and arroyos. There can be no doubt that 
with the storing of flood waters and development of underflow and 
subterranean water coui;3es, the area under ijrigation in. the county 
could be increased with profit to 250,000 acres, equal to the entire 
area now under irrigation in the Territory. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 15 

AREA, RESERVES AND GRANTS. 

The area of Santa Fe County is 1,980 square miles, and, except- 
ing Bernalillo County, it is the smallest of New Mexico's counties ; 
yet it is almost twice as large as the State of Rhode Island and as 
large as the State of Delaware. Of this area, 470,000 acres are 
subject to entry under the public land laws, 18,000 acres being 
still unsurveyed. Of the Pecos Forest Eeserve, 200,000 acres are 
in the county. There are two Indian reservations, that of Sajcita 
Clara having an area of 33,000 acres, and that of Nambe with an 
area of 7,680 acres. In addition, there are six Pueblo Indian 
Grants — Pecos, partly in San Miguel County, 18,763 acres, now 
abandoned by the Indians and claimed by white settlers ; Santa 
Clara, greater part in Rio Arriba County, 17,369 acres; Tesuque, 
17,471 acres; San Ildefonso, 17,293 acres; Pojoaque, 13,520 acres, 
and Nambe, 13,586 acres. 

Of the area appropriated to private uses, several hundred thou- 
sand acres are in so-called private land grants, several of them 
being already partitioned among many claimants, others sold or 
leased, while the remainder are on the market for sale or leasing. 
These grants, confirmed either by Congress or by the Court of 
Private Land Claims, are as follows, in acreage: San Cristobal, 
81,032; Ortiz Mine Grant, 69,458; Mesita de Juana Lopez, 42,022; 
. Caja del Rio, 41,848 ; City of Santa Fe Grant, 23,040 ; Majada, 
22,000; Lady of Light, 16,546; Pedro Sanchez, 15,502; Sebastian 
de Vargas, 13,434; Juana de Gabaldon, 8,149; San Pedro, 7,680; 
Town of Jacona, 6,952; Cieneguilla, 3,202; Santa Cruz, 3,067; 
Santo Domingo de Cundiyo, 2,037; San Marcos Pueblo, 1,895; 
Sitio de Juana Lopez, 1,085; Cuyamungue, 604; Pacheco, 581; 
Sitio de los Cerrillos, 512; Canon del Agua, 341; Talaya Hill, 
319; Alamitos, 297; Santiago Ramirez, 272; Town of Galisteo, 
260; Salvador Gonzales, 200; Vicente Duran de Armijo, 57. Title 
to these grants is perfect. The price of land ranges from $1 to 
$400 and $500 an acre, according to the nature of the soil, the 
water supply, improvements on land, proximity to settlements, and 
other factors that generally determine land values. 

CLIMATE. 

Its climate is Santa Fe County's special boast and pride. There 
are other portions of the Southwest which are blessed with climate 
far superior to the best climate found in the humid portions of 
the United States, but at and around Santa Fe the climatic con- 
ditions of the Southwest come nearer to perfection than anywhere 
else in the Rocky Mountain or Pacific Coast regions. An abso- 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 17 

lutely perfect climate is unknown; there is not a country on the 
face of the earth that does not have either occasional sultry days 
or bitter cold nights; that does not at times have wind or dust 
storms or snow or rain, but Santa Fe suffers least from extremes, 
or storms, and a sultry day is practically unknown. Of course, 
its location in the arid West primarily determines the aridity and 
sunshine percentage; its altitude accounts for the lightness of 
the air; the many square miles of growing pinion, cedar, pine and 
spruce covering the landscape account for the fragrance and bal- 
sam of the atmosphere, and the city's sheltered location accounts 
for the small range in daily temperature so that even during the 
coldest days of winter the minimum temperature is milder than 
at points two or three hundred miles to the south and from 1,500 
to 3,000 feet lower, and that at the same time in summer the maxi- 
mum is less than at Denver or at Colorado Springs, 400 miles to the 
north. In fact, the protection to the City of Santa Fe by the sur- 
rounding hills and mountains is so complete that during both sum- 
mer and winter Santa Fe is acknowledged to be the best climatic 
resort in the Southwest. 

Charles E. Linney, section director for New Mexico of the United 
States Weather Bureau, speaks as follows concerning Santa Fe's 
climate : 

"It is easy to say that the climate of this or that place is the 
finest in the world ; it is less easy to show reliable facts and figures 
to bear out the statement, and it is least easy to convince the self- 
satisfied public that some other spot can be, or is, the more favored ; 
facts, however, if they are facts, should be given credence. 

"It is. with these barriers in view that a few facts and simple 
figures regarding the climate of central and northern New Mexico 
are presented, this vast empire being, in many respects, nicely typi- 
fied by Santa Fe, local contour, latitude and altitude being con- 
sidered. Discarding fractional finesse, the annual mean tempera- 
ture of Santa Fe, obtained from thirty-three years of carefully 
compiled records by the United States Weather Bureau, is 49 de- 
grees, a degree higher than that of Chicago, the same as that of 
Boston, a degree lower than Denver, 6 degrees cooler than Ashe- 
ville, Xorth Carolina, which has the same latitude, 7 degrees cooler 
than St. Louis, and 20 degrees cooler than Jacksonville. This 
comfortable average, too, is the result of balancing 29 degrees, the 
coldest month (January) with 69 degrees, the warmest month 
(July). In thirty-two years the temperature has never risen to 
100 degrees, the highest record being 97, in the month of August, 
1878, and since the following year, it has 'not touched 95 degrees; 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 19 

the average number of days each year with 90 degrees or higher is 
but two. The average daily maximum temperature, afternoon read" 
iiDg, of the warmest month, July, is but 81 degrees, while the 
average night temperature of this month is but 57 degrees, a sum- 
mer temperature far more comfortable than that of St. Louis, 
Washington, New York, Boston, Chicago, Denver or St. Paul, zero 
temperature being rarely recorded. Many winters pass without a 
record of zero temperature. 

"The annual precipitation, including rain, snow, sleet and hail, 
is 14.3 inches; Denver, the same; Chicago, 34.8; St. Louis, 41.1; 
Asheville, 42.5; Washington, 44.8; Boston, 45, and Jacksonville, 
54.1 inches. While the rainfall is low, it should be borne in mind 
that 62 per cent of the amount occurs in the spring and summer 
months, leaving the fall and wiinter months dry and invigorating. 
July is the wettest month, averaging 2.8 inches, while but .70 of 
an inch, or less, are measured in November, December, January, 
February and March. The average number of days with .01 of an 
inch or more of precipitation is 81, against 111 at St. Louis, 120 
at Chicago, 121 at Boston, 122 at Washington, and 127 at Jack- 
sonville. These figures for Santa Fe, however, do not represent 
days with continuous rain, but rather days with showers of short 
duration, for a day with continuous rain is practically unknown. 

"The sunshine of Santa Fe is proverbial; there is annually re- 
corded 77 per cent of the possible amount, against 69 per cent at 
Denver, 65 per cent at St. Louis, 59 per cent at Washington, 54 
per cent at Boston, and 53 per cent at Chicago. With all of these 
cities, excepting Denver, Colorado, the greatest amount of sun- 
shine occurs in summer, while here the highest percentage is in 
the fall, spring and winter, in the order named. Expressed differ- 
ently, this means that there is a partial veiling of the sun's rays 
during the heat of the summer, but a full and free bestowal of its 
glorious rays during the remaining nine months of the year. Oc- 
casionally, the amount of sunshine reaches the marvelous total of 
98 per cent of. the possible 100 per cent (December, 1903), and 96 
per cent in October, and also in IN'ovember, 1903, and it has never 
fallen below 48 per cent (February, 1905). In actual hours of sun- 
shine, the record averages 3,352 hours in a year, 9.2 hours for each 
day. 

"The average relative humidity is slightly below 46 per cent; 
it is highest, slightly below 55 per cent, int January, and lowest, 
33 per cent, in June. The annual relative humidity at Denver is 
50 per cent; at St. Louis, 70 per cent; at Boston, 72 per cent; at 
Washington, 73 per cent ; at Chicago, 77 per cent, and at Jackson- 



SANTA EE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 31 

ville, 80 per cent. For the warmest months of the year (June, 
July, August aind September) the average at St. Louis is 66 per 
cent; Chicago and Boston, 75 per cent; Washington, 75 per cent 
and Jacksonville, 82 per cent ; in other words, the humidity during 
the heat of the summer in the eastern cities is considerably greater 
than the annual average, while just the opposite condition prevails 
ini Santa Fe, where it is a dry heat, thus always free from ener- 
vating effects. 

"The average hourly wind movement is low, 6.9 miles per hour, 
and it is rare indeed that a storm velocity, 40 miles an hour ox 
higher, is attained, there being but thirty-seven such records in 
twenty-one years. There is no record of tlie wind ever having at- 
tained a velocity of 60 miles an hour at Santa Fe. 

"Summarized, the climate may be described as one that is mild 
and equable, much givem to sunshine, free from great heat, high 
winds, humidity, and debilitating effects so noticeable in the cent- 
ral and eastern cities, free also from the cold, snow and storms of 
other northern cities, a climate of clear skies, small rainfall, few 
storms and those of short duration, one which is usually warm in 
the sun in winter and cool in the shade in summer.^' 

At Santa Fe in winter, on sunny days, and nearly every day has 
sunshine, the temperature in the sun runs up from 50 to 80 de- 
grees. Even a temperature of 97 degrees, the highest ever recorded 
at Santa Fe, on account of the great dryness of the atmosphere and 
the invariably cool summer nights, is not so oppressive as a maxi- 
mum temperature of 83 degrees at Chicago or New York. 

The year 1904 was by no means a favorable one so far as climate 
goes, yet the official record of the United States Weather Bureau 
at Santa Fe shows that there were only sixteen cloudy days during 
the entire year. The sunshine averaged 80 per cent of the total 
possible amount, or a total of 3,554 hours, almost ten hours of 
sunshine every day — spring, summer, fall and winter. In the 
month of December, when most needed, the sunshine percentage 
reached its maximum, 98 per cent. In October and November, 
other cool months, it was 96 per cent. August, when cloudiness 
is grateful, had the minimum record, 69 per cent. The following 
average is the monthly sunshine record for the past fifteen years: 
January, 76 per cent; February, 71;. March, 73; April, 78; May, 
75; June, 79; July, 69-; August, 72 ; September, 77 ; October, 81: 
TTovember, 80; December, 79; average for the fifteen years, 77 
per cent. 

These are official statistics of the ITnited States Weather Bureau 
and not manufactured to bolster up claims to superioritv of cli- 




1 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 23 

mate, which facts will not sustain. These same records show that 
the precipitation during 1904 was 14.10 inches, nearly 12 inches 
having fallen during the months from June to October, inclusive, 
while during the other seven months it did not amount to three 
inches. The wind movement during the year averaged less than 
seven and one-half miles an hour, while the maximum velocity re- 
corded was forty-six miles an hour, and there was but one other 
record of a velocity greater than forty miles an hour. The relative 
humidity, an important factor of salubriousness, reached only 42 
per cent. The highest monthly average was 61 per cent, caused 
by unusually l^eavy rains on a few days in October. In April of 
1904 the remarkably low average of 28 per cent was recorded. Not 
a single fog was observed at Santa Fe during the year. The coldest 
month was January, with an average of 27.4 degrees, but an aver- 
age in the sun of 54 degrees. The warmest month was July, with 
an average of 69 degrees. The highest temperature recorded was 86 
degrees, on July 10th. The lowest was zero, on December 27th. 
The mean daily range in temperature was merely 22.1 degrees, while 
the greatest daily range recorded was only 35 degrees. This equa- 
bility in temperature is a great factor in the comforts of health- 
seekers and of well persons, and helps to make Santa Fe the great- 
est climatic summer and winter resort on the western continent. 

It has been stated by medical writers that tuberculosis can be 
treated successfully in any climate. All experience is against suo-i 
a conclusion. It has been demonstrated beyond question that cer- 
tain sections of the United States, of which Saicta Fe is the type, 
possess climatic characteristics which are peculiarly adapted to the 
successful management of the disease. The vast and salubrious 
stretch of country, which is so many times alluded to as a '^and 
of sand, sagebrush and cacti/^ possesses in an almost unlimited de- 
gree those very elements which observation has proved to be of 
the utmost value in the treatment of tuberculosis. 

Where medicines have failed, the elements are succeeding. A 
pure atmosphere, comtaining an abundance of oxygen and elec- 
tricity, in conjunction with a large amount of sunshine, is today 
fulfilling in an eminently satisfactory manner the mission hereto- 
fore mapped out for such agents as cod liver oil, creosote and the 
various remedies known as serums. 

The importance of climate as a factor in the treatment of pul- 
monary tuberculosis is daily manifesting more and more its value, 
whether taken separately or coupled with the various specific plans 
of therapy now advocated and employed in this important branch 
of practice. Physicians are informing themselves more widely 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 25 

upon this vital question, and the experiences gained by the prac- 
titioner living amidst such ideal climatic conditions as exist in 
New Mexico are being looked upon with more interest and kindly 
consideration than heretofore has been accorded them. 

The consensus of opinion, as expressed by the leading authorities 
on tuberculosis at the International Congress held at Moscow, 
Kussia, a few years ago, and later at London, England; Madrid, 
Spain; Atlanta, Georgia, and at Paris, France, was unanimously 
in favor of the climatic treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis over 
all other methods considered. 

The southwestern section of the United States has thousands of 
residents who came as tuberculosis patients, some of them as long 
as twenty-five years ago. They are today, and have been for many 
years, in good health; have married and reared children who are 
to all appearances absolutely free from tubercular disease. 

Animals, as well as the human race, are likewise remarkably 
free from tuberculosis in this region, as has been shown by the re- 
searches of Herrcra and Lopez of Mexico, where the climatic con- 
ditions are practically similar to those existing in Santa Fe. These 
investigators report that they have found but forty-five cases of 
tuberculosis in cattle out of 73,000 killed and examined at the 
government abattoir in the City of Mexico. 

It may be stated in a general way that all specific plans of thera- 
peutic treatment thus far suggested for the cure of tuberculosis, 
and especially of the pulmonary form, have failed, so that one must 
look to nature rather than to the laboratory for the weapons to 
combat this enemy of the race. 

The early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is of the utmost 
importance, for it is in the beginning of the disease that the 
greatest benefit is derived in the largest proportion of cases from 
the climate or the out-of-door plan of treatment. 

New Mexico is essentially a ^^and of sunshine and blue skies.^^ 
Here there is a dry and bracing climate, with no extreme heat nor 
cold, a climate which, for the most part admits of an existence 
out-of-doors almost all the year round. It is these qualities of air 
and sky that have caused this favored region to be known today 
over the entire civilized world as the "Land of Sunshine." The 
peculiar adaptability of such a climate to the successful manage- 
ment of consumption and other diseases of the lungs and respira- 
tory tracts is causing invalids to flock here in great n-umbers, ex- 
perience and observation having demonstrated beyond further ques- 
tion the fact that the sea coast resorts have proved dismal failures 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 27 

in exercising either a corrective or retarding influence upon the 
disease mentioned above. 

In the past few years the medical profession, as well as the laity, 
has been made aware, through variaus chaninels, of the vastly 
superior climatic conditions existing throughout the Territory of 
New Mexico, and patients are seeking relief here by the hundreds 
where formerly they came only by the score. 

The famous Dr. Osier, recently much in the public eye, says: 
^^The requirements of a suitable climate are a pure atmosphere, 
and a maximum amount of sunshine." The purity of the atmos- 
phere is the first consideration, and it is this requirement that is 
met so well at and abound Santa Fe. 

The problem of the prevention of the further spread of tuber- 
culosis and its ultimate and complete eradication from the human 
race will be solved when physicians realize the importance of at 
once placing the patient suffering from or threatened with this 
disease in a suitable climate. Children inheriting this peculiar 
condition of the cellular structures and cell elements known as a 
tubercular tendency will develop, in a favorable climate, a cell 
antagonism to the disease which eam never be acquired in a climate 
where tubercular diseases are more common and one which favors 
the causes that lead to tubercular disease. 

It is generally conceded by writers upon bacteriology that cli- 
matic conditions play a most conspicuous part in both development 
and retardation of microbic life.- Epidemic diseases which have 
for their vehicles certain conditions of the atmosphere, such as 
heat and moisture, constantly demoDstrate their power of spread- 
ing contagion, the moisture contained in the air being the chief 
factor in preserving the vitality of the germ. 

To anyone familiar with the extreme climatic difference between 
the Atlantic Coast States and the Southwest, the great role played 
by the climate in each locality named will at once become strikiiDgly 
apparent to the most indifferent observer. Epidemics, such as la 
^ippe, so fatal and destructive in their train of sequelae, are un- 
known in New Mexico. The climatic conditions; more especially 
the rarity and purity of the atmosphere, together with the almost 
constant direct rays of the sun, are the most powerful bactericides 
known to science today. A climate where discarded animal and veg- 
etable substances undergo prompt and rapid desiccation after brief 
exposure to the atmosphere, with but little manifestation of de- 
composition, argues most strongly against bacterial development. 
The tuberculosis bacilli lose their infective power in a very short 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 29 

time after exposure to the sun's rays in the arid atmosphere. This 
clearly explains the curative effect of climate upon pulmonary 
tuberculosis. Constant inhalation of what may be properly termed 
an aseptic atmosphere, in time, brings about in the pulmonary tis- 
sues, inflamed by tuberculosis deposits, that very desiccation effected 
upon animal and vegetable substances exposed directly to the air. 

Although there are many invalids, principally persons with tu- 
berculosis, there is not a case of tuberculosis on record in New 
Mexico that was communicated from the diseased to the healthy 
through the medium of the atmosphere. That the native people 
of this sectioDi experience such wonderful immunity from tuber- 
culosis, especially of the respiratory tracts^ must have its explan- 
ation in the very favorable climatic conditioDs. 

In order to derive all possible benefit from such a climate as 
that of New Mexico, the health seeker should live out-of-doors. 
If he has the strength to get about at all, the best he can do is 
to go into the forests and hills surrounding Santa Fe and camp 
out. The life of the tent dweller is the best treatment for incipi- 
ent pulmonary tuberculosis. A year's out-of-door life in the dry, 
bracing air will arrest most cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, if 
the sufferer has the necessary strength and vitality to begin such 
a course of treatment and takes ordinary precautions against undue 
exposure and over-exertion. 

I^ecognizing the superior climatic advantages of New Mexico 
for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, the United 
States government has established, and now has in successful oper- 
ation, two large sanitariums, one at Fort Bayard, operated under 
the auspices of the War Department, and the other at Fort Stan- 
ton, under the United States Marine Hospital Service, where cli- 
matic and other conditions are almost as favorable to health seekers 
as at Santa Fe. Hundreds of soldiers and sailors afflicted with 
tuberculosis have been cured by the climatic and tent treatment, 
which is the chief feature at both of these establishments. Fresh 
air in abundance, both night and day, is the first and most im- 
portant factor in this treatment. Coupled with this are sunshine, 
healthful and abundant diet, moderate exercise, and amusements 
and recreations of a suitable character to banish homesickness. 
These constitute the plan followed at both places, and they are 
proving each day the immense advantages they possess over the old 
methods of treatment. 

Another triumph for New Mexico climate as a factor in the cure 
of consumption was achieved when, in the early summer of 1905, 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 31 

the representatives of the Associated Fraternities of the United 
States, after a searching and personal investigation of the climatic 
features of the Southwest, selected for the site of the Fraternal 
Sanitarium for the cure of consumption, Las Vegas Hot Springs, 
forty miles east of Santa Fe, with climatic conditions almost 
similar, except that the minimum temperature in winter is con- 
siderably lower, the maximum temperature in summer several de- 
grees higher, and the per centage of humidity a trifle greater at 
Las Vegas Hot Springs than at Santa Fe, according to the official 
Weather Bureau records. Almost a million dollars' worth of land 
and buildings has been acquired for that purpose, and the results 
that will be achieved would have been deemed impossible a few 
years ago. 

Care of Health Seekers. 

Naturally, the first question asked by the health seeker, after 
deciding upon a point at which to locate and try the climate cure, 
is the character of the accommodations and their cost. Fortun- 
ately, Santa Fe is capable of taking care of an almost unlimited 
number of health seekers in the best possible manner. Sunmount, 
the pioneer tent city in New Mexico, has been in operation suffi- 
ciently long to demonstrate its success and permanency. Its ac- 
commodations are elastic, for it undertakes to care for every comer, 
tent aind furnishings being supplied on short notice, even If every 
one of the sixty or more commodious tents is occupied. It is 
ideally located on a tableland overlooking Santa Fe, yet sheltered 
on every side except the south^ from which direction it receives 
the grateful rays of the sun during the day. Although isolated, 
it is still within fifteen minutes^ walk of the business portion 
of the city. The pinion, cedar and spruce forests encroach upon 
and partly surround it, while the shelter of the magnificent moun- 
tain ranges to the west, north and east protect it from winds and 
cold. Here the patient receives full benefit of the pure and ex- 
hilarating mountain air and the copious sunshine, which tend to 
up-build quickly his general health. Immediately upon taking up 
residence one notices an infrequency of night-sweats, an absence 
of fever, and almost invariably a gain in weight, which is apparent 
from the very start. These facts, together with the endorsements 
and recommendations of many leading physicians of the country, 
are a positive assurance that tent life at Sunmount means resto- 
ration to health for those suffering from tubercular or bronchial 
diseases. Tours into the mountains and various other places of 
interest near Santa Fe are features of frequent occurrence and 



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SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 33 

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promote the health and stren^h, of the patients. The latest sani- 
tary tents are in use and they are furnished for light house-keeping 
at the Tent City, whose cuisine is especially adapted to ttie require- 
ments of consumptives. Physicians visit Sun mount daily, and the 
telephone .connection with the city assures prompt attendance in 
case of necessity. A casino, with piano and dance floor, lawn tennis 
and croquet grounds, are provided, all being free to the residents of 
Sunmount. The tents have ample space around them to assure 
privacy without destroying that pleasant sociability that makes 
life so agreeable to the stranger in a straDge land, and is the most 
potent foe to homesickness. The rent for furnished tents is from 
$10 a month upward, according to size, location and furnishings. 
Meals at the restaurant are from $6 a week upward. The private 
water supply is secured from pure mountain springs, and so great 
has been the caution in piping the water to this model village 
that it is absolutely uncontaminated. 

A tent sanitarium with a resident physician and for a select 
class of patients has been established in the southern portion of 
the city. The cottages are of the latest design and the place is 
known as the Glorieta Sanitarium. 

It is proposed to establish a tent city in the Tesuque Valley, 
seven miles north of Santa Fe, and also on the Pecos Forest Eeserve, 
twenty miles east of Santa Fe. In and around the town, in fact, 
throughout the entire county, can be seen tents here and there 
occupied by health seekers or their families, and by owning their 
own tents and providing their own meals, health seekers can live 
at an expense of only $4 a week, without stinting themselves Qf 
the essentials for recovery. 

The Sisters of Charity maintain a sanitarium in Santa Fe, which 
gives excellent service to health seekers from $10 a week upward. 
This includes personal care by the good Sisters and a cuisine 
that is especially adapted to the needs of invalids. The accom- 
modations at this sanitarium are limited to a hundred persons, 
but plans are maturing for enlarging it. Being situated in the 
center of the city, fronted by a beautiful park, it is patronized not 
only by health seekers, but by persons who have chosen Santa Fe 
as their permanent home, even though not in the city for health 
reasons. 

Hotel accommodations at Santa Fe are ample. AHhough the 
patronage of health seekers is not especially sought, yet they offer 
pleasant homes for a temporary period until accommodations can 
be secured els(»where. There are a number of private boarding 
liouses where rooms and board can be secured from $6 a week up- 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 35 

ward. Furnished rooms rent at $8 a month upward, according 
to location and furnishings. Hotel and private accommodations 
can be foumd, in addition to those at Santa Fe/ at Cerrillos and 
Espanola, as well as in the smaller settlements. The stranger 
may be certain of accommodations and a welcome in many private 
homes, for hospitality is still a recognized virtue throughout the 
Southwest. 

INDUSTRIES— Agriculture. 

Tilling of the soil is the principal industry of Santa Fe County, 
although only one out of every fifty acres is under cultivation at 
the present time. Ten times that area could be reclaimed at mod- 
erate cost, either by the construction of irrigation works or dry 
farming methods. The principal agricultural valleys are those 
of the Eio Grande, from White Kock Canon to Santa Cruz; the 
^ Santa Cruz Valley, with the settlements of Santa Cruz and Chi- 
mayo; the Pojoaque Valley, with the settlements of Pojoaque and 
San Ildef onso ; the Nambe Valley, with the settlement of Nambe ; 
the Tesuque Valley, with the settlements of Tesuque, Tesuque 
Pueblo, Cuymungue, Jacona and Kio Medio; the Santa ,Fe Valley, 
with the city of Santa Fe and the settlements of Agua Fria, Cie- 
nega, Cieneguilla; the Canoncito Valley, with Canoncito and sev- 
eral other small settlements, and the Galisteo Valley, with the vil- 
lage of Galisteo and a number of patches under cultivation- along 
its upper course. Some farming is also done along the Arroyo 
Hondo and lesser streams, while in the mountains dry farming is 
successful. Although about 20,000 acres are under irrigation and 
under cultivation, and the area cultivated without irrigation varies 
from 5,000 to 15,000 acres, no real test of scientific dry farming 
has been made thus far. The crop production in the county is 
valued at from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000 a year. Along all the 
streams and in the hills are many fine reservoir s-ites, and several 
irrigation projects, especially in the vicinity of Santa Fe, have 
been surveyed and found to be practical at comparatively small 
cost. 

Irrigation. 

(Vops are raised in the mountain valleys much the same as in 
the more humid east. On large areas, especially in draws, sinks 
and former river and lake bottoms, the Campbell method of soil 
culture will enable the energetic husbandman to do well without 
irrigation, or with scant irrigation, but as a rule, irrigation is \ 
necessary to the successful pursuit of agriculture, and it is really \ 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 37 

the ideal conditio'm undcT which to raise crops, as has been proved 
by five thousand years of history in the fertile valleys of Egypt, 
Mesopotamia, Hindostan, China, north Africa and northern Italy. 
Xo excessive moisture, no drouth, worries the husbandman who ■ 
possesses an irrigation right in a perennial stream, who has for- 
tified himself with a reservoir, who has struck artesian water, or 
who has wells from which he can pump the underflow. Irriga-' 
tioDi means intensive farming, it means that the land will be fer- 
tilized at the same time it is watered, it mean» certain crops and 
a maximum production per acre. In its perfection, agriculture 
by irrigation is as distinct an advance over the methods of agri- 
culture in the more humid states .as manufacturing with machinery 
is over manual labor. 

There are in the county a few medium sized irrigation canals and 
many small community ditches held hy the small farmers and the 
Pueblo Indians. The origitDi of these ditches is lost, even in local 
tradition, and it is probable that some of them were in use before 
the advent of the Spaniards. Under the community system, each 
ditch is held and controlled by the owners of the land it irrigates, 
who usually live together in a village or pueblo. In the fall of 
each year a mayordomo is elected, who has control of the ditch for 
the following season. He assesses the land for the labor mecessary 
to clean the ditch and keep it in repair during the irrigation sea- 
son, apportions the water to each consumer according to the local 
conditions, and in general supervises all matters pertaining to irri- 
gation. While the apportionment of labor varies, it is generally 
such that a farmer holding a tract of six acres is required to fur- 
nish the labor of one man in cleaning and repairing the entire 
ditch in the spring, whjpJo he who holds twelve acres furnishes a 
man's labor when necessary during the whole season. The ditches 
have no regular gates or sluices, and flooding is the only means 
of irrigation. Corsequently the use of water is extremely wasteful. 
The average cost of constructing: a ditch is $1,738 per mile and 
$6.40 per acre of land under ditch. The irrigated farms make 
greater use of the public domain for grazing purposes than do those 
which are unirrigated, and an income i?; thus secured in addition 
to that obtained directlv from the land owned or leased. 

Sufficient irrigation has beon done to demonstrate what might, 
and eventually will, be accomplished. The use of the underflow in 
such valleys as the Santa Fe is also available, and the water can 
be raised at slight cost bv wind mills or power pumps, in some 
instances at a cost less than that of maintai^-sincr headgates and 
irrigation ditches. The underflow is practically inexhau.^tiblo. 



SA^TA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 39 

Dry Farming. 

It has been demonstrated^ however, that the real difficulty in the 
arid regiom is not a lack of rainfall, but the loss of too much 
water by evaporation, and this can be- properly controlled by cul- 
tivation, especially by the Campbell method of soil culture, which 
consists in cultivating the soil frequently and deeply and covering 
the surface with a dust mulch, thereby preventing the evaporation 
of moisture stored in the ground. It has been proved by careful 
laboratory and field work that twelve inches of rainfall is sufficient 
to grow good crops, providing the water is all utilized. The aver- 
age rainfall for Santa Fe is fourteen inches, and in the mountains 
is considerably more, most of it occurring during the growing 
season. 

A description of such a dry culture farm gives an idea of the 
practicability of raising crops without irrigation in the arid region. 
One writer says: "It is the cleanest, neatest ^ ranch conceivable. 
The weeds lining every irrigation ditch and in every irrigated field 
are conspicuous by their absence. The intense dark green foliage 
of the trees strikes one^s attention upon approach, and the evidence 
of thrift and health in every growing thing is so convincing that 
one is utterly confounded. All the preconceived notions as to the 
absolute necessity for abundant water to raise a crop in New Mex- 
ico are swept; away at a glance^ One who has seen thousands of 
dollars expended to bring a small stream of water for a few miles 
to develop a little ranch is dumbfounded to see the desert bloom 
as the rose under simply the magic touch of labor in common with 
methods of good farming. It is only four years since the first 
work was done on this desert farm. Several acres of land were 
cleared of sage brush, and after cropping to corn or small grain, 
fruit trees were planted. Many of these are bearing this year. It 
will pay one to visit this ranch to see what can be done without 
irrigation. One will find there a thriving crop of barley, and corn 
six feet tall, all kinds of garden truck, and trees of many varieties. 
There are large cottonwoods, and fruit trees loaded with blossoms 
and fruit. Apricots, pcars^, poaches, plums, walnuts, apples, grapes, 
hlackbo^ric^s and rhubarb are all doing well by the simplest method 
of cultivating throughout the summer. 

"There is more than one way to bottle up water., and the best 
is to use the soil itself as a bottle. If the soil is deep it will hold 
all that falls upon it without leaking out below. If the farmer 
plows it deep, subsoils it in the fall and lets it lie rough through 
the winter and spring, he opens the bottle ready to catch all the 
water. If he keeps it blanketed with a few inches of very loose 



SAXTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 41 

dry soil by cultivation when the soil is in a condition to crumble 
nicely, and then cultivates frequently thereafter through the sum- 
mer, he effectively corks up the bottle so tnat but a relatively small 
part of it gets out into the air. He then also keeps all weeds 
down and prevents the enormous leakage through the roots, stems 
and leaves of the plants which would otherwise take place." The 
Campbell dry soil culture involves processes that are just as bene- 
ficial to irrigated ground as to dry farming. 

The up-to-date Xew Mexico farmer is the aristocrat of his craft. 
With twenty or thirty acres of fertile land and ample irrigation 
rights he is independent. If his ranch is well located, he fears 
neither excessive moisture nor droutji, neither hard times nor 
panics. There is always a good market in which his products 
command top prices, and as to crop failure, it is out of the ques- 
tion if he knows his business. 

There are many thousands of acres in Santa Fe County aside 
from those already in use which can be utilized for agricultural 
and horticultural purposes. The portions which are best suited 
for cultivation are the river bottoms or valleys and the smaller 
valleys along the mountain streams. There are also large areas, 
commonly known as the mesas or uplands, which have the finest 
soil, and parts of which will produce good crops by intensive cul- 
tivation and the Campbell dry culture method. The soil varies 
from a sandy loam to a heavy clay, and is ordinarily fertile enough 
to produce good crops if water is obtainable for irrigation, or under 
the Campbell method of soil culture. Its fertility is demonstrated 
by the rapid growth in it of trees and plants. 

In order to bring into play the favorable soil, water and cli- 
matic conditions to the best advantage, the adaptability of varieties 
of trees and plants should be considered. It is niot infrequently 
found that some varieties, although they may be among the leading 
ones in other states, are partially or entirely worthless in Xew Mex- 
ico; particularly is this the case with the stone fruits. On the 
other hand, some varieties less valuable in other sections succeed 
admirably in Santa Fe County. In other words, the proper selec- 
tion of varieties is an important factor in the success of as:ricul- 
tural and horticultural operations, and this is being realized more 
and more. Considerable success is also attending the introduction 
ar-^^ propascation of crops especially adapted to the arid res^ions. 
such as durum wheat, kaffir corn and bronco grass. 

The prices of asrricultural lands under irrigation systems, public 
or private, and with permar-ent water rights, are from $10 to $200 
per acre, according: to location, nearness to railroads and towns. 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 43 

crops, fruit trees, water rights, ditch systems and general condi- 
tions. The soil of the valleys is superior in productive capabilities 
to the alluvial soil of the prairie states. The secret of its produc- 
ing power probably lies in the large amount of sediment contained 
in the irrigation waters. The Nile Valley, with its waters loaded 
with sediment, is considered one of the most fertile in the world, 
and. in Santa Fe County there are a number of Nile Valleys in 
miniature. 

The crops are not seriously troubled by fungus diseases. In- 
sect pests, formerly unknown, have made their appearance ini late 
years, but not to such an extent as in the humid regions. Much 
sunshine and dry air prevent the growth of fungi, and, therefore, 
these are not likely to become troublesome. The insect pests that 
nave found their way here can generally be conftrolled by proper 
treatment. 

Public Lands. 

Santa Fe County has 470,000 acres that are subject, to entry 
'under the public land laws. Of this area, 18,000 acres are unsur- 
veyed. {^About 200,000 acres of the public land can be reclaimed 
by the construction of irrigation works, by pumping the underflow 
or by dry farming methods. This means free homes for five thou- 
sand families and the possibility of increasing the annual crop 
values of the county from one million to ten million dollars. This 
land can be taken up under the homestead or desert land acts.jf 
(JAll men and single women over 21 years old, widows, deserted 
wives and persons under the age of 21 years who are the heads 
of families and do not own more than 160 acres of land and are 
citizens or have declared their intention to become citizens of the 
United States are qualified to make a homestead entry of 160 acres?) 
(The right to a tract of public land as a homestead can be secured 
by settlement, which will hold it for ninety days, when or during 
which time entry must be made. After fourteen months from 
the date of settlement, the homestead claimant, if he has resided 
upon, improved and cultivated his claim during the last eight 
months, can make commutation proof and pay for the land at 
$1.25 per acre. ) "'^ 

Land unfit for cultivation or grazing purposes, or only valuable 
for its timber or stone, is not subject to homestead entry. Other- 
wise, as a rule, all public land, not mineral, may be so entered. 
The settler is required by law to make improvements upon the 
homestead and to cultivate part of the same during the period of 
residence. He must also make the tract his actual and bona fide 



SANTA FE COrXTY, NEW MEXICO. 45 

residecce and home. If the law has been fully complied with for 
five years on a homestead, it is possible to make final proof at 
any time before the cancellation of the entr}\ Before final proof 
can be made on a homestead or desert land entiry, application 
must be made in the land office and a notice secured, which must 
be published in a newspaper to be designated by the Eegister. 

This application and notice must give the names and postoffice 
address of four persons, two of whom will be witnesses in making 
proof. Thereafter and upon due publication, final proof can be 
made at the land office or before a United States Court Commis- 
sioner or a Probate Clerk or Probate Judge at the county seat. 
The 1-and office fees are as follows: 

Acres. Land. 

Homestead land $ 1.25 

Payable when application is made 40 6.50 

80 8.00 

120 14.50 

160 16.00 

Payable when final proof is made 40 1.50 

80 3.00 

120 4.50 

160 6.00 

Even' qualified person, a resident of ^N'ew Mexico, may eniter 
320 acres, or less, of desert land that can be reclaimed by irriga- 
tion. Desert land is held to be land without a growth of natural 
timber, on which ordinary crops will not grow and mature without 
irrigation. 

Before the expiration of one year, after the date of the ent.ry, 
the entry man must file in the land office a corroborated sworn 
statemeuft showing how that $1 per acre has been expended for 
reclamation purposes. Within four years from date of his entry, 
the claimant must prove its reclamation and pay a further gov- 
ernment fee of $1 per acre. Desert land entries can be assigned 
to any qualified person who has never made or held an entn*, and 
assignee can com])]y with the law and make the final proof. 

The entry of agricultural land is restricted to 320 acres by any 
one person, under- any or all of the agricultural land laws. For 
instance: If a 320-acre desert entry is made, a settler is not en- 
titled to a homestead, or if a homestead entn' of 160 acres is 
made, a settler can then only enter 160 acres more for a desert 
entry. 

Under the act of March 3, 1891, any person, company or corpo- 
iratdon mav locate a reservoir or reser^'oir site and ditches on 




PERRY'S HOMESTEAD IN SANTA FE CANON. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 47 

public land for the purpose of irrigation, and can obtain a ri^ht 
to the same and fifty feet each side thereof that cannot be dis- 
turbed by any person or persons who may afterward obtain title 
to the land on which such reservoir and ditches are located. 

Sections 16 and 36 in each township are school sections and 
belong to the Territory ; these are leased by sections and are under 
the supervision of the Territorial Land Commissioner. 

When an entry of any kind is to be made, evidence of citizen- 
ship will be required. If the applicant is native born, his own 
affidavit of that fact will be sufficient. But if he was not born 
in the United States, in addition to his own affidavit, he must 
furnish a copy of his declaration of intentioni to become a citizen, 
or of his certificate as a citizen. 

Persons desiring to settle upon the public domain, either at 
homesteaders or upon desert entries, must "rustle" for themselves 
in order to find suitable quarter-sections for such location. 

The choicest lands along the water courses, great or small, per- 
manent or transitory, are now about all in private ownership, title 
having been derived from confirmed Spanish or Mexican land 
grants or under the public land laws of the United States. Still, 
by careful search, even in the oldest settled sections, good locations 
for homesteads may yet be had. 

There are no maps showing public lands open: for entry. Town- 
ship plats can be examined at the land office at Santa Fe, and the 
lands open for entry in the different townships can be found there- 
on. The settler should select the locality in which he wishes to 
locate, and then get a township plat or plats showing the vacant 
land, which will enable him to examine such tracts as may seem 
desirable. The plat of the particular township in which his loca- 
tion may be situated can be procured by application to the Eeg- 
ister of the United States La-nd Office at Santa Fe, and will have to 
be paid for at the rate of from $1 to $4 per plat, according to the 
amount of work necessary thereon, by the intending settler. 

Alfalfa. 

Alfalfa is grown in all the irrigated sections up to an altitude 
of 8,000 feet and does well in almost every class of soil. The 
chemical constituents of the soil seem to have little to do with the 
growth of the crop, provided the surface is level and the proper 
amount of water is given. It grows well on light, sandy loam, as 
well as on the heaviest adobe. It is said bv an able writer that 
alfalfa will not stand "wet feet." That is true if he means that 
it would not grow in\ a water-logged soil. Where the soil is well 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 49 

drained it will extend its roots to the water table and grow lux- 
uriantly, even if the water table is only a few feet below the sur- 
face of the ground. 

The average annual yield is about three tons per acre. The 
cost of production, including taxes, water rent, growing, harvest.- 
ing, baling and placing on board the car, does not exceed $4.00 per 
ton. There are some alfalfa farmers who are able to place alfalfa 
on the car at a much less figure because they have perfected their 
system of irrigation and handle the hay with improved machinery. 
The net profit in growing alfalfa under irrigation is considerably 
larger than the average net profits realized on wheat and corn in 
the older agricultural sections. It is a crop that requires little 
labor, if the field has been made level and the soil well prepared 
before seeding, after which the operations are simple, resolving 
themselves into irrigation and harvesting. On many soils, one 
irrigation will produce one crop, which may vary from one-half 
to two tons per acre. The price of alfalfa varies, depending upon 
the demand, and at harvest time the price of alfalfa is compara- 
tively low, usually not exceeding $8 per ton, but the forehaDded 
farmer who holds his product until winter usually gets from $10 
to $14 per ton. As to the feeding value of alfalfa, it is conceded 
throughout the country that it leads all other forage crops in its 
total digestible food constituents and nitrogen contents. 

Forage Crops. 

While alfalfa is the main forage crop, it is not the only one. 
There are som^e twenty to thirty varieties of grasses that grow 
wild upon the range and which are harvested for hay, the chief 
and probably th^ most nutritious being gramma grass, which, 
during wet years yields as high as two tons per acre. Large 
quantities of it. are harvested on the public .range and sold dur- 
ing the winter or fed to stock. Attempts to cultivate brome grass, 
a drouth and cold resisting forage crop of great value to stock- 
men, yielding three to four heavy crops per year, have proven 
successful, especially on the Sparks Eanch east of Sanita Fe. 
Clover does well, as do nearly all the other forage plants of the 
temperate zone. Of late, the value of wild peas for the feeding 
of stock has been recognized, and as the yield per acre in nutritive 
value is equal to that of an acre of alfalfa, there should be a 
future for those who will go into the feeding of lambs and beeves 
in Santa Fe County, as the wild pea and lupine require very little 
attention. Oats do very well in the mountain valleys as well as 
on the plains farm, and the yield per acre is quite profitable. In 
fact, oats have become a staple crop in the mountains, even where 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 51 

the raising of other crops is not attempted. The cultivation of 
the spineless cactus also opens vast possibilities to the stockman, 
for cacti are as native as are the sagebrush and the pinion. 

Wheat. 

Wheat is a sure and good crop if sown early. The yield of 
wheat per acre is equal to the yield in the leading wheat-growing 
states. New Mexico wheat received first premium at the World's 
Fair at Chicago and at other expositions. Eye, barley, millet and 
the other cereal crops do equally well, and there is a good home 
market for all that can be produced. 

Corn. 

Com stands next to alfalfa in acreage. Where water for irri- 
gation purposes is plentiful the yield of com compares favorably 
with the yield of this crop in the com belt. 

Sorghum yields good crops and in several localities is grown 
for its sugar contents. 

Potatoes. 

By many, the potato has been considered an impossible crop, yet it 
can be and is grown successfully in the mountains east of Santa Fe. 
The difficulties in growing potatoes seem to be those of varieties 
and management under irrigation*. Colorado failed in its first at- 
tempts to grow potatoes, but now this crop forms an important 
source of wealth in the Centennial State. Sweet potatoes are 
grown without difficulty. The best success with potatoes has been 
achievjed in the higher mountain valleys. On the Viveash Ranch, 
on the upper Pecos, for instance, at an elevation of 10,000 feet, 
as well as on the Sparks Ranch, the yield of potatoes, both in 
quality and quantity per acre, surpasses that of the potato fields 
of Greeley in Colorado. 

Vegetables. 

Wherever water for irrigation can be had, vegetables thrive. 
While truck gardening is not carried on very extensively, it is 
nevertheless increasing every year. Celery can be grown to per- 
fectioni where some care in growing *t is exercised. Santa Fe 
Coucty is among the best celery-growing sections and its product 
is superior to the product from California, Michigan and Louisiana. 
Cantaloupes , and melons are raised successfully. The tomato can 
be grown and ripened if given some protection against frosts. 

Santa Fe County is famed for the superior onions which it pro- 




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SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 53 

duces. It is not infrequent to see specimens weighing one and 
one-half pounds. The yield per acre is large. The results of ex- 
periments at the Agricultural Experiment Station at Mesilla Park 
show that such varieties as the Red Victoria will produce in JsTew 
Mexico 32,000 pou'uds per acre, and at the United States Indian 
Industrial School at Santa Fe 16,000 pounds of the best onions 
were raised on one acre. 

Beans are a staple crop. Peas do equally as well, and the pro- 
duction of chili or peppers is a distinctive feature of native hus- 
bandry. Cabbage and beets attain an extraordinary size and the 
average yield per acre would be considered phenomenal in the east. 
The garden' vegetables all flourish and the openings for energetic 
truck farmers are especially inviting. Okra, peanuts, spinach, 
rhubarb, squash, melons, pumpkins, all do well, especially in the 
river valleys. 

Sugar Beets. 

The Santa Fe, Tesuque, Santa Cruz and Rio Grande Valleys 
rank first among localities best suited to the growth of high-grade 
sugar beets. Here may also be found fuel, limestone and water 
of good quality, as well as cheap labor. In the face of these facts, 
it seems that Santa Fe should soon have a sugar factory, especi- 
ally since beet sugar factories are exempt from taxation' the first 
six years. 

Dr. H. W. Wiley, who is undoubtedly the principal authority 
on sugar beets today, has the following to say : 

"It is evident that there are many localities in New Mexico 
where conditions of temperature are most favorable to the growth 
of beets. There are also large areas of comparatively level lands 
which are capable of irrigation. Wherever the temperature of 
these regions is sufficiently low to permit the proper development 
of the beet, and where sufficient water for irrigation can be secured, 
there is good reason to believe that the iDdustxy may be established 
and will prove profitable. Beets grown in Santa Fe County show 
a higher percentage of sugar than those of any other state which 
has sugar factories in operation, the average being almost 18 per 
cent, while the purity of the juice exceeds 82 per cent. 

It is estimated that the people of New Mexico consumed 16,- 
000,000 pounds of sugar last year. Not one pound of this sugar 
was manufactured in the Territory, notwithstanding the fact that 
natural conditions are better suited to sugar beet growth and beet 
sugar factories than in almost any other place in the United States, 
and possibly in the world. 



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SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 55 

Tobacco. 

Wild tobacco, called "puncha," grows along the foothills of the 
mountains. Many farmers continue to grow tobacco of seeds from 
the original plant, preferring it to Havana or any other variety. 
The cultivated plant is very similar to the native. The native 
farmers do not sow the seed in beds and transplant, but drill in 
rows. The plants are from five to five and a half feet high and 
have about forty leaves. They are small and resemble Turkish 
more than any other variety in growth and shape of leaf. Tobacco 
of all varieties will grow well and has an unusually fine flavor and 
aroma if sown early and protected well. 

Canaigre and Rubber Plant. 

Both of these plants grow wild. The first named is valuable on 
account of its high contents of tannic acid, a necessity in tanning 
leather. Eecent experiments . have shown that the rubber plant 
will yield a good quality of crude rubber, and that its cultiva- 
tion for manufacturing purposes can be made profitable. A com- • 
pany has been organized at Santa Fe to utilize the wild rubber 
plant for that purpose. 

Horticulture. 

Of all the fruits, the apple is the most extensive and the most 
profitable crop, and it has been placed in competition with the 
world at the great expositions. Id- 1901 at Buffalo the apples 
from New Mexico were conspicuous and received a first prize, 
while in 1900 the New Mexico apples were carried across the con- 
tinent and the Atlantic Ocean to the Paris Exposition. There 
New Mexico was counted with the best apple growing sections 
in the Union, as specimen apples received second premium. Sim- 
ilar were the results of the exhibit of New Mexico apples at the 
Chicago and St. Louis Expositions. This may give an idea as 
to the kind of fruit that can be grown. Not (5nly is the fruit of 
superior quality, but the crops produced are enormous ; as a rule 
the trees tend to overbear. The apple orchards vary from small 
family places to very large commercial orchards. The Dockweiler, 
Miller, Wise, Hickox, Buena Vista, Harroun, Boyle, Hobart, An- 
drews, Jones and other orchards are particularly noted for their 
fine fruit. The most profitable varieties of apple grown are the 
winter apples, such as Ben Davis, Gano, Missouri Pippin, Wine- 
sap and Mammoth Black Twig. In a lesser degree, the early 
varieties are also prolific. Among the leading kinds may be men- 




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SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 57 

tioned the Early Harvest, Red June, Yellow Transparent and the 
Maiden's Blush. 

Other pomacious fruits, like the pear and quince, thrive as well 
as the apple, but these are not so important, nor are they planted 
in such large areas. The pear has a marked adaptability, the trees 
usually bear early, are among the best drouth resisters, and are 
long-lived and hardy. The fruit, especially of the larger varieties, 
like the Bartlett, 'Idaho, Beurre, Easter and Clapp's Favorite, grows 
very large and is of fine quality. There is a bright future for the 
extensive planting of this fruit. 

Peaches are ^own in all the fruit growing sections and find 
their way into the Colorado and Kansas City markets. The early- 
ripening varieties, such as the Alexander, Sneed, Waterloo, Ar- 
kansas Traveler and Hyce's Surprise, are among the successful 
and sure bearers. This is due to the fact that, as a rule, the early 
varieties are the late bloomers, blossoming late enough to escape 
the late spring frosts. The peach trees usually begin to bear at 
three years from the time of planting. The tendency of the trees 
is to overbear, and it becomes necessary to thin them in order 
that the fruit may not be too crowded. In size and quality, Santa 
Fe County peaches are not exceeded by peaches from the best peach 
growing states. It is the* common opinion of those who have tasted 
both California and Santa Fe County peaches -that the latter 
are the better in quality. The fruit is, as a rule, highly colored, 
due, perhaps, to the more continuous sunshine during the ripening 
period. Probably, the profitable period of the peach tree here is 
from ten to twelve years. By replanting an orchard at intervals 
of five to eight years, a profitable orchard can- be maintained almost 
indefinitely. 

The apricot has given evidence of greater longevity than that of 
any orchard tree, with the possible exception of the pear. It is 
not uncommon to see very old seedling apricot trees growing in 
the native home places, and at Santa Fe seedling apricot trees are 
known to be about 200 years old. The fruit from the improved 
kinds is as large and as good in quality as the California apricots. 
The Blenheim, Moorpark, Royal, St. Ambroise and Luizet are de- 
sirable for home planting. 

Cherries are grown on a lesser scale. The trees of both the soiir 
and sweet groups grow well. Varieties of the sour cherries are the 
best bearers, but the fruit 4s not so large as that from the sweet 
varieties. The latter attain a size and flavor that are unknown 
to the product of eastern orchards. The sour varieties predom- 
inate, as they have proved to be more regular and surer bearers. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 61 

profitable, and a pursuit especially adapted to those who are able 
to do only light out-door work. 

Poultry and Poultry Products. 

Annually thousands of dollars are poured inio the pockets of 
Kansas and Nebraska farmers in payment for poultry and eggs 
consumed in Santa Fe County and yet the county is well adapted 
to the raising of poultry. It has most of the advantages with but 
few of the disadvantages of other sections. Insect pests are no 
worse, while disease is rare. Prices are high, being governed by 
the price of the foreign product plus the transportation charges, 
therefore the home product has the best of it. Eggs bring from 
25 to 45 cents a dozen, and chickens from 12 to 22 cents a pound. 

Dairying. 

Dairying has kept pace with the demand in the vicinity of 
cities and towns where the products are sold in the form of milk 
and cream. There is not enough butter and cheese manufactured, 
however, to supply the needs. Outside of three dairies at Santa 
Fe, the dairying industry has been but slightly developed, although 
the profitable opportunities for modern dairy methods are very 
promising. The markets for farm and dairy products are nearby 
and pay good prices, and thousands of dollars are sent annually to 
Kansas, Colorado and other states for agricultural products that 
can be raised at home. There is not a single creamery in the 
County. 

Fruit Preservation. 

Santa Fe has an evaporator, but it has been idle the past few 
years, not for want of fruit or lack of market, but because no 
enterprising man, skilled in the business, could be found to operate 
it. On the Eound Mountain Farm at Hobart is a small evaporator 
and several other orchards contemplate installing such evaporators. 

Flouring Mills. 

There are two modern flour mills, one at Hobart and the other 
at Santa Cruz. There are in addition two or three old-fashioned 
grist mills. 

STOCK. 

IN'ext to agriculture, stock raising is the principal industry of 
Santa Fe County, its valleys and mesas being covered with nutri- 
tious grasses. The fine climate and good water are also factors 
that, materially contribute to make stock raising profitable. There 



SANTA FE COUXTY, NEW MEXICO. G3 

are about 60,000 sheep on the range, 10,000 head of cattle and 
15,000 head of goats. The broken hill country and mountains 
are ideal grazing ground for goats. 

Cattle. 

Santa Fe County has 400,000 acres of public range and 400,000 
acres more of private range. For large herds of cattle it is im- 
portant to have ample water, for water controls the range. But 
it is not diflScult nor costly to secure home ranches with water 
rights that are adjacent and control a large extent of range. On 
the Pecos Forest Reserve grazing permits can be secured at slight 
expense and a nominal charge per head and, since the range is 
protected, it is the best in the Territory. It is f oimd advisable to 
make more or less provision for winter feeding to guard against 
umexpected losses. But with feeding during winter storms, with 
a good home ranch and water, the cattle business proves very profit- 
able. The business of feeding beeves for market, while practically 
untried, should prove very remunerative on account of the mild 
climate and the abundance of forage plants. 

Sheep. 

The mild winters, the grassy mesas and watered valleys, the 
sheltered canons, help to make sheep raising very profitable. The 
wool produced annually is between 300,000 and 500,000 pounds, 
and as railroad facilities are ample, there is no diflBculty in get- 
ting the wool clip to market. A moderate capital invested in 
sheep, a home ranch and ample range will bring success to the 
sheepi raiser if he possesses good business tact and experience. In 
1906, for instance, most sheep owners doubled their herds by 
natural inierease or were paid as much for their lambs as their 
ewes were worth during the year 1904, receiving for the unsecured 
wool as high as 25 cents, and for the scoured wool, 65 cents per 
pound. 

Goats. 

Equally as profitable and as free from difficulties is the raising 
of goats. Especially in the foothills and on the mountain mesas, 
goats do better than sheep. There are many thousand acres of 
such pasture in Santa Fe County. Incidental to the profit from 
the hair of tlie Angora goats, their skin and their meat, they will 
clear land from brusli and thus make it available for cultivation. 
The goat is very hardy, can subsist upon a range that would starve 
any other animal, and is free from diseases which often play havoc 
with other stock. 



SANTA FE OOUKTY, NEW MEXICO. 65 

MINING. 

Santa Fe County can truthfully claim to be the section in the 
United States where mining was first prosecuted by the white man. 
The fame of the county's turquoise and gold mines had probably 
more to do in bringing the Spaniards up the Kio Grande and 
Santa Fe Valleys before even the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers 
at Plymouth Eock than any other cause. Two hundred years be- 
fore gold was discovered in California, ^old nuggets were picked 
up by white men in southern Santa Fe County. In the winter 
of 1542 Coronado and his Conquistadores, so the old chroniclers 
say, secured turquoise and gold in this part of New Mexico. The 
Mina del Tierra and the turquoise mines near CerriUos were the 
first lode mines systematically worked in the Southwest and the 
only mines in New Mexico of which there exists any evidence of 
their existeiDce before the year 1800, excepting, perhaps, the tur- 
quoise mines in the Burro Mountains in. Grant County. But it 
was the placer mines in southern Santa Fe Couniy that produced 
most of the gold of the period of the Spanish occupation. The 
Pueblo Indians, prior to the advent of the Spaniards, took gold 
from the superficial gravel beds south of the Ortiz Mountains. 
However, it is only since 1828, that the extensive areas of auriferous 
sands and gravels which surround the basal slope of the Ortiz 
Mountains have been worked continuously, and it was eleven years 
later that the New Placers at Golden were rediscovered by white 
men. 

The following account of Santa Fe County's mines is principally 
from the pen of Professor F. A. Jones of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, and is, therefore, authentic and accurate: 

The New Placers. 

The new placers or Silver Butte District lies to the south of 
CerriUos, a town on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Eailway 
and near the west line thereof. Most mining districts in New 
Mexico are very indefinite in regard to their extent or area; gen- 
erally embracing a whole cluster or range of mountains or con- 
tinuous mineralized belts, regardless of size or shape. Thus it 
is with the New Placers; they are supposed to include everything 
to the plains each way, from the north slope of the Ortiz Moun- 
tains south, to the plains south of South Mountain. This em- 
braces the Ortiz Mountains, the Old Placers, Dolores, Golden, New 
Placers, San Pedro and South Mountain. As a gold mining dis- 
trict this is the oldest in New Mexico; it is also noted for its re- 
cent production of copper. Nuggets of gold were no doubt picked 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 67 

up occasionally in this area by the Pueblo Indians, though no real 
mining was ever conducted in this field by those people, so far 
as any evidence can- be obtained. It was in the year 1828 when 
gold was first discovered in this district. The point of discovery 
is what is known as the "Old Placers" and was made by a herder 
from Sonora. It is said that some of his herd strayed into the 
Ortiz Mountains, whither he went in search of it. Seeing a stone 
which he thought resembled some of the gold-bearing rocks of 
Sonora, he examined it and the rock proved to be rich in gold. 
News of the discovery soon spread and the excitement was intense. 
The most crude appliances imaginable were used ; notwithstanding, 
considerable gold was taken out. Winter seemed' to be the most 
favored time for mining. By melting the snow with hot rocks 
the miners were able to work until the dry season of the year. The 
ore was washed or panned out in a ^T)atea/^ a sort of round wooden 
bowl about the same diameter of the modern gold pam. The mode 
of operation was first to fill the ^T)atea'^ with the auriferous sands 
and gravels and then immersing the whole in water, and by con- 
stant stirring and agitation, of the sands and gravels, the gold 
remained in the wooden vessel; this mass of black sands and gold 
was them reduced in a clay retort to obtain existing values, after 
the largest nuggets and particles of gold were first removed. Ac- 
cording to Prince's History of New Mexico, between $60,000 and 
$80,000 in gold was taken out annually between the years 1832 
and 1835. The poorest years about this period yielded from $30,000 
to $40,000. About this time an order was given prohibiting any 
person from working the mines excepting the natives. Foreign 
capital and energy were thus excluded, which greatly hampered and 
handicapped development. Under this new regime, each Mexican 
miner held one claim, the size of which was ten paces in all direc- 
tions from the main discovery pit. Any claim not kept alive by 
labor after a certain length of time was subject to relocation. The 
gold was mainly in nuggets and dust; one nugget claimed to have 
been found was worth $3,400, which netted the finder only $1,400. 
If true, this was the largest nugget ever discovered in New Mex- 
ico. The fineness of this gold is about 918. It would be hard to 
estimate the exact amount of gold taken from the "Old Placers," 
but it must have been considerable. Thomas A. Edison, the cele- 
brated American inventor, erected in 1900 an experimental plant at 
Dolores to operate on these rich gravels. After making several trial 
runs the plant was closed down indefinitely. The process was held 
a secret, but proved a failure. Much rich grouind yet exists in 
this section; but owing to the Ortiz grant having passed into the 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 69 

hands of a syndicate, "which holds it under a 99-year lease, little 
or no work has been done of late. This land grant covers all of 
the Ortiz Mountain and the best part of the placer grounds of the 
district; it embraces an area of ten square miles, having the Old 
Ortiz mine as the center of the grant. In 1833 a vein of gold- 
bearing quartz was discovered on the Ortiz property, which was 
on the famous Sierra del Oro, and now known as the Ortiz mine. 
The claim made by some that the Ortiz mine is the oldest lode 
mine in America is a mistake; Mina del Tierra, in the Cerrillos 
District, exceeds it by 100 years, at least. In fact, the Santa Rita 
mine, Grant County, is a century and a quarter old. Juan Cano, 
the discoverer of the Ortiz mine, came to Mexico from Spain in the 
early part of the Nineteenth Century. The owmer of the property, 
named Ortiz, took into partnership a Spaniard by the name of 
Lopez, a person well skilled in mining of that day. Through the 
management of Lopez, their mining operations were successful 
and a considerable sum of money was realized. Wishing to retain 
the full production of the mine, Ortiz sought a channel to rid him- 
self of his Spanish colleague. The plan was carried out under the 
pretense of an obsolete decree which forbade any Castilian from 
residing or operating in New Mexico. Accordingly, Lopez was 
forced to leave the country. 

Ortiz then formed a co-partnership with several of the officials 
who were connected with the expulsion of Lopez, and proceeded 
to work the mine. The new management not being familiar with 
mining operations was wholly unsuccessful; history tells us that 
they did not obtain "one grain of gold." This famous mine has 
been worked at intervals ever since its discovery, recent years 
excepted. The vein apparently is enclosed in syenite-porphyry; 
its strike is north 13 degrees east, and its dip is 75 degrees toward, 
the northwest. The vein outcropping is an oxidized iron-stained 
quartz ; below the depth of 85 feet the ore becomes base, carrying 
sulphurets of both iron and copper. The top portion of the vein 
was first worked out on account of its free milling qualities. The 
New Mexico Mining Company, which acquired the Ortiz grant in 
1864, was first organized in 1853 and incorporated in 1858. In 
1865 this company began the erection of a 20Hstamp mill, which 
was completed in the early part of the year following. This stamp 
mill was the first erected in- New Mexico. A certain de^ee of 
success crowned the efforts of this company: and in 1869 it 
added an additional 20-stamps to its plant. The ore was con- 
veyed from the mine to the mill by means of a tramway. After 
a few intermittent mill runs, the mine was closed. Some vears 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 71 

later another company erected a large amalgamating and concen- 
trating plant at the mine, which was never operated successfully 
The Cunningham mine, in Cuniningham Gulch, near Dolores,, is 
also well and favorably known. This is among the earliest loca- 
tions of the district ; belonging now to the Sandia Gold Mining and 
Milling Company. The outcropping is immense ; the width of the 
vein is about 600 feet and can be traced for a long distance. So 
bold is the outcropping tliat it can scarcely be classed as a vein, 
but more properly what miners term a "blowout.^' The whole 
of this mineralized dike consists of quartz and feldspar with rich 
seams or streaks passing through it in various directions. The 
quartz is more or less stained with oxide of iron at and near the 
surface; with depth the ore becomes refractory. The hanging wall 
is a syenite-porphyry and the foot wall a quartz-porphyry. The 
dip and strike of this lode conform with the Ortiz vein. Among 
other and familiar lodes may be mentioned the Candelaria, belong- 
ing to the Glorieta Company; the Brehm lode originally worked 
under the management of the New Mexico Mining Company, which 
owned the Ortiz mine; the Hutchason lode, discovered and lo- 
cated by J. S. Hutchason (Old Hutch), the discoverer of the 
Magdalena District, who was in the Old Placer District as early 
as 1884, and at one time owned the Candelaria mine; the Brown 
lode, and the Humboldt 100th; the latter lode named in honor of 
Humboldfs centennial. The Shoshone is also a prominent lode 
which has been more recently located. All of the 'above lodes lie 
near Dolores and the gold from the Old Placers evidently came 
from these veins, due to the action of erosion. 

The New Placers, from which the district takes its name, are 
situated some four or five miles to the south of the Old Placers, 
in the Tuerto (San Pedro) Mountains. This new field was dis- 
covered in 1839, eleven years later than the Old Placers. Much 
gold has been taken from the gulches at this place. The San Laz- 
arus Gulch is quite a steady producer at the present time. In the 
vicinity of Golden, which is the newest part of the placer district, 
much activity is manifested and considerable success attends the 
efforts of modem mining. The gravels in this section average 
from twenty-five cents to one dollar per yard of material handled. 
Scarcity of water, as at the Old Placers, is a serious obstacle in 
working this ground. The fineness of the gold is about 920. Con- 
cerning the geology of the New Placer District, it seems that the 
trio — South Mountain, Tuertos (San Pedro) and Ortiz Mountains 
— are most intimately connected in their origin and had their birth 
in one common disturbance. The orographic line of weakness was 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 73 

north and south; on this line the three pustilles of syenite-por- 
ph}Ty broke through the horizontal sedimentary capping of the 
overlying carboniferous and cretaceous series. Generally speaking, 
the topography of these groups is identical. South Mountain is 
not so familiar to the general public as the other two groups, inas- 
much as this section appears to be less mineralized than the Tuerto 
and Ortiz localities. In the Tuertos (San Pedro), which are about 
three miles north of South Mountain, the sedimentary series have 
been partly elevated and dip about 15 degrees toward the east. The 
Oroquai Mountain, which is the eastern member of the Tuertos, 
is entirely stripped of any former sedimentary covering, exposing 
the rugged character of the syenite-porphyry, having its counter- 
part in the Ortiz Peaks, some four miles to the north. The now 
deserted village of Dolores stands to the northeast from the Ortiz 
Mountains, near their base. Gold, silver, lead, copper, iron and zinc 
are found in this district. In the classification of the mode of oc- 
currence of the ores, three divisions would seem proper: (1) De- 
position due to erosion, placer gravels. (2) Deposition due to 
descending and ascending waters and the filling in of fractured 
zones and true fissures, which carry gold. (3) Deposition due to 
contact metamorphism, from which the copper, lead, silver and 
zinc ores are intimately associated. In the first of these divisions 
the placer gold has its origin in the universally accepted manner 
ascribed to such deposits; that is, through disintegration of the 
rock-complex of the second classification, as above given. 

Since there appear to be two distinct features which character- 
ize the occurrence of the gold under the second division, the veins 
are divided into fractured zones and true fissures. The first of 
these has no banded structure and the walls are undefined, greatly 
crushed and shattered. In the second case a true banded appear- 
ance is recognized while the w^lls are definite and intact. It would 
appear from a close inspection of the two classes of veins that the 
first was filled by a leaching process of descending waters ; some of 
the seams and pockets have proven immensely rich in gold. But, 
in following this shattered zone down, the values grow less as the 
crevices grow smaller. Sulphides usually appear from seventy- 
five to one hundred feet below the surface. Eventually, the frac- 
ture becomes so small at increased depth, as to disappear apparently 
and the vein is completely lost or said to have ^^pinched out." These 
crushed and shattered mineralized zones are by far the most numer- 
ous of any types of deposit in the district. The relative position 
of their planes approaches perpendicularity and their general strike 
is nearly east and west. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 76 

TJiider the true fissure of veins only one or two of any consequence 
have been noted. The most prominent of this class is found in 
the famous Ortiz mine. This vein is completely encased in syenite- 
porphyry and has a banded appearance. Descending water or lat- 
eral secretion is responsible for the mineralization of this and sim- 
ilar lodes of the district. Some very fine specimens of leaf and 
wire gold have been taken from the various properties. Beautiful 
specimens enclosed in calcite have been found in the Gold Stand- 
ard mine. Deposits under the third and last division are the most 
important in the district when viewed from a commercial stand- 
poiot. Here may be seen plainly the effect of pneumatolytic action, 
induced by the porphyritic magma, which was forced upward 
against the carboniferous limestones. The effects wrought in the 
overlying sedimentaries by this intrusive eruptive is very notice- 
able at the mines of the Santa Fe Gold and Copper Company. This 
property is by far the best developed of any in the district, the 
workings are quite extensive, embracing several miles of develop- 
ment. The ore is principally of a low grade chalcopyrite, and in- 
timately associated with garnet, lime and shales. A large smelter 
has been erected, but both mines and smelter are idle at present. 

Massive limestones in some places have been converted into gar- 
net, exceeding one hundred feet in thickness, in some instances. 
The superficial limestones and shales at the copper mines are fre- 
quently penetrated by andesite dikes. It was observed that the 
best ore bodies were found at or just above the main porphyrite 
contact and along the contact planes of the andesite dikes. From 
the foregoing, it would appear that the segregation of ores along 
or near these planes of contact is largely, if not wholly, due to 
the action of aqueous, acid and gaseous vapors in their effort to 
escape from their magnetic prison; under released pressure their 
metallic burden was thus necessarily dropped. At the Lincoln 
Lucky mine the deposition of ore, no doubt, was similarly induced 
by the porphyrite intrusive beneath. Since the ore occurs in lime- 
stone along a shattered zone and not in direct contact with the 
porphyry, this view, at first, does not seem well taken. Upon' closer 
investigation it will be found that cavities in the limestone have 
been mineralized, only where communication with the igneous mem- 
ber existed. On the eastern and northeastern slopes of the Tuertos 
are some iron properties which have been not yet fully exploited. 
The Pern^ group ^ is prominent. A company known as the Oro 
Quay Company has been organized to develop and exploit this 
group, which, in addition to extensive iron deposits, is rich in gold 
ore. 



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SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 77 

Some of the principal lode claims are the San Lazarus, Gold 
Standard, McKinley, Lincoln Lucky, Anaconda group, Stockton 
group, Alto group, San Miguel, Gold King group, Hazelton group. 
Shamrock group (San Lazarus gulch), and the Old Heliable (on 
the Ortiz grant). The San Miguel is having its ore treated at the 
Lucas stamp mill at Golden. 

The more prominent of the placer properties and operators may 
be enumerated as the Monte Cristo Mining Company, Baird Mio^ 
ing Company, Ltd., Morning Glory, Gold Dust, Eed Bank, Santa 
Secivel, and Viola. On the Gold Bullion, $50,000 worth of ma- 
chinery was installed in 1906, including a large traction dredge. 
The Racine Mining Company is also installing machinery and will 
do extensive work on the placers. 

The Cerrillos District. 

From a historical standpoint no section in the United States 
is possessed of so much interest as the Cerrillos or Galisteo Dis- 
trict. The ancient workings at Mount Chalchuitl, due to the 
existence of turquoise in that locality, seem almost incredible 
considering that the work was accomplished with the crude appli- 
ances of the stone age, and yet such was the case. Fragments of 
coiled pottery, stone hammers, lichen covered rocks and trees over 
a century old, growing on the old dumps and in the working pits, 
when first brought to the notice of American explorers over fifty 
years ago, were then hoary with age, and prove beyond the shadow 
of doubt the great antiquity of mining in this region. This cele- 
brated district lies on the north side of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Eailway at the little village of Los Cerrillos, near the 
center of Santa Fe County. The first description of the region 
was given by Prof. W. P. Blake, who visited the old turquoise 
workings in 1858. Professor Blake's article was published during 
the same year in the American Journal of Science. Other distin- 
guished scientists and writers paid visits to that section prior to 
the modem discovery of metallic ores. It was in the year 1879 
when the modern' prospector drifted into the region after the great 
excitement at Leadville, Colorado. The discovery of sulphide ores, 
zinc, lead and silver was heralded abroad and the boom started. 
Two town sites. Bonanza City and Carbonateville, were staked out 
in the early '80s and a tidal wave or mining craze swept over the 
district. These once thriving villages are now scarcely more than 
piles of rubbish and fallen walls. It was in the old hotel at 
Carbonateville — some of the walls are yet standing — where General 
Lew Wallace, when seeking recreation in the mining camp, read 
some of the proof sheets of "Ben Hur." 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 79 

Turquoise. 

Mount Chalchuitl, which lies to the north of the Cerrillos 
railway station some three miles, is where the most extensive pre- 
historic and Spanish work was done. In the elaborate ancient ram- 
ifications of the old workings at Mount Chalchuitl, which were 
extensively prospected a few years ago, many stone hammers, whole 
vessels of ancient pottery and various crude mining implements 
were found. It is said that some twenty Indians were killed about 
1680 by the caving of a large portion of the works. This was 
claimed to be one of the chief causes which led to the general up- 
rising of the Pueblos who shortly afterward drove the Spaniards 
from the country. Immense excavations and old dumps, with 
which are associated relics of the stone age, practically verify the 
antiquity of those workings. Coiled pottery, the oldest known 
type, is in evidence, fragments of which are found in the old dumps 
both at Los Cerrillos and in the Burro Mountains. It is said that 
a stone hammer weighing some twenty pounds, with a portion of 
the handle still intact about the groove, was taken from these same 
excavations a few years ago. These stone hammers are made from 
a hornblende andesite, common to the Cerrillos hills. The desic- 
cated condition of the drift in which this latter relic was found 
would account for the preservation of the wooden handle. 

Apparently the aborigines and early Spaniards exhausted this 
particular place of marketable turquoise, as considerable develop- 
ment was done a few years ago without success. This hill or 
mountain is of a white or yellowish appearan^ce and is different 
from the surrounding hills; decomposition by kaolinization seems 
well advanced. Whether this alteration has been hastened by es- 
caping heat vapors or is due solely to surface and atmospheric 
agencies it is somewhat difficult to conjecture; the former action 
seems most probable. The numerous intrusive dikes which tiraverse 
the district have, no doubt, played an active part in the general 
metamorphism of the associated rocks. Bluish-green stains and 
streaks traverse this kaolinized rock in various irregular courses; 
it is along such lines of fracture that the marketable turquoise 
is likely to be encountered. Small seamlets and concretionary 
nodules, encased by the white or yellowish decomposed matrix are 
likely to contain valuable gems, although several tons of rock 
may frequently be broken' and yet no valuable stones be found. 

Three miles to the northeast of Mount Chalchuitl will be 
found the old Castilian mine, formerly worked by the Spaniards. 
About the year 1885 the property was exploited and located by a 
man bearing the name of Palmerly. The Muniz claim, one of 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 81 

the most important locations in the district, was made in the 
year 1889 by F. Miuniz. In 1891, C. J. Storey located the Sky 
Blue, Morning Star and Gem claims. These latter five claims 
were bought by the American Turquoise Company of New Jersey 
about 1892 and are at Turquesa. Also, near and adjoining the 
properties of the American Turquoise Company, J. P. McNulty 
has three locations which were made since 1892. Mr. McNulty has 
been the mine manager for the Tiffany people for a number of 
years. There are a number of other properties in the district which 
have produced beautiful gems, among which may be mentioned 
the Blue Bell and Consul Mahoney. Only lately Komolo Valles 
and others have made new locations in this section, from which 
they are taking large quantities of fine turquoise. 

Other Precious Stones. 

Other precious stones besides the turquoise are found in Santa 
Fe County, the most plentiful gem being the peridot. Many 
beautiful garnets are found, these gems occurring in the grav- 
els, and are more or less associated with the peridot. A wide 
range in the variation of color is displayed in the garnets, 
which vary from a light rose to a bright red. This gem is fre- 
quently termed "ruby-garnet." A few valuable emeralds or beryls 
have been picke^ up from the gravels near Santa Fe and are highly 
prized for their great beauty. On a few occasions small sapphires 
and even diamonds have been accidentally found in gravel beds 
in Santia Fe County. Their occurrence, however, is very rare. 
Agates, amethysts, tourmaline, quartz crystals, cameliaji, moon- 
stone, chalcedony and other gems are more or less common in the 
mountains. While definite figures are not at hand, yet it is known 
that the annual turquoise output of Santa Fe County has reached 
the value of $100,000. 

Mina del Tierra. 

Besides the ancient turquoise mines in the Cerrillos District, 
there exists a metal mine which was worked for its silver and 
lead and that is almost as old as the Chalchuitl working. It is 
known as the Mina del Tierra. In this mine exists the only real 
evidence of ancient lode mining in the Southwest; it antedates the 
first work done in the Ortiz and Santa Kita mines by at least a 
century. The old workings consist of an incline shaft of 150 feet 
which connects with a somewhat vertical shaft of about 100 feet in 
depth. Extensive drifts of 300 feet connect with various cham- 
bers or stopes; these chambers were formed by stoping or mining 
out the richer ore bodies. The full extent of the old workings 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 83 

has been never definitely determined, since the lower depths are 
covered with water, which would have to be pumped out to explore 
the mine fully. As late as 1870 the remains of an old canoe 
were still in evidence, which was used for crossing the water in the 
mine or as a carrier for conveying the waste and ore to the main 
shaft ; from this latter point it was carried by Indians to the sur- 
face in raw-hide buckets, or "tanates/^ The shaft had step-plat- 
forms or landings every twelve or fourteen feet, which were gained 
by climbing a notched pole (chicken ladder), similar to what some 
of the Pueblo Indians use at the present day. Many crude and 
curious relics, such as stone hammers and sledges, fragments of 
pottery, etc., have been taken from both the mine and the dump. 
It is thought that the Jesuits had this work performed by Indian 
slaves prior to 1680. The labor involved, when we take into con- 
sideration the crude manner of doing the work, is something tre- 
mendous. Throughout this district are a number of smaller pits 
and openings which are thought to have been made at that time 
from the association of similar crude implements found about 
the works. The ore from this mine is a sulphide of lead and zinc, 
carrying rather high values in silver. Silver was, no doubt, the 
principal metal sought and utilized. 

The Lode Mines. 

A smelting plant of two stacks, one for lead and the other for 
copper, of 50-tons each, was erected in- 1902 at Los Cerrillos, on 
the railroad, but was never operated steadily. The ores of the 
district, without first making a separation of the lead from the 
zinc,. cannot be successfully smelted at a profit. The Cash Entry, 
Grand Central and Tom Paine mines have been more extensively 
developed than most of the other properties and are credited with 
some production. 

The Golden Eagle, M. & L., J. B. Weaver, Galena Chief, Fair- 
view, Sucker Boy, Evelyn group, Astor group. Empire State, Beta, 
Little Joe, Suonyside, Whalen group and Ingersoll constitute the 
principal claims. There were fully one thousand locations made 
during the primary impulse of the excitement. The principal work 
is being done at present on the Keystone group. 

The ores of the district are heavy sulphides of zinc and lead, 
carrying some silver and a little copper and gold. The region is 
thoroughly mineralized and on the west is traversed by numerous 
andesite and basalt dikes. The central core of the district about 
Grand Central Mountain is an augite-andesite porphyry; and in 
the region of the turquoise mines, at both Chalchuitl and Tur- 
quesa, it is much altered by kaolinization. Immediately east of 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 85 

the augite-andesite area, embracing the Arroyo of San Marcos, 
the porphyry is recognized a© a hornblende-andesite. Since the 
andesite formation embraces all of the metal mines in the district, 
it is attributed as being the chief carrier of the metalliferous values. 
This mineralized area is traversed by innumerable veins and vein- 
lets more or less irregular, but all having a general strike of 
about north 30 degrees east. It would seem that the numer- 
ous systems of veins and veinlets that abound in the district are 
due to the cooling of the andesitic magma, which resulted in ex- 
tensive checking and fracturing in adjusting itself to the changed 
condition'. Escaping gases and aqueous vapors in their effort to 
escape along the lines of least resistance, deposited their metallic 
burden under released pressure. In addition to this phenomenon, 
circulating waters at a later period must have also given aid in 
the segregation of the metallic sulphides along these fractured 
zones. 

A valuable contribution to the scientific literature on the Cer- 
rillos District is "The Geology of the Cerrillos Hills," by Prof. D. 
W. Johnson', formerly of the University of New Mexico, which 
appeared as a reprint from the Columbia School of Mines Quar- 
terly during 1903. 

Xear Glorieta and north toward the Kio Pecos, K. A. Bradley, 
the hermit miner, has done extensive development on several 
properties of gold, silver, copper and lead. The Kennedy iron 
mines at Glorieta have been developed considerably, and the ore 
at one time was extensively mined and shipped. The nature of 
this deposit is somewhat different from the other deposits, although 
its genesis is virtually the same. 

Within three miles of Santa Fe are found mineral indications 
that will doubtless receive attention some time. This latter region 
abounds in copper, gold, silver, coal and iron. The Sunset group 
of claims lies about three miles northwest of Santa Fe and is 
being developed. Near Monument Kock, about nine miles east 
of Santa Fe, large ledges of low grade gold ore exist ; considerable 
development has been done there on the Montezuma mine. In 
the Santa Fe Canon, six miles from Santa Fe, are the Owen molyb- 
denum claims and a number of other properties. In the Little 
Box Canon of the Tesuque, four miles northeast of Santa Fe, ex- 
tensive development has been done on the Ingersoll and other 
groups which has uncovered large veins of copper, zinc, silver and 
gold. In this vicinity rich float has been picked up that assayed 
more than $600 gold to the ton-. On Indian Creek is the Annie 
Jones group, which is very favorably located and seems to have 




MONUMENT ROCK. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 87 

a future. Along the "Scenic Highway" leading from Santa Fe 
to Las Vegas a number of lode claims are being developed, especi- 
ally in Dalton Canon. 

The whole of the country lying to the northeast of Santa Fe, 
covered by the Pecos Forest Eeserve, is known to be mineralized, 
and very promising finds are reported from time to time. 

Mica. 

The first mention of mica in New Mexico was made by Lieuten- 
ant Pike in his Keport of 1807. He saya: "Near Santa Fe, in 
some mountains, is a stratum of talc, which is so large and flexible 
as to render it capable of being subdivided into thin flakes, of 
which the greater portion of .the houses in Santa Fe and all the 
villages to the north, have their window lights made." This mica 
evidently came from Nambe, northern Santa Fe County. Down 
to a period of time as late as the American' Occupation in 1846 
there were no glass windows in Santa Fe, excepting in the 
Old Palace. These mines at Xambe have been developed, but are 
not being worked at the present time. 

Ocher. 

In the vicinity of San Podro are large deposits of ocher which 
partake of most every tint imaginable. 

Brick, Ciay and Lime. 

The only paving brick made at present in New Mexico is by 
convict labor at the Territorial Penitentiary, Santa, Fe. Much of 
this material is being laid in walks. This vitrified brick is of 
superior quality and finish; the clay comes from deposits just 
northeast of the City of Santa Fe, which are practically inexhaus- 
tible. From it, also, the Territorial Penitentiary makes the finest 
pressed building brick, l^ear by and all around are mountains 
of lime that is burned in crude ovens. Lime is also burned at 
Lamy and other points, for, with g^^psum, it is the mineral that is 
most plentiful in Santa Fe County. 

Coal. 

The second coal mine to be opened in the Southwest was at 
Madrid, in the Cerrillos field, in 1869. Work was done here in 
two localities by the Xew ]\rexico Mining Company. At the first 
of these places the development consisted of two openings, from 
which 280 tons were mined, which the company used for steam 
purposes in its stamp mill at the Old Placers near by. The 
other point of work was a short distance to the southwest from 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 89 

the first openings; 100 tons were piled on the dump ready for use. 
In both localities the work was done on one of the anthracite veins. 
These observations were made by K. W. Kaymond in 1870; and 
both were on the anthracite vein. Some of this anthracite coal 
was tested at Santa Fe by M. Brucker in his assaying furnace at 
that time. He states that he was able to obtain' a white heat in 
a very short time and that its lasting qualities were about three 
times as long as that produced by an equal weight of charcoal. 
Coal was known to exist in 1870 at several other places — at a point 
about ten miles south of the anthracite deposits at Madrid, and 
near Galisteo Creek, as well as on the Pecos Kiver. 

The extraordinary condition found at the Madrid field is scarcely 
paralleled in any other region on the globe. Here are four dis- 
tinct workable veins of anthracite which are the nearest to the 
surface; below these are several workable veins of bituminous 
coal. It seems that these conditions were effected by intrusive 
dikes or laccoliths in proximity to the coal. Since anthracite is 
nothing more than metamorphosed lignite or bituminous coal, it 
is always expected to find associated intrusives in the immediate 
vicinity of such deposits of coking coal. 

A section of the Madrid field shows, besides the four anthracite 
veins, twelve others which may be eventually worked. The Madrid 
coal mines have produced as high as 100,000 tons of coal a year, 
but owing to a mine fire have been closed and the camp of Madrid 
with its hundred and more of company houses, store, public school 
and church has been temporarily abandoned. 

Analysis of Cerrillos anthracite: (Analysis furnished by Colo- 
rado Fuel and Iron Company at Madrid: (W. D. Church, analyst, 
December 2, 1903). 

Water, per cent 2.00 

Volatile matter, per cent 39.00 

Fixed carbon, per cent 53.76 

Mineral ash, per cent 5.24 

Total, per cent 100.00 

Coke, per cent 59.00 

Character of coke, strong and tough ; color of ash, light yellowish- 
gray ; character of ash, ^oH and light. 

Sulphur (as sulphide) 010 

Sulphur (as sulphate) 022 

Phosphorus 006 

Specific gravity 1.410 

1 cubic foot weighs, in pounds 22.135 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 91 

. Analysis of mineral ash : 

Silica, per cent 26.93 

Alumina, per cent • 32.41 

Oxide of iron, per cent 3.96 

Calcium oxide, per cent 24.68 

Magnesium oxide, per cent 10.32 

Calcium sulphate, per cent 21 

Alkalies and loss, per cent 1.49 

Total, per cent 100.00 

Analysis of Cerrillos anthracite : (Analysis furnished by the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company). 

Volatile combustible matter, per cent 3.18 

Fixed carbon, per cent 88.91 

Water, per cent 2.70 

Ash, per cent 5.21 

South of the Madrid coal mines is the Block coal mine, also idle. 
It is owned by the Santa Fe Gold and Copper Company. Other 
veins or continuations of the same coal veins have been partially 
developed in that section and have proved to be part of the Hagan 
and Coyote coal fields in Sandoval County. In the immediate 
vicinity of Santa Fe, openings have been' driven into coal veins 
which produce a good quality of bituminous coal, but which, owing 
to lack of capital and other causes, are idle. In the Dalton Canon 
coal seams crop out at several points, and in other parts of the 
county there is visible evidence showing that a largo area is under- 
laid with coal. 

Building Stone. 

The county is not destitute, by any means, of good quali- 
ty buildinc: stones. The beautiful cream-colored sandstone 
used in the Capitol building came from a quarry on the hilltop 
at Lamy. Marble and good types of granite are found in the 
vicinity of Santa Fe. Quarries of fine red sandstone and blue 
limestone are being worked by contractors in the immediate vicinity 
of Santa Fe. 

Lumber. 

It is characteristic of Santa Fe County's mountains that they are 
well timbered. At one time saw mills at Glorieta furnished nearly 
all the timber needed by the Santa Fe Railway for its construction 
through l^ew Mexico, including ties and bridge timbers. The es- 
tablishment of the Pecos Forest Eeserve in the eastern part of 



SANTA FE COUXTY^ NEW MEXICO. 93 

the county has restricted lumbering operations somewhat, although, 
with permission of the government, considerable timber is cut on 
the Eeserve. The Yellow Pine Lumber Company has established 
a camp six miles ' northeast of Santa Fe and is running a steam 
saw mill. Six miles southeast of Santa Fe a portable saw mill is 
cutti^g building timber. Until lately, the most extensive saw mill 
operations were carried on at Buckman^s, and though the camp 
has been abandoned, yet the timber belt which supplied it is by no 
meame exhausted. In the mountains directly east of Santa Fe 
railroad ties continue to be cut. Most of the timber is white and 
yellow pine and spruce. The mesas are covered with pinion and 
cedar, which furnish an abundance of firewood, besides giving 
the landscape for miles and miles a park-like appearance. At 
Santa Fe there is a planing mill. 

Manufacturing. 

Only a beginning has been made in manufacturing enterprises; 
in fact, scarcely a beginning, although Santa Fe County offers 
every advantage to large manufacturing enterprises. There is the 
coal and the wood, the water power, the railroad transportation 
and competitioi]', the markets, the cheap land, the supply of labor, 
the raw material, including wool, hides, lumber, ores, clay, lime, 
sugar beets and fruit. 

By legislation, various lines of manufacturing enterprises are ex- 
\ empt from taxation for the first five years, and Santa Fe^s Board of 
I Trade is ready at any and all times to procure for bona fide indus- 
■j trial enterprises free building sites and other advantages. 
' Lime ovens are operated near Santa Fe, at Lamy, at San Pedro 
and other points; charcoal is burned at Lamy; Cerrillos and San 
Pedro have smelters ; Golden has ore mills ; Lamy and Santa Fe have 
roundhouses; Santa Fe has brick ovens and brick machinery; a 
planing mill, electric light works, a fruit evaporator, and is a cen- 
ter for the manufacture of filigree jewelry. It has the largest print- 
ing plant in the Territory. At Hobart and Santa Cruz are modern 
flour mills, and at Santa Fe is a grist mill. Near Santa Fe are 

^ two saw mills. But the number of people employed in manufac- 
turing establishments in the entire county at present does not 

V exceed two hundred. The opening is especially promising for woolen 
mills, tanneries, shoe and glove factories, furniture factories, paper 
mills, beet sugar mills, cement mills, glass works, canneries, dis- 
tilleries, furnaces, iron and steel mills, brick yards and such other 
industries for which the raw material can be obtained in the im- 
mediate vicinitv. 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 95 

RAILROADS. 

It was in' 1880 that the first railroad, the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe entered Santa Fe County. But even prior to that, Santa 
Fe was an important, in fact, the most important commercial 
center of the Southwest, merchandise and wealth pouring in over 
the historic Santa Fe Trail to be distributed from Santa Fe as 
far south as Mexico, and as far west as the Colorado Kiver. The 
Texas, Santa Fe Northern Eailroad, now a part of the Denver & 
Eio Grande, a id arrow gauge line, was the second to build into the 
county, and in 1903 came the Santa Fe Central. These three 
railroads form a jun-ction at the City of Santa Fe, the only city 
in New Mexico and Arizona, excepting Doming, with three in- 
dependent railroad lines. Santa Fe County has 140 miles of 
railroad, of which 60 miles belong to the Santa Fe Sys.tem; 50 
miles to the Santa Fe Central Kailway, and 30 miles to the Denver 
& Rio Grande. The Santa Fe enters the county four miles east 
of Glorieta and leaves the county seven miles west of Cerrillos, the 
entire distance being 39 miles. From Lamy, a branch line eighteen 
miles long runs to Santa Fe. From Waldo, a three-mile line taps 
the coal camp of Madrid. The Denver & Rio Grande Railroad 
enters the county from the north at Santa Clara and has its ter- 
miiDus at Santa Fe. The Santa Fe Central starts at Santa Fe, 
where it has its main offices, and leaves the county two miles north 
of Moriarty. The county is thus bisected from north to south and 
from east to west by railroads, and is thus placed in a very ad- 
vantageous position as a commercial and tourist point. The Santa 
Fe System gives every through passenger on its main line, who 
desires it, a free side-trip to Santa Fe from Lamy. 

ATTRACTIONS FOR THE TOURIST. 

There is probably no other part of the Umited States which, 
within so small an area, has so many scenic, prehistoric and his- 
toric attractions as Santa Fe County. The most accessible Cliff 
Dwellers' region is the Pajarito Park, but one day's overland trip 
from Santa Fe, in which 20,000 cliff dwellings and caves are situ- 
ated within a comparatively small area. The scenery of this nat- 
ural park is superb; ^Vonderful" is the only adjective that will do 
justice to the caves in the cliffs, high and inaccessible almost as 
eagles' nests, but showing many other signs of occupation besides 
the peculiar picture writings in the soft volcanic tufa, of which 
the cliffs are composed. In addition to the cliffs, there are remains 
of communal buildings of later occupation, some of them contain- 
ing as many as 1,200 rooms. There are also burial mounds with 
remains of ancient pottery. Along the eastern foot of this steep 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 97 

plateau flows the Eio Grande and are the villages of San Ildefonso, 
Santa Clara and San Juan, while to the west rise the stupendous 
mountain masses of the Valles, the Cochiti and the Jemez Kanges, 
with their deep forests and canons, their famous hot springs, their 
Indian villages and their mines. 

The federal government is about to set apart this beautiful 
region as a national park, which, besides its cave, cliff and com- 
munal buildings, contains the mysterious Stone Lions of Cochiti. 
the Painted Cave and other archaeological wonders that have puzz- 
led scientists. Where else on earth is there so much of the beau- 
tiful in scenery, of romance, of historic monuments, of prehistoric 
remains, of the ancient, the unique, the picturesque, the sublime, 
to be found as within a radius of fifty miles of Santa Fe? One 
day's trip will take the wanderer from the historic Old Palace and 
San Miguel Church in the City of the Holy Faith, over the foot- 
hills of the Sangre de Cristo Eange, from which rise in full view 
mouintain peaks almost 13,000 feet high, into the picturesque 
Tesuque Valley and by the ancient Indian pueblo of Tesuque. The 
road winds over sand hills that the air and the rain have cut 
into grotesque shapes, huge as Titans and weird as the rock forma- 
tions in the Garden of the Gods. Then come once more fertile 
fields and the village of Cuyaniungue, formerly an Indian pueblo, 
now a native settlement. Along the iSTambe Kiver, with its grand 
falls, close by the Indian pueblo of Nambe to the pueblo of San 
Ildefonso on the Rio Grande; then along that river through the 
laughing Espanola Valley, past the Black Mesa, a famous Indian 
battleground, into the large Indian pueblo of Santa Clara and its 
mission church to Santa Cruz, also with a quaint and ancient 
church building, threads the wagon road across the river into Espa- 
nola. From there the road ascends the wildly beautiful Santa Clara 
Canon, along a rippling trout stream up to the steep cliffs of the 
Puye and the Shufinne, with their hundreds and thousands of 
prehistoric caves and communal buildings. And all that in one 
day's journey overland ! If the trip be prolonged another day or 
two, the remarkable hot springs at Ojo Caliente and the hot springs 
in the deep chasm of the Rio Grande at Wamsley's, the Indian 
pueblos of Picuris and Taos, the finest trout streams and best 
haunts of wild game, or the Jicarilla Indian Reservation, the Jemez 
Forest Reserve, as well as busy lumber and mining camps, can be 
visited. And that is only in one direction from Santa Fe ! Going 
south, one day's trip will pass through the quaint settlements of 
x\gua Fria, Cienega and Cieceguilla, by the Tiffany turquoise 
mines, the old mining camp of Bonanza, the smelter at Cerrillos, 
the Ortiz gold placers, worked three hundred years before gold was 



SANTA FB COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 99 

discovered in California and still yielding gold dust and nuggets, 
the coal mines at Madrid, where bituminous and anthracite coal 
have been mined from the same hillside, the placer and gold mines 
of Golden and San Pedro, not to speak of sheep and cattle ranches 
and the beautiful scenery of the Cerrillos, Ortiz, San Pedro and 
Sandia Mountains. 

Another trip of one day from Santa Fe will take the traveler 
by the pueblo ruins of Arroyo Hondo, over Apache Hill, the battle- 
ground of Apache Springs, the interesting native settlement of 
Canoncito, over Glorieta Pass and the battlefield of Glorieta, to 
the upper Pecos Kiver, by the ancient and historic Pecos Church 
ruins, the village of Pecos and through the most beautiful sum- 
mer resort country in the world, where trout streams babble 
in every canom' and where from one summit can be surveyed the 
hoary heads of eleven of the twelve highest peaks in New Mexico. 

Another day's trip out of Santa Fe will take the visitor up the 
rugged Santa Fe Canon, by the large reservoir and the Aztec min- 
eral springs to the Scenic Highway, which crosses the Santa Fe 
Eange into the upper Pecos Valley and unfolds at every step new 
mountain! views and panoramas magnificent beyond description. 
'Not do these trips exhaust the interesting points in and about 
Santa Fe, for there is the ascent of the Lake Peak and Mount 
BaJdy, comparatively easy and yet taking, the tourist to an eleva- 
tion of almost 13,000 feet. Near the summit of the first named 
is the crystal Espiritu Santo or Holy Ghost Lake, reflecting the 
crags that form the rim of an anci^it crater. Them' there is a 
trip to a bottomless crater, to ancient Indian pueblos, to canons 
and gulches, to forests and mountains, to sparkling trout streams 
and waterfalls, or to the lairs of mountain lion and bear. 

Foremost in interest and value* in historic archaeology are the 
old mission churches of the Franciscans. In every occupied Indian 
pueblo and upon the site of every abandoned pueblo, there is 
one of the monuments of those pioneers of Christiamity and civili- 
zation, the Franciscan Fathers. Many of these are in a good state 
of preservation, while others are in ruins, but every one is an object 
of historic interest. 

Mission Churches. 

The old mission church of San Diego, which is the oldest of the 
California missions, was founded in' 1769. It is almost a total 
ruin ; only the front remains in a good state of preservation. The 
side walls are still standing, but no portions of the roof or interior 
remain. This is the most venerable and venerated historic monu- 
ment iaii the State of California, and is annually visited by thou- 



SANTA FB COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 101 

sands of tourists. It has stood for 104 years. It marks the be- 
ginning of civilization and Christianity in California. And yet, 
in New Mexico, on the upper Pecos, twenty miles east of Santa Fe, 
at the site of the abantloned pueblo of Cicuice are the ruins of 
the old Pecos Church. The church is 300 years old. It was nearly 
150 years old when the Sajn- Diego mission was founded. It was 
projected before the Spanish Armada was destroyed and antedates 
the coming of the Mayflower and the settlement of Jamestown. 

The churches at Santa Cruz, San Tldefonso and Santa Clara are 
in a complete state of preservation. They are nine years older 
than the oldest of the California ruins. The old Sain^ Miguel mis- 
sion in Santa Fe has been rebuilt. Its walls date from 1650, the 
roof from 1694, or possibly a few years later. It has a bell dating 
from the Fourteenth Century. From the old church at Algodones 
was taken a bell cast in Spain in 1356, and at the Cathedral at 
Santa Fe and other churches are ancient relics amd art treasures 
of old Spanish and Italian masters. " Every one of the pueblos is 
worthy of a visit, both for historic and present-day interest. 

The Old Palace. 

Xor is there any other building in this country to compare in 
historic interest with the Old Palace at Santa Fe, which has been 
more to New Mexico than Faneuil Hall to Massachusetts, or Lib- 
erty Hall to Pennsylvania. 

To quote from the words of a history of Xew Mexico by ex- Gov- 
ernor L. Bradford Prince : 

"Without disparaging the importance of any of the cherished 
historical localities of the east, it may be truthfully said that this 
ancient palace surpasses in historic interest and value any other 
place or object in the United States. It antedates the settlement 
of Jamestown by nine years, and that of Plymouth by twenty-two 
years, and has* stood during the 308 years since its creation, not 
as a cold rock or monument, with no claim upon the interest of 
humanity except the bare fact of its continued existence, but as 
the living center of everything of historic importance in the South- 
west. Through all that long period, whether under Spanish, Pu- 
eblo, Mexican or American control, it has been the seat of power 
and authority, whether the ruler was called viceroy, captain-gen- 
eral, political chief, department commander, or governor, and 
whether he presided over a kingdom, a province, a department, or 
a teyitory; that has been his official residence. 

"From here Onate started in 1599 on his adventurous expedition 
to .the eastern plains; here, seven years later, 800 Indians came 
from far-off Quivaro to ask aid in their war with the Axtaos; 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 105 

well as to the Indian pueblos, is worth many miles of travel, 
even from the scenic standpoint alone. The Scenic Highway that 
is being built between Santa Fe and Las Yegas, through the Pecos 
Forest Keserve, and over the highest and steepest divides of the 
Sangre de Cristo Ramge, opens to the traveling public as beautiful 
scenery as any in the world. It is being built by convict labor up 
the Santa Fe Canon, over the Dalton Divide into the upper Pecos 
Valley, and thence to Las Vegas. It ascends the rugged backbone 
of the Sangre de Cristo Range by a dozen switchbacks on a grade 
not exceediiDg three per cent, and is hewn out of rock or blasted 
out of mountain sides, a marvel in modern road building, ascend- 
ing from an altitude of 7,000 to 10,000 feet, and then descending 
to 6,400 feet. 

The immediate surroundings of the Capital City^are beautiful, 
picturesque, romantic and interesting. The Santa Fe Cainon, the 
Tesuque Valley, Xagel's Sunny Pine Grove Ranch, the Indian pu- 
eblos, the cliff dwellings, the Cochiti gold mines, the turquoise 
mines, the Bishop's Ranch, Box Canon, the Divide, the mountains 
towering to 13,000 feet m height, the lava fields, the crater, and 
many other grand and mysterious sights of ^^ature's handiwork 
are within an hourV to a day's journey by foot, burro, horse or 
carriage. 

The mountain and summer resorts combine many advantages 
and attractions difficult to find anywhere else. Santa Fe has an 
atmosphere aind color of its own. Here the civilization of cen- 
turies ago and of today meet ; here are found prehistoric ruins and 
historic monuments, the history of yesterday and of today have 
left their impress side by side; the civilization of the Indian, the 
Spaniard, the Mexican and the Yankee commingle. Still, Santa 
Fe is strictly up-to-date in its hotels, railroad accommodations, its 
colleges, its public schools, its sanitariums, its charitable institu- 
tions, in its progress and in its prosperity. Churches, newspapers, 
together with fine stores, banking institutions, and every safety, 
comfort and luxury that the centers of civilization of the east 
afford, are to be found at Santa Fe. 

Mineral Springs. 

About four miles east of Santa Fe is a spring, the waters of 
which are favorably known and have been used to a considerable 
extent by the people of Santa Fe aind elsewhere. This spring is 
known as the Aztec (Ojo Gigante), since, like other watering 
places, it was frequented by the aborigines. While the solid mat- 
ter contained in the water is not so great as that found in many 



SANTA FB COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 107 

other springs in New Mexico, nevertheless the water has beneficial 
effects iin stomach and liver troubles. 

F. W. Clark of the United States Geological Survey gives the 
following analysis of the Aztec Spring, which was made at the re- 
quest of an army surgeon who^had been drinking the water when 
stationed at Fort Marcy, and whp first recognized its beneficial 
effects on himself and troops: 

Calcium carbonate 1538 

Magnesium carbonate 0605 

Sodium sulphate 0225 

Calcium sulphate 0050 

Sodium chloride 0193 

Silica 0220 

Parts in 1,000. Total 2831 

(In a foot note the chemist adds: "The water contains enough 
carbonic acid to retain the- carbonates of calcium and magnesium 
in solution as bi-carbonates. ) 

West of Santa Fe is another mineral spring containing iron. 
The county has no hot springs, but is the gateway to the famous 
hot mimeral springs at Ojo Caliente, Jemez, Wamsley^s and other 
springs in Sandoval and Taos Counties, if not as well known, yet 
as efficacious. 

Among the hot springs which ought to rank among the most 
remarkable in the United States are those at Ojo Caliente, Taos 
County, north of Santa Fe, and 6,290 feet above the sea level. 
There are four of these springs io a small area, each peculiarly 
adapted for the cure of particular diseases. The dissolving power 
of their waters is very great and they are especially recommended 
by physicians for rheumatism, gravel and other calcareous affections, 
gout and other kidney, stomach and blood disorders. The temper- 
ature of the springs varies from 90 to .122 degrees Fahrenheit, and 
the largest is classed as a chalybeate spring, as it carries a large 
amount of iron carbonate. Its waters contain 1,686.84 grains of 
alkaline salts to the gallon, and no organic matter. The fourth 
spring of the group pours forth lithia water. The combined flow 
of these springs is 300,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. Ojo 
Caliente is reached by a short stage ride from Barranca on the 
Santa Fe-Antonito brancli of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, 
and has hotel accommodations. 

There is a good sulphur spring at Rio Pajarito, in Taos County, 
with a temperature of 68 degrees. The water contains carbonic 
acid, hydrogen sulphide, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, cal- 




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SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 109 

cium and magnesium carbonates. At Ojo Sarco, on tlie Kio Grande, 
north of Santa Barbara, Taos County, is a fine group of mineral 
springs. In the same county, three miles north of Ojo Caliente, 
are soda springs. Five miles south of Taos, as well as between 
Penasco and Mora, on the Eio Pueblo, are sulphur springs of rare 
medicinal virtue. Among the best thermal springs in the Terri- 
tory are those known as Wamsley's Hot Springs. They are located 
in a deep gorge of the Rio Grande on the road from the station of 
Tres Piedras, on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad to Taos. The 
water is lukewarm and im that respect similar to another group 
of mineral springs situated at (llenwoody, eigliteen miles south. 
Hotel accommodations are provided. 

There are two groups of fine medicinal springs less than fifty 
miles directly west of the City of Santa Fe, in the Yalles Moun- 
tains, and they are counted among the most efficacious mineral 
waters to be found in the Rocky Moii?ntains. They are situated' in 
the picturesque San Diego Canon in Sandoval County, and are 
known as the Jemez and the Sulphurs, or the upper and lower 
Jemez Springs. The lower group embraces ten springs varying in 
temperature from 94 to 168 degrees Fahrenheit. The tempera- 
ture of the hottest of these is the highest of ai)y sprimg in the Ter- 
ritory. Their altitude is 6,620 feet. The waters of the hottest and 
largest spring run about fifty gallons per minute, with escaping 
carbonic acid gas and depositing white carbonate of lime. One 
spring, with waters of 103 degrees, carries free carbonic acid gas, 
and its deposits are reddish brown. A third spring, of 119 degrees, 
is impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen and iron'. The other 
springs of the lower group are impregnated with sodium, lime and 
magnesia. Their solid constituents are about .24 per one hundred 
parts of water. 

The upper springs, or Sulphurs, are situated two miles above 
the lower group, at an altitude of 6,740 feet, and their tempera- 
ture varies from 70 to 105 degrees. They flow from caves of lime, 
forming a ridge 30 feet high and 200 feet long, and varying in 
size from a few iinches to twenty feet in height. The waters are 
strongly impregnated with sulphur and resemble those of Marien- 
bad. The springs are both mud and vapor, and their principal 
constituents are chloride of sodium, sul])hate and carbonates of 
soda, lime and magnesia. They are especially potent in rheumatic 
and syphilitic disorders. Their solid constituents are .3726 to every 
one huindred parts of water. Hotel accommodations have been 
provided at both groups. 

In the same section of country is "the San Ysidro mineral spring, 
near Jemez, whose waters are carbonated and carry .5632 parts of 







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SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. Ill 

solids in every one hundred parts of water, mostly sodium chloride, 
sodium sulphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, iron 
carbonate with traces of silica, potassa and lithia to every one hum- 
died parts of water. 

Four to six miles west of the Sulphurs are the San Antonio 
Springs, which resemble the Jemez Springs and are equally effica- 
cious in kidney and stomach disorders. 

Historical. 

Up to the time of the occupation of Santa Fe by United States 
troops, almost sixty years ago, the history of Santa Fe was prac- 
tically the history of New Mexico. Tradition speaks of two pros- 
perous Indian pueblos upon the site of the City of Samta Fe, prior 
to the coming of the Spanish Conquistadores, over 350 years ago, 
and it was within the confines of Santa Fe County that the first 
permanent white settlements in the United States were made. A 
house occupied to this day is still pointed out as a survival of the 
Indian pueblos on the site of the City of Santa Fe and, therefore, 
has a just claim to be called the oldest occupied house within the 
boundaries of this nation. The romance of the early expeditions 
of the Spaniards into tJie Southwest, the story of the incessant 
warfare with Indians and with the elements, the accounts of the 
Christianization of the Pueblos and the martyrdom of mamy dis- 
ciples of the cross, all form an intensely interesting narrative. In 
1680 the Pueblo Indians drove the Spaniards out of New Mexico, 
and it was not until 1692 that De Vargas reoccupied the City of 
Santa Fe after a sanguinary battle on the outskirts of the city. 
The revolutions and counter-revolutions that followed the estab- 
lishment of the Kepublic of Mexico found their echo in New Mexico 
and less than three generations ago Governor Perez met a tragic 
death at the hands of rebels near Agua Fria, in the suburban 
part of Samta Fe. It is quite natural, therefore, that so many 
buildings and spots in the county are hallowed by historic associa- 
tions, and that, aside from every other attraction, this alone makes 
a visit to Santa Fe worth the while. 

InFiabitants. 

Santa Fe County has about 17,000 inhabitants, of whom one-half 
live in and about the City of Santa Fe. Fully three-fourths of 
these inhabitants speak the Spanish language, but many of these can 
speak, or at least understand, English. They are peaceable, con- 
servative and hospitable, and, to a certain degree, independent, 
nearly every head of a family owning his own home and patch of 
ground, which he cultivates. There are 310 Pueblo Indians within 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 113 

the couoity,. occupying the villages of San Ildefonso, Tesuque, 
Nambe and Pojoaqne. The pueblo of Santa Clara, formerly in 
the county entirely, is now in greater part within the county of 
Rio Arriba. These Pueblo Indians are peace-loving and industrious. 
Each precinct has a public school and every settlement a church. 
The county is well supplied with roads that connect the different 
villages and towns, all of them leading to the Capital City. Gen- 
erally speaking, these roads are good, having solid bottoms and, 
owing to the dryness of the climate, very seldom muddy and never 
impassable. The "good roads" movement has reached the Capital 
City, and a model roadway has been constructed from the city to 
"the Tesuque Valley, a distance of six miles, while other roads are 
contemplated. The Scenic Highway has been referred to, and is 
feeing built by the Territory with county aid. It will eventually 
extend from the northern boundary to the southern boundary of 
3'ew Mexico, with branch roads in every direction. At present, 
rork is being prosecuted on the section between Santa Fe and Las 
Tegas, which is m earing completion. Convict labor is employed, 
|nd the road opens to tourists the most magnificent scenery in the 
[southwest. 

CITY OF SANTA FE. 

The Villa Keal de Santa Fe de San Francisco, to give its original 
[ nd full name, is the historic seat of the government of the Terri- 
tory of Xew Mexico, as well as the county seat of Santa Fe County 
fud the see of an archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church. It 
[in joys the distinction of being one of the oldest towns and the 
, Idest capital in the United States. Its permanent settlement b> 
[Europeans antedates the founding of Jamestown and also the land- 
jng of the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth more than twenty years. 
[The thrilling and romantic incidents composing its history — the 
[protracted and bloody struggles with hordes of savage Indians, the 
I capture and pillage by hostile Pueblos in 1680, the general massa- 
fcre of missionaries and explorers and flight of the governor and 
! a few followers in the night to El Paso, the reserving of some of 
the handsomest Spamish maidens for wives of favored warriors, 
the desecration and destruction of some of the Eoman Catholic 
Churches, and the restoration of the worship of stone idols, the 
reconquest by Diego de Vargas twelve years later, the terrible pun- 
ishment visited upon the rebellious Pueblos, the change from Span- 
ish rule to the rule of the triumphant Republic of Mexico, the cap- 
ture by the United States forces under General Kearny and the 
building of Fort Marcy, the stirring scenes accompanying the dis- 
tribution of the immense traffic of the Santa Fe Trail, the wild 



SANTA FB COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 115 

deeds of desperadoes and the fabulous hazards at cards in the days 
before the advent of the railroad — afford the material for an epic 
poem of deep interest. However, from the strenuous life and tur- 
bulent times of the past, the City of the Holy Faith has become 
as modem and peaceful as a New England city, looking back with 
pride uponi the part it has played in history, and forward hopefully 
to its future. 

Railroads. 

Santa Fe enjoys the advantage of three railroad systems. It is 
on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Kailroad, the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railroad, and the Santa Fe Central Railway, giving it con- 
nection with the outside world and great railroad systems in every 
direction. If is the only city in the Southwest that receives nine 
railway mails a day and dispatches as many. It has a free delivery 
mail service, electric street lighting, the purest drinking water to 
be foumd in New Mexico, a local and long distance telephone 
system, and many other advantages of a thoroughly up-to-date 
community. 

/ Environed by protecting hills and thus exempt from strong j 
winds and sand storms ; surrounded by enchanting natural scenery ; > 
beautified by orchards and gardens of flowers; blessed with a cli- 
mate that is free from extremes of heat amd cold, and air that is 
pure and tonic; supplied with an abundance of pure water for 
domestic, manufacturing and irrigation purposes from the exten- 
sive storage reservoirs in the mouth of the Santa Fe Canon; fur- 
nished with competing rail, express and telegraph communication 
with all outside poiiits ; the headquarters of the federal and Terri- 
torial oflBcials, the meeting place of the Legislature, the Supreme 
Court, the United States and Territorial District Courts, and the 
various Territorial Boards ; the see of the Archbishop of Santa Fe ; 
the headquarters of the New Mexico Historical Society, the New 
Mexico Horticultural Society, the New Mexico Pioneers^ Society; 
of the District Attorney for Santa Fe and Taos Counties; a city 
having started a modem sewerage system; possessing a public 
school system with a good high school and four ward schools', and 
endowed by the national government for public school purposes 
with the Fort Marcy Reservation of almost seventeen acres in the 
heart of the city; having eight churches, as well as colleges and 
private schools, many fraternal societies and social organizations, 
Santa Fe is naturally forging to the front as a popular residence 
town. 

Santa Fe is first of all a health resort, a tourist center, but it 



SANTA FB COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 117 

does not depend alone upon tourists, health seekers and officials 
for its existence. Good crops are raised in the Santa Fe and ad- 
jacent valleys; the orchards of Santa Fe are revenue producers; 
dainty filigree jewelry is made here; an excellent quality of 
brick is manufactured ; in the surrounding Indian pueblos bas- 
kets and blankets are woven, pottery produced, and beadwork 
is made that finds a ready sale all over the United States. Sant^ 
Fe has the largest printing establishment in New Mexico and Ari- 
zona, employing twenty to forty men. Santa Fe is a thriving 
railroad and mercantile center, supplying a vast region, and there 
are manifold natural resources that are just being developed. Not 
only historic memories and landmarks make Santa Fe a spot well 
worth a visit, but the beauty of its location, like a jewel in the lap 
of the mountains, its perfect climate and its many present-day 
interests, make it the most interesting spot between New York and 
San Francisco. Santa Fe with its suburbs has a population of 
8,700. Its altitude at its lowest point is 6,920 and at its highest 
7,240 feet. 

Resources. 

Draw a circle of fifty miles radius with Santa .Fe as the center. 
It will take in the heart of New Mexico. Within it will be found 
a score of producing mining districts. Not only gold mines, but 
mines of silver, copper, zinc, lead, iron, coal, turquoise, quarries 
of marble, building stone, limestone, beds of clay, deposits of 
gypsum, veins of mica, and prospects of other minerals in abund- * 
ance. In that circle are found some of the best agricultural lands 
in the Southwest. There are raised the best fruit, the best sugar 
beets, the best grain in the world. Take a peep at the Espanola, 
the Tesuque, the Chama, the Taos, and other valleys. Within that 
circle there is room and chance for profitable irrigation enterprises. 
In that circle flow the waters of the Rio Grande, the Pecos, the 
Chama, the Santa Fe, the Tesuque, the Nambe, ^^^" U'o Pueblo, 
the Truchas, the Pojoaque, the Santa Clara, the Galisteo, the Rio 
Medio, the Chupadero, Bishop's Creek, the Arroyo Hondo, the 
Manzanares, the Canoncito, the Dalton, Indian Creek, Holy Ghost 
Creek, the Mora, Willow Creek and other streams, all perennial 
rivers with a never failing water supply in their upper courses. 
In that circle are found the water power, the fuel, the raw material 
for a hundred great industries. The circle is the most densely 
populated area in New Mexico or Arizona, and offers cheap and 
plentiful labor for industrial enterprises and at the same time a 
good market. Mexico, Central America and the Orient are nearer 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 119 

with their markets to it than they are to the eastern and northern 
manufacturing centers. ^ In that circle . are. viery superior sheep, 
cattle and goat ranges, and extensive virgioa* forests. 

New Mexico has the finest climate in the world, and in that 
circle is the best climate in New Mexico. Within the circle are 
the great Pecos Kiver and Jemez Forest Keserves, which insure 
forever a bounteous supply of water, a summer retreat for tourists, 
health seekers, pleasure seekers, sportsmen, or the tired man and 
woman who seek rest in communion with nature in its most 
sublime or gentlest moods. 

In that circle are located the world famous cliff dwellings, the 
pyramids of America, ten Indian pueblos, the oldest buildiugs in 
the United States, the • Scenic Highway, the Santa Fe Trail, a 
hundred spots which awaken memories of the romance of the great 
stretch of time between the coming of the Conquistadores and 
the supplanting of the Santa Fe Trail by the steam railroads. 

It is a circle invaded by three great railroads and their important 
branches and connections, a circle near whose circumference are 
located the cities of Albuquerque aud Las Vegas, which, with Santa 
Fe, form the three largest and most important towns in New 
Mexico. The center of the circle is the most advertised spot in 
the United States, a town whose name is one to conjure with, a 
name given to one of the great transcontinental railway systems, 
a town whose very name is an invitation to the health seeker, to 
the tourist; the capital of the coming Sunshine State, the county 
seat of one of the most densely populated and richest counties of 
the Territory, an archbishop's see, the location of many Federal, 
Territorial, Catholic and Protestant church institutions, a town 
most charmingly situated, with a peerless climate all the year 
around, and a better summer climate than possessed by any sum- 
mer resort in the world, free from excessive hea.t and protected 
from the icy blasts of winter with the sun shining almost every 
day in the year. These and many more are the advantages, re- 
sources and attractions, the hub of which is the City of Santa Fe. 
The city and suburbs contain about 8,700 people, and this popula- 
tion is steadily on the increase. 

Nor must it be forgotten that the vicinity of the city offers good 
hunting of bear, mountain lion, coyotes and smaller game; that 
the Pecos, the Santa Clara, the Santa Fe, and other streams are 
splendid fishing grounds; and that the peculiar fauna and flora 
of this arid mountain region offer . much that; is interesting 
and worthy of note. The intending home seeker should also re- 
member that in Santa Fe and surroundings agriculture is carried 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 121 

on with the aid of irrigation, which means that the farmer is 
always certain of his crops, for he can apply moisture to them 
when they need it and withhold it when moisture is not needed. 

Antiquities. 

Here, so carefully preserved that the marks of its three hundred 
years of age are not perceptible, is located the noted Adobe Palace, 
which was the official residence of the Spanish and Mexicam' gov- 
ernors, and since the Mexican war has boen the headquarters of 
all the Territorial governors or secretaries appointed by the different 
Presidents of the United States. The men who lived and conducted 
the affairs of state in- this building include some of the fore- 
most, not only of the Territory, but of the nation. Here the 
postoffice, the Kepublican Territorial headquarters, the Territorial 
headquarters of the Daughters of the American Kevolution and 
the museum of the New Mexico Historical Society are located. The 
latter is open to the public every day and its collection contains 
historical articles of priceless value. 

San Migue^ Church, the oldest Christian' Church building in 
the United States, is situated in the oldest part of the city, called 
by the Spaniards "Analco," adjoining St. Michael's College. It is 
about seventy-four feet in length, by thirty in width, and thirty-five 
feet high. The walls are massively built of adobe, and the roof, 
like those of all the old churches, was constructed of strong vigas, 
supported by carved timbers at each end, the whole being covered 
originally with straight branches of poplar or willow, surmounted 
by a layer of earth. In modern days, boards take the place of the 
branches. This church dates from the earliest occupation and has 
long been held in special veneration. In the Pueblo revolution 
of 1680 it was, to a great extent, destroyed, though the walls re- 
mained standing. Immediately after the reconquest by De Vargas 
the church was repaired and the entire building was completed 
in 1710, as appears from the inscription- still plainly visible' on 
the great square vigas near the door, which reads : 

^^El Senor Marques de la Penuela hizo esta fabrica. 
El Alferes Eeal Don Agustin Flores Yergara su criado 

. ano de 1710." 

The trauRlation is: 

"The Marquis de la Penuela erected this building. The 
Eoyal Ensign Don Agustin Flores Vergara his servant. 
The year 1710." 

Among other paintings in this church are the ones of St. Michael 
and the Dragon and of the Annunciation. In the church is an old 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 123 

bell cast in Spain in the Fourteenth Century. The edifice is still 
used as the chapel of Saint MichaeFs College and of a part of 
the Eoman Catholic parish, and perhaps no scene will impress 
itself so vividly upon the mind of the visitor as that of "Vespers" 
on a Sunday evening, attended by the Christian Brothers and pupils 
of the College. 

The oldest house in the city, which is reputed to date back be- 
fore the tijne of the Spanish conquest, and thus is the "Oldest 
House in the United States," is situated just northeast of the 
Church of San Miguel. This building until recently was two stories 
in height, the second story being very low and the floor between the . 
upper and lower rooms being of adobe. Some years ago the upper 
story of the eastern portion fell, and quite recently the spirit of 
iconoclasm, which is fast ruining many interesting historical 
landmarks, caused the second story of the remainder to be removed. 
The first story, however, remains as it has been for centuries, and 
there seems no reason to doubt that it is the most ancient building, 
continuously inhabited, in the entire United States. 

The Cathedral of San Francisco de Assisi is a modern' building, 
not yet completed in accordance with its design, but has been used 
for worship during the past twenty-five years. It was built over the 
former adobe Parish Church under the auspices of the venerated 
Archbishop Lamy. There are many fine paintings and beautiful . 
stained ^lass windows in the structure ; behind the altar is a richly 
carved and painted reredos, erected by Governor del Valle and his 
wife in 1761. Back of the altar of this" Cathedral are preserved 
many fine old paintings and rich vestments. There are buried the 
remains of two Franciscan- Friars, who were murdered by Indians, 
as attested by the inscription upon a beam set into the massive 
wall. 

Old Fort Marcy is situated on a high hill northeast of the Plaza, 
and the view from the summit is admired by every visitor. His- 
torically, it is a place of great interest. A moment's notice will 
show its commanding militar}^ position, and that the army in 
possession of the hill controlled this city. In the old wars this 
was a scene of many a warlike encampment. When General Kear- 
ny came, in 1846, one of the first matters undertaken after the 
occupation of Samta Fe, on August 18, was the erection of a fort- 
ress to command the city. The site was naturally chosen. It was 
built by details of vohmteers, who complained grievously of having 
to do this laborious work when they had simply entered the army 
to fight. The fort was large enough to contain a thousand troops 
and mount many cannon. In shape the fort was an irregular tri- 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 125 

decagon. Behind the fort was a block house. The height of the 
fort -above the Plaza was 229 feet. 

On the east side of the main road entering the city from the 
south stand the ruins of the Garita, the only Spanish fortifications 
of which any remains now exist in New Mexico. It was built with 
two bastions and occupies a commanding position on a hill. Under 
the Mexican government it was used as a custom house station, 
and all wagons coming from the north were stopped here until 
the exceedingly high duties of those days were paid. On the west 
side of the Garita, close to the wall, the four leaders m the revolu- 
tion of 1837, Desiderio Montoya, Antonio Abad Montoya, General 
Chopon and Alcalde Esquibel, were executed by command of Gen- 
eral Armijo in January, 1837. 

The oldest cemetery in the Southwest, except the graveyard im- 
mediately surrounding San Miguel Church, was very near the Gar- 
ita, and the high adobe wall surrounding it is still in quite good 
repair. On one side of it was a small mortuary chapel where 
funeral services were conducted. Many celebrated historical char- 
acters are buried here, but, unfortunately, no monumental stones 
distingTiish their last resting places. 

Guadalupe Church is situated just south of the river, at the 
western edge of the city, near the Santa Fe Kailway depot. Owing 
to the modem appearance of a shingle roof and wooden steeple, 
it often escapes attention, but is really of much historic interest. 
The walls are very massive, and the carved supports of the vigas 
are the best specimens of their class in the Territory. Prior to 1883 
the church was only opened once a year, on Guadalupe Day, Decem- 
ber 12, but in that year it was renovated, many windows cut in its 
walls, and it has since been used by the English-speaking Koman 
Catholics for regular services. The altar-piece is a large group of 
pictures about 14 feet high by 10 feet wide. The large central paint- 
ing is of the Virgin of ' Guadalupe, copied from the celebrated 
^Imagen" in Mexico, and it is surrounded by four scenes in the 
well known legend, representing the appearances of the Virgin 
to Juan Diego, and the visits of the latter to the Bishop; the whole 
surmounted by a representation of the Trinity. The church and 
sacristy contain many interesting paintings, the most curious and 
valuable being one painted on a plate of copper, 28 x 18 inches in 
size, by Sebastian Salcedo, in 1779. This also represents the Virgin 
of Guadalupe, a small portrait of Pope Benedict XIV being intro- 
duce* The statuette of the Virgin standing in the crescent of 
the new moon, is a beautiful specimen of antique wood carving. 

The place of the assassination of Governor Perez is about two 




SAN MIGUEL'S CHURCH AT SANTA FE. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 127 

miles southwest of the Plaza on the Agua Fria Koad. It is now 
very appropriately marked by a neat stone monument erected by 
the Daughters of the American Eevolutiom in 1901. It was here 
that the Governor, in the Revolution of 1837, while retreating from 
the Capital, was killed by an arrow shot by a Pueblo Indian from 
Santo Domingo. His assailants then forced Santiago Prada, by 
threats of death, to cut off his head, which was carried to the in- 
surgent encampment, near the Eosario Chapel, and treated with 
great indigmity. 

The Plaza, in the center of the city, is of historic interest. Here 
Onate camped and set up .the banner of Spain, and here General 
Keamy first floated the Stars and Stripes, in 1846, when he pro- 
claimed American government in New Mexico, a spot marked with 
an appropriate stone by the Daughters of the American Revolution. 
In this Plaza the Indians burned the archives and sacred vessels 
of the church during the Revolution of 1680; and here De Varga& 
entered in triumph twelve years later. The Territory has erected 
a handsome monument in the center of the Plaza in memory of 
the soldiers who fell on New Mexico soil in the various Indiajn 
wars, and the war of the Rebellion, and the Woman^s Board of 
Trade has there placed a handsome bronze drinking fountain in 
memory of Archbishop Lamy, who was beloved by all. The 
Woman^s Board of Trade has been in charge of the Plaza for the 
past five years, by direction of the city government, emd to this 
organization of energetic ladies is due the present beauty of the 
place. A stone, suitably inscribed, marks the spot where General 
Keamy first floated the Stars and Stripes. 

Eosario Chapel, in Rosario Cemetery, commemorates the victory 
of De Vargas over the Pueblo Indians in 1692, and is the terminus 
of the annual historic De Vargas procession, which, with the two 
annual Corpus Christi processions and the custom of celebrating 
Gua-dalupe Day, Christmas Eve and other holidays by the lighting 
of numerous bonfires, is an echo of "ye olden^' days that gives 
Santa Fe a charm peculiarly its own. 

Cemeteries. 

The National Cemetery is a beautiful burial ground where re- 
pose, the bodies of over a thousand soldiers who fell in the war 
of the Rebellion, the Indian wars, or died at Santa Fe and vicinity 
in more peaceful days. It is the .only National Cemetery in' New 
Mexico or Arizona since the abandonment recently of the ceme- 
tery at Fort Sumner and the reinterment at Santa Fe of the bodies 
in the National Cemetery. Other burial grounds at Santa Fe are 





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San MigueFs Cemetery, the aDcient cemetery surrounding Guada- 
lupe Church, the Odd Fellows^ Cemetery and Fairview Cemetery, 
the two last named being under the care of the Woman's Board 
of Trade. 

The Capitol. 

The Capitol is a stately building of modern construction, and 
a view from its dome is one of the sights that no tourist should 
miss. It is surrounded by a fine park. In addition to the beau- 
tiful Hall of Representatives, the Council Chamber and the Su- 
preme Court Room, it contains the offices of the Governor, the 
Secretary, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Treasurer, 
the Auditor, the Traveling Auditor, the Game Warden, the 
Supreme Court Clerk, the United States Judge of the First 
Judicial District, the Land Commitesioner, the Insurance Com- 
missioner, the Territorial Law Library and rooms and offices for 
the various Territorial Boards and Commissions, and assistants 
or clerks of the Territorial officials enumerated. The Capitol was 
partly constructed with the aid of convict labor and material man- 
ufactured by convicts. Considering its size, its cost was less than 
that of any other Capitol in the United States. 

Federal Building 

The Federal building is a fine stone structure of classic design 
and is surrounded by oval grounds, partly in lawn. In front of 
the building is the Kit Carson monument. Kit Carson having 
made his headquarters at Santa Fe for many years. In this build- 
ing are the offices of the Register and Receiver of the Santa Fe 
Land District, with their clerks; the headquarters for the Special 
Agent of the United States Land Office for the Southwest, of the 
Internal Revenue Collector and his clerks for the Territories of 
New Mexico and Arizona, the United States Surveyor General for 
New Mexico and his large force of clerks, of the Supervisor of 
the Pecos and Jemez Forest Reserves, the United States Attorney 
for the Pueblo Indians, and from time to time of other officials 
of the United States. 

Court House. 

The Court House is a brick building of attractive design and 
is the headquarters for the First Judicial District, which, besides 
the County of Santa Fe, includes the Counties of Rio Arriba, Taos 
and San Juan; of the District Clerk, of the Probate Clerk, As- 
sessor, Treasurer, District Attorney, Board of County Commis- 



SANTA EE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 131 

sioners, Surveyor and other county oflBcials. On the second floor 
is the court room, also much used as an auditorium for entertain- 
ments of a public nature. 

Educational and Other Institutions. 

Saint Michael's College, conducted by the Christian Brothers, 
is the oldest college for boys west of the Missouri Kiver and recently 
celebrated its semi-centennial. Its main building is a large struc- 
ture of French architecture. A modem brick building with class- 
rooms and gymnasium adjoins it. The athletic grounds are the 
best in the Southwest. The course is mainly commercial, and 
many of the leading men of New Mexico, Arizona and of the 
northern States of Mexico are proud to call Saint Michael's Col- 
lege their alma mater. The attendance is between 200 and 300 
students, coming from all parts of the Southwest. The faculty 
is an especially capable one. 

The Sisters of Loretto conduct, the oldest school for young women 
west of the Missouri Kiver and recently celebrated their semi-cen- 
tennial. The Academy is of unique design. The Chapel adjoining 
is one of the finest Gothic structures in the West. The large con- 
vent, a brick building of unostentatious design, adjoins the Chapel, 
while in the rear is a brick auditorium that will seat 'almost a 
thousand people. The grounds of the College are beautiful. 

The Archbishop^s residence is a brick structure which, together 
with the homes of the Bishop of the Diocese, the Vicar General 
and other priests, is contiguous to the Cathedral and borders on 
the famous ^^ishop's Garden," with springs, lakelets and a fine 
orchard that offers sylvan retreats of rare beauty. 

St. Vincent's Hospital, St. Vincent's Orphans' Home and St. 
Vincent's Sanitarium, all modem structures, are grouped together 
northeast of the Cathedral. The Sanitarium fronts on a beautiful 
park. 

The United States Indian School is just south of the city limits 
and is a community in itself of about a dozen fine brick structures. 
It ranks with the Indian School at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and 
has an attendance of over 300 Indians, representing a score of 
Western tribes, the pupils ranging in age from six to twenty years ; 
has a school farm and is surrounded by a beautiful park. 

St. Catherine's Indian Industrial School is situated just west 
of the city's boundary line. It is attended by almost 200 pupils 
and is in charge of the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament. A beaii- 
tiful garden surrounds the school, which consists of several massive . 
buildings. 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 133 

The Territorial Penitentiary is located just south of the city 
line and consists of a number of stone and brick buildings sur- 
rounded by a high wall. Large gardens are cultivated by the con- 
victs, who number almost 250. The institution is a model in many 
respects and is well worthy a visit. 

The Territorial Deaf and Dumb Institute consists of two mod- 
em brick buildings and can accommodate one hundred pupils. It 
is located in the southern part of the city. 

The Presbyterian Mission School is beautifully located near 
the heart of the city and consists of a fine three-story brick build- 
ing and a brick annex in a well-kept garden. It is attended by 
about one hundred girls of Spanish- American birth, who come 
from all parts of the Territory. It is proposed to erect a similar 
school for boys in the same part of the city. 

Public Library. , 

The Woman's Board of Trade has just let a contract for the 
erection of a handsome Public Libran^ building wherein its library 
will be situated. The structure will be built of brick and stone, 
commodious and of Moorish architectiure. It will be erected on 
a lot donated to the Woman's Board of Trade by the Territory 
of New Mexico, just north of the "Old Palace'' and fronting on 
Washington Avenue. 

Hotel Facilities. 

The hotel facilities of Santa Fe are good. The Palace Hotel 
is famed for its cuisine. It is three stories high and can a9- 
commodate 150 guests. The Claire Hotel is a modern brick struc- 
ture, steam heated, and can accommodate over 100 guests. The 
Normandie is a modern, low-priced hotel. The Coronado and 
others conduct rooming houses together with restaurants. In ad- 
dition to the accommodations offered by Sunmount Tent City, the 
Glorieta Sanitarium, Saint Vincent's Sanitarium and the Pine- 
croft Kanch, there are a number of private boarding houses in the 
city and ranches in the vicinity that take boarders. 

Newspapers. 

Santa Fe has one daily newspaper. The Santa Fe Daily New 
Mexican, issued every evening, except Sunday. It has four weekly 
newspapers. The New Mexican Review, The Eagle, El Xuevo Mex- 
ieano and El Boletin Popular. 

The Daily New Mexican and the New IMcxican Eeview are the 
oldest papers in wliai is now New Mexico, Arizona, Southern 




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California, Westerm Texas and Colorado south of Denver. The 
Daily New Mexican was started in 1862. 

Churches. 

In addition to the three Catholic Churches enumerated, the 
Cathedral, Guadalupe Church and San Miguel Church, Santa Pe 
has five Protestant Churches. The First Pre&byterian Church is 
a brick structure with a pipe organ and a brick parsonage. The 
congregation is self-sustaining. The Church of the Holy Paith is 
a stone edifice belonging to the Protestant Episcopal denomination. 
It has a pipe organ and a brick rectory. The St. John^s Methodist 
Episcopal Church is a new brick structure in mission style. The 
Presbyterians and the Methodists each have churches for Spanish- 
speaking members. 

Fraternal Organizations. 

The Fraternal Associations are well represented in Santa Fe. 
The Masons own their temple, a two-story brick business block 
facing the Plaza. The Masonic bodies of the city are Montezuma 
Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. Masons, the oldest Masonic Lodge west of 
the Missouri, excepting a Lodge at Salem, Oregon; Santa Fe Chap- 
ter No. 1, K. A. Masons; Santa Fe Commandery No. 1, Knights 
Templar, and Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, A. & A. S. K. 
In the Masonic Temple are interesting relics of the early days of 
the Americani occupation, and among its members were many of the 
early pioneers who blazed the way for the thousands who came after 
them. The Odd Fellows, who organized a Lodge at Santa Fe over 
fifty years ago, are represented by Santa Fe Lodge No. 2; the 
l^ights of Pythias by Santa Fe Lodge No. 2, and the Fraternal 
Union by Santa Fe Lodge No. 259. Numerically, Sanita Fe Lodge 
No. 460, B. P. 0. Elks, is the strongest fraternal organization. It 
will build a $25,000 Opera House and Lodge Hall. The Order of 
United Workmen and other fraternal orders have Lodges in the 
city. There are several social organizations, including the Capital 
City Club. There is a Board of Trade and a Woman's Board of 
Trade, the latter a unique organization that dispenses not only 
charity, but maintains the Plaza in the center of the city; a Public 
Librarj^, for which it is about to erect a fine building, and looks 
after other movements for civic improvement. The city has two 
brass bands, two orchestras, several Spanish and a number of 
church societies. 

Banks. 

The First National Bank is the oldest and best known bank in 
the Southwest. It was oro:anizod in 1870 and was the first bank 



SANTA FE COrXTY, NEW MEXICO. 137 

in a great stretch of coiintrv, namely, western Texas, Xew Mexico, 
Arizona and southern California. Its capital stock is $150,000 
and it has a handsome surplus and undivided profits. It is con- 
sidered one of the safest banks in the entire country. It is located 
in a handsome brick structure on San Francisco Street, the prin- 
cipal business thoroughfare of the city. 

The United States Bank and Trust Company has just been or- 
ganized and will be ready for businesis by the first of July. It 
will work under the Territorial statutes, liaving a charter from 
the Territory. The capital stock is $50,000. It is believed that 
there is a good field for this new ])ank. 

Building Associations and Business. 

The city has a flourishing Building and Loan Association. All 
lines of business are fully represented, wholesale and retail. The 
stocks are large and everybody can be suited to such an extent 
as he wants in every line of trade. The stores are modern, carry 
large and well selected stocks and the merchants are enterprising 
and energetic. 

Among the more pretentious business blocks are the Catron, 
Laughlin, Salmon, First Xational Bank, Masonic and Kahn. 

Public Schools. 

The Central High School Building is a modern, three-story 
building, just completed, and is the finest school house in Xew 
Mexico. The grounds surrounding it are extensive and will be 
beautified with ornamental trees and shrubs. The city has in 
addition four ward school buildings, one of which is about to be 
replaced with a modern brick structure. The graded public school 
system is modern in every respect. 

A Home City. 

Santa Fe has many beautiful homes and gardens and a number 
of modern brick residencies have been recently constructed or are 
in the process of erection. In a city as old as the Capital City, 
naturally, there are many ancient and quaint buildings, but these 
are being gradually replaced with up-to-date business blocks and 
homes. Socially, Santa Fe, as the Capital, and owing to its an- 
tiquity, enjoys pre-eminence throughout the Southwest. 

Orcliards. 

Santa Fe takes great pride in its orchards. There are scores of 
these within and around the eitv, and the fruit that is raised, as 



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SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 139 

stated elsewhere, has no superior. Among the larger orchards in 
the city are Buena Vista, the orchards of Arthur Boyle, E. S. 
Andrews, J. P. Victory, the Manderfield and Quintana orchards, 
the Bishop's Garden, and many others. 

Water and Light. 

The Santa Fe V/ater and Light Company has two power houses 
for generating electric current, one with steam power plant of 150 
horse-power, and the other a water-power plant. The company 
has four reservoirs, all deriving their water supply from the Santa 
Fe Kiver, which has its source on the Lake Peak at an altitude of 
12,400 feet. Above the reservoir that supplies Santa Fe with drink- 
ing water there is not a single residence or home, and almost the en- 
tire watershed is within the Pecos Forest Keserve. The supply is, 
therefore, absolutely uncontaminated. The water is free from 
alkali or other deleterious mineral ingredients and has been de- 
clared by experts to be the purest and best drinking water fur- 
nished any city in the Southwest. Under the city flows an under- 
current, which, in many instances, is pumped for domestic and 
irrigation purposes by windmills. 

* The Denver & Eio Grande and the Santa Fe Central Kailroads 
have a modern brick Union Depot at Santa Fe. The depot of the 
Santa Fe System is within one hundred yards of the Union Depot. 

A start has been made in paving the sidewalks in the city limits, 
which, owing to the continual dry weather and hard-packed soil, 
is not so urgent a necessity as elsewhere, but now that a city ordi- 
nance provides for paving, several miles of sidewalks have been 
and are being constructed. 

From climatic, scenic, health, historic and social standpoints, 
Santa Fe is undoubtedly the most desirable residence city in -the 
Eocky Mountains. 

OTHER TOWNS AND SETTLEMENTS. 

Lamy is the junction point of the Santa Fe branch with the 
main line of the Santa Fe System. It has a roundhouse, a depot- 
hotel, a postoffice, store, a church and a public school. It has a 
sandstone quarry, charcoal and lime ovens. It is also the head- 
quarters of the Onderdonk Livestock Kanch, at present under lease. 

Galisteo is a settlement of farmers and stockmen in the southern 
part of the county, with church, school house, postoffice and stores. 
It is on the Galisteo Eiver and two and a half miles from Kennedy 
at the junction of the Santa Fe and the Santa Fe Central Eailways. 
It is the headquarters for the Eaton Land Grant. 



SANTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 141 

Cowsprings is a settlement on Galisteo Creek, with postoffice and 
store. 

Kennedy, at the junction of the Santa Fe and Santa Fe Central 
Kailways, is a supply point for a large area, with a postoffice and 
store. 

Golden is a mining camp on the northern slope of the San Pedro 
Mountains. It has a church, school house, postoffice and stores. 
Bound about it are gold placer fields and gold mines with mills. 

A few miles south of Golden is the mining camp of San Pedro, 
where the mines and works of the Santa Fe Gold and Copper Com- 
pany are located. It has a large smelter and in the vicinity are a 
number of important mining properties. A public school, church, 
postoffice and stores indicate that San Pedro is a trading center. 

Madrid is an abandoned coal camp with several score of frame 
company houses, school house and church. It is the terminus of 
the Santa Fe branch line from Waldo. 

Cerrillos is the principal settlement of southern Santa Fe County. 
It has a smelter, at present idle, stone quarries, a fine public school 
building, church, business houses, and in its vicinity are a number 
of mining properties. 

Glorieta is on the Santa Fe System and is beautifully located on 
Glorieta Pass at an altitude of 7,600 feet. Xear by a sanguinary 
battle was fought in the Civil war. Upon the site of the battlefield 
still stand the ruins of an old road-house of considerable importance 
in the days of the Santa Fe Trail. Here is also a well sunk by 
the government through the solid rock at an expense of $4,000. 
Xear Glorieta are iron, copper and other mines and coal deposits. 
It was formerly an importanit shipping point for timber, and to- 
day is the most convenient point from which to reach the upper 
Pecos eountry and the Pecos Forest Eeserve. 

The other settlements of Santa Fe County are all north of the 
Santa Fe Railway line. Xear Santa Fe are the agricultural set- 
tlements of Agua Fria, Cieneguilla, Cienega and Tesuque, all with 
orchards, churches, school houses and stores. Xear Tesuque is the 
Indian pueblo of Tesuque, of much interest to tourists and anti- 
quarians. In the Tesuque Valley are the rural settlements of Cuya- 
mungue and Jacona. 

Santa Cruz is the most important place of northern Santa Fe 
County. It has a quaint old church that antedates the mission 
churches of California, a flour mill, a public school house, a post- 
office and a number of stores, and is surrounded by some of the 
finest orchards and agricultural lands in Santa Fe County, deriv- 
ing their water supply both from the Rio Grande and the Santa 



SAXTA FE COUNTY^ NEW MEXICO. 143 

Cruz Kivers. It is two miles from the Denver & Eio Grande Rail- 
road at Espanola. 

Chimayo is another pretty settlement in the Santa Cruz Valley 
at the foot of the Cobra ISTegra Peak. It has beautiful orchards, 
a church, a school house, a postoffice and stores 

Hobart is an agricultural settlement in the Rio Grande Valley 
and on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Here are the Round 
Top Mountain Fruit and Truck Farm and the Black Mesa, an 
Indian battlegroimd r»f some fame. Here is also the head of the 
ditch built by the government to carry the waters of the Rio Grande 
to the Pueblo village of San Ildefonso. Hobart has a flour mill, 
a postoffice and a store. 

San Ildefonso is the largest Indian pueblo in Santa Fe County 
and, although it is situated in the Pojoaque Valley near the con- 
fluence of the Pojoaque with the Rio Grande, yet its water for irri- 
gation purposes is, to a great extent, derived from the Rio Grande. 
San Ildefonso has an interestimg mission church, a school, stores 
and a postoflBce. Many nice f i:uit farms are situated in the vicinity. 
It is in the southern extremity of the fertile Espanola Valley. 

Nambe and Pojoaque are small but pretty and quaint Pueblo 
Indian settlements, although the latter has been practically aban- 
doned by the Indians, most of whom have intermarried with sur- 
rounding settlers. Near Nambe are the most beautiful falls in 
the county, which are about to be utilized to furnish power for an 
electric plant to be erected by Santa Fe capital. 

CONCLUSION. 

It is not only what Santa Fe County has been or what it is, but 
what it promises to be in the future that should attract the atten- 
tion of home seekers and of capital. The superb climate in itself 
means eventually the establishment of many sanitaria for health 
seekers, the founding of summer resorts and the building of hotels 
and homes for people who seek an ideal summer and winter climate. 
Its large area of grazing lands must sooner or later bring cattle 
to cover its thousand hills, and sheep and goats by the hundred 
thousands to browse upon its mesas; its perennial water supply, 
which is increased largely at a certain season of the year, must 
lead to the building of irrigation systems that will make the 
county rich in farms and orchards, not to speak of the dry farm- 
ing possibilities; its undeveloped mineral wealth must in time 
make it one of the richest mining districts in the west, giving 
employment to thousands of miners, and last, but not least, its 
industrial possibilities are such as destine it to be a manufac- 



SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO. 



U5 



luring center. Its great bqds of fuel that can be mined cheaply; 
its possibilities for the development of water power; its compara- 
tively dense population, which would furnish labor; its climate, so 
conducive to continued activity; its nearness to the Oriental, Mex- 
ican and South American markets; its great supplies of raw ma- 
terial, such as wool, hides, lumber, mica, ores; its transportation 
facilities, which will be added to from year to year, should make 
Santa Fe County an industrial beehive with a pojuilation ten and 
twenty fold its present number. Woolen mills, beet sugar factories, 
canneries, brickyards, tanneries, smelters, furnaces, steel mills, pot- 
teries, glove, shoe and furniture factories are a few of the manu- 
facturing possibilities of this section, which is richly endowed by 
nature and evidently designed by Providence to be a center of in- 
dustrial activity. 

New Mexico, and Santa Fe County especially, have within them 
the great natural resources which are bound to make them prom- 
inent in the industrial world, and the wise mans who invests his 
capital in such enterprises at present, before the grind of compe- 
tition is felt, ought to reap a rich reward. 

For information concerning Now Mexico in general and Santa 
Fe County in particular, address ^lax. Frost, Secretary, and the 
members of the Bureau of Immigration, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 




THE SCENIC HIGHWAY 



Officers and Members of the New Mexico Bureau 
of Immigration. 



Granville Pendleton,- IJresident Aztec 

W. B. BuNKKR, Vice President Las Vegas 

J. W. Bible, Treasurer Hanover 

Alfred Grunsfeld Albuquerque 

W. E. LiNDSEY Portales 

Ramon Armijo Socorro 



Max. Frost, Secretary Santa Fe 



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