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fiut, although the sense of the author might 
not be often perverted, more than sufficient re- 
mained to justify the severest scrutiny. Many- 
passages were diffusely rendered, and not a small 
number of lines feebly, or inharmoniously con- 
structed: I have endeavoured to strengthen the 
one, and to compress the other. I have also, 
though not equally convinced of the evil, nor 
equally solicitous to remedy it, removed a few 
rhymes, which were said to give oflence to nicer 

The notes, to which a variety of additions have 
been made, are rendered somewhat more accessible 
to the English reader, by occasional translations : 
a version of the sixteenth Satire is given; and .he 
whole is closed by an Index of Names, as a slight 
help to the memory. 

I dare not flatter myself with the expectation 
of future opportunities of revision ; nor atn I, 
indeed, persuaded that, if such should occur, they 
could be used to much advanta$!:e. The business 
of improvement must somewhere cease, and per- 
haps too much has been already sacrificed to mi- 
nute accuracy. However this be, I have now done 
every thing in my power — ■ 

«. * 

Versions of more spirit and beauty may be readily 
found, but the reader must indulge me in thinking 
that one constructed with more anxious attention 
to render him fully acquainted with the author, as 


well as with the manners and customs of the age in 
which he wrote, will not be discovered with equal 
facility. What other times may produce, they 
must appreciate : but, to adopt the language of 
an approved scholar, 

** Ultimus hie ego sum, sed quam bene, quam male, nolo 
** Dicere, qui de me judicet, alter erit." 

. June 5th, IQOd. 

i . 

• • 


1 AM about to entef on a very tininteresting sub- 
ject: but all my friends tell me that it is necessary 
to account for the long delay of the following 
IVork ; and I can only do it by adverting to the 
circumstances of my life. Will this be accepted 
as an apology ? 

I know but little of my family, and that little is 
not very precise : My great-grandfather (the most 
remote of it, that I ever recollect to have heard 
mentioned) possessed considerable property at 
Halsworth, a parish in the neighbourhood of Ash- 
burton ; but whether acquired or inherited, I never 
thought of asking, and dg not know.* 

He was probably a native of Devonshire, for 
there he spent the last years of his life ; spent them 
too, in some sort of consideration, for Mr. T. (a 
very respectable surgeon of Ashburton) loved to 
repeat to me, when I first grew into notice, that he 
had frequently hunted with his hounds. 

My grandfather was on ill terms with him : I 
believe, not without sufficient reason^ for he was 
extravagant and dissipated. My father never men- 
tioned his name, but my mother would sometimes 
tell me that he had ruined the family. That he 

* I liave, however, some faint notion of hearing my mother 
say, that he, or his father, had been a China mierchant in London. 
By China merchant, I always understood, and so perhaps did she, 
a dealer in China-ware : it might be something more. 


spent much, I know ; but I am inclined to thinl, 
that his undutiful conduct occasioned my great* 
grandfather to bequeath ^ considerable part <X 
his property from him. 

My father, I fear^ revenged in some measure the 
cause of my great-grandfather. He was, as I have 
heard my mother say, " a very wild young man, 
who could be Icept to nothing/* He was sent to 
the grammar-school at Exeter; from which he 
made his escape, and entered on board a man of 
war. He was soon reclaimed from thisi situation 
by my grandfather, and left his school a second 
time, to wander in some vagabond society •'^ He 
was now probably given up ; for he was, on his 
return from this notable adventure, reduced to 
article himself to a plumber and glazier, with whom 
he luckily staid long enough to learn the business. 
I suppose his father was now dead, for he became 
possessed of two small estates, married vxy mother,4* 
(the daughter of a carpenter at Ashburton,) and 
thought himself rich enough to set up for himself; 
which he did, witli some t:redit, at douth Molton. 
Why he chose to fix there, I never inquired; but 
I learned from my mother, that after a residence 
of four or five years, he was again thoughtless 
enough to engage in a dangerous frolick, which drove 
him once more to sea: this was an attempt to 
excite a riot in a Methodist chapel ; for which his 
companions were prosecuted, and be fled^ as I have 

Af y father was a good seaman, and was soon made 
second in command in the Lyon, a large armed 
transport in the service of government : while my 

* He had gone with Bamfylde Moore Carew, then an old man. 
t Her maiden name was Elisabeth Cain. My &ther't chriitiaa 
name was Edward. 


^todther Ttfaen with child of me) returned to her 
BatiTe ptace^ Ashburton, where 1 was born, m 
Aprils 1756. 

The resources of my mother were very scanty. 
They arose from the rent of three or four small 
fields, which yet remained unsold. With tbesci , 
however, she did what she could for me ; and as 
soon as I was old enough to be trusted out of her 
sight, sent me to a schoolmistress of the name of 
Parrel, from whom I learned in due time to read; 
I cannot boast much of my acquisitions at this 
school ; they consisted merely of the contents of 
the *• Child's Spelling Book :** but from my mo- 
ther, who had stored up the literature of a country 
town, which, about half a century ago, amounted 
to little more than what was disseminated by itine« 
rant ballad-singers, or rather, readers, I had ac- 
quired much curious knowledge of Gatskin, and 
the Golden Bull, and the Bloody Gardener, and 
inany other histories equally instructive and amus« 

My father returned from sea in 1764* He had 
been at the siege of the Havannah ; and though he 
received more than a hundred pounds for prize 
money, and his wages were considerable ; yet, as 
he had not acquired any strict habits of economy, 
he brought home but a triBing sum. The little 
property yet left was therefore turned into money ; 
a trifle more was got by agreeing to renounce all 
future pretensions to an estate at Totness ;* and 
with this my father set up a second time as a gla* 
^er and house painter. I was now about eight 
years old, and was put to the freeschool, (kept by 

^ This vnM a lot of hoosesi which had bsen thougbtlatly sufr 
&red to ikli into decay^ and of which the rents had been so loog 
tindaimedy that they could not now be recovered, unleis by au 
eypen^vv Utigatioai 


Hugh Smerdon,) to learn to read, and write and 
cipher. Here I continued about three years^ male* 
ing a most wretched progress, ^hen my father 
fell sick and died. He had not acquired wisdom 
from his misfortunes, but continued wasting his 
time in unprofitable pursuits, to the great detri- 
ment of his business. He loved drink for the sake 
of society, and to this love he fell a martyr ; dying 
of a decayed and ruined constitution before he was 
forty. The town*s-people thought him a shrewd 
and sensible man, and regretted his death. As for 
me, I never greatly loved him ; I had not grown 
up with him ; and he was too prone to repulse my 
little advances to familiarity, with coldness, or 
anger. He had certainly ^ome reason to be dis* 
pleased with me, for I learned little at school, and 
nothing at home, though he would now and theq 
attempt to give me some insight into his business.^ 
As impressions of any kind are not very strong at 
the age of eleven or twelve, I did not long feel his 
loss ; nor was it a subject of much sorrow to me, 
that my mother was doubtful of her ability to con* 
tinue me at school, though I had by this time ac« 
quired a love for reading. 

I never knew in what circumstances my mother 
was left : most probably they were inadequate to 
her support, without some kind of exertion, espe- 
cially as she was now burthened with a second 
child about six or eight months old. Unforlu* 
nately she determined to prosecute my father's 
business ; for which purpose she engaged a couple 
of journeymen, who, finding her ignorant of every 
part of it, wasted her property, and embezzled her 
money. What the consequence of this double 
fraud would have been, there was no opportunity 
of knowing, as, in somewhat less than a twelve- 
month, my poor mother followed my father to the 


|;rave. She was an excellent woman, bore my fa« 
ther's infirmities with patience and good humour^ 
loved her children dearly, and died at last, ex- 
hausted with anxiety andgriefmoreon their account 
than on her own. 

I was not quite thirteen when this happened ; 
my little brother was hardly two ; and we had not 
•a relation nor a friend in the world/ Every thing 
that was left, was seized by a person of the name 

of C , for money advanced to my mother. It 

may be supposed that I could not dispute the justice 
of his claims; and as no one else interfered, he 
was suffered to do as he liked. My little brother 
was sent to the alms-house, whither his nurse fol- 
lowed him out of pure affection ; and I was taken 
to the house of the person I have just mentioned, 
who was also my godfather. Respect for the opi- 
nion of the town (which, whether correct or not, 
was, that he had repaid himself by the sale of my 
mother's effects) induced him to send me again to 
school, where I was more diligent than before, and 
more successful. I grew fond of arithmetick, and 
my master began to distinguish me: but these 
]golden days were over in less than three months* 

\j sickened at the expense ; and, as the people 

were now indifferent to my fate, he looked round 
for an opportunity of ridding himself of a useless ^ 
charge. He had previously attempted to engage 
me in the drudgery of husbandry. I drove the 
plough for one day to gratify him, but I left it with 
a firm resolution to db so no more, and in despite 
of his threats and promises, adhered to my deter- 
mination. In this, I was guided no less by neces* 
sity than will. During my father's life, in attempt- 
ing to clamber up a table, I had fallen backward, 
and had drawn it after me : its edge fell upon my 
breast, and I never recovered the effects of the 


blow ; of which I was made extremely sensible oa 
4iny extraordinary exertion. Ploughing! therefore, 
was out of the question, and, as I have already said, 
I utterly refused to follow it 

As I could write and cipher, (as the phrase is,) 
C next thought of sending me to Newfound- 
land, to assist in a store-house. For this purpose 
he negotiated with a Mr. Holdsworthy of Dart- 
mouth, who agreed to fit roe out. I left Ai^bur- 
ton with little expectation of seeing it again, and 
indeed with little care, and rode with my godfather 
to the dwelling of Mr. Holdsworthy. On seeing 
me, this great man observed with a look of pity and 
iQontempt, that I was ^^ too small," and sent me 
away sufficiently mortified. I expected to be very 
ill received by my godfather, but he said nothing. 
He did not however choose to take me back him- 
self, but sent me in the passage-boat to Totness, 
from whence I was to walk home. On the passage, 
the boat was driven by a midnight storm on the 
rocks, and I escaped with life almost by miracle. 

My godfather had now humbler views for me, 
and I had little heart to resist any thine. He pro- 
posed to send me on board one of the Torbay fish- 
ing boats; I ventured, however, to remonstrate 
against this, and the matter was compromised by 
my consenting to go on board a coaster. A coaster 
was speedily found forme at Brixham, and thither 
I went when liltle more than thirteen. 

My master, whose name was Full, though a grosf 
and ignorant^ was not an ill*natured, man ; atleastf 
not to me : and my mistress used me with unvary- 
ing kindness ; moved perhaps by my weakness and 
tender years. In return, ) did what J could to 
f equite her, and my good will was not overlooked. 

Our vessel was not very large, nor pur cre^ very 
numerous* On ordinary occasiona, such s^ai short 

IllTftOOVCTION. vii 

trips to Dartmoutji, Plymouth, Ice. it consisted 
only of my master, an apprentice nearly out of bis 
time, and myself: when we had to go further, to 
Portsmouth for example^ an additional hand was 
hired for the voyage* 

In this vessel (ue Two Brothers) I continued 
nearly a twelvemonth ; and here I eot acquainted 
with nautical terms, and contracted a love for the 
sea, which a lapse of thirty years has but little 

It will be easily conceived that my life was a life 
of hardship. I was not only a ^^ shipboy on the 
high and giddy mast,'' but also in the cabin, where 
every menial office fell to my lot : yet if I was rest- 
less and discontented, I can safely say, it was not 
so much on account of this, as of my being pre- 
cluded from all possibility of reading ; as my mas* 
ter did not possess, nor do I recollect seeing during 
the whole ti^e of my abode with him, a single 
book of any description, except the Coasting Pilot. 

As my lot seemed to be cast, however, I was not 
negligent in seeking such inCbrmation as promised 
to be useful ; and I therefcHre frequented, at my 
leisure hours, such vessels as dropt into Torbay* 
On attempting to get on board one of these, which 
I did at midnight, I missed my footing, and fell 
into the sea. The floating away of the boat alarmed 
the man on de^k, who came to the ship's side just 
in time to see me sink* He immediately threw out 
several ropes, one of which providentially (for I 
was unconscious of it) intangied itself about me, 
and I was drawn up to the surface, till a boat could 
be got round. The usual methods were taken to 
recover me, and I awoke in bed the next mom-' 
ing, remembering nothing but the horrour I felt^ 
when I first found myself unable to cry out for 


• •• 


This was not my only escape, but I forbear to 
speak of them. An escape of another kind was 
now preparing for me, which deserves all my no- 
tice, as it was decisive of my future fate. 

On Christmas day (1770) I was surprised by a 
message from my godfather, saying that he had 
sent a man and horse to bring me to Ashburton ; 
and desiring me to set out without delay. My 
master, as well as myself, supposed it was to spend 
the holidays there; and he therefore made no 
objection to my going. We were, however, both 

Since^I had lived at Brixham, I h^d broken off 
all connexion with Ashburton. I had no reJation 
there but my poor brother,* who was yet too young 
for any kind of correspondence ; and the conduct 
of my godfather towards me, did notintitle him to 
any portion of my gratitude, or kind remembrance. 
I lived therefore in a sort of sullen independence 
on all I had formerly known, and thought without 
regret of being abandoned by every one to my 
fate. But I had not been overlooked. The women 
of Brixham, who travelled to Ashburton twice a 
week with fish, and who had known my parents, 

* Of my brother here introduced for the last timey I must yet 
say a few words. He was literally. 

The child of nuisery baptized in tears; 

and the short passage of his life did not belie the melancholy pre-? 
sage of his infancy. When he was seven years old, the parish 
bound him out to a husbandman of the name of Leman, with 
whom he endured incredible hardships, which I had it not in my 
power to alleviate. At nine years of age he broke his thigh, and I 
took that opportunity to teach him to read and write. When my 
own situation was improved, I persuaded him to try the sea; he 
did so, and was taken on board the Egmont, on condition that his 
roaster should receive his wages. The time was now fast approach* 
ing when I could serve him, but he was doomed to know no fa* 
Tourable change of fortune : he fell sicky ftnd died at Cork. 


did not see me without kind concern, ninning 
about the beach in a ragged jacket and trousers. 
They mentioned this to the people of Ashburtoii, 
and never without commiserating my change of 
condition. This tale often repeated, awakened at 
length the pity of their auditors, and, as the next 
step, their resentment against the man who had 
reduced me to such a state of wretchedness. In a 
large town, this would have had little effect, but in 
a place like Ashburton, where every report spee* 
dily becomes the common property of all the inha- 
bitants, it raised a murmur which my godfather 
found himself either unable or unwilling to en« 
counter: he therefore determined to recall me; 
which he could easily do, as I wanted some months 
of fourteen, and consequently was not yet bound. 

All this, I learned on my arrival ; and my heart, 
which had been cruelly shut up, now opened to 
kinder sentiments, and fairer views. 

After the holidays I returned to my darling 
pursuit, arithmetick: my progress was now so 
rapid, that in a few months I was at the head of 
the school, and qualified to assist my master (Mr. 
£. Furlong) on any extraordinary emergency. As 
he usually gave me a trifle on those occasions, it 
raised a thought in me, that by engaging with him 
as a regular assistant, and undertaking the instruc- 
tion of a few evening scholars, I might, with a little 
additional aid, be enabled to support myself. God 
knows, my ideas of support at this time were of 
no very extravagant nature. I had, besides, ano- 
ther object in view. Mr. Hugh Smerdon (my first 
master) was now grown old and infirm ; it seemed 
unlikely that he should hold out above three or 
four years ; and I fondly flattered myself that, not«» 
iii^ithstanding my youth, I might possibly be ap- 
poi^te4 to succeed him. I was in my fifteentli 


year, when I built these castles ; a stomii faow^ 
ever, was collectiiig, which unexpectedly burst 
upon me, and swept them all away. 

On mentioning my little plan to G-— ^, he 
treated it with the utmost contempt; and told me, 
in his turn, that as I had learned enough, and 
more than enough, at school, he must be const** 
dered as having fairly discharged his duty ; (so, 
indeed, he had;) he added, that he had been 
negotiating widi his cousin, a shoemaker of some 
respectability, who had liberally agreed to take 
me without a fee, as an apprentice. I was so 
shocked at this intellig^ice, tnat I did not remon* 
Strate ; but went in suUenness and silence to my 
new master, to whom I was soon after bound,* 
till I should attain the age of twenty-one. 

The family consisted of four journeymen, two 
aons about my own age, and an apprentice some- 
what older. In these there was nothing remark* 
able; but my master himself was the strangest 
creature ! — He was a Presbyterian, whose reading 
was entirely confined to the small tracts published 
on the Exeter Controversy. As these (at least his 
portion of them) were all on oqe side, he enter- 
tained no doubt of their infallibility, and being 
noisy and disputacious, was sure to silence his 
opponents; and became, in consequence of it, 
intolerably arrogant and conceited. He was not, 
however, indebted solely to his knowledge of the 
subject for his triumph : he was possessed of Fen- 
ning's Dictionary, and he made a most singular 
use of it. His custom was to fix on any word in 
common use, and then to get by heart the sy* 
nonym, or periphrasis by which it was explained 

* My hidentare, whidi now lict before me, is dated tbe lat of 
JsMMiy, 1772. 


in the book ; this he constantly substituted for the 
simple term, and as his opponents were commonly 
ignorant of his meaning, his victory was com^ 

With such a man I was not likely to add much 
to my stock of knowledge, small as it was ; and, 
indeed, nothing could well be smaller. At this 
period, I had read nothing but a black letter 
romance called Parismus and Parismenus, and a 
few loose magazines which my mother had brought 
from South Mplton. With the Bible, indeed, I 
was well acquainted ; it was the favourite study 
of my grandmother, and reading it frequently 
with her, had impressed it strongly on my mindt 
these then, with the Imitation of Thomas & Kempii, 
which I used to read to my mother on her deatfa«> 
bed, constituted the whole of my literary acqui* 

As I hated my new profession with a perfect 
hatred, I made no progress in it ; and was conse^ 
quently little regarded in the family, of which I 
sunk by degrees into the common drudee : this 
did not much disquiet 'me, for my spirits were 
now humbled. I did not however quite resigti 
the hope of one day succeeding to Mr. Hugh 
Smerdon, and therefore secretly prosecuted my 
favourite study, at every interval of leisure. 

These intervals were not very frequent; and 
when the use I made of them was found out« they 
were rendered still less sot I could not guess the 
motives for this at first ; but gt length I discovered 
that my master destined his youngest son for the 
situation to which I aspired. 

I possessed at this time but one book ia tht 
world: it was a treatise on Algebra, given to me 
by 9 young woms^n, who had found it in a lodging*^ 
bame. ( cousidered it as a treasure } i^ut it was « 


treasure locked tip : for it supposed the reader to 
^e well acquainted with simple equation, and I 
lenew nothing oF the matter. My master's son 
had purchased Fenning's Introduction: this was 
precisely what I wanted, but he carefully con- 
cealed it from me, and I was indebted to chance 
alone for stumbling upon his hiding-place. I sat 
tip for the grfeatest part of several nights succes- 
sively, and, before he suspected that his treatise 
was discovered, had completely mastered it. I 
could now enter upon my own ; and that carried 
inepretty far into the science. 

This was not done without difficulty. I had 
not a farthing on earth, nor a friend to give me 
one! pen, ink, and paper, therefore, (in despite 
of the flippant remark of Lord Orford,) were, for 
the most part, as completely out of my reach, as 
a crown and sceptre. There was indeed a re- 
source ; but the utmost caution and secrecy were 
necessary in applying to it. I beat out pieces of 
leather as smooth as possible, and wrought my 
problems on them with a blunted awl: for the 
rest, my memory was tenacious, and I could mul- 
tiply and divide by it, to a great extent. 

Hitherto I had not so much as dreamed of 
poetry ; indeed I scarcely knew it by name ; and, 
whatever may be said of Jhe force of nature, J 
' certainly never •' lisp*d in numbers." I recollect 
the occasion of my first attempt : it is, like all the 
rest of my non-adventures, of so unimportant a 
nature, that I should blush to call the attention of 
the idlest reader to it, but for the reason alleged 
iq the introductory paragraph. A person, whose 
naitie escapes me, had undertaken to paint a sign 
fok" an ale-house : it ws^ to have been a lion, but 
the unfortunate artist produced a dog. On this 
twkwaird affairi one ol my acquaintance wrote a 

• •• 

imteoductioNa sgn^ 

copy of what we called verse: I liked it, but 
fancied I could compose something more to the 
purpose : I tried, and by the unanimous suffrage 
of my shopmates was allowed to have succeeded^ 
Notwithstanding this encouragement, I thought 
no more of verse, till another occurrence, as 
trifling as the former, furnished me with a fresh 
subject : and so I went on, till I had got together 
about dozen of them« Certainly, nothing on earth 
was ever so deplorable: such as they were, how- 
ever, they were talked of in my little circle, and 
I was sometimes invited to repeat them, even out 
of it I never committed a line to paper for two 
reasons; first, because I had no paper; and se- 
condly — perhaps I might be excused from going 
further ; but in truth I was afraid, for my master 
had already threatened me, for inadvertently hitch- 
ing the name of one of his customers into 2^ 

The repetitions of which I speak were alwayi; 
attended with applause, and sometimes with fa-« 
vours more substantial : little collections were now 
and then made, and Ir have received sixpence in 
an evening. To one who had long lived in the 
absolute want of money, such a resource seemed 
a Peruvian mine: I furnished myself by degrees 
with paper, kc. and what was of more importance^ 
. with books of geometry, and of the higher 
branches of algebra, which I cautiously concealed^ 
Poetry, even at this time, was no amusement of 
mine : it was subservient to other purposes ; and 
I only had recourse to it, when I wanted money 
for my mathematical pursuits. 

But the clouds were gathering fast. My master*s 
anger was raised to a terrible pitch by my indif- 
ference to his concerns, and still more by the 
reports which were daily brought to him of my 

Snf llftftODUOTIOK. 

presumpttioM attempts at versificatioti, I %ni 
jmiuired to gire up my papers, and when I re- 
fused, my garret was searched, my little hoard of 
books discovered and removed, and all Future re« 
petitions prohibited in the strictest manner. 

This was a very severe stroke, and I felt it most 
sensibly ; it was followed by another severer still ; 
a stroke which crushed the hopes I had so long 
and so fondly cherished, and resigned me at once 
to despair. Mr. Hugh Smerdon, on whose suc- 
cession I had calculated, died, and was succeeded 
by a person not much older than myself, and cer- 
tainly tiot so well qualified for the situation. 

I look back on that part of my life which im- 
mediately followed this event, with little satis- 
faction; it was a period of gloom, and savage 
unsociability: by degrees I sunk into a kind of 
corporeal torpor ; or, if roused into activity by 
the spirit of youth, wasted the exertion in sple- 
netick and vexatious tricks, which alienated the 
few acquaintances compassion had yet left me. 
So I crept on in silent discontent; unfriended 
and unpitied; indignant at the present, careless 
6f the future, an object at once of apprehension 
and dislike. 

From this state of abjectness I was raised by a 
young woman of my own class. She was a neigh- 
bour; and whenever I took my solitary walk, 
with my Wolfius in my pocket, she usually came 
to the door, and by a smile, or a short question 
put in the friendliest manner, endeavoured to 
solicit my attention. My heart had been long 
shut to kindness, but the sentiment was not dead 
in me : it revived at the first encouraging word ; 
and the gratitude I felt for it, was the first pleasing 
sensation which I had ventured to entertain for 
many dreary months^ 


Together with latitude, hope» am! other pas^ 
tions still more enuveniagv took place of that ixn-* 
comfortable gloominess which so lately possessed 
me : I returned to my companions, and by every 
winning art in my power, strove to make them 
forget my former repulsive ways. In this, I was 
not unsuccessful; I recovered their good will, 
and by degrees grew to be somewhat of a f ai» 

My master still murmured ; for the business of 
the shop went on no better than before : I com« 
forted myself, however, with the reflection that 
my apprenticeship was drawing to a conclusion, 
when I determined to renounce the employment 
for ever, and to open a private school. 

In this humble and obscure state, poor beyond 
the common lot, yet flattering my ambition with 
day-dreams which, perhaps, would never have 
been realized, I was found in the twentieth year 
of my age by Mr. William Gookesley, a name 
never to be pronounced by me without veneration. 
The lamentable doggerel which I have already 
mentioned, and which had passed from mouth ta 
. mouth among people of my own degree, had by 
9ome accident or other reached his ear, and given 
him a curiosity to inquire after the author. 

It was my good fortune to interest his benevo* 
lence. My little history" was not untinctured 
with melancholy, and I laid it fairly before him : 
his first care was to console ; his second, which 
he cherished to the last moment of his existence, 
was to relieve and support me» 

Mr. Gookesley was not rich : his eminence in 
his. profiession, which was that of a surgeon, pro- 
cured him^ indeed, much employment ; but m a 
country town, men of science are not the most 


liberally rewarded: he had besides, a very nu- 
merous family, which left him little for the pur« 
poses of general benevolence: that little, however, 
was cheerfully bestowed, and his activity and zeal 
were always at hand to supply the deficiencies of 
his fortune. 

On examining into the nature of my literary 
attainments, he found them absolutely nothing: 
he heard, however, with equal surprise and plea« 
sure, that amidst the grossest ignorance of books, 
I had made a very considerable progress in the 
mathematicks. He engaged me to enter into the 
details of this afiair ; and when he learned that I 
had made it in circumstances of discouragement 
and danger, he became more warmly interested 
in my favour, as he now saw a possibility of 
serving me. 

The plan that occurred to him was naturally 
that which had so often suggested itself to me« 
There were indeed several obstacles to be over- 
come : I had eighteen months yet to serve ; my 
handwriting was bad, and my language very in- 
correct ; but nothing could slacken the zeal of 
this excellent man ; he procured a few of my 

Eoor attempts at rhyme, dispersed them amongst 
is friends and acquaintance, and when my name 
was become somewhat familiar to them, set on 
foot a subscription for my relief. I still preserve 
the original paper ; its title was not very magni- 
ficent, though it exceeded the most sanguine 
wishes of my heart: it ran, thus, ** A Subscription 
for purchasing the remainder of the time of 
Willisun Gifford, and for enabling him to im* 
prove himself in Writing and English Grammar.^' 
Few contributed more than five shillings, and 
none went beyond teu'^and-sixpeuce : enough. 


however, was collected to free me from my ap- 
prenticeship, * and to maintain me for a few 
months, during which I assiduously attended the 
Rev. Thomas Smerdon. 

At the expiration of this period, it was found 
that my progress (for I will speak the truth in 
modesty) had been more considerable than my 
patrons expected : I had also written in the in- 
terim several little pieces of poetry, less rugged^ 
I suppose, than my former ones, and certainly 
with fewer anomalies of language. My preceptor, 
too, spoke favourably of me ; and niy benefactor, 
who was now become my father and my friend, 
had little difficulty in persuading my patrons to 
renew their donations, and continue me at school 
for another yean Such liberality was not lost 
upon me ; I grew anxious to make the best return 
in my power, and I redoubled my diligence. 
Now, that I am sunk into indolence, I look back 
with some degree of scepticism to the exertions of 
that period. 

In two years and two months from the day of 
my emancipation, I was pronounced by Mr, 
Smerdon, fit for the University, The plan of 
opening a writing school had been abandoned 
almost from the first ; and Mr. Gookesley looked 
round for some one who had interest enough to 
procure me some little office at Oxford. This 

Esrson, who was soon found, was Thomas Taylor, 
sq.. of Denburyj a gentleman to whom I had 
already been indebted for much liberal and 
friendly support. He procured me the place of 
Bib. Lect. at Exeter College; and this, with such 
occasional assistance from the country as Mr. 
Gookesley undertook to provide, was thought 

* The sum my master received wsis six pounds, 


• •• 


sufficient to enable me to live^ at least, till I had 
taken a degree. 

During my attendance on Mr. Smerdon I had 
-written, as I observed before, several tuneful trifles ^ 
some as exercises, others voluntarily, (for poetry 
was now become my delight,) and not a few at the 
desire of my friends.* When I became capable, 
however, of reading Latin and 6reek with some 
degree of facility, that gentleman employed all my 
leisure hours in translations from the classicks ; and 
indeed I scarcely know a single school-book, of 
which I did not render some portion into English 
verge. Among others, Juvenal engaged my at- 
tention, or rather my master's, and 1 translated 
Uie tenth Satire for a holiday task. Mr. Smerdon 
was much pleased vvitli this, (I was not undelighted 
with it myself,) and as I was now become fond of 
the author, he easily persuaded me to proceed with 
him ; and I translated in succession^ the third, the 
fourth, the twelfth, and, I think, the eighth Satires. 
As I had no end in view but that of giving a tem- 
porary satisfaction to my benefactors, I thought 
little more of these, than of many other things of 
the same nature, which t wrote from time to time, 
and of which I never copied a single line. 

• As I have republished one of our old poetsr, it may be allow- 
able to mention that my predilection for the drama began at an 
early period. Before 1 left school, I had written two tragedies, 
the Oracle and theJLtalian. 

My qualifications fof this branch of the art may be easily 
appreciated ; and, indeed, I cannot think of them without a smile. 
—These rhapsodies were placed by my indulgent friend, who 
thought well of them, in the hands of two respectable gentlemen, 

who undertook to convey them to the manager of : I am 

ignorant of iheir fate. The death of Mr. Cookesley broke every 
link of my connexion with the majority of my subscribers, and 
when subsequent events enabled me to renew them, I was ashamed 
to inquire after what was most probably unworthy of concern. 


On my removing to Exeter College, however, 
my friend, ever attentive to my concerns, advised 
me to copy my translation of the tenth Satire, and - 
present it, on my arrival, to the Rey* Dr. Stinton^ 
(afterwards Rector,) to whom Mr. Taylor had 
given me an introductory letter : I did so, and it 
was kindly received. Thus encouraged, I took up 
the first and second Satires, (I mention them 
in the order they were translated,) when my friend, 
who had sedulously watched ray progress, first 
started the idea of going through the whole, 
and publishing it by subscription, as a scheme for 
increasing my means of subsistence. To this I rea* 
dily acceded, and finished the thirteenth, eleventh^ 
and fifteenth Satires: the remainder were the work 
of a much later period. 

When I had got thus far, we thought it a fit 
time to mention our design ; it was very generally 
approved of by my friends ; and on the first of 
January, 17 Si, the subscription was opened by 
Mr. . Gookesley at Ashburton, and by myself at 
Exeter College. 

So bold an undertaking so precipitately an- 
nounced, will give the reader, 1 fear, a higher 
opinion of my conceit than of my talents : neither 
the one nor the other, however, had the smallest 
concern with the business, which originated solely 
in ignorance : I wrote verses with great facility, 
and I was simple enough to imagine that little 
more was necessary for a translator of Juvenal ! I 
was not, indeed, unconscious of my inaccuracies : 
I knew that they were numerous, and that I had 
need of some friendly eye to point them out, and 
some judicious hand to rectify or remove them: bat 
for these, as well as for every thing else, I looked 
to Mr. Cookesley, and that worthy man, with his 
usual alacrity of kindness, undertook the laborious 

task of revising' the whole tramlaiion. My friend 
was no great Lalinist^ perhaps I was the better of 
the two; but he had taste and jadgment, wliich I 
wtinted. ' What advantages might have been ulti- 
mately derived from them, there was unhappily 
no opportuniiyi of ascertaining, as it pleased the 
Almighty to call him to himself by a sudden death, 
before we had quite finished the first Satire. He 
died with a letter of mine, unopened, in his 

This event, which took place on the 15th of 
January, 1781, aflBicted me beyond measure.* I 
was not only deprived of a most fait'tful and affec*" 
tionate friend, but of a zealous and ever activet 
ptotector, on whom I confidently relied lor sup- 
port : the sums that were still necessary for me^ 
he always collected ; and it was to be feared that 
the assistance which was not solicited with warmth^ 
would insensibly cease to be afforded. 

In many instances this was actually the case: 
the desertion, however, was not general ; and I watr 
encouraged to hope, by the unexpected friendship 
of Servingtpn Savery, a gentleman who voluntarily 
stood forth as my patron, and watched over my 
interests with kindness and attention. 

Some time before Mr. Gookesley's death, we 
had agreed that it would be proper to deliver ouc^ 
with the terms of subscription, a specimen of the 
manner in which the translation was executed :*{» 

* I began this unadorned narrative on the 15th of January^ . 
ISOl : twenty years have therefore elapsed since 1 l()^t m} bene* 
factor and oiy friend. In the interval i ba\e wept a thousand 
times at the recollection of his goodness: 1 vet.chtM-ish his me* 
mory with filial respect; and at this diataiit peiioUy my he*irt 
sinks within me at every repetition ot his name. 

^t M<iny ot thcbe papers weie distributed; the terms, which t 
extract from one ol themy were these: '* ibe work bttaii b# 


to obviate any id€a of selection, a sheet was ac« 

• ' cordingly taken from the beeinning of the first 

Satire, My friend died while it was in the press. 

After a few melancholy weeks, I resumed the 

translation ; but found myself utterly incapable of 

proceeding. I had been so accustomed to connect 

the name of Mr. Cookesley with every part of it, 

and I laboured with such delight in the hope of 

giving him pleasure, that now, when he appeared 

. to. have left me in the midst of my enterprize, and 

J was abandoned to my own efforts, I seemed to be 

* engaged in a hopeless struggle, without motive or 
end : and his idea, which was perpetually recur- 

• ring to me, brought such bitter anguish with it, 
that I shut up the work with feelings bordering on 

To relieve my mind, I had recourse to other 
pursuits^ I endeavoured to become more inti- 
mately acquainted with the classicks, and to ac- 
quire fiome of the modem languages : by permis- 
sion too, or rather recommendation, of the Rector 
and Fellows, I also undertook the care of a few 
pupils: this removed much of my anxiety respect- 
ing my future means of support. I have a heart- 
felt pleasure in mentioning this indulgence of my 
college: it could arise from nothing but the liberal 
desire inlierent, I think, in the members of both 
our Universities, to encourage every thing that 
bears the most distant resemblance to talents : for 
I had no claims on them from any particular 

The lapse of many months had now soothed, 

printed in quarto, (without notes,) and be delivered to the Sub- 
scribers in the month of December next.'' 

** The price will be sixteen bhiltings in boards, half to be paid 
at the time of sttbecribing, the remainder on dehvery ot the 
. book.'' 


and tranquillized my mind, and I once more re- 
turnied to the translation, to v^hich a wish to serve 
a young man surrounded with difficulties, had in* 
duced a number of respectable characters to set 
their names : but alas, what a mortification! I now 
discovered, for the first time, that my own inex- 

fierience, and the advice of my too, too partial 
riend, had engaged me in a work, for the due exe- 
cution of which, my literary attainments were by 
no means sufficient. Errours and misconceptions 
appeared in every page. I had, perhaps, caught 
something of the spirit of Juvenal, but his mean- 
ing had frequently escaped me, and I saw the 
necessity of a long and painful revision, which 
would carry me far beyond the period fixed for the 
appearance of the volume. Alarmed at the pros- 
pect, I instantly resolved (if not wisely, yet I 
trust honestly] to renounce the publication for 
the presept. 

In pursiuance of this resolution, I wrote to my 
friend in the country, (the Rev. Servington Sa- 
very,) requesting him to return the subscription 
money in his hands, to the subscribers. He did 
not approve of my plan; nevertheless he promised, 
in a letter, which now lies before me, to comply 
with it ; and, in a subsequent one, added that he 
had already begun to do so. 

For myself, I also made several repayments; 
and trusted a sum of money to make others, with 
a fellow collegian, who, not long after, fell by his 
own hands in the presence of his father. But thepe 
were still some whose abode could not be disco- 
vered, apd others, on whom to press the taking 
back of eight shillings would neither be decent 
nor respecifnl : even from these | ventured to 
flatter myself that I should find pardon, when 
on some iuture day^I presented them with the 



Work, whidh I was still secretly determined to 
CQmplete,) rendered more worthy of their patron- 
age, and increased by notes, which I now per- 
ceived to be absolutely necessary, to more than 
double its proposed size. 

In the leisure of a country residence, I imagined 
that this might be done in two years : perhaps I 
was not too sanguine: the experiment, however, 
was not made, for about this time a circumstance 
happenecC which changed my views, and indeed 
my whole system of life. 

I had contracted an acquaintance with a person 
of the name of r— t- , recommended to my parti- 
cular notice by a gentleman of Devonshire, whom 
I was proud of an opportunity to oblige. This 
person's residence at Oxford was not long, and 
when he returned to town, I maintained a cor- 
respondence with him by letters. At his particular 
request, these were enclosed in a cover, and sent 
to Lord Grosvenor:' one day I inadvertently 
omitted the direction, and his Lordship, neces- 
sarily supposing the letter to be meant for himself^ 
opened and read it. There was something in it 
which attracted his notice ; and when he gave it to 
my friend, he had the curiosity to inquire about 
bis correspondent at Oxford ; and, upon the an- 
swer he received, the kindness to desire that he 
might be brought to see him upon his coming to 
town : to this circumstance, purely accidental on 
all sides, and to this alone, I owe my introduction 
to that nobleman, 

On my first visit, he ^sked me what frie^ds I 
had, and what were my prospects in life ; and I 
told him that I had no friends, and no prospects of 
any kind. He s?dd no more ; but when I called to 
take leave, previous to returning to college, I found 
that this simple exposure of zny circumstances had 



JLIegimus Junius Juvenalis,* the author of the 
following Satires, was born at Aquinum, an in<* 
considerable town of the Volsci, about the year 
of Christ 3S«t He was either the son, or tht 

* Junitu Juven(dis liberti hcupUtu incertitm Jllius an alumnui^ 
Qd mediam tetatem declamavit^ animi magis causa, quam quod scholg 
ant fqrp se prctpararetm The learned reader knows that this is 
taken from the brief account of Juvenal, commonly attributed to 
Suetonius ; but which is probably posterior to bis time ; as it 
bears very few marks of being written by a contemporary author : 
it is, however, the earliest extant. The old criticks, struck with 
its deficiencies, have attempted to render it more complete by 
variations, which take from its authenticity, without adding to its 

1 1 have adopted Dodwell's chronology. Sic autem (he says) 
u rem iilam totam habuisse censeo» Exul erat Jwo, cum Satirem 
Mcriberet x v. Hoc confirmat ctiam in v. 27 scholiastes. ** De 4e 
Juv. dicitf quia in £gypto mUitem tenuity ti ea promittit se rela" 
turum qv4B ipse vidit.*' Had not Dodwell been predisposed to 
believe this, he would have seen that the scholium '^ confirmed'' 
nothing : for Juvenal makes no such promise. Proinde rixee UU 
ipse a^uit quam describii. So errour is built up i How does it 
appear that Juvenal was present at the quarrel he describes ? He 
was in Egypt, we know ; he had passed through the Orobite nome, 
and he speaks of the face of the country, as falling under hift own 
inspection : but this is all ; and he might have heard of the 
quarrel, at Rome, or elsewhere. Tempus autem ^jue designavit 
rixct ilUus cum et *^ nuper'* X illam contigisse dicitf ct quidem 

I This nupcr is a very convenient word. Here, vre see, it sig* 




fosterson, of a wealthy freedman, who gave him 
a liberal education. From the period of his birth, 
till he had attained; the age of forty, nothing 
more is known of him than that he continued to 
perfect himself in the study of eloquence, by 
declaiming, according to the practice of those 
days: yet more for his own amusement, than 
from any intention to prepare himself, either for 
the schools or the courts of law. About this 
time, he seems to have discovered his true bent, 
and betaken himself to poetry. Domitian was 

^' CwmXt Jumo!* Jtm. drnpltcem habentfoiti, ainm Ihmii, In x. 
Consttlaiu^ cofifgttm ApP* Junium Sahinwn A. D. Ixxxiv ; aUum 
' Hadriani in suo itidem consuhtu iii coUegam Q. Junium Rnstkumm 
Quo minus prior intelligi poiiit^ obstant iUa omnia qua in his ipsis 
fiatiris occurrunt Domitiani iemporibus recentipra. Yet, such is 
the capricious nature of criticisni ! Dodwell's chief argument to 
prove the late period at which Juvenal was banished, is a passage 
.confessedly writtep under Domitian, and foisted into a satire pub- 
lished, as he himself maintains, many years after that emperour's 
^eath ! Posteriorem ergo inleUexerit oportet. Hoc ergo anno 
.(ex IX.) eratinexUh. Sed vero Roma ilium gicere nqn potuii 
TrajanuSf qui ab anno usque cxii. Romte ipse non^ adfidt ; nee 
ttiam ante cxvni. quo Romam venii imperatot Hadrianus. Sic 
ante anni cxviii. finemy aut cxix. tnt^ivm, miiti vix potuit in 
txUium Juvenalis: eral autem cum reiegaretWy oetogenariuSm 
Proinde natus Juerii vel amu xxxvitu ^^le^ vel xxxix. uUiiOm 
Annal. 157—159. 

1 have made this copious extract : from Dodwell, because it 
$(ontaiiis a summary of the chief arguments which induced Pi- 
thseus, Henninius, Lipsius, Salmasius, &c« to attribute the ba- 
nishment of the author to Hadrian. To me they appear any 
thing but conclusive ; for, to omit other objections fur the pre- 
eenty why may not the Junius of the fifteenth Satire be the one 
who was Consul with Domitian in 84, when Juvenal, by Dod« 
\fe\Vs own cMculatioo, was in his 47th, instead of his 80th» 

nifies lately ; but when it is necessary to bring the works of our 
autbur down to a la'e period, it means, as Britaouicus explains 
it, di bmgo tempore f long ^go. 


now at the head of the government, and showedb 
symptoms of reviving that system of favuuritisoi- 
which had nearly ruined the empire under 
Claudius^by his unbounded partiality for, a young, 
pantomime dancer of the jname of Paris. Againsfci 
this minion*, Juvenal seems to have directed the* 
first shafts of that satire which was destined to. 
make the most powerful vices tremble, and shake; 
the masters of the world on their thronesw He* 
composed a few lines* on the influence of Paris^ 
with considerable success, which encouranred him 
to cultivate this kind of poetry : he had the pru« 
dence, however, not to trust himself to an audi«« 
tory, in a reign which swarmed with informers i 
and his compositions were, therefore, secretly 
handed about amongst his friends, t By degrees^ 

^ Deinde paucorum versuntn satira npn absurde composita m 
Paridcnf pantdmimum^ poetamque Claudii NeronUf (the writer 
seems, in this and the following clause, to have referred to Jii\e« 
nal's words ; it is therefore probable that we should read Calvi 
Neronis, t. e, Domitian ; otherwise the phrase must be given up 
as an absurd interpolation,) ejus semestribus miiUiolit tummtem s 
genus scripture indmtriose excoluit. Suet 

t Et i0me» diuj ne medico quidem audiiorio qukquam emnmii'* 
tere ausus est. Suet. On this Dodwell observes : Tarn longe mb* 
erani iUa a P&ridisJraconcitanda, si vel superstite Pande fuissent- 
scripta, eum irritate nan possent, cum n<fndum emanassent in pub* 
licum. 16}, He thtn adds that ** Martial knew nothing of his 
poetical studies, t who boasted that he was as familiar with Ju« 
venal as Pylades with Orestes T' It appears indeed that they were 
acquainted ; but I suspect, notwithstanding the vehemence of 
Martial's assertions, that there was no great cordiality between 
minds so very dissimilar. Some one, it seems, had accused tbo. 
epigrammatist to the satirist,* not improbably, of making too free 
with his thoughts and expressions. He was seriously 'offended; 


I But how is this ascertained ? Vf^ry easily ; he calls him^a* 
cundus Juvenalis. Here the question ib finally left; for none 
of the commentators suppose it possible that the e^iiUici Ci*a b» 


he grew Bolder; and, having made many large 
additions to his first sketch, or perhaps recast it. 

•nd Martial, instead of justify ing Irimself, (whatever the charge 
aaight be,) imprecates shame on his accuser in a strain of idle 
lant not much above the level of a schoolboy. Lib. vii. 24* 

But if he had been acquainted with his friend's poetry, he 
would certainly have spoken of it. Not quite so certainly. These 
learned criticks seem to thinks that Juvenal, like the poets he ri- 
dicules, wrote notfiing but trite fooleries on the Argonauts and 
the Lapitha?. Were the Satires of Juvenal to be mentioned with 
approbation ? and, if they werei was Martial the person to do it I 
Martial, the most devoted sycophant of the age, who was always 
begging, and sometimes receiving, &vours from the man whose 
castigation was, in general, the express dbject of them* Is it not 
more consonant to his character, to suppose that he would con- 
ceal his knowledge of them with the most scrupulous care ? 

But when Domitian was dead» and Martial removed from 
Kome ; when, in short, there was no danger of speaking out, he 
still appears, continue they, to be ignorant of his friend's poetick 
talents. I am almost ashamed to repeat what the criticks so 
constantly forget— that Juvenal was not only a satirist^ but a 
republican, who looked upon Trajan as an usurper, no less than 
Domitian* And hoW was it ** safe to speak out," when they all 
assert that he was driven into banishment by a milder princo 
than Trajan, for a passage ^* suspected of bearing a figurative 
allusion to the times V What inconsistencies s^re these ! 

applied to any but a rhetorician. Yet it is applied by the same 
writer, te a poet of no ordinary kind ; 

Accipe faeundi Calicem, studiose, Maronis 
Nej nugis positis, arma viruroque canas* 

Lib, XIV. IS5. 

And, by the author himself, to one who had grown old in tha 


" I ■ ■ ■ , tunc seque suamque 

*^ Terpsichoren odit facunda et nuda senectus*'^ 

Let it be remembered too, that Martial, as is evident from tha 
frequent allusions to Domitian's expedition against the Catti, 
wrote this epigram ilib. vii. Ql) in the commencement of that 
prince's reign, when it is acknowledged that Juvenal had produced 
but one or two of his Satires. 


prodaced what is now called his Seventh Satire, 
which he recited to a numerous assemblage. The 
consequences were such as he had probably anti-* 
cipated : Paris, informed of the part he bore in it, 
was seriously offended, and complained to the 
Emperour, who, as the old account has it,* sent 

* Mox magna frequentiaf magnoque succes9U bisac ttr 
tit; ut ea quoque qua prima feccrat^ wferdret novis scriptiif 

^* Quod non dant proceres dabit histrio, &c/' 

Sat. VII. 90—52. 

Erat ^urn in deiitm aul^ kUiriOj mmltique fautorum ejus quHidie 
pravekdHintun Venit ergo m suspicionem quasi tempora Jiguratt 
notasset : ac statim per honorem miUtioke^ quanquam aetogenarius^ 
urbe summotus, missmque ad prot/ecturam cohortis in extrema parte 
tendentis JSgypti. Id supplicH genus placnitf ut kvi atquejoculari 
delicto par esset, Verum intra brevissimvm tempus angore et tcedin 
periit. Saet. Passing by the interpolations of the old gram- 
miirianSf I shall, as before, have recourse to Dodwell. Reqitavit 
ni/aUorf omniA, emisitque in publicum cxviii. (Juvenal yms now 
fourscore !) postquam Romam venissit HtuirianuSf quern ilte prm», 
extern i benevolo ejus in hctc studia antmo^ in hac ipsa satira^ in qua 
cccurrunt wrba Ula de Paride eommendat. I61. Salmasius sup* 
posed that the last of his Satires only were published under 
Hadrian ; Dodwell goes further, and maintains that the whole, 
with the exception of the 1 5th and" l6tht C^ tamen vere et ilia 
JuvenaHs/uaitJ were then first produced ! JUa in Faridem dic^ 
teria kistrionem, in suum {cujus notnen non prodidit auctor) Mstri^ 

t The ibrmer of these, Dodwell says, was written in exile, 
after the author was turned of eighty. Salmasius, more rationally, 
conceives it to have 4leen produced at Rome* Giving full credit, 
however, to the story of his late banishment, he is driven into a 
very awkward supposition. An non alio tempore^ atque alia dc 
causa Mgyptum lustrare jwoenis potuit Jwoenalis f animi nempe 
gratiOf xa\ riK Iroftat X^^'> ^^ urbes regionis iUius, populorumque 
mores cqgnosceret f Would it not be more simple to attribute his 
exile at once to Domitian ? 

With respect to the l6*th Satire, DodwelU we see, hesitates to 
attribute it to Juvenal ; and indeed the old Scholiast says thati in 
his time, many thought il to be the work of a different band« So 
it always appeared to roe. It is unworthy of the author's bestj 

MiX, Tn^'^tttt Of JtrvtNAE/ 

the author, by ani eaisy kind of fmfii^hdelift, ItiUf 
Egypt with a milita^ comttiMd. To remove 

HctainterfhidSdtur Hainanus, I^de taiUt ^au$a. Scriprit 
trgo m' exilio AiK x v. Sed cum ^* nvper Contulem Jwaimm'* fu* 
tMe dicaiy ante annum ad mmimum cxx. seribere Ulam n<m pohni 
JuD, Nec vero pustea scripsissej exinde coUigimus, quod ** intra 
krtviisimum ttmpwT perierit. l64. Such is the manner in which 
Dodwetl adcotnmodafed Suetoniua to his dwn ideas : which seem 
a1iK> to have been those of a much higher name, Salmasius t and^ 
while I am now writing, to be sanctioned by the adoption of the 
learned Ruperti. I never affected singularity ; yet I find myself 
constrained to differ from them all : but I will state my reasons* 
Id his 7th Satire^ after speaking of Quintilian, Juvenal adds, 

'* Si fortuna volet, fies de rhctore consul : 
<* Si volet baec eadem fies de consule rhetor.** 

1^'hich, taking it for a proverbial expression, I have lodsely ren* 
dered, Fortune can make kings of pedants, and pedants of kings* 
Dodwell, however, undertttauds it literally. Mac sane cum Qum»^ 
filiani causa dicaty vis esi quin Q. taUm oitendant i rkeiore nimi* 
rum *' nobilemy Motaioriumy consularemy** et quidem tltu divitiit 
tnstructumf qua: ment etiam ad centum senatorium necessarkt. 1 52. 
Mow as Pliny, who probably died before Trajan, observes that 
Quintilian was a man of moderate fortune, it follows that he must 
have acquired the wealth and honours of which Ju%enal speaks^ 

days, and seems but little suited to his worst. He was at leaat 
eighty-one, they say, wheu he wrote it, yet it b^ins— 

« Nam si ■■ — — 

'* Me pavidum excipiet tyronem porta secanda 
«* Sidere, Ac." 

Surely, at thiif age, the writer resembled ^Hatn, the tremulua 
fliiYef, more than the timid tyrol Nor do I believe that Juvenal 
would haVe been much inclined to amuse himself with the funcied 
advantages of a profession to which he was so unworthily driven. 
But the satire vaMAt have been as ill-timed for the army as for 
himself, since it was prubably, at this period, in a better state of 
subjection than it had been for many reigns. 1 suppose it to be 
written, in professed imitation of our author's manner, about the 
age of Commodus. It has considerable merit, though the first 
and last paragraphs ate feeble and tautological; and thetxecutiow 
ef th« whok is much infcriour to the des^n* 

sucb a man froiA his 'court, inil%t ' undoubtedly 
have b^en deiifatik: to Domili^n ^ ahd, as -ht 

•••• , . \ ' , < t . % 

at. a, later period. Dodvvcll &xe$ this to the time when. Hadrian 
euter^ Rome ex vui.. which he states to be also thdt of the 
author's banishment. Ittri^ust be co^fii^ssedy that Juvenal lost no 
time in exerting hi mselt': be had reniaiii/?d sile^nt fourscore «y ears; 
he now bursts^ forth at once, as Dodwell expresses it,^ recites all 
bis Satire^ without intermission, {unis continukque reciiationibus^)^ 
celebrates Quintilian, attacks the Emperour, and is immediately 
despatched to Egypt! l62. Here is a great deal of. business 
crowded into the compasji of a few weeks, or, perhaps, days ;— 
but let us examine it a little more closely Rigaltius, with several 
of. the commentators, sees in the lines above quoted a sneer a^ 
Qufntiliai), and he accounts for the rhetor's silence respecting our 
Author^ by the resentment which he supposes him to have felt at 
it. As this militates strongly against Dodweil's ideas^ he will not 
allow that any thing severe >vas intended by the passage in ques* 
tion; and adds that Quintilian could not mention Juvenal as a 
satirist, because he had not then written any satires. l60. I 
believe that both are wiong. In speaking of the satirists, Quin- . 
tiliaa.^ays that Persius had justly acquired no inconsiderable 
degree of reputation by the little he had written. Ub. x. c. 1. 
He then adds, sunt clari hodieque et qui olim nominabuntur. There 
are yet some excellent ones, some who will be better known 
hereafter. It always appeared to me, that this last phrase alluded 
to our author, with whose extraordinary merits Quintilian was 
probably acquainted, but whom he did not choosci or, perhaps, 
did not dare to mention in a work composed under a prince whose 
crimes this unnamed satirist persecuted with a severity as unmiti- 
gated as it was just. Quintilian had no political courage. Either 
from a sense of kindness or fear, he flatters Domitian almost as 
grossly as Martial : — bat his life was a life of innocence and in- 
tegrity : I will therefore say no more on this subject ; but leave 
it to the reader to consider whether such a man was likely to 
startle the \' god of his idolatry" by celebrating the Satires of 

Nor do I agree with the commentators whom Dodwell has 
followed, in the literal interpretation of those famous lines. Unde 
igitur totj SfC. Sat. vii. v. 188 — 194. Quintilian was rich, when 
the rest of bis profession were in the extremes of want. Here 
then was an instance of good fortune. He was lucky ; and, with 
luck, a man may be any thing ; handsome, and witty, and wisev 
and noble, and high-born, and a member of the senate. Who 
does not see in this a satirical exaggeration ? Wisdom, beauty^ 


yfnfi9 Ipok^n of wUh kipdnqn; i« thp fpf^e S^re, 
9<^icn i^ iiitif^ly free fropq pQUtkal ^mi^s, ^r 

and hi^ birth, luck cannot ove: wby tben fbo^ld the ren^ainder 
of this passage be so strictly interpreted, and referred to the 
actual history pf Quintilian f The lines, l^i fortune vokt^ SfC, are 
still more lax : a reflection thrown oqt a( random, and express- 
^pg the greatest possible extremes of fortune. Yet on these au- 
thorities principally (for the passage of Ausonius, * written xpor^ 
than two centuries later, is of np great weight) has Quintilfan 
been advanced to consular honoi^rs ; while Dodwell, who, as we 
have seen, has taken immense pains to prove that they could only 
^ conferred on him by Hadrian, has hence deduced his strongest 
arguments for the late date of our author's Satires ; which he thus 
brings down to the period of mental imbecility 1 H^nce, too, h^ 
accounts for the different ideas of Quintilian's wealth ii\ Juvenal 
and Piiny. When the latter wrote, he thinks Quintilian had not 
acquired much property, he was ** modiau facuUatHnu :" when 
the former, ** he had been enriched by the imperial bounty, and 
was capable of senatorial honours." Yet Pliny might not think 
his old master rich enough to give a fortune with his daughter 

^ Q. cKmsularia per Ckmeatem amamenia soriif^S9 koneaiamfuia 
poihui videtvr quam insignia potestaiis hahuisse. In ^iUiar, act* 
Quindlian, tben, was not actually consul : but this is no gr^ 
matter-r-^it b of more consequence to ascertain the Cie|n«is by 
yrhom he was so honoured. In the prefiice to his fourth book, 
he says. Cum vero mihi Dom. Aufpattm ioroni tutt ntpotum dele* 
gavit curam^ Spc, Vespasian had a daughter, Domatilla, who 
married, and died long before her &thet : she loft a daughter^ 
who was given to Flavius Clemens, by whom she had two sons. 
These were the grandchildren of Domitian's sister, of whoiql 
Quintilian speaks; and to their father, Clemens, arcording to 
Ausonius, he was indebted for the show, though not the reality, 
of power. l*here is nothing incongruous in all this ; yet so pos-* 
scssod are Dodwell and his numerous followers (among whom I 
am sorry to rank Dusaulx) of the late period at which it hap- 
pened, that they will needs have Madrian to be meant by Domif* 
tianutt Augustus, though the detestable flattery which follows ib# 
words I have quoted, most indisputably proves it to be Domitian ; 
and though Dodwell himself is forced to confess that he can laid 
uo Clemens under Hadrian to whom the passage applies : Qui» 
autem fuerit Clemtns Hie qui Q. omamenta ilia ^ Hadriano tMh 
j^etraverity me sanejateor ignararc ! lfi5. 


■* fatettoosnesd'* of the punuhtntnt (though Do* 
mittan*8 mtbb not t facedotts reign) renders the 
fact not altogether improbable. Yet, Mrhen we 
consider that these reflections on Paris could 
scarcely have been published before Lxxxfv. and 
that the favourite was disgraced and put to death 
almost immediately after, we shall be inclined 
to doubt whether his banishment actually Cook 
place ; or, if it did, whether it was of any long 

adequate to tbe expeetatiims of a man oi considerable rank, 
(Lib. VI. 32.) though Juvenal» writing at the same iiifttaiif, 
might term him weakhy, in comparison of the rhetoricians who 
were starving around him ; and count him a peculiar favourite of 
Ibrtuaeg Let us bear in rotm), too, that Juvenal is a satirist, and 
a poet : in the latter capacity, the minute accuracy of an annalist 
cannot be expected at his hands ; and in tbe former-«-as his ob* 
ject was to show the general discouregcmeat of literature, he 
could not, consistently with his plan, attribute the solitary good 
fortune of Ciai»tiliau to any thing but luck. 

But why was Quiiitilian made consul ? Because, replies Dod- 
well (164), when Hadrian first entered Rome, he was desirous of 
gaining the affections of the peoplQ ; which could be done no way 
so effectually as by conciliating the esteem of the literati ; and bo 
therefore conferred this extraordinary mark of favour on tho 
rhetorician. How did it escape this learned roan, that'he was 
likely to do himself more injury in their opinion by the banish- 
meot of Juvenal at that same instant ? an- old man of fourscore, 
who^ by his own testimouy, had spoken of him with kindness, in 
a poem which did more honour to his reign than any thing pro- 
dpced in rt ! and whose onfy crim^ was an allnsion to the influ* 
enCe of a favourite player !—Indeerf, the informers of Hadrian's 
leign musthavehad more-sagacious noses than those of Domitian's, 
to smell out his fault What Statius, in his titite, was celebrated 
for the recitation of a Thebald, or what Paris, for the purchase 
of an tmtonftched Agave ? And where, migtit we ask Dodwell,was 
the ** jest*' of sending a man on the verge of the grave, in a mili- 
tary capacity, into Egypt ? Could the most supple of Hadrian's 
courtiers look on it as any thing but a wanton exercise of cruelty ? 
At eighty, the business of satirisdng, either in prose or verse, is 
nearly over : what had the Empcrour then to fear ? And to sum 
up all, in a word. Can any rational being seriously persuade him- 
self that the Satires of Juvenal were produced, for the first time, 
by a man turned of fourscore ! 

C 2 


Jn xcV, wh^o JvvQiial wm in hi$ 64th year, 
DomitiaR baniibcd the pililo9opher$ from Romei 

.que^tidn \ the second was consul A. D. Itlf the third in 39f ^tid 
the fourth in 68. If we take the second, and add any inter- 
mediate number of yean between sixty and seventy, for Calvinus 
had passed his sixtieth year, it will just bring us down to th« 
early part df Domitian's reign, which I suppose to be the true 
date of this Satire ; for I cannot believe, as 1 have already ob* 
served, that this, or indeed any part of Juvenal's works, was pro- 
duced when he was trembling on the verge of ninety, as must be 
the case if either of the latter periods be adopted. But he ob« 
serves, Hitc quota pan tcekrum qnm custos Gailictu urtis^ 3fC. 
Now Rutilius Gallicus was prefect of Rome from the end of 85 
to 88, (Domitian succeeded his brother in 8I9) in which year he 
died. There seems to be no necessity for mentioning a magistrate 
us sitting, who was not then in existence; nor can ^y reason be 
assigned, if the Satire was written under Hadrian, for the author's 
recurring to the times of Domitian for a name, when that of the 
custos urbis of the day would have better answered his purpose. 
It is probable that Gallicus succeeded Pegasgs, who was prxfect 
when the ridiculous farce of the turbot took place (Sat. iv.) ; 
this would fix it to 85, the year before Fuscus, who was present 
at it, WHS sent into D^cia. 

I This Satire is referred by the criticka to the reign of Traj«n» 
because Marius, whose triid took place under that prince, it 
mentioned in it. I hdve attributed it to an earlier period ; prin- 
cipally moved by the consideration that it presents a fiiithful 
copy of tho state of Rome and the conquered provinces under 
Nero, and which could scarcely have been g^vea in such vivid 
colours after the original had ceased to affect the mind. What 
Rome was under Domitian, may be seen in the second Satire^ 
and the difference, which has not been sufficiently attended to, is 
striking in the extreme. I would observe too, that Juvenal speaks 
here of the crismes of Marius :«»^they might h^f and probably 
were, committed long before his condemnation ; but under Do- 
mitian, it was scarcely safe to attempt bringing such gigantick 
peculators to justice. Add to this, that the other culprits men- 
tioned iu it, are all of them prior to that prince; nay, one of 
them, Capito, was tried so early as the beginning of Nero's rejgn» 
The insertion of Marius, however, (which might be an after- 
thought,) forms a main argument with Dodwell for the very late 
date of this Satire ; he observes that it had escaped Upsius and 
Salnuisius; and boMts of it, as longc certinimum 4*c« 156, 

till iirs or juvfiNAL. xxxk 

atul aooa afUr frdm lUly, if^ith iftaiiy dirctaMt^ 
stances of cruelty; an action, (at which, I iiU' 
sorry to observe^ he is covertly praised by Quin- 
tilian. Though Juvenal, strictly speaking, did 
not come under the description of a philosopher, 
yet, like the hare in the fable, he might not un- 
reasonably entertain some apprehensions for hii 
safety, and, with many other persons eminent for 
learning and virtue^ judge it prudent to with* 
draw from the city. To this period I have 
always inclineci to fix his journey to Egypt. 
Two years afterwards the world was happily 
relieved from the tyranny of Domitian; and 
Nerva, who succeeded him, recalled the exiles. 
From this time, there remains little doubt of Ju- 
venal's being at Rome, where he continued his 
studies in tranquillity. 

His first Satire, after the death of Domitian, 
seems to have been what is now called the fourth. 
About this time, too, he probably thought of 
revising and publishing those which he had al- 
ready written ; and composed that introductory 
piece,* which now stands at the head of his 
works. As the order is every where broken in 
upon, it is utterly impossible to arrange them 
chronologically ; but I am inclined to think that 
the eleventh Satire closed his poetical career. 

* I have ofW wondered at the stress which Dodwell and 
others lay on the concluding lines of this Satire : Experiar quH 
tomcedahat^ 4^. They fisocy the engagement was seriously made,* 
and religjoosly observed. Nothing was ever further from the 
^ind of Juvenal. It is merely a poetical, or if you will, a sa« 
tiiica!, ffourish ; since there is not a single Satire, I am well 
peisoadedy in which the namek of many, who were dive at the 
tmef are not introduced. Had Dodwell forgotten Quintilian f 
or» that he had allowed one of his Satires, at least, to he prior ta 

Xi , , TJ«£ JLIJFE OF. JUV^ENAt.; 

All. else. is, icoojecture ;. but. in thisi: fa^^ s]p!eaks of 
l^imsalf astatiiold man, , ' . . . .. '• 

• « * 

< « Nostra bibat vemum contracta cutkula 'sol6hi V* 

and^Jndeed K'e had now passed his grantf clittiac- 
tcrick. * * /, * ' 

^ "This IS all that can be collected of the life oP 
jAiVenal ;' and how much ot this is built upon 
unciertainties ! I hope, however, thjtt it beafs the 
staitip oP probability ; which is all I contend Tor ; 
atid which, indeed, if I do oot deceive myself, is 
somewhat tnore than c*in be affirmed of'^hat has 
been hithertb delivered ori the subject. . 

Little is known of Juvenal's circumstancds ; but, 
happily, that little is authentick, as it comes from 
himself. He had a competence. The dignity of 
poetry is never disgraced in him, as it is in some 
of his contemporaries, by fretful complaints of 
poverty, or clamorous whinings for meat and 
clothes : — the little patrimony which his foster- 
father left him, he never diminished, and pro- 
bably never increased. It seems to have equalled 
all his wants, and, as far as appears, all his wishes. 
Once only he regrets the narrowness of his for- 
tune: but the occasion does him honour; it is 
solely because he cannot afford a more costly 
sacrifice to express his pious gratitude for the 
preservation of his friend : yet *' two lambs and 
a youthful steer" bespeak the affluence of a phi- 
losopher ; which is not belied by the entertain- 
ment provided for his friend Persictas, in that 
beautiiul Satire which I have called here the last 
of his works. Further it is useless to seek : from 
, pride or modesty, he has left no other notices^of 
himself; or, they have perished. Horace and 
Persius, his immediate predecessors, are never 
weary, of 'Speaking of themselves. The life of 


the former might be written, from his own mate- 
rials, with ail the minuteness of a contemporary 
history : and the latter, who attained to little more 
than a third of Juvenal's age, has left nothing to 
be desired on the only topicks which could inte- 
rest posterity, — his parent, his preceptor, and his 
course of studies. 

/:n- an essay 




It will now be expected from me, perhapsi to 
9ay something on the nature and design qF Satire ; 
but in truth this has so frequently been dpne^ 
that it seems, at present, to have as little of 
novelty as of utility, to recommend it. 

Dryden, who had diligently studied the French 
criticks, drew up from their remarks, assisted hy 
a cursory perusal #f what Gasaubon, Heinsius^ 
Rigaltius, and Scali^er had written on the subject) 
an account of the rise and progress of dramatick 
and satirick poetry amongst the Romans ; which 
he prefixed to his translation of JuvenaL What 
Dryden knew, he ^ told in a manner that renders 
every attempt to recount it after him, equally 
hopeless and vain; but his acquaintance with 
works of literature was not very extensive, while 
his reliance on his own powers sometimes betrayed 
him into inaccuracies, to which the influence of 
his name gives a dangerous importance. 

<' The comparison of Horace with Juvenal and 
Persius/' which makes' a principal part of his 
Essay, is not formed with much niceuess of dis- 
crimination, or accuracy of judgment. To speak 
my mind, 1 do not think that he clearly perceived, 
v fully understood, the characters of the first 



two-— >or Persius indeed he had an intimate know^ 
ledge ; for, though he certainly deemed too hum- 
bly of his poetry, be yet speaks of his beauties 
and detects, in a manner which evinces a more 
than common acquaintance with both. 

What Dryden left imperfect has been filled tip 
in a great measure by Dusaulx, in the preliminary 
discourse to his translation of 'Juvenal, and by 
Ruperti, in his critical and ingenious Es^y De 
diver sa Satirarum LuciL Horat. Pers. ei Juvenalis 
indole. With the assistance of these, I shall en- 
deavour to give a more extended view of the 
characteristick excellencies and defects of the 
rival Satirists, than has yet appeared in our lan- 
guage ; little solicitous for the praise of originality, 
if I may be allowed to aspire to that of candour 
and truth. Previously to this, however, it will 
be necessary to say something on the supposed 
origin of Satire : and as this is a very beaten 
subject, I shall discuss it as bfiefly as possible. 

It is probable that the first metrical compo- 
sitions of the Romans, like those of every other 
people, were pious effusions for fevours received 
or expected from the gods: Of these, the earliest, 
according to Varro, were the hymns to Mars, 
which, though used by the Salii in the Augustan 
age, were no longer intelligible. To these, suc- 
ceeded the Fescennine verses, which were sung, 
or rather recited, after the vintage and harvest, 
and appear to have been little more than rude 
praises of the tutelar divinities of the country, 
intermixed with clownish jeers and sarcasms, ex- 
temporally poured out by the rusticks in some 
kind of measure, and indifferently directed at the 
audience, or at one another. These, by degrees, 
assumed the form of a dialogue ; of which, as 
nature is every where the same^ and the progress 

oF r^fincm^nt but little Tarted/some resemblance 
may perhaps be found in the grosfser eclogues' ciT 

Thus improved^ (if the word may bb sdldwed 
of such barbarous amusements,) they formed, for 
near three centuries, the delight of tliatf^nation: 
popular favour, however, had a dangerous efiect 
on the performers, whose liceutiousness degene- 
rated at length into such < wild invective, that it 
was found necessary to restrain it by a positive 
law: Si qui populo occerU'assitj earmenve condisit, 
auod in/amiam faxit jlagitiumve alieri^ Juste Jerito. 
From this time, we hear no further complaints of 
the Fescennine verses, which continued to charm 
the Romans; until, about a century afterwards^ 
and during the ravages of a dreadful i pestilence, 
the senate, as the historians say, in Oider to pro* 
pitiate the gods, called in a* troop of players from 
Tuscany, to assist at the celebration of their 
ancient festivals. This was a wise and a salutary 
measure : the plague had spread dejection through 
the city, which was thus rendered more obnoxious 
to its fury ; and it therefore became necessary i^ by 
novel and extraordinary amusements, to divert 
the attention of the people from the melan(!;holy 
objects around them. 

As the Romans were unacquainted with the 
language of Tuscany, the players, Livy tells ui», 
omitted the modulation and the words, and con^* 
fined themselves solely to gestures, which were 
accompanied by the flute. This imperlect exhi' 
bition, however, was so superiour to their own, 
that the Romans eagerly strove to attain the art ; 
and as soon as they could imitate what they 
admired, graced their rustick measures with niu- 
siclc and dancing. By degrees, they dropped 
the Fescennine verses, for something of a more 


regtilir Mnd, which now took the name of 

These Satires (For as yet they had but tittle claim 
lo thfc title of dramas) continued, without much 
^ alteration, to the year 514^ when Lirius Andro- 
nicua, a Greek by birth, and a freedman of L. 
Salinator, who was undoubtedly acquainted with 
the old comedy of his country, produced a re- 
gular play. That it pleased, cannot be doubted, 
for it surpassed the Satires, even in their improved 
State; and indeed banished them for some time 
from the scene. They bad however taken too 
strong a hold of the affections of the people to 
be easily forgotten, and it was therefore found 
necessary to reproduce and join them to the plays 
of Andronicos, (the superiority of which could 
Qot be contested) under the name of Exodia or 
Afterpieces. These partook, in a certain degree, 
of the general amelioration of the stage ; some- 
thing like a story was now introduced into them, 
which, though frequently indecent, and always 
extravagant, created a greater degree of interest, 
than the reciprocation of gross humour and scur- 
rility in unconnected dialogues. 

Whether any of the old people still regretted 
this sophi!>lication of their early amusements, it is 

^ The origin of this word is now acknowledged to be Roman. 
Scaliger derived it from ^arvpof, (9atym9^) but Casaubon, Dader 
and others, more reasonably , from satura, (fcm. of saiurf) ncb» 
abounding, full of variety. In this sense it was applied to the 
lanx or charger, in which the various productions of the soil were 
offered up to the gods ; and thus came to be used for any mis* 
cellaneous collection in general. Satnra ella, a hotch-potch ; 
saturct ieges^ laws cemprehendiug a multitude of regulations^ &C* 
This deduction of the name nay serve to expUin, in some mea* 
sure, the nature of the fir»t Satires, which treated of various sub« 
jects, and were full of various matters : but enough on this trite 

tOHAK SATtMSV*. xlVtt 


hod euy ta lay ] but Efiniud, who ^ame to Rome 
about twenty years afVer thi$ period, and whowai 
inojre than half a Grecian, conceived that he 
should perform an acceptable service by reviving 
the ancient SatiMs. * He did not pretend to 
Mstore them to the stage, for which indeed the 
new pieces were infinitely better calculated/but 
endeavoured to adapt them to the closet, by re^ 
fining their grossness, and softening their asperity. 
Success justified the attempt ; Satire, thus freed 
from action, and formed into a poern^ became a 
favourite pursuit, and was cultivated by several 
writers of emipepce^ In imitation of his niodel, 
Ennius confined himself to no particular species 
of verse, npr indeed of language, for he mingJecJ 
Greek expressioAs with his Latin, at pleatiure. It 
is solely with a reference to thi^ new attempt^ 
that Horace and Qutntilian are to be undei stood, 
when they claim for the Romans the invention -f 

* It should be obterved, however, that the idea was obvious, 
and the work it$elf highly necessary. Th^ old Satire, ^mkbi 
much coarse ribaldry, frequently attacked the follies »nd vices of 
the day. Tbia could not be dono by the conwdy which !»uper-r 
fieded it« and whicby by a strange perversity of taste» was never 
rendered n^tioQal. Its customs, manners* nay, its very plots, 
vere Grecian; ^nd scarcely more appbca,ble to the |lomai>s tUan 
to us. 

f To extend this to Ludlios, as is sometimes done, is absurd, 
nnoe be evidently had in view the old comedy of the Greeks, of 
frhich bis Satires, accorcKn^ to Horace, were rigid imitations : 

** Eupolis atque Cratinus, Aristophanesque poets^ 
*' Atque alii, quorum comcedia prisci^ virorum est; 
** Si quis erat dignus dcscribi, quod malua, aut fur, 
'^ Quod mcecbus foiet, aut siqurius, aut alioqui 
** Famosus^ multa cum libertate notabant, 
^ HiNc omais pendet Lucilius, hosce secutus, 
*' Mutatis tantum pedibus, numerisque :" — 

(lore the matter would seem to be at once determined by a very 
competent jud^ Strip the old Greek comedy of its action, and 

of this kind of poetry; ahd . certainly they had 
opportmiilie;^ of judging, which' we have not^ for 
little of Ennius, and nothing of the :old' satire, 

It is not necessary to pursue the history of 
Satire furthier in this place, op to speak of another 
species of it, the Varronian of, as Varro himself 
called it, the Menippeaq, which :btanciied out 

change the metre from iambick to heroick^ and you hnxa the 
JRoman Satire ! It is evident from this, that uuless two thiiifg^ be 
granted ; first, that the actors in those ancient satires were igno* 
rant of the existence of the Greek comedy ; and secondly, that 
Knnius, who knew it well, passed it by for a ruder itiodel ; the 
Roman<( can have no pretenbions to the honour they claim. 

And even if these be granted, the honour appeal^ to be scarcely 
Worth the claiming ; for the Greeks had not only dramatick, but 
lyrick and heroick satire. To pass by the Margites, what were 
the iambicks of Archilochus, and the scazotis of Hipponax, but 
sft^ires? nay, what weVe the Silli F'—Casaubon derives them a«ro 
Tov 0-(^Xaiyi»v, to scoff, to treat petulantly ; and there is no doiibt 
of the justness of his derivation. These little pieces were made up 
of passages from various poems, which, by slight alterations^ w^re 
humorously or satirically applied at will. The satires of Ennius 
fvcrc probably little more ; indeed we have the authority 
of Diomedes the grammarian, for it. After speaking of Lucilius^ 
whose writings he derives, with Horace, from the old comedy, he 
adds, el oiim carmen, quod ex variis poentatihus constahat, satira 
vocabaiur ; quale scrip$trunt Paaivhis et Ennius. Modern criticks 
agree in understanding ex variis poetnatibus, of various kinds of 
metre ; but, I do not see why it may not mean, as I have ren- 
dered it, ** of various poems ;' unless we choOste to compliment 
the Romans, by suppot^ing 4hat what wa^ in the Gceekt a mere 
cento, was in them an original composition* 

Jt would scarcely be doing justice, however, to Knnius»to sup- 
pose that he did not surpass his models, for,to say the truth, the 
Greek Silii appear to have been no \ery extraordinary perform- 
ances. A few short specimens of them muy be seen in Diogenes 
Lacrtius, and a longer one, \^hich has escaped the writers on this 
subject, in Dio Chryso<itom. As this is, perhaps, the only Greek 
satire extant, it may b': regarded as a curiosity; and as such » 
for as a literary effort it is worth nothing, a short extract from it 
may not be uninteresting. Sneering at the people of Alexandria^ 
ioT their mad attachment lo chariot-races, 6:c« he sa^s^ this folly 

fVom the former, and was 1 mi^dley of prose and 
Terse: it will be a more pleasing, as well as a 
more useful employ, to entel* a little into what 
Dry den, I know not for what teason, calls the 
most difficult part of his undertaking ; ^^ a com- 
parative view of the Satirists ;" not certainly with 
the design of depressing one at the expense of 
another, (for though I have translated Juvenal, I 
have tio quarrel with Horace and Persius,) but 
for the purpose of pointing out the characteristick 
excellencies* and defects of them all. To do this 
the more effectually, it will be previously neces* 
sary to take a cursory view of the times in which 
their respective works were produced. 

LuGiLius, to whom Horace^ forgetting what 
he had said in another place, attributes the in- 
vention of Satire, flourished in the interval be- 
tween the siege of Carthage and the defeat of the 
Gimbri and Teutons, by Matius. He lived there- 
fore in an age in which the struggle between the 
old and new manners, though daily becoming 
more equal, or rather inclining to the worse side, 
was still far from being decided. The freedom of 
speaking and writing, was yet unchecked by fear, 
or by any law more precise than that which^ as 

of tbeirs is not ill exposed by one of those scurrilous writers of 
(Silli, or) parodies: » xox^f n^ waptwotfi^ rut cetvfvt rwtut 

Omcoi^ iir aftrtfoi^y mO Iraaettf »^' tKcAiifro, 
XAtf^oi vvetk liic^f vi^dCvfMvoty af vvo niai^ 

HvTt irtp uXayyii ytfawp WiXit, in ttoXowf, 
Ai r ffrii Iff ^vdoir r'f vioy, xcu aBtcvarot ei»oy» 
KK^Yfi '^Al 71 vfTorr«i avQ rah^w lel^fvSlf• «< r. X* 

Ad Akxand, Orat. xxxii. 


has been already mentioned, was introduced to 
restrain the coarse ebullitions of rustick malignity* 
Add tpi this, that Lucilius was of a most respect* 
able family, (he was great-uncle to Pompey,) and 
lived in habits of intimacy with tlue chiefs of the 
rcpublick, with La&lius, Scipio, and others^ who 
were well able to protect him from the Lupi and 
Mutii of the dayi ha(i they attempted, which they 
probably did not, to silence or molest him. Hence 
that boldness of sajLirizing th^ vicious by name, 
which startled Horace, and on which Jlivenal and 
Persius delight to felicifcate him. 

Too little remains of Lucilius, to enable us to 
judge *of his manner : his style seems, however, to 
bear fewer marks of delicacy than of strength, and 
his strictures appear harsh and violent. With all 
this, he must have been an extraordinary man ; 
since Horace, who is evidently hurt by his repu- 
tation, can say nothing worse of his compositions 
than that they are careless and hasty, and that if 
he had lived at a more refined period, he would 
have partaken of the general amelioration* I do 
not remember to have heard it observed, but I sus- 
pect that there was something of political spleen in 
the excessive popularity of Lucilius under Augus- 
tus, and something of courtly complacency in the 
attempt of Horace to counteract it. Augustus en- 
larged the law of the twelve tables respecting li- 
bels ; and the people, who found themselves thus 
abridged of the liberty of satirizing the great by 
name, might not improbably seek to avenge them- 
selves, by an overstrained attachment to tne works 
of a man who, living, as they would insinuate, in 
better times, practised without fear, what he en- 
joyed without restraint. 

The space between Horace and his predecessor, 
was a dreadful interval *' filled up with horrour 


M, and big with death/' Luxury and a long train 
of vic^s which followed the immense wealth inces* 
santly poured in from the conquered' provinces, 
sapped the foundations of the republick, which 
were finally shaken to pieces by the civil wars, the 
perpetual dictatorship of Caesar, and the second 
triumvirate, wl\ich threw the Roman world, with- 
out a hope of escape, into the power of an indi* 

Augustus, whose sword was yet reeking with ther 
best blood of the state, now that submission left 
him no pretence for further cruelty, was desirous 
of enjoying in tranquillity the fruits of his guilt. 
He displayed, therefore, a magnificence hitherto 
unknown ; and his example, which was followed 
by his ministers, quickly spread among the people, 
who were not very unwilling to exchange the agi- 
tation and terrour of successive proscriptions, for 
the security and quiet of undisputed despotism. 

Tiberius had other views, and other methods of 
accomplishing them. He did not indeed put an 
actual stop to the elegant institutions of his prede- 
cessor, but he surveyed them with silent contempt, 
and they rapidly degenerated. The race of infor- 
mers multiplied with dreadful celerity ; and dan- 
ger, which could only be averted by complying 
with a caprice not always easy to discover, created 
an abject disposition, fitted lor the reception of the 
grossest vices, and eminently favourable to the 
designs of the Emperour ; which were to procure, 
by universal depravation, that submission which 
Augustus sought to obtain by the blandishments 
of luxury, and the arts. 

From this gloomy and suspicious tyrant, the 
empire was transferred to a profligate madman. It 
can scarcely be told without indignation, that when 
the sword of Cbaerca bad freed the earth from his 

d S 


disgraceful sway, the senate had not sufficient viN 
tue to resume the rights of which they had been 
deprived ; but, after a timid debate, delivered up 
the state to a pedantick dotard, incapable of go* 
v^eming himself. 

' To the vices of his predecessors, Nero added a 
frivolity which rendered his reign at once odious 
and contemptible. Depravity could reach no ftir- 
ther, but misery might yet be extended. Thid 
was fully experienced through the turbulent and 
murderous usurpations of Galba, Otho, and Vi- 
tellius ; when the accession of Vespasian and Titus 
gave the groaning world a temporary respite. 

To these succeeded Domitian, whose crimed 
form the subject of many a melancholy page in 
the ensuing work, and need not therefore be dwelt 
on here. Under him, every trace of ancient man- 
ners was obliterated; liberty was unknown, law 
openly trampled upon, and, while the national 
rites were either neglected or contemned, a base 
and blind superstition took possession of the en- 
feebled and distempered mind. 

Better times followed. Nerva, and Trajan, and 
Hadrian, and the Antonines, restored the Romans 
to safely and tranquillity ; but they could do no 
more; liberty and virtue were j^one for ever: and 
after a. short period of comparative happiness, 
which they scarcely appear to have deserved, and 
which brought with it no amelioration of mind, 
no return of the ancient modesty and frugality, 
they were finally resigned to destruction. 

I now proceed to the '* comparative view" of 
which I have already spoken ; as the subject has 
been so often treated, little of novelty can be ex- 
pected from it: to read, compare, and judge, is 
almost all that remains. 

HouACE, who was gay, and lively, and gentle, 


and affectionate, seems fitted for tlie period in 
which he wrote. He had seen the worst times of 
the republick, and might therefore, with no ^reat 
suspicion of his integrity, be allowed to acquiesce 
in the infant monarchy, which brought with it 
stability, peace, and pleasure. How he reconciled 
himself to his political tergiversation it is useless 
to inquire.* W hat was so general, we may sup- 
pose, brought with it but little obloquy; and it 
Should be remembered, to his praise, that he took 
no active part in the government he had once op- 
posed :t If he celebrates the master of the world, 
it is not until he is asked by him whether he is 
ashamed that posterity should know them to be 
friends ; and he declines a post, which few of his 
detractors have merit to deserve, or virtue to 

His choice of privacy, however, was in some 
measure constitutionsil ; for he had an easiness of 
femper which bordered on indolence ; hence he 

' ^ I doubt whether he was ever a good royalist at heart ; he fre- 
quentiy, perhaps unconsciously, betrays a lurking dissatisfaction ; 
but having, as Johnson says of a niuch greater man, tasted the 
honey of foyour, he did not choose to return to hunger and phi- 
losophy. Indeed, he was not happy ; in the country he sighs for 
the town, in town for the country ; and he is always restless, and 
straining after something which he never obtains. To float, like 
Aristippus, with the stream, is a bad recipe for felicity ; there 
should be some fixed principle, by which the passions and desires 
may be regulated. 

t He is careful to disclaim all participation in publick affairs. 
He accompanies ^I^|pcenas in his carriage, but their chat, he 
wishes it to be believed, is on the common topicks of the day, 
the weather, amusements, &c. Though this may not be strictly 
true, it is yet probable that politicks furnished but a small part of 
their conversation. That both Augustus and his minister were 
warmly attached to him, cannot be denied, but then it was as to 
a plaything. In a word, Horace seems to have been the enfant 
gate of the palace, aad was view/edj 1 beiievei with more tender* 
ncss than respect. 


pever rises to the dignity of a decided character. 
Zeno and Epicurus share his homage, and undergo 
his ridicule by turns : he passes without difficulty 
from one school to another, and he thinks it C( 
sufficient excuse for his versatility, that he conti* 
nues, amidst every change, the zealous defender 
of virtue. Virtue, however, abstractedly consi* 
dered, has few obligations to his zeaL 

But though, as an ethical writer, Horace has 
not many claims to the esteem of posterity ; as a 
critick, he is entitled to all our veneration. Such 
IB the soundness of his judgment, the correctness 
of his taste, and the extent and variety of his know 
ledge, that a body of criticism might be selected 
from his works, more perfect in its kind than any 
thing which antiquity has bequeathed us. 

As he had little warmth of temper, he reprove^ 
his contemporaries without harshness. He is con* 
tent to " dwell in decencies," and, like Pope's 
courtly dean, never meniions hell to ears polite, r er- 
sius, who was infinitely better acquainted with him 
than we can pretend to be^ describes him^ 1 think, 
with great happiness : 

'^ Omne vafer vitium rid6nti Flaccus amico 
** Tangit, et admissus circum pnecordia ludit, 
*^ Callidus excusso populum suspendere naso.** 

'^ He* with a sly insinuating grace, 
'' Laugh'd at hb friend, and look'd him in the face ; 
** Would raise a blush, where secret vice he found, 
" And tickle, while he gently probed the wound. 
*' With seeming innocence the crowd beguil'd ; 
** But made the desperate passes when he smil'd.'* 

These beautiful lines have a defect under which 
Drydep's translations frequently labour ; they dp 
not give the true sense of the original. Horace 
*'^ raised no blush,** (at least Persius doe^ jaot insi- 
nuate any such thing,) and certainly f< made no 


desperate passes/'* His aim rather t^eems to "be^ 
to keep the objects of his satire in goo4 humoar 
with, himself, and with one another. 

To raise a laugh at vice, however, (supposing it 
feasible^) is -not the legitimate o£Sce of Satire, which 
]& to hold up the vicious, as objects of reprobation 
and SGpm, for the example of others, who may be 
deterred by their sufferings. But it is time to be 
explicit. To laugh even at fools is superfluous ; 
— if they understand you, they will join in the 
merriment ; but more commonly, they will sit with 
vacant unconcern, and gaze at their own pictures r 
to laugh at the vicious, is to encourage them ; for 
there is in such men a wilfulness of disposition, 
which prompts them to bear up against shame, 
and to show how little they regard slight reproof, 
by becoming more audacious in guilt.. Goodness, 
of which the characteristick is modesty, may, I 
fear, be shamed ; but vice, like folly, to be re- 
9trained| must be overawed. Labeo, says Hall, 
with great energy : 

^ Labeo is whipt, and laughs me in the face ; 
<* Why ? for I sAiitCy and hide the galled place. 
** Gird but the Cynick's helmet on his head, 
** Cares he for Talus, 6t his flayle of lead T 

Peksius, who borrowed so much of Horace's 
language, has little of his manner. The immediate 
object of his imitation seems to be Lucilius ; and 
if he lashes vice with less severity than his great 

^ Mr. Dmmnond has given this passage with equal elegance, 
and truth : 

** With greater art sly Horace gain'd his end, 

•* But spared no failing of his smiling friend; 

•* Sportive and pleasant rotmd the heart he play'd, 

" And wrapt in jests the censure he convcy'd; 

" With such address his vrilling victims seized, 

" That tickled fools were rallied, and were pleased.* 


prototype, the cause must not be sought in any 
desire to spare what he so evidently condemned. 
But he was thrown ^^ on evil times ;". he was; be-r 
aides, of a rank distinguished enough to make his 
freedom dangerous, and of an age, when life had 
yet lost little of its novelty ; to write, therefore, 
even as he has written, proves him to be a person 
of very singular courage and virtue. 

In the' interval between Horace and Persius, 
despotism had changed its nature : the chains- 
which the policy of Augustus concealed in flowers, 
were now displayed in all their hideousness. The 
arts were neglected, literature of every kind dis-* 
couraged, or disgraced, and terrour and suspicion 
substituted in the place of the former ease and se- 
curity. Stoicism, which Cicero accuses of having 
infected poetry, even in his days, and of which 
the professors, as Quintilian observes, always dis* 
regarded the graces and elegancies of composition, 
spread with amazing rapidity.* In this school 
Persius was educated, under the care of one of its 
most learned 2^nd respectable masters- 
Satire was not his first pursuit: indeed, he 
seems to have somewhat mistaken his talents when 
he applied to it. The true end of this species of 
Writing, as Dusaulx justly says, is the improve- 
ment of society ; but for this, much knowledge of 

* Dusaulx accounts for this by the general consternation* 
Most of those, be says, distingtfisbed for talents or ranki took re* 
Aige in the school of Zeno ; not so much to learn in it bow to 
live» as how to die. I think, on the contrary, that this would ra« 
ther have driven them into the arms of Epicurus. ** Let us eat 
and drink, for to-morrow we die," will generally be fouud, I be- 
lieve, to be the maxim of dangerous times. It would not be diffi- 
cult to show, if this were the place for it, that the prevalency of 
Stoicism was due to the increase of profligacy, for which it fur- 
nished a convenient cloak. This, however, does not apply to 


mankind (quicauid agunt komptesj is previously 
liecessary. Wnoever is deficient in that, may be 
an excellent moral and philosophical poet; but 
cannot with propriety, lay claim to the honours 
of a satirist. 

And Persius was moral and philosophical in a 
high degree: he was also a poet of no mean order; 
But while he grew oale over the page of Zeno» 
and Gleanthes, and Ghrysippus ; while he imbibed, 
.with all the ardour of a youthful mind, the para- 
doxes of those great masters, together with their 
principles, the foundations of civil society were 
crumblinearouud him, and soliciting his attention 
in vain. To judge from what he has left us, it 
might almost be affirmed that he was a stranger in 
his own country. The degradation of Rome was 
now complete ; yet he felt, at least he expresses, 
no indignation at the means by which it was ef*> 
fected : a sanguinary buffoon was lording it over 
thjc prostrate world; yet he continued to waste 
his most elaborate efforts on the miserable preten- 
sions of pedants in prose and verse ! If this savour 
of the impassibility of Stoicism, it is intitled to no 
great praise on the score of outraged humanity, 
which has stronger claims on a well regulated 
Hiind, than criticism, or even philosophy. 

Dryden gives that praise to the dogmas - of Per* 
sius, which he denies to his poetry. ^^ His verse,** 
he says, '* is scabrous and hobbling, and his mea- 
sures beneath those of Horace.** This is too se- 
yere; for Persius has many exquisite passages, 
which nothing in Horace will be found to equal 
or approach. The charge of obscurity, has been 
urged against him with more justice ; though this, 
perhaps, is not so great as it is usually represented. 
Gasaubon could, without question, have defended 
him more successfully than he has done ; but he 


to the Capitol^ flourished beneath his auspices ; 
and the remembrance of so many civil dissensions^ 
succeeding each other with increasing rapidity, 
excited a degree of reverence for the Author of 
this unprecedented tranquillity. The Romans fe- 
licitated themselves, at not lying down, as before, 
with an apprehension of finding themselves in* 
eluded, when they awoke, in the list of proscrip- 
tion : and neglected, amidst the amusements of the 
Circus and Amphitheatre, those civil rights of 
vhich their fathers had been so jealous. 

** Profiting of these circumstances, Horace for* 
got that he had combated on the side of liberty. 
A better courtier than a soldier, he clearly saw 
how far the refinement, the graces, and the culti- 
vated state of his genius {qualities not much con- 
sidered or regarded till his tipie'^) were caps^ble of 
advancing him, without any extraordinary effort. 

*^ Indifferent to the future, and not daring to 
recall the past, bethought of nothing but securing 
himself from all that could sadden the mind, and 
disturb the system which he had skilfully arranged 
on the credit of those theq in power. It is on this 
account, ^hat, of all his contemporaries, he has 
celebrated none but the friends of his master, or, 
at least, those whom he could praise without fear 
of compromising his favour. 

** In what I have said of Horace niy phief de- 
sign has been to show that this Proteus, who 
counted among his friends and admirers even those 

♦ This is a very strange observation.. It looks as if Dusaulx 
had leaped from the times of old Metellus, to those of Augastus, 
without casting a glance at the interval. The chef-d'oeuvres of 
Roman literature were in every hand, when he supposed them to 
bie neglected : and, indeed, if Horace had left us nothing, the qua- 
lities of which Dusaulx speaks, might still be found in many 
works produced before he was known. 


whose conduct he censured, chose rather to capi- 
tulate than contend; that he attached no great 
importance to his own rules, and adhered to his 
principles no longer than they favoured his views. 

^^ Juvenal began his satirick career where 
the other finished, that is to say, he did that for 
morals and liberty, which Horace had done for 
decorum and taste. Disdaining artifice of every 
kind, he boldly raised his voice aorainst the usur- 
pation of power; and incessantly recalled the me- 
mory of the glorious eca of independance to those 
degenerate Romans, who had substituted suicide 
in the place of their ancient courage ; and from 
the days of Augustus to those ofDomitian, only 
avenged their slavery by an epigram or a bon-mot. 

*' The characteristicks of Juvenal were energyi 
passion, and indignation : it is nevertheless easy 
to discover, that he is sometimes more afflicted 
than exasperated. His great aim was to alarm the 
vicious, and if possible, to exterminate vice, which 
had, as it were, acquired a legal establishment. A 
noble enterprise ! but he wrote in a detestable age, 
when the laws of nature were publickly violated, 
and the love of their country so completely era- 
dicated from the breasts of his fellow-citizens, 
that, brutlfied as they were by slavery and volup- 
tuousness, by luxury and avarice, they merited 
rather the severity of the executioner than the 

** Meanwhile the empire, shaken to its founda- 
tions, was rapidly crumbling to dust. Despotism 
was consecrated by the senate ; liberty, of which a 
few slaves were still sensible, was nothing but an 
unmeaning word for the rest, which, unmeaning 
as it w^as, they did not dare to pronounce in pub- 
lick. Men of rank were declared enemies to the 
state for having praised thoir equals ; historians. 


the senate, while he jsasses by those whose safety 
his applause might endanger, has generously cele- 
brated the ancient assertors of liberty, in strains 
that Tyrtaeus might have wished his own: Cras 
Hbei, ^c. 

He is also charged with being too rhetorical in 
his language. The criticks have discovered that 
he practised at the bar, and they will therefore 
have it that his Satires smack of his profession, 
redolent declamatorem* That he is luxuriant, or, 
if it must be so, redundant, may be safely granted ; 
but I doubt whether the passages which are cited 
for proofs of this fault, were not reckoned amongst 
his beauties, by his contemporaries. The enurne- 
ration of deities in the thirteenth Satire, is well 
defended by Rigaltius, who allows, at the same 
time, that if the author had inserted it any where 
'but in a Satire, he should have accounted him a 
babbler \Jaterer Juv. hie vifi>MXo¥ fuisse ei verborum 
prodigunt. He appears to me equally successful, 
in justifying the list of oaths in the same Satire, 
which Creech, it appears, had not the courage to 

The other passages adduced in support of this 
charge, are either metaphorical exaggerations, or 
long traits of indirect Satire, of which Juvenal wa» 
as great a master as Horace. I do not say that 

^ I have often wished that we had some of the pleadings of 
Juvenal. It cannot be affirmed, T think, that there is any natural 
connexion between prose and verse in the same mind, though it 
may be observed, that most of our celebrated poets have written 
admirably st^utd oratione; yet if Juveual's oratory bore any re- 
sicmblance to his poetry, he yielded to few of the best ornaments 
of the bar. The torrens dkendi copia was his, in an eminent de- 
gree ; nay, so full, so rich, so strong,^ and so magnificent is hia 
eloquence, that I have heard one well qualified to judge, fre^* 
quently declare that Cicero himself could hardly be said to surpass* 


these are interesting to us; but they were emi- 
nently so to those for whom they were written; 
aod by their pertinency at the time, should they, 
by every rule of fair criticism, be estimated. The 
version of such passages is one of the miseries of 

I have also heard it objected to Juvenal, that 
there is in many of his Satires a want pf arrange- 
ment ; this is particularly observed of the sixth 
and tenth. I scarcely know what to reply to this. 
Those who are inclined to object, would not be 
better satisfied, perhaps, if the form of both were 
changed; for I suspect that there is no natural gra- 
dation in the innumerable passions which agitate 
the human breast. Some must precede, and others 
follow ; but the order of march is nut, nor ever 
was, invariable. While I acquit him of this, how- 
ever, I readily acknowledge a want of care in many 
places, unless it be rather attributable to a want 
of taste. On some occasions, too, when he changed 
or enlarged his first sketch, he forgot to strike out 
the unnecessary; verses : to this are owing the repe- 
titions to be found in his longer works, as well as 
the transpositions, which have so often perplexed 
the criticks and translators. 

Now I am upon this subject, I must not pass 
over a slovenliness in some of his lines, for which 
he has been justly reproached, as it would have 
cost him no great pains to improve them. Why 
he should voluntarily debase his poetry, it is 
difficult to say: if he thought he was imitating 
iiorace in his laxity, his judgment must suffer 
considerably. The verses of Horace are indeed 
akm to prose; but as he seldom rises, he has the 
art of making his low flights, in which all his mo- 
tions are easy and graceful, appear the effect of 
clioice. Juvenal was. qualified to *• sit where he 

Ixvi AN isrfit 6ir !«»«? 

dared not soar." His"^ eleibent W»$> t^af of the* 
eagle, " descent and fall M hirit ^hf^ advetfie^'* 
and, indeed; he h^Ver a!pj>eafM more aivl^Watrd ttia» 
i^h^ he flutters, or rafther" waddles, alang' tbtf 

I have observed in the course of the ti^dfnsiaticnv 
that he embraced no sect with WatMlh; In a 
man of such lively passions, the reteiitiott with? 
which he speaks of them all, is tb be admired; 
From his attachment to the Writings of Seni^ca, i 
should itlclrne to thinfk thalt he leaned towflprds 
Stoicism ; his predilectton for the school^ how- 
ever, was not very strong; pirha^s^ it is to be 
Wished that he had entered a little more deeply 
intb it, as he seems not to have tho»e distinct ideas 
of the nature of virtue atid vice, Which Were eil* 
tettained by many of the ancient phitestophe»i 
and indeed, by his immediate pred^dessdr. Per* 
sius. As St general chs^mpion fbr Virtue,- b^ h 
commonly sttiicessfdl. but he sometime^ misi^ his 
aim ; and, m more than one intftafifce^ cdiifoUad» 
the nature of the several vices, in hisP modtf of 
2(ttacking them: he confounds too the Vefy es^ 
sencd of virtue, which, in his hands, hifs ofiteh 
^ no local habitation and name/' but varies with 
th^ ev^r-vatying passions and ca^ritiefs of inian* 
kind. I know not whether it be worth while to 
add that he is accused of holding a difiereiit latl- 
guftge sit different tim^s, respecting the gddsT; 
siiice in this, he differs little from the Greek and 
Rotnan poets in general ; who, as often as they 
intrbduce their divinities, state, as Juvenal, does, 
the mythological circumstances coupled with their 
liames, without regard tb the eitisting system of 
i^ysick or morals. Whdh they dpeak from them- 
selves indeed, thdy give us exalted sentimetlts 
of virtue, and sbtuia philosophy ; when they 


ia4ulge im paetick recollections, they present m 
mrith the f;ible8 of antiquity. Hence the. gods are 
alternately, and a£ the subject requires, venerable 
or contemptible ;. and this could not but happen, 
through t^ want of some religious standarci, to 
which all might with confidence refer. 

I come now to a more serious charge against 
Juvenal, that of indecency. To bear the clamour 
laised against him, it mdght he supposed, by one 
unacquainted with the times, that he was the only 
indelicate writer of his age and co^try. Yet 
Horace and Persius wrote with equal grossness: 
yet the rigid Stoicism of Seneca did not deter him 
from the use of expressions, which Juvenal per-^ 
haps would have rejected : yet the courtly Pliny 

toured out gratuitous indecencies in his frigid 
eodecasyllables, which he attempts to justify by 
the example of a writer to whose freedom the 
licentiousness of Juvenal is purity ! It seems as 
if there was something of pique in th( singular 
^verity with which he is censured* His pure 
and sublime morality operates as a tacit reproach 
on the generality of mankind, who seek to in* 
demnify themselves by questioning the sanctity 
they cannot but respect ; and find a secret plea- 
sure hx persuac^ng one another that ^' tliis dreaded 
satirist" was at heart, no inveterate enemy to 
the licentioiisnesft which he so vehemently repre- 

When we consider the unnatural vices at which 
Juvenal directs his indignation, and reflect, at the 
same time, on the peculiar qualities of his mind, 
we shall not find much cause perhaps for wonder 
at the strength of his expressions. I should 
sesign him in silence to the hatred of mankind, 
if his aim, lik^ that of K^o many others^ whose 
works are read with delight^ had been to render 



vice amiable, to fling his seducing colours over 
impurity, and inflame the passions by meretri* 
cious hints at what is only innoxious when ex- 
posed in native deformity : but when I find that 
his views are to render depravity loathsome; that 
every thing which can alarm and disgust, is di* 
rected at her in his terrible page, I forget the 
grossness of the execution in the excellence of the 
design ; and pay my involuntary homage to that 
integrity, which fearlessly calling in strong de- 
scription to* the aid of virtue, attempts to purify 
the passions, at the hazard of wounding our 
delicacy, and offending our taste. This is due to 
Juvenal : — in justice to myself, let me add, that I 
could have been better pleased to have had no 
occasion to speak at all on the subject. 

Whether any considerations of this or a similar 
nature, deterred our literati from turning these 
Satires into English, I cannot say ; but, though 
partial versions might be made, it was not until 
the beginning of the seventeenth century that a 
complete translation was thought of; when two 
men, of celebrity in their days, undertook it about 
the same time; these were Barten Holyday, and 
Sir Robert Stapylton. Who entered first upon 
the task, cannot well be told. There appears 
somewhat of a querulousness on both sides ; a 
jealousy that their versions had 'been communi- 
cated in manuscript to each other: Stapylton*s 
however, was first published, though that of Ho* 
lyday seems to have been first finished; 

Of this ingenious man it is not easy to speak 
with too much respect. His learning, industry, 
judgment, and taste are every where conspicuous: 
nor is he without a very considerable portion of 
shrewdness to season his observations. His poetry 
indeed, or rather his ill measured prose, is into- 


lerable: no human patience can toil through a 
single page of it;* but his notes will always be 
consulted with pleasure. His work has been of 
considerable use to the subsequent editors of Ju- 
venal, both at home and abroad ; and indeed, 
such is its general accuracy, that little excuse 
remains for any notorious deviation from the sense 
of tlie original. 

Stapylton had equal industry, and more poetry; 
but he wanted his learning, judgment, and inge- 
nuity4 His notes, though numerous, are trite, 
and scarce beyond the reach of a school-boy. He 
is besides scandalously indecent on many occa- 
sions, where his excellent rival was innocently 
unfaithful, or silent. 

With these translations, such as they were, the 
town was satisfied until the end of the seventeenth 
Century, when the necessity of something more 
poetical becoming apparent, the booksellers, as 
Johnson says, ^' proposed a new version to the 
poets of that time, which was undertaken by 
Dryden, whose reputation was such, that no man 
was unwilling to serve the Muses under him.*^ 

Dryden*s account of this translation is given 
with such candour, in the exquisite dedication 
which precedes it, that I shall lay it before the 
reader in his owq words. " The common way 
which we have taken, is not a literal translatioo, 
but a kind of paraphrase, or somewhat which is 
yet more loose, betwixt a paraphrase, and a trans-* 

*' Thus much may be said for us, that if we 

* With all my respect for the learning of this good old man* 
it is impo9aibIe, now and theo» to suppress a smile at his simpli- 
city, in apologizing for his translation, he says : ^^ As for pub« 
lishiQg poeirtfy it needs ao defence ; there being, if my Lord oi 
Vemkim't judgment shall be admitted, a divine rapture in it" ! 


gire not the ^hole sense 4of Juvenal, fA wt >git^ 
the most considerable part of k : 'we g^ire it, tm 
general, so clearly, that few notes are sufficient to 
make us intelligibUf : vre make our author at leMt 
appear in a poetick dress. We have actually 
made him more sounding, and more elegant, than 
he was before in English : and have endeavoured 
to make him speak that kind of English, which 
he would have spoken had he lived m S^gland, 
amd had written to tiiis age. If sometimes taty 
of us (and it is but seldom) make him express the 
customs and manners of his native country, rather 
than of Rome, it is, either when there was some 
kind of analogy, betwixt their customs and ours ; 
or when, to make him more easy to vulgar un- 
derstandings, we gave him those manners which 
are familiar to us. But I defend not this inno- 
vation, it is enough if I can excuse it. For to 
speak sincerely, the manners of nations and age^ 
are not to be confounded." *■ 

This is, surely, sufficiently modest* Johnson's 
description of it is somewhat more favourable: 
*^ The general character of this translation will 
be given when it is said to preserve the wit, 
but to want the dignity, of t)^e original." Is this 

^ He evidently allude^ to the versions of the second and eighth 
Satires by Tute and Stepney, but principally to the latter, in 
which Juvenal illustrates his sTgument by the practice of Smith- 
field and Newmarket ! Indeed, Dryden himself* thougif coi^isn- 
edly aware of its impropriety, is not altogether free from " inno- 
vation :" he talks of the Park, and the Mall, and the Opera, and 
of many other objects, familiar to the translator, but which the 
priginal writer could only know by the spirit of prophecy. 

I am sensible how difficult it is to keep the manners of different 
ages perlieetly distinct in a work like this : I have never ksowingty 
confounded them, and, 1 trust, not often iniulvertently ; yet more 
occasions peihfips of exercisiiig the rcader^sctodour will appear, 
after all, than are desirable. 

.cprq^^ f Dry^en freqi^j^tly degrades the author 
;intp , a jester ; but Juye^al has few mojcaeJits of 
4evity. Wit, iiKleedy he possesses in an emineat 
^g^^f.hutit is.tioqtured with his peculiarities,; 
raro jocose as Lipsius well observes, sapius fic^rhos 
:^Us^p^cel. Dignity is .the predominant quality 
tof his mind : he can, and does, relax with grace, 
i>uthe4iever forgets himself; he ^smiles, indeed ; 
J;>Ht Jjiis ^ile is ipore t^rible than his froMfu, for 
Jt .is never excited, butrWhen his indignation is 
.jpuipgled with contempt ; ri<k^ ^^ odit! Wh^re h^s 
d4gQity» therefore, is vf^x\\jfxg^ hjs >vit jvill be ini- 
.perfectly preserved- * 

On the whole, there is nothing in this quots^tipn 
to deter succeeding writer;s from attempting, at 
least, to supply, the defipieucies of Dryden, and 
liis fellow labourers ; :^iid, perhaps, I could point 
put (Several circumstances which might make it 
l^ufJable, if not qec^ss^iry : — but this would be to 
trifle with the reader, who is already .apprized 
that, as far as relates to myself, no motives but 
those of obedience, determined me to the task 
for wbiph I (^w solicit the indulgence of the 

When I took up this author, I knew not of 
any other translator ; nor was it until the scheme 
of publishing him was started, that I began to 

* Yet Johnson knew him well. The peculiarity of Juvenal, 

he saySy (Vol. IX. p. ^2^ii ^< is a mixture of gaiety and stateli- 

'Hess^. of pointed sentences, and declamatory grandeur." A good 

idea of it may be formed from his own beautiful imitation of the 

tthlrd Satire. His imitation of the tenth (still more .beautiiiil as a 

.poem) Jbas scarce a^txait pf the authoi^s manner ; — ^that is to say, 

iifh^ *' ifiixture of gaiety and Atatelincss/' which, according to 

im own definidon, constitutes t)ie '' peculiarity of Juvenal.'' Tkt 

Vanity of ^uf^an JVishes is uniformly stately and severe, and 

without'those light and pq[mlaf strokes of sarcasm which abound 

JO. amch. IB Jiis jinrntof • 


reflect serionsly on the nature of what I had un- 
dertaken, to consider by what exertions I could 
render that useful which was originally meant to 
amuse, and justify, in spme measure, the partiality 
of my benefactors. 

My first object was to become as familiar as 
possible with my author, of whom I collected 
every edition that my own interest, or that of my 
friends could procure ; together with such trans- 
lations as I could discover either here or abroad : 
from a careful examination of all these, I formed 
the plan, to which, while I adapted my former 
labours, I anxiously strove to accommodate my 
succeeding; ones. 

Dryden had said, " if we give not the whole, 
yet we give the mpst considerable part of it." 
My determination was to give the whole, and 
really make the work what it professed to be, a 
translation of Juvenal. 1 had seen enough of 
castrated editions, to observe that little was gained 
by them on the score of propriety ; since, when 
the author was reduced to half his bt|lk, at the 
expense of his spirit and design, sufficient re- 
mained to alarm the delicacy for which the sacri- 
fice had been made. Chaucer observes with great 

' ^' Whoso shall tell a tale after a roan, 
''He moste reherse as neighe as ever he can 
** Everich word* if it be in his chai|;ey 
** All speke he never so rudely and so large :''— r 

And indeed the age of Chaucer, like that of 
Juvenal, allowed of such liberties. Other times, 
other manners. Many words were in common 
use with our ancestors, which raised no improper 
ideas, though they would not, and indeed could 
not, at this time be tolerated; With the Greeks 
and Romans^ it.was still worse : their dress, which 

tOMAN SATISI»8. Ixxiit 

left many parts of the body exposed, gave a bold- 
ness to their language, ivhich was not perhaps 
lessened by the inlrequency of women at those 
social convtrsations, of which they now constitute 
the refinement, and the delight. Add to this, 
that their mythology, and their sacred rites, which 
took their rise in very remote periods, abounded 
in the undisguised phrases of a rude and simple 
age, and being religiously handed down from 
generation to generation, gave a currency to many 
terms, which offered no violence to modesty, 
though, abstractedly considered by people of a 
different language and manners, they appear preg* 
nant with turpitude and guilt. 

When we observe this licentiousness (for I 
should wrong many of the ancient writers, to call 
it libertinism) in the pages of their historians and 
philosophers, we may be pretty confident that it 
raided no blush on the cheeL of their readers. It 
was the language of the times — hac Hits naiura est 
omnibus una : and if it be considered as venial in 
those, surely a little further indulgence will not 
be misapplied to the satirist, whose object is the 
exposure of what the former have only to notice. 

Thus much may suffice for Juvenal: but shame 
and sorrow on the head of him, who presumes to 
transfer his grossness into the vernacular tongues ! 
Though I have given him entire, I have endea- 
voured to make him speak as he would have spoken 
if he had lived among us ; when, refined with the 
age, he would have fulminated against impurity 
in terms, to which, though delicacy might dis* 
avow them, manly decency might listen without 

I have said above, that ^^ the whole of Juvenal*' 
is here given ; this must be understood with a few 
reslrictions. Where vice^ of whatever nature. 

haifr ^ If M»AX CtM !«»: 

Jarmod^the inuneduite.iijij^ct of ireprohfiU^RtittlMs 
lAQt faetsn itpared in iht translation ; but I bixv^ 
^sometimes taken the liberty of 'Omitting sin iQJic;Qp* 
•jti^nable Iinis,:when it .h^ no. apparent conoexiori 
.with the jsubject of the Satire. Some acqwintaoqe 
fVeith the original iwiir be ^neces&ary to.dbcow 
ith^ae lacunae, which. do not, in all, ^monot jto half 
ji page : forabe rest, > I bafve?QO:itpQlQgies: to Jipjike., covert >«r op^i, totheiql- 
)4i0s and Jirioes of modi; en t times! ; : fkor jhaa • tbe. dig- 
.nity of :the original been prostituted, in a. single 
(instance, to the gratification of priv^ate spken* 

I have attempted: to rfollow, as far as J judgedtit 
feasible, the style of my autlior, which is mofe 
tvariqus than: is. usually auppoaed. It is ootn^ces- 
isary :to xiesoend :to iparticulacs ; but my meaniiig 
tmll be {Understood iby those, iwho carefully cpip- 
jpare the;originaLoi the thirteenth and fourtf^enth 
.Satires, with. the tmnsUtion. In the twelfth* wd 
sin that. alone, liiave .periiaps raised it a little; bMt 
:it really appears ,so contemptible . a. performanae in 
tthcfdoggerel of Dryden's: coadjutor, thati tbougbt 
jsomewhat more attention than ordinary mm in 
justice due to it. it is not .a chefrd'oeuvre by any 
:m«ans.; but it is a pretty and a .pleasing Little 
rpoem, deserving more notice than it has usqaJUy 

I ■ could have been Aagaoious and obscure on 
maay occasions, with very little difficulty ; but J 
•fttrenuousLy combated every inclination to find out 
Nmore than xny ; author imeant. The general .cba^ 
•racter of this translation, if I. do. not (deceive my* 
}ielf, will be ifaundtto bejplainnfiss ; and»inde^, 
the highest praise to which I aspire, is that .of 
^hawing left ihe ori^al more ifttelii^ie ito .the 
v^gli&h .reader than I ibuod Jt. 
iQo;nttmbflriag the lines, Iifind^that JDyjtfianala* 

tkm contaiBs a few less tfam Diyden^. Had it 
been otherwioe, I should not have thoaght aa 
apology necessary, nor would it perhaps -appeiar 
exdraordinaryi w&en it is considered that I hare 
introduced an kifinite aumber of circumstanoes 
frosn the text, Which bethought himself justified in 
omitting ; and that, with the trifling exceptions ai- 
ready «ientioned, nothing has been passed; wheveas 
lie and bis assistants o^rerlooked whole McUons, 
and sometimes rery considerable ones.* Every 
ivhere, too, I have endeaivoured 4x> render the 
ibraositiens les^ abrupt, and to obviate or > disguise 
the difficulties whicti a difiference of maimers, h»- 
iiits, Ice. necessarily creates : all this calls for an 
•additional number of lines ; which the English 
:ieader at least, will seldom have occasion to regret. 
Of the ^ borrowed learning of notes,^* which 
len says he avoided as much as possible, € 
have amply availed myself. During the long pe* 
riod in which my thoughts were fixed on Juvenal, 
it v/as usual with me, whenever I found a pan* 
«age that related to him, to impress it on my 
memory, or to note it down. These, on the revi-r 
sion of the work for publication, I added to such 
veflexions as arose in my own mind, and arranged 
in the manner in whidh tb«y now appear. I con- 
"fess that this was not an unpleasant task to me, 
and I will venture to hqpe, that if my own sug- 
gestions fail to please, ^yet the frequent recurrenqe 
of some of the most striking and beautiful passages 
of ancient and modem poetry, bistx>ry, ice. wiil 
render it neither unamusing nor uninstructive to 
the general reader. The information insinuated 
into the mind by miscellaneous collections of this 


^ In the fourteenth Satire, for example, there is an omissioii 
of fifteen lines, and this too, in a passage of singular importance^ 


nature, is much greater than is usually imagined ; 
and I have been frequently encouraged to proceed, 
by recollecting the benefits which I formerly de- 
rived from casual notices scattered over the margin, 
or dropped at the bottom of a page. 

In this compilation, I proceeded on no regular 
plan, further than considering what, if I had been 
a mere English reader, I should wish to have had 
explained : it is therefore extremely probable, as 
every rule of this nature must be imperfect, that 
I have frequently erred ; have spoken where I 
should be silent, and been prolix where I should 
be brief: on the whole, however, I chose to offend 
on the safer side; and to leave nothing unsaid, at 
the hazard of sometimes saying too much. Tedi- 
ous, perhaps, I may be, but, I trust, not dull ; 
and with this negative commendation I must be 
satisfied. The passages produced, are not always 
translated ; but the English reader needs not for 
that be discouraged in proceeding, as he will fre- 
quently find sulhcient in the context, to give him 
a general idea of the meaning. In many places 
I have copied the words, together with the senti- 
ments, of the writer ; for this, if it call for an 
apology, I shall take that of Macrobius, who had 
somewhat more occasion for it than I shall be 
found to have : ^ec mihi viiio vertasy si res mas ex 
lectione varia tntUuabor^ ipsis sape verbis quibus ab 
ipsis aucloribus enarrata sunt explicabo^ quia prasens 
opus non elomientia oslentaiionem^ sed voscendorum 
conger iem polticelur, &c. Saturn. Lib« I. c. 1. 


I have now said all that occurs to me on this' 
subject : a more pleasing one remains. I cannot, 
indeed, like Dryden, boast of my poetical coad- 
jutors. No Gongreves and Creeches have abridged, 
while they adorned, my labours ; yet have I not 
been without assistance, and of the most valuable 

Whoever is acquainted with the habits of inti- 
macy in which I have lived from early youth, 
with *the Rev. Dr. Ireland, ^ will not want to be 
informed of his share in the following pages. To 
those who are not, it is proper to say, that besides 
the passages in which he is introduced by name, 
every other part of the work has been submitted 
to his inspection. Nor would his affectionate 
anxiety for the reputation of his friend suffer any 
part of the translation to appear, without under- 
going the strictest revision. His uncommon ac- 
curacy, judgment, and learning, have been uni<^ 
formly exerted on it, not less, I am confident, to 
the advantage of the reader, than to my own satis- 
faction. It will be seen that we sometimes differ 
in opinion ; but as I usually distrust my own 
judgment in those cases, the decision is submitted 
to the reader. 

I have also to express my obligations to Abra- 
ham Moore, Esq. barrister at law, a gentleman 
whose taste and learning are well known to be 
only surpassed by his readiness to oblige: of 
which I have the most convincing proofs ; since 
the hours dedicated to the following sheets, (which 

^ Prebendary of Westminster, and Vicar of Croydon, in Surry. 

. I 

> « I 


xVnd must I, while hoarse Godrus perseveres 
To force his Theseid oa my tortured ears, 
Hear, always hear, nor once the debt repay ! 
Must this, unpunished, pour his comick lay, 
His lyrick, that ! huge Tclephus, at will, 
The livelong day consume, or, huger still, 
Orestes closely written, written, too, 
Down the broad marge, and yet — ^no end in view ! 

.V&11. 1. And nnut J, 4*^*] Before the inventioii of priDting, 

authors had no shorter road to fame than publick rehearsab* To 

procure fttllaadiencesfor these, they had xecouiw to interest^ so- 

licitationsy and, in case they were rich enough, to bribes, and 

•ven to Hireats. — Ut Dnuanem debitorctris, Spc. 

So DrusOy when his debtors fail to pay 
Their monthly interest, on the stated day, 
Takes fearful vengeance : Ranged on either haad. 
For execution^ the sad captives stand, 
Compelled with outstretched neck, and list'niag ear, 
. His woful works, without a yavm, to hear ! 

Hot. Sat. Uh. i. 3. 

From this ludicrous picture of misery, it appears, that the 
inractice had taken root at this early period ; and, indeed, Horace, 
in a subsequent Satire, reckons it among the plagues of Rome :--» 
Auditum scr^a, niicHa Omnibus qfidis. But the race of scrib- 
blers was prodigiously multiplied ia Juvenal's days, and the griev- 
ance of following their rehearsals mo^ deeply felt. Pliny says, 
that he sacrificed months to them ; oui^ author, if we may judge 
from his manner, had sacrificed more. It is clear, however, from 
a very picturesque passage in Pliny, that the general 

6 SATIRE I. JUVENAL. V. ^—14. 

Away ! — ^I know not my own house so well, 
As Ilia*s sacred grovci and Vulcan's cell, 
Fast by the JEdlim ro^|Ls:!-4-Hiiw;^he winds roar, 
How ghosts are tortured on the Stygian shore, 
How Jason stoic the golden fleece, and how 
The Centaurs fought on Othrys' shaggy brow, 

ivith which they were attend^ vfa$ ^ceedingly great After re* 
' peated invitations and delays, when the rehearser has now taken 
his stfUipa^ anfl spread )u3 book befeft him,' «nd is on tke point of 
beginning, *^ turn demum/' says he, *f ac tunc quoque lente, eunc 
tanterque venhmt, ttrc tinhen permanent, sed untejhefti ttcedant ; 
alH dissmulanfer et Jnrtimy Miiisimplieitertt tiberef*-' Ep^ xiil. 
lib. 1. 

Holyday supposes Codrus to be the person Virfao is mentioned 
again in the third Satire ; and of whose g6ods and chattefeco curi- 
ous an inventory is there given. It may beso; and yet the valuablet 
enumerated, would rather seem to have been coUected by an an- 
tiquary, than a poet. Holyday adds, thai '^ he had Dotfaing of 
the poet but the poverty :'* he might, at least, have thrown in the 
pertinacity. What else he had cannot now be known, as hh 
works are lost. The old Scholiast tells us, that the Theseid (which 
so happiljr provoked okir author to retaliate) vris a ttagody : it 
1^ move probably an epick poem. . The authors of Tdepliiis and 
Oreltes have neaped the edge of Hdicule ; they atn iiowiien 

VsR. 9* ^viat/ f — I kmm not my <nm house 4"^.] Hall has imr- 
tated this passage with some huauMir : 

" No man his threshold better knows^ than T, 
'* Brute's first arrival, and his victory, 
*^ St. Georgi^s sorrel, and his Ck-oss of blood, 
** Arthur's round board, or Caledonian wood; 
*^ But so to fill up books, both back and side, 
«* What boots it r &c. 

We have liere a summary of th^ subjects which usually employ- 
ed the ^its of Rome; ' and certainly they could not be much more 
Interesting to the readens of those times, thim they are to us. 
'Martial seems to have thought as meanly of them as our author; 
'and in two very excellent epigrams, asserts thesuperioar usefulness 
of his own compositions. You mistake, says he, when joxi call 
■ly woiks trifles ; the Slipper of Teretis, the Flight of D»da!«is, 
^.'^. these are trifles : what t write *' comes home to men^s 
^tJAiness and bosoms ;''^>-«f homikem pagitta noitra eapii. 

Tlie waiiBB df FdroBto ecj^ round Jtnd roiiiid, 
The cdbunas tranbling widi theetemal toaad, 
While higfti and low, as tbe mad fit iavades, 
Bellow the same trite xroasciise through the shades. 

I TOO ciiii Wri^e, — and, -at a jpbdant's frown, 
Once poured .my fostian fhetorick on the towa. 
And idly proved that Sylla, far from power, 
Had pass'd, unknown to fear, the tranquil hour :— 
Now I resume my pcai ; for 6iaoe we 'meet 
Such swarms of desperate bards in every streeti 
'Twere vicious clemency io. spare the -oil, 
And hapless paper, they are sure to spoiL 

But why I choose, adventurous, to retrace 
The Auruncan's rout^, and in the arduous race 

The expedition to fetch» or, as Juvenal will have it, to st^, 
Ae golii^n fleece, is a nani^t ullu^on to the Aigonantids of 
T«lerifis Flaccus. The poem is by no raeatn % hwd one; and 
yet he sneers at H again in this very Satire : bat it was the trite* 
ness of tbe story which provoked hts ridicule ; to which, perhaps, 
may be added some little prejudice Bgatnst the aTithor» for his 
Hattery of the Flavian family— « family which Juvenal hated i 
mad, to use. an expression of Dr. Johnson, he was a good hater! 

Ver. 15. The walks of FrantOp ^c."] Juvenal returns to the 
chaise. The uuhappy men who cotild not procure a house for 
their audience, or an audience for their rebeanalt, haunted the 
baths, forums, pbrticos, and other pfaices of geaeral resort, in or- 
iler to fasten oo the loiterers, and thus obtain a inatiBg. For this, 
no place was better adapted than the hoase and gardens of Ffonto, 
(a nobleman of great learning and virtue,) which wereaiways open 
to the publick, and exceedingly frequented. 

The picture in the original is excellent: nor can the imagina- 
4ioii easily conceive a more iudicrousscenet than the little groups 
eoUected fay the eager poets, in various parts of tfaaganlen, and 
aonqxlled to listen to the ravings which burst the ptilan, and 
ahook the statues from their pedestals. 

Vaa. 27. But rohy Ichoose^ advenivrtmSf to retrace 

The Aurxmcaiis routes ^c] Juvenal means LuciKos, 
^0 was bom at Aorunca, a town in Campania. Horace calls 

8 sATiRB I. JUVENAL, v^ 29--34. 

Follow his bummg wheels, attentiye hearj 
If leisure serve, and truth be worth your ean 

When the soil eunuch weds, and the bold fair 
Tilts at the Tuscan boar, with bosom bare ; 
When one that oft, since manhood first appear*d. 
Hath trimm*d the exuberance of this sounding 

liim the first satiiist, which he wiu tiot^ for Ennius preceded him 
by many years ; while Quintiiian, with his accastomed accuracy, 
terms him the first regular one* His works appear to have been 
highly esteemed, even in the Augustan age, when Horace, with 
doubtful succcsSf endeavoured to qualify the general prejudice in 
his favour. Quintiliau observes, that he had a great deal of wit 
and learning, and that his boldness was equal to his severity* It 
was this latter quality which endeared him to Juvenal, who, as 
well as his immediate predecessor, Persius, always mentions him 
with respect. 

Ver. 31* -■ and the bold fair ^c,"] Under Domitian 

such instances were common ; for he not only exhibited combats 
of men with wild beasts, but of women also ; and the noblest of 
both sexes were sometimes engaged in them ! 

The amazon in the text is named Msevia, of whom I can find 
DO account: there is, indeed, a strumpei so called in Martial, but 
she was poor : her profligacy, however, may have tempted Juvenal 
to transfer her name to this noble gladiatrix. 

y««. 33. When one that oft^ 4>c. J 

-** Quo tondcnte gravis juveni mihi barba sonabat ;" 

•Juvenal seems pleased with this line, for he ihtroduces it in a 
subsequent ^passage. I suppose he meant it for a specimen of the 
mock'hefoick. Holyday's translation of it is sufficiently curious : 

^* One whose officious scissars went ^nip, snip, 
** As he my troublesome young beard did clip l" 

This ** snipper^' was Cinnamus, who, from the servile employ- 
ment here mentioned, raised himself, by ministering to the plea- 
sures of the ladies, to a knight s estate, and a prodigious fortune. 
He is brought forward again in the tenth Satire ; and, indeed, his 
fate affords another striking illustration of the great truths con* 
tained in that admirable piece; for soon after it was written, 
be was prosecuted for some otlence not now known ; and, to avoid 

SATIRE I. JUVEKAJ^. y. 35--3Sr 9 

In wealth outvies the senate ; when a vile, 
And low-bred reptilei from the slime of Nile» 
CrispinuSi while he gathers now, now flings 
His purple open, fans his summer rings ; 

.condemnation, left all his wealth behind him, and fled into Sicily: 
nrhere Martial, who is frequently the best commentator on Juve- 
nal, honours him with an epigram ; in which, after bitterly con- 
doling with him on his helpless old age, and reckoning up a variety 
of employments for which he is not fit, he points out to him the 
necessity of turning barber again ! 

** Non rhetor, non grammaticus, ludive magister, 
** Non Cynicus, non tu Stoicus esse potes; 

'* Vendcre nee vocem Siculis plausumque thesatrisy 
** Quod superest) iterum, Cinname, tonsor eris.^' 

Idb. VII. Ep. 64. 

To this mani and his fortunes, might justly be applied«the'finc 
sarcasm of Claudian on the eunuch Eutropius : 

" Culmine dejectum vitae Fortuna priori 
•* Reddidit, ivsawo jam satiata joco !*' 

Fortune, who raised him, leaves him now bemire^ 
In his old ^tyei ov her mad vrolicK tired I 

I know not why all the translators, at least all whom I havt 
had an opportunity of consulting, dwell so much upon the authoi's 
youth :**-the term Jtroenis extended to the middle period of life, 
10 which the words gravis barba appear to refer iu The object 
of the satirist, which has been altogether overlooked, is to point 
out the rapid rise of his quondam tonsor. " When one that has 
frequently shaved me since I arrived at man's estate. In wealth 
outvies, ^c." With respect to the verse itself^ it is a manifest 
parody of Virgil's postquam tnihi barba cadebat^ whmh alone seems 
sufficient to prove that it was not meant of a young man. 


V£R« 27* Cum pars Niliaca plebUf cum vcma Camoph 

Crispinusy J This man rose, under Nero^ 

from the condition of a slave, to riches and honours. His con*- 
oexion with that mouster recommended him to Domitian, with 
whom he seems to have been in high favour: he shared his couur 
sels, muibtered to bis amusements, and was the ready instrument 
of hb cruelties. For these^ and other causes, Juveoal regarded 
him with perfect detestation: he cannot speak of him with temper; 
and whenever he introduces him, which he does on all occasionSf 
it in with mingHed contempt and horrour. Here he is not Quly Jt 

io snarttE f • Jt/VEKAL* ¥. i^4^. 

And, as hh fihgers Weat beneath the IVeight, 
Cries, " Save me from a gem of greater wei^ l^ 
*Tis hard the rage off satire to restrain : — 
Fbr who so slow of heart, so dull df brain, 

Nilitcan, (an expression whidi conveyed more to Juvenal's mind 
than it does to ours,) but a Canopiau, a native of the most profli* 
gate spot in Egypt : not only one of thedrc^ of the people^ but 
a slave ; and not only a slave, but a slave bom of a slave ! Hence 
the poet's indignation at his effeminate luxury. 

Martial, always begging, and always in distress, has a hue and 
cry after a purple cloak, stolen from this minion while he was 
bathing : \ 

*^ Nescit cui dederit Tyriam Crispinus abollara,^ 
** Dum mutat cultus/' &c. 

and in ^n epigram equally contemptible for baseness and impiety, 
entreats his favourable word with Domitian: Sic, says be^ 

** Sic placidum iqdeas semper, Crispioei tonantem, 
-** Mec te Roma minus quam tua Memphis amat." 

So;roayst thou still the Thunderer's kindness pro^te. 
And Rome's^ no less than thy own Egypt's, love I 

But he .has his reward : his adulation was then neglected, and is 
now despised ; while the severity of his manlier friend was the ail- 
miraiion ofiiis own age, and will b^ the delight of posterity. 

I know not whether Ammianus Marcellinus had the character of 

*The aboUa (which I suppose to be the lacema of our author) 
was a loose upper garment or wrapper, worn by philosophers, ma- 
gistrates, senators, &c. ; '' That it was a grave habit'' (says Holy- 
day, on another occasion) ** I nothing doubt, from Pegsaus 
taking it with him to the council/' This, however, depended on 
circumstances. A cloak of coarse gray cloth was neither repug- 
Jiant to the age, nor gravity of the praefect : but the abolla of Cris- 
|»nas was a very different thing ; it was died in Tyrian purple, the 
tfnost expensive of all colours; and, from its si«e, must have cost 
an inconceivable sum. 

It mavseem odd, that he who could scarce bear the weight of 
a summer ring, should nevertheless load his shoulders with a robe 
of this kind ; but it was the splendour and extravagance of it, which 
induenced his choice. Vanity, as Shakspeane somewhere says 
•of.miseryi ** makes a man acquainted with strange'' — garments 1 

4ATtft£ I. JtrVENAL. T. 43^46 It 

So patient of tbe town, as to forbear ; 
When Matho passes, in a new-built chair 
StolTd with himself! (bllow*d, in equal state, 
By that false friend, who, to the imperial hate, 

Crispinusy as here described^ in his thoughts^ when he wrote the fol- 
lowing elegant passage ; but it certainly throws light on the Aifmrro 
revocante lacernas^ the flinging back and recovering of the purple 
cloak. Aki summum deem in onMiaso vesHum ctdtufonentes^ sudant 
mib ponderHna lacemmnim,^qutts coUis insertas cingulis ^ms adnec* 
twit 9 nimia subtemmum tentdtate perflabiles, expectants crebris agi^ 
tatvonilntSf maximeque sinistra, ut hngiores Jimhrict tunicaque pcr^ 
spieue htceant. 

Ver. 38. his summer rings; 4^.] The dainty pride 

of the Romans, as Holyday calls it, had arrived at such a pitchf 
that they had diiferent rings for different seasons ! So absurd a re« 
£nemenc in luxury could scarcely be general ; it serves, howevex^ 
to mark the afiected delicacy of Crispinus. 

Ye a. 44. When Math» fMsseSf 4^.] This aoan originally foU 
lowed the profession of a lawyer; but meeting, perhaps deserving, 
no encouragemeniy he fell into the extremes of poverty, and 
broke. He then turned informer; the dreadful resource of men 
of desperate fortunes and desperate chamclers. In this he seems 
to have been successful : he has a chair, which Juvenal takes care 
to tell us had not been long in his possession, and he is grown im- 
moderately fat, for be fills it himself! 

Ruperti differs from me. He cannot conceive, he says, whence 
the notion of Matho's being an informer is derived. Evidently 
from the corapaay in which he is found. He supposes the ** new- 
built chair" may be explained from the seventh Satire, where it is 
said that Matho ruined himself by endeavouring to emulate the 
splendour of iErailius. This learned man seems to forget that 
the characters here passed in review are culprits of the most fla- 
gitious kind. Did he think that Juvenal would speak with such 
abhorrence of a simple attempt to procure business by an affecta- 
tion of finery and show! Impossible. I am convinced that Matho 
was placed at the bead of this execrable set, as an informer of the 
most i3enncious descriptioni and that he had recourse to this em- 
ploy after he failed; on which account, perhap^i the author sar- 
^asttcaHy twits him with his old profession; causidicus Matho J 
lawyer Matho ! 

Crxticks are divided about the man who followed Matho. The 
did Scholiast saj'S it wtis Hdiodorus the Stoick, who informed 
gainst his friend and pnpil Sikinus ; or it was Egnatius Celer, ot 

la SATXBS I. JUVENAL, v. 47— -54. 

Betray*d one noble, and now seeks to wrest. 
The poor remains of greatness from the rest : 
Whom Massa dreads, Latinus, trembling, pli^s 
With a fair wife, and anxious Garus buys ! 
When those supplant thee in thy dearest rights, 
Who earn rich legacies by active nights, 

Demetrius, the lawyer, &c. It was more probably, however^ 
Marcus Rcgulus, who curried on the trade of an informer under 
Nero, and again under Domitian. Pliny gives an entertaining 
account of his cowardly apprehensions for himself after the death 
of the latter ; and pronounces him to be the wickedest of all two- 
legged creatures, omnium hipedum nequusimtu. ' 

The difficulty of fixing on any particular name afibrds matter 
for deep reflection. That so many people should at the same pe- 
riod be guilty of the complicated crimes of treachery and ingrati- 
tude, (for such is the charge,) could only be believed on the credit 
of concurring testimonies ; and gives us a dreadful picti|H^ of the 
ftate of corruption into which Rome was now fallen. 

Veh. 49. fVhom Massa dreads,] He speaks of Baebius Massa^ 
'who took up the trade of an informer under Domitian, and rose 
to great eminence in guilt. Tacitus calls him a pernicious enemy 
to all good men, and the cause of many evils to the state. He was 
prosecuted in his turn for malepractices in his government, (of the 
province of Baetica,) and condemned to refund his ill-gotten pro* 
perty. It seems, however, from Pliny, who was one of his prose- 
cutors, that there was some collusion among the judges ; and that 
the sentence was never enforced. 

But though Massa migiit be rich, he was no longer powerful r 
for Martial, who was never accused of temerity, attacks him with- 
out fear. Humorously exaggerating the thievish propensities of 
one Hermogenes, a thief by descent, he observes, that he was as 
great a stealer of napkins, wherever he went, as Massa was of 
money ! 

Ver.. 50. — and anxious Cams, ^c,"] This was Caru» 
Metius, no less conspicuous for villainy than Massa. He did no.t» 
indeed, begin so early ; for when Tacitus was writing the life of 
Agricola, he had obtained '' but one victory ;" that, probably^ 
over the virtuous Senecio, who assisted Pliny in the prosecution 
of Massa. 

The first draught of this Satire (for it was afterwards consider- 
ably improved and enlarged) might be formed, I should thiuk, 
soon after the above event : since we find Carus, infamous as h* 

sATtKfe I. JUVENAL. V. 53—66. 

Those whom, the surest, shortest way to rise, 
The widow's itch, advances to the skies ! . ■ 
Not that an equalrank her minions hold : — 
Just to their various powers, she metes her gold; 
And Proculeius mourns his scanty share, 
While Gilio triumphs, Iter's and nature's heir f 
And let him triumph ! 'tis the price of blood : 
While, thus defrauded of the generous flood, 
"The colour flies his chieek, as tnough he prest, 
With unsuspecting foot,' a serpent's crest ; 
Or stood prepared at Lyons to declaim, 
Where the least peril is the loss of fame, [bralni 
Ye Powers ! — What rage, what frenzy fires my 
When that false guardian, with his crowded train. 

and ready to join in the destfuctionof the wortUic^t charsc- 
ten, not yet so firmly established in the Eroperour^s fovour, but 
that he needed the protection of a more' powerful villain. 

Cams obtained more ** victories,'^ as Tacitus calls {hem, after- 
wards, and outlived his execrable master; when he fell into po- 
verty and contempt. Of LAtinus, or rather the mime represented 
by him, (for he himself had been put to death in a former reign,) I 
have nothing to relate with certainty. 

VxR. €s. Or stood prepared at LyoM to declaim^ SfC^ — It was 
here that Caligula instituted ggmes of oratory. The meed of the 
conqaeror is nowhere mentioned, but the punishment of the van- 
quished was to obhterate what he had written with his tongue, to 
be ducked in the river,. &c. &c. Tyranny, like Dullness, some- 
times '^ loves a joke," and this was a most miserable one. 

If Caligula himself were one of the candidates, and any other won 
the palm, his reward was certain death. Dio tells a curious story 
of Caligula's accusing Domidus Afer, the celebrated orator, in a 
set speech. Domititfs vrisely determined not to answer it ; but 
throwing himself into an ecstacy at the beauty of the composition, 
he repeated parts of it here and there, aflecting to be so enraptur- 
ed, aa utterly to forget that it was pronounced against himself. 
'Tile artifice succeeded : his life was spared, because, when ordered 
topleady heprostratad YamM^-^um XPH^^ xn^rof, Mmo^y «)( km 
Tf» iw^ wAn ^m99m.% m lUUifW{«i'f^iiyfti>«f. IM, Lix. c. 19* 

Chokes up the strc^ andlMves his orphan chaige 
To prostitution, apd the world at large ! 
When^ hy a juggling sentence .daiKUi'd in vaiq, 
(For who, that holds the plunder/ heje^a the pain J) 
Marius to wine devotes his morning hours^ 
And IsHighs, in exile, at the offended Powers ; , 
While, sigjbjng o'er the victory she has imn, .\ 
The Province finds herself but more unijon^f 

And sh;^l I fee) that crimes like the^e demand 
The Horatian lyre, and yet withhold my hand, 

It should be added, that Caligiila, sometime a&erwards, joined 
him m the consalshic^ with himself, an honour of which his^ vices 
loade him hoI altogether unworthy, lie waa au iitfpnqAf r. . 

The scene of these contests, which was at the confluence of U^ 
Soane and the Rhone, had been looked on as a sacred f^ot from 
the earliest ages. After the subjection of the country, the natives 
teilt a tmpU and Idtar here to Augast«5» and esMdbbshiMi^ qr m- 
ther renewed, the ancient festival, to «vhioh there was annoaUy a 
great resofft. The happy thought of instituting oratoncai. games at 
this altsir^ is, as I have alseaS^ observed, due ti> Caligala. 

Vee. TUMarius^ ^^c.} Pyoconsul of Africa : after the expira- 
don of his government, he \yas prosecuted by the province for 
extortion and cruelty, convicted on the clearest evidence, fined* 
and banished from Italy. *• Yet,* says Holyday, " reserving the 
greater pact of his fomsr apoHs» be lived in a wantoa exile f — 
while the Africans setumed hone wiik the wretched consoiatiDh 
of having defrayed their own expenses, aiid seen the aonay levici 
cm their oppresaor, otfried id the Roman tcsasui^ 

Juvenal observes, thal^ALarius was danmMtn inimijudicio^ thtft 
is, says the Sohehaat,. iHifi oiempiUbonit. . Naw-Ganarhad «iMb 
.« lav to prevent this kind of judgment « Pcaiaf/maharmk taucU 
(Suet. C99* xlii), <msi haqfiBtm i^fadiitu aiarianr m oA%^ 
reHif. qwd uUi^m peUrimosiiM xmlaiamKl U is irue^ this, with 
otbcf good laws, was now growo.obsolete.; hut the Scheiiast^ ex** 
pkusation. is, nevertbrieas^ unfeooded^s JnvenaLliscs ifareiipiea- 
jion, meei JimUom, in.refinence to the vast wealth ^ Mems,^ #faich 
«QuU be little, if at all, affieeted by the peltry saa» (mot^utte 
£6000^) exectml ffom.him i^ way^jf pttniabutat;. Jlidieiie that 
we have h«s«e a.iacit eensuce-oa Tfa|an|.ia the tbifrdcjtarrOi^whoeb 
?qigu thisscaadalQusuMl^iieeelieiuiirteokpia^ei^ .v^ • 

Yet check' the av^oging, sti^il^ w4 tell lAStead,, 
DuU tales p{ Hei^ules^. aRMi Di^nyed^. 
Req^UAt. t^ fli^ eii D^aJwa^ agj^in* 
And thennh.bfyyy plunged in the s«iindio^iiirtiii(1 
WlicCn Ctea^uire^whlcKthe adi^ker^r dwes noC lea^e 
Tber wife, Itf kw|. the wittol may receive, 

Vhb. 81. When treMurestSf€.'] Adulteren were accu5t09ie4 1» 
bequeath thdr property to their mistress : this opened a (ioor to 
universal coivttptioDf and oecafli«ied:80great.^daiiioar am*i>gtft 
the injured relatives, that Domitiao- interfered ,f and by. an.expreis 
law rendered' such infamous women Incapabte of receiving any be- 
quests whatever. The ingenious avarice of the Roman husbands,. 
howevor, contrived to elude thisnwholesomejrestitotion:. they be- 
came panders to their, own wives, ajid the legacies ^were,. ijir o^oseT- 
quence of it», transferred to themselyostt 

Km r^ftrm* ToJT «» ivp^oXO' i^o^to* 

But this wa» not alh II tfaeailulttfer wa»dd-snd weiJtby, the 
husband slept aiidtsnonedon; i£not^ hewatobed hi» opportunity, 
ajid took care to wake at a moment, favourable to his views of pxf 
toctlng^a comptomise for an attempt to dishonour him^ 

Now I am on this- subject, (far, indeed, from, a pleasing one^), I 
will relate a little anecdote of Maacenas* He was invited to supr 
^er hy one Galbai who had a handsome wife. The minister, was 
at this time all-powerful, and his protection, therefore, of conser 
q^cfr. to his- host, who remari^ecl'. with joy, his advances: to his 
wile, and after supper^ fell fast asleep* Maecenas made use of bis 
time ;, and a frieiid, whom he had brought with him, was procaedr imitate him,, when Galba, who had nothing to expect from 
ths new competitor, gravely raised his. headland exclaimed, 2^ojs 
ommhu dormia! I don't sleep for every body 1 IW. was thought 
a good joke at Rome, where the expression passed into. & proverbs 

•« Doniiitin/s httskkaasacef bewnverv oMarna no credit with Xvr 
pUIimta. Stieefii^afebisraddeaaiidincoiSsiBtentstAfetsofvirtiMs 
h^iUyB' tist he put: to dcatH savendiwciaflwi ftp adWt»rf' whom 
biluelfrhaiE debaucktedl' 2kf)c^ Jl^iwii ah^K'^mi^ >«mi»i( ^tw» «MMnM 

t6 sATiitE I. JUVENAL. V* 

SkillM on the roof his vacant eyes to roll, 
And snore, with wakeful nostrik, oer the bbwl! 
When he presumes to ask a troop's command, 
Who spent on horses all his father^s land, 
While, proud the experienced driver to display. 
He mark*<i with glowing wheels the publick way :-^— 
For there, our young Automedon first tried 
His powers, there loved the rapid car to guide, 
While great Pelides sought super iour bliss, 
And toy*d and wantoned with his master-miss. 

Ver. 85. When he presumes^ ^c.j He probably alludes to Cor- 
nelius FofcnSy who fell iu the Dacian war. (Sat. iv.) Fuscus had 
assisted Nero in his mad follies; to the ruin of his patrimony ; and 
on that founded bis claim to promotion. Ilence the indignation 
of Juvenal. 

The two concluding lines of this paragraph- have given the com- 
mentators some trouble : 


puer Automlsdon nam lora tenebat^ 

<< Ipse lacemalflft cum se jactaret arnicas." 

If I understand Holyday, he refers ^e to Fuscus, and arnica la* 
cemata to his ** warlike mistress :" but from the mention of Auto- 
medon, the charioteer of Achilles, it should seem as if ipse was 
meant of the Emperour, who, while Fuscus was showing his dexte- 
rity in driving, employed himself in exhibiting his talents in some 
other way, to one of his favourites. ^ 

If this be allowed, the arnica lacemata must relate to Sporus» 
whom this monster of lust espoused in Greece, afterwards brought 
to Italy, and exhibited publickly in the streets of Rome, and else- 
where, as his wife. Hunc Sporum^ auguslarum omamentis excuU 
fumy lecticaque vettumf ef circa conventus mercatusque Grctcue^ ac 
mox Ronut drca SigiUaria comitatus est^ identidcm exoscuians. 
Suet. Nero, xxviii. 

The end of Sporus Is singular enough to deserve a line. A few^ 
years after this transaction, he was ordered by ViteUios (then 
Emperour) to personate a nymph, who, in some pantomime, was 
to be carried oior by a ravisher : and this creature— branded in the 
lace. of the whole world with infamy of the deepest die, actually 
put Bsx eo4 to himMlf)^ avoid iippearing on the stage in the dress 
ofafenmle! . ^ 

sATiRS !• JUVENAL. V. 93-^106. 17 

Who irouldinof , reckless of the swarm he meets. 
Fill Ills wide tablets in the publick streets. 
With angry verse? when, through the midl'day 

Born by six slaves, ztid in an open chair, 
The forger comes, who owes his lavish stale, 
To a wet seal, and a fictitious date ; 
Gomes, like the soft Maecenas, lolling by. 
And impudently braves tlie publick eye I [thirst 
Or the rich dame, who stanch'd her hasband's 
With generous bowls, but — drugg'd them deeply 
Now, baffling old Locusta in her skill, [first f 

She shows her simpler neighbours how to kilt^ 
And bids them bear the spotted corpse along, 
Nor heed the curses of the indignant throng. 

Ver. 99. Comes, like^ the soft Mcecenas, ^c] This great 
man was at once a beau and a sloven. Seneca says, he used to 
walk abroad with his tawdry tunick about his heels. He was so in- 
dolent, that when the praefect of the guards came to him for th6 
countersign, or watchword, he generally received him half un- 
drest. His effeminacy is again noticed in the twelfth Satire. 

Vkr, 101. Or the rich dame, J^c] The person here alluded to. 
says Madan, was Agrippina, the wife of Claudius. It is not nausiml 
(and I speak it for the sake of criticks of a much higher order than 
Mr. Madan) for a commentator to note what is immediately before 
him, without deigning to east an eye to the right hand or the left. 
The husbandt in the text, is poisoiied by a drattgbl of wine; Clau- 
dius was despatched by a mushroom ! bnt tl is needless to pursue 
the subject. Poisoning bmbands, unliickily, was not so rare aii 
CTent in those days, that we should set an author at variance witu 
bimself to appropriate ft. Madan was probably misled by Britan- 
nicus : but I observe that Rupcrti has fallen into the same errour, 
for such I still think it to be. On matrona patens he says, ** any 
poisoner," (I behevc that some parUcular fact and some particulAr 
female were alluded lo,) " or rather Agrippina, who poisoned tier 
husband, Claudius." Vol. 11. p. 28. ^,. 

Veb. 103. Nawy baffling old Locusta, 4-c.] This superannu 
atcd wretch, who seems to have reduced the art of poisomng 


i8 fl^TUE I. JUV£NAL. v. i07~i2f. 

Dare nobly, man, if greatness be thy aim, 
And practise what may chains and exile claim : 
On Guilt's broad base thy towering fortunes raisct 
For Virtue starves— on universal praise ; 
While Vice controls the penury of Fate, 
Bestows the figured vase, the antique plate, 
The lordly mansion, and the fair estate ! 

O ! who can see the step-father impure. 
The greedy d^ghter to his bed allure ; 
See, and suppress his feelings while he sees, 
Utigatural brides, and stripling debauchees ? 
When crimes like these on every side arise, 
Anger shall give what mother-wit denies, 
And pour, in Nature and the Nine's despite, 
Such strains as I, or Gluvienus, write ! 

a science, is frequently mentioned by the writers of Javenai^s 
time, with execration.. She had been condemned to die for a 
thousand crimes; but was kept alive by the besotted Clau- 
<lius, as an useful instrument of state vengeance: and, at length, 
employed against the very person whose dark designs she was 
/eserved to facilitate! But so it ever is: the man who formed 
the brazen bull, first proved its tortures; and, as Shakspeare beau- 
iiilly observes. 

'tis the sport, to have the engineer 

" Hoist with his own petar.' 

Nero made use of her afterwards to destroy Britannicus, and, per* 
haps, Burrhus; but upon the accession of Galba, she was dragged 
to execution amidst the shouts and insults of the populace. 

VxR, 110. For Virtue starvei^-'On universal praise ;] This is 
prettily noticed by Massinger : 


in this partial avaricious age 

** What price bears honour? virtue? long ago 
'* It was but praised, and freezed ; but now*a-days 
** Tis colder &r, and has nor love nor praise.*' 

Fatal Dowry^ Act xi. Sc. u 

S4TXR* I. JUVENAL. V. ta7h^i4i. 19 

E^er since Deucalion, while, on every side, 
The bursting clouds upraised the whelming tidey 
Reached, in his little skiff, the forked hill, 
And sought at Themis' shrine the Immortals* will ; 
When softening stones with gradual life grew 

And Pyrrha show*d the males each virgin charm ; 
Whatever wild desires have sweird the breast. 
Whatever passions have the soul possest ; 
Joy, Sorrow, Fear, Love, Hatred, Transport, Rage, 
Shall form the motley subject of my page. 

And when could Satire boast so fair a field f 
Say, when did Vice a richer harvest yield ? 
When did fell Avarice so inflame the mind f 
And when the lust of play so curse mankind ? 
For now no more the pocket's stores supply 
The boundless charges of the desperate die : 
The chest is staked! muttering the steward stands, 
And scarce resigns it, at his lord*s commands. 
Is it a SIMPLE MADNESS, I would kuow, 
To venture countless thousands on a throw, 
Yet want the soul a single piece to spare, 
To clothe the slave that shivering stands and bare ! 

Vkr 122. E'er since DeucaUm, ^-c] It will be sufficient to 
observe, for the less learned reader, that Deucalion was the sou 
of Prometheus, and reigned in Thessaly. He was the only good 
fluuk of his time, and therefore, when the rest of the world was 
swept awaif by a deluge, he and his wife Pyrrha were preserved, 
and waftea to mount Parnassus. On the abatement of the waters, 
they inquired of the Oracle how the earth might be replenished, 
and were answered, by throwing their mothet^s bones behind them, 
Tyrrha revolted at such impiety, but Deucalion satisfied her W 
proving that their << mother meant the earth, and her '* boner' 
consequently! the stones. These, therefore, they took iq»y and 

c « 

M %AViAt V JUVENAL. : v. 144— 14,7^ 

WbocalVd, of old^ sa many seati his ovfUx 
Or on seven aumptuous di&hes ftiipp*d alooe ?-*^ 
Once all were welcomed ; Ni3W,a dole awaits 
The^ hungry clients, at the outward gatesj 

Aung over their heads; those thrown by Deucalion produced men, 
those by Pyrrha, women: thus the world was repeopled! 

TMs absurd tale, which is prettily told by Ovid and others, is, 
as the reader se^, 1^ wretched depravation of feocred history. 

Ver. 144». Wko €aU*df of My so many seats his oam^ 

Or on seven sumptuous dishes supp'd aione t — J Juve- 
nal might well ask this ; for the ancients did neither. Their usual 
eating-room was the atrium, or commoa-haU, which was open to 
thevievir of every passer-by; and they ha4 rarely more than two 
plain dishes; Even the first men of the state, says Val. Max. (lib* 
II. c. 5.) wdre not ashamed .to dine ^nd sup there; n«r had. they 
any di3h which they blushed to expose to the meanest of their fel- 
low-citizens. •• 

The old republicans p^d to admit the clieniti, who attended 
them from the forum, to supper. Under the Emperours, this laud- 
able custom was done away, and a little basket of meat given to 
each of them to carry home. Nero (Suet, xvi.) ordered a smali 
sum of money to be distributed instea^d of meat,, and Domitian 
brought back the former practice. Whether any changes were 
subsequently introduced, is^ not certainly known, but we here fin4, 
that money was again distributed : perhaps, the choice was in the 
patron. The sum was a hundred quadrantes, pieces^ somediing 
less tha^^ a drthiag, and m^iiyg in aU about fifteen^pence of our 

As this is the first passage, in which the names of palroa aad 
UiQOt oQcqr, it may not be amiss to say a few words on^ the rela- 
tive situation of two classes of men, which comprehended nearly all 
the citizens of Rome. A patron then, was a man of rank and for- 
tune, under whose care the meaner people voluntarily put them- 
selves, and, in consequence of it, were denominated his clients. 
The patron assisted bis client with his influence and advice, and 
the client, in return, gave his vote to his patron, wiien he sought 
any office for himself, or friends. The client owed hfr patron re- 
spect, the patron owed his client protection. Indeed; ^he early 
Romans seem to have given a degree of sanctity to the obliga^idn 
of the patron towards the cUeut. It was expressiy enforced by a 
law of the Twelve Tables : Fatronusy si clfit^ti fraudtm fecerit. 
saccr €4t^$ If a patro.a injure his client, let him be held accursed. 

8ATIRB I. JUVENAL. V. X4S-*^is9- ai 

Where all are eyed with trembling, lest they claim 
The paltry largess, in a borrow'd name. [pares 
** Known, you receive:" and now the crier pre- 
To call the great Dardanians to their shares; 
For those, even those, besiege, with us, the door, 
And scramble^— for the pittance of the poor ! 
•' Despatch the Praetor first," the steward cries, 
" And next the Tribune." « No; not so,' replies 
The Freedman, bustling through, « first come, is 

* First served ; and I may claim my right, and will. 

* Though born a slave, (*twere bootless to deny 

* What these bored ears betray to every eye,) 

And Virgil, many ages afte; this, places the unjust patron in Tar- 
tarus, among the violators of natural and moral decorum : 

" Hie quibus invisi fratres, dum vita manebat, 

" Pulsatusque parens, et rRAus iknexa cliewti.*' 

The institution of this state of mutual dependanCe, which com- 
menced with the monarchy, was attended with the happiest 
effects; and, for the space of six centuries, we find no dissensions 
or jealousies between the two parties. But as riches and pride 
increased, new duties wereimpu&ed on the clients; they were ha- 
rassed with constant attendance, and mortified by neglect; in a 
word, they were little better than slaves. 

They had yet other causes of complaint; and Juvenal, who ap- 
pears, from an epigram addressed to him from Spain by his friend 
Martial, to have deeply felt the degradation he describes, some- 
times speaks of it with pathos, and sometimes with indignation. But 
of this elsewhere. 

VsR.130. ' ■ ■ ■ and now the crier preparet 4^0 The old nobility 
of Rome aflected to derive their origiti from the great families of 
Troy. The satire here is very poignant: vain of their rank, they 
were careless of their actions, and swelling with the dignity of their 
sncieut blood, were mean enough to be found scrambling amoi^t 
the poor for a. few paltry halfpence ! . 

Ver. 15S. Though bom a slave, ^c] The original is, ** Though 
bom near the Euphrates/' t. r. m Aimenia, or rather inCappadocia, 

M 8ATIRB I. JUVENAL. V* i6o~i69» 

The rents of five good mansions swell my store, 
A knight*8 estate ! What has your purple more, 
Than this to boast, if, to Laurentum sped, 
Noble Corvinus tends a flock for bread ! — 
Pallas, nor Licinus, had my estate : 
Shall I be pass*d then? Let the Tribunes wait* 
Yes, let them wait ! thine. Riches, be the field !— 
It is not meet, that he to Honour yield, 
To SACREo Honour, who, with whiten'd feet. 
Was hawk*d for sale so lately through the streets 

whence the Romans were chiefly supplied with domesUcks, 
From the freedman's appeal to the holes, or, as Juvenal cpntemp* 
tuously calls them, the windows, in his ears, it would seem as if the 
meaner Asiaticksall wore ear-ring? 4t that time ; (as, indeed, they 
still do ;) — and this explains one of Cicero's best jokes. His rivaJ, 
Octavius, said to him rather rudely, as he was pleading, ** I cannot 
hear what you say." < And yet,' replied the orator, * you were 
wont to have your ears well bored V A bitter retort; for the 
family of Octavius, though then ennobled, was supposed to have 
come originally from beypnd sea, in a mean condition. 

Vkr. 164. PattoSf nor IdcfnuSf had my estate :] This is going 
somewhat too far, for Pallas, in particular, was immeasurably rich. 
He was the freedman of Claudius, a weak prince, who lavbhed un- 
bounded wealth upon his favourites, and impoverished himself* 
When, he complained of the emptiness of his treasury, somebody 
observed, and not badly, as Tacitus remarks, that it would be 
full enough, if his two freedmen (Pallas and Narcissus) would con- 
descend to take him into their firm. 

Pallas outlived Claudius, and was for some time in high favour 
with Nero, but was involved in the disgrace of Agrippiaa, and dis- 
missed the court. He was now grown old, but as the strength of 
his constitution still threatened to disappoint the eager avarice of 
the EmperouF, he broke through all restraint, and put him to 
death, stamine nondum abruptOf for the very wealth to which he 
trusted for safety ! 

The reader will observe, that the satire of Juvenal is inces* 
oant: the freedman is made to select for his examples, either an 
old patrician grown poor, or new men (wrui kommetj raised to 
{>ower from nothing* 

Vbk, 168. > ■ > i^» whop wiih ypkit€n*d fefif] There is a 

SATitB u JUVENAL. ▼• ijor^iqu i^ 

Pernicious gold ! though yet no temples rise, 
No altars to thy name perfume the skies. 
Such as to Victory, Virtue, Faith are reared. 
And Concord, where the clamorous stork is heard. 
Yet is thy full divinity confest. 
And thy shrine fix*d in every human breast. 

But while, with anxious eyes, the great explore 
How much the dole augments their annual store. 
What misery must the poor dependants dread, 
Whom this small pittance clothed, and lodged, 

and fed ? 
Wedged in thick ranks before the donor's gates, 
A phalanx firm, of chairs and litters, waits : 
Thither one husband, at the risk of life. 
Hurries his teeming, or his bedrid wife ; 
Another, practised in the gainful art, 
With deeper cunning tops the beggar's part ; 
Plants at his side a close and empty chair : 

*•' My Galla, master ; ^give me Galla's share." 

^ Galla !* the porter cries ; * let her look out' 
^* Sir, she's asleep ; nay, give me :— can you doubt!" 

What rare pursuits employ the clients' day ! — 
First to the patron's door, their court to pay, 

poigaancy in this expression which should be pointed oaf. All 
slaves were exposed to sale with naked feet; but such as wereim« 
ported from remote and barbarous countriesi and therefore of little 
estimation) were, as a further mark of distinction, ^'whitened 
on the feef ' with chalk or gypsum. Such was the pristine state of 
thb insolent upstart ! 

Vsa. 190. Wkat rarejmrndU 4c.] The day is distingubhed 
by nearly the same pursuits in Martial : 

** Prima salutantes atque altera continet hora, 

'* £xercet raucos tertia causidicos, 
^ In quintam varies extendit Roma labores, 
** Sex^i quies lassis, septima finis exit." 


%4, sAtiRB I. JUVENAL. V. 19a— 205. 

Thence 16 the forum, to support his cause, 
Last to Apollo, learned in the laws, 

/Xnd the triumphal statues ; where some Jew, 
Some mongrel Arab, some— I know not who, — 
Has impudently dared a niche to seize, 

Lpit to be p against, or— what you please. 

JReturning home, he drops them at the gate ; 
And now the weary clients, wise too late, 
Resign their hopes, and supperless retire, 
To spend the- paltry dole in herbs and fire. 
Meanwhile, their patron sees his palace stored 
With every dainty earth and sea afford ; 
Stretch'd on the vacant couch, he rolls his eyes 
O'er many an orb of matchless form and size, 

Ver. 192. Thence to the forum, 4-c.] Here, in the forum wT 
•l<»X^»> (for there were several others scattered about the city,) the 
publick business was chiefly carried on. Apollo, who is mentioned 
in the next line, stood in the forum of Augustus, and acquired the 
legal knowledge, for which he is so handsomely complimeated, from 
the lawyers, who frequented the courts of justice established thfre. 
The " triumphal statues" stood also in this forum ; they were 
those of the most eminent persons who had appeared in the state. 

Vkr. 1 94. »— wkere^Mme Jew, *c.] The indignation of 

the poet has involved him in obscurity. It is not easy to say who 
is meant here; and the commentators have taken advantage of the 
uncertainty, to display a world of research. Holyday, who re- 
capitulates their conjectures, concludes, with every appearance of 
reason, that it was one Tiberius Alexander, a renegado Jew, who 
embraced the religion of Rome, and was made praefect of Egypt. 
He was the first to declare for Vespasian, (Tacit. Hist. xi. 79f) to 
whose party he brought a vast accession of strength, and was» 
therefore, probably, honoured with a statue. The partiality of 
Alexander to this prince, however, did him no great credit with 
our author ; whose hatred of Domitian was such, that he seems 
to have looked with abhorrence — 

« on all unfortunate souk that traced bis Une." 

y%n, 204. Stretched on the vacant couch jSfC.^ Seneca somewhere 

Select the. fairest to'lrQoeive his plate, 
And, at one meal^ de^< a whole estate! 
But who, (for not a parasite -is Ih6re,) . ' 
Ah, who snoh sordid luxury can biear ? - 

Lo, he requires whole boars ! serves^ up -^ bdast *' 
To his own maw, created for a feast!— 
But mark him «oon by signal wrath pui^sued. 
When to the bath he bears the peacock crude, 
That frets, and swells within ; — thence every iH, 
Age premature, and death without a Will ! ' 

Swift flies the tale, by witty spleen increast. 
And furnishes a laugh at every feast ; 
The laugh his friends not undelighted hear, ' 
And, fallen from all their hopes, insult his bier. * 

saysy that good cheer without a friend to partake ^t, is the enter- 
tainment of a wild beast. And the poet Alexisi 

Go and be hang*d, thou solitary glutton. 
Thou house-brfsaiier I 

Vek. 205. Kam de tot pulchris, ct lath orbUms, et tarn 

Anti([uis, 4"C.] Ad hunc locum nihil videre inter* 
preteSf says Graevius, who is not a whit clearer sighted in the 
matter than the rest. I conceive that the satire b here levelled 
not so much at the gluttony, as at tRe extravagance of this secret 
gormandizer; who possessed such a number of large, beautiful, 
and antique orbs, (so Juvenal calls the upper part of the table, 
which was formed of the most rare and costly materials,) as to 
be somewhat embarrassed in the selection of one for his immediate 

The prodjgality of the Romans knew no bounds in the acquisition 
of these favourite objects of luxury : the elder Pliny says, that two 
were exposed to sale amoi^!»t the efifecU of A^nius Gallus, which 
produced more than the price of two mam is 1 See Sat* KU 

Veb. 218. The laugh his friends not vndclfghted hear. 

And, fallen from all their hopen^ insult Aw Wer.] ^ 
have a good instance of this in PBny. Donutius ToIIhs enauMso 

s( jiATi&ft I. JUVENAL* V. 2ao«»233* 

Nothing is lefl, nothing, for future times. 
To add; to the full catalogue of crimes ; 
The baffled sons must feel the same desires, 
And act the same mad follies, as their sires. 

Vies HAS ATTAIN*!} ITS ZENITH. — ^TheU, Set Sftit, 

Spread all thy canvass, catch the favouring gale-*^ 
F. Hold ! Where*s the genius for this bound- 
less theme ? 
J^d where the liberty ? Or dost thou dream 
Of that blunt freedom (freedom, that I fear 
To name or hint at) which allowed, while^ere. 
Our sires to pour on vice, without control, 
The impassion*d dictates of the kindling soul. 
Heedless alike who smiled orfrown*d? — Now, 

To glance at Tigelllnus, and you glare 

himself, during a long life, with feeding the hopes of these Will- 
hunters, se captandum pndmiit and yet left his fortune to the heii^ 
at-law ; upon which they began to abuse him. There is humour 
in the following passage : Ergo varu Ma cicitate 9enmomt9 : aUd 
(tciU eaptatora) fictum^ ingratum^ immemorem loqwtniWTf m^mc 
fJMOf, dum ifuectanhir ilium, tvrpisnmh ccnfeswmilnu frodnmt^ qui 
de iUo uti de patrCf avo, proavo, juan orbif querantur ; tdii contra 
hoc ipium laudUnu ftrimtf quod nt Jrustratus improbas tpes komi^ 
numf quoi He dtapere pro morHnu temporum prudentia est, lab. 
vxji, Epist. 18. 

The glutton in the text is prevented from remembering his 
parasites* by the suddenness of his death, which did not allow time 
for a Will : hence the comical mixture of rage and ridicule with 
which they pursue his obsequies: 

'* Ducitur iratis plaudcndum funus amicis.** 

' Vk%. 339. To gkmce at TigeUinut^ ^c] Fielding makes Booth, 
in the other world, inquire of Shakspeare the precise meaning of 
Othello's famous apostrophe, ** Put out the light," &c. ; and if 
pome curious critick had done the same of Juvenal, respecting the 
•eose of the.foUowing lines, he would have done a real service t» 

jATiRt t. JUVENAL. T. 234—235. «f 

In that pitched shirt, in which such crowds expire, 
Ghain*d to the bloody stake, and wrapp*d in fire. 

the commentatorBy and saved an ocean of precious ink| which hai 
been wasted on them to little purpose : 

** Pone Tigellinum, taeda lucebis in ilia 

** Qua stantes ardent, qui fixo gutture furaant, 

** £t latus mediam sulcus diducit arenanu" 

*' Touch but Tigel!inuS| and you shall shine in that torch, whei^ 
'** they stand and bum, who smoke, fastened to a stoke, and 
'* (where) a wide furrow divides the sand/' 

The dreadful conflagration which laid wiiste a great part of 
- Rome in the reign of Nero, was found to have broken out in the 
house of Tigellinus. As his intimacy with the Emperoor was np 
secret, it strengthened the general belief, that the city was bunied 
by design. Nothing seems to have enraged Nero so much as this 
discovery ; and to avert the odium from hb favourite, he basely 
taxed the Christians with setting fire to his house. Under this 
accusation, thousands of those innocent victims were dragged to 
a cruel death. The Emperour, says Tacitus, (Ann. xv. 44,) added 
insult to their sufieringis : some were covered with the skins of wild 
beasts, and worried to death by dogs ; others were crucified, and 
others again, were smeared with iNFLAMMABLm matter, 


TORCHES DURING THE NIGHT ! This horrid Species of barba- 
rity sufficiently explains the two first lines ; the remaining one is 
not so easily got over. 

I once supposed that the line contained merely a local descrip* 
tion, and meant " a sunk place in the arena," where the stakes 
were fixed ; or that a part of it was occasionally separated from 
the rest by a ** wide furrow," or ditch, and allotted to this dreadAil 
purpose : these ideas, however, do not seem to have occurred to 
any of the criticks, (no great recommendation of them, 1 confess,^ 
since they prefer altering the text, and reading, 

** £t latum media sulcum deducis arena." 

^' And you shall make, or draw out, a wide furrow in the sand.'' 
That is, say they, <* by turning round the stake to avoid the 
flames :" which, as the sufferer was fixed to it, he could not well 
do. If the alteration be allowed, I should rather imagine the 
yense to be, ** When the pitched cloth, in which you were wrapped, 
js consumed, your scorched and lifeless remains shall be dragged 
out of the Amphitheatre, and thus make a wide furrow in the 
Aiod. Or (for I am not quite satisfied with this) Et may be 

38 SATitB I. JUVENAL. V. 236-^237. 

y. What, shali the man who dragg'd three 
uncles! three! 
Tower by triumphant, and look down on me ? 

taken for a disjunctive, and the passage referred to a aepasate pu- 
nishment : 

Or, writhing on a hook, be dragg'd around, 
And with your mangled, members plough th^ ground ! 
The idea of Curio and others, (adopted by Rupcrti,) that the 
expression is proverbial in this place, and means ** labonring in 
Yain,^' is surely unfounded; To plough the BOnd^ indeed, is used in 
a!ll languages, for an unprofitable punuit ; but I think too hi|^Iy 
of Juvenal, to venture on charging him with so Wretched an atiti- 
climax. '< If you glance at the favourite of the day, your will bb 
burned alive, nay — ^you will lose your labour V Still, however, aa 
acme sense may be elicited from it, I subjoin a translation : 

Now glance at TigelHnus, and you glare 
In that pitched shirt, in which such crowds expire, 
Chain'd to the bloody stake, and wrapp'd in nre ; 
While he, whose crimes your daring lines arraign. 
More vicious, proves — you plough the sand in vain ! 

There is yet another meaning adopted by some of the learned, 
and which is produced by a gentleman in his remarks on Madan's 
translation 01 this very line : " I am surprised (he says) that 
Mr. M. should nut have been acquainted with the following pas* 
sage of Jos. Scaliger, which sets the whole in the dearest light : 
Stantibus ad palum destinatis unco (ne motatione capitis picetn ca^ 
dentem declinarentj gutturi si^xo k lamina ardente pix out unguen 
in caput Uqucfiebaty ita ut rivi pinguedinis humance per arenam sul- 
cumfacerent. By this interpretation, so intuitively true, that, by 
one acquainted with the facts, it might have been deduced from 
the vulgar text without the emendation of Scaliger," (rather of 
Lipsius, Scaligero, as Ferrari us says, non improbante^J '* the spirit 
of the poet is vindicated, history illustrated, and the image raised 
to its climax." 

I have seen enough of criticism to be always* on my guard 
against interpretations " intuitively true." Human fat, whether 
dissolved *' in streams," or, as this gentleman translates it, *' drop 
by drop,*^ could scarcely make a wide furrow in the sand; and, 
indeed, Ferrari us and Vossius, who had this interpretation before 
them, concur in rejecting it as improbable. With respect to the 
" illustration of history," the former adds, " Qiice Scaliger de la- 
mina et.picc adhibita Christianis adpalum^ non memini me apud alios 
li'gisse !*' 

Ruperti has carefully collected the different opinions on thfe 

sATtftft^i; JUVENAL^ V. 238^»)9i.> ^ 

F. Yes; let him look. He comes! ayoidhiEwayt- 
And on your lip your cautious finger lay ; 

difficult passage ; but his conclusions from ttiero are not more sa- 
tisfactory than my own.* He concludes with an eraendatioD^'— bilt 
this b cttttibg the knpt^^-a^d would read : 

- qui fixo gutture fumat, 

£c latum media sutcum qui ducit arena. 

To which he sobjoins, with more of the Bentleian spirit Chan I 
gave him credit for, Et ita foetam ortmiaH icriptisH eredidenm: 
niii forte totus versus^ quern salvo sensu obeh transfigere licet, inter* 
polatrici manni dehetur^ et plane ejidendus, nan emendandui e^ f 

To return to Tigelhnus ; he was recommended to Nero by his 
debaucheries. After the murder of Burrhus, he succeeded to the 
command of the praetorian guards, and abated his ascendency o^er 
the Emperour, to &e no6t dreadful purposes. He afterwards be- 
trayed him ; by which, and other acts of perfidy, he secured him- 
self during the short reign of Galba. He was put to death by 
Otho, to the fieat yny of the people \ and he died as he had lived^ 
a profljgpite and a. coward. 

Who the person was that is here alluded to uuder his name, 
cannot now be known. Trajan, though a good prince on the 
whole, had many failings. He is covertly taxed, as f have before 
observed, ia this very Satire, for his lenity in the affair of Marius; 
and the blood- suckers of Domitian's time seem to have yet pos^ 
sessed too rhuch influence. He was, besides, addicted to a vice 
which we shall have frequent occasions to mention, and conse^ 
quently surrounded by effeminate and worthless favourites, whom 
it might be dangerous to provoke : for these and other reasous» 
Juvenal seems to have regarded him with no great kindness ; and, 
indeed, if the state of things be truly represented, we cannot ac« 
cuse him of injustice. 

Ver. 236. What^ shall the man who drvgg'd three uncles! SjfC.} 
** Still hajrpiiig on Tigellinus :" tres enim habuit patruos quos omneSf 
ut eorum hctreditatHus potirefur, veneno abswnsii ; suktractisquc 
annuliSf et/alio tabulis signatis, hctredttates summo scdere cofuecuttit 
€$t. Val. Prob. 

it appears that Juvenal really had some oue in view, »vhose 
enormities bore a wonderful similarity ta those of TigisUinus, llie 

" »■ ■> who owed bis lavish state 

'' To a y*kk seal, and a Actitious date/' 

is described in the very words of this quotation ; and if the reader 
will have the goodness to turn ta ver. 97 ^ he will prahahiy be 

35 SATttv I. JUVENAI^ V. ofo'-rasi. 

Crowds of informers follow in his rear. 
And if you say but " Lo I" will overhean*-*- 
Turnus may still be vanquish*d in your strain^ 
Achilies struck, and Hylas sought in vain ; 
Harmless, nay pleasant, shall the tale be found. 
It bares no ulcer, and it probes no wound. 
But when Lucilius, fifed with virtuous rage, 
Waves his keen falchion o*er a guilty age, 
The conscious villain shudders at his sin, 
And burning blushes speak the pangs within ; 
Cold drops of sweat from every member roll, 
And growing terrours harrow up his soul ! 

^nvinced that the person there alluded to, was some worthless 
minion, who derived his confidence in guilt from the partiality of 
a powerful protector. 

Ver. 242. Tumui may stiU, <^.] PHny has a passage on this 
subject nearly to the same purpose : Nat enim qui injbro, verisque 
liiUnu terimur^ muUum maiitue^ quamvu noUmiu, addUdmiu. Schola 
et auditorium^ utjicta causa^ ita res inermu innona est. The same 
thought tooy is touched, with considerable humoury in the Knight 
of the burning Pestle : 

*' Frol, By your sweet favour we intend no harm to the city. 

<* Cit. No, sir i yes, sir. If you were not resolved to play the 
jack, what need you study for new subjects purposely to abusd 
your betters ? Why could not you be content, as well as others, 
9rith the Legend of Whittington, the Story of Queen Eleanor, and 
the rearing of London Bridge upon woolsiacks }** 

Vbr. 246. But uhen LuciluUf Sjfc] In Randolph's Entertain- 
ment, there is so admirable a paraphrase of this passage, that I 
shall be easily forgiven for producing it : 

** When I but frown'd in my Lucilius' brow, 

** Each conscious cheek grew red, and a cold trembling 

** Freezed the chill soul, while every guilty breast 

'* Stood, fearful of dissection, as afraid 

** To be anatomized by that skilful hand, 

** And have each artery, nerve, and vein of sin, 

** By it hiid open to the puUick scorn.'^ 

•ATUtti. JUVENAL. V. 259— 957* jr: 

Then tears of shame, and dure revenge succeed — 
Say; have you ponder*d well the adventVoui 

Now--ere the trumpet sounds — your strength de-;^ 

bate ; 
The soldier once engaged, repents too late. 

3* Yet I If us T write : and since these iron times, 
From living knaves preclude my angry rhymes, 

Yxm. S56. Yet I must write^ S^c^ In the concluding lines I 
have consulted the advantage of the English reader, and rather 
paraphrased than translated the original^ which is abrupt and epi- 

" --Experiar quid concedatur in ilHs 

« Quorum Flaminia t^tur dnis atque 
liCeially rendered, is 

J. Nay, then ; — ^111 try what power I boast o'er those^ 
Whose ashes in the publick ways repose. 

^ Juvenal afiects alarm at the serious tenour of his friend's admo- 
nition, and therefore sarcastically renounces his first design, in 
fiiTour of an experiment on the degree of liberty allowable in sa* 
tiriadng the dead. 

The <* publick ways^ mentioned in the concluding line, (of 
which lie specifies the Latin and Flaminian) were the usual bu« 
lying places of the Romans. Little recesses were formed in the 
walls, or hedges, which bounded them, and in these their bodies^ 
or more commonly the urns which enclosed their ashes, were de- 
posited. This was not only an elegant, but a politick practice ; 
since the names of such as deserved well of their country were 
thus placed perpetually in view of the multitudes whom business 
or amusement incessantly attracted, from every part of the em* 
|»re, to the capital. Hence appears the propriety of the two 
words with which their epitaphs usually began, Siitet viator^ Stay, 
traveller; words which we nave preposterously introducdl into 
our close and secluded cemeteries. This absurdity could not 
escape the notice of Fielding, who has ridiculed it with exqubite 
humour, in his epitaph on an ancestor of the worthy fiimily of the 

<* Stay,. traveller; for undtnuatk tkispeWf 
** Ues £ist asleep that merry man, Andrew !*' pen ags^Qst'tb^ gu^^ty dead, 

Ve%, 258. Ipomt my pen against the guilty deady SfC.] HalV 

** I will not ransack up the quiet grave, . 
** Nor burn .dead bone^ at he example gave, 
, '' I tax the living, let the ashes rest, 
** Whose faults aie clead^ and DiiM ia their ahestj* . , 

But Hally lilie Juvenal, makes use oj[ departad narne^ ^' so that tba 
generosity is m6re in appearance thati reality. The design of both 
yras the samei and nobody was deceived. 


jThIS Satire amiams an irregular hut animated attack^ upon the 
hypocrisy rf pkOosopkers and reformers ; whose ignorance^ prq/ti" 
gacy^ and impiety^ it exposes with just severity, 

Dondtian is here the hero : his vices are covertly or openly aU 
iuded to under every diff'erent name ; and it must give us a high 
opinion of the intrepid spirit of the man who could venture to 
produce and circulate, though but in private^ so faithful a repre- 
sentation of that ferocious and blood-thirsty tyrant* 

The Sfficulties in the xoay of translating this Satire, are scarcely 
to he conceived but by those who have made the experiment: if my 
success were but at all equal to my pains, I should dismiss it with 
same degree of cot^idence. 



■■»■■■ * 

V. 1—10. 

v/H, I could flee, inflamed wilh just disdain, 
To the bleak regions of the frozen main, 
When from their lips the cant of virtue falls, 
Who talk likeCurii, live like Bacchanals! 

Devoid of knowledge, as of worth, they thrust. 
In every nook, some philosophick bust ; 
For he, among them, founts himself most wise. 
Who most old sages of the sculptor buys ; 
Sets most true Zenos, most Gleanthes* heads, 
To guard the volumes which he — never reads ! 

Ver. 4. Wio talk like Curiij SjfC.'] For the Curii, see Sat. iii. 
and XI. 

.VeE. 9. Sets most true Zenos^ most Ckanthes' heads, 4*^*1 As 
those philosophers were celebrated above all others, for the shrewd- 
ness aJid subtilty of their disquisitions, there is a considerable de- 
gree of humour in our authoi^s making his blockheads fix on their 
busts, for the purpose of ornamenting their libraries. 

If we could suppose Lucian to have read Juvenal, (and he pro- 
bably had,) he might have this passage in his thoughts, when he 
wrote his illiterate book-hunter, amai^nyn^ nat mXXa. Mxta. vfufjupoq^ 
Locher^ who translated Brandt's Ship of Fools, had undoubtedly 
both Juvenal and Lucian before him, when he gave the following 

** Spem quoque nee parvam collecta volumina praebenti " 
** Calleo nee verbum, nee libri sentio mentera, 
" Attamen in magno per me servantur honore.' 




Trust not to outward show ; in every streeti 
Obscenity, in formal garb, we meet. 
And dost thou, hypocrite, our lusts arraign, 
Thou, of Socratick pathicks the mere drain ! 
Nature thy rough and shaggy limbs designed. 
To mark a stern, inexorable mind ; 
But all so smooth below ! — the surgeon smiles, 
" And scarcely can, for laughter, lance the piles." 

For the rest ; if another Brandt were to arisei and incline to fur- 
nish out a cargo of fools from the stock in hand, I much doubt 
whether the *' illiterate book-hunter" would not still be the first 
he would put on board. 

Ver. 14. TJum^ of Socratick patkich the mere drain !] This line 
has given offence to some of the criticks, who consider it as a wan- 
ton attack upon Socrates ; while others, on the contrary, justify 
it from the alleged propensities of that philosopher. This is no 
place to enter into a vindication of his character, which I believe^ 
and which every good man must delight to think, unspotted; nor, 
indeed, does Juvenal afford the least occasion for it. The oppo- 
site terms, Socraticos cinotdos, conveyed not, in his mind, the 
slightest censure ; they are merely a continuation of the double 
image with which he began, and must evidently be referred to the 
Qui Curios simulant^ &c. It is extraordinary that the mistake 
should be so general, since, whatever contempt our author might 
feel for the rabble of Greek philosophistSs ^nd however prone he 
may be to vary his language with his subject, he never mentions 
Socrates but with the highest respect. He quotes him as a pattern 
of moderation and virtue in the fourteenth Satire ; and few of his 
readers have forgotten, I trust, that most beautiful designation of 
him in the address to Calvinus : 

« — ^ « dulcique Senex vicinus Hymctto, 

" Qui partem acceptaa sseva inter vincla cicutae 
** Accusatori nollet dare." 

But the misapprehension stops not here ; it has induced those who 
thought \vcll of Socrates, (and the learned Prideaux among the 
rest,) to suspect the integrity of the text, and alter Socraticos into 
Sotadicos! a most injudicious step; for Sotades was certainly 
no hypocrite: indeed, he appears, from Strabo^ Athenaus, and 
Suidas, to have been so far from pretending to the character of a 
rigid moralist, (turjnum castigator,J that he openly wrote off and 
recommended, the most detestable vices. 

SATIRE II. JUVENAL. V. 19—40. 37 

Gravely demure, in wisdom's awful chair, 

His beetling eyebrows longer than his hair, 

In silent state, the affected Stoick sits, 

And drops his maxims on the crowd by fits ! — 

Yon Peribomius, whose emaciate air, 

And tottering gait, his rank disease declare, 

With patience I can view ; he braves disgrace, 

Nor skulks behind a sanctimonious face : 

Him may his folly, or his fate excuse,— 

But whip me those, who Virtue's name abuse, 

And, soil'd with all the vices of the times, 

Thunder damnation on their neighbours' crimes ! 

Why should I shrink at Sextus ? can I be, 
Whate'er my infamy, more base than he ? 
Varillus cries : The man who treads aright, 
May mock the halt, the swarthy Moor, the white ; 
This we allow; but Patience' self must fail, 
To hear the Gracchi at sedition rail ! 
Who would not mingle earth, and sea, and sky. 
Should Milo murder, Verres theft decry, 
Clodlus adultery ? Catiline accuse 
Cethegus, Lentulus, of factious views, 

Vee. 31. Why should I shrink at Sextus?] The immediate 
desigp of the Satire here opens upon us. Varillus, a beggarly de- 
bauchee, had been threatened by Sextus (a magistrate, it should 
seem) with the punishment duo to a crime of which the latter 
was equally guilty. From this circumstance, Varillus takes oc- 
casion* first to claim impunity for himself, and then to expose the 
hypocrisy of his judge; which he aggravates by a number of ex- 
amples, till the charge is artfully brought to bear with accumu* 
lated force 00 DomitJan. 

Ver. 36. To hear theGraechiy ^-c] The history of the Gracchi 
b an important one ; but too long to be given in this place. They 

38 SATIRE II. JUVENAL. V. 4i-*4i. 

And Sylla's pupils, while they ape the deed. 
Against his Tables of Proscription plead? 

were brothers,* nobly descended, and virtuously educated ; but^ 
unfortunately, too ambitious : Csssars, in short, born near a cen- 
tury before their time. They proposed an Agrarian law, and to 
get it passed, struck at the root of that liberty of which they pro- 
fessed themselves the champions ;— conceiving, perhaps, with other 
hasty reformers, that the end justified the means. They were 
murdered with every circumstance of barbarity ; Tiberius, in the 
midst of his followers, by Scipio Nasica ; and Caius, some time 
after, by a mob more powerful and more profligate than his own. 
As Juvenal calls them seditious, we may be sure be thought 
them such ; and the opinion of so decided a friend to the liberties 
of his country, must necessarily have great weight in determining 
the justice of their fall. But the mischief, unfortunately, did not 
end with them : they had shown what might be effected by an 
unbridled multitude; and ambitious men, inferiour indeed to the 
Gracchi in ability, but greater adepts in the easy arts of corrupt- 
ing and inflaming the passions of the ignorant, learnt from their 
example, to make a more effectual use of the tremendous engine 
which they first set in rootion.t Clectiosns were carried oti 
by violence and outrage, and men of moderate and na^ripticl^ 
views driven from the service of the state. Then followed a 
dreadful scene — Ardcbant cunctOf tt fracta compage mebtuU^ 
Sylla, and Marius, and Cinna, appeared upon the stage in suc- 
cession, and thinned the world by their bloody proscriptions. 
Others followed, equally sanguinary, tiU the people, weary of 

* The difference of their characters is thus marked by Die: 
fxiii'^ fAt9 (Tiberius) «er* «^itik if f i^eri^iaf, ko* •{ avrnf ic xoiimm 
tivKH?ii9, ktr^ h rufetp(u^fif ti ^va-u ijy, tuu •««» MDremptvrro, it. r. a. 
Frag. 90. Plutarch is of a different opinion. Cicero speaks in 
the highest terms of the abilities of Caius : T. GrocchwH segwitus 
est C. Gracchus f quo ingcntQ ! quanta gravitate diecndi ! ut dote 
rent boni omnes^ non ilia tanta urnamenta ad meliorem mentem 
Toluntatemque esse conversa. De Arusp. Resp. xli. The aim of 
both beenis to have been the obtaining and securing of power by 
whatever means. 

t Here are some of the immediate effects of the conduct of 
the Gracchi: vd' «» ^px'^ ''** 9i90fjnaiM9» twMicraofm T» ^ huanfMt 
twiwatno. Ken ffVfiSo>Mio» ov^tp lyi^viTo* oAX' 11 ri Tmfctx'^ luu 11 attftcim 
murra^ia coroMv i}v* Kai o»o^ «ro^l*r( tfifopj rpotrovf JW h ^^9 amii^t^ 
Plo. Frag. 87. 

8AT1RE ir. JUVENAL, v. 43—46. 39 

Yet have we seen, — O shame, for ever fled I 
Rank from the embrace of an incestuous bed, 
A barbarous prince those rigid laws awake, 
At which the Powers of War and Beauty quake, 

being disturbed to no «ndy and fatigued without direction or ob- 
ject, threw themseivesi almost without a struggle, into the atins of 
tyranny, as the only remaining refuge from anarchy and perpe- 
tual irritation. 

The reader will find some account of Verres, Clodius, Catiline,^ 
&c. in the subsequent pages. 

Ver. 41. And SvUa's pupils, Spc] There were two Triumvi- 
rates, but Juvenal alludes to the last, which was the most bloody, 
and composed of Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus. Botb, indeed, 
took Sylla for their master, and both might have said with Shy- 
lock, " The villainy you teach us, we will execute, and it shall go 
hard but we will better the instruction." 

Ver. 45. A harhanms prince 4t.] The old Scholiast will needs 
have Claudius to be meant here, but without reason: and, indeed; 
every circumstance marks out Domitiau so strongly, that it is 
wonderful he should have overlooked it. Claudius neither re- 
vived the laws against adultery, nor caused his niece to procure 
abortions, Domitian did both. He did worse: stained with 
every enormity, he afiecred an outrageous zeal for the propagation 
of morality ; and under this hypocritical mask indulged his savage 
disposition In the punishment of numbers, who probably thought 
themselves secure by his example. 

One curious instance of this I have already given from Dio ; 
but 1 omitted to add what immediately follows : that during this 
fit of virtue, he put to death a woman convicted of unrobing 
herself before one of his statues ! 

The law mentioned in this line, was the Julian dt Aduftents, 
introduced by Augustus, and so called, not as some have sup- 
posed from his daughter, but from his great uncle, the Dictator, 
whose name at first he bore. It had fallen into disuse, but had 
lately been revived in all its force by Domitian; for which 
Martial and Statius pay him many pretty compliments. His 
unfortunate niece, Julia, soon after the circumstances here 
mentioned, followed her " abortive fruit" to the tomb ; being 
killed by a potion stronger than ordinary. Pliny speaks uiih 
great indignation of Domitian s barbarous hypocrisy, in an allusion 
to tbi» very circumstance ; Nee minore scelirc quam ^tiod ukisc} 


40 SATIRE II, JUVENAL, v. 47— 66, 

What time his drugs were speeding to the tomb 
The abortive fruit of Julia*8 teeming wottib ! 
Ye hypocrites ! the worst of men shall hear 
Your specious admonitions with a sneer ; 
And, while their flagrant vices ye arraign, 
Turn, like the trampled asp, and bite again ! 

A reverend brother late, amidst the crowd, 
With deep-dissembled virtue, cried aloud, 
^* Where sleeps the Julian law ?" His zealous strain 
Laronia heard, and smiling, in disdain, 
" O blest," she cried, "be these discerning times, 
" That made thee, friend, the censor of our crimes! 
" Blush, Rome, and from the sink of sin arise ; 
" Lo I a THIRD Cato, sent us from the skies 1 
" But come, — declare what secret shop supplied 
** The rare perfume, that, from your bristly hide, 
" Such fragrance breathes ; nor let it, Gato, shame 
** Your Wisdom, to disclose the vender's name ! 

" If ancient laws must reassume their course, 
" Before them all, give the Scantinian force ; 

vid^tur Dom. abscntem^ inaudiiamque (ComeUatn) danmaoit wi- 
cestif cum ipse fratris Jiliam^ incesto non palluis$et solumy verum 
ttiam occidissct/ Lib. iv. 11. 

Ver* 66, Laronia Sfc] Britannicus supposes this advocate for 
the sex to be tlje Laronia mentioned by Martial ; (Lib. xi. 52;) 
but this is little, if at all probable. Who the person may be, 
however, is immaterial ; and I only mention her for the sake of 
observing, that the fable of the Lion and the Painter is admirably 
illustrated by her attack : — which not only does away, in ad- 
vance, several of the heaviest charges brought against the women 
in the Sixth Satire, but retorts them with good effect on the men. 

Ver. 66. . . give the Scantinian ^-c] This was a law 

against unnatural lust. It took its name from C. Scantinius, 

jiATiRE II. JUVENAL. V. 67—84. 41 

<^ Let men be first examined : they outdo 

^^ Out crimes. in baseness, and in number too ! 

'* Yet, nnappali'd, their guilty phalanx stands, 

" Safe i^ its numerous, and united bands. 

" Weknowyoiir monstrous leagues; butcanyoufind 

'' One proof in us, of this detested kind ? 

'^ Even Flora, though a wanton's life she led, 

'^ Yet not unchastely shared Gatulla-s bed ; 

" While Hippo's brutal itch both sexes tried,[bridef 

^' And proved, by turns^ the bridegroom and the 

" We ne'er, with mis^spent zeal, explore the laws, 

<( We throng no forum, and we plead no cause ; 

*' Some few, perhaps, may wrestle, some be fed, 

*< To aid their breath, with strong athletick bread : 

" Ye fling the shuttle with unmanly grace, 

*^ And spin more subtly than Arachne's race, 

" Cower'd o'er your labour, like the squalid jade, 

^* That plies the distaff, to a block belay'd. 

tribune of the people, who, in the 707 th year of Rome, was oon« 
victed by C. Marcellnsiof an enault upon his son. The punish- 
ment at this time was a fine, but under the Christian £mperour9 
tiie offence was made capital. 

Some, however, contend that the law was so called from Scan* 
tinios Aricinus, who procured it to be passed ; it not being usual 
(as they say) for laws to receive their titles from fliose who are 
the objects of them, but from those who introduce them. It 
may be so ; though this is not always the case : — but the matter 
IS of no great consequence. Ruperti, I observe, inclines to the 
latter opinion. 

Ver. 70. Sdtfe in its numerous^ ^c] Thus Lucan, 

•« ipsa metus exolverat a4idax 

** TttT^a sues. Quicqoid multis peccatur, inultum est.'' 

Ver. 80. xoith Strang athletick bread i^ See Sat. xi. 

VsR. SS. Coward o^er y<mr Jabour^ tike ike squalid jade^ 4^] 
^ Mistiessesof femilies/' says the oMScbolttst, ^* if they suspected 

4a lATiirK II. JUVENAL, v. 85— loo. 

"Why Mister's freedman heir*d his wealth, and why 
** His spouse, while yet he lived, was bribed so high, 
*' I spare to tell ; the wife, who, sway'd by gain, 
" Can make a third in bed, and ne'er complain; 
" Still thrives : on secrets gold .and jewels wait, 
** Then wed, my girls ; be silent, and — ^be great ! 

" Yet these are they who, loud in Virtue's cause, 
•* Consign our venial errours to the Uws, 
" And, while with partial aim their censure moves, 
** Acquit the vultures, and condemn the doves^** 
Laronia paused ; guilt flush'd the zealots' face ; 
They felt her just reproof, and fled the place. 

But how shall vice be shamed, when, loosely drest 
In the light texture of a cobweb vest, 
You, Creticus, amid the wondering crowd, 
At Procla and FoUinea rail aloud ? 

their female slaves of too great iiamiliarity with their mastersi^ 
usedy by way of punishment, to fasten them to a laige 1(^ of 
wood before the door, and keep them to incessant labour by dint 
of blows." Their usual employmeat, it appears, was spinning. 
To ^ belay »** is to fiuten, to secure, &c. I mention this, because 
Johnson has mistaken its meaning. When will the booksellers do 
justice to their country and themselves, by engaging some ju- 
dicious scholar to revise the laboura of this great man, instead of 
printing edition after edition with acknowledged and increasing 
imperfections ! 

Ver. 99. Foil, Creticus^ ^c] Some will have this to be a fie- 
titious name formed from Crete, (the judges of that island being 
deservedly famous for the integrity of their decisions,) and iron- 
ically given to some magistrate then in office : others, with more 
reason, suppose it to be a real name ; and apply it to a descendant 
of the great Mecellus, who took the addition firom his conquests. 
The Scholiast says, there was a learned pleader of this name ander 
the Csesars; another Creticus, but of what profession I know not, 
is mentioned by Martial, who addresses an epigram to him : and 
this, perhaps, is the person so indignantly apostrophised. . 

What I have' rendered a *^ cobweb vest/' is in the originaii 



These, you rejoin, are *^ daughters of the game 
Strike^ then; — yet know, though lost to honest fame, 
The wantons would reject a rohe so thin, 
And blush, while suffering, to display their skin. 

multitia; that is, say the criticks, sericaSf vel homhycinas molU 
wbiextas subtemine^ SfC. This I conceive to be confounding two 
things as distinct as silk and cotton. Scricct vates (I speak with 
some hesitation) were what we call fine cottons, imported into 
Europe, in Juvenal's time, as they were ages before, from India, 
through the country of the Seres, the modern Booharia. Bom^ 
bycinae vestes^ on the contrary, were of silk, and from Sinae, 
(China,) a region much more remote. 

It is not easy to say when the use of these vests was first in- 
troduced into Rome : no mention of them occurs during the times 
of the old republick ; so that they probably crept in with other 
luxuries, under the Emperours. They were first appropriated to 
the ladies, and appear to have given no small offence, if we may 
judge from the frequent pelting which they received. Seneca i» 
particularly severe against them, afid quotes, with some humour, 
two Ikies of P. Syrus : 

** .£quum est induere nuptam vcntiim textilera, 
** Palam prostare nudam in nebula linea 1 

A woven wind should married women wear, 
And naked in a linen cloud appear ! 

And in a very curious passage, tinctured with that pruriency of 
language to which, with reverence be it spoken, this grave philo- 
sopher was somewhat prone : Video sericas vesteSf si vestes vocandte 
su/itf in quibus nihil est quo defendi corpus aut denique pudor possit: 
^ibiu sumptis mnlier parum liquido nudam se non esse jurabit. 
Hctc ingenti sumrna ah ignotis etiam ad commercium gentibus accer^ 
suntury ut matrcnas nostrct ne aduiieris quidem plus sui in cubictdo 
quam in publico ostendant. The adoption of them by the men, 
was therefore a novelty when Juvenal wrote; and if we consider 
the fashion of a Roman gown, we must allow that a brawny 
magistrate, sitting on his awful tribunal in muslin, was a sight 
calculated to provoke a less irritable spectator than our author. 

Ver. 103. The wantons would reject a robe so thtn^] The word 
which I have rendered robe, is toga ; this was peculiar to the 
men, as Mtolo was to the women : but females of dishonest lives, 
and mora especially such as were convicted of adultery, were en- 
joined by way of penance to appear in publick in the toga. Thus 


44 sATijtE II, JUVENAL, v. 105—114. 

^^ But Sirius glows, I Inirn/* Then quit your dress ; 
*TwIll thus be madness, and the scandal less. 
O ! when our legions, with fresh laurels crown*d, 
And smarting still from many a glorious wound, 
Our rustick mountaineers (the plough laid by, 
Por city cares) a judge so drest descry, , 
What thoughts arise ? Lo ! vests, that scarce become 
A witness, robe the awful bench of Rome ; 
And Greticus, stern champion of the laws. 
Gleams through the tissue of pellucid gauze ! 

Martial, speaking of an effeminate wretch who walked out in it, 
says that he was mistaken by the people for a condemned 
strumpet : \ 

'' Thelin viderat in toga spadonero, 

** Damnatam Numa dixit esse moecham*'^ 

Hence siolata and togata came by degrees to signify the virtuous 
and the loose part of the sex. The epigrammatbt can find no 
worse designation of his antagonist, than matris togatce^uSf in 

plain English, son of a w ; and he upbraids an acquaintance 

for sending a stola to a woman of no reputation, when a togm 
would have suited her better. 

<« ■ ianthina donas ! 

** Vis dare quae meruit munera ? mitte togam. 

The Romans seem to have borrowed this custom, as Uiey did 
many others, from the Greeks, who, as Suidas says, had a law 
that prostitutes should wear a particular dress, rag nmfog du>t»r« 

Vbr. 107. ! when our legions^ SfC,'\ I once followed the 
common opinion, and gave this passage a retrospective view. I 
now believe, with Ruperti, that it relates to the present time, and 
have translated it accordingly. It will be seen that we agree in 
this point only; for, as to the sense of the lines, he seems to have 
altogether mistaken it : VestUus iste tarn ridiculus est^ uif ei eo 
ifidutm lege* ae jura ferrei^ vel " popuiim modo vidotf ac won* 
tanum vulgw^ positis anUrU^' te videndi audiendique cupidHaie 
adcvrrerei. Vol. 11. 70. Nothiiig can be more unworthy of 
the author. 

SATIRE IK JUVENAL. V. 115-^120. 45 

Anon from yon, as from its fountain head, 
Wide and. more wide the raging pest will spread, 
As swine take measles from distemper'd swine, 
And one infected grape pollutes the vine. 
Yes, Rome shall see you, lewdlier clad, ere-while, 
For none become, at once, completely vile. 

Ver. 118. And one infected grape pollutes the vineJ} 

** Uvaqae conspecta livorem ducit ab uva." 

It is probable, after all, that Juvenal means nothing more hyiivor^ 
than that ripening colour which the rusticks of his time supposed 
grapes to acquire by looking at one another, in (his case, the line 
will not state the communication of a bad effect, but simply of 
an effect ; the translation, however, agrees best with the prece- 
ding example. For the rest, this is a proverbial expression: 
0or^ v^f CoT^v vrnratyirati. I find it in many languages. One 
plumb gets colour by looking at another, is said, by Mr. Gladwin, 
(in the Bahar Danush,) to be a common phrase in Persia— to sig^ 
nify the propagation of an opinion, custom, &a 

Ver. 1 19. YeSf Rome shall see 4*c.] 

** Foedius hoc aliqxdd quandoque audebis amictu.'^ 

Lubin would read aliudf and, I think, judiciously ; for Juvenal 
does not mean, as he is generally translated. You will attempt a 
worse crime than this dress ; but. You will assume a dress even 
more scandalous and flagitious than this : — evidently alluding to 
his entering into the society mentioned below, which took the or- 
naments and attire of women. 

The observation Xhat immediately follows, fn^rno repentefuit 
iurpissimvSfJ is a most important one, and cannot be too fre« 
quently, nor too deeply meditated upon. Dryden, or rather Sta- 
pylton, renders it, 

** No man e'er reached the heights of vice at firtt,^' 

which is very correct ; though, if the laws of translation allowed, 
it might be given with more effect thus loosely : 

By just degrees we mount from crime to crime, 
And perfect villain is the work of time. 

Madau has quoted a passage from some foigotten tragedy, 
which affords an admirable comment on it : 

** Never let man be bold enough to say, 

** Thu3 and no further shall my passion stray: 

46 SATIRE II. JUVENAL. V^ 121— 'I22. 

Join that dire circle,which belie their sex, [neck^f 
Their brows with tires adorni with pearls their 

" Th^ first crime past, compels us on to more, 

•* And guilt proves fate, which was but choice before." 

Beaumont has an allusion to it, in his King and no King : 

*' There is a method in man's wickedness, 
'Mt grows up by degrees. I am not come 
" So high as killing of myself; there are 
** A hundred thousand sins 'twixt it and me, 
" Which I must do — I shall come to't at last.** 

And Cresset applies it very happily to the singular depravity of 
the unfortunate Ver-Vert : 

'* II demcntit les cclebres raaximes 

" Oh nous lisons, qu'on ne vient aux grands crimes 

*^ Que par degres. II fut un scelerat 

*• Profes d'abord, et sans noviciat." 

Ye a. 121 . Join that dire circle^ Sfc] We have here a piece of 
private history, which, from the silence of contemporary authors, 
cannot now be fully understood. Every one has heard of the Good 
Goddess, whose mysterious riles were performed with an extra- 
ordinary appearance of sanctity, by women only ; and it would 
seem that a number of men, in those days of irreligion, had form- 
ed themselves into a society for the sole purpose of burlesquing 
them : 

** Atque utinam ritus veteres, et publica saltern 
*^ His intacta malis agerentur sacra'* 

but the memory of my readers will supply them with an instancef 
where rites more sacred, and mysteries more divine, were polluted 
— quin veiut occultum pereat scefus ! 

'J'o make the ridicule more complete, the ancient society adopt- 
ed as much of the established ceremony as possible; the object of 
worship, and the sacnfices, were the same ; and as the women, 
for the sake of greater secrecy and security, met in the house of 
the Consul or Praefect, these assembled in a private house, and not 
in a temple; — but here the resemblance ceased, and aU beyond 
it was profanation and horrour. 

The cummentutors, however, maintain that Juvenal alludes to 
a college or brutherhuod founded by Doraitian at Alba, in honour 
of Minerva, to whom (on account of his superiour wisdom find 
virtue, I suppose) he fancied himself related.* But this appear* 

* Domitian was not singular in this idea, for it would be easy 
to name other princes, who prided themselves on some remote 

tATixB II. JUVENAL. V. 123—134. 47 

Sooth th<? Good Goddess with large bowls of wine. 

And the soft belly of a pregnant swine. 

No female, strange perversion ! dares appear, 

For males, and males alone, officiate here ; 

•* Far hence," they cry, "unhallow'd sex, be found! 

*' Hence, with your yelling minstrel's barbarous 

(At Athens thus, while all the city slept, 
Gotytto's priests her secret orgies kept. 
And in such wanton rites their vigils past. 
That even Gotytto felt disgust at last.) 
These with a tiring-pin their eyebrows die, 
Till the full arch gives lustre to the eye, 

to be altogether improbable, from Saetonias' account of the 
institution: Celebrabat et in "Albano quotannis Quinqvatria 
Minerca, cui collegium instituerat ; ex quo sorte ducti viagiste' 
rio fungerentur^ ederentqve eximias venationes et scenicos ludot^ 
iuperque oratorum ac poetarum certamina. There are uo fea- 
tures of similarity. Add too, that Statius (in a poem to his 
wife) boasts of having obtained three prizes in these con- 
tests ; and he was a man little likely to be connected with a 
band of catamites and atheist:). The **• large bowl of wine/' magna 
craterCf is not mentioned without reason: the women usually 
indulged to excess, at the rites of the Bona Dea ; this part of the 
ceremony, therefore, was not likely to escape imitation. 

Vbr. 133. These with a tiring-pin their eydfrows rfiV, 4*.] 
We are now admitted into the interiour of this society, and behold 
the members at their several employments. These are well ima* 
^ned and strongly painted : and if the mention of Otho had not 

jLixid of consanguinity with Minerva. The last onrecord, I believe, 
is Catherine II. who, as I have frequently heard from one that 
knew her well, could not be more effectually flattered than by be* 
ing reminded hpw much she resembled this goddess, as she ap- 
pears on the coins of Attica! There is no accounting for &mily 
prejudices; otherwise I should think she might have been stiU 
more gratified by being told that she was like Diana. 

48 SATigB II. JUVENAL, v. 135—136. 

That, trembling, darts contagions fire ; while those. 
Swill from a glass Friapus, and enclose, 

vnfortanately brought Doroitian to the author's recoUectioDi and 
occasioned a long digression for the sole purpose of attacking one 
who was probably dear to that prince, I know not where we should 
have found a higher-coloured picture, than that of the detestable 
group before us. 

The custom of darkening and Extending the arch of the eye 
seems to have been derived from the East, where it prevailed from 
the earliest ages. We read of Jezabel, (2 Kings, c. ix. v. 30,) that 
she ^* painted her face and tired her head, and looked out of the 
window/' In the maigin of the Bible it is, ^' she put her eyes in 
paint" that is, says Bishop Patrick, in stibium^ (or antimony, 
the word employed by Juvenal's commentators, ) *' which made the 
eyes look black, and was accounted beautiful ; and also dilated 
the eyebrows, and made the eyes appear big; which in some 
countries was also thought amiable/' Britannicus seems to have 
agreed with our translators. Per oculosy says he, intellige gcnas^ 
gu<E inficiebantur ; while the Septuagint renders the Hebrew, 
KAi li^aCiX «}x«0Y, ««( infbfU0'aTo rtif 6f OaX^Atff avrnf, To effect 

this, an impalpable violet-coloured powder was taken up with the 
sharp point of a steel or silver needle, and applied to the inner 
surface of the lids; this was supposed to give the eye a brilliant 
humidity, a lascivious lustre, altogether irresistible. From the 
East it travelled to Greece, where we have frequent allusions to it. 
Anacreon desires the painter to give his mistress such an eye, that 
the portrait may resemble the original : 

£x*i'*' ^'» »«<^ EKEINH, 
To XfX)}Sor«f fftypo^r. 

In Rome too, the custom seems to have been pretty general 
among the ladies^ before the period at which we are arrived ; for 
Ovid mentions it among many other notable receipts for increasing 
the power of their charms. Only, instead of antimony, (the Gre- 
cian pigment,) the Romans used burnt coal : Nee pudor est ocu* 
los tenui signassefavilla : indeed, they used something stranger 
still ; the soot which collected round the mouth of their lamps;—- 
raritatemf says Pliny, supercUiomm emendant eumfungis incema- 
fifm, etjkiigine qua est in rostris'earum. This is the composition 
in the text* • 

Holyday says that " the 6a/i^ of their very eyes were coloured:'^ In 
this case trementes will not have the idea of lustful, (his word,) but, 
quivering from the tendeniess of the application : but this learned 
man was misled, by too literal a translation of his authorities; as 

sATtRs It. JUVENAL. V. 137 — 141. 49 

In cawls of golden wire, their length oF hair, 
Light filmy vests of azure shield- work wear — 
And, by their Juno, hark ! the servants swear ! 
These grasp a mirror— pathick Olho*s boast, 
(Auruncan Actor's spoil,) where, while his host, 


the art to which he alludes, seems altogether impracticable. How- 
ever this may be, the custom continued to prevail even in the de- 
cline of the empire, though it was aealously combated by some of 
the fathers. Naumachius, among much excellent advice which 
he gives the young women of his time, warns them not to blackea 
tkdr eyn — which I the rather mention, because, though Holyday 
probably was not aware of the passage, it seems to favour his in- 
terpretation : 

Mil h fuXettn riot^y vvo Cxi^«pei^i» ovtnrau 

VjiB. 136. SwUlfrom a glass Priapus, Sf'C.^ '^^^^ vice is re- 
presented by the fabulist (at least it would seem so from the re- 
mains of a little apologue, which have come down to us) as in- 
troduced in the days of Prometheus. The vice, as Shakspearc 
says, is *^ of good kindred," though not quite so highly descend- 
ed : but it was not unusual with the ancients, when they could 
not satisfactorily accouut for the introduction of any abomination, 
to refer it to the '^ unwiser son of Japhet." A tacit acquiescence, as 
it appears to me, in the Scripture doctrine of original depravation. 

On the line before us, it will be sufficient to remark, that it 
strongly characterii>es the profligacy of those wretches, who not 
only assumed the dress and manners of women ; but ostentatiously 
imitated the most abandoned part of them, in their unnatural 

Vs&. 139. Jndf bjf their JunOt hark ! the servants swear! SfC."] 
Men -swore by the male, and women by the female deities ; there 
are exceptions to be found, no doubt, but Juno wait always con- 
sidered as exclusively belonging to the latter. For a manr, there- 
fore, to swear by her, was the extreme of effeminacy and irre- 
ligion ; and this probably was what chiefly recommended it to 
this worshipful fraternity. But this is not all: the corruption had 
reached the attendants; and they, who were only allowed to swear 
by the genius of their master, keep pace with him in effeminacy 
and impiety, and already invoke his Juno ! 

VsR. 140. These grasp a mirror — pathick Otho*s hoast.^ Our 
author seems extremely hostile to Otho : he recollected, perhaps, 
the influence which he possessed in the court of Nero, to whose 
pleasures he administered in the most shameless manner. With 


Sf^ AAT«fi; tit ; JUVENAL.: - V. f 42-«.|4;}o 

>y ith^-sliouts, the sJgrial of thei fight required, 
Pie view'd his mailed form ; view'd. and. admired ! 

% « 

the usual yersatility of favoutitcs, he was the firs( to join Galbay 
against his toa indulgent master ; and we now see him murdering 
the man whom he contributed* sq muck to advance! 

And yet he had some virtues. When his compliance with the 
vices of Ncro.had procured him the province of Lusitaniai lie coiv: 
ducted himself like a just and nierciful governour: and there is 
great irason to suspcct» that the report of his effeminate behavi- 
our in the struggle with Vltellius, is a satirical exaggeration. Let 
us hear Tacitus : Ncc illi segue aut corr upturn luxa iter; (not a word 
of the specidym ;) sed lorica fcrrea ^ et ante^sigtia pedesier^ horri* 
dus, incamptuBj famatque disiimiUs. This rough and soldierlike 
appearance, so unlike his former habfts, added to his voluntary 
death, and the alleged motives for it, should have exempted hini 
from the sarcastick triumph with which Juvenal pursues his e/id. 
l^ut' he was actuated by a spirit of hostility to the Flavian family, 
with wiiura Otho wai a favourite : for Vespasian, who suspected 
Gulba of a design upon his life, and therefore persecuted his me- 
mbry, could not but be well pleased with his murderer. 

" Pathick Otho's boast" is pleasantly parodied from Viipl's 
Tolidi gcstamen Abahtis; as is " Auruncan Actor's spoil," in the 
jiext line, from Actoria Aurunci spoliufn: showing, as Holy day 
expresses it from Lubin, *' that these base sinners as much 
'rs.(eemed of Otho's looking-glass, as Turnus did of the mighty spear 
which he bravely wonn from Actor Auruncus.'' But these " base 
sinners" were not in possession of Otho's looking-glass, nor does 
Juvenal say so: they had, indeed, a mirror, and so had Othp; 
the indignation of the poet supplied the rest. 

Oiho obtains no favour from Dr. Ireland : *^ Amidst the ob* 
scurity of this passage," (he saysj) ** which is ver>' abrupt and 
"unconnected, the meaning of Juvenal may, in some degree, per- 
haps, le discovered, by referring to the history of the time. Galba 
entered Rome (see Dio) with his sword hanging from his neck 
bv a string, being too much crippled to hold it in his hand ! 
What a triumph, the conquest of such a foe! Nimimm suhimi 
dttcis est f Otho s treachery, too, was remarkable in this affair* 
He attended the Cmperour, as his friend, to the Capitol ; then 
stole away to the CHn)^> to bribe the soldiers, and left the poor old 
man to be stabbed by his partisans, who remained behind. As lo 
his march against Vitellius, itwas but a march-<^for he quitted the 
field birforc the action, pretending that he could not bear the:*ight 
of citizens destm>ing one another !--*-as if, adds Dio, he bad not 
removed oery body that stood between himself and the empirCy 

SATissii/ JUVENAL; v» t44^i(^5. :^ 

Loy a new subject for the Uistorick p^ge, ^ 
A MIRROR, midst the arms of civil rage ! — 
To murder Galba, was — a general's part ! 
A stern republican's — to dress with art ! 
The empire of the world iil arn£s to seek, 
And — spread a softening poultice o'er the cheek f 
Prepos.terous vanity ! and never seen, 
Or in the Assyrian or Egyptian queen, 
Though That in arms near old Euphrates stood, 
And This the doubtful fight at Actium view'd. 

No reverence for the table here is found, 
But brutal mirth and jests obscene go round ; 

w0Vip « T«f ri vwarvi xat re» Kcuaa^a, top ri at/rexpaTopa tp avm tv 
Piifuf pwtvffoi. Lib. Lxiv, c. 10. The only thing to be com- 
mended in him was his death. Plutarch says he lived full as badly 
as Neroj but died belter : and Dio states this still more strongly : 
MOiura 71 f4ai» eud^tmut {q^Ac, Ko^^ir^ ajViAavi, xa» xoutMfyorara Tnt 

Ver. 154. No reoermcefor the table here is found, SfC.} Among 
many absurd, and many impious tenets of the ancient theology, 
there are some to be found of excellent tendency, and not unde- 
senring of imitation. Such, for instance, as the reverent attention 
with which they regarded their tables, at which the gods were con- 
stantly supposed to be invisible gue«ts : 

** Ante focqs olim longis considere scamnu 
** MofTerat, et mensae credere adesse Deos/' FasL 

This pleasing idea originated in the infancy of the world, when 
both profiine and sacred history assure us, that celestial intelli- 
genceSf ** on errands of supernal goodness bent," did not disdain 
to sit and eat with men. Thus Catullus, in that noble burst of 
poetry which concludes his Peleus and Thetis : 

** Praesentes namque ante domus invisere castas 

** Ssepius, et sese mortali ostendcre coetu 

<' Coelicolae, nondum spreta pietate, solebant." 

Whatever may be thought of this persuasion, the consequences of 
it were highly beneficial : for hence arose that universal hospita- 
lity in countries and in times confessedly barbarous : hence, too, 
that inviolable sanctity attached to the character of a poor man, 
and a stranger, who, fur aught his entertainer knew, might be a 


5a lATiRB II. JUVENAL, v. 156— 157. 

They lisp, they squeal, and the rank language use 
Of Gybele*s lewd votaries, or the stews. 

superiour being in disguise. Such, at least, was the prevailing doc- 
trine in the days of Homer : 

811 w» anfutnu* vpo( yof Aio^ it^ftf etmarrti 

Bn*Oi Tip vlwXOI Tl — — 

And to (liisy as well as to the particular case of Abraham^ the 
author «)f the Epistle to the Hebrews alludes: <' Be not foi^tful 
to entertain strangers ; for thereby some have entertained angeh 
unawares.** xiii. 2. The same thought, too*, is beautifully 
touched by Massinger, with a reference to the parting speech of 
the Archangel Raphael, to Tobit and his son : 

** ■ I tried your charity, 

** When in a beggar's shape you took me up, 

*' And clothed ray naked limbs, and after fed, 

** As you believed, my famish'd mouth. Learn all, 

'< By your example, to look on the poor 

** With gentle eyes ! for in such habits, often, 

** Angels desire an alms." Virgin Martyr^ Act i v. sc* lii. 

While the table was regarded as sacred, l^w XP¥^ ^^ ^^t 
discourse was permitted there : hence we find the roost grave and 
important conversations of the ancient philosophers to have taken 
place at it : conversations, which b^n with a pious libation to the 
presiding power, ** though unseen," and which tended to the in- 
cicase of wisdom and virtue. With reason, therefore, does Juvenal 
launch his indignation at thb execrable society, who, not con? 
tent with burlesquing the rites, profaned the wholesome customs, 
of their ancestors, and instead of the images of th,e Gods, (by the 
apposition of which they used to consecrate it,) placed upon the 
polluted table, the instruments of impurity and vice 1 

Ver. 157. OfCyhel^s lewd votaries, 4-c.] He alludes to the 
obscene buffooneries with which the feast of this mother of the gods 
was celebrated > and which were so gross, that one, who knew 
them well, assures us, the parents of the actors in them were 
ashamefl to be present at the rehearsals which took place at 
home, previous to the celebration of the festival. 

The Galli mentioned a few lines below, were die priests of 
Cybole : ofleminatc, debauched, and irreligious wretches, differing 
in nothing, but their being eunuchs, from this respectable set. It is 
not without cause, therefore, thai Juvenal wanders why the latter 
preserve so useless a mark of distinction ; the removal of whick 
would completel/ assimilate them to their worthy prototypes. 

SATIRE II. JUVENAL. V. 158—175. 55 

Some wild enthusiast, silver*d o*er with age, 
Yet fired by lust's ungovernable rage, 
or most insatiate throat, is named the priest, 
And sits (it umpire of the unhallowed feast : [blade 
Why pause they here — they, whom the Phrygian 
Should, long ere this, have perfect Galli made ! 

Gracchus admired a cornet or a fife, 
And, with an ample dower, became his wife : 
The contract sign'd, the wonted bliss implored, 
A costly supper decks the nuptial board. 
And the new bride, amid the wondering room, 
Lies in the bosom of the accursed groom! 
And want we, Nobles, for this monstrous deed. 
The Censor or the Aruspex ! Would there need 
More expiations, sacrifices, vows. 
For calving women, or for lambing cows ! 

The lusty priest, whoselimbs dissolved with heat, 
What time he danced beneath the Ancilia's weight, 

Ver. 164p. Gracchus admired^ ^c] Whether this horrid trans- 
action really hap})ened as Juvenal relates it, cannot now be told, 
as none of his contemporaries speak of it : certain it is, that Nero 
had set the example, and, as our author well observes, qvig nom 
faciei (juodprinceps f That I may liot be obliged, as Tacitus says, 
to return to so disgusting a subject, (ne scepius cadan prodigeniia 
narranda sU,J I will give the historian's account of it : ** At the 
feast of TigeUinus, the Eroperour personated a woman, and was 
given in marriage to one of his favourites called Pythagoras. The 
augurs assisted at the ceremony, the portion was paid, the genial 
conch prepared, the nuptial torches lighted up, and all which in a 
Batarai marriage is covered with darkness, freely exposed to the 
Ticw of the people/' Jnn. xv. 38. 

Veu, 170. And want we, NobUsyfor this monstrous deedy 

The Censor^ or the Jruspex f] The first purified the 
city from offences, by punishment ; the second from monstrous 
births, prddigies, &c. by sacrifices and expiations. It was the 
service of the latter that was now called for. 

Veu. 174. The iusty priest^ ^-c] It appeari fiom this, that 

5* pATUB IX. JUVENAL. v*;i76^i77i 

Now flings the ^nsign^ of hisgdd aside,' 
And takes the stol0 and flammeutn of a bride ! 

Gracchus was of a noble family» (indeed it is said so just below») 
for such only could be admitted into the college of the Siilii or 
priests of Mars, who had the care of the Ancilia. They were 
twelve in number, and were so called from the extravagance of 
their gestures in their annual procession through the city. Plu- 
tarch gives a description of their dress, &c. which is very pic* 
turesque hi the orisilULl i-^ Tat hfen mXroti avm^xA^tctv it t¥ VLc^frrw 

xptfomc* ^ h a^^1| mt ofpo'ffi 9o^u9 tfyop m. ICifwrrai m f«in^«rw(, 
iX*7fA4i( Tiv«K, xai fAiTabo^oK i» ov^fMt f»y!^ t^m auti mntK9vnfS.» 
purm fvfAiii 1UU xv^onrr^ «ivel^M»rsf. Vit» Num. 

With respect to the Ancile, it was a circular^ or oblong shield* 
which, in the days of Numa, fell from heaven, and was looked 
upon as the Palladium of the city. To prevent its being stolen, 
as that of Troy had been, the good king» as Ovid says, Consilium 
multcB calidiiatis init ; ordered eleven more to be miide as like it 
as possible, and delivered the whole into the keeping of twelve of 
the most respectable families of Rome. It was these which were 
carried about the streets in such boisterous solemnity. 

When we consider the disposition of the Romans, we shall be 
almost tempted to excuse the salutary fraud of Numa. In giving 
them a pledge of security from above, he evidently sought to check 
that suspicious ferocity, which induced them to see their safety in 
nothing but incessant warfare, and the depression of their neigh- 
bours. Nor was the experiment a new one: these ayaXfjMra 
^ofTiTu were frequent in the old world : witness the statue of 
Pallas at Troy, of Cybele in Phrygia, of Diana in Taurus, of Mi- 
nerva at Athens, &c. &c. Though in some cases, these well-meant 
deceptions seem to have answered the purpose of their employersi 
yet are they for ever to be deplored, as having, in later days, 
taught men to use them, with little variation, in the fancied sup- 
port of a cause which wants no such aids. 

VsR. 177- ^^ takc$ the stole andjiammeum of a bride f] The 
^flammeum^ which I have adopted for want of a correspondent term 
in English, was a light flame-coloured veil, or hood, worn by vir* 
gins on the day of marriage : its object was to hide their blushes, 
OF rather, perhaps, to favour their delicacy, by encouraging 
the spectators to confound the suffusion of modesty, with thl^ 
ruddy tinge shed over the cheek by the hue of ihe covering. It 
is well described by the Scholiast : — Qmbus nova nuplct cooperi- 
untur. Vestis pudori similisy quam <t propter pudorem accipiebant* 

. sATiRB u. JUVEN'Aif.. .r.- 178— 199. Jj 

Father of Rome ! from what pernicious clime ^ 
Did Latian s^yains derive so foul a crime ? ' 
Tell where the poisonous nettle first arose, [flows f 
Whose baneful juicie through all thy. offspring 
Behold ! a man for rank and power renown*d, 
Marries a man ! —and yet, with thundering souiid, 
Thy brazen helmet shakes not ! earth yet stands 
Fix*d on its base, nor feels thy wrathful hands ! * 
Is thy arm shortened ? Raise to Jove thy prayer— 7 
But Rome no longer knows thy guardian care ; 
Quit then the charge to some more watchful Power, 
Of strength to punish in the obnoxious hour. 
" To morrow, with the sun, I must attend [friend 
" In yonder valley !" Why ? ** You guess ; ti 
" Takes him a husband, and has ask*d a few " — , 
Few, yet: but wait awhile, and we shall view 
These contracts form'd without or shame or fear, 
And entered in the records of the year ! 

Meanwhile, one pang these passive monsters 
One ceaseless pang, tliat preys upon the mind; 
They cannot sbift their sex, and pregnant prove 
With the dear pledges of a husband's love : 

The 9tole or flowing, gown, already mentioned, was the grave 
and decent habiliment of a matron. I need not point out the bit- 
terness of the satire. 

y ER. i^. Meanwhile^ one pangj ^cJ] Sec the complaint ^f 
the eunuch Eulropius, afierhis dismission from the arms of the 
Egyptian soldier : 

** ■ ■ generis prosors durissrma nostri ! 

** Fn^mina cum senuit, rctinet connubia partu, 

^ U.xorisque decus matris reverentia pcnsiit : 

** Nos Lucjua fiigit,iicc pignorc nitimur uUo," &c. 

56 SATIRE II. JUVENAL, v. 200—203. 

Wisely confined by Nature's steady plan, 
Which counteracts the wild desires of man. 
For them, no drugs prolifick powers retain, 
And the Luperci strike their palms in vain. 

Vbb. 203. And the Luperci strike their palms in vam.] The 
festival of the Lupercalia (to which Juvenal here alludes) seemg 
to have been instituted in honour of Pan by the herdsmen ; and 
the rites were such as would naturally suggest themselves to their 
uncultivated minds. A goat was sacrificed, and as that animal 
was the symbol of generation, the rusticks, who partook of it, were 
supposed to have the faculty of communicating fecundity to what- 
ever they touched : they therefore wrapt themselves in the skin 
of the victim, and ran about the fields with a thong or light wand 
in their hands, with which they gently struck the palms of the 
women who superstitiously threw themselves in their way. 

This festival was probably introduced into Italy by Evander ; 
who was found sacrificing by ^neas (see the beautiful description 
of it, iEneid. lib. yixi.).in a thick grove near the Palatine hill. As 
this was also the spot where Romulus and his brother were after- 
wards suckled by the wolf, it became doubly interesting to the 
Romans; and here, therefore, they built their temple to Lupercus 
or Pan. 

The privilege of rendering the ladies fruitful was not long con- 
fined to the rusticks. Two societies of noble Romans were early 
instituted for this benevolent purpose, and s third was afterwards 
added by Julius Caesar, of which Antony was a member : 

Catsar. Antonius! 

Anton. Caesar, my lord. 

Cctsar, Forget not, in your speed, Antonius, 

To touch Calphurnia : for our elders say, 

The barren, touched in this holy chase. 

Shake off their sterile curse. 

This folly continued long after the introduction of Christianity; 
and is frequently alluded to, in terms of great indignation, by 
Lactantius, Minucius Felix, Pnidentius, and others. But in their 
days, some slight innovations had been introduced :— the ladies 
who, when Juvenal wrote, only exposed their bare hands to the 
stroke, began now to strip themselves, to receive it more effec- 
tually* To sum up all in a word, this ceremony, indecent as it 
was, seems to have been one of the last Pagan superstitions that 
went out. It was abolished by Gelasius, and not without trouble : 
nay, thp discontent ran so high, that the holy father was obliged 

8ATIRB II. JUVENAL. Vt 204— 211. 57 

And yet these prodigies of vice appear 
Less monstrous, Gracchus, than the net and spear. 
With which equipp*d, you urged th* unequal fight, 
And fled, dishonoured, in a nation's sight 1 
Though nobler far than each illustrious name, 
That throng'd the pit, spectators of your shame. 
Nay, than the man whose gold the shows supplied. 
At which your base dexterity was tried. 

to justify himself , by an elaborate apology, which still exists :— 
Apud iUo$y says he, nobUea ipsi eurr^ant^ et matronct nudaio cor^^ 
pore vapulabant ! 

Ver. 205. Less mQnsircmsj Gracchusy than the net and spear^ 4*^.] 
Holyday thinks it strange that Juvenal bhould fancy it mora 
monstrous in Gracchus to become a gladiator than a wife; '' the 
one being only a fault against honour, the other a crime against 
nature." He will, therefore, have it, that the poet does not corn* 
pare the two for the heinousness, but for the impudence in com- 
mitting them. But this was far from the mind of Juvenal, who 
thought as he spoke, and really believed this last action of Grac- 
chus to be his worst.— << Yet this," says Dr. Ireland, ** may welt 
be doubted. In the eighth Satire, he seems to go a step further, and 
to consider the stage-playing of the great men, as still worse than 
their gladiatorship. Yet could he be of this opinion ? Perhaps 
it is an instance of that spirit of aggravation which so much dis- 
tinguishes Juvenal. ^Vhatevcr be the vice which he lashes, he 
bestows the whole of his fury upon it ; and in many places tho 
climax of moral reprehension is strangely perverted." 

It is certain, however, that the gladiatorship of the nobility was 
felt with the utmost horrour by the writers of Roman history^ 
whether native or Grecian. As I shall have occasion to return to 
the subject, I postpone what I have to say on this adventure of 
Giacchus, to the eighth Satiic, where it is given more at Ui^e. 

Ver. 209* That throng'd the pit^ S^c] What is here, in default 
of a better word, called £e pit, ( podium^) was a narrow slip be- 
tween the orchestra or front of the arena, and the lowest line of 
benches; affording just space enough for the curule chairs of the 
raagbtrates, and the fint families of the state, which are enu- 
merated by the author* 

58 8ATIRB II. JUVEMAI^L v# fttSH^^diS. 

That angry Justice forin^d a dreadful hell,. 
That gEo&ts in subterraneous regions dMrell, 
Xhat hateful Styx his sable current rollsi 
And Gharoh ierries o'er unbodied souls, 
Are , novr as tales or idle fables prized. 
By children questioned, and by men despised : 


Ye Scipios, once the thunderbolts of war ! 
Fabricins, Cur i us, great Gamillus* ghost ! 
Ye valiant Fabii, in yourselves an host! 
Ye dauntless youths at fatal Gannx slain! 
Spirits of many a brave and bloody plain ! 
•What thoughts are yours, whene'er, with feet 

An UNBELIEVING SHADE invades youT rest ? 
*• — Ye fly, to expiate the blasting view ; -v 

Fling on the pine-tree torch the sulphur blue, f 
And from the dripping bay, dash round thelustral f 

dew. > 

Ver. 226. Yt Jiy^ to expiate the blasting view; «$-c.] " Tho 
'ancient manner of purifying those who were polluted by the sight 
''or touch of impure objects, was with sulphur, and fire made of 
the unctuous pine :" they were also sprinkled with a laurel brancb 
dipped in water. Juvenal's expression is^-^uperent hutrari^ si 
qua darentuTj if they could get sulphur, he, i.e. says Lubiiiy 
'apud inferos^ ubi talia forte non sunt! I love a careful commen* 
tatorlike Lubin. In the simplicity of his heart, he sometimes 
Ventures to suspect the veracity of his author ; but that he could 
ever be guilty of the crime o( poetry ^ docs not once seem to have 
entered his thoughts. 

For the rest; we see here, that the poet attributes the profit* 
•gftcy of the tirnqs to the disbelief of a future state, and certainly 
with great reason; for were it possible that such incredulity could 

sATiRB It. JUVENAL.' y. 029^^230*.^ 59 

• . And yet to Jtbe^e abodesf we aU ina&t come; 7 
Belie ve, or not, these are our final h^tne ; ' 

become general, no barrier would remain of sufficient force to 
cbeck the torrent of vicious propensities, which would burst upon 
us from a thousand springs* and again, as in the days of Noah« 
;< fill the earth with corruption and violence.". 
, It is to be lamented that Juvenal, who appears, extremely 
f nxious to impress upon the minds of his countrymen, the exi<«- 
tence of a future state, should yet give a description of it which, 
to apeak tenderly, borders, upon the mean, if not the ridiculous. 
B|it he is ratlier to be pitied than blamed. Such doctiines as hit 
creed supplied, he laboured to enforce. It is true, purer sources 
of information had been opened, but before we condchin his igno« 
rance, we ought to be sure that he had it in hb power to avail 
himself of them, 

Mr. Owen has an excellent observation on this passage, 
V Many strange conceptions have prevailed, even among Chris-; 
^ansywith. regard .to the circumstance^^ of the invisible worldi^ 
And no wonder : we can only ccinceive it under sensible iniugcst* 
3ut the general truth stands independent of all fictions, and foilicsj 
Scepticism may smile at the croaking frogs, and squalid ferryman^ 
but Nature will not be laughed out of her hopt^s and fears." , 

These " strange conceptions,*' however, do not affect Chris- 
tianity. They are the reveries of men, unmindtul alike of the' 
language of their divine Master, and . of his Apostle. By the 
former, a state of reprobation is briefly, but forcibly, described 
as a place '* where the worm dicth not, and the fire is not 
quenched:" and of a state of blessedness, the latter says, with 
unrivalled energy and beauty, ** Eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man. to conceive^ 
the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.'' 
• It b elsewhere said, tha), on the revision of this work, few erroucs 
w&e diacovered that aflipcted the sense of the original : the iraas^, 
huion of this passage, however, bus been controverted by somo 
of my literary friends. As their arguments all tend to the same 
point, I subjoin those of the Laureat, which I consider as the 
most elaborate, for the reader's consideration. 

• ' • 

** The absurd stories of the infernal regions are now hardly cre- 
dited iu the nursery, but suppose them true, and think what tber 
ghosts of our ancient warriours would feel, when the shades of 
wretches like these come among them ; they would seek tjver/ 
jaeaus ef lustration, as being polluted by the sight. 

(o SATIS B II* JUYENAL. v. 231— *23a 

Though wide around our conquering arms are 

And the huge grasp embrace the polar world. 

Here Juvenal has completely done with this part of hb subject, 
tod what follows connects with what immediataly preceded the 
passage. *' Alas ! wretches that we are ! we are now brought to 
that disgraceful situation, that while our arms are victorious in 
the most remote parts of the earth, we are stained with crimes 
unknown to the barbarians we have subdued." 

Your own note, beginning It is to be tamented^ convinces me 
that it was by no means the intention of Juvenal to ^' impress the 
belief of a future state on the minds of his countrymen/' for had 
that been his intention, he would have selected, as' Vit^l has done 
in his sixth ^neid, the most solemn and impressive notion of a 
future state: instead of which, he has chosen the roost absurd, 
puerile, and improbable circumstances, and the tma transire va^ 
dmn tot milUa cymba is to me decisive of his own incredulity ; 
and it should seem that you are something of the same opinion, 
as you have scarcely noticed it. 

However unlikely the unlearned men of ancient Rome were to 
be tainted with that scepticism which prevailed among their pos* 
terity, surely it was not the shade of an unbeliever that was so 
peculiarly calculated to rouse the indignation of those *' thunder- 
bolts of war,'' as one of those effeminate wretches who form the 
object of the whole satire, as well after as before this passage; 
besides, to whom can talis umbra relate, but to the imperial patkick 
or the noble and cowardly gladiator ^ 

Such is die opinion of Mr. Pye: it is also that of Rupertt, 
who sees no difficulty in the expression, taken in this sense. 
Vol. II. 9K 

It would ill become me to have appeared as a translator of 
Juvetml, without previously weighing these and similar objections* 
I could never believe the author capable of saying, '* I inform 
you, Giticchns, that there is no future state ; but ^if there should 
be, what would the spirits of our ancient warriours think of you f* 
Gracchus must have laughed outright at such a questicm, and, if 
he condescended to notice it at all, have replied that— he need not 
trouble himself with conjecturing what might be thought of him 
by those who, according to the interrogator's own premises, were 
nonentities. But Juvenal was no unbeliever. He describes, 
indeed, the world of spirits, as peopled by the figments of the 
poets ; and I know not how he could do otherwiM : but it does 

SATIRE II. JUVENAL. V.133.— 234. 61 

But why of conquest boast? the conquered climes 
Are free, O Rome, from thy detested crimes. 

not therefore ibilow that he gave credit to thoae fooleries.' H9 
uses them as Socrates, perhaps^ would have done, in confor- 
mity to the traditionary creed, as a simple vehicle of his opinion 
respecting the immortality of the soul, and nothing more. 

As to his ** selection of circumstances,'' I might attribute it la 
the want of a correct taste, which is visible on other occasions ;« 
iMit I am more inclined to place it to the account of his peculiar 
turn for satire: he is— -pf^tf/Sotft $plene cackhmOf and sometimes 
weakens his argument by too free an indulgence of it. Here he 
evidently aims at Virgil, with whose description of Charon, Styx, 
&C he does not appear greatly edified, and which, indeed, what- 
•ever may be thought of its sublimity, is scarcely less puerile than 
his own. The ** frog^" are not very heroick, it must be confessed ; 
but the ttiui troMirCf &,c, is a mere parody of the iEncid, whera 
the grave account of Charon's taking the two adventurers into 
his craay boat, driving the ghosts into a comer to make room for 
them, and finally landing them, completely drenched, on the mud, 
is as obnoxious to ridicule, as any thing in the passage before us. 

But Rupert], and those who think with him, reader Sed tu vera 
pmidp ** Suppose these things should be true !*' a version which 
agrees as little with the spirit as the sense of the original. No 
instance can be produced, 1 believe, where a simple supposition Is 
conveyed in such erophatick language ; which, to me, has all tha 
air of a solemn injunction : ^* But be thou P£R«uad£D that 
THESE THIVO8 ARE TRUE." Nor do I think the criticks mora 
auccessful in their explanation of Jiluc^ heu tniseri traducimur / 
they say it means, ** To what a pass are we wretches come !" I 
aee nothing of the language of indignation in this apostrophe, but 
rather of pathos and deep dejection, arising from the convictioa 
#f a momeototts truth x , 

And yet to these abodes we all must come. 
Believe, or not, these arc our final home ! 

There is a passage in Petronius, which seems to ascertain the 
aense of this disputed exclamation. Trimalchio produces at his 
table, a larctm argent ^im^ (a model of a skeleton, I suppose,) and 
after bandying it about for some time among the guests, afiectedly 
lireaks out, 

^ Hei;, heu, nos hiseros! <|uam totus homuncio nil est! 
'' Sic erimus cuncli, postquam nos auferet Orcus/' 

* Several good MSS. read lUic. 

&i sAttiti It: JUVENAL. ' V. ajs— 

J^o ; — one Armeniarf all our youth Outgoei$| ^ 

And with curs*d fires, For a base tribune glows. 
Tcue: such thy power, Example] He was brought 
An hostage hitlier, ^nd the hiieclion caught. 
0/bid the striplings flee ! for sensual art * 

Here lies in wait to lure the unlutor*d heart ; 
Then farewell, simple nature 1 — Pleased no more ' 
With knives, whips, bridles, all they prized of yore. 
Thus taught, and thus debauched, they hasten home, 
To spread the morals of Imperial Rome! 

Vrr. 235. iVb; — one Armenian 4-c.J Et I amen unvMy ^-c. Ru« 
perti thinks that there wouhl be mure spirit in this passHgc, if it 
were put into the dramatick fonn ; and I have adopted his idea. 
The objection is raised by a friend, to what is said in a preceding 
Khe, — nonfaciunt illi quos Ticimus; there is now additional poini 
ut the reply, Aspice quid faciant commcrcia ! an exptx^ssioo per- 
haps for which the poet was indebted to that verse of Menander^ 
ao appositely quoted by St. Paul : ' \ 

^Sii^^Miidi} X'P^^* o/aA»a» xojcai* , 

Juvenal gives the name of the poor youth mentioned in tb^ 
i(^xt, (Zaiates,) so that the anecdote was probably well known 
when he wrote. It was customary with the Romans, when they 
received hostages from a conquered or tributary state, to placer 
fhcin, under a pretence of honour, in some of the most respect- 
ftble houies; the mastei*s of which were responsit>le for' their 
-^fety. The tribune, to whom Zaiates was intrusted, betrayed his 
4^xX^^ and corrupted the principles of his unsuspecting guest. 


LIMBRITIUS, an AruspeXt* and a friend of our Author^ dis^ 
gustcd ai ike prevalence of vice^ and the total disregard of needy 
mnd umusuming virtue f is introduced on the point of quitting Rome. 
Tke Poet accompanies him some little way from the city, when the 
konest exilcf no longer able to suppress his indignation^ stops shorty 
smd in m strain of animated invectvoe^ acquaints him with the comet 
mfhis retirement. 

This Satire is managed with wonderful ingenuity. The way hrf 
jufhich Juvenal conducts his Jriend out of the city^ is calculated to 
raise a thousand tender images in hit mind; and when^ after lin- 
gering a moment at the gate^ Umbritius stops to look at it for the 
iasttime» in a spot endeared by religion^ covered with the venerable 
rtlicks of antiquity J and in itself eminently beautiful ; v)e are tempted 
to listen with uncommon attention to the farewell if the solitary 

fVhat he says may be arranged under the following heads: that' 
Flattery and Fice are the only thriving arts at Rome ; that in 
thesct particularly the first 9 foreigners have a manifest superiority 
0ctr the natives^ and consequently engross all favour ; that the poor 
are universally exposed to scorn and insult ; that the general habits 
tf extravagance tender it difficult for them to subsist ; and that a 
crowded capital subjects them to numberless inconveniences unknown 
in the country (on the tranquillity and security if which he feelingly 
dilates, J He then adverts again to the peculiar st^erings if the 
poorer citizens from the want if a well regulated police : these he 
illustrates by a variety of examples f and concludes in a strain (f 
pathos and beauty^ which winds up the whole with singular happi* 

* Tacitus says, that on the day Galba was murdered, Umbri- 
tius predicted the impending treachery; (Hist. lib. 1.27 ;) in 
which he is followed by Plutarch. Pliny calls him the most 
skilful Aruspex of the age, Umbritius Aruspicum in nostra avt 



V. 1—4. 

1 HOUCH my old friend's retirement pains my 
i yet cOromdnd-'>--his purpose to depart, [heart, 
And give, on CumBe's solitary coast, 
The Sibyl one inhabitant to boast ! 

Veu. 3. on CumcB*8 solitari/ coast,1 Juvenal gives 

the epkbct <ac'u/r lo Cumae, which puzzles honest Barten; for 
iow, says lie, can a phice be empty which is described, just 
below, as a thoroughfare to Baice ? This, loo, seems to be the 
stumblingblock of the commentators in general, who, alarmed 
Tor the veracity of the poet, explain the word, by quietce, otiosit^ 
von tarn plenoc hominurfi quam est Romay SfC. But there is no 
>ic?ed ; — a plate may be uninhabited tlioiigh crowds traverse it 
daily; and this,'in tmth, h what the author satirically hints at : 
that Baiae, which Seneca calls diversorium vitiorum, should have 
such attractions for the Ilonians, as to draw them all to it,—in 
despite of the many beautiful spots in its vicinity, through which 
they were obliged, to pass, and of whose charms, therefore, they 
cpald not be ignorant. 

The next Xine^^atqiie unum civem dojiarc Sibt/lke, — appears to 
me to have beeo constantly mistaken by the translators, llolyday 
lenders it— • 

*< - , to add, 

f* To good Sibylla one inhabitant more;" 

and he is followed by all the'rest. I am inclined to think, how- 
ever, that the poet (still speaking with the warranted license of a 
9atirist> meant to insinuate that Cuniaj was really deserted : no 
^reat compliment, it must be confessed, to the good sense of his 
contemporaries ; for the situation was well chosen, an^ the country 
nbout it delightful. Whether the taste of the Romans improved, 


66 SATIRE III. JUVENAL, v, 5—18. 

Fall on the road to Baiae, Gumae lies. 
And many a sweet retreat her shore supplies — 
Though I would make even Prochyta my home, 
Bare as it is, ere the throng'd streets of Rome : 
For what rude, desert spot, breeds more afiright, 
Than fires, wide blazing through the gloom of nlghti 
Houses, with ceaseless ruin, thundering down, 
And all the horrours of this hateful town ? 
Where poets, while the dogstar glows, rehearse, 
To gasping multitudes, their baibarous verse ! 

Now had my friend, impatient to depart, 
Consigned his little all to one poor cart: 
For this, without the town, he chose to'wait ; 
But stopt a moment at the Conduit-gate. — 

I know not ; but this town was afterwards inhabited^ and, ia tb^ 
reign of Justinian, stood a long and severe sie^. 

Cumse was dedicated to the Sibyl, who bad a temple here. It 
was here, too, that Daedalus (v. 40) alighted, in he flight from 

VsR. 7* Though I XBOtfld male eveu Prock^a ^.] Procbyta 
was a bare and rugged rock in tke Tuscan sea, do| far from th» 
Promoutory of Misenus, It is now a fertile, and a yietty ^t, 

Vee. 13. Where poeie, ^c] Tile hamormis naliee of thtf 
author ! who, enumerating the dreadful dangers of an overgrown 
capital — fires, falls of bouses, &c. iinisbes with the most dreadfol 
of all — ^poets reciting their works in the dogdays ! Metastaaio'a 
tramlation of this Satire, though neither remarkable lot vigour^ 
nor for a right apprehension of the drift of the original, bas yei 
many well turned passages : here is one of them : — to those wb» 
have experienced an Italian summer, it is peculiariy striking-: 

« ■■ ■ ■ ■ a tanti riscbt 

^ Delia citta troTassi esposto, e al fbtle 

** Ckaiar de' poatt a* giorm eetm," 

He follows the rest, in bi» rendering of the passage above ; 

** Che a &r s'en vada alia Sibilla 11 dona 
** D'un miovo cittadiiu'^— 

EATiAE lit. JUVENAL. V. 19— a4« 67 

Here Numa erst bis nightly visits psddi 
And held high ccmverfe with the Egerian Blaid : 
Now the on€e*haUow*d fountain, groVe^ and &ne, 
Are let to Jews, a wretched 1 wanderiag train^ 
Whose wealth is ooe small basket stu£'d with bay: 
For every tree is forced a tax to pay ; 

Ver. 19. Here Numa erst 4*c.} We Utely had occasion to 
notice one of the pious frauds of this ^od king ; herie is another 
Bot less pure in its nature^ and not less salutary in its efiect. 

Livy tells us that, just without the walls of Rome, there was a 
fittle grow watteied by a perennial spring, which rose in the 
middle of it. To this, Nimmii who had probably contracted, ia 
the privacy of his fimaev lif», a love of solitude which fMcmtA 
him to the throne, used frequently to retire : and here hes^etnSy 
soon alter Us aceesabn, lo hove conceiyed the Assign of turfiing 
bb dafliftg propensity to the advantage of his new subjects. For 
tfaii purpose, he gave oiit» that, m U^is lonely recess-, he met th^ 
foddesi £gtri% who friniished him from time to time with the 
atatetta to be observed by the city. A rude atid uniuformcd 
nioaof warriours Ibtentdwith awe to the dictates of hea\'en : and 
Nuiaa had the secret aatbfaetion of se^g hb hutitutions no( 
neiely received, but revered. 

Ver« S3. WkoH roeaUk. is oar small basket st^d mtk kajf :] 
The commentators, not content with the obvious meaning of this 
passage, have laboured to find a mystery in it. Hritannicus, in 
his ofaservatiens oA the sixth Satire, (where the same words are 
again uscd>) says, that the hay served them to lie on. This is 
rational enough; hna how^ sejoina Hdyday, oeuid they carry 
about, tuflictenc &>ff sack a purpose ^ He^iherefore, inclines to 
think, with Lyranus, that the hay was nqt so mtidi a mark of 
. their poveitgr^ as of their aervitttde in Egypt, which, it seems, 
^ey gloriedr in obtniding upon the notice of the Romans : by way 
of contrasting it, I supposoi . with their present flourishing and 
happy situation ! It may look like trifling to reply, that in thb 
case, they should rather have carried straw: but the truth is, 
there b no room for refinement on the subject. The poet merely 
intended to censure the hrreKgion and avarice of his countrymen. 
The former, in assigning the sacred groves to this despised race 
(pars despectis^mtt servientnm) who, being driven from the city 
by DOfiaitiam, were ^ad to take up their abode in the iiea^rest 
place which promised them a shelter : and the latter, in exactiog 


68 SATIRE III. JUVENAL, v. 15—34. 

And while the heaven-born Nine in exile rove, 
The beggar rents their consecrated grove 1 

Thence slowly winding down the vale, we view 
The Egerian grots — ^ah, how unlike the true ! 
Nymph of the Spring I more honour'd hadst thoa 
If, free from art, an edge of living green [been. 
Thy bubbling fount had circumscribed alone, 
And marble ne'er profaned the native stone. 

\he rout from thcmy though all tlaoir wealth was a basket, in 
which, perhaps, they carried what tbey bcggiMl, and a little hay* 
which either served for i^rovender for tb^r beasts^ (asses,) or fur 
themselves to lay their heads on at i^gbt. 

One of Juvenal's most judicioua tr^Aslators observes, that it b 
*' improbable the Jews should pay tribute, (why tiibutc^ is it not 
mercedem^ rent f) for their cold lodgifp^ in a grove." Yet this is 
expressly asserted by the authoTr OmnU cairn popuiop Spc, He 
will, therefore, have it (and he is, far' from being singular) that 
Juvenal allude to the tribute which ^ycry Jew was obliged to pay 
to ihe Temple, and which, after its destruction, Vcsspasian trans- 
ferred to the Capitol. Such an idea is altogether inconsistent 
with the spirit of the passage. The gbnoxious nature of the de- 
mand (in Juvenal's miml) was for the use of the groves themselves^ 
and every other supposition weakens the force of his satire. 

Yer. 29. Nymph oftht Spring ! S^xJ] We have here a pleasing 
instance of the good taste of Juvenal ;-— but he was an enthusiastick 
admirer of nature, and the little views of the country with which 
he indulges us .from time to timo, are painted con amore^ and 
from the heart. 

It i^ but justice, however, to add, that he is indebted for some 
of the finest touches in the picture before us, to a most exquisites 
description of a fount and grotto, by Ovid: 

^' in extremo est antrum ncmorale recessu, 

*^ Arte laboratum nulla ; simulaverat artem 

'* lugenio natura suo : nam pumice vivo, 

'' £t Icvibus tophis nativum duxerat arcum* 

^' Foils sonat a dextra tenui perlucidus unda, 

<' Margiuegramineo patulos iuciuctushiatxis/' i^e^.zii. 15^. 

After saying thus much of ancient, it may not be amiss to 

SAT»s III. JUVENAL.. V. 33—52. 69 

Umbntius here his sullen silence broke, 
And<turnM on Rome, indignant, as he spoke. 
Since virtue droops, he cried, without regard. 
And honest toil scarce hopes a poor reward ; 
Since every morrow sees my means decay, 
And still makes less the little of to day ; 
I hasten there, where, all his labours past. 
The flying artist found repose at last : 
While something yet of health and strength re- 
While yet my step no bending staff sustains, 
While few gray hairs upon my head are seen, 
And my old age is vigorous still, and green:—- 
Here then, I bid my much-loved home farewell, 
Ah, mine no more ! there let Asturius dwell, 
And Gatulus ; knaves, who, in truth's despite, 
Can white to black transform, and black to white, 
Build temples, furnish funerals, auctions hold. 
Farm rivers, ports, and scour the drains for gold ! 

Once they were trumpeters, and up and down, 
FoUow'd the fencers ; known to every clown, 

subjoin a short specimen of modern taste. On this beautiful 

■ quanto prasstantius esset 

Numen aquae, &c« 

Wakefield remarks, in his Lucretius, Vol. I. 52. Loci color miii 
persuadei vert esse simUes dixnnationes nostras, 

■ quanto pnestantius isset 

Flumen aquX| &c« 

Euge ! a river rushing out of an auger-hole ! I now see why the 
German criticks prt!fer his divinations^ as I am tQld they do, to 
those of Mr* Poison. 

yb SATitn III* JUVEMAJy. w. 53—54. 

By their puflTd cheeks : now, they themselves give 
And^ with a nod, 6f life and death dispose, [shows, 

VeK; 53. — : voiir^ihejf tkemuha give «hows»1 

f • f. munerOf the technical word for an exhibition of gladiators. 
They once served the prise-fighters,' (feUonw who tmYelled aboat 
the covntry, soinewbat in the minner of our cudgel>phiyers for- 
merly,) now they affect to be great men themselves, and hire 
gladiators to amuse tbe people. 

Such appears to be the plain sense of tbe passage. Roperti* 
howevef, is not satisfied ; he thinks, with Hennin, thai there b a 
eatirica) allusion to the times of Nero, when musick was one of 
the gainful arts. In a word, he wishes to underst^d lyrists, or 
mimes, or lawyers, or common criers, or any thing by the e$* 
pressioAt istbe^ than trumpctei^ and followers of a strolling com* 
pany of fencers, as I have rendered it. All this seems very 
strange : for on the latter interpretation alone can the poignancy 
of the succeeding tines be aptly founded. Tbe observ^tieii which 
he quotes with such approbation from Ferranus, that we no* 
where read of trumpeters playing to gladiators, but always to 
actors, is a little bypercntical. No one imagines that they played 
in tune to their thrusts and blows : they were much more pro* 
l>ab^ employed to call the people together, before the com-* 
mencement of the show. A single visit 10 a country fair, would 
expUia ail this better than a Uiousand commentaxonL 

When an ancient custom can be rendered with precision, it is 
always right to do that justice to the original ; when it cannot, it 
is better, perhaps, to give its g^eral sense, than to descend to 
particulars,, in which every thing is dbputcd, and nothing con« 
eluded : 

'* ■ verso poUice vulgi 

** Que^nliljet occidunt populariter"^-^ 

literally means, from an aSectation of popularity they put to 
death whomsoever tbe rabble, by a turn of their thumbs, con- 
demn. Verso poUice^ and converse pollice^ are known to be signals 
of contempt, by which the spectators adjudged to death the van- 
^uisb««l combatant. How these were expressed,— whetho* by 
holding up a hand cknched, with the thumb bent backwafd, or 
by any other method, CQonot now be determined : nor indeed is 
it of n^uch consequence; the sense of the passage is given in 
the translation, and the reader who wishes for further remarks on 
it, may consult I>aciar and othen who have written professedly 
on She subject. 
When I observed, that the vanquished was adjudged to death 

SATiftB ni. JUVENAIm ▼. sj— 56, 71 

To win the rabble ; then, as avarice wales, 
Rise from the bloody scene, to — faim thd jakes ! 

^€anter80 poUicCy I should have added, that iie wa$ sometimes pre^ 
served eompreuo poUice. I wish I could have saiiijrequentljf : but 
he who considers how great a tendency the sight of reiterated 
murder has to harden the mind, will not believe that there were 
many proofe of compassion exhibited. If we look for them any 
where, it must be amongst the Vestal Vif^iH} whose service wa» 
uhbloody, and who most, therefore, have bcu) a Kttle of the ** milk 
of kaman kindoeBs'' in them. Hear now Pmdentius : 

'^ O tenerum mitemque animum ! consurgit ad ictus : 
'' £t, quoties Victor ferrum jugulo insert t» ilia 
** Delicias ait esse suas f pectusque jacentis 
'' Virgo modesta jubet con verso pollice rumpi ; 
'^ Ne lateat pars ulla animas vitalibus imis> 
** Altius impresso dum palpltat ense secutor V^ 

Now I have mentioned these sports, (for so they weic called !) 
It may not be amiss to add a few wor<b on the dreadful waste of 
inankmd occasioned by.rhenv. No war, no pestilence, ever swept 
off such multitudes of the human race* Lipshis asserts, that in 
acme months twenty or thirty thousand were slaughtered in Eu« 
rope alone; and his calculation does not appear at all exaggerated. 
We blame, says he, the cruelty of Nero and Caligula, who pro« 
bably put to death some hundreds of men in the course of their 
reigns ; while we say nothing of many private cithcens, who fre^ 
quently butchered a thousand in a day 1 

The dead (I scarcely know why, unless from ^ principle of 
revenge fn the Uving) were anciently supposed to delight in human 
blood : prisoners of war, therefore, were soraetiitieB put to death 
at the grave of a ikvourite chief who had fallen in battle, as the 
readiest way to appease his manes. From this practice, uu* 
dottbtedly, sprang the one of which we are treating : combats of 
gladiators having been primarily exhibited in Jlome, at the funerals 
of eminent persons; to which indeed they were for some time 
restricted. The magistrates themselves first broke, through this 
restnunt, and produced them for the entertainment of the city at 
ihe Saturnalia, and other fesdvdb. As they y^ere much followed, 
ambitious men soon discovered that the readiest road to power, 
was to gratify the people ia these amiiseniefif»i which, therefore, 
became extremely freqtient. 

Thfy Mem to have received their first check from Cicero, who 
introduced a law for preventing candidates for publick oflices from 

7* SATIRE III. JUVENAI^* V. 57 — 60., 

And why not every thing ? since these are they, 

Whom Fortune, midst her wild and wanton 

With human state, her toy, in some blind hour, 

Lifts^ f om the dregs of earth, to wealth and 

• powtr I 

exhibiting them. Augustus aftem'ards decreed, that they should 
be given only twice a ^ear ; and these regulations continued in 
force during the reign of his immediate successour. Caligvla 
again permitted all the citizens to give them as often as they 
plea^. Domitian, who suufled the scent of blood like a vulture^ 
encouraged them by every means in his power; and even the 
" mild virtues" of Trajan were not thought to be disgraced by 
the horrid spectacle of 10,000 wretched victims, whom he cx-> 
hrbited in his triumph over the Dacian.<» ! 

BcMdcs the checks above mentioned, there were others of a 
secondary nature. Tacitus quotes a decree ot the senate, by 
which it was provided, ne quis gtad'tatorum mwiusederet cui minor 
quad rin gent orum millhim rts esset. Even thus, it &ecms to have 
been contined to the free citizens; for }l<irpocras, the frecdman 
ot Claudius, is mentioned by Suetonius as exhibiting tbem by the 
Emperour's " special indulgence." We may now account for the 
indignation with which the poet speaks of these arrogant upstarts, 
who puffed up by the success of their sordid contracts, pre-* 
sumed to put forth those bloody bhows, and dispose of the lives of 
their fellow-creatures at the caprice of a barbarous rabble. 

Combats ot gladiators continued to the days of Constantine^ 
who, to the honcur of Chris^tianity, first prohibited them by aa 
edict. Some faint traces of them, however, appeared under the 
puccccdij g tiiipoiours ; but they were finally done away by Arca-» 
dius and Honorius. 

V£ii. 58. JFhom Foriuoe^ ^c] We must not be surprised at 
finding this capricious deity actuated by a variety of motives in 
the advancement of her creatures. Here, she is influenced by 
levity ; in the following distich, which has all the causlick arch- 
T^ess of Juvenal, by something not quite so venial ; and like a mere 
mortal female, exerts her power at the expense of her inclination ; 

Ovie i$fXtt7« Tv;^ at v^yaytfy a)\X' U» ^ii|i| 
(t^ OTi Kah i/ki^V ^^ vavla nro^ir hft^ra^» 

SATiRt HI. JUVENAL, v. 6it-66. 73; 

But why, my friend, should I at Rome remain ? 
I cannot teach my stubborn lips to ieign; 
Nor, when I hear a great man*s verses, smile, 
And beg a copy, if I think them vile. 
A sublunary wight, I have no skill 
To read the stars ; I neither can, nor will, 

Ver. 61. But vhj/y m^ friend, should I at Rome remain ?] Mar- 
tial has conveyed tbif thought from our author, (*' convey, tho 
wise itCHll,") and worked it up into a tolerable epigram. Here is 
Cowley's translation, which is not so good as it might be :— for 
|he concluding couplets I an> answerable : 

V Honest and poor, faithful in word and thought, • 
** What has thee, Fabian, to the city brought ? 
" Thou neither the buffoon nor bawd cans't play, 
** Nor with false whispers th' innocent betray ; 

Nor wives corrupt, nor from rich beldames get 

A living by thy industry and sweat; 
** Nor with vain promises and projects cheat, 
*' Nor bribe nor flatter any of the great. 
** What means hasi thou to thrive ? Ho ! thou art just, 
** A man of courage, firm, and fit fur trust, 
*• Nay then, thou canst not fail ! — ^but, hie thee home, 
" For seriously, thou art not made for Rome." Lib, iv. 5, 

In Wyatt's Epistle to his friend Poynes, there are several pas^ 
^ages which show that he had this Satire before him 2 

** But how may I this honour now attaine, 
" That cannot dye vhe colour blacke a Iyer ? 
" My Poynes, I cannot frame my tune to fayn, 
** To cloke the truth, for praise without desert, 
*• Of them that list all vice for to retayne." 

In consequence of this attachment to truth, he protests (among 
t>ther things) that he cannot prefer Chaucer's tale of Sir Tojias t^ 
Jus Palamou and Arcitc : he cannot-*^ 

*' Praise Syr Topas for a noble tale, 

•* And scorne the story that the Knight tolde. 

^' Praise him for counsell that is dronke of ale ; 

'* Grinne when he laughes that beareth all the sway, 

*' Frowne when he frownes, and grone when he is polei^ 

<* On others lust, to hang both night i^nd day/' 

74 MTiAi itx. JUVENAL, v. Sf-^fk 

Presage a fsrther's death ; I never pried 
In toads : — ^who please, may carry to the bride 
The adulterer's billets ; I such deeds detest, 
And bonesCi let no thief partake my breast. 
For this, without a friend, the world I quit ; 
A palsied Hinb, for every use unfit ! 

For who is loved, in these degenerate times. 
But he whose conscious bosom swells with crimes^ 
With monstrous crimes, he never must impart. 
Though the dire secret burst his labouring heart ? 
He pays, he owes thee nothing, who prepares 
To trust an honest secret to thy cares ; 

V«». 6T* • ' " ' Ineoerpriei 

In toadi : — 4*^.] Either our toad is not the raua nAetm 
of the ancients, or it has tost its destructive qualities in this coun- 
try, where it Is generally understood to be altogether innoxious. 
In Juvenal's time, no doubt was entertained of its poisonous na- 
ture. It is frequently alluded to by the elder Pliny, and once in 
strong terms, as extremely hostile to life. Tk6 compounders of 
these doses, (and, as Rabelais says, there was a world df people 
al Rone then, as well as now, that got ao honest livelihood by 
poisoning,) night prababfy give out such a report, to conceal the 
jeal fact ; but I should imagine the substances which they used 
weite either vegetable, or minerai» and of a much more subtile^ 
and deleterious nature than any thing which the geitm ramurum 
could supply. It is no ffoaX reflectiooi however^ on our author^ 
that he was ignorant of tho secret. 

Madan has a curious note on this line : ** The language here 
k netaphorical, and alludes t» augurs inspecting the enlmik of 
beasts slain in sacrifice, oa the view of which they drew their good 
or ill omens." With a degree of cafelessness inexcusable in a 
schoolboy, Mr. Madau confounds augurs with aruspices; and 
the consequences are such as mi^t l^ expected. Umbritius» 
whose sole employment was inspecting the entrails of beasts» 
(Madan's **> metaphorical^ toads,) is nmde to dcdare, that he 
never looked into them; while the augurs, who always divined by. 
the flight of birds, are said to take their omens from beasta shua 
in sacrifice, with which they never meddled ! 

feATTBB nt. JUVENAL, v. 79—94. ^i 

But, a dishonest !*^there he feels thy power, 
And buys thy friendship high from hour to hour : 
But let not all the Tagus* waves contain. 
Not all the gold they pour into the main, 
Be dcem'd a bribe sufficient, to requite 
Thy loss of peace by day, of sleep by night r-^-* 

take not, take not what thy soul rejects. 

Nor sell the faith, which he, who buys, suspects I 

The people by the great most favour*d now. 
Most shunned by me, I hasten to avow : 

1 cannot, Romans, rule my spleen, and see 
A Grecian capital in Italy ! — 

Grecian ! O, no : with this vast sewer compared. 
The dregs of Greece are scarcely worth regard : 
Long since, the stream that wanton Syria laves, 
Has disembogued its filth in Tiber's waves, 

Veh, g9« J c«jiii9/, RamoHSf Sf^J] Nw poiswnfsrre^ Qv trtlei, 
Crttcam Urbem* This Mad»Q translates, ** I cannot bear a Gre* 
cian city;" and this, I observe, is the way in which it b usually 
given : hut Urbi conveyed no idea to the raind of a Roman, but 
that of Rome ; it should therefore be rendered ^< a Greciaa Ro0K!,T 
This passage stood at first, 

I cannot rule my spleen, aad calmly see 
Rome dwindling to a Grecian colony. 

And if ** dwindling^' had been understood, as meant, of poll* 
tical importance, and not of bulki np alteration, perhaps, would 
be required. 

V£B«91. Gneian! 0, no: SfC^ QjMm^U qm>ia portiQ/stcU 
Ach0($ f As if, says Britannicus, th# vices of the Greeks were so 
greats that a sodall portion of them was sufficient to c<MTupt the 
city, 6o»e, ro4«» 01 1«#* f uyir I Surely Juvenal means to say 
«-I have called Koiae a Greciaa colony : yet when I conaidet 
what a multitude of Syrians, &c. the Orontes has poured into the 
Tiber, I mustoonfe96 that the filth of Gveece Ibrma but a small 
part of that ioiwdalion of impurity with which We are over* 

^6 SATIRE III. JUVENAL. V. 95— io2. 

Its language, arts ; o'erwhelm'd iiJs with the scum 
OF Autioch's streets, its minstrels, harp, and drum. 
Hie to the Circus I ye who pant to prove 
A barbarous mistress, an outlandish love ; 
Hie to the Circus 1 there in crowds they stand, 
Tires on their head, and timbrels in their hand. 

Thy nistick, Mars, the trechedipna wears. 
And on his breast, rank with ceroma, bears 

Ver, 101. Thy rusticky Mars, Syc] In this apostroptie tci 
Mars, the poet observes, tbat while the Greeks were worming 
themselves into all places of power eikI profit, the IlomaiiSy uiice 
so renowned for their rough and manly virtues, were wholly taken 
Up with the idle amusements of the Circus. 

Qf this perversion of the ** I^atian rustick/' the poet marks his 
contempt, by crowdini; his description with Greek words ; of 
which the first, treckedipna, has occt^sroned the commentators 
tome trouble, Holyday translates it, the *^ haunt-dole gown/^ 
i'i*om Tpi;^<tf and ^ninov: but the llomans '< haunted the dole" in 
the toga ; the dsc of which was no novelty, and therefore scarcely 
worth appealing to Mars about. Madan quotes Dry den, to show 
thut it was an " effeminate, gaudy kind of garment;" and Owen, 
to my i^reat surprise, adopts his very words 1 It seems to me, that 
the poet meant to express but one action ; and that one is deter- 
mined by the context to be prize-fighting. Trechedipna^ there- 
fore, (unless that name be given to the endromidas, or shaggy 
cloak put on after violent cxefcise,) must mean the succinct vest, 
which the llomans probably adopted from the Greek wrestlers. 
CerornQf the next term, was a mixture of oil, clay, and bee's-wax» 
iRrith which they besmeared their neck and brousts, and, as it 
should seem, profusely ; for Seneca, speaking to his friend Luci- 
lius of a journey he bad takeii, says, the roads were so bad, that 
he rather swam than walkod, and before he came to his inn, was 
covered with ceroma^ like a prize-fighter. Madan, still harping 
vpon his *^ gaudincss,'* will have ceroma not to mean ceromOf but 
a curious and costly unguent for the hair ! for this he again quotes 
Dryden, who neither thought nor cared about the matter, and 
whose authority in this case can determine nothing. Niceteria, 
Lubin says, were Testes percgrince ; but he was misled by the scho^ 
iiiem^ where, by a mistake of the .transcriber, niceteria is put for 
trechedipna: indeed, he afterwards corrects himself. Niceterie^ 

SATIRE III. JUVENAL. V. 103—127. 77 

A paltry pmc, well-pleased ; M'hile every land, 
Sicyon, and Amydos, and Alaband, 
Tralles, and Samos, and a thousand more, 
Thrive on his indolencfe, and daily pour 
Their starving mjTiads Forth : hither they come, "I 
And batten on the genial soil oFRome ; [dome! > 
The minions, then the lords, of every princely J 
A flattering, cringing, treacherous, artful race. 
Of fluent tongue, and never-blushing face; 
A Protean- tribe, one knows not what to call. 
That shifts ta every form, and shines in all: 
Grammarian, painter, augur, rhetorician, 
Geometer, quack, conjurer, and musician, 
AU arts his own the hungry Greekling counts. 
And bid him mount the sky, the sky he mounts ! 
You smile — was't a barbarian, then, that flew? 
No; 'twas a Greek, 'twas an Athenian, too! 
Bear with their state who will :— but I disdain 
All converge with the proud, the upstart train ;— 
Wretches, who, stow'd in some dank lighter's womb. 
With rotten figs were lately born to Rome, 
Yet now above me sit, before me sign. 
Their friendship and their faith preferr'd tominel 

nd is it NOTHING, that I breathed at first 
In Roman air I on Roman fruits was nursti 

are the prizes which the victors in those contests ostentatiously 
wprc round their ftecks, »»x»jT»j^*a. 

The change of character is singular : — the Greeks, so fond oC 
the Gymnasium at home, forsook it entirely here, and lurnctl 4ill 
their attention to the arts of thriving; while the Romans neglected 
the latter to apply to the former; and then broke out into cbihlijih 
complaints at being eupplaiitcd by the superiour address of Ui« 

8o SATIRE III. JUVENAL, y. i6&— x^j* 

That tutor most accurs'd his pupil sold ! 
That Stoick sacrificed his friend to gold ! 
A true born Grecian ! iitter'd on the coast 
Where the Gorgonian hack a pinion lost* y 

Hence Romans, hence ! no place for you remains 
Where Dipbiius, where Erimanthos reigns ; 
Miscreants, who^ faithful to their native art, 
Admit no rival in their patron!s heart : 

Factors of notorious baiseDese, since perfidy and deceit might be 
found under the mask of philosophy and^irtue. 

The honest Aruspex triumphs in the idea of his being a Gre- 
cian, and even marks out the place of his birth ^ by a contemp- 
tuous allusion to an adventure of Pegasus, (who is said to have 
stumbled, and dropt a feather from his fetlock at Tarsus, a town 
in Ciiicia,) whom he degrades into a hack : Cabcdli appellatione 
ajicity as Casaubon observes, non quod illi qutm in ccdis vctiuta^ 
coUoccrcitj velkt iri dftractum ; sed quia Grctcof maU oderat. He 
did, indeed, hate the Greeks ; but he thought, and I believe with 
justice, that they had enfeebled the rigid virtues of his country- 

The professor is distinguished by the use of the abolla: a laife 
kind of wrapper, mightily afl'ected by the " budge-doctors of the 
Stoick fur." These, I suppose, had it, for humility's sake, of the 
cheapest and coarsest materials, to serve them, as occasion re- 
quired, either for a gown or a rug, nudi tcgmcn grahati; but it 
was sometimes seen of the costliest stuff, aud the most glowiag 
colours: it was .then the proud dibtinction of the rich and great. 
Crispinus, as is already observed, (p. 10,) had u purple aMla 
stolen from him while he was bathing, which Martial tells the 
thief will be an unprofitable robbery to him, since none but a 
person of eminence could venture to wear it. And Caligula, 
moved by envy, is said to have put to death Ptolemy, the son 'of 
Jitba, king of Mauritania, (his cousin in the second degree,) quod 
edmte «e munns^ ingressum specfacula conxertisse oculos hofninum 
fufgore purpurea: abulia: animadrertet : because, at an exbrbition 
of gladiators, the prince, by the splendour of his abolla^ drew all 
eyes from the Emperour to himself. Suet. Calig. c. 35. 

This was the greater abol/a : but there was also a lesser ahoUa^ 
peculiar to the military, and used by them when on duty. From 
its description, it api)ears to have bein something like the loose 
cloak worn by the German soldiery at this doy, . 

SATIRE in. JUVENAL, v. 174—195. Si 

For let them Fasten on his easy eaf , 
And drop one hint, one secret slander there, 
Suck*d from their country*s venom, or their own, 
That instant they possess the man alone ; 
While we are driven, dishonoured, from the door, 
Our long, long slavery, thought upon no more. 
*Ti8 but a client lost ! — and that, we find, 
Sits wondrous lightly on a patron's mind ; 
And light, indeed, it is: for, to be plain, 
What merit can a poor dependent gain 
By his best efforts, though, before the sun, 
He snatch his^ gown, and to the levee run ? — 
The praetor still precedes him in the race. 
And, threatning, bids his lictors mend their pace, 
Lest his associate pass him, and first pay 
His court to Modia, — ^wondering at their stay ! 
Here freeborn youths wait the rich servant's call, 
And, if they walk beside him, yield the wall; 
And wherefore ? this, forsooth, can fling away. 
On one voluptuous night, a legion's pay, 
While those, though fired, start at the cost, nor dare 
To hand a whore of fashion from her chair. 

Veb. 183. What merit can a poor dependent gain, 4*c.} This 
IS touched with great force by Martial : 

'* Cum tu laurigcris annum qui fiiscibus intras 

" Mane salutator liraina mille teras, 
" Hie ego quid faciam ? quid nobis, Paule, relinqais 

^* Qui de plebe Numae, dcnsaque turba sumus ?'' 

The conclusion is entirely in the spirit and manner of Juvenal : 

Quid faciet pauper, cui non licet esse client! ? 

Difnisit nostras purpura vestra togas," Lib* x. Ep, 10. 



Z2 sATiitE ni^ jyVENAL. V. 196—993. 

Produce at Rome ypur witness ; lei him boasit 
The sanctity of fiere(^yql:hja*s hpst, 
Of Numa, ar of Hiip^ whose ;$Qal dirine 
Snatch'4 p*^!^ Minerva from hf r blading shrine : 
->^Ir8t to explpre his wealth the judges haste» 
His honour and his honesty, the last. 
'^ What do^s his table cost himi can you guess f 
" What servants, what demesnes dp§^ he possess ?" 

Ver. 197. JTie sanctify of Berecyfiihin's host, Sft.} In the 
548th year of Rome, the republick being much terrified by pro' 
digiesy the Sibylline boo|is were consulted for the proper expia- 
tions : it was there found, that the evil migli( be averted, if the 
goddess Cybele wer^ brought from Phrygia to Rome* Five men 
of eminence \vere deputed to fetch this powerful protectress, (a 
rude and shapeless stone,) and these were ordered, by the oracle, 
to place her, at their return, in the hands of the most virtuous 
man in the commonwealth, till a temple could be prepared for 
her reception. The senate unanimously declared Scipio Nasica 
to be this ** most virtuous man/' and Cybele was accordingly 
lodged with him. 

The old Scholiast says, Hie est Scipio qui oppressit Tiberittm 
Gracchufni leges agrarias Jerre conanten\ : — ffom which it appears 
that people wrote notes formerly, as they sometimes do now, 
without thinking much of the text : since a moment's reflection 
on it, must have shown the good mat) that he was totally wrong; 
more than seventy years having parsed between the two events. 
The Scipio of Juvenal, was the grandfather of the Scipio men- 
tioned by the Scholiast ; who seems, indeed, to have had few or 
no pretensions to the honourable distinction in favour of his an- 

Ver. 198. or of Him, 4-c.] This was L. Metellus, 

Pontifex Maximus, who, in a dreadful conflagration which hap- 
pened at Rome a few years before the last mentioned event, when 
the fire had seized the temple of Vesta, and the virgins deserted 
it, ventured his life to save the Palladium. One of his arms was 
disabled in the attempt, and hSs sight totally destroyed, yet b» 
effected his purpose. Ovid has some pretty lines on the subject. 
Fast. VI. 444. 

SATIRE III. JUVENAL, V. 204—2x3. 8j 

These weighty matters known, his faith they rate, 
And square his probity to his estate* 
The poor may swear by all the immortal Powers, 
By the great Samothracian gods, and ours, 
His oaths are false, they cry ; he scoffs at heaven, 
And all its thunders ; scoffs — and is forgiven ! 
Add, that the wretch is still the theme of scorn, 
If the soil'd cloak be rent, the gown o'erworn, 
If, through the bursting shoe, the foot be s^en, 
Or the coarse seam tell where the scar has been. 

Ver. 205. And square his probity to hit estate,} This is a 
standing complaint of all dimes and all ages : ** Men's honesties," 
says Barnaby Rich, ** are now measured by the Subsidie Book ; 
he that is rich is honest ; and the more a man doth abounde in 
wealthy 80 much he doth exceed, and that as well in honestie as 
in wit." IrUh Hulfbub. 

VxR. 207. By the greaf Samothracian gods^ 4'C.] Macrobius 
(the only one of the Romans who has written rationally on the 
Samothracian gods) says, they were Jupiter, Juno, Vesta, and 
Minerva, With this we must be content; for it would require a 
volume, instead of a note to investigate this truly curious subject. 
Besides, I am warned by that most learned of historians, Diony^ 
aius Halicaroassus, of the impiety of inquiring too minutely into 
«o sacred a matter. Those, however, who feel unawed by his 
admonition, may, after carefully perusing his first and second 
books, turn to Cumberland's Origin es ; where, in his Appendix 
" de CalnriSf' they will find some remarks on the Samothracian 
worship, that will well reward their pains. 

With respect to the sentiment in this and the preceding lines, 
it has the appearance of being taken from a Greek comedy : 

4^X1 » Ti ffotffth9 TOK euumo'* a^fuT^u « 


Phil. Frag. 

84 SATiRB III. JUVENAL. V. £14.— 418. 

O Poverty, thy thousand ills combined, 
Sink not so deep into the generous mind, 
As the contempt and laughter of mankind ! 
"Up! up! these cushion'd benches/' Lectins 

** Befit not your estates : for shame ! arise." 


Veh. 217. " Up! vp ! these cushion d benches," S^c] Umbrtlmi 
alludes, with becoming indignation, to a law procured by the tn* 
bune L. Otho, for the awgnment of distinct scats in the theatrw 
to the knights, who used before to sit promiscuously with the 
people. By this law, fourteen rows of benches, next to those of 
the scnatore, were appropriated to their use ; by which, says 
Cicero, (who seems marvellously pleased with the regulation,) 
both their dignity and their pleasure were properly consulted. 
The people, however, who were as fond of their arau?eraents as 
the knights, and whose pleasure had not been at all consulted, 
resented the indignity of being thrust back, with great bitterness : 
and were only prevented from coming to blows on the spot, by 
the commanding eloquence of Cicero. The speech he made to 
them 18 lost— and I am sorry for it; for who would not wish to 
know by what arguments he convinced them that they had not 
been injured, and by what artifice he suddenly turned (as he says 
!he did) their violent censure of Otho into applause ? 

This happened in the 685ih year of Rome : tbe senators, it 
should be observed, had obtained the same privilege about ISO 
years before, through the influence of the elder Africanus j a dis- 
tinction in a free city, which even then irritated the lower orders 
exceedingly, and as Val. Maximus observes, farorem Sctpwnts 
magnopere qitassavit, mightily shook his popularity. It appears 
from Livv, that Africanus repented of what he had done ; this. 

• I say theatres, because the regulation did not extend to the 
Circus, where the people were still suffered to mix indiscnmj- 
nalcly with the knights. By an oversight very unusual with the 
excellent translator uf Tacitus, the two places are confounded, 
(Ann. XV. 52.) The senalore were first separated irom the rest,. 
by Claudius : and Nero brought forward the knights : he did not, 
limvcver, content himself with assigning them fourteen benches 
only, hut ordered the whole body of them to take place of the 
plebeians ; viho were thus driven to the very top of the building. 

SATIRE III. JUVENAL. T. ai9 — 22|i 85 

♦ For shame !* — But you say well: the pander'$ 

The spawn of bulks and stews, is stationed there. 
Thecrier*sspruceson, fresh from thefencer*s school, 
And prompt the taste to settle, and to rule : — 
So Otho fix*d it, whose preposterous pride 
First dared to chase us from their Honours* side. 

Who to his daup;hter, here, a mate prefers, 
Unless his rank and fortune equal hers ? 
Who makes the poor his heirs, or calls to share 
The ^dile*s council, and assist the chair? — 

however, had no weight with the senators, who kept their seats ; 
and in due time were followed by the knights. 

The invidious separation had now subKisted more than a cen- 
tury; yet it still rankled in the breasts of the poorer citizens : but 
there is a peculiar propriety in its being mentioned here ; for 
Domitian had revived the distinction, which, from its odious 
nature, was growing obsolete; and, out of pure hatred to the 
people, appointed overseers of the theatres, to enforce it. Martial 
takes frequent notice of this law, and incidentally gives us the 
name of one of the overseers : 

** Quadringenta tibi non sunt, Chxrestratet surge, 
** Lectius ecce venit : sta, fuge, curre, late 1" 

Thou lack'st, Chaerestnitus, the legal sums 

That seat folks here; hence then, ere thou art driven : 

Lectius bus spied thee;— see! he comes, he comes! 
Up, scamper, dec, sculk, for the love of heaven I 

Vee. 228. The JEdUe's council, ^c] For the duties of thi> 
officer see Sat. x. In the following line, Umbritius alludes to the 
secession of the people to the Sacred Mount in the days of Men. 
Agrippa, by whose persuasions they were brought back to the 
city. At that time the poor had to struggle against the cruelty 
of the patricians ; they had now to complain of their insolent 
contempt. The high and independent spirit of Juvenal thought 
this, perhaps, the greater evil of the two : and we must not, 
therefore, wonder at his recommending a second^ ^nd more ef-^ 
Icctual migration. 

86 kATiRBiit. JUVENAL. ¥.329—236* 

Long since should they have ris'n, thus slighted, 

And left their home, but — Hot to have returned ! 

Depressed by indigence, the good and wise, 
In every clime, by painful efforts rise ; 
H£R£, by more painful still, where scanty cheer. 
Poor lodging, mean attendance,-i— all is dear ! 
In eartben ware h£ scorns, at Rome, to eat. 
Who, caird abruptly to the Marsian's seat, 

Ver. 231. Depress* d hy indigence^ S^cJ] Whether the condition 
of the " good and wise" was much improved in the time of 
Claudian may be very reasonably doubted, from the genuine 
history of that period. Had we no better information, indeedf 
than the poct*s» we should be inclined to think it was> from the 
following elegant apostrophe to Stilicho : 

** ' ' non obruta virtus 

" Paupertftte jacet: lectos ex omnibus oris 

**• Evchis, et meritum, non quae cunabulay quaeris ; 

" Et qualis, non unde satus." 

The turn of the expression, and the choice of the circumstances^ 
leiid me to think that Claudian had Juvenal in his thoughts, and 
that he^ aimed at eontrasting our author's times with his own. 
For a compliment, the idea is "well enough ; for a hint it is 
better : I hope some worthy man was benelited by it, 

Veh. 235. In earthen xoare, SfC,^ 

" Fictilibus coenare pudet, quod turpe negavit 
" Translatus subito ad Marsos,** &c. 

Holyday (to say nothing of the rest) supposes the alluiHOn is to 
the story of Curius Dentatus, (Sat. xi.) but I cannot be of his 
opinion. I doubt whether Juvenal would have designated this 
good old man by so odd a phrase as translatus subito^ because, as 
they say, he was suddenly sent into Saranium : and I am very suits 
it was not necessary ; since his plainness and frugality were ha- 
bitual, and he would as soon have eaten out of an earthen ^ish 
at Rome, as in the most secluded corner of Italy. It seems to 
me, that the author had nothing in view bat general observation. 
At Rome every thing is extravagantly dear, yet we dare not con* 

SATIRE III. JUVENALm v. 1 3 7—244. 87 

From such, well pleased, Would take his simplefood^ 
Nor blush to Wear the cheap Venetian hood. 

There's many a part of Italy, 'tis said, 
Where none assume the toga, but the dead : 
There, when the toil forgone, and annual play, 
Mark, from the rest, some high and solemn day, 
To theatres of turf the rusticks throng, [so long ; 
Gharm*d with the farce which charm'd their sires 

(ract our expenses, for fear of being despised : in the country we 
should have none of those prejudices to encounter; we might be 
poor without becoming the objects of scorn, and frugal without 
being thought ridiculous. The example is confined to the same 
individual. ^^ He who, at Rome/ * &c. as it stands in the text. 
'To this the subito alludes ; no interval of time works the altera- 
tion, but a mere chaiige of place. In any other supposition, I 
see many difficulties. Yet, says Holyday, if this had been the 
poet's meaning he might have said negahit : he might so ; and 
even then, would be less correct than he probably was : ncgatit 
here, as well as in Sat. xiv. 134 ; should, surely, be negarit, 

' Vett. 240. JFiUre none aatume the toga^ but ike dead :] The 
toga was the dress of ceremony ; it was worn by the poor when 
they paid their respects to the rich; hence Martial calls the 
laborious attendance which was exacted from him by his patron, 
operant togatarh : and in a little poem which he addressed to our 
author from Spain, seems to hint, that the chief happiness of his 
retreat comisted in its ignorance of the toga : 

'* Ignota est toga : sed dalur petenti 

**" ftuptaproxima vestis a cathedra.'' 
It was also the dress of business ; and Pliny- reckons it not one of 
the least advantages of his Tusculan villa, that he was not obliged 
to appear there in the toga :'^ibi nulla necessitas togce. 

With business or ceremony these happy villagers had little to ' 
do ; and the sumptuous habilimeqt was, therefore, appropriated 
to the dead : for it should be observed, to their honour, that the 
ancietits (tbe mere particularly) pud a sacred regard to 
tbe renivins of titeir friends, which they dressed with more than 
oommoD care, and committed to tl>e earth with superfluous but 
pioos dost. 

Ver. 243. To theatres of turf ^c,"] Though the Romans had 
always been excessively fond of such stage-shows as the times 

88 SATIRE III. JUVENAL, v. 1145—246, 

While the pale infant, of the mask in dread, 
Hides, in his mother's breast, his little head- 

produced, they could boast, for many ages, of no better theatres 
than the rusticks of the text. Even when they began to frame 
them of more durable materials than turf, they considered them 
as merely temporary, and, as such, commonly removed them as 
soon as the exhibition was over, 

Porapey first built a permanent theatre at Rome, about three- 
score years before the Christian sera. It was of hewn stone, and 
though a very noble structure, appears to have given great offence 
to the old people, (Tacit. Ann. xiv. 20,) who looked upon it as 
a dangerous innovation on the practice of their forefathers. This, 
however, did not prevent them from being multiplied ; and when 
Juvenal wrote, they were to be found in every quarter of the 

Ferrari us says, he docs not see why Juvenal might not mean 
by herboso^ a theatre ovei^grown with weeds, on account of its 
being so little frequented. Papa I these theatres were temporary, 
and raised for the occasion. Refinement frequently reverts to 
the old simplicity : there is no country on earth where there are 
80 many of those turfy theatres, as in modern Italy. 

Ovid has a charming picture of the simplicity of past times, in 
those edifices ; which he artfully contrasts with the luxuiy and 
magnificence of the present : 

" Tunc neque marmoreo pendebant vela theatro.'' 

Arte Aman. Lib. z. v. 103. 

Then, from the marble theatre, no veils 
Waved lishtlv in the sun ; no saffron showers 
Bcdrench'd the stage with odours. Oaken boughs, 
Lopt on the spot* and radely ranged around 
By the glad swains, a leafy bower composed : — 
Here> 'mid the simple scenery, they sac, 
Or on the green»«ward, or the flowery turf. 
Artlessly piled ; while their rough brows were crown'd 
With garlands, such as the next tree supplied. 

Warton has somewhere observed, that every true poet must be a 
lover of antiquity. Were our author's pretensions to be de- 
termined by this criterion, they would be readily admitted ; for, 
with the exception of Ovid, I know no one who has more frequent 
allusions to the *< olden time,'' or who appestrs to dwell on it 
with greater delight. 

SATIRE 1X1. JUVENAL. V. 247— 254. 89 


Ko modes of dress high birth distinguish th£R£; 
All ranks, all orders, the same clothing wear, 
And the dread ^dile's dignity is known, 
O sacred badge! by his white coat alone. 
But HERE, beyond our power, array 'd we go 
In all the gay varieties of show ; 
And when our purse supplies the charge no more, 
Borrow, unblushing, from our neighbour s store: 

Yer. 247* No modes of dress SfC.^ 

« , similemque videbis 

" Orchcstraixii et populuin,"— 

In the diTisions of the Roman theatre (for those of the Greek 
were different) orchestra signified the place where the dances 
were performed : it was next the pulpitum or stage, but not on 
a level with it ; and, as affording a good view of the actors, was 
usually frequented b) the senators, who had chairs placed for 
them there. In his seventh Satire, Juvenal makes his poet 
borrow those chairs to accommodate his audience at a private 

** Quaeque reportandis posita est orchestra cathedris.*' 

Our nistick theatre had no such orchestra of course ; and Um- 
britius here uses the word figuratively for the space nearest the 
actors, where the wealthier villagers sat. 

In the next line the poet pursues the contrast between the 
luxury and extravagance of Rome, and the frugality of the 
country : there the meanest of the people assisted at the theatre, 
dressed in white ; here the .^iles only, under whom the plays 
•were acted, and whose importance is, according to custom, 
ironically magnified. 

It is singylar tliat this should have escaped Dryden : 

« ■■ . ■■ clari velamen honoris, 

** Suificiunt tunicae summis iEdilibus albs^' 

he renders, 

** In his white cloak the ma^strate appears, 
" The counuy bumkin the same livery wears." 

whieli is directly contrary, not only to the intent, but to the 
words of his author. 

90 SATIRE III. JUVENAL. V. 255— 46ft 

Such is the reigning vice ; and so we flaunt, 
Proud in distress, and prodigal in want ! 
Briefly, my friend, here all are slaves to gold, 
And words, and smiles, and every thing is sold. ^ 
What will you give for Cossus' nod ? how high 
Will you Veiento's silent notice buy ? — 
Here clients shave, there poll the favourite's hair, 
And to the Gods the proud deposit bear ; 
Pour in their birthday offerings, and, yet more, 
Enrich the minion from their scanty store I 

Who fears the crash of houses, in retreat, 
At simple Gabii, bleak Praeneste's seat, 

Ver. 259. Jniai will you give for Cossus* nbdf S^c] 1 kiiow 
nothing of Cossus. Veicnto is mentioned in the fourth ^atire» 
and again in the sixth. He had been a great favourite with Nero; 
ivhich probably recommended him to Domjtian, in whose reiga 
this Satire appears to have been written. After the death of hi» 
execrable master, he fell into disesteem, and lived, 1 believe, t& 
see the day when neither his silence nor his sp^ch was worth the 

Ver. 261. Here clients shave f 4^.] It was the custom of the 
wealthier Romans to dedicate the first shavings of their beard, 
and pollings of their hair, after they arrived at a state of manhood, 
to some deity. Thus Suetonius and Dio tell us, among a variety 
of other instances, that Nero enclosed his in a golden pix adorned 
with pearls, and offered it with great state to the Capitoline Jove, 
mtBuKt ru Au ru KamiruXit^, The day this was done by the rich, 
was kept as a festival, and complimentary presents were expected 
from relations, friends, and clients, as on their birthdays, &c« 
This, however, is not what provoked the spleen of UiAbritius : he 
complains, and justly too, that these presents should be exacted 
from the poor client, not only when his patron, but when his pa- 
tron's minions, first polled and shaved ! He is indignant, that it 
should hv; necessary to pay them tribute, as he calls it ; since» 
possesang the ear of their lord, no means of access were left, but 
through the good pleasure of these proid^slaveai Whieh COUM 
«nly. be purchased by presents. 

SATIRE III.' JUVENAL. V. a67<— 294. 91 

Volsinium's craggy heights, ehfibowerM m urood, 
Or Tibur, beetling o'er prone Anio's flood ? 
While half the city here by shdre^ is staid, 
And feeble cramps, that lend their treacherous aid. 
For thus the stewards patch the rivenwall, 
Thus prop the mansion, tottering to its fall ; 
Then bid the tenant sleep secure from dread, 
While the loose pile hangs trembling o*er his head! 

O I may I lire where no such fears molest, 
No midnight conflagrations break my rest! 
]For here 'tis tumult all : this neighbour cries 
For water ! that, in wild confusion, flies 
With all at hand : — meantime the flames aspire, 
And the third floor is wrapt in smoke and fire, 
Ere thou art well aware : Wake, ho ! and know. 
The impetuous blaze, that spreads dismay.below, 
The loft, which tiles alone defend from rain, 
(Haunts of thy pairing doves,) will quickly gain! 

Godrus had but one bed, and that too short 
For Procula ; his goods of every sort 
Were elje but few : — six little pitchers graced 
His cupboard head, a little can was placed 
On a snug shelf beneath, and by it lay 
A Chiron, foim'd of the same marble, — clay, 
With an old chest, that, from the barbarous rage 
Of mice, ill kept the Grecian^s sacred page — 
•' Godrus, in short, had nothing.*' You say true ; 
And yet poor Godrus lost that nothing too : 

Ver. 293. " Codnuy in shorty had nothing:'^ Thwis said by his 
friend » who way be supposed to interrupt hira in bis impatience 
at hearing such an elaborate catalogue of nothing. With respect 

9^ 8ATISB III. JUVENAL. V. 295—300. 

One curse alone was wanting to complete 
The measure of his woes ; that, through the street) 
He begg'd relief, and, in the hour of need, 
Found none to lodge, to clothe him, or to feed. 

But should the raging flames on grandeur prey^ 
And low in dust Asturius' palace lay, 

to Codrns, the commentatorf wilt Iiave him to be the person meiH 
tioned in the first Satire : but to me it seems doubtful. Be he 
ivho he will, however, his poverty was so notorious, that it grew 
into a proverb. Codrus might have famished our author with a 
striking illustration of a remark in this very Satire*— Quu/, quod 
materiam prasbet causasquejoafrunif SfC,; for jests and witticisms 
were poured upon him from all quarters* Here is one, which is 
neither the best, nor the worst of the set. I hope it had more 
ill-nature than truth in it: 

'' Plus credit nemo tota quam Codrus in urbe : 
'< Cum sit tam pauper, quomodo ? cfficus anmt/ 

It is a play on words which cannot be easily conveyed to the 
English reader: this is not much unlike i^— I mean in seo^, not 
in poetry : 

Riddle me this : Codrus trusts more 

Than any man in Rome : Bat how ? 
How may this be, when he's so poor f — 

He's blind, yet loves : You have it now. 

The inventory of this unfortunate man is drawn \ip with hur 
mour, aiMl, perhaps, with accuracy ; the trifles he possesses are 
all described by diminutives ; they are, besides, so few in numbcTr 
that they can scarcely be said, like the weeds of Otway*s old 
woman, to speak ^' variety of wretchedness.'' 

I never read this passage without feeling for Codrus. His little- 
collection of curiosities (for such I am persuaded they were) 
totally destroyed, and himself turned out to starve in the streets! 
I hope it is not cruel; but 1 have U'en frequently tempted t» 
exclaim with Martial on another occas^ion — 


*^ O scelus, O magnum facihus, crimenque dcorum^ 
** Non arsit pariter quod domus, ct dominus V 

O crime! O (3ods, unrighteous in your doom! 
That with the house^ did not the host consume ! 

8ATf St HI. JUVENAL. V. 301—314. 93 

The squalid matron sighs, the senate mourns, 
The pleaders cease, the judge the court adjourns ; 
All join to wail the city's hapless fate, 
And rail at fire with more than common hate. 
Lo ! while it burns, obsequious courtiers haste, 
With rich materials, to repair the waste : 
This, brings him marble, that, a finished piece, 
The far-famed boast of Polyclete and Greece ; 
This, ornaments, which graced of old the fane 
Of Asians gods ; that, figured plate and plain; 
This, cases, books, and busts r^— -though rich before, 
Childless Asturius doubles thus his store ; 
And seems to* have set his old abode on fire. 
To raise a new, more sumptuous, from the pyre ! 

Vsa. 301. The squalid matron eighif the ^tnate mournSf ^c] 
'We have here a very accurate description of a publick mourning 
for any signal calamity. The women laid aside their ornamentSy 
the senate put on black, the courts of justice deferred all business, 
^c. That all this would be done on such an occasion as the 
present^ may be reasonably doubted ; — and yet if we duty attend 
io the slate of Rome in our author's time, we shall not be inclined 
Co suspect him of much exaggeration ; for to be rich and childlesf 
gaye the person so circumstanced the utmost consequence. As- 
turius was the richest of those, arborum iautmumtSf and therefore 
«B object of no common consideration. 

The state of manners must have been lo^g declining at Rome ; 
for Augustus had found it necessary, even in his time, to intro- 
duce a law (let Papia PoppttaJ which conferred many privileges 
on matrimony, and subjected a single life to a variety of vexations, 
penalties, and inconveniences: notwithstanding which, celibacy 
still prevailed ; and with the rapid degeneracy of manners under 
the succeeding emperoursy became daily more common, and more 
reputable: insomuch, that ihete are instances of people of both 
sexes proving too powerful for the lawS| because they were, like 
Asturius, rich, old, and childless 1 

Ver. 313. And items to hftoe set his old abode on Jlre, ^c] 
Martial has the same thought on a similar event, expr»sed with 
no less elegance than brevity : 

9f sATtRB in. JUVENAL, v. jif-^j^a. 

Could you the pleasur^^ of the Cirque fof egOf 
At Fabrateria, or at Fru$ino» 
Some villa might be bought, ibr whs^t will here 
Scarce hire a gloomy dungeoq by the year ! 
There wells, by nature form'd, that need no rope^ 
No labouring arm, to crane their waters up, 
Around your lawn their facile streams shall shower, 
And cheer the springing plant, aod opening flower. 

** Empta domns fupjut tihi, ToDgiHancy docexitis : 
** Abstulit banc nimiiim cai)us in urjie frequens. 

^ Collatum est dccies. Rogo, non poles ipse videri 
** Incendisse tuam, Tongilianey dumma ?" 

The singular art with whidi the poet contrast^ the different Cute 
of Codrus and Asturius,' has not, I trust, escaped the notice of tb^ 
reader ; any more than the dexterity with which it is made coa^ 
ducive to the great, indeed the sole, object of the Satire. 

Veu. 315. Could you the pleasures of the Cirque forego^ 4^.J 
Si potes avelli ; which implies something of force; and, indeed, 
the fondness of the Romans for the sports of the Circus, well war- 
rants the expression. Juvenal h^ many allusions to this extra- 
vagant attachment. In his sixth Satire, after observing that 
Hippia had abandoned her husband, her children, and her coun- 
try, to follow a blear-eyed gladiator, he adds, with a dignity of 
$arcasm peculiar to himself, 

*^ Utque magis stupeas, lado9» Paridfimque reliquit l"* 

He is not less severe on the whole Roman people in the teoth 
Satire, where he represents them as careless of the loss of their 
political importance, and only solicitous for two things, of which 
the Circus is one. It is npedless to multiply instances ; they- will 
occur in the course of the translation. One, however, may now 
be given from Quintilian. Augustus (for even in his days the 
frenzy had begun to manifest itself) said with some spleen to a 
Roman knight, who was taking his meal on the benches, ** If I 
wanted to dine, I would go home." And so tou might, replied 
the man, for you would not be afraid of losing your place ! 

Succeeding em perours were more indulgent: under some of 
Ibem regular distributioos of bQea4 and wine were made to the 
•blferent onler^t who rcmaiued from i^orn to night immoveably 
;fixed to their seats. 

sHriRBiit. JUVENAL. ▼.3^13—334. 91 

There live, delighted with the rqsticl*s Ipt, 
And till, with your own haods, the lUtie ^pot ; 
The little spot shall yield, you large ana§i^s» 
And feast, with unfaought (are, your Samiau 

friends : — 
And sure, — in any corner we can get, 
To call one lizard ours, is something yet ! 

Sick with ihe fumes of undigested foodp 
That clogs the stomach, and inflames tliie UloGd, 
The feverish poor, by ev^ry sound distrest, 
Curse the slow hours* and die for want of rest : 
Sleep visits not their couch, it costs top dear; 
And hence disease mak^sisuch wild havock here. 

Ver* 327. And fvrfy— III any comer toe can get, 

To call one lizar4 ourSf is something yd /] *' ^Ve 
ask«d Doctor Johnson,'^ says Boswell, " the meaning of that cx- 
pTessioDJn Juvenal,, ]/j}iti« dominum lacertce, Johnson,-— I tliink it 
clear enough ; it mcaps as miich groynd as one may have a chance 
of finding a' lizard upon/'. And so it does( and this, the Doctor 
might have added* is very little in Italy, Poor IJoswell was a 
man of infinite curiosity : it is a pity that he never heard of the 
ingenious conjecture of a Dutch critick, who would exchange 
iacerta for lactrti, which he accurately translates een hand vol 
/ajii/^y and still more accurately interprets, •' a piece of ground 
equal in extent to the space between Ae shoulder and the elbow/' 
—of a middle sized man, I presume ; though the critick has unac- 
countably forgotten to mention it* 

But see the fziHscj of ciiticism! This lacerttu^ which was pro- 
nounced to mean een hand tol lends, by one commeotator, is 
proved by another, (a countryman of the former,) to mean a salt 
fish ! Similes delicice in salsammtis hcerti SfC. pari modo ** lacerti 
dominvm*' dixit Juv. sic enim mala quam laceNa : lacertct perperam 
nunc circtfuff/er^iir, (could Burman possibly be ignorant ihfitUcertu$ 

• Sir Edward Coke puts this rather more simply : " And 
%vhero/' says this learued annotator on Juvenal, " you shall read 
in Records, de lacerta in prufmditatt aqua salscc, thjeiie lacerta 
ftigoiiiclh a fathom/' 

$6 SATIRE ttu JUVENAL. ▼' 335— 338- 

The carts loud rumbling through the narrow way^ 
The drivers* clamours at each casual stay, 
From drowsy Drusus would his slumber take, 
And keep the calves of Proteus broad awake ! 

and lacertay were both used for a lizard ?) quod ipse damnat 
Sat. XIV. '* cum parte lacerti;'^ neque enim lacertaf inter eduUa 
habitat ! Bur. Ovid. Tom. iii^ p. 126. 

A staunch critick, we know, never looks an inch on this side, or 
on thaty of the object before him ; Burman may therefore be ex- 
cused for giving the poet a salt fish to season his repast, notwith- 
standing he had just said that it was the produce of his own gar- 
den , where such delicacies never grow ; and was to be served up 
to his Samian friends, who lived on vegetables ! 

But Burman silences his adversaries by observing, that Uzard» 
are not eaten : this, whether true or not, may safely be granted 
here. Assuredly there was no necessity for retiring to a secluded 
comer of Italy to eat lizards, since every wall in Home is known 
to pasture abundance of such cattle ; but neither, as they might 
have retorted, was there, to eat salt fish ; which could undoubtedly 
be procured with more ease in the Suburra, than at Fabrateria 
or Frusino. 

Ruperti likes none of these interpretations. Nihil horum^ he 
says, mihi satisfacit^ et crediderim patiiis Juvenakm scripsisse 
•• tahernas^* h, e. casct^ quo sensu " tabemas pauperum" dixit Mora- 
tius. bone! — there is as little taste in the conjecture, as pro- 
bability in the emendation. Briefly, nothing but a rage for illus- 
trating themselves, and obscuring their author, (a very prevalent 
disease,) could have led the criticks to waste a word u[>on an ex- 
pression sufficiently simple in itself, and to be found, with a tri- 
lling variation of terms^ iiTthe proverbial list of every country. 

Ver. 337* From droicsy Drusw 4*c.] Some will have this to 
be the Emperour Claudius, who, to say the truth, if he bad not^ 
long ere this was written, fallen into the noprrov vvvof^ would not 
be much injured by the supposition. It was more probably some 
well known character alive at the time. There is a good deal of 
humour in those unexpected, and gratuitous strokes of satire, 
10 frequent in our author ; and one can hardly help wondering at 
the want of taste in the commentators, who seldom appear to com- 
prehend, and seldomer still to feel them. Thus Britannicus, rir 
gregii ipse caper^ would alter Druso to UrsOf because bears, a» 
Fliny somewhere says, arc " very good sleepers ;" and it seems 
most natural to proceed from one drowsy animal to another 1 

SealS| or sea-calves^ mentioned in the next line, are prmer- 

SATIRE iti. JUVENAL. V. 339—350. $7 

If business call, ofbsequious ctOT^ds divide, 
While o'er their tieads the rich securely ride, 
And read, or write, or sleep within, — for close 
The litter, and the gloom invito repose. 
Yet reach they first the goal ; while, by the throng 
Elbow'd and jostlecf, scarce we creep along ; [feel ; 
Sharp strokes from poles, tubs, rafters, doom'd tQ 
Bespattered o^er with mud, from head to heel, 
While the rude soldier gores us as he goes, 
And marks, in blood, his progress on our toes ! 

See from th^ Dole at vast tumultuous throng, 
Each foUow'd by his kitchen, pours along ! 

Vially le&aigick and sluggish. Tbis^ it must be confessed, is no 
▼ery recondite observation ; and, indeed, I only make it for the 
sake of introducing the following remarks on the passage, by the 
learned Graevius : ** How sea-calves, vitulis marmsy could be 
waked at Rome, let those tell who have seen them there, or else- 
where : every one must see that the place is corrupt. It should 
be vctnlit maritis; old men befng naturally drowsy; besides, 
there is another reason why old bridegrooms, married to young 
brides^ should sleep sound." And yet there are criticks sceptical 
enough, forsooth, to doubt the authenticity of the far-famed «* res* 
toralJons" of Martinus Scriblenis 4 

Ver. 339. If business calt^ obsequious crowds divide^ SfC."] We 
have here another lively picture of the misery attending the great 
inequality of fortunes in a stale so Constituted as that of Rome, 
The rich rapidly, and almost without consciousness of impedi- 
ment, moving to the levees of the old and childless ; while th^ 
poor, whose sole support probably depended upon their early 
appearance there, are hopelessly struggling with dangers and dif- 
ficulties that spring up at every step, to retard them ! 

Ver. 349. Sec from the DoU^ ^c.} Umbritius shifu the scene. 
The difficulties of the morning are overpast, and the streets freed 
from the crowds of levee-huuters, &c. New perils now arise, 
and the poor are obstructed in the prosecution of their evening 
business, by the prodigious numbers of clients returning from the 
houses of their patrons with the sportula, or supper. 

As he observes, that each was followed by his kitchen, (sequitur 
sfia quemque culina,J and, as it further appears, presented sonf 


$8 SATIRE III. JUVENAL. V. 351— 3sS» 

Huge pans, which Gorbulo c6uld scarce uprear, 
With steady neck a wretched slave must heart 
And, lest amid the way the iames expire, 
Glide nimbly on, and gliding, fan the fire ; 
Through the close press with sinuous efforts wind, 
And, piece by piece, leave his botch*d rags behind. 
Hark! groaning on, the unwieldy waggon spreads 
Its cumbrous load, tremendous I o*er our heads, 

state at home ; it is probable that the view here, as well as in th« 
Urst Satire, was to expose the meanness and avarice of the rich* 
who were content to swell the train of the vain or ambitious, and 
to exact the dole in consequence of it, to the manifest injury of 
the poorer claimants, in whose favour the distribution was first 

The '^ kitchen" was a larger kind of chafingdish, divided into 
two cells, in the uppermost of which, they put the meat, and in 
the lower, fire to keep it warm. It was to cherish this, that the 
slaves made such haste ; — ^to bustle through the smoke and heat 
0!" such au eager throng, must have been no less difficult than 
cTisagreeable. How often have I been reminded of the sportuia, 
by the firepans, and suppers of the Neapolitans ! As soon as it 
grows dark, the streets are filled with twinkling fires, glancii^ 
about, in every direction, on the heads of those modern ** Cor- 
bulos ;" and suddenly disappearing as they enter their houses with 
their frugal meal. 

Ver. 351. HugepaWf which Corbulo ^-c] Corbula, says the 
old Scholiast, was a famous wrestler ;'— -but he was something 
better : he was a great and successful commander under Nero, 
by whom, when his services grew too great for reward, he was 
basely decoyed to Ceuchreae, (a small town near Corinth,) and 
condemned unheard. 

He is called a faithful and wary chief, by Amm. Marcellinus, 
210 ill judge of military merit : and Tacitus, who reUteh his ac- 
tions, speaks of him with great respect. He terms him one of the 
most illitftrious men of that age, not deficient surely in such cha- 
racters ; and describes him of a gigantick stature, and of ioooa- 
ceivable strength. He fell on hi^ sword, like a Roman. 

Ver. 357. Hark ! groaning a«, the unwieldy waggon spreaisSfC.I 
This seems to be an oblique attack on the frenzy of the empe* 
TOurs fur building; as it was chiefly for their use, that these im- 
roen^ beams, masses of stone, &c. were brought to Rome. 

f ATiRE III. JUVENAL. V. 35Q — 372. 99 

Projecting elm or plne^ that nods on high, 
And threatens death to every passer by, [weight 
Heavens ! should the axle crack which bears a 
Of huge Ligurian stone, and pour the freight 
On the pale crowd beneath, what would remain. 
What joint, what bone, what atom of the slain ? 
The body, with the soul, would vanish quite, 
Invisible as air, to mortal sight ! 
Meanwhile, unconscious of their fellow's fate, 
At home they heat the water, scour the plate, 
Arrange the strigiis, fill the cruise with oil, 
And ply their several tasks with fruitless toil : 
For lie who bore the dole, poor mangled ghost, 
Sits pale and trembling on the Stygian coast, 

Juvenal, however, lived to see the evil, in some degree, lessened, 
at least, if \vc may credit Pliny, wiio celebrates Trajan (Paneg. 
c. )i.) for his moderation in this respect. Here is the passage, 
and it is a very pertinent one. lie tirst commends him for being 
iam parous in ledificando, (fuam diligeits in tuendo ; and he imme- 
diately adds, Itaque noii, ut ante, iminanlum tranyccctione saxorum 
urbh tccta quatiunfur : si ant secunc domus, nee Jam templa nu^ 
tantia* Lipsius says, the allusion here is to Domitian. Of this 
there can be no doubt ; and this, if there were no other circiim- 
stance, would serve to determine under whose reign this Satirs 
was written. 

Vi^R.Sfip, Arrange the strigiis^ t^cj The stiigil was an instru- 
ment with which the Romans scraped the sweat from their bodies 
after bathing. Britannicus says, it was made of iron ; this, I sup- 
pose, was usually the case, but wc read of brass, silver, and even 
of gold strigiis. Holyday has given a print of one ; it appears ta 
be an orbicolar rim of metal, fixed to a long tapering handle. 

There are some who will have the strigil to be a coarse shaggy 
napkin ; and others again, an artificial sponge : probably the rich 
had them of ail these difiWcnt kinds. Whatever it might be, the 
application of it was peculiarly grateful to the Romans, since we 
find that several of them, and Au<;uslus among the rest, injured 
their skin by too constant an application of it. 



Scared at the horrours of the novel scene. 
At Charon* s threatening voice, and scowling mien ; 
Nor hopes a passage, thus abruptly hurPd, 
Without his farthing, to the nether world* 

Pass we these fearful dangers, and surtey 
What other evils threat our nightly way. 
And first, behold the mansion's towering size, 
Where floors on floors to the tenth story rise; 
Whence heedless garretteers their potsherds throw, 
And crush the unwary wretch that walks below : 
Clattering the storm descends from heights un« 

• known, 
Ploughs up the street, and wounds the flinty stone ! 
*Tis madness, dire improvidence of ill, 
To sup from home before you make your Will; 

VEft. 376. Without his farthings 4^.] The ancients believed, 
that the souls of the deceased could not cross the Styx without 
paying a trifling fare to Charon for their passage ; this they wer» 
careful to put into the mouths of the dead, previously to their 
being carried out for interment. This idle notion^ the RomaoB 
borrowed, together with other fooleries, from the Greeks : it does 
not, indeed, appear to have been general ; but the*vulgar, who 
every where adopted it, adhered to the custom with scrupulous 
pertinacity, and feared nothing so much, as being consigned to the 
grave without their farthing. 

Lucian frequently sneers at this : and Juvenal, who, amidst his 
belief of a future state,' had sense enough to mark the folly of the 
prevailing system, evidently points his ridicule at the monstrous 
absurdity of the practice. 

Ver. 377. P(us we these fearful dangerSf S^cJ] Having gone 
through the difficulties and dangers which attended the poor in 
their morning and evening walks through the city, Umbritius com- 
pletes his design by a description of the further evils which 
awaited them at night. There is every reason, from the testimony 
of contemporary writers, to believe that the picture is as faithful 
as it is animated; it is nearly that, in short, of every overgrown 
and vicious capital; which is not protected by a nigbtwatch^ or a 
.vigilant police. 

sATiitB iif. JUVENAL. V. 387—400. jox 

For know, as many deaths your steps belay, 
As there are wakeful windows in the way : 
Pray then, (so may your wretched prayer be sped !) 
That pots be— only emptied on your head. 
The drunken bully, ere his man be slain, 
Frets through the night, and courts repose in vain ; 
And while the thirst of blood his bosom burns, 
From side to side, in restless anguish, turns. 
Like Peleus* son, when, quell'd by Hector's hand. 
His loved Patroclus prest the Phrygian strand. 
There are, who murder as an opiate take. 
And only when nfo brawls await them, wake : 
Yet even these heroes, flush'd with youth and wine. 
All contest with the purple robe decline ; ^^ 

Ver. 394. Trom side to side^ in restkst anguish^ turns^'] This 
is Lterally from Homer : 

a passage, by the way, for which he 13 censured by Plato, who 
thinks the son of a goddess should have been made to bear his 
affliction with more dignity. From the terms of the coroparison. 
It would seem that Juvenal thought the same. I believe the old 
bard knew more of these matters than either of them. 

Ver. 397- There arcy who murder as an opiate take, SfcJ] There 
is a surprising similarity between this passage, and one in the Pro- 
Verbs of Solomon: " Enter not into the path of the wicked, and 
go not in the way of evil men : for they sleep not except they 
have done mischief, and their rest is taken away unless they cause 
some to fall." Chap. iv. 14. 

The description which follows ; the humorous, but strong and 
indignant picture of the miseries to which the poor were exposed 
by the brutal insolence of midnight debauchees^ roaming in quest 
of objects on whom to exercise their cruelty^ is no exaggepition 
of our author: grave historians have delivered the same accounts. 
Thus Tacitus, in the life of Nero, who appears to have been one 
of the first disturbers of the publick peace : '^ In the garb of a 

ip2 SATIRE III. JUVENAL, V. 401— 414. 

Securely give the lengthened train to pass, 
The sun bright flambeaux, and the Limps oJFbrass.— 
Me, whom the moon, or candle's paler gleara^ 
Whose wick 1 husband to the last extreme, 
Guides through the j^loom, he braves, devoid of 
The prelude to our doughty quarrel hear, [fear: 
q^j-; If thai be deemed a quarrel, where, heavfen knows, 
He only gives, and L receive, the blows ! 
Across niv path he strides, and bid^ me Stand I 
I !>ow, obsequious to the dread conunand ; 
What else reniains, where madness, rage, combine 
Wnh youth, and strength superiour far to mine? 
'* Whose lets/' he cries, '•whose beans, have 
pu.T'd you up? 
" Say, with what cobbler have you clubb'd, to sup 

slave, he roved through the streets, attended by a band of riotcrj?, 
who otfered violence to all that fell hi their way. In these mad 
fiohcks he was someiiine.N wonnued ;" not wiih impnnity, howe\er, 
for it appears that Jnhus Moji.anub wus put ro death for r^prlling 
his insults. Tacitus docs not tell us to whom they were utfored, 
hut Dio, who has the same story, sa)S it was to his wife, aywax- 
tviffati iwf^ 7r,^ yi>9»nL^ wfoctmtffi n avru,^ Jt. t. «• " but from the 
moment it was known that the Empcroor was become a night- 
brawler, the grew truly alarming. iSIen of rank xvere 
insulted, and women oi coiuiiiion buffered grovs indignities : private 
perso.iS i^ok the cpportunitv lo annoy the publick ; every quarter 
was filled with tumult and disorder, and Rome at night resembled 
a city taken by storm !" 

It seems from Suetonius, th.-.t the evil coTUinued to increase. 
Otho and others, he tells us, constantly sallied forth at night for 
the purpose of beating such as they met, and tossing them in tho 
sagum, a coaise garnicnt worn by the soldiery ; and we leara 
from tl.e Augustan history, that the joke was repealed with im- 
provements, by those outcasts of human nature, Comraodus, 
Irleliogabalus, Verus, &c. It was little disCf)uraged, probably, by 
any of the succeeding emperours, until the introduction ot Chris- 
ti.n ty inspired huiiianer seiiliimnts, and showed the necessity' u£ 
Wablishing something like a re^^ular system of protection. 

sATiRi III. JUVENAL. V. 415— 434. 103 

"On leeks and sheep* s-head porridge? Dumb! 
quiie dumb ! [home ?** 

" Speak, or be kicked: — Your station, rogue? your 
W hether I strive to sooth him, or retire, 
I*m beaten, ju|t the same ; then, full of ire, 
He dtdgs me to the praetor, binds me o'er: — 
Such law, such liberty, enjoy the poor ! 
Bruised, maim*d, to crave (of all redress bereft) 
Leave to depart, while yet a tooth is left ! 

Nor this the worst ; for when still midnight reigns, 
And bolts secure our doors, and massy chains,' 
Then thieves and murderers ply their dreadful 

trade ; 
"With stealthy steps our drowsy couch invade: — 
Roused from the treacherous calm, aghast we start, 
And the fiesh*d sword is buried in our heart ! 

Hither from begs^ from rocks, and caves pursuec^ 
(The Pontine marsh, and Gallinarian wood,} 
The dark assassins flock, as to their home, 
And fill with dire alarms the streets of Rome. 
Such countless multitudes our peace annoy, 
That bolts and shackles every forge employi 

Ver. 430. CThe Pontine marsh 4^.] The Pontine marsh was a 
noted harbour for thieves, in Campania. It is at present too pes- 
tiferoQs for this, or any other purpose. The Gallinarian wood 
]ay in the neighbourhood of Cumae, Umbritiust' purposed place of 
readencey and, like the former spot, W9& a well-known receptacle 
for footpads, robbers, &c. 

^Vhen their numbers became so great as to render travellin|^ 
altogether unsafe, it was customary to send a body of soldiers 
from the capital to scour their retreats: the inevitable conse- 

Suence of which was, that they escaped in crowds to Rome, where ' 
ley continued to exercise their old trade of plunder and blood, 
and probably carried on their depredatioA& with more secuhtj 
%nd effect than before. 

10+ SATIRE iij. JUyENAi/. V. 435"^4SO' ^ 

And cause so wide a :fvaste^ the country fear$ 
ii want of ore for mattocks, rakes and shares. 

O ! happy were our sires, estranged from crixnes t 
And happy, happy were the good old timeSi 
That saw, beneath thjeir kipgs, tlfeir tf ibupes* r^igUf 
One cell the nation*s criminals contain! 

Yet more, — but see ! the team is hastening op. 
The sun declining ; and I must be gone : 
Long since the driver murmur*d at my stay^ 
And jerk*d his whip to beckon me away. [Rome, 
Farewell, my friend ! and when, fatigued with 
You fly for spirits to your n^|,ive ]ioxn^f 
To your Aquinum ; me from Gumae tear : — 
Then will I to your gelid fields repair, 
Arm'd at all points, if you vouchsafe, towage 
Just war, with you, agains): a viciops age, 

* ^ 

Veh. 447- To your Aquinum ; S^c."]' This is the only place, in 
whicli we find any mentiop made of our authorfs .birthplace. 
Aquinum was a small town of the Volscii (Lubin says {i great 
one, but he mistakes,) On the Latin road. 

Ver.449. Arm'd at all points,] So I translate Cfl/igofw; that is, 
says Holyday, like a prepared soldier ; which is the sense given 
to it by tlie whole body gf commentators without exception : Dr, 
Ireland, however, differs from us. ** You have fallen," he says, 
** into the opinion expressed by Britannicus : Umbritius ergo ha' 
bitu vulitdri ostendit se venturum ad Juv, ut proinde mirum videri 
fUin debeat ipsis satins, si non satis idoncus auditor visus fucrit, 
guum kabitu non poetico sed militari renerit. But the extraor- 
dinary harshness of caligatus, if used here in a sense strictly mi- 
litary, makes it desirable that another meaning should be foun4 
for it. Nor is it necessary that Umbritius should be a soldier, 
notwithstanding his shoes. Dio says, that when Caligula took tlie 
•hoe from which he derived his name, he wore it to mark his 
rennnciation of his former town shoes : am tw etnnnf {vvo^fdMTvty 
And we know that, after Juvenal's time, the wearing of shoes of 
lin effeminate softnesss, and of various colours, became the object 
«f publick prehibitioo. May not Umbritius mean therefore, t]^t 

SATIRE III. JUVENAL. V, 449—450. 105 

his assumption of the Caliga was only a mark of his renunciation 
of the manners of Rome? This inference may be the same, whe- 
ther the Caliga was worn by the soldiers only, or by the peasants 
in common with them. It is the use of it beyond the walls of 
the city, or in opposition to the customs of it« to which the 
thought is principally directed. Umbritius, therefore, is made to 
persevere in his preference of the country, by telling his friend, 
that he will visit him in a dress which shall mark his determina- 
tion never to live in Rome again. In this sense, the last line of 
the Satire agrees with the general purpose of it, and keeps up the 
idea with which it began/' 

There is something exquisitely beautiful in the conclusion of 
this Satire : the little circumstances which accelerate the depar-^ 
ture of Umbritius, the tender farewell he takes of his friend, the 
compliment he introduces to his abilities, and the affectionate hint 
he throws out, that, in spite of his attachment to Cumae, he may 
command his assistance in the noble task in which he is engaged^ 
all contribute to leave a pleasing impression of melancholy on the 
mind, and interest the reader deeply in the fate of this neglected^ 
but yirtuous and amiable exile« 



In this Satire, whirh was probablj/ written under Nerva^ Juvenal 
indulges his honest spkcn against two most distinguished culprits^ 
Crispinus, already noticed in his first Satire^ and Domitian, the con- 
stant object of his scorn and abhorrence. 

Considered as a xchole, this is not a very capital performance ; 
yet no particular division of it is without merit : its principal defect 
seems to be in the sudden transition from the shocking enormities of 
Crispinus to his gluttony and extravagance. Even this, inartificial 
as it certainly is, appears in some degree necessary to the completion 
of his design — the introduction of Domitian. 

The whole of this part is excellent. The mock solemnity with 
which the anecdote of the turbot is introduced^ the procession of the 
affrighted counsellors to the palace, and the ridiculous debate which 
terminates in as ridiculous u decmon^ show a masterly hand : and 
though the mere reader may be tempted to cry out with Desdemona^ 
** O most lame add impotent conclusion T yet the critick will acquit 
the poet of any great want of judgment, since he most probably 
gives the circumstances as he found them, 

What is more peculiarly his o-xn, is the striking picture of tht 
state of the empire under the suspicious and gliuomy tyranny of 
Domitian ; whfch he boldly %4lashes out by briefly, but ingeniously, 
touching on the character and conduct of the chief court ierSf as they 
pass in review before him : — nor should we overlook the indignant and 
high-spirited apostrophe with which he concludes the Satire ; an 
apostrophe, which under sotne of the eviperours would befatalj and 
under none of them without danger. 


A c A 1 jR Crispinns comes ! and yet agam^ 
And oft, shall he be summon'd to sustain 
His dreadful part :— ^the monster of the times^ . 
Without ONE vhtue to redeem his crimen! 
Diseased, emaciate, weak in all but lust, 
And whom the widow's sweets alone disgust 

Avails it then, in what long colonnades 
He tires his mules ? through what extensive glades 

Ver. 1. Jgain Crispinus comes ! Spc^ Crtspiniis has been already 
noticed in the notes to the first Satire. All that need be added 
of him here is, that he continued in great favour during the whote 
reign of Domitian, and amassed immense riches ; which he squaa* 
dered in the gratification of the most vicious passions. 

I am by no means satisfied with the usual explanations of the 
sixth line : ** Ostendit Ulum Jucundiora tantum iectari adulteria^ 
mam qui viduas sequebantWf id lucri gratia fadebant*' 1 rather 
think the author means to insinuate that Crispinus would not in- 
dulge his lust, unless he could add to it a crime of some peculiar 
heinousness. To corrupt virgin innocence, to invade the sanctitj 
of the maniage bed, was his delight : intrigues with widows, there- 
fore, had too little turpitudQ in them to gratify his singular de^ 

no SATIRE IV. JUVENAL. V.9— 14. 

His chair is born ? what vast estates he buys, 
What splendid domes, that near the Forum rise? 
O, no : peace never blest the guilty mind, 
liCast his, who incest to adultery join'd, 
His, wha deflower'd a Vestal ; whom, dire fate, 
The long dark night, and living tomb await ! 

•Ver. 9' tchai vast estates c^c.] The situation of this pro- 
perty (** near the Forum") is not mentioned without reason. The 
Forum of Augustus, which is here meant, was the most frequented 
piirt of Rome; (Sat. L 192 ;) a vast estate therefore in the vici- 
nity, nrist have cost a prodigious sum, and its purchase is welL 
calculated to show the overgrown wealth of this odious upstart. 

Indeed, it is not improbable (for Juvenal's satire frequently 
extends beyond the apparent point) that we have here a- covert 
allusion to the presumption of Crispiuus, in following the example 
of the Caesars, whose palace and gardens, which also consisted of 
many acres, (toijitgera,) were in the neighbourhood of the Forum. 

Ver. 13. Hisy xihodefiotoerd a Vestal; ^cJ] If a Vestal violated 
her vow of chastity, she was interred alive. The solemnity is thus 
tlcscribed by Plutarch. At the CoUinc Gate, within the city, in 
a subterraneous cavern, there were first placed a bed, a lamp, a 
pitcher of water, and a loaf. The offender was then bound alive 
upon a bier, and carried through the Forum with great silence 
and horrour. When they reached the place of interment, the bier 
, was set down, and the poor wretch unbound ; a ladder was then 
brought, by which she descended into the excavation, when, upon 
u si;;nal given, the ladder was suddenly withdrawn, and the mouth 
of the opening completely filled up with stones, earth, &c. 

It is doubtful, whether the Vestal debauched by Crispinus 
reall}' underwent this punishment. Juvenal's words do not neces- 
sarily imply so much ; the participle involving the moral fitness* 
of the future event, and not exclusively the certainty of its ac- 
complishment: tcrram subititra^ i. c. who oujiht to be buried alive. 
For the rest, the severity exercised by Domitian against the 
Vestals was so dreadful, (whether their guilt was proved or not,) 
that one of the Pontifices, Elvins Agiippa, is related to have ex- 
pired tlirou^rh the tcrrour of it. 

The word incest used by Juvenal, is applied to the same act by 
Siicmnius" and Pliny; and is, say the criticks, the appropriate" 
term for cohabitation with a Vestal. This, however, is a misitake, 

SATIRE IV. JUVENAL. V. is-*24« iii 

Turn we to slighter vices ;— yet had these, 
In others, Seius, Titius, whom you please, 
The Censor roused ; for what the good would shame, 
Becomes Crispinus, and is honest fame. 
But, when the actor's person far exceeds, 
In native loathsomeness, his foulest deeds, 
Say, what can satire ? For a fish that weigh'd 
Six pounds, six thousand sesterces he paid ! 
For' a sur-mullet! as they telJ, whose ear 
Still magnifies the mighty things they hear. 

it IS an improper term : but such was the respect for religion, that 
they transferred to it a word which was only appropriate in other 
acceptations ; and the violator of a ¥e<stal virgin was placed upoa 
a par> in criminality, with the violator of all natural ilecoruir. 

Ver. i6. SefuSy Titius,"] " It does not appear," says Madan, 
•* who these were; but probably they were some valuable men 
who had been persecuted by the Emperour for a supposed crime." 
These '* valuable men'' had, indeed, been persecuted for many a 
supposed crime ; but, to give every one is due, not by the Em- 
perour. - It is surprising the translator should not know that they 
were men of straw, fictitious personages, like our John Doe and 
Richard Roe, and, like them, inserted into all law>processes« 
Thus Plutarch, to quote no other, to^ ^r ofofMwt tvtok «A>«rc ki- 
Xfyit^tu xoirot^ tf^»#, itairtf oi io/Aixo» Veu^v^ Znior, lusi T»Tior. Quitst, 
Mom. 30. 

Veb. 23. For a sur^mullet ! eu they tell, SfcJ] There is soma 
awkwardness here, it is of importance to the subject, that the 
extravagance ot Crispinus should be as strongly marked as pos-' 
sible : all doubts, therefore, respecting the authenticity of the fact, 
are equally impertinent and injudicious. Facit indignntio versus 
should have been the motto of this satire : iov this pasbion, while 
it invigorates the fancy, corrupts the judgment, o?\d there are 
more instances of delective tuslc to be found in it, than in many 
of the longer pieces. 

MuUus is rendered sur-mullet, and I believe properly. Barbel, 
the common translation, is a coarse fish, and could never be 
worth any thing. Mullet is still more incorrect : the proper word 
for that, being mu^ilis. There is something extremely whimsical 
in the conduct of the Romans respecting their tables ; »ur-mullets^ 

tn «iTiiE iv. JUVENAL, r. 25—48. 

Had this expense been meant, with well-timed 
To gull some childless dotard of a Will ; [skiU, 
Or, better yet, to bribe some favourite fair, 
Who flaunts it in a close and well*glass*d chair ; 

as it appears from the elder Plioy« were exceedingly plentifuly and 
consequently cheap ; but then, they seldom weighed above two 
pounds. In proportion as they exceeded this, they grew valuable, 
till at last they reached the sum mentioned in the text, (abouft 
£50,) and even went beyond it. 

One would think that nature had fallen in with the caprice of 
the Romans, for the fish seems to have grown larger in the decline 
of the empire, as if to humour the extravagance of this degenerate 
people. Horace thought he had pretty well stigmatized the fran- 
tick folly of his glutton, by a mullus of three pounds weight, 
(Lib, ii. Sat. 2.) the next reign furnished one of four and a half;* 
here we have one of six pounds, and we read elsewhere of others 
larger still \ How long the passion for these enormous fish conti- 
nued^ I do not know ; but Macrobius, speaking with indignation 
of one that was purchased under Claudius, by Asinius Celer, for a 
greater sum than any we have mentioned, (£56, 105.) adds, thai 
in his time such mad prices were happily unknown : preiia hc» 
insana nescimus, 

Ver. 28. ' ■■ s close and weU-glas/d chair;} — clauso latu 

ipecuktribits antro: A close chair with wide windows is a singular 
expression ; it is one of those, however, in which Juvenal delights. 
His meaning is not very obvious : perhaps, (for I can think of 
nothing better,) he might intend to satirize the afiected modesty 

* The story is in Seneca ; it is curious, and as it seems to illu9» 
trate a passage in our author, I think it worth subjoining. Some 
one had presented Tiberius with a mulkis (why should I not men- 
tion its weight, to make our gluttons' mouths water?) of four 
pounds and a half ! The Emperour ordered it to be carried to mar- 
ket, observing, at the same time, to his friends, that he should 
not be much surprised if it were bought either by P. Octavius or 
Apicius. His expectations were more than fulfilled, for these two 
gluttons bade one upon another for it. The victory fell at length 
to Octavius, who acquired a prodigious reputation among his 
Acquaintance, for giving ^40. for a fish which the Emperour sold, 
and which Apicius could not afford to buy ! To this last cir£jKS^ 
iiaiicfi Juvenal probably alludes, 4a ¥..33. 

SATWi iv^ JSJAMSfNty v\i 29^49^' 1x3 

'TWtoe wotib onr' pTaisd*:^-»biit xk>< ftireh plan^ Mtt 

'Twas for himself he bought a treat sd dear t 
ThiraJI past glutton^ fronn sfaakne i^dbemSi 
And even* Apiohis pooi< zaA frugal seetds^ 
What, yoQ, Grisfimus^ you, so lute x silkvte,^ 
Wrapt in die flag9 your couiatp/s marshes gkyOi 
You ]lurchase fi^h so dear ! you ikiight, I gmeSsf, 
Have bought the fishe^lniaii hiolself for lena ; 
Bought, in some oountries, manorjB> ac tbis< patey 
And in ApuH»y an immense estate ! 

How gorged the Emperour, when so dear a fish, 
Vet^ of his cbeapefttt mealSj the che^elst dish, 
Was guttled down by tliis impurpled lordy 
Cliief knight, chief parasite at €a6isar*s board, 

of the lady, who pretended to conceal hefself, in a vehicle whichf 
(rom its splendour, must have attracted universal notice. 

Vtit, ii. Wrapt in the flags ^tr.] The translators have clothed 
CrisptMts in pttper : he was not, I bdtete, quite so delicately drest. 
Pliny th« EMeir says that the Egyptians manufatctured the stalks 
of the papyruSy ifot only into mats and sails, hot into garments, 
Tda t^fesqUef nee nan ei vestem. I once thought Crispinus might 
have obtained one of these, but I am now persuaded that he was 
not so fortunate. He was girt, in short, round the middle with 
the papyrus coarsely strung, or plaited together, as the savages of 
the new-discovered islands are said to be, and as his countrymen 
ate at thii d<ry. Rear Admiral Perree, who certainty had no in* 
tentiotx of illustrating Juvenal, mentions this circumstance, whichf 
to my mind, does it very happily : Lajfrociti dcs iabitans est fire 
fue ki Sttuvagtf ; majditt partie habillis en paUle. The ferocity 
of the natives exceeds that of savages; most of them appear to be 
cldtKed in reeds or raphes. Interctpi. Lett. 

, Tht cohtrast between Crispmus tHittched with rushes, anil 
Cri^mia clothed in Tynan purple, is not overlooked by our 

114 aATiEiiv. JUVENAL, v. 43— 5^* 

Whom Egypt heard so late, with ceaseless yell, 
Glamouring through all her towns — *' Ho ! sprats 

to sell !" 

Pierian Maids, begin; — ^but quit your lyres. 
The fact J bring, no sounding chord requires i 
Relate it, then, and in the simplest strain, 
Nor let your poet style you Maids in vain. 

When the last Flavins, drunk with fury, tore 
The prostrate world, that bled at every pore, ' 
And Rome beheld, in body as in mind, 
A bald-pate Nero rise, to curse mankind ; 

Vee. 5«. A bald-pate Nero rise^ Spc.] This Nero, as, witfi 
some injury to his worthy prototype, Juvenal calls Domitian, is 
said by Suetonius to have been so sore on the subject of his bald* 
ness, that it was not safe to mention a want of hair in his hearing. 
By a strange obliquity of reasoning, as soon as his hair was gone, 
he set about composing a treatise on the method of taking care of 
it : and it should seem from the short extract which Suetonius has 
preserved of the work, that Sir Fretful himself could not have 
b6rn his misfortunes with greater fortitude, or talked of them 
with greater sincerity :^-forti animo fero comam in adtdescentia 
senescentem, Scias nee gratius quidquam dccorcy- nee brevittSj 3^* 
Domit. 18, Be this as it may, the designation which our author 
has given of this lasl and worst of his family, is a masterly one: 
it seems to have grown into a proverb, for Ausonius thus re* 
peats it: 

** £t Titus imperii felix brevitate ; sequutus 

** Frater, quern Calvum dixit sua Roma Neronem.'* 

The old Scholiast says that these four lines provoked the Empe- 
rour to send Juvenal into banishment. This is a judicious thought, 
as they roust be allowed to be much more oifensive than the short 
reflection on Paris, (in the seventh Satire,) which is commonly 
cited as the cause of his exile. There are, however, two objec- 
tions, which have their weight with me ; first, that Domitian would 
have thrown the author of so severe a passage from the Tarpeian 
Rock, instead of sending him into Egypt ; and secondly, that he 
was dead (as the critick would have found, if he had read a ^ 
lines further) when it was written ! 

HAtitEin JUVENAL. V.53— 68* iig 

It chanced, that ^here the fane of Venus stands, 
Rear*d on Ancona's coast by Grecian hands^ 
A turbot, wandering from the Iliyrian main, 
Fiird the wide bosom of the bursting seine* 
Monsters so bulky, from its frozen stream, 
Maeolis renders to the solar beam, 
And pours theai, fat with a whole winter's ease^ 
Through the dull Euxine, into warmer seas. 

The mighty draught the astonish 'd boatman eyes, 
And to the Pontiff *s table dooms his prize : 
For who would dare to sell it, who to buy. 
When the coast swarm*d with many a practised spy, 
Mud-rakers, prompt to swear the fish had fled 
From Caesar's ponds, ingrate ! where long it fed, 
And thus recaptured, claim'd to be restored 
To the dominion of its ancient lord! 

Vbk. 6^. And to ike Pontics table 4^^ Britennicus thinks 
JiiTeiial calls Domitian Pontiff, in allusion to his condemnation of 
*^^«l«i»» which \ras the peculiar province of the higb-pricst, 
vtbers again suppose that there is an allusion to the sbUish vanity 
of the Emperour, in accumulating upon hihiself every office of 
fowcr, and *veiy title of honotr. But can Britamiieus be right ? 
Surely there were vices enough belonging to Doraitian, and appro^ 
|niate to his 'chanreter. Qur author cotild hardly mean to impute 
it to him as a crime that he was Pont Max. when he assumed 
that title only in compliatrce with the custom of his predecessors. 
He mighty indeed, mean to contrast the real viciousnes* of his 
character with the outward sanctity of his office :— after aH, I 
cannot much admire Juvenal's taste in the selection of this word { 
b© should rather have fixed on seme title, by virtue of which the 
fish might be claimed. The charge, indeed, of assuming dignities 
irapropeHy, might have been justly urged against him in the case 
of the Consulate and Censorship. He was Consul for ten years 
together, and Censor for life ; and he was the first of the Romans 
tnat so usurped these honoon, w^trrac h ««* ^^t ««> Airm %m% 


fi6 sATtiB IV. JUYEKAIi^ ;f.6^H^' 

Nay, irFalphurius may our credit gam, 
Whatever rare or precious- swiin^ the main, 
Is forfeit to the crown, atid yoo may seize 
The obnoxious dainty, when and where you pkase# 
This point aHow'd, cur wary boatixiMi tchose 
To give— what cbe^ he bad not fiwU'd to lose* 
Now were the dogstai's sickly fewours bV, 
Earth, pinch*d with t!tiid, her frozen livery wore ; 
The old began their quartan fits to feari 

And mntry blasts defbrm'd the beauteous year^ 

• • • 

And kept the tmbot sweet : yet on lie' flew 
As if the sultry South corruption Wtw.^*-^' 
And now the lakt, and now the hJU be gams,' 
Where Alba, though in ruins^ stiH maintains 

Ver. 69. Kay, if9a}phunu$ ^7] Thfi b io* flMidi ^iilifcr 
what we find in Blackstone, that sturgeoa and whale were aa- 
eiently called royal 6sh with us, on account of theiv excellence^ 
and, as such, appropriated to the sotereignt ' * 

" Hath not strong reason mov'd th'6 legist's niinde^ , 
** To say, the fay rest of all nature's kinde ' 
" The prince, by his prerogative, may clayme T* 

Very good. Master Marstcm. P4pbuf ius and you '^ are botb 
Ifit stale/' 

The history of this person is curioiAs. He had been a bufiboi^ 
imd % parasite at the court of Nero; occupatipi^s. if^r which Vetf 
pama disgraci^liy turned, him out of the senate : ^hfixx he com- 
joenced Stoick in bpite, and talked (which Suetonius saye he coul4 
do very eloquently) of abstinence, and virtue; till Dam itian, wbQ- 
Wanted littlfs other .Tecoinn;iendat^)n of a Jiian, tha^.tho .having 
JM^ly incurred the contempt and anger of his fatbei:, made him 
kis own. lawyer, and gave him the nanagement of his iufonQatiou»<r 
l^ro^oriptionsj &c» ;. in whicbp^ says my author^ he bestirced hiiOr 
self to some purpose. 

Ver; 82. Where AM, 4^c.] Alba, where Dpniitian now was, 
stt>od on the declivity of a hiM, near a pretty spacious lake, fomotts^ 
in Roman story. It was built by Ascanius, a&er the death of his^ 

The Trojan fire, ihcit but for her were lost, 
And worships Vesta, though wkh less of cost. 
The wondering crowd, thsnt galher'4 to survey 
The enormous fisl^ imd choked the fisher^s way^ 
Satiate at length retires ; then wide unfekt 
The gates ; the senfitors, -shut out, behold 
The envied dainty enter r oa the nan 
To great Atrkies prqM'd, and thus began. 

** This, for a private table far too great, 
** Accept, and sumptuously your Genius treat:. 
^* Haste, Sire, to free your stomach, and devour 

A turbot, long reserved for this glad hour, 


moftHer Lariiua, (Sat. xii.) andtbs Trcjans seem totave deposite* 
there the sacred fire brought from Ilium. When the city was 
destroyed, and Rome mede the capital of the nation, a remnant 
of this fire was still left there from some superstitious motive, and 
piously prescgrved xbrough all the vicissitudes of the common- 

DeMitian* es i bftv<9 dbewlMse obiervad, vns^ttach^d to Alba. 
Here hesptuitnuch efhi» time, mA here be usually kept the 
QiitSifiualna^CMr/esitivalof MinervatwbQiAiwith matchless propriety, 
lie had chosen for his patron and protectress. Madfin, in the true 
spirit of a commentator, tells us, that the occasion of Domitian s 
being there at this time, might be the celebration of this holiday. 
This IS extfellent; the Quincjuatria began on the 19th of March, 
«nd Juvenal has just told us, that the £sh was presented at the 
dose gf autvinn ! 

Ver. 91. Thk,for a prwate fftfc^*.^ The Auconiau might 
have found a precedent for his conduct in Herodotus, who gives 
mn account of a very fine fish which was taken, and brought to 
Polycrates, the tyrant oi Samos. The presentation speedi is pre- 
served by the historian : it is very civil, as might be «Kpeoted, but 
iu Atnt Qi Ibis bflfDr* iw, H^odptii^ adds, th»t Polycrates iik- 
-vked 4be ishesman |o sup with Imvb :» trait of politeness which, 
we may be pr«tly coo&d^iit» Dwitiw did not think it i»ecesswy 
to imitate. I suppose no ooe ever ^jfUOUiA to 1^ this sifbkff^ 

ii8 SATIRE lY. JUVENAL. V. 95— .I02. 

^^ By favouring fates ;*— he mark'd the toils I set» 
<^ And rush'di a willing victim, to the net.*' 

Was flattery e'er so gross ? yet he grows vain^ 
And his crest rises at the fulsome strain* 
When to divine a mortal power we raise, 
H^ never finds hyperboles in praise. 

But when was joy unmix'd ? no pot is found 
Capacious of the turbot's ample round : 

iight seriouiily popied ; and yet there u tometluDg extremely like 
it, in a little poem written by a very grave doctor of the l6th 
^eutury : 

<< ■ , fiycidas ad sese Una reduceni , 
** Exeruit salientem udo de carcere piscem» 
'^ Quern nulli casses, quem nalla inoendia terrent 
'( Non ingrata tuas modo sint si;a viscera m^nssp !" 

But what shall we say of Claudian f 

'* Telis jacebunt sponte tuis ferae, 
** Gaudensque sacris vulneribus leo 
*^ Admittet hastmn morte superbior T 

I In Ni^L Hon. y, 15« 

Jonson too, whose learning fVequently overpowered hh judgment, 
and betrayed him into absurdities, has also taken this unnatonl 
thought, (unnatural, when seriously addressed to a man of sense,} 
and expanded it thus : 

** Fat aged carps, that run into thy net, 
*^ And pikes, now weary their owu kind to eat, ^ 
^' As loth |he secon4 draught, or cast to stay, 
^' Officiously f^t first them^ves betray." 

Forest, Lib* iv 2. 

VsR. 99. fFhen to divine ^e.} 

" O what is it proud slime will not believe 

** Of his owu worth, to he«tr it eqi(ai prais'd 

^* Thus with the gods V* Sganus. 

But Ben was not so much the imitator as the translator of the 
ancients. Ruperti has strangriy mistaken the sense of this pas<^ 
sage. The fisherman was evidently no fool ; yet he makes hini 
talk like an arrant drivelleirf 

4Arrn iv. JUVENAL* v^ 103-- no. 119 

In this distress, he calls the chiefs of state. 
At once the objects of his scorn and hate, 
In whose wan cheeks distrust and doubt appear, 
And all a tyrant's friendship brings of fear. 

Scarce was the loud Liburnian heard to say,^ 
'* He sits, the Emperour sits ; away, away !" 
Ere Pegasus, the bailiff of the town, [gown, 

(For what were Praefects more ?) raatch'd up 

Yjim. 103. In ikii iUlreu^ le cdUs the ekuf$ of state, 4-c.l 
This bringi to my recollection an anecdote of Nero, worthy, ia 
every respect, to he placed by the side of this before us. When 
the empire was now in a state of revolt against him, ( a revolt 
which was soon followed by his flight and death,) he affected to 
despte the general commotion. One day, however, he sum* 
jnoned the senate in great haste : they assembled (as Domitian's 
counseDors did) t^amnq awu^ip, expecting to hear something about 
the alarming state of publick affairs. . I'o their utter amazement, 
he meiely wanted to inform thrm of an improvement he had 
made on tlie hydraulick -oigan ! £|iv^a (for I will use, says the 
liistonca, liis very words) v*^ i v^favT^t ita$ /ui^o* xai tfAfjUXts^fow 

V<R. 109. Ere PegasuSf Src.} 

'' Pegasus attonits positus modo vilEcus urbl.'* 

** I consulted," Mr. Gibbon says, '< the first volume de 1' Aca- 
demie des Belles Lettres, for the meaning of attonitct. De Valois 
-applies it to the astonishment which prevailed at Rome on the 
revolt of L. Anionius. This b not impossible. But I am sur- 
firised he has not drawn from it the only conclusion that could 
fender it interesting. Antonius' revok happened in the year of 
Rome 840: the, tyranny of Domitian had then reached its meri- 
dian,*' (no, not quite,) .** yet tbe Romans had the baseness to 
teduxe it nine yean longer !" 

This is good ; and yet the obsenration on which it is founded, 
is not altogether correct. Foscus, who was present at this famous 
council, fell in battAe about the same time that Antonius revolted 
in Lower Germany: some other cause of the affright must, there- 
fore, be sought. It need not be long in finding ; for, besides the 
Dadansi who were now keeping Rome in a constant state of 

lAO tATlMMfY^ jyViSKAI^ .T^!IU#^IJ^ 

And rush'd t9 c^un^l : from ike iveiy cbair 
He dealt out justiqe witb no cQio»oa S9,tei 

ftlann, die Oatliy the Scambri, end odiar l)afl»KM» aationsi irtra 
on the eve of commenciiy bQ^tilities. ' • 

After all, little more, perhaps, is meant bv the expressioi) than 
that the town vas amaaed and tenMod $1 ue suddenness of the 
^ sum^oi^s. The caprices 9^ the £n^f our \yim ^^¥f^ blopdy :w 
and, indeed, Pliny mentions it, as a striking instance of the nap- 
f iaeas which the senate enjoyed undef l^jan, 4ihat wkeu thef 
met, they did it without fear of losing their heads ! 

Ver. 110. CF^tohQetDerePrftfectsfnarefJ'^ Pfaefec^wgre first 
appointed by Romulus, and his r^al successours^ ai)d after thaai 
by the Consuls ; but their authority was so jn^ch enlai]ge4 by 
Augustus, that he piay be almost considered as having instituted 
them. He is said to have done this by the ajvjce of Mseceii^ ; 
end the choice of tho$e on whom he successively conf^^rred the 
office, shows his ophiion of its import^ce. 

The Prsefect was, indeed, trusted with extraordinary poweni- 
His jurisdiction was no longer confined, as before, to the city, but 
extended a hundred miles beyond k-^intrti cenfesimuni fapidm. 
He decided in all causes between masters and slaves, pp^trons and 
clients, guardians and wards, &c. ; he had the inspection of the 
mints, the regulation of the markets, and the superinti:ndei)ce of 
the pablick amusements. 

But this was in better days: the Pnefisct, like etery other 
popular magistrate, was now reduced to insignificancy ; and the 
expressions of Juvenal contain a bitter sarcasm on the supineness 
of the Romans, who bad carelessly seen this great officer degraded, 
by the overbearing tyranny of Domitian, and his immediate pre-c 
decessors, to |he humiliating situation of a bailiff, or country 

Lubiu sayfi that Pegasus was made Pixeiect of the dty by Ves- 
pasian. I know not how to reconcile this to our author's modo 
jposiiuspjmi appointed; and I suspect .the accuracy of the criticki 
who is, however, followed by. Holyday. For the rest, Pegasus 
was an upright and worthy magistrate | and, according to the 
Scholiast, had presided over many of the proviaces with honour to 
himself, and satisiaction to die ^ple. He was, besides, a man 
of great learning, and a most profound lawyer. Pegasus, I be- 
lieve, was succeeded by Rutilius Galhcus, a man of extraoidiaaFy 
merit ; in that case, the adventure of the turbot mu3t bav^ tnken 
phipe before the year of C. 87* 

But yididfd oft to Ihoie Uceotiovis dmes, 

And, where he could not poriiah, *wmk*d at crkai^u 

Then .old, &oetiouB Cmpus hastes, along^, 
Of gentle mannerfl, and 'permamlye tongue t 
None fitter to advise the lord oi^l^ 
Had that pernicious pest/ whom thus we calt^ ^ ^ ' 
Allowed a friend to sooth his savage mood, 
And give hioi counsel, wise at onqs and gQO{J« 
But who ^haU dare this liberty to take ? 
When, every word yon ha;card9 life's at stake, 
Though biiit Qf Btoriny suAUtterSi showery apringspp* 
For tyrantflT ears, alas, are ticklish things ! 
iSa did the good old^man hia tongue restrain i 
Nor strove to stem Ae torrent's force in vain. 

V£|t. 115. TUa, oi4,faceti(m Cri&p^ ^,1 Crispus \$ cbftpsor 
l^riied j»carly io ih^ wme manner )>y 6(Atiu». One of bU gPQ4 
tbji]\p 19 00 records Ha w|U) met by a fri^ ovimg o«t pf (bi 
jpalaie^ Itpd n^ked whether any bc^y v%« with thQ Empdrour, 

biowlf in |p/ftcti(:e, lu^d to luavse h^ M«|ir# hourf with chaiwig 
Ihes6 poor msecUf m4 sikkiag t^m upou ^ 8tyi# oa* «faarp pointed 

TacitOikt from what motives Ujs i^pt oii^y tp gH«99i «pe^8 \m 
fevpurahly of Crwpw than our aiUbor* It copW not «ur«Jy h% 
fQT bi» ^utiou9 conduct; for this is what ho •Kp^^s^y commeodt 
in ivi Ufe pf 4jpricolm *^ Hq did uot choose/' 9ay» be> *' to i9U>- 
;tat^ th« zeal pf tbo^ who by their intompeiaPCff |u-ovoked th^ir 
iate, and rushed oq sura destniiptioo* without rpodaring any kind 
cf servica to th^r covntiy/'-m-^^ppily fbf wanUadf tha hi9to«fiii 
himself had tha pnidanca to copy hi» &^be»4n-)aw'ff oKampla. Bui 
whatever tha demerits of Crijipus might ha, we may ha sura, from 
^ tanguag^ of Juv^mil* who, though not s« food a politician as 
T9i:itu^9 wa# as honest a mair, and as naipare a hater of tymnay 
in all it9 mod« and ibrva^, that a h^^ pomplianfia ivith any dan- 
gerous caprice of the Emperour was not one of tnem. Like 
PegasuSy where he could not approve, he was probably sikiit. 

The old Scholiast makes a pleasant mistake about this map : 
he oonfoKiids Mm with Crispes PaMiaDtU> who was put to death 
hy Qlaudiusy 

taa SATitB IV. JUVENAL. ▼. i%'f'^i%%. 

Not one of those, who, by no fears deterr*d, 
Spoke the free soul, and truth to life preferr*d, 
He wisely temporized^ and, thus secured, 
Even in that court, to fotirscore springs ehdured ! 

Next him, appeared AciUus hurrying on, 
Of e^ual age,«--and followed by his son ; 

Vbr. 151. Next kkn, nfpear'd AdTwi ^.^ Littte is known of 
Acilius, but that little is fovouraUe. HoW he could become 
dunoerovs to Donkiftn, at the advanced age of eighty, is not 
casi^ explained r but we find in Suetonius, that soon after the 
•vent here so worthily celebrated, he was driven into banishment 
on a suspicion of treason. Hb treasons weie probably his virtues; 
for Pliny, speaking of him many years after hb death, describes 
him as a man of singular prudence and worth. In the next line 
I have supposed, with most of the commentators, that the young 
snaa who fiiUowed Acilius was his son : this, however, is doubtful. 

Why the youth, be he who he may, was induced to fdgn 
fiituity, after the example of the elder Brutus; and for what 
crime, real or pretended, he finally fell, are circumstances which 
bave net come down to us. Juvenal lightly touches on the &ct, 
as one well known to his contemporaries; and the multiplied 
Biurden of Domittan unfortunately took away all inclination, 
end indeed all power, firom the historians to particularize them. 

There is, however, a story in Dio which I have been sometimei 
tempted to think might allude to the person who accompanied 
Acilius. Adiius Glabrio (the name seems to correspond) was 

Ent to death by Doroitian, on an accusation of impiety, and of 
aving fought in the arena. The impiety is explained by his at- 
tachment to what Dio calls t« tvd iw^«**rr qSv, perhaps Cfaristi- 
anity. The fighting (on mm Bi^m^ tfuixtn) was thus: when he 
was Consul, (to this his youth is no objection, considering the 
times in which he lived, *) Domitiaii sent for him to Alba, and 
compelled him to engage a lion at the celebration of the Juvenilia« 
He killed the beast, and Domitian put him to death some time 
alter, through envy of the applause he acquired by it. This also 
agrees with the text, frrfmi ergo nikil misero, ^c. What follows^ 
however, in Juvenal^ seems to show, unless something occurred 

f He was Consul with Trajan^ who must also have been young. 

sATiti IV. JUVENAL. V. i33«i5o« iftj 

Who fell, uDJustly fell, in early years, 

A victim to the tyrant's jealous fears : 

But long ere this, were hoary haii:s become 

A prodigy, among the great, at Rome ; 

Hence, had I rather owe my humble birth. 

Frail brother of the giant-brood, to earth. 

Poor youth ! in vain the well-known sleight you try; 

In vain, with frantick air, and ardent eye, 

You fling your robes aside, and battle wage 

With bears and lions, on the Alban stage. 

All see the trick : and, spite of Brutus' skilly 

There are who take him for a driveller still ; 

Sinc^, in his days, it cost no mighty pains 

T' outwit a prince with much more beard than 

Rubrius, though not, like these, of noble race, 

Follow'd with equal terrour in his face ; 

And, labouring with a crime too foul to name^ 

More than the pathick satirist, lost to shame. 

wbich the bistorians of that period faaire agreed in omitting, that 
he and Dio do not speak of the same peison:— 4Nit I leave it to 
ihe reader. 

Ver. 147. RuMut, S^p.] Who this was is also doabtfol. 
There were several of the name ; bat the inqoiry is not worth 
pursuing. His terroursy notwithstanding his olecure birth^ might 
nave taught our author that there was not so much safety in beiiy 
a son of nobody, or ** of earth/' as he just before appean to have 
imagined. Tyranny knows no distinctions. 

Holyday has a long note on his ** hxAtf** which ** to name," 
as he poetidiHy phrases it, ** is no wit'': and indeed, so it should 
seem ; for, what he says of it, is at variance with his author. 
Juvenal has purposely wrapped it up in obscurity, and his com- 
ynentatoTS will do well to leave it there: 

** Non ego vaiiis obsita frondibos 
*' Sub dio rapiam,'* 


fft4 tATtsitv. JUVBNAI^. .ir;r5i~i5C 

Montanus' betly next appeared in tight, 
Then, his legs totlering with the uivwiekljr weighL 
Grispinu9 followed, daubed with more perfumei 
Thus early I than two fnoerals consmn6. 
Then bloodier Pompey, practised to betray, 

And hesitate the noblest lives away. 


Ver. i5h Monimui htUy. 4^} If tfai3 be ih» Mont^nus mt^ 
tioned by Tacitus, (Hist. iv. 4!?,) of which there can be little 
doubt, ha muft Imm det iatsd wtifely ftaok that Aim aid hoaioar- 
able conduct which he is there represented as pursuing* t« provgke 
the contempt of Juvenal* The designation of him by his over* 
grown. belly, fuiy pmpafcs us for tb« part he tabes in the Bumo^ 
rable debate whicb ensues, 

Ver. 153. Critpinus /ollow'd, ^c] Eece iierum Crujfkiuif 

But he now makes his appearance in a subordinate charactert 

m m M im mdmi mm»not 4rippnig wkh evly otalmenla. fiMyd^y 

says that some of the commentators take matutino far easterui 

and some for morning, and that both are right. This I doubt. 

He himself prapevly takes it m the last sense ; but he nisiapre- 

seuts the mannexs of the Rnmuns, (a thing alto(s^ther unaAuil 

with himi) and totally overlooks the sense of his euthor. It 

was Iha mstoiD at the RomaoSi says he^ to batbe in ike non>- 

ing, and tben to use oiatmexUs. Now it was not the custom sf 

the Romans to bathe in die morning, but at two or three in the 

afternoon; and the satire is evidently levelled at. this voluptuous 

upstart, h9 a ■eaadakms bicaek of that practice, by bathing and 

•oointtag himself at so aarly an hoar. In tha okvcoth SatiM^ 

indeed, Juvenal tells his friend Persicus, that he may 90 into tha 

batht before noon, without being ashamed. But Pecsicus wa^ an 

aid man^ and the concession w^ professedly meant as an exti^r 

ordinary indutgeoge to him, 

Vba. J4& Tim Nfiodkr Pompejf, ^qJ} Of this wretch nothing 
is buowiif but what Juvenal tells ps. Fuscus (v, l$Y) seems to 
have been a favourite with the Emparour^ by whom he was raised 
tp the ^prntaaad of a pretorian eobarty and trvsted with the 
ciOAduct of the Dacian war. in which be perished* with » gieat 
part of his army. Martial b^noured his nian¥Mry wixh a vaiy 
good epit)a^h> (Ub» vi. Z'SO froip whi^h it appea^i tb^t bi» sue- 
cessour in the command had better fortune, ije probably stadie4 
the art of war in the field. 

Juvenal doubdess enjoyed this passing allution to the Dacian 
war — ^but see Sat. vx. 

Tlieh Futcli8,iWhoy4n studi0us.eaiBe<athoimy 
Plaan'd fatorei trivmplu foe the arms* of Refine ; 
Blind to tbe^venti those anns^ a diflereot fiite^ 
Irigiorious woondS) and Dacian vulttirc«i, wait. 
Last, shrewd iVeietitoMrithCatalliis csnae, ' 
Gruel CatdUusy wh«, at beauty's name, 

r ' 

Veiento, see .Sat, i^i. and vi. The only cii^cumstance worth 
recording ol him itr tfafs ^lace is, tbat thoilgk he Hppeats liere ai 
a bdse and teryiW flf^tl;e]^9 he W9s once in the giseattit ^"'^p'^ ^ 
losing his life for 4i crime of a very different mature. He. wa» 
accused (Tacit. Ann. xtv. 50) in the reigh of Nero of diiwii^ 
tip and p^sbtog wubfit he caUed the hit villa otf per$of9 dtcsase^ 
in whicn he inserted strokes of satire on several of the senate^ and, 
as it should seem, from the report of T. Germinus, his accuser^ 
on the Emperour himself I He escaped with banishment 

C^ttilhid ^ tii«MltMte^ by PtiDV/lMid the- dMfa^M^ ilvhieh M 
givQs o# hiitt^ n^t >a>-«rtiU mote ftivbuMble' tKsil tMs'c^^Jtlvviia}; 
Ifowasa wMtcb, hd'says/who ad^ed'tdf tine^o^'df sight; II most 
9&mgb dfepfMUkm ; heUms equtiUy voM of ptCy and- renione, 6f 
shame ^ttid- fear^ aiiid- t&erefor^ usM by Deiftkian-ait his fnosi 
fonxAdab^ weapon, ill' the deslrticfioA'crf l^rHidt w^ yirtuous. 
« • Hil^dettifi may l^ added t6 the ii^miiioferal^ ifibtancdsof retm 
bution, which *< vindieckle the wa^s <^ God-1» mfltnf'' Be wa» 
afflicted with an incurabW dbease^ attended by ^e post es^oru- 
dating, and unremitting tbrtlire; yet the8gbyies,Qt t^ bpdy were 
pc^i/ect case; compared to those of his mind.^. He.wa^s^ohstaady 
iiaMnted with tbe^ thoughts of his past cfu^tks; the ghosts of 
those lie had accused seemed ever before hup, and he useci to 
lea|j'(rom his be^ 'm\h the^ roost dreadful sbfie]ksi ^s if avengii^ 
dames )iad alreadv seized upon it^, ' Worn out at length by his 
inental expired one livid mass of putreiaciionl 

This nofc is already too ioi^ ;— ^but in the dearth p£ virtue^ io 
-which the subject condemns me, I cannot reisist the' temptation of 
recording ona ihstanca of noble-mindedness^ to which the man 
just mentioned gave bicth; and i da it the Tatftef, as it is con- 
iie<3SNd.^itk-the history of the two last names quoted above. 
N^r^^ was supping with a few select friends. Veiento lay next 
bim, and 'almost in his bqsoroi; the conversaiiop turned on the 
crimes and cruelties of the execrable Catullus, of whom alt t&'e 
guests spoke with the greatest fi^eedom ? -when the fimberour (who 
was probably warned by the conversatioa into A momentary con- 

fit sjlit»Brv. jUTfiHAl/. v. i8K-«S9«» 

^* Somdpowetfol'ovMstrcii captured :~-]k)^ he regtri^ 
*^ Horifiot, on e^evy'side, his pointed spears ! 
*^ Arviragus harlfd frcmi tke British car:-^--* 
** Theiiskis fbreigii, foreign is the iran"* 

Proceed, great Seer, and, what remains natMr- 
The turbotts age and comitrjr next unfold ; 
So shall thy lord his fortunes better know, 
And whece the .cooqucat waits^ and who die foe* 
' The Emperotrr now thejhiiportant qnestron p«t, 
f* How say ye^ Fathers^ SiHai-jl she cish B£ qui Y* 

€OimptaA^m of tfie womtenLlNf hud 9een et Roine^ among lAiek 
this is not foigotten : 

*^ Vidimiu in cobUux^ toabibu<» sfMcUcuU Uixtu^ 

** Sjuig^re, Tarpeiun piope ddspectantia culmea, 

'^ JbrnnonsosqiM gmduft et clivD^ leaa jacBiitci.'^ EcL 7* 

Bolyday thinft» rt was coDnmonly ti^ in playing ^ RapeaT 
GaliyiRede. } do no^ weH see bovr tlm could be?— and if 
Uglily probable from a passa^i ia Si» AugUBtin^ who was present, 
wben a young man^ he says^ ai a play of those mreptUioSf or 
^ rapt boys/' that it was appropriated to something of the same 
disgraceful nature ; to some amour, \rt shorty e# those eppt^ 
briums of comnoa sense, and commoa dacency, the itige divi- 
fiitieft of Rome. 

Vkr. 183. Jrvtragui, ^c.J Holyday. (from our monkish histo- 
rians) says that he was the younger son of Cymbeltni^y that he 
began his reign in the fourth year of Claudius, whose daughter 
he married at Gloucester, that he then revolted from his fedier, 
was brought back to his duty by Vespasian, reigned many years 
in great glor}*, and left his crown to his son, a prince n6t le8» 
faferoas, and rather more wb^ than his fiufaen 

Ail thia is evideally fhbulous ; yet 1 have nothing aaoae woethf 
of credit to tahschute in its place. It is aufficienl to- observe 
with Owen, that there .is an allusion to some chiefs who made 
himself formidable to the Romans after the recall of ^gricola. 
The person known by the name of Arviragus bad now b^en dead 
many years. 

• In the ** monareh,'' about whom the commeBtatorr trifle so 
e^vg^ewly, euc aiidier might sarcastically hiat ail De(;ebaliiSp 

SATIRE IV. JUVENAL. V. 191 — 200. 129 

^* O, far be that disgrace," Montanus cries : 

*' No, let us form a pot of amplest size, 

*^ Within whose slender sides, the fish, dread Sire, 

'* May spread its vast circumference intire. 

** Bring, bring the temper'd clay, and let it feel 

" The quick gyrations of the plastick wheel : 

^^ But Caesar, thus forewarned, make no campaign, 

" Unless your polters follow in your train I" 

He spoke, and all approved : for well he knew 

The feasts of Nero, and his midnight crew ; 

whose name he could not bring into his verse, but whose actions 
were the opprobrium of Domitian's reign. He opposed the £m« 
perourin the Dacian war in which Fuscus fell, and was, indeed, no 
contemptible enemy. 

Vbr. 19?. No^ Ut us form a pot of amplest sixet] Montanus 
has devised au expedient for dressing the fish : but how is it to be 
served up ? I do not know that this *' tun of man" recollected it, 
but there was a dish at hand that would not have disgraced his 

Vitellius had collected, at an enormous expense, a prodigious 
quantity cf the brains of birds, and livers of fishes ; these he was 
de&irous of bringing 10 table in a single dish. The kitchen trea- 
sures were ransacked, as in the present case, for one of an ade- 
quate size ; but none could be found : nor would the potters un- 
dertake to make such a one. In this distress, the Emperour applied 
CO the silversmiths, who succeeded to his wishes. In honour of 
the achievement, the dish was afterwards preserved as a sacred de- 
posit, ifffwtf Ti atodnfAdt ! Adrian had the good sense to melt it 

Ver. 199. wcU he knew 4-c.] This is explained 

by Suetonius in his life of Nero. (-27.) Pau/atim vero invalescen" 
tibus vitiUf jocularia et latebras omisit^ nullaque dissimulandi cura^ 
ad major a palam erupit, Epulas a medio die ad mediam noctem 
proirahebat; refotus scrpius caiidis puscinis,ac tempore astivo nivatis. 
This accounts very naturally for the unwieldy paunch of Monta- 
nus, and for the part which he has just taken in the debate, which, 
as Juvenal properly observes, was so worthy of him. 

There was another senator at this famous council^ whose pro- 
ficiency iu " the science of good eating" was at least equal to 


130 SATIRE IV. JUVENAL. V. aoi-»ai6« 

And how^when potent draughts had fired the brain. 
The jaded taste was spurr*d to gorge again. 
Andi in our days, none understood sO/ well 
The science of good eating ; he could tell, 
At the first relish, if his oysters fed 
On the Rutupian, or the Lucrine bed, 
And from a crab, or lobster*s colour, name 
The country, nay the district, whence it came. 

Here closed the solemn farce. The Fathers rise^ 
And each, submissive, from the presence hies;* — 
Pale, trembling wretches, whom the Chief, in sport, 
Had dragg'd, astonish'd, to the Alban court, 
As if the stern Sicambri were in arms, 
Or tlie fierce Gatti threatened new alarms ; 
As if ill news by flying posts had come. 
And gathering nations sought the fall of Rome. 

that of Montanus ; I mean the facetious Vibius Crispus, the &- 
vourite of Vitellius, and the constant associate of his scandalous 
excesses. When a friend once condoled with hip on a fit of 
sickness, which had detained him from the .palace, Rather con* 
gratulate roe, he replied, for if 1 had not fallen ill, I should have 
died 1 £1 lAn iviMffXfif X. r. «• Dio, Lib. Ixv* c. 2. The histo- 
rian adds, that Vitellius supported his eternal gluttony by cme* 
ticks, while his less provident companions dropt off one by one. 

Holy day justly remarks, on the following lines, that the wan- 
ton luxury of the Romans may be discerned by the variety of 
their oysters, which were brought from every sea. Those from 
Rutupia (or the coast of Kent) were highly valued at Rome for 
their sweetness (dulcitudo) ; but there are several others men- 
tioned in our author, Circaean, Gauran, Lucrine, &c. all distin- 
guished for their. peculiar excellencies. 

Ver. 2t5. Js if ill news by fltfing posts S^cl Flying posts, — 
in the original /rrtrciptVi i^fMira; which has been variously inter- 
preted. Biitannicus thinks it alludes to the ancient custom of 
sending intelligence by pigeons, of which there are numerous in- 
stances in history. This is not very probable. Holyday under* 

SATIRE IV. JUVENAL. y.2tf-^22^ 131 

O ! that snch scenes, disgraceful at the most| 
Had all those years of tyranny engrost, 
In which he daily drained, hy none withstood, 
The city of its best, and noblest blood ! — 
And yet he fell ! he fell ! for when the herd 
First felt his cruelty to them transferr*d, 
They seized the murderer, wet with Lamian goire. 
And instant hurled him to the infernal shore I 

stands the words metaphorically, for a *' letter of ill news, which 
is usually swift-winged." The Scoiiast explains them literally : 
AtUta si quid nuntiabant Consules in urbe^ per episiolas nuntiabantm 
Si victoria nuntiabatur^ laurus w epistoU Jigebatur ; si aUquid ad* 
versij penna. The former observation is certainly just; if the 
latter be so, which I doubt, we need look no farther for the 
meaning of Juvenal : at any rate, the translation is sufficiently 

Ver. 3S3. They seized the murderer, wet with Lamian gore^ 
<< The Lamian familie," Holyday says, ^^ was most noble, being 
sprung from kings, which by the testimonie of Homer, raign'd 
at Cujeta." Of this family was i£lius Lamia, whose wife Domi- 
tian took away, and afterwards put Lamia himself to death. 

Beaumont and Fletcher have imitated, or rather translated, tha 
coDciadiiig lines thus : 

" Princes may pick their suffering nobles out, 
" And one by one, employ them to the block ; 
<' But when they once grow formidable to 

" Their clowns, and cobblers, ware thenl" 

The indignant sarcasm on the tameness of the nobility, who 
fuffered themselves to be butchered by this detestable tyrant, 
without resistance, does honour to the invincible spirit of our 
author. He himself was one of the herd, the cerdonest and I 
have not a doubt, but that the exultation with which he mentions 
their prompt and* decisive vengeance, was intended to convey a 
salutary, but an awful lesson to both parlies — ^to the oppressoiSi 
^d the oppressed. 


SAtiRE V. 


In this excellent Satire^ Jvoenal takes occasioHj under pretence of 
advising one Trdnus to abstain from the table of VirrOf a man of 
rank rndfortunCf to give a spirited detail of the mortifications to 
wkicA the poor were subjected by the rich^ at those entertainments 
to which, on account of the political connexion subsisting between 
patrons tmd clients^ it was sometimes thought necessary to invite 

A strain of manly indignation pervades the whole : — nor has it 
so niMch exaggeration as some of the commentators have imagined 
tjiey perceived in it : since there is scarcely a single trait of insuU 
smd indignity here mentioned, which is not to be found animadverted 
tipon, with more or less severity , in the writers of that age. 

One of Pliny's letters {lib. ii, 6) is expressly on this subject j 
and as a better ^lustration of the Satire before us cannot possibly 
be desired, I subjoin a pretty long extract from it : *' / supped 
lately with a person with whom J am by no means intimate^ who in 
his own opinion treated us with much splendid frugality ; but 
according to mine, in a sordid, yet expensive manner. Some very 
elegant dishes were served up to himself and a few more of us; 
sohik those which were placed before the rest of the company, were 
extremely cheap and mean. There were in small bottles^ three 
different sorts of wine; not that the guests might take their choke f 
but that they might not have an option in their power. The best 
was for himself and his friends of t he ^ first rank ; the next for those 
of a lower order ; and the third for his own and his guests* freed' 
men. One who sat near me took notice of this circumstance, and 
asked me how I approved of it? Not at all, I replied. Pray then^ 
said hCf what is your method on such occasions f When I make an 
invitation, I replied^ all are served alike: I invite them with a 
design to entertain, not to affront them ; and those J think worthy 
of a place at my table, I certainly think worthy of every thing it 

Several pertinent allusions to this Satire occur in the old comedy 
of The Supposes^ by G, Gascoigne, 

» I 



V. 1—8. 

If — ^by reiterated scorn made bold, 
Thy mind can still its shameless tenour hold, 
Still think the greatest blessing earth can give, 
Is solely at another's cost to live ; [spurn'd, 

If — thou canst brook, what Galba would have 
And mean Sarmentus with a frown return*d, 
At Gxsar*s haughty board, dependents both, 
I scarce would take tliy evidence on oath. 

Veb. 5. If-^thou canst brook j what Galba xoould have sjmnCd^ 
And mean Sarmentus Spc] Galba. This is probably 
the person mentioned in the notes to the first Satire, p. 15. He 
is frequently noticed by Martial ; and appears to have been a kind 
of necessary fool or jester, on whom every one broke hb witticisms 
with impunit}'. 

Sarmentus was a runaway slave, who, instead of being sent 
back to his mistress to be whipt, as he deserved, was taken into 
the family of a man, who has been usually supposed to have other 
and better claims on the gratitude of posterity, than the patronage 
of a scurrilous bufibon. 

In his journey to Brundu^ium, Horace gives an account of a 
scolding match, which he witnessed, between this Sarmentus, and 
a fellow of the name of Messius. There was not much humour 
in the dispute, }ct Msecenasi who was also preseut at it, found it 

136 SATIRE V. JUVENAL. V. 9 — 20. 


The belly's fed with little cost : yet grant 
Thou shouldst, unhappily, that little want, 
Some vacant bridge might doubtless still be found, 
Some highway side, where grovelling on the 

Thy shivering limbs compassion's sigh mightwake, 
And gain an alms for " Charity's sweet sake I'* 
What ! can a meal thus sauced deserve thy care ? 
Is hunger so importunate ? when there. 
There, in thy tatter'd rug, thou mayst, my friend, 
On casual scraps more honestly depend. 
With chattering teeth toil o'er thy wretched treat, 
And gnaw the crusts that dogs refuse to eat I — 

$0 agreeable to his taste, that he took the former'into his traia, 
carried him to Rome, and recommended him to Augustus, with 
Avhom (as we Icarn from Plutarch) he became a kind of favourite. 
The old Scholiast gives a long account of him ; from which it ap- 
pears, that what was so unworthily bestowed by the Emperour, 
was as unworthily spent by his minion ; who was again reduced, m 
the decline of life, to a state of absolute beggary and dependence* 

Ver. 9. The beUysfed ij-c] 

^' Discite, quam parvoliceat producere vitaro» 

^' £t quantum natura petat."— ^ Lucan^ iv. 377' 

and Spenser, 

^* But would men think with how small allowance 

'* Untroubled nature doth herself suffice, 

'* Such superfluity they would dospise 

*^ As with sad care impeach their native joys/ 

Here is the moral of the Satire in three words, and a very fine one 
it is : — but intemperance, as Cowley says of avarice, has been so 
pelted with good sayings, that every reader can suggest theiu to 


Vbr. 11, Some vacant bridge 4-c.] See Sat, iv, 166. Tp t^i$ 
the iUic (there) of the succeeding lines refers. 


tATiRE V. JUVENAL. ▼. ai— 50. 137 

For, first, of this be sure : whene'er your lord 
Thinks proper to invite you to his board, 
He pays, or thinks he pays, the total sum 
Of all your pains, past, present, and to come. 
Behold the meed of servitude ! the great 
Reward their humble followers with a treat, 
And count it current coin : they count it such. 
And though it be but seldom, think it much. 
If, therefore, after two whole months, he send 
A billet to his long-neglected friend, 
(Though but to fill a vacant seat,) and say, 
*• You — Master Trebius, dine with me to day/' 
'Tis rapture all I Go now, supremely blest. 
Enjoy the meed for which you broke your rest, 
And loose, and slipshod, ran your court to pay. 
What time the fading stars announced the day. 
Or at that earlier hour, when, round the pole, 
Bootes' frozen wain was seen to roll, 
Yet trembling, lest the levee should be o'er, 
And the full crowd retiring from the door ! 

And what a meal at last 1 such ropy wine 
As wool, which takes all liquids, would decline ; 
Hot, heady lees, to fire the wretched guests, 
And turn tliem all to Corybants, or beasts. — 
At first, with sneers and sarcasms you engage, 
Then hurl the cups around, with mutual rage ; 
Or, stung to n^adness by the household train. 
With coarse stone pots a desperate fight maintain. 
While streams of blood in smoking torrents flow^ 
And my lord smiles to see the battle glow ! 

ijg SATIRE V. JUVENAL. V. 51—58. 

Not such his bererage ; he enjoys the juice 
Of ancient days, when beards were yet in use. 
Pressed in the Social War ; nor condescends 
To cheer, with one small cup, his drooping friends. 
To morrow he will change, and, haply, fill 
The mellow vintage of the Alban hill. 
Or Setian ; wines, that cannot now be known, 
So. much the mould of time has overgrown 

Vek. 53. Pressed in tite Social War ;] The Social or Maisian 
vrar broke out in Italy nearly two centuries before this Satire wa» 
vritten. Can wines be kept so long ? Those of Italy were, indeed, 
of a roughness and strength that a considerable lapse of time only 
could subdue :^ but such a period ! Pliny the Elder, however, 
mentions a wine which had been kept for 200 years; but then it 
had acquired, he adds, the colour, and, I suppose, the consistency 
of honey ; and was no longer drinkable. Indeed, he says, that 
wine cannot be preserved with advantage, beyond the 20th year : 
nee aUa res mqjus incrementum ientii ad vigesimum anmim,mqjusve 
ab eo dispendium. 

Hall has imitated this passage with much humour : 

'^ Whnt though he quaff pure amber in his bowl 

** Of March-brew'd wheat ; he slakes thy thirsting soul 

^ With palish oat frothing in Boston clayy 

*' Or in a shallow cruize ; nor must that stay 

** Within thy reach, for fear of thy crax'd brain, 

*^ But call and crave, and have thy cruise again !'' 

Ver. 56. The melha vintage of the Alhan M,] This wine it 
frequently alluded to by our author, as of peculiar excellency. 
Addison tells us in his Italian travels, that Alba still preserves its 
credit for wine, '* which would probably be as good now as it was 
anciently, did they preserve it to so great an age." Setian wioe 
was still more excellent ; at least, if we may trtist Augustus, who 
is said, by Pliny, to have preferred it to all others: it grew io 
Campania. This passage also is well imitated by Hall : 

'' If Virro list revive his heartless graine 

" With some French grape, or pure Canariane ; 

'* While pleasing Hourdeaux falls unto his lot, 

*' Some sowcrish Rochelle cuts thy thirsting throat.'* 


8ATIRB v« JUVENAL, v# 59-^S« tgf 

The district and the date ; such generous boi^^s 
As Thrasea and Helvidius, patriot souls, [lay« 
To freedom pour*d,whencrown'dwith flowers thef 
And largely quaff 'd on Brulus* natal day I 

Before thy patron, cups of price are placed, 
Amber and gold, with rows of beryls graced : 
Gups, thou canst only at a distance see, 
And never trusted to such guests as thee I 
Or if they be, a faithful slave attends, 
To count the geius, and watch your fingers' ends« 

Ver, 59. ■■ such generous batols Spcl Dukissimi 

Tersus, as Ruperti truly observes, qui summum tibcrtatis dcside^ 
rium, odiumque tj/ranfUdis spirant. And, indeed* Juvenal is never 
so full of spirit and pathos, as when the old liberty of his couiUiy 
is the theme. 

Ver. 60. As Thrasea and Ildvidius^ Of these two eminent 
men, the former was put to death, and the latter driven into ba- 
nishment, by Nero. Tacitus dwells with singular ^Complacency 
on their virtues ; and, indeed, we may gather from the concurring 
lentimonies of historians, that Rome had seldom, if ever, produced 
two worthier citizens. They fell, in truth, '* on evil days," but 
they seem to have " bated no jot of heart," and in every circum« 
stance to have acted with dignity and spirit. H(*lvidius was 
recalled from banishment by Galba; (another motive for our 
author's partiality to that chief;) he waa aflerwards prosecuted 
on a charge of sedition, by Vespasian, but acquitted ; and pro- 
bably enrlcd his days in peace. 

Thrasea was the son-in-law of that Paetus whose wife Arria is 
so justly celebrated for her heroick constancy in the weIl-kno\vu 
epigram. Casta suo gladium^ S^c. 

There are no data to determine the precise time when this Satire 
was written. 1 he passage before us certainly evinces a noble 
spirit of daring ; but it is probably somewhat posterior to the reign 
of Domitian. The two men whose memory was particularly 
hateful to that tyrant, were, undoubtedly, Thrasea and Helvidius, 
who are here indirectly intro<luced for the sake of a covert cen- 
sure on the wretch who iuHultcd their fame. Domitian put one 
person to death for calling Thrasea a man of sanctity, to» Qf»ata» 
iifor offOfAu^i \ and another for writing the life of Helvidius 1 

I40 SATIRE Vt JUVENAL, v. 69^79. 

You'll pardon him ; but lo ! a jasper there, 
Of matchless worth, which calls for all his care; 
For Virro, like his brother peers, of late, 
Has stripp*d his fingers to adorn his plate ; 
And jewels now emblaze the festive board, 
Which decked, with nobler grace, the Trojan's 

From such he drinks ; to thee, the slaves allot 
The Beneventine cobbler's four-lugg'd pot, 
A fragment, a mere shard, of little worth 
But to be truck'd for matches — and so forth. 

Ver. 69. hit lo/ a jasper therei\ He alludes, at 

the commentators have observed, to Virgily who places such a 
(tone ill the hilt of Eneas' sword : 

" Ensis erat." 

atque illi stellatus jaspide fulva 

Ver. 76. The Beneventine ^c] This Beneventine was a 
drunken cobbler called Vatinius. Il would have been well if 
giving his name to an article of coarse pottery had been his only 
claim to celebrity ; but he had, unfortunately, others of a diffe- 
rent nature. He possessed, says Tacitus, " a vein of ribaldry and 
vulgar humour, which qualified him to succeed as a buffoon ; in 
which character he first recommended himself to aotice : but he 
soon forsook his scurrility for the trade of an informer, and having, 
by the ruin of th9 worthiest characters, arrived at eminence in 
guilt, he rose to wealth and power, the most dangerous miscreant 
of those dangerous times." 

Tacitus adds, that when Nero was on his way to Greece, to 
earn immortal honour by his- musical exertions, he stopped at 
Beneventum, where Vatinius entertained him with a show of 

The " four-lugg'd pot" is mentioned by Martial, who is always 
to be found at the heels of Juvenal : 

** Vilia sutoris caliccm monumenta Vatini 

'* Accipe ; sed nasus longior ille fuit." Lib. xiv. 9^. 

Here the allusion is evidently to the character given of him in the 
note. The nr)scs or handles of the pot, indeed, were long, but 
the nose of the inventor was still longer : hinting at his pernicious 

SATIRE Y. JUVENAL. V. 79— 102. 141 

If my lord's veins with indigestion glow, 
They bring him water cold as Scythian snow. 
What I did I late complain a different wine 
Fell to thy share ? a different water's thine ! 

Getulian slaves your vile potations pour, 
Or the coarse paws of some huge, raw-boned Moor^ 
Whose hideous form, like spectres, would affray^ 
If met by moonlight near the Latian way ; 
On him, a youth, the flower of Asia, waits, 
So dearly purchased, that the whole estates 
Of TuUus, Ancus, would hot yield the siim, 
Nor all the gear of all the kings of Rome ! 
Bear this in mind ; and, when a draught you need, 
Look for your own Getulian Ganymede ; 
A page that cost so much will ne'er, be sure. 
Gome at your beck ; he heeds not, he, the poor ; 
But of his youth and beauty justly vain, 
Trips by them with indifference or disdain. 
If call'd, he hears not, or, with rage inflamed — 
Indignant, that his services are claim'd 
By an old client, who, ye gods ! commands^ 
And sits at ease, while his superiour stands I 
Such proud, audacious minious swarm in Rome» 
And trample on the poor where'er they come. 

ngacity in finding oat cfaai^ges ag^nst the objects of the Empe 
fear or hate. ooroved 

" Trucking broken pottery for matches" was an ^■^'^j^^ \s 
cujtom in the system of domestick ceconomy at Rom©* 
frequently mentioned b^ Martial : 

** Quae sulfurato nolit empta raxnento, 

" Vatiniorum proxeneta fractorum," &c» ^^ 3^ 

142 tATi«E V. JUVENAL. V. io}i-<^raai« 

Mark with what insolence another thrusts 
Before thy plate ih* impeoMmble crusts. 
Blacky mouldy fragments, which no teeth can chaw» 
The mere despair of every acliing jaw ! 
While maoichets of the finest floor are set - 
Before thy lord ; but be thou mindful yet» 
And taste not, touch not : of the pantler stand 
In trembling awe, and check thy desperate liand — 
Yet, sbouldst thou dare, a slave springs forth t^ 

The sacred morsel from thee. ^^ Saucy guesi/^ 
He frowns, and mutters, ** wilt than ne'er divine 
^^ Whafs £()r thy patron's tooth, and what for thine! 
^^ Never take notice from what tray thou*rt fed» 
^^ Nor know tlie colour of thy proper bread 1** 

* Was it for this,' the baffled client mes, 
The tears indignant starting from hi« eyes, 

* Was it for this, I left my wMe ere day, 

^ And up the cold Esquilian urged my way, 

V£R. 107. JyMk mmch€U 4*c.] 

^*' Wbat though he cbi/es on purer maochet's rrowA ' 
'* While his kind client grinds on black an^ brown, 
*^ A jolly rounding of a whole foot broad, 
<« From off the mong'^cocu heap sh^ll Trebius load/' 

HaU. Uh, V. Sat. 2. 

Manners were strangely altered at Rome since t^e days of Cssar, 
who ib saidy by Suetonius, (J. Cass. 48^) to have sovesuly punished 
his <* pantler," for serving his guests with a species of bread ia- 
leriour to that which was placed before himself. 

Ver. 1 17. * Wm it for this* ^-c] The early hour at which the 
client was expected to attend the levee of his patron was a serious 
subject of complaint. It is frequently mentioned by Juvenal, 
and still more frequently by Martial, who, like Trebius, had often 
suffered irom the inclemency here so well described. He tells 

8ATIRB V. JUVENAL. V. m— 130. 143 

* While the wind howrd,thehail-storm beat amain, 

* And my cloak smoked beneath the driving rain !' 

But lo ! a lobster introduced in state, 
Whose ample body stretches o'er the plate : — 
With what a length of tail, he seems to scorn 
The wretched guests, as, by them proudly born. 
He takes the place of honour at the board, 
And, crown*d with herbs and pickles, greets their 
A crab is thine, ill garnish'd, and ill fed, [lord ! 
With half an egg — a supper for the dead I 

ins patroQ, in one place, that unleiB he will sleep longer, he must 
not expect to see him ; and in another, expostulates with him ia 
the following sensible and affectii^ language : 

** Si quid nostra tuis adicit vexatio rebus, 

** Mane, vel a media nocte togatus ero« 
^ Stridentesque feram flatus Aquilonis iniqui, 

** Ct patiar nimbos, exapiamque nives. 
" Sed si non fias quadrante beatior uno, 

'* Per gemitus nostros, ingenuasque cruces : 
** Parce, precor, lasso, vanosque remitte labores, 

^* Qui tibi non protunt, et inibi, Galle, nocent*'^ 

LOf. X. 82. 

V£a. ISO. a tupperfor the deMdf] *' They did 

.place/' sajs Holyday, ^* in the sepulchen of the dead, to appease 
their ghosU (such was the heathens folly) a little milk, honey, 
water, wine and olives/' If these were eaten by the dead, it was 
well ; if not, they were burned* or, what was more generally the 
case, stolen by a set of starving wretches, who frequented the 
burying-groiMiis tor this purpose* 

With all tliesTTevereiice for the deceased, the ancients seem to 
have been strangely inattentive to their diet. It was not only of 
the worst quality, but extremely ill prepared. Plautus (Pseudolo, 
A. III. Sc ^.) says of a worthless cook, that he was *' merely fit 
to dress a supper for the dead ;" and those of the living who 
condescended to share it with them, were universally stigmatized 
am the most necessitous and miserable of human beings : 

'* Uxor Meneni ssepe quam in sepulchretis 

<« Vidisti ipso rapere de rogo CGinam.'' CatulL 

144 sATiRt V. JUVENAL, v, 131— 150* 

He pours Venafran oil upon his fish, 
While the stale coleworts in thy Mrooden dish. 
Stink of the lamp ; for such to thee is thrown. 
Such rotten grease, as Africk sends to town : 
So strong ! that when her factors seek the bath. 
Ail wind, and all avoid, the noijsome path ; 
So pestilent ! that her own serpents fly 
The horrid stench, or meet it but to die. 

See ! a sur-muUet next before him set. 
From Corsica, or isles more distant yet, 
Brought post to Rome ; since our own seas no more 
Supply the insatiate glutton, as of yore, 
Thinn'd by the net, whose everlasting throw 
Allows no Tuscan fish in peace to grow. 
Still luxury yawns, unfilFd ; — the nations rise. 
And ransack all their coasts for fresh supplies; 
Thence come your presents, thence, as rumour 
The dainties Lenas buys, Aurelia sells ! [tells^ 

A lamprey of the largest size, and caught 
Near howling Scylla, is to Virro brought : — 

Ver. 148. Aurelia sells !] " Aurelia/' Madaii 

»ays, '' was probably the name of some famous dealer in fine 
fisli !" It is not in this manner that Juvenal is to be read. Aurelia 
was a rich and childless old lady, whom Lenas, one of those 
legacy-hunters who swarmed in Rome, endeavoured to wheedle 
out of a bequest in his favour, by costly presents of fish, &c« 
So far, indeed, she might be termed a *^ dealer in fine fish," that, 
preferring money to sur-muUets, she sent what was given hef to 

Aurelia is mentioned by Pliny, who calls her a respectable 
lady, and tells an amusing story of her being obliged to tack a 
codicil to her will in favour of a more daring, and, apparently, a. 
more successful haeredipcta than Lenas ; the detestable Regulus* 
Ub. II. Epist. 20. 

Yer. Vi9* A lamprey ^c] The reader must not always ex- 

•ATiftB r. JUVEKAtt V. 151—170. 145 

For oft M Attsteif de^ks his cate, abd fltng« 
The cumbfdus moi^lune from his dripping wingii 
Forth flies the dating fisher, luied hy gairii 
While rooks oppose, md whiripooli threat in vatd. 
To the« tbo^ brhiig in ttU whose siender make 
Bespeaks a aiear relatite to the snake s 
Or a frostbitten pike, who^ day by day^ 
Through half the city's mud stick*d his vile way t 

Would Virro deign to hear me, I could give 
A few brief hints : — we look not to receive 
What S^neeai, Ivhat Gottt iatd to s«iid, 
What the good Fiso^ to an humble friend: 
(For botfnty tirtri jitefii^rr'd a fcifet cWrii 
Than birth and power, to honourable fame :) 
No ; — all we ask, and 'tis at small request, 
Is"— not to be insulted : for th^ rest. 
Be, like the ¥^orkl, Co thy depaidentd poor. 
Rich to thyself; we seek, we hope no more! 

Ah no : near him a goose's liver lies, 
A capcM-, eqnal to a goose in size ; 

pect litenff vMlotnr of thtae shd slffiihr wordi. The nQnena of 
4bft t«3t^ striodv taken, is a speci«t of oei found in the Jtfcditer'- 
tanenn, and still in high estimation there : it diSRt* in some par- 
ticulars, from the fish which we call a lampre^^ hot chiefly in the 
^nft>rmal5ofi of it» head. Our lamprey k pnficipalljr oonfined' to 
tlM S&rtftji when brought to maifcet^ wfaich it rtry nttthff it 
l^tchei sn ea^traviigant price. 

Vbjb. f69; -H mgoaal^s fisrr} This was looked upon 

m a ynaei daibtjr by the ancient epicures ; who therefore took 
a aSiaoid iifaifcy paios to incTease its sim» by subjecting the anjmal 
tmu, paiiicalar kidd of regimen. 

BrfSMasI^ of tke Sicilians, that by a fHodem refinement in 
hOBOsy, thqr ecmtme to increese ibe liveie of their fowls (the 
if!finfih«it»' er the- reader sees, is net very modem.) Upon which 
Binnrabeeivst: <« it is to be lamented that he did not procure 


146 SATIRE V. JUVENAL, v. 171— 17S. 

• , , 

And a boar smokes, like that which fell of old| ' 
By the famed hero with the locks of gold. 
Then if the spring its genial influence shed, 
And welcome thunders call them from their bed, 
Lar(|e mushrooms enter : Ravish*d with their size, 
" O Lybia, keep your grain !'* AUedius cries, 
^* O bid your oxen to their stalls retreat, 
^* Nor, while you boast such mushroomSj think of 
wheat I" 

the secret/' There is no great secret in the matter; as there u 
scarcely a town on the continent which is not possessed of it. I 
do not pretend to know it myself; but have been told, that the 
animals are vefy closely confined, and kept without water-^ut 
what 1 I am talking Latin before clerks ; since both the dainty 
and the manner of obtaining it, are probably as well known in 
London as in Sicily, or elsewhere. 

It may not be superfluous to remark, that the Doctor ne pot" 
Mkde trop bien iOfi Martiak : the liver of which he speidcs was not 
increased so much by the goose's feeding, as by the cook's stuff- 
ing. The distiob to which he alludes, 

*^ Adspice quam tumeat magno jecur ansere majus ! 
** Miratus dices; hoc, rogo, crevit ubi V* 

Lib. XIII. 5S. 

Larger than the large goose, this liver view, * 
And, wondering, you will ask me, Where it grew ? 

is a riddle ; no very extrabrdinary one, it must be confessed ; and 
the solution is — in a kitchen. 

Veb. 172. By tht famed hero with the locks of gold,] He speaks 
of Meleager, of whom, as well as of the '* boar'' he destroyed, a 
pretty lomantick tale is told in the Iliad, lib. ix. Thomson, who 
»s now and then a little pedantick, calls him, the velUno hunter ; 
probably from iha^avus of our author ; an epithet which, though 
by no means uncoinmon* does not seem to please the criticks.. It 
is an idle one, {epitheton otiosum,) says Heinsius, and he, there*' 
fore, recommends validus (a silly one) in its place ; while Bur*' 
man thinks ihat Juvenal did iK)t mean to apply it to the Meleager 
who billed the !)oar, but to the ininiitrum delicatum .kabiiu, 
penatorio, who was to cut it up ! So learnedly can men trifle. 

|n the lines that fellow, there is much genuine humour. in tha 

SATiRB V. JUVENAL. V. 179—190. .147 

Meanwhile, to put your patfence to the test, 
Lo ! the spruce carver, to his task addrest. 
Skips, like a harlequin, from place to place, 
And waves his knife with pantomimick grace. 
Till every dish be ranged, and every joint 
I>is8ected, by just rules, from point to point. 
You think this folly — ^*tis a simple thought — 
To such perfection, now, is carving brought, 
That difierent gestures, by our curious men, 
Are used for difierent dishes, hare and hen. 
But think whatever you may, your comments spare; 
For should you, like a freeborn Roman, dare 

i^phirous apostrophe of AUedius to Lybia. Africa, it should be 
remembered, was one of the principal granaries of Rome. See 
Sat. Tin. The sHperiour excellence of the African mushroom, 
or rather, perhaps, tmfBe, is noticed by the elder Pliny, who alto 
mentions the common opinion, (that of the text,) that its growth 
was accelerated by thunder : De tuberHms kcK tradimtficuluuriier : 
Cumfiierint mbres autumnales ac tonitrua rrebrd tnnc ndsei, et 
fnaxune t tonitrUnu^ nee uiira atmwn durare^ tmerrima autem vemo 
tne^ " Lib. xix. 3. 

Veb. 190. For should you^ like a fredfotn Romany SfC.I In the 
original, tanquam habeas tria nomina, as if you had three names : 
this, when Juvenal wrote, every freeborn Roman had, and, as is 
probable from his own case, every Ubertinusy or son of a freed- 
man* These wert, the nom^sn, the pranomeriy and the cognomen ; 
the nomen was the family or surname, as Scipio ; the pr<enomen 
answered to our font-name, as Cornelius, add the cognomen was 
i^ddied from some incidental circumstance, or to marlc some par* 
ticular branch of a family, as Publius. To these a fourth name 
was sometimes superadded, as an honourable distinction, as 

There seems iio great difficulty in this passage, and yet the 
teadet* would bless himself, if he knew the ingenious absurdities 
to which it has given birth. Even Holyday, bewildered In the 
liiaae of his own learning, wanders with the rest. He cannot con- 
ceive why Juvenal should say of Trebius, " if thou hadht three 
names," wheti it is evident that, being a freeman, he must have 
h^d thrte tiAmes : and he, therefore, goes back to the firit ages of 

T4S satUe v. JUVEKAL. v. igr^^-toS. 

To speak your mlfid^ fortk ipritrgft wmt ^rtnrdy 

groom, |]toottt! 

And drags you ^ndght, k«eh foilsmoi^t, IVcttithfe 

Does Virro fever ptedge ydu f ever sip 
The liquor touchM by your unhaihmM Kp ? 
Or is them one of ^11 your tribe 90 frte^ 
So desperate, as to lay—" Sir, drink to meT^-^ 
O, there is much, that tibVer can ht spokte 
By a poor clieht ih a thY^adbare cloke ! 

But should some god, or man of gt>dlike ioul, 
The malice of your niggard fate control. 
And blefts yoti urith a khight's estate ; ban dear 
Would you be then ! how wondrous great appear^ 
From nothing ! Viirro^ to reserved of latei 
Grows quite familiar : *^ Brothief, setid your plate, 
^* Dear brother Trebhis ! ydu were wont to ny 
" You Uked these dainties; let me help youipray."^-^ 

the commonwealth, when none but the nobility were t&ds dbtiD- 
guiske4, and expknns his author in this manner; ** thou maist 
not (though iree) talk like & nobleman, (f, e.) like a tfar^e-Ykamed 
man of the first institution, beifore the priviledge becakne oV^nary/' 
He did not see, that Juvenal, hx>m die very commencement 6f 
the Satire, affects to consider Trebius as a slate, and th^t tta 
principal aim of it is to prove that Virro tiewed him in TBis 


Dr. Ireland diffsis from me. tlis explanation is very ihg0ni<>us, 
and will probably obtain more suArages than that which I have 
just hazarded : ** Juvenal does not consider Trebius as a slave 
. whose oath is never admitted ; his meaning, which is far Axore 
satirical, is, i know thou art a freeman^ and that thy bath is, by 
the laws, to be believed ; I know too, that thou hast the hofiour 
of bearing three names, and therefore mavst use the language of 
a privileged Roman ; such, however, is the servility of thy dis- 
position, that it destroys all the effect of these advantage. 
Sworn, as thou hast a right to be, (this is the force of quamti* 
juratOf) I will not believe thee; and having a right to liberty of 
speech, thy supper-hunting draws thee into situations where &$u 
art afraid to use it." 

fATixf T. JUVENAl<» *v. 207—225. 149 

You, riches, ara hh " brother," and to you, 
This wanojth of fri^Dickhip, this respect is due ! 

But wpjild 70 V How your patron's patron be ? 
Let no young Trebiu^ wanton round your knee, ' 
Mo Trebia, none : a barr^u wife propures 
The kindest^ truest friends I let such be yours. — 
Yet, should she bueed, and, to augment your joys, 
Pour in your lap, at once», three bouncipg boysj 
Virro will still, so you be wealthy, deign 
To t9j and prattle with the lisping train ; 
Will hare his pockets too with farthings stored, 
And, when the sweet young rogues approach his 
WHl order pretty eorslets for Ihe breast, [board, 
Aod treat with nuts and pluxn^ each coaxing guest. 

You champ en spongy toadstools, hateful treat I 
Fearful of poisoot in each bit you eat : 
He feeds secure on mushrooms, line as those 
Which Claudius ate, till Messalina chose^ 
With on? m<^re fine, hh feasts and life to close 

Vsm. 310* £rf noj/flung Trebws 4*c.] This is a pleasant pa- 
Tody of Viqi^l^ 

y ' ■ 81 ^is mthi parvulos aula 

<« LudeMt Aneas." 

It wouU not be easy to point out a piece of more chaste hrnnoor 
than a little tetrastick oh the subject of the preceding line» whicii 
it to be found amoqg^ i^e reprobated Greek epigrams : it oaniMl 
te tsanatated: 

Una 7flt# Mil iwnrfli *m f^^mnt* mnuf tytiy 
Ov« twmi^uH, a yt^ txf* ^fM«0*» 

Vaa. 224. He feeds secure on muOroom, ^.] ^^Tbeagancus 
csuar^nSf ox anpeno/ ogQrkf is the most splendid of all the specm 


150 SAT \ REV. JUVENAL. V. a26— ajj. 

Apples, as fragrant, and as bright of hue, 
As those which in Alcinoiis* gardens grew, 
Meliow*d by constant sunshine ; or as those 
Which graced the Hesperides in bumish'd rows, 
Apples, which you may smell, but never taste, 
Before your lord, and his great friends, are placed : 
To you they bring mere windfalls ; such 'stale fruit 
As serves to mortify the raw recruit, 

it is common in Italy, and is brought to the markets there for 
sale. The ancient Romans esteemed it one of the greatest luxu* 
ries of tlic table. This is the mushroom with which Claudius was 
poisoned." Miller's Gard. Dkt. 

I am sorry that the botanists did not go a step further, when 
they were naming this article, and call it the agaricus claudiamum 
When every German professor who discovers a new species of 
dandelion in his walks, is immortalized ; why should not this poor 
emperour be permitted to take his rank in the everlasting muster- 
roll, with Swartzia, Krockeria, and Wachendorfia f 

Ver. 232. To you they bring mere windfalls ; 4*^.] 

*' Tu scabie fruerls mali, quod in aggere rodit 

^* Qui tegitur parma, et galea, metuensque flageUi^ 

**• Discit ab hiisuta jaculum torquere capella." 

There are few passages in Juvenal, or, indeed, in any other 
authtu. which have oust more pains than this. Seabie maH^ says 
the uld Scholiast, i. v such as apes eat, qualem simia manducat: 
nothing more was necessary to convince thf commentators that 
the whole pK.^sage related to an ape : they never reflected that 
chough apes might eat stale fruit, it did not necessarily follow that 
they monopolized it. — But Claverius had seen an animal of this 
kind practibi^ his tricks on the back of a goat, at some fair in Ger- 
many ; and it is really entertaining to contemplate the deKght 
whit h this good man received from it : Dii hvni ! quam ixdvpe at 
spectart hanc hestiolnm^ ubi prtesertim cfypcum simstra^ jactdum 
dextera ostentatf ^c. Let us hope that he completed the picture, 
\)y rewarding the poor beast with an apple. 

Claverius was the firsts says Henninius, who comprehended the 
Scholiast ; and l^e was soon followed by Grangasus, Rutgersius, 
and others. 

^ut though the majority of the learned, referred, with Gave? 

SATIRE V. JUVENAL. v» 234—235. 151 

When, arm*d with hehn and shield, he learns to 

The javelin, fearful of the impending blow. 

rius, the ^t tegitur to an ape, no two of them agreed about the 
sense of hirsuta capella. One understood it of a thong raade of 
goat's skin, another of a garment, a third of a quiver, and a fourth 
of I know not what Utius, who is followed by Bochart, thought 
it meant a goat on which the tyro was seated, in imitation of the 
children of kings, who in ancient times were accustomed to learn 
to ride on rams !— the example of Helle was lost upon them^.we 
see : while Grangaeus took it to be the showman, who taught the 
ape his exercise ! 

After all this, comes Ferrarius and tells us, that the notion of 
an ape seated on a goat, is an old woman's fable. Not so, replies 
Henninius, the ape was certainly seated on a goat; but to suppose, 
as Rutgersius and Grangaeus do, that he was exhibited by a show<- 
man, is worse than an old woman's fable. — No, no, he was kept 
in the prsetorian camp, and taught to ride and fling darts, by the 
idle soldiery, who had no belter methods of amusing themselves ! 

Away I quoth Lipsius, with this nonsense about apes. The qui 
tegitur must mean a htstiarius^ a person who fought with wild 
bMSts in the amphitheatre ; and the goat (for a goat there is) 
was not for him to ride, but to fling darts at, that he might thuSs 
acquire sufficient dexterity to attack lions, tigers, &c. 

But it is time to draw towards a conclusion. Scaliger, Briton^ 
nicus, Curio, and Ferrarius, understand the passage nparly a^ I 
have given it above ; and, as I am persuaded, the old Scholiast 
understood it before them. Qui tegitur parma^ he explain^ by. 
ijfrOf which applies very well to a young recruit, though scarcely 
so to an ape of any age ; and Discit ab^ SfC, by sene magistro^ 
which clearly shows, as Ferrarius and 3caliger well observe, that 
he read hirsute. Capella will then be the nan^Bof the campidoctor^ 
who taught the young soldiers the use of arms. The propriety 
of the epithet hirsutus applied to such a person,, np one, I pre^ 
sume, will dispute. 

** But why," says Lipsius — who returns to the charge, ** should 
the recruit eat vile apples?" Truly, ( cannot tell; unless it were 
that his pay would not enable him to procure better. Indeed, I 
should be as much at a I9SS to tell why the bestiariusy or the ape 
should eat them :-«those of the latter that I hf^ve seen, being 
rath^ delicate in their choice of fruit To his. other questions, 
vrhy the tyro should be anned with a parma^ (a round shield) 

ip sATiKEv. JUVBNAL. ir»a3S-*^5t. 

You thmk, perhaps, that Virro treats so HI, 
To save his gold ; no, 'tis to vex you still ! 
For, say, what comedy such mirth can raise, 
As hunger, tortured thus a thousand ways ? 
Na^ tf yon know il not, 'tis to excite 
Your rage, your frenzy, for his mere 4^ligKit ; 
*Ti§ to compel you all your gadl to show, 
And gnash your teeth^ in agonies of wo. 
You deem yourself, (such pride inflates yoorhreast,) 
Forsooth, a flreeman, and your patron's guest ; 
He thinks you a vile slave, drawn by the smell 
Of his warm kitchen there ; and he thinks well. 
For who so low, so wretched, as to bear 
iwh treatment twice, whose fortune ^tw^s to we^* 
The golden boss ; nay, to whose hmiri>ler lot, 
The poor man's ensig^ fell, the leathern knot ! 

yifhetk they were ro longer fa use? cthenfnidi>(^^etmtgif (fth 
fe9tm^J when lie coiUd onlj be 'beaten with a rod f it mi^t 
j^erbaps, be sufficient to aanrer, that JavenaV writes like a poet, 
end not Uke a drill-serjeant :^^but Hdlyday goes further^ boA 
combats tfae critick's accnracy. 

This learned man, who candidly recapitnlales (be opmions sf 
the eomnientatony fbllows that of Rutgerthis. I did not expect 
Ais :-»-it is but faifi however, to give his reasons for it : ** Ttntt 
because it is without any alteration of the copy ; secondly, be* 
cause it is free from any of those tnconvemencies which foDow Ae 
other opinions ; tbirdly, because it supposes nothing, bat what, 
according to the ordinary custome of such sports, w91 be easily 
gtanted ; and lastly, because it is for more quick and satyrical, to 
fhis sense; Virro baa bis eurioHs fruit; but tbou such as they feed 
apes with." 


Vsa. MO. Tie golden Bom;] This ernament, or ratd^amiifet, 
w» adored by the Romans fit>m fbe £hn|seans, (who probab^ 
broifbt 11 from Ae Easli) aad attrst w0i^ only by the chiklrfO 

sATiM^. JUVENAL* v. 45a— 165^ 153 

Your ps^te still beguiles you ; Aii, how nice 
Xh^t gmokiog ^siuxich ! mow we shall have a slice I 
fiow diat half hape is eoming ! now a bit 
Qf that young pullet ! Now-rr-aad thus you ait| 
Thumbing your br^ad in silence ; lookiDg still \ 
Tor what has never reach'd you, never will ! 

No more of freedom ! *tis a vain pretence; 
Your patron treats you like a man of sense. 
For, if you can, without a murmur, bear, 
You well deserve the indignities you share* 
Anon, like voluntary slaves, you*ll bow 
Your humbled necks beneath the oppressor's bloif. 
Nay, with bare backs, solicit to be beat, 
And merit such a friend, and such a treat ! 

of the nobility. In process of time* il became common, like the 
trim iwminaf to all who were freeborn. From its Latin name, 
5ii^, it seems to have been a little hollow drop, or globule;— 
indicative, as Lubin says, of human fragility. Holyday, who 
adopts the opinion of Macrobius on the subject, thinks it was 
shaped like a heart, and worn before the breast as an incitement 
to virtue ; while Plutarch gives it the form of a crescent, to which, 
indeed, the heart (if it were moulded like the trinkets of our days) 
might bear no very distant resemblance. 

Whatever its figure might be, and probably it was variable, it was 
considered, as the Scholiast rightly remarks, as a badge of liberty, 
and used by the children pf all ranks of freemen, till they reached 
die age of fifteen. 

Whether any degree of birth was necessaiy, at the time our 
author wrote, to intitle a family to wear the Uetruscum auntnif is 
not easily ascertained : from his own words, I should incline to 
the negative, and conclude that circumstances alone determined 
it. In that case we may say, that the rich only had the bulla of 

Eld; the poor, and the immediate descendants of freedmen, of 
ither, and, perhaps, of other cheap materials* 

\* With what spirit does Juvenal conclude! and alas, with what 
AdUty does be forget his own puipotet In his eagerness to lash 



the guest, he excuses the host, and contradicts some of hb former 
mvectives on the inherent meanness of the great men of Rome 
towards their dependents : dvD€s ft6f, pauper anucis. Right taste 
would have directed him to carry on ix>th his purposes together, 
vithout sacrificing one to the other :-»the servility of the client 
might have been exposed, while the pride and parsimony of the 
patrqn were preserved as qualities necessary to the effect and con- 
sistency of his satira. 



Th is is not <mfy ike longest, but tie mast ampkte (f our Aulkor^s 
works. With respect to His other Satires, some of them are distiu'- 
guished by one etceilence, and some by another ; but in this he has 
combined them all. Forcible in argument, Jhwing in diction ; bold, 
impassioned, and sublime; it looks as if the poet had risen with his . 
theme, and, conscious of its extent, taxed all his powers to do it justice. 

The whole of this Satire is directed agautst the female sex. It is 
tolerably methodical in its plan, and may be distributed under thefol" 
lowing heads: lust variously modified, imperiousness of disposition, 
^fickleness, gallantry, attachment to improper pursuits, litigiousneu, 
drunkenness f unnatural passions, fondness for singers, dancers, 4^.; 
gossiping, cruelty, illmianners, outrageous pretensions to criticism, , 
grammar, and philosophy; superstitious and unbounded credulity in 
diviners and fortunetellers, introducing supposititious children into 
their families, poisoning their step-sons to possess their fortunes, and 
lastly, murdering their husbands. 

These, it must be confessed, form a dreadful catalogue ofenormi* 
tieSf and Hem to have terrified the translators. Even Dryden, who ' 
was never suspected of sparing the sex, either in his poems or plays, i 
deems it necessary to apologize here, and assures the world that he 
was compelled to translate this formidable Satire because ** no one 
else would do it," '* Sir C. S" he says, ** had undertaken it, and, 
though he would have done it better than himself, he unfortwuUely 
gave it up r That Sir C. S. (Sir Charles Sedky I suppose) would 
have succeeded better than Dryden, no one but Dryden would venture 
to insinuate. It is a piece of affectation, equally false and foolish : 
— but sic vivitur, as Cicero says^^for Dryden's translation, though \ 
neither complete nor correct, is a most noble ^ort of genius, 

I know not why such dread should befell at approaching this Satire. 
The ashes of the ladies whose acti<ms are here recorded, have long been 
covered by the Latian and Flaminian ways; nor have their follies, or 
their vices, much similarity with those of modern times, if there be 
any, however, who recognize themselves (for guilt is sometimes inge^ 
nuousj in the pictures here drawn, let them shudder in silence, and 
9nitnd; while the rest gaze with a portion of indignant curiosity^ on 


ike reprtteniaiiM rfapnfiigaieandAaidimeiraettnoi nwreiUimii 
tfi timt9 than m every vtrtve and aeam^tHsimeiU,Jiram tkenuehee. 

It would seemfrtm pUemal eoidence, thai this Satire wa* wriiiem 
wider Domitian. It has fem filii kfit^Mfi^af; and might not from 
iit ndf^ed^perhaptB hope hundiipkanng to thatferodaui hypocrite, 
who qfect^, at vamnf iim€99 « wou^rful aaakty to restrain tha 
ikentioasness qf the age t 



t. 1—8. 

* K s, I t>dkv6 that Ctt AStttY tm Imowiti, 

And prized on Mrth, wliUe Sfltern £U*d die dirone ; 
Whefi rodks )si bleak and scant/ shelter gave, 
When sheep and shepherds throng'd one common 

And t^hen the inotintain wife her couch beiitrew*d 
Widi skinft of beasts, joint tenants of the wood. 
And reeds, and leaves pluck'd from the neighboor* 

-•^AliroittanyCjnitkia, far unlike to thee^ 

Vbr.5. Jndxokm tie momtmH vj^ ^-c.) ^That is,'* says 
Ctapyltoiiy ** the ^fe that 4welt in tha nountain before sudi 
time as Am ^en* althomh they came down thensdves, ^unt 
bring their wives into the level !" This is the strangest idea ima* 
g^HkUft* The womcli hare spoken of were not very lil^ely to 
excite ai^ fcart oa^cir account : they were not less bold and 
adveattutolis than the men, nay often, says the poet, more so^— > 
dnt thtasit is, whenthe author is thinking of one thing, and the 
translator^of another* A few lines below, b^ue Juvensi caUs tht 

158 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. v.g^i4» 

Or thee, weak child of fondness and oif fears^ 
Whose eyes a sparrow's death suffused withteartr 
But strong, and reaching to her burly brood [food. 
Her big-swoU'n breasts, replete with wholesome 
And rougher than her husband, gorged with mast, 
And frequent belching from the coarse repast.- 

children of these primeval women large, Madan tells us that they 
were suckled till they were near a hundred yean old ! 

This passage is charmingly imitated by Beaumont and Fletcher 
in their tragedy of Philaster: 

<< Pka. O, that I had but digg'd myself a cave, * 

** Where I, my fire, my cattle, and my bed 
*^ Might have been shut together in one shed ; 
** And then had taken me some mountain girl, 
** Beaten with winds, chaste as the barden'd rode, 
** Whereoii she dwells; that might have strew'd my bed 
*^ With leaves and reeds, and with the skins of beasts, 
** Our neighbours ; and have bom at her big breasts, 
** My large coarse bsue.** Act iv. 

Thus did the reading of the old dramatists enable them to enrich 
their works with passages of perennial beauty, that charmed alike 
the closet and the stage. The reading of the present race of 
farce-mongers, seldom, I believe, extends beyond the nursery;^ 
and their productions are, therefore, the disgrace of the one, and 
the contempt and aversion of the other. 

Ver. 9. Or thee^ neak child offondnesi^ S^c."] He means Lesbia, 
the mistress of Catullus, whose exquisite hendecasyllables on the 
death of her favourite sparrow are still extant. The lines te- 
which Juvenal particularly alludes are these, 

** O factum male, O roiselle passer, 
'* Tua nunc opera meas puellae 
'' Flendo tur^uli rubeut ocelli/' 

Cynthia, mentioned in the preceding line, was the mistress of 

It ma} be worth observing, that Juvenal has not made- his age 
oY chastity very inviting : he proceeds with too rapid a step^ from 
all the savage roughness of innocence, to the morbid delicacy o^' 
polished vice. The progress of corruption is- marked with mora- 
distinctness by Horace. 

sATtitB VI. JUVENAL* V. 15— 2!2. 159 

For when the world was new, the race that broke, 
Unfather*d| from' the soil, or opening oak, 
Lived most unlike the men of later times, 
The puling brood of follies and of crimes. 
Haply some trace of Chastity remained. 
While Jove, but Jove as yet unbearded, reign*d ; . 
Before the Greek bound, by another's head, 
His doubtful faith ; or men, of theft in dread> 

Vsa. 15. Tor ijien the world toM new, 4^.] Juvenal had Lu« 
xretiiis in view hem : • 

** £t genus bumanuni multo fuit iUud in arvis 
** Durius, ut decuit, tellus quod dura creasset ; 
^ £t majoribusy &c.'^ Lib. v. 9^S. 

'ft is«net to be supposed, that he adopted the ideas of this Epi- 
•cnrean system-monger with his words, and spoke bis real senti- 
ments here. — No : he had juster and more elevated notions of the 
origin of mankind ; and in his 15th Satire, as Owen well observes, 
almost speaks the language of Holy Writ. But see the Intro* 

Veb. 21. Before the Greek S^c] From the multiplied forms oi 
oaths among the Greeks, Juvenal concludes, rationally enough, 
fthat this people Invented them i^ur^re per caput aUerius, how- 
ever, or swearing by another's life, was in use ages before Greece 
was heai^ of. It is an Asiatick custom, and probably originated 
in the first great monarchies. 

Holyday has a long and learned note on this passage, which is 
worth consulting: though it is probable, after all, the poet only 
meant, that in those days of innocence, men had not the trick, 
afterwards so common, of binding themselves by the most solemn 
asseverations to an untruth. It it well known, that the Greeks 
were as much talked of for their bad faith, as the Carthaginians, 
and, as some think, with much more reason ; and that their usu^l 
form of oath was by another's head. I do not call the reader's 
attention to the contemptuous sneer at Jupiter in the preceding 
couplet, because it must have pressed itself on his notice. To do 
the author justice, he treats the vices and follies of the popular 
xitvinities with as little ceremony as those of Nero ox Domitian, of? 
^ny other object of his abhorrence. 

t6o MTiKt ▼!• JUVBNAL. V. a3^«^-44« 

Had learned tlmt herbs and firilitage to uaflwkre^ 
But all waft utt^ndosedi and all aeeuit ! 
At length Asbrda, from theiie confines driven^ 
Regain*di by fldw deg^eei, her nadve heaTen; 
With her retired her sister in disgusti 
And left the irorlA to rapine, and to lust 

'Tit of no modern date, my friend, to slight 
The satred Genius of the nuptial rite : 
All other crimesi the Age of Iron curst, 
But that of Stiver saw adulterers first ! 
Yet thou, it seems, art hastening to engage 
Thy witless neck, in this degenerate age ! 
Even now thy* hair the modish curl is taught 
By master hands, even now the ring is bought, 
Even now*-*4hott oiice, Ursidius, hadst thy irits, 
But thus to talk of wiving !-*^, these fits ! 
What madness, prithee, has thy soul possest, 
What snakes, what Furies agitate thy breast ? 
Heavens, wilt thou tamely drag the galling chain, 
While hemp is to be bought, while knives remain ? 
While windows woo thee so divinely high. 
And Tiber and the £milian bridge are nigh ? 

VxR. 25. At kMgth Jsirta, 4^.] Javensl seems to hsve had ia 
Yiew thai beautiful passage of Hesiod, Mwir^ nrur' *iftiAt», x. t. A. 
of which the coocludii^ lines form the more immediate subject of 
Ims imitation : 

Km Ton lb «pvc OXoycwr eiw% X^i^*^ itffifAiiKf 

•ATiRB VI. JUVENAL. V. 45-— 62. 161 

But 6houldst tliou, Posthumus, too hard to please, 
Take no great fancy to such deaths as these. 
Say, art thou not already fairer sped, 
With a soft blooming boy to share thy bed ? — 
** Ay, but the law," thou criest, *' the Julian law, 
•* Will keep my destined wife from every flaw; 
" Besides, I long for heirs." Good ! and for those, 
Wilt thou the turtle and the turhot lose. 
And all the dainties, which the flatterer still 
Heaps on the childless, to secure his Will ? 

But what will hence impossible be held, 
If thou, old friend, to wedlock art impelled ? 
If thou, ihe veriest debauchee in town. 
With whom wives, widows, every thing went down, 
Shouldst change, at this late hour, and fondly poke 
Thy awkward nose into the marriage yoke? 
Thou, famed for scapes, and, by the trembling 

Thrust in a chest so oft, to save thy life ! — 

. Ver.49« ■ " the Julian /a»*] 80 called .because 

Augustas, the author of it, had been adopted by Julius Caesar. It 
was lueant Xo prevent adultery ; but the increasing depravity of 
the times rendered it of little effect, an()> indeed, it was almost 
foi^tten, when Domitian revived it with all its terrours. Statius 
calls it a caHum fulmat^ but there are not many instances of of- 
fenders being struck by it, (one is to be found in Pliny, Lib. tx* 
31,) as it was rendered nugatory, at least as to the spirit of it, by 
the facility with which illusory divorces were obtained. Martial 
has a good epigram on the subject (lib. vi. 7.) " It is hardly 
thirty days," says -he, *« since the Julian law was revived, and 
Thelesina, to escai)e the odium of adulter v,. has already taken bcr 
tenth husbaiid !" 

Authors are not agreed on the punishment inflicted by tbblaw ; 
some maintaining it to be death, and others banishment ; it wus 
most probabfy the latter. 


t6i SATiRBvi. JUVENAL. v.63**-79. 

But what ! Ursidius hopes a mate to gain, 
Frugal, and chaste, and of the good old strain : 
Alas, he's frantick ! ope a vein with speed. 
And bleed him copiously, good doctor, bleed. 
Jewel of men ! thy knees to Jove incline, 
And let a heifer fall at Juno*s shrine. 
If thy researches for a wife, be blest 

With one who is not need I speak the rest ? 

For few the matrons Geres now can find, 
Her hallow*d fillets with chaste hands to bind ; 
Few whom their fathers with their lips can trust, 
So strong their filial kisses smack of lust ! 

Go then, prepare to bring thy mistresf home, 
And dress thy doors with garlands ere she come: 
But tell me : will one man her wants supply ? 
Alas ! no more, Ursidius, than one eye. 

VsR. 75. Go thcHf prepare to hing tht/ mistreu hornet 

And 4r€9$ thy doors tmih g^rkmds ere she ooai«:] 
There are frequent alltuioBs to this custom, which it will be suffi- 
cient once for all to mention* Preidouftly to bringing home the 
bride, the door-posts of the bridegroom were ado r n ed with wreaths 
of flbwersy branches of laurdi &c« while acaffoikls weie erected 
before the front of the house^ and along the streets through which 
they were to pass, for the accommodation of the peof^ who 
flocked to see the nuptial procession. 1 speak hen of ^ better 
tort :^>thoogh the poor vere not altogether without liieir garhmds, 
juid their processions, on this impoHaot oocalioiu 

Vee. 77'^ But teil me: 4^.] 

^' Unus IberinsD vir sufficitf ocjus illud 
** Exlorquebisi ut hsBC, &c. 

Holyday thinks that hoc and iUud are used emphatically to ex- 
press the author^s suspicions of Ursidius' destined wife ; while 
Jortin saysi they serve only as props to keep up the verses. Jortin 
ie evidently ri|^ ; the lines «r^ careless and unpoeticaU 

sAtttft VI. JUVENAL. ▼•79— 9J« 163 

And yet there runSi *tis said, a wondrous tale 
Of some pure maid who lives in some lone rale. 
There she may live; but let the phoenix, placed 
At Gabii or Fidenae, still be chaste 
As at her father's farm — ^yet who can swear 
That nought was done in night and silence thereof: -' 
The gods have oft, in other times, we're told^ 
With many a nymph in woods and caves made 

And still, perhaps, they may not be too old. 

Survey our publick places : see*st thou therci 
One woman worthy of thy serious care ? 
See*st thou, through all the crowded benches, one 
Whom thou mightst take, securely, for thy own ? 
Lo ! while Bathyllus, with his flexile limbs, 
Acts Leda, and through every posture swims, 

V«lt. 83. At Gahil or Fidencs, ^c] The ttatislators do not 
appear to have felt the full force of the satire. Stapylton 
calls Gabii and Fidenab ** great towns/' and Holyday seems to 
adokit, that though exceedingly infcridur to Rome, they were 
yet liltely, from the number of their inhabitants, to corrupt the 
maiden's virtue.* But these «* great towns" had scarcely any 
inhabitants. Even in Horace's time they were proverbial for 
their deserted stati, Gdbiis desertior^ atque Fidenis: and that 
they bad not improved when Juvenal wrote, appears from the 
way fft which he speUks of them in the tenth Satire. In shorty 
they wer^ wretched hamlets, and almost abandoned by every 
body. Whslt the poet, therefore, means to insinuate is, that 
though th^^ pUces differed but littfe, in point of populousness, 
from her father's farm ; yet that little, such was the frail icxtura 
of female purity, was sufficient to endanger it. 

Vkr. gSi Lo ! white BathyUus, ^-c] As Juvenal has frequent 
ftllitstons to ihese amusemctits^ and to the extravagant >fondnes8 of 
tfie pcfople for them, I will endeavbur to give the best account I 
can find, of t&elr Hsey progress, iind fimtl disappearance. 

Before the time of- Augustus, the Romans were ac()uainte4 




i64 ' SATIHB VI. JUVENAL, v. 94-^5* 

Tuccia delights to realize the play, 
And in lascivious trances melts away ; 

\vith no intermedial amusements but mimes and farces of the 
lowest and most desultory kind. Buffoons fi'om Tuscany were 
the performers in these pieces, which were introduced between 
the acts of their tragedies and comedies, and consisted of little 
more than coarse and licentious ribdldryi and the most ridiculous 
and extravagant gestures. 

In this state the stage was found by Pylades and Bathyllus ; 
the latter of whom was a native of Alexandria, and one of Mat^- 
ccnas' slaves. Ilo had seen Pylades dance in Ciiicia, and spoke 
df him in such terms to his master, that he sent for him to Rome. 
Here these two men formed the plan of a new kind of spectacle, 
wh^ch pleased Maecenas so much, that he gave Bathyllus his 
freedom, and recommended both him and his friend to Au~ 

This new spectacle was a play performed by action alone ; It 
was exhibited on a magniiiccnt theatre raised for the purpose, aivd 
being accompanied by a better orchestra than Rome had yet seen, 
it astonished and delighted the people 90 much, that they forsook, 
in some measure, their tragick and comick poets, for the moie 
expressive ballets of Pylades and Bathyllus. 

To say the truth, these were very extraordinary men. Tlie 
art which they introduced, they carried to the highest pitch of 
perfection; and however skilful their followers may have been, 
they do not appear to have added any thing to the magni- 
ficence of the scene, or the scientifick movements of the tirbi 

We can form no adequate idea of the attachment of the Romans 
to these exhibitions ; it degenerated into a kind of passion, ami 
occupied their whole souls. Augustus regarded it with compla- 
cency, and either from a real love for the art, or from policy, 
conferred honours and immunities on its professors. By an old 
law, ma^strates were allowed to inflict corppral punishment on 
mimi and players; pantomimi (such was the. expressive name 
given to these new performers) were exempted from tbis^ law : 
they were besides allowed to aspire to honours from which the 
former were excluded. Such protection produced its natural 
effects : insolence iii the dancers, and parties among the people. 
Pylades excelled in tragick, and Bathyllus in comick subjects : 
hence arose disputes on their respective merits, which were con* 
ducted with all the warmth of a political question. Auj^ustus 
Mattered himself that he should re-establish tranquillity by banish- 
ing the former; but he was mistaken: tiie people found they had 


SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 96-*97. 165 

While rustick Thymele, with curious eye, [sigh, 
Marks the quick paiit, the lingering, deep-drawn 

lost one great source of amusement by his absence, and their cla- 
mours occasioned his immediate recall. 

The death of Balhyllus, soon after tliis event, left Pylades 
without a rival. He did not bear his feculties meekly ; he fre- 
quently insulted the spectators for not comprehending him, and 
they endeavoured, in their turn, to make him feel the weight of 
their resentment. He had a favourite pupil named Hylas ; this 
youth they opposed to the veteran, who easily triumphed over his 
adversary, though he could not. humble him. We hear no more 
of Pylades; but H3las fell under the displeasure of the Emperour 
soon after, and, if I rightly understand Suetonius, was, " contrary 
to the statute in that case made and provided," publickly whipped 
at the door of his own house. 

It appears from this, that Augustus kept the superintendence 
of these people in his own hands. Tiberius left them to them- 
selves, and the consequence of his indiA'erence was* that the 
theatres were frequently made a scene of contention and blood, 
in which numbers of all ranks perished. A variety of regulations, 
as we le^rn from Tacitus, were now made to check the evil, which 
they only served to exasperate ; and in conclusion, the Emperour 
vras obliged to shut up the theatres, ai;d banish the pcrformors. 

In this state were things at the accession of Caligula. His first 
care was to undo every thing that had been done. Under this 
profligate madman, the ballets took a licentious turn, and hastened 
the growing degeneracy of manners. Claudius left them as he 
found them ; but under Nero, the bloody disputes to which they 
constantly gave birth, reluctantly compelled that prince to banish 
them once more. He was too fond of the fine arts, however, to 
suffer so capital a branch of them to languish in neglect, and 
therefore, speedily brought back the exiles. From this time, the 
pantomimi seem to have flourished unmolested, until Paris, the 
Bathyllus of Domilian*s reign, raised the jealousy of that wretched 
tyrant, who put him, and a young dancer who resembled him, to 
death, and drove the rest from Rome. They were recalled the 
' instant the Emperour was assassinated, and continued through thQ 
whole of Ncrva,and some part of his successour's reign; but they 
were now become so vitiated by the shameful indulgence of C^** 
gula and Nero, that, if we may believe Pliny, (which I aHv not 
much inclined to do in this case,) Trajan flnally suppressed them, 
at the unanimous debire of the people. 

But to my text. In a profound treatise on dancing, which I 
0nly know by an extract in the Encyclopswiia . Britannica, th« 

i66 SATXKE VI. JiJVENAL. v. 98-rio9. 

Andi while her checks with hurning hluihea glovy 
Learns this^earns all the city matrons know* 

Others, when of the theatres bereft, 
And nothing but the wrangling bar is left. 
In the long, tedious months that interpose 
'Twixt the Gybelian and Plebeian shows, 
Sicken for business, and assume the airSi 
The mask and thyrsus, of their favourite players. — 
These hire bufibons, their laughter to excite 
In a loose jig, poor £lia*s dear delight ! 
Those hunt out actors, exquisite in vice, 
And loose their buckles at no common price ; 

author cites this psssflge to prove that there was a female dancer 
of the name of Chironomou. Paps ! the Chironomon here men* 
tioned, was a ballet of action founded on the well known amour 
of Leda, in which some fifivouriie dancer (probably Paris) was the 
principal performer. Whether he played the swan or the lady, 
cannot now be told ; but in a story so wantonly framed, and in 
an age where so little restraint was imposed on an actor, enough 
might be done in either to interest and inflame the coldest 

VxR. 103. 'Twixt the Ctfbdian and Plebeian ihawsj] The former 
were celebrated on the 5th of April, and the latter on the X5th of 
November; so that here really was a long interval to exercise the 
patienca of the ladies. 

Vbh. 107. In a loose jig^l In the original, gestibvs Autonors^ 
All that is known of Autonoc is that she was daughter to an uti* 
happy father, (Cadmus,) and mother to an unhappy son (\c^ 
iSBon.) How such a ** lamentable tragedy" as her life presents^ 
could be ** mixed full of pleasant mirth," as we find it was, is 
not easy to conceive. Probably it was a burlesque of some serf* , 
ous ballet on th^ subject, ^lia, mentioned in the same Tcrse^ 
was of a noble family, long since fiillen into decay. If Rome bad 
been less corrupt, or furnished fewer instances of ** prodigality in 
want," I shoald have taken her to be the person mentioned in 
another part of this Satire, by the name of Ogulnia. 

VzK. 109. JMd loose tieir buckles 4c.] '' Iiyagit^' says Du« 
sanlxj ** tiTiMc opiratufn ,fratiquie par Us anciens pour eonserver 

SATIRE VI. JUVENAL; v, 110—113. ft? 

Take from Ghrysogonus-^^ut thou art moved ; 
Heavens! didst thou think Quintilian would be 

loved ? 
But hie thee, Lentulus, and instant wed. 
That the chaste partner of thy fruitful bed 

4uur jemui gttit la umit^ aux gladiai€urs la Jarct^ awt aetturs /a 
wrix : tUc sappMni infibulatioD, mm okfti hoit ttempkker ceitf 
que Von haucltnt {car rinfibulaiion n'ttoit rien autre chose) d^avmr 
commerce avec les fcmme*!' i. e. the object of the buckle was to 
prevent a fiiLvoarite actor from having any connexion with women. 
A useless precaution, it appearsi for the publick, though suffici* 
ently profitable for himself. 

Holyday has twoengravingi of these bockles, wliich beingtashe 
truly says, <' without any immodestie," I would have copii^t l^ao 
I thought them* as he did, curiosities. 

It is not'unamosing to see how sedulously the early ChristiA<^ 

writers accommodated their language to the habits and manners 
of the people whom they wished to convert. Thus, when Tcrtul^ 
Kaut in conformity to the precepts of the Gospel, enjoins th^ 
•* mortifying of our lusts,'* he expresses himself by an ** infit>^** 
lation of the Aesh,''— ^Sbc/am cami impoturem 

Ver. 111. Q^miiiiani Juv«nal alw^y* 

speaks with great respect of this most learned and excrilent ''^^^ 
whom be is fond of introducing, and whose name he uses ^^^j^^ 
place, as the representative of all that is wise and good. ^^"^ 
of the commentators say that our author studied tihetorick u^?^^ 
him, but I know not on what authority* See more respectK^ 
him in the next Satire^ 

Vbb. 112. But hie thee, Lentuhsj 4-c.] In the name *hi^H 
Juvenal here pves his friend Posthumus, he had in view * ^'^'^J^ 
curious anecdote^ which is handed down to us by Valeihis Max* 
mus, and which Grangseus, I believe, was the first to po^* ^^ 
LentulusandMetcllus (Consuls a« v. c. Bcxcvi.) ^•'^ ^^'^^'^^S^ 
by all the spectators at a pUy, to be extremely like a second l]^" 
third mte actor, then on the stage ! lib. xx. c. 1*. sec, *!jVm*j?^ 
reader now sees the malicious archness of the allusion. Maaaii 
idea, (whidi indeed is that of moat of the commentators ^^^^ 
Owen,) that Lentulus was a fomous fencer of tho*6 days, is ^^*^ 
absurd for notice. Did he not know that LcnInlMS was Ui© na w^ 
of one of the noblest fiimilies of Rome ? 

i68 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL, v. 114 — lat. 

May single, from this piping, fiddling race, 
Some sturdy Glaphyrus, thy brows to grace: 
Yes, hie — in every street long scaffolds raise, 
And crown thy portals with tritimphant bays ; 
That, cr<^dled in high state, thy heir may name, 
In every look, from what swordplayer he came I 

Hippia, who shared a rich patrician's bed, * 
To Egypt, with a ghidiator, fled, 

Ver. 115. Some sturdy Glaphyrus, ^*f.] Wc learn from Mar* 
tial Unit Giaphyru!) wiis a popular perfurmcr upon some musical 
instrument. This poet has taken up Juvenal's idea, and formed 
a very laughable epigratn on it. It is too long to be insci:tC4l 
here, but is worth turning to. Lib, vi. 39. 

V£R. 120, Hippia, who shared a rich patrician's bed, 

To Egypt, ^.'\ It is not clear when this elopement 
took place, but it could not be much later than the middle of 
Domitian's reign ; about which time, too, this Satire must have 
been composed. Paris, who is mentioned in it, was put to death 
not long after ; and the pantomimick performers, here spoken of 
as the minions of the ladies, were ignoniiniously driven from the 

Veiento, the patrician here noticed, has been mentioned 
twice before. (Sat. 111. and iv.) He survived his disgrace many 
years, though he was not young when it happened. He talked of 
himself as a very old man in a succeeding reign, when, upon being 
prevented from speaking in a cause which concerned himself, and 
his friend Certus, by the clamours of the senate, he exclaimed^ 
in the words of Tydides to Nestor, 

The criticks will not allow Hippia to be the real name of his pre* 
Clous moiety. Juvenal calls her so, they say, for two reasons : 
iirst, for her lastful disposition, (in allusion to that passage of 
Virgil, ^eilket ante omnes, ^c.) and secondly, for the sake of 
concealing her real name, out of respect to her noble family. Tho 
iirst may be right, for aught I know ; but the second 1^ absurd 
enough. 1 o give a woman a fictitious name, and then to bring 
forward her husband, a senator of high rank, and relate at length 
the most remarkable occurrences of her life, with an idea of con* 
ccaling her, seems just buch another happy contrivance as that of 

ftiTiRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 122—145. 169 

While rank Ganopus eyed, with strong disgust^ 
This ranker specimen of Roman lust. 
Without one pang, the profligate resign*d 
Her husband, sister, sire ; gave to the ^ind 
Her children's tears ; nay, to amaze you more, 
From Parts and the plays herself she tore ! 
And though, in affluence born, her infant head 
Sunk on the down of an embroidered bed. 
She braved the sea, (she long had braved her fame, 
But that's a trifle to the courtly dame,) 
Nor fear d the Tuscan billows to sustain, 
And the loud roaring of the Ionian main. 
Have they a call, an honest call, to bear 
These hardships? they are struck with sudden fear; 
Cold shiverings on their listless members seize, 
And slowly they advance on knocking knees : 
But set illicit pleasure in their eye, 
Onward they rush, and every toil defy ! 
Gall'd by their lords,how hard the attempt is found 
To climb the deck ! how swift the sky turns round ! 
How noisome are the sinks ! how rough the seas I— 
With a gallant, they spring on board with ease. 
Tug at the rugged ropes with tender palms. 
Roam o'er this ship, eat, drink, and laugh at qualms; 

Bottom's comrade; who, after being dressed out at all pojntsliKe 
a lion, was anxious to thru*.t his head through ih© aniraars neck, 
** and tell the audience plainly that he whs bn»ig the joiner l" 

Notliiiig can be more full of bitterness than the remark which 
follows, that even Canopus was disgusted at the profligacy of the 
Roman ladies,— ff mores urbii damnante Canopo y^-^incc that town, 
(p. 10,) surjMissed in dissoluteness of manners, every part of Egjpt, 
and, perhaps, of the empire. 

170 sj^TiRi VI. JUVENAL. Vt 146— 173. 

But With a husband-^O, how changed the ca&e ! 
^* Sick ! sick !** they cry^ and vomit in liis face. 

But say, what form could Hippia thus inflame^ 
What youtIi» what beautyj^-^^to support the name 
OrF£MC£R'sT&utL? 0, she hadca^useto doat! 
For the sweet Serglus long had •haved his throaty 
And his disabled arm, and sinking age, 
Now craved a quick dismission from the stage 1 
Add, that his face was batter*d| and decay*d ; 
The helmet on his brow huge galls had made, 
A wen deform'd his nose, of monstrous size. 
And sharp rheum trickled from his bloodshot eyes. 
But then be was a swordsman I that alone 
Made every charm, and every grace his own ; 
That made him dearer than her nuptial vows. 
Dearer thaxi country, sister, children, spouse. — 
*Tis BLOOD THEY Lovftlet Sergius quit the sword. 
And he^U appear, at once^-^-so like her lord ! 

Starfst thou at wrongs that touch a private name, 
At Hippia*s lewdness, and Veiento*s shame ? 
Turn to tlie rivals of the immortal Powers, 
And mark how like their fortunes are to ours. 
Claudius had scarce begun his eyes to close. 
Ere from his side his Messalina rose ; 
(Accustom'd long the bed of state to slight 
For the coarse mattress, and the hood of night ;) 
And with one maid, and her dark hair conceal'd 
Beneath a yellow tire, a strumpet veil'd ! 

VtB. 172. — ler dark hair cenuatd 

fientath a yelldf^p, tire,] Holiday, whose autho- 
rity is always respectable, wdcrsimia. gakrus of a veil. I take 

$ATi«E vi^ jyVENAt. V. i74t— 177* X71 

She slipt into the stewe,, unseen^ unknown^ 
And hired 2^ cell^ yet rc«kii|g> for her pwn. 
There, flipging ofiTher df^s, th€ imperial whorr 
Stood, with hajre breasts sipd giJkl^d, at tb€ door» 

it to be ao artificial lire or headdress. The £inpref9 seems to 
have chosen i^ of a yejlow, or rather carroty colour, npt only 99 
an efiectiial disguise, but as being in some degree appropriated to 
prostitutes. F^rrerius makes himself mccry lyitb St rvi^s fc^r say- 
ing that bta^lc hair (false, it must be understood) was peculiar to 
natrons, and yeHow to women of pleasure; but without reason, 
for Scrvius is essentijally righc To bring passages whore ^#rtf« is 
applied to Lavinia, Lucretia, &c. is the worst of triflings Who 
does not know that the ancients availed thcmseives of sudi 
epithets as Jlavus^ candiduSf purpureuSf SfC* as mere indicatives of 
beauty, and without the smallest reference to the colours respec- 
tively signified by them \ The sense must always be detertaiined 
by the context. 

In the present case, it is certain that the Roman prostitutes 
wore a kind of jellow headdress; npr was this custom peculiar 
to them ; th^y found it established in Greece, where this (xdoarod 
hair was deemed as improper for a matron to appear in, as it waa 
at Rome. This is intimated in a fragmeiit of Mei^nder : 

Ti^» avffw' tf hi rtm ffh^en ^a»^»i wowiy. 

Ver. 174. She dipt into the stewst 4*<^.] The stews at Rome 
were constructed in the form of a gallery, along which were ninged, 
on each side,' a numU^r of contiguous cells, or little chambers. 
Over the door of each of these was written the name of the teuant, 
who stood at the entraace, soliciting the preference of the visitors. 
Messalina, we see, took the cell of Lycisca* whote absentee she 
had probably procuredt and who was undoubtedly a My in some 
request. She is mentioned by Martial^ with whom sb^ seepis to 
have been a favourite. 

Ver. 177, iDith bare breasts ani gilded, 4'<^.] The 

criticks do not seem to enter into the sense of this passage : they 
either suppose Messalina's breasts to be bound with golden fillets, 
or they change auratis (gilded) into ornatU (beautiful) ; but 
Juvenal is to be understood literally : — the papiU(f were covered 
with gold, leaf, a species of ornament which, howievqi' repugnant 
to our ideas of beauty, is. used by many of the daoqng girls^ and 
privileged courtesans of the East, to this day. 

lya SATIRE VI. JUVENAL, v. 178— 197* 

And showed, Britannicus, to all that came, 
The womb that bore thee, in Lycisca's name t 
AHured the passers by with many a wile, 
And ask'd her price, and took it, with a smile. 
And when the hour oF business was expired, 
And all the train dismissed, with sighs retired ; 
Yet what she could, she did ; slowly she past, 
And saw her man, and shut her cell the last. — 
Then, sorrowing, to the £mperour*s bed retires. 
With strength exhausted, but unsated fires, 
Cheeks rank with sweat, limbs drench*d with poi- 
sonous dews, 
The steam of lamps, and odour of the stews ! 

'Twere long to tell what philters they provide, 
What drugs, to set a son-in*law aside. 
Women, in judgment weak, in feeling strong, 
By every gust of passion born along, , 
Act in their fits such crimes, that, to be just. 
The least pernicious of their sins is lust. 

But why's Gesennia then, you say, adored. 
And styled the first of women, by her lord ? 

%''Eit. 196* Bui whys Cesennia S^c,"] Juvenal is seldom mih^ 
out his meaning; and while he exposes the ovei^grown fortunes of 
the women in his own time, and the vicious liberties they took in 
consequence of thoir wealth, he secretly reminds us of the very 
moderate dowers given to the daughters of the first men of the 
state in the better times of Rome ; and of the domestick virtues 
for which they were conspicuous. It was usual for the rich wives 
of his titt^ to hold a considerable portion of their, fortune, and & 
certain number of slaves, at their own disposal. It was not, 
therefore, the mere gratitude of the husband which made him 
wave his own authority, aikl allow the wife to domineer. The 
Greeks seem to have given the same personal indulgence to women 
who brought ample dowers with them : ** The ornaments of gold 
which now adorn my head,** says Hermioue, ** and the variety uf 


SATIRE Yi. JUVENAL. V. 198—215. 17J 

Because she brought him thousands : Such the price 

It cost the lady to be free from vice ! 

Plutus, not Cupid, touch'd the lover's heart, 

And 'twas her doWer that wing'd the unerring dart. 

She bro\ight enough her liberty to buy^ 

And tip the wink before her husband*s eyC:: . . 

A wealthy ^anton, to a miser wed, 

Has all the license of a widow'd bed. 

But yet, Sertorius what I say disproves, 
For though his Bibula was poor, he loves. 
True ! but examine him, and, on my life, 
You'll find he loves the beauty, not the wife. 
Let but a wrinkle on her forehead rise, 
And time obscure the lustre of her eyes. 
Let but the moisture leave her Saccid skin, 
And her teeth blacken, and her cheeks grow thin, 
And you shall hear the insulting freedman say, 
" Pack up your trumpery, madam, and away I 

robes I possess, came to mc neither from Achilles, nor from 
Peletis. I brought them from Sparta. Menelaus, my father, 
presented them to me with a dowry still more cunsiderablci to the 
end that I might speak with freedom !" 

It is amusing to observe the contrast which this custom of the 
Greeks and Romans forms, with the practice of the rugged 
nations of the North. These high-spirited barbarians could not 
bear the idea of dependence even on their wives, and they, there- 
fore, refused to receive any dowries with them : ** A]pud Gotios 
fion mulkr viro, sed vir mulieri dotem (usignat, nc conjux^ 6b mag" 
nitudinem dotis insoiesccnSy aliquandv ex piacida consorte proterca 
evadatf atqv€ in maritum dominari conlendatS* 

V£R. 215. " Tack up your trumpery ^ madam, SfcJ] This was the 
leg^l form and language of a divorce, according to the law of the 
Twelve Tables : Ut si a conjugibus alter nuntium taittcrttj eumque 
Tes suas Mibi habere juberety dixortiwm esset. 

174 sAtiitB vt. JUVENAL^ t* 116—227. 

<^ Nay, bustle, bustle ; here you give tStnee^ 
^^ With snuffling night and day:«^take your nose 
hence !" — 
But trt ihat hour arrive, she reigns indeed ! 
Shepherds, and sheep of Ganusinian breed, 
Falernian vineyards, (trifles these,) she craves^ 
And store of boys, and troops of country slaves; 
Briefly, for all her neighbour has, she sighs^ 
And plagues her doting husband till he buys. 
In winter, when the merchant fears to roam, 
And snowy roofs confine the crew at home ; 
She ransacks every shop for precious ware, 
Here cheapens myrrh and crystal vases ; there, 

Ver. 227^ Here cheapens myrrh and crystal vases i\ In the 
original tnyrrhma, a word about which no two of the conomen* 
tators are agreed. Pliny the Cider says, that these vases were first 
introduced by Pompey : Eadem victoria (that over Mithridates) 
primum in urhem murrhina induxit ; primusqve Pompdus sex pocula 
ex eo triumpho Capiiolino Jovi dicavit^ qum pftimu ad kominuM 
usum transiire—'txcrescitque indies ejus rei luxvs, Ldb^ xxxvil. 2. 
Propertiusy who had undoubtedly seen them, says, 

'* Murrheaque in Parthis pocula cocta fbcis/' 

This seems a very good description of what we call porcelain, and 
with this we might have been content, had not Pliny, who could 
not be ignorant of it, added, Oriens murrhina mittit : inveniuniwr 
cnim t6t in plurihus locis^ nee insignibus^ maxime Parthici regni ; 
pracipue tomen in Carmania. Here it b manifest that Pliny took 
them for gems : and so, indeed, he elsewhere terms them ; in 
which he is followed by Martial, and others. Hardouin incliDes 
to Propertius. 

I am aware that all this is very unsatisfactory } but I know 
not where to look for any thing more to the purpose. Salmasiu^ 
IS confused and contradictory on the subject, and Scaliger, who 
agrees with Propertius, introdaces a circumstance which is in- 
compatible with his own explanation. Ainsworth says, murra is 
a ** stone of divers colours, of which cups are made :'' this is well 
enough; yet he refers to this passage of Juvenal, under anoth^ 

SATXRX VI. JUVENAL, v. 228— ftjt. 175 

That far-fa-med gem, which on th<e finger giow*d 
Of Berenice, (dearer thence,) bestow*d 
By an incestuous brotlier, in that State, 
Where kings the Sabbath, barefoot, celebrate ; 

wordy myrrMnu ; i. e. says he, ** of myrriiy or scetfted witli 
myrrh." In some modern travels, I find that the distncts men* 
tioned by Pliny still aflbrd a gem that answers, in some measure* 
Co his description : it is a species of agiite; and this, after ail, may 
be the substance in question. 

VsE* 229* Of Berenice^ Jj^c.] Jortih observes, on a passage ia 
the 14th Satire, that die commentators have poured out a flood 
of nonsense or profaneness, in attempting to explain it. He mt|(bt 
have said the same of this before us, with equal justice. BrieHy, 
(for heie^is nothing, after all, very obscure, though Dusauix thmks 
It, '* beyond doubt, the most difficult place iu Juveual,") the 
Berenice mentioned above, was the daughter of Agrippa, whose 
youngest son, called after his fa^er, * was suspected of an inc«s» 
tuous commerce with her. She was a woman equally celebrated 
for her lewdness and her beauty ; and had prevailed on Titus to 
promise her marriage ; a promise which nothing but his dread of 
an insurrection prevented him from carrying into execution: 
turn reginam Berenicem dimisitf invitus iaviiam. The incidents 
that enhanced the value of this ring, convey a forcible picture of 
the capricious and profligate extravagance which distinguished 
the women of Juvenal's time. 

VsR. SdO. in that StatCy] That is, says the 

old Scholiast, in Judaea, where the Synagogue is, and where they 
apare the old h<^ because they prefer eating the young onesi 
Thia is very good : eating young hogs is certainly not the way t» 
have old ones. The truth, however, is that this honest naan knew 
not what he was saying. Juvenal himself is sufficiently incorvect. 
Theancients observed that the Jews did not eat swine's flesh, and they, 
therefore, conjectured, that they held swine in reverent estimation^ 
The fact, however, is, that they neither ate old nor young ; they 
kept them indeed, but it was for their neighbours' eating ; and 
hogs in Judaea, I suspect, had no particular indulgences. 

In the next line Juvenal says, meropede; (barefoot ;) if it were 
not for his general ignorance of the Jewish ritual, I should be 

* This young Agrippa wns the Tetrarch of Galilea who heard 
Sailit Paul at Caesarea, during his visit to the Proconsul. 

1J& SATXKB VI. JUVENAL. V. 232—243* 


And old indulgence grants a. length of life 
To hogs, that fatten fearless of the knife. 

What ! and is none of all this*numerous herd 
Worlhy thy choice ? not one to be preferred ? — 
Suppose her nobly born, young, rich, and fair. 
And, though a sable swan be far less rare, 
Chaste as the Sabine wives, who rush'd between 
The kindred hosts, and closed the unnatural scene 
Yet who could bear to lead an humbled life, 
Gurs*d with that veriest plague, a faultless wife ! 
Some simple rustick at Venusium bred, 
O let me, rather than Cornelia, wed^ 

almost tempted to think, with Holyday, that he bad looked into 
Josephus for this circumstance. See Uell. Jud. Lib. 11. 

Ver. 243. let me^ rather than Cornelia^ trfd,] This Cornelia 
\\as.the daughter of Scipio Africnnus, the wife of Cornelius, and 
the mother of Caius and Tiberius Gracchus. She had, .as the 
reader sees, some reason to be proud, and it appears that she was 
not wanting to herself; Plutarch says, she was fond of boasting 
of the victories of her father over Hannibal and Syphax. To this 
laudable propensity Juvenal alludes ; he had also in view, per- 
haps, a circumstance that seems to have escaped the cridcks. 
So great was her haughtiness, that when Ptolemy Kii^ of Egypt 
asked her in marriage, after the death of her husband, she was 
seriously offended, and rejected the proposition with every mark 
of indignation. The unhappy fate of her two sons has iicen al- 
ready mentioned. (Sat. 11.) Their eloquence and spirit w^re 
hers, their turbulence, I hope, was their own :— not that she seems 
altogether to have disapproved of it, for on the basis of a statue 
xaised to her memory, we find Corkslia mater GracchO'^ 
.RUM ; the very words of Juvenal. 

Boileau has imitated this passage very happily : 

'' Ainsi done au pliltot delogcant de ces lieux, 

*' Allez, princesse,.allez avec tous vos aieux, 

*' Sur le pompeux debris des lances Espagnoles, 

" Coucher, si vous voulez, aux champs dc Cerizoles." 

sATiKi VI* JUVENAL, y. 244-— 260. 177 

If to great virtues^ greater pride she join^ 
And count her ancestors as current coin. 
Hence with thy Hannibal ! go, prithee tramp. 
With vanquish*d Syphax, and his sooty camp ! 
Plague me no more with Carthage I I'll be free 
From all this pageantry of worth, and thee. 

** O let, Apollo, let my children live, 
" And thou, Diana, pity, and forgive," 
Amphion cries ; " they, they are guiltless all : 
" The mother, sinn'd, let then the mother fall." 
In vain he cries ; Apollo bends his bow, 
And, with the children, lays the father low. 
So perish'd they, while Niobe*s mad pride, 
In honours, with Latona's offspring viedj 
And dared the White Sow's fruitfulness 

Beauty and worth are purchased much too dear. 
If a wife force them hourly on your ear ; 

Vkr. 255. Jndf with the children^ lays the father /otD.] Extulit 
ergo gregem fuUorum^ ipsumque parentem. This, Owen translates, 
** and sons, and mother slew :*' perhaps it is an crrour of the 
press ; though I observe the same expression in Dry den. The 
satire evidently requires that we should understand it of Amphiony 
"who fell upon the bodies of his sons, ferro per pectus adactOy as 
Ovid says. It is true, Niobe herself perished not long after ; but 
this Juvenal purposely drops : his object was to show the fatal 
consequences of her pride, on those who had no share in her guilt. 

VfiR. 258. And dared the IVhite Sow's Sfc] This famous sow, 
who is introduced more than once, was found by ^neas near Lavi.. 
niom, on the spot where Alba was afterwards built. Ridiculous as 
the incident is, it makes a conspicuous figure iu the iEneid, where 
it is given with wonderful gravity. Juvenal has fallen into a curious 
anachronism in mentioning it ; but of thn be was as well aware 
as we can be : he produ^ it, 1 am persuaded, merely to' vex 
Domilian, (whom he never forgets,) who being, as Owen observes, 
extremely attached to Alba, and probably interested .11 its glory, 
ini^t be mortified at having this idle story so frequently brought 
forwardi and ridiculed. 


Ijg SATJJLB VI. JUVP>fAl45 V. 7fil^t9l, 

For say, what pleasure can you hope to find) 
Even in this boast, this phoenix of her kimi^ 
If, warp*d by pride, on aU ground she low'r^ 
And in your cup more gz^U than hongy pow f 
Ah ! who so bljndly weeded to tbp st^te, 
As not to shripl^ from such 4 perfect m^te, 
Of every virtue feel the oppressive w^ighti 
And curse the worth he loves, seven hours \n f ig|it' 
Sqrpe faults, though sm^ll, |io l^qsbaad yet caa 

bear : 
*Tis now the nauseous cant, th^t none is fair, 
Unless her thoughts in Attick terms she dresji ; 
A mere Gecropian of a Sqlmoness ! 
All now is Greek : in this their squls they pour, 
Ip this their fears, hopes, joys ;*r-wbat wQuld you 

In this they clasp their lovers. We allow 
These wanton fooleries to girls ; but thoii, 
Who tremblest on the verge of eighty-eight, 
To Greek it still ! — O, 'tis a day top late. 
fob I how it savours of the dregs of lust. 
When an old hag, whose blandishments disgust, 
Affects the infant lisp, the girlish sqpeak. 
And mumbles out, " My life! my soul!" in Greek. 

Vee. 272. A mere Cecropian of a Suhnonesg/] The satire of 
this line will be understood by recollecting, that the inhabitants 
of Sulmo, a town of Pclignuni, spoke a bafbarous Latin dialect ^ 
while the Cecropians, or people of Athens, raiide use of the purest 
and most el^ant Greek. 

After this line there follows in the original, Cum sit turpe magis 
nostris ncscire Latine; \yhich I believe, with Barthius and others^ 
tto be spurious, and have therefore omitted, 

Ver. 282. And mumbles out, *' My life! my souH" w Qtak.} 


Words whicl| the secret sheets alone sboi^Id hear, 
But which she trumpets in the publick ear. [woo 
And words, indeed, have power — But though 9he 
In softer strains thsm e*er G^rpqphoriis knew, 
Her wrinkles st^l employ her favourite's cares ; 
And while sh$ mjurmurs love, he counts her years ! 

But tell n^ej-^^^if tbou canst not love a wife, 
Made thiqe by every ^ie, and thine for life, 
Why we4 at all ? why waste the wine and cakes, 
The queasy-stonu|ch*4 guest, at parting, takes ? 
And the rich present, which the bridal right 
Claims for the favour^ of the happy night, 
The charger, wher!^, triumphantly inscroird^^ 
The Dacian hero shipes in current gold ? 

Ztm KM '^xf'f Tb«te expresMons were familinr to the Roman 
ladies. We find them again in Martial, in an epigram patched up 
from the passage before os : 

<' Cum tibi non Ephesos, nee sit Rhodos, aut Mitylene, 

** Sed domos in vico, Lselia, patricio,-** 
'' Zim KAi ^I'^x*' lascivum congehs usque, 

" Proh piidor ! Hersiliae civis, et iBgeriae." Lib. x. 56. 

Vie. Z96. The Dacian hero 4*c.] Dacicusy (says the Scholiast,) 
hoe ettt MoMi iia signati^ qui pro virginitate deppsita novas nuptte 
inmoHtur, The custom was not peculiar to Rome ; it prevailed, 
under the jiame of morgengab^ or morning-present, over a great 
part of this ISojrth of Europe ; w^re, indeed^ siome faint traces of 
it are still to be found. 

The kind of money which wa^ given to thye bride, is not specified 
without reason. It was coined, we may suppose, in consequence 
of Domitian's boasted victories in the Dacian war ; and there is 
Ao doubt, as I have already said, (p. 124,) but that Juvenal 
migbtily enjoyed this indirect allusion to them. 

The Dacian war was one of the most dishonourable circum- 
f tances of Domitian's reign. He aspired to the conduct of it him* 
9eif : and the consequences were precisely such as might have 
keen predicted. His cowardice k^t hitid at a distance from 

tSo SATIRE VI* JUVENAL, v. 297— 317. 

If thou CANST lovci and thy besotted mmd 
Is so uxoriously to one inclined,. 
Then bow thy neck, and, with submissive air, 
Receive the yoke thou must for ever wean 

To a fond spouse, a wife no mercy shows, 
But, warm'd with equal fires, enjoys his woes. 
And triumphs in his spoils : her wayward will. 
Defeats his bliss, and turns his good to ill I 
Nought must be given, if she opposes ; nought, 
If she opposes, must be sold or bought; 
She tells thee where to love, and where to hate. 
Shuts out the ancient friend, whose beard thy gate 
Knew from its downy to its hoary state : 
And when pimps, parasites, of all degrees, 
Have power to will their fortunes as they please, 
She dictates thine, and impudently dares 
To name thy very rivals for thy heirs. 

" Go, crucify that slave." For what offence ? 
Who's the accuser ? Where the evidence ? 
Hear all : no time, whatever time we take, 
To sift the charges, when man's life's at stake, 

danger, add his volaptuoasncss ruined tbe discipline of the canp: 
thus every thing went on ill under his auspices. Happily for the 
army, he left it at last: yet not till he had despatched his << lau- 
l^ird letters'' to Rome : where the senate (nearly as cbntemptible 
as their master) decreed that medals should be struck, and 
statues raised to his success ; and that he should come among 
them at all times, in the haiHt of triumph ! 


V«R. 316. — no imei ^c] Thus Amm. Marcel* 

linus*. JOe vita et spiritu kominzs latmtan ^entctttiam diu muliumque 
cuneiari oporterCf nccpntdpki stvdiOf ubi irrevocabik sUfactwm^ 
agitari. But both Ammianus and our author had been long 
preceded in this humane sentiment, by the Greciain legislator t 

SATIRE vi. JUVENAL. V.3I8--333. i8i 

Can e'er be long ; hear all, then, I advise — 
'^ Thou sniveller ! is a slave a man ?" she criesi 
*' He*s innocent ; be*t so : — ^'tis my command, 
'' My will ; let that, sir, for a reason stand.'* 

Thus the virago triumphs, thus she reigns : 
Anon she sickens of her first domains. 
And seeks for new ; husband on husband takes, 
Till of her bridal veil one rent she makes. 
Again she tires, again for change she burns, 
And to the bed she lately left returns. 
While the fresh garlands, and unfaded boughs, 
Yet deck the portal of her wondring spouse. 
Thus swells the list; eight husbands in fiv£ 
A rare inscription for their sepulchres ! [years : 

While thy wife's mother lives, expect no peace. 
She teaches her, with savage joy, to fleece 

KofM$ aA^o( «npi ^atarHf f*« ftiay fiotot ifitfeip xftvutf .oAAtf voXAof* 
Plato Apol. de Socrat I find a very notable piece of advice on 
this subject, among the wise sayings of D. Cato : 

** Nil teraere uxori de servis crede querenti," 

which every husband should get translated and hung over his par- 
lour chimney. 


I have already mentioned the facility with which divorces might 
be obtained* (v. 49,) it only remains to add here, that the license 
was most grievously abused. Women of fashion do not now, says 
Seneca, reckon Uieir years by the number of Consuls, but by the 
husbands they have taken, 

Britannicus, interpreting an epigram of Martial too literally* 
(Lib. VI. 7,) affirms that Juvenal mentions eight husbands, b«^ 
cause the law allowed no more ; all beyond that number being 
esteemed adultery. In this he is followed by Holyday ; but 
surely both are wrong : no such licentiousness ever was, or ever 
could be, allowed by law. But Juvenal adds, fitulo res dig»(^ 
iepukhri I Upon which Lubin says, it was customary to inscribe 

tSt BATiitt Ti; JUVEKAL. ▼. 334^347* 

A bankrupt spouse : kind creature ! iht befrienJl 
The lover's hopes, and when hdr datt|^httr setids 
An answer to his prayer, the styU inspectsi 
Softens the cruel, and the wron{; eor^ecib i 
Experienced bawd ! she blinds, or bribes all eyes^ 
And brings the adulterer in despite of spies. 
And now the farce begins ; the lady (His 
*' Sick, sick. Oh ! sick ;*' and foi^ the doctbr calls: 
Sweltering she lies, till the dull visit's O'er, 
While the rank letcher, at the closet doof, 
Lurking in silence, maddens with delay, 
And in his own impatience melts away* 
Nor deem it strange : What mother e*er was known 
T' inculcate morals^ purer than her own ? 

the number of huabtnds il woman had taken, oil her sepulchit ; 

and he pretends to prove it by this distich, which, as usual, is 
little more than a transcript from our author : 

** Inscripsit tumulo septem celebrata viwnirti 
** Se fecisse Chloe.— Quid pole simplicius ^^ 

Chloe, however, gets rid of her husbands by a process somewhat 
more violent than that of the text, by poisoning them 1 and on 
this the sting of the epigram depends ; but I doubt the &ct. To 
have been the wife of one man only, was looked upon as an ho- 
nourable distinction, and therefore carefully noted on the tombs 
of such as were entitled to it ; indeed, it is mentioned by Proper* 
tius, as the boast of Cornelia : 

*< In lapide hoc uni nupta fuisse legar :" 

And again, in the same el^, lib. xv. 12 : 

*^ Filia, tu specimen censurae haM mat^tiid^^ 
*' Fkc teueas iJNUtt,'n6s ittiltataf virufti ;" 

but, that a lady's executors ever tetorded that 6he had buried 
seven or eight husbands, 1 cannot bring myself to believe. The 
exclamation of Jlivenal is a bitter, perhaps dn overchaiged, sai^ 
casm on the wives of his time, who vrete so lost to every sense of 
the ancient honour, as to be ready to perpcttiate their want of 
chastity ou their tomb-stones ! 

sikTiRi VI. JUVENAL* V. 348—361* 183 

No ; — ^with their daaghtens* crimes they swell their 

And thrive as bawds, when but of date as whores ! 

Women sup|)t)i*t the baA : they love the law^ 
And raise litigious questions for a straw. 
They tneet in private^ and prepare the Bill, 
Draw up the Instructions with a lawyer's skill. 
Suggest to Gelsus where the mdrits lie^ 
And dictate points for statement or reply. 

Nay more, they fence! who has not mark'd 
their oil, 
Their purple rugs, for this preposterous toil ? — 
Equipt for fight, the lady seeks the list, 
And fiercely tilts at her antagonist, 
A post ! which, with her buckler she provokes, 
And bores and batters with repeated strokes ; 

Vtit. 354. Sagged to CeUns Spcl An orator of those times, 
sajB the Scholiast, who left behirid him seven books of Institutes. 
If by " those times" be meant the ige of Juvenal, there is a ma- 
nifest erroar, for Celsus died in iht «igH of Tiberius. He is now 
better known as a physician than it bxVy^t. 

There is, indeed, a Juniui (JuvenfJuii) Celsus mentioned by 
Grangasos ; and this, perhaps, may be the person to whom the 
Scholiast alludes. But as he flourished under Adrian, (somewhat 
too late a period for the date of this Satire',) I still incline to be- 
lieve that our author gives, as is customary with him, the name 
of the well-known rhetorician, to some contemporary master of 
the art. 

Yer. 357- Their purpU rugs, ^.] I have already mentioned 
these rugs (endromidcs) in the third Satire, (p. 76,) They were 
usually put on after violent exercise. It only remains to note 
with what ingenuity the ladies concrited to make even their tilting 
pnnuits subservient to their vanity. Their rugs are ornamental, 
and they grow cool in Ty rian purple ! How happened it that this 
escaped Martial? 

i84 lATiiti VI. JUVENAL. ▼. 362—365. 

Till all the fencer's art can do she shows, 
And the glad master interrupts her blows. 
O worthy, sure, to head those wanton dames, 
Who foot it naked at the Floral Games ; 

Vbr. S65. — — the Fhr^Gmnet;] Flora, the 

Romans say, was a lady of pleasure^ who, having acquired ao 
imnicnse fortune (at a time when a few pounds of brass consti'- 
tuted all the wealth of the state) in the honest way of trade, left 
it to the people, on condition that the interest of it should be 
annually laid out in a merry meeting, which was to be held on her 
birthday, and called, after her own name, Floralia. The senate 
took the money, and, out of gratitude (out of shame, Lactanthif 
thinks) to so exquisite a benefactress, made her a goddess forth- 
with, and put the flowers under her protection ! The people, go«d 
souls ! made po objection to the promotion of their old friend, 
and kept her birthday, now her festival, more zealously than 
ever. Except the audacious claim put in by Greece, on behalf 
of Rhodope, (*' a customer," like the former,) to the erection of 
one of the pyramids, which was built before that country had yet 
given shelter to a few naked savages ; nothing was ever more im- 
pudently urged than this idle story. The flowers of Italy had a 
presiding Power, ages before Rome or her senate was heard ot 
Varro supposes Flora to have been a Sabine deity ; and adds, that 
Numa first gave her a priest. Ovid puzzles himself sorely to ac- 
count for the singular manner in which she was worshipped in his 
time, but ib at no loss about the rest of her story. He translates 
her name into Greek, proves her to have acted as a midwife at 
the birth of Mars, &c. and has some Seantiful verses on her mar- 
riage with Zephyrus, who gave her the chai^ge of blossoms and 
flowers for a dowry .-^But enough of this. 

The f-loralia were first sanctioned by the government in the 
consulship of Claudius Ceotho, and Sempronius Tuditanus, 
(a. u. c. Dxui.) out of the fines then exacted for trespasses 00 
the groun'ds belonging to the people : (this is Ovid's story :) even 
then they were only occasional ; but about eighteen years after* 
wards, on account of an unfavourable spring, the senate decreed 
that they should be celebrated annually, as the most effectual 
method to propitiate the goddess of the season. 

This is the best account I can find of them : my own opinion 
is, that they had their rise in a very remote age, and, like the 
Lupercalia, were the uncouth expressions of gratitude of a rude 
and barbarous race, handed down by tradition, $Miopted by ^ 

SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 36&— 371. t^% 

Unless, with nobler daring, she aspire 
To combat 00 the publick stage-^for hire ! 
What sense of shame is to that woman known. 
Who envies our pursuits, and hates her own ? 
Yet, though she madly doat on arms and blood, 
She would not change her sex, not-^--jf she cou*d, 

people as yet but little refined, and finally^ d^enerating int9 
iicentiousnessy amidst the general corruption of manners. 

These games were celebrated on the last day of April, and the 
first and second days of May ; and with an indecency hardly cre- 
dible amongst a civilized people. Stniropets, taken from th« 
dregis of the populace, appeared upon the stage, and exhibited a 
variety of obscene dances, feats of activity, &c. The peoplo 
claimed a privilege of calling upon these miserable wretches, to 
strip themselves quite naked ; which was regularly done with im« 
meose applause 1 Val. Maximus says, that when Cato once hap- 
pened to be present at these games, the spectators were ashameidl 
to call upon the ladies as usual ; Cato, who, 1 suppose, expected 
it, asked his friend Favorinus why they delayed ; and was an- 
swered, Out of respect to him ; upon which he immediately left 
the theatre, to the great joy of the people, who proceeded to in- 
demnify themselves for their reluctant forbearance. Martial has 
an epigram on this story, in which he puts a very pertinent 
question : ** Why,'' says he to Cato, '< since you knew the nature 
of these games, did you go into the theatre ? was it merely that 
you might come out again !*' A word more. Among the many 
puzzling circumsttances in the Roman History, it is not one of the 
least, to account for the high character which Cato obtained from 
liis countrymen. A parent without afiection, a husband without 
attachment, a master without humanity, and a republican without 
political honesty, he has yet come down to us» as one of the most 
virtuous men of his age! 1 have frequently considered his actions; 
but found little more in them, than proofs of a hard heart, a wily 
bead, and an impudence that would have scandalized a cynick. 

Hoiyday tells us, that these '' vile impudent strumpets were wont 
to dance naked through the streets, to the sound of a trumpet, to 
which our poet here alludes more particularly.*' I cannot find it 
« so set down ;" but they were certainly assembled by the sound 
of a trumpet ; and, at any rate, the leader of this immodest band 
inust have required all the impudence, and all the profligacyf 
which Juvenal sees in his female fencer. 

ittf nkriiktn. JUVENALw v. |7«-ai^5. 

For there's a thing she loves b^yoikl 6ompir^^ 
And m^n^ aUs) hate no advantage there. — 
O, how it must delight thee to beh^ki 
Thy wire s atcontremetits in publiclc Sdld ; 
And auctione6t^ displaying to the throngs 
Hercre^t^ her belt, her gauntlet^ arid ber th(}iigl 
Or, if in other frolicks she engage, 
Attd take bet prirate lessons for the stage, 
Then three- fold rapture must expand thy breast^ 
To see hei* greaves " a going** with the rest. 

Yet these are they « the tender souls ! who sweat 
In muslin, and in silk expire W'ith h^at. 
Markf with what force, as the full blow descends, 
She thunders " hah !" again, how Idw she bends 
l^eneath tke oppeser's stroke, how firm she rests. 
Poised on her bartis^ and ev^ry step contests, 
How close tuclc'd up for fight, behind, before. 
Then laugh to see her squat, when all is o*er ! 

Tell me, ye d<lnghters of M etellus old, 
jEmilius^ Gnrges, did ye e'er behold 
Asyllus* wife, and be the truth confest, 
Tilt at a stake^ thus impudently drest! 

*Tis night; yet hope no slumbers with your wife; 
The nuptial bed is still the scene of strife: 

Ver. 393. TUi at a stake^ SfcJ] We bate now seen the ladiej 
fer.bibiting As fencers, prize-fighters, gladiators, &c. Occupatioiis 
so abborreht from the nature of the ^x, that the mere dtfYiciiltj 
bf conceiving it possible they should ever engage in them, has pn>> 
bably led many to imagine the whole to be the invention of the 
poet. But this is to be ignorant of tbc histofy of those times. 
We ^ve but to open tbe pages of contemporary writers to be 
convinced that, &r from inventing, he does not everi exaggerate. 

There lives the kefen debate, the datttditmft brawlv 
And quiet '^ never cotn^s, that cotMU to all/' 
Fierce as a tigress plunder'd of her ydlitig, 
Rage fires her breast, and loo^ns all her tongUfe, 
When, conbcions of her guilty she feigns to grean^ 
And chides your loose amours, to hide her owii^ 
With tears, that, marshall'd) at their station st6ild| 
And flow impassion' d, as she gitet command. 
You think those showers her true affection provei 
And deem yourself so haJ3py in her love i 
With fond caresses strive her heart to cheei*| 
And from her eyelids suck the starting tear : 
But could you noW examine the scrutore 
Of this most loving, this most jealous whdri;, 
What amorous lays, what letters ivduld ytfti Mtx 
Proofs, damning proofs, of her sincerity ! 

But these are doubtful — Put a clearer case ; 
Suppose her taken in a slave's embrace^ 
Or even a knight's. Now, tny Quintilian, coiner 
And fashion an excu^^. What ! you are dumb? 
Then let the lady speak. " Was't not agreed 
^' The MAN should please himself^*' It Was ; proceeds 
** Then I've an equal right.*' Heavens ! — " Nay, 

no oath : 
•' Man is a general term, and takes in both/* 
When once surprised, the sex all shame for^o. 
And more audacious, as more gniUy grow. 

Whence shall these prodigies of vice be traced f 
From wealth, my friend. OUr toattons then Wfer* 


i88 sATiRVVi. JUVENAL* r*4t4^44ff^ 

When days of labour, nights of short repose^ 
Hands still employ'd the Tuscan wool to tose. 
Their husbands arm'd^ and anxious for the State^ 
And Carthage hovering near the GoUine gate, 
Conspired to keep all thoughts of ill aloof, 
And banished vice, far from their lowly roof« 
Now, all the evils of long peace are ours ; 
Luxury, more terrible than hostile powers, 
Her baleful influence wide around has hurled 
And well avenged the subjugated world i 
Yes, since the good old poverty is fled. 
Vice, like a deluge, o*er the State has spread : — 
Now, shame to Rome ! in every street are found 
Voluptuous Sybarites, with roses crown*d, 
The rank Miletan, and the Tarentine, 
Lewd, petulant, and reeling ripe with wine ! 
Wealth first, the ready pander to all sin, 
Brought foreign manners, foreign vices in ; 
Enervate wealth, and with seductive art, 
Sapp*d every homebred virtue of the heart ; 
Yes, every: — for what cares the drunken dame^ 
(Take head or tail, to her 'tis much the same,) 
Who at deep midnight on fat oysters sups. 
And froths with unguents her Falernian cups ; 

Ver. 447* -^nd froths toith unguents her Fakmtan cups;} This 
most extravagant custom of pouring precious ointraents into ivine, 
and drinking them off together, is mentioned, in terms of great 
indignation by the Elder Pliny, (lib. xiii. 5.) M hercuUf jrnn^ 

quidam etiam in potus addunt (unguentaj ut odore prodigQ 

jruantur ex utraque parte corporis / 

It was then, we see, confined to a few ; but it swiftly spread, 

SATIRS Yi. JUVENAL. T. 448— 451. lfi9 

Who swallows oceans, till the tables rise, 
And double lustres dance before her eyes ! 

Go now, and doubt, as Tullia homeward goes, 
With what contempt she tosses up her nose 

with every other vicious excess, and ^hen Martial wrote was 
common enough: 

" Hac licet in gemma^ qu» servat nomina Cosmi, 
** Luxuriose bibas, si foliata sitis." 

Cosmus seems to have been a celebrated compounder of this un- 
guent I do not know his ingredients ; but the commeutatort on 
Martial .say, they consisted of the leaves of nardus^ coituSf ^* 
This is likely enough ; and when we are so happy as to know 
what the leaves iAnardus^ costWp 4*0. are, our perAimen may hope 
to rival Cosmus. 

This monstrous luxury continued in fashion to the decline of 
the empire. It is casually mentioned by .£lian, (Hist. lib. xii») 
fw^ «iM9 p7K/rri( iSTuf iwimv ; and introduced more than once by 
Claudian. In a note on this hemistich, — Te foliis Arabes ditent» 
— his critick says, Odoratis scilicet fokUf qwe eranty et nunc Munt 
gvoque, inter aromata. Ex his foliis fadebant unguentum quOd 
foliatum usurpahatur ; pretiosissimum eratm 

It is not very easy to conceive the motives for this singular 
practice. Savage nations, it is well known, are fond of having 
recourse to the most nauseous mixtures, for the sake of procuring 
a temporary delirium : strong infusions of aromatick ointments in 
wine, are said to produce giddiness : and it is not altogether im- 
proittble, but that this corrupt and profligate people (as the ex- 
tremes of barbaiism and refinement sometimes meet) might be 
influenced by considerations of a similar nature, to adopt so dis- 
gusting and extravagant an expedient, for the mere purpose of 
acceieratmg, and heightening the efiects of intoxication. 

V£R.45]. Witkxoiai contempt ^c] <' They are not pleased,** 
says Stapylton, ** with all the variations of wantonness, unless they 
do show their spite to, and contempt of the Goddess of Chastity, 
at her antiquated, and neglected altars." There were two tem^des 
of Chastity at Rome ; one consecrated to Pudicitia Patricia in 
the Forum Boarium^ or ox-market, the other to Pudicitia Plebeia, 
in the Viatg LonguSf or high*street. The former, (which was 
also the most ancient,) was the scene of these nocturnal impu- 

I find no mention of Tulla or Collatia elsewhere, but Maura is 
brought forward again in the tenth Satire : and in a manner every 
way worthy of her introduction here. 

190 SATMtTi' JUVENAL* v^45»^»^. 

At GhaiHity -s hoar fane ? what inpioos jeers, 
Goilatia pevrs in Maura'a tingling ears f 
Hen^ atop their litters, here they all alight, 
And squat ti]^ether in the Goddess' sight--- 
You pass, aroused at dawn your court to pay, 
The loathsome scene of their licentious play. 

Who knows not now, my friend, the secret rites 
Of the Good Goddess ; when the dance excite^ 
The boiliag htood, when to distraction wound. 
By wine, and rausick's stimulating sound, 
The masnads qf Priapus, with wild air. 
Howl horrible, and toss their flowing hair ! — 
Saufeia now springs forth, and tries a fall 
With the town prostitutes, and throws them all t 
But yields, herself, to MeduUina, known 
For parts and powers superiour to her own. 
Maids, mistresses, alike the contest share. 
And 'tis not always birth that triumphs there. 
Nothing is feign'd in this unnatural game, 
^Tis genuine all ; and such as would inflame 
The frozen age of Priam, and inspire 
The ruptured, bedrid Nestor with desire. 
Stung >vith their mimick ftats, a hollow groan 
Of lu§t breaks forth ; the sex, the sex, is shown ! 
A^d the cave echoes with the impassioned cry, 
^' Let in the men, the adulterers, or we die !*' [street. 
They're not yet come. " Not yet ! then scour the 
^* And bring us quickly here the first you meet.** 
There's none abroad. " Then fetch our slaves." 
They're gone. [one I" — 

" Then hire a waterman." There's none. " Not 

sATupiTi. jyVENALf y,4li^^^t tft 

And, would $0 heaven, onr ^ncLsa^ fltMS^ werQ 
From these ijijpprJtes ! \m^ .eart|), and ft«»> [iVe^ 
Have lij^ardyh^t sirjgjng-weqch produced his w^e, 
Vast as two ^Q^rQato^, t)ierei pyeii tti^re, 
Where the n^^l^ mouf s, m reyer^Bce, Uesipoflceardt 
And even th/e picture pf ^ n^sm is veiFd. 
And who was ^HCir 4 ^coffer ? who dl^spi^eid 
The wooden howl, ql^y ppt, ^nd di^y devised 

V£&. 484. ' ■ — what gmging-'oenckf 4*^.] This was 

Clodius. The aifair to lyhich ^uvenul alludes was a rem^rk^ble 
one, and happened thus. Clodius, thei^ a very young man, had 
an iotrigu^ with Porapeta, the wife of Julius Caesar. As the lady 
was narrowly watched by her mother-in-law, Aurelia, they had 
few opportunities of meeting ; this irritated their impatience, and 
forced them upon an expedient as flagitious as it was new. The 
mysteries of the Bona pea, as every pae knows, were 90 respected 
by the Romans, that none but women had the privilege of offi- 
ciating at them ; every male, even of animals, was driven from 
the hou^e, an^ eyery statue, every picture of the masculine kind 
scrupuloufly veiled. Clodius dressed himself like a woman, and 
knocked at the door of Csesar^s house, where the mysteries were 
then celebrating. One of Pompcia's maids, who was in the secret, 
let him in ; but unluckily, while she was gone to acquaint her 
mistress with his arrival, the impatient Clodius advanced towards 
tbe assembly. On the way, he was met by another domestick, 
who, taking him for one of her own sex, began to toy with him. 
Clodius was confused ; which the other perceiving, insisted on 
iinowing i^ho, ai^d what be was. His voice, and ^till mqre his 
agitation, betrayed him. The women, struck with horrour at the 
profanation, covered the altar and the implements of sacrifice 
with a ^eil, and dr9ve the intruder from the bouse. They left it 
themselves immediately after, and went to acquaint their husbands 
with the unprecedented abomination. Clodius was instantly ac- 
cused, and would havp bepfi condemned ; l^^t for the clandestii^ 
influence of Pompey and Caesar, (of whom he was a necessary 
tool,) and a species of bribery almost too infamous for belief, 
though Cicero asserts it as a fact : Jam vcro CO Dii boni !) rem 
pcrditam ; ctiam noctj^s. ocrparum mulkmm, atque qdpkscerUitfarum 
nMJium inttodfictiw^ nom^ulfjif ju^igjbui pro merctdu cumuh 
Juffani ! 


t9a 8ATIKB VI. JUVENAL, v. 496^517. 


By Numa ? Now, reIigion*s in its wanc,.^^ 
And daring Glodii swarm in every fane;^ 

I hear, old friends, I hear you : " Make all sure, 
*^ Let spies surround her, and let bolts secure/' 
But who shall k.££P the keepers ? Wives contemn 
Our poor precautions, and begin with them. 
Lust is the master*passion ; it inflames 
Alike both high and low ; alike the dames 
Who, on tall Syrians' necks, their pomp display, 
And those who pick on foot their miry way* 

Whene'er Ogulnia to the Circus goes, 
To emulate the rich, she hires her clothes, 
Hires followers, friends, and cushions ; hires a chair, 
A nurse, and a trim girl with golden hair. 
To slip her billets : — prodigal and poor, 
She wastes the wreck of her paternal store 
On smooth-faced wrestlers ; wastes her little all. 
And strips her shivering mansion to the wall ! 
There's many a woman knows distress at home ; 
Kot one that feels it, and, ere ruin come. 
To her small means conforms. Taught by the ant, 
Men sometimes guard against the extreme of want, 
And stretch, though late, their providential cares. 
To food and raiment for their future years : 
But women never see their wealth decay ; 
With lavish hands, they scatter night and day^ 
As if the gold, with vegetative power, 
Would bloom afresh, and spring from hour to hour; 

Veu. 515. Js if the goid^ Src.1 None of the commentaton 
seem to have understood this passage, which is represented by 
some of tliem as incorrect, and by othen as unintelligible. It » 

SATIRE VI. JUVENAL, r. 5x8— 541, .19.^ 

As if the mass its present size would keep, 
And no expense reduce the eternal heap. 

Others there are, who centre all their bliss 
In the soft eunuch, and the beardless kiss : 
They need not from his chin avert their face. 
Nor use abortive drugs, for his embrace. 
But oh ! their joys run high if he be formed, 
When his full veins the fire of love has warm*d ; 
When every partes to full perfection reared, 
And nought of manhood wanting, but the beard. 

But should the dame in musick take delight. 
The publick singer is disabled quite : * 

In vain the praetor guards him all he can. 
She slips the buckle, and enjoys her man. 
Still in her hand his instrument is found, 
Thick set with gems, that shed a lustre round ; 
Still o'er his lyre the ivory quill she flings, 
Still runs divisions on the trembling strings, 
The trembling strings, which the loved Hedymel^ 
Was wont to strike so sweetly, and so well ! 
These still she holds, with these she sooths her woes, 
And kisses on the dear, dear wire bestows. 
A noble dame of late, to Janus' shrine 
Came, with the usual offerings, meal and wine. 

xieitlier the one nor the other ; but a plain allusion to a noiion 
very generally received amongst the ancients, that mines> after 
being exhausted, sometimes reproduced their ores, 

Veb. 531. She slips the buckkjl See p. I66, vcr. 109. 

Vbr. 540. A nobie dame of late^ 4^.] Qtutdofu de numero La^ 
miarum. It has been already observed, (Sat. i v. 223,) that the La- 
otian family was of great antiquity. PoUio, for, whom this high- 
born lady was so interested, is mentioned by Martial, and appears to 


194 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL, v. 542— 559« 

To ask if Pollio might expect renown, 

At the next contest for the Harmonick crown ! 

What could she for a husband more have donei 

What for an only, an expiring son ? — 

Yes, for a harper the besotted dame 

Approach'd the altar, reckless of her fame, 

And yeiL*d her head, and, with a pious air, 

Folio w'd the Aruspex through the form of prayer ; 

And trembled, and turn*d pale, as he explored 

The entrails, breathless for the fatal word. 

But tell me, father Janus, if you please, 

^ell me, most ancient of the deities ! 

Is your attention to such suppliants given ? 

If so — there is not much to" do in heaven f 

For a comedian, this consults your will. 

For a tragedian that ; kept standing, still. 

By this eternal rout, the wretched priest 

Feels his legs swell, and longs to be releast. 

have been a favourite pprformer. The rot|sical games at which 
he proposed to become a competitor, were instituted by that great 
amateur, Domitian : they wjcre ^eld every fifth year, and, from 
their being dedicated to. Tarpeian Jove, probably in the Capitol. 
The manner in which Juvenal describes the mode of consulting 
the Aruspex, is worth noticinc; it is so minute, and at the same 
time so accurate, as to leave little to be added on the subject* 

Pliny says, that the stated forms of prayer were adhered to 
with the most scrupulous exactness, and that a monitor (a minor 
priest, I suppose) stood by the suppikmt, to prevent the slightest 
aberration. TertuUian, who was intimately acquainted with all 
such matters, has an observation on the subject of these monitors, 
in which he nobly contrasts the practices of the Christians with 
those of their adversaries : *^ Ilhtc sutpktaites Christianif numSbuB 
expansis quia inrtoam; (the hands of the Heathens were folded ;) 
capite nudoy (the heads of the Heathens were covered,) qmia nom 
frubcicimm; denique sine momtore^ quia depeciore cramus /" 

sATiitis vi. JUVENAL, v. 560—571. 195 

But let her rather sing, than scour the streets. 
And boldly mix in every crowd dbie meets ; 
Chat with great generals, with a forward air, 
And in .your presence lay her bosom bare.— 

She too with curiosity b*erfiows, 
And all the n^ ws d£ all the world she knows ; 
Knows what jn Scy thia, what in Tfarade is done ; 
The secrets of tlie step-dame and the son ; 
Who speeds, and who is jilted ; and can swear 
Who made tkt widow pregnant^ when, and where. — 
She first espied the star, whose baleful ray 
O'er Parilib and Armenia shed dismay : 

Ver. 561. And holdhf mix in eocry grmad 4^.] Inhere is a 
beautiful passage in Troilus and Cressidai which may serve to 
illustrate this remaiii of our author : 

^ O, these sncoititteiikrs so glib of tongue, 
^ Xhmt give a coasting welcome ere it come, 
'^ And wide unclasp ^e tables of their thoughts 
** T6 every tldclish reader ! tet them down 
'' For sluttish spcnls of opportunity, 
'' And daughters of the game/' 

Vsa. 570. She first espied the star^ Sfcl Lubin (as well as 
Upsius) says that the appearance of tbis blasdngstar must be 
referred to the times of TnyaUy who undertook an expedition 
against the Parthiims and Armenians. But this Satire was writ- 
ten, I believe, before Trajan began his. reign ; I should, therefore, 
if any necessity existed for ascertaitiiog the precise period when 
those events took place, refer them to the times of Vespasian : I 
fear, however, that all the pains taken by the commentators to 
reconcile them to the passages of true history, are thrown away. 
Perhaps the author is amusing himself with the ignorance of his 
female gossip, whom he introduces confounding what she had 
heard, and fabricating what she had not : Niphates, a mountain 
of Armenia, she converts into a river, &c« Niphates, it is true, 
is spoken of as a river by Lucan, and Silius Italicus, but, it is not 
noticed by the geographers; and unless the name be given to the 
Tigris, in the early part of its course, it has probably, no 


196 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 57a— 597^ 

She watches at the gates, for news to come, 
And intercepts it, as it enters Rome ; 
Then, fraught with full intelligence, she flies [lies. 
Through every street, and, mingling truth with 
Tells how Niphates pour*d his flood around, 
Earth yawn*d, and cities sunk in the profound! 

And yet this meddling itch, though never cured. 
Is easier than her cruelty endured : 
For let a neighbour's dog but discompose 
Her rest a moment^ wild with rage she grows : 
** Ho I whips," she cries ; " and flay that cur accurst, 
*' But flay the rascal there, that owns him, first/' 
Dangerous to meet while in these frantick airs, 
And tei;rible to look at, she prepares 
To bathe at night ; she issues her commands, 
And in long ranks forth march the obedient bands, 
With tubs, cloths, oils; — for 'tis her dear delight 
To sweat in clamour, tumult, and afiright. 
At length, the balls by her tired arms resign'd, 
And her lewd limbs perfumed, she calls to mind 
Her miserable guests, long since overcome 
With hunger and with sleep, and hurries home ; 
Enters, all glowing from the bath, athirsli 
For wine, whole casks of wine ! and swallows first 
Two quarts, to clear her stomach, and excite 
A ravenous, an unbounded appetite ! — 

V£R, 590. Jt lengthy the halls ^c] This alludes to Ae custom 
of swinging two heavy masses of lead, to procure a profuse per- 
spiration, after they came out of the bath ; — ^no very delicate 
fancy for a lady ; though full as much so, perhaps, as that of 
having a male bath-keeper to anoint, and rub her dry I 

SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 598"— 621. 197 

.Huisch ! up it comes, good heavens ! meat, drink, 

and all, 
And flows in muddy torrents round the hall ; 
Or a gilt ewer receives the foul contents, 
And poisons all the house with vinous scents* 
So, dropt into a vat, a snake is said 
To drink, and spew :— ^the husband turns his head, 
Sick to the soul, from this disgusting scene. 
And struggles to suppress his rising spleen. 

But she is more intolerable yet. 
Who plays the critick when at board she's set. 
Galls Virgil charming, and attempts to prove 
Poor Dido right. In vei^turing all for love. 
From Maro and Mssonides she quotes 
The striking passages, and while she notes 
Their beauties and defects, adjusts her scales, 
And accurately weighs, which bard prevails. 
The astonished guests sit mute : grammarians yield, 
Loud rhetoricians, ba£3ed, quit the field ; 
Even auctioneers and lawyers stand aghast, 
And not a woman speaks ! — So thick and fast 
The wordy shower descends, that you would swear 
A thousand bells were jangling in your ear, 
A tl^ousand basins clattering. Vex no more 
Your trumpets and your timbrels, as of yore, 

Vf R. 59s. Huisch ! up it tomes, SfC.^ Here again Juvenal is 
accused of exaggeration, but with how little reason will appear 
from the following passage of Seneca: " Non minus peroigtiantp 
turn minus potant; et oleo et mero viras pravoeant: atque inviiis 
tngesia visceribus per os reddunt^ et vinum omne vomitu remcH^ 
antur^f. Need I go further ? 

19S 8ATI&B VI. JUVENAL* T. 6aa— 6d5# 

To ease the labouring moon ; ber singja yell 
Can drown their claugonr,. and dissolve ibe spell* 

She lectures too in Ethick^, ftjid dei;laim|( 
On the Chief GOO0 !— but surely, she wbo aims 

Ver, 622. To ease the labouring moon^ Spc] In Melcho/s song^ 
at the court of Moab, is this couplet, 

^* He sung bow earth blots the niobn's gilded wain» 
** Whilst foolish men beat soundiog. brass in vain,^ 

On which Cowley has a note : it is clumsily ^rawn up, but as k 
contains an accurate account of the superstitious folly to whicli 
Juvenal alludes, I have subjoined it "Tliis costom took th» 
original froiti an opinion that witches, bj mattering somccbanas 
in verse, caused the eclipses of the moon, whi9h they copceived 
to be when the moon (that is, the gpdd^ of it,) wl» brought 
down from the sphere by the virtue of. these enchantments ; and 
therefore they made a great noise l^y tlie beating of brass, sound* 
ing of trumpets, whooping and hallowing, andtbe like, to drowT> 
the witches' murm^rs, that the moon might not hear them, and 
so to render them ineffectual/' 

Ver. 624t, She lectures too in Ethichx 4*^-] Ivmomi finem tft^ 
piens et rebus honekks. Without entering . into tue disputes oq> 
this difBcult line» which would lead* me too far, I shall merely 
observe, that I have g^ven what i conceive to be the sense, of it» 
in conformity to the opinion of some of the most jodidoUs coo^ 
mentatorss Non soium mulier^ de poetU Judicata «ed etitOLmmr 
vhilosophi prcecepta dot de ratione r^te, vivendi, 4^. Brit. And 
Lubin, EHam phiiosaphiam tractat /— ^# tfioi^ sapientvlHkdb siaMio 
bono disputat. Holyday translates it thus, 

^* In just acts top new aime shee gives.*' 

I do not pretend to understand his poetry^ but in a long*' and 
learned note on it, he seems , to explain his author as I do.; 
except^ that he supposes the Ituly ^LmJ^dous: to^ esUblish a seel ^ 
her own. 

Doctor Jortin thinks the meaning is, << The wise person in all 
things hpnest, and commendable, obeecyes\ the- due roediuro« the 
TO juiiif »yaf; therefore, a prudent woman^ &c. ^c^" This is 
very good sense, and mtiy, perhaps, be that of* the author, 

1 pass over the^idle fancies of the criticksonthe following lipes^— 
their obvious meaning is, that the woman who quits her proper 
pursuits to follow those of men, should also adopt 4,hc\r pocuUac 

8ATi«E Ti. JUVENAL, V. 626—638. 199^ 

To secHi, tbo learn'd, the sophist's garb should 
A hog, due offering, to Sylvanus bear, [wear. 
And, to the farthing bath, with men repair ! 

O, never, may the partner of my bed, 
With subtleties of logick stuff" her head ; 
Nor whirl' her rapid syllogisms around, 
Nor with imperfect enthymemes confound I 
Enough for me, if common things she know. 
And have the little learning schools bestow. 
I hate the female pedagogue, who pores 
0*er her Palxmon hourly ; who explores 
All modes of speech, regardless of the sense. 
But tremblingly alive to mood and tense : 

blLbitsi^^riTileies, &c. should W^ear a succiface cpat^ instead ot a 
flowing stole, sacrifice to Sylvanus, (which none but men mi^t 
do,) and frequent th^ cotaiiion baths, like the poorest of the 
rabble, among whom Juvenal humorously places the philo* 

Vkr. 629. Q,. never may the partner of mtf bed, 4^.] In the 
VflY^f by Sir Thomas Overburv, there is a stanza on this subject,, 
which, whatever may be thought of its poetry, is not deficient in. 
good sense : 

" Givfe me, next good; an uirfetstaA^fig'wife, 
« By nalure n^be; not leamfed by xflnch art ; 

« Sohie kno^lefdge on her sid«i, witk all my li£^ 
** More scope of convetsatSon imptirt; 

« B«d*s, her inborn virtues foilify, ^ 

•* They are most firriily good, who best know why/ 

How superiour is thb (I do not mean in poetry^ but in just and 
liberal thinking) to the foUowii^: 

T« yAf meawfyo9 itifM»9 ftTitfTift Ktr«j>K 

£t T»K c^tu^9. Eur^ Hip. 

Veb. 636- OV Aer Potoiiofi, Sfc,'\ For Palamon, see Sat. vn. 

too SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 639—654/ 

Who puzzles me with many an uncouth phrase^ 
From some old canticle of Numa*s days ; 
Corrects her country friends, and cannot hear 
Her husband soloecise without a sneer ! 

A woman stops at nothingi when she wears 
Rich emeralds round her neck, and, in her ears» 
Pearls of enormous size ; these justify 
Her faults, and make all lawful in her eye. 
Sure, of all ills with which the state is curst, 
A wife who brings you money, is the worst. 
Behold ! her face a spectacle appears, 
Bloated, and foul, and plaister'd to the ears 
With viscous paste : — ^the husband looks askew, 
And sticks his lips in this detested glue. 
She meets the adulterer bathed, perfumed, anddrest^ 
But rots in filth at home, a very pest ! 

Ver. 645. Pearls of enormous aze^ Magnos elenckos. Itis^ 
not easy to say what these were : the Scholiast calb them unwnes, 
margaritas oblongas ; the modern commentators, oval, oblong, 
and pear-shaped pearls. Holyday quaintly translates the word, 
eye-checking, because, as he says, Af^x*' sometimes signifies to 
check, or reprehend 1 I incline to think that eUnckus did not 
signify a single pearl for the ear, but a drop, formed of several ; 
for that such were worn and admired in Juvenal's time, may be 
readily proved* The following passage in Seneca, Do Benefidis* 
seems to me much to the purpose : Video uniones non singuhs 
singulis auribus comparator; (jam enim exercitatx cures oneri 
ferendo sunt ;) junguntur inter sCf et insuper alii bim suppangun- 
tur, Non satis tnuliebris insania viros subjecerat, nisi bina^ ac 
terna patrimonia singulis auribus ptpendissent ! 

Ver. 653. She meets the adulterer <5'C.] Le Grange fancies 
that Juvenal had Lucilius in view here : 

** Quom tecum est, quidvit satis est ; visuri alieni 
** Sint homines, spiraro, pallas, rcdimicula promit.'' 

Sat. XV. 

This is not unlikely : but I believe the more imiacdiate suljjeci 



SATIRE VX, JUVENAL. V. 655 — 660. 201 

For him she breathes of nard, for him alone 
She makes the sweets of Araby her own ; 
For him, at length, she ventures to uncase. 
Scales the first layer of roughca&t from her face, 
And (while the maids to know her now begin) 
Clears, with that precious milk, her frowzy skin, 

of his imitation, was the following passage of Tibullus, Lib. i. 
El. ix. 67. 

** Tune putas illam pro te disponere crines, 

'' Aut tenues denso pectere dente comas ? 
*^ Ista ha^c persuadet i'acies, auroque lacertos 

** Vinciaty et Tyrio prodeat apta sinu ? 
'^ Non tibiy sed juveiii cuidam vult bella vidcri ; 

<< t)evoveat pro quo remque, domumque tuam." 

Ver. 660, Clears xoith that precious mUky S^c.l For this refine* 
ment in luxury, as well as for the '' viscous paste" mentioned 
above, the Roman ladies were indebted to the younger Poppaea, 
the mistress, and finally the wife, of Nero, who avenged the 
cause of two husbands, whom she had abandoned, by a kick 
which occasioned her death. 

•** Poppsea," Stapylton says, " was so careful to preserve her 
beauty, that when she went into banishment," (but was Poppasa 
banished ?) •* she carried fifteen" (the Scholiast says fifty) " she- 
asscs along with her, for their milk to wash in." I will not vouch 
for the truth of this anecdote ; but that Poppaea was profusely 
extravagant, in every thing which related to her person, is un- 
doubted. Here is XiphiTinus's account : *H h ZaCini otmi knu^ 
Mviprrpi/fn^iy, {i9t% ran Ti iifMMiq ra( aynaaq aurnr i«r»xf V0'a evafrta 

99 rtf yaXoLKTh etvrvr XuvFcu* Lib. LXii. 28. Here we find that 
she had not fifteen, as Stapylton, or fifty, as the Scholiast, says ; 
but &VC hundred sbe-asses in her suite ! 

Apropos of the Scholiast. He has fumisheil Reimanis with a 
notable opportunity of displaying his critical sagacity. Nugaiur 
S, aut certe tnisere corrupt us estj quinquagintas asmas Poppaam 
secuta esse *' missam in exillum" Scribe quingentaSf cum Dionc, 
et Fiinio ; et missam in solium , quod est vas balneare* To ex- 
change an errour for an absurdity is too much. Certainly, the 
Scholiast was no great critick ; yet Reimar^s must excuse me, if 
I still believe him incapable of saying thai fifty asses followed 
Poppaea int(%the bathing-tub ! 

201 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 661—688. 

For which, thoagh exiled to the frozen maioy 
She*d lead a drove of asses in her train I 
But tell me; yet \ this thing, thus daubed and oil'di 
Thus poulticed) plaister'di baked by tuma and 

Thus with pomatums, ointments, Iacker*d o*eri 
Is it a FACE, Ursidius, or a sore ? 

*Tis worth a little labour, to survey [day* 

Our wives more near, and trace *em through the 
If, dreadful to relate! the night' foregone. 
The husband turn'd bis back, or lay alone^ 
AH, all is lost ; the housekeeper is stript. 
The tiremaid chidden, and the chairman whipt ; 
Rods, cords, and thongs, avenge the master's 

And force the guiltless house to wake, and weep. 
There are, who hire a beadle by the year, 
To lash their servants round ; who, plieased to hear 
The eternal thong, bid him lay oti, while they. 
At perfect ease, the silkman*s stores survey, 
Chat with their female gossips, or replace 
The crack'd enamel on their treacherous face. 
No respite yet— they kisurely hum o'er 
The numerous items of the day before, 
And bid him still lay on ; till, faint with toil. 
He drops the scourge ; whon, with a rancorous 

*• Begone," they thunder, in a horrid tone^ 
*' Now your accounts are settled, rogues, begone!'* 

But should she wish with nicer care to dress, 
And now the hour of assignation press. 

SATIRE yi. JUVENAI-. X, 689—714. 20J 

(Whether the adulterer for her coming wait 
In Isis* fane, to bawdry coiisecrsite, 
Or in LucuUti^* walk^,) tl)e house zpptjin 
Like Pbaiaifis* cjQurt, alt bbstle, gloom, and tears* 
The wretiqhed Psecaaf, for the ^hip prepared. 
With lock^ disiieveird} and with shoulders bared, 
AtteQi^pt(j5 her hair : fire flashefi from her eyw^ 
Andi ** Struiiit)et! why this curl so high?*' she cries. 
Instant the lash, without remorse, is plied. 
And the blood stains her bosom, back, and side. 
But why this fury ? is the git*I to blame. 
If your own nose displease you ? shame, O shame ! — 
Another, trembling, on the left, prepares 
To open, and arrange the straggling hairs 
In ringlets trim ; meanwhile, the council meet; 
And first the nurse, a personage discreet, 
Late from the toilet to the wheel remored, 
(The effect of time,} yet still of taste approved, 
Gives her opinion ; then the rest in course* 
As age,, or practice, lends their judgment forcca. 
Sb.warm they grow, and so much pains they take* 
You'd think her honour, or her life at stake. 
So high they build her head, such tiers on tiers. 
With wary hands, they pile, that she appears 
Andromache before ;— and what behind ? 
A dwarf, a creature of a different kind.— .- 

Vek. 7i3. Andtomaehe hrfure ;^ Tradition rqireseats tfaif^ 
l4<iy'(prQbal>ly, because she was the wife of a hero) as very tail. 
Dfires Phrygius . (aiU fuugitw UkfuiU). calli her hmgam^ Ovid, 
hngistmam ; and in another place he. says^ ** that though everf 
body else thought her tog burly a dame;, sfatiofior ctquOf Uedor 

ao4 sATXiiK VI. JUVENAL. ¥.715—722. 

Meanwhile^ engross'd by these important cares. 
She thinks not on her lord*s distrest affairs. 
Scarce on himself ; but leads a separate life^ 
As if she were his neighbour, not his wife ; 
Or, — ^but in this, that all he loves she hates, 
Destroys his peace, and squanders his estates. 

Room for Bellona's frantick votaries ! room 
For Gybele*s mad enthusiast^ ! lo,^ they come ! 

himself was perfectly satisfied with her/'^-^whkh I am very g|acL 
to hear. 
There follows in the original^ 

« ■ . cedoy si breve panri 

^^ Sortita est lateris spatium, breviorque videtur 
*^ Virgine Pygma», nullis adjuta cothurnis; 
** £t levis erecta consurgit ad oscula plauta ?" 

I have thrown this passage out of the text, not so much oa 
account of its singular clumsiness, as of my utter inability to 
make any tolerable sense of it. Holyday satisfied himself with 
Tendering it in this manner; 

«< ■■ r—— if shee's short loin'd. 

** Then a girle-pygmie shee's more dwarf without 
** High-heels ; and tiptoes for a kiss and flout.^ 

Which I do not understand : the other translators have evaded 
the difficulty. If it be at all intelligible, it may be something in 
this way : though, even thus, the drift of the author is not very 
apparent : 

Nay, if unbuskinM, she scarce match in size 
A Pygmy virgin, and roust lightly rise, 
On tiptoe, for a kiss ; there's some excvse^ 
If every art to aid her height she use. 

Ver, 721. Room for Bellona's Jrantick toiaries ! ^c] We com* 
now to one of the grand divisions of this Satire, and, as it seems 
to me, the most curious. How a late translator could call il 
<* dull and tedious," I cannot conceive ; since the very reason he 
gives for his assertion-^-*-'' that the practices here mentionfsd are 
Xkovf nowhere to be met with"—- evidently tends to render it pecu-« 
Itarly interesting. ' Whatever may be thought of this, however jl 
it must have appeared of no little importance to Juvenal, since hot 

sATiRft VI. JUVENAL. V. 7«3— 734. 205 

A lusty semivir, \«rbose patt obscene 

A broken shell has sever*d smooth and clean, 

A raw-boned, turban'd priest, whom the whole choir 

Of curtaird prieistlings reverence and admire, 

Enters, with his wild rout ; and bids the fair 

Of autumn, and its sultry blasts, beware, 

Unless she lustrate with an hundred eggs 

Her household straight : — then, impudently begs 

Her cast-off clothes, that every plague they fear^ 

May enter them, and expiate all the year ! 

But lo ! another tribe : at whose command, 
See her, in winter, near the Tiber stand. 

Jias labeured it with uncommon care : nor is there any part of 
his works in which his genius is more conspicuous. 

Of Cybele and her frantick votaries I have already spoken : 
(SaU II*} those of Bellona were not more sane. They ran up 
and down, lancing their arms with sharp knives, upon her festival, 
which was kept on the twenty-third, or twenty-fourth of March, 
and which, in allusion to those horrid rites, was sometimes called 
the Dat 01 Blood. 

Ver. 723. A lusty semivir, S^cJ] Lusty (in:^ens) is not an idle 
epithet ; for these priests of Cybele seem to have been creatures 
ofan extraordinary size. I suppose their bulk was increased by 
the operation which they underwent ; but I do not know that it 
vrm so. Persius calls them grajt(fe«— >this, a late commentator 
says, must be applied to the mind, and rendered stupid. Must 
it so? then both Juvenal and Persius have chosen the wrong 
word ; since, whatever these people might be, they were certainly 
not stupid. The truth is, that grandis, like ingenSy must be 
applied to the body, and in its customary sense ; as a very little 
acquaintance with the subject, would have su0iced to show. 

Ver. 733. But loj another tribe : 4*c,] These are the priests 
of Isis, whose absurd and contemptible ceremonies are described 
with admirable sfpirit and humour. 

It is not easy to say by what criterion the Romans judged of 
the admissibility of foreign divinities into their temples. Cybele, 
with all her train of wild and .furious enthusiasts, found an easy 
admittance; while Isis and Osiris, deities not more detestable. 

7ot 8AT1BE VI. JUVENAL. V. 735-— 7j6« 

Break the tlrick ice, and, ere the sun appears, 
Plunge in the crashing eddy to the ears, 

were long opposed, and ttitt longer Mgarded mitt distnut and 

Of a trutljy however, this was confined to the men : the wotnen 
seem to have found something peculiarly seducing in the worship 
of Isis, and to have beent from the first, her warmest devotees. 

Whether the envy of the priests of Cybele, ^nd other exotick 
divinities, was excited by this marked predilection, or whether 
the attendance on the rites of Isis was made (as it certainly was 
in aftcrtiraes) a cloak for intrigue, I know not ; but in the con- 
subhip of Piso and Gabinius, a furious persecution was raised 
asainst her ; and she was banished, with all her ridiculous mam- 
mery, from the territories of the republick. Some years after- 
wards, however, her worship was re-established, when Tlberiusy 
on account of an impious farce which was played in one of her 
temples, (see the story in Joseph. Antiq. lib. xviii.) rased it to 
the ground, hanged or crucified the priests, and flung the statue 
of the goddess into the Tiber. Again the temple was rebuilt, 
again d^troyed by a decree of the senate, and again, and again 
reconstructed, till the vigilance of the goveniment was finally re« 
mitted, or its obstinacy overcome. It was then, that they rose 
on all sides, and became (what too many of the Roman temples 
%vere) the most fevoured spots for forming assignations. 

Whenever Juvenal has occasion to mention these JEgyptiaii 
divinities, he does it with a contemptuous sneer; but in this, he 
is not singular ; since almost every ancient writer on the subject 
does the same. Lucan conveys a bitter reproach to his countrv- 
men for their partiality to them, in a palhetick and beauiiml 
apostrophe to iBgypt, ou the murder of Pompey. lib. vixx. S5U 

*^ Nos in templa tuara Rmnanli accepimus Isin, 
** Seniideos<]ue canes, et sisCrti jabentia luctus, 
^ £t quem tu plangens hominera testaris Osirin t 
** Tu nostros, iEgypte, tenes in puivere manes. 
*• Tu quoque" . » 

But I should never have done if I pretended to quote ail the in- 
dignant ridiculo that has been poured on these brutal super- 

With all this, however, they continued in full vigot^r from our 
author's time to that of Commodus, who, as Laihpildius says, 
enrolled himself amongst the priests of Isis, and condescended to 
carry her son (the dog-headed Anubis) upon his shoulder. Con- 
Atantine abolished them, with the other heathen rites : they were 

6AT>Mvi. JUVENAL. V. 737— 740, ^07 

Once, twice, and thrice ! then, shivering from the 
flood, [blood. 

Crawl round the 6eld, on knees distain'd with 
Should oiUkwhite 16 bid, from Meroe*s isle 
She'll fetch the sunburnt waters of the Nile, 

^ain revived, and for the last time, by that frivolous pedant Ju- 
lian, (so liberally dubbed a philosopher by our Christian histo- 
rians,') who laboured to enforce the observance of ihem in some 
of his epistles. 

But however severe the satirists may liave been on tliese (oU 
Ucs^'tbey ^11 infinitely short of the Prophets* Isaiah, in particu* 
lar, prosecutes then^ wjth a dignity of sarcasm, a bitterness of 
ndicule^ that is altog^ether irresistible : ** He planteih anasli,ajul 
the rain doth nourish it, — ^he burnetii part thereof in the fire — 
yea, he warmeth himself, and saith> Aha^ I am warm, I have 
seen the fire. And tbe residue thereof he maketh a God ! he 
falleth down unto it, ajid saitb) Deliver me, £jr thou art my God!'' 
Chap, xliv. v. 14 — 17, And again, n^ore tauntingly : " They lavish 
gold out of the bag, and weigh silver In the balance, and hire a gold* 
smith, and he maketh it a God ! They fall down, yea, they wor* 
ship. They beau iiiic urox the siioitlpeii, they caruv 
HIM, (eufHau 191 th uffM, tuu tvofiMrrou) and set him in his place, 
and he standeth !' Chap. xlvi. v. 6', 7. 

St. Jerome applies this passage of the sacred writer, to the 
circumstance in the te^t, i. e. to the '^ carrying'^ about of Anubis 
on the shoulders of the chief priest. It is singular that he should 
•do so ; since the prophet is evidently speaking of the Babylonish 
divinities Bel and Nebo. The quotations, however, prove the 
^reat antiquity of these idolatrous and mendicant processions. 

1 roust not conclude without observing, that they are sneered 
at by Menander with a|i arch and elegant simplicity, only to be 
foiukd iu the writers of his school : 

Ot4bK fft'ttpf^Xfi vipivoLv ff^M 3i^ 

£«"( Ttf at^H^' rot hxato9 li» Sco* 

Oixei fAtfttf 9^99va 9«f i^iupov^m Ex Aiwig» 

I do not like a god that gads about 

With an old woman, tottering on a plank. 

And sneaking into every open door : — 

An honest god, that stands on reputation, 

Will stay at home, and think of those who made him f 


208 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 74.1—748. 

To sprinkle in her fane ; for she, it seems, 

Has heavenly visitations in her dreams — 

Mark the pure soul, with whom the gods delight 

To hold high converse, at the noon of night t 

For this she cherishes above the rest, 

What can she less ? her lo's favourite priest ; 

A holy hypocrite, who strolls abroad 

With his Anubis, his dog-headed god, 

Ver. y*/. A hofy hypocrite^ who strdU abroad 

With his Anubis^ Sfc] These gloomy and fantaitick 
processions in quest of Osiris (see Sat viii.) continued for se^ 
veral days : during which the female votaries of Isis, in sympathy 
for her loss, abstained from all commerce with their husbands. 
For cadurctu, which I have rendered ** nuptial couch/' but which 
was more probably a kind of coverlet, some copies have caducau ; 
put, the criticks say, by an allowable metonymy, for Mercury, 
the Osiris of Egypt/ Of this I believe nothing. Whatever sacri- 
fices an interested set of vagabonds from that country might make 
to Roman vanity, a sensible Egyptian woulci have smiled at this 
pretended identitj^ of beings so characteristically distinct as Osiris 
and Mercury : the latter, therefore, must be sent packing with 
his cadttceuSf and the old reading recalled. 

But what is the meaning of argentea serpens, the silver snake ? 
Holyday gives a long account from Macrobius, of a three-headed 
monster that stood in the temple of Osiris; and seems mightily 
pleased with the ** exposition;" though he confesses he can find 
nothing concerning the snake — ^the only material point. 

But Macrobius speaks of Alexandria, where such allegorical 
groups might possibly exist : at ^ome nothing of this kind was to 
be found. The snake, I am persuaded, was the asp, wreathed 
round the head of lsi$ and Osiris, as the well known symbol of 
eternity t at least, I recollect that when I was in Italy, a bust of 
the former was found, thus incircled ; and was then thought, by 
the literati, to give light to this very passage. 

Hulyday follows the commentators in supposing that the snake 
moved its head in sign of reconciliation. I rather think the priests 
insinuated that such a miracle had taken place, in sign of anger— 
and accordingly, we see them proceeding with prayen and tears 
to the work of propitiation. 

It should be observed, that it is Osiris, and not Isis, who is 
offended. The bawd (as Juvenal irreverently calls the goddess a 

SATIRB VI. JUVENAL. V. 749— 76a* 209 

Girt by a linen^clad, a bald-pate crew 
or howling vagrantSi that their cries renew 
In every street, as up and down they run, 
To find Osi££, fit father to fit son ! 

He sues for pardon, when the liquorish dame 
Abstains not from the interdicted game 
On high and solemn days ; for great the crime 
To stain the nuptial couch at such a time, 
And great the atonement due: — ^* The silver snake, 
'* Abhorrent of the deed, was seen to quake.** 
Yet he prevails :-i>-Osiris hears, his prayers. 
And, softened by a goose, the culprit spares ! 

Without her badge, a Jewess next appears. 
And, trembling, begs a trifle in her ears. 

few lines above) underetood her trade too well, to be seriously 
hurt at a peccadillo of this kind ; but then it was necessary that 
her husband should be represented as extremely delicate on the 
Sttbject-T-0fi^fr non fit^ Avite^ iiher; oth^rwise^ no goose for the 

The goQs0 is not mentioned at random : that bird was usually 
jacn^ced to Isis» and in £g>l>t constituted the chief food of her 
priests. The Romans were at first a little scandalized at this 
treatment of the ancient giiaidiau of their Capitol ; but use soon 
reconciled them to iu 

Vbr. 761. Without her badge^ ^c] The Jews have here the 
same characteristick symbols they had in the third Satire: their 
baskets and their hay. Domitian had laid a heavy poll-tax on 
these people, and that they might not evade it, they were en- 
joined not to appear abroad without these badges of their con- 
dition. To avoid being detected, and insulted by the rabble when 
they entered the city, these poor persecuted wretches laid aside 
their degrading accompaniments. This accounts for the epithet 
frtminkf which Juvenal applies to this female fortuneteller, who, 
if &he had been discovered, would, in spite of her lofty pretensions, 
have been severely punished for contempt of the imperial regula- 
tions. What is meant by magna sacerdot arboriif high-priestess of 
the tree, I cannot tell. Probably the Eg^rian grove, the degra- 

no EATiiB VI. JUVENAL, v. yfij-^r?^* 

No common personage ! she knows fail well 
The laws of Solyma, and she tan teU 
The dark decrees of heaven ; a priestess she, 
An hierarch of the consecrated tree ! 
Moved by these cl<iiiiis, thus modestly set forth, 
She gives her a few coins of little worth ; 
For Jews are moderatei and, for farthing fees. 
Will sell whatever idle dreanlis you pleaSd. 
The prophetess dismissed, a Syrian sagi^ 
Now enters, and explores the future page^ 
In a dove*s entrails; there he sees exprest^ 
A youthful lover, there, a rich bequest 
From some old dotard : then a chick be takes, 
And in its breast, and in a piippy*s, rakej. 
And sometimes in a child's ! — this he will do, 
This teach another, and — betray him too ! 

dation of which is so indignantly aeplored in the ihttd Satif^ 
might, lilie the Norwood of out metropolis, be frequented bysiMrIC 
of the vulgar fis were anxious to inquire thM tbtttlitts^ I« Aat 
case, some favourite tree tftight b^ the place of rende^votis, Had 
this Betty Squires its most infi^lKble oracle. 

The conjectures of some of the criticks, that Juv^fl> i^fttldes to 
the idolatrous propensity of the Jews for worshippihg tti wclod§ i 
«nd of others, that he hints at the " grove of oaks b^^ Dodona in 
Chaonia, which was consecrated to Jupiter," are alike unfounded. 
Of the first he knew nothing ; (indeed, the Jews themselves had 
abandoned the practice for ages;) and the second was much too 
far-fetched for his purpose. 

Vbr. 777- ' THIS he wUldo^ 

This teach another y und^beiray him too /] The Scbo^ 
liast says that this really happened : Mgnativm Phikiophum #^- 
nyicaif qui fifiam Barea Sorani^ quam, cum ipsius ad magieam 
deicendiuci hortatu, Neroni detulit, 1 do not know the authority 
for this applicat on to the daughter of Bareas. Tacitus, who t^ll^ 
the story of her condemnation, (Ann. lib. xvi. S2i) nnd who 
speaks of the testimony of iSgnatius upon the occasion) with every 

SATiKE ri* JUVENAL, v. 779— 788. am 

But chiefly in Chaldeans she believes; 
Whatever they say, with reverence she receives, 
As if from Hammon's secret fount it twaat: 
Since Delphi now, .if we may credit fame, 
Gives no responses, and a long dark night 
Conceals the future hour from mortal sight* 
Of these, the chief (such credit guilt obtains !) 
Is he, who, banished oft, and oft in chains. 
Stands forth the veriest knave ; he who foretold 
The death of Galba, — to his rival sold! 

mark of horrour; doe» not say that he inst^tfted her to the prac* 
tices for which she stifiered : the anecdote may nevertheless he 
genuiRe. Vide Sat. iti^ l64, 

Vatt. 782. Sinee DflpM new^ ^e;] When ihis was written, and 
indeed long before, oracles were rapidly faliiog into contempt. 
This accounts naturally enough for their silence, without having 
recouise to the pious fancies- of the earlier Christiansy which are 
evidently groundless. If the oratle of Jupiter Aiamoa sarriveA 
the rest, as Juvenal says it did, it was probably because, as Vol- 
taire says of £1 Dorado, few or none cmild go to seek it« 

It may be just mentioned, that Delphi once broke silence after 
tliis period, and, if Gaudius may be trusted* at the birth of 
HoDorius : 

'' £t dudum taciti rupere silentia Delphi.** 

I am sorry, ho less for the credit of the oracle than the poet, that 
it Mras not to a better purpose. 

VtR. 787. ' he who foretold S^c] This was Pto- 

lemy, who accompanied Otho into Spain, and there predicted that 
he would survive Nero. " From his success in this instance," 
says Tacitus, '' he took courage, and ventured to predict his ele- 
▼ation to the empire. Otho believed k,'* or rather affected to 
believe it, " and from that moment determined to work the de- 
struction of Galba." In the dreadful scenes which followed, 
Ptolemy was a principul actor. 

I have no intention, even if I had room, to give the history of 
astrolc^. Suffice it to say, that its professors were alternately 
'banished and recalled, persecuted and cherished, as the events 
they predicted were prosperous, or adverse, to the fortunata 


aia sATiitB VI. JUVENAL, v. 789—808. 

No juggler must for fame, or profit hope, 
Who has not narrowly escaped the rope ; 
^^gg'd hard for exile, and, by special grace. 
Obtained confinement in some desert place. — 
To him thy Tanaquil applies, in doubt 
How long her jaundiced mother may hold out, 
But first, how long her husband ; next inquires. 
When she shall follow, to their funeral pyres, 
Her sisters, and her uncles : last, if fate 
Will kindly lengthen out the adulterer*s date 
Beyond her own ; — content, if he but live, 
And sure that heaven has nothing mor^ to give J 

Yet she may still be suffered ;. for what wqesi 
The lowering aspect of old Saturn shows ; 
Or in what sign bright Venus ought to rise, 
To shed her mildest influence fron^ the sj^ies ; 
Or what fore-fated month to gain is given, 
And what to loss, (the mysteries of heaven,) 
She knows not, nor pretends to know : but flee 
The dame^ whose Manual of Astrology 

candidates for power. That they were the occasion of freqoeni 
commotions among this ambitious, and credulous people* 
cannot be doubted ; and, indeed, Tacitus says of them with equal 
truth and spirit, genus hominum potentibus infidum, Sf^. ** They 
were a pestilent race of impostors, ever ready to poison the hearts 
of princes, and stimulate ambition to its ruin : a set of perfidious 
men proscribed by law, and yet in defiance of law, tolerated in 
the heart of the city." Hist. i. 22. 

Yer. 793. To kirn thy Tanaquil 4>c.] So he calls the future 
spouse of Posthumus. Tanaquil was the wife of Tarquinius Pris- 
cus, <' a notable housewife," Holyday says — and (what was more 
iQ our author's purpose) a marvellous adept in the art of divina* 
tion: Accqfisse id augurium lata dicitur Tanaquil^ peritOf u^ 
vulgo Etrufdf caUstium prodigiorum muHer. Liv, lib, i. c. 34. 

SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 809^822. 213 

Slill dangles at her side, smooth as chafed gum. 
And fretted by her everlasting thumb ! 
An adept in the Science now ; her mate 
May go, or stay, she will not share his fate, 
Withheld by trines and sextiles ; she will look. 
Before her chair be ordered, in the book, 
For the fit hour ; an itching eye endure, 
Nor, till her scheme be raised, apply a cure ; 
Nay, languishing in bed, receive no meat, 
Till Petosyris bid her rise and eat. 

The rich consult a Babylonian seer, 
Skill*d in the mysteries of either sphere ; 
Or a gray-headed priest, kept by the state, 
To watch the lightning, and to expiate. 

Ver. 811. — — — — her mate 

Matf gOy or stay, Sfc] I'his folly appears to have 
struck its roots iuconceivably deep. Near three centuries after 
Juvenal's time, we find Amm. Marcellinus characterizing the 
Romans by it, and almost in the words of our author : Multi 
apud COS negantes esse superas potestates in or/o, nee in publico 
prodeunty necprandent^nec lavari arbitrantur se cautius posse, ante' 
quam ephcmeride scrupuhse sdscitata didicerint ubi sit signum 
Mercurii, ^c. (Lib. xxviii. cap. 4.) Here we have Pope'*— 
*' godless regent tremblitig at a star." Such are the monstrous 
iacoDsistencies of atheism ! 

Ver. 818. Till Petosjfris ^c.} Petosyris was a celebrated 
astrologer. He seems, Uke our learned Moore, to have allotted 
particular diseases* and particular stages of life, to the government 
of particular planets. ** Taurus } that's sides and heart. No, 
sir ; it's legs and thighs." See the profound disquisitions of Sir 
Toby Belch on the subject. 

Ver. 822. To uatch the lightning, ^-c] The Romans had 
many superstitious notions respecting lightning. It would be a 
waste of time to enter into them ; but, by way of explaining the 
texty it may be necessary to observe, that whenever a was 
struck, a priest was always called in to purify it. This wa^ 

214 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. v.Sft}— 830. 

The middle sort a quack, at whose command 
They lift the forehead, and make bare the hand ; 
While the sly letcher in the table pries, 
And claps it wantonly, with gloating eyes. 
The poor apply to humbler cheats, still found 
Beside the Circus wall, or city mound ; 
While she, whose neck no golden trinket bears, 
To the dry ditch, or dolphin's tower, repairs, 

done by collecting every thing that had been scorched, and bury- 
ing it on the spot, with due solemnity. A two-year old sheep 
was then sacri^ced, and the ground slightly railed in — after which, 
oil was supposed to be well. 

Ver. 830. To the dry ditch, ^.] This ditch, or moat, wii 
for the reception of water, when the emperours thought fit to in- 
dulge the people with a naumachia, or sea-fight : it ran along a con- 
siderable part of the Circus wall. The towers, and dolphin's pil- 
lars mentioned in the original, were also a part of the Circus : 
the first were for the accommodation of the higher order of spec- 
tators during the chariot races ; the second, I believe, were purely 
ornamental ; they stood at the two extremities, and had their 
name from the dolphins which crowned their capitals. This is 
but a jejune account; it is the fullest, however, my limits 
will admit : those who wish for more detailed information, msy 
consult such treatises as have been expressly written on the sub- 
ject ; of which there is no want. 

The line which precedes, — " She whose neck no golden trinket 
bears,'^ Qua ftudis longum astendit cervicibus aurum, is some- 
what embarrassing. Perhaps (for I can think of no more pro- 
bable meaning) the poet might intend to point out the genenil 
extravagance of the Reman women, in thus characterising the 
extremity of indigence amongst them, by the want of a goM 

Ferrarius takes these inquisitive females for courtesans : he did 
not see that they came to consult the wizard about marrying. 
Vossius has a note on this passage, of such consummate arro- 
gauce and absurdity, that a short extract from it may not be 
unentertaiuing : 

<* Quae nudis longum ostendit cervicibus annum." 

Annum reposuimus pro aurum, uti vufgo inepte legituvt tt infptttts 

8ATIKE VS. JUVENAL. Y. 831— 65a. S15 

And anxi.cMiisil/ in/qjuiresi which she shall choose, 
The t^pjster, Qr old-ciothes man ; which refase* 

Yet.the^ the pangs of cbilUbirth undergo, 
And ^U thfi yearni^g/s of a mother know ; 
These^ urged by want, assume the nurse's care, 
And le;irn to breed the children which they hear. 
Those shun both toil and danger; for, though sped, 
The wealthy dame 19 seldom brought to bed : 
Such is tlue power of drugs, and such the skill 
They boast, to cause miscarriages at will ! 
Weep*&|; thou ? O, fool ! the blest invention hail, 
And give the potion, if the gossips fail ; ][bear^ 
For, should thy wife her nine months burthea 
An iEthiop's offspring might thy fortunes heir! 
A sooty thing, fit only tM a ffray^ 
And, seen at mom, to poison all the day ! 

Supposititious breeds, the hope and joy 
Of fond, believing, husbands, I pass by ; 
The beggars* bantlings, spawned in open air. 
And left by some pond side, to perish there.-— 
From hence your Flamens, hence your Salians 

Ybur Scauri, chiefs and magistrates of Rome ! 

ttiamnum a vim doctis exponitur. Lungum nempe annum vocat, 
quern langum^ et tetiiotum faciat ,frigus ; banc cmendationem nof- 
tram con^rmant sequential ubi midiercula ista quctrii num rectiut 

factura iit» siy caapone relicto, nubat negotiafori sagariog qui npnpc 

Jrigus arceai. Not. ad CatuU. 

Veb. 846. And^ seen at morHf S^c.'] Another absurd superstition 
of the Romans. Vettu opinio (says Dempster in his notes on 
Claudian) non tantum vulgo approbala occursu JEthiopis^ iter 
inceptwn reddi inf'austum. If this h»ppened in a morning, not 
only the walk, but the whole business of the day, w^ superseded 
and ruined ! 

2i6 SATIRE VI. JUVENAL, v. 853«-8s8. 

Fortune stands tittering by, in playful mood. 
And smiles complacent on the sprawling brood ; 
Takes them all naked to her fostering arms. 
Feeds from her mouth, and in her bosom warms : 
Then to the mansions of the great she bears 
The precious brats, and for herself prepares 

Ver. 853. FortuM ^-c] Fortune, 1 think, is the only one of 
the old rabble of divinities that we have adopted. She still retains 
her ancient attributes, and is spoken of at this hour, much as she 
was two thousand years ago ; sometimes as a person, and some- 
times as a quality ; as something, in short, which every one can 
conceive, and no one define. Fortune is not altogether unlike 
Bottom's dream, ** Man is but an ass if he go about to expound 
her,— man is but a patched fool if he will ofier to say what she 
is :" A^yftTov, as the old poet well observes, Aiwaffv <k ir» ^ 0Wf«« 
rn; Tt/;^( ! Yet Mr. Spence seems to have attempted it. Though 
his entertaining work shows no great reach of thought in general, 
yet I cannot but think him particularly inefficient in what he says 
of this deity. — On atat Fortuna imjnroba noctu^ he observes, ** that 
Juvenal alludes to a statue of Fortune, which represented her 
under a good character, as the patroness of poor infants.'' Juvenal 
alludes to no statue, but to the goddess in her own person, uor 
does he represent her under a good character. — But, continues 
Mr. Spence, '' the distinction of the bona and mala Fortuna is 
very necessary for the explanation of the passage : the lady stands 
.like Fortune in the streets, (not the good Fortune, but the very 
bad one,) and gets up all the children she can, to introduce them 
into the family, and boast of them as her own." In this coarse 
manner does he mangle and confound one of the most amusing 
and animated pictures, that a keen and vigorous fancy ever 

But why must it be a lady, and not Fortune herself, that is 
engaged in getting vp children? For a very excellent reason, 
because '' impraba is applied to her, and the action itself is a 
good one !" Not to reply that what is good for the one, could not 
be bad for the other, it seems very strange that Mr. Spence 
should be ignorant of the meaning of improba in tliis place. He 
renders it, bad ; but it signities what wc call, unlucky, i. e. de- 
lighting in sportive mischief. Some of the commentators explain 
it by stolida, stupid. Can the reader find any thing stupid in the 
business in which Fortune is so actively engaged } 

SATiRB VI. JUVENALt. ▼% 859^^74, 117 

A secret farce ; adopts them for her own : 
And when her nurslings are to manhood grown, 
She brings them forth, rejoiced to see them sped, * 
And wealth and honours dropping on their head ! 

Some purchase charms^ some^ more pernicious 
Thessalian philters, to subdue the will [still. 

Of an uxorious spouse, and make him bear. 
Blows, insults, all a saucy wife can dare. 
From hence proceeds that dizziness, from hence 
Those vapours which envelop every sense. 
That strange forgetfulness from hour to hour ; 
And well if this be all : — more fatal power. 
More terrible effects, the dose may have. 
And force thee, like Caligula, to rave, 
When his Gxsonia squeezed into the bowl 
The dire excrescence of a new-dropt foal. 

Vbr. 874. The dire excreBcenee of a nem^ropi foal.] This ex» 
^rescence, Holyday says, ** is a tender piece of f^h, growing on 
the brow of It young foal." Dryden calls it " mother's love," 
which'y I take for graated, is its true English name ; as he was 
veiy well acquainted with those trifles. The best account of it, 
which I know, is to be found in Wierius De mo^ <ff/^; ' Car 
nmcula hand farmmfiuMia^ caricce magnitudtne^ specie BrbiculatOf 
kUiuseulaf a^re nigro^ quot in f route nascentis pulli equini apparet^ 
qnam, edit* etatim partu^ mater lambendo^ abstergendoque devorat; 
-ei si prmripiatur^ enimum ajcstuptwitus aversum habet^ nee eum ad 
ubera admittit. This last circumstance accounts for its name* 

How the criticks, and Holyday among die rest, could suppose 
for a moment, that, in this fine passage, Juvenal alluded to the 
effect produced on Jupiter, by the borrowed cestus of Venus, I 
cannot imagioe. I will not take upon myself to defend the ta&te 
of our author in every instance ; indeed, I have disputed it in 
several : — but if *we only allow him common sense, it is surely 
• more than enough, to keep him from such an absurd application 
of one of the most beautiful allegories in all poetry. I know but 
little mischief, that was produced by Juno's charming philter, 
more than procuring a few Trojans to be knocked on the head. 

Then Uprwr rosie ; the universal chaia 
or Orider snapp'd, %nd Anarchy's wiUI rieigu 
CaQie on apace» M if ihe .queeo of heaven 
Had firedihe Thunderer, and to madness driven*- 
Thy muslfroom, Agrippine ! was innocent, 
fo this accursed draughit ; thaJL only senti 

What has this to do with the frantick and wide^preading massa- 
cres of Cal^gnU! maitmcres wbic^ t^J^pe^ to h^^ madp so 
powerful an impression on the poet, that he can think of nothiiig 
by which to illustrate them, but the universal destruction that 
must have ensued ;/ Juno> likiie C^esovisL, ktuA driven ber bysbatvi 

There follows in the original—- ^ikt non faciet^ qttod principU 

And who will fear the selfsame part to plaj. 
And follow, where an empress leads the way ? 

This is one of those ill-timed reflections, which too frequently 
break in upon the natural and majestick course of (be authors 

Vbr. 879* Thy muslroamf Agnppme f ^'i We have iUreadj 
seen (Sat. r.) that Claudius was poisoned by a mushcoomt his 
favourite food. *' It was prepared/* Tacitus says, by JLocustv 
'* and given to him when he was either half stupid, or half asleep" 
p«->most likely both-*** so that he did not perceive it hiMt 4Uiy iU 
taste." For the rest, Juvenars description of this moon*calf is con- 
firmed, in every part, by Su^^onius : ilm« indecem^ ira turpiof^ 
^manie rictu^ kumentibiu naribuSf pkctra lingwt titubantut^^ut^fiifi 
cum seiitpeTy tuw in quantuUxumtfue actu tei ma^eitnt trtmulum* 
V 30. To make the poor cieature some amends for poisoning 
him, they made a god of him, out of band ; and the facetious 
Mero, who profited by his apotlieosis, used ever after, in allusion 
to the event, to call mubhruoms, Cf«i/M» dww, the food of the 
gods ! 

But there was no end to the pleasantries of the Romans on 
this descent of Clajidius into heaven. Seneca's play upon thiB 
word avt^euarttffhi is well kuown. Gallio, Ms brother too, is 
celebrated ior a joke on the subject ; which seems to have pleased 
Plo, and is, indeed, far from a bad one. Alluding to the hooks 
with which criminals were dragged from the place of exe- 
cution to the Tiber, and of which by far too many instances 

8ATIB1 Yi. JUVENAL. V. 881--908. at9 

One palsied, bedrid sot, with gummy eyes. 
And slavering lips, heels foremost to the skies ; 
This, to wild fury roused a bloody mind, 
Aud called for fire and sword ; this potion joined, 
In one promiscuous slaughter, high and low, 
And leveird half the nation at a blow. 
Such is the power of philters ! such the ill 
One sorceress can efiect by wicked skill ! 

They hate their husband's spurious issue ; this. 
If this were all, were not, perhaps, amiss : 
But they go further ; and 'tis now'some time^ 
Since poisoning sons-in-law appeared no crime. 
Mark then, ye fatherless ! what I advise. 
And trust, O, trust no dainties, if you're wise: 
Ye heirs to large estates ! touch not that fare. 
Your mother's fingers have been busy there ; 
See ! it looks livid, swolFn : — O check your haste. 
And let your wary fosterfather taste 
Whate'er she sets before you : fear her meat, 
And be the first to look, the last to eat. 

But this is fiction all ! I pass the bound 
Of Satire, and encroach on tragick ground ! 
Deserting truth, I choose a fabled theme. 
And, like the buskln*d bards of Greece, declaim 
Indeep-mouth*d tones, in swelling strains, on crimes 
As yet unknown to our Rutulian climes ! 
Would it were so ! but Pontia cries aloud, 
** No, I perform'd it." See ! the fact's avow'd— 

occurred under Claudius, he observed that he was '< hooked to 
Heaven"— 'K^AvJiM aytufff k to* a^euot »n9tx,^9a* I 

Vaa. 907. Would it were so ! but Pontk cries uhudf i^c.} Here 

aao satire: vK. JUVENAL, v. 909^16* 

*^ I mingled poison for my children^ I : 
" *Twas found upon me, wherefore then deny ?*' 
What, two at once, most barbarous viper ! two ! 
" Nay, sev*n, had sev*n been there." Now let us 

Uncheck*d by doubt, whatever the tragrck stage 
Displays of Progne and Medea's rage. 
These ancient dames, in infamy were bold, 
And acted monstrous deeds — ^but not for gold. 

again the ancient objectors to the troth of our author's statements 
imagined, perhaps, like the modern, that they had taken him at a 
disadvantage; but he was prepared for them. The story of 
Pontia, which he produces as his justification, was well known at 
Rome. Indeed, it so happens, that there were two monsters of 
this name, and that the history of either would have answered his 
purpose. The first was the wife of Vectius Bolanus, a maa 
of high rank aud estimation, who gave her two twin-children 
poison, in the time of Nero. Parrhasius, Holyday says, seems 
to make it but an attempt in her. If he had read Statius 
with his wonted care, he would have seen that Parrhasius was 
right ; for the Protrepticon of that poet is addressed to one of 
these children, who, at the time he wrote, which was i» the begin- 
ning of Domitian's reign, was still a mere youth. 

The Scholiast says, the mother was put to death by Nero ; thb 
is doubtful. Statius, whose authority is more to be relied on, 
seems to say it was by Domitian : — at least, those adulatory lines 
appear to be meant of him : 

" Exegit poenas, hominum cui cura suorom, 

^* Quo pietas authore redit, terrasque revisit, 

" Quern timet omne nefas !" Protrep, Sj^L v. 

The other Pontia, to whom Juvenal more particularly alludes, 
was the wife of Drymo ; whose family took care to perpetuate 
her crime by the following inscription on her tomb: Pontia 


FIU8 £s QU£SO A ME ocuLOS AVERTE. It is not Unprofitable 
to remark, that this wretched woman was driven to escape, by 
self-murderi from (he reproaches of her own conscience. To 

SATIRE VI. JUVENAL. V. 9f7~93a. mi 

In every age, we see, with less surprise, 
Such horrours as from bursts of fury rise, 
When stormy passions, scorning all control, 
Rend the mad bosom, and unseat the soul. 
As when impetuous winds, and driving rain 
Aline some huge rock, tbat overhangs the plain. 
The cumbrous massdescends with thundering force, 
And spreads resistless ruin in its course. 

Curse on the woman who reflects by fits, 
And in cold blood her cruelties commits ! — 
They see, upon the stage, the Grecian wife 
Redeeming, with her own, her husband's life ; 
Yet, in her place, would willingly deprive 
Their lords of breath, to keep their dogs alive ! 

Abroad, at home, the Belides you meet, 
And Glytemnestras swarm in every street ; 

this Poutia, I suppose. Martial addressed the following witty 
^pi^m — though it would serve equally well for the other : 

** Cum mittis turdumve mihi^ quadramve placentae, 

** Sive femur leporis, sive quid his simile ; 
** Bnccellas roisisse tuas te, Pontia, dicis. 

*' lias ego ncc mittam, Pontia, sed nee edam/' 

Lib, VI. 75. 

*^ Accept/' you write, whene'er you send a slice 
Of kid, or bare, or any thing that 's nice, 

'-' One of HY TiD-BiTs, and be sure to treat it, 
^* As an especial favour." Tis but right : 
I will not, Poutia, trust it from my sights 

Oh, no ; but neither, Pontia, will I eat it I 

Vek. 9^7' They *«, upon the stage, the Grecian wife 4*c.] The 
Grecian wife was Alccstc, who voluntarily submitted to die, to 
^reserve the life of her husband Admetus, king of Thessal}'. 
Euripides has a tragedy on the subject. 

Veb. 931. the Belides ^c] The Belides, as 

every one knows, were the daughters of Danaus ; they were ^fty 

Ma sATi»ivi# JUVENALt r. 932-^^940. 

But here the difference lies ; — those bungling wives^ 
With a blunt axe hacked odt their husbands lives : 
While now, the deed is done with dextrous art, 
And a drugged bowl performs the axe*s part- 
Yet if the husband, prescient of his fate, 
Have fortified his breast with mtthridate, 
She baflles him even there, and has recourse 
To the old weapon, for a last resource. 

in number, and were married, on the same day, to the fifty sons 
of thair uncle .£gyptus, all of whom, except one, they murdered 
at night. Clytemnestfa had more patience ; she waited several 
years before she despatched Agamemnon. There is another lady 
mentioned in the text, but I spare her, on account of her singular 
humanity— 4he only sent her husband to be killed, and that, too» 
for value reaeivedy viz. a very good necklace! 


This Satire contains an animated account of the general dis^ 
couragement under which IJteratvre lalmured at Rome, Beginning 
with Poetry y (of which several interesting circumstances are intra* 
duced^J it proceeds with great regvlarity through the various de» 
partments of History ^ Law, Oratory^ Rhetorick^ and Grammar : 
interspersing many curious anecdotes^ and enlivening each different 
head with such satirical, humorous^ and sentimental remarks^ as 
naluraliy jlow from the subject. 




V. 1—2. 

Y £8, all the hopes of learning, 'tis confest^ 
And all the patronage^ on GifiSAR rest: 

Ver. 2. Jnd all the patronage^ on Casar rest:^ There have 
been many disputes among the learned concerning the Caesar 
who is here styled the sole patron of the arts. Grangaeos will 
have it to be Trajan, and warns his readers to be careful how 
they understand it of Domitian. Bhtannicus does the same; and 
quotes a very apposite passage from the Panegyricks of Pliny ia 
support of his opinion. Some will have it to be Nenra ; who, 
though a poet himself, was little disposed to patronise poetry in 
others ; and others, again, Nero. Lubin, however, and Grasvius, 
€t qUormm mclior sententia^ understand it of Domitian. 

This dutiful prince, it appears, had once an idea of contesting 
the empire with his father : finding the armies, however, averse 
to his designs, he. retired from hH publick business, and, with a 
specious appearance of content, lived in a kind of solitude: pre- 
tending that poetry, and literary pursuits in general, were his only 
passion* * This mask he continued to wear during the reign of 

■ ■ ■ • ■ « ....■■lit ■ . , . . I ■ ■ — — — 

* The attachment of the Emperour to Minerva is frequently 
noticed by Juvenal's coutemporaries. Thus Martial, in that de- 
testable medley of flattery and impiety, (lib. ix* 4,) 

** Pallada praeterco ; res agit ilia tuas.'* 

Wji^ether the goddess took as much pleasure in him, as he pro- 

aa6 SATIRE VII. JUVENAL, v. 3—4. 

For he alone the drooping Nine regards — 
When now our best and most illustrious bards 

Titus ; and whether habit had begot a kind of nature, or that h« 
thought it dange rolls to lay aside the hypocrite too soon» I know 
not ; but from one or other of these causes, he certainly patronised 
the arts at his accession : Quintilian, Statius, Valerius Flaccus» 
Martial, &c. tasted of his bounty, and sang his praises with more 
gratitude, perhaps, than truth. 

This Satire must have been written in the early part of Domi- 
tian's reign. Like the fifth and sixth (both of which were some- 
what posterior to it) it has few political allusions, and, with the 
exception of the short passage, for which the author is supposed 
to have suffered, might have been published under the most in- 
quisitorial tyranny. 

In giving ** one honest line" of praise to Domitian, Juvenal 
probably meant to stimulate him to extend his patronage. I am 
persuaded that he did not think very ill of him at this time, while 
be augured happily for the future. Nor is it certain, but that the 
anguish he felt at finding his predictions falsified, and his ** sole 
patron of literature" changed, in a few years, if^to a ferocious and 

fiessed to do in her, I cannot say ; but, according to the custom 
of the £mperours in selecting some favourite deity for thdr 
especial worship, he made choice, as I have said, of Minerva. In 
Beger's Numismata, a Pallas frequently accompanies Domitian 
on the reverse of his coins : and on one of them (Tab. xxxii. 4) 
he appears in the act of sacrificing to her, with his head veiled, 
in the usual manner. There is little doubt, I think, but that 
these representations allude to some former attachment of his to 
the cause of literature : at all events, this strengthens the opinion 
hazarded above, that the poet meant to speak of the early part 
of Domitian's reign. 

That he aflerwards changed his sentiments, and fell suddenly 
upon men of letters, is certain : but this may readily be accounted 
for, from his disposition, which was at once crafty and violent* 
Thus he is represented by Xiphil. in the beginning of lib* Lxvu* 

iip«]/i»«f * fti^Ti o^* ix»r§p*J9 rv9 fjuw to irpevfrif, ran h ro h>M>w ty^t. 

In Massinger's Roman Actor, there are several ingenious and 
truly classical allusfflis to the reliance which Domitian fondly 
placed on the partiality of this deity. 

SATtKE Vfl. JUVENAL. V. 5—22. UJ 

Drop their ungrateful studies, and aspire, 
Baths, bagnios, what they can, for bread, to hire ; 
With humbled views, a life of toil embrace, 
And deem a crier's business no disgrace ; 
Since Gild, driven by hunger from the shad.e, 
Mixes in crowds^ and bustles for a ttade. 

And truly, if (the bard's too frequent curse) 
No coin be found in thy Pierian purse, 
'Twere not ill done to copy, for tli?e nonce, 
Machaera, and turn auctioneer at once« 
Hie, my poetick friend ; in accents loud^ 
Commend thy precious lumber to the crowd, 
I'ubs, presses^ chests, jointstools ; swell with the 

Of (Edipus and Tereus, the damn*d plays 
Of Faustus, Paccicis : — ^better so» than deal 
In oaths and informations^ for a meal. 
Leave that resource to Gappadoclan knights. 
To Gallogreeks, and such newfangled wights 

bloody persecutor of aU tbe arts, might have exasperated bis 
resentment, and produced that superiour hatred, with which he 
pursues bis memory* . 

Ver. 19. O/Fmutat^Paccku:'^] For Paodus some copies have 
Bacchus. It signifies little which we read, for nothing is known 
of either. Their works luckily followed — it may be, preceded — 
them ; or, according to the happy expression of a lady, lament- 
ing the premature fate of her infant, 

" Their babes, which ne'er received the gift of breath, 
" Did pass before them, through the gate:» of death \" 

Vbe. 21. Leave thai remmrce to Cappadocian knightt^ i^c] 
Who has not heard of the three kappas ? 

Tf%* Ko^Mta xaxtfctf 

There Js a curious circumstance respecting the Cappadociana 

2a8 SATIRE VII. JUVENAL, v. 23-*44. 

As want or mfamy has chased from home, 
And driven, in barefoot multitudes, to Rome. 
Gome, my brave youths: — the genuine sons of 
Who in sweet Aumbers couch the true sublime, 
Shall, from this hour, no more their fate accuse. 
Or stoop to pains unworthy of the Muse. 
Come, my brave youths ; your tuneful labours ply, 
Secure of favour ; lo ! the imperial eye 
Looks round, attentive, on each rising bard. 
For worth to praise, for genius to reward! 
But if for other patronage you look, 
And therefore write, and therefore swell your book, 
Quick, call for wood, and let the flames devour • 
The hapless produce of the studious hour ; 
Or lock it up, to moths and worms a prey. 
And break your pens, and fling your ink away : — 
Or pour it rather o*er your epick flights. 
Your battles, sieges ; (fruit of sleepless nights ;) 
Pour it, mistaken men, who rack your brains 
In garrets, cocklofts, for heroick strains ; 
Who toil and sweat to purchase mere renown. 
And a starved statue with an ivy crown ! 

mentioned by the old Scholiast on Persius. It is nothing to the 
purpose for which it is there produced ; but it serves well enough 
to illustrate' the passage before us: Hoc dicit, quia Cappadoces 
dkcrentur habere studium naturak ad falsa testimonia profhrenda ; 
qui nutriti in tormentis a pueritia^-cum in pana perdurarent, ad 
peijuria se bene venundarent. The same character, according to 
Cicero, might be justly given of all the people of Lesser Asia. It 
is singular, however, that with such numbers contending for the 
preference of selling their evidence, any of them should get rich. 

Vbb. 44* Jnd a starved Matue with an ivjf4srown '] I do not 

SATIRE VII. JUVENAL. V. 45—48. 229 

Here bound your expectations : for the great, 
Grown covetous, have wisely learn'd, of late, 
To praise, and only praise, the high-wrought strain, 
As boys, the bird of Juno's glittering train. 

know whether the starved statue with which Juvenal threatens 
hifi poet, alludes to the custom of erecting statues to all such as 
distiiii/uished themselves; or to the busts of celebrated writers^ 
which were sometimes placed, together with their works, in the 
temple of the Palatine Apollo : I rather suppose to the latter. 

The old Scholiast is pleased, but without knowing it, to be 
witty at the poor poet's expense. Imagine macra, he thus ex- 
plains, corpore exili propter vigilias ; quia poeta sic pinguntur 
qua$i ad summam macum nimio laborc (et inedia, he should have 
added) confecti. But Juvenal had no such *• leaten stuff" in his 
thoughts ; he merely meant to say that his poet was in the con- 
dition of one described by Aristophanes,^— 

This passage (Qui facis in parvoy ^c.) gave Jonson a transient fit 
of enthusiasm : 


" I that spend half my nights, and half my days, 

** Here in a cell, to get a dark pale face, 
•* To come forth worth the ivy or the bays, 

" And in this age can hope no other grace — 
" Leave me ! there's something come into my thought, 
*' That must and shall be sung high and aloof, 
^' Safe from the wolfs black jaw, and the dull ass's hoof!" 

Ver. 47. To praisCf and ohly praise, ^c] This is prettily 
imitated by Spenser in the Shepherd's Calendar : 

** So p,:iysen babes the peacock's spotted traine, 

" And wondren at bright Argus* blazing eye: 

*' But who rewards him ere the more forthy ? 

" Or feedes him once the fuller by a graine ?" JEgl, x. 

And Randolph^ who had Spenser as well as Juvenal in his mind : 

<* The plowman is rewarded ; only we 

** That sing, are paid with our ov\n melody : 

•' Rich churles have learnt to praise us, and admire, 

** But have not learnt to think us worth the hire. — 

** [So] when great Juno's beauteous bird di^plaies 

** Her starry tail, the boyes do run and gaze 

" At her proud train," &c. Poems, p. 78. 

ajo SATIRE vxi. JUVENAL, v. 49--^S« 

Meanwhile those vigorous years, so fit to bear 
The toils of agriculture, commerce, war, 
Spent in this idle trade, decline apace, 
And age, unthought of, stares you in the face : 
Then, at your barren glories, you repine, 
And curse, too late, the unavailing Nine ! 

Hear now what sneaking ways your patrons find 
To save their darling gold :r--they pay in kind I 
Verses, composed in every Muse's spite, 
To the starved bard they, in their turn, recite ; 

VEa. 53. Then^ at your barren gloriesg 4*c.] 

** Passa la gioventude, e Tore ondate ; 
** La vecchiezza, mendica di sostanza, 
*' Bestemroia poi della perduta etatc/' 

S. Ro9a, Sat. it. 

Ver. 55* Hear now what leaking ways Src'] The Bufo' of 
Pope is shadowed out in part from this animated passage : 

** Till grown more frugal in bis riper days, 

" He paid some bards with port, and some with praise j 

*^ To some a dry rehearsal was assigned, 

'^ And others, harder atiil t he paid in kind/' 

There is a very good story told by Macrobius, which will not be 
much out of the way here. A Greek poet had presented Augus- 
tus Caesar with many little compliments, in hopc» of some trifling 
remuneration. The Emperour, who fouud them worth nothing, 
took no notice of the poor man ; but» as he persisted in offering 
him his adulatory verses, composed himself an epigram in praise 
of the poet; and when he next waited on him with his customary 
panegyrick, presented his own to him with amazing gravity. The 
^ man took and read it with apparent satisfaction; then putting 
hi» Jhaud into his pocket, he dehberately drew out two farthings, 
and gave them to the Emperour, saying, Qv xarm TRt tv^w** « 
tf-sCftcrc* fi v^f»oyct uxor, «r^iioya ei9 xoi iMev, ^^ This is not equal to 
the demands of your situation, Sire. ; but 'tis all I have : if I had 
more I would give it to vou." Augustus, who was not an* ill- 
natured man, could not resist this ; he burst into a fit of laughter, 
and, as Macrobius says, made the poet a handsome present. 
In allusion to this passage, the Italians relate that Pius UU on 

SATIRE VII. JUVENAL, y. S9«— 70. ^31 

And, if they yield to Hotoer, let him know 
'Tis— that He lived a thousand ycirs ago. 

But| if inspired with genuine love of fame, 
A dry rehearsal only, be your aim, 
The miser's breast with sudden warmth dilates, 
And lo ! he opes his triple-bolted gates ; 
Nay, sends his clients to support your cause. 
And rouse the tardy audience to applause : — 
But will not spare one farthing to defray 
The numerous charges of this glorious day, 
The rostrum, where^ with conscious pride, you sat. 
The chairs and benches, and I know not what. 

being-presented with a panegyrick in verse, by one who expected 
8 pecuniary return, gave him the following distich : 

** Discite pro numeris numeros sperare, poetse, 
'' Mutare est animus carroina, non emere." 

To which the other instantly replied : 

** Si tibi pro numeris numeros Fortuna dedisset, 
** Non esset capid tanta corona tuo«" 

It must be confessed that the Pope and his friend make but a 
sorry figure by the side of Augustus an4 his Greek poet ; who 
surpass them as much in genuine humour, as in urbanity and 
gocid breeding. 

Ver. Gji But wiU not spare one farthing ^-c] I have little 
doubt but that if we were better acquainted with the literary 
history of Juvenal's time, we should find most of his allusions to 
be founded on fact. I could almost venture to afHrm, that in the 
litUe narrative here produced, he had Saleius Bassus in view :--^t 
least, many of the circumstances correspond with what Tacitus 
delivers of him in the Dial, de Oratoribus : Versus Basso domi 
nascuntur pulckri ^iidem et jucundif quorum iamen hie eiittis esti 
ut cum ioio annoj per omnes dies, magna noctium parte, umon 
libmm extudit, rogare ultro et ambire cogatur, ut sint qui dignentur 
audire : et ne,id quidem gratis, nam et domum mutuatur, et audi* 
torium exiruit^ et subseUia conducitf &c. V 9* 

aja SATIRE viK JUVENAL* v. 71 — 98. 

Still we persist; plough the light sand, and sow 
Seed after seed, where none can ever grow : 
Nay, should we, conscious of our fruitless pain, 
Strive to escape, we strive, alas ! in vain ; 
Long habit, and the thirst of praise beset, 
And close us in the inextricable net. 
The insatiate itch of scribbling, hateful pest ! 
Creeps, like ^ tetter, through the human breast, 
Nor knows, nor hopes a cure ; since years, which 
All other passions, fire this growing ill. [chill 

But H£, the bard of every age and clime, 
Of genius fruitful, and of soul sublime, 
Who, from the glowing mint of fancy, pours 
No spurious metal, fused from common ores» 
But gold, to matchless purity refined, 
And stamp*d with all the godhead in his mind ) 
He whom I feel, but want the power to painty 
Must boast a soul impatient of restraint^ 
And free from every care ; a soul that loves 
The Muses' haunts, clear springs, and shady groves^ 
Never, no never, did he wildly rave. 
And shake his thyrsus in the Aonian cave. 
Whom poverty kept sober, and the cries 
Of a lean stomach, clamorous for supplies : 
No ; the wine circled briskly through his veins 
When Horace pour'd his dithyrambick strains I — 
What room for fancy, say, unless th^ mind, 
And all its thoughts, to poesy resigned, 

Vee. 97- What room for fancy ^ say^ S^c!] Spenser had this 
passage in bis thoughts, when he wrote the following noble lines : 

SATIRE VII. .JUVENAL. .V. 99— 104. aji 

Be hurried with resistless force along. 
By the two kindred Powers of wine and song ! 
O ! tis the exclusive business of a breast 
InipetDDus, uncontroird, — not one distrest 
About a rug at night, — to paint the abodes, 
The steeds, the chariots, and the forms of gods : 

" The vaunted verse a vacant head deraaundes ; 
'' Ne wont with crabbed care the Muses dwell : 
'* Unwisely weaves, that takes two webbes in hand. 

*' Who ever casts to compasse wigbtie prise, 
<' And thinkes to throwe out thundring words of threat, 
** Let powre in lavish cups, and thriftie bittes of meate, 
*^ For Bacchus fruite is friend to Pb^sbus w»e ; 
'* And, when with wine the braine be^ns to sweat, 
^' The numbers flowe as fast as spring doth rise. 

** Thou kenst not^ Percie, how the rime should rage ; 
" O if ray temples were distain'd with wine, 
•* And girt in girlonds of wilde yvie twine, 
" How I could reare the Muse on stately stage, 
" And teach her tread aloft in buskin fine, 
*• With queint Bellona in her equipage !** JSgL x, 

Vbr. 103. ■ ' to paint the abodes. 

The 4teedSf the chariots^ and the forms of' gods :] In 
these and the following lines Juvenal alludes to various passages 
in Virgil, but chiefly to these two : 

" Jam summas arces Tritonia (respice) Pallas 

*' Insedit, nimbo eftulgens et Gorgone sseva. 
ip^e pater Danais animos viresque secundas ' 
Sufficit ; ipse deos in Dardana suscitat arma.«— 

" Apparent dira iacies, inimicaque Trojae 

** Numina masna Dedm." 

** Talibus Alccto dictis exarbit in iras. 
** At Juvcni oranti subitus tremor occupat artus ; 
** Dirigu^re oculi : tot Erinnys sibilat hydris, 
'* Tantaque se fades apcrit :" &c. 

These are good specimens of the sublime, especially the first ; 
yet I cannot but think our author might have found in the com- 
pass of Latin poetry, something more to his purpose ; but he was 
evidently partial to Virgil : no great impeachment of his taste^ 
by the way. Horace has a quotation from Ennius of much force 

«ji sATiftxvn. JUVENAL, t. 105— 124. 

And the fierce Fury, as her snakes she shook. 
And withered the Rutulian with a look I 
Those snakes, had Virgil no Maecenas found. 
Had dropt, in listless length, upon the ground ; 
And the loud trump, that roused the world to arms, 
Languish*d in silence, guiltless of alarms. 
Yet we expect from Lappa*s tragick rage, 
Such scenes as graced of old the Athenian stage : 
Though he, poor man, from hand to mouth be fed, 
And driven to pawn his furniture for bread t . 
- When Numitor is ask'd to serve a friend, 
" He cannot, he is poor." Yet he can send 
Rich presents to his mistress ; he can buy 
Tame lions, and find means to keep them high : 
What then f the beasts are still the lightest charge ; 
For your starved bards have maws so devilish large! 

Stretch'd in his marble palace at his ease, 
Lucan may write, and only ask to please ; 
But what is this, if this be all you give. 
To Bassus and Serranus ? They must live ! 

and sublimity; and Lucretius (who iiad also bis Maecenas) 
would have supplied him, I think, with examples of greater £re 
and animation than those he has selected; but Lucretius was 
doomed to misfortune : his contemporaries neither saw his beau- 
ties nor his defects ; and succeeding writers, if they did not in- 
tirely neglect, plundered hira, and were silent. His philosophy 
ruined his poetry in the eyes of Rome. 

Ver. 124. To Basius and Sernuius f 4*^.] Bassus is spoken of 
\n the Dial, de Orat. (see note on v. 67f) as a most excellent 
poet (absidutissimum poetam^ §. 5) and a worthy roan. I take 
him to be the person alluded to in v. 80 ; as Quintilian, after 
observing that he had a fervid genius, adds, that the warmth of it 
v\ras not repressed by age. Tacitus, who was evidently attached 
to him, inUoduces him again^ (§. %) to show that, notwithstanding 

SATIRE VII. JUVENAL. ▼• ia5~i3o. ^35 

When Statias 5x-d a mornSng, to recite 
His Thebaid to the toWn^ with what delight 
They flock'd to hear ! with what fond rapture hung 
On the «weet strains, made sweeter by his tongue ! 
Yet, while the seats rung with a general peal 
Of boisterous praise, the bard had lackM a meal, 

his acknowledged merit, he was scandalously neglected. Oiicc^ 
indeed » as appears from the same authority, he received a present 
of five hundred sesterces from Vespasian, (a prodigious effort of 
generosity in that frugal prince,) and this was sufficient, perhaps, 
to make Doroitian neglect hiip ; for he was not over fond of 
imitating his father. 

i can find nothing of Seiranus, but that he was very roach in 
debt to one Afer. Mart. iv. 57. 

Ve». 125. When Statins ^-c] " Juvenal," says Doctor War- 
ton, *^ in a well known passage, laughs at Statius reciting hit 
Thebaid !" This is (at best) hastily said ; but something to the 
same effect, has been asserted by others. Gevartius observes, in 
his notes on Statius, that Maidal and this poet were on ill terms : 
this, I am afraid, is too true : nowy says Hanntnios, as Juvenal 
was extrem^y attached to Martial, it is probable that he took up 
the quarrel, and gave his eneflsy a stroke in transitu. I doubt 
this extreme attachment : that they were friends is certain ; but 
surely not sufficiently so, to induce either of them to embrace the 
unjust prejudices of the other. Afterwards, indeed, the gross 
flattery which Statius continued to heap upon Domitian might, 
and probably did, contribute to alienate our author from him ; 
but at the time when this Satire was written, and when there is 
reason to suppose that Statius himself was no great favourite, he 
could have had no possible cause for displeasure. On the most 
careful perusal of the passage, I can see nothing like a tendency 
to laughter, but rather to pity. Publick recitation, if not highly 
honourable, was yet exceedingly common ; and, if the short his« 
tory of our author's life may be credited, frequently practised bj 

If there be any thing which can be construed into a sneer in 
any part of this passage, (which yet I do not suspect,) it may be 
levelled at the singular fondness of Statius for reciting ; joined, as 
it seems to me, with a certain degree of vanity at the res|)ecta- 
bility of hit audiences, and the eflKsct his poetry oiiUalky had 

^36 SATIRE vji> JUVENAL, v. 131 — 134. 


Unless with Parh he had better sped, 
And trdck'd a virgin tragedy for bread. 
He gives the poets office, rank, to hold, 
And rounds their fingers with semestral gold : 

upon them* In the Epicediou on his father, be says very 
beautifully : 

'' Qualis eras, Latios quoties ego carmine patrxs 

*^ Mulcerem, felixque tui spectator adesses 

*< Muncris : heu quali confusus gaud la fletu 

'* Vota, piosque metus inter, laetunique pudorem ! 

^* Quam tuus ilie dies, qua non mihi gloria major." 

Syl. V. 215. 

and in the Protrepticon to young Crispinus, where he laments 
that he shall not have him at his readings : 

** Hei mihi ! sed costns solitos si forte ciebo, 
'* £t mea Romulei veaient ad carmina fatres, 
Tu deeris, Crispine, mihi, cuneosque per omnes 
Te raeus absentem circumspectabit Achilles/' 

For cosius some copies have quce^tus; because, says Gronovius^ 
PxtpmitiS rcciiatione poematum vicium quctrebat. He was, pro- 
bably, encouraged to these frequent rehearsals by- the sweetness 
of his voice; which is noticed, as we see, by .Juvenal, and again 
by the old Scoliast : Est oitm, as he truly observes, et poema 
(Thebdii) ipstun deleciabile, et ipse dieitur bonam voeem habuisse, 

Vkr. 131. Unless with Paris he had better sped^ 4*^.] For 
Paris,. see note p. \6S, He here appears as the dispenser of the 
impctial favours; but such is the capricious nature of tyranny, 
and so unsteady is the tenure of its attachment,, that not long 
after the publication of this Satire, he was seized and put to 
death in a fit of jealousy, by the very man over whom his influ- 
ence was at this /noment unbounded ! 

It is probable that Domitian, with the usi^al versatility of ty- 
rants^ repented of the fact as soon as he had committed it ; for 
Martial has a very good epitaph on Paris, which he would not 
have ventured to write if the £mperour's displeasure had conti- 
nued. It is in his eleventh book; which, though published after 
Domitian's death, was principally composed, 1 believe, during his 

Ver* 134. And rounds their Jingers with semestral gold :] In 


9ATIRE VII. JUVENAL. V. 13s— 138. 2yj 

Ye gods! an actor's patronage affords 
A means of ris»ing, surer than a lord's ! 
And will you stUl on Gamerlnus wait, 
And Bareas ? will you still frequent the great ? 

other words, makes them military tribunes for six months. Ken-' 
net saysy these tribunes hsA the honour of wearing a gold ring* 
in the same manner as the knights 3 and because their office was 
extremely desired > to encourage as many as possible, their cona- 
mand Usted but half a year. Rom. A^t. p. 195. 

What Kennct (or rather Lipsius, from whom he took it) means 
by the concluding part of the paragraph, I cannot tell. A per- 
mission to wear a gold ring for six months, seems to hold out no 
mighty "encouragement" either to poets or soldiers: indeed, if. 
the thing were so " extremely desirable,*' much would not be ne- 
cessary; for what was to become of them, on their descent from 
their temporary elevation ? 

I wbh there were any authority for supposing that the aurum 
semestre alluded to a division of quaatity, and not of duration : 
the permission to wear it, might then confer an honorary, or 
brevet rank, (a real command, ( am convinced, it never could,) 
which gave the possessor a claim to something like half-pay. Or, 
if this be not allowed, it might entitle him to certain privileges, 
and immunities, which, though less than those conferred by the 
Jus trium liberomnif might yet be very advantageous : 1 have said 
/cm, because this favour could granted by the Emperours; 
whereas the other, was bestowed by generals, prefects, &c. Thus 
Pliny entreats Sossius (one of Trajan's lieutenants) to confer this 
ioaour on the nephew of his friend C. Nepos : C. Calvisium roga 
semestri tribunatu splendUdiorem et sibi^ et avunculo suo faciasm 
Lib. IV. 4. And in another place, he transfers a tribuneship, 
which he had obtained for Suetonius, at the historian's own re- 
quest, to one of his relations. Lib. 11 r. 8. Lord Orrery observes 
on this, with some surprise, that Suetonius is *« usually drawn as a 
philosopher rather than a soldier." He is so— and this seems to 
confirm what I have just advanced, that the aurum semestre^ 
though sufficiently lucrative perhaps, required no actual service. 

* That the military tribunes wore gold rings, is clear enough : 
£he only question is, whether, as Kennet says, these rings were 
what Juvenal calls the aurum semestre. 

ajR SATIRE VI ii' JUVENAL^ v* 139-^141. 

Ah, rather to th^ Player your Pelops take, 
And at one lucky stroke your fortune make ! 

Yet envy iiot the man that earns hard thread 
By tragedy 3 the Muses* friend$ are fled-: ' 

Vbr. 139. Febp9 4*^] Prcefectos Pelopea fadij Pkiiomeia 
tribftnas: this is the line Ibr which, according' to the cofninen- 
.tatoi*$, Juvenal was sent into banishment; Pflm^ it seeiiM» 
who had no objection to be reminded of having preserved 
Statius frono starving* was so moriified by the mention of his ma- 
nificence to the authors of Pelopea and Ph'ilomeU that he pro* 
eufed'a command for Juvenal also, ^adde^atched him to Upper 
Egypt. Certainty, 

*' It stands on record that in Richard's times, 
*' A man was hanged for very honest rhymes/' 

and there is no physical impossibility in the way of a man's beir^ 
banished for a similar offence. But does there not appear some- 
thing like a contradictipn in those learned gentlemen ? They agree 
that the author was exiled by Domitian ; and yet diffsr about the 
Eitiperour under whom this Satire was written ! What i» equally 
strangO) they must allow that if he was punished* for the- line in 
question, it could only be by Domitian^ and yet this is the only 
work in which he is mentioned with kindness I 
, I am no advocate either for tlie gmiituda^ or die consisteiicy ol 
that prince ; and, indeed^ have other reasons for disbelievvng the 
popular tale : these are already gpven* in the Life pf the Authorfr 
and to these the reader is referred. 

Doctor Warton, in his excellent edition of Pope, (so, it seens, 
we must call it,) says that Juvenal was ** banisheid for commend* 
ing the Agave of Statius^" For commending* the Agave of Statius I 

Vkr. 141. Yet envy not the man 4-c.] The protection of Paris, 
and such as Paris, does not gratify the manly mind of Juvenal ; 
he feelingly regrets the want of those whose fiivourable opinion 
might be received with pride, and whose bounty might be ac- 
cepted without dishonour. 

The patrons he has enumerated were, indeed, ** the Muses' 
friends," and such as they have seldom had to boast. The name 
of Maecenas is but another word for generosity. Proculeius and 
Lentulus were little less celebrated for their unbounded libera- 
lity ; while Fabius and Cotta joined to this, the rarer quality of 
fidelity in distress: they were both the affectionate friends of 
Ovid, and that too, at a lime when their friendship was as valuable 

84TIEB VJU JUVENAL* v.i43^i58» 239 

Maecenas, 'ProcuIeiuSv Fabius, gone, 

And Leatulus, aqd Cotta^ — every: one ! [toil^ 

Then worth was cherished, then the bard might 

Secure of favour, o*er the midnight oil ; 

Then all December s revelries refuse, 

And give the. festive moments to the Muse, 

So fare the tuneful race : but ampler gains 
Await, no doubt, the grave kistorian'S pains! 
More tiine, more study they require, and pile 
Page upon page^ heedless of bulk the while, 
Till,, fact conjoin*d to fact with toil intense. 
The work is closed at many a ream's expense ! 
Say now, what harvest is there ever found, . 
What golden crops, from/ this long-labour'd 

groiind ? 
*Tis barren all : and those who bne& transcribe^ 
Get more by their dull pains than half the tribe^ 

to hinit as dangerous to themselves ; when he was an exil^, and 
in disgrace ! 

I have sometimes wood^red why Juvenal never mentions Pliny, 
He had here an opportunity of doing it ; and Pliny was certainly 
a generous, and in some cases a munificent man. It may be^ 
that he thought theie was more of vanity than of genuine kind- 
ness in the favours .he conferred; and there is. apparently some 
reason for such an opinion. In one of his letters he mentioas his 
kindness to Martial, but in a way that shows he was thinking more 
of himself than of the poet The whole account is degrading^ and 
has always mortified me in the perusal. It was not so that Len- 
tulus and Cotta showed their love of genius. 

Spenser has ai^ allusion to these lines in the Shepherd's Ca- 
lendar : 

'^ But ah ! Mecaenas is yclad in claye, 

*• And great Augustus long ygoe is dead, 

" And all the Worthies liggen wrapt in lead, 

•* That matter made for poets on to playe : 

** For ever, who in derring-doe were dread, 

** The loftie verse of hem was loved aye." ^gl, 3C# 

140 SATIRE VII. JUVENAL, v. 159— 18<. 

True ; but the inglorious breed delight in ease* 
And tranquil shades : then tell me, if you please^ 
What gain the lawyer's active life affords, 
His sacks of papers, and his war ot* words ? 
Heavens ! how he bellows in our tortured eai*s ; 
But then, then chieQy, when the client hears, 
Or one^ prepared with vouchers, to attest 
Sotne desperate debt, more anxious than the rest, 
Twitches his. elbow: — ^^then his passions rise ! 
Then forth he puffs the immeasurable lies 
From his swollen lungs! then the white foam 

And drivelling dowahis beard, his vest be^mearsf 
Now weigh the gains': let five score lawyers, here. 
Place their joint wealth ; there, the red charioteer, 
Lacerta, his alone! — ** On either hand, 
The Generals sit ;" you, my pale Ajax, stand, 
In act to plead a trembling client's cause. 
Before Judg6 Jolthead — learned in the laws. 
Now stretch your throat, unhappy man ! now raise 
Your clamours, that, when hoarse, a bunch of bays, 
Stuck in your garret window, may declare 
What a victoripus pleader nestles there ! 
O glorious hour I but what your fee, the while? 
A rope of shrivell'd onions from the Nile, 

Veh. 173. Lacerta^ Tbis favourite of Fortune, was probably 
a driver of the imperial faction, which had now assumed the rui- 
sate or red colour. See Sat. xi. . The passage which inHnediately 
follows is an humorous allusion to the contention of Ajax and 
Ulysses for the armour of Achilles, as described by Ovid : 

** Consed6re duces," &c. 

SATIRE i^ii, JUVENAL, V. 183— 194' 241 

A rusty ham, a jar of broken sprats, 
And wine, the refuse of our country vats ; 
Five flaggons for four causes ! if you hold, 
Though this indeed be rare, a piece of gold ; 
The brethren, 2is per contract^ on you fall, 
And share the prize, solicitors and all. 

Whate'er he asks, .^milius may command, 
Though more of law be ours : but then there stand 
Before his gate, conspicuous from afar. 
Four stately steeds yoked to a Brazen car ; 
And the great pleader, looking wary round, 
On a fierce charger that disdains the ground, 

Ver. 188. And share the prize, solidtors ^-c] It appears from 
the Orator of Cicero, (lib. i. 45, and 59,) tbat in his days these 
solicitors (pra^matici) were confined to Greece. The Roman 
causidiciy or advocates, when they were ignorant of the law, used 
at that time to apply to the learned men of rank, such as the 
Scasvolae, &c. • But under the successours of Augustus, there was 
not the same encouragement (nor indeed security) for these great 
men to study that science : the orators were, therefore, obliged 
of course to adopt the Grecian method : Neque ego, says Quint. 
lib. XII. c. 3, sum nostri maris ignarus, oblitusve eorum qui vefut 
ad arculas sedcnf, et tela agentibus subministrant ; neque idem 
Grctcoi quoque nesclo factitare, unde nomen his Pragmaticorum 
datum est, 

Ver. 191. On ajicrce charger SfC."] This vagary of jErailius 
(choosing, though a man of peace, to be represented on a war- 
borse) seems to have taken mightily at Rome, most probably 
from its absurdity, and to have had a number of imitators, ^]ar- 
tial, in an attack upon an unfortunate pedagogue for interrupting 
his sleep, can think of nothing to which the noise of his school 
may be so aptly compared as that of the sledges and anvils o£ 
smiths foiling war-horses for the lawyers : 

** Tarn grave percussis incudibus aera resultant, 
" Causidicuni medio cum faber aptat equo." 

We leani from the sequel, that it did not succ^d much with 
his imitators ; and, indeed, it seldom happens that any but the 
author of a joke profits by it. 

242 SATIRE yxi. JUVENAL* v. 195—210. 

Levels his thrcatning sp^ar, in act to throw. 
And seems to meditate no common blow. 
Such arts as these, to beggary Matho brought, 
And such the ruin of Tongillus wrought, 
Who, with his draggled slaves, a numerous train, 
Annoy'd the baths, €>f his huge oil-horn vain ; 
Swept through the Forum, in a chair of state, 
To every auction, villas, slaves, or plate ; 
And, trading on the credit of his dress, 
Cheapen'd whatever he saw, though penniless ! 

And some, indeed, have riseubytrickslike these: 
Purple and violet swell a lawyer's fees ; 
Bustle and show above his means, conduce 
To business, and profusion is of use. 
The vice is universal : Rome confounds 
The wealthiest, — prodigal beyond all bounds ! 

Ver. 197. Matho ^•c.] Matho deficit. This Dryden trans- 
lates : 

. " With arts like these rich Matho when he speaks 
*' Attracts all fees, and little lawyers breaks. ' 

For this he was indebted to Lubin, who corrects himself, indeed, 
a few lines below ; this, however, Dryden did not read far enough 
to see. I should not have noticed the blunder^ had it not mate- 
rially interfered with the date of this Satire. It appears diat 
Matho, disgusted with his ill success as a lawyer, gave it up en- 
tirely, and betook himself to the trade of an informer. In this, 
unfortunately, he succeeded but too well; and when Juvenal 
wrote his first Satire, which was consequently many years after 
the present, he was become wealthy, arrogant, and luxurious. 
See Sat. i. v. 44. 

Ver. S04. Cheapen'd whatever hesaw^ though penniless /] If this 
passage furnished Martial with a hint for his pleasantry on Ma- 
murra, it is not one of the smallest favours which Juvenal has 
conferred upon us. Indeed, I recollect no piece of equal length, 
that possesses so much genuine humour as the epigram on this 

«ATw«vii. JUVENAL.^^$. 243 

Conld wr old pleaders visit earth again, 
TuUy himself would «qarce a brief obuin. 
Unless his robe were purple, and a stone, 
Jasper or diamond, on his fiuger shone. 
T^e wary plaintiff, ere a fee he gives. 
Inquires at what expepie his counsel lives ; 
Has be eight slaves, tea fellowem ? chairs to wait. 
And clients to precede his march ia state ? 
This Paulus know0 full well, and therefore hires 
A ring to plead in ; therefore, too, acquires 
More briefs thanCossus .--—preference not unsound, 

For how should eloquence in rags be found ? 
Who trusts poor Basil with a cause of state ? 
When does he, to avert a culprit's fate. 
Produce a weeping mother ? or who heeds 
How close he argues, or how well he pleads ? 

!!w'!?{.P"*"".''" *° unlimited wealth: some of the lines are 
inesistibly comick : 

" Inde satur, mensas et opertos exuit prbcs, 
« p Expositumque alte piugue poposcit ebur,: 

Et testadineum mensus qnater hexaclinon, 

" Ingemuit citro non satis esse suo ! 

Tie condusion is excellent. After running about all day from 
mwcnant to merchant, and cheapening none but articles of the 
most rare and costly kind : 

" Undecima lassos cum jam discederet hora, 
" Asm duos calices emit, et ipse tulit ! Lib. ix. 60. 

Now tired, this man of boundless views, 
At night's approach, lays out two sous, 
Oa two coarse platters for his shelf, 
And shuffles, with them, home himself! 

*«!?** '^' "'."^ *" ^'^ »«'■ 4-e-] This hired ring seems 
to have answered even better than the war-horse of .«milius ; for 
i-ttutus, m process of time, grew into great practice, and come- 


444 SATIRE VII. JU VENAL, v. aa7— 23d. 

Unhappy drudge !— but, Basil, thou art wrong : 
Wouldst thou procure subsistence by thy tongue, 
Renounce the town, and instantly withdraw 
To Gaul, or Africk, the dry-nurse of law. 

But Vectius opens, O that iron heart ! • 

A school, to teach the rhetorician*s art; 
Where boys, in long succession, rave and storm 
At tyranny, through many a crowded form. — 
The exercise he lately, sitting, read, 
Standing, distracts his miserable head, 

qucntly great riches. Our author's friend. Martial, had the mis- 
fortune to be under his patronage, which, like that of many other 
parvenus f was so burthensome, that the poet, in a fit of spleea* 
threatens to shake it off intirely : 


te post roillc labores 

'^ Paule, negat lasso janitor esse domi : 
'' Exitus hie operis vani, togulaeque madentis ; 

** Vix tanti Paulum mane videre fuit. 
** Semper inhumanos habet officiosus amicos ; 

'' Rex> nisi dormieris, non potes esse meus." 

Lib. V. 25. 

This is one of the few occasions on which Martial speaks out ; 
but, I believe, he never carried his independent language into 

Ver. 250. To Gaul, or Africk, 4-c.] « Gaul and Africa," Ma- 
clan says, '' were remarkable at that time for encouraging elo- 
quence ; and had great lawyers who got large fees \" For this 
precious piece of information, he refers to Dry den's notes, which 
are beneath the notice of a schoolboy. That Gaul and Africa 
were noted for litigtousness is certain, and to this Juvenal alludes; 
but he was far from imagining there were great lawyers, or great 
fees, I believe, to be found in either country. 

Ver. *235. The exercise Sfc] Juvenal has omitted one eril 
which attended this unfortunate race : besides having their heads 
distracted with these everlasting declamations, they were some- 
times liable to lose them altogether: and Domitian actually put 
one of them to death for a rhetorical flourish about tyranny, 
w hich was produced in his school. Dio tells the story, and says 

5AT1RE VII. JUVENAL. V- 237— 252, 24s 

And every day, and every hour affords 
The selfsame subject, in the selfsame words ; 
Till, like hash'd cabbage served for each repast. 
The repetition kills the wretch at last ! 
Where the main jet of every question lies, 
And whence the chief objections may arise, 
All wish to know ; but none the price will pay. 
" The price," retorts the scholar, " do you say ! 
What have I leam*d ?" There go the master's 
pains ! [brains. 

Because, forsooth, the Arcadian brute lacks 
And yet this oaf, every sixth morn, prepares 
To split my head with Hannibal's affairs, 
While he debates at large, ** Whether 'twere right 
*' To take advantage of the general fright, 
" And march to Rome ; or, by the storm alarm'd, 
*' Ai)d all the elements against him ar^i'd. 

that the name of the poor wretch was Matemus. . Our author, 
perhaps'y did not consider this as an additional calamity in the 
Uves of such men, 

Vrr. 246. the Arcadian brute] Arcadico juvenij 

hoc e$tj tarda et (^sinino: nam in Arcadia ovTim progenerantur! 
Brit. Arcadian, i. e. dull and asinine ; for in Arcadia the finest 
ASSBB are bred ! Though this seems an odd kind of deduction, 
the reader, 1 believe, must acquiesce in it ; unless he chooses to 
subscribe to the opinion of Lubin, who says that the Arcadian 
brute is a mule; which, besides being as stupid as an ass, is, as he 
very gravely adds, an ungrateful animal, nam ubi mairis ubera ad 
satictatem tuque suxit^ in earn calcem rejicitf percutitque. 

" And like Mac Quilca's horned brother, 
'' First sucks, and after kicks, his mother!'' 

But, indeed, the Arcadians themselves always passed among 
the Greeks, for a slow and stupid race. This is terrible news for 
the city ^ets, and will derange the plan of many a pastoiaU 

446 sAtiM VII. JUVEKAL. v. 253— a72; 

*^ The dangerous expedition to delay, 
'* And lead his harass'd troops some other way." 
Oh heavens !—^hat sum would on the sire 
To hear, thus oft, the everlasti&g tale ! [prevail, 

Thus Vectius speeds : bis brethren, wiser far, 
HsLve shut up school, and takett to the bar» 
Adieu the idle fooleries of Greece, 
The soporifick drug, the goMen fleece, 
The faithless husband, and aibandon'd" wife, 
And £son, coddled to new light and tife, 
A long adieu ! on more productive themes, 
On actual crimes, the sophist how declaiitis : 
Thou too, my friend, wouldst thou my cOimsel hear, 
Shouldst free thyself from this ungrateful care ; 
Lest all be lost, atid thou reduced, poor sage, 
To want a tally in (by helpless age f 
Bread still the lawyer earns ; but tell me yet, 
What your Ghrysogonus and PoUio get. 
The chief of rhetoricians, though they teach 
Our youth of quality the Art of SpAjech ? 

V£&. ^68. To toant a tally SfC.'] This wns a smftll tablet of 
lead or wood, with which the poorer citizens were furnisheRi by the 
magistrates, and which, on being presented to the keepers of the 
publick granaries, entitled them to a certain quantitj of com, 
gratis. The tallies, as appears from the text, were traosferftble : 
those who were not in want of corn, probably disposed of tbem 
for a trifling sum : — which, alas ! the profits of a rhecoiiek-school 
would scarcely enable Vectius to raise, 

Vee. 272. . tite Art of Speech ?] This Art of 

Speech was written by Theodorus Gadarens, a man of great emi- 
nence in rhetorick, who flourished in the reign of Tiberius. Bri- 
tannicas and others will have Chrysogonus and Pollio mentioned 
in the preceding line, to be musick-masters. True it is, that there 
Were two professont of these names at Rome about this period ; 

sATiRi vxr. JUV£NAL« v^ays — 292^ 24.7 

Of learning rjeckless, to a nobler end. 
The great their thousands on a bath expend : 
More for a spacious portico they pay, 
In which to amble on a showery day. 
Shall they, for brighter skies, at home remain, 
Or dash their pamper*d mules through mud and 

No; let them ride beneath the stately roof, 
For there no mire can soil the shining hoof. 
See next on proud Numidian columns rise 
An eating*room, that fronts the eastern skies. 
Ample and warm! — cost these whatever sum, 
Cooks and confectioners are yet to come. 
Mid this extravagance, that knows no bounds, 
Quintilian gets, and hardly gets, ten pounds 
For all his pains: there's no possession, none. 
That costs a sire so little as a son! 

Whence has Quintilian, then, his vast estate ? 
Urge not an instance of peculiar fate : 
Perhaps, by luck. The lucky, I admits 
Have all advantages ; have beauty, wit, 

but they were not likely to be much acquainted with the works of 
Theodoras. I h^ye little doubt but that the translation gives the 
true sense vf the author. 

Ver. 289. f^henu has Quintiiian^ 4-c.] For Quintilian, see 
Sat VI. 111. Juvenal here considers him as a rkh man, while 
Pliny, in a letter which does equal honour to himself and his 
master, (for such Quintilian was,) talks of his moderate fortune. 
The cause of this difference should probably be sought in the dif- 
ferent circumstances of the two writers. What appeared immense 
to Juvenal, might be far from seeming so, to so wealthy a man as 
Pliny. It is pleasant, however^ to know that this amiable and 
virtuous character experienced nothing of the neglect and poverty 
vrblcb overwhelmed so many of his brethreo. 

2^8 SATIRE VII. JUVENAL; v. 293— 300W 

And wisdom, and high blood : the lucky, too^ 
May take at will the senatorial shoe ; 
Be first-rate .speakers, pleaders, every thing ; 
And, though they croak like frogs, be thought to 

O, there's a difference, friend, beneath what sign 
We spring to light, or kindly or malign ! 
Fortune is aj-l. Fortune can, if she please'. 
Make kings of pedants, and, with equal ease, * 

Ver. 294. May take at will the senatorial 8ho€;\ The shoes of 
senators differed from those of (he people, in various wa^'s; but 
chiefly in colour, shape, and ornament. The colour, Middleton 
$ays, in his Treatise on the Rom. Sen. was invariably black, while 
others wore them of any colour, according to their fkncies ; the 
form was somewhat like a short boot, reaching nearly to the 
middle of the leg, as they are sometimes seen in statues, and bas- 
reliefs; and the appropriate and peculiar ornament was a figure 
of a halt-moon sewed upon the lore-part, near the instep. Plu- 
tarch, m his Quest. Roman, proposes several reasons for Hiis em- 
blem ; and more may be found in the commentators on JuvenaK 
It IS probable, after all, however, that it was merely intended to 
express the letter C, as the numerical sign of a hundred, the on* 
g*nal number of the senators. 

Cicero tells a pleasant story of a man who, during the confu- 
sion that followed the death of Casar, got into the senate merely 
by changing his shoes : Est etiam quidam samtor voluntarws 
lectus ipse a se. Apertam cunam vidit post Cctsaris necem, mutavU 
cafceos, pater conscriptus repentc est /actus ! Phillip, xiii. 13. 

Veu. 299. Fortune can^ ifsheplease^ 

Make kings <f pedants, ^c.} 'i hough Juvenal could 
scarcely mean to be understood literally, yet something very like 
this,># rfc consule rhetor, happened about the time he wrote. Licinianus, a most eloquent speaker, as Pliny tells, was 
expelled the senate on suspicion of an incestuous commerce with 
the vestal Cornc.ia, and driven into Sicily ; where he set up a 
^hool for teaching rhetorick. His opening speech bears a won- 
derrul similarity to the passage above : Quos tibi, Fortuna, iudos 
Jacis f ^acis enm ex pntfessoribus senatores, ex senatoribus profes- 
sores ! A sentence, says Pliny, so full of bitterness and gall, that 
i am almost persuaded he turned rhetorick-master for the sole 
purpose of uttering it. The other hemistich, /<* de rhehr^ 

SATIRE VII. JUVENAL, r. 301—312. 249 


Pedants of kings : for what was TuUius, say, 
Ventidius what, the wonder of his day, 
But great examples of the secret power 
Of stars, presiding o*er the natal hour ? 
Of stars, whose unrespective smiles or frowns 
Give captives triumphs, and dependents crowns ! 
He, then, is lucky ; yet a coaLblack swan 
Is not more rare, than such another man : 
Hence many a rhetorician counts his gains, 
And execrates, too late, his fruitless pains. 
Witness thy end, Thrasymachus, and thine, 
Charinas: — You beheld him, Athens, pine 

consul, though originally, perhaps, pronounced at random^ a sue* 
ceeding age saw literally fulfilled in the person of Ausonius, who, 
from a professor of rhetorick, was. advanced by Gratian to the 
conbulsbip, A. D, 373. 


Ver. 301. — Tullius, P'entidius.] He means Servius Tul- 
lius, who was born of a servant, and whom (Sat. viii.) he calls 
the last good king of Rome. Ventidius ran through a greater 
variety of fortune. He was taken prisoner when an infant, to- 
gether with his mother, by Pompeius Strabo ; (father of Pompey 
the Great ;) became an errand*boy, liext a waggoner, then a 
muleteer, a soldier, centurion, general, tribune of the people, 
praetor, and, in th<e same year, pontiff and consul. He obtained, 
too, a splendid triumph over the Partfaians, to which Juvenid more 
particularly alludes ; and thus, says Stapylton *' he who formerly 
lay in prison as a captive, at kist filled the Capitol with his 
trophies :" finally, he was honoured with a publick funeral. 

The elevation of Ventidius to the consulate was considered as 
an extraordinary event at the time, and gave birth to many sar- ^ 
cascick effusions : One of them is come down to us, 

^* Concurritc omnes augures, anispices ! 

" Portentum inusitatum confiatum est rescens; 

" Nam mulos qui fricAbat consul factus est."" 

Time, however, which does justice to merit, established his 
claims, aud silenced, perhaps shamed, his enemies. 

Vee. 311. JVitnfss thy end^ Thrasymachus , and thine^ 

Charinas :'^'\ Thrasymachus taught rhetorick,the 

150 8AT»E viu JUVENAL. V, 313^324- 

In misery, and would nought but bane bestow ; 
The only charity yim seem to know ! 

Shades of our sires ! O sacred be your rest, 
And lightly Ke the tarf upon your breast ; 
Flowers round your urns breathe sweets beyond 

And spring eternal bloom and flourish there ! 
You honoured tutors, now a slighted race, 
And gare them all a parent's power and place. 

Achilles, grown a man, the lyre essayed 
On his paternal hills, and, while he play'd, 
With trembling eyed the rod ; — ^and yet the tail 
Of the good Chiron hardly then could fail 

M commentators say, at Athens. Waiit of encouragement forced 
bim to shut up his school, aad want of every thing else, probably, 
drote him to suicitle. 

Charinas taught rhetoriek 10 the same dty, and wkh the same 
ill Buceess: he left it, therefore, and came to Rome. It a|»pears 
from Dio, that he might almost as wdl have followed the example 
of Thrasymachtts, and hanged himself h here he was >-*for he had 
•cafcefy opened his school, ere he provoked the suspicion of Cah'- 
gule by a declamation against tynmay, and was either sent into 
liamshmeiit immediateiy, or poisoned ! 

Madaa, and others, refer the iliwc mifpem of our author to 
Socftttes. The general allusion, inedecd, in the bitter sarcasm on 
Athens, is to him ; but the words apply immedialely to Cha- 

Vkr. 821. AciiUei, gr&wn a man, S^.] Thus Ovid, very 
prettily : 


Fhillyrides puemm cithars pcrfedt Achillem, 

** Atque auimos placida contudit arte feros. 
'' Qui toties socios, toties exterruit hostes ; 

** Cveditur annosum pertimuisse senem. 
*' Quas Hector sensurua erat, poscentc maestro, 

** Verberibus jussaspiaebuit ille manus.'* 

SATIRIB Til. JUVENAL; V. 325—332. 251 

To raise a smile: such reverence now is rare, 
And boys ^with bibs strike Rnfus on his chair, 
Fastidious Rufas, who, with critick rage, 
Arraign'd the purity of Tully's page! 

Enough of these* Let the last wretched band, 
The poor grammarians, say what liberal hand 
Rewards their toil : let leam'd Palaemon tell. 
Who proffers lehat his skill deserves so well. 

Vbr. 325. ■ such reoetence now w rare, 

And hcya v>ith bits strike Rirfiu <m his chair f1 This 
was a complaint of long standing. Plautus has a remark on the 
eubject, which, if it has lost nothing in passing throogh my hands, 
will be allowed to possess some force^ as well as humour* 

*^ Nam olim pofnili prius honorem capiebat suffivgiio, 
** Qnam magistri desinebat esse dicto obediens, &c/' 

BacchideSf Act. iii. Sc. 3. 

Time was, a tutor was obe/d and fear'd, 
TiU youth grew fit for office : nowy alas t 
Let him but chide a child of seven years old. 
And the brat flings his (ablets at his head. 
You hasten to his fiither, and complain ; 
And what redress ? ** Aha ! old bumbrusher. 
You see my boy here can defend himselfi 
So touch him, at your peril.'' Thus avenged, 
You hang your ears in silence, and sneak home, 
With your crack'd pate beplaister'dj and bepatchM, 
Like an old paper lantern \ 

Ver. 331. — ^ ^ Jet UartCd FakuMn tellf ^-c] ** Pa- 
laemon, a poor grammarian, but of great esteem." Dryden. If he 
really was poor, it was in consequence of his extravagance, for he 
had a very handsome income. Suetonius represents him as aa 
arrogant, luxurious, and profligate pedant, rendered infamous by 
vice of every kind, and to whom no youUi could with safety be 
trusted; though he allows his grammatical knowledge to have 
been very extraordinary. He had been long dead, however, 
when this Satire was written, being mentioned for the last time 
under Claudius. Juvenal merely gives his name to some exceUent 
grammarian of bis own time^ in allusion to his celebrity in the art* 
See Sat. vi. 6S6. 

9^2 SATIRE viu JUVENAL. V. 333—360. 

Yet from this pittance, whatsoe'er it be, 
(Less, sorely, than a rhetorfcian's fee,) 
The usher snips off something for his pains, 
And the purveyor nibbles what remains^ 
Courage, Palaemon ! be not over nice, 
But suffer some abatement in your price ; 
As those who deal in rugs, will ask you high. 
And sink by pence, and half-pence, till you buy* 
Yes, suffer this ; while something's left to pay 
Your rising, hours before the dawn of day. 
When e'en the labouring poor their slumbers take. 
And not a weaver, not a smith's awake : 
While something's left, to pay you for the stench 
Of smouldering lamps, thick spread o'er every 

Where ropy vapours Virgil's pages soil. 
And Horace looks one blot, all soot and oil ! 

Even then, the stipend thus reduced, thus small, 
Without a lawsuit, rarely comes at alL 

Add yet, ye parents, add to the disgrace. 
And heap new hardships on this- wretched race. 
Make it a point that all, and every part. 
Of their own science, be possess'd by heart ; 
That general history with our own they blend, 
And have all authors at their fino-er's end : 
That they may still inform you, should you meet. 
And ask them at the bath, or in the street, 
Who nurs'd Anchises ; from what country came 
Tlie step-dam of Archcraorus, what her name ; 

Vek. 359* fFho nurid Anchises ; ^c] This absurd curiosity 
about things^ which, as Seneca well observes, it is more profitablo 

-SATIRE VII. JUVENAL. V. 361 — 374. 253 

How long Acestes flourish' d, and, in short, 
With how much wine the Trojans left his court. 
Make it a point too, that, like ductile clay, 
They mould the tender mind, and, day by day, 
firing out the form of virtue ; that they prove 
A father to the youths, in care and love ; 
And watch that no obscenities prevail. — 
And trust me, friend, even Argus' self might fail. 
The busy hands of schoolboys to espy. 
And the lewd fires that twinkle in their eye. 
Yes, make all this a point ; and, having found 
The man you seek, say — When the year comes 
round, [pains. 

We'll give thee for thy twelvemonth's toil and 
As much— as in an hour a fencer gains! 

to be Ignorant of than to know, was but too common among tbc 
ancients. A. Gellius, in one of his best chapters^ (lib. xiv. €,) 
^ives us many pleasant instances of it, to which the learned trant* 
Jator has added more. Diogenes, as I have somewhere read, used 
to reprove the grammarians, because they were solicitous to know 
what evils Ulysses suffered, while they were negligent of their own : 
the censure of Juvenal, however, falls rather on those who exacted 
such miserable minutuB of them ; in particular, he seems to allude 
to Tiberius, (Suet. § lxx.) who used to harass these poor men, 
by inquiring xvho was Hecuba's mother, what the Sirens used to 
sing, &c. &c. 

It is impossible to suppress a smile at the perverse industry of 
modem criticks, in hunting out what Juvenal represents as puzzling 
those of his own time.. The nurse of Anchises^ and the stcp-daai 
of Archemorus, are now no longer secrets. 

Satire viii. 


IN this Siatirej in which Juvenal puts on a most serious and im» 

pressive atr^ he demonstrates that distinction is merely persomtl; 

that though we may derive rank, and titles from our ancestors, yet 

if wt degenerate from the virtues by which they obtained them, we 

cannot be considered as truly noble* This is ilte great object of the 

Satire : it branches <mtf however, into many collateral topic ks ; the 

^rst of which is, the profligacy of the young nobility ; from this, he 

passes, by an easy transition, to the miser die state rfthe provinces^ 

'schich were usually placed under their management, and which they 

plundered and harassed without mercy* This part of his Satire is 

treated with a freedom of thought, and an elevation of language, 

worthy of the best times of the Republick : andjrom this, he returns 

once more to the main subject of the Satire, the state of debasement 

into which the descendants of the first families had voluntarily sunk ; 

he severely lashes their meanness, cowardice, and base prostitution of 

eoery kind; vices which he sets in the strongest light, by contrasting 

them with the opposite virtues^ to be found in persons of the lowest 

station, and the humblest descent. 

Considered as a whole, this is a very Jine performance. If we are 
incUned to examine it with seventy, wc may perhaps discover a trite- 
fiess in the instances produced towards the conclusion, Cicero and 
Marius are somewhat too hacknicd, to give zest to a svlject like this; 
but perhaps the poet was willing to sacr'^ce novelty to notoriety ; and 
imagined that his examples would be more effectual, in proportion as 
they were more generally recognised and allowed. 

An expression in the original (domitique Batavi) has been supposed 
to allude to Domitian, As it appears from Tacitus, Silius ItaUcus^ 
and Suetonius, that he was really engaged in an expedition against 
those peopi€ in his youth, I am induced to embrace this opinion, Im 
this case, I should fix on a very early period for the production vf 
this Satire : and indeed the detailed history of Nero's enormities 
shows it to have been written while they were yet fresh in the author* $ 
mind; probably before the death of Vespasian* 

♦ Pliny has a letter upon this very subject, which is every way 
worthy of him. The reader who turns to it, must not expect to 
£nd the force and dignity of Juvenal, though he will meet with 
much of his good sense and humanity. It is that to his friend 
Maximus, Lib, viii, 24. 




V. 1 — 10. 

A OUR ancient house !'* No more. — I cannot see 
The wondrous merits of a pedigree ; 
No, Ponticus ; — nor of a proud display 
Of smoaky ancestors, in wax or clay ; 
iEmilius, mounted on his car sublime, 
Gurius, half wasted by the teeth of time, 
Gorvinus, dwindled to a shapeless bust, 
And high-bom Galba crumbling into dust. 

What boots it, on the lineal tree to trace, 
Through many a branch, the founders of our race, 

Ver. 3. Nof Ponticus ;— ^J-c] Of the yornig nobleman to 
whom this Satire is addressed, nothing is known but the name : 
as Juvenal took an interest in hb conduct, he had probably some 
sparks of worth. We do not find that he afterwards distinguished 
himself; let us hope, then, that his virtues were greater than his 
talents, and that, if he did not add to his family honours, the 
poet's admonitions prevented him, at least, from tarnishing or 
contemning them. 

The illustrious names which follow, and history can boast of 
none more truly so, are familiar to every reader. 


a5* sATiEE.viii. JUVENAL, v. itf— 28. 

Time-honour*d chiefs ; if| in their sight, we 
A loose to vice, and like low villains live ? 
Say, what avails* it, that, on either 'hand. 
The stern Kumantii, an illustrious band, 
Frown from the walls, if their degeneiate race 
Waste the long night at dice, before their face? 
If, staogering, to a drowsy bed they creep, 
At that prime hour when, starting from their sleep, 
Their sires the signal-of the fight unfurl'd. 
And drew their legions forth, and won the world ? 
Say, why should Fabius, of the Herculean name^ 
Vaunt, with such arrogance,' his House's claim 
To the GREAT ALTAR? if, with anxious care, 
From his soft limbs he pumice every hkir, 
And shame his rough-hewn sires ! if gf ei^dy; vain, 
If a vile traflBcker'iri secret bane. 
He blast his wretchedkindi^ed'with'a b(ist 
For publick justice fo— -reduce to dUst! 

Ver. 14. The stem JfiUdanHh 9^^*] "By the Nqmantii,, lie 
means Scipio Africanus, (the conqueror of Numantia,) and the 
immediate descendants and' relatives of^Hat^^titian. 

Vrr. SluSay.why should Tabliu; ^c] 'ITic taWan family 

pretehded to derive th^ir origin trota Hercules; «nd'ibr this ite- 

son were entrusted with the service of the altar erected to that 

hero in the Forum Boarium^ or ox-market. This altar, which 

. Juvenal calls magna^ but which was more commonly called mar- 

iuMi) seems to have been regarded with great veiieiadbn j^^hnd the 

. Fabii were, probably, not a little \ain' of their excluVfve right to 

itilnister i^t it. They were very far, however, from 'bbiBg as 

'tqnacious of the virtues as of the privileges of '(heir Atolly : one 

of th^m WHS interdicted, for his riotous excesses,' from the use of 

, the Fabian estate, by the lather of Poinpey the Great;* andt Tiis 

descendants, if we may trust our author's account of th6m/ added 

to his extravagance every other vice. 

VEtt. 27, I ■ • ■ ^ « bust 

For fublick justice to — reduce to dust /] The busts 

9ATIKB.VIIZ. JUVENAL. V. 29—40. 059 

^Fond man ! though all the heroes of ypurline 
Bedeck your halls, aad round ypur gallef ies shine, 
In proud display ; yet, take this truth from me, 
Virtue ALpME, IS true nobility, 
J$ebGos8us, Dr^s^S| Paulus, then, iji view, 
The bright examples of their lives pursue ; 
Let these precede the statues of your race. 
And these, w^^en Consul, of your rods take p}ace» 

give me inbprn worth ! dare to be just, 
.PirJB to your word,. and faithful to your trust: 

These praises hear, at least hear, 

1 grant your claim, and recognise the peer. , 

and statues of such as had been guiky of any notorious crime 
were sometimes delivered up to the common executioner to be 
destroyed, that they might not disgrace the name, by being carried 
inth the rest, in the funeral processions of the family. This might 

i liaye operated as a very powerful preventive of vice, had it not, 
like many other salutary customs, been perverted by the em- 
perourSy and their favourites, to the purposes of private hatred 

^ and revenge. Motions were sometimes made in the senate , 

- for breaking the busts of such as were obnoxious to the tyrant 
of the day ; and even so early as the reign of Tiberius, we find 
*that it WBS not considered safe, in the splendid funeral of Junta, 

-' the wife of Cassius, to bring out, amongst the numerous busts 
dl her illustrious family, dther that of her husband or her 

De Foe, in a poem which I yet remember with pleasure, hag 
compressed this and the following idea, into a few lines pregnant 
vith good sense. 1 quote from memory, for I have not seen the 
book since I was. at school : 

'* Covld but our.&thers brepik the bonds of late, 

*< And^e their offspring thus degenerate ; 

*' How they con tend for. birth and names iinknQwn, 

<* And build on other? actions, not their own, 

*< They'd bum their titles, and their tombs deface, 

*' And disavow the vile, degenerate race : 

^ For fimie of families is all a cheat, 

^ ^s personal virtue only, makea us great.^ 

a6o SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL, r. 41— 5c; 

Hail ! from wbatever stock you draw your birth. 

The son of Gossus, or the son of Earthy' 

All hail ! in you, exulting Rome espies 

Her guardian Power, her great Palladium rise ; 

And shouts like Egypt, when her priests have 

A new Osiris, for the old one drown'd I 

But shall we call those noble, who disgrace 
Their lineage, proud of an illustrious race ? 
Vain thought ! — ^but thus, with a sarcastick smile. 
The dwarf an Atlas, Moor a swan, we style ; 

Ver. 45. And shouts like Mgypt^ 4*^.] It will be sufficient, for 
the understanding of this passage, to remark, that Osiris was wor^ 
shipped in that country, under the figure of a live ox, which he 
was supposed to animate. When the animal grew old, and con- 
sequently unfit for the residence of the divinity, he was thought 
to quit it, and migrate into a younger body of the same species ; 
just as the Tartars, with infinitely more good sense, are taught to 
believe that their Lama migrates from one human body to ano- 
ther. The deserted ox was drowned with much ceremonious 
sorrow ; when, those melancholy maniacks, his priests, attended 
by an immense concourse of people, dispersed themselves over the 
country, wailing and lamenting, in quest of the favoured indivi* 
dual which Osiris had selected to dwell in. This the priests were 
supposed to know by some sacred marks, and this they always 
took care to find in due time : the lamentations of the people 
were then changed into songs of joy ; they conducted the sacro- 
sanct beast with great pomp to the shrine of his predecessor, 
shouting and calling to the inhabitants as they passed, '* We 
have found him, we have found him ! come, and let us rejoice 

All the rites of the Elg^-ptians were of a gloomy cast. I should 
be inclined to give this as one of the causes of the singular attach- 
ment of the women to them, wherever they were introduced : — 
this, however, by the way. We have seen, in the sixth Satire, in 
what manner the priests of Isis ran up and down the streets of 
Rome, howling and lamenting for Osiris : this was a paltry imi« 
tation of their native ceremonies ; to the clamorous termination 
of which Juvenal here alludes. 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL. V.51— .66. a6£ 

The crookback*d wench, Europa ; and the hound. 
Feeble with age, blind, toothless, and unsound, 
That listless lies, ^nd licks the lamps for food, 
Lord of the chase, and tyrant of the wood ! 
You, too, beware, lest Satire's piercing eye 
The slave of guilt through grandeur's blaze espy, 
And, drawing from your crime some sounding 

Declare at once your greatness, and your shame. 

Ask you for whom this picture I design ? 
Plautus, thy birth and folly make it thine. 
Thou vaunt'st thy pedigree, on every side 
To noble and imperial blood allied ; 
As if thy honours by thyself were won, 
And thou hadst some illustrious action done, 
To make the world believe thee Julia's heir, 
And not the oSspriag of some easy fair. 

Veu. 60. PlautuSf ^c] The commentatois will have this to 
be the Rubellius Plautus mentioned by Tacitus, in the life of 
Nero; but the account there given of him, (ipse placita majorum 
coUbatf habitu severOf casta et-secreta domo^ SfC. Ann. xiv. 22,) 
agrees but ill vrith the description of our author. If it be he, 
however, it must be confessed that he had some grounds for his 
pride ; for he was descended from Julia, the sister of Caesar ; and 
thus as nearly related to the purple as Nero. Indeed, there was 
more than once a design on foot for removing that monster, and 
putting Rubellius in his place. After all, I am disposed to think, 
bolh from what is said above, and from the date of this Satire, 
that the person here meant was a son of this Plautus, for we learn 
from the account of his assassination by Nero, that he left several 

Here is the nuitemal line of the family, as it is given by Lip- 
-lius: Julia, (Caesar's sister,) Atia, Octavia, Antonia, Julia, the 
mother of Rubellius Plautus, and, as I suppose, the grandmother 
Qf the Yaiu and insolent young nobleman here introduced* 

ai MkYi^^viiu JUVENAL, v. 67^84. 

Who, shivering in the wind, ncaryon dtod wall. 
Plies her vile labouf, and is all tO'all. 

*' Away, away ! ye slaves oF humblest birth| 
*' Ye dregs of Rome, ye nothings oF the earth, 
*' Whose fathers wlio shall tell ! while my bright 

" Descends from Cecirtps.** MSinof Blbbddivlnel 
Long mayst thou taste the secret sw^eets' which 

In breasts affined to so remote a king !— ^ 
Yet know, amid those '* dregs of Rome," thy scorn, 
Names may be found whom atts and ailn^' adorn : 
Some skill'd to plead a noble blockhead's catiSfe, 
And solve the deep enigmas of the laWs ; 
Others that, great in war, to conquest fly, 
And spread our fame beneath the polar sky ; 
While thou, in mean, inglorious pleasure lost. 
With ^'Gecrops! Gecrops!" all thou hast to boast. 
Art a full-brother to the crossway stone, [on : 
Which clowns have chipp'd the head of Hermes 

VxR. 89. 4^t a full'brotker ib the trauway sionCf 4^.] TM 
figures here described wer# tcraies, rough-hewn square stones sH 
Hprigfat, and suritiomited with a head of Hermes, or Mercuiy. 
They were anciently placed at the t\iming* of streets, and in ctohI 
and intrici|te roads, for the direction of passengers : for which 
purpose they were furnished with an appendage, which, thou^ 
those good old times sslW nothing extraordinary in it^ might, pei^ 
haps, be thought a little sfingular at present. The honour of 
serving as a direction-post was allotted to Hermes, a« the old 
criticks say, on account of hiff naihe, a^tro «m t^fjnmvur, to- show,- or 
explain : it is much more probable, hoi^ever, that it wa^ ini^ 
Afrence to some* obscure id^-of U9 )KRiig the swne dkity mSo)^ 
or the sun. 

s^TiRB VIII. JUVENAL. V. 85—104. 2(1^3 

For 'tis no bar to kindred, that thy block. 
Is form'd of flesh^aqd blood, ^n<),their*s of rock- 
Of beasts, ereat son. of Troy, who vaunts the 
Unless renown'd for courage, strength, or speed? 
^Tis thus we praise the horse, that mocks our eyes, 
While, to the goal, with lightning's speed, he fl^es.;. 
Whorp many a wielUearn'd palm and^trophy gracCi^ 
And the Cirque hails, unr^ the race ! 
Yes, he is noble, spring from whom he will, 
Whose footstjeps in the dust are foremost still ; 
While Hirpine*s. stock are to. the. market led, 
If Victory perch but i;arely on their head : 
For no resppct to psdjgr^^ is p^id, 
Vq, honour to. their sirets illustrious shade.; 
Flung cheaply off, they drag the cumbrous wain. 
With shoulders barq and bleeding from the chain ; 
Or tako,! wilh. some blind ass in. concert found-, 
At Nepo's mill, their everlasting round. [mire, 
That Rome may, therefore, thee, not thine, ad- 
Exert thyself) ^ul^el,tjjus^ an4 39l^^^^ 

Vbr. S7. O/beoiti^ Src] Hall, who has imitated spme parts 
•f this Satire very closely, though not in Lis hest manner, has 
been rather successful here; 

" Tell vaCf thou gentle Trojan, dost thou prize 
** Thy l^rute beasts' worth by their dams' qualities ? 
** Say'st thou this colt shall prove a swift-paced steed, 
** Oidy because a Jennet did him breed ?*— 
** Tl^ wjliiljes thou see'st soijie Qf thy stallion racot 
^ Tiheir eyesbor'd out, maslpng the miller's nuw, 
^ Like to the Scythian slave sw.ome to the payle, 
^ Or draggiiig b^y, bftrxeh at their tayle ?" 

Vbs. 1Q3. Ti^i £0^ nfty, tJier^on, xasK^ not tqihx oi- 

a64 SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL, v. 105— 1 12. 

Some individual praise thy name to grace, 
fies^ides the deeds that dignified thy race. 
And won those honours which, with pain, we see. 
Are rank and worth and every thing to thee. 

This to the youth, whom Rumour brands as 
High-swoll*n, and full of the Neronian strain; 
Perhaps, with truth ; — for rarely shall we find 
A sense of modesty in that proud kind. 

^' And were thy fathers gentle } that s their praise i 
** No thank to thee, by whom their name decays; 
*' By virtue got they it, and valorous deed, 
** Do thou so, Pontice, and be honoured/' 

These are good lines, but they are much surpassed by the follow- 
ing, with which I shall, for the present, conclude my extracts 
from this admirable writer : 

^' Brag of thy father's faults, they are thine own, 
^' Brag of his lands, if they arc not foregone ; 
^^ Brag of thine own good deeds ; for they are thine, 
** More tlian his life, or lands, or golden line.'' 

Lib. IV. Sat, 3. 

Ver. 111. • rarely shall xfiejind 

A sense of modesty in that proud kmdJ\ ' 

^' Rams epim ferme sensus communis in ilia 
^' Fortuna."- 

Juvenal seems to have had Phsedrus in his thoughts here, (l>h« i. 
fab. 7*} but what is the meaning of the passage ? Holyday turns ir 
in this manner, 

'* Fqr, almost common sense is hardly found 
" In such great state,'' f— 

which, though barbarously expressed, is clearly what Pbaednis 
means by sensus communis : whether Juvenal does so too, may 
reasonably admit of a doubt. 

Stepney, who translated this Satire, follows Holyday. Dryden 
probably revised the version published under his name ; we may 
conclude, therefore, that he did not object to this interpretation : 
indeed, we are not left to probability in the matter, for in the 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL. V. 113— i4o. 265 

But trust me, Ponticus, 'twould grieve your friend| 
To see you on a father's worth depend, 
Neglectful of your own. Achieve a name ; 
*Tis dangerous building on another's fame, 
Lest the foundation sink, and, sinking, cast 
Your baseless pile in ruins on the waste. 
Scretch'd on the ground, the vine's weak tendrils try 
To clasp the elm they dropt from ; fail — ^and die. 

preface to All for Love, he quotes the original, and evidently 
understands it of common sense. 

The words had, however, another meaning, which is more likely 
to he that of Juvenal. Communis hominum tauus is used hy 
Cicero for a polite intercourse hetween man and man ; hy Horace, 
for suavity of manners ; hy Seneca, for a proper regard for the 
decencies of life ; and by others for all these, which are but vari- 
ous modifications of the same thing, and which together constitute 
what we call courteousness, or good breeding. This too, I am 
persuaded, is the meaning of the phrase in Quintilian : Semum 
^Mtm, qui communis dicitur^ uhi discet, cum ,se a congressu^ — se^ 
gregarit f Ub. i. c. ii. §• 20. The learned Spalding thinks with 
our translators ; and approves Dusaulx for rendering the words of 
Juvenal, Ih out rarement k sens commun, Sensus ergo communis^ 
he adds, hie est notitia eorum quoe nosse sentire homines solent^ SfC. 
Quint. Vol. I. p. 45. But Quintilian is speaking of the advan- 
tages of a publick education for boys ; one of which is, that 
true civility, that sensus communis which society only can teach, 
by showing the necessity of condescension, and mutual for- 

llie Eraperour Marcus Aurelius seems to have found a good 
word for it : he calls it xoivoMD/Aoovn} ; and we cannot wish for a 
better commentary on Juvenal, than that which the learned Sal- 
inasius furnishes, in his explanation of it : KotvoponiAoavnif eleganter 
vocat modestam illam^ moderatam^ usitatam^ et ordinariam^ ut ita 
dieam^ hominis mentem qute in commune quodammodo consulit, nee 
omnia ad commodum suum refert ; respectumque etiam habet eorum 
cwn quibus versatur, modeste modiceque de se senticns. At contra^ 
in/lati et superbi omnes se siH tantum suisque commodis natos arbi* 
trantur^ et prct se cceteros contemnunt et negligunt : et hi sunt qui 
sensum communem non habere recte did possunt, lu Jul. Capitol. 

d66 8A.Ma« viif • JUVENAL, y^ m^Hfi* 

fie brave, be just ; .and ivjben youri country's .laws 
Gall you to witness Jn. a dubipuf:^ cause^ 
Though Phalaris plant his bull l>^pre younct}^. 
And frowningf dictate to yx>uri lips, the Uq^. 
Think it a orinie no tears can e'ereffaco^ 
To purchase safety, with, QOflipliance base^ 
i$Dt bonoun' a. costvaifi^verish. span^ extend, 

AND<SA£l]lrIFJCjE:;iyO|| LIRJE,, LIF£*S ONI^Y £NA ! 

Life ! I profane the word ; can those be said 
To live, who merit death ? no ; they are dead, 
Though Gauran oysters loadtheirsuujptuous boards 
And' 0'6r their limbs aliCosmo's sweets be poor*d. 

Q, wJien.tbe Province, long desired,, ypug^aing^ 
Restraifi* your* wrath, your avarice restrain^ 
A^d pi^y our allies : all. Asia grieves, 
Her bloody her marrow drain*d^ by legal thievesi 
B^evere the. Uwjs, obey t^ie parent state ; 
Observe what rich rewards the good await, 
Wh^t punishments the bad : how Tutor sped» 
While Rome*s whole thunder rattled round hia 

And yet what boots it, that one spoiler bleed, 
If still a worse, and still a worse succeed ; 
If neither fear nor sbame control their tkeft,^ 
And Pansa seij^^e the little Natta left? 
Haste thei^, Ghaerippus, while 'tis yet your owo. 
And seek a chapman for your tatter*d go.W9 ;. 

w«U •xplajned by the old Scholiast. 0{ whi^t gidrVjuil^g^ ^ it to 
thee, Ch^srippus, (one 9f tl^ poor CilioiaDs wlio had beeo fiint 
robbed by Tutor, and thea by Paosa and Natta,) to compUin^ 

Sell it, lAit privily ;: 'tis honest craft; 
Anditliough you've lostthe hatchet, save the haft« 

Notsuch the cries: of old; nor sach the stroke^ 
When 'fir&t the nations^bo w*d beneath our yoke.. 
Wealth, then, was theirs,. unenvied and unsought 4. 
Then-all had pictureshy ParrfaBsius wrought, 
]£i«ts^ that from Myro did their form receive^. 
And ivory, taught by Phidias! skill to live:. 
Ofti every side a Polyclete yon view- d, 
And scatice a boards without a Mentor stood; 
These Antony's rapacious rage inspired^ 
These, with like frenzy, Dolhbella fired, 
And sacrilegious Verres:— so, for Rome [home 
Tliey shipp'd their secret plunder: so brought 

since when one rapacious ruler is removed, another still more so* 
is sent in his stead ? Better to sell the few trifles thou hasty.beforK 
a new governour comes to devour what the former spared: 
** Intending/' as Holyday justly remarks, " that if thus he turn'd' 
his small goods into mony, he might happily the better concsai the 
remainder/' His next idea, that by furor est pott omnui perdtrc 
nanhmif is meant, " never hire thy passage unto Rome, least 
thou spend the little thou hast, in vain upon thy waftage, and so 
be as destitute of mony, as of remedy/' though he thinks it 
the best interpretation of the passage, is certainly wrong. It is 
merely a proverbial expression, and means, save what thou canst 
in the wreck of thy fortunes, or, as I have rendered it by ai 
corresponding English proverb, do not throw the haft after the 
Ifatehet. Ruperti follows Holyday : but, indeed, he is wrong 
through the whole of this passage. 

V*E. 159. And sacrilegums Forres : — ] He calls Verres sacri- 
Iq^ons, in allusion to one of the charges brougKt against him by- 
Cicero : Skulos jam ne Deos qmdtm in suis uHilms, ad quos con'^ 
Jkgerentf habere; quod eorvm smuiacra sanctisskna C. Verresex 
ddubris reHgiosisshnis snstulisset. It is not unpleasing to refl<ect, 
that Verres fell a sacrifice at last to the detestable rapacity for 
vhicb be is here stigmatized ; being proscribed by a greater plun^ 

a68 SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL. v..i6i-— i8i. 

More treasures from our friends, in peace, obtaia*d» 
Than from our foes, in war, were ever gain'd t 

Now all is gone ! the stallion made a prey, 
The few brood-mares and oxen swept away, 
The Lares, — if the sacred hearth possest *> 

One little god, that pleased above the rest ; — / 
Mean spoils indeed ! but such were now their best. J 

Perhaps you scorn, and may securely scorn, 
The essenced Greek, whom arts, not arms, adorn : 
Soft limbs, and spirits by refinement broke^ 
Would feebly struggle with the oppressive yoke. 
But spare the Gaul, the fierce lUyrian spare, 
And the rough Spaniard, terrible in war. 
Spare too the Africk hind, whose ceaseless pain 
Fills our wide granaries with autumnal grain, 
And pampers Rome, while weightier cares engage 
Her precious hours — the Circus and the Stage ! 
For, should you rifle them, O think in time. 
What spoil would pay the execrable crime, 
When greedy Marius fleeced them all, so late, 
And bare and bleeding left the hapless state ! 


derer, M. Anton}', for the sake of his Sicilian rarities, which no 
persuasions could induce him to surrender. 

The other two,C. Antony, govcrnour of Achaia, and Dolabclla^ 
proconsul of Asia, were both prosecuted by the senate, and cou^ 
deroned for extortion. 

Ver. 180. JVhfn greedy Marius SfC,'\ For Marius, see Sat. i. 
71* In his translation of Pliny's Letters, Lord Orrery has intio^ 
duced a singular observation respecting the fate of this man. 

He is speaking of the trial of CascUius Classicus, who escaped 
from the punishment that hung over him, by a voluntary death* 
He then adverts to the lenity exhibited in the case of Manus, and 
adds, " In these two trials we may perceive the different influence. 

SATiKB Tin. JUVENAL, y. x82~i9t. ^69 

But chief the brave, and wretched — tremble there ; 
Nor tempt too far the madness of despair : 
For, should you all thisir little treasures drain, 
Helmets, and spears, and swords, would still remain; 
The plund£R*d ne'er want arms. What I 

Is no trite apothegm, but, mark me well, 
True as a Sibyl's leaf! fix*d as an Oracle ! 

If men of worth the posts beneath you hold, 
If no spruce favourite barter law for gold ; 
If no inherent stain your wife disgrace, 
Nor, harpy-like, she flit from place to place, 

which the two Emperours, Domitian and Trajan, had over the 
senate. Under the tyranny of the first, the laws were not put in 
execution against Marius ; under the golden age of the latter* 
Classicus and his abettors were punished in the amplest manner, 
and according to law/' Vol. i. p. 207. 

Well i^nd wisely singeth that ancient bard of Warwickshire : 

** Let's write good angel on the devil's horn, 
" Tis not the devil's crest !" 

Certainly not ; let us call the age of Trajan " golden," and all 
Injustice shall be wiped away from it. Who would imagine after 
this, that the two trials took place in the same reign, and, pro- 
bably, within a few months of each other ! Yet so it was : the 
compliment to Trajan, therefore, is as unjust, as the attack on 
Domitian ; who, heaven knows it, little needed to be saddled with 
the offences of his successours. 

Ver. 191. If <nQ inherent stain your wife disgrace^ Sjfc] The 
avarice tftid rapacity of the women who followed their husbands 
to their governments, had, long ere this, become a serious subject 
of complaint. Before the time of Augustus, the women rarely, 
if ever, went abroad : that uxorious Emperour took Livia with 
him in most of his expeditions, and his example seems to have 
had a pernicious effect ; for in the succeeding reign, the custom 
was grown so common, and so oppressive to the provinces, that 
ISeverus Caecina made a motion in the senate, ne quern magistra- 
ium^ cui provincia obvenissety uxor comitaretur, Tacitus, who 
'gives Ihs s|>eech at some length, contents himself with observing, 

ajo iATiKi viii. JUVENAL, r. |93-Taio« 

A £eil Gelaeno, ever on. the watcbi 
And ever turious, all she tees to snatch ; 
Then choose what race yoa will : derireyour birth 
•From Picus, or those elder sons of earth, 
That shook the throne of heaven ; call him your sire, 
Who first inform'd our clay with living fire ; 
Dr single from the songs of ancient days, 
What tale may suit you, and what parent plea9e. 
But if ambition, lust, your bosom, sway, 
If, with Sitem joy, you ply,, from day to day, 
The ensanguined rods^ and head on head deiqaQd, 
Till the blunt axe quit the tired lictor's.haiid ; 
Then, every honour by your father won, 
'Indignant to bel born by such a son, 
•Will to this blood oppose your daring clajim, 
And fire a torfch, to blaze upon your shame I 
Vice glares.xnore strongly in the publick eye, 
As he who. sins, in power or place is high. 

Ihtt the senate did not Boeet the question fairly ; out of coippli- 
menty perhaps, xo Drusus, who opposed it; and who, iqstead of 
. answering China's objections, had recourse to the : argtimentiim 
. ad hominem, ** Sc quaque in lUyricum prqfectum ; et n ita c<mr 
dueai^ alia$ ad gentes iturum^ hand semper ccquo animp, si ab uxort 
carissma diveUeretur," Ann, Ub, uu d4>. 

As the proconsuls could not be prevented from taking their 
wives with them, it seemed but just that they should be answer- 
able for their peculations, &c. ; and this principle was recognised 
by the senate : Frqficisci autem procansuUm melius est sineusore: 
sed et cum uxore potest^ dummodo sciat, senaium^ Cotta et Messda 
Coss, censuissejuturumf vt si quid uxores eorum$ qui ad qfima pro* 
^ciscuntvrf deliquerint^ ab ipsis ratio et tindicta esigatur, 

Ver* 2Q9, Vice glares Sfc] This idea is finely exemplified hj 
. JEleaumont and Fletcher : 

** The sins the great do, people view through optkks 

** Which shew 'em ten times more than common vices, 

<« And sometimes multiply them/' TMery and Tkeodaret. 

sXtirk Tin. JUVEN*AL. v. 2ir— »«a(8. A71 

See ! by hisCgfeat prog6nitOTs* r^msihis 
Fat Dafnasippus^veeps, ivith loosen'd' ttfitis. 
Go6di Consul ! ' iie TYo pHde ^f bfficeXefels, 
But stoops himself, to clog his headfiftlg'''wheels. 
•*^Whatlh«n( Ms't not by nighty t he 'hfera cries. 
But the tf 001^ sees i btit thesT a<rs ^stretch their*eyeft 
Full on your shattie I O, yeta moment "waft. 
And P^ma^ipptis 'quits the pomp of state : 
Then, proud the experienced driver to 'display, 
Hell mount his chariot, in 'the* face of day. 
Whirl, with bold front, his grave associate by, 
And jerk his whip, to catch the senior's ^ye : 
Unyoke^^hift Wearied steeds, and, to requite 
^heir service, feed and litter them at night 
^Me^nWhUe, -Cis aflihe can, what time he. stands 
At' Jove*s -high altar, as the law Commands, 
Afiid dflhtd idh66p'aad oxen, he forswears 
The eteriial kiog, and gives his silent prayers 

( Tftfere is a jAiSMlge In Selhist of unCOiDfnou force and beauty, to 

-iwlKchv perhaps, 'Juvcinai was ^re indebted : Oratwne nutjor<$ suo§ 

^^^bxtolhhit^torumfartia facta memarakdo clariore* iese putant : quod 

^'t^tHil^a est : nam' qwanto vHa Ulorwn prctclariorf ianto hontm 40- 

' ^iofdiajiagiiwtior.^ttfrof£ctaitase reshabet; majontm gloria 

poitmi Iwmea ett^neque bona iteque mala eorum in occulio patitur. 

Bell. Jugurth. There follow in the original, four lines which bj 

some accident have been shuffled out of their place, and which I 

cannot reinstate to my satisfaction. Some have supposed they 

relate to Pabius, mentioned in the b^inning of this Satire, in that 

tkKf they Would come in after the thirtieth line ; but I h^ve not 

vennired to<iiis^rt^cm. > Here is the translation : 

Say^ what's your birth to me, — ^if you incline 
^ Your dating lips to perjury in the shrine 
"^ Your pious fathers resr'd, and in the sight 
Of 'theit triumphal statues } If, by night, 
You steal abroad disguised, that none may see 
Your lewd amours ; say, wbai's your birth^ to me ? 

%*j2 lATiRiviix. JUVENAL. T.229— ^36. 

To stable deities ! — this for the day : 

To his old hauntSy at night, he slips away ; 

Where, while the host, bedrench'd with liquid 

With many a courteous phrase his entrance greets. 
And many a smile ; the hostess nimbly moves, 
And gets the flaggon ready, which he loves. 
Here some, perhaps, my growing warmth may 
And say, ^^ In youth's wild hours we did the same/' 

Vbr. 229- To stable duties ! — ^] jurat HippSnam : so I 

presume it should be, and not Epona, who was probably a di^ 
ferent personage, and (if a name may ^be trusted) had the distin- 
guished honour of presiding over asses instead of horses. The 
leading of Epona has made the insertion of another word neces* 
sary, and I cannot think the copyists quite happy in {sola) that 
which they have chosen. This strange goddess, " which," . as 
Holyday observes, " the lamentable devotion of the heatheo 
raised to itself," is frequently mentioned by the ancient writers. 

It is not known with what rites she was worshipped, but Apa- 
leius says he saw her image prettily adorned with fresh.gathered 
roses. Juvenal speaks of her with great contempt, in which he 
b followed by the ^rly Christians, who rally the heathens with 
'equal spirit and success, on their devotion to so odious and cob- 
temptible an object. It should be mentioned, however, that 
though they placed her over their stinking cribs, as Juvenal 
calls tliem, they did not presume to introduce her into heaven ; 
which, considering the liberty they sometimes took, ift a notable 
instance of forbearance : 

*^ Nemo Cloacinae aut Eponae super astra deabus, 
** Dat solium, quamvb olidam persolvat acerram." 

Prudenm Apotheos. 265. 

Upon which Fulgentius remarks, Vertumnum^ Friapum^ et deam 
stabulorum (quam Apuldus Hiponcm alii Hipponam nuncupani) 
inter semonas deos numerari^ qui, tanquam azlo indignif ob meriti 
paupertateffif calitum numero nunquatn adscripti fucnmt. Fulgen- 
tius might have learned from Ovid, that one of them at least was 
admitted amongst the gods, and that for no ver}* extraordinai7 
merit, — sed de his satis. 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL. V. 237 — 260. 273 

I grant we did ; but then we stoppM in timei 
Nor hugg*d our darling faults beyond our prime. 
O ever brief be passion^s giddy sway ! 
Let youthful follies pass, with youth, away. 
Boys we may pity, nay, perhaps, excuse : 
But Damasippus still frequents the stews, 
Though now mature in vigour, ripe in age. 
Of Caesar's foes to check the headlong rage, 
On Tigris' banks in burnish'd arms to shine^ 
And sternly guard the Danube or the Rhine. 

" The East revolts." Ho! let the troops repair 
To Ostium, quick I " But where's the General ?'" 

Where I 
Go, search the taverns ; there the chief you'll find 
With cut-throats, plund'rers, rogues of every kind. 
Bier-jobbers, bargemen, drench'd in fumes of wine, 
And Gybele's priests, mid their loose drums, 

supine ! 
Here none are less, none greater than the rest, 
Here my lord gives and takes the scurvy jest ; 
Here all who can, round the same table sprawl, 
And here one greasy tankard serves for all. 
Blessings of birth ! — But, Ponticus, a word : 
Had you. a slave^ like this degenerate lord. 
What were his fate ? your Lucan farm to till, 
Or aid the mules, to turn your Tuscan mill. 

Ver. 251. Bier-jMerSf] The fabri sandapifarum^ tvho figure 
in this worshipful society, were people employed in furnishing the 
biers, or rather hand-bRrrows, on which the bodies of such as 
were killed in the bloody sports of the amphitheatre were re- 
moved to the place of interment. The Scholiast has sandaiiorum^ 
but the common reading is right. 


274 SATIRB VIII. JUVENAL, v. 261—276. 

But Troy's great sous dispense with hejng good. 
And boldly sin ^by courtesy of blood ; 
Wink at each other's crimes, and look for fame 
In what would tinge a cobbler's cheek with shame. 
And have I wreaked on such foul deeds my rage, 
That worse should yet remain to blot my page !— 
See Damasippus, all his fortune lost, 
Compell'd by want, to play a squealing ghost! 
While Lentulus, his brother in renown, 
Performs, with so much art, the perjured clown, 
And suflers with such grace, that, for his pains, 
I hold him worthy of — the cross he leigns. 
Nor must I not the thoughtless rabble blame, 
Who, lost alike to decency and shame. 
Sit with unblushing front, and calmly see 
The hired patrician's low bufibonery ; 

Vbe. 270. — — the perjured clown^ The person, whoif 
part was so well played by this dq^enerate fiobleman, was a pnn- 
cipal character in a ballet, or drama of action, composed by 
N^Evios. For a dance it must ibawe been bonible enougb in all 
conscience, since the clown (whose supposed cringe wss peijai}) 
was not only crucified, but set upon by wild beasts wliile in thai 
dreadful situation. 

Juvenal might have taken the hint of recorainejidiiv; Lentulus 
to a real cross, from what happened at Home fn his own time ; 
for Martial tdb us, that this baUel was ti^tply, and btma^fide per- 
formed in the amphitheatre, for the amusement of ibis detestable 
people. A malefactor (he does not seem to know for what crime) 
was actually dailed to a cross, while real bean^ b«ngry OaledoDian 
bean, were let loose to devour him ! 

^< Nyida CHledoiiio sic viscera .praftbuil urso^ 
".Non falsa perMiens in cruce;Laureoiits. ' 

'* Vivebant Uceri membris stillantibus artas 
^* luque omni nusquam corpore corpus ecat." 

De Spectac. Ep, 7. 

sATifti viii. JUVENAL, w 277—280. 275 

Smile at the Fabii*s tricks, and grin to hear 
The cuffs resound from the Mamerci*s ear ! 
Who heeds how low they rate their bloody how 

high ? — 
No Nero drives them now their fate to try : 

Vbr. 277. Smile at tie Fabirs tricke, ^.] Juvenal calb them 
(the Fabii) planipedes ; buffoons of the lowest order ; barefooted 
Jack-puddings, 'who, smeared -with soot and oil, and dressed in 
goat skins, capered abolit the stage* in the intervals of the play^ 
for the entertainment of the rabble. And this was done by the 
descendants of Fabius and Mamercus ! a dereliction of every 
honourable feeling, thai more than justifies the indignation of our 
author. In his subsequent remarks too, on the conduct of the 
spectators, there is much good sense ; since nothing is more ccr* 
tain, than that the people are degraded in,' the voluntary degradation 
of their superiours : a momentous truth, that seems tohave escaped 
the observation of many princes, and many people of modern as 
well as of ancient times. 

Ve&. 280. No Nero drives them now 4*0.] Nero compelled four 
hundred senators, and six hundred knights, some of them of fair 
fortune, and character, to entbr the lists as gladiators, encounterers 
of wild beasts, &c. ad varia arena ministerial (Suet Nero, § 12.) 
To this circumstance Juvenal alludes. .From the numbers here 
mentioned, a suspicion has arisen that the text is corrupt, and 
that for quadringentos should be read tpsadraginta ; this is not 
improbable, as Ihe amount would, even then, sufficiently tax our 

To do all justioe, however, to this worthy prince, it should be 
observed that he merely perfected the system which was entered 
upon by his predecessors. Cssar seems to have had the honour 
of striking it out ; as there is no earlier instance of this scanda- 
lous prostitution, .than that which occurs in the account of his life 
by Suetonius : Mttnere in Jbro depugnavit JFurius Ltptinus atirpe 
prsetoriOf et Q Ca^ienus senat&r. Ludis D. Laberhts eques Ro- 
mama mimmm suum ^ity Sf^c. (Gaesax, 39.) The exquisitely dig- 
nified and pathetick remonstrance of the knight, at being com- 
pelled to appear upon the stage, is still extant : the noblemen 
probably submitted with a better grace, at least we hear of no 
complaints riiat they made. 

Augustus, who was extravagantly fond of the amusement of the 
Circus and Amphitheatre, appetirs to have extended the shameful 
practice. I» Circo aurigaSf cursoresquCf et conjectores ferarum^ 

^^6 SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL, v. 2S1— 294. 

Freely they come, and freely they expose 
Their lives for hire, to grace the publick shows I 
But grant the worst: suppose the arena here. 
And there the stage ; on which would you appear ? 
The first : for who of death so much in dread. 
As not to tremble more, the stage to tread ; 
Squat on his hams, in some blind nook to sit, 
And watch his mistress, in a jealous fit !— 
But 'tis not wondrous, when the Emperour tunes 
A paltry harp, the lords should turn buffoons ; 
The wonder is, they turn not fencers too, 
Secutors, Retiarians, — and they do ! 
Gracchus steps forth : No sword his thigh invests. 
No shield, nor helm, — such armour he detests, 

et nonnunquam ex nobUUsima juteniute produxii, * And again : Ad 
scenicas quoque et gladiatorial operast etiam equitibus Romanis ali- 
quando usus est, (Suet. Aug. 43.) This Emperour, however, who 
had many pretensions to decency, and some to humanity, put a 
temporary stop to the shameful practice ; which was afterwards 
revived, and continued through the succeeding reigns, till it 
reached^ as has been just observed, its highest point under Nero. 

VkH. 293. Gracchus steps forth : S^cJ] Our author here takes 
up the scandalous adventure of Gracchus, on which he had briefly 
touched in the second Satire. The reader who recollects fbe 
lines may appreciate the horrour with which Juvenal regarded 
the transaction ; since he speaks of it as surpassing in iniamy a 
crime at which universal nature revolts. 

Dr. Ireland, who doubted whether the author was sincere in 
what he advanced, attributed (p. 67) his superiour indignation 
to that spirit of aggravation which led him to treat whatever vice 
he happened to be satirizing, as the most enormous in the rata* 
logiic. I believed then, as I still do, that the poet spoke as he 
thought, and really imagined this last action of Gracchus to be 
his worst. 

Every sentence, every word that drops from Juvenal, prove* 
him to be a sturdy republican, a genuine and unsophbticated 
patriot, who loved the honour and dignity of his country, above 
his life; and felt with the deepest anguish, every act Which tended 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL. V. 295 — ^96. 277 

(Detests and spurns,) and impudently stands 
With the poised ilet and trident in his hands. 

to debase her in the eyes of 'surrounding nations. I shall now 
produce one of th^ mo6t striking passages in Dio ; indeed, I might 
say, without fear of contradiction, in any historian extant, to 
show that this debasement Was more effectually brought about by 
the gladiatorial pursuits of the young nobility, than by any other 
eaonnity whatever. In his sixiy -first book, that writer observes 
that, aniidst all the scandalous festivities and excesses of Nt ro, 
nothing app^red so truly flagitious and abominable, as the pros- 
titution of the male and female nobility, who exhibited themselves 
in the Orchebtra, Circus, and Amphitheatre, on a footing with the 
vilest of the rabble. The old and honourable famibes of the 
state, the Furii, th^ Fabii, the Porci, and the Valerii, to whose 
ancestors temples and trophies had been erected by the pubiick, 
voluntarily (at least for the greatest part) submitted to this de- 
gradation, in the presence of all Rome, and of an immense con- 
course of people from every part of the empire ! These, probably, 
enjoyed, with the highest relish, a spectacle that amply revenged 
the conquest of their respective countries by the ancestors of 
those who now degraded themselves for their amusement. '^ As 
the sports and combats proceeded, the strangers pointed out to 
each other, the descendants of those great men — fiiutrvT^hiKntt 71 

£7Si^wTa», l^iTi Tov AircTMp* Ao'ftayot, Tov AuMoy* Knftif Toy ne«rX»o»* 
Kcifx^omh A^»xa»oy' PAMAIOI AE IIANTAZ ! C. i. § 17. As 

they pointed them out to each other, with ^heir fingers, the Ma- 
cedonians said,r— that is the descendant of iEmiUus Faulus I the 
Greeks — that of Lucius Mummius ; the Sicilians, Look ! there is 
Claudius Marcellusl the £pirotae,**-there is Appius Claudius! 
the Asiaticks, — there is Lucius Scipio ! the Iberiansy — there is 
Publius Scipio 1 the Carthaginians,— there is Scipio Africanus ! 
and the Romans, — heavens ! there are all ! 

It is more than probable, that Juvenal himself was present at 
these most humiliating scenes. As a spectator, we may conceive 
him to have watched the significant looks of the strangers, as their 
fingers moved from object to object ; to have heard their whispers^, 
to have noted their sneei^ 1-— Can it now be wondered at, that a 
man of his quick feelings, of his strong sensibility, should speak 
with indignation and horrour, of actions which were sure to 
spread the disgrace and ridicule of his country, as far as the wan- 
deriDg3 of the astonished visitants extended ? Or, that ho should 
think them superiour in infamy to the most hateful vices; whichi 

^78 SATIRE VIM. JUVENAL, v. 297 — TgS, 

To wait the foe : and now a cast he tries?^ 
But misses, and, in wild confusion, flies 

however they might implicate the character of individuals, broi^fat 
no great degree of odiam on the general reputation of Rome ? I 
do not think it can. However this may be, the praise of con- 
sistency musty in the prasent case at least, be iuHy allowed him. 
In this very Satire, when he enumerates the crimes of Nero, he 
insinuates that it was not so much his multiplied murders, as fa» 
publick exposure of himself on the stage, (where he rqieated bi^ 
TroickSy) that exhausted the patience of mankind, and excited 
that geneial insurreGrion> which swept him from the eaith ! 

Of this enough. It now only remains to add a few words, fi»r 
the sake of tlie English reader, on the weapons, manner of l^ht- 
ing, &c. of these lieroes of the Amphitheatre. 

Of the two combatants (who entered the lists) one was called 
Retiarius, and the other MIrmUlo, or Secutor : the former was 
lightly drest in a tHinick, and fhmisbed with a trident, or three^ 
forked spear, and a net, (rete,) whence his namei The latter 
was armed with a helmet, shield, and short scimitar. They ap- 
proached each other, the Secutor with his weapon raised, and the 
Retiarius with his protruded tridentin his right hiindi and his net 
open, and ready for casting, in his lefu Mis object was to throw 
it over the head of his antagonist, and entangle him in such a 
manner, as to render him an easy prey. If he* fiitled in his at- 
tempt, he had no resource but fl^ht, for which his dress was well 
adapted; and during which, he endeavoured to collect and- pre- 
pitre his net for a second throw :• — ^if the Secutor overtook him 
before this was done, his fate was inevitabk?, unless he were saved 
by the interposition of the spectators, whidi sometimes happened. 

It is not easy, at this distance of time, to, say whether one of 
these characters was looked upon as less respectable than the 
other, or not : — ^^but Juvenal seems to direct some of bis indignation 
at Gracchus, for choosing the pait of the Retiarhis, instead of 
that of the Secutor : perhaps it was less dangerous ; it was cer- 
tainly more impudent, for it afforded no means of concealing the 
&CC ; since we know, from Suetonius, t^at the drivelling ClaudiUb 
took a cruel pleasure in putting the Retiarii to death upon par- 
ticular occasions, that he might have the diabolical satisfaction of 
remariLing the successive changes in their expiring countenances ! 
Gracchus, however, seems to have been determined in his choice 
more by cowardice, than impudence ; as he did not merely rely 
upon being recognised by his features, which, as he was of one of 
the most distinguished families in Rome, could not but be well 
known ; but was even base enough to enter the lists in the mag- 

sAtiitB VIII. JUVENALi V. 299^310. 279 

A k'ound the Cirque ; andj anxibu& to b^ known-^ 
Lifts his bare face, with many a piteous moan. 
•* 'Tis he ! 'tis he ! I know the Saliail vest, ' 
** With golden fringes, pendant from the breast, 
** The Salian bonnet,. from whose pointed crown 
*♦ The glittering ribands fldat redundant down. 
*^ O spare him, spare!*' — The brave Secutor heard, . 
And, blushing, stopp'd the chase; for he preferred 
Wounds, death itself, to the contemptuous smile, 
Of conquering one so noble, and— so vile ! 

Who, Nero, so depraved, if choice were free, 
To hesitate 'twixt Seneca and thee? 


Tiificent hat and tuuick of the Salii, or priests of Itlars, o£ whom 
he was p/obably the chiefs 

With respect to the Mirmilio ; " he was so called," says Ma- 
dan, after some of the comroentator», >' from ijuufid.^ (m^rmus) an 
ant;" a derivation that pleases him wonderiuU}', for he gives it 
again in the sequel. He was called so, however, from /Mp/At^d' 
Cmormtflus^) VL spotted fish, anTk^ >x^.v(, (Oppian Halieiit. lib. i. 
100,) a representation of which formed the crest of his helmet. 
Hence the chant of the Retiarius, mentioned by Festus: *' I do 
not want to catch you, I only want to catch your Jish ; what are 
you afraid of?" This, as Stephnno observes, '' is but a scurvy 
tune to sing at a man's funeral ;*' but it had^ apparently, as much 
rausick as wit in it^ . \ 

Polyxnus and Festus derive the origin of the Retiarius from. 
Pittacus, one' of the seven sages of Greece, who fought in this 
manuer with Phryno : trrifov h tn, fMfOfMX^^ wfooKoXts^afAtvy r»- 
^M;yMP0* oAiiVTiscvr wo^aCwy 0«imi», fyn^fOfAt xtu ru f*ir oft^fS^aar^ 
wtpi£a>4^ Til r^kattf ^1 neu ru |i^i3^ f«E*fg x«t ttruAi. Lib. XIII. 
Here is sagacity with a witness I but the practice was undoubtedly 
very ancient, for Herodotus speaks of it as existing among the* 
Persians : ** there are some of them," says he (the Sagarfas) 
'< whoy when they- come to engage, cast a to\^ with a kind of gin 
at the end of it, on the enemy> and thus endeavour to entangle 
and draw him into their power." From these people, and their 
manner of fighting, came most probably the Grebk word l^ofyan^ 
a sort of coarse basket* 

Vbr. 309. Jf^hoy Ncroy so depraxedy Spc.} Eifcry one knows 

aSo SATIRE viiif JUVENAL. v,3ii— 3i2t 

Whose crimes, so much have they all crimes out 

Deserve more serpents^ apes, apd sacks^ than one. 

hat Seneca was put to death hy Nero, on a charge of being con- 
cerned in Piso*s conspiracy, of \vhich he was confessedly innocenu 
It was reported at Rome, Tacitus says, (Ann. xv. 65,) that the 
conspirators, after having made use of Piso to destroy Nero^ in-^ 
tended to make away with Piso himself^ (For what should we gain* 
said the chief of thera, Subrius Flavius, by exchanging a harper 
for a tragedian } alluding to Piso*s having appeared on the stage,) 
and raise Seneca to the vacant scat. It is to this ciicumstance, 
which seems to have escaped the comjncntators, tliat Juvenal 
alludes : I must, however, be permitted to add, that if the con- 
spirators really eniet tailed such an idea, they were the weakest 
of men ; for Seneca (to say nothing of his age and infirmities) 
was too unpopular to have held the undisturbed possession of the 
empire for a day. 

With respect to Seneca, it is his fortune to have been ** at the 
Fair of good names, and to have bought a reasonable commodity 
of tliera ;" for, exclusive of our author^ who evidently thought 
highly of him, and appears to have been a very diligent reader of 
his works, several ancient writers have been lavish in his praise : 
and I have somewhere read that St. Jcrom put him into the 
catalogue of saints.* Vet we shall look in vain into the history of 

• " The writer to whom you refer seems to have used the 
term (saint) without much consideration. In Jerom's time, it 
was applied to Christians at large, as a genera) distinction from 
the Pagans. Indeed it was given to those who had not yet re- 
ceived baptism, but who looked forward to it, and were therefore 
called candidates of the faith. It could be only a charitable ex- 
tension of this term which led Jcrom to place Seneca among the 
sancti ; for he still calls him a Stoick philosopher. The case is, 
Ihal in the time of Jerom certain letters were extant, which were 
said to have passed between Seneca and St. Paul. In one of 
these, the former had expressed a wish, that he were to the 
Romans what Paul was to the Christians. This Jcrom seems to 
have interpreted as an Evangelical sentiment. He therefore 
placed Seneca among the ecclesiastical writers, and saints ; — in 
other words, he presumptively styled him a Chiistian, though not 
bom of Christian parents." — !)(■. Ireland. 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL. V. 313—316. a8t 

*^ Orestes slew his mother/* True ; but know. 
The same efTects from different causes flow : 
He slew her, to avenge his father's death, 
{High in the festal hour deprived of breath,) 

bis life for any extraordinary number of virtuous or praiseworthy 

His first exploit was corrupting the daughter of Germanicus, 
for which he was driven into banib^ment ; and I should conjec- 
ture, from the obtrusive and never-ending boasts of the magna- 
nimity with which he endured it, that Ovid himself did not bear 
his exile much more impatiently than this impassable Stoick. 
He flattered Claudius, and still more grossly his favourite Poly- 
bius, in ordi^r to obtain his recall ; and as soon as he had suc- 
ceeded, forgot the latter, and betrayed the former. He then 
joined the virtuous Nero, whom he took care to supply with a 
mistress, in his persecution of Agrippina, his great patronesss and 
when her son, not long afterwards, put her to death, he was more 
than suspected of drawing up the palliating account of it. 

A better moralist thdu Seneca hath said, " He who maketh 
haste to be rich, shall not be innocent." This was notorionsly 
our philosopher's case. Juvenal gives him the epithet oipnrdivcs 
in his tenth Satire. Dio attributes the insurrection of the Bi itons, 
ifi a great measure, to his avarice apd rapacity ; and P. Suilius 
appears, from Tacitus, to have attacked him on this head, with a 
violence which no common arts of enriching himself could have 
provoked. " By what system of ethicks has this professor, in less 
than four years, aniassed three hundred million sesterces ? His 
snares are spread through all the city ; last wills and testaments 
are his quarry, and the rich, who have no children, are his prey. 
Italy is overwhelmed, the provinces are exhausted ; and he is still 
unsatisfied V Annal. xiii. 42. 

His behaviour too, after he perceived the decline of Nero's 
favour, was pusillanimous; and his afi'ected resignati«»n of his 
unbounded wealth, pitiful in the extreme. He did not, indeed, 
imitate the elder Brutus, for what Juvenal calls the time of bearded 
kingis, was past; but he feigned himself sick, andiniirm, and lived 
pn spring water, and bread baked under his own eye. In a word, 
I can discover little amiable in his life ; and in his boasted death, 
scarcely any thing more than a fond and over-weening anxiety 
to make an exhibition of it. • 

None of our writers have entered into the character of Seneca 
with more discrimination than Massinger, who was very con- 
versant with his works, and who, in the Maid of Honour, describes 

382 sATifti viit. JUVENAL. T4 3I7<m^i8#. 

At hearen's comimmd : — ^but, in his wildest mood, 
Poison.'d no kindred^ shod no consort's blood, 

him in tkese admirable lines : *' Thus'^-^recapitulatiDg some of 
hb stoical paradoxes — 

** Thus Seneca, when he wrote it, thought.— But then 

** felicity courted him ; his wealth exceeding 

** A piivate man's ; happy ia the embraces 

** Of his chaste wife Paulina ; his house full 

" Of children, clients, servants, fleering friends, 

•* Soothing his lip-positions ;— then, no doubt, 

** He held, and did believe, this. But no sooner 

** The prince's frowns and jealousies had thrown lum 

** Out of securit/s lap, and a centurion 

^* Had ofler'd him what choice' of death he pleased, 

'< But told him, dtc'h&must ; when straight the armoar 

<< Of his so boasted fbnitude ibll ofi; 

** Complaining of his frtiilty." 

His writings, even those which Massingn^r. beaulUoUy caUs '* bis 
]ip*positions," where they are. not too frec^ are» to me at least, 
excellent : it is pleasant to «ee so poor-af edant as^Aulus GelUus 
afil^t to treat them with contempt ! 

Veu»S12» Beierte more serpents-, apes, and • saekii fktm <me,} 
Parricides, by the Roman Ikw, were sewn up in a- sad^, witb these 
aud other unfortunate' creatdrear^ and thrown into^ the ' rieaiesi 
river, or the sea. See Sat. Titr. 

It is scarcely possible- to utldcrstiMd' tlfe nexttflve and twenty 
lines, without a constant' refifrrence to the life of Nero,- of whose 
more than bedlAmite Ibtlies and crimte they contain -ah etra* 

Ver. 317. At heavaCs command :'^'\ An allusion 'to thb pas- 
sag^i)f the Electra: 

A»>i xmooftH ^Hff^'^uiif' tiiffMaiptu^H 

In the comparison here instituted between the insaine Orestes, and 
the sane Nero, if, as one of the commentators well observes; such 
a wretch can be called sane, the advantage is infinitely on the 
side of the former. They, both murdered their mothers ; but 
what was in Orestes an act of divine retribution, (since antiquity 
represents Clytemncstra as forewarned by heaven of the fate that 
awaited her, if she imbrued her bands in her husband's blood,) 
was in Nero an act of gratuitous cruelty; for Agrippina had 
done him no ilijury, nay, had been guilty of the greatest crimes 

SATIKB VIII. JUVENAL. V. 3t9*-3a8. 283 

Buried no poniard in a sister's throat, 
Sung on no publick stage, no Troicks wrote. 
This topt his frantick crimes !.th is roused man* 
For what could Calba or Virginius find» j^kind! 
In the dire annals of his bloody reign^ 
That caird for vengeance in a louder strain ? 
Lo here, the arts, the studies that engage 
The world's great lord I on every foreign stage 
To prostitute his voice for base renown, 
And ravish from the Greeks a parsley crown ! 

to pave his way to the empire. Waving this, however, says 
Juvepal, Orestes, road as be was, did not poison his relations, (as 
Nero poisoned Domitia and Britannicus,) nor kill his sister, (as 
Nero killed Antonia,) nor murder his wife, (as Nero murdered 
Octayia,) nor appear upon the stage, (as Nero did in several 
places,) nor write verses on the burning of Troy. Here the poet 
suddenly breaks off the parallel for the sake of observing thsit, 
savage as the Emperour's conduct was, he could not go beyond 
this last act of baseness. The commentators, not entering into 
the feelings of Juvenal, cannot conceive how this could ** top his 
crimes." Some of them, therefore, suppose that he alludes to 
Neru's recitation of his Troicks while Rome was burning ; which 
Suetonius and Xiphilinus, though with some variation in the cir- 
cumstances, concur in aiHrming that he did : Hoc incendium e 
turri Mcecenaiiana prospectans, lafusqu^ flammvt^ ut aiebat, pul" 
chtitudine^ kKuait llii, in illo suo scenico habitu decantavit. Nero 

38. And Xiph : Nipa^y i( n to axfop t», vo^atui aniXSi}, km mf 

'/i ftfparo, Vu/MK. Lib. Ixii. § IS. 

Others again imagine that the author alludes to the report of 
this profligate madman having set Rome on fire, (for the sake of 
illustrating his subject,) a circumstance which, whether true or 
not, was generally credited in our author's time; and with which, 
indeed, Nero was charged to his face by Subrius Flavius, who 
suffered with Seneca; and whose dying words Tacitus seems in- 
clined, and in my opinion, not without reason, to prefer to those 
of the philosopher. Ann. xv. 67* But I am persuaded, (see 
p. 278y) that the author meant to speak only of his reciting his 
ppem in publick, which we know he did at the Pentactericon, and 
other festivals. 

i84 SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL, v. 329—330. 

O, place the trophies of a^siotig so sweet, 
On the Domitii's brows ! before their feet, 

Ver. 329. 0, place the trophies ^-c] " It were but an over- 
plus," Holyday observes, ** to fill the reader with the base and sce- 
nical behaviour of Nero, both in Italie and Greece ; the dishonour 
being as known, as the empire, be dishonoured. Wherefore I leave 
him to the jeere of our satyrist.'' I cannot help saying a word, 
however, on his singular choice of characters ; the parts which he 
chiefly delighted to perform, would have suited Bottom to a 
miracle; they were truly ".parts to tear a cat in:" being, ex- 
clusive of those enumerated by Juveuai, Hercules raving mad» 
CEdipus murdering bis father, Orestes stabbing his mother, &c. lee. 

With respect to Menalippe, the only piece on the Ibt, whose 
subject is not known to every schoolboy, Nero appears to have 
been directed to it solely by his love of the sciences. Dionysios 
of Halicarnassus says, that Euripides wrote a play of the Wise 
Menalippe, rvf cc^ McvAX^n-visc, of which this is the plot : The 
young lady, in spite of her wisdom, had ah amour with Neptune, 
to whom she bore twins; these she contrived to hide in her 
father's cow-house, where he soon after found them. In the 
simplicity of his heart, the good man took them for a monstrous 
production of one of his cows, and was about to commit them to 
the flames; when his '^ wise daughter" stept in, and by a long 
series of reasoning equally vague and dull, convinced the poor old 
king that they were the natural produce, of the animal, and thus 
fortunately saved them both ! 

ft is probable, that what the poet here affects to recommend 
to the Emperour, is merely a recapitulation of what was actually 
done. There is no account, indeed, of his having laid nis tragick 
properties at the feet of his fathers' and grandfathers' (the Domitii's) 
statues, though the circumstance is far from being unlikely ; but 
the suspension of his harp to the •* colossal marble" is an hfsto- 
rical fact: citharam autem, (says Suet. Nero 12,) ajudicibm 
ad se dciatojrif adaravityfenique ad Augus(i statuam jussit. 

There is still some doubt among the commentators, whether 
Nero might not have graced his own statue with this immortal 
instrument. Both Pliny and Suetonius say that he erected one 
of prodigious height and magnitude : but as this seems to have 
been of brass, and that mentioned by Juvenal is expressly said to 
be of marble, I see no room for hesitation. 

The fate of Nero's Colossus is worth noticing. After his death, 
the senate, in a fit of virtuous resentment, which generally seized 
them at the accession of a new family, whipt ofif that prince's 
head from it, and put on one o( Apollo: this preserved its situation 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL, V. 331—348. 285 

The mask and pall of old Thyestes lay, 
And Menalippe ! while, in proud display. 
From the colossal marble of thy sire, 
Depends, the boast of Rome, thy conquering lyre ! 

GethegusJ Catiline ! whose ancestors 
Were nobler born, or higher ranked, than yours ? 
Yet ye conspired, with more than Galiick hale, 
To wrap in midnight flames this hapless state : 
On men and gods your barbarous rage to pour. 
And deluge Rome with her own children's gore : 
Horrours, thatcalL'd, indeed, for vengeance dire, 
For the pitched coat and stake, and smouldering fire! 
But TuUy watch'd — ^your league in silence broke. 
And crushed your impious arms, without a stroke^ 
Yes he, poor Arpine, of no name at home. 
And scarcely rank'd among the kniglits, at Rome, 
Secured the trembling town, placed a firm guard 
In every street, and toil'd in every ward : — 

until the reign of Commodas, who removed it in its turn, to make 
way for a head of himself ! It must he confessed, that Apollo 
had I some how or other, got into a very worshipful line ; and it 
would, perhaps, have puzzled his godship, and all his oracles to 
boot, to determine precisely whether he derived most honour 
from his immediate successour or predecessor. 

Ver. 342, the pitched coat awl stakcy SrcJ] This was the 

punishment of incendiaries. I hope Juvenal meant this as a tacit 
kind of testimony to the innocence of the Christians, (at that 
time universally acknowledged,) respecting the charge of setting 
fire to Rome ; of which they were accused hy Nero, and in con- 
sequence of it, put to death in great numbers, (p. 27*) He seems 
to say, You Catiline and Cethegus, who actually conspired to 
bum the city, realty merit that dreadful punishment which was 
so unjustly inflicted upon the Christians, — ^usi quod liceat tunica 
future molesta / 

286 SATIRE VII i« JUVENAL* v. 349— 3|6. 

And thus, within the walh, the cown obtained 
More fame for Ttilly, than Octavius gained, 
At Actium and Philippi, from a sworb 
Drench*d in the eternal stream l^y patriots pour*d { 
For Rome^free Rome, hail'd him, with )oud acclaim. 
The Father of mis Country — ^glorious name! 

Another Arpine, hired the ground to till, 
Sick of the plough, forsoolc his native hill, 

Ver. 354-. The Father of nis Country — 1 Parautt 
Pater Patrin, The founder End falser of b» country. This ho" 
noumbie title was conferred on 'Cicero, after his detection and 
defeat of Catiline's conspiracy. There is a strong and cbarac- 
terifltick trait of the stern republican in the epithet-Afrertf, (free,) 
which is not applied to Rome,. as the cxithcks think, on account 
of her recent dchvery from the macliinations of the conspirators ; 
but rather to stigmatisFe her situation under -^e EmperOurs, where 
our author considered her, .and justly, ad in a state of slavery. 
The title of Pater Patriae was given to Augustus, and^ afterwards, 
to seveval of his successonrs: but Cicero was -the first, and indeed 
last, to whom it was given by fjiee Rome; the only oircura* 
stance, in the manly and independent spirit of Juvenal, that made 
it of any estimation. 

Libera is used with the same feelings in v. 309 •— ** if choice 
were free :" It must have been those flashes of uncontrollable 
indignation at the -^llen state of his country* and not a sarbastick 
compUnvent to a favourite dancer, that occaiioned his lemoval 
from Home. 

The GOWN of Cicero and the rworo of Augustus are strik- 
ingly contrasted, it must he ^Mjlvnitied, that this £mperonr was, 
at one period of his life, too lavii^ of human blood ; but his cle- 
mency was more fatal, perhaps, to our author's cause, than his 
cruelty. Juvenal, however, wiis no compromiser ; he hated Au- 
gustus, even worse than Sir William Jones, and, indeed, with 
somewhat more reason. 

Ver. 355. Anotier Arpine^ SfcJ\ Arpimim was a little town 
of the Vblsci, situated in the north of ^vhat is now called the 
Qimpagna Felice ; and still retaining, its ancient name.. Speak* 
ing oif this place, Valerias Maximus remarks, that it had the sin* 
gular fortune of producing two of ;thef greatest characters of the 
si{;o, in a cultivator of Lterature, and a despiser of it ; in a Cicera 

SATIRE VIII. JUVENAL, y. 357-- 370. 987 

And joined the camp ; there, if his axe was slow, ' 
The vine-twig whelk*d his back with maoyahtow: 
And yet, when the fierce Cimb(itkrea(ten*d. Rome 
With swift and scarcely evitable dooni) 
Thh man, in the Jread hour, ta save her ^rose, 
And turn'd the impending ruin on her foes ! 
For which, while ravening birds devour*d the slain, 
And their huge bones lay whitening on tbte plain, 
His high-born colleague to his worth gave way. 
And took, w^ll pleased, the secondary bay. 

The Decii were plebeians ; mean their name. 
And mean the parent stock from which they came : 
Yet they devoted, in the trying hour, 
Their heads to Earth, and eaeh^infernal Power; 

and a Marius.^ — «With respect to the latter,, .fuvenal represents 
him as a labouring hin'dj or ploughman, in wKich he agrees with 
Plutarch, and others; 'Vdleiiis, hoiweverY says' that > be was born 
tqvettri loco ; but this is contrary to his own declaration ; Lip- 
sius, therefore, for ^tics4ri would read agreitiyMnhioh i»-not amiss ; 
but the €rrouf probably lies deeper. 

Ver. 365. His kigh'bom coUeague] This was <$i ^Oatulus, a 
manof oxtraordinary .merits and xme of theispeakeis- in Cicero's 
DiaL de Orat. Ha does. not. c^pear to have gained much by his 
coroplacen<;y to iM|iriu&;, beii^g •afterwards barbarously put to 
death by the ferocious old man. 

Some acquaintance with the earlier .part of the Roroau history 
is necessary to the understanding of the remainder of this Satire; 
of this the reader is presumed to be in possession* Were it other- 
wise, the illustration of every trivial event hera mentioned, would 
be insufferably tedious, as I should be reduded to copy whole 
pages of what the commonest school-book will supply. 

Ver. 3^. Yet tkej ^deBotedf 4*^.] Itiwaa ancieptly. supposed, 
.thai if the leader of aa army would consent, to d^vatiE, or sacri- 
fice, himself to. 'Earth and the in£ernal deities, the mislbrtuues 
which might otherwise befall his party would» by; that^iious and 
patriotick act, be transferred to his> enemies. The iformo£»de vote- 
<ncnt, which la s&ry sukruu aud awful, is to be found in Livy; as 

288 SATIRE VIII. JUVfiNAL. V. 371—385. 

And by that solemn act, redeemed from fate, 
Auxiliars, legions, all the Latian state ; 
More prized than those they saved, in heaven' 
just estimate ! 

And him, who graced the purple which he wore, 
The last good king of Rome, a bondmaid bore. 

The Consul's sons, while storms yet shook the 
And Tarquin thunder'd vengeance at the gate, 
Who should, to crown the labours of their sire, 
Have dared what Codes, Mutius, might admire, 
And she, who mock'd the javelins whistling round, 
And swam the Tiber, then the empire's bound ; 
Had at the tyrant's feet the city laid, 
But that a slave their dark designs betrayed. — - 
For HiH their tears the grateful matrons shed, 
While the stern father, on each filial head 

is the story of the Decii, who, father, son, and grandson, all fell 
in this manner, glorious but mistaken sacrifices to the interests of 
(heir conntiy. 

Ver. 375.' The last good king of Rome a bondmaid bore.] An* 
cilia natus ; Juvenal is sufficiently complaisant to the good king : 
fDr it appears from the best authorities, that he was not only bom 
of a servant, but of a servant born of a servant ; the lowest degree 
of servitude. Livy pleasantly makes him descended from a cap- 
tive maid ; so does Dryden in the passage before Qs : undoubtedly, 
A princess in disguise ; 

<' Regium certe genus, et penates 
" Moeret iniquos V* 

VEk. 380. And she^ who mock'd 4*^^.] This was Clelia, one of 
|he hostages who made her escape from Porsenna. Madan thinks 
that the slave mentioned in the next lines was bewailed by the 
matrons ^* as the sad cause of their sons' death/' He seems to 
have a very incompetent idea of the matrons of that early age : 
they b^ailed him as one of their patrons ; they bewailed him, in 
!(hort| as they did Brutus, and the other as&crtors of their liberty. 

8ATIRB VIII. JUVENAL* ▼• sSd'-^oi. 289 


Pour*d Rome*^ just vengeance, — forfeit to the laws, 
And the first sacrifice to freedom's cause ! 

For mCi who nought but innate worth admirei 
rd rather vile Thersites were thy sire, 
So thou wert like Achilles, and couidst wield 
Vulcanian arms, the terrour of the field. 
Than that Achilles should thy father be. 
And, in his offspring, vile Thersites see. 

And yet, how high soe'er thy pride may trace 
The long-forgotten founders of thy race, 
Still must the search with that asylum end, 
From whose polluted source we all descend. 
Haste then, the inquiry haste ; secure to find 
Thy sire some vagrant slave, some bankrupt hind, 
Some — ^but I mark the kindling glow of shame. 
And will not shock thee with a baser name. 




Jyfb ptr^ Iff fiimihfs wrl^ %as gktn ^mch qfente as ^JHs Stain ; 
in which he is accused of speaking too openly of that most execrable 
practice f in which the ancients f to their eternal shame^ so universally 

Viccy as Pope haf well observed^ 

** Vice is a monster of so foul a mien, 

** That to be hated, needs but to be seen ;" 

hut we fear to strip her., and thus conceal half her enormity. Ju* 
venal had no such apprehensions : he^ therefore, exntitj her in all 
the deformity of nakedness^ and the spectacle strikes us with disgust 
and horrour. Far from him was the idea of corrupting the heart, 
of inifiaming the passions, by a partial exposure of the profligacy 
he censures : no, his aim was direct ^ and his immediate purj ose, to 
impress the minds of others wUh the same loathing he himself felt 
for a cntncj vohick to name is to execrate. 

This is no place to enter into the disputes respecting the propriety 
of his object : granting itf however, to be legitimate, he wUl be uni* 
versalfy allowed to have pursued it with no ordinary degree of dex^ 
terity-and success. 

Thi Satire consists of a dialogue between himself and one Ntt* 
vohuy an enfranchised slave ; a poor wretch^ who, from a kind of 
jester or dabbler in small wit for a meal, had become what is calm 
a man of pleasure ; and thence, by a regular gradation, a dependent 
^some wealthy debauchee, (here named Virro,) who made him sub» 
servient to his unnatural passions; and in return, starred, insulted, 
katedj despised, and discarded him I This miserable object Jvoenal 
rallies with infinite spirit, on his disconsolate appearance; and, by 
an faceted ignorance qf the cause, engages him to enter into n 
detailed account of his itfamous Itfe. The gravity with which this 
is done constitutes, in the opinion qf Gibbon, the whak pleasantry 
of the Satire. Pleasantry is not the word* There is a loathsome^ 
ness in N<eodbu*s part if the dialogue, which, though admirably 
calculated for the end our author had in view, never yet excited one 
agreeable sensation; and, in that qf Juvenal, a vein of A:ee» and 

U i! 


tarcastkk ridiatk, oitcJl may induce us to share Us iudiguatiimf 
hut cannot create mirik^ TUs^ koweoert isfarjrmn being the onfy 
merit of the piece; it has many beaut^iUf and many moral passages, 
exclusive of the grand and important Issmm, whichf whether Juixnsd 
meant it or not, it is our duty to gather from it; that a ^e qfnn 
is a life <^ slavery f that those, who embrace it for the sake ofprtfit, 
are debided in thrir expectations fiwn day to day, tUl in age they 
sigh to be emancipated from that state rf misery which they vokm^ 
tarHy adapted, and from which, while they view it vdlh eyes rf 
anguish and despair, they, have no longer strength or resolution to 
fly : therefore, tfi the words of Divine Wisdom, ** they shall eat rf 
the fruits if their own way^ and befllkd with their own devices^ 





V. 1—10. 

Ju V. d T I L L drooping, Naevolus ! Do, prithee^ say 
What means this show of grief from day to day. 
This copy of flay'd Marsyas ? what dost thou 
With such a ruefai face, and such a brow. 
As Ravola wore, when caught — ^Not so cafst down 
Look*d Pollio, when, of late, he searcih'd the town. 
And, profiering treble use, from friend to friend, 
Found none so foolish, or so mad, to lend ! 
But seriously, for thine*s a serious case. 
Whence came those sudden wrinkles in thy face ? 

Ver. 3. ThU copy ofJiay*d Manyas f] The story of Marsyas, 
who was overcome by Apollo in a musical contest, and afterwards 
flayed alive by him for his presumption, is known to every school- 
boy. Juvenal here alludes to a very celebrated statue of this 
baffled champion, which stood in the Forum, so thai the com- 
parison must have been sufficiently striking. 

VsR. 6, Po//to, tfC.'\ We find this Iiberal*hearted gentleman 
again in the el%^«nth Satire ; but his circumstances do not seem 
to have improved in the interval, for he is there reduced to pawn 
his last article of value for a dinner. 

^94 SATiRi IX. JUVl^NAL. v. ix— 30* 

I knew thee once^ a gay, light-hearted slave. 
Contented with the little fortune gave ; 
A sprightly guest, of every table free, 
And famed for modieb wit and repartee. 
Now alFs reversed : dejected is thy mien, 
Thy tocks are Hire a tangled thicket seen ; 
And every limb, once smoothed with nicest care, 
Rank with neglect, a shrubbery of hair ! [look, 
What dost tM^^nrith t]^at dulji^ 4ead, wither*d 
Like some old debauchee, long ague-shook ? 
All is not well within ; for still we find 
The face the unerring index of the mind, 
And as this feels or fancies joys or woes,^ 
That pales with sorrow, or wkh raptore glow9« 
What most I think J too sure, the scene^ changed, 
And thou from thy old course of life estranged; 
For lale, as I remember, at alH haunts 
Where dames of fashion flock ta hire gaHants, 
At Ists and at Ganimede*s abodes, 
At Cybele's, dread mother of the gods, 

Ver. lU I buw tAee onoe, a^gaji^ Ugii-he^riiA tkae, 4^«] Im 
the original it is, xxmam equitem^ an expression which might he 
rendered a slave-born knight, but which even tbus wouM* oonvey 
but little meaning to the English reader. The Romans frequently 
gave the slaves born in their houses, (who were generally spoiled 
by iadUlgenc«,> out of petoijant fe«yiliiM% or ibo4n^sst. tbs^ name 
o£ «qrtttto ^jrti^l as emr ancfstpis, gavai thft titJiei ot w t» their 
domeaiick piiesto and cbapbm. It h to tbis capnoa of tbe 
Boroans, that Milton aUudes, in his dispute wilb SaUm^us ; hs 
caUs hifn> ia tha PefenHo, twm^um equeitr^, ^fufs, €rg4HtHbfrm$ 
&c. I have not found ^im noiioed by bis* editon^ 

Vbr. Q9k At liU aadt ad Gammedf*^ abodl»^ 

At CykeMif ^-e.] This e9umer«KiMMP^ tei|iplie$.co«- 
atcnated (a ih» paiposea of debaucbeiy , p«cacnts,a MgMful piduae 
of the state of morals at Romo. U loi&lk ha «9«faNtl» i«k4«edy 

Nsk]^ at chasti«^Ci3rQS|, (for M s^aantAic^ spiioii» 

None was so faipod .^^ the'f^YOiuril^ x£ tfte fadiadt 
Baffle4 aiU^e^ bi}Sfti$n m$l' imictwif 
MuTumfwg sci^De4t< wvr^s^ .4m^t^o:B^; ^of e tUyk 

An4i if the tui^^b M 9 «t «qm^^ qo t; th^ al^neu [jet/ 
N^V;. Rigbt x^.toMfta tUd (m<I^ Jhaftanswei*cH 
But not; for whit h^i^h %^^ i . 
A druggflt <lpajL to s^m^ m.^ golvroi fwml rwn^ 
GooTM ia ib^ tf^Uuf c^;4ibgy ^i its. staiov 
And. a« few pieces of the ^* second vein,!** . 


that the naiQA fj^ ip»e of .tfcc» dkWt9id0M;sod«iggBrt Aeitfea* 
of muchf purity ini their vo.taries ; vr^t, ue^d notji there^Drey be. 
greatly snrpnseil at the use which was mad^ of the tefnplts of 
6anime<t^or.«f Gjlbelc% or efj bis, who^ ay Ok^aa^s; hidima^ir 
many women what she herself w^ tp J,ippit«r : ^ut th^\ Ceresj thf^ 
patroness of chastity , whose haUowcd" nltets it was unlawful for 
any ovpectiiA perun Ik) faiiid„erevoiao.iiMK>lvtluii faertempb. 
should be prostitute^ to. the same st^nn^u] p<irp<^^ suffi,ci4ei.n(lx 
proves that the city must now Havc*been iii the last stage of de- 

This horrible desecn^tioQ could oot cscafe ihe notice oft th/» 
first Christians, who- speak of it with an indignant freedom notT 
unwoitfayi of Juveoai hiao^ MkLant^m^.iMfaf MinBciuei ¥k]ixi 
magis a saccrdotibus^^ qmm inten e^ras^ e^'Jclu/fK^kCondifcmdur ttn^ 
pra^ tractnntur knocmia, adUlteria meditantu/^^ frequent itu dent" 
qv€ in ceditttomm cellulis^ quam in ipm lupanaribus Jlagran$ libido 
defimgitW9f'ff AndtTeituHian^.w^din he seems' to have had iir view, 
Qmterum'^'adfkiam^ qwe non'mimusamscientiiB' onfnium' recognot^ 
cmtf inrttmpiisk adukei^a componi, inter aras kneeinia tractnri^ tir 
ipait plerumque cedituorum et saeerd^kim tixbemtHAiUe^ tub'Uidem 
VftHs^ et Qfiipibuj^i et p^rpiri^^ thurc Jla^OMt^t^ libidinpiik ex* 

Vek. ^1. ofth'c'*second''Oeihr^ Vcmzquc 

iecundd^ t. e. says GrangaefUss quod nostri non amplius argentum 
tocani^ sed billoik Si War addtoaateit wiib brai»' below the 
standard; bate i9fitalf.iiiish0X<U 

096 SATIKB IX. JUVENAL. V. 41— 63* 

Fate govxvivs aUt. Fate, with full sway, presides 
Even o*er those parts which modest nature hides ; 
And little, if her genial influence fail, 
^ill vigour stead, or boundless powers avaiL 
Though Virro, gloating on your naked charms, 
Foam with desire, and woo you to his arms 
With many a sootliing, many a flattering phrase — 
For your curs*d pathicks have such winning ways ! 

But mark this prodigy, this mass impure 
Of lust and avarice ! ** Let us^ friend, be sure : 
'^ Tve given thee this, and this ; — ^now count the 
sums, [comes 

(He counts, and woos the white,) ^* look, love ! it' 
*^ To five sestertia, five ! now, look again, 
*^ And see how much it overpays thy pain.** 
What ! ' overpays ?* Is it then nothing, pray, 
To rake into the filth of yesterday ? — 
But you, forsooth, are fair, and {brm*d for love, 
And worthy of the cup and couch of Jove I — 
Will you relieve a client, you, who grudge 
A doit to feed the miserable drudge 
That toils in your disease! — see, see, my friend, 
The blooming youth, to whom we presents send 

VsE. 42. Fats goverks all.] Eiiamf says Fitrnaby, plea- 
santly enough, €tiam ormiuf^t cmadua ute scarabiug ! He does so ; 
and it is in character. I see do reason, therefore, to give these 
refiectioosy as some do, to Juvenal* 

Vbiu 49* Fwr your eun^d patkkk$ /j^c] Thk verse, in the 
origpnal, is parodied from a line in the Odyssey — mth yuf 
tfi?jitrm Hti^ tf-J^f ; which had, before this, been imitated, as 
KigEiltias observes, m the following epigram : 

SATIRB IX. JUVENAL. ¥. 64^87. a97 

Upon the Female Calends, or the day 
Which' gave him birth ; in what a lady-way 
He takes our favours, as he sits in state, 
And sees adoring crowds besiege his gate ! 

Insatiate sparrow ! whom do your domains, 
Your numerous hills await, your numerous plains ; 
Regions, which such a tract of land embrace, * 
That kites are tired within the unmeasured space ? 
For you the purple vine luxuriant glows ' 
On Trifoline*s plain, and on Misenus* brows ; 
And hollow Gaurus, from his fruitful hills, 
Your spacious vaults with generous nectar fills. 
What were it then, a few poor roods to grant 
To one so worn with letchcry and want ? 
Sure yonder female, with the child she bred, 
The dog their playmate, and their little shed, 
Had with more justice been conferred on me^ 
Than on a cymbal-beating debauchee ! 
Tm troublesome ;*' you say, when I apply, 
And give, give, give ! is my eternal cry.*' — 
But house-rent due, solicits to be sped, 
But my sole slave, importunate for bread, 
Follows me, clamouring in as loud a tone 
As Polyphemus, when his prey was flown. 

ysa«£4. Upon the Fcmak ^aknd$f 4*^.] He speaks of the 
^Mtronalia, a festival instituted in honour of the women, for their 
meritorious exertions in putting an end to the Sabine war. It 
fell upon the first of March, which, therefore, Juvenal elegantly 
calls the Female Calends. On this day, as well as on their birth* 
day, the ladies sat at home in great solemnity, and received from 
their husbandsi admirers, and friends, such presents as were pe« 
-£uliarly adapted to their sex. The satire here is obvious. 

Vaa* 86. ——»-<- clamouring in ai loud a tont 



ast sA^fuxix^ JIVVBljR^j^ y^t^-'^^u 

Nor ivill thisiOQe syflice, tte toits toa gveat; 
Anoth/er mpst be boiigbt» atyl both om^t eat.> 
What shall I say, wheacoki Q^ceiaber bla^^i^ 
And theii: bare Imbs shqok at the driving soq^m^,. 
Whatftball I say t^ their djrQoping,heartSi>tO'C^F f 
•« Be^merry, boy.^ tbet spiciag^wilisoq^ ha.l|fiifoJ'* 

But thftis^gh my oth« xwrit^ y^ju d^eny^^ 
Qivi yet yau wwtaUowf— that bul ^qt U 
I, your devoJted qlkat« lent xpy aid«r 
Yoqi: wife had to. »hi3^ bow refjmn'd a, iwid. 
You know what: motives urged iw, tQ the deedt. 
Arid y(hM you. pronxUed, e^giuld I but su^CA^d, :— 
Oft bi my armfi the flying feir I <;i^ight,. 
And bade tq yqur cold bed ];ehu:twt brought. 

• appellftt jfuer unicus^ ut Polypbeipi 

* ^ Lata aciesy postquam solers evasit Ulysses.' 

Tostqutm is the readttig of Grangaeus for per quani^ and* as I 
think, ^le. tnifi Qnft x£oi39 who aire curi<mii ta aos hnm stiwtgelj 
men can wandes on a. plain subject, may turn to Holyd^y, w)|o 
has collected the opinions of the critickson this passage. Rigal- 
tiusy the learned Bjgabivst a» he truly ciUb hinn^.st^ppuMi Vxt 
volus to mean^ that the eye of Polyphemiii was so broad* tbal 
Ulysses escaped through it i'This they all allow to be very fboUsh; 
but then tb»y. sa^yr, it i» quite: in cfaaraistery and auitahJW to< the 
stupidity of Nsevolus. But Naevolu^ is npt stupid : he appeftr^ lo 
be a kind of' rustick Touchstone ; with faculties, inde^', Some- 
what confused and enfeebled by a long course oJf execrable de« 
banchery^ but with a. brain stiU *^ crammed with^ atrange- places 
•f observation, the which he quotes.** 

To. return to the original. There is,,s»relyv na groe% vMttiea 
done to the Latin idiom, ita rendering UUi ack^ Pblk/pkemi^ the 
bruad-eyed Pelyphemos : the rest is elear> enough. Juvenal, wlio 
fireqeenriy. amusea himself with ttie* hyperboles' ef H^omer» luo-a 
litde fling here^ not muah perhaps to the cradle ofi kts> liietei at 
the bellowing of the CyetO|A^ttfter hie eye was pul eul^>— iind^ Ak 
is the whole pur{i0£t oC tbe cooxpaasoiu 

EATuau. JUVSJiiWU v^xcrt^^ra^j. 099 

EVb. wh^i^ tU;^'4 canic^eWd all Ipex r^rm/er vqwsi 
And now was signing to anotliia' 8po^jSi^^ 
What pains it C09t to SQtthis matter right,, 
WhiU ¥QU( ^ood ^bi vipecimg at tl^e dvon all nigbt, 

I s^^e. ta jteU :— :^ ftieAd^ lite, pi^, has. tied . 
Full many a knot when ready to divide. 

• Wbe^re MiUl yoiititurp, you, iipw^^ sir ? ^bitbAr fty ? 
What to npiy charges Qr9i^ or feat^ ^^^7 ^ 
Is U na v^U'itft &peak^ qogratefuL !; pone; 
Tiy gine yoi» tkus s chutghtef', or a ^n, 
WUoifl y Qiv may Ur^od m? it,K qvedlt ?t your bo^cdft 
And prove y^yorseJf a^ iftafi U'pow record ? 
Haft«, witb tjriusoipbal wreaj4i;» y wr gates. K]kirn,i 
Yott*re now a: firther, p^ow fia theme for sqotn ; 
My toils haver ta'mtbe^opprcibjclutKD from youir oapxe^ 
And' sto^t the babbling of malicioas fame. 
A parent's right3 yo^^ n^w may proiidly sbavCf 
Now, thank my industry, be named an heir j 
Take now the whole bequest, with wbaJt be^ide^ 
From hicky wmdfatts', may in time betide ; 
And other blessjnga, If I but repeat 
My painsi ami make fthe number three conpfete.*' 

VeUi. 113. 4fkd prot^ ypursflfa, man tfj¥W record f\ He altud^es' 
to the publick, f!Q^stei:SviiX vylucli paiients wexe obliged to set dowo 
the naincs of their child reo^ a^ few days after tbe^r births. These 
renters were Kept in the teniple 0/ ^u^n, where they were open 
to b\\ 'y and as, besides births, they contained records of marriages^ 
divorces, deaths, and other occurrences of the year, they were of 
atngulai:uafi.tathehifttftriftnt antiqn«r3C»<kc«. 

Y%A, 118. 4 par^'A rigJkUt 4^] This ap4 the^ fiye foUe^^g 
Uaea caa only be uod^tcio4 h^ « refeceuco to the Iw» PttpiQ 
PoppcfUf (already metUipQiQd iu the aipcth Satire»). which wa$; inr 
troduced at the de^e of Augustus^ for the sake of extending the 
provisions of the £e;r JvUa £ maritmdU ordimkm* 3}; tbiiTW) 

300 8ATUB «. JUVENAL, v. 124— 127. 

Juv/ Nay, thou hast reason ta complain, I feel ; 
But, what says Virro ? 

NiEV, Not a syllable ; 

'But, while my wrongs and I unnoticed pass, 
Hunts out some other drudge, some two«legg*d ass. 

It was proYided, amongit oth^r things ; Fhrst, that persons living 
in a state of celibacy should not succeed to an inheritance,* 
except in cases of very near relationship, unless they married io 
somewhat more than Uiree months from the death of the testator. 
Second, thaty if a married person had no child, a tenth part, and, 
in some cases, a much greater proportion of what was bequeadied 
him, should fall to the exchequer. Virro was bo longer In this 
situation; he had a child, and was, therefore, capable of the 
'' whole bequest." Third, that those who at Rome had ** three 
children'^ lawfully bom in wedlock, in the other parts of Ilaly 
four, and in. the provinces five, should be entitled to various pri- 
vileges and immunities ; of which the principal were, an exemp- 
tion from the trouble of wardship, a priority in bearing offices, 
and a treble proportion of grain on the customary distributions. 

What Juvenal calls windfalls (taducum) were those unex- 
pected legacies which were left a person on certain conditions, 
such as those of being married, having children, he* (which were 
all settled by the same law,) and in default of which the whole 
went to the prince. 

The avowed purpose of these and similar clauses, was to pro» 
mote population, at a time when Italy had been thinned by a 
long succession of civil wars ; and certainly they were well calcu« 
la^ed to answer the end. They were, however, abused, like evefy 
other salutary regulation : and the most important of them, the 
jus trma Hkcromn^ (or the privilege annexed to having three 
children,) was frequently granted not only to those who had no 
children, but even to those who were never married 1 If the reader 
>vishe$ for more, he may turn to the Excursus of Lipsius on the 
Ann. of Tacit, lib. in. c. 25 ; where he will find every thing that 
can be said on the subject. 

♦ Many of the Romans, says Plutarch, in a very striking pas- 
sage, marry and beget children, not so much for the" sake of 
having heirs, as to enable themselves to be the heirs of others ! 

SATifts IX* JUVENAL, v.. 128— 145. 301 

Enough :*-^and never, on your life, make known 
The secret I have told to you alone; 
But let my injuries, undivulged, atill rest 
Within the closest chamber of your breast : 
How the discovery might be born, none knows-— 
And your smooth pathicks are such fatal foes I 
Virro, who trusts me yet, may soon repent, 
And hate me for the confidence he lent ; 
With fire and sword my wretched life pursuCf 
As if I'd blabb'd already all I knew. 
Sad situation mme ! for, in your ear, 
The rich can never buy revenge too dear ; . 
And — but enough : be cautious, I entreat, 
And secret as the Athenian judgment-seat. 

Ju V. And dost thou seriously believe, fond swain. 
The actions of the great unknown remain ? 
Poor Corydon ! eveu beasts would silence break, 
And stocks and stones, if servants did not, speak. 

Vxit. 136. WUkJirt SfC.'\ As I would have the reader pass 
as lightly over this Satire as possible, I have studiously avoided 
detaining him by notes ; I cannot, however, resist the temptation 
of adducing one short specimen of the perverse pruriency of th» 
old criticks. What I have translated fire, is, in the original, 
€imdelam appmere valvit ; a simple phrase, hardly possible to ba 
misundentood, for setting a house on fire : yet hear Calderinus s 
apponere candelam valvu, t. e. producif hoc supplicH genui nottivU 
CatuUui : 


** Ah, turn te roiserum malique fati, 
<* Quern attractis pedibus, patente porta, 
** Percurrent raphanique, mugilesque T 

'Fatentem portmn dixit Catullus^ ut valvam Juvenalii. Upon whicl^ 
Britannicus remarks with surprising gravity : Domum accaidere' 
adhibiia candda ; hoc. magis placet qtiam ut intelligas candelam per 
Ju^erwa immUsam : illud enhn miaime letale estet euppBcimn ! 

Boll Wtry <it)Ofr, st6p tvttf cHt'ftny tigfat, 
Close every windcTW, pAt teift fetery lighk ; 
Let not a '^i* pet- tfeach th^ lirf^nteg fe^tf. 
No noists, nt> rirttifatt ; Itt tto ^ul be tiear J 
Yet all that pa«*d at the cock^S tfeewid crot#, 
The fterghbooiring vititn« shall iretfciyfjteak knoiry 
With ifhat hfeAidts the tooths and Y:*rvef 's brsdki, 
Subtly malitioirt, catt in vetigeance feig* r 
For Ihu^ they glwy, with lice{Ai(yifs tohgufe, 
To quit the harsh coWmand, atid 'g^ing tfat)ng. 
Should these be nfiute, isothcdfunlcatd ift the stre^ett. 
Will pout Wit all he l:imiw, to all he riidets, 
Force theth, unwifli^g, the long tale to frear, 
And with hts ^tov^ie^ dhrnch their hapless ea!r. 
Go t>ow, atid eawiestly ^T thwe ir^tittt^ 
To lock, like me, Uhc sfecttt iti tlieit breast ; 
Alas t they heed ttrefe ttbt, and will wttl "seH 
T)te deoff, tiear privilege to see and Ml, 

VzHt. IM. Pot thus f)^ ght^» wiih UdmufHtfor^iit, ^.] 

AM ill alkM^o&i I supp«6e, to ^Mn trick ^of tlfe servants Htm^ 
Utettisdv^ oC Yk^tr nitts«er», ^Mi Chlfir HcAitiotSft itftfgCM, Mu^ 

Vjlr. 162. Alas ! they heed thee not, Sf^c] 

tlq TO XoAiiy t'o^XoV^io. J%/. Frag* 

The Saufeia, who turned a reli^ous institution into a drinking- 
bout, and int(i^:k$«at«d htsm^f, Krhfle sbe wte sw»rtfidiQ «d the 
Bona Dea for ttife saf^y and yio iyot K y ^ the peo{:fi^,« «»fattttt- 
eAy the pfet^on itftiwduced fh the iBiAtli Saiilte, «. 4^. T liefoy 
does inH 4(M^l bet k^e of ^ia^, ftMr there toOyAe ^fnfnm, 

For moit vtbkki #ki& tfcsM late Saaftift ^Dtiseit, 
When, Ibl- ^h^ 'jifM^le^s welfare, ^^^^anM^eidt 
LiVE VltttouslY <-4liuita^y at«aMfft trieS) 
Biit '^il^iy Hiriss th)3kt m 'thbu teft^f^t de»^e 
Tnhfy»set^«rtir*'tofagufe; ft*, lafytbh »uth to hBart, ' 

Yet viler h^, ^^ IWies ih tMist^tft ike^ 
or th«i dMaestitik ipiies ^M e^ lilt* Mead. {dM^ki 
Njt:V. W«il9l^<#ey^ untight %0# «#e tttfy bMt 

'l^^tivetatf»i*dtHAiblmg cT^iirltoiisdMyM tfatii^ i ' 
61ft tkAi k jgetaetnl, atnl to all a]y|()lks r — 
What, ik ^f )prb^r <^^e, i^ould ybU advi^i 
After isMh fttfR^iig ^x]fitetalioti« ci-bst, 
And so HMdi «lHiae fti va?fa idtepettdettbfe iMtiF 
F<^ ycm^, «M» «rMi«ieM#OMi^! ^flife'b i(lM)rt day 

byprevioui inlojucafiohy tor Ihe infe^mous scene In which An 

it may not be in^pvoper to Tenark« that the imxpensijy -of ihe 
women for wine was so s'trong, that Cieeito tliought it heoessa^, 

indMJNiguftuioA'ttfhii^iiMg^ai^ miMblidb^ lo (Ntveritctatrofr 

ciating at ai)y of the sacred ritet, (at which wine was i^w^^s 
used,) after ni^t.fallylby an express law. tlie only exceptidn <Si 
which he would admit, was this before us, to the Bona Dea ; and 
we see how it wasabusisd ! The words of Uie piohibttioA ave a NoC" 
tuma mtUierymMcrjjkiane sunio^fPttUr otta^ qua pfOijH^o rite 
^fitmi^ But see Sat. xii. 

V«a. 47ii4 At fo^h, te^ ^ammtftmffrl i$-t.} 


And AusoAkH wiy preltilyt 

^04 sATiiB IX. JUVENAL. VriSo— MI* 

Lo ! whfle we give the unregarded hoar 
To wine and revelry, in Pleasure's bowert 
The noiseless foot of Time steals swiftly by. 
And, ere we dream of manhood, age is nigh ! 

Juv. Oh, fear not: thou canst never seek in vain 
A pathick friend, while these seven hilb remain ; 
Hither in crowds the master^misses come 
From every point, as to their proper home. 
One hope has faiPd; another may succeed: 
Meanwhile, do thou on hot eringo feed, [meant 

NiE V. Tell this to happier men ; the Fates ne*er 
Such luck for me ; my Giotho is content, 
When all my toil a bare subsistence gains. 
And fills my belly by my back and reins. 

O, my poor Lares ! dear, domestick Powcts ! 
To whom I come with incense, cakes, and flowers. 
When shall my prayers, so long preferred in vain. 
Acceptance find ? O, when shall I obtain 
Enough to free me from the constant dread 
Of life's worst ill, gray hairs and want of bread ? 
On mortgage, six-score pounds a year, or eigh^ 
A little sideboard, which, for overweight, 

^ Collige, T]i]go, rosas do^ flds nonis et itova pubes, 
<* £t memor esto aenun sic properare taom !" 

I beliere that there was no transhttioii of this Satire in Shak* 
tpeare's time; yet he has given, with kindred genius, a oopy of 
Anpa mm imtMeta imtciua: 

«« ..«— .i..,.-...^ on our wisest attempts 
** The noiseless and inaudible foot of time 
« Steals Uke a thief.'' 

Vaa. iSOl. A little Mehoardf wkiekfor cfverwagktf 4^«1 ^ ^ 
Not so little but that it would attract the censure of Fabricius : 

** £t levis aigentt kmina crimen erat P 

SATlRB IX. JUVENAL. V» 202 — 2X2. 305 

Fabricius would have censured ; a stout pair 
Of hireling Maesians, to support my chair 
In the throngM Circus : add to these, one slave 
Well skiird to paint, another to engrave, 
And I — ^but let me give these day-dreams o'er, 
Wish as I may, I ever shall be poor ; 
For when to Fortune I prefer my prayers, 
The obdurate goddess stops at once her ears, 
Stops with that wax which saved Ulysses' crew, 
When by the Syrens' rocks and songs they flew? 
False songs and treacherous rocks which all to 
ruin drew. 

Livy* tells us that C. Fabricius, when censor, removed Rufinus, 
who had b«en twice consul, and once dictator, from the senate, 
because he had in his possession more than ten pounds weight of 
plate: '* esteeming this/' as Holyday says, ** a notorious example 
of luxury.' 




TfIB sttbject »f this inimitable Satire is the Vanity of Human 
Wishes. The poet takes his stand on the great theatre of the worlds 
and summons before him the iilustrious characters of all ages. As 
they appear in succession^ he shows^ from the principal events of 
their lives, how little happiness is promoted by the attainment of 
what our indistinct and bounded views represent as the most perfect 
if earthly blessings. Of these, he instances Wealthy JSlSOmST* -6fe* 
'Oi ^p e, Mil^r^Qlotyj Lonf ffvity , and Pergonal Accomp lis hmen ts ; 
afl ^ whichTavcj as he observes^ proved dangerous or destructive 
to their respective possessors. From hence, he argues the vnsdom 
of acquiescing in the dispensations of Heaven ; and concludes with 
a form of prayer ^ in which he points out, with great force and 
beauty, the objects for which a rational being may presume to ap* 
proach the Almighty, 

The commentators suppose Juvenal to have had the second Alci^ 
hiades of Plato, or the Hunc Macrine diem <f Persiusy in his 
thoughts ; it is probaUe he had both : he has taken nothing from 
them, hoToeveTf but the general idea ; the filing up is entirely his 
own, and it is done with a boldness of imagery, an awful and im* 
pressive sublimity of style and manner, of jphich it would perhaps 


be difficult to find another example in any comoosition merely J 


V. 1—12. 

In €very clime, from Ganges' distant stream 
To GadeSi giJded by the western beam. 
Few, from the clouds of mental errour free^ 
In its true light, or good or evil, see — • 
For what, with reason, do we seek or shun? 
What plan, how happily soe'er begun, 
But, finish'd, we our own success lament. 
And rue the pains so fatally raispent ? — 
To headlong ruin see whple houses driven, 
Curs*d with their prayers, by too indulgent heaven ! 

Bewilder'd thus by folly or by fate, 
'We beg pernicious gifts in every state, 

Ver. 5. For what f toitk reasoHy do we seek or shun 9 4*^.1 Tliis 
is beautifully expressed by Sbakspeare, who, without knowing any 
thing of our author, frequently falls into his train of thinking : 

" ■ We ignorant of ourselves, 

** Beg often 6ur own harms, which the wise powers 

'' Deny us for our good ; so find we profit, 

*' By losing of our prayen.'' 


Ver. 9. To headlong ruiuy SfcJ] Eoertere domos totas^ SfC, Not 
only the idea, but the language^ is from Cicero :^ &ypiditates 
iwU uuatiabUee, non modoimgulos homineif sed universas famiiiai 
tttrtmt. Fin. i. 

310 SATIRE X. JUVENAL. ▼• 1^3— 28* 

In peace, in war : A full and rapid flow 
Of eloquence, lays many a speaker low; 
Even strength itself is fatal ; Milo tries 
His wondrous arms, and in the trial dies. 

But avarice wider spreads her deadly snare, 
And hoards of wealth, amassed with ceaseless care 3 
Hoards, which o*er all paternal fortunes rise, 
As o*er the dolphin towers the whale in size. 
Hence, in those dreadful times, at Nero*s word, 
The ruffian bands unsheathed the murdeious &wor<^ 
Rush'd to the swelling cofTers of the ^reat, 
And seized the rich domain, and lordly seat ; 
While sweetly in their cocklofts slept the poor. 
And heard no soldier thundering at their door. 

The traveller, freighted with a little wealth, 
Sets forth at nighty and wins his way hy stealth ; 


Vee. 15. ■ Milo tries 

His wondrous arms, ^c] The story of ^Jilo is tald 
in two words by Roscommon : 

« ■ ■■ Remember Milo's end, 

** Wedg'd in the timber which he strove to reod.*^ 

V»R. 27. The traveller, ^c] So Ovid : . 4 

^ Sic timet insidias qui scit se ferre viator 

^ Cur timeat, tutum carpi t inanis iter." Kux, 

Pauca licet fortes, Spc, This, which all the translators take for ai» 
imaginary case* I believe to be an historical fact. The poet is 
still speaking of Nero*s time, and he alludes to the cautious prac* 
tic^ ot those who» being in possession of a few vakniblt^, wished ta 
xemove them without being seen :— iioc^e iter ingress us ; evou tiiUT»» 
they trembled for their safety. The rapacity of Nero is again 
noticed in the twelfth Satire. The effects of fear are weildcbcribed- 
. by Ciaudian, with an eye perhaps to this place: 

** Ecce levis frondes atei^go concutit atira, 
^* Credit tela Leo ; vaiuit pro vulnere terror. 

£utrop. ii. 45a 

SATiKBx. JUVENAI«. v«29-«-44tf 311 

Even then, he fears the bludgeon and the blade? 
And starts and trembles at a rush's shade : 
While, void of care, the beggar trips along, 
And, in the spoiler's presence, trolls his song. 
^ The first great wish we all with rapture own, 
The general cry, to every temple known, 
Is still for wealth : — "and let, all-gracious Powers, 
" The largest chest the Forum boasts, be ours I" 
Yet none from earthen bowls destruction sip : 
Dread then the baneful draught, when, at your Up, 
The goblet mantles, graced with gems divitie, 
And the broad gold inflames the ruby wine. 

And do we now admire the stories told 
Of the two Sages, so renown'd of old ; 
How This for everlaugh'd, whene'er hestept 
Beyond the threshold ; That, for ever wept ? 

VsR. 3£. — the Forufn^hoasts^ For here, that is m 

the Forum of Trajan, .or rather 10 the temples situated around it, 
the rich deposited their money, for safety. See Sat. xiv. 

VEft. 43. H(m> This for ever laugh'd, 4-c.] " To believe," Ho 
Jyday says, " that Heraclitus did continually weep, may well 
deserve to be lai^h'd-at." He has a long anatomical note, how- 
ever, to prove that if he did not, it was not from any natural 
deficiency of tean : but neither did Democritus continually laugh. 
How these two men came to be distinguished by the names of th* 
laughing and the crying philosophers, I know not ; they certainly 
did not deserve such trifling appellations. Democritus, in parti- 
lar was a man of very extraordinary talents: and unless some per- 
verted or exaggerated notions, respecting the nature of his scep- 
ticism, led tlie vulgar to form so silly an opinion of him, it will 
be difficult to account for this singular degradation of the first 
philosopher of his age.* As for Heraclitus, he was a stern and 

• This praise, however, must not go forth unqualified. He was 
Hie father of all that desolating philosophy which, placing the 
senses in the room of reason, tends to extinguish seicnct, wkile it 
mcourages personal gratifications. 

3ia 8ATIW X. JIJVEFAL. r* 45^5^^ 

But all can lkagh:-^the wander yet appear^. 
What source supplied, the eternal stream of tears! 
Democritub^ at erery ste^ He took, 
His sides with iiiidxtixi^xsh*d laughter shook. 
Though^ in bis day«, i^^dera's simple towns 
No fasces knew, chairs; litters, purple gowns. — 
What ! had he se^h. In hb triumphal car. 
Amid the dusty Gircpie oonspitoous far, 
The PrsetKH* )>erdi'd aloft, supedbly drest 
In JdVe*s jproud tuikick, with a trailing vest 
Of Tyrian tapestry, and o'er him spread 
A crown, too bulky for a moi^tal bead^ 

rigid moralist pf what was afterwards called the «Stoick school; 
as little likely to cry upon all occasions, as the former to laugh. 
This, however, was not JuvexuLl's concern ; he had only to do 
with the qualities commonly assigned them ;- and it must be 
granted, that he has made an admirable use of both, particularly 
of those allotted to Democritus. 

■ Ver. 51. What! had he seeSi in his triumphal, car^ ^c] He 
describes the procession of the Praetor to open the Circensian 
games. ' It was not, I believe, altogether "so absurd as it is- here 
r^f csented, for Juvenath^ conlToutided it with a^4rium|>h, from 
which it differed in two or th^ee circumstances. The *' tunick of 
Jove^" indeed, was borrowcki of tho god for the Pr»W, as well as 
for the vidtorioud general ; the ^^ tapestry of the iogOf'* tooi was 
commoo to both; but the crown and the slave were appropriated 
solely, I think, to the latter. 

Thi^ dotifusion is also Noticed by Kuperti i^^Medio ^Mimem in 
fntkereCirci hy in his opinion, an ititerpolation, the rejection of 
which, would smboth every difHculty, as the whole passage might 
then relate so a triumph. He is right 1 remove every point in 
disj^ute, and there will be nothing left tb contest. All the force 
of the satire, however, wotild thus be destroyed. A sober reader 
of Juvenal cannot surety have proceeded thus £&r, without obser* 
ving that he checks not at a little inconsistency, when the imme- 
diate object of his animadversion can be ridiculdd by it with more 

The imperial ensign (the ivory sceptre surmounted with an 
eagle) seems as much out of its place here, as most of the other 

SATiRfi X. JUVENAL, V. S7-*67# 31J 

Upheld by a poor slave, ordained to ride 
In the same car, to check his towering pride! 
Add too, the bird that on the sceptre statids. 
In act Co soar, the cornets, and the bands 
That lead the long parade ; the friends in white. 
That guide his steeds ; friends, won to grace the 

By the glad prospect of — a dole at night ! 

Yes, in tliose times^ in every varied scene- 
The good old man found matter for his spleen : 
A wondrous sage ! whose story makes it clear. 
That men may rise in folly's atmosphere, 

accompaniments; it was however too important a gewgaw to be 
left bcKind ; for, as Prudentius tells us, 

** Aquila ex ebuma sumit arrogantiam 
^* Gestator ejas« ac superbit beUuae 
" Inflatus osse." 

Vi»on the whole, this heterogeneous jumble of unwieldy raa^ 
nificence had enough of ridicule in it to provoke the spleen of a 
much less risible spectator than Democritus is supposed to be. 

- V£R. 6T» — ■" infoiljf's aimospkeret Sfc] Democritus 

vras born at Abdera^ a town of Thrace, proverbial, it seems, for 
the stupidity oif its inhabitants. 

Bcpotia lay under the same, or even a worse reproach : it was 
the country of " hogs/' Bo»oT»«y vv, as the other was of *^ sheep.'' 
Piodar, who .was a Ikeotiant seems a httle mortified at the pro* 
>'crb. lie, of all meu, bad the least reabf>n for it; for, though 
there might be better poets, there certainly was not a wiser or a 
betteit man in any of the states around him. 

1 recollect an old French epitaph, which says : 

" Guillaume dc Machault, aitisi avoie nom, 

•* No en Champagne fus, et si eu grand renom !" 

Champaigne then, is the Abdera of France; and indeed every 
country has some reprobate spot, to which its courteous neigh- 
bours assign the exclusive privilege of producing (verveces) bell- 
wethers. I do not pretend to know the Abdera of England ; my 
readers, perhaps, may sometimes incline to think it Ashburtoo* 

3t4 sATist X. JUVENAL, v. 6fr— 79* 

Beneath Boeotian fogs, of soul sublime. 
And great examples to the coming time. 
He laugh'd aloud to see the vulgar fears, 
Laugh'd at their joys, and sometimes at their tears; 
Secure the while, he mock'd at Fortune's frown. 
And when she threatened, bade her hang or drown ! 
Superfluous then, or fatal, is the prayer, 
Which to the Immortals* knees we fondly bear. 
v' Some, Power hurls headlong from her envied 

Some, the long scroll with titles, honours, bright 
Sinks in the dust 1 The statues, tumbled down. 
Are dragg'd by hooting thousands through the 

town ; 

Ter. 75. Whch to the ImmortM inea, 4*c.] <' It wms th& 
manner of the ancients," Holiday says, '* when they made iheir 
vows to the gods, to write them in paper, (and some in waxen 
tables,) seal them up, and with wax, fasten them to the knet* of 
the gods; (or to the thighs of them, for so Apuleius bptrak^) the 
lAicients counting that the seat of mercy. When iheir desires 
vere granted, the manner was to take away the paper, fear it, 
and bring unto the gods what they had promised/' Substrtute 
saints for gods, and the passage wiU accord with the practice ia 
Cathdick churches at this day. 

It was a most ancient custom, (indeed, it still prevails in the 
East,) for men to embiMce the knees of those from whom they 
solicited favour or protection. In allusion to which, and to no 
abstract ideas of their being the seat of mercy or power. Homer 
frequently observes that the granting or withholdipg of particular 
blessings, lies in the knees of the gods^ Bw» in yttfon xitrM. Thift 
account9| satisfactorily enough, I think, for the practice men* 
lioned in the text. 

Vee. 77. ■ the long scroll 8pc!] hnga atque w- 

si^is honorum tabula: Well explained by the old Scholiast. A 
plate of brass affixed to the statues of eminent persons, and con* 
caining a pompous enumeration of their titles, honours^ &c. 

SATIRE X. JUVENALt V. 80— t9« 315 

The cars upturn'd, the beams and axles broke, 
And guiltless steeds destroy'd by many a stroke 1^-^' 
Then roar the fires ; the sooty artist blows. 
And all Sejanus in the furnace glows : 
Sejanus, once so honoured, so adored. 
And only second to the world's great lord, 
Runs glittering from the mould, in cups and cans, 
And such mean things, plates, pitchers, pots, and 
" Crown all your doors with bay, triumphant bay ! 
*' Sacred to Jove, the milkwhite victim slay ; 

Vek. 83. And all Sejanus in the furnace glows :] Thb instance 
of Sejanus is most happily chosen, since it exhibits at one view, 
not only the instability of court, but of popular, favour. 

No subject ever ascended to such a height of power; noiio 
ever fell from it so rapidly into the abyss of disgrace and. ruin. 
This is not the place for his history, but it may not be improper 
to call the reader's attention to this picture of the unfeeling and 
l^arbarous versatility of the mob; a picture which for truth and 
humour has seldom, I think, been equalled. 

To understand the little drama which follows, we must suppose 
one of those who had witnessed the commencement of Stjanu^' 
punishment, hastening home to announce the intelligence, and 
prepare his publick demonstrations of loyalty and joy. The- 
dialc^ue passes between him and his neighbours. 

With respect to Sejanus, it may be said of him, as it was of' 
^I'y* hy Voltaire; he was one against whom every man had s 
nght to lift his' band, but the executioner. During the full tide 
of his prosperity, nothing seems to have been too low for his' 
malice. In the prologue to his third book of Fables,- Phaedfus, 
the obscure and inofl'enslve Phaedrus, pathetically complains of 
having been unjustly accused by him : he survived, however, both 
. the accusation and the accuser, and in his story of Princeps Ti- 
bicen, gontly retorts upon the fallen fortunes of his adversary. » 

1 know not whether Pliny had this particular event in kit 
thoughts ; hut he gifqs a very interesting detail of the impotent 
vengeance cr.crcised un the statues of disgraced favpurites by the 
rabble : Jutahat iUiderc solo suptrbissirnQS vidius, mstare ferrOf 
scevire securibus, ut &i singulos ictus sanguis dolorqae sequeretur» 
Nemo tarn temperans gaudily serarque Icetitice, quin instar uUionis 
lideretur cernere laceros artus, ttuncata membra, postreme tntct9 



316 aATUtB x^ JUVENAJU v*9o-Hto5« 

*^ Far lo ! wbere great Seja&as by the throng, 
" A joyful spectacle, is dragg'd along. [part, 

<* What lips ! what cjieeks ! hah, traitoqr I for my 
" I never loyed this felloW — ^iii my heart :*' 

* But tell me ; Why was he adjudged to bleed? 

* And Who discovered, and who proved the deed ?* 
" Proved I*— a verbose epistle came to day [They ! 
** From Capreae^" * Good ! what think the people?* 
They follow fortune as of old, and hate 

With their whole sduk, the Victim of the state. 

Yet wpuld the h^rd, thud zealous, thus on Bre,^ 

Had Nurscia met the Tuscan's fond d6sire, 

And crushed the iinwary prince, have all combined, 

And haild Sejanus^ Master of manx.ind! 

For since their votes have been no longer bought. 

All publick care has vanish'd from their thought ; 

horrendasque imagiiie$ dhftct(ts excoctasque flammis, tit ex illo ter^ 
tore et minis, in luum Aominum ac voluptatei ignibiu mutarentur. 
Panegyr. cap. lii. 

Ver. 9S* a verbose epistle Sfc] Dio sneers at 

the. length of this epistle : and Suetonrus calls it, pudenda miseran-' 
daque oratio. The trv^th is,^ that Tiberiusy who, like CromwelU 
vras always too cunnii^ to be clear, was at this time coofounded 
by his fears, or at least pretended to be so ; and therefore wrote 
** about it, and about it." Suetonius has preserved a sentence of 
this memorable address, which fully justifies the character he has 
given of it. Among other things, Tiberius besought the senate to 
send one of the consuls, with a miKtary guard, to conduct him, 
a, poor and desolate old man, in safety to their presence ! Jonson, 
in his once celebrated Sejanns, Las fabricated '^ a verbose episUe*' 
for Tiberius, with a masterly hand. 

Ver. 101. Had Nurscia] So the Tuscans called the Goddess 
Fortuna. As Scjanus was a Tuscan, Lipsius conceives that there 
is some cleverness in giving her this name. Begging pardon both 
o^Lipsius and Juvenal, I think there is more pedantry. 

Vrr. 104. For since their votcs^ ^c] There spoke the old 
republican 1 and indeed, it must bo confessedj that if Juvenal 

SATIRX X. JUVENAL. V. 106^109. 317 

And those who once, with unresisted sway, 
Gave armies, empire, every thing, away, 
For two poor claims have long renounced thewhole^ 
And only ask, — the Circus and the Dole. 

sometimes lashes the tyranny of the chiefs, he at others treats the 
base and abject submission of the people with equal, if not supc* 
riour, seventy. 

It is clear, that their power had been broken by the usurpations 
of Marios and Sylla ; they still, however, I'etuined a considerable 
ilegcee of influence, and nominally gave, or rather sold, their 
suffrages, till the days of Julius Cxsar. That they were ripe for 
the slavery which awaited them, cannot be denied ; for such was 
their corruption and rapacity, that they only inquired which of 
the candidates would bribe highest. 

Csesarj however, did not directly deprive the people of their 
suffrages, (eruda adiuc werviiutef as Lipsius says,) he only took 
the nomination of the consuls upon himself, and left the choicet 
or rather the sale, of the infenour magistracies to them, upon 
condition that he should have the recommendation to one half! 
Suetonius has preserved his congi (Tiiiref and a very curious one 
it is : CxiSAR Dictator illi tribui. Cammendo robis illump 
tt illumf ut VESTRO sUFFRAGio wam dignitatem teneant. 
(Caesar, 41.) The reader may be sure that these recommen** 
dations were never overlooked : preccs crant^ as Tacitus says on 
another occasion, sed quibus contradici non poiset^ 

Augustus seems somewhat to have enlarged the power of the 
people, which was again abridged by Tiberius, or rather taken 
quite away ; nequtf says th^ historian, with honest indignation, 
populus ndemptumjm ^ueetw est nisi inani rumore. Caligula, in a 
Hi of popularity, showed symptoms of re-cstablishing them in a 
part of their rights, which however came to nothing: this I think 
was the last e^rt in their ^vour, and fcom this period they gra* 
duajly, and indeed desezyedly, sunk into insignificance and cou« 

It argues great courage in our author to reproach the Romans 
for their supineness ; and must have, been highly offensive to their 
rulers. About this however, he appears to be little solicitous ; 
jiay, t am persuaded tfiat much of what, he says here is imrpedi- 
Rtely levelled atTrajau^ who had, about this time, transfcrred to 
the senate, or rather |o himself, th^ very, trifling degree of power 
which the people had hitherto been permitted to retain. 

VteR. 105. the Dofc.] TJie Dole bcra 

mentioned must not be confounded with the sportula already 

3i8^ SATtut X. JUVENAL, v. izo~xa7« 

*' But there are more to suSer.'** ' So *tis said ; 

* A fire so fierce, for one was scarcely made. 
\ I met my friend Brutidius, and I fear, 

* From his pale looks^ he thinks there's danger nean 

* What, if this Ajax, in his frenzy, strike^ 

* As doubtfut of our zeal, at all alike I — 
' Swift let us fly our loyalty to show, 

* And trample on the carcass of his foe : 

* But mark me ; — lest our slaves the fact forswear^ 
' And drag us to the bar, let them be there.' 
Thus of the favourite's fall the converse ran. 
And thus the whisper passed from man to man. 

Inured by the splendour of his happier hour, 
Wouldst thou possess Sejanus* wealth and power; 
See crowds of suppliants at thy levee wait, 
Give this to sway the army, that the state ; 
And keep a prince in ward, retired to reiga 
On Capreae's crags, with his Chaldean train ? 

policed ; the laltcr was a private distribution, the former a 
publick one. $ee p. 2-^6, The suspicions in the next couplet 
were not ill-founded ; for many adherents of Sejanus, and morci 
suspected of being such| suffered death immediately after ius 

Veu. 127. On Caprect's crags^l angusta Caprearumin nq>e, as 
Juvenal happily expresses it* For angusta most of the copies 
have angusta^ which, though an ingenious variation, appears to 
weaken the force of the Satire. The long and in&mous residence 
of Tiberius at Capreae is too well known to be dwelt on here* 

It may seem a little extraordinary that Tiberius, who, at ia 
former period, had driven the Chaldeans (the astrologers) out of 
Italy, nay, put some of them to death, should, in the decline of 
life, have secluded himself from the world to enjoy their society 
without molestation ; but his conduct may be accounted for, from 
the condition of human nature. The multiplied cruelties that 
followed the fall of Sejanus, though they could not appease the fe- 
rocity, had yet alarmed the coiisciencei of this execrable monster ; 

0ATIXK X. JUVENAL. T.. i28^YS9« 319 

Yes, yes diou vouldst (thy secret thoughts I see) 
Have oohorts, legions, aimies, just as he ; 
*T]s nature this : even those who want the will, 
Pant for the dreadful privilege to kill. 
Yet what delight can rank and power bestow, 
Since every joy is balanced by its woe I [gown ? 
-— Stili. wouldst thou choose theiavourite*s purple 
Or, thus forewarn'd, control some paltry town ; 
At Gabii and Fidenae rules propound 
For faulty measures, and for wares unsound, 
And take the tslmish'd robe, and petty state, 
Of poor Uliibrse's ragged magistrate f 

angaisb and despair took possesion of all his thoughts,*and it 
we could for a moment suppose the damned permitted to make 
their ** eternal ears of flesh and bbod/' wtt could not 
image terms of deeper horrour for them, than those with which 
he begins one of bis letters to the senate: Quid saihamvobis 
P. C, aut quomodo scribam, aut quid omnino non scribam^ hoc tem^ 
for<f DU me, Dettqite pc^'us perdantf quam quotidie perire sentiof 
41 too. Suet, Tiber. 67, In this state ; afflicted at the past, 
dissatisfied with the present, and trembling for the future, his en- 
feebled and distracted mind clung for relief to the wretched im- 
postures of astrology, which it had formerly rejected ; and endea- 
Yonred to diverf the evils of to day, by vagae and senselet^s re- 
searches into the destiny of to morrow. I have elsewhere* noticed 
the strange inconsistency of atheism ; Tiberius is a striking proof 
of it: Circa dcos (Suet. 69) flc religionen negiigenlior ; quippe 
addichu rnathematica^ pcrsuasimisque pUnus, cuncia Jato agi, SfC, 

Dio has the same remark. 

* « 

Vek. 139. poor Uhibrce's ragged magistrate f] Poh" 

sio«t» vacuis MdUis Ulubris. There were two kinds t f iSdiles, 
(strictly speaking, indeed, there were three,) the Curule, and the 
Plebeian : the first were officers of considerable power. It is tijc 
latter, however, of whom Juvenal now speaks, and with whose 
imaginary importance he delights, on all occasions, to sport. 1 hey 
were chosen, as their name imports, out of the commons or ple- 
beians and had the care of weights and measures, of markett and 
provisiom, the detemiDation of petty caMS, the inspection of the 
roads, the overseeing of the theatres, &c. Ia little muijicipahties, 

3to aATiRB X. JUVENAL, y. t4o^i|3. 

Yon grant me then, Sejanus grossly err*d, 
Nor knew what prayer his fpUy had preferred: 
For when he begg d for too much wnlth and power. 
Stage above stage he raised a tottering tower, 
And higher still, and higher ; to be throwji, 
With louder crash, and wider ruin, down ! 

What wrought the Crassi, what the Pon^ys* 
And His, who bow*d the stufaJiom neck 'c£ Roine ? 
^ What but the wild, the unbounded 'm3h :te» rise, 
Heard, in malignant kindness, by the skie$ l^ — 
Few kings, f^w tyrants, find a natnraljend. 
Or to the grave, without a wound, descend. 

The child, with whom a trusty slave is sent. 
Charged with his little scrip, has scarcely spent 

such as Fidcnae, Gabii, and Ulubne, they were probably the only 
magislrales. We have nothing precisely !ike them in thiscounti}-; 
but in the Italian villages, they still subsist, as tagged ancl conr- 
sequential as ever, under the name of PodeStas, The " tarnished 
robe," which was probably an heirloom attached to the office, is 
finely contrasted with the /inr/exf a, or purple gown of Sejanus. 

Ver. 143. Stage above stage SfC.'\ The lhoHg|it is from 


exoelss graviore casu 

** Decidunt turres,' 

hut wonderfully heightened and improved by our author; who 
ba.s in his turn, found many imitators. Perhaps Horace himself 
was indebted to Menander: 

AofAVfVi Ti flrAMTtf, xcu 71MI yavfUiMPOfg 

Vrr. 147. And h% 4^.] Juliua Cesar's. The Crassi (father, 
and Hori^ see^n rather to have fuJleii socriices to th«ir avarice, 
than their aiuliilioiw . •. . • 1 ■ • , . 

SATIKB X. JUVENAL. V. 154—163. 356I 

His mite at school, ere hopes his bosom seize, 

To rival Tully and Demos thenes. 

In eloquence and fame : for this he sues 

And, through her festival, Minerva woos. 

Yet both these orators, in evil hours, 

Proved the sad victims of their envied powers ; 

Alike the fatal paths of genius tried, 

And That by steel, and This by poison, died : 

While meaner pleaders unmolested stood, 

Nor stain*d the rostrum with their wretched blood. 

Ver. 157. And, through her festival^ 4*.] He speaks of the 
Quinquatria; a festival kept in honour of Minerva, as the pa- 
troness of the arts and sciences. It began on the nineteenth of 
Narch, and lasted^ as the name imports, for five days, during 
which the schools were shut up. 

Ver. 161. And That by steel, 4^.] Cicero was murdered by 
the second triumvirate. Antony, whom Juvenal supposes to have 
been particularly irritated by the second Pbilippick, despatched a 
band of assassins after him, who overtook him as he was proceed- 
ing to the sea-side. He made no resistance, but looking sternly 
on the leader, whose life he had formerly saved, and thrusting his 
neck as forward as he could out of the litter, he bade him take 
what he wanted. l*he ungrateful wretch cut off his head and his 
hands, and carried them to Antony, who rewarded him for the 
agreeable present with a civick crown! and a lai^ sum of 
money. The head was fixed on the Rostra, between the two 
hands, (where, as w« find from Florus, the people ran as eagerly 
to see his reiicks, as formerly to bear his eloquence,) a piece of 
impotent revenge, which, not long after, recoiled on the author 
of it. 

Speaking of Antonius, (the grandfather of the triumvir,) who 
fell in the bloody proscription of Sylla, Cicero has an observation 
of striking singularity : In his ipsis rostrii in quibus tile remp, con' 
stantissime consul djenderat, positum caput ilhtd fuitf a quo erant 
fMiltorum civium capita servata ! Never could it be more trul^ 
* ^eaid, 

" iputato nomine, de te • 

** Fabula narratur. ' 

322 BAYiRi X. JUVENAL. V. i64~i65. 

" How fortuNATE A NATal day was thine, 

^^ In that proud consuLATE, O RomCi of mine ! 


Vbr. 16*4. HmofortuvAr^A VATolday ijf€S\ fortmalam 
natanif me consulcy Ramam. I have attempted , how successfullji I 
know not, to give the English reader some idea of the constrac- 
tion of thb well known verse of Cicero. Most of my predeces- 
sors thought it necessary to translate it into nonsense, or load it 
with the most barbarous tautology : this, however, was paying 
but an ill compliment to one of the greatest men '' that ever 
lived in the tide of times/' and was, besides, as unjust as imper- 

It appears indeed, that thb line, or some one l|ke it, had been 
made the subject of ridicule during the author's life : he was not 
however ashamed of the sentiment, for he repeats it in prose : 
Nona Decembres qwt me coksule JwstiSf ego diem vert iia* 
iakm hvjus urbis^ SfC. Orat. pro Flac. In the second Philippick, 
after severely retorting upon Antony, he adds, — nee vero tAi de 
versibtu respondebo ; tantum dicam bretnter neqtte ilioa^ neque uUat 
te omnino literas nosse. This, I suppose, is ** the reply churlish ; 
when, instead of answering an adversary, you disable his jud^ 
ment:" what he subjoins, however, is a noble apology for his 
lighter studies. 

It may be doubted whether Cicero's poetryi generally speaking, 
deserves the epithet (ridenda) which Juvenal is pleased to affix to 
it : the verse in question, indeed, has long been the jest of small 
wits, and even the '* mousing Martial hawks at it ;" but there are 
many vigorous and elegant passages scattered amongst his works : 
after all, perhaps, it was the me consuls, and not the iia/«a 
natam^ the vanity, and not the jingle, of the verse which provoked 
the sneers of his contemporaries. When Juvenal wrote, however, 
personality and envy had long been extinct; and he evidently 
diverts himself with the want of taste, which could permit so 
many similar sounds to be crowded into the compass of a single 
line. To confess the truth, there appears in many parts of Cicero's 
works a predelection for trifles of this kind, derived, perhaps, from 
his long acquaintance with the rhetoricians and grammarians of 

Middleton has laboured to establish his poetical character. 
Plutarch, he says, reckons Cicero among the most eminent of the 
Roman poets; but Plutarch's judgment, in this matter, is of no 
great weight. To Quintilian's authority, indeed, every one must 
subscribe, but not to Middleton's interpretation of it« In carmi* 
nibus utinam perpercissei qwt mm dmenmi ctirpere m^l^gnL 
** Quintiliaa seems to charge the cavils of his censurers to a pria* 

SATiftft X. JUVENAL. T. 166^181; 393 

Oh, had he iie*er harangued in loftier strain, 
The sword of Antony had raged in vain. 
Yet this would I prefer, the jest of Rome, 
To that Philippick which provoked his doom^ 
That second burst, where eloquence divine 
Pour'd on the ear, from every nervous line. 
And he too fell, whom Athens, wondering, saw 
Her fierce democracy, at will, overawe ; 
Fell by a cruel death : some angry Power 
Scowl'd with dire influence on his natal hour. 
Bleared with the glowing mass, the luckless sire, 
From anvils, sledges, bellows, tongs, and fire. 
From tempering swords, his own more safe emplpy, 
'to study RUETORiCK sent his hopeful boy. 

The spoils of war ; the trunk in triumph placed, 
With all the trophies of the battle graced, 

ciple of mal^iiity ;'' whereas he merely wishes that he had omit- 
ted some thiDgs, (evidently alluding to his boasting^,) which fur- 
nished a coDstaut subject of censure to his enemies. To conclude, 
his verse is only mean, when compared to his prose ; and if he 
had not been the first of orators, no one would have been unjust 
enough to style him the last of poets. 

VsR. 168. Tet this would I prefer j ^cJ] A singular declaration 
from one, who is supposed to have suffered so much on account 
of the severity of his writings : — Surely the commentators, who 
are unanimous in maintaining that this Satire was composed by 
Juvenal after his banishment, must grant that it comes from him 
with a very ill grace« 

Ver. 172. Jfid he too feU, 4^.] Demosthene», who poisoned 
himself to avoid Antipater^ one of Philip's generals. His <' luck- 
less sire" (v. Vj6) was a sword cutler. From some incidental 
passages in the son's Orations, it appears that he was of consider- 
able eminence in l^s profession, and kept two^nd-twenty men in 
his employ. It was ambition, therefore, that induced him, or, as 
some say, hb wife, to make '^ his boy" an orator. 

Vsa. 180. The spA!9 tf wak; tic trunk ^.] This, says 

Y a 


344 SATIRE X* JUVENAL. 7.182—199. 

Crushed helms, aodbatterM shields ; and streamers 
bora [torn, 

From vanquished Beets, and beams from chariots 
And captives ranged around in moumfnl state. 
Are prized as joys— beyond a mortaPs fate : 
Fired with the love of these, what countless swarms, 
j Barbarians, Romans, Greeks, have rush*d to arms, 
: All danger slighted, and all toil defied. 
And madly conquered, or as madly died ! 
So much the raging thirst of fame exceeds 
The generous warmth which prompts to worthy 

That none confess fair Virtue's genuine power, 
Or woo her to their breast, without a dower. 
Yet has this wild desire, in other days. 
This boundless avarice of a few for praise, 
This frantick rage for names to grace a tomb. 
Involved whole countries in one general doom : 
Vain rage ! the roots of the wild fig-tree rise. 
Strike through the marble, and — their memory dies! 

Dryden, who translates the passage very carelessly, is a mock 
account of a^ Roman triumph. On the contrary, it is a serious 
account of the manner of raising a trophy on the field of battie, 
after a victory ; which, as Holyday properly observes, was " by 
cutting down a tree, lopping-off its branches, fixing it in the 
ground, and then hanging upon it the spoils wonne from the 
enemie/' But indeed the whole process is so admirably described 
in the text, that any further remarks on it arc unnecessary. 

Ver. 192. That none confess Jair Virtue b genuine pojcer, ^-c] 

'^ Nee facile invenies multis in millibus unum, 
** Virtutem pretium qui putet e»-e sui ; 

'^ Ipse decor recti, facti si praemia desint, . 
** Non movet et gratis poenitet ease probum/' 

Font. tib. II, ^. 

SATiRB X. JUVENAL. V. 2oo<-**2i5* 325 

For, like their mouldering tenants, tombs decay, ^ 
And, with the dust they hide, are swept away. 

Produce the urn that Hannibal contains. 
And weigh the mighty dust which yet remains : ^ 
And is this all ! Yet this was once the bold. 
The aspiring chief, whom Africk could not hold, 
Africk outstretched, from where the Atlantick roars, 
To Nilus ; from the Line, to Lybia*s shores ! — 
Spain conquer*d, o*er the Pyrenees he bounds ; 
Nature opposed her everlasting mounds, 
Her Alps, and snows ;,o*er these, with torrent force, 
He pours, and rends through rocks his dreadful 
Already at his feet Italia lies ; — [course. 

Yet thundering on, ** Thinknothingdone," hecries, 
" Till o'er Rome*s prostrate walls I lead my 

** And plant my standard on her hated towers ••* 

Ver. 203. And xoeigh the mighty dust Spcl I do not know 
that this was ever done in the old world ; at least with regard to 
Hannibal i but in the Statistical Account Oi Scotland, I find that 
Sir John Paterson had the curiosity to collect and weigh the 
ashes of a person discovered a few years since in the parish of 
Eccles ; which he was happily enabled to do ivith great facility, 
as '* the inside of the coffin was smooth, and the whole body 
visible." Wonderful to relate, he found the whole did not exceed 
in weight one oqnce and a half! And is this all! 

Veii. 210. ■ " o'er these^ tsith torrent forced In the on* 
ginal, et montem rttpit aceto^ he rent the mountain with vinegar. 
Appian's acconnt is, Exdav h tm ret AXirtx 0^, x, r. «• *' He 
came to the Alps, and finding an abundance of frost and snow 
there, he cut down the trees, burned them, and extinguished the 
glowing embers with vinegar ax]|d water, nt h rtipfeu eSttrtfi v^om 
KM (4*h. he ^b^A beat down the rock, thus softened, with sledges, 
and so opened a passage/' But see Mr. Wbitaker's learned and 
ingenious work on this subject* 

3a6 sATiftB X. JUVENAL, v. fti6-*aa9« 

Big words : but view his figure ! view his face ! 

O, for some master-hand the lines to trace, 

As through the Etrurian swamps, by floods increast, 

The one*eyed chief ui^ed his Getulian beast ! 

But what ensued ? Illusive Glory, say. 

Subdued on Zama*s mem<M:able day, 

He flies in exile to a petty state, 

With headlong haste ; and, at a despot*s gate 

Sits, mighty suppliant ! of his life in doubt. 

Till the Bithynian*s morning nap be out. 

Nor swords, nor spears, nor stones from engines 

Shall quell the man whose frown alarm*d the world: 

The vengeance due to Cannae*s fatal field, 

And floods of human gore, a ring shall yield !— 

Vsa. 228 Camiofs fatal fiM^i Neariy three 

centuries had elapsed since that disastrous action, yet Juveoal 
speaks of it, not only here, but elsewhere^ in a way which shows 
that the impression made by it on the minds of the Romans was 

There is nothing so much wanted as a judicious life of Han* 
nibal : it is more than time to do justice to one before whom the 
conquerors of ancient as well as modern times *^ hide their dimi- 
nished heads." Sagacious, penetrating, indefatigable, fertile ia 
expedients, boundless in resources, this extraordinary maB, who 
maintained himself in a constant course 6f victoriesi (this is suffi- 
ciently clear even from Llvy*s prejudiced narrative,) with an in- 
feriour army, in the heart of an enemy's country, would haf« 
turned with contempt and horrour from the celebrated muideieii 
of the continent, who coolly calculate how many men they can 
afford to sacri6ce^ and by impelling forward whole nations to 
slaughter, weaiy out their less numerous antagonists. 

Veh. 229. a ring $haUyidd! — ] Such was the end 

of Hannibal : the Romans, who never thought themsehres secure 
while he lived, no sooner heard that he had taken shelter at the 
court of Prusias, than they sent Q. Flarointus to demand htm* 
Hannibal, who was well acquainted with the weakness of the 

SATIIB X. JUVENAL. V. ajo— 239, 327 

G09 madman, go ! at toil and danger mocki 
Pierce the deep snow, and scale the eternal rock, 
To please the rhetoricians, and become 
A DECLAMATION for the boys of Rome! 

One world the ambitious Youth of Pella found 
Too small ; and toss*d his feverish limbs aroundf 
And gasp*d for breath, as if confined the while^ 
Unhappy prince ! in Gyarae's rocky isle : 
But, entering Babylon, found ample room 
Within the narrow limits of a tomb .* 

Bythinian princeyand determined to die free, saw no other resource, 
but swallowing poison ; which, to be prepared against the worst, 
he always carricMl with him in the hollow of a ring ! 
Hannibal might have asked, with Arbaces : 

** Why should you that have made me stand in war 

** Like fate itself, cutting what threads I pleas'd,. 

*^ Decree such an unworthy end to me, 

" And all my glories i" King and no King. 

Van. QS7^ • in Gpara^t rocky isie:] 

** Ut Gyarae dausus scopulis, parvaque Seripho/' 

As these places are frequently mentioned by Juvenal, it may be 
necessary, once for all, to observe, that they were bare and rocky 
islands in the ^ean sea, to which offenders were sometimes ba- 
aished, and generally in the worst of cases. The inhabitants of 
these little spots were despised, Gibbon says, *^ for their ignorance 
and obscurity :'' they should rather have been pitied for their 
wretchedness. Stratonicus, who was sent to the former of them 
(Gyane) for defiunation, found himself so uncomfortable there, 
diat he one day asked his host what crime was punished with 
exile in his country } the man said, perjury. ** Why dost thou 
not forswear thyself then," replied Stratonicus, '< to be dismissed 
from this accursed place ^'' 

Hall has a fine allusion to the next verse : 

<* Fond fool ! six feet shall serve for all thy store, 
** And he that cares for most, shall find no more/' 

What harmonious monosyllables ! but this is surpassed by that 

328 SATIRE X. JUVENAL, v. 040—143. 

Death, the great teacher, Death alone proclaims 
The true dimensions of our puny frames. * • 

The daring tales in Grecian story found, 
Were once believed : — of Athos saii'd around, 

beautiful and pathetick apostrophe of Prince Henry to the lifeless 
remains of Hotspur : 

" • Fare thee well, great heart ! 

" Ill-weav'd ambition, how niuch art thou shrunk ! 
** When that this body did contain a spirit, 
** A kingdom for it was too small a bound ; 
*' But now, two paces of the vilest earth 
" Is room enough ! 

The reader of taste and feeling will thank me for adding, from 
Shirley, the following exquisite allusion to the same passage : 

^* Does this enclose his coips ? How little room 

** Do we take up in death, that, living, know 

'' No bounds ! Here^ without murmuring, we can 

" Be circumscribed :— it is the soul, that makes us 

** Affect such wanton and irregular paths ; 

** When that's gone, we are quiet as the earth, 

" And think no more of wandering." The IFedding* 

Ver. 242. The daring talcs in Grecian story found y SfcJ] The 
quicquid Gracia mendax^ says the translator of Herodotus, (applied 
by Juvenal to the Greek Historian,) " partakes more of insolence 
than justice." Gillies, too, terras it " downright impiidence." 
By m\f troth. Gossip, these be bitter "words : and the former adds, 
•* it is not perhaps very extravagant to affirm, that Livy has more 
prodigies than ull the Greek historians together." Perhaps not ; 
and if Juvenal had been called upon to give his opinion of them, 
he would, I presume, have delivered it with very little ceremony. 
But he is not on the subject of prodigies hero, nor, as far i can 
see, of Herodotus: he is speaking of Sostratus, a poet, says the 
old Scholiast, (who knows nothing of the matter,) that wrote the 
campaigns of Xerxes. After all, I do not mean to apologize for 
his hesitation respecting the vagaries of the Persian prince, nor 
for the incredulity with which he treats ** the daring tales of 
Greece" in general. There can, I think, be no doubt with any 
rational person, but that most of the circumstances of this famous 
expedition aire either fabricated by the Greeks, or grossly exag- 
gerated. As far indeed as relates to circumnavigating Athos, 
(next to chaining the waves, the most absurd of all exploits, 
iince even Herodotus allows that the fleet might have been 
dragged over-Ian.d with infinitely less pains,) I am somewhat in- 

SATIRE jc. JUVENAL. V. 244-**255. 329 

Of fleets, that bridges o*er the waves supplied, 
Of chariots, rollidg on the'stedfast tide, 
Of lakes exhausted, and of rivers quaft, 
By countless nations, at a morning's draught. 
And all that Sostrdtus so wildly sings, 
Besotted poet, of the king of kings. 

But how returned he? siiy ; this soul of fire, 
That scourged the winds in his impatient ire ; 
That shackles o'er the tarth^shaking Neptune 


And thotight it lenient — not to brand him too I 
Say, how retum'd he ? All his navy lost, 
In a small bark he fled the fatal coast, 

<rliued to think Sostratm correct ; since not only Thucydides, 
-^nus instar omnium, but Plato, Lysias, Diodorus» and others speak 
ofit, as an undoubted fact. The wonder is, that a matter so easy 
.to ascertain, should ever have been a subject of dispute. Yet it 
was and is : this is sufficient for Juvenal. 

Modem travellers can find no traces of this work, and therefore 
discredit the story. ' But they do not reflect on the size of the an- 
cient ships. A canal somewhat less than that of Blackwall would 
be s<jfficient for them ; and yet even that, if neglected, would be 
completely filled up in a few centuries. 

Ver. 253. And thought it lenietit-^^^cJ] I like the caution of 
Herodojtus on this occasion. The good old man, with all the cre- 
dulity of his countrymen, had little of their vanity, and none of 
their propensity to falsehood. '• He had heard (»f brands too," 
he says ; but he does not take upon hims-elf to answer for them : 

Ver. 254. .SVi^, how returned he ?] Here again the author in- 
terrupts the couise of his satire by an impertinent question: Huic 
quisnam wUet servire deorum ? What gpii would not be proud to 
serve such a man ? — the ridicule of which is, at once, mean and 
obvious : it afFects, besides, the spirit of the (passage. 

Ver. 255. In a sffiall bark SfcJ] Eratres spectarulo digna, et 
cestimatione sortis humance, rerum varictate miranda, in rxiguo 
lot en tern videre natigiOf quem paulo ante vix (equor omne capicifat, 
JfC. Just. Lib. II. c. 13. 

330 sATiRB X. JUVENAL, v. 256~265. 

And forced a tardy passage through the flood. 
Choked with bis slaughtered troops, and red with 

So Xerxes sped, so speed the conquering race ; 
They catch at glory, and they clasp disgrace ! 
•*Life! length op life I" For this, with 
earnest cries, 
Or sick or well, we supplicate the skies. 
Pernicious prayer ! for mark, what ills attend 
Still on the old, as to the grave they bend : 
A ghastly visage, to themselves unknown, 
For a smooth skin, a hide with scurf o'ergrown, 

ViR. 260. ** Life ! lexoth of life ! SfcJ'] 

*fl( vtitt aycAo9f hfcx^f^ ^ veXX' ixiK 

Vbk. 264. J ghastly visage 4*c.] In this striking description of 
-old age, Juvenal seems to hare thought of a passage in Crates, 
thus admirably rendered by Mr. Cumberland : 

<' Hard choice, for man to die*— or else to be 

<* That tottering, wretchedy wrinkled, thing you see. 

'' Age then we all prefer ; for age we pray, 

*< And travel on to life's last lingering day ; 

^ Then sinking slowly down from worse to worse, 

'' Find heaven's extorted boon our greatest curse.** 

Bui indeed the idea is sufficiently obvious, and has had good 
Ihil^ said on it in every age ; here is one of them : 

** ■ I Some comfort 

'< We have in dropping early — we expire, 

** And not without men's {Nty; to live still, 

<< Have their good wishes; tlius> too, we prevent 

*< The loathsome misery of age, beguile 

'* The gout and rheum, that in lag hours attend 

*< For grey approachers." — Two Nobk Kmmm. 


*^ For as our age increases, so vexations, 

** Grie& of the mind, pains of the feeble body, 

lATiXB X. JUVENAL* V. a66— a77« 331 

And such a flabby cheek, as an old ape, 

In Tabraca*s thick woods, might baply scrape. 

Strength, beauty, and a thousand charms beside, 
With sweet distinction, youth from youth divide ; 
While age presents one universal face : 
A faultering voice, a weak and trembling pacet 
An ever-dropping nose, a forehead bare, 
And toothless gums to mump its wretched fare. 
Poor wretch ! behold him, in the dregs of life, 
So loathsome to himself, his children, wife^ 
That those who hoped the legacy to share, 
And flatter'd long, disgusted disappear. 

** Rheums, coughs, catarrhs — ^we're bat our living coffins; 
<« Besides, the fair soul's old too." JFifefor a Mtmik. 

And Spenser, in a stansa of surpassing beauty, 

'* O why do wretched men so much desire 

** To draw their days unto the utmost date, 

** And do not rather wish them soon expire; 

** Knowing the mberies of their estate, 

*^ And thousand perils which them stiU awate, 

** Tossing them like a boat amid the mayne : 

** That every hour they knock at Deathe'ls gate ; 

** And he that happiest seems, and least in payne, 

** Yet is as nigh his end, as he that most doth playne.^ 

Ver. 267. In Tabraca'4, 4*c.] ** A city in the maritime part of 
Lybia,*' the Scholiast says, ** near which b a thick wood abound* 
ing in apes." It is probably the modem Tunb. Stfabo quotes an 
entertaining. passage from rosidonius, respecting the vast number 
of those animals which he saw there, and with whose gambols he 
was entertained in his voyage along the Lybian coast 

VsR. 274. Poor wretch! behold him, in the dregs ofUfe^ 

So loathsome ^-cJ] This is illustrated by a pretty 
quatrain in the Anthologia : 

£k o{i; TfivrtTM ruro ro ^i mtoui rov* 
'Ovrtt^ ttvJMtf'dK Toy SAoi Cioy« ik C«3v ^ iX9irv» 

332 SATIRE X. JUVENAL, v. 278— 3or. 

The sluggish palate duU*d, the feast no more 
Excites the same sensations as of yore ; 
Taste, feeling, all, a universal blot, 
*And even the rites of love remember'd not : 
Or if, — through the long night he feebly strives 
To raise a flame where not a spark survives ; 
While Venus marks the effort with distrust, 
And hates the gray decrepitude of lust. 

Butlo! another loss ; the warbling quire, 
Though famed Seleucus sing, no joys inspire ; 
The sweetest airs escape him ; and the lute, 
That thrills the general ear, to him is mute» 
He sits, perhaps, too distant : bring him near ; 
Alas ! 'tis still the same : he scarce can hear 
The deep-toned horn, the trumpets clanging 

And the loud blast that shakes the benches round. 
Even at his ear, his boy, to name the hour. 
Or friends arrived, must shout with all his power. 

Add that a fever scarcely warms his veins, . 
And thaws the little blood which yet remains; 
That ills of every kind, and every name, 
Rush in, and seize the unresisting frame. 
Ask you how many? I could sooner say 
How many drudges Hippia kept in pay. 

Ver. 298. That ills (f every lind, ^c] So Piautus, but more 

** ' ut setas mala merx, mala est tcrgo ! 

" Nam res plurimas pessumas, cum advcnii, alllTty 
'' Quas si autumem omncis, nimis lungus sermo sit." 

Menach. A, v. 5. ii. 

SATUE X. , JUVENAL. V. 3o>*^27« 333 

How many wards by Hirrus were undonci 
How many patients kilFd by Themison ; 
How many men by Maura — nay, record 
How many villas call my quondam barber lordi 

These their shrunk shoulders, those their hams 
bemoan ; 
This hath no eyes, and envies that with one ; 
This a sad spectacle of pity stands, 
Helpless and weak, and fed by others* hands ; 
While that, accustomed, at the sight of food, 
To stretch his jaws, gapes like the callow brood 
Of Progne, when, distributing supplies, 
From bill to bill the fasting mother flies. 

But other ills, and worse, succeed to those : 
His limbs long since were gone ; his memory goes. 
Poor driveller I he forgets his servants quite, 
Forgets, at mom, with whom he supp*d at night ; 
Forgets the children he begot and bred ; 
And makes a strumpet heiress in their stead : 
So much avails it the rank arts to use, 
Cain'd by long practice in the loathsome stews ! 

But grant his senses unimpair'd remain ; 
Still woes on woes succeed^ a mournful train ! 
He sees his sons, his daughters all expire, 
His faithful consort on the funeral pyre. 
Sees brothers, sisters, friends, to ashes turn. 
And all he loved, or loved him, in their urn* 

Vkr. 315. ihefuting mother ^c] This prett/ 

picture of maternal solicitude. is literally from Homer : 

334 tAT»fX» JUVENAL. ▼•328— 341* 

Lo here, the dreadful fine wt ever pay, 
For life protracted to a distant day ! 
To see our house by sickness, pain, pursued. 
And scenes of death incessantly renew'd: 
In sable weeds to waste the joyless years, 
And drop at last mid solitude and tears ! 

The Pyiian*s (if we credit Homer^s page) 
Was only second to the rayen*8 age. 
** O happy, sure, beyond the common rate, 
** Wlio warded o£f so long the stroke of fate ! 
'^ Who told his years by centuries, who so oft 
•* Quaff *d the new must ! O happy, sure" — ^But, 
This ** happy" man of destiny complained, [soft. 
Gurs*d his gray hairs, and every god arraigned ; 

Vkr. 328. Lo hert, the dreadful fne 4^.] ** These," exclaims 
poor Swift, in the midst of his agonizing fears for Stella's death, 
«' These are the perquisites of living long : the last act of life is 
always a tragedy at bes^; hut it is. a bitter aggravation, to have 
one's best friends go before one/' 

Ver. 338. JVho told his years by centurieSf} — swsjamdextra 
eomjmiai omiof, told his years on his right hand. The ancients 
had a way of numbering with their fingers ; they reckoned on the 
left hand as far as' a hundred, and '^ all above,'' says Madan, *' on 
the right." This is not correct ; for after a certain number, on 
which the crilicks are not agreed, they returned to the left 
Kestor, we see, was got to the right hand ; but I find mention 
made of an old lady, in the Anthologia, who had travelled back 
to the left, and consequently far surpassed him in years : « 

Holyday has a very long note on this subject, which he illus- 
trates by a curious table, showing the difierent inflections of the 
fingers, and positions of the hands necessary to produce the requi- 
site numbers : as a whole it is tedious^ but it may be consulted 
with great advantage. 

•ATXRBau JUVENAL, v.s^jt— $59. 335 

What time he lit the pyre, with streaming eyes, 
And round his son saw the dark flames arise. 
*' Tell me/' he cried, with wild, distracted air, 
'^ Ye faithful friends, who these sad duties share, 
*^ What monstrous crimes have roused the Al- 
mighty's hate, 
^* That thus, in vengeance, he protracts my date T* 

So question'd heaven Laertes, Peleus so ; 
Their hoary heads bow'd to the grave with woy 
WhileThis bewail'd his son, at Ilium slain, 
That his, long wandering o*er the faithless main. 

While Troy yet flourished, had her sovereign 
With what solemnity, what funeral pride, [died, 
Had he descended, every duty paid. 
To old Assaracus, illustrious shade ! — 
Hector himself, bedew'd with many a tear. 
Had jom*d his brothers to support the bier ; 
And Troy's dejected dames, a numerous train, 
Followed, in sable pomp, and wept amain, 

Vbh. 343. What time he lit the pyre^ 4*^-1 Our author had 
Propertius in view here ; he has, however, improved upon him : 

'* Non ille Antilochi vidisset corpus huroati : 

** Diceret aut, O Mors, cur mihi sera venis ?" Ub, ir. 13* 

It was the melancholy duty of the nearest relation of the de* 
ceased, to apply the first torch to the funeral pile. 

Ver. 356. Hector himself, Spc.} This picturesque passage de- 
tails the funeral ceremonies of the Eastern nations, with whom, as 
customs are little exposed to change, they obtain at this day, 
much as they did in the age of Priam. The body is usually car- 
ried by the sons ; while the daughters, (followed by a long train 
of femides, sometimes brought together by affection, but more 
commonly hired for the purpose,) break out, at stated periods, 
into piercing lamentations, which are instantly taken up, and re* 
echoed by the whole procession. It is a solemn and an affecting 

336 SATIRE X. JUVENAL. V. 360—375. 

As sad Polyxena^ her garments rent, 
And wild Cassandra, led the loud lament; 
Had he but fali'n, ere his adulterous boy 
Spread his bold sails, and left the shores ofTroyv 

But what did lengthened life avail the sire? 
To see his realm laid waste by sword and fire. 
Then too, too iate, the feeble soldier tried 
Unequal arms, and flung his crown aside ; 
Totter*d the murderer of his son to meet, 
Aud fell, before Jove^s altar, at his feet, 
Like a lean ox, that, old and useless now, 
Is spurn'd to slaughter, from the ungrateful plough! 
His end, however, was human ; while his wife 
Drain*d, in a bitch's form, the dregs of life. 

I pass, while hastening to the Roman page. 
The Pontick king, and Croesus, whom the Sage 

Ver. 373. DraifCd, in a bitch's form, ^.] So Plautus: Non 
iu scist ^c. 

Me, Hark ye, my mistress I do you know why Greece 
'Feign'd Hecuba was turned into a bitch ? 

/Fom Nut I, indeed. 

Me. I'll tell you then; because 
She rail'd and raved at every one she met. 
As you do now, — and therefore wils she call'd* 
And rightly call'd, a bitch. Menac. Jc. y. Sc. i. 

V ER. 375. the Sage] Solon. The slory to wbick 

Juvenal alludes is to be found in Herodotus. It bad already fu»» 
nished Ovid with some fine lines : 

«« I scilicet ultima semper 

' *^ Expectanda dies homini, diciqoe beatus 
** Ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet." 

Unless he may be thought to have borrowed them from the termi- 
nation of that pathetick and beautiful speech, which conclufles thi^ 
CEdipus Tj'rannus : 

SloTif Syirror oirT, fxi^i^y rssy riXivraiav thiw 


^ATi«B X. JUVENAL; v. 376^389. 337 

Wiseljr forbad in fortane to coafide, 
Or take tibe name of happy tril he died. 

Tihat MarifliS) exiled fron his native plains, 
Was hid in £etts, dispover'd, bound in chains ; 
That, bursting these, to Africa he fled, [bread, 
And, throogh the t>eaims hre«conquer'd, begg'd his 
Arose from age, from treacherous age alone : 
for what had Roue or earth so happy known, 
Had hcb in tAiat iblest Hioment, ceased to live. 
When, graced with all that Victory could give, 
^^ Pride, pomp, and cincumstance of glorious war. 
He first alighted from his Cimbrian car i 

Campania, prescient of her Pompey's fate^ 
Sent a kind &v«r to arrest his date : 

Ver. 378. That MariuSt exiled 4^.] The particslars iii tlis 
text are copied from Paterculas. The example, indeedy is less 
happily chosen than that of Sejanus ; for though the mutability 
ef nrtvne in his case was singular and extreme, yet his end was 
IsvCnnate^ Lucan has noticed it in Ids best manner : 

*' Die fuit vitae Mario modus, omnia passo 

** Qum pejor fortuna potest, atque omnibus uso 

** Quae melior, mensoque, homiui quid fata pararent.'' 

Stapylton says that *^ the Mintiirnian fens, in which Marius lay 
hid, were in Switaerland !'' tor this a c cmate piece of topography 
he was indebted to the old Scholmt. The spot, however, lies on 
the right hand of the ferry of the Garigliano, a^ you go from 
Rome to Naples. 

y«a. ses. Campaniaj prescient rfker Pompey's Jkte, ijrc.] This 
too, it to be found in Paterculas; but Juvenal was more imme- 
diately indebted for it, as well as for the story of Priam in a 
former fMge, to that store-house of ethical and moral wisdom, the 
Tusculan Questions ; there the two examples foUow each other, 
and we shall see that our author has not only adopted the drciiin* 
stances, but the words of Cicero : Priftnmm autem tantaprogcMK 
orbatumf cum in aram confugisset, hostUis manus interemit* • J^ic 
si vivisJiliiSf incolumi regnOf occidisut^ utrum tandem a boniSf an a 
maUs discessiss€i f turn ptrfeeto vidcretur 41 baniSf ^c. He then 

238 SATIRE X. JUVENAL, v.390— 405^ 

When lo ! a thousaDd suppliant altars rise. 

And publick vows obtain hinfi of the skies. 

Ill done ! that head, thus rescued from the grave. 

Was mangled by a vile Egyptian slave: — 

Cethegus scaped this mutilation dire, 

And Catiline, though vanquish*d, sunk entire. - 

Whene'er the faae of Venus meets her eye, 
The anxious mother breathes a secret sigh 
For handsome boys ; but asks, with bolder prayer. 
That all her girls be exquisitely fair ! 
** And wherefore, not ? Latona, in the sight 
** Of Dian's beauty, took unblamed delight.'* 
True ; but Lucretia cursed her fatal charms, 
When spent with struggling in a Tarquin's arms ; 
And poor Virginia would have changed her grace, 
Por Rutila*s crook'd back, and homely face. 

subjoins, Pomp^o nostro famUiari, cum gra/oiter ttgroiaret Net^ 

poli virum igitur^ si turn etset extincius^ a honk rebus^ an m 

malis discc8siss€t ? certe a miseik Qui si mortem tiim obiismif 

in ampUssimisfortunis occidisset ; is propagatione vUoc quotf^qtuuUas^ 
quam incredihiles hausit calamitates f Lib. i* 

Vee. 393. Was mangled by ^c.j 

" Hoc juris habebat 


** In tantum fortuna caput!' 

The strange notion of the ancients, that their wounds and muti- 
lations followed them to the other world, filled them with inex- 
pressible horrour at the idea of being dismembered in this. Sue- 
tonius tells usy that the last and most earnest request of the 
wretched Nero to his few followers was, that his head might not be 
severed from his body» but that he might be burnt entire, totns 
cremareiur. Nero, 4*9. 

Ver. 400. ■ Latona^ in the sight 

" Of Dian's beauty^ took unblamed delight^ An al* 
lusion to Homer, 

y%yf^% i% Ti f f iv» Amr»f x« n •• 

SATIRE X. JUVENAL. V. 406 — ^417. 339 

** But boys may still be fair ?" No, they destroy 
Their parents* peace, and murder all their joy ; 
For rarely do we meet, in one combined, 
A beauteous body and a virtuous mind, 
Though, thro the rugged house, from «ire to son, 
A Sabine sanctity of manners run. 
Besides, should Nature, in her kindest mood^ 
Confer the ingenuous flush of modest blood, 
The disposition chaste as unsunn'd snow — 
(And what can nature more than these bestow, 
These, which no art, no care can give?) — even then, 
They cannot hope, they must not, to be men ! 

Ver. 416. ■ ■ ■ even theth 

They cannot hopcf they must not, ta be men /] It is to 
the praise of Domitian, -(alas 1 for Trajan,) that die mutilation of 
boys was prohibited daring his reign. 

Nunc, says Statius very finely, 

** nunc frangere sexum 

*^ A-tque hominem routilare nefas, gavisaque solos 
^' Quos genuit, Nature videt V 

Some of Martial's best epigrams are on this subject ; the fol- 
lowing lines bear a close resemblance to the text : 

** Non puer avari sectus arte mangonis 

'' Virilitatis damna mceret ereptae : 

'' Ncc quam superbus computet stipem leno, 

*' Dat prostituto misera mater infant]/' Lib, ix. 7» . 

As do these ; 

<< Jam cunae lenonis erant> ut ab ubere raptus 

*^ Sordida vagttu posceret sra pues. 
** Immature daban^ iniandas corpora pcenas, &c/' 

I ha?e given credit, with Amm. Marcell. and others, to Do- 
niitian for this humane and salutary restriction. Xiphilinus, how- 
ever, will not allow this solitary sprig to decorate his brows ; he 
says that he did it to insult the memory r>f his brother, whom, as 
well as his father, he had a perverse pleasure in counteracting on 
all occasions : Ken iia rtrro, xeumt^ xai wH^^ £«£irtf tivo; wvhx/h *^U 

340 SATIRE X. JUVENAL, t. 4x8—407. 

Smit with their charms, the imps of hell appear^ 

And pour their proffers in a parent's ear 

For prostitution ! — ^infamously bold» 

And trusting to the almighty power of gold : 

While youths in shape and air less form*d to pleas^ 

No tyrants mutilate, no Neros seize. 

Go noW) and triumph in your beauteous boy. 
Your Ganimede ! whom other ills annoy, 
And other dangers wait : hb graces known. 
He stands professed) the favourite of the town ; 
And dreads, incessant dreads, on every hand. 
The fierce revenge a husband's wrongs demand: 
For sure detection follows soon or late, 
Born under Mars, he cannot scape his fate» 
Oft on the adulterer too, the furious spouse 
Inflicts wors^ evils than the law allows ; 
By blows, stripes, gashes some are robb'd of breath, 
And others by the mullet rack'd to death. 

" But my Endymion will more lucky prove, 
" And serve a beauteous mistress, all for love." 

fv» ixiiytf vCpiiy fAn^fVA ir» IV tvt rvf TvftAuiw mfx^ annfMtffdm. Ubm 
IXVIX. § 2. 

Ver. 432. Oft on the adulterer too^ the Juriotu spouse 

Jflfiicti vorx evils 4^.] See many instaaces of thb in 
Val. MaximuSy lib. vi. c. 1, § 13. With respect to tbe pumsbment 
mentioned in the next iine» (the being clyetered, att Holyrlay ex* j 
presses it, with a mullet,) it was allowed by no written law ; but 
seems to have been an old and approved method of gratif^'ing 
private vengeance. 

One of the commentators (Isidorus) thinks the fish was selected 
for this singular purpose, on account of its anti-venereal proper- 
ties ; but he confounds the mugilis with the muUus* 

SATiR£ X. JUVENAL. V. 438—457. 341 

No ; he will soon to ugliness be sold, 
And serve a toothless grandam, all for gold. 
Servilia will not lose him ; jewels, clothes. 
All, all she sells, and all on him bestows ; 
For women nought to the dear youth deny, 
Or think his labours can be bouorht too hig-h : 
When love's the word, the naked sex appear, 
And every niggard is a spendthrift here. 

" But if my boy with virtue be endued, 
** Whatharmwill beauty dohim?" Nay, what good^ 
Say, what avail'd, of old, to Theseus* son, 
The stern resolve ? what, to Bellerophon ? — 
O, then did Phaedra redden, then her pride ' 
Took fire, to be so stedfastly denied ! 
Then, too, did Sthenoboea glow with shame. 
And both burst forth with unexampled flame ! 
A woman scorn*d is pitiless as fate, 
For then the dread of shame adds stings to hate. 

But Silius comes ; — now be thy judgment tried : 
Shall he accept^ or not, the profier*d bride, 

Ver.448. Sat/yWhatavaiTd^ of old, to Theseus* son, 4 c.] The 
mdventures of Hippolitus and Bellerophon are well known. They 
were accused of incontinence, by the women whose inordinate pas- 
•ioiu they had refused to gratify at the expense of their duty ; and 
iacnficed to the fatal credulity of the husbands of the disappointed 
lair ones. Jt is very probable that both the stories are founded 
on the Scripture account of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. 

Ver. 456. ButSUius co»i«;— ^-c] Tacitus agrees with Ju- 
Trnal. << The gnces of the form and manners of this young man 
(Cains SUius) were highly celebrated. That Messalina might 
enjoy her fovourite without a rival, she obliged him to repudiate 
his wife Junia Silana, a lady of noble birth. Silius was neither 
blind to the magnitude of the crime of marrying the empress, nor 
to the danger of not compl^ng. On the whole, however, he 

34* sATiRix. JUVENAL. ▼. 458—474- 

And marry Gxsar*s wife ? hard point, in truth : 

Lo, this most nohle, this most beauteous youth. 

Is hurried off, a helpless sacrifice 

To the lewd glance of Messalina*s eyes ! 

— ^Now bring the victim : In the nuptial vest 

Already see the impatient Empress drest. 

The genial couch prepared, the accustomed sum 

Told out, the augurs, and the notaries come. 

•' But why all these ?" You think, perhaps, the rit« 

Were better, known to few, and kept from sight : 

Not so the lady ; she abhors a flaw, 

And wisely calls for every form of law. 

But what shall Silius do ? refuse to wed ? 

A moment sees him number*d with the dead. 

(Consent ? he lives but till the story, clear "^ 

To town ^nd country, reach the Emperours ear, \ 

Still sure the last his house's shame to hear. 3 

resolved to hazard the future consequences; and enjoy the present 
moment," Ann. xi. 12. 

Ver. 462. In ike nuptial vest 

Already see the impatient Empress Jrest,] Here is no 
exaggeration : ali passed precisely as our author describes it* 
The folly and enormity of the transaction seem to have struck 
Suetonius, and yet more Tacitus, with astonishment. — " That a 
Consul elect, 'and the wife of an empcrour, on a day appointed, 
should dare to affront the publick eye, and sign a contract with 
express provision for the issue of an unlawful marriage, will hai#ly 
gain credit with posterity : still less, that the Empress should hear 
the ceremony pronounced by the augurs, and in her turn repeat 
the words; that she should join in a sacrifice to the gods, take 
her place at the nuptial banquet, exchange caresses, &c. But 
the facts here related are well attested by writers at that period, 
and by grave and elderly men, who lived at the time, and were 
informed of every circumstance." Tack, Ann. xi. 27. 

Ver. 474. Still sure the last, ^c] This is an allusion to the 
«ottish stupidity of Claudius, who ^as with great difficulty per* 

SATIRE X. JUVENALp V. 475— 484* 343 

Then let him, if a day's precarious life 
Be worth his study, make the dame his wife; 
For wed or not, poor youth, *tis still the same. 
And still the axe must maogle that fair frame ! 

Say then, shall man, deprived all power of choice. 
Ne'er raise to Heaven the supplicating voice ? 
Not so ; but to the gods his fortunes trust: 
Their thoughts are wise, their dispensations just. 
What best may profit or delight they know, 
And real good for fancied bliss bestow : 

suaded to credit the report of Messalina's infamy^ afier it had 
been long notorious to all the world ; and with greater still, in« 
duced to issue the final orders for her punishment. 

Ver. 479. Say thcn^ must man^ Spc.'] We are now drawing 
towards the end of this divine Satire, which finishes in a manner 
highly worthy of the grave and solemn dignity with which il has. 
been hitherto conducted. As the author has so clearly proved, 
that those ideal advantages which we commonly make the subject 
of our petitions, are too often dangerous and destructive ; the 
conclusioDy that we should leave the granting or withholding of 
them to an unerring and gracious providence, is at once rational 
and pious. 

Chaucer has some pleasing lines on the subject : 

Alas, why playnen men so in commune 
Of purveyance of God, or of fortune, 
That yeveth hem full oft in many a gise, 
<^ Well bette than hem selfe can devise !" 

Knight's Tale. . 
And Spenser, 

*^ In vaine, said then old Melibee, do< men 
*' Th^ heavens of their fortunes fault accuse ; 
** Sith they l^now b^, what is the best for them— . 
** For, they to each such fortune doe diffuse 
<* As they do knowe. each can most aptly use. 
** For, not that, which men covet most» is best, 
*^ t^or that thing worsti which men doe most refuse : 
*^ But fittest is, that all contented rest 
'^ With that they hold : each hath his fortune in his brest."* 

344 sATiRi'Xi JUVEllAL. t.4%~5at^ 

With eyes of pity they our fi'aHfies scaw. 
More dear to them, than to himseir, is man. 
By blind desire^ by headldng passion driven. 
For wife and heirs^ we dftiiy weary Heaven ; 
Yet still 'tis Heaven^s prerogative to know^ 
If heirs, or wife, wiU bring us weal or wo. 

But, that thou mayst (for still 'tis good to prove 
Our humble hope) ask something from above ; 
Thy pious offerings to the temple bear, 
And, while the altars blaze, be this thy prayer ; 

O THOU, who know'st the wants of human 
Vouchsafe me health of body, health of mind ; 
A soul prepared to meet the frowns of fate. 
And look undaunted on a future state ; 
That reckons death a blessing, yet can bear 
Existence nobly, with its weight of care ; 
That anger and desire alike restrains, 
And counts Alcides' toils, and cruel pains^ 
Superiour far to banquets, wanton nights^ 
And all Sardanapalus* soft delights ! 

V£a. 491. Butt that thou $na^ (for stiU 'tis good to pmc 

Our humble hope) €uk ^-c] ** Tbough the deity i? 
inclined/' says Owen, ** by his own benignity to bless his crea* 
tares, yet he expects the outJward expressious of devotion from 
the rational part of them*" This is certainly what Juvenal Bieans 
to inculcate: hence his eameet reeomniendatioii of a due ttgud 
to the pttblick and ceremonial part of reliant 
;T^ It is lamentable to see Dryd^ tuning a solemn- admoaltion ta 
-^ pay those external marks of vespect which oM dependeal beings 
owe to the Creator, into one of those trite ai|d aeaseksa soeerr 
at the priesihood, which were ll^e scaadd of' k^ own tiities, and 
Are the disgrace of ours. 


MtntB X. JUVEMAL. r. 505—508. 345 

Here boundi at length, thy wishes. I but teach, 
What blessings man by his omoi powers may reach. 
The path to peace is virtue. We should see, 
If wise, O Fortune, nought divine in thee : 

Veu. 505. ■ ■ ■ I have shorson ^c] This has 

been thought to savour of the sufficiency of Stoicism, but without 
reason; since it must, in fiiirness, be . restnctcd tp the independ- 
«nce of the wise and virtuous man <ui fortune. Wisdom and 
virtue, indeed, Juvenal ttiought, with the rest of the heathen 
world, that men could attain by their o^n exertions ; but there 
were some at Rome, as Madan finely observes, ot that time, who 
could have taught him, that every goojd gift, and evert 


I cannot conclude without noticing an observation of Mr. Gib- 
bon on this Satire. After bestowing great, and indeed just praise 
^n its design and execution, he adds : *^ A propos des dieux^ je 
rcmarque cetie indecitiany SjfC. I remark in Juvenal that want of 
decision with res|>ect to the gods, which is so common amongst 
the ancients. This moment nothing can be more pious, more 
philosophical, than his resignation and his faith ; the next, our 
own wisdom is sufficient for us, and prudence alone supplies the 
place of all the divinities." And this was written by a sneerer a| 
Bevelation ! I am not he '* that judgeth another man's servant," 
but methinks, if one rose from the dead, he could not evince the 
superiority of the pious and humble believer, over the bewildered 
yet confident infidel, by stronger arguments than are here adduced 
by this extraordinary man, who had eyes and saw hot ! 

Ver. 508. Fortune ! no divinitjf in theCy 

Were wisdom ours ; 4rc.] So Tasso, 


sovente awien che '1 saggio e '1 forte 

'* Fabbro a se stesso ^ di beate sorte." 

Thus rendered by Fairfax in his admirable translation, with an 
eye, perhaps, to our author : 

" They jnake their fortunes, who are stout and wise, 
** Wit rules the heavens, discretion guides the skies." 

And Higgins more at lax^e : 

*^ Tis said a wise man all mishaps withstands ; 
** For though by storms we borne to mischiefs are, 

34.6 SATIRE X. JUVENAL, v. 509*— 510. 

fiu t we have deified a name alone. 

And fix'd in heaven thy visionary throne ! 

^' Yet grace and prudence bayle our careful bands ; 
*^ Each maoy they say, his fate hath in his haads, 
^* And what he marres, or nuikes to leese, or save, 
" Of good or ill, is ev'n self doe, self have." 

Mirr, qfMagisC, 



This Satire consists principally of an invitation to PersicuSf tke 
poet's friend^ to spend the day with him ; but it is made tke vckicU 
ffmuch valuable information^ and much amusing description. 

It begins with a severe invective against a person of' the Eques* 
trian Order, (here called Rutilud^) who had wasted his property im 
riot and profusion; and from whose reduced and miserable state 
Juvenal takes occasion to draw many admirable maxims for tke due 
regulation of life. These introduce^ with sufficient propriety^ tke 
little picture afkis ovm domestick economy; wkich is followed by a 
most pleasing view of tke simplicity of ancient manners^ artfully 
contrasted with the extravagance and luxury of the current times. 
He then enters at length into the particulars of his purposed enter* 
tainment^ and concludes witk a spirited description of the scanda^ 
ious excesses practised at tke tables of tke great, and an earnest 
recommendation to kis friend^ to enjoy tke present with content^ and 
Jto await tke future witk calmness and moderation, 

I should imagine this to be one of Juvenal s last works. It has 
all the characteristicks of age : the laudator temporis acti is ever 
foremost in tke scene ; dnd I phase myself witk thinking that timt 
had meUmoed and improved the social feelings of the author. Here 
is indeed muck to be seen of tkose strong and elev^tted passions 
wkick distinguish his earlier writings ; but softer and more amiable 
sentiments kave tkeir turn ; and the narrative old man appears as 
c warm friend, a generous landlord^ and a most kind and affectionate 
master of a family, 

I do not like his guest. He is a morose and suspicious charac* 
ter : sufficiently unhappy, it scems^ in his domestick concerns ; but 
careful about many things, which Juvenal seems to think he had 
better dismiss from his thoughts. 

This Satire has always been fny favourite* A predelection wkich 
I probably derived jrom the friend and patron of my youth ; who 
was so much pleased with it, that he undertook to translate it for 
this work. He had scarcely proceeded, however, to the thirtieth 
line, when he returned it, with an observation that it was " above 
his strength," His death followed immediately after. Had he 
lived, I should probably have suppressed the lines ; now, it seems a 
duty to insert them : I have, however^ taken great pains to assimi* 
late them to tke rest. 



V. I— 10. 

If Atticus in sumptuous fare delight, 
'Tis taste; if Rutilus, -'tis madness quite : 
And what diverts the sneering rabble more 
Than an Apicius miserably poor ? 

In every company, go where you will, 
Bath, forum, theatre, the talk is still 
Of Rutilus : — for, while he now might wield. 
With firm and vigorous arm^ the spear and shield. 
While his full veins beat high with youthful blood, 
Porced by no tribune — yet by none withstood, 

Vek. 4« Than an Jpkiut S^.] Apicias tp- 1^3) was, says 
Stapjlton, *^ so exquisite a glutton, that he wrote a book of 
cookery; and so rich, that he made lUl his experiments at his own 
<x»t.^ Nothing, in life, however, " became him, like the leaving 
of it ;" for, after spending near eight hundred thousand pounds in 
laxuxious UviDg, he poisoned himself, while he had yet fourscore 
thousand pounds left, for lear of wanting a meal 1 

VsR. 10. Farced by no tribune^SfC.'] Juvenal had already ob- 
served, in the eighth Satire, that young men of &mily and fortune 
entered the lists, not^ as formerly, by the compulsion of the reign^ 
iog tyrant; but frpm a priiyaple of depravity. Here he goes 

3SO SATIRE xt. JUVENAL, v. ii — 28, 

He cultivates the gladiat6r*s trade. 
And learns the imperious language of the blade* 
What swarms we see ofthis degenerate kind ! 
Spendthrifts, whom when their creditors would find. 
To shambles and to fish-stalls they repair, 
Sure, though deceived at home, to meet them there. 
These Jive but for their palate ; and of these, 
The mos( distress*d, whik ruin hastes to seize 
The crumbling mansion, and wide-yawning wall. 
Spread richer feasts, and riot as they fall ! 
Meanwhile, ere yet the last supply be spent, 
They search for dainties every element. 
Awed by no price ; nay, making this their boast. 
And still preferring those which cost them most. 
With hearts at ease, thus reckless of their fate, 
To raise a desperate sum, they pledge their plate^ 
Or mother's fractured statue ; to prepare 
Yet one treat more, though but in eaithen ware ! 

further, and insinuates that it is not sufficient for the roagistniteft. 
not to compel men to disgrace themselves ; they ought, as guar- 
djijis of the publick honour, Co do more ; to supply the deficiencj 
or the laws, and prohibit so scandalous a prostitution. 

What he calls the imperious language of the blade, (regia vcrhaf} 
is thought to be the commanding terms used in the schoob of the 
gladiators, such as percute^ urge^ cttdcf 4*c. 

Ver. 27' Or motkir*^ fractured statute; ^c.} Mafris imagme 
jhtcta ; fractured, Lubin say:^, that it might not be known by the 
pawnbroker. Calderinus thinks there is an allusion here to some 
well known story, which is not improbable. There is much poig* 
imncy in the circumstance — of exchanging plate for luxuries to 
be eaten out of earthen dishes ! I» the third Satire, all ranks of 
people aie described as ashamed of it, at Kotae^ JictiUbus canare 
juidei: so that the gluttony of these spendthrifts must have beea 
excessive, to enable them to overcome the prevailing prejudice ia 
so delicate a point. The "mess" mentioned in a subsequent 
line was a particular kind of coarSe and unctuous food, to which 

. 9AritLt\i4 JUVENAL, v. 29— 42« 351 

Then to the fencer's mess they come, of course, 
And mount the scaffold, as a last resource. 

I hate not sumptuous boards ; I only scan. 
When such are spread, the motive^ and the man : 
Here, the profusion damns the beggar's name, 
There, gives the noble just and lasting fame, 
Here, seems the effect of gluttony, and there, 
Of liberal taste, and hospitable care. 
Whip me the fool, who marks how Atlas soars 
0*er every hill on Mauritania's shores, 
Yet sees no difference Hwixt the coffer's hoards, 
And the poor pittance a small purse affords ! 

From heaven came " know thyself I" — Be 
that imprest, 
In lasting characters, upon thy breast, 

gladiators were restricted some time before they were brought out 
to engage. The commentators suppose it to be a mixture of 
cheese and flour; this is also Holyday's opinioDy who terms it 
** a special diet-bread to advantage the combatants at once in 
breath and strength." See Sat. 11. v. 80. 

Ver. 41. From heaven came *' know thtsel? !] This sacred 
maxim, TwSi etavlotf has been attributed to several of the ancients ; 
to Pythagoras, to Thales, and to Chilo. Be whose it may, how- 
ever, it was deemed of such importance as to be inscribed* in gold 
letters, over the portico of the temple at Delphi. Hence, per- 
haps, came the notion, in aftertimes, that it was immediately 
derived from heaven : no improbable conjecture, if we consider 
that it is the foundation of all knowledge ; and little favourable 
to that over-weening self-love which the wisest of the heathens 
cherished, amidst all their professions of humility. 

The comick poets, to whom nothing was sacred, have, of course^ 
^ade free with this ; Menander pleasantly observes. 

To FNnei XATTON, xf^^t^'f*^* r»f «* 

To FNnei TOTr aaaoyz. 

Away with that lamed sente&ce snow thtsblt. 

352 SATIRE xi« JUVENAL, n 4t*r99* 

And still revolved ; whether a* wife thota choosey 
Or to the sacred senate point thyvrews.'^^ 
Or seek'st thou rather, in some doubtful causey 
To vindicate thy counti7*s injured laws ; 
Knock at thy bosom, play the censor's part, 
And note with caption, what and who thou ax% 
An orator of force, of bkili profound, • 
Or a mere Matho, emptiness and sound ! 

Tis not well put; KKow others, to say 
Is a more apt and profitable maxim. 

And to this Le Sage alludes with his usual felicity : *' Lm dt 
fiCexhorUr a ne trtmper pers&rmej tne$ partns dacoknt me ret em* 
tnandcr dene me laisacr dwper/' Gil Bias. 

Vkr. 44. Or to the sacred senate SfC^ Tbe undaunted^ 
spirit which could thus designate the senate io those days of 
tyranny and suspicion, desetveSi at least, to be pmnted oat ! 
There follows in the original, 

«< jjgjj ^jy^ loricam poscit 

^' Thersites, iu qua se traducelmt Uiysaes 
" Aocipitem," 

Nor did Th^rsites at that armour aim, 

To which Ulysses, trembling, urged his claim. 

One of the commentators, (the same, I suspect, who discovereil 
that Sancho's ass was in two places at once,) has detected aa 
errour here. Thcrsitcs, as Appears from the undoubted authority 
of Q. Calaber ! was brained by Achilles ; he could not, therefore, 
\}t present at the contention for his armour. Fatal a»-the ob- 
jection is, I should not have thrown out the passage, had not its 
extreme awkwardness, not to say, uninteltigibility, almost per- 
suaded me, that it was one of thos^ marginal trifles produced by 
the scholiasts, under the idea of illustrating their authoi^ and 
subsequently admitted into the text by a negligent or taateTess 
copyist. ■ 

Ver. 50. Or a mere Mat/io, emptiness and sound /J For Matho 
see Sat. il and vii. Our author is not to be deterred, by the 
altered fortunes of the man, from sneering at him en passmU, 
It is probable, however, that Matho might not feel much hurt at 
a reflectioQ on his unfitness, ioz sl profesfiioA which he had kng 

sATisB XI. JUVENAL. V. 51*-*^. 353 

Yes, KNOW THYSELF : in great concerns, in small. 
Be this thy care, for this, my friend, is all: 
Nor, when thy purse will scarce a gudgeon buy. 
Let thy intemperate taste for turbbts sigh ! 
O think what end awaits thee, timely think, 
If thy throat widen as thy pockets shrink, 
Thy throaty of all thy father's thrift could save, 
Flocks, herds, and fields, the insatiable grave !-^ 
At length, when nought remains a meal to bring, 
The last poor shift, off comes the knightly ring, 
And PoUio now the beggar's boon demands, 
With bated voice, and undistinguish'd hands. 
No fate is premature, no death severe 
To prodigals — gray hairs are all their fear. 
Thus they proceed : they borrow, and apace, 
Waste what is raised, before the lender's face : 

since abandoned, to avoid starving ; especially, after his success 
in his new occupation. 

The character Juvenal gives of Matho is confirmed by Martial, 
who speaks of him (lib. iv. 80) as so pertinacious a bawler, that 
one almost wonders how he fiiiled. 

Ve^. 60. <0' comes the knigktly ringy] Martial 

is very witty on this " knightly ring." A person, whom* he 
chooses to attack under the name of Zoilus, had been raised from 
a state of servitude to knighthoody (no uncommon circumstance 
in those times,) and was determined to mdke the ring> the badge 
of hts new honour, sufficiently conspicuous : 

^' Zoile, quid tota gcmmam prsecingcre libra 
" Te juvat, et miserum pcrdcre sardonycha? 

** Annulus iste tuis fuerat modo cruribus aptus ; 
'^ Non eadem digitis pondera conveiiiunt.'' 

Lib. XT. 38. 

May not something like this have been the case with another 
Zoibis (Crispinus) ? if sq, he might well be unablu (p. 10) to 
bear a ring uf greater weight. 

A a 

3S4 sAtiRi xii JUVENAL. ▼. 6f— !•• 

Thiti, while they yet ftome wretched remnant hold^ 
And the pale tbnrer trembles for his gold. 
They widely sicken for the country air, 
And flock to Baise, Ostia, Jove knows wherfe. — 
For now 'tis held (so rife the evil's gro^n) 
No greater shame for debt to flee the town, 
Than frofal the tfarbng'd Suburra tb remove, 
In ddgdaySj tb the Esquiliah shades above. 
One pangy and one alone^ their bosom knows, 
To qoit — {6r twelve long ihonths, the pnblick 

dhows ! 
Where sleeps the modest blood ! in all our veins^ 
No conscious drop to form a blush remains ; 
Shame, from the town,scom'd,bafi9ed,hastes away» 
And feW) alas ! solicit her to stsly. 

Enough : to day my Persicus shall see 
Whether my precepts with my life agree ; 
Whether with feign'd austerity I prize 
The spare repast, a glutton in disguise ! 
Bawl for coarse pottage, that imy friends may hear. 
But whisper '^ sweetmeats !" in the Servant's ear. 
For i^ince, by promise, you are now my guest. 
Know, I invite you to no sumptuous feast, 

VsR. 85. Bawl for coarae pottage^ 4^.] I can find no better 
term than this for puis. It was a mixture of coarae kneal aildl 
water, seasoned with salt, an^ sometimes enriched with an ^g. 
Our hasty-pudding comes pretty near it ; l)ul has^-pudding, un- 
fortunately,, is rather of an anti-poctick cast rlinv the Elder 
says, it was long the food of the ancient Romans, puUe non pmmt 
mxisse hngo tempore Ilomanos manifestum ; and their descendaots^ 
the poor of Italy, still consume vast quantities of it, under tke 
name oY polaUa^ or macaroni, a tittie improved, indeed, by Uie 
addition of rasped cheese, and itsnever-fiulins attewiant— nmcid 

SATIXIS ^l. JUVgNAt, V. fi9rr-lQ8# 355 

But to spch simple fyre 99 Img, long since, 
The good Ev^n4er h^d^ the Trajw pxincfi: 
Gome then, my FrieQcl, y<ou wjU nojt, &ure, despise 
The food that pleased tW offspring oi* the skies ; 
Gpmep and i^l^fjSiVicy brings pastdn^s to vielw, 
ril thi^Jn mysdf ith^ kipg* -the hero you. 
Take now my .j^j of laiie>* From Tihujr*8 stock 
A kid AhaiU co9ie, th^ fittest of the £ock, 
The t^fidereait too, ^ikI yet too young to broiwse 
The thistkTs ^b^Mts^ ithe wilk>w*s vateny boughs, 
With more of niilk tbanblood ; and pullets drest 
With ^gs yet varm^ and reeking from the iiest ; 
And sperage wUd, which, Icom the mountain's side. 
My houseflsaid l<ft her spindle /lo provide ; 
And gxapf3s lopg kept, yet pulpy «tiU, and fair, 
And the rich Sigiuan and the Syrian pear, 
And applet, that in flavour and in smell, 
The boasted Picene equal, or excel ; 
Nor need you fear, my frien4) their liberal use, 
For age .has mello1^*d and improved their juice. 

Ver. 95. ————— From Tibur's stock 

A kid skaUxomCf 4*^.] Martial has imitated this bill 
of fare iasev^al places, but more particularlj in lib. x. 48. His 
entertainment, however, is more varied, and his guests are more 
numerous. I am not certain that I should not have preferred 
sitting down with the apigrammatbt : the seasoning of his treat i§ 
tery pleasant:*- 


'' Accedent sine felle joci, nee mane timcuda 

** Libertasy et nil quod tacuisse vclis. 
^ Dc Prasino conviva meus, Venetoque ioquatur ; 

'^ Nee facient quenquam pocuU nostra reum.'^ 

This is better than )istenijig to Hoowr and Virgil ; which is no 
bad thiugi neither. 

Aa 2 

356 SATIRE XI* JUVENAL, v. log-^i^^. 

How homely this ! yet once this homely fare 
The senate deem*d it luxury to share ; 
When the good Curius thought it no disgrace, 
0*er a few sticks a little pot to place, 
With roots, which his small garden- plot supplied, 
And which the squalid wretch would now deride. 
Who digs in fetters, and remembers yet 
The tavem*s savoury cheer, with fond regret f 
Time was, when on the rack a man would lay 
The well-dried flitch against a solemn day. 
And think the friends that met, with decent mirth. 
To celebrate the hour which gave him birth, 
On this, and what the sacrifices spared, 
For then the gods were thought of, well had fared. 
Some kinsman, who had three times consul been, 
And general, and dictator, from the scene 
Of business now retired, would gaily haste, 
Before the wonted hour, to such repast. 
Shouldering the spade, that, with no common toil. 
Had tamed the genius of the mdbntain soil^ 
Yes, when the world was filTd with Rome's just 

And Romans trembled at the Fabian name. 
The Scaurah, and Fabrician ; when they saw 
A censor's rigour ev'n his colleague awe, 

Vea. 111. fVhen the good Curius ^c] This good old man is 
the constant theme of our author's praise., Me was a pattern of 
frugality, when all were frugal ; an incorruptible statesman, and 
a great and successful commander : but the particular allusion in 
this place, is to the welUknown anecdote of his being iound by tlie 
Samuite ambassadours^ sitting by a small fire, and preparing a dish 
of turnips for his supper, with his own hands. 

SATIRB XI. JUVENAL. V. I33-*I38. 357 

None cared what clime the fairest tortoise bred, 
Whose clouded shell might best adorn his bed : — 
His bed was small, and did no signs impart. 
Or of the painter's, or the sculptor's art, 
Save where the front, cheaply inlaid with brass, 
Show*d the rude features of a vine-crown*d ass ; 

Save where tkejront^ cieapfy inlaid with brasSf 
Show'd the rude features of a vine-crown'd ass;^ 

parvis froiis »rea lectis 



Vite coronati caput ostendebat aselli, 
Ad quod/' &c« 

All the commentatbn that I have seen, suppose this ass*8 head ' 
to be hung out in the fields, and the beds, or rather couches of 
those rusticks, to be so placed as to afford them a sight of it as 
they sat at meat ! what gratification they could possibly derif e 
from such a spectacle, «* these deponents do not say." 

There was, indeed, as Britannicus observes from Columella, a 
very ancient notion among the country people, that ttie skeleton 
of an ass's head placed on the boundary of their lands had a 
marvellous effect in averting blights, &c. and, as we further learn 
from Palladius, in fertilizing the particular spots to which its front 
was directed: Item eqwe calvaria, vel pothts asina; credehantur 
emrn sua prcesentia fctcundare quct spectaut. On the authority of 
this passage, Scioppius wishes to read coronatoc caput aselkt ; but 
the text is undoubtedly right as it stands, and all the curious re- 
search of Britannicus and others on the subject, little or nothing 
to the purpose. It is evident from the plain and obvious con- 
struction of the words, that this ass's head, either cast or engraved 
in brass, was fixed upon the couches, not detached from them ; 
and that it had nothing to do with any rural superstition what, 
ever. But what then is the sense of the passage ? This, probably, 
for which we are indebted to the extensive reading of Ferrarius : 
Antiqui autem nostri in iectU tiicUniaribus in fulcris capita asel' 
lorum vite alligata (would not one swear that Juvenal alluded to 

this very passage ?) habuerunt ; significantcs suacita- 

tern invenisse. Hyg. Fab, cclxxiv. A few words have dropt out 
through the carelessness of the copyists, which have been supphed 
by conjecture: but even without this the sense is sufficiently 
clear. The ass, hy browsing on the vine, was supposed to havQ 
taught mankind the art of improving its virtues by pruning, IkCm 
Indeed) this idea was common enough, for Pausanias, long after 

358 SATIRE XI. JUVENAIa v. 139^154* 

An uncouth brut^, rouhd trfaich tbechildrra pby*d. 
And laugh*d and jested at the face it made ! 
Briefly^ his bousei his furniture, his food| 
Were unirormly plain, and &imply good. 

Then the rough soldiery yet untaught by Greece 
To hang enraptured o*er a finish'd piecei 
If haply, mid the congregated spoils, 
Proofs of his power, and guerdons of his toils, 
Soitie antique vase of master-hands were found. 
Would dash the glittering bauble on the ground ; 
That in new forms the molten fragments drest. 
Might blaze illustrious round his courser's chest, 
Or, beaming from his awful helmet, show 
I'he rise of Rome to the devoted foe ; 
The mighty Father, with his shield and spear, 
Hovering, enamoured, o'er the sleeping fair, 

Hyginus, speaks of the same story, as current among the Kau- 
plians : it^ t^tfayuv ofAvrtXn m}<%ijm, a^optHtfop ic iv fAiXXev amtfnn 

TOD HttfVQf' Xai 0V0( fffutiP tf flTlTfa WtfTOiUfUfO^ ha T»ro ir»| ATI 

«tjt»iSm h^aXoi TOfAiiy, Lib. XI. We all know that the ass was a 
favourite of Silenus ; (and, for a much better reason than any 
which Ovid gives, extremely disagreeable to Priapus i) his head« 
• therefore, crowned with clusters of grapes, was cast in brass, and 
fixed upon the front of the ccuches on which they sat at meat, 
as a provocative to hilarity and good fellowship. As the old 
Romans had made no extraordinary progress in any of the fine 
arts, we may easily suppose that the workmanship of these orna- 
ments excited no great envy in the breasts of the Myros and Ly- 
sippusscs of the day. It was this, undoubtedly, which provoked 
the risibility of the unlucky (lascvci) boys of the family, and not 
a Few dry bone^ perched on a post, which could have little to 
interest, and less to amuse them. 

Vbr. 153. The mighty Father^ SfC.} I have followed Mn Ad- 
^son's interpretation of this passage. ** The Roman soldiers 
used to Ijear on their helmets the £rst histoyy of Romulus, who 
was begot by the God of War, and suckled by a wolf. The figure 
6f the gpd was made as if descending on the priestess Ilia. The 

SATIRC XX. JUVENAL, v. 155— 168« 359 

And the fierce wolf, at heaven's command grown 

And, playful at her side, each wondrous child. 
Thus, all the wealth those simple times could boast. 
Small wealth ! their horses and their arm^ engrost ; 
All else was homely, and their frugal fare • 
Gook*d without art, and served in earthen ware : 
Yet justly worth your envy, were your breast 
But with one spark of noble spleen possest« 
Then shone the fanes with majesty divinci 
A present God was felt at every shrine ; 
And solemn sounds, heard from the sacred walls, 
At midnight's solemn hour, announced the Cauls 
Now hastening from the main ; while, prompt to 

Stood Jove, the prophet of the signs he gave! 

occasion required his body should be naked ; the sculptor, how* 
eveVf to distinguish him from the rest of the gods, gave him what 
the medallists call, his proper attributes, a spear in one hand, and 
a shield in the other. As he was represented descending, his 
figure appeared suspended in the air over the vestal vii|;in/' 
Travels, p. 184. This he illustrates by an engraving of a coin 
struck in the reign of Antoninus Pius. I am no medallist, and can 
therefore say nothing as to the genuineness of the coiu : it cer* 
tainly gives a very good explanation of the passage; indeed, it 
appears to be a mere cppy of it. After all, I will not affirm it to 
be the true one, as it does not correspond with the more ancient 
ideas on the subject. Ovid says that Mars was unarmed when 
he saw the priestess, and so do^ TibuUus. 

Veb. 165. And solenvi ^ounds^^^c] This ^Ihides to a ciroum- 
stanoe recorded by the .writers of Roman history. M. Cae4»tius, 
as he was passing by one of the temples in the dead of iNgfity 
lieard a loud and alarming voice from the sanctuary, distinctly 
cry, «< The Gauls are at hand !" cpmoAaoding bim» at the same 
tii^ey to repeat w^at he had heard to the Senate. l4v, lib. ▼• J2« 
Plutarch tells the same story, in the life of CamiUus. 

%6o 8AT»E.xi. JUVENAL, v. 169 — 182. 

Yet^ when he thus reveard the will of fate. 
And watch*d attentive o'er the Latian state, 
His shrine, his statue, rose of humble mold, 
Of ardess form, and unprofaned with gold. 

Those good old times no foreign tables sought ; 
From their own woods the walnut tree was 

When withering limbs declared its pith unsound. 
Or winds uptore, and stretch'd it on the ground. 
But now, such strange caprice has seized the 

They find no pleasure in the costliest treat, 
Unless wide-yawning panthers, towering high — 
(Enormous pedestals of ivory, 
From teeth the -Ethiopian realm supplies, 
Or Indian ; or from those of larger size, 

Ver, 171. His shrine, his statue, ^c] Tlie elder Pliny bas a 
curious passage on the subject of these lines : Hce enim twn ^gk» 
deum crant laudatissimct ; nee pcenitet nos iiiorum^ qui tales colwert. 
Aurum enim et argentumnediisquidemconficiebant : durant etiamnum 

pkrisque in loc'u talia simulacra^ sanctiora auro^ certe mnocca- 

tiora.Ub. xxxv. 12. We have 8een,(p »2,)that the statue of Cybele 
was still more rude and artless than that mentioned in the text ; and 
the true principle, 1 believe, of the adoration which was anciently 
paid to those unfinished masses of stone, as well as to the first shape- 
less blocks which were set up in the temples, was the proiound reve- 
rence entertained for the gods ; which did not suffer the artists to 
invest them too closely with a determinate form. In process of 
time, they grew bolder : and it is an observable thing in the his- 
tory of sculpture, that the most admired statues of the deities 
were produced in the age of scepticism, or infidelity. This ap- 
plies no less to the Greeks than the Romans ; with respect to the 
latter, while they were sincere believers in their mythology, they 
had not a god tolerably executed. Yet observe, says Seneca, 
how propitious they then were : cogita, deos quum propiiii essent^ 
fictUes fuisse ! 

tATiKB XI. JUVENAL. T. i83«i^t88« ^t 

Which, now too old, too heavy for the head) 
The beasts in Nabathean forests shed — ) 
The spacious orbs support : then they can feed. 
And every dish grows delicate indeed ! 
For silver feet excite in them such scorn, 
As iron rings, upon the finger woriu 

Ver. 185. The spacunu orhs wpport :] " Orbis^ super qftem 
vames in mcnsa minutim conddere solemuSf ne corrumpatur ma in." 
Thesau. It appears from this, that Stephens took orbs for th^ 
plates on which meat is cut ! So, indeed, does Faber : ** Ortfk 
diciiur super quo dbos in mensa tract amuSf ein -teller/' i. e. a plat^ 
This explanation, strange as it b, they more strangely suppoxt by 
the following distich : 

" Tu Lybicos Indis suspendis dentibus orbes : 
*^ Fulcitur testa fagina mensa mihi7' 

Mart. lib. ii. 43. 

How could these learned men overlook the of so plain a 
passage ? You, says Martial to Caudidus, place your.Lybian orbs 
on ivory feet, whereas my beechen table is propped up by an 
empty barrel I The orbs of Candidus are precisely those of the 
text, citron wood brought from the Mediterranean coast of 
Africa, where this tree abounded : and indeed Varro calls it L$k 
bissa citrus, 

I have already spoken (p. 25) of the estimation in which such 

tables were held : but this fashion was not peculiar to the times 

of Juvenal. Cicero accuses Verres of stealing a most valuable 

one from a S cilian : Tu maximam et pule her rimam citrean men" 

sam a Q. Lutatio Diodoro abstuliiti. In Verr. it. 17. With an 

allusion, perhaps, to this circumstance, men^tt are reckoned (in 

the first Satire) among the costly articles procured by daring guilt. 

Seneca was reproached, according to Xiphilinus, with having five 

hundred of them in his possession. The cjuantitjr is beyond ques* 

tion exaggerated ; but it is certain, that the wealthy Romans had 

numbers of them at the same time : Indeed, it could not well be 

otherwise, as, at their entertainments, one was usually set befora 

every guest* The glutton (p. 24) was not, perhaps, the only one 

who swallowed down a fortune at a single table, una comedit pa* 

trimonia mensa. 

Cowley, in his description of David's flight to Nob, mentions 
the feast made for him by the high priest ; and, among other 
articles of lu::ury, introduces this. It affords a specimen of that 

Still tie to me the haughty g^^t uaknown, 
Who, me^Buring my expenses by hU own, 
Reiparks the diffcrfiice with a scornful leer, 
And slights my humble housei and homely cheer. 
Look not to me for ivory ; I have none : 
My chess-board and my men are all of bone ; 
Nay, my knife-handles ; yet, my friend, for this^ 
My pullets neither cut nor taste amiss. 

I boast no artist, tutor'd in the school 
Of learned Trypherus, to carve by rule ; 

perverted wit, which may be almost considered as the distingoisb^ 
jiig characteristick of his poetry. Conceits, as Johnson observes. 
Hie all the Davidois supplies. 

^* In midst a table of rich iv'ry stands, 
** By three fierce tigers, and three lions borjie^ 
** Which grin, and fearfully the pbce adorn : 
*< Widely they gape, and to tibe eye they roar, 
«< As if they hungered for the meat they bore." 

lo a note he aaf a, ** these Jciod of ivory ts|bles borne up with 
the images of beasts, were much in estcom among the aadeots. 
The Romans had them, as well as all other instrument^ of luxury, 
hem the Asiaticks. Thus Juvenal," &c. Th» extravagance of the 
lioman^, indeed, knew no bounds in this article; ihcir tables, how- 
ever, were aot (as Cowley thjnks) of ivory, but of citron and 
other precious woods : it was the feet only that were iionxied of 
this substance. 

Whether Dryden, or rather Congreve, h^d been dipping into 
the Davideis during the transktion of this passage^ I connot xM ; 
but he has given it with a conundrum not unworthy of.Cowky is 
his happiest moments : 

"An iv'ry table is a certain whet ; 
*^ You would not think how heartily he'll eat, 
" As if new vigour to his teeth were sent, 
** By sympathy from those o'thc elephant;*' 

Ver. 1<)7. I boast no artist^ <$c] The skilful carving of iqeat 
was a matiicr of so much importance at Rome, that it was taught 
by prode&i»ors of the science. The one honoured with o|ir author's 
notice jd Doctor Trypherus, who^e leaned instructions were dis< 

^AtiRB XI. JUVENAL. V. t99— ftifl. 263 

Where wooden birds, and beasts, and fishes point 

The nice anatomy of every joint ; 

And dull, blunt tools, severing the mimiok treat. 

Clatter around, and deafen all the street 

My simple lad, whose skill will just suffice 

To broil a steak, in the plain country guise. 

Knows no such art ; humbly content to serve, 

And bring the dishes which he cannot csu^ve. 

Another lad (for I have two to day) 

Glad, like the first, in home-spun russet gray, 

Shall fill our earthen cups : no Phrygian he, 

No pamper'd attribute of luxury. 

But a rude rustick : — when you want him, speak. 

And speak in Latin, for he knows no Greek. 

pensed in the SubumB, or Strand of 4c city: ** for siieli nmsterB did 
purposely choose/' as Uolyday says, 1^ most fMiblkic place^^ 
*' thereby to be the more taken notice of ; and so to get custome." 
The wooden delicacies on which the scholars practised are enu- 
merated below : they were, doubtless, representations of the most 
rare and esteemed articles'of food ; and the scientifiek . diflseclion 
of them was, therefore, a point of prodigious consequence : 

'' Svmine cum nmgno tepot, atque aper, atque pjgai^us, 
** £t Scythicae volucres, et phoenicopterus ingens^ 
•' Et Getulus oryx." 

Which Holyday literally renders, 

** large sow-teats; th* hare, boar, the whitc«breech too, 

** The Scythian phesantt the hi^e crimson-wing, 
** And the Getultan goat." 

Tfaffs conveys but little information to tbe Eugli^ reader, and 
I have scarcely any thing to add to it. The phoeaivoptffiws, pr 
what he calls the huge crimson^wing, is the ikuningo ; the pjsg^jr- 
^s, or white-breech, and oryx, are probaibly diffenent opeciQi of 
the g^zely or antelope kind. Sparroan takes the former to he the 
Spring-bok, (bounding-goat,) which is omaion, he aaya, at t^e 
'Cape, where it is accounted ^xcelknt &od* FennaaC «aUs it the 
VPhite antelope. 

♦ / 

364 SATIRE XI* JUVENAL. V. 213 — 220W 

Both go alike, with short, straight hair undrest. 
But spruced to day, in honour of my guest ; 
And both were born on my estate, and one 
Is my rough shepherd's, one my neatherd's son. 
Poor youth f he mourns, with many an ardess tear. 
His long, long absence from his mother dear ; 
Sighs for his little cottage, and would fain 
. Meet his old playfellows, the goats, again. 

Vbb. 2^17. Toor youth! he maitmst 4*^.} It is impossible to 
zead these lines, without being impressed with the most fiivoarabk 
opinion of the writer. How could Gibbon say that his character 
was devoid of sweetness and sen^bility I Do not both appear in 
every word he utters of his rural pages ? The young neatherd 
(who seems to be his favourite) is mentioned by him, not only 
with the wannth of a kind master) but with the tendemesss of an 
afectionate parent. Can a man so susceptible of the generous 
^ • affections be said to want sensibility ? — but the poor boys have 

^ been as ilUtreated by the tra;islatorSy as their master by the cri« 

ticks« Holyday makes the young shepherd a thief : 

« __— _ still he*s rude ; 
' ^ To steal a mouthful he*s with skill indded.*^ 

S^ does Owen : 

*' Except it be (and here his skill is great) 

«< In cooking some stolen piece of savoury meat,'* 

Ko, not ^* savoury :** from this part of the accusation his master 
expressly exonerates himy whatever be the reading of the subse* 
^uent line. 

Dryden is still more lax : 

<' On me attends a raw unskilful lad, 

** At once my carver, and my Ganymede/' 

Certainly the lad was no carver ; and, if by Ganimede (a very 
improper word) he meant cupbearer, he misconceives liisauthor> 
who expressly gives that office to (he second boy. 

It would seem, from v. 259$ <bat Juvenal superintended their 
education. One of the boys could read Homer; the other (v. 214> 
knew no language but his own. These remarks are of little impor- 
tance; indeed of none, except to the writer, who, by long dweW 
ling on a subject, becomes interested in a thousand triflesi which 

.SATIRE xn JUVENAL, v. aai— 230. 365 

His look belies his birth ; ingenuous grace 
Beams from his eye, and flushes in his face ; 
Charming suffusion! that would Well become, 
And well adorn, the noblest blood of Rome.—- 
He, Persicus, shall bring you wine which grew 
Where first the breath of life the stripling drew ; 
On Tibur*s hills, beneath whose well-known shade, 
The rural cup-bearer in childhood play'd. 

But you, perhaps, expect a wanton throojg 
Of Gaditanian girls, with dance and song, 

provoke, and perkaps justly, the impatience or risibility of tli« 
general reader. We all know and feel this ; yet habit is too 
powerful for judgment,-— ^e»f^ ittsanabUe^*^ * 

Ruperti observes on the words, Quum poscUf posce LtUine;-^ 
serci met sunt Italic nee alium calient Unguam, This is not marked 
with much accuracy. Juvenal, indeed, makes an apology for the 
pronunciation of his boy ; but we may be pretty confident, that 
the conditor Iliados was read by him in the original language: the 
posce Latine applies only to the cupbearer, the timid Jitcle neatherd* 

VKt. 229. But you f perhaps, expect ^cJ] The Romans were 
now arrived at such a pitch of licentiousness, that they had 
dancing girls to attend their feasts from all parts of the world* 
Those from Gaditania (the south of Spain) seem to have been 
most in request : their style of dancing is described by Martial, 
(lib. V. 79^) with a force and spirit which are not exceeded by any 
thing in the text : 

« Nee de Gadibus iroprobis puellae, 

^* Vibrabuut sine fine prurientes 

^< Lascivos docili trcmore lumbos," &c. 

The dance alluded to, is neither more nor less than the Fandango ; 
which still forms the delight of all ranks in Spain ; and which, 
though somewhat chastised in the neighbourhood of the capital, 
exhibits at this day, in the remote provinces^ a perfect counterpart 
(actors and spectators) of the too free but faithful reprcsentacioii 
before us. 

. In a subsequent line, Juvenal mentions the test arum crepitus^ 
the clicking of the castanets, which accompanies this dance : on 
this the criticks have triflrd sufficiently. The testes^ in sliort, 
were small oblong pieces of polished wood or bone, which the 

366 SAT»B xr« JUViJNAXr* r. aji^^^^c. 

To kindk laose desire ; girls, thit now bound 
Aloft, with active gracci now on the grcNnid, 
Quivering alight, while peals of pnuse ^ round* 
Lo ; mves, beside their husbands pJaced^ bdioid. 
What could not in tlieir ears, for sbame^ he told ; 
Expedients of the rich, the blood to fine, 
Atid wake dse dying ennbers of desire^ 
Behold f O, heavens! they viesrmtdi joeencrguai! 
These strong provocatives of jaded lust. 
Feel at each gestiire^ sound, their passaoas risft, 
And draw in pleasure hoth at ears and eyes ! 

Silch vicious fancies are too great Sbr me. 
Let him the wanton dance, unblrushifng, see. 
And hear the immodest terms which, in the &tews. 
The veriest strumpet would disdain to vse, 
Whose drunken spawlings roll, tumultuous, o^er 
The proud cKpansion of a marble floor: 
For there the world a large aHowance make, 
And spare the folly for the fortune's sake. 
Gaming, adultery, with a small estate, 
Are damning crimes, but venial with a great; 

dancers held between their fiogers, and clashed in zneasure, with 
inconceivable agih'ty and address. Holyday, who was in Spain, 
says that he heard nothing but the snapping of fingers : he was 
then unfortunate : I have heard them often. The Spaniards of the 
present day are very curio«is in the choice of their castanets ; 
some have been shown me that cost five*and-*tweQty or thirty 
dollars a pair; these were made of the beautifully vanegsted 
woods of South America. 

Vbk. 1230. Guming, athiitetyf 4^.J Thus Beaumont : 

** In lords a wildne^s is a noble trick, 

** And cherish'd in them, and all men mtist love it.'' 

Maid in (he MiU. 

And Monsieur ParoUes : '< So please your majesty^ my master is 

SATIRE Jtf. JUVENAL. Y. t|2— 2%. 26y 

Nay ttiore thah venial ; witt^t gallist, ^irave^ 
And sUch mcjld tricks '^ as gentleihen should haye!** 

My feast, to day* shall other joys afford : 
Hush'd as we sit around the frugal board, 
Great Homer shall his de^p-toned thunder roU^ 
And mighty Maro elevate the soul ; 
Maro, whO| warm*d with all the poet's fire^ 
Disputes the palm of victory with his sire: 
Nor fear my rustick clerks ; read as they will, 
The bard^ the bard, shall rise su^nour still ! 

Gome then, my friend, to hour to pleasu]t*e spare, 
And quit awhile your business nstd your care ; 
The day is all our own : come, and forget 
Bonds, interest, aU ; the credit and the debt ; 

an honourable gentleman ; tricks he hath in liim which gentlemen 
have I" 

The Ute Lord Orfbrd seem to have beeiii somewhat ^ParoUe's 
way of thinking. Of the Duke of Wharton ^fae says, he ** com- 
forted all the grave and dnH by throwing awiiy the brightest pro- 
fonon ^f parts on vricty fdokrtea, debauchwie^ and scmpes, which 
may mix -griices with -a great character, *but never can compose 
ons V' Nov rU be sworn 

^* Scd YDS Trojugends, vobis igDoscitis, et quoe 
** Tupia cerdouiy Volu3os Brutosque d^ebunt I*' 

Veb. St 5 5. " ■ ■ as 'ae 9k around tke frugal -boards 

Ofeat Hotner^^c] This practice was not uncominon 
amongthe old republicans : it bad, indeed, lost somewhat of its fre« 
quency in Juvenal's days; but there were not wanting, in any pe- 
riod, virtuous characters who preferred this rational atid instruc- 
tive method of passing their time at table, to all the blandishtnenis 
of dancing girls, and all the noisy buflfoonery of pipers, tumblers, ^c. 
The entertatnmentft of Atticus were always seasoned with these men-, 
tal recreations ; and C. Nepos, his friend and guest, speaks of themi 
^th the warmest approbation : Nemo im^onvivio ejus aliud acroa' 
ma audivit, quam aaagnosten : quod nos quidem.Jucundissitnum ar^ 
hitramur^ Ncque unqtutm sine aliqua lictione apud eum aenatitm est, 
^ nan minus onimQ quam ventre tonvivdt dekctarentur. 

^t sATiRB XI. JUV£NAU V. 166—279. 

Nay, e'en your wife; though^with the dawning light. 
She left your couch, and late returned at night ; 
Though loose her hair, disorder'd her attire, 
Her eye yet glistening, and her cheek on fire. 
O come, and at my threshold leave behind. 
House, servants, every thing that wounds your mind ; 
And, what the generous spirit most offends, 
O^ more than all, leave there, ungrateful 


And see ! the napkin wide displayed, proclaims. 
They celebrate the Megalesian games ; 
Where the proud praetor, in triumphal state, 
Sits perch'd aloft,' the arbiter of fate ! 
Ere this^ all Rome (if 'tis, for once, allow*d 
To s^y all Rome, of so immense a crowd) 

Yer. 274. ^nd see/ the napkin wide ditpiay'df SfC*] The ofi- 
gin of the custom is thus related by Holyday from Cassiodonis : 
** Nero on a time sitting alone at dinner, when the shews were ea- 
gerly expected, caused his towel, with which he had wiped his hands, 
td be presently cast out at the window, for a sign of his speedy 
coming : whereupon it was in after-times the usual ugn at (the be^ 
ginning of) those shews." This is, at best, a. doubtful story; but 
the circumstance is of no great moment* The ^* napkin'^ (mappaj 
was hung out at the house of the praertor. 

The expression in the next line, prado cabaUorumy I have left 
a^ I found ; not being satisfied with any of the explanatious^ or 
pretended emendations of it, which I have seen, nor able to pro- 
pose any thing better myself. If it do not relate to some well- 
known ancdote of the times^ I consider it as an irremediable cor- 

Veh. 278. Ere this^ all Rome ^-c] The fondness, or rather 
passion of the Romans, for the amusements of the Circus, is for- 
cibly depicted by Aram. Marcellinus : Qitod est stndtorum omnium 
maximum^ ab ortu lucis ad vesperam sole fatiscunt vel plwoiis, per 
minutias aurigarum equorumque prcecipua, vef delicta scrutantes, 
£t est admodum mirum videre plebem mitvmerofTi, menlilnis ardore 
quodam infuso, cum dimicationum curaHum eventu pendentem» Lib. 

fficrn^'xi. JUVEKTAC, v.'aSo— a!9k. 369 

The Circus din>ngs, Satid— Uifk ! loud shouts 

Fr6ih thtse I rguegs'tfare Gr££n has Wbh the'priVe ; 

XIV, 6» Gibbon, who had considered t^is passaj^^ well, formed on 
it the vefy '\A6diirdte and animiated account which' foltows : <* l^e 
impati^i)t crowd roAed at the 'dawn of day to Hecure their places ; 
and there were many y^o passed a sleepless and anxious. tjight' in 
ttie'adjfoiniAg' porticos. 'From the morning' io the evening, carel^ 
of the sufa,.or of theiiiQ* tberspeilator», who sonietimes amounted 
to the number of ^100,000, remained in eager attention, their eyes 
fixed on the charioteers, their miners agitated with hope and jfear, 
'for tbeiucceib ofthe colour which they 'favoured : and the happi- 
'nessbnibthe ippeured tb)iari§ on the event of a race*'' 

Tfibtigh rtis was iKeant for the 'picture of a later period, it is 
^precr^ly tBtlt of btir author's 'time ; as we learn from Senec^, 
Mrirt5al,'Pli«y, &c. Hie last-named has a leller, (li[>. ik. 6,) 
which is worth consulting, as it illdstiutes the subject of the fol- 
lowing note. . 


Vift^.WO. *— ■■ ■ -Hark! ioud shouts arise — , , 

^Mn theki, Ij-cQ WKlje Juvenal is still wnt'^^^'f® 
^is'fHeiidy'he is suddenly Ifiterrilpted by the boisterous joy of the 
'diais t ftoin tKis . He xcin^ectpres, with a bitter sarcasm oii 'the 
*A&sea,diii^tibh' of the people, that the Greek (ttie court 'party) 
Md'w^h'tfae fiice. , . ,«• ♦ 

lAs tKe dielte 6f this Satire cannot 1)e 'precisely ascertained, it js 
'flol efci^ to'siay *in^o how^iiiany fiia^ies the charioteers, were . di- 
vided at this tiiiie. OrfgihaTly there seem to have been 'foiir ; the 
frasina^ or grQen,.the j&<^a<a, or red, the Albata^ or imhite, and 
the VenetQy or blue ; but others were afterwards added ; all of 
Who^fpBrts, fts Molydiiy Says, ** the Romans most factiousfy and 
foOfli$h)y/took, sometimes eveh to great dissention." CaHgula, 
and, if I recollect right, Nero, (both aditiiraUe jud^,6f,trtia 
iilkvrit,) honoured the ureen with their 'patronage; nay, the former, 
Sueftoiiius says, was so mudly attiiched to it, that he coutd not 
Ktc out of the stables of the party, trom a line in the seventh 
Sb.tire, Furte (itiasolnh Rassati pone Lacerittf I should conjecture 
ihiLt l^omitian favoured the Red :* the Green, we sec, had now 

' > 

* This however, must have beien. in the early part of his reigh ; 
fdt it Appears froth Dio thut he added two, to fuf xt^f^, roh cu^ 
-y^piw, '(Sti^t* Dota. 7, says piii^ens, Which is right, for the 
mfyvfWf yrik in Use before^) d>§fAaM<at<, ^fon^nn&i^ lib. lxvxi. 4, 


370 tfATXRi xt. JUVEKAL. sr« ^tih^^ig^ 

For h^d it lost, all joy had been supprest. 
And grief and horrour seized the publick breast ; 
As when dire Carthage forced our arms to yield. 
And pour*d our noblest blood on Gannx*s field. 

Thither let youthi whom it befits, repair. 
And seat themselves beside some favourite fair, 
And clamour^ and bet deep ; while our shrunk skin, 
Scaped from the gown, the vernal ray drinks in, 

resumed its popularity, which was so great, that if it had heen 
conquered* not (as Holyday and others strangely understand it 
dfficeret) if the <' shows should cease/' the whole city would hate 
been confounded as at the news of the slaughter of Cannae. ** A 
strange expression of a strange vanitv, that a like sorrow should 
affect a people for so unlike a cause ! 

Ver. 289. Scaped from the govm^ 4^*1 The busy gown ; so 
Holyday, and with his usual accuracy, renders ^ugiai^ iogam;^ 
though it appears, from his notes, that he was not fully aware of 
the force of the passage. The toga, as I have already observed, 
(p- 87,) was the dress of ceremony. Clients put it on when they 
attended their patron's levee, when they followed him to the 
Forum, when they went to receive the sportula ; in a word, it was 
little better than the badge of their servitude ; and as such, pro- 
bably regarded with no great complacency. It is for thb reason 
that Juvenal seizes the opportunity^ while all ranks and orden of 

the golden and the silver, to the former four ; and it is reasonable 
to conjecture that he favoured bis own colours. They never, I 
believe, became popular. 

* Madan has the strangest idea here that ever entered mortal 
head. By toga^ he says, ** Juvenal means the Romans now crowd- 
ing to the Circus: let us therefore keep out of their way"— to 
avoid being thrown down, perhaps, and trampled upon ! But I 
beg pardon«^Ruperti has a conjecture, in comparison of which, 
Madau's is sober and judicious : ^* An dt toga meretrkum cogjr 
iaoit poeta'* ! It will be yet some time before we know the utmost 
of which a commentator is capable. 

Congreve places the poet and his friend on <' beds of roses.** The 
^legalesian games were held in die beginning of April; rather too 
early a season for roses, even in the genial climate of Italy. 

SATIIB XI. JUVENAL. V. 290—295. 371 

At every pore : the time permits us now. 

To bathe an hour ere noon, with fearless brow. — 

Indulge for once : — Yet such delights as these, 

In one short week, would lose the power to please : 

The. sweetest repetitions quickly cloy ; 

'Tis only temperance which can season joy. 

people are throning to the Circus, of advising his friend to indulge 
with him in the decent relaxations which a temporary freedom 
from all attendance on the great so happily allowed them. 

Martial, who had retired to Bilbihs, in Spain, soon after the 
accessiop of Trajan, (dispirited, perhaps, at the coldness with 
which' he was received, on account of his flattery of Domitian and 
his minions,) addresses a little poem from thence to his friend; 
which sets the misery of this attendance in the strongest light : 

<< Dum tu forsitan inquietus erras 

^* Clamosa, Juvenalis, in Suburra, 

" Aut coUem dominse tens Dianse : 

*^ Dum per limina te potentiorum, 

** Sudatrix toga ventilat, vagumque 

" Major CceliuSy-et minor fatigant." Lib, xii. 18. 

We fed for the poet, especially when we recollect his strong 
sense of independence, and are tempted to wish that he too had 
retired from this state of shivery : indeed, it is difficult to conjec- 
ture why he did not, as he had a small estate at Tibur, and pro- 
bably some hereditary property at Aquinum. He doubtless sacri- 
ficed much to the mental pleasures, which were only to be found 
in perfection in the capital ; and indeed a mind like his, inquisi- 
tive, vigorous, and profoundly reflective, does not appear altoge- • 
ther suited to retirement. I may mistake, but I sometimes think 
I discover striking traits of similarity between our author and Dr. 
Samuel Johnson* 

yaa.292. Yet SMck deligkti ^c.} How beauUfuUy is 

this thought illustrated by Shakqpeare ! The words, too, are se- 
lected with a felicity of which poetry furnishes but few examples : 

** All violent delights have violent ends, 

^ And in their triumphs die ; the sweetest honey 

** Is loathsome in its own deliciousness, 

" And in the tastOi confounds the appetite.'' 




This U the shortest qfJuvenoTs pieces, and certamfy not we of 
the most important ; though it is hy no means wanting in good 
passages^ some of nmeh moral forcCf and many of on effectumate 
and pathetick tendency. 

Its siibject is soon told : CatuUus, for whom he had conceived a 
friendship <^ the HveHest kindf had narrowly escaped shipwreck ; 
and the poef, whose joy knows no bomids on the occasion^ (no great 
proof tf his being detent in the " social affections,**) addresses 
an exulting (etter to their common friend^ Corvinus ; m which^ 
after acquai n ting him that he was then about to sacrifice the victims 
ke had vowed fqr the safety tfCatullus^ he describes his danger and 
escape. He then gives a most beauty picture of the private part 
of the solemnity 9 «md of the various marks ofgratuiaiion which his 
house exhibits. 

So far we set nothing but the pious and grateful friend. The 
satirist nofw takes his turn : he recollects that sacr^kes are votoed 
by others, for the preservation of their acquaintance ; this leads him 
to speak with manly confidence of his own disinterestedness, which 
he considers as almost singular; and which he opposeSf with equal 
tpirit and success, to the base and designing promises of the here' 
dtpette, or legacy-hunters, by whom the sick'beds of the rich and 
childless were constantly surrounded. 




V. 1—16. 

INot with such joy, Gorvinus, I survey 
My natal hour, as this auspicious day ; 
This day, on which the festive turf demands 
The promised victims^ at my willing hands. 

A snow-white lamb to Juno I deeree, 
Another to Minerva ; and to thee, 
Tarpeiaa Jove ! a steer, which, from afar, 
Shakes his long rope, and meditates the war. 
'Tis a fierce animal, that proudly scorns 
The dug, since first he tried his budding horns 
Against an oak ; free mettled, and, in fine, 
Fit for the altar, and tbe sacred wine. 

O, were my power but equal to my love, 
A nobler victim should my rapture prove ! 
A bull high fed, and boasting in his veins 
The luscious juices of Clitumnus* plains, 

y«E» 16. of Clitwmu/ 4-c.] The waters of 

Clitumnus (a river on the confines of Tuscany) were supposed to 
possess tbe faculty of making the cattle which drank of themy 
white; and, as this was the cfAofxr most pleasing to Jupiterp his 
altars were usoi^ly supplied with victims from its banks. It does 

376 sATiRB XII* JUVENAL. ▼• ij^^2l^* 

, • -— ^— — J — — — — ^ ^^ — , 

Fall for my fri^yd^whan^^afl^vnylanger 
Revolves the recent perils oi the sea ; 

Fatter than fat HispuUa, and as slow 
With bulk, should fall beneath no common blow ; 


Shrinks nt the roaring wav£S«, the howling winds, 
And scarce believes the safety which he finds. 

For not the gods' inevitable fire, 
The surging billoiy^s t^^ to, h^ve^ aspire, 
Alone perdition threat ; black clouds arise, 
And blot out all the splendour of the skies ; 
Loud and more loud the thunder's voice is heard^ - 
And sulphurous fires flash dreadful on the yard. — 
Then shrunk the crew, and, fix*d in wild-amaze, 
Saw the rent sails burst into sudden blaze; 
While shipwreck) lite so dreadful, now appear*d 
A refuge from the fiames, more wished than fear'd. 
Horrour on horrour ! earth, and^ea, and skies 
Convulsed, as when poetick tempests rise! 

From the same source, another danger view, 
With pitying eye, — though dire, alas! not new; 

Bot appear that Juvenal believed this idle tale, which is also 
laughed at by Addison, who has colUcted, from what Sterne cafls 
his *< satchel of school-books^'] a vari^t^.of pais^es .9n ,the^ sub- 
ject. One, however, which tvould have given hnn mlnitely niore 
information thUn ^W the reftt, eMbped his ndtice : it is that etqui- 
site descriptLon in Pliny's letter to his fr^(id Ro;ii^aus^ (Ub».yii|. 
EpbL 8t) a'peifect model, as it seems to mc, of smipticity, ele- 
gance, and tattfe. > . . . : ... » . 

Ver. 22. And scarce beHms SfC,'] This idea is not ill expressed 
by Claiidian t 

** tiojrret a4hqq ^nimus, m^ifeft^u^ gaMdi^ i^ejrtf 
** Du|n stup^t^ «t tanto.cuQptatur prede;x$ voto/' 

But known toQiweUv^ I^^^^'^^F^^^^bd^f 

By ma|iyiaipfctoFed^eii«of Votive i^o; ^ 

Since our own gods no longer yield them^lMad ! 

( I 

Vifffij 3fti IriSf i^c^ i Tht^ hatred; wUtli ow ^thor bfltes- 4<l 

tbjs exQljck dQity, bi«|i|Q$f>ut lio jCo^t|eIQpf^0^9;$DA^r$^bis»cpunt 
Cryrben, for their mad confidence in her. And, indecd,.it does 
seem a li^diiisiiigitUr^ that^ati^ Egjrftiah 'goddess^ wh0s6 -genuhi^ 
worshippers jEtt,bo4ipq bdd,|be.^e(i«^pd every .4hing(CODpeptedwitK 
it, in abhorrence, sfaoulu be fixed upon at Rbmje for the tuteUc^ 
Power of thfutjelemeiits and (have. hbr-templesc^Fowded wkh^vo^ 
tive tablets * Ancien^l^f^ thesc^.w^x;^ hupg pp,tp Neptuo^; :&f4iii^ 
this there was somfi propriety : but it was not only on his prero-, 
gatlves th^shetrenchtd^but on thoseof Ap«ll<>) E^ciilapiu^,-^^^ 

** Nunc, D«a, nunc succurre mibi*; nam posse mederi' 
** Picta.iloc^t^tempUj^im^ta ta^ellf ituis/' 

Calul, I. .3. 

The unbounded attachment of the .W9m,en to he;',,seems to have . 
finally se4uced thajnen; and this strange divinity (wbosefem-^ 
pies were Jittlei better. tha,j^.ma^tt gf.dfibavchory) wasj^uSl^s^to^ 
usurp, by rapid degrees, tne. attribu|es o( almost every otbi^i; 
god. • ' \ 

The^ ta^l(%tSy wliicbrnVKQi. in» ,d9^g^- of, shipwredj;. vowed tto ^slsi 
and wnich they procured to be painted, ancf hung up in her tern* 
pic, contained a representation of their perils and escape. Had 
this, been ihfB..svQcst, these, wouldibaye ii^B.litlk^^reaaon toregret' 
the universality of hec>wQ»hfp.; foe the temples of >theEom$i»' 
f^dscoTfli^t^^i taWets.of .a^a^iV:b,lejjj,injap;!fiQU3A*wiufe. ..Pi;o- 
pejti'us, ev«n whijiie. he , confi^sscs. thr^/i,,th^ yve;:e .abaudDued , to., 
spjj^ers, ^app^ars to depive som^ .satis&ct^^n. frojp jeflectjng^jhat 
the v«:bs 9* those inserts jCQvered tbe.impjjij?i,.p^ir^ngs wbich jdis- 
graced their walls. He patj^eiic^lly describpa iHe>prevafenqp,.a«» 
well ^s the ^reatlfijj eQectfi| ^of ^hi^ prpfanatio^ ^ . 

. ** QuaevmanvsolisC(Bnas.depiiixit.prima>4ab4iaS|' 

" £t po$ui^c{^ta,tu.rpi^,yiss(.dQinps; 
'^ Ilia pucll^riinx ingcui^Q^ Coi:,rup)( pcellq^^. 

" Nequitjaetquf sua^jioluit.essQ rudcs» — ' . 

** Sed non immcrito velavit araj)ea funqifi, « 

, '' £t mt^l^i^ (feserto; pccu^t.berba (Jeos^r 

The vagabond and profligate priests of. Isis- were not the least- 
zeatpns iaioUoudug. cUi^pnieticei an$l we may bo certgiii, that. 

37S SATIRS XII. . JUVENAL. ¥» 4t«^s8. 

This now befell Catullus : for a sea, * 
Upsurging, pour*d tremendous o*er the lee, 
And fiird the hold; while» pressed by ware and 

To right and left, by turns, the ship inclined : 
Then, while my friend observed^ with drooping 
The storm prevailing o*er the pilot's art, [heart, 
He wisely hasten*d to compound the strife. 
And gave his treasure to preserve his life. 
The beaver thus to scape his hunter tries, 
And leaves behind the medicated prize ; 
Happy to purchase, with his dearest blood, 
A timely refuge in the well known flood. 

" Away with all that*s mine," he cries, " away !** 
And plunges in the deep, without delay, 
Purples, which soft Maecenases might wear^. 
Crimsons, deep-tinctured in the Baetick air. 
Where herbs and springs of secret virtues, stain 
The flocks at feed, with Nature's richest grain. 

the walls of her sanctuary exhibited other designs than sliattexed 
shipsy and limbs and bodies variously affected. 

Va»* 49. The beaver ikui, SfcJ] This, as every one knows, is 
an idle story ; it makes, however, a very good illustration in our 
author's hands : and I observe that it is used precisely in the 
same manner, in a letter which Sapor is said to have sent to 
Constantius. Hocque bestias factitare : quct own adurtamt asr 
tnaxbnopere capiimiurf illud propria ipohte amittunt^ ui vitere dle- 
mdepassmt impamdtt. Amm. MarceL lib. xvii. 5. 

Yer, 57. Where herbs and springs ^c.} There is not, perbqks, 
much more foundation for this fact, than for that mentioned in 
the last note ; the belief of it, however, was very general : and 
this is sufficient for the poet. 

Martial frequently speaks of this singular property of the air 
and water of B«tica, (Andalusia,) in staining the fleeces of tha 
sheep kept there, with a bright yellow or golden hue : and Viigily 

SATIEB XII. JUVENAL. ir,59rp^. 379 

With these, neat baskets from the Britons bought, 
Rich silver chargers by Parthenius wrought, 
A huge two-handed goblet, which might strain 
A Pholus, or a Fuscus* wife, to drain ; 

long before him, bad mentijoned this fiutoUyof cojnreunicating 
colours to the ** flocks %t feed/' ei one of the blessings of that 
gplden period, which was^.to commence with the arrival of yoong 
PoUio at man's estate : 

'' Ipse sied in pratis aries jam suave robenti, &c.'' 

The truth of this was not ascertainedt because the yonth, wlu>- 
ever he was, died too soon ; but as nature b invariable, methinks 
the wool of Andalu^m should be as rich in native grain now, as 
heretoforie :•— perhaps it is so : The Spanish shepherds hovyever, 
do not trust to this ; they stain the fleeces of their sheep at .pre- 
sent with a kind of ochre : probably they always did so, and this, 
after all, may be the secret. 

Vkr. 59. — neai iaskei9 from tie Briitm hwgla,'\ 

These baskets (almost the only manufacture, of our simfde ances- 
tors) seem to have excited the admiration, indeed I might say 
the envy, of the Romans, by the beauty of their workmanship. . 
It is curious to observe how greatly the most savage nations ex- . 
eel in this kind of rush-work. Vaillant speaks highly of some 
baskets which he found among the people of Caffraria ; and our 
navigators have brought ffom the new-discovered isles, specimens 
of art in this branch, which our expertest basket-makers would 
strive in vain to equal. It is some little compliment to our fore- 
fathers, that their conquerors adopted the name with the ariicle« 
which must have bom a high price, if we may judge from the 
value of the precious effects among which it is enumerated. Bof- 
cauda is Juvenal's term : — making allowance for the Roman or- 
thography, here is a word which has continued perhaps unchanged 
in sound, for more than two thousand years. 

Ver. 61. A Phoiu8j or a Amchs' wifi^ ^c] Pholus was an 
honest, free-hearted Centaur ; a little given to drink, it must be 
confessed, but not more so than his company ; since it appears 
that his guest, Hercules, emptied the goblet, as welt as himself: 

Adod, as Mungo says, 'twas a tumper ! 

The wife of Fuscus, indeed, might have " drained" syc^ a 

3«6 rii^wtjrti. fVWtfMj. yt.^^^. 

PMitm^d by nmnerotrs' dished; Ufea^' of 'pldit< 
Plain, and ' enchased; which' servtd; of ancient 


date^ r 

The wily cKajmian^'theOlynthianf stitt: ^ 

vcmbIi for dM}I69iiiaiiJwrfttfMitifttoifrt(4ttetit'noti<»'^^ fmdlid^* 
daMteslow of tbt wotn^n fdrvriiie ; see p. 303. Not tdintdtip^ 
iulMea^ I shall codt«iit"my««lf wiiAr A'posage (rotnTUotus. It* 
is very humorous, and withal so ardent, thet t 'doubt' whether^ 
the most brainsick lover ever poured out such genuine strains of 
rapture to his goddess, as the bfbulous old lady before *us lavishes 
oa;lier.davUflg lii|aor< ' 

'*' FTos veteris vini mds naribus objectus est* 

** I^us amor cupidam me hue proiicitper tenebras : 

**' IJbiy ubi est? prope me estv £vax 1 habte. Salve aainie sii.* 

<' Liberi lepos ; ut veteris vetusti cupida sum I 

'^Nam omnium unguentftro odorprae tuo,'naiitea«st(> 

** Tu mihi stacte, tu cinnamomum, tu roM, 

«Tu«crodkkiBi^t'casiftie9,'tn bdellium: nam ubi 

'^Ti'pnsfiiras^'ibi'iegO'iiie'pervellmf^sepultam V 

Curcuh Ai I. 5. 2. 

Hiomton-s version of this pasnge^ doesit so little justice; thalf I'- 
have ventured to traaslate it anew : 

Hith I huh! thc'fldwer; thii^^weetUcfw^r of bid wine. 
Salutes tny nostrils ; tind iny passibii for it 
Hurries me; darklihg/ hither i where, O where; 
Is the dear object \ sure' 'tis near, — Ye gods ! 
Y^ gracious gods* I havc't' Life of my lifcJ! 
Sod of my Ekcchtts ! howf doat upon 
Thy ripe old dge! thefritgrance of all spices 
Is puddle, fiHb; to thine:' Thou, thou, to me. 
Art' roses,' saffiion ; spkenard*,' cinnamon , 
Frankincense, oil of Inyrrh ! where thou art found,' 
Ther« would' I live and die^ alid there be buned 1 

Vz^t'GlSr.'ThiiDUji thapmctn'ifcJ\ Philip of Macedon, who b 
said, -by 'Demosthenes; to hdve persuaded the goverhour of Olyn- 
thu8(a strong town at <th^fo6tt)f Blount Arhos) \6 deliver it up 
to him for a bribe.^ Tbei« is- no necessity for underslknding 
Juvenal literallj*, it is sufficient that the plate thrown overboard ^ 
by Catullus was extremely valuable ; and yet, if we consider how 
very earnest the Romans were to get into their oossession every 
tUng'rich; or rarei thtrt Greeee afforded, it will not appear very 

Yet sbf^ f4/?, in ibiS'eleiMiiit4ir«ln&, 

jEeijir ^LN fro ^iivr^, Corviimn, 4!ewcDr/none, 
But, blind mfh ^acvffripf^ th hVrS, MOfi ^j» alone. 

Now 4i»^lJi»e>d^^<devQiW*d tthoh*: ridbost^teret 
Nor seeiqs M^eirt^i^yfOeiPinar^llbtn'befoflet: 
The last r^Qurce fAom "(mi ^mixfiomA'^ 
To jcpt ^b(e jnwt a«4 rigging Ibyithe Jooard; 
Haply the ii(f;iMel w i9%l)d*9itQadMrTJdey 
0*er the y^nf^'tiiji rfuriwe of flhe -nag^ tide. J[tMt^ 
Dire ^,9At^ ftb* 4W^iidiiig hh»w$ when^ ibm 
Wie ^ia$:iw6iqe ^ -pfir^ ito tvviie ithe Ireat ! 

Qp ppw;, ifpad m90» tih^ fiulkl^^ ocean bnine, 
Gomqut |ih|y tfoit«Qe» »to ^e ^wfod abd wrMf 
Tru«t to ?i ptsuvkkj rami dn^ precarioin biieath» 
At mofA, ^pvep jiH^es itioiQ itfae jararo lof d^ath ! 

imDp)^e that CataniiB. sl^oaU .rf«d)y Jiave jn hi$ ffm&mitm 
disbesy &c. which once belonged to the Macedonian king. 

yjBcH^ §6j. JV ^JoiP mfit Jjrc*} This if a arery stf ai|ge fass^^By to 
9fy UP woT!^ oj it* Bentley observes* in has notes on Hosacc^ 
fhiit t}^ two last lines* W<9b prqpier pt/iMr&c. aie the insertion of 
sqniie m^.ddli(|g Popyjst The poetry indeed is wretched enough^ 
but jthe sense of tben» is £dl as good as that of the two ^urecedu^ 
On.9f to vhich he does noi object. I .wi;^h I had the least aatho* 
i^ty fpx omi^tiqg the whole. 

Vsa. 81. At Mor^ MMa t«dkf 40.] ItMeitHMas •ftrevoously 
maintains that Juvenal took this from Anacharsi^ the Scythian. 
Tlie thought, however, does not seem to surpass the acknowledged 
c^Uleat iif aur aathor's awn povees ; aad« audi as itia, probs^bly 
oaemsaii t^ the fiast poor saaafevfao craned a faroak op « log. 

Tkdne is a f^M^gp ia ona of Scaeca's letters, thai pleasea laa 
mmfh bfHer Ihao this laadican of wisdim, which, to a^r iba 
tgn% Iha poela had won lliraadbaia k>ng facfove oar aattor 
IWffikaditfifu BrntUf n mmfigaiioiie imimn tmiiimai mmmum 
m9» tpm M mfnrti vHb diiuptm' ; ia nm ipeooft^ tmu€ Mvr* 

^ .fArHmKii. JWBUmt. v.^H^Tja. 

-On- we^ dll lalpamp^of worth l5«stb%, 
And dwell delighted on the tale of Vb. 

GoTlben, ihy'boys ; biit let'ncHbod^g dtt^ift 
Anefldc Ida the <sacFed «lienoe,-^re$s 4ke 'fift^ 
With /gavltfnds, bind tire soil mith 'ribbtlds |^y, 
And <m the icnivies the^saUisd '<ifi^ittg (bty r 
That done, ril Afieed, nsysdf, the'#jt€^ft'e6'sh»^e, 
And finish 'what irematihs, ^ich pkfit^ cbfe. 
Then, hastenihg >h(im9^ ^erfe ^<}hHfll^ 6f s^irebt 

Bedeck niy iiares, ^Ai^ilr, diMo^tid: Pd^fers, 
rU offer ihdsnire the!rt, altifd at thfc ^hrftfe 
or higknt Jdvfe, ^my faYkfier^s gdd, Md Mitit ; 
There %tll I ^cfltt^r «¥ery tKid <h»t >b!k)^, 
And er^y ^tlnt Cbe VariMTs Viol^ Iciiows. 
All savours here of Joy : luxuriant bay 
t)*ershacles ^y portal, 'while the taper s Tay 
AtiticJpates'lhieft^st, aid'di<diefe<hfete¥dy day. 


lioteof thie beathen divtniti^. 

As life 'Wd¥tel gi«W older it gr^w ^6t^ fodlUk i Hhe jpis^ it i^ 
how Imagiiieil^ VMlgbft be ih^ffkd c^with ftym^hat less tbl&'ftA 
IMiyn^^sat'; m^i thrs p^i^uaskyfi -g^ve rise to a t!idtisiiin<l afasurditlest 
•uoh «9 the mutMiVig fttid ^ir«^ufdihg 'Still practised m barbarotts 
caamrk»» thtfe '^mffifitc ottoitt^ persoinlil ^aixty«^&e vowing of be- 
oMUHtM^mild I kno^ Dot w^nct. Tbe bttk* wife k** {^rtonkl beauty :" 
it waft dnmbeH %)tJk Xil^coftimoki caV^ atid trfrectfon, msd iberbfork 
not thought unworthy to be tendered in a ralkmfty like this, as a 
kfod 0f vlciimi W^tittig Itk Me^ Tlife 4 l^ieve 16 bte tte tilte Us- 
tory df tfaNMO vowi. 

V'er. 159. «.J^ i- the titpcrs ray ^c] " It seems extra* 

©rdiniiry/' '%a,p my loAtbed friend Mf. Ohimttio\nh " that Persios 
sbouid Sheer nit the Je\v^ fot ligtiting ltfra|$s 4t their VeltiVidsy as tk 
liknitwr pmetice^as commvyn to the liomahl. fivin upbn occii'- 
. »imi of dor^esOiek rejificihg^ t)^ d66h of tb6 boAsb ^Hh^fatitf wftk 

8ATiR£ XII. JUVENAL. V. 131—141. 385 

Nor think, Corvinus, interest fires my breast : 
Catullus, for whose sake my house is drest, 
Has three sweet boys, who all such hopes destroy, 
And nobler views excite my boundless joy. 
Yet who besides, on such a barren friend, 
Would waste a sickly pullet ? who would spend 
So vast a treasure, where no hopes prevail. 
Or for a FATHER sacrifice a quail ? — 
But should the symptoms of a slight disease 
The childless Paccius or Gallita seize. 
Legions of flatterers to the fanes repair, 
And han^, ip rows, their votive tablets there. 

laurels, and illuminated with lamps. Juvenal in a beautiful sa- 
tire thus expresses himself, 

** — ^— Longos erexit janua ramos 
** £t matutinis operitur festa lucernis." 

It appears from Tertullian, that the Christians soon adopted 
this practice:" (rather, perhaps, continued it after their conver- 
sion from paganism:) '^ Sed luceant^ inquit (Chmtus) opera 
vtitra. At nunc lucent tabenut et jantut nosirce: plures jam inve- 
nia Ethmcorum fores sine lucemis et laurels quam Ckristianorum" 
Trans, of Pers. 170. 

I had written a great deal on this custom, before I perceived 
that my note was swelling to an essay; ibi omnis — Briefly, this 
solemn lighting of lamps was, undoubtedly, the primal indication 
of idolatry ; the first profone ceremony which took |^ace when 
men fell from worshipping the Father of Light, to the adoration of 
the noblest material object, the sun ; of which those artificial 
fires were the most obviaus symbol. The institution itself, that 
of the Festival of Lamps, shows the universality of this specious 
worship ; as it would be difficult to point out a region, in which it 
has not, at one period ox other, prevailed. It extends even now, 
though the origin and object of it haye been forgotten for ages, 
over more than half the habitable globe. 

Tl)e transition of this illumination, from a mark of veneration 
to a simple type of joy and festivity, is neither singular nor difH« 
cult to explain \ but I must have done with the subject. 


386 SATIRE XII. JUVENAL, v. 143—166. 


Nay, some with vows of hecatombs will come-— 
For yet no elephants are sold at Rome ; 
The breed, to Latium and to us unknown, 
Is only found beneath the burning 2one : 
Thence to our shores, by swarthy Moors convey *d. 
They roam at large through the Rutulian shade. 
Kept for the imperial pleasure, envied fate. 
And sacred from the subject, and the state ! 
Though their progenitors, in days* of yore, 
Did worthy service, and to battle bore 
Whole cohorts; taught the general's voice to know, 
And rushy themselves an army, on the foe. 
But what avails their worth ! could gold obtain 
So rare a creature, worth might plead in vain : 
Novius, without delay, their blood would shed, 
To raise his Pacciusf rom a£Giiction*s bed ; 
An offering sacred to the great design. 
And worthy of the votaries, and the shrine ] 
Pacuvius, did our laws the crime allow, 
The fairest of his numerous slaves would vow ; 
The blooming boy, the love-inspiring maid. 
With garlands crown, and to the temple lead ; 
Nay, seize his Iphigene, prepared to wed. 
And drag her to the altar from the bed, 

Ver. 165. Nay 9 seize his Iphigene^ «j-c.] Of this trite feet, the 
English reader, to save the trouble of turning to his school-books, 
may take the following account from Holyday : **^ The Grecians 
having kill'd a hind consecrated to Diana, were by the offended 
goddess a long time detain'd at the haven of Aulis with a contrary 
wind. Whereupon consulting the Oracle, and being told that, to 
pacific the goddess, they roust sacrifice Agamemnon's dau^ter, 
Iphigenia ; her parents, by the deceit or eloquence of Ulysses, 
were perswaded to consent that she should be sacrificed. But when 

SATIRE XII. JUVENAL, V. 167—184. 387 

Though hopeless, like the Grecian sire, to find. 
In happy hour, the substituted hind. 

And who shall say my countryman does ill ? 
A thousand dhips are trifles to a Will ! 
For Paccius, should the fates his health restore, 
May cancel every item framed before, 
(Won by his friend's vast merits, and beset, 
On all sideSi by the inextricable net,) 
And, in one line, convey plate, jewels, gold, 
laands^ every thing to him, " to have and hold.'* 
With victory crown'd, Pacuvius struts along, 
And smiles contemptuous on the baffled throng, 
Then coui^ts his gains, and deems himself o*erpaid. 
For the Qheap murder of oi^e wretched maid. 

Health to the man! and may he thus get more 
Than Nero plunder' d ; pile his shining ore 
High, mountain high : in years ^ Nestor prove. 
And, loving none, ne'er know another's love ! 

the time came, Diaoa cqnveig^ed her away unto the Taarick 
Chersonese ; placing in her stead a hind for a ready sacrifice/' 

Vsa. 182. Than Nero pbmder'd; ^cj] The rapacity of this 
tyrant (see p. 310) was proverbial. The sums he extorted from 
the provinces under various pretences exceed all belief, and almost 
all arithmetick. He gave no office, says Suetonius, without the 
addition of this special charge : Scu quid miH opus sit ; et hoc 
agamuSf ne quis quicquam habeat. You know what I want ; let us 
manage in such a manner, that nobody ^Ise may have any thing. 



CaLVINUS had ieft a nnn of money in ike hand* of a confidential 
penon : no uncommon thing in those days^ when there were no jmb* 
tick banke. Thig person^ when he came to redemand it ^ forswore the 
deposit. The in£gnation and fury expressed by Cahinus at tiis 
breach ^ trust seem to have reached the ears of his friend Juvenalf 
who endeavours to sooth and comfort him under his toss. 

Such is the simple foundation on which the beauty structure 
before us is raised/ ft is needless to analyse it^for the different to- 
ptcks of consolation and adoiee follow one another so naturally^ that 
it woM oniy be f recapitulate in less forcible language what is 
already rendered too dear for doubt ^ and too intelligible for iUuS" 

Juvenal is here almost a Christian. I say, almost : for though 
his ignoranu of '* that light which was come into the world" did 
not enable him to number among the dreadful consequences of impe* 
nitent guilty the certain punishment of the life to come ; yet on every 
other topick that can alarm or terrify the_ sinner^ he is energetick and 
awful beyond example. Perhaps the horrours of a troubled conscience 
were never depicted xoith such impressive solemnity as in this Satire. 
Bishop Burnet recommended the tenth Satire to his Clergy^ in 
his Pastoral Letters; the present would have been more to his purpose. 
It is not» indeed^ sopoetick, sofervidy so majestical, as that; but^ 
on the other hand, it enters more into the common business of life. 
All cannot be statesmen and kings; but all may be injured In/ trea- 
chery, and all have need to be reminded^ that guilt sometimes finds 
its punishment on this side the grace ! 



V. 1—6. 

JVIan, wretched maiii whenever he stoops to sin, 
Feels, with the act, a strong remorse within ; 
'Tis the first vengeance : Conscience tries the cause, 
And vindicates the violated laws ; 
Though the bribed Praetor at their sentence spurn, 
And falsify the verdict of the Urn. 

Vsa. 5. Though the bribed Frcetor 4^.] This can only be un- 
derstood by a reference to the judicial forms of the Romans. In 
criminal causes, the Pnetor Urbanus, who sat as chief judge, put 
into an urn the names of his assessors, (a kind of jurymen, who, 
to the amount of some hundreds, were annually chosen for this 
purpose,) from which he drew out the number prescribed by law, 
usually about fifty, who sat by him at the trial. When the plead- 
ings were over, they retired, and deliberated on what had passed. 
On their return, they had each three waxen tablets put into their 
hands, one of which was marked with the letter C. for condemnor 
guilty; another with the letter A. for absdvo^ not guilty; and 
the third with the letters N. L. for non liquet^ I am doubtful. 
One of these tablets each person dropt privately into the urn, which 
was then brought to the Prstor, who took them oiit, and pro- 
nounced sentence according to the decision of the majority. 

In this last transaction, « perverse or corrupt judge had an op- 
portunity of juggling, which the history of those times proves he 
did not always let slip. It is to this Juvenal alludes. 

39* sATitB XXIX. JUVENAL, r. 7— a2. 

What says the world, not always, friend, unjust, 
Of this late injury, this breach of trust ? 
That thy estate so small a loss can bear. 
And that the evil, now no longer rare, 
Is one of that inevitable set. 
Which man is born to suffer and forget 
Then moderate thy grief ; *tis mean to shovr 
An anguish disproportion*d to the blow. 

But thou, so new to crosses, as to feel 
The slightest portion of the slightest ill, 
Art fired with rage, because a friend forswears 
The sacred pledge intrusted to his cares !'— 
What, thou, Galvinus, bear so weak a mind, 
Thou, who hast left full threescore years behind! 
Heavens, have they taught thee nothing^! nothing, 

friend ! 
And art thou grown gray-headed to no end I— 

Vkr. 7. What says the worlds 4'^J Q^^ seniire jnttas, 4^. I 
understand this passage differently from all the translators : tbej 
suppose that it alludes to the general indignation of the people at 
the fraud practised on Calvinus ; thus Dryden, 

*< ■ publick hate 

** Pursues the cheat, and proves the villain's fate ;** 

misled, perhaps, by the sed, which immediately follows; but id 
is not always a disjunctive ; in this place, for example, I take it 
to be rather an intensive conjunctive, if the expression my be 
allowed : They not only say what is usually said on such occa- 
sions, bftt they add, that thy estate, &c. 

Juvenal surely could not mean to produce one of his strong 
arguments in the outset : he proceeds on a different plan, and, 
before he enters on the guilt of the offender, endeavours to mo- 
derate the passionate transports of his friend. For the rest; be 
seems almost to have translated Menander in the latter part ot 
this paragraph : 

SATIRE Eiii. JUVENAL. T. 23— 42. 393 

Wisdom, I know, contains a powerful charm, 
To vanquish fortune, or, at least, disarm : 
Blest they who walk by her unerring rule J — 
And blest are those, who tutor*d in the school 
Of life, have learned with patience to submit. 
Nor shake the ponderous yoke they cannot quit. 

What day so sacred, which no guilt profanes, 
No secret fraud, no open rapine, stains ? 
What hour, in which no dark assassins prowl. 
Nor point the sword for hire, nor drug the bowl ? 
And why ? the good are few! "the valued file'* 
Scarce pass the Gates of Thebes, the Mouths of 

For NOW an age is come, that teems with crimes, 
Beyond all precedent of former times ; 
An age so bad, that Nature cannot frame 
A metal base enough to give it name ! 
Yet you, indignant at a paltry cheat, 
Gall heaven and earth to witness the deceit, 
With cries as deafening as the shout that breaks 
From the bribed audience^ when Faesidius speaks. 

VcR. 3d* ■ THE GOOD AR£ FEW ! 4*^.] Lucian ex- 

patiates with much pleasantry on this scarcity of virtuous cha- 
racters. He calls a good naati xf^i*^ hawftn^^ and, as he sar- 
castically addSy vpo voX\ii ta^iAMv^ tK TV &«* ovi^ nf Aoyiutff om 

<|lVpO* f0M»<^9 OfMlV^ HTU UOi fMX^ 09. 

VEa, 41, - the shout that breaks 

From the bribed audience^ when Fotsidius speaks^ I 
know nothing of this Faesidius, who is attacked with a stroke of 
oblique satire, for purchasings such vehement applause by bribes* 
The practice, however, was neither new nor singular, though it 
was undoubtedly carried to an unusual height in our author's 
time. I have already estimated tlie dole (p. 21) at about twenty- 
pence of our money ; and this appears to be the customary fee 

394 SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL. ▼• 43— 59« 

Dotard in nonage ! are you to be told 
What loves, what graces, deck another*s gold ? 
Are yon to learn what peals of mirth resound, 
At your simplicity, from all around ? 
When you step forth, and, with a serious air, 
Bid them abstain from perjury, and beware 
To tempt the altars — for a God is there ! 
Idle old man ! there was, indeed, a time. 
When the rude natives of this happy clime 
Cherish'd such dreams: 'twas ere the king of 

To change his sceptre for a sithe Was driven ; 
Ere Juno yet the sweets of love had tried. 
Or Jove advanced beyond the caves of Ide : 
'Twas when no gods indulged in sumptuous feasts, 
No Ganimede, no Hebe served the guests ; 
No Vulcan, with his sooty labours foul, 
Limp*d round, officious, with the nectar'd bowl ; 

for a morning's shouting : as Pliny writesy that two of his servants 
uere seduced awa}*^ from him, to shout for that som : — but the 
whole passage is so apposite to the line before us, and pmsents so 
curious picture of the practice alluded to, that I shall give it 
intire. Nunc^ refractis pudoris et reverentue clamtrUf omnia jxo- 
tent omnibus. Nee inducuntur^ sed irruwfmnt, Sequuntwr audi' 
tores actoribus similes, conducti et redempti tnancipes : convea^ur 
in media basilica, vbi tarn palam sportula qnam in triclinto dantur, 

Heri duo nomenclatores mei (habent sane cetatem eontm qtu 

nuper togas sumpseruntj temis denarus ad laudandum trahebanlur ; 
tanti constat ut sis disertissimus ! Lib. 11. £p. 14. 

Ver. 53. To change his sceptre SfC,"] Orig. his diadem, i. «. 
says Casaubon, fascia Candida, a ^ite fillet. I think it is Diod. 
Siculus who tells us that Bacchus invented the diadem for the 
cure of the headach : I hope he found it answer. Very few of 
those who have tried it since his time, I believe, have experienced 
much relief from it. 

sATifti XIII. JUVENAL. V. 6o~73; 395 

But each in private dined : *twas when the throng 

Of godlingSy now beyond the scope of song, 

The courts of heaven, in spacious ease, possest, 

And with a lighter load, poor Atlas prest ! 

Ere Neptune's lot the watery world obtained, 

Ere Dis and his Sicilian consort reign' d ; 

Ere Tityus and his ravening bird were known, 

Ixion's wheel, or Sisyphus's stone : 

While yet the shades confessed no tyrant's power, 

And all below was one Elysian bower ! 

Vice was a phoenix in that blissful time, 
Believed, but never seen : and 'twas a crime, 
Worthy of death, such awe did years engage, 
If manhood rose not up to reverend age, 

Vek. 60. ■ 'twas when the throng 

Of godlingSj 4^.] The commentators observe, that 
Juvenal sneers in this place at the monstrous pol^^theism of the 
Romans. Of this there can be no doubt ; and, in fact, he seldom 
misses an opportunity of so doing : here however, he had a further 
and more important end in view ; for his Satire is directly level- 
led at the frequent apotheoses of the Caesars, in which the base 
and abject herd of Rome contentedly acquiesced. 

Tbe deifying of such characters, and of a multitude of ima- 
ginary beings little less odious and contemptible, is allc^d by im<- 
plication, as the prime cause of the increased depravity of the 
times. To have spoken plainer would have been unsafe ; to have 
left the subject untouched, unlike our author : I believe, indeed, 
that he did not escape with impunity even for this ; for it was 
written when poor Atlas was more " pressed" than ever* 

VzR. 73. If manhood rose not vp to reverend agCf 4^.] All 
profone and sacred history supports Juvenal in his assertion re- 
specting the reverence anciently paid to old age. It was synony- 
mous with power: it continued so, while men led a pastoral life; 
nor did they know any other judge or leader than the aged, till a 
thirst for rapine spread amongst them, and wisdom and justice 
were compelled to g^ve way to activity, strength, and brutal 
ferocity. . • 

Solomon, by a- beautiful figure, calb a virtuous old age ^* a 

396 SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL, v. 74— 75^ 

And youth to manhoodi though a larger hoard 
or hips and acorns graced the stripling*s board. 

crown of dignity '** and even so early as the days of Moses, we 
find this attention to age the subject of a positive command : 
'* Thou shah rise up before the hoaiy head, and honour the fiice 
of an old man." Levit. xix. v. 32. 

EijpDC xA« y%feui9 maiim* ytnff ctrei!Kai>mw 

HftaCvf ofM^xa vuTf^ iocuf ThfiMtat ytfmi^ PktM^L/ng. 

And even among our author's countrymen, long after the golden 
period of which he speaks, age was no less venerated than vene- 
rable : 

** Magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia cani, 
** Inque suo pretio rug& senilis erat. 

** Turn senior juvenum, non indignantibus ipsis^ 

<* Ibat, et interior si comes unus erat. 
'' Verba quis auderet coram sene digna rubore 

** Dicere ? censuram longa senecta dabat/' Fait, Uh* v. 

Among our poets, I know not where to find a more beautiful 
passage on the subject than this, which is evidently taken from 
the text : 

*' Colax, It is an impious age. There was a time, 

'' And pity 'tis so good a time had wings 

'* To fly away, when reverence was paid 

** To the gray head : 'twas held a sacrilege 

" Not expiable, to deny respect 

<< To one of years and gravity." Mutti Looking Glau. 

I cannot conclude this note, long as it already is, without the fol- 
lowing apposite passage : 

" KnatDelL When I was young, he lived not in the stews, 
** Durst have conceiv'd a scorn, and utter'd it 
*^ On a grey head : age was authority 
** Against a giber, and a man had then 
** A certain reverence paid unto his years, 
*' That had none due unto his life : 39 much, 
^ The sanctity of some prevail'd for others ! 
*^ But now we all are fall'n ; youth from their fear, 
*' And age from that which bred it, good example." 

Every Man in his Humour* 
That ttrain I heard was of a higher mood : this is, indeed, what 
Dryden calb ** invading the ancients like a monaich :" it is not a 
theft, but a victory. 

SATiKB XHi. JUVENAL. V. 76—93. 397 

Then, then, was age so venerable thought, 
That every day increase of honour ^brought ; 
And children, in the springing down, revered 
The sacred promise oF a hoary beard. 
Now, if a friend, miraculously just, 
Restore the ancient pledge, with all its rust, 
*Tis deem'd a portent, worthy to appear 
Among the wonders of the Tuscan year ; 
A prodigy of faith, which threats the state, 
And a ewe lamb alon£ can expiate ! — 
Struck at the view, if now I chance to see 
A man of ancient worth and probity. 
To pregnant mules the monster I compare, 
Or fish, upturned beneath the wondering share: 
Anxious and trembling for the wo to come, 
As if a shower of stones had fairn on Rome ; 
As if a swarm of bees, together clung, 
Down from the Capitol, thick-clustering, hung ; 

Vbb. 83. Among the wonders of the Tiucan year;] Tktucis 
digna libdUs. These books, in which, amongst other thiiigi, aU 
the marvellous events of the years were treasured up, seem to 
have been something like our almanacks. They are called Tus- 
can, either because they were still compiled by people from that 
country, or because the old Romans, a race equally ignorant and 
credulous, first learnt from them the juggling arts of soothsaying 
and diyination. 

Ver. 89. — ^— - the wondering share :'i Henninius, 
Bays Doctor Jortiu, has given in the text mirandiSf Lubin says we 
must read miraHtiSf not mirantif Gataker conjectures, (God knows 
why,) Urantu These honest men were all disposed to feed upon 
. acorns ; while other copies had mtraa/t, which was very well ex- 
plained by Britannicus, sub aratro miranti, vt rei inanimct dederit 
sensvm. Miranti aratro is just such another expression as irato 
sistro, esuriens ramus o/ttMe, 4^« 

V£E« 92. As^ a 9t»Qrm of hees^ 4rc.] This is said by Tadtus 

398 SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL, r. 94 — 104. 

Or Tiber, swolFn to madness, burst away, 
And rolled a i^ilky deluge to the sea. 

And dost thou at a trivial loss repine ! 
What if another, by a friend like thine, 
Is stript of ten times more ! a third again, 
Of what his bursting chest would scarce contain I 
For 'tis so prompt, so easy, to despise 
The Immortals now, that, safe from human eyes, 
We laugh to scorn the witness of the skies. 
Mark, with how bold a voice and fix'd a brow, 
The villain dares his treachery disavow ! 

to have really happened in the reign of Claudius. (Ann. xxu 64*) 
But the Roman history is full of such prodigies. The soothsayers 
always considered this as portentous of calamity ; and it if pleasant 
to see with what grave arguments the elder Pliny refutes tbdr 
errours : Apes ostenta faciuntf (he believed that they were omi- 
nous) pritata et publica: uva dependente in domihiu tempiitvep 
sctpc expiata magnis eventibus. Sedirt in ore trfantii Phtonitf 
tunc etiam suacitatcm illam protdulcU eloquU portendentes, Stderc 
in castris Drusi Imp, cum protperriine piignatuin.apud Arbakmtm 
est ; haudquaquam Haruspicum conjectura^ qui dirmn id oftenimm 
exist imant. Lib. xi. 17. 

If wc wish to know why the swarming of bees should be 
so alarming, Marcellinus will inform us : In domo Barbmiioms 
examen apes fecere perspicuum : iuperque hoc ei f fr od^gienom 
gnaros consukntiy discrimtn magnum portendi responsum est^ am^ 
jectnra scil, tally qtiod hct volucres post compositeis sedeB^ ^^P^V^ 
congestas, fumo peUuntur et turbntento softitu tymbahrvmm I^b. 
j^viii. 3. 

Nothing can be clearer ! it may, however, be worth while to 
add, for the sake of the credulous, that Barbatio and hi& &nuly 
tell sacrifices to the accident, which their simplicity- alone erected 
into a prodigy. 

Yer. 96. And dost thou at a trhiai loss repine /] The sum of 
which Calvinus had been defrauded, and about which he milkes 
such a clamour, was only ten thousand sesterces ; abcrat eighty 
pounds sterling ! Let us hope (for bis credit) that the crime of 
violated friendship afflicted him more deeply tharr the loss of his 

SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL. Y. 105—122. 399 

^* By the aIl-hallow*d orb that flames above, 

" I HAD IT NOT : By the red bolts of Jove, 

'^ By the wing*d shaft that laid the Centaur low, 

" By Dian*s arrows, by Apollo's bow, 

" By the strong lance that Mars delights to wield, 

" By Neptune's trident, by Minerva's shield, 

'^ By all that heaven's dread armories contain — 

" Nay, IF I had" — proceeds the impious strain, 

'* I'll sacrifice my only son, though dear, 

^' And eat him, soused in Pharian vinegar.'' 

There are, who think that chance is all in all, 
That no First Cause directs the eternal ball : 
But that brute Nature, in her blind career^ 
Varies the seasons, and brings round the year : 
These rush to every shrine with equal ease. 
And, owning none, swear by what Power you please. 

Others believe, and but believe, a god, 
And think that punishment may follow fraud ; 

VxB. 115. There artf who think. ^c] The old Scholiast has a 
very just observation on this passage : DicU quam ob causam ho" 
mines perjurenty cum dicant quod non diis agimurj sed fortumt 
casikui. Quid ergo dH nocdmni Um^ si fortuna disponente vita 
hominum regiiur f 

It would be well, methinks, if the dreamers on virtuous com- 
munities of atheists would seriously meditate on such passages as 
these. I should pay the most moral unbeliever of the present 
day no small compliment, perhaps, if I allowed him to rank with 
Juvenal in virtue : yet Juvenal could see that this was insufficient 
to control the vicious propensities of mankind ; which can only 
be held in order by the solemn conviction that there is ak 
£YS which marks their ways; an overseer who, in the*sublim^ 
language of Callimachus, is seated, 

AxpK I* vlaX»i0'0'»9| iwot)'!^ e» n iucj^a 

40O SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL, v. 123— 132# * 

Yet they forswear, and, reasoning on the deed^ 
Thus reconcile their actions to their creed: 
" Let Isis storm, if to revenge inclined, 
** And with her angry sistrum strike me bKnd, 
*' So, wilh my eyes, she ravish not my ore, 
*' But let me keep the pledge which I forswore. 
*' Are putrid sores, catar« us that seldom kill, 
** And crippled limbs, forsooth, so great an ill ! 
^^ Ladas, if not stark mad, would change, no doubt^ 
<* His flying feet for riches and the gout ; 

Ver. 126. And with her angry sistrvm strike me bUndt'] Theto 
Is a propriety in this punishment, which has es<;ap(^ the notice 
of the commentators. Blindness is a disease more frequent in 
Egypt than elsewhere : its infliction, therefore, is rightly assigned 
to an Egyptian deity. Travellers still speak with astonishment oC 
the numerous hospitals for the blind, to be found in every part of 
that country. The evil isj>robably occasioned, in great measure^ 
by the nitrous quality gf the air, 9nd by those dreadful typbons 
or whirlwinds which sweep before them an impalpable sand, so 
hoi that it pierces the kchrymal gland like a flake of flying firew 
And, indeed, when no wind prevails, if the eye be extended over 
the smooth and arid plains which lie at a certain distance from 
the Nile, while the sun is at any great elevation, it is afiected by 
a tremulous motion iu the air, just as if it were looking at the 
fiercest flame. 

The maladies that follow, the phthisis and the vomicae pntres^ 
are also unusually prevalent in Egypt. 

Ver. 131. Ladas, jfnot stark tnad^ ^qj] Ladas was a celebrated 
runner of antiquity. Solinus thus speaks of him : Frimam pabnam 
Velocitatis Ladas quidam adeptvs est, qui ita supra cavum putccrem 
cursitffcity ut arenis pendentibus nulla indicia relinqueret vcstigi^' 
rum : but this is not th^ only wonderful story told of him. Ju- 
venal, however, seems to have had in view a Greek epigram on |^ 
Ifatue of this man by the celebrated Myro : 

Such, as when flying with the whirlwinds^ haste. 
In your foot's point your eager soul you placed, 
8uch, Ladas, here by Myro's skill you breathe, 
Ardeut through all your frame, for Pisa's wreath. 

SATWixiii. JUVENAL. V. 133— 154. 4or 

" For what do they procure him ? mere renown, 
" And the starved honour of an olive crown. 
*• But grant the wrath of heaven be great ; 'tis 

And days, and months, and years, precede the 
" If t^en, to punish all, the gods decree, 
*' When, in their vengeance, will they cometo me ? 
" But I, perhaps, their anger may appease, 
•• For they are wont to pardon faults like these r 
*♦ At worst, there's hope ; for ev«7 age, and clime, 
" See different fates attend the self-same crime ; 
** Some made by villainy, and some undone, 

" W'u^ ^*'" '*^®°'' * scaffold, That a throne." 

These sophistries, to fix awhile suffice 
The mind yet shuddering at the thought of vice ; 
And thus confirm'd, at the first call they come, 
JNay, rush before you to the sacred dome ; 
Chide your slow pace, drag you, amazed, along, 
And play the raving Phantom to the throng. 
(For impudence the vulgar suffrage draws, 
And seems the assurance of a righteous cause.) 
While you, poor wretch, like Stentor, 'mid the 

Or rather Homer's Mars, exclaim aloud; 

fsaTv,,, voJx a/Jwracter in the dmma of Xj. Catulli^ 

^ISyeLf^L fl' """^ '^i '?.'; "" " "njecturaj here, J 
to fref Wm«?7f' ''•'!."'« P«'-J"'^«J villains in the text, endeavoured 

pi^lh^rZlII^''' ^rrl' ^''"' '^^^ «*««'••] In this 
imSnt h^m„ • i"**"** ""*"'«•« himself with a good-humoured 
smile at Homer, who represents Stentor, or rather Juno und« 


4M sATiKfi XIII. JUVENAL, v. 155—174* 

*< Jove i Jove ! will nought thy indignation ronse ^ 
*' Canst thou, in silence, hear these faithless vows, 
<' When all tliy fury, on the slaves accurst, 
** From lips of marble or of brass should burst ! 
*' Or else, why burn we incense at thy shrine, 
*^ And heap thy altars with the fat of swiiie, 
^ When we might ask redress, for aught I see, 
" As wisely of Bathyllus, as of thee !" • 

Rash man ! — but hear, in turn, what I propose. 
To mitigate, perhaps remove, your woes ; 
I, who no knowledge of the schools possess, 
Gynick, or Stoick, differing but in dress, 
Or thine, calm Epicurus, whose pure mind ' 
To one small garden every want confined : 
In desperate cases able doctors fee, 
But trust your pulse to Philip's boy«-<>r me* 

If no example of so foul a deed, 
On earth be found ; I urge no more : proceed. 
And beat your breast, and rend your hoary hair ; 
*Tis just : — ^u)r thus our losses we declare ; 

his appesrance, sbouting as loud as fiftv» and Man as nine or ten 
thousand men in the beat of battle, t^la ^vteiyoiltt Af«0^ 

VEa. 166. Cynkk^ or Stoick, differing but ta dreu^ Salmasttis 
(in Jul. Capitol.) says that the Cynicks wore no tunick under 
their cloak, which the Stoicks did. This, then, our author sar- 
castically remarks, was the only material distinction between the 
two sects : for as to the difference of opinion, be bcems to think 
it unworthy of notice 1 The truth of the matter is, that although 
he every where treats the founders of the different acbools with a 
certain portion of respect, yet he had too much good sense not 
to discover that the frivolous and idle contests of their followers, 
(a vagabond, di<iputatious, and profligate horde, which swarmed 
at Rome about this time,) merited nothing but contempt. For 
Epicurus, see Sat. xit. 

8ATIKI XIII. JUVENAL. Y. 175—194. 403 

And money is bewaird with deeper sighs, 
Than friends or kindred, and with louder cries. 
There none dissemble, none, with scenick art. 
Affect a sorrow foreign from the heart ; 
Content in squalid garments to appear, 
And vex their lids for one hard-gotten tear : 
No, genuine drops fall copious from their eyes. 
And their breasts labour with unbidden sighs. 
But when you see each court of justice thronged, 
With crowds, like you, by faithless friendship 

See men abjure their bonds, though duly framed. 
And oft revised by every party named. 
While their own hand and seal, in every eye. 
Flash broad conviction, and evince the lie ; 
Shall you alone on Fortune's smiles presume. 
And claim exemption from the common doom f 
—From a white hen, forsoothy'twas yours to spring. 
Ours, to be hatch'd beneath some luckless wing! 

Pause from your grief, and, with impartial eyes, 
Survey the daring crimes that round you rise ; 

Ver. 191. — From a white A«i, ^-c] '* Alkt gaUincB Jiiius^ 
Stapyiton says, Sonne of a white hen, was a Roman proverb 
amounting to as much as ours of» wrapt in's mother's smock.*' 
I have looked into the commentators for the origin of so sin- 
gular an expression, without being able to find any thing satis- 
fcctory, Erasmus, who is sometimes successfu* enough in his 
conjectures, has little to the purpose here, except the very obvi- 
ous position, that xoiite was a lucky colour. Columella observes 
that white hens are not fruitful. Upon which Curio remarks that 
it is wonderful how the proverb (chick of a white hen) should 
have come to signify fortunate and happy. It is so : unlebs we 
suppose, for want of a better solution, that it was the rarity, and 
not the felicity^ of the object, which the old adage had in view. 


404 SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL*, v. I95'^2r2r 

Your injuries, then, ivill scarce deserve a name, 
And your &lse friend be half absolved from blame! 
What*s he, poor knave ! to those v/ho stab for hire. 
Who kindle, and then aid, the midnight fire? 
Say, ivhat to those who, from the hoary shrine. 
Tear the huge vessels age hath stamped divine, 
Offerings of price, by grateful nations given, 
And crowns inscribed, by pious kings, to heaven? 
What to the minor thieves, who, missing these, 
Will scrape the gilded thighs of Hercules, 
Strip Neptune of his silvery beard, and peel 
Castor's leaf-gold, where spread from head to heel? 
(What will they not, who, with irreverence dire. 
Steal and melt down the Thunderer entire !) 
Or what to those who, with pernicious craft, 
Mingle and set to sale the deadly draught ; 
Or those, who in a raw ox hide are bound, 
And, with an ill-starr'dape,poorsufferer ! drown*d? 

Ver. 212. And^ xciihan iU-starrd ape^ ^c] Parricides were 
sewed up in a Iiide, tQgf llier with an ape, a dog» a cock, and a 
viper, and flung into the nearest river. Livy says, that the fint 
who unilerwent this punishment w)as P. Malleolus, convicted of 
murdering bis mother. It is not easy to account fur the singular 
choice of animals : the viper, indeed, as being anciently supposed 
to eat its way into the world through the intrails of its dam, was 
not unaptly selected ; but what had the rest done ! Cicerc gites 
several reasons for drowning the parricide, which are all unsatis* 
factory, and therefore not worth repeating. Juvenal seems to 
pity the poor ape ; and there is reason in that. 

One of the translators conjectures that these anitnals were fixed 
on ** from a persuasion that, by deliberately preying on the flesh 
of the criminal, they prolonged his punishment." This is a most 
luminous idea. We all know how deUberately drowning animals 
feed on flesh, especially if, as in the present case, moit of them 
happen not to be carnivorous. 


SATIRE xiii. JUVENAL. V. 213—225. 405 

Y^t these — how small a portion of the crimes 
That stain the records of those dreadful times, 
And Gallicus, the city prsefect, hears, 
From light's first dawning, till it disappears ! 
The state of morals would you learn ? — Repair ^ 
To his tribunal ; wait a little there, v 

And then complain, then murmur, if you dare ! j 

Say, whom do (goitres on the Alps surprise? 
In Meroe whom the breast's enormous size ? 
Whom locks, in Germany, of golden hue, 
And spiral curls, and eyes of sapphire blue? 
Mone : for the prodigy, among them shared, 
Becomes mere nature, and escapes regard. 

Ver. 220. Sat/, whom do goitrts ifC^ These goitres are pret- 
tily poiutcd out by Sbakspcare, to whose knowledge they had not 
long been familiar : 

" When we were boys, 

^' Who would believe that there were mountaineers 

** Dew-lapp'd like bulls, whose throats had hanging at them 

** Wallets of flesh ! people, which now we find, 

** Each putter out of one for five, will bring us 

" Good warrant of." Tempest. 

Ver. 223. _— and eyes of sapphire blue?] Tlic 

people of the south «eem to have regarded, as a phenomenon, 
those blue eyes, which with us are so common, and, indeed, so 
characteristick of beauty, as to form an indispensable requisite of 
every Daphne of Grub-street. Tacitus, however, from whom 
Juvenal perhaps borrowed the expression, adds an epithet to ccr- 
ruUan^ which makes the common interpretation doubtful. The 
Gerroansy he says, (De Mor. Ger. 4,) have, truces et caruUi 
oculi, fierce, lively blue eyes. With us, this colour is always in- 
dicative of a soft, voluptuous languor. What then, if ne have 
hitherto mistaken the sense, and instead of blue, should have said 
sea-grecB f This is not an uncommon colour, especially in the 
north. I have seen many Norwegian seamen with eyes of this 
Inie, which were invariably quick, keen, and glancing. 

Shakspeare, whom nothing escaped, has put an admirable de* 
tcription of them into the mouth of Juliet's nurse: 


4p6 SATIRB XIII. JUVENAL, t. aa6— 333* 

When clouds of Thracian birds obscure the sky^ 
To arms ! to arms ! the desperate Pigmies cry : 
But soon, defeated in the unequal fray, 
Di8order*d flee ; while, pouncing on their prey. 
The victor cranes descend, and, clamouring, bear 
The wriggling mannikins aloft in air. 
Here, could our climes to such a scene give birtb. 
We all should burst with agonies of mirth ; 

<' O he's a lovely man I an eagle, madam, 
** Hath not so green, so quick, so fiur an eye, 
« As Paris hath.'' 

Steevens, who had some glimpse of the meaniiig of this word, 
refers to an apposite passage in the Two Noble Kinsmen. It is ia 
£milia's address to IMaoa : 

" ^^— — — Oh vouchsafe 

** With that thy rare green eye, which never yet 

'< Beheld things maculate, &c. 

Vs a. 232. Hertt could our dimes to mtck a scait give MtA, ^] 
The facetious Domitian, whom we have seen, in the first Satire, 
amusing himself with bringing women and dwarfr into the litfs, 
seems, if I rightly understand Statins, to have treated himself 
with a spectacle of this kind : 

** Hie audax sutiit ordo pumilonum ; 
** Edunt vulneca, conserantque dextras, 
'* £t mortem sibi (qua manu I) minantur : 
** Ridet Mars pater, et cruenta Virtus 1" 

While these little creatures were fighting, a number of cranes 1^ 
pear to have been let loose about them: they did not, indeed, 
venture to attack them, for, as the poet, who was a spectator of 
the circumstaace, adds, they were alarmed at the increased fero- 
city of these European pigmies: 

** Casura&que vagis gnies rapinis 
** Mirantur pumilos ferociores !" 

What Juvenal might have thought of such a scene I know not, 
but Statius appears to have been highly diverted with it. Such 
were the contemptible amusements of this gloomy tyrant in lus 

retirement ! 

I must not forget a weighty objection of the grave Lobin, to 

There, unsurprised, they yiev the frequent fight. 
Nor smile at armies scarce a foot in height. 

<* Shall then no ill the perjured head attend, 
*^ No punishment overtake this faithless friend V* 
Suppose him seized, abandoned to your will. 
What more would rage ? to torture or to kill ; 
Yet still your loss, your injury would remain. 
And draw no retribution from. fats pain. 
*^ True ; but methinks the smallest drop of blood, 
^' Squeezed from his mangled limbs, would do me 

good : 
^^Reven^e, they say, and I believe their words^ 
^*A pleasure sweeter far than life affords," 
Who say ? the fools, whose passions, prone to ire» 
At slightest causes, or at none, take fire ; 
Whose boiling breasts, at every turn, overflow 
With rancorous gall : Ghrysippus said not so; 
Nor Thales, to our frailties clement still ; 
Nor that old man by sweet Hymettus' hill. 
Who drank the poison with unruffled soul, 
And dying, from his foes withheld the bowL 

the veracity of this little narrative. Juvenal says that the craoei 
soar atcft with the pigmies in their crooked talons, eurvis unguis 
bus : How can this be, says Lubin, when cranes have no crooked 
talons } Quomodo hoc a gruejieriposnt, qua quidem curcot ungues 
n<m habet f In truth, I cannot tell. I have, however, done what 
I could for niy author, and kept the obnoxious word out of 

Vbr. 251. Nor that old man hf sweet Hymettus* hiU^] This is 
a charming designation of Socrates by the place of his residence. 
The bill of Hymettus was not far from Athens : Juvenal calls it 
sweet Hymettus, because it was much celebrated for the richness 
of its honey. 

4o8 8ATIRBXIII. Jl)V£KAL. T. ij4-^7i« 

Divine philosophy ! by whose pure light 
We first distinguish, then pursue the right. 
Thy power the breast from every errour frees, 
And weeds out all its vices by degrees : — 
Illumined by thy beam, revenge, we find, 
The abject pleasure of an abject mind, 
And hence so dear to poor, weak, woman- 

But why are those, Galvinus, thought to scape 
Unpunish*d, whom, in every fearful shape, 
Guilt still pursues, and conscience, ne*er asleep, 
Wounds with incessant strokes, *^ not loud but 

While the vex'd mind, her own tormentor, plies 
A scorpion scourge, unmark*d by human eyes ! 
Trust me, no tortures which the poets feign, 
Can match the fierce, the unutterable pain 
He feels, who night and day, devoid of rest. 
Carries his own accuser in his breast 

A Spartan once the Oracle besought^ 
To solve a scruple which perplexed his thought, 

Ver. 265. While the veJ^d mindf SfcJ] I have already obscrred 
that I love to meet with our old writers in the traces of Juvenal, 
lie was evidently a favourite with them ; and the predelection 
may be considered as no slight indication of their taste and spirit* 
The following is a pretty close rendering of the text : 

« ■ , ■■■ ■ There's no punishment 

'' Like that to bear the witness in one's breast 

" Of perpetrated evils, when the mind 

" Beats it with bilent stripes/' Microca$mvs» 

Ver. 271. A Spartan once, ^c,} This is taken from Herodotus. 
To save the reader the trouble of turning to him, I shall briedy 
give the story. A Milesian had entrusted a sum of money to one 
Olaucus, a Spartan. After a time, the sons of the Milesian came 
to re-demand it. GIuucus affirmed that he had no recollection 

SATIRE XIII. JUVENAL. ▼. 273—286. 409 

And plainly tell him, if he might forswear 
A purse, of old, confided to his care. [no ! 

Shuddering, the priestess answered-—" Waverer, 
'* Nor shalt thou, for the doubt, unpunish*d go.** 
With that, he hasten'd to restore the trust ; 
But fear alone, not virtue, made him just : 
Hence he soon proved the Oracle divine. 
And all the answer worthy of the shrine ; 
JFor plagues pursued his race without delay. 
And swept them from the earth, like dust, away. 
By such dire sufferings did the wretch atone 
The crime of meditated fraud alone ! ^ 
For, IN THE £Y£ OF HEAVEN, a wicked deed 
Devised, is done : what, then, if he proceed ? — 

of tlie circumstance, and sent them away. As soon as they were 
gone, he hastened to Delphi, to inquire, as Juvenal says, whether 
he might safely forswear the deposit ? The priestess answered as 
m the text, but somewhat more at large ; and the terrified Spartim 
sent for the young Milesians, and restored the money. 

This story is appositely applied to the Athenians by Leuti- 
chydes, a Spartan prince, who concludes thus : *^ At the present 
day no descendant of Glaucus, nor any traces of his family are to 
be found; they are utterly extirpated from Sparta.'^ Beloe* 
The original is very strong : TKowns W9 tifn ri mvoyov^f ir» tf^, 

£rato. 8$. 

Ver, 285. Forj iv the eye of heaven, a wicked deed 

Devised^ is done ;] I did not call the reader's at* 
teiition from the last paragraph but one $ though I trust it did not 
escape him, that neither Tbales^ nor Chrysippus, no, nor his great 
master Zeno^ ever taught, or even conceived doctrines of such 
pure, such >ublime morality as are there delivered : doctrines, in 
short, which the light of nature alone was incapable of discover- 
ing ; and which the author undoubtedly derived from that '* true 
light" which now began to glimmer through the Roman world, 
and by which many sincere lovers of truth and virtue already 
began to direct their ways, while they were yet unconscious of 

4IO sATiRi XIII. JUVENAZf r* aSy^-^os* 

Perpetual fears the offender's peace deitroy^ 
And rob the social hour of all its joy : 
At table seated^ with parch*d mouth he chaws 
The loiterbg food, that swells beneath his jaws ; 
Spits out the produce of the Albanian hill, 
Mellow*d by age ; you bring him mellower still. 
And lo, such wrinkles on his brow appear, 
As if you brought Falernian vinegar ! 

At night, should sleep his harassed limbs compose^ 
And steal him, one short moment, from his woes. 
Then dreams invade ; sadden, before his eyes. 
The violated fane and altar rise ; 
And (what disturbs him most) your injured shade. 
In more than mortal majesty arrayed. 
Frowns on the wretch, alarms his treacherous rest. 
And wrings the dreadful secret from hisj^reast 

ttie medium tfafoag^ which they received the iUtunmsdoiu ¥Mi 
respect to the passage before us, it is not heathenism. It b not 
lo be found in the precepts of their graTest teachers : and elevated 
as the morality of our author confessedly is, it is difficult to ima* 
^e that it could soar so &r above the ethicks of his time, with- 
out the assistance of which I have spoken. What is more, this 
was the peculiar boast of Christianity. It was the vantage ground, 
on which its first professors stood, and proclaimed aloud the su- 
periority of their faith: Vos (says Minucius Felix) Etkakif 
Mcelera admissa ptudtii ; apmd m» et cogitare peccare est : vos am* 
icios timetiSf nos conscientitmij 4jft. 

V£&. dOS. And wrings tie dreadful secret from his 6rou#.] 
Thus Tibullus : 

*< Ipse deus somno domitos emittere vocem 
** Jussiti et invitos facta tegeuda ioqui.'^ 

How much better ia this, than the gloomy and unsatis&ctory 
ideas of Lucretius upon the subject ; who, while he confesses the 
efttct, endeavours to ridicule the cause ; and with the most pal- 
pable impressions of texrour on his own mind| absurdly hopes to 

9ATIEB XIII* JUVENAL. T. 303-^i4« 411 

These, these are they, who tremble and tarn pale. 
At the first mutterings of the hoUow gale ! 
Who sink with terroor at the transient gbre 
Of meteors, glancing through the turbid air ! 
Oh, 'tis not chance, tbey cry ; this hideous crash 
Is not the war of winds, nor this dread flash 
The encounter of dark clouds, but blastitag fire. 
Charged with the wrath of heaven^s insuked sire I 
That peai at a safe distance dies away ; 
Shuddering, they wait the next with more dismay. 
As if the short reprieve were only sent. 
To add new horrours to their punishment. 

fucceed in reasoning hb foliowen out of tlndr well-gnmnded ap^ 
prehensions : 

** Etsi fidlit enim divum genus, humanumque, 

^ Perpetuo tamen id fore clam diffidere rebus ; 

** Quippe ubi se multi per somnia ssepe loquentes» 

** Attt morbo delirantes procraxe ferantur 

** £t celata diu in medium peccaU dedisse.** £j(. r« 

VSE. S03. Thete, these are tkey^ 4^*] Here again I think it 
very probable that the author had Lucretius in his thoughts : 

'' Praeterea cui non animus formidine divfta 

'* Contrahitur ? cui non conrepunt membra pavore, 

*' Fulroinis horribili cum plaga torrida tellus 

** Contremit, et magnum percurrunt murmura coelum ? 

** Non p(ipuli> gentesque trement } regesque superbt 

^ Conripiunt divum percuisi membra timore, 

^ Ne quod ob admissum foede dictumve superbe 

" Pcenarum grave sit solvendi lempus adactum ?'' 

Lib. V. 1217. 

These are noble lines; aad, indeed* though I feel, and bai« 
often CKpressed* a contempi of this author^s philosophical, yet I 
venerate his poetical, talents. The book here quoted, for exam- 
ple, b an unrifalled composition. In pathos, in eneigy, in rich- 
ness of language, in full and genuine sublimity, it leaves every 
thing, 1 think, in the Latin language, fSiy &r bineath it. 

412 sATiRBxiii. JUVENAL, v. 315— 3J& 

Yet more ; when the first symptoms of diseasei 
When feverish heats their restless members seiz^. 
They think the plague by wrath divine bestowed. 
And feel, in every pang, the avenging God. 
Rack*d at the thought, in hopeless grief they lie^ 
And dare not tempt the mercy of the sky : 
For what can such expect ! what victim slayt 
That is not worthier far to live, than they I 
With what a rapid change of fancy roll 
The varying passions of the guilty soul I — 
Bold to offend, they scarce commit the oflence^ 
Ere the mind labours with an innate sense 
Of right and wrong ; — not long, for nature still, 
Incapable of change, and fix*d in ill. 
Recurs to her old habits : never yet 
Gould sinner to his sin a period set. 

Vts,r» 321. For what can such expect ! ^-c] An iniporTant trutb, 
of which many of the ancients were well persuaded. Om^, say» 
the virtuous Xenophon> n Siok Sv^v/Aiy Hw^^ «oMfi«( ifyat aaJt/n i 
and Plautus : 

^* Atque hoc scelesti ilH in animum inducunt suuns, 
** Jovem se placare posse donis hostiis» 
** £t operam et sumptum perdunt : ideo fit, qttia 
** Nihil ei acceptum est a perjiiris supplitii'.'' 

Veb. 329. never yet 

Could sinner to his sin a period set,] The Christian 
can hardly wish for a more decisive inference in favoar of the 
Gospel than is afforded by this passage. Healbenism could offer 
no sufficient inducement to repentance ; and therefore the mind 
once engaged in sin, was for ever enslaved to it ; and in the just 
•representation of the Apostle, ** worked out all tniquky with 
greediness.'^ From what a dreadful scene of determkied vice and 
impenitence has the Christian world been rescued by the accept- 
ance of the doctrine of remission of sins through the agency of a 
mediator ! Those who would admit the morality of the Gespcl 
without its doctrinal points, should think again of this. It is 

8ATIKB XIII. JUVENAL, V. 331—344. 413 

When did the flush of modest blood inflame 
The cheek, once hardened to the sense of shame ? 
Or when the offender, since the birth of time, 
Keiire, contented with a single crime ? 

And this false friend of ours shall still pursue 
His dangerous course, till vengeance, now long due^ 
O'ertake his guilt ; then shalt thou see him cast 
In chains, *mid tortures to expire his last ; 
Or hurried off*, to join the wretched train 
Of exiled great ones, in the £gean main. 
This thou shalt see; and, while thy voice 

The dreadful justice of the offended gods. 
Reform thy creed, and, with an humbled mind, 
Confess that Heaven is neither deaf norblind! 

observable that Juvenal, who bad been certainly benefited by the 
precepts of Chrisaanity, was uninfluenced by its faith : but this 
was for a time the case of heathenism at large. The world was 
silently improved by the spreading influence of the Gospel ; till at 
length the conviction of its divinity became too strong to be sup* 
pressed; and what began in the humbler admiration of moral 
purity, ended in the dignity of faith. 



The tulffectt of ikit Satire are of ike most important Innd^ dud 
He poet, as ifjvlfy aware qfit^ has treated them in his best manner. 
In none of hie works does he take a loftier Jiight; in none is he 
more vigorous and energetick ; in none more clear and precise in his 
style, more original in his conceptions , more happy in his iUus" 
trationsp or more powerful and commanding in his general de- 

The whole is directed to the one great end of selfimprffpement. 
By showing the dreadful facility with which children copy the vices 
of their parents^ he points out the necessity, as wdl as the sacred 
duty, of giving them examples of domestick purity and virtue, 

After briefly enumerating the several vices, gluttony, cruelty, </e- 
bauchery, 4*^. which youth imperceptibly imbibe from their seniors ; 
he enters more at large into that of avarice; of which he shows the 
fatal and inevitable consequences. Nothing can surpass the exqui» 
.siteness of this division of the Satire, in which he traces the pro* 
gress of that passion in the youthful mind, from the paltry tricks 
of saving a broken meal, to the daring violation of every principle 
human and divine* 

Hffoing placed the absurdity, as well as the perplexity and danger, 
of immoderate desires in every possible point of view, the piece con-' 
eludes with a solemn admonition to be satisfied with those comforts 
and conveniences which nature and wisdom require, and whiih a 
decent competence is easily calculated to supply. Beyond this, dcm 
Mire is ii^nite: a gulf which nothing can Jill, an ocean without 
fundings and without shores ! 



V. 1— 10. 

Yes, there are faults, Fuscinus, that disgrace 
The noblest qualities of birth and place ; 
Which, like infectious blood, transmitted run 
In one eternal stream from sire to son. 

If, in destructive play, the senior waste 
His joyous nights, the child, with kindred taste, 
Repeats, in miniature, the darling vice, 
Shakes the low box, and cogs the little dice. 

Nor does that infant fairer hopes inspire. 
Who, under the gray epicure, his sire, 

Ver. 10, WhOf under the gray epicure, his sire, 4"^.] This is 
appositely applied by old KnowelL Speaking of the educatioa 
which he gave his sod, he says, 

" ■ ■ ■ ' neither have I 

** Drest snails or mushrooms curiously before him ; 
** Perfum'd my sauces, and taught him to make 'em, 
" Preceding still, with my gray gluttony, 
*' At all the ord'naries, and only fear'd 
. ** His palate should degenerate, not bis manners." 

Every Man in his Humour, 

Quintilian reprobates, no less strongly than Juvenal, that early 
gluttony in which the children of his time were indulged : '* we 


4i8 SATIRE XIV. JUVENAL, v. 11—24. 

Has learned to pickle mushrooms, and, like hixn^ 
To souse the beccaficos, till they swim ! — 
For take him, tUus to early luxury bred, 
Ere twice four springs have blossom'd o*er bis head^ 
And let ten thousand teachers hoar with age. 
Inculcate temperance from the Stoick page ; 
His wish will ever be, in state to dine, 
And keep the table's honour fropji decline. 

Does Rutilus inspire a generous mind. 
Prone to forgive, and to slight errours blind ; 
Instil the liberal thought, that slaves have powers. 
Sense, feeling, every thing, as fine as ours ; 
Or fury ? He^ who hears the sounding thoog, 
Wilb f;ar more pleasure than the Syren's song ; 

form their palate," says he, " before their tongue ;" ante palatum 
eorvm quam os instknimtu. 

Professor Sfmldieg has been inducec), piobaUy by bis recol- 
lection of Juvenal, to give a meaning to this {passage, whicb it 
will not bear : « Quid non adulttu concvpiscetf qui in purjmrtM 
repserit f Nmdnm prima verba txprimity ct jam coeatm inteiiigiit 
Jam conchylium poscit /" Lib. i. Coccum, he would read, or ra- 
ther interpret coquumy and understand conchyHum not of the co- 
lour, but of the fish which produced it. When the obvious mean- 
ing of the words is so pertinent, why should we meddle with the 
text ? Where does it appear that the shell-fish whicb produced 
• the purple die, was ever eaten at Rome ? besides, the word f»r- 
J9iim determines tlie sense. The child, whose swaddling crothes 
were of purple, was brought to distinguish and call for the most 
costly colours, (the bright, and the ferruginous, or dark-red pur- 
ple,) before he could speak dntinctly 1 An instance of absurd and 
pernicious indulgence, which wdil deserved the lasb o# the satirist, 
and whicb it is rather singular that Juvenal sboulcf have over- 

Vkr.. 21. that slavcM hate powers, ^c.\ One of 

the best chapters in Macrobius is on the subject of slavery. It 
contains a direct alhision' to this passage : Tibi autem vnde in 
Hroo^ taatvm et tarn immaue fastidium f i^umi non ex Hsdem tibi 
tt constetU et alunfur ehnentiSf eundemque spiritum ab codcm prin' 

sATtxf xiv. JUVENAL, r. i^^jo. 4tcf 

Who, !he stern tyrant of his smalt domain, 
The Polypheme of his domestick train, ' 
Knows no delight, save when the torturer's hand 
Stamps, for low theft, the agonising brand. — 
O, what but rage can fill that stripling's breast, 
Who sees his savage sire then only blest, 
When hisstretcVdears drink in the wretches' cries; 
And racks and prisons fill his vengefel eyes ! 

And can we hope a giri, from Larga sprung, 
Will e'er prove virtuous ; when her little tbngue 
Ne'er told so fast her mother's wanton train. 
But that she stopt and breathed, and stopt agam? 
Eveir from her tender years, unnatural trust ! 
The child was privy to the matron's lust ; 
Now, ripe for man, with her own band, she writes 
The billets, which the ancient bawd indites, 
Employs the self*same pimps, and hopes, ere lung, 
To share the visits of the amorous throng ! 

So Nature prompts : drawn by her secret tie. 
We view a parent's deeds with reverent eye ; 
With fatal haste, alas ! the example take,^ 
And love the sin for the dear sinner's sake. — 
One youth, perhaps^ form*d of superiour clay, 
And animated by a purer ray, 
May dare to spurn proximity of blood, 
And, in despite of nature, to be good: 

cipe earpant / Vis tu cogU<weeo9y quas jus tuum vatOM^ iisdem se- 
mimhua ori09^ eadem frm cedo, aque vicere atquc mori f Lib. i. 2« 
Tbcse laat expresaions are taken from Seneca* who is, indeedy 9, 
niagaaine of gpod things, to whicli, by the way, our aiiih<Nr, a9 
w«tt aa.Mttcobiiis, was- fond of applying, 

£e 8 


One youth — the rest the beaten pathway tread. 
And blindly follow where their fathers lead. 
Pernicious guides ! this reason should suffice. 
To make you shun the slippery route of vice, 
This powerful reason ; lest your race pursue 
The guilty track too plainly mark'd by you ! 
For youth is facile, and its yielding will 
Receives, with fatal ease, the imprint of ill : 
Hence Gatilines in every soil abound, 
But where is Brutus, where is Cato found ! 

O friend! far from the walls where children dwell. 
Immodest sights, immodest sounds repel ; 
The plage is sacred : far, far hence, remove. 
Ye venal votaries of illicit love ! 

V«R. 59. Ifence Catilines 4*c.] This is from Seneca. Omu 
tempui Clodios/trtf non omne Catotus/eret. 

Via. 61. fritnd! ^-c] Fully sensible of the vast import- 
ance of hb maxims, Juvenal delivers them in this place with a 
kind of religious solemnity. That they were highly necessary, 
may be learned from Quintilian, who wrote about the same time : 
Gaudemus (i.e. parmta) si quid JUius liccntiuM dixcrit ; cvria 
nee AUxandrinis quidem permittenda deliciiSf risu et oscuh exctpi- 
tnusy nee mirwa : nos doadmtUf ex nobis dudieruntt nostras amkaSf 
nostros eoncubinos vident, omne conviviwn ohsccmis caniicis ttrepii ; 
fit ex Us consuehidOf deinde natura. Discvnt hac miseri antequam 
sciunt vitia esse : inde soluti ac Jluentes^ non acdpiunt ex sckoHs 
mala ista, sed in sckolas afferunt. Lib. i. How strongi yet how 
affecting a picture ! 

But does it suit the fathers of a former age only ? Have we 
none at present who labour, with a perversity truly diabolical, to 
assimilate the morals of their sons to tht;ir own ? Can the ac- 
quaintance of my reuder furnibh him with no parent who encoa- 
rage:» his child to lisp indecencies, who forms his infunt tongue to 
ribaldry, who accustoms him to spectacles of impurity, till what 
was habit becomes nature; who initiates him in debaucheries 
before the boy is sensible of their heinousness, and who finally 
dbmisses him from his arms, to corrupt the seminaries of learning, 

8ATIRBZIV* JUVENAL. V. 65— 9o« 421 

Ye dangerous knaves, who pander to be fed, 
And sell yourselves to infamy for bread ! [due : 
Reverence to children, as to heaven, is 
When you would, then, some darling sin pursue, 
Think that your infant offspring eyes the deed ; 
And let the thought abate your .guilty speed, 
fiack from the headlong steep your steps entice, 
And check you tottering on the verge of vice. 
O yet reflect ! for should he e'er provoke, 
In riper age, the law's avenging stroke, 
(Since not alone in person and in face. 
But morals, he will prove your son, and trace, 
Nay pass, your vicious footsteps,) you will rail, 
And name another heir, should threatening fail ! 
— ^Audacious ! with what front do you aspire 
To exercise the license of a sire 7 
When all, with rising indignation, view 
The youth, in turpitude, surpass*d by you. 
By you, old fool, whose windy, brainless head» 
Long since required the cupping-glass's aid ! 

Is there a guest expected ? all is haste. 
All hurry in the house, from first to last 
*^ Sweep the dry cobwebs down !" the master cries^ 
Whips in his hand, and fury in his eyes, 
^^ Let not a spot the clouded columns stain, 
*^ Scour you the figured silver; you, the plain!" 

and amaze his tutors with a professor of licentiousness just escaped 
from the bib and go-cart ! 

I trust there is no such person : — if there be, let him profit by 
the morality of an unenlightened heathen, and retrace his steps 
vrith prudence and despatch : so Juvenal will not have written in 

4%% sATiM «i^* JUVENAL,— «•• 

O incojBisteiit wfetch I n ali tfeU coili 
Lest the 1 • oot-ball or ca'lery , daub d with 9oiU 
Which yet % little ^and nemoves, offend 
The prying eye of some indifferent friend ? 
And do you stir iKrt, that your son may sec 
The house from moral filthy from rices, free i 

True, you haive given a citiz^en to Rone; 
And she shall bless you, if the youth become, 
By your o'ernruling care, or soon or late, 
A useful member of the piireiU state : 
For all depends on you ; the stamp he*ll take. 
From the strong imprtiis which at first you makef 
And prove, M vice or virtue was your aim, 
His country's glory, or his country's shame. 

Thestork,with newts and serpents from the wood, 
And pathless wild, supports her callow brood ; 
And the fledged itorklings.when towing they take, 
Seek the same reptiles through the devious brake. 
The vulture snuffs from far the tainted gale, 
And hurrying where the putrid scents exhale. 
From gibbets and from graves the carcase tears. 
And to her young the loathsome dainty bears ; 
Her youngs grown vigorous, hasten from the nest. 
And gorge on carrion with the parent's zest 
While Jove's own eagle, bird of noble blood. 
Scours the wide champaign for untainted food, 

V^R. 92. l^st th€ front-hall SfC,'\ Atrium, the hall of entrance : 
this was usually a very filthy place ; and indeed nothing can be 
more so than the atria of the Italian nobility at this day. In one 
corner horses are lied up and fed, in another a cobbler is at work, 
in a third a pedlar displaying his wares, &c* &c« 

Ver. 116. Scours the wide champaign for Maintedfood, ^J 

sAYntixxv. Jt/VEMAt. t.liy^i^. 413 

* • • » 

Bears the swift hare, or swifter ffiiwii a\^iiy. 
And feedB her nestlings with the generoHi |3rey ; 
Her nestlings hence, wheti from the rock they 

And pinth*d by hunger, to the quarry wiiigj 
Stoop only to thfe game they tasted fii^t^ 
When clamorous, from the parent shell, they burst. 
Gentrontus plann*d and built, and built and . 

And now along Cajeta*s winding strand, 
And now amid Praeneste's hills; and now 
On lofty Tibur's solitary brow, 
He rear'd prodigious pile^, with marble brought 
From distant realms, and exquisitely wrought : 
Prodigious piles ! that tower o*er Fortune's shrine^ 
As those of gelt Posides, Jove, o*er thine I 

This is a vulgar prejudice. Bufibn, who has too many errours of 
this kind^assertSy that the eagle, though famishing, will not touch 
carrion* Queiqu' qffamS qu*U soit^ ii ne se jette jamaU sur Its 
cadavr^ : and the editors of the ** History of Britisfa Birds" un- 
warily follow him. Twas never well for truth, since naturalists 
took poets for their guides. The fact is, that the eagle is scarcely 
more delicate in the choice of his food than the vulture. Alas, 
for the credit of the feathered kiug ! 

Ver. 130. Ut spado Posidesy] *' By the word spado^*' Mr. 
Gibbon says, " the Romans very forcibly expressed their abhor- 
rence" (rather, their contempt) " of that mutilated condition : 
the Greek appellation of eunuch, which insensibly prevailed, had 
a milder sound, and a more ambiguous sense." 

With respect to Posides, he was one of the freed men of Clau- 
dius, who prostituted some of the most honourable rewards of 
military merit in his favour : thus Suet. Ubertorum prctcipue stu-- 
pexit Posidem spadonemj quern etiam Britannico triumpho inter mi" 
iitares viros kasta pura donavit. Claud. 28. Posides, like most 
of this Emperour's favourites, amassed vast wealth, which, with 
somewhat better taste than the rest, he lavished in building* 
Pliny the Elder makes mention of the magnificent baths erected 

4%4 SATIRE XIV. JUVENAL* ▼• 131*— 138. 

While thus Gentronius crowded seat on seat* 
He spent his cash, and mortgaged his estate ; 
Yet left enough his family to content : 
Which his mad son to the last farthing spent, 
While, building on, he strove, with fond desire, 
To shame the stately structures of his sire ! 

Sprung from a father who the sabbath fears, 
There is who nought but clouds and skies reveres ; 

by him in the neighbourhood of Cura» ; bu(, indeed, the force of 
the Satire will be sufficiently apparent, if we call to mind the 
stupendous grandeur of the Capitoline temple of Jupiter. The 
temple of Fortune, mentioned in the preceding line, stood at 
Praeneste. It was a noble edifice. 

YsB. 138« who nought but cloudt and ikies reveres; 4^] 

This popular crrour, with regard to the Jews, arose from their 
having no visible representation of the deity. When Pompey, 
Vsing, says Tacitus, the license of victory, first entered the temple 
of Jerusalem, the report was, that he found no statue there* 
NuUa iritus deum effigiey Spc. Hist. v. 9« This confounded the 
gross conceptions of the Romans, and they instantly concluded 
that the Jewsr, whose adorations they had noticed, worshipped 
nothing but '* clouds and skies :" for whether we read with Hen. 
ninius, cctH numen^ or with Scaliger and others, oaii lumens the 
sense is still the same, and can only mean the material or visible 

*« The world," sailh the Apostle, " by wisdom knew not God." 
A truth which should sink deep into our minds. Hear how sub- 
limely Tacitus describes the God of the Jews : Jud^n nuntt sol€f 
wmmquc numen intelUgunt : prqfanos^ qui deum imagmes mortali" 
bus materus in species hominum ^ffingant, Summxtm illcjo xt 


did this *^ immutable, and incomprehensible, this omnipotenty 
and everlasting God," SHti.sfy or fiil the historian's mind ? By no 
means ; he carelessly turned from a Being whom *' wisdom alone" 
cuuld not conceive, as a visionary, creation of the Jews, and 
humbled himself before the impure and brutal idols of his own 
country \ 

Dio, too, speaks of the God of the Jews in lofty and energetick 
language. *B.9tt ^i (0ioi>) rtya ij^yvftn^ a£w%' w »ya\fui &^ti ir 

uncu, wtfivavreCU Mf^fuvup dp0'xit/tf0'i« Lib. XXXV II. !?• But did 

MTiEB xiT. JUVENAL. v.t39*-^i46. 425 

And shuns the taste, by old tradition led. 
Of human flesh, and swine's with equal dread >^ 
This first ; the prepuce next he lays aside. 
And, taught the Roman Ritual to deride, 
Clings to the Jewish, and observes with awe, 
All Moses bade, in his mysterious law : 
And therefore, to the circumcised alone, 
Will point the road, or make the fountain known ; 

Dio comprehend what he thus suhlimely describes, or acknow- 
ledge the superiour understanding of the Jews in worshipping this 
** ineffable and invisible" Being, instead of the stocks and stones 
before which he himself bowed down ? Neither : he dismisses the 
former from his thoughts, and continues to insult and revile the 
latter as a weak and credulous natiou ! 

Thus, then, ** the world by wisdom knew not God :*' his at- 
tributes, though repeated by the wisest of the heathens after the 
Jewsy conveyed no ideas to their minds. It is to Revelation only, 
that we are indebted for just and rational conceptions on the sub- 
ject : and if the theists of modern times have more distinct and 
adequate notions of the Divine Being, than Tacitus and Dio; it 
is still to the manifestations which he ' has been pleased to make 
of himself, that they owe them, however prejudice or pride may 
operate to prevent the acknowledgment. 

Vbb. 145. And ihereforcy to the circumcised ahne, S^c] ** The 
letter of these laws," says Gibbon, (Vol. I. p. 537 j) with a sneer 
truly worthy of the disciple of Voltaire, ** is not to be found in 
the present volume of Moses." But is the spirit of them ? On the 
contrary, does not the ** volume of Moses" inculcate justice and 
humanity to strangers, by the most forcij^le and pathetick appeals 
to the feelings of the people ! '' Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, 
nor oppress him ; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. 
Exod. xxii. Again. Thou shalt not oppress a stranger ; for ye 
know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land 
of Egypt, Exod. xxxiii. Indeed, one of the most striking features 
in the ^* volume of Moses," is the anxious concern it constantly 
takes io the protection of the stranger. If a sheaf of wheat be 
forgotten in the field, it is not to be fetched ; it is for the stranger : 
if the olives do not drop at the first beating, the trees are not to 
be touched again ; the fruit is for the stranger : if the vines be 
not cleared at first, they are not to be gleaned ; the grapes are 
for the strangeri &c. &c. (Deut. xxiv. v. 17 — 22;) and, indeed. 

4sA MTitt XI ▼. JfSVEttXL. r. I47^i4t; 

Aping his bigot sire^ ivlbo whiled away, 
Sacned to sloth, each seventh revc^ving day. 

the stranger is iiiTariably connected by Moses* with the two 

interesting objects of human kindness, the fiEitherless and the 
widow. ** But/' continues Mr. Gibbon, " the wise, the humane 
Maimonides openly teaches," && Of what consequence is it to 
Moses what a Spanish Jew of the twelfth century teaches! If 
Mr. Gibbon's object had been truth, he would have consulted 
Moses himself, for the sense of his " volume," which, however 
secret and mysierious it might be to Juvena), was plain and open 
to him : but misrepresentation was his aim, as it materially fiir* 
thered his darling design of attacking Christianity through the 
sides of Judaism. 

The word ** present" is almost of too contemptible a nature 
for a caviller of the lowest kind. Mr. Gibbon certainly did not 
believe that the " volume" we now have, was different from that 
which existed in Juvenal's time ; but he chose to sacrifice his 
reason to his prejudice. Surely, of all bigots, scepticks and 
atheists are the most blind and intolerant ! 

With respect to our author, who was confessedly as ignorant of 
the laws as of the practises of the Jews, all that he says amounts 
to nothing more than the old charges against them, which had 
been refuted a thousand and a thousand times. Kven while he 
was writing, Joscphus had noticed and repelled them. M%9vu9 }k 
xai TOK tihff TOK etyfoefftf x4i» fm ytXa^rct Sfitfuiiivai etvroii f^vo^t^iw, 
X. r. a. Antiq. Lib. iv. c. viii. § 31. And a^ain, more strongly : 
nvc lie waf^fYH «'po0-Mrra< atxf^vytvc^tu r«K tft/njSsiaiK ff* i^tAvn* 

^o/bUMK ^f^, ^^«p, rpo^r, f^ ^paM>fiv, m, T. a, Coutia App- If- 28. 

Moses certainly discouraged all unnecessary fomiHarities with 
such as were not sincerely attached to us : (he is writing to Jews:) 
But he mentioned at the same time many things in which we 
inust participate with others : he commanded us, for example, to 
supply those that asked us with fire, water, food, to show the 
way, &c. &c. 

A word may yet be added. The Pagans talked of Moses, bat 
knew him only through the corrupt sects into which, in its latter 
age, Judaism was divided. From this circumstance alone, came 
all that abuse of the Hebrew system, with which the Greek and 
Homan writers abound, and which has been either ignorantly or 
wilfully continued to our tinne, by Voltaire, Gibbon, and others. 
About the age of Juvenal indeed, the Jews had somewhat receded 
from their ancient integrity, in favour of the Pagans : the inte- 
rested prudence of the Pharisees had tried to smooth the way for 

But youth, 80 prone to foQow other ilU, 
Are driren to avarice against their wills ; 
For this grave vice, assuming Virtue*s guise^ 
Seems Virtue's self, to snperficijal eyes. 
The miser hence, a frugal man they name, 
And hence, they follow, with their whole acclaim. 
The griping wretch, who strictlier guards his«tore| 
Than if the Hesperian dragon kept the door. 
Add that the vulgar, still a slave to gold. 
The worthy, in the wealthy man behold ; 
And, reasoning from the fortune he has made, 
Hail him, A perfect master of his trade ! 

an intercomiBunity of stcrifice in the temple; and Philo and 
Josephine had manifested a certain laxity in their writings, ^hich 
might bave tended to soften the asperity of the heathen world 
towards theoi. But neither the genuine humanity which charac^ 
terises the law of Moses, nor the corrupt accommodations of the 
later Jews, were at all regarded. The Roman government, it is 
true, had on various occasions shown some degree of respect to 
the worship and manners of the Jews : but the whole race was 
incessantly followed by the unmitigated odium of the Roman 
people. And what gave an apparent authority to their hatred, 
was the ungracious and forbidding spirit of some of those sects, 
whose stngulnrity had pointed them out to the particular notice 
of the age. From these Juvenal draws his false, and exaggerated 
picture : he talks of Moses, not with any real knowledge, but 
with those impressions which had been made on him, in common 
with the rest of mankind, by the gloomy bigotry and fanatick 
austerity of the Essenians, Therapeutians, Zealots, &c. 

It is to be lamented that the unsociable and wayward dispo- 
sitions of those wrong-headed sectaries, prevented them from com- 
municating to the people around them, a portion of their history^ 
polity, laws, &c. especially, as they could not be unacquainted 
with the absurd fables propagated concerning them. Tacitus de- 
rives the Jews from Crete, because be finds a mount Ida there, 
whence he thinks that they were originally called Idaeos, which 
ihar barbarous pronunciation, it seems, changed into Judseos 1 
Such is the deploiable ignorance of the most judicious of the 
Roman historians ! The Greeks are equally uninformed* 

428 8ATIRB XX?. JUVENAL. V. i6r— iSj# 

And true, indeed, it is — such masters rabe 
Immense estates ; no matter by what ways. 
But raise they do, with brows in sweat still died, 
With forge still glowing, and with sledge still plied* 
The father, by the love of wealth possest, 
Convinced the covetous alone are blest. 
And that, nor past nor present times e'er knew 
A poor man happy, bids his son pursue 
Their steps, and keep that thriving sect in view. 

Vice boasts its elements, like other arts ; 
These he inculcates first : anon, imparts 
The petty tricks of saving ; last inspires, 
Of endless wealth, the insatiable desires. 
Hungry himself, his hungry slaves he cheats, 
With scanty measures, and unfaithful weights ; 
And sees them lessen, with increasing dread. 
The musty fragments of his vinew*d bread. 
In dogdays, when the sun, with fervent power, 
Corrupts the freshest meat from hour to hour, 
He saves the last night's hash, sets by a dish 
Of sodden beans, and scraps of summer fish. 
And half a stinking shad, and a few strings 
Of a chopp'd leek, counted like sacred things, 

Veh. 175, With scanty measures^ i^c] The Romans weiglicdy 
Qr ratber measured out the food of their slaves. The ordinaiy 
allowancei Holyday says, was about a quart of bread*corn for a 
day : accordiug to Donatus» it was, at least, double that quantity. 
The distribution was usually made on the Calends, t. e. the fint 
day of every month. 

Ver. 180. • sets by a dish ^c] In the con- 
clusion of this admirable picture of sordid avarice, Juvenal had 
Theophrastus in his mind : ra> h KarmMivofAtfet aw tik r^amn^itf 

SATIRI XIT. JUVENAlr. ▼. 184—205; 429 

And seard with caution, though the sight and smell 
Would a starved beggar from the board repeL 

But why this dire avidity of gain, 
This mass collected with such toil and pain ? 
Since *tis the veriest madness to live poor, 
And die with bags and coffers running o*er. 
Besides, while thus the streams of afiBuence roll, 
They nurse the eternal dropsy of the soul, 
For thirst of wealth still grows with wealth increast^ 
And they desire it less, who have it least.— 
Now swell his wants : one manor is too small. 
Another must be bought, house, lands, and all ; 
Still ** cribb'd, confined," he spurns the narrow 

And turns an eye on every neighbour's grounds ^ 
There all allures ; his crops appear a foil, 
To the full produce of their happier soil. 
•* And this I'll buy,** he cries, " without delay, 
<* And that hoar hill, with fattening olives gay.*'— 
Then, if the owner to no price will yield. 
Resolved to keep the hereditary field, 
Whole droves of oxen, starved to this intent, 
At night, among his springing corn are sent, 

Vkr. 190., Besides f while thus the streams ^-c] So Ovid, very 

** Creverunt et opes, et opum furiosa cupido, 
" Et cum possideant plurima, p]ura volunt ; 

'' Quserere ut ^bsumant, absuropta requirere certant, 
*^ Atque ipsas vitiis sunt aliroenta vices. 

^' Sic quibus intumuit suffusa venter ab unda 
<< Quo sunt plus potae, plus stitiuntur aquae." 

Fast, lib, 1.-211. 

430 sAnfti XXV. JUVENAL, n a ofr • m . 

To revel there, ttU not a bjade be scea^ 
And all appear! like a cIose-shavcR greetu 
Monstrous ! yet I should vainly strive to teH, 
What nimbera tricks like these bairc forced to selL 
But what says Fame the while? her hundred 

Have scarcely spared the author ef such wrongs^:-* 
<* And what of that ?" he cries. ^ i value more, 
*^ The addition ofa bean-^hutk to oiy store, 
*' Thaii all the country's praise; if cors'd by ikle, 
*^ With the scant produce of a small estate.*' 
'Tis well ! no more shall age or grief annoy. 
But nights of peace succeed to days of joy, 
If as much ground pertain to you alone, 
A», under Tatios, Rome could call her own ! 
Since then, the veteran, whose brave breast was 

By the fierce Pyrrhick or Molossian sword, 
Hardly received for all his service past, 
And all his wounds, two acres M the last. 
The meed of toil and blood ! yet never thought 
His country thankless, or his pains ill bought. 
For then this trifling glebe^ improved with care. 
Largely supplied with vegetable fare. 
The good old man^ the wife in childbed laid, 
And four hale boys that round the cottage play'd, 
Three free-born, one a slave: while, on the 

Huge porringers^ with wholesome pottage stored, 
Smoked for their elder brothers, who were now, 
Hungry and tir^d, expected from the plough. 

sATiuxiv. JUVENAL, v. 234— ^39^ 4jf 

Now such a paltry spot, so changjed the tiinesy 
Would scarce afford a garden;: hence QVt 

For not a vice that taints the human soul, 
More frequent points the sword, or drugs the bowl. 
Than the dire lust of an ** untamed estate ;*^ 
For he who covets- wealth, disdains to wait : 

Vi&. 25£. At not « vke ^.} This seems to bear more than 
8& M^hienlal resemlilaiica to a. very ^e passage ia the Aniigone 
of Sophocles : 

Kmto$ tofiifiTifk iCaoti* run »»k «roAf k 
To y tiMkvxu *m wofePO^avau f pi rcK 

Kw VAjrlof fpytt ^cffiSuat utuM, ▼•301. 

Veb. 239< ^<^ ^^ v4o corf^« toealtkf disdains to •matt ;] 
M n^ju jjj^^ qi^i figrl volt, 

** £t dto vuit fieri. 

This, Mr. Owea says, is a literal translation of an axiom of the 
Gospel ; they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare. 
It is so ; but even this taken from a heathen poet t 

Net to multiply quotations, however, I would observe, once for 
all, thai the ancients held that the good grew rich by slow and 
i»perceptible degrees ; the wicked rapidly, and, as it were, at 
<ince. The first, say the commentators, because if the good were 
to grow wealthy too suddenly, ihey might be suspected of culti- 
vating virtue not for herself, but for what she brought them ; the 
second, for a reason which I shall not transcribe on account of 
its, want of charity. 

The ancients have conveyed this opinion, (as they have most 
of those which relate to the conduct of life,) in a very pretty 
apologue. ^ When I am sent to any one by Jupiter (says 
Plutufi) I ha)| so that he usually grows old before I arrive.*' 
*< That is hardly true, (replies Mercury,) for I have seen those 
who had not a' groat yesterday, wallowing ia riches to day.*' 
^ You say right, (rejoins Pkirtus,) but 1 was not sent to those 
people by Jupiter, but by Dis I" 

43a BAtmxiv. JUVENAL, v. 240— 25^ 

Law threatens, conscience terrifies — in vain — 
Fear, shame, — he bears down all, while, with 

loose rein, 
He pours along the alluring paths of gain ! 
Let us, my sons, contented with our lot. 
Enjoy in peace our hillock and our cot, 
(The good old Marsian to his children said,) 
*^ And, from our labour, seek our daily bread. 
^^ So shall we please the rural Powers, whose care» 
^^ And gracious influence, taught us to prepare 
*^ The golden grain^ what time we ranged the wood, 
" A savage race, for acorns, savage food ! 
*^ The poor who, with inverted skins, defy 
** The lowering tempest, and the free^dng sky, 
*^ Who, without shame, without reluctance go, 
*^ In clouted brogues, through mire and drifted 

*' Ne'er think of ill; •tis purple, boys, alone, 
^* Which leads to guilt, purple, to us unknown.*' . 

Vbh. S51. ** The poor who, vUh woeried skiru, defy 4^.] Ci- 
cero makes an admirable use of this sentiment in bis oration for 
Sex. Roscius. Qua in re prcttereo iUud^ quod miki maximo argnr- 
metUo ad hujus itmocentiatn poterat es$e^ in kac horrida incmitaque 
viia iitiusmodi tnaleficia gigni non solere, Jn urbe lurries creaturr 
ex (uxuria exist at avaritia, necene est : ex ava> itia ensmpat auda* 
da ; ittde omnia sceUra, — Vita auiem hcec nutica^ quam tu ogres- 
tern liocas^ parsimonies^ diligentue^ justitict^ magistra esf, § 27* 
And, indeed, the villagers of those days seem to have been a sim- 
ple and uncorrupt order of men : Maxime jnus quettus consequi^ 
tur, says Cato, de Re Rttst. minimeque male cogitantes^ qui in 
agricultura occttpati sunt. It was reserved for these monster- 
breeding times to see publick evil produced by the plough, and 
the patriarchal and innocent pursuit of agriculture converted into 
the mean!^ of licentiousness, and the annoyance of every civil and 
religious establishment, by authority. 

sATi&s xiv« JUVENAL. V. 257— 274. 433 

Tl|u$ to theif chJKli;eii spqke the sires of yof e : 
Now, autui9B*B sickly heats are scarcely o'er. 
Ere, while deepf midnight yet involves the skies, 
The imp^itiept father stirs bis sod, and cries, 
** Whal^ bp,boy»w9kei itp; plesiSy rejoinders draw, 
*' Tmn o*er the nnsty rubrick of the Law ; 
'^ Up, up, and study : or, with bri^f i^ haiid, 
** Petition Lsslius £of a small command^ 
'' A captain*»; Laelius loves a spreading^ chest, 
*^ Broad shoulders, tangled locks, and hairy breast: 
^* The BFiti^b fotis, the Moorish tents i^avade, 
** And be at sixty a centurion made ! 

** But if the trump, prelusive to the fight, 
" And the long labours of the camp affright,. . . 
" Go, tra&k-- 'look for wares of readiest vent, 
** Which promise to repay you cent, percent. 
^^ Bi^y th^se, no mattef what ; the stuff is good^ 
" Thoug^h not allowed on this side Tiber's ffood : 

Vkr. SM.* > a caUumn made /] The eagle, or chief 

staadard of the leg^>n, was oommitted to the charge of the first 
ceRturion. IIhs station/' saysKeoaet, *^ was not ouly honourable, 
hut very profitable loo, Ibr the piimipUus (first centurion) had a 
special- stipend allowed hm» probably as much as a knight's 
esiale,^ (ItHMpkicm ^qmiamj and vrh^u he left that charge, was 
reputed equal to the members ol^ the Equestrian Order." 

Bryden' translates the p«bsag9 thus i 

* And when in service youY best d*iys are spent, 
*' Perhaps you may command a regiment ;" 

Which is not inaccofate r for as the cisntarion answered to a cap- 
tain, so did the primtpilus to a g^cral, in a modern army. A 
legion, not to be too nice, consisted of six thousand men, divided 
into three battalions, which were again subdivided into sixty cbm- 
panies. Every company hada centurion at its head, and every 
ten) a primipiloa. This* wa^ a post, theseibre, of great iroportmice, 
and vei<y capable of tempting the cuf^flity of an avaricious fdther. 


434 «ATiitE XIV, JUVENAL, v. 1275^281: 

^^ Hides, unguents, mark me, boy,. are equal things^ 
'* And gain smells sweet from whatso*er it springs* 
" This golden senteoce,which the Powers oFheaveu, 
" Which Jove himself might glory to havegiven^ 
** Will never, never from your thoughts, I trust. — 
'^ None oare from whence it comes, but comk. 


This, when the lisping race a farthing ask. 
Old women set them, as a previous task, 

Ver, 376* And gain tmdls sweet from whatsoever it tprirngs^S^] 
This honest man may be thought to have borrowed his preciotts 
apothegm from Ore9tes : 

He alludes however to the answer given by Vespasian to Titus« 
who had remonstrated with him on the sordid nature of hi» tax 
on urine. The Empcrour very gravely held a piece of money to 
his nose^ and asked him how it smelt. '^ Not bad at ail/' re* 
plied Titus : ** and yet," rejoined Vespasian, ** this came frum 
the very tax you reprobate/' 

But we shall lose much of the humour of the Emperour^s an« 
swer, as is justly observed in the History of Inventions, if we do 
not advert to the custom of the ancients in trying the purity of 
their money by the smell. Hius Arrian in Epict. 1. 20. *0 «fyv- 
pvywfMiVf wfocxpnTCH tteSa htufjutnttv rcf to^Ai^/MtTPC tii •affamt^ s. r. «• 
And habit, and indeed necessity, had given them an acuteness of 
perception in these matters, of which we can scarcely have an 
idea. I much question whether the precaution of a Scapha would 
be necessary at this time to deceive the keenest-scented lover. 
*' Cape igitur speculum, Spc/' It should be previously observed that 
the aucicnt mirrors were either composed of a mixture of tin and 
brass, or, as in the present case, of silver : 

Scop. Here, take the mirror: — now, a towel, girl, 

And wipe your hands. PhiL My hands I why so ? Scap. For fear. 

As you have touched the mirror, they should smell 

Of silver, and Philolaches suspect 

You have been handling money. MosteL A. i. Sc iii. 

The gulden sentence mentioned in the next line, is taken from 
Ennius. It is introduced with admirable gravity and effect. 

sATiRc.xiv. JUVENAL, v. aSj*-}!^ 435 

The wondrous apothegm all haste to get^ 
And learn it sooner than their alphabet. 

fiut why this haste ? Without your care^ vain fool i 
The pupil will, ere long, the tutor school ; 
Sleep then, in peace ; secure to be outdone. 
Like Telamon and Peleus, by your son» 
Be but indulgent to his tender years : 
The seeds of vice, sown by your fostering cares. 
Have scarce ta*en root; but tb^y will spring at 
length, [strength/* 

" Grow with his growth, and strengthen with his 
Then, when the firstlings of his youth are paid, 
And his rough chin requires the razor's aid, 
Then he will swear, then to the altar come, 
And sell deep perjuries for a paltry sum !-— ^ 
Yes, count your step-daughter already dead. 
If, with an ample dower^ she mount his bed : 
Lo ! scarcely laid, his murderous fingers creep. 
And close her eyeft in everlasting sleep. 
For that unbounded wealth which, with such pain. 
You thought would be acquired by land and main. 
He gets a readier way : the skfU's not great, 
The toilnot much» to make a knave complete. 
But you will say hereafter, " I am free ; 
" He never learn'd those practises of me." 
Yes, all of you : — fur he who, madly blind, 
Imbues with avarice his chiidren*s mind. 
Fires with the thirst of riches, and applauds 
The attempt to double their estate by frauds, 
Unconscious, flings the. headlong wheels the rein, 
Which he may wish to stop, but wish in vain ; 

F f2 

436 sATlkkxiV. JUVEMAL. v. ^15^-3^4* 

Deaf to his vdfc^* nrlth gronring kpetd they f oll» 
Smoke down the steep, and spuf-fl the dilboit 
None sin by irule; hone heed the charge pit6lfte| 
Thus, and no furthei-, may ye step in yite j 
But leap the bounds prescribed, ahd,#ith fr6b p^te, 
Scour far and wide the interdicted s^ace. 
So, whin you tell thb yduth, that fools kloiltt 
Regard a frletid*^ distresses is their own, 
You bid hitn, in effect, rob, plunder, seifee^ 
And gather riches by the worst of Mrays ; 
Riches, whose love is on your soul itnprest. 
Deep as their country's oh the Decii's breast^ 
Or Thebes 6n his, who sought an early grave^ 
If Greece say true, her bacred walls to save. 
Thebes, where, impregn*d With se'rpehts teeth-, the 

Pour'd forth a marshalled host, prodlgibtis birth ! 
Horrent with arms, that fought With headlong rage^ 
Not aslc'd the trumpet's signal, to engage. 
But mark the end ! the fire, derived at first 
From a small sparkle, by yout folly nurst, 
Blown to a flame, on ail around it preys, 
And wraps you in the universal blaze. 

Vee. 324. Deep as their tounfr/s an the Decid breatf, ^rc/] 
For the Decii see Satire viii. The person fttladed to imniediately 
after, is Menoeceus, son of Creon, king of Thebes. He had .learnt 
from Tiresias that the city, which was then closely besieged, could 
not be taken if he would devote himself to a V6luh1ftry deadi ; 
which he readily did. All this, and more, is finely told by Statius. 

Juvenal never forgets the verbiage and vanity of theOreeks, 
which he pleas^tly itfiffotes and riflicules in the sut^eedlng ' 

uv^fvy- JPVf^NA^r y-a3«-T3s^^ 43? 

Sp ihg ygyRg liop renfc with Jiii^q? roar, 

His l^^^peps trembling limj>^, ai)4 djrank his gqre. 

♦• J^sh 1 1 ^m s»fe," yw cry ; ^« €ba)4aean seprj 
*^ Have raisefl my scheme, 9p4 pr9mife4 l?ng|h 

pf yp^rs." 
But has ypujr son sub^ribed ? ^^ill he ii^sit 
Thp Uogeriog 4istaji* qf decrepid Fate 9 
J)Io,rT7hi$ iQipatience viU the work conroup4f 
4^nd 'Snap t^e yitajL thread ere half upwoun4« 
Already, see ! your stag-like age annoys 
His prospects, and procrastinates his joys. 
fly then, and bid Archigenes prepare 
A» ^flUdqt^, if life be wqrth ypijr QVfi J 
If you would see another autumn dose, 
-Afl^ pl^icjf another fig, a^iother Tflsj? : — 
Take mithridate, rash man, before your meat, 
A.FA.THjER you! 2(pd iy|thqi)t ped'cine eat? 

Cpme, my Fuscinus, cpme with me, and view 
Ai^cene qfioiie cpinick than the stage e*er )cnew. 

y%^. 335. So theymmg Son 4*c.J This i^Iludes to a real in* 
ciaent which took place ^nder Domjtiany aad is thus related by 

'* h^jsaifmt ingrato leo perfidos ore magbtrom, 

** Ausus tarn notas cohtemerare manus: 
** ,Sed dignas tanto persolvit'cnmine pcenas, 
« £)t qui non tulerat verbera. tela tulit." 

JDe Spect. x. 

Fronuthe mention nf verbera^ say the critickSf it appeitre that 
^Cbe keeper had wantonly irritalNl the natural ferocity of the w^ 
jnal* T%is lenden Ibe Application infinitiely moip itrikii^ 

Vs^. .345. Fly ihen% and bid Archigenes prepare Sj^J] A;^hi- 
ffenes is frequently mentioned by jf uVen^I. The Scholiast says he 
* was^'a'very celebrated physician ^f bis own times, who practised 
at Rome/' It appears from Galen, that he was a native ofSyriit. 

438 «ATiit« XIV. JUVENAL. v. 353—361* 

Lo ! with what toil, what daager wealth is sought^ 
And to the fane of watchful Castor brought ; 
Since Mars the Avenger slumbered to his cost. 
And, with his helmet, all his credit lost ! 
Quit then the plays ; the farce of life supplies 
A sight more sportive in the sage's eyes. 
For who amuses most ? — the man who springs 
Light through the hoop, and on the tight-rope 
Or he who, to a fragile bark confined, [swings ; 
Dwells on the deep, the sport of every wind ? 

Ver. S54. Jnd to the fane rf watchful Cottar brought ;] £V 
ya^» says an old scholiast on Tbucydidcs, vaAoMv ra xfifMBrs cvTm 
S«^i( TOfMit^fiv. It was anciently the custom to deposit their money 
in the temples for the gods to keep. This was judicious enough ; 
some unlucky wight, however, might have asked, vdth our author* 
on another occasion — Bar who shall keep the ksbpses? 
for it appears that both gods and money were sometimes sw^ 
away together! 

The publick treasure was laid up at -Rome in the temple of St. 
turn, because, (says Macrobius,) when Saturn reigned in Italy, 
robbery was unknown ; which, I dare say, it was : and, indeed, 
the money continued there pretty safe, unless from the dutches 
of such mighty robbers as Julius Caesar, as a good guard was con- 
stantly stationed at the doors. 

Individuals kept their money in the temple of Mats, which stood 
in the Forum of Augustus ; hence our author says, in his tenth 
Satire : 

" ■ ut maxima toto 

" Nostra sit area Foro." 

After the misfortune which befel this poor god, whom the author, 
with the bitterest sarcasm, dignifies with the title of Ultor, (the 
Avenger,) theV removed it to the temple of Castor and Pollux : 
here they wereless fortunate than before, Mais was only atript 
of his armour, but these luckless beings, whose vigilance Joveinl 
also celebrates, were absiolutely flayed^roeteotos de Casiore 
ducat / 

I should imagine that the temple of Peace succeeded to the 
credit of Castor and Pollux ; for when that truly magnificent 
structure was destroyed by fire, in the reign of Commodus, trea* 
sures to an enormous amount were lost in the conflagration. 

kATiii XIV. JUVENAL* ▼•363— 38a* 439 

foolhardy wretch I scrambljQg for every bale 
or stinking merchandize exposed to sale; 
And proud to Crete, for ropy wine, to rove, 
And jars, the ftllow-citizcns of Jove ! 
That skips along the rope with wavering tread. 
Dangerous dexterity, which brings him. bread; 
This ventures life for wealth too vast to spend, 
Farm join'd to farm, and villas without end ! 
Lo, every harbour throng'd and every bay, 
And half mankind upon the watery way ! 
For where he hears the attractive voice of gain, 
The merchant hurries, and defies the main. — 
!Nor will he only range the Lybian shore. 
But, passing Galpe, other worlds explore ; 
See Pheebus, sinking in the Atlantick, lave 
His fiery car, and hear the hissing wave. 
And all for what ? O glorious end ! to come. 
After such toils, with purse replenished, home. 
And, with a traveller's privilege, to boast 
Of unknown monsters on an unknown coast. 

VsR. S6S» And pr&ud to CreiCf 4^.] Crete* the commentators 
gravely teil U8» was the native country of Jove, who was born and 
nursed on mount Ida ! the satire totally escapes them. But Crete 
was not only the birth, but the burying-place of that deity, whose 
tomb the people of the island pretended to show. CalUmachus, 
indeed, seems inclined to deprive them of their claims in both in* 
stances. The first he disputes rather faintly ; but for the second, 
he rebukes them with a solemnity that borders on the sublime, 
** The Cretans, and the Arcadians JMast of having given thea 
It^irth,-' says he to Jupiter : 

K^irri( murnfarrQ^ Xv Y u Btuii* i^«7» ya^ «u** 

WhW vai'ying fordis In madness liiay iHrc trace t^— 
Safe in his loved Electra's fond enibrace, 
Orestes sees -the avenging Furies rise, 
And wave their bloody torches in his eyes ; 
While Ajax strikes an ox, and, at the bloW| 
HesHTs Agamemnon or Ulysses low: 
And surely lie, though, haply, he forbear, 
Like these, his keeper and and his clotjics to tear, 
Is just as mad, who, to the water^s brini, 
Loads his frail bark, a plank 'tNvixt death and him ! 
When all this risk is but to Swell his store 
With a few coins, a few gold pieces more. 
Heaven lowers, and frequent, through the mut- 
tering air, 
The nimble lightning glares, or seems to glare: 
" Weigh I weigh !" the impatient man of traffick 
cries, [skies, 

^^ These gathering clouds, this rack that dims the 
" Are but the pageants of a sultry day ; 
*' A thunder shower, that frowns and melts away." 
Deluded wretch ! dash'd on some dangerous coast, 
This nicht, this hour perhaps, his bark is lost ; 

V^R. 39^. ConcUum argentum in Htuh^ faeie^qne mmui€$.'] 
With Qfea cpjii«, ifc] Tbi^, whicb is laer^y a ptiiplU:^ fo^ 
.,^oinecl mojo^y^y^ thus rendered by Dryden : 

'' But silver makes bim all tbis (oil eml^r^cp, 
<< Silvqr \s\\h tides stampt* ftiid a dull ynoi^ppb's fnoe/' 
. J §bottld not iiaye noticed tbis, if his example had not aeduoed 
the last translator; whose book being dc^iied for ^clioolSi shavid 
carefully avoid those gratuitous and illiberal reflections. 

I must observe here, that the notes subjoined to this Satire bf 
young Dryden, are ignorant, petulant, and licentious to the last 
degree. His father should have flung them into the fire. 

«AtTW trr. JUVENAL. ▼. 403— 441. 44f 

While lie ^tili sli^ives, theu^ ^whelai'd 4ieneatk 

the wave, 
H» darling purse ^wifh teeth, or Imnd, to save. 
Thus ^le, vfho sigh'd of late for all the gold 
Down the bright Tagm and Pactolus roU'd, 
Nov/i>ound9 his wishes to one poor request, 
A scanty morsel, and ft tatter'd vest ; 
And shows, wherelears, where supplications fail, 
A daubing of his melancholy tale I [pain, 

Wealth, by such hardships^am'd, requires more 
More care to keep it, than at first to gain : 
Whate'er my miseries, make me not, kind Fate, 
The sleepless Argus of a vast estate ! 
The slaves of Licinus, a numerous band, [hand, 
Watch throujgh the niglH with buckets in their 
While their rich master trembling lies, afraid 
Lest fire his ivory, amber, gpld, invade. 
The naked Gynick mocks sueh anxious cares, 
His earthen tu|j no conflagration fears ; 
If cracked) or broken, he procures a new, 
Or, coarsely spldierilng, makes the old one do. 

A dauMng Jji'c] Thus Peniut : 
« te fracta in tr^be picUip 

** Ex bumerp portcs/'- 

ButPluidnis:had «aid Uie tame before bam c 

** " ^ ■ Cseteri tabulara s|iam 

" Portan;, rggantes victuoi.'* 

Tkey otiried about ^ coane painting of their ibipwreck, to 
«MHre^pity,.pedMpt^in xroantrici whtie .tbeir langwige was not 

449 8ATIREXIV. JUVENAL, v. 413— 434. 

£veii Philip*s son, when, in the little celi| 
Content he saw the mighty master dwell, 
Own*d, with a sigh, that he who nought desired. 
Was happier far than he who worlds required. 
And whose ambition certain dangers brought^ 
Vast and unbounded as the object sought. — 
Fortune; advanced to heaven by fools alone. 
Would lose, were wisdom ours, her shadowy 
throne. [afford 

" What call I, then, enough ?'* What will 
A decent habit and a frugal board ; 
What Epicurus* little garden bore, 
And Socrates sufficient thought, before ; 

Vee. 4^. Even Philip's ma, wken^ m tke Uttk cell, 4^.] 
circumstance in Alexander's history is alluded to by Butler wttli 
lis usual kuxnour: 

'< The whole world was not half so wide, 
** To Alexander, when he cry'd, 
** Because he had but one to subdue ; 
** As was a paltry, narrow tub, to 
<^ Diogenesi who ne'er was said, 
** For aught that I could ever read, 
*• To whine, put finger i' th' eye, and sob| 
** Because he'd ne'er another tub.'' 

,VxR, 453. What EpkurWf 4tr»] No one could hold the Cheoio- 

Jical tenets of Epicurus in greater contempt and abhorrence than 
uvenal, and yet he never omits an opportunity of doing justice to 
Ihe simplicity of his life. This is the more laudable, as few have 
lain under greater obloquy, (from the dissipated lives of his fol- 
lowers,) than this philosopher, who, to say the least of him, was 
no ordinary man. He has been represented as wallowing in sen- 
suality I He placed, it must be confessed, the chiel^good in plea- 
sure : but he meant by it, that calm and soothing delif^t which 
arises from a life spent in the coAtemplatiou of virtue. Diodes 
says that he was a perfect example of continence and simplicity ; 
and Juveual loves to dwell on his frugality-^amt itgfedi ta 

«A¥iREXiv. JUVENAL. T;43$^45a, .443 

These sqtiared by Nature*s rules their blameless 
Kature and Wisdom never arc at strife. [life— • 
You think) perhaps, these rigid means too«cant| 
And that I ground philosophy on want ; 
Take then, (for I will be indulgent noW) 
And something for the change of times allow,) 
As much as Otho for a knight requires: — 
If this, unequal to your wild desires, 
Contract your brow ; enlarge the. sum, and take 
' As much as two, — as much as three, will make. 
If yet, in spite of this prodigious store, , 
Your craving bosom yawn, unfiird, for more, 
Then all the wealth of Lydia's king, increast 
By all the treasures of the gorgeous East, 
Will not content you ; no, nor ^11 the gold 
Of that proud slave whose mandate Rome controlled, 
Who sway'd the Emperour, and whose fatal word 
Plunged in the Empress' breast the lingering sword! 

kortis. Iq a word, the garden of Epicurus was a school of tempe- 
rance : and would have afforded little gratification, and still less 
sanction, to those sensualists of our day, who, in turning hogs, 
flatter themselves that they are becoming Epicureans! 

After saying thus much of the man, it is but just to add a word 
respecting his doctrines. With regard to the beauty of temperance 
and sobriety ; and the strong necessity of restraining the tumul* 
toous and disorderly passions, Epicurus may be listened to with 
lulvantage; but on the higher and more important subjects of life, 
there is not a more false and destructive system on earth than his; 
nor one so likely to make mankind worse by imitation. Perhaps 
he is the only philosopher* who never had one follower like to 
himsclC Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabilc» All his imitators were 
vicious, and the old world was ruined by his virtues. 

Ver 45 1 . Who swa/d the Emperour^ S^c] The state of depend- 
ence in which this moon-calf (Claudius) was kept by his freed* 
men, is sarcastically alluil<»d to by Seneca, in a passage of exquisite 
humour: Excandcscii Claudius: quid diceret nemo intelligebat. 

44# ■AT««j«T. fUYJOiA^f. if.4U^^S^ 

lUe out^feMm 4pcijfdi^, ifh W^« *^^ fWW» W 4^'^' 
lart homnt* iMbai* Jpsierat UU coUum pracidi ; putares ommtf 
ilGug esie libsbtos, adeo illvm itemo cu&abat.^ ApokoL 

Ver. 451. ■ ■ and mkote fatal ward 

Pitmgp^f Jj^,] This u agreeiib)9 to hialoiy. lli|ar- 
cissus, the person here fneant, though inferioar in rank to Ppliaif 
was the chief adviser, Tacitus says, in the nthbie affiiir. 

B|it t|us is npt a)]^ for ^vben CUi|t)io8 f&pp^red iryyifolutei .^ 
shewed marks of returnjng fondness for Mess^lina, Narcissus gave 
the orders for her death, without consulting him : fearful of her 
resentment, if she recovered her in^uencei \^e ytoM not eveftpersyt 
her to be heard. Such w&s the end of Messalina ! Her two itap^^ 
sers were not much more fortunate. Pallas perished by the sword 
of Nero. (p. 82.) Narcissus prfj^^ bis ji^^Mefice durm |be 
life of Claudius, but on the accession of Nero, AjgriDpina, whp^ 
designs he had endeavoured to thwart, threw him into pri^oa ; 
and, by a detestable refiqepient ia cruefty, c^n^peUfid |iira, ti^TOf^ 
mere want of sustenance, to put an end to his own life. A str^)» 
catastrophe for one who had seen the resources of' the Roman 
world at hi9 leet ! 



In thii Satire^ tohick was written after the author's return from 
Egypt f he directs his ruUcule at the sottish and ferocious bigotr^f 
of the natives. The enumeration of their animal and vegetable gods 
is a fine specimen of dignified humour ; and though he may be 
thought to treat the actors in the horrid transaction^ which makes 
the c^ef subject tfhls poem^ with too indiscriminate a severity ^ yet 
it should be considered that he had^for many justifiable causes^ long 
regarded the country and the countrymen of Crispinus^ with aver* 
sion : which was not much diminished^ we may presume, by a nearer 
view of both. 

The conclusion of the Satire^ which is a just and beautiful efe- 
$cription of the origin of civil society, (infinitely superiour to any 
thing that Lucretius or Horace has delivered on the subject,) does 
honour to the genius, good sense, and enlightened morality, I had 
almost said, piety, of the author. It is not founded in natural 
instinct, but on principles of mutual benevolence, implanted, not by 
Nature^ as Mr. Gibbon carelessly or perversely makes the author 
assert, but by Nature's Gop, in the breast ifman, andofuAV 





V. 1—6. 

VV H o knows not to what monstrous gods, my 
The mad inhabitants of Egypt bend ? — [friend^ 
The snake-devouring Ibis These inshrine, 
Those think the crocodile alone divine ; 
Others, where Thebes' vast ruins strew the ground^ 
And shattered Memnon yields a magick sound, 

Ver. 6. And shaiier*d Memnon 4*^.] <' The gigaiitick statue 
of Memnon, in his temple of Thebes, had a lyre in his hands, 
%\*hich, many credible writers assure us, sounded when the rising 
Bun shone upon it/' Darwin. What credible writer says this? 
An old scholiast on Juvenal, indeed, mentions it ; but he is totally 
unworthy of belief. 

The history of this wonderful statue seems to be simply this : 
Herodotus, when he went into Egypt, was shown the fragments of 
fL colossus, thrown down some years before by Cambyses. This 
he calls Memnon, but says not a syllable respecting its emitting 
a vocal sound : which appears to have been an afterthought of 
the priests of Thebes.* 

The upper part of this statue has been covered by the sand for 
■ ' I ■ 111 

♦Savary (Lett surTEgip. Vol. III. p. 175) observes with a 
simplicity that excites a smile ; ** Herodotus is the fii>>t who 
speaks of the statue of Memnon, and indeed, it is but a word he 
says of it, because, when he was in Eg\'pt,'it had not been long 
mutilated ! Since bis time, a crowd of travellers have dwelt upon 
it with enthusiasm !*' Do we need any better proof of the fact to 
which I have adverted ? 

44& SATIRE XV. JUVENAL. ▼. 7^8. 

Set up« glittering brute of uncouth shape, 
And bow before the image of an ape ! 

ages : it » diaft which yet remains on its pedestal,, which performs 
the wonders mentioned by so many travellers, who have perpe- 
tuated their credulity on the spot, by inscribing their names on 
the stone. One man, indeed, of high respectability, bears a kind 
of testimony to the common report of a soumi proeoeding* not 
from the harp of Memiiori, for there never was any such thing, 
but from the statue. Strabo says he heard a sound, but whether 
it came from the Colossuis itself, or the base, or from some one of 
the numerous standers by, he oould not tell. **• Indeed," adds 
he, ^' one would be inclined to suppose almost any things rather 
Ihan to believe stones, however disposed, capable of lu^il^ig a 
sound." Germanicus too, according to Tacitus, (Ann. 11. 61,) 
was indulged with the same favoin*. If he listened w^h patience 
to the nonsense first read to hilai by the priests, he wa» not un- 
worthy of it. , . 

In a word, the whole appears to hate been a trictc not Hl- 
adapted to such a place as Egyptf where men went, and stitt go, 
with a face of gaping\vonderment, predisposed to swallow the 
grossest absurdities. The sound, (fbr some sound there was,) I 
am inclined to think, with De Pauw, proceeded from an exca- 
vation near the plinth, the sides of Whkh might be struck* at a 
coDcertcki moment, with a hut of sonorous metal. £vea Savny, 
who saw nothing but prodigies in £gypt# treats this foolish affur 
as an artifice of the priests. So much fbr the harp of Mamaea ; 
which, though miserably out of its pdaee in- a work of pkikMopky^ 
do^ very well in a poetick description : 

" As Mcfmnon's marble hafp, ifefioWnM 6f old 

*^ By fabling Nilus, to the qaivering totich 

" Of Titan's ray, with each fepnfsive String 

<< Consenting, sounded through the warbling air 

" Unbidden st^ains." JkatsUe. 

Akenside ^^avered his mistake respecting the harp of Mem- 
non^ somewhat sooner than Dr. Darwin ; and, in his own copy of 
the PkaMwn of Imagination^ directed the passage to be read 
thus : 

*' As Memnnn's marbleybrm, renowo'd of old 

*^ By fabling Nilus, at the potent touch 

** Of morai^g uiter'd from its inmost frame 

^' Unbidden m«iai«k." 

^ Bttty*' continues Dr. Darwin, who seeias t<^ have a^ ab« 

aATiKB xv. JUVENAL* V. 9— ia« 449 

Thousands regard the hound with holy fear, 
Kot one, Diana : and 'tis dangerous here. 
To violate an onion, or to stain 
The sanctity of leeks, with tooth profane. 

objection to believe any miracle^— provided it be not in Scripture^ 
*' the tnincated statue is said, for many ceDtaries> to have saluted 
the rising sun with cheerful tones, and the setting sun with me* 
lancholy ones." This gross and palpable invention of one Philo- 
ttratus (the scorn of every man of sense) was scarcely worth no- 
tice ; the Doctor, however, thinks otherwise, he speculates pro* 
foundly upon it ; and observes, among other things, that the sun's 
light possesses a mechanical impulse : a truism, it seems, which 
would have been proved by Mr. Michel, if— -the experiments had 
Jiot totally £uM I 

I recommend this whole passage, (Botanick Garden, note ix.) 
o the curious. It contains such marvellous discoveries ; and slich 
ingenious and economical proposab for opening the glasses of 
Jnelon and cucumber beds, as have not been equalled since the 
never-to-be-foi^tten plan of constructing parish sundials with 
eight*and-forty pounders I 

Ver. 11. To vioUUe am oniofi, ^c.'] Yet Herodotus was told of 
the immense quantity of onions consumed by the workmen who 
were employed on the pyramids* How shall we reconcile this? 
In the book of Numbers, the children of Israel, now wandering 
in the Desert, regret, among other articles of luxury, the <mum$ 
with which they were liberally supplied in Egypt. Were they» 
then, the constructors of them ? This b a subject for an essay, 
not a marginal note. One thing, however, I cannot avoid say- 
ing : the men who inhabited Egypt when Herodotus visited that 
countiy, do not appear to be the descendants of those who pnK 
duced the massy structures which encumber, rather than erobd* 
lish it. Nay, I am tempted to think that they were not even th^ 
progeny of those for whom they were raised ; a people, superiour 
in every respect to the timid and boastful race (the aborigines of 
the country) which the historian found there, and which, with 
little variation, has continued to our times. One reason, and 
indeed a principal one, for this supposition, is the profound igno* 
ranee of the natives respecting the purport of theirsacred edificesi 
rites, &c. which, if ever known to them, could not possibly be so 
totally obliterated from their minds as it appears to have been. 
Mot many years had elapsed between the invasion of Cambyses 
and the visit of Herodotus ; yet the origin of the pyramids, tem* 
plesj statues^ &ۥ were no better known to the priests of thitt 

45© SAtiRE xv. JUVENAL. ?. 13— fS. 

O holy nation ! Sacro-sanct abodes ! 
Where trety gatdcil propagates its gods t 
They spare the fleecy kifid, and think it ill, 
The blood of latnbkins or of kids to spill ; 
But hutnan flesh — O ! that is lawful fare, 
And you may eat it without scandal tbere# 

pcriodi than to ihe imaiM« and Gq>tick canobites of tha prtMot 
day. Cduld thU have been the castf if th^ir preitoc«Bion had 
possessed any information in the tiaie of the Pcrsiaii monarch ? 
Certainly not. 

It is worse than trifi)ng» tb^refottf, to attempt, as many of the 
commentators do, to account for the practices Javenal found 
amongst this pto^te, which if they underftlood ilU he understood 
much worse. I do not think, iudeedf that il will ever be found 
in Eg>'pti A ray of light, however, is breaking upon us from 
anoiher quarter ; 1 mean India : there, at no very dbtant period, 
perhaps, if the present kamed race of investigators Continue their 
researches, will a clue be found, to guide us through the hitherto 
inextricable maze of Egyptian history. 

Meanwhile, the lilgyptians have b^^n fortunate. As few or none 
of their vifiitants understood their language ; and as to those few, 
they could n6t explain what th^y did not know ; all their absurd 
ancl bestial superstitions have be^ii graluitousty supposed to be 
pregnant with sound sense, and a pure and enlighteneid system of 
tnofality. Ovitvy says Plutarch, yuf ^^070^, ah fAv^uht, ^h v«» 
^tf0'i}ai^o»»a(, X. ft A. *' Thci Egyptians have inserted nothinig 
intd their worship without a reason, nothing merely fabulous, 
nothing superstitious," bone ! <^ as many suppose ; but their 
institutions have either respect to morals or to something useful 
in life ; and many of them bear a beautiful resehiblance o{ some 
fact in history, of some appearance of nature, omit re m^i nfauj^am^' 
Ard. And the very ingenious translator of the Hjmn to Ceres : 
** The PJgyptian priests threw an awful and ambiguous veil over 
their religious rites, and having enjoined silence and secrecy as 
indispensable terms of initiation, gave an air of pomp and so- 
lemnity to institutiotis that were trifling, and doctrines that were 

This is too much. Tbe Egyptians of profane historv were 
neither a wise nor a moral people : nor did their priests give an 
air of pomp and solemnity to their religious riles, which, on the 
contrary, were sottish , ludicrous, and obscene. To talk therefore, 
as some do, of their being the teachers of the old world, is truly 

8ATi»» tv. JUVENAL, t, 19— jf. 4JX 

When, at the amazed Alcitioiis' board, of old, 
Ulysses of so strange an action told, 
Me moved of some the mirth, of more the gall, 
And for a lying vagrant pjiss'd with all : 
*' Will no one dash this babbler, for his pains, 
" Against some true Charybdis ; — while he feigns 
^* Monsters unheard of since the world began, 
** Cyclops and Lsestrigons, who feed on man I 
^* For me^ less should doubt of Scylla's train, 
" Of rocks that float and jostle in the main, 
'^ Of bladders fiU'd with storms, of men, in fine, 
'^ By magick changed, and driven to gr^nt with 

*^ Than of his cannibals :— the fellow lies, 
** As if he thought Phxacians not o'ei* wise." . 

Thus one, perhaps, more sober than the rest, 
Observed, and justly, of their travelled guest, 
Who spoke of prodigies till then unknown ; 
Yet brought no attestation but bis own. 
— I have my wonders also : I can tell, 

When Junius late was consul, what befel^ 


ridiculous. What could Pythagoras learn from « Dation, whose 
knowledge is' not proved in a single instance ? What did Herodotus 
learn ? Milesian tales. What Plato ? To sell oil, perhaps : — in 
short, it is time to have done with the prejudices of childhood| 
and to think for ourselves. 

Ver. 19. ffien, at ike amazed Alcinous' hoards Syc.'\ All the 
wonders recorded in the subsequent linesi and more, are to be 
found in the tenth book of the Odyssey, to which the reader^ if 
they are not familiar to him» should have recourse ; they form 
perhaps, the most bewitcyag nurrativc that ever came from the 
tongue of man* 

Vbe. 38. Wheti Junius late icos eonsulf 4*c.] For Junius sec )the 
Life of JuvennK 

4S% tATiRBZY. JUVENAU ▼•J^— so. 

Near Goptus' walls ; tell of a people 8tam*d 
With deeper guilt than tragedy e-er feignd ; 
For, sure, no buskin*d bard, from Pyrrha's time^ 
£*er tax'd a whole community with crime ; 
Take then a scene, yet to the stage unknown. 
And, by a nation, acted — in our own ! 

Between two neighbouring towns a deadly hate. 
Sprung from a sacred grudge of ancient date. 
Yet burns ; a hate no lenients can assuage, 
No time subdue, a rooted, rancorous, rage I 
Blind bigotry, at first, the evil wrought : 
For each despised the other*s gods, and thought 

Vbr. 49. Blind bigotry^ SfC.I The Ombites wonhipped the 
crocodile, the Tentyrites the ibis, whose respective claims to su- 
priority are not yet settled : I hold them both Id be very excel- 
lent gods, and, as Lucian, says, aXi>$«f e^vi$ rtr n^mm^ truly worthy 
of heaven, but feel no inclination to fight or dispute tor either. 

The singularity here is, that the criticks will not idlow Juvenal 
to know his own meaning. De Pauw seems to think, (I say, 
seems, for it is not always easy to discover his real opinion^) 
that this was not a religious war. It is owing to the corrupt text 
of Juvenal, he says " that the false opinion prevailed of the Om- 
bites having fought with the Tentyrites for a crocodile. * These 
two towns were near a hundred miles distant, and therefore not 
likely to have great interests to promote such vain pretexts. The 
dispute reaily took place between the lentyrites and the inha- 
bitants of CoptUs, and was occasioned solely by a jealousy of 
trade !" 

This is a little hard upon Juvenal : for though we should grant 
that he (or his transcribers) might have written Ombos for 

* But why must the inhabitants of the two capitals be tb« 
people who fought ? Each of them had a considerable district 
lying around it, and the borderers, therefore, might not be very 
remote neighbours. Even if this be disallowed, a voyage of four- 
tcore miles up the Nile is no very tedious, or difficult matter. 
Superstitious frenzy has frequently impelled its votaries to mora 
laborious undertaking?. 

cATiRixv. JUVENAL. T*si-r-<6. 45J 

Its own the true* the genuine^ in a word, 
The only deities to be adored ! 

And now the Ombite festival drew near : 
When the prime Tent' rites, envious of their cheer. 
Resolved to seize the occasion, to annoy 
Their feast, and spoil the sacred week of joy. 
It came : the hour the thoughtless Ombites greet,- 
And crowd the porphes, crowd the publick street, 
With tables richly spread ; where, night and diiy^ 
Plunged in the abyss of gluttony, they lay: 
(For savage as the country is, it vies 
In luxury, if I may trust my eyes. 
With dissolute Canopus :) Six were past. 
Six days of riot, suid the seventh and last 
Rose on the feast : and now the TentVites thought, 
A cheap, a bloodless victory might be bought. 

Coptos, 6tiU he could not well have mistaken the motives of the 


Brucey who seems to have read our author, as he read " Peter' 
Paez/' and indeed every other writer, as far as I have foHowed 
him, ** rapidly, and looking for things only where they ought to 
be.;" has another idea, as devoid of probability as of common 
sense. ** It is remarkable (Vol. I. p. 142) these two parties 
were anthropophagi as late as Juvenal's time; yet no author 
speaks of this extraordinary fact ! which cannot be called in 
question, as he was an eye witness, and resided at Syene. A chain 
was stretched across the Nile, and as the Ombites and Tentyrites 
could only meet on that river, either one or the other possessing 
it, could hinder his adversary from coming nearer him. As the 
chain is in the Harmonthick nomc, as well as the capital of the 
Ombiy I suppose it to be the barrier of this last state, to hinder 
those of Dendera from coming up to eat ibbm i** 

As Bruce is very generally read, it may not be amiss to notice 
his errours. I am not hostile to his fame ; though a careless 
riader, he was a curious observer; and though a mere pretender 
to aodent literature, a most i&defifttigable, enterprizing, and sa« 
|!idou9 traveller. 

4|4 sATiRi XV. jyySNAL. V. 6^'^^fQ^ 

0*er such a helpless crew ; nor thought they wroi%9 
Nor could the event be doubtful, where a tbroog 
Of drunken revellers, stammering, reeling-ripe, 
And capering to a sooty minstrel's pipe, 
Coarse unguents, chaplets, flowers, on this side fight { 
On that, keen hatred, and deliberate spite ! 

At first both sides, though eager to engage, 
With taunts and jeers, the hwalds 0[f their rage. 
Blow up their mutual fury ; and anon, 
Kindled to madness, with loud shouts rush on ; 
Deal, though unarm'd, their vengeance blindly 
round, [wound. 

And, with clenched fists, print nany a ghastly 
Then might you see, amid the desperate fray, 
Features disfigured, noses torn-away. 
Hands, where the gore of mangled eyes yet reeks, 
And jaw-bones starting through the cloven cheeks! 

But this is sport, mere children's play, they cry — 
As yet beneath their feet no bodies lie ; 
And, to what purpose, should such armies fight 
The cause of heaven, if none be slain outright ? 
Roused at the thought, more fiercely ihey engage, 
With stones, the weapons of intestine rage ; 
Yet not precisely such, to tell you true. 
As Turnus erst, or mightier Ajax, threw; 

Vbe. 72. On tkatt keen Paired ^.] Holyday supposes that 
the Tentyrites envied (he good cheer ot the OnbUe&s end there- 
ibrc fell on them with such Airy. But imk in the text is opposed 
to kinCm Fsch word is placed at the head of the iriuster-roll «f 
the respective armies. This personification of the combatants w 
Imnled and pleasant in the original « but lieceiwrily loicf fiiucii 
or its effect in the translation. 

cATiRi XV. JUVENAL. », 9i-r-99, ^^ 

Nor quite sp large as that twp-haad^d stpne^ 
Which bruised Mnts^ on the huckle^houe j 
fiut such as meus in our degenerate days, 
Ah, how unlike to theirs ! make shift tp raise. 
Even in his time, Mxonides could trace 
Some diminution of the human race f 
Now earthy grown old and frigid, rears mt}^ pain 
A pigmy brood, a weak and wicked train ; 

V£R«94. Jif haw unlike to fkfire/ make ikift to ritiie.] ''There 

Erevailed/' sty0 Dr. Johnson in his Ufip of MHum^ f* en opinion iu 
is timey that the world was in its decay* ai)d that w^ have the 
misfortune to be produced in the decrepitude of nature." The 
Dr. probably mcAnt to confine bi» pbserKMoa to tfaia country : 
the opinioq, however^ was universal, and prevailed many thpusaiid 
yean before Milton wa$ bom ; and acems derived from a natural 
pr^dilect}on ia the aged for the ^eonipaiiioBs of tbw youth; or 
perhaps from an unconscious recurrence to the lon^vity of the 
antediluvian world. ** Few and evil/' says the Patriarch, wkh 
pathetick simpUcity* ** few and ^il have been the dayf of Ae 
years of my life, and have npt attaiped to the djiys of the years of 
the life of my finfhers, in the days of their pilgrimage." 

Homer 0eems to olacf the mmtmim of human strtsi^gfli and ^c• 
tivity at the period of the Trojan war, when Nestor had already 
observed a decUna of both. Where it really should be placed, we 
ahall never know, thou^ we t(\\ i^gree, gs we advance in vears, 
that it must be thrown back a little. As for Juveiial, he is pf^^ased 
to be facetious, as usual. I am glad^ however, that while he was 
indulging a smile at Homer's expense, he did not overiook Virgil, 
who, in copying faim, manifests a lamentable deficiency of taite. 
These are the passages : 

Tt;diiJi}(, fuya ifTor, t a ho y ^iJ^ f ifoify. 

* • **"^W*^f^WWi 

taxuM circumspif i( itigens x«<p* 

*' Viy HM Wcti bi« ae« service subir^ul, 

** Qualia nunc homi<Mim prodMoii i^oipora telljis.'' 

I do not know how it is ; but, generally speaking, Vii^gil's he- 
rocs have always appeared to mc less striking, in their qualitiet 
both of body and of mind, than those pf Homer ; ^et they perform 
greater feats upon occasion. ^ 

456 SATiKB xr. JUVENAL, t, 99— ii& 

Which every god| who marks their passions vile, 
Regards with laughter, though he loaths the while. 

But to our combatants. With arm*d supplies 
Inforced) the Tent' rites feel tbdr courage rise, 
And wave their swords, and, kindling at the sight, 
Press on, and with fell rage renew the fight. 
The Ombites flee ; they follow : — in the rear, 
A luckless wretch, confounded by his fear> 
Trips, aiid fi^lls headlong : with loud yelling cries^ 
The pack rush in, and seize him as he lies. 

And now the conqueroqrs, none to disappoint 
Of the dire banauet, tear him joint by joint. 
And dolehim round; the bones, yet warm,they gnaw, 
And champ the flesh that heaves beneath their jaw. 
They want no qopk to dress itr— 'twould be }ong« 
And appetite is keen, and rage is strong. 
And here, Votusius, I rejoice at le^$t. 
That fire was unprofaned by this cursM feast, 

Ver. 109- And now the con^uerours^ 4*^.] This, and what im- 
mediately follows, is not much unlike a passage of terrible subli-^ 
mity in that noble fragment, the Shield of Hercules : 

4^*' *X^ ^'f* VMrI«rriw* vokffeu Vm^ Urn 
*Ai/x« faXay viiiiv* o» h ftfurov ^lyMV^ifp 

BmM,* •9vx»^ l^ytihap v. 254. 

VxK. 115. Jnd here^ Vc^ius, JjfC.] I tannqt see the purport 
of this apostrophe to Voiusius. It is not, indeed, unusual with our 
author, when he is ridiculing one species of superstition, to mani- 
fest somethmg like tenderness for another; bal even this caprice 
could not influence him here ; for the Romans cared little for fire» 
and the Egyptiitn^, I. believe, still less. 

.. The mysteries of Mithra were neither un^iiQwi^i nor unpractised 
at Rome, when Ji^venal wrote: if his friend was attached .to them» 
a compliment might \^ intended ; though, even in that case, the 
introduction of Prometheus would shQW a want of judgment I can 
think of nothmg to the purpose* 

«ATiEB XV. JUVENAL* V. 117—138. 457 

Fire, rapt from heaven ! and you will, sure^ agree #> 
To greet the element's escape, with me. 
— Bqt those who ventured on the carcase, swore 
They never fed — on aught so sweet before ! 
Nor did the relish charm the first alone — 
Those who arrived too late for flesh or bone, 
Stoop*d down, and scraping where the wretch had 
With savage pleasure licked the gory plain ! [lain, 

The Vasqons once (the story yet is rife) 
With such dire sustenance prolonged their life ; 
But then the cause was different : Fortune there 
Proved adverse: they had born the extremes of war. 
The rage of famine, the still-watchful foe^ 
Aud all the ills b^leagured cities know. 
(And nothing less should prompt mankind to use 
Such desperate means.) Let this their crime excuse, 
for after every root and herb were gone, 
Aud every aliment to hunger known ; 
When their lean frames, and cheeks of sallow hue. 
Struck even the foe with pity at the view. 
And 2^11 were ready their own flesh to teari 
They first adventured on this horrid fare. 

Vfift. 1^5* The VaawM once, 4*^.] Tho Vascons were a people 
in the norih-^ast of Spaio» who took part with Sertorius, and stood 
a long and severe siege from Cn. Pompey and Metelias. Holyday 
says that Scrtorius compelled these two chie& to raise the siege, 
after their capital had been reduced to a state of the most dreadful 
necessity; but Val. Max. (lib. vii. 6.) who also mentions tlie ca* 
lamities of the besieged, speaks of that general as already dead ; 
Hcrttm (the Numantines) trueem pertwaciam in coiuimUijiscmore 
CalagurriioMrum ejiecrabiiii mpktOB supergreaa eii ; ^at, ^vo per-' 
seoerantiui intercmpti Sertaryi cwert^tM, obsidume Cn. PomptUfruf 
trantes^fidem presiarent^fuianuttumjam aliud «i urbceorum nipcr* 
erol ammalf ^xor€9 iwu natosjt$€ ad utum nefarue tfqrii vtrttnmi* 

458 JATIK,XT. JUVENAl#- ▼. 139—154. 

And surely cyery ^od would pity grant, 
^o men so worn by wretchedness and want^ 
And even the very ghosts of those they ate^ 
Absolve them, mindful of their dreadful state ! 

True, we are wiser ; and, by Zeno taught^ 
Know life itself may be too dearly bought ; 
3ut the poor Vascon^ in that early age. 
Knew nought of Zeno^ or the Stoick page« — 
Now, thanks to Greece and Rome, in wisdom's robe 
The bearded tribes rush forth, and seize the globe : 
Already learned Gaul ^spires to teach 
Your British orators the art of speech ; 
And Thule, blessings on her! seems to say, 
She'll hire a good grammarian, cost what may. 
TheVascons then, who thusprolong*d their breathp 
And the SaguntineSi true, like them, to death, 

Ver. 149. Already karntd Gaul S^cJ] €oii]<l iitij one soppoM 
ihbl a writer of eminence would »enpu»ly fix on 4 p&iti^ iik* iUi> 
to prove the ipigration of oratory from France to Britaia ? Yet 
.tkis ts dtmt by La Fil^Uerie, in his obser?iitions tm the life of 
Agricola !-^aAd tb^ Frenchman seeiDt to derive ao little vaui^ 
from the circumstance. Certainly, ** if two men ride upon ahorse, 
one must nde behind :'.' ami yet I doubt whether Gaol, witli all 
her boasted prt-eminenOe, passed in Juvenal's oiiiid for a nMieh 
inore enlightened spot than Britain. The fact is, that he laughs 
at both. 

But afMopes of La Bletterie. Hew mcnM fats patriotick 
IftuflDfih have ncreasod, if it had Inchilj ooeuned to hira that» 
near a thgusaad years after our author's timef ** learned GwaP 
had Mk the advafltagie of Britain ! One of Ahelatd's correspoBp 
deula, about the middle of the twelfth cenftary, coaiplinietits him 
aftoH the fenefal lesort In his lectuiesi afid adds, as tkit meat e»- 
tsiaofdiMiy ev«it of aUt that cvea BriiM p ar poaed sendiiig her 
hrale beasts to be iaBirueied by iwai-i> rfl ws #a Arkmm mta e a w ig « 

Ver. 154. Anit%e Sagunilnts, tcc!} Safuntum was destroyed 
J)y H»nnibal| ^ftex one i4 the most Ixtaofiil atf/^ Pli record* 

9ATUIXT. JUVENAL. T«J|5-*i7P. 45) 

Brave too, like them^bat by worse ills subdued. 
Had some small plea for ibis dete&ted food. 
Diana firsti and let us doubt no more 
The barbarous rites we disbelieved of yore, 
Kear*d her dread altar near the Taurick flood. 
And ask'd the sacrifice of human blood : 
Yet there« the victim only lost his life, 
And fear*d no cruelty beyond the knife. 
Far, far more savage, Egypt's frantick train, 
They butcher first, and then devour the slain ! 
^But say, what cause impell'd them to proceed, 
What siege, what fanzine, to tins monstrous deed ? 
What could ihey more, had Nile refused to rise, 
And the soil gaped with ever-glowing skies, 
What could they more, the guilty Flood to shame. 
And heap opprobrium on his hateful name i 

Juvenal speaks of its fidelity to the Romans, so does Valerius 
Maximus, and in a way which shows that he felt it* After ob* 
serving that the cidxens made a flaming pyre of their most valua- 
ble elS^cts, on which they vohiiitarily threw themselves, and were 
consumer! ; he adds, Crediderim tttnc Ipsam Fidemy humana ntgotia 
MpeculanteMf nuuhan genisse vultum ; perseveirwitissimum sui cuitum 
uuqum Jaritmig JudiciOf tarn acerho cmtn damiuUvm cemmttm* 
Iib« VI* c. 6. 

Veb. 159« What could they tnore^ the guUty Flood to shame, 4*c*] 

«4 ■■ anne aliam, terra Momphitide sicca, 
** Invidiam &cerent nolenti surgere Nilo ?'* 

** None of the commentators,'' Dr. Jortin observes, ** at least 
none of those whom Henninius l^ath published, understand the 
sense of this phrase." The same may be said of the traaalators ; 
Holyday, always learned, seldom incorrect, thus renders it: 

«« ■■ . ■■■ By what fact 

^ Coold they have more made their kind Nilos slow 

^ To ne end their paffcV4 Mcnphkui land o'er-flow V^ 

46o SATIRE XV. JUVENAL, v. 171—17!. 

Lo! what the savage hordes of Scythia, Thrace, 
Gaul, Britain, never dared,— done by a race 
Of puny dastards^ who, with fingers frail, 
Ply the h'ght oar, and raise the little sail, 
In painted pans ! What tortures can the mind 
Suggest for miscreants of this abject kind, 
M'^hom spite impelPd wotse horrours to pursue. 
Than famijie, in its deadliest form, e*er knew ! 

Stapylton : 

** For which methinks their Meniphian Nile should grow 
** Into a rage, and cease to overflow.'* 


^* Or did the miscreants try this'conjoring spell,* 
** In time of drought to make the Nile to swell ?" 

It is the more extraordinary that the meaning should have beea 
to generally mistaken, as it is completely ascertained' by a passage 
in Petrooius : Natn quod invidiam facU nobiSf ingenuost koneitatqme 
clamaiubf vide ne dcttriorem facias confidentia causam. p. 374« 
The same expression, and precisely in the same sense, b found in 

** Utque parum justa nimiumque in pellica ssvas, 

^^ Invidiam fecere Deae." Met, lib» iv. 546. 

They excited the publick odium against the goddess for her ex^ 
cessive cruelty; this is the purport of the phrase in Juvenai; and 
this I have endeavoured to express in the translation. 

Ver. 175* Inpmntedfana! SfC,,'\ Boats made.of clay hardened 
in the fire, and varnished, so as to be water-tight. These /wcfir 
testa are catachrestically taken from Virgil's description of the 
same people : Etcircvm pictis vehitur sua rura phasdis. Grangaeos 
is puzzled to know how they could possibly float. He might easily 
have made the experiment. They floated very well down the 
tranquil current of the Nile; and Strabo telb us that he saw many 
of them on their passage from Upper to Lower Egypt. The only 
circumstance, worth noticing in this place, is the miserable shifts 
to which this nation was reduced by its absolute want of timber. 
Even under the Greeks, when they enjoyed a transient gleam of 
prosperity, their internal communications wera carried on in ca^ 
noes that would disgrace the New Zealanders. The Ptolemies, 
indeed, had vessels of a considerable size in the Mediterraneaot 
but these camey as they still do, from Cyprus, Rhodes, 4c< 

' sATiftB XV. JUVENAL, V. 179^000. 461 

Nature, who gave us tears, by that alone 
JProclaims she made the feeling heart our own ; 
And 'tis our noblest sense : This bids us fly 
To wipe the drops from sorrowing friendship's eye. 
Sorrowing ourselves ; to wail the prisoner's state, 
And sympathize in the wrong' d orphan's fate, 
GompeU'd his treacherous guardian to accuse. 
While many a shower his blooming cheek bedews. 
And through his scattered tresses, wet with tears, 
A doubtful face, or boy or girl's, appears. 
As Nature bids, we sigh, when some bright maid 
Is, ere her spousals, to the pyre convey'd i 
Some babe — ^by fate's inexorable doom, 
Just shown on earth, and hurried to the tomb. 

For who, that to the sanctity aspires, 
Which Geres, for her secret rites, requires. 
Feels not another's woes ? this marks our birth ; 
The great distinction from the beasts of earth : 
And therefore,*— gifted with superiour powers, * 
And capable of things divine, — 'tis ours. 
To learn, and practise, every useful art, 
And from high heaven, deduce that better part, 
That moral sense, denied to creatures prone, 
And downward bent, and found with man alone !-^ 

Ver. 192. to the tomb.] Et minor igne 

rogi : u e. too little for the funeral pile. The bodies of those 
infants who died before the seventh monlh were not burned, but 
committed to earth without sacrifice or solemnity of any kind, 
Cicero says that it was not usual to weep for them; and Plutarch, 
in his Consolation to his wife^ endeavours to moderate her grief 
for her child, by a reference to the prevailing practice : Juvenal, 
however, with his usual good sense, produces this aflfecting cir- 
cumatauce, to show the power of uQsopbistic«ted nature over the 
refinemeitfs of custom. 

40a MTfitx^. jtrVCKAL. r. toj-^nS. 

For He, who gave this Tast machine to roll, 
jBreathcd tir£ in them, in us a ftEASOifiNo 

.That kindred feelings might our state improve. 
And mutual wants conduct to mutual love ; 
Woo to one spot the scattef^d hordes of men, 
From their old forest, and paternal den ; 
Raise the fair dome, extend the social Iine» 
And, to our mansions, those of others join, 
Join too our faith, our confidence to theirs. 
And sleep, relying on the general cares : 
In war, that each to each support might lend. 
When wounded, succour, and when fall'n, defetid; 
At tfie same trumpet's clangor rush to arms. 
By the same walls be sheltered from alarms. 
Near the same towers the foe*s incursions wait. 
And trust our safety to one common gate. 
— But serpents now more links of concord bind: 
The cruel leopard spares his spotted kind ; 
No lion drinks a weaker lion*s gore, 
No boar expires beneath a stronger boar ; 
In leagues of friendship, tigers roam the plain,. 
And bears with bears perpetual peace maintain. 
While man, alas ! flesh*d in the dreadful trade. 
Forges without remorse the murderous blade, 
On that dire anvil, where primacyal skill, 
As yet untaught a brother's blood to spill, 

Vbr. 290. Tke cmel kop&td 4«. J » This is prettily siid, bot 
without truth : since the male bi»sts of every kind fight topt^her, 
when hunger or lust stimulates them ; and act, in this respect, 
just as if they wave man.'' JortiA. Crit. Rem. And this loo is 

prettily said. 

SATIRE XV. JUVENAL. V. 2a9-«238. 463 

Wrought only what pure nature would allow, 
Goads for the ox, and coulters for the plough ! 

Even this is trifling : we have seen a rage, 
Too fierce for murder only to assuage ; 
Seen a whole state their victim piecemeal tear, 
And count each quivering limb delicious fare, 

O, could the Samian Sage these horrours see, 
What would he say, or to what deserts flee ! 
Who animal, like human, flesh declined. 
And scarce indulged in pulse — of every kind ! 

Ver. 238. And scarce indulged in puUe — of every hind!] Ju- 
▼enal alludes to the popular &tory of Pythagoras forbidding his 
followers the use of beans. 

I do not intend to enter into the various conjectures of the 
learned respecting the origin of this singular, and superstitious 
piece of abstinence : no two of tkem agree together, and all seem 
equally vague and unsatisfactory. For myself, when I consider 
many parts of this man's character, as it is to be collected from 
a variety of writers* and find him, in mathematicks, in astronomy, 
in theology, many centuries beyond his age, I am almost tempted 
to regard these tales, respecting his veneration or abhorrence tor 
this or that particular kind of pulse^ as the inventioif of later 
times. Instead, therefore, of wasting our ingenuity on endless 
conjectures, we should do better, perhaps, to call to mind the 
history of the golden tooth, and be previously certified of the 
existence of the fact ! 



J^HE Argument of this Satire may he summarily despatched* 
Under a pretence of pointing out to his friend Galius the advan" 
tages of a military state^ the author attacks^ mth considerable 
spirit^ the exclusive privileges which the army had acquired or 
usurped, to the manifest injury of the. dvil part of the con^ 

The outline presented scope for a picture not uwworthy of the 
pencil ofJuvenid; and, indeed, what is touched of it, possesses at 
times a considerable degree <f merit. Much, however, yet remained 
to be ^filled up, when the writer, as if alarmed at the boldness of his 
own design, hurried on the conclu^ionf with an abruptness which 
mars the whole effect. 



■^^-T^^^^^ fjjrr-jr— r— Tj^^— — ^^^^ i ^^^^^^^^^ i M ^ 


V. 1—4. 

VY HO can recount the advantages that wait, 
My Gallus, on the Military State ?-— 
For let me once, beneath a lucky star, 
Faint as I am of heart, and new to war, 

Satire xti.] When this work was first given to the press, I 
was persuaded, no less from internal evidence, than from a review 
of the times in which he lived, that the present Satire was not 
the work of Juvenal. I am still of the same opinion, though in 
conformity to the usual practice, a translation of it is now sub- 
joined. There is, indeed, some approach to his manner in two 
or three instances, but every where a want of his force and va- 
riety—- of the latter, more particularly : after a preparation for a 
division of the subject, we have only one idea throughout, while 
the composition itself is neither vivid nor skilful. 

Nothing can be more amusing, in general, than the conjectures 
of the commentators on its origin, &c. I am chiefly entertained, 
however, by those of Calderinus. He imagines, and I regret to 
say that he has ** drawn in some better natures," that Juvenal 
wrote it for the sake of putting the change upon Paris ! Paris (as 
every one knows) seat him to Egypt with a military command, 
under a specious pretence of doing him honour ; and Juvenal, not 
to be outdone by the actor, extols the advantages of the army, lest 
Paris should find out that be had made him miserable, (which, 
says Calderinus, he mightily wished, quod maxime optctverit^) and 
tnumph in the success of his artifice. And this drivelling tale is 
told of Juvenal ! And every plodding commentator from Caldc« 
rinus to Henninius could discover the irony \ yet Paris, of whose 


468 SATIRE XVI. JUVENAL, v. 5—12. 

But join the camp, and that ascendant hour 
Shall lord it o*er my fate with happier power. 
Than if a line from Venus should commend 
My suit to Mars, or Juno stand my friend ! 

And €rst, of benefits which all may share : 
'Tis somewhat — that no citizen shall dare 
To strike you, or, though struck, return the blow: — 
But wave the wrong ; nor to the Praetor show 

sagacity, by their own accounts, there is no reason to think meanly, 
must swallow the deception, and be mortified at the vaunted 
happiness of the new-made soldier ! fmdetj pvdet : — but tl^e &• 
vourite opinion that this little piece was written by Juvenal»1n 
consequence of the military ** greatness thrust upon hin^'' caa 
only he supported by these or similar absurdities. 

Schurzfleisch accounts for the humbled style of this Satire, by 
supposing it to be produced when Juvenal was &r advanced in 
life, valde senem ; yet to this remote period the commencatois 
attribute the production of his most spirited and finished works ! 
Is it not better to acquiesce iu the reasonable conjecture of Plath- 
ner, that some ancient poet (he was not a mean one) amused 
himself with writing this piece, in the name of Juvenal, to g^e 
support to the popular tale of his banishment ? He knows but 
little of literary history, who can think such a circumstance either 
singular or improbable. 

Whatever may be thought of this, I am more and more convineed, 
that the oft repeated narrative of Juvenal's life b a tissue of idle 
and contradictory fables. 

y £E. 7* Than if a line from Vtnu4 should commend 

My suii to MarSf or Juno stand my friend /] His mis- 
tress and his mother, I'his passage is intricate and tautological 
in the original : th^re is^ however, something of the humour, if 
. not of the spirit of Juvenal in it. 

Ver. 9. And frstf of benefits which all may share :1 i.e. all 
' the soHiery : meaning, as ! conceive, the impunity with which 
they may insult the citizens, on account of the difficulty and dan- 
ger of obtaining justice in a cause where they are parties. This 
does nut please Ruperti, who explains it, of benefits commoD to 
the whole people, civil and military : but can this be so ? a dis- 
tinction seems intended in the very next sentence: the liue, how- 
ever, is not very explicitly marked. 

SATIRB xvir JUVENAL, ▼• 13—30; 4*9 


His teeth dash*d but, his face deformed with gore, 
And eyes, no skill can promise to restore ! 

A Judge, iFto the camp your plaints you bear, 
Coarse shod, and coarser greaved, awaits you there: 
By antique law proceeds the cassock'd sage, 
And rules prescribed in old Camillus' age ; 

To wit, %tt jf ollncrjf ^t^ no foreign &nicl^> 
0w pleaH to anp t^t^ty Inttl^out tfie txtm^. 

O nicely do Centurions sift the cause, 
When buff and belt-men violate the laws ! 
And amply, if with reason we complain, 
Is, doubtless, the redress our injuries gain! 
Even so : — ^but the whole legion are our foes, 
And, with determined aim, the award oppose. 
'* These snivelling rogues take special pleasure still, 
^^ To make the punishment outweigh the ill/* 
So runs the cry ; and he must be possest 
Of more, Vagellius, than thy iron breast, 

Ver. 15. A JudgCy 4*c.] This is a pleasant picture of the ve« 
nerahle bench of a camp. The coarse shoes and greaves (calceu^ 
tt grander turm^) aad the cassock, intimate, at once, the con- 
temptuous and indecent manner, in which the military tribunal 
usually assembled to hear and redress the complaints of the citi- 
zens. The law mentioned in a subsequent line, was made by M. 
Furius Camillus at the siege of Vets, when it was found neces- 
sary for the service, to prevent the men from following their suits 
at Rome. 

Ver. 21. nicely do Centuridns 4*0.] There can be no doubt, 
I think, but that the whole of this is ironical. Dryden, however, 
gives it a serious turn ; and so, I observe, does the last translator ; 

Most wisely, therefore, to Centurions yield. 
Those who complaiu of brothers of the field, &c. 

Owen understands it as I do ; and, in fact, the spirit of the satire 
is lost ill any other way. 

Ver, 30. Of more^ Vagdiius, ^-c] Of this intrepid advocate 


470 aATiKixvi. JUVENAL, v. 31— 50* 

Who braves tbeir anger, and with ten poor cocs^ 
Defies such countless hosts of hobnul*d shoes. 

Who sa untutor*d in the ways of Rome ?-^^ 
Or who so true a Py lades, to come 
Within the lines ? — no : let thy tears be dried, 
Nor ask that kindness, which must be denied* 
For when the Court exclaimsj^ ^' Your witness, 

here r 
Let that firm friend, that man of men appear, 
And testify but what he saw and heard. 
And I pronounce him, worthy of the beard 
And hair of our forefathers ! You may find 
False witnesses against an honest hind, 
Easier than true, (and who their fears can blame f) 
Against a soldier's purse, a soldier*s fame ! 

But there are other benefits, my friend, 
And greater, which the sons of war attend : 
Should a litigious neighbour bid me yield 
My vale irriguous, and paternal field ; 
Or from my bounds the sacred landmark tear. 
To which, with each revolving s«n, I bear, 

nothing is known but that he was of Mutina. Stapytton caih 
him ** a desperate ass," and it is, indeed* probable that his cele* 
brity arose from undertaking some cause, in which more than his 
<' toes" were hazarded. 

Ver. 49- Or from my bound* the $aered Umdmark ttary 4^] 
In the infancy of agricuJturey when artificial boundaries, hedges, 
walby &c. were unknown, lai^e stones, set up at certain distances, 
separated the lands of one proprietor from those of another. Ai 
these were easily displaced, it became necessary to secure them by 
extraordinary precaution. Dreadful threats were accordin^y 
denounced against such as removed them, in the old world, and 
^* Cursed be he that reraoveth his neighbour's landmark,** was 
probably found in the religious code of every nation. When mea 

SATIRB xvi« JUVENAL. ▼« 5i-^4* 47t 

In pious duty to the grateful soil. 
My humble offeHags, honey, mval^ and oil ; 
Or a Tile debtor my just claims withstand. 
Deny his signet, and abjure his haiid ; 

fell to idolatty, tuch coromi nations lost theft terrour, and legist 
latora and priests were driven to other expedients. A god (Ter* 
minus) was created ; and these mere-stones were converted into 
altars to his name^ and invested with a sacred character : it wa4 
consequently an act of sacrilege to stir them from their places t 
and thus the divisions of land, were in a great measure, maintained. 
Of the innumerable superstitions of ethnicism, this was at once 
the most elegant and the most useful ; it was also one of the raoSt 
innocent : for the ofierings which were usually made by the nis- 
ticks in procession, consisted of the produce of the soil, flowers, 
fruits, unguents, and the invariable concomitants of every sacri- 
fice, wine and the salted cake. The fullest account of it is in 
Dion. Halicamassus ; Bte^ rt yof n^virai rtff TipfAovoff x«i St/vo'tr 
««roK rft r»n (Atw f^4^ti;^> »^»* « yc^ o^mp iuftaf^u tirf Aidnc' $raX«#8( 
ik ii^Mifif^y nai aX^«K tivok nofxuv awa^x'^* ^^' ^'* This annual 
visitation, which was perpetuated, with the property it protected, 
from fiather to son, seems to have endeared the rite to the ancients, 
who spe«k of it with a degree of tenderness and affection, which 
they do not always express for those of a more publick and im- 
portant nature : 

** Nam veneror, sen stipes habet desertus in agris, 
'* Seu vetas in trivio florida serta lapis :" &c. TibuL 

The institution is attributed to Numa, by Plutarch : the aiiore. 
probable fact is, that this prince brought to the rude and barba- 
rous hordes, whom, happily for themselves, he was called to* 
govern, the rites and ceremonies of a more refined and virtuoua 
people. His denunciations against those who removed ** the sa- 
cred landmark" are even more severe than those of the Hebrew 
legislator :- ^* Qui t&minum exartuit^ ipsus et hofods tacrei 

The fathers are much offended at this superstition, which 
continued to a Ute period; and, waa:>0ot given up withour 
a struggle, as the huslmndman persisted in connecting the idea 
of a prosperous year with the due observance of his rural 
ceremonies. Their fulminattons at length prevailed, and Pru- 
dontius, who witnessed the desecration of these landmarks, ob« 
serves with some degree of triumph over the superstitious isars of 

47* . SATiEi XVI. JUVENAL, v. 55—70. 

Term after Term I wait, till months be past^ . 
And scarce obtain a hearing at the last. 
Even when the hour^ is fix*d, a thousand stays 
Retard my suit, a thousand vague delays : 
The Cause is cali*d, the witnesses attend, fend ! 
Chairs brought, and cushions laid — and there an 
Caeditius finds his cloak or gown too hot, 
And Fuscus slips aside, to seek tlie pot ; 
Thus, with our dearest hopes the judges sport. 
And when we rise to speak, dismiss the Court ! 
But spear and shield men may command the hour, 
The time to plead is always in their power ; 
Nor are their wealth and patience worn away 
By the slow drag-chain of the law's delay. 

Add that the soldier, while his father lives. 
And he alone, his wealth bequeaths or gives > 

the rusticks, that sunshine and rain still visited the earth, whick 
bad yet lost nothing of its pristine fertility ! 

« ■ - ■ Et lapis illic 

'^ Si stetit antiquus, quern cingcre sueverat error 

*' Fasciolis, vel gallinae piilmone rigare, 

** Frangitur, et nullis violatur terminus extis : 

** Nee tamen idcirco minor est, aut fntcttis agelli 

** Aut tempcstatis dementia l£ta screiiae 

** Temperat aut pluvii» qui culta novaliu ventus/' 

CoHt. Sjfm, 1005* 

But in his time, and, indeed, long before the simplicity of the 
ancient worship had been corrupted : 

** Spaif itur et csesa communis terminus agna, 

^* Nee queritur lacfens cum sibi porca d»tur." (hi<L 

The bloQd of lambs and kids was now mingled with the primi- 
tive fruits and flowers ; ]^ud, as property was secured by other 
means, its abolition was no less desirable than expedient. 

8ATIU XVI. JUVENAL. V. 71—80. 473 

For what by pay is earn'd, by plunder won. 
The law declares, vests solely in the son. 
Goranus therefore sees his hoary sire^ 
To gain his Will, by every art, aspire ! — 
He rosel)y service ; rank in fields obtained, 
And well deserved the recompense lie gained. 
And every prudent chief must, sure, desire, 
Tifat stilt the worthiest should the most acquire ; 
That those who merit, their rewards should have^ 
Trappings and chains, and all that decks the brave ! 

VxR. 71 • For what by pay is earn'd, Sfc] This law, which was 
introduced so early as the time of Julius Caesar, was meant to 
encourage the soldiery, the attachment of whom was now become 
of importance to the ambitious chiefs who contended for the 
empire. The privileges which he granted, his successours were 
careful to extend, till about the time this Satire was probably 
written, nothing remained for them to bestow ; and the distri- 
bution of favours — imperium^ fosceSf Icgiones^ omnia — naturally 
changed hands. 

I know nothing of Coranus, who was probably a soldier of for- 
tune: — but there is something ludicrous, amid the disgusting 
picture of avaricious depravity, in making a father, tottering on 
the verge of the grave, (jam tremtdna^) pay servile court to a son, 
in the full vigour of life, in hopes to be named his heir! 

By the law, or rather the constitution of the republick, the 
power of a father over a son \yas unbounded ; it exter\rled not 
only to his property but his person, and terminated but with thct 
death of one of the parties : yet it must be confessed that we do 
not find many instances in the Roman history, of its being 
abused : Natural alfectiou is an excellent corrector of the ano- 
malies of tyranny. 

Ver. 77. And ecery prudent chief 4'C.] O most lame and im- 
potent conclusion ! To have a bitter sarcasm on the abuses of a 
military despotism suddenly terminate in a dull panegyrick on a 
soldier, ivhich old Coranus himself might have delivered, \Vas 
little to be expected from any man of judgment, and least of uli 
from Juvenal, whose genuine compositions (a fact which I strongly 
recommend to the reader's attention) invariably close with an 
epijrdmmatick smartness; and whom, therefore, I am desirous of 
exoBcrating from having written this Satire. 



Abdera, 312 
Acestesy S53 
Achilles, SO, 289 
AciliuSi 122 
Actiumy 286 
Actor, 49 
^lia, 166 

-fimilius, 186, 241, 257 
iEneas, 455 
£son, 246 
Agrippiua, 218 
Agamemnon, 440 
Ajax, 240, 440, 454 
Alaband, 77 
Alba, 116, 13S 
Alcinoiis, I90, 451 
Alcides, 344 
AUedius, 146 
Amphion, 177 
Amydos, 77 
Anchises, 252 
Ancona, 115 
Andromache, 20S 
Anio, 91 
Antioch, 76 
Antony, 267, 323 
Anubis, 208 
Apicius, 113, 349 
Aquinum, 104 
Aichemonis, 252 
Ardiigencs, 437 
Argus, 253 
Arturius, 6^ 
Arviragus, 128 
Assaracus, 335 
Asturius, 92 

Astrea, 16O 
Asyllus, 186 
Athos, 328 
Atlas, 260 
Atticus, 349 
Aurelia, 144 
Autumedon, 16 


Babylon, 327 
Baiae, 66 
Bareas, 237 
Basilus, 243 
Bassus, 234 
Bathyllus, l63, 302 
Belides, 22 1 
BellerophoHf 341 
Bellona, 128, 204 
Berecynthia, 82 
Berenice, 175 
Bibula, 173 
Britanuicus, 172 
Brutus, 123| 139 


Casditius, 472 
Caesonia, 217 
Cajeta, 423 
Caligula, 217 
Calpe, 4:i9 
Calvinus^ 393 
Camillus, 58, 469 
Camerinus, 237 
Cann», 50, 326, 370 
Cancpus, 1 69, 463 
I Capres, 3i6 

. * 


Oippadocmns, 2^7 
Carpophorua, IJQ 
Carusy 12 
Cassandra, SS6 
Cauliae, SJ, 285, 5d& 
C^tti, 180 
Catalla» 41 
Catullus^ 125 
Gatulus, 69 
Cecropd, 26i 
Celaeno, 270 
Celsus, 183 
Centronius, 423 
Ceres, 294, 46l 
Cessenia, I70 
Cethegus, 37» 285, 33S 
Charon, 58, 100 
Charinus, 249 
Chaprippus, 266 
Chiron, 250 
Chr}'sippus, 407 
Chrysogonus, l67» 246 
Cimbii, 287 
Claudius, 149f 170 
Cleanthes, 35 
Clio, 227 
Clitumnus, 376 
Cfotho, 304 
Clodius, 37» 192 
Cluvienus, 18 
Clytemnestra, 221 
Cocles, 288 
Codrus, 5, 91 
Collatia, 19O 
Coptus, 452 
Coranus, 473 
Corbulo, 98 
Cornelia, 17O 
Corvinus, 22, 257 
Corsica, 144 
Cossus, 90, 243, 259 
Cosmus, 266 
Cotta, 145, 239 
Cotyttu, 47 
Crassi, 320 
CraiicuiH 42 

CrispioQS, 9, 109, 124 

Crispus, 121 

Cumae, 65, 104 

Curius, 35, 58, 257* 356 

Cybele, 52, 204, 273, 294 

Cyclops, 451 

Cynthia, 157 


Daedalus, 15 
Damasippus, 27 i 
Decii, 287, 436 
Delphi, 211 
Democritus, 312 
Demosthenes, 321 
Deucalion, 19 
Diana, 449, 459 
Dido, 197 
Diomede, 15 
Diphilus, 80 
Dolabella, 267 
Domitii, 284 
Drusus, 96f 259 


Egeria, 67 

Egypt, 114,260,447 
Electra, 440 
Epicurus, 402, 442 
Evander, 355 . 
Erimanthus, 80 
Europo, 261 
Euxine, 115 


Fabiiis, 58, 239> 258, 274 
Fabrateria, 94 
Fabricius, 305 
Faesidiusy 393 
Faustus, 227 
Fidenae, l63 
Flavius, 114 
Fiaraens, 215 
Flora, 41 


Floral garnet, 184 
FrontOy ^ 
Frusino, 94 
Fuscinu$, 447 
Fuscusy 125y 472 


Gabii, 90> l63 

Gades, 309 

Gaditania, 365 

Galba, 23, 136, 211, 257» 281 

Galiicus, 406 

Gallita, 385 

Galli, i3 

Gallinaria* 103 

Gallogreeks, 227 

Gallus, 467 ' 

Ganges, 309 

Ganimede, 294 

Gaurus, 297 

Gillo, 13 

Glaphyrus, 168 

Gracchus, 37 1 53, 276 

Gurges, 186 

Gyarae, 327 


HammoD, 211 
Hannibal, 177«S45, 325 
Hector, 101, 335 
Hedymel, 193 
Helvidius, 139 
Hercules, 1 5, 78 
Hermes, 262 
Hesperides, 150 
Hippo, 41 
Hippia, 168, 332 
Hirpinu8« 263 
Hirrus, 333 
Hispulla, 376 
Homer, 231 
Horace, 232, 252 
Hylas, 30 
Hymcttus, 407 

Janus, 193 
Jason, 6 
Ibis, 447 
Jews, 6j 
Jewess, 209 
Illyria, 115,268 


Isis, 203, 294, 400 
Julia, 40, 261 
Junius, 451 
Juno, 49 
Ixion, 395 

Lacerta, 240 

Ladas, 400 

Lselius, 433 

Laertes, 335 

I^aestrigons, 451 

Lappa, 234 

Larga, 419 

Laronia, 40 

Latinus, 12 

Latona, I77, 333 

Lavinum, 382 

Laurentum, 22 

Lectins, 84 

Leda, l63 

Lenas, 144 

Lentulus, 37f ^^7^ ?39, 274 

Licinus, 22, 441 

Locusta, 17 

LUcan, 234 

Lucilius, 30 

Lucallus, 203 

Lucretia, 338 

Luperci, 56 

Lybia, 146 

Lyons, 13 


MachoRra, 227 
Maecenas, 17, 234, 239 

INDSX OJ l!fAM£lb 

•riivrstes, 285 
Tiber, 75 
Tibur, 91 
Tigellinus, TJ 
Tigris, 27S 
Titius, 1 1 1 
Toi«illu», 242 
Trallea, 77 
Trebius, 137 
Trifoline, 297 
Tryphcrus, 362 
TuUia, 189 
Tullius, 249 

Tully, 243, 2:51, 2S5,«21 
Turnusy 30, 454 

Ulysses, 305, 440,45] 
Unibritius, 69 
UrsidiuSy I60 


Vfigellius, 4^9 

Vasconsy 457 ' • 

Vectius, 244v 24# 

Veicnto, 90, 125, 12S, l^d 

Vcnafran, 144 . 

Ventidius, 249 

Venui, 338 

Vcrres, 37, 267 

Vesta, 117 

Virgil, 197^234,25* 

Virginia; 338 

Virginius, 283 

Virro, 140, 29^, SCO 

Volsinium, 9 1 • • ^- • 

X'olusius, 456 


Xerxes, 330 • 

Zalates, 62 
Zama, 326 
Zeno, 35, 45$ 


< . 

printed by W. Bulraer and to. 
Ckvelsind Row, St. Jaraes*s.