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Full text of "Saving the redwoods; an account of the movement during 1919 to preserve the redwoods of California"

A gric . - 1-orestry . M a in Library 



. XXII. No. 5 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



CAL 



SOC1 ETY 



3U E' N 



Published cry 
THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 




Special Redwoods Number 



f nrk 200l0giral 



GENERAL OFFICE, 111 Broadway, NEW YORK CITY. 



HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN 



MADISON GRANT 



FRANK K. STURGIS. 



PERCY R. PYNE, 20 Exchange Place. 



A00t 

THE FARMERS' LOAN & TRUST Co. 



MADISON GRANT. 



MADISON GRANT, Chairman. 
PERCY R. PYNE, 
WILLIAM WHITE NILES, 



Committee 

WM. PIERSON HAMILTON, WATSON B. DICKERMAN, 
FRANK K. STURGIS, ANTHONY R. KUSER, 

LISPENARD STEWART, HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, ex-officio. 



HJnarfc of JHattag*r0 

: The MAYOR and The PRESIDENT Department of Parks, City of New York. 



HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, 
LISPENARD STEWART, 
CHARLES F. DIETERICH, 
GEORGE F. BAKER, 



LEVI P. MORTON, 
ANDREW CARNEGIE, 
MADISON GRANT, 
WILLIAM WHITE NILES, 



PERCY R. PYNE, 
GEORGE BIRD GRINNELL, 
CLEVELAND H. DODGE, 
C. LEDYARD BLAIR, 



of 1920 
WM. PIERSON HAMILTON, 
ROBERT S. BREWSTER, 
EDWARD S. HARKNESS, 
WILLIAM B. OSGOOD FIELD, 

OUa00 of 1921 
HENRY A. C. TAYLOR, 
FRANK K. STURGIS, 
GEORGE J. GOULD, 
OGDEN MILLS, 

QUaBH of 1922 
EMERSON McMiLLiN, 
ANTHONY R. KUSER, 
WATSON B. DICKERMAN, 
MORTIMER L. SCHIFF, 



A. BARTON HEPBURN, 
WILLIAM WOODWARD, 
EDWIN THORNE, 
PERCY A. ROCKEFELLER. 



LEWIS RUTHERFORD MORRIS, 
ARCHER M. HUNTINGTON, 
HENRY M. TILFORD, 
E. C. CONVERSE. 



FREDERIC C. WALCOTT, 
BEEKMAN WINTHROP, 
GEORGE C. CLARK, 
W. REDMOND CROSS. 



(Srnrral (0ffirrra 

WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, Director Zoological Park. 
CHARLES H. TOWNSEND, Director, New York Aquarium. 

GEORGE S. HUNTINGTON, Prosector. C. GRANT LA FARGE, Architect. 

GEORGE A. MACCALLUM, Pathologist. H. DE B. PARSONS, Consulting Engineer. 

R. L. CERERO, Bursar. 



of ftf* Znolngtral $Iark 
WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, Director. 

H. R. MITCHELL, Chief Cleric. H. W. MERKEL, Chief Forester. 

RAYMOND L. DITMARS, Curator, Reptiles. W. REID BLAIR, Veterinarian. 

LEE S. CRANDALL, Curator, Birds. WILLIAM MITCHELL, Cashier. 

WILLIAM BEEBE, Honorary Curator, Birds. 
ELWIN R. SANBORN, Photographer and Editor. 



nf tlj* Aqttartttm 
CHARLES H. TOWNSEND, Director. 

WASHINGTON I. DENYSE, Assistant. ROBERT SUTCLIFFE, Clerk. 

IDA M. MELLEN, Secretary. 



Special Redwoods Number 
SAVING THE REDWOODS 

An Account of the Movement During 1919 to Preserve 
the Redwoods of California 

, . .*;. 

By MADISON GRANT 

t-:. 

CONTENTS for SEPTEMBER 1919 

BULL CREEK FLAT GROVE ...,, Frontispiece 

SAVING THE REDWOODS Matiison Grant 91 

THE BIG TREE OF THE SIEKKAS. THE REDWOODS LEAGUE. 

REDWOODS OF THE COAST. CONDITIONS IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON. 

DESTRUCTION. SURVEY OF THE REDWOODS, 1919. 

THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY PLAN FOR 1920 119 

A MONOGRAPH OF THE PHEASANTS 120 

Illustrations 

DISTRIBUTION OF REDWOODS MAP 92 

CALIFORNIA STATE HIGHWAY 93 

CALIFORNIA STATE HIGHWAY PANORAMIC VIEW 94 

REDWOOD FOREST BEFORE CUTTING : 94 

REDWOOD FOREST AFTER CUTTING 95 

LUM B BRING OPERATION 96 

DEPTHS OF THE REDWOODS 98 

CUTTING REDWOODS 100 

TYPICAL LUMBER MILL 101 

GRAPE STAKE CUTTING 101 

LUMBERING ALONG STATE HIGHWAY 102 

PILES OF GRAPE STAKES 104 

SPLITTING REDWOODS '. : ^-<t-M)5 

LUMBERING ALONG STATE HIGHWAY ^ 105 

REDWOODS ON EEL RIVER ~ 106 

REDWOODS ON DYERVILLE FLAT !'.v v 108 

KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS * s l 1 1 

KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS 113 

KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS 114 

KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS 11 5 

KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS 117 

KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS Cover 

Photographs by Charles P. Punchard, Freeman Art Co., and Others. 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULL.ETIN 

PUBLISHED by the NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

111 Broadway, New York City 
Siiif/le Copies, 20c Bi-monthly Yearly by Mail, $1.00 




BULL CREEK FLAT GROVE 

Looking west across the South Fork of the Eel River and up Bull Creek, August 1917 
Humboldt County, California. (See Page 112) 



[90] 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
BULLETIN 



Published by the New York Zoological Society 



VOLUME XXII 



SEPTEMBER 1919 



NUMBER 5 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 

By MADISON GRANT 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE MOVEMENT DURING 1919 TO PRESERVE THE REDWOODS 

OF CALIFORNIA 



WHILE the cause of conservation of game 
and forest in the United States has ad- 
vanced with a rapidity and with a de- 
gree of public support that could not have been 
anticipated by the early conservationists, never- 
theless it has been too slow to keep pace with 
the forces of destruction. Members of the Zoo- 
logical Society know only too well that the ever- 
increasing stringency of game protective meas- 
ures has failed to save many species of bur wild 
life outside of national parks and other sanc- 
tuaries,, and that in them alone the game will 
find its final refuge. 

The forests are now threatened with annihila- 
tion. It is officially stated that at the present 
rate of destruction the old stand of forests in 
the United States will all be cut over within 
the next sixty years. It will not last sixty years 
because the new and efficient methods of logging 
by machinery now generally introduced are not 
only more rapid, but make a clean sweep of ev- 
ery standing stick, while the old method left be- 
hind many of the smaller trees as well as a few 
giants which were defective and not worth cut- 
ting. 

The most serious threat of devastation, cer- 
tainly the most dramatic, is the impending de- 
struction of the giant Redwoods of the California 
coast, and the following pages are devoted to 
a description of the efforts being made to save 
them. 

History of the Sequoia. 

The genus Sequoia, to which the two surviv- 
ing species of the great trees of California be- 
long, is a member of the Taxodiaceae and stands 
widely separated from other living trees. This 
genus together with closely related groups once 



spread over the entire northern hemisphere, and 
fossil remains of Sequoia and kindred genera 
have been found in Europe, Spitzbergen, Sibe- 
ria, Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Changes in 
climate and other causes have led to their grad- 
ual extinction until the sole survivors of the 
genus are confined to California, one to high 
altitudes in the Sierra Mountains, and the other 
to the western slope of the Coast Range. Fos- 
sil leaves and cones of genera closely related to 
Sequoia occur in the rocks of the Jurassic and of 
the Trias, and the members of the genus Sequoia 
were common and characteristic trees in Cali- 
fornia throughout the Cretaceous. 

To give some idea of what this bald statement 
means, these trees, virtually in their present 
form, flourished in California before the mam- 
mals developed from their humble, insectivorous 
ancestors of the Mesozoic and while the dino- 
saurs were the most advanced form of land ani- 
mals. The mountains upon which these trees 
now stand contain fossil records of early Se- 
quoia-like trees, proving that this group abound- 
ed before the rocks that constitute the pres- 
ent Sierras and Coast Ranges were laid down in 
the shallow seas, to be upheaved later and erod- 
ed into their present shapes. In the base of 
Mt. Shasta and under its lava flows, the ancient 
rocks are marked with imprints of their leaves 
and cones. Such antiquity is to be measured not 
by hundreds or thousands, but by millions of 
years. 

While the duration of the family, of the 
genus, and even the existing species, or species 
so closely allied as to be almost indistinguish- 
able, extends through such an immense portion 
of the earth's history, the life of the living trees 
is correspondingly great. 



[91] 



92 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 




The Sequoia is not only the oldest living thing 
on earth, but it is the tallest tree on earth, and 
we have no reason, so far as our paleo'-botanical 
studies have gone, to believe that there ever 
existed on earth either individual trees or forests 
that surpassed in size, in girth, in height or in 
grandeur, the Sequoias of California. And 
these are the trees that modern commercialism 
is cutting for grape stakes, for railroad ties and 
for shingles. 

The Hig Tree of the Sierras. 

While the purpose of this article is to deal 
with the Redwoods of the coast rather than the 
Big Trees of the Sierras, both of the genus 
Sequoia, a description of the Redwood should 
be preceded by a few words on the Big Tree. 
The Big Trees, Sequoia cjicfantea, are very dif- 
ferent from the Redwoods and are found on 
the western slope of the Sierra Nevadas in Cali- 
fornia, at an altitude of from five to eight thou- 
sand feet above the sea, with a north and south 
range of about 250 miles. They do not consti- 
tute a solid stand, but occur in more or less 
isolated groves, and mixed in with them are 
other huge trees, chiefly white fir, incense cedar, 
sugar and yellow pine. 

These groves are stated generally to be about 
thirty-two in number and are much scattered 
and isolated in the northern part of their range, 
while in the south they are larger and closer 
together. This distribution shows that the Big 
Tree is on the decline, the various groves having 
long since lost touch with each other, while in 
the north the reproduction is very poor. They 
all grow in spots sheltered by surrounding for- 
ests and the slopes of the Sierras are more or 
less windless, but unless artificially protected in 
national parks they would soon be destroyed for 
their valuable lumber. 

They have suffered throughout the ages from 
ground fires. Their enormously thick bark, 
which is from one-half to two feet through, is a 
great protection, and the tree lives on, although 
its heart has been burned out, so long as this 
bark and its underlying cambium layer can reach 
the earth. If protected by human care the Big 
Tree has remarkable recuperative power, and 
many of the trees in the Giant Forest show an 
accelerated growth owing to their immunity 
from fire even for a few decades. 

These trees are from five to twenty-five feet 
in diameter at shoulder height above the ground, 
and in the Giant Forest alone there are said to 
be 5,000 trees of over ten feet in diameter. 

Map showing the original distribution of the Coast Redwoods, 
Sequoia sempervirens. (See Page 94) 






ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



93 



The height varies from 150 to much over 225 
feet, and as they are without taproots they stand 
absolutely straight, often without branches from 
the ground to a height of 1 75 feet. 

The crown usually is dead ; not blasted by 
lightning, as has been often stated, but because 
ancient fires have eaten in at the base so that the 
flow of sap to the extreme crown has been 
checked. When connection with the ground and 
the life-giving water supply has been strongly 
re-established, growth takes place from the top- 
most uninjured brandies, and forms a new but 
false crown. It is estimated that if these trees 
had escaped upsetting by the wind and had been 
allowed to grow entirely free from fire through- 
out their age long existence and had carried 
their proportionate growth (calculated from the 
tapering of the trunk) to their uttermost limits, 
these giants would be 600 feet high. 

This is mere speculation, as is the theoretical 
age of some of the more ancient trees. The 
known age of trees which have been cut is from 
1,100 to 3,250 years, but there is little doubt 
that this long period is much exceeded in such 
cases as the General Sherman tree or the Griz- 
zly Giant. The life of these monsters can be 
computed only by comparison with the measured 
trunks of lumbered trees the actual age of which 
has been ascertained from the rings of growth. 
There is always a factor of uncertainty in the 
size of trees depending on their rate of growth 
and supply of water. In exposed positions with 
poor water and soil, development may be greatly 
retarded and a tree may be very ancient al- 
though relatively small in size. On the other 
hand, a favorable location, such as a pocket in 
the rock or access to underlying w r ater, might 
greatly accelerate the growth of a tree within 
the same grove. 

Some close observers claim that the size of 
the annual ring increases with the dryness 
and not with the moistness of the season. They 
argue that there is little or no rainfall in the 
Sierras during the summer and the ground 
water comes from melted snow, that growth 
takes place during the months, when the ground 
is free from snow, and that a wet season means 
a heavy snowfall which lies around the trees 
late in the spring and gathers again early in 
the autumn, thus shortening the number of 
weeks available for increase of bulk. 

If this theory be correct, then the series of 
gradually thickening rings, culminating and 
then thinning out again, which is characteristic 

The California State Highway in 1917 before cutting 




ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 




PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE 
Along the South Fork of the Eel River, Hu 



of nearly all the Big Trees that have been stud- 
ied, would record dry seasons and not those of 
abundant moisture. This' theory flatly contra- 
dicts the evidence recently deduced from a study 
of the growth rings of these trees with reference 
to oscillations of climate throughout the North- 
ern Hemisphere. 

Redwoods of the Coast. 

The Redwood of the coast, Sequoia semper- 
vlrens the immortal Sequoia welj deserves its 
name. Far from being a "battered remnant 
like its cousin of the 'Sierras, whose shattered 
ranks remind one of ponderous Roman ruins, the 
Redwood is a beautiful, cheerful and very brave 
tree. Burned and hacked and butchered, it 
sprouts up again with a vitality truly amazing. 
It is this marvellous capacity for new growth 
from trunk or from root saplings, which is per- 
haps the most interesting character of the Red- 
wood in contrast with the Big Tree, which has 
no such means of regeneration and must depend 
on its cones for reproduction. 

All the Redwood forests have been more or 
less injured by fire, often deliberately started 
by the lumbermen to clear away the slash, and 
it is a wonderful sight to see a charred trunk 
throw out a spray of new growth twenty or thir- 
ty feet above the ground, or a new tree standing 
on top of an ancient bole and sending its roots 
like tentacles down into the ground around the 
mother stump. Other trees stand athwart the 
fallen bodies of their parents and continually 




A REDWOOD FOREST 
Before Cutting 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



95 




PATE HIGHWAY IN 1919 

sre lumbering operations were started 




A REDWOOD FOREST 
After Cutting 



readjust their root system to the decaying trunk 
beneath it. 

The vitality of the second growth throws up 
a circular ring of new and beautiful Redwoods 
around the parent stump, and these little trees 
come up again and again if cut. If, however, 
they are burned several times in succession, this 
capacity of shoot reproduction appears to be lost 
and there are cases, notably about fifteen miles 
north of Arcata, in Humboldt County, where the 
highway, passes through three or four miles of 
very large and thickly set burned stumps that 
show little or no signs of reforestation, proving 
that there are conditions where human greed 
and human carelessness make it impossible for 
even the Redwood to survive. 

The age of the Redwood is about half that of 
the Sierra Big Tree, and the life of a mature 
Redwood runs from 500 to 1,300 years, in many 
cases probably rather more. 

The diameter of the larger Redwoods is sixteen 
feet and over, and the height runs from 100 to 
340 feet. Thus, while the diameter is less, the 
height is far greater than its cousin, the Big 
Tree, with the result and effect of a graceful 
beauty rather than vast solidity. It is probable 
that trees will be found which will exceed this 
maximum altitude, and it is quite possible that 
an ultimate height of 350 feet may be recorded. 
One would anticipate the discovery of this tall- 
est tree on earth either in Bull Creek Flat or 
along Redwood Creek. 




[96] 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



97 



Of course, in discussing the present Red- 
woods, one must always bear in mind that 
many of the finest groves have fallen to the 
axe, judging from the silent records of gigantic 
stumps along the Eel River, especially at Sono- 
ma Flat, only recently destroyed, to say nothing 
of forests to the north long since cut away. It 
is probable that the existing groves, with few 
exceptions such as Bull Creek Flat, do not rep- 
resent the finest groves of Redwoods of fifty 
years ago. How needless all this sacrifice of 
Humboldt Redwoods has been may be measured 
by the fact that few if any of the lumber com- 
panies have proven profitable investments, if 
their failure to pay dividends is a test of their 
commercial success. 

On rare occasions, notably where a strong 
wind follows long rainy seasons, Redwoods when 
exposed on high ridges may be blown down, but 
there are no such windfalls as are found in the 
forests of Canada. The danger of wind over- 
throwing Redwoods, even when in a thin strip 
along a road, is very slight if there is reason- 
able protection from the contour of the ground. 

The original range of the Redwoods extended 
from Monterey north along the California coast 
to a point a few miles over the Oregon line, em- 
bracing an area with a length of about 450 miles 
and a width not exceeding forty miles. The 
narrowness of this range seems to be determined 
by the fog which sweeps in from the Pacific, 
and the writer has seen the edge of the fog-bank 
clinging closely to the inland limit of the Red- 
wood belt. The natives, with the usual human 
capacity for error, state that the. Redwoods at- 
tract fog, but of course it is the moisture of the 
fog deposited on the tops of the Redwoods that 
determines their inland distribution. These for- 
ests are sometimes so wet that the dripping from 
the high crowns is like a thin rain, and at Red- 
wood Creek during the past summer it was hard 
to tell whether it was raining or not, so satu- 
rated with moisture were the foliage and the 
trunks, when the fog darkened the forest. 

In the southern and larger half of its range, 
the Redwood is somewhat broken up in more or 
less isolated groves, and the axe of the lumber- 
man has now separated these groves still more 
widely. In the north there is an almost con- 
tinuous series of solid stands of Redwoods, con- 
stituting the most magnificent forests in the 
world, not even excepting the great Douglas firs 
and pines that adjoin them in Oregon. 

The Redwoods in the south seem to show a 
marked variation from those of the north, being 
generally redder in color, and their growth in 
rings or circles is much more frequent than in 
the groves of Humboldt and Del Norte Coun- 



ties. A further study will probably bring out 
other characteristic differences. 

South of San Francisco the Redwoods are now 
chiefly found in the Big Basin, which has been 
wisely made into a state park, and in the famous 
Santa Cruz grove. Intermediate spots along the 
Coast Range, notably at La Honda, are inter- 
esting chiefly as showing the pathetic solicitude 
with which the owners of surviving trees care for 
the battered remnants amid the charred stumps 
of former giants. Here at least the owners have 
learned that the value of a living tree at a pub- 
lic resort or along a highway far exceeds the 
value of its lumber. All these southern groves 
are mere reminders of the forests that are gone, 
but the surviving trees will be carefully 
protected. 

North of San Francisco, the Muir Woods on 
the slopes of Mount Tamalpais are easily ac- 
cessible and show something of the forest gran- 
deur formerly found in the region of the Golden 
Gate. The preservation of this grove is entirely 
due to the wise munificence of Mr. William Kent, 
who presented it to the nation, and put into 
practical form that devotion to California about 
which so many of its sons talk eloquently and 
do so little to perpetuate. 

To the north, Sonoma County has purchased 
for public use the Armstrong Grove, and Men- 
docino County probably will be impelled to buy 
the Montgomery Grove. These last trees are 
situated near the highway to the north of Ukiah, 
and will be the first grove visited by the north- 
bound tourist. If they are purchased by the 
town or county, Ukiah will become the entrance 
to the Redwood Park series, and like Merced 
at the entrance to the Yosemite Valley will de- 
rive a great revenue from motor tourists. 

After leaving Mendocino County one enters 
the great groves of Humboldt and Del Norte 
Counties. Here are solid stands of Redwoods 
and their subtle charm is so uniform that the ob- 
server finds it difficult to distinguish between one 
grove and the next. 

Four great forests stand out prominently: 
They are the groves along the south fork of the 
Eel River and the west bank of the main Eel, 
culminating in the Bull Creek Flat and the 
Dyerville Flat; the immense Redwood Creek 
grove ; the Klamath River groves, and the Smith 
River groves in Del Norte County. Each has 
its peculiar beauty and it is difficult to choose 
among them, but it is the trees of Humboldt 
which at the present moment are most in peril. 

See pages 111, 113, 114, 115. 

Destruction 

The groves along the south fork of the Eel 
River are traversed by the state highway now 




O S- r 

H | = 

tf M^ 

H Si 

ffi o^ 

^ 5 i 

fe uS 



[981 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



99 



in the process of construction. The route of 
this highway made the timber accessible and 
the immediate result was the establishment of 
small lumber camps that are destroying the 
trees along its edge. Not only are the trees 
along the road cut down, but the highway itself 
in many cases has been injured. It is hard to 
find more disastrous bungling even in road 
construction. 

One logging company, having thoroughly 
devastated large areas of its home state in the 
east, has recently purchased great tracts of 
Redwoods. These have been farmed out in 
small plots of forty acres each to various indi- 
viduals, who purchased on what was virtually a 
stumpage basis, and the cutting was in full 
swing in July 1919. The writer drove through 
these same groves two years ago, in August 
1917, and the change was sickening. This ex- 
ample of human greed and waste can scarcely 
be described. The pictures on pages 101-102, 
104-105 tell the story better than words. 

These great trees with their hundreds of feet 
of clear timber have among other valuable 
qualities the unfortunate characteristic of easy 
cleavage or splitting, and so they are doomed to 
the ignoble fate of being riven for railroad ties, 
for shakes or shingles, and perhaps worst 
of all, for grape stakes. Let no one, whether 
opposed to Prohibition or not, waste sympathy 
on the California wine-growers, whose sad lot 
it was last year the fashion to deplore. Grapes 
in California command today two or three times 
the price they ever brought before, and the 
development of the vineyards is the most im- 
mediate and threatening danger to the Red- 
woods of California. These superb trees are 
sacrificed to supply the stakes to carry vines, 
because of the practically indestructible char- 
acter of their wood, which will stand in the 
ground almost indefinitely without rotting. 

Survey of the Redwoods in 1919 

On August 7, 1919, Stephen Tyng Mather, 
Director of National Parks, and the writer left 
San Francisco to study the available Red- 
wood stands with reference to the selection of a 
site for a National Redwood Park, and to ob- 
serve at first hand the actual destruction in 
progress. 

The first night brought the party to Willits, 
beyond Ukiah in Mendocino County. Up to 
this point there were few or no Redwoods 
except the Montgomery grove, which lies to the 
west of the highway. From Willits the highway 
is under construction, and the Redwoods begin 
to appear along the roadside in small and 
scattered groups about fifty miles to the north, 



and while they are insignificant in comparison 
with the great Humboldt groves, nevertheless 
these trees are highly important in connection 
with the highway and should be preserved. 

The highway itself has not been built with 
an intelligent regard for the preservation of 
natural features, and the usual wasteful and 
destructive methods common to road contractors 
are everywhere followed. 

In the construction of motor roads here and 
elsewhere in California, and for that matter in 
Oregon and Washington, the commissions in 
charge should employ a landscape engineer ; that 
is, an engineer with some elemental sympathy 
with nature should supervise the work. The 
contractors should not be allowed to leave a 
wide area of devastation adjoining the road- 
way. Unnecessary vandalism, such as wrapping 
wire cables around the bases of the trees to sup- 
port derricks, should be stopped ; but, no doubt, 
all this will come after the trees and the scenery 
have been largely destroyed. 

As to the trees along the highway in Men- 
docino County, the possibility of their pro- 
tection depends entirely upon the action of the 
Highway Commission in securing a right of way 
which should not be less than an average width 
of 300 yards. 

The Redwoods grove at Hicks Camp is the 
first important camping site to be passed, and 
about twelve miles south of Garberville is the 
Sterns Camp grove, which is about ten acres in 
extent with a width of about 300 yards, and 
is a fine stand on a level flat. At this point it 
becomes evident that any park in connection 
with the highway must take in the entire erosion 
valley of the south fork of the Eel from crest 
to crest. The skyline with its superb trees is 
nearly as important as the flat bottom and much 
more important than the intermediate area. The 
river valley is narrow, in fact, little more than 
a wide gorge, with a level bottom, and the timber 
on the slopes has less commercial value than 
that upon the flat. If the timber along the 
highway is to be preserved, a relatively small 
amount of additional cost would save the entire 
valley. While it may not be necessary to go 
far beyond the crest, nevertheless as the trees 
are exposed a substantial amount of timber be- 
hind probably will have to be taken to protect 
them. 

There is a fine grove at Red Mountain, and a 
little beyond the first cutting appears. 

At a point six miles south of Garberville the 
first very large stand occurs. Here we were 
shocked to learn that the California Highway 
Commission not only had failed to acquire a 




[100] 




TYPICAL LUMBER MILL 

On the State Highway, South Fork of Eel River, Humboldt County. Photograph by Chas. P. Punchard 

August 1919. (See Page 107) 




GRAPE STAKE CUTTING 

On the South Fork of Eel River, Humboldt County. Photograph by Chas. P, Punchard 
August 1919. (See Page 107) 



[101] 




102 ] 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



103 



sufficient right of way to protect the timber 
along the route, but actually had contracted 
with the owners of the land for the removal of 
the timber. In other words, the Commission 
bought a hundred foot strip with the under- 
standing that the owners should cut off the only 
thing of value, namely, the timber. This in- 
credible folly can only be explained by the 
widespread belief that a strip of timber along 
the road will blow down unless covered and 
protected by the forest behind. 

The writer does not intend to enter into a 
discussion of this question, but it seems to be 
universally believed in the Redwood country 
that trees blow down if the adjoining forest 
is cut off. There is but the slightest basis for 
this tradition. Trees on ridges which have been 
exposed by cutting, or an isolated strip of trees 
standing across the line of prevailing winds, 
may in exceptional cases be blown down, be- 
cause the Redwoods, like the other great trees 
of California and Oregon, are without taproots. 
The writer (who has been through the Redwood 
belt twice from end to end and has visited 
practically every grove of importance) never 
has seen a single instance where trees have 
been blown down en masse, and he has seen 
again and again isolated trees and groups of 
trees in most exposed positions, that have stood 
for years in defiance of wind and storm. This 
is particularly significant as many of these 
trees were imperfect or burned at the core and 
consequently had but insufficient support. 

This myth of trees being blown down has 
been exploded again and again, but in order to 
kill definitely this old woman's tale it must be 
made the subject of an authoritative report by 
the Bureau of Forestry. The superstition stands 
precisely in the same class of evidence as does 
the silly story universally believed by trappers 
that the porcupine shoots its quills. It is strange 
that the one place where misinformation about 
zoology and the habits of animals flourishes most 
is among backwoodsmen and even guides, just 
as ignorance of the true principles of heredity 
is so widespread among the breeders of horses 
and dogs. In the same way, men in the lumber 
country are surprised when a skeptic from 
the outside world ventures to question the sacro- 
sanct doctrine that, if cutting in a forest is once 
started, all the trees must be lumbered or they 
will be blown over by the wind. Possibly this 
belief has been encouraged by the wiser lumber- 
men for ulterior purposes. 

The mere fact that there is little or no evi- 
dence of trees blowing over even though in the 



most exposed positions, and the further fact that 
numberless trees, isolated or in groups, which 
have been deprived of all their supporting trees, 
stand for years without falling, are of little 
weight against this venerable superstition. 

This yarn is encountered throughout the 
north, perhaps with rather more justification, 
among the yellow pine forests, but even there 
the writer has failed to find any evidence for it, 
although he does not pretend to have covered 
the ground as in the case of the Redwoods. 
Among the Redwoods one of the most noticeable 
features is the absence of fallen trees, such as 
cover the ground everywhere in Canada and the 
northern greenwood forests. 

Another superstition of the same character is, 
that Redwood trees and timber are not injured 
by burning over because of the fact that these 
trees, like nearly all other very large trees of 
California, are resistant to fire by reason of 
their thick bark, and that many of them show 
scars of ancient conflagrations, even in the damp 
forests of the north. The result is that there has 
been a great deal of deliberate burning of brush, 
both preceding and following lumbering opera- 
tions. In the ordinary lumbering operations the 
trees are felled and the masses of fallen ma- 
terial brush, shattered branches and some- 
times trunks are then burned. This is said to 
be necessary in order to saw up the giant trunks, 
several reasons being given, chiefly the difficulty 
of lumbering among masses of fallen debris. 
The statement is also made that the workmen 
object to the alleged danger of cutting unless 
the rubbish has been burned. 

However that may be, the burning results 
in very substantial destruction of good timber, 
estimated in some cases as high as thirty per 
cent. This proportion was said to be established 
by an experiment made many years ago by the 
A. B. Hammond Lumber Company, which has 
been unusually intelligent in the utilization of 
its holdings. A comparison was made between 
two tracts of equal area, one burned over in 
the usual wasteful manner and the other logged 
without burning, and the result showed that the 
burning destroyed about thirty per cent, of the 
timber. Whether or not there is any economy 
in the method of lumbering with assistance of 
fire, the public has a right to put a stop to this 
destruction of good timber because the time is 
coming when wood will be as valuable in 
California as it now is in Europe. What action 
would the state take, and rightly take, if 
the hotels in New York threw away one-third 
of the food which was purchased to supply 
their guests on the theory that it was their prop- 




[ 1041 




SPLITTING THE REDWOODS 

Along the Highway, South Fork of Eel River, Humboldt County. Photograph by Chas. P. Punchard 

August 1919. (See Page 107) 




KK*3jfiS& 

,-,^.-^ ->-. 
<**+ -"** r 




LUMBERING ALONG THE STATE HIGHWAY 

South Fork of Eel River, Humboldt County. Photograph by Chas. P/Punchard 
August 1919. (See Page 107) 



[105] 




[106] 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



107 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



Mammals 

W. T. HORNADAY. 

Birds 
LEE S. CRANDALL. 



Departments; : 



Aquarium 

C. H. TOWNSEND. 

Reptiles 
RAYMOND L. DITMAR&. 



WILLIAM BEEBE. Honorary Curator, Birds 

Published bi-monthly at the Office of the Society, 
111 Broadway, New York City. 

Yearly by Mail, $1.00. 
MAILED FREE TO MEMBERS. 

Copyright, 1919, by the New York Zoological Society. 

Each author is responsible for the scientific accuracy 

and the proof reading of his contribution. 

ELWIN R. SANBORN, 
Editor and Official Photographer 



VOL. XXII, No. 5. 



SEPTEMBER 1919 



erty? Surely this is one of the most glaring 
examples of the necessity of the state interfering 
with the management of private property to pre- 
vent its wasteful exploitation. Countless tons 
of slabs and lumber also are burned to get 
them "out of the way." Are there no by-prod- 
ucts from lumber such as there are in the refin- 
ing of petroleum or in the conversion of hogs 
into bacon ? 

In Garberville, we were received by a group 
of citizens headed by Judge F. A. Cutler and 
A. E. Connick, who showed our party over the 
road as far as Eureka, and pointed out the lum- 
bering operations in full progress along the 
road, examples of which are shown in the ac- 
companying illustrations on page 105. 

The railroad ties were purchased under the 
authority of the United States Railroad Admin- 
istration, but in justice to the officials it may be 
said that they did not realize the vast injury 
to the state highways when they authorized the 
use of Redwood timber for ties. The Railroad 
Administration, through its chief, Mr. R. G. 
Sproul, and Mr. H. W. Ellicott, Purchasing 
Agent of the Northwestern Railroad, immedi- 
ately stopped the buying of ties from areas 
which would come within the proposed reser- 
vation, as soon as the matter was officially 
brought to their attention by the writer, and 
they expressed their entire sympathy with the 
plans for the preservation of these trees. 

The cutting has been done in almost every 
case along the east bank of the south fork of 
the Eel River and on the very edge of the high- 
way, and while the devastation is appalling, nev- 
ertheless the damage if arrested at the present 
time can ultimately be minimized. 

Some distance below Garberville, the highway 
leaves the river and does not reenter the Red- 



woods until just above Phillipsville, where there 
is a fine stand of Redwoods on the left bank. At 
Phillipsville itself there are five acres of very 
fine trees on both sides of the road, and again 
at Fish Creek there is a four-acre tract of Red- 
woods which has not yet been injured by cutting. 

Below Miranda, on Logan's Flat, there is a 
fine stand on both sides of the road some four 
or five hundred acres in extent. This is offered 
for sale, but as yet there has been no cutting. 

The first cutting below Garberville appears 
at Elk Creek, where a few trees have been cut 
for grape stakes, and more cutting appears a 
little below. Further down the river there is 
another stand of about 200 acres of bottom 
land, with more or less cutting. Further down 
again on the left bank is a very fine, thick 
stand of Redwoods, 700 acres in extent. This 
tract is not in immediate danger because it be- 
longs to the A. B. Hammond Lumber Co., which 
is not cutting in this section. These trees un- 
doubtedly should be included in any park along 
the highway. Below this point and near the river 
and highway, cutting is actively going on and 
there is serious danger of the entire destruction 
of the flat. 

Near here and on the right side of the high- 
way a stand of timber belongs to the University 
of Minnesota. It is reasonable to assume that 
a university an educational institution may 
be interested in the permanent preservation of 
these trees. 

Below this again there are some small mills. 
Most of the cutting here has been finished, and 
while the destruction has been very serious 
further work has been suspended. See page 96. 
Further down the river at Pepper Wood the 
forest has been greatly exposed by cutting, 
showing again that trees will stand along these 
river flats even though left entirely without 
shelter. 

In connection with the theory that exposed 
trees blow down, it should be stated that the 
Northwestern Pacific Railroad owns a few Red- 
woods on its right of way between the tracks 
and the main Eel River, and that some of these 
trees, being absolutely isolated and in a very 
exposed position, have been overthrown by the 
wind. 

After these scenes of devastation and threats 
of worse, we turned into Bull Creek Flat, per- 
haps the finest forest in the world. Bull Creek 
flows into the left side of the south fork of the 
Eel River just above Dyerville, where the south 
fork joins the main Eel. It is a magnificent 
stand of trees, some 10,000 acres in extent. See 
pages 90 and 106. 




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b a 

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ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



109 



The total area which must be taken for the 
Highway Park, from the upper reaches of the 
South Fork down to the mouth of Bull Creek, 
contains about 10,000 acres in addition to the 
Bull Creek grove. 

Bull Creek Flat belongs to the Pacific Lum- 
ber Company, except two sections in the upper 
part, which are the property of the ^Metropoli- 
tan Lumber Company. The officials of both 
these companies expressed their sympathy with 
the park project so far as it relates to Bull 
Creek Flat. This tract is said to contain one 
enormous tree, possibly the largest Redwood arid 
the tallest tree in the world. 

Immediately opposite the mouth of Bull 
Creek is Dyerville Flat, a triangular area be- 
tween the two forks of the Eel River. At this 
point is located South Fork railway station, and 
it will be the natural entrance to the Park. The 
trees have been cleared away around the station 
to the extent of 150 or 200 yards and the Pacific 
Lumber Company has just begun lumbering at 
this point, in September 1919. If this cutting 
is continued it will greatly injure the approach 
to the proposed park. The reason given for 
commencing lumbering operations here is the 
shortage of man power, making it desirable to 
log on a flat and in the immediate vicinity of the 
railroad in order to keep the mills supplied. 
This cutting is the one great danger to the 
proposed park and is a most serious situation 
as yet unprovided for. See page 108. 

Below the junction of the South Fork, the 
timber on the right bank of the main Eel River 
has been entirely destroyed and the landscape 
presents a scene comparable only to the devas- 
tated regions of France. Few Redwoods are 
left, but a magnificent example has been pro- 
vided to show how the whole country will appear 
when lumbering operations are extended to the 
west bank. Reforestation is very slight and 
many places show no signs of regeneration. The 
stumps have been charred and burned, and the 
land lies worthless. 

This cut over area on the right bank would 
be a suitable site for reforestation experiments 
under the present California Forestry Board. 
The land could be acquired, and reforested at 
nominal cost. It is only a question of time when 
the state, for its own protection, will be forced 
to undertake this work. 

The fundamental tragedy of the whole Red- 
wood situation lies in the fact that these great 
trees are nearly all in the hands of private own- 
ers who cannot reasonably be expected to sacri- 
fice their holdings for public benefit. The state 
and nation, however foolish thev mav have been 



in giving away these lands, must no>v buy back 
at least a large portion of them. 

On the east bank of the Eel River for many 
miles below the Forks there are very few Red- 
woods in sight of the river except at Fortuna, 
where 2,300 acres of fine Redwoods have been 
preserved temporarily and are known as the 
Carson Woods. This grove is a mile or so east 
of the highway and should be preserved as a 
local park. 

Along the lower stretches of the Eel River 
below Scotia, the Pacific Lumber Company is 
said to have checked reforestation by cutting 
during successive years the sprouting saplings 
which bravely tried to lift their heads around 
the old stumps. This was done under the im- 
pression that the land could be made available 
for pasturage. It has proved a failure and the 
only result has been to destroy in many places 
the chance of reforestation. 

Below the forks on the left bank there is a 
magnificent stand of trees extending from the 
water's edge to the crest of the main slope, 
nearly all of which belongs to the Pacific Lum- 
ber Company. This area is some 20,000 acres 
in extent and the highway runs through it. It 
should be preserved, although the cost would be 
great, because of the size of the tract and the 
fine quality and thickness of the timber. Below 
this forest, the land on both sides of the river 
has been almost entirely destroyed, so far as 
timber is concerned. 

At Eureka there was great interest shown on 
the occasion of our visit. The citizens were 
organizing actively to put a stop to the destruc- 
tion of the Redwoods along the highway. Public 
meetings were held, which developed later into 
affirmative action to be described later. This 
enthusiasm was due in great degree to the recent 
visit of Secretary of Agriculture 'Houston and 
Col. Graves, Chief of the United States Bureau 
of Forestry, who had aroused the people of 
Humboldt County to the importance of protec- 
tive measures. 

Along the coast from Eureka north about 
twenty miles, there is little or nothing but 
cleared country, and beyond Arcata the road 
runs between some three or four miles of charred 
stumps which show no signs of reforestation. 
This condition appears to be entirely due to 
repeated fires. 

At Orick, on the Big Lagoon, we passed the 
lower end of the Redwood Creek grove, one of 
the very best stands of Redwood in Humboldt 
County, approximately 50,000 acres in extent; 
the lower part largely owned by the A. B. Ham- 
mond Lumber Company and the upper part by 



110 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



the Sage Lumber Company. This stand of Red- 
woods is largely mixed with spruce and the 
ground is carpeted with ferns in great abun- 
dance and variety. 

One of the most conspicuous features of these 
Redwood forests, especially in Del Norte 
County and the northern portions of Humboldt, 
is the profusion of ferns. It is said that some 
thirty species of ferns are found in these woods. 

This Redwood Creek stand is as yet untouched 
and should be carefully considered for a national 
park, because the timber being inaccessible can 
be acquired at a relatively small cost. 

The most important groves north of this sec- 
tion are on the Klamath River and also on the 
Smith River in Del Norte County, known as 
Mills Creek grove. There are several other 
groves in this region and the Redwood stand 
throughout Del Norte County is exception- 
ally fine. The trees, perhaps, are less healthy 
but they are larger, more weird and grotesque in 
their contours, and while less valuable for tim- 
ber, are even better adapted for preservation in 
a park. As Del Norte County is somewhat re- 
mote it may be immune for a short time from 
serious inroads by the axe, and there is no doubt 
that the Smith River Redwoods should be ac- 
quired ultimately for a national park. 

On our return from the north the writer was 
called upon, as one of the representatives of the 
Redwoods League, to return to Eureka and take 
part in the park movement which had made 
great progress since our first visit. The citizens 
of Eureka had brought together at a public 
meeting all the small holders who were actually 
operating along the highway. As a result of 
this remarkable public demonstration, the lum- 
bermen agreed for the sum of $60,000 to sus- 
pend cutting and to give two-year options on 
their property at reasonable figures. Thirty 
thousand dollars of the money needed were 
donated by Stephen T. Mather and by William 
Kent, both Vice-Presidents of the Redwoods 
League. The remaining $30,000 were supplied 
from the county funds of Humboldt County. 
These options were purchased upon the under- 
standing that they would be exercised when due 
and the lands paid for by special county bond 
issues. The state of California is expected to 
furnish a general bond issue for the purchase of 
the remaining timber lands on the south fork of 
the Eel, together with the Bull Creek and Dyer- 
ville Flats, containing in all some 20,000 or 
25,000 acres. 

The great stand of Redwoods on the left bank 
of the main Eel River below the forks was left 
out of consideration temporarily because of the 



large sum involved -in its purchase, but if the 
preservation of the South Fork is once secured 
public interest will inevitably demand the ex- 
tension of the Park to include these trees. It 
is perfectly obvious from the aroused public sen- 
timent in Humboldt County and elsewhere in 
California that the time is at hand when lumber 
companies will not be allowed to destroy such 
superb groves for a net return often absurdly 
small. 

The protection of these Redwoods must be 
secured by Humboldt County and by the State 
of California, but the Federal Government 
also must do its share by establishing a large 
National Redwoods Park. To obtain Con- 
gressional action is a matter of many months, 
but a resolution has been offered in Congress by 
Representative Lea, calling for an investigation 
of the whole Redwoods problem with a view to 
the establishment of such a park. Hereto- 
fore national parks have been carved out of 
the public domain and it will be a new departure 
for Congress to buy private lands for public use 
on any such scale as will be necessary here. 

The Redwoods League looks confidently to 
private holders of timber to donate either groves 
of Redwoods which are within the proposed park 
area (and several such donations have already 
been offered), but it also expects to receive gifts 
of Redwoods which can be exchanged for land 
within the park area. There are many patriotic 
Californians who will be only too glad to 
donate funds for the preservation of the Red- 
woods when they realize that there is an organi- 
zation ready to accept, administer these groves 
and turn them over to the State or Nation when 
the proper time arrives. 

The inhabitants of Del Norte and Humboldt 
Counties have scarcely awakened to the possi- 
bilities of fabulous wealth in their Redwoods as 
an attraction for visitors. The annual value of 
the tourist crop to southern California is said to 
be about $80,000,000, although natural curiosi- 
ties other than the climate sometimes have to 
manufactured. As an amusing example of the 
business acumen of southern California, one may 
mention Ramona's "place of marriage" and hei 
"grave," at San Diego, to both of which the 
tourist is religiously conducted and gravel} 
assured that, if Ramona ever had lived othei 
than in the brain of a sentimental novelist, she 
would have been married and buried at these 
mythical shrines. 

When Humboldt and Del Norte Counties 
awaken to a full realization of the revolutior 
effected by automobiles, which will flood tht 
country with tourists as soon as the highways 




KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS 

The tree on left is eighteen feet in diameter. Courtesy of Charles Willis Ward 
(See Page 97) 



[1111 



112 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



are completed, they will find that a Redwood 
grove, such as Bull Creek Flat, is an attraction 
that is worth to the county many times the full 
net value of the timber contained in it. When 
the last Redwoods are destroyed, towns like 
Eureka and railroads like the Northwestern 
Pacific Railway will be without resources, and 
will die away like many another predecessor in 
the United States and Canada. 

All these are purely commercial considera- 
tions. It is scarcely necessary to dwell on the 
crime involved in the destruction of the oldest 
and tallest trees on earth. The cutting of a Se- 
quoia for grape stakes or railroad ties (and an 
eighteen-foot tree was cut this summer for that 
purpose along the new state highway) is like 
breaking up one's grandfather's clock for kind- 
ling to save the trouble of splitting logs at the 
woodpile, or lighting one's pipe with a Greek 
manuscript to save the trouble of reaching for 
the matches. 

After the fall of the Roman Empire the 
priceless works of classic art were "needed" 
for lime, and statues by Phidias and Praxiteles 
were slacked down for this purpose, but the 
men who did it are today rightly dubbed 
''vandals and barbarians." What then will the 
next generation call us if we continue to destroy 
these priceless trees because lumber is "needed" 
for grape stakes and railroad ties ? 

It will cost money to preserve the Redwoods, 
many millions; but California has no choice. 
Either the amount needed to save the groves 
must be supplied today, or else a far greater 
sum will be required ten years hence to purchase 
a butchered and isolated tenth part of the 
forests. Those are the only alternatives. If 
the groves are bought in their present condition 
and at relatively small cost, it will be a great 
innovation because heretofore Americans have 
followed the wasteful policy of recklessly ex- 
ploiting wild life, forests and streams, and 
then as soon as the destruction is complete, the 
policy is changed, game is reintroduced and 
attempts are made to reforest the mountains at 
vast cost. But Redwoods never can be replaced. 

In the negotiations for the purchase of tim- 
ber lands, the officers of the Redwoods League 
found sympathetic and cordial support for the 
park among the lumbermen. They know the 
value of the timber only too well. The timber 
is their property, and their business is to cut 
and to realize on it. It is not fair for a com- 
munity to ask them to hold this timber, to 
pay taxes on it and then to sacrifice their finan- 
cial interests for the public welfare. It is the duty 
of the county, the state and the nation to pur- 



chase their holdings at the proper value. The 
question involved is not local, it is a state, a 
national, in fact an international concern, as the 
benefit derived from the preservation of the 
Redwoods will be for the people of the na- 
tion and the world at large. There is no reason 
why the lumbermen should abandon their in- 
terests without adequate remuneration, although 
in many cases individuals and companies will 
donate a certain portion of their timber, or sell 
at low figures. If the state had been suffi- 
ciently intelligent, before building the highways 
which made the timber accessible, to have ap- 
proached the lumbermen properly and to have 
made it a condition precedent that a strip of 
timber on either side of the road should be do- 
nated, no doubt in many cases the lumbermen 
would have found it greatly to their interest to 
accept the proposal. The fact that this was not 
done was the fault of the state, its highway com- 
mission and its legislature, and not the fault of 
the lumbermen. 

Experience has shown that the only effective, 
persistent and intelligent conservators of wild 
game have been sportsmen who have evolved 
from game killers into game protectors, and 
personally the writer believes that the lumber 
owners themselves, who are among the finest 
men on the coast, will be found to be most 
generous and helpful in any scheme looking to 
the preservation of the timber. The writer says 
this not out of any desire to placate the lumber- 
men, but from a genuine belief, based on the 
character of the men he has interviewed, that 
this will prove to be the case. 

A distinction must be made between the 
owners who are doing the lumbering themselves, 
and absentee owners who have no interest in the 
country, no knowledge of the trees, and who are 
operating through local agents. These agents 
have no choice except to obey orders, and the 
absentee landlords have no interest in the 
country except to extract an income, and they 
care not a rap what happens to the land after 
it has been devastated and plundered. 

The Redwoods League 

Such were the conditions when the "Save the 
Redwoods League" was formally organized in 
San Francisco in July 1919. This League 
had its origin in a trip made in 1917 by the 
writer in company with Prof. Henry Fairfield 
Osborn and Dr. John C. Merriam through the 
groves of Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte 
Counties. The grandeurs of the Bull Creek Flat 
Grove and its threatened destruction weighed 
so heavily upon the members of this party that 
a letter was addressed to Governor Stephens of 




REDWOODS ON KLAMATH RIVER 

One of the features of these Redwood forests is the growth of ferns. Courtesy of Charles Willis Ward 

(See Page 97) 



[113] 




KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS 
Courtesy of Charles Willis Ward, Esq. 
(See Page 97) 



[114] 




CAMPING SITES 

Among the Klamath River Redwoods. Courtesy of Charles Willis Ward 
(See Page 97) 



115 ] 



116 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



California, who was about to visit the Redwoods 
in Humboldt County, asking him to take steps 
to preserve this stand of giant trees. See page 
90. 

During 1918 the writer again went to Cali- 
fornia and endeavored to interest the California 
Highway Commission in securing a strip of tim- 
ber along the new highways, but owing to the 
war and other causes no substantial progress 
was made until the winter of 1918-19, when Dr. 
Merriam and the writer finally succeeded in 
enlisting the support of a group of patriotic 
Californians in the proposed League, which was 
then organized as follows: 

President 

FRANKLIN K. LANE 

Secretary and Treasurer 

ROBERT G. SPROUL 

Executive Committee 
JOHN C. MERRIAM, Chairman 

Madison Grant Henry S. Graves 

William E. Colby Stephen Tyng Mather 

George M. Cornwall Ralph P. Merritt 

Wigginton E. Creed Charles F. Stern 

William H. Crocker Walter Mulford 

William Kent Benjamin Ide Wheeler 
Henry Fairfteld Osborn Ray Lyman Wilbur 

Frank S. Daggett Charles B. Wing 

Joseph D. Grant Wilbur L. Jepson 

This League is at present under the active 
direction of Dr. John C. Merriam, of the Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, California, and 
to him all applications for membership should 
be addressed. 

Subscriptions also of any amount are greatly 
needed. 

The purposes of the League are as follows: 

( 1 ) To purchase Redwood groves by private 
subscriptions and by county bond issues. 

(2) To secure a state bond issue to buy 
the finest Redwood groves along state highways. 

(3) To establish through Federal aid a Na- 
tonal Redwoods Park. 

(4<) To obtain through state and county aid 
the protection of timber along the scenic high- 
ways now in course of construction throughout 
California. 

(5) To encourage the state to purchase cut- 
over Redwood areas for reforestation by natural 
means, or by replanting where repeated fires 
have made sprout reproduction impossible. 

Committees have been formed to study the 
subjects of Redwood distribution, variation and 
the most efficient commercial use of Redwood 
products, in the belief that nearly all the pur- 
poses for which this lumber is now used can be 
adequately served by second growth trees. 

A committee of ladies has been formed and 
the assistance of automobile and other associa- 



tions and clubs in California has been enlisted. 
The salvation of these great trees probably 
will depend on two factors just entering into 
active political life, one the automobilists and 
the other the women voters. The California 
Redwoods League is primarily indebted to 
two men, Stephen Tyng Mather and William 
Kent, for the funds to start work. These gentle- 
men guaranteed $10,000 and thus made possible 
the preliminary organization and later made 
other subscriptions as described above. 

Conditions in Oregon and Washington 

After leaving California Mr. Mather and the 
writer traversed the entire breadth of central 
Oregon and Washington, motoring up the east 
side of the Cascades, down the Columbia high- 
way to Portland, and up the Cowlitz Valley to 
Mount Ranier in Washington, thence southward 
through the Willamette Valley in Oregon, over 
to Klamath Falls and then south through the 
Pitt River Canon back to San Francisco, a total 
of about 2,200 miles. 

Preliminary steps were taken for the organi- 
zation of leagues in Portland and in Seattle, 
under the direction of the ablest men on the 
coast. The objects in view were to preserve the 
timber along the main roads and along the shores 
of lakes and rivers, and to protect by the estab- 
lishment of state parks the high peaks and 
crests of the Cascade Mountains. Both Oregon 
and Washington are constructing a system of 
great highways without adequate protection to 
the scenic features along the route. 

Among other purposes in view are the exten- 
sion of Crater Lake National Park to include 
the Diamond Lake region, so that the finest 
game district in Oregon can be protected as a 
game sanctuary. Crooked River Canon also is 
under consideration as a national monument or 
state park. 

Burney Falls in California should be pre- 
served as a state park, but this is a matter 
outside of the scope of the Redwoods League 
and must be handled by the state. The sale of 
the wonderful beach road south of Monterey, 
known as the Seventeen Mile Drive, and the 
threatened destruction of its extraordinary 
cypress forests, unique in the whole world, for a 
real estate development scheme is another state 
matter which must demand attention. 

The most immediate need in Oregon and 
Washington is for highway commissions of 
greater vision than those that are now con- 
structing roads in accordance with obsolete 
methods. The state highway leading from 
Tacoma to Mount Ranier recently ran through 
the welcome shade of giant pines and firs, but 




STATE HIGHWAY THROUGH THE REDWOODS. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, IN 1917 
Photograph by the Freeman Art Co., Eureka, California 



[117] 



118 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 



the Washington Highway Commission cut a 
swath 300 feet wide and then burned the timber 
against the adjacent forests instead of in the 
middle of the strip. The result is that one 
drives for miles through a blasted desert of 
burned and twisted stumps of what was once a 
magnificent forest, while the trees on either side 
have been needlessly scorched and charred with 
fire, and are frequently girdled by the steel 
ropes used by the contractors as supports for 
derricks. All this is reckless waste, and the 
only defense that the writer heard was that the 
inhabitants of the state had not yet awakened 
to a realization of the value of trees and that 
road builders have "always cut a wide strip for 
a road so that the sun could dry the mud." The 
fact that modern roads are concrete and do not 
need drying has not yet come to their attention. 
The old-fashioned method of burning under- 
brush to "improve the forests," an inheritance 
from Indian days and locally known at "Piute 
forestry/' is still in the ascendant. 

The great fight, however, of both the Oregon 
and the Washington Leagues will be to induce 
the state not to build highways through timbered 
tracts unless a strip of timber on either side is 
first secured as part of the right of way. Such 
an arrangement nearly always can be made with 
the owners of the timber if the reservation of a 
strip of trees is made a condition precedent to 
the construction of the road. A notable example 
is the new highway now under construction from 
Ashland to Klamath Falls, Oregon, through 
some thirty miles of sugar and yellow pine and 
Douglas fir. If the trees are preserved, this 
will be one of the most beautiful roads in the 
world; if they are cut, the road will pass 
through a desert. 

On the whole, the results of the summer's 
work. the complete organization of the League 
in California, and the start made in Oregon and 
Washington, have undoubtedly inaugurated a 
movement which will have far-reaching effects. 
The energy of the earnest and able men now 
in charge of the California League, and the tre- 
mendous popular support behind it, probably 
will solve the problem of the Redwoods of Hum- 
boldt County. The forests of the north may 
have to await action by the federal government ; 
but if the trees along the south fork of the Eel 
are saved, public sentiment will be overwhelm- 
ingly in favor of their preservation. 

The task of the Leagues in Oregon and Wash- 
ington will be harder. The population is less 
dense and has far less respect for trees. The 
magnificent Columbia highway, which is prov- 



ing to be a profitable investment for Port- 
land, may serve as an example, but even there 
the promoters failed to secure the land along 
the right of way and will have to pay out 
large sums to secure the continuance not only 
of the forests but of the water supply of the 
falls along the route. The borders of the high- 
way with its trees could have been secured at 
the start with but small expenditure. When 
lumbering operations have completed the destruc- 
tion of the timber on the mountains above the 
highway, and Multnomah Falls shall have 
dwindled away, Oregon probably will awaken 
to the necessity of preserving such scenic fea- 
tures as then remain intact. 

In Washington, the contrast between the cool 
and wooded road within Mount Ranier National 
Park, which has been built without injury to 
the trees, and the devastated horror which the 
State Highway Commission has constructed out- 
side of the Park boundaries, inevitably will 
strengthen the hands of the Washington League 
and perhaps enable it to save the trees along the 
highway between Tacoma and Seattle, where 
beautiful forests at the side of the road are 
now sacrificed for fire wood. 

As this goes to press, the welcome news comes 
from Bend, Oregon, that the Shevlin-Hixon 
Lumber Company is considering the creation of 
a memorial to the late Thomas Shevlin by the 
dedication of the timber in Tumalo Canon and 
perhaps along the highway to the purpose. 

With the co-operation of Col. Graves and the 
Bureau of Forestry, other stretches of timber 
along new roads may thereafter be set aside 
systematically so that the Forest Reserves as 
well as the National Parks can be utilized by 
the public as driveways and camp sites. The 
increase of motor traffic especially along the 
proposed system of highways to connect the im- 
portant national parks in the far west will make 
these proposals widely popular. 

Throughout the Pacific states there are every- 
where evidence of the old competition between 
the growing enlightenment of the people and the 
forces of destruction. Old frontier conditions 
have passed waste of natural resources, scenic 
or otherwise, sooner or later will be checked and 
a proper appreciation of the value of an unde- 
filed nature will succeed but the problem of 
today is to save for coming generations some 
substantial portion of our national endowment. 

The author desires to make special acknowl- 
edgment to Mr. Chas. Punchard, the talented 
landscape architect of the National Park Serv- 
ice, who accompanied Mr. Mather and himself, 
for many of the photographs used in this paper. 



fnrk 



THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY is a private scientific association which, under 
contract with the City of New York, is vested with the sole control and management of 
the New York Zoological Park, and of the New York Aquarium. 

The Society is national in scope and appeals to all Americans who are interested in 
the preservation of our heritage of wild life. The forces at work for the destruction of 
animals and birds are multiplying rapidly, and the Society believes that great efforts are 
necessary to preserve and protect the remnants. 

To those who are interested in the study and preservation of all forms of wild life 
in North America, the Society offers an economical, efficient and permanent organization 
devoted to that end. The work contemplated for the future is as follows: 



1. Endowment Fund. The increase of the pres- 
ent Endowment Fund is the most imperative need. 
Without a substantial addition, either by donations 
or bequests, the Society will not be on a satisfac- 
tory financial basis, and its work will continue to 
be hampered for lack of funds. The present Fund 
is less than $375,000. 

2. Zoological Park. Development of the Zoo- 
logical Park, 264 acres in extent, and the care and 
increase of its collection of over 4,000 animals. 

3. Aquarium Development; Development and 
administration of the New York Aquarium, and 
the extension of its marine exhibits of nearly 6,000 
specimens. 

4. Aquarium Improvements. The alteration of 
the present Aquarium Building so as to remove 
the boilers that are daily flooded at high tide, to 
a site outside the present building. The space 
then could be devoted to additional exhibits. Sev- 
eral more rooms are needed, also, by the adminis- 
trative force, and for research work in connection 
with the scientific utilization of the immense mass 
of gross material that is available. This change 
would cost upward of $100,000. 

5. Pension Fund. The enlargement of the Per- 
manent Pension Fund for employees. The Soci- 
ety's contribution to the present fund is $8,000, 
of which $4,335 is derived from a fund of $100,000 
provided through the generosity of the late An- 
drew Carnegie. An additional $150,000 is required 
to provide adequate relief for widows, the perma- 
nence of the present pension plan and to relieve 
the Society of its annual contribution of $3,665. 

6. Tropical Station. Maintenance of the Tropi- 
cal Zoological Station in South America for study 
and research work in tropical life, the publication 
of the scientific results obtained, and as a source 
of supply for the Park and Aquarium collections. 

7. Publication. Scientific studies on the care 
of wild animals and fishes in captivity. This work 
should be accomplished in 1920. 

8. Publication in Zoologica of "a series of scien- 
tific articles of great value on living animals, and 
in Zoopathologica of medical and pathological ma- 
terial on the diseases of wild animals. 

9. Pathology and Anatomy. Research and in- 
vestigation in pathology and anatomy through the 
Prosector's department. 

10. Photographs. Publication in permanent 
form of photographs taken at the Park of great 
value to science. 

11. Wild Life Paintings. Completion of the gal- 
lery of oil paintings to include all American spe- 
cies of large mammals and of such other mam- 
mals and birds as are threatened with extermina- 



tion. These pictures are of great artistic merit 
and are prepared from accurate studies gathered 
in the habitat of each animal. Nineteen pictures 
already have been completed and hung in the Ad- 
ministration Building. 

12. Heads and Horns Museum: The erection 
and equipment of a museum on Baird Court to con- 
tain the National Collection of Heads and Horns. 
This Museum will be open to the public, and will 
contain the present collection of 870 specimens, 
which is already of unique value, as many of the 
species represented are verging on extinction. Un- 
der existing conditions abroad, the Society will 
have the opportunity of securing many record 
specimens at low prices. The fund has been 
partly subscribed, but more will be needed to in- 
crease the variety and number of the collection. 

13. Zoological Library. Establishment of a zoo- 
logical library, greatly needed for research work 
at the Park. It is the intention of the Society 
to install in the library at the Zoological Park 
all the literature available, that relates to the 
present world-wide conservation movement. The 
literature on this subject is widely scattered, 
but the best of it should be gathered and made 
available for those engaged in preserving our heri- 
tage of wild life and forests. Adequate funds 
have not been available for the library, and scien- 
tific work, even for the identification of specimens, 
has suffered accordingly. 

14. Game Protection. Establishment of Game 
Sanctuaries in the National Forest Reserves. This 
is the most practical plan for permanently pro- 
tecting American wild life. The success of the 
Yellowstone National Park as a game sanctuary 
has been abundantly demonstrated. 

15. Game Protection. Maintenance of existing 
game laws, and the extension of laws prohibiting 
the sale of game, spring shooting, use of automatic 
guns, and in the promotion of closed seasons for 
species threatened with extinction. Appeals for 
financial help for these causes are constantly re- 
ceived from all over the United States and Canada. 

16. Stream Protection. Many of the finest 
American rivers and streams have been polluted 
by dye waste, chemicals from pulp mills, sawdust, 
sewage from towns and villages, and other defil- 
ing and poisonous materials. The result has been 
the destruction of many valuable and interesting 
fishes, notably salmon and shad, and the trans- 
formation of beautiful woodland streams into a\ 
menace to public health and a blot on the land- 
scape. The Society intends to attempt to abate 
these evil conditions and prevent their extension, 
as soon as funds are available. 



A Notable Event for Bird Lovers 

'The World's Most Perfect Zoological Monograph' 




TEMMINCK'S TRAGOPAN, Tragopan Temmincki (J. E. Gray) 
(Specimen color-plate from volume one) 

A MONOGRAPH OF THE PHEASANTS 

By WILLIAM BEEBE 
Published by the New York Zoological Society, through the co-operation of Col. Anthony R. Kuser. 

equally to the layman and the scientist. Only 400 
copies are available for sale in America. Volume I 
is now ready for distribution. Price is $63.50 for 
each volume. 



To be completed in four royal quarto volumes, 
richly illustrated with reproductions in color of 
paintings by Thorburn, Lodge, Knight, Fuertes and 
Jones, also many photogravures and maps. It appeals 



Prospectus, specimen plate and subscription blank will be mailed on application. 
ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK CITY. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 

ABOUT THE 

fork Honlogtrai 



MEMBERSHIP IN THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Membership in the Zoological Society is open to all interested in the objects of the organiza- 
tion, who desire to contribute toward its support. 

The cost of Annual Membership is $10 per year, which entitles the holder to admission to 
the Zoological Park on all pay days, when he may see the collections to the best advantage. 
Members are entitled to the Annual Report, bi-monthly Bulletins, Zoologica, Zoopathologica, 
privileges of the Administration Building, all lectures and special exhibitions, and ten compli- 
mentary tickets to the Zoological Park for distribution. 

Any Annual Member may become a Life Member by the payment of $200. A subscriber 
of $1,000 becomes a Patron; $2,500, an Associate Founder; $5,000, a Founder; $10,000, a 
Founder in Perpetuity, and $25,000 a Benefactor. 

Application for membership may be given to the Chief Clerk, in the Zoological Park; 
C. H. Townsend, N. Y. Aquarium, Battery Park, New York City, or forwarded to the General 
Secretary, No. Ill Broadway, New York City. 

ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

The Zoological Park is open every day in the year, free, except Monday and Thursday of 
each week, when admission is charged. Should either of these days fall on a holiday no admis- 
sion fee is charged. The opening and closing hours are from 10 o'clock A. M. until one-half 
hour before sunset. 

NEW YORK AQUARIUM 

The Aquarium is open free to the public, every day in the year : April to September, 9 A. M. 
to 5 P. M.; October to March, 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Annual Report No. 1 Paper 

"2 " 

' 8 and 4, each . . 

5 " 6, " .. 

7 " 8, " 

" 9 " 10, " . . 

" 11, 12, 18, 14, 15. 

16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, each... 

Our Vanishing Wild Life (Horna- 
day) postpaid 

Destruction of Our Birds and Mam- 
mals (Hornaday) 

Notes on Mountain Sheep of North 
America (Hornaday) 

The Caribou (Grant) 

The Origin and Relationship of the 
Large Mammals of North Amer- 
ica (Grant) 

The Rocky Mountain Goat (Grant) 

Tropical Wild Life (Beebe; Hartley; 
Howes) 

Zoologica Vol. 1. Nos. 1-20 inclusive, 
set 

Zoologica Vol. II. Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5 

" " No. 6, 7, 8 and 9. .. 

Zoopathologica Vol. I. Nos. 1 to 5. . 

Bulletin Nos. 1, 6, 8, 35, 43 and 46 . . 

Bulletins Bi-monthly 20c. each; 

Bulletin Nos. 24 to 60 inclusive, set, cloth 
Official Guide Zoological Park (Hornaday) 



$ .40 

.75 

.40 

.75 

1.00 

1.25 

1.00 



Cloth $1.00 
.60 

" 1.00 
1.25 
1.50 

1.25 
1.65 



.40 

.40 " .60 

1.00 
1,00 

3.00 

3.85 " 6.00 

.25 ea. 
.75 
.25 ea. 

Out of Print 
Yearly by mail 1.00 

bound 10.00 

.40 



Souvenir Postal Cards: Series of 75 subjects in colors, 

sold in sets of 25 cards, assorted subjects 25 

(By mail, postage 2 cents per set extra.) 

Souvenir Books: Series No. 3, 48 pages, 7x9 inches, 73 

illustrations from four color plates 50 

(By mail, postage 3 cents extra.) 

Animals in Art Stamps: Album of 32 pages, providing 
space for mounting 120 art stamps in four colors 
made from selected photographs of animals taken 

in the Zoological Park, complete with stamps 75 

(By mail, postage 6 cents extra.) 

Wild Animal Stamp Primer: 96 page cloth bound book 
containing 49 animal stories, illustrated by 50 four- 
color stamp reproductions 85 

(By mail 7 cents extra) 

Photogravures: Series of 12 subjects in sepia. Animals 
and views in the Zoological Park. Sold in sets 
of 2 subjects. Per set, postpaid 25 

Panorama of the Zoological Park: Reproduced in colors 
from an original drawing in perspective. Sold 

flat or in folder form 10 

(By mail, postage 2 cents extra.) 

Enlargements: 11 x 14 inches. 12 subjects in black and 

white, each 25 

Duotone, Brown, each 35 

Hand Colored (10 Subjects), each 75 

Photo-Letter: (folding) 18 pictures, 4 colors 2 for .10 

New York Aquarium Nature Series 

Sea Shore Life (Mayer) cloth $1.20 

Cultivation of Fishes in Ponds (Townsend) 25 

Chameleons of the Sea (Townsend) 25 

Northern Elephant Seal (Townsend) 25 

Care of Home Aquaria (Osburn) cloth .50 

Porpoise in Captivity (Townsend) 25 

Natural History of the Whale Shark (Gudger) 25 

The Gaff-Topsail Catfish (Gudger) 25 

Inmates of the Aquarium (a book of views) 25 



Aquarium Post Cards: Colored. In sets, each 

(For all mail orders, 5c. extra) 



.25 



Publications for sale at 111 Broadway, Zoological Park and the New York Aquarium. 



RETURN FORESTRY LIBRARY 
TO* 260 Mulford Hall 



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