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Full text of "The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania. Series A: Cuneiform texts"













To be obtained through Rudolf Merkel, Erlangen 









VOLUME XXX, Part 1 ^>0 



To be obtained through Rudolf Merkel, Erlangen 



HE EDITOR determines the material to constitute a volume, 
but he is not responsible for the views expressed by the writer. 









Twenty Plates of Autograph Texts and nine Plates 
of Halftone Illustrations 


To be obtained through Rudolf Merkel, Erlangen 


Printed by August Pries, Leipzig. 

Photolithographic Plates by J. G. Fritzsche, Leipzig. 

Halftone Plates by Sinsel & Co., Leipzig-Oetzsch. 


Samuel f. Houston, Gsq., 


in grateful remembrance of bis most cordial hospitality, 

material help and never failing encouragement 

respectfully inscribed 


The so-called Dumuzi or Tamuz texts must be divided into two classes: 1) those 
in which Ishtar and her maidens bewail the "absent" or "dead" Dumuzi and 2) those which 
celebrate Dumuzi's resurrection or wedding. Several specimens of the latter class may be 
found among the tablets of the Nippur Temple Library. One of them is published and 
translated in the "Hilprecht Anniversary Volume", p. 391, no. 2, while its larger duplicate 
text, C. B. M. 11391, is given in photographic reproduction, I. c, pi. IV, no. 7. 

To the former class belong the tablets here published. Though scholars are ac- 
customed to speak of this class of tablets as "Dumuzi texts", such a designation is evi- 
dently inadequate. Henceforth they must be described as "Sumerian lenten songs", and 
this for the simple reason that they formed part of a great temple ritual, which was recited 
by Ishtar and her maidens during the "month of wailings", Ululu. Seeing, furthermore, 
that at the time of the kings of the II dynasty of Ur and of the I dynasty of Isin, when 
the bulk of the tablets of Temple Library was written, this month corresponded to our 
February -March, and that these wailings culminated in a festival of joy, which celebrated 
the happy "reuniting of Dumuzi and Ishtar", and which was observed at the time of the 
vernal equinox, it is not at all difficult to see in the Sumerian season of wailing the proto- 
type of our Christian lenten season and in the union of Dumuzi and Ishtar the reuniting 
of Christ with the nvivjua, whose sphere of influence is the "Church", the "Bride of the 
Lamb", and this the more so as Dumuzi himself was, according to Sumerian conception, 
the "Lamb (sherba) of God {An)" while Ishtar was his "Bride". 

Strange indeed and most remarkable are the parallels between the Sumerian and 
Christian Lenten and Easter festivals: 

Dumuzi goes to the "north" or "netherworld", i. e, he "dies", in order to conquer 
the "enemy from the north", the cold, winter, darkness. Christ dies in order to conquer 
Satan, the "prince of darkness". 

Dumuzi while in the netherworld is "bewailed" by his "Bride" Ishtar, especially 
during the month February-March {Ululu); but this is exactly the season of the Christian 
lent, during which the church, the "Bride of the Lamb", mourns over the death of her 
"bridegroom", Christ. 

The month Ululu is followed immediately by the "month of the festival of Dumuzi" 
which begins with the vernal equinox and which celebrates, among other things, Dumuzi's 
marriage with "Mother Earth", the resurrection of nature and the beginning of new life. 


yiii PREFACE. 

The Christian lenten season is terminated by the Easter festival, celebrating at the time 
of the vernal equinox the resurrection of Christ and the beginning of a new, spiritual life 
(Zcoonoirftelg J« rq> nvevfxan, I St. Peter, III : 18) of Christ and of his Church, thus 
demonstrating, corroborating and proving the truthfulness and correctness of the Sumerian 
resurrection festival, for "if there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hath Christ been 
raised" or again, "if the dead are not raised, neither hath Christ been raised" (I. Cor. XV: 

The Christian lenten and resurrection festivals are in this wise by no means merely 
a "rehash" of Babylonian ideas. This would be misunderstanding the divine will as carried 
out in history. No, no, not a "rehash", but the very culmination and "fulfillment" of the 
wisdom of ages past are the Christian lenten and resurrection festivals. The "truth" which 
the Sumerians dimly recognized while still groping in the dark receives by the death and 
resurrection of Christ its true light, explanation, seal, approval and spiritual significance. 
Christ and the Christian religion not only is, but must and, I am sure, will be recognized, 
more and more, to be what we are told it is: the Tiltfocoua. 

In thus admitting, on the one hand, the exact parallels between the Sumerian and the 
Christian lent and resurrection, and on the other recognizing in the Christian festivals 
the nXiJQw/ua of their predecessors among the Sumerians, we will not stand in any danger of 
losing our faith — on the contrary, the Christian religion will become for us a living reality, 
che last link in the long chain of divine revelations uniting us with the past and into a 
common brotherhood of man, believing the same thing and hoping for the same thing: 
our own resurrection. 

Let us, therefore, be true to ourselves and recognize the divine element even in the 
Sumerian religion, at the same time let us not forget that grand and sublime though the 
Sumerian religion may be, it is but a faint shadow of the light that shines in Christ. This 
"declaration of faith" I am constrained to make publicly here in response to several commu- 
nications and criticisms from certain quarters requesting me to state frankly and honestly 
my position and personal belief with regard to the Sumerian religion in its relation to that 
of the Christians. 

When writing these pages, it was my main desire, within the space (about 60 pages) 
at my disposal, to show that the so-called Dumuzi-Ishtar myth is not confined to one god 
or goddess, but that each and every "Son" and "Mother" of a given Sumerian trinity was 
the Dumuzi and Ishtar. This necessitated my pointing out, whenever desirable or possible, 
the analogies and parallels, the common names, attributes and functions to be found in 
connection with the various „Sons" and „Mothers". In this wise the student will be put, 
it is hoped, into a position to judge for himself how the Sumerian religion originated and 
developed, how certain doctrines were transferred from one "Son" of a given trinity to 


another, and how, lastly, even the "Westland", Canaan, knew of the Dumuzi-Ishtar myth 
as early as the time of the kings of the II dynasty of Ur, about 2500 B. C. This observation 
furnishes also the connecting link between the Sumerian Dumuzi and the Egyptian, Phoe- 
nician, Greek and Latin Osiris, Esmun, Adonis, and last, but not least, the Christian doc- 
trine of the death and resurrection of Christ. 

Nowhere I felt the absence of detailed special investigations as much as in the Su- 
merian Dumuzi-Ishtar myth, which lies at the very foundation and without which an accu- 
rate understanding of the later Osiris and Adonis myth is evidently impossible. This is 
especially true with regard to the time of the wailings for Dumuzi or the "Sumerian lenten 
festival". Upon the suggestion of the Editor, Professor H. V. Hilprecht, I made bold to 
issue my researches on this very moot and greatly disputed question in a special volume 
of Series D. In doing so, it is my fond hope that this investigation will evoke the liveliest 
discussion and criticism by all those scholars who take an interest in such matters — be 
they Oriental, Classical or theological scholars. 

It is, of course, well known and need hardly be reiterated here, that these pages 
would never have seen the light of day, were it not for the continued graciousness and 
liberality of my benefactress Mrs. Sallie Crozer Hilprecht. To her are due the homage and 
gratefulness which rightly belongs to a true patroness of the science of Sumeriology. May 
these pages convince her once more of my lasting, though humble, indebtedness. With 
special sentiments of gratitude and admiration I think also of the continued help and en- 
couragement given me by Professor H. V. Hilprecht. His are truly heroic deeds and sacri- 
fices for the sake of science. May he see his ambition realized and crowned with that reward 
which rightly belongs to him and which, I am proud to say, all true scholars wish him. 
Also to Professor Heinrich Zimmern of Leipzig my sincere gratefulness is due for his kind- 
ness in reading the last proofs of this book and in putting at my disposal the advance 
sheets of his in every respect most admirable "Sumerische KvMieder". I did not know 
how to show my appreciation of his kindness better than by constantly quoting from 
his new book. 

Happy, extremely happy, I am to be permitted to inscribe this volume to our former 
President and Chairman of the Babylonian Department of the University of Pennsylvania, 
Samuel F. Houston, Esq., in grateful remembrance of his most cordial hospitality, 
material help and never failing encouragement continuously bestowed upon me. 

Hugo Kadau. 
Easter Monday, March 24 th , 1913. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 




S. K. T. .. 





Bel, the Christ 


G. T 





B. M 

Creation- Story 

C. T. . . . 
E. B. H. 
E.N. .. 
H. A. V. 
H. W. B. 
J. S. ... 


K. A. T. 3 

K. B. ... 

L. S. S. 


M. V. A. G. 
N. F 

O. L. Z. .. 
P. S. B. A. 


R. A 

. Der Alte Orient, edited by Hugo Winckler and Alfred Jeremias. 

. Paul Haupt, Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte. 

. Beitrage zur Assyriologie, edited by Friedrich Delitzsch and Paul Haupt. 

. "The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania", edited by H. V. Hilprecht. 

. Hugo Radau, "Bel, the Christ of Ancient Times", Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, 1908. 

. Heinrich Zimmern, Der Babylonische Oott Tamuz, reprint from vol. XXVII of the Abhandlungen 
der Philologisch-Historischen Klasse der Konigl. Sdchsischen Oesellschaft der Wissenschajten, 
No. XX, Leipzig, 1909. 

. Rudolph E. Briinnow, "A Classified List of Cuneiform Ideographs". 

. Meissner-Rost, Bauinschriften Sanheribs. 

. "Catalogue of the Babylonian Museum" of the University of Pennsylvania, prepared by H. V. 

. Hugo Radau, "The Creation- Story of Genesis I, a Sumerian Theogony and Cosmogony", Open 
Court Publishing Co., Chicago, 1902 (Out of piint; a second, greatly enlarged and com- 
pletely revised edition is in preparation and will appear shortly). 

. "Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum." 

. Hugo Radau, "Early Babylonian History". 

. Theophilus G. Pinches, "Enlil and Ninlil" in P. S. B. A., March 1911. 

. "Hilprecht Anniversary Volume". 

. Friedrich Delitzsch, Assyrisches Handworterbuch. 

. "Joseph Shemtob Collection" of Babylonian Tablets in the Museum of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, catalogued by H. V. Hilprecht. 

. "Kuyunjuk Collection". 

. Eberhard Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament. Third edition by H. Zimmern and 
H. Winckler. 

. Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, edited by Eberhard Schrader. 

. "Khabaza Collection" of Babylonian Tablets in the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, 
catalogued by H. V. Hilprecht. 

. Leipziger Semitistische Studien, edited by A. Fischer and H. Zimmern. 

. Bruno Meissner, Seltene assyrische Ideogramme. 

. Theophilus G. Pinches, "The Hymns to Tammuz in the Manchester Museum, Owens College". 
Reprint from Vol. 48, Part III., of "Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary 
and Philosophical Society", Session 1903—1904. 

. Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Oesellschaft, edited by H. Winckler. 

. Francois Thureau-Dangin, Tablettes et inscriptions diverges provenant des Nouvelles Fouilles de Telle 

. Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, edited by F. E. Peiser. 

. "Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology". 

. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, "The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia". 

. Revue a" Assyriologie et d'Archiologie Orientale, edited by V. Scheil and Fr. Thureau-Dangin. 






. T 




K. I 













George Reisner, Sumerisch- Babylonische Hymnen. 

James Craig, "Religious Texts". 

Fr. Thureau-Dangin, Die Sumerischen und Akkadischen Konigsinschriften. 

Stephen Langdon, "Sumerian and Babylonian Psalmo". 

Heinrich Zimmern, Sumerisch-babylonische Tamuzlieder, reprint from Berichie der Philologisch- 

Historiachen Klasse der Koniglich Sachsischen Oesellschajt der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. 

LIX Band. Sitzung vom 13. Juli 1907. 
Heinrich Zimmern, Sumerische Kultlieder aus alibabylonischer Zeit, Leipzig, 1912. 
Fritz Hommel, Sumerische Lesestiicke. 
Zeitschrift ]ur Assyriologie, edited by C. Bezold. 



I. Introduction 1-7 

II. Translations, notes and annotations 8-62 

III. Description of tablets 63-66 

A) Autograph reproductions 63-65 

B) Photographic (Halftone) reproductions 66 

C) Numbers of the Catalogue of the Babylonian Museum ..... 66 

IV. Cuneiform Texts . .Plates 1-20 

V. Photographic reproductions ,, I -IX 




There is no myth in any of the known religions which, as regards its importance, can 
be compared with the so-called Dumuzi-Ninanna myth of the early Sumerians. In it are 
rooted not only the later conceptions which the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Latins 
entertained with regard to the death and resurrection of their Osiris, Esmun, Adonis, but 
— and this we may now confidently assert — it forms also the prototype of our Christian 
Lenten season and of the death and resurrection of Christ. It explains why the Lenten season 
terminates the winter, the time of darkness and death, and why it precedes the Easter 
festival which celebrates the resurrection of nature and of Christ. 

In order to understand, from this point of view, the Dumuzi-Ninanna myth more 
accurately and thus be put into a position to appreciate its later developments more thor- 
oughly, I shall try to give here in mere outlines its essential features, leaving its details 
and later accretions for future discussions. 1 

The religion of the Sumerians, together with their conception of the macro-cosmos, 
is but a reflex of their human institutions as given on hand by their micro-cosmos 
or kalam, in which they lived. As this halam or "Babylonia" proper developed, so the 
"world" was thought to have developed. This gives us the maxims: Human society = 
divine society; micro-cosmos or the halam of the Sumerians = macro-cosmos or world. 

The halam, originally one whole', presided over by god An, the "king of the halam", 
very soon came to be looked upon, at a period which is still pre-historic for us, as consisting 
of two parts: a "northern" or "lower" and a "southern" or "upper"" part. The latter was 
represented by the city of Erech with the temple of An: E-an; the former by the city of 
Nippur with the temple of Enlil: E-hur. 

At an other and later period the south was centered in the city of Eridu with the north 
in A-gA or EJA-A, i. e., in "northern Mesopotamia". 

At still other times the north was either the city of Girsu or Kutha or Ahhad or the 
Armenian mountains or the so-called "Westland" or even Elam. At the time of the kings 
of the II dynasty of Ur — the time from which a large portion of the Nippur Temple 

1 For a detailed investigation of the "Time of the Sumerian Lenten or Dumuzi Festival" see B. E., Series D, 
vol. VI. If time permits, I hope to follow this up with a discussion of the "Migration of the Dumuzi-Ninanna 
myth", beginning with the Erech trinity and ending with that of the "Westland", from whence it penetrated to 
the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Latins. 


Library dates —Babylonia as a whole was designated by Ki-en-gi-ki-Uri (= BUR-BUR) 
which the Semites translated by "Shunter and Ahhad", the former being the "southern" 
or "upper" and the latter the "northern" or "lower" part — a designation clearly showing 
that the physical condition of Babylonia played absolutely no role whatever in the selection 
of these names, or else the northern mountaineous regions of Babylonia as, e. g., the Ar- 
menian mountains, Elam, the Westland, would much rather have deserved the name 
"highland" or "upper" part of Babylonia. 

The "southern" part was the region of the "Father" and the "northern" that of the 
"Son"; and as the "north" was also the "great abode" (iri-gal) of the Babylonian gods, 
was, in fact, the "netherworld", the "Son" came to be looked upon as the "lord of the 
netherworld". The first and oldest "lord of the netherworld" was Enlil. The displacing 
of An by Enlil necessitated, of course, a shifting of the "southern" center from Erech to 
Nippur, *'. e., Nippur , during the Enlil period, became what Erech was during that of An: 
the "southern" or "upper" part of Babylonia, with Girsu or Kutha, etc. as the "northern" 
or "lower" part. Hence, the gods of Girsu ( d Nin-Girsu), Kutha ( d Nergal), etc. had ne- 
cessarily to become not only the "Sons" of Enlil, but also and especially the "lords of the 

Similar to the micro-cosmos was the development of the Babylonian macro-cosmos, 
which, though it originally formed but one whole (the An), was later on made to conform 
with its micro-cosmic pattern, becoming an an-Jci, a "heaven" or "upper" and an "earth" 
or "lower" part. But the Sumerians were apparently not satisfied with this, they sub- 
divided the "heaven" as well as the "earth" into two other parts: the "upper" or "southern" 
heaven, i. e., the heaven as it appears during the "summer" half of the year, and the 
"lower" or "northern" heaven, i. e., the heaven as it appears during the "winter" half of 
the year. This latter division applied to the "earth" gives us the "upper" earth as it appears 
to man, or the "earth" in opposition to the "heaven", and the "lower" earth or "nether- 
world". Even the very "netherworld" seems to have been subdivided into an "upper" 
and a "lower" netherworld: an-edin Jci-edin. 

At a still later time the boundaries of Babylonia were so far extended as to include 
not only the Euphrates and the Tigris, but even the "sea of the going down of the sun" 
and the "sea of the rising of the sun", in other words, the Jcalam at this time was a "world" 
which was on all sides surrounded by water. Also this conception was transferred to 
both the macro-cosmos with its "heavenly" and "terrestrial" ocean and to the nether- 
world with its Saltan, which was a river consisting, like the Euphrates and Tigris, of two 
arms, one in the west and one in the east. When entering or leaving the netherworld this 
Sahan had to be crossed, becoming in this wise the prototype of the later "Styx" among 
the Greeks. The conveyance in ships of the Babylonian gods from one temple to the 


other, at the time of the Sumerian Akiti of "New Year's" festival, i. e., at the time, 
of the vernal equinox, is nothing but a symbolic action indicating that the gods have 
crossed the Sahan and, by doing so, have left the netherworld, the region of the north, 
the cold, the winter — a conception revealed in the heavens by the sun crossing the murub- 
an or equator. 

Another division of the Babylonian macro- and micro-cosmos, of the heavens and 
the netherworld is into "seven parts", which seven parts were again modeled after the 
"seven UB" or "DA", i. e., "compartments, divisions, spheres" of Erech. 

The god of the Babylonian kalam was An of Erech, "the god of the totality of heaven 
and earth". At some as yet undefined period of the Sumerian religion An was differen- 
tiated into a husband and wife : An + An — a differentiation still betraying the fact that 
the wife of a god shared with her husband the same name, functions, attributes, and 
even gender. The wife of An, therefore, was not only the "queen" or "goddess of the 
totality of heaven and earth", but also the "lord of heaven and the mistress of earth", 
as is apparent from Zimmern, S.K., p. 32, no. 28: la, where d Innanna, i. e., d Ninanna, 
the wife of An, speaks of herself: an-na u-mu-un-bi me-en hi-a ga-sha-an-bi me-en, "of the 
heaven his lord I am; of the earth her lady I am", a passage showing that Ishtar — 
and for that matter any other god or goddess — is both male and female, and that the 
"heaven" and the "earth", the two parts of the Babylonian macro-cosmos, stand in the 
relation of "male" and "female", or "husband" (umun = en) and "wife" (gaslian = nin), 
thus forming the prototype of the Greek ovyavbs xal yala. 1 Cf. also M. V. A.G., 1908, 
p. 220/29, where Gashan-anna tells us that she has received into her hands the E-an-na 
E-ki-a, "the house of heaven and earth", identifying herself (1. 22) with Enlil and Ninlil, 
the "lord" and "lady" of heaven and earth during the Enlil period of the Sumerian religion. 

This "heaven" and "earth": an + an, or an + ki, or differentiated into En (Umun)- 
an + Nin (Gashan)-an and translated into Semitic by An-um — An-tum were the first 
divine pair, the first "father-mother" (ama-a-a) or parents, the begetters and creators of 
everything. They had a "Son" (dumu): the god LU, later on differentiated into En-lil 
and Nin-lU, the well-known gods of Nippur. This son was the original, only and "true 
son" (Dumu-zi) — thus called to distinguish him from the later sons of An who usurped 
the role of Enlil, such as d IM, d MAR-TU, d En-zu, etc. Enlil was, as his name indicates, 
the "god of the powers of nature", i. e., of thunder, lightning, storm, clouds, rain, and 
thus necessarily the "god of the fertility of the ground". An, the heaven, as "Father", 
Enlil, the god of the powers of nature, as "Son", and Nin (Gashan)-an, the earth, as 
"Mother", constitute the members of the first and oldest trinity in the religion of the 

1 See also "Bel, the Christ of ancient times", pp. 21 ff. 


Sumerians — a trinity, without which an accurate understanding of the so-called Dumuzi- 
Nihanna myth is evidently impossible. 

The origin of this myth is to be sought in the city of Erech (Iriki), signifying in 
Sumerian merely "city", "abode". Here was the temple of An, called t-an, which was 
the "sphere of influence" of both An and Nin (Gashan)-an, the latter being, therefore, 
very often called Nin (Gashan)-t-anna, "the mistress of the house of An". This name, 
together with that of Nin (Gashan)-anna, are the two foremost ones, in the texts here 
published, by which the later Ishtar is known. 

The significance of this myth does not offer any difficulties, provided we accept the 
above offered explanation with regard to Dumu-zi, "the true 'Son' ", as the god of the 
"powers of nature", and Gashan-an, the "Mother", as the goddess of the "earth". The 
Dumuzi-Ninanna myth, then, treats of the relation of the "Mother", or "earth", to 
the "Son", as the god of the "fertility of the ground". 

This Nin-anna appears in our texts soon as "virgin" (ki-el), and soon as "mother" 
(ama), "sister" (SAL-KU = ahat), { or "bride" (dam) of Dumuzi, while the latter is 
termed either the "youthful one" (kal, kal-tur), or „brother" (ses), "son" (dumu), and 
"husband" (mu-tan-na) of Nin-anna. 

These very names, it would seem, should suffice for a correct understanding of this 
myth. Nin-anna is the "Mother", because she bore, as the wife of An, Dumuzi. But she 
is, or may become, the "wife" also of her own beloved "Son", i. e., she as "earth" enters 
every year, at the time of the early spring, into wedlock with the god of "rain" or of the 
"fertility of the ground", in consequence of which she becomes pregnant and produces 
the "vegetation" or the "new life of nature". This production of the new life of nature 
is described partly as a "resurrection" and partly as a "giving of birth". Though the actual 
wedlock took place in the "netherworld", i. e., in the "north" where there is the "mountain 
of the gods", it was celebrated or re-enacted upon "earth" in the various temples, and re- 
vealed in the "heavens". Up to the time of the vernal equinox Nin-anna was a "virgin", 
appearing in the heavens as "virgo" ; with the occurrence of the equinox this virgin becomes 
the "Mother", the "creatrix and bearer of everything", revealing herself in the heavens 
as the "sublime lady" ( d Nin-mah), who holds a "babe" in her arms which she nourishes. 
Who or what this babe is, is not difficult to explain: it is the personified vegetation (spica), 
the new-born creation, the "resurrected" and hence "new-born god of vegetation". No 
wonder, then, that before the IV century A. D., some Christian sects believed that Christ 
was born at the end of March, and that, though this belief was later on discarded in favor 
of the 25. of December, the Christian Church saw fit to compromise on this question 
by naming the first Sunday after Easter quasi modo geniti, "like the new-born babes". 

1 Cf. the gloss a-hat in C. T., XXIV, 11: 40 (see also 24: 56); XXV, 24a: 10 = 246, II: 19. 


The two-fold idea of Nin-anna's being a "virgin" and "mother" we still find in our 
modern "virgin soil" and "mother earth". 

The remaining peculiarity according to which Nin-anna was also the "sister" of 
Dumuzi, is due mainly to the fact that the Sumerians considered the husband and wife 
to be "one". From this it follows that Nin-anna had to become, as "bride" of Dumuzi, 
the "daughter" of An, just as Dumuzi himself was the "son" of An. Dumuzi and Nin- 
anna, then, as husband and wife, are the "son" and "daughter" of An, and hence "brother" 
and "sister". 

Later on, when the myth of Dumuzi and Nin-anna was transferred to the "Son" and 
"Mother" of the various other Sumerian trinities, it came to pass that Nin-anna or Ishtar 
as well as Dumuzi or Tamuz were looked upon as the "son" and "daughter", of each and 
every god who happened to play, in a particular city, the role of the "Father". This 
is the reason for the various and manifold genealogies of both Ishtar and Tamuz which 
make them the "daughter" and "son" of An, Enlil, Enzu, Enki (abzu), Ningishzida, 
etc., etc., and for their being identified with practically each and every "Mother" and 
"Son" of the Sumerian trinities. 

The above mentioned wedlock of Dumuzi and Nin-anna is, however, only one of 
the two relations in which they stand. The texts published in this volume do not refer 
to this marriage at all. On the contrary, we find that the "mother", "bride" and "sister" 
of Dumuzi is pictured in them as being on her way to or through the "netherworld" in 
search for her "beloved", who is described as being "dead", having taken up his abode 
x n the Sumerian hades — a locality or state referred to by extremely interesting and highly 
descriptive names. While on her way to the "abode of Dumuzi", Nin-anna passes the so- 
called "street full of wailing" (sil a-si-ga) continually crying out a, or a-a, or u-a, or wa-wa, 
i. e., "alas", or "how long still", or "when at last", sc, "shall I be joined to my beloved?" 
Numerous and difficult are the obstacles which Nin-anna has to overcome until she at 
last is permitted to find her "beloved", with whom she enters the "bridal chamber". 
The meaning of this episode in the myth is plain. 

Dumuzi, the god of the "fertility of the ground", is "dead" (dig) or "powerless" 
(u-lci ) during the winter, at which time he was thought to have descended into the nether- 
world, situated in the north. The necessary consequence of this impotency on the part 
of the "god of the fertility of the ground" was the barrenness of the earth or mother. The 
earth is barren during the winter season and, as the winter corresponds to the north, Nin- 
anna likewise is said to be in the north, where there is the netherworld, hoping, longing 
and praying to be united with her "beloved" in holy wedlock and thus be able to produce 
the new verdure, the new life of nature. 

These observations alone would justify us in maintaining that the so-called "waitings 


of Nin-anna for Dumuzi", which are the subject of the tablets here published, must have 
taken place some time during the winter season. Elsewhere I have shown that the 6 th 
month of a year beginning with the autumnal equinox was the month of the "wailings for 
Dumuzi". This 6 th month corresponded to our February-March and was called Ululu, 
from which we have the Greek ulo'K-v £cu and the Latin ulul-are — terms frequently used in 
connection with the wailings of Aphrodite for Adonis. Now, as the resurrection of 
Dumuzi falls at the time of the vernal equinox, and as the wailings for Dumuzi take place 
in the month immediately preceding it, we may confidently assert, that these two features 
of the Dumuzi-Ninanna myth constitute the prototype of the Christian Lenten and Re- 
surrection festivals. Both have for their basis the annual barrenness of nature and its 
resurrection to new life, and both are nature and spring festivals. 

But each and every festival, though primarily given on hand by the immutable laws 
of nature, was at one time or another connected with actual, historical facts. The Christian 
lenten and resurrection festivals were connected with the actual and historical death and 
resurrection of Christ. The same is true of the Sumerian lenten and resurrection festivals. 
Again and again Nin-anna complains about the "enemies" and "dogs" who have invaded 
Babylonia, defiled and destroyed its cities and temples, asking and praying that these 
her cities and temples "be again restored". 

Thanks to the tablets of the Nippur Library, we know now who these "enemies" 
and "dogs" were and whence they came. They were the "hords" from the north of Baby- 
lonia: the Guti, Lulubi, Elamites etc., etc. 

The macro-cosmic barrenness of the earth during the winter corresponds exactly 
to the destruction of Babylonia as micro-cosmos — a destruction which is wrought by the 
people from the north, the region of the winter and of the netherworld. To overcome this 
enemy, Dumuzi, like the later Nin-ib of the Nippur trinity, has to go to the north and 
smite this foe of Babylonia. And he does. As soon as this northern enemy is overcome, 
the rebuilding and dedication of the Babylonian cities and temples may and does take 
place. The destruction of the temples and cities represents the historical micro-cosmic 
lent; the dedication of the temples the historical micro-cosmic resurrection, while the "wai- 
lings" of Nin-anna, from this point of view, are nothing but the appeal of her "lamen- 
tation men" and "women" to the generosity and liberality of the Babylonian kings and 
faithful ones to open their purses and make a most liberal offering at "Easter (Ishtar)- 
time". This having been complied with, the gods, more particularly the "Son" and 
"Bride", can again take up their abode in the restored and dedicated temples, be re-united, 
and enter into holy wedlock. 

This conception, it is needless to say, introduced into the Dumuzi-Ninanna myth 
quite a new feature: — a fight between the "enemy from the north" and the "god of the 


powers of nature". And seeing that the north was also the region of the netherworld, this 
fight of Dumuzi acquired very soon a mythological significance — it was looked upon as a 
fight between the "powers of nature" and the "powers of darkness" (gumbaba): the winter, 
the cold, mythologically pictured as a serpent (sahan). It became a fight between the 
winter and spring, between darkness and light, between death and life — a fight such as 
took place not only at the "beginning of the world", when Marduk overcame Tiamat, or 
when Jahveh conquered Rahab-Liviathan, but a fight which is repeated every year, month 
(Enzu as Dumuzi) and day (Utu as Dumuzi) until the end of the world. 

The outcome of this fight is well-known: the enemy from the north as well as the 
mythological foe is overcome; Dumuzi the god of the powers of nature remains victorious. 
Also this victory is revealed in the heavens by the appearance, at the time of the Sumerian 
resurrection festival, i. e., at the time of the vernal equinox, of the star En-te-na- 
MASH (BAR)-SfG (LUM), informing the faithful upon earth that now the dragon, the 
winter, the cold (en-te-na) has been conquered, that its rulership has come to an end and 
that, in consequence of this victory, the new life, the new creation, the resurrection 
has not only been made possible but has become an actual fact. 

Dumuzi having overcome the foes of Babylonia — both historical and mythological — 
receives as a reward the power to "judge" the universe, its living and its dead. The vernal 
equinox with the sign libra tells us that this his judgment is one of absolute justice and 
equity: it is as evenly balanced as is the day and night as this time. 


No. 1. C. B. M. 11393. 

This tablet contained originally several songs of Nin-anna, the "mother", "sister" 
and "bride" of Dumuzi. 

In the first song Nin-anna complains and bewails the destruction of her various 
and well-known cities and temples. Only one of the names of the cities is preserved, viz., 
Nippur, col. I : 16. The uru-mu, "my city", 1. 15, is here 1 in all probability Erech, "the 
city" par excellence and seat of the oldest Sumerian or pre-historic 2 trinity: An — Enlil — 

The following names of temples are still visible: 

DUR-AN-KI and E-DUR-AN-KI, col. 1:16, 18, "(house of) the band 3 of 
heaven (and earth)". For fi-Dur-an {-hi or na), the temple (esh) and ziggurrat of 
Nippur, see "Bel, the Christ", p. 21; H. A. V., p. 413, 3; Hilprecht, "Excavations 
in Bible Lands", p. 462; Zimmern, S. K., p. 9, no. 5, II : 13 ; also see below, 
note 1; and for d Dur-an-ki = d Dur-an = "En-lil, see C. T., XXTV, 39 : 4; 22 : 104. d Dur- 
an(-ki, na) was the father (a-li-du-ush) of d Nin-an-na, i.e., of Ishtar as d Nin-gal and 
wife of d En-zu, K. 9955 + Rm. 613 (Bezold, "Cat." 1053); of d Ne-iri-gal = Nergal, H. A. V., 
p. 428; and of "PA-KU = Nusku, K. 3285 (Bezold, "Cat." 520, where, however, Gu-an-ki 
is a mistake for Dur-an-ki). This name, though originally belonging to Enlil as "Son" 

1 Just as E-an, during the Enlil period of the Sumerian religion, became the name of the temple of Nippur 
(E-kur), so did uru come to signify Nippur; cf. H. A. V., pp. 410, note 2; 413; 443, note 19; notice also that the 
d Nin-Nibru K , "the mistress of Nippur" and wife of Nin-ib, appears in C. T., XXIV, 49a: 3 = XXV, 1:3 = 296: 1 
as d Nin-uru, the wife of d 6u-an-ni-si-il = d *- «•- "* IB, i. e., Nin-ib, C. T., XXV, 13: 35. See also B. E., XXVII, 
no. 1, I: 1, 2 = Pinches, E. N. (P. S. B. A., 1911, p. 85), I : 1, 2, \uru-ki-na\-nam (var. Dur-an-lci) uru-ki-na-nam 
na-an-dur-ru-ne-en-ne, Nibru H uru-ki-na-nam na-an-dur-ru-ne-en-ne, "in the 'city', in the 'city' they dwell; in 
Nippur, the 'city', they dwell". 

2 For the various periods in the history of the Sumerian religion see "B61, the Christ", pp. 4ff. ; H. A. V., 
pp. 410ff.; B.E., XXIX, pp. 13ff. 

3 For the significance of the "band of heaven" = that part of the heaven which has the north-pole (an-sha(g)- 
ga) for its center with the tropic of capricornus (time before Nabonassar) as its periphery, see B. E., SeriesD, vol. VI. 
This was pre-eminently the domain of the m<w mar-gi(d)-da (Kugler, Sternk., I, 249 = ursa major; Dhorme, 
B. A., VIII, p. 47, III: 30 = grand mat) which ever revolves around the north pole. The opposite of the "band 
of heaven" is the "band of earth". The intervening part is the "zodiac" (gdn) with the "equator" (murub-an) and 
the "ecliptic" [ul-gdn), presided over by Sin, Shamash and Ishtar, H. A. V., p. 421. cf. also below, p. 25, note 6. 


of the An trinity, was later on transferred to the "Son" of the Enlil trinity, Ninib, who, 
therefore, is said to hold the markas (= dur) AN u KI, "the band of heaven and earth", 
Ann. of Ashshurnasirapal, I : 2; cf. also the d KU (= dur = markas, so better than egi, 
B. E., XXIX, 29, 41)-an-na and d KU-ki-ta among the several Nin-ib names, C. T., XXV, 
14 : 14, 15, who are also the first two of the eight children of d Ne-gun, C. T., XXIV, 24 : 114. 

Even the "Son" of the En-zu trinity at Ur, d Utu, acquired the title "band of heaven 
and earth" as is apparent from II R., 50 : 19 a, where the ziggurrat of Shamash at Larsa 
is called E-Dur-an-ki. 

ESH-E-AN-NA, col. 1 : 17, the well-known "temple of An", the "habitation of Anu and 
Ishtar" at Erech, K. B., VI 1 , p. 128 : 37. Ishtar appears accordingly very often under 
the name of ( d )Gashan-E-an-na, i. e., "lady of E-an". In Semitic translations E-an-na 
is rendered by E-A-A-AG 1 — a name, the meanning of which is not yet apparent. In 
B. E., XXVII, no. 1, IV: 26, this temple of Ishtar is referred to as E-an-na E-ub-7-ne 
1-gi ii-di il-la, i. e., "the E-anna, the house of the seven spheres, whose seven gl (compart- 
ments ?) are full of splendor". In this E-an-na there was an IB, which could and was 
burned; 2 Ishtar herself was called d Innanna IB-gal, 3 i.e., "Ishtar (of) the great IB". 4 

Though E-an-na was originally the temple of An and Ishtar at Erech, yet in course 
of time it came to stand for "temple" in general. We find an E-an at Nippur. 6 Gudea 
built an E-an-na in Girsu 6 for iid Innanna, the mistress of the lands" (nin kur-kur-ra), into 
which he brings the statue called "the life of Gudea, who has built this temple, may be 
long". 7 On account of this fact Gudea ascribes to himself the proud title "builder of the 
E-an-na". s Also Dungi, king of Ur, restored {ki-gi) and erected the great wall (bdd-gal) 
of an E-an-na for " d Innanna, the mistress of E-an-na, his mistress", 9 but it is not clear 
whether this E-an-na was that of Erech or of Ur. Singashid, king of Erech, builds 10 (ba-dim) 
the E-an-na of his capital and enumerates among his titles that of "caretaker of E-an-na". 11 
Even in the city of Mar there seems to have been a temple E-an-na, for according to 

1 R. H., p. 116 (no. 64): 6, 7; A. S. K. T., p. 126, no 21 (= M. V. A. G., 1908, p. 220): 29, 30, here followed 
by E-ki-a = E-An-ti. A correction of E-An-ti into E-KI-ti (Hommel, S. L., p. 40) is not necessary, seeing that 
Antu (= Nin-anna) is the "earth", yata, forming with An = "heaven", ovQavdi, the "Father" and "Mother" of 
the Erech trinity, see "Bel, the Christ", p. 28 c; B. E., XXIX, 16. 

2 Urukagina, Tontafel, Obv., IV: 5. 

3 Eannatum, St. Vult., IV: 22; V: 27, cf. Witzel, O.L.Z., Aug. 1911, Sp. 337. 

4 Cf. here also the IB-LU azag ama E-sha(b)-ba (-an), one of the several names of Ishtar, e. g., no. 2: 43; 
H. A. V., no. 14: 20. 

B See references on p. 8, note 1. 

6 Statue C, III: 12, E-an-na sha(g) Gir-su^-ka; Steintafel A; 7, E-an-na Gir-su^-ka. 

7 Statue C, IV: 3. 

8 Statue C, I : 5, gain E-an-na in-du-a. 

9 Steintafel G, Iff., d Innanna, nin E-an-na, nin-a-ni. 

10 Backstein A, 4, 5, cf. Tonnagel, 9. 

11 Tonnagel, 8, u-a E-an-na. 


H.A. V., no. 3 : 17 (p. 439), the "mistress of Mar" 1 cries out: "Exalted one, my abode, 
which has been destroyed, my [6-an-na, 2 may it be restored to its place".] 

d Bi-li-li, the sister of Dumuzi, calls herself "in E-an-na the powerful one I am", 3 while 
Dumuzi himself had the name d Lugal- E-an-na, "king of fi-an-na". i For the various trans- 
lations E-an-na may be capable of, see B. E., XXIX, p. 10, note 7. Other references to 
the E-an-na in old Sumerian texts may be found in no. 9, III : 15; C. T., XV, 19 : 5; 26 : 6; 
Zimmern, S. K., p. 46, no. 50 :3a {esh E-an-na, in connection with Erech, Kullab); 
p. 49, no. 58 : lb; p. 54, no. 68 : 19, here in connection with Ishtar as "bride" of Sin 
C'Nanna), "the lord, the king, the son of Ami" (u-mu-un lugal dumu An-na, 1. 26) — the 
only passage, so far, in which Sin appears as "son of An!" 

GIBUR-7, col. I : 19. Notice here the absence of esh or E. 5 For the reading bur of 
the sign KISAL, 6 see H. A. V., p. 432, note 7; cf. now also Thureau-Dangin, R. A., VII, 
p. 109, note 3 and especially I. c, IX, p. 79, where the sign ^ has undoubtedly the 
reading par. 1 In R. H., p. 116 (no. 64) : 8, the \Gl-bur\-l -na is explained by J gi-pa-ru 
t-ru-[uk], "the g. of Erech", 8 while in N.F., AO 4334, etc., F. 1:8; II : 5,6, there 
follows immediately upon u-ru Ku-la-db the name Gi-ba-ri-na-mi-na — a writing con- 
sisting apparently of gibari + na(= anna, see below, note 1) + imina, i.e., "the seven 
giparu of the universe", and which in R. H., p. 100 : 34, appears as Gi-bur-T -an-[na] 9 
and in Zimmern, S. K., p. 42, no. 39 : 4a, as the g%- ^Ef (= pdr)-7 shu-ub-ba, "the seven 
beautiful g." For the various .writings of gi-bur see B. E., XXIX, p. 10 note 7, where 

1 dNIN-Mar kl haa to be read according to Zimmern, S. K., p. 48, no. 53: 60, I-ni-Ma-ar**, a writing showing 
that NIN had also the pronunciation ini. Innanna, Innana, Inninna is, therefore, = In(n)i -\- an(n)a; Innina = 
In(n)i -\- na (for na = anna see H. A. V., p. 407, 4). A further abreviation of no (= anna) to "»" we have in 
In-nin which has been Semiticized into In-nin-ni(nu) = In(n)i-Anu(i) and into In-nin-na-at (= In{n)i -)- anna 
-j- at) Hani = "mistress of the 'god of the gods'", Perry, Sin, IV: 1. This observation explains also the reason 
why there should be used after d Innanna two postfixes, "Creation-Stoiy", p. 13, 3, 4: — because the word means 
"mistress of An"; see already Thureau-Dangin, Lettres et Controls, p. 616. For Ini-Mar in the role of Ishtar see 
also Zimmern, I. c, p. 51, no. 64. 

2 For the emendation cf. H. A. V., p. 443, note 19. 

3 No. 3: 8, 42, E-an-na-shu ii-tjur-ru me-en. 

4 G. T., XXV, 39c: 2, here followed immediately by d Lugal-sa-par = Umun-sa-par, one of the well-known 
names of Dumuzi. While C. T., XXV, 39c: 1 — 20, contain Dumuzi names, there begin with 1. 21 those of Ishtar, 
cf. e. o., 1. 22, d Nin-ki-shu\b-ba~\, "mistress of the beautiful place ( = harem)", or perhaps simply "beautiful lady" 
(cf. ki-shub with lci-ag). 

5 So also in C. T., XV, 25: 54. 

e The ^ Uh bur{= KISAL), Gudea, Cyl. B, 111:19 et passim, is merely a variant of <«* A 6wr, mentioned 
in H. A. V., p. 392: 30, while the £-bur is the "house where the bur is kept or preserved", cf. the E-ru-ia-nun, 
"the house of honey and cream (butter)". A translation "Tempel des Vorhofes" (Cyl. A, IV: 5) is unintelligible 
to me. Cf. already, B. E., XXIX, p. 84, 23. 

7 Cf. in this connection the writing u-mu-un sa-\^Z^ (= par), Zimmern, <S. K., p. 29, no. 26, VI: 36, with 
u-mu-un «a-fg=^ (= bur), I. c, p. 30, no. 27, II: 3; p. 45, no. 45: la, 6c. 

8 Cf. M. 6710, Gi-pa-ru-7 = U-ru-uk. 

9 M. 6709 emends to Gl-pdr-7 H = Erech. 



it is mentioned that the ziggurrat of Erech had the name E-gl-bur-7, while Erech itself 
was called Gl-par-7 ki . Cf. here also the 7-gl (an abbreviation of 7 -gl-bur 'i) in connection 
with the temple E-an-na, mentioned above, p. 9. 

Bur-Sin, king of Ur, built a gl-bur for d Nanna-Karzida at Ur, 1 which in B. E., XXVII, 
no. 1, III : 47, is termed esh Gl-bur-zu el-e gar-ra, "thy house, the g., beautifully built". 
Also Libit-Ishtar, king of Isin, erected an E-gl-bur, 2 but it is not evident where and for 
whom. Entemena 3 and Urukagina, 4 patesis of Lagash, built an E-gi(sh)-pu-ra for Nin- 
Girsu at Lagash. The "lord (umun) of the E-gl-par", i. e., Dumuzi, 5 is mentioned in 
R. H., p. 120 : 12. According to AO 2539, 6 d lnnanna was called win Gl-bur-ra-ge, "the 
mistress of the g." In no. 9, II : 21, there appears as Ga-sha-an Gl-bur-ra a goddes [. .]-ba, 
— a name, which in all probability was originally [''Nin-tin-dibyba, 1 though the space seems 
rather small for such an emendation. From the fact, lastly, that gi-par-r[u] forms one 
group 8 with gi-gu-nu-u, "paradise, beautiful place, bridal chamber", and ki-is-su = £plf, 
i. e., "the house where one passes the 'night'", hence a syn. of bit ekleti, "house of darkness", 
the habitation of d Irkalla, it becomes evident that the gipar is not only a "chamber", 
but more particularly a "chamber" in which Ishtar and Dumuzi pass the "(wedding)- 
night"; and as "7" has also the meaning kishshatu, "totality", the Gl-bur-7-an-na or the 
Gi-ba-ri-na-mi-na had most likely the significance "bridal chamber of the totality (whole) 
of the universe", i. e., the bridal chamber par excellence — surely, a most becoming name 
for the bridal chamber of Erech, the seat of the Sumerian religion. That this name, like 
E-an, should later on have been transferred to the bridal chamber of other cities, is only 
natural and in keeping with the development of the Sumerian religion. For other occur- 
rences, in ancient Sumerian texts, see Zimmern, S. K., p. 13, no. 8, II : 41, Gl-bur-ra; 
p. 17, no. 12, II : 9, p. 26, no. 26, IV : 10, 11, gl-bur; p. 27, no. 26, II : 9, 10, ma-Gl-bur-ra, 
"house of the g."; 1. c, 15, 16, gl-bur; p. 51, no. 64, I : 2, E-Gl-bur-a. 

ME-NAM-NUN-NA, "the house (E omitted) of the commands of (my) ladyship", 
col. I : 20 — an otherwise unknown temple of Ishtar. 9 

E-GV-AN-NI-SI-SIB{tDIB'i)-BA{t), col. I : 21. The sign sib (a Semitism for imin 
= 7 ?) is doubtful; it may be dib, i. e., the "Gu-an-ni-si of the 'dead' ", in the sense of "nether- 

1 See inscriptions of Bur- Sin, passim. 

2 Tonnagel, I: 14. 

3 Tiirangtlstein D, 6, 9. 

4 Turangelstein, 39 ; Steintafel, II : 3. 

5 Cf. Zimmern, 8. K., p. 40, no. 35, Rev., I: 10, en-zu gi-bUr-ta ba-ra-l-a, "thy lord, who has left the g". 

6 Thureau-Dangin, R. A., VII, p. 109, 3. 

7 Cf. also no. 9, I: 4, [ d Nin-tin-dib]-ba e-gi su-ub An-na-ge, "N., the glorious (mashshti) mistress of An". 

8 C. T., XVIII, 26: 32, of. Meissner, Ass. Stud., Ill, 7, 8. 

9 N.F., AO 4334, etc., Face 1:6, has to be emended to sig Unu(g)[ H -ga-za] me-nam-[tush-tush-te] rather 
than to me-nam-[nun-na], i. e., "within the walls of thy Erech, when at last wilt thou (= Dumuzi) take up thy 
abode?" Cf. /. c, 11. 2—5, 8. 



world". In B. E., XXVII, no. 1, IV : 27, a Gu-an-ni-si-7-e appears as the name of the 
"temple of d Innanna of Erech", 1 and in I. c, VII : 29, as that of the "temple of d Ni- 
in-si-na of l-si-in^-na" 2 — which represents, apparently, another transfer of the name 
of the Erech temple to that of the city of Isin. In B. E., XXVII, no. 1, VI : 25 (cf. 26), 
Gu-an-ni-si is the name of a temple of the "great child of Sin, the holy Ishtar" (dumu-gal 
d En-zu-na azag d Innanna-ge), who according to 1. 33, is the "beautiful Ishtar of Erech" 
( d Innanna-shub Unu(g) ki -a), i. e., the "Ishtar of Hallabi". According to this passage 
we ought to correct the E-sag( ?)-[. — . — . ] of Arad-Sin, Kanephore, I : 11 ( = V. A. B., 
I, p. 214) into E-Gu-\an-ni-si\ with the result that this name, like the Gl-bur above, be- 
comes a syn. of Gi-gun. 

The "mother of the Gu-an-ni-si" is Ishtar under the name of d En-d-nun. 3 In R. H., 
p. 86 : 52 = V R., 52, 11:17, this d En-d-nun ( d shu-ma) arm Gu-ni (sic! without an)- 
si-ge stands between Gashan-tt^-gal ama KuUab kl and Umun- d ^^Wi (var. d Umun-^S>^) 
amar za-gin-na. The same succession of names, with their Semitic equivalents, we find 
in R. H., p. 91 : 19 ff., which has to be emended as follows: 

19. [Gashan-tt^-gal ' ama KUL]-unu{g)[ ki -ge] 

20. [ d Belit-Irkatti um]-mi(\) shu-ma {i.e., Kullab) 

21. [ d En-d-nun ama] Gu-[an-ni-si-ge] 

22. [ d Gu-la] um(\)-mi(\) Ish-ta-[ri-tum] 

23. [Umun- d NINDA-GUD] amar za-gin-[na] 

24. [bel d shu-ma] ma-ri el-lum. 

InC.B.M. 112 :3 (unpubl.) the En-a (sicl)-nu-un egi( = ffUG) ur-ku-7, i. e., "the mistress 
of the seven dogs" 4 is mentioned between Ga-sha-an I-ri h -ga-al a-ma Ku-ul-la-ba and the 

1 Being here in parallelism with the E-an-na E-ub-7-ne 7-gi u-di il-la (1. 26), for which see above pp. 9, 11. 

2 Preceded in 1. 28 by its other name E-[.]-amash-7-e. 

3 No. 2: 44 = Zimmern, S. K., p. 22, no. 25, II: 12, where she is mentioned between the IB-LU (cf. p. 13, 
note 4) azag ama E-sha(b)-ba and the Ga-sha-an-SHV-VQ-OE-mar-ra ki-azag-ga, which last named two goddesses 
follow upon each other in H. A. V., no. 14: 20, 21, thus omitting the En-a-nun. In R. H., p. 89: 11 = 93: 8, 
[ d En-a-nu]n ama Git-an-ni-si-ge is preceded by[IB-LU azag] ama £-sha(b)-ba-ge but followed by the [Gashan-E-gal- 
mak] Gashan-E-RAB-RI-RI and the Gashan-E-SHU-UG-GE-mar-ra gashan ki-azag-ga-ga(ge). 

4 Notice in this connection that in the celebrated psalm Sm. 954: 11, 12, Ishtar is said to be an ur-bar-ra 
= bar-ba-ru, "wild dog", and that in Zimmern, S.K., p. 7, no. 4, 1: 33, 34, she has, as the Ka-sha-na-na (= Gashan- 
Ana), the attributes e-gi Ka-sha-kur-ilr (= var. of ur)-ku-ge, "lady, mistress of the land of dogs" and Ka-sha-an- 
kur-ur ( = ur)-ba-ra-ge" , mistress of the land of the wild dogs". This "land" (kur = irsitum) is here, as elsewhere, 
the "netherworld" with the seven "watch-dogs", the later "Kerbtros". 

5 This writing is of the highest importance, showing us that the sign >t3 had also the reading iri. Further- 
more, if we compare C. B. M. 112:7, U-mu-un-I-ri-ga-al gu-si-sa [ ] (followed by Ir.ra-ga-al gu-si-sa [ ]),with the 
parallel passages in R. H., p. 86: 57, [Umun-&Q^]-la umun d-gi(d)-da (followed by d Ir-ra-gal gu-a-nu-sa) and 
in Zimmern, 8. K., p. 16, no. 11, III: 6, U-mu-un-< $T^ { (sic\)-gal u-mu-un E (sic<)-gi(d)-da (followed by d Ir-ra-gal 
ku-a-nu-si), we will have to admit that also the sign UNU[G) = > ^«< J had a value iri. These observations help 
us to explain the following: 


Ma-su(d) in-da-ag-ra mu-u-ri-na, while in Zimmern, S. K., p. 16, no. 11, III : 1, the 
"En-d-nun arm Gu-an-ni-si is followed by 'NINDA-GUD 1 amar zag 2 -gi(n). In C.T., XXV 

The Umun-Iri-gal, generally identified with d N k-iri-gal or with d Mes-lam-ta-£-a, and translated by 
be-lu ina Kl-tim, "lord in the 'earth'" (-R. H., p. 20: 20, 21), is none other than the d Irkalla, the "god of the iri- 
gal" or "gr eat abode", the "house of Dumuzi" (M. 3292), the "Arallu" or "netherworld" (M. 3290, 3291), or also 
called the btt ek-le-ti shu-bat d Ir-kal-la, "the house of darkness (». e., the house, where the 'time of darkness' = 
night, winter, death, is spent, cf. ki-is-su, above, p. 11), the dwelling of (the god of) Irkalla", K. B., VI 1 , p. 188: 29; 
Zimmern, K. A. T. 3 , pp. 636, 637, note 1. 

The Hebrew ^-ix = U-ru-uk, Erech, represents a good Sumerian reading and tradition: Unu(g) ki -ga 
= Uruig^-ga = Iri ii -g(k)a. 

The name of Nergal, generally read d Ni-unu(g)-gal, must henceforth be transcribed by d Ni-iri-gal = 
^5*13 = "the strength (strong one) of the great abode", i. e., iri-gal becomes thus a syn. of E-gi(d)-da, "the exten- 
ded house" = d-gi(d)-da, where the a ought to be read e or % = "house", rather than "strength". Notice also that 
d Ninazu = Dumuzi, the husband of Ereshkigal, appears inC. B.M. 112: 12, as the U-mu-un-a-zu u-mu-un E (sic!)- 
g\i-da\, for which the parallel passages have Umun-d (sic!)-za umun d-gi(d)-da = [be-el]E-shu-[ma}, R.H., p. 138: 
102, 103 = 134, II: 16, 17 = 86: 6. An E-gi(d)-da, belonging to d Ninazu of IM U , is mentioned also in B. E., 
XXVII, no. 1, IV: 6. 

Iri-gal is a variant also of urn-gal or eri-gal, "the great city", cf. Zimmern, S. K., p. 59, no. 79: 9, where 
d Mes-lam-ta- e-a ( = Nergal) is referred to as alim-ma ur-sag u-mu-un uru (eri)-gal, "hero, warrior, lord of the 'great 

Lastly, the name d AB-U, by which Ninib and Dumuzi are designated, ought to be read d Iri-sham, "the 
irrigator" = "fructifier", thus called as the "god of the fertility of the ground", cf. "Bel, the Christ", p. 16, note 8. 

1 According to this passage the ^3^M of B. H., p. 86:53, and the EyFf of V R., 52, II: 17, has to be cor- 
rected into ^2^J1_, which is generally re&dNINDA-GUD, but which, according to C.B.M. 112: 4, had the reading 
ma-su(d) in-da-ag-ra. Ma-su{d) is in all probability merely a variant of >-f- -su(d) = massu, appearing here as a 
syn. of umun, "lord". If this be true, then the in-da-ag-ra must represent the NINDA-OUD. Seeing that OUD 
has also the value har, the in-da-ag-ra may consist of in-da = NINDA -(- gra = gara = har(a); for the interchange 
of "</" and "h", see Fossey, //. A. V., p. 114: 19. NIN = in may be explained by supposing that NIN had also 
the value in (shortened from ini, see above, p. 10, note 1), or that in-da stands for e( = NIN)-da, dissimilated into 
enda = inda. As regards the mu-u-ri-na — amar za (zag)-gin(gi(n)), I am at a loss to suggest any definite explana- 
tion. Is mu-u-ri-na composed of mu-u-r = (a)mar — marum, "child" (M. 6821) -f- rin(a), a syn. of za-gint Notice 
that J| , rin, guW is also = E^^ JilsT , il, gur; but in no. 4: 39, 40, IL has apparently avalue in "-n". Is rin = za- 
gin = IL = "-n" = shapti,, ellu ? Or is mu-u-ri-na = mu-u-r -f- na ( = anna, cf. gi-ba-ri-na = gibar-anna, above, 
p. 10), conveying the idea that Ma-su(d) in-da-ag-ra is a "son of An (and Enlil)", like d IM, with whom he is iden- 
tified according to C. T., XXIV, 10: 14? 

Notice in this connection that NINDA-GUD (St. Vult., Rev., I: 40) is = GUD-NINDA (Gudea, Cyl. B, 
XV: 9), and cf. B. H., p. 19: 14, 15, where it is said of Nergal (Vmun-iri-gal-la = d U-GUB) that he is the GUD- 
NINDA sd-da ( = var. of sa-ga, shd(g) = damqu, banu) = mi-ri ba-nu-u, "the glorious, beautiful son", whom the 
father Enlil has exalted. For Nergal as "son of Enlil", see H. A. V., p. 428. We have here a clear example of a 
transferrence of certain names, attributes and functions from Nergal, the "lord of the netherworld", t. e., from 
Nergal in the role of Dumuzi, to d IM. This justifies the inference that d IM, the successor of d MAR-TV, the god 
of the "Westland", was in Canaan what Dumuzi was in Babylonia: — the "god of the powers of nature", who 
"died", was "bewailed" (cf. here the wailings over the death of Adad-Rimmon, i. e., d IM, in Zech. 12: 11) and 
"rose" every year "to new life". For d MAB-TU in the role of Dumuzi, see now N. F., AO 4331 + 4335, where, 
as was to be expected, this god appears as the "son of An" (dumu An-na, col. 111:3) and as the "husband" {dam, 
col. II: 1, 5) and "son" (dumu, col. 11:2, 5; III: 1, 6) of the mu-gi-ib [Ka-sh]a-na-na (col. 1:2), t. e., "of the 
Ishtaritu, the mistress of An". The Ishtar-Tamuz cult of Canaan is clearly of Sumerian origin and importation. 

2 For this interchange of zag and za, cf. lugal-zag-ge = higal-za-ge, "of thy king", Gudea, Cyl. A, X: 6. See 
also N.F., AO 4331/5, Face III: 4, 5, za-na-ta (= zag-an-na-ta) za-ki-she (= zag-ki-shu) u-tu (= Utu) e(= e)-ta 
(not ush, as copy gives) u-tu shu (= shu)-she (= shu) mu-zu an-za-she (= an-zag-shu), i. e., "from the confines 
of heaven (= uppermost south) to the confines of earth (= lowest north: netherworld), from the rise of the sun 
(= east) to the going down of the sun (= west), thy (». e., d MAB-TU) name reaches unto the heavens"; cf. also 
I. c, 11. 3, 6. 


2:33, 34 = XXIV, 216:8—10, d En-A"-nun is called the ama- ^^\ , i. e., "mother 
of the house of women" (harem = mashtaku), but which the Semitic annotator glossed 
by um-mi ri-mi, "mother of the womb (hardly 'of compassion')", and is identified 
with d Gu-la, 1 the wife 2 of d Pa-bil-sag, the shakkanakku of the netherworld 3 and 
son 4 of the "mistress of Isin". i Pa-bil-sag was the "lord of Larag", 5 where he 
played the same role of Dumuzi as did Ninib, the son of Bnlil, at Nippur. This, no 
doubt, is the reason why d Pa-bil-sag is identified with Ninib, 6 and why Ninib is called the 
d Gu-an-ni-si-[il]. 1 

Lastly, there appears in C. I '., XXV, 6 : 17, a wife (dam-bi-sal) of d Lugal-gir-ra 
(= Nergal), called d <(^-an-ni-si, — a name, in which the <(*$ is, in all probability, a 
mistake for <(ffi, i. e. ku. Seeing that Nergal is the "Enlil of the netherworld" 8 and the 
"brother" and "husband" of Ereshkigal, "the queen of the netherworld" (shar-rat 
Kl-tim), we may not be wrong in identifying this d Ku-an-ni-si with the d KA gu -a-nu 
(sic!)-Si, 9 who, according to C. T., XXV, 4:25, is the same as d Al-la-tum, 
d Eresh-hi-gal, d Ama-LI T-zi-kur-ra — all of whom having for their husband (dam-bi-ush) 
the d Gu-gal-an-na. 

But, and this is most important, Ereshkigal, the wife of d Gu-gal-an-na and Nergal, 

1 Notice here also that the d Ama-TU (var. lur)-Gu-an-si is one of the several [ ?] of d Qu-la: C. T., XXIV, 
47 a: 22. 

2 C. T., XXV, 2: 35 = XXIV, 216: 11, d Pa-bil-sag dam-bi-ush: dam d Gu-l[a-ge.] For a Pa-bil-sag = d Pa, 
see below, p. 25, note 7. 

3 C. T., XVI, 13a: 42/3, d Pa-bil-sag GIRNITA lcur-ra-ge = d JJ shak-ka-nak-ka Kl-tim. The d Pa-bil-sag 
of C. T., XXIV, 47a: 32, has to be corrected, according to C. T., XXV, 4: 9, into [ d Nin-har-ra]-an PA-RIM-sag 
ra-bi-su I" . . ]. 

* This follows from C. B. M. 112: 18, where Ga-sha-an I-si-na (17) is followed by dumu-zu ("thy son") Pa-bi- 
il-sa-dg tu-ku-ul aim ( ? gurum 1)-mu-zu. 

5 R. H., p. 86: 12 = 134, II: 25 = 138: 111, d Pa-bil-sog umun U D-V D-ag ki ; N. F., AO 4343, Face A: 5, 
d Pa-bil-sag [u-mu-un La]-ra-ga; Zimmem, S.K., p. 12, no. 8, Rev., II: 4; p. 16, no. 11, Rev., Ill: 26 [ d Pa-bil-sag u- 
mu]-un La-ra-ag-ga. Here in Larag Ishtar, as "bride" of Pabilsag- Dumuzi, was known by the name Gashan-dsh-te 
gashan UD-UD-ag H -ge, R. H., 93: 11; 94: 11; 89: 14. 

6 C. T., XXV, 13: 33, d Pa-bil-sag \ ff ( = d Nin-ib). 

' C. T., XXV, 13: 35. Cf. C. T., XXIV, 49a: 2 = XXV, 1: 12, d Gu-an-ni-si-il C«-«n-nt-«i-«-»»<i JJ ( = d A-ra-mh 
IB, i. e., Ninib), here followed by his wife (dam-bi-sal) d Nin-uru, for which see above, p. 8 note 1. 

8 V. A. B., IV, p. 234: 19, dan-dan-nu d En-lil ir-si-tim. 

9 With this name cf. d Ir-ra-gaVs well-known attribute, appearing under the following forms: 

a) gu-a-nu-sa, R. H., p. 86: 58; p. 138: 83; 

b) ku-a-nu-si, Zimmern, 8. K., p. 16, no. 11, col. Ill: 7, which in the parallel passage appears as 

c) gu-si-sa,C. B. M. 112: 8. This title is given also to d Umun-Iri-gal, I.e., 1.1, and is apparently a variant of 
Nergal's attribute: 

d) gu-si-sd, R. H., p. 19:43; p. 22:44; Bollenriicher, Nergal, p. 31: 7. Cf. here also the name of the 
second month Ijjar: *'" Gu(d) (Gu, Gu)-si-sd [si, su) and the other attribute of Nergal, mentioned im- 
mediately before d Ir-ra-gal, viz. : 

e) gu(d)-d-nun-gi{-a), R. H., p. 19:52; p. 22:53; Bollenriicher, Nergal, p.31: 16, which in R. H., p. 20: 28/9 

= 23: 12/3, is translated by qar-rad slia la im (-mah)-ha-ru(har), "the incomparable hero"; lit., "the ox 
whose strength is without comparison" (nun-gi = dissimilation by "n" for nu-gi). 


is the wife also of d Nin-a-zu, 1 who is identified with Ninib, 2 the Dumuzi of the Nippur 
trinity. Hence, d Nin-a-zu is one of the several names of Dumuzi. 3 

Taking all of the above given passages into consideration, we may safely conclude 
the following: 

a) Gu-an-ni-si was originally a temple at Erech where the goddess Gashan-an played 
the role of Ishtar, the "Mother" and "bride" of the "Son" Enlil. 

b) Later on Gu-an-ni-si became the name of the temple of each and every goddess 
who was looked upon as the Ishtar of a certain trinity in a particular locality. 

c) As the netherworld is merely a reflex of the macro- and micro-cosmos, Gu-an-ni-si 
became, like Gi-gun, Iri-gal, E-gi(d)-da, a name for "netherworld", hence the addition 
dib-ba in our passage. This "netherworld", like its prototype Erech, was divided into 
"seven divisions". Each division was surrounded by a wall with two gates (one in the 
west and one in the east), presided over by two gate-openers (ni-du), one of whom stood 
at the outside and one at the inside of the gate. Each of these "seven divisions" had 
also a "watch-dog": "the seven dogs of Gula", which in the Greek mythology became the 
"dog with the 'seven heads'": u Kerberos". i Ishtar (Venus), being the goddess of the 
Gu-an-ni-si, had, therefore, to become also the goddess of the "netherworld": Eresh- 
higal, Proserpina. The same is true, of course, also of Dumuzi, "the lord of the Aralli". 

d) Seeing that gu-si changes with gu-si-il, the phonetic writing for gu-sil = daldlu, 
mudallu, and that gu-sil is a variant also of gu-zal(za-alf = daldlu, mudallu, tashiltu, we 
may be justified in seeing in the E-Gu-an-ni-si a name signifying "temple of the heavenly 
rejoicing", i. e., of the joys and pleasures which reach unto the heavens (an-ni). These 

1 C. T., XVI, 46: 166, d Eresh-ki-gal dam d Nin-a-zu-ge = d ff alti d l^; cf. /. c, 10: 37 with 50: 8, 9. 

2 C. T., XXV, 8a: 13, d Nin-a-zu | d Nin-ib, followed by d NIN-^^-da \ d Gu-la, who was, under the 
name d En-d-nun, as we saw above, the "mother of the Gu-an-ni-si" and the "mother of the ^^q". The <Qjei 
here is in all probability a variant or mistake for <(|E:> see II -R-> 59, Rev., 34, 35: 

d Umun-a-zu \ d Nin-a-zu \ shu-ma 

d Gashan-gir[i)-da \ d NIN-gir(i)-da \ dam-bi-sal (his wife). 

For the pronunciation of d NIN-gir(i)-da see the gloss ni-gi-ri{ir 1)-da in C. T., XXV, 5: 34/5. Notice also 
that in II .R., 59, Rev., 33, Ereshkigal precedes d Nin-a-zu, while in C. T., XXV, 8a: 8, 9, she and her husband 
d Gu-gal-an-na appear among Ninib- Gula names. Cf. lastly, C. T., XXV, 8a: 7, d Nin-zu d A-zu \ d Gu-la, and for 
d e NIN-zu, see I. c, 4: 3 = XXIV, 47a:27. 

3 Cf. a-dan ur-sag d Umun-a-zu, IV R., 30, no. 2, Obv. 13; Rev. 1 = R. H., p. 67:12 (here written Umun- 
d A-zu) = Zimmern, 8. B. T., no. 1; IV R., 27, no. 1, add. p. 6a: 4 = Zimmern, I. c, no. 3. 

4 The prototype of the Greek Kerberos we must now recognize in the "dog of Gula", so often pictured on 
the Babylonian boundary-stones. Cf. also Scheil, Fouilles a Sip-par, p. 90, fig. 13, where a terra cotta dog, presented 
to Gula, bears the following inscription: ana d Me-me (= d Gu-la) billi kalbi hasbi ipushma aqish (1. c, p. 92). 

5 It seems that the sign NI = zal had in Sumerian also the value si — a conclusion justified, perhaps, 
by a comparison of the writings d Ga-sha-an->^^ (= sim)-mu = d Nin-^" (sig, aim), II R., 59: 27 = C. T., 
XXV, 43a: 1 (preceded by d Umun(Nin)-NINDA-GUD), with that of Ni-in-NI-im-ma in C. B.M. 112: 9 (preceded 
by d Ir-ra-gal). Or is Ni-in-NI-im-ma = Nin-NIM-ma, "the mistress of 'Elam'", in the sense of "netherworld" 
(see p. 25) ? 


joys and pleasures are those which Dumuzi and Gashan-anna experience in the "bridal- 
chamber" (Gu-an-ni-si = ^yffi )' when they, like Nergal and Ereshkigal, are joined in 
happy wedlock. 

Another song of this tablet, beginning with col. II : 12 ff., pictures Ishtar, the "bride", 
bewailing her "beloved" Dumuzi. This song consisted originally of more than five stanzas 
of four lines each; each stanza being introduced by: 

sha(b)-mu gi-er-ra edin-na na-mu-un-ma-al, col. II : 3, 7, 11, 15, 19. 

Col. II, 11. 12—14, 16—18 are repeated, with slight variants, in col. Ill : 15—20. 

On account of the various linguistic difficulties as well as the many new and interesting 
names for "netherworld", to be encountered in this song, it would seem most desirable 
that the notes and explanations should precede the transcription and translation. 

Col. II : 3. GI-ER-RA, a liturgical note, being, therefore, omitted in 11. 7, 11, 15, 19, 
is according to IV R. 2 , 11 : 27/8 a = ina qa-an bi-ki-ti, "upon the flute of wailing". But 
cf. gi-er-ra. . .ma, "to cry out in wailing (weeping)", H. A. V., p. 438, no. 3 : 24 — 26; gi- 
er-ra. . .su(g), "to be bathed in tears", "in Trdnen gebadet sein (ereshu)", no. 6, I : 1,10. — 
In H. A. V., p. 382, note 1, we find a gi-er-ra with the Semitic ending dnu: gi-er-ra-an- 
um-ma, which paraphrases the Sum. balag = sirhu, while the gi(a)rrdnu of Br. 11607/8 
translates the Sum. er. Er is also = takhaltu, "wailing", which sometimes is represented 
by the Sum. gi-sir(= DI), the syn. of gi-sir( = BU) = malilu (root elelu), "flute of wai- 
ling". This shows that gi-er-ra is = er-ra, just as gi-sir(sir) is = sir, sir, sir, the syn. of 
er — all with the meaning "to wail, to weep", which wailing, weeping, at the time of the 
Sumerian lenten festival, was in all probability generally accompanied by tunes upon a 
flute (gi). For gi-er-ra. . .ma-al = er. . .ma-al, see also R. H., p. 101 : 51 = 116 (no. 63) : 4, 
LIT-e edin-na-na er-gi(g) mu-un-ma-al = lit-tum ana biti-shu mar-si-ish i-bah-ki. 

For other liturgical notes, occurring in these texts, cf. balag-sir, no. 2 : 39; H. A. V., 
p. 383, note 4; Zimmern, S. K., p. 22, no. 25, III : 15, 17, 25, 39; p. 47, no. 51 : 96 (6a- 
la-dg-sir); but especially the Semitic ka-lu-shu-nu i-za-ma-ru, "all of them shall sing", 
no. 19 : 24. The expressions e-la-lu, u-li-li, ul-li-esh = ina lal-la-ra-a-tHtam), found either 
at the end (so generally), middle (Zimmern, I. c, p. 53, no. 67 : 5a), or beginning of a line 
(R. H., p. 118 : 36) is in many cases a liturgical note likewise. 

NA-MU-UN-MA-AL = na-mu-ma-al, 11. 7, 8, 9, 11 = na-mu, 1. 19, and omitted alto- 
gether in 1. 15. According to R. H., p. 101 : 51 (see above), we might be tempted to read 
edin-na-na = ana biti-shu, but 11. 15, 8, 9, are clearly against it. For such an emphatic 
na, cf. Gudea, St. B., VII : 4, na-mu-du, "for him he built" (see Thureau-Dangin, Z. A., 
XVIII, p. 126, note 6); Cyl. A, VII : 30, na-ni-tu(r), "to him he brought"; C. T., XV, 
26 : 1, 2, 6—8, i-dib na-dm-ir-ra, "in wailing for (on account of) him she breaks out"; 
R. H., p. 95 : 29, 31, nam-mi-gub — i-za-az-ma, here na-am, nam is = na-mu: cf. also 


Zimmern, I. c, p. 45, no. 45 :3c, ff. The "n" in mu-un is reflexive: "ich ergehe mich in, quale 
mich ah mil Klagen (Weinen) urn ihn", i. e., "I wail, weep for 'my beloved' who isintheedm". 

SHA(B)-MU, lit. "my heart", is a term of endearment, being applicable to both Dumuzi 
(so here) and Ishtar; cf. N. F., AO 4328, Rev. (see also Thureau-Dangin, I. c, p. 200, note 1), 
where d Ba-u, the Ishtar of the Girsu trinity, is called sha(b)-mu, "my beloved". —A translation: 
"My heart in wailing towards the desert for him cries out", though per se possible, makes, 
however, the men in 11. 4—6 rather difficult to explain. I have taken sha(b)-mu, because de- 
pendent on the "a" of the verbal prefix "«a", as the "object for whom or on account of whom" 
Ishtar, the subject (men), cries out. Sha(b)-mu na-mu-un-ma-al is = sha(b)-ma mu-un-ma-al. 

EDIN in the Dumuzi texts signifies always the "desert" in the sense of "netherworld"; 
cf. C.T., XV, 19:29, edin A-ra-li, "the netherworld A."; Zimmern, S.K., p. 26, no. 
31 : 32&, A-ra-li edin da-ma-la, "A., the extended netherworld". 1 Dumuzi is the mulu 
edin, 2 C. T., XV, 19 : 6 — a title generally rendered by be-el si-rim, "lord of the desert", 
and ascribed to the son 3 of d Utu, d Sumug(g)a(n) (= GIR),* in the role of Nergal 5 as the 
Dumuzi of the netherworld. Nergal, therefore, appears quite frequently as the d Lugal- 
edin-na, "king of the netherworld". 6 An d En-edin-na, 7 "lord of the netherworld" is 

1 Cf. the E(A)-gi(d)-da, above, p. 12, note 5. 

i If my interpretation of this term in this particular passage be correct, it would follow that it cannot refer 
here to a certain "demon", but must have been ascribed to Dumuzi himself, as is clearly indicated by the dumu 
of 1. 4. But if so, then all the other parallel expressions must refer to Dumuzi likewise. These are: 

a) mulu gu-ba-ra, 11. 8, 15. Thus we have to read, not ka-ba-ra. Gu-ba-ra is evidently a variant of gu-bar — 
.serum, "desert, netherworld", Br. 3239/40. Cf. here the d Gu-ba-ra = Ash-ra-tum \ Gashan-gu-edin(-na-ge) = be-lit 
si-[e-rim\ol R. #., p. 87: 29; 92: 18; 135, III: 18; 139: 143/4; and the Gu-bar-ra = d Ash-rat oi Z.A., VI, p. 241: 9, 
where gu-ba(bar)-ra is = gu-gedin = serum. Dumuzi as the mulu gu-ba-ra becomes in this wise the "lord of the 
'strange (bar) shores' " (land, city, house: gu = kishddu, mdtu, dlu, bitu) — a most important designation, showing 
that the netherworld bordered on or was surrounded by "water". "Strange" were these shores, because "far dis- 
tant" (like the "Westland": d MAR-TU = Dumuzi) or "unknown", "harmful" to man. 

b) mulu ka-dsh-kasa, 11. 10, 16, "the overpowerer", sc. of the kur or "netherworld"; cf. H. A. V., p. 441, 
note 5. Dumuzi by rising again at the time of the vernal equinox demonstrates that he has overcome the winter, 
the cold, the north or netherworld. 

c) mulu hul-gal, 11. 12, 17, "the distressed" or possibly "evil one", so called because Dumuzi, like Nergal, is 
the god of death, who suffred death and hence, brings into death or "satiates himself with death", i. e., who causes 
the barrenness of nature. 

3 C. T., XXIV, 32: 112. 

4 R. H., pp. 87: 25; 92: 14; 135, II: 12/3; 139: 135/6. Notice also that iB C. T., XXIX, 46: 8, d Sumug- 
(g)a(n) is mentioned immediately after d Dumu-zi d Sib, "the shepherd". 

5 Cf. Br. 9190, d Gir = d U-gur (Nergal). 

* C. T., XXV, 356: 8 - 366, I: 14. Cf. here also H. A. V., p. 430, where it should have been noticed, 

a) that the ^al^Mulu)-^^ ( = ru, not lal), which is only another name for d Lugal-edin-na, is a graphic 
variant for d Galu(Mulu)-t^^ (= ru); cf. 'A***<») -t3P%, 0. T., XXIV, 17: 58 (cf 59) = d A-ru, I. c., 
29: 105 (cf. 106); *£gf$-A-ru, C. T., XXIV, 29: 106 = d ^ffJT («' c! mistake for l^m\ = Ur1)-A-t^^, 
I. c, 17: 59. See also EDIN = ru-u = dashdpu sha dishpi, Br. 1426. 

b) that in V R., 46, no. 1: 22, mul Mulu-ru u d La-ta-rag = d XXX u d U-gur, the sign ru looks much rather 
like EDIN than like ru. We ought to read here mul Mulu-edin, "star of the lord of the netherworld". 

7 He is preceded by d Sig-za-gin[-na\ "the goddess of the shining, bright, glorious walls" (cf. the seven walls 



mentioned in C. T., XXV, 46 A : 3, but it is not evident to what particular god this name 

The "Mistress of the netherworld", d Nin-edin, is the sha-suk-kat of "heaven and 
earth" (AN u Kl-tim) 1 or of "the great gods" (Hani rabuti) 2 , and the "scribe of the nether- 
world"^'), 3 being identified with: 

a) the "goddess of the strange shores", d Gu-ba(bar)-ra or also called Gashan-gu-edin,* 
the wife of d Mulu(Galu)-har-sag = d MAR-TU, 5 the well-known god of the "Westland"; 

b) the d Mu(sh)4in(-an-na) = d Geshtin(-an-na), 6 the "sister" of Dumuzi, 7 who is 
likewise the "mistress of scribes" (ga-sha-an dub-sar-ge) 8 or the "sublime scribe of the nether- 
world" (dub-sar-niah [fi-lur-idim-ge]), 9 and who in our text (col. II : 6) appears as the 
goddess of the "house of the 'youthful one of An' " (E-kal-an-na), i. e., of the "house of 
Dumuzi", 10 the netherworld; hence, the netherworld is called also d Geshtin-an-na-ge edin-na 11 , 
"G's desert". 

The "Ishtar of the netherworld", d Innanna-edin, i. e., the later Proserpina, is men- 
tioned already in Hilprecht, 0. B. I., no. 94 : 1. A d Be-lit-edin occurs also in II R., 60 : 16a, 
but from the arrangement of this tablet it is not certain who is meant here. 12 

Lastly, there appears in Zimmern, Shurpu, VIII, p. 40 : 7, a d Zi-za-nu 13 who is called 
shar-rat ep-ri be-lit se-ri be-lit qab-li, "queen of the (place of) dust, mistress of the nether- 
world, mistress of battle". 

of Erech and of the netherworld) = d Be-lit-l-li, C.T., XXIV, 6: 16 = d Mah, I. c, 22: 114; and followed by d RA- 

1 Zimmern, Ritualt., p. 118: 36; Craig, R.T., I, p. 64: 36. 

2 Sm. 802 = Meissner, Suppl., p. 96. 

3 Ungnad, Gilgamesh, p. 22: 52. 

4 See above, p. 17, note 2. 

5 II R., 59, Rev., 43. For the god of the Westland in the role of Dumuzi, see above, p. 13, note 1. 

6 II R., 59, Rev., 10, 11; here mentioned immediately after d Si-ir-tur — d Sir-DV, the mother (ama) of Dumuzi. 

7 C. T., XV, 20:21, d Mu(sh)-tin-an-na SAL-KV (= ahat, see above, p. 4, note 1) u-mu-un-na-ge, "M., the 
sister of the 'lord'", i. e., Dumuzi; cf. also the name of Dumuzi: ses ama Mu(sh)-tin-na, "brother of the mother 
M.", no. 6, I: 9, and Zimmern, B. Q. T., p. 707, 13. 

8 H. A. V., p. 375, note 1; B. E., XXIX, p. 54, note 1. 

9 C. T., XVI, 96: 4, d A r tn-^[<((= t^3£, geshtin, see Zimmern, B. O. T., p. 14, note 4)-no dub-sar mah 
[....]. If we compare this passage with C.T., XVI, 3: 95/7, d Nin(-na)-an-na dub-sar-mah E-kur-idim-ge = d \ | 
dub-sar-ra-tum(rat) sir-tum(tam) sha A-ra-al-li-e, we will have to admit that the d Nin-edin, who is identified with 
the wife of the god of the Westland (above under a) and with d Oeshtinna, is also = d Nin-anna, the Ishtar, 
"mother", "bride" and "sister" of Dumuzi. 

10 See also below, p. 19. 

11 C. T., XV, 19:27. 

12 /. e., whether 1. 15 b, lugal sha Md-ri H , or 1. 166, lugal sha Du-ni-sa-i-di ki , or 1. 176, shar-rat Gimil- 
d Sin(En-zu)-na ki explains 1. 16 a. 

13 This d Zi-za-nu is according to C. T., XXV, 11: 35, a name also of d Nin-ib ina SU^; cf. also C. T., XXV, 
6: 13, dZirta-nu ^ | dumu-a-ni (i. e., the son of the gu(d)-balag d KA-DI-ge, 1. 12). d Zizanu, then, like Ninib 
(H.A.V., p. 424, and references there given), was a male and female divinity; both also were the gods of the 
,, netherworld". (= kur), which in <SC/*» was called zizan(u). 


This edin, though originally = "desert" or "netherworld", is very often translated 
by bitu, 1 i. e., "the house" par excellence, the "house", "abode", where Dumuzi lives; 2 but 
according to M. 3292, the bit d Dumuzi is a syn. of iri-gal or "great abode", 3 of qabru or 
"grave" (M. 3293), of irsitim or "netherworld" (M. 3291), and even of A-ra-li (M. 3290). 
Dumuzi, therefore, must not only be identified with the Umun-iri-gal, "the lord of the 
great abode", or with d En-ki,* "the lord of the netherworld", but he may and actually 
does appear in our texts as the U-mu-un(-e) A-ra-li, "the lord of the A." 5 There seems 
to have been, however, in this edin a special "house", or "temple", or "palace", which served 
as a habitation for Dumuzi while in the netherworld, and which was patterned after some 
terrestrial prototype. This conclusion is justified not only from the occurrence of such 
names as E-edin-na 6 or E-gal-edin-na, 1 but more particularly from the fact that according 
to B. E., XXVII, no. 1, IV : 40, Dumuzi is said to be the d Ligir(Mer)-si, 8 i. e., "the glorious 
bridegroom", of the E-A-ra-li; cf. also II R., 61 : 14, where the E-edin-na appears as the 
E-52 sha (Z)Arar il , i. e., as the "52 nd name of the 'temple of Larsa' " — a passage which 
shows that the "house of the netherworld" was in all probability patterned after the 
temple of Larsa, where Shamash (or his son d Sunmg(g)a(n)) played the role of Dumuzi. 

The place where this edin was considered to be situated was the northern part of 
Babylonia; hence, the "netherworld" appears in the Dumuzi texts as the edin(-na) A-BIA H - 
ge 9 = si-e-ri (si-ir) Shu(Su)- '-a-rtt. 10 But the northern part of Babylonia served merely 
as the prototype or pattern of the north of the macro-cosmos. The netherworld, there- 
fore, as a macro-cosmic quantity must be sought in the north, the region of the cold, the 
winter. In the winter, then, Dumuzi is in the netherworld. 

The edinA-HA ki appears as edinHA-A in another 11 Dumuzi textwhich is of the utmost 
importance for both the history and the religion of ancient Babylonia — for the history, 
because it helps us to supply the missing names in the list of Isin kings, published by Hil- 

1 M. 3048. 

2 Cf. here the E-kal-an-na, above, p. 18. 

3 Cf. above, p. 12, note 5. 

4 C. T., XXIV, 3: 29 = 21 o: 62, i. e., with d En-ki as one of the 42-dm en ama-a-a d En-lil-ld-ge-ne, or with 
d Enlil in the role of Dumuzi as the "lord (en) of the netherworld (ki)" . For this d En-ki (not = d Ea\) see for the 
present Zimmern, Oolterliste An, p. 88. 

5 No. 12: 29; no. 6, I: 4; cf. also no. 2: 36. 

6 II B., 61, no. 2: 146. 

7 K. 246 { = A. S. K. T., p. 82), II: 12/3; see also Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 467a, under namu, and cf. below, 
p. 25, note 6. 

8 See also 0. T., XVII, 10: 74/5, d En-ligir(mer)-si = d Dumu-zi; II JR., 59, Rev., 8, d Umun-li-bi-ir-si — d En- 
ligir(mer)-si = d Dumu-zi, and cf. Zimmern, B. O. T., p. 8, no. 3. Cf. also the d En-gir-si-ge, IV B„ 27: 45 b. 

9 To be read Tuba 1 ", see M. 8994. 

10 Macmillan, B. A., V, p. 675: 25/6 = B. H., p. 126 (no. 86): 8/9, here mentioned after [E-banda{da)] bur 
a-she-ir-ra-ge = ir-si-tim ta-ni-hi, "'the house of the valiant one', the land where one cries out: Alas!", 11. 21/2; 
and [...] uru kal-lur-ra-ge = a-al ba-tu-lim, "the abode (city) of the 'youthful one'", 11. 23/4. 
11 Cf. also no. I; III: 13, edin HA-[A]. 



precht in B. E., XX, part 1, p. 46; and for the religion, because it furnishes us with a 
number of new and highly interesting, descriptive names for the Sumerian netherworld. 
For these reasons I may be permitted to give the text in transcription and translation 
here. The same reads: 

Zimmern, S. K., pp. 28/9, no. 26, VI : 24— VII : 27, 

VI:24[ ] 


25. A-ra-[li ] 

(With him) of the 'Arali', 

26. mu-tan-n[a-m]u 

With my 'husband' 

27. [ 

(With him) of the 

28. Jcal( ?) \sir-an-n\a-mu 

With my 'heavenly woe-man' 

29. E-bandaida) 1 

(With him) of the 'house of the 
valiant one', 

30. dumu U -mu-un-mu(sh)-zi-da 

With the 'Son of Ningishzida' 

31. e-TUM-ma-al-la{ldl) 2 

(With him) of the 'house( ?) of 

32. d KA-DI i-U-shiO) 

With KADI, the one with 'beau- 
tiful eyes (face)' 

33. GAM-GAM*-da 

(With him) who has been 'snatched 


I will lie down (rest), 

the 'beautiful mountain' (or mountain 
of the beautiful one); 

I will lie down, 
[ ]-du(g)-a-ka 


I will lie down, 
kur a-she-ir-ra-ka 

the 'land where one cries out: Alas'! 


I will lie down, 
har-ra-an ° wh ginar-ra-ka 

where to leads a (difficult) (wagon-) 

I will lie down, 

edin HA-A-ka 

to the 'HA- A desert'; 

1 For the Semitic translation of this line, see above, p. 19, note 10. Cf. also col. VII: 12. In B. E., XXVII, 
no. 1, IV: 22 (cf. 1. 15) there occurs an E- d Nin-gish-zi-da E(Oish t)-banda(da) ki . The E-banda( ki ), though originally 
a city of Babylonia with Ningishzida as its god, is used here, like Kutha, as a term for "netherworld". "He of 
the 'house of the valiant one' " is Dumuzi as the "son of Ningishzida", see 1. 30. 

2 This line corresponds to B. A., V, p. 674: 13, which has to be emended accordingly. The second half of 
our line has in (. c. a double translation: ur-hi shum-ru-si u-ru-uh nar-kab-tim; Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 217, "schmerz- 
licher Weg, Weg des Wagens". With e-TUM-ma-al cf, the goddess d '^KV^^-TUM-ma-al = d Nin-lil, C. T., 
XXIV, 5: 8, and the proper name Ur-TUM-al, B.E., III, part 1, nos. 88: 5; 111: 6. 

3 Cf. col. II: 1 and B. A., V, p. 675: 25, [GAM-GAM-da] edin{-na) A-H A^-ge = a-na si-e-ri(si-ir)Shu(Suy-a-ra. 



34. [e-ibiib^-ld 1 gu-la-mu 

With my great 'girded one' 

35. E-sil-du-a 2 

(With him) of the E-sil-du-a, 

36. [.. .]-ld 3 u-mu-un sa-pdr 

With . . . -la, the 'lord of the net' 

37. [k]i-sir-ra 

(With him) of the 'place of wai- 


38. [li-bi-i]r u-mu-un sub-bi 

With the 'bridegroom', the 'beauti- 
ful lord' 

39. [ ]-ba{ma1) 

(With him) of the , 

40. [su]-el-ba 

With the 'most beautiful' one 

41- [ ]-e 

(With him) of the , 

Rest broken away. 
VII : 1 [u-mu-un Gimil-ili-shu] 

With the lord Gimil-ili-shu 

2. ki-mah ki-u-mu-un l [-na] 

(With him) of the 'sublime place', 
the 'place of the lord', 

3. u-mu-un l-din- d Da-gan 

With the lord Idin-Dagan 

4. ° Uh SAR ni-te-na 

(With him) who in the 'awe-in- 
spiring garden' (or garden of the 
fearful one) 

5. sib( ?) Ish-me- d Da-gan 

With the shepherd Ishme-Dagan 


I will lie down, 

the 'glorious youthful one'; 

I will lie down, 
ki-mah er-ra-ka 
the 'sublime place of lamentations'; 


I will lie down, 


the one 'without equal'; 

I will lie down, 

the 'prison' (keeping-place); 

I will lie down, 

[ ] 


I will lie down, 
ba-an-gu(b) -[ba-a-ba] 

has taken up his abode; 


I will lie down, 

1 Emended according to col. 11:2; col. V: 10. 

2 Cf. col. II: 3. 

3 Cf. Zimmern, S.K., p. 45, no. 45: la (6 c), . .-la (sic) u-mu-un sa-bur, and especially I. c, p. 30, no. 27, II: 3, 
d Al( llliyia u(\)-mu-un sa-bur. Generally, however, d NAGAR precedes the u-mu-un sa-pdr, so e. g., I. c, p. 40, 
no. 35: 3a. The "-ld(la)" would show that NAOAR had a pronunciation ending in "-Z". 

4 Cf. the ki-kal, "place of the youthful one", parallel with hi d Dumu-zi, col. IV : 10, 11. 


6. aM SAR ni-te-na 

(With him) who in the 'awe-in- 
spiring garden' 

7. si6(?) Li-bi-it-Ishtar(U-gun) 

With the shepherd Libit-Ishtar 

8. gah-kishib-ba l 

(With him) of (at) the 'breast of 
the prison', 

9. sib{?) Ur- d Nin-ib 

With the shepherd Ur-Ninib 

10. Jci-na(d) si-ba 

(With him) of the good 'bridal- 

11. [**]&(?) Bur- d Sin(En-zu) 

With the shepherd Bur-Sin 

12. [^!-banda(da)] 

(With him) of the 'house of the 
valiant one', 

13. [ ]-di{kit)-ta-AN(ili) 3 


14. [ ] 

(With him) of the 

15. [ Yshi-ili{ANy 


16- [ ] 

(With him) of the , 

17. [u-mu-un d Sin-i-qi-sh]a-a 6 

With the lord Sin-iqisha 

18. [..... ] 



has taken up his abode; 


I will lie down, 
ki-kush-shd( 1)-a-ka-ka 

the 'resting place'; 


I will lie down, 
ki-ur 2 u-mu-un-na-ka 

the "place of the 'bride of the lord' "; 


I will lie down, 
kur a-she-ir-ra-ka 

the 'land where one cries out: Alas'! 


I will lie down, 

the 'place where the heart comes to rest' 
(or trembles?); 

I will rest, 
ki-sir-rd h -ka 

the 'place of wailing'; 

I will lie down, 

[ ]-*« 

1 Cf. the pisan, above, p. 21 : 41, and the gab kur-ra = i-rat ir-si-tim, "breast of the netherworld", col. IV : 3; 
IV R, 30, no. 2 : 22/3. 

2 For ur = katdmu, see H. A. V., p. 398; and for ki-ur, I. c, p. 443, note 20. 

3 This king ought to correspond to Hilprecht's I[-te-ir-K] A-[sh]d, B. E., XX, part 1, p. 46 : 15. 

4 These traces show that d Irra(Ura)-imittim, Hilprecht, Z. A., XXI, pp. 20ff., cannot follow upon [..]-rft 

5 Or the "place of Sir-DU" ? Cf. d Si-ir-tur = d Sir-DU, the mother of Dumuzi, above, p. 18, note 6. 
B See Poebel, 0. L. Z., 1907, Sp. 461 ff. 




19. [. 


| [d]m-na(d)-a-h 

20. [. 

1 [ 

21. [. 


22. [. 


23. [. 


24. [. 


25. [. 


26. [. 


AN -TV "-[...; 


27. [. 

. . .]-li(gub)-ba(lzu, mat) 2 




From the above given translation it will be evident that I cannot agree with Zimmern, 
S. K., p. VII, who thinks that "hier wird, nachdem vorher in Kol. VI der Gott Tamuz unter 
seinen verschiedenen Namen mit den Worten 'warum (oder: bis wann?) ruht er?' wiederhoU 
angerufen worden war, ganz in der gleichen Weise diese Frage auch an die verstorbenen Konige 
von Isin, Idin-Dagan, Ishme-Dagan, Libit-Ishtar, Vr-Ninib, Bur-Sin usw. gerichtet. Es 
werden diese also sozusagen als Tamuze aufgefafit, deren Wiedererstehen aus dem Grabe — 
man Jcann die Sache wolil haum anders auffassen — man ebenso erhofft, wie man alljdhrlich 
die Wiederkehr des Tamuz aus der Unterwelt erwartet." 

On the contrary, Ishtar in the text quoted is apparently in the netherworld (A-ra-li 
mu-un-tush, col. VI : 20), here she wishes "to lie down" or "rest" — here in the netherworld 
which is the abode of Dumuzi and of the deceased kings of Isin. Apart, from this, EME- 
SAL texts never mention the resurrection of Dumuzi — this is referred to in texts only 
which are written in the EME-KU dialect. 

Seeing that the above quoted passage is in many respects similar to that of Mac- 
millan, B. A., V, p. 674, and R. H., p. 126 (no. 80), as Zimmern already has pointed out, 
we may be justified in identifying the edin HA-A of Zimmern (col. VI : 33) with the edin 
A-HA H of Macmillan, and this the more so as we find a similar interchange in the name 
d Nin-A-B;A-tar-rd(kud-du), so generally, which in B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. V : 4, 6, is 
written d Nin-HA-A-tar-rd. The "god of ffA-A ki -a" was d Silig-galu-du(g) 3 , i. e. Marduk, 
the "son of Ea (Eridu, the ocean)", also called d Dumu-zi-abzu i or d Dumu-zi dumu d E-a. b 
In R.H., p. 55 : 3— 6, we have the following succession: Uru-si-ib (= Eridu), esh-mah, 
esh-abzu (two temples of Eridu), A-0A H , while in G. T. XVI, 6 : 239, NUN" A-ffA ki 

1 According to the analogy of the preceding arrangement of this tablet, we should expect in 11. 19, 21, 
23, 25, 27, a name of a king, i. e., five kings; but according to theHilprecht tablet there ought to follow six kingt. 

2 These traces ought to correspond to d Sin-ma-gir; or is this [Da-mi-iq-i-] li-shu, the last of the Isin kings? 
If so, this hymn must have been composed after the time of the Isin dynasty. 

3 B. K., XXVII, no. 1, III : 32. 

4 C. T., XXIV, 16 : 30 (cf. 35) = 28 : 82a (cf. 84b). 

5 Pinches, P. 8. B. A., Feb. 1909, p. 62 : 11. 


= Eri-du(g) u Su-ba-ri are mentioned together. Lastly, in C. T., XV, 2 col. VIII : 2, 3, 
Shu-mi-r[i-i-im] is apparently in opposition to Shu-ba-ru-u-um, standing in the same re- 
lation as "Shumer and Akkad" = Ki-en-gi-Tci-JJri {BUR-BUR), for we read: An-nu-um 
sha-al-la-at Shu-mi-r[i-i-im] e-li-ish a-a i-li-[u], Shu-ba-ru-u-um lu-u ir-shi-it ka-za-zi-im-[ma] 
sha-at-ti-sha-am-ma Shu-mi-ru-um li-ih-ta-za-az-zi, i. e., "0 Anu, the booty of Shumer 
let them not bring up; let Shubaru (so with Hommel, Grundrifi 2 , p. 252, note 1, against 
Winckler, O.L.Z., 1907, Sp. 346, and Ungnad, I. c, 1908, Sp. 67) be the goal of their ravag- 
ing; yea, let Shumer ravage it yearly". 

Comparing these passages, we will have to admit that A-ffA or ffA-A became a 
designation for the "netherworld" simply and solely for the reason that it formed, like 
the later Akkad, the northern part of Babylonia, i. e., Mesopotamia. In the north, then, 
the Sumerian netherworld has to be sought. This north was the sphere of the "Son". 
The south and the north stand in the same relation as does "an" to "ki", Eridu to Subari 
(= NUN H to A-BIA), Ea to MarduTc or the "Father" to the "Son". 

There must have been, however, a time, when the city of Nergal, Kutha (Gu-du-a kl ), 
was Babylonia's north par excellence, becoming for this reason, like A-BIA or E(Gish?)- 
banda{da) hi , x a designation of the "netherworld". 

In fact, it seems not improbable that even Gir-su k \ more particularly in its older form 
Su-gir k \ formed at one period of the Sumerian history and religion the "north", with 
Erech 2 and Eridu 3 as well as Nippur as its opposite or "south". This conclusion may be 
inferred from the following considerations: 

The older Subaru occurs in later inscriptions as Subartu — a word which renders the 
Sumerian Su-EDIN ki (Br. 198; M. 114) as well as Su-gir ki (Br. 234), which latter may 
very well be a variant of Su-gir kil . If this be true, we may with Thureau-Dangin (S. A. 
K. I., p. 268) and Winckler (0. L. Z., June 1907, Sp. 284) assign to the sign EDIN the 
value bir (or possibly bar) 5 , which would be the regular EME-SAL form for the EME-KU 
gir, gir. This gives us the following development: Su-gir (gir) = Su-bir (bar, ba-ri) = Su- 
vari = Su-'-a-ri 6 = Shu-'-a-ri, originally Girsu, later on the whole of northern Babylonia. 
And if Su-gir be also = Elamtu or "Elam" (Br. 233), so is this development merely parallel 

1 See above, p. 20, note 1. 

2 Cf. Urukagina, Olive A, 1 — 3, where Nin-Girsu and his wife Ba-u, in the "temple of Erech {S-Unu(g)ki-ga)", 
pronounce good words for Urukagina. 

- 3 Cf. Gudea, Cyl. B, III : 9 = VIII : 15, d Nin-Gir-su NUN^-ta gin-dm(ni); Cyl. B, VIII : 13, ur-sag (i. e., 
Nin-Girsu) NUN H -shu gin-a-ni. Notice also that Ur-Ba-u builds in Girsu a temple for "Ea, the king of Eridu", 
Statue, IV: llff. 

4 For the interchange of gir and gir, cf. e. jr., d Lugal-gir-ra, Zimmern, Ritualt., p. 166 : 10, with i Lugal-gir-ra, 
I. c, 11. 11/12; gir = urhu, paddnu, talaktu, "way, street", with gir = urhu, nrruhu. Cf. also H. A. V., p. 308 : 12. 

5 Cf. gu-ba(bar)-ra = gu-edin = sirum, above, p. 17, note 2. 

6 And possibly Su-a-ri = Su-ri, i. e., Si-pot, Svgia, cf. Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 219, and references there given. 


or similar to BUR-BUR, which designated originally Akkad(wn') or the north of Babylonia, 
then Urtu (tilla) or the Armenian mountains and lastly Amurru (ari) or the "Westland". 1 
Elam is the north or "netherworld" in the Gilgamesh epic. In Elam is to be sought the 
"cedar-mountain" with the "cedar of d Irnini", guarded by gumbaba and reached (cf. 
below, p. 27) by Gilgamesh at the beginning of the 4 th month (= 4 th tablet), the month 
of the winter solstice: December- January, when the sun reaches his lowest point in the north. 
The above indicated development of the northern part of Babylonia, beginning with 
Nippur as its original center and later on gradually extending over Su-gir (Gir-su, Elam), 
Kutha, A-BiA (Subaru, Akkad), Armenian mountains, Westland, until it bordered the 
Euphrates or the "sea of the going down of the sun" in the west, the Tigris in the east, 
and the lake of Urmia or the Van sea in the north, necessitated, of course, a revision of 
the primary conception of the Sumerian netherworld, which, like its terrestrial proto- 
type, was henceforth considered 

a) to be "wide" or "extended" (damal) 2 ; 

b) to form — on account of its vastness — a cosmic quantity by itself, being, there- 
fore, divided into an "upper" and a "lower" edin (an-edin ki-edin) 3 ; 

c) to be surrounded by "water" — hence, the name of Dumuzi: mvlu gu-ba-ra*, 
"the man of the strange shores"; hence also the occurrence of an u edin, "river of the 
netherworld", which was full of fearfulness (ni). 5 

Through this netherworld led a "wagon-road" (har-ra-an guh ginarY or "street" (sil) 7 , 

1 See M. 5327—5329. 

2 Zimmern, S. K., p. 36, no. 31, col. II : 32, A-ra-li edin da-ma-la; I. c, 11. 24, 27, 29, edin da-ma-la; I. c, 
p. 58, no. 78 : 34, an-edin-damal-la. 

3 C. T., XV, 27 : 21 = 30 : 22. 

4 See above, p. 17, note 2. 

5 Gudea, Cyl. A, XXVII : 21. That this river was originally and primarily an actual river of Babylonia, 
goes without saying and is indicated by its occurrence in B. T. Ch., no. 46, Rev., 1 : 1. Cf. on this "river of the nether- 
world" farther below, p. 26, note 3). 

6 See above, p. 20 : 31, and cf. in this connection the d Nin-har-ra-an, above, p. 14, note 3. A "wagon-road" 
this is, because some of the gods like d Utu or Shamash, are said to "ride" through the heavens (and hence also 
through the netherworld) upon a "wagon". In the case of Shamash the "wagon-road" would be that part of the 
ecbptic which falls in the winter half of the year, corresponding as such to the id of the summer half (see above p. 8, 
note 3). 

The Semitic translation "difficult road" (besides "wagon-road") is due, probably, to the idea that this 
road, like that which led through the northern part of Babylonia to the Westland, was one over high mountains 
and steep hills, which made the progress on it slow and difficult. It ought to be noticed, however, that in a good 
many, if not most, cases the so-called "dreary" aspects of the Sumerian netherworld are of Semitic rather than 
Sumerian origin. Cf. e. g., the Sumerian E-gal-edin, "palace of the netherworld" (above, p. 19, note 7) and the 
A(S, E)-ri-a, "house of begetting", "bridal-chamber", which are rendered in Semitic by namu, for which see 
Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 4666; Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , pp. 379, 385. 

7 Craig, B. T., I, p. 57 : 21, d I-shum en sil, "I., the lord of the 'street'"; IV B., 21 : 44a, d l-shum sukal sil, 
"I., the overseer of the 'street' ". Cf. also C. T., XXIV, 40 : 74, d Pa | J\ ( = d U-gur = Nergal) sha su-u-qi, »'. «., 
"Pa is the Nergal of the 'street'". For d Pa as an abreviation of d Pa-sag-ga see below, p. 26, note 3; and for 
d Pa = d Pa-bil-sag, see B. E., Series D, vol. VI, Table II, 9 h; cf. also above, p. 14 and notes. 



which was, like the edin itself, "wide" or "extended" (damal). 1 It was a "street of darkness" 
or "night" {gi[g])\ a "street 3 full (si-ga, sl{g)-ga = malu) of wailing" (a) 4 , i. e., a street 

1 B. H., p. 86 : 59 = 138 : 84, [ d Kal]-shd{g)-ga sil damal-la edin-na, i. e., "the gracious (beautiful) Kal, (the 
god) of the wide street of the netherworld". 

2 Sointhe variant to the preceding note, Zimmern,«S.Z.,p. 16, no. 11, col. Ill : 8, d Kal-shd(g)-gasil-gi(g) edin-na. 

3 C. T., XVI, 15 6 : 21, d Pa-sag-gd nimgir sil a-si(g)-ga = d I-shum na-gir su-qi sha-qu-um-mi, "P., the over- 
seer (guardian) of the street full of wailing", or simply called nimgir-gi(g) = na-gir mu-shi, "overseer of the (place 
of) darkness", C. T., XVI, 49:304. Generally, however, d Pa-sag-ga is the nimgir mashkim (PA-BIM)-mah dingir- 
ri-e-ne-ge = d I-shum na-gir ra-bi-su si-i-ru sha AN mi,h , "the great overseer, the sublime rabisu of the gods" («c, 
of the netherworld or the "holy mountain"), C. T., XVI. 46 : 178/9, et passim. The wife of d Ishum is d Gashan 
(Nin)-mug, II B., 59, Rev., 41, here mentioned immediately after d Umun(Lugal)-iri-a, "the lord (king) of the abode 
where one cries out: 'alas!'" 

For d Pa-sag-gd as a name of Nergal, see e. g., B. H., pp. 19 : 51; 25 : 52, 60 (here li-bi-ir d Pa-sag-ga); 
Bollenriicher, Nergal, p. 31 : 23; and for Nergal = d Pa, see above, p. 25, note 7); from this it follows that d Pa 
is an abbreviation of d Pa-sag-ga. Another abbreviation is d Pa-sag: cf. Gudea, Statue B, VIII : 63, where d Pa-sag is 
called the nimgir kalam-ma-ge, "overseer of Babylonia" — a most welcome corroboration of our contention that 
the kalam or "Babylonia" formed the prototype after which the netherworld or "place of darkness" with its street 
full of wailing was patterned. Notice also thatEannatum calls himself the mu-pa(d)-da of d Pa-sag, St. Vult., Rev., 
VI : 4, or the abarakku (iskim-ti(l)) of d Pa-sag, Feldst. A, II : 11 ; B, II : 14. 

The same attribute, viz., "god of the street full of wailing", is ascribed also to d Lugal, see C. T., XVI, 
49 : 302, d Lugal dingir sil a-si-ga-ge = d \\ ilu su-qi sha-qu-um-me. 

This d Pa and d Lugal, although "one" — because they have the same attribute and functions — are yet 
"twins", being identified with d Utu and d IM : cf. C. T., XXIV, 186 : 10, d She-na-i-la-na \ d Pa u d Lugal d Vtu u 
d IM. They constitute also the "twin" stars of the mul Sahan, the constellation of d Eresh-ki-gal. The significance 
of this mwl Sahan is indicated by Craig, if. T., I, 58 : 11, where d I-shum (i. e., d Pa-sag-ga = d Pa) and d Shu-bu-ld 
are said to be the "gods" of the "Tigris" (^Idigna) and the "Euphrates" (^Buranunu), i. e., the constellation 
Sahan or "serpent" is a "river" consisting of two arms: the "heavenly" Tigris and Euphrates, reflecting not only 
the "terrestrial" Tigris and Euphrates but also those of the "netherworld", because mtd Sahan is the constellation 
of d Ereshkigal, "the queen of the netherworld" and "wife" of Nergal or d Nin-a-zu (C. T., XVI, 46 : 166; cf. also 
I. c, 10 : 37 with 50 : 8, 9), »'. e., Dumuzi. Seeing, furthermore, that Nergal as well as d Nin-a-zu and Dumuzi are 
the "gods of the netherworld", and that Nergal is identified not only with d Pa but also with d Shu-bu-ld (IV B., 
26: 9a; B. H., pp. 19, Rev., 5; 22 : 63), we may be justified in maintaining that the netherworld had indeed a "river", 
an ^edin. This conclusion is corroborated not only by: 

a) C. T., XXV, 11 : 18 = 15, II : 8, where the Dumuzi of the Nippur trinity, the god Ninib, "who guards 
the decisions of the father Enlil" (nasir ESH-BAB a-bi d En-lil), is called d HAL-HAL-(la), compared with "Syn- 
chronistic History" (= Winckler, V. A. O., p. 184), col. 1 : 30, where the Tigris has the name U H AL-H AL-(la), 
which in the parallel text, S. 2106( = Winckler, I. c, p. 152, 3a), Obv. 1. 7, appears as w d HAL-HAL, "river of the 
god HAL-HAL"; but also by 

b) II B. 50 : lie, W a -' a - ad dt ^\>^ | « d I-shum (followed in 1. 12, by the « thu-ba^t^ J§ \ U d Dumu-zi), 
compared with C. T., XXIV, 8 : 10, <*J]W mutake for J^yiad ^m^ | s hu, i. e., the 2 nd of the six utug of S-kur 
or "netherworld", followed by *Sa-ba-an ^1^5. Cf. also II B., 59 : 21, d She-ra-ah | d Sahan | utug S-shar-ra-ge; 
V B., 52 : 19, 20, d She-ra-ah utug E-shar-ra = d Sahan ra-bi-is; and for d Sahan = d SIL (the "god of the 'street'", 
but who has to be read: Kudmu, M. 9936), the son of d KA-DI = Dumuzi, see B. E., XVII, part. 1, p. 19, note 3. 

Now, as d Ishum ( = Alad = Ninib) is the god of the Tigris, it would follow that the d Sahan must be the 
god of the Euphrates; hence, ^Sa-ha-an = Pu-rat-tu, Br. 3168. 

The netherworld, then, like its terrestrial and heavenly counterparts, had likewise a Euphrates (in the 
west) and a Tigris (in the east). When the gods entered or left the netherworld, they had to cross these rivers. 
This made "ships" necessary. Of such ships or boats we read repeatedly, cf. H. A. V., 386 (here in connection 
with d Am-an-ki and d Ishtar); C. T., XV, 17, the md-gur, "boat", "house-boat" (Hilprecht, B.E., Series D, vol. V, 
part 1, pp. 52ff.) of god Sin. There had to be also a "ferry-man" (md-ldh) or "-men" who brought the ship with 
its occupants safely to the netherworld and back again. One of these ferry-men was the god of the city of Bas, 
d GISHA-TUGABLISH, who in Craig, B. T., I, p. 56 : 16, is referred to as the ra-Jfci6 W t-H na-shi[. . .]. Cf. also 
O. T., XXIV, 30 : 116, and the remarks and corrections to it suggested by Meissner in O. L. Z., 1909, £p. 202. 


where every one who passed it cried out: "a", "a-a", "wa-wa", "«-a", "a-u-a", "a-dan" 6 , 
etc., "alasl" "how long still?" "when at last?" 

This "street" led, no doubt, to the i-edin or the fi-gal-edin*, which contained the 
"bridal chamber''' 1 and which was reached 8 , in all probability, at the time of the winter sol- 
stice, in the "month of sowing" (shu-numun-na) or also called the "month of Tamuz" 
(Bu-'-u-zu, ttEPi), i. e. our December- January. 

The edin was, of course, inhabited by all kinds of "living creatures" 9 — including 

Dumuzi's leaving the netherworld, »'. e., his resurrection, is indicated in the heavens by the sun crossing 
the equator at the time of the vernal equinox. At this time, then, Dumuzi had to cross the "river of the nether- 
world "(Styx) — an event which was symbolically re-enacted upon earth at the time of the New- Year or A-ki-ti 
festival (which co-incided with the vernal equinox), when the gods were "conveyed" in "ships" from one temple 
(the "place of darkness") to another (the "place of light"). It may not be impossible that the Sumerians regarded 
the very "river" of the netherworld as the "street" which led to the "conflux" of the "rivers", where there was 
the "isle" of the "blessed". 

4 Literally "full of a", ». €., ahulap, adi mati, "alas!" "how long still ?" "when at last ?" Thus I would prefer 
to explain this phrase, against Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 686 a, "leidvolle Strafie", " Leidensweg" ', and Jensen, K. B., 
VI 1 , p. 354, "stille StrafSe". Surely, the a cannot be connected with sil: this would be a grammatical impossibility. 
Against our explanation is by no means the fact that sftea (for a-sheg) = shaqummatu; or that s%(g)-si(g)-ga-bi (for a- 
8i(g)-si(g)-ga-bi) = shaqummesh. For such an omission of o, cf. a-ri-a = ri-a; a-nim-ta = nim-ta; a-sig-ta = sig-ta; 
a-rd(ra)-zu = rd-zu; a-ah-du(g) = ah-du(g); a-u-a = u-a. 

Cf. here also such names as d Nin-a-zu, "the lord who knows (hears) the alas-cryings" (so rather than "lord 
of healing"); d Lugal-iri-a, "the king of the 'abode (full) of alas'", i. e., the netherworld; d Umun-S-a, "the lord of 
the 'house (full) of alas'"; lcur a-she-ir-ra, the "land where one cries out (she-ir = sir = sardhu): 'alas!'", etc., etc. 

5 This is the prototype of the Greek ''AS(ov(l<;) and of the Latin Adon(is), see B. E., Series D, vol. VI. 

6 See above, pp. 19 and 25, note 6. 

7 Cf. IV R., 27 (add. 6a), no. 1 : 1, [edin-na u-sag-ga-ge dam-a-na] mu-un-na-an-[tt(g)-ga'] — [ana Ml u-suk- 
ki ana mu-u]s-sa it-hu-u, "to the abode of the 'bridegroom', to her husband (when) she (Ishtar) drew near". See 
also Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 219, no. 3 : 1, 2; B. E., Series D, vol. V, part 2, p. 34, note 11. 

8 See above, p. 25. 

9 Zimmern, S. K., p. 58, no. 78, col. 1:34/35, where d DUN-PA-e-a is called, lum( ?) an-edin damal-la, 
ug ni(g)-zi-gdl edin-na, i. e., "sheik ('old man' ?)of the extended netherworld, lion of (among) the living creatures of 
the netherworld". Cf. here Gudea, Cyl. B, IV : 20ff., ur-mah-ug ushumgal edin-na-ka, u-du(g) gar-radm, "(die 
Stadt war) wie der tvilde Lowe, der Herr der 'Ebene', der sich niederlegt" (Th.-D.). Eannatum builds and dedicates 
to Nin-Girsu a canal, called WUg-edin, "lion of the desert". An ug-gal an-edin-na is mentioned also in B. E., XXVII, 
no. 1, col. II : 34, in connection with the d Nin-har-sag of Kesh; in I. c, col. VI : 34ff., it is said of a temple £ 
ug-gal-dim su-lim gur-ru, [. . .] an-edin-na ug-gi am(ne l)-&, "the temple which like the great lion is full of splendor, 
which like the .... of the edin shines". 

With the lum an-edin cf. Str. 2105, where An-gal d Lum-lum-mu is followed by d Gashan-Dur-ilu ki , thus 
showing that d Lum-lum-mu is here an attribute of An-gal or d KA-DI, the god of Der, and one of the wellknown 
names of Dumuzi, the d KADI i-bi-shub-ba, "K. of beautiful eyes or face", which latter is merely a variant of i-bi- 
lum-lum ka-na-dg-ga, "the beautiful or glorious lord of the land" (parallel with u-mu-un gir(ki-ri) ka-na-dg-ga), 
C. T., XV, 18 : 14 = Zimmern, S. B. T., no. 5; 8. K., p. 39, no. 34 : 11a. Cf. also I. c, p. 31, no. 27,Rev., V: llff., 
where Ishtar addresses Dumuzi: 

ses i-bi-lum-lum-mu ses i-bi-ld-ld-mu 

dam-zu a-ba-dm ma-e dam-zu me-en 

ama-zu a-ba-dm ma-e ama-zu me-en, i. e., 

"My most fascinating brother, my most gracious brother, 

"Thy wife, who is she? 'I am thy wife!' 

"Thy mother, who is she? 'I am thy mother!'" 

See also Harper, "Lotters", V, 438 : 7, where the d Igi-DA-DA (read sig-sig, Zimmern, L. S. S., II 1 , p. 7, 
note 2, and cf. C. T., XXIV, 3 : 25 = 21 a : 59, d Igi-sig-stg nu-gish-sar-gal An-na-ge, "great gardner of An") is 


gods 1 , kings 2 , men 3 and "beasts" 4 — of whom the d DUN-PA-e-a was the "lion" and 
the d Sumug(g)a(n) the "shepherd". 6 

in parallelism with d Lum-lum, 1. 12. [ d L]um-ma appears also in the list of Dumuzi names, C. T., XXIV, 9 : 13. 
In C. T., XXIV, 6 : 18 = 22 : 116 = XXV, 286 : 3 (here with the gloss ma\), d Lum-ma is the first of the two (the 
other is d Ha-da-ni-ish) utug E-kur-ra-ge, i. e., of the "netherworld". Zimmern, S. K., p. 16, no. 11, col. VI : 5, men- 
tions Ga-sha-an-dig-ga ("mistress of the dead") d Lum-ma ur-sag, for which the parallel passage, R. if., p. 86:56 = 137: 
81, has Gashan-sa[- . . . .l]um-ma ur-sag-ga; here the sa is apparently the first part of dig, while the [....] has to be 
emended to di[g-ga d L]um. IV R., 526:48, enumerates d Ia-ab-ru d Lum-ma(1) d Ru-shu AN mish shur-bu-tu, 
"the fearful gods". In Pinches, P. 8. B. A., 1909, pi. VI (p. 62) : 21, Dumuzi is asked to hand over the evil ha-a- 
a-tu ana dan-ni d Lum-ma gdl-ld la ba-bil pa-ni, "to the mighty L., the pitiless ( ? Zimmern, ZumStreitum die Christus- 
mythe, p. 63: 'der keine Verzeihung gewahrt'') demon." The la ba-bil pa-ni (cf. B. E., XVII, p. 144, note 2) seems 
to explain here the i-bi-lum-lum (cf. lum = babdlu); i Lum-ma, therefore, really stands for d Igi-lum-lum, i. e., the 
god who makes all eyes turn to him, and when once turned to him, they cannot be turned away from him, so fas- 
cinating is he. d Lum-ma, though = Dumuzi, is here differentiated from him and appears as one of his "powers" 
or "servants". The "star Lum-ma" is d En-lil of Shub K : Nim-ma ki , Pinches, E. N., pi. XI : 11, 12. 

1 Among these gods, besides those already mentioned, may be enumerated: 

a) the "twin-gods" {i-lu ki-lal-la-an) d KAL bi - ir - du -edin \ bi-ir-du and d KAL ehar - ra -'> u -edin \ shar-ra-bu, 
"the burner", C. T., XXV, 6 : 28, 23, 24 — two names by which d Mes-lam-ta- e-a and his father d Lugal-gir-ra or 
Nergal were known in Mar H , see C. T., XXV, 356 : 24/5 = 37a: 20/1 and 366 : 28—30. Cf. here the d She-na-i- 
la-na, i. e., d Pa and d Lugal = d Utu and d IM, above, p. 26, note 3. It may not be impossible that these twins 
have to be identified also with the d Kal-shd(g)-ga or d Kal-kal-shd(g)-ga or merely d Kal-kal, the ni-du-gal E-kur- 
ra-ge, "the great gate-opener of the netherworld", see H. A. V., p. 377, note 1; R. H., p. 26 (no. 11), Rev., 8, and 
cf. no. 8, col. V: 9, 10, where Ishtar, while in the netherworld, calls out the d Kal-kal: & gdl-lu, "open the house" ! 

b) the IM-DUGVD, i. e., the well-known storm-god d Zu, who in B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. Ill : 22, is closely 
connected with the edin; 

c) the utug edin-na, one of the seven evil utug, A. S. K. T., no. 11, col. 1:2; 

d) the ki-el edin-na lil-ld, another of the seven evil utug. This name is rendered either by ar-da-at li-li-i, Sm. 
49 (Bezold, "Cat.", p. 1376) or by ar-da-tu sha bit za-ki-ki (Br. 4532) — translations which show that bit za-ki-ki = 
edin-lilis merely the "sphere of influence" of the Li-li-i a,nd as such a variant of ^ffffiT T'T = E-lil-ld, originally "house 
of Lil", i. e., "house of the 'Son of An, d En-lW" (see B. E., XXIX, p. 18, note 6), who played in the pre-historic 
or An period the role of Dumuzi; later on an expression for "netherworld", being translated, like edin-lil, not only 
by bit za-ki-ki, "house of the (god of the) storm" (M. 3801), but also by bit siri, "house of the desert" (M. 3802) 
or by bit irsiti, "house of the netherworld" (M. 3799). The expression lil-ld. . .gi-gi or lil-ld. . .tu(r)(tur) — ana 
za-ki-ki taru, so often occurring in the Sumerian Lenten songs, means, therefore, as much as "to hand over tosheol", 
"to bring down into the netherworld", the sphere of the "god of storm". No wonder, then, that the seven evil 
utug are not only "begotten of the seed of An" (a An-na a-ri-a-mish, C. T., XVI, 12: 22) or "the beloved sons of 
Enlil" (dumu ki-dg-ga d En-lil-ld, I. c, 1. 5), but also and especially "born of Ereshkigal" (u-tu-ud-da d Eresh-ki-gal- 
la-ge, I. c, 1. 6), the queen of the netherworld; 

e) the god d IM, the Dumuzi of the "Westland", had according to II R., 49 : 30 = V R., 16 : 48, the name 
Ug-edin-na-gub-ba, "the storm who has his abode in the edin"; cf. below, g; 

f) the me-ir-me-ir-ra edin-na, "storm of the edin", occurs in a Dumuzi text, published by Scheil, R.A., VIII, 
p. 169, Obv. 11. 

g) Noteworthy in this connection is alsoK. 7926 (Bezold, "Cat.", p. 882) which mentions the following "storms 
of the an- edin": 

ug-mah-e an-na-edin-na gub-ba, "the sublime storm which has his abode in the netherworld"; 

ug-shur-ra an-edin-na si(g)-ga, "the furious storm which stretches down in the netherworld"; 

ug-hul-gdl an-edin-na ru,-ru(du-du), "the evil storm which gores in the netherworld"; 

ug-gir(pesh)-a an-edin-na gir-gir(bur-bur), "the swift (orweighty) storm which gathers in in the netherworld"; 
Cf. here the name of Ishtar: d Ug-ni-gtr, C. T., XXV, 17 : 8, which in the parallel passage, I. c, 446 : 3, is wrongly 
given as d PI(\)-ne-gir, and Ishtar's assurance, A. 8. K. T., p. 128 : 9/10, sa-[pdr] gil-li an-na- [edin-na] men = 
(she-tu) it-\kur-~\tum sha ana si-rim [tar-sa]-at ana-ku, "the swiftly moving netwhich is spreadover the netherworld, 


The function of "shepherd" is a necessary consequence of the conception which the 
Sumerians entertained with regard to their edin and is one of the inseparable attributes 
of the "Son" of a given trinity. The "Son", being in each and every case the "lord of the 
netherworld", was necessarily considered to be the "ruler" and "shepherd", the "guider" 
and "care-taker" of all beings to be found in the edin — whether these beings be gods, 
kings, men or animals. 

In the prehistoric or An period, the "shepherd" was the "Son" of An, d En-lil, who 
even as "Father" retained among his "seven foremost names" that of sib na-am-sag-gi(g)-ga 6 ; 
or more generally sib sag-gi{g)-ga' 7 , "shepherd of mankind". Though shepherd himself, 
Enlil had two other shepherds under him, viz. the d Nin-ma-gukal-lu s , "lord of the sheep- 
fold", and the d Nin-amash-azag-ga 9 , "lord of the pure fold", both of whom are designated 

I am". Cf. also the name of Dumuzi: Umun-sa-pdr, "lord of the net", into which are gathered all who go down 
to the netherworld. 

2 See above, pp. 21 ff., where the kings of Isin are to be found in the netherworld. 

3 Cf. the sag-gi(g)-edin, "the black-headed (people) of the netherworld", Zimmern, S. K., p. 24, no.25, Rev., 
col. VIII : 16. 

* To these "beasts" of the edin belong, among others, 

a) the mash-git ni(g)-zi-gdl edin-na, Gudea, Cyl. B, IV : 18, probably the "swift gazelle (B. E., XXIX, p. 84, 
note 22; cf. the mash- p»Jf_ an-edin-na of A. S. K. T., no. 12, rev. 11, 14), the creature of the edin" — a name, 
which was ascribed to the "weapon-carriers, the celebrated men, the beloved men oi d Utu" (NI ^ h fiUG erim 
mu-tug erim d Utu ki-ag, Cyl. A, XIV : 24ff.), i. e., in all probability, the personifications of the swift rays of the 
desert sun; 

b) the udu d-dara-mash an-edin-na ma-a, A. S. K. T., no. 12: 4 (here parallel with the udu d-dara-mash mdsh 
har-sag-gd-ge, 1. 3, and the udu d-dara-mash kur-ra, 1. 5); 

c) the edin-na ganam (or sherba) LA ( ? cf. de Genouillac, T. S. A., p. LX.V)-lu sil LA ( 1)-lu, no. 1, col. 
Ill : 5, 6. 

According to these passages the edin is apparently a kind of "yard, hurdle, fold", in which these "beasts" 
are kept. This, no doubt, is the reason, why in M. 3049 the edin is identified with tur = tarbasu, a syn. of amash 
— names which designate, as is wellknown (H . A. V., p. 399), the specific habitation of Ishtar and her maidens — 
and why Ishtar, as the occupant of this fold is herself called a "cow" (LIT, cf. above, p. 16) or "ewe" (ganam, 
sherba = lahru, see below, p. 33) or "lamb" (sil, cf. C. T., XXIV, 18, Rev., 7, 8, d M-ha-ragu^ or wny even Dumuzi 
is sometimes represented by a "statue" in the form of a "lamb" or "sheep" (see below, p. 33). In this amash there 
were according to Scheil, R. A., VIII, p. 164, col. II : 32 — 41 = Zimmern, S. K., p. 3, no. 2, col. II : 1, "seven 
demons" (gdl-ld). Notice also that the tur, like the E-an-na (see above, p. 9, note 3) had an IB. In (shu) this 
tur-IB was born (tu(d)-da) the d Nidaba-gal, Thureau-Dangin, R. A., VII, (1910), p. 108, col. I: 3. 

5 A. S. K. T., no. 12, Rev., 10, 11, d Sumug(g)a(n) (=OIR) dumu d Utu sib ni(g)-nam-ma-ge mash-^1 
an-edin-na hu-mu-ra-ab-gin-ne. Cf. C. B. M., no. 112 : 25, Su-mu-ug-ga-an zi-gdl ibi-in-ba-ar u-shi ni-dib-a, "S., 
keeper of a watchful eye over the living creatures, fearful ushu". Cf. also above, p. 17, note 4 and below, p. 32, 
note 3, and notice that su-mu-ug-ga signifies Dumuzi as the "one who is in distress" (i-dir-tum), see C. T., XV, 
p. 20 : 13, sub-ba d Dumu-zi-de a su-mu-ug-ga-ni, "of the shepherd D. — how long still his distress" (sc. 'till it comes 
to an end', or 'will it last')? 

6 Macmillan, B. A., V, p. 666 a: 7/8 = ri-'-e-[um sal-mat qaq-qa-di]. 

7 R. H., p. 45:5, = ri- e-um sal-mat qaq-qa-di. Cf. also 1. c, p. 29 (no. 13) : 4; p. 32 (no. 14) : 6; p. 42 (no. 21): 
8; p. 43 (no. 21) : 47; p. 45 (no. 22) : 5; p. 46 (no. 22), rev. 5; p. 50 : 7; Br. 5690; Macmillan, B. A., V, p. 683 : 4; 
p. 710a : 10, etc., etc. 

8 See C. T., XXIV, 11 : 36/7 = 24 : 53/4. 

9 According to I. c, 11. 38/9 = 55, he was the husband ol d Nin(-zu)-amash-a(e), the daughter (dumu-sal) of 
d Ama-a-ra (Amar)-zu. Notice also that the d^ n .a-ma-ash amash and d Nin-amash occur among the "42 names of 


2 sib uz 1 sig(sig-sig)-ga d En-lil-la-ge, "two shepherds of the beautiful (not yellow!) goats 
of Enlil". In the EME-SAL texts d Nin-amash-azag-ga appears as d Vmun-amash-azag-ga 
who is termed sib zi-da 2 = ri-e-um ki-nu, "legitimate shepherd". Like the "sheep" or 
"ewes" (ganam, sherba) or "lambs" (sil, sil), these "goats" (uz) 3 , together with their "kids" 
(mash, mash), are in the Dumuzi texts a euphemistic expression for the "maidens and their 
young ones" holy or consecrated to the Ishtar cult, whether living in the terrestrial folds 
(harems) or in those of the netherworld. 4 

Above 5 we heard that d En-ki, "lord of the netherworld", though originally merely 
an attribute of Enlil, became at a later time confused with the "god of the ocean", i. e., 
with d E-a. To this confusion is due Ea's attribute "shepherd of the goats", see C. T., 
XXIV, 42 : 134, d En-[lil- 6 ]banda | JJ (= d E-a) sha sib uz, i. e., "Enlil-banda ('the mighty 
Enlil') is Ea as shepherd of the goats". 

The role of Enlil as Dumuzi, i. e. as the "true son" of An, was played in the "Westland" 
by i MAR-TV 1 dumu An-na. Hence, this god must likewise appear as a "shepherd", 
if our theory of the development of the Sumerian religion be correct. That this is true, 
is evident from Thureau-Dangin, N. F., AO 4331 + 4335, Rev., col. I : 3 ff., where Ishtar 
addresses d MAR-TU as follows: 

lugal gu-ma-da sib ma-sa-ne 8 d Gi-ra 9 -da(l) 

a-dan sib-bi ma-sa-ne ba-ra-e-da-da(l) 

mash li-mi-i-e-da(l) si mulu-DI-NA u-za-al-za-al-la-da(l), i. e., 

the lord, the 'father-mother' Enlil", C. T., XXIV, 4 : 12/3 = 21 : 75, and that the "month of the festival (ezen) 
of d Lugal-amash" is the month Tammuz(SAu- numun-na), V R., 43: 16a, and that the d Lugal-amash-PA-i, "the 
glorious king of the fold", seems to change with d DUN-PA-i-a, "glorious hero" (= Enlil, B. E., XXIX, p. 21), 
see Zimmern, Ritualt., no. 45, p. 150 : 6, and Maqlu, II : 56. 

1 For the reading uz = ">f JJ^^, instead of ^fff^, as copy gives, see Meissner, 0. L. Z., 1909, Sp. 201, and 
cf. IV R., 28* no. 3 : 3; Voc. Scheil, 21 : 8. 

2 R. H., p. 85 : 36 = 134, col. II : 33/4 = 137 : 45/6; Sm. 65 (Bezold, Cat., p. 1377). 

3 Notice also that there existed a mul UZ or "heavenly goat", the capricornus, belonging to the diia-aha-hi 
who is identified, among others, with d Sumug(g)a(n) or d 8ag-gan, i. e., with d GIR, C. T., XXIX, 46 : 13. 

The d Sumug(g)a{n) = d GIR, then, is both a "shepherd" and an UZ or mashaku, "goat"; cf. also p. 32, note 12. 

4 Cf. here especially the ki-d-ld-a ganam-sil-bi ki-d-ld-a uz-mdsh-bi, lit., '"the place minus strenght', I. e., 
the netherworld, where there is the ewe and its lamb; the netherworld, where there is the goat and its kid", IV 
R., 30, no. 2 : 1—3; cf. also Zimmern's translation in S. B. T., p. 207 and A. 0., XII, p. 11. 

5 P. 19, note 4. 

6 For this emendation cf. II R., 59 : 42, d Mu-ul-lil-banda(da) | d En-lil-banda(da) \ d E-a; C. T., XXIV, 14 : 20, 
An- d En-lil-banda(da), "the mighty An-Enlil!" | 4 (t. e., the 4th name of Ea); cf. also C. T., XXIV, 49a : 7—9. 

7 For d MAR-TV = d En-lil, see JS. E., XVII, p. 41, note 1 ; and for d MAR-TU in the role of Dumuzi, see above, 
p. 13, notes 1, 2. 

8 These ma-sa-ne ( = mash, mash) are the "kids" that are kept ina tur-azag d Gir-ra, "in the pure fold (see 
above, p. 29, note 4) of Girra", Craig, R. T., I, p. 61 : 25, and constitute the bu-ul d Gir = bu-ul stri, "sphere of 
influence" (seru = edin = tur-azag = d 6ir) for the "lord" or "god" of the sphere, see B. E., XXIX, p. 10. 

9 Phonetic writing for <*(?/ R, who, if read d Gir, is = d Ne-iri-gal (B. E., XXVII, no. 1. col. VIII : 47, 49), 
and, if pronounced Sumug(g)a(n), the "son of d Utu", see above, p. 29, note 5. 


"King of all the land, shepherd of the kids, like Gira, 

"How long still, o shepherd, that the kids are not led out, 

"That the kids are to be kept in, or that the horn of the drivers rests?" 

After Enlil had displaced An, the "sons" of Enlil usurped the role played by their 
"Father". Among these "sons of Enlil" with the title "shepherd" may be mentioned the 

a) Sin of Ur, the son of Enlil 1 and of An. 2 Cf. B. E., XXVII, no, 1, col. VIII: 53, 
d Ash-gu-(b)ur-e nam-sib-zu sha-mu-un-AG, "0 Askaru, excercise thy shepherdship" ! Perry, 
Sin, p. 12 : 4, records that Sin-Nannar is endowed with the nishe sal-mat qaqqadi ush- 
shu-ru, "the directing of mankind". 3 

Sin is the utul (LIT-KUl) LIT-ne-ra sal-du(g)-ga,"the shepherd who taketh care 
of the cows", 4 C. T., XV, 17:15. Notice also Sin's name: «***»■"■ UT-{ ], in 
C. T., XXV, 27 a : 7,. and his temple E-utul tur-dagal-la-a, "house of the flocks of the 
extended fold", B.E., XXVII, no. 1, col. VIII: 52. 

In the Ur trinity: d Nanna( Sin), d Utu(Sha,mash), Hnnanna (Ishtar), the "Son" of 
Nanna, d JJtu, was the sib tu(d)-da d Nanna, "the shepherd born by Nannar". 5 In the 
Sippar or Larsa trinity the "shepherd" was necessarily the "son of <f Utu", d Sumug{g)a(n). B 

b) Lugal-banda, 7 the son of both Enlil 8 and Sin, 9 the "Enlil of Kullab" and "lord of 
Eshnunna", is expressly called d Sib halam-ma a-a sag-gi(g)-ga, "divine shepherd of the 
'country', father of mankind". 10 

c) Nin-Girsu. Though I have not yet found a passage where Nin-Girsu is referred 
to as "shepherd", yet this much is certain that he had two "shepherds", viz., the En-lulim, 11 
who was the sib mdsh-Mim, "shepherd of the kids of the Zw&m-goats", and the d En-sig-nun, 12 
the sib anshu, "shepherd of the donkeys". 

1 See "Cieation-Stoiy", p. 22. 

2 See above, p. 10. 

3 Notice also that d Nin-si-a = d Sin { d XXXl, C. T., XXIV, 48 : 7) appears in C. T., XVI, 13a : 40, as the 
utul(LIT-KU) utul(LIT-LU)-lu u-a = ri-'-i (ri-6-um) u-tul-la-ti, "shepherd of the flocks", cf. H. A. V., p. 378, 
note 2. 

4 For the "cow(s) of d Nanna" see also Gudea, Cyl. A, XIX : 13, and notice that according to B. E., XXIX, 
p. 82 : 14, it is Nin-ib who is the "care-taker of the young oxen and cows of Sin", ninda LIT-bi s[al-du(g)-bi-dm]. 

5 "Creation-Stoiy", p. 22, note 10. 

6 See above, p. 29, note 5. 

7 For this god see H. A. V ., pp. 416ff. 

8 Hence the same as d Nin-ib, d SUH. 

9 For this reason identified with d Utu. 

13 H. A. V., p. 418, no. 4 : 8. Cf. also I. c, 11. 42ff., where he is referred to as OIR-NITA sil mah-e d Gir- 
dim , "overseer of the lambs, sublime one, like Gir ", see above, p. 30, note 8. 

11 Gudea, Cyl. B, X : 7. 

12 Gudea, Cyl. B, X : 1; Ur-Ba-u, Statue, VI : 1. Cf. also C. T., XXIV, 36 : 37, where d En-sig-nun occurs 
as the first of the four utug d [Nin-ib-ge]. 


d) Nin-ib, the "care-taker of the young oxen and cows of Sin". 1 

e) Nergal, the "legitimate son and beloved of Enlil" 2 , was the "shepherd" par excellence, 
and this under the name d Gir, d Gir-ra, d Gi-ra. 3 

f) En-nu-gi, "the lord (of the land) without return", *. e., of the netherworld, 4 the son 5 
and throne-carrier 6 of Enlil, the git-gal 7 of the great gods, the husband of d Nidaba- 
ur-sag(gal), 8 father of d Gin- d Du(l)-azag-ga 9 and lord of the ditches and irrigation canals. 10 

This god had likewise two "shepherds", viz., d Ga-a-a-u and «^(=o«-^«-«)^ i ^ii. 

Also in C. T., XXIX, 46:16, Ga-a-a-u appears as a gloss, to d GANAM, 12 the "sheep" 

1 See above, p. 31, note 4. 

2 H. A. V., p. 428. 

3 See above p. 30, notes 8, 9, and 31, note 10. Notice in this connection that the d Galu(Mulu)-ru, who is 
identified with d Lugal-edin-na, the son of An, and with Nergal, the son of Enlil (H. A. V., p. 430), appears in 
H. A. V., p. 431, no. 5 : 6, as the mash-niu igi-bar u-ma-am kur-ra-ka ga-zi ku-ku-a, "keeper of a watchful eye over 
the flock3, who nourishes the beasts of the field with milk of life". Cf. p. 29, note 5. 

4 Cf. Meissner-Rost, B. S., p. 108, note, d En-nu-gi bU KI-tim la ta[-a-ri], where KI-tim la Idri translates 
evidently the wellknown kur-nu-gi(gi, ga)-a. 

6 R. H., p. 85 : 32/3 = 134 : 25/6 = 136 : 37/8. 

6 C. T., XXIV, 10 : 7, d En-nu-gi \ gu-za-ld d En-lil-ld-ge. 

'• K. B., VI 1 , p. 250 : 8. 

8 C. T., XXIV, 10: 9; XXIX, Aid: 6. Cf. also above, p. 29, note 4. 

9 "Maid of the god of the holy mountain", C. T., XXIV, 10 : 11. 

10 /. e., lord of the means which bring about the fertility of the ground. Zimmern, Shurpu, IV, p. 24 : 82, 
d En-nu-gi en e u pa = bil iki u palgi. Cf. here the d En-ki-ni-du, "lord of the 'fearful place' " = netherworld, who 
is the mm e-pa = be-el i-gi(ki) u pal-gi, R. H., p. 87 : 27 = 92 : 16 = 135, col. Ill : 15/6 = 139 : 139/40, and the 
d En-me-en-shar-ra (Zimmern, S. K., p. 16, no. 11, col. V: 7), or generally written d En-me-shar-ra, who in K. 48 : 
Iff. = Craig, R. T., II, p. 13, appears likewise as the god of the netherworld and of the fertility of the ground, 
being called: EN KI-tim NUN sha A-ra-a[l-l]i EN ash-ri u KUR-NU-GI sha-du-u sha d A-nun-na-ki pa-ri-is ESH- 
BAR KI-tim mar-kas OAL-u sha AN KI-tim EN GAL-u sha ina ba-li-shu d Nin-Gir-su ina GAN u pal-gi la ush- 
te-esh-she-ru la i-ban-nu-u tsh-she-na. This d En-me-en-shar-ra, "lord of the commands (or tiara ?) of the universe", 
was originally Enlil, cf . C. T., XXIV, 4 : 26 = 21 : 82, where he appears among the "42 names of the lord, the father- 
mother Enlil". He, like Enlil, revealed himself and acted through his "seven sons" (III R., 69, no. 3 : 64). As 
planet he was the lu-lim, " Leithammel" , "leader", V R., 46, no. 1 : 21. Cf. also R. H., p. 146 : 42, d En-me-shar-ra 
ik-ka-mu-u d Me-me ish-kun bi-ki-tum. 
« C. T., XXV, 27c: 10, 11, 

d Ga-a-a-u \ si[b d En-nu-gi-ge] 

rfW m^ | y| 4 d [IGI-DUB-li(l)], compared with C. T., XXIV, 48, col. II : 19, 20; 

[ d Ga-a- ]a-ii | sib d En-nu-gi-ge 

[ d ~™] ygfgf | d IGI-DUB (iskim, agrig 1)-ti(l) \ shu; cf. 1.22. 

With IGI-DU B-ti(l) cf., besides B. E., XXIX, p. 56, note 27, p. 57, note 43, also R. H., p. 28 : 17, Igi-gdl 
Bdd-si-ab-baM kala-kala-ga 5 IGI-DU B-ti(l) d Knr-gal kala-kala-ga. Marduk is the IGI-DU B-ti(l) nam-ti-la (se. 
of the sick), A. S. K. T., no. 11, col. IV : 6, and so is Nin-ib, I. c, 1. 16. d Utu is the en IGI-DU B-ti(l)-la of Ham- 
murapi, King, L. I. H., no. 62 (III, p. 180), Rev., 24; Eannatum is the IGI-DU B-ti(l) of d Pa-sag, Feldst. A, col. 
11:18; B, col. II: 13. 

12 And to d $tZ, 1. 15. The d J%.^~ is not to be identified with d DARA (M. 11332), but with **('***> •** 
SIG(K), "the goddess (of the animals with) wool", i. e., of the sheep, being as such merely a variant of d Nin- 
slg (cf. d Mah = d Nin-mah; d Ib = d Nin-ib, etc), C. T., XXV, 20o:2a,46, oneof the four names of dLa -J^ T GANAM, 
see following note. 

d X^~ has also the gloss sag-gan, I. c, 1. 6 — a gloss which gives, inter alia, the pronunciation of d GIR, 


or "ewe" — a god and goddess identified not only with Ishtar 1 and ^sh-shu-ir-du, 2 with 
d IM and d BARA, 3 but also and especially with Ske - ir - ba d GANAM-alan, who occurs 
in C. T., XXIX, 46:6, between two Dumuzi names, viz., Tirbirra d URUDU-pfc,* "the 
creator", "former" (1.5), and d m ' mu ' zi d Sib, "shepherd" (1. 7). This justifies us to regard 
the She - ir - ba d GANAM-alan likewise as a name of Dumuzi and to identify it with the 
d <f^- ba "- !an ALAN, which occurs in the well-known list of Dumuzi names, C. T., XXIV, 
19, col. II : 4 = 9 : 5 = XXV, 7 o, col. II : 5. But if so, the <ffcff- ha must be a mistake 
for ^[Jp^-fta, i. e., she-ir-ba, which, together with alan, is a gloss. She-ir-ba-a-lan, then, 
is the god "Dumuzi" in the form of a "statue representing a sheep or a lamb". 5 The 
Sumerian "Son" of God is the "Lamb" of God. 

Dumuzi, like every other "Son" of a given trinity in the Sumerian religion, had to 
be a "shepherd" likewise. He is the d Dumu-zi d Sib, 6 "divine shepherd"; the mulu stb-bi,i 
"shepherd-man", the "Dumu-zi EN* SIB sha d A-nim 9 DUMU 10 d E-a har-mi d U-GJJN 

1. 9 (= Su-mu-ug-ga d j R> j 8) From this it f n ows that Ga-a-a-A dj%^- i s „ d Sumug{g)a(n) (01 R) and that 
the latter is both a "shepherd" and a "sheep"; cf. also p. 30, note 3. 

1 C. T., XXV, 20a : 4, dL "-^GANAM, "the (mother-) sheep, ewe", "Rachel", who is, according to 1. 46 
= XXIV, 32 : 1176 the d Nin-SIG (see preceding note), and according to 1. 56 = XXIV, 32 : 1186, the d JV»n- 
du(l)-azag-ga oi d Du\-azag-ga, "mistress (goddess) of the holy mountain", and according to XXV, 9: 15 (here without 
the gloss la-har), the d A-a sha ku-ni-e (H. W. B., p. 338a), or also called d A-a sha mash-ta-ki hi-rat d Shag-zu, "A-a 
of the harem, wife of Shag-zu", I.e., 11. 12, 13. Now, as Shagzu is either Enlil or Enzu or IM or Marduk 
(see H. A. V., p. 405, note 43), the Ishtar as "ewe" becomes here either Ninlil or Ningal or Shala or Sar- 

2 C. T., XXIX, 46 : 17. 

3 C.T., XXIX, 46 : 18, sha -"> <*IM 

19, ^ d BARA 

20, ^ d GANAM 

4 Notice that the u-mu-un-e Bdd-URUDU-NAGAR**, "lord of B." is Dumu-zi, no. 6, col. 1 : 8; C. T., XV, 
18:8; cf. no. 5, Rev., II : 11, [u-mu-un\-e Ba-ad-U[RUDU-NAGAR K l The t- d Dumu-zi Bdd-URUDU-NAGARK-a 
is mentioned in B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. IV : 45; and I. c, 11. 43, 44, d Dumu-zi is called the lugal fi-nina-a-ge, 
Bdd-URUDU-NAGARK; cf. no. 1, col. Ill: 10, Bad-URUDU-NAGAR^ E-nina-a. From this it follows that 
the d Lugal-Bdd-URUDU-NAGAR ki of C. T., XXV, 38a : 3, must be d Dumu-zi. Lastly, just as Dumuzi is the 
Ti-bi-rad URUDU . N AGAR, so is Ishtar (= d Be-lit-i-li), his wife, the d URUDU-NAGAR-kalam-ma(dingir(-ri)- 
e-ne), "the former, creator of the 'country' (gods)", C. T., XXIV, 12 : 24/5 = 25 : 87. 

5 And not an "Ea-Bild", Zimmern, B. G. T., p. 7, note 1. 

6 C. T., XXIX, 46 : 7. 

7 C.T., XV, 28 : 3, 22. 

8 Cf. the sub-ba en d Dumu-zi, below, p. 39, note 3. 

9 This attribute betrays still clearly the fact that the original and first Dumuzi was Enlil, the "Son" and 
"shepherd" of An. In R. H., p. 131 : 41/2, d Mu-ul-lil appears distinctly as the tu-mu mu-lu zi-da, "the 'Son', the 
true one", being rendered in Semitic by ma-ri ki-nim, "true son", which is, of course, nothing but our d Dumu-zi. 
When in the later development of the Sumerian religion the role of Enlil as Dumuzi was transferred to all the 
other "Sons" of the various trinities, d Dumuzi, like An, Enlil, Ishtar, acquired a generic significance (H. A. V., 
p. 404, note 31). This is the reason why we find such a peculiar writing as d Dumu mish-zi, 1IIR., 66, Obv. 31a„ 
13<f, 18a, Rev., 24a — a writing which is by no means a "graphische Spielerei (zur Bezeichnung des langen u ?)", as 



li-ra-U na-shu-u shi-bir-ri 11 EN-TV R, 1 " 1 "D., the lord, the shepherd of An, son of Ea, 

husband of 'the beautiful one' ( = Ishtar), the wife, . . . who carries the shepherd's staff, 
lord of the fold". As "shepherd of An" Dumuzi appears also in C. T., XV, 27 : 46/7 = 
30 :24/5, where it is said of him: 
mu{sh)-dur-dim ki-utul (LIT-LU, var. en-nu-iig 13 (var. SI) U mu-un-da-ab-du(du{g)) 

LIT)-A-na 15 
sub-ba-dim ki-e-si 16 -udu-A-na en-nu-ug (var. SI) mu-un-da-ab-du(du{g)), i. e., 

"Like (one with) a shepherd's staff over the he keepeth guard, 

'folds of the herds (var. cows) of An' 
"Like a shepherd ( ?) over the 'folds of the he keepeth guard." 

sheep-flocks of An' 
Dumuzi is, therefore, rightly called ''Sib-zi-an-na, 11 "true shepherd of An". 
Ishtar, who is referred to either as dam sib-ba ia , "wife of the shepherd", or as the sib- 
bi SAL-KV 19 , "sister of the shepherd", bewails her husband Dumuzi as follows: 

Zimmern, B. G. T., p. 6, note 3, is inclined to think, but one justified by the historic development of the Dumuzi 
cult, informing us that there existed among the Sumerians several (mish — plural!) Dumuzi as e. g., the d Dumuzi- 
abzu, the d Dumuzi of Bdd-U RUDU-NAGAR H , the d Dumuzi of Ki-ner-sha ki (sic! - Ki-nu-ner™ ?), B. E., XXVII, 
no. 1, col. VI : 6, 8, etc., — all of whom, though worshiped in different cities, played the same role. 

10 This statement proves definitely that "Dumuzi, the son of Ea", must be identified with Dumuzi-abzu, see 
H. A. V., p. 404, note 31, and Zimmern, B. G. T., p. 7. 

11 Cf. C. T., XV, 10 : 19, where d Mu-ul-lil is said to carry the shibir dingir-ri-ne "shepherd's staff of the gods". 

12 Cf. also Dumuzi's attribute H-mu-un-e E-tur-a, "lord of the (house of the) fold", C. T., XV, 18 : 12. This 
'fold" (tur, syn. of amash) is both the "harem" (H. A. V., p. 399) and the edin (above, p. 29, note 4). Cf. also the 
d Umun-amash-azag-ga, above, p. 29. 

13 For this reading cf. I. c, 1. 22 = 24, en-nu-ug-ga and see Br. 2841. 

14 SI . . .du(g) — NI (i. e., si, above, p. 15, note 5) . . .du(g) = za(l). . .du(g) = sal. . .du(g). 

15 Notice in this connection that C. T., XXIV, 3 : 23/4 = 21 : 57/8, mentions the two vtul (LIT-KU)-gal 
An-na-ge, "great shepherds of An", viz., d En-0"' ra |q[f ^>-ff- (sic! read ^(|^^^:) and d Subur-d-zi-da. For the 
reading ^71^^; cf. C. T., XXIV, 4 : 4, 5 = 21 : 71, where d En-gara together with his wife d NIN-gara are men- 
tioned among the "42 names of the lord, the father-mother Enlil". Enlil, then, the son of An, was the original 
"shepherd" of An. 

In 0. T., XXV, 19a : 4, d NIN *>«!>-g°rra ^4.^. is gaid to be the ^ (rfam . 6i . sai) of d ?«-<" UD. 
This d Har or "god of the oxen" is according to I. c, 6:22, the gain kin-gi-a d Mash-tab-ba-ge, "messenger of the 
'twins'", being mentioned immediately after the sukal of d Lugal-gir-ra and of d Mes-lam-ta-e-a, which would seem 
to indicate that these "twins" were the "great twins", i. e., Sin and Nergal, V R., 46 : 4, 5 = H. A. V., p. 425. 
But Sin is the &eoQ (iovXalog of the third month with the stars Sib-zi-an-na and Mash-tab-ba-gal-gal-la, see B. E., 
Series D, vol. VI, Table II : 3. From this it follows that Dumuzi, "the shepherd of An", or also called d En-gara 
or d Hdr, was Sin, to whom the role of Enlil had been transferred. Sin, therefore, is not only the "son of Enlil", 
but also the "son of An", and the star through which he reveals himself is the Sib-zi-an-na = Dumuzi, see below, 
note 17. 

16 Cf. no. 6, col. VI : 11, 13; Zimmern, S. K., p. 59, no. 79 : 14. 

17 C. T., XXIV, 9:9 = XXV, 7a : 9. 

18 Macmillan, B. A., V, p. 679, Obv., 8. 

19 C. T., XV, 28 : 27; 29 : 11, 19. 


No. 7 : Iff., 

1. sib-mu mash^zu i-bi 2 -nu-e-mu-un-M 

"My shepherd, thy kids — no one taketh care of them; 

2. a-dan sib-mu mash- zu 

"Alas! my shepherd, thy kids — (sc. no one taketh care of them;) 

3. u-lu-lu 3 ses* ama 5 Mu(sh)-tin- na 

"Bewailed ( ?) one, brother of mother (sc. thy kids — etc.) 

4. shutug u-lu-lu ses 

"Anointed one, bewailed ( ?) one, brother (sc. of mother G., thy kids — etc.) 

5. u-mu-un Kul-ab ki * u-mu-un Unu(g) ki -ga 

"Lord of Kullab, lord of Erech, (sc. thy kids — etc.) 

6. u-mu-un Unu(g) ki -ga u-mu-un-e Kul-ab ii 

"Lord of Erech, lord of Kullab, (sc. thy bids — etc.) 

Particularly interesting in connection with the "shepherdship" of Dumuzi is no. 6, 
Obv., which may be transcribed and translated as follows: 
1. [sub 7 -ba ama]sh-zu gi-er-ra [su(g)-ga-dm] 

"Shepherd( ?), thy fold in tears is bathed; 

1 Var. of mash. 

2 I-bi. . .du, "to oversee, to supervise". The idea is that the kids without Dumuzi are "like sheep without 
a shepherd". For the reading i-bi — instead of i-de — cf. now Zimmern, S. K., p. 10, no. 5, col. Ill : 45 = p. 22, 
no. 25, col. 1 : 18 = p. 19, no. 17, col. Ill : 1, where i-bi-bi-da(ta) i-si(si, ish) am(dm)-ta-ld-ld (followed by sha(b)- 
bi a-she-ir im-shi-ld-ld) corresponds to R. H., p. 35 : 14/5 = 66 : 7/8, i-bi-bi-ta i-si-ish dm-ta-ld-e = (ina pa-ni-shu) 
ni-is-sa-tum it-ta-lal (followed by sha(b)-bi a-she-ir(-ra) im-shi-ld-e = lib-ba-shu ta-ni-hum-ma), and to our no. 5, 
col. II : 7, i-bi('.)-bi ahe-ir-ra am-shi-she-she (followed by sha(\)-bi a-she-ir am-ta-ld-ld) ; hence, pdnu = i-bi = i-bi 
= igi. Is the name of d I-bi(bi)- d Sin to be explained, after all, withHilprecht, as meaning "eye, face, image of Sin" ? 

3 Meaning uncertain. Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 240, 37, "wohl — sarru, 'unfester"' ; Langdon, Babyloniaca, II, 
p. 280, "multitudes". G. T., XV, 27 : 13—15, gives u-lul-la as a variant of u-lu-lu, I. c, 30 : 16/7; cf. also I. c, 28 : 
29, lul-li. For other occurrences cf. Scheil, R.A., VIII, p. 164, Obv., II : 47 (u-lu-lu) = Zimmern, 8.K., p. 3, no. 2, 
col. II : 7 ('u-lu-lu); p. 4, no. 2, col. Ill : 8 (u-lu-lu) = Scheil, I. c, p. 167, Rev., II : 88 ('u-lu-lu, not sahar-ra); 
Zimmern, I. c, p. 39, no. 34, Rev., 15 (u-lu-lu); p. 47, no. 51, Rev., 2 (u-lu-lu). 

The d Lugal-d-lu-lu is = Dumuzi, C. T., XXV, 39c : 17; the d U-lu-lu is the last of the eight galu kin-gi-a d Ma- 
nun-gal-ge, "messengers of M.", C. T., XXIV, 47a: 416 = XXV, 4:22; and the u-lul-la-HUO-HUO is the last 
of the "seven great names" of Enlil, R. H., p. 20 (no. 13) : 7, et passim. 

4 Cf. also the peculiar writing she-sha, no. 5, Rev., col. II : 1, and si-sa, Zimmern, 8.K., p. 62, no. 94, Obv., 17 
= ses, I. c, no. 95, Obv., 17. 

5 See no. 5, Rev., col. II : 12, [ses-e] a-ma Mu(sh)[-tin-na'\. 

• Here Dumuzi is the "lord of Kullab"; but according to H. A. V '., p. 416, the d En-lil or "lord" of Kullab 
was d Lugal-banda, the husband of d Nin(Ga-sha-an)-sun, who in no. 1, col. II : 5, appears as the "mother of the 
lord". See also Zimmern, S. K., p. 13, no. 8, col. II : 44, U-mu-un-banda(da) Kul-unu(g)-gdn-nun. The a-ma Ku- 
ul-la-ba was Ga-sha-an-I-ri-ga-al, C. B. M., 112 : 2. 

7 Emendation according to 11. 2, 10. For the reading sub — instead of gub (Zimmern) or sab, sib (Langdon) 
— see below, pp. 39ff. 


2. amash-zu sub-ba amash[-zu] gi-er-ra su(g)-ga-[dm] 

"Thy fold, o shepherd( ?), thy fold in tears is bathed; 

3. d Ama-ushumgal-an-na 1 amash-zu 

"Heavenly king of the 'mother', thy fold (sc. in tears is bathed); 

4. u-mu-un-e A-ra-li 2 

"Lord (of) the netherworld, {sc. thy fold, etc.); 

1 The reading Ama — instead of Dagal (H.A. V., p. 404, note 31) — is now assured by no. 5, Rev., col. II: 6, 
A-ma-u-shu-ga-la-\na~\ nu-ti-il, "A. lives no more". Zimmern, B. G. T„ p. 7, no. 2, renders this name by "Mutter, 
Alleinherrscherin des Himmels". In view of the fact, however, that Ishtar herself is called ushumgal-an-na = shar- 
rat shame, "queen of heaven", Sm. 954, Rev., 3/4, we may see in this name some such meaning as "der Mutter Him- 
melskonig", "heavenly king of the mother ( = Ishtar)". He is expressly identified with Dumuzi (see below), appears 
as the "lord of the house (where one cries out:) 'Alas!'", u-mu-un £-a, no. 1, col. Ill : 7, and is the husband of 
d Nin-an-si-an-na, "the beautiful mistress of heaven", H. A. V., no. 2, p. 406, or olGashan-an-na, see below, p. 37, note 1. 

The following writings of this name may be mentioned (see already Zimmern, B. G. T., p. 7, note 3): 

d Ama-ushumgal-an-na, no. 1, col. Ill : 7; no. 4 : 45, no. 6, col. 1 : 3; H. A. V.. no. 2 : 62; C. T., XV, 20 : 3; 
28 : 9; IV R., 30, no. 2, Obv., 20; Rev., 8 = R. H., p. 67 : 19; IV R., 27, no. 1, add p. 6a : 11; C. T„ XXIV, 9 : 2 
= 19, col. II : 1 = XXV, 7a, col. II : 2 (here among Dumuzi names); # (7. T., XVI, 46 : 195/6 (here rendered in the 
Semitic column by d Dumu-zi); 

Ama-ushumgal-an-na, no. 12 : 28; 

Ama- d U shumgal-an-na, H. A. V., no. 2 : 42; C. T., XV, 18 : 6; 

Ama-A-shu-um-gal-an-na, Zimmern, S. K., p. 6, no. 3, col. IV : 14; 

Ama-u-shu-gal-la-na, Pinches, Manch., 1 : 18; Zimmern, I. c, p. 5, no. 3, col. I : 22; 

Ama-shu-gal-an-na, Zimmern, I. c, p. 44, Rev., 9; 

Ama-shu-gal-la-na, Pinches, Manch., 1 : 14; Zimmern, 1. c, p. 36, no. 31 : 7; 

Ama-shu-gal-a-na, Zimmern, I. c, p. 2, no. 1, col. Ill: 18; 

U -shu-gal-a-na, Manch., 1 : 18; III : 21; Zimmern, I. c, p. 36, no. 31, col. 1:11. C'f. also U-shu-gal, Zim- 
mern, I. c, p. 1, no. 1, col. 1:8 = U-gal, 1. 12. 

2 This is the common ancient Sumerian writing. The later Semitic texts have A-ra-al-li-e, A-ra-al-U, A-ra- 
al-lu. The meaning of this word is not yet certain; a significance "way (a-ra = a-rd) (of or to the) 'ii'" may, how- 
ever, be suggested. "£»" may be either an abbreviation of li(-du, da, di), "the way of the song (sc. of wailing)"; 
or it may be taken as a syn. of "a" = ahulap = a-di ma-ti (Br. 1109), "alas!" "how long still?" "when at last ?" 
A-ra-li, then, would be "the way of the 'alas'! (cryings)"; or lastly, "li" may be = arkalu, "future, eternity", i. p., 
"the way of or to the eternity". 

This A-ra-li was the edin or "netherworld" (see above, p. 17); cf. also N. F., AO 4346 etc., where A-ra-li is 
parallel with edin. It was the "shepherd( ?)-hill" or "beautiful hill"(see below, pp. 39ff.); a "place not to beholden", 
A-ra-li am-nu-u = a-shar la a-ma-ri, IV R. 2 , 24, no. 2 : 6/7 (here preceded by S-kur, Gi-gun-na); a "place of the 
far-off regions", gi-bad-di-en A-ra-li A-ra-li, no. 5, Rev., II : 3 (cf. Dumuzi's name d Lugal-lci-bad-du, below, p. 44, 
note 4); a "place of doom", A-ra-li ki-sag NUN-KI-DA, no. 2 : 36. The A-ra-li gu(d)-bur-nun-na of R.H., p. 94: 
21, is in all probability "the abode (gu(d)-bur = gi-bur) of the prince"; cf. d En-me-shar-ra NUN sha A-ra-al-li, 
above, p. 32, note 10. 

Dumuzi is the "lord (u-mu-un) of the A.", no. 6, col. 1 : 4; no. 12 : 29; C. T., XV, 18 : 7; IV R., 27, no. 1 : 3. 
The list of Dumuzi names, C. T., XXIV, 9:6 = 19, col. II : 5 = XXV, 7a, col. II : 6, has possibly to be emended 
to d Am-[A-r]a-a-li, "lord of the A.". Ishtar bewails Dumuzi as the u-mu-zal-e A-ra-li nu-ti-il, "he who makes his 
abode or dwells (see B. E., XXIX, p. 71, note 3) in the A. lives no more", no. 5, Rev., II : 7. 

This Arali had a "house": S- A-ra-li, II R., 61, no. 1 : 18 (here mentioned between the S-er-ra, "house of 
wailing", and the S-tin-na, "house of life") which was the J?-ntna(-a), no. 1, col. Ill : 11, originally the temple of 
Bdd-URUDU-NAGAR H (see above, p. 33, note 4), of whichDumuzi was the "king" (lugal) and "lord", see 1. 10. 
In B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. IV: 40, Dumuzi is called d Ligir-su S-A-ra-li-ka, "glorious bridegroom of the house of A." 

Lastly, notice thatArali is a syn. of E-kur-idim, "Ekurof thedead";of iri-gal, "great abode";and of 4-ru-gai j g 
(II R., 30, no. 1, Rev., 13a, b). With this IB cf. above, p. 9, note 3; p. 29, note 4, and the names ''//.', 
d Nin-IB, d Nin-IB. 


5. sub-ba en d Dumu-zi 

"Shepherd ( ?), lord Dumuzi, (sc. thy fold etc.); 

6. u-mu-un Du(l)-sub-ba 

"Lord of the shepherd ( ?)-hill, (sc. thy fold etc.); 

7. mu-tan-na Ga-sha-an-An l -[na or ka] 

"Husband of the Mistress of An, (sc. thy fold etc.); 

1 She was, as her name indicates, originally the wife of An. Her temple was the fi-an-na at Erech, see above, 
p. 9. As wife of An or "heaven" (B. E., XXIX, p. 16) she signifies the "earth". Here she appears as the wife 
of Dumuzi, »'. €., originally Enlil, the "Son" of An and Gashan(Nin)-an. It is, therefore, quite evident that Ga- 
shan-an may and does become the wife of her own son, »'. e., the earth may and does become united with the god 
of the fertility of the ground. 

For Dumuzi as "husband" (mu-tan-na) of Ga-sha-an-an-na, cf. also C. T., XV, 18 : 11 and especially 
IV R., 27, no. 1 : 1, 2, sub-ba en d Dumu-zi mu-tan-na Gashan-an-na = ri-e-um be-lim d Dumu-zi ha-me-ir d Ish-tar, 
"shepherd, lord Dumuzi, husband of Ishtar". In R. H., p. 85 : 20, d Ama-ushumgal-an-na is referred to as her, i.e., 
Gashan-an-na's, husband (mu-tan-na-ni), being rendered in R. H., p. 134:7/8 = 136:19/20, by ha- PI -ir-sha 
d Dumu-zi. Cf. also C. T., XV, 28 : 15ff., where d Ama-ushumgal-an-na and Gashan-an-na are called sal-nita-dam 
(-ni)-hub-bi, i. e., "female and male who live together (hub) as husband and wife (dam)". This her husband appears 
inScheil, R.A., VIII, p. 162, Obv., I: 19, as "youthful husband", mu-tan-na tur-ra-na; generally, however, merely 
as dam, for whom she wails and sheds bitter tears, see I. c, 1. 2; p. 164 : 43; p. 168 : 102 = Zimmern, S. K., p. 3, 
no. 2, col. 1:2; col. 11:6. 

In Semitic Gashan(Nin)-anna is rendered by d U-GUN, "glorious mistress"; d U-GUN-mul, "glorious mistress 
of the stars" (C. T., XXV, 31a: 16); d Innanna ( = Ini-anna, see above, p. 10, note 1); d Ish-tar; Jsh-ta-ri-tum; 
d Ish-tar sha-qa-at, "I., the exalted" (R. H., p. 20, no. 9, Rev., 22/3 = p. 23, no. 10, Rev., 7/8). 

She is the » al egi (or SAL-KU), "princess" (or "sister"), Sm. 954, Rev., 17/8; R. H., p. 104:8; the azag, 
"holy one", no. 8, col. V: 14; Scheil, R.A., VIII, p. 146 : 43; p. 168 : 102; the mu-gi(g)-ib, no. 13, Obv., 9, 11; C. T., 
XV, 23 : 3; 28 : 20; R. H., p. 89 : 15, et passim; mu-gib-an-na, no. 9, col. II : 19; nu-gib-an-na, no. 12 : 3; mu-gi- 
ib Nin-nana (= d Ba-u), N.F., A04327, Rev., 11:2; 4331/5, col. 1 : 2, i. e., "the consecrated one" (= qadishtu); 
the NU-NUNUZ shd(g)-ga ( = d Ba-u), "the gracious or beautiful woman", R. H., p. 89 : 17. The designation 
(d)Gashan-an-na dsh-ni-gi-ge = d Ish-tar el( t)-te( 1) gar-ra-da-at, R. H., p. 85 : 19 = 134 : 5/6 = 136 : 17/8, is not 
yet clear to me. 

In consequence of the transfer of the role of Dumuzi- Gashananna to the various "sons" and "mothers" 
of the several trinities, it happened that Gashananna, though the "Mother" far excellence and wife of An, became 
even the daughter of An (hence, the sister and wife of Enlil and of all the other sons of An), of Enlil (hence, the 
sister and wife of all the sons of Enlil), of Sin (hence, the sister and wife of Shamash), of Anshar, of Ninib, etc., 
see "Bel, the Christ", p. 2, and notes. For Ishtar as daughter of Enlil, cf. also R. H., p. 132 : 25, dumu ki-dg-zu 
Gashan-an-na-ge, "thy (»'. e., Enlil's, 1. 21) beloved child G."; and for Ishtar as daughter of d Dur-an-ki (= Enlil) 
see K. 9955 + Em. 613 = Bezold, "Cat.", p. 1053. These various genealogies are the evidence and proof of our 
assertion that Dumuzi-Ishtar may signify any "Son" or "Mother" and "Bride" of a given trinity; cf. H. A. V., 
p. 404, note 31. 

The following noteworthy writings of this name may be mentioned; 

Gashan-an-na, so generally in the later copies; 

d Gashan-an-na, R. H., p. 85 : 20 = 134:7/8 = 136: 19/20; II R., 59, Rev., 12; 

d Gashan-an-e, III R., 66, Obv., la, 29a, 36/. 

Gashan-a-na-a (— d Ishlar sha-qa-at), R. H., p. 20, no. 9, Rev., 22/3 = 

Gashan-na-na, R. H., p. 23, no. 10 : 7/8; 

Ga-sha-an-an, Scheil, R. A., VIII, p. 164, Obv., 11:43; 

Ga-sha-an-an-na, no. 6, col. 1 : 7; no. 8, col. V : 15; no. 9, col. II : 19; no. 13, Obv., 9, 11, and so most com- 
monly in the older EME-8AL texts; 

d Ga-sha-an-an-na, no. 11:4; no. 12 : 3; 

Ga-sha-an-na, no. 8, col. VI : 3; H. A. V., no. 12 : 12; 

Ga-sha-na-na, Zimmern, S. K., p. 44, no. 44 : 26; p. 49, no. 57 : 46; 



8. u-mu-un-e 


9. ses ama Mu(sh)- 

"Brother of mother Geshtinna, 

10. u-mu-un-e E-nina-a 1 amash-zu 
"Lord (, of) E-nina, thy fold, 

11. amash nimur 2 -bi 

"The fold's sustenance — 

12. SHE-MUR*-ne-bi 
"Its sustenance 


(of) B., (sc. thy fold etc.); 
tin- na 

(sc. thy fold etc.); 
gi-er-ra su(g)-ga-dm 

in tears is bathed! 

art thou not he who furnishes it ? 
a-su ( ? LU)-a-zu 

verily, thou increasest (providest) it! 



Ka-sha-an-na-na, Pinches, Manch., Ill : 23; VI : 25; Zimmern, S. K., p. 5, no. 3, II : 18; 

Ka-sha-an-na, no. 5, Rev., II : 10; Pinches, Manch., VI : 26; 

Ka-sha-na-na, Pinches, Manch., IV : 5; Zimmern, S. K., p. 5, no. 3, col. II : 21, 22; p. 7, no. 4, col. I: 31; 
22; p. 43, no. 40:3a; 

Ka-sha-a-an( — aml)-na-na, Pinches, Manch., 11:13; 

d Nin-an-na, so generally, hut also 

Nin-na-na ( = d Ba-u), see above. 

In conclusion notice that the d En-an-na and the d Nin-an-na are enumerated in C. T., XXIV, 4 : 18/9 = 
78, among the "42 names of the lord, the father-mother Enlil" — a fact which proves 

1) that Enlil was indeed the original Dumuzi, and 

2) that Enlil did usurp the role of his "Father" An. 

1 For the E-nina-a cf. already above, p. 33, note 4, and p. 36, note 2. Notice also that Ishtar as Gashan- 
Girgilu is addressed: ml egi-zi-mu Ga-sha-an-E-nina-a, "my true princess, mistress of E", C.T., XV, 23 : 4; cf. B. H., 
p. 139 : 131/2, sal egi-zi-da Oashan-ni-na[d)-a-ra = ru-ba-tum hit-turn Nin-NindM. In Zimmern, 8. K., p. 4, no. 2, 
col. Ill : 16, the edin E-nina-a-ka is mentioned. Within the walls of this E-nina-a was the gi-rin-azag, "the sacred 
'bridal-bed'" of Ishtar and Dumuzi, B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. IV: 39. This would show that the 'E-nina-a or 
"splendid, glorious, shining house" is in all respects a syn. of £(E)-ri-a, for which see H. A. V., p. 398; Zimmern, 
8. K., p. 3, no. 2, col. II : 43ff., and cf. the E-a-ri = bit ar-da-tum, "house of the maidens", "harem", R. H., p. 83 : 
29, 30. 

2 Nimur (Br. 9712) as well as SHE-MUB (Br. 7486) are the Assyrian tumru = ?, Delitzsch, H. W. B., 
p. 711a; = "Salpeter, Salz", Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 447; = "pain (cuit sous la) cendre", de Genouillac, R. A., VII 
(1910), p. 113; cf. also Huber, H. A. V., p. 213. 

3 The juxtaposition of u and ga occurs quite frequently in the Dumuzi texts, cf., e. g., Macmillan, B. A., 
V, p. 679, no. 32:11, 12: 

11 « si-ib-ba-ge 

12 sub-ba u si-ib-ba-ge 

"Of good u, 

"Shepherd( ?), of good u 
also I. c, 11. 16, 17: 

16 u gur-ru-a u la-ba-da-gaz 

17 ga gur-ru-a ga la-ba-da-gaz 

"From whom u has been 

taken away, with u shall 
he not be made to abound ? 
"From whom ga has been 
taken away, etc. ? 
Similar is Zimmern, S. K., p. 4, no. 2, col. Ill : 
19 u nu-me-en-na 

ga si-ib-ba-[ge . . .] 

ga-^ >^-da-[. ..], i. e., 

of good ga (sc. the provider thou art?) 
of good ga (sc. the provider thou art?); 

ta-shu mu-lu in-gam 

ta-shu (sc. mu-lu in-gam), i. e., 

Why must one be in distress ? 

Why etc. ? 

19, 20, 

u ba-an-da-bal-e 


13. amash u 3 -il l -la u-ba-an-gub-ba-zu 

"The fold, from which the with cream thou suppliest it, 

cream has been taken away, 

14. amash ga-il-la ga-ba-an-guh-ba-zu 

"The fold, from which the milk has with milk thou suppliest it!" 

been taken away, 

According to this passage Dumuzi is the "shepherd"( ?) 5 of the "fold" (11. 1, 2), the 
"shepherd ( ?), lord Dumuzi" 6 (1. 5), or merely the "shepherd (?) Dumuzi"; 7 his habi- 
tation is the "shepherd ( ?)-hill" of which he is the "lord" (1. 6). 

It will be noticed that I have made a " ?" behind "shepherd", and this for some good 
and urgent reasons. 

First of all, it should be remarked that the reading of the sign |g^ = sub is new. 
In favor of this reading the following: 

The "shepherd (?) -hill" appears in the Dumuzi texts in three different writings: 

1) Du{l)-sub-ba(bi)\ 

20 ga nu-me-en-na ga ba-an-da-gaz, i. e., 

"Where u not is, with u he maketh to overflow, 

"Where ga not is, with ga he maketh to abound". 

Comparing this with the parallel passage in I. c, p. 27, no. 26, col. IV : 28, 29, 

28 u nu-me-a u ^a(sic! read ba)-an-da-ab-[bal-e] 

29 ga nu-me-a ga ba-an-da-ab-gaz, 

the conclusion might seem justified that u — u — "food"; and this the more so as Scheil, E.A., VIII, p. 168, Rev., 
I : 103/4, the duplicate of Zimmern no. 2, has u. . .leu, "to eat food", and a. . .nag, "to drink water", for u. . .bal 
and ga. . .gaz. On the other hand it ought to be noticed that in C. T., XV, 10 : 12, we find for u. . .ga the expres- 
sion NI (generally read id)...ga, for we read: 

u-mu-un NI erin-na ga nunuz dm-da-ma-al-la, i. e., 

"Lord ( = Enlil), who maketh sparkling oil and sweet milk to be in plenty". 

This NI occurs also in the well-known , expression ru NI-nun, "honey and cream", cf. H.A.V., 
no. 2 : 9, 11; Gudea, Statue E, VI : 24 = G, V : 18; Cyl. B, III : 18, 24, and especially the E-ru-NI-nun, "house 
of honey and cream", Hilprecht, 0. B. I., no. 21 (= E. B.H., p. 271) : 13, which in our no. 10 : 2, appears as E-ru- 
u-nun. Remembering, furthermore, that "honey, cream and milk" were the three sacrifices -par excellence offered 
to the gods, more particularly to Ishtar-Dumuzi, there is no reason why u should not be the reading of NI, rather 
than a variant of u. NI, then, had besides id also the pronunciation u. 

Notice also that the u-azag, "pure cream", was especially sacred to, and the emblem of, d Nind, Gudea, Cyl. 
A, XIV: 23. 

* II = gur (see preceding note) = nashu, "to take away". Cream and milk which has been taken away, 
does not exist, is not there any more, hence, il, gur = syn. of nu-me-a. 

5 Written either sub-ba, no. 1, col. IV : 3; cf. also above p. 35, note 7; or sub-bi, no. 7, Obv., 11. 

6 Cf. also IV if., 27, no. 1 : 1/2 (see above, p. 37, note 1; no. 5, Rev., II : 8, sub-ba en d Dumu-zi nu-ti-il, "the 
shepherd(?), the lord D. lives no more"; C. T., XV, 18:9, sub-ba en d Dumu-zi nu-un-ti(l); I.e., 19:3, a-dan 
sub-ba en d Dumu-zi. See also above, p. 33, d Dumu-zi EN SIB sha d A-nim. 

7 C. T., XV, 28:6, sub-ba d Dumu-zi-de sha{b)-azag-ga-na A-nim, "shepherd( ?) D. by the (his) pure choice 
(heart) of An". 

8 No. 1, col. II: 10, A-ra-li Du(l)-sub-ba; no. 6, col. I: 6, u-mu-un Du(l)-sub-ba; C. T., XV, 18 : 10, u-mu- 
un-e Du{l)- sub-ba; IV R., 27, no. 1 : 3, umun A-ra-li umun Du(l)-sub-ba; Zimmern, S. K., p. 38, no 32, col. Ill : 5, 
u-mu-un Du(l)-sub-bi-ge. 


2) Du-su-balpi) 1 , 

3) Bu(l)-f[%$-ba*; 

4) Bertin, J. R. A. 8., XVII, p. 65, col. I : 6, has |=0 = su-ug = u-zu-zu (root 

But nazdzu is also =1, i- e., shu(g), or 5J, i. e., shu(g)-shu(g), see IV R., 30 : 3/46, 
mu-un-shu{g)-shu{g)-gi-esh = i-za-zu, cf. Zimmern, Z. A., XIV, p. 389; Thureau-Dangin, 
Z. ^4., XVIII, p. 191, 6. Hence, |g^ in EME-KU = s%, variant of J^= •'jM(gr), which 
in EME-SAL becomes sub, su-ba(bi), shu(b) = ff^J 5 ?- ^or tne interchange of "gr" and 
"6" and of "s" and "sA", see Fossey, H. A. V., p. 110 : 12; p. 119 : 43. 

But what would be the meaning of Du(l)-sub-ba from this point of view? Zimmern 
renders it by "Hirtenwohnung" and Langdon by "sheep-folds" — translations based, no 
doubt, on IV R., 27, no. 1 : 1/2, where sub-ba en d Dumu-zi is translated by ri-e-um be-lim 
d Dumu-zi, "shepherd, lord D." In view of the passages given above, it is, however, some- 
what doubtful whether the Semitic translation ri-e-um is justified in this particular case, 
and this for the simple reason that sub changes with shu(b). Two explanations would seem 
to suggest themselves, either shu(b) has also the meaning "shepherd", or sith is merely a 
variant of shu(b). If the latter be true, a translation "hill of the beautiful one" or "beauti- 
ful hill" might be suggested, thus making du(l)-shu(b)-ba a synonym of du(l)-azag-ga, "holy 
hill". 3 In support of the latter view the following facts may be mentioned: 

Dumuzi is very often called d KA-DI i-bi-shu(b)-ba*, which is translated in R. H., 153, 
col. Ill : 10ff., by d KA-DI sha pa-ni ba-nu-[u], i. e., "K. of (with) beautiful 5 eyes (face)". 
Cf. also C.T., XXV, 6:10, d Igi- w <=<"™-™. '• » I -*-*»>'- b °-° hf 'SHU(B)\^( = d KA-DI);KAm, 
col. Ill : 11, where the "river of Dumuzi" is called: " Sk "- ba SHU(B), "beautiful river", or 
"river of the beautiful one"; and notice that in C. T., XXV, 21a: 15, the d Sh "- ba SHU {B) 
is identified with d Utu, the Dumuzi of the Ur trinity and the &edg fiovlaiog of the month 
Ezen- d Dumuzi, "festival of Z)." = Tashntu = March-April (time before Nabonassar), 6 the 
month during which the marriage and resurrection festivals of Dumuzi were cele- 

Seeing, then, that in the expression du(l)-sub(shu(b))-ba the sub and shu(b) are used 
interchangeably, it may very well be possible that Dumuzi as the sub-ba was originally 

1 No. 5, Rev., II : 9, [u-mu-un- ]e Du-su-ba nu-li-il; Zimmern, S. K., p. 2, no. 1, col. Ill : 11, A-ra-UDu-su-bi. 

2 No. 1, col. Ill : 9, A-ra-li Du(l)-shu(b)-ba; above, p. 20 : 25; Zimmern, S. K., p. 39, no. 34 : 6a, u-mu-un-e 

3 Or better still of the Oi-gun, "the beautiful place", see B. E., Series D, vol. VI. 

4 Macmillan, B. A., V, p. 674 : 7; IV R., 27, no. 1, add p. 6a : 9; IV J?., 30, no. 2, Obv., 18; Rev., 6 = R. H., 
p. 67: 17; C. T., XV, 20:6. 

6 For banu in this sense see Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 412. 
6 See B. E., Series D, vol. VI, Table I : 7. 


the "beautiful 1 one" and that consequently the du{l)-sub-ba was either the "beautiful hill" 
or the "hill of the beautiful one". 

This observation helps us to explain still another name of Dumuzi, viz, the li-bi-ir 
( d )U-mu-un-sub (<-ggg[)-&i IV R., 30, no. 2, Obv., 17; Rev., 5 = R. H., p. 67 : 16; IV R., 
27, no. 1, add p. 6a:8; Macmillan, B. A., V, p. 674 : 9; C. T., XV, 20 : 8; above, p. 21 : 
38, who is called in the EME-KU texts d Lugal-sub-bi, II R., 59, Rev., 44. Zimmern ren- 
ders this name by "Anfuhrer, (Gott) Herr des Gebets", and Langdon by "prince, lord of ado- 
ration". In view of the above given passages I prefer to see in sub-bi another variant of 
sub-ba(bi), shu(b)-ba(bi) = "beautiful one", translating the whole by "bridegroom, 2 beau- 
tiful 3 lord". Cf. also Dumuzi's name d Lugal-svb-bi, "beautiful king", C. T., XXV, 39c : 12. 
The similar name which designates Dumuzi as the d En-ligir-si = d Umun-libir-si, II R., 
59, Rev., 8, is, therefore, nothing but "the lord, the glorious bridegroom". 

1 This designation of Dumuzi is by no means isolated. Many other similar names have been ascribed to him, 
as, e. g., i-bi-lum-lum, i-bi-ld-ld, see above, p. 27, note9; i-bi-gun-nu-gun-nu-e (parallel with KA-hu-tu-ul-hu-tu-ul-e, 
"the one of irresistable voice"), see C. T., XV, 18:27; B.E., Series D, vol. VI; d Lugal-igi-hurb u -ra, "the beautiful 
(hur = banu, M. 6404) king", followed by d Lugal-igi-ra-mah-di, "the valiant (youthful) king with benign counte- 
nance (pan rihsu)", C. T., XXV, 38e: 1, 2. 

2 Li-bi-ir = susapinu — KJ^aaJTO , " Brautfuhrer" , Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 212, and references there given. 
For li-bi-ir used in this sense in the Sumerian lenten songs, cf. also R. H., p. 101 : 48/9, where Ishtar complains: 

uru ki(\)-el-bi nu-hul-lu-[e-ne] 

uru kal-bi nu-li-bi-[ir-e-ne] 

"The city's maidens do not rejoice any more, 

"The city's youths do not lead home the bride any more". 

Cf. also Zimmern, 8. K., p. 43, no. 40, Rev., 4. 

3 For sub, shu(b), sub with the meaning "beautiful, glorious", cf., among others, the following: 

[ d Nin-tin-dib]-ba >at egi su-ub An-na, "the glorious princess of An", no. 9, col. 1:4; d Bi-li-li, the sister of 
Dumuzi, calls herself KA( 1)-azag-gi-ne su-ub-ba me-en, "among those of radiant countenance( ?) the most beautiful 
(glorious) one I am". In C. T., XV, 236 : 9, the goddess Girgilu is described as gab-ni su-ub azag-ga al-sun-e, 
"she whose glorious and pure bosom is beautiful". Whatever is beautiful may, according to Sumerian ideas, be 
"kissed", hence, su-ub = "to kiss, to adore, to worship" = shub (labdnu). 

This su-ba may sometimes be lengthened by da (cf. ma-mu(mu) = ma-mu(mu)-da) or by du (cf. li-da = 
li-du = li-di = li; si-im-da = si-im-du — si-im; ash-da = dsh-du = ash), hence, we find that Ishtar calls herself 
,al egi su-ba-da mi-en, "the glorious, beautiful princess I am", Pinches, Manch., V:24. d Nin-a-zu of /if**" is called 
the en KA-sub-da-ge, "lord of (among) those of beautiful face"; cf. Gudea, Cyl. A, XXVII : 16, £ . . .a-ru-bi-ta 
KA-sub-da, "by its (the temple's) mead the mouth (face) was delighted (made pleasant)". In R. H., p. 86 : 5 = 
134, col. 11:14/5 = 138: 100/1, appears the Umun-ma-da sub-bi An-na, who in C. T., XXIV, 11:34 = 24: 51, is 
called merely d Nin-ma-da-sub, and who in C. B. M., 112: 11, is represented by U-mu-un-ma-da shu-du An-na, 
"the lord of the land, the beautiful one of An (heaven or universe)"; here, then, sub is = shu + du = shu(g) = 
shu{b). With this shu-du cf. the shu-du UB-ba-ge, shu-du DA-ge, Zimmern, S. K., p. 8, no. 4, col. IV : 7/8; p. 6, 
no. 3, col. Ill : 3. Whether B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. VIII : 7, where d KA-DI is called the X||> An-na, has to 
be referred here, is doubtful. 

Ishtar of Hallabi is called d Innanna-shu(b)-unu(g) u , "the beautiful Ishtar of Erech", B. E., XXVII, no. 1, 
col. VI : 33; the~aroa shu-ba, "the beautiful mother", Zimmern, S. K., p. 5, no. 3, col. 1 : 25; her temples are the 
E-an-na shu-ub-ba,Gi-pdr-7 shu-ub-ba, ffar-sag-kalam-ma shu-ub-ba, E-tur-kalam-ma shu-ub-ba, I. c, p. 42, no. 39, 
Obv., 3ff. (cf. 1. 2, . . .shu-ub-ba-am). The star Lum-ma is Enlil of Shu(b)K, see above, p. 27, note 9; for Shu(b) t% 
cf. also Zimmern, S.K., p. 21, no. 22, Obv., 7. An i-shu(b)-ba, "beautiful house", occurs in no. 13, Rev., 2 (cf. 11. 
3, 4). In N. F., AO 4346, Obv., 8, 9, we find the * d shu(b) shu-ba, "the beautiful Shubi-stones" (cf. Sm. 954 : 19, 20). 




But whether we translate du(l)-sub-ba by "shepherd-hill" or by "beautiful hill" mat- 
ters, in the last instance, very little; the chief thing is that it is identified with the 
A-ra-li, 1 the great and extended field (edin) 2 over which Dumuzi as shepherd and lord 
keeps guard: 

edin-ki en-nu-ug-ga mu-un-da-ab-du(du(g)) 

"Over the netherworld he keepeth guard". 3 

The netherworld, then, is the great "fold" where all living creatures have to spend, 
at one time or another, their "night" (u-zal), where all are at rest. From thence they are 
"led out" by the "great shepherd of the sheep", Dumuzi, on the "great morning", the 
spring and resurrection morning, to wend their way as "stars" in the heavens. 

To this place goes 4 Ishtar, the "Bride", to be joined with the "Lamb" in holy wedlock. 
The netherworld becomes in this wise not only the ki-sha(g)-kush-sha h in-nin 6 edin-ka, 1 
"the place where the heart of the mistress of the edin is at rest", but also and especially 
an edin-na ki-azag-ga = $i-rim ash-ri d-li, 8 "a holy place", a ki-(a-)ri-a, & a "place of be- 
getting", a "bridal-chamber". 10 

Col. II : 4. KUR-GUL-GUL. This expression occurs quite frequently in the Dumuzi- 
Ishtar texts; cf. e. g., 

No. 9, col. II :18ff.: 

18. er na-mu-un-ma-al 
"In wailing on account of him 

I break out, 

19. mu-gib-an-na 
"I, the holy one of An, 

20. kur-gul-gul 
"I, the destroyer of the mountain, 

21. [ d Nin-tin-dib]-ba 
"I, who quickens the dead to life, 

me-e na-mu-un-ti-li 

I, on account of him who does 
not live; 
Ga-sha-an-an-na men 

the mistress of An, 
Ga-sha-an-E-an-na men 

the mistress of E-an, 
Ga-sha-an-Gi-bur-ra men 

the mistress of Gipar"; 

1 See above, pp. 39, note 5; 40, note 2. 

2 Cf. abready above, p. 36, note 2. 

3 C. T., XV, 27 : 45 - 30 : 20. Cf. above, p. 34, note 13. 

4 See above, p. 27, note 7, and C. T., XV, 28 : 22, H-ba mulu sib-bi edin-shu ba-ra-e. 

5 Cf. the ki-kush-sha above, p. 22 : 8, and the ki-sha{b)-she(d)-da, p. 22": 14. 

6 Cf. d Nin-edin, d Innanna-edin, above, p. 18. 

7 B.E., XX VII, no. 1, col. IV : 37. 

8 IV JR., 8 : 426; 14, no. 2, Rev., 1. 

H. A. V., p. 398. For the Semitic translation see above, p. 25, note 6. 
10 It is probably needless to mention it here that the so-called Gu-edin of Nin- Girsu reflects the various conceptions 
which the people of Girsu, at the time of Gudea, entertained with regard to the netherworld. Space, however, 
forbids to treat of the same here. 



No. 12 :2ff.: 

2. e-gul-la Tci-bi 

'"My house which has been 
destroyed, to its place 

3. nu-gib-an-na 

"(Cry) I, the holy one of An, 

4. kur-gul-gul 

"I, the destroyer of the mountain, 

5. E -ma-mu-da 1 

"My ma-mu-da, 

me-na gi-gi-mu 

when will it be restored?' 

Ga-sha-an-an-na men 
the mistress of An, 

Ga-sha-an-E-an-na men 
the mistress of E-an; 


which has been built for me, (sc. to its 
place when will it be restored?)". 
In Zimmern. S. K., p. 33, no. 29a : Iff., we read: 

ta. ul-li mu-ni-ib-gin 



edin-na, i. e., 

why shall I (she) go ? 

to the netherworld (sc. why etc. ?), 

to the netherworld (sc. why etc. ?)" 

[mu-lu1~\ edin-na 
mu-gi(g)-ib Ga-sha-an-an-na 
sal egi-mah kur-gul-gul 
"To the lord of the netherworld, 
"The holy one, the mistress of An, 
"The sublime mistress, the destroyer 
of the mountain, . 

Also in I. c, p. 43, no. 40 : 4a, the [kur-gu]-ul-gu-ul Ka-sha-an-E-[an-na] follows imme- 
diately upon the [mu-gi(g)-i]b Ka-sha-an-na-na. In R. H., p. 132 : 31 = Craig, R. T., I, 
19 : 15, the kur-gul-gul Ga-sha-an-E-an-na is mentioned between the ama mu-gi(g)-ib Gashan- 
E-tur-kalam-ma and the ,al egi-zi-da gashan-mu d Na-na-a, while in the parallel passage, 
R. H., p. 87 :22 = 92 :9 = 135, col. Ill : 7, Gashan-E-an-na (= be-lit E-an-na) occurs 
between Gashan-E-hub-ka(sic)-ba ( = Hsh-ta-rit d A-nim d Nin-E-hub-ba) and * al egi-zi-da 
Gashan-Ni-na(d)-a ( = ru-ba-tum kit-turn d Nin-Nind H , see also above, p. 38, note 1). 

The same attribute is ascribed to d Gir-gi-lu ( = Ishtar, II R., 59, Rev., 13), C. T., XV, 
23 : 3; to two of Nin-ib's weapons, viz., to the mes kur-gul-gul (= mu-ab-bit shadi-i) d Ug- 
BA-nu-il-la, "hero, destroyer of the mountain, storm, who grants no pardon", and to the 
ni{g)-kur-gul-gul gUh BlUG-idim-an-na, "destroyer of the mountain, weighty (lit. death- 
bringing) weapon of An", Hrozny, Ninrag, p. 12 : 25, 29. For similar expressions in con- 
nection with other gods and goddesses, see H. A. V., p. 441, note 5, where such terms are 

1 For ma-mu-da cf. B. E., XXIX, p. 36, note 2, and notice the peculiar translations in the duplicate text 
R. //., p. 60 : 21/2, bitu aha ki-ma shu-ut-tim in-ni-ip-sha-am; bitu sha te-dish-tim, "the house which 'like a dream' 
has been built": "the house of renewal". The Semitic translator apparently did not know any more the force 
of the 'do, »'. e., that ma-mu is = ma-mu-da, cf. p. 41, note 3. 


mentioned as kab(gab, kdb)-gaz Jcur-ra, hur-ra-an kur-kur-ra, kur-kur-ra si(g)-si(g)-gi — all 
with the meaning mu-di-ik-ti shadi-i, "smiter of the mountain". Cf. also no. 12 : 15 = R. H., 
p. 60 : 5, 6b = K. 41, col. I : 5, 6; R.H., p. 27 : 34; Zimmern, S.K., p. 15, no. 11 : 3, 22, etc. 

This "mountain" which the mistress of E-an, i. e., Ishtar as goddess of war, destroys, 
was originally the mountaineous region in the "north" of, and inimical to, Babylonia, 
inhabited by the Guti, Lulubi and Elamites, see B. E., XXIX, p. 64; Series D, vol. V 2 , 
p. 61. But as the "north" was, according to Sumerian conception, the region of the "nether- 
world", kur acquired this significance likewise. The destruction of this mountain or nether- 
world has become an accomplished fact when Ishtar, at the time of the vernal equinox, 
appears in the heavens as "virgo" (month Elvl = February-March) and "Mother" or "Nin- 
mah" (month Tashritu = March-April), i. e., when she as Proserpina has left the winter- 
half (kur-ta. . . e 1 ) and has become the Venus of the summer-half of the year. 

Kur, when used in the sense of "netherworld", is generally translated in Semitic by 
irsitum. Thus we find, among others, the following expressions: 

Gab-kur-ra 2 = i-rat ir-si-tim, "breast (bosom) of the netherworld", to which Dumuzi 
has gone {i-in-di), IV R., 30, no. 2 :22; Thureau-Dangin, N.F., AO. 4328, Rev., 11:6, 7; 
Zimmern, S. K., p. 26, no. 26, col. IV : 3. — Kur-DIG-na = ir-si-tum mi-tu-ti, "land of the 
dead", where Dumuzi spends the "night", dwells or rests (u-zal), IV R., 30, no. 2 : 24; 
notice here that the parallel passage, Zimmern, S. K,., p. 26, no. 26, col. IV : 4, has kur- 
hu-u[r ] 3 . Cf. also the kur-DIG in B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. I : 30, where it is in parallelism 
with kur-me-te-gdl. — Kur-idim-ma,* "land of the dead", no. 2 : 35. — Kur-a-she-ir-ra-ge 
= ir-si-tim ta-ni-hi, "the land where one cries out: 'alas!'" 5 . — Kur-nu-gi(gi,ga)-a, "land 
without return", to which Ishtar goes and of which d En-me-shar-ra is the "lord". 6 Notice 
also that E-kur very often has the meaning of E-kur-idim, "E-kur of the dead" = A-ra-li. 
In the dialogue between Ishtar (Ga-sha-an-tin-dib-ba) and Dumuzi ( = d Da-mu tu-mu U-mu- 
un-mu(sh)-zi-da), after the former had complained to her "Son" that on account of her 

1 C. T., XV, 236: 13, here said of the ,tU egi Ga-sha-an-Gir-gi-lu. 

2 Cf. gab-kishib-ba, above, p. 22 : 8. 

3 Is this a mistake for hu-bu-ur = Subartut Cf. our remarks on edin-HA-A, above, p. 24ff. Or has this to 
be emended to hu-ur-ra-an, the well-known variant of gab-gaz kur-ra, H. A. V., p. 437 : 5, 7 ? Or, lastly, does kur- 
hu-ur mean here "the beautiful mountain" or "mountain of the beautiful one ?" Cf. ^Lugal-igi-hur-ra = Dumuzi, 
above, p. 41, note 1, and Zimmern, <S. K., p. 57, no. 75 : 5ff., where d MAR-TU says of himself: mulu hu-ur DI- 
NE men, "the beautiful one among the herdsmen (cf. mulu DI-NA, above, p. 30) I am". 

4 This ma shows that we must not read kur-bad; but cf. ^Lugal-ki-bad-du \ d Lugal-a-la-nv-u,ll if., 47 :30c, d; 
C. T., XIX, 47 : 17c, d, in which Zimmern, B.G. T., p. 11, no. 28, sees a name for Dumuzi as the "Verschwundener, 
Entflohener". Cf. also the bit d Dumu-zi ska ki-bad, K. 3089 = Pinches, P. S. B. A., XXII (1900), p. 359; the ki- 
bad-du-ge i-dib na-am-ir-ra in the Dumuzi text, C. T., XV, 26 : 1 — 4; the gi-bad-di-en A-ra-li A-ra-li, above, p. 36, 
note 2, and the ki-bad-du — nisdtu, "far-off regions", Br. 1525. 

6 Cf. above, pp. 19, note 10; 20 : 29; 22: 12. See also ki-sir-ra ki-mah er-ra-ka, above, p. 21 :37, and ki-she-ir, 
Zimmern, S. K., p. 40, no. 35, Rev., 2ff. ; p. 47, no. 51, Rev., 9. 
6 See p. 32, note 10; II B., 32, 19a, el passim. 



wailings for him she has become completely exhausted, that even in her own habitation 
she has no rest any more, the latter answers his "mother who had given birth to him" as 

No. 2, Obv., 33 ff.: 
33. kal-a[n-na me]-en 

"The youthful one of An I am, 

34. en [ ] me-en 

"Lord of . . . . I am, 

35. iri-[damal-mu] 

"My extended abode 

36. en [me-e]n A-ra-li 
"Lord I am, the Arali 

37. kal me-en kur 3 -ri su(d)- 

"The youthful one (hero) I am, to the 
far-off land, 


"To pass my days there". 

mvlu kur-al l 

the man (lord) of the 'land without 
mulu kur-de 2 

the man (lord) of the 'mount of de- 

is the 'land of the dead', 
ki-sag NUN-KI-DA-mu 

is the place of my doom, 
im-ma-ab-gin me-en 

verily, I must go 

al. Cf. here the variants of u-lul-la, above, 

1 Translation is doubtful. I take al to stand for al-ld = d-ld 
p. 35, note 3. 

2 Or should we translate here: "who destroys the mountain?" See also Scheil, R. A., VIII, p. 168 : 101/2 
= Zimmern, 8. K., p. 4, no. 2, col. Ill : 17/8, kur-ra ni-de, and cf. in this connection the name d Lugal-kur-dub = 
"the king who destroys the mountain" and his attribute: kur gu-NE-RU-gdl d En-lil-ld-ka a-dim gd-ga, "who like 
the (storm-)flood lays low all lands inimical to Enlil", Gudea, Cyl. B, VII : 17ff. (cf. X : 22). Of Zagaga of Kish 
it is said: zi-da-zu kur-dub-bu gub-bu-zu NE-RU gdl-e, "thy right (hand) stretches down the mountain, thy left 
(hand) scatters the wicked", B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. VIII : 36. Notice also the name of the "divine bird" Kur- 
shu-na-shihM, "by his hand the mountain(s) tremble(s)", Cyl. B, VIII : 8. 

3 Cf. ki-su(d) = Kl-tim ru-uq-ti, occurring in the Dumuzi text IV R., 30, no. 2 : 34. 

4 This line is certainly against the rhythm of the hymn. Are we to see in it a "sigh", expressing either 
the singer's or the editor's feelings: "how long still (me-e-na = me-en-na = a-di ma-ti) is he to pass his days there ?" 
Such "sighs" are by no means unusual in these hymns. Cf., e. g., no. 2, Rev., 75, a sha(b)-ba-ni a-6o(sic) bar-ra-ni, 
"how long still till his heart, how long still till his soul", or "would that his heart, etc.", or "when at last will his 
heart, etc." (sc. be quieted, appeased, be at rest). Similarly also in H. A. V., no. 14, Rev., 16, a sha(b)-ba-ni a bar- 
ra-ni, and Zimmern, S. K., p. 23, no. 25, col. 11:41, 8al egi-da(l) a sha(b)-ni a bar-ra-ni, "like the princess (». e., 
Ishtar, sc. sing the litany:) 'how long still, etc.'" 

For such a juxtaposition of sha(b) and bar, cf. R. H., 115 : 30, where a sha(b) ib-ba-zu (= a-hu-lap lib-bi-ka 
ag-gi) is parallel with a bar su-mu-ug-ga-zu-ta ( = a-hu-lap ka-bit-ti-ka i-dir-tum); O. T., XV, 20 : 12, kal-e a sha(b)- 
ba-ni a bar-ra-ni (followed by sub-ba d Dumu-zi-de a su-mu-ug-ga-ni, see p. 29, note 5; R. H., p. 99 : 56/7, sha(b)- 
zu he-en-hug-ga bar-zy, he-enshe(d)-de = lib-ba-ka li-nu-uh ka-bit-ta-ka lip-shah; Gudea, Cyl. B, X: 16, sha(g) shu 
(= hug)- gd-da bar shu-gd-da, "damit er zufriedenstelle dasHerz, zufriedenstelle dasOemiii" (Th.-D.); Zimmern, S. K., 
p. 17, no. 12, col. II : 15, sha(b)-bi lil-ld-dm bar-bi lil-ld-dm, "is like the wind"; I. c, p. 23, no. 25, col. Ill : 31, urn 
sha(b)-ab-ba-na uru bar-ra-na [...]. 


Dumuzi is, however, not only the mulu kur-al or mulu kur-de, but also the alim hur- 
ra, 1 "the mighty one of the netherworld", the sib kur-ra, 2 "shepherd of the netherworld", 
or simply the mulu Jcur-ra, 3 "lord of the netherworld". To this kur he "goes" (gin) or "rides", 
both by means of a "ship" 4 and by "wagon" 5 . 

GA-SHA-AN -E-AN-NA, "mistress of E-an-na". For E-an-na see above, pp. 9ff., and 
note that the gal E-an-na, "the great one of E-an-na", is the Gashan-I-si-in-ki-na, "mistress 
of Isin" (= Gula, the principal daughter of d Ir-ra), R. H., p. 93 : 5; 94 : 5 ; 89 : 8, sometimes 
referred to as sag-E ( ? or du, tu 1)-an-na, "the foremost, chief one of E-an-na", R. H., p. 86 
: 10 (cf. p. 154); 134, col. II : 23, being in this respect similar to the ' al egi Ga-sha-an-E- 
an-na, "princess (rubdtum), mistress of E-an-na", no. 13 : 12; R. H., p. 99 : 65; 104 : 11; 
Sm. 954 : 18; Zimmern, S. K., p. 50, no. 59 : 12, or the e-gi Ka-sha-an-E-an-na, Zimmern, 
I. c, p. 7, no. 4, col. I : 32; col. II : 23. In nearly all passages quoted the Gashan-E -an-na 
follows upon Gashan-an-na, who is omitted here. She it is who bewails, as here, the disap- 
pearance of her "husband" and "son", Scheil, R, A., VIII, p. 162, Obv., col. I : 3ff. = 
Zimmern, S. K., p. 3, no. 2, col. I : 3ff., and the destruction of her temple E-an-na, R. H., 
p. 12 : 14; C. T., XV, 26 : 6; 19 : 5 (here called d Innanna). 

Col. II : 5. AM A U-MU-UN-NA GA-SHA-AN-SUN-NA. Ishtar or Nin-anna, the 
mistress oiE-an-na and wife of An, is here tlieGa-sha-an-sun* "the glorious, beautiful lady", 
and the "mother" 7 of the u-mu-un s or "lord", i. e., of Dumuzi, her son. Among the "sons" 
of An and Nin-anna are known, among others, Enlil, MAR-TU, IM, Sin — all of whom, there- 
fore, must have been considered, at one time or another or at one place or another, to be the 
Dumuzi. Remembering, furthermore, that the "mother" is at the same time also the "wife" 
of Dumuzi, the Gashan-sun or Nin-anna would have to be identified with d Nin-lil (wife 

1 C. T., XV, 18 : 27/8. 

2 N. F., AO. 4346, Rev., 7, 8. 

3 N.F., AO. 4328, Rev., col. II : 3; cf. the mulu edin, above, p. 17. 

4 See C. T., XV, 18 : 25/6, where it is said of Dumuzi that he kur-ash ba-u. Cf. H. A. V., no. 12 : 17, ba-u- 
o[. . . .], 18, a-a kur-shu ba-u-a[. . .], 19, d Am-an-ki kur-shu ba-u-a[. . . .]. The term u, "to ride upon a ship", proves 
indirectly that the hrwas surrounded by water, which had to be crossed when entering or leaving the netherworld, 
see above, p. 26, note 3 and cf. Zimmern, S. K., p. 4, no. 2, col. Ill : 101/2. 

6 Cf. the har-ra-an gish ginar-ra, p. 20 : 31, and the gish ginar kur-mu-gam, ''the wagon which overcomes the 
kur", Gudea, Cyl. B, XII : 18. 

6 Sun = <\>p£] = ubbubu, ebbu, is a variant of su-su, su-na, su-ni, Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 245, 27; or of sun 
or shun = ^jjqy^y = ebbu, Br. 252; and a syn. of yY > ^/ t> H = sun,shub{ variant of sub, su-ba(bi), sug, shu(g), shu-tib, 
shu-du) = band or damqu ( = shd(g), sa-ga, sd-da, shig); of ^-f-^J = su, si (syn. of g=k = sig, or 4^" = 
sig, or tf | = si(g), si, or t ^f| |f = sd, or sa, sd) or also read gun ( = syn. of |3y&| = gun, si); of >J [ ^ = sin, 
sim — all of which expressions are used repeatedly in the several names and attributes of Ishtar and Dumuzi to 
convey the idea of their being "beautiful", "glorious", "graceful". 

7 d Gashan(Nin)-sun is the "mother" also of Gilgamesh, K. B., VI 1 , p. 438, of Gudea and of Singashid — 
both "kings of Erech", see below. 

8 For this attribute see Zimmern, B. 0. T., p. 8, no. 38, and cf. above, p. 21 : 2, ki-u-mu-un, "place of the 
'lord'", i. e., "place of Dumuzi" = "netherworld". 



of Enlil), with d Gu-ba(bar)-ra l = "Ashratum (wife of MAR-TV), with "Sha-la (wife of 
IM), and with d Nin-gal (wife of Sin). But Gashan-sun is the wife of d Lugal-banda. 2 
This Lugal-banda is according to H. A. V., p. 416: 

a) d En-lil, "lord of Kullab". But above, p. 35, note 6, we saw, that "lord of Kullab" 
is one of the names of Dumuzi; hence, Enlil = Dumuzi, and Gashan-sun = Nin-anna (as 
"mother") and = Ninlil (as "bride" and "wife" of Enlil). 

b) d SUff, the "lord of Ashnunna", i. e., d Nin-ib, 3 the son of Enlil. Nin-ib, accor- 
dingly, must likewise have played the role of Dumuzi, while Gashan-sun must have been 
the same as Ninlil (= "mother") and Ba-u( = "bride" and "wife" of Nin-ib). In corrobo- 
ration of this the following passages may be mentionned: 

In C. T., XV, 22 : 19, the goddess Ba-u has among other titles also that of ama Ga- 
sJia-an-sun-na, for which the duplicate text, Zimmern, S. K., p. 4, no. 2 :31a, gives the 
variant ama ga-sha-an ki-La-ga-sa, "mother, mistress of Lagash"; but the "mistress of 
Lagash", Ba-u, was the wife of Enid's son d Nin-Girsu, 1 who is, as is well-known, identified 
with d Nin-ib. 5 Also in Zimmern, S. K., p. 6, no. 3 : 316, d Nin-sun appears in connection 
with d Nin-ib, d Nin-Gir-su and d Pa-bil-sag, 6 while in I. c, p. 15, no. 11 :19a, Ga-sha-an- 
sun is called ama i-ra, "mother of the city ( ?)", i. e., originally Erech, later on Nippur. 7 
There can, then, be no doubt that Gashan-sun was also a name for Ba-u, the wife of Nin-ib, 
who for this reason was called d En ( = Umun)-banda 8 and who, therefore, must have played 
the role of the u-mu-un or Dumuzi. 

c) d Ulu, 9 the son of Sin; the Gashan-sun from this point of view would be as "mother" 
= d Nin-gal, and as "bride" and "wife" = d Innanna or d Ishtar, the wife of Shamash. 

But even this does not yet exhaust all possibilities in connection with the various and 
manifold transfers of the role of Dumuzi and Gashan-sun. 

1 See above, p. 17, note 2, p. 18. 

2 For this god see already above, p. 31. In B. H., p. 85 : 21 = 134, col. 1:9= Zimmern, 8. K., p. 16, no. 11, 
col. V : 26, the ama umun-na ( d )Gashan-sun-na (= um-mi be-lim) is followed by ( d )Umun-banda(da) umun Esh- 
nun-na ki (= d Lugal-banda(da) be-el £sh-nun-na H ). In II R.,59, Rev., 25, the d Oashan{Nin)-sun is mentioned after 
and appears as the "wife" (dam-shu-sal)oi d Umun(Lugal)-banda(da). Also in several seal inscriptions d Lugal-banda 
(da) and d Nin-sun are mentioned together, see Krausz, Gbtternamen, p. 36. Singashid, king of Erech, restorer and 
protector of fi-an-na, couples both divinities; he calls himself "son (dumu) of d Nin-sun" (Backstein A, 2), refers to 
d Lugal-banda(da) as "his god" (dingir-ra-ni) and to d Nin-s.un as "his mother" (ama-a-ni-ir, Tonnagel, 1, 3), buil- 
ding for them the E-ki-kal E-ki-tush sha(g)-hul-la-ka-ne-ne, "the temple of the 'place of the youthful one', the habi- 
tation of the joy of their hearts", i. e., their "wedding chamber", where they are joined in holy wedlock. 

3 For d SUy = d Nin-ib see C. T., XXV, 11 : 29; H. A. V., p. 415, note 2. 

4 See "Creation- Story" , pp. 40ff. 
6 C. T., XXV, 13 : 29. 

6 For d Pa-bil-sag = d Nin-ib, see avove, p. 14, and notes. 

7 See above, p. 8, note 1. 

8 H. A. V., p. 417, a. 

9 Cf. especially H. A. V., p. 418, no. 4. 


Among the names of Dumuzi occurs one which designates him as the dumu (lu-mu) 
tl -mu-un-mu{sh)-zi-da, x "son of 2 Nin-gish-zi-da" . z According to this Dumuzi is the son of 


Nin-gish-zi-da and d Gashan-sun or d Ba-u. Both are frequently coupled together so as to 
appear as "husband and wife". 4 Statue E, VIII : 11 ff., records that Gudea brought his god 
d Nin-gish-zi-da to d Ba-u into her temple at Uru-azag-ga ("holy city"). 5 Statue G, II : 9ff., 
tells us that ' 'Nin-gish-zi-da was introduced into the temple after Gudea had presented the 
wedding presents to d Nin-Gir-su and d Ba-u. e In Cyl. B, XXIII : 18ff., d Nin-gish-zi-da 
is said to be "the god" (dingir) and d Nin-sun-na the "divine mother" (dingir-ama) of Gudea. 
In designating them thus, Gudea tells us that d Nin-sun-na is the ama-BiE numun-zi-da 
numun-ki-dg-gd-dm, "the mother who gives birth to the 'true offspring', who loves her 
offspring", and terms d Nin-gish-zi-da the dumu-KA An-na-kam. That the rendering of 
dumu-KA by "descendant" is merely a guess, is plain and goes without saying. But what 
does this term mean? 

From H. A. V., p. 420, it is evident that KA in ^"erin-na-KA (C. T., XV, 27 : 10) 
changes with zu in gM erin-na-zu of the duplicate passage, C. T., XV, 30 : 13, hence, KA 
may be read zu, cf. also Br. 517. In the expression i-bi-zu-bar-mu-un-shi-ib = ki-nish nap. 
li-is-su of R. H., p. 59 : 19/20, the zu is evidently a variant of zi; hence, zu = zu = zi = 
kenu, kenish, "true". This result justifies us to read d Nin-gish-zi-da dumu-zu An-na- 
kam and to translate it by "N., the 'true son' (i. e., the Dumu-zi) of An". In doing so, we 
are enabled to establish the following two parallel genealogies: 

An = An 

d Nin-gish-zi-da = d En-lil 

d Dumu-zi = son(s) of d En-lil ( d Sin, d Nin-ib, d Nin-Gir-su, etc.). 

This means 

a) that d Nin-gish-zi-da, the "true son" of An, is merely another name of En-lil, the 
"son" of An; 

b) that the role of d Nin-gish-zi-da (= d En-lil), the original dumu-zu, has been trans- 
ferred to d Dumu-zi, the "son of Um,un-mu(sh)-zi-da" (= son(s) of En-lil), i. e., at the time 
of Gudea and of the kings of the II dynasty of Ur, the role of Dumuzi was played by d Sin 
at Ur, by d Nin-ib at Nippur and by d Nin-Gir-su at Lagash, with d En-lil ( = ''Nin-gish-zi- 
da ) as "Father" and with Gashan-sun or d Ba-u as "Mother" and "Bride", hence her at- 

1 No. 2 : 20; above, p. 20 : 30; Zimmern, B. G. T., p. 10, 21. 

2 A translation "son, Nin-gish-zi-da" is impossible, see above, p. 20, note 1. 

3 See also the writing d Mu(sh)-zi-da, Zimmern, S. K., p. 30, no. 27, col. Ill : 11, and cf. the Adapa myth 
where d Gish-zi-da and d Dumu-zi stand at the entrance of the gate to the palace of An, see K. B., VI 1 , p. 95, note 10. 

4 Their being "husband and wife" is evident also from the fact that Gudea is the 'son" of d Nin-gish-zi-da 
(Cyl. B, XXIV : 7) and of d Nin-sun-na, see below. 

5 Dingir-ra-ni d Nin-gish-zi-da d Ba-u S-Uru-azag-ga-na mu-na-da-tu(r)-tu[r). 

6 Notice the trinity: d Nin-gish-zi-da ("Father"), d Nin-Gir-su ("Son"), d Ba-u ("Mother", "Bride"). 


tribute "mother of the lord", hence Gudea's statement that d Nin-sun is the "mother who 
gives birth to 'true offspring'", which "true offspring" is, of course, the "true son", Dumu-zi; 
hence, lastly, Ba-u's designations: sal-shd{g)-ga l or nu-nunuz shd(g)-ga 2 , "graceful 
woman", or sal-si-a d Ba-u sM{g)-ga, 3 "beautiful woman, graceful (gracious) Ba-u" — 
designations which evidently identify Ba-u with the in-nin d Innanna mulu shd(g)-ga 
mulu sig-ga, "lady Ishtar, the graceful and beautiful one", Zimmern, S. K., p. 33, 
no. 29 : 14/5 a. 

There still remains, however, another difficulty which ought to be mentioned and 
explained here. According to Gudea, Statue I, I : 4, d Nin-gish-zi-da is not the dumu-zu 
of An, but the "son (dumu) of d Nin-a-zu" . 4 This "Father" and "Son" are mentioned, 
either with or without the name of the "Mother", d Ni-gir{i)-da, between them, in several 
other passages as, e. g., II R., 59, Rev., 34—36: d Nin(Umun)-a-zu— d Ni(Gashan)-gir(i)-da, 
his wife — d Nin(Umun)-gish(mu(sh))-zi-da; R.H., p. 86 :6— 7 = 134, col. II :17— 19 = 
138:103— 105 = C.B. M., 112:12—13, Umun-a-zu, "lord of the extended house" 5 — Gashan- 
gir(i)-da — Umun-mu(sh)-zi-da; B. E., XXVII, no. 1, col. IV: 12 —34, d Nin-a-zu (of IM ki ) 
— d Nin-gish-zi-da (of E(Gisht)-banda (i?) 1 " 1 ). 6 But — and this is noteworthy —in the 
list of the deol (■fovlalot,' 3 the place of d Nin-a-zu is occupied by d Nin-ib (month of Tam- 
uz) who is followed by d Nin-gish-zi-da (month of Ab). d Nin-a-zu, the father of d Nin- 
gish-zi-da, then, is none other but d Nin-ib, the Dumuzi of the Nippur trinity and the &eog 
(jovlalog of the month Tamuz; hence also Dumuzi's name: ur-sag d Umun-a-zu, "hero 
Umun-a-zu". This d Nin-a-zu, though originally the same as Nin-ib, the son of Enlil, 
played in IM H the role of the "Father", like An at Erech or like Enlil at Nippur. 
This enables us to establish the following trinities in addition to that given above, p. 48, 
note 6, viz.: 

Father Son Mother 

An d En-lil d Nin-mah \ cf. Gudea, Cyl. XIX : 18 ff., 

An d Nin-gish-zi-da d Nin-sun j at Erech. 

1 Dec, XXXVII, 1, 2 (time of Ur-Nina); Ur-Ba-u, Statue, IV, 3, 4; Gudea, Statue H, 1:1, 2; Nammahni, 
Tiirangelstein, 1, 2; etc., etc. The same attribute is ascribed also to Ini-Mar H , Ur-Ba-u, Statue, V : 8, and to the 
goddess of Qirgilu (= Ishtar), C. T., XV, 23 : 6, 13. 

2 Langdon, S. B. P., p. 174: 51, et passim. 

3 Zimmern, S.K., p. 16, no. 11 : 62 o. Cf. the variant in B.H., p. 86: 62, NU-NUNUZ-si-a d A-ma-ma shd(g) 
■ga, and in C. T., XXIV, 10 : 1 = 23 : 24, d A-ma-ma shlg(shd{g))-ga, the "wife(!) of Nin-ib", followed by d Sal- 
si-a | ditto. For d Nin-si-a (= Sin, the beautiful lord = Dumuzi) see above, p. 31, note 3, and for d NIN ni saa 
(= Shamash, the beautiful lord) see C. T., XXV, 25 : 11. Cf. also d Nin(Sal) (-an, in)-si(si)-{an-)na, "the beautiful 
lady of heaven". % 

4 For this god see above, p. 15, and notes; p. 27, note 4. 

5 See above, p. 12, note 5. 
* Cf. above, p. 20, note 1. 

7 IV E., 33; cf. B. E., Series D, vol. VI, Table II : 4, 5. 



d En-lil d Nin-ib d Nin-lil at Nippur. 

d Nin-ib son of d Nin-ib d Ba-u at Dilbat? 

d Nin-a-zu d Nin-gisb-zi-da d Ni-gir(i)-da at IM kl . 

d Nin-gish-zi-da d Dumu-zi d Nin-sun at E(Gisb ?) - ban- 

da(i ?) ki . 

Col. II : 6. [E]-KAL-AN-NA MU(SH)-TIN-AN-NA MEN. Ishtar, the "mother" 
and "wife" of Dumuzi, appears here as "the one of the 'house of the youthful one of 
An', the maid(en) of An". She is also the "sister" (SAL-KU) of Dumuzi, while one of 
Dumuzi's standing names is "brother of the mother Mu(sh)-tin-an-na" , l 

The "house of the youthful one of An", being here parallel with the Jci-kal, ki- d Dumu- 
zi, A-ra-li, hi-d-ld, is, of course, the "netherworld", of which Dumuzi was the "lord" and 
Mu(sh)-tin-an-na the "mistress" ( d Belit §i-ri 2 ) and "scribe". 

For the reading [E]-kal-an-na cf. R. H., p. 85 : 23 = 134, col. I : 13/4 = 136 : 25/6, 
E-Jcal(-tur 3 )-an-na ( d )Mu(sh)-tin-an-na = [. . .]-na d A-nu d Belit si-e-ri, and Zimmern, 
S. K., p. 51, no. 64, col. II : 5, E(sic)-kal-an-na Mu(sh)-ti(sic\)-an-na. Kal, rather than 
gurush, I read in view of such passages as Thureau-Dangin, N. F., AO 4334, etc., Kev., II : 7, 
dam-gal kal-la-mu nu-ti-il nu-ti-il 

"My great husband, my youthful one, lives (dwells) no more, lives no more". 

Cf. also the ga-la-mu (= hal-mu = Dumuzi), Zimmern, I. c, p. 36, no. 31, col. II : 19, and 
the kal-la-ga-mu (= Nergal), I. c, p. 59, no. 79 : 4. 

The meaning of Mu(sh)-tin = "maid", "maiden", "virgin", suggested in H. A. V., 
p. 399, is now corroborated by Zimmern, /. c, p. 29, no. 26, col. V : 13, 14, where Ishtar 
speaks of herself as follows: 

ma-e mu(sh)-tin me-en ma-e kal* me-en & 

me-e ki-el me-en me-e mu-un-sd 6 me-en 

"As for me, the 'maid(en)' I am, as for me, the 'youthful one' I am; 

"I, the 'virgin' I am, I, the 'graceful one' I am". 

The following writings of the name of the "maid(en) of An" may be mentioned: 

"Geshtin, II R, 59, Kev., 10; Gudea, Cyl. B, III :21; 

1 See above, p. 18, b, and notes. 

2 Cf. above, p. 17, note 2a; p. 18, o. 

3 Cf. the uru kal-tur-ra, p. 19, note 10. 

4 For kal, ascribed to a goddess, cf. i Kal = d Ba-u, Dungi, Votiv-Periicke, 1. See also Ba-u's name: d Kal- 
sil-sir-sir, "the youthful one (or the lamassu) of the 'street of wailing"', and her temple E-sil-sir-sir, and cf. p. 49. 

6 Cf. 1. 5, mu(sh)-tin men me-e na- . . . kal me-en. 

6 Variant of mulu sd-da. For mu-un = mu-lu, cf. C. T., XV, 12: 20 = R. H., 122 : 2/3, with IV R., 28, 
no. 4, Rev., 56/7, mu-un(lu)-shar-ri-dam(e-ne) = ush-tah-mi-lu. Sd = sd-da = sa-ga = shd(g) = damqu, banu. 



"Geshtin-an-na, Ur-Ba-u, Statue, VI : 5, 6; 1 C. T., XV, 19 : 13, 18, 23, 27; H. A. V., 
no. 2 :70; II R., 59, Rev., 11; 

d Ama-geshtin (-na), Urukagina, Tontafel, Rev., 11:1, 3; 

d Mu{sh)-tin, II R., 59, Rev., 10; 

Mu{sh)-tin, Zimmern, S. K., p. 29, no. 26, col. V : 13; R. H., p. 47 : 14; p. 48 :23; 

d Mu{sh)-tin-an-na, no. 9, col. 1 :3; C. T., XV, 20 :21; II R., 59, Rev., 11; R. H., p. 134, 
col. I : 13/4. 

Mu{sh)4in-an-na, R. H., p. 85 : 23; p. 136 : 25/6; no. 1, col. II : 6; 
Mu(sh)-tin-azag, Zimmern, S.K., p. 27, no. 26, col. II : 12; 2 
Mu{sh)4in NU-NUNUZ, R. H., p. 89 : 16, et passim; 
Mu(sh)-ti-in sal-sa, Thureau-Dangin, N.F., AO 4329, Rev., 111:2; 
Mu(sh)4i-na, Pinches, Manch., 1:7; 
Mu(sh)-ti-na-na, Zimmern, S. K., p. 36, no. 31, col. I : 10; 
Mu(sh)-ti{\)-an-na, Zimmern, S.K., p. 51, no. 64, col. II : 5, 18; 
Mu(sh)4i(\)-e, Zimmern, I. c, col. II : 17; 

Ama- d Mu(sh)-tin(-na), Scheil, R. A., VIII, p. 164, col. 11:47 = Zimmern, S.K., p. 3, 
no. 2, col. II : 7; C. T., XV, 20 : 23; 

Ama-Mu(sh)-tin-na, no. 6, col. 1:9; no. 7 : 3; C. T., XV, 18 : 13; 

Ama- d Mu(sh)-tin-an-na, R. H., p. 67:20; IV R., 30, no. 2, Obv., 21; Rev., 9; IV R. 
27, no. 1, add. p. 6a : 12; 

Col. II : 8, 9. KI-KAL-A, KI- d DUMU-ZI-DA. Both of these expressions occur also 
in Zimmern, S. K., p. 26, no. 26, col. IV : 16/7, where, as here, they stand likewise in parallelism. 
Cf. also 1. 12, ki-kal{ ? garash 1)-a shu-du-a = col. Ill : 15, [ki]-shu-du-a kal-a-[shu]; C. T., XV, 
14 : 25, Jci-kal li-bi-ir-ri (Nergal text). For the several pronunciations of ki-kal {= hirim, 
kankal, vlutin), see Br. 9752 ff. 

When Singashid, king of Erech, records that he built (mu-ne-en-du) for Lugal-banda 
and Nin-sun the "E-ki-kal, 'the habitation of the joy of their hearts'", 3 it becomes at once 
evident that ki-kal can not have — at least not here — a meaning "uncultivated ground, 
ground not covered with buildings" (kankallu), or "place of a ruined house" (nidutu, teriktu),* 
nor some such significance as "Ruine, Triimmerhaufe, Wiistenei, Wiistnis". 5 Surely, a king 
would hardly build (!) "ruins" and call them "habitation of the joy of the heart". No, the 

1 Here with the attribute nin-gu-a-si-a, probably "mistress of (with) beautiful neck". 

2 Here parallel with d Ou-shir-ra SAL-KU (sister of) d Da-mu-[ge] (= Dumuzi) and d Nin-gal-azag. 

3 See above, p. 47, note 2. 

4 Poebel, B. E., VI, part 2, p. 12, note 2. 

s Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 520 {pitru); Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 450, o {nidutu). 


ki-kal is here evidently the "place of the youthful one", i. e., of the "lord" 1 Dumuzi. 2 But 
Dumuzi is the "lord of the netherworld", hence ki-kal = "netherworld" (syn. of edin, 
A-ra-li, which latter is here parallel with hi- d Dumu-zi, ki-kal). Seeing, however, that the 
"netherworld" was according to Semitic conception a somewhat dreary place, a place of 
"ruins", 3 the ki-kal acquired in course of time the meaning "ruined, desolated, unculti- 
vated place". 

Col. 11:10. A-RA-LI DTJ(L)-SUB-BA. For A-ra-li see, pp. 19; 36, note 2; 39, 
note 5; 40, note 1, and for Du(l)-sub-ha, pp. 39 ff. Notice also the remarkable expression in 
Zimmern, S. K., p. 23, no. 25, col. II : 48, A-ra-li gu-bar ur-ra, i. e., either "A., the strange 
shores (see, pp. 17, note 2, a; 18 a; 24) of the 'veiled one'" (ur = katdmu, H. A. V., p. 398), 
i. e., of Ishtar as the d Be-lit si-ri; or "A., the hostile, strange shores"; cf. also Zimmern, 
S. K., p. 43, no. 41 : 3, edin-na gu-ba-[ra. . .]. 

Col. II : 12. KI-KAL (tK/GARASHt)-A SHU-DZJ-A. For ki-kal see above, p. 51. 
Though the kal of the duplicate passage, col. Ill : 15, [ki]-shu-du-a kal-a-[shu], is absolutely 
certain, I imagine to see in our line here a ki-^f^, i. e., k/garash, rather than a ki-kal. Ki- 
^Jm^, or also written H-^y?t-<, stands in the same relation to ki-kal, 4 as does E-kur- 
t-< to fi-kur, i. e., it signifies the "hades", "netherworld". Notice the development of the 
meaning of k/garash: 

1. It signifies, as the writing clearly indicates, the "place(H) of the youthful one (kal) 
who is dead (>-< = idim) or far away (t~< = bad)" , 5 i. e., the "place of the lord", the 
"place of Dumuzi", the "Arali", the "place minus strength" — all of which are here in 
parallelism with k/garash. 

2. This place, being within or in the innermost and most secret parts of the great fold 
(tur), the earth, and hiding within itself all dead and living things, came to be looked upon 
as the great "womb", 6 hence karash = karshu, karashu, "Leibesinnere", Delitzsch, H. W. B., 
p. 356, a. 

1 Cf. the ki-u-mu-un, above, p. 21 : 2. 

2 Cf. the parallel ki- d Dumu-zi of 1. 9. 

3 See above, p. 25, note 6 (namu). 

4 Cf. also d KAL = Alad, Br. 483 = i^-la-ad ^M^, above, p. 26, note 3, b. 

5 Notice this twofold distinction in the syllabaries, Br. 9762/3, and cf. our remarks on ki-bad-du and ki-idim, 
above, p. 36, note 2, p. 44, note 4. 

6 Cf. here the Sha(g)-sur-ru = 1) "womb"; 2) the "earth" as the great "womb"; 3) the "goddess" of this 
great "womb": Ishtar, the great "Mother", who gives birth to everything, see C. T., XXV, 306 : 12, d SHA(0) 
sha-su-rum rpjj R ( = " g0( jdess of the midst of the fold") be-lit AN mi * h d Ish-tar, "Sh., the mistress of the gods, 
Ishtar"; C. T., XXIV, 26 : 135, d Nin-tur eha -i> u -™, "mistress of the 'fold'"; Pinches, E. N., ( = P.S. B. A., March, 
1911), XII: 9, 10, d Sha(g)-sur-ra d Be-lit AN m ** h sha ^Ur-ruk, i. e., d Nin-an-na of Erech, the "mother" and 
"bride" of Dumuzi; 4) the "netherworld" as a marshy, mooiy abode, full of misery and without fresh or flowing 
water. This meaning of slia(g)-sur-ra is still evident from Thureau-Dangin, N. F., AO 4331/5, Obv., col. IV : Iff., 


3. The netherworld was surrounded by water. That part of the netherworld which 
adjoined the water was "marshy" and "moory", like its terrestrial prototype at the conflux 
of the Tigris and the Euphrates; hence, Jcarash = kardshu, "morass", "mire", "Matsch", 
Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 504. 

4. This marshy condition made the landing of the ship, on which the dead were con- 
veyed to the netherworld, difficult, and the progress over it hazardous, causing sometimes 
utter ruin; hence Tear ash = "place of misery". 

5. The netherworld was "walled" in by seven walls, like a fortress; hence Jcarash = 
kardshu, "fortified camp", Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 356, b. Cf. here £^kJ> "dig", i. e., the 
"walled in place of the dead", and Ishtar's name: d Nin-tin-dig-ga, "the mistress who bring s 
back to life, delivers all those who are within this 'walled in place', this fortress or fortified 
camp (cf. the (pvkaxi] or "prison" of I St. Peter, III : 19), who saves and restores to health 
and new life all those who are at the very 'gates of hell' or 'hades'," KA karash-a-ta = 
ina pi-i ka-ra-she-e, IV R., 22, no. 2 : 20, 21; cf. I. c, 54, no. 1 : 41. 

6. The netherworld is the "great fold" where the flocks of the shepherd Dumuzi were 
kept and from which they were led out; hence Dumuzi's name d En- oa ' ra GA-RASH, see 
above, p. 34, note 15. 

7. The netherworld, lastly, is the "place of judgment;" hence karash = ga-rash = 
purussu, shiptu, " Strafgericht" , Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 504. 

Delitzsch's I karshu, karashu; I u. II kardshu (H. W. B., p. 356, a, b) belong together. 

With the SHU-DU-A of this line and the KI-SHU-DU-A of col. Ill : 15, cf. also R. H., 
p. 68, Rev., 9, 10, mu-lu shu-du-a(-na) = il-la-ku(-shu) (here mentioned between the gdl-ld de- 
mon and the mu-lu dg(am)-gi-ra(-na) = da-i-ki(-shu), "the smiter, killer"). Zimmern, S. B. T., 
p. 209, translates illaku by "Unterjocher", "subjugator", remarking, I. c, p. 215, that 
"illaku schwerlich zu aldku 'gehen' gehorig, sondern eher zu ilku i Verpflichtung\ i Steuer"\ 
He draws the attention also to the mulu shu-da l -a, who in C. T., XV, 20 : 28, is mentioned 

where Ishtar, the mu-gi-ib Nin-ah-na (col. 1:2), sings of her husband d MAR-TU, the Duinuzi of the "West- 
land", as follows: 

enem-zu en-gu-ra i-is-sig(la) NU-DU-TU 

za-na-am ( = za-e + enem)-zu a-ba u-um-stg (la) ab-bi hu-lu-he 

za-na-am-zu zu-ga u-um-sig(la) zu-ge she-an-sha(= var. of DU = aha) 

a-me-ba-ra na-[.] u-um-sig(la) shd-sur-ra [ ], ». e., 

"Thy word, when it goes over the ocean, .... 

"Thou, thy word, when it goes over the sea, the sea is frightened; 

"Thou, thy word, when it goes over the marsh, the marsh trembles (wails); 

"When it goes over the reedy marsh, when it goes over the moory marsh, 

(rest broken away) 
Shd-sur-ra is here evidently in parallelism with a-me-ba-ra = ambar = apparu (M. 7844) and with zu-ga(ge) 
= su(g) = susu (M. 7853), a synonym of k/garash and of su(g) = seru, "netherworld", M. 7852. 

1 For such an interchange of du and da cf. now V R., 46 : 39 a, b, mul Sag-me-gar na-ash sa-ad-du ana DA- 
DA-mu, with Dhorme, R. A., VIII, p. 45 (cf. p. 56), col. Ill : 5, m *'babbar(^ TE-TjG)na-ash sa-ad-du ana DU-DU. 



between the ka-ab-gaz-e and the mulu d-ld-a. In view of the fact that hi-d-ld-a is a name 
for "netherworld", of which Dumuzi is the mulu or "lord", and that the mulu ka-dsh-ka-sa 
(= ka-ab-gaz-e, H.A.V., p. 441, note 5) is likewise a name for Dumuzi, 1 I prefer to see in 
the mulu shu-du(da)-a a designation of Dumuzi (with whom, in fact, this term is in paral- 
lelism) and in the ki-shu-du-a the "place where Dumuzi as the shu-du-a keeps himself". 
This being so, C. T., XV, 20 : 28, 29, might be read and translated as follows: 
mulu shu-da-a e-ne-ra mu-un-da-gir(ul)-e 

mulu d-ld-a e-ne-ra mu-un-da-gir(ul)-e, i. e., 

"To 'the smitten one', to him with him(= the gallu) she (= Ishtar) 

"To 'the one without strength', to him with him she goes". 
If illaku and ilku really do belong together, the shu-da-a may possibly mean "governor, 
ruler, commander", sc. of the netherworld. Other interpretations are, of course, possible, 
but all must remain, for the present at least, extremely doubtful. 2 

Col. II : 13. KI-A-lA-A, occurs also in col. Ill : 15, and in IV R., 30, no. 2 : 1 —4, 
which Zimmern, S. B. T., p. 204, reads and translates: 
[ki( ?) d-ld-a ganam sil-bi] 

[a(l)-sha]r ik-k[a-mu-u lah-ra u pu-had-sa] 

[ki{ 1)]d-ld-a u[z mdsh-bi] 

[a(l)-]shar ik-ka-su-u en-za u [la-la-sha], i. e., 

"[wo] festge[}ialten ist das Mutterschaf und sein Lamm], 

"[w]o gebunden ist die Ziege und [ihr Zicklein]". 

Without the preceding ki, d-ld is found in IV R., 30, no. 2 :36ff. = R. H., p. 67, Obv., 
Iff., where we read as follows: 

36 (1) a lum-ma d(al)-ld(-al)-e(e)-a 

37 (2) a-hu-lap un-nu-bi slia ik-ka-mu-u 
(3) (a-hu-lap un-nu-bi sha im-ma-hu-u 

39 (4) hur-mu al-e-ne 

a lum-ma d(al)-ld(-al)-e(e-e) 
38 a-hu-lap ush-shu(shu)-bi sha ik-ka-su-u 
a-hu-lap ush-shu-bi sha im-ma-hu-u) 
sub-ba gil-li-em-md al-dur 

(5) ([bani (Z. usurtul) sha] im-ma-hu-u: ik-ka-mu-u: ri-e-um ana hul-lu-ki a-shib) 

1 See above, p. 17, note 2, 6. 

2 For the benefit of those who are intent upon solving the correct significance of shu-dn(da)-a, I may men- 
tion that du may change with de {gu-de = gu-du, Br. 667 = 672); with du ( d Nin-uru-mu-un-du, C. T., XXIV, 
5 : 10 = d Nin-uru-mu-un-du, C. T., XXIV, 22 : 110); with du (GAB-KIDdu-a, C. T., XV, 30 : 14 = OAB-KID- 
du-a, I. c, 27 : 11); with du(g) (en-nu-ug(-ga) . . .du, C. T., XV, 27 : 22ff. = en-nu-itg(-ga) . . .du(g), I. c, 30 : 24ff.); 
with tag, tu (= 5nlT ). du, du (gish-dil-a, Br. 5714 = gish-tag-a, Br. 5711 = tu, M. 4274, mahdsu sha isi = gish- 
du-du, Gudea, Cyl. A, 7: 15 = gish-shu-du, Cyl. A, 12 : 24 = tag = mahdsu sha mimma). According to this shu- 
du(da)-ama,y mean "eradicator, slaughterer, governor, regent, the smitten one, the adorned one, the beautiful one"; 
but which of these meanings is the one intended here? In conclusion cf. the shu-du-a (a measure!) mentioned by 
Thureau-Dangin, J. A., Jan.-Feb, 1909, p. 97, no. 2;. St. of Vult., p. 45, note 2. 


(6) (hul-lu-ki-ish a-shib) 

40(7) uru-me-a hur-mu {gu) 1 al-e-ne 

(8) (pa-ra-as mdti sha im-ma-fru-u) 2 

Leaving the various grammatical impossibilities 3 of the Semitic translation out of 
consideration, the following ought to be noticed in connection with this passage: 

1. The very fact that the Semitic translator gives for 11. 1 and 4 several renderings, 
shows that he himself had some difficulty in understanding this passage. 

2. The hur of 1. 4 is parallel with sub. This sub, either "shepherd" or "beautiful one", 4 
is, of course, Dumuzi; hence, the hur must be Dumuzi likewise. We know 5 that Dumuzi 
had the name d Lugal-igi-hur* u -ra "the king with beautiful eyes (face)", thus showing that 
hur = banu (M. 6404), "beautiful" 6 . 

3. Hur and sub are parallel also with the lum of 1. 1. Above 7 we have seen that Du- 
muzi was called the i-bi-lum-lum, probably = la bdbil pdni, "freundlich, gut", 8 because 
lum = babdlu, "hervorbringen, erzeugen" 9 , is a synonym of ushshubu (root eshebu 10 ), "her- 
vorkeimen, Frucht tragen" 11 and unnubu, "iippig keimen, Frucht tragen". 12 To unnubu belongs 
also enbu which, when applied to a woman, has the meaning "Uppigkeit, Fruchibarheit", 
and when applied to a man that of "strotzende Kraft, Zeugungskraft" . Dumuzi as the lum 
might, therefore, be very well the "manly one, the one possessed with virility, der Zeugungs- 
fdhige, 13 the charming one, the beautiful one". 

1 This gu stands in R. H. lower than the preceding mu. It is probably intended to explain the hur, which 
the annotator wishes to take in the sense of gu-hur = hdru sha nam-me, see Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 275, o. 

2 Translated by Zimmern, A.O., XIII, p. 11: 

"Wie lange noch mit dem Sprie/ien, das festgehalten ist, 

wie lange noch mit dem Griinen, das gebunden ist; 
mit dem Schichsal( t ), das niedergehalten ist, so dap der Hirt in Vernichtung dasitzt, 

mit der Satzung des Landes, die niedergehalten ist ?" 

Langdon, S. B. P., p. 307, renders: 
"How long shall the springing of verdure be restrained ? 
"How long shall the putting forth of leaves be held back 1 
"My city is oppressed: the shepherd sits in desolation. 
"In my city the laws of the land are suppressed". 

3 As, e. g., that the a in uru-me-a is not accounted for; that the hur-mu in 1. 7 is altogether ignored; that 
the mu of 1. 4 has no Semitic equivalent, etc. etc. 

4 See above, p. 40. 

5 Of. p. 41, note 1 ; p. 44, note 3. 

8 This parallelism of Aw and sub would speak, it seems to me, decidedly in favor of our interpretation offered 
above, p. 41. 

7 Page 27, note 9. 

8 Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 62 : 13; p. 378; B. A., Ill, p. 541. 

9 Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 320. 

10 Is the lum = shibu (M. 8570) to be derived from eshibu, per analogy of lidu from alddu ? If so, lum = shibu 
would be "der Zeugungsfdhige" rather than the "sheik", see above, p. 27, note 9. 

11 Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 141, 6. 
13 Delitzsch, I. c, p. 97, a. 

13 I. e., the one who is able to bring about, who is the natural cause of, the ushshubu and unnubu. 


4. A-ld = al-ld-al = al (= Id, Br. 10194/5), being translated here by the three vari- 
ants immahu, ikkamu, ikkasu, must be merely different writings of one and the same word: 
d-ld, which means literally "minus strength", while the ki-d-ld-a is the "place of him who is 
minus strength", i. e., of Dumuzi, the god of the powers of nature, who is "impotent" during 
the winter, the time of barrenness. Dumuzi consequently is quite rightly called mulu d-ld-a. 1 

The e 2 = e of 1. 1 expresses the "present tense". For such an interchange of e and 
e, see above, p. 13, note 2. 

Disregarding the Semitic translation, I would prefer to render the above given passage 
as follows: 
"How long still that 'the manly one' how long still that 'the manly one' 

be without strength, be without strength, 

"That my 'beautiful one' be without that the shepherd ( ? 'beautiful one ') sit 

strength, like one undone, 

"That within my city 3 my 'beautiful one' be without strength". 

This gives us the desired antitheses : manly — yet without strength ; beautiful — yet 
without attraction: despised, undone, annihilated, in misery is Dumuzi while in the ki- 
d-ld-a. 4 

Col. II : 14, 16. KI-SHU-E StL BA-AN-SI-EM-MA-SHU 


in col. Ill : 17, 18: 

ki-shu-e sil ba-an-si-em-ma-shu 

eshemen (KI-E-NE-DI) uz sha( ?) mash ba-an-si-em-ma-shu. 

Br. 9780 mentions a ki-shu-e-za-' ! Innanna = kippu, in which the za d Innanna may be 
explained as meaning "the 'bright', 'shining' {za = za-gin 5 = ibbu, ellu) ki-shu-e of Ishtar", 
or the ff^p^TT ma y ^e mere ty a variant of ^f^T or of its gunu form ^^J§, i. e., the 
"beautiful H-s/ra-e". Kippu, according to K. 40, col. II : 47 — 49 6 translates, besides the 
ki-shu-e-za- d Innanna, also the Sumerian KI-E-NE-DI- d Innanna, "the beautiful (DI = 
sd) place (ki) of the lady {E-NE" 1 - e-gi) Ishtar", and the shu(= KU)-hul,» "tent (shu = 

1 See p. 54. 

2 M. 5879 considers e = mahu; but the immahu of 1. 3 is against this. 

3 Cf. Gudea, Cyl. A, 1 : 3. 

4 In H. A. V., no. 8 : 20/1, lum and d-ld stand likewise in antithesis. A-ld, when used in connection with 
"musical instruments", has the meaning "silent" "mute" (against Thureau-Dangin, Z. A., XVII, p. 199, note 4; 
Witzel, 0. L. Z., 1913, Sp. 4, note 2). Cf. also the kur-al, above, p. 45, note 1. 

5 Cf. also the za of C. T., XV, 25 : 10, which in the duplicate passage, K. 41, col. II : 17/8, is written zd za- 
gin = uk-ni-i. 

6 See Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 347, 6. 

7 Or is E-NE the plural of E = A = rihutu (see p. 57) ? 

8 Cf. also the shu-hul e ' she ' min -sar{sir)-ra = melu[ltu] aha kippe, "the loud shouting, the singing which goes 
on in the kippu", Br. 10658. 


zardtu) of joy". In Br. 9751 the KI-E-NE-DI- d Innanna has the gloss e-she-me-in l and is 
translated by melultu sha d U-GlJN (Ishtar). But e-slie-me-in is the gloss also of KI-E-NE-DI 
( = kippu, Br. 9746), which in col. Ill : 18, appears as a variant of KI-E-NE and is parallel 
with ki-shu-e. From this it follows that KI-E-NE-DI = KI-E-NE. The DI may be ex- 
plained either according to p. 41, note 3, or it may be = sd, a variant of sa-ga, sd-da = 
shd(g) = damqu, banu, "beautiful", see p. 46, note 6. 

Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 395, translates kippu by "Freudenlcammer, Freudenort der Ishtar", 
and its synonym melultu, which he derives quite correctly from elelu, "to shout, to cry 
(either in joy or grief)", by "Freudenort, Statte geschlechtlicher Freude". The literal trans- 
lation of ki-shu-e is "place of the 'tent, abode (shu = phonetic writing for shu) of e"\ This 
e is again a phonetic writing for a; 2 cf. the E-shu-a, 3 "the house of the 'tent of a'", the well- 
known adyton of Marduk; the a. . .a-ri-a in the expression a An-na a-ri-a-mesh = sha 
rihut d Anim rihu (Br. 11458) which changes with a. . .e-ri-a in Gudea, Cyl. A, III : 16, 
(Nin-Girsu) en-zi(d) a kur-gal e-ri-a, "true lord, begotten by the 'great mountain'", and 
especially the d Nin-zu-amash-a, C. I '., XXIV, 11 : 38 = ^in-amash-e,* "the (true) mis- 
tress of the 'fold of e"\ I. c, 24 : 55. 

Now, as a = e has the meaning rihu sha rihutu or rihutu, 5 it becomes at once evident 
that the ki-shu-e is the "place of begetting", the "bridal-chamber", the most holy and 
sacred compartment in a given temple, the adyton far excellence, where Ishtar and Dumuzi 
pass their wedding night at Easter. 6 

According to our text, this place is prepared by the "lamb", the "goat" and the "kid" 

— three euphemistic expressions by which Ishtar designates herself (and her maidens) as 

the "virgin" (s^, 7 "lamb"; mdsh s , "kid") and "mother" (uz,» "goat"; opp. "kid"). The 

ki-shu-e and the KI-E-NE(-DI), therefore, are correctly designated by Jensen as the "Stdlten 

geschlechtlicher Freude der Ishtar". 

Col. II :17. MU-LU BAD-DU. Cf. the name of Dumuzi: d Lugal-ki-bad-du, above, p. 36, 

1 This eshemen I consider to be the prototype of the Phoenician pfflx, see B. E., Series D, vol. VI. 

2 For this interchange of e and a see also H. A. V., p. 440, note 2. 

3 See also C. T., XV, 19 : 26, where, however, the copy gives E-^^-a; cf. the E-shu-nin-azag | E-60 sha 
Gir-su^, II B., 61 : 34, g,h (cf. 11. 16, 18,6). 

4 See aleo above, p. 29, note 9. 

5 Cf. also the a-ru = band rihutu, V B., 46 : 46, a, b, with the m<a A-ru ba-nit(= I) ri-hu-tam, Dhorme, B. A., 
VIII, p. 47, col. Ill : 31, and the various writings of the goddess d A-ru-ru: d A-ru-'u-a, d E-ru-u-a, d A-ru, d A-ru, 
d E-rum (see p. 17, note 6). Notice also the d Ur-a-ru = Ur(\ copy gives E)-a-ru, i. e., the "goddess of the urU 
(Jensen, K. B., VI 1 , p. 499, and Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 130, a = Stall, Pferch) sha banu rihutu". 

6 See H. A. V., p. 391, no. 2. 

7 For Ishtar as the d Sil see above, p. 29, note 4, c. 

8 Cf. here the d Mash (a well-known variant of mash) = d Ba-u, the wife of Ninib, H. A. V., p. 424. 

9 See also above, p. 30, note 1, and notice that both, Ishtar and Dumuzi, are the ganam, ga-a-a-u, sherba, 
"sheep, ewe, lamb, ram (aries)", see pp. 32 ff. 



note 2; p. 44, note 4, and see also p. 52, note 5. The mu-lu bad-du is, of course, Dumuzi; 

while the hi-tush, being parallel with the esltemen, "bridal-chamber", and the ki-mushen, 

"place of the 'birds'", is the "harem" inhabited by him and Ishtar. Of this harem Dumuzi 

is the "god" (dim-me-ir). The parallel expression of col. Ill : 19, is in all probability to be 

emended to: 

[mu-lu bad-du] ki-nu-mu-ni-ib-gi-ra-shu 

"On account of the far removed one, who to his place has not returned". The ra of the 

verbal suffix ra-shu can be explained only by supposing that gi-ra is here a phonetic writing 

for gir, gir, gi-ri, etc., "to go, to return to". 

Col. II : 18. KI-MUSHEN{ffU). The QU = mushen is exactly as reproduced; 
this excludes, it seems, a reading Tci-ri (= hi-ri-a, H. A. V., p. 398) or ki-nina (cf. the 
i-nina above, p. 33, note 4; p. 36, note 2). For mushen, "birds", as a designation of 
the "maidens" (ardatu) of Ishtar, see H. A. V., p. 399. The ki-mushen, "place of the 
maidens", is, however, a synonym of fi-a-ri = bit ar-da-tum, R. H., p. 83 : 29, 30; cf. 
H. A. V., p. 398. 

Somewhat difficult is the expression e-ba-ni-in-du(g)-ga, here and in col. Ill : 20. The 
e may be = lu, "behold". But what would be the meaning of du(g) ? "To cry out" ? This 
would leave the infixes unexplained. On account of these difficulties, I consider e. . .du(g) 
to be a variant of a. . .du(g) = shanu sha nakri; cf. here such passages as C. T., XV, 13 : 
21/2 = IV R., 28, no. 4, Rev., 32/3, where we read: 
uru a-du(g)-ga a gi-a-zu 

[anal ali] sha nak-rum u-sha-nu-u a-fyu-lap tu-ur-shu 

(Nibru ki ) a-du(g)-ga a-ta mar-ra-zu 

sha nak-ru ana me-e sa-lu-u, i. e., 

"The 'city', which the foe has when at last wilt thou have mercy 

turned upside down, upon it? 

"(Nippur), which the foe has when at last wilt thou have compassion 

turned upside down, upon it?" 1 

Cf. also IV R., 28, no. 4, Rev., 37 —42. We may, however, connect mu + du(g) and 
read mu{sh)-e-ba-ni-in-du(g)-ga. For mu(sh)-du(g) = gish(ush)-du(g), see D. T. 67 ( = 
A.S.K. T., p. 119), Obv., 18/9 (Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 312, 6), where it is said of Ishtar: 
mu(sh)-ba-ab-du(g)-ga in-ga-an-zu 

i-sha-ri ri-ha-a il-ta-mad 

mu(sh)-su-ub-du(g)-ga in-ga-an-zu 

na-sha-qam il-ta-mad, i. e., 

1 The Semitic translation gives: "which the foe has cast into the water". 


"The embrace of a husband she learned (experienced), 

"To kiss she learned". 

Here belongs also Pinches, E. N. (= P. S. B. A., March, 1911), p. 88 :40, 
mulu mu{sh)-na-e-du(g) mu l u im-su-ub[-su-ub]-ba 

man-ma-an a-a ir-hi-e-shi man-ma-an a-a ish-shi-iq-shi 

and no. 8, col. IV : 1, ni{g)-mu{sh)-e-du(g)-ga-zu im-hu-luh-e. If this latter explanation 
be preferred, we may translate: 
"On account of my extended. . ., where there is experienced the embrace 

the place of maidens, of the husband". 

Col. II :20, 21. SHU or ME-RI GISH-SHUB-BA. With gish-shub, which apparently is 
here an adjective applicable to both "hand" and "foot", cf. Gudea, Cyl. A, XXIV : 17, e 

mu-du gish-e-im-ma-shub, "er erbaute den Tempel, er ihn" (Th.-D.); R.T. C. , no. 191, 

mu id gish-shub-ba ba-ba-al-la, "Jahr, wo gegraben wurde der Kanal g." (Th.-D., S. A.K. I., 
p. 227, no. 12, a); gish-u-shub = ncdbantu, "form" (sc. to make bricks), changes with u-shub 
and gish-shub, cf. sig gish-shub-ba. . .gar, "to put the brick into the 'form'", Gudea, Statue E, 
III : 9; pisan gish-shub-ba, "the form-box", I. c, III : 1 (= pisan gish-u-shub-ba, Statue F, 
II : 12). Cf. also gish-shub = pitpanu, "bow", and especially Thureau-Dangin, N. F., 
AO 4330, face II : 7, 8, gish-shub mulu gish-shub. From these passages it seems to be evi- 
dent that gish-shub means "to throw (into) wood, to encase". The "bow" is the "wood 
(i. e., the 'arrow') thrower"; the "form" is the "wood" into which the clay is "thrown" to 
form it into a brick, which "wood" was in the shape of a "box" (pisan). The id gish-shub-ba 
is a canal with a wooden casing at its borders to keep the earth or ground from falling into 
the canal bed. The shu or me-ri gish-shub-ba, therefore, designates the "hands" or "feet 
which are thrown into a wood (yoke), 1 which are encased, fettered". 

If this explanation be correct, Dumuzi, while in the netherworld, must have been 
considered to be one whose hands and feet, though "radiant with splendor" (ni-shu-pa), 2 
were yet gish-shub-ba, "fettered" — an observation which explains why the Semitic trans- 
lator should have rendered the ki-d-ld-a by ashar ikkamu or ashar ikkasu, "the place where 
is bound, fettered" everyone and everything that inhabits it. 

It is, no doubt, the cry of the "fettered" Dumuzi of which we read in Zimmern, S. K., 
p. 30, no. 27, col. Ill : 8, 
shu-mu gi-ga gir-mu gi-ga ama-mu nu-ri-zu 

"My sore hands, my sore feet — my mother, wilt thou not help them?" 

From no. 4, where d Utu plays the role of Dumuzi, it appears that this state of the 

1 Cf. here the shu-pa-pa(= shup-pal) = raldsu, "yoke?" Br. 7180; Delitzsch, H. W. B., p. 622, a. 

2 Zimmern, S. K., p. 41, no. 37 : 25a. Notice here the play of words between ni-shu-pa and gish-shub-ba\ 


"true Son" as a mvlu gish-shub-ba or "fettered one" is the result of an evil "spell" 1 (gu) 
which has been "woven around" or cast over Dumuzi. Ishtar ( d Innanna), by her bal-bal, 2 
brings this "spell" to an end. 

The action of "</*", being attributed to "hand" and "foot", must be something which 
both members can do. The best translation of gi seems to be "to raise, to lift up, to ele- 
vate". In this sense we find shu. . .gi-gi in Eim-Sin, Kanephore B, II : 11, "a kingship 
which gladdens the heart, a reign of graciousness, may d KAL(Lama) shu-a-gi-gi 3 the protect- 
ing deity by intercession (lit. by lifting up of hands) before (ki-ta) An and Ishtar for them 
(i. e., Kudur-Mabuk and Rim- Sin) implore". A variant of shu-gi is shu-gi, 1 see no. 3 : 6, 40. 
fi-babbar d Vtu-ra an-shu shu-ni ba-ni-in-gi 

"In the temple fi-babbar of Shamash towards heaven her hands she ( d Be-li-li) 

raised" (sc. saying: here enumerating 
her attributes). 
On the basis of the above-given explanations, I venture to suggest the following trans- 
lation of 

No. 1, col. II :3-22: 
3. gi-er-ra sha(b)-mu gi-er-ra edin-na na-mu-un-ma-al 

"Tn wailing'. For my 'beloved' for him I broke (break) out: 

in wailing towards (in) the 'desert', 

1 Cf. the expressions, occurring in no. 4: • 

Gu-sar = (amu sha qu, "to weave an evil spell around someone". Cf. IV R., 3 : 4-/5, and notice that gu-sar 
is a syn. of gu-sur: cf. d Gu-sur = Marduk as the Dumuzi around whom cords have been woven? 

Gu-ri, "to cast (rarwO,) into cords", "to afflict with an evil spell". 

Gu-shir-shir {NU-NU) = (amU sha qu; cf. IV R., 5 : 33/5, c, and gu-sar, above. See also d Gu-shir-ra, above, 
p. 51, note 2. 

Gu-tab-ba — esepu sha q4, "to weave double cords", "to double the cords". 

Gu-si-si = zurrubu sha qu, "to weave an ensnaring, crushing, oppressing, tight cord". Notice also that zur- 
rubu = sar, lab, see above. 

Gu-tag-tag = shullutu sha qu, "to sever the cord". Cf. IV J?., 17 : 17, 6, where Shamash (!) is called the mu- 
shal-li-tum qi-e lum-ni, "who severs the cords woven by the wicked". 

Gu-IL-IL(-na), "to remove (nashU) the cords". 

2 For bal-bal = shipfu, "exorcism, charm" cf. no. 12 : 21, 22, 

21 garza-bi am-ba-da-an-kur bal-bi ba-kur-kur 

22 S-zi-da bal-bi bal-kur-ra shu-bal-AG-a-bi, with the duplicate passage in R. H., 
p. 60, Rev., 16ff. (= Schollmeyer, M. V. A. G., XIII (1908), p. 6): 

16 [garza-bi] am-ba(\)-da-kur(\) bal-\biV]a-da-kiir-ri 

17 [pil-lu]-du-shu u-par-ri-[ik] ship-tu(\)-shu it-te-ki-ir 

18 E-zi-di bal-bi ba(\)-da-kur-ri shu-bal-ba-ab-shi-in-AG 

19 sha bit ki-ni ship-[tu\ uyshap-[ri-ik~\ nak-ri ush-te-pi-li 

"Its (the temple's) ordinances he (the enemy) has its formulas of exorcism he has changed; 

"The exorcisms of the true temple he has changed, like evil (hostile) ones he has suppressed". 

3 To be distinguished from shu-na. . .gi-gi, "to return something to". 

4 Cf. also the mul Shu-gi d En-lil sha Nibru^, Pinches, E. N., XI : 1, 2, which consequently may be the star 
of the "old one" or of the "intercession (intercessor)". 



4. kur-[g]ul-gul Ga-sha-an-E-an-na men 

"(I), the 'destroyer of the "mountain"', the 'mistress of E-an-na\ I; 

5. am[a] u-mu-un-na Ga-sha-an-sun-na men 
"(I), the 'mother of the "lord"', the 'beautiful lady', I; 

6. [E]-kal-an-na Mu(sh)-tin-an-na men 
"(I), of the 'house of the "youthful one the 'maiden of An', I. 

of An'", 

7. sha(b)-mu gi-er-ra edin-na 
"For my 'beloved' in wailing 

towards (in) the 'desert', 

8. [k]i-[k]al-a-ka 

"For the 'place of the youthful one' 

9. [ki- d Du]mu-zi-da-ka 

"For the 'place of Dumuzi' 
10. A-ra-li 

"For the 'Arab', 

11. sha(b)-mu gi-er-ra edin-na 
"For my 'beloved' in wailing 

towards (in) the 'desert', 

12. ki-karash{1 kal1)-a 

"For the 'place of the "beautiful 
one far away'", 

13. ki-d-ld-a 

"For the 'place of him who is 
without strength', 

14. ki-shu-e 

"For the 'bridal-chamber' 

15. sha(b)-mu gi-er-ra edin-na 
"For my 'beloved' in wailing 

towards (in) the 'desert', 

16. eshemen (KI-E-NE) 
"For the 'place of joys' 


for him I broke (break) out: 


(in wailing) I break out, 

(in wailing) I break out, 

the 'shepherd( ?)-hill (sc. in wailing I 
break out). 


for him I broke (break) out: 


for the 'smitten one' (sc. in wailing 
I break out), 
d Dumu-zi-da-shu 
for Dumuzi (sc. in wailing, etc.), 

sil ba-an-si-em-md-sh[u] 

which the 'lamb' has prepared (sc. in 
wailing, etc.). 

(sc. na-mu-ma-al) 

(sc. for him I broke (break) out): 

mash ba-an-si-em-md-shu 

which the 'kid' has prepared (sc. in wai- 
ling I break out), 



17. ki-tush dim-me-ir-bi 

"For the 'habitation whose god 

18. [.]-e-damal-mu ki-mushen-mu 

"For my extended..., the 'place of 
my maidens', 

mu-lu bad-du-[shu] 

is "the one far away'" (sc. in wailing, etc.), 

which the enemy has set upside down 
(sc. in wailing, etc.). 

19. sha(b)-mu gi-er-ra edin-na 
"For my 'beloved' in wailing 

towards (in) the 'desert', 

20. shu gish-shub-ba-ni 
"For him who his fettered hands 

21. me-ri gish-shub-ba-ni 
"For him who his fettered feet 

22. edin-e ba(l)-te(l). . . 

"For him whom the 'desert' has 

[Rest broken away.] 

na-mu (sc.-ma-al) 

for him (sc. I broke (break) out): 


can not raise (sc. in wailing, etc.), 

can not lift up (sc. in wailing, etc.), 



C. B. M., Catalogue of the Babylonian Museum, University of Pennsylvania, prepared by Professor 
H. V. Hilprecht; cf., confer; col(s).. column(s); Exp., Expedition; f., following page; ff., following pages; 
fragm(s).. fragment(s); H. A. V., Hilprecht Anniversary Volume; inscr.. inscription; 1., line; II., lines; 
L. E., Left Edge; Lo. E-, Lower Edge; Manch., Pinches, The Hymns to Tammuz in the Manchester Museum, 
Owens College; no(s)., number(s); O., obverse; p., page; PI(s)., Plate(s); pp., pages; R., reverse; R. E., Right 
Edge; R. H., Reisner, Sumerisch- Babylonische Hymnen; S. K., Zimmern, Sumerische Kultlieder aus altbaby- 
lonischer Zeit; U. E., Upper Edge; vol(s)., volume(s). 

Measurements are given in centimeters, width xlenght (height) x thickness. Whenever the tablet (or 
fragment) varies in size, the largest measurement is given. 

A. Autograph Reproductions. 

Text. Plate. C.B. M. Description. 

1 1,2 11393 Middle part of larger, half baked clay tablet. O. darker, with occasional 

black spots, R. lighter. Cracked and glued together. With the exception 
of those 11. which include the colophons, or which indicate the begin- 
ning of a new hymn, this tablet is not ruled. End of col. IV not inscribed. 
2 cols, on O. and 2 on R. 12 2 X 12 X 3. Inscription, 22 (col. I) + 23 
(col. II) + 22 (col. Ill) + 3 (col. IV) = 70 11. "Tablet Hill", I Exp. 
For translation of col. II : 3 — 22, see above, pp. 60ff. 

2 3,4 3656 Lower part of baked tablet. O. light, R. darker, both with occasional black 

spots. Cracked, glued together. Ruled, double I. at end of R., followed 
on Lo. E. by a numeral indicating the number of 11. On L. E. inscrip- 
tion in 4 cols., with number of 11. in col. IV. 7 5 X ll 6 X 3. Inscription, 
25(0.) + 1 (Lo. E.) + 27 (R.) + 3 (L. E., col. I) + 2 (col. II) + 1 (col. Ill) 
+ 1 (col. IV) = 60 11. Originally, however, this tablet contained 37 11. 
on O. + 38 11. on R. = 75 11. Numbering of 11. according to the ori- 
ginal number of 11. "Tablet Hill", II Exp. This tablet contains two 
separate hymns. O. has a hymn in form of a dialogue between Ishtar 
(Ga-sha-an-tin-dib-ba) and Dumuzi ( d Da-mu, tu-mu U-mu-un-mu(sh)- 
zi-da), see above, p. 45. R. contains a hymn in which Ishtar (under her 
several names) bewails her various temples. For her names and those 
of her temples cf. R.H., p. 88, Obv.; p. 89, Rev.; p. 93, Obv.; p. 94, Ob v., 
etc. ; and for 1. 75, see above, p. 45, note 4. 

3 5,6 2358 Greatly mutilated, baked tablet. Nearly all signs are either chipped off 

or withered away. Ruled. Lower part of R. not inscribed. 7 s X 13 X 3 3 . 
Inscription, 30 (0.) + 26 (R.) = 56 11. "Tablet Hill", I Exp. Photo- 
graphic reproduction, pis. I, II, nos. 1, 2. Hymn of d Be-li-li, the sister 
of Dumuzi. The mu in gir-mu, 1. 17, is clearly visible, but it has been 
corrected by the scribe to ni, cf. 1. 51. Ll. 4 — 17 = 38 — 51. 



Text. Plate. C.B.M. Description. 

4 7,8 10465 Baked clay tablet, ruled, cracked. O. darker, with occasional black spots, 

R. lighter. Last 1. of R. separated from the rest by a double line. Lower 
part of R. not inscribed. 7 4 X 13 8 X 3. Inscription, 32 (0.) + 23 (R.) 
= 55 11. "Tablet Hill", II Exp. Photographic reproduction, pis. Ill, 
IV, nos. 3, 4. At the R. E., opposite 1. 1 of 0., we find the signs Yffi ^^r, 
which in all probability have to be read shu(g)-gi ( = nazdzu), "to put 
up", indicating that this tablet was "deposited" or "put up" in the temple 
of Nippur. According to the subscription, this tablet purports to contain 
"the exorcisms, charms of Ishtar", bal-bal-e ''Innanna-kam. For bal = 
shiptu, see above, p. 60, note 2; cf. also 1. 1, bal-e. Though somewhat 
mutilated, the inscription of this tablet is capable of being restored in 
its entirety. The inscription consists of an introduction, the subject matter 
proper, based upon the expressions mentioned above, p. 60, note 1, and 
a conclusion with a subscription. LI. Iff. ought to be restored as follows: 
bal-e ml egi(SAL-KU)-el-ni na-mu-e 
d Utu ,al egi(8AL-KU)-el-ni na-mu-e 
in-nin gu-sar-ra H I-LI(shar-gub) giir-ru, etc. 
"'Exorcism!' To his glorious princess (sister), to her he spoke, 
"Shamash, to his glorious princess (sister), to her he spoke: 
'"Mistress, 'weaver of cords', full of (radiant with) grace", etc. 

LI. 46—48 are especially important, seeing that they furnish some new 
names for Dumuzi, viz. : 

Ku-li d En-lil-ld, "friend of Enlil"; cf. Pinches, Manch. V : 12/3, where 
Dumuzi appears as the U-mu-un gu-li A-na, "lord, friend of An", and as 
the Gu-li d Mu-ul-lil, "friend of Enlil"; 

Shd-zi-la- l-a, 1. 47, which is given in Manch.V: 14, as Sha( \)-zi-da-e( \)-a, 
"he who goes out of (». e., is born by) the pure heart («c. of An)", cf. the 
sub-ba d Dumu-zi-di shd-azag-ga-na An-nim of C. T., XV, 28:6 =29:6 
(here parallel with u-mu-un ibi-la of 11. 7, 14/5, for which see above, 
p. 27, note 9;) 

A-bara{g)-ga-ri-a appears in Manch. V : 15, as S-pa-ra-ga-ri-a = sha 
rihut parakki (sharri) rihu, "he who is born by the seed of him who inhabits 
a palace", i. e., "the son of a king", "the prince". For this interchange of 
a, e, t, see above, p. 57, note 5. 

5 9 11326 Middle lower part of an originally large tablet, having at least 3 cols, on O. 

and R. O. lighter, R. darker, with occasional black spots. Baked, ruled. 
Tablet has Professor Harper's registration mark: Ni. 30 — 2 — 19 — 89. 
12 X 8 X 3 8 . Inscription, 9 (0., col. I) + 12 (O., col. II) + 4 (O., col. Ill) 
+ 3 (R., col. I) + 13 (R., col. II) + 9 (R., col. Ill) = 50 11. "Tablet Hill", 
I Exp. Very important tablet on account of its syllabic writing. O. con- 
tains Ishtar's complaint over the destruction of her cities and temples, 
cf. O., col. II : ff., -u-ru-mu i-me a [u-ru-mu i-me], E(\)-zi ba-gu-ul-gu-ul, 
etc. For 0., col. II: 7 ff., see above, p. 35, note 2. In R., col. II, Ishtar 
bewails Dumuzi, her husband, who "lives (dwells) no more" (nu-(»-t7). 

6 10,11 11330 Upper left hand part of a larger tablet, having originally at least 2 cols. 

on O. and R. Brown, baked, ruled. Script somewhat mutilated. At end 
of R., col. IV, a double line. 7 X 10 X 3 3 . Inscription, 16 (O., col. I) + 
9 (O., col. II) + 12 (R., col. III)+14 (R., col. IV) = 51 11. "Tablet Hill", 
I Exp. Photographic reproduction in H. A. V., pi. XV, nos. 21, 22. For 
translation of O., col. 1 : 1 — 14, see above pp. 35ff. 

7 12 10084 Upper left hand part of an originally rather large tablet, with at least 2 — 3 

cols, on O. and R. Light brown, ruled, half baked. Script small and 
somewhat effaced. At end of R., col. I, a double line. Last col. of R. not 
inscribed. 5 s X 6 8 X 2 5 . Inscription, 17 (O., col. I) + 5 (O., col. II) + 


Text. Plate. C.B.M. Desceiption. 

15 (R.) = 37 11. "Tablet Hill", II Exp. Photographic reproduction in 
H. A. V., pi. I, nos. 3, 4. For translation of O., col. 1 : 1 — 6, see above, p. 35. 

8 13,14 11328 Lower right hand part of an originally rather large tablet consisting of 

3 cols, on 0. and R. 0. light, R. dark, with occasional black spots. Cracked. 
End of 11. on O. and R., col. IV, broken away. Ruled, heavy 11. mark 
off the end and beginning of the several hymns. II 5 X 10 X 4. Inscrip- 
tion, 17 (0., col. II) -f 15 (O., col. Ill) + 17 (R., col. IV) + 20 (R., col. V) 
-f 5 (R., col. VI) - 74 11. "Tablet Hill", I Exp. Ishtar in the netheworld 
demanding of the gate-opener admission to the S-kur. The contents of 
this tablet are similar to R. H., pp. 75ff. (no. 43); pp. 77ff. (no. 44); cf., 
e. g„ col. V : 3ff. with R. H., p. 75 : 13ff. To the same series of texts be- 
long also C.B.M. 2214 + 2284, which begin with ni-du t-[gal-lu . . .], 
d KAL-KAL t-gdl-[lu...\ cf. col. V : 9, 10. Unfortunately I was not 
able to copy these two tablets, yet with the help of a transcription hastily 
made, I am able to restore R. H., p. 76 almost completely. If time per- 
mits, I may publish in the near future a translation of this group of tablets. 

9 15,16 11151 Half baked clay tablet, crumbling, cracked, glued together, greatly muti- 

lated. Light, ruled. 2 cols, on O. and R. Double line at end of R. col. IV, 
the lower part of which is not inscribed. Tablet has Professor Harper's 
registration mark: Ni. 22—2—16 (or 10)— 89. 9 X 16 X 3 3 . Inscription, 
29 (O., col. I) + 25 (O., col. II) + 25 (R., col. Ill) + 17 (R., col. IV) = 
95 11. "Tablet Hill", I Exp. Photographic reproduction, pis. V, VI, nos. 
5, 6. lahtar-^Nin-si-an-na bewails in the two hymns of this tablet the 
destruction of her temples and harems and the absence of her husband 
Dumuzi. Notice the peculiar writing in col. Ill : 8, mu(sh)-ka-na-7-bi 
na-mu-un-ma-al, followed by mu(sh)-du-ru azag shu-a na-mu-un-m[a-al]. 
For col. II : 18ff., see above, p. 42. 

10 17 2227 Upper part of baked tablet, ruled. O. darker, R. lighter. L. at end of R., 

the lower part of which is not inscribed. 7 6 X 5 8 X 3 2 . Inscription, 
11 (0.) + 3(R.) = 14 11. "Tablet Hill", I Exp. Photographic reproduction, 
pi. VII, nos. 7, 8. Ishtar bewails the miserable condition and solitude of 
her houses, temples and harems. 

11 18 10085 Middle part, so it seems, of an unfinished hymn. Light brown, ruled. Lower 

part of col. I, the whole of col. II and all of R. not inscribed. 7 6 X ll 8 X 3. 
Inscription, 7 II. "Tablet Hill", II Exp. Ishtar bewails her and Dumuzi's 
utter destruction (gil-li-em). 

12 19 475 Kh. Collection. Upper left hand part of an originally very large tablet, con- 

taining at least 2 cols, on O. Baked, ruled, cracked. Terra cotta. R. not 
inscribed. Script large and clear. 9 3 X 15 5 X 4 5 . Inscription, 29 (O., 
col. I) + 21 (O., col. II) = 50 II. Photographic reproduction, pi. VIII, 
no. 9. This tablet contains a duplicate inscription of the so-called "lament 
of 'the daughter of Sin'", published by Pinches in P. S. B. A., Febr., 1895: 
K. 41, col. 1 : 3—15 = R. H., p. 60, Obv., 7— Rev., 21. That this tablet 
really does belong to the series of the "Sumerian lenten hymns" is evident 
from the occurrence of the names of Dumuzi: Ama-ushumgal-an-na and 
[U]-mu-un A-ra-[li], 11. 28/9. For 11. 2ff. see p. 43, and for 11. 21/2, above, 
p. 60, note 2. Notice also the remarkable Semitic liturgical note in 1. 24 
and cf. above, p. 16. 

13 20 1781 Kh. Collection. Lower right hand part of an originally rather large tablet, 

with at least 2 cols, on O. and R. Half baked, dark, crumbling, glued 
together, ruled. The several hymns are marked off either by a single line 
with numeral giving number of II., or by a double line. Script clear. 2 8 X 6 
X 10. Inscription, 15 (O.) + 17 (R.) = 32 11. Photographic reproduction, 
pi. IX, nos. 10, 11. Ishtar bewails Dumuzi. 




See text 
















B. Photographic (Halftone) Keproductions. 

O. and R. a hymn in which d Be-li-li, the sister of Dumuzi, 

bewails the miserable fate brought upon her by the wicked 


O. and R. of tablet containing exorcisms or charms of Ishtar. 

O. and R. of tablet containing two hymns in which Ishtar- <i A T tn- 

si-an-na bewails the destruction of her temples and harems 

and the absence of her husband and son Dumuzi. 

7,8 VII 10 2227 O. and R. of tablet containing hymn in which Ishtar bewails 

the miserable condition and solitude of her several houses, 
temples and harems. 
9 VIII 12 475 Ishtar bewails the solitude, desolation and destruction of her 

temples. (Kh. Collection). 
10,11 IX 13 1781 O. and R. of tablet containing hymn in which Ishtar bewails 

her beloved Dumuzi. (Kh. Collection). 

C. Numbers of the Catalogue of the Babylonian Museum. 
(Prepared by Professor H. V. Hilprecht.) 




C. B. M. 


















































Col. I 

Col. II. 





PI. 2 


Col. IV. 

Col. III. 

PI. 3 

Lo. E. 

PI 4 


PI. 5 





PI. 6 

PL 7 






PL. 8 







PI. 9 




PI. 10 




Col. I. 

Col. II. 


PI. 11 

PL 12 








PL is 

Col. I 

Col. II. 

Col. III. 





pi. n 

Col. VI. 

Col. V. 

Col. IV. 



PL 15 



Col. I. 

Col. II. 


PI. 16 

Col. IV. 

Col. III. 



PL 17 



Bft^adffi m 




PL 18 


PI. 19 





PI. 20 




Obverse of Autograph Text No. 3 

Belili, the sister of Du.mu.zi, wails over the fate 

brought upon her by the wicked enemy 



Reverse of Autograph Text No. 3 

Belili, the sister of Dumuzi, wails over the fate 

brought upon her by the wicked enemy 


Obverse of Autograph Text No. 4 
The "charms" wrought by Innanna-lshtar 


Reverse of Autograph Text No. 4 
The "charms" wrought by Innanna-hhlar 


Obverse of Autograph Text No. 9 
Innanna-Ishtar bewails Dutnuzi, her absent husband and son 


Reverse of Autograph Text No. 9 
Innanna-Ishtar bewails Dumuzi, her absent husband and son 



Obverse. (7) and Reverse (8) of Autograph Text No. 10 

Innanna-Ishtar bewails, on account of the absence of her beloved, 

the solitude of her houses, temples and harems 


Obverse of Autograph Text No. 12 

Innanna-lshtar bewails the solitude and desolation of her temples 

From the Kh. Collection 

Duplicate of R. H., p. 60:7 ff and K. 41, col, 1:3 ff 






■■> : ,.,pr .id 



Obverse (10) and Reverse (11) of Autograph Text No. 13 

Innanna-Ishtar bewails the absence of her beloved, Dumuzi 

From the Kh. Collection 





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Vol IX: Business Documents of Murashu Sons of Nippur, dated in the Reign of Artaxerxes I, by H. V. Hil- 
precht and A. T. Clay, 1898, $6.00. ' . ' .„, 
Vol. Xt Business Documents of Murashu Sons of Nippur, dated in the Reign of Darius II, by A. T. Clay, 

Vol. XIV^'Doluments from the Temple Archives of Nippur, dated in the Reigns of Cassite Rulers, with com- 

Vol XV^Vocumenfsfrom th^mpkf ArfhiTes of Nippur, dated in the Reigns of Cassite Rulers, with incom- 

plete dates, by A. T. Clay, 1906, $6.00 
Vol XVII- Letters to Cassite Kings from the Temple Archives of Nippur. 

Part 1, by Hugo Radau, 1908, $6.00. . ^ 

Vol. XIX: Model Texts and Exercises from the Temple School of Nippur. 

Part 1. bv H. V. Hilprecht (in press). .... . „, 

Vol XX- Mathematical, Metrological and Chronological Texts from the Temple Library of Nippur. 

Part 1, by H. V. Hilprecht, 1906, $5.00. 
Vol XXVII: Title not yet determined. By Hugo Radau (in press). 
Vol! XXVIII: Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to Ood Enlil from the Temple Library of Nippur. 

Part 1, by Hugo Radau, (in press). .... , »,. 

Vol. XXIX: Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to Ood NIN-IB from the Temple Library of Nippur. 

Part 1, by Hugo Radau, 1911, $3.00. 
Vol XXX- Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to God Dumu-zi from the Temple Library of Nippur. 

Part 1, by Hugo Radau, 1913, $3.00. 
Vol. XXXI: Historical and Religious Texts from the Temple Library of Nippur. 

Part 1, by Stephen Herbert Langdon (in press). 

Series D, Researches and Treatises: 

Vol. I: The Excavations in Assyria and Babylonia (with 120 illustrations and 2 maps), by H. V. Hilprecht, 7th 

NOTE ^An entol/^vised German edition is in the course of preparation. The first part (bis zumAuftreten 
DeSarzecs) appeared in December, 1904 (J. C. Hinrichs, Leipzig). Price 4 Mark in paper covers, 5 Mark 

Vol. Hfc °Eari'y Babylonian Personal Names from the published Tablets of the so-called Hammurabi Dynasty, by 

Vol IK A N n ew'Boun 5 dary 3 Stone of Nebuchadrezzar I from Nippur (with 16 halftone illustrations and 36 drawings), 

by William J. Hinke, 1907, $2.00. 
Vol V: Fragments of Epical Literature from the Temple Library of Nippur. v -„™r K« 

Fasciculus 1, The Earliest Version of the Babylonian Deluge Story and the Temple Library of Nippur, by 

NOTE : \Se?akd 19 colideiw amplified German edition appeared in Aug ust, 1910. 1 1t bean the title: 
Der neue Fundzur SintfhitgescMchte aus der Tempelbibhothek von Nippur (J. C. Hmnchs, Leipzig). ITice 

FasLSW NIN-IB, the Determiner of Fates, according to the great Sumerian Epic, "Lugale ug melambi 
nergal", by Hugo Radau, 1910, $1.00. 


Orders for these books may be addressed to 

Rudolf Merkel, Erlangen, Germany.