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SAPPHO 



SAPPHO 

MEMOIR, TEXT, SELECTED 
RENDERINGS AND A LITERAL 
TRANSLATION BY HENRY 
THORNTON WHARTON 



NEW YORK 

JOHN LANE COMPANY 

LONDON: JOHN LANE 

MCMVII. 



STACK 
ANNEX 



?A 



HOT- 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION 

I WOULD fain have enriched this edition of my 
Sappho with some new words of the poetess, if 
only even to the slight extent which I reached in 
1887 ; but, to the world's sorrow, that pleasure 
has been denied me. Still, we need not yet give 
up all hope, after the unexpected discovery of 
the unknown Mimiambi of Herondas, on a 
papyrus-roll used to stuff an Egyptian mummy- 
case, so few years ago (cf. The Academy ', Oct. 1 1 , 
1890). 

Neverthless, I can now present to the lovers 
of Sappho a good deal more than was heretofore 
in my power ; in a new form, it is true, but with 
the same beautiful Greek type. And with this 
third edition I am enabled to give a reproduc- 
tion, in photogravure, of the charming picture 
of Mitylene by the late Mr. Clarkson Stan- 
field, R.A., for which I am primarily indebted 
to Dr. R. Garnett, of the British Museum. 

Since it was my privilege, if I may say so 
without arrogance, to introduce Sappho to 



VI PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION 

English readers in the year 1885, in a form 
which they could understand, whether they 
knew any Greek or none, and in the entirety 
of every known word of hers, there has arisen 
a mass of literature upon the subject of the 
greatest lyrist of all time. To enumerate the 
pictures that have been painted, the articles 
and books and plays that have been written, 
which have appealed to the public in the last 
ten years, would be an almost impossible task. 
In my Bibliography I have endeavoured to 
give a reference to all that is of prominent and 
permanent interest, ranging from ' the postman 
poet,' Mr. Hosken, to the felicitous paraphrases 
some fractions of which I have taken the 
liberty to quote in the text of ' Michael Field ' 
in her Long Ago. 

The translation of the Hymn to Aphrodite, 
which was made for me by the late J. Addington 
Symonds, now appears in the amended form in 
which he finally printed it. Professor Palgrave 
has kindly allowed me to include some versions 
of his, made many years ago. The late Sir 
R. F. Burton made a metrical translation of 
Catullus, which has recently been published, 
and I am grateful to Lady Burton for allowing 
me to reprint his version of the Roman poet's 
Ode to Lesbia. 

The only critical edition of the text of 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION vii 

Sappho since that of Bergk the text which I 
adopt has been made by Mr. G. S. Farnell, 
headmaster of the Victoria College, Jersey ; 
from which I have had considerable assistance. 
As regards erudite scholarship, the investiga- 
tions of Professor Luniak, of the Kazan Uni- 
versity, deserve more attention than it is within 
the scope of my book to give them. I reviewed 
his essay in some detail in The Academy for 
July 19, 1890, p. 53. The criticisms upon it 
by Professor Naguiewski, in his disputation 
for the doctorate two years later, go far to prove 
that my appreciation of Sappho's character 
cannot be easily shaken. That rapturous frag- 
ment of Sophocles 

*fi Geot, rlq 5pa Kuirpig, H TU; 
roG6e 



(O gods, what love, what yearning, contributed 
to this f) still remains to me the keynote of 
what Sappho has been through all the ages. 

HENRY T. WHARTON. 



'MADRESFIKLD,' ACOL ROAD, 

WEST HAMPSTEAD, LONDON, N.W., 
April 1895. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

THE cordial reception which the first edition 
of my little book met with has encouraged me 
to make many improvements in this re-issue. 
Unforeseen delays in its production have also 
helped me to advance upon my first essay. 
Among other changes, I have been able to 
obtain a new fount of Greek type, which has 
to me a peculiar beauty. Unfamiliar though 
some of the letters may appear at first sight, 
they reproduce the calligraphy of the manu- 
scripts of the most artistic period of the 
Middle Ages. This type has been specially 
cast in Berlin, by favour of the Imperial Go- 
vernment. In a larger size it is not unknown 
to English scholars, but such as I am now en- 
abled to present has never been used before. 

Last spring a telegram from the Vienna 
correspondent of the Times announced that 



yiii 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION IX 

some new verses of Sappho had been found 
among the Fayum papyri in the possession of 
the Archduke Rdnier. When the paper on 
his Imperial Highness' papyri was read before 
the Imperial Academy of Science by Dr. 
Wilhelm Ritter von Hartel on the loth of 
March, it became evident that the remark was 
made, not in allusion to the Archduke's pos- 
sessions, but to that portion of the Fayum 
manuscripts which had been acquired by the 
Imperial Museum in Berlin. The verses re- 
ferred to were indeed no other than the two 
fragments which had been deciphered and 
criticised by the celebrated scholar, Dr. F. 
Blass, of Kiel, in the Rheinisches Museum for 
1880 ; and further edited by Bergk in the post- 
humous edition of his Poetae Lyrici Graeci. I 
am now able, not only to print the text of these 
fragments and a translation of them, but also, 
through the courtesy of the Imperial Govern- 
ment of Germany, to give an exact reproduc- 
tion of photographs of the actual scraps of 
parchment on which they were written a thou- 
sand years ago. Dr. Erman, the Director of 
the Imperial Egyptian Museum, kindly fur- 
nished me with the photographs ; and the 
Autotype Company has copied them with its 
well-known fidelity. 
Among many other additions, that which I 



X PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

have been able to make to fragment 100 is. 
particularly interesting. The untimely death 
of the young French scholar, M. Charles Graux, 
who found the quotation among the dry dust of 
Choricius' rhetorical orations, is indeed to be 
deplored. Had he lived longer he might have 
cleared up for us many another obscure passage 
in the course of his studies of manuscripts 
which have not hitherto found an editor. 

The publication of the memoir on Naukratis 
by the Committee of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund last autumn is an event worthy of notice, 
the town having been so intimately connected 
with Sappho's story. On one of the pieces of 
pottery found at Naucratis by Mr. Petrie occur 
the inscribed letters ZA4> (pi. xxxiv., fig. 532), 
which some at first thought might refer to 
Sappho ; but the more probable restoration is 
eijq 'A9[po6iTHv, ' to Aphrodite.' 

Since the issue of my first edition, M. De 
Vries has published, at Leyden, an exhaustive 
dissertation upon Ovid's Epistle, Sappho to 
Phaon, which has caused me to modify some of 
my conclusions regarding it. Although Ovid's 
authorship of this Epistle seems to me now to 
be sufficiently vindicated, I still remain con- 
vinced that we are not justified in taking the 
statements in it as historically accurate. 

It is curious also that a candidate for the 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION XI 

degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of Erlangen offered, as his inaugural disser- 
tation, in 1885, an account of 'Sappho the 
Mitylenean.' The author, Joacheim I. Pauli- 
dos, is a native of Lesbos. It is a pamphlet of 
sixty pages, written, not in modern, but in 
classical Greek. His opening sentence, Mia nai 
WOVH qivero Zan<pu> 'Sappho stands alone and 
unique,' comes near the meaning, but misses 
the polish of the phrase gives his dominant 
tone; his acceptance of her character greatly 
resembles mine. 

Since the years now and then bring to light 
some fresh verses of Sappho's, there is a faint 
hope that more may still be found. The rich 
store of parchments and papyri discovered in 
the Fayum has not all been examined yet. 
Indeed, among a few of these which were lost in 
the custom-house at Alexandria in 1881-2, M. 
Maspero, the renowned Director of Explora- 
tions in Egypt, thought he had detected the 
perfume of Sappho's art. 

It is pleasing to see (cf. fragment 95) that 
our own Poet Laureate has again recurred, in 
his latest volume of poems, to a phrase from 
Sappho which he had first used nearly sixty 
years ago ; and that he calls her ' the poet,' 
implying her supremacy by the absence of 
any added epithet. 



XII PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

I am indebted to many kind friends and dis- 
tinguished scholars for much assistance. Among 
them I must especially thank Professor Blass, of 
Kiel. Notwithstanding the frequent recurrence 
of his name on my pages, I owe more to his 
cordial help and criticism than I can acknow- 
ledge here. 

Little more than I have given is needed to 
prove how transcendent an artist Sappho was ; 
but I cannot forbear concluding with an ex- 
tract from a recent essay on poetry by Mr. 
Theodore Watts -Dunton : 

' Never before these songs were sung, and 
never since, did the human soul, in the grip of 
a fiery passion, utter a cry like hers ; and, from 
the executive point of view, in directness, in 
lucidity, in that high imperious verbal economy 
which only Nature can teach the artist, she has 
no equal, and none worthy to take the place of 
second.' 

HENRY T. WHARTON. 



39 ST. GEORGE'S ROAD, 

KILBURN, LONDON, N.W., 

April 1887. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

SAPPHO, the Greek poetess whom more than 
eighty generations have been obliged to hold 
without a peer, has never, in the entirety of her 
works, been brought within the reach of Eng- 
lish readers. The key to her wondrous repu- 
tation which would, perhaps, be still greater 
if it had ever been challenged has hitherto 
lain hidden in other languages than ours. As 
a name, as a figure pre-eminent in literary his- 
tory, she has indeed never been overlooked. 
But the English-reading world has come to 
think, and to be content with thinking, that no 
verse of hers survives save those two hymns 
which Addison, in the Spectator, has made 
famous by his panegyric, not by Ambrose 
Philips' translation. 

My aim in the present work is to familiarise 
English readers, whether they understand Greek 
or not, with every word of Sappho, by translat- 
ing all the one hundred and seventy fragments 

xiii 



XIV PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

that her latest German editor thinks may be 
ascribed to her : 

Love's priestess, mad with pain and joy of song, 
Song's priestess, mad with joy and pain of love. 

SWINBURNE. 

I have contented myself with a literal English 
prose translation, for Sappho is, perhaps above 
all other poets, untranslatable. The very diffi- 
culties in the way of translating her may be the 
reason why no Englishman has hitherto under- 
taken the task. Many of the fragments have 
been more or less successfully rendered into 
English verse, and such versions I have quoted 
whenever they rose above mediocrity, so far as 
I have been able to discover them. 

After an account of Sappho's life as complete 
as my materials have allowed, I have taken her 
fragments in order as they stand in Bergk, 
whose text I have almost invariably followed. 
I have given (i) the original fragment in Greek, 
(2) a literal version in English prose, distin- 
guished by italic type, (3) every English metri- 
cal translation that seems worthy of such 
apposition, and (4) a note of the writer by 
whom, and the circumstances under which, 
each fragment has been preserved. Too often 
a fragment is only a single word, but I have 
omitted nothing. 

It is curious to note how early in the history 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION XV 

of printing the literature of Sappho began. The 
British Museum contains a sort of commentary 
on Sappho which is dated 1475 m t ^ e Cata- 
logue ; this is but twenty years later than the 
famous ' Mazarin ' Bible, and only one year 
after the first book was printed in England. It 
is written in Latin by Georgius Alexandrinus 
Merula, and is of much interest, apart from its 
strange type and contractions of words. 

The first edition of any part of Sappho was 
that of the Hymn to Aphrodite, by H. Steph- 
anus, in his edition of Anacreon, 8vo, 1554. 
Subsequent editions of Anacreon contained 
other fragments attributed to her, including 
some that are now known to be by a later 
hand. Fulvius Ursinus wrote some comments 
on those then known in the Carmina Novem 
lllustrium Feminarum published at Antwerp, 
8vo, 1568. Is. Vossius gave an amended text 
of the two principal odes in his edition of 
Catullus, London, 4to, 1684. 

But the first separate edition of Sappho's 
works was that of Johann Christian Wolf, 
which was published in 4to at Hamburg in 
1733, and reprinted under an altered title two 
years later. Wolfs work is as exhaustive as was 
possible at his date. He gives a frontispiece 
figuring all the then known coins bearing refer- 
ence to the poetess ; a life of her written, like 



XVI* PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

the rest of the treatise, in Latin occupies 32 
pages ; a Latin translation of all the quotations 
from or references to her in the Greek classics, 
and all the Latin accounts of her, together with 
the annotations of most previous writers, and 
copious notes by himself, in 253 pages ; and 
the work is completed with elaborate indices. 

The next important critical edition of Sappho 
was that of Heinrich Friedrich Magnus Volger, 
pp. Ixviii., 195, 8vo, Leipzig, 1810. It was 
written on the old lines, and did not do much 
to advance the knowledge of her fragments. 
Volger added a ' musical scheme,' which seems 
more curious than useful, and of which it is 
hard to understand either the origin or the 
intention. 

But nothing written before 1816 really 
grasped the Sapphic question. In that year 
Welcker published his celebrated refutation of 
the long-current calumnies against Sappho, 
Sappho vindicated from a prevailing Prejudice. 
In his zeal to establish her character he may 
have been here and there led into extravagance, 
but it is certain that his searching criticism first 
made it possible to appreciate her true position. 
Nothing that has been written since has suc- 
ceeded in invalidating his main conclusions, 
despite all the onslaughts of Colonel Mure and 
those few who sympathised with him. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION xvil 

Consequently the next self-standing edition 
of Sappho, by Christian Friedrich Neue, pp. 
106, 4to, Berlin, 1827, embodying the results 
of the 'new departure,' was far in advance of 
its predecessors not in cumbrous elaboration, 
but in critical excellence. Neue's life of the 
poetess was written in the light of Welcker's 
researches ; his purification of the text was due 
to more accurate study of the ancient manu- 
scripts, assisted by the textual criticisms pub- 
lished by Bishop Blomfield the previous year 
in the Cambridge Museum Criticum. 

Since Neue's time much has been written 
about Sappho, for the most part in Latin or 
German. The final revision of the text, and 
collection of all that can now be possibly 
ascribed to her, was made by Theodor Bergk, 
in his Poetae Lyrici Graeci, pp. 82-140 of the 
third volume of the fourth edition, 8vo, Leip- 
zig, 1882, which I have here, with rare excep- 
tions, followed. 

There is a noteworthy dissertation on her life 
by Theodor Kock, Alkaos und Sappho, 8vo, 
Berlin, 1862, in which the arguments and con- 
clusions of Welcker are mainly endorsed, and 
elaborated with much mythological detail. 

Perhaps the fullest account of Sappho which 
has recently appeared is that by A. Fernandez 
Merino, a third edition of which was published 



xviii PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

at Madrid early last year. Written in Spanish, 
it discusses in an impartial spirit every question 
concerning Sappho, and is especially valuable 
for its copious references. 

Professor Domenico Comparetti, the cele- 
brated Florentine scholar, to whom I shall have 
occasion to refer hereafter, has recently done 
much to familiarise Italian readers with the 
chief points of Sapphic criticism. His enthusi- 
asm for her character and genius is all that can 
be desired, but his acceptance of Welcker's 
arguments is not so complete as mine. Where 
truth must lie between two extremes, and evi- 
dence on either side is so hard to collect and 
estimate, it is possible for differently constituted 
minds to reach very different conclusions. The 
motto at the back of my title-page is the guide 
I am most willing to follow. But, after all, to 
use the words of a friend whom I consulted on 
the subject, ' whether the pure think her emo- 
tion pure or impure; whether the impure 
appreciate it rightly, or misinterpret it; whether, 
finally, it was platonic or not ; seems to me to 
matter nothing.' Sappho's poetic eminence is 
independent of such considerations. To her, 

All thoughts, all passions, all delights, 
Whatever stirs this mortal frame, 

All are but ministers of Love, 
A nd feed his sacred flame. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION Xix 

Those who wish to learn more about Sappho 
than is here recorded will find a guide in the 
Bibliography which I have added at the end 
of the volume. My sole desire in these pages 
is to present ' the great poetess ' to English 
readers in a form from which they can judge 
of her excellence for themselves, so far as that 
is possible for those to whom Aeolic Greek is 
unfamiliar. Her more important fragments 
have been translated into German, French, 
Italian, and Spanish, as well as English ; but 
all previous complete editions of her works have 
been written solely by scholars for scholars. 
Now that, through the appreciation of Sappho 
by modern poets and painters, her name is 
becoming day by day more familiar, it seems 
time to show her as we know her to have been, 
to those who have neither leisure nor power to 
read her in the tongue in which she wrote. 

I have not concerned myself much with tex- 
tual criticism, for I do not arrogate any power 
of discernment greater than that possessed by 
a scholar like Bergk. Only those who realise 
what he has done to determine the text of 
Sappho can quite appreciate the value of his 
work. Where he is satisfied, I am content. 
He wrote for the learned few, and I only strive 
to popularise the result of such researches as 
his : to show, indeed, so far as I can, that 



XX PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

which centuries of scholarship have succeeded 
in accomplishing. 

The translations by Mr. John Addington 
Symonds, dated 1883, were all made especially 
for this work in the early part of that year, and 
have not been elsewhere published. My thanks 
are also due to Mr. Symonds for much valuable 
criticism. 

The medallion which forms the frontispiece 
has been engraved by my friend Mr. John 
Cother Webb, after the head of Sappho in the 
picture by Mr. L. Alma Tadema, R.A., ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1881, as 
'op. ccxxiii.,' and now in America. I trust 
that my readers will sympathise with me in 
cordial gratitude to both artist and engraver, 
to the one for his permission, to the other for 
his fidelity. 

HENRY T. WHARTON. 



39 ST. GEORGE S ROAD, 

KILBURN, LONDON, N.W. 

May 1885, 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 

SAPPHO, the one great woman poet of the world, 
who called herself Psappha in her own Aeolic 
dialect (in fragments i and 59), is said to have 
been at the zenith of her fame about the year 
6 10 B.C. 

During her lifetime Jeremiah first began to 
prophesy (628 B.C.), Daniel was carried away 
to Babylon (606 B.C.), Nebuchadnezzar besieged 
and captured Jerusalem (587 B.C.), Solon was 
legislating at Athens, and Tarquinius Priscus, 
the fifth king, is said to have been reigning 
over Rome. She lived before the birth of 
Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, the religion 
now professed by perhaps almost a third of the 
whole population of the globe. 

Two centuries have sufficed to obscure most 
of the events in the life of Shakspere; it can 
hardly be expected that the lapse of twenty-five 
centuries should have left many authentic 
records of the history of Sappho. Little even 
of that internal evidence, upon which bio- 
graphy may rely, can be gathered from her 
A 



2 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

extant poems, in such fragmentary form have 
they come down to us. Save for the quota- 
tions of grammarians and lexicographers, no 
word of hers would have survived. Yet her 
writings seem to have been preserved intact till 
at least the third century of our era, for 
Athenaeus, who wrote about that time, applies 
to himself the words of the Athenian comic 
poet Epicrates in his Anti-Lais (about 360 
B.C.), saying that he too 

Had learned by heart completely all the songs, 
Breathing of love, which sweetest Sappho sang. 

Scaliger says, although there does not seem 
to exist any confirmatory evidence, that the 
works of Sappho and other lyric poets were 
burnt at Constantinople and at Rome in the 
year 1073, in the popedom of Gregory vn. 
Cardan says the burning took place under 
Gregory Nazianzen, about 380 A.D. And 
Petrus Alcyonius relates that he heard when 
a boy that very many of the works of the 
Greek poets were burnt by order of the 
Byzantine emperors, and the poems of 
Gregory Nazianzen circulated in their stead. 
Bishop Blomfield (Mus. Crit. i. p. 422) thinks 
they must all have been destroyed at an early 
date, because neither Alcaeus nor Sappho was 
annotated by any of the later Grammarians. 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 3 

'Few indeed, but those, roses,' as the poet 
Meleager said, are the precious verses the zeal 
of anti-paganism has spared to us. 

Of Sappho's parents nothing is definitely 
known. Herodotus calls her father Scaman- 
dronymus ; and as he wrote within one hundred 
and fifty years of her death there is little 
reason to doubt his accuracy. But Suidas, 
who compiled a Greek lexicon in about the 
eleventh century A.D., gives us the choice of 
seven other names. Her mother's name was 
Cleis. The celebrated Epistle known as that 
of Sappho to Phaon, of which I subjoin a 
translation by Pope in the Appendix, and 
which is commonly ascribed to Ovid, 1 says 

1 Prof. Domenico Comparetti has lately (1876) pub- 
lished an essay on the authenticity of this Epistle and on 
its value in elucidating the history of Sappho. After 
minutely examining all the evidence against it, he con- 
cludes that it is the genuine work of Ovid. And in 
1885 De Vries brought out an elaborate dissertation on 
the same subject ; he proves, almost to a certainty, that 
Ovid wrote the Epistle in question. But the fact 
remains that it is absent from all the oldest and best 
MSS., and was only given its present place in Ovid's 
Heroic Epistles by Heinsius in 1629. Even if it be 
genuine, we may safely aver that in Ovid's day it was 
far more difficult to estimate Sappho's character rightly 
than it is now. The Romans, we can well believe, 
were likely to regard her in no other light than that in 
which she had been portrayed by the facile and un- 
scrupulous comedians of Athens. 



4 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

Sappho was only six years old ' when the 
bones of her parent, gathered up before their 
time, drank in her tears ' ; this is supposed to 
refer to her father, because in fr. 90 she speaks 
of her mother as still alive. 

She had two brothers, Charaxus and Lari- 
chus; Suidas indeed names a third, Eurygius, 
but nothing is known of him. 

Larichus was public cup-bearer at Mitylene, 
an office only held by youths of noble birth 
(ct. fr. 139), whence it is inferred that Sappho 
belonged to the wealthy aristocratic class. 

Charaxus was occupied in carrying the 
highly prized Lesbian wine to Naucratis 1 in 
Egypt, where he fell in love with a woman of 

1 The exact site of Naucr&tis was unknown until 
December 1884, when Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 
acting as agent for the Egypt Exploration Fund, dis- 
covered it at Nebireh, or rather close to El Gaief, a 
modem Arab village on the Rosetta mouth of the 
Nile, about forty miles from the present sea-coast. It 
is near the edge of the Delta, some six miles N.E. of 
Tel-el-Barftd, a railway station nearly midway between 
Alexandria and Cairo. Before Mr. Petrie's explorations, 
Naucratis had been sought for several miles nearer the 
sea than it actually lay, and its identification had been 
despaired of. For centuries it was the only city in Egypt 
in which the Greeks were permitted to settle and carry on 
commerce unmolested. lonians, Dorians, and Aeolians 
there united in a sort of Hanseatic league, with special re- 
presentatives and a common sanctuary, the Panhellenion- 



LIFE OF SAPPHO $ 

great beauty, Doricha or Rhodopis, and 
ransomed her from slavery for a great sum 
of money. Herodotus says she came originally 
from Thrace, and had once served ladmon of 
Samos, having been fellow-slave with Aesop 
the fabulist. Suidas says Charaxus married 
her, and had children by her ; but Herodotus 
only says that she was made free by him, and 
remained in Egypt, and 'being very lovely, 
acquired great riches for a person of her 
condition.' Out of a tenth part of her gains 
(cf. fr. 138) she furnished the temple of Apollo 
at Delphi with a number of iron spits for 
roasting oxen on. Athenaeus, however, blames 
Herodotus for having confused two different 
persons, saying that Charaxus married Doricha, 
while it was Rhodopis who sent the spits to 
Delphi. Certainly it appears clear that Sappho 
in her poem called her Doricha, but Rhodopis, 
'Rosy-cheek,' was probably the name by which 
she was known among her lovers, on account 
of her beauty. 

Another confusion respecting Rhodopis is 

which served as a tie among them. This rich colony 
remained in faithful connection with the mother-country, 
contributed to public works in Hellas, received poli- 
tical fugitives from that home as guests, and made life 
fair for them, as for its own children, after the Greek 
model. The women and the flower-garlands of Naucratis 
were unsurpassed in beauty. 



6 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

that in Greece she was believed to have built 
the third pyramid ; and Herodotus takes pains 
to show that such a work was far beyond the 
reach of her wealth, and was really due to 
kings of a much earlier date. Still the tale 
remained current, false as it undoubtedly was, 
at least till the time of Pliny (about 77 A.D.). 
It has been shown by Bunsen and others that 
it is probable that 

The Rhodope that built the pyramid 

was Nitocris, the beautiful Egyptian queen 
who was the heroine of so many legends; 
Mycerinus begaft the third pyramid, and 
Nitocris finished it. 

Strabo and Aelian relate a story of Rhodopis 
which recalls that of Cinderella. One day, 
they say, when Rhodopis was bathing at 
Naucratis, an eagle snatched up one of her 
sandals from the hands of her female attend- 
ants, and carried it to Memphis; the eagle, 
soaring over the head of the king (whom 
Aelian calls Psammetichus 1 ), who was adminis- 
tering justice at the time, let the sandal fall 
into his lap. The king, struck with the beauty 

1 Psammetichus flourished about 588 B.C. He was 
the Pharaoh -hophra mentioned by the prophet Jeremiah 
(xliv. 30), whose house in Tahpanhes has been recently 
discovered by Mr. Petrie. 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 7 

of the sandal and the singularity of the in- 
cident, sent over all Egypt to discover the 
woman to whom it belonged. The owner was 
found in the city of Naucratis and brought to 
the king ; he made her his queen, and at her 
death erected, so the story goes, this third 
pyramid in her honour. 

Suidas says Sappho 'married one Cercolas, 
a man of great wealth, who sailed from Andros, 
and,' he adds, 'she had a daughter by him, 
named Cleis.' In fr. 85 (cf. fr. 136) Sappho 
mentions this daughter Clais by name, and 
Ovid, in the Epistle already alluded to, also 
refers to her. But the existence of such a hus- 
band has been warmly disputed, and the name 
(Penifer) and that of his country ( Virllid) are 
conjectured to have been invented in ribaldry 
by the Comic poets ; certainly it was against 
the custom of the Greeks to amass wealth in 
one country and go to seek a wife in a distant 
island. Some authorities do not mention 
Andros, one of the islands of the Cyclades, 
but state that Sappho's family belonged to an 
Aeolian colony in the Troad. 

The age in which Sappho flourished is 
mainly determined by concurrent events. 
Athenaeus makes her contemporary with 
Alyattes the father of Croesus, who reigned 
over Lydia from 628 to 570 B.C. Eusebius 



8 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

mentions her in his Chronicle for the year 604 
B.C. Suidas says she lived about the 42nd 
Olympiad (612-609 B.C.), in the time of the 
poets Alcaeus, Stesichorus, and Pitt^cus. Her 
own verses in fr. 28 are said to have been 
written in answer to those of Alcaeus address- 
ing her 

' lorrAoK arva fieAAixojueioe Zancpoi, 
6eAa) TI FetTiHV, aAAa ne KwXuei cu&cor., 

'Violet-weaving, pure, soft-smiling Sappho, I 
want to say something, but shame deters me ' 
(cf. p. 24). Athenaeus says that HermesiSnax, 
in an elegy (cf. fr. 26), spoke of Sappho as 
beloved by Anacreon, and he quotes from the 
third book of some elegiac poetry by Herme- 
sianax, 'A Catalogue of things relating to 
Love,' these lines of his : 

And well thou knowest how famed Alcaeus smote 
Of his high harp the love-enlivened strings, 

And raised to Sappho's praise the enamoured note, 
'Midst noise of mirth and jocund revellings : 

Aye, he did love that nightingale of song 
With all a lover's fervour, and, as he 

Deftly attuned the lyre, to madness stung 
The Teian bard with envious jealousy. 

For her Anacreon, charming lyrist, wooed, 
And fain would win, with sweet mellifluous chime, 

Encircled by her Lesbian sisterhood ; 

Would often Samos leave, and many a time 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 9 

From vanquished Tecs' viny orchards hie 
To viny Lesbos' isle, and from the shore, 

O'er the blue wave, on Lectum cast his eye, 
And think on bygone days and times no more. 
(Translated by]. BAILEY.) 

Diphilus too, in his play Sappho, represented 
Archilochus and Hipponax as her lovers for 
a joke, as Athenaeus prudently remarks. 
Neither of these, however, was a contemporary 
of hers, and it seems quite certain that Ana- 
creon, who flourished fully fifty years later, 
never set eyes on Sappho (cf. fr. 26). 

How long she lived we cannot tell. The 
epithet repairepa, 'somewhat old,' which she 
applies to herself in fr. 75, may have been 
merely relative. The story about her brother 
Charaxus and Rhodopis would show she lived 
at least until 572 B.C., the year of the accession 
of Amasis, king of Egypt, under whose reign 
Herodotus says Rhodopis flourished ; but one 
can scarcely draw so strict an inference. If 
what Herodotus says is true, Sappho may have 
reached the age of fifty years. At any rate, 
'the father of history' is more worthy of 
credence than the scandal-mongers. An 
inscription on the famous Parian marbles, a 
system of chronology compiled, perhaps by a 
schoolmaster, in the third century B.C. (cf. p. 
17), says: 'When Aristocles reigned over the 



10 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

Athenians, Sappho fled from Mitylene and 
sailed to Sicily ' ; but the exact date is illegible, 
though it may be placed between 604 and 592 
B.C. It is hardly safe to refer to this Ovid's asser- 
tion that she went to Sicily in pursuit of Phaon. 

Balancing all the evidence, Fynes-Clinton, 
in his Fasti Hellenici, i. p. 225, takes the years 
611-592 B.C. to be the period in which Sappho 
flourished. 

That she was a native of Lesbos, an island 
in the Aegean sea, is universally admitted ; and 
all but those writers who speak of a second 
Sappho say she lived at Mitylene, the chief 
city of the island. The existence of a Sappho 
who was a courtesan of ErSsus, a smaller 
Lesbian city, besides the poetess of Mitylene, 
is the invention of comparatively late authors ; 
and it is probably due to their desire to detach 
the calumnies, which the Comic poets so long 
made popular, from the personality of the 
poetess to whose good name her own con- 
temporaries bore witness (cf. Alcaeus' address 
to her, p. 8). 

Strabo, in his Geography, says : ' Mitylene 
[MiruAHVH or MUTIAHVH] is well provided with 
everything. It formerly produced celebrated 
men, such as Pittacus, one of the Seven Wise 
Men; Alcaeus the poet, and others. Con 
temporary with these persons flourished Sappho, 



LIFE OF SAPPHO II 

who was something wonderful; at no period 
within memory has any woman been known 
who in any, even the least degree, could be 
compared to her for poetry.' Indeed, the glory 
of Lesbos was that Sappho was its citizen, and 
its chief fame centres in the fact of her 
celebrity. By its modern name Mitilene, 
under the dominion of the Turks, the island, 

Where burning Sappho loved and sung, 

is now mainly known for its oil and wine and 
its salubrity. In ancient times its wine was 
the most celebrated through all Greece; and 
Vergil refers to its vines, which trailed like ivy 
on the ground, while many authors testify to 
the exceptional wholesomeness of Lesbian wine. 
But the clue to Sappho's individuality can only 
be found in the knowledge of what, in her age, 
Lesbos and the Lesbians were ; around her 
converges all we know of the Aeolian race. As 
Mr. Swinburne says 

Had Sappho's self not left her word thus long 

For token, 
The sea round Lesbos yet in waves of song 

Had spoken. 

'For a certain space of time,' writes Mr. J. 
Addington Symonds in his Studies of Greek 
Poets, first series, pp. 127 ff., 'the Aeolians 
occupied the very foreground of Greek litera- 



12 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

ture, and blazed out with a brilliance of lyrical 
splendour that has never been surpassed. 
There seems to have been something passion- 
ate and intense in their temperament, which 
made the emotions of the Dorian and the 
Ionian feeble by comparison. Lesbos, the 
centre of Aeolian culture, was the island of 
overmastering passions ; the personality of the 
Greek race burned there with a fierce and 
steady flame of concentrated feeling. The 
energies which the lonians divided between 
pleasure, politics, trade, legislation, science, 
and the arts, and which the Dorians turned to 
war and statecraft and social economy, were 
restrained by the Aeolians within the sphere 
of individual emotions, ready to burst forth 
volcanically. Nowhere in any age of Greek 
history, or in any part of Hellas, did the love 
of physical beauty, the sensibility to radiant 
scenes of nature, the consuming fervour of 
personal feeling, assume such grand proportions 
and receive so illustrious an expression as they 
did in Lesbos. At first this passion blossomed 
into the most exquisite lyrical poetry that the 
world has known : this was the flower-time of 
the Aeolians, their brief and brilliant spring. 
But the fruit it bore was bitter and rotten. 
Lesbos became a byword for corruption. The 
passions which for a moment had flamed into 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 13 

the gorgeousness of Art, burnt their envelope 
of words and images, remained a mere furnace 
of sensuality, from which no expression of the 
divine in human life could be expected. In 
this the Lesbian poets were not unlike the 
Provencal troubadours, who made a literature 
of Love ; or the Venetian painters, who based 
their Art upon the beauty of colour, the 
voluptuous charms of the flesh. In each case 
the motive of enthusiastic passion sufficed to 
produce a dazzling result. But as soon as its 
freshness was exhausted there was nothing left 
for Art to live on, and mere decadence to 
sensuality ensued. Several circumstances con- 
tributed to aid the development of lyric poetry 
in Lesbos. The customs of the Aeolians 
permitted more social and domestic freedom 
than was common in Greece. Aeolian women 
were not confined to the harem like lonians, 
or subjected to the rigorous discipline of the 
Spartans. While mixing freely with male 
society, they were highly educated, and accus- 
tomed to express their sentiments to an extent 
unknown elsewhere in history until, indeed, 
the present time. The Lesbian ladies applied 
themselves successfully to literature. They 
formed clubs for the cultivation of poetry and 
music. They studied the art of beauty, and 
sought to refine metrical forms and diction. 



14 LIFEOFSAPPHO 

Nor did they confine themselves to the 
scientific side of Art. Unrestrained by public 
opinion, and passionate for the beautiful, the}' 
cultivated their senses and emotions, and 
developed their wildest passions. All the 
luxuries and elegances of life which that climate 
and the rich valleys of Lesbos could afford, 
were at their disposal: exquisite gardens, in 
which the rose and hyacinth spread perfume ; 
river-beds ablaze with the oleander and wild 
pomegranate ; olive-groves and fountains, where 
the cyclamen and violet flowered with feathery 
maidenhair ; pine-shadowed coves, where they 
might bathe in the calm of a tideless sea ; fruits 
such as only the southern sea and sea-wind can 
mature ; marble cliffs, starred with jonquil and 
anemone in spring, aromatic with myrtle and 
lentisk and samphire and wild rosemary through 
all the months ; nightingales that sang in May ; 
temples dim with dusky gold and bright with 
ivory; statues and frescoes of heroic forms. 
In such scenes as these the Lesbian poets lived, 
and thought of Love. When we read their 
poems, we seem to have the perfumes, colours, 
sounds, and lights of that luxurious land dis- 
tilled in verse. Nor was a brief but biting 
winter wanting to give tone to their nerves, 
and, by contrast with the summer, to prevent 
the palling of so much luxury on sated senses. 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 1$ 

The voluptuousness of Aeolian poetry is not 
like that of Persian or Arabian art. It is Greek 
in its self-restraint, proportion, tact. We find 
nothing burdensome in its sweetness. All is 
so rhythmically and sublimely ordered in the 
poems of Sappho that supreme art lends 
solemnity and grandeur to the expression of 
unmitigated passion.' 

The story of Sappho's love for Phaon, and 
her leap from the Leucadian rock in con- 
sequence of his disdaining her, though it has 
been so long implicitly believed, does not seem 
to rest on any firm historical basis. Indeed, 
more than one epigrammatist in the Greek 
Anthology expressly states that she was buried 
in an Aeolic grave. 1 

Still Phaon, for all the myths that cluster 
round his name, for his miraculous loveliness 
and his insensibility to love, may yet have been 
a real personage. Like other heroes, he may 
possibly have lived at a period long anterior to 

1 Such light as can be thrown upon the legend from 
Comparative Mythology, and from the possible etymo- 
logies of the names of Sappho and Phaon, has been, I 
fear rather inconclusively, gathered by Leonello Modona 
in his La Saffo storica (Florence, 1878). Human nature, 
however, varies so little from age to age, that I think it 
better to judge the story as it has come down to us, than 
to resort to the most erudite guessing. 



16 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

that of the traditions about him which have 
been handed down to us. He is said to have 
been a boatman of Mitylene (cf. fr. 140), who 
was endowed by Aphrodite with youth and 
extraordinary beauty as a reward for his having 
ferried her for nothing. Servius, who wrote 
about 400 A.D. (cf. p. 39), says she gave him an 
alabaster box of ointment, the effect of which 
was to make all women fall in love with him j 
and that one of these he does not mention 
her name threw herself in despair from the 
cliff of Leucas. Servius further states, on the 
authority of Menander, that the temple was 
founded by Phaon of Lesbos. Phaon's beauty 
and power of fascination passed into a proverb. 
Pliny, however, says he became the object of 
Sappho's love because he had found the male 
root of the plant called eryngo, probably our 
sea-holly, and that it acted like a love-charm. 
And when Athenaeus is talking about lettuces, 
as to their use as food and their anti-aphrodisiac 
properties, he says Callimachus' story of Aphro- 
dite hiding Adonis under a lettuce is 'an 
allegorical statement of the poet's, intended 
to show that those who are much addicted to 
the use of lettuces are very little adapted for 
pleasures of love. Cratinus,' he goes on, ' says 
that Aphrodite when in love with Phaon hid 
him in the leaves of lettuces ; but the younger 



LIFE OF SAPPHO I/ 

Marsyas says that she hid him amid the grass 
of barley.' 

Those fanciful writers who assert the exist- 
ence of a second Sappho say that it was not 
the poetess who fell in love with Phaon, but 
that other Sappho on whom they fasten all the 
absurd stories circulated by the Comic writers. 
The tale runs that the importunate love of 
Sappho caused Phaon to flee to Sicily, whither 
she followed him. Ovid's Epistle, before men- 
tioned (p. 3), is the foundation for the greater 
part of the legend. The inscription on the 
Parian marbles (cf. p. 9) also mentions a 
certain year in which 'Sappho sailed from 
Mitylene and fled to Sicily.' The chronicle, 
however, says nothing about Phaon, nor is any 
reason given for her exile ; some have imagined 
that she was obliged to leave her country on 
political grounds, but there is no trace in her 
writings, nor does any report indicate, that she 
ever interested herself in politics. 

Strabo, in his Geography already quoted 
(p. 10), says: 'There is a white rock which 
stretches out from Leucas to the sea and to- 
wards Cephallenia, that takes its name from its 
whiteness. The rock of Leucas has upon it 
a temple of Apollo, and the leap from it was 
believed to stop love. From this it is said that 
Sappho first, as Menander says somewhere, "in 
B 



18 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

pursuit of the haughty Phaon, urged on by 
maddening desire, threw herself from its far- 
seen rocks, imploring thee [Apollo], lord and 
king."' The former promontory of Leucas is 
now separated from the mainland and forms 
one of the Ionian islands, known as Santa 
Maura, off the wild and rugged coast of Acar- 
nania. The story of Sappho's having ventured 
the Leucadian leap is repeated by Ovid, and 
was never much doubted, except by those who 
believed in a second Sappho, till modern times. 
Still, it is strange that none of the many authors 
who relate the legend say what was the result 
of the leap whether it was fatal to her life or 
to her love. Moreover, Ptolemy Hephaestion 
(about 100 A.D.), who, in the extant summary 
of his works published in the Myriobiblion of 
Photius, gives a list of many men and women 
who by the Leucadian leap were cured of the 
madness of love or perished, does not so much 
as mention the name of Sappho. A circum- 
stantial account of Sappho's leap, on which 
the popular modern idea is chiefly founded, 
was given by Addison, relying to no small 
extent upon his imagination for his facts, ' with 
his usual exquisite humour, as Warton remarks, 
in the 2 33rd Spectator, Nov. 27,1711. ' Sappho 
the Lesbian,' says Addison, 'in love with Phaon, 
arrived at the temple of Apollo habited like a 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 1 9 

bride, in garments as white as snow. She 
wore a garland of myrtle on her head, and 
carried in her hand the little musical instru- 
ment of her own invention. After having sung 
a hymn to Apollo, she hung up her garland on 
one side of his altar, and her harp on the other. 
She then tucked up her vestments like a Spar- 
tan virgin, and amidst thousands of spectators, 
who were anxious for her safety and offered up 
vows for her deliverance, marched directly for- 
wards to the utmost summit of the promontory, 
where, after having repeated a stanza of her 
own verses, which we could not hear, she 
threw herself off the rock with such an intre- 
pidity as was never before observed in any who 
had attempted that dangerous leap. Many who 
were present related that they saw her fall into 
the sea, from whence she never rose again : 
though there were others who affirmed that she 
never came to the bottom of her leap, but that 
she was changed into a swan as she fell, and 
that they saw her hovering in the air under 
that shape. But whether or no the whiteness 
and fluttering of her garments might not de- 
ceive those who looked upon her, or whether 
she might not really be metamorphosed into 
that musical and melancholy bird, is still 
a doubt among the Lesbians. Alcaeus, the 
famous lyric poet, who had for some time been 



20 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

passionately in love with Sappho, arrived at the 
promontory of Leucate that very evening in 
order to take the leap upon her account ; but 
hearing that Sappho had been there before 
him, and that her body could be nowhere 
found, he very generously lamented her fall, 
and is said to have written his hundred and 
twenty-fifth ode upon that occasion.' 

It is to be noted in this connection that the 
part of the cliff of Santa Maura or Leukadi, 
known to this day as ' Sappho's Leap,' was used, 
even in historical times, as a place whence cri- 
minals condemned to death were thrown into 
the sea. The people used, it is said, to tie num- 
bers of birds to the limbs of the condemned 
and cover them with feathers to break the force 
of their fall, and then send boats to pick them 
up. If they survived, they were pardoned. 

Those modern critics who reject the whole 
story as fabulous derive it from the myth of the 
love of Aphrodite and Adonis, who in the Greek 
version was called Phaethon or Phaon. Theo- 
dor Kock (cf. Preface, p. xvii) is the latest 
exponent of these views, and he pushes them 
to a very fanciful extent, even adducing Minos 
as the sun and Britomartis as the moon to ex- 
plain the Leucadian leap. Certainly the legend 
does not appear before the Attic Comedy, 
about 395 B.C., more than two centuries after 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 21 

Sappho's death. And the Leucadian leap 
may have been ascribed to her from its having 
been often mentioned as a mere poetical meta- 
phor taken from an expiatory rite connected 
with the worship of Apollo ; the image occurs 
in Stesichorus and Anacreon, and may possibly 
have been used by Sappho. For instance, 
Athenaeus cites a poem by Stesichorus about 
a maiden named Calyca who was in love with 
a youth named Euathlus, and prayed in a 
modest manner to Aphrodite to aid her in 
becoming his wife ; but when the young man 
scorned her, she threw herself from a precipice : 
and this he says happened near Leucas. Athen- 
aeus says the poet represented the maiden as 
particularly modest, so that she was not willing 
to live with the youth on his own terms, but 
prayed that if possible she might become the 
wedded wife of Euathlus ; and if that were not 
possible, that she might be released from life. 
And Anacreon, in a fragment preserved by 
Hephaestion, says, as if proverbially, 'Now 
again rising I, drunk with love, dive from the 
Leucadian rock into the hoary wave.' 
And Sappho with that gloriole 

Of ebon hair on calmed brows 
O poet- woman, none forgoes 
The leap, attaining the repose ! 

(MRS. E. B. BROWNING.) 



22 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

Sappho 'loved, and loved more than once, 
and loved to the point of desperate sorrow; 
though it did not come to the mad and fatal 
leap from Leucate, as the unnecessary legend 
pretends. There are, nevertheless,' continues 
Mr. Edwin Arnold, 'worse steeps than Leu- 
cate down which the heart may fall; and 
colder seas of despair than the Adriatic in 
which to engulf it' 

Seeing that six comedies are known to have 
been written under the title of Sappho (cf. p. 37), 
and that her history furnished material for at 
least four more, it is not strange that much of 
their substance should in succeeding centuries 
have been regarded as genuine. In a later and 
debased age she became a sort of stock char- 
acter of the licentious drama. The fervour of 
her love and the purity of her life, and the 
very fact of a woman having been the leader 
of a school of poetry and music, could not 
have failed to have been misunderstood by 
the Greek comedians at the close of the fifth 
century B.C. The society and habits of the 
Aeolians at Lesbos in Sappho's time were, as 
M. Bournouf (Lit. Grecq. i. p. 194) has shown, 
in complete contrast to those of the Athenians 
in the period of their corruption ; just as the 
unenviable reputation of the Lesbians was 
earned long after the date of Sappho. ' It is 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 23 

not surprising,' writes Mr. Philip Smith, in his 
article SAPPHO in Smith's Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Biography, ' that the early Christian 
writers against heathenism should have accepted 
a misrepresentation which the Greeks them- 
selves had invented.' The licence of the Attic 
comedians is testified by Athenaeus' mention 
that Antiochus of Alexandria, a writer other- 
wise unknown, whose date is quite uncertain, 
wrote a ' Treatise on the Poets who were ridi- 
culed by the Comic writers of the Middle 
Comedy ' ; and by the fact that a little before 
403 B.C. a law was passed which enacted that 
no one was to be represented on the stage by 
name, MH 6eiv ovojuaori K0)jucp6eiv (cf. p. 38). 

It was not till early in the present century 
that the current calumnies against Sappho were 
seriously inquired into by the celebrated scholar 
of Gottingen, Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, and 
found to be based on quite insufficient evidence. 
Colonel Mure endeavoured at great length, both 
here and in Germany, to expose fallacies in 
Welcker's arguments ; but the bitterness of his 
attack, and the unfairness of much of his reason- 
ing, go far to weaken his otherwise acknow- 
ledged authority. Professor Comparetti has 
recently examined the question with much 
fairness and erudition, and, with the possible 
exception referred to above (p. 3, note), has 



24 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

done much to separate fiction from fact ; but he 
does not endorse all Welcker's conclusions. 

Sappho seems to have been the centre of a 
society in Mitylene, a kind of aesthetic club, 
devoted to the service of the Muses. Around 
her gathered maidens from even comparatively 
distant places, attracted by her fame, to study 
under her guidance all that related to poetry 
and music; much as at a later age students 
resorted to the philosophers of Athens. 

The names of fourteen of her girl-friends 
(rratpcu) and pupils (na8HTpim) are preserved. 
The most celebrated was Erinna of Telos, a 
poetess of whose genius too few lines are left 
for us to judge ; but we know what the ancients 
thought of her from this Epigram in the Greek 
Anthology : 

These are Erinna's songs : how sweet, though slight ! 
For she was but a girl of nineteen years : 

Yet stronger far than what most men can write : 

Had Death delayed, whose fame had equalled hers? 

(J. A. SYMONDS.) 

Probably fr. 77 refers to her. Of the other 
poetess, Damophyla of Pamphylia, not a word 
survives; but Apollonius of Tyana says she 
lived in close friendship with Sappho, and made 
poems after her model. Suidas says Sappho's 
'companions and friends were three, viz., Atthis, 
Telesippa, and Megara ; and her pupils were 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 2$ 

Anagora of the territory of Miletus, Gongyla of 
Colophon, and Euneica of Salamis.' She her- 
self praises Mnasidica along with Gyrinna (as 
Maximus Tyrius spells the name) in fr. 76 ; she 
complains of Atthis preferring Andromeda to 
her in fr. 41 ; she gibes at Andromeda in fr. 70, 
and again refers to her in fr. 58, apparently re- 
joicing over her discomfiture. Of Gorgo, in fr. 48, 
she seems to say, in Swinburne's paraphrase, 

I am weary of all thy words and soft strange ways. 

Anactoria's name is not mentioned in any 
fragment we have, although tradition says that 
fr. 2 was addressed to her; but Maximus 
Tyrius and others place her in the front rank 
of Sappho's intimates : ' What Alcibiades,' he 
says, 'and Charmides and Phaedrus were to 
Socrates, Gyrinna and Atthis and Anactoria 
were to the Lesbian.' Another, Dica, we find 
her (in fr. 78) praising for her skill in weaving 
coronals. And in ft. 86 a daughter of Polyanax 
is addressed as one of her maidens. The name 
is not preserved of her whom (in fr. 68) she 
reproaches as disloyal to the service of the 
Muses. The text of Ovid's Sappho to Phaon 
is so corrupt that we know not whom she is 
enumerating there of those she loved ; even the 
name of her ' fair Cydno ' varies in the MSS. Nor 
can we tell who ' those other hundred maidens ' 



26 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

were whom Ovid (cf. p. 188) makes her say she 
' blamelessly loved ' before Phaon satisfied her 
heart. But the preservation of the names of 
so many of her associates is enough to prove 
the celebrity of her teaching. 

Little more can be learnt about Sappho's 
actual life. In fr. 72 she says of herself, ' I am 
not one of a malignant nature, but have a quiet 
temper.' Antiphanes, in his play Sappho, is 
said by Athenaeus to have represented her 
proposing absurd riddles, 1 so little did the 
Comic writers understand her genius. Fr. 79 
is quoted by Athenaeus to show her love for 
beauty and honour. Compare also fr. 1 1 and 
31 for his testimony to the purity of her 
love for her girl-friends : ndvra KaOapa TOIQ 
Kaeapolc, ' unto the pure all things are pure.' 

Plato, in his Phaedrus, calls Sappho ' beauti- 
ful,' for the sweetness of her songs ; ' and yet,' 
says Maximus Tyrius, ' she was small and dark,' 
une petite brunette, ' est etiomfusco grata colore 
venus ' . 

The small dark body's Lesbian loveliness 
That held the fire eternal. 

(SWINBURNE.) 

The epithet ' beautiful ' is repeated by so many 

1 Sappho's riddle is translated in full by Colonel 
Higginson in his Atlatitic Essays, p. 321. 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 2/ 

writers that it may everywhere refer only to the 
beauty of her writings. Even Ovid seems to 
think that her genius threw any lack of comeli- 
ness into the shade a lack, however, which, if 
it had existed, could not have escaped the 
derision of the Comic writers, especially since 
Homer (Iliad, ix. 129, 271) had celebrated the 
characteristic beauty of the women of Lesbos. 
The address of Alcaeus to Sappho, quoted on 
p. 8, shows the sweetness of her expression, 
even if the epithet ionAoKoc (violet-weaving) 
cannot be replaced by ionAoKajucx; (with violet 
locks), as some MSS. read. And Damocharis, 
in the Greek Anthology, in an Epigram on a 
statue of Sappho, speaks of her bright eyes 
showing her wisdom, and compares the beauty 
of her face to that of Aphrodite. To another 
writer in the Greek Anthology she is ' the pride of 
the lovely-haired Lesbians.' Anacreon, as well as 
Philoxenus, calls her 'sweet-voiced' (cf. fr. i). 

But thou 6 h we know so little of Sappho's 
personal appearance, the whole testimony of 
the ancient writers describes the charm of her 
poetry with unbounded praise. 

Strabo, in his Geography, calls her 'something 
wonderful' (eaujuaorov TI XP"" 101 )' an< ^ Sa 7 s ne 
knew ' no woman who in any, even the least 
degree, could be compared to her for poetry ' 
(cf. p. 10). 



28 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

Such was her unique renown that she was 
called ' The Poetess, 5 just as Homer was ' The 
Poet.' Plato numbers her among the Wise. 
Plutarch speaks of the grace of her poems acting 
on her listeners like an enchantment, and says 
that when he read them he set aside the 
drinking-cup in very shame. So much was a 
knowledge of her writings held to be an essential 
of culture among the Greeks, that Philodemus, 
a contemporary of Cicero, in an Epigram in the 
Greek Anthology^ notes as the mark of an ill- 
informed woman that she could not even sing 
Sappho's songs. 

Writers in the Greek Anthology call her the 
Tenth Muse, child of Aphrodite and Eros, 
nursling of the Graces and Persuasion, pride of 
Hellas, companion of Apollo, and prophesy her 
immortality. For instance, Antipater of Sidon 
says: 

Does Sappho then beneath thy bosom rest, 
Aeolian earth? That mortal Muse, confessed 
Inferior only to the choir above, 
That foster-child of Venus and of Love ; 
Warm from whose lips divine Persuasion came, 
Greece to delight, and raise the Lesbian name. 

O ye who ever twine the three-fold thread, 
Ye Fates, why number with the silent dead 
That mighty songstress whose unrivalled powers 
Weave for the Muse a crown of deathless flowers ? 
(FRANCIS HODGSON.) 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 29 

And Tullius Laurea : 

Stranger, who passest my Aeolian tomb, 

Say not ' The Lesbian poetess is dead ' ; 

Men's hands this mound did raise, and mortal's work 

Is swiftly buried in forgetfulness. 

But if thou lookest, for the Muses' sake, 

On me whom all the Nine have garlanded, 

Know thou that I have Hades' gloom escaped : 

No dawn shall lack the lyrist Sappho's name. 

And Piny"tus : 

This tomb reveals where Sappho's ashes lie, 
But her sweet words of wisdom ne'er will die. 

(LORD N EAVES.) 

And Plato : 

Some thoughtlessly proclaim the Muses nine ; 
A tenth is Lesbian Sappho, maid divine. 

(LORD NEAVBS.) 

Indeed, all the praises of the Epigrammatists 
are in the same strain; none but held her, 
with the poetess Nossis, 'the flower of the 
Graces.' 

Many authors relate how the Lesbians 
gloried in Sappho's having been their citizen, 
and say that her image was engraved on the 
coins of Mitylene ' though she was a woman/ 
as Aristotle remarks. J. C. Wolf describes six 
extant coins which may presumably have been 
struck at different times in honour of her ; he 



30 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

gives a figure of each on his frontispiece, but 
they have little artistic merit. 

It is worthy of note that no coins bearing 
the name or effigy of Sappho have hitherto 
been discovered which were current before the 
Christian era, so that no conclusion drawn from 
inscriptions on them is of any historical import- 
ance. In the time of the Antonines, from which 
most of these coins seem to date, her name 
was as much sullied by traditions as it has been 
to the present day. 

Some busts there are of her, but none seem 
genuine. Perhaps the best representation of 
what she and her surroundings might have 
been is given by Mr. Alma Tadema in his 
' Sappho,' exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1 88 1, which has been etched by Mr. C. O. 
Murray, and admirably photographed in various 
sizes by the Berlin Photographic Company ; 
from the head of Sappho in this picture Mr. 
J. C. Webb has engraved the medallion which 
forms the frontispiece of this work. 

A bronze statue of Sappho was splendidly 
made by Silanion, and stolen by Verres, accord- 
ing to Cicero, from the prytaneum at Syracuse. 
And Christodorus, in the Greek Anthology, 
describes a statue of her as adorning the gym- 
nasium of Zeuxippus at Byzantium in the fifth 
century A.D. Pliny says that Leon, an artist 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 31 

otherwise unknown, painted a picture of her in 
the garb of a lutist (psaltrid). 

Numerous illustrations of her still exist upon 
Greek vases, most of which have been repro- 
duced and annotated upon by Professor Com- 
paretti (see Bibliography) ; but they are all in 
a debased style, and one would feel more con- 
tent if one had not seen them. 

Not only do we know the general estimate of 
Sappho by antiquity, but her praise is also often 
given in great detail. Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus, when he quotes her Ode to Aphrodite 
{fr. i), describes at length the beauty of her 
style. Some of Demetrius' praise is quoted as 
fr. 124, but he also elaborately shows her com- 
mand of all the figures and arts of rhetoric. 
What Longinus, Plutarch, and Aristoxenus 
thought of her I have summarised under fr. 2. 
The story of Solon's praise is given under fr. 
137. And Plutarch in his Life of Demetrius, tell- 
ing a story of Antiochus' (324-261 B.C.) being in 
love with Stratonice, the young wife of his father, 
and making a "pretence of sickness, says that his 
physician Erasistratus discovered the object of 
the passion he was endeavouring to conceal by 
observing his behaviour at the entrance of every 
visitor to his sick chamber. 'When others 
entered,' says Plutarch, 'he was entirely un- 
affected ; but when Stratonice came in, as she 



32 LIFEOFSAPPHO 

often did, either alone or with Seleucus [his 
father, King of Syria], he showed all the symp- 
toms described by Sappho, the faltering voice, 
the burning blush, the languid eye, the sudden 
sweat, the tumultuous pulse ; and at length, the 
passion overcoming his spirits, he fainted to a 
mortal paleness.' The physician noted what 
Sappho had described as the true signs of love, 
and Plutarch touchingly relates how the king in 
consequence surrendered Stratonice to his son, 
and made them king a: <! queen of Upper Asia. 

Modern writers are not less unanimous than 
the ancients in their praise of Sappho. Addison 
prefixes this quotation from Phaedrus (iii. i, 5), 
to his first essay on her (Spectator, No. 223): 
' O sweet soul, how good must you have been 
heretofore, when your remains are so delicious ! ' 
' Her soul,' he says, ' seems to have been 
made up of love and poetry. She felt the 
passion in all its warmth, and described it in 
all its symptoms. ... I do not know,' he 
goes on, 'by the character that is given of 
her works, whether it is not for the benefit of 
mankind that they are lost. They are filled 
with such bewitching tenderness and rapture, 
that it might have been dangerous to have 
given them a reading.' 

Mr. J. Addington Symonds says : ' The world 
has suffered no greater literary loss than the loss 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 33 

of Sappho's poems. So perfect are the small- 
est fragments preserved . . . that we muse in 
a sad rapture of astonishment to think what 
the complete poems must have been. . 
Of all the poets of the world, of all the illus- 
trious artists of all literatures, Sappho is the one 
whose every word has a peculiar and unmistak- 
able perfume, a seal of absolute perfection and 
illimitable grace. In her art she was unerring. 
Even Archilochus seems commonplace when 
compared with her exquisite rarity of phrase. 
. . . Whether addressing the maidens, whom 
even in Elysium, as Horace says, Sappho could 
not forget; or embodying the profounder 
yearnings of an intense soul after beauty which 
has never on earth existed, but which inflames 
the hearts of noblest poets, robbing their eyes 
of sleep, and giving them the bitterness of tears 
to drink these dazzling fragments 

Which still, like sparkles of Greek fire, 
Burn on ihrough Time, and ne'er expire, 

are the ultimate and finished forms of passionate 
utterance, diamonds, topazes, and blazing rubies, 
in which the fire of the soul is crystallised for 
ever. ... In Sappho and Catullus ... we 
meet with richer and more ardent natures [than 
those of Horace and Alcaeus] : they are endowed 
with keener sensibilities, with a sensuality 
C 



34 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

more noble because of its intensity, with 
emotions more profound, with a deeper faculty 
of thought, that never loses itself in the shallows 
of "Stoic-Epicurean acceptance," but simply 
and exquisitely apprehends the facts of human 
life.' 

And some passages from Swinburne's Notes 
on Poems and Reviews, showing a modern 
poet's endeavour to familiarise his readers with 
Sappho's spirit, can hardly be omitted. Speak- 
ing of his poem Anactoria, he says : ' In this 
poem I have simply expressed, or tried to 
express, that violence of affection between one 
and another which hardens into rage and 
deepens into despair. The keynote which I 
have here touched,' he continues, ' was struck 
long since by Sappho. We in England are 
taught, are compelled under penalties to learn, 
to construe, and to repeat, as schoolboys, the 
imperishable and incomparable verses of that 
supreme poet; and I at least am grateful for 
the training. I have wished, and I have even 
ventured to hope, that I might be in time 
competent to translate into a baser and later 
language the divine words which even when a 
boy I could not but recognise as divine. That 
hope, if indeed I dared ever entertain such a 
hope, I soon found fallacious. To translate 
the two odes and the remaining fragments of 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 35 

Sappho is the one impossible task; and as 
witness of this I will call up one of the greatest 
among poets. Catullus "translated" or as 
his countrymen would now say " traduced " 
the Ode to Anactoria Eig ' Epeonevav : a more 
beautiful translation there never was and will 
never be ; but compared with the Greek, it is 
colourless and bloodless, puffed out by addi- 
tions and enfeebled by alterations. Let any 
one set against each other the two first stanzas, 
Latin and Greek, and pronounce. . . . Where 
Catullus failed, I could not hope to succeed; 
I tried instead to reproduce in a diluted and 
dilated form the spirit of a poem which could 
not be reproduced in the body. 

' Now the ode Etc ' EpcoMevav the " Ode to 
Anactoria " (as it is named by tradition) the 
poem . . . which has in the whole world of 
verse no companion and no rival but the Ode 
to Aphrodite, has been twice at least translated 
or traduced. . . . To the best (and bad is 
the best) of their ability, they [Nicholas Boileau- 
Despreaux and Ambrose Philips] have "done 
into" bad French and bad English the very 
words of Sappho. Feeling that although I 
might do it better I could not do it well, I 
abandoned the idea of translation exoov CKKOVTI 
f eujucp- I tried then to write some para- 
phrase of the fragments which the Fates and 



36 LIFEOFSAPPHO 

the Christians have spared us. I have not 
said, as Boileau and Philips have, that the 
speaker sweats and swoons at sight of her 
favourite by the side of a man. I have ab- 
stained from touching on such details, for this 
reason : that I felt myself incompetent to give 
adequate expression in English to the literal 
and absolute words of Sappho ; and would not 
debase and degrade them into a viler form. 
No one can feel more deeply than I do the 
inadequacy of my work. " That is not Sappho," 
a friend once said to me. I could only reply, 
" It is as near as I can come ; and no man can 
come close to her." Her remaining verses are 
the supreme 'success, the final achievement, of 
the poetic art. ... I have striven to cast my 
spirit into the mould of hers, to express and 
represent not the poem but the poet. I did 
not think it requisite to disfigure the page with 
a footnote wherever I had fallen back upon 
the original text. Here and there, I need not 
say, I have rendered into English the very 
words of Sappho. I have tried also to work 
into words of my own some expression of their 
effect: to bear witness how, more than any 
other's, her verses strike and sting the memory 
in lonely places, or at sea, among all loftier 
sights and sounds how they seem akin to fire 
and air, being themselves "all air and fire"; 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 37 

other element there is none in them. As to 
the angry appeal against the supreme mystery 
of oppressive heaven, which I have ventured to 
put into her mouth at that point only where 
pleasure culminates in pain, affection in anger, 
and desire in despair they are to be taken 
as the first outcome or outburst of foiled and 
fruitless passion recoiling on itself. After this, 
the spirit finds time to breathe and repose 
above all vexed senses of the weary body, all 
bitter labours of the revolted soul ; the poet's 
pride of place is resumed, the lofty conscience 
of invincible immortality in the memories and 
the mouths of men.' No one who wishes to 
understand Sappho can afford to neglect a 
study of the poem thus annotated by its 
author. As Professor F. T. Palgrave justly 
says, 'Sappho is truly pictorial in the ancient 
sense : the image always simply presented ; the 
sentiment left to our sensibility.' 

The Greek comedies relating to the history 
of Sappho, referred to on previous pages, were 
all written by dramatists who belonged to what 
is known as the Middle Comedy, two centuries 
after her time (404-340 B.C.). The comedy of 
that period was devoted to satirising classes of 
people rather than individuals, to ridiculing 
stock-characters, to criticising the systems and 
merits of philosophers and writers, to parodies 



38 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

of older poets, and to travesties of mythological 
subjects. The extent to which the licence of 
the comic writers of that age had reached may 
be judged from the passing of the law referred 
to on a previous page (p. 23) HH 6ew ovo/uaon 
KtojucpSetv though the practice continued under 
ill-concealed disguise. Writers of such a temper 
were obviously unfit to hand down unsullied a 
character like Sappho's, powerful though their 
genius might be to make their inventions seem 
more true than actual history 'to make the 
worse appear the better reason.' 

Sappho was the title of comedies by Amei- 
psias, Amphis, Antiphanes, Dlphilus, Ephip- 
pus, and Timocles, but very little is known 
of their contents. Of those by Ameipsias 
and Amphis only a single word out of each 
survives. Athenaeus quotes a few lines out of 
those by Ephippus and Timocles, for descrip- 
tions of men of contemptible character. The 
same writer refers to that by Diphilus for his 
use of the name of a kind of cup (MeTavurrpu;) 
which was used to drink out of when men had 
washed their hands after dinner, and for his 
having represented Archilochus and Hipponax 
(cf. p. 9) as lovers of Sappho. Of that by Anti- 
phanes (cf. p. 26), who was the most celebrated 
and the most prolific of the playwrights of the 
Middle Comedy, we have, again in Athenaeus, 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 39 

a longer passage preserved ; but it is merely to 
show the poetess proposing and solving a weari- 
some riddle (rpi9o<;), satirising a subtlety his 
grosser audience could not understand. 

Besides these, Antiphanes and Plato (the 
Comic writer, not the philosopher) each wrote 
a play called Phaon. Of that by Antiphanes 
but three words remain. Plato's drama is 
several times quoted by Athenaeus, but only 
when he is discussing details of cookery one 
passage obviously for the sake of its coarseness. 
Menander wrote a play called Leucadia, and 
Antiphanes one called Leucadius. Antiphanes' 
play furnishes Athenaeus with nothing but a 
catalogue of seasonings. Some lines out of 
Menander's Leucadia are quoted above (p. 17) 
from Strabo, and it is referred to by several 
authors for the sake of some word or phrase ; 
Servius, commenting on Vergil's Aeneid, iii. 
274, gives a precis of Turpilius' Latin para- 
phrase of it, which is mentioned above, p. 16. 

Such is our knowledge of the Comic accounts 
of Sappho's history. When we consider the 
general character of the Middle Comedy, 
written as it was to please the Athenians after 
their golden time had passed, it is not un- 
reasonable to take accounts which seem to have 
originated in such treatment with somewhat 
more than diffidence. 



4O LIFE OF SAPPHO 

But it is not only the Greek dramatists who 
have written plays on the story of Sappho. 
Two have appeared in English during the last 
few years, one of which, by the late Mrs. 
Estelle Lewis ('Stella'), has been translated 
into modern Greek by Cambourogio for repre- 
sentation on the Athenian stage. The most 
celebrated, however, and one of considerable 
beauty, is by John Lilly, ' the Euphuist ' ; it is 
called Sapho and Phao, and was acted before 
Queen Elizabeth in 1584. The whole is 
allegorical, Sapho being probably meant for 
Elizabeth, queen of an island, and Phao is 
supposed to be Leicester. Lilly makes his 
Sapho a princess of Syracuse, and takes other 
liberties though not such as the Greeks did 
with her history ; strangely enough, however, 
he makes no reference to the Leucadian leap. 
'When Phao cometh,' he makes Sapho solilo- 
quise, ' what then ? Wilt thou open thy love ? 
Yea? No, Sapho, but staring in his face till 
thine eyes dazzle and thy spirits faint, die 
before his face; then this shall be written 
on thy tomb, that though thy love were 
greater than wisdom could endure, yet thine 
honour was such as love could not violate.' 
Venus is introduced as marring their mutual 
love, and Phao says : ' This shall be my 
resolution, wherever I wander, to be as I 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 41 

were kneeling before Sapho ; my loyalty 
unspotted, though unrewarded. . . . My life 
shall be spent in sighing and wishing, the 
one for my bad fortune, the other for Sapho's 
good.' 

In France, the first opera written by the 
late M. Charles Gounod was entitled Sapho. 
The libretto was by M. Emile Augier. It 
was first given at the Academie, April 16, 
1851 ; and in Italian, as Saffo, at Covent 
Garden, Aug. 9, in the same year. It was re- 
produced in 1858, and again in the new Opera 
House, April 3, 1884. Each time both author 
and composer recast their work, which contains 
many brilliant scenes and melodies. The 
celebrated Madame de Stael wrote a drama 
called Sapho, but it has been long forgotten. 
Alphonse Daudet's novel, Sapho, mceurs Pari- 
siennes, of which a version dramatised by M. 
Belot was played for the first time at the 
Gymnase in Paris, December 18, 1885, bears 
no reference to the poetess beyond the sobri- 
quet of the heroine. The most artistically 
finished tragedy of the German dramatist 
Grillparzer is his Sappho. It was produced at 
Vienna in 1819, and is still played at many of 
the principal German theatres. An inferior 
Italian translation of it received a high en- 
comium from Lord Byron. It is best known 



42 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

to English readers by Miss Ellen Frothingham's 
faithful translation. 

About forty years ago, however, Messrs. 
Thomas Constable & Co., of Edinburgh, had 
issued an earlier translation of the play by 
L. C. C. [i.e. Lucy Caroline Gumming]; and 
there are some others. 

The Queen of Roumania, under her nom de 
guerre of 'Carmen Sylva,' is the most distin- 
guished among living poets who have idealised 
the life of Sappho. But her poem under that 
title, published in her Sturme, owes more to its 
rich poetic charm than to the actual facts of the 
Greek story ; in it the Lesbian seems to live in 
the Germany of to-day. 

Although so little of Sappho remains, her 
complete works must have been considerable. 
She seems to have been the chief acknowledged 
writer of 'Wedding-Songs,' if we may believe 
Himerius (cf. fr. 93) ; and there is little doubt 
that Catullus' Epithalamia were copied, if not 
actually translated, from hers. Menander the 
Rhetorician praises her 'Invocatory Hymns,' 
in which he says she called upon Artemis 
and Aphrodite from a thousand hills ; perhaps 
fr. 6 is taken out of one of these. Her hymn 
to Artemis is said to have been imitated 
by Damophyla (cf. p. 24). She was on all 
sides regarded as the greatest erotic poet of 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 43 

antiquity ; as Swinburne makes her sing of 
herself 

My blood was hot wan wine of love, 
And my song's sound the sound thereof, 
The sound of the delight of it. 

Epigrams and Elegies, Iambics and Monodies, 
she is also reported to have written. Nine 
books of her lyric Odes are said to have ex- 
isted, but it is uncertain how they were com- 
posed. The imitations of her style and metre 
made by Horace are too well known to require 
more than a passing reference. Some of his 
odes have been regarded as direct translations 
from Sappho; notably his Carm. iii. 12, Miser- 
arum est nequc amori dare ludum nequc dulci, 
which Volger compares to her fr. 90. Horace 
looked forward to hearing her in Hades singing 
plaintively to the girls of her own country 
(Carm. ii. 13, I4 1 ), and in his time 

Still breathed the love, still lived the fire 
To which the Lesbian tuned her lyre. 

(Carm. iv. 9. 10.) 

1 A quaint mediaeval commentator on Horace, quoted 
by Professor Comparetti, says this passage (querentem 
Sappho puellis de popularibus) refers to Sappho's com- 
plaining, even in Hades, of her Lesbian fellow-maidens 
for not loving the youth with whom she was herself so 
much in love. 



44 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

Athenaeus says that Chamaeleon, one of the 
disciples of Aristotle, wrote a book about 
Sappho; and Strabo says Callias of Lesbos 
interpreted her songs. Alexander the Sophist 
used to lecture on her; and Dracon of Stra- 
tonica, in the reign of Hadrian, wrote a com- 
mentary on her metres. 

She wrote in the Aeolic dialect, the form of 
which Bergk has restored in almost every in- 
stance. The absence of rough breathings, the 
throwing back of the accent, and the use of the 
digamma (F) and of many forms and words 
unknown to ordinary Attic Greek, all testify to 
this. Three idyls ascribed to Theocritus (cf. 
fr. 65) are imitations of the dialect, metre, and 
manner of the old Aeolic poets; and the 28th, 
says Professor Mahaffy, 'is an elegant little 
address to an ivory spindle which the poet was 
sending as a present to the wife of his physician 
friend, Nikias of Cos, and was probably com- 
posed on the model of a poem of Sappho.' 

Her poems or jueAH were undoubtedly written 
for recitation with the aid of music ; ' they 
were, in fact,' to quote Professor Mahaffy again, 
'the earliest specimens of what is called in 
modern days the Song or Ballad, in which the 
repetition of short rhythms produces a certain 
pleasant monotony, easy to remember and easy 
to understand.' 



LIFEOFSAPPHO 45 

What Melic poetry like Sappho's actually was 
is best comprehended in the light of Plato's 
definition of melos, that it is ' compounded out 
of three things, speech, music, and rhythm.' 

Aristoxenus, as quoted by Plutarch, ascribes 
to her the invention of the Mixo-Lydian mode. 
Mr. William Chappell thinks the plain mean- 
ing of Aristoxenus' assertion is merely that she 
sang softly and plaintively, and at a higher 
pitch than any of her predecessors. All Greek 
modes can be exhibited by means of our 
diatonic scale by the white keys, for example, 
omitting the black ones, of our modern piano- 
fortes ; the various modes having been merely 
divisions of the diatonic scale into certain 
regions each consisting of one octave. The 
ecclesiastical Mixo-Lydian mode, supposed to 
be similar to the Greek mode of the same 
name, is the scale of our G major without the 
F$ or leading note. It was called in the early 
Christian Church 'the angelic mode/ and is 
now known as the Seventh of the ecclesiastical 
or Gregorian modes. The more celebrated 
instances of the use of this mode in modern 
church music are Palestrina's four-part motet 
Dies sanctificatus, the Antiphon Asperges me as 
given in the Roman Gradual, and the Sarum 
melody of Sanctorum meritis printed in the 
Rev. T. Helmore's Hymnal Noted, The sub- 



46 LIFEOFSAPPHO 

joined example of it is given in Sir George 
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians : 

r fr g3 _^- g> *"* 1 

together with a technical description of its 
construction. 

Sappho is said by Athenaeus, quoting 
Menaechmus and Aristoxenus, to have been 
the first of the Greek poets to use the Pektis 
(TTHKTUJ), a foreign instrument of uncertain form, 
a kind of harp (cf. fr. 122), which was played 
by the fingers without a plectrum. Athenaeus 
says the Pektis was identical with the Magadis, 
but in this he was plainly wrong, for Mr. Wil- 
liam Chappell has shown that any instrument 
which was played in octaves was called a Maga- 
dis, and when it was in the form of a lyre it had 
a bridge to divide the strings into two parts, 
in the ratio of 2 to i, so that the short part of 
each string gave a sound just one octave higher 
than the other. Sappho also mentions (in fr. 
154) the Baromos or Barmos, and the Sarbitos 
or Barbitos, kinds of many-stringed Lesbian 
lyres which cannot now be identified. 

As to the metres in which Sappho wrote, it 
is unnecessary to describe them elaborately 
here. They are discussed in all treatises on 
Greek or Latin metres, and Neue has treated 



LIFE OF SAPPHO 47 

of them at great length in his edition of Sappho. 
Suffice it to say that Bergk has as far as 
possible arranged the fragments according to 
their metres, of which I have given indications 
often purposely general in the headings to 
the various divisions. The metre commonly 
called after her name was probably not in- 
vented by her; it was only called Sapphic 
because of her frequent use of it Its strophe 
is made up thus : 



Professor Robinson Ellis, in the preface to his 
translation of Catullus, gives some examples of 
Elizabethan renderings of the Sapphic stanza 
into English ; but nothing repeats its rhythm to 
my ear so well as Swinburne's Sapphics : 

All the night sleep came not upon my eyelids, 
Shed not dew, nor shook nor unclosed a feather, 
Yet with lips shut close and with eyes of iron 
Stood and beheld me. 

With such lines as these ringing in the reader's 
ears, he can almost hear Sappho herself 
singing 

Songs that move the heart of the shaken heaven, 
Songs that break the heart of the earth with pity, 
Hearing, to hear them. 



48 LIFE OF SAPPHO 

In the face of so much testimony to Sappho's 
genius, and in the presence of every glowing 
word of hers that has been spared to us, those 
'grains of golden sand which the torrent of 
Time has carried down to us,' as Professor 
F. T. Palgrave says, there is no need for 
me to panegyrise the poetess whom the whole 
world has been long since contented to hold 
without a parallel. What Sappho wrote, to earn 
such unchallenged fame, we can only vainly 
long to know; what still remains for us to 
judge her by, I am willing to leave my readers 
to estimate. 



I 

IN SAPPHIC METRE 



TToiKiAo9(ST>v , aedverr' 'A<pp66iTa, 
nal AIOQ, 6oAonAoKe, AioooMai ae 
JUH fi' aaaiai /HHT* ovicuai bduva, 

TiOTvia, 6G(uov 

aAAa ruib' e\0', airrora KarepcoTa 
rag ejuaq aubcog atoioa TTHAUI 

6e 66juov Ainoiaa 



' uTTO?euaiaa' KaAoi 6t a' afov 

orpoOeoi nepi fac MeAaivaq 

nuKvo biveuvreq nrep' aTT 5 wpcivco ai6e- 

paq ciu jiiiaoco. 

atya 6' eiKovTO' TU 6', <S M^Kaipa, 
jueibidaaia' aSavotrcp npocscontp, 
Hpe', 6m &HUT6 ncnovOa KWTTI 

6HUT6 KOAHMl, 

KWTTI noi MaAiora GeAco f evesSai 
jicuvoAa 6ujacp' riva bHure TTeiGco 
you; 5f HV eq sav (piAorara, TIQ c', <L 



D 



5O SAPPHO 

KOI rap ai 9Ufei, raxeax; 6ia>ei, 
ai 6e 6a>pa HH 
at 6e HH <piAei, 

KOOUK t9eAoiaa. 

eA0e /noi KOI vOv, xaAeirav 6e Auaov 
K nepiuvav, ooau 6e J^LOI reAeaoai 

lueppei, reAeaov ou 6' aura 
eaao. 



Immortal Aphrodite of tJie broidered throne* 
daughter of Zeus, weaver of wiles, I pray tfiec 
break not my spirit with anguish and distress, O 
Queen. But come hither, if ever before thou didst 
hear my voice afar, and listen, and leaving thy 
father's golden house earnest with chariot yoked, 
and fair fleet sparrows drew thee, flapping fast 
their wings around the dark earth, from heaven 
through mid sky. Quickly arrived they ; and 
thou, blessed one, smiling with immortal counte- 
nance, didst ask What now is befallen me, and 
Why now I call, and What I in my mad heart 
most desire to see. c What Beauty now wouldst 
thou draw to love thee ? Who wrongs thee, 
Sappho ? For even if she flies she shall soon 
follow, and if she rejects gifts shall yet give, and 
if she loves not shall soon love, however loth? 
Come, I pray thee, now too, and release me from 
cruel cares ; and all that my heart desires to 
accomplish, accomplish thou, and be thyself my 
ally. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 51 



A HYMN TO VENUS. 

O Venus, beauty of the skies, 

To whom a thousand temples rise, 

Gaily false in gentle smiles, 

Full of love-perplexing wiles ; 

O goddess, from my heart remove 

The wasting cares and pains of love. 

If ever thou hast kindly heard 
A song in soft distress preferred, 
Propitious to my tuneful vow, 

gentle goddess, hear me now. 
Descend, thou bright immortal guest, 
In all thy radiant charms confessed. 

Thou once didst leave almighty Jove 
And all the golden roofs above ; 
The car thy wanton sparrows drew, 
Hovering in air they lightly flew ; 
As to my bower they winged their way 

1 saw their quivering pinions play. 

The birds dismissed (while you remain) 
Bore back their empty car again : 
Then you, with looks divinely mild, 
In every heavenly feature smiled, 
And asked what new complaints I made, 
And why I called you to my aid ? 



52 SAPPHO 

What frenzy in my bosom raged, 
And by what cure to be assuaged ? 
What gentle youth I would allure. 
Whom in my artful toils secure ? 
Who does thy tender heart subdue, 
Tell me, my Sappho, tell me who ? 

Though now he shuns thy longing arms, 
He soon shall court thy slighted charms ; 
Though now thy offerings he despise, 
He soon to thee shall sacrifice ; 
Though now he freeze, he soon shall burn, 
And be thy victim in his turn. 

Celestial visitant, once more 
Thy needful presence I implore. 
In pity come, and ease my grief, 
Bring my distempered soul relief, 
Favour thy suppliant's hidden fires, 
And give me all my heart desires. 

AMBROSE PHILIPS, 1711. 



TO THE GODDESS OF LOVE. 

O Venus, daughter of the mighty Jove, 
Most knowing in the mystery of love, 
Help me, oh help me, quickly send relief, 
And suffer not my heart to break with grief. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 53 

If ever thou didst hear me when I prayed, 
Come now, my goddess, to thy Sappho's aid. 
Orisons used, such favour hast thou shewn, 
From heaven's golden mansions called thee 
down. 

See, see, she comes in her cerulean car, 
Passing the middle regions of the air. 
Mark how her nimble sparrows stretch the wing, 
And wjth uncommon speed their Mistress bring. 

Arrived, and sparrows loosed, hastens to me ;. 
Then smiling asks, What is it troubles thee ? 
Why am I called ? Tell me what Sappho wants. 
Oh, know you not the cause of all my plaints ? 

I love, I burn, and only love require ; 
And nothing less can quench the raging fire. 
What youth, what raving lover shall I gain ? 
Where is the captive that should wear my chain? 

Alas, poor Sappho, who is this ingrate 
Provokes thee so, for love returning hate ? 
Does he now fly thee ? He shall soon return ; 
Pursue thee, and with equal ardour burn. 

Would he no presents at thy hands receive ? 
He will repent it, and more largely give. 
The force of love no longer can withstand ; 
He must be fond, wholly at thy command. 



54 SAPPHO 

When wilt thou work this change? Now, 

Venus free, 

Now ease my mind of so much misery j 
In this amour my powerful aider be ; 
Make Phaon love, but let him love like me. 

HERBERT, 1713. 



HYMN TO VENUS. 

Immortal Venus, throned above 
In radiant beauty, child of Jove, 
O skilled in every art of love 

And artful snare ; 

Dread power, to whom I bend the knee, 
Release my soul and set it free 
From bonds of piercing agony 

And gloomy care. 
Yet come thyself, if e'er, benign, 
Thy listening ears thou didst incline 
To my rude lay, the starry shine 

Of Jove's court leaving, 
In chariot yoked with coursers fair, 
Thine own immortal birds that bear 
Thee swift to earth, the middle air 

With bright wings cleaving. 
Soon they were sped and thou, most blest, 
In thine own smiles ambrosial dressed, 
Didst ask what griefs my mind oppressed 

What meant my song 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 55 

What end my frenzied thoughts pursue 
For what loved youth I spread anew 
My amorous nets ' Who, Sappho, who 
' Hath done thee wrong ? 

* What though he fly, he 11 soon return 

* Still press thy gifts, though now he spurn ; 
' Heed not his coldness soon hell burn, 

' E'en though thou chide.' 
And saidst thou thus, dread goddess ? Oh, 

Come then once more to ease my woe : 
Grant all, and thy great self bestow, 

My shield and guide ! 

JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE, 1833. 

HYMN TO APHRODITE. 

Golden-throned beyond the sky, 
Jove-born immortality : 
Hear and heal a suppliant's pain : 
Let not love be love in vain ! 

Come, as once to Love's imploring 
Accents of a maid's adoring, 
Wafted 'neath the golden dome 
Bore thee from thy father's home ; 

When far off thy coming glowed, 
Whirling down th' aethereal road, 
On thy dove-drawn progress glancing, 
'Mid the light of wings advancing ; 



56 SAPPHO 

And at once the radiant hue 
Of immortal smiles I knew ; 
Heard the voice of reassurance 
Ask the tale of love's endurance : 

* Why such prayer ? And who for thee, 
Sappho, should be touch'd by me ; 
Passion-charmed in frenzy strong 
Who hath wrought my Sappho wrong ? 

' Soon for flight pursuit wilt find, 
Proffer'd gifts for gifts declined ; 
Soon, thro' long reluctance earn'd, 
Love refused be Love return'd.' 

To thy suppliant so returning, 
Consummate a maiden's yearning : 
Love, from deep despair set free, 
Championing to victory ! 

F. T. PALGRAVE, 1854. 

Splendour-throned Queen, immortal Aphrodite, 
Daughter of Jove, Enchantress, I implore thee 
Vex not my soul with agonies and anguish ; 

Slay me not, Goddess ! 

Come in thy pity come, if I have prayed thee ; 
Come at the cry of my sorrow ; in the old times 
Oft thou hast heard, and left thy father's heaven, 

Left the gold houses, 
Yoking thy chariot. Swiftly did the doves fly, 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 57 

Swiftly they brought thee, waving plumes of 

wonder 
Waving their dark plumes all across the aether, 

All down the azure. 
Very soon they lighted. Then didst thou, 

Divine one, 
Laugh a bright laugh from lips and eyes 

immortal, 

Ask me, 'What ailed me wherefore out of 
heaven 

'Thus I had called thee? 
' What it was made me madden in my heart so?' 
Question me, smiling say to me, ' My Sappho, 
' Who is it wrongs thee ? Tell me who refuses 

' Thee, vainly sighing.' 

1 Be it who it may be, he that flies shall follow ; 
' He that rejects gifts, he shall bring thee many ; 
' He that hates now shall love thee dearly, madly 

' Aye, though thou wouldst not.' 
So once again come, Mistress ; and, releasing 
Me from my sadness, give me what I sue for, 
Grant me my prayer, and be as heretofore now 
Friend and protectress. 

EDWIN ARNOLD, 1869. 

Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite, 
Daughter of Zeus, beguiler, I implore thee, 
Weigh me not down with weariness and anguish 
O thou most holy ! 



58 SAPPHO 

Come to me now, if ever thou in kindness 
Hearkenedst my words, and often hast thou 

hearkened 

Heeding, and coming from the mansions golden 
Of thy great Father, 

Yoking thy chariot, borne by the most lovely 
Consecrated birds, with dusky-tinted pinions, 
Waving swift wings from utmost heights of 
heaven 

Through the mid-ether ; 

Swiftly they vanished, leaving thee, O goddess, 
Smiling, with face immortal in its beauty, 
Asking why I grieved, and why in utter longing 
I had dared call thee ; 

Asking what I sought, thus hopeless in desiring, 
Wildered in brain, and spreading nets of 

passion 
Alas, for whom ? and saidst thou, ' Who has 

harmed thee ? 

' O my poor Sappho ! 

1 Though now he flies, ere long he shall pursue 

thee; 
'Fearing thy gifts, he too in turn shall bring 

them; 

' Loveless to-day, to-morrow he shall woo thee, 
* Though thou shouldst spurn him.' 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 59 

Thus seek me now, O holy Aphrodite ! 
Save me from anguish ; give me all I ask for, 
Gifts at thy hand ; and thine shall be the glory, 
Sacred protector ! 

T. W. HIGGINSON, 1871. 

O fickle-souled, deathless one, Aphrodite, 

Daughter of Zeus, weaver of wiles, I pray thee, 
Lady august, never with pangs and bitter 
Anguish affray me ! 

But hither come often, as erst with favour 

My invocations pitifully heeding, 
Leaving thy sire's golden abode, thou earnest 
Down to me speeding. 

Yoked to thy car, delicate sparrows drew thee 
Fleetly to earth, fluttering fast their pinions, 
From heaven's height through middle ether's 
liquid 

Sunny dominions. 

Soon they arrived ; thou, O divine one, smiling 
Sweetly from that countenance all immortal, 
Askedst my grief, wherefore I so had called thee 
From the bright portal ? 

What my wild soul languished for, frenzy- 
stricken ? 

4 Who thy love now is it that ill requiteth, 
Sappho ? and who thee and thy tender yearning 
Wrongfully slighteth ? 



60 SAPPHO 

Though he now fly, quickly he shall pursue 

thee 
Scorns he thy gifts? Soon he shall freely 

offer 

Loves he not ? Soon, even wert thou unwilling, 
Love shall he proffer.' 

Come to me then, loosen me from my torment, 
All my heart's wish unto fulfilment guide 

thou, 

Grant and fulfil ! And an ally most trusty 
Ever abide thou. 

MORETON JOHN WALHOUSE, in The 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1877. 

Glittering-throned, undying Aphrodite, 
Wile-weaving daughter of high Zeus, I pray 

thee, 
Tame not my soul with heavy woe, dread 

mistress, 
Nay, nor with anguish ! 

But hither come, if ever erst of old time 
Thou didst incline, and listenedst to my crying, 
And from thy father's palace down descending, 
Camest with golden 

Chariot yoked : thee fair swift-flying sparrows 
Over dark earth with multitudinous fluttering, 
Pinion on pinion, thorough middle ether 
Down from heaven hurried. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 6l 

Quickly they came like light, and thou, blest 

lady, 

Smiling with clear undying eyes didst ask me 
What was the woe that troubled me, and 

wherefore 

I had cried to thee : 

What thing I longed for to appease my frantic 
Soul : and Whom now must I persuade, thou 

askedst, 

Whom must entangle to thy love, and who now, 
Sappho, hath wronged thee ? 

Yea, for if now he shun, he soon shall chase 

thee; 
Yea, if he take not gifts, he soon shall give 

them; 

Yea, if he love not, soon shall he begin to 
Love thee, unwilling. 

Come to me now too, and from tyrannous 

sorrow 

Free me, and all things that my soul desires to 
Have done, do for me, queen, and let thyself too 
Be my great ally ! 

J. ADDINGTON SYMONDS, 1893. 

Besides these complete versions many 
others there are, but these are by far the best 



62 SAPPHO 

compare the following stanza out of Aken- 
side's Ode on Lyric Poetry (about 1745) : 

But lo, to Sappho's melting airs 

Descends the radiant queen of Love : 
She smiles, and asks what fonder cares 

Her suppliant's plaintive measures move : 
Why is my faithful maid distressed ? 
Who, Sappho, wounds thy tender breast ? 
Say, flies he ? Soon he shall pursue. 

Shuns he thy gifts ? He soon shall give. 

Slights he thy sorrows ? He shall grieve, 
And soon to all thy wishes bow. 

And Swinburne's paraphrase 

For I beheld in sleep the light that is 
In her high place in Paphos, heard the kiss 
Of body and soul that mix with eager tears 
And laughter stinging through the eyes and 

ears: 

Saw Love, as burning flame from crown to feet, 
Imperishable, upon her storied seat ; 
Clear eyelids lifted toward the north and south, 
A mind of many colours, and a mouth 
Of many tunes and kisses ; and she bowed, 
With all her subtle face laughing aloud, 
Bowed down upon me, saying, 'Who doth 

thee wrong, 
Sappho ? ' but thou thy body is the song, 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 63 

Thy mouth the music ; thou art more than I, 
Though my voice die not till the whole world 

die; 
Though men that hear it madden ; though love 

weep, 
Though nature change, though shame be 

charmed to sleep. 

Ay, wilt thou slay me lest I kiss thee dead ? 
Yet the queen laughed from her sweet heart 

and said : 

' Even she that flies shall follow for thy sake, 
And she shall give thee gifts that would not take, 
Shall kiss that would not kiss thee ' (yea, kiss me) 
' When thou wouldst not ' when I would not 

kiss thee ! 

Anactoria, p. 67 

And his 

O tJiou of divers-coloured mind, 1 O thou 
Deathless^ God's daughter subtle-souled lo now, 
Now to the song above all songs, in flight 
Higher than the day-star's height, 
And sweet as sound the moving wings of night ! 
Thou of the divers-coloured seat behold 
Her very song of old ! 

O deathless, O God's daughter subtle-souled I 
***** 

1 TioiKiA69pov J = on richly worked throne, is by some 
read noiKiA6<ppov = full of various wiles, subtle-minded. 



64 SAPPHO 

Child of God, close craftswoman, I beseech thee ; 
Bid not ache nor agony break nor master, 
Lady, my spirit. 

Songs of the Spring-tides: On the Cliffs. 

As well as Frederick Tennyson's 

Come to me ; what I seek in vain 
Bring thou ; into my spirit send 
Peace after care, balm after pain ; 
And be my friend. 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, writing at Rome 
about 25 B.C., quotes this, commonly called 
The Ode to Aphrodite, as a perfect illustration 
of the elaborately finished style of poetry, 
showing in detail how its grace and beauty lie 
in the subtle harmony between the words and 
the ideas. Certain lines of it, though nowhere 
else the whole, are preserved by Hephaestion 
and other authors. 

2 

<t>aiveral AOI KHVOC Too<; 9eoioiv 
a>vHp, OSTIQ evavrioc TOI 



Udvei, Kai nAaaiov a&u <pa>Vu- 

oac UTTCtKOuei 

Kai reAaiaac iMepoev, TO jmoi judv 
Kapbiav ev OTHGeaiv errroaoev 
ax; rap euibov 3poxeo><; ae, 

oubev cr 5 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 65 

KOM juev fAwoaa eotfe, Aenrov I' 



onnareGat b' oubev opHjn', enippoju- 

Peioi 6' aKOuai. 

a be MiSp^C KaKxterat, Tpojioq 6e 
natoav afpei, x^^pOTepa 6e noiaq 
eMMi, TeGvaKHv 6' oAifco 'ntbeuHQ 

^aivoMai [aAAa]. 
aAAa nav TO\)HUTOV, [enei KQI nevHTa]. 

That man seems to me peer of gods, who sits 
in thy presence \ and hears close to him thy sweet 
speech and lovely laughter ; that indeed makes 
my heart flutter in my bosom. For when I see 
thee but a little, I have no utterance left, my 
tongue is broken down, and straightway a subtle 
fire has run under my skin, with my eyes I have 
no sight, my ears ring, sweat pours down, and a 
trembling seizes all my body ; I am paler than 
grass, and seem in my madness little better t/ian 
one dead. But I must dare all, since one so 
poor . . . 

The famous imitation of this ode by Catullus, 
li., Ad Lesbiam 

Ille mi par esse deo videtur, 
Ille, si fas est, superare divos, 
Qui sedens adversus identidem te 
Spectat et audit 
E 



66 SAPPHO 

Dulce ridentem, misero quod omnis 
Eripit sensus mihi : nam simul te, 

Lesbia, aspexi, nihil est super mi 

* # * * * 

Lingua sed torpet, tenuis sub artus 
Flamma demanat, sonitu suopte 
Tintinant aures, gemina teguntur 
Lumina nocte 

is thus translated by Mr. W. E. Gladstone : 

Him rival to the gods I place, 

Him loftier yet, if loftier be, 
Who, Lesbia, sits before thy face, 

Who listens and who looks on thee ; 

Thee smiling soft. Yet this delight 
Doth all my sense consign to death ; 

For when thou dawnest on my sight, 
Ah, wretched ! flits my labouring breath. 

My tongue is palsied. Subtly hid 

Fire creeps me through from limb to limb 

My loud ears tingle all unbid : 

Twin clouds of night mine eyes bedim. 

arid recently by the late Sir R. F. Burton : 

Peer of a god meseemeth he, 
Nay, passing gods (an that can be !), 
Who all the while sits facing thee, 
Sees thee and hears 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 6? 

Thy low sweet laughs which (ah me !) daze 
Mine every sense, and as I gaze 
Upon thee, Lesbia. o'er me strays 

My tongue is dulled, my limbs adown 
Flows subtle flame ; with sound its own 
Rings either ear, and o'er are strown 
Mine eyes with night. 



Blest as the immortal gods is he, 
The youth who fondly sits by thee, 
And hears and sees thee all the while 
Softly speak and sweetly smile. 

'Twas this deprived my soul of rest, 
And raised such tumults in my breast ; 
For while I gazed, in transport tost, 
My breath was gone, my voice was lost 

My bosom glowed ; the subtle flame 
Ran quick through all my vital frame ; 
O'er my dim eyes a darkness hung; 
My ears with hollow murmurs rung. 

In dewy damps my limbs were chilled ; 
My blood with gentle horror thrilled ; 
My feeble pulse forgot to play j 
I tainted, sank, and died away. 

AMBROSE PHILIPS, 1711. 



68 SAPPHO 

Thy fatal shafts unerring move, 
I bow before thine altar, Love 
I feel thy soft resistless flame 
Glide swift through ail my vital frame. 

For while I gaze my bosom glows, 
My blood in tides impetuous flows ; 
Hope, fear, and joy alternate roll, 
And floods of transports whelm my soul. 

My faltering tongue attempts in vain 
In soothing murmurs to complain ; 
My tongue some secret magic ties, 
My murmurs sink in broken sighs. 

Condemned to nurse eternal care, 
And ever drop the silent tear, 
Unheard I mourn, unknown I sigh, 
Unfriended live, unpitied die. 

SMOLLETT, in Roderick Random^ 1748. 



Blest as the immortal gods is he, 

The youth whose eyes may look on thee, 

Whose ears thy tongue's sweet melody 

May still devour. 

Thou smilest too? sweet smile, whose charm 
Has struck my soul with wild alarm, 
And, when I see thee, bids disarm 

Each vital power. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 69 

Speechless I gaze : the flame within 
Runs swift o'er all my quivering skin ; 
My eyeballs swim ; with dizzy din 

My brain reels round j 
And cold drops fall ; and tremblings frail 
Seize every limb ; and grassy pale 
I grow ; and then together fail 

Both sight and sound. 
JOHN HERMAN MERIVALE, 1833. 



Peer of gods he seemeth to me, the blissful 
Man who sits and gazes at thee before him, 
Close beside thee sits, and in silence hears thee 

Silverly speaking, 

Laughing love's low laughter. Oh this, this only 
Stirs the troubled heart in my breast to tremble ! 
For should I but see thee a little moment, 

Straight is my voice hushed ; 
Yea, my tongue is broken, and through and 

through me 

'Neath the flesh impalpable fire runs tingling ; 
Nothing see mine eyes, and a noise of roaring 

Waves in my ear sounds ; 
Sweat runs down in rivers, a tremor seizes 
All my limbs, and paler than grass in autumn, 
Caught by pains of menacing death, I falter, 

Lost in the love-trance. 

J. ADDINGTON SYMONDS, 1883. 



7O SAPPHO 

Compare Lord Tennyson : 

I watch thy grace ; and in its place 
My heart a charmed slumber keeps, 

While I muse upon thy face ; 
And a languid fire creeps 

Through my veins to all my frame, 
Dissolvingly and slowly : soon 

From thy rose-red lips my name 
Floweth ; and then, as in a swoon, 
With dinning sound my ears are rife, 
My tremulous tongue faltereth, 
I lose my colour, I lose my breath, 
I drink the cup of a costly death 
Brimmed with delicious draughts of warmest 

life. 
I die with my delight, before 

I hear what I would hear from thee. 

Elednore, 1832. 
And 

Last night, when some one spoke his name, 
From my swift blood that went and came 
A thousand little shafts of flame 
Were shiver'd in my narrow frame. Fatima. 1 

1 When Fatima. was first published (1832) this motto 
was prefixed 

4>a(verai uoi KHVOC taoc Seotoiv 
"uuev avHp, 

showing Tennyson's acknowledgments to Sappho. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE /I 

And with line 14, Swinburne's 

Paler than grass in summer. Sapphics. 

and 

Made like white summer-coloured grass. 

Aholibah. 

Longinus, about 250 A.D., uses this, The Ode 
to Anactoria, or To a beloved Woman, or To a 
Maiden, as tradition variously names it, to 
illustrate the perfection of the Sublime in 
poetry, calling it ' not one passion, but a con- 
gress of passions,' and showing how Sappho 
had here seized upon the signs of love-frenzy 
and harmonised them into faultless phrase. 
Plutarch had, about 60 A.D., spoken of this ode 
as ' mixed with fire,' and quoted Philoxenus as 
referring to Sappho's ' sweet-voiced songs heal- 
ing love.' 



oe\avvav 
aty unuKpunroiai cpdevvov eI5o<;, 
SimoTa n\H6oica naAiora AUJUTTH 
fav [firi iracav] 



The stars about the fair moon in their turn 
hide their bright face when she at about her full 
lights up all earth with silver. 



72 SAPPHO 

Planets, that around the beauteous moon 
Attendant wait, cast into shade 

Their ineffectual lustre, soon 
As she, in full-orbed majesty arrayed, 

Her silver radiance pours 

Upon this world of ours. 

J. H. MERIVALE. 

The stars around the lovely moon 
Their radiant visage hide as soon 
As she, full-orbed, appears to sight, 
Flooding the earth with her silvery light. 

? FELTON. 

The stars about the lovely moon 
Fade back and vanish very soon, 
When, round and full, her silver face 
Swims into sight, and lights all space. 

EDWIN ARNOLD, 1869. 

Stars that shine around the refulgent full moon 
Pale, and hide their glory of lesser lustre 
When she pours her silvery plenilunar 
Light on the orbed earth. 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 

' As the stars draw back their shining faces 
when they surround the fair moon in her silver 
fulness.' F. T. PALGRAVE. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 73 

Quoted by Eustathius of Thessalonica, late 
in the twelfth century, to illustrate the simile in 
the Iliad, viii. 551 : 

As when in heaven the stars about the moon 
Look beautiful. TENNYSON. 

Julian, about 350 A.D., says Sappho applied 
the epithet silver to the moon ; wherefore 
Blomfield suggested its position here. 



i' uobcov 

juctAivcov, aiGuoaojutvwv 5e <puAAcov 
KO>MO Kcrrappei 

And round about the [breeze] murmurs cool 
through apple-boughs, and slumber streams from 
quivering leaves. 

Through orchard-plots with fragrance crowned 
The clear cold fountain murmuring flows ; 

And forest leaves with rustling sound 
Invite to soft repose. 

J. H. MERIVALE. 

All around through branches of apple-orchards 
Cool streams call, while down from the leaves 
a-tremble 

Slumber distilleth. 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 



74 SAPPHO 

Professor F. T. Palgrave says : 
' We have three lines on a garden scene full 
of the heat and sleep of the fortunate South : 

' " Round about the cool water thrills through 
the apple-branches, and sleep flows down upon 
us in the rustling leaves." 

'If there were any authority,' he adds in a 
note, ' I should like to translate " through the 
troughs of apple- wood." That Eastern mode of 
garden irrigation gives a much more denned, 
and hence a more Sappho-like, image than 
"through the boughs.'" 

From the sound of cool waters heard through 
the green boughs 

Of the fruit-bearing trees, 
And the rustling breeze, 
Deep sleep, as a trance, down over me flows. 
FREDERICK TENNYSON, 1 890. 

Cited by Hermogenes, about 170 A.D.. as 
an example of simple style, and to show the 
pleasure given by description. The fragment 
describes the gardens of the nymphs, which 
Demetrius, about 150 A.D., says were sung by 
Sappho. Cf. Theocritus, Idyl vii. 135: 'High 
above our heads waved many a poplar, many 
an elm-tree, while close at hand the sacred 
water from the Nymph's own cave welled forth 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 75 

with murmurs musical ' (A. Lang). And Ovid, 
Her oid., xv. 157 

A spring there is whose silver waters show, etc. 

(cf. Pope's translation, infra, p. 194) probably 
refers to it. 



Kutrpi 

ev KuAiKeaaiv afJpox; 
aujujuemrnevov eaAiaiai veiorap 
oivoxoeuaa. 

Come, goddess of Cyprus, and in golden cups 
serve nectar delicately mixed with delights. 

Come, Venus, come 
Hither with thy golden cup, 

Where nectar-floated flowerets swim. 
Fill, fill the goblet up ; 

These laughing lips shall kiss the brim, 
Come, Venus, come ! 

ANON. (Edin. Rev., 1832). 

Kupris, hither 

Come, and pour from goblets of gold the nectar 
Mixed for love's and pleasure's delight with 
dainty 

Joys of the banquet. 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 



76 SAPPHO 

Athenaeus, a native of Naucratis, who flour- 
ished about 230 A.D., quotes these verses as 
an example of the poets' custom of invoking 
Aphrodite in their pledges. Applying them to 
himself and his fellow-guests, he adds the words 
TOUTOKH role ercupou; CMOIC re KOI ooiq. Some 
scholars believe that Sappho actually wrote 



rmobe TCUC ejumc crapmoi Kai 
For these my companions and thine. 

Aphrodite was called Cypris, ' the Cyprian,' be- 
cause it was mythologically believed that when 
she rose from the sea she was first received as 
a goddess on the shore of Cyprus (Homeric 
ffymns, vi.). Sappho seems to be here figura- 
tively referring to the nectar of love. 



"H oe Konpoc xai 

Or Cyprus and Paphos, or Panormus [holds] 
thu. 

If thee Cyprus, or Paphos, or Panormos. 
J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 

From Strabo, about 19 A.D. Panormus 
(Palermo) in Sicily was not founded till after 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 77 

Sappho's time, but it was a common name, and 
all seaports were under the special protection 
of Aphrodite. 



7,8 

Sol 5' er&> AeuKaQ eni 3a>jnov aIf(K 



rot ^ w w v - 

But for thee will I [lead] to /&? altar [the off- 
spring] 0/" a white goat . . . and add a libation 
for thee. 

Adduced by Apollonius of Alexandria, 
about 140 A.D., to illustrate similarities in dia- 
lects. The fragment is probably part of an ode 
describing a sacrifice offered to Aphrodite. 



Ai8' erc 

rovbe TOV naXov 

This lot may I win, golden-crowned Aphrodite . 

From Apollonius, to show how adverbs give 
an idea of prayer. 



78 SAPPHO 



IO 

Ai ue Tijuiav enoHGav 
TO o<pa 5oioau 

Who gave me their gifts and made me honoiired. 

From Apollonius, to illustrate the Aeolic dia- 
lect. Bergk thinks this fragment had some 
connection with fr. 68, and perhaps with fr. 32. 
Tt seems to refer to the Muses. 



II 

w w Td5e vuv e 

TOU; ejLKuot repnva KaAux; aeiao). 

This will I now sing deftly to please my girl- 
friends. 

Quoted by Athenaeus to prove that freeborn 
women and maidens often called their girl 
associates and friends ermpai (Hetaerae), with- 
out any idea of reproach. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 79 



12 

- v w w w "Omvoc rap 
eu 6eu), KHVOI jne MaAiGTCi aivvov- 

TCU. w w - w . 



whom I benefit injure me most. 



From the Etymologicum Magm/m, a diction- 
ary which was compiled about the tenth 
century A.D. 



13 

w w w "Ef^ &e KHV' OT- 
TOJ TH epcrrcu. 

But that which one desires / . . . 

From Apollonius, to illustrate the use of the 
verb tpaw. Bergk now reads eparai instead of 
tpfirai as formerly, on the analogy of &IOKHTUI 
and OUVOMOI in tne i'ayum fragments. 



80 SAPPHO 



H 



Talc K(i\aiq u/mmv [TO] voH^ia TO>UOV 
OL 6ici)Lieiirrov. 

To you, fair maids, my mind changes not. 

From Apollonius, to show the Aeolic use of 
for UJLUV, ' to you.' 



15 

w w w "Ercov 6' t 
TOUTO ouvoiba. 

And this I feel in myself. 
From Apollonius, to show Aeolic accentuation. 

16 

TOUCH [6e] \j/C)(poq (uiev efevro 9u/noc, 
nap 6' icioi TO trrepa. w w 

But their heart turned cold and they dropt 
their wings, 

In Pindar, Pyth. i. 10, the eagle of Zeus, 
delighted by music, drops his wings, and the 
Scholiast quotes this fragment to show that 
Sappivo says the same of doves. 



8i 



w w v KOT 9 ijuov 
Tbv 6 eniTTAa^ovreg ajuoi <ptpoiev 
Km ue/\e5cbvaiQ. 

According to my weeping : it and all cart let 
buffeting winds bear away. 

Him the wanderer o'er the world 
Far away the winds will bear, 
And restless care. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 

From the Etymologicum Magnum, to show 
that the Aeolians used ? in the place of aa. 
Ajuoi is a guess of Bergk's for avejuoi, ' winds.' 



18 

'Ap-na>c u' a xpuooTT 
Me just now the golden-sandalled Dawn . . . 

Me but now Aurora the golden-sandalled. 
J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 

Quoted by Ammonius of Alexandria, at the 
close of the fourth century A.D., to show Sappho's 
use of aprioq. 

F 



82 SAPPHO 



19 

w w w TTo&ac 64 
(uuioXm; eKaXuirre, AO&i- 
ov KaAov epfov. 

A broidered strap of fair Lydian work covered 
her feet. 

Quoted by the Scholiast on Aristophanes' 
Peace, 1174 ; and also by Pollux, about 180 A.D. 
Blass thinks the lines may have referred to an 
apparition of Aphrodite. 



2O 

- w w TTavro&anau; 
va xpotaiotv. 

Shot with a thousand hues. 

Quoted by the Scholiast on Apollonius of 
Rhodes, i. 727, in speaking of Jason's double- 
folded mantle having been reddish instead of 
flame-coloured Some think, however, that 
Sappho here refers to Iris, i.e. the rainbow. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 83 

21 

.... "EjueSev b' tyeiaQa Ad6av 
Me thouforgettest. 

From Apollonius, as is also the following, to 
show the Aeolic use of lMe6ev for enou, ' of me.' 

22 

w w ww"H Tlv ' oAAov 
[juoAAov] avGpconcov tjueQev <piAH00a. 

d?r lovest another more than me. 



23 

Ou TI M 

Ye are nought to me. 

Quoted by Apollonius, as is also the following 
fragment, to show that ujneu; was in Aeolic 
'you.' 



84 SAPPHO 

24 

AC GeAer' Guuec. 
While ye will. 

25 

Kai TTOGHCO KOI uao.ucu w w 
I yearn and seek . . . 

From the Etymologicum Magnum, to show 
that the Aeolians used noetico for noeeco, 
'I yearn.' 



26 

Kelvov, <5 xP u o6p ve MoCo', 
UMVOV, eK rag KaAAipJvaiKoc c 
Tmog x^P "^ ov aeibe 
afauoq. 



C? Muse of the golden throne, raise that strain 
which the reverend elder of Teos, from the goodly 
land of fair women, used to sing so sweetly. 



IN SAPPHIC METRE 85 

O Muse, who sitt'st on golden throne, 
Full many a hymn of dulcet tone 

The Teian sage is taught by thee ; 
But, goddess, from thy throne of gold, 
The sweetest hymn thou 'st ever told 

He lately learned and sang for me. 

T. MOORE. 



Athenaeus says ' Hermesianax was mistaken 
when he represented Sappho and Anacreon as 
contemporaries, for Anacreon lived in the time 
of Cyrus and Polycrates [probably 563-478 B.C.], 
but Sappho lived in the reign of Alyattes the 
father of Croesus. But Chamaeleon, in his 
treatise on Sappho, asserts that according to 
some these verses were made upon her by 
Anacreon : 



" Spirit of Love, whose tresses shine 
Along the breeze in golden twine, 
Come, within a fragrant cloud 
Blushing with light, thy votary shroud, 
And on those wings that sparkling play 
Waft, oh waft me hence away ! 
Love, my soul is full of thee, 
Alive to all thy luxury. 



86 SAPPHO 

But she, the nymph for whom I glow. 
The pretty Lesbian, mocks my woe, 
Smiles at the hoar and silvery hues 
Which Time upon my forehead strews. 

Alas, I fear she keeps her charms 
In store for younger, happier arms."' 

T. MOOUE. 



Then follows Sappho's reply, the present 
fragment. 'I myself think,' Athenaeus goes 
on to say, 'that Hermesianax is joking con- 
cerning the love of Anacreon and Sappho, for 
Diphilus the comic poet, in his play called 
Sappho, has represented Archilochus and Hip- 
ponax as the lovers of Sappho.' 

Probably the whole is spurious, for certainly 
Sappho never saw Anacreon : she must have 
died before he was born. Even Athenaeus 
says that it is clear to every one that the verses 
are not Sappho's. 



IN DACTYLIC METRE 8/ 




2 7 

ev OTH6eaiv opra<; 
rAcboaav 



When anger spreads through the breast, guard 
thy tongue from barking idly. 

When through thy breast wild wrath doth spread 

And work thy inmost being harm, 
Leave thou the fiery word unsaid, 
Guard thee ; be calm. 

MICHAEL FIELD, 1889. 

Quoted by Plutarch, in his treatise On 
restraining anger, to show that in wrath nothing 
is more noble than quietness. Blass thinks 
that Bergk is wrong in his restoration of the 
verses; he considers their metre choriambic 
(like fr. 64, ff.), and reads them thus : 

1 * OKi&vajievag orneeoiv oprac necpuAarMeva (?) 
rAaxjcav 



He compares fr. 72 with them. 



88 SAPPHO 

III 

IN ALCAIC METRE 
28 



Ai 6* fixec eoXwv tjuepov H KciAcov, 
KCti UH TI FeiiTHv fAoiaa' eia/Ka KCXKOV, 
aI6co<; Kt a' ou Ki^avev 
d\\' eAefec nepi TCO 



Hadst thoufelt desire for things good or noble, 
and hud not thy tongue framed some evil speech, 
shame had not filled thine eyes, but thou hadst 
spoken honestly about it. 

THE LOVES OF SAPPHO AND ALCAEUS. 

Alcaeus. I fain would speak, I fain would tell, 
But shame and fear my utterance 

quell. 
Sappho. If aught of good, if aught of fair 

Thy tongue were labouring to declare, 
Nor shame should dash thy glance, 

nor fear 

Forbid thy suit to reach my ear. 
ANON. (Edin. Rev., 1832, p. 190). 



IN ALCAIC METRE 89 

Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, i. 9, about 330 B.C, 
says 'base things dishonour those who do or 
wish them, as Sappho showed when Alcaeus 
said 

IOTTAOK' eifva ueMixopei&e 011901, 
GtAo) TI FeiiTHV, oAAu fie KaUuei ai'6a>c 

' ; Violet-weaving, pure, softly-smiling Sappho, I 
would say something, but shame restrains me"' 
(cf. supra, p. 8), and she answered him in the 
words of the present fragment. 

Blass (Rhein. Mus. 1879, xxix. p. 150) 
believes that these verses also are Sappho's, 
not Alcaeus'. Certainly they were quoted as 
Sappho's by Anna Comnena, about 1 1 10 A.D., 
as well as by another writer whom Blass refers 
to. Blass would read the last line ncpi <2> biKaiux; 
('6iKaicoc) = nepi ou ebiKcuoug, about that which thou 
didst pretend. 

IV 

IN MIXED GLYCONIC AND 
ALCAIC METRE 

29 

Zja6i KOVTO cpiAog .... 

Kai rav erf osaoic auneraoov xP lv - 

Stand face to face, friend . . . and unveil 
the grace in thine eyes. 



9O SAPPHO 

Athenaeus, speaking of the charm of lovers' 
eyes, says Sappho addressed this to a man who 
was admired above all others for his beauty. 
Bergk thinks it may have formed part of an 
ode to Phaon (cf. fr. 140), or of a bridal song ; 
and A. Schoene suspects that it was possibly 
addressed to Sappho's brother. The metre is 
quite uncertain. 



V 
IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 

[This is a very unsatisfactory category. Some of the 
fragments, e.g. 30-43, are in Aeolian dactyls, wherein 
the second foot is always a dactyl ; 44-49 are Glyconics ; 
50-54 are in the Ionic a majors metre ; some others are 
Asclepiads, etc. But where so much is uncertain, it 
seems to be the simplest way to group them thus.] 

30 

XpUOeOl 6' pplV00l tTT* filOVCOV 9UOVTO. 

And golden pulse grew on the shores. 

Quoted by Athenaeus, when he is speaking 
of vetches. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 91 

31 

Aorro) KQI Niopa MctAa juev 91X01 HOOV eraipau 

Leto and Niobe were friends full dear. 

Quoted by Athenaeus for the same reason 
as fr. ii. Compare also fr. 143. 

32 

Mvc'iceoQai Ttvci cpajat Kal uarepov aujuecov. 
Men I think will remember us even hereafter. 

Compare Swinburne's 

Thou art more than I, 

Though my voice die not till the whole world 
die. 

and 

Memories shall mix and metaphors of me. 
and 

I Sappho shall be one with all these things, 
With all high things for ever. 

Anactoria. 



9 2 SAPPHO 

Dio Chrysostom, the celebrated Greek rhe- 
torician, writing about 100 A.D., observes that 
Sappho says this ' with perfect beauty.' 

To illustrate this use of <pam, Bergk quotes 
a fragment preserved by Plutarch, which may 
have been written by Sappho : 



lOTTAOKCOV 

Moiaav eu 



/ think I ham a goodly portion in the violet 
weaving Muses. 



33 

Hpduav uev era> oeGev, "ArSi, ird\ai ITOTO. 
I loved thee once, Atthis, long ago. 

I loved thee, hark, one tenderer note than all 
Atthis, of old time, once one low long fall, 
Sighing one long low lovely loveless call, 
Dying one pause in song so flamelike fast 
A tikis, long since in old time overpast 
One soft first pause and last. 
One, then the old rage of rapture's fieriest rain 
Storms all the music-maddened night again. 
SWINBURNE, Songs of the Springtides, p. 57. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 93 

Quoted by Hephaestion, about 150 A.D., as 
an example of metre. The verse stood at the 
beginning of the first ode of the second book 
of Sappho's poems, which Hephaestion says 
was composed entirely of odes in this metre: 
thus, 



34 



noi -naiq, ejujuev ^aiveo 

A slight and ill-favoured child didst thou seem 
to me. 

Quoted by Plutarch ; and by others also. 

Bergk thinks it is certain that this fragment 
belongs to the same poem as does the pre- 
ceding, judging from references to it by 
Terentianus Maurus, about 100 A.D., and by 
Marius Victorinus, about 350 A.D. 

35 

AAAa, JHH nej-a\uveo baicruAia) nepu 
Foolish woman, pride not thyself on a ring. 

Preserved by Herodian the grammarian, 
who lived about 160 A.D. 



94 SAPPHO 

36 

OUK 016' OTTI Gear 6u) juoi TO voHjaara. 
/ know not what to do ; my mind is divided. 

Quoted by the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus, 
about 220 B.C. 



37 

6* ct &OKIJUOIM' opdvco 6uai 

I do not think to touch the sky with my two 
arms. 

Quoted by Herodian. Cf. Horace, Carm. 
I. i. 36, Sublimi feriam sidera vertice^ 

My head, exalted so, will touch the stars, 

which some think a direct translation of this 
line of Sappho's. 

Old Horace ? ' I will strike,' said he, 
' The stars with head sublime.' 

TENNYSON, Tiresias, 1885. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 95 

38 

QC 6e irate ne&o uarepa Treirreptroowai. 
y^m/ I flutter like a child after her mother. 

Like a child whose mother 's lost, 
I am fluttering, terror-tost. 

M. J. WALHOUSE. 

After my mother I flew like a bird. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 

Quoted in the Etymologicum Magnum as an 
example of Aeolic. It may have related to a 
sparrow, and been imitated by Catullus, 3, 6 ff. : 

Sweet, all honey : a bird that ever hailed her 
Lady mistress, as hails the maid a mother. 
Nor would move from her arms away : but only 
Hopping round her, about her, hence or hither 
Piped his colloquy, piped to none beside her. 

ROBINSON ELLIS. 

39 

*Hpo<; arreAoc tjuepocpamx; aHbcov. 
Spring's messenger, the sweet-voiced nightingale. 



96 SAPPHO 

The dear good angel of the spring, 
The nightingale. 

BEN JONSON, The Sad Shepherd, Act ii. 

The tawny sweetwinged thing 
Whose cry was but of Spring. 

SWINBURNE, Songs of the Springtides, 

p. 52. 

Quoted by the Scholiast on Sophocles, 
Electra, 149, ' the nightingale is the messenger 
of Zeus, because it is the sign of Spring.' 



40 

Epoq boOre ji' b AuaijueAm; bovei, 
rAuKUTTtKpov ajiidxavcv opnerov. 



Now Love masters my limbs and shakes me, 
fatal creature, bitter-sweet. 

Lo, Love once more, the limb-dissolving King, 
The bitter-sweet impracticable thing, 
Wild-beast-like rends me with fierce quivering. 

J. ADDINGTON SYMONDS, 1883. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 97 

Compare 

O Love, Love, Love ! O withering might ! 
TENNYSON, Fatima. 

O bitterness of things too sweet ! 

SWINBURNE, Fragoletta. 

Sweet Love, that art so bitter. 

SWINBURNE, Tristram of Lyonesse. 

and the song in Bothwell, act i. sc. i : 

Surely most bitter of all sweet things thou art, 
And sweetest thou of all things bitter, love. 

Quoted by Hephaestion. Cf. fr. 125. 



41 



i, ool b' jue9tv jiev arm 

9pOVTl<5&HV, TTt 6' * AvbpOJUcbaV TTOTH. 



But to thee, Atthis, the thought of me is hate- 
ful ; thouflittest to Andromeda. 

Quoted by Hephaestion together with fr. 40, 
but it seems to be the beginning of a different 
ode. 

G 



98 SAPPHO 

42 

"EpoQ 6aui J rrivafcev Ijnoi <ppeva<;, 
avejuoq KCiT 5 opog bpuoiv ejuneocov. 

Now Eros shakes my soul, a wind on the 
mountain jailing on the oaks. 

Love shook me like the mountain breeze 
Rushing down on the forest trees. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 

Lo, Love once more my soul within me rends, 
Like wind that on the mountain oak descends. 
J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 

Quoted by Maximus Tyrius, about 1 50 B.C., 
in speaking of Socrates exciting Phaedrus to 
Bacchic frenzy when he talked of love. 

43 

"Ora ndvvuxoc ao<pi Kararpei. 
When all night long [sleep] holds their [eyes'. 

Quoted by Apollonius to show the Aeolic 
form of 091. Bergk thinks that Sappho may 
have written 

OTTTTCIT' [ucopoq], 
OTO navvuxoc ao<pt Kcrrarpei, 

therefore I translate it so. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 99 



44 

XeipoMctKTpa be KQJTOVCOV 
nop(pupa .... 
KOI raura n'ev a 
enenv' emu 4>coKaac 
&a>pa Tijuia Karrovcov. 



And purple napkins for thy lap . . . (even 
these wilt thou despise) I sent from Phocaea, 
preaous gifts for thy lap. 

Quoted by Athenaeus out of the fifth book 
of Sappho's Songs to Aphrodite, to show that 
XeipoMOKTpa were cloths, handkerchiefs, for 
covering the head. But the whole passage is 
hopelessly corrupt. 



45 

"Ape &H xeAu Ma jaoi 
fevoio. 



Come nmu, divine shell, become vocal for me. 

Quoted by Hermogenes and Eustathius, of 
Sappho apostrophising her lyre. 



100 SAPPHO 



46 



KairaAaiq u 

OJLIIT' airaAa 6epa. 



And tender woven garlands round tender neck. 
From Athenaeus. 



47 



Fonder of maids tJian Gello. 

Quoted as a proverb by Zenobius, about 130 
A.D. j said of those who die an untimely death, 
or of those whose indulgence brings ruin on 
their children. Gello was a maiden who died 
in youth, whose ghost, the Lesbians said, pur- 
sued children and carried them off. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE IOI 

48 

MciAa bit 



Of Gorge full weary. 

I am weary of all thy words and soft strange 
ways. 

SWINBURNE, Anactoria. 

Quoted by Choeroboscus, about the end of 
the sixth century A.D., to show that the Aeolic 
genitive ended in -cue. Maximus Tyrius men- 
tions this girl Gorgo along with Andromeda 
(cf. fr. 41) as beloved by Sappho. 



49 

BpevGeuo 
Of a proud (or perfumed, or flowery) palace, 

Athenaeus says Sappho here mentions the 
' royal ' and the ' brentheian ' unguent together, 
as if they were one and the same thing ; but 
the reading is very uncertain. 



102 SAPPHO 



50 

Efco 6' eiri na\QaK.av 
anoAeco jueAea. 



But I upon a soft cushion dispose my limbs. 
From Herodian. 



51 

KH 6' aMPpooiag ^ev Kpamp eKCKparo, 
' Epjuug 6' eAev oAmv Oeoiq oivoxoHaai. 
KHVOI 6' apa iravrec KapxHOid T* fi)(ov 
KaAeigov, apdoavTO 6e ndjunav eaAa 
TCO 



And there t/ie bowl of ambrosia was mixed, cuid 
Hermes took the ladle to pour out for the gods , 
and then they all held goblets, and made libation, 
and wished the bridegroom all good hick. 

The first two lines are quoted by Athenaeus 
to show that in Sappho Hermes was cupbearer 
to the gods ; and in another place he quotes the 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 103 

rest to illustrate her mention of carchesia, cups 
narrow in the middle, with handles reaching 
from the top to the bottom. Lachmann first 
joined the two fragments. The verses appear 
to belong to the Epithalamia. 



52 

Ae&uxe M'EV a oeAawa 
Kai TTAHta&eq, Mtoai be 
VUKTCQ, napa 5' epx^r' a>pa, 
tfco 5e juova 



The moon has set, and the Pleiades ; it is mid- 
night, the time is going by, and I sleep alone. 

The silver moon is set ; 

The Pleiades are gone ; 
Half the long night is spent, and yet 

I lie alone. J. H. MERIVALE. 

The moon hath left the sky ; 

Lost is the Pleiads' light ; 

It is midnight 
And time slips by ; 
But on my couch alone I lie. 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 

Quoted by Hephaestion as an example of 
metre. 



104 SAPPHO 



53 

juev V<paivei J a ceAavva, 
ai 5' cl)c nepi (Joojuov eoraGHaav. 

The moon rose full, and the women stood as 
though around an altar. 

Quoted by Hephaestion as an example of 
Praxilleian verses, i.e. such as the Sicyonian 
poetess Praxilla (about B.C. 450) wrote in the 
metre known as the Ionic a majore trimeter 
brachycatalectic. Blass thinks that the lines are 
part of the same poem as that to which the 
succeeding fragment belongs. 



54 



Kpfloaai vu nor 3 oo>6' eMjueXeax no&eoaiv 
d>pXeGvT > anaXoic ajLUp' epoevra PCOJUOV 
noaQ repev av9oq juaAaKov MTeioai. 

Thus at times with tender feet the Cretan 
women dance in measure round the fair altar, 
trampling the fine soft bloom of the grass. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 105 

Mr. Moreton J. Walhouse thus combines the 
previous fragment with this : 

Then, as the broad moon rose on high, 
The maidens stood the altar nigh ; 
And some in graceful measure 

The well-loved spot danced round, 
With lightsome footsteps treading 
The soft and grassy ground. 

Quoted by Hephaestion as an example of 
metre, vv. i and 2 in one place and v. 3 in 
another ; Bergk says Santen first joined them. 



55 

"Appa &HUT6 naxiia cnoAa a 
Then delicately in thick robe I sprang. 

From Herodian, as an illustration of the 
Aeolic dialect. Bergk attributes this to Sappho, 
but Cramer and others think that Alcaeus wrote 
the line. 



106 SAPPHO 



56 

4>aioi &H TTOTO AH&OV uciKiveivcov 
[On* av6eoov] nenuKa6juevov 
eupHV a>iov. 

Leda they say once found an egg hidden under 
hyacinth-blossoms. 

From the Etymologicum Magnum, Athenaeus, 
and others. Bergk thinks fr. 112 may be con- 
tinuous with this, thus 



<x>ov )o> 
TTO\U \euKorepov w ^ w 

since Athenaeus quotes fr. 112 after fr. 56. It 
is uncertain what flower the Greeks meant by 
* hyacinth ' ; it probably had nothing in com- 
mon with our hyacinth, and it seems to have 
comprised several flowers, especially the iris, 
gladiolus, and larkspur. 



57 

' 0<p6d\Moic 6e (neAaiQ VUKTOC; acopoq. 
And dark-eyed Sleep, child of Night. 

From the Etymologicum Magnum, to show 
that the first letter of acopog = a>po<;, ' sleep,' 
was redundant. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE lO? 



57A 

XpuscxpaH Gepdmnvav ' 
Aphrodite's handmaid bright as gold. 

Philodemus, about 60 B.C., in a MS. dis- 
covered at Herculaneum, says that Sappho thus 
addresses'TTeiew, Persuasion. The MS. is, how- 
ever, defective, and Gomperz, the editor, thinks 
from the context that Hecate is here referred to. 
Cf. frr. 132, 125. (Bergk formerly numbered 
this fr. 141.) 



58 

" EXCI jiev ' Av6poueSa KaAav ajaoipav. 
Andromeda has a fair requital. 

Quoted by Hephaestion together with the 
following, although the lines are obviously out 
of different odes. Probably each fragment is 
the first line of separate poems. 



IO8 SAPPHO 

59 

011901, ri Tav noAuoApov ' A9pobrrav ; 
Sappho ', why [celebrate] blissful Aphrodite ? 

60 

AeOre vuv, tippai Xdpireg, KaAAiKOMoi re Motoai. 
Come now, delicate Graces and fair-haired Muses. 

Come hither, fair-haired Muses, tender Graces, 
Come hither to our home. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 

Quoted by Hephaestion, Attilius Fortunati- 
anus (about the fifth century A.D.), and Servius, 
as an example of Sappho's choriambic tetra- 
meters. 



61 

TTapOevov abucpoovov. 
A sweet-voiced maiden. 
From Attilius Fortunatianus. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE IO9 



62 

KcrrevaoKei, KuOepH 1 , afJpoc "AJxovu;, TI KC (teiyev 
KarruTTTeo6e Kopai KOI KarepeiKeaQe xiravac. 



Delicate Adonis is dying, Cytherea ; what 
shall we do 1 Beat your breasts, maidens, and 
rend your tunics. 

Quoted by Hephaestion, and presumed to be 
Sappho's from a passage in Pausanias, where he 
says she learnt the name of the mythological 
personage Oetolinus (as if otroc Aivou, ' the death 
of Linus'), from the poems of Pamphos, a 
mythical poet of Attica earlier than Homer, and 
so to her Adonis was just like Oetolinus. The 
Linus-song was a very ancient dirge or lamenta- 
tion, of which a version (or rather a late render- 
ing, apparently Alexandrian) has been preserved 
by a Scholiast on Homer (Iliad, xviii. 569), 
running thus : ' O Linus, honoured by all the 
gods, for to thee first they gave to sing a song 
to men in clear sweet sounds ; Phoebus in envy 
slew thee, but the Muses lament thee.' A 
charming example of what the Linus-song was 
in the third century B.C., remains for us in 
Bion's Lament for Adonis. 



1 10 SAPPHO 

The dirge was chiefly sung by the Greek 
peasants at vintage-time, and so may have 
arisen from a mythical personification of Apollo, 
as the burning sun of summer suddenly slaying 
the life and bloom of nature. It is said to have 
been of Phoenician origin, and to have derived 
its name from the words ai le nu, ' woe is us, ' 
which may have been the burden of the song. 
The word aftivoo so frequent a refrain in the 
mournful choral odes of the Greek tragic poets, 
seems to indicate that the personality of Linus 
was the invention of a time when the meaning 
of the burden had been forgotten. 



63 

*Q TOV "AfctoVlV. 

Ah for Adonis 1 

From Marius Plotius, about 600 A.D. It seems 
to be the refrain of the ode to Adonis. Cf. fr. 
1 08. 

Ah for Adonis ! So 
The virgins cry in woe : 
Ah, for the spring, the spring, 
And all fleet blossoming. 

MICHAEL FIELD, 1889. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE III 

' -:. H^lSil! 

'EAOovT* f 6p<iv(o Tiop<pupiav [exovra] nepSejucvov 



Coming from heaven wearing a purple mantle. 

From heaven he came, 

And round him the red chlamys burned like 
flame. J. A. SYMONDS. 

He came from heaven in purple mantle clad. 
FREDERICK TENNYSON. 

Quoted by Pollux, about 180 A.D., who says 
that Sappho, in her ode to Eros, out of which 
this verse probably came, was the first to use the 
word x^auuc, a short mantle fastened by a brooch 
on the right shoulder, so as to hang in a curve 
across the body. 



65 

Bpo6oTTc'<xeQ aj-vai Xdpire^, SeCre Aio<; Kopai. 
Come, rosy-armed pure Graces, daughters of Zeus. 

Theocritus' Idyl 28, On a Distaff, according 
to the argument prefixed to it, was written in the 
dialect and metre of this fragment. And Philo- 



112 SAPPHO 

stratus, about 220 A.D., says 'Sappho loves the 
rose, and always crowns it with some praise, 
likening to it the beauty of her maidens ; she 
likens it also to the arms of the Graces, when 
she describes their elbows bare.' Cf. fr. 146. 



66 

w '0 6' "Apeuq <palai KCV "Acpaiarov aj-Hv (Jia. 
But Ares says he would drag Hephaestus by force. 
From Priscian, late in the fifth century A.D. 



67 

v v w ww TToMa 6' avaDi6jua 

TTOTHpia KdAaupu;. 

Many thousand cups thou drainest. 

Quoted by Athenaeus when descanting on 
drinking-cups. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 113 

68 

KorGavoioa be Keioeai TTOTQ, KCOU juvajuooOva ae0ev 
oaei j oure TOT* OUT' u5Tepo- ou rap nebexeig ppobcov 
T(iv EK TTiepiag, aA\' a(pavH<; KHV 'Atba bojuoic 
<poiTctoeic Tte6' ajuaupcov VEKUCOV eKnenoraueva. 

But thou shalt ever lie dead, nor shall there be 
any remembrance of thee then or thereafter, for 
thou hast not of the roses of Pieria ; but thott shalt 
wander obscure even in the house of Hades, flitting 
among the shadowy dead. 

In the cold grave where thou shalt lie 
All memory too of thee shall die, 
Who in this life's auspicious hours 
Disdained Pieria's genial flowers ; 
And in the mansions of the dead, 
With the vile crowd of ghosts, thy shade 
While nobler spirits point with scorn, 
Shall flit neglected and forlorn. 

? FELTON. . 

Unknown, unheeded, shalt thou die, 
And no memorial shall proclaim 

That once beneath the upper sky 
Thou hadst a being and a name. 

For never to the Muses' bowers 

Didst thou with glowing heart repair, 

Nor ever intertwine the flowers 

That fancy strews unnumbered there. 
H 



114 SAPPHO 

Doom'd o'er that dreary realm, alone, 
Shunn'd by the gentler shades, to go, 

Nor friend shall soothe, nor parent own 
The child of sloth, the Muses' foe. 

REV. R. BLAND, 1813. 

Thee too the years shall cover ; thou shall be 
As the rose born of one same blood with thee, 
As a song sung, as a word said, and fall 
Flower-wise, and be not any more at all, 
Nor any memory of thee anywhere ; 
For never Muse has bound above thine hair 
The high Pierian flowers whose graft outgrows 
All Summer kinship of the mortal rose 
And colour of deciduous days, nor shed 
Reflex and flush of heaven about thine head, etc. 
SWINBURNE, Anactoria. 

Woman dead, lie there ; 
No recbrd of thee 
Shall there ever be, 
Since thou dost not share 
Roses in Pieria grown. 
In the deathful cave, 
With the feeble troop 
Of the folk that droop, 
Lurk and flit and crave, 
Woman severed and far-flown. 

WILLIAM CORY, 1858. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 115 

Thou liest dead, and there will be no memory 

left behind 
Of thee or thine in all the earth, for never didst 

thou bind 
The roses of Pierian streams upon thy brow ; 

thy doom 
Is writ to flit with unknown ghosts in cold and 

nameless gloom. 

EDWIN ARNOLD, 1869. 

Yea, thou shalt die, 
And lie 

Dumb in the silent tomb ; 
Nor of thy name 
Shall there be any fame 

In ages yet to be or years to come : 
For of the flowering Rose, 
Which on Pieria blows, 

Thou hast no share : 
But in sad Hades' house, 
Unknown, inglorious, 

'Mid the dim shades that wander there 

Shalt thou flit forth and haunt the filmy air. 
J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 

When thou fallest in death, dead shalt thou lie, 

nor shall thy memory 
Henceforth ever again be heard then or in days 

to be, 



Il6 SAPPHO 

Since no flowers upon earth ever were thine, 

plucked from Pieria's spring, 
Unknown also 'mid hell's shadowy throng thou 

shall go wandering. 

ANON., Love in Idleness, 1883. 

From Stobaeus, about 500 A.D., as addressed 
to an uneducated woman. Plutarch quotes the 
fragment as written to a certain rich lady ; but 
in another work he says the crown of roses was 
assigned to the Muses, for he remembered 
Sappho's having said to some unpolished and un- 
educated woman these same words. Aristldes, 
about 150 A.D., speaks of Sappho's boastfully 
saying to some well-to-do woman, 'that the 
Muses made her blest and worthy of honour, 
and that she should not die and be forgotten ' ; 
though this may refer to fr. 10. 



69 

Ou5' Tuv boKiMoiui npooiboiociv <puog uAico 

eoaesGai 

TcmauTav. 



Ou5' Tuv boKiMoiui npooiboiociv <puog uAico 
eoaesGai acxpiav nupQevov cig ou&tva ira> xpovov 



No one maiden I think shall at any time see 
the sunlight that shall be as wise as thou. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 117 

Methinks no maiden ever 
Will live beneath the sun 

Who is as wise as thou art, 
Not e'en till Time is done. 

Quoted by Chrysippus. It is probably out 
of the same ode as the preceding. 



70 

Tig 6' arpoiomQ TOI 6i/\fei voov, 

OUK fcmarajueva ra 3pKe' \KHV em TGOV acpupeov ; 

What country girl bewitches thy heart, who 
knows not how to draw her dress about her ankles? 

What country maiden charms thee, 

However fair her face, 
Who knows not how to gather 

Her dress with artless grace ? 

Athenaeus, speaking of the care which the 
ancients bestowed upon dress, says Sappho 
thus jests upon Andromeda. Three other 
authors quote the same lines. 



Il8 SAPPHO 



7i 

"Hpwv e6i5a' CK fudpcov rav Tavuaibpojuov. 
1 taught Hero of Gyara, the swift runner. 

Quoted by Choeroboscus, to show the 
Aeolic accusative. 

72 

w *A\Adt TU; OUK ejujui TiaXifKorcov 
opfav, aAX' apaKHV rav <ppev' j(a> w 

/ am not of a malignant nature, but have a 
quiet temper. 

Quoted in the Etymologicum Magnum to 
show the meaning of apctKHc, 'childlike, in- 
nocent.' 



73 

w Aurap bpaiai 
But charming [maidens] plaited garlands. 

Quoted by the Scholiast on Aristophanes' 
Thesmophoriazusae 401, to show that plaiting 
wreaths was a sign of being in love. 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 119 



74 

w 20 TC KOJLIOC Oepctncov "Epo^. 
Thou and my servant Love. 

Quoted by Maximus Tyrius to show that 
Sappho agreed with Diotima when the latter 
said to Socrates (Plato, Sympos., p. 328) that 
Love is not the son, but the attendant and 
servant, of Aphrodite. Cf. fr. 132. 



75 



'AAA' e<ov <piAo<; ajUMtv [aAAo] 

Aeyo^ apvuao veo)Tpov 
ou rap TAaooja' 700 SUVOIKHV 

vtcp r' eoca fepairepa. 

But if thou lovest us, choose another and a 
younger bed-jellow ; for I will not brook to live 
with tfiee, old woman with young man. 

From Stobaeus' Anthology^ and Apostolius. 



120 SAPPHO 



76 

EujuoppoTepa MvaaibtKa rag airaAag 

Mnasidica is more shapely than the tender 
Gyrinno. 

Quoted by Hephaestion as an example of 
metre (cf. p. 24). 



77 

'Aaaporepac ou&aju' en*, w "pavva, oe6ev rii 



Scornfuller than thee, Eranna> have I no- 
where found. 

Quoted by Hephaestion with the foregoing. 
The MSS. do not agree; perhaps <S"pctwa is an 
adjective, for d> eporeivH, O lovely . 



IN CHORIAMBIC METRE 121 



78 



Su 5'e <jre9avoic, w AIKO, nepOeGS' epdraig <pogaiaiv, 
opnaKaq avHTOio auv'ppaia' anaAaioi x^poiv- 
eudv6eaiv eK fap neXeTai KOI xapiTOQ MctKatpav 
HaAAov TTporepHV aar9avci)Toiai 6' anuarp^ovrai. 

Do thou y Dica, set garlands round thy lovely 
Siat'r, twining shoots of dill together with soft 
hands : for those who have fair flowers may best 
stand first, even in the favour of Goddesses ; 
who turn their face away from those who lack 
garlands. 

Here, fairest Rhodope, recline, 

And 'mid thy bright locks intertwine, 

With fingers soft as softest down, 

The ever verdant parsley crown. 

The Gods are pleased with flowers that bloom 

And leaves that shed divine perfume, 

But, if ungarlanded, despise 

The richest offered sacrifice. 

J. H. MERIVALE. 

But place those garlands on thy lovely hair, 
Twining the tender sprouts of anise green 
With skilful hand ; for offerings and flowers 
Are pleasing to the Gods, who hate all those 
Who come before them with uncrowned heads. 

C. D. YONGE. 



122 SAPPHO 

Of foliage and flowers love-laden 
Twine wreaths for thy flowing hair, 

With thine own soft fingers, maiden. 
Weave garlands of parsley fair ; 

For flowers are sweet, and the Graces 
On suppliants wreathed with may 

Look down from their heavenly places, 
But turn from the crownless away. 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883.,, 

Mr. J. A. Symonds has also thus expanded 
the lines into a sonnet (1883) : 

Bring summer flowers, bring pansy, violet, 
Moss-rose and sweet-briar and blue colum- 
bine; 

Bring loveliest leaves, rathe privet,*eglantine, 
Brown myrtles with the dews of morning wet : 
Twine thou a wreath upon thy brows to set ; 
With thy soft hands the wayward tendrils 

twine ; 
Then place them, maiden, on those curls of 

thine, 
Those curls too fair for gems or coronet. 

Sweet is the breath of blossoms, and the Graces, 
When suppliants through Love's temple wend 
their way, 



MI CHORIAMBIC METRE 123 

Look down with smiles from their celestial places 
On maidens wreathed with chaplets of the 

may; 
But from the crownless choir they hide their 

faces, 

Nor heed them when they sing nor when 
they pray. 

Athenaeus, quoting this fragment, says : 
'Sappho gives a more simple reason for our 
wearing garlands, speaking as follows ... in 
which lines she enjoins all who offer sacrifice 
to wear garlands on their heads s as they are 
beautiful things and acceptable to the Gods.' 



79 

'Er<*> oe <piAHju' appoouvav, KOI juoi TO Aajmpov 
cpoq w c(?\ia) KCU TO KciAov 



I love delicacy, and for me Love has the sun's 
splendour and beauty. 

In speaking of perfumes, Athenaeus, quoting 
Clearchus, says : ' Sappho, being a thorough 
woman and a poetess besides, was ashamed to 
separate honour from elegance, and speaks 
thus . . . making it evident to everybody 
that the desire of life that she confessed had 
brilliancy and honour in it; and these things 
especially belong to virtue.' 



124 SAPPHO 

80 

Kau |uev re ruAav KaanoXecc. 
And down I set the cushion. 
Quoted by Herodian, along with fr. 50. 

81 

'0 nAoCTOC aveu oeu r* opera 'or* OUK aoivHC napotKO$ 
[H 6' e aju90Tepcov Kpaon; eubai/noviaq exa.rb aKpov]. 

Wealth without thee, Worth, is no safe neigh- 
bour [but the mixture of both is the height of 
happiness}, 

Wealth without virtue is a dangerous guest , 
Who holds them mingled is supremely blest. 
J. H. MERIVALE. 

From the Scholiast on Pindar. The second 
line appears to be the gloss of the commentator, 
though Blass believes it is Sappho's. 



IN VARIOUS METRES 12$ 

VI 
IN VARIOUS METRES 

82 

Aura 6e <ju KaAAionou 
And thou thyself, Calliope. 

Quoted by Hephaestion when he is analysing 
a metre invented by Archilochus. 

83 

Aauoiq ana\aq era 



ev 



Sleep thou in the bosom of thy tender girl- 
friend. 

From the Etymologicum Magnum. Blass 
thinks that the proper place for this fragment 
is among the Epithalamia. 



126 SAPPHO 

84 

AeCpo &Hure Molaui, xpuoiov \inoioau 
Hither now, Muses, leaving golden . . . 

Quoted by Hephaestion as an example of a 
verse made of two Ithyphallics. 



85 

"E<m jmoi KaAa naiQ, xpusioiciv avSejuoiaiv 
ejuupepHV exoioa ju6p9av, KAfiig' afandra, 
am ra<; ef 01 ^ Aubiav naiaav oub' eptwvav. 



/ have a fair daughter with a form like a 
golden flower, Cleis the beloved, above whom 1 
[prize] nor all Lydia nor lovely [Lesbos] . . . 

I have a child, a lovely one, 

In beauty like the golden sun, 

Or like sweet flowers of earliest bloom ; 

And Clai's is her name, for whom 

I Lydia's treasures, were they mine, 

Would glad resign. J. H. MERIVALE. 

A lovely little girl is ours, 

Kle'is the beloved, 

Kle'is is her name, 

Whose beauty is as the golden flowers. 
FREDERICK TENNYSON. 



IN THE IONIC A MINORS METRE I2/ 

Quoted and elaborately scanned by Hephae- 
stion, although Bergk regards the lines as 
merely trochaic. 



86 

TToXAa 
TTa>\uavaicn6a nai6a 

All joy to thee, daughter of Polyanax. 

From Maximus Tyrius. It seems to be 
addressed to either Gorgo or Andromeda. 



VII 
IN THE IONIC A MINORE METRE 

8? 

Za 6* eAetaMuv ovap KunpOfevH9. 

In a dream I spake with the daughter of 
Cyprus. 

I.e. Aphrodite. From Hephaestion. 



128 SAPPHO 

88 

Ti Me TTav6ioviq a> " pavva 

Why, lovely swallow, daughter of Pandwn, 
[weary] me ? 

From Hephaestion, who says Sappho wrote 
whole songs in this metre. 'Q "pawa is Is. 
Vossius' emendation; <bptiva is the ordinary 
reading, which Hesychius explains as perhaps 
an epithet of the swallow 'dwelling under the 
roof.' 

Ah, Procne, wherefore dost thou weary me ? 
Thus flitting out and flitting in ... 
Tease not the air with this tumultuous wing. 
MICHAEL FIELD, 1889. 

89 

. . . 'Auq>i 6' ufJpciq AocioiQ eu Fe miKaooev. 
She wrapped herself well in delicate hairy . . . 

From Pollux, who says the line refers to fine 
closely-woven linen. 



IN THE IONIC A MINORE METRE 129 



90 

narep, ourot buvajuai KpeKHv TOV i<rrov, 
Ti66cp bdjueica naiboc Ppa6ivav 61' 'Acppobrrav. 

Sweet Mother, I cannot weave my web, broken 
as I am by longing for a boy, at soft Aphrodite's 
will. 

[As o'er her loom the Lesbian maid 
In love-sick languor hung her head, 

Unknowing where her fingers strayed 
She weeping turned away and said ] 

'Oh, my sweet mother, 'tis in vain, 
I cannot weave as once I wove, 
So wildered is my heart and brain 
With thinking of that youth I love. ' 
T. MOORE, Evenings in 
Greece, p. 18. 

Mother, I cannot mind my wheel; 

My fingers ache, my lips are dry : 
Oh, if you felt the pain I feel ! 

But oh, who ever felt as I ? 

W. S. LANDOR, Simonidea, 1807. 

Sweet mother, I can spin no more, 
Nor ply the loom as heretofore, 
For love of him. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 
I 



I3O SAPPHO 

Sweet mother, I the web 

Can weave no more ; 
Keen yearning for my love 

Subdues me sore, 
And tender Aphrodite 

Thrills my heart's core. 

M. J. WALHOUSE. 

Cf. Mrs. John Hunter's ' My mother bids 
me bind my hair,' etc. 

From Hephaestion, as an example of metre. 



VIII 
EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 

91 

hyoi ?>H TO ueAa8pov 

' YUHVOOV 
aeppere TtKTovrec avbpeq' 

' YjuHvaov. 
rdjuPpoc; epxcroi isoq "Apcu'i, 

[' YjuHvaov] 
avbpog MefdAco noXu (ueUwv 

[* Y.uHvaov]. 

Raise high the roof-beam, carpenters. (Hy- 
tnenaeusJ) Like Ares comes the bridegroom, 
(ffymenaeus /) taller far than a tall man. 
( ffymenaeus /) 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 1$! 

Artists, raise the rafters high ! 

Ample scope and stately plan 
Mars-like comes the bridegroom nigh, 

Loftier than a lofty man. 
ANON., Edinb, Rev.^ 1832, p. 109. 

High lift the beams of the chamber, 

Workmen, on high; 

Like Are's in step comes the Bridegroom , 
Like him of the song of Terpander, 

Like him in majesty, 

F. T. PALGRAVE, 1854. 

Quoted by Hephaestion as an example of a 
mes-hymnic poem, where the refrain follows 
each line. The hymenaeus or wedding-song 
was sung by the bride's attendants as they led 
her to the bridegroom's house, addressing 
Hymen the god of marriage. The metre 
seems, says Professor Mahaffy (Hist, of Class. 
Greek Z*Y., i., p. 20, 1880), to be the same as 
that of the Linus song; cf. fr. 62. 



92 

, ox; or' aoiooq 6 AesBioq aAAo&cmoiaiv. 



Tmvering, as the Lesbian singer towers among 
men of other lands. 



132 SAPPHO 

Quoted by Demetrius, about 150 A.D. It is 
uncertain what 'Lesbian singer' is here re- 
ferred to; probably Terpander, but Neue 
thinks it may mean the whole Lesbian race, 
from their pre-eminence in poetry. 



93 

Oiov TO rAuKUMaAov peii6Tcu otKpw eir* u 
QKpov en* aKporoiTtp- AeAdeovro be. 
ou MOV tKAeAdeovr', aAA' OUK ebuvavr' 



As the sweet-apple blushes on the end of the 
bough, the very end of the bough, which the 
gatherers overlooked, nay overlooked not but 
could not reach. 

O fair O sweet ! 

As the sweet apple blooms high on the bough, 
High as the highest, forgot of the gatherers : 

So thou : 

Yet not so : nor forgot of the gatherers ; 
High o'er their reach in the golden air, 

O sweet O fair ! 

F. T. PALGRAVE, 1854. 

Quoted by the Scholiast on Hermogenes, 
and by others, to explain the word fAuKUMaAov, 
'sweet-apple,' an apple grafted on a quince; 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 133 

it is used as a term of endearment by Theo- 
critus (Idyl xi. 39), 'Of thee, my love, my 
sweet-apple, I sing.' Himerius, writing about 
360 A.D., says : ' Aphrodite's orgies we leave to 
Sappho of Lesbos, to sing to the lyre and make 
the bride-chamber her theme. She enters the 
chamber after the games, makes the room, 
spreads Homer's bed, assembles the maidens, 
leads them into the apartment with Aphrodite 
in the Graces' car and a band of Loves for 
playmates. Binding her tresses with hyacinth, 
except what is parted to fringe her forehead, 
she lets the rest wave to the wind if it chance 
to strike them. Their wings and curls she 
decks with gold, and drives them in procession 
before the car as they shake the torch on high.' 
And particularly this : ' It was for Sappho to 
liken the maiden to an apple, allowing to those 
who would pluck before the time to touch not 
even with the finger-tip, but to him who was to 
gather the apple in season to watch its ripe 
beauty; to compare the bridegroom with 
Achilles, to match the youth's deeds with the 
hero's.' Further on he says: 'Come then, we 
will lead him into the bride-chamber and 
persuade him to meet the beauty of the bride. 
O fair and lovely, the Lesbian's praises appertain 
to thee : thy play-mates are rosy-ankled Graces 
and golden Aphrodite, and the Seasons make 



134 SAPPHO 

the meadows bloom.' These last words 
especially 



O fair, O lovely . . . 

seem taken out of one of Sappho's hymeneal 
odes, although they also occur in Theocritus, 
Idyl xviii. 38. 



94 

Oiav rav uaKiv0ov ev oupeoi noijuevec 
noaai KaTacrrei3oioi, 



As on the hills the shepherds trample the 
hyacinth under foot, and the flower darkens on 
the ground. 

Compare Catullus, xi. 21-24: 

Think not henceforth, thou, to recall Catullus' 
Love ; thy own sin slew it, as on the meadow's 
Verge declines, un-gently beneath the plough- 

share 
Stricken, a flower. (ROBINSON ELLIS.) 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS I$5 
And Vergil, Aeneid, ix. 43 5, of Euryalus dying: 

And like the purple flower the plough cuts down 
He droops and dies. 

Pines she like to the hyacinth out on the path 

by the hill top ; 
Shepherds tread it aside, and its purples lie 

lost on the herbage. 

EDWIN ARNOLD, 1869. 

ONE GIRL. 
(A combination from Sappho.) 

i. 
Like the sweet apple which reddens upon the 

topmost bough, 
A-top on the topmost twig, which the pluckers 

forgot, somehow, 

Forgot it not, nay, but got it not, for none 
could get it till now. 

n. 

Like the wild hyacinth flower which on the 

hills is found, 
Which the passing feet of the shepherds for 

ever tear and wound, 
Until the purple blossom is trodden into the 

ground. 

D. G. ROSSETTI, 1870 : 



1 36 SAPPHO 

in 1881 he altered the title to Beauty. (A 
combination from Sappho.) 

Quoted by Demetrius, as an example of the 
ornament and beauty proper to a concluding 
sentence. Bergk first attributed the lines to 
Sappho. 



95 

ftorrepe, ndvra 9epa>v, oca 9aivoAig eaKe&aa' auwq, 
olv, <pepec aifa, 9epeiq ami Marepi naifca. 



Evening, thou that bringest all that bright 
morning scattered; thou bringest the sheep, the 
goat, the child back to her mother. 

Thus imitated by Byron : 

O Hesperus, thou bringest all good things 
Home to the weary, to the hungry cheer, 

To the young bird the parent's brooding wings, 
The welcome stall to the o'erlaboured steer ; 

Whate'er of peace about our hearthstone clings, 
Whate'er our household gods protect of dear, 

Are gathered round us by thy look of rest ; 

Thou bring'st the child too to its mother's breast. 
Don Juan, iii. 107. 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 137 
And by Tennyson : 

The ancient poetess singeth, that Hesperus all 

things bringeth, 
Smoothing the wearied mind : bring me my 

love, Rosalind. 
Thou comest morning or even; she cometh 

not morning or evening. 
False-eyed Hesper, unkind, where is my sweet 

Rosalind ? 

Leonine Elegiacs, 1830-1884. 

Hesperus brings all things back 
Which the daylight made us lack, 
Brings the sheep and goats to rest, 
Brings the baby to the breast. 

EDWIN ARNOLD, 1869. 

Hesper, thou bringest back again 
All that the gaudy daybeams part, 

The sheep, the goat, back to their pen, 
The child home to his mother's heart. 
FREDERICK TENNYSON, 1890. 

Evening, all things thou bringest 

Which dawn spread apart from each other ; 
The lamb and the kid thou bringest, 

Thou bringest the boy to his mother. 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883. 



138 SAPPHO 

Hesper, whom the poet call'd the Bringer 

home of all good things. TENNYSON, 
Locksley Hall Sixty Years After, 1886. 



From the Etymologicum Magnum, where it 
is adduced to show the meaning of aucoq, ' dawn.' 
The fragment occurs also in Demetrius, as an 
example of Sappho's grace. One cannot but 
believe that Catullus had in his mind some 
such hymeneal ode of Sappho's as that in 
which this fragment must have occurred when 
he wrote his Vesper adest, juvenes, consurgite : 
Vesper Ofympo, etc. (Ixii.), part of which was 
imitated in the colloquy between Opinion and 
Truth in Ben Jonson's The Barriers. 



96 

'AindpSevoc eoaojuai. 
/ shall be ever maiden. 

From a Parisian MS. edited by Cramer, 
adduced to show the Aeolic form of 6ei, ; ever.' 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 139 



97 



HOI narnp. 
We will give, says the father . , . 
From a Parisian MS. edited by Cramer. 

98 

0upd)pcp nobei; eirroporu 101, 
ra 5e octupaAct rreune36Ha, 
* eenovaaav. 



To the doorkeeper feet seven fathoms long, and 
sandals of five bulls' hides, the work of ten 
cobblers. 

From Hephaestion, as an example of metre. 
Demetrius says : ' And elsewhere Sappho girds 
at the rustic bridegroom and the doorkeeper 
ready for the wedding, in prosaic rather than 
poetic phrase, as if she were reasoning rather 
than singing, using words out of harmony with 
dance and song.' 



140 SAPPHO 



99 

"OAf5i raja3p,ooi /nev b raMoq, cbg apao, 
eKTcreAeor', CXHQ oe ndp0evov, av apao. 

Happy bridegroom, now is thy wedding come 
to thy desire, and thou hast the maiden of thy 
desire, 

Happy bridegroom, thou art blest 
With blisses far beyond the rest, 

For thou hast won 

The chosen one, 
The girl thou lovest best. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 

Quoted by Hephaestion, along with the 
following, to exemplify metres ; both fragments 
seem to belong to the same ode. 



IOO 

6' CTT' ijuipTcp KJXUTCU npooonrcp. 



And a soft [paleness] is spread over the 
lovely face. 

In the National Library of Madrid there 
is a MS. of an epithalamium by Choricius, a 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 141 

rhetorician of Gaza, who flourished about 520 
A.D., in which the lamented Ch. Graux (Revue 
de Philologie, 1880, p. 81) found a quotation 
from Sappho which is partly identical with this 
fragment preserved by Hephaestion. H. Weil 
thus attempts ro restore the passage : 

Sol xpiev MCV et5o<;, onncrra 6' w 3 
', epoc 6' en' ij 

TTpOatOTTCp' 

a' ' 



Well favoured is thy form, and thine eyes . . . 
honeyed, and love is spread over thy fair face . . . 
Aphrodite has honoured thee above all. 

Two apparent imitations by Catullus are 
quoted by Weil to confirm his restoration of 
Sappho's verses; viz., mellitos oculos, honeyed 
eyes (48, i), and pulcher es, neque te Venus 
negligit, fair thou art, nor does Venus neglect 
thee (61, 194). 



101 

*0 Mtv rap KaAoc, oooov I&HV, neAerai 
6 be Kara9oQ OUTIKQ Kal Ka\oq ieaoerai. 

He who is fair to look upon is [good], and he 
who is good will soon be fair also. 



142 SAPPHO 

Beauty, fair flower, upon the surface lies ; 
But worth with beauty e'en in aspect vies. 

? FELTON. 

Galen, the physician, writing about 160 A.D., 
says : ' It is better therefore, knowing that the 
beauty of youth is like Spring flowers, its 
pleasure lasting but a little while, to approve of 
what the Lesbian [here] says, and to believe 
Solon when he points out the same.' 



I O2 

*Hp' en napeeviag eTTi3aAAojuai ; 
Do I still long for maidenhood? 

Quoted by Apollonius, and by the Scholiast 
on Dionysius of Thrace, to illustrate the inter- 
rogative particle Spa, Aeolic fipa, and as an 
example of the catalectic iambic. 

103 

Xoipoioo vuiu<pa, xaiprro) 6> 6 fduPpoq. 

The bride [comes] rejoicing; let the bride- 
groom rejoice. 

From Hephaestion. as a catalectic iambic. 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 143 



104 



Tup o', <o <piAe ra 

ppa&ivcp ce KoAiar* ei'Ka6a>. 



Whereimto may I well liken thee, dear bride- 
groom ? To a soft shoot may I best liken thee. 

From Hephaestion, as an example of metre. 



105 

. . . Xaipe, vuj 

, rime fduppe, no\Aa. 



Hail, bnde J noble bridegroom, all hail! 

Quoted by Servius, about 390 A.D., on 
Vergil, Georg. i. 31 ; also referred to by Pollux 
and Julian. 



144 SAPPHO 

1 06 

Ou rap HV arepa naiQ, a> raMPpe, TOiaura. 



For there was no other girl, O bridegroom, 
like her. 

From Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 



107, 1 08 

' Eoner' * YJUHVQOV. 
*Q TOV ' Abcoviov. 

Sing Hymenaeus! 
Ah for Adonis! 

From Plotius, about the fifth or sixth century 
A.D., to show the metre of Sappho's hymeneal 
odes. The text is corrupt; the first verse is 
thus emended by Bergk, the second by Scaliger. 
Cf. fr. 63. 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 145 



109 

A. TTapGevia, nap8evia, noi Me Ainoia' 

B. OUKTI HO> TTpb<; 0, OUKtTl HO). 

A. Maidenhood, maidenJwod, -whither art thou 

gone away from me ? 

B. Never again will I come to thee, never again. 

' Sweet Rose of May, sweet Rose of May, 
Whither, ah whither fled away ? ' 
' What 's gone no time can e'er restore 
I come no more, I come no more.' 

J. H. MERIVALE. 

From Demetrius, who quoted the fragment 
to show the grace of Sappho's style and the 
beauty of repetition. f 



no 

"AAAav MH KCiMEOTepav <ppeva. 
Fool, faint not thou in thy strong heart. 

From a very corrupt passage in Herodian. 
The translation is from Bergk's former emenda- 
tion 

"AAAa MH KOM TU areptav ^peva. 
K 



146 SAPPHO 

III 

4>aiverai Foi 
To himself he seems . . . 

From Apollonius, to show that the Aeolians 
used the digamma, f. Bergk says this frag- 
ment does not belong to fr. 2. 

112 

*Qto> noAu AeuKorepov. 
Much whiter than an egg. 
'' From Athenaeus; cf. frs. 56 and 122. 



MKT* euoi MeAi MHTC (ue 
Neither honey nor bee for me. 

A proverb quoted by many late authors, 
referring to those who wish for good unmixed 
with evil. They seem to be the words of the 
bride. This, and the second line of fr. 62, and 



EPITHALAMIA, BRIDAL SONGS 147 

many other verses, show Sappho's fondness for 
alliteration ; frs. 4 and 5, among several others, 
show that she did not ignore the charm of 
assonance. 



114 

MH KIVH xtpa5ot<;. 
Stir not the shingle. 

Quoted by the Scholiast on Apollonius 
Rhodius to show that xepa&eq were 'little heaps 
of stones.' 



Thou burnest us. 

Compare Swinburne's 
My life is bitter with thy love ; thine eyes 
Blind me, thy tresses burn me, thy sharp sighs 
Divide my flesh and spirit with soft sound, etc. 

Anactoria. 

Quoted by Apollonius to show the Aeolic 
form of Hjiac, 'us.' 



148 SAPPHO 



116 

*Hjjirru3iov oroXaooov. 
A napkin dripping, 

From the Scholiast on Aristophanes' P/utus, 
quoted to show the meaning of HMirCptov, 'a 
half worn out shred of linen with which to wipe 
the hands.' 



117 * 

Tbv Fov TTuiba KaXet. 

She called him her son. 

Quoted by Apollonius to show the Aeolic 
use of the digamma. 



EPIGRAMS 149 

IX 

EPIGRAMS 

All three are preserved only in the Greek 
Anthology. The authenticity of the last, fr. 
120, is doubtful. To none of them does Bergk 
restore the form of the Aeolic dialect. 

118 

TTai&eq, 5<pa)voq <oioa rob' evvtmo, at TIC 
<pcovav aKajuaTOv KctT6ew4va irpb nobaiv 

Aieonia ue Kopa AcrroCc aveSHKev ' Apiara 
' EpuOKAeibaia TO> Saova'ia&a, . 

oa nponoAoq, 6eanoiva fuvaiKaiv a ou 
UK/\eioov 



Maidens, dumb as 1 am, I speak thus, if any 
ask, and set before your feet a tireless voice: To 
Letds daughter Aethopia was I dedicated by 
Arista daughter of Hermodeides son of Saon- 
diades, thy servant, O queen of women; whom 
bkss thou, and deign to glorify our house. 



I5O SAPPHO 

ON A PRIESTESS OF DIANA. 

Does any ask ? I answer from the dead ; 
A voice that lives is graven o'er my head : 
To dark-eyed Dian, ere my days begun, 
Aristo vowed me, wife of Saon's son : 
Then hear thy priestess, hear, O virgin Power, 
And thy best gifts on Saon's lineage shower. 

R. 

The goddess here invoked as the ' queen of 
women' appears to have been ArtSmis, the 
Diana of the Romans. 



119 

Tijua&oq 66e KOVIC, TOV &H npb roMoio eavouaav 

6tctTO ^epaecpovac Kudveog BaAajuux;, 
Sg KOI &TT099i]utvac naaai veo0ari 

IjLiepTav Kparbc eSevro KOMOV. 



This is the dust of Timas, whom Persephone s 
dark chamber received > dead before her wedding; 
when she perished, all her fellows dressed with 
sharpened steel the lovely tresses of their heads. 



EPIGRAMS 151 

This dust was Timas' ; ere her bridal hour 
She lies in Proserpina's gloomy bower; 
Her virgin playmates from each lovely head 
Cut with sharp steel their locks, their strewments 
for the dead. 

SIR CHARLES A. ELTON. 

This is the dust of Timas, whom unwed 
Persephone locked in her darksome bed : 
For her the maids who were her fellows shore 
Their curls, and to her tomb this tribute bore. 

J. A. SYMONDS. 



I2O 

TcJ> rpinet TTeAcirwvi natHp eneQHKe 
Kupiov Kal Kcunav 



Over the fisherman Pelagon his father Meniscus 
set weel and oar, memorial of a luckless life. 

ON A FISHERMAN. 

This oar and net and fisher's wickered snare 
Meniscus placed above his buried son 

Memorials of the lot in life he bare, 
The hard and needy life of Pelagon. 

SIR CHARLES A. ELTON. 



152 SAPPHO 

Here, to the fisher Pelagon, his sire Meniscus 

laid 
A wicker-net and oar, to show his weary life and 

trade. LORD NEAVES. 

Above a fisher's tomb 
Were set his withy-basket and his oar, 

The tokens of his doom, 
Of how in life his labour had been sore : 
A father put them up above his son, 
Meniscus over luckless Pelagon. 

MICHAEL FIELD, 1889. 

Bergk sees no reason to accept the voice of 
tradition in attributing this epigram to Sappho. 



X 

MISCELLANEOUS 

121 

Athenaeus says : 

'It is something natural that people who 
fancy themselves beautiful and elegant should 
be fond of flowers ; on which account the 
companions of Persephone are represented as 
gathering flowers. And Sappho says she saw 

av9e' aneprouaav naib' afav diroAav, 
' A maiden full tender plucking flowers. ' 



MISCELLANEOUS 153 

122, 123 

TToAu noKTiboc abu/neAecrrepa, xpuaa> ypvaorkpa. 

Far sweeter of tone than harp, more golden than 
gold. 

Quoted by Demetrius as an example of hyper- 
bolic phrase. A commentator on Hermogenes 
the rhetorician says: 'These things basely 
flatter the ear, like the erotic phrases which 
Anacreon and Sappho use, rdAaicroc AeuKortpa 
whiter than milk, u&aroc anaAampa fresher than 
water, TTHKTI&OOV cuMeAearipa more musical than 
the harp, timou rauporepa more skittish than a 
horse, pobcov agporepa more delicate than the rose, 
iucrriou eavou MaActKcorepa softer than a fine robe, 
XpuooC Tiuuampa more precious than gold' 

124 

Demetrius says : 

' Wherefore also Sappho is eloquent and sweet 
when she sings of Beauty, and of Love and Spring 
and the Kingfisher ; and every beautiful expres- 
sion is woven into her poetry, besides what she 
herself invented.' 



154 SAPPHO 



125 

Maximus Tyrius says : 

'Diotima says that Love flourishes in pro- 
sperity, but dies in adversity ; a sentiment which 
Sappho comprehends when she calls Love rAuia- 
niKpog bitter-sweet [cf. fr. 40] and oAreoi6a>po<; 
giver of pain. Socrates calls Love the wizard, 
Sappho juueonAoKoc thejveaver of fictions? 



126 

To yt\Hjun TOUJUOV. 

My darling. 

Quoted by Julian, and by Theodorus Hyrta- 
cenus in the twelfth century A.D., as of 'the 
wise Sappho.' Bergk says Sappho would have 
written TO jueAHna a>juov in her own dialect. 



MISCELLANEOUS 155 



127 

Aristides says : 

'Tc ravog the brightness standing over the 
whole city, ou &iaq>6eipov TCH; ov|/ei<; not destroying 
the sight, as Sappho says, but developing at once 
and crowning and watering with cheerfulness ; 
in no way uaKiveivco av6ei onoiov like a hyacinth- 
flower, but such as earth and sun never yet 
showed to men.' 



128 

Pollux writes : 

'Anacreon . . . says they are crowned 
also with dill, as both Sappho [cf. fr. 78] and 
Alcaeus say ; though these also say acAivou; with 
parsley.' 



I$6 SAPPHO 



129 

Philostratus says : 

'Thus contend [the maidens] po&onHxeu: K<M 
'AiKd>m&ec Koi Ka/vAmapHOi Kai u^upwvoi with rosy 
arms and glancing eyes and fair cheeks and 
honeyed voices this indeed is Sappho's sweet 
salutation.' 

And Aristaenetus : 

'Before the porch the most musical and 
MiAixo9(ovoi soft-voiced of the maidens sang the 
hymeneal song ; this indeed is Sappho's sweet- 
est utterance.' 

Antipater of Sidon, Anthol. Pal. ix. 66, and 
others, call Sappho sweet-voiced. 



130 

Libanius the rhetorician, about the fourth 
century A.D., says : 

'If therefore nought prevented Sappho the 
Lesbian from praying VUKTO QUTH reveoeai birrAaaiav 
that the night might be doubled for her, let me 
also ask for something similar. Time, father of 



MISCELLANEOUS 157 

year and months, stretch out this very year for 
us as far as may be, as, when Herakles was born, 
thou didst prolong the night.' 

Bergk thinks that Sappho probably prayed for 
VUKTCJ rpiTiAaoiav a night thrice as long as an ordi- 
nary night, in reference to the myth of Jupiter 
and Alcmene, the mother of Hercules. 



Strabo says : 

' A hundred furlongs further (from Elaea, a 
city in Aeolis) is Cane", the promontory opposite 
to Lectum, and forming the Gulf of Adramyttium, 
of which the Elaitic Gulf is a part. Canae is a 
small city of the Locrians of Cynus, over against 
the most southerly extremity of Lesbos, situated 
in the Canaean territory, which extends to Argi- 
nusae and the overhanging cliff which some call 
Aega, as if "a goat," but the second syllable 
should be pronounced long, Aega, like OKTO and 
apxa, for this was the name of the whole moun- 
tain which at present is called Cand or Canae 
. . . and the promontory itself seems after- 
wards to have been called Aega, as Sappho says, 
the rest Cane or Canae.' 



158 SAPPHO 

132 

The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius says : 

' Apollonius calls Love the son of Aphrodite, 
Sappho of Earth and Heaven? 

But the Argument prefixed to Theocritus, Idyl 
xiii., says : 

* Sappho called Love the child of Aphrodite 
and Heaven? 

And Pausanias, about 180 A.D., says : 

'On Love Sappho the Lesbian sang many 
things which do not agree with one another.' 
Cf. fr. 74. 

133 

Himerius says : 

'Thou art, I think, an evening-star, of all 
stars the fairest : this is Sappho's song to 
Hesperus.' And again : c Now thou didst ap- 
pear like that fairest of all stars ; for the 
Athenians call thee Hesperus.' 

Bergk thinks Sappho's line ran thus : 
Aarepcov ndvrcov 6 KaAicrroc . . 
Of all stars the fairest. 



MISCELLANEOUS 159 

Elsewhere Himerius refers to what seems an 
imitation of Sappho, and says : ' If an ode had 
been wanted, I should have given him such an 
ode as this 



o&tov epa>T(ov ppuouoa, Nuu<pa 
afoAua KctAMarov, i9i npbc euvAv, t9i npbq 
AiXa nai^ouaa, rAuKeia vuucpicp- "Ecmepoq a* eKoOoav 
Cj-ot, aprupoepovov ?uriav " Hpav 6aujLto{ouaav.' 



Bride teeming with rosy loves, bride, fairest 
image of the goddess of Paphos, go to the couch, go 
to the bed, softly sporting, sweet to the bridegroom. 
May Hesperus lead thee rejoicing, honouring Hera 
of the silver throne, goddess of marriage. 



Bride, in whose breast haunt rosy loves ! 
Bride, fairest of the Paphian groves ! 
Hence, to thy marriage rise, and go ! 
Hence, to thy bed, where thou shall show 
With honeyed play thy wedded charms, 
Thy sweetness in the bridegroom's arms ! 
Let Hesper lead thee forth, a wife, 
Willing and worshipping for life, 
The silver-throned, the wedlock dame, 
Queen Hera, wanton without shame ! 

J. A. SYMONDS, 1883, 



160 SAPPHO 

134 

The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius says : 

'The story of the love of Selene is told by 
Sappho, and by Nicander in the second book of 
his Europa ; and it is said that Selene came to 
Endymion in the same cave ' (on Mount Latmus 
in Caria). 

135 

The Scholiast on Hesiod, Op. et D., 74, 
says : 

'Sappho calls Persuasion 'A9pobiTHc euj-orepa 
Daughter of Aphrodite.' Cf. fr. 141. 

136 

Maximus Tyrius says : 

' Socrates blames Xanthippe for lamenting his 
death, as Sappho blames her daughter 

Oi) fop 6ejuu; ev juouaonoAcov oiiua Bpnvuv etvar 
OUK ajujui npenei rate. 

For lamentation may not be in a poet's house : 
such things befit not us.' 

In the home of the Muses 'tis bootless to mourn. 
FREDERICK TENNYSON. 



MISCELLANEOUS l6l 

137 

Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, ii. 23, writes : 

H oocnrep Sampoo, on TO anoQvHSKeiv KQKOV oi 6eot 
fop ouTai KeKpiKaaiv aTTe6vHOKOv fap av. 

Gregory, commenting on Hermogenes, also 
quotes the same saying : 

otov <pn<3iv H Zan9<b, on TO airoOvnoKeiv KOKOV oi 
6eoi fap OUTCO KeKpiKaaiv aneSvHGKOv fap av, eirrep HV 
KO\OV TO 



Several attempts have been made to restore 
these words to a metrical form, and this of 
Hartung's appears to be the simplest : 

To GvuoKetv KOKOV OUTCO KGKpiKaai 6eor 
e0vacsKOv fop av einep KaAov HV robe. 

Death is evil ; the Gods have so judged : had 
it been good, they would die. 

The preceding fragment (136) seems to have 
formed part of the same ode as the present. 
Perhaps it was this ode, which Sappho sent to 
her daughter forbidding her to lament her 
mother's death, that Solon is said to have so 
highly praised. The story is quoted from Aelian 
L 



162 SAPPHO 

by Stobaeus thus: 'Solon the Athenian [who 
died about 558 B.C.], son of Execestides, on his 
nephew's singing an ode of Sappho's over their 
wine, was pleased with it, and bade the boy teach 
it him ; and when some one asked why he 
took the trouble, he said, Tva juaecbv aurb awoeavcj, 
' That I may not die before I have learned it' 



138 

Athenaeus says : 

'Naucratis has produced some celebrated 
courtesans of exceeding beauty ; as Doricha, 
who was beloved by Charaxus, brother of the 
beautiful Sappho, when he went to Naucratis on 
business, and whom she accuses in her poetry of 
having robbed him of much. Herodotus calls 
her Rhodopis, not knowing that Rhodopis was 
different from the Doricha who dedicated the 
famous spits at Delphi.' 

Herodotus, about 440 B.C., said : 

' Rhodopis came to Egypt with Xanthes of 
Samos ; and having come to make money, she 
was ransomed for a large sum by Charaxus of 
Mitylene, son of Scamandronymus and brother 



MISCELLANEOUS 163 

of Sappho the poetess. Thus Rhodopis was 
made free, and continued in Egypt, and being 
very lovely acquired great riches for a Rhodopis, 
though no way sufficient to erect such a pyramid 
[as Mycerlnus'] with. For as any one who wishes 
may to this day see the tenth of her wealth, there 
is no need to attribute any great wealth to her. 
For Rhodopis was desirous of leaving a monu- 
ment to herself in Greece, and having had such 
a work made as no one ever yet devised and 
dedicated in a temple, to offer it at Delphi as a 
memorial of herself : having therefore made from 
the tenth of her wealth a great number of iron 
spits for roasting oxen, as far as the tenth allowed, 
she sent them to Delphi ; and they are still piled 
up behind the altar which the Chians dedicated, 
and opposite the temple itself. The courtesans 
of Naucratis are generally very lovely : for in the 
first place this one, of whom this account is given, 
became so famous that all the Greeks became 
familiar with the name Rhodopis ; and in the 
next place, after her another whose name was 
Archidice became celebrated throughout Greece, 
though less talked about than the former. As 
for Charaxus, after ransoming Rhodopis he 
returned to Mitylene, where Sappho ridiculed 
him bitterly in an ode.' 



1 64 SAPPHO 

And Strabo : 

' It is said that the tomb of the courtesan was 
erected by her lovers : Sappho the lyric poet calls 
her Doricha. She was beloved by Sappho's 
brother Charaxus, who traded to the port of 
Naucratis with Lesbian wine. Others call her 
Rhodopis.' 

And another writer (Appendix Prov. t iv. 51) 

says : 

' The beautiful courtesan Rhodopis, whom 
Sappho and Herodotus commemorate, was of 
Naucratis in Egypt.' 



139 

Athenaeus says : 

' The beautiful Sappho in several places cele- 
brates her brother, Larichus, as cup-bearer to 
the Mitylenaeans in the town-hall.' 

The Scholiast on the Iliad, xx. 234, says : 
' It was the custom, as Sappho also says, for 
well-born and beautiful youths to pour out wine. 

Cf. fr. 5. 



MISCELLANEOUS 165 



I4O 

Palaephatus, probably an Alexandrian Greek, 
says : 

' Phaon gained his livelihood by a boat and 
the sea ; the sea was crossed by a ferry ; and no 
complaint was made by any one, since he was 
just, and only took from those who had means. 
He was a wonder among the Lesbians for his 
character. The goddess they call Aphrodite 
"the goddess" commends the man, and having 
put on the appearance of a woman now grown 
old, asks Phaon about sailing ; he was swift to 
wait on her and carry her across and demand 
nothing. What thereupon does the goddess do ? 
They say she transformed the man and restored 
him to youth and beauty. This is that Phaon, 
her love for whom Sappho several tknes made 
into a song.' 

The story is repeated by many writers. Cf. 
fr. 29. 



HI 

[Fr. 141 now appears as fr. 57 A, 



166 SAPPHO 



142 

Pausanias says : 

'Yet that gold does not contract rust the 
Lesbian poetess is a witness, and gold itself 
shows it.' 

And the Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth.^ iv. 407 : 

' But gold is indestructible ; and so says 
Sappho, 

AIOQ note b xpuooc, Keivov ol OHQ ou&? KIQ bdnrei, 
Gold is son ot Zeus, no moth nor worm devours it? 
Sappho's own phrase is lost. 



Aulus Gellius, about 160 A.D., writes: 

'Homer says Niobe had six sons and six 
daughters, Euripides seven of each, Sappho nine, 
Bacchylides and Pindar ten.' 

Cf. fr. 31, the only line extant from the ode 
here referred to. 



MISCELLANEOUS l6/ 



144 

Servius, commenting on Vergil, Aeneid, vi. 21, 
says : 

' Some would have it believed that Theseus 
rescued along with himself seven boys and seven 
maidens, as Plato says in his Phaedo, and Sappho 
in her lyrics, and Bacchylides in his dithyrambics, 
and Euripides in his Hercules? 

No such passage from Sappho has been pre- 
served. 



145 

Servius, commenting on Vergil, Eclog., vi. 42, 
says : 

'Prometheus, son of lapetus and Clymene, 
after he had created man, is said to have 
ascended to heaven by help of Minerva, and 
having applied a small torch [or perhaps ' wand '] 
to the sun's wheel, he stole fire and showed it to 
men. The Gods being angered hereby sent two 
evils upon the earth, fevers and disease [the text 
is here obviously corrupt ; it ought to be ' women 
and disease ' or ' fevers and women '], as Sappho 
and Hesiod tell.' 



168 SAPPHO 



146 

Philostratus says : 

' Sappho loves the Rose, and always crowns 
it with some praise, likening beautiful maidens 
to it.' 

This remark seems to have led some of the 
earlier collectors of Sappho's fragments to 
include the ' pleasing song in commendation of 
the Rose ' quoted by Achilles Tatius in his love- 
story Clitophon and Leurippe, but there is no 
reason to attribute it to Sappho. Mrs. E. B. 
Browning thus translated it : 

SONG OF THE ROSE. 

If Zeus chose us a king of the flowers in his 

mirth, 
He would call to the Rose and would royally 

crown it, 
For the Rose, ho, the Rose, is the grace of the 

earth, 

Is the light of the plants that are growing 
upon it. 



MISCELLANEOUS 169 

For the Rose, ho, the Rose, is the eye of the 

flowers, 

Is the blush of the meadows that feel them- 
selves fair 
Is the lightning of beauty that strikes through 

the bowers 
On pale lovers who sit in the glow unaware. 

Ho, the Rose breathes of love ! Ho, the Rose 

lifts the cup 

To the red lips of Cypris invoked for a guest ! 
Ho, the Rose, having curled its sweet leaves for 

the world, 

Takes delight in the motion its petals keep up, 
As they laugh to the wind as it laughs from the 
west ! 

And Mr. J. A. Symonds (1883) : 

THE PRAISE OF ROSES. 

If Zeus had willed it so 

That o'er the flowers one flower should reign 

a queen, 
I know, ah well I know 

The rose, the rose, that royal flower had been ! 
She is of earth the gem, 
Of flowers the diadem ; 
And with her flush 
The meadows blush r 



1 70 SAPPHO 

Nay, she is beauty's self that brightens 

In Summer, when the warm air lightens ! 

Her breath 's the breath of Love, 

Wherewith he lures the dove 

Of the fair Cyprian queen ; 

Her petals are a screen 

Of pink and quivering green, 

For Cupid when he sleeps, 

Or for mild Zephyrus, who laughs and weeps. 

' Sappho loves flowers with a personal sym- 
pathy,' writes Professor F. T. Palgrave. " Cretan 
girls," she says, " with their soft feet dancing lay 
flat the tender bloom of the grass " [fr. 54] : she 
feels for the hyacinth " which shepherds on the 
mountain tread under foot, and the purple 
flower is on the ground " [fr. 94] : she pities the 
wood-doves (apparently) as their "life grows 
cold and their wings fall" before the archer' 
[fr. 1 6]. 



147 

Himerius says : 

' These gifts of yours must now be likened to 
those of the leader of the Muses himself, as 
Sappho and Pindar, in an ode, adorn him with 



MISCELLANEOUS I/I 

golden hair and lyres, and attend him with a 
team of swans to Helicon while he dances with 
Muses and Graces ; or as poets inspired by the 
Muses crown the Bacchanal (for thus the lyre 
calls him, meaning Dionysos), when Spring has 
just flashed out for the first time, with Spring 
flowers and ivy-clusters, and lead him, now to 
the topmost heights of Caucasus and vales of 
Lydia, now to the cliffs of Parnassus and the 
rock of Delphi, while he leaps and gives his 
female followers the note for the Evian tune.' 



148 

Eustathius says : 

1 There is, we see, a vagabond friendship, as 
Sappho would say, KOAOV SHMOSIOV, a. public 
blessing! 

This appears to have been said against Rho- 
dopis. Cf. fr. 138. 

149 

The Lexicon Seguerianum defines 

one who has no experience of ill, not r 



one who is good-natured. So Sappho uses the 
word.' 



172 SAPPHO 



150 

The Etymologicum Magnum defines 



a vine trained on long poles, and 
says Sappho makes the plural ajiauou6e<:. So 
Choeroboscus, late in the sixth century A.D., 
says ' the occurrence of the genitive ajuauaC&o<; 
[the usual form being aManduo<;] in Sappho is 
strange.' 



The Etymologicum Magnum says of 
a trench for watering meadows , ' because it is 
raised by a water-bucket, QUH being a mason's 
instrument ' that it is a word Sappho seems to 
have used ; and Orion, about the fifth century 
A.D., also explains the word similarly, and says 
Sappho used it. 



MISCELLANEOUS 173 



152 

Apollonius says : 

' And in this way metaplasms of words [i.e., 
tenses or cases formed from non-existent presents 
or nominatives] arise, like epuaapjuarec [chariot- 
drawing], AITO [cloths], and in Sappho TO aua, 
Dawn.' 

And the Etymologicum Magnum says : 

' We find napa THV auav [during the morning] 
in Aeolic, for "during the day."' 



153 

The Etymologicum Magnum says : 

' AUOM; or H<OQ, that is, the day ; thus we read 
in Aeolic. Sappho has 

noTvia auoog, 
Queen Dawn? 

The solemn Dawn. 

FREDERICK TENNYSON. 



174 SAPPHO 



154 

Athenaeus says : 
The pupcojuioc \baromos\ and capgiroc \sar- 



b1tos\ both of which are mentioned by Sappho 
andAnacreon,and theMagadis and the Triangles 
and the Sambucae, are all ancient instruments.' 

Athenaeus in another place, apparently more 
correctly, gives the name of the first as pdpMog 
\barmos\. 

What these instruments precisely were is un- 
known. Cf. p. 46. 



155 

Pollux says : 

' Sappho used the word peuboq for a woman's 



dress, a kimberfron, a kind of short transparent 
frock.' 



MISCELLANEOUS 175 



156 

Phrynichus the grammarian, about 180 A.D., 
says: 

' Sappho calls a woman's dressing-case, where 
she keeps her scents and such things, ppC.' 



157 

Hesychius, about 370 A.D., says Sappho 
called Zeus"EKTu)p, Hector, i.e. ' holding fast' 



158 

A Parisian MS. edited by Cramer says : 

' Among the Aeolians ? is used for 6, as when 
Sappho says $dp<rrov for hctfcrrov, fordable? 



176 SAPPHO 



159 

A Scholiast on Homer quotes ararowv, may 
I lead ^ from Sappho. 



1 60 

Eustathius, commenting on the Iliad, quotes 
the grammarian Aristophanes [about 260 B.C.] 
as saying that Sappho calls a wind that is as 
if twisted up and descending, a cyclone, avtjuov 
KorrdpH, a wind rushing from above. 

Nauck would restore the epithet to verse 2 of 
fr. 42. 



161 

Choeroboscus says : 

'Sappho makes the accusative of 
danger nivbuv.' 

Another writer, in the Codex Marc., says : 
' Sappho makes the accusative Kiv 



MISCELLANEOUS 177 



l62 

Joannes Alexandrinus, about the seventh 
century A.D., says : 

'The acute accent falls either on the last 
syllable or the last but one or the last but two, 
but never on the last but three ; the accent of 
MAbeia \_Medeia the sorceress, wife of Jason] in 
Sappho is allowed by supposing the ei to form 
a diphthong.' 



163 

An unknown author, in Antiatticista, says \ 

'Sappho, in her second book, calls 
myrrh 



164 

A treatise on grammar edited by Cramer 
says : 

'The genitive plural of MoCoa is Mcooacov 
among the Laconians, MOIGOKOV of the Muses 
in Sappho.' 

M 



178 SAPPHO 

165 

Phrynichus says : 

Nirpuv natron (carbonate of soda) is the form 
1 an Aeolian would use, such as Sappho, with a 
v; but,' he goes on, 'an Athenian would speli 
it with a A, Airpov.' 

166 

A Scholiast on Homer, Iliad^ Hi. 219, says: 

' Sappho said m>\ut6pibi of much knowledge as 
the dative of 



167 

Photius, in his Lexicon, about the ninth 
century A.D., says : 

1 6dvyoc is a wood with which they dye wool 
and hair yellow, which Sappho calls 
&AQV Scythian wocd. 



MISCELLANEOUS 179 

And the Scholiast on Theocritus, Idyl ii. 88, 
says : 

' 0avi/oc is a kind of wood which is also called 
oKueuptov or Scythian wood, as Sappho says ; 
and in this they dip fleeces and make them of a 
quince-yellow, and dye their hair yellow ; among 
us it is called xpuooSuAov gold-wood' 

Ahrens thinks that here the Scholiast quoted 
Sappho, and he thus restores the verses : 



- w - ZKU01KOV 

TCJJ fJdirroiai re THpia 
noteiai be naAiva 
av9io5oiai re rag 



Scythian wood, in which they dip fleeces and 
make, them quince-coloured, and dye their hair 
vellow. 

Thapsus may have been box-wood, but it is 
quite uncertain. 



168 

The Etymologicum Magnum says : 

'The Aeolians say Tioioiv 090d\uotaiv with 

what eyes . . . [using rioioi for TIGI, the dative 

plural of TIQ] as Sappho does.' 



ISO SAPPHO 



169 

Orion of Thebes, the grammarian, about 450 
A.D., says : 

' In Sappho x 6 *" is x eA " VH a tortoise ' ; 
which is better written xeAuva, or rather yi\wa, 
as other writers imply. 



170 

Pollux says : 

{ Bowls with a boss in the middle are called 
3a\avei6u9aAoi, circular-bottomed, from their 
shape, xP 00 ^? ^ 01 ) gold-bottomed, from the 
material, like Sappho's xP uoa<3T par a ^o i . with 
golden ankles? 

Some few other fragments are attributed to 
Sappho, but Bergk admits none as genuine. 
Above is to be seen every word which he con- 
sidered hers. An account of some which have 
recently been brought to light is given on the 
succeeding pages. 



1 82 SAPPHO 

ancient manuscripts have to contend. Few, at 
the first glance, would guess how much could 
be made out of so little. 

The letters on each side of the parchment are 
clearly written, punctuated, and accented. They 
appear to belong to the eighth century A.D., so 
that the writing is at least a thousand years old. 
The actual letters are these, those which are not 
decipherable with certainty being marked off by 
brackets : 

(A.) 6<ooHv (B.) 6e6ujuou 

UTcavuevr* en Mindjunctv 

u/\cov KaoXtov (o buvanai 

AOIQ. AUTTHC T U 
5 JU : OVeibOQ 5 aOKVH/LlOl 

oi5Haai(;. em T (a q) avriAaMTTHv 

ia(v)aaaio. TO fap Aovrrpoaaiirov 

u) OVOUK' OUTO) (ju 



10 M (Hb 10 ... (po^ 

The two fragments, distinguished by Blass as A. 
and B., occur, the one on the front, the other on 
the back of the scrap of parchment. They were 
edited by Bergk, in the fourth (posthumous) 
edition of his Poetae Lyrici Gracci, 1882, vol. iii. 
pp. 704, 705. Blass ascribed the verses to 
Sappho, and he is still of opinion that they are 
hers, from the metre, the dialect, and 'the 



THE FAYUM FRAGMENTS 183 

colour of the diction,' to use his own expression 
in a letter to me. Indeed, every word of them 
makes one feel that no poet or poetess save 
Sappho could have so exquisitely combined 
simplicity and beauty. Bergk, however, prints 
them as of uncertain origin, fragmenta adespota 
(56 A., 56 B). He agrees with Blass that they 
are in the Lesbian dialect and the Sapphic 
metre, but he thinks that they may have been 
written by Alcaeus. Bergk's decision partly 
rests upon the statement of Suidas, that Hora- 
pollo, the Greek grammarian, who first taught 
at Alexandria and afterwards at Constantinople, 
in the reign of Theodosius, about 400 A.D., 
wrote a commentary on Alcaeus ; but he gives 
no reason for believing that these Fayum manu- 
scripts necessarily come from Alexandria : their 
history is very uncertain. Blass thinks that the 
greater fame, especially in later times, of Sappho, 
strongly favours his own view. To my mind 
there is little doubt that we have herein none 
but her very words. 

A restoration of such imperfect fragments 
must needs be guess-work. Bergk has, how- 
ever, attempted it in part, and he has accepted 
the emendations of Blass in lines 3-5 of frag- 
ment A. Biicheler, one of the editors of the 
Rhtinisches Museum, has also expressed his 
views with regard to some of the lines; but 



184 SAPPHO 

they are not endorsed by the authority of 
Bergk. According to the latter distinguished 
scholar, fragment A may have run thus : 

I v w SOKIJLIOK; x<*P lv MOI 
OUK anu&oxjHv 

juev T* enrepurHQ w w 



9iAoic, AUITHC re Me KanopinrHQ 
5 ei<; cu' oveiooq. 

H Kev ol&Hoaic, tni T' aif' 
Snupiav aoaio' TO rP VOHUO 
TWJUOV OUK OUTGO juaAaK09pov, 

TOig &UXKHTUI. 
IO - w )JH5' w - ww - w - w 

In which case it might have had this mean- 
ing: 

Thou seemest not to care to return my 
favour; and indeed thou didst fly away from 
famous . . . of the fair and noble . . . 
to thy friends, and painest me, and easiest 
reproach at me. Truly thou mayst swell, and 
sate thyself with milking a goat of Scyros. For 
my mood is not so soft-hearted to those soever 
to whom // is disposed unfriendly . . . nor . . . 
The words which are here italicised are those 
which alone are extant in full in the manu- 
script; the others are only plausible guesses, 
though some of them are indicated by the 
existence of accents and portions of letters. 



THE FAYUM FRAGMENTS 185 

Bergk's ingenious restoration of lines 6 and 
7 is founded on a fragment of Alcaeus (fr. 1 10), 
wherein Chrysippus explains al SKupia, a goat of 
Scyros, as a proverb of those who spoil kind- 
ness (rni TCOV TOQ euepreaiac avarpeirovrcov), as a goat 
upsets her milking pail (erreibH noAAaKig TO afpeTa 
avarpeirei H al). Blass would, however, complete 
the phrase thus : 

km T (5 re Awpot 
Kapo) iav aaaio, 

And with the outrage sate thy heart. 

Disappointing as this is, the restoration of 
fragment B. is yet more hopeless. Authorities 
are agreed as to the position of the words in 
the Sapphic stanza, thus : 



w w ww buvauai 

w w w 
5 w w w, w a? Kev MOi 

w w w w avTiAot/utTHV 

w w w KG) Aov npoaconov 



10 w w wv trai) pog. 

The only additions hazarded by Bergk, or 
accepted by him from Blass, are given on the 
left of the brackets. Bergk says that Suvawai (as 
if w -- ; cf. fr. 13) is an old form of the con- 



186 SAPPHO 



junctive for bi foonm. He reads line 5, oic KEV K MOI, 
comparing Theocritus, 29, 20, 5; KCV epm;, 'as 
long as thou lovest ' : Bergk and Blass alike 
consider H as a later form of H. The words may 
mean: 

. . . soul . . . altogether . . . / should be 
able . . . as long indeed as to me . . . to flash 
back . . . fair face . . . stained over . . . 
friend. 

But in the absence of any context the very 
meaning of the separate words is uncertain. 

Bergk thinks that the fragments belong to 
different poems, unless we read fragment A. 
after fragment B. ; there is nothing on the 
parchment to indicate sequence. 

In fragment B. it will be seen that a space 
occurs in each place where the last (or Adonic) 
verses of each Sapphic stanza would have been, 
as if they had been written more to the left in 
the manuscript ; they probably therefore ranged 
with the long lines, of which we have only some 
of the last syllables preserved. Indenting the 
shorter verses is a modern fashion ; the ancient 
way was to begin each one at the same distance 
from the margin. 



SAPPHO TO PHAON 

A TRANSLATION OF OVID*S HEROIC EPISTLE, XV. 
BY ALEXANDER POPE, 1707 

SAY, lovely youth that dost my heart command, 
Can Phaon's eyes forget his Sappho's hand ? 
Must then her name the wretched writer prove, 
To thy remembrance lost as to thy love ? 
Ask not the cause that I new numbers 

choose, 

The lute neglected and the lyric Muse : 
Love taught my tears in sadder notes to flow, 
And tuned my heart to elegies of woe. 

I burn, I burn, as when through ripened 

corn 
By driving winds the spreading flames are 

borne. 

Phaon to Aetna's scorching fields retires, 
While I consume with more than Aetna's fires. 

187 



188 SAPPHO TO PHAON 

No more my soul a charm in music finds , 
Music has charms alone for peaceful minds : 
Soft scenes of solitude no more can please ; 
Love enters there, and I'm my own disease. 
No more the Lesbian dames my passion move, 
Once the dear objects of my guilty love : x 
All other loves are lost in only thine, 
Ah, youth ungrateful to a flame like mine! 
Whom would not all those blooming charms 

surprise, 

Those heavenly looks and dear deluding eyes ? 
The harp and bow would you like Phoebus bear, 
A brighter Phoebus Phaon might appear . 
Would you with ivy wreathe your flowing hair, 
Not Bacchus' self with Phaon could compare : 
Yet Phoebus loved, and Bacchus felt the flame j 
One Daphne warmed and one the Cretan 

dame; 

Nymphs that in verse no more could rival me 
Than e'en those gods contend in charms with 

thee. 

The Muses teach me all their softest lays, 
And the wide world resounds with Sappho's 

praise. 

1 Line 19, 'quas non sine crimine amavi,' which 
Pope translates thus, is read in many old texts ' quas 
hie sine crimine amavi ' = whom here I blamelessly 
loved ; and even if the former reading be adopted, it 
must be remembered that crimen means ' an accusation 
more often than it does ' a crime. ' 



SAPPHO TO PHAON 189 

Though great Alcaeus more sublimely sings, 
And strikes with bolder rage the sounding 

strings, 

No less renown attends the moving lyre 
Which Venus tunes and all her Loves inspire. 
To me what Nature has in charms denied 
Is well by wit's more lasting flames supplied. 
Though short my stature, yet my name extends 
To heaven itself and earth's remotest ends : 
Brown as I am, an Aethiopian dame 
Inspired young Perseus with a generous flame . 
Turtles and doves of different hue unite, 
And glossy jet is paired with shining white. 
If to no charms thou wilt thy heart resign 
But such as merit, such as equal thine, 
By none, alas, by none thou canst be moved ; 
Phaon alone by Phaon must be loved. 
Yet once thy Sappho could thy cares employ ; 
Once in her arms you centred all your joy : 
No time the dear remembrance can remove, 
For oh how vast a memory has love ! 
My music then you could for ever hear, 
And all my words were music to your ear : 
You stopt with kisses my enchanting tongue, 
And found my kisses sweeter than my song. 
In all I pleased, but most in what was best ; 
And the last joy was dearer than the rest : 
Then with each word, each glance, each motion 

fired, 



SAPPHO TO PHAON 

You still enjoyed, and yet you still desired, 
Till all dissolving in the trance we lay, 
And in tumultuous raptures died away. 

The fair Sicilians now thy soul inflame : 
Why was I born, ye gods, a Lesbian dame ? 
But ah, beware, Sicilian nymphs, nor boast 
That wandering heart which I so lately lost ; 
Nor be with all those tempting words abused : 
Those tempting words were all to Sappho used. 
And you that rule Sicilia's happy plains, 
Have pity, Venus, on your poet's pains. 

Shall fortune still in one sad tenor run 
And still increase the woes so soon begun ? 
Inured to sorrow from my tender years, 
My parent's ashes drank my early tears : 
My brother next, neglecting wealth and fame, 
Ignobly burned in a destructive flame : 
An infant daughter late my griefs increased, 
And all a mother's cares distract my breast. 
Alas, what more could Fate itself impose, 
But thee, the last and greatest of my woes ? 
No more my robes in waving purple flow, 
Nor on my hand the sparkling diamonds glow ; 
No more my locks in ringlets curled diffuse 
The costly sweetness of Arabian dews ; 
Nor braids of gold the varied tresses bind 
That fly disordered with the wanton wind. 
P'or whom should Sappho use such arts as these? 



SAPPHO TO PHAON ipl 

He 's gone whom only she desired to please ! 
Cupid's light darts my tender bosom move ; 
Still is there cause for Sappho still to love ; 
So from my birth the Sisters fixed my doom, 
And gave to Venus all my life to come : 
Or, while my Muse in melting notes complains, 
My yielding heart keeps measure to my strains. 
By charms like thine, which all mysoul havewon, 
Who might not ah, who would not be undone? 
For those, Aurora Cephalus might scorn, 
And with fresh blushes paint theconscious morn: 
For those, might Cynthia lengthen Phaon's sleep, 
And bid Endymion nightly tend his sheep : 
Venus for those had rapt thee to the skies, 
But Mars on thee might look with Venus' eyes. 
O scarce a youth, yet scarce a tender boy ! 
O useful time for lovers to employ ! 
Pride of thy age, and glory of thy race, 
Come to these arms and melt in this embrace ! 
The vows you never will return, receive ; 
And take at least the love you will not give. 
See, while I write, my words are lost in tears : 
The less my sense, the more my love appears. 

Sure 'twas not much to bid one kind adieu : 
At least, to feign was never hard to you. 
'Farewell, my Lesbian love,' you might have 

said ; 
Or coldly thus, ' Farewell, O Lesbian maid.' 



192 SAPPHO TO PHAON 

No tear did you, no parting kiss receive, 
Nor knew I then how much I was to grieve. 
No lover's gift your Sappho could confer; 
And wrongs and woes were all you left with her. 
No charge I gave you, and no charge could give 
But this ' Be mindful of our loves, and live.' 
Now by the Nine, those powers adored by me, 
And Love, the god that ever waits on thee ; 
When first I heard (from whom I hardly knew) 
That you were fled and all my joys with you, 
Like some sad statue, speechless, pale I stood ; 
Grief chilled my breast and stopt my freezing 

blood ; 

No sigh to rise, no tear had power to flow, 
Fixed in a stupid lethargy of woe. 
But when its way the impetuous passion found, 
I rend my tresses and my breasts I wound ; 
I rave, then weep ; I curse, and then complain ; 
Now swell to rage, now melt in tears again. 
Not fiercer pangs distract the mournful dame 
Whose first-born infant feeds the funeral 

flame. 

My scornful brother with a smile appears, 
Insults my woes, and triumphs in my tears ; 
His hated image ever haunts my eyes ; 
'And why this grief? thy daughter lives,' he 

cries. 

Stung with my love and furious with despair, 
All torn my garments and my bosom bare, 



SAPPHO TO PHAON 193 

My woes, thy crimes, I to the world proclaim , 
Such inconsistent things are love and shame. 
'Tis thou art all my care and my delight, 
My daily longing and my dream by night. 

night, more pleasing than the brightest day, 
When fancy gives what absence takes away, 
And, dressed in all its visionary charms, 
Restores my fair deserter to my arms ! 

Then round your neck in wanton wreath I 

twine ; 

Then you, methinks, as fondly circle mine : 
A thousand tender words I hear and speak ; 
A thousand melting kisses give and take : 
Then fiercer joys ; I blush to mention these, 
Yet, while I blush, confess how much they please. 
But when with day the sweet delusions fly, 
And all things wake to life and joy, but I ; 
As if once more forsaken, I complain, 
And close my eyes to dream of you again : 
Then frantic rise ; and, like some fury, rove 
Through lonely plains, and through the silent 

grove, 

As if the silent grove and lonely plains, 
That knew my pleasures, could relieve my pains, 

1 view the grotto, once the scene of love, 
The rocks around, the hanging roofs above, 
That charmed me more, with native moss o'er- 

grown, 

Than Phrygian marble or the Parian stone : 
N 



194 SAPPHO TO PHAON 

I find the shades that veiled our joys before ; 
But, Phaon gone, those shades delight no more. 
Here the pressed herbs with bending tops betray 
Where oft entwined in amorous folds we lay ; 
I kiss that earth which once was pressed by you, 
And all with tears the withering herbs bedew. 
For thee the fading trees appear to mourn, 
And birds defer their song till thy return : 
Night shades the groves, and all in silence lie, 
All but the mournful Philomel and I : 
With mournful Philomel I join my strain ; 
Of Tereus she, of Phaon I complain. 

A spring there is whose silver waters show, 
Clear as a glass, the shining sands below : 
A flowery lotus spreads its arms above, 
Shades all the banks and seems itself a grove ; 
Eternal greens the mossy margin grace, 
Watched by the sylvan genius of the place : 
Here as I lay, and swelled with tears the flood 
Before my sight a watery virgin stood : 
She stood and cried, ' O you that love in vain, 
Fly hence and seek the fair Leucadian main : 
There stands a rock from whose impending 

steep 

Apollo's fane surveys the rolling deep ; 
There injured lovers, leaping from above, 
Their flames extinguish and forget to love. 
Deucalion once with hopeless fury burned ; 



SAPPHO TO PHAON 195 

In vain he loved, relentless Pyrrha scorned. 
But when from hence he plunged into the main, 
Deucalion scorned, and Pyrrha loved in vain. 
Haste, Sappho, haste, from high Leucadia throw 
Thy wretched weight, nor dread the deeps 

below.' 
She spoke, and vanished with the voice: I 

rise, 

And silent tears fall trickling from my eyes. 
I go, ye nymphs, those rocks and seas to prove : 
How much I fear, but ah, how much I love ! 
I go, ye nymphs, where furious love inspires ; 
Let female fears submit to female fires : 
To rocks and seas I fly from Phaon's hate, 
And hope from seas and rocks a milder fate. 
Ye gentle gales, beneath my body blow, 
And softly lay me on the waves below. 
And thou, kind Love, my sinking limbs sustain, 
Spread thy soft wings and waft me o'er the main, 
Nor let a lover's death the guiltless flood profane. 
On Phoebus' shrine my harp I '11 then bestow, 
And this inscription shall be placed below: 
* Here she who sung, to him that did inspire, 
Sappho to Phoebus consecrates her lyre : 
What suits with Sappho, Phoebus, suits with thee; 
The gift, the giver, and the god agree.' 

But why, alas, relentless youth, ah, why 
To distant seas must tender Sappho fly ? 



196 SAPPHO TO PHAON 

Thy charms than those may far more powerful 

be, 

And Phoebus' self is less a god to me. 
Ah, canst thou doom me to the rocks and sea, 
O far more faithless and more hard than they ? 
Ah, canst thou rather see this tender breast 
Dashed on these rocks that to thy bosom 

pressed ? 
This breast, which once, in vain ! you liked so 

well; 
Where the Loves played, and where the Muses 

dwell. 

Alas, the Muses now no more inspire : 
Untuned my lute, and silent is my lyre : 
My languid numbers have forgot to flow, 
And fancy sinks beneath the weight of woe. 

Ye Lesbian virgins and ye Lesbian dames, 
Themes of my verse and objects of my flames, 
No more your groves with my glad songs shall 

ring; 
No more these hands shall touch the trembling 

string : 

My Phaon 's fled, and I those arts resign : 
(Wretch that I am, to call that Phaon mine !) 
Return, fair youth, return, and bring along 
Joy to my soul and vigour to my song. 
Absent from thee, the poet's flame expires ; 
But ah, how fiercely burn the lover's fires ! 



SAPPHO TO PHAON 197 

Gods, can no prayers, no sighs, no numbers 

move 

One savage heart, or teach it how to love ? 
The winds my prayers, my sighs, my numbers 

bear ; 

The flying winds have lost them all in air. 
Or when, alas, shall more auspicious gales 
To these fond eyes restore thy welcome sails ? 
If you return, ah, why these long delays ? 
Poor Sappho dies while careless Phaon stays. 
O launch the bark, nor fear the watery plain : 
Venus for thee shall smooth her native main. 
O launch thy bark, secure of prosperous gales : 
Cupid for thee shall spread the swelling sails. 
If you will fly (yet ah, what cause can be, 
Too cruel youth, that you should fly from me ?) 
If not from Phaon I must hope for ease, 
Ah, let me seek it from the raging seas : 
To raging seas unpitied I '11 remove ; 
And either cease to live or cease to love. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

THE following list comprises most of the books and 
articles in Sapphic literature which I have consulted. I 
have added a few to which I have had reference, but 
which I have not succeeded in seeing : many of them are 
mere curiosities. I could have still further extended the 
bibliography, if I had taken more on trust. I have not 
generally thought it necessary to quote well-known his- 
tories of Greece and Greek literature, nor such transla- 
tions as throw no light upon her beyond what this list 
contains. 

ADDISON, JOHN : The Works of Anacreon translated into 
English Verse ; with Notes explanatory and poetical. 
To which are added the Odes, Fragments, and 
Epigrams of Sappho. With the original Greek 
placed opposite to the Translation. 8vo, London, 
1735- 

ADDISON, JOSEPH : Spectator, No. 223, Nov. 15, 1711 
and No. 233, Nov. 27, 1711. 

AHRENS, HEINRICH LUDOLF: De Graecae Linguae 
Dialectis, Sapphus fragmenta, pp. 256-274 of Lib. I. 
Svo, Gottingen, 1839. 

AHKENS, HEINRICH LUDOLF: Conjecturen in Alcaus 
und Sappho, Rheinisches Museum, 1842, pp. 388- 
401. 

199 



200 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Anacreontis Carmina, cum Sapphonis et Alcaei fragmen 

tis. Glasgow, 1744, 1757, 1761 and 1783. 
Anacreontis et Sapphonis Carmina. Cum virorum doc- 

torum notis et emendationibus, in usum juventutis 

Academiae Salfordiensis, Com. Lancastriae. 8vo, 

London, 1754. 
ANDREAS, ELIAS : Anacreontis Teii antiquissimi poetae 

Lyrici Odae, ab Helia Andrea Latinae factae. i6mo, 

Lutetiae, 1556. 
ANDREAS, ELIAS : Anacreontis, Sapphus, et Erinnae 

Carmina interpretibus Henrico Stephano et Elia 

Andrea. 64010, Edinburgh, 1766. 
ARNOLD, DR. BERNHARD : Sappho. Vortrag, gehalten 

zu Miinchen am 25. Marz 1870. Aus Sammlung 

gemeinverstandlicher Vortrage herausg. v. Rud. 

Virchow und Fr. von Holtzendorff. Berlin, 1871. 

ARNOLD, EDWIN, M.A., C.S.I. : The Poets of Greece 
[pp. 105-118]. 8vo, London, 1869. 

BAXTER, WILLIAM : see Vossius, Isaac (1695). 

BAXTER, WILLIAM: Anacreontis Teii Carmina Graece e 
Recensione Guilielmi Baxteri cum ejusdem Henr. 
item Stephani atque Tanegvidi Fabri notis acces- 
serunt duo Sapphus Odaria [pp. 167-172; 249-254] 
et Theocriti Anacreonticum in mortuum Adonin. 
Iterum edidit varietatemque lectionibus cum suis 
animadversionibus et Anacreontis fragmenta adjecit 
Job.. Frider. Fischerus. 8vo, Leipzig, 1776. 

BEAU, GABRIEL : La Grece Poetique. Anacreon 

Sappho [pp. 81-97] Bion Moschus Theocrite. 

I2mo, Paris, 1884. 
BENTLEY, RICHARD, D.D. : in Graevius' Callimajchi 

Fragmenta, 8vo, Utrecht, 1697, ad. fr. 417, de 

Sapphus fragm. 118. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2OI 

BERGK, THEODOR : De aliquot fragtnentis Sapphonis et 

Alcaei. Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie, 8vo, 

Bonn, 1835, pp. 209-231. 
BERGK, THEODOR : Anthologia Lyrica. 8vo, Leipzig, 

1854, pp. 261-273 ( text only). 
BERGK, THEODOR : Poetae Lyrici Graeci, ed. 4, vol. 3, 

pp. 82-140. 8vo, Leipzig, 1882. 
Bibliotheque Universelle des Dames ; alias Bibliotheque 

de Mesdemoiselles Eulalie, Felicite, Sophie, Emilie 

De Marcilly. Melanges. Tom. viii. pp. 95-130. 

24010, Paris, 1787. 

BLAND, REV. ROBERT : see Merivale, J. H. 
BLASS, FRIEDRICH, of Kiel : Zu den Griechischen 

Lyrikern. Rhein. Mus., vol. xxix., 1874: Sappho, 

PP- I49-I51- 
BLASS, FRIEDRICH, of Kiel : Neue Fragmente . . . 

der Sappho. Rhein. Mus., vol. xxxv. 1880; pp. 

287-290. 

BLOMFIELD, CHARLES JAMES, Bishop of London : Cam- 
bridge Museum Criticum, vol. i. , pp. 1-31, 250-252, 

421, 422. 8vo, 1826. 

BLOMFIELD, CHARLES JAMES : see Gaisford. 
BLUM, JOHANN CHRISTIAN : in Olearius' De Poetriis 

Graecis. 4to, Leipzig, 1712. 
BOETTICHER, K. : Zwei Hermenbildnisse der Sappho ; 

with a photograph. Archaologische Zeitung, 4to, 

Berlin, 1872, pp. 83-86. 
BORN, FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB, PH.D. : Anacreontis et 

Sapphus [pp. 219-227] Carmina Graece recensuit 

notisque illustravit ex optimis interpretibus, quibus 

et suas adjecit. 8vo, Leipzig, 1789. 
BOTHE, FRIDERICUS HENRICUS : Anacreontica Graece 

recensuit notisque criticis instruxit. SctTupouq Aeiyava 

pp. 77-81. i6mo, Leipzig, 1805. 



202 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BRAUN, G. C. : Die Fragmente der Sappho, ubersetzt 
von G. C. B[raun]. 8vo, Wetzlar, 1815. 

BROCKHAUSEN, R. : Sappho's Lieder in deutschen 
Versen nachgebildet. Lemgo, 1827. 

BRUNCK, RICHARD FRANCOIS PHILIPPE : Analecta vet- 
erum poetarum Graecorum : i., pp. 54-57 ; ii., p. 8. 
8vo, Strassburg, 1772. 

BRUNCK, RICHARD FRANC.OIS PHILIPPE : Anacreontis 
Carmina: accedunt quaedam e lyricorum reliquiis 
pp. 82-86. Ed. 2, I2mo, Strassburg, 1786. 

BRUNCK, RICHARD FRANCOIS PHILIPPE : see Weise, 
G. H. (1844). 

BURGKK, EDUARD : Anacreon und andere lyrische 
Dichter Griechenlands in deutschen Reimen. 32mo, 
Stuttgart, 1855. 

BUSTELLI, GIUSEPPE: Vita e Frammenti di Saffo de 
Mitilene. Discorso e versione (prima inter a). Pp. 
104. 8vo, Bologna, 1863. 

CAPPONE, FRANCESCO ANTONIO : Liriche Parafrasi di 
D. Francesco Antonio Cappone, Academico ozioso. 
Supra tutte 1'Ode d'Anacreonte, e sopra alcune altre 
Poesie di diversi Lirici Poeti Greci. Secundo la 
preposta version Latina de'l'or piu celebri Traduttori. 
pp. 190-200. 241110, Venice, 1670. 

COMPARETTI, PROFESSOR DOMENICO : Saffo e Faone 
dinanzi 'alia critica storia, in the Nuova Antologia di 
Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, anno xi., seconda serie, 
vol. i., fasc. ii., pp. 253-288. 8vo, Florence, Febr. 
1876. 

COMPARETTI, PROFESSOR DOMENICO : Sulla Epistola 
Ovidiana di Saffo a Faone, studico critio. Published 
by the R. Istituto di Studi Superiori pratici e di 
perfezionamento in Firenze, Sezione di Fiiosofia e 
Filologia, vol. ii., dispensa prima, 8vo, pp. 53, 
Florence, 1876. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2O3 

COMPARETTI, PROFESSOR DOMENICO : Sappho nelle 
Antiche Rappresentanze Vascolari. Published in 
the Museo Italiano di Antichita Classica, pp. 41-80, 
with 4 plates, 410, Firenze, 1886. 

COUPIN : see Girodet de Roussy. 

COURIER, P.-L. : Daphnis et Chloe, traduit par P.-L. 
Courier. Suivi des Poesies d'Anacreon et de Sappho 
[Odes I. and II. in French prose, pp. 45-49] tra- 
duction nouvelle d'apres un Manuscrit de 1'ecole 
d'Athenes. 8vo, Paris, 1878. 

CRAMER, JOHN ANTONY, D.D. : Anecdota Graeca e 
codd. manuscriptis Bibliothecarum Oxoniensium de- 
scripsit. Frag. 95, vol. i., p. 444; frag. 158, vol. 
"> P- 3 2 5- 2 v k' 8vo, Oxford, 1835-6. 

CRAMER, J. CHR. : Diatribe chronologico-critica dp 
patria Sapphus. 4to, Jena, N.D. 

CRAMER, J. CHR. : Diatribe chronologico-critica de auj" 
9poviojuup Sapphus et Anacreontis. 410, Jena, 1755. 

DACIER, ANNE LEFEVRE l : Les Poesies d'Anacreon et 
de Sapho, traduites de Grec en Fran(ois, avec des 
Remarques. Les Poesies de Sapho de Lesbos, pp. 
387-429. I2mo, Paris, 1681. 

DACIER, ANNE LEFEVRE : Les Poesies d'Anacreon et de 
Sapho traduites de Grec en Frangois, avec des Re- 
marques par Mademoiselle Le Fevre, pp. 387-429, 
I2mo, Lyons, 1696. 

DACIER, ANNE LEFEVRE : Les poesies d'Anacreon et de 
Sapho traduites de Grec en Frangois, avec des Re- 
marques, par Madame Dacier. Nouvelle edition 
augmentee des Notes Latines de Mr. le Fevre. 
I2mo, Amsterdam, 1699. 

1 Anne Lefevre, daughter of Tanneguy Lefevre (Tanaquillus 
Fmber], born at Saumur about 1654, married Andre Dacier in 1683 
and died at the Louvre, 1720. 



204 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

DACIEK, ANNE LEFEVRE : Les Poe'sies d'Anacreon et de 
Sapho traduites de Grec en Frai^ois, avec des Re 
marques, par Madame Dacier. Nouvelle Edition, 
augmentee des Notes Latines de Mr. le Fevre, et de 
la Traduction en vers Frai^ois de Mr. de la Fosse. 
8vo, Amsterdam, 1716. 

DEGEN, J. F. : Anacreon und Sappho's Lieder nebst 
and. lyr. Gedichten, Text und libers. Altenburg, 
1787. 

Die Gedichte Anakreons und der Sappho Oden aus dem 
Griechischen ubersetzt, und mit Anmerkungen be- 
gleitet, pp. 205-216. 8vo, Carlsruhe, 1760. 

Discours sur la Poesie lyrique, avec les modeles du genre 
tire's de Pindare, d'Anacreon, de Sapho [pp. 137- 
140], de Malherbe, etc. 24mo, Paris, 1761. 

Du Bois, EDWARD: The Wreath; composed of Se- 
lections from Sappho, etc, . . . accompanied by 
a prose translation, with notes. 8vo, London, 
1799- 

DuBOis-GoCHAN, E.-P. : La Pl&ade Grecque : Tra- 
ductions contenant Les Odes et Fragments d'Ana- 
cre"on, Les Poesies de Sapho, etc., pp. 71-88. 8vo, 
Paris, 1873. 

EASBY-SMITH, JAMES S. : The Songs of Sappho. 8vo, 
pp. ix. 97, Washington, 1891. 

EGERTON, THE HONOURABLE FRANCIS HENRY : A 
Fragment of an Ode of Sappho, from Longinus : 
also, an Ode of Sappho from Dionysius Halicarn. 
Pp. 26. 8vo, Paris, 1815. 

ELTON, SIR CHARLES ABRAHAM, BART. : Specimens of 
the Classic Poets . . . translated into English 
verse, and illustrated with biographical aud criti- 
cal notices; vol. i., pp. 99-111. 8vo, London, 
1814. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 

FABER, TANAQUILLUS : Anacreontis et Sapphonis Car- 
mina. Notas et Animadversiones addidit Tanaquillus 
Faber ; in quibus multa Veterum emendantur. 
24010, Saumur, 1670. 

FABER, TANAQUILLUS: see Baxter, William (1776). 

FARD, LE POETE SANS : see Ga9on, Francis. 

FARNELL, GEORGE S. : Greek Lyric Poetry ; pp. 148- 
167, 327-342. 8vo, London, 1891. 

FAWKES, REV. FRANCIS, M.A. : The Works of Anacreon, 
Sappho [pp. 169-196], Bion, Moschus, and Musaeus. 
Translated into English by a Gentleman of Cam- 
bridge. 1 2mo, London, 1760. Often reprinted, e.g. 
1789 ; 1810 ; 1832 ; in Anderson's Poets of Great 
Britain, vol. xiii., 1793 ; in Chalmers' Works of the 
English Poets, vol. xx., 1810, etc. 

FELTON, CORNELIUS CON WAY, LL.D. : Greece, 
Ancient and Modern. Lectures delivered before the 
Lowell Institute [1852-1854]. (Sappho, vol. i. pp. 
171-180). 2 vols., 8vo, Boston, 1867. 

FEVRE, MADEMOISELLE LE : see Dacier, Madame. 
IELD, MICHAEL : Long Ago. 8vo, pp. 132, London, 
1889. 

FINKENSTEIN, F. L. K. : Sappho, Ode aus Aphrodita 
ubers. Berlin, 1810. 

FISCHER, JOH. FRIDR. : see Baxter, William (1776). 

FONVIELLE, B. F. A. : Sapho, ou Le Saut de Leucate, 
tragedie lyrique en trois actes. 8vo, Paris, 1816. 

FOSSE, DE LA : see Dacier, Madame (1716). 

FRIEDRICH : Bion, Anacreon, und Sappho. Aus d. 
Griech. Ubers. Libau, 1787. 

FROTHINGHAM, ELLEN : Sappho, a tragedy in five acts. 
A translation from the German play by Franz 
Grillparzer. l6mo, Boston, U.S.A., 1876. 



206 BIBLIOGRAPHY 



N, FRANCOIS : Les Odes d'Anacr^on et de Sappho 
[pp. 343-354] en vers Frai^ois par le poete Sans 
Fard. I2mo, Rotterdam, 1712; also Les Poe"sies 
d'Anacre"on, etc., 32mo, Paris, 1754. 

GA^ON, FRANCOIS : ' AvaKpfovroc THIOU jueAH. Zampouq 
'Aojuara. i6mo, Paris, 1754. 

GAISFORD, THOMAS, D.D. : Sapphonis Fragmenta, 
edited by Charles James Blomfield, and reprinted 
from the Cambridge Museum Criticum, fasc. i., in 
Gaisford's Poetae Minores Graeci, vol. iii., pp. 
289-314. 8vo, Leipzig, 1823. 

GERHARD, W. : Anacreon und Sappho. Freie Nach- 
bildung fiir den deutschen Gesang. Leipzig, 1847. 

GILES, J. A. : see Hainebach, J. H. 

GILLIVER : Anacreontis carmina, etc. . . . et poetriae 
Sapphus quae supersunt. London, 1733. 

GIRODET DE ROUSSY, ANNE Louis : Sappho, Bion, 
Moschus, Recueil de Compositions dessine"es par 
Girodet, et gravees par M. Chatillon, son eleve, avec 
la traduction en vers par Girodet, et une Notice sur 
la Vie et les CEuvres de Sappho, par Coupin. 410, 
Paris, 1829. 

GLEIM, J. W. L. : Die Oden Anakreons in reimlosen 
Versen. Nebst einigen andern Gedichten. Die 2 
Oden der Dichterin Sappho, pp. 45-48. 8vo, 
Frankfort and Leipzig, 1746. 

GOLDMANN, C. A. F. : Bion, nebst einigen Gedichten 
der Sappho, der Erinna, und des Mimnermus iibers. 
Soest, 1808. 

GRAINVILLE, J. B. : LeshymnesdeSapho, nouvellement 
decouvertes et traduites pour la premiere fois en 
fran9ois, avec des notes et une version italienne. 8vo, 
Paris, 1796. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2O? 

GRAUX, CHARLES : Revue de Philologie, 1880, pp. 81, ff. 

Greek Authoresses, an anonymous article in the Edin- 
burgh Review, vol. lv., No. cix., April, 1832, pp. 
182-208. 

GREENE, E. B. : The Works of Anacreon and Sappho 
[pp. 127-169] . . . illustrated by observations on 
their lives and writings, explanatory notes from 
established commentators, and additional remarks 
by the Editor ; with the Classic, an introductory 
Poem. 8vo, London, 1768. 

GRILLPARZER, FRANZ : see Frothingham. 

GROSSET : see Marcelot et Grosset. 

GUNTHER WAHT, F. L. : Anacreon und Sappho, Lieder 
der Liebe aus dem Griech. Erfurt, 1783. 

GYRALDUS, LILIUS GREG. : see Stephanus, H. (1566, 
1660). 

HAINEBACH, J. H. : Specimen Scriptorum Graecorum 
minorum, quorum reliquias, fere omnium melioris 
notae, ex editionibus variis excerptas ab J. A. Giles 
recognoscet et supplebit J. H. Hainebach. 8vo, 
Frankfort, 1834. 

HARLES [alias Harless], GOTTLIEB CHRISTOPHER : An- 
thologia Graeca Poetica, pp. 239-249. 8vo, Baruthi, 
1792. 

HARRISON, FREDERIC : The New Calendar of Great 
Men, pp. 46, 47. 8vo, London, 1892. 

HARTEL, W. : Die Sappho und die Sappho-Sage, in the 
Oesterr. Wochenschrift f. Wissenschaft und Kunst 
v. W. Bucher, N. F., 1872. 

HARTUNG, J. A. : Die Griechischen Lyriker, vol. vi., 
pp. 63-110. 8vo, Leipzig, 1857. 

HAUTEROCHE, ALLIER DE : Notizie intorno a Safifo de 
Ereso. Paris, 1822. 



208 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

HELLER, H. J. : Carmen Sapphus Secundum, in Philo- 

logus, pp. 431-437, 8vo, Gottingen, 1856. (Heller 

reads the last line thus : nav be TOAjuaTtOv em T 

'ratTHTa, i.e. amicae causa, ad amicam mihi con- 

ciliandam). 
HERMANN, G. : Bermerkungen liber Homer und die Frag- 

mente der Sappho, in his Works, vol. vi. , pp. 70- 

141- 1835. 
HIGGINSON, THOMAS WBNTWORTH, COLONEL: Sappho, 

an article published in the Atlantic Monthly for 

1871, and reprinted in Atlantic Essays, pp. 299-324. 

Boston, 1882. 
HOFFMANN, S. F. W. : Lexicon Bibliographicum, sive 

Index Editionum et Interpretationum Scriptorum 

Graecorum, turn sacrorum turn profanorum. V. sub 

voce Sappho, vol iii. 8vo, Leipzig, 1832. 
HOSKEN, JAMES DRYDEN, ' the Postman-Poet ' : Phaon 

and Sappho, a Play. 8vo, Penzance, 1891. 
HiJBNER, E. : Die Madrider Sapphoherme. Archaolo- 

gische Zeitung, 8vo, Berlin, 1872, pp. 86-87 f 

1873, pp. 46, 47. 
HUDSON, JOHN, D.D. : Dionysius Longinus de Sub- 

limitate, cum praefationibus, notis, et variis lec- 

tionibus. 8vo, Oxford, 1710. 
IMPERIALS, G. V. : see Verri, A. 
JAEGER, W. : Sappho, poesies franchises et allemandes. 

Berlin, 1852. 
KANNEGIESSER, K. L. : Anacreon und Sappho, ubers~ 

Prenzlau, 1827. 
KOCK, THEODOR ; Alkaos und Sappho, pp. 22-98. 

Svo, Berlin, 1862. 
KOECHLY, H. : Uber Sappho, mit RUcksicht auf die 

gesellschaftliche Stellung der Frauen bei den 

Griechen : Academische Vortrage, Zurich, 1859, 

pp. 155-277, 406-412. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 2O9 

LANGAPETRAEUS=Longepierre, q.v. 

LE FEVRE, TANNEGUY: see Dacier, 1699. 

LEFEVRE, ANNE : see Dacier. 

LEWIS, MRS. ESTELLE : Sappho : a Tragedy in five 
Acts, by 'Stella.' Ed. 6th, 8vo, London, 1881. 

LILLY, JOHN, ' the Euphuist ' : Sapho and Phao, played 
before the Queen's Majesty on Shrove Tuesday, by 
her Majesty's children and the Boys of St. Paul's. 
4to, London, 1584. 

LONGEPIERRE, MR. DE : Les Oeuvres d'Anacreon et de 
Sapho, contenant leurs Poesies, et les galanteries de 
1'ancienne Grece. Traduites de Grec en vers 
Franjois par Mr. de Longepierre, avec des Notes 
curieuses sur tout 1'ouvrage. Les Poesies de Sapho 
de Lesbos, pp. 347-398. I2mo, Paris, 1692. 

LUNIAK (LuSAK), JOHN, Phil. Mag. : Quaestiones 
Sapphicae ; accedit Corollarium criticum atque exe- 
geticum ad Ovidianam Sapphus Epistulam. 8vo, 
pp. vi. 115, Kazan, Russia, 1888. 

LOT, C. BREGHOT DU : Poesies de Sapho, traduites en 
Fran9ois, avec le texte en regard, precedees d'une 
notice sur la vie de cette femme celebre, accom- 
pagnees de notes et d'un choix polyglotte d'imitations 
en vers des principales pieces. Pp. 18, 8vo, Lyons, 
1835- 

LUZAN, DON IGNACIO DE : Las dos Odas de Safo, in 
vol. iv., pp. 169-171, of J. J. Lopez de Sedano's 
Pamasso Espanol. Coleccion de Poesias escogidas 
de los mas celebres poetas Castellanos. 8vo, Madrid, 
1776. 

MAHLY, J. : Sappho bei Himerius. Rheinisches Mu- 
seum fur Philologie, Neue Folge, pp. 301-308. 
8vo, Frankfort, 1866. 

O 



2IO BIBLIOGRAPHY 

MANNA, ANTONIO LA : Le Odi di Anacreonte tradolte 
in versi Sicilian!, con altre poesie ; Sappho's fragm. 
I, 2, and 52 on pp. 129-131. I2mo, Palermo, 
1843- 

MARCELOT ET GROSSET : Odes d'Anacreon et de Sapho, 
traduction franchise avec le texte en regard. Paris, 
1847. 

MARCILLY, DE : see Bibliotheque Univ. des Dames. 

MERINO, A. FERNANDEZ: Estudios de Literatura 
Griega. Safo ante la critica moderna. Ed. 3, 
pp. 80. 8vo, Madrid, 1884. 

MERIVALE, JOHN HERMAN : Collections from the Greek 
Anthology, by the late Rev. Robert Bland and 
others, pp. 12-22. 8vo, London, 1833. 

MERULA ALEXANDRINUS, GEORGIUS : Commentarium 
in Sapphus epistolam. 410, Venice, 1475- Re- 
printed, with alterations and additions, in 1499, 
1510, 1528, etc., along with commentaries by Badius, 
Calderinus, and Egnatius. 

MICHAELIS, ADOLF THEODOR FRIEDRICH : Thamyris 
und Sappho auf einem Vasenbilde. i plate, pp. 18. 
4to, Leipzig, 1865. 

MILESI, BIANCA : Vita di Saffo, scritto da Bianca 
Milesi. 8vo, Paris, 1824. 

MODONA, LEONELLO : La Saffo storica, ed il mito di 
Saffo e Faone, published in the Rivista Inter- 
nazionale, April 16, 1878, and reprinted, pp. 25, 
8vo, Florence, 1878. 

MOEBIUS, ERNST ANTON LUDWIG : Anacreontis, quae 
feruntur, Carmina, Sapphus [pp. 104-110], et 
Erinnae fragmenta. Textum passim refinxit brevi- 
que annotatione illustravit Ernst Ant. Moebius. 
Forming vol. 19 of Frid. Jacobs' and Val. Chr. Fr. 
Rost's Bibliotheca Graeca. 8vo, Gotha and Erfurt, 
1826. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 211 

MOORE, THOMAS : Odes of Anacreon translated into 
English verse, with Notes. 4to, London, 1800. 

MOUTONNET-CLAIRFONS, J. J. : Anacreon, Sapho 
[pp. 95-118], Bion et Moschus, traduction nouvelle 
en Prose. 410, Paphos and Paris, 1773. (In 1780 
another edition was issued, with illustrations by 
Eisen. ) 

MURE, COLONEL WILLIAM : Sappho, and the ideal 
love of the Greeks : in the Rheinisches Museum fur 
Philologie, 1847, pp. 564-593. 

NEANDER, MICHAEL : Aristologia Pindarica Graecola- 
tina . . . Ad finem accesserunt Sententiae quaedam 
utiles et sapientes Novem Lyricorum, ex variis turn 
Patrum turn Ethnicorum libris collectae, pp. 427- 
430. 8vo, Basle, 1556. 

NEUE, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH : Sapphonis Mytilenaeae 
Fragmenta : specimen operae in omnibus artis 
Graecorum Lyricae reliquiis excepto Pindaro collo- 
candae proposuit D. Christianus Fridericus Neue, 
Professor Portensis. Pp. 106. 410, Berlin, 1827. 

OKES, HOLT : Quaedam Fragmenta Lyrica Sapphus, 
Alcaei, et aliorum ; numeris suis restituta et re- 
censita. Pp. II. 8vo, Cambridge, 1809. 

OLEARIUS, GOTTFRIED : see Blum. 

ORGER, THOMAS, LL.D. : The Odes of Anacreon, 
with the fragments of Sappho [pp. 81-85] and 
Alcaeus, literally translated into English prose. 
8vo, London, 1825. 

PAGNINI, G. M. : Poesie di Anacreonte recate in versi 
Italiani da Eritisco Pilenejo [a pseudonym]. Le 
Poesie di Saffo di Lesbo, pp. 91-99. 8vo, Parma, 



212 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

PAGNINI, G. M. : Le Poesie di Anacreonte, di Saffo 
[pp. 46-49], e di Erinna dal Greco trasportate in 
rime Toscano per opera di Eritisco Pilenejo, P.A. 
8vo, Lucca, 1794. 

PALGRAVE, FRANCIS TURNER, Professor of Poetry in the 
University of Oxford : a Lecture on Poetry and the 
other Fine Arts, 'The National Review,' Oct. 1887, 
vol. x., pp. 202-218. 

PAULIDOS, JOACHEIM J., OF LESBOS, Pn.D: Sfrmpo) 
H MuTiAHvmct. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlan- 
gung der Doctorwiirde der hohen philosophischen 
Facultat der Universitat Erlangen vorgelegt. 8vo, 
Leipzig, 1885. 

PELAYO, MENENDEZ Y: Translation in Spanish verse 
of the Ode to Aphrodite, in the first edition of his 
Las Poesias de tan docto academico. Madrid, 1877. 

PEMBER, E. H., Q.C. : The Tragedy of Lesbos. Svo, 
London, 1870. 

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POESTION, JOSEPH CALASANZ: Griechische Dichte- 
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214 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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Pp. xxxii., 279. 8vo, Hamburg, 1733. 



IN MEMORIAM 

MR. H. T. WHARTON known to book-lovers 
as 'Sappho Wharton* died on August 22, 
1895, after a lingering illness due to influenza, 
at his residence in West Hampstead; and he 
lies buried in the neighbouring cemetery of 
Fortune Green. 

Henry Thornton Wharton was born in 1846, 
at Mitcham, in Surrey, of which parish his 
father was then vicar. His mother, who sur- 
vives him, was a Courtenay, a cousin of the 
Earl of Devon. His elder brother, the author 
of Etyma Graeca and Etyma Latina, is a Fellow 
of Jesus College, Oxford ; a younger brother 
shares his taste for ornithology. He was 
educated as a day-boy at the Charterhouse, in 
its old Smithfield days ; and after spending a 
short time in the classical department of King's 
College, he went up to Oxford in 1867, as a 
commoner of Wadham. That college had no 
more enthusiastic alumnus, and he will be 
greatly missed, both at the Gaudy and at the 

219 



22O IN MEMORIAM 

annual dinner in London. He graduated in 
1871 with honours in natural science, and then 
joined the medical school at University College. 
On qualifying as M.R.C.S. in 1875, he settled 
down to general practice in West Hampstead. 
He never earned a large income ; but his de- 
votion to ail his patients, and in particular his 
generosity to the poor, will cause his memory 
to be long held in honour. 

The general public first heard of him in 1885, 
when he brought out his Sappho memoir, text, 
selected renderings, and a literal translation 
(David Stott). The book met with an imme- 
diate success, partly because it supplied a want, 
and partly from the attractive form in which it 
was produced. A second edition was called 
for within two years ; and this very summer a 
third, with additions, has been published by 
Mr. John Lane. The author spared no pains 
to make the volume worthy of its subject. 
Merely as a specimen of book-making, it has few 
rivals. The Royal Press of Berlin lent a fount 
of Greek type, which had never before been used 
in this country. Prof. Blass, of Kiel, gave his 
assistance in determining the obscure text of 
the fragments. Mr. John Addington Symonds 
contributed special metrical versions of all the 
longer pieces. Mr. John Cother Webb engraved 
for frontispiece the head of Sappho in Mr. Alma 



IN MEMORIAM 221 

Tadema's famous picture, the original of which 
has since gone to America. Of Mr. Wharton's 
own work we must be content to praise the 
memoir, marked by good sense as well as 
erudition ; and the bibliography, which includes 
the latest programs of Russian universities. 
The result is one of the rare books that give 
fresh life to an ancient author, and beget other 
good books, such, in this case, as Michael Field's 
Long Ago. It appeals alike to the scholar, 
the bibliophile, and the general public ; and by 
it the author's name will be preserved, along 
with that of the immortal poetess, when far 
more notorious writers of the day are forgotten. 
But Mr. Wharton was by no means a man 
of one book. Though he had got together a 
choice collection of English literature, his real 
interest lay in natural history. It would be 
difficult, indeed, to say to which of its branches 
he was most devoted. His knowledge of 
ornithology was based upon observation as 
much as upon books. His eye and ear were 
both highly trained, and he always made his 
learning subservient to nature. So, again, 
with regard to botany. While he did not 
despise the most technical details, it was his 
delight to accompany gatherings of autumn 
fungus-hunters, and to point out what was 
wholesome and what poisonous. He was one 



222 IN MEMORIAM 

of the joint compilers of the official List of 
British Birds published by the B. O. U. (1883), 
his special task being to supervise and elucidate 
the Latin nomenclature; and he contributed a 
chapter on the local flora to a work entitled 
Hampstead Hill (1889). 

So much, however, summarises only what 
Harry Wharton did, not what he was. His 
was one of the bounteous natures that radiate 
happiness wherever they go. Men, women, 
and children alike brightened in his genial 
presence. He led a blameless and a beneficent 
life. He never made an enemy and he never 
lost a friend. He ought to have been a con- 
temporary of Charles Lamb. It is hard to 
realise especially for one who has known and 
loved him for nearly thirty years that we shall 
never see again that os honestum, never hear 
again that ringing laugh. 

' God be with his soul ! A' was a merry man.' 

J. S. COTTON. 
1895. 



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