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His Personality, Power and Overthrow 

By Edward M. Bounds 

Heaven : A Place— rA City— A Home 

Possessed of « wonderfully foil knowledge of 
Holy Scripture, a man of unswenring Ceiith and mys- 
tical insignt, Bfr. Bounds writes with a certitude, con- 
fidence and joyous anticipation of tiie eternal fdidty 
awaiting the fiuthfol believer. 

Purpou in Prayer. Qoth 

M It is seldom that one finds a book on prayer that 
goes thoroughly enough into the subject, and at the 
same time with a deeply devotional spirit Mr. Bounds 
has the gift of insight, and with this a fiiculty for se- 
lecting words to express precisely that which responds 
to the heart-hunger of tiiose who are seeking spiritual 
enlig^tenment"-*«Sim<^ School Times. 

Satan: His Personality, His Power, His 

Overthiow. Qoth 

With irrefotable logic backed by the testimony of 
Holy Scripture, it shows the Arch Enemy of mankind 
to be a Person— actual, literal, ever active for the de- 
struction of human souls. Indicates whereby Christian 
believers can withstand his assaults and how they 
may finalfy triumph. 



His Personality^ Power and Overthrow 



Author^ ''Pufposi m Brc^trC' **ffgaviH: 
a Placi. a CUy^ a Ifome,'' etc., etc. 


London Edinburgh 

Copjris^tf 1923, bf 



IN our mind's eye we can see Dr. Bounds, in 
the early years of the twentieth century, 
walking the streets of his own little village, 
with his manuscripts tied up with a twine string, 
and written upon the backs of old circulars, used 
envelopes, kx)king for some one who would under- 
take to prepare the manuscripts for publication and 
asking of his friends to pray that God would raise 
him up a man that would bring out his writings: 
Claudius Lysias Chilton, a scholarly friend of Dr. 
Bounds, said, " There is no man on earth to-day 
except the present editor who would have accepted 
this mass of matter and devoted the time to give it 
to the world— a world that will not begin to realize 
the magnitude and expanse of the work until 
editor, compiler and reviewers have been in eternity 
many ages/* 

We take this occasion to offer our heartfelt 
thanks to the friends who have helped to com- 
pile, revise, rewrite and edit the printed and un- 
printed works of Dn Bounds. We thank Rev. 
Robert O. Smith, of Gainesville, Georgia, for in- 
troducing him to us in 1905, and pressing the 
matter upon us that we needed this apostolic man 
to teach us to pray and preach the Word. To one 



friend in particular— Rev. Clement C. Gary, of 
Atlanta, Georgia, — ^we owe the first expression of 
sincere gratitude for his part in this work. To 
him I am indebted for a vast amount of labour 
and study such as it can be the good fortune of 
few editors to receive from one so saintly and com- 
petent, occupied as he is by private and public 
duties. To Miss Ambrose, of Baltimore, Mary- 
land, I am deeply indebted for splendid and correct 
stenographic work. 

I here submit a few brief statements from Dr. 
Bounds' letters to me just before he died, which 
show his views of Satan ere he went far out of 
his reach. 

'' Washington, Go., Dec. 15, ipil: I am try- 
ing to give myself more and more to prayer. 
Our only hope is in God. I do sympathize 
with you and pray for you and hold you in 
loving affection. Rejoice that you are well 
situated. God save you from your buffeting 
devil. The devil is a great help heavenward. 
The worse agents he has the better we will 
get on." 

" Washington, Ga., July t, ipi2: Pray more 
and more ; keep at the four a. m. hour. God 
will be for it ; the devil against it. Press on, 
you can't pray too much, you may pray too 
little. The devil will compromise witfi you to 
pray as the common standard, cm going to bed, 
and a little prayer in the monrfng. Hell will 
be full if we don't do better for (k)d than that. 


Pray, pray, pray, pray always^ rejoice ever- 
more, pray without ceasing, in everytiiing give 

It is barely possible that I have escaped making 
many errors involving so many examinations and 
rewriting so many pages in his published and un- 
published works, but I still hope that many souls 
will be edified and made holier and more devout 
by the reading and that God will receive additional 
glory when Bounds' complete works have been 
given to a needy world. 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 



I. ThbDbvil: His Beginning 

II. The Devil : His Personautt . 
IIL The Prince of This World . 

IV. The Devil a Busy Character 

V. The Devil and the Church . 

VL The Devil and the Church {Coh 

Hnuid) . . . . 

VIL The Devil and the World • 

VIIL The Devil and the World (Qm- 

tinned) . . . . 

IX. The Power of the Devil 

X. The Power of the Devil {Continued ) 

XI. The Devil and His Methods . 

XII. The Devil and His Methods {Can^ 

tinned) • • . . 

XIII. Exposed Positions . 

XIV. Exposed Positions {Continued) 

XV. Our Defense Against the Devil 

XVL Our Defense Against the Devil 











Satan hath here a mig^ity kingdom (Matt 12: 26), Qi>posed 
to that of Christ in chapter i : 20, 21, consisting of men and 
angels, inhaUters of earth and air; wherein he had die 
start of Christ carrying the world before him, four thou- 
sand years previous to the incarnation. Zanchgr, the most 
judicious of the protestant writes, and Suarez, die best of 
school-men, suppose with some probability, that the angeb 
had notice of the setting up a kingdom for Christ (pre- 
destinated to come by the Second Perscm's assumption of 
human tiature) and his therein being the head of all prin- 
cipality and power, from whom men and angels should have 
their grace; and that the sin of the fallen spirits was refus- 
ing subjection to this king; and that thus ihcy "k^ not 
their first estate but left their own habitation," voluntarily 
quitting that station God had set them in, and leaving their 
dwelling in heaven to go and set up an opposition kingdom 
here below. — Thomas Goodwitk 

WE have no genesis of the devU in the 
Bible as a direct statanent The Bible 
is not his full history. It gives no in- 
timation of his birth and no description of his 
creation. The Bible is only concerned with the 
devil as he has part in the great Arises of man's 
history, and only gives us occasional glimpses o| 
him m his work of ruin and death as explanatory, 
or as putting his acts in striking contrast and op- 
position to the works and aims of Christ. Therfj 



are not lacking in these intimations and infer^ 
ences, sidelights which indicate an original purity, 
a high relation to God^ and a heavenly character 
and conduct. It is not a fanciful conjecture that 
he was and is the head of the angels who kept not' 
their first estate. Peter in his first Epistle gives' 
the angel crises and fall as one of the signal events 
which illustrate God*s justice, its certainty and. 
f earf ulness. He says, " God spared not the angels 
that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and de- 
livered them into chains of darkness to be reserved 
unto judgment/' Jude speaks after the same order 
of God's inflexible wrath when he tells us that 
** the angels which kept not their first estate, but 
left their own habitation, he hath reserved in ever- 
lasting chains under darkness unto the judgment 
of the great day/* 

The Revelation of John adds its testimony with 
addition to this fact: "And there was war in 
heaven ; Michael and his angels fought against the 
dragon ; and the dragon fought and his angels, and 
prevailed not; neither was there place found any 
more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast 
out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, 
which deceiveth the whole world ; he was cast out 
into the earth, and his angels were cast out witii 

To the Word of God we must go, assured that 
we will find the traces of the deviFs steps and the 
unfolding of his conduct whose bad schemes hav6 


eclipsed so much of earth's brightness and blasted 
so much of its promise and hope. 

If we have the child-like spirit of docility and 
trust, if we will ^'lay aside all filthiness and 
superfluity of naughtiness, and receive with medc- 
ness the engrafted word/' we will find satisfaction 
and illumination, not satisfaction as to curiosity, 
nor illumination in the niceties or subtilities of 
philosophy, but satisfaction and illumination in all 
things which pertain to the highest and weighti- 
est truth for the thoughtful, trustful and prayerful 

In the Bible we have the~ facts and history of 
man's redemption. Incidentally or essentially, 
other worlds and other beings are brought promi- 
nently on the stage of redemption purposes and 
plans. These revealed facts whether incidental or 
essential, whether casual or regular, are to our 
faith what the facts of nature are to the student 
of nature. They must shape theories and settle 
opinions. They must not be set aside, for weighty 
and final they must be. Reason must not ignore 
nor reject them, but must lay them deep and solid 
as the foundation of aD investigation, the basis 
of every hypothesis. These Bible facts demand 
our faith, though we may not be able to reach out 
beyond into the unknown regions where harmony 

The Word of God brings clearly to light the 
unseen world, its persons, places, facts and history. 


no^ we say^ in minute detail, but full enough to 
provoke thought and iieflection^ and to create and 
iiiq)ire SaittL 

The Bible nowhere enters into an argument to 
prove the person and being of God. It assumes 
His being and reveals His person and character. 
Without preface or introduction, the Bible brings 
God before us in all His majesty and omnipotence. 
God is at die world's beginning, and He it was who 
created the beginning of all things. '' In the be- 
ginning God created the leavens and the earth/' 
How sublime and awe-inspiring our first glimpse 
of God I God is revealed not by argument but by 
vork. We learn what He is f rcmi what He does. 

Ift tike manner is tiie revelation of the devil. 
He is before us in full person without introduc- 
tion or ceremony as the evil one, a graduate in the 
work of guile and eviL The curtain is drawn and 
tiie chief actor Is in full dress. A world is at 
^ake, man is to be seduced, Eden Is to be blasted. 
No light is sh^ upon his past history, no knowl* 
edge of the school where he learned his dire trade. 
He was before earthly life. Eden does not date 
his^ birth, and is not the first diapter of his history, 
nor is it tfic first trial of his hellish art We have 
no access to the archives of the past Eden bounds 
ottr horizcm,. and the devil is tihere. Henceforth 
his history is to run parallel with our race. Man 
{•'to be die object of his schemes, his nun, and his 
anbitton. Etfth is to be the favourite scene of 


his exploits. He is at the cradle of man, and has 
much to do in shaping his character and determin- 
ing his destiny. 

The BiMe is a revelation, not a philosophy nor a 
poem, not a science. It reveals things and persons 
as they are, living and acting outside the range of 
earthly vision or natural discovery. 

Bible revelations are not against reason but 
above reason, for the uses of faith, man's highest 
faculty. The powers of reason are not able to dis- 
cover these Bible facts, and yet they are for rea- 
son's use, its light, strength and higher elevation, 
but more essentially to form, to nourish and to 
perfect faith* 

T^he Bible reveals the devil as a person, not a 
more figure, not an influence simply, not a personi- 
fication only, but a real person. In the eighth 
chapter of Jcto, Christ is arraigning the cruelty 
and murderous malignity, the falsehood, deceit and 
hypocrisy of the Jews. Jesus says, ** Ye are of 
your father tihe devil, and the lusts of your father 
ye will do.'' He was a murderer from the begin- 
nii^ and abode not in the truth, because there is no 
truth in himu 

Many myths may have gathered around the per- 
son of the devil by the accretion of ages, much of 
poetiy, sentiment and tradition, and even our fears 
may have caricatured his person, exaggerated his 
<lmracter, and coloured his conduct But there is 
tradi m reg^Td to him, naked and simple truth. 


lliere is xnudi truth that needs to be learned about 
the devil, and no age needs the plain, unvarnished 
truth about the devil more than this age« We 
need the light of that truth as a warning, as an 
incentive to vigilance, and an inspiration to effort. 
We need the knowledge of the enemy, his char- 
acter, presence and power to arouse men to acticm, 
for this is vital to victory. 

It is wholly at variance with any Christian idea 
of the perfection of truthfulness in Christ, who 
was truth itself, to suppose Him to have used sudi 
plain and solemn words repeatedly before His dis- 
ciples and the Jews in encouragement and further- 
ance of a lying superstition, 

A denial of the reality of demonical possessions 
on the part of any one who believes the Gospel 
narrative to be true and inspired, may justly be re- 
garded as simply and plainly inconceivable. 

When the devil fell, others fell with him. This 
is the lesson of God's Word. 

Of the number of these fallen spirits we have 
no census. In Ephesians, quoting from the Re- 
vised Version, in the stunmary of these unseen foes 
we have " spiritual hosts,'^ an uncounted, uncount- 
able number. 

How innumerable they are, we cannot tell. 
The demoniac of Gadara was named ** legion be- 
cause many devils were entered into him.'* A 
le^on if exact was somewhat less than six &ou- 
sand. Thdr number must be great, enabling them 


to spare so many to swarm into and possess one 
man^ or even seven in one woman, as Maty 

The statement in Revelation that the great red 
dragon with " his tail did draw the third part of 
the stars of heaven and did cast them to the earth," 
may be a reference to the fall of the angels and 
their number. 

Hie Bible is dear in many references and some 
direct statements that the devil has a host of an* 
gelic followers who are ready, eager in their efforts 
to hurt man and defeat God's Kingdom on earth. 



Men dca*t believe in a devil now. 

As their fathers nsed to do; 
Th^ve forced the door of the broadest creed 

To let his niajesty throng^; 
There isn't a print of his cloven foot; 

Or a fieiy dart from his bow. 
To be found in earth or air to-day. 

For the world has voted sa 

But who is mixing the fatal draft 

That palsies heart and brain. 
And loads the earth of each passing year 

With ten hundred thousand slain? 
Who blights the bloom of the land to-dag;; 

\S^tfa the fiery breath of hell. 
If the devil isn't and never was? 

Won't somebody rise and tell? 

-^Alfred /. Hough. 

THE devil is a person of marked emphatic 
character. Qiaracter gives dignity^ place 
aad value to the person^ or diaracter de- 
grades the person. Qiaracter is that which is 
inner, cut in and graven. Qiaracter abides, forms 
action and shapes life. Qiaracter is a fotmtain. 
It is the head and stream of conduct; diaracter 
often versus reputaticm. Qiaracter is vvhat we 
are. Reputation is what folks think we are. The 

real and the think so are often two worlds. It 



would be well every way if reputation were based 
on character, if the real and the reputed were one. 
A bad reputation may be coupled with a good 
character. Then the times are sadly out of joint 
or the environments, and the folks are more sadly 
out of joint than the times. A good reputation 
may be but the veneering of a bad character. The 
devil has this characteristic with him. Reputation 
is based on character. They are one. His repu- 
tation is bad, because his character is worse- 

The devil is a created being. He is therefore 
not self-existent nor eternal, but limited and finite. 
There was a time when he was not, when he began 
to be. His creation was after the order of the 
angels. The angels were not the offspring of the 
family relation. Cradlehood and all the tender 
ties, training, sweetness and growth are unknown 
to them. The pains and joys of child-birth are not 
theirs. Each angel is created, not bom, created 
directly, personally, by God. The devil was cre- 
ated good, doubtless very good. His purity, as 
well as exaltation, were sources of congratulation, 
wonderment and praise in heaven. 

The devil is a positive character. He wears dis- 
guises, but his ends are single and lie m only one 
dii^ection, double-faced but never double-minded, 
never tmdecided, never vague nor feeble in his 
purposes or ends. No irresolution, nor hesitant 
depression nor aimless action spring from him. 
The devil has diaracter if not horns, for char- 


acter is often harder and sharper than horns. 
Character is felt. We feel the devil. He orders 
things, controls things. He is a great manager. 
He manages bad men, often good men and bad 
angels. Indirect, sinister, low and worldly, is the 
devil as a manager. 

Is Christ a person ? He puts the devil in oppo- 
sition and contrast to Himself as a great mighty 
malignant person the sower of all evil — ^as Christ 
is the sower of all good. " The field is the world ; 
the good seed are the children of the kingdom; 
but the tares are the children of the wicked one; 
the enemy that sowed them is the devil; the har- 
vest is the end of the world; and the reapers are 
the angels.'* 

Is Christ impersonal? Are the children of the 
kingdom impersonal? Are the children of the 
wicked one impersonal? Are not Christ and the 
children of the kingdom personal and persons? 
Are not the children of the wicked one and the 
devil personal and persons also? 

In the Bible the personality of the devil is made 
emphatic. He is not only the source of evil to 
others, but the embodiment of evil in a person. 
The Revised Version makes this emphatic. The 
petition in tfie Lord's Prayer, " Deliver us from 
evil,*' becomes personal, " Deliver us from the evil 
one/^ So we find Christ praying not only that His 
disciples should be delivered from evil, all evil, im- 
personal and general, but ** that thou shouldst keep 


them from the evil one/' The statement by John 
that " the whole world lieth in wickedness," be- 
comes personal, for in the Revised Version, all 
wickedness concentrates in a person. " The whole 
world lieth in the evil one." Here, too, the devil 
is called the "wicked one." Personality is at- 
tributed to him. Fatherhood is attributed to him, 
the father of all evij, the enemy of Jesus, malig- 
nant, active, crafty, cautious, cowardly. 

The devil and his angels are of a higher order 
than the fallen sons of Adam, by rank, order, and 
intelligence. The devil is called in the Bible a 
prince, a world ruler, " prince of this world." He 
is designated as " the devil and his angels," He 
and they are held accountable, are condemned for 
their sins and for revolt in leaving their "first 
estate," the sphere for which they were created, 
and in which they were originally placed by God. 
This fact of their fall, and all the other statements, 
direct and incidental, emphasize them as persons, 
living, acting, free, accountable. That they had a 
chief prince in all their movements, prime in wis- 
dom, prime in skill and in leadership, is clear from 
all Scriptural statements concerning the devil and 
his angels. 

In 2 Corinthians 11: 13, Paul says: "For such 
are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming 
themselves into the apostles of Christ. And no 
marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into 
sA angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if 


his ministers also be transformed as the ministers 
of righteousness^ whose end shall be according to 
their works/' ''Satan himself" is an emphatic 
declaration of personality. He has ministers. An 
influence does not have ministers. Paul is writing 
of persons^ wily» fraudulent and alluring, and he 
introduces the great person, the pattern and in- 
spirer of all their fraud, hypocrisy and error, his 
apostles, false as he, the arch-impostor. 

Jude has a statement which brings into view 
many persons: '' Likewise also these filthy dream- 
ers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil 
of dignities. Yet Michael, the archangel, when 
contending with the devil, he disputed about the 
body of Moses, durst not bring against him a rail- 
ing accusation, but said. The Lord rebuke thee." 

The "filthy dreamers'' were persons. Moses 
was a great person. Michael an archangd was a 
person. The devil, what was he, if not a person? 
Living in the Mosaic dispensation, the devil was 
contending with the highest dignity under that dis- 
pensation of angels. Did the mighty archangel 
have to appeal for help against a mere influence, 
a shadowy, dreamy persomfication? This state- 
ment in Jude declares tifie devil to be a high dignity, 
whose person and presence are not to be treated 
with indignity or by frivolity or raillery. 

The statement in Peter is after the same order 
and to the same end. The devil is a person of 
great dignity. **The Lord knoweth how to do^ 


Kver the godly out of temptation, and to reserve 
the unjust unto the day of judgment to be pun- 
ished. But chiefly them that walk after the flesh 
in the lust of imdeanness^ and despise government 
Presumptuous are they, self-willed, they are not 
afraid to speak evil of dignities. Whereas angels, 
which are greater in power and might, bring not 
railing accusaticm against them before the Lord 
But these, as natural brute beasts made to be 
taken and destroyed, speak evil of the things that 
they understand not, and diall utterly perish in 
their own corruption." 

Note how James puts the mightiest persons in 
contrast and opposition: "Submit yourselves 
therefore to God. Resist the devil and he will 
flee from you. Draw nigh to God and he will 
draw nigh to you." Why such a combination and 
contrast? Is God not a person? How can we 
then reduce him who is so in God's way to a mere 
influence? The passage teaches a personal devil 
as surely as a personal God. 

Why are God and the devil in like manner con- 
joined in Peter's urgent exhortation? "Humble 
yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of 
God, that he may exalt you in due time; casting all 
your care upon him, for he careth for you. Be 
sober, be vigilant; because your adversary, tfie 
devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking 
whom he may devour." Why casting all care on 
Him? Why be sober and vigilant? ** Your aA- 


versary*' can be no less than a person against 
whom the Christian has to be armed with God. 
" Your adversary ! " Hate and ruin are in his op- 
position. Can he be less than a person? The 
devil, " walking about like a roaring lion/' strong, 
full of passions, and deadly hate! Can anjrthing 
less than a person of infernal passion and infernal 
power answer this divine portraiture? To Peter 
the existence and person of this powerful adver- 
sary had a sad demonstration in his own experi- 
ence. The words were still on his conscience and 
heart and memory. " Simon, Satan hath desired 
to have you that he may sift you as wheat." 

In the directions in the Sermon on the Mount 
about swearing, affirmations and conversation, 
Jesus says, "Let your commimication be Yea, 
yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these 
is of the evil one.*' 

Under the powerful operations of the cross and 
the Spirit, as well as the restraining influences of 
the Gospel, evil would soon be driven from the 
earth, branded and banned, were it not for the 
mighty personality and executive ability of the 

We find many references, hints and reminders 
of the power and person of the devil, coming out 
in the ministry of Christ The name " devil " in- 
vests him with an infamous personality, and 
clotihes him with all the deceit, craft and crudty 
attaching to that name. By the name '' Satan, 



Christ puts him as the adversary of God and man. 
By designating him as " the prince of this world," 
Christ recognizes his royal power and ruling 
authority for evil in this world. The devil's 
agency in the ills that affect the body is not 
merely hinted at, but comes out as being taken for 

How strenuous and ever continuing the conflict 
between the devil and Jesus, is learned by the 
Lord's prayer, that perfect and universal prayer 
which Jesus puts in the heart and lips of His 
people in all ages, for as we have seen, according 
to the Revised Version, that petition of conflict, 
peril, warning, and safety is, " Deliver us from the 
Evil One." Evil is comparatively harmless, feeble 
and inert without the presence of its mighty in- 
spirer. Deliverance from the devil is deliverance 
from the many evils of which he is the source and 

In the sixth chapter of Ephesians, the Christian 
soldier-hood, its character, armour, conduct and 
courage are challenged, and he is urged, because of 
the devil's power, and because the Christian's war- 
fare is mainly against him, to this effect: " Put 
on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to 
stand against the wiles of the devil. For we 
wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against 
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of 
the darkness of this world, against spiritual wick- 
edness in high places/' 


The Christian's comfort as administered by Paul 
ia the sixteenth chapter of Romans is not only 
the impartation of, *' The grace of the Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you,*' but also, "And the God of 
peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly/' 

Peter's vital exhortation has a double imperative 
in it, not only the " casting all our care cm God," 
but a loud and urgent call to watch and pray. '' Be 
sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the 
devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking 
whom he may devour.'* Peter recognized in the 
deadly crime of Ananias and Sapphira the hand 
of Satan, and remonstrates thus: "Ananias, why 
hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy 
Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the 

The warning and exhortation which Christ sends 
to the Church at Smyrna to prepare and nerve to 
endurance involves the person and power of the 
deviL "Fear none of those things which thou 
shalt suffer; behold, &e devil shall cast some of 
you into prison, that ye may be tried ; and ye shall 
have tribulation ten days. Be thou faithful unto 
death, and I will give thee a crown of life.** The 
explanation of the parable of the tares puts the 
malignity, person, and power of the devil in con- 
trast with Christ. " The field is the world ; the 
good seed are the children of the kingdom ; but tiie 
tares are the children of the wicked one. The 
enemy that sowed them is the devil ; the harvest is 


tHe end of the world; and the reapers are the 

The defense of Christ against the Pharisaic 
charge of violating the Sabbath puts the devil con- 
spicuous in his work of evil; ^'And ought not this 
woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom 
Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be 
loosed from this bond on the Sabbath day? " 

The statement about Judas, "And supper being 
ended, the devil having now put into the heart of 
Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him ; 'Ms a 
statement not of an influence nor a personification, 
but of a person outside of Judas, making sugges- 
tions to him, and urging him on to his act of 
hypocrisy, and the suggestion is strictly in keeping 
with the character of the deviL "And after the 
sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto 
him. That thou doest, do quickly/' How much 
an advance in fulness and power of action and in- 
fluence is this act compared with his work in para- 
dise ! There he used a serpent as his instrument 
Here a man, a chosen, trusted apostle. "A mes- 
senger of Satan," says Paul, " to buffet me." The 
exalted revelation and experience of the person 
and power of Christ are closely followed by the 
revelation and experience of the person and power 
of the devil. 

The fearful doom of the wicked at the judgment 
is thus set forth by Christ: "Then shaH he say 
also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me^ 


ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the 
devil and his angek." The final doom of Satan is 
revealed in these words, "And the devil that de- 
ceived them was cast into the lake of fire and 
brimstone, where the beast and the false prophets 
are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever 
and ever." 

These extracts are not only arguments to prove 
tiie existence or personality of the devil, but are 
logical conclusive references to a person whose be- 
ing is taken for granted, universally accepted and 
thoroughly believed by them all 

A singular case would that mind be in its atti- 
tude to God's Word, who should profess to accept 
that Word and not believe in the existence of the 
devil. This would be a great breach both in the 
logic and faith of such a mind, as if the play of 
"Macbeth" were accepted in utter failure to 
recognize the person or existence of Lady Mac- 
beth, whose character forms the entire plan and 
colour of the whole. 

The encounters with those who were possessed 
of devils illtfstrates Christ's constant recognition 
of them as personal beings. He recognizes thdr 
distinct individuality. He talks to them and com- 
mands them as persons. They know Christ, con- 
fess His divinity, bow to His authority, obey, 
however unwillingly, His commands. He makes 
the clear distinction between the human person' 
ality possessed by the devil, and ihe personality of 


the devil who holds possession. The two are to 
his eye two persons. 

That the exercising of these did give a severe 
blow to Satan's kingdom is declared by Christ's ex- 
clamation at the return and report of the seventy. 
" That even the devils are subject unto us through 
thy name." He exclaimed, "I beheld Satan as 
lightning fall from heaven," and then amid their 
ecstasy and His joy He renewed their commission. 
" Behold, I give unto you power to tread on ser- 
pents and scorpions, and over all the power of the 
enemy, and nothing shall by any means hurt you. 
Notwithstanding, in this rejoice not, that the spirits 
are subject unto you; but rather rejoice because 
your names are written in heaven." "Over all 
the power of the enemy." The devil is the enemy 
of Christ, of man. Power over all the devil's 

To Christ the devil was one of the most real 
persons. He recognized his person, felt and 
acknowledged his power, abhorred his character, 
and warred against his person and kingdom. 



Now we come to the second gnide in men's walk through 
life; and we see, first, The misery of all nature, in respect 
of subjection of Satan, who as a prince rules over and gov- 
erns ** the children of disobedience." Secondly, That Satan, 
as well as the world, is a cause of that sinfulness that is in the 
hearts and lives of men: they the exemplary and he the 
impelling cause, both as a prince and a s^t Thirdly, A 
descriptive greatness of Satan's kingdom interwoven to 
shew man's misexy the greater and the more; "the prince 
of the power of the air," the spirit that works in the chil- 
dren of disobedience." The scope of all these three par- 
ticulars was to stir up the Ei^esians* hearts to thanksgiving 
for the great deliverance, which in their converdon had 
brought them out of darkness into the lig^ (out of the 
Idngdom of daricness into the kingdom of His dear Son 
(CoL 1 : 13). Now the kingdom of power, glory experienced 
by the Church and Christ is the more endeared and enridied 
to tts by our rescue from the empire of Satan and the world 
whose domain is the air and will end yAih the air, whereas 
ours are in heavenly places. — Thomas Goodwin. 

TO the Holy Spirit, the substitute, repre- 
sentative and successor of Jesus Christ, 
was committed this work of breakmg the 
deadly power of the world by breaking the power 
of its prince. There was the necessary and con- 
tinuous reminder that the devil occupied the royal 
position of the world's prince, already adjudged 

and condemned, and upon whom the sentence and 



penalty were to be executed '' Nevertheless^ I 
tell you the truth: It is expedient for you diat I go 
away; for if i go not away, the Comforter will 
not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him 
unto you. And when he is come, he will reprove 
the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of 
judgment ; of sin because tiiey believe not on me ; 
of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and 
ye see me no more; of judgmait» because the 
prince of this world is judged." 

" The prince of this world " he is, though the 
awful doom awaiting unbelief, sia and unright- 
eousness are his. 

In these declarations of Jesus Girist, we have 
the clear revelation of what the devil is in his rela- 
tion to the world as a prince and rtder. We under- 
stand why the world is so alien to (Sod, to God's 
Son, to His cause, and how attachment to the world 
is at once estrangement and bitter enmity to God, 
because in the world's beauty and diarms there is 
the enmity of the devil to God. The world is the 
beauteous harlot with her snares of death and hell. 

The devil is recogmzed by Jesus drist to be the 
prince of this world, not lawfully, but in its re- 
bellion against God, not to be submitted to, but to 
be renounced as a lawless one, dethroned as a 
usurper and conquered as a rcbd. To secure these 
ends, to dethrone and conquer the devil, the mis- 
sion of the Son of God is charged. We see how 
readily Jesus drist acknowledges the position and 


power of the devil It is of the devil He speaks, 
and conjoins him with the world. The stroke of 
the Son of God falls on both: " Now is the judg- 
ment of this world; now shall the prince of this 
world be cast out And I, if I be lifted up, will 
draw all men to me." The world is condemned by 
the power of the cross. The sweet attractive 
potencies of the cross dissolve the fatal fascina- 
tions of the world. The power of that same cross 
casts out from his world ruling throne the prince of 
this world. Christ affirms the devil's high position, 
but signs and seals his destiny and doom. " God 
anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost 
and with power; who went about doing good, and 
healing all that were oppressed of the devil, for 
God was with him.*' 

Again does the Son of God recognize the posi- 
tion which the devil holds as crowned prince by 
the world's franchises. How his presence quiets 
the Son of God. Man's words are not to be vic- 
tors in this conflict. God's words in the tempta- 
tion broke the power of his assault and defeated 
his fell intents, but left him still a sovereign with 
his kingly crowa The Son of God is awed into 
silence at the devil's approach. The cross, its 
agony and shame, its deep humiliation, bitter 
agony and untold shame, its defeat and despair, aH 
tiiese !t would take to lift the crown from Satan's 
brow and bring his throne down to dust and ashes. 
The adorable Son of God " saw the travail of His 


soul in that hour and was satisfied/' He saw also 
what it would cost Him, and what it would cost 
every son of heaven, to discrown that prince, and 
He lapsed into a solemn silence, the prestige of His 
victory. " Hereafter I will not talk much with 
you, for the prince of this world cometh, and hath 
nothing in me." 


We are apt to tMnk that Satan is most powerful in 
crowded thoroughfares. It is a mistake. I believe the 
temptations of life are always most dangerous in the wilder- 
ness. I have been struck with that fact in Bible history. 
It is not in their most public moments that the great men of 
the past have fallen ; it has been in their quiet hours. Moses 
never stumbled when he stood before Pharaoh, or while he 
was flsring from Pharaoh ; it was when he got into the desert 
that his patience began to fail. David never stumbled while 
he was fighting his way through imposing armies; it was 
when the fight was over, when he was resting quietly under 
his own vine and fig-tree that he put forth his hand to steal. 
The sorest temptations are not those spoken but those 
echoed. It is easier to lay aside your besetting sin amid a 
cloud of witnesses than in the solitude of your own room. 
The sin that besets you is never so besetting as when you 
are zionc^^eorge Mathesoiu 

IF there be any virtue in not being an infidel, 
the devil may claim this virtue. If it be any 
praise to be always busy, the devil may claim 
that praise, for he is always busy, and very busy. 
But his character does not spring from his faith. 
His faith makes him tremble, his character makes 
him a devil. 

The devil is a very busy character. He does a 
big business, a very mean business, but he does it 



well, that is, as well as a mean business can be 
done. He has large experience, big brains, a black 
heart, great force, and tireless industry, and is of 
great influence and great character. All his im- 
mense resources and powers are laid out for evil. 
Only evil inspires his activities and energies. He 
never moves to relieve or bless, a stranger alike to 
benevolent doing and kindly feeling. 

Satan's history antedates the history of man — 
the only beings, he and his angels, who know by 
sad experience. Heaven, Earth and Hell. These 
three words are familiar to him. He has walked 
the streets of Heaven side by side with its purest 
and best He has felt the thrill of its purest joys. 
He knows the bitterest anguish of hell, and has 
felt its keenest flames. 

He does a big business on earth. He is a prince 
and a leader. Men and devils are his agents, and 
the elements are often by him debauched from 
their benignant purposes, and are made to destroy. 
He is busy tempting men to evil. He has large ex- 
perience in this business, and is an adept at it. 
By him sin loses its sinfulness, the world is clothed 
with double charms, self is given a double force, 
faith is turned into fanaticism and love into hate. 

A spiritual character can work through agencies 
or directly on tiie spirit. He infuses thoughts^ 
makes suggestions and does it so deftly that we do 
not know their paternity. He tempted Eve to 
take the forbidden fruit. He put it into David's 


mind to number Israel, thereby provoking the 
wrath of God. He influenced Ananias and Sap- 
phira to lie to God. Peter's yielding to presump- 
tion was at his instance. Judas' betrayal was 
from the same baneful source. The temptation of 
Christ was a typical and master piece of his busi- 
ness in seeking to seduce our Lord from God, 
showing his power to array agencies and pleas, 
and to back these by all forms of sanctity and per- 
suasiveness. He is blasphemous, arrogant and 
presumptuous. He slanders God to men and in- 
fuses into men hard thoughts of God. He intensi- 
fies their enmity and inflames their prejudice 
against Him. He leads them to deny His existence 
and to traduce His character, thereby destroying 
the foundations of faith and all true worship. He 
does all he can by insinuation and charges to 
blacken saintly character and lower God's estimate 
of the good. He is the vilest of calumniators, the 
most malignant and artful of slanderers. Good- 
ness is the point of his constant attack. He says 
nothing good about the good, nothing bad about 
the bad. He is always at church before the 
preacher is in the pulpit or a member in the pew, 
to hinder the sower, to impoverish the soil, or to 
blast the seed, that is, when courage and faith 
are in the pulpit, and zeal and prayer in the pew. 
But if dead orthodoxy or live heterodoxy are in 
the pulpit, he then puts in his time elsewhere at 
some point of danger. 


Christ expressly declared that some sickness, at 
least, was the direct infliction of Satan. 

The devil goes about to do evil and oppress 
men, at every point the antagonist of Him who 
went about to do good and heal all that were op- 
pressed of the devil. In some way he had power 
over death and worked a fearful work of bondage 
and fear and death. Through death, Christ 
works to destroy him that had the power of death, 
that is, the devil. He puts a thorn in Paul's flesh 
and makes a special effort and requisition for 
Peter. He directs the whirlwind, kindles the fire 
and orders the disease which overwhelm and dev- 
astate Job and his /property. He arms the thiev- 
ing Chaldeans and Sabines against him and gets 
into his wife, and directs the divers agencies of 
his empire to ruin this one saint He will wreck 
an empire at any time to secure a soul. He sows 
the tares in the wheat, the bad among the good, 
bad thoughts among the good thoughts. All 
kinds of evil seed are sown by him in the harvest 
fields of earth. He is always trying to make the 
good bad and the bad worse. He fills the minds 
of a Judas and inflames and hurries him on to his 
infamous purpose. He fills Peter with an arro- 
gant pride which tries to thwart the divine plans 
and to inject human views into the purpose of 
Christ instead of God's purpose. 

The devil goes about as fierce, as resolute, and 
as strcMig as a lion, intent only to destroy, re- 


strained by no sentiments which soften and move 
hwnan or divine hearts. He has no pity and no 
sympathy. He is great, but only great in evil. A 
great intellect, he is driven and inspired by a 
malignant and cruel heart. 

At the threshold of Christ's ministry there we 
meet with His temptations by the devil, — one of 
those conflicts on which one of the mightiest issues 
turn. The history of the case presents the devil 
as a spiritual person, the head and embodiment of 
all evil, making a fierce, most wily, and protracted 
assault on the Son of God. We are not informed 
as to what shape he assumed to veil the treachery 
and wickedness of his attack. The temptation is 
noted as one of the preliminary and pivot facts of 
Christ's ministry, and can no more be resolved 
into the visionary than can His baptism, the descent 
of the Spirit, His wilderness trip, or His fasting. 
It was no influence tempting Christ. The whole 
transaction forbids that. "He was led of the 
Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the 
devil." The devil came to Him and the devil left 
Him, and then "the angels came and ministered 
to him." 

In this temptation the methods, hypocrisy and 
craft of the devil arc seen. How materially and 
benevolently he comes to the weak, exhausted Son 
of God! How innocent is the suggestion that 
Jesus use His power to relieve His hunger I What 
could be more allowable than that? To use His 


spiritual power for temporal ends I How often is 
it done? What a world of evil to religion when 
it is used to subserve the natural. Man living for 
bread alone. The temporal the first The secular 
and worldly prime. Religion not simply to serve 
money or business, but religion secondary or sub- 
servient to business. The heavenly used for the 
earthly, the spiritual for the natural, more intent 
on daily food than on daily grace, eyeing the seen 
more tfian the unseen. That is the devil's main 
business — ^to materialize, earthlyize religion, to get 
man to live for bread alone, to make earth bigger 
than heaven. Time is more engaging than eter- 
nity. What a fearful conflict is being carried on 
in that quiet wilderness between the fainting Son 
of God and Satan, between the earthly and the 
heavenly, between God's religion and the devil's 
religion ! 

The conflict surges aroimd three points. The 
fleshly, the presumptuous and the worldly. But 
this little circle holds all the shapes and forms of 
temptation, all the crafty devices, all the hidden 
depths, all the glittering seductions which Satan 
has devised to swerve men from the lofty allegiance 
which faith demands. The devil's assault on 
Christ IS in striking contrast with his temptation 
to beguile Eve, and in more striking contrast with 
his fearful ordeal through which he tried Job's 
integrity. No suspicion cast on God's goodness 
as with Eve, no terrific, curdling sorrow a$ in 


Job's case. All is friendly, sympathetic and invit- 

The second temptation includes in it, not merdy 
the fanatical presumption of overheated zeal and 
brainless devotion, but all the methods of sensa- 
tional and abnormal piety by all those short cut 
processes by which the severe and tedious prin- 
ciples of a genuine faith are set aside, and spuri- 
ous, superficial and flesh-pleasing substitutes are 
brought in to make a more attractive and popular 
guise of faith. It seeks to take man-devised 
methods, easy, fragrant of sentiment, rank and 
material, in the stead of God's lowly way of godly 
sorrow, strict self-denial, and prayerful surrender. 

Then the last, the world, its kingdoms and its 
glory, these as the reward of his devotion to Satan, 
worship the devil, that is, the world's god. How 
the devil massed all his forces ! Religion was in- 
voked. The world and the flesh all conspired, un- 
der Satan's power, to tempt the Son of God. 
With what reluctance the pure soul of the Son of 
God went imto this close conflict with Satan is seen 
in Mark's statement: "And immediately the 
Spirit driveth him into the wilderness." No 
wrestling can warp this statement into a mere in- 
fluence. It is history, fact — ^plain, simple, his- 
torical fact. Reread the record as to the devil. 
How clearly, without a doubt or figure of speech, 
does it stamp the whole transaction with person- 
ality. " Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into 


the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. And 
he was there in the wilderness forty days tempted 
of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the 
angels ministered unto him. Then the devil leav- 
eth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered 
unto him." These are not figures of speech, but 
the narrative of a transaction and of persons en- 
gaged in the transaction. The wilderness and the 
fasting are literal. The beings are all literal, the 
wild beasts, the angels, Jesus and the devil. 

The conflict of Jesus with Satan is not inci- 
dental, nor accidental, nor casual, but essential and 
vital. Satan held man and man's world in thrall. 
They had fallen into his hands and were held by 
him in bondage and ruled by him with desperate 

The record has been made, "And when the devil 
had ended all the temptation, he departed from 
him for a season." 

The season has ended and he is back again as 
though he had brought seven other spirits more 
wicked than himself. Gethsemane is the sum of 
the devil's most maddened and desperate methods. 
The guises are off. He appears there as he is. 
It IS a rare thing to get a clear, true light on the 
devil. He asstmies so many roles, acts so many 
parts, wears so many guises. Here we have him 
in life size and in perfect features. The air is 
heavier by his breath, the night is darker by his 
shadow, the ground is colder, and his chill ts on 


it Judas is falser still, and Peter more cowardly 
and dastardly, because Satan is there. On the 
threshold of Gethsemanc he exclaims, ** My soul is 
exceeding sorrowful tuito death,*' and he began to 
be sore amazed and very heavy. Why? Because 
" this is your hour and the power of darkness." 
Why? Because "now is the judgment of this 
world: now shall the prince of this world be cast 
out." Silence is there, dread and horror, and a 
great darkness and a fearful conflict Why? 
" For the prince of this world cometh and hath 
nothing in me." 

How different the devil's method now with 
Christ than in the wilderness. Then there was 
mildness, an assumed sympathy, the spirit of an 
inquirer, one desirous to relieve. The most pleas- 
ant and attractive and satisfying ministries to flesh 
did Satan then offer, something of the gentleness 
of the lamb, the interest and sympathy of a friend. 
But now how changed ! The lamb is transformed 
into the lion, a roaring Uon, maddened and des- 
perate. Jesus could not be seduced by the flesh, 
nor self, nor the world in the wilderness. He 
must be overwhelmed with dread and horror, and 
be driven. His steadfastness must be overcome by 
weakness and fear. So comes he to many a saint 
in the fierceness and power of the lion when the 
gentle inducements fail. 


The identification of Christ with men was as complete in 
extent as it was real in nature. The first chapter of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews sets forth seven proofs of Divine 
Sonship, and the second chapter enumerates the following 
seven points of His identification with man: He descended 
to man's level, took man's nature, endured man's temptation, 
died in man's place, conquered the devil, man's foe, achieved 
man's victory, and secured man's salvation. 

— Samuel Chadwkk. 

THE devil is too wise, too large in mental 
grasp, too lordly in ambition, to confine 
his aims to the individual. He seeks to 
direct the policy and sway the scepter of nations. 
In his largest freedom, and in his delirium of pas- 
sion and success, "he goes out to deceive the 
nations which are in the four quarters of the 
earth." He is an adept in deception, an expert in 
all guileful arts. An archangel in execution, he 
often succeeds in seducing the nations most loyal 
to Christ, leading them into plans and principles 
which pervert and render baneful all Christly prin- 
ciples. The Church itself, the bride of Christ, 
when seduced from her purity, degenerates into a 
worldly ecclesiasticism. 
The ** gates of hell shall not prevail '* against 



the Church. This promise of our Lord stands 
against every Satanic device and assault: But this 
immutable word as to the glorious outcome does 
not protect the Church from the devil's stratagems 
which may, and often do, pervert the aims of the 
Church and postpone the day of its final triumph. 

The devil is a hydra-headed monster, but he is 
hydra-headed in plans and wisdom as well as in 
monstrosities. His master and supreme effort is 
to get control of the Church, not to destroy its 
organization, but to abate and pervert its Divine 
ends. This he does in the most insidious way, 
seemingly innocent, no startling change, nothing 
to shock nor to alarm. Sometimes the revolu- 
tionizing and destructive change is introduced un- 
der the disguise of a greater zeal for Christ's glory. 
Introduced by some one high in church honour, 
often it occurs that the advocate of these measures 
is totally ignorant of the fact that the tendency is 

One of the schemes of Satan to debase and per- 
vert is to establish a wrong estimate of church 
strength. If he can raise false measurements of 
church power; if he can press the material to the 
front ; if he can tabulate these forces so as to make 
them imposing and aggregating in commands, in- 
fluence, and demand, he has secured his end. 

In the Mosaic economy, the subversion of the 
ends of the Church and the substitution of mate- 
rial forces was guarded against. Their kings 


were warned against the accumulation, parade, and 
reliance on material forces. 

It was in the violation of this law that David 
sinned when he yielded to the temptation of Satan 
to number the people. 

It was to this end some suggest that the devil 
contended with Michael, the archangel, about the 
body (or system) of Moses, referred to in Peter 
and Jude and narrated by Zechariah, third chapter. 
At which time there was given that redoubtable, 
rallying text which asserts the eternal separation 
of spiritual forces from and their antagonism to 
the material. '' Not by might nor by power, but 
by my Spirit, saith the Lord.'' 

To this, the third temptation of our Lord was 
directed. In measure, such temptation by which 
the devil tried Jesus was intended to subvert the 
ends of His kingdom by substituting material ele- 
ments of strength for the spiritual. 

This is one of the devil's most insidious and 
successful methods to deceive, divert and deprave. 
He marshals and parades the most engaging mate- 
rial results, lauds the power of civilizing forces 
and makes its glories and power pass in review till 
church leaders are dazzled, and ensnared, and thcf^ 
Church becomes thoroughly worldly while boast- 
ing of her spirituality. No deceiver is so artful 
in the diabolical trade of deception as Satan. 
As an angel of light he leads a soul to death. 
To mistake the elements of church strength, 


is to mistake the character of the Church, and 
also to change its character all its efforts and 
aims. The strengdi of the Church lies in its piety. 
All else is incidental, and is not of the strengdi of 
things. But in worldly, popular language of this 
day, a church is called strong when its member- 
ship is large, when it has social position, financial 
resources; when ability, learning, and eloquence 
fill the pulpit, and when the pews are filled by 
fashion, intelligence, money and influence. An 
estimate of this kind is worldly to the fullest 

The church that thus defines its strength is on 
the highway to apostasy. The strength of the 
Church does not consist of any or all of these 
things. The faith, holiness and zeal of the Church 
are the elements of its power. Church strength 
does not consist in its numbers and its money, but 
in the holiness of its members. Church strength 
is not found in these worldly attachments or en- 
dowments, but in the endowment of the Holy 
Ghost on its members. No more fatal or deadly 
symptom can be seen in a church than this trans- 
ference of its strength from spiritual to matefrial 
forces, from the Holy Ghost to the world. The 
power of God in the Church is the measure of 
its strength and is the estimate which God puts on 
it, and not the estimate the world puts on it. Here 
is the measure of its ability to meet the ends of 
its being. 


On the contrary, show us a church, poor, illiter- 
ate, obscure and unknown, but composed of pray- 
ing people. They may be men of neither power 
nor wealth nor influence. They may be families 
that do not know one week where they are to get 
their bread for the next. But with them is " the 
hiding of God's power,'* and their influence will be 
felt for eternity, and their light shines, and they 
are watched, and wherever they go, there is a 
fountain of light, and Christ in them is glorified 
and His kingdom advanced. They are His chosen 
vessels of salvation and His luminaries to reflect 
His light 

There are signs everywhere unmistakable and of 
dire import that Protestantism has been blinded 
and caught by Satan's dazzling glare. 

We are being seriously affected by the material 
progress of the age. We have heard so much of 
it, and gazed on it so long, that spiritual estimates 
are tame to us. Spiritual views have no form nor 
comeliness to us. Eversrthing must take on the 
rich colourings, luxuriant growth and magnificent 
appearance of the material, or else it is beggarly. 
This is the most perilous condition the Church has 
to meet, when the meek and lowly fruits of piety 
are to be discoimted by the showy and worldly 
graces with which material success crowds the 
Church. We must not peld to the flood. We 
must not for a moment, not the hundredth part of 
an inch, give place to the world. Piety must be 


stressed in every way and at every point The 
Church must be made to see and feel this delusion 
and snare^ this transference of her strength from 
God to the world, this rejection of the Holy Ghost 
by the endowment of "might and power/' and 
this yielding to Satan. The Church more and 
more is inclined not only to disregard, but to 
despise, the elements of spiritual strength and set 
them aside, for the more impressive worldly ones. 

We have been and are schooling ourselves into 
regarding as elements of church prosperity only 
those items which make showings in a statistical 
column, and which impress an age given up to the 
materialization of secular facts and figures; and 
as the most vital spiritual conditions and gains can- 
not be reduced to figures, they are left out of the 
column and its aggregates, and after a while they 
will neither be noted nor estimated. If we do not 
call a halt and change our methods, the whole esti- 
mate of the strength of a church will be supremely 
worldly. However imposing our material results 
may be, however magnificent and prosperous the 
secular arm of the Church appears, we must go 
deeper than these for its strength. We must pro- 
claim it, and iterate and reiterate it with increased 
emphasis, that the strength of the Church does not 
lie in these things. 

These may be but the gilded delusions which we 
mistake for the true riches, and while we are 
vainly saymg, **We arc rich and increased in 


goods/' God has written of tis that we are 
'^ wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, 
and naked." They will be, if we are not sleep- 
lessly vigilant, but the costly spices and splendid 
decoration which embalm and entomb our spiri- 
tuality. True strength lies in the vital godliness 
of the people. The aggregate of the personal holi- 
ness of the members of each church is the only 
true measure of strength. Any other test offends 
God, dishonours Christ, grieves the Holy Spirit, 
and degrades religion. 

A church can often make the fairest and best 
showing of material strength when death in its 
deadliest form is feeding on its vitals. There can 
scarcely be a more damaging delusion than to judge 
of the conditions of the Church by its material ex- 
hibits or churchly activity. Spiritual barrenness 
and rottenness in the Church are generally hidden 
by a fair exterior and an obtrusive parade of leaves 
and an exotic growth. A spiritual churdi con- 
verts souls from sin soundly, clearly and fully, and 
puts them on the stretch fox perfect holiness, and 
those who are straining to get it, to keep it, and 
to add to it. 

This spirituality is not a by-play, &ot to be kept 
in a comer of the Church, not its dress for holiday 
or parade da3rs, but it is its chief and only business. 
If God's Church is not doing this work of convert- 
ing sinners to holiness and perfecting saints in 
holiness, wherever and whenever this work is not 


blazing and conspicuous, wherever and whenever 
this work becomes secondary, or other interests are 
held to be its equivalent, then the Churdi has be- 
come worldly. Wherever and whenever the mate- 
rial interests are emphasized till they come into 
prominence, then the world comes to the throne 
and sways the scepter of Satan. There is no 
readier and surer way to make the Church worldly 
than to put its material prosperity to the front, and 
no surer, readier way to put Satan in charge. It 
is an easy matter for the assessments to beccnne 
of first moment by emphasizing them till a senti- 
ment is created that these are paramount. When 
collecting money, building churches, and statistical 
columns are to stand as evidences of real church 
prosperity, then the world has a strong lodgment, 
and Satan has gained his end. 

Another scheme of Satan is to eliminate from 
the Church all the lowly self-den)ring ordinances 
which are offensive to unsanctified tastes and un- 
regenerate hearts, and reduce the Church to a mere 
human institution, popular, natural, fleshly and 

Satan has no scheme more fearfully destructive 
and which can more thoroughly thwart God's high 
and holy purposes, than to transform God's Church 
and make it a human institution according to man's 
views. God's right arm is thereby paralyzed, the 
body of Oirist has become the body of Satan, light 
turned into darkness and life into death. 


Men who sit in apostolic seats often throu|^ a 
marvellous blindness, sometimes through a false 
attachment to what they deem truth, and for what 
they consider the honour of Christ, are found try- 
ing to eliminate from the system of Christ those 
painful, offensive, unpopular, and self-denying 
features to which it owes all its saving efficacy, 
and beauty and power, and which stamp it as di- 

We have a painful illustration most instructive 
and warning in Peter, recorded thus: 

" From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto 
his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, 
and suffer many things of the elders and chief 
priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised 
again the third day. Ttien Peter took him, and 
began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee. 
Lord ; this shall not be unto thee. But he turned, 
and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: 
thou art an offense unto me; for thou savourest 
not the things that be of God, but those that be 
of men. Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any 
man will come after me, let him deny himself, and 
take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever 
will save his life shall lose it ; and whosoever will 
lose his life for my sake shall find it. For what is 
a man profited) if he shall gain the whole world, 
and lose his own soul ? or what shall a man give in 
exchange for his soul ? For the Son of Man shall 
come in the glory of his Father with his angels; 


and then he shall reward every man according to 
his works." 

Here is a lesson most suggestive a lesson 
for all times, a warning for each man, for 
all men, for church men, for saintly men and 
for apostolic men. An apostle has become the 
mouthpiece of Satan! Alarming, horrible, un- 
natural and revolting picture! An apostle, zeal- 
ous for his Master's glory, advocating with 
fire and force a scheme which would forcvfer 
destroy that glory ! An apostle, the apostle Peter, 
Satan's vicegerent ! The apostle who had but just 
made that inspired confession, "Thou art the 
Christ, the Son of the living God," which placed 
him in highest honour and commendation with 
Christ and the Church ! Before the words of that 
divine and marvellous confession had died from his 
lips, this same apostle is the inflamed and self- 
willed advocate of views and plans which will 
render his confession a nullity, and raze the im- 
pregnable and eternal foundations of the Church. 

Peter, a chief apostle, fathering and advocating 
schemes which would discrown Christ of His Mes- 
siahship, and bring heaven's favourite plan to a 
most disastrous and shameful end! How came 
this? What baneful impulse impels Peter? Satan 
has entered him and for the time being, has mas- 
tered his purposes, and so Christ reproves Peter, 
but in the reproof strikes a crushing blow at Satan. 
*' Get thee behind me, Satan,*' a reminder and du- 


plicate of the wilderness temptation. " Thou art 
an offense (a stumbling block) to me." Hie 
devil's trigger to catch Christ in the devil's trap— 
" Thou savourest not the things which be of God, 
but those that be of men." The devil is not in 
sight Man appears and his views are pressed to 
the front. The things which men savour in church 
plan and church life are against God's plan. The 
high and holy principles of self-denial, of unworld- 
liness of life, and of self-surrender to Christ, are 
all against men's view of religion, a losing thing 
with them. The devil does not seek to destroy the 
Church only indirectly. Men's views would elimi- 
nate all these tmpopular principles of the cross, 
self-denial, life surrender and world surrender. 
But when this is done, the devil runs the Church. 
Then it becomes popular, cheery, flesh-pleasing, 
modem and progressive. But it is the devil's 
church, founded on principles pleasing in every 
way to flesh and blood. No Christ is in it, no 
crucifixion of self, no crucifixion of the world, no 
second coming of Christ, no eternal judgment, no 
everlasting hell, no eternal heaven. Nothing is in 
it that savours of God, but all that savours of men. 
Man makes the devil's church by turning Christ's 
Church over to men leaders. The world is sought 
and gained in the devil's church, but the man, the 
soul, heaven, are all lost, lost to all eternity. 

The very heart of this disgraceful apostasy, this 
dethroning Christ and enthroning the devil, is to 


remove the Holy Spirit from Hb leadership in the 
Church and put in unspiritual men as leaders to 
plan for and direct the Church. The strong hands 
of men of great ability and men with the powers 
of leadership have often displaced God's leader- 
ship. The ambition for leadership and the en- 
thronement of man-leadership, is the doom and 
seal of apostasy. There is no leadership in God's 
Church but the leadership of the Holy Spirit The 
man who has the most of God's Spirit is God's 
chosen leader, ambitious and zealous for the 
Spirit's sovereignty, ambitious to be the least, the 
slave of all. 





Sometime in the country I have ftood and watched the 
village blacksmith at work, and for a long time could not 
make out the use of the little trip hammer. The big hammer 
I could understand, but why should the smith strike in turns 
the anvil and the iron puzzled me. One day I ventured to 
ask an explanation, and found that the little hammer regu- 
lates the stroke of the big one. The smith holds the glowing 
metal, turning it lest the stroke fall too often upon the same 
spot, directing the blows that they may descend at the right 
moment; turning, tempering, regulating till the metal U 
fashioned to the desired shape. So God holds the soul and 
regulates the stroke. Sometimes He makes the Devil His 
hunmer-man. . « • Satan strikes to smash. God regu- 
lates the stroke, and turns His malice to our perfecting, and 
the Devil sweats at the task of fashioning saints into the 
likeness of Christ— S'omti^i Chadwick, 

THERE are two ways of directing the 
Church, God's way and the devil's way. 
God's way and man's way of ntnning the 
Church are entirely at poles. Man's wise plans, 
happy expedients and easy solutions, are Satan's 
devices. The cross is retired, the world corner in, 
self-denial is eliminated, all seems bright, cheerful 
and prosperous, but Satan's hand is on the ark, 
men's schemes prevail, the Church fails under these 
taking, pet devices of men, and the bankruptcy if^ 



so complete that the court of heaven will not even 
appoint a receiver for the collapsed and beggarly 

All God's plans have the mark •f the cross on 
them, and all His plans have death to self in them. 
All God's plans have crucifixion to the world in 
them. But men's plans ignore the offense of the 
cross or despise it. Men's plans have no profound, 
stem or self-immolating denial in them. Their 
gain is of the world. How much of these destruc- 
tive elements, esteemed by men, does the devil 
bring into the Church, until all the high, imworldly 
and holy aims, and heavenly objects of the Church 
are retired and forgotten ? 

One of these taking, man-savouring, Satanic de- 
vices is to pervert the aims of the Church after this 
manner of statement and effort, that the main ob- 
ject of the Church to-day is not so much to save 
individuals out of society, as to save society, not 
to save souls ^o much as to save the bodies of men, 
not to save men out of a community so much as to 
save men and manhood in the community. The 
world, not the individual, is the subject of re- 

This popular, seductive and deadly fallacy en- 
tirely subverts the very foundation of Christ's 
Church. Its materializing trend is so strong that it 
will sweep away every vestige of the spiritual and 
eternal if we do not watch, work and speak with 
sleepless vigilance, tireless energy, and fearless 


boldness. The attitude and open declaration of 
much of the religious teadiing we now hear is in 
the same strain and spirit which characterized 
Unitarian, Jewish, or rationalistic utterances half 
a century ago. 

To save sodety is a kind of religious fad to 
which much enterprising, lauded church work is 
committed. Advanced thinkers and discoverers 
have elaborated the same idea. They seem not to 
realize their true condition, which is one of going 
back, and not going forward. This backward step 
entombs religion in the grave where Judaism has 
been buried all these centuries. It may well accord 
with the idle dreams of the worldly rabbis to think 
of regeneratmg the world and ignoring the indi- 

The phrase " to save the world," has a pompous 
sounding; and right taking to flesh and blood is it 
for the Church to apply itself to bettering the tem- 
poral surroundings of the individual, and improve 
his sanitary conditions; to lessen the bad smells 
that greet his nose, to diminish the bacteria in his 
water, and to put granite in the pavement for him 
to walk on instead of wood or brick. All this 
sounds finely, and agrees well with a material age, 
and becomes practical in operation, and evident and 
imposing in results. But does this agree with the 
sublime dignity and essential aim of the Qiurch? 
Do we need any Church to secure these ends? 
Councihnen of common talent, an efficient street 


commissioner, and the ordinary vigilance of the 
average policeman, will secure these results in their 
best way. It needs no Church, no Bible, no Christ, 
no personal holiness,, to secure these ends, and this 
is the point to which all this vaunted advance tends* 
If the ends of the Church are directed to those re- 
sults which can be as well or better secured by other 
agencies, the Church will soon be regarded as a 
nuisance, a thing to be abated by the most summary 

The purposes of the Church of God rise in sub- 
lime grandeur above these childish dreams and ef- 
fete philosophies. Its purpose is to regenerate and 
sanctify the individual, to make him holy and pre- 
pare him by a course of purifying and training for 
the high pursuits of an eternal life. The Church 
is like the seine cast into the sea. The purpose is 
not to change the sea so much as to catch the fishes 
out of the sea. Let the sea roll on in its essential 
nature, but the net catches its fishes. No bigger 
fools would ever be found than fishermen who 
were spending all their force trying by some chem- 
ical process to change the essential elements of the 
sea, vainly hoping thereby to improve the stock of 
the fish that they had not and never could catch. 
By this method, personal holiness, the great desid- 
eratum for church operation and ends, would be 
impossible, and heaven would be stricken from 
creed and life and hope. 

To s^ve the world and ignore the individujd| i$ 


not only Utopian, but every way damaging. It is 
the process, fair and laudable in name, to save the 
world, but in results it is to lose the Churdi, or, 
which amounts to the same, making the Church 
worldly, and thereby unfitting her for her holy and 
sublime mission. Christ said that gaining the world 
and saving the man are antagonistic ends. Christ 
teaches Peter that his Satanic device would gain 
the world to and for the Church, but would lose 
the soul. Everything would seem thrifty to the 
cause when in reality all was death. 

The Church b distinctly, preeminently and abso- 
lutely a spiritual institution, that is, an institution 
created, vitalized, possessed and directed by the 
Spirit of God. Her machinery, rites, forms, serv- 
ices and officers have no comeliness, no pertinency, 
no power, save as they are depositions and channels 
of the Holy Spirit. It is His indwelling and in- 
spiration which make its divine being and secure 
its divine end. If the devil can by any methods 
shut the Holy Spirit out from the Church, he has 
effectually barred the Church from being God's 
Church on earth. He accomplishes this by retiring 
from the Church the agencies or agents which the 
Holy Spirit uses, and displaces them by the natural, 
which are rarely if ever the media of His energy. 
Christ announced the universal and invariable law 
when He said, " That which is bom of the flesh, is 
flesh; that which is bom of the Spirit, is spirit.** 
The Church may have a holy preacher, a man of 



great prayerf ulness, of great grace, filled with the 
Spirit But if Satan can by any method retire him, 
and put a man of no prayerfuhiess, plausible, elo« 
quent and popular, the Qiurch may seem to have 
gained, but it has gained by the substitution of nat- 
ural for ^iritual forces, a gain which has all un- 
consciously revolutionized the Church. Officer a 
church with holy men, not highly cultured, but 
well-versed in the deep things of God, and strong 
in devotion to Christ and His cause, not wealthy, 
nor of high social position. Now change these 
officers and put in men who are every way decent 
in morality, but not given or noted for prayer and 
piety, men of high social position and fine finan- 
ciers, and the Church scarcely marks the change 
save marked improvement in finances. But an in- 
visible and mighty change has taken place in the 
Church, which is radical. It has changed from a 
spiritual Church to a worldly one. The change 
from noonday to midnight is not more extreme 
than that. 

At this point Satan is doing his deadliest and 
most damning work, the more deadly and damn- 
ing because unnoticed, unseen, producing no shock 
and exciting no alarm. 

It is not by positive, conspicuous evil that Satan 
perverts the Church, but by quiet displacement and 
by tmnoticed substitution. The higher is being re- 
tired, the spiritual gives place to the social, and the 
divine is eliminated, because it is made secondary. 


The perversion and subversion of the Church is 
secured by Satan when the spiritual forces are re- 
tired or made subordinate to the natural, and social 
entertainment, and not edification becomes the. end 
This process involves not only the aims and ends of 
entertainment, but it is intended to soften and 
modify the distinctly spiritual aim, and to widen 
from what is deemed the rigid exclusiveness of 
spiritual narrowness. But in tiie end it eliminates 
all that is distinctly spiritual, and that which is in 
any sense deeply religious will not survive the 
death of the spiritual. Edification as the end of 
God's Churdi is wholly lost sight of, and enter- 
tainment, that which is pleasing and pleasant, 
comes to the front The social forces not only re- 
tire the spiritual forces, but effectually destroy 

A modem church with its kitchen and parlour, 
with its club and lyceum, and with its ministries 
to the flesh and to the world, is both suggestive and 
alarming. How suggestive in the contrast it pre- 
sents between the agencies which the primitive 
Church originated and fostered, as the conserver 
of its principles and the expression of its life, and 
those which the modem and progressive Church 
presents as its allies or substitutes. The original 
institutions were wholly spiritual, calculated to 
strengthen and cultivate all the elements which 
combine to make a deep and clear experience of 
C5od, They were trsuning schools for the spiritusj 


life, subservient to its culture as the chief end. 
They never lingered in the regions of the moral, 
the aesthetic and the mental. They fostered no 
taste nor inclination which was not spiritual, and 
did not minister to the soul's advance in divine 

They took it for granted that all who came to 
them, really desired to flee from the wrath to come, 
and were sincerely groaning after full redemption, 
and that their obligation to furnish to these the 
best aids were of the most sacred and exacting 
kind. It never occurred to them that the lyceum 
or sociable were channels through which God's 
grace would flow and could be laid under tribute 
for spiritual uses. These social and fleshly forces 
are regarded in many quarters as the perfection of 
spiritual things. These agencies are arrayed as the 
mature fruit of spiritual piety, flavoured and per- 
fected by its culture and progress, and ordained 
henceforth as the handmaids of the prayer and 
testimony meeting. We object most seriously to 
the union. What have they in common? " How 
indeed can two walk together unless they be 

What elements of piety are conserved by the 
lyceum or sociable ? What phases of spiritual life 
do they promote? By what feature of the lyceum 
is faith invigorated ?. Where do you find in it any 
elements which are distinctly pious, ot are aids to 
piety? How does the sociable produce a more 


pnyerivl, a holier life ? What secret springs has 
it to bring the soul nearer to God ? Wherein does 
it form or strengthen the tics of a Christly fellow- 
ship ? Is it not frivolous and worldly ? Is it not 
sensuous and fleshly ? Does it not cater to and suit 
the tastes of the carnal, the light and worldly? 
What unity of purpose and spirit is there between 
the lyceum and witnessing for Christ? The one 
is intensely spiritual. The other has in it no jot or 
tittle of spiritual uses. 

We might as well add to the list of heavenly 
helpers, the skating rink, calisthenics and the gym- 
nasium. If the young people desire to join a 
lyceum, enjoy a sociable or establish a bank, let 
them do so, but do not deceive them and degrade 
piety by calling these things holy institutions and 
feeders of spiritual life. 

Disguise it as we may ; reason about it as we 
will ; apologize for it as we do ; vainly philosophize 
of growth and change and culture, the truth is, we 
have lost that intense t)rpe of personal experience, 
that deep conviction of eternal things which are 
such evident features of all great spiritual move- 
ments. Many preachers and people have fallen so 
low in their experience that they do not relish 
these distinct and strongly spiritual agencies ; and 
are devising schemes and institutions to gratify 
their non-spiritual tastes with schemes which are 
midway between Christ and the world; which, 
while not essentially wrong, do not possess one 


grain of spiritual power, and can never be the 
channels of heavenly communications. 

It is said we cannot get the people to attend the 
distinctly spiritual means of grace. What is the 
trouble? Are the institutions worn out and no 
longer of value to the humble, pious soul ? Who 
will dare affirm this ? The tastes of the people are 
low and perverted. Shall we then change the 
agencies to suit the unsanctified appetites? No; 
let us tone up the appetite for spiritual things, and 
correct and elevate the tastes of our people. Let 
the revolution begin with the preacher. Let him 
wrestle with God until his ordination vow becomes 
vitalized, so that all can feel the pressure of his 
aim, the ardour of his zeal, his singleness of pur- 
pose, and the holiness and elevation of his life, and 
until the people catch the fire and purpose of his 
heart, and all press on to the regions of perfect 
love, panting for all the fulness of God. Under 
this united, mighty, divine impulse the social and 
the lyceum will be forgotten and become stale, and 
all saintly assemblies will be attractive and delight- 

The Church cannot confederate with non-spiri- 
tual agencies. By this she breaks the tension of 
her faith and discards the Holy Ghost. She 
caimot be the purveyor to unsanctified desires. 
Neither is it her province to fall down to Ae beg- 
garly task of entertaining the people. This is 
her saddest mistake, when her solemn assemblies 


arc surrendered to the concert and lecture, her 
praise turned into worldly music, her classrooms 
into parlours, her sociables more popular than her 
prayer-meetings, the house of God made a house 
of feasting, and social cheer is sought after rather 
than a house of prayer. Tht unity of the Spirit 
and the holy brotherhood are displaced and de- 
stroyed to make room for social affinities and 
worldly attractions. Her high and royal duty, 
that by which she maintains her spotless fidelity to 
her Lord, is to stress holiness and afford all means 
for its advancement and perfection. This done, 
spiritual character and affinities will order all the 


By the ''power of the air** is meant not simply in tlie 
abstract, Satan's government over the air whereof he is 
prince, but his devils, his angels that live and fly up and 
down in the air as the most convenient place for their resi- 
dence; these have that power whereof he is prince; and as 
the ** power of the air" refers to those airy spirits that arc 
principalities and powers and rulers with him in this world, 
and who work under him in the men of this world; and 
they are a united kingdom, a body politic under this on& 
prince, Satan : and they are called fower^ as we call an army 
a power, a force^ as Pharaoh's host in Exodus 14:28; 15:4. 
The whole creation above the earth may be divided into 
three parts, whereof each part has its powers that are it^ in- 
habitants; there are the highest heavens, where is God and 
His host of angds; there are the starry heavens, with the 
sun for the prince of its hosts, and there is the air of this 
sublunary world, with Satan's trained crew there, called the 
** power of the air ** or hosts of devils in the air under their 
prince. — Thomas Goodwin, 

THERE IS no more fundamental statement 
than that the world is to be renounced by 
every true disciple of Christ, and that to 
love the world and the things of the world puts us 
in open and standing enmity to God. By virtue 
of the relationship of love or friendship to the 
world, we are the enemies of God. There needs 

no other sin, no other crime by virtue of our at- 



tachment to the world. By that alone, we are the 
enemies of God. 

Christ Jesus lays it down as an obvious truth 
that between the worid and His disciples there 
would be hatred. The two discipleships to Him- 
self and to the world were inimical and impossible. 
The call, the touch and choice of Christ when ac- 
cepted and obeyed, becomes at once the secret and 
the source of the world's hatred. 

Jesus declares the native and inevitable enmity 
of the world to His followers: "The world hath 
hated them because they are not of the world even 
as I am not of the world." Again, in the sacer- 
dotal prayer, He declares this distinct and eternal 
separation and conflict: "They are not of the 
world, even as I am not of the world." By virtue 
of their relation to Christ they are separated from 
and are in conflict with the world. 

The two persons, Jesus and Adam, their natures, 
affinities and opposition, are declared in the clearest 
language: " The first man is of the earth, earthy; 
the second man is the Lord from heaven. As is 
the earthy, such are they also that are earthy ; and 
as IS the heavenly, such are they also that are 
heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the 
earthly, we shall also bear the image of the heav- 
enly/' How strong is the opposition to the world 
declared and demanded. The love of the world is 
hostile to and destructive of the love of God. The 
two cannot co-exist. 


*' Ye adulteresses, know ye aot that the f rien<3shq> 
of the world is enmity with God? Whosoever there- 
fore would be the friend of the world maketh himself 
an enemy of God" (R. V. James 4:4). 

Nothing is more explicit than this, nothing is 
more commanding, authoritative and more exact- 
ing. **Love not tfie world/' Nothing is more 
offensive to God, nothing is more criminal, more 
abominable, violative of the most sacred relation- 
ship of the soul with God. " Adulteresses " — 
purity gone and shame and illicit intercourse exist 
Friendship for the world is Heaven's greatest 
crime and God's greatest enemy. 

The world is one of the enemies which must be 
fought and conquered on the way to heaven. " For 
this is the love of God, tfiat we keep his command- 
ments; and his commandments are not grievous. 
For whatsoever is bom of God overcometh the 
world, and this is the victory that overcometh the 
world, even our faith. Who is he that overcometh 
the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the 
Son of God?" 

The Gospel is represented as a training school in 
which to deny worldly desires is one part of its 
curriculum. " For the grace of God that bringeth 
salvation hath appeared to all men, teaching us, 
that denying ungodliness ^nd worldly lusts, we 
should live soberly, righteously and godly, in this 
present Svorld ; looking for that blessed hope, and 
the glorious appearing of the great God and our 


Saviour Jesus Christ; who gave himself for us, 
that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and 
purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of 
good works/' There is something somewhere in 
the world which makes it a deadly foe to the salva- 
tion of Christ and which poisons us against heaven. 

What is "this world/* which so effectually 
alienates us from heaven and puts us by virtue of 
our relation to it and in flagrant enmity to God, 
and friendship to which violates our wedding vow 
to God, whose love is enmity to God, whose friend- 
ship is criminal to the most abominable and utmost 
degree ? What is it ? " The world, the lust of the 
flesh, the lust of the eye, the pride of life/' What 
are they? The world includes the whole mass of 
men alienated from God, and therefore hostile to 
the cause of Christ. It involves worldly affairs, 
the aggregate of things earthly, the whole circle of 
earthly goods, endowments, riches, advantages, 
pleasures, and pursuits, which although hollow, 
frail and fleeting, stir desire, seduce from God, 
and are obstacles to the cause of Christ The di- 
vorced or torn relation between heaven and earth, 
between God and His creatures, finds its expression 
in the term, " the world," 

Our English word, ** desire,*' expresses the 
meaning of the word lust, including the whole 
world of active lusts and desires, to which the seat 
of desire and the natural appetites impels. 

Alford's Commentary says: "The world was 


constituted at first in Adam, well pleasing to God 
and obedient to Him. It was man's world, and in 
man it was summed up, and in man it fell into the 
darkness of selfish pursuits, and by which man has 
become materialized in spirit and dragged down 
so as to be worldly and sensual. The world is 
man's world in his fall from God. The " lust of 
the flesh," human nature averse to God ; " lust of 
the eyes," that sense which takes note of outward 
tilings and is inflamed by them. The " pride of 
life," the manner of life of worldly men among 
one another whereby pride is to display and pomp 
is cherished 

Bengel says: "The lust of the flesh" means 
those things on which the sense of enjoyment, taste 
and touch, feed. " Lust of the eyes " means those 
things by which the senses of investigation, the eye 
and sight, hearing and smelling, are occupied. 
" Pride of life " means when any one assumes too 
much to himself in words or actions. Even those 
who do not love arrogance of life may possibly 
pursue the " lust of the eyes," and they who have 
overpowered this yet frequently retain the lust of 
the flesh, for this prevails in the greatest degree 
and to the widest extent among the poor, the mid- 
dle classes and the powerful, even among those 
who appear to exercise self-denial." 

John Wesley says: **The desire of the flesh 
means the pleasures of the outward senses, whether 
of taste, smell or touch. The ' desire of the eye,' 


the pleasures of the imagination (to which the eye 
chiefly is subservient), of that internal sense 
whereby we relish what is grand, new or beautiful. 
The ' pride of life ' means all that pomp in cloth- 
ing, houses, furniture, equipage and manner of liv- 
ing which generally procure honour from the bulk 
of mankind, and so gratify pride and vanity. It 
therefore directly includes the desire of praise and 
remotely covetousness. All these desires are not 
from God, but from the prince of this world/* 

This world arrays itself and all its forces against 
heaven. Worldliness is the epidemic foe to heaven. 
To live for this world is to lose heaven by counter 
attraction. The Son of God declares of His dis- 
ciples, and reiterates the declaration to His Father 
as one of prime importance: " Thou gavest them 
me out of the world. They are not of the world, 
even as I am not of the world." It remains true 
to this hour that all the true disciples of Jesus are 
not of the world, but are chosen out of the world, 
have left tfie world, have renounced the world, and 
are crucified to the world. 

Fundamental and eternal are tfiese truths, of 
which heaven has an illustration in every follower 
of Jesus. 

What gives the world its fatal charms? What 
makes its witchery so deadly? Sometimes its 
beauty is all withered, its brightness all night, its 
hope all despair, its joy tfie bitterest anguish, and 
all its prospects decay and desert, but still it holds 


and binds. We are loath to leave it Whence is 
its deadly sorcery and its fatal snares? Whence 
is its malignant hate? Whence is its hostility to 
God and its alienation from heaven ? This world 
is the devil's world. In that fatal hour when man 
fell from his allegiance and devotion to God, he 
carried the world with him in his rebellion s^inst 
God. Man was the world's lord, and it fell with 
its lord. This is the solution of its full influence, 
its malignant rivalry, and its intense opposition to 
heaven. The devil has his kingdom here. It is 
his princedom. He clothes it with all beauty and 
seductive power as the rival of heaven. Heaven's 
trinity of foes are the world, the flesh, and the 
devil. The world is first, the most powerful and 
engaging. They all center in and are strong for 
evil because the devil inspires and inflames them. 
The flesh wars with the spirit simply because the 
devil inflames its desires. The world gets its 
deadly and fascinating snares from the devil. The 
world is not simply the ally, but is the instrument 
and the agent of Satan. It represents him with 
the most servile and complete loyalty. 

The text from John already quoted, " Love not 
the world, neither the things that are in the world," 
needs, for its full understanding, to have the pref- 
ace which reads : " I write unto you, young men, 
because ye have overcome the wicked one. I write 
unto you, little children, because ye have known Ac 
Father. I have written unto you, fathers, because 


ye have known him that is from the beginning. I 
have written unto you, young men, because ye are 
strong, and the Word of God abideth in you, and 
ye have overcome the wicked one.'* 

To " overcome the wicked one,'* the world, its 
k)ve and its things must be abjured. There stands 
at the threshold of many a church door these 
words, which in spirit belong to the sacred honour 
of every soul's true espousal to Christ: " Dost thou 
renounce the devil and all his works, the vain pomp 
and glory of the world, with all covetous desires of 
the same, and tht carnal desires of the flesh, so 
that thou wilt not follow or be led by them ? " "I 
renounce them all," was the answer solemnly said 
in the serious hour, and the preacher and the peo- 
ple and our own hearts, if true, said, "Amen." 
And Amen let it be now and forever. 

This world must be renounced and this is to re- 
nounce Satan. This is the deadliest blow at his 
rule. The friendship of the world is violative of 
our marriage vows to heaven. 

We will not understand James in his severe de- 
nunciations of the world, where he makes its 
friendship so criminal and declares that to be the 
friend of the world is of itself to be the enemy of 
God, except we note how he is declaring that the 
world's friendship is the devil's religion, earthly, 
sensual, deviiish ; and that we can get back to God 
only by renouncing the friendship of the world and 
by cleansing our hearts and hands of its soiling 
touch. We draw nigh to God by resisting the 


deviL We resist the devil by renouncing the 

The Apostle James sums up the distinct charac- 
teristics of the devil's world-counterfeit religion. 
Passion, appetite and pleasure reign and make wan 
How much of this passion, pleasure and world-reli- 
gion has there been in church annals? Too often 
its history is a history of passion, strife, ambition 
and blood. Its ecumenical councils are the battle- 
field of passion in its unbridled, most malignant 
form. " Earthly, sensual, devilish,*' is the Divine 
stigma put on it, and obloquy is put on much of 
that which marks and mars ecclesiastical history. 
What volumes of this worldly religion, unwritten 
volumes, a world full of volumes, belcmg to die 
lives of many old reputed saints and to many mod- 
em church members and church goers. They are 
friends of the world, its advocates and lovers. 
They do not pray and only say prayers in order not 
to miss praying. There is no drawing nigh to God 
and no fighting against the devil and driving him 
from the field of action. Their religion and its 
performances and worship descendeth not from 
above, but is " earthly, natural, devilish." " Sub- 
mit to God " and " resist the devil," is the keynote 
of an unworldly religion. A personal God and a 
personal devil are among the primary articles of 
creed and experience in true religion. Surrender 
to God, draw nigh to Him, live close to Him, fight 
against the devil, and get rid of him by denouncing 
and abjuring the world. 


Hesiod, speaking of the devils, saith, ** Being clothed with 
air, they run up and down." By air is here meant this 
elementary sublunary world, and especially the airy part of 
it, that interstice between heaven and earth. All the Devil's 
workmanship in apparitions and visions is air condensed: 
he took Christ up into an exceeding hi^ mountain, to make 
an outward representation wherein his power lay. Beelze- 
bub signif3dng "god of flies" might allude to the air being 
as full of devils as it is of flies; certainly they are called 
** fowls of the air'* (Luke 8: 5-12), Frantzius reports that 
a holy man in Germany on the night of the great massacre 
in France saw many spirits in the air, and was thereby as- 
sured of some great thing done in the world on that night 
When angels come to minister they are ccnnpared to the 
meteors of the air, as in Psahn 104:4, "He makes his 
angels spirits* and his ministers a flame of fire." Now the 
air is only a place passage to angels, but it is the region 
wherein devils fly up and down, except where they possess 
men's bocties. — Thomas Goodwin. 

THE divine warning against the course of 
the world, against the fashion of the 
world and against the spirit of the world, 
finds its solution in the fact that the devil is direct- 
ing the world's course, the devil is creating the 
world's spirit, and the devil is cutting the pattern 
of the world's fashion. The touch of the world 
pollutes because Satan's fingers are in its touch. 
Its desires are deadly and heaven-quenching be- 



cause Satan kindles its desires. The world and its 
things are contraband in the Christian warfare be- 
cause Satan is the ruler of the world and the ad- 
ministrator of its affairs. 

In EphesianSy Satan and his legions are called 
the " world-rulers." We quote from the Revised 
Version: " Put on the whole armour of God, that 
ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the 
devil. For our wrestling is not against flesh and 
blood, but against the principalities, against the 
powers, against the world-rulers of this darkness, 
against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in heav- 
enly places.'* The " world-rulers " are principali- 
ties and powers under the direction of the devil. 
How they rule this world by ruling the things 
which rule this world ! How Satan seizes and di- 
rects all the mighty forces of this world f War he 
seizes, and instead of it being the patriot's struggle 
for freedom and for the defense of home and na- 
tive land, it becomes the pliant tool of despotism, 
crushes liberty and right, enslaves freedom, and 
carries on a campaign of lust, rapine, cruelty, deso- 
lation and death. 

Money is another of the world's ruling forces 
which might be used to Edenize earth and to lay 
up a good foundation against the time to come. 
It ought to be used to ease the burdens of the poor, 
to banish beggary, and to brighten the homes of 
widowhood and orphanage. A mighty world-rul- 
ing power is money. The devil rules it and instead 


of flowing at the command of pit3ang love, it is 
diverted by Satan to all selfish and unholy pur* 
poses. Inflaming into covetousness and hardening 
into callousness, men become noted, illustrious and 
esteemed, as they are money-getters and money- 

Education, a mighty world-ruling force, Satan 
chains this to his car, and it becomes the source of 
pride and ungodly power, and its mighty engineer- 
ing is turned into " higher criticism," and under 
the guise of Christian learning, it becomes the most 
powerful ally to Satan, tmsettling faith in God's 
Word in multitudes of hearts, and opening a wide 
door of skepticism in the temple of God. 

In Ephesians the devil is called the " prince of 
the power of the air.*' The very atmosphere of 
this world ministers to his cause and is under his 
baneful rule. How much of storm and cyclones, 
terror and ruin is he responsible for we may not 
know. "And you hath he quickened who were 
dead in trespasses and sins; wherein in time past 
ye walked according to the course of this world, 
according to the prince of the power of the air, the 
spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedi- 
ence. Among whom also we all had our conversa- 
tion in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling 
the desires of the flesh and of the mind ; and were 
by nature the children of wrath, even as others." 
"Among whom we all had our conversation," says 
Paul of himself and the saints. They formerly 


lived in Satan's kingdom, and he ruled them by the 
lusts of the flesh, " fulfilled the desires of the flesh 
and the mind.*' We see in this how Satan rules 
through the world. He is the god of this world, 
and by the world he excites its desires, both low 
and high, low in the desires of the flesh, and high 
in the desires of the mind. Whether the world 
fills the passions or appetites, or draws out and 
chains the mind in its high worldly pursuits and 
refined tastes, it is all of Satan, because of the 
world. The "lust of the flesh, the lust of the 
eyes and pride of life,*' these are of the world, and 
Satan is the exciter of them, " and lust when it is 
finished bringeth forth death." 

" We know that whosoever is begotten of God 
sinneth not, but he that was begotten of God keep- 
eth him and the evil one toucheth him not We 
know that we are of God and the whole world Heth 
in the evil one" (Revised Version). The world 
" lieth," means that it is in the power of the devil, 
is held in subjection by him, and is fixed and estab- 
lished. Hie devil is pictured not only as trying to 
kindle into a flame the desires which may remain in 
a good man's heart after conversion, but also as 
folding in his arms the whole world and making it 
subject to his power and submissive to his absolute 

When the world comes in at many a door, it 
comes in in many a form, but at whatever door and 
in whatever form it comes, it is always as the 


devil's secant It comes in to do his work as his 
most obsequious and faithful slave. When the 
world comes in, dressed in its most seductive and 
beautiful garb, the devil has fashioned its dotfaing 
and ordered its coming. The world is the devil's 
heaven. Its rest, crown and good are here. When 
the world comes in, God's heaven goes out It 
fades from the eye and heart The struggle for it 
ends, and God's heaven, with its fadeless and eter- 
nal glories, is lost. 

In these declarations of the Bible about the world 
and the devil, we see why the world opposes 
heaven. We learn the enmity of the two. Heaven 
is Christ's place, the place where He is, and to 
which He would win men. The world is Satan's 
place. His power is here. To fix our hearts on 
the world, is to be loyal to him. To fix our hearts 
on heaven, is to be loyal to Christ 

Here we have the solution of the cruel hatred 
of the world to Jesus and why it has persecuted so 
bitterly and to death His followers. We see why 
it is that the Spirit lusteth against the flesh and the 
flesh against the Spirit, and likewise we see why 
these are not only contrary to one another, but at 
war with one another. The devil is in the flesh and 
rules it. Christ is in the Spirit. This world leads 
from Christ It is the invincible foe of Christ. 

This great truth is illustrated and enforced by 
the fact that Christ's work is to get possession of 
the world and make its attractive power furtiier 


His purposes. But He establishes a kingdom of 
heaven which is not of this world. A new power 
has come in, a new kingdom established and a new 
world made. It will take the fires of the judgment 
and the new creative power to make a new heaven 
and a new earth before the stains and ruin of the 
devil's debasing and death-dealing hands can be re- 
moved^ and this alien and hell-debauched, yet beau- 
tiful, world fitted for God's holy purposes. 

The Christian, by the urgent demand made upon 
him to forswear allegiance to the world, is, 1^ his 
very relation to Jesus Christ, lifted out of the 
world's deadly embraces, and its polluting witch- 
eries are broken. In this subserviency of the 
world to the devil, we have the solution of the 
world's intense hatred to Jesus Christ, and we see 
why it has armed itself with all its forces under the 
power of the devil to destroy the cause of Christ. 
The world's opposition and enmity have been al- 
ways against true religion, but often its smiles are 
more fatal than its hate. 


This kingdom and these angels of Satan have great power; 
they are therefore called the " power of the air," We wrestle 
not against flesh and blood (the power of kings and armies 
and men are nothing) but against principalities, and powers, 
against spiritual wickedness; against devils that infinitely 
exceed all the sons of men: and the word is not only 
DUNAMis^ physical power of understanding, insinuation, 
but fixousiA, authority. If God had not ^ven this gpreat 
enemy so long, and so great, and so extensive a power 
to set up himself, His Son's kingdom had not been so glo- 
rious in the overthrow of it O the mercy of God in trans- 
lating us from the one to the other; we are pulled from 
the power of darkness by redemption (Col. 1:13), and by 
Christ Himself being subject to the power of Satan as in 
Luke 22 : 53 where the wicked have their hour but the saints 
shall have their day of it-^-Thomas Goodwin. 

IN all we have seen, instead of minifying the 
power of the devil, Jesus exalts him to the 
pinnacle of power as a prince, with this world 
as his princedom. 

In the prominent features of Christ's life the 
devil appears as the one being and the one evil 
agent which Christ has in mind, to whose rule He 
is opposed. We have seen how soon the devil fol- 
lowed in the wake of our Lord's baptism at the 
Jordan, after the anointing of the Holy Ghost, and 

His public entrance on His ministry. When He 



first commissioned His disciples, among other great 
miracles they were to " cast out devils." When 
the seventy returned to report their work to Christ, 
they said, with evident surprise and gratulation, 
"Even the devils are subject to us through thy 
name." He replied: " I beheld Satan as lightning 
fall from heaven." When He is opening their 
hearts to receive die great comfort of that great 
promise of the Holy Spirit, He declares that one 
of the trinity of great ends to be executed by the 
Holy Spirit was " to convict the world of judg- 
ment, because the prince of this world is judged." 

In one of His troubled and impassioned out- 
breaks, as the shadows and pain of His great agony 
are coming on Him, He cries, " Now is my soul 
troubled/^ The darkness is relieved by a gleam of 
light in which He sees the ruins of Satan's king- 
dom and the devil spoiled, dethroned, cast out by 
the almightiness of His cross, " Now is the judg- 
ment of tills worid; now shall the prince of this 
world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from 
the earth, will draw all men unto me." 

But as the darkness grows deeper, and the an- 
guish more bitter. He sees the approaching form 
of him whose hour and power of darkness it is. 
Hushed into silence in the presence of this relent- 
less and cruel foe, the Son of God says to His sor- 
rowing and awe-struck disciples: " Hereafter I will 
not talk much with you; for the prince of this 
world Cometh, and hath nothing in me.*' 


The devil's sad and mighty influence is farther 
set forth on the circle of chosen disciples. Peter 
staggers under the blow of the devil; his narrow, 
shameful escape of Peter is thus referred to by 
Christ: "Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired 
to have you, that he might sift you as wheat: but I 
have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and, 
when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren/* 

Jesus Christ acknowledges the great power and 
authority which the devil has in the present de- 
ranged and usurped order of things. He declares, 
" Now is the judgment of this world, now shall 
the prince of this world be judged." 

How defiant Satan is, and how he opposes Christ 
stubbornly with reckless and too often successful 
courage is plainly revealed. Into the chosen circle 
of the twelve he entered, into the one who had been 
trusted as their treasurer, the receiver, the depos- 
itor and the disburser of their money and their 

How dose he comes, and how large his suc- 
cesses ! One of the sacred twelve he has seduced, 
possessed and moved to carry out in the most hypo- 
critical, false way his infamous designs. How 
near he came adding Peter to the black roll of his 
immortal ones, immortal in infamy, is very evi- 
dent. That the devil had mudi every way to do 
with Peter's dastardly course, his lying and blas- 
phemy, is evident from the words of Christ, "And 
ihe Lord said unto Simon, Simon, behold Satan 



hath desired to have you that he may sift you as 
wheat But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith 
fail not; and when thou art converted, strengthen 
thy bretiiren. And he said unto him, Lord, I am 
ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to 
death. And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock 
shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt 
thrice deny that thou knowest me." 

In the Parable of the Sower Christ sets forth the 
unseen but powerful influence which the devil ex- 
erts to neutralize the word of God. In the record 
of this parable by Matthew, the devil is termed the 
" wicked one," a statement of personality and of 
the concentration and comprehension of preemi- 
nent wickedness. He catches away the word sown 
with vigilant and diabolical hate. " Then cometh 
the devil and taketh the word." He is the de- 
stroyer of the seeds of good. So powerful is he 
that the word of God, incorruptible and eternal, is 
prevented from securing its benign and saving ef- 
fort9 by his vigilance and influence over the mind. 

In the story of Job and his sore trials, we see 
the Sabeans and Chaldeans are ready to respond 
to his suggestion to make their predatory raids on 
Job's herds. Satan's power is not limited to out- 
side influence, but is direct and powerful, getting 
into the inside, and making suggestions of evil, 
almost godlike sometimes, and again so inflaming 
our passions or principles that we cannot see the 
wrong till too late, as in the case of Satan's sug- 


gestion to David to number Israel. His power is 
so great that even good men, the best, who are able 
to resist his temptations, yet for a time are under 
his power. The Christians at Smyrna were so 
under his power that while he could not alienate 
their affections or disturb their loyalty, he could 
put them in prison. Paul felt all his life the ran- 
kling poison of a wound inflicted by Satan's power. 
Peter was in his hands and tossed about, and was 
brought nigh to the fatal verge by his power. Job 
was for a while put in his power, and was driven 
and torn and desolated like a cruel and reckless 
tempest, wherein everything was wrecked and lost 
but his patience. How great was Satan's power 
to destroy fortune and family and friends and 
reputation ! The Son of God was in his mysteri- 
ous and all desolating power, led to the mountains 
and led to the temple by the fearful spell of Satan. 
Angels retired and heaven hushed its music and 
was draped in silence and trembled in awe while 
Satan's dread power was allowed to spend its dark 
force on heaven's Anointed One. The power of 
disease was in the devil's hands. He smote Job. 
Christ said of the woman with the spirit of infirm- 
ity: " Ought not this woman, being a daughter of 
Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo ! these eight- 
een years, be loosed from tiiis bond on the Sabbath 
day ? ** Doubtless much of sickness is due to the 
power of the devil. To this there is reference in the 
Statements of Christ's work. " When the even was 


come, they brought unto him many that were pos- 
sessed with devils ; and he cast out the spirits with 
his word, and healed all that were sick. That it 
might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah, the 
prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmities, and 
bare our sicknesses/' " How God anointed Jesus of 
Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power; 
who went about doing good, and healing all that 
were oppressed of the devil ; for God was with him.*' 

Satan's power did not extend to death in Job's 
case, but it did in that of his children. The 
Smyrna Christians he could hold in prison but ten 
days, but thousands of others he held unto death. 
His own cruel, deadly hands weaved for them the 
martyr's crown of gold and glory. 

The power of the devil over the body is further 
seen and illustrated by numbers of cases in the New 
Testament, of demoniacal possessions. The devil 
had possession by some of his imps of the bodies 
of persons. Some of the cases were fearfully tor- 
mented in body and almost wrecked in mind, others 
had functions of the body suspended, some were 
made dumb by him, and others made deaf and 
blind. These cases were many in number and of 
great variety. The great power and malignity 
of Satan is seen in that among the most distressing 
cases were those who were not noted for great 
sins, but tiie young and comparative innocent ones 
were the victims of his dread power. The whole 
person came under the power of this alien spirit 


The power of Satan, his nearness and personality, 
had a constant and destructive manifestation in 
these cases. 

Of these demoniacal possessions it has been well 
said that the Gospel narratives are distinctly 
pledged to the historic truth of these occurrences. 
Either they are true or the Gospels are false. 

Nor can it be said they represent the opinions of 
the times. They relate to us words spoken by the 
Lord Jesus in which the personality and presence 
of the devil are distinctly stated. Now cither our 
Lord spoke these words or He did not. If He 
did not, then we must at once set aside the concur- 
rent testimony of the Evangelists to a plain matter 
of fact. In other words^ we establish a principle 
which will overthrow equally every fact related in 
the Gospels. 


Christ's physical sufferings before Pilate; His awful 
scourging with the Roman thongs; His hanging between 
heaven and earth by copper nails; His bleeding brow sur- 
mounted with a wreath of thorns; were no more severe 
perhaps than many saints endured upon crosses just after 
His day, and later in the fires of Smithfield. The inexpli- 
cable mental suffering of Christ when God withdrew His 
face from Him, was the suffering that broke His pure heart 
When Christ's physical sufferings were at the climax, then 
it was that God permitted the soul of Jesus to enter for a 
few moments into the soul of death, — the horror a sinner 
e3q>eriences the moment he is adrift from Time and his hope 
is dead. Jesus could not bear it for a moment and cried: 
"My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" 01 
Sinner, 0! Sinner, if Christ's heart was broken at the mo- 
mentary experience of a soul lost eternally, what will you 
do?~H. W. Hedge. 

THE power of Satan is far greater than 
that of God's highest and saintliest 
earthly ones. In the third chapter of 
Zechariah we have the picture of his power with 
God's high dEcial representatives. Joshua, the 
high priest, is there, the angel of the Lord is there, 
and standing at Joshua's right to resist all his 
righteous acts is Satan. Joshua and the angel, 
realizing their insufficiency when contending with 



Satan, they send a cry to heaven, " The Lord re- 
buke thee, O Satan." 

Jude gives us this item. "Michael the arch- 
angel, when contending with the devil he disputed 
about the body of Moses, durst not bring him a 
railing accusation^ but saith. The Lord rebuke 

Whatever this obscure text may mean in regard 
to this contest between Michael and the devil, while 
it teaches us spirit and tongue control, it does, 
without obscurity or doubt, clearly show that an 
archangel's strength is not sufficient to contend 
single-handed and alone with the devil. 

Daniel gives a side glance into the power and 
conflicts which exist in the unseen and spiritual 
world which lies so near our own, which has so 
much to do with us where our spiritual battles are 
fought, and victories won. Daniel had been pray- 
ing three weeks before the angel and the answer 
came. " Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel, 
for from the first day that thou didst set thine 
heart to understand and to chasten thyself before 
thy God thy words were heard and I am come for 
thy words. But the prince of the Kingdom of 
Persia withstood me one and twenty days ; but lo, 
Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help 
me." We see how he plans. If he cannot keep 
people from pra3ring nor absolutely prevent the an- 
swer to prayer, he can cause delay in the answer to 
prayer tb^t he may discourage and bre^ clown 


faith and discount urgent, importunate pray- 

He has power to cast into prison. To the little 
pious church at Smyrna, Jesus Christ writes in 
commendation, warning and consolation: "Fear 
none of those things which thou shalt suffer; be- 
hold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, 
that ye may be tried ; and ye shall have tribulation 
ten days. Be thou faithful unto death, and I will 
give thee a crown of life," 

There are special seats or headquarters of his 
power, places where the devil makes his home and 
rules with an absolute sway. To this Christ refers 
in His letter to the Church of Pergamos: " I know 
thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where 
Satan's seat is; and thou boldest fast my name, 
and hast not denied my faith, even in those days 
wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was 
slain among you, where Satan dwelleth/' 

Some said they were Jews, but were the " synar 
gogue of Satan/' Are there churches which are 
called Christian, but are churches of Satan? 

In Christ's letters to the seven Churches in Asia, 
we see how the ascended and enthroned Son of God 
presents the same view of the devil. The 
" depths " of Satan are referred to in the address 
to Thyatira. In this Revelation of CSirist to John, 
the devil Is still declared to be " the great dragon, 
the old serpent, the devil, and Satan." He is de- 
clared to have great *^ wrath." 


The deyirs power is greatly and strangely en- 
hanced by his system of worship, which, while it 
degrades, it fascinates and holds. The system of 
pagan worship and devotion is very powerful. It 
holds its devotees by iron chains. It is not a work 
of chance, neither does it spring from native re- 
ligious instincts. It is a system of rare power and 
of rare skill, constructed by a graduate in the craft 
of seduction and delusion. Satan's hand and head 
are in it, all planning, ordering, and inspiring it 
It is this fact which gives its strength and influ- 

Of Jeroboam, who perverted the religious in- 
stinct and debased worship for sinister, worldly, 
and selfish purposes, it is said he ordained him 
priests for the devils. The Psalmist declared they 
sacrificed unto devils. The New Testament de- 
clares that " the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, 
they sacrifice to devils, and not to God; and I 
would not that ye should have fellowship with 
devils. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord and 
the cup of devils; ye cannot be partakers of the 
Lord's table and of the table of devils." Again 
we have it declared, " Now the Spirit speaketh ex- 
pressly, that in the latter times some shall depart 
from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and 
doctrines of devils." 

The intensity and power of the devil's worship 
is illustrated and enforced in the last book of the 
New Testament, showing how his worship would 


increase in intensity and would militate against the 
worship of the Lamb. We have all along rival 
altars and rival worship. The devil is the author, 
inspirer, and protector of the one, and Christ is the 
author, inspirer and protector of the true and pure 
worship. There are wonders in each, miracles 
and mart3rrs in the false and devilish, as well as in 
the true and heavenly. 

Revelation summarizes the situation: "And they 
had a king over them, which is the angel of the 
bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue 
is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name 
ApoUyon. One woe is past; and, behold, there 
come two woes more hereafter." 

These are not lawless woes, nor are their authors 
lawless bands, disorderly and reckless mobs. They 
are organized. The strictest obedience to the devil 
prevails. " Devil with devil damned firm concord 
holds." They are "principalities and powers," 
not only of high and first order in creation, not 
only of great personal power and dignity, but or- 
dered and sub-ordered, coordinate and subordinate. 
There is the most perfect government, military in 
its drill and discipline, absolute and orderly in its 
arrangement, under one supreme, dictatorial, pow- 
erful head, with rank and file and officers complete. 
" For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood 
but against principalities, against the powers, 
against the world, rulers of this darkness, against 
the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly 


places," These high and wicked spirits are every- 
where. They fill the air, are everywhere intent on 
evil, following the direction of their leader, carry- 
ing out his plans with hearty accord, ready obedi- 
ence and implicit confidence. How loathsome 
their nature ! How marvellous and miracle-work- 
ing their power ! How high and kingly their influ- 
ence! How martial their purposes! All this is 
vividly and strongly set forth in the sixteenth chap- 
ter of Revelation: "And I saw Three unclean spirits 
like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, 
and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the 
mouth of the false prophet. For they are the 
spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth 
unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, 
to gather them to the battle of that great day of 
God Almighty/' 

The power of Satan finds its great increase and 
expression in the efforts and instrumentality of the 
unregenerate, who are by Bible teaching under his 
power, subjects of his kingdom of darkness. More 
than that, so intimate is their connection with 
Satan, so close the unity, purpose and relationship, 
that they belong to his family. His paternity 
gives birth and character to them, his fatherhood 
binds them in a strong embrace. 

The power of the devil — how defiant, bold, sac- 
rilegious, presumptuous! How near the sacred 
person of Christ he came! See how he invaded 
the sacred circle of His diosen apostles. Judas 


falls from his high position — ^tempted, possessed by 
Satan and filled with remorse and inf amy, commit- 
ting suicide, and hell is his forever. Peter acts 
as the spokesman of the devil, becomes the advo- 
cate of a non-cross bearing, non-self-denying, 
worldly religion. He is so aflfected by the devil's 
power that he curses and swears and lies, and finds 
himself all besmirched, bemired and befouled, from 
which he is only saved by the prayers and look of 
Christ. John and James fell a prey to the devil as 
tiiey wanted fire to come down from heaven and 
bum up the Samaritans. Christ sharply shows 
that they had not His Spirit, but the other spirit, 
the spirit of the destroyer which actuated them. 
Paul had his apostolic plans interfered with and 
hindered by the devil. To the Thessalonians, he 
writes: "Wherefore we would have come unto 
you, even I, Paul, once and again; but Satan hin- 
dered us." And he bore to his grave the marks 
of the power of this inveterate foe to apostolic 

'Wie power of Satan is not supreme. It is lim- 
ited. It was so in Job's case. Satan could go 
only so far to afilict. Since the Son of God came 
into the world, the devil's power has been curtailed. 
The cross gave a shock to Satan and his power. 
Death, his realm has been abolished, and *' life and 
immortality brought to light through the gospel." 
His kingdom received its death stroke on Calvary. 
The almighty forces of the Gospel ar^ laying hol4 
of the mighty forces of Satan, " 



Christ fought three notable battles with the Devil ^nd his 
demons. I am pleased to calf them : 

1st The Battle of the Wilderness. 

2nd. The Battle of Gethsemane. 

3rd. The Battle of Calvary. 

In the battle of the wilderness, there were no seconds, 
and no trench warfare; and in the open, Christ met the 
three onslaughts of His wily adversary; three times His 
enemy retreated. The first charge we call DISTRUST; 
that is, Satian suggested: ''Leave off a life of dependence 
on God; take things in your own hand and make these 
stones bread." Jesus drew the sword of the Spirit up to 
the hilt in His adversary when He quoted this passage, viz., 
" Man shall not live by bread alone but by every word that 
proceedeth out of the mouth of God" (Matt 4:4)- 

— H. W. Hodge. 

BOTH in the New Testament and in the Old, 
the devil is represented as being most as- 
siduous and tireless in his activities and 
efforts. In Job, in answer to God's inquiry, 
** Whence comest thou? '' he replies, " From going 
to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and 
down in it." The declaration is one of rapid and 
extensive goings and of repeated and careful ob- 
servation. In Peter he is said to be "walking 
about as a roaring lion/* Activity, scrutiny, power 
and purpose are in his methods. 



Thcxnas i Kempis says: " Know that the ancient 
enemy doth strive by all means to hinder thy desire 
to be good and to keep thee dear of all religious 
exercises. Many evil thoughts does he suggest to 
thee, that so he may cause a weariness and hor- 
ror in thee» and to call thee back from prayer and 
holy reading/* 

The careless and half-hearted Christian knows 
nothing of the devil or his devices, but the souls 
astir for God and the good, on a stretch for heaven, 
they are the ones who demand his attention, pro- 
voke his ire and call forth his machinations. 

Says that marvellous man of faith and power. 
Pastor Blumhart: "He who is ignorant of the 
wiles and artifices of the enemy, only beats the air, 
and the devil is not afraid of him." Blumhart 
himself is an illustration. " In interesting myself 
in behalf of one possessed," he says, " I became 
involved in such a fearful conflict with the powers 
of darkness as is not possible for me to describe." 

Christians may live and die all unaware of the 
devil's being and hate, and he may be as indifferent 
to their religion because they are unharmful of his 
kingdom. But wherever one of the Blimihart type 
lives, there is a big commotion and fear in Satan's 

Satan works by imitation. To make something 
as near like the true as possible, and thereby break 
the force and value of the genuine. This is one of 
his favourite methods. As Jannes and Jambres 


withstood Moses by their false tricks, so is he car- 
rying on by lying wonders his work. As his apos- 
tles arc transformed into angels of light, so his 
wonders arc looked on as first class miracles. They 
do indeed discount true miracles. 

What of the revelations of his person? God 
and Christ have been revealed to men in bodily 
shape, by figure, by representation. Matchless, 
majestic, beatific theophanies have holy men seen 
of God. Has the devil power to clothe himself in 
form and object to the eye? Can he incarnate 
himself? He seems to have clothed himself in 
some visible shape at the temptation of Christ 
The form is not recorded. Perhaps in that of a 
man, doubtless a pious man, gathering in the as- 
sembly of the righteous, or as a pious hermit in the 
seclusion and retirement of the desert. In the 
days of Christ he revealed himself by taking abso- 
lute possession and sway over the person, and used 
other personalities through which to manifest his 
being and power. His manifestations are dis- 
guises, insidious and deceptive. Sometimes as 
" an angel of light,'* with the bloom, beauty, and 
spices of paradise on him. His person unearthly 
in splendour, his voice gentle, musical, winning, 
with no lines or traces of the fall. 

The devil affects the body, and tiirough the body 
affects loyalty to Christ. Job was tried by his 
sickness. So the devil tries us by sickness. In 
the days of Christ, he carried on a large business 


by affecting tiie body, not simply by ordinary dis- 
eases, but by what is termed, '' possessed with a 
devil'' In those cases his work was by breaking 
down the body in some of its diief functions. 

His method is to assume that shape whidi will 
suit his purposes at the time. Doubtless there was 
something in the shape or character of the serpent 
whidi gave him the readier access to Eve. Garbed 
as an angel of light his appearance commends him 
fully to the pure and unsuspecting. As a thorn 
he desires to give only pain to those who, like Paul, 
cannot be seduced nor swerved from the fixed 
course of fidelity. The Christians at Smyrna he 
puts in prison that by that process he may fetter 
their bodies whose souls he could not fetter. With 
matdiless cunning and unspeakable fidelity he plies 
his trade to seduce and damn. 

He has access to the minds of men from which 
he ought forever to be barred. But he has so 
much of diabolical trickery that he clothes the 
meanest act with the fairest guise, and conceals a 
world of infamy with beautiful rainbow colourings. 
He hoodwinked good David and provoked him to 
number Israel in opposition to God's will, and 
brought swift and fearful judgment on the nation. 

He readily snatches away from the mind the 
truth which is superficially received. He also 
blinds the minds of them whidi believe not and 
obstructs the light of saving truth. His process 
of taking the word out of the heart to prevent 


faith, and of blinding the mind to the beauties and 
light of salvation, is a very common one with him. 
He makes people sick for the same end as he did 
Job. He entices men to do wrong, and inflames 
and urges them on to evil. He keeps at it and eats 
no idle bread. He takes flie Word of God out of 
the untilled heart and sows tares among the wheat 
The devil goes out into the wilderness, finds us in 
a fainting, discouraged condition, the pulsations of 
faith weak, its sky cloudy and its vision misty. 
Then he shows us the world from the loftiest peak 
of observation, apparelled in its most attractive 
form, and tries to ensnare us by its bewildering 
glories. He never tires in trying to ruin us till the 
coffin lid is on our folded arms and closed eyes, and 
our happy spirits are bathing in the land " where 
the wicked cease from troubling and the weary are 
at rest'' With the wisdom of an archangel and 
the observation and experience of half an eternity, 
as the Captain General of all the hosts of hell, he 
is an adept in the acts and arts of deception and 
trickery, and has almost exhaustless resources at 
command to serve his purposes. A wiser and 
more powerful spirit than Satan (save God) per- 
haps does not live, a more malignant one than he 
could not be. There is no greater worker than he. 
His inveterate industry and tireless perseverance 
arc the only things in him worthy of imitation. 
There are in him the things that make him so pa- 
tent and so dreadful. 


In the Parable of the Sower, we are taught the 
devil's ability to work on the mind, and take away 
the good impression there made. "And those by 
the wayside arc they that have heard ; then cometh 
the devil, and taketh away the word from their 
heart, that they may not believe and be saved/* 
We are also taught how the devil influences the 
mind to do the most dastardly things, in the case 
of Judas, diosen as an apostle, into high and holy 
fellowship, a royal vocation, a select company. 
Satan had much to do in influencing Judas to the 
great crime that brought him to despair and sui- 
cide, and to immortal infamy in this world and hell 
in the next. 

Satan's thorn in the flesh changed Paul's sorrow 
into joys, his poverty into wealth, his weakness into 
strength, his reproaches into sweet heavenly sol- 
aces. So mightily does God work to make Satan's 
all bad work together for good to the faithful ones. 
As an old saint says, " The devil is but a whetstone 
to sharpen the faith and patience of the saints." 
He may keep God busy polishing the stones which 
he makes rough, but the devil's dirt makes their 
luster brighter, afid they become genuine diamonds 
of first water. 

His methods are as varied as the men with whom 
he deals. The devil knows man, and that which is 
much more, he knows men. 

To Eve he came in the guise of a well-wisher, 
subtle, serpentine, and deadly, behind the guises 


He incites her to disobedience by pointing her to 
higher heights of godlikeness, along paths of sen- 
sual and animal enjoyment. A fearful charge of 
the false and selfish is lodged in her mind against 
God. No malignity is seen, no distress or anguish 
does he use. He allures, deceives, ensnares. 

How striking the contrast in his method with 
Job. A man, by God's own estimate, of divinest 
mould, ** None like him in the earth, a perfect and 
an upright man, one that f eareth God and eschew- 
eth evil." What methods can he devise for this 
the saintliest of the saints ? He begins by accusing 
him to God as selfish in his motives, reducing 
his piety to the worldly, selfish and sinister. No 
alluring paths, no divergent flowery ways are 
pointed out to Job, not a word is said to him. 
With not a premonition, without a note of warn- 
ing, as an awful surprise and shock, at one fell and 
desolating blow, his family of ten children are 
dead, his princely forttme gone, and one dark hour 
has bereft him of family and fortune. Stripped 
naked by the fearful rapidity and depth of his 
losses, he becomes homeless, childless and friend- 
less, in a grief inconsolable, and a pall of mystery 
impenetrable and insoluble. 

The integrity of Job, like a column blackened by 
the smoke, but unrent and unshaken by tiie fiery 
ordeal, is still pursued by the devil. Still he in- 
sinuates and charges the genuineness of Job's piety. 
He sees nothing of noble fidelity, of lofty loyalty in 


Job. He stai attributes low motives as the basis of 
his integrity. No touch of sympathy, no rdent- 
ings, with heartless cruelty and malignity, he pur- 
sues his death-dealing work. Out of his magazine 
of hellish enginery he comes with a loathsome dis- 
ease. He concenters on this one saint, woe after 
woe, and affliction upon affliction, till his wife is 
alienated, his friends estranged, his enemies tri- 
tunphant. His hopeless, bitter grief has not one 
ingredient to relieve, his pious reputation blacken- 
ing, his body tortured, his mind in agony. This is 
one method of Satan's to distress and defame those 
whom he cannot seduce. 

To the Son of God in the wilderness, he comes 
not as he did to Job in lowering and seething 
storms of distress, but in the form of apparent 
sympathy and friendliness. It may have been in 
the guise of a saintly hermit in the wilderness. 
"If thou be the Son of Gkxi " — ^you want this mat- 
ter of your sonship to Gkxi settled, and so do I. 
You are very hungry and faint. " Command that 
these stones be made bread." An innocent and a 
proper way to settle at once a great question and 
to appease a great hunger. 

Then he comes to Christ with the sanctity of the 
holiest place, and affords Him an opportunity to at- 
test before the wondering and awe-struck worship- 
pers His Messiahship, a shorter and a better road 
tills to gain credence to His mission than the slow 
and thankless process of daily teaching and daily 


ministering, and marching to the cross with the 
dark shadows of its shame and heaviness evec 
darkening His way. 

Satan's desperate venture was to seduce Him by 
the world's array of grandeur, power and glory. 
Satan plunged Job from serene and cloudless, 
heavenly height down to a midnight, starless and 
stormy. To the Son of God he would be a present 
friend to save Him from pain, poverty, hunger, 
shame, toil and death. 


'- ' \ 






The battle of Gethsemane opened on Thursday night in 
an upper room in Jerusalem. It commenced by one- 
twelfth of Christ's body guard being captured by a bribe of 
twenty dollars. The real battle opened Thursday evening 
near midnight He set Peter, James and John on picket 
duty inside the garden in a stone's throw of His re<k>ubt; 
the eight disciples He commissioned as the outer watch. The 
battle of Gethsemane was fierce when Jesus fell on His face 
and prayed saying, "O, my Father, if it be possible, let 
this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will but as 
thou wilt" Jesus then summoned His human reinforce- 
ments, but alas, ** Human sympathy is comforting but help- 
less." The second time amid legions of Devils and the 
curse of a world's sin. He sought His body guard; the sec- 
ond time they were asleep. But Jesus won. "And there ap- 
peared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him." 
The angel took Jesus in his arms and wiped the death sweat 
and blood from His face and comforted Him. This is one 
time it seems He was made "A little lower than the angels." 
The second battle completed; the Devil defeated. 
• — H. W. Hodge. 

THE devil is rarely seen in his movements 
and methods. He has rare tact in get- 
ting others to do his work and execute 
his plans. 

His methods are to blind, to put a veil on the 
evil results and all the sad consequences of sin. 

He so blinds that the evil cannot be seen. So with 



the keen-eyed David, brave, true and dear-eyed for 
God, yet Satan blinded him completely to the 
treachery, infamy and murder in Uriah's case. So 
sinners are held by him in unbelief. He puts out 
their eyes to all the light and glory of the Shining 
Sun of Righteousness. " In whom the god of this 
world hath blinded the minds of them whidi be- 
lieve not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of 
Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto 

The power of the devil extends to the mind. He 
can influence the mind, insinuate thoughts, sug- 
gest purposes, excite the imagination, inflame the 
passions, stir the appetites, kindle the fleshy fires, 
awaken old habits, and fan old dead flames or 
light new ones. The artless purity of Eve he be- 
guiled. He entered into the half traitorous Judas 
and possessed him fully, and made his half-formed 
treason full and his treachery immortal in its in- 
fancy. He was in the private council of Ananias 
and Sapphira, a party of their fraud, and suggested 
their lying plan to deceive the apostles. His access 
to the mind is evident in that he snatches away the 
divine seed implanted by holy lips in the soil of the 
heart as taught in the Parable of the Sower. 

In Corinthians the devil is called "the god of 
this world.'* " The god of this world hath blinded 
the minds of them which believe not, lest the light 
of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image 
of God, should shine imto them." 


Hie devil uses this world as a veil to shut out 
the truth of Gkxl, the light of His glorious Gospel, 
and to close the eyes of faith to all the discoveries 
in the unseen and eternal 

The antagonism between the children of the 
world possessed by Satan, and the children of God 
possessed by God, is set f ordi by John. " Ye are 
of God, little children, and have overcome them; 
because greater is he that is in you, than he that is 
in the world. They are of the world; therefore 
speak they of the world, and the world heareth 
them. We are of God ; he that knoweth God hear- 
eth us; he that b not of God heareth not us. 
Hereby know we the spirit of truth and the spirit 
of error." 

Who is in us? God. Who is in the children of 
the world? The devil. Our faith, our hope and 
our final triumph are in the truth of the Word of 
God. ** Greater is he that is in us than he that is 
in the world.'* 

Satan perverts the things which are truly works 
of God and misemploys miracles to obscure God's 

Hie devil often tries to break the soul down and 
reduce it to despair. He tells us to discourage us 
that we shall never succeed. The way is too hard 
and narrow and the burden too heavy. 

He takes advantage of weak and distracted 
nerves, and suggests fears. Grace is hid from the 
sight, shortcomings are magnified and infirmities 


are classed as gross sins. Sometimes the fear of 
death is used by Satan to quench the fire of faith, 
and the grave becomes something awful. He dark- 
ens the future. Heaven and God will be out of 
sight, hidden by a thick veil of to-morrow's cares, 
trials and needs. The imaginary disasters, failures 
and evils of to-morrow are powerful weapons in 
Satan's hand. He suggests that the Lord is a hard 
master, and that His promises will fail. He works 
on the remaining corruption in the heart, and raises 
a great storm in the soul. 

Samuel Rutherford says: — ^**0h, if our faitfi 
could ride out against the high and proud waves 
and winds when our sea secmeth all on fire ! Oh, 
how oft do I let my grips go. I am put to swim- 
ming and half sinking. I find the devil hath the 
advantage of the ground in this battle, for he fight- 
eth in known ground in our corruption. However 
matters go, it is our happiness to win new grounds 
daily in Christ's love, and to purchase a new piece 
of it daily, and to add conquest to conquest, till our 
Lord Jesus and we be so near each other that Satan 
shall not draw a straw or a tiiread betwixt us." 

He tempts to evil tempers, to hasty words, to 
impatience and to carnal reasoning, which is his 
powerful ally in our minds. Back to Christ More 
of His Spirit-renewed and thorough self-dedica- 
tion, and in darting prayers upward by an uplifted 
eye and heart — ^thus will we be able to resist and 
conquer the great adversary of our souls. 


One of the most intelligent and God-honoured 
among the saintliest of saints wrote: ** I have keen 
inward sufferings, what are termed the buffetings 
of Satan. Horror at times has taken hold of me. 
I felt much, but feared more/' 

The devil may tempt us to think too meanly of 
ourselves as Moses did, and too highly of ourselves 
as Peter did. In one sense, we cannot think too 
meanly of ourselves, but in another we can. He 
persuades us that we are so poor and weak we can 
do nothing, and so we are weakened in faith and 
broken in effort. But his master method is to fill 
us with self, self-importance and self-ability, and 
then not only is faith weakened, but destroyed. 
Our efforts and doings may increase in number and 
vain show, but the seal of self and Satan are cm 
them all. 

John Wesley notes: " I preached at eight on that 
delicate device of Satan to destroy the whole re- 
ligion of the heart. The telling Christians not to 
regard frames or feelings, but to live by naked 
faith, is in plain terms, not to regard either love, 
joy, peace or any other fruit of the Spirit ; not to 
regard whether they feel them or the reverse; 
whether their souls be in a heavenly or hellish 
frame. Satan's method with some is to make them 
rely too much on frames and feelings. With oth- 
ers he deals the reverse and urges them to discard 
all frames and feelings." 

Many anxious errors sprang up with the rank 


growth in Wesle/s day, and he pruned and 
trimmed with a master's hand. Naked faith is 
often nothing but a sapless, arid, fruitless, uncon- 
scious thing, and brings an arid, f ruitless^ uncon- 
scious salvation with it, if it brings salvation at all. 

Whatever may be his method, how numberless 
his devices, the words of his conqueror to us are 
these: " Behold, I give unto you power to tread on 
serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of 
the enemy; and nothing shall by any means hurt 
you." Of this text. Miss Havergal writes: 
** Why, this is grand — power over all the power of 
the enemy. Just where he is strongest there they 
shall prevail. Not over the very center of his 
power, not over his power here and there, nor now 
and then, but over all his power. And Jesus said. 
Is not that enough to go into battle with ? '* 

The devil's brain is prolific in plans. He has 
many ways of doing many things. Perhaps he has 
many ways of doing each thing. With him noth- 
ing is stereotyped. He never runs in ruts. Fruit- 
ful, diverse and ever fresh, is his way of doing 
things. Indirect, disingenuous, insidious and 
graceful are his plans. He acts by artifice and al- 
ways by guile. 

His plans by Bible statement are " wiles.'* The 
original word means to follow up or investigate 
by method and settled idan. It is not a bad word 
but one of order, arrangement and methods, con- 
ceived and executed But when the word gets into 


the devil's hand it is defined by his dictionary. It 
receives a strong tincture, a deep colouring of cun- 
ning and trickery. 

Sometimes Satan comes disrobed of his heavenly 
garments, a thorn, sharp and pointed and painful, 
a poisoned thorn, a thorn that rankles and stays, a 
tiiom that cannot be extracted by prayer, which 
retrieves all other ills. The saints who have seen 
most of heaven are often decreed to see most of 
hell. Saints who have the fullest and most trans- 
porting revelation of God, often have the saddest 
experience of Satan. 

Paul's thorn was as much to Paul as his abun- 
dance of revelations. His thorn made him more a 
saint than his vision of the third heavens. Satan 
only lifted him higher by keeping him lower. 

Satan may come to us in his own native char- 
acter, the thorn breeder and piercer. He may put 
in us thorns which no prayer power can extract 
Thorns whidi will poison and pain, but the thorn 
will enrich grace, increase and mature humility and 
make infirmities strong and glorious. Satan's 
thorns will clothe necessities with richest attire, 
change distresses and persecutions into divinest 
pleasures, make room for God's greatest power in 
us and on us, make the lowest point of spiritual 
depression the highest point of vision, and make 
strength out of weakness and wealth out of 


The battle of Calvary: The conflict of Gethsemane closed 
around the first hour of the fourth watch and the last con- 
flict began immediately in an offensive personal encounter 
between one of the awakened body guard of Jesus and a 
servant of Caiaphas. The battle went on with heat and 
vigour when the High Priest asked Jesus, "Art Thou the 
Christ, the Son of the Blessed?" And Jesus said, "I am 
and ye shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand 
of power and coming in the clouds of Heaven." The cross 
is reached Though pressed on all sides by Hell, Death and 
Demons, He provided for His mother. At 2 : 59 p. m., April 
7th He seemed to have lost the battle and said, " Father into 
Thy hands I commend my spirit. It is finished." He con- 
quered Satan by seeming weakness. He gained the battle 
of Calvary by a surrender of His life. This is Scriptural. 
"Through death he deposed him who had the power of 
death and delivered them who through fear of death were all 
their lifetime subject to bondage." — H. W. Hodge, 

THERE are positions and conditions which 
lie open to the attacks of Satan. These 
points must be guarded by sleepless vigi- 
lance. The devil is a remorseless, cruel and mighty 
foe. To watch him with unsleeping eye, is not only 
a duty, but safety to life, deliverance from hell, 
certainty of heaven, all, and more, if more there 
can be, are involved in overcoming the devil. Stu- 
pidit}', neglect, being off guard in the conflict, with 



Satan are much more than mistakes or indiscre- 
tions. They are fatal undoings^ eternal and reme- 
diless losses. 

The apostle places his G>rinihian brethren on the 
vantage ground in the war with the devil by de- 
claring, " We are not ignorant of Satan's devices." 
Ignorance is always an exposed condition. Igno- 
rance is open to attack and surprise by day and by 
night To be ignorant of the existence, character 
and ways of the devil, is the prelude and prophecy 
of fatal results in the fight for heaven. If this be 
true, how hopeless is the case of one who is not 
only ignorant of the temptations, but denies or 
ignores the existence of the tempter. The devil's 
great device, his masterpiece of temptation, is to 
destroy faith in his own existence. God's struggle 
is to establish faith. The devil's great work is to 
eradicate all spiritual facts, principles and persons, 
good or evil, God and devil. He who denies or 
ignores the existence of the devil, puts a fatal bar 
to ultimate salvation, paralyzes all efforts in that 
direction, and gives one over, chained hand and 
foot, to the merciless foe whose existence has been 
denied and derided. Nothing advances Satan's 
work with more skilful and readier hands than to 
be ignorant of Satan and his ways. To escape his 
snare, we must not only have a strong faith in the 
fact that Satan is, but also must have a most inti- 
mate knowledge of him and of his plans and many- 
sided ways. 


Much akin to the foregoing exposed position is 
the one which makes light of Satan. Frivolous 
views of him, his works, or his character, light talk 
or dishonouring epithets in the line of jesting — ^are 
all detrimental to any serious views of life's great 
work, its solemn engagements, its serious conflicts 
and its weighty hindrances* Presumption, sdf-will 
and foolishness are the characteristics of those who 
thus deal with these weighty concernments. The 
existence and work of the devil is a serious matter, 
and it is to be considered and dealt with from the 
most serious standpoint, and none but serious peo- 
ple can deal with it. And with this well accords the 
iterated and reiterated New Testament exhortation 
and note of warning, "be sober." That which 
gives it point and arousing power is, " Be sober, 
for your adversary, the devil," etc. 

How germane to this attitude is Jude's nervous, 
incisive, and almost rough handling of these sacri- 
legious diaracters, who make light of sacred things 
and sacred persons. 

** Likewise also, these filthy dreamers defile the 
flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities. 
Yet Michael tiie archangel, when contending with 
the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, 
durst not bring against him a railing accusation, 
but said. The Lord rebuke thee. But these speak 
evil of those things which they know not; but 
what they know naturally, as brute beasts, in those 
things they corrupt themselves." 


Peter takes the same dass of flippant irreverenC 
talkers to task somewhat after the same mamier: 
** Presumptuous are they, self-willed, they are not 
afraid to speak evil of dignities. Whereas angds, 
which are greater in power and might, bring not 
railing accusation against them before the Lord. 
But these, as natural brute beasts made to be taken 
and destroyed, speak evil of the things that they 
understand not, and shall utterly perish in their 
own corruption; and shall receive the reward of 
unrighteousness, as they that cotmt it pleasure to 
riot in the daytame. Spots they are and blemishes, 
sporting themselves with their own deceivings 
while they feast with you." 

A paralyzing attitude, a staying to talk, a listen- 
ing to Satan's insinuations, are all fatal. This was 
Eve's mistake. His tongue is smooth as oil, his 
words circulate and inflame like poison. Bristling 
opposition, embattled for war, no inlets, no down 
bars, no open gates, no low places ; all fenced, and 
high, and shut against the devil, is the only safety. 

An unforgiving spirit invites Satanic possession. 
His favourite realm is the spirit. To corrupt that, 
to incense or provoke to retaliation, revenge or un- 
mercifulness — ^that is his chosen work and his most 
common and successful device. Paul puts it to the 
front so as to thwart Satan: " To whom ye forgive 
anything, I forgive also; for if I forgive any- 
thing, to whom I forgive it, for your sakes forgive 
I it in the person of Qhrist ; lest Satan should gel 


an advantage of us ; for we are not ignorant of his 

When he begets an unforgiving spirit in us, then 
he has us, we are on his ground. Then wicked 
men and good men, all kinds of men, are likely to 
do us harm^ sometimes at vital and very sensitive 
points. Sometimes all unconsciotjsly they wrong 
us and sometimes knowingly and wilfully they 
wrong us. As soon as a spirit of unkindness pos- 
sesses us for the wrong done, Satan has the upper 

We quote from the Revised Version the warning 
words of our Saviour: " Again, ye have heard that 
it hath been said by them of old time. Thou shalt 
not forswear thyself, but shall perform imto the 
Lord thine oaths. But I say unto you. Swear not 
at all ; neither by heaven, for it is God's throne ; 
nor by the earth, for it is his footstool ; neither by 
Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king. 
Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou 
canst not make one hair white or black. But let 
your communication be, yea, yea; nay, nay; for 
whatsoever is more than these cometh of the evil 
one." The injunction is against strong oaths in 
language. Expletives and appeab and declarings 
added to our words all are wrong, and expose us 
to the snare of Satan. **In tiie multitude of 
words," says Proverbs, "there wanteth not sin." 

Satan tempts us to asseverations and dedara* 
lions to confirm truth which destroy truth. Equiv- 


ocal words and words by way of substantiatix^ 
the truth of those already spoken, expose tis to 
Satan's power. " But above all things, my 
brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by 
the earth, neither by any other oath ; but let your 
yea, be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into 
condemnation." So St. James seals the words of 
Christ The devil lies concealed in many words. 
Simplicity, fewness and seriousness of words, 
mightily hinder and thwart his ensnaring plans. 

It is so easy for the devil to stop us just a little 
short of a faith that will save. There are many 
initials, prefaces, preludes and introductions which 
are sometimes quite taxing, and are a right good 
advance in tfie right direction, but which do not 
bring us into the heart of the matter. Like Sarah 
they start with full intent to go to Canaan, but 
stop at Haran and dwell there. Like Jacob, 
Shechem stays tiieir steps and holds them instead 
of Bethel. 

On the other hand, even those who are earnestly 
striving after that "holiness without which no 
man shall see the Lord," Satan tempts them to go 
a little too far and their zeal degenerates into party 
spirit and unhallowed heat. "Strict earnestness 
degenerates into severity, gentleness into weakness, 
energetic activity into imprudent meddling and 
narrowness, calm moderation into careless acquies- 
ence, bold decision maintaining its own convictions 
firmly becomes intolerant, self-opinionated, nap* 



row, arbitrary, bigoted. Due regard for the pecu- 
liarities and convictions of others degenerates into 
paralyzing indifference and skeptical indolence. 
Lively trust lapses into presumption and haughti- 
ness, a wise prudence into cowardice and hesitating 
anxiety," and confession and profession degenerate 
into and evaporate into aridity. So Satan watches 
and is alert always, and wary, to hold us back from 
the goal, or to press us by an impetuous, unkindly 
or vehement spirit to go beyond the goal. So all 
this uncovers often our strongest positions and 
turns them into exposed conditions. 

Yoking with unbelievers in the relationship of 
life-ties of friendship and intimate and confiding 
associations with unbelievers, are exposed positions 
of great peril, and of which die devil takes instant 
and great advantage. Partnership in business, or 
the more sacred relation of marriage with unbe- 
lievers, is perilous to one united to Christ by close 

Satan is called Belial by the apostle, meaning 
worthlessness, contemptibleness, wickedness. He 
and Qirist cannot be joined in agreement. No un- 
equal yoking, no fellowship, no communion, no 
concord, no agreement can exist. All is perilous 
and mixed. Contamination and impurity result. 
A maimed enfeebled holiness is the fruit of these 
voluntary close yokings. Under the law, an ox and 
an ass could not be yoked together. Under the 
Spirit, Christ and Satan can have no concorcL 


Separation, cleansing and perfected holiness are 
necessary to secure the vantage ground against 
Satan. How strong, minute, explicit, and compre- 
hensive, is the charge here given against union, 
commtmion or intimate association with unbeliev- 
ers. Unequally yoked, no pulling together, not 
equal, no fellowship, no sharing, no communion, no 
intimacy, no concord, no agreement, no part, no 
portion, no agreement, no voting together. Com- 
mentators have found in this great variety of ex- 
pression, Paul's fine command of the Greek lan- 
guage. We find in it the fire of impassioned and 
profound convictions, demanding the most self- 
denying abstemiousness in forming intimate and 
voluntary associations with the unbelieving world 
in the way of business and pleasurable or social 
pursuits and intimacies. 

This rule he laid down in his first epistle to the 
Corinthians: " I wrote unto you in an epistle not 
to company with fornicators. Yet not altogether 
with the fornicators of this world, or with the 
covetous, or extortioners, or with Idolaters; for 
then must ye needs go out of the world. But now 
I have written unto you not-to keep company, if 
any man Aat is called a brother be a fornicator, or 
covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, 
or an extortioner; with such a one, no, not to eaf 
Not Ae casual, courteous Christian intercourse, 
was he objecting to and barring, but the more in- 
timate, voluntary and sociaL 


St James locates and defines and opposes these 
affinities and attachments as not only '^ exposed 
positions," but resulting in the most radical and 
criminal violation of the holiest relationship. I 
quote from the Revised Version: "Ye adulter- 
esses, know ye not that the friendship of the world 
is enmity with God ? Whosoever, therefore, would 
be a friend of the world maketh himself an enemy 
of God/' By it the marriage vow of God is broken. 

Dean Alford, commenting on this passage, says: 
" Of the world, it means men and men's interest, 
ambitions and employments, in so far as they are 
without God. The man v^o is taken out of the 
world by Christ cannot again become the friend 
and companion of worldly men and their schemes 
for self, without passing into enmity with God. 
God and the world stand opposed to one another, 
so that a man cannot join the one without desert- 
ing the other. He, therefore, who is minded to be 
the friend of the world, and sets his mind and 
thought and wish tfiat way, must make up his mind 
to be God's enemy." 

" But must I not be intimate with my relations, 
and that whether they fear God or not ? Has not 
His providence recommended these to me? " Un- 
doubtedly it has, but there are relations nearer or 
more distant The nearest relations are husbands 
and wives. As these have taken each other for 
better or worse, they must make the best of each 
other, seeing as God has joined them together. 


none can put them asunder, tmless in case of 
adultery, or when the life of one or the other is in 
inuninent danger. Parents are almost as nearly 
connected with their children. You cannot part 
with them while they are young, it being your duty 
to " train them up," with all care, " in the way 
wherein they should go." How frequently you 
should converse with them when they are grown 
up, is to be determined by Christian prudence. 
This also will determine how long it is expedient 
for children, if it be at their own choice, to remain 
with their parents. In general, if they do not fear 
God, you should leave them as soon as is con- 
venient. As for all other relations, even brothers 
or sisters, if they are of the world, you are under 
no obligation to be intimate with them. You may 
be civil and friendly at a distance. 

But allowing that " the friendship of the world 
is enmity against God," and consequently, that it 
IS tfie most excellent way, indeed the only way to 
heaven, to avoid all intimacy with worldly men, 
yet, who has resolution to walk therein? who even 
of tiiose that love or fear God? Whatever it cost 
thee, flee spiritual adultery! Have no friendship 
with the world. However tempted thereto by 
profit or pleasure, contract no intimacy with 
worldly-minded men. And if thou hast contracted 
any such already, break it off without delay. Yea, 
if thy ungodly friend be dear to thee as a right 
cye^ or u§eful b^s a right hand, yet confer WX with 


9e6h and blood, but pluck out the right eye» cut ofi 
the right hand, and cast them from thee 1 It is not 
an indifferent thing. Hiy life is at stake; eternal 
life or eternal death. And is it not better to go 
into life having one eye or one hand, than having 
both, to be cast into hell-fire ? However importuned 
or tempted thereto, have no friendship with the 
world. Look around, and see the melancholy ef- 
fects it has produced among your brethren I How 
many of the mighty have fallen by this very thing ! 
They would take no warning. They would con- 
verse, and that intimately, with worldly-minded 
men, till they " measured back their steps to earth 
again ! " Oh, " come out from among them ! " 
from all unholy men, however harmless they may 
appear, " and be ye separate," at least, so far as to 
have no intimacy with them. As your " fellowship 
is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ," 
so let it be with those, and those only, who at least 
seek the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. So " shall 
ye be," in a peculiar sense, "my sons and my 
daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." 

How Satan surrounds us! How strongly he 
holds us ! How he entangles, enchains and fetters 
us by the worldly association ! We lie in the sweet 
friendship, the embraces and converse of these 
worldly ones, while they with the whole world lie 
in the arms of the wicked one. 

If simplicity drops out of our faith, our forti- 
cations against Sats^n ?^r^ we^ened, '* I am jcal- 


ous over you with godly jealousy, for I have es- 
poused you to one husband, that I may present you 
as a diaste virgin to Christ But I fear, lest by 
any means as the serpent beguiled Eve through his 
subtility, so your minds should be corrupted from 
the simplicity that is in Christ" Here we have 
Satan recognized in the serpent and his ability in 
allusion to fall in Eden and intimations that he is 
still busy at his old tricky trade. Satan has such a 
dexterous and successful hand at deception that 
Paul was tmeasy. The lack of simplicity would be 
fatal to their purity and faith, as the taste of the 
forbidden fruit was fatal to Eve, to her purity and 
obedience, and to paradise. The loss of a little 
thing, but with it, all is lost 

An tmtrained body exposes readily to Satan's 
assaults. Even the natural, innocent appetites and 
passions have to be held in with bit and bridle. An 
apostle was aware of this: " But I keep under my 
body, and bring it into subjection, lest that by any 
means, when I have preached to others, I myself 
should be a castaway." An undisciplined body 
would hurl Paul from tfie apostolic heights down 
to the fearful abyss of apostasy. Two statements 
are made as to his body. "Keep under" and 
" bring it into subjection." The first means that 
part of the face under the eyes. A blow on that 
part of the face, a black and blue spot by the bruise 
of a heavy blow, restrained and suppressed by 
heavy blows, and its native power Is broken. 


The second statement means to make a slave of, 
to treat with severity, to subject to stem and rigid 
discipline. The apostle sets forth the body as an 
important fact in the contest for heaven, and 
teaches us that if it be imtrained, without the 
strong repressing, moulding hand of discipline, it 
becomes an easy prey to the assaults of Satan. 

After the same order is the direction of Peter: 
" Be sober, be vigilant ; because your adversary, the 
devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking 
whom he may devour. Whom resist steadfast in 
the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are ac- 
complished in your brethren that are in the world." 
A listless, drowsy, sleepy, stupid state, gives us into 
Satan's power without a struggle or even a sur- 
render, or the decency of a parley. 

To the same end is the strong injunction of 
Christ to the drowsy and fainting disciples: 
*•' Watch and pray, that ye enter not into tempta- 
tion. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is 


My scml, be on thy guard; 

Ten diousand foes arise: 
The hosts of sin are pressing hard 

To draw thee from the skies. 

O watch, and fight, and pray; 

The battle ne'er give o'er; 
Renew it boldly every day, 

And help divine implore. 

WE have two statements in first Timothy 
of serious import m regard to the ap- 
pointing of men to active and official 
leadership in the Church. The first is against ap- 
pointing novices to sudi leadership, " Not a nov- 
ice, lest being lifted up with pride, he fall into the 
condemnation of the devil." To press young con- 
verts to the front, to put immature ones into spir- 
itual leadership, is to blind and puflf with pride. 
It is to put the young convert in an exposed place, 
where he readily falls into the condemnation, into 
which the devil fell through the blinding eflfects of 
pride. This is a text, which by its reminiscential 
reference, is of much value, giving, as it does, cre- 



dence to the Church's ahnost universally received 
opinion, that the devil fell through pride, its as- 
piring and blinding and blasting eflfects. Let the 
novitiates be hardened and matured by discipline 
ere they are put to the front. Staying behind is 
often a greater crdss, as well as a greater virtue, 
than pushing or being pushed to the front. It is 
always an unsafe place for faith till faith has its 
beard or grows its spurs. 

Men of questionable reputation placed in church 
leadership or official position, bring reproach and 
help the devil much in his disgraceful business. 
" Moreover he must have a good report of them 
which are without, lest he fall into reproach and 
the snare of the devil." Men of good character 
and spotless reputation in the lead of church af- 
fairs, closes Satan's mouth, cuts oflf his revenue, 
and brings his business low. The violation of these 
two rules in church control, novices in lead and 
men whose reputation is not spotless as leaders, 
puts the novices in bad case, and increases the bad 
odour of the leaders of questionable repute. The 
entire Church is also put in an exposed condition, 
imperilling the whole army. Leaders are standard 
bearers, conspicuous. They ought to be conspicu- 
ous in spotless piety. They ought to be mature in 
age, sound and advanced in faith and love and 
sobriety. Gifted, wise, sober, grave, blameless 
leaders, will make the Churdht strong and victorious 
in tiie day of battle« 


Novices in leadership is an exposed condition. 
Put novices to the rear till sheltered and trained. 

Bad reputation is a treacherous or cowardly 
leadership for God's army. 

Young widowhood in sable sadness is an exposed 
condition. No widower has as keen an eye to in- 
vade the sanctities of widowed grief as Satan. 
Paul writes plainly. He knew the hidden gins of 
Satan. He writes broadly, tenderly, honestly, 
with discrimination: "Honour widows that are 
widows indeed. But if any widow have children 
or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety at 
home, and to requite their parents, for that is good 
and acceptable before God. Now she that is a 
widow indeed, and desolate, trusteth in God, and 
continueth in supplications and prayers night and 
day. But she that liveth in pleasure, is dead while 
she liveth. But the young widows refuse: for 
when they have begun to wax wanton against 
Christ, they will marry, having damnation, because 
they have cast off their first faith. And withal they 
learn to be idle, wandering about from house to 
house ; and not only idle, but tattlers also and busy- 
bodies, speaking things which they ought not. I 
will, therefore, that the younger widows marry, 
bear diildren, guide the house, give none occasion 
to the adversary to speak reproachfully. For some 
are already turned aside after Satan*'' 

This salutary advice relieves the sorrow of the 
young woman, and puts her where her heart and 


hands are full of sweet and sacred responsibilities, 
and nerve, and time, and heart are full of taxing 
toil. Satan has a hard job to work on a person 
thus filled fully in heart and hands with holy toil, 
rearing the home and state and Church of the fur 

There are in man what the Scriptures term lust, 
strong natural desires. They are called " lusts of 
the flesh," " lusts of the eye," " worldly lusts," the 
"lusts of men." There are things of time and 
sense which the heart naturally craves after and 
clamours for. They form the basis of temptation 
within. A wily and powerful seducer may tempt 
and lead innocence and purity astray when there is 
no inward response to his allurements, but these 
lusts or desires within form the basis and afford 
the groundwork for Satan's insidious temptations. 
St. James describes the whole process: " Let no 
man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God, 
for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither temp- 
teth he any man. But every man is tempted, when 
he is drawn away of his own lusts, and enticed. 
Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth 
sin; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth 
death.'* The term " drawn away " means to " lure 
forth." The metaphor is from hunting or fishing. 
As game is lured from its many ranges, so man by 
lust IS allured from the safety of self-restraint to 
sin. The word " enticed " means a bait, to catch 
by bait. 


The Scriptures demand that these lusts or desires 
be banned and reprobated. 

We see how Satan and the world are m these 
lusts. The Gospel is a training school in which 
these lusts are to be denied. " For the grace of 
God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all 
men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, 
and godly in this present world." The solemn 
declaration is made without qualification or decep- 
tion, a declarative carrying the force of an im- 
perative demand and also that of a condition: 
•'And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh 
with the aflfections and lusts.** The whole work of 
Christ is presented as an engaging and exciting 
pattern for us to copy in destroying these lusts: 
" For as much then as Christ hath suffered for us 
in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same 
mind ; for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath 
ceased from sin ; that he no longer should live the 
rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, 
but to the will of God." 

We are taught that these lusts are put in oppo- 
sition to the will of God. They cannot be yielded 
to and obey God. No man can serve these two 
masters. These lusts are the basis and sources 
of corruption. They war against the soul. We 
are to **put off concerning the former conversa- 
tion the old man, which is corrupt according to the 
deceitful lusts ; and be renewed in the spirit of yout 


mind, that ye put on the new man, which after 
God is created in righteousness and true holiness." 

The war with Satan is much concerned about 
these lusts. These lustings after the things of time 
and sense are not wholly destroyed when we are 
converted to Christ They are broken in power, 
enfeebled more or less, but the remains, the roots 
of these, are there. Like a tree in life, cut down 
at its stump, they throw up many shoots. If we 
allow these shoots to remain they will keep Satan 
in his work. 

They who are content to leave the remains of 
these lusts in them will be hampered by internal 
conditions. To allow sin or the tender!^ to sin to 
remain in us, is as fatal as the leaving of the re- 
mains of the original natives in the land of Canaan 
was fatal to the piety, peace and prosperity of 
Israel. God's command to Israel was that those 
nations were to be destroyed completely so as to 
leave neither root nor branch. Israel's failure to 
do this was the source of untold evil to them. Ex- 
posed conditions these remaining lusts are, as much 
so as the remains of a decayed and broken tooth 
are the exposed conditions of toothache or neural- 
gia. So we are charged, " For if ye live after the 
flesh ye shall die ; but if ye through the Spirit do 
mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live." 

In another text we have these words: "They 
that are Christ's have crucified the flesh, with its 
affections and lusts." ** Lust " is the larger word 


in Scripture, induding the whole world of active 
lusts and desires. The ** affections " is not so much 
the soul's disease in its more active operations, as 
the diseased conditions out of which these spring. 
The lusts spring from the passions and are nour- 
ished by them. They deserve the same punishment 
as the flesh. All, the flesh, the lusts, and affections, 
are crucified. This puts the Christian in the best 
fortified condition to resist the attacks of the devil. 
With these lusts remaining, he is but half armed 
and wholly exposed. 

Low aims in the spiritual life, satisfaction and 
quiescence in present conditions and attainments, 
is exposed condition. The devil may visit the high- 
lands and motmtain ranges of spiritual elevation, 
but he makes his home in the lowlands. He will 
attack the strongest, maturest giant form of piety, 
but he works his havoc and gains his spoils where 
the Christian slumbers in the cradle of spiritual 
babyhood. There is no safety but in high aims, 
strenuous effort and constant advance. 

It is on the field of low aims and satisfied re- 
sults, that the devil wins his chief victories. A 
spiritual growth, constant and sure spiritual devel- 
opment, is the surest safeguard against Satan's 
wiles, assaults and surprises. Constant growth is 
all eyes and all strength. Satan never finds it 
asleep, drowsy nor weak. Onward, upward, is the 
great battle cry. Constant advance is the steel 
armour in the fight with the devil. 


Israel lost Canaan by not possessing Canaan. 
Satan has all the vantage ground when we do not 
maintain the aggressive. 

When the Bible sounded the clarion call, " Let 
us go on unto perfection," it was seeking to arouse 
a Church which had lost immensely in the vigour, 
manliness and fighting ability of Christian char- 
acter by feeding on milk, and indulging in the lazy 
luxury of being children. It raises a standard and 
marks a point for them to gain. The point is far 
ahead, but it is a real point, as real as the point at 
which their steps had been stayed by a ruinous 
stay. They are called out of the cradle and away 
from the nursery to the strength, conflicts and per- 
fection of a royal manhood. 

The eulogy on Wesley by a great writer of be- 
ing " the first of theological statesmen," pays him 
no high compliment; but his spiritual perception, 
the man of open, divine vision, is his highest 
eulogy, and this is evidenced by the fact that he re- 
echoed the triunpet call of the Bible, and sounded 
it on every key and in every refrain, and sought to 
stir into a forward movement the Church, and 
quicken its members to seek an advanced position, 
which had not only dropped out of their experi- 
ence, but out of their hopes and creeds. God gives 
religion in its beginnings, and these beginnings are 
glorious; but to be content with the beginnings of 
religion, is to forfeit not only its possibilities, but 
is to leave us opened, naked to Satan, a prey to his 


schemes. Additions to our spiritual capital are the 
conditions of solvency, and of the retaining of the 
capital, and is a victory over the devil as welL To 
stand still in religion is to lose it To enter into 
camp at regeneration, is to forfeit regenerating 
grace. To stop at any other transitional advance 
station, is to go backward. The weakness of men 
is inconstancy to a great aim. The drafts of a 
long and exhaustive strain are intolerable. We are 
willing to pay the cost of nerves for a great tem- 
poral success, but the price is too dear for religious 
success. The tendency in religion is to be satisfied 
with rudiments and to die in infancy. Teething 
time is a perilous time for spiritual babes. The 
great sin of the Israelites was hugging the shores 
and not going up to possess the land. The mar- 
vellous glory of their entrance into Canaan paled 
in the lethargy and timidity of their after advance. 
A stopping, standing still, a non-growing, non- 
fighting condition, is a position fully exposed to 
Satan. Many run well, fight well, but at some 
point their running and fighting cease. At once 
spiritual development is arrested and the devil 
moves at once to an easy victory. This spiritual 
arrest may be at the initial steps or stages of spir- 
itual life. The raptures and triumph of the first 
stages may arrest advance and cause a standstill 
while the cradle is not out of sight, and the steps 
are unsteady by baby toddling. It is true that 
Paul calls the Corinthian saints baby saints, but 


this was the point where their saintship turned back 
to carnality and lost its odour, sanctity and 
strength. Their great sin and backslidings were 
found in their babyhood, not that they began as 
babes, but that they stayed babes. Baby sainthood 
is the popular sainthood of these days. To begin 
as babes is well, but to remain babes forty years is 
a fearful deformity. 

It would be well for us if spiritual arrest be- 
longed only to the high regions of spiritual ad- 
vance. While not a few, doubtless, of those who 
have received a great spiritual baptism after the 
grace of conversion, have crystallized arotmd this 
point of advance, the far greater number of people 
and preachers have crystallized around the initials 
of grace. We may have some specimens of Chris- 
tian mummies who in size approach to maturity, 
but the number of the dwarfed and cradled ones is 

Spiritual arrest is not confined though to the 
initial steps. Its life-blood may chill and its step 
halt at the point of highest advance. Many Chris^ 
tians are so enthusiastic over some marked ad- 
vance, some higher elevation gained, that they be- 
come enchanted with the beautiful and lofty 
regions, and are lulled to sleep, and, like Bunyan's 
Pilgrim, lose their roll, and are all unconscious of 
their loss ; and instead of pressing on with tireless 
steps, tiiey but cover the future with their imagina- 
tions, and while their fancies are filled with the 


rich colourings of their advanced position, dieir 
feet have (fedined and are in the vale again. They 
are so haj^y that it b almost impossible to bring 
them to their senses, and make them understand 
that there is many a weary and toilsome step be- 
tween their Red Sea deliverance and the Promised 
Land, and that even after the desert is crossed, and 
the Jordan divided, and the sanctified soil of 
Canaan pressed by sanctified feet, there is many a 
battle to be fought, and many an enemy to be de- 
stroyed before the goodly land is all possessed. A 
singing and shouting sanctification is good, but if it 
is not joined with a marching and fighting sancti- 
fication, it will sing and shout itself as thin as a 
ghost and as dry as a chuck. " Forgetting those 
things which are bdiind and reaching forth to 
those things that are before,'* is the divine process 
to hold what we have by getting more. Paul's 
marvellous career was simple, not complex. He 
sums it up in fighting, running, watching, the three 
elements of continuous advance. Many a great 
battle has been lost by the demoralizing effects of 
the halt caused by a partial victory in the earlier 
part of the conflict It is no easy matter to keep 
place and march in rank when the spoils of a half- 
gained victory cover the ground. There is no po- 
sition this side of heaven free from the dangers of 
spiritual arrest and secure from the devil's attacks. 
The conflict and vigilance of advance must mark 
every step till our feet are within tiie pearly gates. 



A non-growing piety, with an arrested spiritual 
development, whether the arrest is in the initial 
stages or at the more advanced steps, is always and 
everywhere an exposed position, always vulnerable 
to Satan's attacks. 


Bid me of men beware. 

And to my wzys take heed. 
Discern their every secret snare. 

And circumspectly tread: 
.O may I calmly wait 

Thy succours from above. 
And stand against their open hate; 

And well-dissembled love I 

He that with Christian armour manfully fights against and 
repels the temptations and assaults of his spiritual enemies, 
and he that keeps his conscience void of offense, shall enjoy 
peace here and forever.— i?ay. 

FILL up and crowd out. Leave no room for 
the devU. Be too busy for him. Have no 
time and no place for him. Vacant places 
invite him. The devil loves a vacuum. A very 
busy person himself, he docs his biggest business 
with those who have no business. The apostle in 
writing to the Ephesians gives this direction: 
" Neither give place to the devil." Leave no open- 
ing, no space for him. Keep him out by prepos- 
session. Keep him out, nose, head, and all. 
" Give him an inch he will take an ell." 
"Give no place to the devil." The apostle is 

writing of wrath, which is wicked, by which we 



give full scope to the devil. He comes into power 
and has full sway when we relinquish ourselves to 
the Indulgence and continuance of evil passion. 
Our bad passions are the regions where Satan finds 
his favourite field and largest sphere of operation. 
Suppress evil, every tendency to indignation, bitter- 
ness and wrath. Suppress and purge out every 
heated impulse, every unholy flame, every stirring 
that is not of God. The devil's occupation will 
then be gone, when gentleness and benignity reign 
in the spirit 

"Resist the devil and he will flee from you." 
This is James* curt directory for getting rid of the 
devil. Resist means to set one's self against, to 
withstand. Yield him nothing at any point, but 
oppose him at every point Be always against him, 
belonging ever to the party of the opposition as far 
as his plans, suggestions and ways are concerned. 
Bravely and strongly to resist what the devil pro- 
poses is half victory. To hesitate is to lose. To 
parley is to yield, to give an inch is the surrender 
of the whole ground. Firmness, decision and op- 
position, these the devil cannot stand. He is easily 
defeated if we are decided and uncompromising. 
Loyalty to God is rout and ruin to Satan. 

We are taught the same simple all important 
lesson in Peter, with an addition: "Be sober, be 
vigilant, because your adversary, the devil, as a 
roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may 
devour; Whom resist steadfast in the faith, know- 


ing that the same afflictions are accompli^ed in 
your brethren that are in the world/' The first 
part of tile direction has reference to the elements 
of personal character. What we are, is of prime 
consideration in this conflict with the devil. 
Strong, good character is thrice armed. Character 
teUs in all relations, duties and trials, but nowhere 
is character more telling in its gracious results than 
in our encounters with Satan. 

Sober, calm and collected, free from passion or 
intemperance, that cannot be clouded or bewil-* 
dered; always against spiritual dangers and be- 
guilements; vigilant, cautious and active; never to 
be surprised nor overcome through unwatchfulness 
or indolence ; aroused and wakeful, because of the 
full apprehension of the presence of an all power- 
ful, all malignant, all cruel foe. This is our strong 
defense. Here we have James directing us to " re- 
sist," to set one's self against the devil, with will 
and thought, with conscience and heart, with might 
and main ; rigid and firm, in the faith of God ; the 
Word of God held strictly, strongly and rigidly; 
the truth of God inflexibly held to make one in- 
vincible to the devil, yielding to no assault of his, 
succumbing to no toil, fainting under no affliction, 
knowing that these trials have been the portion of 
God's saints in all ages, and by this warfare with 
the devil we are perfected, stablished, strengthened 
and settled. "Be sober,'* says the apostle, for 
your adversary, the devil, walketh about This 


calm, self-collected condition, free from passion, 
and with the full mastery of all our powers, is one 
of the elements of successful resistance to Satan. 
A passionate man is a weak man. A cool head and 
a calm heart are the conditions of successful con- 
test with the devil. The apostle adds to this so- 
briety and vigilance. "Be vigilant/' he says, 
watch, give strict attention, be cautious, be active. 
Vigilance awakens, sobriety arouses and gives full- 
est strength. 

The Apostle James, in his frank, practical, ear- 
nest way, says: " Resist the devil, and he will flee 
from you.*' Resist means to set yourself against, 
to have no parley with, make no concession to, meet 
the devil only to fight him, talk with him only to 
withstand him. "Whom resist," says Peter, 
" steadfast in the faith." That is, be solid, firm, 
rigid in the faith. Be stalwart in orthodoxy, for 
heterodoxy has no devil, or only a very amiable and 
young one, and makes no fight against him. 

The spirit of forgiveness always maintained and 
constantly exercised is a supreme defense against 
the attacks of Satan. An unforgiving spirit is not 
only Satan's widest door into our hearts, but it is 
the strongest imitation and warmest welcome. St. 
Paul not only urges a spirit of forgiveness as a 
bar to the devil's ingress, but hastens to close the 
door by his own readiness to forgive even in ad- 
vance. " To whom ye forgive snyihing, I forgive 
also ; for if I forgave an3rthing, to whom I forgave 


it, for your sakes forgave I it in the person of 
Christ Lest Satan should get an advantage of us ; 
for we are not ignorant of his devices." A loftjj 
spirit, ready and compliant with the spirit of for- 
giveness, free from all bitterness, revenge or retali- 
ation, has freed itself from the conditions which in- 
vite Satan, and has effectually locked and barred 
his entrance. The readiest way to keep Satan out 
is to keep the spirit of forgiveness in. The devil 
is never deeper in hell nor farther reilioved from 
us than when we can pray, " Father, forgive them ; 
they know not what they do.'* 

The devil is to be overcome. He is not only a 
hypocrite, full of quiet, slippery and artful ways, 
but he is a man of war, a warrior of renown of 
many a campaign and many a battle-field. It is 
not all poetry nor myth that his valour and prowess 
were tested in heaven. Angels were his foemen 
there, heaven the scene of his conflict and his de- 
feat, and still he fights. It takes strong yotmg blood 
with its fire and valour to meet him and conquer. 

The devil must be defeated. Victory over him 
is victory all along the line. It takes strength and 
valour to overcome him. He is no baby foe, no dis- 
heartened enemy. The ardour and valour of a 
manly faith is requisite in this battle. The Word 
of God is the conquering sword in this warfare. 
He who has his quiver full of these divine arrows, 
swift, strong, penetrating and deadly to Satan and 
to sin, will be more tiian conqueror over the devil 


The weapon used by the Son of God in His conflict 
with Satan was the Word of God, and by it He 

" I have written unto you, young men, because 
ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, 
and ye have overcome the wicked one." The John 
of love, nearest the heart and deepest in the Spirit 
of his Lord, is full of this victory. John's love 
was too genuine to evaporate itself into sickly sen- 
timent, or evaporate the devil into a mere influence. 
His experience was too profound, his memory too 
quick and retentive for an impersonal devil or an 
impersonal Christ. He had the scars of the battles 
with the adversary of his soul. He had witnessed 
the conflicts of many a young soldier. His soul 
had shared in their triiunph and recorded their vic- 
tories. Fight the devil and overcome him, is 
John's process of becoming fathers in spiritual 
power, rooted, grounded and perfected. Over- 
coming the devil, is with John the presage of over- 
coming the world. 

The mighty new-birth principle makes a man 
watchful like a sentinel at his post, when the enemy 
in power is massed in the front, like a watchman 
on the walls of a beleaguered city and like a guard 
over a royal prisoner. This keeping and guarding 
himself, is safety against Satan's inflaming touch. 
As with his Lord, so the faithful, vigilant Christian 
keeps himself, and Satan comes and finds nothing 
in him. Every point is barred and sleeplessly 



watched. " We know that whatsoever is bom of 
God sinneth not; but he that is begotten of God 
keepeth himself, and that wicked one toucheth him 
not And we know that we are of God, and the 
whole world lieth in the evil one." " Keeping our- 
selves " is the surest pledge that Satan will not keep 
us. Hands on ourselves in holy vigilance keeps 
Satan's hands off. The martyr spirits who are 
faithful unto death, who love not their lives unto 
death, are victors in this warfare with the devil: 
"And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven. Now 
is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom 
of our God, and the power of his Christ; for the 
accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused 
them before our God day and night. And they 
overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the 
word of their testimony ; and they loved not their 
lives unto the death." The blood of the everlast- 
ing covenant must be sprinkled on the warriors 
who are victors against Satan. A clear conscious 
experience of the saving power of that blood and 
an ability to be a martyr-witness before any com- 
pany at any cost mark their devotion to Christ and 
their experience of His salvation. " He is mine 
and I am his.** 

Satan cannot stand an exposition of the blood of 
Christ. He turns pale at every view of Calvary. 
The flowing wounds are the signals of his retreat 
A heart sprinkled with the blood is holy ground, on 
which he not only dares not tread, but he dreads 


and trembles and cowers in the presence of the 
blood-besprinkled warrior. 

A clear-ringing word of testimony as to the 
power of that blood, he fears more than the attack 
of a legion of archangels. It is like the charge of 
an irresistible phalanx which bears everything 
down before it. It is the blood applied and the 
testimony to its application, the martyr witness in 
life and by tongue of the power of that blood is 
more a barrier against Satan than a wall of fire. 
The atoning blood, an experience of that blood — 
that is heaven's infallible protection against Satan. 
They in heaven thus overcame the devil. We also 
" overcome him by the blood of the Lamb and the 
word of our testimony.** 

No sorrow is so pathetic as the sorrow of young 
widowhood, which is an exposed sorrow, as we 
have seen, to Satan's attacks. Paul's direction 
puts them on the defensive and guards them 
against the insidious attacks of the enemy, I 
quote from the Revised Version: " I will therefore 
that the young widows marry, bear children, guide 
the house, give none occasion to the adversary to 
speak reproachfully. For some are already turned 
aside after Satan." No defense is more secure 
against Satan than a life crowned and crowded 
with sweetest duties all so fully discharged as to 
give no occasion to the devil to speak reproach- 

The devil's work is much helped or much hin- 


dered by the spirit of the servants of Christ Gen- 
tleness becomes the servants of Christ not only as 
a beautiful adorning, but as the comer fotmdation 
stone. Meekness and gentleness win men, for they 
form the Christly character. Sharpness, impa- 
tience and contention are no spiritual propaganda, 
neither are they good recruiting officers for Christ 
** And the servant of the Lord must not strive, but 
be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient; in 
meekness instructing those that oppose themselves ; 
if God peradventure will give them repentance to 
the acknowledging of the truth. And that they 
may recover themselves out of the snare of the 
devil, who are taken captive by him at his wilL" 
A very passionate preacher is long-suffering doc- 

" Watch " is the keynote of safety. The devil 
plies us by a thousand instruments, comes to us in 
a thousand ways, administers a thousand rebukes, 
and assaults by a thousand surprises. Wakeful- 
ness at all times is our only safety, wide-awake not 
only when we see his form and fear his presence, 
but wide-awake to see him when he is not to be 
seen, to repel him when he comes in any one of 
his ten thousand guises or disguises — this is our 
wise and safe course. 

No alarm cry is so frequent in the New Testa- 
ment as the call to watch. No call hurts Satan so 
vitally and none defeats him so readily and so to- 
tally as to watch. Being on the watch tower pre- 


vents all surprises, and is the presage of victory at 
all times. 

The Son of God makes it the ke)ntiote to many a 
solemn saying. It is a call to be sleepless, to vigi- 
lance, to be ready, always ready. It is an image 
drawn from shepherds, in which we have Jacob's 
indignant defense and protest against Laban: ** In 
the day the drought consumed me and the frost by 
night and sleep departed from mine eyes." To 
watch is to be opposed to all listlessness, a wakeful 
state, sleep gone. It implies a wakeful state, as the 
rousing effort in the presence of some great peril, 
cautious, wary, a state untouched by any slumber- 
ing or beclouding influence. Drowsiness and be- 
wilderment are gone. It quickens us against lazi- 
ness and spiritual sloth. 

Read how the church at Sardis is called to the 
exercise of watchfulness, because she was stupefied 
by the opiates of a fair exterior and a goodly re- 
ligious frame. The Ephesian Qiurch is charged 
to unite watching with persevering prayer. The 
Corinthian Church is urged to watch and stand 
fast. The Colossians are exhorted to ** continue 
in prayer and watch in the same." The Thessa- 
lonians are to " watch and be sober." Timothy, 
the young preadier, was to " watch in all things." 
Peter's call is **to be sober, and watch unto 
prayer," because the solemn end of all things was 
hastening. Again he says: "Be sober; be vigi- 
lant; because your adversary, the devil, as a roar- 


ing licm, walketh about seeking whom he might de- 
vour." In Revelation we have the startling call, 
^ Behold I come as a thief. Blessed is he that 
watcheth and keepeth his garments^ lest he walk 
naked, and they see his ^ame.'' 

The most frequent call to watchfulness is from 
our Lord " Watch, therefore/' He says, " for ye 
know not what hour your Lord doth come."' 
Again He calls us to the exercise of this great 
grace, ** Watch, therefore, for ye know neither the 
day nor the hour the Son of Man cometh.'' Again 
and again does He call us " to watch ye therefore/' 
The herald cry, the trumpet call f r<Mn Him to us, 
is to be awake, to be f tdly awake, to be tremen- 
dously awake. "Watch ye, therefore, and pray 
always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape 
all these things that shall come to pass and to stand 
before the Son of Man/' *' Watdi and pray," He 
charged His disciples, and so He charges us to 
" Watch and pray, that ye enter not into tempta- 
tion; the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is 
weak." Still the flesh is weak, and watchfulness 
must ever be united ^dth prayer while we are in the 




Soldiers of Christ arise, 

And put your armour on. 
Strong in the strength which God supplies 

Through His eternal Son; 
Strong in the Lord of Hosts, 

And in His mighty power. 
Who in the strength of Jesus trusts. 

Is more than conqueror. 

Stand then in His great might. 
With all His strength endued; 

But take, to arm you for the fight» 
The panoply of God; 

That having all things done, 
^ And all your conflicts past. 

Ye may o'ercome through Christ alone. 
And stand entire at last 

HOW many prayers have missed the mark 
and been in vain because not mixed with 
wary vigilance. How many sad failures 
in Christian life because watchfulness failed. The 
devil has no readier prey than a sleepy Christian. 
Btmyan's Christian lost bis roll when he fell asleep. . 
Many Christians, not in allegory, but in fact, have 
lost their souls by the same failure. Eternal vigi- 
lance is the price of political liberty. No less a 



price must be paid for our spiritual safety. The 
foolish virgins missed heaven because they failed in 
this grace. Watchfulness would have brought 
them with the Bridegroom into the high joys of 
heaven's festal hour. 

In the sixth chapter of Ephesians, we have the 
whole warfare with the devil and his legions, and 
the sources of defense and victory: 

" Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, 
and in the power of his might Put on the whole 
armour of God, that ye may be able to stand 
against the wiles of the devil For we wrestle not 
against fle^ and blood, but agdnst principalities, 
against powers, against the rulers of the darkness 
of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high 
places. Wherefore, take unto you the whole ar- 
mour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in 
the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand, 
therefore, having your loins girt about widi truth, 
and having on the breastplate of righteousness; 
and your feet shod with the preparation of the gos- 
pel of peace. Above all, taking the shield of faith, 
wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery 
darts of the wicked. And take the helmet of sal- 
vation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the 
Word of God. Pra3ring always with all prayer 
and supplication !n the Spirit and watching there- 
unto with all perseverance and supplication for all 
saints. And for me that utterance may be gtvea 
unto me^ that I may open my moudi boldly, to 


make known the m)rstery of the gospel. For which 
I am an ambassador in bonds; that therein I may 
speak boldly, as I ought to speak/' In this passage 
we have a view of the strenuous conflict and of the 
battle-field on which the issues of eternity are 

The Christian's battle is with the devil and his 
wiles or methods. His struggle is arranged with 
order, wisdom and skill. Principalities and powers 
are under his management and subject to his or- 
ders, they, the first and the highest, the first in cre- 
ation and the highest in dignity. They are his 
lieutenants, his prime ministers, his captain gen- 
erals, to carry out his orders and represent him 
fully. They arc Ae world rulers, world-wide, 
world-powerful. They master and control all the 
evil forces of the world. The devil and his higher 
confederates are world-rulers. Their might is co- 
extensive with the world. A mighty sway is theirs, 
a fearful rule for evil, against the good and against 
man. Their subordinates, the rank and file, are 
innumerable and invincible, save to a God-equipped 
man. What a vast and powerful array of enemies 
are there, aggressive, malignant and cruel. They 
are high or in heavenly places, the very place where 
Christ's power is located. This power is over us, 
above us and around us. They are too mighty for 
us. Against this invisible, innumerable, all-power- 
ful and vast array, we wrestle. A dose conflict is 
wrestling. An intense and arduous conflict it is. 


strenuous, which tests all strength and strams every 
fiber. It is hand to hand, foot to foot, close con- 
tact, a grappling. It is not with men, though men 
may give us much opposition in our Christian 
course. But our chief trouble, our main trouble, 
our great war, is not with man but with all the 
mighty evil forces of the devil A life and death 
struggle it is, a war for heaven and hell, for time 
and eternity. 

The Christian must be a soldier by birth, by for- 
tune, by trade. The best elements of a divine sol- 
diership must be his, " not entangled with the af- 
fairs of this life.'' Princely in the elements and 
measure of self-denial, courage and endurance, are 
the engraved characteristics of this soldierhood. 
Strength is the fruit of these high qualities. But 
strength far beyond his own strength. " Strong 
in the Lord, and in the power of his might." For 
the preparation for this war the Christian soldier 
must go out of himself. The strength of God, the 
very strength of God's almightiness, must be his. 
The ability to stand, to fight, to conquer and to 
drive the foe from the field, will be found in God's 
armour. God's strength is imparted through God's 
armour. No power short of God can enable us to 
meet the devil. No partial equipment will suffice. 
We are charged twice to make it doubly sure to 
take the whole armour. We take God by taking 
His armour. We have God by having put the 
armour on us. Make His armour our own. We 


put on God by putting on His armour. Not out- 
side but inside, not objective but subjective, not 
imputed only, but inwrought Christ made the 
armour, the Holy Spirit fits and puts it on us, and 
makes it ours. We have to fight through to the 
end and drive die foe and hold the battle-field, and 
having done all, to stand. First withstand, and 
then stand. We gain and hold, and then advance. 
Stand ready for the fight, stand in the fight. 

Strong and valorous for the truth, in the inward 
parts ; no sham soldier, no sham fighting. All is 
real and true. Being truthful, a girded soldier^ 
strong and tucked up and narrowed to the intensest 
and deepest form of truth, his girdle tiie truth, 
for truth is the band, the ornament of a jewelled 
girdle, a diamond set ill gold. We must conquer 
the devil by truth as the strength and support of 
our lives. ' We know the truth and have the truth, 
for we have Christ who is the truth. 

"The breastplate of righteousness." Heart 
righteousness makes head righteousness and life 
righteousness. We cannot fight without heart 
righteousness. The "breastplate of righteous- 
ness '' protects the heart and makes us feel right 
The old heart cannot be made right by the most 
skillful artificer nor by the most correct doing. No 
tinkering on the old heart can make it right. It is 
as hard as a stone and crooked as the Jordan, and 
no mdtit^ can make it soft and no human effort 
can make it straight A new heart soft as flesh 


and washed whiter than snow in the Uood of 
Qirist^ a cc^y and a piece of Oirist*s heart, ** per- 
f ect» and right, and pure, and good '^ — ^this is what 
is needed 

The feet mxxA be shod with a preparation which 
is always ready to go, to do and to suffer. Slow 
movements^ a dilatory doing of God's will, being 
off guard, a general unreadiness for life or death, 
for earth or heaven, for sacrifice or service, for 
doing or for suffering, cuts the nerves of Christian 
valour and lays us open to surprises and crushing 
defeats. Always ready is the soldier attitude of 
safety, and ready to move presages victory. Fly- 
ing columns are Satan's most dreaded foes. Wake- 
ful vigilance is assured victory against the devil. 

The '^ shield of faith '^ b the all-important and 
the all-covering article of armour. The devil lets 
fly his fiery, poisoned darts, but f aidi catches them 
as they are directed to head or heart, and arrests 
and quenches thenu Dost thou believe all victories 
are possible to the soldier, valiant and strong in 
faith ? No battle was ever planned by hell's most 
gifted strategist which can conquer faith. All its 
inflamed and terrible darts fall harmless as they 
strike against the shield of faith. '^ These all died 
in faith." Faith made their deadi the crowning 
point Faith brought to their dying hour the 
spculs of their victories. 

" The helmet " protects the head. Bear In mind 
that head-salvation and heart-salvation, real and 


full, are stronger than brass to protect the head. 
A heart fully saved holds the head to truth and 
righteousness, like the anchor holds the ship in 
stormiest seas. "The hope of salvation/' says 
Paul in Thessalonians, is the helmet The Chris- 
tian soldier must put heaven strongly in his head 
and heart He must see heaven, feel heaven and 
keep heaven in the eye and in the heart all the time. 
He will stand with unsteady step if heaven be far 
off. He will fight feebly if heaven be seen dimly. 
The full sight of heaven will give strength to his 
loins, ardour to his faith, glory to his future and 
victory to the present The head will never be 
pierced while hope is its helmet Nurture hope, 
strengthen hope and brighten hope, for we are 
" saved by hope.'* We must " abound in hope '* 
by the power of the Holy Spirit 

"The sword," the aggressive and powerful 
weapon, is they Word of God. The Spirit wields it 
in death to all our foes. The Word of God is our 
battle-field and victorious weapon. On it we stand 
and fight With it we deal rout and ruin to every 
foe. The Qiristian soldier is " not to live by bread 
alone but by every word of God.** We cannot 
make too much of the Word of God. Qirist foiled 
Satan with it. If we be valiant, true and invin- 
cible, we also must have the Word of God dwell- 
ing in us richly. The ^ield of our faith, and the 
shape and form of that shield, is the basis of our 
prayers, the granite and essence of our girded 


truth. Head and hands and heart must be filled, 
impregnated and surcharged with God's Word ; by 
it we live and by it we grow. It is our battle call, 
and the sign by which we conquer. A glittering 
royal Made it is in all the assaults of Satan. '7/ is 
written/^ gpes like sted to the heart of Satan. As 
a weapon of defense and offense, God has ms^gni- 
fied His Word above all His name. Thrice armed 
against all Satan's wiles and his devices, are those 
who are filled with God's Word. It is " quick and 
powerful and sharper than any two-edged swoid, 
piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and 
spirit," and Satan feels it penetrating his joints 
smd marrow, dissolving into weakness all hia 
strength and making poor and foolish all his wisest 

The soldiers in the warfare against the devil 
must tmderstand how to wear the armour of all 
prayer. ** All prayer ** in all kinds, and at all sear 
sons, in the intensest form, with deepest sense of 
personal need of God, is the demand. Prayer must 
deepen and narrow and intensify into supplications, 
helped into this mighty praying, dothed with this 
resistless power of prayer by the Holy Spirit This 
intense conflict with the devil requires sleepless 
vigilance, midnight vigils, a wakefulness which 
cannot be surprised, a perseverance which knows 
ndther halting, fainting, nor depression, whidi 
knows by dearest spiritual intelligence what it 
needs,^ and what the illimitable provisions are to sup- 


ply all those needs, and the imperative necessity of 
pressing the prayer till the need is supplied and the 
succour is secured, Thb praying holds itself in lov- 
ing sympathy with the entire family of God, mak- 
ing their conflicts, perils and needs its own. It is 
in line of battle with the whole familyfaood of God, 
taking in their foes, their safety and their perils. 
" Supplication for all saints " gives victory to every 
saint. The line of battle is one. Defeat or victory 
must come to all. It is the soldier fully equipped 
in God's armour, who is a veteran against the devil 
and invincible to all of his attacks. 

It is not an easy thing to pray. Back of the 
praying there must lie the conditions of prayer. 
These conditions are possible, but tiiey are not to 
be seized on in a moment by the prayerless. Pres- 
ent Aey always may be to the faithful and holy, 
but cannot exist in nor be met by a frivolous, negli- 
gent and laggard spirit. Prayer does not stand 
alone. It is not an isolated performance. Prayer 
stands in closest connection with all the duties of 
an ardent piety. It is the issuance of a character 
which is made up of the elements of a vigorous 
and commanding faith. Prayer honours God, ac- 
knowledges His being, exalts His power, adores 
His providence and secures His aid. A sneering 
half-rationalism cries out against devotion, and 
charges that it does nothing but pray. But to pray 
well, is to do all things well. If it be true that 
devotton does nothing but pray, then it does noth- 


ing at alL To do nothing but pray fails to do the 
praying, for the antecedent, coincident and subse- 
quent conditions of prayer are but the sum of all 
the energized forces of a practical working piety. 

Prayer puts God in the matter with commanding 
force. "Ask of me things to come concerning 
my sons," says God, " and concerning the work of 
my hands, command ye me," We are charged in 
God's Word, " always to pray," " in everything by 
prayer," " continuing instant in prayer," to " pray 
everywhere," " pra)ring always." The promise is 
as illimitable as the command is comprehensive. 
^ All things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer be- 
lieving ye shall receive." " Whatsoever ye diall 
ask; " * if ye shall ask anything; " " Ye diall ask 
what ye will and it shall be done unto you." 
"Wluwtsoever ye ask the Father he will give it 
you." If there is anything not involved in " All 
things whatsoever," or not found in the phrase, 
" Ask anything," then these things may be left out 
of prayer. Language could not cover a wider 
range, nor involve more fully all minutia. These 
statements are but samples of the all-comprehend^ 
ing possibilities of prayer under the promises of 
God to those who meet the conditions of right 

These passages, though, give but a general out- 
line of the immense regions over whidi prayer ex- 
tends its sway. Beyond these the effect of prayer 
reaches and secures good from regions which can- 


not be traversed by language or thought. Paul ex- 
hausted language and diought in praying, but conr 
scious of necessities not covered, and realms of 
good not reached, of battles not gained over ene- 
mies and not conquered, he covers these impene- 
trable and undiscovered regions by this general 
plea: ''Unto him that is able to do exceeding 
abundantly above all that we ask or think, accord- 
ing to the power that worketh in us/' The promise 
is, " Call unto me, and I will answer thee, and show 
thee great and mighty things, which thou knowest 

FrinUdin tki VMtd StaUt of America