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Full text of "THE SAXON CHRONICLE WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION, AND NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY"

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M.lh^ 



a- 



X1<?X 



I. ^ 



■ii^. 




THE 



SAXON CHRONICLE, 



WITO AX 



ENGLISH TRANSLATION, 



^c. 



THE 



SAXON CHRONICLE, 



WITH AN 



ENGLISH TRANSLATION, 



AND 



NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY. 



TO WHICH ARB ADDED 

CHRONOLOGICAL) TOPOGRAPHICAL, AND GLOSSARIAL INDICES; 

A SHORT GRAMMAR OF THE ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE ; 

A N8W MAP OF ENGLAND DURING THE HEPTARCHY i 

PLATES OF COINS, ftc. 



By The Rev. J. INGRAM, B.D. 

RBONMi or iombuuld orstii oiiormhirs ; ajis iormsrlt akolo^azok rionisoR m oiford. 



•Well I wote» tiMNi fpring'ft flrom ancieiit fsce 
Of Saxon Kiofi, that have, with migbty hand, 
And many bloody battailet foiigbt io place, 
Hlfb reared their royall throne In Brltane land. 

SrmrtBa, F. Q. p. 40, ed 1613. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 

PATBRN08TBR-aOW. 



1823. 



'R, 



/ 



"xm. (i.2- 



THE 



EDITORS PREFACE 



£iNGLAND may boast of two substantial monuments of its early history ; 
to either of which it would not be easy to find a parallel in any nationy 
ancient or modem. These are^ the Record of Doomsday S and the Saxon 
Chronicle •. The former, which is little more than a statistical survey, 
but contains the most authentic information relative to the descent of 
property and the comparative importance of the diflferent parts of the 
kingdom at a very interesting period, the wisdom and liberality of the 
British Parliament long since deemed worthy of being printed^ among 
the Public Records, by Commissioners appointed for that purpose. The 
other work, though not treated with absolute neglect, has not received 
that degree of attention which every person who feels an interest indhe 
events and transactions of ibrmer times would naturally expect. In the 
first place, it has never been printed entire, from a collation of all the 
MSS. But of the extent of the two former editions, compared with the 
present, the reader may form some idea, when he is told that Professor 
Wheloc's Chronohgia AnghhSaxanica, which was the first * attempt of 

V ' Wbatever was the origin of this title, by which it is now distinguished, in an appendix 
to the work itself it is called ^^ lAber de Winioniaj^ or ^^ The Winchester-Book,*' from its 
first ptace Qf custody. 

: ' .This title is retained, in compliance with custom, though it is a collection of chroni- 
cles, rather than one uniform work, as the received appellation seems to imply. 

' In two volumes folio, with the following title ; '^ SDOtn00fiap-15oob, sen Liber Censualis 
Willelmi Primi Regis AnglitSy inter Archives Regni in Domo Capitulari Westmonasierii 
asservatus :jubente rege augustissimo Georgia Tertioprcelo mandaius tjfpis mdcclxxxiii." 

* Gerard Langbaine had projected such a work, and had made considerable progress in 
the collation of MSS., when he found himself anticipated by Wheloc. 

a 



ii PREFACE. 

the kind^ published at Cambridge in 1644, is comprised in less than 62 
folio pages^ exclusive of the Latin appendix. The improved edition by 
Edmund Gibson, afterwards bishop of London, printed at Oxford in 1692, 
exhibits nearly four times the quantity of the former; but is very far from 
being the entire ^ chronicle, as the editor considered it. The text of the 
present edition, it was found, could not be compressed within a shorter 
compass than 374 pages, though the Editor has suppressed many notes 
and illustrations, which may be thought necessary to the general reader. 
Some variations in the MSS. may also still remain unnoticed ; partly be- 
cause they were considered of little importance, and partly from an ap- 
prehedsiod, lest the commentary, as it sometimes happens, should seem 
an Unwieldy burthen, rather than a necessary appendage to the text 
Indeed, till tlie Editor had made some progress in the work, he could not 
have imtigined that so many original and authentic materials of our his- 
tory still remained unpublished. 

To those who are unacquainted with this monument of our national 
antiquities, two questions appear requisite to be answered : — ^What does 
it contain f and, By whom was it written f The indulgence of the criti- 
cal antiquary is solidted, whilst we endeavour to answer, in some degree^ 
each of these questions ^ 

To the first question we answer, that the Saxon Chronicle contains Uie 
original and authentic testimony of contemporary writers to the most 
important transactions of our forefathers, both by sea and land, from 
their first arrival in this country to the year 1 154. Were we to descend 
to particulars, it would require a volume to discuss the great variety 
of subjects which it embraces. Suffice it to say, that every reader will 
here find many interesting facts relative to our architecture, our agricul- 
ture, our coinage, our commerce, our naval and military glory, our laws. 



* << Nuncprimum integrum edidii '* is Gibson's expression in the title-page. He con- 
siders Mlieloc's MSS. as fragments, rather than entire chronicles : *^ quod integrnm nacH 
jam discimus.** These MSS., however, were of the first authority, and not less entire, as 
far as they went, than his own favourite Laud. But the candid critic will make allowance 
for the zeal of a young Bachelor of Queen's, who, it must be remembered, had scarcely at- 
tained the age of twenty 4hree when this extraordinary work was produced. 

* They have been repeatedly put to the Editor, during the progress of the work, by 
many persons. 



PREFACE. iii 

our hheiiy^ and our religion. In this edition^ also^ ^ill be found numo- 
rous apedineiis of Saxon poetry, never before printed^ which might form 
the ground-work of an introductory volume to Warton's elaborate annals 
of English Poetry. Philosophically considered, this ancient record is thp 
9€cand great phenomenon in the history of mankind. For, if we except 
the sacred annals of the Jews, contained in the several books of the Old 
Testament, there is no other work extant, ancient or modem, which ex- 
hibits at one view a regular and chronological panorama of a psopx^b, 
described in rapid succession by different writers, through so many ages, 
in their own vernacular language. Hence it may safely be considered, 
not only as the primaeval source from which all subsequent historians of 
English afiairs have principally derived their materials^ and consequently 
the criterion by which they are to be judged, but also as the faithful de- 
pository of our national idiom ; affording, at the same time, to the scien- 
tific investigator of the human mind a very interesting and extraordinary 
example of the changes incident to a language^ as well as to a nation, in 
its progress from rudeness to refinement 

But that the reader may more clearly see how much we are indebted 
to the Saxoii Chronicle, it will be necessary to examine what is contained 
in ol&er sources of our history, prior to the accession of Henry H., the 
period wherein this invaluable record terminates. 

The most ancient historian of our own island, whose work has been 
preserved, is Gildas, who flourished in the latter part of the sixth century. 
British antiquaries of the present day will doubtless forgave me, if I le^ve 
in their original obscurity the propheci^ of Merlin, and the exploits of 
king Arthur, with all the Knights of the Round Table, as scarcely 
coming within the verge of history. Notwithstanding, also, the authority 
of Bale, and of the writers whom he follows, I cannot persuade myself to 
rank Joseph of Arimathea, Arviragus, and Bonduca, or even the emperor 
Constantino himself^ among the illustrious writers of Great Britain. I 
begin, therefore^ with Gildas ; because, though he did not compile a 
regular history of the island, he has left us, amidst a cumbrous mass of 
pompous rhapsody and querulous declamation, some curious descriptions 
of the character and manners of the inhabitEmts ; not only Uie Britons 

a2 



iv PREFACE. 

and Saxons^ but the Picts and Scots K There are also some parts of his 
work, alinost literally transcribed by Bede, which confirm the brief state- 
ments of the Saxon Chronicle K But there is, throughout, such a want oi 
precision and simplicity, such a barrenness of facts amidst a multiplicity 
of words, such a scantiness of names of places and persons, of dates, and 
other circumstances, that we are obliged to have recourse to the Saxoti 
Annals, or to Venerable Bede, to supply the absence of those two great 
lights of history — Chronology and Topography, 

The next historian worth notice here is Nennius, who is supposed to 
have .flourished in the seventh century : but the work ascribed to him is 
so full of interpolations and corruptions, introduced by his transcribers, 
and particularly by a simpleton who is called Samuel, or his master Beu- 
lanus, or both, who appear to have lived in the ninth century, that it is 
difficult to say how much of this motley production is original and au- 
thentic. Be that as it may, the writer of the copy printed by Gale bears 
ample testimony to'the Saxon Chronicle, and says expressly, that he com*- 
piled his history partly from the records of the Scots and Saxons ^. At the 
end is a confused but very curious appendix, containing that very genea- 
logy, with some brief notices of Saxon affairs, which the fastidiousness of 
Beulanus, or of. his amanuensis, the aforesaid Samuel, would not allow 
him to transcribe. This writer, although he professes to be the first his- 
toriographer "^ of the Britons,, has sometimes repeated the very words of 
Gildas ^ ; whose name is even prefixed to some copies of the work. It is 

^ The reader is forcibly reminded of the national dress of the Highlanders in the follow- 
ing singular passage : ^'furciferos magis vultus pilisy quam corparutn pudenda^ pudendisque 
proximOy vestibus tegentes.^^ ' 

' See particularly capp. xxiii. and xxvi. The work which follows, called the Epistle 
of Gildas, is little more than a cenio of quotations from the Old and New Testament. 

' « De hisloriis Scotorum Saxonumque^ licet inimicorum^^^ &c* . Hi^t. Brit. ap. Gale, 
XV Script, p. 93. See also p. 94 of the same work; where the writer notices the absence 
of all written memorials among the Britons, and attributes it to the frequent recurrence 
of war and pestilence. A new edition has been prepared from a Vatican MS, with a trans- 
lation and notes by the Rev. W. Gunn, and published by J. and A. Arch. 

* ^' Malo me historiographum quam neminem^*^ &c. 

* He considered his work, perhaps, as a lamentation or declamation, rather than a history. 
But Bede dignifies him with the title of '< historicus^^* though he writes ^^flebili sermone.^* 



PREFACE. V 

a puerile composition^ without judgement^ selectioii, or method ^ ; filled 
with legendary tales of Trojan antiquity, of magical delusion^ and of the 
miraculous exploits of St. Germain and St Patrick : not to mention those 
of the valiant Arthur^ who is said to have felled to the ground in one day, 
single*handed> eight hundred and forty Saxons ! It is remarkable^ thai 
this taste for the marvellous, which does not seem to be adapted to the 
sober sense of Englishmen, was afterwards revived in all its glory by 
Geoffrey of Monmouth in the Norman age of credulity and romance. 

We come now to a more cheering prospect ; and behold a steady light 
reflected on the Saxon Chronicle by the Ecclesiastical History of Bede ; 
a writer who, without the intervention of any legendary tale, truly de- 
serves the title orVenerable ^. With a store of classical learning not very 
common in that age, and with a simplicity of language seldom found in 
monastic Latinity, he has moulded into something like a regular form 
the scattered fragments of Roman, British, Scottish, and Saxon history. 
His work, indeed, is professedly ecclesiastical ; but, when we consider the 
prominent station which the Church had at this time assumed in England^ 
we need not be surplrised if we find therein the same intermixture of civiU 
military, and ecclesiastical affairs, which forms so remarkable a feature 
in the Saxon Chronicle. Hence Gibson concludes, tliat.many passages 
of the latter description were derived fi'om the work of Bede ^. He thinks 
the same of the description of Britain, the notices of the Roman emperors, 
and the detail of the first arrival of the Saxons. But, it may be observed, 
those passages to which he alludes are not to be found in the earlier 
MSS.^ The description of Britain, which forms the introduction, and 

■ 

^ But it is probable that the work is come down to us io a garbled and imperfect state. 

' There is an absurd story of a monk, who in vain attempting to write his epitaph, fell 
asleep, leaving it thus : ^^Hac sunt in fossa Bedas - - - - ossa :" but, when he awoke, to his 
great surprise and satisfaction he found the long-sought epithet supplied by an angclit 
hand, the whole line standing thus : ^^ Hac sunt in fossa Bedce venerabilis ossa.** 

' See the preface to his edition of the Saxon Chronicle. 

* A remarkable instance may be seen in page 31 of this edition, A.D. 616 ; where some 
4>f the expressions seem to be borrowed from king Alfred's translation of Bede. A few of 
these passages are printed within brackets, that the reader may be led to distinguish be« 
tireenihe original annals and the various interpolations of successive transcribers'. Tbia, 
however, has been seldom done, except where the language and orthography have assumed 
a Norman cast. Even the Benet MS. contains many interpolations. 



Ti PREFACE. 

refers us to a period antecedent to the invasion of Julius Caesar, appears 
only in three copies of the Chronicle ; two of which ate of so late a date 
as the Norman Conquest, and both derived from the same source* What- 
ever relates to the succession of the Roman emperors was so universally 
known, that it must be considered as common property : and so short 
was the interval between the departure of the Romans and the arrival of 
the Saxons, that the latter must have preserved amongst them sufficient 
memorials and traditions to connect their own history with that of their 
predecessors. Like all rude nations, they were particularly attentive to 
genealogies ; and these, together with the succession of their kings, thdr 
battles, and their conquests, must be derived originally from the Saxons 
themselves, and not from Gildas, or Nennius, or Bede K Gibson himself 
was so convinced of this, that he afterwards attributes to the Saxon Chro- 
nicle all the knowledge Yre have of those early times ^. Moreover, we 
might ask, if our whole dependence had been centred in Bede, what 
would have become of us after his death ^ ? Malmsbury indeed asserts, 
vrith some d^ee of vanity, that you will not easily find a Latin historian 
of English afiairs between Bede and himself^ ; and in the fullness of self- 
complacency professes his determination, to aeaaon with Ronum salt the 
barbamms of his native tongue ! He a£fects great contempt for Ethdl- 
werd, whose work will be considered hereafter ; and he well knew bow 
unacceptable any praise of the Saxon Annals would be to the Normans, 
with whom he was connected^. He thinks it necessary to give his reasons, 
on one occasion, for inserting fit)m these very Annals what he did not 
find in Bede ; though it is obvious, that the best part of his materials, 
almost to his own times, is derived from the same source. 



^ This will be proved more fully when we come to speak of the toriiers of the Saxon 
Chronicle. 

* Preflice, ubi supra. 

' He died A.D. 734, according to our Chronicle ; but some place his death to the fol« 
lowing year* 

* This circumstance alone proves the value of the Saxon Chronicle. In the Edinburgh 
Chronicle of St. Cross, printed by H. Wharton, there is a chasm from tiie death of Bede 
to the year 1065 ; a period of 3S0 years. 

^ The cold and reluctant manner in which he mentions the Saxon Annals, to which he 
was BO much indebted, can only be ascribed to this cause in him, as well as in the other 
Latin historians. See his Prologue to the First Book, << De OesUs Regum^^^ See. 



FBEFACE. vu 

The object of bishop Asser^ the biographeir of Alfred^ who ooines next 
in order, was to deliver to posterity a coinplete memorial of that sovereign^ 
and of the transactions of his reign. To him alone are we indebted in 
the detail of many interesting circumstances in the life and character of 
his royal patron ^ ; but most of the public transactions will be found in 
the pages of the Saxon Chronicle : some passages of which he appears U> 
have translated so literally^ that the modem version of Gibson does not 
more dosdy represent the original K In the editions of Parker, Camden, 
and Wise, the last notice of any public event refers to the year 887» The 
interpolated copy of Gale, called by some Pseudo* Asserius, and by others 
the Oironicle of St Neof s, is extended to the year 914^. Much diflbfence 
of opinicm exists respecting this work ; into the discussion of which it is 
not our present purpose to enter. One thing is remarkable : it contains 
the vision of Dribtelm, copied fix>m Bede, and that of Charles king of the 
Franks, which Malmsbury thought it worth while to repeat in his Hbtory 
of the kings of England. What Gale observes concerning theJdeU^ 
with which these Annals of Asser are copied by Marianus, is easily ex* 
plained. They both translated from the Saxon Chronicle, as did also 
Terence of Worcester, who interpolated Marianus ; of whom we shall 
speak hereafter. 

But the most fttithful and extraordinary follower of the Saxon Annab 
is Ethelwerd ; who seems to have disr^arded almost all other sources of 
information. One great error, however, he committed; for which Malms** 
bury does not spare him. Despairing of the reputation of classical learn- 
ing, if he had followed the simplicity of the Saxon original, he fell into 
a sort of measured and inverted prose, peculiar to himself; which, being 
at first sufficiently obscure, is sometimes rendered almost unintelligible 
by the incorrect manner in which it has been printed. His authority. 



' If there are addiikmal aaecdoles in the Chronicle of St. Neck's, whieh is rapposed la 
have been so called by Leland because he found the MS. there, it must be remembered 
that this work is considered an interpolated Asser. 
* The common phrase ahton pseUjtope gepealb^ he translates <^ locofuHeris domhiati nifU.** 
' The death of Asser himself is recorded in the year SOS ; bnt this is no more a proof 
tfiat the whole work is spurious, Aan the character and borial of Moses, described in the 
latter part of the book of Deuteronomy, would go to prove that the Pentateodi was not 
written by him. See Bishc^ Watson's Apoiogyfor the Biik. 



r- , / 



viii PREPACK 

nevertheless, in an bistorioal point of view; is very respectable. Being 
one of the few writers untainted by monastic prejudice ^ he does not travel 
out of his wiay to indulge in legendary tales and romantic visions. . Criti-! 
cally considered, hb work is the best commentary on the Saxon Chronicle 
to the year 977 ; at which period one of the MSS. which he seems to have 
followed, terminates. Brevity and compression seem to have been his 
aim, because the compilation was intended to be sent abroad for the in* 
struction of a female relative of high rank in Germany ^, at her own rer 
quesL But there are, nevertheless, some circumstances recorded which 
are not to be found elsewhere; so that a reference to this epitome of Saxon 
history will be sometimes usefiil in illustrating the early part of the Chror 
iiicla ; though Gibson, I know hot on what account, has scarcely once 
quoted it. It would have been more frequently noticed in the present 
edition, had not the Editor formed a design of re-printing the whole work, 
which consists of less than ten pages folio, either in an appendix, or in a 
separate volume of illustrations of the Saxon Chronicle. A late decision 
of the House of Commons will probably render either of these plans uur 
necessary ^. 

During the sanguinary conflicts of the eleventh century, which ended 
first in the temporary triumph of the Danes, and afterwards in the total 
subjugation of the country by the Normans, literary pursuits, as might be 
expected, were so much neglected, that scarcely a Latin writer is to be 
found ; but the Saxon Chronicle has preserved a regular and minute de* 
tail of occurrences, as they passed along, of which subsequent historians 

* Malmsbury calls him ^^ noble and magnificent," with reference to his rank; for he 
was descended from king Alfred : but he forgets his peculiar praise — that of being the 
only Latin historian for two centuries ; though, like Xenophon, Caesar, and Alfred, he 
wielded the sword as much as the pen. 

' This was no less a personage than Matilda, the daughter of Otho the Great, emperor 
of Germany, by his first empress Eadgitha or Editha ; who is mentioned in the Saxon 
Chronicle, A.D. M5, though not by name, as given to Otho by her brother, king Athelstan. 
Ethelwerd adds, in his epistle to Matilda,' that Athelstan sent too sisters, in order that 
the emperor might take his choice ; and that he preferred the mother of Matilda. 

' I allade to that noble design, formed before the expiirationof the last session, of print- 
ing the works of our early historians, under the superintendence of Mr. Pelrie, keeper of 
the Records in the Tower ; who has paid great attention to the collation of different manu- 
scripts, and whose kindness the Editor has often experienced. 



PREFACE. ix 

were glad io a?ait themsefres^ For nearly a century after the Comfiiest, 
the Saxon annalistff appear to have been chiefty eye-witneMes ef the 
trandaction^ whrch they relate ^ The policy of the Conqueror led bim 
by degrees to employ Saxons as well as Normans; and William II. fmind 
them the most faithftrl of his sobjects : but such an inSux of Ibfeigaers 
naturally corrupted the ancient language; till at lengthy after nany 
ibrergn and domestic wars, tranqoillily bemg restored on the aircession 
of Henry 11., literature revived ; a taste for compo^tfon i nereascd ^ and 
the compilation of Latin histories of Engtisb and foreign affair^ blended 
and diversified with the fabled romance and legendary tale, became the 
ordinary path to cRstinction. It is remarkable, that when thb 'SaxMi 
Chronicle ends, GreoHrey of Monmouth beginsL Almost every great mo- 
nastery about this time had its historian : but some still adhered to the 
ancient method. Florence of Worcester, an interpolator of Marianas^ as 
we before observed, closely follows Bede, Asser, and the Saxon Ckronide *. 
The same may be observed of the Annals at Gisbume, of Margan, of 
Metros, of Waverley, &c. ; some of which are anonymoos compilatibna, 
whilst others have the name of an author, or rather transcriber; for very 
few aspired to the character of authors or original hritoriane. ThooMs 
Wikes, a canon of Oseney, who compiled a Latin Chronicle of Englsh 
a^f rs from the Conquest to the year 1 304^, tells us expressly^ that be did 
this, not because he could add much to the Histories of Bede, William of 
Newbnrgh, and Matthew Paris, but ^propter minoresy quibu9 nan suppetit 
topia UbroruntK'" Before the invention of printing, it was necessary that 
mimeroos copies of historical works should be transmbed, for the iostruc^ 
tioD of those who had not access to libraries. The transcribers frequently 
added something of their own, and abridged or omitted what they thought 
has fnteresting. Hence the endless variety of interpolators and deflorators 



■*««« 



* See particularly the character of Wiltiam I. p. 204, written by one who was in his 
court. The compiler of the Waverley Annald we find literaHy translating it more than 
m century afterwards >^^ nos dieemusy quieum vidtmusj et in curia ejus aUquandd Jubnus^^* 
te- Gale, iiy 194. 

^ Hia work, which is very faithfully and diUgently compiled^ ends in the year 1117 ; 
but it is continued by another hand to the imprisonment of king Stephen. 

' Chron. op. Ckde, ii., 21. 

b 



X PREFACE, 

of English history. William of Malnisbury, indeed, deserves to be selected 
from all hid competitors for the superiority of his genius ; but he is occa* 
sionally inaccurate, and negligent of dates and other minor circumstances; 
insomuch that his modem translator has corrected some mistakes, and 
supplied the deficiencies in his chronology, by a reference to the Saxon 
Chronicle. Henry of Huntingdon, when he is not transcribing Bede, or 
translating the Saxon Annals, may be placed on the same sb^f with 
Geoffrey of Monttioulh, 

As I have now brought the reader to the period when our Chronicle 
terminates, I shall dismiss without much ceremony the succeeding writers,, 
who have partly borrowed from this source ; Simeon of Durham, who 
transcribes Floretice of Worcester, the two priors of Hexham, Gervase,. 
Hdveden, Bromton, Stubbes, the two Matthews^ of Paris and Westminster, 
and many others, considering that sufficient has been said to convince 
those who may not have leisure or opportunity to examine the matter 
themselves, that however numerous are the Latin historians of Englisb 
affairs, aUnost every thing original and authentic, and essentially condu- 
cive to a correct knowledge of our general history, to the period above 
mentioned, may be traced to the Saxon Annals». 

It is now time to examine, who were probably the writers of these 
Annals. I say probably, because we have very little more than rational 
conjecture to> guide us. 

The period antecedent ta ttie times of Bede, except where passages 
were afterwards inserted, was perhaps little else, originally, than a kind 
of chronological table of events, with a few genealogies, and notices of 
the death and succession of kings and other distinguished personages^ 
But it is evident from the Preface of Bede and from many passages in hia 
work, that he received considerable assistance front Saxon bishops, abbots 
and others ; who not only communicated certain traditionary facts viva 
voce, but also transmitted to him many written documents. These, there- 
fore, must have been the early Chronicles of Wessex, of Kent, and of the 
other provinces of the Heptarchy ; which, formed together the ground- 
work of his History. With greater honesty than most of his followers, he 
has given us the names of those learned persons who assisted him with 
this local information. The first b Alcuinus or Albinus, an abbot of 



PREFACE. xi 

s 

Canterbury, at whose instigation he undertook the work ; who sent by 
Nothelm^ afterwards archbishop of that province, a full account of all 
ecclesiastical transactions in Kent, and in the contiguous districts, from 
the first conversion of the Saxons. From the same source he partly de* 
rived his information respecting the provinces of Essex, W^ssex, East 
Anglia, and Northymbria. Bishop Daniel communicated to him by letter 
many particulars concerning Wessex, Sussex, and the Isle of Wight. He 
acknowledges assistance more than once ^' ex scriptis priarum ;'' and 
there is every reason to believe that some of these preceding records were 
the Anglo-Saxon Annals ; for we have already seen that such records 
were in existence before the age of Nennius. In proof of this we may 
observe, that even the phraseology sometimes partakes more of the Saxon 
idiem than the Latin ^ If, therefore, it be admitted, as there is every 
reason to conclude from the foregoing remarks, that certain succinct 
and chronolc^ical arrangements of historical &cts had taken place in 
several provinces of the Heptarchy before the time of Bede, let us inquire 
by whom they were likely to have been made. 

In the province of Kent, the first person on record, who is celebrated 
for his learning, is Tobias, the ninth bbhop of Rochester, who suc- 
ceeded to that see in 693. fie is noticed by Bede as not only furnished 
with an ample store of Greek and Latin literature, but skilled also in the 
Saxon language and erudition ^. It is probable, therefore, that he left 
some proofe of this attention to his native language; and, as he died 
within a few years of Bede, tlie latter would naturally avail himself of his 
labours. It is worthy also of remark, that Bertwald, who succeeded to 
the illustrious Theodore of Tarsus in 690, was the first English or Saxon 
archbishop of Canterbury. From this period, consequently, we may date 
that cultivation of the vernacular tongue which would lead to the com- 



* For instance : ^^victoriam sumpsire;^* namon pje, &c. " Fracta est Rama a Goihis " 
seems to be borrowed from the Saxon : A.D. ccccxxxv. I3efi Gocan abjuecoD Rome«bojib« 
^^ Irrupta ** and ^' Irruptio urbis '* are the expressions of Qrosius, whom Bede follows. 
It is remarkable that the later M6S. read << ro-bpocen • - jrjiam Gkitom/' &c. ; inverting^ the 
construction, in the very words of king Alfred, and adding an interpolation from the 
same source. 

' * ^ Virum Laiinaj Chrmca^ et Saxohica lingua atque erudUume multipliciier insiruetum.'* 
—Bed. Eccks. Hist, v., 8. Ckron. S. Crncis . Edinb. ap. Wharton, i., 157. 

b2 



xii PBEFACR 

position of brief chronicles ^ and other vehides of imftruction^ n^eecBarjr 
for the improvement of a rude and illiterate people. The 6r9t qhronicles 
were, perhaps, those of Kent or Wessex; which «eem to hove beed r^^ 
larly continued, at intervals, by the archbishops of Canterbury, or by their 
diraction ^ at leant as &r as the year 1001, or even 1070s for the Beoet 
MS., which some call the Plegmund MS., ends in the latter year; the rest 
being in Latin. From internal evidence indeed, of an indive^ nature 
iiiere is great reason to presume, that archbishop Pl^mund transcribed 
or superintended this very copy of the Saxon Annals to the year 89 H; 
the year in which he came to the see ; inserting, both before and after 
this date, to the time of his death in 923, such additional materials as he 
was well qualified to furnish from his high station and learni«g^ and the 
confidential intercourse whicli he enjoyed iu the court of king Alfred. 
The total omission of his own name, except by another hand, affords indi* 
rect evidence of some importance in support of this conjectura Whether 
king Alfred himself was the author of a distinct and separate Chronicle of 
Wessex, cannot now be determined* That he furnished additional su[^liep 
of historical matter to the older Chronicles is, I conceive, sufficiently obvk>us 
to every reader who will take the trouble of examining the subject The 
argument of Dr. Beeke, the present dean of Bristol, in an obliging letter 
to the Bdilor on this subject, is not without its finrce ;-**dhat it is ex- 
tremely improbable, when we consider the numbw and variety of king 
Alfired's works, that he should have neglected the history of his own coun* 
try. Besides a genealogy of the kings of Wessex from Cerdic to his own 
time, which seems never to have been incoi^orated with any MS. of the 
Saxon Chronicle, though prefixed or annexed to several, he undoubtedly 
preserved many traditionary facts ; with a full and circumstantial detaU 

_^__ i ii i ^ i a« - ' ' ■-■— .i.iB m 

' The materials, liowever, though not rogularly arranged, must be traced to a muck 
higher souree. 

* Josselyn collated two Kentiih MSB. of the first authority ; one of which be calls 
The History or Chronicle of St. Augustine's, the other that of Christ Church, Canter* 
bury. The former was perhaps the one marked lA our series C.T. A vi.; the latter 
the Benet or Plegmund MS. 

' Wanley observes, that the Benet MS. is written in one and the same baad to thie 
year, and in hands equally ancient to ' the yeair 934 ; after which it is eoatiftued in dif- 
ferent hands to the end. Vid. CaL^ p. 130. 



' 



PRKFACB. xiu 

of hb 0wn operatiQna, as well m those of his father^ brother^ and other 
membeiB of his &inily ; which scaroely any other person than himself 
could have supplied K To doubt this^ would be as mcredulous a thing .i^ 
to deny that Xenopbon wrot^ his Anabasis^ or Caesar his G^mmeataries. 
Fron the time of Alfred and Pl^muod to a few years aAer the Narman 
Conquest, these Chronicles soem to have been coalinued by di^reoft 
hands, under the auspices of sudi men as archbishqis Dunstaui ^fric, 
and otbens, whose cfaaraolers have been nuich misrepresented by igno- 
ranoe and scepticism on the one hand, as well as by mistaken «seal and 
devotion on tlie othen The in^irept evidence respecting Dunstan and 
^fric is as curious as that concerning Plegmund ; but the discussion of 
it would lead us into a wide and barren field of investigation ; nor is this 
the place to refute the errors of Hickes, Cave^ and Wharton^ already 
noticed by Wauley in liis Pre&ce. The Chronicles of Abingdon, of 
WOTcester, of Peterborough, and otheiB, are continued in the same man- 
ner by different hands; partly, though not exclusively, by monks of those 
monasteries^ who very naturally inserted many particulars relating to 
their own local interests and concerns ; which, so far from invalidating 
the general history, render it mwe interesting and valuable^ It would 
be a vain and ftivolous attempt to ascribe these latter compilations to 
particular persons ^ where there were evidently so many eontributors ; 
but that they were successively furnished by contemporary writers, many 
of whom were eye-witnesses of the events and transactions which they 
relate, there is abundance of internal evidence to convince ub» Many 
inetances of this the Editor had takaa some pains to collect, in order to 
lay them before the reader in the Prefoce ; but they are so numerous that 
the sul]gect would necessarily becoaie tedious ; and therefore every reader 
must be left to find them for himsel£ They will amply repay him for his 
trouble, if he takes any interest in the early history of England, or in tlie 



* Florence of Worcester, in ascertaining the snccession of the kings of Wessex, refers 
expressly to the ^^Dkta MlfreiV' Ethelwerd had before acknowledged that he re- 
ported many things — ^^ ticui docuere pareMes ;^' and then he iannediately adds, '^ SeiKcei 
JBtfred rex Aiktdfi regis JUius ; ex quo nas originem irakmus.** Yid. ProL 

* Hickes supposed the Ijmtd or Pelerborottgfa Chronicle to ham been conpiled by 
Hugo Candidiis (Albus, or White), or some other monk of that house. 



xiv PREFACE. 

general construction of authentic hbtory of any^ind. He will see plagia- 
risms without end in the Latin histories, and will be in no danger of fall- 
ing into the errors of Gale and others ; not to mention those of our histo- 
rians who were not professed antiquaries, who mistopk that for original 
and authentic testimony which was only translated. It is remarkable that 
the Saxon Chronicle gradually expires with the Saxon language, inmost 
melted into modern English, in the year 1 154. From this period almost 
to the Reformation, whatever knowledge we have of the afiairs of England 
has been originally derived either from the semibarbarous Latin of our 
own countrymen, or from the French chronicles of Froissart and others. 

The revival of good taste and of good sense, and of the good old custom 
adopted by most nations of the civilized world — ^that of writing their own 
history in their own language — was happily exemplified at length in the 
laborious works of our English chroniclers and historians. 

Many have since followed in the same track ; and the importance of 
the whole body of English history has attracted and employed the imagi- 
nation of Milton, the philosophy of Hume, the simplicity of Goldsmith^ 
the ifidu^ry of Henry, the research of Turner, and the patience of Lin- 
gard. The pages of these writers, however, accurate and luminous as 
they generally are, as well as those of Brady, Tyrrell, Carte, Rapin, and 
others^ not to mention those in black letter, still require correction from 
the Saxon Chronicle ; without which no person, however learned, can 
possess any thing beyond a superficial acquaintance with the elements 
of EnglishHistory, and of the British Constitution. 

Some remarks may here be requisite on the chronology of the Saxon 
Chronicle. In the early part of it " the reader will observe a reference to 
the grand epoch of the creation of the world. So also in Ethelwerd, who 
closely follows the Saxon Annals. It is allowed by all, that considerable 
difficulty has occurred, in fixing the true epoch of Christ's nativity *, be- 
cause the Christian »ra was not used at all till about the year 532 ^ when 



* See A.D. xxxiii. the aera of Christ's crucifixion, p. 5, and the notes below. 

' See Play&ir's System of Chronology, p. 49. 

^ Playfair says 537 : but. I follow Bede, Florence of Worcester, and others ; who 
affinn that the great paschal cycle of Dionysins commenced from the year of our Ix>rd*s 
incarnation 5S3rT-the year in which the code of Justinian was promulgated. Yid. Flor. 



PREFACE. XV 

It was introduced by Dionysius Exiguus ; whose code of canon law^ 
joined afterwards with the decretals of the popes, became as much the 
standard of authority in ecclesiastical matters as the pandects of Justinian 
among civilians. But it does not appear that in the Saxon mode of com* 
putation this system of chronology was implicitly fpllowed. We mention 
this circumstance, however, not with a view of settling the point of dif- 
ference, whidh would' not be easy, but merely to account for those varia- 
tions observable in different MSS. ; which arose, not only from the com- 
mon mistakes or inadvertencies of transcribers, but from the liberty, 
which the original writers themselves sometimes assumed in this country, 
of computing the current year according to their own ephemeral or local, 
custom. Some began with the Incarnation or Nativity of Christ ; some 
with' the Circumcision, which accords with the solar year of the Romans 
as now restored ; whilst others commenced with the Annunciation ; a 
custom which became very prevalent in honour of the Virgin Mary,' and 
was not formally abolished here till the year 1758 ; when the Gregorian 
calendar, commonly called the New Style, was substituted by Act of 
Parliament for the Dionysian. This diversity of computation would alone 
occasion some confusion ; but in addition to this, the indiction, or cycle 
of 1 5 years, which is mentioned in the latter part of the Saxon Chronicle, 
was carried back three years before the vulgar sera, and commenced in 
different places at four different periods of the year ! But it is very re- 
markable that, whatever was the commencement of the year in the early 
pari c^ the Saxon Chronicle, in the latter part the year invariably opens 
with Midwinter-day or the Nativity. Gervase of Canterbury, whose Latin 
Chronicle ends in 1 1 99, the sera of legal memory,, had formed a design, 
as he tells us, of regulating his chronology by the Annunciation; but from 



An. 533, 1064, and 1073. See also Mi. West. An. 532. In page 32 of the Chronicle is 
a confused account of the paschal cycle of Dionysius from the Laud MS., which we have 
endeavoured to explain, perhaps without success. It seems to be misplaced. The first 
small cycle of 95 years from 532. would place it to the year 027. Six of these cycles, 
addilig 30 years from the incarnation to the baptism of Christ, would refer it to the year 
600. If again it relates to the first commencement of the Dionysian cycle, which is most 
probable, as in Bede, Florence, and others, then it should have been placed to the year 
5». 



xvi PREFACE. 

aa hoDol fear of fidsifyiog dates he abandoned hi^ first mtention, and 
acquiesced in the practice of his predecessors ; who for the most part, 
he says^ began the new year with the Nativity K 

Having said thus much in illastration of the work itself, we mast ne- 
oesslurily be brief in our accoimt of the present edition. It was content 
plated many years since, amidst a constant succession of other occupa- 
tiona ; bat uotbing was then projected beyond a reprint of Gibson.* sub- 
stituting an English translation for the Latin. The rndvlgence of the 
Saxon scholar is therefore requested, if we have in the early part of the 
Chronicle too faithfully followed the received text. By some readers no 
apology of this kind will be deemed necessary ; but something nay be 
expeeted in extenuation of the delay which has retarded the publication. 
The causes of that delay must be chiefly sought in the nature of the 
work itselL — New types were to be oast ; compositors to be instructed 
in a departnient enlh'ely new to them ; manuscripts to be compared,, 
collated^ transcribed ; the text to be revised throughout ; various read* 
ings of great intricacy to be carefolly preserved^ with considerable 
additions firon unpublished sources ; for^ however unimportant some 
BMy at first sight appear, the most trivial may be of use. With suck 
and other diflBcidties before him, the Editor has, nevertheless^ been blessed 
with health and leisure suiicient to overcome them ; and he may now bbcj 
with (iervase the monk at the end of his first Chronicle, 

na^ libro reddgiur graiU ChruioV' 

Of the translatk» it is enough to observe, that it is made aa literal aa 
possible, with a view of rendering the original easy to those who are at 
present unacquainled with the Saxon language. By this inethod also the 
connexion between the ancient and modem language will be nore ob- 
vious. The same method has been adopted in an unpublished translation 
of Gibson's Chronicle by the late Mr. Gough, now in the Bodleian Li- 
brary. But the honour of having printed the first literal version of the 



^^r 



^ Vid* Prol. in Cbroik Gsrvas. ap. X. Script, p. ISSS. 

* Oftsa did the Bditsr, darng the prsgress of the work, ^iiipeit9ii« wMi the PnalM ; 
#ho, HI answei ta his argent imiKirtHiikieB to hestea the work, replied once ia the cIm» 
flical loDgmige of MsnnthiB: ^ JPreeor, ui ^cempaiienibus mek ignoteM; prenwr emm 0im^ 
ribusy et typographias cura^ ui vix susiineam.^* Who could be angry after this ? 



PREFACE. xvii 

Saxon Annals was reserved for a learned lady^ the Elstob of her age^ ; 
whose work was finished in the year 1819. These translations, however, 
do not interfere with that in the present edition ; because they contain 
nothing but what is found in the printed texts^ and are neither accom- 
panied with the original, nor with any collation of MSS. 

It remains that the Editor should make his acknowledgements to those 
friends from whom be has derived avistance and ^MxmragemenL To the 
Very Reverend the Dean of Bristol he is much indebted for his ingenious 
and sensible remarks on many parts of the Saxon Chronicle. He only 
fears that the polite condescension of the Dean in relinquishing his own 
plans has deprived the world of a more interesting work than is here 
offered to its attention K To Mr. Ellis of the British Museum he returns 
his grateful thanks^ not only for his kind attention at all timesj but for 
his ready correspoiideiice on tndgeolB connected with this work. From 
Mr. Petrie^ the worthy keeper of the Records in the Tower^ from whose 
active and persevering researches our national histories will soon derive 
additional light, the Editor has also received much a£»istance in his early 
inquiries after MSS. By the liberality of the late Mr. Rudihg in lending 
his plates of Anglo-Saxon Coins before hb own work was published^ this 
edition is enriched with a series of specimens of British and Saxon coinage 
from GunobeliD to the Ck>nquest; from which it will be evident bow little 
progress was made in that branch of art for a period of 1000 years. In 
the last i^te some reverses of coins are added, which exhibit curious il- 
lustrations of the architecture of the Saxons. Upon the whole it is hoped 
that, however the Editor may have executed his task, the Engravers and 
Printers will be found to have performed their parts with fidelity, accu- 
racy, and el^ance. 



* Miss Gumey, of Keswick, Norfolk. The work, however, was not published. 

* The Editor, however, has reason to believe that his own plan is not essentially dif- 
ferent, except in one instance, from that of Dr. Beeke, as described by himself: '^ Vol. i. 
Introduction : text and translation on opposite pages, in the same type, with the material 
variations subjoined. YoLii. A new map; with, various notes and dissertations." The 
present Editor has materials enougli ibr a second volume; but, as the publication of it 
is uaeertain, he has endeavoured to make this work complete without it. 



SYNOPSIS 



OF 



MANUSCRIPTS OP THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



MSS. 



I. 



IL 



Trans. 



' 



III. 



IV. 



V. 



VI. 



vii. 



VIII. 



IX. 



3 



Description of MS. 



BEN. The Benet MS. 



C.r. Aiil. 



IVN. 66. U. 



C*r. Afi. 



Cant, of Gibson. 



C. OTHO. B zi. 



CotL of Wheloc. 



4 Dablin Transcript. 



C.T.9U Abingdon Chro. 
nicle. 

C.T.Biv. WorcesterChro. 
nicle. 

Petrob, Peterborough 
Chronicle. 

Laud, of Gibson. 



C. DOMIT. ▲ vui. 



Cot. of Gibson. 



place of Custody. 



C. C. C. C. s xi. MSS. 
Parker. 

Br. Mus. Cot. Tiberius, 
▲ iii. 

Jnnian MSS. Bodleian. 



Br. Mus. Cot. TiBBRivs, 
▲ ▼i. 

Bodldan. Laud, o S6. 



Olim Cotton labraiy. Lost, 



Q. The same with die pre. 
ceding. 

Dublin Library, z 5. 15. 



Br. Mus. Cot. Tiberius, 
B i. 

Br. Mus. Cot. Tiberius, 
Biv. 

Olim Abb. Petrob. Sup<. 
posed to be lost, 

Bodleian. Laud. z. 80. 



Br. Mus. Cot. DoMiTiAN, 
AviU. 

Junian Books. Bodleian. 



Age. 



A.D. 891—1070. 



A.to. 977. 



Transcribed from the pre. 
by^^niljiis^ 



A.D. 977. 



Transcript of the preceding 
and of No. II. 

A.D. 1001. 



A.D. 1001. 



Transcribed by Lambard 
from No. IV. 

Ends imperfectly in 1066/ 



Ends abruptly in 1080. 



Collated with the preced. 
ing by Josselyn to 1080. 

Ends imperfectly in 1154. 



Ends imperfectly in 1058. 



A Collation of the preced. 
ing by Junius to 1057. 



OBSERVATIONS. 



I. Wakley^ in his Catalogue^ has described this MS. very minutelj, p. 130; 
and his description has been adopted by Nasmitb^ clxxiii. p. 255 ; with this 
difference^ that the latter, probably from an error of the press, places the first 
change of the writing after the year 881, instead of 891. They both misrepre- 
sent the latter part of the MS. ; describing it as continued by diflerent hands 
to the year 1075; whereas the Saxon part ends with the year 1070; and the 
remainder, which is in barbarous Latin, and may be considered as the biogra- 
phy of the Norman Landfranc, rather than any part of the Saxon Chronicle, 
18 continued to the year 1093 ; when, after a vacancy of four years in the metro- 
politan see, Anselm succeeded to Landfranc. The word *' autograpbon,'' ap- 
plied to this MS. by Wanley, is calculated to mislead, if understood of the 
whole. In a qualified sense it is applicable, not only to this MS., but to many 
others; as C 21 b i. and iv. Laud, &c.; each of which contains much original 
and valuable matter, not to be found elsewhere; and yet it would be easy to 
prove the earlier parts to be copied from older Chronicles. We have already 
noticed this MS. in the Preface, as connected with the names of Alfred and 
Plegmund, who seem to have had some share in compiling the first part of it. At 
th6 head of it stands this inscription, in the hand-writing of Archbishop Parker : 
'' Chronica scripta anno 23 ittatis Aifredi.** The last word, being mistaken by 
some person for ^Ifrici, led Hickes, Cave^ and Wharton, to misappropriate 
this Chronicle to ^Ifric, who lived about a century after Alfred. The passage 
which occasioned this inscription occurs in the first page : Da penj /Glpjieb 
hiepa b}io]?up to jiice. ^ J^a pasf ajan hif lelbe xxm pmtpa. But it is singular, 
that neither Wanley himself, nor Wheloc, who inspected this MS., should have 
taken notice that this first page contains the arche^pe of that Grenealogy of the 
West-Saxon Kings, which is the subject of C. 71 a iii. and which, as we have ob- 
served elsewhere, is always found separate, instead of being interwoven with the 
Chronicle. It begins thus : 

py GEARE pE p^S XGXN FRA CRISTES acen 
nejje cccc. pmtpa. ^ xcmi. uumtpa. \z cepbic ^ cy^npic hif f unu 
- - • &c. 

c2 



XX OBSERVATIONS ON MSS. 

This genealogy^ like that prefixed to WbeIoc*8 Bede^ ends with --jeeoboni. 
The next page begins thus : 

AER cpiftej^ jeplaepncf]^ Ix. pintjia jaiuj- mhuj- j-e caj^pe sepcfT 
-- &c. 

At the end of the year 890 is added^ in a neat but imitative hand^ the follow- 
ing interpolation, which is betrayed by the faintness of the ink, as well as by the 
Norman cast of the dialect and orthography : 

l3ep paejr plejemunb jecopon op jobe "J op eallen hip halechen. 

There are many other interpolations in this MS.^; a particular account of 
which, however curious, would necessarily become tedious. A few only are here 
selected, with a view to illustrate the critical apparatus of this work, and the pro- 
gressive accumulation of historical facts. They are generally very short, except 
where an erasure has been made to find room for them. The notice of the birth 
of St. Dunstan, as of every thing else relating to him, appears to be a monastic 
interpolation. His death is mentioned in the margin, in a very minute hand, in 
Latin. There seems to be nothing of any great value in this MS. beyond the 
time of ^Ifric, whose death is recorded, after a considerable chasm, in the year 
J 005. After this period the notices of events and transactions are very scanty 
and defective. Tlie royal donation of the haven of Sandwich to Christ Church, 
Canterbury, is placed to the year 1031, but evidently written after the Conquest, 
and left unfinished. The Saxon part ends in the year 1070, with the words, 
-- bletpunjan unbep^nj; after describing at full length the dispute between 
the Archbishops of Canterbury and York. 

We have been thus particular in our account of this MS. not only because it 
is of the fijTst authority for its antiquity and correctness, but because, from un* 
avoidable restrictions, it is more difficult of access than any other. The Editor 
cannot conclude without returning his sincere thanks to a Wiccamical friend, 
the Rev. Mr. Shelford, one of the Fellows of C.C.C.C, for allowing him the 
opportunity of examining it in his rooms at Cambridge. 

II. This, though a single leaf or fragment, supposed to have once formed a 
part of C T. a vi., deserves some particular notice. It contains the genealogy of 
the Saxon Kings of Wessex, mentioned before ; but instead of ending with the 
word jeeobon, as in the Benet MS., it is continued to the reign of Edward the 
Martyr, c. A.D. 977, when it ends abruptly thus: J^a jrenj Gabpeapb to. 6ab- 

japef f unu. tl heolb - - - corresponding in this and other circumstances with C 71 

■ ^ ■ - - -■ - - ... ..I ■ ■ I ■ ■ 11- ■ 

1 Vid. p. 20 of this Edition. * The death of FlegmQDdy for instMce. 



OBSERVATIONS ON M8S. xxi 

A vi. This genealogy^ as far as - - - ^eeobon^ was first printed by WJielocj and 
repeated by Obadiah Walker, with the incorrect translation of Wheloc, in an 
Appendix to the Life of Alfred, p. 199 ; but it was first inserted entire into the 
text of the Chronicle by Gibson, not from the original MS., but from a tran- 
script by Junius in the Bodleian, marked in our Synopsis IVN. 66* ii. The 
difficulty of adjusting this and other genealogies to the text affords a presumptive 
argument, among others, that there was a regular Chronicle in existence before 
the lime of Alfred. ( Vide Fac-simile, No. IV.) 

III. This MS., which is written in the same hand with much neatness and 
accuracy from the beginning to the end, is of very high authority and antiquity. 
It was probably written c« A«D. 077, where it t«'minates. The hand^writing 
resembles that ascribed to St. Dunstan. It narrowly escaped destruction in the 
fire at Westminster, previous to its removal to its present place of custody ; being 
one of Sir R. Cotton's MSS., formerly belonging to the Monastery of St Augus- 
tine's, Canterbury. A transcript from it in the Bodleian, Laud. 36, marked 
Cant. (Canterbury) by Gibson, contains also at the end the Genealogy of the 

ings of Wessex from CT. a iii. fol. 175. ( Vide Fac-simile, No. IIL) 



IV. The fate of this MS. is so little known, that it is necessary to make some 
remarks on it. Though ailer diligent search it is believed to be now irrecover* 
ably lost, yet it appears to have passed through many hands, and to have been 
even transcribed and printed. At least there is every reason to suppose, that the 
Dublin transcript by Lambard is a copy from this MS., and that Wheloc made 
it the basis of hid edition, the Benet MS. being less accessible ; from which^ 
however, to the year 100 1, where it ended, it differed so little, that it was pro<» 
bably compiled from it. The Benet MS. itself has nothing of much importance 
beyond that period. At the end of the Dublin transcript is this note, in the 
hand-writing of Archbishop Usher : ^' These Annales are extant in S' R. Cot- 
ton's Librarye at the ende of Bede's Historye in the Saxon Tongue.*' This accords 
with the description of tlie MS. in Wanley's Catalogue, p. 319; to which the 
eader is referred for more minute particulars ; but it is said to have begun thus : 

6p Cpiftef jeplasj^cnejye j^xti pmtpa Gaiuf lulmj* f e caf epc — 
Expl. - - ^ hie namon ppi^. 

•As this MS. was therefore in existence so late as 1705, when Wanley published 
his Catalogue^ there can be little doubt that it perished in the lamentable fire of 
17S1, which either destroyed or damaged so many of the Cotton MSS. while de- 
posited in a house in Little Dean's Yard, Westminster. 



xxii OBSERVATIONS ON MSS. 

(4.) This transcript is become more yaluable from the loss of the original. It 
appears from dates by Lambard himself, at the beginning and end, that it Was 
begun bj him in 1*563, and finished in 1564, when he was about the age of 
twenty-five. In the front is this inscription in Saxon characters: 

piUm lambapbe, 1563 ; and, pulphelm lambheopb ; . with this addition^ paec- 
ca% )>me leoht*pset ; which may be thus translated : 

<< Lambard, arise ; awake tby lamp." > 

At the end is the following memorandum: ^' Finis :- 9 Aprilis 1664. W. L. 
propria manu/' I am informed by several gentlemen of Trinity' College, Dublin, 
to whom I am indebted for most of the particulars relating to this transcript, that 
it was once in the possession of Archbishop Usher, and is the same mentioned in 
his Ecclesiastical History, p. 182, which Nicolson says ''is worth the enquirhig 
after 1/' It came into the Dublin Library with the other MSS. of the Archbi- 
shop, according to his original intention, after the Restoration of Charles II. 
The word tSep, at the beginning of each year, h omitted ; as in another tran- 
script by Lambard, printed in the Appendix to Lye's Saxon Dictionary. It is a 
paper transcript, and contains 41 pages 4to. 

V. This MS., though frequently quoted by Somner in his Dictionary under 
the title of '' Chronica Abbendoniac/' or the Abingdon Chronicle, and said to 
have been transcribed by him, seems not to have been known to Gibson, though 
noticed by Nicholson within a few years ailer the appearance of his edition*. 
It contains roaiiy important additions to the former Chronicles, some of which are 
confirmed by C.jT. b iv.; but many are not to be found in any other MS., par- 
ticularly those in the latter part of it« These are now incorporated with the old 
materials. Wanley considers the hand-writing to be the same to the end of the 
year 1048* The orthography, however, varies about the year 890 (889 of the 
printMl Chronicle). The writer seems to have been startled at Oppae for 0]>])an^ 
i. e. Othoni, A.D. 9S5 ; for there is a chasm from that place to the year 934, 
when a slight notice is introduced of the expedition of Athelstan into Scotland^. 
In the year 982 arc some curious particulars respecting the wars of Otho II. in 
Greece, .and his victories there over the Saracens, now first printed. From the 

' EDgllsh HistoHcal Library, Fart i. p. 117. • Hid. p. 110. 

' Most of the MSS. are defective here ; and the thread of History, daring this tarbalent period, ap- 
pears to have been often disturbed. But Poetry took adrantage of the drcnmstancej and occasionally 
filled a chasm with, some of the earlieit specimens of the northern mose ; the preservation of 
We owe ezdasively to the Saxon Chronicle. 



OBSERVATIONS ON M8S. xxiii 

same source^ and from C.T. b iv.^ we have been enabled to present to the reader 
of English history a more copious and accurate account than has hitherto ap- 
peared^ of the Danish invasions, the civil wars in the reign of Edward the Con- 
fessor, and the battles of Harold previous to the Norman Conquest. The MS. 
terminates imperfectly in 1066, after describing most minutely the battle of 
Stamford-bridge ; the few lines which appear in the last page being supplied by 
a much later hand. It begins like the Benet MS. ( Vide Fac-simile, No. I. ) 

JEfi cpijn»f jeplsBjrcnejye. Ix. pmtpa jaiuf luliuf j^e caj^pe 

ExpK - - let hapdb papan ham to noppeie mib alle )^a j^cipe. 

YL This MS. like the preceding, though of invaluable authority, was un- 
knowa to Gibson. It is written in a plain and beautiful hand, with few abbre- 
viatioas, and apparently copied in the early part, with the exception of the intro- 
ductory deseriptioB of Britain, from a very ancient MS. The defective parts, 
from A«D. 961 to 693, were long since supplied from four excellent MSS. by 
Josselyn ; who also collated it throughout with the same ; inserting from them, 
both in the text find in the margin, such passages as came within his notice ; 
which are so numerous, that very few seem to have eluded his vigilant search. A 
smaller but elegant hand commences fol. 68, A.D. 1016 ; and it is continued to 
the end, A.D. 1079, in a similar hand, though by different writers. Wanley 
notices a diflference in the year 1058. The value and importance of this M&, as 
well as of the preceding, will be best exemplified by a reference to the Notes and 
Various Readings in the present edition. The last notice of it will be found in 
page 885. It begins thus : ( Vide Fac*simile, No. II. ) 

Bpytene ijlanb if ehta hunb mila lanj - - - - &c. 

Expl. — ne pylle pe ]>eh hep na mape fca%e appitan j^e hehif paebepje— 

VII. Of this MS. our notice will be brief; because we know nothipg of it 
but from the Collations of Josselyn. It is supposed to be a different MS. fj;pm 
the Peterborough Chronicle used by Gibson. Wheloc, however, seems rather 
hastily to have attributed to this MS. all the passages which he has printed within 
brackets; for on examining the Benet MS. I do not find that he had sufficient 
authority for so doing. 

VIII. This MS: is so well known, from being made the basis of Gibson's 
edition where Wheloc's was deficient, that it will not be so necessary to enlarge 
on it here. It is a fair copy of older Chronicles, with a few inaccuracies, omis- 
sions, and interpolations, to the year 11S2; therefore no part of it was written 



xxW OBSERVATIONS ON MSS. 

before that period. The next ten jears rather exhibit different ink than a 
rent writer. From IISS to the end, A.D. 1194^ the language Mid- orlhographj 
become gradually more Normanized, particnlarljr in tbe reign of King Stephen ; 
fhe aoeount of which was not written till the ctoae of iL The dates not being 
regularly affixed to the last ten years, Wanley has inadvertently described this 
MS. as ending A.D. 1143; whereas it is continued eleven years afterwards. 
We have given a Fac-simile of the beginning, No. VI. For the end, which 
is scarcely legible, we must refer the reader to the last page of this edition. Per- 
haps Chatteri? vnaay be added to the names of plaices thar^elicU^; ---tepef, 
not - -bepej-, being probably the remnant of the word Catepejr. There was an 
abbey for Benedictjpe nuns at Chatteris^ antientiy writtad OftlnrifiS ftnd Cateres, the 
patronage of which was given by Hen. I. to Hervey Bishop of Ely. 

m 

IX. This is a singularly curious MS., attributed generally to ^ monk of Christ 
Churchy Canterbury, on account of the monastic interpolations. It is often 
quoted and commended by H. Wharton, in his Anglia Sacra, because it contains 
much. ecclesiastical and local information. We consider it, however, of the least 
authority among the Cotton MSS., because the writer has taken greater liberties 
in abridging former Chronicles, and inserting translations of Latin documents in 
his own Normanized dialect. Frithestaa^ Bishop of Winchester, who died 
A.D. 931 according to this Chronicle, is called bifcop pentaanujr; and Bypn- 
ftanuf is said to have been consecrated on hif loh«^£pt c/tis locum, lieu, Fr. Its 
very peculiarities, nevertheless, stamp a great value on it; and its frauds are 
harmless, if possible, because they are easil; detected. Towards the end the 
writer intended to say something about Prince Edward, the father of Edgar and 
Margaret; but it is nearly obliterated, and the MS. soon after concludes, A.D. 
1058. It is remarkable for being written both in Latin and Saxon ; but for 
what purpose it is now needless to conjecture. It is said to have; been given 
to Sir Robert Cotton by Camden. The passages printed from it by Gibson, and 
the variations in the margin, marked CoU, are from the Collations of Junius in- 
serted in his copy of Wheloc. There does not appear to have been any entire 
transcript of the MS., as we find it sometimes stated'. Gibson takes no notice of 
the introductoiy description of Britain as being in this MS., and he dates its ter- 
mination in the wrong place. We have therefore had recourse to it again in the 
British Museum, where it is deposited. A favourable specimen of it may be seen 
in the Fac*simile> No. V. 



' Vid. WaoL Cat p. n». 




• • • ♦ 



R tRISTES GeFLE 






raj* mi^ re teolice cnf rc3e "ili)* oreti jvuu^eqrva'beak 



E 



31 



nvcexur ijlariMp thcahunbmila lanj -| 



trahunDmtidbpaD qbrji jyribonfja i^knb^- 



J III 



/I-hRCRISTES G^fL/ESC 

^ -Lh 11 ^^ txJf itTTjid^ ^ttiir luUur feir^e^<l^e(?: 



IV 







■yi 



J I . tTMUKTipCA 



bocl^ca • Biefb ©cnon ou5enb JnCej* 
laiTb'erbnKrcr.t>aconiaru)t: aTuuetua..'T3eperatL 



Si.!" Hall s. u»,.' 



3SNGLe.8JEXeNS STiEF-CRiEFTe :• 

A SHORT GRAMMAR OF THE ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE. 

8ca];.q»]Si if fw at; ^ )^hi boca mt^tgjvc nnlycV. JBffr. Prmf. (Irwm. 
L*ttw.ciaft to *• kajr tiMt wdodwth tkt kaoirMfe of books. 



XNCLe-8>eX6NX ST/eF-R/epe; 

OK 

THE ANGLO^AXON ALPHABET. 






2CA 
B 

EC 
D 

Ee 

F 

C6 

HI3 

I 

K 

L 

MCD 

N 

O 

P 

R 

8S 

T 

Dp 

U 

fUl 

X 

Y 

Z 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

K 

L 

M 

N 

O 

P 

R 

8 

T 

TH 

UV 

W 

X 

Y 

Z 



a 
b 
c 
b 

e 



b 
c 
il 

e 
f 



! f 



1 

k 
1 



1 
k 
1 



P 

r 

U 

P 
X 

« 

y 

z 



n 
o 

P 

r 

8 

t 

th 
Ulr 
w 

X 

y 



I: 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

£lj and, 

vel, or. 

fte, \fi^t, ihot. 

bif'copf hUhap. 

kynmx, 

Zeap, 

cpaelS, 

kalendoi. 



king, 
year, 
quoth . 
calends. 



THE ARTICLE 

SlMG. 

M. F. 



N. 
G. 
D. & Ab. 


8e, reoft] 


flO, ^t. 


Ac. 


)K>ne, )a, 
Plvh. 


>ct. 




JIf. F. 


N. 


N. 


«. ^^ 


a&Jwi 


G. 


>ae}ia, Jajw, 


>aepa. 


D. & Ab. 


^m, ^m. 


^am. 


Ac. 


K I'!^. 


J»*4K 



THE DEMONSTMATirS PJtO- 

NOUN 

pep >eo|r, )»ijr. 
Sine. 

M. F. M 

N. pep >eop hf. 

D. & Ab. pifum, fijjejkt, fipim< 
Ac. )>irne, ]^p yif. 

Plvh. 

M. F. N. 

N. &Ac. )wir. >«r' ^tT'**- 

G. ]>i|7%pa, A I'lrr*' 

D. & Ab. )>iruin, )>^pim, ^^jTaoBt. 

Ac. 

1 This form of the Article is stUl retained. It 
was used by the Normaiis, indiscriiaiattely, for 
all cases and genders in both numbers. 

d 



ZXYl 



A SHORT GRAMMAR 



, EXAMPLES OF NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE. 



I. Hob, God. 

SlNO. 

N. Ac. & V. Kob, 
G. Efobef, 

Dat. & Ab. Ifobe^ 



Plub. 
Efobajr >, 
Goba^ 
Iiobum. 



II. piteja, a prophet. 

SiN«* Plur. 

N.Ac. 7 ^ 

Gen. pite^ena 



N.&V. piteja, 

Geo.D.^ 
Ac. & >pite2aii 
Ab. J 



Dat&l 

Ab. iV^^^^ra. 



III. Epen> a gti^^n. 



Sing. 

N. Ac. & V. Epen, 
G. D. & Ab. cpene. 



Plub. 



Noin. cpcna,-o,-u. 
Gen. cpena, 
D.&Ab.cpenum. 



IV.* 8unu^ a son. 



N. D. Ac. 
G. 



V.&Ah.}^"""' 



Sing. Pldr. 

N.G.Ac. 1 

D. & Ab. pinum, 



pina^ 



&.V. fr""^' 



EXAMPLES OF NOUNS ADJECTIVE. 

* 

I. Cob, jobe, job, good. 
Sing. Plub. 

M. F. N. M.F.N. 

N. & Voc. Dob, jobe, job, | N. & Ac. jobe, joba, 

G. Sobejr, jobjie, jobejr, G. jobjia, 

D. & Ab. jobum, jobpe, jobum, 

Ac. jobac, J6be, job. 



G. 

D. & Ab. jobum. 



II. Iroba, with a prosihelic a. 



1 .-,, • 

N.&V. 
G. D. Ac. 



. Sing. 
Iioba^ 



&Ab 



^^•Jjoban, 



Plub. 

N. Ac. & V. joban, 

G. jobena, 

D. & Ab. jobum, & joban. 



N.B. To this form may be referred pifa, wise ; ylca, the same ; {Uk, Scot. ) aad 
all paHicipial adjectiyes in a^; which are declined like the substantive piteja. 



}}t " t ^ 



m * H I I PP 



TT 



> NbQDS of the neater gender here either foUo^ the N. Sing., as ^tn^, pip, &c.; or end in a, o, 
a ; u in ibe tldrd declension. Thus we ind rcipa, e, o, u, &c. 

* This declension is added from a slight difference in the genitive case. In the nominative sin. 
galar there are as many terminations of nouns as there are letters in the alphabet. 

3 Saion participials of the superlative degree are very harmonious : as, iElpp^. je )« ymj ealpa 
Jwjia ze))UD2enejtenaGo2l&-lanbejkynin2afe pelpillenbejra. *j ye hifienbejca hiy leoba; ^^ Alfred, wbo 
watof i2li the most fenowned kings of Eoglaiul^ the most benevolent, and the most loving (or fond) 
of hit sabjects." So from the adjective elmef-yulla is fonned aBfmefyullejta. 



OF THE ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE. 



xxvu 



DEOREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



PositiTC, Rihcpij^i, 

Comparative^ pihtpijrepe^ 
Superlative^ piht^ipej-c. 



Regular. 
righteous^ i.e; rightwise^ 
more righteous, rightwiser. 
most righteous, rightwisest. 



iRRBGULAtt. 

Yjrel, evU, 

pypr* v)orse, 
pypft, worst. 



SlKG. 

N. Ic, ich,' T, 

G .• min, mine, 

D.&Ab. mtf, 

Ac. me, tnehj mec^ 



EXAMPLES OF PRONOUNS, 
First PersoD. — Ic, (ego,) /. 
Dual. 



Plur. 



pit, we two, 

uncep, 

unc, unje, uncpum, 

pit. 



pe, we, poc, uj-ih^ uj-15, D. S. 
upe, 

UJ-, uph, Ac. ' 



Sing. 
N. & V. pu, thou, 
G. fm, Jjine, 

D. & Ab. )>e, 
Ac. J^e, 



Second Person. — pu, (tu,) thou. 

Dual. 

jyt, incit, me, ye two, 

incep, 

incpum, inc, 

inc. 



Plur. 

eopcp, Jvep# lueppe, &c. 
eap, 3eop, lopij, 
eof, luh, &i5. 



Third Person. — he, heo, hit ; ( is, ea, id; ) he, she, it. 



Sn7B« 
N. J3e, heo, hit, 

G. hif , hipe, hip 

D. & Ab. him, hipe, hit, 
Ac. hine, hi, hit. 



Plur. 

hi, hij, hie, hy, heo, &c. 

hipa, hiepa, hy'pa, heopa, heapo, &c. 

him, heom, hym, 

hi, hi^y &c. 



Nouns expressive of numbers are declined like other adjectives ; as an, ane, an, 
one; (unus, una, unum;) G.anef: tpi;^ tpe^en/lmiin; tpu, tpa, ftouo ; (duo,diue^ 
duo ; ) G. tpejpa, tpeja : bp^, fpeo, ]>pea, three ; ( tres> tria ; ) G. )>peopa, J^pca ; 
D. & Ab. J'p^m, )>peom, &c. Tyn be r^num, ten by ten; anep once; tpijcf^ 
twice ; l^pijep thrice ; belong to this class. See page xxxi. ^ / 



OF VERBS. Be popbum. 

A Verb is properly called popb io Saxon ; beiog the origin. and. foiin(i|f(ti]^o, 
— opb-ppuma ^ 2punt>-peali,«*-of most other words. Of the eight parfs of 
speech, says ^Ifric, the most and the mightiest, — ^]?a maeftan *] ]?a mihti^ojrtan,— 
are the Noun and Verb. With Nouns we name all things; but with Verbs we 
predicate of all things. The Verb Substantive is first in order, called et^pjij^hc 

> This 18 properly the termination of the feminine gender ; Jiihcjnp, or juhtpip, being the masca. 
line form ; which make /uhcfifpe and jiibtpifpa in the comparatiTe degree. 

" From the genitive case of the primitiye pronouns are formed the possessive ; as, mm, mine^ mg; 
)in, thine ^ thyi upe, our ; eopep, your : but as th^ are declined like other adjecttves, the Sazoa 
student wili find no difficulty in their terminations. For the same rMSon ylc M ^ietiy i[ftf and 
jy\yAj kc. «re omitted ; being declined, like pit and ^olM, respectively. 

d2 



xxviii A SHORT t^RAMM AR 

in Saxon ; being ezpresliv^ of existence ; flrotn peraii, €9se, to be. Its various and 
irregular forms are ttm^aldted^ for the use of the sazon atudent : 

. iNFjNfj^irje. Beon t^epifti to be. 

Indicztive present. 
Sjng. Plur. ' 

1 . Ic eom, beom^ or bee, / amy 



9 
3 




beo))bn, bij'oit, beoj), j-^nbon, pnb, 
. ne yr, beep, or D]frb, Tie iL , ni i we (tre, yi are, Hieff art. * " 

o t '^' '^'^ 1. i ^ C "w^^ were, OT were, theu wete: • 

8. he paep pap pep fce was. * hi ) *^. ' -^^ ,,} .,. 

""^ Cm.^ ^llere AS no FvAure tense, dtricdy speaking, 1n^ any 8az«ii Teib t biiK the 
grammarians give us beo, b^fi^, bf%, singular ; and h&t/S £» the plnml ; Tf bsch 
belong to the present tense. The ftiture was generally expressed by an auxiliary 
verb, as in modern Boglish, thus: 

' Srto. Plur. 

1. Icjrceal }'; ' (t shall be. 



*•* iVi T^^?^V ^ 1i>eon', <thou shqlt be, 
Sl^^T^fceal ^ (]te ^fiaU be. 



^ / jrcealon, j'ceolcm -un, ^ari, been, 

^.Qjj^^T^e^Use of tli)Q auxiliary verb 7(;i//, as expressive of fiituHty, M^here no 
volltion^s implied, is of modern growth. ^Ifric useis ^ceall td express the Latin 

T|^^,lmpeca|tive mood is defective in. many points. It ha^no preterite; be^ 
cause ho man can order that which is past to be otherwise 'than' it is; bnd if we 
cannot indicate tbe» ftftttre> <mucfa less can we oammaiid iti * It also wants the 
fiifstffittqM^ ; beflad^eooinanc^HMDands l^aiself ; and tUoii^ji gr^nMxjari^nsl^^ve 
Milriiduiiterid^UiisddpecsQ^ the I^ajtii^ ^nd Greek grammars, it i^ borrowed 

lfOfi3tfaensttfa|ttacti««\mQQd4 The Impenitiye fQrvfk i^ madekppwnby placing 
lUe^f onfiittSlitie iia«e after it; as, beo ]f\i,'be thpu; beo]' ge^ be ye; beo t p j>m 
9uttacf^dp3bfitUhy fimmeJktfUiVved; been t pn hi bejTnin^e^e^ ,(e^ tJuspi be beaten. 
SiHt wkh^iat^\0{)iomdt iitself: ap^ars to.bi? an elHptic^i foro^ borrowed, from the 
lais^tMb({ 'Jf,3| )M^fm>p, ikat w; roarj k--lbe pu^iHary veribi magon ^eb^^ 
dnrtoM(|v7VMk3liAt9Mgn Ivpon^. is substituted for lupa% in. the pj^ural number of 
«flid)0|i*yiMaridt4MitoitlMi/aa;iv4ll as ^ii the subjunctive mopd, this fprm is derived 
*frfmitMiirftoiiivd, lu(ba«,t<o to9r» Tba fame^ remark is applicable to the ge- 
rundial form (|f Abe-iAfiffJtive iras; Isene me }sl boc tao paebanne^ lend me the book 
i6TheadiHrf^if\}Ang jmtmiw^lhw. W^k, ^^ trust that the Saifon. scholaiT will. ex* 
^oilfe.tfcefodtissiiito Jl)etofti^<^ fojliititiowof tbe^sa^e inj^epc^ionawhiph are found 
lAlthAidlabiirato^r^iAiiiMt^ Hkkp^ apd otbfi:s. The optative n^ood is well ex- 
ptfainild blf)»&ixna'^j|mq»arian*Q( the tenth century : Salaj^'ic lupbbe Irob« 
0)/bifif /otifti€totf4.jadik(WlMr9QiMks» is the^sameas i£vou say, Fop;^ea}:p Cob f 

^ God grmiUh0l I loved him.^\id. H. Tooke, I. 102, &c. 




OF THE ANOLaSAXON LANGUAGE. xx|x 

Gsjtvitv. To lnpanne'«enne {>aAmnmdiimi).iv.v\\ 2 - 
Sing. Pjlub. 



1. Ic lupine, I lupie, Utroe^ 

2. J>u lupart -ert, -jrt^ thou lovest, 
8. he luj!a% -e^, -B, -t:> fte loveth. 



pe 

Te J» lunaV^ we, ye, iheu love. 

hi S ' '^' ^ ^ 



Ob8. trefeon t jefcan/to 5e(?, malies jefeoh, xefeah, jfejnb, jenK^, Jfl^^i l^^« 
pas^an^ Id weigh, changes 3 into h ; as pash%« &c. 1 / ^ i • 

PKETfiftlTE. 

Sing. PiiVR. 

1. IclUpobe^ I loved, I ^ ^ ^ . ■ * 

3. he lurobe^ he loved. | ^O 

Ob». Tke iriciipdsr preterites are Tery numerous ; ^^* Z^T^^ZV^ ^i^T^fi*}^^ 
alfly; makfii 2^1oh^ aing. sejrloson .an, plur. See p. xxx. t . . -n ^ 

iMPMRATjrw Mood. i i , - .,. *, » 

1. - - - - ' I lupion pe, lomt jve. 



S. Iup$i %u, /ore thou, 
3. lupine he» fox^ he. 



lupine -ia«^ j^ Zow^f- ^.^ . , 

lupion hi, /in« tJiqf. 



Participle; lupanb, -enb, -jenb, e,fem. declioed like-^ob, job^, 30b. Partl<! 
cipial adjective; lupenba^ declined like 26ba, or the substantive pitej^. Many 
subslpiBtives are formed from participles; as ppeonb^ a friend; from vfitdtilto 
make free I because friendship gives freedom. . 1 f ^. «'. 

From lupobe, the preterite of the active verb, is formed the passive veife^^^by 
prefixing toe different inflexions of the verb substantive beon ) pepn, to he: as, 
Ic eom lupob -e, &c. 

N.B. The indeclinable parts of speech may be found in every Diclionar^. 

OP ANOMALOUS AND DEFECTIVE VERJiS. i mm ^ 

Some verbs are Anomalous, unemtie ; thus explainedby '.fitfric : - papttiBii^M- 
hi ne gaV na j-pa ppa o]^pe popb on pimepe ftope, '' because th#y;depalt:frdtaiiat 
form of other verbs in some plack or other:*' thusbepM^ to hem", maUsiDAbeifftl 
terite ic hasp, / bare, not ic bepobe. Thus p^^Uan, to wttt, baa ic pftle^i)ni'f ^^ 
he pile, in the present indicative ; ic polbe, &c. in the past. It is atacrdtfacAivet 
ateopi^enblic ; as it vrants the imperative mood ; the reAson of 'vrbick^ « ihus 
philosophically expressed by the Saxon Grammarian ; pcr)f)>aq fe ye ptlh^pcSdl 
beon aeppe ppih; '^ because the vtill shall be ever VB£B;'^ai8eMe*ini«wDMptHnse 
than the vrhole Hermes of Harris ! But though the will CMnothecooliAandRS, 
it may and ought to be controuled. The negative verb, theteibvt, likv ttifc impe^ 
rati ve mood ; neTle J^u, be thou umvilttng ; nelle ^e, be ye wtorilHrlg. 

Some verbs are Defective, not only in mood, but in number and'persen^ The 
follovring are selected as instances ; being ealled impersonal vciiis : that «, ttey 
are defective in the first and second person : pivfS, H rakuth p i.*e« vratitr fnameth ; 
hit hunbpaV, it thundereth ; hit hht, it Ughteneth ; kit piffS, it^sntmelk ;«'liieha* 
2ola%, it JtaOeth ; h\z pp^pt, itfreezeth ; whenee the stfbstMtiTOvjBrM; ^^ lUba' fH- 

I This form Is retained bj Chsacer ; as, ^^ Listetb, lordingei/' kc. 



A SHORT GRAMMAR 



lowing exaiu pies of VjeiiM defective id the first and second person^ though not 
called impersoQid, are selected fraai ^Ifric, and maj be of use to the Saxon stu- 
dent. 



hunbb]^pc^ hound larketlh, 

Eul p Jy t, wolf howleth, 
opf hnaejV^ horse neiglieth^ 



oxa hIepV, os loweth, 
j-caep blast> sheep bkaieth, 
j^pyn jpunaS, swine grunteth 



Daf popb ^ ))yllice ( adds the gmomiarian ) mann mae^ cpe^an. ^ip man pile. 
onxean jec^nbe. on eallum ]ypim habum. ac hitbi% ppi%e t^plie f pe man beopce 
o%%e blaete:- " these verbs and the like roan maj utter, if man wilU against nature, 
in all three persons ; but it would be very absurd that man should bark or bleat/' 

CDon, man, men, me', is frequently used with an active verb a^ an equivalent for 
a passive; likeori in French, i. e. om; as 'pe man hast, which is called; .ne je- 
h^pbe me op nanan pecjean^ there was none heard of, &c. 



INVlKiTtVE. 

Acpencan, 

Ahebban,! 

Ahepan, 

Apipan, 

Beatan, 

Beoban, bibban, 

Bmban, 

Ceopan, 

Cnapan, 

Cuman, 

Delpan, 

Dpaeban, 

Dpipn, 

Dpmcan, 

Fajian, pepan, 

Feohtan, 

Fmban, 

Foppacan, ) 

Foppascan,) 

Ireppmjan, 

treran, 

Ifpapan, 

Ifpintmn, 

Iiypan, 

JSangan, hon^ 

)3ealban, 

)3e)pan^ 

Rasccan, 

Reccaii, 

Riban, 

Sinjan, 

Slaexati. 

8pepan, 



EXAMPLES OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 

PARTICIPLE PASSIVE. MODERN VERB. 

acpmen, acpent, to quench. 



PRETERITE. 

acpanc, acpenc, 
ahop. 



apap, 

beot, 

bab, basbe, bube, 

banb, 

ceap, ceop, 

cneop, 

com, cum, cpom, 

bealp, bulp, 

bpab, bpaebe, 

bpap, 

bpanc, 

pepbe, pop, 

peahte, puhte, 

panb, punbe, 

poppoc. 



faharen, ahepen, 

ahopyn, 
apipen, 
beaten, 
bob, bibben, 
bunb, bunben, 
ceopeb, ceopen, 
cnapen, 
cumen, 
bulpen, 
bpabbe, 
bp;^pen, 
bpuncen, 
papen, pepeb, 
peohten, 
punben, 
poppocen^ 
poppojeu; 



} 



jeppanx, jepponj, ^eppunjen, 



jeatte, jeotte, 

jpunbe, 

Xap, jeap, 

hen^, hoh, 

heolb, heolbe, 

hulpe, 

peahte, 

pehte, pohte, « 

pab, 

panj, 

plog, ploh, 

rpop. 



gotten, 
jpapen, 
2punben, 

hanjen, hunx, 
healben, heolben, 
heolpen, 

> peht, 

pibben, 
pungen, 
platen, 
ppopen. 



to Jieave, or Ifft up. 

to arise, 
to beat. 

to bid, or pray], 
to bind. 

w 

to choose, 
to know, 
to come, 
to delve, 
to dread, 
to drive, 
to drink, 
to fare, or go. 
to fight, 
to find. 

to forsake. 

to swinge, or scourge. 
^ E^9 or oUain. 
to engrave, 
to grind, 
to give, 
to hang, 
to hold^ 
to help. 

to reck, or reckon. 

to ride, 
to sing, 
to sUuf. 
to swear. 



OP THE ANGLO-SAXON LANGUA&E. 



XXXI 



EXAMPLES OF PREPOSITIONS. 

WITH AN ACCVSATIYE CASE. WITH A DATIVE OH ABLATIIrB. 



TCbii tan.embu tan, > abaui, throughout, 
onbutan, -on ^ ^ or around. 

utan, {afdt^t), ) 
pop, (juxta, per,> luf, or according to, 
&c ^ S &c 

on*, innan, on-^ 

^ean, ajen^ an- >inio, against. 

jean, (aw/,) J 
tojeanep topeapb, w^or, toward. 

pi%, (contra,) against. 



/Gptan, aeptep, ab-> fl/?fr, or 
aepran, bseptran, ^ a&^l 



behind. 



aet^, for oh. 



af rr pfocf, At, Ac. 



pp, pope, ( pro,> for, on account of, 
propter, &c. ) y &c. ' ' • 



on«, mnan, bin-i 
nan, pi^mnan, 

til, to, into, &c. 



from,fro\ 

in, vriiMn. 
to, into, &c. 



piB, in the sense) .,, , - 

of mib, (fi^,) I "^'^^^ '""^**'^ *^ 



ANGLO-SAXON NUMBERS. 



CARDINAL. 

I. Tin, ane, an, 

!!• tpcjen, tpu, tpa, 
HI. J^pt, )peo, fpea, 
iiii. pe^cp, peopep, 

V. peop, pip, 

VI. peox, pix, 
VII. F^pon, peopan, 
VIII. ehta, eahta, 
IX. ny^an, nijon, 

X. teon, t^n, 
xu anlypen, enblupan, eleven. 
XII. ^alp, tpelc , twelve. 

^ XIII. ISpeotyne, See. 
XX. tpeontij, tpentij, 
XXX. ^pyttig, ^pittij, 
XL. peopepti^ 

h. piptix, 

LX. pxtlj, 

Lxx. peopantij, 
I.XXX. hunb-eahtati^. 



one. 
two. 
three, 
four, 
five, 
six. 
seven, 
eight, 
nine, 
ten. 



ORDINAL. 

pe, peo, f popma. The first. 



thirteen, 
twenty, 
thirty, 
forty. 

fifty* 

sixty, 
seventy, 
eighty. ^ 



o%ep, 

^pibba, 

peop^a, 

pipta, 

pxta, 

peopo^a, 

eahteo^a, 

nijo^a, 

teo^a, 

enblypta. 



second. 

third. 

fourth. 

fifth. 

sixths 

seventh. 

eighths 

ninth. 

tenths ' 

eleventh. 



tpelpta, — twelfth. 

^peote^a, — thirteprUh^ 

tpenteojotta, twfMieth.^ 

[The remaining Nuiiiberib^; 
the Ordinal' class are fpriqeft ( 
from the Cardtml bj changH^ | 
tij into tijedSa, or teoje^J . 



>m . i» 



' Oobucaa "jS laob. Gen. 2, 11. Y«t the same compound preposition is joined with a dative cm 
in onr Chronicle, p. 287, A.D. 1085 ; but it is the business of the JLexicographer to explain hj ex- 
amples the endless varieties, and nice shades of distinction, which in the Saton prepositions ahttM 
bid defiance to general rules. ^ 

* On and to hate sometimes a genitive case ; as, on bcf be2#r» fiV' ^m VH'^fy co hejf/in tut^oi. 
Sometimes the genitive case is used without either ; as, fsef P^^^h '^<' '^i*^ter ; ^xj pe^ (quatenus^) 



as far as^ used adverlnally, thus : ^j ^e uf bee fecxalS, as far as books inform us. 
' In the sense of apudy adj juxta, ice. this preposition is sometii 



as KC hanba, ai hand. 



sometimes joined with an accusative case ; 



a A SHORT ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



CAR0I1IAL. 

xc. httflto-nqgoBtag;, ninety ; t. e. nine ties of the hwdi. 

^- { ^hJnb-to!!!?^ ^ flfciiiKlnrf; a hand-ridding, or tea ties of tlie Imndt. 

€Z« huBb-onbluponti;, hundred and ten ; eleven ties of the hands* 
ex%. hunb-tpeljrtij, hundred and twenty ; twel?e ties of the hand» 

cc. ^quL hunb^ two hundred ; two haod-riddingi. 

ecc. l!>peo hnnb^ &c. three hundred, &c. ; three hand-riddings, 
££. Vufenb^ a thousand; thus end; the m jsIm iiJIra of Saxon nu 

meration ; in the plural Vufenba* -e,*o«-u,ffcoiiimdEv. 



CONCLUSION. 

Thus ha?e we ventured to give a short introduction to Saxon Orammar ; 
rather for ihe sake of convenient reference in reading the Saxon Chronicle^ than 
with a view of affording coiiiplete rules for the stiidv of the langUMO. The 
Saxon grammar above all others must be taught by the langua^j ana not the 
language by the grammar. There is the less necessity for enlarging on tk» sub* 
ject at present, because a work is in the press, which is undertaken for that expie» 
purpoee^ Of the four parts therefore, into which Grammar is osuaIl;[r divided, 
Ortbographv, Etvmology, Syntax, and Prosody, no regular discussion is here at- 
tempted. Prosody, indeed, belongs to Poetry ; a department as distinct from 
Grammar, as Logic, Rhetoric, or any other branch of general literature. Alflric 
makes thirtt divisions of Grammar ; concluding with Historit and Fabu; his 
discrimination of which is worth repeating. The passage, moreover, contains 
every part of speech except the interjection ; and forms a good illustration of 
Saxon Orthography, Etymology, and Syntax. 

'' Sume Yfnb zehatene Fabvlm. f ffhb ft>e\e )7>eIIun2a. FinutJi )*^b )?a 
laja ^ men yec^JS on^ean ^ecynb. f naepjte ne jepeapV ne ^epnjXnn ne masj. 
Sum ]iaepa if jehaten DISTORtA. f ijr jepecebnirp mib baspe man appit ^ ^e- 
pecV ]»a Jiinj. *i J^a baeba. ]>e paepon ^ebone on eallum (ealbum ? ) bajum. ^ uf 
bipne psepon." '' Some parts are called Fables ; that is, Ible Tales. Fables 
are the Lies^ that men tell acainst Nature, that never were nor can be. Some 
part is called HISTORY ; that is. Relation ; whereby man writes and relates 
the things and the deeds that were done in old days, and to us were unknown." 



> By ihm Rer. J. Becwortb, Vicar of Little Horwood, Bocks. 

* Or, according to the literal Saxoni Lays ; a word preserved by Poets ; as, <^ The Lay of the 
last Mioitrel," &c. Bat the critical grammarian condemns only those lays that are agaivst Na« 
TUAK ; agreeing herein with the best critics of antiquity. Aristode commends Homer, because h^ 
has taii^ other poets how to manage Fiction with propriety ; ^tui^ XcTiiy cJf In • 



BSBBBBBa 



Wat ^si%(m Cbronicle. 



BRYXeNG* ijlanb \y ehtra hunb 
mila lan^. *) tpa hunb mila bpab. 
Anb hep j^nbon on fam ijlanbc pip je- 
«eobu. yenjlij-c.'j Bpyt-pyhf c^.^ Sc^t- 
tipc. 1 Pyhjptirc. 'j Boclaeben. /6popt 
paepon bd^eilb l^yyep laatecf Bpywrap. J>a 
comon op Apmema. "J jcpaeton pi^n- 
peapbe Bpytene aepojft. Da jelamp hit 
f Pyhtap comon jruj^an op Scitrhian. 
mib lanjitm pcipum na manejum. ^ }>a 
comon sepoft: on nop^ Ybepnian up. 
*J ]fxj\ baebon Scottap f hi ]?a?p mopton 
punian. Ac hi^ nolbon heom lypan. 



THE island Britain ^ is 800 miles 
loDg^ and 200 miles broad. Aud 
there are in the island five nations ; 
English, Weigh (or BrUish^), Scottish, 
Pictish, and Latin. The first inhabi- 
tants were the Britons^ wbo came from 
Armenia 3^ and first peopled Britain 
southward. Then^ happened, it, Aat 
the Picts came south from Scythia, with 
long ships, not many ; and, landing first 
in the northern part of Ireland, they 
told the Scots that they must dwell 
there. But they wauld not give them 



■ This introdactory part of the Chronicle to Ad. I. first printed by Gibson from the Land MS. 
only, has been corrected by a collation of two additional MSS. In the British Museum, Cot, Tt(«ritii 
B IT, and Domiiianus A ?iii. Some defects are also here supplied. ^ Bpirrij-c *j Pil jc, L^. 



' The materials f^ this introductory part are to 
be found in Pliny, Solinus, Orosius, Gildas, and 
Bede. The admeasurement of the island, however 
inaccurate, is from the best authorities of those 
thneS) and .followed by much later historians. 
Simeon of Durham says of the length ^^AngUa 
kabet m iongitudine 800 mi/uirfa a kco Penwiik* 
iteri vocato, qui situs est 15 leugis uUra Michael 
Stowe in ComewdUu^ usque ad CaihenSs trans Sco^ 
iiam,'' He is more correct in the breadth, — ** In Ul- 
iiiudine habei 300 mil. a Depkstmue usque Dofre.** 
-p-X. Script, sub iniL But many writers haTe cb* 
centay or plus quam ducenta. 



* Gibson, following the Laud MS. has made six 
nations of five, by introducing the British and 
Welsh as two distinct tribes. The Cotton scribe, 
Dom, A Tiii. aware of this inconsistency, omits 
•j Boclebi'n. 

^ ^^ De tractu jfrmoricanoJ** — Bede, Hist. EccL 
i«l. *^ Fpam Apmojucano ]»e]ie mse^cj^e."— -£lfr. 
The word AmeiiiA occnvfing % few .)uw> ^bore 
in Bede, it was perhaps inadvertently written by 
the Saxon compiler of the Chronicle instead of 
Armorica. 

^ **Past iniervallum 800 ajuiorirm/* &c.— Hen. 
Iluot. p. 300. ed. Franc. Mattfa.West A.D.75. 

B 



s 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pop%an ^ hij cpsebon *^ hi ne mihton 
ealle setjaebcpe ^epunian J^aep. ';j fa cpae- 
bon'' fa Scottap. pc eop ma^on J^eah- 
hpse^epe paeb jelaepan. pe piton o^ep 
ijlanb hep be ea^tan. faep ^e majon 
eapbian yyp je pylla^. ^ jy p hpa eop pi^- 
ftent. pe eop pultumia^. f je hit ma- 
jon ^e^an^an. Da pepbon fa Pyhtap. ^ 
jepepbon f ip lanb nop^anpeapb. pu^an- 
peapb hit hsepbon Bpyttap. ppa pe aep 
cpaebon. Anb fa Pyhtap heom abaebon 
pip aet Scottum^. on fa ^epab f hi je- 
cupon heopa cyne-cynn aa on fa pip 
healpe. f hy heolbon ppa lanje py^^an. 
Anb fa ^elamp hit. ymbe jeapa pyne. 
f Scotta pum bael jepat op Ybepnian 
on Bpy tene. ^ f «p lanbep pum bael jeeo- 
bon. ^ paep heopa hepeto^a Reoba je- 
haten. ppom fam hy pynb jenemnobe 
Dalpeobi :• 

^ Sixti^uih pmtpum aep fam f e Cpipt 
paepe acenneb. Gamp luhup Romana Ca- 
pepe mib hunb-ehtatijum pcipum je- 
pohte Bpytene. Daep he paep aepept 



leave ; for the Scots told them that they 
could not all dwell there together; 
" But/' said the Scots^ '^ we can never- 
theless give you advice. We know an- 
other island here to the east. There you 
may dwells if you will ; and whoso- 
ever withstandeth you^ we will assist 
you^ that you may gain it.'" Then went 
the Picts and entered this land north- 
ward. Southward the Britons possessed 
it, as we before said. And the Picts ob- 
tained wives of the Scots, on condition 
that they chose their kings always on 
the female sidei; which they have con** 
tinned to do, so long since. And it hap- 
pened, in the run of years, that some 
party of Scots went from Ireland into 
Britain^ and acquired some portion of 
this land. Their leader was called 
Reoda^, from whom they are named 
Dalreod i ( or Dalreathians ) ^. 

Sixty winters ere that Christ was born, 
Caius Julius, emperor of the Romans, 
with 80^ ships sought Britain. There 
he was first beaten in a dreadful fight. 



* So C.T, B i?. abs. Laud. Dom. a nii. and Gibs, from the repetition of cpxbon. ^ Scottan, C.T. a ir. 
« JEfi Cjiijftejr ^ejrlsfcocjTe jyxa pinqia. Gaiop luliuj je Cajrjie afpejc Romana Bpecene lonb jc. 
fohtc. "j Bjiyttaj mib ^cjreohte cnijjebe. "j hy ojepjpy^Jbe. "j jpa ^eah oe meahce faeji jiice jepinnan :• 
This is the whole of Wheloc prior to An. I. So also, with little variation, C.T. b i. C,T. a yi. C Oiho, 
and the Dublin transcript by Lambard. C.T. ei?. has ceolnm for fcipum. C Dom. a viii. explains &k hy 
eujie, )a j^jiad by *f fojie-pyjib; but the other Tariations in that MS. are chiefly in the orthography. 

* Dalreudini,—Bodej Hbi. Eccles, i. 1. Daljiea. 
bmjap,— iElfr. Dal and bssl, dail, Goth, a deal, 
portion, or diyision. << lAngua eorum dil parimn^ 
j^gfii£/Sca/.'*^Bede, as above ; but Wheloc has pa* 
trem by mistake. Hence Dal^reath, &c. 



' In case of a disputed succession, << Vbi res 
venbret in duhumj'* &c.-- Bede, Hist, Ecdes. i. 1 . 
King Alfred, translating Bede, says, <* ^ jet to 
baej If mib Pcohtum healben," **quod usque hodie 
apud Pictoi cansiat esse servahim." Then comes 
Henry of Huntingdon, who in the middle of the 
twelfth century repeats the very words uf Bede. 

* Reaba, ^Ifr. Beuda, Bede, Hunt. &c. Per. 
haps it was orfgioally Reu9a or. Rco&. 



* *^ Pneter octogmla tmerarUUf in qtMus dunB /#- 
^anes erant transporiaUB, tradii Cmsar se oetodedm 
naves equUibus dii^rihitf je.*'— C»iar de BelL GaU^ 
lib. 4. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



jcjrpehceb mft) jjiiminum jepcohte. "i 
micelne bael hij* hepej* poplaebbc. Anb 
J^a he poplet hif hepe jebiban mib Scot- 
tuiD. ^ jcpat yup into Galpaluin. ^ j^aep 
jejabepobe px hunb j-cipa. mib |>am 
he jepat ept into Bp^tene. Anb J7a hi 
aepof t tojaebepe jepacf bon. ]?a man op- 
floh J^aep Caj^pej- jepcpan. j-e p«f La- 
bienu J- jehaten . Da ^enamon J>a ■ palap. 
anb abpipon j-umpe ea popb ealne mib 
fceappum pilum jpeatum innan J^am 
paetepe. feo ea hatte Taemejre. Da f on- 
punbon }>a Romani. jfz nolbon hij papan 
opep J^one popb. J)a plujon J^aBpyt-palap 
to ]?am pubu-paeptenum. ^ pe Capepe je- 
eobe pelmonije heah-buphmibmycelUm 
jepmne. ^ ept jepat into Galpalum :• 

Anno I. Octamanup picpobe** lvi.*' 
pmtpa. tl on J)am xui.** jeape hip picep 



and lost a great part of his army. Then 
he let his army abide with the Scots ^ and 
went south into Gaul. There he gather- 
ed 600 ships, with which he went back 
into Britain. When they first rushed 
together, Cassar's tribune, whose name 
was Labienus^, was slain. Then took 
the Welsh sharp piles, and drove them 
with great clubs into the water, at a 
certain ford of the river called Thames. 
When the Romans found that, they 
would not go over the ford. Then iSed 
the Britons to the fastnesses of the 
woods ; and Csesar, having afler much 
fighting gained many of the chief towns, 
went back into Gaul^. 

A.D.I. Octavianus reigned 4firty-six 
winters; and in the forty-second year 



* palaf , Gibs, whence he aUo proposes to read palum for pilam afterwards. ^ piiabe, Laud, 
Cot. pixobe, CT. b i. « So Laud. Cot. utvi. or, jyx -j jym, C.T. b I. Cant. WheU * So Laud. 
Mil. Whcl. Fithfortasse libraxu Uteris transposUis. Gibs. xly. Cant. lii. C.T.b'u 



' This is an error, arising from the inaccoratelj 
written MSS. of Orosius and Bede ; where in Hy* 
hernia and tn Hiberniam occur for in fubema. The 
error is retained in Wheloc's Bede, 

* ** Mendose, uli suspicor, Labienus; is enim multo 
tempore post pugnam Britannicam Cccsaris extiiit 
iegatus, ac demum, defectione ad hostes Jacta, in 
hetlo, quod habuit cum Pompeii filiis Ccesar, Hispa' 
nico periit, A. Hirtius de Bell, Hispan. c. 4. Le- 
gendum veto fortasse J^berius, nam Q, Laherium 
Durum, tribunum miUtum, a Britannis occisum me* 
moral Casar in Comment, de Bell, Gall. 1. b, c. 5." — 
Gibs. " Labienus a Britannis occisus in Cheston* 
waode prope Bofam'* — Lei. ex vet, Chron. ap. Wig. 
more. Venerable Bede also, and Orosius, whom 
he follows f erbatim, haTe Labienus* It Is pro- 
bably a mistake of some t ery ancient scribe, who 
Improperly supplied the abbreTiatioo Labius (for 
Laberim) by Labienus* 



* Of these early transactions in Britain king 
Alfred supplies us with the following brief but 
circumstantial account in his Saxon paraphrase of 
Orosius : — " JEpxji )?am ^e he [Gaiuj luiiu j] bi 
[Gallic] Of eppunnen haefbc he pop on Bpitrannie 
•jj i3lanb. ^ fX fa Bpytcap jrpeahc. *j jeplymeb 
peap^ on ]«m lanbe ]^e man hec Centlanb. Ra]>e 
Jaep he je peaht pi^ fa Bpyccap ept on Centlanbe. 
•j hi pupbon aplymeb : Deopa ^pibbe jepeohc paep 
neah f spa ea f e man het Temepe. neah fam popba 
f e man haet Pelin japopb : iEpcep f am ^epeohce 
him eobe on hanb p e cyuin j ^ bnphpape }e pepon 
on Cypncea jrpe* *3 p^on ealle f e on f am i^Ianbe 
pspon/' — Oros.^lfr. ▼• 12. The classical reader 
will duly appretlate the accuracy of the terms Gal. 
he and Bpittannie, GallitB and Britannice* 

* '* 56 annoSg 6 menses, aliquantosqut Jws.'*— 
Flor. Wigom. <« 56 on. 6 mms."~Bed. De se» 
wtatibus mundi* 

b8 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



jCjiij^ paey acenneb. "DaJ^py tuncjeP- 
pitijan op eap:: baele cuomon*^ to J^on** 
f hy Cpipt peop^ebon*^. Anb J^a cilb on 
Bethleem opplejene paepun^ pop Cpi- 
ptep ehtneppe ppams J^Jepobe:- 



II. 
An. III.*^ hep ppealt KSepobep ppam* 
him pylpum* oppticob. ^ Apchelaup hip 
punu^ penj to pice. * Anb f cilb Cpipt 
peap% jebopen ajean op Gjiptan^':* 

IV. V. 

An. VI.™ Fpam«^ ppym^e mibban- 
jeapbep** oB fipjeap psepon ajan y. J>u- 
penbu® pintpa ^ tpa hunb pintpa:* 

VII. — X. 

An. XI.P ^VSejx onpenj l3epobep An- 
tipatpep punu to piCe in lubea'':- 

An. XII. Phihppup ^ Repobep to- 
bselbun' lubeam' peoSep picum*":- 

XIII. XV. 

An. XVI.* I3ep penj Tibepiupy to 
pice :• 



of his reign Christ was born. ^ Then 
three astrologers from the east came to 
worship Christ; ^and the children in 
Bethlehem were slain by Herod in per- 
secution of Christ. 

A.D. 3. This jear^ died Herod^ stab* 
bed by his own hand ; and Archelaus 
his son succeeded him. ^The child Christ 
was also this year brought back again 
from Egypt 

A.D. 6. From the beginning of the 
world to this year were agone five thou- 
sand and two hundred winters^. 

A.D. 11. This year 6 Herod the son 
of Anti pater undertook the government 
in Judea. 

A.D.12. This year 7 Philip and Herod 
divided Judea into four kingdoms. 

A.D. 16. This year Tiberius sue* 
ceeded to the empire. 



> An. II. Laud, Cot Cant. C.T. si. >» tanjol, Cant. C.T.bU ^ comao, Laud. Cant C.T* bK 
* }ran, Laud. Cant, ]'ani, C.T, si. < puji^oben, Laud, peopVoban, Cant C 7". b i. ' opflajeoe 
pepoD, Laud. Cot -pa*pan, C.T. b i. f So Laud, Cot C» T. b i. &c. as lanb always, and not lonb : 
fpoiD, Whel. and Gibs. ^ An.ii. Laud. An. it. C*T.Bi. and W. > So Laud, CT.bU ^ jfune^ 
Laud. > From Cot abs. Laud. C.T.bL &c » An.ii. Laud. ^ eajibej, Laud. • ^Ofeob^ 
Laud. C.T. b i. p An. yi. Ben. i Petrol. ' to-telbon, Laud, tobaelanb, C.T. si. • *j Lypam, 
Cant. C.T. b i. Whel. &c. A mistake arising from the name of Lysias, one of (he tetrarchs, according 
to Gibson. But Lysanias, and not Lysias, appears from St Luke's gospel to hate been one of the 
tetrarchs with Herod and Philip. Probably we ought to read — ^Philippuj ^ Hepobep *j Lypiniajr co- 
bxlbon lubeam jreoj^p picum. Bede makes Lysias one of (he tetrarchs, an abbreTiation probably for 
Lysanias. Vid. p. 3, note'. * it. picu. Laud. C.T. sir. pyj?ep picnm, C.T. bI. Dep yeapW lubea 
co-baeleb on p oupe cccpapchan. Cot. an. 7. « to-baelbon, Loud. Gibson, following Wheloc, has 
repeated the yerb co-baelbun, which I find omitted in C.T. b L Cani. Sec « An. xv. Cant. C. T. b i. 
So Orosius. J Tybepiup, C, T. b L Wheloc. 

^ Jin. a. Matth. Westm. « Jn. 7. Flor. jin. 8. M. West 

* Jin. 4. Flor. Wig. secund. Comput. EvangeUi. « On the Saxon Cbronology, see Note A.D. 31. 

* Jn. 6. Flor. • jn. 7. Flor. ^ jin. 7. M. West 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



XVII. — ^xxv. 

An. XXVL* ?3ep onpenj Pilatuf jy- 
minje^ opep J^a^ lubeaj-:- 

XXVIl. XXIX. 

An. XXX- J:5ep paef Cpi]^ jepulluht- 
ub**. ^ Petpup ^ Anbpeaf jehpuppon*. 
•j lacobup tl loannep ^^ Philippup''. k-j 
Jia XII. apoptolap"' :• 

XXXI. XXXII. 

An. XXXIII. l3eppa?pCpipt:ahanjen 
ppom ppuman^ mibban-jeapbep* ymb 
*pip ^ufenbo*^ pintpa 'j cc.^ 'j xxvi.™ 
pintpa :• 

An. XXXIV. I3ep paep pefp" Pauliip 
•jehpyppeb*^ 'j pjfp Stephanup optopp- 
obP:- 

An. XXXV. I3ep pe eabi^a Petpup 
pe apoptol jepaet bipceop-petl*' on' An- 
tnochia J^aepe' ceaptpe :• 



»An. XXXVII. I3ep Pilatup opploh 
h]^e pylpne mib hip ajenpe hanba'':- 



A.D. 26. This yeari Pilate began to 
reign over the Jews. 

A.D. 30. This year* was Christ bap- 
tized; and Peter and Andrew were con«* 
verted, together with James, and John, 
and Philip, and all the twelve apostles. 

A.D. 33. This yearS was Christ cru- 
ciiied^ ; about five thousand two hun- 
dred and twenty-six winters from the 
beginning of the world^. 

A.D. 34. This year^ was St. Paul con«^ 
verted 7, and St. Stephen stoned. 

A.D. 35. This year ^ the blessed Peter 
the apostle settled an episcopal see ill 
the city of Antioch. 



A.D. 37. This year9 Pilate slew 
selfwith his own hand. 



> An. XXV. Cant C.T. b i. ^ ^ymene, Lamd, Cot, C T. b i. semine, C.T. b it. < From LauJL 
Coi, ^ iv^uSydL"^^ Cani, So C.T.bI, an. 98. ^epullob, Laud, Coi, * ^ehpypj^be. Laud, ^^ 
bpepaebe, Cot, jchpyppbe, Cant, C. T. b i. and it. ' Abs. Laud, s So Laud, Cant, C,T, b i. bat 
the Benet and Cotton MS^. of Whcioc haTc these words after j^jruUuhtab. ^ p/uim fpym^e, Cant. 
C, 7\ B i. * .eajibfjf. Laud, omitting the guttural. ^ Vujpenb, Laud, C 7*. b it. ' *3 tpa *J jyx 
1 tpenti, Whel. omitting htinb. » xxiii. Cant, V. "j cc. *j xxvi. C,T. B i. ^ From Laud, Cot. 
Cant, C,T, b i. •So C.T. b i. s^'^FyP"^^' ^*'' Jc'^PrP^i Whel. and Gibs. p paf opropuob^ 
Cot. 4 So C, T. B i. bif ceop. jt:ol, Cot. bijchop. jetl, Cant. ' So Laud. Cant, Cot, C, T, b i. and It. 
• Abs. Laud. « From Cot, 



* An. 29.'Flor. • An. 31. Flor. 

^ ^ff. 34. Flor. but the Saxon annalbts agree 
with Orosius and Bede. 

* 8 1& JipriOs, Flor. M. West. 

* Gibbon regret* this chronology, i. e. from the 
creation of the world, which he thinks preferable 
to the Tulgar mode from the Christian aera. But 
how Tagne and uncertain the scale which depends 
•on a point so remote and aodetermined as the pre- 
cise time when the world was created ! If we exa- 



mine the chronometers of different writers, we shall 
find a difference, between the majBimum and the 
minimum, of 3368 years. The Saxon chronology 
seems to be founded on that of Eusebius, which api- 
proaches the medium between the two extremes. 

• An, 36. Flor. » An, 36. M. West. 

* '' S, Petrus cathedram Antiochenm ecelesice tenet 
anmsT:* — Flor. ait. 38. M.West. a9i.34. 

' An. 4^ Flor. This act b attributed by Oro. 
iios^ and Bede who follows him, to the threaten* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



XXXVIII. 

An. XXXIX.* I3eji onpenj Gaiuj- 
pice** :• 

XL. XLIII. 

An. XLIV.^ I3ep ye eabija Petpuf ye 
apoprol jepet: bij^ceop-fetl*^ on Rome:* 
*)3ep lacobuj". lohanne^ bpoBep. peap^ 
opplajen ppam J^epobe'^ :• 

An. XLV.^ I3ep J^epobej- appealt^^. 
jne J>e lacobum opfloh. ane*^ jeape aep 
hip ajnum^ beajje^ :• 

An.XLVL* "rSepClaubiup.o^epRo- 
mana cyninja. Bpytrene lonb" jej-ohte. 
tl J^one mapan*^ bael P^aej- ealonbef ' on 
hip jepealb onpenj;. ^ cac ppylce Op- 
chabuf-^ %a ealonb Romana cynebome 
unbep^iobbe". 'Dij* pa?p peop^ep jea- 
pep hip picep. ^ on J^ip ylcan jeape je- 
peap^ pe mycela hungup on Sypia J^e 
Lucap pec^ on J^ape boc Actu j- Apopto- 



A.D. 39. This year Caius undertook 
the empire. 

A.D. 44. This year the blessed Peter 
the apostle settled an episcopal see at 
Rome^; and Jaroes^ the brother of John^ 
M^as slain by Herod. 

A.D. 45. This year died Herod^ who. 
slew James one year ere his own death. 

A.D. 46. This year< Claudius^ the 
second of the Roman emperors who in^ 
Taded Britain, took the greater part of 
the island into his power, and added the 
Orkneys to the dominion of the Rd* 
mans. This was in the fourth year of 
his reign. And in the same year^ hap- 
pened the great famine in Syria which 
Luke mentions in the book called The 



* XXIX. C. T. B i. omitting the first x. <> Gaiiij penj to jnce, Coi, • An. xlt. Laud. C. T. b it. 
* So C.T. bi. bijrceop.|Tol, Coi. bijchop-jetl, Cant. « From Cot. ^ An. xlti. Laud. CT. sin 
f jpealt, Laud. C. T. b i. and ir. ^ anum^ Laud. C. T.bI > a^enam, Laud. C. T. b i. and n. 
^ bas^e^ Cant. ^ An. xltii. Laud, C.T, a tK b i. "> l3eji Claubiuj Romana cininj j^pac mib bepe on 
Bjiytene. *j ^ ijlaob ^eeobe. *j ealle Pihtajr *j palaj* unbcp.]^obbe Romana pice. Laud. So C.T. b i?. 
witli little Tariation. I3ep Claubiujr jpe Kajpejio com to Bpytlanbe. "j ^eeobe mycel Jaejr e^Ianbef. 1 
eac ^ ejelanb op Opcanie he jeehce to Romaoan. Cot. ^ Abs. Cant. C.T, a yi. b i. ° masjcao, 
Cant, yxne mejcan, C, T,bu p Abs. Cant. C, T. b i. i Opcabiu j, C T. b i. afterwards calanb, 
and| unbep^eobe. Opcabaj ]^a ealonb (ealanb in lemmate) to Rompapa pice j^J^eobbe. — ^iEifr. Bcd« 
' From Petrol, Abs. Cant. C. T, b 1. Dip ^epeoht he ^eppemebe J^am peop]?an ^eape hip picep. on 
^m ^esLfie ^epeapV pe mycla hnnjep on Sipia. ^e paep popepitejab on Actibup Apojrolopum J^uph Aja- 
bum )one ptejan. Laud. C.T. b It. with little Tariation, from Orosius and Bede. An. xlvii. On yijum 
geape paep ppiVe jtiS hunjep. Cot. 



log conduct of Caligula, with a remark, that it was 
he (Pilate) who condemned our Lord to death : 
<^ Pilarup he haepbe on Jrpeatunja o^ he hine pylpne 
opptan;. I3e ^cibembe upne Dpihcen to beaVe." — 
Oros. Alfred, vi. 3. 

^ ^^An. 46, Petrus apostolus, cum primus Antio* 
chenam eulesian^ Jundasset, Romam ndttitur, ubi 
mMmgdkm prmdicans, 25 annis, menribus 6, die* 



bus 13j episcopus ejusdem urbis perseverat," — Flor. 
An, 43.— Oros. 

• So Bede. An. 4S. Flor. An. 44. M.Wesf. 

^ An. 48. Flor. The following is the accouat 
of this famine in king Alfred's Orosius : ^^ On ^am 
jeape paep mycel honjop on Sipia *j on Palejtina, 
buton 'f 61ena* Abiabena cpen. pealbe ^am muDii» 
cum copn genoh ]« paepon set t^iepnpalem." 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



lopum^. "Da pcnj Nepo tx) pice, aeptep 
Claubie. ye aet nexran poplet Bpyrene 
ijlanb pop hif uncappcipe'':- 

*Ab. XLVII. CDapcupjrejobfpellepe 
m/Bjipta. ajm^ ppitan f jobppell'':- 

XLVIII. XLIX. 

*^An. L. liep Paulup jebunben peap^ 
jepenb to Rome'' :• 

LI. LXI. 

An. LXII. liep lacobup **Cpiptep 
bpoSep''. J>popobe^ :• 

An. LXIII. l2ep CDapcup pe jobppel- 
lepe pop^pepbe :• 

LXIV. LXVIII. 

An. LXIX. ^Jiep Petpup ^ Paulup 
J?popobon'':- 

An. LXX. Kj>ep Ueppapianup ^'on- 
pen J pice " :• 

An. LXXI. Rep Titup. Ueppapanup 



Acta of the ApoMles. After Claudius 
Nero succeeded to the empire, who al- 
most lost the island Britain through his 
incapacity, 

A.D. 47. This year ^ Mark> the evan<- 
gelist in Egypt^ bcginneth to write the 
gospel. 

A.D. 50. This year^ Paul was sent 
bound to Rome. 

A.D. 63. This year^ James» the bro- 
ther of Christy suffered^. 

A.D. 63. This year^ Mark the evaii- 
gelist departed this life^, 

A.D. 69. This year? Peter and Paul 
suffered 9. 

A.D. 70. This year 9 Vespasian un- 
dertook the empire. 

A.D, 71. This year^ Titus, son of 



* From Laud, C.T. b ir. But Ibis account of the succession of Nero to the empire is rather pre« 
mature, if we admit the additions from the Cotton MS. which I do not find elsewhere. According to 
Orosius he succeeded Claudius in the year of Rome 809, i. e. A.D. 57, and continued emperor till 
A.D. 72. Da f en^ Ncpon to juce spteji Claubie ^m caj-ejie. fe naht jjieomlicej onjan on J^aepe 
cynepjan (in re miHiari), Ac betpuh o]?epa unpim aepypbleana Kompapa picejf [y^f] ^^^ ^^ lyrelne 
Bpeotona pice f opiet. — M\fr. Bed. ^ From Coi. ^ From Cot, ^ So CoL jpacep b&i, Laud^ 
Whcl. Cant. C, T,bu • fpopabe, Laud, C T. b i. ' bep Petpu j fpoyobe on pobe. 1 Paulnj^ 
paejT Of flaxen. Cot. So Florence of Worcester from Bede, as quoted below. C. 7*. b i. agrees with 
the printed text, except in the usual termination of the ?erb, J^iopoban for }^popobon. s l3ep ajana 
Yejpajianu jf to pixiende. Cot* ^ f enj to pice^ Cant, So C. T. b i. Uejpajfpanu j, C. T. b i. and if. 
See also king Alfred's Saxon Tersion of Bede. 



^ ^^An* 55. Marcut evangtUum quod Romte scrip- 
sit, Petro mttente, in jEgypio pnedicat" — Fior. 
jin,4^. Bede. ** Marcus euangeUsta evangelium, 
quod Petro narrante conscripserat, primum Aqui* 
UuB pruedicavitf ibique ordinato Hermagora disci* 
pub suo, ad jEgyptum pMi^ent/.**— -M. West. 

• An. 60. Flor. » An. 64. Flor. 

* "Jta/wii/iir."— Flor. M.WeBt 



» ^n. 67. Flor. ^ji.46. M.West. 

^ ^^Alexandrusmartyrium comp/a^l.**— M.West. 
** MaU, (&e paschas.*^ — Flor. 

7 An. n. Flor. An. 66. M. West. 

* ^^Petrus cruqfixus, Paulus gladio cmsus,**^^ 
Flor. from Bede. 

^ An. 74. Flor. An. 73. Oros. An. 71. West 

"» An. 76. Flor. 



8 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pinu. on* ISiejiupilem opfloh lubea** 
^enblyuan p^an hunb'' J^ufenba** :• 

LXXII. hXXX. 

An. LXXXI. Jieji ^TitUf ^penj to 
pice''. Saeptep Uej-papane'^ ye J>e paebe 
^ he J>one baej poplupe. J>e he noht^ to 
jobe on ne jebybe' :• 

LJlCXXII. • 

An. LXXXHL"^ I3ep Domicianup. Ti- 
tep bpo^op. penj to pice :• 

An. LXXXIV:^ J>ep loanncp pe 30b- 
ppellcpe™ in Pathman" J^am ealonbe** 
ppatP J>a boc *'j7a man chpaS^' Apoca- 
Iippp :• 

LXXXT. LXXXIX. 

An. XC l3ep Simon 'pe apoptoF'. 
*Cpiptep maei''. faep ahan^en. ^ lohan- 
nep pe jobrpellepe "hinc jepepte'' in* 
6ppepoy :• 

xci. 

An. XCII.* )3ep Clemenp pe* Papa 
pop^pepbc^:- 



Vespasian^ slew in Jerusalem eleven 
hundred thousand Jews. 

A.D. 8 1 . This year 1 Titus came to 
the empire^ after Vespasian, who said 
that he considered the daj lost in which 
he did no good. 

A,p. 83. This year* Domitian, the 
brother of Titus^ assumed the govern- 
ment. 

A.D. 84. This year3 John the evan- 
gelist in the island Patmos wrote the 
book called The Apocalypse. 



A.D. 90. This year^ Simoiij the apo- 
stle^ a relation of Christ, was cruci- 
fied ; and John the evangelist rested at 
Ephesus. 

A.D. 92. This year* died 6 Pope7 
Clement.' 



* 80 Cant. Cot. C.T. b i. in, Wbel. and Gibs. ^ Iiibei/cpa manna, Cot. « Sq Cot. from AU 
fred*6 Orosius; but CT. b i. Laud. Whel. cxi. i. e. ciT. the horizontal line aboTe signifying ihoiu 
sands. ^ So C.T, b i. ^ofenb, Laud. ^ jren; Tituf to pice, Cant. C.T.bu ^ jiixa^. Cot, 
f From Cot, ^ naht, Cant. C. T. b\. So in Alfred's Orosius, n^ere the same sentence occurs ver* 
latm tt Uteralim, though a little transposed. Oros. JE\fr. ▼!. 8. ' bybe. Laud. ^ An. lxxxit. 
Laud. CT. bit. 1 An.LxxxviT. Laud. An.Lxxxr. C.T.bu ^ Apojrol, Cot, " on Pathmo, 
* Cant. C.T. b i. ^ ijtanbe, Laud, ^xm ealande. Cant. J^am ealando, C.T.b\. p appat. Cant. C.T. Bi. 
4 From Cot. ' An. c. Laud. Cant. C.T. si. "So Laud. Cant. C.T.nl Petpuj, Gibs. ^ From 
Cot. ^ fofXfejihej Cot, jcpejte on ^am te^e m Gfjrefo, Cant. So C. T. b i. but part of the last 
word efpejo is wanting. > Abs. Cot. f So Cant. Cpp epa, Iiaiuf. Gj pejio, Whel. and Gibs, from 
8f f epo in the MSS. which the Laud follows, an error repeated bj Gibson from Wheloc. * An. ci» 
Laud* Cant. C. T.bu * From Cot. ^ fopp epbe, Laud. 



> Jn. 84. Flor. • jin. 86. Flor. 

« An. 100. Flor. 

* ^n. 114. Flor. an. 103. M. West. KaL Mart. 
Bed. Martyrol. Respecting the relationship of Si^ 
mon (or Simeon) to Christ, ^^ secundum camem** 
Tid, Flor. an, 42. 



^ Jn. 100. Flor. 

* <« Passus est:* Flor. from the <^ Gesta Poaii- 
Jicunu** See also an. 101. secund. Dumysium. 

' TJiough the title of pope, or papa^ is Terj an- 
cient (what more so?) yet king Alfred properly 
calls pope Eleatherius, ^^bijcop *J papaVapeRo* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



9 



xciti. — cix. 
An. CX,* ftep Ijnatiuf j-e^ bij-ceop« 

CXI. — cxiv.« cxv. 
^An. CXVI. J3ep Abpianuf fc Ca- 
fepe ajan to pixienne'':- 

CXTII. CXXIV.5 — CXXXIV.** — CXLIV. 

An. CXLV.* ''liJep CDapcujr Anco- 
niujf anb Aupehujr hif bpoBep pennon 
ro pice'^:- 

CXLVI. CLXXXYIII. 

An. CLXXXIX. ^hejx Seuepuf pcnj 
to pice. tJ pepbe mib hepe on Bpytene, 
1 mib jefeohte jecobe Jjaep ijlanbej- 
roycelne bael. tl J>a jepophte he peal mib 
tuppum. 'j bpaeb peal J^a^p on upon, 
ppam pae to pae. Bpytpalum to jebeop- 
je. lie picpabe xvii. jeap"'. ^^ ^ajeen- 
bobe on Gpeppic. 'j " Bappanup hip punu 
penj to pice'':- <*0)?ep hip punu paep 



A.D. 110. This ycari Bishop Ig- 
natius suffered^. 

A.D. 116. This year3 Hadrian the 
Caesar'* began to' reign. 

A.D. 145. This year Marcus An to* 
ninus and Aurelius his brother succeed- 
ed to the empire. 

A.D. 189. This year^ Severus came 
to the empire ; and went with bis army 
into Britain^ and subdued in battle a 
great part of the island. Then wrought 
he a mound of turf ^^ with a broad wall 
thereupon, from sea to sea, for the de- 
fence of the Britons. He reigned seven- 
teen years; and then ended his days at 
York. His son Bassianus succeeded 



■ An. CIX. Cant, C.T. bi. ^ Abs. Laud. C,T, b i. ' bijcbop, Cant, ' ^pojrabc, Laud, I'pop. 
obe, Cot, Cant. C.T. b i. < jin. 1 14. Alexander hk constituit aquam benedktamjieri, Gibs, from Laud, 
It appears Uiat this water was to be sprinkled, not only in churches, but also in the habitations of 
men. Alexander papa constituit aquam sparsionis cum sale benedicto in kominum hahitacu&s spargi, Flor. 
SceFoxe, Martyrol, iii. 12. ed. 1641. ^ From Cot, s An, 124. Syxtus papa hie constituit ymnum 
decanlare, Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, in officio missiB, Gibs, from Laud, ^ An. 134. Telesphorus papa 
hie constituit ymnum angelicum decantarifiloria in ixcelsis Deo, diebus festis, G ibs. from Laud. 'An. cly . 
Laud, abs. Cant. ^ C.T. b U, Petrol, where for Antonius read Antoninus. ' This year is cor- 
rected from C.T*. b i. b it, &c. "beji Sevejioj onjrenj jiice. 1 jiicjobe fcopentinc pintep. pe Bjicten lonb 
mib bice bejypbe ppom -pa o\ rae. Whel. So nearly C.T, b i. So also Cant, an, 188. but for foopcn. 
tyne it has xir. and for bejypbe, with CT. Bi. popjypbe. l3op Seuopuj on Bpyrene jepophtc peall 
op tuppum. pi^S&n he j{ lanb mib jcpeobce ^epann. i bpcben peall ]^ap on upon ppam pae co pap. *j he 
pixabe xTii, jeap. Cot, an. 178. « Petrol. C.T. bW. to Ofep, &c. ■ Abs. Laud, C.T, b it. 
• From Laud, C.T. b It. 



maoipcan cypican," bishop and father of the Ho- 
Btush church ; a Tery different thing from being bi« 
shop and father of all the churches in Christendom. 

' An, 115. Flor. « " ItUiis traStuT:'—Flor. 
Kal. Felr. M.West. Bed. in Martyrol, 

' An. 1^1. Flor. ^n. 118. M.Wesf. 

* About this time the title of Cmsar began to be 



giTen to the heir apparent of the empire, which was 
changed to that of Augustus and Princeps, when ho 
became emperor. This distinction, however, was 
soon lost in the German and other languages. 

* An. 181. Flor. An, 192. M.Wcst. 

^ Vid. Camd. Britannia, "An. Dom, 209i vaU 
lum hoc /wf//'— M.West. 

C 



10 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



jehaten Geta*- j^ pppeaji^^ •'Rep 
Gleu^ep on Rome onpenj bifceopbom. 
*i ^one pulboppaeftlice*^ piptryne pintep 
jeheolb**:- To ^am* Lucmp Bp^tene^ 
cyninj penbe boc-jt:apapK. baeb^ J^aet 
he pspe Cpipten jebon. ^ he )>uphteah 
■f f he baeb'. ^"J hi* py^^an punobon on 
pihtan jeleapan"* oS^ Diochtnanup"* 



pice 



^/ 



CXC. CXCYIII. 

^An. CXCIX. On f^pum jeape pap 
jcpunben peo hah^e pob" :• 

CC. CCII.P CCLIV,*!— CCLXXXII. 



him in the empire. His other son, who 
perished ^ was called Geta. This year' 
Eleutherius undertook the bishopric of 
Rome, and held it honourably for fifteen 
winters^, To him Lucius, king of the 
Britons, sent letters, and prayed that he 
might be made a Christian^. He obtain- 
ed his request; and they continued after- 
wards in the right belief until the reign 
of Diocletian^. 

A.D. 199. In this year was found 
the holy rood^« 



* So C.T. BIT. Geza, Gibs* ^ Ao. clztii. Cani> LaiuL An. cxlvii. (for clxtii. Uteris tranu 
pasiiis,) Hrji Cleu^epuj pen; to Papbome.*j heolb xt. pntjie: Anb oa Vyjaa ylcao ^eajie jenh 
Luciiy ctnj Bpitpalana *j baeb pulpihtef. 1 he him fona jeobe. 'j he puDobe on pihcan jeleaoan o^$Ke 
Diocletianef rimao. CoL ^ pup^lice, Laud. C.T» b It. ^asae for ^oae, C*T. b i. ^ So lautL Cani* 
C.r. Bi. ^rboUl, Whel. Gibs. < So LautL Cant. C.T. b i. It. ^an, Whel. Gibs. ' Bpytpalana^ 
Laud, s So C.T, b i. Jtapaj, Whel. Gibs, men, Laud, maen, C,T, bIt. ^ So Cot. Cant. C.T. bu 
bee, Whel. *j beab pullahtep. *j he him pona peobe. Laud, So C.T. b it. with little variation. ^ So 
Cant. -JJ, C.T. B i. '^ Petroh. C.T. b i?. ad Jin. abs. Cant. C.T. b i. ' hco, Laud. » pihtan 
jelopn, LawL pihron jcleaTon, Gibs. ^ So Laud. CT. b It. Diaclecianep, Gibs, from Petrobw^ as 
printed bp Wheloc. DLOclitianep, iElfred.Oros. and Bede. * From Cot. p An. 202. Victor papa 
hk constituit, ut Pascha die Dominico celelretur, sicut prcedecessor ejus Eleutherus. Gibs, from Laud. 
9 An. 254. Cornelius papa de catacumhis levavit per noctem corpora apostolorum, et posuit Pauli qmdem 
via Ostiensi ubi decollatus est; Petri autem,juxta locum ubi crucifixus est. Gibs, from Laud, 



' **AJratre Bassiano, cut et CaracalUe nomen, 
interfectus, anno eetatis 22, sen 25 secundum non- 
nullos, imperil mense undecimo." — ^Vid. Spartian. in 
Geta. Aurel. Vict. Eutrop, lib. 8. &c. 

* An. 16-i. Flor. An. \Sb. M.West soUtadiscre^ 
pantia. ** A.D. 186. E^em anno Britannia Jidem 
Christi suscepit, prafdicantibus verbum Fiigatio et 
Damiano, missis a papa EUutherio, regnante Lucio, 
rege Britonum." — Leland. ex vet. Cod. Sqjf. Mon. 
Collect, Tol. i?. p. 69. ed. 1774. In some authors 
we find the names of these primitiTe missionaries 
written Faganns and Faganus, DuTianus, &c. and 
in Mattb. West. DeruTinianus and Deruvianus. 

• ** Per \5 annas et mensem unum** — Flor, **An. 
25, menses 6, dies 5.*' — Speloian. 



^ Fid. Spelman. Condi, tom.i. p. 31, &c« 

' nd. Bed. Hist. Eccl. lib. i. c. 6, 7. Spelman. 
CondL torn. L p. 37. 

^ Those writers who mention thb grand disco- 
Terp of the holp cross, by Helena the mother of 
ConstaQtine, disagree so much in their chronology^ 
that it is a Tain attempt to reconcile them to truth 
or to each other. 

This and the other notices of ecclesiastical mat. 
ters, whether Latin or Saxon, from the pear 100 
to the pear 380 of the Laud MS. and 381 of the 
printed Chronicle, map be safelp considered as in- 
terpolations, proliablp posterior to the Normao 
Conquest. See Note ^ An. cclxxxiii. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



11 



An. CCLXXXIII.^ ^neji «popabc 
SaActuf-^ Albanuf- majit^p'';* 

CCLXXXIV. CCCXI.^ — CCCXLII. 

•An. CCCXLIIL Jiep pop^pepbe S. 
Nicolauj*'' :• 

CCCXLIV. CCCLXXYIII. 

An. CCCLXXIX. ^I3cp Gpatnanuj- 
jrenj to pice'':- 



ccctxxx.8^ 
An. CCCLXXXI.** Rep CDaximur* 
^fe Cafepe'^ pcnj to pice:- *J3e^ paey 
on Bpyten lonbe jebopen. ^ jK)non™ 
he** pop into Gallia®, p^ he J>ap ofrjrloh 
]K)ne Caj^pe Gpatianum. *) hip hjicfSep. 
abpap*! op e^ele. pe paep jehaten' Va- 
lentinianup. ^ pe Valentinianup ept je- 
pamnobe pepob*. ^ opploh CDaximum. 
^ penj to pice:- On' ^am" t^man* 
apap Pelajiep jebpylb jeonb mibban 
jeapb'' y :• 

CCCLXXXII. CCCCIll.* — CCCCXVII. 

An. CCCCXVIII. I3ep Romane je- 



A.D; 289. This year suffered^ Saint 
Alban the Martyn 

A.D. 343. This year* died St. Ni- 
colaiis* 

A.D. 379. This year^ Gratian suc- 
ceeded to the empire. 

A.D. 381. This year^ Maximus the 
Cflssar came to the empire. He was bora 
in the land of Britain^^ whence he passed 
over into Gaul. He there slew the em- 
peror Gratian ; and drove his brother^ 
whose name was Yalentinian, from his 
country ( Italy ). The saHie Yalentiniaa 
afkerwards collected an army> and slew 
Maximus ; whereby he gained the em- 
pire. About this time^ arose the error 
of Pelagius over the world. 

A.D. 418. This year the Romans 



• CCI.XXXTI. Laud, , ^ Peirob, abs. Cant, C,T. b u Sec. N.B. Nothing is recorded in C.T. b i. or 
Id any of the older MSS. from the year 190 to the year 380, inclusiTe. ^ Scf', Whel. ^ ^n 3 J 1* 
Sancius Silvester papa xziii.. Hujus Umpire celebratur Niaenum ConcUiufn: Arelaieme juoque primum, 
in quo full JvUianus, Rotomagi arc^episcopus, Gibs, from Laud. Fid. Flor. a».3l6. * From CoL 
Diep, Gibs. ' Peirob, abs. Cani, C,T, b i. ( Hoc tempore celebratur Corutantinopoliianum Con» 
eilium cl. pairum, adversus Macedamum ei Eunomiums sub Datnaso, Gibs, from Laud. See Bed. Chron. 
38/. ^ cccLXxx. Laud. > So Laud. Cot. Cant, C.T. b i. COaximianuj, Whel. ^ Abs. Laud^ OoU 
1 fo, Cant. C.T. b i. » ^anon, Laud. Cot. C.T. b i. » From Laud. Cot. CT. b i. <» m Gaipalaj, 
Laud, Cot, m Gallia^ C.T. b i. In the latter MS. nothing occurs afterwards titi the year 435 of the 
printed Chronicles. p Petrob. abs. Cant, C.T. b i. ^ '^P^fy Cot, ' jecl^pod. Cot, * pco]iob| 
Laud. ^ So Laud, in, Gibs. « ^YT^h ^^^' ' tibum, Laud. y So Laud, eapb, Gibs, from 
IVhel. s jin 403. Innocentius papa hie misii Decretalem epistolam Fictrido Rotomagensi arcM^nscopo. 
Hie consliiuii sabbato jejunare, quia eo die Dominus jacuii in sepukhro. Gibs, from Laud* 



M 



' " 10 hU, Jul. juxta civitaiem Ferolanuum, 
Ac.— >Bed. i. 8. 

• j4n. 36%, Flor. jin. 343. M. West. 
^ Jin. 377. Bedt». 

* Jin. 38^. Flor. 

' Jmperator in Britannlq trtatus est, king Alfred 



nniforroly transIates-*He yxj on Bpytene accnneb: 
whence not only Constantine, but also hb father 
Constantins, Gratian, and Maximns, are said tp 
have been born in Britain. 

* Sub regno JrcadU, an. 394. Bed. Hist. EecL 
1. 10. ^». 404. M. West, ^m 435. Spelman. 

C2 



19 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pmnobon* eal* f a^ jolbhopb ]?e on Bjxf- 
rene paejion**. "j j-ume on eop^an ahyb- 
bon^ f hy^ naenij mon^ p^^an pm- 
^an** ne meahte'. 'j pime mib him^ on 
Gallia laebbon^:- 

ccccxix. — CCCCXXIf. 

An. CCCCXXIII. ™Iiep Theobopur 
r^ Smjpa'* F^nj to jiice''> 

ccccxxiv. ccccxxv.® — CCCCXXVIII. 

PAn.CCCCXXIX. ^irSepPallabiuf fe 
bij-ceop paep onpenbeb 'to Scottum. 
faet he hiopa jeleapan jetpymebe*. 
Fpom Caeleftino* J^am Papan^':- 

[''An. CCCCXXX. J3ep Patpiciuy 
paej" aj^nb ppam Celej^me ]?am papan 
to bobianne Scottum puUuht'' :-3 
ccccxx XL* — ccccxxxiii.y CCCCXXXIV. 

An. CCCCXXXV.' -iJep Gotan a- 
bpaecon Romebiiph.*] naeppe jry^^an Ro- 



coUected all the hoards of gold > that 
M^ere in Britain ; and some they hid ih 
the earthy so that no man afterwards 
might find them^ and some they carried 
away with them into Gaul. 

A.D. 423. This year Theodosius the 
younger succeeded to the empire. 

A.D. 429. This year* bishop Palla- 
dius was sent from pope Celestinus to 
the Scots^ that he might establish their 
faith. 

A.D. 430. This year^ Patricius was 
sent from popeCelestinus to preach bap- 
tism to the Scots. 

A.D. 435. This year^ the Goths sack- 
ed the city of Rome ; and never since 



• jc'fomnoban, Cant. C.T. b i. ^ eaile. Laud. C.T. d i. « So Cant, CT, a i. j), Edd. ^ )«iuui, 
Cant, C.T. r i. * ahybban, Cant, C.T,ni, bchybban, Laud. Cot, ^ heo, Laud. s nan man, Laud, 

ft 

k pnbon. Laud. ' milton^ Laud, mihtc, CT.Bi. ^ hcom, Laud, ^ laebban, Cant, C»T,nu 
^ Petrol, abs. Cant, C.T. b\, ^ ^eonj^fiKj Cot. ^ An, 42.5. Hujus tem ports a*tate extitit exordium 
regum Fyancorum : primus Faramundus. Gibs. from Laud. So Florence of Worcester, verbatim, an. 426, 
P Abs. Laud. An. ccccxxx. Cant. C^T.hi, 4 l3e]i pjp Pallabiu]" ajfenb fjiam Cclejnnc ^am papan to 
bobianbe Scottum pulpiht. Cot, ' to bobianne Scottum polluht. Petrol, • So Cant. C.T. n i. tjiy* 
mebi!, Gibs, from Whef. * jrjiam Galejtino. C.T. b iv. » Gibs, from Laud. N. S. « An. 431. Hoe 
tempore, Diaholus in Creta Judeis in specie Moysi apparens, ad terram repromissionis per mare pede sicca 
perducere promittit : stcque plurimis necatis reliqui ad Christi gratiam convertuntur. Gibs, from Laudk 
Fid. Flor. an, 438. y An. 433. Coelestinus papa. Hujus tempore aggregata est Ephesina synodus du» 
centorum episcoporum, cut prtefuit Cyrillus Alexandrinus profsul, adversus Nestorium Constanttnopoliianum 
episcopum. Gibs, from Laud. See Bed. CAron. &c. * ccccix. Laud, Cot, CT.bi, and Petrol, accord* 
ing to Joscflin. * beji pxj tobpocea Romana bnjih jrpam Gotum. ymb xi. hunb piiitjia *! z. pin* 



^ This li not to be understood strictly; gold be- 
ing used as a general term for money or coin of 
every description ; great quantities of which, it is 
well known, have been found at different times, 
and in many different places, in this island : not 
only of gold, but of silver, brass, copper, &c 

■ An, 431. Flor. Fid. Bed. Chron, 452. 
. . . ' "An. 432. Patricius sanctus, genere Brittus, a 
sanfto Coelestino papa consecraiur, et ad archi^i* 



scopatum Hilemia missus', Hi per annos 60 sigiiis al- 
que miralililtis prcedicans, totam insulam HilemiiB 
convertit ad Jidem.'* — Flor. Palladius and Pa. 
tricius have been sometimes confounded together ; 
so that it is diflicult to assign to each his respective 
share of xoerit in the conversion of the Scots of 
Ireland. The Petrol. MS. according to Joscelin^ 
had Patricius for Palladius, 
^ An.409. Bcde. An.4iO. Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



IS 



mane ne picpbon* on Bp^tene :• ^ Daet 
f»y embe xi. hunb pintpa ^ x. pintpa 
5S«f J»e heo jecimbpeb paj- :• Gallcf hi 
*^pixobon on Bpytene' peopep hunb pin- 
tpa 1 hunb-j^ouanti** pintpa. jy^^an 
Gaiuf luliuj^ f lonb aepop: jepohte'':* 

■ CCCCXXXVl. CCCCXXXIX.^ CCCCXLII. 

An.CCCCXLIII. 'fteprenbonSopep 
yae' Bpytpalaj- to Rome. 1 heom pul- 
tomep** bsebon pi^ Peohtaj* . Ac hi J)ap 
naejrban nanne. pop^am ]>e hi pypbe- 
bon' pi^ /etilan^ TSunz cynin je. Anb }>a 
penbon hi to An^Ium. ^ Anjel-cynnep 
aej^ehn^ap l^aep ylcan baebon'':* 

>An. CCCCXLIV. J3ep pop«pepbe 
pdp CDaptinup'' :* 

CCCCX LV. CCCCXLYIt. 

["An. CCCCXLVIII. J3ep lohan- 
nep Baptipta atypebe tpam munecon. 
]?a comon ppam eapt baele to ^ebibbenne 
hi on lepupalem. hip heauob. on ]>ssj\e 
ptope )?e hpilan pap Jjepobep punun j'^-] 

An. CCCCXLIX. "liep CDaptianup 



have the Romans reigned in Britain. 
This was about eleven hundred and ten 
vrioters afler it was built. Thej reigned 
altogether in Britain four hundred and 
seventy winters since Gains Julius first 
sought that land. 

A.D. 443. This year > sent the Britonft 
over sea to Rome^ and begged assistance 
against the Picts* ; but they had none^ 
for the Romans were at war with Atila 
king of the Huns^ Then sent they to 
the Angles, and requested the same from 
the nobles of that nation. 

A.D. 444. This year died St. Martin^ 



A.D. 448. This year John the Bap* 
tist shewed his head to two monks, who 
came from the eastern country to Jeru-^ 
salem for the sake of prayer, in the place 
that whilom was the palace of Herod^. ' 

A.D. 449.^ This year Marcian and 



tjia ymj ^e heo jitimbjivb fxj*. Si^an tip eji ^f nc jiixobiin lenj Romana cyninjaj on Bjiytene. Laud* 
— "Deji paj tubjioceii Rumu peo biiph ppam Gotuni. *j py^aii ourp "J na pixoban Romana cynjap on 
Dpyrem^. cccc. "j lxx. J^'apa hi pixuban pi^an Gamp liiliup aepopt <j$ laiib jppohtp. Co/. 

■ pixc'ban. CanU pixoban, C.T, ii i. * Petrol, abs. CanL C*T, b i. * )^a*p puoban, Jjnud. ' peopenct, 
Laud. * An, 439. Lio papa hie sancivii Calchedonensem synodum. (il ib^. from Laud. ' Laud. Petrob, 
IVhel. Jo8c. abs. Can/. CT. B i. sKrumJLflto/. ** piiltuiiu'p, La u^. ' peopbuban, £a«£/. ^^ So Jose. 
!^tlan, Laud^ iEtIa, Edd, ' From Cot. ■» From Cot. N.S. ■ An. ccccxlviii. bt-p OOaptianup 1 
Yalentinianiip pi^cban. *j on ]Kim riman com Anjelcynn co j^ipum lanbt* ^ela^obc ppam pypct'jcopae 
cinjc him to helpc hip pyiibc to ouepcumenbo. t3i coman on \v[ lanbe mib ^pim lanjan pcipan.*j heopa 
hepetojan paepon Den jept "j t3oppa : 6alpa a'popt hi ^ep cin jep pypb opplojon "J apt'j bpman. "J pyV^aa 
111 pcnben a^ean fonc cyn j agean J7a Bpytcap. 'j hi popbybon j^tiph pype. "j J7uph ppypbcp ejje. Cot* 
•— l3ep CDaptianup *j Valentin up onpcn^on picf». *J pixabon rii. pmtep. *j on heopa bapim jela^de 



* An. 446. Flor. Bede. S* Duoelm« An. 434. 
M.We8t. 

* " Ttrtium jam petuni auxUia a Romanise eas 
enim Britannis suhsidio his venuse ei Pietos npuUsH 
iraduni hitiorid.** — Gibs. 



' Gibs, from Cot. an interpolated legend, frooi 
the Gesta Pontificum^ repeated by Bede, Florence, 
Matth.VVest. Fordun, and others* The head was 
said to be carried to Edessa. 

* See Bed. Chron. and Hist. Bed. u 16. 



14 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



;| Valentinianuj'* onpen jon picc. tf pic- 
yx)bon*^ VII. pmtep:- On heopa ba^um 
Ijenjcft tl I^opfa. fpom pyptjeopnc 
jela^obe Bpytta cynmje to jiuVcume^. 
^ejK>hton Bpytene on J)ain fca^^e^ J>e if . 
jenemneb* Yppmeppleot. sepept Bpyt- 
rum to pultume. ac hy ept on hy puht- 
on:- ^Se cinj het hi peohtan a^ien 
Pihtap. ^ hi fpa byban. 1 pje haepbon 
ppa hpap ppa hi comon :• lii %a penbe to • 
Anjle. tJ heton heom penban mape pul- 
tum. *i heom pejjan Bpytpalana naht- 
neppe, ^ ^aep lanbep cypta. J3i J)a 
penbon heom mape pultum. %a comon 
]>a menn op %pim msejVum Gepma- • 
me. op 6alb8-Seaxum. op Anjlum. op 
lotum :• 

Op lotum comon Cantpape**. '^J J?iht- 
pape*. ("f ip peo maeiS^ fe nu eapba% 
on piht. ) tl ^ cynn on pept-Sexum . 
^e man nu jy t het lutna-cynn :• . Op 
6alb-Seaxum^ comon 6apt-Seaxan"* *] 



Valentinian assumed the empire^ and 
reigned seyen winters. In their days 
Hengest and Horsa^ invited by Wurt- 
gern ^ king of the Britons to his assist^ 
ance^ landed in Britain in a place that 
is called Ipwinesfleet^ ; first of all to 
support the Britons^ but they afterwards 
fought against them. The king directed 
them to fight against the Picts; and they 
did so; and obtained the victory where- 
soever they came. They then sent to the 
Angles, and desired them to send more 
assistance. They described the wortbless- 
ness of the Britons, and the richness of 
the land. They then sent them greater 
support Then came the men from three 
powers3 of Germany ; the Old Saxons^ 
the Angles^ and the Jutes^. From the 
Jutes are descended the men of Kent^ 
the Wightwarians ( that is^ the tribe that 
now dwelleth in the isle of Wight )^ and 
that kindred in Wessex that men yet call 



Pyjitjeojioe Anjelcya hibep. *j hi ^ comaa on ^jiim ceolam hibeji co Bjiytene. on ^m jcebe t)eoppinejf* 
fleot. Se cyniDj Pyjtt^eopn jep heom lanb on ju^o-eajran ^ij-jum laobe. pi% ^d }e hi f ceolbon peoh* 
ton piV Pyhcaj-. l3eo ]7a puhton fX Pyhtap *j heopbon jije jpa hpep fpa heo comon : Dy & psnboa 
CO An^le heton jenbon majia pulcum. *j hecon heom jnecjaii Bjiytpalana nahrpcipe. *J ^j lanbep cyp»* 
l3y ytL pona penbon hibeji majie peojieb ^am oVjium co pulcume. Da comon, Vc. Laud. 

* COaujiiciup *j Valencinup, Cani. C'T.bu Whel. — an error arising from the abbreTiations used in 
designating the emperors. '' Mauritius et Falentinus/* Vc. Ethel w. 449. ^ jiizoban, C^t. C.T.bU 
« 1 hie, Whel. abs. Cant C.T. bI &c.»co pulcume, abs. C.T.bu * jtebe, Cani. CT. b i. •So 
C*T. B i. nemneb, Cant, ' From Laud. Peiroh, to the end of the year, corrected in some places. Sea 
Alfred's Bede. Abs. Cant. ( Aid, Laud. ^ Cantpajia, Laud, incorrectly. ^ ^ihcpapa, Laud, in- 
correctly, as before. ^ mejV, Laud. > So Laud. Saxon, Gibs, from Whel. » Seaxa, Laud. 

■ Vortlgerio, Flor. Yurtigerno, Bed. Pypc as Gibson quotes him. Geacum, lEtir. Giotis, 



jeopn, Mifr. Gnorthigerao, Gorthigemo, Gorti* 
gerno, Nennius ap. Gale, p. 105. Uortigerno, 
Bed. Wurthgem,Wirthgern, Wrthern; Ethel w. 

* " TrUfus longis navilnts quas UH ciulas (al. ceo- 
las) vocant" — ^Hunt. myclum pcypnm,-— iElfr. 

' **Cum iGnavihus.'* — ^Malmesb. 

• lutis, Bede, l£sl. Eccles. i. 16.— not Vitls, 



Ethelw. The Goths, Jutes, and Getae were the 
same people ; whence the peninsula of Jutland^ 
as well as the isle of Gothland, is called Gotlanb 
by king Alfred in the periplus of Oht-here. From 
JacBa.cynn, Jeacna-kyn, come Je*nkyo, Jenkyns^ 
Jenkins, kc. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



19 



SuV-Seaxan. ^ pcpt-Seaxan*:- Oj: An- 
gle comon. f"e a p^^an **jicob pejrtij 
betpix lutum *] Seaxum'. eaft-Gn- 
jle. *j QOibbel Anjle. ^ CDeapce. anb 
ealle Nop^ymbpa:- *l3eojia hejie-to- 
jan paejion trpejen jebpo^pa. Uenjep: 
anb l3opj-a. f paepon pihtjiljief funa. 
pihtjilf paef pittinj. pitta pcctinj. 
Pecta pobning. pjiam %am pobne apoc 
eall ujie cyne-cynn. *i Su^an-hymbpa 



eac 



.>/ 



CCCCL.^ — CCCCLIT. 

An. CCCCLV. I3ej\ Jienjept :J l3op- 
f2L jcpiihton pi^ pyptjeopne* |jam cy- 
nmje. on^ ])aepe jrtope ]>e ly jecpeben^ 
/Bjelej-popb^. '1 hif bpoj^oji man |>aeji 
opfloh. Uoppan". ^ aptep J>am"^ pcnj 
iSeB^ept to pice. ';j /Gpc hip punu :• 

CCCCLTI. 

An. CCCCLVIL* «» hejx Renjept :f 
y6pc "hap punu^ jepuhton pi^ Bpyttap. 
on° l^aepe ptope J)e ip jecpebenP Cpccr 
canpopb^. ^ J^aep opplojon' peopep 'Jju- 



tbe kindred of the Jutes. From the Old 
Saxons came the people of Essex and 
Sussex and Wessex. From Anglia, which 
has ever since remained waste between 
the Jutes and the Saxons, came the East 
Angles, the Middle Angles, the Mer- 
cians^ and all of those north of the 
H umber. Their leaders were two bro- 
thers, Hengest and Horsa; who were 
the sons of Wihtgils ; Wihtgils was the 
son of Witta, Witta of Wecta, Wecta 
of Woden. From this Woden arose all 
our royal kindred, and that of the South* 
hubibfians also. 

A.D. 455. This year Hengest and 
Horsa fought with Wurtgcrn the king 
on the spot that is called Aylesford i. 
His brother Horsa being there slain, 
Hengest afterwards took to the king- 
dom with his son Esc. 

A.D. 457. This year Hengest and 
Esc fought with the Britons on the spot 
that is called Cray ford, and there slew 
four thousand men. The Britons then 



* Sexa, Laud. ^ From Laud. abs. Whel. « From Laud. ^ Hujus tempore celehratur Cakhedonente 
conciiium dcxxx. efnscoporums adversus Eutyckem abhatem ei Dioscorutn. Gibst from Laud. See Flor^ 
Be(L &c. • Pypt^ejine, Laud. ' So Laud. Cant. Cot. C.T. b i. &c. m, Gibs. k So Cant. C.T. bu 
^eciypob, Cot. cpebea, Gibs. "» -^2elej)?jicp, Laud, -^xelej-fjwp, Cot. ^jiej-^jiep, Cant. C.T. b i« 
' *j man hif bpoVop bojijao ^aji ojrj-loh. Cot. *J hif bjio^uji Dopjan man ^xp opj-ioh. Cant. ^ ^asm, 
Cant, ^oon, Laud. > cccclvi. Laud. CT.ni. ^ l3e]i benjejt i iEfc mib jpyji^ej- ejje opj-lojon 
pofefi pepob Dpyrta. Cot. » From C.T. b i. <> So Laud. Cot. Cant. ^ jeoemneb, Cot. 4 Cjiea* 
caofojiby Cant. C.T. b i. Cpecjanpopby Laud. ' opjlo^an, Cant. C.T. bu •So C.T b i. by ao ab. 
breYiation (UlL) wbichis common in ancient MSS.— pejiajp, Gibs, from Whet, pepab, Laud, pepob. Cot* 
•T-pejia is in the^ genitife case ; literally, <^ four thousands of men ;" an idiom in which the Saxon cor- 



* ^elesthrep, Flor. Egelesthrip, Ethelw. which 
agrees with most of the Saxon MSS. It was a thorp 
or Tilhige near Aylesford. Episford, Nen. a/>.Gale, 
incorrectly. ^* Horsa,^'^4)ccisu3 in hello a Brittoni^ 



bus, hactenus in orientaUbus CanCue partibus moniH 
mentum habet suo nomine insigne.** (sc. Horsted pr. 
Aylesford.) — Bede, Hist. Eccles. i. 15. omitted bj 
king Alfred in his Saxon version. 



16 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE: 



jnenba pcpa'. ^ ^a Bpyttay ■Jja poji- 
leton Centlonb^ tl n^i^ myclum** eje 
fluj^on to Lunben bypij'' :• 

CCCCLVIII. CCCCLXIV. 

An. CCCCLXV.*= l5ep ftenjej-t anb 
/6fc jcpuhton pi^ J^ealaj^** neah* FYP" 
pebepjzleote. tJ ^«p tpelp eal^ J^ylif ce^ 
ealbopmen opplojon**. anb heopa' an^ 
f ejn J^aep peap^ op plaejen ^am paep no- 
ma' J^ippeb :• 

CCCCLXVI. CCCCLXXII. 

An. CCCCLXXIII. J3ep ftenjepc 
anb /6pc jepuhton pi® pealap. tl je- 
namon unapimebu™ hepe-peap. anb ])a 
J7ealap plujon |ja Gnjlan** ®ppa ^aep pyp 
p«pc'':- . 

CCCCLXXIT. CCCCLXXVI. 

4n. CCCCLXXVII. J3ep cuom? /eile 
to*i Bpyten-lanb. tJ hip )>py puna. Cy- 
men^ ^ plencmj. 1 Cippa. mib ?pym 
pcypum*. on ®a ptope J)e ip jenemneb^ 
Cymenep-opa^ *J ^aep opplojon monije" 
J?ealap. ^ pumc on pleamc' bebpy pon on 
^one pubu J>e ip jenemneb* Anbpebep- 
lea^e^^ ^ 

CCCCLXXYHI. CCCCLXXXI. 



forsook the land of Kent, and in great 
consternation fled to London. 



A.D. 465. This year^ Hengest and 
Esc fought with the Welsh, nigh Wip- 
pedfleet; and there slew twelve leaders, 
all Welsh. On their side a thane was 
there slain, whose name was Wipped. 



A.D. 473. This year Hengest and 
Esc fought with the Welsh, and took 
immense booty. And the Webh fled 
from the English like fire. 



A.D. 477. This year came Ella to 
Britain, with his three sons, Cymen, and 
Wlenking', and Cissa, in three ships ; 
landing at a place that is called Cymen* 
shore. There they slew many of the 
Welsh ; and some in flight they drove 
into the wood that is called Andred's- 
ley. 



responds with the Latin, " qualuor mil&a firoram." Henry of Huntingdon, who seems to hare had 
before him some of the worst MSS. of the Saxon Chronicle, ingenioaslj combinei the two corrupt read« 
ingSy fejiaj- and pejiab ; and, after forming the British armj into four divisions, he rery naturally kills 
the fonr leaders of them. " Quatuor millia," &c. Ethel w. Flor. 

• fopleton ^a Cendanb, Laud, ]?a jrojiletan Rentlanb, C.T. a i. ^ So Laud, C.T, b i. micele, Gibs, 
from Whel. « cccclzi. Cant. C.T.bu ^ V^^^h I^^^» * "^^9 Laud. ' Abs. Laud^ CanL 
CT. B 1. • Fylfce, Laud. Pylifc, CT. b i. * ojrj-loxan, C.T. b i. * So Laud. C.T. b i. hiepa, 
Whel. and Gibs, from Petrol. ^ From Laud. Cant, aone, Cot. JMs^n, abs. C.T. b i. ' nama, Laud. 
CiTlsi. "■ unajiimeblicn, Cant. CT.bi. unapimenhcn, Laud. * Bngle, Cant. C.T.bu » jpiVe 
}^ple. Laud, fya man jrlyc'S pyp, Cot. jpa jja fyp, Cant. C.T. b i. more forcibly. p com, Laud: 
Cant. C.T. b i. i on, Laud. Cant. Cot. C.T. b i. ' Kymen— Kymenej-, C.T. b i. • jfcypon, Cot. 
f cipum, C.T. B i. * So Cot. C.T. b i. &c. jenemnab, Laud. ■ mani^a, Cant, manije, Laud. C.T.bu 
^ So CT.Bi. &c. nemneb, Laud. Cant. i -leje. Laud, -leaja, Cant. .lea, C.T.bi. 

^ An.473. M.West. * Pleting, Hunt. ed. Franc^ Pleatingus, M. West— corruptly, as usual. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



17 



[•An. CCCCLXXXIL l3cji fe ca- 
bi^a Abb6b Benebictruf {^uph pulboji 
1$apa mihta j>\pxm mibban-eapbe f*can. 
eal fpa fe eabi^a Gpcjopiuj- jiec® on 
Dialo^opum Jiape hoc":-] 

CCCCLXXXI1I. CCCCLXXXIT. 

An. CCCCLXXXV. hejt /BUe je- 
jreaht prtS pealay'^ neah CDeapcpebcf- 
bupnan-yirebe^ :• 

CCCCLXXXVI. CCCCLXXXVII. 

An. CCCCLXXXVIII. ftep yefc 
pen J ro pice. *J paej- xxiv. pintep^ 
Cantpapa* cynmj :• 

CCCCLXXXIX. 

An. CCCCXC fiep yeile ^ Cirpa 
ymb-j^aeton Anbpebepceajrep. *i oyr 
flo^on ealle \>z \>e ^jfxji inne eapbe* 
bon^. ** ne peap^ Jap pop%on an Bpyc 
to lajre " ;• 

CCCCXCI/ — CCCCXCIV. 

An.CCCCXCV. '^ftepcuomon'tpc- 
jen ealbopmen on Bpytene. Cepbic 



A.D. 488. This year the blessed Ab- 
bot Benedict shone in this worlds by 
the splendor of those virtues which the 
blessed Gregory records in the book of 
Dialogues 1. 

A.D. 485. This year Ella fought 
with the Welsh nigh MecredVBurn- 
sted«. 

A.D. 488. This year Esc succeeded 
to the kingdom ; and was king of the 
men of Kent twenty-four^ winters. 

AD. 490. This year^ Ella and Cissa 
besieged the city of Andred, and slew all 
that were therein ; nor was one Briton, 
left there afterwards. 



m 



A.D. 495. This year^ came two 
leaders into Britain^ Cerdic^ and Cynric 



• From Coi. ^ Pealum, C.T. b i. Cani. « jteKe, Laud. jtsVe, C.T. b i. ^ fiDtjia, Con/. 
AT. B i. * Abs. Laud. ^ An. ccccxci. Cant. Laud, C*T> si. k ]?aF]i lone paejuui. Cani. CT.bL 
ftiji lonan j^jian. Coi, ^ na bdaj: ]mp an Bjiytr to late. Cot. *f ]«]i ne fdpS piipViim an Bjiyc ro 
lap. C,T. D i. Cant, ^ Hoc tempore, heatus MamertuSg efnscoput Fiennensis, solennes leianias insiituU 
rogatwnum, Gibs, from Laud, an, 490. * Da p«j ajanjen fpam Cpiytej acennebnyj-j-e cccc. "j xciiii. 
pincjia. 9a Cejibic "j Cyaejiic hif pinn comon upp et Ce[ibicej-opan mib pj fcipum. *j jq Ccjibic paef 
Glcpn;. 6lcp Bjlmj. Gfla Gipipnj. Gipif Pi^in J. P>J Fpeapininj. Fjicapinc Fjico^ojajiin j. Fpeo- 
^^aji Bj&anbin^. Bjuub Bftlbx^m^. Baelboe^ pobeninj: Anb Jwj* cmbe px jeaji ^e hie upp-coroan. 
hic jeeoban Pejt-Sezna latib.*j 'f pxpon ]?a epfjran cinja j ^e pejt.Sexna lanb aec J^ealum jenaman. Anb 
he hxfbc jl pice pxtyne pintep. Ttb, a iii. Cant, ad calcem. Whcl. ante Bed. The rest of the genealogy^ 
though tery Taluablei which Gibson first introduced into the text, it has been thought proper and ex- 
pedient to print within brackets, from Da 2<^pop he. ^c. ; because the insertion of it above is not justi- 
fied by a single MS. and it certainly interrupts the thread of the history. Some account of it will 
be found in another place. It is now corrected, and some defects are supplied, from a MS. in tho 
British Museum, marked Tiberius xiii, and the printed genealogy of Whcloc, not collated by Gibson^ 
' coinan, C.T. bi. Laud. Cant. Cot,. » Cepnc, Laud, Cot. 

« 34. Hunt. 



' Fid, Greg. Dialog. Hb. 2. 
* *' Juxia locum qui dicitur Mercredeslmrnan* 
#l€ife/'— Etbclw. 



« An, 492. M.Weat. 
• An.AQ4. M.West. 



18 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



*J Cynjiic* hif pxnu. mib pp f-cipam. 
on*^ )>one jrtebe ]>e if jecpeben^ Ccji- 
bice]r**-opa*^. ^^ ?y ilcan bseje pilS J?ea- 
lum jepuhton'':- [Da jejx)^ he. ^ )ja 
penj hip punu Cynepic to |>am pice. *J 
hit heolb XXVI. pintpa. Da he pop^- 
pepbe. )?a penj Ceaphn to. hip punu. tJ 
heolb XVII. gcap. Da he jepop. )?a petij 
Ceol to |>ain pice. ^ heolb v. jeap. Da 
he jepop ^a pen j Ceolpulp to. hip bpo- 
?op. ^ he pixobe peopontyne jeap. ^ 
heopa cynn ja^ to Cepbice. Da pen j 
Cynejylp. Ceolpulpep bpoSop punu, tp 
pice. *i haepbe an *J I'pittij pintpa. 1 
he onpenj aepept pulpihte pept-Sexna 
cm^a. Anb ]>a pen^ Cenpalh to pice, 
tt heolb hit XXXI. pintpa. pe Cenpalh 
paep Cynejilpep punu. *3 |>a heolb Scx- 
buph cpen an jeap f pice aeptep him. 
Da penj /Bpcpine to pice. |>aBp cynn 
giB^S to Cepbice. *J he heolb tpa jeap. 
Da. penj Centpine to pept-Sexna pice. 
Cyne^ilpinj. "i pixobe ni^on jeap. Da 
penj Ceabpalla to ))am pice ]>sep cynn 
jae^ to Cepbice. ^ he heolb iii. jeap. 
Da penj Ine to pept-Sexna pice. ^a?p 
c^nn jaeB to Cepbice. anb heolb xxxvii. 



bis 800^ with five ships^ at a place that 
is called CerdicVore. And they fought 
\rith the Welsh the same day. Thea 
he died, and his son Cynric succeeded 
to the government, and held it six and 
twenty winters*. Then he died ; and 
Ceawlin, his son, succeeded, who reign- 
ed 17 years'. Then he died ; and Ceol 
succeeded to the government, and reign* 
ed 5 years. When he died, Ceolwulf, 
his brother, succeeded, and reigned se- 
venteen years^. Their kin goetb to Cer« 
die. Then succeeded Cynegils, Ceol-* 
wulf 's brother's sou, to the kingdom ; 
and reigned one and thirty winters^. 
And he first of West^Saxon kings re<^ 
ceived baptism* Then succeeded Cen- 
wall, who was the son of Cynegils, and 
reigned one and thirty winters^. Then 
held Sexburga, his queen, the govern* 
ment one year after him. Then succeed* 
ed E^cwine to the kingdom, whose kin 
goeth to Cerdic, and held it two years^. 
Then succeeded Cen twine, the son of 
Cynegils, to the kingdom of the West* 
Saxons, and reigned nine yearsT. Then 
succeeded Ceadwall to the government. 



» CyncpiCy Cot. ^ So Cani. Laud. CT. b i. « ^ehaten, Coi. ^ Ceitticejr, Laud. Col. « hops, 
Whcl. ' 'j on J^am ylcan baeje jruhtoo pi^ Pealap Co/.— jepuhton pi^ Palajf, LatMf.— hie ^ef iihcaa 
pi9 Pealum. Cani. C.T.b'i. The remainder of the year is an interpolation. 



* 36. Flor. Genealog. Jtegum West-Sax. Fid. 
an, 634, 660. 

* 33. Flor. Geneal Fid. an, 560, 593, peopon 
pintep, Whel. ** — contra quern l^CeauUnum"] 
Ceobu, fiSui fratris m Cuthtimlfi, quern ante Hen* 
nium regem sub sefecerat, immerito relellavii, reg» 
noque expellens, loco ejus 5 annis re^ovt/.*'— Flor. 
Geneal. Fid. an. 692, 697. In the genealogy of 
Florence of Worcester, the rei^ of the rebel or 



usurper most haye been merged by courtesy In that 
of the legitimate monarch ; a custom continued 
to our times. 

* 14. Flor. Geneal. Fid. an. 607, 611. 

* So Flor. Fid.an.6ily 643. Laud. 64 1 ^pixiibe 
XX. pintpa, Gibs* 

' Fid. an. 643 (641, Laud.), 67% 

* *'i%re fri^w."— Flor. Tiiaw. 674, 676. 
' «8aimw."— Flor. 



THE 8AXON CHRONICLE. 



19 



pintpa. Da ftn^ /8%elheapb to pice. 
)w]r cj^nn 3as% to Cepbice. anb heolb 
XTi. ^eap. Da penj Cu^peb to. Vmf 
trynn jaeV to Cepbice. *] he heolb xvi. 
pmtpa. Da penj Sijebpiht to. ^s^y 
cfnn ^seV to Cepbice. anb he heolb an 
^eap. Da penj C^^nepulp to picc. ^«f" 
cynn ^ae^ to Cepbice. anb he heolb an 
^ )>pitti3 pintpa. Da penj Bpihtpic 
to pice. ])aef cynn ^aeV to Cepbice. anb 
he heolb pxtene ^eap. Da penj Gcj- 
bpiht to %am piee. anb heolb feopon 
"j ])pitt]2 pintpa. anb peopen monaV. 
-Da pen; yE¥elpulp hip puna to. anb 
heolb ixteo%e healp ^eap : — Se J&Scl- 
pulp p»p ecjbpihtinj. 6c2bpiht 6alh- 
munbm;. 6alhmunb Capinj. 6apa Cop- 
ping- 6oppa In^ilbin;. In^ilb Cenpe- 
bin J. ^ Ine Cenpebin j. tJ Cu^buph Cen- 
pebinj. 1 Cpenbnph Ccnpcbmj. Cen- 
•peb Ceolpalbin;. Ceolpalb CuJ^pulpmj. 
Cu^pulp Cu^pimn;. Cu%pine Celmin;. 
Celm Cynpicinj. Cynepic Cpeobinj. 
Cpeoba Cepbicmj. — Anb jm penj /6- 
.Velbalb hip punu to pice. *} heolb pip 
^eap. Da pen; j€)ielbpiht hip bpo%op 
to. ^ heolb V. jeap. *Da penj/GJ^epeb 
hip bpo^op to pice. tJ heolb pip jeap''. 
'Da penj/Glppeb heopa bpoSop to "pice. 
^ ^ paep a^anjen hip ylbe |jpeo anb 
tpentij pintpa. *J |jpeo hunb *J pix ^ 



vrhoBe kin goeth to Cerdic^ and held it 
three yeart^ Then succeeded Ina to 
the kiogdom of the West-Saxons, whose 
kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned S7 
vinters^. Then succeeded Ethelheard^ 
\irhose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned 
16 years^. Then succeeded Cuthred# 
whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned 
16 winters^. Then succeeded Sigebriht, 
whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned 
one year^. Then succeeded Cynwulf, 
whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned 
one and thirty winters^. Then succeed^ 
ed Brihtric, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, 
and reigned 16 years 7. Then succeed- 
ed Egbert to the kingdom, and held it 
seven and thirty winters, and seven 
months^. Then succeeded Ethelwulf, 
his son, and reigned 18 years and a 
half 9. — Ethelwulf was the son of Eg- 
bert, Egbert of Ealniund, Ealmund of 
Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild^ 
Ingild of Cenred, ( Ina of Cenred, Cuth- 
burga of Cenred, and Cwenburga of 
Cenred), Cenred of Ceolwald,Ceolwald 
of Cuthwulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwine, 
Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of Cynric, 
Cynric of Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic*®. 
Then succeeded Ethelbald, the son of 
Ethelwulf, to the kingdom, and held it 
five years 1^ Then succeeded Ethelbert, 



• From Alfred's Genealogy, prefixed to Wheloc*8 Bede. abs. Gibs. 71^. a iii. Sec 



. > Fid. an. 085, 688. Cot. and Whel. 689. 

* Fid. an. 688, 7^. Laud. Cot. 736. 

* 14. Flor. peopeftyiie piotep. Wbel. Fid. 
an. 738, 741. Laud. 740. 

M5. Flor. Fid. an. 741, 754. 

* Fid. iia.754, 755. 

* 30. Flor. Fid. an. 755, 784. 
I 15. Flor. Fid. on. 784, WCh 



• Fid. an. 800, 836. 

^ Fid. an. 836, 854. Laud. 855. The Saxon 
signifies— -^^ 18 years, and half of the nineteenth 
year." Wheloc, not aware of this idiom, makes 
the reign of Ethelwulf 19 years and a half,—'' no- 
vemdecim annos cam dimuBo." 

^ See his genealogy, p. 34, and p. 17, note K 

II' « TVtfw."— Flor. Fid. an. 854, 860. 

d8 



so 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



hunb-nyjantij pintpa J>aBf J>e hif cyn 
a&peft pcft-Seaxna lanb on pealum 
jecobon''. ^ he heote o^pan healpan 
jeajic laef \>e xxx. pintpa. Da penj 
Gabpeapb to. /eippebinj. tJ heolb xxiv. • 
pintpa. Da he pop^pepbe. I>a penj 
jej^lptan to. hip punu. 1 heolb xiv. 
jeap. tl VII. pucan. 1 in. bajap. Da 
penj Gabmunb to. hip bpo^op. 1 heolb 
peopoBe healp jeap. butan ii. nihtum. • 
Da pcnj Gabpeb hip bpo^op to. ^ heolb 
1?. jcap. tJ VI. pucan. Da penj Gabpij 
to. 6abmunbep punu cinjep. tJ heolb 
III. jeap. tl xxxYi. pucena. buton ii. 
ba^um. Da he popBpepbe. |>a penj • 
Gabjap to. hip bpo^op. tJ heolb xvi. 
jeap. ^ viii. pucan. ^ ii. niht. Da he 
pop^pepbe. Jja pcnj Gabpeapb to. 6ab- 
japep punu. 'j heolb 2 



ccccxcvi. — D. 

An. DI. I5ep cuom Popt on Bpytene. 
^ hip tpejen puna* Bieba^ ^ CDasjla. mib 



his brother, and' reigned five years ^ 
[Then succeeded EiheJred, his brother, 
to the kingdom, and held it five years. 
Then succeeded Alfred, their brother, to 
the goTemment. And then had elapsed 
of his age three and twenty winters, 
and 396 winters from the time when 
his kindred first gained the land of 
Wessex from the Welsh. And he held 
the kingdom a year and a half less than 
30 winters^. Then succeeded Edward, 
the son of Alfred, and reigned 84 win- 
ters^. When he died, then succeeded 
Athelstan, bis son, and reigned 14 years 
and 7 weeks, and 3 days^. Then suc- 
ceeded Edmund, his brother, and reign^ 
ed 6 years and &faalf, wanting 2 nights^. 
Then succeeded Edred, his brother, and 
reigned 9 years and 6 weeks^. Then 
succeeded Edwy, t)ie son of Edmund, 
and reigned 3 years and 36 weeks, want- 
ing S days7. When he died, then suc- 
ceeded Edgar, his brother, and reigned 
16 years and 8 weeks, and 8 nights^ 
When he died, then succeeded Edward, 
the son of Edgar, and reignedd . 

A.D. 501. This year Porta and his 
two sons, Beda ^^ and Mela, came into 



« junaii, Laud, funu^ C.T, bi ^ Biebba, CoL 

' Fid. an. 860, 856. « Fid. an. 871, OOK 

* Fid. an. 901 J »25. 

* rW. an. 926, 941. 

' Fid. an. 941, 946. Laud. 948. 

* Fid. an. 946, 956. 

^ Fid. an. 966, 967. Laud. 969. 

* Fid. an. 967, 968. Cani. 969. Laud. 975. 

' From a yariety of circumstances, and parti- 
cularly from this abrupt termination of the MS. 
{Tib. A iii.) from which the Juniau transcript was 



copied, as well as that marked Cant, in Gibson's 
edition, it appears, that this genealogy was com* 
piled from that of king A If red, prefixed to his Bede, 
and continued to the year 977 by the writer of the 
Chronicle marked Ttb. a vi. In the following y^ear 
(978) king Edward was assassinated at the gate 
of Corfe Casde. 'J*he genealogy is extended to 
the reign of Henry I. by Florence of Worcester ; 
p. 696. ed. Franc. 1601. 
'• Bida, Flor. Bleda^ M.Wost 



THE SAXOIT chronicle: 



St 



^am Ycipum on* )>ae|ie j^ope ]>e if je- 
cpeben^ PojitcpmulSa^. **tl f^na lanb na- 
mon". ^J J>ap* opflojon asnne jeonjne^ 
Bpettij^cnes monnan** f py^e sej^elne :• 

Dll. DVII. 

An. DVIII. hejx Cepbic ^ Cynpic 
*opj^o3on aenne" Bpyttipcne cyninj. 
*J?am paep 'nama Natanleob"*. ^ pp ^u- 
penbo" pepa mib him. ®|>a aeptep )?am' 
)>aef'' f lanb ^enemneb PNatanleaja o^"" 
Ccpbicep -popb :• 

[^JAn. DIX. J3ep pCf Benebictuf pe 
abbub. ealpa muneca psebep. pepbe to 
heouenan :•]] 

DX. — Dxm: 

An.DXIV. I5ep cpomon' pept-Seaxe* 
*on Bpytene''. mib )?pim pcypum. "on 
^am'' ptope ]>e ip jecpeben* Cepbicep- 
opa^. *1 Stup tJ piht^ap* jcpuhton** 
piB Bpyttap. 1 hie jcpJymbon^ :• 

DXV. — DXVIll. 

An. DXIX. I3ep Cepbic anb Cyn- 
pi€ pept-Seaxna^ pice onpenjun*. ^ ^y 



Britain^ M^ith two ships^ at a place calU 
ed Portsmouth. They soon landed^ and 
Blew on the spot a young Briton of very 
high rank. 

A.D. 5e&. Thi$ year Cerdic and 
Cynric slew a British king^ whose nam^ 
was Natanleod^ and five thousand mea 
with him. After this was the land nam- 
ed Netley^ from him^ as far as Char- 
ford ». 

A.D. 509. Thia year St. Benedict^ 
the abbot, father of all the monks ^ 
ascended to heaven.. 

A.D. 514. This year came the West^* 
Saxons into Britain^ with three^ ships^ 
at the place that is called CerdicVore; 
And Stuff and Wihtgar fought with the 
Britonsj and put them to flight. 

A. D. 5 1 &. This year Cerdic and Cy n- 
ric undertook the government of the 



» in, Laud, ^ nemncb, CanL CT.bu ^ So Cant. C.T. bI Whel. ^ From Coi. « From 
Cant, yssji ojrj-lojan aniie Bpictijfcne man jpi^ as]»elne. C^T, b i. ' Abs. Cant. CJT. b i. ^ttn^ne. 
Laud, K Bpynjcne, LxitL Bpiccij-cnc, CT.bu ^ man. Cant. Laud. CT.bu Gibson, from 
WheloCy rcpcato monnan after s]?elne, though he notices it as absent from Cant. Laud, to which add 
C.T, BI. * ofjiojan anne, C.T.bx. as before. ^ je paj ^ehacen. Cat. ^ Abs. Cant, to ^m 
ipaej, He. from the repetition of the same words. ^ Nazaleob, Laud. Cat. ^ %u jenb, Jjmd. CoU 
*V^ C.T. B i. compendiously, for pj: Vaj-enba. • So C.T. b i. aep^p &n, Whel. Gibs.. p Nazan^ 
leo; & o9, Lonid. Nazanlcot k o^, Cat. incorrectly* ^ From Cot. ' com, Laud* comon, Cat. 
coman, Cant. C.T.bx. * PcjcSeaza, Laud. Pejt-Sexa, Cat. * So Cant. C.T.bx. in Bpetene, Gibs, 
from Whel. ^ in ^a, Liud. on J^af, Whel. on \^^ C.T. b i. * ^enemnub, Cot. J Cepcicej, Laud^ 
Cot. Cepbicej-hojia, C.T.bi. Whel. « So Laud. C.T. bi. • Fitjap, Gibs. * ^cpuhcan, Cant» 
C.T.Bi. ^ ^eflymban, Cant. CTbU ^ From Cot. ^ onpen^on. Cant. 



1 *« 



Naxaleod, a quo regio iila dicta at NazaleoH, 
qtt» modo dUUur Certkhesforde.**-^Hvint. mistak- 
ing o^ for oyye. 

* Merely of those called from him JBenadkimes. 
Bnt the compiler of the Cotton MS., who was pro- 



bably a monk of that order, seems not to acknow-- 
ledge any other. M«tthew of Westminsteif places 
his death in 636. 
» " Aw*»#.*'—M.We8f . 



M 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ytcan j^ape Iwe jepuhton* pl^ Bji^t:- 
tap ^|jaep mon nii^ nemne% Cepbicep 
Jropb'^. ^^ p^^an picfabon pep:-Seax- 
na* cynebeapn op |>am baeje^:- 

DXX. DXXVI. 

An. DXXVII. I3ep Cepbic -j Cyn- 
Jiic puhton^ pi^ Bpyttap on^ ^aepe 
ftope** fe If jecpeben Cepbiccf-lcah* :• 

DiXVIII.*^ DXX IX. 

An. DXXX. I3ep Cepbic anb Cy^n- 
pic ^enamon ^J?ihte f "* ealonb^. anb 
opflojon peala" men® on pihtjapaP- 

DXXXI. DXXXIII. 

An.DXXXIV. r>ep Cepbic. «» re pop- 
tna pejrc-Sexana cynj^. pop^pepbe. "j 
Cynpic hip punu "penj to pice. Y pic- 
fobe pop^^ xxvi.*! pintpa. ^ hi' 'je- 
fealbon hiopa'' tpam nepum*. Stuppe'* 
tl Pihtjape. eall« pihte^^ ^"* ealonb:- 

DXXXT. — DZXXVII. 

An. DXXXVIII. I3ep punne ^fff- 
^obc' ■peopeptyne ba^um aep kt. 
tDaptii"'. ppom aep** mepjene^ o^ un- 
bcpn^ :• 

DZXXIX. 

•An. DXL. I3ep punne ajjiptpobe^ 



West-Saxons ; the same year they fought 
with the Britons at a place now called 
Charford. From that day have reigned 
the children of the West-Saxon kings. 

A.D. 527. This year Cerdic and 
Cynric fought with the Britons in the 
place that is called Cerdic's-ley. 

A.D. 530. This year Cerdic and 
Cynric took the isle of Wight^ and slew 
manyi men in Carisbrook. 



A.D. 534. This year died Cerdic^ the 
first king of the West-Saxons. Cynric 
his son succeeded to the goyemnient« 
and reigned afterwards 26 winters. And 
they gave to their two nephews^ Stuff and 
Wihtgar^ the whole of the isle of Wight 

A.D. 538. This year the sun was 
eclipsed^ fourteen days before the ca* 
lends of March, from before morning 
until nine. 

A.D. 540. This year the sun was 



• Sepahtan, Cant, Cr.Bi. * oa fajte jrope fc yj ^enemneb Ccipbinjej-popb. Coi. « Abs, 
Cant. C.T. si. ^ From Pttrob. Whd. and Gibs. abs. Cant. « So Laud. Seaxa, Gibs, from PctnL 
' 2eFuht:on, Laud, fuhcan, Cant. C.T. b i. i So Owt. C.T, e i. in, Gibs. "» jtopa, Laud. ' -pojib, 
Laud, -lea;, Cant. CT. a i. ^ Hoc tempore Dumyaus in urhe R. Circulum Paschalem composuit. Tunc 
Priscianus profunda grammatica rimatut est. Gibs, from Laud. ^ Pihclanb, Laud. Pibce ealaob^ 
C.T. Bi. " From Cot. » So Ben. Whel. pea, Cant. CT.bi. « manoa, Laud. p Pibu 
^jiaj-, Laud. <i xxtii. Cot. Cant. C.T.ul ' heo, Laud, hie, Cant. C.T.bu • jealbe heopo. 
Cot. ^efealban beojia, Cant. C.T. b i. < neuum, Cot. " Scape, Laud. Cant. C.T.bL * From 
Laud. J Pihclaob, Laud. ■ a^ftpobe, Laud. a]vojfcpobe, Coi. Cant. * on zit. kal« (Oajicii, 
Laud. Cot. COapcioj, C.T. bI. ^ aejuin, Coi. f mofijene, Laud. Cot. C.T.bI moji^enae, Cant* 
^ unhejtvke, Laud. « Abs. Laud. ' a]wjCfiobc, I^iMi. a]?eojrpobe, Cant. C.T.bI 

' " Paucos hondnes.** — ^Flor. following those ma. werd, — '* Attamen paucos interknunt Briiaitnos,** 
uuscripto in which pea occurs for peala. So Ethel. << Innumerabilem stragem.^^'^HatU. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLK 



1J» 



on XII. ki. luliuf *. 'j fteojipan hy oJ>yp- 
bon^ pul neah heaipe tib opcji^ un- 
t>epn:« 

DXLI. DXLIII. 

An. DXLIV. hejx pihtjap pop^- 
pepbe. *J ^hine mon bcbypijbe" on piht- 
japa'-bypij:. 

OXLV. DXLVI. 

An. DXLVII. J3ep Iba penj to pice. 
'Jyonon ^Nop^an-hymbpa cyne-cyn^ ae-? 
poj^:** onpoc * 'V ^ Iba paey Goppin j.Gop- 
pa paef ^ Gpnj. Gp paep " "^Injuinj. In- 
Jill'' Anjenpitinj. Apjenpit Alocmj®. 
Aloe PBeonocinj. Beonoc'' Bpanbinj. 
Bpanb Baelbasjinj;. Baslbaej pobeninj. 
yoben "^FpeolSobpinj. Fpeo^lap" ^Fpi- 
^opulpmj. Fpi^opulp" Fmninj. Finn 
'Gcbpulpinj. Gobpulp'' Gearing. '1 ^c 
pix6be tpelp jeap. ^ he ^rimbpobe fieb- 
banbuph. peo paep^ aepopt mib hcjjc be- 
tyneb. ^ J)ap septep mib pealle'':- 

DXLTIII. ^Dtl. 

An. DLII." I3ep Cynpic jepcaht* pi^ 
Bpyttap on^ Baepe* ptope J^e ip jenemr 



eclipsed on the twelfth day before the 
calends of July ; and the stars showed 
themselves full nigh half an hour over 
nine. 

A.D. 644. This year died Wihtgar; 
and men buried him at Carisbrook. 



A.D. 547. This year^ Ida^ began 
his reign; from whom first arose the 
royal kindred of the Northumbrians. 
Ida was the son of Eoppa, Eoppa of 
Esa^ Esa of Ingwy^ Ingwy of Angenwit^ 
Angenwit of Alloc, Alloc of Bennoc, 
Bennoc of Brand, Brand of Balday^ 
Balday of Woden, Woden of Fritho- 
laC Fritholaf of Frithowulf, Frithowulf 
of Finn, Finn of Godolph, Godolpli 
of Geata, Ida reigned twelve years. 
He built Bamburgh-Castle^, which wag 
first surrounded with a hedge, and af-* 
terwards with a wall. 

A.D. 553. This year Cynric fought 
with the Britons on the spot that is 



* Julii, Cant, C.r.Bi. *> aj^ypebooy Laud, hio aeteopban, Caui. C.T.bu < oneji, Coi> ^ ysLf 
bebyju^eb. Cot. * *S^Juir9 Laud, -^apef. Cot, ' op him com Nop^ambpa cynn-cyoe. Cot, 
B NoftS-hymbpa, Laud, ^ From Laud. ' apoc, Laud, ^ Aba. Geneal. Laud. > Abs. Cani^ 
C.T. B i. ~ From Cant. C.T, hi. « So Cant. C.T.bu Injinj. Injia. Gibs. » Alochioj, Gib«. 
P Benocinj. Benoc. Cant, C.T.bu i Fpeo^ulpmj. FpiValp. Cant. ' Gabulpioj. Gobulp. Cant. 
C.T. B 1. • Petrob. ad Jin. an. abs. Cant. C.T. b i. * jetmibpabe Bebenboph fy paep. Cot. 
""Dtt.Cant. * feaihty Laud. Cot. Cam. CT.BU J So Laud. Cot. Cani. C.T. b\. * >a]ie, Cb/. 

' Am. S48. M.West 

* " Ida veuit cum quadraginia natntus ad Flan^ 



imgk jmetm SGai^»rcA.*'--4DC. auct. ap. Leiand. 
OolUct. ii. 44. *^An. 54?. Ida regnart empU, a 
quo regaUt Nofthan^hymhrofrum proiapia origmem 
leoet, €t zii. an. in regno permansit*''^Ex cod. 



an. 737 exarai. Waal. Cat. p. 388. FkL Leiand. 
CoUect. ii. 4S. 

* **ConitrusU auOm Bebhanhtrg$ it ctrcmmdecBi 
Mm prius sepe, postoa flivro."— Hunt, attfibuting 
both the hedge and the wall to kiog Ida. He is 
followed by M. West oa. 548. 



u 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



neb' Seapob^fpij*. ^ >a Bpftt-pealaj-^ 
'^ejifmbe :• ^ Cepbic paef Cynpicey pe- 
bep. Cepbic Glepnj. Glepi Gj-hw^. 
efla Gepipnj. Gepif Pixmj. f^Z ^?^^' 
pinmj. Fpeapine ^^Fpi^ojapinj. Fpi^q- 
jap'^ Bpanbmj. Bpanb Baelbaejmj. Bael- 
baej pobeninj:. [^Gfelbepht peap« 
jebopen. Gopmenpicep f unu. "j on ^am 

tijo^an' S^ape hif picep he un- 

beppenj pulpiht aepeft cinja on Bp^- 
tene'' :•] 

DLIII. DLV. 

An. DLVI. ftep Cynpic ^ CeapUnS 
puhton pi* Bpyttaf aet Bepanbypij:- 

- An. DLX. I2ep Ceaplin ^fenj to 
picc" on J^eft-Seaxum*. ^ /eile jien^^ 
to Nop^an-hymbpa* pice. "Iban popB- 
jjepapenum". ""J f^ hcolb xxx. pintepP''. 
^llc paef Yppnj. Yppe Ufcppeainj, 
Ufcppca J^djij-hnj. pdjifl *ij?ertep- 
palcnin^. pepteppkna '' Saspujlin^. 
Saepujl Saebalbinj. Sa^balb Sijejeat- 
mj. Sijejeat ' Spaepbaejin j. Spaepbaej" 
Sijcjapinj. Sije^ap paejbaexmx. F^S" 
baej pobeninj. ^poben Fpi^opulpinj'' :• 



called Sarum, and put them to flight 
Cefdic was the father of Cynric, Ccr- 
dic was the son of Elesa^ Elesa of Esla» 
Eala of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of 
Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar, Frithgar 
of Braud, Brand of Balday, Balday of 
Woden. In this year Ethelbert, the son 
of ErmcDric, was born, who on the two 
and thirtieth year of his reign received 
the rite of baptism, the first of all the 
kings in Britain. 

A.D. 556. This year Cynric and 
Ceawlin fought with the Britons at Be- 
ranbury. 

A.D. 560. This year Ceawlin an« 
dertook the government of the West- 
Saxons ; and Ella, on the death of Ida, 
that of the Northumbrians ^ ; each of 
whom reigned thirty winters^. Ella was 
the son of iff. Iff of Usfrey, Usfrey of 
Wilgis, Wilgis of Westerfalcon^, Wes- 
terfalconof Seafowl,Seafowl of Sebbald, 
Sebbald of Sigeat, Sigeat of Swaddy, 
Swaddy of Seagar, Seagar of Waddy^ 
Waddy of Woden, Woden of Fritho- 



» jeclypeb, Cot, ■ Saelej-bepic, Cot. Seajiobafib, Cani, C.T, bu * Bpyttaf, Laud, Cant, C.T*bu 
« Abs. Gencal. Laud, ^ Fpeo^ojajiinj. Fpeo^ojap. .Cant. C,T, b i. « From Cot. vid, an.DCxvf . 
' Sic forsan supplenda est lacuna, od ^am fcojroQ *j J^pitngo^an. Gibs, vid, an. dlx. ^ Ceaphn^, Laud. 
^ pice onpenj, Laud, Cant, CT. bi. ' Seaxan, Cot, ^ Abs. Cant, C,T. e i. ^ Nop^-hyrobpa, Laud, 
C,T, B i. "* From Laud, jy^an Iba psej pop^papen. Cot, ° "j hypa aej^ep pixabe xxx. pmtpa* 
Laud. Cot, » From Cant, p pmtpa, Cant, C,T, bL ^ -palcinj. -pilca. Cant, C.T.bu ' Speb- 
beepnj. Spebbae^. Cant. C.T,b\. whence Swebdegas, Flor. p. 688. 

I "jEUa in provincia Deirorum regnum suseepii, ^ Ceawlin reigned 33 years, according to. Flo* 
€t ferme 30 annig strenuissime rexit. Interim super ceiice of Worcester. 



Bermcios regnaverunt Adda, primogenitus Idte, J 
annis, Clappa 5, Theodulphus 1, Ereothulfiis 7, 
Theodoricus 7, jEihelricus 2, vkenti JEUa**-^, 
Flor. bb9. 



* ** WestoT-Walcna, cujus pater SeonubtSp €i^u9. 
pater Suearta, atfus pater StepugeUu/* kc^^Fior. 
an. 559« See also p. 68& 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



95 



[»Iicp penj /6J>clbpiht:*^ to Cantpapa 
jiice. 'j heolb hic*^ liii. pintjia:- On hij- 
bajum** j^nbe ^pe halja papa'' Gpejo- 
piuf Uf * pulluht. ^f paf on |jam tpam 
^ Jjpittijo^an jeape hif picey '':• Anb 
Columba macf jx^-ppeoji: com to Piht- 
iim. *3 hi jecypbe 8^ to Cpiftey je- 
leauan''. f j^nb l^onne** paeptcpap' be 
'^nop^um mopum''. ^ heopa cynj* him 
jepealbe f ijlanb" J)c man li nemna^ :• 
Dap jynbon pip hyba. ^ssy J>e "man 
jx^a^''. J)ap pe Columba® ^etimbpabe 
inynjtep. 1 he J>ap pap abbabP xxxii. 
pmtpa*>. tl J^ap pop^pepbe. )>a fa^ he 
pap Lxxvii. pmtpa :• Da ptope habba^ 
nu*i jyt hip yppnuman':- Su^-Pihtap 
paepon mycle' aep jepullobe *op Ninna 
bipcope". pe pap on Rome jelaepeb:- 
[^D«p cypice Y'] *hip m^nptep'' yp 
aet3^ J3pitepne on S.' CDaptinep naman 
jehaljob. )^ap he pepte%* mib mane^^um 



wulf. This year Ethelbert came to the 
kingdom of the Cantuarians, and held 
it fifty- three 1 winters. In his days the 
holy pope Gregory sent us baptism. 

• That was in the two and thirtieth year 
of his reign. And Columba^^ the mass- 
priest, came to the Picts, and converted 
them to the belief of Christ. They are 
the dwellers by the northern moors 3. 

- And their king gave him the island of 
Hii^ consisting of five hides^ as they say, 
where Columba built a monastery. There 
he was abbat two and thirty winters; 
and there he died, when he was seventy- 

• seven years old. The place his succes- 
sors yet have. The Southern Picts^ were 
long before baptized by bishop Ninnia^ 
who was taught at Rome. His church or 
monastery is at Hwiterne, hallowed in 

• the name of St. Martin, where he resteth 
with many holy men. Now, therefore. 



' * From Peirobm Ad.dlzt. Laud. Dep Columba mejrje*p]ieojt op Scoteom com m Bpyteaj-. to lae« 
panoe Peohtap. *j hi on ^m ealonbe myojrep pophte. Whe). an. dlxv. Gibson improperly quotes it- 
he on ^m ealonbe. ^c. Perhaps we ought to read— on Di }am ealonbe. tSfc. ; for the passage occurs 
nearly in the same words in C.T. b 1. an. 565. — bep Columba ppej-bicep com op Scottiim on Bpyc 
taj. Peohtaj- to laepenne. *J on bii ^m ealanbe minjtep pophte. CanL C.T, b i. an. &Q5. Fid* Bed. 
Etbelw. an. 565. ^ i£]7elbypht, Coi. « From Cot. ^ bajan, Coi. « From Laud. Cot. 
' mej-jfa, Laud. s to pihtan jeleauan. Cot. ^ ^one, Laud. abs. Cot. ' paeptcpej « Laud. peap. 
taepej, Cot, ^ nop^an mopan, Cot. ' cymn^, Laud, "" ejlanb, Laud. Cot, " men cpeSa^^ 
Laud, ® So Laud. Columban, Gibs, from Whel. p abbub, Laud. ^ From Laud. ' eppe« 
peepbef, Laud, * From Laud, mycel, Cot. ^ Jvuph Nuna btjcope. Cot, heom bobabe pulpiht 
Mmna bij-cop. Land, ^ Gibs, from Laud, \^j cypice. Cot. * Abs. Cot. r From Laud, at. Cot. 
* Abs. Laud. * pejtaV, Laud. 



> 50. FJor. from Bede. So M.West, but he adds, 
" Vierumtamen alwrum sententia apparet probali* 
fior."— 560.566. 

* rtd. Bed. Hut. Eccl. iii. 4. Ethelw. an. 565. 

' ^^ Septentrionales Pkti sunt, qui arduis man* 
Hum jugis ab Austra&bus eorum sunt regionibus se^ 
fSM/ra/i ;-*Anstrales, qui intra eosdem mantes ha* 
bent tedes.'^-^B^. It is surprising that Gibson, who 



quotes this passage from Bede, should haye ernu 
neonsly translated the words be nopVum mopum-.- 
'*prape paludes aquilonares.** CDepe signifies a lake 
or mere ; mop, properly, a mountain ; whance the 
name of Westmoreland. The mbtake, howerer, 
which was incantionsly repeated from Wheloc, ia 
acknowledged and corrected in the table of ''^M- 
denda et Emendanda.'* 
£ 



96 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



hal^um paejium*:- Nu f ceal beon aeppe^ 
on li abbob. 'j na^ biycop. 1 |>am* jrculon 
beon* unbepJ>cobbe' ealle Scotta bi)"co-» 
pef **. pop^an5 J>e Columba** pay abbab'. 
na^ bif cop :•] 

DLXI. DLXVII. 

An. DLXVIII. I3ep Ceaplin' :f Cu«a, 
■*Ceaplinef bpo^ep''. jepuhton pi^ /B-* 
J>elbyphte. ^ hine on" Cent jepl^mbon- 
^ tpejen ealbopmen® onP pibbanbune^i 
opplojon'. Oplac "J Cnebban:» 

DLXIX. DLXX. 

An. DLXXI. I5ep Cu^pulp* peaht 
pi^ Bpytrtpealap* act Bebican-popba". *j 
peopep cunap ^enam. Lyjean-buph*. tJ ■ 
/Ejelep-buphy. tl' Benpinjrun*. tJ Gjo- 
nep-ham. *J ^y*^ ilcan ^eape he jepop*:- 

DLXXII. DLXXVI. 

An. DLXXVII. I3ep Cu«pine :| Ceap- 
lin puhton pi% Bpyttap. ^ hy^ iii. cf- • 
ninjap opplojon. Commail* ^ Conbi- 
ban^ ^ Fapinmail^. on }>aspe ptope J^e 
ip jecpcben** Deopham. ^ ^enamon }>pco 
eeaptpa' on heom. Gleapan-ceaptep**^. ^ 
Cypen-ceaptep*. *3 BaJ)an-ceaptep" :• 



shall there be ever in Hit an abbat, and 
no bishop ; and to him shall be subject 
all the bishops of the Scots ; because Co* 
lumba was an abbat — no bishop. 



A.D. 568. This year Ceawlin, and 
Cutha the brother of Ceawlin, fought 
with Etbelbert, and pursued him into 
Kent. And they slew two aldermen a^ 
Wimbledon^ Oslake and Cnebba. 

A.D.57L This year iCutbulf fought 
with the Britons at Bedford^, and tool( 
four towns« Lenbury, Aylesbury^ Ben- 
son, and Ensham. And this same year 
he died. 

A.D. 577. This year Cuthwin and 
CeawHn fought with the Britons^ and 
slew three kings, Commail, and Con- 
dida, and Farinmail, on the spot that 
is called Derham, and took from them 
three cities, Gloucester, Cirencester, and 
Bath. 



* From Laud, ^ aepep, Laud. ^ naej-, Laud, nan, Cot. ^ So Laud. * Abs. Laud, ' anbejw 
^ebbe, Laud. s popVam, Laud. ^ So Laud. Columbaoy Gibs, from Whcl. ' abbod, Laud^ 
^ nef, Laud, naej, Cot, ^ Cpcalin, Whel. incorrectly. ■> From Coi. Cephnej*, Gibs, jne Cu& paejf 
Ccaplinef bjio^op. Laud. on. 57 1. ° So Cant, m, Gibs, on Kent jepltmban. C.T.Bi. <* elboju 
men, Laud. p op, Cot. ^ -bona, Laud. ' Abs. Cant, C.T.bi, Ojlap, ibid. " Cu^sl^ Laudi 
as before. CJuJ^ulj:, Cant. C.T. bi. * Bjiytcaj, Cant. C.T.b'u « Biebcanpopba, Cant. Laud. C.T.b'u 
* -^yP*?* ^^' I^JXeanbujih, CT. a i. J ^x'«r^yr>X> ^^ -^xlepbuph, CaitL C.T. B.i. « From 
Laud. C.T, B i. > So C.T. e i. Benepn^un, Laud. ^ on Sam, Laud. ^ PP^PP) Jjiud. ^ Abs. 
Cant. C*T. a i. * Comipapl, Laud. Conma*^!, Cant, C.T. e i. Commaijl, Cot* ' Canbiban, Laud. Cot* 
s Fajitnmajil, Laud. Cot. Fapinmaejl, Cant. C.T. Bi, ^ jenemneb, Cot. > So Laud. Cant. CTbu 
cipjtpe, Cot. -ceytjio, Gibs, and cejrcji afterwards ; corrected now from Cant, C.T. si. ^ Gleapcejtpe, 
Lau4» Glapeciajtjie, Cot. Gleapceajtcp, Cant, C.T. b i. * Cipeocirfcpc, Cot, " Ba]?enceajtep, Cot. 

* An. 580. M.West. from a mistake in the last Saxon Chronicle. Matth. of Westminster, thooglb 
of the Roman numerals. < rid. Ethelw. in the wrong place (580), is more circumstantial 

* Ikdanforda, Ethel word and Florence of Wor* and explwasitoryy^^** Bedcfmforde casttlbtm, fuod 
cestcr ; who closely follow the best MSS. of the modo Bedford nuneupaiur:* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



87 



1>LXXTIII. — hvxxxu. 

*An. DLXXXIII. hep COaujiiciur 
pen J to Romana pice'' :• 

An. DLXXXIV. Rejt Ceaplin -j Cufa 
pukton pi^ Sa*^ Bp;^traj- on J^am jicebc 
))e mon nemneV Fe^anleaj^. ^ CuJ^an^ 
mon J>aBp* opj-loh. ^ Ceaplm monije^ 
tunap jenamK. *i unapimeblicu^ hiepe* 
peap 'l yppc- he ^ehpeapp Jionan^ to 
hip ajenum :• 

DLXXXV. DLXXXTII. 

An. DLXXXVIII. liep yeile cy^nmx* 
pop^pepbe. 1 /G^lpic picpofte aeptep 
him V. jeap :• 

DLXXXIX. DXC. 

An. DXCI. ""ftep micel pael-pyll" 
psep** ^'on Bpytene" aet J^obnep-bcopjeP. 
anb Ceaplin paep utabpipen". ^"i Ceol- 
pic pixabc VI. jcap'':- 

'An. DXCII. l3ep Gpejopiup penj 
t^ papbome on Rome'':- 

An. DXCIII. I2ep Ceaphn tJ Cpichelm 
•] Cpyba* poppupbon. tJ yBJ>elppi^ ' pen j 
to picc "on Nop^-hymbpum". **pe paep 
yBJ^elpicinj. /ejelpic Ibmj'^:- 

DXCIY. DXCV. 

An. DXCVI. I3ep Gpejopiup papa 



A.D. 583. This year 1 Maaricius suc- 
ceeded lo the empire of the Romans. 

A.D. 584. This year Ceawlin and 
Cutha fought with the Britons on the 
spot that is called Fretherne'. There 
Cutha was slain. And Ceawlin took 
many towns^ as well as immense booty 
and wealth. He then retreated to his 
own people. 

I 
A.D. 568. This year died king Ella; 

and Ethelric reigned after him five 

years. 

A.D. 59 1. This year there was a great 
slaughter of Britons at Wanborough ; 
Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom^ 
and Ceolric reigned six years. 

A.D. 692. This year^ Gregory suc- 
ceeded to the papacy at Rome. 

A.D. 593. This year died Ceawlin^ 
and Cwichelm, and Cryda; and Ethel- 
frith succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Northymbrians. Hq was the son of 
Ethelric ; Ethelric of Ida. 

A.D. 596. This year* Pope Gregory 



• So Petrob. \¥he1. Gibs. abs. C.T. b i. >> From Laud. "^ -lea, Laud. ' ^ So Laud. tani. 
Cu]»oii, Whel. incorrectly. « From CanL C.T. bi. ' mani^a, Laud, nmni^e, C.T. ai. f Prom 
'Laud. CanL Cr.ai. ^ -hce, Laud, .lie, Cant. C.T.bu < Abs. Laud, ad Jin. an. ^ ^onon, 
Cant. CT.BU i cm;, Cot. km;, C.T.Bi. » dxcii. Laud. Cant. CT.bi. a Abs. Laud. 
• J^pcapV, Laud. peajiW, Cant. C.T.bI. p Pobbnef.beoplijc, Whcl. incorrectly. Pobbef-, C.T.bu 
^ l>ep Ceol jiicj-obe ▼. jcaji. Whel. an. b90. So CT. b i. Fid. an. 611. ' From LauiL to which 
Gibson adds from the same MS^-^Gregorius papa hie augmentavit in prcedkatione cananem, Dietque 
nostras in tua pact disponas. So Flor. an. 697. M.West. dn. 599. — Gregortus adjecit in missa, Diesqua 
nostras in tua pace disponas, atque ah teterna damnatione nos eripias, et in electorum tuorum gr^t juheas 
numerari. • Cjiiba^ C.T.nl. ^ -Fep%> Laud. Cant. C.T.nU "^ Petrob. abs. Cant^ 

> Jn. 589. Flor. jin. 584. M. West. ^ jin. 589. . R. Dicet. inter X. Script. 

* Fethanleage, Ethel w. Fethanleah, Flor. optici ^ jin. 590. R. Dicet An. 588. Brompt. An. 598. 
Frithaakfaun, M;West Thorn. Fid.Bed. irttt.Ecdef.u93i, 

£2 



88 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



fenbe to Bpetene* Aujuftmum^. mib 
pel mone^um munecum^. '^^a Gobejf 
pojib /Gnjla*^ |)eobe jobfpellian^'':- 

An. DXCVIL I3ep onjonK Ceolpulp 
picfian on peyic-Seaxum. *j jymble he • 
peaht. 1 pon\ o^^e pi^S Anjel-c^n*. 
o^^e pi^ pealap. oB^e pi^S Peohtap^ 
oS^e piS Scottaf :• *Se paep CuJ^ainj. 
Cu|)a Cynpicinj, Cynpic Cepbicinj. 
Cepbic eiepinj. Glepa Gplinj. Gpla Ge- • 
pipnj. Gepip Pijinj. ^ij Fpeapminj. 
Fpeapine ™ Fpi'Sujapiftj. FpiBujap ' 
Bpanbin^. Bpanb Baelbae^in^. Baslbsej 
Pobenmj"':- "J3ep com Aujuptmup ^ 
hip jepepan to Gnjla-lanbe'':- 

DXCVIII. DC. 

An. DCL J3ep penbe Gpejopiup pe** 
papa® AiijuptineP Apcebipceope pal- 
Lum on Bpytene. ^ pel monije^ job- 
cunbe lapeopap' hun to pultume. "'J • 
Paulinup bif-ceop jehpyppbe* Gabpine" 
Nop^-hymbpa* cynmj to pulpihte^'':- 

DCII. 

An, DCIII. *l3ep ye^J^an. Scotta 



sent Augustine to Britain with very 
menyi monks^ to preaeh the word of 
God to the English people. 

A.D. 597. This year^ began Ceol- 
wulf to reign over the West- Saxons; 
and he constantly fought and conquer- 
ed^ either with the AngleSj or the Welsh, 
or the Picts, or the Scots. He was the 
son of Cutha^ Cutha of Cynric, Cyn- 
ric of Cerdic^ Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of 
Gewis^ Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, 
Fnewin of Frithgar, Frithgar of Brand, 
Brand of Balday, and Balday of Wo- 
den. This year came Augustine and his 
companions to England^. 

A.D. 601. This year* Pope Gregory 
sent the pall^ to Archbishop Augustine 
in Britain, with very many learned doc- 
tors^ to assist him ; and Bishop Paulinus 
converted Edwin, king of the Northum- 
brians, to baptism. . 

A.D. 603. This year i£dan7, king of 



• Bjiytene, ConU Laud, Bpiccne, CT.^u ^ Ajupnnttin, C.r.Bi. « munucum, Laud. * & 
Go%>cj popb 6n2;la 9coba jobjpcllobon. Laud. — ]ui Gobcp popb pcolban bobian Anjelcyane. Coi^ 

* An^la, C.T. b t. Gojla, Gibs. ' jobjrpelleban, Camt, C,T. b u Hoc tempore monastemm amicH Bene* 
diciiaLongobardisdesiructumesi. Gibs. from Laud* i on^sM^Cani, Laud. CT.b'u ^ yuiyLaud. jnuiii, 
Cani, C.T.b'u « An;el.cynn, Cmni. Loud. C.T.Bi. ^ Pyhtaj, Lojud. ^ Abs. Laud. « Fpeo. 
^Qjapinj. Fjieot^o^aji. Cant. CT.b'u as before. ■ From Coi. • Abs. Cani. C.T.sl. p Au^af. 
ciQO, Whel. A^ujnne, (7ait/. Cr.Bi, i maneja, XotuL Co/, mani^e, C.r.Bi. ' hjieyAj^ Laud. 

* *j betpynam ^am paej Paulmaj. ^ p^an bij- cop jehpyppbe to Cjiijre Gbpine Noji^umbjia ai^. Coi. 
« jehpifipcbe, Laud. « So Cani. Laud. C T.nu * No|i^$aii.hymb]ia, Cani. C.T. b i. r So C.T. b L 
falluhte, LautL ■ Peirob. to Dep man, &c. I3ep paep ^efeobc sc G^ejanjcane. Cani. C.T. a i. Whel. 

the Saxon traaslation by king Alfred. The sac* 



' **Fermt^adraginia.** — Bed. Brooipt. M.West 

• An. 5«g. Flor. Fid. Ethelw. 

^ For an interesting and minnte account of the 
arriTal of Augustine and bis companions in the 
isle of Thanet, their entrance into Canterbury, 
and their general reception in England, wd. Bede, 
HiU.Ecdet. i, U^ and the following chapters, with 



ceeding historians hare in general repeated the very 
words of Bcde. 

« An. 603. Thorn. Fid. Ethelw. 

« Fid, Bed. trui.Eccles. i.20. iL8. 

^ Mellitus, Justus, Panliaos, Rnffiniaans, &c. 

^ So Ikde. Aidanasi Fordoo. iBboOi JSifr. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



e9 



cf nj. peaht jn^ Daelpeoba* ^ pi^ jB]>el- 
pep^e. NopW-hymbpa cynje. aet Dasj- 
jtane**. *j man ojrj-loh maej^ ealnc*^ hip 
hcpe''. ^ Dap man opjrloh Deobbate. /6- 
|?elpep)?ejr bpojwp. mib eallan hip peo- • 
pobe. Ne boppte pi^Ban nan Scotta 
cmm^a Iseban hepe on )?ap J^eoba. I3e- 
pinjhuppan punu Isebbe j>one hepe J71- 
bep'':. 

An. DCIV. *J3ep Ajuptmup jehal- . 
;5obe 11. bipcopap. ClOeUitum ^ luptum. 
CDelhtum he penbe to bobianne^ Gapt- 
Seaxum puUuht. }>ap paep pe cinj jeha- 
t?enK Sa^byphr**. Ricolan punu. /6}>el- 
byphtep ppyptep'. ^one'^ ye|)elbypht^ • 
jepettre })ap** to cynje". "j yBJ^elbypht^ 
jepealbe"* CDellite bipcop-petl on Lun- 
benpic®. "j lupto Phe pealbe'' bipcop- 
petH on' l3popep-<:eaptpe* pe* ypxxiv. 
mila ppam Doppit-ceaptpe :• 

DCV, 

An. DCVI.'* Jiep pop^pepbe Gpe- 
jopiup ymb' tyn jeap })aBp \>e he up 
pulpiht penbe. "j hip paebep paep haten 
Gopbianup. *1 hip mobop Syluia'':- 

An. DCVII. I>cp Ceolpulp jepeaht^ 
pi^ SuB-Seaxum' :• "Anb hep /6)>elppi^ 



the Scots, fought with the Dalreathians^ 
and with Ethelfrith, king of the North- 
umbrians, atTheakstone' ; where he lost 
almost all his army. Theobald also, bro-r 
ther of Ethelfrith, with his whole arma- 
ment^ was slain. None of the Scottish 
kings durst afterwards bring an army 
against this nation^. The son of Hering- 
huse led the army thither. 

A.D.604. This year Augustine conse- 
crated two bishops, M ellitus and Justus* 
Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to 
the East- Saxons. Their king was called 
Seabert^, the son of Ricola, Ethelbert's 
sister, whom Ethelbert placed there as 
king. Ethelbert also gave Mellitus the 
bishopric of Lt)ndon ; and to Justus 
he gave the bishopric of Rochester^, 
which is twenty-four miles from Can- 
terbury*. 

A.D. 606. This year^ died Gregory; 
about ten years since he sent us baptism. 
His father was called Gordianus7^ and 
his mother Sihia. 

A.D. 607. This year Ceolwulf fought 
with the South -Saxons. And Ethel- 



* Dcolpeba, Laud, vid, p. 2. ^ Dae^pmjrane, Laud, « sine, Laud, ' From Laud. * Peiroh. 
ad Jki. an. Fid. Bed. iL 3. t)e]i 6jt.^eftze onfenjoa ^eleapin. 'j pulpihtej- bae%L ant>eji Sabyphoe cy- 
pio^e. Whel. Con/. CT.si. — *] (Delhte bij-ceope. Cant. Cr.Bi. )f bobienbe, P«/fo^. bobijenoe, 
£lfr« f geclypeb, Cot. ^ Saebejiht, Laud. ^ Jfurteji, Laud. ^ ^n, Petrab. ^ -bepht, Laud, 
"> ciDiDja, Laud. ' jiipe, Laud* ^ Lunbapic, CoL Lunben-eeajrpe, JElfr. 9 From Laud* 
he ^lef, Coi. ^ From Cot. ' Abs. Laud. • Rouef ciejqie, CoL l]^Tecyj«e, Whel. from Pttrok 
« jeo, Laud. Mlfr. « Dcr. Laud. C.T. si. « From Cant. C.T. b i. r peaht, Cant. C.T. a L 
■ Seaze, Whd. C.T. bI. « Petreb. ad Jin. an. abf. Cant. C.T.ai. Ad.dct. Laud. 



* Degsa8tan,Bed. iElfr. H.Haot. &c. 

• Fid. Bed. HisLEccks. i. 34. 

^ oL Sigdierhtus. Sebjiibce, C.T.ni. 

t ^' Cjpofeceajtpe. jeo ij j^pam CaDtpajuubyjiij 



on feopefi i zx. mtlum pejtpihise."-— £lfr. 
* Fid. Bed. Hist. Ecdes. iL 3. 
« jin.(K)5. Bed. Flor. M.West jfa.6O0« Efbelw. 
I Fid. Bed. Hut.Eeeles.U. I. 



so 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



laebbe hif psejibe to Lejaceaj^pe*. 'j 
j>3Ljx opj-loh unpim palena. *j ppa peap^ 
jepylb Aujupcinup pitejunje. j>e he 
cpae^ ** — Gip pealap nella^ pibbe pi^ up. 
hi*' pculon aet Seaxna** hanba poppup- « 
^an :• Dap man ploh eac cc. ppeopta. 
J>a comon })ybep f hi pcolban jebibban 
pop pafcna hepe. Bpocmail * pap jeha- 
ten heopa^ ealbopman^. pe atbaeppt** 
}>anon piptnja pum :• 

DCVIII. — DCX. 

An. DCXI. I3ep Cynejylp penj to 
j\icc on pept-Seaxum'. ^ heolb xxxi. 
pintpa. '^pe Cynejilp paep Ceohnj. Ceol' . 
Cuj^ainj. Cu]>a Cynpicinj^:- 

DCXII. DCXIII. 

An. DCXIV. J3cp Cynejilp ^ Cpic- 
helm jepuhton on Beambune. ^ opplo* . 
jon tpa ^upenbo™ peala" 'J xlvl^*:- 

DCXV. 

An. DCXVI. J5ep JE]>e\hf]}ht. Cant- 
papaP cyninj. pop^pepbe. ^pe aepopt 
pulpiht unbeppenj enjhpcpa cinja. ^ • 
he pap Gopmenpicep punu ''. Anb ' he 
pixabe Lvi.' pintpa. *i aeptep him^ *Gab- 



frith led his army to Chester ; where be 
slew an innumerable host of the Welsh ; 
and so was fulfilled the prophecy of 
Aug^ustine^ wherein he saith — '' If the 
Welsh will not have peace with us, they 
shall perish at the hands of the Saxons/' 
There were also slain 200 priests ^ who 
came thither to pray for the army of the 
Welsh. Their leader was called Broc* 
mail^ who with some fifty men escaped 
thence. 

A.D. 611. This year Cynegils sue* 
ceeded to the government in Wessex^ 
and held it one and thirty winters. Cy- 
negils was the son of Ceol^Ceol of Cutha» 
Cutha of Cynric. 

A.D. 614. This year Cynegils and 
Cwichelm fought at Bampton^ and slew 
two thousand and forty-six of the Welsh. 

A.D. 616. This year died^ Ethel- 
bert, king of Kent^ the first of English 
kings that received baptism^ : he was the 
son of Ermenric^. He reigned fifty-^ix 
winters^ and was succeeded by bis son 



* So Laud. Le^^eji-ciejtTie, Gibs. Whel. from Petrob, ^ cyaX, Laud. ^ heo, Laud. ' Sesieoa, 
Laud. * Scpomaily Laud. ^ byjia, Laud, i ealbop, LmuL ^ aetbaepjt, Laud. * peajt- Laud^ 
k Ahs.Laud. Kyocjilry C.T. bI. > Ceola, Cant. C.T.bU » >Qfenb, Laud. II. C.T.bu LTT. 
* Palana, Laud. « lxt. Laud. xlt. Cani. C.T. bI. » Cancpape, Laud. Coi. ^)^bpibt Canc» 
papa kiDj. C.T.bU ^ From Coi. Fid. an. i>lii. ' From Laud. Coi. • liii. Cbi. * feo; 
6ti;bbolb CO pice hij funu. Laud.-^~feD^ to pice Gabbolb bif funn. Cot. 



^ It was originally, perbaps, in the MSS. ICC. 
tbe abbreTialion for 1,200; which is the numl>er 
of the slain in Bede. The total number of the 
monks of Bangor is said to have been 2,100; most 
of whom appear to hare been employed in prayer 
on this occasion^ and only fifty escaped by flight. 



Fid. Bede, Hist.Eccles. u. 3. and the tribe of Latin 
historians who copy him. 

» 24 Febr. Bed. Flor. 

' Hirmerici, Brompt. Ermerici, Will. Malmesb. 
Gopmenpicej', ^Ifr.and Ethel w. Irminrici) Bed, 

« F^ Bede, ITifLEecks. u. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



SI 



balb hif pinu penj to pice'':- 'Anb ]>j 
ylcan jeape paej" ajan ppam ppym^e 
Bubban-jeapbep pip Bupenbu pintpa. 
^^ \u hunb pintpa. ^ xviii/':- [*^Sc 
poplet hip pulluht**. ^^ leovobe^ on hae- 
)«num l^eapc''. ppa f he^ haepbe hip 
paebep lave to pive. ^Da mynt Laii- 
pentiup. }>e )?a pap cpceb' on Cent*, f 
he polbe pu^ opep pae "j f ^ eall poplae* 
ten. Ac him com to on niht pe apt 
Petpup. 1 hine hetehce ppanj. pop^an 
jfc^ he polbe °*ppa J^a^ Gobep hypbe pop- 
leton. ^ het hine jan to }?am cyn^e. ^ 
bobian him pihtne'' ^eleapan. *] he ppa 
bybe. "j pe cmj ^^ecypbe to pihtan'^ 
jeleavan":- On j^ypep cinjep bajum. 
Ppe ylca" Laupentiupapceb'. pe^ pap on 
Cent aeptep Aujuptme'. poplSpepbc 
■iv. Non. Febp. 1 he pap bebypjeb be 
Ajuptme'':- *Se hah^a Aujuptinup be 
hip halan line hme habobe to bipcope. 
to J>i f Cpiptep jelaj^unj. ]fe )?a jit peep 
nipe on Gnjla-lanbe. nane hpile aept- 
ep hip popSp^e naepe butan apcebi- 



Eadbald. And in this same year bad 
elapsed from the beginning of the world 
five thousand siz hundred and eighteen 
winlersi. This Eadbald renounced hi6 
baptism, and lived in a heathen manner; 
so that he took to wife the relict of his 
father. Then Laurentius^who was arch* 

bishop in Kent, meant to depart south* 

• 

ward over sea, and abandon every thing. 
But there came to him in the night the 
apostle Peter, and severely chastised him*^ 
because he would so desert the flock of 
God. And be chained him to go to the 
king, and teach him the right belief. 
And be did so ; and the king returned 
to the right belief. In this king's day* 
the same Laurentius, who was archbi- 
shop in Kent after Augustine, departed 
this life on the second of February, and 
was buried near Augustine. The holy 
Augustine in his life time invested him 
bishop, to the end that the church of 
Christ, which yet was new in England^ 
should at no time after his decease be 



* Aba. Laud. Cot. ^ *j dccc. Cant C.T.bU ti* hunb pintpa *] xvi. Whel. ^ Peiroh, Laud* Cot 
sbs. CanL C*T* si. ^ Cjiiprcnbom, CoU * Abs. Cot. ' Iifobe, laud* t Abs. Land. ^ To 
^ttm tyman paj Laujientiup ajiceb. *j pop Vajie pipneppe ^ he haepbe pop ^ep cyn^ep un^eJeauoD he 
h«pbe jemynt eall ^ip lanb pop-letan. *J oaep pn papao. Ac pc'p Petpup pe apP aoep nihtep bine 
beapbhce ppsnj. pop%fi ]re he polbe Gobep heopbe ppa pop.l«con. *j het: hine \oxsk cyn^e heapblica 
pihtoe jeleauan tecaii. Od. * Caeot, Laud. ^ From Laud. Cot* ^ *fy Laud. ^ From Land* 
» pibte. Laud. ^ 2^epbe *J peapV ^epullob. Laud. ^ From Cot. ^ ])e, Laud. ' -tmup, Laud* 
* 1 pep bebypjeb be Aujuptine in bie iv. Nonapom Febp. Laud^^'^mu Febp. *J he pap bebypib. Whel* 
« CoL from fiede, Hist. Eccles. u. 4. 



' Ethel werd computes 5800 years to the year 
606 ; in which he places the death of pope Gre. 
gory. The whole clause is omitted in Laud, Cot, 
more conTcniently, perhaps, to introduce the le- 
gend which follows, abridged apparently from Bede, 
Hiit,EccU9. u. 6. 

* Literally, '' swingid^ or acoorged him." The 



expression of king Alfred, in his translation of 
Bede, is still stronger: ^^ *j hine myceipe tybe ^pe 
bejian neahte roib ^pimmum ppmjum pponj," &c» 
But both Bede and Alfred begin by recording the 
matter as a vition, or a dream ; whence the transi- 
tion is easy to a matter of fact, as here stated bjp 
the Norman interpolators of the Sazoa annals. 



S2 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ycope'':- Da' «eptep him penj CDellitup 
to apceb'-bome^ j-e^ paj- aep* bij-cop op 
Lunben. ^)>a pupbon Lunben-pape hae- 
J?ene. J^aep OOellituf aep paejr''. ^'j ^ap 
bmnan pip pintpe''. ^pixienbum Gab- 
balbum''. CDellitup pop^pepbe*^. Da aep- 
tejx him** penj to apceb'-bome lup- 
tup. 'pe pap bipcop op l3pove-ciptpe. 
^ %aep tx> ^ehal^obe Romanum to bi- 
ycope"':] 

^An. DCXVII. Rep peap« iEfelppi^. 
Nop^ymbpa cininj. opplajen ppam 
Rcobpalbe. Gapt-Gnjla cininje. ^ Gab- 
pine -flillinj penj to pioe. ^ X^ybe eall 
Bpytene buton Cant-pape anpe. *J a- 
topepbe ut jfz, aej^elinjap. iE|)elppiScp 
f una. f paep aepept Ganppib. Oppalb ^ 
Oppm. Oplac. Oppubtt. Oplap ^ Oppa'':- 

DClfyill. — DCXX. 

^An. DCXXIV. Rep pop«pepbc COel- 
litup epccbipcop":- 

An. DCXXV. 'Rep Pauhnup ppam 
lupto J^am apcebipceope paep ^ehabob 



without an archbishop. After him Mel« 
litus, who was first bishop of London, 
succeeded to the archbishopric. The 
people of London^ where M^llitus was 

• before^ were then heathens ^ ; and within 
five winters of this time, during the reign 
of Eadbald, Mellitus died. To him suc- 
ceeded Justus, who was bishop of Ro- 
chester, whereto he consecrated Roma- 

• nus bishop. 

A.D. 617. This year« was Ethel- 
frith, king of the Northumbrians, slain 
by Redwald, king of the East-Angles ; 
and Edwin, the son of Ella, haying 

• succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all 
Britain, except the men of Kent alone, 
and drove out the Etheliugs, the sons 
of Ethelfrith, namely, Enfrid, Oswald, 
Oswy, Oslac, Oswood, Oslaf, and 0&« 

A.D. 624. This year3 died archbi* 
shop Mellitus. 

A.D. 625. This year^ Paulinas was 



invested bishop of the Northumbrians, 
Nop%an-hymbpum™ to bipcope^': ^on . by archbishop Justus, on the twelfth day 
XII. kt. Au^/^*^:* before the calends of August. 



* From Laud, Cot. ^ -ftole, Cot. * ^, Laud* ^ Laud, from Bede. * *J ^ ^ ynb 
¥. piotjia. Laud. ' From Laud. « fop co Cpip%. Laud. ^ Abs. Laud. ' 'j he jehal^ube 
CO l3popeceajtpe Romaaum. ^p he eji psf bif cop. Laud. ^ Abs. Cani. C.T. si. ^ So C.T. si* 
t>e|i lopntf apceb' jehaljobe Pauline co apcebipcop to Noj^umbpe. Cot. bep lupnij apceb' ^e- 
haljobe PAalinum co bipcope. Laud. "* So Cant. C.T. b i. Nop^-hymbpam, Gibs, from Whel* 

> tTtc Gfclus Dumysii quinque decennovenaUhus constans, hoc est, zct. annis. Sumiique exordium a xzz. 
anno Incamatumis Dondni, et desmit in dcxxti. anno. Hie ordo decennovenaiit quern GrtBci enma iaiik, 
Johannes Papa Kaderida vocat, a S. Patribus in Nicea synodo Jmt constitutus, in quo zir. iuna paschal* 
emni anno sine uUa dubitatione. Gibs; from Laud. Fid. M.West. on. 532. — ^The following explanatioo 
of this semi-barbarous passage appears absolutely necessary : Here ends the sixth cycle of Dionysius. 
The cycle consists of fire nineteens ; that is, ninety^fife years ; and commences its computation from 

' <^ Mellitnm Londinenses ahjecerunt, idololatris * An. 616. Flor. 
magis pontificibus seruire gaudenies.'* — Brompt ' An. 625. Flor. Thorn. '' 8 kai jifait.'*— Flor. 
from Bede, Hist. Eccles. u. 0. t ^»* <^20. Flor. R. Dicet. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S3 



An. DCXXVI. *l3ep com Gomep 
f pam Cpichelme. pefC-Seax»a cmin^e. 
^htre f he polbe opftinjan Babpine ci- 
ninje. Ac he opfCanj Lilian hip J^ejn. 
y FopShepe. ^ J^one cininj jepunbobe:- • 
Anb )?aepe ilcan nihtre pep Gabpme boh- 
tep acenneb. j^o paep yehaten Ganpleb. 
Da ^ehet: fe cininj Pauline, f he polbe 
hip bohtep jepyllan Gobe. 51 p he polbe 
abibban act: Gobe. f he mopt hip peonb • 
apyllan. |?e fone pca|)an J)ibep aep penbe*- 
Anb he }>a pop on pefC-Seaxum mib 
pypbe. •] apylbe J^aep v. cinmjap. "j )>aBp 
polcej" my eel opploh'':- ^hej\ Ganplaeb. 
6bpinep bohtop cyninjep. pap jepulv. 
pab*^ on jK)ne hal^an aepen Pentecop- 
ten''. ^^ j^ cininj binnan xii. mona^ 
psep jepullob on Gaptpum. mib eallum 
hip bujo^e. J^a paepon /Bftpan on 11. 
ibup App'. Dip paep jebon on Gopeppic. • 
jyasp he sep het: jetimbpian cypican op 
rpeope, j-eo paep jehal^obe on fUe Pe- 
tpey naman. Daep j^ cmmj j-ealbc Pau- 
line bij-cop-jxtl. "i J^aep he het ept tim- 
bpian mapan cypican op ptane". •'Anb . 
hep penj Penba to pice. ^ pixabe xxx. 
pintpa''. ^ he haepbe piptn pintpa |)a )?a^ 
he to pice penj. « Penba paey pybbmj. 



A.D. 626. Thi9 year* came Earner 
from Cwicbclm, king of the West- 
Saxons^with a design to assassinate king 
Edwin; but he killed Lilla his thane, 
and Fortbere^ and wounded the king^. 
The same night a daughter was born 
to Edwin^ whose name was Eanfleda. 
Then promised the king to Paulinus, 
that he would devote bis daughter to 
God, if be would procure at the hand 
of God, that he might destroy his enemy, 
who had sent the assassin to him. He 
then advanced against the West- Saxona 
with an army, felled on the spot five 
kings^ and slew many of their men. This 
year Eanfleda, the daughter of king 
Edwin, was baptized, on the holy eve 
of Pentecost^. And the king within 
twelve months was baptized^ at Easter, 
with all his people. Easter was then on 
the twelfth of April. This was done at 
York, where he had ordered a church 
to be built of timber, which was hal- 
lowed in the name of St. Peter. There 
the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; 
and there he afterwards ordered a larger 
church to be built of stone. This year 
Penda began to reign ; and reigned thirty 



the tbtrlieth year of the iacarnation of our Lord. The sixth cycle, therefore, ends in the year 625. 
This arrangement of time into periods of nineteen years each, which the Greeks and Pope John call 
EvuaKaiiexatmipiia, was established by the holy fathers at the Council of Nice [A.D. 311], wherein 
it was determined, that ihe fourteenth pleniiunium should be tlie paschal full moon, every year, without 
any doubt or controTersy. 

■ LautL from Bede. ^ An. dcxxtik Coi. "i Pauhnuj ^efullabe bij bohtop on Pentecojren tpeija 
jum. Laud. ^ jojrullob, Cant. C.T, bu ^ From Laud. ^ So Laud, *j Peiiba haefbe xxx. pmrpa 
pice. Whel. C.T.bi. ^ Abs. Cant. C.T.bu i Abs. Laud, to the end of the year. 

^ ^n. 6^7. Flor. Fid, Bed, Hist, Eccles.W.O. neraret per carpus occisi miUtis,** — Florence, 

' " Vervm IMla minister regi amicissimus max from Bede. 

ante ictum pungentis suum interposuit carpus § sed ' ''Im die Peniecastes,*' — Bed. *^xn^ tUe post 

tanta vi ferrum %f\fixii hostis, ut etiam regem vuU Pentecosten,** — Neo. op. Galo, Lei. &c. 



34 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Pybba "Cpybmj. Cpyba' Cj^nepalbmj. 
Cynepalb Cnebbinj. Cnebba Icelinj. 
Icel Gomaepinj. Gomaep An3el]>eopin3. 
Aii3cl]>eop Oppin J. Oppa paepmunbinj. 
Paepmunb pihtlaejinj. pihdaej poben- 



An. DCXXVII. ^Rep Gbpine cininj^ 
paep jepulpab* *ppam Pauline', mib hip 
Siobe. ^on Gaptpon'^:- *Anb eac J>ep 
Paulmup bobab pulluht: on Lmbippe. 
Jaep jelipbe aspept pum pice man mib 
eaipe hip bujuj^e. pe psep ^ehaten Blec- 
ea'':* KAnb ^in \>zy tib'. Jionopiup perij 
to papbome 'aeprep Bonipace'. J^e yen'be 
Pauhne hibep* pallium. Aftb luptup ep- 
cebipcop pop^pepbe *iv. ib. Nov. "j J3o* 
nopiup pep jehaljob ppam Pauline on 
LincoIIan^ ^to apceb' ro Cant\ Anb' 
")7am r^onopium pe papa penbe eac pal* 
hum^ "j he penbe Scottum jeppic. f 
hi pcolbon jeceppan to pihtum 6ap- 
tpum" :• 

An. DCXXVIII. Rep Cyne^ilp :J 
Cpichelm jepuhtun** pi^ Penban a&c 



winters. He had seen fifty winters when 
he began to reign. Penda was the soo 
of Wy bba, Wybba of Creoda^ Creoda of 
Cy newald^ Cy ne wald of Cnebba, Cnebba 
of IceL Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angel-' 
thew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of Wear- 
mund^Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley 
of Woden. 

A.D. 6S7. This yeari was king Ed^ 
win baptized at Easter^, with all his 
people, by Paulinus, who also preached 
baptism in Lindsey, where the first per* 
son who believed was a certain rich man^i 
of the name of Bleek, with all his peo- 
ple. At this time^ Honorius succeeded 
Boniface in the papacy, and sent hither 
to Paulimis the pall; and archbishop 
Justus haying departed this life on the 
tenth of November^, Honorius was con- 
secrated at Lincoln archbishop of Can-* 
terbury by Paulinus ; and pope Hono- 
rius^ sent him the pall. Aodhesentan in- 
junction to the Scots, that they should re- 
turn to the right celebration of Easter 6, 

A.D. 628. This year7 Cynegils and 
Cwichelm fought with Penda at Ciren- 



* Cpeobin;. Cjieoba. Cani, CT.Bi. ^ bep PAuhnuf j^^pullobe 6bpine. Noji^arobpa cin;. oo 6aj« 
qian. mib hij )eobe. Coi, ^ kin^^ CanL C*T. bu ^ ^cfuilohy Laud, Cani, C,T,bu ^FromLaud. 
' Abs. Laud, on GajqiaO) CT.bu < From Laud, Cot. ^ on ^ijan jeape. Coi. ^ Abs. Coi. 
^ Lincoln, Coi. ' From CoL "* Dam eac je papa Donoptiif fenbe pallium. Coi. — ^Honorins being 
the name of the pope and the archbishop. ^ j^fuhcon, Laud, ^epabcan, Cant. C.T.bu 



^ An, 628. Flor. "Pnedicahai autem Paulinus 
verbum etiam provincicB Undissi, quiS est prima ad 
meritUanam Hutnbre fluvii ripam, pertingens usque 
ad mare, prcefectumque Lindocolince civitatisg cui 
nomen erat Blecca, primum cum domo sua amvertit 
ad dmninum.'* — Bede, Hist. Eccles. ii. 14. 

* "Eboraci, die paschm, pridie id. ApriUs^ in eC' 
elesia 5. /'dri.**— Bod. "Die pasduB, qui tunc Juit 
idus Aprilis "'^Thorn. 



» An. 622. R. Dicct. •• An. 629. R. Dicet. 

« rid. Bede, Hist. Eccles. ii. 18. 

• Fid. Bede, Hist. Eccles. ii. 19. iii.25. "Eo tem^ 
pore XIV. annarum errorem in ohservatione paschm 
apud Scotos exortum Honorius papa per epist^lam 
redarguii.** — Flor. '' Ohservandum esse pascha pu* 
iarunl a 14 luna usque ad vicesimam Dowumc^ re* 
surreciionis ^iem.**— Bed. 

^ An. 6^9. M.We8t« 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S5 



Cyjien-ccajrtpe*. ^'j p^^an"^ ^jejnnjo- 
toan ]>a^^ :• 

DCXXIX. DCXXXI. 

An. DCXXXIL )3ejt paef ^ eojippate 
jepulpab® :• 

An. DCXXXIII. hep Gbpine cminj^ 
paej-5 opjrlejcn** * ppam Cabpallan ^ Pen- 
ban on l^Se^-pelba. on ii. ibup Octob. *J 
•he pixabe xvii.*^ jp. ^ eac man ploh hip 
j-unu Of ppiS mib him. Anb J>a jry'Sjmn 
popan Ceabpala *J Pcnba. '^ popbyban 
eall Nop^-h^^mbpa lanb'":- ' Da f Pauh- 
uup jepeah. J>a ^enam yBl^elbupje. Gab- 
3}mep lape. ^ jepat on pcipe to Cent. 
^ Gabbolb ^ Jionopiup him onpen^on 
ppi^e appu police: ^ pealbon him bipcop- 
petle on Ropcp-ceptpe. tl he J^aep pu- 
nobe to hip enbe'^:- 

An.DCXXXIV. »l3ep penjtoDeap- 
ne^-pice Oppic. Jwne Pauhnup aep je- 
pullob. pe paep /Blppicep pui^a /Bbpmep 
psebepan. Anb to Baepnicum penj /6- 
j>elppi*ep punu Ganppi^:* Anb eac"^ 
•hep Bypimip bipcop** bobube" aepept* 
yept-Seaxum pulpyhtP 'unbep C^ne- 
ylpe cininje:- Se Bipmup com J)ibep 
be J^onopiup popbum J?ep papan. "j he 



cester^ and afterwards entered into a 
treaty there. 

A.D. 632. This year^ was Orpwald< 
baptized. 

A.D. 683. This year^ king Edwin 
was slain by Cadwalla and Penda> on 
Hatfield moor^ on the fourteenth of Oc- 
tober^. He reigned 17 years. His son 
Osfrid was also slain with him. After 
(his Cadwalla and Penda went and ra- 
vaged all the land of the Northumbri- 
ans; which when Paulinus saw, he took 
Ethelburga^ the relict of Edwin, and 
went by ship to Kent Eadbald and Ho» 
norius received him very honourably, 
and gave him the bishopric of Roches- 
ter, where he continued to his deaths. 

A.D. 634. This year Osric, whom 
Paulinus baptized, succeeded to the go- 
vernment of Deira. He was the son of 
Elfric, the uncle of Edwin. And to Ber- 
nicia succeeded Eanfritb, son of Ethel- 
frith. This year also^ bishop Birinusfirst 
preached baptism to the West-Saxons^ 
under king Cynegils. The said Birinus 
went thither by the command of pope 



• Cipn.y Laud. ^ So Cant. CT. b i. « -^obon, Laud. ' peap^, Cant. C.T. b t * sepoilobi 
Laud, ^ef allab, Cant. C.T.b'u ' Fron Laud, cidj, Coi, f pcap^, Cani. Laud. C.T.bu ^ ofj-la» 
^ao. Laud. > From Laud. ^ vii. Laud. -incorrect!/. ^ From Laud, ad Jin. an. Anb Pau- 
luiDj hpejipe to Cant-pajium *j jcpec ^ bifceop-jetl on bpop ef-ceajtpc Whel. — ^hprppe eft to "Dfio}:. 
.oeap^jie. CanU CT. b i. — Aob Pauhnup bpyppbe anjiean mib iGJwibupje. Cbpinep lane, to Caot-pajiuni. 
ry l3onopiup apcb' unbejipeuj hi mib mycelan pujiiSpcype. anb jip Pauline bipcop-petl on t)]ioue^ijejr]ie» 
"j he ]mp piinobc. "j jepet j( bipceop-jetl on l3|iope-ceapcpe. Cot. ^ We ought to read Deapna, or 
Deipa, as superscribed in Laud. So also an. dcxliy. * Abs. Laud, byj-ceop, Cant, * bobabe, 
Cant. Cr.Bi. p pulluht, Laud, pulpiht, C.T.nX. Cpijtep j^leauan, Cot, 



^ Fid. Bede^ Kist.EccUs.ii.lb. 
« EorpenwaldoB, M.West* 
* An. ah M.West. 



< ''DUiduum OcloW,.-^Fl. "it. id. Oc/.' -Bed. 
« Fid. Bede, Hist. Bccle$. ii. 20. 
^ An. 633. R. Dicet. 

f2 



36 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. ' 



faep pap bif cop o^ hij- lypey cnbe. Anb 
Ofpote eac hep penj to Nop^an-hym- 
bpan pice. ^ he pixabe ix. pmtep. CDan 
2;et:ealbe him f nijon^e pop ^an hef en- 
j-cipe \>e hi bpu^on )?e hi ])et an jeap 
pixobon betpix him tl Gabpme'':- 



An. DCXXXV. Rep Cynejilp cmj* 
paep*' jepulpab^ ppom Bypine** })am bi- 
pcope*^ ^on Dopc-ceaptpe'^ •] Oppolb^. 
** Nop^-hy rabpa cininj". hip onpenj:* 

An. DCXXXVL' I3ep Cpichelm cmj^ 
paep jepulpab* on Dopcep-ceaptpe^. 1 
J?y* ilcan jeape he™ pop^pepbe. Anb 
Felix bipcop bobabe eapt-Gnjlum" 
Cpiptep jeleapan® :• 

DCXXXVII. DCXXXVIII. 

An. DCXXXIX. Pl3ep Bypinup pul- 
pabe^i Cufpeb cinj' on Dopcep-ceap- 
tpeK '1 onpenj hine'' him to puna^:- 

An. DCXL." hejx Gabbalb^ Canr- 
papa cyninj. pop^pepbe. ^J he pic- 
pobe XXV. pintep'':- 'lie haepbe tpe- 
jene punu. Gpmenpeb ^ Gpcenbephc''. 
*1 }>ep Gpcenbepht pixobe aeptep hip 



Honorius ; and he was bishop there M 
the end of his life. Oswald also this 
year socceeded to the government of the 
Northumbrians, and reigned nine win* 
t^rs. The ninth year was assigned tn 
him^ on account of the heathenism in 
which those lived who reigned that one 
year betwixt him and Edwin^. 

A.D. 635. This year king Cynegill 
was baptized by bishop Birinus at Dor- 
chester; and Oswald, ]^^^g of the North** 
umbrians, was his sponsor^. 

A.D. 636. This year king Cwicbeloi 
was baptized at Dorchester, and died the 
same year. Bishop Felix also preached 
to the East-Angles the belief of Christ. 



A.D. 639. This year Birinus bap- 
« tized king Cutbred at Dorchester, an4 
received him as his son. 

A.D. 640. This year died Eadbald^ 

king of Kent, after a reign of twenty* 

five winters. He had two sons, Er- 

. nienred and Ert'^nbert^; and Erkenbert 

reigned there after his father. He over* 



* kiDj, Laud. C.T,ai. ^ peap%, Cani, Cot. CT. si. « ^epullob, LavJ. jepullab, CanU Coi. 
C r.Di. ^ Bypino,Whel. Cant, CT.b'i, « bijcop,Whcl. ' lu Dojica-ceajtpe. Laud, on Dopkc* 
ccajrpe. Cant. C.T. b i. • Ojrpaib, Cant. C.T. b i. ^ From Cot. » ^cpullob, Cant. Laud. C,T. b i. 
^ Dofikcceajtjie, Cant. C.T. si. > J^ain, Laud. » From Laud. ^ .Saiiglam, Laud. ^ ^elepn, 
Laud. P Dep Cu>jie cinj peap^ gcfullub. Cot. 4 piillabc, Cant. C.T.^'u » So C.T.bI. kinj, 
Cant, * 1 eac hip onpenj. Cant. CT, si. * funu, Laud. CT.bi, ^ ncxxxix. Laud. > So 
Laud. Cant, Sabbolb, Cot. Rtbbalb, Whel, 7 je yxj cinmj xxit. pintjia. Laud. Cot. ■ Petroh. 
^b&.JjQud. Cot, Cant. C.T.^u ■ Pttrob. abs. Cant. CT. b'i. — ^ jrenj hij fanu €pcenbpiht co ^la 
f tee. Laud. *j penj hif fuiiu 6jiccnbephr to pice. Cot, 

' " Cunctis placuit, regum tempora computantU * Osric and Eaiifrith. Fid, Bed. H. EccL iii. 1.. 



lui, ut ahiata de medio regum perfidorum memo^ 
fM, idem annus sequentis regis, id est Osualdi, viri 
Deo diUcti, regno assignareturS*^-'Bi:dcy Hist. Ec" 
€ies. iii. I. 



^ Fid. Bedc, Hist. Eccles. iii. 7. 
* al. iEthelbald. 

' al. Ercomberht^ Arcenbribt, Ecbrighty kc. 
Fid. an. 064. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



9r 



jraebep'^. •Se topeapp ealla ]>a beopel'*- 
j;ylb on hip pice, "j asjiojx Gnjlifcpa^ 
cinin^a he jejrerte GafTop^^-paBj^en*^. 
Daep bohcop^ paep jeKiaten GpconjocaK. 
hah^pemne. ^ punbophc man. jtaejie^ 
mobop paep Sexbuph. Annan bohtop. 
Gapc-Gnjla cinjep* :• ''Anb 6pmenpeb 
jeptpynbe trpejen punu. J^a py^^an 
fap%en jcmaptpobe op Dunope":- 

DCXLI. 

An.DCXLII.* «IiepOppalb.Nop>an- 
hymbpa cyninj. opplejen paep'' [°ppam 
Penban Su%-hymbpum on CDapep-pclb. 
on jfam baeje non. Auj. ^ hip he pap 
bebyp^eb on Beapj^an-eje. Daep hah- 
nep "j punbop® psepon pyS^an mani^- 
pealbe jecybbe jeonb hipP ej^lanb. 1 hip 
hanba pmbon on Bebban-buph un^e- 
bpopnobe. Anb J^am ilcan jeape }>e Op- 
palb paep opplajen penj Oppiu hip bpo- 
Bop to NopSan-hymbpan pice, tl he 
fiixobe rpa laep xxx. ^eapa :• J 

An. DCXLIII.*' 'J5ep Cenpalh* penj 
to J?ept-Seaxna pice. 1 f^ heolb xxxi." 



turned all the idols in the kingdom!^ 
and first of English kings appointed a 
fast before Easter^. His daughter was 
called Ercongota^ — holj damsel of an 
illustrious sire ! — whose mother was Sex- 
burga, the daughter of Anna^ kimg of 
the East-Angles. Ermenred also begat 
two sons^^ who were afterwards martyr- 
ed by Thunnon 

A.D. 642. This year^ Oswald, king 
of the Northumbrians, was slain by Pen« 
da, king of the Southumbrians, at Mir* 
field^, on the fifth day of August; and 
his body was buried at Bardney. His ho- 
liness and miracles were afterwards dis^ 
played on manifold occasions through- 
out this island ; and his hands remain 
still uucorrupted at Bamburgh7. The 
same year in which Oswald was slain, 
Oswy his brother succeeded to the go- 
vernment of the Northumbrians, and 
reigned two less than thirty years. 

A.D. 643. This year Kenwal sucr 
ceeded to the kingdom of the West- 



• From Laud, Cot. to "j Cjinienp b. ^ beouol. Cot. * Gn j!a, Coi. ^ Bajvep^ Cot. • peayten, 
Laud, ' bohcrp, Cot, • Cpcenjoca, Cot, ^ )>.ip-, Coi. • cinin jay, Laud, ^ Petroh, abs. Laud* 
Cant. Cot. C*T. Bi. > dcxli. Laud. Cant. {7.7*. si. *■ bejt yxj Ofpait> of-fla^en Nop^ymbjia cu 
nirij. Laud, * From Laud. **/. ptt!bo|t, Gibs. p An erratum perhaps for chip, N.S. unleu it 
refers to Bardney. ^ dcxli. Laud. C.T.ni. ' dcxli. Cant. * Kenpcalh, Cani. C.T.bu almost 
invariably. « From CanL » xxi. Laud. Fid. an. dclxxii. 



> rid. lii'de, Hist. Eccles. iii. 8. ''jEthelberhtui 
tt Edbaldus, ai'us ac pater Ereonberhti, Jidem am-' 
fJexi Juerant, tamen citra destructionem idolorum 
cam colebant.'*— Malmsb. 

' i.e. (Quadragesimal, 

* Fid. Bcde, Hist. Eccles. iil. 8. 

* Ethelbert and Ethelred. Fid. CapgraTe, tn 
^thelbrighto et Ethelredo, Monast. Angl. i. 84. 
Sim* Dunelm. tni/. Hist. *' Thunor, jubente vel aw* 



nivente Ecbrighto, Cantiorum rege, Ethelredum at* 
que Elhelbrightum, regios juvenes, et veros CantiiS 
hteredes, interfecit apud Estriam.'* (sc. Eastry.)-^ 
Fid. Fit. Edburgce. '*Filu Ermenredi, patrui Ec- 
berti, regis CantUB^ ^ Thunner occisi sunt in Estrey, 
villa regia." — M.West. 

» jfn. 644. M.Wesf, 

^ Marsefeld, Brompf. Marelfeld, M.Wesf. 

' Fid. Bcde, Hist. Eccles: iii. 0, 0, 10, ^ 



9S 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pintpa":* *Anb fe^ Cenpalh het atr^m- 
bpan^ ]>2i^ ealban*'. cy^pican^ on pintan- 
ceaftpe''. Son j-Jfe Petjxey naman''. ^^ 
he paef Cyneplpnj'':- 

An. DCXLIV." Rep "^Paulinur pop«- 
pepbc'' Ron J^poue-cea[^pe'^ ye ]fe^ paep 
aepcebifcop *aep on Gopeppic-ceajrtrpe. 
^ ept'' on JSpopepceajrtpe"*. ^vi. ib. 
Octobp/' °Se paef bifcop an laej" xx. 
pintpa.*] II. monj^aj- ^ xxi. baja'V ®Anb 
hep penj Oppinep pebpan puna, punu 
Oppicep. Co Deapne-pice. tl pixabe vii. 
pmtep'':- 

An. DCXLV.P J3ep Cenpalh cmj^ 
paep' abpypen* ""op hip pice'' ppom Pen- 
ban cyninje:- 

An. DCXLVI.' ftep Cenpalh cmj* 
paep^ jepulpab*:* 

DCXLYII. 

An. DCXLVIII.y Jiep Cenpalh je- 
pealbe Cu)?pebe* hip maeje iii. J^upen- 
bo* hiba* lonbep^ be /Gpcep-bune :• 'Se 



Saxons^ and held it one and thirty win* 
ters. This Kenwal ordered the old^ 
church at Winchester to be built in the 
name of St. Peter. He was the son of 
Cynegils. 

A.D. 644. This year^ died at Roches* 
ter^ on the tenth of October^ Paulinus^ 
who was first archbishop at York, and 
afterwards at Rochester 3. He was bi- 
shop nineteen^ winters, two months^ and 
one and twenty days. This year the son 
of Oswy'sunele (Oswin), the son of Os- 
ric^ assumed the government of Deira, 
and reigned seven winters. 

A.D. 645. This year king Kenwal 
was driven from his dominion by king 
Penda. 

A.D. 646. This year king Kenwal 
was baptized. 

A.D. 648. This year Kenwal gave his 
relation Cuthred three thousand hides 
of land^ by Ashdown. Cuthred was the 



* Abs. Laud. CT. bi. ^ An. dcxlh. Cani. C^T, bi. ^ jetimbjiaa. Cot, arymbpian, Laud, 
*^ jJ, Coi. « From Cani. C.T. b i. ' cypicean, CanL CT. b i. mynjrcp, CoL « From Cot. ^ From 
Land, ^ J>cxLUJ. Laud. Cani, CT.BU ^^ pojt^pepbe Panhnnj- aepcebifcop. Latuf. ^ Abs. LaiuL 
^ t)pofceap^e, CanL C.T.nl. » From Laud. Cot. he, Cot. ^ From Laud. Gribson, who hat 
attempted to correct this passage from William of Malmsbury, might hare referred the reader to the 
Chronicle itself, an. 634. I suspect that we ought to read Ojpiuef for Oyyinej. Fid. Laud. 617^ 64fty 
65ly 670. So also, an. 655 (654, Laud.)^ where Ojyin is introduced several years after his death, w« 
ought to read Ojji, not Ojpiu, as Gibson proposes. p ocxut. Cant. Laud. CT.bi. ^ I^mj, 
Cant. CT.^\. ' peap%^, Cant, C.T. si. * at^bpifen, Cant. C.T.nu ^ nczLV. Laud. Cant. 
&.T. bI. ^ pcapV, Cot. ' jefuliob, Laud. Cot. jep ullab, Cant. C.T. bi. y dcxltii. Cant, ocxlti. 
C.T. B i. * Gabpebe, Laud. » >ujenba, Laud. III. C.T. b i. for IXT. ^ lanbej, Laud. C.T. b i. 



^ Thn epithet appears to hare been inserted in 
some copies of the Saion Chronicle so early as the 
tenth century ; to distinguish the otd church of 
minster at Winchester from the new, consecrated 
A.DL903. 

I Fid. Bede, Hist.Eccles. iii. 14. 



* Fid. an. 625, 626, 633. 

* Literally, " one less than twenty,'* &c. So 
in Latin, undevigintu " 18 annis, mens. 2» at 21 
t/te^w."— Flor. 

* "rerwafcwtti*."— H.Hunt. /Cpichdmef- 
hlcap, Cnckamsley HQl, in Berkshire. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



39 



Cu])peb paej- Cpichelmin^. Cpichelm Cf- 
ncjilpnj":. 

BCXLIX. 

An. DCL.* ^liep yBjelby^phr^ op 
Galpalura^ jeptrep Bypine. J>am Roma- 
mpcan*^ bij-ceope^ onpenj ^pept-Seax- 
na** bipcopbomc*'':- 

An. DCLI> *]5ep Oppme cynmj 
pcapB"* opplejen''. "*on xiii. kt. Sep- 
tembpip''. 1 "J^aepymbe xii. nihr". Ai- 
ban^ bifceop popBpepbc "on ii. kt. Sep- 
tembpip'':- 

An. DCLII. )2cp Cenpalh jepeaht 
act: Bpaban-popba be Apene :• 

An. DCLill.P l^ep CDibbel^enjle^ 
onpen^on unbep Peaban* ealbopman' 
pihtne jeleapan :- 

An. DCLIV." Rep "Anna cyninj"' 
peap^y opplejen'. *J Botiilp* '^onjon 
y^z mynptep timbpian" ^^aet Icanhoe''. 
*Anb hep pop^pepbe l3onopiup epce- 
bipcop"'. "^on n. kt. Octobp.":- 

An. DCLV.« ^liep Penba poppeap*'^ 



son of Cwichelm^ Cwichelm of Cjne* 
gils. 

A.D. 650. This year Egelbert, frpm 
Gaul^ after Birinus the Romish bishop, 
obtained the bishopric of the West- 
Saxons^. 

A.D. 65 1 • This year king Oswin was 
slain, on the twentieth day of August; 
and within twelve nights afterwards died 
bishop Aidan^ on the thirty-first of Au- 
gust*. 

A.D. 652. This year Kenwal fought 
at Bradford by the Avon. 

A.D. 653. This year the Middle- 
Angles under alderman Peada received 
tlie right belief. 

A.D. 654. This year king Anna was 
slain^, and Botolph^ began to build that 
minster at Icanhoe. This year^ also died 
archbishop Honorius, on the thirtieth of 
September. 

A.D. 655. This year Penda was slain^ 



• DczLix. Cani, Laud. C.T, bi. ^ bcp popVpepbe Bipmnj bijcop.*) ^jbepruj- jfe Fpencifca paej' 
29habob. Coi. c .hpihc, Cani. Laud. CT. bL ^ Galpealuio, Cani, C.T»bu Gappalom, Whel. 
* .Dijrca, Laud, -nijci-an, Cani. CT.u'u ' So Cani. C.T.nu bijcop^Whel. * bipceopbomef on 
Pejr-Seaxnni. Cani, C.T.bu ^ Scxcna, Laud* ' •bomaj, Laud. ^ ocl. Laud. ^ l3e]i hee 
Ojpm ciomj ojjiean Ojpmc fining. Laud. ■» paBjf, Cani, C.T.bL ■ From Laud. • Aibannj^ 
Laud. P DCLII. Laud. <i CDibbal. Laud. ' So Laud. Cani. C.T.b'u Scaxe,Whe1. • Pendan, 
Laud* ^ -maen, Laud, -menn, C.T.b'u ^01011, Cani. * ocliit. lAiud. * Onna cynj, C.T. si. 
y yefXy Laud. * op jla^en, Laud. ■ Botuulp, Laud. ^ onjann, Cani. ajan to macienbe »f 
mynjtep. Coi. < From Laud, on Ikanhou. Coi. aer Yceanho. Cani. C.T.bu ^ From Laud. Coi.. 
An.DCLiii. Coi. * DCLiv. Laud. * t)ep Oppm cmj opploh Peoban. Laud. 



* Vtd. Bede, Hist. Eccla. iii. 7. 

• Fid. Bedc, Hui. EccUs. iii. 4, 



^ " A Penda, rege Merciorum, an. regni sui IQ, 
an. veto B%654, ei in loco, qui Blideshurg (BUth* 



hurgh) nuncupaiur, tepeliiur.** — Fii. Etheldreda:. 

* "A.D. 65\. S. Boiolphus abbas monasierium 
€onsiruxii prope oriiniakm pariea$ lincolnia its 



Ycanno:*—Vid. Lei. CoUtci. iii. 33. '' Desirucium 
Juii hoc ccenobium Dtsnis, posieaque Uviier repara* 
ium, ui nunc sii monasieriolum duorum out irium 
monachorum Marianorum Eborad'^'^Noi. in loc. 

^ An. 653. Flor. Bed. Thorn. M.West. 

' **Ab exerciiu Oswi rsgis Nwihumbriee^'^ViUt 
Eihddreda. 



40 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



•on pinpib-pelba. *J xxx. cy^ne-beajina 
mib him. ^ J^a paejion pime cinmjap 
J>epe j-um paej- y6}?elhepe. Annan bpo- 
^p. eaft-enjla cininjef '^ ^ ClOypce 
pupbon**Cpijrtenc:- Dapaef ^^ajanppom • 
ppiiman'^ mibban-^eapbejr v. )>ufenb** 
pintpa. ^ Dccc. *1 l/' pintpa. 1 Pea- 
ba pen^ ^to COypcna pice'^ Penbmj^:- 
[^On hip time |)a comon to^abepe heo 
"j Oppin'. Orpalbep bpo^op cyninjap. "j • 
j-ppecon f hi polben an mynptpe ape- 
pen Cpipte to loue. "j pee Petpe to 
pupKmmte :• Anb hi ppa biben. ^ nama 
hit ^auen OOebephamptebe. pop^an ]>et 
Jiaep ip an pa?l. J^e ip jehaten OOebep- • 
pael. Anb hi on^unnon |)a f ^punb- 
palla. *J )?aep on ppohten. betahten hit 
J)a an munec. Saxulp paep jehaten. he 
paep ppi^e Gobep ppeonb. ^ him luuebe 
al j^eobe. 1 he paep ppi^e ae)>el-bopen on • 
peopulbe. "j pice, he ip nu mycelne pic- 
cepe mib Cpipte. Oc pe kinm^ Peaba 
ne pixabe nane hpile. popVan he paep be- 
ppicen )7uph hip ajen cpen on Gptpen- 
tibe:-3 ^I3ep I^amap. *Ropc-ceaptpe • 
bipcop'. jehaljobe Deup-bcbit to Cant- 
papa-bypij. on vii. kt. Appihp'':- 

• 

An. DCLVI.™ '^I^ep paep Peaba op- 
plajen''. *J pulphepe<> Penbmj penj to • 
GOypcnaP pice:* [^On hip time paex 



at Wingfield, and thirty royal person- 
ages with him« some of whom were kings* 
One of them was Ethelhere^ brother of 
Anna, king of the East-Angles. The 
Mercians after this became Christians i. 
From the beginning of the world had 
now elapsed 5850 winters, when Peada, 
the son of Penda, assumed the govern- 
ment of the Mercians. In his time came 
together himself and Oswy, brother of 
king Oswald, and said, that they would 
rear a minster to the glory of Christy 
and the honour of St. Peter. And they 
did so, and gave it the name of Med* 
hamsted ; because there is a well there, 
called Meadswell. And they began the 
ground -wall, and wrought thereon.; 
after which they committed the work to 
a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He 
was very much the friend of God, and 
him also loved all people. He was nobly 
born in the world, and rich : he is now 
much richer with Christ. But king Pea« 
da reigned no while ; for he was betrayed 
by his own queen, in Easter-lide. This 
year^ Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, con- 
secrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on 
the Iwenty-sixth day of March. 

A.D. 656. This year 3 was Peada 
slain ; and Wulfhere, son of Penda, 
succeeded to the kingdom of the Mer- 



• From Laud. ^ pupbane, Cani. ^ ajanjen pjiam ppym^e. Cani, CT.bi. ^ From Liuid. 
Cot. V\ C.T. B i. * Abs. Laud. ' to jiice on CDypcum. Cani. s From Laud. Cant. CT. b L 
^ From Laud. Aa interpolation, in the Anglo-Norman dialect : heo for he, &c. ' /. Ojrpiu. ^ From 
Laud. Cot. ^ Abs. Cot. ^ dcltii. Whel. CT.bu to juce. The remainder is a Norman inter- 
polation, from Laud. '^ l3ep fopVfejibe Peaba. Whel. C,T. ni. " ^ulpepe, Cant. p COepcna, 
Whei. 0[>ypcena, Cot. i From Laud. Fid. an. 665. 



' rid. Jkde, Hist.Eccks. iii.31. 



• An. 653. 



» Jin. 657. M.West. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



41 



J>et abbobjiice CDcbcfhamjrtebe fpi^e 
ji ice. f hif bjio^Sop h^pbe onjunncn. 
Da luuebe j-e kininj hit jrpi^. pop hip 
bpo^eji luuen Peaba. ^ pop hip peb- 
bpo^epep luuen Oppi. ^ pop Saxulpep 
luuen fcp abbobep. Cpe^ ]7a f he polbe 
hit pop^minten "j appupBen. be hip 
bpo^pe pagb. /GJ^elpeb anb CDeppala. "j 
be hip ppuptpe peb. Kyncbupjep anb 
Kyncppi^ep. anb be pe aepcebipcopep 
paeb. pe paep jehaten Deupbebit. "j be 
al hip jepitcn paeb. laepeb ^ lapeb. ]>e 
on hip kyne-pice paepon. ^ he ppa bibe. 
Da peonbe pe k^ninj aeptep Jwne ab- 
bobe. ]>et he seueptelice pcoloe to him 
cumon. ^ he ppa by be. Da cpasb pe 
kyninj to )?an abbobe. La leop Ssexulp. 
ic haue jepeonb aeptep \te pop mine 
paule J>uppe. ^ ic hit pile J^e pael pec^ 
jon pop hpi. CDin bpo^op Peaba 1 min 
leoue ppeonb Oppi onjunnen an myn- 
ptpe.Cpipte to loue *j panctePetpe. Oc 
mm bpo]?ep ip papen op l^ippe hue. ppa 
ppa Cpipt polbe. oc ic pile ]>e jebibben. 
la leoue ppeonb. f hii pipce seuoptlice 
on )?epe pepce. *i ic J?e pile pinben J^asp- 
to ^olb anb piluep. lanb anb ahte. anb 
al ]fet |)aDp to behope^. Da peopbe pe 
abbot ham. anb on^an to pipcene. Spa 
he ppebbe ppa him Cpipt hu^e. ppa 
pet in peuna jeape paep f mynptpe 
gape. Da )?a kyninj heopba J^aet je- 
pecjon. J7a paep^ pe ppi^e jlaeb. hcot 
peonben jeonb al hi |)eobe aeptep alle 
hip ]fx^ne. aeptep aepcebipcop. "j aept- 
ep bipcopep. ^ aeptep hip eoplep. "j 
«ptep alle fa J?e Gobe luuebon. f hi 



cians. In his time waxed Medhamsted 
very rich^ which his brother had begun. 
The king loved it much^ for the love of 
his brother Peada^ and for the love of 
his wed-brother Oswy^, and for the love 
of Saxulf 1 the abbot He said^ there- 
fore, that he would dignify and honour 
it by the counsel of his brothers, Ethel- 
red and Merwal ; and by the counsel of 
his sisters, Kyneburga and Kj^neswitha; 
and by the counsel of the archbishop, 
who was called Deus-dedit ; and by the 
counsel of all his peer8,learned and lewd, 
that in his kingdom were. And he so 
did. Then sent the king after the abbot, 
that he should immediately come to him. 
And he so did. Then said the king to 
the abbot: ''Beloved Saxulf, I have sent 
after thee for the good of my soul ; and 
I will plainly tell thee for why. My bro- 
ther Peada and my beloved friend Oswy 
began a minster, for the love of Christ 
and St. Peter : but my brother, as Chrisf 
willed, is departed from this life; I will 
therefore intreat thee, beloved friend, that 
they earnestly proceed on their work ; 
and I will find thee thereto gold and sil- 
ver, land and possessions, and all that 
thereto behoveth. Then went the abbot 
home, and began to work. So he sped, 
as Christ permitted him ; so that in a 
few years was that minster ready. Then, 
when the king heard say that, he was 
very glad ; and bade men send through • 
all the nation, after all his thanes ; after 
the archbishop, and after bishops ; and 
after his earls ; and after all those that 



* Fid. an. 665. 



48 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



]*colbon to him cumene. ^ j-eotte J^a 
baei hponne man f cotee f mynyTpc jer 
hale^on. Da man hal^obe yeo myn- 
p:j\e. J>a p«f j-eo kyninj pulpepc J^aep. 
^ hij- bpoSep /6]>elpeb. anb hij" fpiif- 
tpe. Kynebupj 1 Kynejniuith. *j j-co 
mynyicpe hal^obe yeo aepccbij-copDcuf- 
bcbit: op Cantpapbypij. ^ peo bipcop 
op Ropecieptpe. It^amap. •] peo bipcop 
op Lunbone. })e paep ^ina ^ehaten. anb 
pco COypcene bipcop. lepuman psep je- 
haten. 1 Tuba bipcop. Anb J^aep paep 
pilppib ppeopt. ]fe pp^n paep bipcop. 
^ })aBp paepon aelle hip jjejnap }>e papon 
on hip kynepice. Da peo mynptpe paep 
gehal^ob on pancce Perpep nama. ^ p. 
Paulcp. "i p. Anbp. })a ptob peo kyninj 
up tropopen ealle hip J^aer^na. 'j cpaeb 
lubbop piraepnc. — Danoob pupS hit 
fon hae^e aelmihti Gob J>ip pup^pcipe 
f hep ip jebon. ^ ic pile pupSijen J^ip 
baei Cpipt ^ pSe Petep. ^ ic piUe f jc 
caHe jeti^ mine popbe. — ^Ic pulpepc 
gipe to baei p2e Petpe. ^ jfone abbobe 
Saxulp "j J^a munecap op ]>e mynptpe. 
J»ap hmbep. 'J J>ap patepep. *J mepep. tl 
pennep. "j pepcp. "i ealle J^a lanbep J?a 
)^8ep abuton li^^e^. )7a op mine kyoe- 
pice pinbon. ppeolice. ppa fet nan man 
na haue J^aep nan onptm^. buton peo 
abbot, "j pe munecep. — Dap ip pe Jipe. 
Fpam COebephamptebe to Nop%-buph. 
^ ppa to J^et ptebe J«t man cleope% 
• Foliep. *i ppa aei pe peon piht to 6pcn- 
bic. *J ]:pa Gpcnbic to f pteobc J^e man 
cleope% Fe|)ep-muj7e. *J ppa f piht peie 
X. mile lang to Cu^jebic ^ ppa to Raj- 



loved God ; that they should come ttf 
him. And he fixed the day when oien 
should hallow the minster. And ^hen 
they were hallowing Ibe minster^ there 

• was the kiogj Wulfere^ and his brother 
Ethelred^ and his sisters, Kyneburga and 
Kyneswitfaa. And the minster was hal* 
lowed by archbishop Deus-deditof Can* 
terbury; and the bishop of Rochester, 

• Ithamar ; and the bishop of London, who 
was called Wiaa; and the bishop of the 
Mercians, whose name was Jeruman ; 
and bishop Tuda. And there was Wil*» 
frid, priesity diat after was bishop ; and 

• there were all his thanes that were in fail 
kingdocB. When the minster was faal* 
lowed, in the name of St. Peter, and St^ 
Paul, aad St. Andrew, then stood up the 
king before all his thanes, and said with 

• a loud Toice : ^' Thanks be to the high 
almighty Grod for this worship that here 
is done ; and I will this day glorify Christ 
and St Peter, and I will that you all con^ 
firm my words. — I W>ulfere give today 

• to St. Peter, and the abbot Saxulf, and 
the monks of the minster, these lands, 
and ^ese waters, and meres, and fens, 
and wiers, and all the lands that ther&* 
about lye, that are of my kingdom, free^* 

• iy, so that no man have there any ingress, 
but the abbot and the monks. — ^This is 
the gUt. From M edhamsted to North- 
borough; and so to the place that is call-^ 
ed Foieys ; and so all the fen, right to 

» Ashdike.; and from Ashdike to the place 
called Fetfaermouth ; and so in a right 
line ten miles ^ long to Ugdike; and ao 



* Fid. Chart. Lat. Hist, Petrob. and Spclmau. Glauar. voc. ieuca. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



4S 



^pilh. *i ppa Ra^epilh r. mile to ]ie 
pihte ae )?e jaV to /Blm tl to ^if ebece. 
*i fpa abutan iii. mile to Dpokonholt. 
^ ppa Dpokonholt piht )>uph al J^e pen 
to Depeuopbe. f ip xx. mile lan^. ant> 
ppa to Gpaetecpop. tl ppa Gpaetecpop 
))uph an pcyp petep Bpaban*as hatte. 
^ ))eonon vi, mile to Paccelabe. anb ppa 
pop% )>uph aelle )>a mepep anb peonnep 
J^a listen topapb ISuntenbune popte. 
^ )>ap mepep anb lacep. Scaelppemepe 
*i Pitlepmepe, "i eelle )>a o)>pe }?a ]7ap 
abutan lijjan. mib lanb ^ mib hupep 
pz pnbon on aept-halpe 6cselppe-mepe« 
^ {'eonen aelle ]?a peonnon to GOebep* 
hamptebe. ^ ppa CDebephamptebe al 
to pdmep-popbe. ^ ppa pelmep-popbe 
to Cliue. T l^eonen to /Bptune. ^ ppa 
/Bptune to Stan-ppb. tJ ppa Stan*7!opb 
ppa ppa f paetep penned to peo popen- 
pppecone Nop^buph. — Dip pnbon ]^a 
lanbep tl )wi pe<Minep J7e peo k^ninj jep 
mto pCe Pctpep mynptpe.— ^Da cpae^ 
peo k^ninj. )]>it ip litel 'peoy Z^f^- ^c ic 
piUe f hi hit hsiben ppa kynehce *i ppa 
ppeolioe. f )>a&p ne be numen op na 
^Ib. ne ^aule. buton to pz munecaa 
ane. Dup ic pille ppeon )np mmptpe. f^et 
hit ne be unbep-|)eb buton Rome ane« 
*i htbep u: pille f pe pecaU' pee Petpe. 
ealle )>a ]^ to Rome na ma^en papen. 
Betpix ))ap popbe fz ^eopnbe peo ab«- 
bobe ]ftt he pcolbe him ty)>ian ^et he 
at him jeopnbe. ^ peo kmm^ hit him 
tybbe* Ic haue hepe ^obeppihte mu- 
necep. Jki polben bpohtien hepe lip on 



to RagwelU; and from RagwelH five 
miles to the main river that goeth to Elm 
aod to Wisbeach ; and so about three 
miles to Trokenholt; and from Troken* 
holt right through all the fen to Der« 
worth ; that is twenty miles long; and so 
to Grreat Gross^; and from Great Gross^ 
through a clear water called Bradney ; 
and thence six miles to Paxlade ; and so 
forth through all the meres and fens diat 
lye toward Huntingdon-port; and the 
meres and lakes — Shelfermere and Wit-» 
tlesey mere^ and all the others that there- 
about lye; with land and with houses 
that are on the east side of Shelfermere ; 
thence all the fens to Medhamsted ; from 
Medhamsted all to Wdmsford^ ; from 
Welmsfordd to GHtc; thence to Easton ; 
from Easton to Stamford^ ; from Stam* 
ford^ as the water runneth to the afore* 
said Northborougli/' — These are the 
lands and the fens that the king gave un« 
to St. Peter's minster.~-Tben quoth the 
king: ''Itislitths-thisgia^butl will 
Uiat they hold it so royally and so 
ly, that there be taken therefrom 
gild nor gable^ but for the monks alone. 
Thus I will free this minster ; that it be 
not subject except to Rome alone ; and 
hither I will that we seek St. Peter, all 
that to Rome cannot go/^ During these 
words the abbot desired that he would 
grant him. his request* And the king 
granted it. ^* I have here ( said he ) some 
good monks that would lead their lifo 
in retirement^ if they wist where. NoW 



■«ai^ai«i 



*• Raggewttb, Chart. Lai. 
f Giatescroi, CkarL LaL 



• Walmtsford, Ckari. IM, 
« So Chart. Lai. 

62 



44 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ankep-fetle. ^^F ^* piften hpepe. Oc 
hep If an ijlianb f man cleope% An- 
capij. anb ic pile ^ey jeojinen. f pe 
moren J7aep pipcen an mynjtpe j-ce 
CDapie to loue. ]7et hi moren }>aep pu- 
nen J>a fa hepe hp pilen laeben mib pib- 
be anb mib pepte. Da anbppepobe peo 
kynin^ ^ fup cpae^. Saxulp la leop. ne 
]>et an f J>u jeopnepc. oc ealle J>a finj 
f ic pat fet J7U jeopnept on upe Dpiht- 
nep halpe. ppa ic lupe *J ty^e. Anb 
ic bibbe ye. bpofep /6J?elpeb. ^ mine 
ppiiptpe Cynebuph ^ Cynepuuith. pop 
lupe paple alej-ebneppe. J? et je beon 
pitneppe. ^ f jeo hit ppite mib lupe 
pin2;pe. Anb ic bibbe ealle )>a )>a asptep 
me cumen. beon hi mine punep. beon hi 
mine bpej7pe. ouf ep kyninjap J>a aeptep 
me cumen. f upe ^ype mote ptanben. 
ppa ppa hi piUen beon bel-nimenbe on 
J>a ece lip. ^ ppa ppa hi pilen aetbeoppt- 
an J^et ece pite. Spa hpa ppa upe jipe 
ou}>ep oJ?pe jobene manne jype pan- 
pa^, panpie him peo heopenlice late- 
papb on heopen-pice. Anb ppa hpa ppa 
hit ece%. ece him peo heopenlice late- 
papb on heopen-pice. — Dap pinbon J>a 
pitnep J>e l^aep paepon. ^ J^a f jeppiten 
mib hepe pmjpe on Cpiptep mele. anb 
letten mib hepe tunje. Det paep. pippt 
peo kyninj pulpepe. J>e f peoptnobe 
pippt mib hip popbe. "i piJ?)H)n mib hip 
pinjpe jeppat on Cpiptep mel. ^ J7up 
cpasS. Ic pulpepe kyninj. mib J7ap ky- 
ninjap. ^ mib eoplcp. ^ mib heopoto- 
jap. anb mib J^aejnap. J>ap jepitneppe 
mmep jipep topopan J?one aepcebipcop 
Deup-bebit ic hit peptnia mib Cpiptep 
mel. >^ Anb ic Oppi. Nop^-himbpe ky- 



here is an island^ that is called Ankerig; 
and I will request^ that we may there 
build a minster to the honour of St 
Mary ; that they may dwell there who 

• will lead their lives in peace and tran* 
quill ity." Then answered the king^ and 
quoth thus : '' Beloved Saxulf, not that 
only which thou desirest, but all things 
that I know thou desirest in our Lord's 

• behalf^ so I approve, and grant. And I 
bid thee, brother Efhelred, and my sis- 
ters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, for 
the release of your souls, that you be 
witnesses, and that you subscribe it with 

• your fingers. And I pray all that come 
after me, be they my sons, be they my 
brethren, or kings that come after we, 
that our gift may stand ; as they would 
be partakers of the life everlasting, and 

• as they would avoid everlasting punish- 
ment. Whoso lesseneth our gift, or the 
gift of other good men, may the hea- 
venly porter lessen him in the kingdom 
of heaven; and whoso advanceth it, may 

. the heavenly porter advance him in the 
kingdom, of heaven." — These are the 
witnesses that were there, and that sub- 
scribed it with their fingers on the cross 
of Christ, and confirmed it with their 

• tongues. That was, first the king^Wulf-^ 
ere, who confirmed it first with his word^ 
and afterwards wrote with his finger on 
the crossof Christ, saying thus: ''I Wulf- 
ere king, in the presence of kings, and 

• of earls, and of captains, and of thanes, 
the witnesses of my gift, before the arch- 
bishop Deus-dedit, I confirm it with the 
cross of Christ." ifi — "And I Oswy, 
king of the Northumbrians, the friend 



THE SAXOJf CHRONICLE. 



45 



Binj. Jjcof m^nftper ppeonb. ^ J>ey 
abbotejr Saxulf . hit loue mib Cpiftef 
mel. iji — Anb ic Sijhepe k^^ninj hit 
tyBe mib Cpij^ej* mel. iff — Anb ic 
Sibbi kyninj hit ppite mib Cpiftcf • 
mel. ifi — ^Anb ic /ej>elpeb. J?ef kynih- 
jaf bpo]?ep. fet ilce tybc mib Cpijn:ef 
mql. iji — Anb pe. J>ej- kyninjap fpuf- 
tpe. Cynebuph ^ Cyncf uith. pe hit lo- 
uien. — Anb ic. Kantpapabypij aepce- « 
bifcop. Deu^-bebit. hit ty^e.-^SiJ?- 
J^an pz jetton hit selle J^a o]>pe. )^ }»2ep 
paepon. mib Cpij-tey- mel. iji Det pae- 
pon be nam. Ithamap. bif cop op Rope* 
ceftpe. *i pine bifcop op Lunbene. *i 
lepuman. pe paep OOypcene bipcop. *i 
Tuba bi^cop. tl Pilppib ppeopt. peo paep 
pi^Son bifcop. "i 6oppa ppeoft. J?e 
jreo kyninj pulhpepe f*eonbe to bobian 
cpi]rtenbome on piht. ^ Saxulp abbot, 
anb Immme ealbopman. anb Gabbepht 
ealbopman. anb hepejijiih aelbopman. 
^ Pilbepht a&lbopman. 'j Abon aelbop- 
man. yeSelbolb. Bpopban. pilbepht. 
/Glhmunb. FpeJ^ejip. Dap ^ peola oJ>pc 
J^apaepon faep. kyninjep feonept men. 
hit ^cotton ealle :• Def ppit paej* je- 
ppiton aeptep iipe Dpihtnep acenneb- 
nepfe dclxiy. J>«p kyninjap pulhpepCf 
peoue)jenbe jeap. fep aepcebipcopej- 
Deupbebit ix. jeap. Leibon )>a Gobep 
cupj-. *J ealpe haljane cupj*. *i al cpip- 
tene polcep. J>e am J? inj unbybe f J>aep 
paep jebbn. Spa beo hit. pei^ alle. Ai9. 



of this minster^ and of the abbot Saxulf, 
commend it with the cross of Christ/' iff 
—''And I Sighere, king^ ratify it with 
the cross of Christ." ^— ''And I Sib- 
bi^ king, subscribe it with the cross of 
Christ." iji— "And I Ethelred,the king's 
brother^ granted the same with the cross, 
of Christ." iji — "And we, the king's sis- 
ters, Kynebui^a and Kyneswitha, ap- 
prove it." — "And I archbishop of Can- 
terbury, Deus-dedit, ratify it." — ^Thcn 
confirmed it all the others that were 
there with the cross of Christ ifi : ' name* 
ly, Ithunar, bishop of Rochester; Wina, 
bishop of London ; Jeruman, bishop of 
the Mercians ; and Tuda bishop ; and 
Wilfrid priest, who was afterwards bi- 
shop ; and Eoppa ^ priest, whom the 
king, Wul fere, sent to preach Christi- 
anity in the isle of Wight^; and Saxulf 
abbot ; and Immine alderman, and Ed- 
bert alderman^ and Herefrith alderman, 
and Wilbertd alderman, and Abo alder- 
man ; Ethelbald, Brord, Wilbert, EU 
mund, Frethegis. These, and many 
others that were there, the king's most 
loyal subjects, confirmed it all. Tfaia 
charter was written after our lA>rd^s 
nativity 664 — the seventh year of king 
. Wulfhere — the ninth year of archbi- 
shop Deus-dedit. Then they laid God's 
curse, and the curse of all saints, and 
till christian folks, on whosoever undid 
any thing that there was done. "So 



' Cappa^ Chart. Lai. From a similar mistaka 
of the Saxon 6, and its resemblance to C, we find 
the celebrated Montesquieu gravely descanting on 
the Saxon nobles, whom he calls Copies, instead of 
6op!ef. This Is excusable^ perhaps, in a French 



writer; but in this path of error wefindSir J.Dali. 
rymple as gravely following him. 

* Fid.infr.an.66U 

* Yitbert) CkarLLai. between Eadberht and He* 
refritb; which seems to be a corruption of Eadbert* 



46 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



— ^Da Jrtjr ^mj pae [• Jjebon. )>a feonbe feo 
kf niiij; to Rome to feo papa Uitalianuf 
f € J?a paf . *3 jeopnbe f he j-colbe t)^- 
Jyian mib hlf ppit. ^ inib hif bletpn^e. 
eal ^if jzopfppecene }iin^. Anb j-eo 
papa feonbe ))a hijr ppit ]7Uf cpae)>enb. 
Ic Uitalianuj* papa ^eate ye. ^ulhpepe 
cynin^ ^ Deupbebit eepcebijrcop. "i 
Saxulp abb*, ealle jfe fmj J?e je jeopn- 
on. *i ic popbebe )>et ne kyninj. ne nan 
man. ne haue nan on^tnn^. buton ]^on 
abb' aAe. ne he ne hepf umie nan man. 
buton ]7one papa on Rome, tl f^ aepce- 
bijrcop on Cantpapbypij. Gip hpa J>ip 
tobpeke^ asm J^mj. f 5e Petpe mib hip 
f peopb him ab^li^. Gip hpa hit haslt. 
f . Petpe mib heopne keie unbo him 
hebpen-pice : — Dup paep peo mynptpe 
COebephamftebe a^unnen. f man pj>' 
fim cleopebe Buph. — Si})^on com an 
Qppe aepceb' to Cantpapbypij. peo paep 
jehaten Theobopup. ppij^e job man ^ 
pip, *| heolb hip pino% mib hip bipco- 
pep. "i mib J?e lepebe-polc. Da psep 
pinppib. TOypcene bipcop. bon op hip 
bipcop^pice. anb Saxulp abb' pap )>asp 
jetopen to bipcop. anb CuVbalb. mu-» 
nee op Je plue mynptpe. p«p copen 
to abbot. Dip pina% pap jehalben aept^* 
ep Upe Dpihtnep acennebneppe peox 
hunbpeb pmtpa. anb iit anb hunb peo* 
penti pintpac<3 

DCLTII. 

An. DCLVIII. I2ep Cenpalh* je- 
peaht aet Peonnum pi^ pealap. tf h^^ 
j^epl^mbe o^ Pebpiban*^. Dip psep je- 



be it/' saith all, ''Amen/'— When thia 
thing was done, then sent the king to 
Rome to the pope Vitalianus that then 
was, and desired, that he would ratify 
with his writ and with his blessing, all 
this aforesaid thing. And the pope then 
sent his writ, thus saying : '' I Y italia* 
nus, pope, grant thee, king Wulfhere, 
and Deus-dedit archbishop, and abbot 
Saxulf, all the things that you desire* 
And I forbid, that any king, or any 
man, have any ingress, but the abbot 
alone; nor shall he be subject to any 
man, except the pope of Rome and the 
archbishop of Canterbury. If any one 
breaketb any thing of this, St. Peter with 
his sword destroy him. Whosoever hold* 
eth it, St. Peter with heaven's key unda 
him the kingdom of heaven."'^Thus 
was the minster of Medhamsted begun, 
that was afterwards called Peter ^bo- 
rough K Afterwards came anoUier arch- 
bishop to Canterbury, who was called 
Theodorus; a very good man and wise; 
and held his synod with his bishops and 
with his clergy. There was Wilfrid, bi- 
shop of the Mercians, deprived of his 
bishopric ; and Saxulf abbot was there 
chosen bishop ; and Cuthbald, monk 
of the same minster, was chosen abbot. 
This synod was holden after our Lord's 
nativity 673 winters. 

A.D. 658. This year Kenwal fought 
with the Welsh at Pen, and pursued them 
to the Parret. This battle was fought 



• -pealhy Laud. Cani. CT. b i. ViJU an. 643. 



^ heO| Laud, hij C.r* bL f Pebjtcbao, Land. 



.96S. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



47 



pohten p^^an he op eaft-Gnjlum* 
com. anb he paej- )>aep ^iii. jeap on 
ppaece^. ^^bep haepbe hme Penba abpy- 
fene**'^. ^ picef benuraene*. popjnm ^f 
he'' Jiif fpuj^opanc poplec:- 

0CL1X. 

An. DCLX.^ J>ep /E; Ibpyht^ bi- 
fcop^ jepac ppom^ Cen alle™. tJ Pme 
heolb fone bij-copbom" iii. jeap. Anb 
fie^ yGjelbyphc' onpenj Papif lanaP bi- 
jxopboroep^. on Galp^lum'' be Sijne' :• 

An. DCLXI. J>ep Cenpalh' ^epeaht^* 
on* eaptpon^ on Poppentep-bypij. ^ 
jehepjabe* J^ulphepe Penbmj o^» y6p- 
cepbunc. Anb Cuj^peb** Cpichclmmj. 
^ Cenbypht* cyninj** on anum jeape 
jx)p^pepban*. Anb on Piht jehepjabc* 
pulphepe Penbmj. anb jepealbe J7iht- 
papan^ yej>elpalbe 5. Su%-Seaxna cf- 
niiije^. pop^on J^e' J^ulphepe hine^ on- 
feiij set pulpihte. Anb 6oppa maeppe- 
ppeopt^ be pilpepWep™ popbe^.^j °Pwlp- 
hepcp cymnjcp^ bpohte J?iht-papumP 
]zulpiht aepept^ manna '^i* 



after his return from J^l-Anglia» 'where 
he was three years in exile. Peiida had 
driven him thitba* and deprived him of 
his kingdom, because he bM discarded 
his sister^ 

A.D. 660. This year bidiop Egel* 
bert departed from Kenwal ; and Wins 
held the bishopric three years. And 
Egelbert accepted the bishopric of Pa- 
ris« in Craul^ by iiie Seine >. 

A.D. 66 1. This year, at Easter, Ken«- 
wal fought at Poatesbury ; and Wul£- 
here, the son of Penda, pursued him as 
far as Ashdown. Cuthred, the son of 
Owichelm, and king Kenbert, died iH 
one year. Into the isle of Wight also 
Wulf here, the son of Penda, penetrated, 
and transferred the inhabitants to Ethelr 
wald, king of the South*8axons, because 
Wulfhere adopted faim in baptism. And 
Eoppa, a mass- priest, by command of 
Wilfrid and king Wulfhere, was the first 
of men who brought baptism to t^e peo* 
pie of the isle of Wight. 



> Gnjla, Laud. ^ on pjiaecc iii. J^P* I'y^eji hme haep be Peoba abjuepebae. Cani. So nearly {7.7*. b !• 
c ppeccc-p^, Laud. * ab]u>f cbne, Laud. * •menoei Cani, ' From Laud* i jpujftop, Z/xud* 
jpeojropan, Cant, jpeojitop an, C,T. b i. /. jpeojtop. ^ dclix. Laud* * -^jlbpiht, Laud. M^eU 
bjilht, Cani. £7.7. a i. ^J?elbpyhc, Gibs. Fid. aru6bO. ^ Abs. Cani. C.T. bi. > pjiam, Cani, 
"* -pala, LatuL Renpealc, Cani. Cenpeale, C.T. si. " -borne. Laud, byjceopbome, Cani. ^ jeo^ 
Laud. P Pt'PP? Laud. Cani, « bijceop. Cani, CT.bu ' Galpealum, Cani. C.T. si. ' Sijene, 
Laud. ^ -pcalh, Laud. Cani, CT.bu " feaht, Laud. ' So Laud. Cani. C.T. b i. in, Gibs, 
y eajtjian, Cani. » -jobe, Cani. C.T. b i. « on^ Cani. C.T. b i. *» So Laud. Cani. Cuf jiebe, Whel. 
< Ceorbpiht, Laud. ^ cm^, Cani. * -pepbon, Cani. CT.au ^ p.ihtpajium, Laud, incorrectly. 
s iE^elpolbe, Laud. Cani. A]^eIpoIbe. ju^^-jexana cynje. C.T. b i. ^ ciniiija, Z/tud. cynj, Cani. 
* From Cani. ^ hij, Cani. > Abs. Laud. Cani, Cot, ppejbiceji, CT.bu « So Laud. Cqnt. 
CT.BU PiljTii^ej. Co/. Pilvepbej, Gibs. ■ haeje, Co/. ^ So Laud. — Pulphejiej cyngej", Co/. 
Pulfhejie cyuin^f Whel. Puljrhepc cynj, Cani, Puljrhepo cinj, C.r.ai. p -pajian, Cani. C.T.Bi. 
<i cpojc, Laud. a*pop. Cot. ' From Laud. Cot. Cani. CT.bu 

' " Kenwalchius Wesi'Saxonkam provinciam in episcopus gravUer qffinsus in Gal&am ndUi, ete^* 
duos pandaas diinsii, ei episcopo Win€s in.civiiaie . scopaium Panna/cm avitaiis afl(ifi/.*'R-^lor. Fid, 
^enia tedem episcopaius iribmi. Unde Jgelberhiut Bed. i&/. JEccto. iii. 7. 



48 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



DCLXIT. DCLXIIf. 

An. DCLXIV. J3ep f unne af^ftpobe* 
*'on V. non. CDau''. ^ epcenbpyht:*^. Cant- 
papa c^ninj**. pop^pepbe. ®^ Gcjbpiht 
hip punu penj to J>am pice''. Anb Col- 
man mib hip jepepum pop to hip cy^- 
^e. ^Anb J>y ylcan jeape. paep'' micel 
man-cpealm *on Bpytene ijlanb. ^ on 
fsLtn cpealme popSpepbe Tuba bipcop. 
^ paep bebyp jeb on pajele". Anb Ceab- 
ba5 ^ pilpepS** paepon* jehabobe. Anb 
J>y^ ylcan jeape. ^peo aepcebipcop" 
Deup-bebit pop^pepbe:- 

DCLXV. DCLXVI. 

[^An. DCLXVII. «r>ep Oppiu ^ 
€cbpiht penbon pijheapb ppeopt to 
Rome", f hine man pcolbe hal^ian fap^ 
.to aepcebipcope **to Cantuapb'". ac he 
fopSpepbe pona ppa® he J^ibep com:-] 

An.DCLXVIII. Pj3epDeobopupman 
habobe to aepcebipceope". ^*i penbe hine 
to Bpytene" ^ 

An. DCLXIX. liep ecbypht** cy- 
ninj' pealbe Bappe maeppe'-ppeopte' 
Raculp. mynptep on" to tymbpianne:- 



A.D. 664. This year the sun was 
eclipsed ^ on the eleventh of May ; and 
Erkenbert^, king of Kent^ having died^^ 
Egbert^ his son succeeded to the king- 
dom. Colman with his companions this 
year returned to his own country^. This 
same year there was a great plague in 
the island Britain, in which died bishop 
Tuda, who was buried at Wayleigh^ — 
Chad7 and Wilferth were consecrated — 
And archbishop Deus-dedit died. 



A.D. 667. This year Oswy and Eg- 
bert sent Wighard, a priest, to Rome, 
that he might be consecrated there arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; but he died as 
soon as he came thither^. 

A.D. 668. This year Theodore was 

consecrated archbishop 9, and sent into 
Britain 10. 

A.D. 669. This year king Egbert 
gave to Bass, a mass- priest, Reculver — 
to build a minster upon. 



• aj^ep^iobe, Laud. a]?eojrjiobe, Cani. ^ From Laiid, Coi, ^ 6|icenbjiihr, iMud. GajikenbpibCy 
Cani. A|icenbjiiht, C.T* b i. «* cwx, Cdni. cyn j, CT. b i. • From Laud. ' So C.T. n i. On J?ij- 
jum jeajie com« Laud. < Ceabbe, Laud. ^ So C.T. b i. Laud. Cani, .TejiV, Gibs. * pspan, Cant. 
k OQ ]xam, Laud. ' From Laud, peo, as usual, for jc, N.S. "" l3ep Pijhajib jrcjibe to Rome, caljpa 
Offi cyoj *j ejbyjihc hine jenbao. Cot. » From Cot. • >ajf, Cot. » l3ep Uitalianuf je papa 
jobabobe Theobopu j co apcebi jcop. Laud, ^ebaljobe Deobop. Cot. 4 Gjbpiht, Ijxud. M^hfiihty Cant. 
ecjbpibt, C.T.bI ' cm;, Cant. ' Abs. Laud. Cot. ^ ppeop:, Laud. <> Abs. Laud. 



* * " Gclipjijf ail an (annos ante) lxxixi."— fr fl^iw. 
Chrtm. ap.Wao). p«288. written in the year 737; 
from which if we deduct 73 years^ we shall fiud 
the notice of the eclipse to correspond with that 
of the Saxon Chronicle. 

* Fid. an. 640. 

* '' Pfidieiduum J«/it."_Thom. 

* oL Egebertua and Vigeberhtus. An. 673. Ec 
bryhtus. ^ Vid. Bed. HUt. BccUs. iu. 36. 



^ Pegnaleth, Bed. So Gibson ; but Leiand reads 
Vegnalech. ** Tuda raptus est de mundo^ et in mo* 
nasterio, quod vocatur Vegnaltch, honorijice tepul* 
lu5/*_Leland. from Bed. Collect, ii. 143. ed. 1774. 

' Fid. Bede, Hist. Eccles. iii. 38. 

• Fid, Bede, Hist. Eccles. iii. 29. 

* '' Sub die yit. koL ^pn7tf."— Bed. 

'"^ *' ri. kal. /tfnii."— Bed. « vi. kd. /nfii."— 
Thorn. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



49 



An. DCLXX. I3eji pojiSpcpbe Op- 
j)eo*. Nop^an'^-hymbpa cyninj. ^on xv. 
W. CDap"'. *i Gcpep*^ «^hip punu'' pic- 
pobe aeptep him. Anb hUJSejie pen^ to 
bipcQpbome opep pept-Seaxena^ lanb^ 
yC jelby phtep 8^ bipceopep nepa. anb 
heolb VII. jeap. 1** Deobop* bipceop 
hine jehaljobe*^. 'Anb pe Oppeo paep 
"yefelpep^mj. /e^elpep^' yej>elpic- 
inj. /6]7elpic Ibinj. Iba Goppinj'':* 

An. DCLXXI. hejt paep ))aet micele" 
pujla pael :• 

An. DCLXXII. ftep pop^pcpbe Ccn- 
palh* cinjP. ^ Seaxbuph^ 'heolb an 
jeap pice, hip cpen''. aeptep him :• 

An. DCLXXIII. I3ep Gcbpyht*. 
Cantpapa cyninj. pop^pepbe. *Anb 
^y ilcan'* ^eape paep pno¥* aet J3eopt- 
popban^. Anb p5e /ej>elbpy^* onjon* 
f mynpcep aet Qly^t* 



A.P. 670. Thia year died Oswy, king 
of Northumberland^ on the fifteenth day 
before the calends of March ; and Eg- 
ferth^ his son reigned after him^. Lo- 
there^ the nephew of bishop Egelbert^ 
succeeded to the bishopric over the land 
of the West- Saxons^ and held it seven 
years. He was consecrated by archbi- 
shop Theodore. Oswy was the son of 
Ethelfritb, Ethelfrith of Ethelric, Ethel- 
ric of Ida^ Ida of Eoppa. 

A.D. 67 1. This year happened that 
great destruction among the fowls^. 

A.D. 672.r This year died king Cen- 
wal ; and Sexburga bis queen held the 
government one year after him. 

A.D. 673. This year died Egbert, 
king of Kent; and the same year there 
was a synod at Hertford^; and St. Ethel- 
drilha began that monastery at Ely^ 



■ Ofpio, La\d. * Nop^- Cani. « From Laud. * MifejXj Cani. Gcjj:ep*, (7.7. bL GcvepV, 
Gibff. * Pe8p;.Seaxtiiny Laud* Pej-feina, CXr.Bi. almost iavariably from tbia year^ ' From CanU 
abs. C.r. Bi. Laud. Cot. Whel. s iGjlbpibtej-, Laud, ^jelbpihtef. Cant. C.T.bu ^>el. Gibs, as 
before, aa.660. ^ From Laud. Cant. C.T.nu > Deobopuj-, Laud. ^ bal^obe, Laud. * Abr 
Laud, n So Cant. CT. b i. .TtpVinj. -TepV, Gibs. » miccle. Cant. <> Keopealh, Cant. ' From 
Cot. 4 Sexbojih, Laud. ' an ^ettjie pixabe hij q?en. Laud, hij cpen jiixabe an jeap. Cot. hij cpea 
pixobe »ftpp him an geap. Cant, i. jep pizobe bij cpin. CT. b i. ■ e^bpiht, Laud, ^ASj^pibt, Cant. 
6c2- CT. b i. ^ *j Deob/)pa J aepcebijxop jejfomDobe. Co/. ^ From Cant. CT. b i. * feono^. Cant. 
J -jropbe, Laud, -jropba, Cant. CT. si. * So Cot. .bpi^, Laud. .bpyhtyWbel. Cant. CT. b i. • ajan^ 
Zoiii. onjann. Can/. a3aan, £7o/. on^aao jfmenjrep^Cr.si. ^ Delije, Loim/. Sbjc^Con/. CT.bi. 

Bed. Hitt. EccUs. if. 6. Fid. CondUa, edited by 



' FiCgfridas, Bed. hod. Ererch, Ereret, ke. 

• Fid. Bcde, Hi*/. Eccles. it. 6. 

' From the rqtiiTocal signification of the word 
past, Henry of Huntingdon and Matthew of West- 
minster hare derived an ingenioas story of a great 
lattle among the birds, &c. Not so Ethel werd and 
Florence of Worcester, who are better interpreters 
of the Saxon annals. 

* " Convenimus autem die 24* meusis Septembrif, 
indictione prima, in loco qui dicitur Herutford.**'^ 



Spclman and Wilkins. 

' "jI.D. 673. Firgo Etheldreda in loco eminent 
tiori in Ely monasterium construxit, propejlueniis al» 
veum, et centum utriusquesexus sub monachali kahitu 
congregavit: quibus ipsa prima abbatissa prafuit, 
consecrata ab fVilfrido episcopo. Duravit hoe mono* 
sterium iub abbatissarum regimine 197 onnis, usque 
ad antium D. BJO, quo quidem anno ecclesia Eliensis a 
paganis combusta est^^^^Annial. Monast, Eliensis^ 

H 



50 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCLXXIV. VSeji penj jBfCfine 
to pice on pefC-Seaxum. "jre paBj- Cen*- 
fupnj. Cenpuf Cenpcp^inj. Cenpcp^ 
CuJ^ilfinj. CuJ^ilf Ceolpulpmj. Ceol- 
pulp Cynpicinj. Cynpic Cep&icinj'':- • 

An.DCLXXV, I3ep fulphepe Pen- 
bmj. tJ yGf^pme Cenpupnj**" jepuhc- 
on aet Beban-heapbe^. Anb J?y** ylcan 
jeape pulphepe pop^pepbe. ^ yej>el- 1 
peb penj to pice:- []*On hip time J?a 
peonbe hd to Rome pilppib bipcop to 
J'am pape ]7e ]7a pep. A^a^o he pasp 
jehaten. ^ cybbe him mib ppit ^ mib 
popbe. hu hip bpe^pe. Peaba ^ Pulp- • 
hepe. *i pe abbot Sa^^ulp. heapben ppoht 
an mmptpe. CDebephamptebe pasp je- 
haten. ^ ^ hi hit heapben ^eppeob. pi9 
kyninj 1 pi^ bipcop. op eaile J>epbom. 
^ beb him f he pcolbe f jeten mib hip . 
ppit. "3 mib hip bletpunje. Anb peo 
papa peonbe ]^a hip ^eppite to Gn^la* 
lanbe )>up cpe^enbe. Ic A^a^o. papa op 
Rome, jpete pel peo pup^puUe /6J?el- 
peb. OOypcene k^nm j. ^ pe aepcebi- • 
poop Deobopiim op Cantpapbypij. "J 
peo CDy'pcene bipcop. Saxulp. peo aep 
paep abbot. ^ alle Jwi abbotep fa pn- 
bon- on Gn^lalanbe. Gobep jpetinje. *J 
niinpe bletpunje. Ic haue jeheopb peo • 
kyninjep /GJ^elpebep jeopnunje. "J J>ep 
a?pcebipcopep Deobopup. ^ ^p bipco- 
pep Saxulpep. ^ fep abbotep Cu]>balbep. 



A.D. 674. This year^ Escwin sue* 
ceeded to the kingdom of Wessex. He 
vfBM the son of Cenfus^ Ceofus of Cen- 
ferth, Cenferth of Cuthgilsj Cuthgils of 
Ceolwulf^ Ceolwulf of Cynric, Cynric 
of Cerdic. 

A.D. 675. This year Wulfhcre, the 
son of Penda, and Escwin^ the son of 
Cenfus, fought at Bedwin. The same 
year died Wulf here, and Ethelred sue* 
ceeded to the goTernment. In his time 
sent he to Rome bishop Wilfrid to the 
pope that then was^ called Agatho, and 
told him by word and by letter, how his 
brothers Peada and Wulf here, and the 
abbot Saxulf^ had wrought a minster, 
called Medhamsted ;' and that they had 
Areed it, against king and against bishop, 
from every service; and he besought 
him that he would confirm it with his 
writ and with his blessing. And the 
pope sent then his writ to England, thus 
saying: ''I Agatho, pope of Rome*, 
greet well the worthy Ethelred king of 
the Mercians, and the archbishop Theo- 
dorus of Canterbury, and Saxulf the bi- 
shop of the Mercians, who before was 
abbot, and all the abbots that are in 
England; God's greeting and my bless- 
ing. I have heard the petition of king 
Ethelred, and of the archbishop Theo- 
dorus, and of the bishop Saxulf, and of 
the abbot Cuthbald ; and I will it, that 



* Abs. Laxtd, ^ From Laud, ^ Bieban- Cani. C.T,bu * y^y Laud, * A Norman in- 
trrpolaiion from Laud, to the end of the ^^ear. It has been Terj incorrectly reprinted by Wilkins^ 
Condi, u 49. 



' jin. 656. K« Dicef. jingL i. 60 ; and Ganton*s History nf Peierborougk 

* f^id. Hu£. Cand. a/u Sparke, p. 9; Alanask Minsttr. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



51 



^ ic hic pille f hit on firile pif e beo jT>a* 
fpz 36 hit fppecon hauen. Anb ic be- 
beobe op Gobep halp. ^ f . Petpcp. i 
ealpa haljan. *i ealpe habobe haepbe. ]>et 
ne kynm^. ne bipcop. ne eopl. ne nan • 
man ne haue nan onptm^. ne ^aple. ne 
jeolb. ne peopbm^. ne nanep cinnep 
]ieubom ne nime man op f abbotpice 
op CDebephamptebe. Ic be6be a&c. ^ 
f e pcypbipcop ne peo ppa bjrpptlece^ . 
"p he ne habmj ne hale^inj ne bo on 
}np abbotpice. buton peo abbot hit 
him bibbe. ne bipcoppite. ne pna%. ne 
nanep kinnep J^in^ na haue 'pseji nan 
onptinj. Anb ic pille f peo abbot beo • 
jehealben pop lejat op Rome opep eal 
f i^lanbe. *i hpilc abbot J?e be® j7aBp 
copen op )>e munecan. f he beo ^eblet- 
pab op ]7an a^pcebipcop op Cantpap- 
bypij. Ic pille *i tySe. f hpilc man ppa • 
haueb behaten to papen to Rome. ^ he 
ne muje hit pop)7ian. ouj^ep pop un- 
tpumnippe. ou]7ep pop lauepbep neobe. 
ou]^p pop hauelepte. ou])ep pop hpilcep 
cinnep o]^p neob he ne muje J'sp cu« • 
mon. beo he op Gn^lelanbe. ouj^ep op 
hpilc o%ep ijlanb beo he, cume to f 
mynptpe on CDebephamptebc. tf haue 
f lice popjiueneppe op Cpipte..^ p. Pe- 
tep. ^ op )>one abbot.. *J op )>one mu^ • 
neca. f he pcolbe hauen ^ip he to Rome 
pope :• Nu bibbe ic J>e. bpoJ?ep Deobo- 
pup. f J?u lete bebon jeonb al Gnjle- 
lanbe. Jet peo pnaS j>up^e jejabepob. 
^ J^ip ppite pup^e jepebb ^ jehealbon. • 



it 10 all wise be as you have spoken it. 
And I ordain^ in behalf of God, and of 
St Peter, and of all saints^aod of every 
hooded head^ that neither king nor bi- 
shop, nor earl i^ nor any man whatever^ 
have any claim^ or gable, or gild, or 
levy, or take any service of any kind^ 
from the abbey of Medhamsted. I com- 
mand also, that no shire-bishbp^ be so 
bold as to hold an ordination or con- 
secration within this abbacy, except the 
abbot intreat him, not have there any 
claim to proxies, or synodals, or any* 
thing whatever of ariy kind. And I' 
will, that the abbot be holden for le- 
gate of Rome over all that island ; and 
whatever abbot h there chosen by the* 
monks, that he be consecrated by the 
archbishop of Canterbury. I will and 
decree, that, whatever man may have 
made a vow to go to Rome, and cannot 
perform it, either from infirmity, or for 
bis lord's need, 6r from poverty, or from 
any other necessity of any kind whiat- 
ever, whereby he cannot come thither, 
be be of England, or of whatever other 
island he be, he may eome to that min«' 
ster of Medhmnsted, and have the same 
forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and 
of tbe abbot, and of the monks, that he 
should have if he went to Rome. Now 
bid I thee, brother Tbeodorus, that thou' 
let it be prtu^ltfinied througb all En- 
gland, that a synod be gathered, and 
this writ be i^nd and observed. Also I 



^^*i 



■«*■ 



' So 10 the Norman.Saxon original ; but it must 
be reeoHected, that the title was not at this time 
in existence, t^id an 66a 



* i. e. ^^ No diocismi bishop.*' Parocfuanus pon* 
Hfex and episcopui dioeceseoi,^^ChafL Lot. 

U 2 



59 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Al f pa ic beobe J?e. Saxulp bif cop: f jrpa 
rpa J;u hit jeopnepc. f yeo mynftpe 
beo ppeo. y-pa ic popbeobc )>e. ^ ealle J>e 
bij^copaf fe aeyrtep fe cumon op Cpijicc 
^ op ealle hip haljan. f je nan onptinj 
nc hauen op f mynptpe. buton ppa mi- 
cel ppa }K)ne abbot pile:* Nu piUe ic 
hit pejje mib popbc. f hpa ppa halt 
^ip pptte *J J>ip bobe. fa pup^ he cppe 
punienbe mib Gob eelmihti on heuen- 
j«ce. tJ hpa ppa hit tobpeccS. J?a pup^c 
he amanpumeb. ^ ani^pob mib lubap. 
*i mib ealle beople on helle. buton he 
cume to bebbote. Amen. — Dap ppit 
peonbe peo papa A^^. *] an hunbpeb 
^ pip ^ tpenti bipcopep. bi pilppib aep- 
cebipcop op Gopeppic to Gn^lalanbe:* 
Dip fXf jebon aeptep upe Dpihtnep 
acennebneppe dclxxx. })ep kinin^ep vi. 
jeap y6J>elpebep. Da heot peo kininj; 
]x>ne aepcebipcop Deobopup. f he pcolbe 
petton ealle jepitene mot aet }K)ne 
ptebe f man cleope^ l^eatpelbe. Da 
hi paspon ]raep ^ejabepob. ]>a leot he 
paebon ]>a jeppite. ye peo papa }>ibep 
f-eonbe, *i ealle hit jetton. *i pulpeopt- 
nobon. Da peibe pe kyninj. 6alle \>2l 
Jjinj }>e mm bpoJ>ep Peaba. "j mm bjK)- 
^ep pulpepe- anb mine ppuptep, Cme- 
buph ^ Kynepiu^. jeapon 1 jetton pee 
Petep "1 jK)ne abbot. J>a pile ic f ptanbe. 
^ ic pile on mm basi hit ascoh pop hepe 
paplc. anb pop minpe paple. Nu jipe 
ic pf e Petep to baei. mto hip mmptpe, 
CDebephamptebe, fap lanbep. ^ eal f 
l^aep to lijjeb. J?et ip. Bpebune. J3pe- 
pmjap. Cebenac. Spmephaepeb. J^ean- 



tell thee, bishop Saxulf, tbat^ as thou 
desirest it, that the minster be free, so 
I forbid thee, and all the bishops that 
after thee come, from Christ and from 
all his saints, that ye have no demand 
from that minster, except so much as 
the abbot will. Now will I say io a 
word, that, whoso faoldeth this writ and 
this decree, then be he ever dwelling 
with God almighty in the kingdom of 
heaven. And whoso breaketh it, then 
be he excommunicated, and thrust down 
with Judas, and with all the devils in 
hell, except he come to repentance. 
Amen ! " — ^This writ sent the pope Aga«- 
tho, and a hundred and twenty-five bi- 
shops, by Wilfrid, archbishop of York, 
to England. This was done after our 
Lord's nativity 680, the sixth year of 
king Ethelred. Then the king com- 
manded the archbishop Theodorus, that 
he should appoint a general Wittenmoot 
at the place called Hatfield. When they 
were there collected, then he allowed 
the letter to be read tliat the pope sent 
thither ; and all ratified and confirmed 
it Then said the king: ^'AU things 
that my brother Peada, and ray brother 
Wulfere, and my sisters, Kyneburga 
and Kyneswitha, gave and granted to 
St. Peter and the abbot, these I will may 
stand; and I will in my day increase it, 
for their souls and for my soul. Now 
give I St. Peter to-day into his min- 
•ster, Medfaamsted, these lands, and all 
that thereto lyeth ; that is, Bredon, Re- 
pings» Cadney, Swineshead^, Hanburj ', 



■ SuiRfifthcued, CharL Pdrob. 



^ Heanbrigy Chart, P^rvh. 



TirE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



53 



fejjnj. Lobcfhac*, Scuppanlialch. Cop- 
rcf-papb, Stpctrjropb. paetellebtipne. 
Luj^eapb^, jG^lhunijlonb, BapJ^an- 
ig :• Dajr lanbep i€ jipc j^e Petep cal 
|-pa f peoJicc }-pa ic fcolp hit: ahte. *i • 
|-pa f nan mm aeptepjenjlej- Jraep nan 
^mj of nc nime. Oip hpa hit bo^. )«[• 
papa cnpf op Rome. ^ ealpe bipcopc 
cupf he habbe. 1 hepe ealpe J^e hep be 
jepitnejje. 1 J>if ic pej-cnie mibCpij-taep 
tacne. iff Ic Deobopup aepcebijxop 
<»p Cantpapbypij. am pirncf jre op J^ap 
jeppite op OJcbephamf^jebe. 'j ic pepc- 
me mib mm "jeppite. *i ic amanpumie 
«alle Jja J^p am J)m3 opbpeke. 1 ic blet- 
pe ealle ))a J« hit healben. ifi Ic pd- 
f pib. aepceb* op /Bpeppic- ic eam pit-, 
ueppe op Jmp jeppite. anb ic jsete Jyaep 
lice cupp. ^ Ic Saxulp. ]>e pap pippt 
^bbot. anb nn eam bipcop. ic ^ipe hi 
mm cupp •] ealle mm aeptepjenjle. J>e 
Jip t?obpeket. — Ic Optpi^. /Gj^elpebep 
cpen. hit ty^e. — Ic Abpiannp lejat hit 
lete. — Ic Piitta. bipcop op Ropecep- 
tpe. ic lilt ppite. — Ic palbhepe. bipcop 
op Lunbene. hit peptnie. — Ic Cui^balb. 
abbot hit ^eate. ppa J?et hpa j7)a hit 
bpeketL ealpe bipcope cuppunje anb eal 
Cjiiptene pocep he hape. Amen i"] 

An. DCLXXVI. JSep /epcpine pop^- 
pepbe. *i Daebbe penj to bipcopbome*'. 



Lodesfaall ^ Scufikofaall^ Cesford, Strat- 
ford, Wattleburn, Lusfagard^ Ethd-* 
han-isiand^ Bardaej^. These lands I 
give St. Peter just at freely as I possess- 
ed them myself; and «o, that none of 
my successors take any thing therefrom. 
Whoso doieth it, have he the curse' of 
the pope of Rome, and the curse of all 
bishops, and of all those that are wit- 
nesses here. And this I confirm vvith 
the token of Christ." ^ '' I Tbeodo- 
nis, archbishop of Canterbury, am wit- 
ness to this charier of Medhamsted ; and 
I ratify it with my band, and I excom- 
municate all that break any thing there- 
of ; and I bless all that hold it." ^ ''I 
Wilfrid, archbishop of York, am wit- 
ness to this charter; and I ratify this 
same curse." ^ ''I Saxulf, who was 
first abbot, and now am bidiop, I give 
my curse, and that of all my successors, 
to those who break this." — ''I Ostri- 
tha, Ethelred*s queen, confirm it." — '* I 
Adrian ^ legate, ratify it," — "I Putta, 
bishop of Rochester, subscribe it.*' — 
'^ I Waldhefie, bishop of London, con- 
firm it6."— " I Cuthbald, abbot, ratify 
it; so tbat,..whpso breaketh itj have he 
the cursing of all bishops and of all 
christian folk. Amen." 

A.D. 676. This year, in which Hedda 
succeeded to his bishopric, Escwin died; 



• Perhaps thh ought to be Lobp j.halc or .halch, like the termination of Scuppan-halch. For Cebenacy 
howcTer, I presume we ought to read Ccbenac, as there is still a place ra Lincolnshire called Cadney. 
* Lujjeapb, Gibs. * byjceop. Cant 

' Lodeshale, t7AaW. Petroh ^ " Ei Joannm Aomanus degaUttr^^Aari. P^L 

^ Lusgerdy Chart. Peiroi. Hog. Caod. Hug. Caad* &c« 

^ tiethelhuniglond, Chart Peirob. ^ *' Ei 4mnet 4omke$, H primdtm Unae ioiius 

* Barchanig, Ch. Ptl. H ug, Cand, fur Barthanig. Jn£nier— Chart PetnA. flug. Cand. 



54 



THE SAXON CHRONICLR 



■*J Centpme penj to pcft-Seaxna'* 
pice", ^'i ye Centpine pacf Cynejilp 
mj. CynejUf Ceolpulpinj". Anb ,**iE- 
J?el|icb. CDypcna" c^^ninj. *opep-hep- 
jabc Cent-lanb" :• 

• DCLXXTII. 

An. DCLXXVIIL I3cp o>ypbe' co- 
meta pe ytrcopjia «^on Aujuftc'^ ^^ 
f can III. mon)>ap aelce mopjen'' ^j^Jilce 
funne beam". Anb pilppiS* bipcop'^ 
pasp abpipen op hip bipcopbome^ ppom 
Gcjpep^e"* cyninje. "^ man ^efaal^obe 
II. bipcopap on hip ftal. Bopan to De« 
pum. ^ 6atan to Beopmcum. Anb 
man ^ehaljobe Lmbij^apum to bipcope 
6abheb. pe paep on Lmbipp aepopt bi- 
pcopa" :• 

An. DCLXXIX. *»l3ep iElppme p»p 
opplejcn". 5be Tpentan. j7aBp }>a&p Gj- 
pep^ ^ JEpdpeb jepuhton'^, Anb hep« 
pee JEpeLhjitS^ pop^pepbe. ^Anb Co* 
lubej-buph popbapn' mib ^obcunbum* 
pype't. 

An. DCLXXX. I3ep jepaet Deobo- 
pup apcebipcop pno%' on )]>a&%tpdba« 
"pop^on |«* he polbe )>one Cpiptep' 
jeleapan* jepihtan". Anb fy ylcan* 



and Centwin obtained the government 
of the West^Siaxons. Centwin wa» the. 
son of Gyoegilfl^ Cj.negils of Ceolwulf. 
Ethelred^.king of the MerciaoBj in the 
mean timOj over-ran the land of Kent. 

A.D* 678. This year appeared the 
eomet-star in Angufst^ and shone every 
mornings during, three months^ like a 

• sun-beam. Bishop Wilfrid being driven 
from his btsfaopric by king Evevtb, two 
bishops virere consecrated in his stead, 
Bosa over the Deirians, and Eata over 
the Bernicians. About the same time also 

• Eadhed waa consecrated bishop over tim 
people of Lindsey> being the first in that 
division. 

A.D.67{>. This year Elwin was slainj 
by the civer Treot^ on the spot where 

. Everth and Ethelred fought This year 
also died St. Etheldritha; and the mona- 
stery of Goldingham was. destroyed bjr 
fire from heaven >. 

A.D. 680. This year> archbishop 

^ Theodore appointed a synod at Hat* 
fields ; because he was desirous ^f vec-i 
tifying the belief of Christ^ ; and the 



• From Laud. Cot. Cant. C, T.b\. <* Abs. Cant. C.T. si. < So Cant. C.T. b i. abs. Laud. ^ £>e. 
pcb COypcne. Cant. « -jobe Cenclonb. Cant. ' aeeopebe, Laud, o^opbe, Cani. aetypbe, Cot. 
g From LotidL ^ From Land. Cot. *% fcan ^py moo]«f oo aepqe mopjeo. Cot* ' Filp^T^ Laud. 
Cant. C.T. b u Fid. an. 644. ^ byjceop, Cant. > -p^ole, Cot. "So C.T. bU ecfej^e, Laud. 
Bj^fpXe^CoL JE^fcji'Sey Cant. Gc^epV^Gibs. ^ From Laud. Fid. Bed. Hist. Eccles. <" t>ep 
man off loh ^Ifpine. Laud, p JSpiSy Whd. 9 From Laud. Cot. ' fopVjrepbe, Cot. • -ban, Cot. 
' jeoDC^, Cant. * to jepihtaane Cpip»f 3eleaaaD« CoL ' From Laud. Cant, y Cbpp:ejf, Cant^ 
• ^elaepan, Laud. * Abs. Laud. 

' ''HutempnMuM mmasieriuM vbgmm, gwod * Hethlege, E(bel«f. Hastbfeld, Flor. Hath. 

CobuU urhem cognmninant,—per eulptm incurim felde, M.West Fid. MS. Laud. an. 675. 

Jtmimis ahsumpum w/.'"— Bed. W$ti BacL if. ?5. * Fid. Bede, Hist. Sedes. if. 17. WUkins, Con. 

• An. 683. R. Difiet d^ i. 61. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



55 



jeapc pop^pepbe l3ite abbobiyye* **oii 
Stjiconef-heale'^ :• 

An. DCLXXXL *l3ep man hal^obe 
Tfiumbpiht^ bip:op to J^ajuy-calbef-ca, 
*i Tpumpinc Pihton*. pop^an ^h^h^p- 
bon'' J7a8 hibep'*. 'J3ep on ^ijfuta jeapc^ 
Centpme jeplymbc Bpyt-pcalaf ^ o^ 



yae :• 



DCLXXXII. DCLXXXIII. 



•An. DCLXXXIV. tieji on >ij7-uni < 
jeape jnenbe Bc;gfeji^ hcpe on Scot- 
tzy, 'i Bpiht hif ealbopman mib. ^ eapm- 
lice hi Gobef c^pican hjrnban ^ bsepn- 
bon'^:- 

An. DCLXXXV. «l3cp hac Gcj- - 
fep^ cminj jehaljian Cu^bephc to bi- 
fcope, ^ Deobopujr apchicpjr hinc je- 
lialjobe on 6opeppic. ]7am popman 6ap 
trop bae^e. to bip:ope to JSajuj^albep- 
ham. pop)>am Tpumbpiht paef abon op • 
Jwim bifcopbomc'^. Anb \>f ilcan jeape 
''man opploh 6cjpcp¥ cmmj'' *be nop- 
^an pae. ^ mycelne hepe mib him on 
XIII, kt. lunii. tie paep xv. pihtep ci- 
tiinj. *i AlbppiV hip bpo%op penj aeptep • 
him to pice^ * Sc ecjpep^ p«p Op- 
peoin^. OppcoiE^elpcp^inj. JEjfeljiepX 
i^J^picm^. ^j^elpic Ibm^. Iba 6op^ 
pmj^V Anb hep Ceabpalla on^an septep 
pice pmnan. ^pe Ceabpalla psep ^Coen- • 
byphting. Coenby^ht Ceabbin^^ Ceab- 



same year died Hilda, abbess of Whit- 
byi. 

' A.D. 681. This year* Trumbert was 
consecrated bishop of Hexham, and 
Trum win bishop of the Picts ; for they 
were at that time subject to this coun- 
try. This year also Centwin pursued 
the Britons to the sea. 

A.D. 684. This year Eyerth sent an 
army against the Scots^, under the com- 
mand of his alderman Bright, who la- 
mentably plundered and burned the 
churches of God. 

A.IX 685. This year king E?erth 
commanded Cuthbert t« be consecrated 
a bishop ; and archbishop Theodore, on 
the first day of Easter, consecrated him 
at York bishop of Hexham; for Trum- 
bert had been deprived of that see^. The 
same year Everth was slain by the north 
sea, and a large army with him, on the 
thirteenth day before tkecalendsof June; 
He continued king fifteen winters ; and 
his brother Elfirith succeeded him in the 
gOTernment Everth was the san of Os«> 
wy, Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of 
Ethelric, Ethelri^ of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. 
About this time Cead wall began to strug- 
gle for a kingdom. Ceadwall was the 
aon oi Kenbert^ Kenbert of Chad, Chad 



* '^TT^ Loud' abbacifpi^ CanL abbubejf e^ a T.b'u ^ Abs. CamL CT* b L « From Laud. CoU 
^. Tjiombypbt, CoL « So Cot. Pibtam, Liuui. ' ]ii hyjaXy Coi. « Abi. Coi. ^ >i))eji, CoU 
> From.lMud. ^ jichxxxxu Laud. DCLxzxiii.Cir.Bi. ^ Bjiyxxajy Cami. * From Loim/. ta 
An^ }j[ ilfiBu. tSfc. ■ ecjpepV mop o; j-loh. Bm, Aob \y ylcan jcajie ecjppp* p«j Orpeoinj. ksft^ 
Wh«l. • FroiQ Wbel. CanU abs« XW. . p A)w. Ltud. « Cenbjuhauj*^ Ceabjiibc Ceattbinj. 
Ce<ib^Cu>tn2. aifil.ar.BU Cabioj;. Caba. Gibs. 



' Fid. Bede, Hut Bccles. if. 23. 
f Jim. 683. R. Dicet. 



^ Hiberniam} Flor. from Bede.. 
f Fid. B&k^ HisLEceia. If. ^,n. 



56 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ba Cu]>ain3^ Cu)?a Ceaphninj. Ceaplm 
Cynjiicmj, Cynpic Cepbicinj''. ^ CDul 
paBf Ceabpallan bpo^op. ^* ^'Jjonc mon 
cjrt" on Cent popbsepnbe :• Anb J3lo^- 
hepe*. ^Cantpapa cininj'^. J?y ylcan . 
jeape p)p^pepbe. Anb man^ jchaljobc 
lohannef on A^uirtalb to bifcope. ^ he 
J'sp pasf o]7)?e pilppi% in com. Sy%%an 
penj lohannef to Ceajrtpe-bif copbome. 
popVan Bofa bij^cop paep pop^papen. . 
Da paep ^ilpep^ hip ppeopt py^Ban je- 
haljob Ceaptpe to bipcope. ^ pop to 
hip mynptpe on Depapuba'':- [^I3ep 
peap% on Bpytenc blobi pen. ^ meolc ^ 
butep pupbon ^epenbe to blobe :•] 

An. DCLXXXVL I3ep Ceabpalla^ 
anb CDul ^hip bpoBop'^ Cent ^ piht pop- 
hep jebon"*. [*DaBp Caebpala jep into 
pfe Petpep minptpe CCebephamptebe 
ISoje. f ip m an ijlanb J^eabup-eah^ • 
hatte. )»a paep abbot on }>»pe minptpe. 
G^hdl'S paep j^ehaten. heo paep pe fpibbe 
abbot aeptep Saxulpe. ]7a paep Deobo- 
pup aepceb' on Cent :•] 

An. DCLXXXVII. Jiep CDul peap« . 
on Cent popbaepnebK *J of pe xii. men 
raib him. "j ]>f jeape^ Ceabpalla^ cpt 
Cent pophepjabe®:-] 

An. DCLXXXVIII."^ )3ep pop Ceab- . 
pala** Pcminj to Rome''. ^^ pulpiht on- 



of Cutha, Cutba of Ceawlin^ CeaM^Iin of 
Cynric^ Cynric of Cerdic. Mull, who 
was afterwards coofligned to the flaroe» 
in Kent^ was the brother of Ceadwalh 
The same year died Lothhere, king of 
Kent; and John was consecrated bishop 
of Hexham^ where he remained till Wil* 
ferth was restored, when John was trans- 
lated to York on the death of bishop 
Boss. Wilferth his priest was pifter wards 
consecrated bishop of York, and John 
retired to his monastery < in the woods 
of Deira. This year there was i n Britain 
a bloody rain, and milk and butter were 
turned to blood. 

A.D. 686. This year Ceadwall and 
his brother Mull spread devastation in 
Kent and the isle of Wight. This same 
Ceadwall gave to St. Peter's minster, at 
Medhamsted> Hook ; which is situated 
in an island called Egborough. Egbald 
at this time was abbot, who was the third 
after Saxulf ; and Theodore was arch- 
bishop in Kent. 

A.D. 687. * This year was Mull con- 
signed to the flames in Kent, and twelve 
other men with him ; after which, in the 
same year, Ceadwall over-ran the king- 
dom of Kent. 

A.D. 688. This year^ Ceadwall went 
to Rome, and received baptism at the 



■ Abi. Pan/. C*T. si. ^ ^ne eye man. CT. si. After this seatence io C.T. b i. we find the death 
and geoealogj of Ecgferth. < Lojwpe, Laud, Lo^bepe, Cani, iDlotepe, CoL ^ From LtauL CoL 
« From Laud. ' From Col. N.S. t .pala, Laud, -fealla, C.T.bu (Dal ^ Ceabpalla. Cani. 
^ .^obaoy Laud. Cot. Cant, -jobon, C.T.uu > From Laud. N.S. ^ baepneb, Laud. > Z'^l^^t 
Laud, jepe, C.T. b i. » -jobe, Cant. C,T. b i. "So Gibs, from Laud. An. dclxxxix. Cot. Whel. 
• -palls, Cant, .fealla, CT. b i. » Abs. Whel. Cant. Cot. C.T. si. « From Cot. Cbft/. Whe). C.T. a i. 
anb onjrenj jralluht «t Seppam ^m papan. *j he him jfcop Petpum to name. Gibs, from Laiud. N.S. 

> Vid, infr. an. 687. > Fid. Bede, Hist. Feci. ?. 7; and king Alfied*s 

^ Oerer]^*mlns(er, in Yorkshire. Saxon translation. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



67 



penj fpam Jam papan Sepjie*. *J ye 
papa hme hec Petpuj-". ^ he *'ryJ?J?an' 
ymbe vii. niht" pop^pepbe *^on xii. kat. 
TOai. unbep Cjtijrtef cla^um^'. **1 he paejr 
jebyjijeb id nan j-ce Petjiej- cypican". 
*^ hep Ine penj to pejT-Seaxna pice 
aeptep him", j-e' pjxabcs xxxvii.** pm- 
rpa. *^ he jetymbpabe J>aBt mynptep 
«t Gteftijijabypij" 1*^ yyS^an jepac^ 
zo Rome. *i J?aBp "punobe o^ hif enbe- 
baej":- Done" paep pe Ine Cenpebinj. 
Cenpeb Ceolpalbmj. Ceolpalb pasp Cy- 
nejilpep bpo^up®. ^ J?a paepon bejenP 
•Cu^pinep pina Ceaphnjcp.Ceaphn Cy n- 
jiicm^. Cynpic Cepbicmj :• 

DCLXXXIX. 

An. DCXC. JSep Deobopup apcebi- 
pcop*i pop^pepbe. ^TSe pasp xxii. pm- 
tpa bipcop". '"j he paep bebypjeb innan 
Cancpapbypij". **] "penj Beophrpalb* 
to J>am bipceopbome". 'on kl. lulii. he 
paep aepy abbot on Raculpe". */Bp Jip- 
pan' paepun^ Romanipce*^ bjpcopap. '*i 
-pi^^an paepun^ Gnjhpce^'. **Da paepon 



hands of Sergius the pope^ who gave him 
the name of Peter ; but in the course of 
seven nights afterwards^ on the twelfth 
day before the calends of May^ be died 
Jn his crisom*clotbs^ and was buried in 
the church of St. Peti^r. — To bim suc- 
ceeded Ina in the kingdom of Wessex, 
^and reigned thirty-seven winters, lie 
founded the monastery of Glastonbury ; 
after which he went to Rome, and contt* 
nued there to the end of his life. Ina was 
the son of Cenred, Cenred of Ceolwald ; 
Ceolwald was the brother of Cynegiis ; 
and both were the sons of Cuthwin^ who 
was the son of Ceawlin; Ceawlin wasthe 
son of Cynric, and Cynric of Cerdic. 

A.D.690. This year archbishop Theo- 
dore^ who had been bishop twienty-two^ 
winters, departed this life^, and was bu- 
ried within the city of Canterbury. Bert- 
wald, who before this was abbot of Re- 
coil ver, on the calends of July siHcceeded 
him in the see: which was ere this filled 
by Romish bishops, but henceforth with 



, « From CoL absWhel. Cant, CT.bu ^ Abj», Whel. C.T. si. ffj ymb vii. luhc. Cani. binnan 
Tii.oihtaii. Cot. "j ymb Til. nibt he jojibe Fr»ji^. C.T.bu 5 Ala. Cot, CanLWhal C.T.n'u * *) ho 
peapW bebyjijeb innan j. Pctjifj mynjqie. Cot, abs. Can/. Wkel. CT.n'u « -^J^cp htm unbcppen^ 
jiice Ina. CoL, I3cp Ine pcnj to Pejrc-Seaana jiir^. Cani.Yf hel Pej-jexna, C.T*. si- to picc on Paejr- 
jSapxna, Gibs, from Laud. N.S. ' •), Cant. C.T.bI ^ he, C«/.Whe1. « heolb, CantJWhel C.T.n'i. 
* So^o/.Whel. Cant.C.T.Bu xzyii. Laud. > From Whel. ^ Abs.Whel. » ppbe,C<i/. » fop^- 
jrpbe^Co/. » Donne, Cant. ab^. Laud, to the end of tbe year. « -'^fop, Cant, C.T.bI. p From 
Cant. fl -fcecp, Cant, ' From Laud. Col. • From^Lairi. * An. ncscii. Laud. Cot, « Bpihc. 
polbii J yrf jpcoppfi to aepcb'. Laud, pa j Bpihtpolb jecopen to apcb*. Cot. « Bpihtpo b, Cant. C.T. b i, 
•y Abs. Cot. » An. ncxcii. Laud. » From Laud, fipn, Cot* *>pappon, Laud. Cant. Cot. C,T, ai. 
c .tiijcau, Cot. ^ From Laud. Cot, an.bcxcit. Vvi.an.W4m 



' nnbep Cpijtrjf cla^iim, Sax. iinbop rpijmao^ 
jEl/r. Bed. — inMm adhue po5itus,\\\%x. from Bedc, 
an. 680. The chrysom, in I^tin christnale, is a white 
liood of cloth or lineu placed upon the head of a 
person baptized. 



* So Bed. Flor. Brompf . xu, in mss. PJd. an. 068. 

« « XIII. kaL Octobr'u:*—F\oT.Thom. Fid. Betl. 
Hist. ^cles. T. 8. He was a native of Tarsus iu 
Cilida^ the birth-place of St. Paul. 
i 



58 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



n. cinm^ajr on Cent, pihtpeb* anb paeb- 
heapb":- 

DCXCI. DCXCII, 

^An. DCXCIII. liep paej- Bpihtpalb 
j^ehal^ob to aspcebijfcop ppam Gobune. 
Galpala bifcope^. on y. non. lut. ^In- 
nan J?ap tyb'' Gipemunb. •jpe paep'' bi- 
jrcop ^on Jijioue-cieftpe''. pop^pepbe. 
tl Bpihtpalb apcb'* ^ehaljobe^ Tobian** 
on hip pteall *. ''Anb Dpyhtelm paep op 
lype jelaeb'':- 

An. DCXCIV. toep Cantpape^ je- 
J^m^oban™ pi^ Inc. ^ "him jepealbon®^ 
Pxxx. Jjupenba'^ punba^ *to ppeonb- 
pclpe'^. pop%on fe hi aep CDul *hip bpo- 
^op'' popbaepnbon. Anb pihtpcb penj 
to Cantpapa pice. ^ heolb hit^ 'xxxiii. 
pintpa'^. •Se pihtpcb paep Gcjby^pht- 
mj. Gcjbypht Gpcenbyphtinj. Gp- 
cenbypht Cabbalbinj. Sabbalb /6]^1- 
byphtmj'':- j]*Anb pona |)ap ]>e he cmj 
pap. he het jabepian my'cel concihum 
on ]>ape ptope J>e ip jcclypob Baccan- 
icelbe. on ]>ape pap pihtpeb pttenbe 
Cantpape cinj. anb pe apceb' op Cant- 
uapeb^pi Bpihtpalb. ^ pe bipcop Tobiap 



English. Then were there two kings 
in Kent^Wihtredi and Webherd^. 

A.D. 693. This year was Bertwald 
consecrated archbishop by Godwin^, bi- 
shop of the Gauls, on the fifth day before 
the nones of July ^; about which time 
died Gifmund^ who was bishop of Ro- 
chester ; and archbishop Bertwaid con- 
secrated Tobias in his stead. This year 
also Dryhtelm^ retired from the world. 

A.D. 694. This year the people of 
Kent covenanted with Ina^ and gave 
him 30^000 pounds in friendship^ be- 
cause they had burned his brother Mull. 
Wihtred, who succeeded to the king- 
dom of Kent, and held it thirty-three 
winters, was the son of Egbert, Egbert 
of Erkenbert, Erkenbert of Eadbald^ 
Eadbald of Ethelbert. And as soon as 
he was king, he ordained a great council 
to meet in the place that is called Bap- 
child'^; in which presided Wihtred king 
of Kent, the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Brihtwald, and bishop Tobias of Ro- 
chester ; and with them were collected 



» nihcpeb, Iioift/. instead of uiht]ieb. ^ FromJLaatrf.Cb/.C.T.BiT. ''So Cot. hijco^y Laud. CT.nlw. 
' On yyj ciman, Co/. « From Coi. ' From Cot. N.S. s ^^hababe, Coi. ^ >ajuto Tobian, Cb/. 
Tobiam, CT.Bti. Gejnnonb— Dfiyheelm, iML > loh, Coi. N.S. i.e. Ueu, loco. 'iProm Laud. 
'CT.Bif. Bpihtelm,6ibg. Dpyhthelm,jGlfr.Bed. > .papa, Lair(i.f.e. the genitiTe case before the verb I 
» ^mgoban, Cot. ° hi jiaan him, Cot. ^ .ban, Cant. p So Laud. Cot. xxz. manna. Whel. 
XXX. C.T. B i. omitting the horizontal line above for ]^a jenba. « From Cant. C.T. b i. ' (p^ 1 
rpenti pintpa. Lamd. Fid. an. 604, 726. * Abs. Laud. 



1 VictreduB, Bed. Am2. Whiter. 

* Suebbeardos, Bed. Fior. Wedbard, Brompt. 
' Godirino, Flor. 

* ^^iiuiaL Jtt/fi/*— Bed. Fid. an. 780. 
^ Gebmnndus, Flor. from Bede. 

* This brief notice of Dryhtelm, for so I find the 
name written in C.r.Bi?. is totally uninteUigible 



withont a reference to Bede's Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, T. 12 ; where a carious account of him maj 
be found, which b copied hy Matthew of West- 
minster, an, 609. 

' Fid. Spelman, Condi, i. 180. Thorn, Evideni. 
Ecel. Christ. Cam. Lehwd, Cb^ecMi. 56. Wilkins, 
CondL U 56. and Somner, Jnt, Cant. p. 231. 



THfe SAXON CHRONICLE. 



59 



op ftpoue-ccaj^pe. *i mib heom abbo- 
bajr 1 abbebejjen. ^ manije pij^ menn. 
^scji paspon je^abepabe. ealle ro pnea- 
jenbe cmbcGbbep cypcan bote. }«i beo% 
innan Cent. Nu a^ann ye cynj to ppe- - 
cenbe. ^ paebe. Ic pylle f ealle J^a myn- 
ptpa T J^ cy^pican |)a paspon ^luene ^ 
becpe^ne Gobe to pyp^mynte be je- 
leappulpa cm^a bajan. mmpa popen- 
jenjlan. ^ be minpa majon bajon. be 
jejclbephtep cmjep. ^ ]>apa J>e him 
a*ptep pylijban. ppa beliuan Gobe to 
pyp^my^nte ^ paeptlice ptanban a to 
ecneppe asupe ma. Fop^on ic pihtpeb. 
eop^hc cin^. ppam }?am heouenlicecinj^e 
onbpypb. *] mib anban J>ape pihtpip- 
nippe* anaelb. op upan ealbpan pa^bepan 
jepotneppe** ic habbe f jeleopnob. J>at 
nan laspebe man nah mib pihte to ptin- 
^an hine an anpe cipican. na anan J^apa 
}>in2an ^ to cypcan belimpS. Anb pop 
jfi ptpanjlice ^ tpy^phce pe jepetta^ ^ 
bema%. *i on Gobep naman ]?ep ealmih- 
tijep. "j on ealpa haljena. pe popbeobaV 
eallon upon aeptep^enj^an cinjan. ^ eal- 
bepmannum.'j eallan laspeban mannum. 
aenpe aenne hlauopbpcipe ouep cipcan. 
^ ouep eallan heopa J^mjan. )>e ic o%%e 
mine ylbpan on ealbon ba^an ^^uan 



abbots and abbesses, amf many wise men, 
all to consult about the advantage of 
God's churches that are in Kent. Now 
began the king to speak, and said, '' I wiil 
that all the minsters and the churches, 
that were given and bequeathed to the 
worship of God in the days of believ- 
ing kings, my predecessors, and in the 
days of my relations,— of king Ethelbert 
and of those that followed him,- -shall 
so remain to the worship of God, and 
stand fast for evermore. For I Wihtred, 
earthly king, urged on by the heaven- 
ly king, and with the spirit of righte- 
ousness annealed, have of our progeni- 
tors learned this, that no layman should 
have any right to possess himself of any 
church or of any of the things that be- 
long to the church. And therefore, 
strongly and truly, we set and decree, 
and in the name of almighty God, and 
of all saints, we forbid all our succeed- 
ing kings, and aldermen, and all laymen, 
ever, any lordship over churches, and 
over all their appurtenances, which I 
or my elders in old days have given for 
a perpetual inheritance to the glory of 
Christ and our Lady St. Mary, and the 
holy apostles. And look ! when it hap^ 



Cpipte to loue on ece epppyplSneppe. . peneth, that bishop, or abbot, or abbess, 
^ upe hlaepbian p£fa CDapian. ^ ))an hal- depart from this lite, be it told the areh- 
jan apoptolan. Ac loc. hpenne hit je- bishop, and with his counsel and in- 
pup^e f bipcop. oWe abbob. o^]^e ab- junction be chosen such as be worthy, 
bebeppe. ^epite op )>^pan hue. yf hit And the life of him, that shall be chosen 
jec^bb )»n apcb'. ^ mib hip pasbe ^ * to so holy a thing, let the archbishop 
2e)>eahte py ^ecopen ppilce pup^e beo. examine, and his cleanness ; and in no 
Anb hip lip. )?e man pceal to ppa ^e- wise be chosen any one, or to so holy 



• t acmaeb superscribed in Donu a vUh ue. regenerate, ^ From Dom. Aim. aba. Gibs* 



60 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE/ 



]?onne J>yn3e cyj^an. ayece jre apcb'*. ^ 
hif claennepy-e. ^J an ane pij-an ne pup^e 
jecopen nan. na to j^pa jej^onan J^injan 
^ehaljob. butan ]>ep apcb' paebe:- Cyn- 
jap j^ccolan j^etran eoplap ^ ealbep- 
men. j^cipipeuan.'j boniej-menn.^J apcb'. 
j-ceal Gobef jelaj'unjepij-pan 'j paeban. 
^ bij^copap •} abbobap tJ abbebejyan. ^J 
ppeoj^rap ^ biaconaj- ceopan ^J pettan. 
^ haljian anb jetjiy man mib joban my- 
nej^unja ^ popebypene. f e laepte )?e asm 
op Gobep heopbe bpelie ^ lopie ^] 

DCXCV. DCXCVI. 

*>An. DCXCVII. rsep Su«an-hymbpe 
opplojon Optpy^e*^. /e)?clpebep cpen**. 
Gcjppibep ppuptep*'':- 

DCXCVllI. 

'An. DCXCIX. hep Pyhtrap plojon 
Bepht ealbopman'':- 

DCC. DCCl. 

^An. DCCIL I3cp Kenpeb penj to 
Su^-hymbpa pice'':« 

An. DCCIII. liep Debbe^ bipcop 
frop^pepbe*. ^J he heolb })one bipcopbom 
xxvii.^ pmtep* on pintan-ceaptpe :• 

An. DCCIV. )3ep /EJ^elpeb Penbinj. 
CDepcna™ cyninj. onpenj munuc-habe. 
tl f pice heolb xxix. pintpa. ])a penj 
Cenpeb to:- 



a thing consecrated, without the arch** 
bishop's counsel. Kings shall appoint 
earls, and aldermen, sheriffs^ and judges; 
but the archbishop shall consult and' 
provide for God's flock; bishops, and 
abbots, and abbesses, and priests, and 
deacons, be shall choose and appoint; 
and also sanctify and confirm with 
good precepts and example, lest that 
any of God's flock go astray and pe- 



rish 



»» 



A.D. 697. This yeari the South* 
umbrians^ slew Ostritha, the queen of 

Ethelred, the sister of Everth. 

« 

A.D. 699. Tliis year the Picts slew 
alderman Burt^. 

A. D. 702. This year Kenred assumed 
the government of the Southumbrians^. 

A.D. 70S. This year« died bishop 
Hedda, having held the see of Wi^^lies- 
ter twenty-seven winters. 

A. D. 704. This year Ethelred, the son 
of Penda, king of Mercia, entered into a 
monastic life,havingreigned29winters^^ 
and Cenred succeeded to the govern ment. 



* There ap|iears to be no chasm or defect here in the original MS. Dojm. a Yiii. though Gibson has 
so printed the clause. The defect is rather at the end, after loriej where the compiler of the Norman 
interpolation seems to ha?c inserted mnch more of the speech of Wihtred, but afterwards obliterated if. 
*» From Laud, Cot. C^T. bIt. « Ojtpe^ Cot. * cpene, Cot. • rpyjteji, Cot. ' From Laud. 
Cr.Bir. s From Laud* Cot. ^ baebe, Laud, tebbc. Cant. C.T.u'u and iv. > F^PPP^i Cant. 
^ xxxTii. Cant, CT. b i. Fid. an, 676. > p incjia, Laud. C,T, b i. "■ OOyjicena; Cot. COijtcua^ Cant. 
(Oypcna, C.T. b i. almost in?ariablj. Rex Merciv, H. Hunt. 

' Jin. 69G. M.Wes^ ' Brihtricum, M.West. 

* " Mercii, qui dkuntur Suthumbri, id est, ilia * Jn. 704. M.West. 

pftTs Merciorufu, qum est d parte boreali Trent Jlu^ ' xxx. M.West. <^ ziii. et sepultus est apud 
w,i«i>;*— M. Wftst. Bardente fielicUer.''^U. Hunt. 



' - "» 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



61 



An. DCCV. ?>ep Galbpep**. Nop- 
^an-hymbpa cyninj. popBpepbe ^oti 
XIX. kl. Ijmp. on Dpippelba''. ^^ Seaxulj: 
bij-ceop'^ ^D2L penj Ofpeb hif funu 
ropice'':- 

OCCYI. — DCCTIII. 

An. DCCIX. J3ep Albhelm* bij-cop 
popSpepbe. pe* paej- be peptan-Ruba^^ 
bipceop. *^Anb pap'' cobaeleb on pope-: 
peapbum' Danihclep*^ ba^um on^ tpa bi- 
pcoppcipa pept-Seaxna™ lonb"''. ^J aep 
hit paep an. oJ«p heolo® Daniel, opep 
heolb AlbhelmP bipcop^'. /eptrep Alb- 
helrae* penj Fop^hepe^ to. Anb Ceol- 
peb kinj' penj to OOypcna pice. Anb 
Cenpeb pop to Rome. ^ Oppa mib him. 
^tl Cenpeb paep }>mji c?S hip lipep enbc''. 
"Anb J^i* ilcan ^^eape pilpep^" bipcop 
pop^pepbe on Unbalum. tJ hip he man 
laebbe to Ripum. )3e paep bipcop. J^ohe 
Gcjpep^* cinm^ aep bebpap to Rome'^:- 

An. DCCX. »l3ep Acca. pilpep^p 
ppeopj^ Jien^ to* fam bipcopbome Jje 
he aep heolb ^. Anb hep 5^ Beophtppy^* 
ealbopman* peaht pi^ Peohtap^ *^be- 
tpix J2aepe ^ Caepe''. Anb Ine 'j Nunna** 
*hip maej^'' ^epuhton pi^ Gepente. 



A. D. 705. This year died EuMferth i, 
king of the Northumbrians^ an the nine- 
teenth day before the calends of January, 
at Driffield ; and was succeeded by his 

• son Osred. Bishop Saxulf also died the 
same year. 

A.D. 709. This year died Aldhelnr, 
who* was bishop by Westwood. The 

•. laod of the West-Saxons was divided 
into two bishoprics in the first days of 
bishop Daniel ; who held one whHst 
Aldlielm held the other. Before this it 
was only one. Forthere^ succeeded to 

•• Aldhelm; and Ceolred succeeded to the 
kingdomof Mercia. And Cenred went 
to Rome; and Offa with him. And 
Cenred was there to the end of his life. 
The same year died bishop Wilferth, at 

• Oundle^ but his body was carried ta 
Ripon. He was the bishop whom king- 
Ev^rth compelled to go to R.ome3; 

A.D. 710. This year* Acca^, priest 
of Wilferth, succeeded to the bishop- 

• ric that Wilfertfa ere held ; and alder- 
man Bertfrith fought with the Picts be- 
tween Heugh and Carau, Ina.also^ and 
Nun his relative^ fought with Grants 



■ Albppi^, Laud. AIpj\r)J, Coi. ^ From Laud. « Abs. Laud. Cot. ' ^ From Laud. 1 Ojjieb 
hij junu penj to picc. Cot. « Albclm, Laud, ealbhelm, C.T.bu ' jeo, Laud. « Pejtan jele- 
puba, Cant. Fid. Ethel w. «» -J P<ar^, Cant. • pofepypbum, Cot. ^ Daniclep, Cot. C.T.bu 
> So Laud. C.T.bI » -Sexana- Cot. Pej-j-exna lanb, C.T.bi. « lanbcp, Laud. • healb, Cot. 
P Albjlm, Laud. Cot. ^ Fophppe, Laud. Cot. ' From Cant. ■ From Laud. Cot. * Jam, Cot. 
» Piljrjii^, Cot. « Gjppi^, Cot. r Jam ylcan jcape, Laud. » Bjiyhtpcji^, Cant. Beopcj7»V, 
ar.Bi. andiT. • calbcji. Cflw^ ^ Pyht^j^ Laud. ^ From Laud. ^So Cant.C.T.Bu Nuuy edd. 
• Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. ' maei, Laud. N. S. 



' So Ethelwerd. Alhfridus, Flor. Adfridus, 
M. Wc«t. 
* Fordhere, Bed. Forlhrcdus,. M.Wcsf.. 



» rid. an. 678. 
*^n.7il. M.Wese. 
t Eatta, M.West. 



«3 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE; 



•pcala c^^nmjc^ ^*i )>ain ilcan jeajic 
man opj-loh li^bate'^ :• 

DCCXI. DCCXIII. 

An. DCCXI V, l3ep popBpepbc Cur- 
iae ft^ halja. ^T Pipinujr cinj'':- 

An. DCCXV. I3ep Ine anb Ceolpeb 
pihton* at pobnejf-beojihe^:- ^ftep 
j:x)pSpepbc Dajobept jx cmj'^ :• 

An. DCCXVI. liep Ofpeb. Nop«an- 
h^^mbpa c^nmj*^. peap% opflasjen **be 
pi}^an jemaepe'^. fe hapbe xi.* pintep 
pice* aeptep Galbpep}^. Da pcnj Cen- 
pcb to pice. ^ heolb ii. ^eap. ^ Da Op 
pic. ^ heolb XI. jeap^. Anb eac^ on 
Jyam ilcan" ^eape Ceolpcb". CD]p^pcna 
cynmj®. popVpepbe. ^ hip lie 1i*p on 
Licct-pelba^. *j yej)elpebep Penbmjep 
on Beapban-l23e^ Anb* J)a penj /6- 
]>elbalb^ to picc on CDcpcum". ^ heolb 
XLi. pintcp*. Se^ /6)>elbalb paep Al- 
peoinj. Alpeo Gaping. Gapa Pybbinj*. 
Jwp cfn ip bepopan appitcn™. ■Anb 



king of tbe Welsh i ; and Ihe same year 
Hibbald was slain ^. 

A.D. 714. This years died Guihiac 
the holy^ and king Pepin^. 

A.p. 716. This year^ Ina and Ceol- 
red fought at Wanborough^ ; and king 
Dagobert departed this life. 

A.P. 716. This year 7 Osred, king of 
the Northumbrians^ was slain near the 
southern borders. He reigned eleven 
winters after Ealdfcrth. Cenred then 
succeeded to the goTernment^ and held it 
two years ; then Osricj who held it eleven 
years. This same year^ died Ceolred^ 
king of the Mercians. His body lies at 
Lichfield; but that of Ethelred^ the son 
of Penda^ at Bardney. Ethelbald then 
succeeded to the kingdom of Mercia^ 
and held it one and forty winters. Ethel* 
bald was the son of Alwy^ Alwy of Eawa, 
Eawa of Webba^ whose genealogy is al- 



« Jiam kioj) Cant >un cin^e, C.T. b i. ^ From Laud. C.T. bit. « feo, Lmid, N. S. < From Coi. 
* 29j:abton, Laud, Cant. C^T. %u ' -beoji;, laud* Pobbef-beofi^e, CaiU. C,T. b i. t cioiD^a, Laud. 
cin^, Cant. ^ From Laud, * ly.Whel. Tii. Laud. Cant. C.T.b'u Fid, an. 705. ^ Abs. Laud. 
C.T. B It. 1 From Laud. C.T. b i. and U. » Abs. Cant. CT. b i. " Ceolp olb, Cant. C.T. b U 
^ kio;, Cant. v pepaiV, Laud. pejtBZy C.T.bi. pep^)^, C.T.bIj. ^ Licceb^pslba, Cant, ' So 
C.T. B L Beaji^o-e^e, Laud. Besjibao-e^e, Cant. * From Laud. Cant. CT. b i. ^ -bold. Cot. 
" (Dyjice, Cot. OOypcum, Cant. C.T. b L aod i?. ' pntpa, Laud. Cot. Cant. CT. b\. r From Cant. 
abs. Geneal. Laud. C.T. b it. ■ So Cant. Pyppmj, CT. b i. Fybin j, Gibs. • 1 e^bepht je aji- 
pupVa peji le hipaa co pihton Gap^n "j to fee. Petjief pacpe ^cpeobc. CoL So nearly Laud. C.T. b ir« 

1 Jn. 708. M.West. Bat Ethelverd and Flo* ' Wothnesbeorhge, Ethel w. Wonsdike, Malmsb. 
reoce agree with the Saxon Chronicle. In the fol- Wonebirlh, H« Hunt. Wodnesbeorh, Flor. Wod. 



lowing sentence we find the former historian so 
closely translating from the Saxooy that he has by 
mistake joined the prepoution jt^ to 2e]ient&— 
*' contra Withgtrttt;* See. 

* ^'cujut initio pugn^e dux Wgolaldus per* 

emptus es/."— M.West. 

» •'a«.^pri/tt."— Flor. 

* ^«.715. Flor. » An. 716. M.West. 



nesbirch, M.West. There is no reason^ therefore, 
to transfer the scene of action to Woodbridge, as 
some haTe supposed from an erroneous reading. 
Much less are we to pay attention to the printed 
copy of Brompton, where we find Bonebirih for 
the Wbnehmk of Huntington* 

» An.717. M.West 

• An.n9. M.West 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



6S 



ecbypht* fe ajipcop^a** ^pefi on liii^ 
)>am ealonbe Jya munecaf on p^ht ^e- 
cypbc. f **hi Gajicpon'' on piht heol- 
bon*. anb ]>a ^cypchcan jrceapc" :• 

DCCXYII. 

An. DCCXVIIL l3cp Injite Rpop*- 
pcpbc. Inep bpo^op"". ^ ^'hiopa fpeof- 
tup paepun'' Cpenbuph •] CuVbuph. "J 
po^ Cu%buph ^f lyp aet pmbupnan 
apaspbe''. *tl bio paef'' pop^ipen "Nop- 
^an-hymbpa cynmjc Gatepep^'^: ^J hi** 
be him bpijenbum^ hiP jebaelbun :• 

DCCXIX. DCCXX. 

An. DCCXXI. )3ep Daniel bipcop^ 
pepbe' to Rome. Anb ff ^Ican ^eape 
Ine opploh C^nepulp. 'Jjone ajiehnj'^. 
*Anb hep" pop^pepbe pe halja bipcop 
lohf . pe paep bipcop xxxiii. ^eapa. *i 
VIII. mon))ap. i| xiii. bajap". ^^ hip be 
pepta^ m Beopepbc'':- 

An. DCCXXII. l:3ep /BJielbuph cpen 
topeappy Tantun. J)one* Ine ap rym- 
bpebe. Anb 6albbpyht ppecca* ^epat: 
on SuJ^peje**. *i on Su^-Seaxe. ^^ Ine 
^peaht pi^ Su^-Seaxum**'';- 



ready written i. The venerable Egbert 
about this time converted the monks of 
lona to the right faiths in the regulation 
of Easter, and the ecclesiastical tonsure^. 

A.D.718. This year died Ingilds, the 
brother of lua. Cwenburga and Cuth- 
burga were their sisters. Cuthburga 
reared the monastery of Wimbum ; and^ 
though given in marriage to Ealdferth, 
king of Northumberland^ they parted 
during their lives. 



A.D. 721. This year bishop 
went to Rome ; and the same year Ina 
slew Cynewulf, the etheling. This year 
also died the holy bishop John ; who 
was bishop thirty-three years^ and eight 
months, and thirteen days. His body 
now resteth at Beverley^. 

A.D. 728. This year queen Ethel- 
burga destroyed Taunton, which Ina 
had formerly built ; Ealdbert^ wandered 
a wretched exile in Surrey and Sussex ; 
and Ina fought with the South-Saxons. 



» -bpiht, Cani. ^ appyj^a, Cant. C.T.bI. « So Cani. CT.bu paepon in^Whel. ' hie Gaj. 
tjian, Cani. * beslban, Cant. ' So CT.bu cyjuclicao, Cant. s loej bpo^p. fop^pepbe. 
Cant. CT. b i. ^ heo jpup^ta paepon, Laud, heopa jpip^op paepon, Cant, ' jfeo. Laud. Cani. 
C'T. B i, ^ apspbc jS lyp set Pinbupnan. Cani. maciaa bet ^ mynp:i*p aet Pinbupoan. Cot. ' So 
Laud. paef. *! hio.Whel. *j beo p»j. Cani. C.T.bi. » NopVymbpa. Laud. 6albpp%c. Nop]?an- 
hymbpa kinje. Cani. — cynje. C.T.bu ^ beo, Laud, hie, Cani. * So Laud, lijrj^nbain, Cant. 
C^T. B i?. hpienbum, Gibi. C.T. b i. p Aba. Laud, C.T. b i. bie, Cani. <> From Cot. ' pop, Laud. 
• From Laud. ^ From Laud. Cot. • Aba. Cot. > From Laud. C.T.Bir. J copae;^ Laud. 
» So Laud. >e, Cani. *j ,Whel. CT. b i. for 'f. > ppaeccea, Cani. ^ So Laud. So^ije, Cant. CT.bU 
Su]7ue,Giba. « Abs. Laud. CT.nif. ^ -Sezan, Cani. ^xam, CT.nl 



1 Fid. an. 020. 

• Fid. Bede, Hist. Eccles. r. 25. 

* Ingelsns, Flor. lngilsu8,M.We8f. bnt C.T.bu 
has Ine^ilb. 

^ '' Sanctus Johannes, Ehoracensis eccleAe tpi* 
scopms, cum prmmajare sineciute mmuM efdscopaiui 



admimstrando nifficerei, ordinaio pro se Wilfiido 
presbyiero suo, secessii ad monaslerium suum ifuod 
dicitur ' In sUva Ddrorum," ibique vt/am in converm 
saiione Deo digna compUns, caleilia nonis Man con- 
xendit.** — Flor, 
f Eadbertiu, M.West 



64 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



occxxiii. Dccixiv. 
An. DCCXXV. Jieji fihtpeb Cant- 
papa cyninj* popBpepbe. ^on ix. kt. 
OOai. ye pixabe xxxii.^ pintpa''. **)?aej" 
cyn If bepopan. ^^ €abbepht penj' 
'abptep him' ^^to Cent-pice". Anb'Ine 
-peaht pi^ SuB-Seaxans. ^ j^aep opploh** 
€alt)bypht 'jK>ne aej^elinj. J?e he asp ut- 
ajrlembe '^ ^ 

DCCXXVI. 

An. DCCXXVII.^ Rep pop^pepbe 
Tobiap bipcop in* Rope-cej^pe™. "^J 
on hip ptal Bpihtpolb aepcebipcop je- 
lialjobe Afbulp to bipcope'':* 

An. DCCXXVin.*> Rep Ine pepbeP 
t:o Rome. ^ anb }jaep hip peoph jepealbe''. 
^ penj /6^elheapb to fept-Seaxna 
pice 'hif masr'. ^ heolb hit*^ xiv. jeap. 
*Anb }>y ilcan jeape jepuhton* yBj^el- 
heapb ^ Oppalb pe aej^ehnj. "^ pe Op- 
f alb" paep/ej^elbalbinj. /ej?elbalb Cyne- 
balbinj. Cynebalb Cu^pininj. Cu^pine 
iCeaphnmj":- 

An. DCCXXIX. *J3ep cometa pe 
pteoppa hine ojjiepbe^ •] T^r^ ^^3" 



A.D. 725. This year died Wihtr^d 
king of Ktedt^ on the ninth day before the 
calends of May i^ afler a reign of thirty* 
two winters*. His pedigree is above^ ; 
and he was succeeded by Eadbert. Ina 
this year also fought with the South- 
Saxons, and slew Ealdbert, the etheling, 
whom he had before driven into exile. 

A.D. 727. This year* died Tobias, 
bishop of Rochester; and archbishop 
Bertwald consecrated Aldulf bishop in 
his stead, 

A.D. 728. This year^ Ina went to 
JRome, and there gave up the ghost. He 
was succeeded in the kingdom of Wes- 
isex by Ethelhard his relative, who held 
it fourteen years; but he fought this same 
year with Oswald the etheling. Oswald 
was the son of Ethelbald, Elhelbald of 
Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin^ Cuth- 
win of Ceawlio. 

A.D. 729. This year appeared the 
comet-star, and St. Egbert died in lona^. 



tt ■ > 

• • cmj, Cant. ^ From Laud. Coi. « jcxxiir. Cot. ** Ahs, Laud, to Anb fne^ t^c. • From 

Petrol, ahi,<Jant, C.T.Bi. * From Coi, f Seaxum, Laiirf. •» opfloje, Can/. ^ From Laud. 

^ uccxxYi, Coi. abs, Cani,C,T.n\. ^ or, Coi, " iDpoue-ceajrep, Coi, » ^ BjiihcpoJb apli* 

*on hijr loh johaljobe Albulptro bijrcope. Coi, ® dccxxvi. Laud, Coi. C.T.bu b«p j:op^pr/ibe In'e 

-cinj. -j penjt igfc. Coi. f pop, Cani, Laud. C.T. bi. ^ Abs. Laud, Coni, C.T.bI. ' From Laud. X.S. 

•tfbi. CT.Bu ■Abs. Laud, to Ihc end of the year, pcczxvi. CT.bj. * ^tan, Cani. ■ Se Ojr- 

•yalb, Cant. *j Oj^alb, C,T, b I. ' * l3ep atcjbben tprjen cometan. Laud, bep acypban tpejrn comc- 

tan, Coi. y o^Hsopbe, Cani. ojypbe, C.T. d i. » je halja, Coi. C.T. b i?. jaiut, Cani. fee, C.T. b i. 



» " Die kal. JJ/aii."^F]or. 

* ^^zxxiY, semis annos.V — Flor. . 

* rid. an, 694, 

* An. 7^6. Flor. 

* An. 727. Ethelw. M.West. The establishment 
of the '< English school" at Rome is attributed to 
Inn', a full account of which^ and of the origin of 



Romescoi or Peier^penct for the support of it, may 
be seen in Matthew of Westminster. < 

• " 8 Afli. Mail, ipso die Pasckeer— Flor. « Fac. 
6c^bf»pcr tpanpuic ab Xpiii." — Pragm. Chron.^ap. 
Wanley, p. 288. written only eight years aff^r the 
death of £Jgbert. '^ Cometae uijse aft a£i tiii.'*— 
ibid, which scea».to confirm the reading noticed 






THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



65 



by^jikt* ^'m li'^ pop^pejibe :• liep Op 
palb fe^ aej^elinj pop^pepbc:- **Iicp 
*paBf opflejen Of pic'', j-e^. ptej- xi. pm- 
t:ep Nop&n-hymbpa*^ cyninj. an<>K 
pen^ Ceolpulp to ))am^ pice, anb heolb 
vui. j^eap. **^ fc Ceolpulp paef CuJ>a- 
mj*. Cu))a Cu^pmin^. Cu^pine Leob- 
palbih^. Leobpalb Gc^palbm;. Gcj^alb 
Galbhelmin^. 6albhehn ^ Ocjinj. Ocja'^ 
Ibinj. Iba Goppinj. Anb Beophtpalb^ 
apcebipceop jepop™ "^on ibujr lanp. 
fc paejr bijrcop xxxvii« pmtpe. ^ vi. 
mon^ap *j xiv. bajajr'^ **1 |>y ilcan 
jeape^^ ''Tatpine paejr ^efaal^ob to ap- 

cebifceope''. fc' ^pa^p ^P ^^ OOepcum 
ppeo[-t. m Bpeobune''. 'Dme haljo- 
ban" Daniel paentan' bifcop". "'J Inj- 
palb Lunben l)ircop''. ^.Albpine Licet- 
izelba* bipcop. tJ Albulp Ropep-ceap- 
rpey bif cop. bic x. lunii menpip''. *J>e 
haepbe f apb'-pice iii. jeap'':- 

DCCXXX. DCCXXXII. 

An. DCCXXXIII. Rep ^«elhalb 
geeobe Sumuptun*, ''anb punne aj?yp- 



This year also died tlie etheling Os^ 
wald; and Osric was slain ^^ who was 
eleven winters king of Northumberland ; 
to wbkh kingdom Oeolwulf sucteeded^ 
and held it eight years. The said Ceol-- 
wulf was the son of Cutha^ Cutha of 
Cuthwin^ Cuthwin of Leodwald^ Leod- 
wald of Egwald^ E^wald of Ealdhelm, 
Ealdhelm of Occa^ Occa of Ida^ Ida 
of Eoppa^. Archbishop Bertwald died 
this year on Ihe ides of January 3. He 
was bishop thirty-seven winters, and six 
months, and fourteen days. The same 
year Tatwine^, who was before a priest 
at Bredon in Mercia^, was consecrated 
archbishop, by Dapiel bishop of Win- 
chester, Ingwald^ bishop of London, 
Aldwin7 bishop of Lichfield, and Aldulf 
bishop of Rochester, on the tenth day 
of June. He enjoyed the archbishopric 
about three years. 

A.D. 733. This year^ Etheibald 
took Somerton ; the sun was eclipsed^; 



■ -bpiht, Lat^f. Cr.Bi. •bejihc,^o/. ^ From Laud. ofiiyCoi. ^ Abs. Laud* ^ So Laud. 
^ Ofpic ciDj eal-fpa. Cot, Fid. an. 716. *• yxj Ojpic opjrlejcn, Cant C.T.b'u an. 731. ' feo, 
Laud. s >a, Laud. '^ Abs. Geoeal. Laud. > Cu)in^, Cani. C.T. b i. ^ Ocinj. Ocea. CT. b i. 
O^ioj. Oj^a. Cant. ' Bpihcpolb, Laud. Bjiibtpalb, Cot. C.T. b i. Byjibtpalb, Cant. ™ pop^ppbe, 
LoMd, Cot. B From Laud. Cot. * bep, Cot. p man jehaljobe TacpiQe to aepcebijcop. Laud. 
man '^ehaljcbe Taetpme to apcebijrcop. Cot. paej Tatpioe jebaljob to apcebijceop. Cant. CT. b i. 
^ From Laud. ' From Laud. Cot. to be bae}:be Vc. ■ •j^bon, Cot. '^ Pentan-ccjtpe, Cot. 
« Abs. Cot. * Licejrelb, Cot. y iDpou-cip::*. Cot. ■ From Cot. * So Wbel. EUielvr. and a MS. 
called the Merton Chrtmicie, cited by Lambard. Sumeptun, Cant. Coi. Sumoptun^ C.T. nU ^ *j peap9 
«all ^ape jaonan tpenbel aelce jjeapt jcylb. Hot. 

alM)Te — ^< tpejen cometan.*' So Florence of Wor« 
^esteryiJeacyofHuntingdon^and others; oowbose 
authority, perhaps, two comets harefound their way 
Vito tbe chronological tables. We have oexrerthe- 
less retained the establish^^ reading. Fid* Etheiw. 
* So Fior. Jin. 730. M. West. Fid. an. 716. 
^'Jdiim Afafi."— Bed. • Fid. an. 547. 



» « 5 a. Jfliiiair."— Flor. Bed. « 5 id. Jumir 
—Thorn. 

« Tadwinnsi Flor. M.West 

^ Briuduo, Bed. ' Ingoldus, M.West. 

» Alwinns, M.West • Jn. 734. M.West. 

^ **l% laL Septmnbris, circa horam diet tertiam^, 
—Flor. *' 19 kal. Sep/ewiir."— M.West 



66 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



tpobe*. ^Anb Acca j)«f abpipen cip 
bifcopbome'':- 

An. DCCXXXIV. J3ep pacf fe mona 
)*pilce he paepe mib blobe be^oten. anb 
*pepbe popB'' Tatpine aepceb***- ^ eac** 
Beba. ^anb man ^ehal^obe Gcjbpiht te 
bipcope'^:* 

['^An. DCCXXXV. Rep onpenj Gcj- 
bpiht bif cop pallium at Rome i-] 

An. DCCXXXVI. I3ep No>helm sep- 
cebipcebp onpenj pallium ppom^ Ro* 
mana bif ceope^ :• 

An. DCCXXXVII. J3ep Fopfhepe^ 
bifcop*. anb FpyJ)©^!^^ cpen. pepbon* 
to Rome. ^Anb Ceolpulp cinin^ penj 
to "^Petrpep pcaepe''. ^*J pealbe hip pice 
Gbbephte hip pebepan punu. pe pixabe 
f XXXI. pintep''. **Anb /GJjelpolb bipcop 
*i Acca popBpepbon. *J Cynepulp ^man 
jehaljobe' to bipcope"'. **anb J>y ilcan 
jeape y6J?elbolb hepjobe NopS-hym- 
bpa lanb'':« 

An. DCCXXXVIII. Rep Gabbpyht 
Gatin J. Gata Leobpalbin^. penj to Nop- 
J?an-hymbpaP pice. *J heolb xxi. pin- 
tep^. tl hip bpo]}op pap Gcjbypht^ 
Gating, aepcebipceop. anb* hi* pepta^ 



ftnd Acca was driven firom hit bi^ 
shopric. 

A.D. 734. This year was the mooa 
as if covered with blood i ; and archbi* 
shop Tatwine^ and Bede^ departed thii 
life; and Egbert was consecrated bi*- 
sfaop^. 

A.D. 735. This year bishop Egbert 
received the pall at Rome. 

A.D.736. This year archbishop No^ 
thelm received the pall from the bisho]^ 
of tlie Romans^. 

A.D. 737. This year bishop Forthere 
and queen Frithogitha went to Rome ; 
and king Ceolwulf received the clerical 
tdnsure, giving his kingdom to Edberl^ 
his uncle^s son ; who reigned one and 
twenty winters. Bishop EthelwoM and 
Acca died this year^ and Cynewulf was 
consecrated bishop. The same year also 
Ethelbald ravaged the land of the Norths 
umbrians. 

A.D. 738. This year^ Eadbert7, the 
son of Eata^ the son of LeodwaM, suc» 
ceeded to the Northumbrian kingdom, 
and held it one and twenty winters. 
Archbishop Egbert, the son of Eata, 



■ So CT.BU a]^op:pobe, Cant. ^ From Laud, Cot. ^ jrop^pejibe, Laud, Cant, pcjiban fojX^ 
Cr. Bi. ' From Laud. « From Laud. Cot. ^ Gjcbepbt paj jehal^ob to bijcop. Cot. ' fP^niy 
Cant. C.T. si. » So Laud. C. T. b i. bijceop, Gibs. "» So Cant. CJT. b i. Fid. an. 709. » bijceop, 
Cant. ^ ^py^e^iV, Laud. FpeoJ^oji^, Cant. * So Cot. C.T. b i. fopan, Cant, fepban, Gibs. 
» clepic-babe. Cot. ■ /. xxi. Fid. an, 738, 757. • paj jcl^abub, Cot. p Nop^-hymbpa, Laud. 
C.T. UK ^ fintp&j Laud. Cant. ' ^hpiht^ Cant. C.T. b\. • Abs. Cant. ^ heo^ Laicd. 



^ ''2 kal. Felr. circa galli con/iim.'*— Flor. S. Du- 
nelm. Literally, in the original, ^^ as if he were co- 
yered with blood,"— the moon in the Saion Ian. 
guage being of the masculine gender, and the sun 
of the feminine ; which is the case also in most of 
the oriental languages. 



• Tadwinus, Flor. M.West. ^'A kal. Aug:'^ 
Flor. S. Dnnelm. ^ 

^ " 8 kal. Junn, circa horam decimam."-^Flou 
^ jin.7^5, S.Dundm« 

» Gregory III. « jin.739. M.West. 

: Eadbyrbt, Ethelw. Eadbertus^ M.West^ 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



er 



be^ett on Gopojipic-ceaftpe* on anum 
poptrice :• 

BCCXXXIX. 

An. DCCXL> I3ep /e^elheapb^ cy- 
nmj jx)p^j:»pbe**. *J j^nj CuJ^peb *hif 
maej'^ to pcftr-Seaxna^ pice. *J heolb 
xiv.«f pintpa*". ^ heapblice he' jeponn*^ 
pilS * . y6)>elbalb "* CD^pcena ^ cyninj. 
**Anb No]7elm cpccb' popBpcpbe", ^J 
Cu^bpyhtP paep to apcebijfceope je- 
hal^ob. ^ Dun*J biycop to Jipopejr-ceajn- 
tpe:- *J>ep popbapn Gopeppic'^:- 

DCCXLI. 

['An. DCCXLIL liep paf mycel jn- 
JkcfS jejabepob at Clouef hou. ^ )?ap paj* 
AJ^elbalb (Dypcna cin^. *i Cutbepht 
ajib'. ^ )!ela o%pe pijre menn :-3 

An.DCCXLIII. I5ep/ej)elbalb«a)yp- 
ccna cyninj''. *J CuJ^peb *peft:-Seaxna 
cminj'' puhton* fvS pealajr:- 

An. DCCXLIV. licp Daniel ^ej- a&t 
on pintan-ceaftrpe. *J Jiunpep^' P^"X 
ro bifceopbome. [•Anb jiceoppan po- 
gian pp^^ pcotienba. Anb pilpep^ 
feo lunja. pe paep bipcop on 6opeppic. 
pop^pepbe on iii. kl. CDai. pe paep xxx. 
pintpa bipcop t-j 



vtM his brother. They both rest under 
one porch in the city of York. 

A.D. 740. This year* died king 
Ethelhard; and Cuthred^ his relatiye^ 
succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom, 
\rhich he held fourteen' winters, during 
which time he fought many hard battles 
with Ethelbald king of the Mercians. 
On the death of archbishop Nothelm^ 
Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop^, 
and Dunn bishop of Rochester^. This 
year York was on fire. 

A.D. 748. This year there was a large 
synod assembled at Cliff's-Hoo^; and 
there was Ethelbald king of Mercia, 
with archbishop Cuthbert, and many 
other wise men. 

A.D. 743. This year7 Ethelbald, king 
of Mercia, and Cuthred, king of the 
West*Sazons, fought with the Welsh. 

A.D. 744. This year Daniel resigned 
the see of Winchester^; to which Hun* 
ferth was promoted. The stars went swift- 
ly shootingd; and Wilferth the younger, 
who had been thirty winters bishop of 
York, died on the third day before the 
calends of May i^. 



* eueppic- Coi. eopppic- Cant. ^ So Ltntd. Coi. CT. b i. 9Cczu. Gibs, from Whel. « .ba]iby 
Laud, Cot. ^ popfepbe, Laud, f ejibe f opV, C.T. b i. « From Ijuid. ' Sexna, CanL > zvi. Gibs. 
XXVI. Cani, C.T. si. ^ ^eap, Laud. ' From CanL C.T.nu ^ jepaon, Cant. C.T. b i. pann, Cot. 
I So Whe). Ben. CT.nu abs.Cip//. ^ JSpelholhy Laud. ■ From JLcmei. OOypcoa, Cb/. ^ From Coi. 
V eabbejiht:, Laud. « Dubd, Cani. ' Fiom Cot. N.S. • jahcaa, Cant. * Un- Laud. 

> Jn. 739. M. West. « Fid. Evident. Bccl Christ. Cant, inter X. Scr^^ 

* 15, M. West. p. 9200) S^. Spelm. Concil. i. 230. 

* ^11.739. S. Duodm. << 16 kal. Novembri$:'^ ^ jin. 744. M.West. 



Fior. 

* A. 749. R.Dicet 

^s.€. after Aiduir. .^ii.741. Flor. 



• yid. Malmsb. Gtsi.Pont.n. 

• -rfii.747. M.West. 

1^ Jn. 743. Flor. M.West. 



68 



THE SAXON chronicle: 



An. DCCXLV. Jiep Daniel pop*- 
pepbe. fa pay xlui.* pintpa ajan pS- 
%an he on]::en3 bipcopbome :- 

An. DCCXLVL I3ep mon** j-*oh Sel- 
pcb cynm J :* 

DCCXLVII. 

An. DCCXLVIII. I3ep paef opflejen 
Cynpic.pej^-Seaxna' sejTelinj. anbGab- 
bpyht Cantpapa cyninj pop^pepbc. ^'i 
/6}>clbyphr. yihtjie^f punu anjep. • 
pcnj to ))ain pice'':- 

DCCXLIX. 

An. DCCL. I3ep Cu^peb. ^paept- 
Seaxna" cyninj. jepeaht^ pi¥ /6])elhun 
]H)ne opepmeban^ ealbopmon > 

DCCLI. 

An. DCCLII. liep Cufpeb. ^paept- 
Seaxna cininj'^. jepcahr. fy tpclptan*" 
jeape' hip picep. aet: Beopj-popba*^ piS 
'/E^Ibalb. *CDypcena cinj. anb hineje- . 
plymbe'' :• 

An. DCCLIII. t>ep CuSpcb. ^paept- 
Seaxna cynin;'^ peahr pvS pealap:- 

An. DCCLIV. l3ep Cu«peb. 'Paept- . 
Ssxna cminj'', popSpepbe. Anb Cyne- 
heapb ^onpenj bipcopbome '^. aeptep 
K)anpep%e. on pintan-ceaprpe. anb 



A.D. 745. This yemri died DuiieK 
Foriv-three' wioten had then elapsed 
since he receired the episcopal function. 

A.D.746. This year was king Sdred 
slain. 

A.D.748. This year^ was slain Cjrih- 
ric, ethelingof theWest-Saaons^; Ed* 
bert, king of Kent, died ; and Ethelbert, 
son of king Witied, succeeded to the 
kingdom^ 

A.D. 750. This year Cuthied, king 
of the West- Saxons, fought with the 
proud chief Ethelhun. 

A.D. 752. This year, the tweUth of 
his reign,. Cutfared^ king of the West* 
Saxons, fought at Burford^ with Ethel- 
bald, king of the Mercians, and put him 
to flight 

A.D. 753. This year Cuthied, king 
of the West-Saxons, fought against the 
Welsh. 

A.D. 754. This year? died Cuthre^, 
king of the West-Saxons; and Sebright 
his relative, succeeded to the kingdom^ 
which he held one year^; Cyneard sue- 



« X LTi . Laud. Fid. an. 703. * mao, CanL C.T. b i. « -Sexoa, Cant. Pejjezoa, CT. b i. * From 
PelTob. abs. Laud. Caai.CT. Bi. * From Laud. ' feabc, Cem/. Cir. a i. » eopjumobijao, La«dL 
* XXII. Laud. » jepc, C.T.bI. ^ ^ Beojih- Cajft. C.T. a i. > pjn j co bipxopbooic. Cani. C.T. s L 



« Jn. 746. M. West. 

* 44, M.Wcse. Fid. an.?03. 

9 jin.749. M.Wett. dccxlfii. C.T.bu 
"" The 800 of Cuthred, king of Wessei. Fid. 
M.West. an. 749. 

* Vid. M.Wat, an. 749. 

* Beoigforda, Elhelw. Ikorhtforda, Flor. He- 
reford and ikreford^il.Ilunt. Beorford, M.West. 



This battle of Barford has been considerablj am* 
plified by Henry of Huntingdon, and after him bj 
Matthew of Westminster. The former, among 
other absurdities, talks of Amaxmuan battle-ases. 
Thej both mention the banner of the goUkn dra^ 
gon, Sec. 

* oocLTi. M.West transposing the Roman nu- 
merals. * An. 750. R. Dicet. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



69 



Cantpapabuph^ ]:ojibapn ^f jeape^. ceeded Humferth in the see of Win- 
Anb Sijebpiht*^ C^^^r ™^3 '] F^^X ^^ Chester; and Canterbury was this year 
Pep:-Seaxna pice. *J heote an jeap :• on fire. 

' An. DCCLV. *^J5ep C^nepulp benam A.D. 756. This year Cynewulf, with 
Sijebpyht^ ^hip maeje'' hif picef «. anb . the consent of the West-Saxon coun« 
Pept-Seaxna** piotan*. pop unpyhtum cil, deprived Sebright^ his relative^ for 
baebum. ^buton );)alntun-pcype'^ anb unrighteous deeds, of his kingdom, ex* 
he ha&jzbe J^a o% he opfloh }>one ealbop- cept Hampshire; which he retained, un- 
man^ )>e huh len^eff" mib*^ punobe. til he slew the alderman who remained 
Anb hme fz Cyncpulp on Anbpeb a- . the longest with him*. Then Cynewulf 
bpsepbe. ^ he ]?asp punobe. o%° f hine . drove him to the forest of Andred, where 
an fpan oppran^ aet Pp^rpetep-plobanP. he remained, until a swain stabbed him 
,^ he^ ppa&c fone ealbopman Cumbpan. at Privett^, and revenged the alderman> 
Anb ye' Cynepulp opt mib* miclum je- Cumbra. The same Cynewulf fought 
peohtum peaht pi% BpIt-pealum^ Anb . many hard battles with the Welsh; and, 
ymb xxxi.^ pintep^ )>aep ]>e^ he pice about one and thirty winters after he had 



haepbe. he polbe abpsepan aenne aejrel- 
mj pe paep Cyneheapb haten*. ^* ^'pe 
Cyneheapb'' paep JjaepSyjebpyhtep bpo- 
^up. Anb J)a jeacpobe*^ he J>one cinmj** 
lyttle* pepebe' on pip-cy^^e^ on OOe- 



the kingdom, he was desirous of expel- 
ling a prince called Cyneard^, who was 
the brother of Sebright. But he having 
understood that the king was gone, thinly 
attended, on a visit to a lady at Merton^, 



• • -byjwj, Laud. >» jejw, C.T. si. « Sijbjwht, LmuL * From Laud. • bejt Cynepolj? 
benam Sibepbte cinje bij pice. *j Sibephtej bpoVep. Cynehapb jehatco. ojrfloh oa CDepaotane Cyne- 
pul]:. "j he pixobe xxxi, joap. Anb J^aj ylcan jeapcf man off loh iCJ^elbalb. CDypccna cinj. on bpeopan- 
bnne. "j Opjra jopenj (Dypcena pice [jejriymbon.] Cot. ' Sijcbpihte, Laud. CanL C.T.bu s piccj. 
Laud. ^ -Sexna, Cant. Pefj-ema, C.T. Bi. as usual. ^ pitan, Laud. C.T.bu and ir» * butan 
l?amton-jrcipe, Cant. ' ealbep- Cant. "* Icn jj, Laud, for Icnj'jt. I«n jjt, C.T. di. » From CTinU 
punube, ibid. • Abs. Cant, p So CT. bi. Ben. Ppipeacf- Cant, for Ppipetaej;- Ppuutej- Gibs, 
from Whcl. sc. Ppiuitcp- Ppyptep- C.T. b it. *» jc ppan, Laud, je, Cant. ' Abs. Cant. C.T. b h 

• From Cant. C.T.b'u * -pealaj-, Laud. C.T.Bir. " xvi. Laud. xxi. C.T.bW. Fid. an. 781. 
^ pintpa, Laud. Cant. C.T. a i. and ir. y tc^Whel. ' jeharen, Laud. * Abs. Laudi ^ Abs. Cant.. 
•j he paep, C.T.b'u * jeahjobe, Cant, C.T.bu acjfobe, Laud. * cymnc,WheI. • lye, Laud. 
^ peopobe, Cant, pcpebe, C.T*. b i. » cyWan, Laud. 



* f. e. Cnmbra ; as stated in the seqnel. 

* ^'/n cognominato lo€0 Pryfete^flodan,** — Ethelw* 
He adds : " tt ultus e$i saugmnem duds Cumbran.** 
The succeeding historiatis ha?e departed more from 
the Saxon original. 

• ' **Hab€ns ilium nupectum, ne aspiraret ad reg» 
num, pel denique fftcem fiatris sui in iptum vindi^ 
caret.*'— M.We$t. 



* Merantnoe^ Ethel«r» ani755. Meretnn,^ Flor. 
a».784. "In villa quceMerUana dW/ttr."— M. West, 
an. 786. The minuteness of this narrative, com* 
bincd with the simplicity of it, proves that it was 
written at no great distance of time from the event.; 
it is the first that occurs of any length in the oldec 
MSS» of the Saxon Chronicle.. 



70 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



jiantune. ^ * he hme Jjaep mne* bepab. 

^ **J?one buph'' utan*^ be-eobe**. aep hmc 

)?a*^ men onpunbon^ J^e mib }>am cyninjc 

paepun. ^ Anb J?a onjeat ye cynmj f. ^ 

hes oil J7a bupu uc-eobe^. tl J?a unhean- 

lice hme pepebe' o^ he on Jwne aejjehnj 

iocube^. ^ J?a *utpa*j-be on hme''- ^ hine 

miclum™ jepunbabe. Anb hi** ealle ]>a 

on jH)ne cyninj ^paepun peohtenbe'^. 

0^5 jjaet hyp hine opj-lejenne^ haepbon'', 

*Anb J>a on J?aBf pipej- jebaepum* onpum 

ban }>aBj- cyninjep ** J^ejnaj- J^a unftyl- 

nejye*. ^ J>a J^ibep upnon'' j^a hpelc^ 

fpa Jwnne jeapo paep ^ Anb paSopt* 

heopa** J>a pe*^ aej^ehn j jehpelcum* ^peoh 

^ peoph jcbeab^'^ ^ hiopas "^nasnij hit 

jej^m^ian nolbe''. ac hi* 'on hinc'' p^mle 

peohtenbe paepon. o^ -f* ^hi ealle lae*- 

jon* butan anum Bpyttipcum™ yple. 

^ pe ppi^c" jepunbab paep. Da on ' 

mopjene® jehypbun^ f J^aep cyninjep 

j^ejnap ^]?e him beaeptan' paepan''. f pe 

cyning 'opplejen paep^ J^a pybon hy^ 

J^ybep. *i hip ealbopman Oppic. *i pij- 

pep^" hip fejn*. ^^ }>b, men }>e he be- • 



rode after him« and beset bim therein ; 
surrounding the town without, ere the 
attendants of the king were aware of 
him. When the king found this, he 
went out of doors, and defended him^ 
self with courage ; till, having looked 
on the etheling, he rushed out upon 
him, and wounded him severely. Then 
were they all fighting against the king, 
until they had slain him. As soon as 
the king's thanes in the lady's bower 
beard the tumult, they ran to the spot# 
whoever was then ready. The etheling 
immediately offered them life and re^ 
wards ; which none of them would ac- 
cept, but continued fighting together 
against him, till tbey all lay dead, exi- 
cept one British hostage, and he vras 
severely wounded. When the king's 
thanes that were behind heard in Ae 
morning that the king was slain, they 
rode to the spot, Osric his alderman, and 
Wiverth his thane, and the men that 
he had left behind ; and they met the 
etheling at the town, where the king lay 



• From Can4. ^ ]» bujih, Cani. C.T. b i. bup, Edd. « uton, Laud. * bc-eoboD, L(nuL 
—bao, C.T. B i. ymb-eoban, Cant. • J^e, Laud. ' So C.T. b i. ap unbon, Laud. ODpioban, Cani* 
t Abs. Cani. *» So Cani. C.T.bL * pepobe, Laud. ^ locabe, Laud. Cani. locobe, C.T.eu 
where the two next seotences are omitted. > ut oq hine paejbe. Cani. ^ mycclum, Laud. ^ he, Laud* 
^ feohtent>6yxpon^ Cani. C.T. BU fhi;^y Laud. 1 ojrjlejen, Lotfi ' hasfban, Can/. • fa on. 
funban *J5 Jwj kinjejf ^epjian on J«j pipcj unjtilnejrfe, "j fibeji opnan. Cani. * jebaspon, Laud. 
« cyninjajr. Laud. * unjtilnejrjTi, Laud.- r hjilc, Laud. Cani. C.T. b\. » pcap«, Laud, Cani. 
C.T. B i. and it. • Abs. Cani. C.T. b L ^ From Cani. him fa, C.T. b i. « From Laud. Cani. 
C.T. Bi. < jehpilcaa, Laud, sjbfilciin, Qini. C.T.bI « feoph 1 jxioh beab. Cani. ' baeb. 
Laud. C.T. Bu ^heoj Laud. hcojat^Cant. hipa, CLTIbi. ^ naoij f ic^an nofbaii, ZiaiKit. n^n f sf 
enfon polbe, Cami. nrnm^ fiojan nolbe, C.T. si. ^ So £7.71 bL hie, Cant, heo, Gibs, from Laud.. 
^ hi^ ealle op jlajene pspoo, Laud. ^ la^ao, Cani. "* Bpytnjcan^ C.T.bI. Bpycpyhjcam, Laud. 
B From Peirob. « niop2i;eB, Laud, aep^eu, Cani. C.T.bI. p .bon, Laud. C.T.bL 4 fa bsepaa 
bun paepon, £Satiil. So nearly C.T.bI. ' baepon, Lami. * ymj ofjle^eo, Cani* CT.bu ^ Abs. 
Laud. " So CT. a i, ^i? ep^ Gibs. Cam. « fe^ca^ Cam. r 1 >» moa }« ke sep him b£p««A 
l»p:ie. Cani. So nearly CT.bu and it. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLB. 



71 



»ptan kim laepbe aep^ ^ ]K>ne s))elinj 
on ]>depe bypij Inetton^ J>»p p cymn j 
Of rlejen laej. tl ^i** J>a*^ J^ 3*^^ him® 
tro belocene^ haepbons. ^ hie^ ])a ]>aeji ro 
eoban. An^^ ])a ^ebeab^ he him^ heopa • 
ajene"* bom peop ^ lonbep. ^ip hy" him 
J^aep picep u^n®. ^ himP cy^^i f 
hiopa majap' him mib paepun\ )>a ^e 
him 'ppom nolbon"^. AnV ]>a cpebon^ 
hi* f ^heom naenij'' maej feoppa naspe • 
)K>nne^ heopa hlapopb. 'j -^^ hy nseppe 
hip banan pol^ian nolban. Anb )>a bu« 
bon hy heopa ma3um\ f hf him^ ^e- 
punbe *^ppora eobon''. ^"jhf cpabon'' f 
f lice heopa jepepum jeboben paepe J>e • 
tep mib J^am cyninj^e® paepun. Da cpse- 
bon hy ^f hie J^aep hie pylpe ne amun- 
bons )>e ma^' }?e heopa^ ^^^P^^ J'^ ^^ 
Jam cyninje paepon opplejenc. *Aiib 
hy Jya ymb }?a jatu* peohcenbe psepon « 
oB* ^"^ hy "))aBp inne puljon'' •] }>one 
cej^ehnj opplojon. •] Jja men J>e °him 
mib'^ paspun. ealle butah anum. peP paep 
Jjaep ealbopmonnep'' jobpunu. ^ he hip 
peoph jenepebe 'j ]>eah^ he* paep opt • 
^epunbobi Anb' pe Cyncpulp picpobe* 
XXXI. pmtpa. ^ hip he h^* on pmtan- 
ceaptpe. "i ]?aep aefeUnjep" set Acpan- 



slain. The gates, howeverj were lock- 
ed against them^ which they attempted 
to force; but he promised them their 
own choice of money and land, if they 
would grant him the kingdom; remind- 
ing them, that their relatives were al« 
ready with him, who would never desert 
him. To which they answered, that no 
rdative could be dearer to them than 
their lord, and that they would never 
follow his murderer. Then they be- 
sought their relaUves to depart from^ 
him, safe and sound. They replied, that 
the same request was made to their com* 
rades that were formerly with the king^ 
''And we ar6 as regardless of the re* 
suit/' they rejoined, ''as oor comrades^ 
who with the king were slain.'' Then 
they continued fighting at the gates, till 
they rushed in, and slew the etbelin^ 
and all the men that were with him ; 
exicept one, who was the godson of the 
alderman, and whose life be spared,, 
though he was often wounded. This 
same Gynewulf reigned one and thirty 
winters. His body lies at Winchester^ 
and that of the etheling at Axminster. 
Their paternal pedigree goeth in 9 di- 



* .jemetton, Laud. ^ So Cr. b i. hie, CanL ^ From Can^. ^ jeatn, Cani. * heom, Lau<L 
' belocen, Cant. CJT. si. s So Laud. C7.r. bi. and ir, hxfban^ Cant, paejion, Gibs, from Whel. 
^ So Cani. * Abs. Cani. ^ bcab^ Laud. Cani. C.T. b 1. > Abs. Laaid. » arcane, Cant. C^T. n L- 
'■* hco, Laud, hie, Cani. ^ jeu^an, Cani. p heom, Laud, Cant. 4 cy]f6^^ Cant. cy^Sbon, C.T.nu 
' So CarU. CT. B i. aiaja, Laiad. ■ jaepon, Cant. C.T. b i. ^ pjiam nolban, Cant. *■ cpaeban, Cani. 
•boo, Cr.Bi. ^hit^Cant. hv^^Laud, y him nan, Cani. * J^otie, La»<f. * majon, Laift/» 
^ ^o Cant. C.T* Bu heom, Gibs, from JLaiuf. « pjiam eobao, dim/. <* }« cpsbon hie, Can/. * cin^, 
Cant, cin^e, CT. bI. ' From Cant. C.T. bi. > ^emanbon, Laud. ^ copjie,Whel. C.T.'au 
< Abs. Laud. ^ ^eacu, Cant. C. T. b \r. > Abs. Cant. » Abs. Laud. C.T. b ir. » So C. T. b i. and iv. 
•pujibon, Can/. Ine pulton, Whcl. ** nnib him, Oui/. CT. b i. p jS, Can/. ^ bu&ej, CT.Bi. 
' Abs. Cant. dT.Bi. * juiabe, Laud. }iixobe, Cr.Bi. jeapa lor piatpat ibid. ^ li^, Land^ 
" i-jap, Laud, incorrect!/, as usual, from a neglect of the terminations and inflexions. 



f . 



72 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



mynfTep*. ^ heopa piht-paebepen^cyn^ 
jae^ to Cepbice. Anb )>y ilcan jeape 
man opj-loh y6)ielbalb. CDypcna*^ cyninj. 
on Seccan-bune**. ^ hij-»licliB* on )3peo- 
pan-bune. "J ^he pixabe xli. pintpa. "J 
)?a'' Beopnpeb penj to pice. *J hits lytic 
•hpile heolb. ^ unjepealice. Anb fy** 
ilcan xeape Oppa cyninj^ ^jeplymbe 
Beopnpeb. 'j'^ penj }7a Oppa to fam'^ 
pice. "J f* heote xxxix. pintpa. ^ hip 
punii Gcjpep^"* hcoib" xl.** baja. 'j an 
hunb baja :• PSe Oppa pasp" DincpepJ>- 
inj^, Dmcpep^' Ganpulpinj. 6anpulp 
Opmobinj. Opmob Gapinj. 6apa Pyb- 
bm^. Pybba Cpeobmj. Cpeoba Cyne- 
palbmj. Cynepalb Cnebbinj. Cnebba 
•Icelmj. Icel Gomaepmj. Gomsep An jel- 
^opin J. AnjelJ^eop Oppinj. Oppa Paep- 
munbin^. paepmunb Pyhtlaejinj. piht- 
JaejPobeninjv 

DCCLTI. 

^An. DCCLVII. Rep eabl>epht. 
Nop^-hymbpa cyninj. penj to pcaepe. 
^ Oppulp hip punu penj to f am* pice. 
^ pixabe an ^eap. *J hine opplojon hip 
iiipan on ^ix. kt. Aujupti"^:- 



rect line to' Cerdic. — The same year 
Ethelbald^ king of tbe Mercians, was 
slain at Seckington ^ ; and bis body lies 
at Repton. He reigned one and forty 
years ; and Bernred then succeeded to 
the kingdom, which he held but a little 
■while, and unprosperously ; for king 
Oflfa the same year put him to flight, 
and assumed the government; which 
he held nine and thirty winters. His 
son Everth held it a hundred and forty 
days. Ofla was the son of Thingfertb, 
Thingferth of Enwulf, Enwulf of Os- 
mod, Osmod of Eawa, Eawa of Webba, 
Webba of Creoda, Creoda of Cenwald, 
Cenwald of Cnebba, Cnebba of IceI,Ic6l 
of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angel* 
thew of Offa, Offa of Wermund, Wer^ 
mund of Witiey, Witley of Woden. 



A.D. 767. This year« Eadbert, king 
of the Northumbrians, received the ton- 
sure, and his son Osulf the kingdom; 
. which he held one year. Him his own 
domestics slew on the ninth day before 
the kalends of August. 
An. DCCLVJII. *)2ep Cu«bpyht A.D. 7-58. This year« died archbi- 



* MxsLnmmjtjie J Cant, Azanmenjtpe, CT.Bi. ^ pebepan- JLauc/. ^ COyjicenej Laud. ^ So 
Cr.Bi. Secsjan. OxTt/. ^ jiejtA% Laud, ^ From Laud. C.T. Bit. ^ From Cani. C.T.nl 
"^ >a, Laud. » Ab«. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. and it. * From Laud. ^ From Cant. « So 
Laud. C.T. B i. e^vejiV, Gib& "> Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. ^ zu. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. 'So 
Laud. Cant. CT.bi. and ir. ^^ Dinjcpeji^ioj, Laud. Din^fep^m^, Cant. C.T.bu * Dm^rjiV, 
Cant. C.T. bL The rest of the genealogy abs. Laud. C.T. biw, but supplied io the latter bj Josoelia 
from Cant. • From Jjaud.Coi, CJT.bIy. Petrob. ^ khs.Cot. ■ Tin. kL Ajujruf, C.T.biu 
^ An. DccLTii. CoTit. 



1 Seccandunei Ethdlw. Seoandone, H. Hnnt 
iiegeswalde, Flor. Ckron, deJBurgo. Saccheoda, 
J4.We8t 



* An.7b%. S.Dunelm. 

^ *« 7 hd. Nmfmbtr—F\Qt. Thorn, jin. 7WL 
M.We8t 



THE SAXON CHRONICLB. 



73 



aeptebifcop pop^pepbe''. •tl ^^ heote f 
ajicebifceop-pice xviii. jeap'^:- 

An. DCCLIX. Tiejx Bpejopme paef 
to aepcebifcop jchabob^ to j-ce ^CDi- 
chaelep tybe'^ ■'j healb hit peopep < 
geap''. ^Anb TOoll yej?elpolb penj to 
pice on Nop^-hymbpum. "i pixabe vi. 
pintpa*. ^"j hit ]» poplet'':- 

An, DCCLX. I3ep yCfelbpyht Cant- 
papa c^ninj pop^pepbe. ^j-e paep piht- 
pebep cmjep^ punu''. ^^ Ceolpulp eac 
fopWpepbe":- 

An. DCCLXI. *ftep paep pe micek 
pintep"^. *Anb OOoU. ^Nop^-hymbpa 
cminj'. opploh Oppine aet y©bpinep- 
chpe*. ^on octauo ib. Aujupti"':* 

•An. DCCLXII. I3ep pop^pepbe 
Spejpme apcebifcop'' i- 

An. DCCLXIH." Rep lanbpyht" 
paep ^ehabpb to aepcebipceope. on Jjam® 
peopeptejan baejeP opep mibne*! pm- 
Cep. 'Anb Fpi^epalb bipcop ^aet pi- 
tepne"' pop^pepbe "^on non. QOai''. pe 
paep jehaljob on Ceaptpum. "^on xviii. 
kl. Sept'. J?am vi. ^pmrpa Ceolpulpep 
picep, "i he paep bipcop xxix. pintpa''. 
*Da man jehal^be Pyhtpine^' ^to bi- 



shop Cutbbert. He held the archbi* 
shopric eighteen years. 

A.D. 769. This year Bregowin was 
invested archbishop at Michaelmas^ and 
' continued four years. Mull Ethelwold 
this year^ succeeded to the Northum- 
brian kingdom, held it six winters/ and 
then resigned it. 

A.D. 760. This year« died Ethel- 

• bert king of Kent, who was the son of 
king Wihtred, and also Ceolwulf d. 

A.D. 76 1 . This year was the severe 
winter; and Mull, king of tlieNortbum- 

• brians, slew Oswin at EdwinVCliff, oa 
the eighth day before the ides of August 

A.D. 763. This year^ died archbi^ 
shop Bregowin. 

A.D. 763. This year* Eanbert^ was 

• invested archbishop, on the fortieth day 
over mid- winter; and Frithwald, hi- 
fl(bop of Whitern, died on the nones of 
May. He was consecrated at York;, oa 
the eighteenth day before the calends of 

• September, in the sixth year ef the reign 
of Ceolwulf, and was bishop nine and 
twenty winters. Then was Petwin? con- 



* From Coi, ^ jchaT^ob, Laud. Co/. ^ -maefjun, Co/. <7a»/. COihahelej tibe, CT. bi. CDicha. 
Jielej. V^hel. ^ From Laud. Coi. « leaji, Coi. ' From Laud. s From Coi. Peirob. ^ So Coi. 
cin J, Gibs. from Whel. * From Peirob. An. occlxii. C.T. si. ^ Abs. Co/. * Gabpinej-cliuc. Coi. 
» DCCLXII. Loud, Coi. ^ lanbepht, Laud. 6anbpiht, Coni. Gab. C.T". bi. but on. 785 6ao., 
^ So Coi. feOyLaud. ^onc^Cani. C.T.bI J^onne^Whcl. ^ hxijCani.C.T.Bi. ^ mihej Laud. 
' Gibs, iroro Laud. Coi, to the eod of the year : abs.Whel. C.T". bi. &c. • "j fyWJao fent to Pihfc^ 
jine. jre paj ^ehal^ob. Isfc. Coi. 



■ '* Nonis Jugusli** — ^S. Dunelm. 

• An.l6t. M. West. Thorn- 
^ rt(i.o«.73l,737. 

* An.l^b. S. Dunelm. «8io/. &^i.*'— Thorn. 
^'9kal.Sept:*—F\ou 



« An.765. S. Dunelm. An.JGl. R.Dicet. 

^ al, Jeanbrjbtus, Janberhtus, Lamberhtus, &c. 
Vid. an. 785. "lanberius, sandi Augustini abbas,'* 
Ac— Flor. Fid. an. 762, 763, 764, 785. 

I Pechtwinus, Flor. 

L 



f« 



TUE SAXON CHR0NICL6. 



fcope'*' act jBlptt-ii^ ^dn xri. U. Au- 
juj^i. to lipitej\nc'^> 

An. DGCLXIV. I3ep lanbpyht^ asp* 
Cfbifoeop onpen^ pallium :• 

An. DCCLXV. ^ VSejt pen j Alhpcb 
feo NojiV-hymbpa picc''. ^^i pixabe eahta 
pmteji'' !• 

^An. DCCLXVI. l3ep FopSpepbe 
Gcjbephtr aspoebifcop m Gopeppic^. 
**on XIII. kl. Decemb'. ye paej- bipcop 
xxxYi. pmtpa". 1 Fpi^ebepht m I3a- 
jUft«lbCf4eK. ^fe paej- bipcop xxxir. 
pifttpa^ Anb man jehaljobe^ /6J?el- 
bepht tJo Gopeppic^. ^ 6alhmunb to I3a- 
gujrtalbef-^^:- 

DCCLXYII. 

An. DCCLXVIII. • |3cp pop^pcpbe 
6^bepht ^eztin^ cinj"". *on xiy. kl. 
Septembpip^^ :« 

DCCLXIX.'"^ — DCCLXXI. 

An. DCCLXXII. J^cp COilbpeb* bi- 
fcop pop^pepbe:- 

DGCLXXIII. 

An. DCCLXXIV. ^Rep Nop«-hym- 
bpa popbpipon heopa cmin^ Alchpeb 
op 6opeppic on Gaptep-nb. 1 jenamon 
JB]fe\jieb. CDoUep punu. heom to hlap- 
opbe. 1 pe pixabe iv. pmtpa. Anb* 



secrated bishop of Whitern %t Adiiog* 
fleets on the sixteenth day before the car 
lends of August. 

A.D. 764. This year archbishop Ean* 
bert received the pall. 

A.D. 766. This year Aired succeeded 
to the kingdom of the Northumbrians^ 
and reigned eight winters. 

A.D. 7t}6. This year died aivhbi- 
shop Egbert at York, on the thirteenth > 
day before the calends of December, 
who was bishop thirty-six winters; and 
Frithbert at Hexham ^j who was bishop 
there thirty- four winters. Ethelbert^ 
was consecrated to Yorkj and Elmund 
to Hexham^. 

A.D.768. This year died king Bad- 
bert, the son of Eata> on the fourteenths 
day before the calesds of September. 

A.D. 778. This year^ died bishop 
Mildred. 

A.D. 774. This year Ae NorthuoH 
brians banished their king Aired from 
York at Easter-tide ; and chose Ethel- 
red 7^ the son of Mull, for their lord, 
who reigned four winters. This year 



«««> 



* After Mlj:^ Fel Abelpec, Coi. ^ Abs. Cot. « lanbejihc, Laud, eanbjiiht:, Cant. Gab- C.T. b i. 
but an. 785 ean*. ^ From Laud. Coi. • From Laud. ' Gueppic, Coi. < l3a2U]Talb. Coi. 
* baljobe, Coi. > From Pelrob. C.T. b iy. abs. Cani. C.T. b i. * From Laud. Cot. CT. b It. The 
latter omits cidj^, because Eadberh t had retired into a monasterj. > From Laud, C. T. b it. " Initium 
regni KaroU regis. Gibs, from Laud. ^ CDiIjieb, Cant. CT.bIt. • From Laud. C.T.bij. 1>ep 
JE}e\peh. (O0II9J jnoD. pixian ajaon od Npji^hymbjian. Co/. 

» jtiT. Flor. » xiij. Flor. So C.T.bij. 

* ^' 10 koL JunttJ'*'m^.DQ!adm, " *' Hwicciorum ejnscopuf Mihredus, tui Witt* 

* Alharhtas, S. Dunelm. Eanbaldus, M.Wost. mundus iueceuit.*' — Flor. an. 776. 
« << 8 io/. ilfaa.**— S. Duaelm. I i£thelbertam, Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE 



79 



hep^ f^iepeb^ pei^ Cjiiftef ^ masl on 
heopenum sptep pinnan f-etljon^e^ 
Anb ^ff jeape"' jepihton^ OO^pcc ^ 
Cantpajie' a^t Ottan-popba^. ^ pun* 
bephce^ nsbbjian^ paepon 3efe3ene^ on 
8ttV-Seaxna lont>e°^ :• 

An. DCCLXXV. ■»cp Cyncpulp ^ 
Oppi ^epihron^ ^b B^nfintun^. anb 
Oppi nam^ ]x>ne tun. ['On ^f km^f 
hmu Oppa. peep an abbot op CD^>epham- 
pMbe. Becmne ^riiaten. Se il€a Beonne* 
^ph edle )^a moneke^^peb op ^pe mm^ 
ftpe. ^a let he Cu^piht ealtoopman 
X. bonbe-lanb at Spmep-heapbe. mlb 
lasppe. *J mib mabpe. *J nub eal f ^sep 
CO la^i. anb ppa f peo Cu^Sbpiht ^ap 
^one abbote l. punbe )^»p-pope. ^ ilea 
jeap anep nihtep peopme. ou%ep xxx. 
pc^^Unige penega. ppa eac f eaptep hip 
btti pcolbe pec lanb onj^an into ^ mftt* 
ftpe. At ^ip jepitneppc p«p yeo kin^ 
1113 Oppa. 'j peo kinin; Gjpep^. anb 
peo aepceb' l^yjebepht. 1 Ceolpulp bi- 
pcop. "i Inpona bipcop. "j Beonna abbot. 
^ peola o^pe bipcopep anb abbotep. anb 
peala o^pe pice men. On J?ep ilea Oppa 



alao appeared 10 the faetTem a red ctu* 
ei&x, after sunset; the Mercians nod 
the men of Kent fiaiigbt at Otford ; and 
wonderful serpents were seen in the land 
of the Soutb^Saxons. 

A.D.775. This year > Cjnewulf and 
Offa fought near Bensington> and 0€a 
took possession of the town. In the days 
of this king, Offa, there was an abbot at 
Medfaanisted> called Beonna^; who,with 
the consent of all the monks of the min^ 
ster, lei to fBrro, to alderman Cutbbert, 
ten copyhold lands at Swineahead^ wkh 
leasow and with meadow, and with all 
the appurtenances ; provided that the 
said Cothbert ga?e the said abbot fifty 
pounds therefore, and each year eater* 
taiamoBt for one aight^, or thir^ sbil- 
lii^ in moneys ; provided also, that 
after his decease the said lands should 
revert to the monastery. The king, Offa, 
and king Evertfa, and archbishop Hib* 
bert, and bishop Ceolwulf, and bishop 
Inwona, and abbot Beonna, and many 
other bishops, and abbots, and rich men. 



■ Ad. DCCLxziir. Cant. ^ oJ?eopbc, Cant, men z^joion^ Laud, men jejejan, Cot* « Cbjitpcejr, 
Cant. Cpip3e!,(7.r.Bi. forCpijrtpj-. * -janje, Ca»/. CT*. b i. • on >an ^Icsn ^lape. Cb/. 'pahcon^ 
C6i. ^tpttUcsn, Cant, -tun, aT.»l. t .papa, LautL "> Ocean. C^m. » fanboji. Cant. Coi, 
C.T* si. * nsbjian, LautL C.T* b i. lue^pa, Cot. genitife case. * g^jcojene, Ijiud. ^ejapeae^ 
Cot. Cant, -epene, C.T.^\. . « lanbe, Cant. C.T.n'i. and i?. ■ An. dcclxztix. Laud. Cant. CTIbI. 
and if. • jeplyton, Laud. C.T. b it. ^epubcan, Cant^ p Bea<>jin2rttn, Laud, C.T, b i. and ir. 
Bcnjin^uD, Cam. % jenam. Laud. Cant. CT.n\. * An. dcclxxvu. Laud, to the end of the 
year, N.S.: a manifcat mletpolatioo. 



» jIn. 778. Plor. jin. 779. M. West. An. 777. 
Chron. de Maiiros. 

* '' Sanctus JJmiia.'*— Hug. Cand. Cmohii Bur- 
gemit Htstoria, ap. Sparkc, p. 39. See alto p« 13 
of the same work. 

f " limm umus aoctis,** &e» 



* Penega in the Original, i. e. of pence, or in 
pence; because the silver penny, derited from the 
Roman denarius, was the standard coin in thif' 
country for mora tkaa a thousand years. It was 
also used at a weight, beinf the twendetb pait of 
an ounce. But more, of thii hsgerfteR 
l8 



76 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



baei psej* an ealbopman. Bpopban paej^ 
jehaten. Re jeopnbe ast j-c kyninj f 
he j-colbe pop hij- luuen ppeon hip ane 
m^npcpe. pocinjap het. pop^i fet? he 
hit polbe jiuen into CDebephamptebe. "j 
pee Petep. ^ ]?one abbote ]>e J)a pap. he 
pap Pupa jehaten. Sec Pupa paep aeptep 
Beonna. ^ peo kinin^ hine luuebe ppiSe. 
Anb peo kymnj ppeobe Jja f mynptpe 
pocinjap. pi^ cinm^. ^ pi¥ bipeop. *] 
pi^ eopl. ^ piS ealle mpn, ppa f nan 
man ne hapbe j>xj\ nan onptinj buton 
p. Petep tJ ]?one abbot. Dip paep bon 
on )?e cminjep tune. Fpeo-pic-bupna 
hatte :-] 

An. DCCLXXVL *Rep pop^pepbe 
Pehtpine bipcop on xiii. kt. Octobp'. 
pe paep bipcop xiv. pintpa''. ^'j J^y il- 
can jeape man jehaljobe /Gfelbepht 
to bipeope to J^pitepne in eopeppic''. 



''// 



^on XTii. ki. lulii 

DCCLXXVII. 

An. DCCLXXVIII. »hep /BJ^elbalb 
^ rSeapbbepht opplojon in. heah-je- 
pepan. Galbulp Bopinj aet Cyninjep- 
chpe. anb Cynepulp anb Gcjan «t 
Jiela-fypnum on xi. kt. App'.'' **Anb 
J>a penj Alppolb' to pice, 'tl /Bfelpeb 
bebpap on lanbe'. ^ he pixabe x. pm- 
tep'^' 

DCCLXXIX.fi> 



4 

were witnesses to this. In the dajsof 
this same OSa was an alderman^ of the 
name of Brorda^^ who requested ihe 
king for his sake to free bis own mona** 
sterj> called Woking^ because he would 
give it to Medhamsted aud St. Peter^ and 
the abbot that then was^ whose name was 
Pusa. Pusa succeeded Beonna; and the 
king \o\ed bim much. And the king 
freed the monastery of Woking^ against 
king, against bishop, against earl, and 
against all men ; so that no man should 
have any claim there, except St. Petef 
and the abbot. This waa done at the 
king's tawn called Free*Ricbburn. 

A.D. 770. This years died bishop 
Pet win, on the thirteenth day before the 
calends of October, having beea bishop 
fourteen winters. The same year Ethel- 
bert was consecrated bishop of Whitern, 
at York, on the seventeenth day before 
the calends of July. 

A.D. 778. This year Ethelbaldand 
Herbert slew three high-sheriffs, --El- 
dulf, the son of Bosa, at Coniscliff; 
Cynewulf and Egga at Helathyrn, — on 
the eleventh day before the calends of 
April^. Then^ EUwald, having banish- 
ed PUhelred from his territory, seized on 
his kingdom, and reigned ten winters. 



• From Laud. C.T, sir. * From Land. C.T.niJ. an. dcclxxvii. I3ejt pay M^dhyfiht ^ehaljob 
to biyropc to l?pitrj\ne on Giiejipic. Coi» « From Laud. ^ From Laud. Cot, • Alpolb, Cot.. 
' Abs. Coi. 8 Karolus in Hispanias intravit. Karolus Saxoniam venii. Karolus Pampileniam urbem 
destruxit, alque Ccesar'Auguslam : exercitum suum corijunxii, ac acceplis obsidibus, suljugatis Sanacenis^ 
per Narbonam, Wasconiam, Frandam rediit. Gibs, from Laud, 

* ^n. 799" Brorda, pnnceps Merdorum, qui ei • jIn. 777. Flor. S. Dunelm. 
nUdegila dicebalur, obUt.^'—Chron. J. Abb. S.Pftri * " 3 kal, Oclobris,"—S. Duaelm. 
de Burgo, ap. Sparke^ p. 10. * An*779. S.Duaeln). 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



77 



. An.DCCLXXX. ■j3epGalb-Seaxe*"j 
Ppancan jepuhtan". ^Anb NojiB-hym- 
bpa heah-jepepan popbaepnbon Beopn 
ealbopman on Seletrune. on ix. U. lanp. 
*An*>'' y6]?clbepht** apceb' pop^pepbe 
•^on Ceaptpe". ^^ on J^aep ptall 6anbalb 
p«p jehaljob''. tj Cynepulp bipcop^ je- 
paet in Linbippapna-eeS. ^J3ep Alch- 
munb bipcop in J^ajuptalb-ee pop^- 
pepbe. on vii. ibup Scptembp'. "j Til- 
bepht man jehal^obe on hip pteal on 
VI. non. Octobp'. ^ Dijbalb man jfehal- 
gobe to bipcop act Socca-bypij to Lin- 
bippapna-^e". ^^ Alpolb cmj penbe to 
'Rome sptep pallium to Ganbolbep ap- 
cebipcopep behoue":- 



DCCLXXXI. 



^An. DCCLXXXII. Rep pop^pepbe 
J?epbuph. Ceolpebep cpen. ^ Cynepulp 
bipcop m Linbippapna-ee. Anb peonoS 
pa>p set Aclea'':- 

DCCLXXXIII. 

An. DCCLXXXIV. I3ep Cyneheapb 
opploh Cynepulp cyninj. ^ he faep 
peap¥ opplejen. *J lxxxiv. monna mib 
him. Anb ]?a onpenj Byphtpic *pept- 
Seaxna picep''. ^ he picpobe xvi. jeap™. 



A.D. 780. This year a battle wa^ 
fought between the Old-Saxons and the 
Franks; and the high-sheriffs of Norths 
umbria committed to the flames alder- 
man Bern at Silton^ on the ninth day 
before the calends of January ^ The 
same year' archbishop Ethelbert died 
at York, and Eanbald was consecrated 
in his stead ; bishop Cynewulf ^ retired 
to Holy- island ; Elmund^ bishop of 
Hexham^ died on the seventh day be- 
fore the ides of September^ and Tilbert 
was consecrated in his steady on the sixth 
day before the nones of October ; Hib- 
bald was consecrated bishop of Holy- 
island at Sockbury; and king Elwald 
sent to Rome for a pall in behoof of 
archbishop Eanbald. 

A.D. 782. This year* died Wer- 
burga^ queen of Ceolred, and bishop 
Cynewulf^ in Holy- island; and the same 
year there was a synod at Acley. 

A.D. 784. This year^ Cyneard slew 
king Cynewulf, and was slain himself, 
and eighty-four men with him. Then 
Bertric undertook the government of 
the West-Saxons, and reigned sixteen 



* An. DccLxxix. Laud. Cr. bit. ^ Galbe- Laud. Cant. ^ From Laud. C.T. bit. an.DCCLZxix. 
* From Laud. CoL C.T. bit. an. dcclxxix. • Abs. Cot. ' i Ganbalb pay jehaljub on bij lob. Cot. 
» Linbijpapana. Cot. ^ From Laud. Cot. Alcmunb bijcop on iSajufcalb.^^ popVpepbc. i Til- 
bepbt paji ^ecojien Jap to. *j Dibalb to Linbij-papan.ee. Cot. * Anb ifiilfpolb cyninj jenbe man aeptep 



pallium to Rome. 1 Ganbalb bybe spceb*. Laud. 
to picc. Laud. ■ pintcp, Cant. C.T. b f. 

' "J.D. 780. Oslald et Ethtlhearde [congregato 
exercUu^ Beam patricium Eifwaldi regis succende* 
runt in Seietune g kaL Januarii.'' — Horedon. 

* j4n.7Si. Flor. 

* Cynebalb, edd. and mts. incori^cdy. Fid. 
an. 78?. " Ctnewolphus episcopus lindisfarensis 



^ From Laud. C.T.Bir. ' Pejt-Seama cininj 

41 anno sui episcop' senio confectus vices suos Hige^ 
baldo delegavii, et 3 annos postea vixit." — Jnnal. 
Tinemuth, ap. Leland. Collect, u 328. Fid. Flor. 
an. 779 J 781. 

* ^11.781. Flor. 

* Fid. an. 7 55. 



7d 



THE SAXON CHRONJCLK 



^ hif lie li^ »t pepham. anfe hif pAt* 
paebepen-c^n^ jae^ to Cepbice. [^To 
^ypin tnman pixobe 6alhmunb cm^ 
mnon** Cent''. *Dej- Galhmunb cinj 
paf ejbephtef paebcp. 1 ejbepht paf • 
A^ulpep paebep'':*] 

An. DCCLXXXV. *l3cp pop^pepbc 
Botpine abbot on fSpipum. Anb'' hep 
paep jeplitpilhcs pno^ aetCealc-hy^e.^ 
lanbypht** aepcebipceop poplet pumnc* • 
bad op^ hip bipceopbomep. *i ppom Op- 
pan cyninje liijebpyht' pasp jecopen. 
tl Gcjpep^ to cyninje" jehaljob. "Anb 
•m J>ap tib'^ Ppa?pon sepenb-pacan je- 
penb ^op Rome'^ppam Abpianum'' papan • 
toyEnjla-lanbe. to nipianne* J^onejelea- 
pan ^"3 J^a pbbe'' )>e* pdp Gpcjopiup up 
penbe ^ J^uph jjone bipcop Aujuptinum"'. 
*i hi man mib pupVpcipe unbeppenj •- 

DCCLXXXVI. 

An.DCCLXXXVII. ?5epnom« Beppht- 
pic* cynmj Oppan bohtop Gabbuphje. 
Anb on hip bajumy cpomon' aspept iii. 
pcipu* NopS-manna'* *^opJ3epe^alanbe''. 
Anb J^a pe jepepa )>aepto pab. "i hi^ . 
polbe bpypan to )>a»p cyninjep tune, 
f y Je* he nypte hpaet hi pspon. "j hme 
mon opploh^ ]}a^. Dat paepon J^a aepep- 
tan pcipu Denipcpa monna ]7e Anjel- 
cynnep lonb jepohton :• 



yean. His body is deposited at Ware- 
bam ; — and his pedigree goeth io » di» 
rect line to Cerdic. At this time feign* 
ed Elmund king in Kent, the fktber of 
Egbert; and Egbert was the father of 
Athulf. 

A.D. 786. This year died Bothwio^ 
abbot of Ripon, and a litigious symnl 
was hoiden at Chalk-hythei ; arohbi* 
shop Eanbert resigned some part of bis 
bishopric, Hibbert waa appointed bi^ 
shop by king Offa, and Everth was con^ 
secrated king. In the mean time legaleg 
were sent from Rome to England. 1^ 
pope Adrian, to renew the blessings ^t 
faith and peace which St. Gregory sent 
us by the mission of bishop Augustine^ 
and they were received with every mark 
of honour and respect. 

A.D. 787. This year king Bertric 
took Edburga the daughter of OflTa to 
wife. And in his days came first three 
ships of the Northmen from the land of 
robbers. The reve* then rode thereto^ 
and would drive them to the king's town; 
for he knew not what they were ; and 
there was he slain. These were the first 
ships of the Danish men that sought the 
land of the English nation. 



^Abs. Cami. >> pebf jw LomL ^ From PHrob.Ooi. ahB.Lau4LCaMUaT.Bu ^ oUyCoi. •From 
Coi. ' From Laud. C.T. b i?. t jeflit ^ ptihcy C.T. b i. ^ 6«ibjiiht:, Coni. C-T. b i. Laabejiht, Cat. 
FkL an. 763, 764. > rmn, Cot. * Gibf . from Coi. N.S. » t>yx»>ypbc, Co/. ■ cinin j, OmL 
» From Laud. Cot. C.T.Bir. to the end of the vear. • on ]?ij timMi, Cot. 9 So Cot. C.T.biw. 
nAhs.Cot. ' Abpiane, Cb/. • jeoipiaone, Cb/. * Jfb, Co/. "^ Mm^ Laud. Cot. Cant. C.T. nU 
« Bpeohtjuc, Laud. Byjihtpic, Cant. Bjiihtjiic, C.T. b I. r bajan, Cot. » coman, Cant. Cot. 
comoD, C.T.BU ■ jcipa, Cot. Cant. ^ From Laud. Cot. Cant. C.T.bu « From Laud. Cot. 
* he, Laud, hie, C.T.bI • From Cant. ' Jneji ojrjioh, Cant. « From Laud. 



« Fid. Spelmaa, Condi, i. 303. Wilkios, ConcU. 
L 14Sj U2. Flor. an. 785. 



* Since called ihenff^ t. §. the rev, or itewardi 
oltbeshm* «' JSracior ri^/*— £lhelw. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



f9 



. An. DCCLXXXVIIL •fiep paBj- yi- 
tkcfS je^abejibb on Nop%*h^inbfia lanbe 
Sdt Pmcanheale^. ^on iy. non. Sept'. ^ 
Al%>bepht abb' pop^pcpbc'' :• 

'^An. DCCLXXXIX. Rep Alppolb. 
iNop%an-hyinbpa cminj. p«f opf-la^an 
f ppam Sijan on ix. Id. Octobp'." "i heo- 
penjic leoht peep ^elome ^fcojen ^^«p 
J>ep'' he opflajen paep •'j he p«p be- 
b^pjeb on liajuyralb-ee. mnan J^aepe 
cypican''. tJ Oppeb. Alchpebep punu. 
fren^ to picc *a&ptep hrai", **pe paep hip 
nepa'^. ' Anb pno^ paep jejabepob aet 
Adea"^ :• 

An. DCCXC. I5ep lanbypht^ apce- 
bipcop pop^pepbe. "j ^}>y ilcan jeape™'' 
paep ^ecopen /6]^Iheapb abbub to apce- 
bipcppe". ^'Anb Oppeb. Nop%an-hym* 
bpa' cininj. paep ^beppicen. 'j' op picc 
jibpepebP. l /ej?elpeb.ye])elpalbep punu. 
ept penj to pice":- 
. <*An. DCCXCI. toep paep Balbpulp^ 
jehal^^ob to bipcope ^to lipitepne' *on 
;xvi. kt. Auj". ppam 6anbalbe apccb' 
3 ppam ySjjelbephte bipcope'':- 

An. DCCXCII. I3ep Oppa. COypcna 
pyninj. het /Ej^elbyphte cyninje* f 



A.D. 788. Tbis yew Uiere was a 6y* 
nod assembled at FingalU in Northum*- 
berland^ an the fourth day before the 
nones of September ; and abbot Albert 
departed this life. 

A.D. 789. This year Elwald, king 
of the Northumbrians, was slain by Siga^ 
on the eleventh day before the calends 
of October ; and a heavenly light was 
often seen on the spot where he was 
slain. He was buried in the church of 
Hexham ; and Osred, the son of Aired, 
who was his nephew, succeeded him in 
the government. This year there was a 
synod assembled at Acley^. 

A.D. 790. This year archbishop Ean« 
bert died^, and abbot Ethelherd was 
ehosen archbishop the same year. Os** 
red, king of the Northumbrians, was 
betrayed and banished from his king- 
dom, and Ethelred, the son of Ethel* 
wald, succeeded him. 

A.D. 791. This year Baldulf* was 
consecrated bishop of Whitern, on the 
sixteenth day before the calends ^of Au- 
gust by archbishop Eanbald and bi« 
shop Etheibert. 

A.D. 798. This year« Offa, king of 
Mereia, commanded that king Ethel- 



• From Laud. Coi. Cr. bit. »» al. Fincanheale. Pmcanbeale, C.T.Blr. « From Laud. Gibtoa 
adds, from the same MS. Karolus per Akmanmiam vemi ad Jhtes Bavarw. ^ From Laud. Coi. 

• Abs. Cot. ' jeppen, Cot. « J^ap )aji, Cot. ^ foji&o he p«j hij neua. Cot. » 1 mycel 
pao« par at Aclca. Cot. ^ -bjiihc, Laud. Lanbyjiht, Cot. lacnbjiihc, Cant. Gabbjiiht, C.T. b i. 
« >ar ylcan jeapcj. Cot, » gepc, Cant. C.r.Bi. « So Laud. Cot. bipcope, Whel. apcebipceop, 
Cant. • Nop«. Cot, v ^plymeb, Cot. ^ Balbulp, Cot. ' After iEJrelbephtje bijcope, CoU 

• Aba. Laud. Cant. C.T.bu , , 



* V\d. Spelman. Condi, i. 304. Flor. an. 788. 
and S. Dunclro. inter X. Script. 1 14, 60. 
! Vtd. SpelmsD. Condi. U SOS. 



* "/rfw A^nj/i.-— Flor. 

* Beadaulfus, Flor. Badulfus, Clwm. de Mail- 
m. am. 7aXL * Jm^HM. Flax* 



80 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



heapob opay-lean. "J Oj-peb. ]>e paej- Nop- 
J>an-hymbpa cyninj. aeptep ppaecp^e 
ham cumenum jelaeht: paej* 1 opj-lajen. 
on XVIII. kt. Octobp'. ^ hiy lie lij^ act 
Tinan-mu^e. Anby6]?elpeb cynmj penj 
.to nipan pipe, peo paep yeipleb jehaten. 
on III. kl. Octobp"':. 



^An. DCCXCIII. !5ep paepon pe^e 
pope-becna*^ cumene opep Nop^an- 
h]^mbpa lanb. "j f ** pole eapmlice bpej- 
bon* f paepon opmete lijpaepcap. ^anb 
]>obenap. anb jepeopene*^ paepon pypene 
bpacan on J)am lypte pleojenbe. ^ Dam 
racnum pona'' pylijbe mycel hunjep. 
anb litel^ aeptep f am. ]?aep ilcan jeapep. 
^on VI. ibup lanuap'''. eapmlice hae)?enpa 
manna^ hepjunj abilijobe' Gobep cypi- 
can in Lmbippapena-^e fuph hpeaplac 
*J man-pleht''. **Anb Sicja pop^pepbe 
on VIII. ki. CDap'^':- 



An. DCCXCIV. ftep Abpianup papa 
^ Opp* OOypcena™ cyninj^ ®on iv. 
ibup Aujupti. pe pixobe xl. pintpa". 
popJ^pepbonP.*] /ejelpeb. NopJ)an-hym- 
bpa ^Jcyninj. paep opplejen ppom hip 
ajenpe Jjeobe''. "on xiii. kt. OOai''. Anb 
Ceolpulp bipceop ^ 6abbalb bipcop op 
J>am lonbc apopan'. Anb Gcjpep'^S' 



bcrt should be beheaded ; and Osred^ who 
had been king of the Northumbrians^ 
returning home after his exile i^ was ap- 
prehended and slain, on the eighteenth 
day before the calends of October. His 
body is deposited atTinemouth*. Ethel- 
red this year, on the third day before the 
calends of October, took unto himself a 
new wife, whose name was Elfleda. 

A.D. 793. This year came dread- 
ful fore-warnings over the land of the 
Northumbrians, terrifying the people 
most woefully : these were immense 
sheets of light rushing through the air^ 
and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying 
across the firmament. These tremendous 
tokens were soon followed by a great 
famine; and not long after, on the sixth 
day before the ides of January in the 
same year, the harrowing inroads of 
heathen men made lamentable havoc in 
the church of God in Holy-island, by 
rapine and slaughter. Siga died on the 
eighth day before the calends of March. 

A.D. 794. This year died pope 
Adrian ; and also Ofla, king of M ercia^ 
on the fourth day before the ides of Au- 
gust, after he had reigned forty winters. 
Ethelred, king of the Northumbrians, 
was slain by his own people, on the thir- 
teenth day before the calends of May^; 
in consequence of which, bishops Ceol- 



• From Laud, C.T. d i?. ^ From Laud. Cot. C.T. b it. « .bycoa, Cot. * Abs. Cot. • bpehtan, 
Cot, ' So C.T. Bif , unmethce pejcaj, ibid. « 3<^PP*"^> ^^' ^ ^ jona, Cot, ' abylijoban, Co(» 
^ ^jhhtyCot. C,T*Bir. 1 An, Dccxcri. Laud. * From Laud. ^ Abs. Laud. ^ From Laud* 
on IV. k'. Ajjr. C.T. air. So also Florence of Worcester. p fojiVjrepbe, Laud, ^ From Petroh. 
C.Tnl. » So C.T.BU ppon, Coi. • ejcfpflS, Coi. 

» Vid, an. 700. « « 4 kal. Jug,'*— Flor. 

f ''Jn numasterho ad ostium rwaJlumnii:'^Flor. « " 3 kal. JIfati/'— Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



SI 



penj* to CDjrpcna^ pice. *J *^J>y ilcah 
jeape'' pop^pepbe. "j 6abbpyht onpcn j 
ptce on Cent. J»m paep ojjep nama ncni- 
neb Pp«n**. *Anb /6))elheapb ealbop- 
man popKpepbe on kat. Auj. Anb |?a 
ha^l^enan on Nop^-hymbpum hepjobon. 
*J Ccjpep^ep mynptep act fone mu]7an 
bepeapobon. Anb J^aep heopa hepeto- 
jena pum opplaejen peap^. "j eac heopa 
pcipu pume Jjuph opep-pebep pup^on 
tobpocene. "j heopa peala Jjaep abpun- 
con. *i pume cuce to J^am ptaej^e comon. 
^ ]>a man pona opploh aet ]7aepe ea 
*muj?an'':- 



^An. DCCXCV. I3ep paep pe^ mona 
a]>iptpob*^ betpux han-cpeb* ^ bajunje^ 
*on V. kal App.'' Anb Gapbpulp™ penj 
to Nop^an-hymbpan cmebome" *on ii. 
ibup CDai''. tJ ^he paep py^^an' ^jeblet- 
pob. "j to hip cine-ptole ahopen" *on vii. 
ka). lunii on 6opeppic'' ppam Ganbalbe 
apceb'. 1 y6]>elbephte. ^ J^ijbalbe. i 
SBalbepulpe bipcopumP:- 



An. DCCXCVI. ^Rep pop^pepbe 



wulf and Eadbald retired from the lajid. 
Everth took to the governnient of Mer- 
cian and died the same yeari. Eadbert, 
^hose other name wasPryn, obtained the 

> kingdom of Kent; and alderman Ethel- 
Iierd died on the calends of Augus^. 
In the mean time, the heathen armies 
spread devastation among the Northum- 
hrians, and plundered the monastery of 

. king Everth at the mouth of the Wear*. 
There however some of their leaders were 
slain ; and some of their ships also were 
shattered to pieces by the violence of the 
weather; many of the crew were drownr 

• ed ; and some, who escaped alive to th^ 
shore^ were soon dispatched at the mouth 
of the river. 

A.D. 795. This year was the moon 
eclipsed, between cock-crowing and 

• dawn3, on tbe fifth day before the ca- 
lends of April ; and Erdulf succeeded 
to the Northumbrian kingdom on the 
second before the ides of May. He was 
afterwards consecrated and raised to his 

• throne^ at York, on the seventh day ber 
fore the calends of June, by archbishop 
Eanbald, and bishops Ethelbert, Hib- 
bald, and Baldulf. 

A.D. 796. This year died archbishop 



* f cnj TO pice on CCypcum. Cani, ^ COypccne, Land. ^ on ^an J^pe, €oi» ^ Ppaenn, Cant, 
C.T,b\. Ppaen,3(7.T. sir. « From Laud, C.T. n'lw. to (he end of the year. ' From Laud, Coi. 
C.T,b\j, « So Cot. j-eo, Gtbs. from Laud. *» aj^tjjftpcb, Cot. ' hanrpe, Cot. -cpaebe, C.T. Bir. 
^ -junj, Cot. ' Abs. Cot. ■> 6apbulp, Cot, ■ pice, Cot, • jeblctfob to ciiije. Cot, 
p Abs. Laud. *> From Laud. C.T.n'xs. 



» « 141 diebus regnavit."—F\or. 

* i. e. Wearmouth abbey. 

' This is the Grecian method of computation, 
futa^v aksxtpc^toyias xoi 'gpmas, between the 
bours of three and six iu the morning. It must 



be recollected, that before the distributioo of time 
into hours, miontcs, and seconds, the day and night 
were difided into eight equal portions, containing 
three hours each ; and this method was continued 
long afterwards by historians. 

M 



82 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Ganbalb apceb*. on it. ibuj- Auj. "i hi|r 
he lij^ on Gopeppic. Anb yej^ ilcan 
jeapef jrop^pejibe Ceolpulp bij-cop. ^ 
man jehaljobe *o]?aepne Ganbatee' on 
J>8Bj- oj>j\ef jtal on xix. kal. Sept*. Anb^ 
heji Cy^npulp^. OOejicna*^ cyninj. opep* 
hepjabe Cancpape*^ oj) meppc. *anb 
OOepcpape'^jepenjon^ Gabbephcs Ppan 
heopa cyninj. anb jebunbene** hme on 
OOypce* jelaebbon. £^*j lee him pycan 
uc hip eajan. "j ceoppan op hip hanba :• 
OnbyBfelapbapcb'opCantpapeb'pette 
pino^. ^ jetpybe. ^ jepaeptnobe. J^uph 
J>ap papan haepe Leonep. ealle ]>a )>inj 
be Gobep mynptpan. ]>z paepon jepetp 
be pihtjapep baeje. ^ be o%pa cinja 
baeje. ^ fup cpae^. Ic Afelapb. eab- 
mob apb* op Cantpapebepi. mib anmo- 
ban paebe eallep pmoSep. anb mib ealpa 
Jjape jejabepunja ealpa |?apa myn- 
ptpa. J?am be ealban bajart ppijneppe 
pap^eauen ppam jeleappullan mannum. 
on Gobep naman. "j J?uph hip bipjen- 
ban bom. ic bebeobe. ppa ppa ic haepe 
faabbe op J>an papan Leone, f heonon- 
pop^ nan ne bypptlaece ceopan him 
hlauopbap op laepeban mannan ouep 
Gobep epppyp^nyppe. Ac eal ppa ppa 



EanbaM, on the fourth day before tb« 
ides of August ; and his body is 4lepo-' 
sited at York. The same year also died 
bishop Ceolwulf ; and another Eanbald 

• was consecrated to the see of the former, 
on the nineteenth day before the calenda 
of September. About the same time 
Cynwulf^ king of Mercia, made inroads 
upon the inhabitants of Kent as far at 

• the marsh ; and tlie Mercians seized Ed- 
bert Pryn their king, led him bound into 
Mercia^ and suffered men to pick out hii 
eyes, and cut off his hands i. And Ethel* 
ard, archbishop of Canterbury, held a 

^ synod*, wherein he ratified and confirm- 
ed, by command of pope Leo, all things 
concerning God's monasteries that were 
fixed in Witgar's days, and in other 
king's days, saying thus : ^' I Ethelard; 

• the humble archbishop of Canterbury, 
with the unanimous concurrence of the 
whole synod, and of all the congrega«* 
tions of all the minsters, to which in for- 
mer days freedom was given by faithful 

• men, in God's name and by his terrible 
judgment do decree, as I have command 
from pope Leo, that henceforth none 
dare to choose them lords from lewd men 



■ So CT. Bir. ojvpbatby Gibs, from Laud. ; but he suggested, from conjecture, o^p 6aDbalT), 
b Ceolpul}^ Laud. Coi.Whel Gcolulj:, Cani, Fid, an. SI 9. « (Dy/icDa, Cant. C.T.nl 'So Cant. 
C.T, B i. Ceot, Coi. Cantpapa, Whel. * So Laud. Cant, C.T. b i. and if. but omitting o^ nippj-c. 
' So Whel. and the best MSS. jejren j «/. « From Cot. ^ -ben, Laud, -beone, C. T. b i. > COcpcc^ 
C.T. Bi, ^ A Norman interpolation from Cot. to the end of the ^ear. 



* This wanton act of barbarity seems to hare 
existed only in the depraved imagination of the 
Norman interpolator of the Saxoa annals, who 
eagerly and impatiently dispatches the story thus, 
in order to Introduce the subsequent account of 
the s)nod at Bapchild, so important in his eyes. 



UoTeden and Wallingford and others hare repeated 
the idle talc; but I ha?e not hitherto found it ia 
any historian of authority. 

* "jifmd Bacanceld:'—Spc\man. Condi, i. 317. 
an, 798. Some have placed this synod at £eckea« 
ham in Kent. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



83 



iut: yf on }yan jeppite pe ye papa haep^ 
^luuen. dWSc J>a halijan pcjiaf jcfet- 
^an. J« beo^ upc faebepap tl «P^ '^i^ 
peopap be hali^um mynjrtpum. fpa hi 
bdiuan un-apemmeb biitan askpe an- • 
pece. Gip aeni man yf f )>if Gobcp 
t] upacf papan. t upe bebob. healban 
nelle. ac pap]^o% anb pap naht^healbaS. 
pitan hi f hi pculon ^ipan ^pceab to- 
popan Gobep bom-pctle. Anb ic A^l- • 
hapb apb' mib xii. bipcopan. "j mib 
|ypun *j tpenti^an abboban. ]>yp ylce 
nub pobe-tacne Cpiptep jetpimmaV ^ 
jcpa&pcn' ] 

An. DCCXCVII. licp Romane Lconc . 
fam papan hij- tunjan pop-cuppon**. ^ 
hijr eajan^ airtunjon**, "i hine op hip 
ftde aplymbon. ^ J)a pona ept. Gobe 
pultumienbum^. he meahte' jepon* ^ 
pppecan**. ^ ept paef * papa ppa he aep • 
paep. ^Anb 6anbalb onpen^ palkum 
on VI. ibuf Sepr. tJ yejjelbepht bij- cop 
popVpepbe on iii. k^. Nov/:- 

>^An. DCCXCVIII. I3cp paep m^cel 
jepeoht: on Nop^-hymbpa lanbe. on • 
Lenjtene. on it. non. App. aet }3peaU 
lae^e. "i j^aep man opploh Alpic. Jieapb- 
bephtep punu. ^ o^pe maenije mib 
him'':: 

An. DCCXCIX. Jiep /e^elheapb^ • 
apcebipcop. "i Cynebpyht. pept-Seax- 
fta"* bifcop. popon" to Rome^. PAlpun 



orer God's inheritanee; but^ as it 10 in the 
inrri t that the pope has given^ or holy men 
have settled, our falliers and our teachers^ 
concerning holy minsters, so they con* 
tinud untainted without any resistaiice. 
If there is any man that will not observe 
this decree of God, of our pope, and of 
us, but overlooketh it, and boldetbit for 
nought, let them know, that they shall 
give an account before the judgment^seat 
of God. And I Elhelard, archbishop, 
with twelve^ bishops, and with three and 
twenty abbots, this same with the rood* 
token of Christ confirm and fasten. 

A.D. 797. This year the Romans cut 
out the tongue of pope Leo, put out his 
eyes, and drove him from bis see; but 
soon after, by the assitttance of God, he 
could see and speak, and became pope as 
he was before. Eanbald also received the 
pall on the sixth day before the ides of 
September, and bishop Ethelbert died on 
the third before the calends of November. 

A.D. 798. This year a severe battle 
was fought in the Northumbrian terri- 
tory, during Lent, on the fourth day 
before the nones of April, at Whalley ; 
wherein Alric, the son of Herbert, was 
slaiU) and many others with him« 

A.D. 799. This year archbbhop 
Ethelbert, and Cynbert, bishop of Wes- 
sex, went to Rome. In the mean time 



*yi jepepma^, to correspond wMh ^etpiniina^; but both we ioeorrect; the Norroan scribe being 



imperfectlj skilled in the Saxon gramouu-. ^ -cuppan. Cant. 
Laud, CT*. Bi. ut-apiun^an, Cant. * jepdlrumieDbuin, Laud. 
* gejeon, Laud. Cant. Cot. C. T. b i. ^ jf pecan, Cot. ' f&LjifSy Cant. 
^ -SsBzna, Laud. -Sezana, Cot, •Sezna, Cant. " pepboo. Cot. 



* ai^^ny Cant. ' ut-apranjon^ 

' mihte. Laud. Cant. Coi, C.T. b i. 

^ From Laud. ' Mye\jitt)y Laud. 

<> Roma, Cot. p From Cot. 



* I7| Spdman. 



M 2 



84 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



bipcop pojt^pepbe on Su^-bepi. ") he 
peanS bebynreb in Domuce. 'J Tiftppi^ 
peap^ jecofien aeptep him. anb Sijiic. 
6aj^-Sexana cinj. pepbe to Rome. In 
J^ypum ylcan jeape pihtbupje lichama 
peap^ jepunben eal jehal. ^ unpop- 
potteb, a Deopham. aeptep pip ^ pipti 
jcapon ))ap ]>e heo op )>ypum hue jepac":- 
An. DCCC. "liep paep pe mona ajjip- 
tpab. on Jjaepe o^pe cib on niht. on xvii. 
kl Febp. Anb'' hep Beophcpic*' cyn- 
mj pop^pepbe. ^^ Vopji ealbopman''. 
^ Gcjbpyht** penj to pept-Seaxna* 
pice. Anb J?y ylcan baeje^ pab /6]7el- 
munb ealbopman op l^piccum opep aet 
Cynemaepep-popba. ' Da mette^ hme 
Peoxtan** ealbopman mib pilpaetum. *]* 
j^aep peap^ micel jepeoht. ^ J?aep bejen 
opplejene'' paepon* J^a™ ealbopmen. ^ 
pilpaeton" namon^ fyjeP:* 

DCCCI. 

An. DCCCII. *l5ep a]>eoptpabe^ pe 
mona on bajunje''. 'on xiii. kl. lanp. 
Anb'' hep paep ^chabob* Beopnmob to' 
bipceope to I^popep-ceaptpe :• 

An. DCCCIII. 'I3ep pop'Spepbe l^ij- 



bisfaop Alfun died at Sudbury, and was 
buried at Dunwich. After him Tidfrith 
was elected to the see ; and Siric, king 
of the East-Saxons, went to Rome. In 

• this year> the body of Witburga was 
found entire, and free from decay, at 
Dereham, after a lapse of five and fifty 
years from the period of her decease* 

A.D. 800. This year was the moon 

• eclipsed, at eight in the evening, on the 
seventeenth day before the calends of Fe* 
bruary ; and soon after died king Bert* 
ric and alderman Worr. Egbert succeed- 
ed to the West-Saxon kingdom ; an4 

• the same day* Ethelmund, alderman of 
the Wiccians^, rode over the Thames at 
Kempsford; where he was met by alder«r 
man Woxtan, with the men of Wiltshire, 
and a terrible conflict ensued, in which 

• both the commanders were slain, but the 
men of Wiltshire obtained the victory. ; 

A.D. &03. This year was the moon 
' eclipsed, at dawn, on the thirteenth day 

• before the calends of January ; and 
Bernmod was consecrated bishop of Ro- 
chester. 

A.D. 803. This year« died Hibbald, 



* From Laud. Col. ^ Bjiihrjiic, Laud. Cant. Cot. C.T.bu « Abs. Coi. ^ -bejibt^ Laud. 
-byjtht, Coi. • -Sexana, Cot. ' So C.T.^i. aod ir. baej, Laud. f ^^mette, Laud. Cant. 
^ Peobpan, Laud. C.T.bu Pihjrtan, Cant. ' Fiom Laud. Cant. ^, opjlejeoy Cant. > From 
Laud, pujiban, Cant. ^ ^CyLaud. » -jste, Laud. Cant. C.T. bi. ^ naman. Cant. C.T.bI. 
' P3C, C.T. si. Gibsoo adds bere, from Laud. Karolus rex imperator /actus tst, et a Romanis ap^ 
pellatus Augustus $ qui illos, qui Leonem papam dehonestaverant, worte damnavit ; sed precibus pap€e, 
mortt induita, exiUo retrusit. Ipse enim papa Leo imperatorem eum sacraverat, ^ aJ^yitjioDe, Coi. 
' From Laud. ' S^al^ob, Laud. 

^ An. 796. Flor. tbe same as Picpajium ; tbe latter of vbicb titles 

• *^Anno^* — ^Flor. is retained in Wtckware^ in Gloucestersblre. 
I Merdorum, Flor, oj: l3piccum, ia the SasLon; * An. 802. Flor. 



THE 



ON chronicle: 



8& 



bkito. Linbifpapna btf cap. on yiii. kat. 
lulii. "j man jehaljobe on hif jrteal Gcj- 
bepht. on iii. ibuf lunii. AnbT hep 
/6})elbeapb apccbiprop pop^pepbe 'on . 
Cent". ^ pulppeb paey ** to apcebij^ceope * 
Xehabob^ **on hij- loh'. ^:J FopSpeb ab- 
bub pop^pepbc'':- 

An. DCCCIV. tSep fulppeb apcebi- 
fceop pallium onpen^ :• 

An. DCCCV. I3ep Cu«peb c^ninj 
pop^pepbe on Cantpapum. "i Ceolbuph 
abbobippe^^j Deapbyphte^ ealbopman^:- 

An. DCCCVI. "^liep *pe mona a)?ip- 
tpobe' on kt. Sept. ^ Gapbpulp^.^Nop- 
J>an-hymbpa cininj'. paep op hip pice 
abpipen. 'j Ganbepht ""liajuptealb bi- 
pcop' pop^pepbe''. "Gac on J^ypum 
5^Ican ^eape. ii. non. lunii. pobe-tacn 
peap% ateopeb on \>zm monan. anep 
Ppbnep baejep. in nan )>ape bajenje. 
anb ept on )?ypum jeape. iii, kt. Sept. 
an punbeplic tpenbel peap^ ateopeb 
abutan ]7ape punnan > 

"An. DCCCVII. J3ep peo punne a)>ep- 
tpobe on anjynne Jjape pipte tibe J^ap 
ba^ep XVII. ki. Auj :• 

r 

DCCCVIII.— DCCX.® DCCCXI. 

An..DCCCXII. J3ep Capl cynmj 
pop^pepbe. P*] he picpobe pip ^ peopep- 
tij pmtpa. anb pulppeb apcebipcop. 



bishop. of Holy-island, on the twenty- . 
fourth of June, and Egbert was conse-^ , 
crated in his stead, on the thirteenth of 
June following. Archbishop Etheiherd 
also died in Kenti, and Wulfred was 
chosen archbishop in his stead.. Abbot 
Forthred, in the course of the same year, 
departed this life. 

A:D.804. This year archbishop Wul- 
fred received his pall. 

A.D. 805. This year died king. Cutb- 
red in Kent, and abbess Colburga, and 
alderman Herbert. 

A.D. 806. This year was the moon 
eclipsed, on the first of September; Erd-f 
wulf, king of the Northumbrians, was 
banished from his dominions; and Ean- 
bert, bishop of Hexham, departed this 
life. This year also, on the next day be- 
fore the nones of June, a crucifix was 
seen in the moon, on a Wednesday, at 
the dawn ; and afterwards, during the 
same year, on the third day before the 
calends of September,, a wonderful cir- 
cle was displayed about the sun..- 

A.D. 8&7. This year was the sun 
eclipsed, precisely at eleven in the morn- 
ing, on the seventeenth day before the 
calends of August. 

A.D. 812. This year died the emperor 
Charlemagne^ after a reign of five and 
forty winters; and archbishop Wulfred, 



• From Laud, *» peaji^ jccojien, Cot. ^ jehaTjob, Laud. Cant, C,T. bI ^ From Cot. N.S. 

• Abs. Laud. ' abbatijj*a, Cant, « Dcajibbepht, Laud, bcabjtiht, Cant, ■ From Laud, Cot, 

* J^r P niona aj^ijtjiob, Cot. fona aj^yjtjiube, C,T, b it. omitliag the eclipse of the snii in the foflowrng 
year. * Caejibulj:^ Cot. ' Abs. Cot, " bijcop op Dajujtalb-ee, Cot, » From Cot. « Karolm 
cum Nicepkoro imperatore Constantinopo&lano- pacem fecit, Gibs, from Laud. p Abs. Cant. 



^ " IdUus MaU:*—lhoTa. 



«(r 



THE SAXON GHRONICLR 



anb Pijbji^ht*. pcjrt-Scaxna!' bifcop. 
popon bejen^ to Rome :• ^ 

An. DCCCXIII. fcep pulppeb^ apce- 
bif cop. mib bletf un^e ]>xf papan Leon, 
hpeapp^ ept*^ to hij- a^num^ bijrceop- 
borne. Anb \>f ^eape ^ehep^abe^ 6cj- 
bypht cyninj on pej^-pealap ^ppom 
cajrtepeapbum o^ pej^cpeapbe'' :• 

An. DCCCXIV. VSeji Leo fc a>ela 
papa "j j-e halja popBpepbe. ^ asptep 
him Stephanuf penj to pice' :• 

DCCCXY. 

An. DCCCXVI."* VSejx Stephanuf 
papa pop^pepbe. "'j.aeptcp him paej- 
Papcahp® to papan jehabobP*". ^ )>;Jr 
ylcan ^eape popbapn Onjel^-cynncp ' 
f colu :• 

DCCCXTII. DCCCXYIII. 

An.DCCCXIX. ftep Cenpulp'. CDepc- 
na cynm^. popSpepbe. anb Ceolpulp 
pen^ to pice. ^ 6abbypht ealbopmon 
pop^pepbe :• 

DCGCXX. 

An. DCCCXXI. l^ep peap9 Ceolpulp 
hip picep bepcipeb*:- 

An. DCCCXXII. ftep tpejen ealb- 



atecompanied by Wqi^berl;, biahop of 
Wessex, undertook a journey to Rome. 
A.D.813. This year archbishop Wui* 
fired returned to his own see. with the 
blessing of pope Leo; and king Egbert 
spread deyastation in Cornwall from east 
to west. 



A.D. 8 14. This yeari died Leo, the 
noble and holy pope; and Stephen sue* 
ceeded him in the papal government 

A.D. 816. This year* died pope Ste- 
phen ; and Paschalis was consecrated 
pope after him. This same year the 
school of the English nation at Rome 
was destroyed by fire. 

A.D. 819. This year died CenwulC 
king of Mercia; and Ceolwulf sue* 
ceeded him. Alderman Eadbert also 
departed this life. 

A.D. 8S1. This year Ceolwulf was 
deprived of his kingdom. 

A.D. 822. This year two aldermen 



> -bejihr, Coi. ^ -Sexaa, Coi. « Abs. Lmd. ' Cireneius Karoh imperaiori legai^i suos emm 
pace miiiii, Karolus imperator ohuL Gibs, from Laud. « piupeb, Coi. '^ehpyppbe, Coi. ' From 
Laud. C.T.bI ^ ajenum, Laud. ' -^obe Ccjbjiihc, Cani. CT.hu ^ yjwn ea/tao-peapban 
^o pexte-peajiban, Coi. ^ papbome, Lwd. ^ neccur. Laud. ^ *j Pajcahj- peo^ aeptep faim to 
papbome. Coi. ^ Pajctiahf, Cani. C.T.bL ^ ^ehal^ob, Laud. Cani. (7.7. bi. « AnjeU CanL 
C. r. B i. r From Laud. Ben. Cani^ C. T. b i. abs. Coii. Wbel. ' Ceoolp, Cani. C. T. b i. ^ - jfcepeb, 
Laud. -rcyp<^^9 C'T. b i. 



> ^11.816. Flor. 

* ^11.819. Flor. 

' St. Keoelm is said to hate succeeded Cen- 
wulf : 
<<Io the foare and twentithe yere of his kyngdom 

Kenulf weote out of this worlde^ and to the jo/e 
of he? ene com ; 



^^ It was after that oure lord in his moder alygte 
Eigte hondred jrer and neygcntene, by a countet 

rigte, 
Scint Kcnclm his yonge sone in his setende jere 
Kyng was ymad after him, theg he yong were.'' 
FUa S. Kenelmi, MS. ColL Trin. Oxon. 
No. 67. Arch. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



87 



ojimen pujibon opflejene. Buphelm 
tl CDuca. 1 pno** paef** at Clopep 

An. DCCCXXIIL Rep paep peak 
jepeoht ^ Dena^. at Gapul-pop^a*. 
'Anb ^y ylcan jeape. jepeaht Gc- 
bpyht. pcpt-SeaxnaK cyninj^. anb 
Beopnpulp. QOypcena* cyninj. ''on 61- 
knbune"". "i Gcjbp^ht pje nam. 1 
Jjaep pap micel pal jeplejcn. Da 
penbe he** /Ej^elpulp^ hip punu op ]7ape 
pypbe. tJ Galhptan hip bipceop. "j pulp- 
heapb hip ealbopman. to Cent '^mi- 
cele pepebe''. anb hy Balbpcb" |H>nc 
cynmj nopS opep Temepe abpypon*^. 
Anb CantpapeP him to cypbon^. anb 
Su^S-pije, anb SuS-Seaxe'. anb Gapt- 
Seaxe' )>y hy ppom hip msejum' ap 
mib unpyhte anybbe papun*. Anb J?y 
ylcan jeape Gapt-Gnjla c^ninj anb 
peo }>eob jcpohte" Gcbpyht cyninj 
him to ppi^e tl ^o munbbopan. pop 
CDypcna eje. tJ pY ilcan' jeape plojon 
Gapt-Gnjle Beopnpulp^. CDepcna* cyn- 



were slain^ whose names were Burhelm 
and Muccft ; and a synod was holden 
fttCliffVHooi. 

A.D. 8S8. This year a battle was 
fought between the Welsh in Cornwall 
and the people of Devonshire^ at Camel- 
ford* ; and in the course of the same year 
Egbert^ king of t|ie West-Saxons, and 
BernwulC king of Mercia, fought a bat* 
tie at WiltoD, in which Egbert gained 
the victory, but there was great slaugh- 
ter on both sides. Then sent he his son 
Ethelwulf into Kent> with a large de- 
tachment from the main body of the 
army, accompanied by his bishop, Elstan, 
and his alderman, Wulf herd ; who drove 
Baldred, the king, northward over the 
Thames. Whereupon the men of Kent 
immediately submitted to him; as did 
also the inhabitants of Surrey, and Sussex; 
and Essex^ ; who had been unlawfully 
kept from their allegiance by his relft^ 
tives. The same year also, the king of the 
East- Angles and bis subjects besought 
king Egbert to give them peace and pro- 
tection tfgainst the terror of the Mer- 
cians; whose king, Bernwulf, they slew 
in the course of the same year. 



" jeonoi^y Cani. ^ Abs« Laud^ ^ So Ben, Cant. abi. Cb^/.Whel. •ho, Latrd. Clcopef-h66| 
Cr. B i. * Depena, Laud. C.T. b it. Dcpna, Cant. C.T. bu • Gapol- Cant, -pojib, C.T. b i. 
^ ^ }yT y'^r X^^P^r- ^X^^P^*^ Pejt-Sexana cinj.i Beojinpolj: (Dyjicna cinj, puhron at 6llenbune. Cot* 
• From Laud. Cot. C.T. b it. »» Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. > Frpin Laud. Cot. C.T. b L * act ~ 
Cani. CT.BU and It. 6allanbanc, CT.bW. > A}^alf, Cant. C.T.bi. » mycclum pcopobc, Cant* 
^ So C.T.Bi, Cot. Cant. ^ abjiyjren, Laud, abpyaoo, Cot. abpipan, Cant, abjiipoo, C.T. si. 
p Canrpajia, Laud. ^ ciejibon, C.T, Hi. So hie for by, ibid. ' -Sexe, Cant. C.T.Bi. ' ma^uniy 
Cam. C.T. B i, * 7»jun, Cant. « -johtan, CanS. -on, C.T. b i. » From Laud. C.T.b'u 
y Beopopulf, Laud. Cant. Cot. C.T. Bi. * COypcena, Laud. COyjicna, Cot, 

1 Fid. Spelman. Concil. I 332. * ** Orientales AngU:' — Flor. eTideotly a mis- 

* "Britonei in loco qui dicitur Gajiilford d Dom^ take; for the East-Angles are meDtioned iii the 



naniensUfUs C€m mnl.*'— Flor. 



.next seuteoce. 



«8 



THE SAXON CHRONi;CLE. 



DCCCXXIV. 

An. DCCCXXV.* hejx Lubecan. 
CDepcna^ cyninj. *j hij- pip ealbopmen 
^«ionopploh mib him''. ^ F^jlap penj 
t:o pice :• 

BCCCXXTI. 

An. DCCCXXVII. I3ep pe^ mona 
aJ?yptpobe® on mibbep-pmtpep maeppe- 
niht^ Anb |>y ylcan^ jeape jeeobe 
.Ccjbpyht cyninj CDepcna pice. ^ eall 
^ be pu|>an liwmbpe paep. *i he paep pe** 
/eahteVa^ cyninj. pe^ Jtc Bpet-palba' 
.paep. ™A«b aepopt*^ P®r^ /Bile. SuS- 
SeaxnaP cyninj. |>e*i |>up mycel' pice 
haepbe. peegptepa' paep Ceaplm^ Pcpc- 
Seaxna^ cyninj. pe' fpybba* paep*^ /6- 
^Ibpyht. Canrpapa cyninj. pe' peopjya 
jfxf' Raebpalb. Gapt-Gnjla cyninj. 
ppta pa?p' ebpine^. Nop]^an-hymbpa* 
cyninj. pyxta peej- Oppalb. "I^e aept- 
ep him picpobe. peope^a^ paep Oppio^ 
Dppalbep bpo^op. eahtoj^a paep^ Gcj- 
Ijpyht. pept-Seaxna cyninj. ^Anb pe 
•Ccjbpyht lasbbe pypbe to Dope piS 
J^op^an-hymbpe^ ^ hf himS ^faep 
eaj^mebo bubon''. ^ jel^paepncppeL tl ^Y 
*-on J)am'' to-hpuppon > 

An. DCCCXXVIII. ?3ep ept pij- 
Jap* on pen J OOypcna picep""*. ^ yBpel- 



A.D. 826. This year Ludecan, king 
of M ercia^ was slain^ and his five alder- 
men \vitfa him; after which Wiglaf suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom* 

A.D. 8S7. This year was the moon 
eclipsedj on midwinter's mass^nigbt; and 
king Egbert^ in the course of the same 
year^ conquered the Mercian kingdom, 
and all that is south of the H umber, be- 
ing the eighth king who was sovereign 
of all the British dominions. Ella, king 
of the South-Saxons, was the first who 
possessed so large a territory; the second 
was Ceawlin, king of the West-Saxons'; 
the third was Ethelbert, king of Kent ; 
the fourth was Redwald, king of the 
East-Angles; the fifth was Edwin, king 
of the Northumbrians; the sixth was Os- 
wald, who succeeded him ; the seventh 
was Oswy the brother of Oswald ; the 
eighth was Egbert, king of the West- 
Sazons. This same Egbert led an army 
against the Northumbrians as far as Dore, 
where they met him, and ofiered terms of 
obedience and subjection, on the accept- 
ance of which they returned home. 

A.D. 828. This year Wiglaf recover- 
ed his Mercian kingdom^ and bishop 



* DCCCXXIV. Cm. ^ COypcoa, Cant, ^ mib him man ojj-Ioh, Cani, C.T, ei. ^ From Laud, Cot, 
•• ipeojtjiote^ Cant. ' amffSL- Laud, s Abs. Laud, Cant, C,T, b i. ^ Abs. Cant. C,T, b i. ' eahco^a^ 
Cant, -a^a, d^.r.Bi. ^ Abs, Cant, ' Bjiyten-pealba, Lawd. ^.r.BiF. Bpiren.palba, ^ii/« Bjiycco- 
fcalb, Cot. BjKtcnan-paBlba, C.T, b i. ™ From Laud, C.T, si. » »FJ*j Ciwil. C,T. b i. • From 
Laud. Cot. Cant. C,T,bu » Pejt- Cant, J^ejjcxna, C,T,b\. i je, Cant, C.T.bi. ' Abs. Laud. 
* o>ep, Laud. Cot. * Ceaalin, CT.bi. « -Scxna, Cant. Pcjjexena, C.T.bx. « fjiibbc, Laud. 
y eabjnne, Cot, Cant. C.T,b\. * Nop^-himbjia, Cant. * je — pixobe, CT.mi. ^ jreojro^a, 
Cant. C.T.Bl « Ojpiu, Laud, Ojjco, Cant. C,T.b\. ^ Abs. Cant, C.T.b'u • Abs. Cant. 
' .hymbpa,Xai/</. -biimbpc, Cant, t Abs. Cant. C.T.bI ^ >aBp to bu^an, Cot. * ^faepnefpi, Laud. 
^ mib j^am. Laud. > So Laud. Cant. p. T. b L Jilaj^ G ibs. Vid. an. 826. » juce, Laud. Cant. C*T* b i# 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



89 



yalb* bipceop pop^pcpbc. Anb J>^ ^Ican 
jcapc laebbe Gcjbpyht cyninj pypbc 
on Nop^-pealaf. ^ he hf^ calle^ him^ 
ro* eabmobpe^ hyppimnif j^R jeb^be :• 

An. DCCCXXIX. ftep fulppcb a&p- 
cebij^cop pop^pepbc. ^^ Fcoloylb ab- 
bub peap% aeptep him gecopen to )>an 
apt) jn:ol VII. kt. CDaii. ^ he peap^ je- 
hal^ub v. lb. luii. anef j-unnan bsejef . 
*J he pcap^ beab iii. kt. Sept"^> 

An. DCCCXXX. ftep Ceolno« fxy 
jecopen to apcebij-ccope* ^ j^habob. ^ 
Feolojilb^ abbub* pop^pepbe:- 

An. DCCCXXXI. I2ep Ceolno* apce- 
bif ceop onpen^ palhum :• 

An. DCCCXXXII. I3ep haej^ene men 
©pep-hep jabon™ Sceap-ije":- 

An. DCCCXXXIII. «>j3ep jepeaht 
£c^hpfhc cynmj^ piW xxxv.p fc^p- 
Uspta aet Cappum. ^ |?aep peapS** mi- 
cel pael jeplejen. ^ J?a Denipcan ahton 
pael-ptope jepealb. Anb Uepepep^ ^ 
Pijen'. tpejen bipceopep. popWpepbon. 
^ Dubba ^ Opnob. tpejen ealbopmen. 
fopVpepbon :• 

DCCCXXZIT. 

An. DCCCXXXV. iJep cpom» mi« 



Ethel wald departed this life. The same 
year king Egbert led an army i^insk 
the people of North- Wales^ and com- 
pelled them all to peaceful submission. 

A.D. 829. This year died afthbishop 
Wulfred; and abbot Feologild was after 
bim chosen to the see^ on the twenty* 
fifth of April, and consecrated on a Sun^ 
day, the eleyenth of June. On the thir- 
tieth of August he was dead ! 

A.D. 830. This year^ Ceolnoth was 
chosen and consecrated archbishop on 
the death of abbot Feologild'. 

A.D. 83 1 . This year archbishop Ceol- 
noth received the pall^. 

A.D. 838. This year heathen mei| 
over-ran the isle of Sbepey^. 

A.D. 833. This year fought king 
Egbert with thirty-five pirates at Char* 
mouth ^, where a great slaughter was 
made, and the Danes remained masters 
of the field. Two bishops, Hereferth 
and Wigcn, and two aldermen, Dudda 
and Osmod, died the same year^. 



A.D. 835. This year came a great 



• JBpe\hM>, Laud, Cot. -potb, Cbn/.C.T.Bi. ^heom^ Laud. hijC.T.Bu • From Laud. C.T.bU 
A From Cant. C.T. bI « So Ben. Lasud. Cant. C.T. b i. aba. Cott. Whel. ' eabmo^cpe. Laud. 
eaSmobjic, C.T. b i. s .oerfe, Cant. C.T. b I. ^ From Cot. * So LoMd. Cat, bij-ceope,WlieL 
C4mt. ar.Bi. k So Laud. Cant. FeoIo^i^^WhcJ. Fclojilb^ C.T.nL > -bot, Laud. » ^zotmn^ 
4knL *boo, ar.Bi. "^ ^jid^ Laud. Cant, ^i^ty C.T.bU. Sceppi^e, C.T.bI. • Dqi Gcgbypii* 
cinj pehc, Cot. p zzv. Laud. <i j^jihV, Laud. ' F^SPr^) La^> Co*' C.T. b it. P13 ^ejn, Cant* 
Vqj^tn, C.T. bI • com, Cant. C.T.bu 



' '^ Cal. Sepiembris.''—F\oT. 

* aL Theologildas. Florence of Worcester 
takes no notice of Feologild in the body of his 
w^rk, bat h» is fonnd m hk catalogue of arch* 
toibops of Caaiarbiiryy p. G81. 



• "^ Gregorio jpiiptf."— ^Flor. 

* '^DanicipiraiafinhiatorespradiBySeeagj^g^ 
deprwdati sunt.^^ — Flor. 

« ^^Jpud Carrum;' &c.—- Flor* 

^ In battle, acsor^Ung to M.West on. 834« 



90 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



eel pcyp-hepe on pcft-pealaj-. *j hie to 
anum jecypbon. *] yvS Gc jbpyht*. Peft- 
Seaxna cyninj. pinnenbe^ paepon. Da 
^hef jehypbe. **anb' he Jya *mib pypbe 
jrepbe' ^him tojeannep''. ^ shim pi^ • 
jepeaht'' set ftenjept-bune**. ^ |>aBp' 
«3|>ep^ jeplymbe^ je J)a pealap je J)a 
Denipcan :• 

An. DCCCXXXVI. I3ep Gcjbpyht 
cyninj pop^pepbe. ^ hine haepbe aep • 
Oppa. CDypcna cyninj. anb Beopht- 
pic". pept-Seaxna cyninj. aplymeb" 
III. jeap'op Anjel-cynnep lanbe **on 
Fponc-lonb'^ asp he cyninj paepe. ^Anb 
J>yP pulcumobe Beophtpic*i Oppan. |>y • 
}>e^ he haepbe hip bohcop him to cpene". 
•Anb pe Gcjbpyht py^San* com a^ean. • 
^ he'' picpobe xxxvii. pmtpa. ^ vii. ' 
mona^**.^ penj J?a/6J)elpulp Gcjbpyht- 
mj* to pept-Seaxna pice. ^^ he pealbe • 
hip puna y6J?elptane Cantpapa pice. ^ 
Gapt-Seaxna pice*. ^ Su)jpijea. ^ SuS- 
Seaxna*'':- 

An. DCCCXXXVII. I3ep pulpheapb 

ealbopman jepeaht aet l^amtune piS • 

XXXIII. pcip-hlajpta. ^ J?aep micel pael 

jeploj^ tl P^e nom^. Anb J^y- jeape 

•^opBpepbe pulpheapb. ^Anb Sy ^ylcan 



naval armament into West- Wales ^ 
where they were joined by the people^ 
who commenced war against Egbert, 
the West-Saxon king. When he heard 
this^ he proceeded with his army against 
them^ and fought with them at Henges* 
ton^, where he put to flight both the 
Welsh and the Danes. 

A.D. 836. This year died king Eg* 
bert. Him Offa^ king of Mercia^ and 
Bertric, the West -Saxon king, drove 
out of England into France three years 
before he was king. Bertric assisted 
Ofik, because he had married his daugh- 
ter. Egbert having afterwards returned, 
reigned thirty*seven winters and seven 
months. Then Ethel wulf, the son of 
Egbert, succeieded to the West-Saxon 
kingdom ; and he gave his son Athel« 
Stan the kingdom of Kent, and of Es- 
sex, and of Surrey, and of Sussex. > 



A.D. 837. This year alderman Wulf^ 
herd fought at Hamton with thirty- 
three^ pirates, and after great slaughter 
obtained the victory, but he died the 
same year. Alderman Etlielhelm^ also. 



• e^cbyplit, Cot. abs. Cani, ^ panien^, Laud. ^ Abs. Lawi. ' — }sl fejibe he }i6eji mi^ 
pyjibe, Cant, ^ehyjibe he *f mib — C.T.bj. • pypbobe, Cot. ' From Laud. « heom pi^ je- 
yeaht, Cant. •» l3cDjep»jr- Laud. Cant. C.T.^'u > Abs. Cant. C.T.hi. * From Laud. Cot. 
Cant.C.T.Bi. ' plymbe, X,aad. ^efhmbe, C.r.Bi. » Byphtpic, Xaiid Bjnhtpic^ Cant, C.T.bL 
^ aplymbe. Laud, nc-ajrlymeb, Cant, « inco Fjianc-lanbc, Cot. » JojiSy, Cant. ^ Bpihcpic, 
Cant, C.T.Bi, ' From Cant, ■ Abs. Cant. * From Cot. " mon^aj, Cot. « hij junu, Laud. 
y *3 ^]7eljtan hij o^eji punu jreDj to Cantpajia jwce. "j to Sii^jiijan. *j to Su^-Seazoa pice. Laud. 
-.iE>ejtanehijfuna,Cr.Bi. * From Cant.C.T.Bi. « -Sexna, Can/. -Seaxena,Cr.Bi. * -jloh. 
Laud. Cant. C.T. si. • nam, Laud. Cant. C. T.b'u * Abs. Laud. • Abs. Cant, ilcan, C. T. b i. 



* Curualia (Cornwall), FJor. 

• " Mom UcngUti:'^F\oT. 



» 34, Flor. So MS. C.T.bu 33, M.West. 
I Athelmus, Flor, iEthelhelmaB, West. 838^ 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



01 



'^eape^^ ^epeafat /6)^helm* ealbopman^ 
|)i^ Denifcne*^ hejie on Popt mib Dop- 
|"aBtum**. ^^ jobe hpilc^ Jx>ne hepc je- 
jrlymbe'^ ^^J |>a Denifcan ahton** pael- 
]*tope ^epealb. tl ]>one ealbopman op- 
flojon^':- 

. «An. DCCCXXXVIII. ftcp l3epe- 
tpyht ealbopmon paej-' opplejen ^ppom 
]ia&];enum monnum'^ ") monije menn^ 
mib him on COeppcpapum. Anb|>yylcan 
geape ept on Lmbeppe" ^ on Gapt-yGn- 
glum". tl on Cantpapum. pupbon ^mo- 
nije men'^oppk^eneP ppom J^am hepi2e> 
. An. DCCCXXXIX. J>ep paep micel 
pael-plyht on Lunbene^. ^ on Cpanta- 
pic', "i on lipopep-ccaptpe' I- 
. An.DCCCXL. *)>ep ye^elpulp cyn- 
inj jepeaht set: Cappum piS xxzt. 
|*cyp-hlaepta. anb }>a Denipcan ahton 
pael-ptope jepealb". "Anb LoBpi pe ca- 
pepe pop^pepbe'':- 

DCCCXLI.— BCCCXLIV. 

An.DCCCXLV. Rep ^Ganpulp ealb- 
opman"^ jepeaht^ mib Sumup-raetumy. 



vitfa the men of Dorsetohire, fought 
yfith the Danish army in Portland-isle, 
and for a good while put them to flight; 
but in the end the Danes became mas- 
ters of the fields and slew tlie alderr 
man. 

A«D. 838. This year alderman Her- 
bert was slain by the heathens^ and 
many men with him^ among the Marsh- 
landers^ The same year^ afterwards^ 
in Lindsey^ East* Anglia, and Kent, 
were many men slain by the army. 

A.D. 839. This year^ there was great 
slaughter in London, Canterbury, and 
Rochester 

A.D. 840. This year king Ethelwulf 
fought at Charmouth with thirty-five 
ship's-crews, and the Danes remained 
masters of the place. The emperor Louis 
died this year^. 

A.D. 845. This y^ar alderman Ean- 
wulf^, with the men of Somersetshire, 



. *M}e\m^Cani. ^SoCT.nu ealbojimon, Latri. ealbejiinan, Caul, bux, Whel. Gibs. ^ Denijxan, 
Zand. ^ Doppetan, Can^ Do]ipetun,.^.T.Bi. * Ahn, Laud» ' SoCani.CT.BU phile,Whel. 
Gibs, incorrectly. > *j jfe ealbopman peaji^ opjlaejen. *j ]ia Denijfcan ahcon pael-jrope jepeald. LautL 
* ahtan, Cani, * peap^, Cant, * ppam baej^num, Cant. * From £ani. C,T, b i. ■» -bt»pe, C.T. b L 
■ AnjIniDy Ben. ^ Abs. Cant. C.T.b'u p -^^n, Ben, ople;3ene,Whe]. incorrectly. ^ Lnnbenne, 
Cant. ' Cancpic, Laud. C.T. b it. Canpajia-bipij, C. T.b'u * Ropep-ceajrpe, Laud. ^ So CT. b L 
an. 841. A^lpulp, CSsn/. "^ From Cot. ' Gajinulpbux^Xairc^. 6apnulj: eojil, (7ol. jepeahr 6anul]: 
ealbopman. Cant. C. T.bL f Sumop-pseron, 2.auc{. Sumep-jaecon, Cot. Sumop-jfscum, Cant. C, T. b U 



* ^^Jpud Mersx^arum." — M.West. perhsqis on 
the authority of Ethelwerd, an. 839, mistaking 
the Saxon name of a people for the name of a 
place I Florence of Worcester is a better inter, 
preter, who translates the passage ^^quamplures 
Merscuuariorum.*^ 

* Jn. 84%. M.West. The faithful Florence of 
Worcester adheres closely ^ aansnal, to the Saxon 



annals, an. 839, and adopts the old term Cuuen^ 
/oiiutc,* for Canterbury^ So also the invaluable 
but neglected Ethelwerd, an. 841, who reada, 
with little Tariation, Quintanwic^ undoubtedly 
from a MS. of much greater antiquity than any 
now existing. 

* "11 Arn/. JtfRttV— Flon 

« Eannlfusy Flor. 

n2 



Dt 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE 



afab Galchftan* bif ceop ^ Ofplc eate- 
opman^ mib Dopn-j-aetum^. jepuhton^. 
cec Pebpiban* mii]>an^ piS Denijxne 
hepe. ^ )>aBp micel pael jeplojon. anb 
pje namon :• 

DCCCXLVI. — DCCCL. 

An. DCCCLI.5 l>ep Ceopl 6al&op- 
taon jepeaht piW haej^ene hepe^ inib 
Depcna-pcype^ aet picjan-beopche^. ^ 
^aep micel p»l •^ejio^on *i pije naman^ 
"Anb ]>f ylcan jcape yE^elptan cyn- 
mj ^ ealchepe'^ ealbopman ^'jepuhtron 
on pcipum. ^'' micelne hepe opplojon 
at Sonbpic Pon Ccnt'^ anb ix.^ pci- 
j>un' jepenjun. anb |?a o^pe jeplym- 
bon'^ Anb hac|>ene men *on Tenet" 
tepejrt* opep pintep paeton^. Anb )?y 
ylcan jeape cpom* people healp hunb 
pcipe^ on Temepe muj^an. *j 'pepban 
tipp. ^'' bpaecon Cantpapa-buph. *anb 
Lunben-bupj''. anb jeplymbon Beopht- 
ulp^. CDypcna cyninj. mib hip pypbe. 
Anb popon J>a^ pu^ opep Temepe on 
SuSpije**. ^ him jepeaht pi^ y6j7el- 
pulp® cyninj. ^ /6])elbalb hip punu aet 



and bishop Ealstan ^, and aMerman Os^ 
ric, with the men of Dorsetshire^ fought 
at the mouth of the Parret with the 
Danish army ; and there, after making 
a great slaughter, obtained the victory. 

A.D. 851. This year alderman Ceorl, 
with the men of Devoashire, fought the 
heathen army at Wemburg*, and after 
making great slaughter obtained the vic«- 
tory« The same year king^ Atheist in 
and alderman Elchere fought in their 
ships, and slew a large army at Sand** 
wich in Kent, taking nine ships and 
dispersing the rest The heathens now 
for the first time remained over winter 
in die isle of Thanet^. The same year 
came three hundred and fifty ships into 
the mouth of the Thames ; the crew of 
which went upon land, and stormed Can* 
terbury and London ; putting to flight 
Bertulf, king of the Mercians, with his 
army ; and then marched southward over 
theThames into Surrey. Here Ethelwulf 
and his son Ethelbald, at the head of the 



* Calbpan, Clan/. Cr.Bi. ^BkjtaD, Co/. ^hux^Laud, eojil, Co/. ^ Dojijmton^ J/iud, Do)u 
j^tum^ Cant, CT.BU «* jejrulton, CT, b i. So below, note •. • Pebpibon, Oj/. Pcbjieban, 
Cani.C.T.BU ' muj^c, Co/. s dcccuii. Can/. C. 71 si. ^ men^ Laud, menn. Can/. ^ Depna- 
Can/. C.T. b i. ^ Picjesn-bcopj, Z.aiM/. Picjan-beoji^e, Cbn/. -beoph^e, CTIbL ' ^enamon, 
Laud, namon, C.T. si. "'At the end, after namon, Laud. Cant. C.T, b i. and ir. ^ Galhepe, Laud. 
Cant. C,T. b i. « From Land. Cant. p Abs. Laud. CT. b ir. <i yiii. Caii/. C.T. b i. ' r^ipu, 
Land. Cant. ' From Land. Cant. C.T. b i. hep, Cot. ^ Abs. Land. ^ jcjeron, Laud. * coman, 
Cant, comon, C.T. bl y jcipa, Laud. Cant. C.T.ni. * From Cot. * Abs. Laud, -bupb^ 
C.T. B i. ^ Bpihcpiilj:, Laud. Cot. Beophtpulj:, Cant. C.T. B i. « Abs. Cant. C.T. si. ^ SuJ?pei, Cot. 
* AVcluIp, Cant. A)^u1p, C.T. o i. The name is so written in Alfred's Will, and in Ethelwerd. 



' Ealstanus, Flor. He was bbhop of Sherborn 
fifty years. Vid. an. 867. 

• Wigganbeorh, Flor. 

» " Episcopus^'* &c. — M.West. an. 846. con- 
founding this transaction with, the a£Ur of bishop 



Ealstan and Osric, which he had related the yc^ar 
before. Florence of Worcester agrees with Laud. 
Cant. C. T. i. &c. in placing this novai atchieye* 
iuent mt the end of the year* 
* Sceap^, Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



99 



Aclea*. mib peft^Scaxna pijtbc. Ant> 
)>aep f maep: pael jc^lojon ^on haej^en- 
wm hcjiije'^ )jc pc ^fecjan hypbon on^ 
J>yfne anbpeapban baej^. tl J>ap pj© 



namon :• 



[^An. DCCCLII. I3cp on J>if tima 
ieot Ceolpeb abti op CDebejIiamj^ebe. 
^ J»a munecap pulppebe to hanbe. fet: 
lanb op Sempijaham. to f popepeapbe. 
f aeptep hip baei pcolbe f lanb into J>e 
minptpe. *j pulppeb pcolbe jipen f 
lanb op Sliopa-popba into QOebepham- 
ptebe. "J he pcolbe jipe ilea jeap into J?e 
minptpe pixtija po^pa puba. anb tpaelp 
po^up jpaepan. ^ pex po^up jeapba. 
iinb tpa tunnan puUe hlutpep alo%. ^ 
tpa plfiBj na&t. ^ pex hunb hlapep. *i ten 
mttan paelpcep aloS. ^ ilea jeap an 
hopp. "j Jjpittija pcillinja. *j ane nasht 
jcpeopmije. Jiep paep pi^ pe cynmj 
Buphpeb. tl Ceolpeb aepcelJ. ^ Tun- 
bepht bipcop. ^ Cenpeb bipcop, anb 
Alhhun bipcop. *j Bephtpeb bipcop. *) 
pihtpeb abb. anb pephthepb abb. y6- 
Jrelheapb ealbopman. Runbepht ealbop- 
tnan. ^ peola oSpe :• j 

An. DCCCLIII. 'rSep baeb Buphpeb 
CDypcna cyninj ^ hip pitan yGJ^elpulps 
cyninj. ^ he him jepultiimabe^ f him 
Nop^-]7ealap jehyppumabe. '^ he ]?a 
ppa bybe. ^ mib pypbe pop opep OOypce 
on Nop^-pealap. ^ hie^ him ealle ge- 



West-SaxoQ arm j^ fought ^th them at 
Ockley, and made the greatest daughter 
of the heathen army tliat we have eveip 
heard reported to this presentday. There 
also they obtained the victory* 

A.D. 853. About this time abbot 
Ceolred of Medhamsted^ with the eon* 
currence of the monks^ let to hand the 
land of Sempriagham to Wulfred, with 
the provision, that after his demise the 
said land should revert to the monastery; 
that Wulfred should give the land of 
Sleaford to Medhamsted^ and should 
send eaoh year into the monastery sixty 
loads of wood, twelve loads of coal, six 
loads of peat, two tuns full of fine ale^ 
two neats' carcases, six hundred loaves, 
and ten kilderkins of Welsh ale ; one 
horse also each year, and Uiirty shillings^ 
and one night's entertainment. This 
agreement was made in the presence of 
king Buiiired, archbishop Ceolnotfa, bi« 
shops Tunbert, Kenred, Aldhun^ and 
Bertred ; abbots Witred and Wertherd, 
aldermen Ethelherd and Hunbert, and 
many others. 

A.D. 853. This year Burhred, king 
of Mercia, with his council, besought 
king Ethelwulf to assist him to subdue 
North- Walcsi. He did so; and with aa 
army marched over Mercia into North- 
Wales, and made all the inhabitants sab- 



• Aclae, Cot. * on hafene hejie, Laud, ab». Cani. C.T.nl. « «fj\e jej-ecjan hepbon, Laud. 
»j:j»e fecjan hypbon, Cot. ^ a;t, Cani, o«, C,T. n i. « From Laud. N. S. ' An. dcccliv. C.T. bI. 
beji Bupbpcb (Dypcene cinin^; unbcp-];cobbe him Nop^-Pealaj mib iEJ?cIpulf cj- cinm je fultume. Laud* 
• AJ?elfulj:, C.r.Bi. * jepultmobc, Cant. - « From Cant. ^ he, Cant. C.T.bu 



» '^ Mediierraneos Britones^ qui inter Merdam immodkc reluctabantun^^'^Flor. an^ 853, from 
et mare ocpidenttde habitant^^qui contra €um Asser. zerbulim^ 



94 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



h^jijnime b^bon*, ^Anb J>y ylcan jeape 
I^nbe yei^elpulp^ cynmj /eippeb hijr 
j-unu to Rome, fa paef )?onne*^ Leo papa 
on Rome. ^ he hine to cynmje jehal- 
jobe. tl hii^c hii^ ^o bij-cop-j^una je- 
nam''. Da® J?y y^lcan jeape Galhepe mib 
Cantpapum. ^ l3uba mib Su^pijium^ 
gepuhton on Tenet piS shasj^enum he- 
pije'". ^*J aepepc pje namon'^ "j J^aep 
^peap^ manij mon opj^lejen'' ^ abpun- 
cen on jehpaej^epe' honb. ^^ ]?a ealbop- 
men ^bejen beabe'^ ™Anb Buphpeb. 
CDypcene cyninj. penj xp /6|>elpulj:ejr 
bohtop pej-t-Seaxna cininjep :• 

An. DCCCLIV.'' ftep haB];ene men 
aepept on Sceapije opep pmtep paetun. 
Anb \>Y ilcan jeape jebocube® M]>e\' 
pulp cynmj teo|>an bael hip lonbep opep 
eall hip pice Gobe to lope p. ^ him pelp- 
um*i to^ eccepe' haelo'. Anb Jjy ylcan 
jeape pepbe* to Rome mib micele" 
peop^neppe*. 'j y\>dRj\ paep tpelp mona^ 
punienbe*''. *Anb |>a him hampeapb 



ject to him. The same year kingEthel*' 
wulf sent his son Alfred to Rome ; and 
Leo^ who was then pope^ consecrated 
him king, and adopted him as his spi- 

• ritual son. The same year also Elchere^ 
with the men of Kent, and Huda with 
the men of Surrey, fought in the isle of 
Thanet with the heathen army, and soon 
obtained the victory; hut there were 

• many men slain and drowned on either 
hand, and both the aldermen killed. 
Burhred, the Mercian king, about this 
time received in marriage the daughter 
of Ethel wulf, king of the West-Saxons. 

A.D. 854. This year the heathen 
men^ for the first time remained over 
winter in the isle of Shepey. The same 
year king Ethel wulf registered^ a tenth 
of his land over all his kingdom for the 

• honour of God and for his own ever- 
lasting salvation. The same year also he 
went to Rome with great pomp, and was 
resident there a twelvemonth. Then he 



• jjebybe, Cant, C.T. b L »» Abs. Laud. « A>elpulp, C.T. b i. ^ bomne, C.T.bu « 'j, Laud. 
^ Sii^jii^am, Laud, s hae]7eoe hejie, Laud, hae^aum hcpe, Cant. hae]FCDum hejie, C,T, b i. ^ paepoa 
peala opjlc^ene, I<<zz/</. ^ K^^fie^ Laud. ^ From Laud, Cani, ^ So Cant, C.T.bu be^ebaebe, 
Laud. ■■ So Laud. Oab jTajf ojieji 6ap:pon jeap ^J^clpulp cynmj hij bohcoji Buphjiebe cynm^e. 
op Pep:;-Seaxum on GOyjice. Whe\,Cani. Coi, ■ dccclt. Laud. Cant, C.T. a It. dccclvi. Cot, C.T, b i. 
o -cabe, Laud, Cant, -cobe, Cot. C, T.bu p loue, Cot. ^ plpum, Cani, ' ecpe, Laud. Cant, (7.71 b i. 
ecejie, Cot. * haele, Laud. Cant. * jioji, Cot, ^ mycclum, Laud, micelpe. Cant. C.TbI. mycelaniy 
Cot. ' pujt^jfcipe, Laud, Cot. y }xp puaabe zii. roonaS, Laud, * punijcnbe. Cant. * Anb he 
pen J to Kaplej bohteji. Fjiancna cininj. }« he hampeajib paej.'j jejunb ham com.*j J«p ymbe ii. jeap 
fopVpepbe. *j hij he li^ on )^incaQ.ceajtpe. ^j he pixabe ix, jeap. I3e pxj Scjbpihcinj. Laud, 

' Alchenis, Flor. ^^ Ealhere comes,^^ — Asser. JEthelwulfas — decimam totius regni sui partem 



* t. e. the Danes ; or, as they are sometimes 
called, Northmen, Tfhlch is a geaeral term in- 
cluding all those numerous tribes that issued at 
different times from the north of Europe, whether 
Danes, Norwegians, Sweons, Jutes, or Goths, &c. ; 
wjlio were all in a state of paganism at this time. 

f ^ebocube, booked^ ivr/pw^tv, ^^Eodem anno 



ab omni regali servUio et tributo UberavUj in 
sempiternoque graphio in cruce Christi pro re- 
demptione animat guas et aniecessorum suorum 
uni et trino Deo immoUsoU.'^^^-AsseT, an. 855* 
copied by Florence of Worcester verbatim. Mat* 
thew of Westminster gites us the charter at foU 
length. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



M 



jroji*. anb him J^a Cajil. Fpancna^ cyn- 
lOj. hij- bohtoji jeap him to cpene. ®jre 
pajr jehaten leoSete'^ tl aeprep fam 
tro hij- leobum cpom. ^ hie J>«f ** jepae- 
jene* paepun. Anb ymb trpa jeap f aef 
J>e^ he on Fpanciim com he jepop, ^ hijr 
he hS «t5 pintan-ceaftpe. ^ he **pic- 
yx)be ni3onteoJ)e' healp jeap"'. •Onb" j-c 
yej^elpulf! paejrecjbyphtinj^.ecjbypht 
Galhmunbinj. 6alhmunb Gaping. Gapa 
Goppinj. Goppa Injilbinj. Injilb paep 
Inejr bpoWop. pept-Seaxna cyninjej-. 
*J>a&j- fe'' "*heolb f pice xxxyii. pintpa. 
tl'' pepbe ept to jr£fe Petpe. ^ l^aep'* 
hif peoph jejnealbe. Anb hie paepon 
Cenpebep puna. Cenpeb paep Ceolpalb- 
inj. Ceolpalb Cufainj. Cufa CuJ>pin- 
mj. CuSpine Ceaphnm^. Ceaphn Cyn- 
picmj. Cynpic ^Cpeobinj. Cpeoba'' 
Cepbicinj. Cepbic "^pap" Glepnj. Gle- 
pa Gphnj. Gpla Gepipinj. Gepip Pijmj. 
Pij Fpeapininj. Fpeapine ^FpiSujap- 
mj. FpiWujap'' Bponbm^. Bponb Bal- 
baejinj. Baelbae j pobeninj. poben PFpi- 
^upalbin^. FpiSupalb Fpeapmmj. Fpea- 
pine'' ^iFpiSupulpinj. Fpi^upulp'' Fini^- 
inj. Finn Gobpulpinj. Gobpulp Geac- 
inj. Geat Taetpamj. Taetpa Beapm^. 
Beap Scelbpam J. Scelbpa ftepemobinj. 
• Repemob Itepmonmj. Itepmon I3a]>pa- 
inj'. "I3aj?pa Ijpalainj. I^pala Bebpij- 



returaed homeward ; and CharleSj king 
of the Franks^ gave him his daughter, 
whose name was Judith^ to be his queen. 
After this he came to his people^ and 
they were fain to receive him; but about 
two years afler his residence among the 
Franks he died^ ; and his body lies at 
Winchester. He reigned eighteen years 
and a half. And Ethelwulf was the son 
of Egbert, Egbert of Ealhmund, Ealh« 
mund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa 
of Ingild ; Ingild was the brother of 
Ina, king of the West-Saxons, who held 
that kingdom thirty-seven winters, and 
afterwards went to St. Peter, where he 
died^. And they were the sons of Gen« 
red, Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of 
Cutha, Cutha of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of 
Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of 
Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic, Cerdic of 
Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, 
Gewis of Wig, Wig of Freawine, Frea- 
wine of Frithugar, Frithugar of Brond, 
Brond of Balday, Balday of Woden, 
Woden of Frithuwald, Frithuwald of 
Freawine, Freawine of Frithuwulf, Fri- 
thuwulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, 
Godwulf of G«at,Geat of TaBtwa,TaBtwa 
of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldwa, Sceldwa of 
Heremod, Heremod of Itermon, Itermoa 
of Hathra, Hathra of Hwala, Hwala of 



■ Ab«. Cant, * Fpaocana, CoL « From Cot. but LeoSete incorrectlj. *■ hif, Cant, • jepapjnc^ 
Cant, ' So Cant, ce^Wbel. s on, Cant, Cot. C.T. bI, ^ pixobe xz. jeajia, Cot. ' ni^en- 
teo^, Cant. ^ Tbe rest of tho genealogy, as usual, is omitted in Laud, ' *j he, Cant. C.T. b U 
» From Cant. C.T. bI ■ After Jwp, ep c Whel. abs. Cant, C.T. bi. • Fpeo)^ojajnnj. Fpeo* 
^ojap. Cant. C.T, ni, p Abs. Cant. C.TbI. <i Fpealapnj. Fpealajr. Cant, C*T,bu Afterwards^ 
Gobulpoj. Gobulf — C.T.ai. ' tDpappainj^Whel. 



^ al. Jud^tha. Juthita, Flor» from Asser* Vid. 
an. 885. 



• '^Idibus JanuariV^-^Flor. Fid. Assets 

* Fid. an. 688. 



96 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



inj. Bebpij Sceapm^. [lb eft. piliuf 
Noe''. fe pasf jebopcn on )>aepe eaj\ce 
Noe^ Lamech. CDarufalem. €noh^. Ia« 
fieb. GSalalahel^ Cainion"^. 6no]r. Seth^ 
Abam ppimujr homo, et patep noj^ep. 
ib^ cjrt. Chpij^uj^. Amen.] ^Anb J«i 
pennon /GJ^elpulpej- pina tpejen to 
picc. /ej^clbalb to pejrt-Seaxna pice, 
tl y6J>elbpyht to Cantpapa pice, tl to 
6aft-Seaxna pice. ^ to Su])pi3ean**. ^ 
to Su%-Seaxna pice. Anb J^a picfobe 
/B>elbalb v. jeap'':. ['/eippeb hip 
]>pibban pmu hc^ haepbe jepenb to 
Rome. ^ ]?a pe papa jehypb f ejjan f he 
paej- popSpapen. J>a bletpobc he Alupeb 
to cmje. *i heolb hine to bipcop hanba. 
eal ppa hip paebep ASepulp hine ];ibep 
penbe ^ baeb r-] 

DCCCLV. — DCCCLIX. 

An. DCCCLX.*^ Rep jejKslbalb^ c^n- 
mj pop^pepbe. tJ hip he hS "^aet Scipa- 
bupnan'". ^ J>a penj ye)?elbpyht*^ to 
eallum^ J7am pice hip bpoSupP. ^^ he 
hit heolb on jobpe je^paepneppe. ' ^ on 
micelpe pybpiimneppe^ Anb on hip 
baeje com micel pcyp-hepc up. tl abp«- 
con pmtan-ceaptpe". Anb pi^ J^one 
hepe jepuhton* Oppic" ealbopman mib 
Ramtun-pcypc. ^ yej^elpulp ealbopman 



Bedwig^ Bed wig of Sceaf ; that ig^ the 
son of Noah, who was born in Noah's 
ark : Lamech^ Methusalem, Enoh^ Ja- 
redj Malalahel, Cainion^ Enos^ Seth, 

• Adam the first mao^ and our Father, 
that is, Christ. Amen. Then two sons 
of Ethelwulf succeeded to the king* 
dom ; Ethelbald to Wessex, and Ethel- 
bert to Kent, Essex, Surrey, and Sus- 

. sex» Ethelbald reigned fire years. Al- 
fred, his third son, Ethelwulf had sent 
to Rome; and when the pope heard 
say that he was dead, he consecrated 
Alfred king, and held him under spi« 

• ritual hands, as his father Ethelwulf 
bad desired, and for which purpose he 
had sent him thither ^ 



A.D. 860. This year died king Ethel* 
bald, and his body lies at Sherbom*. 
Ethelbert his brother then succeeded to 
the whole kiagdom, and held it in good 
order and great tranquillity. In his days 
came a large naval force up into the 
country, and stormed Winchester. But 
alderman Osric^, with the command of 
Hampshire, and alderman Ethelwulf 
with the command of Berkshire, fought 



* Noej, Cani. C.T.bu ^ enoc, Cani, « CDalalchel, Cani. .leel, C.T.bu ^ CaiooD, Cant. 
C.T. B i. • SvXj Cani. Scb,Gib8« fromWhel. ' From Cani. C.T. a i. s 1 ]« jren^on hij^ ii. pina to 
pice. £]H5lbaIb ro Pcjti&axna jiioe. *j to Sa^pijeaa. *j he jiixobe v. ^eap. LautL ^ Su^jn^ea, C, T. b i. 
> Gibs, from C9^. to the end of tJie year, N.S. ^SoCT.miy. jkcclxi.CXbI > A>elbalb,C.T.BL 
"> — Scipebupnan, CT. b i. on Scyjubupnao, Cani. ^ •bepht, Coi. ^ eallan, Laud, p bpo^ji, Coi^ 
bpo^ji, Cani. C. T.bI ^ Abs. Laud, to 1 on hi j tfc. ' Abs. Cani. C. T.uu * -tejiy Cani. C.T.bU 
^ fuhton. Laud. « fulfhoapb, Cani, C.T.bu 



^ Vid. an. 853. p. 94 ; where a similar account 
l>f this ceremoay appears. 
^^^In 5Air«6tiriiam"— Asser. an. 8C0. EtbeU 



werd. an. 866. preserring even the Saxon t€^i« 
natioa. So also Osric for Wnlf heard* 
f crf.Wulfheaid. ritf.aii.84d. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



flr 



fflib Bca|ijiuc-fcype*. *j hi }>onc hepe 
jeplymbon. tl pael-j-tope jepeate ahton. 
Anb ye^ yejelbpyht: picpbe v. jeap, ^ 
hij^ lie li^ aet Scipe-bupnan :• 

^An. DCCCLXI. Jjep popSpepbe 
5& SpiSun'' bipcop :• 

DCCCLXII. DCCCLXIV. 

An. DCCCLXV. I3ep paet ^e^ haefen 
hepe on Tenet. ^ jenamon^ ppiS pi^ 
Cantpapum. ^ Cantpape hims peoh je- 
heton** pi^ ))am ppy^e. *Anb unbep 
J>am ppy^e'' *J Jam peoh^-jehate^ pe 
hepe on niht hine"* up beptasl. anb 
•pep-hepjobe ealle Cent eaptepeapbc:* 

An. DCCCLXVI. r>ep penj /eye- 
peb"*. /6]?elbyphtep° bpbWup. to Pcpt- 
Se^xna pice. Anb J>y ylcan jeape cpom 
micel haejjenP hepe on Anjel-cynnep 
loi|b. ^ pintep-petl namon on** 6apt- 
Gn^lum. ^ J>a&p jehoppube pupbon. anb 
hi)iim' piS* FP^^ namon*:* 

An. DCCCLXVII.*^ I3ep pp pe hepe 
opjGapt-Gnjhim opep I3umbpe-mu^an 
to Gopoppic-ceaptpe on Nop^-hum- 
bpe*. Anb™ |?aep yxy micel iinjejypaep- 
nep3^ J>a&pe J>eobe ^betpeox him pelpum''. 
^ hy* haspbon hiopa cyninj apoppenne* 
Opbpyht. ^ unjecynbne^ cy^ninj un- 



against the enemj^ and putting them to 
flighty made themselves masters of the 
field of battle. The said Ethelbert reigned 
five years^ and his body lies at Sherborni. 
A.D. 861. This year died St. Swi- 
thun bishop*. 

A.D. 865. This year^ sat the heathen 
army in the isle of Thanet, and made 
peace "with the men of Kent, vvho pro- 
mised money therewith ; but under the 
security of peace, and the promise of mo- 
ney, the army in the night stole up the 
country, and over-ran all Kent eastward. 

A.D. 866. This year Ethered*, bro- 
ther of Ethelbert, took to theWest-Saxon 
government ; and the same year came a 
large heathen army into England, and 
fixed their winter-quarters in East-An- 
glia, where they were soon horsed; and 
the inhabitants made peace with them. \ 
» A.D. 867. This year the army went 
from the East-Angles over the mouth of 
the Humber to the Northumbrians^ as 
far as York. And there was much dis- 
sension in that nation among themselves; 
they had deposed their king Osbert, and 
had admitted JEAlu, who had no natu- 



* So CoL C,T, B t. Bappuc-jfcyjie, Laud, Beappoc-jripe, CanL Beappuc.jcype,Gibs. ^ Jwj*, Cot, 
c From Cot, ^ The MS. errooeously has Ojpi^un for S j— ^ Ftom Laud, ' ^ensLxn^ Laud, 
Cant, C.T.BU * heom, Laud, ^ beheton, Laud. ^ Abs. Laud, ^ So Laud, C,T, hi. jepcohr, 
Whe]. * bchacc, Laud. * Abs. Cant, " ji^l^ctpcb, Laud. « -bpihtej, Laud. p From Laud, 
CT. B i. ^ aet, Laud. ^ hcom, Laud. ' From Laud, after }:pi^,.^n/. C.T. si. * ^cnamon, Laud, 
■ DCCCLXTiii. C.T. Bi. bi'p pupbon opflajcne ii. ciiigaj at Giieppu*. "j J^yj ylcan jeape pop^pepbe 
Galbjtan bijcop. he pap bijfco])oii Scip-bupn l. ptntpc. *J he J?ap pcjra^. -Cot. * Nop^an-hymbpe, 
Laud,C,T.B\, 3^ unJ^pippncj-jLauc/. *betuh — Ciiii/. betpuh — CT. si. bccpuxheom pyIpum,JLaii(f. 
f apoppeoe, Laud, ^ un^ccynbe. Laud, 

^ See VLoie ' in the preceding page. ^ ^n, 864. Flor. 

• " 6 non. JuliiJ' — Flor. * ^theredus, — Asser, Ethclwerd, &c. Wchaye 
*^Sanciu$ transivU Swithunus^ ci astra pctivil,^* therefore adopted this orthography. . 
♦—Ibid. Q 



90 



THE »AXON CHRONICLE. 



beppeft^on /Blkn. Anb hy late on ^ajia 
to J)am ^ecyjibon. ^* by piS ]?one hepe 
*pinnenbe psepun''. anb h;^ ];eah micele*^ 
jrypbe jejabepobon. ^ |?one hepe pohton 
a^c** Gopoppic-^ceaftpe'". ^ on' )ja ccaj-- 
tpe bpaecon. "j hy pi me Jjaep inne pup- 
bon. Anb8 J^a** paef unjemetlic* pael je- 
jrlejen NopWan-hymbpa. j-ume bintian 
ft! me butan. ^ J^a cyninjajr bejen op 
jrlejene J^aep^ pupbon^ ^ "po lap'' pi^ 
Jone hepe ppi^ namon". Anb )>y yl- 
can jeape jepop Galchptan® bipcop. ^ 
he hsepbe j^aet bipcop-pice Pl. pintep 
at Scype-bupnan''. ^ hif lie li^ J>aBp 
on tune :• 

An. DCCCLXVIII. ^bep pop pc ilea 
hepe mnan OOypce to Snotenja-ham'''. 
^ J?jBp pmtep-petl namon'. Anb Buph- 
peb QOypcna cyninj. ^ hip pitan. baebon 
jf6];epeb. pept-Seaxna cy nmj.^ yClppeb 
hip bpo^up. f hie him* jepiilttiittabon* 
f^ hy pi^ J?one hepe jepuhton. Anb J)a 
pepban hy mibpept-Seaxna^ pypbe *in- 
nan CD^pce 'oB Snotenja-ham". tl fone 
hepe faep metton on J>am jepeopce. ^*i 
h\e^ hine mne bepetton**. 'Anb faep 
nan hephc' jepeoht ne peap^'.^ TOypcc 
ppy^ namon pi^ }x)ne hepe'':- 



ral daim^ Late in the year, bowefer, 
thejr retarned to their allegiance, and 
they \¥ere now fighting against the com* 
mon enemy ; haying collected a Tast 

• force, with which they fought the army 
at York ; and breaking open the town, 
some of them entered in. Then was 
there an immense slaughterof the North- 
umbrians, some within and some with* 

• out ; and both the kings were slain on 
the spot. The survivors made peace with 
the army. The same year died bishop 
Ealstan*, who had the bishopric of Sfaer* 
born fifty winters, and his body lies io 

• the town. 

A.D. 868. This year the same army 
went into Mercia to Nottingham, and 
there fixed their winter-quarters; and 
Burhred king of the Mercians, with hii 

• council, besought Elhered, king of th^ 
West-Saxons, and Alfred, his brother, 
that they would assist them in fighting 
against the army. And they went with 
the West-Saxon army into Mercia as faf 

• as Nottingham, and there meeting the 
army on the works, they beset them with<» 
in. But there was no heavy fight ; for 
the Mercians made peace with the ariny« 



> f , Cba/. C.T. Bi. ^ p»|Hm pmoenbe, Cani. C.T. ai. « soyccle, Lamd. ^ on, Cant C.T.'bI 

• Abs. Cani. C.T.bu ' Abs. Laud. s Abs. Cani. ^ )«p, Laud. Cani. C.T.nl ^ aa^emcr, 
Laud. ^ From Cani» ^ poji%)ao, Laud. * jeo lape, Lawd. ^ nam, Laud. Cani. C.T^nh 
« GalhjraD, Laud. Cani. C.T. b i. and ir. p at Scypbajiiian l. fintpsL, Cani. So nearij C.T. b i. and ir. 
1 So C.T.Bi. an. dccclxviiit. I^eji je Denijfca hejie pejibe co Snocinja-ham. Coi. ' Snotioj- Laud, 
Snotin^a- Cani, * nam, Cani. ^ heom, Cant, ^ jefulcumebon, CT.n'u jrultumebon, Laud. 
fulcumabon, Cani. */J, Cani. y •Ssxa, Laud. Pepj-exena, C.T.bi. as u»ual. * ^P^P Y*^ 
bcjie. *j hine innaa J^am peopce ac Snotin^a*ham punban. *j hine innon bejaecon. Ac ^ap naj nahc hep 
jcjTcoht. buran CCypce ppi^ namon pi^ }^one hepe. Coi. in on — Laud. * et •• Cani. o} Snotin^a^^ 
C.T. B I. ^ From Laud, Coi. Cani. C.T. b i. « From Cani. ^ beperan, Cani. -on, C.T. b i. 

* "j ]wep ne peap9 J^eah nan bepelic jepcoht. Cani. ^ bephc, Laud, hepclic^ C.T. bI. ' 

\ ^^Non de rtgali prosofia prog€mium.^'^Fiw0 ' Ealstanai^ Flof • 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



99 



An. DCCCLXIX. ftep pop jne tepc 
«pt to Gopoppic-ceaftpe. aab J^aep f a&t 
^n jeap :• 

An. DCCCLXX. >3ep pab» |x hepe 
t>fep,QOypce mnan** eapt-enjle. anb 
J^aep^ pint:ep-|xtj namon^ at Deob- 
p>pba. A»b 'J?y pjntep'^ Cf^'] ^^*^' 
sdunb cynmj him pvS peaht. *i fo, De- 
nj[-can pje namon. ^ J>one cyninj pfce 
^abOHinb] opjrlojon. ^ f lonb eall je- 
et)bon. ^'^t popbiben ealle J^a muoftpe )7a 
111 to comen'^ ^Dapa heauob-manna 
nanaiin f^a }>one cinj; of flo^an pa&pao 
t>J3piitf ' 1 Ubba'^ ^On )>a ilcan tima J?a 
comon hi to GQebefhaiD)-tebe. beopn- 
bon anb bpaecon. f lojon abbot ^ rnune- 
^ajr anb eall f hi )>aep jrunbon. Q^ace- 
bon hit J>a f aep paej- p ul pice. ]?a hit 
peap% to nan fing'". Anb |>y ikan* 
^eape jepop Ceolnb^ apqebipceop :• ™^ 
^J>epeb- piltun-pcipe bipcop. peap.% 
^ecopen to aepcebipcopc to Cantuajic- 
bcpi":- 

An. DCCCLXXI. ftcp cpom" pe hepe 
%» Reabm^um on J^ept-Seaxe**. anb faep 
ept^ ymb III. niht pibon ii. eoplap up. 
Pa ^ennette by /BJ^elpulp ealbopman 
on Gnjla-pelba. anb hunP ]>sejx pi% ^e- 
f eaht. ^ pije nam. ^anb peap% )jap pe 
vj^ji oppIe35cn. J^aep nsuna pasp Sibpac'^. 
^Dxf ymb iv. niht jC)?epeb' cyninj 
anb /61ppcb hip bpoSup J^aep mycelc' 



A.D. 869. This year the army went 
back to York, apd Bat there a year. 

A.D. 870. This year the army rode 
over Mercia into East-Aoglia, and there 
fixed their winter-quarters at Thetford. 
And ifi the winter king Edmund fought 
with tliem ; but the Danes gained the 
victory, and slew the king; whereupon 
they o?er-ran all that land, and destroy* 
ed all tjie monasteries to which they 
came. The names of the leaders who 
slew the king were Hingwar and Hubba. 
At the same time came they to Medham- 
ated, burning and breaking, and slaying 
abbot and monks, and all that they there 
fouu4. They made such havoic there, 
that a monastery, which was before full 
rich, was now reduced to nothing. The 
same year died archbishop Ceolnoth ; 
and Ethered, bishop of Wiltshire, was 
chosen archbidiop of Canterbury. 

A.D. 871. This year came thje army 
to Reading in Wesaez; and in the couffsf 
of three nights after rode two eaif s up, 
who were met by alderman Etholwulf 
at Englefieid; where he fought .wit^ 
them, and obtained the victory. There 
one of them was slain, whose OMae jwaf 
Sidrac. About four nights after this^ 
king E^thered an^ Alfred his brother 



« f op^ Laud. Cot. ^ on, Cm/. CT. b i. « Ftom CqnL ' oam, Cani. • >y piQtpa, C.T. b i. 
.on ^m geape, ijaud. ' ;Proin Laud. f .From Cot. ^ From Laud. Petroh. ' ^^Zf^l^ ^ 
* Frpm Laud* pa Denijpcan on Va ilcan cima jejxep Cabmunboj cynin;^ej Z'^jXo'^'c comon to — 
P9tr9h. Joss. Cr. B ir. > From Cani. C.T. b i. .» From Petrob. abs. Laud. Cani, J^a ppbe JBJvpe^ 
<^ *j &\jj^h hij bpo^p. *j naman ^^Ipcb Piltmn-jcype bijcop ^j jpeccan hinc co apb' co Cancpapr-bepk 
jop)^an he jaej aeo moocc op )an ylcan myo jtpe op CaocpapeJv pi. Coi^ "^ So Latid. Coi, ^ V^TT^^ 
CT.BU vheom^ L<mL ^ Da^ fAiud^Cani* .' ^tlpeibj Laud. * joycole, Loait. mide^CoJ^i. 

o2 



100 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pypbeto Reabinjum* jelaebbon. *i pi^ 
)>one hepe jepuhton. ^ j^aep paef ^ m^- 
cel pscl jej^lejen on jehpaeSejie honb. 
*^Anb y6])elpulj: ealbopman peap^ op- 
plejen. ^ ]?a Denipcan ahton pael-ptope 
gepealb. ^Anb ]?a&p^ ymb" iv. niht je- 
peahr ye)>epeb cyninj. ^ j©lppcb hif 
bpoBop. pi^ ealne ]?one hepe on yGpcep 
bune. [^"J |)a Denipcan paepon ouep-cu- 
inene, Anb hi haebban ii. cinjaj- hae- 
J>ene. Bajpaec ^ I3ealpbene. ^ eoplap 
pela.j ^ hy paepun on tpam jcpylcum. 
on oJ?pum paej- BachpecjS anb I3ealp- 
bene. ]?a haej^enan'' cyninjap.^ on o^pum 
pacpon |>a eoplap. Anb ];a jepeaht' pe 
cyninj /BJ^epeb pvS ]?apa cyninja je- 
rpuman. ^ ])aBp pcapS pe cyninj Bach- 
pecjs opplejen. 'j yeippeb hip bpoWup 
peaht^ pi^ ])apa eopla jetpuman. *) |>aep 
peap^ Sybpoc * eopl opplejen pe ealba. 
^ Sybpoc* eopl" pe jeonja". ^ Opbeapn 
eopl. 1 Fpaena eopl. ^ I3apelb® eopl. ^ 
hieP ])a hepjap bejen jeplymbon**. ^ 
Pjjaep peap^'' peala ]?upenba opplejen- 
pa'. * ^ hie onpeohtenbe paspon oB niht'^ 
Anb J>aep* ymb xiv. niht jepeaht JB\fe- 
peb cyninj anb yGlppeb hip bpo^op. 
pi^ J)one hepe" aet Bapinjum*. ^ faep 
J?a Denipcan pije namon. Anb )>aep ymb^ 
II. mona^' jepeaht yEJ^epeb cynmj® ^ 



led their main army to Readings where 
they fought with the enemy ; and there 
was much slaughter on either hand, 
alderman Ethelwulf being among the 
slain ; but the Danes kept possession of 
the field. And about four nights after 
this, king Ethered and Alfred his bro- 
then fought with all the army on Ash- 
down, and the Danes were overcome. 
They had two heathen kings, Bagsac and 
Healfden, and many earls; and they were 
in two divisions; in one of which wel^ 
Bagsac and Heal fden, the heathen kings, 
and in the other were the earls. King 
Ethered therefore fought with the troops 
of the kings, and there was king Bagsac 
slain; and Alfred his brother fought with 
the troops of the earls, and there were 
slain earl Sidrac the elder, earl Sidrac 
the younger, earl Osbern, earl Frene, and 
earl Harold. They put both the troops 
to flight; there were many thousands bf 
the slain, and they continued fighting 
till night. Within a fortnight of this^ 
king Ethered and Alfred his brother 
fought with the army at Basing; ai^d 
there the Danes had the yictory. Aboujt 
two months aAer this, king Ethered and 
Alfred his brother fought with the army 
at Marden. They were in two divisions; 



• Raebinpnn, Laud. ^ peap^, Cant. « "j ASelpulp, C.T, bi. *j faeji peap^ A^elpulp ealbepmaa 
opf lejcn, Cani. ^ *j eft embe^ Cot. So below : "j }2lj eft embe xiv. — "j eft embe ii. mon^aj .. 
* Abs. Laud. ' From Cot, N.S. s Bajecj) Laud. Bajjcej, Cant. So Asser ; whence Baseahts, 
M.Wcst. Bkjjecj, CT. b i. "» haejene, Laud. ' peaht, lAiud. Cant. C.T. bi. ^ From C.T.bu 
1 Sybjiac, Laud, Sibpoc, CT.b'i, "■ Abs. Laud. C.T.ni. A whole line is omitted in C.T. sir. from 
ibe repetition of Sybjioc. ■* ^^^n^^jia, Cant, C.T. b i. • Dapolb, Xatu/. Cant, C,T. b i. p From Cani. 
4 So Cant, ^cflymbe, C.T.ni, Sec. ' opjrejen, Cant, ojjla^enbjui, CT^.Bir. ' *! hie o% niht 
peohcenbe pejioo, Cant. * So Laud, Cknt. C.T, bI, paej,WheI. » Abs. Cant. *■ Bajinja, Coi^ 
Bapn^oH; C.T. Bi, y embe. Cot. ymbe^ C.T.bL * mont^ap, Laud. Cant. Cot.CT.BU 



w 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



101 



'/Glpjicb hijr bpo^p 'piS j>one hepe'' at 
TOepe-tune**- Anb hie paepon on rpam 
jepylciim. tl hy ^])a" butu jeplymbon, 
*J lonje on baeje pije ahton. Anb f aep 
peap^ micel pael-plyht on jehpaejjepe^ 
honb. anb |>a Denipcan ahtron pael-ptope*^ 
gepealb. anb J>ap ^peap^'^ )^eahmiinbs 
bipcop opplejen. anb peaJa^ jobpa mon- 
na. Anb aptep >yrrum xepeoht' com 
micel pumopliba^ *to Reabmjum''. Anb 
J^aepopep™ Gaptpon 3epopy6]?epeb cyn- 
mj. *] he picpobe pip jeap**. *j hip he h^ 
aet ^pinbupnan mynptep'^•• Da penjP 
yGlppeb yGl^elpulpinj. hip bpo^up. to 
Pept-Seaxna*i pice. ^ J^aep ymb' aenne 
mona^' jepeaht yGlppeb cyninj piS 
ealne ^])one'' hepe lytle pepebe" aet pil- 
tune*. *j hine lonje on baej jeplymbe. 
^ ]>a Denipcan ahton pael-ptope jepealb. 
Anb ];aBp jeapep pupbon nijen polc-je- 
peoht jepohten pi^ ]?otie hepe on fy^ 
cyne-pice be puSan Temepe*. butan 
Jam J?e him* yGlppeb Jjaep cyninjep bpo- 
^up. "j ^anhpij" ealbopman^. 1 cyn- 
mjep fejnap opt pabe** on-pibon. |>e 
*mon na ne'' pimbe. Anb j7aBp jeapep 
paepun opplejene ix.eoplap. anb an cyn- 
inj^. anb J?y jeape namon J^ept-Seaxe^ 
pp^ pi^ ^one hepe :• 
An. DCCCLXXII. I3ep pop pe hepe 



and they put them both to flight, enjoy- 
ing the victory for some time during the 
day ; and there was much slaughter on 
either hand ; but the Danes became mas- 
ters of the field ; and there was slain bi* 
shop Heahmund, with many other good 
men. After this fight came a vast army 
in the summer to Reading. And after 
the Easter of this year died king Ethe- 
red. He reigned five years, and his body 
lies at Winburn-minster. Then Alfred^ 
his brother, the son of Etbelwulf, took 
to the kingdom of Wessex. And with^- 
in a month of this, king Alfred fought 
against all the army with a small force 
at Wilton, and long pursued them dur«* 
ing the day ; but the Danes got posses- 
sion of the field. This year were nine 
general battles fought with the army in 
the kingdom south of the Thames ; be- 
sides those skirmishes, in which Alfred 
the king's brother, and every single al- 
derman, and the thanes of the king, oft 
rode against them ; which were accounti- 
ed nothing. This year also were slain 
nine earls, and one king; and the same 
year the Wcst^Saxons made peace with 
the army. 

A.D. 872. This year went the army 



• yrS ]?a Denij-can, Cot. ^ So C.T. b i. COepe-buoe, Laud, C.T.Blr. CDepeo-bune, Cot, CDejiad- 
tune, Cani. « From Cani, ^ hpaej^jie, Laud, jehpefpe, Cant, • peal- Laud, ' Abs. Laud. 
« tJaehmunb, Laud, ^ pela, C.T. b i. * j^cpeohte, Laud. CT, b i. and ir. ^ So Ben, pumcjiliba, 
C.T, B i. > From Laud. C.T. b I. and ir. « aepiJep, Laud, ■ jeji, C.T, b i. •So Laud, Cant. &c. 
Scijiebajinan mcnp^cp, C.T. b i. p penc, Cot, 9 -Seaxana, Cot. Pejjexena, C,T. b i. ' embe — 
Cot. Cant, ymbe anne, C.T. b i. • monV, Cot. * Abs. Cant. ■ peopobe, Cant. » fitune, Laud, 
y fam,I^tti. >on,C^n/. » ^ after Temcpe,Whc1. xa* raura, abs. Laud, Cant. C.T.bu • hi^ Laud. 
^ AbR. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. « .men, Laud. Cant, -menn, C.T. b i. «>, jiaba, Laud. Cant, C.T. bL 
! So C.T.BU maa naoe, Laud. Cant. f -Sexan^ Cant. Fer/ezau, C^Tbi. 



lOf 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



eo lamtcn'hfft^. pjiom iReabiiijuin. *J 
^sp *jiiit3e]i-]:etl nam'^ Anb ]>a namon 
COfpce ppi¥ piB )>one hepe :• 

An. DCCCLXXIII. ^Rep pop ye 
hefie on NopS-hymbpc''. *^*3 he" nam 
pint;ep-fetl ^'on Linbej-jie'' act Tupcej-- 
ijc**. ***) &i namoB CDypce ppi^ pi^ 
iSone iiepe'^'* 

An. DCCCLXKIV. J3cp fogi pj hepe 
fpom* Linbefye to )3peope-bune. ^ ];aep 
pmtep-j«tl nam. 'j |7one cynmj Buph- 
|ieb' opep pe abpaepbon. ^mb tpa *j xx. 
pLDioepK )>^l* ^ lie pace ha^pbe. anb f 
lonb eafl ^eoboB. Aob he pop tro Rom^. 
anb )?flbp gefat^ *t:o hip Ijpep enbe''. 
anb hip he hV on pSa CDapian c^pican 
en Angd-cyonep pcole. Anb Sy ylcan 
gea^ie hie pealbon^ 'Ceolpulpe'^ anum 
niipipum c^^mnjep J'e^me. CD]^pcna pice 
;?i) hoalbanne. anb he him a%ap ppop« 
«ib g^lap pealb"* f hit" him jeapo psepe 
^ppa hpilce'^ bs^e. ppa hie hit habban 
polboja. *i he ^eapo pa^pe mib him pylp- 
um-P. ^ mib^ eallum )7am ]>e him laq^tan' 
]Kdi&on. to J^aep hepep }ieappe':- 

An. aCCCLKXV. fitep pop pc hepc 
ppom l3peope-bune. "i l^ealpbene pop 
mib pumum jwim hepe on Nop^an-hym- 
bpe^ II nam pmtoep-pefcl be Tuian faepe 
ea. Anb pe -hepe f lonb ^eeobe. ^ opt 
hepjabe t>n Peohtap. "J on Stpaecleb- 



to London from Reading, and theie 
chose their wiater-quarters. Then the 
Mercians made peace with the armj. 
A.D. 873. This year went the army 

• against the Northumbrians, aad fixed 
their winter**qtiarter8 atTorksey 10 Lind*^ 
sey. And the Mercians again made 
peace with the army. 

A.D. 874. This year went the army 

• from Liiidsey to Repton, and there took 
up their winter-quarters, drove the king; 
Burbred^ over sea, when he had r;&ig«i-^ 
ed about two and twenty winters, aod 
subdued aH that land. He then went 

• to Rome, and there remained to the 
end of bis Ufe. Aad his body lies in the 
dburcb of Sancta Maria, in the school 
of Uie En^ish nation. And the same 
year they gave Ceolwulf, aa unwise 

• king's thane, the Mercian kingdom to 
boM ; .and be swore oatbs to tbem, and 
gave hostages, that it should be teady for 
theoi on whatever day they would have 
it; and he would be jeady wilh bimseIC 

• and with all those that would remain 
with him, at the service of the army. 

A.D. 875. This year went the army 
from Repton ; and Healfdeo advan.eed 
with some of the army against the Norths 

• umbrians, and fixed his winter-quarters 
by the river Tine. The army then sub- 
dued that land, and ofl invaded the Picts 



« aavi pifMtep-fftl, Cant, CJT. n i. ^ Abt. Laud. C.T, b it. ^ l3op f e hepo «* Laud, C.T. b it. 
* So C.T. B IT. M^%t^xCanL Tupepjje, C.T. b i. • oj:. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. ' Bupsjieb, Lamd. 
spmtpa,'ItfiMf. £7.7.81. * pet, Laud panobe, ^o^ > From Jo/. ^ j^fcalban, Gm#. * From 
Lmd. OT.Bi. " jmlbe,XaiK/.X7o«/. C.T.mu » So Laud. Cant. hc,Wbel. ^ jfilcty Cant. C.T. b\. 
vioXaud. p\famf.Caui. jreljrum, ^JVai. jelrum, Gibs, "i So Laud. Cant. C.T. bI ' i^lmpsuiy 
Laud. Cant. C.T.bI ' If^Pfh ^^^^ ^ Ko[i& Cani. C.T.ul 



THE SAXOK CHRONICLE 



lOS 



pealaf ». Anfe poji Gobpum^. *J Ofcy^tel. 
*J Anpinb^. J?a m. cyninjajr. op Upeopc- 
bunc CO Gpancc-bpf cjc*" mib «iiiicclc 
pepebe''. "J f »con J^aep an jcap. Anb 
fy jrumepa pop /Elppcb cymnj ^utr on'' • 
pae mib pcy p-hcpe. *i gepeaht pi^ peopon 
pcip-hlaeptap^. 'J hiopa an jepcnj**. tl 
}z o^pu" j^cplymbe^:. 

An. DCCCLXXVI. ['Rep Robla 
J>uphpcpbe Nopmanbi mib hip hepe. • 
anb he pixabe pipti pintpa. Anb] "hep 
hine beptael pe hepe into pepham Pept- 
Seaxna pepbe. Anb p^^an" piB Jone 
hepe pc cyninj ppi^ nam. ®anb J>a jip- 
lap pcalbon ]>e on J>am hepe peop^upte . 
paepon ro }zm cyninjc'. *] him }z a^ap 
ppopon on J>am haljan beaje. ]>e hie aep 
nanpe j^eobe nolbon. f hf hpsebhce op 
hip pice Ppapan polbon'. Anb hy ^ 
unbep yarn hy nihtep bepra&lon ]>aBpe . 
pypbc pe jehoppabe** hepe into 6xan- 
ceapcpe''. Anb Jjy '^Ican'' jeape I3ealp- 
bcne Nop^an-hymbpa lonb jebaelbe. 'f 
hie p%%an epjenbe ^ heopa tilgenbe 



paspon 



// 



snd ilte Strathclydwaltiftu'. Mcanw&ile 
the three ktngt, Guthnim, Oskjtd^ mai 
Anwind', went from Repton to CaaH 
bridge nvitb a vast army^ and sat tbew 
one year. This summer king Alfred weiit 
out to sea with an armed fleet, and foogbt 
with seven sbip-rorers^ ose of which ho 
took^ and dispersed the others, 

A.D. 876. This year Rolla pene«' 
trated Normandy with his army; and 
he reigned fifty winters^. And this year 
the army stole into Wareham, a fort of 
the West-Saxons. The king afterwards 
made peace with them ; and they gave 
him as hostages tbosewho were worthiest 
in the army ; and swore with oaths od 
the holy bracelet^ which they would 
not before to any nation^ that they 
would readily go out of bis kingdom. 
Theo^ under colour of this^ their ea« 
valry stole by nigbt into Exeter. The 
same year Healfden divided the land of 
the Northumbrians; so that they be* 
came afterwards their harrowers and! 
plowers. 



^mimimm 



• Stjiaerle^. Ixuid. Cmi. Stjiedeb- C.T. si. ^ So CT.bI. Cu^Sfuuo, Cani. • Anptn^, LamtL 
Cani. C.T. b i. Anpynb, Whcl. ^ Gjianraiubyiic^c, Lmtd. Cmni. 6psate.bf leje, C.T. b i. * nyceliiia 
hejiB, Laud, roydttm hfjie, Cant, miele bejie, C.T. b i. 'So Laud. Cani. C.T. b i. &c. ucoD,WJiel« 
f fcyp. C.r. Bi. -hlepia, Laud. ^ jeoam, CoL > oSjie, Laud. Cot. Cant. C.T.bu * aplymbe^ 
Cot. ^ From Cot. RoITo cum fuij Nopmanniam penetjuiTit. *j [lejnaTir annij liii. Laud, at the 
ciBd of the year. ■ On )ryjBn ylcan jcojie Jupe Dena hepe on Bn jla-lanbe iEfjrpebe e»je afaj 
jyojian uppao ^n ballpen bcaje. ]^e ep nanpe ]K.^obe boa Moiban. anbeac ^ifhtjr fealbao. ]^e or ^Bbepe 
pupVojt pepan. eo Van cmge. *f hi polboo hpa^blice op bif pice p a]«in. anb hi mhcrj jS to-bpBcan. AH 

■ From Laud. C.T. b I. Jry ilcan, Cant. • From Laud. Cat. C.T. b i. -j him >a .. f^«^ »^ So C.T. >!• 
ppan polbao, Cant, jropen, Gibs, from WheJ. « ^ehopj-oba, C.T. b I. » Ab«. L&ud. Cant. C.T. b L 

■ So Cani. -J ep^enbe pcpon. -J hiopa tilgcnbe fzpon. Gibs, hep^enbe, Laud. C.T. b It. for epgenbe.. 
The passage is stili obscure. Perhaps it iras origiDally — ^ f bie cp hepjoDbe yaepon. j( hne ^ calj^ba 
paspon. t. e. They tilled the land which before they plundered. 



' Stntduteaies, Asser. Flor. &c. 
^ Amnndn s, Flor. bam Asser : ii 



' '< RoUo cum iuu Normannimn penairaaii 



IH 



THE SAXON. CHRONICLE. 



An. DCCCLXXVII. J3ep cpom.fe 
hejte into* 6xan - cea jicrpe ppom Pep- 
ham. **:J fe fcip-hepe pjelobe^ pep: 
3frmbutan ''. ^ ]>a ^^jemette hie micel 
myft'^ on j-ae. ^ ]>aep*^ poppeap^ cxx. 
pcypa aet: Spanapic. Anb pe cyninj 
yGlppeb aeptep ]?ain jehoppeban ^ hepe 
mib pypbe pab o^ 6xan-ceaptep. ^ hy 
hynban oppiban ne meahte ^ aep hie on 
Jmm paeptrene paepon. ]?aBp him mon to 
^ne' meahte". Anb hie him ']>aep pope'^- 
jyplap pealbori ppa peala ppa he habban 
polbe. anb miccle^ a^ap ppopon. ^ ]>z 
jobne ppy^ heolbon. Anb ]?a on haep- 
pepte jepop pe hepe on OOypcna lonb. 
anb hit jebaelbon pum. anb pum Ceol- 
pulpe pealbon :• 

An. DCCCLXXVIII. hejx hine be- 
ptael pe hepe on mibne pmtep. opep 
tpelptan niht. to Cyppan-hamme. anb 
jepibon pept-Seaxna lonb. ^*i jjaep je- 
paeton. ^ micel j^aep pblcep opep pae a- 
bpaepbon''. anb Baep olSpep )7one maeptan 
hasl hy jepibon. ^ ™him to jecypbon''. 
butan ]?am cyninje /Glppebe. ""j'' *^he'' 
lytle pepebeP une^hce*i aeptep pubum 
pop. *i on mop-paeptenum. Anb Jjaep 
ylcan pmtpa' paep Injpepep' bpo^up 
anb J3ealpbenep on ]?ept-Seaxum^ *^on'^ 



A.D. 877. This year came the Dan- 
ish army into Exeter from Wareham ; 
whilst the nayy sailed west aboutj until 
they met with a great mist at sea, and 
there perished one hundred and twenty 
ships at Swanwichi. Meanwhile king 
Alfred with bis army rode after the ca- 
valry a$ far as Exeter; but he could not 
overtake them before their arrival in the 
fortress, where they could not be come 
at. There they gave him as many host- 
ages as he required, swearing with so- 
lemn oaths to observe the strictest amity. 
In the harvest the army entered Mer- 
cia; some of which they divided among 
them, and some they gave to Ceol- 
wulf. 

A.D. 878. This year about mid-win- 
ter, after twelfth-night, the Danish army 
stole out to Chippenham, and rode over 
the land of the West-Saxons; where 
they settled, and drove many of the peo- 
ple over sea; and of the rest the greatest 
part they rode down, and subdued to 
their will ; — all but Alfred the king. 
He, with a little band, uneasily sought 
the woods and fastnesses of the moors. 
And in the winter of this same year the 
brother of Ingwar and Healfdcn landed 



* CO, Laud. Cam. C. T, b i. and ir. * Abe. Cani. C.T. si. « rejlobe, Laud. CT*. b i? . * So C. T. b if. 
* ^p. Laud. ' 2<^hojifebuiD, Laud. C, T. b it. f Abs. Cani. C.T. b i. from the repetition of ne meahte* 
^ Abs. Laud. ^ So Cani. C.T. bit. ^ miccle, Cani. ^ So Cani. C.T.bI *j jejeccon. ^ mycel 
J^»f polcej abpaejpbon. Laud. ^ jejaecon mycel ^jr polcef . i opeji pe abjiasjrbon. Whel. " -j^ pole 
bym to jebijbe, C.T. b i. ^ Abs. Laud, elegantly. Cani. C.T. b i. and iv. ^ Abs. Laud. C.T. b it. 
9 peiipobe, Cani. pflppebe, C.T. b It. 4 unea^lice, Cani. uny^lice, C.T. b ir. ' So Gibs. C»T. b ir. 
jiBtpej, jC.r. B i. * So Cani. If ejiej, Laud. C.T. b if. Inpejicj, C.T. b i. * Pejr-Sexna juce, Cani. 



^ Gibson, by some mistake, says — ^^ Hodie 
Sw^nwich in agro Hamtunensi :" — ^Syanapic, ac« 
^ardiiiglyj lvis ^sumcd a place on his map be* 



tween Southampton and Rowner. The error has 
been adopted by most writers since. It is now 
generally writt^n^ as pEonounced, Smuutg^, 







londam. hMukUhrltn^num. Ant JBwv. cYmg Jk Bfmm .f^mrwHm- Jtam. Jbi AJ^A/ 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



105 



Depena' fcy^pc". **mit)xxiii. fcipum^'^ 
tJ hme mon Jrop opfloj*^. ^ dccc. monna 
mib hira. ^ xl.^ monna hip hepep ^^ 
J^ap pa&p pe ju^-pana ^enumen. J)e hi 
paepens heton''. Anb J?aep on Gaptpon 
pophce** yeippeb cyninj lycle pcpcbe* 
gepeopc aet /BJ^elinja-ijje. ^ op J?ani 
jepeopce paep pinnenbe piS J?one hcpe; 
^ Sumnp-paetna^ pe bael pe' )>ajp 
nihpt"* paep. Da on Jyaepe peopo^an 
pucan opep Gaptpon he jepab to Gcj- 
byphtcp-ptanc. be eaptan Seal-puba". 
^ him to° comon ]?aep onjen Suraop- 
paete ealle. "j Pyl-paete. anb )!>amtun- 
pcip. pe bael peP hype beheonon pae 
paep. ^ hip jepa&jene^ paepun. Anb he 
|!op ymb ane niht op J>am pican^ to 
ijlea'. anb Jjaep *ept'' ymb ane niht to 
/e}jan-bune. ^ J^aep jepeaht piS ealne 
^'f one" hepe. anb hine jeplymbe. *i him 
aeptep pab o^ f jepeopc. *j j>sep. past 
XIV. niht. *Anb'' J?a pealbe pe hepe 
faim ypope^'-jiplap. ^ micele* a^ap. f hi 
op hip pice* polbon. ^ him eac jeheton 
^ hiopa cyninj pulpihte onpon polbe. tJ 
hie f jelaepton ^ppa". Anb J^aep ymb 
III. pucan com pe cyninj *^to him'' Gob- 
pum^ f pittija^ pum )?apa monna j>e on 
^am hepe peopSupte paspon. fct Alpe. 



inWessexJn Devonshire^ with three and 
twenty shipB; and tliere was he slaiu, and 
eight hundred men with him^ and forty 
of bis army. There also was taken the 
war- flag, which tliey called the Ratex* 
In the Easter of this year king Alfred 
with his little force raised a work at 
Athelney ; from which he assailed the 
army^ assisted by that part of Somerset- 
shire which was nighest to it. Then^ in 
the seventh week after Easter, he rode to 
Brixton by the eastern side of Selwood ; 
and there came out to meet him all the 
people of Somersetshire, and Wiltshire, 
and that part of Hampshire which is oi| 
this side of the sea ; and they rejoiced to 
see him. Then within one night he went 
from this retreat to Iley ; and within 0Q# 
night after he proceeded to Heddingv 
ton ; and there fought with all the army^ 
and put them to flight, riding after them 
as far as the fortress, where he remained 
a fortnight. Then the army gave him 
hostages with many oaths, that they 
would go out ^f his kingdom. They 
told him also, that their king would re- 
ceive baptism. And they acted accord* 
iogly ; for in the course of three ^ weeks 
after, king Guthrum, attended by some 



. • Depnao, Laud, ^ Abs. Laud. C.T.Bir. c jrcypa, Cani. C.T.Bi. * floh, Laud, offloh^ 
Cant. C.T. si. • u. Cant, C.T. b i. ' From Laud. Cant. C.T. o i. aad i^. s ^Fpo, Cant. 
)i|ia[^];cn, C.T". Bi. and ir. ^ ppohre, Laud. < peopobe, Cant, as usval. ^ Sofnojupetena, Cant* 
Surauji. C.T. B i. » J?e, Laud, as bdow. « iiehp:, Cant. C.T. b i. and ir. ■ Peal- Laud. Sele- Cant. 
« So Whel. abs. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. p fe', Laud, Cant. C.T. b i. and iv. *i Z^T^I^ Clan/- C.T. b i. 
I picum, Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. aod ir. ■ iE^lea, Laud. ^ From Cant: C.T. b i. and ir. « Xhs.Laud. 
^ Abs. Cant. y So C.T.bx. abs. Laud. C.T^alv. ■ micle, Cant. C.T.nu ■ cyae-ptce. Cant. 
*» Ab9.Lfla(i.Cr.Bi.andi?. ^ Khs. Laud. Cant. C.T. nu ^SoCT-bi. Gu^pam^Coii/. Gobpun,««/rf. 
^ JT^^^S""'? Lottii. J'pitx;;^ Cant. C.T.n'u 



. » 



t. * ^^S^jiteMy^^ Flor. from Assert 



im 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



cyninj ]?aep onpenj act pulpihte. "j hiy 
cpij-m-lypnj paej- aet pebmop**. Anb 
^he" ^]?aep^ paej- xii. nihc mib ]>am cyn- 
mje. ^ he hine anb hi[- jepepan mib 
micelum^ feo pup^ube^:- 



An. DCCCLXXIX.K Rep pop pe 
hejie to Cypen-ceajicrpe op** C^ppan- 
hamme'. anb pact J?aep an^ jeap^ ™Anb 
J»y ilcan" jeape. jejabpobe** an hloS 
picinjaP ^ jepaec act Fullan-hamme^ 
be Temepe. Anb ^f ylcan jeape a]?iep- 
tpobe' pio punne *ane tnb baejep'^:- 

An. DCCCLXXX.* I3ep pop pe hepe 
op'* Cypen-ceaptpe on Gaptr-Gnjle. ^ 
jepaec f lonb. anb* jebaelbe. Anb \>y 
^Ican jeape pop pe hepe opep pae. ]?e 
^aep'^on FuUan-hamme' paet. on Fponc- 
lonb to Gent. *J paet J?aep an jeap:- 

An. DCCCLXXXI. I3ep pop pe hepe 
upop on Fponc-lonb. ^ ]?a Fjiancan him 
jji^ jepuhton. ^ J^aep •Jja^'peapB pe hepe 
jehoppob^ aeptep ]>am jepeohte :• 

An. DCCCLXXXII. Jiep pop pe hepe 



thirty of the worthiest men that were in 
the army^ came to him at Aller^ which ii 
hear Athelney^ and there the king be- 
came his sponsor in baptism ; and his 
crisom-leasing was at Wedmor*. He 
was there twelve nights with the king; 
who honoured him and his attendants 
with many presents*. 

A.D. 879. This year went the army 
from Chippenham to Cirencester, and 
sat there a year. The same year assem- 
bled a band of pirates, and sat at Ful- 
ham by the Thames. The same year also 
the sun was eclipsed one hour of the 
day 3. 

A.D. 880. This year went the army 
from Cirencester into East- Anglia^wbere 
they settled, and divided the land. The 
same year went the army over sea, that 
before sat at Fulham, to Ghent in Frank- 
land, and ciat there a year. 

A.D. 881. This year went the army 
higher u^ into Frankland, and the 
Franks fought with them ; and there was 
the army horsed after the battle. 

A.D. 882. This year went the army 



• • Abs. Cani. C. T. b I. •» So Laud. ' Pebbmop, Cani. Petmoji, Gibs, from Whel. « From 
Laud. Cant. C.T.ni.Mdir. ^ Ahs.Cant. C.T. a i.^ndiw. * From Cot. mycdvLvn, Laud. C.T. Bir. 
xnyclum, Cant, after bine. ' ^epeop^cbc, Cot. peoji^obe, Cant. C.T.bi, k dccclxxx. C.T.bu 
* o^jWhel. iacorrectly. * So Laud. Cant. C.T.bi. &c. Cippan, Whel. incorrectly, from Petrob* 
k anne, Cant. * pintep, Laud. Cant. CT.b'u and iv. » Abs. Laud. ■ From Cant. CT.bu 
"* jejabcjiohan, Laud, -on, C.T, a iv. ^e;^abjioban, Cant, -on, C.T. b i. p So Cant, C.T. b i. and ir. 
piceu^a, Gibs, from Whcl • ^ Fuian- Cant. ' a}>yyrpobe, Laud, Cant, C,T. bi. 'So Cot. Cant. 
C.T.b\. and iv. i —Whel. incorrectly, an — Gibs, from Laud. — on baej. Cot, for brjcj-. * So 
Laud Cant, C,T, b ir, dccclxxxi. C. T. b i. occclxxix. Gibs, from Whel. » So Laud. Cant. C T. b i: 
and It, to, Whel. incorrectly. » hic, Cant, y Abs. Laud, CTiBir. » So C.T,b\. Fulan- 
hamme, Cant. » Abs. Cani, C.T.bI ^ hopjab, Laud, jehopjr^b, Cant. C.T.biv. 

* " fn villa regia qucB dicitur Weadmor.^^ — * " Inter nonam et vesperam^ sed propius a(i 
Flor. from Asser. nonam.^^ — Flor. /. e. between three and six 

* '^Mdificia^^^ Flor. from Asser. p. m. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



107 



up onblonj* CDaefc peop*^ on Fponc- 
lonb^. ^ j^aep j-aet an ^eap. ^Anb J>y 
ylcan jeape" pop /Glppeb cyninj mib 
pcypum ut on pae.^ jepeaht fvS peopep 
f cyp-hlaeptap Denipcpa mpnna. ^ |^pa 
pcypa tpa* ^enam^. ^^ fa men opplae- 
jene^ paepon*. "^ J^e J^aep on paepon''. Anb 
tpejen* pcyp-hla&ptap"* him on honb 
eobon. ^ )?a "men'' paepon miclum^ pop- 
plaejeneP. ^ poppunbobe asp hie on honb 
^eobonf':. 

An. DCCCLXXXIII. ftep pop pc 
hepe up' on Scalb to Cunbo^. ^ j^aep 
pact an jeap. *Anb CDapinup *pe' papa 
"penbe ^]>2l' h^num Domini y61ppebe 
cynmje'^ Anb )?y* ilcan jeape ^laebbe 
* Si^helm "j ^]?elptan' fa aelmeppan to 
Rome'', •jye /GIppeb cinj jehet ^ibep''. 
anb eac on** Inbea^ to pee Dome^. 'J to 
pjfe Bap%olomee. *Da hi ^paeton'' piB 
fone hepe aet Lunbene. ^ hi jjaep. Gobep 
J^ancep. ppy^e bentij^ije^^ paepon aeptep 
J?am jehatum**:- 



up along the Maese far into Frankland^ 
and there sat a year; and the same year 
went king Alfred out to sea with a fleet; 
and fought "v^ith four ship-royers of the 
Danes, and took two of their ships; 
wherein all the men were slain; and 
the other two surrendered ; but the men 
were severely cut and wounded ere they 
surrendered. 



A.D. 883. This year went the army 
up the Scheldt^ to Conde*, and there 
sat a year. And pope Marinus sent 
king Alfred the lignum DonUni^. The 
same year led Sighelm^ and Athelstaa 
to Rome the alms which king Alfred 
ordered thither^ and also in India to 
St. Thomas and to St. Bartholomew ^ 
Then they sat against the army at Lon* 
don ; and there, with the favour of God^ 
they were very successful after the per* 
formance of their vows. 



* anblan^, Laud. Cot. Cant. CT. b i. * ofop, Laud, up op, Cant. C.T. b if. iipaji, C.T. a i. « Fjian j- 
lanb, Laud. Cot. Fpanclanb, C.T.bu iiiTariabty. * )^aj- ylcan gcapej, Coi. ]^y ilcan ^epe, C.T.bu 
as Qsual. ® tup, C.T.bi. ^ ^eoamon, Laud. s •j ]?a men o}:jloh.*j tpi scbujijcan. Cot. which ia 
contradicted by what follows. ^ ojrjiojon, Laud. ' pupban, Cant, -on, CT.Bi. ^ Abs.Xoiftf. 
" cpa, Laud. °* So C.T*. ai. abs. Laud. jcip-hepajTiWhcl. » From Laud. ® J7y^> Co/. 
P opflajene, Laud. Cot. ojjla»jpne, C.T. b i?. opjlcjciie, C.T. b i. pop-plaejene. "j, abs. Cant. ^ Abs. 
Cant. ' So Laud, itpp, CT. bi. almost inTariably. ■ From Laud. Cot. Cant. C.T.uu and ir« 
abs.Whcl. Wiilton, * So Cant. Gibson adds mrpa, from Coi. " penbe iElppebe cinje op CpijWf 
pobe, Cot. * J^a, Cot. y .^Ippeb penbe hip slmopjan to Rome, Cot. « Sihelm *j £]7cptan, CT. ai, 
> Abs. Cant. C.T. u i. ^ to, Cot. ^ Itibia, Cot. lubea, CT. si. u forn ; a common misUke* 
^ Th for D, C.T a i. which is most common in representing Greek and Latin names. So afterwards 
Baptholomeae, ibid. * From Laud. Cant. CT.ai. and ir« io the end. - ' Abs. Cani. s So Cant. 
bentij^c, Cr. Bi. bcnti^e, Gibs. ^ ^ehate, Cant. C.T.b'u 



^ Scald, Asser. Scaldad, Flor. 

^ ^^jid monasierium quod dicUurCandath.'*^'^ 
Flor. abbreTiated from Assen 
' ^ Fid. As56r. Hit. 884. 



♦ Suithelmus, Flor. M.West. 

* <^ Bap^olomeup paep Cpijtep aepenb-paca m 
Iiibia maejj'e. peo ip ealpa eopVena peo ycemypte.*^ 
—Menolos.MS.C.Tiil. FiU Flor. M.West. 

p2 



lOB 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCCCLXXXIV. fteji pop j-c 
hepe up on Sunnan to 6nibenum. ^ 
}?aBp jraet an jeap :• ■ J2ep pop^pepbe 
j-e pelpillenba bipcop A^elpolb^':- 
: An. DCCCLXXXV. rSep tobaelbe 
jre popefppecena** hepe on cpa. oj^ep 
fbasV ^eapt:. oBep bacV to Jjpopep 
teaj^pe. Anb ymbpacton }?a ceaj^pe. 
T pophton oSep paepten ymbe hie pelpe. 
^ hy J>eah Ba ceaptep apepeboH. o^ f 
/eippeb *cynj'' com utan mib pypbe. 
Ba eobc^ pe hepe to hiopa pCipunl. ^ 
popleti^ f jepeopc. *} hy pupbon J^ajp 
bchoppube. 'j pona J>y ylcan pumepa 
^ept'' opep pae jepiton, * Anb'' fy ylcan 
jcape penbe /Glppeb cynmj pcip- 
hepe '^op Caent^'on eapt-Gnjle. Sona 
ppa hie coman on Stupe -mu^an^ ^a 
metton"* hie xvi. pcipu" picinja®. ^ 
JPhie'' piB J?a jepuhton. "j ]?a pcipo" eall^ 
jepaehton. ^ J^a men opplojon. Da 
hy ']?a" hampeapb penbon' mib J^aepe 
hepe-hySe. ]?a raetton hie micelne pcip- 
hepe picin^a. ^ ^ J)a'' piS ]?a jepuhton J^y 
ylcan bacje. ^ J?a Denipcan ahton pije. 
*Anb'' Jyy ylcan jeape ajp mibbum" pm- 
tpa popSpepbe Capl. Fpancana* cyn- 
inj. *j hine opplo^y an eopop. Anb ane* 
j^eape aep hip bpo^up pop^pepbe. pe 



A.D. 884. This year went the army 
up the Somne to Amiens^ and there re* 
niainedayear. This year died the bene«- 
Tolent bishop Athelwold. 

A.D. 885. This year separated the 
before-mentioned army in two; one part 
easti, another to Rochester. This city 
they surrounded, and wrought another 
fortress around themselves. The people^ 
however, defended the city, until king 
Alfred came out with his army. Then 
went the enemy to their ships, and for- 
sook their work. There were they proi 
vided with horses; and soon after, in the 
same summer, they went over sea again. 
The same year sent king Alfred a fleet 
from Kent into East-Anglia. As soon 
as they came to Stourmouth, there met 
them sixteen ships of the pirates. And 
they fought with them, took all theshlpsi 
and slew the men. As they returned 
homeward with their booty, they met a 
large fleet of the pirates, and fought with 
them the same day ; but the Danes had 
the victory. The same year, ere mid- 
winter, died Charles, king of the Franks. 
He was slain by a boar; and one year 
before his brother died^, who had also 
the Western kingdom. They were both 



■ From Cot. ^ So Laud. Cant, C.T. b i. pop.jp]iccenan,Whel. Afterwards tup for tpa, CT. bi. 
< Abs. Laud. ^ Abs. Cant, C.T, b i. probably from the repetition of bxl. « From Laud. Cant. C,T. b i. 
' Foji, Cant. » poplcton, Lfliirf, poptetan. Cant, -on, CT. bi. and ir. *> From Laud, C.T. b i. and ir. 
* Abs. Laud. Cant. C.T, b i. and if. * from Laud. Cant. Cent, C.T. b i. > So Laud. Stupe- Cant. 
C.T.Bi.WhcI. WuUon. ™ jemaetton, Laud, jemetten, C.r.nf. ■ fcipi, Laud. ® So Cant. 
C.T. B 1. P From Cant. ^ ealle, Laud. Cant, C.T. b i. ' Abs. Cant. C.T. el. -So C.T. b i, 
paepon, Laud. Cant. » From Laud. " mibban, Laud. C.T.al » Fpancna, Cant. C.T.ou 
7 opfloh, Laud. Cant. C.T, b i. j-loh, Cot. » anum, Cant, 



> ^^Orientalem Franciam.*^ — Flor. from Asscr. afterwards, an. 886, 801, &c. 
"^rf Lofcnum:^ — Ethelw. Le. Louvaio. See * " Tertio ante a/mo." — Flor, 



THB SAXON CHRONICLE: 



109 



tef be cac f pej^-jiice. "anb hie paepon 
bejen JMofpi^ej- puna, ^yt haepbe eac 
f yeyt-jixce''. ^^ pop^pepbe ^y ^ilcan^ 
geape ]?e po punne a]?yptpobe*. Se paep 
^ Jjaep'' Caplep pmu. J>e /6Jjelpulp. Pept- • 
Seaxna cynin j. hip bohtop haepbe ^him'' 
to cpene. ^Anb J>y ylcan jeapc. jeja- 
bpobe micel pcip-hepe on 6alb-Seaxum. 
tJ J'sep peap^ micel jepeoht tupa** on 
geape. ^ )?a Seaxan haepbon pje. ^ j^aep • 
pa?pon Fpypan mib. Anb ]>f ilcan jeape. 
jrenj Capl to Jam pept-pice. anb to 
^allum ']?am pice J?e' beheonan penbel- 
psB. ^ bejeonban ]>ippe pae. ppa hit hip 
|>pibba paebep haepbe. butan Libpic- . 
pium^. Se Capl paep JJlo^pi^ep punu. 
pe J^lo^pij paep Caplep bpo^op. pe paep 
Ju^yttan* paebep. J>e™ yGJjelpulp "^J^ept- 
Seaxna'^cyninj. haepbe. Anb hie paepon 
Jilo^pijep puna, pe J3loJ>pi3 paep °|?aep'' • 
ealban Caplep punu. pe Capl paep Pip- 
penep punu. PAnb'^ ^f ylcan jeape 
pop^pepbe pe joba^ papa CDaptinup. 
pe jeppeobe Onjel-cynnep pcole' be' 
/Blppebep bene, ^pept- Seaxna" cyn- . 
jnjep. *i he penbe him *micla Jipa'' "on 
halibome''. *i Jjacpe pobe bael Jje Cpipt 
on J>popobe. Anb J>y ylcan jeape "pe 
hepe on Gapt-Cnjlum bpaec'^ FPY^ P^^ 
/Glppeb cyninj :• 



the sons of Louis^ who also had the 
Western kingdom, and died the same 
year that the sun was eclipsed. He was 
the son of that Charles whose daughter 
Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, 
bad to wife^. And the same year coI«- 
lected a great fleet against Old-Saxony; 
and there was a great fight twice in the 
year, and the Saxons had the victory. 
There were the Frieslanders with them. 
And the same year succeeded Charles to 
tlie Western kingdom, and to all the 
territory this side of the Mediterranean 
and beyond, as his great-grandfather 
held it, except the Lidwiccians. Thti 
said Charles was the son of Louis, who 
was the brother of that Charles who 
was the father of Judith^ whom Ethel^ 
wulf, king of the West- Saxons, mar-» 
ried*. They were the sons pf Louis'^ 
who was the son of the elder Charles, 
who was the son of Pepin. The same 
year died the good pope Martin^ whor 
freed the English school at the request 
of Alfred, king of the West- Saxons. 
And he sent him great gifts in relics^ 
and a part of the rood on which Christ 
suflered. And the same year the army 
in East-Anglia brake the truce with 
king Alfred. 



* Abs. Laud, lo "j p op^pejibc ^c. Perhaps from the repetition of the same sentence, je haejrbe eac 
•jJ Fcyt-pice. yn pa?pon, Cant C.T. b i. tJlo^pijcj junu bc^en, C.T. b i. ^ Abs. Cani. C.T, b i. 

^ fc, Laud, C.T. b i. and iv. ^ From Cant. C.T. b i. « So C.T. b i. a>« ojrjiobe, Cant, ' Abs. Laud. 
« Abs. Laud, to i ]?y ylcan grape jrop^prpbc, tsfc. ^ So Cant. CT.bi. cua,Whcl. * So Cant, 
C.T. b i. ^ -picciim, Cant, -picinjum, C.T. b i. * lu^ectan, Cant. lubttcan, C.T. b i. ■" je, Cani. 
n From Cot. ® Abs. Cant. p Abs. Laud. Cant. C.T.u'i. ^ eabija, Cot. ' jcol^, Laud. 
• foph, iMud. * miccle — Cani, mycclc gcua. Cot. micle jypa, C.T.a'u ^ pop pe bcpe on ©jr- 
Cnjlum. 'j bpaec, is^c. Laud. 



' Fid. an. 854. 



? " Ludovicus tile filius PippinV^ — Flor. 



no 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCCCLXXXVI. hejx pop j-e 
hepe ept pejx fe sep eaft jelaenbe. ^ 
fa up on Sihjene*. ^ ]?aDp pintep-petl^ 
namon ^aet Papip J^aepe bypij". Dy 
ylcan jeape jepette yGlppeb cynmj 
Lunben-bupj^- anb him call Anjel-cyn 
to cypbe. f * buton Denipcpa monna 
haeptnebe^ paep. ^ he^ fa bepaepte fa 
buph /Gfepebc ealbopmen^ to heal- 
benne :• 

An. DCCCLXXXVII. hejx pop pe 
hepe up f uph fa bpycje' act Papip. "j 
fa*^ up anlan^^ Sijene o^"* OOaetepne. 
^*i fa up on OOaetepne'' o^ Capiei". *] 
f a paeton fapa° P^j'" innan lonan tpa*i 
pificep. on f am rpam ptebum. Anb fy 
ylcan jeape pop^pepbe Capl. Fpancna 
cyninj. ^ Gapnulp' hip bpo'Sop punu 
hine VI. pucum* ajp he pop^pepbe^ 



A.D. 886. This year went the army 
back again to the west^ that before were 
bent eastward ; and proceeding upwards 
along the Seine, fixed their winter-quar- 
ters in the city of Paris*. The same year 
also king Alfred fortified the cityof Lon- 
don; and the whole English nation turn- 
ed to him, except that part of it which 
was held captive by the Danes. He theii 
committed the city to the care of alder- 
man Ethered, to hold it under him. 

A.D. 887. This year the anny ad- 
vanced beyond the bridge at Parish; and 
then upwards^ along the Seine^ to the 
Marne. Then upwards on the Marne as 
far as Chezy^; and in their two stations, 
there and on the Yonne, they abode two 
winters. This same year died Charles, 
king of the Franks. Arnulf, his brother's 
son, had six weeks before his death be- 



■ Si^ne, Cant. C,T. d i. Si^ene, C.T. d iy. ^ jaetu, Laud, jccu, Cani. C.T. b i. fctu appears to 
haTC been altered in C.T. d it. to jetl. « From Laud. Cant. CT. b i. ^ -buph, C.T. b i. « >o, Cant. 
' haep nebe, Laud. % So Laud. Cant, hie, Whel. ^ -menn, C.T. b i. ' bpijje, Cot. bpic je, C. T. b i. 
^TP'jCot. 1 anblan^, Lau(i. Can/. C.r.Biv. 'jIanj,ar.Bi. «a;t,Can/. "SoC.r.Bi. Cazici,Cb/. 
C.T. B iv. Wigorn, Whel. in marg. ^ J>ap, Laud. p Abs. Laud. ^ So Laud. Cant, cup, C.T b i. 
cu,\VheI. ' Apnulb, Cot. ■ pucan, Laud. Cant. CT.Bi. * fepbe pop^, Cant. 



' For a more circumstantial account of the 
Danish or Norman operations against Paris at 
this time, the reader may consult Felibien, J/w- 
toire de la Ville de PariSy liv. iii. and the au- 
thorities cited by him in the margin. This is that 
celebrated siege of Paris minutely described by 
Abbo, abbot of Fleury, in two books of Latin 
hexameters ; which, however barbarous, contain 
some curious and authentic matter relating to the 
history of that period. 

^ This bridge was built, or rebuilt on a larger 
plan than before, by Charles the Bald, in the 
year 861, "to prevent the Danes or Normans 
(says Felibien) from making themselves masters 



of Paris so eaaUy as they had already done so 
many timesj^ &c. — ^'pour empescherque les Nor- 
mans ne se rendissent maistres de Paris aussi fa- 
cilement qiiUls Vavoient deja fait tant do fois," 
&c. — Vol. i. p. 9 1 , folio. It is supposed to be the 
famous bridge afterwards called " grand pont^^ 
or ^'pont au change^'*^ — the most aocieut bridge 
at Paris, and the only one at this time. 

' Caziei, Flor. from Asser. Castig, Elhelw. 
It is a corruption of caz-rei^ or casaregia; which 
accounts for the variation in the MSS. The most 
ancient retain the r, omitting z. The modem 
French have naturally softened it into Chezy. 
Vid. Gest, Norm. p. 6. 



THE SAXON chronicle; 



111 



bcjiaebbe* aet Jam pice. Anb ]?a peap^ 
f pice tobseleb on pip. ^ pip cyninjap 
**J>ap paepon" to jehaljobe. ^Dxt paep 
J? eah mib Gapnulpep'' jej^apunje**. 'j hie 
cpaebon* ^f hie f to hip honba''' bealban • 
pceolbons. jiojipon ^\>et heopa nan naep 
on* paebpen healpe ^ to'' jebopen buton 
him anum. Gapnulp ^]>2i'' punobe on 
J>ain lanbe be Gaptpan* Rin"*. ^ J3poJ?- 
ulp J>a penj to J^am mibbel-pice. anb • 
Oba° to J>a2m° pept-baele. *i Beopnjap 
^ pi^a to Lonj-beapbna lonbe. anb to 
J)2em® lonbum on J^a healpe p muntep. 
Anb f heolbun mib micelpe** unpibbe. 
^ tu' polc-'jepeoht'' jepuhton. *i J>aet . 
lonb opt ^ jelome pophepjobon. anb 
aejhpae^ep o^epne opt paebhce ut- 
bpaepbe^ Anb \>y ylcan ^eape ]>€ pe 
hepe pop popIS "upp" opep )?a bpicje 
set Papip /GJ>elhelm* ealbopmon laebbe . 
Pept-Seaxna aelmeppan ^ /Blppebep 
cyninjep to Rome :• 
/ An. DCCCLXXXVIII. hejx laebbe 
Beocca ealbopman pept-Seaxna aelmep- 
pan "j /Glppebep cyninjep to Rome, "j . 
/ej?elppyS cpen. peo paep /Glppebep 
ppeoptop cyninjepy. poplSpepbe *be 
Rbmpeje''. ^ hipe he h^ aet Papian*. 
Anb Jjy ylcan jeape /6J^epeb. ^'pe'^epce- 



reft him of his kingdom; which was 
now divided into five portions, and five 
kings were consecrated thereto. This, 
however, was done with the consent of 
Arnulf ; and thejagreed that they should 
hold in subjection to him; because none 
of them had by birth any claim on the 
father's side, except him alone. Arnuli; 
therefore, dwelt in the country eastward 
of the Rhine ; Rodulf took to the mid* 
die district; Oda to the western; whilst 
Berenger and Witha became masters of 
Lombardy and the Cisalpine territory. 
But they held their dominion in great 
discord; fought two general battles, and 
frequently overran the country in par-^ 
tial encounters, displacing each other se- 
veral times. The same year also, in which 
the Danish army advanced beyond the 
bridge at Paris, alderman Ethelhelm led 
the alcns of the West-Saxons and of king 
Alfred to Rome. 

A.D. 888. This year ^ alderman Beeke 
conducted the alms of the West-Saxons 
and of king Alfred to Rome; but queen 
Ethelswith, who was the sister of king 
Alfred, died on the way to Rome ; and 
her body lies at Pavia^. The same year^ 
also Ethered, archbishop of Canterbury;^ 



• So CT.Bi. baepcbbe, Gibs, from Laud, Cant. baepebne^Whel. ^ From Laud, • "j jJ mi^ 
Ajinuljrcp, Cot, ^ J^apun^e, Laud. , * So C.T.b'u cpcbon, Gibs, behecon, Cot, '' j$ hi him 
J7ct to haiiba, Laud, -jJ hi on hij hanba, Cot. « j-colban, Lattd. ^ Gibs, from Laud. N.S. * of. 
Laud. * Abs. Laud. ' Gajtan, Cant. C.T. b i. "So C.T. b i. Rme, Laud. Ren, Cot. » Obba, 
Cant. C.T. b i. J?a, Laud. ** fan, Cot. )>am, C.T. b i. p healp ne, Laud. ^ micel, Laud. ' tpa, 
Laud, Cot. Cant. » Abs. Cant. * So C.T. b i. ucabpaejibe, Laud. C.T. a it. » From Cant. C.T. b i. 
« iEj7^Im5 C.r.Bi. After Papij-Wheloc inserts "j. So C.T. bit, with a mark of introduction. The par* 
tide II is sometimes so ased in Greek, and et in f^tin. x After cynm^cj-, *j heo ~ Laud. > From CoK 
* PsLuiwiyLaud. C.T.ul. Pauie, Cot. Cant. ^ From Cot. 



» Jn. 889. Flon f Ticinum, Flor. 



^ Jn. 889. Thorn* So C.T.hU 



llf 



THE SAXON CHRONICL 



bifceop ■op Cantpajiarbepi''. ^ /ej«l- 
j?olb^ ealbopman. poji^pepbon on anum 
moripe :« 

An. DCCCLXXXIX. ^I3ep on ]>ypim 
geajxe'^ nsep nan paejielb to Rome, butan 
t^ejen hleapejiap/eipjieb cyninj penbe 
mib jeppitum :• 

An. DCCCXC. J3ep tebbe Beopn- 
helm abbab pept-Seaxna aelmeppan to 
Rome, tf yBlppebejr cyninjep. Anb 
Gobpum pc NopSepna cyninj pop^- 
pepbe. ^aep pulpiht-nama*^ paep y6^el- 
pcan. pe paep yeippebep cyninjep job- 
punu. anb he bube on 6apt-6njlum. 
anb J>aBt lonb aepej^ jepaet. Anb J>y 
ylcan jeape pop pe hepe op Syjene® 
tx) Sanb-lauban^ f ip betpeoh^ Bpet- 
turn ^ Fpancum*'. ^ Bpettap him pi^ 
jepuhton. ''j haepbon pje". ^ hy be* 
bpypon ut on ane ea. anb ^heopa'" mo- 
nije abpenton^:- ^hejx paep Pleje- 
munb jecopen op Gobe. anb op "eallen 
hip halechen" °to ]>am apcet-pice on 
Cantpape-bepi^'' :• 

PAn. DCCCXCI. hejx pop pe hepe 
capt. ^ €apnulp cyninj jepeaht piS 
]?aem paebe^hepc. xjx Jja pcipu comon. 
tnib 6apt»Fpancum anb Seaxum anb 



and alderman Etfaelwold^ died in ooi 
month. 

A.D. 889. This year there was no 
journey to Rome; except that king 
Alfred sent two messengers with let* 
ters. 

A.D. 890. This year^ abbot Bern- 
helm conducted the alms of the West- 
Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome; and 
Guthrum^ king of the Northern men, 
departed this life, whose baptismal name 
was Athelstan^. He was the godson of 
king Alfred ; and he abode among the 
East- Angles, where he first established i 
settlement. The same year also went the 
army from the Seine to Saint Lo3, which 
is between the Bretons and the Franks; 
where the Bretons fought with them, 
obtained the victory, and drove them out 
into a river^, in which many of them 
were drowned. This year* also was Pleg- 
niund chosen by God and all his saints 
to the archbishopric in Canterbury. 

A.D. 891. This ycar^ went the army 
eastward; and king Arnulf fought with 
the land*force7^ ere the ships arrived, 
in conjunction with the eastern Franks, 



• From Cot. >» A>ej7olb, Laud. A>eIpoIb, C.T. b L « So C.T. b i. on >iffum jeajie, edd.— 
without heji ;— an expression which now begins to be adopted. ^ puliuhr- Laud, Cant. Cot. C.T.bu 
afterwards iEJejtan, C.T. hi. « Sijne, Cant. C.T. a i. ' Scanb- Laud. Sant>-io«an, Cant. Saiic- 
loWan, C.T. si. « betpiXj Laud, bctuh, Cant. C.T. b 1. *» Francon, Cot. ^ *j jigc namon. Cot. 
i- hsejrbon, C.T. b i. ^ From Cant. * abpcnccon, Laud. C.T. n I. abpenct:an, Cant. «> The Laud 
MS. has the remainder in Latin, abs. Cant. C.Tni. » callan poice, Cot. ® From Cot. N.S. 
P Abs. Laud. So also C.T. b ir. but the transactions recorded are placed to the year 892^ as in C.T b L 



. ^ An, 891. Ethelw. Flor. agreeing with MS. 
C^T. B i. which is getieralJy the case. 

• Fid. an. 878. 

» « S. Laudi^'—Gesta Norm. 

* Probably the rirer Vire. 



* An. 889. Flor. 

^ An. 892. Ethelw. Flor. agreeing with C.T. bi. 
as before. Vid. Chron. Turon. an. 893. ap. IXu 
Chesne, p. 26. 

' *' Pedestrt.''— Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



113 



Bae^epum. anb hine jeplymbc. Anb 
Vp^ Scottajr cpomon to y61ppebe cyn- 
ui^e on anum bate butan aelcum ^e- 
pe^um*. op J3ibepnia^ ^^'' )K)non hi 
hi beptaelon. pop^on ]>e hi polbon pop 
Gobep lupan on elj^eobineppe** bion. hy 
ne pohton hpaep. Sc bar paep jepophc* 
op ]?pibban^ healppe hybe. |>e hie on 
popon. *] hi namon mib him f hie hasp- 
bon to peopon nihtum mete. ^ }ja co- 
mon hie R^mb peopon niht to lonbe'' 
on Copn-pealum*". ^ popan J?a pona to 
yeippebe cyninje. * Dup hie psepon je- 
ncmbe''^ Dubplane^ "^j'^CDaccbe'Su^.'J 
COaehnmun^ Anb SpipnehP pe betpta 
lapeop Jje on Scottum paepjepop:* *>Anb 
8y ylcan jeape opep Gaptpon. 'ymb 
jan3-bajap'oJ>]?e aep. aeteopbe pe pteop- 
pa }>e mon on boc-leben Cometa haet. 
pume men cpe^a^ on Gnjhpc f hit py^ 
feaxebe' pteoppa. pop^aem j^aep ptcnt 
lan^ leoma op. hpilum on ane healpe. 
hpilum on aelce healpe " :• 

DCCCXCII. 

An. DCCCXCIII.* ftep «on fippum 
jeape'' pop pe micela hepe. ]>e pe je- 
pypn ^aep'' ymbe pppaecon. ept op ]?am 
capt-pice^ peptpeapb toBunnan.'j J>aep 



and Saxongi, and Bavarians, and put 
them to flight. And three Scots came to 
king Alfred in a boat without any oars 
from Ireland ; whence they stole away, 
because they would live in a state of 
pilgrimage, for the love of God, they 
recked not where. The boat in which 
they came was made of two hides and a 
half; and they took with them provi- 
sions for seven nights; and within seven 
nights they came to land in Cornwall, 
and soon after went to king Alfred. 
They were thus named : Dubslane, and 
Macbeth, and Maelinmun^. And Swin- 
ney, the best teacher that was among 
the Scots, departed this life. And the 
same year after Easter, about the gang- 
days^, or before, appeared the star that 
men in book- Latin call cometa: some 
men say that in English it maybe termed 
' hairy star ;' for that there standeth off 
from it a long gleam of light, whilom 
on one side, whilom on each. 

A.D. 893. This year went the large 
army, that we before spoke about, back 
from the eastern district westward to 
Bologne ; and there were shipped ; so 



■ pe^pum, Cot, jrjie^pum, Cant, C.T, b i. and ir. * Yplanbc, Cot. « From Cant. * So 0dtL 
C.T.Bi. kc. el^edbijnejje, Cant. CT.Bir. « ^emacob. Cot. ' ]^|iibbe| Cot. 9 binnan vir. 
nihtan .. Cot. embe tii. nihr co lanbe, C.T, b i. ^ -pealan, Cot. ^ heopa namao pepoii ^eatttibe^ 
Cot. ^ jenemDCbe, C.T. b i. j^hatene, Cant. > -flana, Cot. "* Aba. Cant, " OOacbe^aV, Cant 
(DachbrrhojCT. Bi. andir. * (Dshnmum, Con/. (Oaehnmnmmy C,T.b\. p Soipoe, Cb»I. ^.Suipne. 
^ An. DCCCXCII. Whel. C,T. b it. aba. Laud. ' embe janbapif, C.T. si. * pezebe. Cant. CT. b i. 
and ir. ^ dcccxcii. Lattd. ^ Abs. Laud. ' From Laud. C.T. b i. and ir. r pep::. Cant. 



* " Saxonihus anii^is.^^-^Flor. 

' Mulmuninus, Flor. Magilmumen, Ethelw. 
JSoth agree with MS. CT. bi. in referring this 
^xpeditipn to the year 892* 



^ " Circa rogatione9.^^ — Flor. an. 892. Am* 
baroalia in classical Latin ; vhich precisely cor- 
responds with the Saxon term gang^days. So 
Rogation-week is also called gang»week. 



It4 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pujibon jefcipobe. fpa f hie apetton 
him* on asnne p^ opeji jehojipobe mib 
hojifum mib ealle. Anb J^a coman up 
^on'^ ^'Limme mulSan'' mib ccl.** j-cipa*'. 
Se mu^a^ ij- on eaj^epeapbpes Cent, 
aet** J^aej* micelan* puba eaft:enbe ]>e pe 
Anbpeb hataV. ye pubu ijr eaj^-lanj "J 
peft-lanj hunb-tpelptijej-^ mila lanj. 
oJ>]>e len jjia. ^ J^p^ttijef mila bpab. po 
ea fe pe aep^ ymbe™ j^paecon h^ ut 
op ]>aBm pealbe. On J^a ea hie tujon up 
hiojia pcipu o^ )>one pealb. iv. mila ppom 
J^am muBan utepeajibum". ^ j^aep abjiae- 
con an jepeopc inne on J^aem penne®. 
pecon Pane'^peapa *iciphpce men'' on. 
^ paep pam-popht. Da pona aeptep J?am 
com ISaepcen' mib lxxx. pcipa' ^up on'^ 
Temepe mu^an'*. 'J pophte him *)>aep''' 
jepeopc aec CDibbel-tune. ^ pe oJ>ep hepe 
aecApulbpey;- 

*An. DCCCXCIV. On fyp jeape. f 
paep *ymb tpelp'' mona^. J^aep ]>e hie on 
)>aem eapt-pice jepeopc jepophc haep- 
bon.Nop^-hymbpe*' ^ eapt-Gnjle haep- 
bon /eippebe*' cy^ninje a]?ap jepealb. ^ 
Gapt-Gnjle popejipla vi. Anb **J?eah^. 
opep ]>a tpeopa. ppa opt ppa ]?a o^pe 
hepjap*^ mib ealle hcpije utpopon. 



that tliey transported themselves over at 
one time with their horses withal. And 
they came up with 250 ships into the 
mouth of the Limne^ which is in Eas^ 
Kent^ at the east end of the vast wood 
that we call Andred. This wood is in 
length, east and west, 120 miles, or 
longer, and 30 miles broad. The river 
that we before spoke about lieth out of 
the weald. On this river they towed 
up their ships as far as the weald, four 
miles from the mouth outwards ; and 
there destroyed a fort within the fen^ 
whereon sat a few churls, and which was 
hastily wrought Soon after this came 
Hasten up with 80 ships into the mouth 
of the Thames, and wrought him there 
a work at Milton, and the other army 
at Appledore. 

A.D. 894. This year, that was about 
twelve months after they had wrought a 
work in the eastern district, the North um** 
brians and East-Angles had given oaths 
to king Alfred, and the East-Angles six 
hostages ; nevertheless, contrary to the 
truce, as oft as the other plunderers went 
out with all their army, then went they 



• hi, Laud. C,T, bi. and ir. bie, Cant, ^ From Laud, Cant, C.T. b i. and if. ^ Limenan, Cant, 
Limene— C, T,bu ^ mib ]7jiibbe healp hnnb jcipa, iMud, mib tpam liunb jcipa, Cant, cc. jcypa. C, T, b i. 
^ fcipon, Cot. ' mu9, Cot, C.T.Bir. s eajr papbe, Lauii. eapre peapbe, Cot, ^ oo, CatU, 
C.T. B I. and ir. * mucelan, Cot. ilcan, Cant. C,T. b i. and ir. ^ -tpelpij, Laud. C,T. b ir. cxx. b 1. 
So afterwards for fjiytcijej, fjiyccij, C,T, a ir. xxx. b i. * ejie, C,T. b ir. ~ embe, C.T. b i. 

» utan- Laud, utepeajiban, Cant, utepcajibun, C.T. b i. • jraejtene, Cant, CT. b i. and ir. p From 
Cot. N.S. 4 cyjilijce menn, CT. b i. and ir. ceojilaj, Cot. ' iDaejtin;, Cot. ' fcipam, Cot. Cant. 
jcypa, CT.BU ^ up inne, Laud, upp on. Cant. upon,Whe1. upp, C^T. bi. " mu^e, Cot. 
* From Cant. 7 Apulbpc, Laud. Cant. Gibson adds here from Laud. Hie obiit Wuljhere Nortlum* 
hymhrwum archiepiscopua. * Abs. Laud, to the end of the year. * — tpeolp , CT, b ir. embe xii. b i. 
^ Nop&n. Cant. Noji^am. CT. bi. « go Cant. CT.bx. ^Ippeb,WheI. * So Cant. C.T.bI. 
and ir. * hep^eaj. Cant. C.T, b i. as usual ; to denote the soft pronuociation of ; after ju 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



115 



^nne popon hie. o%%e mib. o%%e on 
heopa healfe. On ]>a je^abpobe /61- 

jrpeb cyninj hif pypb. t( F^P f ^^ ^^' 
jnc6be* betaih];am ^^tpam^'hepjum J^aep 
Baep he nchjt: p^met haepbe pop pubu- 
psBjrtenne ^ pop paetep-paeftenne. ppa 
f he mihte ae^J^epne ^epaecan jip hie 
asni^ne pelb pecan polben. Da popon 
hie pi^Van asptep {mm pealba^ hloj^um 
^ ploc-pabum. be ppa hpae^epc epep ppa 
hit ]H>nne pypb-leap paep. Anb him** 
mon eac mib o]7pum ploccum® pohte 
maeptpa ba^a aelce o]>]>e on bae^ o]>}>e 
on niht. je op faepe pypbe je eac op 
fam bup^um. t)aspbe pe cymn^ hip 
jrypb on tu^ tonumen. ppa f hie paepon 
p^le healpe aet ham. healpe ute. bu- 
Zan ]>aem monniun }>e ]ya buph^ healban 
*pccalban''. Ne com pc hepe optop eall 
ute op j>xm pa&toim^ ]K>nne tupa. o%pe 
pi^e ]7a hie aepept to lonbe comon. asp 
jrio pypb ^epamnob paspe. ofpe pij?e fa 
hie op J^asm paetum' papan polbon. Da 
hie jepenjon micele^ hepe-hy^e. *J J?a 
polbon pepian nop^peapbep opep Te- 
mepe ^m on'' Gapt-Seaxe on^ean J?a 
jrcipu. Da pop-pab pio p;y'pb hie popan. 
tl him pi^ jepeaht act Feapn-hamme. 
"3 ]?one hepe jeplymbe. anb J>a '"hepe- 
hy^e'' hi J?a ahpebbon. ^ hy plujon opep 
Temepe buton aelcum popba. )?a up be 
Colne"* on aenne ij^a^. Da bepaet po 



al80> either with them^ or in a separate 
division. Upon this king Alfred ga* 
thered his army, and advanced^ so that 
he encamped between the two armies 
at the nighest point he could find de- 
fended by wood and by water, that he 
might reach either, if they would seek 
any field. Then went they forth in quest 
of the wealds, in troops and companies, 
wheresoever the country was defence- 
less. But they were also nought after most 
days by other companies, either by day 
or by night, both from the army and 
also from the towns. The king had di- 
vided his army into two parts ; so that 
they were always half at home, half out ; 
besides the men that should maintain the 
towns. The army came not all out of 
their stations more than twice; once, 
when they first came to land, ere the 
forces were collected, and again, when 
they wished to depart from their stations. 
They had now seized much booty, and 
would ferry it northward over Thames 
into Essex, to meet their ships. But the 
army rode before them, fought with them 
at Farnhami, routed their forces, and 
there arrested the booty. And they flew 
overTfaameswithoutanyford,thenupby 
the Colne on an island^. Then the king's 
forces beset them without as long as they 
had food; but they had their time set. 



• ^eficobe, Caiitf. ar. B i. ^ Ahs.Cani. C.T.bu « pealbe,fii«/.^.r.Bi. and ir. ^hie^Cant. 
biy C.T.Bu * polcuiD, Cant. C.T.b'u ' tpa, Cant. Cr. bit. cup, bi. f bup^a, Cant C.T.bL 
bnph^a, b iv. ; bat the sing alar oambcr and the plural sometimes ha? e the same termioation. ^ Abfl. 
Cant C.T. p i. and iv. ^ ^ejecum, Cant jetum and jejetum, C,T,bu ^ myccle, Cani. nuclei 
C,T. B i. > innan, Cant C.T. b u and it. ^ So Cant. hejie^Whel. hejie-hij^e ahjuebbon, C.T. b L 
* Calne, Cant, CT. bi. and ir. 



^ « Feamhamme ibco."— Ethelw. 



' Thornige, Ethel V. 
«2 



116 



tHE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



py^pb hie J^aep utan J?a hpile J?e hie* 
lenjeyt: mete haepbon. ac hie haepbon 
J>a hiojia ptemn^ jepetenne. ^ hiopa 
mete jcnotubne^. Anb paep pe cynmj 
)>a J?ybeppeapbep^ •^on paepe mib ])aepe 
pc^pe ]>e mib himpelpum pypbebon. ^z 
he ))a paep ]?ibeppeapbep'' ^ pio o^epu 
pypb paep hampeapbep^ Anb ))a De- 
nipcan paeton ]?aBp behmban. pop^aems 
hiopa cyninj paep jepunbob on J^aem je- 
peohte. f hie hine ne mihton pepian. 
Da jejabepebon*" * hie''. ])a J?e in Nop^- 
hymbpum bujea^ ^ on Gapt-Gnjlum. 
pum hunb pcipa. 'j popon puS ymbu- 
tan^. ^anb pum peopeptij pcipa nop^ 
ymbutan" ^ ymbpaeton an jepeopc on 
Depena-pcype be yaajxe nop^ pas. *J ))a 
)>e ™pu^ ymbutan'' popon ymbpaeton 
eaxah-ceaptep. Da pe cyninj f hypbe. 
Jja penbe he hinepept pi^ 6xan-ceaptpep 
mibeallpe J^aepe pypbe. buton °ppyfe'' 
^epealbenum baele eaptepeapbep J^aep 
polcep. }?a popon popB oB^e hie comon 
to Lunben-bypij. "J J)a mib }?am buph- 
papum. *J mib }?am pultume ]?e him pep- 
tan com. popon eapt to Beam-pleote. 
paep J?a ftaepten }?aep cum° mib hip 
hepje. ]?e a&p set CDibbel-tiine paet. ^ 
eac pe micela hepe paep }?a ))aep to cum®. 
})e aep on Limene-mu^anP paet. aet 
Apulbpe^. JSaepbe ISaepten aep jepopht 



and their meat noted. And the king ww 
advancing thitherwards on his march 
\ivith the division that accompanied him. 
But while he was advancing thither- 
wards, the other force was returning 
homewards. The Danes, however, still 
remained behind; for their king was 
wounded in the fight, so that they could 
not carry him. Then collected together 
those that dwell in Northumbrian and 
East-Anglia about a hundred ships^, and 
went south about ; and with some forty 
more^ went north about, and besieged 
a fprt in Devonshire by the north sea ; 
and those who went south about beset 
Exeter. When the king heard that, then 
went he west towards Exeter with all 
his force, except a very considerable 
part of the eastern army, who advanced 
till they came to London ; and there 
being joined by the citizens and the re^ 
inforcements that came from the west, 
they went east to Bamfleet. Hasten 
was there with his gang, who before 
were stationed at Milton, and also the 
main army had come thither, that sat 
before in the mouth of the Limne at 
Appledore^. Hasten had formerly con- 
structed that work at Bamfleet, and was 
then gone out on plunder, the main 
army being at home. Then came the 



• After hie, l^sp^Whel. abs. Can/. ^.7. ai. and if. ^ jtemninie, Cant. C.T.bu jteminiQ^ C.T. Blf» 
« benotobae, Cani. ^ J^ybcjipeapb paep, Cant. J?8Bbpj»peajibnej-, C.T.bI. and i?. • Abs. Cant, from 
ihe repetition of J^ybejipeajibep. ' hampeajib, Cant. C.T. b i. and it. » jrojiSon )?e, Cant. }:op>oii, 
C.T. B i. and it. ^ ge^abpoban, Cant. * From Cant. ^ onbutan, Cant. * Abs. Cant. C.T. u i. 
aod It. from the repetition of ymbacao. » ju]?an onbucan. Cant. » From Cant. C.T.bu aod ir. 
• cameo, Cant. C.T. bi. p Limenan, Cant. ^ Apulbjie, Cant, as at the conclusion of the pre* 
ceding year ; an error of the scribe, from the similarity of p and p. 

* I. e. The I>ines« ' 340, Fior. ' Apnltrea, Fior» 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



117 



f gcpeopc act Beam-pleote. ^ paf J>a ut- 
ajrapen on hep^a^. ^ paejr jre micela hepe 
aet ham. Da popon hie to. 'j jejrlym- 
bon J>onc hepe. ^ f jepeopc abpascon. 'J 
^enamon eall f J^aep bin nan paep je on • 
peo. ^e on pipum. ^e eac on beapnum. 
anb bpohton eall into Lunbcn-bypij. 
■y J>a pcipu ealle o^Be tobpaecon o^^e 
popbaepnbon. o^Be to Lunben-bypij 
bpohton''. o^^c to l3popep-ccaptpe. • 
Anb Raeptenep pip "j hip pu^a tpejen 
mon bpohte to ))am c^nm^e. ^ he ''hie 
him ept a^eap. pop^am'' ]>e hiopa paep 
o%ep hip job-punu. o^ep /6))epebep 
ealbopmonnep. Daepbon hi hiopa on- • 
panjen aep l^aepten to Beam-pleote 
come, "i he him haepbe jepealb Jiplap 1 
a%ap. "j pe c^ninj him eac pel peoh 
pealbe. anb eac ppa )>a he J^one cniht 
ajep*^ ^ f pip. Ac pona ppa hie to Beam- » 
pleote comon. ^ f jepeopc jepopht 
paep**. ppa hepjobe he on hip pice J>one 
•ilcan'^enbe J>e/6Jrepeb hip cum-paebep'* 
heolban pceolbe. anb ept o^pe p^e he 
paep on hep^a^ jelenb on f ilce pice. • 
]?a )>a man hip ^epeopc abpasc. Da pe 
c^^ninj hme ^j^a^'pept penbe mib J^aepe 
pypbe pi^ Gxan-ceptpep. ppa ic aep 
paebe. ^ pe hepe J?a buph bepeten haepbe. 
]?a he Jyaep to ^epapen paep. ]7a eobon hie • 
to hiopa pcipum. Da he «))a'' piS J>one 
hepe J^aep pept abypjob paep. 'j ]?a hep- 
gap** paepon J?a jejabpobe bejen to 
Sceo-bypij on Gapt-Sexum. ^ J^aep Pe- 



king's troops, and routed the enemy, 
broke down the worki took all that was 
therein, — money, women, and children, 
'-^ind brought all to Liondon. And all 
the ships they either broke to pieces, 
or burned, or brought to London or 
to Rochester. And Hasten's wife and 
his two sons they brought to the king, 
who returned them to him, because one 
of them was his godson, and the other 
alderman Ethered's. They had adopt- 
ed them ere Hasten came to Bamfleet ; 
when he had given them hostages and 
oaths, and the king had also given him 
many presents; as he did also then, 
when he returned the child and the wife. 
And as soon as they came to Bamfleet, 
and the work was built, then plunder- 
ed he in the same quarter of his king- 
dom that Ethered his compeer should 
have held ; and at another time he was 
plundering in the same district when 
'his work was destroyed. The king then 
went westward with the army toward 
Exeter, as I before said, and the army 
had beset the city ; but whilst he was 
gone they went to their ships. Whilst 
he was thus busied there with the army 
in the west, the marauding parties were 
both gathered together at Shoburg in 
Essex, and there built a fortress. Then 
they both went together up by the 
Thames, and a great concourse joined 
them, both from the East-Angles and 



• Abs. Cr. B ir. from the repetition of the same words, as usual. ^ ht ept him ajef . p opSan ^ 
C.T. B i. .- jojiSon — Cant. ^ So C.T, b i. as before, a^cap , Cani. C.T, b i?. ^ hep bon, Cant. 
C.r. a i. and It. • Abs. Can/. ' cumpaBSep,Cr.BiT. s Abs. Can/. C.T. ai. ^ bepjeaf ^ Caal. 
C.T, B i. and It. as ^ual. So hep^eAJf and hep^^V; &c. ^ . 



118 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



peojic pojihtun. Fopon ■J^a'^'bexen aet- 
jaebepe up be Temejre. ^ him ^com mi- 
cel eaca to", aejj^ep je op eaft-enjlum 
je op Nop^-hymbpum. ^ Fopon J>a up 
be Temepe. o^ f hie jebybori aet: Sae- 
pepne- J>a up be Saepepne''. Da jeja- 
bpobe ye))epeb ealbopman. ^ yBJjelm 
ealbopman. •] y6}?elno® ealbopman. •] ))a 
cynmjep J^ejnap. J^e ]?a aet ham aet J^aem 
jepeopcum paepon. op aelcpe bypij be 
eaptan Pebpeban. je be peptan Seal- 
puba. je be eaptan je eac be nop}?an 
Temcpe. ^ ■be'' peptan Saepepn. je eac 
pum bael J^aep Nop^-peal-c^nnep. Da hi 
fa ealle jejabepobe paepon. }?a op-popon 
hie }H)ne hepe hinban aet Butbijmj- 
tune^ on Saepepn-pta^e**. ^ hme J^aep 
utan bepaeton on aelce heaipe on anum 
pasptenne. Da hie }?a "J^aBp" peak pu- 
cena paeton. on tpa heaipe }?aepe ea. ^ 
pe cyninj pasp pept on Depenum pi^ 
Jx)ne pcip-hepe. J?a paepon hie mib 'mete- 
leapte jepaehte''. anb haepbon ))a mi- 
celne bael Jjapa hoppa ppeten. ^ \z o^pe 
paepon hunjpe acpolen. Da eoban hie ut 
to "Jmrn'' monnum ))e on eapt-healpe 
faepe ea picobon^. -j him pi^ jepuhton. 
tJ J>a Cpiptenan haepbon pije. Anb J^aep 
peap% Opbhelm ^J^aep cyninjep J^ejn'' 
opplejen. ^ *"eac moni^e o^pe c^ninjep • 



from the Northumbrians. They then 
advanced upward by the Thames^ till 
they arrived near the Severn. Then 
they proceeded upward by the Severn. 
> Meanwhile assembled alderman Ethe* 
red^ alderman Ethel m^ alderman Ethel- 
noth^ and the king's thanes^ who were 
employed at home at the works^ from 
every town east of the Parretj as well 
as west of Selwood, and from the parts 
east and also north of the Thames and 
west of the Severn^ and also some part of 
North- Wales. When they were all col- 
lected together^ they overtook the rear of 
the enemy at Buttington^ on the banka 
of the Severn^ and there beset them with- 
out on each side in a fortress. When 
they had sat there many weeks on both 
sides of the water, and the king mean- 
while was in Devonshire westward with 
the naval force, then were the enemy 
weighed down with famine. They bad 
devoured the greater part of their horses; 
and the rest had perished with hungen 
Then went they out to the men that sat 
on the eastern side of the river, and 
fought with them ; but the Christians 
had the victory. And there Ordhelm^^ 
the king's thane, was slain ; and also 
many other king's thanes ; and of the 



J^ejnap''. ' ^ J>apa Denipcpa J^aep peap^ Danes there were many slain, and that 

'^^^^■^— — - — ^ — - - - — 

* From Cant, C.T,bu aad ir. ^ com to mycd eaca. Cant, C.T, b i. and U. c Abs. Cant. 
C.T.'BX, pojioD \^ Dp be Temeje 'j be Saepepne, CT*. bit. ^ So Gibs, from Whel. Butting. Ben* 
Cant. C,T. n i. and U. See also below. • Saepyjine- Cant, Saepepne- CT. b i. and iv. -prae^e, C.T. b ir. 
' metelejte j^epaejbe, Cant, metehepse jepaf jbe, C.T.b'u « paepon, Cant. •* From Petrob. CT.bu 
and in ' From CT, a u a clause of importaoce to the sense, abs. Whel. Gibs. 

' ^^Gesia hcec in Buttingtune prcedicantur a H. Hunt. Buttingdune, M.West. 
priscis.**— Ethelw. Buttingtun, Flor. ^^Apud • Ordeah, Flor. ^ MS. C.T.nU. Opbeb, 
Buttingatunamn^^-^lMeu Ann. Budiogtane, C.T. bi. Ordeinus, M^West 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



tl» 



nicel jcjrlaejen^ *) ye bael J?e J«p apej* 
com pujibon on pleame jenepebe. Da 
hie ^^Jja^on 6aj^-Seaxe comon to hiopa 
jcpeopce ^ to hiojia fcypum. ])a jeja- 
bpobc po lap ept on^ Gaj^-Gnjlum tl • 
Of Nop^-hymbpum micelne hcpe. on- 
popan pintep. ^ bepaefton hiopa pip ^ 
hiopa pcipu "j hiopa peoh on Gapt-Gn- 
glum. ^ popon ^on'' anptpecep baejep 

tl nihtep. f hic jebybon on anpe peptpc . 

« 

ceaptpe on pijihealum. pio ip Leja-ceap- 
tep^ jehaten. Da ne mihte po pypb 
hie na hinban op-papan. aep hie paepon 
inne on J^am jepeopce. Bepaeton J?a 
Jyeah f jepeopc ^utan'' pume tpejen . 
bajap. t) jenamon ceapep eall f J>aep 
buton paep. 'j \fz men opplojon J?e hie 
jropan pop*pyban myhtan butan J^am 
gepeopce. 1 f copn eall popbaspnbon. ^ 
mib hiopa hoppum Sppaeton^'on aelcpe . 
cpen-ehBe. Anb f paep ymb tpelp mona% 
fzdf ]>e hie aep hibep opep pae coman :• 

*An. DCCCXC V. Onb J?a pona aeptep 
J7am on J^y^piim' jeape. pop pe hepe op 
^pipheale m on'' Nop^-J?ealap. pop^aem . 
hie f a&p pittan ne mihton. f paep pop- 
^y* J?e hie paepon beniimene™ aej^p 
je J^aep ceapep je J^aep copnep. J?e hie 
gehepjob** haepbon. Da hie ®J?a'' ept 
^ut'^op Nop^-]7ealum penbon mib )>aepe . 
hcpc-h^^e. J?e hie )?a8p j^numen hasp- 
bon. ]7a popan hie opep Nop^-hymbpa 



part of them that came away escaped 
only by flight. As soon as they came 
into Essex to their fortress^ and to their 
ships^ then gathered the remnant again 
in East-Anglia and 'from the North- 
umbrians a great force before M^inter^ 
and having committed their wives and 
their ships and their booty to the East- 
Angles, they marched on the stretch > 
by day and night, till they arrived at a 
western city in Wirheal that is called 
Chester. There the army could not over- 
take them ere they arrived within the 
work: they beset the work though^ 
without^ some two days, took all the 
cattle that was thereabout, slew the men 
whom they could overtake without the 
work, and all the corn they either burn- 
ed or consumed with their horses every 
evening. That was about a twelve- 
month since they first came hither over 
vca. 

A.D. 895. Soon after fhat, in this 
year, went the army from Wirheal into 
North -Wales; for they could not re- 
main there, because they were stripped 
both of the cattle and the corn that 
they had acquired by plunder. When 
they went again out of North -Wales 
with the booty they had acquired there^ 
they marched over Northumberland and 
East-Angliaj so that the king's army 



• onpe;;. Cant. C.T.b'u and W. ^ From Cant C.T.bI and it. < op, Cani. C.T.b'u ' From 
Cani. • Le3- Cani. Lieje. C.T. b i. Lije- sir. ' Abs. Cani. C.T. b i. and it. s Abs. Cani. 
ppettan, C.T. b 1. ^ Abs. Laud. > So Cani. C.T. b i. ^iff um, b It. t^i)*, Gibs. ^ Piphcalaa 
4iuiao, Cant. ^ fojiSon, Cani. » beonmen, Cant. C.T. a i. and iT. ^ So Qmt. C.T. b i. and iv» 
Whol. sehalgob, Gibs. i.e. concealed. • Abs. Cant. CT. b i. 



* i. «• by forced marches. 



ISO 



THE SAXON chronicle: 



lonb. ^^ Gaflr-Gnjla. j-pa fT?a po jr^pb 
hie'' jepaecan ne mihte. o^ f hie comon 
on 6apt-Seaxna lonb eaj^epeapb. on an 
ijlonb f If ute on Jjaejie fae. f ij* CDepep 
13 haten. Anb ypa^ j-e hejie ejrt ham- • 
peapb penbe }>e 6xan-ceaj^ep^ bef eten 
haepbe. J)a hejijobon hie up on Su^- 
Seaxum neah Cif j-e-ceaj^pe.*] ]?a buph- 
pape hie jeplymbon. ^ hiopa monij hunb 
ojrj-lojon. ^ hiopa f cipu j*umu jenamon. • 
Da. J?y ylcan jepe. onpopan^ pmtep. ))a 
Denijrcan. J^e on CDaepejr-ije* jraeton. 
tujon heopa fcipu ^up on'' Temep. ^ 
J>a up on Lijans. f paej* ymb tpa jep 
faef ))e^ hie hibep opep jrae comon :• 

»An. DCCCXCVL "^On >y'' ylcan 
jepe. pophte f et pope j-ppecena hepe je- 
peopc be Lyjan?^. xx. mila bupan Lun- 
ben-bypij. Da J^aep on pumepa popon 
micel bael J?apa buph-papa. ^ eac ppa • 
o^pep polcep. f hie jebybon aet f apa 
Denipcana* jepeopce. "j Jjaep pupbon je- 
plymbe.^ pume peopep cyninjep J^ejnap 
opplejene. Da J^aep on haeppepte. ™J>a" 
picobe pe cyninj on ncapepte J^aepe b^^- . 
pij. J^a hpile ]>e hie heopa copn jepy- 
pon. f \>9L Denipcan him ne meahton J^aep 
pypep poppypnon. Da pume baeje pab 
pe c^^ninj up be J)aBpe ea. ^ jehapabe 
hpasp mon mihte ]?a ea poppypcan. f • 
hie ne mihton J?a pcipu utbpenjan. ;j 
hie J)a ppa bybon. pophcon "J)a" tu*' jc- 



could not reach them till they came* 
into Essex eastward^ on an island that 
is out at sea^ called Mersey. And as 
the army returned homeward that had 
beset Exeter^ they went up plunder^ 
ing in Sussex nigh Chichester ; but the 
townsmen put them to flighty and slew 
many hundreds of them^ and took some 
of their ships. Then^ in the same year^ 
before winter^ the Danes, who abode 
in Mersey, towed their ships up on the 
Thames, and thence up the Lea. That 
was about two years after that they came 
hither over sea. 

A.D. 89ff. This same year wrought 
the aforesaid army a work by the Lea» 
twenty miles above the city of London. 
Then, in the summer of this year, went 
a large party of the citizens, and also 
of other folk, and made an attack on 
the work of the Danes ; but they were 
there routed, and some four of the king's 
thanes were slain. In the harvest after-* 
ward the king encamped close to the 
city, whilst they reaped their corn, that 
the Danes might not deprive them of 
the crop I. Then, some day, rode the 
king up by the river ; and observed a 
place where the river might be obstruct* 
ed, so that they could not bring out their 
ships. And they did so. They wrought 



* *j fpa on Gap^GnjIe fpa 'f hie feo pypb, Cant. ^ ^a. Cant. C.T, b i. and it. * So Cani* 
Cr. Bi. and IT. mccAjtpe^ Gibs. ^ on po]ie»pepbne, Cant, -peajibne, CT.bi. * -ij?^ Cani» 
C'T.hir. ' uppon, Ccui/. upp on^Cr.ai. aa usual, s Lijjean, Can/. LijenanjC.T.Bi. Lt^tan^ 
B IT. ^ So Cani. to^Whel. incorrectly. ^ Abs. LamL ^ — }>on, Cant. Onb ]a ^9 CTIbi?. 
} DenifCjia, Cant. » Abs. Cant. CT.bI. and ir. « ^^g. Cant. ^ tpa, Cant. Cr.ain 

] ^^ Quo minus Dani Ulorum messem pt akif errant," — Flor, 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



121 



pcopc on tpa healpe* ^aepe ezy^. Da 
hie *^J)a'' f jepeopc pup^um on^unnen 
haspbon. ^^ ]?aep to jepicob haepbon^ ))a 
onjet* pe hepe f hie ne myhton J^a 
f cipu utbpenjan. }?a popleton hi hi^ ^ • 
eobon opep lanb f hie jeb^bon aet Cpat- 
bpicje be Saepepn^. ^ J^aep** jepeopc 
pophton. Da pab peo pypb •peptpeapb'' 
aeptep J?am hepijc'^. tJ fa men op Lun- 
ben-bypij jepetebon^ J?a pcipu. ^ }?a • 
*ealle fe" hie alaeban ne mihton hie to- 
bpaecon. "j J^a J>e J)aep ptael-p^p^e psepon 
binnan Lunben-b^pij jebpohton. Anb 
)>a Denipcan haepbon hiopa pip-bepaspt 
"mnan Gapt-Gnjle^ aep hie ut op Jjaem • 
jepeopce popon. Da paeton hie Jwne 
pmtep act Cpat-bpicjc". f paep ®ymb 
)>peo jep'" J^aep J^e hie on Limene-mu^anP 
eomon hibep opep pae :• 

^An. DCCCXCVII. 'Da paep"on pu- • 
mepa. on J^ipum jepe. topop pe hepe. 
pim on Gapt-Gnjle. pum on NopW- 
kymbpe. Anb J?a J?e peohleape paspon 
hitti J?a3p pcipu bejeton* ^ pu^ opep 
pae popon to Sijene*. Naepbe pe hepe. • 
Gobep J?ancep". Anjel-cyn* eallep pop- 
ppiSeJ^ jebpocob. ac hie paepon micele 
ppi^op jebpocebe on J?aem }?pim jeapum 
mib ceapep cpilbe. ^ monna eallep* 
ppi^opt mib Jjaem. f manije ]?apa pel- • 
cptena* cyninjep fejena^. fe J^aep on 



two works on the two sides of the river. 
And when they had begun the work^ and 
encamped before it^ then understood the 
army that they could not bring out their 
ships. Whereupon they left them^ and 
went over land, till they came to Quat- 
bridge by Severn; and there wrought a 
work. Then rode the king's army west- 
ward after the enemy. And the men of 
London fetched the ships ; and all that 
they could not lead away they broke up ; 
but all that were worthy of capture they 
brought into the port of London. And 
the Danes procured an asylum for their 
wives among the East- Angles^ ere they 
went out of the fort. During the win* 
ter they abode at Quatbridge. That was 
about three years since they came hither 
over sea into the mouth of the Limne. 

A.D. 897. In the summer of this year 
went the army, some into East-Anglia^ 
and some into Northumbria ; and those 
that were penny less got themselves ships^ 
and went south over sea to the Seine. 
The enemy had not, thank God, entirely 
destroyed the English nation; but they 
were much more weakened in these three 
years by the disease of cattle, and most 
of all of men ; so that many of the 
mightiest of the king's thanes, that were 
in the land, died within the three years. 



> healpa, Cani. ^ ea, Cani. < Abs. Cani, ^ Abs. C.T,n\. from the repetition of hxjbon. 
Afterwards, utbpm^on for utbjicnjan. « onjeat, Cani. ' ]?a fcipu, Cant, J>a fcypu, CT,b\, 
s S«5ypn, Cant. >» •«, Cant. C.T. b i. * Abs. Cani. C.T. b i. and iv. ^ hejie, Cani. hejijc, C,T. b i. 
' -toban, Cani. » on €ajr.en jium, Cant. " Bpicje, Cant. C.T. b i. » embe J^peo jcaji, C.T. b i. 
embe iii. jeap, Cant. p Limenan, Cant. ^ Abs. Laud. ' Onb ]^aej, Cant. C.T.bu and it. 
• .^cacon, Cant. C.T.biw. -un, b i. * Sijne, Cani. C.T.b'u and it. " So Cani. CT.bi, and it. 
fon jcf, Gibs. « -cynnej-, Cant. C.T. b i. and it. r jul- Cant. C.T. b i. and It. « ealju, Cant. 
C.T. B I. and it. • jciejtfiBy Cani. C.T. si. ^ }^Z^h Cant. CT b u J^sjeDa, bU. 

K 



123 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



lonbe pacpon. poji^pepbon on J^am J>pym 
jeapum. Dapa paep jrum Spi^ulp bi- 
f ceop on Rpopepceaptpe. t) Ceolmunb 
ealbopman on Cent. ^ Bcophculp ealbop- 
manonGapt-Seaxum.^^Pulppebeateopr 
man on ftamtun-pcype". anb Galheapb 
bipceop aet Dopce-ceajtrpe. *i Gabulp 
^'cy^ninjep Jjejen'' on Su^-Seaxum. ^ 
Beopnulp pic-jepepa*^ on pmtan-ceap- 
tpe**. anb Gcjulp cyninjep hopp-}?en. *j 
manije ^eac mib him''. J^eah ic |>a je]?un- 
jeneptan^ ^pjtan" nembe. Dy ilcan 
geape bpehton %'a hepjap** on Gapt- 
Gnjlum tJ on Nop^-hymbpum Peptr- 
Seaxna lonb ppiBe be Jjasm pu^-ptae^e . 
mib ptael hepjum. ealpa ppiKupt mib 
faem aepcum J?e hie peala jeapa aep tim- 
bpebon. Da het /Glppeb cyninj tim-: 
bpian* lange pcipu onjen'^ fa aepcap. fa 
paepon pul-neah tpa* ppa lange ppa fa . 
oWpu™. pume haspbon lx. apa". pume 
ma. fa paeppn aej^ep je ppiptpan je un- 
pealtpan. je eac hypan® f onne fa o^pu™. 
Naepon Phie nap^ep^'ne on Fpypipc^ je- 
pcaepene. ne on Denipc. buton' ppa him . 
pelpum f uhte fact hie nyt-pyp^opte' 
beon meahton. Da. aet pumum cyppe 
f aep ylcan jeapep. comon f aep pcipu pix 
to piht. ^ ^»p mycel ypel jebybon. 
aej^ep je on Depenum je pel-hpaep be . 
f am pae-piman*. Da het pe cy nmj papan 



Of these, one was Swithulf bishop of 

Rochester^CeoImund alderman in Ken^ 

Bertulf alderman in Essex^ Wulfred al* 

derman in Hampshire, Elhard bishop of 

Dorchester, Eadulf a king's thane ia 

Sussex, Bernulf governor of Winches^ 

ter, and Egulf the king's horse-thane ; 

and many also with them ; though I 

have named only the men of the highest 

rank. This same year the plunderers in 

East-Anglia and Northumbria greatly 

harassed the land of the West-Saxonf 

by piracies on the southern coast, buf 

most of all by the esks which they built 

many years before. Then king AI« 

frcd gave orders for building long ships 

against the esks, which were full-nigh 

twice as long as the others. Some had 

sixty 1 oars, some more; and they were 

both swifter and steadier, and also higher 

than the others. They were not shaped 

either after the Frisian or the Danish 

model, but so as be himself thought 

that they might be most serviceable^ 

Then, at a certain turn of this same 

year, came six of their ships to the isle 

of Wight ; and going into Devonshire^ 

they did much mischief both there and 

every where on the sea- coast Thea 

commanded the king his men to go out 

against them with nine of the new ships^ 



« Abs. Cant C.T. b i. and if. ^ cinjef J7cjn, Cani. C.T. b i. cynjej >cnj, b it, • So Coil. 
C,T. fl i. and it. jejrejiajWhel. * So Cant. C.T. u i. and it. Pince- Gibs. • to eacan him, Cant. 
C.T. B i. 'So Cant. C.T. b i. j^J^un jepian, b it. J^anjaejcan, edd. « From Cant^ ^ hcpjeax, 
Cant. CT. b i. » cimbpan, Cant. * on jeaa, Cant. ^ So Cant. cu,WheI. °» o^pe, Cant. C.T. b i. 
n apena, Cant. • lieappan, Cant. CT b i. heappa, b it. hiepan superscribed. p hi naj^op, C.T. a i. 
«i So C.r.B i. Fpijijc, Cant. ' So Cant. C.T.ul and it. bate, Gibs. • nihc peopSop:e, Ca»<» 
* pimum, Cant. 

I 40, Brompt. from the transposition of the Roman namerals lju 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



123 



inib nijonum* to. jTapa nipena^ jxipa. 
5 ^^poppopan'' him }K)ne mu^an popan 
on utep mepe. Da popon hie mib }?pym 
fGipum ut onjen hie. ** tJ ' fp^o ftobon 
aet upepeapbum J^sem mu^an on bpi- • 
jum^. paepon J>a men upp on lonbe op- 
a^ane. Da jepenjon hie J>apa )>peopa 
pcipa tpa' aet: J^am mu%an utepeapbum. 
^ J>a men opflojon. tl f an o^panb. on 
J^aem paepon eac J>a men^ opplejene • 
butan pipum. ^a paepon hie cac jrpy^e 
poppunbobe. Da comon ** pop^n'' on 
pcj Jje Jjapa o^Spa* pcipu apeton. ^J?a 
pupbon eac fpy^e une^ehce apeten. 
J?peo apaeton'^on Jra healpe ^fajpbeopej-'' • 
J>e fa Denifcan pcipu apeten"* paspon* 
^ J>a "o^pu'' ealle on c?6pe healpe. f 
hiopa ne m^hte nan to o^pum. ac j>a f 
paetep paep aebbab*^ peala puplan^a 
ppom ]7am pcipum. Da eobon )>a De- • 
ni]rcan ppom )?aemP J>pym pcipum to 
)tem oVpum J'pym \fe on heopa healpe 
beebbube paepon.^ hie }?a J^aep jepuhton. 
^ ^aep peap^ opffejen Lucumon. cyn- 
mjej* jepepa. ^ pulpheapb Fpyfa. tJ • 
jebbeFpyp.^J/e'SelepeFpyp.'j /e«el- 
pep^ cynmjep jeneat. ^ ealpa monna 
Fpypjrcpa tJ Gnjhj-cpa lxii, tJ fapa De- 
nifcpa cxx. Da com \>xm Denipcum 
pcipum Jeah^ xji plob to. aep }?a Cpip- . 
tcnan' myhton hiopa ut af cupan^ tJ hic 
pop^y* ut o]?pcopon. )?a paepon hie to 
Jraem jej^apjobe f hie ne mihton Su^- 



aind prevent their escape by the mouth 
of the river to the outer sea. Then came 
they out against them with three ships« 
and three others were standing upwards 
above the mouth on dry land; for the' 
men were gone off upon shore. Of the 
first three ships they took two at the 
mouth outwards^ aud slew the men; the 
third veered ofl^ but all the men were 
slain except five; and they too were se- 
verely wounded. Then came onward 
those who manned the other ships^ which 
were also very uneasily situated. Three 
were stationed on that side of the deep 
where the Danish ships were aground, 
whilst the others were all on the oppo- 
site side; so that none of them could 
join the rest ; for the water had ebbed 
many furlongs from them. Then went 
the Danes from their three ships to those 
other three that were on their side^ be- 
ebbed; and there they then fought. There 
were slain Lucomon^ the kingV reve, 
and Wulfheard^ a Frieslander; Ebb^ a 
Frieslander^ and Ethelere^ a Frieslander; 
and Ethelferth, the king's neat-herd ; 
and of all the men^ Frieslanders and En- 
glish, sixty-two; of the Danes a hun- 
dred and twenty. The tide, however, 
reached the Danish ships ere the Chris- 
tians could shove theirs out; whereupon 
they rowed them out; but tliey were so 
crippled, that they could not row them 



« nijenum, Cani, ^ nippa, Cant. C.T. a vi. b i. « So Cant, ^ Abs. Cant, C.T. b i. ' • bpyj^um, 
Cant. C.T. All ^ So Cant. ca,Whel. « After men^ jpy^e, Cant, * So Cant. C.T. avi. bi. 
> oj^ejijia, Cant. C.T. Ait. b i. * Abs, CT. bit. from the repetition of afaeton. ' )^ajpc bypan, 
Cant. C.T. A Ti. « jefecen, Cant. " Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. ^ aebbob, C.r. bi. jecbbob, Cant. 
p AfterJ^xm, o'^pum, Can/.C.r.Bi. <i So Can/. C.r.Bi. J^eh^Gibs. ' So Can/. C.r. bi. and iy. 
£pijtaan^ Gibs. > -oijceaf aD, Caf^, ^ ]^aph ^y Cant. 

B 2 



124 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Seaxna lonb iitan bepopan. ac* hiopa 
Jia^ji tpa^ f ae on lont> hebpzf^. 'j j^a men 
mon lasbbe to J?inte-ceaj^pe** to J^am 
cyninje. tJ he hie faep ahon het. ^ Jja 
•menn 'comon onGajir-enjle ^e on ^am 
anum jrcipe paepon. fpi^e poppunbobe. 
i)f ylcan jeape^ poppeap^ na^ laep]H>n- 
ne XX, fcipa^ mib monnum mib ealle. 
be ]?am pu^ pyman. Dy ilcan jeape 
pop^pepbe J?ulppic cyninjep hopp-J>e- 
jen. pe paep 'eac'' pealh jepepa^:- 

»An. DCCCXCVIII. ftep on fipum 
jepe jepop /e^helm. piltun-pcipe ealb- 
Qpman. ni^on nihtum aep mibbum pu- 
mepa. Anb hep pop^pepbe Reahptan™ 
pe paep on LunDenne bipcop'';- 

DCCCXCIX. DCCCC. 

An.DCCCCL "^J3ep jepop^ /eippeb 
A^ulpinj. pyx nihtum aep ealpa hahjpa 
maeppan. ye paep cyninj opep eall Onjel- 
cynn. butan ))am baele }?e unbep Dena 
onpealbe paep. Anb he heolb f pice 
o^pum Phealpum' ^eape laep J?e xxx. 
pintpa''. "3 ])a penj Gabpeapb hip punu 
to pice. ^Anb'^ J^a jepab yGJ^elpalb"^ 
■aej7ehn3''. hip paebpan* punu. J>one ham 
aetpmbupnan. ^ aet Tpeoneam'*. *butan 



beyond the coast of Sussex : there twe 
of them the sea drove ashore ; aod the 
crew were led to Winchester to the king^ 
who ordered them to be hanged. The 
men who escaped in the single ship 
came to East- Anglia^ severely wounded. 
This same year were lost no less thaa 
twenty ships ^, and the men withal, on 
the southern coast. Wulfric, the king's 
horse-thane, who was also vice-roy of 
Wales, died the same year. 

A.D. 898. This year died Ethelm, 
alderman of Wiltshire, nine nights be- 
fore midsummer ; and Heahstan^, who 
was bishop of London. 



A.D. 901. This year died Aifbep, 
the son of Ethelwulf, six nights before 
the mass of All Saints. He was king 
over all the English nation, except that 
part that was under the power of the 
Danes. He held the government one year 
and a half less than thirty winters; and 
then Edward his son took to the govern- 
ment. Then prince Eihelwald, the son 
of his paternal uncle, rode against the 



• ah, CanL ^ So Cant. C.T. b i. and iv. cu,Whel. < peapp, Cant. C.Tl b i. and iv. * pUrun- 
ceapi^ie, C.T, b ir. Pinte-ceapiTie superscribed by Josselin, with this remark : Sic in Hist. Sax. EccL 
Xti. Cant, Pmte^ceajtep, C.T. b i. ^eja^pobe, b it. for J^PPS^^^} ^ ^^^ Wn^s above, — super- 
scribed by the same hand. * From Cant, C.T. e i. and ir. ' jumepa, Cot. Cant. C.T. b i. and it. 
s So Cant. C.T b i. no, Gibs. ^ jcipu, Cant. > Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. ^ So Oint. C.T. b i. 
jeppa^Whel. Joss, inter]. C.T. b i?. > Abs. Laud. ^ Galhjtan^ C.T. b i. and ir. ; whence Florence 
of Worcester, Ealhstanus : but Ealchstan, or £alhstan, who was bishop of Sherbom fifty years, died 
in the year 867. ^ From Whel. C.T. b i« bep ^efop iEljrpeb cynin^ rii. kal. Nouembpij. *j he 
beolb)^ec pxce xxxTiir. pincpa *j hcalp jeap. Cot. Laud. C.T. Bir. with little rariation. • jejropS- 
f epbe, Cot. p So C. T. b i. ^ From Cant. C. T. b i. abs. Laud, to the end of the year. ' A]«IpoIb, 
C,T. b i. inrariably. ■ From Cant. C.T. b i. ^ psbepan, C.T, b i. and ir. ^ Tpeoxncam, Cant. 
C.T. B i. -nam, b ir. ofcrlincd .neam. ^ ]}t.j cio^ej un]7ancef, Cant. C.T B i. and ir. 

* Of the Danes ; Florence of Worcester. '^ An. 900, Flor. 



THE SAXON CHTRONIGLR 



1S5 



^aef cynmjef leape'' "i hif pitena. Da 
jiab fe cynin J mib pypbc o^ f he jepic- 
obc aet Babban-bypij pi^ pinbujinan. 
anb y6]>elpalb f a^t: binnan J'am ham mib 
]7aem monnum ]7e him to ^ebu^on. ^ he 
haepbe ealle }?a jeatu* poppophce in to 
kim. ^ i^aebe f he polbe ^6]?ep'' o^^e 
^aep hbban oS^e J^sep hcjan*^. Da unbep 
Jam J)a **bej^ael he hine'' on niht on- 
pej^, anb jefohte J^one hepe on Nop^- 
hymbpum. ^'j fe cyninj het piban 
aeptep. ^ }?a ne myhte hine mon op- 
piban". s-j hie hine unbeppenjon heom 
to cmje. "i him to bujon". Da bepab 
mon f pip f he haepbe aep jenumen 
butan ^|?aep''cynin5epleape. ^ opep }?apa 
bipceopa jebob^ pop^on J^e heo paep 
"^asp to nunnan'^ jehaljob. Anb on J^yp^ 
ilcan jepe pop^pepbe /ej^epeb. ™pe'' 
paep on Depenum" ealbopmon. peopcp 
pucum^ aep /Glppeb cynmj :• 
.«An.DCCCCIL I3ep paep f jepeoht 
act ]7am X^olme Cantpapa anb J'apa De-* 
nipcpa'^ :• 

PAn. DCCCCIII. Rep jepop A«ulp 
ealbopman. Galhppi^e bpoBop. **6ab- 
peapbep mobop cinjep''. 'j Uipjibup ab- 
biib ^op Scottum''. "j Gpimbalb ma^ppe- 
ppeopt. 'VIII. ibup lulii'^ "Dip ylcan 
jeapep pap jehaljob Nipe-mynptep on 
pin-ceaptep. ^ p. lubocep cyme'':- 



towns of Winbura and of Twinebam^ 
without leave of &e king and his coun- 
cil. Then rode the king with his army; 
so that be encamped the same night at 
BadburjnearWinburn; and Ethelwald 
remained within the town with the men 
that were under him^ and had all the 
gates shut upon him^ sayings that he 
would either there live or there lie. But 
in the mean time he stole away in the 
nighty and sought the army in Northum- 
berland. The king gave orders to ride 
after him; but they were not able to over- 
take him. The Danes^ however^ received 
him as their king. They then rode afler 
the wife that Ethelwald had taken with- 
out the king's leave^ and against the com** 
mand of the bishops; for she was former- 
ly consecrated a nun. In this year also 
died Ethered^ who was alderman of De- 
vonshire, four weeks before king Alfred. 

A.D. 902. This year* was the great 
fight at the Holme^ between the men of 
Kent and the Danes. 

A.D. 903. This year died alderman 
Ethelwulf^thebrother of Elhswitha, mo- 
ther of king Edward ; and Virgilius ab- 
bot of the Scots; and Grimbald the mass- 
priest; on the eighth day of July. This 
same year was consecrated the new min- 
ster at Winchester, on St. Judoc's advent. 



* jatu, Cant. C,T. b i. > Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. and if. « lijjean, Cant. hc;;oan, C.T. b i. * pab 
jttae)>ehn^, Can/. C.r.Bi. « ^ye^^ Cant, C.T. bI 'Abs.CT.Bi. 8 From Cbn/. C.r.Bi. and ir. 
^ From Cant. C.T. b i. » jebobu, Cant. C.TbI ^ nunne aji, Cant. > So C.T. b i. }ry, Cant, 
fijj Gibs. °» From Cant. » Dejrnum, Cant. C.T.m. • pucan, Cant. C.T.ut. p Abs. Laud. 
« on - Cant, of Scocum, C.T. b t. 'So Petrob. ■ From Cot. 

* Tweoxbeam, Flor. incorrectly. • Or, in Holmsdale, Surry : hence the proterb 
'^ Jn. 904, Flor. See the particulars more at '^ Thb is Helmsdale, 

large iu Etbelwerd. Never conquered, never shall.*' 



196 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



•An. DCCCCIV. Rep com /e^elpalb 
hibep opep fas mib eallum J^am plotan 
fe he ^bejitan mihte. tJ hini to jebo- 
jcn paej- on Gaft-Sexum^ *^j3ep mona 
aj^eoj^pobe":* 

An. DCCCCV. ftep appon^ ye«el- 
palb ]?one hepe on Gaj^-Gnjlum to un- 
ppy^e. f hie hepjobon opep *eair' 
CDypcna lonb oS ^]?aet'' hie comon to 
Cpecca-jelabe^. ^ popon J^aep opep Te- 
mepe. tJ naraon aej^ep je on Bpsebene 
je J^aep ymbutan^^ call f hie ^ehentan 
myhton. tJ penbon )ya ept hampeapb. Da 
pop Gabpeapb cyninj aeptep. ppa he 
jia^opt myhte hip pypb jejabpian. "j ' 
opep-hepjabe eall hiopa lonb betpeoh 
bicum*^ ^ Pupan eall o^ J?a pennap nopS. 
Da he ^J^a'^ept J^anon *ut'' papan polbe. 
fsi het he beoban opep ealle fz pypb. f 
hie popon ealle ut aet pomne^. Da ast* • 
paeton ]?a Centipcan Jjaep Ijeaeptan^ opep 
hip bebob. ^ peopen aepenb-pacan he 
him haepbe to apenb*". Da bepop pe 
hepe hie J^aep. ^ hie J^aep jepuhton. ^ 
Jiaep peap^ Sipulp" ealbopmon opplejen. • 
^ Sijelm ealbopmon. ^ Gabpolb cyn- 
injep J^ejen. ^ Cenpulp® abbob. ^ Sije- 
bpyht SipulpepP punu. tl Gabpalb Ac- 
can punu. ^ moni^e eac mib^ him. J>eah 
ic J?a jejunjeneptan' nembe« Anb on • 



A.D. 904. This year came Elhel- 

'wald hither over sea 'with all the fleet 

that he could get, and he was submitted 

to in Essex. This year the moon was 

> eclipsed. 

A.D. 905. This year Ethel wald en- 
ticed the army in East-Anglia to rebel- 
lion ; so that they over-ran all the land 
of Mercia^ until they came to Crick- 
lade i^ where they forded the Thdmes; 
and having seized, either in Bradon 
or thereabout, all that they could lay 
their hands upon, they went homeward 
again. King Edward went after, as 
soon as he could gather^ his army, and 
over-ran all their land between the foss 
and the Ouse quite to the fens north* 
ward^. Then being desirous of return* 
ing thence, he issued an order through 
the whole army, that they should all go 
out at once. But the Kentish men re* 
mained behind, contrary to his order, 
though he had sent seven messengers to 
them. Whereupon the army surrounded, 
them, and there they fought. There fell 
aldermen Siwulf and Sigelm ; Eadwold, 
the king's thane; abbot Kenwulf ; Sige- 
briht^ the son of Siwulf; Eadwald, the 
son of Acca; and many also with them; 
though I have named the most consi- 



* AhB.LoMid, ^ So CantC.T. si. )re he mib paej on 6ajt-Scaxe,Whel. « From Cant. ^ jelaeb^, 
Cani. C.T. b i. and iv. « From Cant. C,T. b i. and it. ' Cpcacc- C.T. b i. Cpeocc- C.T. b ir. 
Cjiac* CanL k oabucan, CanL C.T, b i. and ir. ^ bicon. Cant. ' Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. ^ famne^ 
Cant. 1 baepan, Cant. » on jenb, Cant. " Sijulj:, Cant. C.T. b i. Siulj:, C.T. b It. <> Cenalj:^ 
C.T. B i. Senulf, Cant, p Si^ulfej, Cant. C. T.sl <i to, Cant. C. T.bu ' So Cant. Fid. an. 897. 



* Crcccanfordam, Flor. 

• We now say « gather together," — which is 
jB kiod of tatttology. 



' ^* TerraSy^^queB inter terrw limitem sancti re- 
gis Eadmundi ci flumen Usam sunisitof.*^ — Fior, 
* Sibrihtus, Flor. Sibertus, M.West. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



127 



fajia Dcnijrcena* healpe peap^** opfle- 
jen Gohpic *^hypa" c^nj. "j /E]?elpalb 
a&))elin3 **J>e hme to J?am unppi'Sc je- 
fpon'.'j Byphtpje^ Beoptnio^ef^ jrunu 
aej^elinjef . ^ Yfopa holb. ^ Ofcytel 
hote. ^ jrpiSe monije eac Kmib'^ him J^e 
pe nu jeneranan ne ma^on. Anb J^aep 
paejr on jehpaeScpe honb micel pael je- 
jrlejen. ^ }?apa Denipcena* ^J^aep'^ peapB 
ma opflejen. ^'J^eah'' hie pael-ptope je- 
pealb ahtron. *Anb Galhj'py^ ^^pop fy 
ykan jeape". *^r>ep oJ>ypbe cometa'^. 
*xiii. kt. Nouembpij-'^:- 

DCCCCVI. 

An. DCCCCVII ™ "Dep on J^ifum^ 
gcape jepop /Elppeb. paep a&t Ba^umP 
jcpepa. ^^ on J?am ilcan jepe man 
jepaeptnobe }?one' ppi^ aet Yttinja- 
popba. ppa ppaGabpeapb cynj jepa&bbe. 
aej^ep je pi^ Gapt-Gnjle'. je pi^ Nop^- 
hymbpe''. *J>ep paep Lij-ceaptep jeeb- 
Dcopab'' :• 

DCCCCVIII. 

An. DCCCCIX. J3ep jepop Denulp. 
pe paep on pintan-ceaptpe bipcop. " J3ep 
paep pee Oppalbep he jelaeb op Beapban- 
ijje on OOypee'':- 



derable. On the Danish side were slain 
Eohric their king^ and prince Ethel- 
wald, who had enticed them to the war. 
Bjrtsige^ the son of prince Brihtnoth ; 
governor Ysop; governor Oskytel; and 
very many also with them that we now 
cannot name. And there was on either 
hand much slaughter made ; but of the 
Danes there were more slain^ though 
they remained masters of the field. £al« 
swithai died this same year; and a comet 
appeared on the thirteenth day before . 
the calends of November* 

A.D. 907. This year died Alfred, 
who was governor of Bath. The sabie 
year was concluded the peace at Hitch- 
ingford^ as king Edward decreed^ both 
with the Danes of East-Anglia^ and 
those of Northumberland ; and Chester 
was rebuilt. 



A.D. 909. This year died Denulf^ 
who was bishop of Winchester; and the 
body of St. Oswald was translated from 
Bardney into Mercia^. 



« Deiiij-cpa, Cant, C.T. b i. ^ paej, Cant, C,T. b i. « Abs. Cani. C.T.bu ^ }e hie heom to 
cm je jecupon, Cant. So CT, b i. and ir. with very little yariation. « Byjxhp^c^Cant Beoph- C.T.b'u 
' So CT. B i. and if. Bjiyhcno^cj-, Cant. Beopoo^cf, Gibs. « From Cant. CT. b i. * So Canti 
Cr.Bi. * An.Dccccii. Ca^/. ^ So Cant, comecaaeteopbe, CT.Biv. > From ^.7*. b! v. Some 
omissions here in C.T. b i. are supplied afterwards^ foL 138. ^ dccccti. Cant. CT. b i. and ir.. omit- 
tiQg Dccccvii.-Tiir. ■ Abs. Laud. ^ So C.T.bi. Jyjum, Cant. >ij, Gibs. p BaVan, CanL. 
BaJ^um tunc, C.T. b ir. B^pum, b i. incorrectly » ^ So CT. uK ^ ^y ilcan ^^eape, Cani. Dep ge* 
]:epniobe Gabpapb cyn j pop neobe ppy^ aej^cp je pi^ Gajr-Gnjla hepe. je pi5S NopK-hymbpe. Laud^ 
an. DCCCCVI. » f, Cant. ■ Gnjlum, Cant. * From Cant. » From Cani. Vid. CT. b i. fol. 138. 
An. Dcccciv. CT. b ir. with some variation. 



^ '^ Religiosa Christi famula^ Ealhsuitka rC'^ 
ginOf maier regis Eadwardi^ — quw sanctimonia^ 
Hum monatterium fVinionue consiruxii" — Flor. 

f ^' S. Oswddi regis ei tnartyris ossa de Barm 



ihoneig in Mevciam translata suni.^* — Flor, 
on. &10. Fid. Higd. Polychron. an. 909. Hove- 
den, an. 906. ^^A Bardenetf in Gloucesiriamj ut 
dkUur.^^-^Chron* J ohm. de Durgoy an. 91%. 



128 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



An. DCCCCX. Rep pen j Fpi^eptan* 
to bij-copbome on ^pmtan-ceaj^pe". 
anb Affep^ ^'bifcop'^ jepop aeptep ))am. 
1^ paep aet Scijie-bupnan bif cop. Anb 
py ylcan jepe j-enbe Gabpeajib cynj 
pyjibe aej^eji je op pept-Seaxum je op 
CDyjicum. ^ heo* jehepjabe pp;^e micei 
on J^am nop^ hepe. aej^ep je on man- 
niim ge on ^jehpelcep cynnep yppe^'. 
anb mani^e men opplojon ^apa Denip- 
cena^. *J J>aBp paepon pip pucan inne. 
^ On J>ypum jepe Gnjle ^ Dene jepuhc- 

« 

on act Teotanheale. tj Gnjle pije namon. 
tj J?y ilcan jeape yGJjelplaeb jetimbpebe 
fa buph aet Bpemepbypij'' :• 

*An. DCCCCXI. JJep bpaec pe hepe 
on Nop^-hymbpum J>one ppi^. ^ pop- 
papon'^ aelc piht^ J?e Gabpeapb cynj ^ 
hip punu" him bubon. "j hepjbbon opep 
CD^pcna lonb. Anb pe cynj haepbe je- 
jabpob pum hunb pcipa. *i paep J?a on 
Cent. ^ J>a pcipu popon be pu^an-eapt 
anblan^ pae tojenep him. Da penbe pe 
hepe. f hip pultrumep pe raaepta bael 
paepe on J?am pcipum. ^ f hie myhton 
papanunbepohtene ])agp]?ajp hie polbon. 
Da jeacpabe"* pe cynj f. f hie °ut''on 
hepja'S popon. }?a penbe he hip pypb 
aej^ep je op pept-Seaxum je op CDyp- 
cum. anb hie op-popon J^onne hepeP 
hinban J^a J^e he hampeapb paep. t) him 
)>a pi^ jepuhton. ^ ])onne hepe jeplym- 



A.D. 910. This year Fritfaestan took 
to the bishopric of Winchester; and 
Asser died soon after^ who was bishop 
of Sherborne. The same year king Ed- 
ward sent an army both from Wessex 
and Mercia^ which very much harassed 
the northern army by their attacks on 
men and property of every kind. They 
slew many of the Danes^ and remained 
in the country five weeks. This year 
the Angles and the Danes fought at 
Tootenhall ; and the Angles had the 
victory. The same year Etbelfleda built 
the fortress at Bramsbury. 

A.D. 911. This year the army in 
Northumberland broke the truce, and 
despised every right that Edward and 
his son demanded of them ; and plun- 
dered the land of the Mercians. The 
king had gathered together about a hun- 
dred ships^ and was then in Kent; while 
the ships were sailing along sea by the 
south-east to meetbim. The army there- 
fore supposed that the greatest part of 
his force was in the ships> and that they 
might go^ without being attacked, where- 
ever they would. When the king learned 
on enquiry, that they were gone out on 
plunder, he sent his army both from 
Wessex and Mercia; and they came up 
with the rear of the enemy as he was on 



• Fjia^ojran, CanL FjiiWjtan, C.T. b if. ^ So Cant. « O j;cji, Cant. ^ Abs. Cant. C.T. b i. and Ir. 
« lic,C.r.Biv. ' x^^hpylcum yjiyc^Cant. « -cjia,Ciw/. C.r.Bi.and ir. ^ FromC.T.Bi. foI.I38. 
bej\ 6n;;le.bpjie 1 Dene-hppe ^epeohran »c Teotaaheale. Laud. I3ep ODypcc "j Pejt-Seaic jejriihcon 
pi^ JFonc hepe nch Teotanheale. on yiii. ibuf Ajujtaj*. "j pge hasjbon. "j fy ilcan jcajic iEfclplaib je- 
tinibfiobe Bjiemefbujih. C.T.Eir. > Abs. Laud, to the end of the year, as usual. ^ -japan, Cant, 
* SoC.r.Bi?. ppi^jGibs. iElcj7w>,Whel. Fid. F\or. ^ yitaa^Cant. C.T. Bl&nd if. » x«^pobc, 
Cant. C.T. B IT. « Abs. Cant. C.T. a it, p Abs. Cant, from the repetition of )»onDe hepe, though 
the second hepe is omitted by Gibson. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



1S9 



bon. 'i hij* peala )>ufenba opjrlo^on. 
Anb J>aBp paef Gopilf * cynj opflejcn. 
^"i bealpben cinj. ^ Ohtep eopl. ^ 
Scappa eopl. ^ Ajmunb holb. tl OJ^ulp^ 
holb. ^ Benepn^ holb. ^ Anlap fe 
fpeapta. ^ Dunpcp^ holb. tl Ofpep^ 
hlj^tte. anb Gu^pep^ holb"':- 



An.DCCCCXII.^ tieji ^Z^jiop /B'Se- 
peb ealbopmon on OOepcum'^. ^ Gab- 
peapb c^n J pen j to Lunben-b^pi j. ^ to 
Oxna-popba^. ^ to eallums )>am lanbum 
J>e faep to hypbon^. 'I3ep com /6)>el- 
plaeb. G7^pcna hlaspbi^e. on J^one haljan 
spen muentione p2c cpucip. to Scep- 
jeate^. ^ f aep J^a buph jetimbpebe. *i 
)>aep ilcan jeapep j^a aet Bpicje'' :• 

*An. DCCCCXIII. Rep on fippum 
2^pe. ymbe CDaptinep maeppan. het 
6abpeapb cynj atymbpan" J>a nop^an* 
buph aetJJeopot-popba. betpeox*^ PCDe- 
mepan "X Benepican' *i Lyjean. Anb J^a 
asptep J^am. J^aep on pumepa. betpeox** 
janj-bajum ^ mibbum^ pumepa. 'fa' 
pop Gabpeapb cynmj raib pumum hip 
pultume* on Gapt-Seaxe to CDselbune. 
^ picobe ]>a&p ]>a hpile }>e man )ra buph 
pophte *i ^jetimbpebe aet J^itham^ anb 



with the rear of the enemy as he was on 
his way homeward i, and there fought 
with faim and put him to flighty and slew 
many thousands of his men. There fell 
king Eowils'j and kingHealfden; earls 
Ohter and Scurf; governors Agmund^ 
Othulf^andBenesing; Anlaf the swarthy^ 
and governor Thunferth ; Osferth the 
collector^ and governor Guthferth. 

A.D. 913. This year died Ethered, 
alderman of M ercia ; and king Edward 
took to London, and to Oxford, and to 
all the lands that thereunto belonged* 
This year^ also came Elhelfleda^^ lady 
of the Merciantf, on the holy eve called 
the invention of the holy cross, to Sher- 
gate, and built the fortress there, and the 
same year that at Bridgenorth. 

A.D. 913. This year, about Martin- 
mas, king Edward had the northern 
fortress built at Hertford, betwixt the 
Memer^^ and the Benwic^ and the 
Lea^. After this, in the summer, be- 
twixt gang-days and midsummer, went 
king Edward with some of his force 
into Essex, to Maldon ; and encamp* 
ed there the while that men built and 
fortified the town of Witham. And 
many of the people submitted to him. 



• eopihjrc, C.T. B ir. ^ From Cani, C.T. b it. « A>ulp, C.T. b it. * dccccx. Zdmd, CqL 
In both years, by mistake, C.T. b It. Peirob. • M^h GDyjioeoa ealbop f opVpepbe, Laud. So 
nearly C.T. b ir. in 010; but here it agrees with the printed Chronldes. ' Oxana. Coi. s ealle, 
Laud. ^ ^ebyjiebon, Laud, bebyjiebon, Joss, ioterlin. C.T. b it. from Peirob. ^ From Cani. 
^ Sceap. Chron. Peirob. according to Lambert. So Flor. > Abs. Laud, to the end of the year. 
• :g^ecymhj\SLnf Cani. . > nojASan, Cani. Joss, inter!. C.T. b ir. » betoh, Cani. betpeoh| C.T^ b ir. 
and afterwards beptux janbajam. P COejian *j Benefixean, Cani. ^ mibban, Cani. « Abs. Cani. 
C.T. B ir. ' -tome, Cani. ^ setpymobe aet Pitanham, C.T. b it. 2^^°^^I^^ J^>* iaterlin. 



' ^ In eampoj qui lingua Anglorum fVodnesm 
feld didtur:' — Flon from Ethelw. 
^ Eowilsns, Flor. Eywysl, EU^br. 



* Vid. Fior. an. Oia. * iEgelfleda, Flor. 

* Meneran, Ficcean, Ugeaoi^-^Flor. Mema* 
ran, Benifnthe (a/. Ftcceam), ligeam,^— M. West. 

8 



ISO 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



bcah h^x job bael J>aef jiolcef to. J?e 
asp unbep Denijrcpa^ manna anpealbe 
parpen. ^ fum hij* pultum pophte fa 
buph fa hpyle aet J3eopot-popba on jmS 
healpe Lyjean. ^ftep Gobc popjipcn- . 
bum pop ^yefelplaeb OOypcna Maepbije 
nub eallum CDypcum to Tamapeop^ije. 
^ fa buph f asp jetimbpcbe on pope- 
peapbne pumop. 'j f aep popan to hlap- 
masfpan fa aet Staep-popba'. Da paep . 
oVpe jeape fa aet Gabep-bypij.on pope- 
peapbne pumop. •j f aep ilcan jeapep ept 
on upe-pcapbne haeppept fa aet paep- 
inj-picon. Da paep o^pe jeape on upan 
mibne pintep fa aet O^^pic-bypij ^ fa . 
aet pcapb-bypij. anb f jr ilcan jeape po- 
|ian tomibban pmtpaf a aetRumcopan^V 

DCCCCXIV. DCCCCXY. 

^An. DCCCCXVI. J3ep peap« Gcj- 
bpiht abbub unpcylbij opplejen. popan . 
to mibban pumepa. on xvi. kai. lut. Dy 
dean baeje paep pee Cipiciup tib f aep 
Jipopepep mib hip jepepum. Anb f aep 
^mb III. niht penbc /6f elplaeb pypb on 
Pealap. anb abpac Bpecenan-mepe. anb . 
f aep jenam f asp cinjep pip. peopep t) 
f pitija pume" :• 

*An. DCCCCXVII. ftep on f yp jepc 
pab pe hepe ut. opep 6aptpon. op liztor 
tune, "i op L^epa-ceaptpe. ^ bpascon . 
fone ppy^. "i plojon^ monije^ men aet 



^ho were before under the power of the 
Danes. And some of his force^ meaa- 
while^ built the fortress at Hertford on 
the south side of the Lea. This year 
by the permission of God went Ethel- 
fleda^ lady of Mercia^ with all the Mer- 
cians to Tamworth^; and built the fort 
there in the fore-part of the summer; 
and before Lammas that at Stafford^: 
in the next year that at Eddesbury, in 
the beginning ^f the summer; and the 
same year^ late in the autumn^ that at 
Warwick^. Then in the following year 
was built^ after mid -winter^ that at 
Chirbury and that at Warburton ; and 
the same year before mid- winter that at 
Runkorn^. 

A.D. 916. This year^ was the inno- 
cent abbot Egbert slain^ before midsum- 
mer^ on the 16th^ day before the calends 
of July. The same day was the feast af 
St. Ciricius the martyr, with his com- 
panions. And within three nights sent 
Ethel fleda an army into Wales, and storm- 
ed Brecknock; and there took the king's 
wife, with some four and thirty others. 

A.D. 917. This year rode the artny, 
after Easter, out of Northampton and 
Leicester ; and having broken the truce 
they slew many men at Hockerton and 



* So Cant. Dentjcair^Whol. ^ From CanL Petroh CT.kyu briefly sir. at the begintiiog of 
the year. Vid, C.T, b i. fol. 138. * iE^dflaeb ^etimbpobe Tamepeop^e, *J eac Stapj:ojir>abu}ib. 
C,T. B ir. brieflji at Uie b^inning of the year. ' From CanL * Abs. Laud, occcczit. Cant. 
Q.T, A Ti. B i. aod iv. all omitting \yj before jejie. ' rlojao, Cant. f mane^an, CT. b iv. 



^ Tomewordlnam^Flor. Thameworth^M.West. 
an. 914* 

• ?* In teptenirionali parte Sowi niiinM.'*— 
Fior. « Ftuminis fTeifcanrf."— M.West. 



' Werewic, Flor. Eadesbyrig, t^iVf. 

* Rnncofan, Flon 
■ Jn. 917. Flon 

• VI. Flor. erroneously for xvi. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



131 



fcocnejia-tune*. ^ Jjsbji onbutan. Anb 
fa. ^jy^^e pa^e^ aBj::tep ]>zm. fpa ]>a 
olSpe ham comon. ]ja punbon hie oWpe 
ploc-pabe f pab ut pi% Lijtuncf^ ^•j"' 
fa pupbon fa lanb-leobe hiy pape®. "J him • 
pi^ ^epuhton. ^ jebpohton hie on pul- 
lum^ pleame. "J ahpebbon eall f hie ^e- 
numen haepbon. ^ eac hiopa hoppa "J 
hiopa paepna micelne bael :• 

An. DCCCCXVIII.5 |2ep on fippum • 
jeape com micel pcip-hepe hibep opep 
pu^an op Libpiccum**. tJ tpejen eoplap 
mib.Ohtep 1 J3poalb*.'j popon ''fa'^pept 
onbutan. f hie jeb^^bon mnan Saepepn- 
mu%an. ^ hepjobon on Nop^-^ealap • 
aejhpasp 'be faem pae^ f aep "f aep'^ hie 
fonne onhajobe. "i jepenjon "Camc- 
leac fone bipcop on Ipcln3a-pelba'^ "J 
lae^bbon hme mib him to pcipum. 'j fa 
alypbe Gabpeapb cynj hinc **ept'' mib • 
XL. punbum**. Da aeptep fonP fa pop 
pe hepe eall up. "j polbe papan ^a jyt 
on hepja^ pi^ Ypcinja-pelbep. fa je- 
metton fa men hie op iDepe-popba. anb 
op Gleape-ceaptpe. anb op f am nihptum^ 
buphum. ^ him pi^ jepuhton. ^ hie je- 
pli^mbon. *i opplojon f one eopl l3poalb^. 



thereabout. Then, very soon after this, 
as the others came home, they found 
other troops that were riding out against 
Leighton. But the inhabitants were 
aware of it ; and having fought with 
them they put them into full flight; 
and arrested all that they had taken, and 
also of their horses and of their weapons 
a good deal. 

A.D. 918. This year^ came a great 
naval armament over hither south from 
the Ltdwiccians'; and two earls with 
it, Ohter and Rhoald. They went then 
west about, till they entered the mouth 
of the Severn ; and plundered in NorA- 
Wales everywhere by the sea, where it 
then suited them; and tookCamlac^ the 
bishop in Archenficld^, and led him with 
them to their ships ; whom king Edward 
afterwards released for 40 pounds. After 
this went the army all up ; and would 
proceed yet on plunder against Archen- 
field^; butthemenof Herefordmetthem, 
and of Glocester, and of the nighest 
towns ; and fought with them, and put 
them to flight ; and they slew the earl 
Rhoald, and the brother of Ohter the 



• Doceneji- Cani, * So C.T. b \r, j-pi^jia fc, Gibs. « LejtuQej*, CanL C.T. a tI. ^ Abs. Cant. 
* jepapr, Cant ^^yxfiy C.T. b ir. pape superscribed by Josselin. ' p ullan, C.T. a ir. s occccxt. 
CanL abs. Latid. but the following notice occurs in dcgccz. : t)e]i myccl fcip-hepe hibep com ftriSaa 
Of Libpicum. "j hepjebon fpiVe be Saep ejin. ac hi ^aeji msjt ealle jtV^n jopfopon. The same notice 
is anticipated in that year in C,T. b ir. bat repeated here more at h&rge. '^ LioSpicam, C.T. b ir. 
> l^paolb, CanL C.T. a ti. b i. and ir. mib l^paolb, b ir. ^ From CanL C.T. b ir. ^ be yam jtxSum^ 
CanL C.T. b ir. " From CanL ^ Camel^eac — CanL Camel ^e eac bip:eop on lejicin^a-jrelba, 
Cr.Bir. Afterwards, lepcinja-pclbej, ibid. ^ panbon, CanL ' So CanL J^m, C.7*. air. 
4 nebjcan, CanL neah jtan, C.T. b i. nyxtan, b ir. orerlined niehjxaQ. ' l3jiaolb, C.T. b ir. as abore. 



■ Jn. 916. Flor. Fid. Ethel w. 
' The Inhabitants of Armorica, now Bretagne ; 
se called^ because they abode day and night in 



their ships; from lib, a ship, and picciau, to watch 
or abide day and night. 

' Cimelgeacumi Flor. * Ircenfeld, Flor. 

82 



tss 



THE SAXON CHRONICLR 



*i J>aBf o^jief eoplef bpo^oji Ohtepej*. 
*) m'yceX J^aef hepef ■. "J bebpifon hie on 
asnne peappuc. ^ bef aeron hie %aep utan 
o^ ^^ J?e" hie him f ealbon Jiflaf . f hie op 
Gabpeapbef ^ cyninjej* anpealbe api- 
pan** polbon. Anb j^ cyninj haspbe pun- 
ben f him mon paet pi^ on pu^-healpe 
Saspepn-muVan^. peptan ppom pealum. 
eapt oS^ Apene mu^an. f hie ne boppt- 
onK f lanb nahpaep** "on ]?a heaipe je- 
pecan''. Da beptaelon hie hie J^eah nihtep 
npp aet pumum tpam cy^ppon^. aet 
oVpum cyppe be eaptan peceb. ^ aet 
o%pum c]^ppe aet Popt-locanl Da ploh 
hie mon ast as^^pum cyppe. f hiopa 
peopa onpej comon. buton ])a ane \>e 
faep uc aetppummon™ to J>am pcipum. 
Anb ])a paeton hie ute on )?am i^^lanbe. 
aet Bpabanpehce". o^ fone py^ppt fe 
hie pupbon ppife metelcape. ^ moni^e 
men hunjpe acpaelon®. pop^on hie ne 
meahton nasnne mete ^epascan. Fopon 
]ya ]K>nan to DeomobumP. ^ ^'pz ut^"* to 
Yplanbe. ^ J)ip paep on hasppept. Anb 
)?a aeptep }^am. on ])am ylcan jeape. po* 
pan to COaptmep maeppan. fa pop 6ab- 
peapb cynm^ to Buccinja-hamme' mib 
hip p^pbe. "i pact f aep peopcp pucan. "J 
jepophte J?a bup^a* buta on aej^epe* 
heaipe eap** a^p he J>onon* pope. Anb * 
Dupcy tel eopl hine jepohte him to hla- 



other earl, and many of the army. A nd 
they drove them into a park ; and beset 
them there without, until they gave them 
hostages, that they would depart from 
the realm of king Edward. And the king* 
bad contrived that a guard should be 
set against them on the south side of Se- 
yern-mouth ; west from Wales, eastward 
to the mouth of the Avon ; so that they 
durst nowhere seek that land on that 
side. Nevertheless, they eluded them at 
night, by stealing up twice; at one time 
to tbe east of Watchet, and at another 
time at Porlock. There was a great, 
slaughter each time; so that few of them 
came away^ except those only who swam 
out to the ships. Then sat they outward 
on an island, called the Flat^bohns^; 
till they were very short of meat, and 
many men died of hunger, because they 
could not reach any meat. Thence went, 
they to Dimmet, and then out to Ire- 
land. This was in harvest. After this, 
in the same year, before Martinmas^ 
went king Edward to Buckingham with 
his army, and sat there four weeks, 'du- 
ring which he built the two forts on 
either side of the water, ere he departed 
thence. And earl Tburkytel sought him 
for his lord ; and all the captains, and 
almost all the first men that belonged 



• bepjcf, Cani. ^ Abs. C.T. b it. f, Cant < ^j, Cant. C.T. a ir. ' papaii, Cani. C.T. b ir. 
« S»f yjiD- Cant. ' act, Cant, s boph jtan, Cant, ^ So Cant. C.T. A vi. napeji^Whel. > heaipe 
jefeceaDy Cant. C.T. A Ti. ^ cyjipam, Cant, cyppum, C.T. a Vi. and b ir. > Poplocan, C.T, b it. 
"> .fpyroman mihcbn, Cant. C.T. b 1t« ■ Steopanpeolice, Cant. C.T, a tI. Steapao. b It. ^ So tdd.' 
and C.T. b it. acpoleo, Canti C.T. A Tj. p Deomebam, Cant. C.T. b it. - « ^noB, -tant. C.T. b It. ' 
r .ham, Cant. * bypja, Cant, bypij, Cr. a Ti. b i. and it. ^ esVpe^ Cani. ae2^p> C.T. b ir. 
"* So C,T. B i. and ir. ea^ Cant. ' ]^anon, C.T. b it. 



' ^< Qu(B Repric itomiiMtfifr." — ^Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



133 



pojibc. tJ J)a hoteajr* calle. "J J>a ylbeptan 
men ealle raxfce fe to Beban-popba^ 
h^pbon. *i eac moni^e J^apa }>t to )!)am- 
cunc*^ hypbon. **l3ep/6J^elj:laBb.£Dypcna 
hla&pbi^e. Gobe puteumijenbum^. popan 
to hlap-maefptn^. be^eat ]>a buph. mib 
eallum Jjam Je )>aep to hypbc. fe if J^' 
haten^ Dcopaby. "i.}>s^ji paepon eac op- 
flejcne *hipe fejna' peopep. fe hipe 
bepopje paepon. binnan J?am jatum''':- 

^An. DCCCCXIX. t5ep on fip jeapc 
6abpeapb cynmj pop mib pypbe to 
Beban-popba. popan to CDaptinep msep- 
pan. ^ bejet J?a buph. *) him cypbon to 
maept ealle J^a buphpape ^e hie asp bu- 
bon. ^ he paet J^aep peopep pucan. *i het 
atymbpian )?a buph on pu% healpe ])aepe 
cap. ajp he )K>nan pope'' :• 

»An. DCCCCXX. «J3ep on Jjip jepc. 
popan to mibbum pumepa. pop Gab- 
peapb c^ninj to (Oaelbune. ^ jetym- 
bpebe )>a buph ^ jepta^lobe aep he ]7onan 
pope. Anb ^f ylcan ^eape pop Dup- 
cytel eopl opep pae on Fponc-lonb mib 
)^am mannum \>e him jelasptan polbon. 
mib Gabpeapbep cyninjep ppi^ 'j pul- 
tume'. " Jiep /GJ^elplaeb be^Jeat on hipe 
jepealb. mib Gobep pultome**. on pope- 
pepbumP jeap. jepunbpumhce^. fa buph 
act Lejpa-ceaptpe'. "J pe maepta bael J>a5p 
hepjcp ye faep to hypbe peap% h^e 



to Bedford ; and also mftny of those 
that belonged to Northampton. Thnr 
year Ethelfleda^ lady of the Mercians/ 
vfiih the help of God^ before Lammas^ 

• conquered the town called Derby^ with 
all that thereto belonged; and there 
were also slain four of her thanes^ 
that were most dear to herv within the 
gates. 

A.D. 919. This year^ king Edward 
went with his army to Bedford^ before 
Martinmas, and conquered the town ; 
and almost all the burgesses^ who obey- 

• ed him before, returned to him ; and he 
sat there four weeks, and ordered the 
town to be repaired on the south side of 
the water, ere he departed thence. 

A.D. 920. This year>, before mid- 

• summer, went king Edward to Maldon; 
and repaired and fortified the town, ere 
he departed thence. And the same year 
went earl Thurkytel over sea to Frank- 
land with the men who would adhere 

- to him, under the protection and assist* 
ance of king Edward. This year Ethel- 
fleda got into her power, with 6od'» 
assistance, in the early part of the year, 
without loss, the town of Leicester; and 

• the greater part of the army that be- 
longed thereto submitted to her. And 



* So tdd, and Joss. intorliD. eojilaf, Cant C. T. a i. and ir. ^ Bebe- Cant. Bcba- C, T. s if. 
• t}ampeaDe, Cant. ^ From Cant. C.T. xy'i. bI. and It. but in different jcars. * pule mi^enbam, 
CT. A ti. f altum senbam, b i. fnlcamicnbum, b It. ' hIammsejTan, CT. b it. s So C,T. b \yI' 
hataa, Grilw. ^ hyjie ]«;na, CT. bit. * Sp ediL CT. A tI. and b i. ;atan, b iT. ^ Abs. Laud: 
Cant. CT. b It. > Abs. Lavd. CT, b i. and if. » Abs. Cant. CT. b 1. and it. » Prom Cant, 
CT.Bi.andiT. in different years. l3epheo — bit. an. dccccxtiii. SeealsoBi. fol.138. ^julcumcy 
Cr.B IT. P -peajibnc, CT. b ir. < So CT. b i. abs. b iT. jejunjumlice^Gibs. » Lijjian- CT. b It. 



' An. 016. Flor. 



• Jn.917. Flor. 



134 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



unbep^^beb*. ^ haspbbn eac ^eopeppic- 
injaj" h]^pe jehaten'. tJ fume on pebbe 
jejxalb. j-ume mib a])um jepaeprnob. f 
hie on hijie jiaebenne^ beon polbon^. Ac 
fpi^e hpasblice faej* J>e hie J>aef ^ jepop- 
ben haspbe^ heo jepoji. xii. nihtiim anjx 
mibban yumepa. Kppibie ib. Iiinii', bm- 
nan Tamanpeoji^e**. f y eahto^an jeape 
faej- fe heo CDypcna anpalb^ mib piht 
hlapopb-bome healbenbe paef . ^ hipe he 
li^ bmnan Gleap-ceaftrpe^ on J)am eaj^ 
poptice ySe Petpej- cipecean. 'fiep eac 
peap^ ™y6J?epebcf bohtop' CDypcna 
hlapopbef aelcef onpealbey ° on CPyp- 
cum benumen. ^ on pej^-Sexe® alaebeb. 
PJ^pum pucan aep mibbum pintpa'. yeo 
paBf haten rSaelppin^i'':. 

'An. DCCCCXXL •ftep on Jjirj-um 
jepe popan to Gaj^pon. Gabpeapb 
cyninj het jepapan fa buph aet Tope- 
ceaftpe. ^ hie jetymbpian. Anb J?a ept. 
asptep J^am. on J>am ilcan jeape. to janj- 
bajum. he het atymbpian J>a buph aet 
• Fixmja-mepe. Df ilcan pumepa. be- 
rpeox hlap-maeppan ^ mibbum pumepa. 
pe hepe bpaec J)one ppi^ op )3amtune "J 
op Lyjepa-ceaptpe. tJ J^onan nop^an, ^ 
popon to Tope-ceaptpe. "J puhton on )>a 



the Yorkists had also promised and con* 
firmed, some by agreement and some 
\rith oaths, that they would be in ber 
interests But, very soon after they had 
done this, she departed, twelve nights 
before midsummer^, at Tamworth, the 
eighth year that she was holding the 
government of the Mercians with right 
dominion ; and her body lieth at GIo- 
ccster, in the east porch of St. Peter's 
church. This year also was the daugh- 
ter of Ethered, lord of the Mercians, 
deprived of all authority over the Mer- 
cians, and led into Wessex, three weeks 
before mid -winter. Her name was 
Healfwina. 

A.D. 921. This year3, before Easter, 
king Edward ordered his men to go to 
the town of Towcester, and to rebuild 
it. Then again, after that, in the same 
year, during the gang-days, he ordered 
the town of Wigmore to be repaired. 
The same summer, betwixt Lammas and 
midsummer, the army broke their pa- 
role from Northampton and from Lei- 
cester; and went thence northward to 
Towcester, and fought agaiust the town 



• -]wobe, C.T. B It. -J^ybbeb, a ti. Gibson omits hyjic. ^ So C.T. b it. Gojroppic ^ehaten, Gibs 
incorrectly. « So C.T. a tI. and b i. jMcbiii jc, b ir. * So C.T. b it. polban^Gibfl. • So C.T. a ▼!. 
and B i. ^uj^, b it. ' So C.T. b it. bat the sense or syntax requires haefbon. s From C.T. Bit • 
^ TainpeopVe, C.T. niv. ^ anpealb, C.T. bit. afterwards^ pihce. ^ Glepe- C.T. biy, afterwards, 
innan for on, cijiccan for cipeceao. > An.Dccccxix. C,T.b\. and it. °> JE^e\jiehcj bohcep, C.T.bW. 
■ anpealbcf, CTl bit, <> -Seaxe, C.T. bit. p l^M^ pucum aep mibban pincpe, C7.BiT. jpe, after- 
wards, for jft o, ibid, incorrectly, b i. has pmtpa and jeo. « ^Ip pyn, C.T. b It. ' Abs. Laud. 
Cant. • Abi*. C.T. b i. and it. 



' '^ Se ipsius voluntati et consilio in omnibus 
consensurosJ*^ — Flor. an. 919. 

• " 19 cfl/. Jw/ff."— Flor. on. 919. ^Et unu 



cam JUiam suomj Alfwinnamy ex ^thelredo iub^ 
regulo susceptamyhtertdem regni relifuii.^^'Abid. 
* Jn. 9 IS. Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



135 



bujih ealne bae^. *i ]>ohton f hie j-ceolban 
abpecon. ac hie J^eah apepebe f pole ]7e 
J^aep binnan paej*. o% him mapa pultiim 
to com. ^ hie popleton J?a J)a buph. *i 
j:opon apej. Anb fa ejx. fpi^e pa^e 
ae ptep J>am. hie popon epc ut mib j^ael- 
hepije nihtep *i comon on unjeappe 
men. ^ jenamon unlytel. aej^ep je on 
mannum je on yppe. betpeox Bupne- 
puba ^ J^jlef -bypi J. Dy ylcan p^e pop 
f e hepe op );3untan-bune ^ op Gapt-Gn- 
jlum. tJ pophton f jepeopc aet Temepe- 
popba. T hic bubon ^ bytlebon. ^ pop- 
leton f o^ep aet )3untan-bune. "J J)ohton 
f hie pceolbon ]7anon opt mib jepinne ^ 
mib unppi^e ept J^aep lanbep mape je- 
pascan. Anb popan f hie jebybon aec 
Beban-popba. "J ])a popan ])a men ut on- 
jean }e J^aep binnan paepon. "j him pi^ 
jepuhton. ^ hie jeplymbon. anb hiopa 
jobne bael opplojon. Da ept. aeptep 
)>am. ]>a jiet jejabopobe micel hepe 
hme op eapt-enjlum "i op CDypcna 
lonbe. tl popan to J^aepe bypij aet pij- 
inja-mepe. ^ ymbpaeton hie utan. ^ 
puhton lan^e on baej on. ^ namon J^one 
f:eap onbutan. ^ ]>z men apepebon ]>eah 
J7a buph J?e J^aep binnan paepon. *J fa pop- 
leton hie fa buph. ^ popon apej. Da 
aeptep fam. f y ylcan pumepep. jejabo- 
pobe micel pole hit on Gabpeapbep cyn- 
m^i^y anpealbe. op f am nyhptum bup- 
jum f e hit fa ^epapan myhte. "J popon 
to Temepe-popba. ^ bepaeton fa buph. 
•J puhton f a?p on oS hie hie abpascon. 
tJ opplojon f one cyninj. "j Tojlop eopl. 
^ GQannan eopl hip punu. ^ hip bpoBop. 



all day^ and thought that they should 
break into it; but the people that were 
therein defended it^ till more aid came 
to them ; and the enemy then abandoned 
the town^ and went away. Then again> 
very soon after this, they went out at 
night for plunder, and came upon men 
unaware, and seized not a little, both in 
men and cattle, betwixt Burnham-wood 
and Aylesbury. At the same time went 
the army from Huntingdon and East* 
Anglia, and constructed that work at 
Temsford ; which they inhabited and for* 
tified ; and abandoned the other at Hun* 
tingdon ; and thought that they should 
thence oft with war and contention re- 
cover a good deal of this land. Thence 
they advanced till they came to Bed- 
ford; where the men who were within 
came out against them, and fought with 
them, and put them to flight, and slew 
a good number of them. Then again^ 
after this, a great army yet collected it- 
self from East- Anglia and from Mer* 
cia, and went to the town of Wigmore; 
which they besieged without, and fought 
against long in the day ; and took the 
cattle about it ; but the men defended 
the town, who were within ; and the 
enemy left the town, and went away, 
Afler this, the same summer, a large 
force collected itself in king Edward's 
dominions, from the nighest towns that 
could go thither, and went to Temsford; 
and they beset the town, and fought 
thereon ; until they broke into it, and 
slew the king^, and earl Toglos^, and 



* ^' Regem paganorutnJ*^-^¥lof, 



9 Togleam^ Flor. now Douglas. 



1S6 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



^ ealle J^a ^e ]>ae)i bmnan paepon *) hie 
pep2^^ polbon. ^ namon )7a o^pe. ^ eall 
f faep bmnan paep Da aeptep J)am. 
f aef poppaSe. jejabpobe micel jrolc hit 
on hsejijiep:. aej^ep je op Cent je op 
Su^pi^um je op Gapt-Seaxum je aej- 
hponan op ]7am nihptum buph^m. anb 
popon to Colne-ceaptpe. "j ymbpaeton 
]>a buph. ^ ]7«p on puhton o^ hie ]^a 
jeeobon. ^ f pole eall opplojon. ^ namon 
eall f ]>asp bmnan paep. buton ]>zm man*- 
ntim )?e J^sp oVplujon opep }H)ne peall. 
Da aeptep fan. fa jyt f asp ylcan haep- 
peptep. jejabpot^ micel hepe hme op 
Gapt-6njlum. aej^ep ^e faep lanb- 
hepep 3e fapa picinja. fe hie him to 
pultume appanen haepbon. ^ fohton f 
hie pceolbon jeppecan hiopa teonan. *i 
popon to ClOaelbune. *i ^mbpaeton fa 
buph. 'j puhton f aep on. o% f am buph- 
papum com mapa pultum to utan to 
helpe« Anb poplet pe hepe fa buph. ^ 
pop ppam. ^ fa popan fa men aeptep 
ut op f aepe bypij. ^ eac fa f c him utan 
comon to pultume. 'j ^eplymbon fone 
hepe. "i opplo^on hiopa moni^ hunb 
ae^fep ^e aepc-manna je offeppa. Da 
f aep poppa^e. f aep ilcan haeppeptep. 
pop Gabpeapb cyninj mib pept-Seaxna 
p;^pbe to Pappan-hamme. ^ paet f aep fa 
hpile f e mon pophte fa buph ast Tope- 
ceaptpe mib ptan pealle. Anbbim cipbe 
to Duppcp^ eopl. ^ fa holbap. anb eal 
pe hepe f e to JSamtune hypbe nop% o% 
Peolunb. ^ pohton hme him to hlapopbe 
anb to munbbopan. Anb fa pe pypb- 



earl Mann his son, and his brother^ and 
all them that were therein, and who were 
resolyed to defend it; and they took the 
othen, and M that was therein. After 
this, a great forced collected soon in 
harvest, from Kent, from Surrey, from 
Essex, and every where from the nighest 
towns ; and went to Colchester, and be- 
set the town, and fought thereon till 
they took it, and slew all the people, 
and seized all that was therein ; except 
those men who escaped therefrom over 
the wall. After this again, this same har- 
vest, a great army collected itself from 
East-Anglia, both of the land-forces 
and of the pirates, which they had en- 
ticed to their assistance, and thought 
that they should wreak their vengeance. 
They went to Maldon, and beset the 
town, and fought thereon, until more 
aid came to the townsmen from without 
to help. The enemy then abandoned the 
town, and went from it. And the men 
went after, out of the town, and also 
those that came from without to their 
aid ; and put the army to flight, and 
slew many hundreds of them, both of 
the pirates and of the others. Soon after 
this, the same harvest, went king Ed- 
ward with the West-Saxon army to Pass- 
ham^; and sat there the while that men 
fortified the town of Towcester with a 
stone wall. And there returned to him 
earl Thurferth3,and the captains, and all 
the army that belonged to Northampton 
northward to the Welland, and sought 



> << ATufta mWto.*'— nor. ham dus$i.'*—¥ioT. 

* ^^ JVuUSaxfmkam expcdHionem ad Paaa^ ' Thutferthus {Thurferthusf), F\ox, 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



137 



jiceinn pop ham. J?a poji o^eji ut. ^ je- 
pop |)a buph aec )3untan-bune. tl hie 
jebetre 'j jeebneopabe. J^aep hio aep to- 
bpocen psep. be Gabpeapbep cyninjep 
haepe. "j f pole eall f J^aep to lapc paep 
J>apa lanb-leoba beaj to Gabpeapbe cyn- 
inje. "J pohton hip ppi^ anb hip munb- 
bypbe. Da jyt aeptep J^am. J?aep ylcan 
jepep. popan to CDaptinep-maeppan. 
pop ©abpeapb cynmj mib pept-Seaxna 
pypbe to Colne-ceaptpe. ^ jebcte J)a 
^uph *i jeebneopabe. j^aep hio aep to- 
bpocen paep. Anb him cipbe micel pole 
to. aej^ep je on Gapt-Gnjlum je on 
6apt-Seaxum. J?e aep unbep Dena an- 
pealbe paep. ^ eall pc hepe on 6apt-6n- 
jlum him ppop anneppe. f hie eall f 
polbon f he polbe. *i eall f ppi^ian pol- 
bon f he ppi^obe. aej^ep je on pae je 
on lanbe. Anb pe hepe J^e to Gpantan- 
bpycje hypbe hine jeceap pynbephce 
him to hlapopbe tJ to munb-bopan. anb 
f paeptnobon mib a^um. ppa ppa he hit 
J?a apaeb haepbe'':- •iJep ^abpeapb cyn- 
inj jetimbpebe J^a buph aet Clebe-mu- 
fan'^ ^^^Y ilcan ^eape Sihtpic cynmj 
opploh Nuel hip bpo^op'':- 

<^An. DCCCCXXII. )2ep on %pum 
jcpe. betpeox jan j-bajum ^ mibban pu- 
mepa. pop Gabpeapb cynmj mib p^pbe 
to Stan-popba. ^ het jepipcan J)a biiph 
jon pu^-healpe faepe eap. ^ J>aBt pole eal. 
J>e to J^aepe nop^eppan bypij hypbe. 
him beah to. ^ pohtan him hine to hlap- 



him for their lord and protector. When 
this division of the army went home^ 
then went another out^ and marched to 
the town of Huntingdon; and repaired 
and renewed it^ where it was broken 
down before^ by command of king Ed- 
ward. And all the people of the country 
that were left submitted to king Edward^ 
and sought his peace and protection. 
After this^ the same year, before Martin- 
mas, went king Edward with the West- 
Saxon army to Colchester; and repaired 
and renewed the town, where it was 
broken down before. And much people 
turned to him, both in East-Anglia and in 
Essex, that were before under the power 
of the Danes. And all the army in East-^ 
Anglia swore union with him ; that they 
would all that he would, and would pro- 
tect all that he protected, either by sea 
or land. And the army that belonged 
to Cambridge chose him separately for 
their lord and protector, and confirmed 
the same with oaths, as he had advised. 
This year king Edward repaired the 
town of Gladmouth ; and the same year 
king Sihtric slew Neil his brother. 

A.D. 922. This yearS betwixt gang- 
days and midsummer, went king Ed- 
ward with his army to Stamford, and 
ordered the town to be fortified on tfaei 
south side of the river'. And all the 
people that belonged to the northern 
to wn^ submitted to him, and sought him 



• From C.r. B i. and iv. *» From Petroh. Joss, interlio. CT. b it- I3cji Sihtpic cinj, ttTc. Gibs, 
from Laud, Cot. « Ab's. Laud. C.T. b i. and ir . 

^ An. 919, Flor. ' ^^Qui in septentrionaii parte ^usdem Jiumu 

* " JVelund dktV^ — ^Flor, See the year abofe. nis arcem tenebant." — Flor. 

T 



138 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



opbe. "Anb J>a. on J?am j-etle }>e he f aep 
j-aet. J>a jepop /ejelplaBb hij- jrpeojrep 
act TamepeojiSije. xii. nihtum asp mib* 
bum pimepa^ Anb )>a jepab he fa 
buph at Tamepeop^ije. ^ him c^pbe to 
call jT J)eobf cype on CDypcna lanbe J^ 
yB&Iptebe aep unbep-feobeb paej*. ^ 
J>a c^rnmjaj^ on NopS-pealum. l3opel *J 
Clebauc 'j leoBpel. "J call Nop^-peall- 
c)rn. hme phton him to hlapopbe. Da 
pop he ]H)nan to Snotm^aham. 'j ^epop 
¥a buph. tJ hct hie jebetan. anb je- 
pettan aej^ep je mib Gnjhj-cum man* 
num ^e mib Denipcum. 'j him cypbe 
eall f pole to. J?e on CDy^pcna lanbe je- 
peten paep. sejSep je Denipce jc 6n- 
jlij-ce !• 

»>An. DCCCCXXIII. licp on fyp- 
pum ^eape pop €abpeapb cynin^ mib 
p^pbe. on upan haeppej^. to Daelpxle. 
^ het jepypcan J?a buph, "J jeyettan. ^ 
jemannian. anb het o^pe p]^pb eac op 
CDypcna J^eobe. ]?a hpile fe he f aep paet. 
jepapanCDani^e-ceaftep onNopB-hym- 
bpan. •] hie jebetan ^ jemannian. ^I3ep 
pop^pepbe Ple^emunb apcebipceop ''. 
^ Jjep Re^nolb cynj ^epann Gopeppic'':- 

«An. DCCCCXXIV. ftep on fippum 
jepe. popan to mibbum pumepa. pop 
6abpeapb cyninj mib piepbe to Sno- • 
tmjaham. ^ het ^epipcan J?a buph on 
pu% healpe faepe caj* onjean J)a o^pe. 'j 
J^a bpycje opep Tpeontan betpeox Jam 



for their lord. It was whikt he was tar- 
rjiDg therCi that Ethelfleda his sister 
died at Tainworthj tweWe nights before 
midsummer ^ Then rode he to the bo-* 
rough of Tamworth ; and all the po- 
pulation in Mercia turned to him> who 
before were subject to Ethelfleda. And 
the kings in North- Wales^ Howel^ and 
Cledauc^, and Jotfawel^, and all the 
people of North* Wales> sought him for 
their lord. Then went he thence to Not- 
tingham^ and secured that borqugh^ and 
ordered it to be repaired^ and manned 
both with English and with Danes. And 
all the population turned to him^ that 
was settled in Mercia^ both Danish and 
English. 

A.D. 923. This year went king Ed- 
ward with an army^ late in the harrest, 
to ThelwalH; and ordered the borough 
to be repaired^ and inhabited^ and man- 
ned. And he ordered another army also 
from the population of Mercia^ the while 
he sat there, to go to Manchester^ in 
Northumbrian to repair and to man it. 
This year died archbishop Plegmund ; 
and king Reynold won York. 

A.D. 9S4. This year^, before mid- 
summer, went king Ed ward with an army 
to Nottingham ; and ordered the town 
to be repaired on the south side of the 
river, opposite the other7, and the bridge 
over the Trent betwixt the two towns, 



■ bep £}dpath popVppbe. CDypceoa hlaepbi^e. Laud. aD.'Dcccczviii. So also C.T. a i. and ir. and 
other MSS. of good aathoritj, but more at laige. Fid. an. 920 of the printed Chronicle. ^ Aba. 
Laud. C.T. B i. « From Pelrob. <> From Laud. Cot. Petrol. C.f. b it. • Abs. Laud. 

* Vid. an. 920. « Clitwic, Flor. » Mamerceastram, Flor. • Jn. 921, Flor. 
» Juth wal, Flor. ' « Contra urbem qua in altera ripa iita erat.'* 

• Tealweale, Flor. an, 920. -—Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ISO 



tpam buphum. Anb pop 'pz J^onan on 
•Peac-lonb to Babecan-jr^llan. "J het je- 
p^pcan ane buph ^xjx on neapefte. 'j 
jemannian. Anb hine ^ecezy ]^a to pas- 
bepe* *i to hlapopbe Scotta c^ninj. "J 
ealle Scotta )>eob. ^ Rejpnalb^. ^ Ga- 
bulpef f una. *J ealle J?a fe on Nop^-h;y^m- 
bpum bujea^. aejWep je Gnjlipce je 
Denipce. je NopSmen je o^pe. ^ eac 
Stpaecleb-peala c^ninj. ^ ealle Stpae- 
cleb-pealap :• 

An. DCCCCXXV. «ftep Gabpeapb 
cmj jepop on 0>^pcum aet Feapn- 
bune^. "3 /Glppeapb hip punu ppi^e 
hpaVe Jjaep jepop. *ymbe xvi, bajap''. 
'on Oxna-popba''. ^ heopa lie licjaV on 
Pmtan-ceaptpe. Anb /B^eptan* paep 
op CDypcum jecopen to cmje. anb aet 
Cm jep-tune^ jehaljob. * •} he jeap hip 
ppeoptop'' '^Oppae. 6alb-Seaxna c^njep 
puna". 'Anb pJfe Dunptan peapW acsen- 
neb'^ "^ pulphelm penj" to Jam apce- 
bipcop-pice on Cantpape-b^^pi''. ^Viejx 
/6J>elptan cynin j "J Sihtpic Nop^-h^^m- 
bpa c^nj heo jepamnobon aet Tame- . 
pop^Jjije. VI. kt. Febpuapiup. ^ /6J?el- 
ptan hip ppeoptop him popjeap":- 



Thence he went to Bakewell in Peak- 
land ; and ordered a fort to be built as 
near as possible to it^ and manned. And 
the king of Scotland^ with all his peo- 
ple^ chose him as father and lord ; as did 
Reynold ^ and the son of Eadulf, and 
all that dwell in Northumbrian both En- 
glish and Danish, both Northmen and 
others; also the king of the Strathclyd- 
wallians*, and all his people. 

A.D. 925. This year^ died king Ed- 
ward at Farndon^ in Mercia; and El* 
ward his son died very soon after this^ 
in Oxford. Their bodies lie at Win- 
Chester. And Athelstan was chosen king 
in Mercia, and consecrated at Kings*- 
ton^. He gave his sister to Otho, son of 
the king of the Old-Saxons. St. Dun- 
stan was now born ; and Wulf helm took 
to the archbishopric in Canterbury. This 
year king Athelstan and Sihtric king of 
the Northumbrians came together at 
Tamworth, the sixth day before the ca^ 
lends of February ; and Athelstan gave 
away his sister to him. 



•So Gibs. pebep,Whel. ^ So Gibs, from Whel. Otf^Re^npalb? Fid. an.M8yfm. « From 
Cani. C,T. b i. and It. ed. dcccgxxit. Drp Gabpeapb cin; j:o|i%}:ejibe. i iG^lpran hif f ana jien; to 
juce. An. dccccxzt. Whel. 995, in HisL D. ffkiton. Joss, ^ Fajinbune, C.T. bit. « From 
C.T, B W. ' aet Oianp opba, C.T. b it. Afterwards, set Pintan-ceaftpe, iUd. s ^jwljtan, C.T. b it. 
^ Cynjef-taoe, C.T. bit. * From Cant, C,T, b i. and it. bat ip Cant, JTypcoji for jTyyjt^op, incor* 
vectij. ^ From C.T. b ir, the other MSS. ending abroptly at fpeojtoji. Oppe is corraptly written 
for OypK. Obba is afterwards found in C.T, b i. for 0»a, or OTHO, an. dcccclxzxii. > Wliel. 
from Pitroh, abs. Laud, Cant. C.T. b i. and ir. » Whel. from Petrob*. 1^]i Pulfelm bifcop jmj 
jefaaljob, Laud. ' pcajiV ^ehal^ob, Coi, *> From C.T, Bif. an. dcccczxt. abs. C.T,bi. 

** Reginaldus, H. Hunt. Relgnaldus, Flor. was not in Mercia. Feamdun, Flor. Ferandune, 

* Streatgledwalornm, Flor. H. Hunt. 

* An, 094, Flor. An. 026, Ethelw. ' ^^Ab Aihelmo Dorobernensi archiepiscopo.'** 

* Not Faringdoo, as some understand it ; which --*Flor. 

T S 



HO 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



»An. DCCCCXXVI. ftep o«eopban 
pypena leomanon nop^ bael J^aepe lypte. 
•j Sihtpic acpael. ^ ^J^elftan cyninj 
penj to Nop^-hymbpa pice, 'j ealle J)a 
cynjaf ]?e on J>y[-f um i^lanbe paepon • 
he X^pylbe. aepeji: )2upal pej^-pala 
cyninj. *j Cof ftantm Scotta c^y^ninj- "J 
Upen penta c^ninj. t) 6albpet> Gateulp- 
inj ppom Bebbanbypij. "j mib pebbe "j 
mib ajjum ppyj> jepaeptnobon on J^sepe • 
ptope ]?e jenemneb ip yBt 6amotum. 
on nil. ibup lulii. ^ aelc beopoljelb 
tocpaebon. "j pyJ^J^an** mib pibbe to- 
cypbon'':- 

^An. DCCCCXXVIL ftep /e>elptan 
cyninj popbpap Gu^ppi^ ^^cynj'. Anb 
Jiep pulpelm apceB pop^.to Rome/":- 

[KAn. DCCCCXXVIII. pdlelmup 
penj to Nopmanbi. 'J.healb xv. jeap :•] • 

DCCCCXXIX. DCCCCXXXI. 

»»An. DCCCCXXXII. ^ftep mon ha- 
bobe Bypnptan bipcop to pintan-ceap- 
tpe IV. kl. lunii. 'j he heolb J^pibbe healp 
jeap bipcopbom":- . 

An. DCCCCXXXIII. ^hejx pop«- 
pepbe FpiSeptan bipceop'':- ^fiep a- 
bponc /Gbpme a?]?ehnj on pae":- 

An.DCCCCXXXIV. r5eppop/e«el- . 
ptancynihj ""in^onScotlanb "ae2;^ep'' 
je mib lanb-hepe je mib pcip-hepe. anb 



A.D. 926. This year appeared fiery 
lights in the northern part of the firma- 
ment ; and Sihtric departed ; and king 
Athelstan took to the kingdom of North- 
umbrian and governed all the kings 
that were in this island : — first, Howel, 
king of West-Wales; and Constantino, 
king of the Scots ; and Owen, king of 
Monmouth; and Aldred, the son of Ea- 
dulf^of Bamburgh. And with covenants 
and oaths they ratified their agreement 
in the place called Emmet, on the fourth 
day before the ides of July ; and re- 
nounced all idolatry, and afterwards re- 
turned in peace. 

A.D. 987. This year king Athelstan 
expelled king Guthfrith; and archbi- 
shop Wulf helm went to Rome. 

A.D. 928. William took to Norman- 
dy, and held it fifteen years. 

A.D. 932. This year Burnstan was 
invested bishop of Winchester on the 
fourth day before the calends of June ; 
and he held the bishopric two years and 
a half. 

A.D. 933. This year died bishop 
Frithestan; and Edwin the atheling was 
drowned in the sea. 

A.D. 934. This year went king Athel- 
stan into Scotland, both with a land- 
force and a naval armament, and laid 



• Prdm C, T. BIT. ^ ryH«"n, MS, « From Laud. CoL Petrol, Joss. * Abs. Coi. « yefi^ Cot. 
' So Petrol. Joss. Rom, Gibs. s From Cot. WUlelmus suscepit regnum, et xv. annis regnavii. Laud. 
^ An. DCCCCXXXI. t>e]i poji^fepbe lohanncf Tjii^ejrao. bijfcop Pencanaj.*j Bypnpanuj ^ebletfob on 
hi J loh. Cot. N.S. sufficiently corrupt. ' So Wuttoii, with little variatioo, an. dgcccxxxi. Joss, in- 
tcrlio. C.T. BIT. abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and !▼• &c. ^ I3e]ie poji^pep^ Fpi^ejxan bijceop, Wutton, 
an. DCCCCXXXII. Joss, inter!. C.T.bW, ' From Laud, Petrob, Joss, interl. C,T. b It. '^ Ahs. Laud, 
Cant, on Scotland mib hejic ;c mib fcip-hepe. *j hijr mycel opephepjobe. CT.biy. " Abs, Laud, 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



141 



hif micel ojieji-hejv^ibe. ■Anb Bypn- 
jrtan bif cop pop^pepbe otipintan-ceap 
rpe tro Omnium Sanctopum"^ :- 

»>An. DCCCCXXXV. ^ftcp penj 
/eipheah bifceop to bij-ceopbome^' ^'on 
Pm-ceaj^pe^ :• 

DCCGCXXXYI. DCCCCXXXTII. 

^An. DCCCCXXXVIIL Rep 

jB^eljxzn c^ninj. 

eopla bpihten. 

beopna beah-j^pa. 

^ hif bpo^op eac 

Gabmunb ae^elmj. 

ealbop lan^ne typ, 

jej-lojon set pecce^ 

ppeopba ecjum 
Kymbe Bpunan-buph'^ 
^'Bopb-peall olupon"". 

heopon hea%olinbe. 

'hamepa lapum". 

apapan^ Gabpeapbep. 

Spa him je-ae^ele paep 

ppom cneo-mae^um. 

f hie set campe opt 

pi^ la^pa je-hpaene 

lanb je-ealjobon. 

hopb anb hamap. 



M'aste a great part of iti; and bishop 
Burnstan died at Winchester at the feast 
of All Saints. 

A. D. 935. This year bishop Elf- 
heah took to the bishopric of Win- 
chester. 

A.D. 9S8.« Here 

Athelstao king, 

of earls the lord> 

rewarder of heroes^ 

and his brother eke^ 

Edmund atheling^ 

elder of ancient race, 

slew in the fight, , 

with the edge of their swords; 

the foe at Brumby 3 ! 

The sons of Edward 

their board-walls clove, 

and hewed their banners, 

with the wrecks of their hammers. 

So were they taught 

by kindred zeal, 
- that they at camp oft 

'gainst any robber 

their land should defend, 

their hoards and homes. 



* So Wntton, with little TariaUon, ao. dcccczxxiii. Jobs. interliD. C.T. b ir. abs. Laud. Cant, b i. 
and if. ^ Abs. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. and ir. « So nearly Watton. Joss, interl. CT. b ir. ^ From 
Cot. * Ao. DCccczxxTii. CaiU. C.T. a ti. b i. and if. Bricfljr thus in Cot. : l3e]i ^^ejtan cinj *j 
6abmunb hip bpo^cji laebbe pypbe to Bponan-byjii. *] ^ji ^epehc pi9 Anelap. i Cpijre p altume^enbo 
jejc hasfbe. N.S. More briefly still in Laud. : l3ep ^l^eljftan cynin^ Uebbe fypbe co Bpanan-bypi^. 
' jakey Cafi/. faecce, CT. b if. s embe Bpnnnan-bnpb, Cant, CT. b i. ^ So CT. b i. -peall lapan, 
Cant, beopb peal clufan, b ir. ' So Cant. C.T. b i. and ir. ^ eapojian, Cant. C.T. a ti. and b i. 



' ''Quia rex Scotorum Consianiinus fwdus 
quod cum eo pepigerat dirupU.** — Flor. 

^ ''Idioma hie et ad an. 942, et 975, perantu 
quum et korridum^ Sfc." — ^Whel. ''Perantiquum 
proculduhio; horridum interim haud dicendum: 
quippe quod stibium Ctedmonianumy elegantissi* 



mum plancy et in quo ducum res gestas oh ejus 
sublimitatem decantari antiquitus solebant^ a/f- 
quatenus saitem referat.^^ — Gibs. Fid. H. Hunt, 
p. 354. 

^ Branandune, Ethelw* Bronanburgh, Flor- 
Brimenburh, M.West. 



149 



tHE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ISettenb cpunjun* 
^Sceotta leoba''. 
anb j-cip-plotan 
•^paeje peoUon"'. 
pelb bynebe**. 
^j-ecja fpate". 
Sy^^an funne up 
on mopjen-tib, 
maepe tuncjol. 
jlab opep jpunbap. 
Gobep conbel beopht 
ccep Dpyhtnep . 
o^^^ po aej>ele jefceapt 
Kpth to'' petle :• 
^aep laej pecj masni^. 
^apum ^'ajeteb. 
^ma Nop]?epna''. 
opep pcylb pcoten. 
*ppilce'' Scyttipc eac 
pepij pijep'^-paeb' :• 
Pept-Seaxe°* pop^ 
onblonjne" baej 
eopob**-cy^j^um 
on-lapt lejbunP 
la^u^i J^eobum^. 
heopon hepe-plyman' 
hmban J^aple 

mecum mylen'-pceappum*:* 
OO^pce ne pypnbon 
heopbep* honb-ple^an 
haele])a^ nanum 



Pursuing fell 

the Scottish clans ; 

the men of the fleet 

in numbers fell ; 

'midst the din of the field 

the warrior swate. 

Since the sun was up 

in morning-tide, 

gigantic light! 

glad over grounds, 

God's candle bright, 

eternal Lord ! — 

'till the noble creature 

sat in the western main : 

there lay many 

of the Northern heroes 

under a shower of arrows, 

shot oyer shields ; 

and Scotland's boast, 

a Scythian race, 

the mighty seed of Mars ! 

With chosen troops, 

throughout the day, 

the West-Saxons fierce 

press'd on the loathed bands ; 

hew'd down the fugitives, 

and scattered the rear, 

with strong mill-sharpen'd blades. 

The Mercians too 

the hard hand-play 

spared not to any 



> cjiaD^oD^ Cant C.T. b i. ^ Scocca leob^ Cani. C.T. b i. and if. « So Ctmt. C.T. b L and ir. 
j»3cp, edd. ^ bennabe, Cant. C.T, a ti. and b i. bennobe, b ir. * So CdnL C.T, a ti. b i. and ir. 
jecjaj hpate, Gibs, from Whel. ' j{, Cani, s So Cani. ^ p op-^P^i^^n* jaman nop^pne, 
Cani. Joss, juman nop^pne, C.T. bit. ^ From Cani. C.T.bI. and ir. ^ PZi^h Cani, C.T.bu 
' jMBb, C.T. b if. » •J F^JT^e, C.T. b I Psjr-Seaze, b It. » ilan^e, C.T. b it. « eopeb, Cani. 
C.T. n i. and !▼. p laebbon, C.T. b it. lejbon, b i. <i Veobon, C.T. b i. ' -p lymon, C.T. a i. 
heo/ia flyman, b It. * mycel, C.T. air. ^ So Cani. C.T. b !. and if. jceajipan, Gibs. « heapbcfi 
Cani. C.T. a t!. b i. and i?. So hanb jeblanb, &c. ' So C.T. a ft. b I. and it. haele ^ edd. H. Hunt, 
translates It Saniias ibi nuUa Us, &c. ; as if he had read, \^W} ^ — &c. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



143 



»]mpa^ fe mib Anlape 
opep *'aepa-jeblonb'^ 
on Iibej" boftne 
lanb ^ephtun 
pseje to ^epeohte :• 
Fipe lejun*^ 
on jfvan camp-jtebe 
cyninjaj* ^eon^e 
fpcopbum afpepebe. 
Speolce** feopene cac 
eoplap Anlapcf. 
•^anb'" unpim 
hepi jep-plotan :• 
Anb Sceotta %asp 
jeplemeb peap¥. 
nop^manna bpeju^ 
nybc^-jebaebeb 
to libep ptcpne 
litle pepcbe :• 
Cpeab*cneapon 

plot-cyninj ut ^epat 
on pealone plobe 
peoph jenepebc :• 
Spilce faep eac pe ppoba 
mib pleame com 
on hip cy^Be nopV 
Conptantinup :• 
I3ap ftylbc-pinc 
hpeman ne ]K>ppte 
maecan^ ^emanan. 
'ftcp'' paep hip mas^a pccapb 
*i ppeonba jep^lleb. 
on polc-ptebc 
^beplajen at pcccc'^. 
Anb hip punu poplet 



of those that with Aniaf 

over the briny deep 

in the ship's bosom 

sought this land 

for the hardy fight 

Five kings lay 

on the field of battle^ 

in bloom of youths 

pierced with swords. 

So seyen eke 

of the earls of Anlaf ; 

and of the shipVcrew 

unnumber'd crowds. 

There was dispersed 

the little band 

of hardy Scots, 

the dread of northern hordes ; 

urged to the noisy deep, 

by unrelenting fate ! 

The king of the fleet 

with his slepder craft 

escaped with his life 

on the felon flood ; — 

and so too Constantiue, 

the valiant chief, 

returned to the north 

in hasty flight. 

The hoary Hildrinc 

cared not to boast 

among his kindred. 

Here was his remnant 

of relations and friends 

slain with the sword 

in the crowded fight. 

His son too he left 



• From Cani. C.T. b i. ]7»|ia, C.T. b It. ^ eaji ^^lanb. Cant. C.T. b i. and ir. * la^oO) Cant. 
C.T. B i. and ir. ' jpilce, Cani. rfylcO) C.T. b ir. • So C.T. b i. ' bpejo, Cani. C.T. b i. and ir. 
t oebe, Cani. ne^be, C.T. mir. ^ mecea, Cani. mecps C.T.nlr. > So Cam. C.T.bU ^ fop. 
flv^en — Cani. baj lagen »t jvcje, C»T. b if. bejlegen aec ;»coe, C 7". b i. 



144 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



on pael-ftole*- 
punbum popjpunben. 
jeonje aetr ju^e. 
Gylpan ne foppce 
beopn blanben-peax** 
bil-jej-lehtej" :• 
ealb Inpibba*^ 
ne Anlaj: ]?y ma 
mib heopa hepe-lapum 
hlehan^ ne J?opptan. 
f hie beabu-peopca* 
betepan pupbon. 
on camp-jt:ebe. 
cumbel-jehnabef^. 
jap-mittinjcf. 
jumena jemotej-. 
faepen-jeppixlejr. 
J?aB[- ]?e hie on pael-pelba 
pi^ Gabpeapbej- 
apopan^ plejobon:- 
Gepitan him ])a Nop^men 
nas^Iebon cneappum. 
bpeopij bapej?a lap. 
on binnep** mepe. 
opep beop paetep 
Dipehn* pecan 
^tJ heopalanb''. 
aepipc-mobe. 
Spilce J?a jebpo^ep 
bejen aec pamne. 
cy^ninj anb aej^eknj. 
cy^^e pohton. 
Pept-Seaxna' lanb. 
"pijep hpeamie". 
Laeton him behynban 



on the field of battle, 

mangled with wounds> 

young at the fight. 

The fair-hair'd youth 

had no reason to boast 

of the slaughtering strife. 

Nor old Inwood 

and Anlaf the more 

with the wrecks of their army 

could laugh and say, 

that they on the field 

of stern command 

better workmen were, 

in the conflict of banners, 

the clash of spears, 

the meeting of heroes^ 

and the rustling of weapons, 

which they on the field 

of slaughter played 

with the sons of Edward. 

The northmen sail'd 

in their nailed ships, 

a dreary remnant, 

on the roaring sea ; 

over deep water 

Dublin they sought^ 

and Ireland's shores, 

in great disgrace. 

Such then the brothers, 

both together 

king and atheling, 

sought their country, 

West-Saxon land, 

.in fight triumphant. 

They left behind them 



• .jftope, C,T. B i. and it. ^ pex, Cani. C.T, b i. « Inpuba, CT. Bir. •pitca, Cant. si. jji pib^, 
GilM. from Whel. ^ hlihhan, Cani, ^ beabo, CanL C.T. b i. and it. ' cumbol jehDajtef^ Cant. 
CrT.BU < eapopan. Cant. ^ bin^cj, Con/. C.T.bu > Dyplen, Cant, ^ ept I]ia.kitf>, Cant. 
Ypalanb^ CT. a i. and it. > Pef jexeoa, (7.7. b L ® F^SS^f ^pomxie^ Cani. CJT. b L 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



* ' .1 



143 



■hpa bpyttnan''. 
*^jralopij paban^ 
®anb'' jH>ne fpeajitan hpepi. 
hypneb nebban. 
"3 **J>ane hafean paban"'. 
eapn aeptan hpit: 
aej-ef bpucan. 
gpaebi^ne ju^-hapoc*. 
tl f Spaje^ beop 
pulp on pealbes :• 
Ne peapS pael mape 
on ^^lye ijlanbe'' 
'aepep jyta^ 
polcef jepylleb"* 
bepopan f ippum 
fpeopbep ecjum. 
J?aep f e up pecja* bee 
ealbe u^pitah. 
f i^San eaptan hibep 
Gnjle :j Seaxe^ 
up becomon. 
opep "bpymum bpab'' 
Bpytene pohton. 
plapce pij-pmi^Sap. 
Pealap" opep-conion. 
eoplap aphpate. 
eapb bejeaton :• 

DCCCCXXXIX. DCCCCXL. 

An. DCCCCXLI. «J3ep ye«elptan 
cyninj pop«pepbc Pon Gleape-ceap- 



raw to devour, 

tbe sallow kite^ 

the swarthy raven 

with horny nib, 

and the hoarse vultur, 

with the eagle swift 

to consume his prey ; 

the greedy gos-hawk, 

and that grey beast 

the wolf of the weald. 

No slaughter yet 

was greater made 

e'er in this island, 

of people slain, 

before this same, 

with the edge of the sword; 

as the books inform us 

of the old historians ; 

since hither came 

from the eastern shores 

the Angles and Saxons, 

over the broad sea, 

and Britain sought, — 

fierce battle-smiths, 

o'ercame the Welsh, 

most valiant earls, 

and gained the land. 



A.D.941. This year! king Athelstan 
died in Glocester*, on the 6th day before 



• hpap bpymjan, C«„/. hj« bnimjan, CT. b I. hpa bpymnja, b ir. hj»j:n Bpyttuu., ««. 

io t.r. B I. and ,T. jaloptj r«*an. Cant, jala pipaban, Gibs, from Whel. « Ab«. Cant. C.T. a i. 
and IT. >o„e haropaban, Cant, hafo paftan, C.T.tXr. • ca«.h«aj:oc, C.T. air. . ' rnere. 

C.r.B.T. .SoC.r.Bl.andir. y«albe,««. ^^j..C.T.b\. f.rne-.lr. %e.2laDbe,«M. 

aFpe~^/.C.r.Bl.andiT. _Xm,,BiT. » apylleb, C««/. 'Seian.Oin/. 8cxe,C.r.B!. - bnaDe 
bp.mu,Cr.B.T. -SoOwir.C.r.Bi.andir. Peallef, Gibs. from, Whd. • Dccccxi.C.r.Bi.andir. 
Dep A.«eljtan cyninj j!op»p.pr)e, -j jrenj iEbmnnb co pice hip bpo«ep. Land. t From C T. b Ir 



' J(n. 040. flor. 



' "Jpud €flaDomam."-^FioT. 

V 



146 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



rpe''. on vi, kJ. Nouembpip ymbe xli.* 
pmtpa butan anpe nihte Jwjr ye /61- 
ppeb cyninj pop^pepbc. 1 Gabmunb 
asj^elin^ penj to pice. ^ he paej* Jia xviii. 
pintrpe. 1 yB^elftan cynm^ ^pixabe 
XIV. jeap anb x/' pucan :• ^J3ep Nop¥- 
h]^mbpa alu^on hipa jetpeop-a^a. ^ An- 
lap op Yplanb him to cin^e jccupon'':* 
An. DCCCCXLII. Dcp 

Gabmunb cynm^. 

Gn^la }>eoben. 

ma^a^ munb-bopa. 

CDypce je-eobe. 

b^pe b»b-ppuma. 

jrpabop jrcabe^ 

hpitan pyller jeat 

^ ^iSumbpa ea^ 

bpaba bpym*ftpeam. 

buph^a pipe. 

Lijopa-ceaptep. 

^ Lmbcylne. 

^'i'' Snotm^aham. 

ppylce Stanpopb eac 

*i Dcopaby:- 
^Dene paepcm a&p^. 

unbep Nop^inaAnum 

nybe jcbegbe*", 

on hae}>enpa' 

haepte-clommum^ 

lan^e J^paje. 

o^ ^ hie alypbc 

ept pop hip pcop^-pcj^pc. 

pijjenbpa hleo^ 

apopa 6abpeapbep. 

6abmunb c^ninj :• 



tbe calends of November^ about 4 1 win- 
ten, bating one night, from the time when 
king Alfred died. And Edmund Athel- 
ing took to the kingdom. He was then 
18 yean old. King Athelstan reigned 14 
yean and 1 weeks. This year the North- 
umbrians abandoned their allegiance, 
and chose Anlaf of Ireland for their king. 
A.D. 943. Here 

Edmund king, 

of Angles lord, 

protector of friends, 

author and framer 

of direful deeds, 

overran with speed 

the Mercian land, 

where'er the course 

of Whitwell-spring, 

or Humher deep, 

the broad brim^stieam, 

divides five towns,— 

Leicester and Lincoln, 

Nottingham and Staatford, 

and Derby eke. 

In thraldom long 

to Norman Danes 

they bowed through need, 

and dragged the cWns 

of heathen men ; 

till, to bis glory, 

great Edward'a heir, 

Edmund the king, 

refuge of warrion, 

Uieir fetters broke. 



* XL, CanL C,T. b i. and ir. ^ jiicjdbe ztiiit. geaji ^j teoo — C^r. a ir. « From C»T. a it. 
4 mecjea, CtuU. mae;]^, C.T. b it. « DumbjiaD ea, Cdni. C.T. b ir. ' Abf. Cani. C.T. b i. 

< Denum jwjion epof > Cani. ^ z^Heb^ Cami. C. T. b it. | h«]wDaiD, Cani. ^ dkaumm^ Cant. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 147 

An. DCCCCXLIII. ^t^eji Anlap a- A.D. 943. This year Anlaf stormed 
bpaec TamepupJ'e. ^ micel pael jepeol Tamworth ; and much slaughter was 
on aejhpa^ hanb. ^ )>a Denan pje ahton. made on either hand ; but the Danes 
*) micele hepe-hu]>e mib him ape^ laeb- bad the Yictorj, and led awaj with them 
bon. Jiasji psef pulpjiun jenumen on • much plunder. There was Wulfrun 
^sepe hepjunje :• K>ep 6abmunb c^- taken, in the spoiling of the town. This 
m; fmhYsst Anlap cynm; *i pulpf*tan year king Edmund beset king Anlaf and 
apcebifceop on Lejpa-ceaptpe. *] he hy archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester ; and 
^ep^^lban meabre. nsspe f hi on niht he might have conquered thero^ were it 
ittne «tbupft:on op }>aepe by^pi^. ^ • not that they burst out of the town in 
aeptep )>aem be^eat Anlap 6abmunbep the night. After this Anlaf obtained the 
c5'n2;ep ppeonbpcipe. ^ pe c^nm^ Gab- friendship of king Edmund, and king 
munb^onpenj ®})a''Anlape c^nmje aet: Edmund then received king Anlaf in 
pulpihte. ^'j he him c^nehce ^^pobe^. baptism; and he made him royal pre* 
*] \>f ^Ican ^epe. ^mb teala ^micel • sents. And the same year, after some 
psec^ he onpen; ^Rejenolbe c^nin^e'^ interval, he received king Reynold at 
setbifceopephanba:- sK>ep Anlap cyn- episcopal bauds. This year also died 
inj pop^pepbe**"' :• king Anlaf. 

An. DCCCCXLIV. ^ep Gabmunb A.D. 944. This year king Edmund 
c j^nm^ ^eeobe eall* Nop^$-bymbpa Manb . reduced all the land of the Northum- 
him to 3epeaIbe'^ 'i aply'mbe ut: tpe^en' brians to his dominion, and expelled 
cyninpip"^. Anlap '^Syhrpicep punu"". 'i two kings, Anlaf the son of Sihtric, and 
Rejenalb^ ^6u%pep^p punu'^:* Reynold the son of Guthferth. 

An. DCCCCXLV. ):>ep 6abmunb A.D. 945. This year king Edmund 
C]^n2 opep-hep^obe eall* Cumbpa- . overran all Cumberland ; and let it all 
lanb. ^'j hit: let eall toP CDalculme^ Scot- to Malcolm king of the Scols, on the 
ta c^ninje. on f ^epab' f he paepe hip condition, that he became his ally both 
jmbp^phta ae^ep je *on ps ^e eac' by sea and land. ^ 

on lanbe'^ :• 

An. DCCCCXLVL' Dep Gabmunb . A.D. 946. This year king Edmund 
cymn; pop^pepbe**. "^on pSp Au3U|rti< died, on St. AugusCrae's mass day. Tfcat 



* Fron C*T. s U. to o»]:e»2 ]», {^€. (ftbs. «U!.> AU Ibe culief MSS. seem (o be defeelive bere. 
^ ^SBjh^- * From C^T. b^it. abs. edd. What follows is also placed to the year 94^ ia the former 
editions, occccxuii. Cani. < From C.T. b it. « mycelne pypfc, CanL C.T. a i?. ^ Rejoalbe — 
C71 B lY. Rsegnolbef ciDjej, CanL > From LautL Cot. ^ *j Ricajibujf uetujr pijrcepit jiejnam. 
^j jie^nauit an. &ii. Gibs, from jAUid. ^ eatte^ LamL ^ Abs. Lamd^ ^ -3^ac^ OH, ^ cyne- 
hojmmt mtn, ImimL Ott >^Siliejiicef ^CJ.Bir. abs.LMMf. <» Rc^aolb, Cbiil. Re^alb,C.T.BiT. 
P lee to eal, edd. 4 OOalculfp, C.T. a ir. ^ jc^apieb^ {7.7. a hr. • ompe^e eac, CT. a ir. in- 
correctly. ^ dccccxlyiu* Laud. * f^T^ ofjoro^ea, Xoarf. CoL VuL CT. a if. 



148 



THE SAXON CHRONICLES. 



nuf maef pe baeje'^ *f paef pibe cup. hu 
he hij' bajajr je-enbobe. f Liopa hme 
opjranj act Puclan-cypcan. 'j y6J>el- 
plaeb aet Domejihaihe. /Elpjapcf bohtep 
ealbopmannej*. paef }?a hip cpcn''. ^^ he 
haspbe pice peope^e healp 3ep'^ ^ ^'Jya'" 
•aptep him'' penj Gabpeb ^aej^ehnj"' 
hip bpoBop to pice. ^ ^he'' ^pona'' je- 
pab *}?a" eall NoplS-hymbpa lanb him 
to ^epealbe. "i *}?a'' Scottap him aj?ap 
pealbon' f hie polbon eall f he polbe :• 

•An. DCCCCXLVII. I3ep com Gab- 
peb cymnj to Tabbenep-pcylpe^. tJ faep 
pdlpptan pe apcebipceop ^ ealle Nop^- 
hymbpa pitan piB |>one cynmj hi je- 
tpeoppoben. ^ bmnan Iitlan paece hit 
eall alujon. ^epeb ^ eac aj?ap'' :• 



*An. DCCCCXLVIII. licp Gabpeb 
c^ nin^ opephepjobe eall NopB-hymbpa 
lanb. pop }>aem ]>e hi haepbon ^enumen 
him Ypic to cyninje. ^ ^a on ]>aspe 
hepjunje paep f ma^pe mynptep pop- 
baspnb aet Rypon. f pee pilpepS je- 
tui^bpebe. ^ J)a pe cyninj hampeapb 
paep fa oppepbe pe hepe innan Tfieo- 
poppic. paep J?aep cynjep pypbe hinban 
aet Ceaptep-popba. ^ J^aep mycel pael 
jeplojon:- Da peapB pe cyninj ppa 
;(;pam f he polb ept inp^pbian. ^ J^one 
eapb mib ealle popbon. fa Nop^hym- 
bpa pitan f on^eaton fa poplaeton hi 



was widely known^ how he ended bis 
days; — that Leof stabbed him atPuekle* 
church K And Etbelfleda of Darner- 
ham^ daughter of alderman Elgar^ was 
then his queen. And be reigned, six 
years and a half; and then succeeded 
to the kingdom Edred atbeling his bro- 
ther^ who soon after reduced alltfae land 
of the Northumbrians to his dominion; 
and the Scots gave him oaths, that they 
would do all that he desired. 

A.D. 947. This year came king Edred 
to Tadden's-cliflf ^ ; and there archbi- 
shop Wulfstan and all the council of the 
Northumbrians bound themselves to as 
allegiance with the king. And within 
a little space they abandoned all, both 
allegiance and oaths. 

A.D. 948. This year king Edred 
overran all Northumberland; because 
they had taken Eric for their king; and 
in the pursuit of plunder was that large 
minster at Rippon^ set on fire, which 
St Wilferth built. As the king return- 
ed homeward, he overtook the enemy 
at York ; but his main army was be- 
hind at Chesterford^. There was great 
slaughter made ; and the king was so 
wroth, that he would fain return with 
bis force, and lay waste the land withal ; 
but when the council of the Nortbum- 
brians understood that, they then aban- 



i*ta 



• From C.T. bIt. * Abs. Laud. « From Laud. ^ From Laud. Cot. 
^ So MS. Nothtng occurs ia C.T, si. from the year 947 to 055, iaclasWe. 



jpojion, Laud. Cot. 



^ ^^ In regia xritta^ qua Anglke Pacelecirce 
iltct/ur."— Flor. Micfaelesberith ! M.West. 

^ . «« Vma qua dicUur Taddeuesdff.^—Flor. 
an. 949. The coincidence between Florence and 



C.T. BIT. is remarkable in this place. 

' ^^ Monasterium quod didiur In Rhipun. 
Flor. 

* Casterford. Flor. 

If » 



THE SAXON CHRONICUE. 



149 



* I5yji]^c. 1 pi? Gabpeb c^^ninj jebeton 
fabaebe'^:- 

•An. DCCCCXLIX. J3ep com Anlap 
Cpijian^ on NopS-hymbjia^ lanb'':- 

DCCCCL. 

An. DCCCCLI. **l5ep poji'Spcjibe 
yGlpheah. pintan-ccajtrpejr bifcop. on 
fee Gpejopiep maepfe baej^' :• 

An. DCCCCLII. fhejx Noji^-h^m- 
bpe popbpipan Anlap cyninj. ^ unbep- 
penjon Ypic JSapolbep punu'V ^TSeji on 
J>yppum jeapc het Gabpeb cynmj jc- 
bpin^an puljrtan apcebipceop in luban- 
bypij. on J>am paeptenne. pop Jjam he 
paep opt to }?am cyninje popppejebe. 
^ on Jryppiim jeapc eac het pc cyninj 
opplean mycel pael on J^aepe bypij Deot- 
popba. on l^aep abbobep ppece ]?e hi «p 
opplojon^':- 

DCCCCLIII. 

KAn. DCCCCLIV. Jiep Nop^^hym- 
bpe*^ popbpipon Ypic. ^ /Bbpeh^ ^cmj' 
pcnj to Nop^ymbpa* pice'':- ^J3ep pul- 
ptan apcebipcop onpenj ept bipcop- 
picep on Dopce-ceaptpc'':- 

An. DCCCCLV. ""J^ep pop^pepbc 
Gabpeb cyninj. '^on pde Clementep 



doned Eric, and compromised the deed 
with king Edred. 

A.D.949. This year came Anlaf Cur- 
ran to the land of the Northumbrians. 

A.D. 951. This year died Elfeab, 
bishop of Winchester, on St. Gregory's 
mass-day. 

. A.D. 962. This year the Northum- 
brians expelled king Aniaf, and received 
Erici the son of Harold. This year 
also king Edred ordered archbishop 
Wulfstan to be brought into prison at 
Jedburgh^; because he was oft bewray- 
ed before the king : and the same year 
the king ordered a great slaughter to be 
made in the town of Thetford, in re- 
venge of the abbot^, whom they had 
formerly slain. 

A.D. 954. This year the Northum- 
brians expelled Eric^; and king Edred 
took to the government of the North- 
umbrians. This year also archbishop 
Wulfstan received a bishopric again at 
Dorchester. 

A.D. 955. This yeardied king Edred, 
on St. Clement's mass day, at Frome^. 



* From Laud. Coi. ^ Gibson considers this as an adferb, from cyjifian, redire, to retnm. « Nup^ 
timbcp-lanb, Cot. N.S. ^ Abs. Laud. Cant. C.T.bu and if. bepe— Pintan-ceajftejiej — Wution. 
• From Laud. Cot. Petroh. ' From CT.sir. « From Laud. Cot. C.T. bit. ^ -hymbjian, Cot. 
» Gabpeb, C.T. b It. ^ Abs, Laud. C.T. b iv. ' NojiV-hymbiia, C.T. b ir. " An. dcccclyi. Cant. 
CT. b i. "beji pop^pepbe Gabjieb anj. "j Gabpij pcnj to pice. Cant. So b i, but for ^bpij, 6abpi. 



1 Ircnm, Flor. Eilricam, M.West. Eirikr, 
Johnstone's Aniiquitaies CeltcScandka. 

^ JuthanbirJg, Flor. Juthanbyrig^S.Diuielm. 
Withabirith! M.West. 

^ Aldhelmi, Flor. M.West. &c. 



* So I understand the word. Gibson, from 
Wheloc, says — " in mtatis vigoref* a fact con. 
tradicted by the statement of almost erery his- 
torian. Names of places seldom occur in old MSS. 
with capital initials. * 



no 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



m9|rpe-bfl^. on Fjiome. ^ he picpibe 
ttope htzlf jep^. "^ Ke pejx op calb- 
an m]^ji:cpc'', ^ *^|wi'' F^^X 6abpic to 
*Pcjrt-Scaxcna'^ picc. Gabmunbef pinu 
^c^^nmjcj-^ "l 6abjap ^^aej^clinj' hij- • 
hjuXop pcnj to CDy^pcena'* picc. *i hi 
psepon Gabmunbejr pina cyninjey "j jrSe 

yeipxtF^"-- 

An. DCCCCLVI.« ftep pop^jcepbe 
pulpf^an^ apceB. ^op 6ueppic''. ^'on • 
XYii. kt. lanuap. ^ he paejr beby^pjeb on 
Unbelan. ^ on ])am ylcan ^eape pasf 
Dunpran abl>' abpaepeb ^utr op lanbe^ 

opcp jra"^:* 

nCCCCLTII. 

•An. DCCCCLVIII. liep on fippim 
^eape Oba apcebifcop totpaembe Gab- 
pi c^^nin; tl f^^rSYT^' F^P f*™ 1* ^* 
paepon to jej^bbe":- 

An. DCCCCLIX.* ftep pop^pepbe - 
GabjHj"* c;Jrninj "on kt. Octobp''. anb 
Sab^ap hip bpo^op pen^ to pice ^aej-r 
^p je on pept-Seaxum je on CDyp- 
cum ^ on Nop%-h^bpum. *) he paep 
}b, XVI. pintpe"^. P}3ep he paente aeptep • 
pCe Dunptane. 1 jepe him f bipcop- 



He leigned nine jean and a half; and 
he rests in the old minster^ Then suc- 
ceeded Edwj^ the son of king Edmund^ 
to the gDYernment of the West-Saxons ; 
and Edgar atheling, his brother^ suc- 
ceeded to the government of the Mer- 
cians. Thejr were the sons of king Ed- 
mund and of St. Elfgiva. 

A.D. 956. Tbitf year died Wul&tan, 
archbishop of York, on the seventeenth 
day before the calends of January^; and 
he was buried at Oundle ; and in the 
same year was abbot Donstan driven out 
of this land over sea. 

A.D. 958. This year archbishop Oda 
separated king Edwy and Elfgiva; be- 
cause they were too nearly rehited. 

A.D. 959. This year died king Ed- 
wy, on the calends of October; and 
Edgar his brother took to the goveriH 
ment of the We8t*Saaons> Mercians^ aad 
Northumbrians. He was then sixteen 
years old. It was in tliis year be sent 
after St. Dunstan, and gave him the bi- 



• From CT.BiY. ^ Abs. Laud. Cr.Bhr. « From Cant C.T.bu an. dcccclyi. ' OOyjicna, 
C.T. B i. * So Gtb». from Laud. Cbf. ]>ecce£y»i. C7. b h, from whid^ MS. we have- i o s or lsd tha 
graater part oi wb«t foUowf ia this year after Guepf ic. ' So C T. b ir. Puljeu, Gibs, s From LaiuL 
h l^rom c.T. b ir. aa. bcccclyu. ^ After abb% apce ~ MS. as if for apcebif cop,— a title iaappUcable 
at (hat time to Danstaa, but not so premature as that of Stdni In Cot Petrob. Wutton, &c. ^ From 
Psire^. WiUtoQ, &c: as. occccly* which year Gibson concludes thus^ after junu cyninj^ejr: i y. ^l^me* 
"j uf]mmibe jco^ Dunpwi ur op lanbe. A nd after eueppie, in this year, he adds, from Cani. Dep G^hfif 
ae)clin2 f cng to CDypcua pice. > So Laud, C.T. b ir. dcccclyiii. Cani. dcccclyii. idd. ^ Gabpi, 
Laud. The whole passive mas thas in Coi. : "bep Gabft cio; popVpepbe. 1 Babgap cm^ jieapV aeptep 
him ouep cttf ^yvane. » Abs. Laud. Q»ni. ^ From Cani. C.T. b i. p From PMrob. placed bjr 
Gibson InjiidickMwIy at the end of the year, after the eomplimeatary ode on the reign of kkig Edgar. 



* L e» at Winchester. 



' << 7 kai. Jaanoru;"— Flor« 



THE SAXON CHRONICLB. 



Ml 



pice on pijjia-ca^j-tjie. ^ )'a&p*e|:tep f 
bifcop-pice on Lunbune"^ :• 
*On hip Ob^uin 

hit: jobobe j;eopQe. 

*i Gob him ^eu^ 

f he punobe on pbbe 

]>a hpile ]>e he leopobe. 

tJ he bybc 

jy^ him ]>eapp paep 

eapnobe ]>2ep jeopne. 

)3e apaepbe 

Gobep loj:" pibc. 

anb Gobep la^e lupobe. 

^ polcep ppi^ bette 

jrpi^opt: ))apa cyninja 

)>e aep him jepupbe 

be manna jem^nbe. 

Anb Gob him eac p^lp^ 

f cyninjap 1 eoplap 

jeopne him to bu^on 

^ pupben unbep-Jieoibbe 

to )iam }e he polbe. 

^ butan ^epeohte 

eall he ^epilbe 

J>aBt he fflf polbe« 

l;>e peap% pibe 

jeonb ]>e6b-lanb 

ppi^ 2^peop%ab. 



sbopric of Worcester; and afterwards 
the bishopric of Loudon. 
In his days 
it prosper'd well ; 
and God him gave^ 
that he dwelt in peace 
the while that he lived. 
Whatever he did, 
whatever he plan'd, 
he earn'd his thrift. 
He also rear'd 
God's glory wide, 
and God's law lov'd, 
with peace to man, 
above the kings 
that went before 
in man's remembrance. 
God so him sped, 

that kings and earls 

to all his claims 

submissive boW'd ; 

and to his will 

without a blow 

he wielded all 

as pleased himsdif. 

Esteem'd he was 

both far and wide 

in distant lands ; 



•FtcmLiauLPHnh.C.T.nhr. abf.BLftc. Noifaing occurs in b i. froa tUs yssr to the year d7l, 
Tbo Ck>itoD MS. thus : 



On hij bapim 
bic ^obabe ^eojnie. 

"f he f nnobe on pbbe 
}tk hpile }tk he leoao^ 
Botao ^efeohte 
sal he jeff ft> 
^ he jflf f olbe. 



l3epii(A$obe 

Gobef namao gsopoe. 

tl Gobep laje jneabe 

opi jelome. 

'j Gobejf lop pcjibe 

pibe "j pbe. 

anb pifhce p»bbe 

oalpe hif ^be 

popGoba 

*) pop popalbe. 



152 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



pojiVam %e he peop%obe 

Gobef namaq ^eopne. 

anb Gobejr la^e pneabe 

ojn: *i 2^Iome. 

anb Gobej" lop paepbe 

pibe 1 pbe. 

^ pij-lice paebbe 

ojn:oft a j^mblc- 

poji Gobe 

1 pop peopulbe. 

ealpe hip ]>eobe. 

Ane mipbaebe he bybe 

J?eah to ppi^. 

f he el-J?e6bije 

unpba lupobe. 

tt hse]wne )>eapap 

innan ]>ipan lanbe 

jebpohte to paepte. 

^ ut-laenbipce 

hibep m-tihre. 

tl beopienbc 

leoba beppeon 

■ 

to J^ypan eapbe. 

Ac Gob him jeunne 

f hip job-bseba 

ppy%pan peap]?an 

jfonne inipbaeba. 

hip paple to jepcylbneppe 

on lanjpuman py^e'^ :• 

DCCCCLX. 

•An. DCCCCLXl. I3ep gepat Obo^ 
cpe joba' apcebipcop. 'j pde Dunptan 
penj** to apcebipcop-picc". I3ep popW- 



becaufle he prized 
the name of God, 
and God's law tnced, 
God's glory rear'd^ 
both far and wide> 
on every side. 
Wisely be sought 
in council oft 
his people's good, ' 
before his God, 
before the world. 
One misdeed he. did, 
too much however, 
that foreign tastes 
he loved too much ; 
and heathen modes 
into this land 
he brought too fast ; 
outlandish men 
hither enticed ; 
and to this earth 
attracted crowds 
of vicious men^ 
But God him gran^ 
that his good deeds 
be weightier far 
than his misdeeds, 
to his soul's redemption 
on the judgment-day. 

A.D. 961. This year departed Odo, 
the good archbishop 1, and St. Dunstan 
took to the archbishopric. This year 



• From Peirob. edd. abs. C. T. b i. and ir. 
* fesLfX ^ecopea, Coi. 

* ^^ Poii Odonem arckiepiscopus faciui est 
Jlfiinus (ai. Elsinus) qui tamen d pkrisque hit* 
toricii omiitUur; quippe hand mulio posiea^ dum 



^ So Whel. Gibs. Oba, Coi. « From Coi. 

Romam ad pallium petendum proficiseeretur^ in^ 
Alpinis motUibus gelu constrictus perOi.^* — Gibs, 
from Flor. and others. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



153 



jxjibe ySlpjap. cyninjcf maej. on Dc- 
penum. ^ hif lie li^ on piltune. ^ Sije- 
pep^ cynmj hme op-peoU. ^ hip lie 
pept set pinbupnan. Anb ^a on jeapc 
paep ppy^c micel man-cpealm. tl pe my- 
cela man-bpyne psep on Lunbene. ^ 
Paulep minptep popbapn. ^ ]>y ilcan 
3epe peap^ ept jeptaSelab:- On |>ip yl- 
can jeape pop A^elmob mseppe-ppeopt 
to Rome, "j }>aBp pop-ISpepbe xviii. kt. 
Septembpip"' :• 

DCCCCLXII. 

An. DCCCCLXIII. •tSep pop«pepb€ 
Pulpptan biaeon on Cilba-maeppc-baBje. 
^ aeptep f on pop^pepbe Gypic maeppe- 
ppeopt'^:* ^On }?y ilcan jeape penj 
Athelpolb abbob to }?am bipeoppice on 
pmtan-ceaptpc. ^ hinc mon jehaljobc 
m uijilia p. Anbpee. paep punnan-bae^ 
on baej"':- []*^0n |>ep o^ep jeap. py^- 
%on he paep ^ehaljob. ]7a makobe he 
peola minptpa. ^ bpap ut }7a clepea op 
)?e bipeoppice. pop%an f hi nolbon nan 
pejul healben. *J paetta jjaep muneca. 
fte maebbe J^aep tpa abbotpice. an op 
muneca. o^ep op nunna. f paep call pi^- 
mnan J^intan-eeaptpe. Sy^^an J?a com 
he to pe cynj Babjap. beb him J?et he 
pcolbe him jiuen ealle }?a minptpe }?a 
haej^ene men haepben aep tobpocon. 
pop^i Jjct he hit polbe jeeabnepion. ^ 
pe k^nj hit bli^elice ty^obe. Anb pe 



also died Elfgar^ a relative of the king, 
ID Devonshire; and his body lies tit Wil- 
ton: and king SiflTerth killed himself; 
and his body lies at Wimborn. This year 
there was a very great pestilence ; when 
the great fever was in London ; and St. 
Paul's minster was consumed with fire, 
and in the same year was afterwards re- 
stored. In this year Athelmod, the mass- 
priest, went to Rome, and there died on 
the iSth before the calends of September. 

A.D. 963. This year died Wulfstan, 
the deacon, on Childermass-dayi ; and 
afterwards died Gyric, the mass-priest. 
In the same year took abbot Athelwold 
to the bishopric of Winchester; and he 
was consecrated on the vigil of St. An- 
drew, which happened on a Sunday. 
On the second year after he was conse- 
crated, he made many minsters ; and 
drove out the clerks' from the bishop- 
ric, because they would bold no rule, 
and set monks therein. He made there 
two abbacies; one of monks, another^f 
nuns. That was all within Winchester. 
Then came he afterwards to king Ed* 
gar, and requested that he would give 
him all the minsters that heathen men 
had before destroyed ; for that he would 
renew them. This the king cheerfully 
granted; and the bishop came then first 



. • Abs. Laud. C,T. 9 i. and it. ^ So Gibs, from Whel. abs. C.T. b i. and it. bep jrjiam Sbbjap 
cyninj to Jtc bij-copbom& on Pmtan.ceajt}ia yej jccojien jcc. AVelpoib. 1 J»e apceb' oj: Cant-pajubypi^ 
jce. Dunjtan him jehal^ob to bijrcop on J^e pypjtc junnon-baej oj: Abaent. jJ pajj* on lii. kal' Decern. 
bjiif. Laud. N. S. « From Laud, N. S. to the end of the year. 



^ f . e, the feast of the Holy Innoceats ; a festi* 
yal of great antiquity. 



^ t. e» the secular clergy, who observed no rule; 
opposed to the regulars^ or monks. 



154 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



bifcop com J)a pypft to Glij. f aeji j-ce 
ye^elbpi^ li^. "j leot macen Jjone myn- 
ytpe. jeap hit J?a hij* au munac. Bpiht- 
no^ paej- jchatcn. JSaljobe hira |)a ab- 
bot. ^ paette J^aep mimecap Gobe to 
]7epian. J^aep hpilon psepon nun. bohte 
]>2L peala cotlip aet ye km^. anb macobe 
hit jrpy^e pice. Sy^^on com ye bipcop 
A^elpolb to ))sepe mynjtrpe }?e paejr je- 
haten rocbej-hamjtrebe. ^e hpilon pa»p 
jropbon ppa he^enc polcc. ne panb l^aep 
nan J^in^ buton eallbe peallap. anb pilbe 
puba. Fanbe fa hibbe in ^a ealbe peallc 
ppitep Wet I^eabba abbot heapbe aep 
jeppiton. hu pulphepe kynj 1 /6Wel- 
peb hip bpoWop hit heapben ppoht. ^ 
hu hi hit ppeobon piW kmj "j piB bi- 
pcop. anb piW ealle peopulb-}?eubom. 
anb hu pe papa AjaWo hit peoptnobe 
mib hip ppite. anb pe apcebipcop Deup- 
bebit. Leot pipcen }?a f mynptpe. 1 
paette Wap abbot, pe pa»p jehaten Alb- 
\ilp. macebe J^aep munecap J^asp aep nt 
paep nan J^inj. Com J?a to fe cynj. ^ 
leOt him locon J)a jeppite J« aep paepon 
jepunben. ^ pe kynj anbppepobe ]>a anb 
cpeb. Ic /Gbjap ^eate ^ jipe to baei. 
topopen Gobe *3 topopen |>one aepcebi- 
pcop Dunptan. ppeobom pPe Petpep 
mynptpe CDebephamptebe op kynj ^ 
op bipcop. ^ ealle fa f oppep fe faep to 
lin. f ip /Gpt-pelb. ^ Dobep-Wopp. anb 
Gje. anb Paptun. Anb ppa ic hit ppeo 
Set nan bipcop ne haue Saep nane haepe. 
buton pe abbot op Wone mmptpe, Anb 
ic jipe fone tun We man cleopeW Un- 
bela. mib eall }>et f aep to liW. f ip J>et 



to Ely, ivhere St Etheldritha lies^ and 
ordered the minster to be repaired ; 
M^hicb he gave to a monk of his, Mrhose 
name was Britnotb, whom he conse- 
crated abbot : and there be set mqnkE 
to serve God, where formerly were nuns. 
He then bought many villages of tbe 
king, and made it very rich. After- 
wards came bishop Athelwold to the 
minster called Medhamsted, which was 
formerly ruined by heathen folk ; but 
he found there nothing but old walls, 
and wild woods. In the old walls at 
length be found hid writings which ab- 
bot Hedda bad formerly Written; — how 
king Wulffaere^ and Ethelred his bro- 
ther had wrought it, and how they freed 
it against king and against bishop, and 
against all worldly service; and ho^ 
pope Agatho confirmed it with his writ» 
as also archbishop Deusdedit He then 
ordered the minster to be rebuilt; and 
set there an abbot, who was called Ald- 
ulf ; and made monks, where before was 
nothing. He then came to the king, 
and let him look at the writings which 
before were found ; and the king then 
answered and said: "I Edgar grant and 
give today, before God and before arch^ 
bishop Dunstan, freedom to St. Peter's 
minster at Medhamsted, from king and 
from bishop ; and all the thorps that 
thereto lie ; that is, Eastfield^^ and Dod- 
thorp, and Eye, and Paston. And so I 
free it, that no bishop have any juris-^ 
diction there, but the abbot of the min« 
ster alone. And I give the town called 



Fid, an, 056. 



^ Abs. Chart. Hist. Ecd. Petrob. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



155 



man cleope% 6ahte Imnbpeb. anb maji- 
ket anb toll, f pa ppeolice f ne km; ne 
bijrcop ne eopl ne f cyp-pcue ne hauc 
%aep nana ha&fe. ne nan man buton fe 
abbot ane tl J'^ni jte he J^asp to ]rast. < 
Anb ic jipe Cpift "j jrce Pctep. ^ f uph 
J?Cf bif cop bene A^elpolb. J^af lanb. f 
1J-. Bappe. pepminjtun. /Efctun. Ke- 
tepmj. Caftpa. Gjlej^jup^e. paltun. 
Pi^pmjtun. e^e. Dopp. ^ ane myne- 
tep in Stan-pop%. Daf lanb ^ ealla {'a 
o^pe J>e lin into ^e mynfrpe J?a cpebe 
ic fcyp. f If. pica ^ jx>cne. toll ^ team. 
^ inpanjenj^ep. }?af pihtinj 1 ealle o^pe 
)»a cp^c ic jrcyp Cpipt *i y. Petep. 
Anb ic ppc })a tpa bael op pitlepmepe. 
mib patpep *i mib paepep tJ peonnep. 
anb ppa )>uph COepelabe on an to f 
paetep f man cleope^ Nen. ^ ppa eapt- 
peapb to Cynjcp-baelp. Anb ic piUe f 
mapkete beo m }>e peine tnn. ^ f nan 
o^ep ne betpix Stan-popb ^ )3untan- 
bune. Anb ic piUe J)et fup be ^ipcn pc 
toll, ffjift ppa pytlep-maepe eall to 
J>e cjrnjep toll op Nop¥-mannep-cpop- 
bunbpeb. ^ ept onjeanpapb ppa pitlep- 
xnaspe ]>uph GQepelabe on an to Nen. *i 
ppa ppa f pastep peonnep to Cpulanbe. 
^ ppa Cpulanbe to OOupt. "i ppa COupt 
to Cynjep-baelp ^ to Pytlep-maepe. 
Anb ic pille f ealle ]>a ppeobom *i ealle 
J?a. pop3iueneppc J^ mine popjenjlep 
jeajxn. J'et hit ptanbe. ^ ic ppite anb 
peoptnije mib Cpiptep pobe-tacne. ifi 



Oundlc^ with all that thereto lietb^ called 
Ejot-hundred^^ with market and toll:;. 
80 freely, that neither king, nor bishop, 
nor earl, nor sheriff, have there any ju- 
risdiction ; nor any man but the abbot 
alone, and whom he may set thereto. 
And I give to Christ and St. Peter, and 
that too with the advice of bishop Athel- 
wold, these lands; — that is, Barrow, 
Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Cas- 
tor, Eylesworth, Walton, Witherington^ 
Eye, Thorp, and a minter at Stamford. 
These lands and all the others that be- 
long to the minster I pronounce a shire; 
that is, with sack and sock, toll and team^ 
and infangthief : these privileges and-all 
others pronounce I the shire of Christ 
and St. Peter. And I give the two parts* 
of Whittlesey -mere, with waters and 
with wears and fens ; and so through- 
Meerlade along to the water that is call- 
ed Nen ; and so eastward to Kingsdelf. 
And I will that there be a market in the 
town itself, and that no other be betwixt 
Stamford and Huntingdon. And I will 
that thus be given the toll ; — first, from 
Whittlesey - mere to the king's toll of 
Norman-ciross hundred; then backward 
again from Whittlesey -mere through 
Meerlade along to the Nen^, and as that 
river runs to Crowland ; and from Crow- 
land to Must,' and from Must to Kings- 
delf and to Whittlesey-mere. And I will 
that all the freedom, and all the privi- 



' Ethen-handred, Chart Petrob. 
' ^ Quartam partem stagni quod dkitur Witk$^ 
mere.*^ — Chart Petrob* 

' <^ Et inde HciU aqua currii ad Waimisforde^ 



ei de fValmisforde usque ad Stanford, et de Stutt' 
forde Juxta cursum aqua usque ad Cruland,*^ Sfc. 
— Chart. Petrobi Aq omissioa probably in the 
Saxon MS. arising from repetition. 

X2 



156 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



— Da anbj-pepabe j-e apcebif cop Dun- 
jrtran op Cant-pap-bypij. ^ yxibe. Ic 
ty'Sc f ealJe ]>a ]>m^ Jjc hep if ^ipcn "j 
fppecon. *i ealle }?a finj |>c J?in pop- 
jenjlep "j mm jeatton. J?a piUc ic f hit 
ptranbe. ^ ppa hpa ppa hit tobpeco^. 
J?a jipc ic him Gobep cupp ^ ealpa 
hal^an ^ ealpe habebe heapbc anb mm. 
buton he cume to baeb-bote. Anb ic 
jipe tocnaplece pee Petep mm meppe- 
hacel ^ mm ptol ^ mm paep. Cpipte 
to ]7eupian. — Ic Oppalb apcebipcop op 
Gopeppic jeate ealle J?ap popbe. jfujih 
J^a hal^o pobe J?et Cpipt paep on 
J^popob. lit — Ic A^elpolo bipcop blaet- 
pje ealle J?e |)ip healbon. "j ic aman- 
pumie ealle }>e J?ip tobpascon. buton he 
cume to basb-bote. — Uep paep jClpptan 
bipcop. ABulp bipcop. tl Gpcpi abbot, 
anb Opjap abbot. ^ jB^eljap abbot. 
*J /Glpepe ealbopman. /G^elpme ealb- 
opman. Bpithno%. Oplac ealbopman. ^ 
peola o^pe pice men. ^ ealle hit jeat- 
ton anb ealle hit ppiten mib Cpiptep 
mael. iji Dip paep jebon py^^on upe 
Dpihtnep acennebneppe dcccclxxii. 
^ep kingep xvi. jeap. Da bohte pe 
abbot Albulp lanbep peola ^ maneja. 
^ jobebe }?a f mynptpe ppiSe mib ealle. 
anb paep J?aep ]?a ppa lanje f pe apce- 
bipcop Oppalb op Gopeppic paep pop^- 
jepiton. ^ man caep him J?a to epce- 
bipcop. Anb man caep J?a pona o^ep 
abbot op J?e pylpe mynptpe. Kenulp 



leges, that my predecessors gave, should 
remain ; and I write and confirm this 
with the rood-token of Christ." ^ — 
Then answered Dunstan,the archbishop 
of Canterbury, and said: " I grant, that 
all the things that here are given and 
spoken, and all the things that thy pre- 
decessors and mine have given, shall re- 
main firm ; and whosoever breaketh it^ 
then give I him God's curse, and that of 
all saints, and of all hooded bead^ and 
mine, unless he come to repentance. And 
I give expressly to St. Peter my mas^ 
hackle, and my stole, and my reef, to 
serve Christ." — *' I Oswald, archbishop 
of York, con firm all these words through 
the holy rood on which Christ was cru- 
cified." i{« — " I bishop Athelwold bless 
all that maintain this, and I excommuni- 
cate all that break it, unless they come to 
repentance." — Here was bishop Elfstan, 
bishop Athulf, and abbot Eskwy, and 
abbot Osgar, and abbot Ethelgar, and 
alderman Elfere; alderman Ethelwin, 
Britnoth andOslac aldermen^, and many 
other rich men ; and all confirmed it and 
subscribed it with the cross of Christ. ^ 
This was done in the year after our Lord's 
nativity 972, the 16th year of this king. 
Then bought the abbot Aldulf lands rich 
and many, and much endowed the min- 
ster withal ; and was there until Oswald, 
archbishop of York, was dead ; and then 
he was chosen to be archbishop. Soon 



* " Ego Adeltcard minister. Ego Ernulf tnU 
nister. Ego Afsis minister. Ego Alfunard mi^ 
mster. Ego Fre^egist. Ego Thured. Ego Fif. 
EgoWiCSric. EgoOtferd. EgoWolstan. Ego 



Ringulf. Ego Aljstan. Ego Atheists. Ego 
JVolfeah. Ego Athelmund. Ego Thureford. 
Ego Alfelin. Ego Frana. Ego Freyegist.'*-^ 
Chart. Petrob* 



THE SAXOK CHRONICLE. 



157 



pSBf jehaten. fe paef jy^|K)n bipcop 
m pintan-ceajn:pe. Anb he macobe 
FYPr^ )?a pealle abutan ]?one mynp:pe. 
3eap hit ]7a to nama Bujich. )?e asp 

het OOebej'hainjrtebe. Y^T J'^P TP^ 
lanje f man fette him ro bipcop on 
Pmtan-ceaj-tpe. J)a caej- man o^ep ab- 
bot op J?e plue minj^pe. J^e paep je- 
haten /6Ipp. pe /Blppi paep J?a abbot 
py^^on piptij pmtpe. J2e nam up 
pSa Kynebuph. ^ p. Kynepui^. ]>e lae- 
jen in Captpa. anb p. Tibba ]>e laei 
in Rihala *i bpohte heom to Bupch. 
anb opppebe heom eall p. Petep on 
an baei. ^ hcolb ]?a hpile ]?e he J?aep 
paep :] 

An. DCCCCLXIV. »Iiep bpepbe 
Gabjap cyninj Jja ppcoptap*' on Ceap- 
tpe ^ut'op ealban mynptpe. ^ *^eac'op 
nipan mynptpe. 1 op Ceoptep-ije. *i op 
CDibbel-tune. ^anb pette hie mib mu- 
necan '. Anb he pette ye^eljap abbob 
to nipan mynptpe to abbobe. tl Qpb- 
bypht to Ceoptep-ije. tJ Cynepeapb to 
CDibl-tune. 

An. DCCCCLXV. ^J3ep on >ippum 
jeape Gabjap cyninj ^enam /Glppy^e^ 
him to cpene. heo paep Opbjapep bohtop 
ealbopmannep'' :• 

KAn. DCCCCLXVI. ftep Dopeb^ 
Gunnepcp punu. pophepjobe Pept- 
mopm^a lanb. 'j J?y ilcan jcape Oplac 
penj to ealbopbome :• 

DCCCCLXVII. DCCCCLXYIII. 



after another abbot was chosen of the 
same monastery, whose name was Ken- 
u\f, who was afterwards bishop of Win** 
Chester. He first made the wall about the 
minster^ and gave it then the name of Pe- 
terboroagh, which before was Medham- 
sted. He was there till he was appoint- 
ed bishop of Winchester, when another 
abbot was chosen of the same monastery, 
whose name was Elfsy, who continued- 
abbot fifty winters afterwards. It was 
he who took up St. Kyneburga and St. 
Kyneswitha, that lay at Castor, and St. 
Tibba, that lay at Ryhall ; and brought 
them to Peterborough, and offered them 
all to St. Peter in one day, and preserved 
them all the while he was there. 

• A.D. 964. This year drove king Ed- 
gar the priests of Winchester out of the 
old minster, and also out of the new 
minster; and from Chertsey, and from 
Milton ; and replaced them with monks. 
And he appointed Ethelgar abbot to the 
new minster, and Ordbert to Chertsey, 
and Cyneward to Milton. 

A.D. 965. This year king Edgar took 
Elfrida for his queen, who was daugh- 
ter of aldermap Ordgar. 

A.D. 966. This year Thored, the son 
of Gunnei-, plundered Westmorland; 
and the same year Oslac took to the 
aldermanship. 



* Hie expulsi sunt canonici de veieri mtmatieria. Laud. ^ canonicajr. Cot, ^ From Cot. *> *J he 
fette ]7ap to manecaj. Cot. * From C.T.sif. ' Mlfyfe, MS. probably aa error of the scribe, 
s From Laud. Cot. CT.Bir. Petrob. Joss. ^ Doju^, C.T.bW. 



158 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



•Ad. DCCCCLXIX. J3ep on Jyifpim 
jeape Cabjajt cynin j hec opep-heji jian 
eall Tenec-lanb'^ :• 

■^An. DCCCCLXX. Rep pop'Spcpbe 
Ofkytel apcebijxeop. fe paej- xjieyt: to • 
Dopke-ceajtrpc to leob-bijrceope jehal- 
jobe. ^ eptr to eopeppic-ceaj^pe be 
€abpebej-*^ cm jef unnan ^ ealpa hij- pi- 
tcna^ f he paef to apccbipceope jehal- 
•job. Anb he paef tpa 'j xx. pintpa bi- • 
jrceop. ^ he popVpepbe on ealpa haljena 
ma&)je niht. x. nihton aep ODaptinep 
ma&jyan. st Tame. Anb Dupkytel ab- 
bot hip maej pepcbc J^aep bipceopep he 
to Beban-popba. pop^an ]>e he pap J^aep • 
]>3, abbub on ]>one timan"^:- 

An. DCCCCLXXI. ^Uep pop«pepbe 
€abmunb ae^ehnj''. ^^ hip he h^ set 
Rumep-ije'^ :• 

DCCCCLXXII. 

An. DCCCCLXXIII. 
«)3ep paep Gabjap. 
Gnjla palbenb. 
cop^pe micelpe** 
to cjrnje* jehaljob 
on J^aepe ealban b^pi^ 
Acemanncp-ceaptpe. 
ac hie buenb'^. 



A.D. 969. This year king Edgar 
ordered all Thanet-land to be plun- 
dered. 

A.D. 970. This year died archbi- 
shop Oskytel ; who was 6rst conse- 
crated diocesan bishop at Dorchester, 
and afterwards it was by the consent of 
king Edred and all his council that he 
was consecrated archbishop of York. 
He was bishop two and twenty win- 
ters ; and be died on Allhallowmas 
night, ten nights before Martinmas, at 
Thame. Abbot Thurkytel, his rela- 
tive, carried the bishop's body to Bed- 
ford, because he was the abbot there at 
that time. 

A.D. 971. This year died Edmund 
Atheling, and his body lies at Rums- 
cy. 

A.D. 97S. 
Here was Edgar, 
of Angles lord, 
with courtly pomp 
hallow'd to king 
at Akemancester, 
the ancient city ; 
whose mo4em sons. 



• From Laud. Cot C.T. bit. Pttroh. Jou. ^ From CtuU. dcccclxxi. CTIbI. « Gkbpaijibejy 
C7*. BI. and so Gibson translates. ' So C.T.bL pirenena, Gibs. * ikxcclzxii. C.T.bu 

DCCCCLXX. B It. ' Abs. Laud. Cant. C.T. b i. and ir. i dcccclxziy. C.T. b i. Briefly thus Laud. : 
An. DCCCCLXXI r. t3ep paej Gabjaji e^linj jehaljob to cynin^e. on Pencecojre-msej-jT-ba?!. on t. ibuj 
(Oaii. \e XIII. jeap ]?€ he co pice fenj. set 1}ata.Ba9om. *j he paej ]» ana yana xxx. pintpa. Probably 
from C 71 BIT. where it is remarkable that Pentecojtenej is retained, as in the consecradon-ode below : 
Dep paejf 6ab^p s^linj jehal^ob to cynioje. on Pencecojtenejf-maejje-bflege. on y. ibo j CDaii. ^y xiii • 
jeape \e he on pice fenj. ast iData-BaVum. *} he paej ^ ane pana xxx. pintpe. So nearly Coi. but less 
correctly than Laud. : t>ep paj Gabjap «]«Ii03 ^^^'S^ *^ cin^e on Pentecojte-bej. on y. ibnp OOai. 
on ^ ^eoto&o ^^pe ^bj he to pioe feng. at Aeemaonef-bepi. ^ \j at fiaVine. 'j he pasj ^ xxix. 
pinquu N.S. ^ micciom, Cami. > So Cant, cyninj, Whel. kmje, C.T.bu ^ ejbuenb, CanU 
C.T. B i. eac for ac, C.T. b i. hie is feminine, to agree with bypi; aboTc. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



159 



' o^jie fOfibe ■bcopnaj-" 
Ba^an^ nemnaV. 
J^aep paep bl^f j- micel 
on J^am eabe^an^ bas^e 
eallum jepopbcn. 
)K)ne nij^a-beapn 
nemna^ 'j cyja^^ 
Pentecoptenej- baej. 
Daep paej- ppcoftra heap, 
micel miineca ]>peat. 
mine jeFpaje. 
jleappa jejabpob. 
Anb J?a a^an^en paef 
tryn hunb pmtpa 
jetaeleb pimef 
ppam jebj^pb-tribe 
bpemcf cyninjejr 
leohtra-hypbey-. 
buton f SBp-to 
lape J>a jec* paej* 
pintep-jetaelcf. 
J^aef J^ jeppitu pecja^. 
fcopon tl tj>enti. 
Spa neah paef 
pjopa Fpean 
fuf^nb aupnen. 
J?a fa J>ijr jelamp'. 
^ him Gabmunbcf 
eapopa hae)::be 
ni^on ^ tpenti 
ni%-peopca heapb 
pmtpa on populbe. 
fa fip jepopben paep 
"j fa on f am ^f pittije^an 
paejr f eoben ^jehaljob''. 



dwelling therein, 
have named her Bath. 
Much bliss was there 
by all enjoyed 
on that happy day, 
named Pentecost 
by men below. 
A crowd of priests, 
a throng of monks, 
I understand, 
in counsel -sage, 
were gathered there. 
Then were agone 
ten hundred wiolera 
of number'd years 
from the birth of Christ, 
the lofty king, 
guardian of light, 
save that thereto 
there yet was left 
of winter-tale^ 
as writings say, 
seven and twenty. 
So near had run 
of the lord of triumphs 
a thousand years, 
when this was done. 
Nine and twenty 
hard winters there 
of irksome deeds 
had Edmund's son 
seen in the world, 
when this took place, 
and on the thirtieth 
was hallo w'd king^. 



> From Cani. C.T. b i. i" So Cani. C.T. b i. BaSon, edd. « eab^^, C.T. b i. ^ ce^eaV; 
Cant. C.T, b i. « So C.T. b i. ajan^ Gibs. ' So C.T. u i. xxz. ~ 1 ^ehaljobi Gibs, from Whel« 

^ This poetical e^usioa on the coronation, or following on his death, appears to be imitated in 
rather consecration, of king Edgar, as well as the Latin verse by Ethelwerd at the end of his curf. 



160 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



*Anb j-ona aeptep fam p cy nj jcleabbc^ 
ealle^ ^hij- j-cip-hepe' to Laeje-ceap 
trpe*. ^ J^aep him comon onjean' vi. cyn- 
injajr. ^ ealle ^piB hme jetpeoppobon' 
f hi polbon cpenpyphtan*" beon on pae 
tJ on lanbe'':- 

DCCCCLXXIV. 

'An. DCCCCLXXV. 
J3ep je-enbobe 
eop^an-bpeamap 
Gabjap Gnjla cyninj. 
ceap him o^ep leoht. 



Soon after this the king led all his ma- 
rine force to Chester; and there came to 
meet him six kings; and they all cove- 
nanted with him, that they would be his 
allies by sea and by land. 



A.D. 975. 
Here ended 
his earthly dreams 
Edgar, of Angles king; 
chose hibi other lights 



• From Laud. Coi. C.T. b ir. «» j^laebbc, Coi. CT. b It. • eal, CoU * bif pip-pypbc, C.T. air. 
* Le^ej. Cot. Lei. £,T. b it. ^ cogeanej, Cot. > So C.T. b It. him on hanb fealboD, Cbl. 

pi9 tpypjobon, Gibs. ^ So C.T. b it. -pihtc, Coi. -pyhtoo, Gibs. > Briefly thus ia Loiri. : 
"Dep GaDjap X^F^^P- biijon to cyninje 

Anjla jieccent. fpa paej him jecyobe. 

Pejr-Seaxena pmc. naef fc jrlota jya pan j. 

'j CDypccne mnnb-bopa. ne je hfpe jpa jtpao^ 

CuV paej ]»et pibe ^ on AojeUcynne 

jeonb pcala ]»eob3. SBf him jepeccbc. 

^ apepan Gabmonb {^a hpile \t 

opep janetej-ba^ fc aej^ela cynmj 

cyninjaj hme pibe cyne-jtol jopehte. 

pupVobon pbe. 
Anb hep 6abpapb. Gabgapep puna, fcnj to pice. An> ]^ pona on ]?am ilcan jeapo on hcppejte aetcopbc 
comcta pe pteoppa.*j com ]»a on J^am eaptpan jeape ppy^emycel honjop.^j ppyVc maenij-pealbe ptypunja 
jeonb Aojel-cyn :• t>ep iElprpe ealbopman het topuppon ppy^e manij munuc-Iij ]»e 6ab^ap cinj het 
asp ]70oc haljan bijxop AVelpolb jcptaVelian :• Anb on ]?am timan psep eac Opiac pe ma^pa eopl jeuteb 
op Anjel-cynne :• More briefly thus in Cot. : l3ep Cabjap cinj popVpepbe. "j 6abpapb hip punu pcnj 
to pice. Anb ]7yp ylcan jeappp on haeppcpre atypbc comcta pe pceoppa. Anb on )nim asptpan jcape com 
ppy^e micel hoojop. ^ ppy^e manipealbe [p^punxa] jeonb AnjeUcynn. He. 



ous Chronicle. This seems at least to prove that 
they were both written very near the time, as also 
the eulogy on his reign, inserted 959. The fol- 
lowing conjecturat.attempt to remore some of the 
corruptions of the printed t^TLi of Ethel wcrd may 
perhaps be not unacceptable to the reader in this 
place. At present I have no MS. of this author by 
-me, and I have sought in vain in several libraries. 
AnnU sextenis siquidem per regna meatus 
Bisque dies numero tenuit minus obice septem : 
Argivce ^hebdomadas* gentis posuere magistri; 



^ Sepiimanas* recitarU post quos nunc voce Latini. 
Tingite nunc calames^ Musm^ propriumque vocaie 
Carmen^ et ignoto ventis proper ale secundis; 
Cum placide steterinty fontes aperiie poetw. 
Fungitur interea regno post anax in arce^ 
^Akmannis^castrum^ a priscis jam nomine dtctOj 
Nee ^ Bathon^ ab aliis non pro ferventibus units, 
^ CostiS'pente* dies fuerat^ quam quondam fionore 
Bradisonus Domino Mouses sacrarat amore. 
Advenit et poputus pariter^ sine nomine turma^ 
Quinetiam ferro s^^ncipUe rasa corona* * * ^ 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



161 



anb ^i[- pace poplet lyp 
f aj-* laeoe nemna^ 
leoba-beapn 
men on molban. 
Daene mona% ^ehpasp 
on f iffe a&J?el-typp 
J?a J?e aep paejion 
on pim-cjiaepte 
pihte-jetojene 
luliujr noma%. 
*^f pe jeonja"' S«pat 
on ]>one ^eahto^an'' baej 
Gabjaja op lipe. 
beojina beah-j^pa. 
Anb penj hip beapn 
py^San to cyne-pice, 
c]^lb unpeaxeo. 
eojila ealbop. 
]7am pasp €abpeajib nama. 
Anb him typ-paept haele^ 
tryn nihrum aep 
op Bpytene jepat 
bipcop pe joba 
fuph jecynbjac cpaept 
\fzm fdsf Cynepeapb nama :• 
Da ^paep on CDypce''. 
on mine jeppaeje. 
pibe *J pel-lipaep. 
palbenbep lop 
apylleb on polban, 
Feala peap% 
trobpepeb gleappa 
Gobep ]7eopa. 
f paep jnopnunj micel 
)7am ]>e on bpeoptum. 
pBBj bypnenbe lupan 



serene and lovely, 

spurning this frail aboda^ 

a life that mortals 

here call lean 

he quitted with disdain, 

July the month, 

by all agreed 

in this our land, 

whoever were 

in chronic lore 

correctly taught; 

the day the eighth, 

when Edgar young, 

rewarder of heroes, 

his life— ^his thron^^-resigned, 

Edward his son, 

un waxen child, 

of earls the prince, 

succeeded then 

to England's throne. 

Of royal race 

ten nights before 

departed hence 

Cyneward the good — 

prelate of manners mildt 

Well known to me 
in Mercta then, 
how low on earth 
God's glory fell 
on every side : 
chaced from the land, 
his servants fled,'-«- 
their wisdom scorned ; 
much grief to him 
whose bosom glow'd 
with fervent love 



* hh Can^' C.T. b i. ^ ]«p fe jeon^a, Cant. C.T. b i. 
eahca-teoVao^ Gibs. ^ jtafS on CDypcum, Cant. C.T* 



ODja for ^eoD^a, edd. * So Cant* C. T, b i, 
B i. mme Z^JV^ZIh *^ omittiog on. 

y 



M 



168 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



metobejr on mobe. 

Da paef masp^a ppuma 

t:o-jT)i^e pojif epen. 

pjopa palbenb. 

jiobepa jiaebenb, 

j>z man hif jviht tobpaec :• 
■Ant)'' }7a peaji^ 

cac abpaepebi 

bcop-mob haele^ 

Oflac op eapbe. 

opep y^a-jepealc, 

dpep janotep bae^. 

jamol-peax haele%. 

pip ^ popb-pnotoji. 

opep paetepa-je^pinj. 

opep hpaelep-aej^el. 

hama-bepeapob :• 
•Anb'^ }7a peap^ 
^eac'^ aetypeb 

iippe on pobepum 

pteoppa on pta^ole. 

J?one pti^-peph^e 

haele% hije-jleape 

hata% pibe 

cometa be naman. 

cpaept-jleape men. 

pipe po^-bopan. 

Paep jeonb pep-J^eobe 

palbenbep ppacu 

pibe jeppaeje. 

hun^op opep hpupan. 

f epr heopona 

peapb jebette. 

bpejo enjla. 

jeap ept blippe jehpaem 

ej-buenbpa 

]7uph eopVan paeptm :• 



of great Creation's Lord ! 

Neglected then 

the God of wonders^ 

victor of victors, 

monarch of heaven,— 

his laws bj man transgressed ! 

Then too was driv'n 

Oslac beloved 

an exile far 

from his native land * 

over the rolling waves,— 

over the ganet-bath, 

over the water-throng, 

the abode of the whale, — 

fair-haic'd hero, 

wise and eloquent, 

of home bereft ! 

Then too was seen, 

high in the heavens, 

the star on his station, 

that far and wide 

wise men call — 

lovers of truth 

and heav'nlj lore— 

cometa hj name. 

Widely was spread 

God's vengeance then 

throughout the land, 

and famine scour'd the hills. 

May heaven's guardian, 

the glory of angels, 

avert these ills, 

and give us bliss again ; 

that bliss to all 

abundance yields 

from earth's choice fruits, 

throughout this happy isle. 



; AlM. Cani. C.T. a L ^ From Cant. C.T. b L 



THE IJAXON CHRONICLE. 



169 



- *An. DCCCCLXXVI. I2eji »>on >yr 
jcpe' p«f fe micla hun^op on Anjel- 
cynne'':- 

*An. DCCCCLXXVII. ftep pacf f 
miccle jemot aet Kyptlinjtune*^, opep * 
Gaptpan. ^ J?aBp pop^pepbe Sibeman bi- 
fceop on hpaeblican bea^e. on ii. kat. 
CDaii. pe paep Depna-pcipe bipceop. tJ 
he pilnobe f hip hc-paepte pceolbe beon 
at Cpibian-tune. aet hipbipceop-ptole. - 
fa het Gabpeapb cinj ^ Dunptan apce- 
bipceop f hine man pepebe to p£fa ClOa- 
pian mynptpe f ip** aet Abbanbune. ^ 
man eac ppa bybe. ^ he ip** eac appyp^- 
hce bebypjeb on J^a nop^ heaipe on fZf 
Paulup poptice* '' :• 

An. DCCCCLXXVIII. ^I2ep Ron 
J^ippum jeape' ealle ]>a ylbeptan An- 
jel-cynnep pitan jepeoUon act Calne op 
anpe up-plopan. butan pe halja** Dun- 
ptan apcebipcop ana aet-ptob uppon 
anum beame. ^ *pume faep' ppilSe je- 
bpocobe paepon. *J pume hit ^ne jebyj- 
ban mib l^am hpe'^- ' J3ep peap^°* Gab- 
peapb cyninj opplejen". °on aepen-tibe 
act Coppep-jeateP. ons xv, kt. Apji. "i 
hine man l^a bebypijbe** ^a^t paepham' 
buton 'aBlcum cynehcum' pup^pcipe. 
Ne peap^ Anjel-cynne nan ^paeppa baeb' 
jebon ]7onne J^eop paep. py^^on hi aepept 



A.D. 976. This year was the great 
famine in England. 

A.D. 977. This year was that great 
council at Kirtlingtoni^ after Easter; 
and there died bishop Sideman a sudden 
deaths on the eleventh day before the 
calends of May. He was bishop of De- 
vonshire ; and he wished that his rest- 
ing-place should be at Crediton^ his 
episcopal residence ; but king Edward 
and archbishop Dunstan ordered men to 
carry him to St. Mary's minster that is 
at Abingdon. And they did so; and he 
is moreover honourably buried on the 
north side in St. Paul's porch. 

A.D. 978. This year all the oldest 
counsellors of England fell at Calne 
from an upper floor; but the holy arch- 
bishop Dunstan stood alone upon a 
beam. Some were dreadfully bruised; 
and some did not escape with life. This 
year was king Edward slain, at even- 
tidcj at Corfe-gate^, on the 15th day be- 
fore the calends of April. And he was 
buried at Wareham without any royffl 
honour. No worse deed than this watf 
ever done by the English nation since 
they first sought the land of Britain. 
» Menmurtheredhim — butGodhasma^-^ 



> From Cant C.T.bu ^ From C.T. b i. abs. Cant. Gibs. « So C.T.bI Kyac Gibs. ' hif, 
C.T, n i. but the aspirate is erased in the second instaace. * (1 Here end two MSS. of good authoritj; 
CanLtmdC.T.xil) ^ F rom Laud. CoL C.T, bit. ^Abs.Cot, ^ So Cot. C.T. bu and it. hal^n^Gibs. 
^ Of ]^m, Coi. ^ mib ]?am hue hic ^ebohtan, Cot, ny^e bybon •• C.T. bit, ' dcccclxxix. Laud» 
Cot. C. T. B IT. to Cyninjcj-tune. «» paej, Laud. C.T. b it. paj, C6t. » opjlaejen, C.T. b it, 
jemajiryjiab, B i. « From Laud. Cot. C.T.bW. to (Den hme tS^c. p Cojip. Cot. ^ byjii^be, Cot. 
' on Pejihammo, C.T. b ir. • aelcan cynelice. Cot. * pypje bea^, Cot. pyppe beab^ C.T. b ir« 

^ Florence of Worcester mentions three synods ' Cyruesgate, Flor. Vid. Brompt. inter X 
this year ; Kyrtlinege, Calne, and Ambresbyrig. Script, p. 873, &c. 

y 8 



104 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Bp^n-lanb* jefohton''. *CDen hine 
op-myp^pobon. ac Gob hme maepj-obc. 
Tie paef on lipe eop^lic cmj. he ip nu 
a^ptep bea^e heoponlic panct. JJine 
nolbon hip eop^ican ma^ap ppecan. ac • 
hine hapa% hip heoponhca paebep ppi^e 
jeppecen. Da eop%hcan banan polbon 
hip jemynb on cop^an abiljian". 'ac pe 
uphca ppecenb** hapa% hip jemynb on 
heopenum^ "J on eop^an robpaeb. Fop- • 
Sam^ fa ]>e nolbon aep to hip hbbenbum 
hchaman onbu^an^ J^a nu eabmobhce 
on cneopum abuja^ to hip babum^ ba- 
num''. ^'Nu pe majon on^ytan. f manna 
pipbom. ^ hcopa pmea^un^a. ^ heopa . 
paebap. pynbon nahthce on^ean Gobep 
jej^eaht:- Anb'' 'on \>iy ilcan jeape". 
pen J /ESelpeb ^aej^ehnj hip bpo^op" to 
j>2Lm pice. ^ ^ he paep aeptep ]?am. ppi^e 
hpsebhce. mib mycclum jepean An- . 
^el-cynnep piton. jehaljob to cyninje 
aet Cyninjep-tune'':- *0n J^am jeape 
pop^pepbe Alppolb. pe paep l>ipceop on 
Doppaetum. ^ hip lie li¥ on )>am myn- 
ptpe act Scipe-bupnan'':* 

""An. DCCCCLXXIX. On J?yp jeape 
paep /ejjelpeb to cinm^e ^ehal^ob. on 
]K)ne punnan-baeij peopeptyne niht 
opep Gaptpon. aet Cmjep-tune. *] J?aBp 
paepon aet hip haljunje tpejen epce- . 
bipceopap. ^ tyn leob-bipceopap :• Dy 
ilcan jeape paep ^epepen blobij polcen. 
on opt-pi^ap. on pypep jelicneppe. ^ f 



nified him. He was in life an earthly 
king — ^he is now after death a heavenly 
saint. Him would not his earthly rela* 
tives ayenge — ^but bis heavenly father 
has avenged him amply. The earthly 
homicides would wipe out his memory 
from the earth — but the avenger above 
has spread his memory abroad in hea- 
ven and in earth. Those, who would 
not before bow to his living body, now 
bow on their knees to his dead bones. 
Now we may conclude, that the wis- 
dom of men, and their meditations, and 
their counsels, are as nought against 
the appointment of God. In this 
same year succeeded Ethelred Ethel- 
ing, his brother, to the government; 
and he was afterwards very readily, 
and with great joy to the counsellors 
of England, consecrated king at Kings- 
ton. In the same year also died Alf- 
wold, who was bishop of Dorsetshire, 
and whose body lieth in the minster at 
Sberborn. 

A.D. 979. In this year was Ethel- 
red consecrated king, on the Sunday 
fortnight after Easter, at Kingston. And 
there were at his consecration two arch- 
bishops, and ten diocesan bishops. This 
same year was seen a bloody welkin 
oft-times in the likeness of fire ; and 
that was most apparent at midnight. 



> Bpycene, Coi, Bjiitcn. C.T. b ir. ^ From Laud. C.T. d i?. « From Laud. Cot. C.T. b it. 
to Na po ma^on i^c. ' bpihren, Cot. * heofonan, Cot, heofonum, CT*. bit. ^ Abs. Laud. 
C.T.bU, t abujan, Cot. ^ bcabum, Cot. -an, C.T, nil. So before, hbbenban. ' hep. Laud* 
C.T. B ir. ^ From Laud, Petrob. C,T. d ir. *3 he paej on ]?am ylcan jeapc to cmin^e jchaljob, b ir. 
1 From C.T. si. ■> From C.T o i. Briefly thus ia Cot. : Ad. dcccclzix. I^p peap% ^^Ipeb je- 
baljob on cioje on Cinjej-cune. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



165 



F®r rPy^^r^ ^^ mibbe-mht ojjypeb. *j 
ypa on miy-tlice beamaj* paep jehipob. 
^onnehitbajianpolbe))onneco3labhit'V 

An. DCCCCLXXX. »l3ep on >yf 
jeajie paej- yej^eljap abbob to bij-ceope 
jehaljob. on vi. nonay CDai. to J^am bi- 
fceop-j-tole aet Seolej^-ijje. ^'^ on J?am 
f]czn jeape paej- Su}7-hamtun pophep- 
job ppam f cip-hepije. "j jreo buph-papu 
masj-t opj-lejen ^ jehaspt. '^ ]>y ilcan 
jeape paep Tenet-lanb jehepjob. ^ fy 
ilcan jeape paep Lejeceaptep-pcip je- 
hepjob ppam nop^-pcip-hepije''. ^Tiejx 
on ]>ippiim Jeape [**p. Dunptanup ^3 
/61pepe ealbopman jepette faep haljan 
cyninjep [**p. Gabpapb] Iichaman aet 
paepham, ^ jepepobe hine mib m]p^c- 
clum pup^pcipe to Scaeptep-bypij*'^* 

*An. DCCCCLXXXI. I2ep on j^yp 
jeape paep pee Petpocep ptop pophep- 
30b. ^ J?y ilcan jeape paep micel heapm 
jebon jehpaep be ]?am pae-piman. aej- 
)>ep je on Depenum je on pealum. *i on 
Jam ylcan ^eape popSpepbe /Glpptan 
bipceop on J7iltun-pcipe. ^ hip lie h^ 
on Jyam mynptpe act Abbanbune. *J 
piilpjap penj \>z to ^am bipceopbome. 
*i on J?am ylcan jeape pop^pepbe J^o- 
maep abbob on Gent'':. 

•An. DCCCCLXXXII. I3ep on ]>ff 
jeape comon upp on Doppaetum iii. 
pcypu picmja. ^ hepjobon on Popt- 
lanbe. J?y ilcan jeape popbapn Lunben- 
bypij- tl on |>am ylcan jeape pop^- 
pepbon tpejen ealbopmenn. yej^elmaep 
on )3amtun-pcipe. ^ Gabpine on Su^- 



and so in misty beams was shown ; but 
when it began to dawn^ then it gUded 
away. 

A.D. 980. In this year was Ethel- 
gar consecrated bishop, on the sixth day 
before the nones of M ay^ to the bishop* 
ric of Selsey; and in the same year wa» 
Southampton plundered by a pirate-^ 
army, and most of the population slain 
or imprisoned. And the same yearwas* 
the isle of Thanet overrun, and the 
county of Chester was plundered by the 
pirate-army of the North. In this year 
alderman Alfere fetched the body of the 
holy kii»g Edward at Wareham, and 
carried him with great soleijfinity to 
Shaflsbury. 

A.D. 981. In this year was St. Pe- 
troc's-stow plundered ; and in the same 
year was much harm done every*where 
by the sea-coast, both upon Devonshire 
and Wales. And in the same year died 
Elfstan, bishop of Wiltshire; and his 
body lieth in the minster at Abingdon; 
and Wulfgar then succeeded to the bi- 
shopric. The same year died Womarej, 
abbot of Ghent. 

A.D. 983. In this year came up in* 
Dorsetshire three ships of the pirates, 
and plundered in Portland. The same 
year London was burned. In the same 
year also died two aldermen, Ethelmer 
in Hampshire, and Edwin in Sussex. 
Ethelmer's body lieth in Winchester, at 



« From Cr. d i. ^ An. dcccclxzxi. l3ep comon ajicp: fa tu, j-apu. "j ^ehep^obon TDamcao* 

Laud. Petrob. J OSS. CT.sir. « FromLaud. Cot. Petrol. C.T.bW. ^ Abs. Laud. aT.BiJ. They 
are maoifestly Normaa iaterpoIatt0Q8% • Sceajxej.bypi, Cb/« 



166 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Seaxum. *J /6}7elmaB|ief lie li^ on pm- 
tan-ccaj^pc. on Nipan-my'np:|ie.';j 6ab- 
pinef on J^am mynjrtpe at Abbanbune:* 
DflBf ylcan jeapej- pop^jrepbon tpa ab- 
bobcfj-an on Dopfaetum. liepelupu on 
Sceaptef -bypij. tl pul jrpm on pepham :• 
Anb ]>)f^ ilcan ^eape pop Obba. Romana 
capepe. to Gpec-lanbe. ^ \>a jemette he 
]7apa Sapcena mycele jrypbe. cuman up 
op pae. *i polbon ]fz papan on hepjoV on 
f Cpiptene pole. ^ J?a jepeaht pe capepe 
pi^ hi. ^ ]>aBp paep micel pael jeplaejen 
on jehpaej^epe hanb. ^ pe capepe ahte 
pael-ptope ^epealb. tJ hpaej^epe he J^aep 
paep miclum ^eppenceb. aep he ]7anon 
hpuppe. tJ fa he hampeapb pop J^a pop^- 
pepbe hip bpo^op punu. pe paep haten 
Obba. ^ he paep Leobulpep punu aefel- 
injep. ^ pe Leobulp paep faep ealban Ob- 
t>an punu 1 Gabpeapbep cininjep boh- 
*op punu"':- 

An. DCCCCLXXXIII. ftep pop«- 
jTcpbe /61phepe ealbopman. "^ penj 
/Blppic to ]?am ilcan ealbopbome**". *^tl 
Senebictup papa pop^pepbe'^ :• 

An, DCCCCLXXXIV. I3ep pop«. 
pepbe pe pell-pillenba bipceop **op pin- 
ceaptpe'' ASelpolb. ^muneca paebep''. 
*'^ pio hal^un^ faep aeptep-pyljenban 
bipceopep /Glpheahep. pe ]>e olSpan na- 
man paep jecijeb Gobpine. paep xiv. kt 
Novcmbpip. ^ he jepaet Jjone bipcop- 
ptol on J>apa tpejpa apoptola maeppe- 
baej. Simonip ^ lubas. pn J^intan-ceap- 
tpe'':. 



New^minster^ and Edwin's in the mitkm 
ster at Abingdon. The same year died 
two abbesses in Dorsetshire; Herelufa 
at Shaftsbury^ and Wulfwina at Ware- 
ham. The same year went Otho> em-^ 
peror of the Romans, into Greece; and 
there met he a great army of the Sara- 
cens, who came up from the sea, and 
would have proceeded forthwith to 
plunder the Christian folk ; but the em* 
peror fought with them. And there waa 
much slaughter made on either side, 
but the emperor gained the field of bat- 
tle. He was there, however, much ha- 
rassed, ere lie returned thence; and as 
he went homeward, his brother's son 
died, who was also called Otho ; and 
he was the son of Leodulf Atheling. 
This Leodulf was the son of Otho the 
Elder 1 and of the daughter of king 
Edward. 

A.D. 983. This year died alder-* 
man Alfere, and Alfric succeeded to 
the same eldership; and pope Benedict 
also died. 

A.D. 984. This year died the he-* 
nevolent bishop of Winchester, Athel- 
wold, father of monks ; and the conse- 
cration of the following bishop, Elf-^ 
heah, who by another name was called 
Godwin, was on the fourteenth day be* 
fore the calends of November ; and he 
took his seat on the episcopal bench on 
the mass^day of the two apostles Simon 
and Jude, at Winchester. 



• From Laud. CT. a i. aod it. ^ ealbojiboroj-cipe, CT. b I. calbojibonajfcypc, b It. « Froin 
C.T. a i. * From Cot. « From Laud. CT. b it. ' Abs, Laud C.T. b It. 



* Commonly called OUio the Great. See more in the AppeDdiz* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



167 



• An. DCCCCLXXXV. "rSep paef /el- 
ppic ealbopman ut-abjaaepeb op eapbe". 
**^ on J?am ilcan jeape paep 6a^pine to 
abbobe jehaljob to ^am mynptjie act 
Abbanbune'^:- 

An. DCCCCLXXXVI. «l2eji ^^e 
cyninj' pop-bybe J?aBt bipcop-pice aet 
Jjpope-ceaptpe'^ *^ hep com aepept pe 
myccla ypp-cpealm on Anjel-cyn"':* 

^An. DCCCCLXXXVII. ^Rep yedf 
Paecebpopt jehepjob^'':- 

An. DCCCCLXXXVIII. »)3ep paep 
Goba pe Depenipca^ faejn opplaejen. ^ 
my^cel pael mib him. Anb'' ^hep Dun- 
ptan pe halja apceU poplet ]?ip lip.^tJ 
jepepbe f heoponhce'^ ^ /E^eljap ™bi- 
pcop'' penj aeptep him to apceU-ptol". 
^ he litle hpile aeptep J?am lypobe. 
butan an ^eap ^ °))peo'' mon]?ap'':- 

An. DCCCCLXXXIX. P)3ep /Gb- 
pine abU pop^pepbe''. "^^ pulpjap ab- 
bot penj to ]?am pice'':- ')3ep Sijepic 
paepjehabob to apceU'^ 'I aeptep pepbe 
to Rome aeptep hip palhum'' :• 

DCCCCXC. 

An. DCCCCXCI. ^iJep paep G^pep- 
pic jehepjob^'. ^^ "aeptep fam ppy^e 
pa^e' paep Bpihtno^ ealbopman op- 



A.D. 985: This year was alderman 
Alfric driven out of the land ; and in 
the same year was Edwin consecrated 
abbot of the minster at Abingdon. 

A.D. 986. This year the king in- 
vaded the bishopric of Rochester; and 
this year came first the great murrain of 
cattle in England. 

A.D. 987. This year* was the port 
of Watchet plundered. 

A.D. 988. This year was Goda^ the 
thane of Devonshire^ slain; and a great 
number with him: and Dunstan^ the 
holy archbishop^ departed this life, and 
sought a heavenly one'. Bishop EtheK 
gar succeeded him in the archbishopric; 
but he lived only a little while after, 
namely, one year and three months. 

A.D. 989. This year^ died abbot 
Edwin^, and abbot Wulfgar succeeded 
to the abbacy. Siric was this year in*- 
vested archbishop, and went afterwards 
to Rome after his pall. 

A.D. 99L This year was Ipswich 
plundered; and very soon afterwards 
was alderman Britnoth^ slain at MaK 



* From Laud. C.T.b'u and ir. ^ From C.T.bu dcccclxjuut. Laud. Peirob. Gibs. * From 
Laud. Cot. C.T. b i. and ir. ^ iEjelpeb cin^, Cot. * From Laud. Petrob, C.T. b i. and ir. 

f DccccLxxxTiii. C.T. B iv. So B i. but with a note of correction. s From La^id. Cot, Petrob. Joss. 
CT.Bi. and i?. Dep Pecebpojit pej — Gibs, from Laud. * jehejiejob, C.T. bi. popbaepnb, Cot. 
I From Laud. Petrob. C.T. b ir. ^ So C.T. b It. Daenijca, Gibs, and Danicus in his translation. 

> From Laud. Cot. Danjtann j — jrop^pepbe. "j ^ejrejibe ^ heojronhce hp. Cot. Briefly thus C.T. b i?. : 
t3ep xefop Dunjtan apceb'. » abbob on Nip-mynjtpe, Cot. " apce-jtole, Cot. C.T.biy. • So 
C.T. B ir. Tin. Cot. P From Laud. « From C7. r. b i. ' From Laud. Cot. C T. b i v. Sipic, Gibs. 
* From Cot. < From Laud. C.T. b i. and ir. occccxc. Petrob. "^ l^eji, Cot. 

* << Eadwinui Abbandunensis abbas." — Flor. 



^ ^ft.088. Flor. 

^ " 14 kai. Jiwii."— Flor- 

« An. 990. Flor. 



* Fid. Hist. Eliens. W. 6. He was a great bene- 
factor to the church of Ely. 



168 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



j-laejen »t CDaelbune. Anb an J^am 
■ylcan'^jeape man jepaebbe.-f man jealb 
ssjxejx japol Denijrcum mannum. pop 
Jam ^'mycclan bpojan' ]>e hi pophcon 
be ^J7am' j-ae-piman. f paej- asjieyt x. J?u- • 
f enb punba. J^aene paeb jepaebbe ^espeyt 
ISijepic apcebipceop" :• 

»An. DCCCCXCII. I2ep Oppalb pe 
eabi^a apcebij-ceop ^poplet }>ijr lip', tl 
jepepbe f hcioponlioe. "j /GSelpme ealb- • 
opman jepop on ]?am ilcan jeape. Da^ 
^epaebbe pe cynj. ^ ealle hip jntan. f 
man jejabepobe ^ ealle'' })a pcipu \>e 
tihtep paepon to Lunben-bypij. ^tl P 
cynj fa betaehte J?a pypbe to Maebenne' • 
Galppice ealbopman. *J Dopobe'' eopl. ^ 
yeipptane bipcop. ^ /Bpcpije bipcop. ^ 
jxeolbon eunnian gip hi meahton J^one 
hepe ahpaep titan* betpaeppan. Da 
penbe pe ealbopman yBlppic. ^ het • 
papnian )?one hepe. "J ]>2l on ]>aspe nihte. 
-J?e hi on jTone baej"* tojaebepe cuman 
^pccolbon. ]?a pceoc he on niht ppam 
f aepe pypbe. him pylpum to mycelum 
bipmope. ^ pe hepe J^a aetbeppt''. bu- • 
-tron" an pcip Jraep man opploh. Anb \>3. 
^emaette pe hepe J7a pcipu op 6apt-6n- 
jlum ^ op Lunbene®, ^ hi l^aep opplojon 
-m^cel pael. ^ f pcip jenamon eall je- 



don. In this same year it was resolved 
that tribute should be giveo^ for the first 
time« to the Danes ^ for the great terror 
they occasioned by the sea-coast. That 
was first 10^000 pounds. The first who 
advised this measure was archbishop 
Siric. 

A.D. 99S. This year the blessed 
archbishop Oswald departed this lifisi, 
and sought a heavenly one^; and in 
the same year died alderman Ethelwin. 
T-faen the king and all his council re- 
solved, that all the ships that were of 
any account should be gathered together 
at London; and the king committed the 
lead of the land-force to alderman Elf 
ric^ and earl Thorod^ and bishop Eif- 
stauj and bishop Escwy; that they should 
try if they could any where without en*- 
tr&p the enemy. Then sent alderman 
Elfric^ and gave warning to the enemy; 
and on the night preceding the day of 
battle he sculked away from the army, 
to his great disgrace. The enemy theii 
escaped ; except the crew of one ship^ 
who were dain on the spot Then met 
the enemy the ships from East-Anglia, 
and from London ; and there a great 
slaughter was made, and they took the 



• Abs. Laud, CT.Bi. and ir. * punbjian, Xaiat « Ahs.Laud. * So^C.r.Bir, • From 
Jjcuid, Cot. Cr. Bi. aod 17. dccccxclP^^o^. Joss. ' pop^pepbe^XaiK/. s l>ep, Laud, ^ to ^ 

^ mao fcolbe panbian jip man mijhte betpaeppaa }m.ne hepe a^hpap pi^-utan, Ac ^Ippic ealDepmao* 
jiD op l^am ]?a je cyDg haejbe maep: tpupc to. het^epj^pnian J'one hepe. *j on ]«pe nihte ^a hi jcolbon 
jiii.mopjen to^xbepe cuman je jylpa iEIjpic jcoc ppam ]?apc pypbe. *j je hepe ^ etbaepjt. Coi» 
•^ So CT. B i. and ir. * Dopebe, C.T. b i. and ir. " So C,T. bi. and ir. utene, Gibs. ■ ^asi;» 

£7.T. B i. basi, Gibs« " butan, C*T. b i. and iv. The remainder of the year dJbs.Coi. ^ &> 

iC.Ts b u Lunbenne, b if. 



* Called Danegeld by historians. clesia Sandas Marias^ quam ipse a fundamdnlit 

• " Secundo kal, MariU—et fVigornue in ec construxerai, requiesdi.'^ — ^Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE 



109 



paspnob "j jcpaebob. fe fe ealbopman on 
psej-. Anb fa. aeptep OjT>albcf apceB 
pop^p^e. penj Galbulp abB •op Bupch'' 
to Gopeppic-ptole 'J to pijepa ceap- 
tpe'*. 1 Kenulp* to |)ain abbot-pice at • 
Biipch*' :. 

An. DCCCCXCIII. «l2ep on J^yppum 
jeape com Unlap mib fpym *J hunb- 
nijenti^on pcipum to Stane. anb pop- 
hep^obon f on ytan. ^ pop \>2l )K)nan • 
to Sanbpic. "j ppa ]7onan to Gypeppic, 
•J J>aBt cal opep-eobc. ^ ppa to OOael- 
bune. "j him com J^aep tojenep Bypht- 
110% ealbopman mib hip pypbe. ^ him 
pi^ jepeaht. "j hie )?one ealbopman ]>aBp • 
opplojon. "j pael-ptope jepealb ahton. 
*J him man nam ppi% pi%. tl hine nam 
pc cyninj py^^an to bipcopcp hanba, 
^}7uph Sipicep lape Cantpape bipcopep. 
^ yGlpeajep pincaeptpe'^ «J2ep. **on ]?ip- % 
pum jeape'. paep Bebban-buph tobpo- 
cen. "j mycel hepe-hu'Se faep ^enumen 
p«p. Anbaeptep)>amcomtoDuinbpan- 
muVan pe hepe. ^ J?aep mycel ^pel je- 
pophte ^'agj^ep je on Linbep-jje ^e on • 
NopB-hymbpan'. Da jejabepobe man 
^ppi^e' mycele pypbe. ^ |>a hi tojaebepe 
jan pceolbon. J^a onptealbon J^a hepe- 
to^an aepept Jjone pleam. f pap Fpaena. 
^ Gobpme. tJ Fpi^ejypt'. 'On J?yptim • 
ylcan jeape het pe cynj ablenban /61p- 
jap /61ppicep punu ealbopmannep'':- 

An.DCCCCXCIV. '^liep pop«pepbe 



fihip in which was the alderman, al) 
armed and rigged. Then, after the 
death of archbishop Oswald, succeeded 
Alduir> abbot of Peterborough, to the 
sees of York and of Worcester ; and 
Kenulf to the abbacy of Peterborough, 

A.D. 993. This year came Anlaf 
with three and ninety ships to StaioeSi^ 
which he plundered without, and w'enf 
thence to Sandwich. Thence to Ipsn 
wich, which he laid waste ; and so ta 
Mitldon, where alderman Britnbth came 
against him with his force, and fought 
with him; and there they slew the aldety 
man, and gained the field of battle} 
whereupon peace was made with him^ 
and the king received him afterwards at 
episcopal hands^ by the advice of Siric^ 
bishop of Canterbury, and Elfeah'of 
Winchester. This year was Bambo-* 
rough destroyed, and much spoil wa« 
there taken. Afterwards came the army 
to the mouth of the H umber; and there 
did much evil both 10 Lindaey and ii| 
Northumbria. Then was collected a 
great force ; but when the armies were 
to engage, then the generals first com«^ 
menced a flight; namely, Frene an4 
Godwin and Frithgist. lo this same 
year the king ordered Elfgar, son of 
alderman Elfric, to be punished with 
blindness. 

A.D. 994. This year died archbi- 



• From LttUd. abs. CT. b i. and i?. ^ Fisejina- C. T. b i. and ir. « Kanulj:, O.T. n ir. * Bojili, 
C.T. B ir. Bupuh, b i. ' « Abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and ir. ' Whel. from Peirob. s From Laud! 
Cot Peirob, C.T, b i. and ir. ^ Abs. Coi, ^ From Laud. Petrol. CJT. b i. and ir. ^ An. sccccxcr. 
Lmd. Peirob. Coi. C.T. b i. anfd ir. ' 



3 See the following year^ an. OQi 



iro 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE: 



Sijcjiic* apcel)ij-cop'^. ^tl /Blppic. pil- 
tiin-fcipe bij-coj). peap^ jecopen on 
feaftcp-baej. on Ambpef-bypi. jfpam 
/^telpebe cinje 'j ppam eallan Hif pir 
tan'', *)3ep *on fij-um jeape'com An- 
lap tJ Spejen *to Lun&en-bypij'. on 
Natmitaf j-cfc CDapie. mib ^peopep tj' 
hunb ^i^onti^um f clpam^ s^ hi J^a on 
]ya buph paej^lice jfeohtenbe paepon'. *i 
eac hi mib f^pe ontenban'^ polbon. Ac 
111 ^faep jepepbon mapan heapm ^ ^'pel' 
*jH)nne hi asppe penbon f heom aeriij 
biiphpapu jebon pceolbe. Ac peo halije 
Gobep mobop on J^am bae^e. hipe iriilb- 
hcoptnippe. faepe buphpape jec^J^be. "J 
bi ahpebbe pi% heopa peonbum'. Anb 
^J?a' *hi' ]>anon pepbon. ^ ppohton f 
maspte ^pcl J>e aeppe aenij hepe ^bon' 
inihtre 'on baepnette. 'j hepjun je. •} on 
man^bhtum. as^^ep be J'am pae^piman 
on 6apt-Seaxum. tl on Cent-lanbe. *] 
on. Su%-Seaxum. *J on l!>amtuh-pcipe. 
Anb set n]^xtan namon h^cmi hdpp. *1 
jiibbn ppa pibc ppa hi polbon: ^ xma* 
pe^^nbbce y^pel p]y^pcenbe pa^pdn^ Da 
gepaebbe pe cynj. -J hip pitan: "f him 
man to penbe. ^ bim japolbehete';' ^tl 
inetpun^e. pi^ J>on J)e hi ]wpe hep- 
junge jeppicon'. Anb hi >a )^t un^ 
bcppenjon.^tj com J^a eall pe hepe tQ 
)^amtune^ ^ J^aep pintep-petle liamoii^ 



abop Sine ; and Elfric bi^op of Wilt* 
shire was chosen ont: Easter •day, at 
Amesburj, by king Ethclred and aH 
his council. This year caipe Aniaf 
and Sweyne to London, on the Nati^ 
vity of St. Mary, with four and ninety 
ships. And they closely besieged the 
city, apd would fain. have set it on 
fire; but they sustained more harm and 
evil than they evjer supposed .that any 
citizens could inflict on them. . The 
holy mother of Crod on tUat day^ in 
her mercy considered the citizens, and 
ridded them of their enemie;. Thenoe 
they advanced, and wrought the gjreat- 
est evil that ever any army could do> 
in burning and plundering and man- 
slaughter, not only on the sea- coast 
in Essex, but m Kent 'and in Sussex 
and in Hampshire. Next they to(4t 
horse, and rode as wide as they would, 
and committed unspeakable efil. Then 
resolved the king and -his counoil 
to send to them,, and • offer t|iem tri« 
bute and provision, on. condition that 
they desisted from plunder. The terms 
tiiey accepted ; and the whole- army 
came to Southampton, and there fixed 
their'winter-quarters ; where they wer^ 
fed by all the sulgeets of the Westr 
Saxon kingdom. Add they gave them 



* So Cr. B i. and ir. Sijuc, Laud. CoL Pelrob, Joss. ^ So Got Ao. dcccczcvi. l^ep oh J^ijjubi 
lekfo jFSBj ^Ifpic-^ehaljobe to ajiccb* to Cpijccf ajtican^ C. T. b it. Ptirob. Joss. ~ ^ehal^ ~ 
cifuceao. Laud. 1 penj ^pfiic Piltan-jcijie bijcop tfi ^wa apcebijsp^opjiice, Whel^ ^m^ poccczoir. 
« From Laud. Cot. Peirob. C.T. b i. and Ir. to the end of the year. .^ Abs. Cdfs • into, fi.T* nif* 
but it does not appear from the sequel tbat thej came into the city, Lunbeoe, Coi.J<^ Luq,bea^byjii(. 
' nij^tyjon fcipan, Cot. « pejtlice on ]« bujih puhton, Cot. . . * atenban, Coi. * Jwp GolJe 
h^Z Pyrr S^FP^ny Cot ^ Abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and Ir. i Brieflj (has in Coi. : on eallon J^ingon 
Xpa fapqi jpa hi fepbon. ■ j{ heom man fcolbe japol behatan^ dot. ■ tSamtun-jpetjie, CJT.^i. 



THE SAXON CHKONICLE. 



171 



*tl hi nian J?»p febbe jeonb call peft*- 
Seainaprcc'. j| him man jealbpeof xvl 
j7Ufcn» puhba. Da penbe fe cy nj ^ptreji 
Anlape cfmm^j£\pe9h bifcop ^ /Efd- 
peeifibealbopman.^ man jiflabe |>a,hpile 
tnto J?am j^ipum^ ^ ^hi ]>a laebbon' An- 
lap mib mycclum pup^f cipe to J>am 
c^nje to Anbepepan**. "J ye cynj /6¥el- 
pcb hif onpenj® at bif copef hanba. 'j 
lum cynelice jipobe. Anb him. )?a Anlap 
behet. ^fpa he hit eac' jelaefte. f he 
na^l^pe cpt to Anjel-cynne mib un- 
fpi^e cuman nolbe^"':* 

Mn. DCGCCXCV. Rep *on jnypim 
jcftajic' aeteopbe'^ comcta yt j^eoppa'^:- 

^Ab. DCCCCXCVL tiejx on fijjum 
^cape paej- yeippic ^eh^jobe to apceB 
to CpijTej" cypican'':* 

•Ati. DCCCCXGVII. )3epon>irrum 
•jeape pcpbc^e hepe abntan Depenan- 
prf^pe into S^rpepn-mu^an. tl J'sep je- 
hepjobon. «3^p je on Copn-pealum 
je on Nop^-palum tl on Depenum. tJ 
eobon hite )>a up «t pcceb-popt. ^^J }7«p 
tnyicel ypel pophton on baepnette tJ on 
mad-fhbtum. Anb aeptep ]>am penbon 
ept. abataii Penpiht-jnreopt on ]>z pu^- 
healpe. tJ penbon \>z mtoTamep-mu^an". 



sixteen thousand pounds in money. 
Then sent the king after king Anlaf 
bishop Elfeah and alderman Ethel-^ 
werd^; and^ hostages being left i;i^ith 

• the ships^ they led Anlaf with great 
pomp lo the king at Andover. And 
king Ethelced received him at episcopal 
hands, and honoured him with royal 
presents. In return Anlaf prom[ise4» 

• as he also performed, that he never 
again would come in a hostile manner 
to England. 

. A.D. 995. This year appeared the 

• comet-star. 

A<D. 996. This year was Elfric eon* 
secrated archbishop at Christ church^^ 

A.D. 997. This year went the army 

• about Devonshire into Severn-mouth, 
and equally plundered the people of 
Cornwall, North -Wales^, and Deven« 
Then went they up at Watchet, nnd 
there much evil wroi^ht in burning 

• and man-slaughter. Afterwards tbey 
coasted back about Penwithstert on the 
south -side, and, turiEiing into the nioilth 
of the Tamer, went up till they came 



., > *j ec lieom pobao ^eap op eallan Pep:J5eaziui jiice, Cot. ^ jcipao, Coi. into f ciptti%C7< b ir. 
« mao Jaebbe^-Co/. * So C.T. b i. Anbefpon, b i?. • apen^, Cot. anpeo^) Gibs. ' "J eac,Cb^, 
< Gibson inserts here from Laud. — Hie Ricardus Fetus oliit, et Ricardus JUius efus suseepU regnum, ^ 
regnavU zzzi. amis. ^ From Laud. Cot. Petrol. C,T. b i. and \j. ^ Abs. Cot. ^ paj- ateopob^ CoL 
yFrasxLLaud.P£lroi.C.ILBif. « From Laud. Fttroh.XJ.T.hlaxidiY^ ^ Camejuma^^f'.T.Bir. 



' ** TKis iraM probably the veteran historian of 
that name^ who was killed in the serere encounter 
with the Danes at Alton j(£thelingadene) in the 
jear lOOL 

' i. e. at Ganteilinry*. 9e was xhosen or nomh- 
nated be&rc^ by Ung Ethelred and his conncil, 



at Amesbnry : vid. an. 994. This notice of his 
consecration, which is confirmed by Florence of 
Worcester, is now first admitted ii&to the text on 
the authority of three MSS. 

• This is opposed to W^^^-Wales, another 
name ior Ck>rnwalL 

Z2 



m 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



•j eobon J>Ji up o^ f hi comon to iJliba* 
pojiba*. tJ 3b1c }7mj baejinbon ^ f^o^on f 
hi jemetton. tJ Ojibulpej- mynftep aet 
l^sepinj-froc^ fopbaejinbon. tJ unapc- 
^enbhce hepe-hu^e mib him to j-cipon 
bpohton'':- *^)3ep /Glppic apceU jcepbe 
to Rome «ptep hip apbe'':* 

*An. DCCCCXCVIII. I3ep jepenb^ 
pe hepe ept eaptpeapb into Fpom- 
mu^aii. tJ faep aejhpaep up eobon. ppa 
pibe ppa hi polbon. into Doppaeton. 
Anb man opt pypbe onjean hi jeja- 
bepobe. ac pona ppa hi tojaebepe jan 
pceolban J?onne peap^ J?aep aeppe fuph 
pumjyinj pleam-aptiht. ^ a&ppe hi let 
enbe pije ahton®. . Anb ]K)nne o^pe 
hpile la^on heom on piht-lanbe. ^ eoton 
heom J?a hpile op Jjamtun-pcipe ^ op 
Su^-Seaxum'' :• 

'An. DCCCCXCIX. I2ep com p<J 
hepe ept abuton^ into Temepe. ^ 
penbon J^a up anblan^ ClOebepae^an to 
j3pope-ceaptpe. *i •'com ]?a peo Centipce 
pypbe J^aep onjean'. ^ hi J?a j^aep paepte 
tojaebepe penjon. *Ac pa-la-pa f hi 
tohpa^e bu^on tl plujon. pop^am ]>e hi 
n^pbon pultum ]>e hi habban pceolbon'. 
Da ahton ]?a Denipcan pael-ptope je- 
pealb. ^ namon J?a hopp. ^ pibon ppa 
pibe ppa hi polbon ^pylpe'. * ^ popneah 
ealle pept - Centinjap popbybon' ^*J 
pophepjobon'. Da paebbe pe cmj pi^ 



to Liddyford, burning and slaying every 
thing that they met. Moreover^ Ord-» 
ulf 's minster at Tavistock they burped 
to the ground^ and brought to their 
» ships incalculable plunder. This year 
archbishop Elfric \rent to Rome after 
his staff. 

A.D. 998. This year coasted the 
army back eastward into the mouth of 

• the Frome^ and went up everywhere^ as 
widely as they would^ into Dorsetshire. 
Often was an army collected against 
them ; but^ as soon as they were about 
to come together^ then were they ever 

• ' through something or other put to flight, 
and their enemies always in the end had 
the victory. Another time they lay in the 
isle of Wight^ and fed themselves mean- 
while from Hampshire and Sussex. 

• A.D. 999. This year came the army 
about again into the Thames^ and went 
up thence along the Med way to Ro-» 
Chester ; where the Kentish army came 
against them, and encountered them in 

< a close engagement; but, alas ! they 
too soon yielded and fled; because they 
had not the aid that they should have 
had. The Danes therefore occupie4 the 
field of battle, and, taking horse, they 

• rode as wide as they would, spoiling 
and overrunning nearly all West-Kent. 
Then the king with his council deter- 



• Dbban-f ojiba, CT. b'i?. ^ So Peirob.V.T. bi. and i?. jEtepiDj. Gibs. « From Cot. * From 
I/iud. Petrol. C,T. b i. and i?. * shton, C.T. b It. ' From Laud, Cot. corrected aod enlarged 
from Petrol), C.T, b i. and ir. s Abs. Cot. abutan, C.T. b i. and i?. ^ ]«ji com j-eo Centifce 
jpypb ]?aeji oo3ean bi, Cot. ^ So C.T. b it. abs. Cot. pala, Gibs. C.T. b i. Hence tbe Tulgar. 

eojrruption, «^ Well.^wajr!" and stUl worse, « Well-a-dajr!" » Abs. Co$. \ 1 popbybon 
fel^neah call ]/ejt^Ceat^ Cot, 



THE SAXON chronicle; 



17» 



hif pitan. f mait fceolbe mib pip* 
jr^jibe tl cac mib lanb-pypbe him on- 
jcan papan. "^Ac }>a fa y cipu jeappe 
pspon. ]7a ^elkebe ]?a man' p pam bas^e 
to baeje. ^ ppencte f eapme pole }>e on 
}?am pcipon lajon. •) a fP^ ''^^^ pop^- 
paspbpe^ beon pcolbe ppa hit la&tpe 
paep* ppam anpe tybe to o%pe. ^ a hi 
laston heopa peonba pepob pexan. ^ a 
man pf mbe ppam ]?aspe pae. ^ hi pepbon 
asppe popX aeptcp'^. *Anb )K>nne aet 
jfzm enbe ne beheolb hit nan J^m^. peo 
pc^-p^pbinj *ne pco lanb-pypbmj'* 
buton polcep jeppmc. ^ peop ppilhn j. 
^ heopa peonba pop^bylbmj":* 

^An. M. J3ep «on f ippum jeapc' pe 
c^nj pcpbc into Cumbep-lanbe^ ^ hit 
tfppi^c neah^ eall pophepjobe*. sAnb 
hip pcipu penbon ut abutan Lej-ceap- 
tpe. ^ pceolbon cuman onjean hme. 
ac hi ne mihton. ]>a ^^hep^obon hi 
CDaeni2e\ ^J ''pe' unppi^-plota, paep 
J?aep pumepep jepenb to Ricapbep* 
pice'' :• 

. An, ML "J3ep on J^ippum jeape 
paep micel unppi^ on Anjel-cynnep 
lonbe fuph pcip-hcpe. *J pel-jehpap 
hepjcbon ^ ba^pnbon. ppa f hie up 
apetton on asnne p% f hie comon to 
/BWehnja-bene. *i \iz com J?aBp to- 



mined to proceed against them with sea 
and land forces ; but as soon as the ships 
were ready, then arose deU^^from day to 
day, which harassed the miserable crew 
that lay on board ; so that, always, the 
forwarder it should have been, the la|er 
it was, from one time to another; — they 
still suffered the army of their enemies to 
increase; — the Danes continually re* 
treated from the sea-coast; — and they 
continually pursued them in vain. Thuff 
in the end these expeditions both by seii 
and land served no other purpose but to 
vex the people, to waste their treasurej 
and to strengthen their enemies. 

A.D. iOOO. This year the king wenl 
into Cumberland, and nearly laid waste 
the whole of it with his army, whilst his 
navy sailed about Chester with the desiga 
of cooperating with bis land-forces ;; 
but, finding it impracticabloj they ra* 
vaged Anglesey. The hostile fleet was 
this summer turned towards the king- 
dom of Richard. 

A.D. 100 1. This year there was great 
commotion in England in consequence 
of an invasion by the Danes^wUo spread 
terror and devastation wheresoever they 
went, plundering and burning and de- 
solating the country with such rapidity. 



9 Abf.Cbl. to Anb ^ods, C^c«. ^ il ke bemaii) C.T, b it. for.ilkebe mao. ylcobaa ya, beman (the 
coansellors or judges delayed, &fc.)> P i« ^ Corrected from Petfb, CT.bu aod i?. Th^ com* 
paratire degrt^ here seems necessaiy to the sense^ as opposed to Isqie. fojiVpeajibe, Gihs. Accord* 
ioglf he traoslates— W quandp autt^ tgressura erat clams, impediia JiiU de uno in aSud tempia, frc«. 
^ Ac hic nahe na beheolb, Cot. * from Q.T. a i. ab9. b \j. Laud, and Gibs, probably from tbo 
repetition of pyjibinj ; bnt b ir. reads nan ^inj butan, t^c^ ' From Laud, Coi. Petrob, C. T» a u 
and iv. f Abs. CoL ^ So C.T. b It. ComejiJanbe, C.T. b i. and Gibs, from ^aud. > jop* 
bybe, Cot, jrophepejobe, C.T.aU ^ So C.T b i. and i?. abs. Cot. jeo, Gibs. > Rikcpbej-*, 
C. T. B ir. B Abs. Laud. Cot. C.T b L and ir. to fpiS jilS nam* The remainder of the year thus ; pcjk. 



t74 



THE «AXON CHRONICLE. 



^earfiB)^ htLXAtVLXi'Ycfji. :i him piW je- 
):uhton; ^ • J»jt peap^ /E^lpeapb 
c^m^f hekh-jepepa opfjegcnj. anb 
iieoppiC aet I^pit-cipcan. ^ L^oppine 
cfnmjcf heah-jepepa. anb pulphepe • 
bifceopef J^h. aab Gobpine astpcop^- 
ije. 'ieipp^cj* bifceopef f imu, 1 ealpfa 
xnfsmha an anb hunb-eahtitij. Anb 
^p peapS ]mpa Denif cpa- micele ma 
'opflejenpa^ jieah fe hie pasl-ftq^e • 
jepealb aihten. Aiib pipan J^a J^anon 
jteftro^ f ' hie cbmon • to De|:enaii. ^ 
lum ]>«p tro^eanef com Palh^ mib 
l^m fcipan )>e he ^ejabpian mihte: 
j:op%am %e He afceacen- pasp ppam • 
jG^Sdpebe c^^mnjci opep, ealie %fa je- 
^p^.pKa fe he hiin jepealb haspbe. *j 
«w 'pe cynmy. hmi pel J^^pob hiepbe on 
Hamon *]' on .yolbe anb peolppe. Anb 
jxipbaepnbon ;Te3ntim. ^ eac peala • 
^^a ybbpa hama jfe pe yenemnsln ne 
«ttiinon^ tl heom man fyV^&ih jf^p 
|rpi% pi% nam"^. : Anb hie popan ]?a 
jK)nan to €xan-mu%an. ppa f hie apet- 
Toft-him up-ea snne p^' o% hie tomon •« 
»> l'eonn^^hl6. ^ Jiafep pap Cola fap 
^h^mjep' heah-yepep tl Cat^je j^asp 



that they advanced in one march as iaf 
as the town of Alton ; where the peo-* 
pie of* Hampshire came against them, 
and fooght with them. There was slain 
Ethel werd^high-stewardof the king^ and 
Leofric of Whitchurch, and Leofwin, 
htgfaHBteward of the king, and Wulf-' 
here, u. bishop's thane, and Godwin of 
Worthy, son of bishop Elfsy; aivd of all 
the men who were engaged with them 
^fatynone. Of the Danes there was 
slain a much greater number, thougH 
tbey remained in possession of the field 
of battle. Thence they proceeded west* 
ward, until they came into Devonshire; 
where Paley came to meet them with the 
ship9 which he was able to collect ; for 
he had shaken off his allegiance to king^ 
Ettwflfed, against all the vows of truth 
and fidielity ^hich he had given him, as 
wtell as the presents which the king had 
bestowed on him in honsM sind gold 
and ^Iver. And they burned Teignton^ 
and also many otiier goodly towns tluit 
we cannot name; and then peace was 
there concluded with them. And they 
proceeded thence towards Exmouth, S0 



•«»«*L*i 



m W 



bim aisn jpy^ pejchce piVjtcfb. ^ heqiblice^ Da jepen^a hi ^eoob' ^ealle' ^ lanb..*] bybon eaU 
jpa hi bcf una paspon. jlojon *j beopnbon '*eal ^f hi to comon^ '^Da"' j^jomncfbe man ^pe opmcoe 
'•pypbe^ op Dcpeoiijcc]' polcef. ^' Snmop-petijrccfjr'^polcef '. *j hi ^ to fomne comon ast Peoan-hi, 
▲ab jooa fpa hie to^a^bi^ pett^pa Jyt hesh tfeo ^njlirce pyjtb^. ^ hi ^p mycel jael opjIogODj *) 
)iilkK>i| |a opep 'f lanbf^j ]^r jejpa htapjiaa^pjia jyS j^ye ^onpe jpe tqipa.^ mib ham ^ micd6;hQie-hi^ 
to. fQippn ly ohtoa. Aob ]^op feaboa jato Pih&lsnb. *j )aqi him ppbon onbacsD. jya jpa hi jylp 
|roIb(^a. *J htia:**tiAiii<^iiSiie fd!ftob« ne hup to nebofipe jrap-hejie on jb •to genealcoui' ae lanb^. 
jft^ > oe eoboa ht jfs f»0p ap^ J^aej: hit JiaoQ »lce ffjan haejrije t(me. fftfiVua '^'Jie' hi timjpt hequi 
y):elef ■'pe'' sejpicoit;*- . I%e j[>rlQcipal variationtin thsie MSS. are thns notited^ 

' ^ •mtlVe, C^l. "^eastan-tialrany CT. elf. • Abs. CoL • % C^t. ac Inm uon ypyfe Iwiijiblice jit^yrdb, 
'C7. B i. aBd fT. • « oj:eji, Coi. • rnmCoi, al». C.T.b I. tani It. ' Tt^aa C.T.m^» * So a7.< !«. 

^nkrce •• GiW. ^yr.^elc, Cr. el. ^ JBrom M. CT. e i. and it . mbt.£«iMi. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



175 



cyninjejr %ejtepL tojeanef him mib 
^aepe p^libe ^ hie gejabpian mihtan. 
*i hie J'aep aplj^mebe pupbon. *i ]wp 
peap^ peala opf lejecpa. *i ]^a Denif can 
ahton pael-ptope j;epealb. Atib )>aBf 
on mep jea popbaspnbon ]KUie> ham 
SDt Peonn-h6. *i a&t Chj-tuae. ^ eac 
feala ^obpa hama ye pe jenemnah ha 
eunnaa. Anb popan ]ia ept eaft: on" 
jean &S hie comon ro piht. ^ )7asp on 
mepjen popbaepnbon ]K>ne haih ^t 
Pealt-ham. *] o%pa cothpa peala. ^ 
him mon pa%e J^aep pi% J^m^bbe. ^ hie 
namon ppi%^:« 



*An. MIL bep *on J?ipyum 2^pe^ 
fc cynj jep^bbe *ept' «^ hip pitan^ 
f man p ceolbe ^apol-j^lban J^am plotan. 
f ^ ppiS piS hi 2enlman^ pi% ]ion ^e hi 
heopa ypelep ^efpican pceolbon. ^Da 
penbe jre cynj to )>am plotan Leoppje 
ealbopman. ^ he ])a ]wf c^n^ep popbe 
*i hip pitena ^^piS piS hi -jepaette. 'J 
)}a&t hi to metpun^e pennon ^ to -japle* 
^ hi )7a f unbeppenjon^ '^ him^ man ]7a 
^e^ealb xxiv. J^upenb punba. ^Da on 
j^eman^ J?ypum opfloh Leoppje ealbop- 
man /Epic J>3Bp cynjep heah-jepepan. 
T pe cynj hme fa jeutobe op eapbe'. 

* - * ■ • 

Anb J^a. on ]>am ilcan lenjtene. com peo 
hlaepbi^e. Ricapbep bohtop. 'yBIpjipa 



that they, marefaed at once till they came 
to Pin^hoo; inhere CoIe» high-8tewaidof 
theking^andEdsy^reveof theking^ came 
agaii^st them mth the army that they 
could collect. But th^ M^ere there put 
tonight an4 there were manjdaio^ aad 
the Danes had possession 4>f the field pf 
battle. And the next mprhing they hivp** 
ed the village of Pin-^hboi and of C\\tlt, 
and also many gopdiy towns that we 
cfnibot name. ,Tben they returned east- 
ward agajn, till they came to the isle of 
Wight. The next morning they4>urned 
the town of Walthfim; and many other 
small towns; soon afterwhicb tbepeople 
treated with them^ and they made peace^ 
A.D. 1002. This, year the king and 
his council agreed that tribute should 
be given to the fleet, and peaice madi 
with them, with the provision that the jr 
should desist from their mischief. Then 
sent the king to the fleet alderman Leaf- 
syi^ who at the king's. woird and hh 
oouncil maide peace with thern^ on con* 
dition that they received food and trir 
biite; which they accepted^ and a tribute 
wai paid of 24^000 pounds. In the mean 
timeralderman Leofsy I slew£afy,high-i 
steward of the king; and the king ban- 
ished him from the land. Then^ in the 
same I^en^ came the lady Elfgive £lm- 
ma*, Richard's daughter, to this land. 



■^ 



> Here ends the Cotton MS. of Wlieloc. So also Olio b xu and the Du][>lin traoicript. ^ From 
Laud. Cot. Petroh. C.T. b i. and i?. « Abs. 0>L ' Abs. LoaiL C.T. n i. and It. « heom, Co0. 
f From Cot. The whole period mot thas: Anb on )^jan ylcan geape. on lencren. com Ricapbef bohcep. 
JBlpgiP Ymma. hibeji to laube. Anb on ^ij ylcan jeape peapV Gabulj: apccbifcop of hij hue, 

* LboMqus, Flor. duds Normannorum primi Ric&rdi JUitm^ re» 

• " Emmam, Saxonice Jlfgivam voaHum^ ^iheredui duxit uxofem."** — ^Flor. 



176 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



Ymma'. hibep to hnbe. "j on J?ain ilcaii 
]r*umepa Gabulp apceU popBpepbe. ^ 
*eac' ^on J?am' jeape pe cynj het op- 
plean calle J?a Denipcan^ men ]>e on 
Anjel-c^nne paepon. *%ip paep jebon' 
on Bpiciup' maeppe-baej. popSon J?am 
cyn je psep jecyb f hi polbon hine be- 
p^pepian^ aet hip hpe. *i «pyB^an' ealle 
hip pitan. *i habban py^^an hip pice** 
^butan aslcpe pi^-cpejeneppe^' :• 

*Ah. MIIL TSejx paep Gaxan-ccap- 
tep'^ abpocen *J>uph J?one Fpencipcan 
ceopl J^ujon'. J>e™ jreo hiaspbi^e heapbe 
«hipe'' sepett to jcpepan. tJ pe hepc 
fa fa buph mib ealle popbybe. «^ mycle 
hepe-hulSe faep jenamon"'. ^^j on J?am 
ilcan jeape eobe pe hepe up into pil- 
tun-pcipe'. Da jejabepobe man ppife 
my^cele pypbe ^op piltun-pcipe anb op 
bamtun-pcipe. tJ ppi^e anpasbhce piS 
f aep hepep peapb pa^pon^ p^' fa pceolbe 
«fpe'ealbopman /6Ippic laeban fa p^pbe. 
ac he teah pop% £f a' hip ealban ppen- 
ceap*5i. pona ppa hi paspon ppa jehenbe. 
f aet aej^ep hepe' on o^epne* hapebc. 
fa gebpaebe he hine peocne^ *i onjan he 
hine bpecan to ppipenne. *i cpae^ f aet 



And in the same summer died archbi«> 
shop Eadulf^; and also, in the same 
year the king gare an order to slay all 
the Danes that were in England. This 
was accordingly done on the mass-day 
of St. Brice ; because it was told the 
king, that they would beshrew him of 
his life, and afterwards all his council, 
and then have his kingdom without any 
resistance. 

A.D. 1003. This year was Exeter 
demolished, through the French churl^ 
Hugh, whom the lady^ had appointed 
her steward there. And the army de- 
stroyed the town withal, and took there 
much spoil. In the same year came 
the army up into Wiltshire. Then was 
collected a very great force, from Wilt^ 
shire and from Hampshire; which was 
soon ready on their march against th6 
enemy : and alderman Elfric should 
have led them on; but he brought forth 
bis old tricks, and as soon as they were 
so near, that either army looked on the 
other, then he pretended sickness, and 
began to reach, saying he was sick; and 
so betrayed the people that he should 



• Abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and ir. ^ on ]ry ylcan, Cot. « Denijce, Coi. ' From C.T. b i. ab8« b in 

• Bpitiuf, Coi. C.T. B i. and it. ' -jyj»p»n, Cot. -jyppan, C.T. b i. -jryjiepan, b it. » Abs. CoL 

* }\j picej Laud. CT. b i. and ir. * From Laud. Cot. Petrol, C.T. b i. and ir. * So C.T. b iy. Gxecaej. 
Mji, Cot. 6axa-cep:ep^ C.T. b L 6Ue.ceajtep, Gibs. ' joji anej Fpencijcej ceoplcf l^in^an. I3u20 
liacte, Cot* ™ ^one, Cot, " j^enamen, Gibi. jenam, C.T b ir. ; bnt a change from the singnlar 
number to the plaral, after nouns of maltitnde^ is common. ® From C^.T. Bi. and iv, p Abs. Laut^ 
CT. B if, 4 ppencaj, Cot. C.T. b i. and ir. ' So C.T. b i. and iv. hcopa, Gibs. s. e. of them ; 
unless it be intended for hejia, genitive plural of hepe^ t. e. either of the armies. * So C.T. b i. 
oVeji, b ir. Laud. Gibs. oVpe, Cot. * jeoc^ Cot. 

' ' '^ Aldulfusy archiprasul EboracepHs.^'--^ instead of a churl ;'^^^^ Normannki eomiiiiy** 

Flor. <^ In ecclesia Sancia Maria JVigomuB est &c. 

iepultus.^' — ^Ibid. • « Emma^ Saxoniee Jlfgiva roccrffl."— Flor. 

* Florence of Worcester makes him an earl^ See p. 175. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE 



177 



he jcpclob' paepc. 1 fpa f pole bcfpac* 
^f he laban fceolbe. fpa hit 2ecpet>en 
ijr'. ]K>nne fe hepetoja paca%. J^onne bi9 
eall fc hcpe fpi^e jeh^nbpab'. Da Spe- 
jen jefeah f hi anpaebe* naepon. *1 f hi 
ealle tohpuppon'. J>a labbe ^he' hif hepe 
into piltune. ^*j hi J>a buph jehepjobon 
^ popbaepnbon'. "j Keobe him' J>a to Seap- 
bypij. *j J>anon ept to pae ""pepbe. J^aep 
he pifte hip y^-hen jcftap'^ :• 

* An. MIV. I5ep com Spejen mib hip 
plotan to NopB-pic. *i J?a buph ealle je- 
hepjobc^ 1 popbaepnbe. Da jepaebbe 
Ulpkf tel pi% ]>a pitan on Gaft-Gnjlum. 
^f hit betepe paepe' ""f man pi% )H>ne 
hepe pptj^ep ceapobe^ "ap hi to-mf- 
celne heapm on ]>am eapbe 3ebybon^ 
popVam *fe' hi unpapep comon. *"j' 
•he' F^pft naepbe f he hip p^pbe je- 
^abpianP mihte. Da*i. unbep J?am jpi^e 
^]?e heom betpeonan beon pceolbe. ]>3f 
befteaU jx hepe up ppam» pcipon. -J 
penbon* ^heopa pope' to Deob-popba". 
*Da Ulpcytel f unbepjeat. J>a jxnbe he 
f man pceolbe ]>a pcipu to-heapan. ac 



have led : as it is said, '' When the 
leader is sick, the whole army is htnr 
dered." When Sweyne saw that they 
were not ready, and that they all re- 

- treated, then led he his army into Wil^ 
ton ; and they plundered and burned 
the town. Then went he to Sarum:; 
and thence back to the sea, where he 
knew his ships were. 

• 

A.D. 1004. This year came Sweyne 
with his fleet to Norwich, plundering 
and burning the whole town* Then 
Ulfkytel agreed with the council in 

• East-Anglia, that it w^ re better to pur«- 
chase peace with the enemy, ere they 
did too much harm on the land; for that 
they had come unawares, and be had 
not had time to gather his force. Then, 

• under the truce that should have been 
between them, stole the array up from 
their ships, and bent their course to 
Thetford. When Ulfkytel understood 
that, then sent he an order to hew the 

• ships in pieces ; but they frustrated his 



• becypbe, C.T, b i. and ir. which makes the antithesis more obvious. ^ Abs. Cat, * So CT.bU 
^ehynbpeb, a ir. jehinbjieb, Gibs. The proTerb perhaps ran thos : 

Donne jfe hepeto^tL pacaV. 
Donne biV eall je hepe ^diygbpat). 

^ So Cr.iB It. Gibs, onpttbe, b i. improperly explained conconUs In b It. Joss, inter!, eonstanies, Gibs. 
' So C.r. B i. except cof opaa for tohjHipfon. The whole cknse is omitted in Cot, "j ealle tohpoppon. 
Gibs, from Laud. *j ealle toj:opon Uebbe bij hepe — w b Ir. ' 'j ^one tan fopbepnban, Coi. s So 
C.T, B I. and in eobon, Gibs. ^ Hufusce eUumdie ex Cod. Land, desumptm quis sU sensus me cmnino 
laiei. Gibs. This clanse In C.T. air. is underlined by Josselin. It only required a different panctuation 
to render It intelligible. ^ From Latid, Coi. but corrected and enlarged from Peiroh. C.T.b i. and ir. 
^SoA/.C.r.Bi.andir. -baepobon^Gibs. >A)[>s.Cb/. f him bseeepe ysspon, Gibs, incorrectly from 
Laud. "> f man jcolbe jrpiViaa yiV }one hepe, £b/. > Abs. Coi. lanbe for eapbe, C.T. b ir. « So 
Laud. C. T. b i. and ir. na he, Gibs, from Coi. ' je^bepebe, C. T. b ir. omitting mihte. So b I. 4 ac^ 
Coi. ' bejftael, Coi. C.T. a I. bejtal, b ir. • of , CT. b i. * fopan, Coi. " t3eopc.]:opbao, Coi. Incor* 
rectly. Deot-ppba, C.T. b ir. * Briefly thus Coi. i 1 Ulfcytel sejitbepobQ hij hepe. "j f op «pep. 

SA 



178 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



hi abpu%on jfz ^ he tof ohte. i he J?a 
jejabcpobe hij- pypbe bijolice fpa he 
n>]^6fi: mihte. Anb j-e hepe com J?a to 
Deob-popba bihnan J?pym pucan J^aef 
J« hi aep jehepjobon Nop^-pic. 1 J^aep • 
bmnon ane niht paepon. *J J>a bupuh 
hcpjobon 1 popbaspnbon. Da on mop- 
gen. J>a hi to pipon polbon. J?a com 
Ulpcytel mib hij- pepobe'. •cpae^ f hi 
^aep tojaebepe pon j-ceolbon'. anb hi • 
^p tbjaebepe pcapchce'* penjon. ^^ 
mycel pael J^aep on aej^Sepe hanb je- 
feoir. D«p peap^* eapt-Gnjla polcep 
•peo' fb> 'mycer opplajen. *ac jip )>aBt 
pulle mde^en ^»p paepe. ne eobon hi • 
Bieppe ept to pcipon. Spa hi pylpe 
p«bon'. iKf hi naeppe pj^ppan hanb- 
ple^an on Anj^-oynne ne ^emitton 
^nne Ulpc^tel him to bp^te/^:- 

An. MV. *bep /BIppicup apceB . 
popVpepbe. ^*i /BlptM^ ^bipcop' penj 
*jBptep him' to *^m' «pcc-ptoIe"^ 
*l>ep on f^ppum ^ape peep pe m^cla 
hnnjop ^onb An^l^<r^n. ppilce nan 
man asp ne ^emunbe ppa ^mne. Anb • 
pe plota J>aBp jeapep jepenbe op J?ippum 
eapbe to Den^meapce. ®1 ktelne p^ppt 
let ])aBt he ept ne com'':- 

An.MVI. Pl^ep man haljobeyGlpehj 
to apcebipcope"'. ^"i Bpihtpok) bipcop . 



design. Then he gatfaeied his forcei^ 
as secretly as he could. The eotmj 
came to Tbetfbrd within three weeks 
after they had plundered Norwich; 
and, remaining there one night, thej 
spoiled and burned the town ; but, in 
the morning, as they were proceeding 
to their ships, came Ulfkytel with his 
army, and said that they must thert 
come to close quarters. And, Accord*^ 
ingly, the two armies met together; 
and much slaughter was made on both 
sides. There w^ie many of the TOterans 
of the East-Angles shun ; but, if tht 
main army had been thev^ the enemy 
had never returned to Ibeir Aips. As 
tbey said themselves, that they never met 
with worse hand-play in England than 
Ulfkytel brought thon^ 

A.D. lOOS. This year* died arch- 
bishop ElAric ; and bidiop EUeah suc- 
ceeded him in the archbishoprtc. This 
year was the great fionine in En- 
gland ; BO severe that no man ere re- 
membered such. The fleet this year 
went from this land to Denmark, and 
took but a short respite^ before they 
came again. 

A.D. 1006. This year Elfeah3 was 
consecrated^ archbishop ; bishop 



•FromC.r.Bi. «»pBjhcc,a/. «Abs.Orf. *paj,ft/. •Abs.Cb/. jeoyJ^jt^C.T.mir. 
' Abs. Laud. C.T. b \y. f From C.T.b 1. and ir. abi. WM. Gibs. >» Aa. mti. laud. Cot. (XT. air. 
vEIpjjic, ibid. » From laud. Got. C.T. b it. ^ jE,\f^^ cu. « Abs. Lmd. » ajiobU^op. CoL 
B From Laud. Coi. Peirob. C.T. b i. and ir. « *i joaa aiii;^«aa cffis^^ C$L » Abs. Jjutd. Q§L 

C.T. B i. and ir. « From Laud. Cot. Petrob. C.T. b i. and ir. with some ?aria<ioa. 



' This speech of the Danes, now first printed, 
as well as that abote of Ulfkytel to his army, is 
confirmed by the antfaority of Fiorenee of Wor- 
cester, who has literally translated ft: — << Ut 
enim ipsi tesiaiiwnty duriU9 et a9pcriU9 bcUum 



in AngUa jmnquam txperii sunij quam Mis dux 
U(fke(ellu$ intulerat.'' See also S. Dunelm. 

• An. lt)0C, Ftor. » Alfeaipis, Flor. 

• i.e. of Canterbury. He was cstosrn the year 
before. Fid. an. 1005. 



THE SAXON CHRONICiB. 



179 



pen; to )mm ^jiice pn piltun-fcijie . 
Hiib on ]?am ilcan ^eajie ynlf^tzte paep 
eall hif ajie op-^^numen^ "j Pulpeah anb 
Upejeat ^^paepon ablcnbe'^ **l yBlpelm 
ealbopman peap% opplasen"". ^ Kenulp 
bif cop popVpepbe. ^Anb ]>a. opep )H>ne 
mibne puInop'^ com ^a pe ^Denipca 
plota"" to Sanb-pic. *J ^bybon eall ppa hi 
asp ^epuna paepon^. bepjobon ^ baspnb- 

^^ ^ r^<9^n rP^ rP^ ^^ pepbon. Da bet 
pe cynj abanaan ut ealne )^e6bpcipe^ 
op pept-Scaxum« tl op CDypcum. 'j hi 
lajon ute pz ealne ^ne haeppept ^on 
pypbinje oni^ean {lone hepe^ ac hit 
nabt &e beheotb ^}c ma )^ hit optop 
aep tiff be. ac pop eallum J^ippum pe hepe 
pepbe ppa he pylp polbe. 'j peo pypbin^ 
bybe ]wpe laab-leobe aelcne heapm f 
him na&p ne bohce ne innhepe ne ut- 
hepe"^. Da hit puitep-laehte ]>a pepbe 
peo*" pypb ham. *i p e hepe com* ^J?a opep 
CDaptmup maeppan'^ to hip ppy%-ptole 
^to Piht-laabe''. ^tl tilobe him ]«p a^- 
hpaep |raep ]7e hi behopboa'^ Anb 'J^a'^ 
"'to ^am mibban ptntpan'^eobon heom" 
to heopa jappan^ peopme ut ]Hiph 
I^amtun-pcipei* into Beappuc-pcipe to 
Saebinjan. ^;] hi byboa heofia ^ealbaa' 
jepuna. ateid>on heopa ^hepe'-beacna 
ppa j^a hi pepbon. Anb pepbon^^ )>a' to 



"vrald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire ; 
Wulfgeat was deprived of all his pro- 
perty 1 ; Wulleah and Ufgeat were de- 
prived of sight 1; alderman Elfelm was 
«laini; and bishop Kenulf departed 
this life. Then, over midsummer, came 
the Danish fleet to Sandwich, and did 
as they were wont ; they harrowed and 
burned and slew as they went Then 
the king ordered out all the population 
from Wessex and from Mereia ; and 
they lay out all the harvest under arms 
against the enemy ; but it availed no- 
thing more than it had often done be- 
fore. For all this the enemy went where- 
soever they would; and the expedition 
did the people more harm than eitlier 
any internal or external force could do. 
When winter approached, then went 
the army home ; and the enemy retired 
after Martinmas to their quarters in the 
isle of Wight, and provided themselves 
everywhere there with what they want- 
ed. Then, about midwinter, they went 
' to their ready farm, throughout Hamp- 
ditre into Berkshire, to Reading. And 
tliey did according to their custom,— 
they lighted their camp-beacons as they 
advanced. Thence they marched tp 
• Walhbokgibrd, which they entirely de- 



I " ^ ' 



C.T. BiT« Afteirwacds KmnyAfj ML ^ AIm. Cai, • liepe, (ki. com fe miola plota, CT. b W. 
' Jkffie, Cai. M JSeMMAf CeL yejjttaam, CT.bL ^ So Coi.C.T. b i. je, Laud, b it. Gibs. 
^jpeftejCoi. ^Aks.Cb/. .^ opefi Jm (Ds|ii«ief. (7.7. a k. ^ fee. CQaptioej- b4. ^ itkto fihtj Cot. 
» to ysqie spej vam^e^ <kt. * Alw Otd. hrn^ CZIbit. <> S^poppe, Cb/. ^eappan, C/T. b it. 
» baat^ Cot. 4 T'on C.T.Bi,MdaT. bIm.GMm. ' jrpa, Coi. 



' ^ See ft more* full and circumstantial account ' ' The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the 
of these erents, with some Tariation of names^ in see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter 
Florence of Worcester. to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. 

2a2 



180 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



^ 



peahnja-popba^. "J -p eall popfpelbon^. 
*1 paepon him J>a ane niht aet Ceolef- 
cje^. ^^'j penbon him J>a anblan^ jGycey- 
bune *to' Cpichelmef-hlaepe. *^ Jjasp 
onbibebon beotpa jylpa. popj7on opt 
man cpaeb. jip hi Cpichelmep- hlaepe' 
jepohton. f hi nseppe to pae jan ne 
pccolbon. penbon him J>a oSpep paejep 
hampeapb'^ Da paep ^]f3Rj\' pypb jepom- 
nob* 8Bt Cynetan. 1 hi Jjasp ^cojaebepe 
pennon. ^ pona'' 'f paepob on pleame 
jcbpohton''. K^ py^an h^pa hepe-hu^e 
to pae pepebon''. Daep mihton jepeon 
'"Pm-ceaptep-leoban'^ pancne* hepe ^ 
uneapbne. ])a^ hi be hypa jate to pae 
eobon. *i maete 'j mabmap opep l. mila 
•'him'' ppam pae pctton. *Da paep j^ 
cynj jepenb opep Temepe into Scpob- 
bep-bypijrpcipe. *i nam J^aep hip peopme 
in J^a^pe mibbe-pintpep tibe. Da peapV 
hit ppa mycel eje ppam J>am hepe. f nane 
man ne mihte 3e}>encan ne apmas^an. 
hu man op eapbe hi abpipan™ pceolbe. 
o%%e )>ipne eapb j>tS hi jehealban'^ 
"pop^an J?e hi haepbon aelcc pc^'pe on 
Peft-Seaxum pty%e jemeapcob mib 
bpyne ^ mib hep^un^e. Ajan pe cynj 
^eopne to pmeajenne pi% hip pitan. 
hpaet heom eallum paebhoo]^ J^uhte. f 
man J^ipum eapbe gcbeop^an mihte. asp 
he mib ealle popbon pup^e. Da de- 



stroyed^ and passed one. night at CboIs-» 
ey. They then turned along Asbdown 
to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited 
better cheer; for it was often aaidj 
that if they sought Cuckamsley^ they 
would never get to the sea. But they 
went another way homeward. Then 
was their army collected at Kennet; 
and they came to battle there, and soon 
put the English force to flight; and 
afterwards carried their spoil to the 
sea. There might the people of Win- 
chester see the rank and iniquitous foe^ 
as they passed by their gates to the sea, 
fetching their meat and plunder oyer 
an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then 
was the king gone over the Thames 
into Shropshire ; and there he fixed his 
abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, 
so great was the fear of the enemy, that 
no man could think or devise how to 
drive them from the land, or hold this 
territory against them ; for they had 
terribly marked each shire in Wessex 
with fire and devastation. Theni the 
king began to consult seriously with 
bis council, what they all thought most 
advisable for defending this land, ere 
it was utterly undone. Then advised 
the king and his council, for the ad^ 
vantage of all the nation, though they 



^ Pealifij-jropban, Coi. ^ -beiiobe. Col. « From C.T.bu and it. abi. Gibs. ^ Abs. Cot. 
* je2abe]u>b) Cot, ^ f Gojhfce pole a-plcame bpohtan, Cot. s *J jyVSao jparo jae pojuw. Cot. 
^ -cpe kobne, Cot. •• leobe, C.T. bit. which ib probably the troe reading. ^ pputdC} Cot. ^ So 
C.71 B i, and ir. fy Gibs. > From Laud. Petrob. C.T. b i. and ir. Briefly thus Cot. : To ^jie ylcaa 
xpef maejjan paej- je cyn; aet Scpopej-bojii. 'j hij jreojime }»)i heolb. Da peajiV jyainyoel ej^ oneji eal 
oj: J«m hejie. jfpa nap man ne maej o^pan jec^ao. " So C.T. b i. ^ehpin^iaMp Gibs, bpiojaoi bit. 
■ From Laud, Petrol. CT.bu and ir. abs. Coi. 



1 ji$u 1007^ Flor« 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



181 



|i«bte ]r6 k]^n^ *J hip pitan eallum )>eob- 
]Xipe to ])eappe. ]>eah hit him eallum 
Ia% paspe. f man nyt>e mo|^e )7am hepe 
japol-jylban''. Da penbe ye kynj to 
J>am hepe. ^ *him'' cy^an het. f •he 
polbe f heom 2pi% betpeonan beon 
f colbc. *i" '^him man japol-jute ^ met- 
funje fyllan pceolbe''. *] hi J?a 'ealle'' f 
unbeppen^on. 'anb him man metpob 
J>a jeonb An3el-cyn''^ 

*An. MVII. I5ep on J>ifpum jeape pap 
Jraet jspol 3^^8Bpt *J?am unppiWe hepe'. 
f peep xxxS Jjupenb punba*. ""Anb' 
*on J>ippum jeape eac' paep 6abpic je- 
pett to ealbopman on* "^eair CDypcena 
pice^. ^JJep pop /Elpeah bipceop to 
Rome aeptep pallium'^:* 

^An. MVIII. "liep bebeab p cynj 
f man pceolbe opep eall An^el-cynn 
pcipu paeptlice pypcan'. f ip. *fonne' 
■op' J?pym hunb ^hibum *i op tynum 
hybum aenne pcaej^* "i op viii. hybum 
helm ^ bypnan''^ 

PAn. MIX. ^tieji on Juppum jeape 
^epupbon fa pcipu jcappe''. •]?€ pe asp 
ymbe pppaecon''. ^ heopa pap' ppa peala 
ppa nacppe «p. ^J^aep Jjc up bee pec^a^''. 
onAnjel-cynne nejepupbon* ^on nanep 
cyninjep bae^e^ ^Anb hi man J^a ealle 



were all loth to do it^ that they needs 
must bribe the enemy with a tribute. 
The king then sent to the army^ and 
ordered it to be made known to them^ 
that his desire was, that there should 
be peace between them, and that tri- 
bute and provision should be given 
them. And they accepted the terms; 
and they were provisioned throughout 
England. 

A.D. 1007. In this year was the 
tribute paid to the hostile army; that 
was, thirty 1 thousand pounds. In this 
year also was Edric appointed alder- 
man over all the kingdom of the Mer- 
cians. This year went bishop Elfeah 
to Rome afler his pall. 

A.D. 1008. This year bade the king 
that men should speedily build ships 
over all England; that is, a man possess-* 
ed of 310 hides to provide one galley 
or skiff; and a man possessed of 8 hides 
•nly, to find a helmet and breastplate^. 

A.D. 1009. This year were the ships 
ready, that we before spoke about; 
and there were so many of them as 
never were in England before, in any 
king's days, as books tell us. And they 
were all transported together to Sand- 



* From Laud. Peiroh. CT.bu and iv. abs. Coi, ^ So C.T, b i. man jcolbe him ^anol ^yl^AQ 
*j metpiD^, Coi. c Abs. Coi. < From Laud. Coi. Peirob. C.T. b i. and It. • Abs. Coi. fanA 
hcjje, C. T. B i. Jwm unpjiiV hepe, b it. ' xxxtj .C.T.b ir. . • punban, Coi. ^ Aba. C. T. b it. 
* oueji, Cb/. ^ Abs. Laud. C.T. b it. ^eonb CDyjicna — b It. > From C.T. b it. « t3ep je cynj 
her macian jcypa ofep eal An^eUcynn^ Coi. * Abs. Laud. ^ j-cipum. 'j x. be tynnro. anno 
f c»3%9 C.T. b It. p From Laud. Coi. Petrol. C.T. b i. and It. to the end of the year. 9 bep }« 
jpcipa geapa pup^an, Coi. - pupbon J^a j-apo, C.T. b It. ' pspao, Coi. * pupVan, (^. » "3 hi 
jDpl^an ^^a ealle jepepabe ro Sanb-pic, Coi. 

' <^ xzxYi." — FloT. S.Danelm. it Is difficalt to ascertain the exact proportion of 

' This passage, tlioughTery important, is rather ships and armour which each person was to fiuv 
confused^ from the variations in the MSS. ; so that nish. VU, Fior. an. 100& 



iS9 



THE SAXON CHUONICLE. 



Vojasbepe pepobe to Sanb^pic . ^ ^eeji 
fccolbon* '^licjan. ^'' «J)ifnc eapb*" 
bealban^ pi% aelcne ut-hepe. ® Ac pe ])a 
jj^t naepbon J)a jef aeKa. ne J?one pup^- 
fcipe. f feo jfCip-pypb n]^tr paepe 
J7ippum eapbe. J>e ma J>e heo optop 
aep paep". ^Da x^peap^ hit'' on J>if- 
jrum' ilcan timan. ^o^^e htle ap. 
J>»t^ Bpihtpic. Gabpiccf bpo^op ealb- 
opmannep. popppejbe pulpno^* cilb 
*"jK)ne SuS-Seaxijxan^'. ^Gobpinep pae- 
bep eoplep ". to J^am cynin^e. ^ he |7a 
ut^epenbe. 'j ^him pa to appeon ^aet 
he'' haspbe *mib him^ xx. pcipa. ^"jhe 
)>a hep^obe se^hpasp be ]7am pu% piman. 
^ aelc ypcl pophte''. ^Da cybbe man 
into J^aepe pcyp-pypbc. J^aet hy mann 
ea%e bepapan mihte> ^ip man ^mbe 
beon polbe^ ^yz ^enam pe Bpihtpic 
him to hunb-eahtati^ PYP^- tl J'ohte f 
he him mycekp popbep p^pcan pceolbe. 
f he pulpno^ cuconne o%%e beabne be- 
2ytan pceolbe. Ac j^a hi ]>ybeppeapb 
paepon, ]7a com him ppilc pmb on^ean. 
pp^Ice nan mana aep nc jemunbe. *J 
^a pcipo )>a ealle tobeot *i txi^pasf^. 
1 on lanb peapp^ *i com pe puIpnoV 
*»pna". :j J?a papo" popbaepnbe. "Da 
)7ip cii% peep to ]>zxa oSpum pcypum 
J?aep pe cynjpasp. hn J?a o^pe jepepbon. 



wich ; that they should lie there, an4 
defend this land against any out-force« 
But we have not yet had the prosperity 
and the honour, that the naval arma-^ 

• roent should be useful to this land, any 
more than it often before was. It 
was at this same time, or a little ear- 
lier, that Brihtric, brother of alderman 
Edric, bewrayed Wulnotb, the South- 

• Saxon knight, father of earl Godwin, 
to the king; and he went into exile, 
and enticed the navy, till he had with 
htm twenty ships; with which he plun- 
dered everywhere by the south coast, 

• and wrought every kind of mischief. 
When it was told the navy that they 
might easily seize him, if they would 
look about them, then took Brihtric with 
him eighty ships ; and thought that he 

• should acquire for himself much reputa- 
tion, by getting Wulnoth into his hands 
alive or dead. But, whilst they were 
proceeding thitherward, there came such 
a wind against them, as no man ramem- 

• beted before ; which beat and tossed the 
ships, and drove them aground; where- 
upon Widnotfa soon cam^ and bvrned 
them. Mnben this wai known to the 
rensaining ships, where the king v^as, 

• how the others fared, it was then as if 



• So C.T. B IT. jcalbon, (hi. * Abs. Cot. « >if lanb, Cot. * pejjian, Cot. « ac hit 
»> nahtt jepeAjX eal jpa bit ojtoji aeji ^telamp, Cot. ' Jnjum, Gibs, from Laud. >ij, Cot. N. S. 

« So C.T. B J. Joss. PnlnoV, Cot. ^ - SuW-Scxijcan, Cot. ..?i*-Seaxcijaii, C.T.b it. abs. b i. 
^ Abs. Laud. C.T, b i. and ir. ^ ^j he ]?a hepjobe *] elc yuel pophte be ]Him pi^juman, Cot» jjiohton, 
fbr pophte, Cribs« C.T. b iv. * Da polbe Bpihtpic jeeapnian him liepe-popb. 'j nam ftL uujl. jcipa 
fopV mib him. *j ^ohta 'f he polbe ^nlnoV ^^laeccan cucene o^S^ beabne. Ac hi com jyylc pebep a^eaa 
}ttc tofaeot ealte ]ia jcqiaa *J co hdbe ]«app. Cot, - tobeojt "j to^fc. -j on teiibc apeopp. C,T. b iv. 
^ So C.T.Bh, jctfi^ Ott, « ^a Jtjr ^diyj^ fo cynj Je «ib ]sm oVpan fcipaa bchnoo ywj. J»a 
pepbe he ham. 1 ealle ^ ealbepnmi. CW. 



THE SAXON CHRON^ICLE: 



IBS 



pap J)a fp\\c hit call pasbleaf paepc. *J 
(repbe fe c^^n;; him ham. ^ J^a ealDoji* 
menn ^ J^a heah-pitan''. ^ jropletron *J>a 
jrcipo J?uf leohtlice. ^ J>»t pole. J«i }« 
on J?am j-cipc paepon. pepcoboti J^a pcipo 
fept tro Lunbene. Anb leton^' ^callep 
J^obpcipef jejrpmc'^ J>uf leohthce pop* 
pup%an. ^"i naep pe ejc na betepa. }« 
call Anjel-cynn tx> hopobe*'. •^Da J>cop 
pcip-p]^pb J?up jeenbob psep. Jwi" com 
•pona aeptep Wam-maeppan'' pe unje- 
metlica *unppi^^-hepe. "jehaten Dup- 
kiUcp hepe''. to Sanb-pic. *i pona penbon 
■heopa popc"^ to Cant-pape-b^pij'. •^ 
Jm biiph pa^c ^eeobon. jip hi }« pa^p 
to him ppi^p ne jipnbon'^. "j eallc 
Gapt-Centinjap Kpi^ )K)nc hepe ppi^ 
genamon"^. "j him jepcribon^ J^peo J>u- 
pcnb punba *to jpi^^. *^Anb pe hepc 
Jwi pona aeptep )mm ' jepenbe abuton 
o^ f hi comon'^ to piht4anbc. *i J)aep 
a&jhpep on Su%-Seaxum. *J on }3amtun- 
pcipe. 1 eac on Beappuc-pcipc. hepjo- 
bon "3 baepnbon. ppa heopa jepuna ip*. 
©a hct pe c^rnj abannan ut ealne ^eob- 
pcipe. ^at man on aelce heaipe pi^ hi 
^ehealben pceolbe. ac }«ah-hpae^pe hi 
pepbon "loc hu*' hi polbon. Da pum p^ 
hgphe pexyn^ hi ^popne pop^an"^ nub 
ealpe pypbc. J?a hi to pcipan polbon. ^ 
eall pole 2^apu paep heom on tx) ponne. 



all were lost. The king went homej 
with the aldermen and the nobility; 
and thus lightly did they forsake the 
ships; whilst the men that were in theot 

• rowed them back to London. Thu* 
lightly did they suffer the labour of all 
the people to be in vain ; nor was the 
terror lessened^ as all England hoped. 
When this naval expedition was thus 

• ended^ then came^ soon after lammas, 
the formidable army of the enemy^ eall* 
ed Thurkill*s army^ to Sandwich ; and 
soon they bent their march to Canter* 
bury ; which city they would quickly 

• have stormed, had they not rather der 
sired peace ; and all die men of East^ 
Kent made peace with the army^ and 
gave them three thousand pounds for 
security. The army soon after that 

• went about till they came to the isle of 
Wight; and everywhere in Sussex, and 
in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, 
tiiey plundered and burned, as their 
cosTOv is^. Then ordered the king to 

• anmmon out alt the population, that 
men might bold firm against fhera on 
every side ; but nevertheless they march- 
ed as they pleased. On ime occasion 
the king had begun his march be£N« 

• them^ as they proceeded to their ships, 
and all the people were ready to ikll 



• Abs. Coi. * — fpinj, CoL — jeyyincj, Gibs, eallc* fa jcipaj jfejpinc, CT. bIt. « Ab». 
Cot •jnejjepjena-Cr.BiF. ^ MpxpyipnyCot Datej^ C.T.bIt. • From CT.Bi. Joss. 
^ Caiic-pa|i&4>ejii, Coi. » je^pi^baB yA hi, Cot. * Jipan, Coi. * Abs. Laud. CT. b i. and it. 
^ Abs. Coi. U} Da aepeji mibbaB pintpa, Ve, > yenhe abutxn oV he com, C.T. b It, "* So C.T.bL 
and ir. paj, Gibs, from Laud, » loca, C.T. a i. loca hn, b ir. « So C.T. b i. pope ^an, b if. 
f ope bejan^ Gibs, from LaiuL 

' Hiese expressions in the present tense afford transactions are nearly coeTal with the transao- 
a strong proof tint the original records of ftese iions themsdres. Later MSS. use the past tense. 



184 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ac hit psef J^a J^uph* Gabjtic ealbopman 
jelet. fpa hit ^ jy t aepjte iy\ Da aeptep 
[•Pj* CDaptinu]^ maefyan J>a pepbon hi 
ept onj^an^ to Cent. ^ namon him pm*- 
teji-]*etl on Temepin. anb hpebon him • 
op Gaj^-Seaxum ^ op J^am^pcipum J^e 
fxp. n^xt^ paspon on tpam healpum 
Temepe. Anb opt*^ hi on )^a buph Lun*- 
bene jepuhton. ac p Gobc lop J^aet heo 
;^t jepunb ptent. *i hi J^aep aeppe ypel • 
jepepbon. ^Da. aeptep mibban pintpa. 
J^a namon hi asnne up-janj ut )>uph 
CiltepnC ^ ppa to Oxena-popba'*'^ *J 
l^a buph popbaspnbon. *i namon ^hit^ 
}>a *on tpa healpa Temepe'' to pcipan- • 
peapb. Da jepapnobe man ^hi"^ f ])8ep 
paep pypb jejabepob*^ aet* Lunbene on- 
jean™ "hi'^ ®hi ^epenbon jfvT opep aet 
Stane. 'tl )'up pepbon ealne )H>ne pin- 
tep. *J ]K>ne lencten paepon him on Cent. • 
"i betton heopa pcipa :• 

'An.MX. I3ep *onJ?ippum jeape''com 
fe pope-pppecena^ hepe *opep Gap- 
tpon to Gapt-enjlum. ^ penbon'' up • 
at Gypep-pic. ^ eobon anppecep' 'J^aep 
hi ^esLXdbon Ulpcytel mib hip p^pbe''. 
*Dip paep on J?am baeje Ppima Apcenpio 



upon them; but the plan ivas then 
frustrated through alderman Edric, as 
IT EVER IS fliriLL^ Then after Mar- 
tinmas they i;?ent back again to Kent, 
and chose their winter-quarters on the 
Thames ; obtaining their provisions 
from Essex^ and from the shires that 
were next^ on both sides of the Thames, 
And oft they fought against the city of 
London ; but glory be to Gpd, that it 
yet standeth firm : and they ever there 
met with ill fare. Then< after midwin- 
ter took they an excursion up through 
Chiltern^^ and so to Oxford; which 
city they burned, and plundered on 
both sides of the Thames to their sbips. 
Being fore-warned that there was an 
army gathered against them at London, 
they went over at Staines; and thus 
were they in motion all the winter^ and 
in spring appeared again in Kent, and 
repaired their ships. 

A.D. 10 10. This year came the afore- 
said army, after Easter, into East^Ad- 
glia; and went up at Ipswich, marching 
continually till they came where they 
understood Ulfcytel was with his army. 
This was on the day called the first of 



• ]^o]inli, C.T. B IT. ^ So C.Tb I and ir. }a mjpp faej, Gibs, from Laud. . * ajen, C.T. b i. 
' neasjt, C.T. b It. DeiV> b i. • So Laud. C.T. b i. on, b It. incorrectly. ' 1 aB]Xe]i Cpijrtar 
mefjan hi namaa heojia fe^ co Oxana-pojibo-pypb, Coi. f So C.T. b i. and ir. CliceiiDy Gibs. 
^SoCr.BiT. Oxoe-Gibs. * Aha. Cot. ^SoC.T.bI. ubs. Laud. bit. jejaSepab, Gibs. from 
Coi. ' SL^XJoi. » ajcan. Laud. " Abs. iMud. « 'j bi jepenban, Cot. penboa him ]«, C.T. b ir. 
P From Laud. Cot. Petrol. C.T. b t and it. to the end of the year. ^ So C.T. b i. -j-pecena, b it. 
-jfpecenba, Gibs. ' anan, Coi. * J«ji hi jehyjiban j-e^jan jJ Ulpcyrel p»j mib hij- jrypbe, Cot. 

' See note '^ in preceding page. district. The MSS. preserred in the British Ma- 

* An. 1010. Flor. seam hare enabled us to correct the erroneous 
'^e. the Chiltem Hills; from which the south- metathesis contained in the word Ciitepo, aa 

eastern jpart of Oxfordshire is called the Chiitern printed before. Vid. Flor. S. Dnnelm. &c. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



185 



Domini^ ^ *I?a'' pna plujon Gaft- 
enjle. ^J?a ftob Gpanta-bpycj-fcipe 
paeftlice onjean''. ^Dsejx pasf opj-laejen 
/e^elfTan. J>a)r cynjej- a^um* 1 Op 
pij. *] hif punu, T pulpjiic. Leoppinep • 
f unu.1 Gabpij. /Bpicep bjio^op.'j peala 
o^pa ^obpa J^ejna. *i polcep unjepim'^. 
•Done pleam aepept aprealbe Dupcytel 
Mypan-heapob"'. *1 J^a Denipcan* ahton 
pael-ptope-jepealb. ^^ ])aep pupbon je- • 
hoppobe. 1 py^^an ahton Gapt-Gnjla 
jepealb''. anb J?one eapb J>py monfap 
hepjobon *J bsepnbon. jepup^on on J?a 
pilban pennap hi pepbon. 'j menn anb 
yppe hi plojon. anb bsepnbon jeonb Jra • 
pennap. ^ DeobpopbB hi ^opbaepnbon. 1 
Gpanta-bpy-cje^. Anb py^^an penbon 
cpt pu^peapb into Temepe. *i pibon 
J^a jehoppcban men onjean J>a pcipo. 
tl py^^an ept hpasbhce penbon pept- • 
peapb on Oxena-popba-pcipe*. 1 J^anon 
tx)^ Buccinjaham-pcipe'. *) ppa atiblan^ 
Upn o^ hi comon to Beban-popba". *J 
•ff3, jiojvS oS Temepan-popb. 1 a baepnb- 
on ppJi hi jepepbon. penbon J)a ept to • 
pcipon mib heopa hepe-huSe". ^ J>one 
bi to pcipon ptpebbon. Donne pceolbe 
p^pb lit ept onjean f hi up polbon. 
]K>nne pepbe peo pypb ham. *J ]>onne 
hi paepon be eaptan. J'onne heolb man * 
pypbe be peptan. ^ J^onne hi paepon be 



the Ascension of our Lord. The East- 
Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood 
firm against them. There was slaia 
Athelstan^ the king's relative, and Os- 
wy, and his son, and Wulfric, son of 
Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of Efjr, 
and many other good thanes, and a mul- 
titude of the people. Thurkytel Mjre- 
head^ first began the flight; and the 
Danes remained masters of the field of 
slaughter. There were they horsed; and 
afterwards took possession of East-An- 
glia, where they plundered and burn- 
ed three months; and then proceeded 
further into the wild fens, slaying both 
men and cattle, and burning through- 
out the fens. Thetford also they burned, 
and Cambridge; and afterwards went 
back southward into the Thames ; and 
the horsemen rode towards the ships. 
Then went they westward into Oxford- 
shire, and thence to Buckinghamshire^ 
and so along the Ouse till they came 
to Bedford, and so forth to Temsford, 
always burning as they went. Then 
returned they to their ships with their 
spoil, which they apportioned to the 
ships. When the king's army should 
have gone out to meet them as they went 
up, then went they home ; and whea 
they were in the east, then was the army 



* Abs. «C«/, * *j Gjiaote-bpije ana paejtlice jptob, Cot, « Thus brieflj Coi. : "j J^aji papboa 
opjlajan pcia 20>>pa ^ejena. ^ ttnjrjiim polcej . <> Briefly thus Cot, to the end of the year : "j fa 
Denijcan ahton pxl.jrope. "j Sajr-Gnjki jepalb ]?pi monj^aj. i hepjobon "j baepnbon. *j men "j ojip 
oj:jlo3on eal j( hi to comon. * Denan, C.T, b !▼. ' Abs. Cr.B i. from the repetition of ^epealb. 
« -Deotpojib, C.T. b it. »» -bpicje, C.T. b i?, * So C,T, b if. Oxna.pojib- Gibs. * So CT. b iy. 
4Hif'BL * Bacmjham- Gibs. "» Bebe-pojiba, C.T.nu ^ So Cr.Biv. -hySc, bi* 



^ i£. Caput FormictPy Brompt. 

2 B 



186 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



j-u^an. ])onne pse^ upe pypb be nop^an. 
Donne beab man ealle* pitan to cynje. 
anb man ]7onne pseban fceolbe hu man 
J^ijrne eapb pepian j-ceolbe. Ac J?eah man 
fapaet ]7onne paebbe. f ne j^ob pup^on 
asnne mona%. aet nyxtan^ naep nan 
heapob-man f pypbe jabepian polbe. ac 
^aelc pleah'' ppa he maept myhte. ne 
pup^on nan pcip nolbe o^pe jelaeptan 
aet nyxtan^ Da. aet-popan pep An- 
bpeap maeppan-^^baej^. J?a com pe hepe 
to l^amtune. ^ J>one* popt pona pop- 
baspnbon. *i Jjasp namon aburan ppa 
mycel ppa hi ^pylpe polbon''. anb }>anon 
penbon opep« Temepe into pept-Seax- 
iim*". anb ppa pi^ Camn^an-maeppcep*. 
^ f call popbaepnbon. Da hi ppa peop 
jejan haepbon^. ppa hi J)a polbon. 'fa 
oomon hi'' to Jjam mibban pintpa™ to 
■hiopa^ pcipon :• 

®An. MXI. J3ep on JjippumP jeape 
penbe pe cynj ^ hip pitan to J?am hepe. 
*i jeopnbon*! ppi^ep. ^ '^him'' japol ^ 
metpunjc beheton. pi^ J?am Je hi heo- 
pa hepjunje jeppicon. I^i haspbon j^a 
opepjan eapt-Gnjle. ""i. *j" Gapt-Seaxe. 
'II. ^"' CDibbel-Seaxe. 'in. Y Oxena- 
popb-pcipe". 'IV. 1'' Gpanta-bpycje- 
pcipe. 'V. Y l3copt-popb-pcipe. 'vi. 
^" Buccin^aham-pcipe. 'vii. ^'' Beban- 
popb-pcipe. 'VIII. "j'' healpe J3unta-bun- 



detained in the west; and when they 
were in the south, then was our army 
in the north. Then all the privy coun- 
cil were summoned before the king» to 
consult how they might defend this 
country. But, whatever was advised, it 
stood not a month ; and at length there 
was not a chief that would collect an 
army, but each fled as he could: no 
shire, moreover, would stand by an- 
other. Before the feast-day of St. An- 
drew came the enemy to Northampton, 
and soon burned the town, and took as 
much. spoil thereabout as they would; 
and then returned over the Thames into 
Wessex, and so by Cannings -marshy 
burning all the way. When they had 
gone as far as they would, then came 
they by midwinter to their ships. 

A.D. 1011. This year sent Ae king 
and his council to the army, and de- 
sired peace ; promising them both tri* 
bute and provisions, on condition that 
they ceased from plunder. They had 
now overrun East-Anglia ( 1 ), and Es- 
sex (2), and Middlesex (3), and Ox- 
fordshire (4), and Cambridgeshire (5), 
and Hertfordshire (6), and Bucking- 
hamshire (7), and Bedfordshire (8), 
and half of Huntingdonshire (9), and 



^ ealian, CT. b i. ^ nextan, CT. b i. and It. « So C.T. b i. Gibs. -^Ijreah, b ir. * From 
C.T. B if. abs. b I. Gibs. « jJ, C.T. b i, and ir. ' So C.T. b i. j-ylp polbon, b It. polbon jylp , 
(ribs. s So C.T. B i. Gibs, ojr, b it. Perhaps compendiouslj for opp, in the original MS. op'. 
^ 7ef pexum, as usnal, C.T. n j. * Canejan-mepf cej , C.T. b It. ^ heaf bon, C.T, b It. ^ comon ]n, 
C.T. b i. and It. « pintpc, CT. b iT. ■ From C.T. b i. abs. b It. • From Laud. Cot. Peirob. 
C.T. B i. and ir. to the end of the year, p J^ifon, Coi. <i sypnbe, Cot. ' Abs. Cot. * So Cr. ai. 
Oxen. Cot. Oxna-fopba. b it. So Gpinca-bjiicja. ibid. Gjianta-bpic-f cipe, b i. There are other 
minute Tariations in theMSS., relating chiefly to orthography, which are too numerous to be specified. 
The Roman numeralS| which are omitted in Cbtj are placed btfort the counties in b L 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



187 



fcipe. »ix. *j micel on l5amtun-fclpe'^ 
^x/" ^ be fu^an TemefC ealle^ Cent- 
injaj-**. anb Su^-S^axe«. ^ Raertinjap 
^tJ'' SuWpije^. *j Beappuc-fcipe. ^ I^am- 
trun-fcipe. ^ mtcel onR piltun-j-cipe*". 
^Galle J?aj- unjefaeKa uj- jelumpon 
]?uph unpaebap f mann nolbe him to- 
timan' S^pol beoban. ^oJ>J)e pi^ je- 
peohtan'. ac )K)nne hi maep; tro ^pele 
jebon hsepbon. ])onne nam man ^pi% ^ 
fpi^ pi^ hi. Anb na }?e laej* pop eal- 
lum fipum jpi^e. tl ppi^e. 'I 3afX)le. hi 
pcpbon sejhpibep ploc mselum. ^ hep- 
jobon. tl upe eapme pole paepton. ^ 
plojon. Anb'' on J>ippum jeape. betpyx 
natiuit* pCae QOapiae. ^ pife 'CDichaelep 
Biaeppan''. hi ^mbe-paeton" Cant-papa- 
buph. *i '^hi'' faep "in to' comon J?uph 
pypu-ppencap**. pop^an /Elpmaep hi be- 
cyjibc ^Cant-papa-buph''. ])e^ pe apce- 
bipceop /61pcah aep jenepebe hip bpe. 
Anb hi Jjaep *J»i'' jenamon J>one apceb 
/61peah. ^ /Glppeapb J^aep cynjep ^e- 
pepan. tJ Leoppune^ abBt. 1 Gobpine B. 
Anb /Glmaep abB hi laeton' apej. Anb 
hi l^aep jenamon mne^ ealle J^a jeha- 
boban menn. *i ^pepap ^ pip. f paep'' 
nnapecjenbhc" aeni^um menn hu my- 
cel Jjaep polcep paep. ^*i on ]>a&pe bypij 
pyB^an paepon ppa lanje ppa hi polbon". 



much of Northamptonshire ( 10) ; and, 
to the south of the Thames, all Kent, 
and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surrey, 
and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and 
much of Wiltshire. All these disasters 
befel us through bad counsels; that they 
would not offer tribute in time, or fight 
with them : but, when they had done 
most mischief, then entered they into 
peace and amity with them. And not 
the less for all this peace, and amity, 
and tribute, they went every where in 
troops ; plundering, and spoiling, and 
slaying our miserable people. In this 
year, between the Nativity of St. Mary 
and Michaelmas, they beset Canterbury, 
and entered therein through treach- 
ery ; for Elfmar delivered the city to 
them, whose life archbishop Elfeah for- 
merly saved. And there they seized 
archbishop Elfeah, and Elf ward the 
king's steward, and abbess Leofruna^, 
and bishop Godwin ; and abbot Elf- 
mar they suffered to go away. And 
they took therein all the hooded men, 
and husbands, and wives ; and it was 
impossible for any men to say how 
many they were ; and in the city they 
continued afterwards as long as they 
would. And, when they had survey- 



• From C,T,Di. and i?. abs.Gibs. ^ Abs. Coi, ^ eal, Cot, ^ Cencm^, Cot, KenUD^ajr, 
CT. B i. « -Seia, Cot, -Sexe, CT. b i. 'So CT. b i. aod If. SuVjiij, Gibs. Su^jiei, Coi. 
» op, Cot. h Piltc- Cot. « a-timau, CT. b If. * From CT. b i. abs. Gibs, b !▼. > CDichahdef, 
C,T. B IT, (Dichael-msepp, Coi. » bcjaeton, Coi. ■ m, Cot. • So CT. b i. jypp-ppencay, Coi. 
hyjie ppencaj, b ir. fype-pjiencea j, Gibs. » Abs. Coi. CT. b it. ^ J^oiie, Q>i. * So CT. b i. 
and It. Leoppine, Gibs. Lippine, Coi. * papleton, Cot. < So CT. b i. abs. Coi* lo^e, b It. 
* unaj-ec^cnb, Cot. 



. * " Leofruna abbatiisa.^^ — Flor. The loser- 
tion of this quolatioa from Florence of Worcester 
is important, as it confirms the reading I hare 
adopted in the text from CT. si. and ir. The 



abbreTiation abbt', insteiad of abb% seems to mark 
the abbess. She ^as the last abbess of St. Mil« 
d red's in the isle of Thanet; not Canterbuiy^ at 
Harpsfield and Lambard say. 

2 B 2 



188 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Anb jfz hi hasfibon )>a bujih *ealle 
affneabe"^. penbon him )>a to |*cipon. ^ 
laebbon J'one apcebif ceop mib hun. 

Pacj- J>a pasphnj 

jrc ''l^e'' asp paef 

beapob Anjel-cynnef 

tJ Cpij^enbomcf. 

Daep man mihte^ 
^^a'' jcpeon eapm%e. 
^^aep man opt 

«p jepeah bhppe'^ 
^on fxpe eapman bypi3''. 

)>anon up com 

aspeft Cpiptenbom. 
^^ hhpp pop Gobe 

^ pop populbe''. 
Anb hi haepbon ]>one apcebipceop mib 
him ^ppa lanje o% J^one timan j>e hi 
hme jemaptypebon'' :• 

(An. MXIL l3ep ^on Jjippum jeape'' 
com* ^Gabpic ealbopman. ^'' ^eMe Jja 
ylbcptan pitan. jehabobe 1 laspebe. An- 
jel-cynnep'^to Lunben-b^pij. topopan* 
JyamGaptpon.paep'^ Gaptep-baej J?a on' 
J>aem batapum ibiip Appilip"'. 'j hi j^aep }ja 
ppa lanje paepon o^ f japol call jelaept 
pap. opep ])am Gaptpon. f p«p^ eahta 
anb peopepti^ J^upenb punba. Da on 
f one Saetepncp bae^ fa peap^ pe hepe 
ppy^e jeptypeb an jean™ Jjone bipccop". 
pop %am ]>e he nolbe heom nan peoh be* 
haten. 1® he popbeab f man nan Jjinj 
pl^ himP pyllan ne mopte. paspon hi 



ed all Uie citj^ they tben ntarned to 
their ships^ and led the archbiahop with 
them* 

Then was a captive 

he who before was 

of England bead 

and Christendom ; — 

there might be seen 

great wretchedness^ 

where oft before 

great bliss was seen, 

in the fated city^ 

whence first to us 

came Christendom, 

and bliss 'fore God 

and 'fore the world. 
And the archbishop they kept with 
them until the time when they martyred 
him^ 

A.D. 1013. This year came alder- 
man Edric^ and all the oldest counsellors 
of England, clergy and laity, to Lon- 
don before Elaster, which was then on 
the ides of April; and there they abode, 
over Easter, until all the tribute was 
paid, which was eight and forty thou- 
sand pounds. Then on the Saturday 
was the army much stirred against the 
bishop ; because he would not promise 
them any fee, and forbade that any 
man should give any thing for him. 
They were also much drunken; for 
there was wine brought them from the 



* eall afohce, Cot, ^ Abs. Coi. * meahtc^ C.T.biy, mehte, Cot. ^ So C.T.Bir, jneji aep 
fSLj blijfc, C9t. * eel )a jS hi hiae jemaptijiobon, Cot ' From Laud* Cot, Petrob, CT. b i. 
and 1?. to the end of the year. s comon, Coi, ^ ealle yi pitan ]« on Anjel-cynnej paejian, Coi, 
* CO, Coi. ^ paepan. Cot. ' — xiii. App*, Cot. ^ ajean. Cot, anjeo, C7« air. * apce> 
bifcop, Co/. • ACy Coi. C.T.B If. P hif Coi. ' 



^ ^^ Mcntci sepiem duodena miiiie septum eervavere.^^ — Osborne. See the following yeaci 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



189 



eac rPy^^ bpuncene. popj^am Jjaejt paef 
jebpohtpm jruBan. »Genamon J?a'' '*hi'' 
j7one bij-ceop*^. ^^" Ixbbon hihe Co heopa 
huj^nje** on J>one jrunnan aepen. oc- 
tabap Pafche. }ja paejr xiii. kt. COai*. ^ 
hine ^Jja^'fap ^bypmoplice acpylmbon". 
op:oppebon^ mib banum ^ mib hpy- 
^epa' heapOum. ^ ploh hme "^J^a"' an 
heopa mib anpe aexe ype on J^aet heapob. 
J^aet' he mib J?am bynte ny^ep apah. 
anb hip halite blob on ]>a eop%an peoU. 
T hip °)>a'' hah^an paple to Gobep pice 
apenbe. "Anb mon J>one hchaman on 
mep^en pepobe Co Lunbene. tl fa bi- 
pceopap. Gabno^ *j ySlphun.'j peo buph- 
papu. hme unbeppenjon mib ealpe ap- 
pupSnyppe. 1 hme bebypijbon on pife 
Paiilep mynpcpe''. ^^ J^aep nu Gob ppuce- 
laB }jaep° haljan mapcipep mihta''. Da 
Jaet japol jelaepCP paep. ^^ J>a ppi^-aj>ap 
jeppopene paepon'^ }ja copepbe pe hepe 
pibe- ppa he ap jejabepob paep. Da* 
bu^on Co ]7am cynin^e op J^am hepe pip 
anb peopepcij pcipa. ^"i him behecon 
J^aec hi polbon )'ipne eapb healban. *J he 
hi peban pccolbe ^ pcpyban" :• 

^An. MXIII. On ]7am aepcpan ^eape 
J^e pe apcebipceop ^/Clpej'' paep je- 
mapCypob. pe cynj jepaetce Lypinj' 
bipceop Co Cancpapa-bypij Co J>am 
apce-pCole. Anb on Jjippum ikan jeape. 
copopan ^^Jjam'^ monj^e AujupCiip. com 
Spejen cynin j mib hip plocan Co Sanb- 
pic. ^ penbe pp;f^e hpa^e abucan GapC- 



south. Then took they the bishop, 
and led him to their hustings^ on the 
eve of the Sunday after Easter^ which 
was the thirteenth before the calends 
of May ; and there they then shame- 
fully killed him. They overwhelmed 
him with bones and horns of oxen; 
and one of them smote him with air 
axenron on the head ; so that he sunk 
downwards with the blow; and his 
holy blood fell on the earth, whilst bis 
sacred tfoul was sent to the realm of 
God. The corpse in the morning was 
carried to London ; and the bishops, 
Edooth and Elfhun, and the citizens, 
received him with all honour, and bu- 
ried him in St. Paul's minster; where 
God now showeth this holy martyr's 
miracles. When the tribute was paid, 
and the peace-oaths were sworn, then 
dispersed the army as widely as it wa9 
before collected. Then submitted to the 
king five and forty of the ships of the 
enemy; and promised him, that they 
would defend this land, and be should, 
feed and clothe thenti 

A. D. 10-13. The year after ffiat 
archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the 
king appointed Lifing to the archie- 
piscopal see of Canterbury. And in- 
the same year, before the month Au* 
gust, came king Sweyne with his fleet 
to Sandwich; and very soon went about 
Elast-Anglia into the Humber-mouth^ 



• ]|a namoa, Coi. ^ Abs. Laud. C.T. bi, and ir. « apcebijcop, Coi. * -j^ae, Co^,. .ja,. 
Gibs. * So C.T.bU ziit. kl. CDai. occabap pajche, b It. ' Abs. Coi, J^aeji ^, C.T. b i. and in 
s Abs. Gibs. '^ -coppeben^ Coi. > hpy^epep, Coi. hpy^epa neata, C.T. u ir. ^ Abs. Coi». 
^ % Coi. "^ Abs. Coi. C.T. B i. » So C.T. b i. and ir. more correctly than Gibson. <» ]«p, Gibs.. 
f 2^ueDj^ Coi. 4 From Laud.. Cot. Petrol. C.T. b i. and ir.. f Luanji Laud. i. e. Iauid^ 



190 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Gnglum mtx) Rumbpan-muf an». ^^ fpa 
upppeapb anblan; Tjientan. o)) ]7ast he 
com to GaBijn^f-buph. Anb Jja jrona 
abeah Uhtpeb eojil. ^ ealle NopS-hj^m- 
bpe to him. "j call f pole on Lmbef -ije. 
^ j-yB^an J^aet pole op Fip-buphjum". 
*^anb pa^e faep call hepe'' be nop^an 
PaBtlinja-ptpaete. ^ him man j^albe 
jiflap op selcepe peipe. **Sy^^an he 
ynbep^eat Jjaet eall pole him to jebojen 
paep. J)a beab he f mon peeolbe hip hepe 
metian *J hoppian''. ^ he J?a jepenbe 
^py^^an'' pi^peapb mib pulpe jifjite. 
^ betaehte hip f eipa ^ J?a Jiplap Cnute® 
hip punu. Anb py^^an 'he com'' opep 
paetlinja-ptpaBte. pophton hi f maepte 
y pel ])aBt8 aenij hepe bon mihte. ''Penbe 
J^a to Oxena-popba. ^ peo buphpapu 
pona abeah ^ jiplube. *i J^anon to J7in- 
ceaptpe.^ hf f ilce bybon. penbon J?a 
)7anon'^ eaptpeapb to Lunbene. *j m^cel 
hip polcep* abpanc on Temepe. pop Bam 
fe hi nanpe^ bpycje* ne cepton. **Da 
J?e he to fappe b^pij com"'. "Ja" nolbe 
peo buphpapu abujan. ac heolbon mib 
puUan pije on^ean. pop^an J^asp yssy 
innc pe cyninj /E^elpeb. ^ Dupkyl mib 
him. Da penbe" Spejen **pe" cynmj 
J^anon topeallinja-popba. anb ppa **opep 
Temepe peptpeapb'' to Ba^an. ^ paet 



and so upward along the Trent, until 
he came to Gainsborough. Then soon 
submitted to him earl Utred, and all 
the Northumbrians, and all the people 

• of Lindsey, and afterwards the people 
of the Five Boroughs ^ and soon after 
all the army to the north of Watling- 
street; and hostages were given him 
from each shire. When he understood 

. that all the people were subject to him, 
then ordered he that his army should 
have provision and horses; and he then 
went southward with his main army, 
committing his ships and the hostages 

• to his son Knute^. And after he came 
ever Watling-street, they wrought the 
greatest mischief that any army could 
do. Then he went to Oxford ; and the 
population soon submitted, and gave 

• hostages : thence to Winchester, where 
they did the same. Thence went they 
eastward to London ; and many of the 
party sunk in the Thames, because they 
kept not to any bridge^. When he came 

• to the city, the population would not 
submit ; but held their ground in full 
fight against him, because therein was 
king Etfaelred, and Thurkill with him. 
Then went king Sweyne thence to Wal- 

• lingford; and so over Thames westward 



* mnVe, Coi. ^ Abs. CoL At the end of the sentence, into Fipbajihinj^am, C,T. b i. and ir. 
Of Fif-buphm^an, Gibs. « ^j jona ]«r him abeah to eal hejie, Coi. ' Abs. Cot. • Cnube, Col. 
' hi coman, Cot. s So Cot. C.T. b i. and If. ^e, Gibs. ^ penr>e ]7a to Oxana.]:o|iban. 1 jpa co 
Pin-ceajtjie. "j ba J^a buph abajan ^ pjloban. Anb jya he p epbe — Coi. ^ folce, Cot. ^ nane, Coi. 
^ ^PZS^ ^^* hjiicje, C,T. B i. bjiice, b ir. ; — a bridge being to passengers by water what a brook or ^roc 
is to passengers by land; that is, a break. » ac, Cot. ^ jepenbe, Cot. « Abs. Cot. C.T. b i. and iv. 



* Namely, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottinghwn, 
Stamford, and Derby. Fid. an^ 942, 1015. 

* Generally written Canute by historians. 



' This expression, though unnoticed by the 
Latin translators, implies that there were at that 
time many bridges oTer the Thames* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



191 



J^aeji mib hip pypbe. Anb com /6^el- 
mseji ealbojiman ^yft>eji^. ^ *ealle" J>a 
peftpena J^aejenaf*^ •mib him". ^ bujon 
•ealle'' to Spejene. "j jiflubon. ^ ^)>a he 
call J>u J- jepapcn haepbe. penbe fa nop^- • 
peapb to hip pcipum. ^" eall J>eobpcipe* 
hme '•pulhce unbeppenj. ^'' ^heolb J>a^ 
pop pulne cynm J. Anb peo bupuhpapu 
•aeptep ]?am'' on Lunbene beah^ '•to 
him'' ^ jiplobe. *pop^am hi onbpebon • 
f he hi popbon polbe. Beab J>a Spejen 
puU-jiIb ^ metpunje to hip hepe J>one 
pintep. 1 Dupcyl beab f ilce to J>am 
hepe ]?e laej on Gpena-pic. "j ""buton 
J^am'' hi jchep^obon ppa opt ppa hi 
polbon. pa ne buhte na^op fippe J>coba. 
Bc pu^an ne nop%an. ]?a paep pe cj^nj 
*/6j7elpeb'' pume hpile mib ]?am plotan 
fe on Temepe *^laBj''. '■'j peo hlaepbije 
penbe J>a opep pae" to hipe bpo^op Ri- 
capbe". anb /Blppije abB op Buph mib 
hipc. Anb •pe cynj penbe'' /Blpun bi- 
pceop mib fam aB|>elinjum". Gabpeapbe 
^ /eippebe. opep pae®. f he hi bepitan 
pceolbe. PAnb pe cynj jepenbe ]?a 
ppam ]>am plotan to ]>am mibban pin- 
tpa to J?iht-lanbe. anb pa^p J>aep J>a tib. 
•J aeptep J^aepe tibe jepenb fa opep pae 
to Ricapbe. ^ paep f aep mib him o^ ^one 
bype 9j>e Spejen beab pcapS". "^Anbfa 
hpile f e peo lacpbi^e mib hipe bpo^op 



to Bath^ M^bere he abode with his army. 
Thither came alderman Ethelmar^ and 
ali the western thanes with him^ and all 
submitted to Swejne^ and gave hostages. 
When he bad thus settled all, then went 
he northward to his ships ; and all the 
population fully received him, and con- 
sidered him full king. The population 
of London also after this submitted to 
him, and gave hostages; because they 
dreaded that he would undo them. Then 
bade Sweyne full tribute and forage for 
his army during the winter ; and Tbur- 
kill bade the same for the army that 
lay at Greenwich : besides this, they 
plundered as of% as they would. And 
when this nation could neither resist in 
the south nor in the north, king Ethel-* 
red abode some while witH the fleet 
that lay in the Thames; and the lady>^ 
went afterwards over sea to her brother 
Richard, accompanied by Elfsy, abbot 
of Peterborough. The king sent bi- 
shop Elfun with the ethelings, Edward 
and Alfred, over sea; that he might in- 
struct them. Then went the king from 
the fleet, about midwinter, to the isle of 
Wight; and there abode for the season: 
after which he went over sea to Richard, 
with whom he abode till the time when 
Sweyne died. Whilst the lady* was with 



* Abi. Cot. ^ Abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and ir. « >fi2enaj-, Coi. C.T. b i. and ir. * 1 p^an 
jontLy Cot. • yeohy Cot. ' heajbe, Laud, hsjrbe l^a, C.T. b i. and it. )?a, abs.Gibs. s abeah, Cot. 

* bncaa Jwcm, CT. b it, pop eallon >ain, b i. • From C T.bu ^ So C. T. b i. and It. psepon, Gibs. 
' 1 je cyn J JEXeljitt jenbe hij cpene ^Ipjipc Ymma co hype bpo^ji opep f« Ricapbe, Cot, "* So 
CT. B i. and it. j-eo, Gibs. « SBfelinjc, Laud. <> je, Laud. p Briefly Cot. : 1 je cyn j 

• jona him jylp pepbe aeptep. "J pap J?ap bejeonban eal ^f Spejen pcap¥ beab. *i So C.T. b It. Gibs. 
if Spejen peapV beab^ Cot. b i. ' From Laud. Petrob. to the end. abs. Cot. CT. b i. and It. 



} This was a title bestowed on the queen. 



192 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



paf bejconban j-ae. jBlfp^e abB op 
Bujih. Jje J>8Bp p«f mib hipe. pop tro 
J^one mynptpe ]>e ip jeharcn Boneual. 
J>aBp p2e Flojientnnep lichama laej. Fanb 
J7«p aepm ptebe. aepm abti. ^ aepme 
munecep. popSam J>e hi pophepjobe 
paepon. Bohte |?a )>aep aet J>one abB. "j 
xt \^e munecep. pee Flopentinep hcha- 
man. eall buton ]>e heapob. to v. hun- 
bpeb punba. "j ]>2l ]>e he on^ean com. J>a- 
x)pppebe hit Cpipt "j pee Petep'':- 

*An. MXIV. J3ep ''on Jjippum jeape" 
Spejen *^x:in3'' jeenbobe '•hip bajap to 
Canbel-maeppan''. *iii. nonapFebpuapii. 
«*j fy ilcan jeape man habobe /Glppij 
bipceop on Gopoppic to Lunben-bupuh 
en pea luhana maeppe-baej". ^ pe plota 
J>a eall jecupon Cnut to cyninje. Da 
jepaebbon ^'Jja'' pi tan ealle. jehabobe ^ 
jetepebe fAnjel-cynnep'^ f man aeptep 
J>am cyninje /6J)elpebe penbe^. ^ cpae- 
bon f him** nan hlapopb leoppe naspe 
]>onne heopa jecynbe^ hlapopb. jip he 
hi pihthcop healban polbe. J^onne ''he'' 
ap bybe. Da penbe pe cynj hip punu 
Cabpeapb mib ''hip aepenb-pacan'' hi- 
toep. "i het jpetan 'ealne hip Icpbpcipe'". 
•J cpae'S )>aet he heom holb hlapopb 
beon polbe. ^ aelc J^aepa )>in3a betan \>e 
hi ealle apcunebon. ^ aelc ]>a&pa j^inja 
popjipen beon pceolbe. J^e ""him'^jebon 
o^^e jecpaeben paepe. pi^ ]>am J^e hi ealle 
''anpaeblice'' buton ppicbome to him je- 



ber brother beyond sea^ Elfsy, ftbbot of 
Peterborough^ who was there with her^ 
went to the abbey called Boneval^ where 
St. Florentine's body lay ; and there 
found a miserable place, a miserable ab- 
bot, and miserable monks; because they 
had been plundered. There he bought 
of the abbot, and of the monks, the body 
of St. Florentine, all but the head, for 
500 pounds; which, on his return home, 
he offered to Christ and St. Peter. 

A.D. 1014. This year king Sweyne 
ended his days at Candlemas, the third 
day before the nones of February ; and 
the same year Elfwy, bishop of York, 
was consecrated in London, on the fes- 
tival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose 
Knute for king; whereupon advised 
all the counsellors of England, clergy 
and laity, that they should send after 
king Ethelred; saying, that no sove- 
reign was dearer to them than their na- 
tural lord, if he would govern them 
better than he did before. Then sent 
the king hither bis son Edward, with 
bis messengers; who had orders to greet 
all his people, saying that he would be 
their faithful lord — would better each 
of those things that they disliked — ^and 
that each of the things should be for- 
given which bad been either done or 
said against him; provided they all una- 
nimously, without treachery, turned to 



■ From Laud, Cot, Peiroh. C.T, b i. and ir. to the end of the year. *» Abs. Coi, « Abs. Laud. 
CJT. B I. and ir. ^ From C.T. b it. to masfje-baej. • Abs. C,T. b i. Laaid. Coi, Gibs. ' So 
Gibs, from Coi. abs. Laud, C. T. b it. J>e on Gn^la-lanbe paepoo. ^ehabobe "j laepebe, C. T. b i. 
t f enban f colbe^ Cot, "» heom, Cot. * cyae, Cot, ^ecynba, C.T, b It. So leop pa for leop jie, aboTe. 
* )«m - Cot. hijr aepeabbpacan, C.T. b It. ejienbbjiacam, C.T. b I * ealle hif ieobc, Cot. 

9^ So Cot, C.T. B I. and It. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



193 



c^fibon. Anb man •}?a"pullnc ppeonb- 
j-cipe jepaeftnobc. mib pojibe ^^ mib 
peopce'^ *i mib paebbe. •on aej^ejie 
hcalpe''. *i •«ppe'' aelcne Denipce cyn- 
in J utlah*^ op Gnjla-lanbe jecpaebon. 
Da com /G^elpeb cyninj mnan J>am 
Lenctene-tib ham to hip •ajenpe'' 
J^cobe. *'j he jlaebhce ppam heom eallum 
onpan^en paBp''. »Anb J>a. py^^an Spe- 
Jen beab paep. paettCnuc mib hip hepe 
on Gejnep-buph® o^ ]>a Gaptpon. 'j je- 
peap^ him *] J>am poke on Linbepije 
Unep. f hi hme hoppian pceolbon^. ^ 
py^^anK ealle aetjaebepe papan ^ hep- 
gian. Da com pe cynmj /6^elpcb mib 
pulpe pypbe }?ibep. aep hi jeappe paepon. 
to Linbepije. *] mann ]?a hepjobe. ^ 
baspnbe. *] ploh eall )?a2t man-cynn f 
man apascan mihte''. *"] P^' Cnut *Spe- 
jenep punu'^ ^jepenbe him apeij ut'' 
mib hip plotan. •'j peap^ )?aBt eapme 
pole )?up beppicen J>uph hine. ^ pasnbe 
J^a" pu^^peapb o^ f he com to Sanb-pic. 
^ let 'man bon" J^aep up Jja Jiplap J>e hip 
paebep jepealbe paepon.^ ceapp op heopa 
hanba ™1 eapan''. -j heopa nopa. »Anb 
buton eallum ]>ipum ypelum pe cyninj 
het jylban ]>zm hepe ]>e on Gpena-pic" 
laej. XXI. fupenb punba. Anb'^ on )>ip- 
pum jcape on pjfe QOichaelep maeppe- 
aepen. com |?aBt mycele pae-plob jeonb 
•pibe'' ]>ipne eapb. ^^ aepn ppa Ppeop 
up' ppa naeppe asp ne bybe". ^ abpencte 



him. Then \v2ls full friendship esla«> 
blished^ in word and in deed and in 
compact^ on either aide. And every 
Danish king they proclaimed an out* 
law for ever from England. Then came 
king Ethelred home, in Lent^ to bis 
own people ; and he was gladly re- 
ceived by them all. Meanwhile^ after 
the death ofSweyne, sat Knute with 
his army in Gainsborough until Eas- 
ter; and it was agreed between him 
and the people in Lindsey, that they 
should supply bini with horses^ and 
aAerwards go out all together and 
plunder. But king Ethelred with his 
full force came to Lindsey before they 
were ready; and they plundered and 
burned, and slew all the men that they 
could reach. Knute, the son of S wey ne> 
went out with his fleet (so were the 
wretched people deluded by him), and 
proceeded southward until he came to 
Sandwich. There he landed the ho8t<- 
ages that were given to his father, 
and cut off their hands and ears and 
their noses. Besides all these evils, the 
king ordered a tribute to the army that 
lay at Greenwich, of twenty-one thou- 
sand pounds. This year, on the eve 
of St. Michael's day, came the great 
sea-flood, which spread wide over this 
land, and ran so far up as it never 
did before, overwhelming many towns^ 



■ Abs. Cot. «> Aba. Laud. C.T. b iv. « So C.T, b i. and i?. ^ -j bli'tSelice hi hine unbep. 
fenjOHvCo/. « Gaei^ncj.ba/iuh, C.T. a iv, Geoej- b L Fid. an, mxiii. ' polbocii C.T. b i. 

« pi« fan, C.T. B iv. * So C.T, b i?. -j, Co/, b i. i Abs. Laud. CT. b i. and it. ^ So C.T, b i. 
I^nbe uc, Cot. ^ From C.T. b i. and iv. compared together, let }7«p up, Gibs. ^ From C.T* b iv^ 
? So C,T. b I. Gpencpic, Gibs, b ir. » Abs. Cot. - apn - C.T. b i. - capn - b i?, l^ 2>o 
C.T. B i. aAd ifs up peop, Gibs, ^ 

2 C 



194 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



peala tuna. 1 mann-cynnej- •unapi- 
meblic jeteair':- 

^An. MXV. hep. ^on fij-j-um jeape" 
paej- f mycele jemot on Oxena-pojiba*. 
^ faeji Gabjiic ealbojiman bej-pac Sije- • 
jrep^ ^ CDojicaejie®. J?a ylbej^an^ ]?ae- 
jenaj" into Seopon-bupjums. bepaehte 
hi into hi J- bupe. "J hi man ]>sej\ inne** 
opj-loh unjepifenhce'^ Anb ye cynj J?a 
jenam call heopa aehta. ^ het niman . 
Sijepep^ef* lape. "J jebpinjan binnan 
CDealbelmep-bypij. ^ Da" aeptep htlum 
paece pepbe Gabmunb aejjehnj to. "j je- 
nam f pip. 'opep Jjaip cynjep piUan''. *i 
heapbe him to pipe. Da topopan na- . 
titiitap ™p£e CDapie" "maeppan". pepbe 
pe aefehnj peptan® nopS mto Fip-bup- 
jum. ^ jepab Ppona'' ealle Sijepep^ep 
ape 1 CDopcapep. tJ f pole eall him to 
beah. ^Anb fa on J>am'' ylcan tyman . 
com Cnut ^^c^nj'' to"^ Sanb-pic. *J penbe 
J^a pona Peal'' abutan Cent-lanb into 
J^ept-Seaxum" oS P*f he com to Fpom- 
mu'San*. "J hepjobe ^^fa'^on Dop-paetum. 
tJ on piltun-pcipe". ^ on Sumep-paeton. • 
Da laej pe cynj /Bfelpeb* peoc aet Cop- 
ham. P^" fa jabepobe Gabpic ealbop- 
man pypbe. *^anb pe aefelin^ Gabmunb 



and an innumerable multitude of peo* 
pie. 

A.D. 1015. This year was the great 
council at Oxford ; where alderman 
Edric betrayed Sigferth and Morcar^ 
the eldest thanes belonging to the Seven 
Towns. He allured them into his bower, 
where they were shamefully slain. Then 
the king took all th^ir possessions, and 
ordered the widow of Sigferth to be 
secured, and brought within Malms- 
bury i. After a little interval, Edmund 
etheling went and seized her, against 
the king's will, and had her to wife. 
Then, before the nativity of St. Mary, 
went the etheling west-north into the 
Five Towns^, and soon plundered all 
tKe property of Sigferth and Morcar ; 
and all the people submitted to him. 
At the same time came king Knute to 
Sandwich, and went soon all about 
Kent into Wessex, until he came to the 
mouth of the Frome; and then plunder- 
ed in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in 
Somerset. King Ethelred, meanwhile, 
lay sick at Corshand; and alderman Ed-* 
ric collected an army there, and Ed- 
mund the etheling in the north. When 



■ -~ ^ecaell, Cot, -maebhce — Gibs. ~ jccel, b it. ^ From Laud, Cot. Petrol. C,T. b i. and i?. 
to the end of the year. ^ Abs. Cot, ^ So C,T.z\, Oxana.jropba, Cot. Oxna-jropba, b It. 

Oxona- Gibs, • CDajicep, Cot, ' ylbejca, Cot. 8 -bujihjam, C,T, b it. * mnan, Cot. 

* .pifebhce, Cot, .pin jelice, Gibs. ^ "j pona. Cot, ' faj cin^cj un]?ancej, Cot. " S. CDapianj Cot. 
" Abs. Lau(f. Cr.Bir. ^%oC,T.^\, paejtan^Bir. yTtf^on^ Laud. abs. Cb/. Gibs. p Abs. Laui^. 
<i *j to ]?am, Cot. ' up xt, Cot. > ^exan, Cot. ^ So C. T. b It. FpomuVan, Gibs. « Pilce- Coi. 



' Cot, repeats peb after ^]^e]pcb. 

^ From the mere omission of the initial letter CD 
in seTeral MSS., some writers hare referred this 
transaction to Amesburj ! See Lambard, Tofo^ 
graph. Did. p. 7. 

* The seven towns maotioned above are reduced 



here to Jit>e ; probably because two had already 
submitted to the king on the death of the two 
thanes, Sigferth and Morcar. These Jive were, as 
originally, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford, Nottlog« 
ham, and Derby. Fid. an. 942, 1015. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



195 



be hoji^an. Dalii tojasbepe comon. *])a 
potec'' ^ye ealbojiman'' bej-pican ]?one 
ttj^elin; ^eabmunb. ac he ne mihte''. 
«*1 hi tohpupfon J>a buton jepeohte 
poji }?am. ^ pimbon heopa peonbum''. 
*Anb Gabjiic ealbojimann'' iaf peon ^fa"' 
peopepti f cipa Rrpam ]>am cyninje ^ 
beah'' ^^J^a'' to Cnute. ^Anb peft-Seaxe 
bujon. anb jiflobon. anb hoppbon 
jH)ne hepe. ^ he pmy J^aep J?a oS mibne 
pmtep'':- 

*An. MXVI. J3ep ^on J^ijrj-um jeape'' 
comCnut '•cymn j'' mib *^hi j- hepe'' clx. 
fcipa. ^ Gabpic ealbopmann mib him. 
opep Temefe into CDypcan aet Cpaeci- 
labe"^. Anb penbon J>a to paepinjpic- 
j"cipe 'mnon j^aepe mibbe-pintpep tibe''. 
•J ™inne |>apc hi'' hepjobon. *i baspnbon. 
^ j-lojon eal f hi to comon. ^Da on^an 
fe ae])ehn3 Gabmunb to jabepijenne 
pypbe. |)a peo Jiyj\^ jepomnob paej*. J?a 
ne onhajobe him "J^aepto. buton f paepe 
f i^ cynj )>aBp mib paepe'. *i hi haepbon 
]>aepe buphpape pultum op Lunbene. 
jeppicon J)a J^aepe pypbinj. ^ pepbe aelc 
mann him ham. Da asptep J^aspe tibe 
Ja beab mann ept pypbe be puUum 
pite. f aelc mann ]?e peop® paepe pop^ 
jepenbe. "j mann penbe to )>am cynmje 
to Lunbene. tJ baebonP hme f he come 
on^ean fa pypbe mib J>am pultume )>e 
h^ ^e^abepian mihte. Da hi ealle to 



they came together^ the alderman de- 
signed to betray Edmund the ethel- 
lag, but he could not; whereupon they 
separated M^ithout an engagement^ and 
sheered off from their enemies. Ald- 
erman Edric then seduced forty ships 
from the king^ and submitted to Knute. 
The West- Saxons also submitted^ and 
gaye hostages^ and horsed the army. 
And he continued there until midwin- 
ter. 

A.D. 1016. This year came king 
Knute with a marine force of 160 ships^ 
and alderman Edric with him^ over 
the Thames into Mercia at Crickladei; 
whence they proceeded to Warwick- 
shire^y during the middle of the win- 
ter^ and plundered therein^ and burned^ 
and slew all they met. Then began Ed- 
mund the etheling to gather an army ; 
which^ when it was collected^ could 
avail him nothings unless the king were 
there and they had the assistance of the 
citizens of London. The expedition 
therefore was frustrated, and each man 
betook himself home. After this, an 
army was again ordered, under full pen- 
alties, that every person, however di- 
stant, should go forth ; and they sent to 
the king in London, and besought him 
to come to meet the army with the aid 
that he could collect When they were 



• *j fohte, Coi. »» Abs. Cot. « Abs. Laud. Coi. «* 1 hi copejibon - C.T. b It. abs. Coi. 
« ac he, Cot. ' Abs. Laud. « oj J^ej cinjej jcipon, Cot. ^ abeah. Cot. > From Laud. Cot. 
Petrob. C.T. b i. and ir. to the end of the year. ^ Cpecalabc, Cot. Cjiejelabe, CT. b i, Cpicje- 
labe, B IT. * Abs. Cot. injan j — C.T. b it. incorrectly, innaa — b i. » Abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and it, 
» So C.T. B ir. o j^pe, CT. b it. p bebon, C.T. b ir. baeb, b i. 



* Criccelade, Flor. Krickelade, Matth.W€8t. 
Cricgealada, S. Danelm. 



• ^' Warrewicanam provinttam.*^ — Flor. Wig. 
" Warewicemem provinctam.** — M.West. 

S C S 



1S6 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



fomne comon. J>a ne beholb hit naht* 
J^e ma ]>e hit optoji aep bybe. J)a cybbe 
man J?am cynmje f hme mann bep^i- 
can polbe ]>2l ]fe him on pultume beon 
fceolbon. poplet** J)a J>a pypbe. 'j cyjibe 
him ept to Lunbene. Da pab ye aB]?el- 
mj Gabmunb to Nop^-hymbpan to 
Uhtpcbe eople. ^ penbe aelc mann f 
hi polbon pypbe j-omnian onjean Cnut 
cynj. Da jrepbon^ hi into Staeppopb- 
pcipe. *i into Scpobbep-bypij*. "j to 
Lejeceaptpe. *i hepjobon hi on heopa 
healpe "j Cnut on hip Anb penbe him 
fa ut Jjuph Buccmjaham-pcipe into 
Beabanpopb-pcipe. 1 )>anon to );>untan- 
bun-pcipe. •^ ppa into I^amtun-pcipe' 
anblan^ pennep to Stanpopba. 'j ]>b, into 
Linbcolne-pcipe. }>anon )>a to Snotinja- 
ham-pcipe. 1 ppa to Nop^-hymbpan to 
8opoppic-peapb. Da Uhtpeb jeaxobe^ 
f ip \fz poplet he hip hepjunje. "j epepte 
uop^peapb, 1 beah fa pop nybe. anb 
ealle Nop^-hymbpan mib him. ^ he 
jiplobe. ^ hine man ]>eah-hpae%epe op- 
ploh. 5j?upuh 6abpicep paeb ealbop- 
mannep'. anb Dupcytel Napanan punu 
mib him. Anb |?a aeptep J?am pe cynj 
•"Cnut' jepaette Ypic into NopS-hym- 
bpan him to eople eall ppa Uhtpeb paep. 
tl py^^an penbon him pu^peapb o'Spep 
pejep eall be peptan. ^ com fa eall pe 
hepe topopan f am Gaptpon to pcipon'^ 
^ 'pe'' aefelinj Gabmunb penbe to Lun- 
bene to hip paebep*. Anb *J?a aeptep 



all assembled^ it succeeded nothing bet-' 
ter than it often did before; and, when 
it was told the king^ that those persons 
would betray bim who ought to assist 
bim^ then forsook he the army, and re- 
turned again to London. Then rode 
Edmund the etheling to earl Utred in 
Northumbria; and every man supposed 
that they would collect an army against 
king Knute ; but they went into Staf- 
fordshire, and to Shrewsbury, and to 
Chester; and they plundered on their 
parts, and Knute on his. He went out 
through Buckinghamshire into Bed"- 
fordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, 
and so into Northamptonshire along 
the fens to Stamford. Thence into Lin- 
colnshire. Thence to Nottinghamshire; 
and so into Northumbria toward York. 
When Utred understood this, he ceased 
from plundering, and hastened north- 
ward, and submitted for need, and all 
the Northumbrians with him ; but, 
though he gave hostages, he was never- 
theless slain by the advice of alderman 
Edrici, and Thurkytel, the son of Na- 
fan, with him. After this, king Knute 
appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, 
as Utred was; and then went south- 
ward another way, all by west, till the 
whole army came, before Easter, to 
the ships. Meantime Edmund ethel- 
ing went to London to his father : and 
after Easter went king Knute with all 



* nan J^inc, CT, b i. aud It. ^ So C,T. b i. and ir. pojilecoiiy Gibs. ® pypbebon, C.T. b L 

jrypbobon, b It. ' Scpob-j^toii, C.T. b i. * From C,T. b ir. ' ^^hjobe, C,T, b i. and ir. 
s From C.T. b L and Joss, intcrlio. ^ Abs. C.T. b i. and ir. > Abs. Coi. 



* ^'A Thtsrebrando nobili et Danko r»ro."— Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



197 



Gaj^pon" penbe* ^j^ cynj'^ Cnut mib 
eallum^ hij- j-cipum** to Lunben-peapb. 
J?a« '^jelamp hit J^aet'' ye cynj /e]>elpeb 
^aji'' pop^pepbe sep ]?a j-cipu comon. 
lie Kjeenbobe hi J- ba jaf ' on ^yceGeoji- 
jiuf'' inaej*|X-baBj. 'ajptep mycclum je- 
j-pince. *] eappo^nijrpum hip hpep''. Anb 
••J^a'' aeptrep hip enbc *^ealle )>a pican fe 
on Lunbene paepon. ^"j peo buph-papu'^ 
jccupon Gabmunb to cynje. ^ hip pice 
he heapbhce pepobe* ""))a hpile J;e hip 
tima pasp''. Da comon ]?a pcipo^ to 
Gpenapic to J^am janj-bajura. *] ®bm- 
non lytlum paece'' penbon to Lunbene. 
•J hi bulpon ^J>a'' ane '^mycele" bic on 
J^a pu^-healpe. "j bpojon heopa pcipa on 
pept-healpe J>aBpe bpycje. 1 bebicobon 
py%%an ^a buph utan. f nan mani^ ne 
mihte ne inn ne ut. 'j opt-paebhceP hi 
on ]>a buph puhton. ac^ hi heom heapb* 
lice piBptobon. ""Da paep Gabmunb cyn j 
gpp J>ani jepenb ut. ^ jepab J>a Pept- 
Seaxan. ^ him beah eall f pole to. ^ 
pa^e aeptep ]7am he jepeaht pi^ J>one 
hepe aet Peonnan pi^ Gilhnjaham. Anb 
o^ep jepeoht he jepeaht aeptep mibban 
pumepa act Sceopptane". ^ ]>aBp my eel 
pael peoll on aej^pe healpe. ^ ]?a hepap* 



his ships toward London ; but it hap- 
pened that king Ethelred died ere the 
ships came. He ended his days on St. 
George's day ; having held his king-' 
dom in much tribulation and difficulty 
as long as his life continued. After 
his decease^ all the peers that were in 
London, and the citizens^ chose Ed-* 
mund king ; who bravely defended his 
kingdom, while his time was. Then 
came the ships to Greenwich^ about the 
gang- days, and within a short inter- 
val went to London ; where they sunk 
a deep ditch on the south side, and 
dragged their ships to the west side of 
the bridge. Afterwards they trench- 
ed the city without, so that no mair 
could go in or out, and often fought 
against it; but the citizens bravely with- 
stood them. King Edmund had ere 
this gone out, and invaded the West- 
Saxons, who all submitted to him ; and 
soon afterward he fought with the ene- 
my at Pen near Gillingham^ A second 
battle he fought, after midsummer, at 
Sherston ;. where much slaughter was 
made on either side, and the leaders^ 
themselves came together in the fight. 



• pepbe, Cot. * Abs. Cot. « callon, Cot. C.T.bi, and ir. * fcipon, Cot, C.T.nu and ir. 
* ac, Cot. ' Abs. Land. C.T. b i. and ir. • pop^pepbe, Cot. ^ So C.T. b i. and ir. fcf. — Laud. 
S. Gpejopiejy Coi. incorrectly. Fid, S.Dunelm. Brompt. R. Dicet.. Flor..Wig. Sec. ^ *j be jehcolb hif 
pice mib m. 3. "j e. J^a hpile J^e hij lip paej. C.T, si. ^ callc Anjel-cynnej pican, Cot. ' pepcbo, Cot. 
» hif timan, Co/. "jcipa, Co/. ®jona,Co/. Pope, Co/. *>*j,Co/. ' Abs. Co/, to hi ahpebbe. 
■ Scoprane, incorrectly, C.r.Bif. * So C.T. bi. bepep, sir. Gibs. &c. 



' GiUingaham^ Flor. Gillin^a-ham is restored 
in the text on the authority of MSS. C.T. b i. 
and IV. GiUin^a, Gibs. 

' This is a neir interpretation ; but the word 
hepap, the pliuml of hcpa^ will justify it; and it 



points at once to the distinguishing feature of 
this battle, which was the single combat between 
Canute and Edmund. See an interesting descrip- 
tion of the engagement, with many minute parti* 
culars^ Antiq. Celio^Scand. p. 130. 



198 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



-• • 



him r^lpe to eobon on }?am jepeohte. ^ 
6abpic ealbojiman. ^ /Slmaeji beophn^ 
psepon )?am hepe on jrultume on^ean 
Gabmunb cynj. Anb J>a jejabepobe he 
J)|tybban p^e pyjibe. ^ pepbe to Lun- 
bene •eal be nopVan Temef e, ^ fpa ut 
J'upuh Claeijhan^pan'. ^ ]?a buphpape 
ahpebbe. 1 J>one hepe aplymbe to •hiopa' 
fcipon. Anb j^a paep ymb tpa niht 
f pe cyninj jepenbe ojrep aet Bpent 
popba^. tJ J>a pi^ Jrone hepe jejreaht. 
^ hme aplymbe. *i J^aep abpanc m^cel 
yGnjhpcej"^ polcef pop heopa a^enpe 
jymelcaptc. J>a Jie pepbon bepopan J>aBpe 
p]y^pbe. ^ pan^ polbon pon. Anb pe c]^n- . 
inj penbe aeptep J^am to J?cpt-Seaxan. 
^ hip pypbe jepmnobe. J>a jepenbe pe 
hepe pona to Lunbene. ^ }>a buph ^utan 
ymbe past. ^ hype pteapchce onpeaht 
aBj)?ep' je be patepe je be lanbe. ac pe • 
aslmihtija Gob hi ahpebbe '^ Se hepe 
jepenbe )>a aeptep ]>am ppam Lunbene 
tnib heopa pcipum into Apepan^ 'j )?a&p 
up popan. ^1 pepbon^' on CDip'pcans. ^ 
plojon ^ baepnbon 'ppa hpa&t ppa hi • 
opep popon". ppa heopa ;;epuna ip*". ^^ 
heom metep tilobon. 1 hi bpipon aej^ep 
je pcipa je heopa bpapa into CDebe- 
paeje". Da jepmnobe* Gabmunb cynj 
peop}>an pi^e ^ealle Gn^Ia J^eobe'^. ^tJ • 
pepbe opep Temepe aet Bpentpopba". 
"i pepbe mnan^ Cent. ^ pe hepe ^him" 
pleah™ 'bepopan'' mib 'hipa" hoppum" 



Alderman Edric and Aylmer the dar** 
ling were assisting the army against 
king Edmund. Then collected he his 
force the third time^ and went to Lon- 
don^ all by north of the Thames^ and 
so out through Clayhanger^ and re* 
lieved the citizens, driving the enemy 
to their ships. It was within two nights 
after that the king went over at Brent- 
ford ; where be fought with the ene* 
my, and put them to flight : but there 
many of the English were drowned, 
from their own carelessness ; who went 
before the main army with a design to 
plunder. After this the king went into 
Wessex, and collected his army; but 
the enemy soon returned to London, 
and beset the city without, and fought 
strongly against it both by water and 
land* But the almighty God delivered 
them. The enemy went afterward from 
London with their ships into the Or* 
well; where they went up and pro« 
ceeded into Mercia, slaying and burn- 
ing whatsoever they overtook, as their 
custom is ; and, having provided them* 
selves with meat, they drove their ships 
and their herds into the Medway. Then 
assembled king Edmund the fourth time 
all the English nation, and forded over 
the Thames at Brentford; whence he 
proceeded into Kent. The enemy fled 
before him with their horses into the 



* From CT. b i. abs. b It. Gibs. &c. * Bjie^entpopba, C.T. b i. Bjiaesentfojiba, b it. « So 
C,T. B i. aod It. aenhccjr, Gibs. * So C, T, b i. and ir. except — jaecoo — and — »^]«p. utoae be- 
peton (Sfc, Gibs, from Laud. • So C.T. b j. and W. Appan, Gibs. ' Abs. Coi. « So Coi. 
CT. B I. and it. CDypccan, Gibs. * So C.T. b i. and It. paef , Gibs, as usual, from Laud. Cot 

* jeja^po^, Oi<. keall-Cb/. eallehi]' pypbe, C.r.Bi. > into, Cb/. CT. bit. Thej fought at 
Otford. Fid. Flor. « pleij, Cot. » So C.T. b i. and iT. hopja, Gibs, hopjan, Cot. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



199 



into Sceapije*. ^ ye cynj opj-loh 
^heojia" jrpa peala j-pa he ojrpapan mihte. 
Anb 6ab|tic ealbopmann jepenbe ^f?/^ 
])one ^cynj'' onjean aet yejelef -popba. 
naejf nan mape unjiaeb ^epeb*^ ]>onne pe 
pap. Se hepe jepenbe ept** '^up on 
Gapc-Seaxan. ^ pepbe" into CDypcan®. 
^ tJ popbybe eall f he opep-pepbe''. ^Dz 
pe cynj jeaxobe f pe hepe uppe paep'^ 
fa jeponinobeK he piptan** piSe ealle* 
Gnjla feobe. ^^ pepbe him aet hinban'''. 
^ oppepbe hi* ^innan 6apt-Seaxan'' act 
^^faepe bune J?e niann haet^'Appan-bun. *] 
J^aep tojaebepe™ heapblice" penjon. Da 
bybe Gabpic ealbopmann ppa ^ppa'" he 
optopP aep bybe. aptealbe |?one pleam 
apept mib CDajepaeton. *i ppa appac 
hip cyne-hlapopbe tJ ealle J>eobe ^Anjel- 
cynnep''. Daep haepbe Cnut pje. "J je- 
pcahthim ^'pi^" ealle Gnjla-^feobe. Da 
peapB J?a*p opplaejen Gabno^ bipcop''. 
*i pulpije^ abli. ^ /Elppic ealbopman. 
*i ''Gobpine e on Linbepije. anb'' Ulp- 
cytel on Gapt-Gnjlan. anb yG^elpeapb 
yE^elpijep" punu ealbopman nep.1 ®eall 
peo bujo'S op Anjel-cynnep ]?eobe J>aep 
peap^ popbon''. Da aeptep fipum je- 
peohte jepenbe Cnut cynj upp mib 
hip hepe to Gleape-ceaptpe-pcipe. ^J^aep 



isle of Shepey ; and the king slew as 
many of them as he could overtake. 
Alderman Edric then went to meet the 
king at Aylesford; than which no mea- 
sure could be more ill-advised i. The 
enemy^ meanwhile, returned into Es- 
sex, and advanced into Mercia, destroy- 
ing all that he overtook. When the 
king understood that the army was up, 
then collected he the fifth time all the 
English nation, and went behind them, 
and overtook them in Essex, on the 
down called Assingdon ; where they 
fiercely came together. Then did ald- 
erman Edric as be often did before,-— 
be first began the flight with the Maise- 
vethians, and so betrayed his natural 
lord and all the people of England. 
There had Knute the victory, though 
all England fought against him ! There 
was then slain bishop Ednoth, and ab- 
bot Wulsy, and alderman Elfric, and 
alderman Godwin of Lindsey, and Ulf- 
kytel of East-Anglia, and Ethelward 
the son of alderman Ethelsy^. And all 
the nobility of the English nation was 
there undone ! After this fight went 
king Knute up with his army into Glo- 
cestershire, where be heard say that 



■.cje,Cb<.C.r.BiT. ^AhB.Cot. « jejuebb, Co/. jepaBb,C.r.Biv. ^ejt^ Coi. • So C.T.nir. 
(Oypcum, B i. -cean, Gibs, from Laud, -cen, Coi, ' jJ jehypbe je cynj, Coi, » ^ejabejiobe, Cot. 
^ pijxa, Coi, • eal, Coi, * i pepbe aeptep J^am hcjie, Coi. * hine, Coi. ■* togaej^epc, Cot. 
" pep:lice, Coi. ^ From C. T, b i. and ir. compared together. P opt, Coi. « Fulp, Cot. 
yuljjie, C.T, B ir. Pulppje, si. 'So C.T. b i. abs. Cot. ■ -ffij^lpinej, C.T. b i. jElp pincjr, b it. 
' J« — Cot. yjtp he ojrahjabe, CT. b i. — opazabe, b It. 

' << Nisi perfidus dux Edricus suis insidiis sj^asaboTe; others, Elf wine and Ethel wine. The 



regem apud Eaglesford (ne $uo$ peraequereiur 
hosies) retinereif eo die plena potiretur vido» 
ria.''—F\or. 

* There is a marked difTerence respecting the 
name of this alderman in MSS. Some have Ethel- 



two last may be reconciled, as the name in either 
case would now be El win ; but Ethelsy and Elsy 
are widely different. Florence of Worcester not 
only supports the authority of Ethel wine, but ex« 
plains it « Dei amid:' 



soo 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



he jehepbe j-ccjan faet ye cynj paef 
Gabmunb. Da jepaebbe Gabpic ealbop- 
mann ^ ]?a pitan J?e J>aep "jejabepabe'' 
paspon. -f J>a cyninjaj* j-eht namon heom 
betpeonan.**j hi jij-lapjepophtan. Anb . 
bejen J)a cyninjaj* comon tojaebepe ast 
Olan-ije**. jruj? Deophypfte. tl pupbon 
pcolajan ^ peb-bpo^pa.*j heopa ppeonb- 
fcipe J^aep jepaej'Cnobon. aejj>ep je mib 
pebbe je eac raib a^e. ^ f jylb jepetton . 
pi^ J>one hepe. Anb hi tohpuppon J?a 
mib ]?ip|-um pehce. *i penj ]?a Gabmunb 
cinj to pej-t-Seaxan. "j Cntit tx> CDyp- 
can. "3 to ]>am nopS baele''. ^Se hepe 
gepenbe J?a to pcipon mib j^am ]>in3um . 
^e hi jepanjen haepbon. "i Lunbene- 
papu jpi^ebe pi^ Jjone hepe. 'j heom 
ppi^ ^ebohtan. "j pe hepe jebpohton 
heopa pcipu on Lunbene. ^ heom pin- 
tep-petle faep mne namon'^ Da to pep . 
Anbpeap maeppan pop^pepbe pe cynj 
iGabmunb. tJ **ip bypjeb" mib hip ealban* 
f aebep Gabjape on Glaeptinja-bypij. 
^Anb on J?am ilcan jeape pop^pcpbc 
Pulpjap abb on Abbanbune. 'j y6^el- . 
pije pen J to" B^am^bob-pice^':- 

**Aq.MXVIL *l3ep «^on ]?ippum jeape' 
penjCnut cyninj to eaU*' Anjel-cyn- 
nep pice''. ^ hit tobslb on peopep. him 
pylpum J7ept-Seaxan. *i Dupcylle Gapt- . 
Gnjlan. tJ Gabpice CDypcan^ ^ Ypice" 
Ilop^-hymbpan. Anb on J>ippiim jeape 



king Edmund was. Then advised ald- 
erman Edric^ and the counsellors that 
were there assembled^ that the kings 
should make peace with each other, and 
produce hostages. Then both the kings 
met together at Olney^ south of Deer- 
hurst, and became allies and sworn 
brothers. There they confirmed their 
friendship both with pledges and with 
oaths, and settled the pay of the army. 
With this covenant they parted : king 
Edmund took to Wessex, and Knute to 
Mercia and the northern district^. The 
army then went to their ships with the 
things they had taken ; and the people 
of London made peace with them, and 
purchased their security ; whereupon 
they brought their ships to London, 
and provided themselves winter-quar- 
ters therein. On the feast of St. An- 
drew died king Edmund; and he is 
buried with his grandfather Edgar at 
Glastonbury. In the same year died 
Wulfgar, abbot of Abingdon ; and 
Ethelsy took to the abbacy. 

A.D. 10<i7. This year king Knute 
took to the whole government of En- 
gland, and divided it into four parts: 
Wessex for himself, East-Atiglia for 
ThuAyll, Mercia for Edric, Northum- 
bria for Eric. This year also was alder- 



• From CT.Bu and ir. compared together. «> Clanije, Cot. « Abs. Coi. ^ -. bebypjcb, 
Coi. So C,T. B IT. hij lie li«, B i. • ealbe, Coi. ' From Laud. Petroh. C.T. b I. abs. Cot. b it. 
« From C.T.B i. Joss. abs. Gibs. >» From Laud. Cot. Petroh. C.T. b i. and it. to the ond of the year. 
* ^r Cnut peap« xecopan to cinje,WheI. ^ gallan, Cot. * So C.T.mX. CDyjicean^Gibs. bIt. 
*» eipic, C.T. B IT. Ijikc, B i. NoriUmbriam Irco eomiii, Flor. 

-* The two different readiqgs of the MSS. are ceao ; others, to }»am aojiS tele. Both «eem to 
bere combined j some haTing to CDyjican or (Dyji. be necessary. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



201 



jrapf cac Gabjiic ealbopmann opj-lajen 
•on Lunbenc". anb Nop^man Leoppincf 
j-unu ealbopmannejr. ^ yEWelpeapb /B- 
^elmaejief pinii J^aej^ jpaetran. "j Bjiiht- 
pic JBljie'^ej'^ funu on Depenan-j-cipe. 
•j Cnut cynj aplymbe ut /Bbpij aejel- 
inj. ^anb epc hine het opplean". "j Gab- 
pij ceopla cynj, Anb ]?a tropopan kt. 
Aujupri hct pe cynj peccan him /G^el- 
pebej* lape. J^aep o^pep cynjep. him to 
cpene*. Ricapbej- bohtop :• 

^An. MXVIII. ^On J?ipim jeape 
paej-'' f japol-jelaept opep Keall" Anjel- 
cynn. f paef *• Beall^p'^ tpa*j hunb-peo- 
ponti ]?upenb punba. buton J?am )?e peo 
buphpapu* on^ Lunbene jealb'. ^f paep'' 
*«nblypte healp'' J>upenb punba. «Anb 
fe hepe pepbe ]?a pum to Den-meapcon. 
tl XL. pcipa belap mib J>am cyninje 
Cnute''. "i Dene "j Gnjle pupbon pam- 
masle aet Oxna-popba" ®to Gabjapep 
laje'^ PAnb hep ye^elpije abU. pop^- 
pepbe on Abban-bune. tJ penj /6^el- 
pme to'":- 

*An. MXIX. I3ep jepenbe Cnut 
^cfn^'' ®mib IX. pcypum'' to Den-meap- 
con'. *] "^l^sep punobe'' ealne pintep. ®^ 
hep pop^pepbe y61pptan apcebipc^op. 



man Edric slain at London >^ and Nor- 
man, son of alderman Leofwin, and 
Ethel ward, son of Ethel mar the great, 
and Britric, son of Elfege of Devon- 
shire. King Knute also banished Ed- 
wy etheling, whom he afterwards or- 
dered to be slain, and Edwy, king of 
the churls; and before the calends of 
August the king gave an order to fetch 
him the widow of the other king, Ethel- 
red, the daughter of Richard, to wife. 

A.D. 1018. This year was the pay- 
ment of the tribute oyer all England ; 
that was, altogether, two and seventy 
thousand pounds, besides that which 
the citizens of London paid ; and that 
was ten thousand five hundred pounds-. 
The army then went partly to Den- 
mark ; and forty ships were left with 
king Knute. The Danes and Angles 
were recoaciled at Oxford to Edgar's 
law; and this year died abbot Ethelsy 
at Abingdon, to whom Ethelwine suc- 
ceeded. 

A.D. 1019. This year went king 
Knute with nine ships to Denmark, 
where he abode all the winter; and 
archbishop Elfstan died this year, who 



* rrom Cot. where the wl^ole seirtence runs thus : Anb on 'j^yjum ylcan 2^jie hec je cynj fcccaa 
ASSdfiahej laue. Kicapbcf bohcop. him ro cf eiie, *f yxj iBijrjijre Ymma. *j Gabjuc ealbojiman peapV 
Of jlagan on Luubenc jy^Se jiihtlice. •> So C.T. b i. and i?. ^Ipjeccf , Gilw. « From C.T. b f. 
* pipe, C.T. B i. and iv. • From Laud. Peirob. C.T. b i. and it. ' l3cp peaji», Coi. » Abs. Coi. 
^ pepan, Coi. ^ -pape, Coi. ^ op, Coi. N. S. > So C.T. b i. ^ulbon, Gibs. The whole sentence 
is omitted in b i?. « Abs. Laud. » Ozana.popban, Coi. Oiana-popba, C.T. b It. <» From C.T. b i?. 
P Ai)s. Coi, C.T. B i. and iv. ^ -mapcan, Coi. ' paej J^ap, Coi. 



^ ^^ Rex Canutusy 4h naiivitaie Dominij cum 
eisei Lundonup^ perjidum ducem Eadricum in 
palatio jussii occidere^ quia iimebai insidHs ab eo 
idiquando drcumvenirij sicui domini suipriorcBj 



^ihelredus ei Eadmundus^ frequenter •sunt cir^ 
cumvenii.^^ — Flor. 

* So Florence of Worcester; misquoted by 
Gibson md. ^^ xv. millia," — ^Sim. Duneim. 

2 o 



803 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



j-c p«f Lipinj jenemneb. -J he paej- 
jrpi^e paebpaBj^ man ae^J^ep pop Gobe 
t( pop populbe'' :• 

•An. MXX. Jieji Cnut c^nmj to 
Gnjla-lanbe. ^'j J>a on Gaptpon paep mf- 
eel jemot on C^pen-ceaptpe. J>a jeut- 
lajobe mann yC^elpeapb ealbopman"^. 
*^ Gabpij ceopla cynje'^. Anb on J^ip- 
pum jeape *pe cynj pop^ to Appan- 
bune. *^ Dupkyl eopl. ^ pulptan apce- 
bipcop. "3 o^pe bipcopap. ^ eac abbobap. 
^ mane^a munecap mib heom". '^ let 
t^^mbpian faep an m^nptep op ptane "J 
lime pop )>ape manna paple ]>e ]>ap op- 
plajene paepan. ^ jiep hit hip anum 
ppcopte J>ep nam paep Stijanb'^. ^^ je- 
haljoban f m^npteji aet Appanbune". 
Anb y6}?clnoW munuc. ^pe J>e paep be- 
canup aet Cjiiptep c^pcan. paep «on 
]>am ilcan ^eape. on ibup Nouembplp'^ 
to bipcope** *3chaljob into Cpiptep 
cypcan". *^ppam pulptane apceB'^:' 

•An. MXXL )5cp *on }?ypum jcapc" 
Cnut c^nj *to G7aptinup maeppan'^ je- 
utlajobe^Dnjikil eopl. ^'j /eipjaji bipcop 
pe aelmeppulla pop^Spepbe on Cpiptep 
maeppe uhtan'^i- 

•An. MXXII. J3ep ^Cnut cynj pop 
ut mib hip pcipum to piht-lanbe. Anb"^ 
/6^elno^ "bipcop pop'^ to Rome. ^ paep 
unbeppanjen 'pscji ppam Benebicte J^am 
appup%an papan mib m^cclum pup%- 
pcipe. 1 he mib hip ajenum hanbum 



was also named Lifiog. He was a verj 
upright man both before God and be- 
fore the world. 

A.D. 1020. This year came king 
Knute back to England; and there was 
at Easter a great council at Cirencester, 
where alderman Ethelward was outlaw- 
ed, and Edwy, king of the churls. This 
year went the king to Assingdon; with 
earl Thurkyll, and archbishop Wulfstan, 
and other bishops, and also abbots, and 
many monks with them; and he order- 
ed to be built there a minster of stone 
and lime, for the souls of the men who 
were there slaini, and gave it to his own 
priest, whose name was Stigand ; and 
they consecrated the minster at Assing^ 
don. And Ethelnoth the monk, who 
had been dean at Christ's church, was 
the same year on the ides of NoTembei' 
consecrated bishop of Christ's church by 
archbishop Wulstan. 

A.D. 1021. This year king Knute, 
at Martinmas, outlawed earl Thurkyll ; 
and bishop Elfgar, the abundant giver 
of alms, died in the morning of Christ- 
mas day. 

A.D. 1022. This year went king 
Knute out with his ships to the isle of 
Wight. And bishop Ethelnoth went 
to Rome; where he was received with 
much honour by Benedict the magnifi- 
cent pope, who with his own hand placed 



• From Laud. Cot. POroh. C.T. b i. and it. ^ Abs. Cot. « From C.T. si. 'be pepoe, Cot. 
• From C.T. b i. and ir. ' From Cot. abs. Laud. C.T. b i. and It. s So C.T. b ir. ^ej ilcaa 

ZeAjiej J Cot. ]w ilcan jeape, Gib6. from iLoiMf. >> apcbij cop, Cbl. ^ From C.T. nir. ^ptojeba. 
bob, Gibs. ^ ^|„, £^^^ qj^^ b i. and it. > Abs. Cot. co jce. (Dtptinef masrjan, C.T. b it. jce be^ 
log oTcrlinedy with a note of iotrodnctton. >■ apcbifcop jxfibt^ Cat. 

1 Fid.an.l016. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



203 



him hif pallium onafette. ^*] to apceH 
^fpi^Se" appup^hce jchaljobe^ ^^ je- 
bletjrabe on non' OctoB"'. Anb ^he'' 
fyWan mib )?am "^ylcan"^ pallium ^sp 
maefpbe '•on fam pylpan baeje''. •fpa 
fe papa him jcpifj-obc*'. ^tJ 1^^ hme jc- 
peopbobe aepcep J?am mib |)am ^fylpan^ 
papan. ^ jy^Van mib pulpe blerj^unje 
ham 2epeabe'^ Anb Leoppine abb ye 
paej" unpihtlice op Glij abpaepcb. pap 
hip jepepa. "i hine |>«p* aelccp J>injep 
{eclasnpobe \fe him mann on paebe. ppa 
pc papa him raehte. on Jicp apceUep je- 
pitncppc. ®1 on eallep J^aep X^peppcipcp 
]h& him mib paep"^ t- 

An. MXXIII. ""Jjep Cnut c^ninj 
i:om cpt to Gn^la-lanbe. ^ Dupcil l he 
paepan anpasbe. ^ he betaehte Dupcille 
Denemeapcan *] hip punu to healbenne. 
tJ pe cfninj nam Dupcilep pmu mib 
him to Gnjla-lanbe'^. *)3ep pop^pepbe 
pulpptan^ apceb. ^ penj yBlppic to. 
' anb yC^elno^ apceH hme bletpobe on 
Cantpape-bepi". *)5ep Cnut k^nin^ 
bmnan Lunbene on pSe Paulep m^n- 
ptpe pealbe puUe leape /GJ^elnoVe apce- 



the pall uponhim^ and with great pomp 
consecrated him archbishop^ and blessed 
him^ on the nones of October. The arch* 
bishop on the self-same day with the 
same pall performed mass^ as the pope 
directed him, after which he was mag«> 
nificently entertained by the pope him- 
self; and afterwards with a full blessing 
proceeded homewards^. Abbot Leof- 
wine, who had been unjustly expelled 
from Ely, was his companion ; and he 
cleared himself of every thing, which, 
as the pope informed him, had been laid 
to his charge, on the testimony of the 
archbishop and of all the company that 
were with him. 

A.D. 1023. This year returned king 
Knute to England ; and Tburkyll and 
he were reconciled. He committed Den- 
mark and his son to the care of Tbur- 
kyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son 
with hioi to England. This year died 
archbishop Wulfstan ; and Elfric suc- 
ceeded him ; and archbishop Egelnoth 
blessed him in Canterbury. This year 
king Knute in London^ in St. Paul's 
minster, gave full leave* to archbishop 



• Abs. Cot ^ From £7.7*. b it. « Abs. Coi. je ajicebif cop, C7. b ir. joiia ymjt mib maejfaa 
fan;, Hid, ' Abs. LautL « Abs. Coi, C.T. b ir. ' *! ep:eii maefpin mib )?an papan jqiaoflbe. 
"j mib )af papan bletf nn^e jecypbe to hif ajicbif cop-ftole. Col. *! fyVKan ^p mpoeji nub ]Nim jylfaa 
papan appapSlice jepeopbabe. *j eac htm jeoif ]K>ne pallium ^enam on joe.Peqief peofobe.*] ^ fcoK. 
&n [mib fulpe bletjunje, Joss.] bliVelice bam co hij eapbe ppbe. C.T, b it. The remainder of the 
jcar abs. itid. The whole description is omitted in b i. s ^p, CoL ^ From C.T, a I. and if. 
i From Laud. Coi. Peirob. ^ Paljran, Coi, > From CT. b It. Brieflj thus b i. : *j he lee jrepian 
jyVSan jfce. M\ye^ej pehquiaf oj: Lunbene to Cantpipa-bypi^^. So nearly Gibson from Laud. Coi. : 
Anb ymj ylcan ^^pef [on )?if ylcan ^^ape, Coi."] £^lnoS apceb* pepcbe foe» JSlpjejr apoeb' pali- 
quiaj [hchaman, LaudJ] to Cantpap-bypi; op Lunbene. 



^ These particulars are stated more fully in 
C.T. B IT. See (he Various Readings. 



' Matthew of Westminster says, the king took 
up the body with hb own hands. 



S04 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



bif cope. ^ Bpyhtpine bijncope. "j ealloh 
}>am Gobej" ]?eopum J>e heom mib paepon. 
f hi mofton nyman up op ]>am bypjene 
J^one apcebijrcop fee yGlpheah. ^ hi )>a 
j-pa bybon on vi. ibuj- lunii. ^ ye bpema 
cynj. 1 jx apcebijrcop. "j leob bijrcopap 
^ eoplaf . tJ fpi^e manege habobe "j eac 
laepebe. pepebon on pcype hip )7one ha- 
Iijan hchaman . opep Temepe to Su^je- 
peopke. "j J>aBp J)one halgan maptyp fan 
apcebipcppe tJ hip jepepum betaehton. 
*i hi J?a mib peop^hcan peopobe ^ pyn- 
paman bpeame hine to Hpopep-ceaptpe 
pcpeban. Da on J?am Jjpybban baeje 
com Imma peo hlaepbie mib hipe cyne- 
lican beapne I^eapba-Cnutc. ^ hi J?a 
ealle mib mycclam J^pymme 1 bhppe ^ 
lop-panje J>one halgan apcebipcop into 
Cantpape-bypi pepebon. ^ ppa pup^- 
lice into cypcan bpohton. on iii. ibup 
luii. 6pt pyJ'J^an on )?am eabteoVan 
baege. on xvii. kt. lulu. yB%lelno% apce- 
bipcop. ^ /Blppie bipcop. ^ Bpyhtpine 
bipcop. ^ ealle ]>a ])e mib heom paepon. 
jelojubon pee ^Elpeajep halgan hcha- 
man on noji^S healpe Xpep peopobep. 
Gobe to lope. tJ J>am halgan apcebi- 
pcopc to pup^mynte. 1 eallon Jjam to 
ecepe hael^e \>e hip halgan lichoman 
faep mib eptpulpe heoptan ^ mib eal- 
pe eabmobnyppe baejhpamlice peceaB. 
Gob aslmihtig jemiltpie eallum Cpip- 
tenum mannum fuph /Blpejep halgan 
jejeapnunja'':- • 

An. MXXIV. 
^An. MXXV. J3ep pop Cnut cynj 



Ethelnotli, bishop Britwide, and all 
God's servants that were with themj 
that they might take up from the grave 
the archbishop, saiot Elphege. And 
they did so, on the sixth day before the 
ides of June ; and the illustrious king, 
and the archbishop, and the diocesan 
bishops, and the earls, and very many 
others, both clergy and laity, carried by 
ship his holy corpse over the Thames 
to Southwark. And there they com- 
mitted the holy martyr to the arcbbi- 
shop and bis companions; and they with 
worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried 
him to Rochester. There on the third 
day came the lady Emma with her royal 
sonHardacnUte; and they all with much 
majesty, and bliss, and songs of praise, 
carried the holy archbishop into Can- 
terbury, and so brought him gloriously 
into the church, on the third day before 
the ides of June. Afterwiards, on the 
eighth day, the seventeenth before the 
calends of July, archbishop Ethelnotb, 
and bishop Elfsy, and bishop Britwine, 
and all they that were with them, lodged 
the holy corpse of saint'Elphege on the 
north side of the altar of Christ; to the 
praise of God, and to the glory of the 
holy archbishop, and to the everlasting 
salvation of all those who there his holy 
body daily seek with earnest heart and 
all humility. May God almighty have 
mercy on all Christian men through the 
holy intercession of Elphege ! 

A.D. 1025. This year went king 



* jin. 1024. Hie Bkardus Secundus obHi: BkardusJiUus ejus regnavii prape uno anno, el post eum reg" 
navit Bodbertus frater ejus Tin. annis. Gibs, from Laud, and Joss, id C»T. b ir. Nothing occurs in B i. 
from 1024 to 1027, inclosiTe. ^ From Laud, Cot. Joss, in C.T. b ir. to the end of the year. 



THE SAXON CHRONICL 



S05 



to Den-mcapcon mib jrcipbn to J^am 
holme aet ea J^aepe haljan. ^ Jjaep comon 
ongean Ulp :] Gjlap*. *J rP^^^ my eel 
hepe aejSep je lanb-hepe je fcip-hepe 
op Spa^eobe^. Anb faep psef ypy^e • 
peak manna poppapen^ •^on Cnutep 
cynjep healpe. aej^ep je Denipcpa 
manna je Gnjlipcpa''. ^ J>a Speon« 
heapbon peall-pcope^ ^3epealb'' :• 

8 An. MXXVI. I3ep pop /eippic B 
to Rome, "j onpenj pallium act lohanne 
papan on ii. ib' Novemb'':- 

MXXVII. 

''An. MXXVIIL J3ep pop Cnut cyn j 
op Gn^la lanbe mib piptij pcipiim '6n- 
jlipcpa )>ejena' to Noppejum''. "j abpap 
Olap eynmj op ]>zm lanbe. 1 jeahnobe' 
him eall ]?aBt lanb'' :• 

"An. MXXIX. J2ep com Cnut cynj 
ept ^ham' to Gnjla lanbe'':- 

An. MXXX. "Jiep com Olap cynj 
ept into Noppejum. ^ )>aet pole jeja- 
bepobe him tojeanep. *J him pi^ je- 
puhton. tJ he peap^ facp opplajen'". ®on 
Noppejon. op hip a^enum poke. tJ paep 
py^^an hali^. ^ J^aep jepep aep ^am 
poppepbe Hacun pe bohtija eopl on 
pae :• 

An. MXXXI. Pj3ep com Cnut. pona 
ppa he becom to Gnjla lanbe he jeap 
into Cpiptep cypican on Cantpape- 
bypi fa haspenan on Sanb-pic. "j ealla 



Kilute to Denmark with a fleet to the 
holm by the holy river ; where against 
him came Ulf and Eglaf^ with a very 
large force both by land and sea^ from 
Sweden. There were very many men 
lost on the side of king Knute^ both of 
Danish and English; and the Swedes 
had possession of the field of battle. 

A.D. 10S6. This year went bishop 
Elfric to Rome^ and received the pall of 
pope John on the second day before the 
ides of November. 

A.D. 1028. This year went king 
Knute from England to Norway with 
fifty ships manned with English thanes^ 
and drove king Olave from the land, 
which he entirely secured to himself. 

A.D. 1029. This year king Knute 
returned home to England. 
' A.D. 1030. This year returned king 
Olave into Norway ; but the people ga- 
thered together against him, and fought 
against him ; and he was there slain, in 
Norway, by his own people, and was 
afterwards canonized. Before this, in 
the same year, died Hacon the doughty 
earl, at sea. 

A.D. 1031. This year returned king 
Knute ; and as soon as he came to En- 
gland he gave to Christ's church in Can- 
terbury the haven of Sandwich, and all 



« Gjlaf, Cot. ^ SpeoVobe, Cot, jpa ^ob, Joss, from Petrol. * pappapene. Cot, * Abs. Cot. 
* Specie, Cot, ' pael. Cot, peal- Joss, ia C,T, b ir. % From C,T, b U, ^ From Laud. Cot. 
Petrol, C.T. b i. and it. * Abs. Laud, C.T. b i. and ir. k NopV- Cot. > ^'^j^oebe, Cot. 

jeahnabo, £7.7". bIt. » From Laud. Cot, Petrol. C.T.nvr. abs. bi. ■ From Laud. (7.7. b It. 
« From (7.7. Bi. Petrol. Joss, in b ir. Nothing occurs afterwards in b i. from 1031 to 1033| inclnsiTe. 
p Abs. Laoid. Cot. Petrol. C.T. bit. to bep foji, — tfc. 



S06 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



f^ ^ejiihta )« ]«ji op ajiipi%. op a^i^jie 
healpe ]^ape hapene. ppa f loc hpenne 
jJ plot by^ ealpa hchpt 1 calpa puUopt. 
beo an p cip ploti^enbe ppa neh J^an 
lanbe ppa hit nfxt. *J ]>aji beo an mann 
ptanbe op ]mm pcipe. anb habbe ane 
tapep-ax on hip [hanbe.] *ppa hpaep 
ppa masja tapep-aex bie jepoppe ut 
op 1^ pcipc. ut a f lanb Jja jepeuhnjep 
op Cpiptep c^pic unbeppo Jja jepijte''. 
*liep pop*^ Cnut cynj to Rome. 1 *J?^ 
^Ican jeape^. ^pona ppa he ham com. 
J?a pop he" to Scotlanbe. 1 Scotta cynj 
him 'to beah'" sCOaelcolm'". ""1 peapV 
hip mann^^ *J tpe^en o^pe cyninjap. 
CDelbae^^ 1 lehmapc. '^ac he f lytle 
hpile heolb''. ^Anb Robbept eopl op 
Nopmanbie pepbe to lepupalem. ^ Jjap 
peapV beab. 1 pillelm J?e pap pS^an cmj 
on 6n;^la lanbe pen^ to Nopmanbi. ]7e 
he cilb paepe'' :• 

*An. MXXXII. liep on J^ippum j^ape 
atypbe f pilbe p^p. )^ nan man aspop 
nan "to^ep'ppylcene jemunbctfjehpap 
hit bepobe ''eac^ on manejum ptopum. 
Anb •on J>am ilcan jeape'.pop^pepbe 
/eippje bipcop on pin-ceaptpe. 1 /Blp- 
pine}iaepc]^nxepppeoptpenj ■J?aBp'to^^ 

PAn.MXXXIII. Jjep ®on fipum jeape' 
pop^Spepbe QOepehpit B on Sumep-pas- 
ton. ^ 'hcipbebypjeb'on' Glaeptinja- 



the rights that arise therefrom, on either 
side of the hayen ; so that when the tide 
is highest and fullest, and there be a 
ship floating as near the land as possi* 
ble, and there be a man standing upoi) 
the ship with a taper^axe in his hand, 
whithersoever the large taper-axe might 
be thrown out of the ship, throughout 
all that land the ministers of Christ's 
church should enjoy their rights. This 
year went king Knute to Rome; and the 
same jear, as soon as he returned home, 
he went to Scotland ; and Malcolm, king 
of the Scots, submitted to him, and be- 
came his man, with two other kings, Mac- 
beth and Jehmar; but he held his alle- 
giance a little while only. Robert earl of 
Normandy went this year to Jerusalem, 
where he died ; and William, who was 
afterwards king of England, succeeded 
to the earldom, though he was a child. 
A.D. 1039. This jear appeared that 
wild fire, such as no man ever remem- 
bered before, which did great damage 
in many places. The same year died 
Elfsy, bishop of Winchester ; and Elf- 
win, the king's priest, succeeded him. 

A.D. 1033. This year died bishop 
Merewhite in Somersetshire, who is 
buried at Glastonbury ; and bishop 



* From Euideni, EcektkB Christi Cant. imierX, Scriptares; where the whole passage runs thus: Spa 
}c Jyonoe hit ij* pall plob.*! j{ jcip ij* afloce. jpa hpaep fpa msesa tapep-sez bic J^pojipe uc of ]?e jcipe. 
ut a f Taob fa, 2efeuho2ejf of Cpijtejf cyjuc unbeppo ]ni J^pigee. See also Somner's Diet. ^ From 
Zaud. Cot Peiroi. Cr.Biv. to the end of the year. '^ F«r^ ^o/. ^ I'ejf ylcan jcajiejr, Cot. 

abs. C.T. B IT. • So C.T. b it. ftk hi ham cum he pop, Gibs. ' eobe him oo hanb, C.T. b W. 

s Abs. Cot. CT. B ir. ^ From C.T. b ir. > (Dealbaea^, Cot. ^ From Cot. N. S. Sobertus comet 
obutm peregrmaiiotu ei succtuk rese WVIehnus in pueriU dotaie. Lamd. PHroh. ■ From Laud. Cot. 

Petrob. D C.T. b iv. omitting all that follows to the end of the year. " Abs. Laud. Pitrob. 

» Abs. Cot. Abs. Cot. Petrob. f From LmuL Coi.Petrob. ^VS^Cot. 'set, Cot. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ao7 



bypix*''- ^J5«P pop%ejibe Lcoppe B. 
1 hif lichamii jicfte^ on pijpa-ccajrtpc. 
*J Bjiihteh paef on hip petl ahapen'' :• 

^An.MXXXIV. liep pop«pcpbe /e- 
J^epic bipcop'^. ***j he hB on Ramepjc^:- 

An.MXXXV/ l3ep ppSpepbeCnut 
cynj. *he X^pat'' act Sccaptrcp-bypij'. 
*on II. lb' Nouti''. «*j he ip beb^p^cb on^ 
Pinccaptpc on* ealban^ mynptpe''. *J he 
paep cynj opep call Gn^la lanb 'pp^e 
neh'^ XX. pintpa. ™Anb pona aeptep hip 
popple, paep ealpa pitena gemot: on 
Oxna-popba''. *j Leoppic eopl. ^ "maept^ 
ctlle Jja J^ejenap be nop]?an Temepe®. 
"^ fa liSp-men on Lunben'^ jecupon 
l3apolb ro healbep eallep Gngle-lanbep 
him ^ hip bpo%op J^apbacnure J^e paep 
on Denemeapcon. ''Anb'^ Gobpine eopl. 
3 ealle J?a ylbeptanP menn on Pcpt- 
Seaxon^ *^lajon onjean". "ppa hi Icnj- 
opt mihton'^ *ac hi ne mihton nan J^in;^ 
ongean pealcan''. *Anb man jepaebbe 
Jwi f /eipjipu. J^apbacnutep mobop. 
paete on pin-ceaptpe mib J^aep cynjep 
hupcaplum h^pa puna, ^j heolban ealle 
pept-Seaxan him" to hanba. *j Gobpme 
eopl paep heopa healbept' mann. Sume 



Leofsj^ vhose body resteth at'Wofces- 
ter^ and to whose see Brihteh was pro- 
moted. 

A.D. 1034. This year died bishdi) 
Etheric ^, who lies at Ramsey. 

A.D. 1035. This year died king 
Knute at Shaftesbury, on the second day 
before the ides of November; and he is 
buried at Winchester in the old minster. 
He was king over all England ?ery near 
twenty winters. Soon aftef^ his decease^ 
there was a council of all the nobles at 
Oxford ; wherein earl Leofric, and al- 
most all the thanes north of the Thames, 
and the naval men in London, chose 
Harold to be governor of all England, 
for himself and his brother llardacnute, 
who was in Denmark. Earl Godwin, 
and all the eldest men in Wessex, with- 
stood it as long as they could; but they 
could do nothing against it. It was 
then resolved, that Elfgiva, the mother 
of Hardacnute, should remain at Win- 
chester with the household of the king 
her son. They held all Wessex in hand, 
and earl Godwin was their chief man. 
Some men said of Harold, that he was 



<Glaejt.bepi, Coi. ^ From C.T. b it. « From Laud. Pttnb. C.T. b L ' From CT. b u 
and It. ; bnt the whole {Musage runs thus in b it. : t^ep paej iElfpic b' fojiSpipeo. *j \iz^ ^° Ramej*- 
ije. Vid. an; 1038. • lixxxn. Laud. Cot, Peirob. ; but I follow the authority of C.r.B i. and It. 
Fid, an, 1039. ' Sciepef-byiue, Coi. s *j hine man fejiebe to Pin-oeftpe, C.T. b it. ^ act, Petroh, 
C,T. B i. ; whence a, Cot. N.S. > an, Cot. ^ ealba, Cot. > pel neah, Cot. " Abe. Cat. C.T. b \. 
and It. " Abs. Cot. « Temejan, Cot. p betjtan, Cot. ^ -Seaxan, Petrol. -Sexan, Cot. 
' piV-cpeboD, Cot, • ac hi nahc na ^ejpcbban, Cot. ^ Aba. Cot, ; but Josselin has transcribed 
the whole In the margin of C.T. b It. from Petroh. » heom. Joss. * yl^P> Jo*** Other nninu 
portant fariatjons are-^menn, Dapolb, paeji, ^Jjjip u, ^Ifhelmej, hig ^nht, JP^^^ ]wah, &c. 

' I here follow the printed Chronicle, which is bishop buried at Ramsey- Yid. an. 1023, 1026. 
supported by seTeral MSS. ; but I suspect that ^Stheric is probably the same with ^thelric. 
C.r.BiY. if correct in stating iGlfric to be the Vid. an. 1038. 



SOS 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



men jraebon be liapolbe. ^ he pa^pc 
Cnutef f unu cynjej* tJ /Blpjipe y61p- 
elmcf bohtop ealbopmannep ac hit 
]7uhte fPt^ unjeleaphc manejum 
mannum^ ^ he paBjr •J^aeh'' *^pull c^^nj 
opep eall Gnjla lante''. ^Aiib Rapolb 
f aebe, f he Cnutep punu paepe ^ /Glp- 
jipe faspe J^amtunipca. fe hit po^ 
naspe. he penbe to tJ let nyman op hipe 
ealle ]>a betptan jaeppaman. Jje '^heo op 
healban ne mihte. %e' Cnut cynj ahte. 
^ heo paet ]?eah pop% J^asp bmnan J^a 
hpile J?e heo mopte''^- 

«An. MXXXVI. J3ep com /eippeb. pe 
unpceVSi^a ae)>ehnj. /GJ^elpebep punu 
c^y^njep. bibep inn. *j polbe to hip mo- 
bop J?e on pinceptpe pact, ac hit him 
ne jej^apobe^ J?a sGobpme eopl. neeac 
oJ?pe men ]>e'' micel peolbon ""on ]?ipan 
fcuibe''. pop]?an hit hleoVpabe .]?a ppiSe 
to |]>apolbe. Jieah hit unpiht paepe. 

*Ac Gobpme hine ]?a jelette. 

1 hme on haept pette'*'. 

Anb hip jepepan he *'eac'' popbpap. 

*3 pume miphce dpploh. 

Sume hi man yi^ peo pealbe. 

pume hpepphce acpealbe. 

Sume hi man benbe. 
^*j eac pume blenbe'^- 

Sume hamelobe. 

*3 pume '•heanhce'' haettobe. 



the son of king Knute and of Elfgive 
the daughter of alderman Elfelm ; but 
it was thought Terj incredible by many 
men*^. He was^ nevertheless^ full king 
- over all England. Harold himself said 
that he was the son of Knute and of 
Elfgive the Hampshire lady; though 
it was not true; but he sent and or- 
dered to be taken from her all the best 

• treasure that she could not hold^ which 
king Knute possessed ; and she never- 
theless abode there continually within 
the city^ as long as she could. 

A.D. 1036. This year came hither AK- 

• fred the innocent etheling, son of king 
Ethelred^ and wished to visit his mo- 
ther, who abode at Winchester: but earl 
Godwin, and other men who had much 
power in this land, did not suffer it ; be- 

• cause such conduct was very agreeable 
to Harold, though it was unjust 

Him did Godwin let, 

and in prison set 

His friends, who did not fly, 

they slew promiscuously. 

And those they did not sell, 

J ike slaughtered cattle fell ! 

Whilst some they spared to biud^ 

t)nljr to wander blind ! 

Some ham-strung, helpless stood, 

whilst others they pursued. 



* Abs. Coi. ^ piUice, Cot. < From C.T. b It. Joss, interl. ^ From Joss, interl. abs. C.T. n It. 
probably from Ihe repetition oi \e. « From C,T, b i. and ir. Joss, interl. to the end of the year. 

^ So C.T. B i. ^e^afobon, b iT« s From C.T, b i. Joss. abs. b ir. * Abs. C.T. b i. > Da lec 
he false on baep; jeccan, C»T. b ir. ^ pme hi man blenbe, C,T. b i. 

^ ^^ Huic suspicioni causam dedii^*^ say the sibi afferri jt^^e^ regemque $e Jilium Uli jam 

lAiin historians, ^^ quod soulgo dkereiur JEl^ peperiS9€ creduhim /sctir#e."— Flor^ Rad« de 

gifam reginam^ cum ex rege JiUum habere non Diceto, &c« 

poiuiiy recenter natum cujusdam iuioris Jilium ' i.e. Winchestez. See page 207. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



209 



Ne peapV bjieopihcjie * beb 

jebon on ]?ipin eapbe. 

SiVSan Dene comon^- 

1 hep pp^ namon'*- 

Nu ij- to jely panne *^ 

to ]nui leopan 

Oobe. f hi bhpjn- 

on bliVe mib Cpipte. 

Be paspon butan pcy^lbe 

eapmhce acpealbe. 
. Se as)^hn2 leopobe* Jia jj't 
' aelc ypel man him behet^ 

0% f man ^epsbbe 

f man hine laebbe 

To eh-bj^pij^ [Kpenne'J 

eal jrpa jebunbenne. 

Sona ppa he lenbe 

on f cf pe man hine blenbe. 

Anb hine ppa bhnben 

bpc^te t;o fam munecon \ 

Anb he ]^«p punobe 

Jnt hpile \>e he leopobe^. 

S^^an hme man b]^pi3be 

ppa him pel jeb^pebe. 

^Daet paep' pull peop^- 

lice ppa he paep p^pSe. 

jBt ^m pept enbe 

yam ptypele pul^ehenbe. 

On ])am pu% poptice. 

peo papul ip mib Cpipte'' :• 

An. MXXXVIL ^Jjep man jeceap 
Jjapolb* opep call to kynje". ^ poppoc 
)3ap^a-Cnut. pop j)am" he paep to lanje 



A deed more drearj none 

in this our land was done, 

since Englishmen gave place 

to hordes of Danish race. 

But repose we must 

in God our trust, 

that blithe as day 

with Christ live they, 

who guiltless died, — 

their country's pride ! 

The prince with courage met 

each cruel evil yet ; 

till *twas decreed, 

they should him lead, 

all bound, as he was then, 

to Ely-bury fen. 

But soon their royal prize 

bereft they of his eyes ! 

Then to tjie monks they brought 

their captive ; where he sought 

a refuge from his foes 

till life's sad evening close. 

His body ordered then 

these good and holy men, 

according to his worth, 

low in the sacred earth, 

to the steeple full-nigh, 

in the south aile to lie 

of the transept west : — ^ 

his soul with Christ doth rest. 

A.D. 1037. This year men chose 
Harold king over all ; and forsook Har- 
thacnute, because he was too long in 



• bpeophcpe, C.T. b i. '»So C.T. b i. -an, b i?. « enne, C.T. b i. ^lypobe, Jo«c. C.T. Bi. 
« S^hec, C.T. B i. ' Gli;- C.T. b i. i Abs. MSS. bat the rime reqaires something of this kind, 

unless the final 6 be pronounced in ^ebunbenn^. ^ So C*T. b i. manecam, b ir. > From C.T. b iv. 
abs. B i. ^ From CT. b i. and ir. > l3apalb, C.T bu " cinje, CT. si. » Van, CT. b i. 

' In itttsirali parHcuy in ocddentali parte ecclesia. Flor. 

8 S 



SIO 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



on Denemapcofi; ^ man bpap. "%a' . ut 
hij* mobop J&fgfjie, *^Cnutej- cynjej- 
lape'. butan aslcejie milbheojitnejT^. 
on^ean Jjone pallenban pinteji'.^^j^o paej- 
*eabpajibej- "j' J^ajibacnutep cynjep mo- 
bop. 1 heo jej-ohte Jia Balbepinep jpi^ 
•be f u%!an j-ae''. ^^ heo com J>a to Bjiicje 
bejeonbon j-ae. *] Balbpine eopi hi pel 
J^aep unbeppenj''. ^ he jeapR hipepun- 
unje^ on Bpicje. ^ he hi munbobe''. 'tJ 
hi^ )7asp jeheolb )ui . hpile ]>e hipe neob 
paej^. ^ J^aef jepcp aep popSpepbc'^yBpic 
f^ asSela becanup on Gopepham''*. 

«An. MXXXVIII. J3cp pop«.pepbe» 
0Se]noV ®pe joba'' ApceU on kl. No- 
uemB. -j Pjiaep J'mbc l^rer /e^elpicbi- 
pcop on^ Su%*Seaxum^ "pe ^epilnobe 
ro Gobe f he hme ne lete lybban nane 
hpileaeptep hipleopan paebep /B^lno^. 
1 he eac binnan peopon nihton paepje* 
pat''. *j * J?a topopan Xpcp maeppan'^ 
Bpihteh b on ■pijpa-ceaptep-pcipe''. *j 
»pa^e Jiaep" /Glppic B yoneapt-Gnjlum. 
Anb J?a* pen j Gabpje U* to Jjam ApceB- 
pice^ ^ Gp^ijicy^el to «J?am on'' SuS- 
^Sexum'. ^ ^Liuinj B^ «to pijpaceiaptep- 
pcipe. tJ to Gleapcceaptpepc^pe'':- 

■■An. MXXXIX. I3ep com pe mycla 



Denmark; and then droveout his mother 
Elgiva^ the relict of king Knute, wiib- 
out any pity, aga^inst the ragbag winter ! 
She. who was the mother of Edward as 
well as of king Hardacnute^sought then 
the peace of Baldwin by the south sea. 
Then came she to Bruges, beyond sea ; 
and earl Baldwin well received her 
there ; and he gay^ her a habitation at 
Bruges, and protected bft, and enters 
tained her Acre as long* as she had need. 
Ere this in the same year died Eafy,tfae 
excellent dean of Evesham. 

A.D. 1038. Thisyeardied Ethelnoth 
the good archbishop, on the calenda of 
November; and, vrithin a little of >thb 
time, bishop Ethelric in Sussex, who 
prayed to God thM he would not let hioa 
live any time after his dear father Ethel* 
noth ; and within seven nights of this be 
also departed. Then, before Christmas^ 
died bishop Brihteh in Worcestershire; 
and soon after this, bishop Elfric in East 
Anglia. Then succeeded bishop Edsy 
to the archbishoprijc, Grimkytel to the 
see of Sussex, and bishop Lifing to thai 
of Worcestershire and Glpcestershire. 

A.D. 1039. This year happened die 



* From Jose, interl. C»T, b It. Gibson begins the year from Laud* CoL Dep man bpsfbe at iGlj^ijn 
[^Ipae, CoiJ} Cnutej cmjey lape, tfc. ^ So Josr. Interl. {7.71 B if* Va cfehe, b I. ^'Olfe. fr^ni 
LanuL Coi, * Al>s. UatA. « oo Fi^nbpe, Col. ' From C.T. b i. and !▼* % p;. Op/. ^ .ja, Cil. 
> The year ends thas in Gibson's edition : *j heolb ^a hpite ^, heo ^ji jner. ^ X^V^X^ CT, b i. 

I Deofejfbame, C.T, b i. (with a note of correction under the initial 13.) ■ From LoMd, Cot, Petrob. 
bI. and it. ■ jepoji, C.T. b i. • From C.T. b i. apceb' je joba, b It. p ymbe lytel pypjr, Co/, 
abt, B I, and if. ^ of, Cot. N.S. ^ .«Seian, OU. b if. " From C.T, b if. < Aba. Cot. « Fijoji- 
cajtep, Cot* * J«f jfona, Cot. J op, Cot, N.^. « Abs. Cot. ' J>ep cin jep ppeojr, Cot. * Apc-bijcop* 
ftole, Cot. * Abs. Cot. « Seaxan, Cot. ' Luan^i Cot. Liunj, Jose apud C.T. b if. Pihpa- C.T. 
B i. Jose, interl. 'Abs. Cot. i co Pijop-ceajrep *j co Glape-pcipe, Cot. ^ From CT.'b i., transcribed 
also by Joscelin In the margin of slf . with his usual designation of the MS., which in the present arrange* 
ment is marked b i. *^ Sic in hist. M" Boyer.'* His faithful retention of ec for eac is worthy of no« 
ttce ; bat Vaep seems to hafe been substituted inadferteody for %p. 



THE SAXON CHRONICJ[|E. 



Sll 



pmb. ^ B^phtmseji B ^epop on Licet- 
pelba. 1 Fcalaj* f lo^on Sabfine. Leop- 
jwccj- bpoVop eoplef. -j Dupcil. -j /Elp- 
jet. 1 fPi^ pela jobpa manna mib heom. 
^ hep com ec )3ap%acnut to Bpicje. 
Jwip hif mobop paej*''. 

An. MXL. *j3cp pop^pepbe ):>apofo 
cjn^ **on Oxnapopba. on xri. kl. App . 
:j he paep « bebyp^eb act peptmynftpe. 
^Anb he peolbe 6n3la lanbep iv. ^eap. 
^ xTi. pucan. ^ on hij- bajum man jealb 
zTi. jxipan aet aelcepe hamulan Tin. 
mapc. eall ppa man lep b^be on Cnutef 
cynjef ba2um^ Anb on J^ip ylcan 
geape ^man fenb aeptep ):>ap%acnute 
«x> Bp^^ee. penbe f man pel b^be. 'j be 
com Jya hibep to Sanbptc mib u:« pci- 
pum' 'vii. nihtum ^p mibban J*umepa^ 
«tl he paBjr fona unbepptnjen ^asj^p' 
2eppamAn2lum2e):!pamDenum^^^eah < 
]ie hif pa^bep-mean hit j^lSon jrtpanje 
jropgulbon. Da hi jepaebben J?aet man 
jealbe lxii. pcipon. mt aslcepe hamelan 
▼III. mapc^ ^ tJ him paej* fa unholb eall 
f bf aep ^pnbe^^ he ne jeppemebe ea^c • 
naht o^nehcdp ]» hpile ye. be pixebe« tie 
letbpa^n up J^one beaban ISapolb tl 
hme on )?enn onpceottan^ ''Anb on J^ip 
ilcan jes^pe eobe fc paeptep hpaetep to 
M, pene^. ^ eac pupVop''^ ^):>ep Gab- • 
jTje ApceB pop to Rome''> 



terrible wind ; and bishop Britm^rdied 
atlaichfield. The Wekh slew Edwin, 
brother of earl Leofrie^and Tburkil^ mid 
El%etj and many good «en with them. 
* .Thif year also cameHarthacnuteto Bra* 
gesj where his mother was. 

A.D. 1040. Tbisyear died king Ha- 
rold at Oxford 1, on the 16th before the 
calends of April ;. and he was buried at 
> Westminster. He governed England 4 
jears and 16 weeks; and in bis days tri- 
bute was paid to )6 ships*^ at the rate of 
8 marks for each steersman^ as was done 
before in king Cnute*s days. The same 
year they sent after Hartbacmite to Bra- 
ges, supposii^ they did well ; and be 
came hither to Sandwich with 60 sbipe, 
.7 nights before midsummer. He was 
soon received both by the Angles and 
Danes^ though his advisers afterwards 
severely paid for it. They ordered a 
tribute for 68 ships^ at the rate of 6 
marks for each steersman. Tben were 
alienated from him all that before de^ 
sired him; for he framed nothing royal 
during his whole reign« He ordered 
the dead Harold to be dragged up and 
thrown into a ditch. This .year rose the 
sester of wheat to 55 pence^ and even 
further. This year archbishop Edsy 
went to Rome. 



* Ao. Mxu fFM. C,T. B i. and iT« Deji fpealc t)a]iolb cyo;. 1 ddbd feobe, tfc. C.T. b it. ^ Abs. Col. 
B L and it. « peajiV, Cbl. * Abs. Coi. b i. and if. Vid. an. mxxzv. * From C.7. b i. and ir. 1040. 
]ftk jenbe man, Vc» a i.*« com t3apbacnut cyn; to Sanbpic, Vc, Gibs, from Laud, CoL ' Abs. Coi* 
f opan CO mibbao pimepa. C^T. b i. and i?. ' Abs. C*T. b u and in ^ Abs. Laud. ' 1 ajtealbe 
fti Jpi^ PT^^S ZY^^* ^ ^^^ ^^^ unease mihce acuroan. j{ paej yiii. mapc aec bamelan, C,T, a !. and i?. 
with little ▼ariation. ^ From C.T. b ir. 104' • So Peiroh. b i. with little rariation : bi. has ec, piciobe, 
^ne, t3apalb, pen, fceotan. ' H^keL from Ben* abs. Laud. Coi. b i. and ir. 

' '' Xsifiilaiiuv."— Fior. S. Dunelm.R» Dicet. ei duodedm unicuique gubernatori^ de ioia An^ 

* '^ Odo marea$ ufUcuifue nuB ckuiU remgiy glim prmcepU [A^x] d^pendi.** — ^Flor. 

SeS 



1 



SIS 



THE SAXON CHRONICLfif. 



Atkk <MX'LL ISep pa^j* ye hepe-^eolb A.D. 1041. This yenr wait the tri- 
jelaftft. f paspon xxt.^ ])Ufenb punba. ^j biite paid to the army ; that was, 2 1,099 
ac».piiaba.^ man 2ealbj7%^an XXXII. pounds; and afterwards to 3S sbftiSj 
fcipon XI. jfuyenb punba. *i xlviii. pun- 1 1,048 pounds. This year also ordered 
ba^ 'liephet^ftapSacnuchepjianeall • Harthacnute to lay waste all Worcester- 
J?yjpacej^pefoipe" pop hij-tpejpa hup shire, on account of the two servants of 



oapla J^injon }>e'f jrpanje' jylb bu- 
bon, )ia flo^ons hi f pole binnan popte 
iDnan Jyam m^nj^pe''. Anb on }>if * ilcan 
^eape -fona* com 6abpapb /B)?elpebej* 
pmiA cmjef ^ hibep to lanbe ^on QOeb- 
bpen"^ op peallanbe. pe paej* I3apba- 
enuftef bpo$op c^njej-^ ^\>e paey aep 
pop pela jeapan op J^ipin jeapbe abpy- 
pen. ^ J?eah pajjr to cynjc jejrpopen. 
^ he puDobe }>a [-pa on hip bpoVop hi- 
pebe ^a hpile )>e he leopobe^^ hi paepon 
bejen *y61pjiuep puna'' Ymman ". '^peo 
paep" Ricapbep bohtop eoplep*^:- "'j on 
Jnpan jeape eac ppac bap^acnut Gab- 
ulpe unbep hip jpy^e. ^J he paep peb- 
loja. ^ hep man habobe /Gjelpjc bipcop 
to Gopeppic on iii. ib. lanuapn'^ 

An. MXLII. •J^ep popSpepbeftap^a- 
cnut c^^nj'' Pact Lamb-hy%e. ^ppa f he 
ast hip bpmce ptob. ^j he paspinja peoll 
to ]?aspe eop%an mibe^eplicuman^inne. 
ac hine ]?a jelashton )ie )iaep neh psepon. 
^ he peoB^an nan popb ne ^ecpaeB. ac 
jepat'^^'on vi. ib. Iun.'''j he 'paep cynj"' 
**opep eall Gnjla lanb" tpa jeap buton 
X. ■nihtum. ^ he *ip bebypjcb"' "on 



his household, who exacted the heavy 
tribute. That people slew them in the 
town within the minster. Early iil this 
same year came Edward, the son of king 
Ethelred, hither to land, from WeaMand 
to Madron. He was the brother of king 
Harthacnute, and had been driven frOm 
this land for many years: but he was ne- 
vertheless sworn as king, and abode iik 
his brother's court while he lived. They 
were both sons of Elfgive Emma, who 
was the daughter of earl Richard. In this 
year also Harthacnute betrayed Eadulf, 
under the mask of friendship. He Was 
also allied to him by marriage. This year 
was Egelric consecrated bishop of York, 
on the 3d day before the ides of January. 
A.D. 104S. This year died king Har- 
thacnute at Lambeth, as he stood drink- 
ing : he fell suddenly to the earth with 
a tremendous struggle; but those who 
were nigh at hand took him up ; and 
he spoke not a word afterwards, butex* 
pired on the 6th day before the ides of 
June. He was king over all England 
two years wanting ten nights; and he is 



* XXXI* Cot. ^ Abs. Cot. " From C.T. b i. and it. Jose, ioterl. mxli. 'let, CT. b i. Jose. 
iaterliD. a i^. • Pyhp- CT. b i. 'So C.T. b i. p:panjaB, b W. » jplob jJ pole hi, CT, b i. 

^ l^ypim, Coi, ' jona on (De^jien, tSfc.j CT b it. 104 i, where the whole passage runs thus : *) j^ej 
jepej jfona com 6abpapb hijf bjio^op on CDebbjieo (CDebpen, CT. b i.) f jiam ^eonban pe. ^^eljwbej' 
(•-juebef, CT b i.) jiinu cynjejf, ^c. ^ From CT. b i?. * ^Ijr^iue jiinu, Cot, " Abs. 

Laud, Pettoh. b f. and It. " From CT b it. 1041. So b i., with little Tariation, as far as pebloja. 
• Ad. MXLII. CT B.i. and it. Whel. ^ From Laud. Cot. Pttroh. CT b i. and it. i From C.T.b i. 
and IT. 1049. ''pixobe, CT ' nibran. Cot. * liV. Cot. " a Pin-ccajtpe ao ealba mynjtpe, Cot. NJS. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



213 



ealllan m^^nftpe on pincea|rtpe^ *mib 
CnuiDe cyn^e hij* paebe])"^. ^Anb hif 
mobep pop hif piple ^ep into Nipan- 
m^nprpe p. Valentincp heapob J?ap 
maptipep". * Anb cap }>an J)e he^bcbyp- • 
jeb paspe eall pole jeceap^ ]>a Gabpapb 
ro c^njeon Lunbene. ^*] unbeppenjon 
hine to k^^nm^e. eall ppa him pel je* 
cynbe paep"^. ^bealbe )?a hpile ]?e him 
Gqb unne'^ Anb ealJ f jeap psep ppiVeS • 
hepij time on manejum J^injum '^ 
miphcum. je on unpaebepum je on 
eop^-pasptm um. A nb ppa my eel oppep 
paep J^aep jeapep poppapen". ppa nan 
man asp ne jemunbe. ^aej^ep je J^uph • 
miptkee eoSa ^e ];uph unjepybepu. 
Anb on J^ip ilcan time pop^pepbe 
/61p^....abB op Buph. ^ man eeap ]m 
Apnpi munec to abH popSan )?e he pasp 
ppy^e job man tJ ppi^e bilehpit"':- 

*An, MXLIII. Jiep pajp Gabpapb ^ je- 
haljob to cynje aet pmceptpe on pop* 
man' Gaptep baej. "mib myeeelum 
pypSpeipe, 'j J?a paepon eaptpon on in. 
non. Apt. Gabpje apeebipceop hme hal* - 
jabe. 'j topopan eallum )iam polce° hine 
pel laepbe. ^ to hip ajenpe neobe*] eallep 
polcep pel manube^ tt Stijanb ppeopt 
paep jebletpab to bipeope to Gapt 
8njlum''. "tJ ^^T Zl^P^T ^"JJ* nihton • 



buried in the old miMter at WiAcheMer 
with king Knute hit father. And hit 
mother for hit soul gave to the new 
mintter the head of St. Valentiae the 
Martyr : and ere he waa baried all peo- 
ple chote Edward for king in London* 
And they received him as their king^ as 
was natural ; and he reigned as long as 
God granted him. All that year was 
the season very severe in many and va«* 
riout respects; both from the incle-* 
mency of the weather, and the loss of 
the fruits of the earth. More cattle died 
this year than any man ever remem* 
bered, either from various diseases, or 
from the severity of the weather. At 
this same time died Elfsinus, abbot of 
Peterborough ; and they chose Arnwy, a 
monk, for their abbot; because he was a 
very good and benevolent man. 

A.D. 1043. This year was Edward 
consecrated king at Winchester, early 
on Easter*day, with much pomp. Then 
was Easter on the 3d day before the 
nones of April. Archbishop Edsy con- 
secrated him, and before all people well 
admonished him. And Stigand the priest 
was consecrated bishop over the East 
Angles. And this year, 1 4 nights before 
the mass of St. Andrew, it was advised 



» Abs. CoL Piir^h. C.T. b i. and it. * Abs. Laud. Petroh. C.T, b i. and I?. <= "j sep je cynj, Cot, 
* jecief, Coi. uobeppen^, C.T. b i. • From C.T, b it. The first member of the sentence abs. b. i. 
Both MSS. here end the year 1042, and begin the neit (1043) with the consecration of king Edward 
at Winchester. ' Abs. Coi. » jrpa, Coi. »• iElf jfinnjr. * From Laud. Coi. Peirob. b i. and it. 
The Lambard transcript begins here, printed at the end of Lye's Saxon Diet. Vid. Wanl. Coi. p. 271 . 
It ends abruptly with the words p xbep je — A.D. mlxziz., as does also C,T. a iT. From this and other 
circumstances it is presumed to be a transcript from that MS. ^ So C.T. bu and if. Gtebvaph, Lye. 
eftbuuapby Gibs. ' Abs. Gibs. * From Gibs. C»T. b i. abs. b iT. " pel Iipbe to hip agcnp e 
necibc ^ to eallep polcep ppeme, Coi. • So MS. ^ From C.T. a it. Lye from Lamb, 



fit4 



THE SAXON chronicle: 



lep Anbfiea|r . msefprn' man ^epasbbe 
J^an cj'n jc f he pab op Olcapcertpc. ^ 
Leoppic eopl 'j Grobpine ebpl ^ S^j^pV 
eopl mib heopa jen^e to pinceptpe on 
unpaep on )»a hlaspbjan* "] bepeap^an - 
hi aet eallon )mn jaeppaman & heo ahte. 
)ia paepon unatellenblice. popj^an })e heo 
paep aepop J?am cynje hipe punii ppil* 
heapb. f heo him lasppe bybe ]yonne he 
polbe asp ]>am )>e he cfn^ paepe. ^j eac • 
py^San. *j leton hi }>aBp.p®Ban binnan 
pittan*'. 1 pa^e J^aep pe cynj let gepi- 
ban ealle )^ lanb ))e hip mobop ahte htm 
to hanba. *] nam op hipe eall f heo ahte 
on jolbe ^ on polppe *^ on unapcjenb- • 
kcum fin^nni'. popVam heo hit heolb 
aep *to paepte'*' piV.hme. *^ pa%e J^aep 
man pette Stijant^ op hipbipceoppice. 
^ nam eal f he ahte ]>am cinje to hanba. 
pop J^am he paep niehpt hip mobop psebe. • 
^ heo pop ppa ppa he hipe paebbe. J^aep 
)^ men penbon^^ 

•An. MXLIV. Jiep Gabpje apcebn 
pceop poplet 'Jiaet bipcop-prce'' pop hip 
untpumnippe. tJ bletpobe ]>a&pto Sipapb • 
abB op s Abbanbune to bipcope. be ]>asp 
cj'njep laepe** ^ paebe *. ^ Gobpmep eop- 
lep. I3it pasp ^eallep peapum mannum 
cu^ aep hit jebon paep. *pop*an pe Ap- 
cel> penbe f bit pum oVep man abib- 
ban polbe oJ?J?e ^ebicj^n. )>e he hip pypp 
tpupube anb u^e\ ^jip hit ma manna 
pipte''. Anb on J?ypum jeape" paep 
pp^& my eel hunjop opep eall" 6n3la 



the king^ that he and earl Leofric and 
earl Godwin and earl Siwerd with their 
retinue, should ride from Gloucester to 
Wincherter unawares dpon the lady; 
and they deprived her of all the treasures 
tbfitshehad;' which wer^ immense ; be- 
cause she was formerly very hard upon 
the king her son^ and did less for him 
than he wished before he was king, and 
also since : but they suffered her to re- 
main there afterwards. And soon after 
this the king determined to invade all 
the land that his mother bad of him in 
her hands, and took firom her all that she 
had in gold and in silver and in number- 
less things ; because she formerly held it 
too fast against him. Spon after {his SK- 
gand was deprived of his bishopric ; and 
they took all that he had of the king in 
his hands, because he was nighest the 
cdunsel of his mother ; and she acted as 
he advised, as men supposed. 

A.D. 1044. This year archbishop fid- 
sy resigned his see ' from infirmity, and 
consecrated Si ward, abbot of Abingdon, 
bishop thereto, with the permission and 
advice of the king and earl Godwin. It 
was known to few men else before it 
was done ; because the archbishop (ear^ 
ed that some other man would either beg 
or buy it, whom he might worse trust 
and oblige than him, if it were known 
to many men. This year there was very 
great hunger over all England, and 



I « I > 



* Abs. Coi. ^ oaep pejve, Coi. to pejte, Gibs. * Prom C.T. b i. only ; now first priated. 

' So MS. * From Laud. Cot An. mxliii. C.T. si. ' hij Apce-bij-cop-juce, Coi. ' Ab- 

iMbbQoe, Coi. ^ j^leauan, Coi, leafe> Jose. ' So Coi. Jose, pseba, Gibs. ''So Coi, elleji 
Gibs, from Lamd^ N.S. ' fojiSon ye Ajicbifcop penbe 'f jam o%ep maa ^t hue jr^jf n^. hit abib- 
ban oHKe ^ebi^jan fcolbe, Coi. * Abs. LoMd, 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



915 



lanb. ^"1 copn f]ui b^pe^fpa mninan eep 
ne jeoiuiibe'^ j-pa f pe» rej-tep hpaetrcj- 
cobe to '^i-x. pene^a. •';) c4c pup^p.* 
Anb ^aep^lcaa jeapef fe cyn; P^ ^^ 
ro Sanbpic ihib xxxv. fCipon. *] /BVel-. 
ftan cypic^peapb pen^ to )ram abb6b- 
pic^.9et Abbanbune^ ^'i Stij^anb pen^ 
ro hip bipcop-pice^.^AnbcHi )?ami^lcaii 
2eji^ Gibpapb cin; nam Gab^^^ Gob* 
pmep Qpplep bohtop him tro pipe. x. 
luhtum sep.jQsiQbelmssf pn'^ Anb^on }>ip 
i\can jeaj^e pop^pepbe Bpihtpolb B. ^on 
piltuwpcipe'' ^on X- kt. CDai''. -j be <^heoIb 
J?Wr bjfcop-piGcp'' xxxTiii. pintpa. ^f 
paf f bjpcop-pice op Scipebupn'^ *anb 
V^ppemzn jjep cy^njep ppeopc pcnj to 
j)am bif coppice'', Anb on )>y|rum 2^pe 
m^i^ ''haljobfe J?ulppic to abB ^aet pCe 
Au^uptine "^to Xpep ni«rpan on Ste- 
pfianep mteppe-baej''. be J>ep kynjep je- 
l^pn. ^ ■bp"' /Blpj-tanep abbotep ® pp 
hip mycelpeP untpiimnyppe. 

An. MXLV, ^I3ep jcpop /Blppapb 
B on Lupbene on yiii. Id. aj . be paep 
abB on 6opephamme aspept. 'i f m^n- 
ptpe pel jepopjjobe J^a hpile J« he f aep 
pap. Gepenbe fa to Ramepeje. "J J>ap 
hip lip alast, ^ CDanni psep to abbobe 
jeco^en. *J jehabob on iiii. ib. a^'. ^j 
^aep jepep man bpap Gunnilbe ut. 
f , aej^ele pip. Cnutep c^njep majan. 
^ ^ hco py^lSan pact aet Bpygce lanj 



cdm so dear as no man remembered be- 
for^e.; so that tbe septer of wheat rose to 
60 peface, and ^iren further. And this 
same year the king vTptit oiit to .Sand- 
wich with '85 shipis ; atfd Athelstan, the 
cburcfa«^ardea,;8ucceed^ to the abbacy 
of Abingdon, and Sligand returned to 
his bishopric. In the same year alsp 
king Edward took to wife Edgitha, the 
daughter of Earl Godwin, 10 nights be- 
fore eandlemaa. And id llie same year 
died Britwold; bishofi of Wiltshire, on 
the IQth day before the calends of May ; 
trhich bishopric he . held 38 winters ; 
tbat wad, the bishopric of Sherborn. 
And Herman, the king's priest, succeed- 
ed to the bishopric. This year Wulfric 
was consecrated Abbot of iSt. Auguflh 
tine's, at Christmas, on the mass-day of 
St. Stephen, by the king's leave and that 
of >abbdt Etfstan, by ireasbn; of his great 
UitirmjlTy. : 

[ A.D. 1045. This year died Elfward, 
bishop^of London, on the 6th day 66" 
fore the calipnds of August. He was for- 
merly abbot' of fivesham, and well fur* 
thered tbftt<m6nabtery the while that he 
was there. Hq went then to l^aroseyi and 
tiiere resigned hid life : atad Mannie was 
cho/sen abbot, being consecrated on the 
4tb day before the idtls of August. This 
year Gunnilda, a Woman of rank, a re- 



I *■ *■ 



• Abs.^of. * xf.. Coi., traosposiog the numerals. f Abfl.CT. a. i. * From C.T. b i. 

" An. MXLiii. bep nam ^bpapb cynj Gobpiuejf bohtop eeple; him co Cfene." Gibe, from Laud. Coi.y 
prefixing a repetition of the former year, mxuy.. Cot. • From C.T. b it. an. mxlvi. 'From 
C.T. B i. an. mzlt. « psejr bijcop, Coi. abs. C.T b L and iv. ^ From CoL alw. Laud, b i. and if. 
i i eabpapb cynj 3eaj: l^epamanne hij ppeojre ^ bijceoppioe, C.T. b i, *j man jecoo l>epeman on hij 
jecle, B IT., l^yey &c. ^ habobe Cat. * co, CoL ^ an o^pne Xpej- msBfjie-bse;, Coi. 

■ Abs. Laud. • abbot^ CoL p mycelan, Coi. *» From C.T. b i?. Lyo, ftTc. 



216 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



hpile. *] pop to Denmajicon pWan"^. lative of king KDOte, was driven out, 
^On ]>am j^ape jejabepabe 6abpapb and resided afterwards at Bruges a long 
cfn^ m^cele pyp-pypbe on Sanb- while, and then went to Denmark. King 
pic %uph CDajnuf Vpeatunje on Nop- Edwardduringthejear collected a large 
pejon. ac hif ^epinn ^ Spe^enef on* fleet at Sandwich, through the threaten- 
Denmapcon jeletJton f he hep ne ingoFMagnusof Norway; but his con- 



corn 



tests with Swey ne in Denmark prevented 
him from coming hither. 
»An. *^MXLVL « Jiep FopSpepbe Ly- A.D. 1046. This year died Liffing, 
pn^ j-e popbf notepa bij-cop x. kt App. • the eloquent bishop, on the 1 0th day 



^ he haspbe iii. bpice. an on Depena- 
j-cipe. anb on Copnpalon. ^ on Pijpa- 
ceftpc : Da penj Leoppic to Depena- 
pcipe. 1 to Copnpalon. **pe paef Jiaf 
c^njef ppeopt". *j Albpeb B to Pyjpa- 
ceptpe''. 

An. MXLVII. liep popSpepbe yGlp- 
pme B on pinceptpe. ^on iv. kt Sep- 
tembpip"^. tJ Stijanb btpcop be nopVan 
paep on hip petl ahapen. *i aep J^am on 
fz ilcan ^epe pop]7pepbe Gpimc^^tel B 
on Su%-Sexum. ^"J he hS on Cpiptep 
C]^pican on Cantpapabypij'^. 'j J3eca 
Jcp cynjer ppeopt pen j to fam Bpice. 
"i Spe^en eac fenbe hibep. basb him 
pylj-tep onjean CDajnuf Noppeja cynj. 
f man j^ceolbe penban l. pc^pa him to 
pultume. ac hit ]7uhte unpaeb eallum 
polce. anb hit peap% )^a ^elet )^uph f ]>e 
CDajnup haepbe micelne pcypcpaept: "j 
he }3. aytte )^a Spejen ut.^ mib mj'celan 
manflihte f lanb ^cpann. ^ Denas him 
m]^cel peoh julbon. "J hine to c^nje un- 
beppen^on. *i Si ^Ican jeape COajnup 



before the calends of April. He had 
three bishoprics; one in Devonshire, 
one in Cornwall, and another in Wor- 
cestershire. Then succeeded Leofric, 
who was the king's priest, to Devon- 
shire and to Cornwall, and bishop Al- 
dred to Worcestershire. 

A.D. 1047. This year died Elfwine, 
bishop of Winchester, on Uie fourth day 
before the calends of September ; and 
Stigand, bishop of Norfolk, was raised 
to his see. Ere this, in the same year, 
died Grimkytel, bishop of Sussex ; and 
he lies at Christ- church, in Canterbury. 
And Heca, the king's priest, succeeded 
to the bishopric. Sweyne also sent hi- 
ther, and requested the aid of fifty ships 
against Magnus, king of the Norwe- 
gians ; but it was thought unwise by all 
the people^ and it was prevented, be- 
cause that Magnus had a large navy : 
and he drove Sweyne out, and with 
much slaughter won the land. The 
Danes then gave him much money, and 
received him as king. The same year 



• From CT. b i?. Lye, Vc. ^ mxlt., Coi. b I. nxlvi., C.T. b It. ' From C.T. b iv. 

•« Gibs, from Laud. Coi. • Ab». Coi. ^ From C.T. b i. 1047. » So C.T. b if., Lye, &c, but 
it ought to be Dene. Deaa is the gen. pi. ^ *3 on jumepan penbe nt, Coi, 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



«17 



p»p^pcftoeu Anb on ]>am ilcan 2^pe 
fepbe Spe^en eojil ut* to Balbepinef 
Iftnbe 1^0 Bpfc^e. *i punobe y^^ji ealne 
famxfis ^^ penbe J^a tro jnimepe ut'^:- 
: ' Ab. MXLVL «)3eji on )>yfum jeape • 
jSAp-Spe^n cojil into pcalan. ^ Gpip- 
|in fc Nopjiqina cj^nj pop^ mib hun. 
^ him man jifiobe. yz he hampepbef 
pasp Jmrhet he peecgn him' to ]>a abbe* 
beppan on Leom^nptpc. "j ha^pbe hi )>a • 
pkile4 Jie him gehpte. ^j let hi pyW»n 

papan ham/ tl o^ l^^r Y^^ Z^^P^ ^man 
jg^higbbtf C^6b Olapan ptaUepe'* 
^pcfHin t» liubban pmtpc. "j on )?ip ;^lc- 
tt^Z^P^' asptep Canbehnaeppan. com • 
pe pvpttfija pintep. mib popptse. *J mib 
pnape. ^ mibeallon im^pebepon. f nasp 
BM man )» on luie f imbte jemunan 
ppaf);panzepintepppd pe paep: je J^uph 
man<pealm. ^e |>uph opp^cpealm. ^e • 
pt^elap *i piKap J^uph )K>ne micelan Jcyle 
^ bunjep poppnpban"^:* 
. tAn-MXIVIL"* heprop*pepbe/e- 
^ptanabB. en Abbanbiine ^on itii. ki. 
App)/ 1 penj Speaphapoc miinuc to op * 
p2fe 8abm|iiibep b^p^pi^. *]« paep eptep 
^13 HI/ non. Appl. ^ paep opep eall 
^ajla-lanb pp]^]7e m^cel man-cpelm on 
]iamf Jean jeape. Anbon ]?ip ilcan j^eape' 
comon to Sanijpic*^ Lo^en ^ Yfihlij. . 



Magnusf dtedv The same jear aUo earl 
Swejne \i^ent out to Baldwin's laud^ to 
Bruges; and remained there all the win- 
ter. In the summer he departed. 

A.D. 1046, This year went earl 
Sweyne into Wales ; and Griffin king 
of the northern men with hini; andhos- 
tages were delivered to him. As he re- 
turned homeward^ he ordered the abbess 
of Leominster to be fetched him ; and 
he had her as long as he list^ dfter which 
he let h^r go home. In this same year 
was <iutlawed Osgod Clapa^ the master of 
horse^ before midwinter. Andiothesame 
yeftr^ after Candlemas^ came the strong 
winter^ with frost and with snow; and 
Vith all kinds of bad weather ; so that 
thel^-was no man then alive who could 
remember so serere a winter as this was, 
both through loss of men and through loss 
of cattle; yea, fowh and fishes through 
much cold aiid hunger perished. 

AJD. 1047. This year died Athelstan^ 
abbot of Abingdon, on the fourth day 
before the cidends of April ; and Spar- 
hawk, niionk of St. Edmundsbury, suc- 
ceeded him. Easter day was' then on 
the.' third -day before the nones of 
April ; -and" there wa^ over all' En*- 
gland very great loss of men this year 



t0m^ 



• Abs. Coi. ^ -J on jamejian penbe ut, Coi. * From C.T. Bi. now first printed. It 

appears to hare been transeribed'by Joscelia in the margin of bit. fol.71; but some part of his 
tjraoscript is totally illegible. ^ So hi MS. This, I beliefe, is the earliest instance of j be- 

foi^lu '; ^ • pcap« ajrJew^ uc, Gibs.' Laud. Peirol. An. mxliv. — ut abpipen, CoL - Oj^ot, 
OibK.: • TFrom C.T.'bIt. *j CDIljQuj-jepann Denmapcoo, f(^. An.mzLYii. Then follows in the 
svqe'MS.: J^,.Uti:r\tu l^ep pasj. pe jti]»i pincep. 1 J^aej jepep pop^pepbe -flSlppme, fafc. as 
pripti^ 10 Lye'^ App^ndi^. The 'serere^ winter, it will be dbserved, did not begin till after Can* 
diemas. « From XavJ. Coi. chiefly. • ^ mzlitj. Gibs, from Laud, mxltii. Coi. « From 
/7X Bi. ^ J'ljan lanbe, Coi. 

2 F 



218 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



mib XXV. fcipon. *^ hepjobon'. ^^ na- 
mon Jjsep unaj-ecjenblice hejie-hu^e. on 
mannum 1 on jolbe tJ on feolppe': ^}>et 
nan man n^p^fte hpaet fasj- eallej- pej*. 
Anb penbon fa onbuton Tenet. *j polb- 
on ]?aep J^et ilce bon. ac fet lanbpolc 
hapbhce pi^ptobon.^j ppppepnbon heom 
aej^ep je upjanjep je paetepep "J 
aplymbon hi J^anon mib ealle. Anb hi 
penbon heom j^anon to Gapt-Seaxan. 1 
hepjobon JJaep tJ namon menn. ^ ppa 
hpaet ppa hi pmban mihtan. Anb je- 
penbon him fa eapt to Balbepinep lanb. 
^ pealbon faep J>et hi jehepjob haep- 
bon '. * "J pepbon heom pyS^on eapt f a- 
iion f e hi aep comon •^t- 

An. MXLVIII. 'J3ep com ept Spe- 
jens to Denamapcon. 1 JSapolb pop to 
Noppejum. TOajnup paebepa. py^San 
CDajnup beab paer. 'j Nopmen hine un- 
beppenjon. tJ he penbe ymb ppy^ hibep 
to lanbe. tJ Spejen eac penbe op Den- 
mapcon. tJ haB*> Gabpapb cynj pcyp- 
pultumep. f pceolbe beon act laeptan . ward naval assistance to the amount at 
L. pcjrpa. ac eall pole piScpaeW. ^ hep least of fifty ships; b*ut all the people 
paep eac eop^-ptypunj on ki. CDai. on resisted it. This year also there was an 
manejum ptopum. on pijpaceptpe. ^ earthquake, on the calends of May, in 
on pic. ^ on Deopby. ^ ellep jehpaep. many places ; at Worcester, at Wick, 
*»pibe on en3la-lanb^ 1 eac paep jyipe . and at Derby, and elsewhere wide 
mycel man-cpealm ^ opp-cpealm. ""opep throughout England ; with very great 
eall Gnjla-Ianb'. ^ eac f pilbe py^p on loss by disease of men and of cattle over 
Deopb]^pcipe micel ypel bybe. 1 ^ehpaep all England ; and the wild fire in Der- 

• Abs. Laud. >» *j namaa menn "J ashtan. 1 hjwt jrpa hi pnben mihten, Cbl. « Abs. Coi. 

^ 1 ^epetibaa eye )?aQon bi ep comoD. Coi. « Bellum apud vallium duntu^ Gibs, from Laud. 

' From C.T, b it. Lye, &c. m xliz. See b i. Flor. &e. mxltiii. s Spein, C.T. b It. > From 
C.T. B i. ; where the year b^ios thus : l>ep on J^ipun jeajie p«f mycel eojiV-jtypua; pibe on, f^c. 

' The death of bishop Si ward, and the re-ap- pated in Gibson'j edition; but a more full state- 
pointment of archbishop Edsy, are here antici- ment is now giTen of these occurrences p. 319. 



alsoi. The same year came to Sand«> 
wich Lothen and Irling^ with 95 ships^ 
and plundered and' took incalculable 
spoils in meUj and id gold^ and in silvefj 
so that no man wist what it all was ; 
and went then about Thanet, and would 
there have done the same; but the land- 
folk firmly withstood^ and resisted them 
both by land and sea, and thence pat 
them to flight withal. They betook 
tliemselves thence into Essex^ where 
they plundered and took men, and what- 
soever they could find, whence they de- 
parted eastward to Baldwin^s landj and 
having deposited the booty^ they had 
gained^ they returned east to the place 
whence they had come before. 

A.D. 1048. This year came Sweyne 
back to Denmark; and Harold, the un- 
cle of Magnus, went to Norway on the 
death of Magnus, and the Northmen 
submitted to him. He sent an embassy 
of peace to this land, as did also Sweyne 
from Denmark, requesting of king Ed- 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



219 



ellef ''. **j on 'pzm ylcan j^ajie man je- 
hepjobe Sanbpic tJ Piht. tJ opflohan }?a 
betfta men ]?e J^ap pa&pon. *;] 6abpap& 
cininj 'j ])a eojilaf popan aeptep ]>am 
ut mib heopa p c^pun. tJ on ]7am ^Ican 
jeape Sipapb bip ceop poplet f bip ceop- 
pioe pop hip untpumn^ppe. ^ pop to 
Abbanbune. ^ Cabp^e apcebipceop 
penj ept to ]^am bipceoppice ^ he 
pop^pepbe J?aep bmnan Tin. pucan, on 
X. Id. Nouembpip'^, 

*An. MXLIX,^ ^toep'on J^ipan ^eape 
f* e capepe je^abepobe unapmiebhce 
p^pbe on^ean Balbpme opBp^y^ce. J^uph 
f ^Y he bpaec *J?a palentan'astNeoma- 
2on. tJ eac pela oj^pa unj^anca \e he him 
bybe. peo pj'pb paep unapimebhc^ J>e he 
jejabepab haepbe. paep pap *Leo' pe 
papa *op Rome^ tJ pe patpiapcha. ^ 
pela o^pa masppa manna op jehpilcum 
leobpcypum. Vse penbe eac toGabpapbe 
xynje "j baeb hme pcyp-pultumep. f he 
ne ^ejiapobe f he him on pastepe ne ast- 
buppte. "j he pop Jja to Sanbpic. 1 laej 
J^aep mib myclum pcyp-hepe pop^ f pe 
capepe haepbe op Balbpine eall f he 
polbe. Daep com eac ""ept onjean' Spe- 
jen eopU. \e pop asp op ])ipan lanbe to 
Denmapcon. ^ J^aep poppophte hinepi% 
Denum. )3e com hibep mib hipunje. 
cpaeB f he polbe ept bu^an to Jam c^n je. 
^•j hip man beon. ^ ba^b Beopn eopl f he 



bjsbire and elsewhere did much harm. 
In the same year the eoemy plundered 
Sandwich^ and the Isle of Wight, and 
slew the best men that were there ; and 

• king Edward and the earls went out 
after them with their ships. The same 
year bishop Siward resigned his bishop- 
ric from infirmity^ and retired to Abing- 
don ; upon which archbishop Edsy re- 

• sumed the bishopric; and he^ died 
within eight weeks of this, on the 10th 
day before the calends of November. 

A.D. 104ff.« This year the emperor 
gathered an innumerable army against 

• Baldwin of Bruges, because he bad de- 
stroyed the palace of Nimeguen, and 
because of many other ungracious acts 
that he did against him. Tbe.army was 
immense that he had collected together. 

. There was Leo the pope of Rome, and 
the patriarch, and many other great 
men of several provinces. He sent also 
to king Edward, and requested of him 
naval aid, that he might not permit him 

. to escape from him by water. Where- 
upon he went to Sandwich, and lay there 
with a large naval armament, until the 
emperor bad all that be wished of Bald- 
win. Thither also came back again earl 

• Sweyne, who had gone from this land 
to Denmark, and there ruined his cause 
with the Danes. He came hither with a 
pretence, saying that he would again 



• From C.T.bL mxltiii. as here priated. ^ From CT.bI. and ir. Nothing occurs in Gibson 
from iiXLix. to mlt. inclusiTe. ^ ml. CT. b i?. ^ From C.T, b I. ^ ]«oe palanc, CT. bi. 
' uDarelleDbliC) C,T, b i. i co Gabpejibe cin^c, CJT, b i. 

't. «• Siward, within eight weeks of his re* we here follow for the sake of perspicuity, though 
tirement to Abingdon. See p. 222. some of these events are placed in the MSS. to 

* So Florence of Worcester, whose authority very different years ; as the story of Beorn. 

2 fS 



920 



THE SJPXON CHRONICLE 



him on pultume paepe. *i Stpnbc to 
him lanbep f he mihte hine on apeban. 
Ac JlJapplb hij- bpoBop pi^cpae^ ^Beopn 
eopl: f hi^ nolbon him ajypan nan 
Jnnjc J^aej- fe ye cmjheom Z'^ZYV^^ 
ha^pbe. ac ye cinjc him aecep j^mjep 
poppypnbe. Da ^epenbe Spejen to hip 
pcypori to Bopanham^ *Da pi^^an jraep 
capepep peht paep 'j Balbpinep. popbn 
pcla pcipa ham. * ^ pe kynj bblap baep- 
tan aet Sanbpic mib peapom pcypu'm^ 
t) Gobpine eopl eac pop mib xlii, pc^- 
pum ppam Sanbpic to PepenapaeX t( 
Beopn eopl him pop mib. *^tJ fa pe icmj 
lypbe eallon CD^pceon ham. ^ hi^ ppa 
bytoon'. Da c^Sbe man Jjam cynje f 
Opjoblaje onUlpe inib xxxix.^ pcypori. 
tl f^ cynj fa penbe aeptep fam pcipum 
.fe he oppenban® mihte •fe aep ham 
penbon'. ^J?e innan NopS-mufan lajon'. 
*i Op^ob pet:te hip' pip on Bp^cje^. ^ 
penbon ept onjean mib vi. pcypum. ^ 
fa ofpe popon on 6apt-Seaxons to 
eabulpepna&ppe'^. ^ faep heapm b^bon. 
^ penbon ept to pcypon. *^ heom com 
fa ptpanj pinbe to. ppa f hi paspon eal- 
le poppapene buton peopep fa man 
opploh bejeonban pab^ *On fam fe' 
Gobpine eopl ^ Beopn eopl lajon on 
Pepehepae'* ^mib heopa pc J^pon'. fa com 
Spejeh* eopl ^ baeb Beopn eopl mib 
pacne. *^e pa&p hip eamep punu'. f he 
hip jepepa pa^pe to fam cyn j to Sahb* 
pic. *^^ hip pipa pif hme jebette'. *cpaB^ 
f he him afap ppepijan polbe. ^ him 



submit to the king, and be bis man; and 
he requested earl Beom to be of assist- 
ance to hiln, and give him land to feed 
him on. But Harold^ his brother, and 
earl Beorn resfisted^ and would give him 
notbing of that which the king had 
given them. The king also refused him 
everything. Whereupon;Sweyne retired 
to bis ships at Bosbam. Then, aft^ 
the settlement between the emperor and 
Baldwin, many ships w;ent home, and 
the king remained behind at Sandwich 
with a few ships. Earl Godwin also 
sailed with forty-two ships from Sand- 
wich to Pevensey, and earl Beorn went 
with him. Then the king gave leave to 
air the Mercians to return home, and 
they did so. Then it was told the king 
that Osgod lay at Ulps with tbirty-nin^ 
ships; whereupon the king sent after 
the ships that be might dispatch, which 
before had gone homewards, but still lay 
at the Nore. Then Osgod fetched his 
wife from Bruges; and they i went back 
again with six ships; but the rest went 
towards Essex, to Eadulf's-ness, and 
there plundered, dnd then returned to 
their ships. But there came upon them 
a strong wind, so that they were all lost 
but four persons, who were afterwards 
slain beyond sea. Whilst earl Godwin 
andearl Beom lay atPevensey with their 
ships, came earl Sweyne, and with a 
pretence requested of earl Beorn, who 
was his uncle's son, that he would be his 



• • • * ' * 

* From C.T. b ir. Lye, &c. ^ So C.T,^ i. Pepenefea, Lye. Peiieoejea, b i?. < From C7.7. b i. 
^ xxjx. C.T.hu « ojrpenban, Lye. ' Bjii^e, C.T.nu, s So Cr.Bi. SaVjeie, sir. incor» 
rcctly. Stt^Mxe, Lye. * eaboIpepiBBfje, C.r.Bl. > So Lye. Spein, ^.r.Bin 

. ^ f. p* Osgod and ids. wife^ irith their whole .retinue* " 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. Uh 

hoto beon^ Da penbe Beojin p>p )>aejie companion to the kingatSanji wicb^ ati4 

pbl^e f he him fpican nolbe. nam \>2l better his condition M^ilh*him; adding^ 

III. ^epepan mib him. "J pibon ]>z *ro'* that he would swear oaths to hkn^. and 

papb' Bbpanham. '^Jjaep hip pcipu la- be faithful to him. Whereupon Beorqi 

3on. call ppa hi pceolbon ro Sanbplc^ . concluded, that he would jaotfofr their fe- 

'j hine man pona ^]>a^ jebanb. ^ ro lationshipbetray.him. He therefore took 

pcype Isebbe. ^penbe )?a J^anon mib three companions with. him, and they 

him ro Depramu)>an^ ^ hine J^asp her rode to Bdsham, where hisi ships lay; 

plean. .^ beope bebelpan. ^hme man as thQughthi^jr. should proceed to Sand-^ 

punbe epr^ ^ac hme l^apolb hip mae^ . wich; but they suddenly j^oundhira, and 

yzp perre'. ^ ^ro pmceprpe laebbe ro led hiqi to the ships, and went thence 

ealban m^y'nprpe. *i j^aep bebypibe pi^ with him.toDartmpulli> where they pr- 

Cnur cm^ hip earn, s^j pe cin^ \>a *J dered him to be slain and buried deep. 

: ; : • J—— , ; 

• So C.T. B ir. ^ }xji Spe3eaej jcipa lajoa, C.T. b4t. after SaDbpic, confusedly; for the king 
was at or near Sandwich, but the ships of Swefoe were at Bosham| as stated above from bit. ; for 
fcxpa read fcipe ot fcipa. « From CT-bIt. * "j pepebon Ja to DaspentamuSan, C.T.bu 

• From C.T. b i. ' pepebe hme to p. *| bypigbe tS^c, C.T. b It. f The whole story runt 

thus la Gibson's edition, and is placed to the year mzlti. * Anb" on ^ij ylcan 2^pc pepbe 6ab- 
papb cynj •uti" to Saobpic mib mycclan ycip-hepe. "j com Spejn •^eopl" •in" mib yii. jcipon to Bou 
jetthani. "j jpi^obe pi^ ]?one cyiij. «T behet man him f he mojteyop^c aelc faepa finja J?e iic aep ahte. 
Da pi^lsBj Dapolb eopi hif bpo^up. 1 Beopn copi: ^ he ne mojre beon nan jacpa finja popVe J^e ye 
cyojhnn jfunneii haepbe. ac yetce man him it. ntlita ^pi^ to hip ycipon". •Da peap^ hit unbep jwm 
Jet Jam cyii^^e com popb -J uiippib pcipa lasjen be pejtAii 1 hepjobon. Da je Gobpiae eopI pejt oo« 
buton mib Jep cyn^ep ii. pcipum. Jam anan ptuopbc l3apolb eopl. 1 Jam o^panToptij hipbpoVop* 
anb lanbep.iiianna pcipa xlii. Da pcypte man bapolb topi up Ja»p cynjep pcipe Je bapolb eopl asp 
jreopbc. Ja ^epenbon hi pt^pt to Peutiupea. "j la?3<»n fap ptbep-pepte". * Da Jep binnon if. bajum. ytL 
com Spt- jen oopi Jibi'p. "j ppec pi^ liip pabep' • anb piV Beopn eopl •Jc Jap pap mib Gobpioe''. Anb 
•he" bi b Beopn 'f he pci olbc papan mib him to Jam cynje to Sanb.pic. ^ pyJjtan him to JsEfp cyn^ef 
fpeonbpcipe. i he Jaep tiVobf. 'jepenbon hcom Ja ppyice hi polbon to Jam cynje. Da Sanmnj Jan 
Je hi pibon\ •Ja" baeb Sp^^en hine Jet he jceolbe yapan mib him to hip pcipon. **j"^ >tea1de j^ 
hip *pcipc*p<.7 *polbon pxnbim ppam him", buton he Je pa^op come. IJi jepenbon Ja bcjen 'Jaep hir 
jcipu Iffjen". • Ja hi Jybcp comon". Ja bapb Spe jen •eopl" hiiic -f he pceolbe ■ jepenbon mib him to 
yape. •^" he *pop-peopnbe »ppi^". ppa lanjc ^'(X hip" pcipepcp jepcnjon hine. ^ yoppon hine on 
Jone bat. *j bnnbon hine. *j peopaa to pcipe. »*j byboo hme Ji*p on. Tu^on Ja up heopa ye^el". 1 
npnon pejt to Axa.muSanP, *j •hepbon hine mib h^om. o¥ Jet hT oyplojon hioe. **! oamon Jone U* 

chaman". *j bebypzt:bon<i innan anpecypicao. 'Anb comon Ja hipppeonb/j htp.meo oc Lunbene. ^ 

* 

namon hine up. *j pepcbon hme to Pinceaptpe to ealban mynjtpe. *j he ip Jsp bypjeb piV Cnnt cynj 
bip earn. The following fariations occur between Laud, and Coi. 

• Abs. Coi. *• Gobjjinef funn eojilcf , Coi. * f htm man behet y hemojrrc beon pyptJe eallej fe he ep ahte. 
act>ipoltrlnf'b;iro5e}i>*j Beojin eopl pit^la^an. *) TV^f hitman her at binnan ptopefi nihtan. Coi, ' :| he 
pepbe. .1 jptDC pi5 ^if PfBbeji fc \x% et Pcoenep-ea. Cot. • Ab». Laud. ' — penbe, Cot. » aman^ y hi- 
pitiattf Cot* * yaetJe; C^t. * — par» ^<''« *.-hinc jrojilietaa j}olbon. Cot. * to hiy japon^ Cot* 

■ pajian mib him inco, Cot. * ■ — ^pypnbe, Cot.' • y fa, Coi, * — ^mot^e. Cot. * bypi2^ban» Coi, 

^ hip ppynb yit^^an nmoan hme up. *) fep<;bon hine to pip-ccaytpe. i bypi^bon hine piS Cnut cin^ hip earn. Cbt^ 

^ f . e. The ships of Sweyne, who had retired'tUther, as before described* 



222 



THE SAXON chronicle: 



call liejie cpaebon Spejen pop ni^mj'. 
•h^tle aeji J>an J?a men op Ijaeptinja- 
ceaptpe ^ ]?aeji-abutan ^epunnon hip 
tpa pcy^pa mib heopa pcypan. ^ ]>a men 
calle opplojon. ^ ]>a pcypa bpohton to 
Sanbpic to J?an cynje'. 6hta pcypu he 
haepbe aeji he Beopn beppice'', pyJ^J^an 
hme popleton ealle buton tpam. ^ Anb 
Spejen jepenbe J?a eapt to Balbepmep 
lanbe. "j r®^ f^ep ealne pmteji on 
Bpycje mib hip pullan jjw^e': On J>am 
ilcan jeape comon upp on Pyhpce 
axa op Yplanbe xxxvi. pc^pa. "J f«p- 
abutan heapmap bybon mib Gp^pinep 
pultume J^aep paehpcan cynjep. man 
jejabepabe J^a pole tojenep. J^aep 
paep cac Galbpeb U mib. ac hi haep- 
bon to lytelne pultum. ^ hi comon 
unpaep on heom on ealne aepne mep- 
jen. "J pela jobpa manna J?aep opplo- 
jon. 'j ]?a o]?pe aetbuppton pop^ mib 
Jam Be. Sip paep jebon on iiii. kt. Auj. 
^'j on J?ypum jeape popSpepbe Gab- 
noS pe joba M on Oxnapopbpcipe'. "J 
Oppij abb on Dopnije. "J PulpnoS 
abb on peptmynptpe. *J Gabpepb cinj 
jeap Ulpe hip ppeopte f bipceoppice 
*j7e GabnoS haepbe'. ^' hit ypele be- 
teah. *^ he paep p^SSan op abpypon 
pop J?an Se he ne jeppemebe naht 
bipcoplicep Saepon. ppa f up pceama]) 
hit nu mape to tellanne. tf Sijpapb 
b jepop. pe lije]? on Abbanbune''. *^^ on 
J?ypon ylcan jeape Gabpepb cmj pcy- 
lobe IX. pcypa op male. ^ hi popon mib 



He was afterwards founds and Harold his 
cousin fetched him thence, and led him to 
Winchester, to the old minster, where I^e 
buried him with king Knute, his uncle. 
Then the king and all the army pro* 
claimed Swejne an outlaw, A little be* 
fore this the men of Hastings and there- 
about fought his two ships with their 
ships, and slew all the men, and brought 
the ships to Sandwich to the king. Eight 
ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn ; 
afterwards they all forsook him except 
two.; whereupon he went eastward to 
the land of Baldwin, and sat there all the 
winter at Bruges, in full security. In 
the same year came up from Ireland 36 
ships on the Welsh coast, and thereabout 
committed outrages, with the aid of 
Griffin, the Welsh king. The people 
.were soon gathered against them, and 
there was also with them bishop Eldred, 
but they had too little assistance; and 
the enemy came unawares on them Tcry 
early in the morning, and slew on the 
spot many good men; but the others 
burst forth with the bishop. This was 
done on the fourth day before the calends 
of August. This year died the good bi- 
shop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; andOswy, 
abbot of Thorney ; and Wulfnoth, ab- 
bot of Westgiinster ; and king Edward 
gave the bishopric which Ednoth had 
to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided him ; 
and he was driven from it, because he 
did nought like a bishop therein, so th^t 



<^ From C.T.Bif. ^ amyfi^jibbe, C.T.bu ^ aixlyi. Gibs, from Laud, abs. Cot, *i he 

jepenbe )?a to Bpicje i ]^ap punobe mib Balbpine. C,T.b\. ^ Dxj ^ejiej jrop^j^pbe on Oxoafopb* 
fcipe. — B IT. omitting the name of E^dnoth. Ojfpi) Dopoe3ey id, Ulf pp paejf jejet ^am b*pica ro 
hypbc, id. ^ From C.T. b i. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



888 



j-cypon mib eallon anpej. *J belipon 
V. fcypa baeptan. "J ye cinj heom be- 
her xii. mona^ ZY^^ - *1 on J?am ylcan 
jeajie jrepbe l^epeman B ^ Galbjieb 
ti ro Rome, ro )?am papan. on J^asf 
cinjcj- aepenbe''. ^ heji man haljobe f 
micele mynfteji act Remyj-. ]?aBji paejr 
jre papa Leo. ^ fe cafejie. I2eji *^on 
^ifum jeajte'^ paej- j^e myccla jyno^ 
aet*^ j"de Remei^. J^aeji paef on Leo fe 
papa, ^"i ye ajiceB op Bupjunbia. *J 
pe apceU op Bypincun. ^ pe apceH 
op Tpeuepip. ^ pe apceU op Remip''. 
^ mani^ ®pip'' mann ''jjaep to''. ^36 
habobe je laepebe''. ^ micelne pino^ 
]^asp haepbon emb Gobep ]>eopbom. )?o|ie 
pinoS pope-paet pSup Leo papa, hit 
ip eappo^ to pitanne J?apa bipcopa J?e 
^aep comon. ^ hupu abboba. Anb 
6bpapb cynj penbe J?ibep Duboce bi- 
pcop. ^ pippic abU op pCe Aujup- 
tine. ^ eippine* abb ^'op Ramepeje''. 



it shameth us now to say more. Bishop 
Siward also died^ who lies at Abingdon. 
In this same year king Edward put nine 
ships out of pay; and the crews de^ 

• parted^ and went away with the ships 
withal^ leaTingfiveshipsonlybehind^ for 
whom the king ordered twelve months 
pay. The same year went bishops Here- 
man and Aldred to the pope at Rome 

• on the king's errand. This year was also 
consecrated the great minster atRheims, 
in the presence of pope Leo and the em-* 
peror. There was also a great synod at 
St. Remyi; at which was present pope 

• Leo^with the archbishops of Burgundy^ 
of Besanf on^ of Treves^ and of Rheims ; 
and many wise men besides^ both clergy 
and laity. A great ^nod there held they 
respecting the service of God, at the in- 

• stanceofSt. Leo the pope. It is difficult 
to recognise all the bishops that came 
thither, and also abbots. King Edward 



• "j bejieman b* "j Galbpeb b* pojion to Rome, C T". b It. Lye, mli. Anb on f yj-nm ylcan 
jcape p«j j-e mycele pno^ jejabepob on Rome, "j Gabpapb cyn j j-enbe J^ibeji l3epemaa b' "j Galbpeb 
h\ *j hi comon ^ybcp on 6ajftep-sefen. Gibs, mxlyii. from Laud, mxlix. Cot, ^ Abs. Cot 

« a, Coi, * Remip, Cot * Abs. Laud. ' ^ehabobpc *j laepebpe* (for *-bpa^ gen. pi.) Ooi. 
N.S. s iE]pine, Coi. Aldwin. S. Dun. ^ From C.T.biw. Lye, &c. 



^ Fid. Fior. A.D. 1049, and verbatim from 
liim in the. same year, Sim. YkxtxeXm. inter X. 
Script, p. 184. 1. 10. See also Ordericus Vi- 
talls, A.D. 1050. This dedication of the chnrch 
of St. Remi, a structure well worth the atten- 
tion of the architectural antiquary, is still com- 
iHemorated by an annual foire^ or fair, on the 
irst of October, at which the Editor was present 
in the year 1815, and purchased at a stall a va- 
luable and scarce history of Rheims, from which 
be extracts the following account of the synod 
mentioned aboye : — ^^ IlftU assembU i Vocca^ 
sipn de la didicace de la nouvelle igliae qu? 



Herimar^ abbi de ce monaster e^ avoii fait b&tir^ 
seconds par les liberalitSs des citoyenSy &c." 
{Hist, de Reims^ p. 226.) But, according to 
our Chronicle, the pope took occasion from this 
synod to make some general regulations which 
concerned all Christendom. There is a note 
added to this account in the history of Rheims, 
which gives the dates of several parts of the 
church of St. Remi. << Herimar — bmit VS» 
glise qui subsiste; Pierre de Celks^ autre abbSj 
y qfo&ia^ cent ans aprhs^ le portatt^ el peut'* 
itre les bits c6tis — tarn in fronte ^am in ventre,** 
Ibid. p. 227. 



ft4 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



^to fi'^f.^ ^fcedtoen J>am c^njc 
cyVan hpaet ))sep to X^nbome je- 
copen paepe". • Anb on f ypim ^jficzn 
geape com Spejeneopl mto Gn^la- 
)atibe^:* 



- A«. ML* ^Jjcp on |>;J^fum jepe co- 
non )>a bif ceopap ham ppam Rome. ^ 
man ^e^mlajdbe Spejen eopl. ••j on J>]^f . 
ylcan 3eape pop^Spepbe Cabpjc apce- 
bifceop on Cantpapab^pij on mi. 
kt. Noucmbpif '. ^ eac on pff ylcan 
jeape /Blppic apccbif ccop on Gopep- 
pic-ceji:pc. -on xi. kl* FcK. ffpifc- ap- • 

pup]7e pep *} pif '. tJ b»r '*^ ^^ ®^ Buph. 
Da haepbe Gabpepb cmj pitrenajemot 
on Lunben to mib-Iencten. ^ pette 
l^pobbepb ^J^am Fpeonc^fcan Jre aep 
pasf b on Lunbene^ to apceli to Cant- • 
papab^pi^. KAnb J^asf fylpan Len- 
tenef he pop to Rome aeptep bif pal** 
bttm. 1 fe cynj jeap J^et Bpice on 
Lunbene.Spaphapoc abbot pp Abbaik^ 
l>une. ;j hit,paef ept opiiim jenumen • 
«p he jchabob, P^p^- ^ TP cynj jeap 
f ab^bpif e Qp-Abbenbune Ro^Sulpe U 
hip maeje. ^ j^aep ylcan jeapep he pette 
call J?a litpmen op male'^ . ^ Anb ept 
pe papa haepbe pino^ on Uepcel*. *J • 
Ulp b com J^sep to. ^ popneah man 



sent thither bishop Dudoc^ and abbot 
WaIfric,of St. Augustine'fl^ and ElfvriB, 
abbot of RamseVf with the intent that 
they sheald report to the king what was 
determitied there concerniitfg Christen*- 
dom. This same year oame earl Sweyne 
into England. 

A.D. 1050. This year returned the 
bishops^ hom6 from Rome; and earl 
Si^eyne bad his sentence of outlawry re** 
versed. The same year died Edsy, arch* 
bishop of Canterbury^ on the fourth day 
before the calends of November ; and 
also in the same year Elfric^ archbfsbop 
of Y^rk/on the deventh. before the ea-- 
lends of February^ a very venerable man 
and wise, and his body lies at Peterbo* 
rough. Then had king Edward a meet-^ 
ing of the great counciliu liondon, in 
mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert 
the Frank, who was before bisbop of 
London, archbishop of Canterbury; and 
he, during the same Lent, went to Rome 
after his pall. The king meanwhile gave 
the see of London to Sparhawk, abbot 
.of Abingdon, but it was taken from him 
again ^before 'he was consecrMed. The 
king also gate tbe ablifacy of Abingdon 
to bishop Rodulph his cousin. The 
same year be put all the lightermen 
out of pay <. The pope held a council 



> Alls. Laud. |> jrcolboD jehypan bpaec ]?ap co Xpen-bonie ^copen pepe. 'j him cy%aii.,,.p9/. 

^ Gibs, from Laud. juxLyiu nhs.Cot. ^ Chiefly from C.T^bu * Aob on ^pim.geape 

fopVpepbe Sabpje apc-bijcop iv« kal' Nouembpij . Gibs, MXLyy, fropi Laud. . m^Lu^* poL l^p 
fopVjrepbe Gabji^e apce-bijcop. *] Robbept pen^ to.apce*bifCQp»pice. Whel. mxltiii. ' From 

p.T. t IT. Lye, &c. s Gibs, hxltiii. from Laud. M he f ona ^p aspxp jrepba Vc», CoL ml* 

^ej:. Of Lunbeoe, Speaphaaoce, iL ^ So miltii. Gibs* from Laud. mxux. CoL * Vepceif , CoL 

^ Uereman and Aldred, who went on a mis^ ' Nine ships were put out of commission t^ 
rfoa to the pope from King Edward, «s stated y^ar before ; but fire being left on the pay*-K8t 
^ the preceding year, p. 393» f»r a iwelTemontb,<hey were also now laid up. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



225 



jxeolbe tsobpccan hif ftap. "jip he 
ne fealbe J^e mape jeppuman^ pop^an 
he ae cw^ bon hip jepihte** ppa pel 
fp2L he pceolbe''. '^ on J?am ylqan ^eape 
alebe Gabpeapb cynj f hepejyte }>e • 
/6^elpebe cynj aep aptealbe. f paep on 
pam nijon ^ SpitcijoJ^an ^eape ^a^p 
J>e he hic on^unnon haepbe. f jylb je- 
bpehte ealle Gnjla %eobe on ppa lan^um 
pyppte ppa hit bupan hep appiten ip. • 
f paep aeppe aetpopan o]>pum jy^lbum 
J?e man myphce jealb. ^ men mib me- 
ni^pealblice bpehte'':- 

An. MLI. ^I3ep on J^ypum ^ape 
com Robbeapbapcebipceop hibep opep 
pae mib hip palhum'^ '^ppam Rome ane^ 
basje aep Kp?p Petpup' maeppe-aepene. 
•J '•he'jepaBt: hip apcelj-ptol aec Xpep 
cypceanon spCp Petpup' ^maeppe-baej'. 
•"J pona J^aep to }?am cynj jepasnbe'. 
^ Da com Spaphapoc abl> to him^ mib 
J>aep cynjep jeppite *^ inpejle'. to 
.]^an^ J'et he hine habian™ pceolbe °to 
h into Lu^bene^ ^Da pi%cpe% pe 
apceti'. *j cpaeS J?et pe papa hit him 
popboben haepbe. *Da ^epenbe pe ablJ 
on^ean J?onc apceB ept to J)am. "j J^aep 
J7ep bipcop-habep jepnbe. *J pe apceH 
him anpaebhce joppepnbe. *j cpae^ J?et 
pe papa hit hira popboben haspbe. Da 
jepenbe pe abbot to Lunbene. ^ paet 
on )?am bipcop-pice J^e pe cynj him 
aep jeunnan haepbe. be hip pulpe leape. 
calne Jjone pumop "j J?one haeppept'. 



again, at Vercelli ; and bishop Ulf came 
thither, where he nearly had his staff 
broken, had he not paid more money, 
because he could not perform his duties 
so well as he diould dp. The same year 
king Edward abolished the Danegeld 
which king Ethelred ipn posed. That 
was in the 39th year after it had begun. 
That tribute harassed all the people of 
England so long as is above written ; 
and it was always paid before other im- 
posts, which were levied indiscriminate- 
ly, and vexed men variously. 

A.D. 1051. This year came archbi- 
shop Robert hither over sea with his 
pall from Rome, one day before St. Pe- 
ter's eve : and he took his archiepiscopal 
seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, 
and soon after tiiis wenf^to the king. 
Then came abbot Sparbawk to him with 
the king's wrk and seal, to the intent 
that he should consecrate him bishop of 
London ; but the archbishop refused, 
saying that the pope had forbidden him. 
Then went the abbot to the archbishop 
again for the same purpose, and there 
demanded episcopal consecration ; but 
the archbishop obstinately refused, re- 
peating that the pope had forbidden 
• him. Then went the abbot to London, 
and sat at the bishopric which the king 
had before given him, with his full leave, 
all the summer and (he autumn. Then 
during the same year came Eustace, who 



* Ab8. CoL ^ jepibSAy Coi. « From C.T. n ir. L je, &c. ^ From C.T. b i. Da com fe 
B|u:eb% Gibs, hxltui. froak^LmuL uh, Coi, * From Gibs, chiefly to the words — neh ]nepe aeprjie 
jca, COajiia maejpm (p. 2^7). '. none, Coi. « yce. Pctj^ef, Cifi. ^ Ab». Laud. * baejc, C6(. 
^ *j Speajihauoc com ^o him, Coi, > J^t, Coi. "*, bletjian, Coi, * co Jmo bijcop*pice od Lun- 
bene, Coi. ^ 1 f e ajtcbijcop him aobpajiobe. anpeblice f opp^fpnbe. Coi. 

2q 



226 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Anb *coin J?a up on Jam ylcan jeape' 
Guftatiuf. ^fe haepbe Gabpapbej- 
cynjep fpeoj^ep Co pipe', ^ppara je- 
onban pae pona aeptep ]?am bipcop. 'j 
jepenbe' to J?am cynje. "J ppaec pi^ 
hine ^f f he J?a polbe. 'j jepenbe ]?a 
hampeapb. Da he com to Cantpap- 
bypij eapc. ]?a pnaebbe he J^aep ^ hip 
menn. tJ to Doppan jepenbe'. *^Da he 
paep pume mila oS^e mape beheonan 
Doppan. ]?a bybe he on hip bypnan. "j 
hip jepepan ealle. ^ popan to Doppan. 
Da hi ]7ibep comon. J^a polbon hi innian 
hi J?aep heom pylpan jehcobe'. *^]>a com 
an hip manna. ^ polbe pician ast anep 
bunban-hiipe hip un^ancep. *j jepun- 
bobe )?one hupbunbon. tl pe hupbunba 
opploh J>one cipejine^ Da peap^ Gupta- 
tiup uppon hip hoppe. ^ hip ^epeopan 
uppon heopa. "j pepbon to ]>am hup- 
bunbon. ^ opplo^on hine binnan hip 
a^enan heop^e. ^ penbon him }7a up to 
]^aepe bupjepeapb. "J opplojon aejISep 
je pi%innan ^e pi^utan ma Jeanne xx. 
manna'. Anb \fz buphmenn opplo^on 



had the sister of king Edward to wife, 
from beyond sea^ soon after the bishop, 
and went to the king; and having 
spoken with him whatever he chose^ he 
then went homeward. Whpn he came 
to Canterbury eastward^ there took he a 
repast^ and his men ; whence he pro- 
ceeded to Dover. When he was about 
a mile or more on this side Dover^ he 
put on his breast-plate ; and so did all 
his companions: and they proceeded to 
Dover. When they came thither^ they 
resolved to quarter themselves where- 
jeyer they liked. Then came one of his 
men^ and would lodge at the house of 
a master of a family against his will ; 
but having wounded the master of the 
bouse, be wap slain by the other Then 
was Eustace quickly upon his faojrse, 
and bis companions upon theirs ; and 
having gone to the master of the fa- 
mily, they slew him on his own hearth; 
then going up to the borough ward, 
tbey slew both within and without more 
than 90 men. The townsmen slew 19 



• on l^yjum jeapc com, Cot ^ From C»T, b it. Lye, &c. ; where the whole traosactioii is thns 
stated : On ]^am ylcaa jeajie 6ajftatiu j- com up aec Dopejuui. je haspbe 6abpajibej cyojej xpeojtep 
to pife. Da pepbon hij men byjiice aepteji mne. 1 jamne man ojrjlo^on op ]nim pojite. 'j oyeji man 
Of yam popte heopa ^epepao. j-pa 'f Vaep lajon vii. hij jepepana. *j mycel heapme ^aep jebon paep on 
as^I^ep heal j: mib hopjo *j eac mib psepnum, oS ^ pole ^oj^bepebe. 1 hi ^ aetpln^oa ^ l>i comon to ]^am 
cyn J to Gleapceajtpe. "j he heom ^piVfealbe. The story is omitted altogether in b i.; where the etents 
of the year (mli.) are thns briefly stated: 1>ep on ]?yjnm ^eape com Robbeapb apcebipceop hibep opep 
jae mib hij pallium. *j on ]^yp ylcan jeape man jJymbe Gobpine eopl 'j ealle hip puna oj Cn^la-lanbe. 
"3 he jepenbe to Bpicjc. "j hip pip. "j hip iii. puna. Spe^en *j Tojtij 1 Gyp^. 1 Dapolb "j Leoppine 
penbon to Iplanbe. *! ]?aep punebon ]7aene pintep. 'j on J^yp ylcan ^eajte popVpepbe peo ealbe hlepbije 
Gabpepbep cmjep mobep 'j DapVacnutep. Imme hatte. ii. ib' (Dapf . 1 hype he liV on ealban-mynptpe 
fX Cnut cm;. « Aba. Cot. ^ J'a he haepbe jeppecen jS he polbe. ftL cypbe he ajen. ^ hip 

men coman to Dopcpan. Cot. * l^a polbe hip an man hepebeop^ian at anep mannep hip un^Saocep. 
ppa 'f he panbobe ^one hupbunba. *j pe hnpbunba opploh ^ne man. Da paep Gajftatinp ppyVe ppaV. 'j 
peap9 upon hip hoppe. *) hip men.i pepbon to 1 opplo20B ]^one ylcan hupbanban, ^ eac to eacan him 
ma ^oone xs, men. Cot. • ' 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



227 



XIX. menn on o^jie healpe. ^ jepun- 
boban "ma', ^f hi nyj-tan hu pela': 
Anb Guftatnuj- aetbaepft mib peapum 
matinum. ^ ^epenbe onjean^ tro }>am 
c^nje. *tl cybbe be baele hu hi ^epapen 
haepbon'. Anb* peap^ ye cynj ppilSe 
jpam^ ''pi^ J?a buphpape'. tJ opj-aenbe 
•^jx cynj' Gobpine eopl. ^ baeb hine 
papan into Cent mib unppi%a to Do- 
ppani^. ^popBan Guptatiup haepbe je- 
c^bb J?am cfn^e J^et hit pceolbc beon 
mape ^ylt j^jxe buphpapu ]7onne hip. 
Ac hit naep na ppa'. ")^ pe eopl holbe 
na jej'paepian ^\>xjxe inpape'. popVan 
him paep la^ to imyppene* hip ^jcnne 
polja^'. Da pcnbe pe cynj aeptep cal* 
Ion hip pitan. ^ ^beab heom cuman'to 
Glcape-ceaptpe" *neb ]>aepe aeptpe pea 
CDapia maeppan'^ "Da unbepnam Gob- 
pine ppyj^ f on hip eoplbomc pceolb 
ppylc jepeopJ>an. Onjan J?a ^abpian 
pole opep ealle hip eoplbom. tl Spejen 
eopl hip punu opep hip. ^ )3apolb hip 
oJ?cp punu opep hip eoplbome. 'j hi je- 
jabepobon calle on Gleapceptep-pcipc 
at Lan^atpeo myeele pypbe tl wtta- 
fiimebhe. ealle jeappe to pije onjean 
Jjohe cynj. buton man a^eap Gupta- 
tiup ^ hip men heom to hanb-pccbpe. ^ 
eac ]iz Fpency'pean ]>e on Jram eaptelle 
p«pon. Dip paep jebon vu. nihton asp 



men on the other side^ and wounded 
more, but they knew not how many. 
Eustace escaped with a few men, and 
went again to the king, telling him par- 
tially how they had fared. The king 
was very wroth with the townsmen, 
and sent off earl Godwin, bidding him 
go into Kent with hostility to Dover. 
For Eustace had told the king that the 
guilt of the townsmen was greater than 
his. But it was not so: and the earl 
would not consent to the expedition, 
because he was loth to destroy his own 
people. Then sent the king after all 
his council, and bade them come to 
Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. 
Maryi. Meanwhile Godwin took it 
much to heart, that in his earldom such 
a thing should happen. Whereupon 
he began to gather forces over all his 
earldom, and earl Swejnne, his 9on, over 
his; and Harold, his other son, over 
his earldom : and they assembled ail in 
Gloucestershire, at Langtree^, a large 
and innumerable army, all ready for 
battle against the king; unless Eustace 
and his men were delivered to them 
bandcufied, and also the Frenchmen 
that were in the castle. This was done 
seven nights before the latter mass of 
St Mary I, when king Edward was 



» Abs. Laud. ^ Abs. Cot « ^^ean, Cot 
« fa, Cot. f pjia^, Coi. « Dofeiuin, Cot. 
1 "j het he cuman, Coi. " Glope-ciepjie, Cot, 

^ Gibson seems to have totally misandentood 
the latter part of this sentence ; translating it 
thus — ^^ paulo post festum sanctce MaritBi^' as 
if there were only one festival of the Virgin in 
the year ; whereas two are still retained by onr 



* 1 jiebe J^a finj pypfc ^onno hit pepe, Cot. 
^ ac, Cot. ' amyjijienne, Cot. ^ ajene, Cot. 
n From C.r.Biy. Lye, &c., to— pebep com. 

chaTch,-^the Purification and the Annunciation: 
and the after'tnassj which is here mentioned^ is 
the Nativity of the Virgin (Sept. 8) ; so called 
because it comes after the other two festivals. 
' Langetrea, Fior. 

Sg2 



S28 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



J?8Bp latejian fca (Dapian maepf-an. Da 
fXf Gabpeapb cynj on Gleapcej^pe 
ficrenbe. Senbe ]?a aeptep Leoppice 
eople. "j nop^ aeptep Sipapbe eople. *j 
baeb heopa jencjep ^ hi him J?a to- 
comon aepept mib mebemiim pultuihe. 
ac py^^an hy pipton hii hit ^aep be 
pu]>an paep. ^a penbon hi nopS opep 
ealle heopa eoplbom. 'j laston b^ban 
mycele pypbe heopa hlapopbe to helpe. 
"i Raulp eac opep hip eoplbom. 'j comon 
J>a ealle to Gleapceaptpe J^am c^n je to 
Jielpe. J^eah hit laet paep. pupbon J^a 
ealle ppa anpaebe mib |>am c^nje. f hi 
polbon Gobpinep pypbe jepecan jip pe 
cynj f polbe. Da leton hy piime f. 
f mycel unpaeb paepe f hy tojebepc 
comon. pop J?am ]?aep paep maepte f 
potopte f paep on /Bn^la-Ianbe on J?am 
tpam ^epylcum. ^ leton f hi upum 
peonbum pymbon to lanbe. ^ betpy^x 
up pylpum to mycclum poppypbe. 
Gepaebbon ^a f man pealb jiplap be- 
tpeonan. "J petton ptepna ut to Lun- 
bene. ^ man baeb ]?a poke ]?ibep ut opep 
ealne )?ipne nop% enbe on Sipapbep 
eoplbom. tf on Leoppicep. *i eac ellep 
jehpaep. ^ pceolb Gobpme eopl ^ hip 
puna ]>aep cuman to piVepmale. Da 
comon hy to SuSjepeopce. ^ micel 
masne^eo mib heom op pept-Saexum. 
ac hip paepeb panobe aeppe ]>e len^ ]>e 
ppiJ)op. "i man bophpaept J^am kyninje 
ealle J^a J^as^nap J^e paepon Uapolbep 
eoplep hip puna. *J man utla^obe fa 
Spe^en eopl hip o]>epne punu. J>a ne on- 
hajcybe him to cumenne to fipejimHe 
on^ean J?one cynj ^ a^ean fone hepe 
J>c him mib paep. pop fa on niht apae^. 



sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he 
sent after earl Leofric^ and north after 
earl Siward, and summoned their retH 
nues. At first they came to him with 
moderate aid ; but when they found 
how it was in the south, then sent they 
north over all their earldom, and or- 
dered a large force to the help of their 
lord. So did Ralph also over his earl* 
dom. Then came they all to Gloces- 
ter to the aid of the king, though it 
was late. So unanimous were they all 
in defence of the king, that they would 
seek Godwin's army if the king desired 
it. But some prevented that ; because 
it was very unwise that they should 
come together; for in the two armies 
was there almost all that was noblest 
in England. They therefore prevented 
this, that they might not leave the land 
at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged 
in a destructive conflict betwixt our- 
selves. Then it was advised that they 
should exchange hostages between them. 
And they issued proclamations through- 
out to London, whither all the people 
were summoned over all this north end 
in Si ward's earldom, and in Leofric's^ 
and also elsewhere; and earl Godwin 
was to come thither with his sons to a 
conference. They came as far as South- 
wark, and very many with them from 
Wessex : but his army continually dimi- 
nished more and more; for they bound 
over to the king all the thanes that be- 
longed to earl Harold his son, and out- 
lawed carl Sweyne his other son. When 
therefore it could not serve his purpose 
to come to a conference agaioat tlie king 



THE BAXON CHRONICLE^ 



9jl& 



•3 ye cy^nj haepbe J? aef on mop^en pi- 
rena-jemot. ^ cpae]? hine utla^e. "J ealle 
hepc. hine •'j h^f P'F^' ^ [ealle] hif 
•ill/ funa. 'Spejen ^ Torti^ :J GpyS'. 
1 hepenbe yivS to Dopneje. tl hiy pip. 
•j Spejen hij- j-una. "j Toftij ^ hif pip. 
Balbpinep maje set Bpycje. ^ Gcp^ 
hip puna, tl l3apolb copl ^ Leoppine 
popan to Bpycjptope on f pcip J>e 
Spejen eopl haepbe him pilpum asp 
jeapcob ^ jemetpob. ^ pe cinin^ penbe 
€albpeb B op Lunbene mib jenje. ^ 
pceolbon hine oppiban asp he to pcipe 
come. Ac hi ne mihton o]>]7e hi nolbon* 
•J he penbe J?a ut op Apene muVan. 
^ penj ppa pti^ pebep f he uneaj^e 
apaeij com. ^ him J^aep micel pop- 
pepbe. penbe J?a pop^ to Iplanbe. J>a 
him pebep com'^ ^Da haepbon jfB, 
Pehpce menn jeppoht aenne captel on 
Jiepepopb-pcipe on Spejenep eoplep 
poljo^. ^ ppohten aelc J^aepa hapme 
^ bipmepe 'pxy cynjep mannan }>8ep 
abutan ^e hi mihton. Da com Gob- 
pine eopl. *j Spejen ^eopl'. *j l^apolb 
*^eopr tojaebepe act Bypepep-ptane*. 
^*i mani^ mann mib heom^ '^to ]7on 
^' ^hi' polbon papan ^to heopa cyne- 
hlapopbe'. ^'j to J?am pitan eallon )?e 
mib ^e^abepobe paepon. f hi J^aep 
cynjep paeb haspbon. ^ hip pultum. 
anb ealpa pitena. hu hi mihton J^asp 
cj'njep bipmep appecan. "J eallep J>eob- 
pcipep'. «Da paepon J?a paelipce men 



and against the army that was with- him^ 
he went in the night away. In the morn- 
ing the king held a council^ and pro- 
claimed him an outlaw^ with his whole 
army; himself and his wife^ and all 
his three sons — Sweyne and Tosty and 
Grith. And he went south to Thorneyi, 
with his wife> and Sweyne his son, and 
Tosty and his wife, a cousin of Baldwin 
of Bruges, and his son Grith. Earl 
Harold with Leofwine went to Bristol 
in the ship that earl Sweyne had before 
prepared and provisioned for himself;, 
and the king sent bishop Aldred from 
London with bis retinue, with orders to 
overtake him ere he came to ship. But 
they either could not op would not: and 
he then went out from the mouth of the- 
Avon ; but he encountered such adverse 
weather, that he got off with difficulty, 
atid suffered great loss. He then went 
forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather 
permitted. In the meaf> time tbe Welsh- 
men had wrought a castle in Hereford- 
shire, in the territory of earl Sweyne, 
and brought as much injury and dis*^ 
grace on the king's men thereabout as^ 
they could. Then came earl Godwin, 
and earl Sweyne, and earl Harold, toge- 
ther at Beverstone, and many men witb 
them ; to the intent that they might go 
to their natural lord, and to all the peers 
that were assembled with him ; to have 
the king's counsel and assistance, and 



• From Jose, inlcrl. C.T. b it. >» From Gibs. « Abs. Coi. * Bypejiejtane, Cot. •^^^ (hi.- 
't?o ^am cynje, Cot. « Da pepan Jm * « * * * «jiop mib )?am cyn^e. Cot. 

* The ancient name of Westminster ; which Thorney in Cambridgeshire. See^afterwards^ in' 
cam^ iato disuse because there was another this sameyear^ p.2Sl. 



1»0 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



aetpopan mib J^am c^^nje'. tJ pojippej- 
bon* ]?a eoplaf. ]?ec hi ne mofton cu- 
man ''on hif eajon jeph^e'. ^^pojt^an 
hi f-aebon "^ hi polbon cuman J^ibep 
pop J)ef cynjef fpicbome. paejr Jjaep 
cuman Sipapb eopl. ^ Leoppic eopl. 
^ m^cel pole mib heom nop^an ro 
J>am cynje. ^ paep j^am eople Gobpine 
*i hip punan jecybb. f pe cynj anb 
]7a menn J^e mib him paepon polbon 
paebon on hi. ^ hi tpymebon hi paept- 
lice on^ean. J^aeh him la% paspe f hi 
on^ean heopa cyne-hlapopb punban 
pceolban'. Da jepaebben* J>a pitan 
^on aej^cp halpe'. f man ^]>v/ aelccp 
ypelep jeppac. *^ jeap pe cynj Gobep 
3pi^ *j hip pulne ppeonbpcipe on aej- 
^pe healpe'. Da jepaebbe^ pe cynmj 
*tJ hip pitan'. f man pceolbe Bo^pc 
py^an' habban ealpa jepicena jemot 
on Lunbene *^to haeppeptep em-nihte'. 
^ ^het pe cyninj^ bannan ut hepe. 
aj^ep ^je' be puWan Temepe** je be 
nop^an. eall f ^aeppe' betpt paep. Da 
€pae% man Spejen eopl utiah. *J ptcp- 
nobe* •^man' Gobpine eople anb I5a- 
polbe ^ eople' *^to )?on gemote ppa 
pa%e ppa hi hit ^epapan mihton. Da 
hi J?ibep utcomon. J?a ptepnebe heom 
man to jemote. J^a j^pnbe hie jpiSep 
*J jipla f he mopte unppican into ge- 
mote cuman. ^ ut op gemote. Da 
jypnbe pe c^nj ealpa J^aepa ]>e2na J>e 



that of all the peers^ bow tbey might 
avenge the insult offered to the king, and 
to all the nation. But the Welshmen 
were before with the king, and bewrayed 
the earls^ so that they were not permitted 
to come within the sight of his eyes ; 
for they declared that they intended to 
come thither to betray the king. There 
was now assembled before the king^ earl 
Siward, and earl Leofric^ and much peo- 
ple with them from the north: and it was 
told earl Godwin and his sons^ that the 
king and the men who were with him 
would take counsel against them; but 
they prepared thetnselves firmly to resist, 
though they were loth to proceed against 
their natural lord. Then advised the 
peers on either side^ that they should 
abstain from all hostility : and the king 
gave God's peace and his full friendship 
to each party. Then advised the king and 
his council, that there should be a se- 
cond^ time a general assiembly of all the 
nobles in London, at the autumnal equi- 
nox ; and the king ordered out an army 
both south and berth of the Thames, the 
best thiBit ever was. Then was earl Sweyne 
proclaimed an outlaw ; and earl God- 
win and earl Harold were summoned to 
the council as early as they could come. 
When they came thither and vfere cited 
to the council, then required tbey secu- 
rity and hostages, that they might come 



* pjiejbeo, CoL ^ neh ^am cynje, CoL * Abs. Coi. ^ jejisebbe, Cbi. *'i je cm j jip }am 
eoplaa hij puUan ppeoobp:ipe9 CoL * jgehet^ CoL s ept, Coi, ^ Temejau, Coi, ^ beab, Coi, 

^ t. e. at Gloucester, according to the printed ' The account of ihejirsi assembly or council 
Chronicle; ivhich omits all that took place in the is omitted altogether in Gibson; though there is 
mean time at London and Southwark. here a manifest allusion to such an assembly. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S9I 



]>a eoplaf asp hsepbon. ^ hi letan hi 
ealle him to hanba. Da j^cnbe fe 
cynj epc to heom. tJ beab heom' f hi 
•comen' mib xii. mannum **into J^aejr 
c^njef jisebe'. Da jeopnbe fe eopl 
*^ept' spi^cf tJ Pr^a. f he mojrte hme 
betellan aet ^adc J>appa J^in^a J?e him 
man onlebe. ^Da p^pnbe him man 
J>epa Jifla. ^ fceapcbe him mann y. 
nihta 3pi^ ut op lanbe to papenne^ 
*^Anb jepenbe J^a Gobpine eopl ^ Spe- 
jen eopl to Bopenham* *j fcupon ut 
heopa pcipu'. *^ jepenbon heom be- 
jeonban pae. *i jepohton Balbepmej* 
jpi'S'. ^^ punobon J^aep ealne J>one 
pmtep. anb ):3apolb eopl jepenbe pept 
to Yplanbe. *j paep ^aep ealne ^one 
pmtep on ^ep cj^njep jpi^e''. ^^ Gob- 
pine ^ ]>2i ]fe mib him paepon penban 
op Dopneje to Bp^cje to Balbpinep 
lanbe on anum pcipe. mib ppa miclum 
jeppuman ppa hi mihton J^aepon maept 
jelo^ian to a^lcum mannum- Daet 
polbe %5^ncan punboplic aelcum men J^e 
on Gnjla-lanbe paep. jip aenij man aep 
J>am paebe f hit ppa jepupj^an pceolbe. 
pop})am he paep asp to ]?am ppiSe up- 
ahapen ppylce he peolbe J^aep c^njep *i 
eallep Gnjla-lanbep. ^ hip punan paspon 
eoplap. ^ ]?aBp cynjep b^phnjap. 1 hip 
bohtop J>aBm c^nje bepebbob ^ be- 
aepnab''. ^Anb pona Waep ^e J>ip paep. 
Jja*" poplet pc c;^nj J?a hlaepbian. ^peo 



into the council and go out without 
treachery. The king then demanded all 
the thanes that the earls had ; and they 
put them all into his hands. Then sent 
the king again to them^ and commanded 
them to come with 1 2 men to the king'a 
council. Then desired the earl again 
security and hostages, that he might an- 
swer singly to each of the things tiiat 
were laid to his charge. But the host- 
ages were refiised ; and a truce of five 
nights was allowed him to depart from 
the land. Then went earl Godwin and 
earl Sweyne to Bosham, and drew out 
their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking 
the protection of Baldwin ; and there 
' tbey abode all the winter. Earl Harold 
went westward to Ireland, and was there 
all the winter on the king's security. It 
was from Thorney^ that Godwin and 
those that were with him went to Bru- 
ges, to Baldwin's land, in one ship, with 
as much treasure as they could lodge 
therein for each man. Wonderful would 
it have been thought by every man that 
was then in England, if any person bad 
said before this that it would end thus ! 
For he was before raised to such a height, 
that he ruled the king and all England ; 
his sons were earls, and the king's dar- 
lings; and his daughter wedded and 
united to the king. Soon after this took 
place, the king dismissed the lady who 



• fcolbao cuman, Coi. ^ co ^m ciDje, Ooi, < Abs. Coi. ' ^a pypobe men him. *j beab 
him ut bionan t. nihtan. Coi. * *) he pepbe opeji pe co Balbpmef lanbe, CoL ' From C.T. b f r. 
Lye, &c. s From Gibs, to iDpeppillon, Anb jona — pej, abs. Coi. ^ "j, Coi. 

* Now Westminster : see note p. 329. I haye Lje, &c. ; which connects this part of the history 
inserted this passage into the text from CTl siv., more closely with what had been sud before p.3S9» 



833 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



P®r J^haljob him to cpene'. ^tJ let 
niman op hipe'call f heo ahte on lanbe. 
*i on jolbe. ^ ''on' j-eolppe. ^^ on eal- 
lon jjinjon'. *^anb betaehte ^hf hij- 
j-p^j^tep to Upeppillon*''. ^D^, fone 
com piliehn eopl f pam jeonban f ae mib 
m^p'cclum pepobe Fpenaf cjia manna. tJ 
ye c^ninj hine unbeppenj. "j fpa peola 
hif jepepan j^pa him to ohhajobe. tJ let 
hine ept on jean''. ^Anb SpaphapocR 
abB peap^ ^y?/ abpipen*" ^ut' op J^am 
bipcop-pice on Lunbene. tl pep piftm 
J^aep cynjep ppeopt jehabob" J^aep to. 
^Anb man pette J^aObban to eople opep 
Depena-pcipe. *j opep Sumep-paeton. 
anb opep Dop-peton. *j opep pealap. 
*i mann pette /Glf^ap Leoppicep punu 
eoplep J^ane coplbom on hanba }>e )3a- 
polb aep ahte" :• 

^An. MLIL' ftep "on J>ippum jeape' 
pop^pepbe. "on ii. non' CDaji'. **peo 
ealbe hlaepbije' P/Glpjipu^ Ymma. 
-'eabpapbep c^njep -mobop'. ^'j ftap- 
^acnutep c^njep'. *y6^elpebep lap 
cynjep. ^Cnutep-cynjep'. ®*J hype lie 
^l^ on ealban m^nptpe pi^ Cmit cmj". 
* J3ep hepjobe Gpippin pe j^^lipca c^nj 
.on J3epepopb-pcipe. f he eom ppy)>e 
neah to Leomynptpe. "j men jabopo- 
bon onjean 'aejj^ep je lanbep men je 



had been consecrated his queen^ and 
ordered to be taken from her all that she 
had in land« and in gold, and in silver, 
and in all things; and committed her to 
the care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon 
after came earl William from beyond 
sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; 
and the king entertained him and as 
many of his companions as were conve- 
nient to him, and let him depart again. 
Then was abbot Sparhawk driven from 
his bishopric at London ; and William 
the king's priest was invested there- 
with. Then was Oddy appointed earl 
over Devonshire, and over Somerset, 
and over Dorset, and over Wales ; and 
Algar, the son of earl Leofric, was pro- 
moted to the earldom which Harold 
before possessed. 

A.D. 105S. This year, on the second 
day before the nones of March >, died 
the aged lady Elfgiva Emma, the mo- 
ther of king Edward and of king Har- 
thacnute, the relict of king Ethelired 
and of king Knute ; and her body lies 
in the old minster with king Knute. At 
thistime Griffin, the Welsh king, plun- 
dered in Herefordshire till he came very 
nigh to Leominster ; and they gathered 
against him both the landsmen and the 



* *j benam hipe, Coi. ^ Abs. Coi. « ]?a man jebjiokce to ]3p«ppellao. *j bi ]^p abebijan 

betashron, C.T.niY. Lye, &c. ^ bpejiepyJle, Coi. * From Cr.Bur. Lyfi^ &c* abs. Gibs. 

' Gibs, from Laud, CoL > Speajihaaoc, Cot. ^ jebjiiaen^ Cot. ' jeblecjrob, Cot. The passage 
runs thus in C 71 bit. Lye, &c. : Daej ilcan ^ejiep man jealbe }^yllelme pjieojre 'f b*pice on Lnnbene. 
^e ymj aafi Spaejihafoce ^ejfealb. ^ From Laud. Cot. C.T.jb \. and ir. > mu. Coi. CT. b i. 

» Abs. a>i. on ]7j ylcan ^eajie, C.T. b i. » ii. ib' CDapc% C.T. b i. « From C.T. a i. 1061. 
p eabyepbej* «io;cf mobeji ^ bapVacnucej . Imme batte. -CT. b i. / ^ ^^JZ^Ph ^^' ' W 

cmjej* mobop Gabpapbej-. Coi. 

\ ^'Sccundo nonas itfiirWf,"— Flor.,; quoted inaccarately by Gibson, <* V nonarum MaW I 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



2S3 



Fpencifce men op ^m caftele. *j man 
^aepe opfloh yf^e peola Gnjlifcpa 
jobpa manna, tl eac op |>amFjicncipcum. 
f V^r f^r ylcan baejep on ^jieottene 
^eapa ]7e man^ asp Gabpine opploh mib 
hip jepepum'^. "Anb on J?am pylpan 
jeape jepaebbe pc cynj, "j hip pi tan. f 
mann pceolbe popjjian ut to Sanb-pic 
pcipu. anb petton Raulp eopl ^ Obban 
eopl to heapob-mannum )?aep to'^ Da 
jepenbe Gobpine eopl ut ppam Bpycje 
mib hip pcipum to Ypepan. anb laet 
ut ane baeje aep mibpumcpep maeppe 
aepene f he com to Naeppe. J>e ip be 
puVan Rumen-ea. Da com hit to pi- 
tenne ^zm eoplum ut to Sanbpic. tl 
hi )>a ^epenbon ut aeptep \fzm o^pum 
pcipum. ^ beab man lanb-p;^pbe ut on- 
^ean )^ pcipu. Da aman^ J^ipon ]?a pap% 
Gobpine eopl jepapnob. *j jepenbe him 
J>a into Pepenep-ea. ^ peapS f paebep 
ppy^e ptpanj. f ]?a eoplap ne mihton 
jepitan hpet Gobpine eopl jepapen 
haspbe. Anb jepenbe ]>3. Gobpine eopl 



Frenchmen from the castle ; and there 

* 

were slain very many good men of the 
English^ and also of the French. This 
was on the same day thirteen years afler 
that Edwin was slain with his compa- 
nions. In the same year advised the 
king and his council^ that ships should 
be sent out to Sandwich^ and that earl 
Ralph and earl Odda should be ap- 
pointed headmen thereto. Then went 
earl Godwin out from Bruges with his 
ships to Ysendyck; and sailed forth one 
day before midsummer-eve^ till he came 
to the Ness that is to the south of Rom^* 
ney. When it came to the knowledge 
of the earls out at Sandwich^ they went 
out after the other ships; and a land- 
force was also ordered out against the 
ships. Meanwhile earl Godwin bad 
warnings and betook himself into Pe* 
venseyi and the weather was so bolster* 
ous^ that the earls could not learn what 
had become of earl Godwin. But earl 
Godwin then went out again until be 



• Abs. Coi. ; in which MS. the remaioder of the year is thus stated : — Anb Gobpine eopl ppbe ot oj: 
Bpi^s mib hij jcipan to Yjepan. 1 jpa to eojla-lanbe. *1 com up ac Naejje be ju%an Rumeo-ea. 1 pejibe 
jja to Pihc.*;) nam ^arp ealle ^a jrcipao ]?a to ahte mihtan ^ Jijlaj.i cypbe him jpa eajtpapb. Anb iDapolb 
paf cumen mib ix» jcipon up at Popt-Iocan« ^ opj-loh ^p mycel jolc. *) nam opp. *j menn. *j ehta. *j 
jepcnbe htm eajrpajtb to hif pxbep. *j hi bejen pepban to Rnmon.ea. to I3i^e. to Folc-ptane. to Do^ 
pepan. to Sanb-pic. *J aeppe naman ealle ^ jcipan ]w hi pnnban *)( to ahte mhte. ^j ^iflap. eal jpa pepban 
*) jepenbon ]« to Lunbene. Da hi to Lunbene comon. ^ las; je cinj *1 ealle hif eoplap ]^ap onjean 
mib u f cipoo. Da penbao ^a eoplaf to ^m cinje. *j ^eopnban ^ hi mojton beon heopa ^nja *j ape 
ffjfXe }e heom mib unpihte bennmen pap. Da piVle; je cms pnme hptle. ac Stijant. ^e pap ^p ctnjcp 
paeb-jipai hip hanb-ppeo jt. *] ^ oVpe pije men jepxbban. 'f man jetpymbe ;iplap on aejVpae healpe. 
1 jpa pcolbe je ppeonbpcipe beon ^^pieftnob. Da Robbept apcbipcop 'f ^eaxobe. ^a nam he hip hopp. 
*! pepbe him to 6abiilpep.ii«ppe. *j peapA$ him on anum unppa^cum pope. *j pepbe him on an opp jv. 
"j poplet hip pallium. Da cpae^ man mycel jemot pA^oton Lunbene. 1 on ^am gemote pa?pan ]ra 
betjtan men ^e paspan on ^pen lanbe. Dap paep Gobpine up hip mal. i betealbe hine pi^ 6abpapb 
cmj be eallum ^am ^injan ^ him paj- on jeleb. *j hip beapnum. Anb man cpaeV Robbept apcbijcop 
utla^a. *j ealla ^ Fpencif ce men. popXan hi paspan intm^a ]«pe ppaeSe ^ pap betpyx him *J )^an cm^c^ 
Anb Stijan b* pen; to ]^an apcbipoop*pioe on Cantuapevbepi. 

SB 



234 



THE SAXON chronicle; 



ut a^ean f he com ept: to Bji^c^e. ^ 
J)a o^pa fcipu jepenben heom ept on- 
jean to Sanbpic. Anb jepaebbe man 
J)a f J?a f cipu jepenban ept onjean to 
Lunbene. "J pceolbe man petton o^pe 
eoplaf "i o^pe haj-aeton to J?am pcipum. 
Da lenjbe hit man ppa lan^e f peo j-cip- 
pypb eall belap. ^ jepenbon ealle heom 
ham. Da jeaxobe Gobpine eopl Jjet. *i 
teah J?a up hif y ejl ^ hij- h^. ^ jepenbon 
heom J?a peft on an to piht. ^ eobon 
l^aep up. tJ hepjobon ypa lanje J^aep f f 
folc jealb heom fpa mycel f pa hi heom 
onle^ben. Anb jepenbon heom J?a pejn:- 
peapb o^S J?et hi comon to Popt-lanbe. 
t) eobon J^aep up "J bybon to heapme j^^a 
hpet ifz hi bon mihton. Da pep l^a* 
polb jepcnb ut op Yplanbe mib nijon 
pcipon. ^ com J>a up aet Popt-locan 
*mib hip pcipum to Saepepn-mu^an. 
neh Sumep-pacton jemaepe *J Dapena- 
pcipc. -j J^aep m;J^cel jehepjobe. ^ f 
lanbe-polc him onjean ^abepobe. aej- 
J?aep je op Sumop-paeton je op Dapena- 
pcipe. *j he hyj apl;J^mbe. "j ^aep opploh 
ma ]7onne xxx. ^obpa ^e^na buton oj^pe 
poke. ^ pona aeptep J?an pop abuton 
Penpi^pteopt". ^-j pey J^aep m^^cel pole 
jejabepob onjean. ac he ne panbobe 
na him metep to tyhenne. eobc up ^ 
opploh }«p mycelne cnbe Jrep polcep, 
tJ nam him on oppe *J on mannum *J on 
aehtum ppa him jepeapS. Anb jepenbe 
him J?a eaptpeapb to hip pebep, ^ je- 
penbon heom J>a bejen eaptpeapb f hi 



came back to Bruges; and the other 
ships returned back again to Sandwich. 
Then it was advised that the ships 
should go back again to London^ and 
that other earls and other pilots should 
be appointed over them. But it was 
delated so long that the marine army 
all deserted; and they all betook them- 
selves home. When earl Godwin un* 
derstood that^ he drew up his sail and 
his ship : and theyi ^ent west at once 
to the isle of Wight; and landing there^ 
they plundered so long that the people 
gave them as much as they required of 
them. Then proceeded they westward 
until they came to Portland^ where they 
landed and did as much harm as they 
could possibly do. Meanwhile Harold 
had gone out from Ireland with nine 
ships^ and came up at Porlock with his 
ships to the mouth of the Severn^ near 
the boundaries of Somerset and Devon- 
shire, and there plundered much. The 
land-folk collected against him, both 
from Somerset and from Devonshire: 
but he put them to flight, and slew there 
more than thirty good thanes, besides 
others; and went soon after about Pen- 
withstert, where was much people ga- 
thered against him ; but he spared not 
to provide himself with meat, and went 
up and slew on the spot a great num- 
ber of the people, — seizing in cattle, in 
men, and in money, whatever he could. 
Then went he eastward to his father; 



From C.T. q I and i? . Lye, &c. ^ So Gibs. abs. C.T. b i. and !y. Lye, &c. 



' u e. eafl Godwin and his crew. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



335 



comon tro piht. *) namon }>aep f him aeji 
pi^aeptan paej-. Anb jepenbon heom 
pz )>anon to Pepenepca. *J bejeat pop^ 
mib him ppa pcla pcipu ppa J^aep pepa 
paspon. ^ fpa pop^ f he com ro Naeppe. 
tf bejeat ealle J?a pcipii ]?e paepon on 
Rumen-ea. ^ on fty'Sc. tJ on Folccp- 
jrtane'^. "Anb ]?a l»c Gabpapb cy^nj 
pcyrpian xl. pnacca. ^J?a la^on on Sanb- 
pic. J>a pceolbon ^'cepan' Gobpinep eop- 
lep ^ on Bpycje pa?p ]?one pincep. 
^ he %eah com hibep ro lanbe a^pept. 
*ppa hy hit nyptan'. ^ on f am ^pypp^e' 
J^e he hep on lanbe pasp he ^eppeon 
•him to' ealle Centmjap. *] ealle J>a 
butpe-kaplap op Uaeptinjum^. 'J J^aep 
aejhpap sabuton^ be )>aBpe pae-piman. 
:j ""ealnc Gapt-Sexan'. «:j Su%-Sexan^ 
^ SuVe-peje*. ^ m^cel ellep to eacan 
)^am. )>a cpaebon ealle f hi ^polbon mib 
him hbban "j hcjcan''. *Da jeaxebon 
^ liS f on Sanbpic laej embe Gobpmep 
pape. petton J>a «ptep. "j he heom 
aetbaeppt, *i him-p^lpan jebeaph J^aep 
J>aep he J?a mihte. ^ f li^ penbe ajen 
to Sanbpic. t) fP^ hampepb to Lun- 
ben-bypij. Da J>a Gobpme jeaxobe 
f f li% ]>e on Sanbpic laej peep ham 
jepenb. J)a pop he ept on^ean to piht. 
'j )>8ep abutan be J^am pae-piman ppa 
lan^e laej f hij comon tojaebepe. )3a- 



and they went both together eastward < 
until they came to the isle of Wight^ 
where they seized whatever had been 
left them before. Thence they went 
to Peyensey^ and got out with them as 
many ships as had gone in there^ and 
so proceeded forth till they came to the 
Ness^ ; getting all the ships that were 
at Romney^ and at Hithe^ and at Folk* 
stone. Then ordered king Edward to 
fit out forty smacks that lay at Sandwich 
many weeks, to watch earl Godwin, who 
was at Bruges during the winter; but 
he nevertheless came hither first to land, 
so as to escape their notice. And whilst 
he abode in this land, he enticed to him 
all the Kentish men, and all the boatmen 
from Hastings, and everywhere there* 
about by the sea^coast, and all the men 
of Essex and Sussex and Surrey, and 
many others besides. Then said they 
all that they would with him live or die. 
When the fleet that lay at Sandwich had 
intelligence about Godwin's expeditioDj 
they set sail after him ; but he escaped 
them, and betook himself wherever he 
might : and the fleet returned to Sand* 
wich, and so homeward to London. 
When Godwin understood that the fleet 
that lay at Sandwich was gone home, 
then went he back again to the isle of 



* From Cr.Bi. aod ir. Lye, &c. Bat the fragment of Lye abruptly terminates with jtiacca, aod 
the next year begios thos : Paej- fe mycia piub, isfc. ^ From C.T. b i, and ir. « jxc maO| 

C.T. B i. * jpa hij nyjren, C.T. b i. • From Jose. C,T. b i. abs. b it, ' l3«jtin3an, C.T. b i, 
s From C.T, b ir. abs. b i. ^ callne yxno 6ajre enbe, C.T. b i. ' Sa^pi^an, C.T. b'u ^ mib him 
polbon hc^an i lybban, C.T. b i. * From C.T. b i. to the words j^^otoDban hepe. 



' ' i,e. from the isle of Portland; where God- 
win had landed after the plunder of the isle of 
Wight^ See the preceding page. 



^ ue. Dungeness; where they collected all the 
ships stationed in the great bay formed by the 
ports of Romney, Hithe, and Folkstone, 

9n9 



S36 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



poib copl hif fiinu tJ he. "j hi na my- 
celne heapm ne b^bon j-y^^an hij 
tojaebepe comon. buton f heo met- 
pm^e namon. ac fpeonnon heom eall 
f lanb-polc to be Jam fae-piman. "J 
eac up on lanbe. ^ hij popon topejib 
Sanbpic *i laepon aeppe pop^ mib heom 
ealle Jja butpe-caplap J?e heo jemec- 
con. ^ comon J?a to Sanbpic mib jeo- 
tenban hepe". *Anb jepenbon Jja eapt 
to Doppan. ^ eobon faep up. ^ namon 
him Jjaep pcipu *] Sif^ap. ppa pela ppa 
hi polbon. ^ pepbon ppa to Sanbpic. 
•] bybon hanb f py^F^- "^ heom man 
jeap aejhpep Jiplap ^ metp unja Jjaep 
J^aep hi jypnbon. Anb jepenbon heom 
J?a to Nop^-mu^an *J ppa to Lunbene- 
peapb. tl pume Jja pcipu jepenbon bin- 
non Scep-ije. tl bybon faep mycelne 
heapm. tl jepenbon heom to CDibbel- 
tune faep cynjep. ^ popbeapnbon f 
ealL ti paepon heom to Lunbene*peapb 
aeptep ]7am eoplan. Da hi to Lun- 
bene comon. J?a laej pe cynj ^ fa eop- 
lap ealle jfxp on^ean mib l. pcipum. • 
Da penbon J^a eoplap to J^am cyn^e. 
*i 2^pnbon to him f hi mopton beon 
pup^e aslc ]?aepa J^in^a )?e heom mib 
unpihte op ^enumen paep. Da pi^laej 
pe cynj pume hpile feah. ppa lan^e o^ • 
]>et pole J>e mib fam eople pep peapS 
ppy^e aptypeb on^ean fone cynj ^ 



Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea- 
coast 80 long that they came together — 
he and his son earl Harold. But they 
did no great harm after they came to- 
- gether ; save that they took meat, and 
enticed to them all the land-folk by the 
sea-coast and also upward in the land. 
And they proceeded toward Sandwich, 
ever alluring forth with them all the 
boatmen that they met; and to Sandwich 
they came with an increasing army. 
They then steered eastward rounds to 
Dover, and landing there, took as many 

• 

ships and hostages as they chose, and so 
returned to Sandwich, where they did 
the same; and men everywhere gave 
them hostages and provisions, wherever 
they required them. Then proceeded 
they to the Nore^ and so toward Lon* 
don ; but some of the ships landed on 
the isle of Shepey, and did much harm 
there; whence they steered to Milton 
Regis^, and burned it all, and then pro- 
ceeded toward London after the earls. 
When they came to London, there lay 
the king and all his earls to meet them, 
with fifty ships. The earls^ then sent 
to the king, praying that they might be 
each possessedof those things which had 
been unjustly taken from them. But 
the king resisted some while ; so long 
that the people who were with the earl 



Gibs, from Laud, to ^eftylbe f f olc. 



'* Some Utitude is takea in the translation, to 
connect the new matter from C,T. si. with the 
text of Gibson ; in which Godwin and his son 
afe represented as going from Roroney, Hithe, 
and Folkstone, to Dover; which, though not di. 
rectly east^ is more so than from Sandwich. See 



the preceding page. 

' fxj cynjej* , Sax. ; because it was one of the 
royal Tills from, the time of king Alfred. Fid, 
Lambard's Peramb,j p. 238. 

^ t. e, Godwin and his son Harold. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



237 



on^ean hif pole, f pa f j^ eopl pylp eap- 
poBlice jef tylbc f pole''. • Da Gabpepb 
cynj f jeaxobe. Jja penbe he up aeptep 
mapan pultume. ac hi eomon ppy%e 
late. ^ Gobpine pah him aeppe topepb 
Lunbenep mib hip liSe f he com to 
Su^jepeopke. "j Jjaep on bab pume hpile 
oS f plob up eobe. On J>am pyppte 
he eae jepabobe pi^ Jja buphpape f hi 
polbon maspt ealle f f he polbe. pa 
he haspbe ealle hip pape ^epecenob. 
}?a com pe plob. *] hij bpubon up ^a 
pona heopa ancpan. *] heolbon J^uph 
fa bp^cje be ^am py¥ lanbe. ^ peo 
lanb-pypb com upenon. •] tp^mebon 
hij be )?am Srpanbe. *J hi hpembon J^a 
mib Jyam pcypon pi^ J^aep nop^-lanbep. 
ppilce hij polbon faep cynjep pcipa 
abutan betpymman. Se cynj haepbe 
eac mycele lanb-pypbe on hip healpe 
to eacan hip pcypmaiinum. ac hit pa^ 
heom macpt eallon la% f hi^ pceolbon 
pohtan pi^ heopa ajenep cynnep man- 
num. pop Jjan fap paep lyt ellep J)e aht 
mycel myhton buton Gn^lipce men on 
ae^J^ep healpe. ^ eac hij nolbon f ut- 
lenbipcum J^eobum paepe Jjep eapb J?uph 
f fe ppi^op jepymeb. fe hi heom pylpe 
aelc oSepne poppope. Gepaebbon Jja f 
man penbe pipe men betpeonan. ^ pet- 
ton 3pi¥ on aej^pe healpe. "J Gobpme 
pop upp. *J Dapolb hip punu. "j heopa li^. 
ppa mycel ppa heom fa jefuhte^'. ^Da 
|tepbe Stijanb bipcop to mibGobep pul- 
tume. ^ fa pipe menu, aej^aep ^e binnan « 



Mrere very much stirred against the king 
and against his people^ so that the earl 
himself with difficulty appeased them. 
When king Edward understood that,, 
then sent he upward after more aid; but 
they came very late. And Godwin sta- 
tioned himself continually before Lon- 
don with his fleets till he came to South- 
wark; where he abode some time, until 
the flood! came up. On this occasion 
he also contrived with the burgesses that 
they should do almost all that he would. 
When he bad arranged his whole. ex- 
pedition, then came the floods ; and 
they soon weighed anchor, and steered, 
through the bridge by the south side. 
The land-force meanwhile came above, 
and arranged themselves by the Strand ; 
and they formed an angle with the ships 
against the north side, as if they wished 
to surround the king's ships. The king 
had also a great land-force on his side, 
to add to his shipmen : but they were 
most of them loth to fight with their 
own kinsmen, — for there was little else 
of any great importance but English- 
men on either side ; and they were also 
unwilling that this land should be the 
rac^re exposed to outlandish people, be- 
cause they destroyed each other. Then 
it was determined that vvise men should 
be sent between them, who should settle 
peace on either side. Godwin went up, 
and Harold his son, and their navy, as 
many as they then thought proper. Then 



* From CT.Bi, (o jpa heom )?a je^^uhce. *^ Gibs, from Laud, to Cantpapabyjuj. 



' /. e, the tide of the riven 



238 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



buph je buton. anb jejiaBbbon f man 
tpemebe Jiflaf on aej^p healpe. anb 
man j-pa bybe. Da jeaxobe Rotbepb 
apceb anb fa Fpencif ce menn f. jena- 
mon heopa hopj*. anb jcpenbon j-ume 
peft to Pentecojrtef caj^ele. yume 
nop% to Robbeptej- caftele. Anb Rob- 
bept apceB anb Ulp bij-cop jepenbon 
lit aet eft-jeate. anb heojia ^epepan. 
anb opflojon "J elfej* amypbon mani^e 
lun^e men. anb ^epenbon heom on an 
to 6albulpef-naefe. ^ peap% him Jjasp 
on anon unppaefte f-cipe. anb pepbe 
him on an opep f se. anb poplet hif pal- 
hum anb Xpenbom ealne hep on lanbe. 
,fpa j-pa hit Gob polbe. J?a he aep be- 
jeat J?one pup^j-cipe fpa ppa hit Gob 
nolbe. Da cpas% mann m^^cel ^emot 
pi%utan Lunbene. ^ ealle ]7a eoplaf . "i 
]?a betftan menn ]?e paepon on ]?ipn 
lanbe. paepon on ]?am gemote. Dasp 
basp Gobpme eopl up hip mal. ^ be- 
tealbe hine J^asp pi% 6abpapb c^nj hip 
hlapopb. *J pi% ealle lanb-le6ban. )?et 
he paep unpcylbij faep J?e him jeleb 
paep. ^ on l3apolb hip punu ^ ealle hip 
beapn. Anb pe cynj popjeap fam 
eople *J hip beapnum hip pulne ppeonb- 
pcipe. *] pulne eoplbom. ^ eall j>et he 
asp ahte. ^ eallon ]?am mannon ^e him 
mibe paepon. Anb pe cynj jeap \>xj\e 
hlaspbian eall f heo aep ahte. Anb 
cpe% man utla^a Rotbepb apceB pul- 
lice. *] ealle ]7a Fpencipce menn. pop- 
Van jte hi macobon maept ]>et unpeht 
betpeonan Gobpme eople anb J^am 



advanced bishop Sligand with God's as^ 
sistance^ and the wise men both within 
the town and without; who determined 
that hostages should be given on either 
side. And so they did. When archbi* 
shop Robert and the Frenchmen knew 
that^ they took horse; and went some 
west to Pentecost castle^ some north to 
Robert's castle. Archbishop Robert and 
bishop Ulf^ with their companions, went 
out at East-gate, slaying or else maim- 
ing many young men, and betook them- 
selves at once to EadulfVness; where 
hei put himself on board a crazy ship, 
and went at once over sea, leaving his 
pall and aH Christendom here on land, 
as God ordained, because he had obtain- 
ed an honour which God disclaimed. 
Then was proclaimed a general coun- 
cil without London ; and all the earls 
and the best men in the land were at the 
council. There took up earl Godwin 
his burthen, and cleared himself there 
before his lord king Edward, and before 
all the nation ; proving that he was in- 
nocent of the crime laid to his charge, 
and to his son Harold and all bis chil* 
dren. And the king gave the earl and 
his children, and all the men that were 
with him, his full friendsliip, and the 
full earldom, ^nd all that be possessed 
before; and he gave the lady all that she 
had before. Archbishop Robert was 
fully proclaimed an outlaw, with all the* 
Frenchmen ; bectose they chiefly made 
the discord between earl Godwin and 



^ Le. the archbishop. This change of number and vice versa. See more examples in pp. 334 
is very frequent^ from the plural to the singular, and 935» 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S39 



cynje. anb Stijanb U penj Co Jam ap- 
ceU-pice on Cantpapabypij''. •j T^T 
J>a picena-jemoc. ^ man j-ealbe Gob- 
pine clsene hif eoplbom fpa pull ^ jT)a 
pop^ jT>a he pypmejrt ahte. 1 hif T"' ' 
num eall ppa eall f hi aep ahten. ^ hip 
pipe tl hip behtep ppa pull "j ppa pop^ 
ppa hi aep ahton. ^ hi jepaepcnobon 
heom J)a pulne ppeonbpcipe betpeo- 
nan. *] eallum poke jobe laje beheton. . 
Anb ^eutla^eben \>3, ealle Fpencipce 
men. J^e aep unlade paepbon. ^ unborn 
bembon. i unpaeb paebbon. into J?ip- 
pum eapbe. buton ppa peala ppa hij; 
jepa&bbon f ]>am c^nje jelicobe mib • 
him to haebbenne. ]fe him ^etpeope 
paepon "J eallum hip poke. ^ Robbeapb 
bipceop "j piUelm B. •] Ulp B. unease 
aetbupptan mib ]>am Fpencipcum man- 
num J>e heom mib paepon. ^ ppa opep • 
pae becomon. ^ Gobpine eopl ") )3apolb ^ 
peo open paeton on heopa ape. Spejen 
pop aspop to )3iepupalem op Bpicje. 
•3 peap^ hampeapb beab aet Conptan* 
tmopolim to COichahelep maeppe. Daet : 
paep on )K)ne COonanbasj aeptep pda 
OQapian maeppe. f Gobpine mib hip 
pcipum to Su^jepeopce becom. ^ faep 
on mepjen. on fone Tipepbaej. hi je- 
pupbon pehte. ppa hit hep bepopan • 
ptent. Gobpine Jm jepiclobe hpa^e 
faep J)e he up com. "J ept jepyppte. 
Ac he bybe eallep to lytle baebbote 
op faepe Gobep ape fe he haepbe op 
manejum hal^um ptopum". ^Anb on • 
Jjip ylcan tyme poplet Apnpi abbot 
op Buph abbot-pice be hip halpe lipe. 



the king: and bishop Stigand succeeded 
to the archbishopric at Canterbury. At 
the council therefore they gave Godwin 
fairly his earldom^ so full and so free as 
he at first possessed it; and his sons also 
all that they formerly had ; and his wife 
and his daughter so full and so free as 
they formerly had. And they fastened 
full friendship between them, and or* 
dained good laws to all people. Then 
they outlawed all Frenchmen, — who be- 
fore instituted bad laws, and judged un- 
righteous judgement, and brought bad 
counsels into this land, — except so many 
as they concluded it was agreeable to 
the king to have with him, who were 
true to him and to all his people. It was 
with difficulty that bishop Robert, and 
bishopWilliam, and bishopUlf, escaped 
with the Frenchmen that wer« with 
them, and so went over sea. Earl God- 
win, and Harold, and the queen, sat in 
their stations. Sweyne had before gone 
to Jerusalem from Bruges, and died on 
his way home at Constantinople, at Mi- 
chaelmas. It was on the Monday after 
the festival of Si. Mary, that Godwin 
came with his ships to Southwark; and 
on the morning afterwards, on the Tues- 
day, they were reconciled, — as it stands 
here before recorded. Godwin then 
sickened soon after he came up, and re- 
turned back. But he made altogether 
too little restitution of God's property, 
which he acquired from many places. 
At the same time Arnwy, abbot of Pe- 
terborough, resigned his abbacy in full 



« From Cr.Bi. to manis^Q^ halsuni jtopunu ^ Gil)s« fn>m Laud, to tbe eod of the ysaj\ 



S40 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



anb jeap hit Leoppic inunec be Jjep 
cynjey leape anb be f aepe munece. anb 
ye abbot Apnpi lipobe py^lSon viii. pin- 
tpe. Anb pe abbot Leoppic jilbcbe 
f mynptpe. ppa f man hit cleopebe 
J^a Gilbene-buph. Jja paex hit ppi^e on 
lanb. anb on jolb. anb on peolpcp'':- 

An. MLIIL* ^I3ep paep pe micla 
pinb on Domep maeppe-niht'. ^'i je- 
hpaep mycelne heapm bybe'. **J ^^c 
call }?a mibe-pintep paep m^^cel pmb. 
^ man paebbe f man ploh l3pip J^aep 
Pyhpcean cynjep bpo^ep". •pop ^y 
J>e he heapmap by be. *] man bpohte 
hip heapob to Glepceptpe^ on tpelptan 

aepen. «*] faep ylcan Z'^J^^T- F^P^" ^^ 
alpa haljena maeppan. pop^pepbe Pulp- 
pyj B a&t Licetpelba. "j Gobpin abB on 
Pincelcumbe. "J yGjelpapb abB on Glep- 
tin^abypi^. ealle binnan anum mon)>e. 
^ Leoppme *abB on Copatitpeo' penj 
to J?am Bpice aet Licetpelbe. "J Albpet 
B pen^ to ])am abBpice ^n pmcel- 

cumbe. tJ /Bjelna^ F^"5 ^^ J'^^ ^^^' 
pice on Gleptincjabypij'. "j faep ylcan 
jepep pop^pepbe /61ppic. Obban bpo- 



health ; and gave it to the monk Lebf- 
ric, with the king's leave and that of the 
monks: and the abbot Arnwy lived after- 
wards eight winters. The abbot Leofric 
gilded the minster^ so that it was called 
Gildenborough ; and it then waxed very 
much in land^ and in gold^ and in silver. 
A.D. 1053. About this timei was 
the great wind^ on the mass-night of St. 
Thomas; which did much harm every- 
where. And all the midwinter also was 
much wind. It was this year resolved 
to slay Rees^ the Welsh king's bro- 
ther^ because he did harm; and they 
brought his head to Gloucester on the 
eve of Twelfth-day *. In this same year, 
before Allhallowmas^, died Wulfty, hi* 
shop of Lichfield ; and Godwin^ abbot 
of Winchcomb; and Aylward, abbot 
of Glastonbury ; all within one months. 
And Leofwine, abbot of Coventry^ took 
to the bishopric at Lichfield; bishop 
Aldred to 4he abbacy at Winchcomb^; 
and Aylnoth took to the abbacy at Glas* 
tonbury. The same year died Elfric, 
brother of Odda^ at Deerhurst; and his 



« Chiefly from C,T. b i. and ir. ; imperfectly printed in Lje. ^ Abs. Gibs. On yam ylcan ^eajie 
com je jtpaq^a ^— CT. b i. m lii. « From C.T. b i. abs. b It. Lye, &c. ' cac man jloli l3]ttj frnf 
Peljcaa cyn^ej hjioKepi^CT* b i.; which terminates in that MS. the year mlii. * From C.T.Bif* as 
far as Pejif c<gie ; incorrect and mutilated in Lye. ' In Lye's Appendix thas after Giepcejtjie} 

there printed Glaey ceajtep : Ob rpelpan aefen pop^fepbe ^Ifpic — fsFc, ; ending the year with 
Pepfcope. It Briefly thns b i. : Daejp ^y^lcan ^eapef ^ejrop Puljrpe b' on Licebpelba. *] Leojryine 

abb* on Cofantpeo fen; to 9am bftf ceoppice. *j iE^elpapb abbub on Giaejtinxabypi; Z^T^P* '^ Go^^- 
yine abb' on Pincelcnmbe. 



> An. 1052, Flor. But the death of the Welsh 
king's broUier is placed to the following year. 

' ^^6rr(^nf.r«^> Australinm Wakruium frtu 
ter^ Rhesus nomine^ propter frequenies pradas 
quat agebaiy in loco qui Bulendun dtdiur jussu 
regis JSiMfo' ocdditurj ei Glamonum caput ^us 



ad regem in vigUia Epiphanim Domini est aUom 
turn:'— Flor. 

» « Mense OdobrV'—Vlor. 

* « . . . abbaUam Winceltumbensem tarn diu 
in manu tenuity donee Oodricumj regis capeUani 
Godmanm JiUumyabbaiem cQnstityergt^"'-^Fiou 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S41 



^ep. on Dcophypi^e. 1 h»r l^chama 
pefceS on Pepj-cope''. •On fypim 
jeape paej- f e cynm^ on pmceaptpe on 
Gaj^pan. ^ Gobpme eopl mib him. ^ 
J^apolb eopl hif pinu. ^ Toftij. ^a on 
o^pan Gay cpen baeje fast he mib Jjam 
cynincje aet jepeopbe. fa paepin^a f ah 
he ni^ep piS J>aef poc-^etlep fppaece 
benumen "J eaipe hif mihte. ^ hine 
man }» bpseb into jfej- kinjej* bupe. 
tl ^ohtan f hit opepjan pceolbe. ac 
hit naep na fpa. ac )7uph-punobe ypa 
imfpecenbe ^ raihtdeaj- pop^ o^ )K)ne 
punpepbaej. "J ^a hip hp alet''. ''on 
XVII. kt QOai. 1 he ip bebypjeb on pin- 
ceaptpe on ealba-mynptpe''. ^"J ^Japolb 
^eopr hip punu penj to J>am eoplbome 
j« hip paebep aep haepbe. ^"J to eallum 
jxam J?e hip paebep ahte'. ^ /Glpjap eopl 
penj to J?am eoplbome }?e )3apolb aep 
haepbe''. *6ac Pylpce mean jeplojan 
mycelne bael Gnjlipcep polcep ^aepa 

peapbmanna pi^ F^r^^YP'X- ^^ ^T" 
pon ^eape naep nan apcebipceop on 



body resteth at Pershore^ In this year 
was the king at Winchester^ at Easter; 
and earl Godwin with him^ and earl 
Harold his son, and Tosty. On the 
day afler Easter^ sat he with the king 
at table ; when he suddenly sunk be- 
neath against the foot-rail, deprived of 
speech and of all his strength. He 
was brought into the king's chamber^ ; 
and they supposed that it would pass 
over^: but it was not so. He conti- 
nued thus speechless and helpless till 
the Thursday ; when he resigned hi$ 
life, on the 17th before the calends of 
May ; and he is buried at Winchester 
in the old minster. Earl Harold, his 
son, took to the earldom that his father 
had before, and to all that his father 
possessed ; whilst earl Elgar took to the 
earldom that Harold bad before. Th^ 
Welshmen this year slew a great many 
of the warders of the English people, 
at Westbury. This year there was no 
archbishop in this land ; but bishop 



» From ^.r. si. to— ^a hijf lip alct, Brieflj thus bit.: "j }xj ylcan jepcf popWpepbc Gobpme 
eopl [eolp, MS."] 1 him jeypelobe faep he mib Jam cynje pec on Pmcejrpe, More brieflj still 
Cb/. MLii. : beji paj Gobpme eojil beab. Gibs/from Laud, thus : Au.mliit. l3ep on ]^ijum jeape jrojiV- 
pcjibe Gobpme eopl on xyit. kl' OOai. *j he ip bebypjcb on Pm-ceaytpc on ealba-myDjrpe. Abs. Lye. 
^ Gibs. from Laud, abs. CoL C,T. b it. &c. — *j he li^ yxp bmnan calbao-myn jtpe. b i. « Chiefly 
from C,T, b it, abs. Lye. i hip punu l3ajialb penj to hip eojilbome. *i let op San J^e he aep haepbe. "j 
^pgaji penjc Saejito. b i. "j penj l}apoIb eopl hip punu to fam eoplbome. 1 to eallum ^am }e hip 
pxbep ahte. J penj ^Ipj^ap eopl to J^am eoplbome j^c 'Dapolb xp ahte. Gibs, from Laud. *j fen j 
t>apoIb to yam eopibom. *j jcnj iCIpjap to )?am eoplbome }e t3apolb ahte. Cot, ' Gibs, from Laud, 
« From C'T, B i. to the end of the year. 



^ ^^AlJricuSy germanus Oddw comitiSj apud 
Deorhirsie undecimo eal* Januarii obiiij scd in 
monasUrio Persorensi est iumulaius.^^ — Flor. 

' t. e. ^Easter-Monday, or Monday in Easter- 
week : on oSpao Captpen bae^e, Sax. ; as in the 
Latin idiom, in altero Paschaiis die. But Flo. 
rence of Worcester is pompously circuituons: 



<^ - - - dum secunda Paschaiis festivitatis celebra^ 
retur feria fVinioniee" &c. 

* So Flor., " - - - in regis cameram,** bupe, 
Sax« ; literally, botcer, 

* Thus explained by Florence of Worcester : 
<<.... speranles earn post modicum de infirmitale 
convalesccreJ*^ 

2 I 



e4« 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



VifpLtk lanbe. butan Stn^anb H heolb 
f bifceoppicc on Cantpapabypij on 
Cpiftej- cyjicean. ^ Kynpje on Gopop- 
pic. ^ Leoppine ^ pulppi popan opep pae. 
^ leton hij habian Jjaep to bipceopum. 
fe pulppi penj to Jam bipcoppice J?e 
Ulp haepbe be him libbenbum *J op- 
abpaepbum'^:- 

An. MLIV. ^hep, ''on J^ipum jeape' 
pop^Spepbe Leo pe ^'halja' papa on 
Rome. 1 Victop paep to papan jecopen'' 
*^on hip ptebe". *Anb on J^ipum jeape 
paep ppa myccl oppcpealm ppa man ne 
gemunbe pela pintpum aep^'. «J3ep 
pepbe' Sipapb eopl mib miclum^ hepe 
*on Scotlanb'. ^ae^^ep jc mib pc^p- 
hepe je mib lanb-pypbe. "J peaht pi^ 
Scottap'. ^^ aplymbe Jwne kynj CWac- 
beo^n. tl opploh eall f Jjaep betpt paep 
on ]>im lanbe. "j lasbbe ]?onan micele 
hepe-hu%e. ppilce nan man asp ne be- 
jcat'. * 6ac peoll m]p^ce1 on hip healpe. 
aejj^ep je Denpce je ^njlipce. ^ eac' 
hip "ajen' punu Opbapn. ^ hip ppeoptop 
punu Sihpapb. "^ op hip hup-caplum' 
J eac faep cynjep pupbon "Jjaep opplae- 
jene'. on Jjone baej Septem bopmien- 
tium. ® Daep ilcan Z'^P^t' F^P Albpeb B 



Stigand^ held the see of Canterbury at 
Christ church, and Kinsey that of York. 
Leofwine and Wulfwy went over sea^ 
and had themselves consecrated bishops 
- there. Wulfwy took to the bishopric 
which Ulf had whilst he was living 
and in exile. 

A.D. 1054. This year died Leo the 

• holy pope^ at Rome ; and Victor was 
chosen pope in his stead. And in this 
year was so great loss of cattle as was 
not remembered for many winters be- 
fore. This year went earl Siward with a 

• large army against Scotland, consisting 
both of marines and land-forces; and 
engaging with the Scots^ he put to flight 
the king Macbeth ; slew all the best in 
the land; and led thence much spoil, 

• such as no man before obtained. Many 
fell also on his side^ both Danish and 
English ; even his own son Osboro, and 
his sister's son Sihward : and many of 
his house-carls, and also of the king's, 

• were there slain that day, which was 
that of the Seven Sleepers. This same 
year went bishop Aldred south over sea 
into Saxony, to Cologne, on the king's 



• From Laud. C.T. b iv. (mliii. Cot.) with little variation : bat the death of Leo aod the f ucoes- 
sioQ of Victor are disjoined in Gibson; and in b ir. both are placed at the end of the year thus: ^ hep 
fop^fepbe fcf. Leo papa, "j Victoji p«f to papan jecopen on hij j«e^. * Abs. Cot. C7.r.Biv. 
« From C.T. b ir. abs. Gibs. ^ Gibs, from Laud. abs. Cot, C.T. b ir. The year then conclndei 
in Gibs, with a Latin extract from Laud. : Bellum apud mare mortuum. * From C.T. b i. and ir. ; 
imperfectly printed in Lye. abs. Gibs, to the end. ' pop, C.T. b i. t mycclum, C.T. b i. 

^ into Scodanbe, C.T. b i. > From C.T. b it. Lye, Sec. abs. a i. ^ 1 mycd yael of Scoctnki 
;;ef1oh. 1 hij aflymbe. "j je cinj ajtbaepjt. C.T. b i. > From CT. b I. ac hijr ynnn Ofbapn, Lye. • 
* From C.T. Bt. abs. nir. Lye, &c. » faepe ojrj-Iejene, Lye. • Abs. Lye. — jcpepcj, 

C.T. B if. On ^am ylcan ^eape jepbc 6albpeb bijcop —- Wc. b i. 



^ Fid. an. 1058| towards the end. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S4S 



•into Sexlanbe' to Colne *jni^' opeji 
f «. faep kj^njef aejienbe. "j peap)» ^aeji 
^unbejipan^en mib m^cclan peop%« 
f cipc' ppam fam Caj^pe- "i J? aji he 
punobe pel-neh an j;eji. ^ him ^eap aej* • 
^eji fenej^e je jre B on Colone tl f* 
Cafepe. tt he lopobe Leoppme Be to 
haljianne f m^nftep set Gopephamme. 
•Daef ylcan jeapep man haljobe f myn- 
ptep «t eopephamme' on vi. ih* Oc- 
tobpif . *Df ylcan jeapc' fpalt Ofjob 
*Clapa' paepinja® on hip bebbe. •ppa 
f pa he on hip pepte !« j'' :• 

An. ML v.* I3cp •on J^ipum jeape'^ 
pop^pepbe Sipapb' eopl ^on Gopep- 
pic, ^^ hip he h^ binnan ]>am m^nptpe 
aet Galmanho. Jje' he p^lp aep Uet tim- 
bpian ^j haljian. on Gobep ^j Olapep 
namon^ Gobe to lope, ti eallum hip hal- 
gum", ^"j Kynpe apceH pette hip pal- 
hum aet Victope papan"^. Da s^asp 
2eptep binnan lyttlan p^ppte^ *beab 
man ealpa pitenajemot"^. "^yii. nihton 
aep mib-lenctcnc". «on Lunbene''. "tl 
man ^^utlajobe J«i /Glpjap eopK. 
^Leoppicep punu coplep'^. ^'pop-neh 
butan slcan ^fVce'^. pop%on him man 



errand ; where he was entertained with 
great respect bj the emperor, abode 
there well-nigh a year, and received 
presents not only from the courts but 
from the bishop of Cologne and the 
emperor. He commissioned bishop 
Leofwine to consecrate the minster at 
Evesham ; and it was consecrated in 
the same year, on the sixth before the 
ides of October. This year also died 
Osgod Clapa suddenly in his bed, as 
he lay at rest. 

A.D. 1055. This year died earl 
Siward at York; and his body lies 
within the minster at Galmanho^, which 
he had himself ordered to be built and 
consecrated, in the name of God and 
St. Olave, to the honour of God and 

- to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey 
fetched his pall from pope Victor. 
Then, within a little time after, a ge- 
neral council was summoned in Lon- 
don, seven nights before mid-Lent ; at 

> which earl Elgar, son of earl Leof- 
ric, was outlawed almost without any 
guilt ; because it was said jigainst hinp. 



* From C.T. b i. abs. b if. Lje, &c. ^ nub myceljie ajipajiVneff e unbeppmjeD, C.T. b i* 

^ Lye mistook this word for a proper name. ' xlit. Cot. * Abs. Cot, ' So C,T. b i. 
Gibs. Sec* Syhpapb, b it. f From C.T. b i. and ir. abs. Gibs. ^ ^ ^ he lijeS set GalmSho 

on ]»m mynjfcpe }e — • fSfc. C.T. o if. ^ From CT.,b it. 2®^^""^^?^^ *** C.T.bu ^ From 

C.T.Bir. abs. B i. Gibs. &c. > Gibs, from Iaim/* abs.Cb/. paej- pitenajemoc on Lunbeoe, Cr. b ir. 
» Gibs, from Laud. abs. Cot. ^ So C.T. b i. 'j udajobe mann -. Gibs, from Laud. 1 Aijap eofi 
f aj ^eutla^ Cot. « From C.T. b i. and ir. : but b i. omits fopneh, and b it. omits aslcan. 



^ ^^ In monasierio Gaimnnhoy quod ipse cofu 
siruxeraiy sepuUus e^/." — Flor., copied as usual 
by Hoveden. Tlie cburch, dedicated to St. Glare, 
i¥as given by Alan earl of Richn^ond, about 33 
years afterwards, to the first abbot of St. Mary's 
in York, to assist him in the construction of the 



new abbey. It appears from a MS. quoted by 
Leiand, that Bootham-bar was formerly called 
Galman^hiikey i.e. Galmanna-hyVe : not Gal* 
manlith, as printed by Tanner and others ; who 
seem to be very much in the dark on the subject 
of Galmanho. 

3l2 



944 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



peaj^p on*, f he ^paey '^ ^1?^T ^Y^Z^T 
jrpica "i ealpa lanb-leoba'^ **Anb he ]>xf 
jeanpypbe fa^y ^aetpopan eallum J?am 
mannum J)e ]>aep jejabepobe paepon". 
J^ah him f popb oppcuce *hip unn- • 
^ancep". *] pe c^nj jeap^ fone eopl- 
bom Toptije. ^Gobpinep punu eoplep'^ 
Jje Sipapb ^eopr' aep ahte. *Anb /Glp- 
jap eopl jepohte Gpippinep jehealb 
on Nop^-pealan"'. e^ he jepenbe ^a to • 
Iplanbe. "J bejeat him faep li^. f paep 
XYiii. pcipa butan hip ajenan.^ penban 
^a to Bpytlanbe to Gpippine cinje 
mib Jam pepebe. ^ he hine unbeppenj 
on hip XpiSe. *i hij jejabepaban ^a • 
mycle pypbe mib ^am Ypipcan man- 
nan ^ mib palkynne. ^ Rapulp eopl ja- 
bepabe my^cele p^pbe a^ean to J2epe- 
popb-popt. *i hi pohtan hi ^aep. ac ap 
pxjx paepe aenij ppepe jepcoten aep • 
pleah ^aet Gnjlipce pole, pop .^an ]>e 
hij paspan on hoppan. •] man ploh ^aep 
mycel pael. abutan peopep hunb manna 



that he was the betrayer ot tlie kiog^ 
and of all the people of the land. And 
he was arraigned thereof before all that 
were there assembled^ though the erime 
laid to his charge was unintentional. 
The king, however, gave the earldom, 
which earl Siward formerly bad, X6 
Tosty, son of earl Godwin. Where- 
upon earl Eigar sought Griffin's terri- 
tory in North- Wales; whence he went 
to Ireland, and there gat him a fleet of 
18 ships, besides his own ; and then re- 
turned to Wales to king Griffin with th< 
armament, who received him on terms 
of amity. And they gathered a great 
force with the Irishmen and the Welsh; 
and earl Ralph collected a great array 
against them at the town of Hereford^ ; 
where they met ; but ere there was A 
spear thrown the English people fled, 
because they were on horses*. The ene- 
my then made a great slaughter there — 
about 400 OF fiOO men; they on the 



■ appau, Coi. *> jcolbe beon, Coi, « fej ciiijej- — ealpa ^cobe, Coi. * he paj J?af jepypbe, Cot. 
« Gibs, from Laud. abs. Cot. ' jiep. Cot. In C.T. b iv. the whole stands thus after the death of 
Siward : 1 Tojri p enj to fan eoplbome J^c he haepbc. Then follows, as printed in the text aboYe, 
d Kynpie apceb* pecce hip pallium, Vc, « From CT, b i. chiefly to the end of the year. Briefly thus 
Gibs, from Laud.: "j on }npum jrape Gpippin anb Mlj^zp popbaepnbon pee. iE^elbpyhtep mynjrep. "j 
e^le y^ buph bepepopb. The year mlt, then concludes ; and the subsequent year has only the fol- 
jowiog Latin extract from Laitd. annexed to it : Hie Henricus Romanorum imperator ohnt, cut succ$isit 
films ejut Henricus, In C»T. b i?. some particulars are omitted, and others added. The sack and plun- 
der of Hereford are stated thus : Ac he jepenbe to Diplanbo i Bpytlanbc. 1 bejeat him J»»p miccl 
jeoje.*} popbe jpa to 1>epepopba. ac him com Jwp tojencp Raulp eopl mibmycclan hepci mib lytlaii 
jepinne hi on pleam 2ebpohte.*j micel pole on J?an pleamc oppioh.^ jepenbon fa intoDepepopb-popte*. 
•j pophepjobe jJ. i popba;pnbe jJ maepe myn jtep J»e iEf el jxan b' jetimbpobe. "j opploh fa ppcojtap looai^ 
fan mynptpe. "j manege f aepco eacan. "j namon faepmne ealle fa ma^map "j njib heom apcj^ laebbon* 



^ l3epepopb-popt in the original ; which occurs 
in other places, as in 1066. The fields to the 
north-west of the city are still called ^ The Port 
Fields.' 

? Contrary to their usual custom ; according to 



Florence of Worcester, copied by S. Dunelm. and 
Iloveden : — " Timidus dux Radulpkus — Anglos 
contra morem in equis pugnare jussit." The main 
strength of an army is still considered to be In its^ 
infantry. 



E SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S45 



e^Se ppe. 1 hi nsnne ajean. ^ h\% 
jepenban ¥a to J>am popte. "j ^aet 
popbaepiiban. ^ f majie mynrtep. ^e 
/e)?elrtan fc appup^a bifcop aep let 
jetimbpian. f hij bepyptan 1 be- 
peapban act halijbome tJ aet: hpeaue. 
*] aet eallon ^injan. "j f pole flojan tl 
pume onpej laebban. Da jabepabe 
man pypbe jeonb call Gnjla-lanb ppi^e 
neah. "j hij coman to Gleapceaptpe, ^ 
penban ppa unpeopp ut on pealap. tl 
}?aep lajon pume hpile. tJ J^apalb eopl 
let bician ^a bic abutan f popt J?a 
hpile. ]?a on J?am J?a ppaec roan to ppi^e. 
*j );>apalb eopl "J Ba ^e mib him paepon 
coman to Byljepleje. -J ]?aep ppi^ ^ 
ppeonbpcipe heom betpeonan jepaept- 
noban. ■'j man jemlajobe Jja /Blpjap 
eopl. "3 man ajeap him eall f him paep 
»p opj^enumen. 1 f pcipli^ jepenbe to 
Leje-ceaftpe "J ^aep abiben heopa 
raalep ]>e /Glpjap heom behet. Se 
mannj-lyht paep oh ix. kt NovB'. On 
^am ylcan J^eape pop^pepbe Tpeme- 
pij^ pe Pylij-ca bipcop. pona aeptcp 
^aepe hepjunje. pe pasp /GJ^elptanep 



other side none. They went then to the 
town^ and burned it utterly; and the 
large minster ^ also which the worthy 
bishop Athelstan had caused to be huilt^ 
that they plundered and bereft of relic 
and of reef^ and of all things whatever; 
and the people they slew^ and led some 
away. Then an army from all parts of 
England was gathered very nigh^; and 
they came to Gloucester : whence they 
sallied not far out against the Welsh, 
and there lay some time. And earl Ha- 
rold caused the dike to be dug about the 
town the while. Meantime men begaa 
to s|)eak of peace; and earl Harold and 
those who were with him came to Bils- 
ley3, where amity and friendship were 
established between ihero. The sentence 
of outlawry against earl Elgar was re^ 
versed ; and they gave him all that was 
taken from him before. The fleet return* 
ed to Chester, and there awaited their 
pay, which Elgar promised them. The 
slaughter was on the 9th before the ca- 
lends of November. In the same year died 
Tremerig4 the Welsh bishop^, soon afker 



* After ape^ laebbon, thus C.T. b i?. : Anbjya ^^ hi haejbon msep; to ypele jebon. man jepaebbe ^one 
paebe ^ man i'Elj^ap eupl ^einnla^obc. *j ajeap bim hij eoplboroe,*i call ^ him oj:^^"""^^'^ P^I- ^^J 
hopjun J papf jcpopben on non* kP Noiieb*. The remainder corresponds nearly with b i. *» Tpymepin, 
altered afterwards to Tpemcpin, C.T, a iy. The trac reading, perhaps, is Tpemepinj. The other Tariations 
in bIt, arc — ilcan and p%Van, for ylcan and jy^an; with the abbreTiation b', for bipcop and bijcopep. 



* Called St. Ethelbert's minster ; because the 
relics of the holy king Ethelbert were there de« 
posited and preserred. 

^ The place where this army was assembled, 
though said to be Tory nigh to Hereford, was only 
so with reference to the great distance from which 
some part of the forces came ; as they were ga« 
thered from ail England. They met^ I conjecture. 



on the memorable spot called Harold's Crosiy 
near Cheltenham ; and thence proceeded, as here 
stated, to Gloucester. 

' «< In loco qui Bililesleaga dicUur:* — Flor. 
Byligesleage, S. Dunelm. Blligesleage, Iloved* 

^ Tremerinus, Flor., Hofeden. Tremerius^ 
Somner, Diet. Sax, toc. unpepe* 



5 



f . €. the bishop of St. David's. 



946 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



bifcopcf jcfpeha jr^^^an he unpejie 

•An. MLVI. *J3eji pjilet yejeljiic 
bif ceop hif bif ceoppice set Dunholm. tJ 
pepbe to Buph to j-cePctjief mynjftpe. 
;j hif bpo^op /Bjelpme penj ^aepto. 
*i eac' hep pop^pepbe /B^eljtran *pe 
appup^a' bipcop on iiii. ib' Febjiii. tl 
hif he h^ on iSepepopb-popt*". ^ man 
pette Leopjap* to bipcupe. pe pap 
bapolbep eoplep maeppe-ppeopt. ^Se 
pcpcbe hip kenepap on hip ppeopthabe'. 
o^^at he Kpaep bipcop'. Se poplet hip 
cpipman. *i hip hpobe"". hip japthcan 

paepnu^ *J F^^3 ^® ^T TP^P® ^ ^® ^T 
ppeopbe*^. ^aeptep hip bipcuphabe'. ^ 
ppa pop to p^pbe" on^ean Gpippm 
J>one Pylipcan cmj". '^ "he peap^ faep 
opplajen', tJ hip ppeoptepP mib him. ^ 
/Elpno^ pcip-jepepa. ^ maneja ^o^pe' 
jobe men"" *mib heom. ^ fa ofpe at- 
plujon'. Jjip pap ehtan nihton* ssp, mib- 



the plundering; ^ho was bishop Athe1« 
Stan's substitute, after he became infirm^. 
A.D. 1056. This year bishop Egelric 
resigned his bishopric at Durham, and 
retired to Peterborough minster; and 
his brother Egelwine succeeded him. 
The worthy bishop Athelstan died on 
the fourth before the ides of February ; 
and his body lies at Hereford^. To him 
succeeded Leofgar, who was earl Ha- 
rold's mass-priest. He wore his knap- 
sack in his priesthood, until he was a 
bishop. He abandoned his chrism and 
his rood, — bis ghostly weapons, — And 
took to his spear and to his sword, after 
his bishophood; and so marched to the 
field against Griffin the Welsh king^. 
But he was there slain, and his priests 
with him, and Einoth the sheriff, and 
many other good men with them ; and 
the rest fled. This was eight nights 
before midsummer 4. Difficult is it to 



• From C.T. b i. and ir. now first printed. ^ From C.T, b it. In b i. the year begins thus : 

Deji jejrop £]^eljran, l^c. ^ From C.T. b i. abs. b ir. ^ bejiep ojiba, C.T. b ir. * Lefe^aji, 
C.T. b It. f *j on hip pjicojrhabe he hsf ^ hif kenepap, C.T, b It. t b' pxj, C.T. b it* ^ pobe, 
C.T, b it. ; where *j b inserted after pobe. * jnepna, C.T, b i. ^ TPP^ C'T b i. ' From 
C,T. b i. abs. b It. But it is manifest from the context that Leofgar was then a bishop; for his death 
is recorded almost immediately. » fejibe, C,T, b ir. > cinin^, C,T. b it. ® hme man Vap ofplobi 
C.r.Bl. P ppeojrap, cr. B i. ^ From Cr. b it. abs. bi. 'menn,Cr.Bi. • nihte, C^.r. b It. 



^ << Erai enim per annos 13 oculorum lumine 
privatus,** — Flor. 

' See before, note \ p. 244. He died at Bosan. 
birig (Bosbury) according to Flor., and was bn. 
ried in his new church at Uereford, which he had 
built from the foundation. 

* This was no uncommon thing among the Saxon 
clergy, bishops and all. The tone of elerated 
diction in which the writer describes the military 
enterprbe of Leofgar and hb companions, testi- 
fies his admiration. The Latin historians hare 



omitted most of these interesting particulars; but 
Matthew of Westminster thus eulogizes the bi- 
shop: — ^^ Ecdesiarum amator^ pauperum reerea* 
tar^ viduarum et orphanarum defensor^ oppresm 
torum mbverUoTy virginitaiis possessor !^^ It is 
remarkable that the eulogy itself is applied almost 
Terbatim by Florence of Worcester, in the same 
year, to a different person. 

* '' 16 cal' JuUi in loco qui Claftbirig 

(Cleobury) oocitftfr."—- Flor. Glastbyrigi S. Du- 
nelm. Glastingebirie, HoTeden. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S47 



ban fumepa*. ^'Gappo^lice if to atel- 
lanne yeo jebpecebnep ^ f eo pape eall. 
^ yeo pypbunj. ^ f jefpinc. "j manna 
pyll. *j eac hoppi. Jje eall Gnjla hepe 
bpeah. o^^aet Leoppic eopl com pi^. ^ • 
)3apalb eopl. "j Galbpeb 1>. "J maceban 
jreht faep betpeonan. ppa f Gpippm 
ppop a^ap. f he polbe beon Gabpapbe 
kinje holb unbep-kinjc "J unppicijenbe'. 
^ Galbpeb bipceop pcnj to ¥am bi- 
pcuppice fe Leopjap^ haepbe ^aep' xi. 
pucan 1 nil. bajap. *0n ^am ylcan 
jeape X^pop Cona pe Capepe^ Daep 
^jepej^ S^pop' Obba eopl. ^ ship lie' 
h^ on Peppcopan^ *^ he' paep to mu- 
nece jehabob aep hip*^ cnbe. *he jepop' 
on II. kt SeptB. ""30b man ^ claene t) 
ppi^e aefele'':- 

"An. ML VII. ® J3ep on Jifum jeape" 
com GabpapbP aeWelinj. ^Gabmunbcp 
punu cynjep''. 'hibep to lanbe". '"j 
pona faep jepop. ^ hip he ip beb^pjeb 
innon pJfp Paulup m^nptpe on Lun- 
bene". *Se paep Gabpeapbep bpoSop 
punu kynjep. Gabmunb "cinj" Ipen- 



relate all the vexation and the journey- 
ing, the marching and the fatigue^ the 
fall of men> and of horses also, which 
the whole army of the English suffered^ 
until earl Leofric, and earl Harold^ and 
bishop Eld red, came together and made 
peace between them ; so that Griffin 
swore oaths, that he would be a firm 
and faithful vice-roy to king Edward. 
Then bishop Eldred took to the bishop- 
ric which Leofgar had before eleven 
weeks and four days. The same year 
diedConai the emperor; andearlOdda', 
whose body lies at Pershore, and who 
was admitted a monk before his end ; 
which was on the second before the ca- 
lends of September; a good man and 
virtuous and truly noble. 

A.D. 1057. This year came Edward 
etheling, son of king Edmund^ to this 
land, and soon afler died. His body is 
buried within St. Paul's minster at Lon- 
don. He was brother's son to king 
Edward. King Edmund was called 
Ironside for his yalour. This etheling 



• famepe, C.T, b it. ^ From C.T, b i. : transcribed by JoBceltn in b it. with his usual remark, 
" Sic In Ilbro M»« Bojcr." « Leojrcjap, C.T. b it. * From C.T. b i. abs. b It. • From 
C.T. B i. Anb Cooa je Cappe f opVfejibe, CT. b It. at the end of the year. ' ^eapef pojiSpephe, 
C.T. b it. « he, C.T. b It. *» Pepjcopa, C.T. b it. » ye, C.T. b It. * ifi C.T. b i., omitting 
the aspirate. ^ Anb he jepat, C.T. b it. So Jose. ap. b I. " Abs. C.T. b 1. ; bat transcribed 

by Jose. ap. bi. Then bi. becomes defectire; leaTing two«thirds of the page blank, and beginning 
the neit with mlzt. ^ The greater part of this year is from C.T. b It. ; imperfectly printed by Lye. 
• Abs. Lye. p iBbpapb, Gibs. 4 Gibs, from Laud. abs. C.T. b It. In the margin of OoU 

or, to speak correctly, in the original MS. inscribed Domfffan ATiii., among other things nearly obli* 
terated are these words, distinctly legible : Cabpapb sej^ehnj. Cabjapef pebep i COapjapetan. The 
same anticipation of the history of Edgar and Margaret occurs in Henry of Huntingdon, p. 366. 
' CO enjla-lanbe, C.T. b It. • Gibs, from Laud. abs. C.T. b it. * From C.T. b it. to jeoopeo. 



^ Called also Cona and Cuno, 
^ ^^ Comes Agelwinusy id est OddOy ab AUbredo 
fVigarnenri epUcopo mUe suum obitum monacki' 



zaiufy seeundo cal^ Sej^embris apud Deorkifrfte 
decessiiy $ed in monasterio Periorensi honorifiee 



248 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



ph paef jecly^pob pop hij- f nellf cipe. 
Dipne aeWelmj Cnut c^nj haepbe pop- 
penb on Unjep-lanb. him to beppicane. 
ac he l^aep* jefeh to joban men. ppa 
him Gob uSe. ^ him pel jebypebe. ppa 
f he bejeat faep Capepep maja to pipe. 
tl bi faspe paejepne beapn-team je- 
ptpynbe. peo^ paep AjaSep jehaten. 
Ne pipcon pe pop hpj^lcan mtinjan f 
jebon paep^. f he ne mopte hip maejep 
Gabpapbep cynjep jepeon. J7a la ! f 
paep hpeoplic pi^ ^ heapmlic ealpe fip- 
pepe Jjeobe. f he ppa pa-^e hip lip je- 
enbabe faep ]>e he to Gnjla-lanbe com. 
pop unjepaelh^e }?ippepe eapman J?eobe. 
*On J?am ilcan jepe' ^popSpepbe Leop- 
jiic eopl on II. kt OctB. pe paep ppi^e 
pip pop Gobe ^ eac pop populbe. f 
ppemobe eallpe fippe Jjeobe. J2e li^ 
aet Cop^ntpeo. ^ hip punu /Glpjap 
f enj to hip pice'. *^Anb on Jjam jeape' 
pop^pepbe Raulp eopl on xii. kl laii. 
*i li^ on Buph. eac jepop J3eca® B on 
Su%-Sexum. ^ /Gjelpic paep on hip petl 
ahapen. ^ ^ hep Victop papa popIS- . 
pepbe. tJ Stepanup^ paep to papan je- 
copen''. ^pe paep abbot on CDonte Cap- 
pino'':- 



king Knute had sent into Hungary, to 
betray him : but he there grew in fa- 
vour with good men, as God granted 
him, and it well became him ; so that 
he obtained the emperor's cousin in 
marriage, and by her had a fair off- 
spring. Her name was Agatha. We 
know not for what reason it was done, 
that be should not see his relation king 
Edward. Alas ! that was a rueful time, 
and injurious to all this nation — that 
he ended his life so soon after he came 
to England, to the misfortune of this 
miserable people. The same year died 
earl Leofric, on the second before the 
calends of October; who was very 
wise before God, and also before the 
world ; and who benefited all this na* 
tioni. He lies at Coventry^: and his 
son Elgar took to his territory. This 
year died earl Ralph, on the twelfth 
before the calends of January; and lies 
at Peterborough. Also died bishop 
Heca, in Sussex ; and Egelric was ele« 
vated to his see. This year also died 
pope Victor ; and Stephen was chosen 
pope, who was abbot of Mount Cas- 
sino. 



• ]wpe, Lye. *» j-e, Lye; mistaking the gender. « Abs. Lye. ^ More briefly thus 

Gibs, from Laud,: Anb Leoj:pic eopl popSjrejibe. i feng iEIjrjap hif pnu to J?am eoplbome Jw je 
pebeji an (q, ap or aep?) hxfbe. The year then concludes. ^ Deca, Lye, erroneously. Anb on 
Jrijum jeape fopVpepbe beaca b' on SuV-feaxan. Gibs, from Laud. an. mltiii. lOeca, Cot as here. 
' Stephanuf, Gibs. Laud. Cot. s Gibs, from Laud. abs. CT. b ix. Lye, &c. The whole runs thus 
in Coi, : Ann. mlv — mlti. l>ep pop^jrepbe Victop papa. 1 Stephanuj* paf jecopen. jre jwf abbob be 
(Oonte Caj-fino. With this last sentence Gibson asserts that the Cotton MS. just quoted concludes: 
''Htc desinii CM. Cot qui inscriUiur Domitianus a 8." But this is a mistake : for it is legible as far 
a9 the end of the year mltiii.; and it has been here collated accordingly. 



^ See more concerning him in Florence of 
Worcester. His lady, Godiva, is better known 
at Coventry. See her »tory at large in Bromtou 



and Matthew of Westminster. 

* He died at his villa at Bromleage (Brom* 
•ley in Staffordshire). — Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



249 



An. MLVin. *)3cp man ^tte ut 
yGlfjaji eopl. ac he com yt)na mn'* on- 
jcan mib j^pece ^uph Gpyppmcj- pul- 
cum. ^1 hep' com fcyp-hepe op Nop- 
pejan. };>it: ip lan^pim to atellanne 
ealle hu hit ^^papen paep. *^On Jam 
ilcan jepe' 6albpeb li hal^obe f niyn- 
l^pe on Gleapcej^pe*. J>e he pylp je- 
pop^obe*. Gobe' to lope ^ pee Petpe. 
^ ppa pepbe to };)iepupalem mib ppilcan 
peop^pcipc ppa nan ofep ne bybe aet- 
popan him. ^ hine pylpne faep Gob be- 
tshte. ^ pup^hc lac eac jeopppobc to 
upep Dpihtenep bypjene. f paep an 
jylben calic on pip map con ppife pun- 
bopljccp jepopccp''. KQn ]>am ilcan 
jepe pop^pepbe Stepanup papa. *i Be- 
nebictup pap to papan jepet. pc penb 
pallium Sti^anbe bipcope'' ""hibep to 
lanbe. ^ Sti^anb apcebipcop habobe 
/Gjelpic munuc set Xpep cj^pcean to 
fi to SuV-Seaxiim. "i Sipapb abli to 
bipcop to tSpope-ceaptpe^'^i- 
^An. MLIX. rSep on J^ipan ^epe paep 



A.D. 1058. Tbii year was earl Elgar 
banished; but he soon came in again by 
force, through Griffin's assistance: and 
a naval armament came from Norway. 
It is tedious to tell how it all fell out. 
In this same year bishop Aldred conse- 
crated the minster church at Gloucester, 
which he himself had raised ^ to the 
honour of God and St. Peter; and then 
went to Jerusalem* with such dignity 
as no other man did before him, and be- 
took himself there to God. A worthy 
gift he also offered to our Lord's se- 
pulchre ; which was a golden chalice 
of the value of fiye marks, of very 
wonderful workmanship. In the same 
year died pope Stephen; and Bene- 
dict was appointed pope. He sent hi- 
ther the pall to bishop Stigand; who 
as archbishop consecrated Egelric, a 
monk at Christ church, bishop of Sus- 
sex ; and abbot Siward bishop of Ro- 
chester. 

A.D. 1059. This year was Nicholas 



* From C.T, b It. to the word gepoji cef t imperfectly printed by Lye* ^ in, Lye. Gpijrfioej , id» 
^ Abs. Lye. ' Gleapceajtpe, Lye. * ^epop^pobe, Lye. ' Gob, Lye. There are other 
minute Tariations, too numerous to be specified; which are probably either errors of the printer or of 
the transcriber. s So C»T. b ir. abs. Lye. 'bep on J^ijum jeape jrop^jrepbe Scephannjr papa. *) 
p«f Benebiccof jehaljob to papan. jfe yica jaenbe Stij^anbe apoeb* pallium •— tf r., Gibs, from Laud, 
Dep fofXf^pbe Stephanuf pp. *j Benebiccuf pay jeblecjob ]Kipto. ye yIca yenbe Snj^anbe apb* pallmm 
hibep to lanbe. Cot; not collated by Gibson. ^ From Gibs, to the end of the year: abs. Lye. Anb 
^jclpic jmj to bifcope jehabob to Su^Sezam. *j Sihyapb abb' to bifcope to Dpoyecejtpe. C,T» b ir. 
After hibep to lanbe,- Co/, ends thus : *j I3eca b' yopVpepbe. *j Stijanb ajib* habobe ^^elpic muoec 
oj: Xpef cipican to b' to Su9-Sexum. *j Sipapb abb' to b' to Rope * * * ' Here ends MS. Cot, 
DoMiTiAN A Tiii. ^ From C.T. b W. In Lye the events of mlx. are placed to this year, and those 
of this year are omitted altogether. I3ep on ^lyum j^pe yaey Nicolauf to papan ^ecopen. p» p»y 
biycop set Flopenne ^appe buph. *j psey Benebictuy ut^bpijen. ye yasj acp papa. Gibs, from Laud, 

* He built a new chnreh from the foundation, * Florence of Worcester says, that he went 
on a larger plan. The monastery existed from the through Hungary to Jerusalem; ^^guod nulius 



earliest times. The words ^eyop^be and z^T^P^ 

ft 

pobe are confounded in general ; though they are 
Tery different, in sense as well as in sound. 



archiepiscofwrum vel episcoporum Anglia eatCm 
nuB dinosciiur fecisseJ* ^^ Per Pannoniam, quw ^ 
nunc Ungaria Jici/ur."-^. Duuelm. 

2k 



850 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Nicolauf jecojien to.papan. fe yxy 
Inf'cop asp ser Flopentia fssjie buph. 
^ Benebiccuf psey utabpypen. j^ Jwep 
pasf- flap papa. *Anb on J^ipin jepe 
ps&f fe p:ypel jehaljab aet Buph on 
XVI. ktNovB": 

An. MLX.** *^On J>ipin jcpe' paejr 
micel eop%*byne on rpanflatnone ySi 
CDaprini. 1 ISempic* j^ cynj pop^ 
pepbe on Fpanc-pice. "i Kynpe apceH 
on Gopeppic ^epat on xi. kt Ian. ^ he 
lije^* on Buph. ^ Galbpeb B penj to 
}>am pice. *J paltepe penj to )?am bpice 
on toepepopbpcipe. "i Dubuc^ B eac 
popBpepbe. j^ paBf B on Sumepfa&tan. 
tJ man jnette Gipi ppeo)^ on hijr 
ft:ebc'':- 

«An. MLXI. »»l3ep' pop 6albpeb B 
to Rome asptep hip paUium. *i he hme 
unbeppeh^ aet ]?am papan Nicolae. ""j' 
pe eopl Toptij ^ hip pip ""eac' popon' 
to Rome. 1 pe bipceop ^ pe eopl j^ 
biban mycele eappo^nyppe*^ Jya hi ham- 
papb popan^. ^^ hep'^ *on ]>am ilcan 
jeape'" popWpepbe G6bpine B aet pCc 
CDaptine *on vii. ibup CWji^ tJ ^on J?am 



chosen pope^ who had been bishop of 
Florence; and Benedict was expelJed, 
who was pope before. This year also 
was consecrated the steeple > at Peter- 
borough^ on the 16th before the calends 
of November. 

A.D. 1060. This year was a great 
earthquake on the Translation of St. 
Martin^ and king Henry died in France. 
Kinsey^ archbishop of York^ died on 
the 11 th before the calends of January ; 
and he lies at Peterborough. Bishop 
Aldred succeeded to the see» and Walter 
to that of Herefordshire. Dodoc also 
died, who was bishop of Somersetshire; 
and Gisa the priest was appointed in 
his stead. 

A.D. 1061. This year went bishop 
Aldred to Rome after his pall ; which 
he received at the bands of pope Ni- 
cholas. Earl Tosty and his wife also 
went to Rome; and the bishop and the 
earl met with great difficulty as they 
returned home. In the same year died 
bishop Godwin at St. Martin's*, on die 
7 th before the ides of March ; and in 



* Al». Lye, Gibs. &c ^ iilu. Paej micel eoji&byne~ Vc, Lye. In Gibs, tlie eTeots of tbis 
year are thag briefly stated from Latid. : An. mlx. On ^yfjum jetjie fojXfeflbe Kynji^ ajioeb' oa 
Gofojiyic on xi. kP lailji'. 1 ycnj esll)fieb b» ]«]i to. 1 Palteji pen j to )am bijoop-jnce on HeptfofibSL, 
Then follows a Latin extrsct from Lamd.: Hie Hemrieus rex Bnamnm MU, em nueemi PUE^m 
fi&u gus. The death of Dadoc, Sec u placed to the year mui. « Abs. Lye. « DeojiM^ Ljt. 

* li^ScV, Lye. ' Bnboc, Lye. Sameppeton, id. An. ii lzi. Deji on ^jam ^esjie jojXftfibt Dnbuc b* 
on Somejipeton. anbpen; Gija to. Gibs, s Chiefly from C.T. b iv., imperfectly printed by Lye, mlz. 
Fop e^lbpeb —. CsTc, abs. Gibs, to hampapb jropan : but the year begins with the deadi of Dadvc, 
&c. ; then follows the death of Godwin. ^ From CT. b it. abs. Lye, &c. > JPopeo, Lye. 

* espfopSnyjrre, Lye. > Gibs, from LomuL abs. C.T. a ir. Lye, &c 

> This most not be confounded with a iptre^ St. Martin, — ^ ad S. MarUni festam :" whereas 

steeple. The expression was nsed to denote a the eipression relates to the place, not to tiie 

/ooer, long before spires were inrented. Hme of his deatb^ which Is mentionod fanmodiatiely 

• Lye Interprets it erroneously the feHival of afterwards. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



251 



f^lpwi jeape poji^Fcjibc'' Pulj:pic abU 
aet fjfc Ajujrtine* ^mnon J^aepe Gaf- 
tep-pucan''. «on xiv. kt CDai''. ^1 Ni- 
colauf papa pop^pepbe. 1 Alexanbep 
paep ropapan ^ecopen. ye paep B act: 
Lucan". ^Da com }>am c]^n3e popb. f 
fe abbot pulppic pop^-jepapen paep. 
J>a jeccap he /G^elpije munuc J>aep to 
op ealbon m^^nj^pe. poljobe J)a Sti- 
janbe apcel>. anb peap% ^ehaljob to 
abli aet pmblepopan on pep Aujuptinup 
ma&ppe-baej'' :• 

MLXIl.® 

'An. MLXIII. 8 On Jjippum jcape' 
pop ISapolb eopl aeptep mibban pmtpe 
op Gleapeceaptpe to Rubelan. JieGpip- 
pincp paep. 1 }>onne ham popbaepnbe. ^ 
hip pcipa. *i alle )>a jepaeba ^e ])aep to 
jeb^^pebe. *] hme on pleame jebpohte. 
^ ])a to ])am jon^-bajan pop ):)apolb 
mib pcipum op Bpycjftope*' abutan 
Bpytlanb. 1 f pole jpi^ebe. 1 jiplebon, 
^ Toptij pop mib lanb-pepbe* onjean. 
^ f lanb jeeobon. sAc hep on ^ip- 
pan lUcan jeape' on heppepte*^ pcap^ 
*Gpippin k]^nc opj-lanjen'. on nonap 
Ajujrti"*. ppam hip ajenum mannum. 
^uph f ^epm Y^ he pon pi% ISapolb 
eopl. Sepaepkynmj" opep «eairpeal- 



tbe self-same year died Wulfric, abbot 
of St. Augustine's, in the £aster-^veek^ 
on the 14th before the calends of May. 
Pope Nicholas also died ; and Alexan- 
der was chosen pope, who was bishop 
of Lucca. When word came to the 
king that the abbot Wulfric was dead, 
then chose he Ethels v, a monk of the 
old minster, to succeed; who follow- 
ed archbishop Stigand, and was conse- 
crated abbot at Windsor on St. Augus- 
tine's mass-day. 

A.D. 1063. This year went earl Ha- 
rold, after mid*winter, from Gloucester 
to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Grif- 
fin : and that habitation he burned, with 
his ships and all the rigging belonging 
thereto ; and put him to flight. Then 
in the gang-days went Harold with his 
ships from Bristol about Wales; where 
he made a truce with the people, and 
they gave him hostages. Tosty mean- 
while advanced with aland-force against 
them, and plundered the land. But in 
the harvest of the same year was king 
Griffin slain, on the nones of August, 
by his own men, through the war that 
he waged with earl Harold. He wa^ 



* So C.T. B IT. and Lje. An^nprme, Gibs, from Laud, ^ From C,T» b it. abs. Lje, &c. 

« So Gibs, from Laud, on iiii.x. kl' April', C.T, b It. Lye. ' Gibs, from Laud. abs. C.T. b It. 
Lye, kc. • Hoc anno suhjugata at Cynomannia comUi Normannue WUielmo. Gibs, from Laud. 
Vtd. an. 1073. ' From C.T, b iT., inaccurately printed by Lye. More briefly thus Gibs, from 

Laud. : An. mlzih. t>ep pop l3apoIb eopl *j hij bpoVop Tojti; eopl. aej^p je mib lanb-jpypbe je mib 
fcip-hepe. into Bpyt-laobe. anb \ec lanb jeeobon. anb ^ pole heom jijlobon anb tobujon. anb jpopoa 
yyVSao to anb opflojOQ Sieopa cyi^ Gpipf lo.^j bpobton tDapolbe \nj heafob. !j be jecte o^pne cynj^ 
>Bpto. i Abs. Lye. ^SoC.r.aiT. Bpyjftope, Lye. ^SoCT.BiT. -f ypb. Lye* 

^ teppefty Lye. ^ So C.T. b iT. Gpippne cyn^ ejcjlajen. Lye* » So C.T. a ir. Auj^u., hye» 
^ So C.r. BIT. cynj, Lye. 

2 K S 



9(>9 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



cynn. anb man bjiohte hif- heapob* to 
l^apolbe eojile. "j ftapote hit |?am kynje 
bjiohte. *i hiy f cipef heapob. "j |?a bone 
J>ep mib. 'J pe kynj Gabpapb betaehte 
f lanb hip tpam jebpo^pan BleSjente 
^ Rijpatlan. "j hij a^ap ppopon. "j giplap 
palban J?aem cynje "j faem eople. f heo 
him on allum ^mjum unppicenbe beon 
polbon. "i ecjhpap** him jeappe. on pae- 
tepe 1 on lanbe. tJ ppylc op ])am lanbe 
jelaeptan ppylc man bybe topopan aep 
o^pum kynje'';- 

MLXIV. 

An. MLXV. ^I3ep on fippum jeape. 
popan to hlapmseppan. het )3apolb eopl 
by than on Bpytlanbc aet Poptapcih^. 
Da fa he hit* z^^^ haepbe. "i J^aep*^ my- 
eel job 'to'3e3abepobc.'3|)ohte}?onne«^ 
cynj** Gabpapb faep® to ^habane pop 
hunto^ep' J^injon. ac J)a hit ^eall paep 
jeapo'. 'Jja pop Cpaboc to. Gpyppmep 
punu. hub eallon }>am jenje ])e he be- 
geotan mibte. *} f pole eall maept op- 
ploh j>e Jjaep timbpobe. "i f j^b J)e faep 
jejeapcob paep namon'. ^Ne pipten 
pe hpa J)one unpaeb aepept gepaebbe'. 
™ Dip paep jebon on p2e Baptholomeup 
maeppe-baej. Anb pona aeptep ]7ipan'' 



king over alU the Welsh natioo. And 
his bead was brought to earl Harold ; 
who sent it to the king« with his ship's 
head J and the rigging therewith. King 
Edward committed the land to bis two 
brothers Bletbgent and Rigwatle*; who 
swore oaths, and gave hostages to the 
king and to the earl, that they would be 
faithful to him' in all things, ready to aid 
him everywhere by water and land, and 
would pay him such tribute from the land 
as was paid long before to other kings. 

A.D. 1065. This year, before Lam- 
mas, ordered earl Harold his men to 
build at Portskeweth in Wales. But 
when he had begun, and collected many 
materials, and thought to have king 
Edward there for the purpose of hunt- 
ing, even when it was all ready, came 
Caradoc, son of Griffin, with all the 
gang that he could get, and slew al- 
most all that were building there ; and 
they seized the materials that were there 
got ready. Wist we not who first ad- 
vised the wicked deed. This was done 
on the mass-day of St. Bartholomew. 
Soon after this all the thanes in York- 



• So Lje and Gibs, eapob^ C.T, b it, omitting the aspirate ; a frequent occurrence also in b i. 
^ So £7.71 B IF. : a reading not to be despised ; sounding more like eaeh-Mfhere than the more usual 
readings, ejbpcp, ahpae/i, &c. <^ From C*T. b i. and it., abs. Lje, to jejabepebon. ' hyt, C.T.bIy* 
« Jap, C.T. Bu ' Abs. C,T, b i. » J^one, C.T. b i. ^ kiojc, C,T. b i. ' habbenne fo (/. pop) 
huncno^ej, C.T. b i. * eall maejt jejabepob paej, C^T, si. ' J^a pop Cpaboc Gpippnep punu co 
mib eall urn ^m Je he bejyran mihce. *j j( pole maejft eall opjloh Je ]nip tmbpobe. *j *f ^oh jenam )e 
fap jejabepob paep. C.T, b i. " i pc mannphht pap on pee Bap]?olomeup maeppe-baeiji 1 ^ aspoep 
(lOichahelep maepjan — - tSfc, C,T, b i. 



> So MS. C.T. bit.: but the word eall is 
omitted by Lje, though of considerable import- 
ance, as illustratlye of the history of Wales; 
which on the death of Griffin, who was inde- 



pendent monarch of the whole, was diTided into 
North and South Wales, and goTterned hy his 
two brothers, as tributary to the English kings, 
* << Bleihgento ei llilA9afafio."_Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S5S 



^jejabepebon ^a ^Scjenaj- hi ealle on 60- 
poppic-fcipc 'j on Nop^hymbpa-lanbe 
to^sebepe ^toeopeppic'.'j jeutlajeban 
heopa eopl Tofti. 1 opflo^on hif hipeb- 
menn ealle }>e hi^ ^mihten to cumeh^ 
as3}>aep jeGnjlif ce jeDcnif ce. 'j naman 
ealle hip paspna on Gopoppic. ^ jolb* 
'J peolpep. "j eall hip peeacrap. }?e hij 
mihron ahpaep J?«p jeacpan*. *i penbon 
aeptep ClOopkepc /Glpjapep punu^ eop- 
lep. "j jecupon hine heom to eople. 'J he 
pop pu^ mib «ealpc' ])2epe pcipe. "j mib 
Snocinjham-pcipe ^ Deopby-pcipe 'i 
Lincolna-pcipe. 0% he com to )3amtune. 
^ hip bpofop 6abpine him com tojeanep 
mib fam mannum \>e on hip eoplbome 
pepon^ tl eac pela Bpettap' comon mib 
him. Daep'' com )3apolb eopl heom to- 
jeanep. tJ hij laejbon aepenbe on hme 
to Jam cy nmje Gabpapbe. "j eac aepenb- 
pacan mib him penbon. *] basbon f hi 
mopton habban CDopkepe heom to eople. 
^ pe cyninj J^aep jeu^e. "j Y^*^^ ^F^' 



shire and in Northumberland gathered 
themselves together at York/ and out- 
lawed their earl Tostj;' slajing all the 
men of his clan that they could reach, 
both Danish and English; and took 
all his weapons in York^ with gold 
and silver^ and all his money that they 
could anywhere there find. They then 
sent after Morkar, son of earl Elgar, 
and chose him for their earl. He went 
south with all the shire, and with Not- 
tinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lin* 
colnshire, till he came to Northamp- 
ton; where his brother Edwin came 
to meet him with the men that were 
in his earldom. Many Britons alsa 
came with him. Harold aho there met 
them; on whom they imposed an er- 
rand to king Edward, sending also 
messengers with him> and requesting 
that they might have Morcar for their 
earl. This the king granted; and sent 
back Harold to them, to Northamp- 



■ Some place these eFents to the precediog year. So Gibs, from Laud, beginning thus : An. m lzit. t)ep 

on ^ijjum j^pc popoD NopV-hymbpe tojaebepe. *j uclajobun — &c. The extract printed by Lye 

begins the year abruptly here : in other respects it agrees nearly with C.T. b iv. In b i. the remainder 

of the narratif e runs thus : ... jrojtan fsL ^^naj ealle on Gopeppicjcipe to 6opeppic. *;) Tojftijey 

eopiej hujcaplaj ^p opjiojon ealle ^ ^e hij 3eazian mihton. *j hyj ^sepjuman namon. *;) Tojfti; 

paej ^a «t Bpyrpopban mib }»m kin^e. 'j ]?a pel paVe ^ap sptep paej mycel 3emot set NopV-hamtune. 

"j jpa on Oxenapopba on ^on baeij Simonip*j Iube**J paejiDapolb eopl ^ap.*J polbe heopa jpeht pypcan. 

jip he roihee. ac he na mihte. ac eall hy/ eoplbom hyne anpsbhce jropjoc *j jeutla^obe. *j ealle fu, 

mib him be nnlaere paepboB. ^^ « , 

. Fop pam pe he pypte 

20b epojrc. *j ealle ]ia bejtpypce* 4 

pe he opep mihce. 

aec Iipe *j aec lanbe. 
Anb hij namon heom ^a CDopkepe to eople. *j Tojtij pop ]^a opep pe *! hyp pip mib him to Balbpinep 
lanbe. ^ pintep-jetl namon aet pee. Aubomape. Aub 6abpapb kinjc com to Pejftmynptpe — CsTc. 
>> From C.T. b i. < So (7.T. b It. ' So C.T. a iv. Lye^ &c. gol, Gibs. • So C.T. b it. 

^eabpian, Lye. jeaxiao, Gibs. 'fuoa,Gibs. ■ So CT*. b it. Gibs. ^ So C 71 bit. paepon, 
Lye, Giba« ^ So C.T. b It, Lye. Bpyttap, Gibs. ^ So Gibs. Dep, C.T. b iT. *^ So 

Gibs, jcnbe ejtepi Lye* 



«54 THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 

Dapolbe heom ^to' to iSamtune. on f £fe ton^ on the eve of St. Simon and St. 
S^tnonef tl Inba ma^jye aepen. *] k^be Jade; and announced to them the same, 
heom f lice, 'j heom f a-haifb fealbe. *J and confinned it bj hand, and renewed 
he nf pabe ]>2eji Cnutef la^e. ^ ])a Ry- there the laws of Knute. But the 
%jienan^ by^ban mycelne heajim abutan • Northern men did much harm about 
K>amtune J^a hpile ))e he pop ^on^ heopa Northampton, whilst he went on their 
aepenbe. ae2}>aep f hi opflo^on menn. *] errand : either that thej slew men, and 
baspnbon huf *] copn. tl namon eall f burned house and corn ; or took all 
op|: }>e hi^ mihton to cuman. f yxf the cattle that they could come at; 
peola %ufenb. *] pela hunb manna hi • which amounted to many thousands, 
naman. *i Isebban nop% mib heom. fpa Many hundred men also they took, and 
f peo f cip ^ )>a o}>pa f cipa ]fe ))asp neah led northward with them ; so that not 
pnbon pupban pela pintpa ]>e p^ppan. only that shire, but others near it were 
^ Topti^ eopi *J hip pip. *] ealle }>a fe the worse for many winters. Then earl 
polbon f he polbe. popon^ pu% opep pas . Tosty and his wife, and all they who 
mib him to <^Balbpine eople'. *i he hi acted with him, went south over sea 
ealle unbeppenjc. *] hi^ paepon ealne with him to earl Baldwin ; who re- 
]K>ne pintep ])asp''^ ^Anb Gabpapb c]^n^ ceived them all : and they were there 

« Abs. Gibs. ^ So C.T. b\y. hye* No}i^e|ine men, Gibs. ^ From C.T.bU, abs. Lye.. 

^ So Gibs, pajiati, C.T. b It. Lye. < So C.T, b It. Lye. Balbfinej lanbe, b i. Gibs. ' Tbo 

deftth of £dward and tbe saccession of Harold are placed togelber thus by GibsoQi partJy from Laud. 
and partly from Wheloc, at the begiDDiog of the followiug year :— >Ad. mlxti. On ]?ijjum jeape man 
haljobe }ec mynjrtep sec Pep:.mynp:]ie. on Cylba-maejje tm^e, Anb hep popVjrepbe 6buoapb kmj. 
on cpelpta maejfe-aefen. *j hine mann bebyp^^be on tpeljrtan maejfe-bsej. innao )>aepe nipa-haljobpe 
apoean on Pejt-myn jtpe. Anb Dapolb eopl pen; co ]?am pice, jpa /pa pe cynj hic him jeu^e. anb eac 
men hine J'sep to jecupon. i pa^p jebletpob co cyo^e on cpelptan maeppe-bsej- *J heolb hic zl. puoena 
*j senne bse;* Then, within the compass of thirty short lines, are dispatched the most important and 
critical eTcnts, perhaps, in the annals of England ; terminating in the OTcrthrow of Saxon freedom, 
and the transfer of the crown to a Norman usurper: — Anb py ylcan ^eape ^ he cyo; paep. he pop uc 
mib pcip-hepe cojeanep pUl'me. *j ]?a hpile com Topti; eopl into bumbpan mib lx. pcipum. 6abpine 
eopl com lanb'pypbe. 1 bpap hine ut. *j ]?a butpe-caplap hine poppocan. Anb he pop to Scotlanbe mib 
XII. pnaccnm. anb hme jemette l^apolb pe Noppena cynj mib ccc. pcipum. *j Tojti; him to beah. *j hi 
be^en popan into I3nmbpan. oV ]«t hi coman to Gopeppic. *j heom piV peaht CDopkepe eopl anb Gab. 
pine eopl. anb pe Noppena cynj ahte p^ej jepealb. Anb man cybbe bapolbe cynj ^^ ^^^ T^T l^P 
jebon 1 ^epopben. *j he com mib mycclum hepe Gnjhpepa manaa. *j jemette hine set Stasn^popbep. 
bpycje. 1 hme opploh. *j ]?one eopl Tojtij. anb eallne ^one hepe ahtlice opepcom. Anb ^ hpile com 
Pill'm eopl up set bepan^n on pc8 GOichaelep msepje-bsj. 1 iDapolb com nopVan *j him piV ^epeaht 
eap ]?an ^ hip hepe come eall. "j }mp he peoll anb hip tpsejen jebpo)^. GypV *j Leoppine. anb Pillelm 
ftf lanb jeeobe. anb com to Pejt.mynpcpe. anb 6albpeb apcebipcop hme to cynje jehal^obe. anb 
menn ^ulbon him jylb. *j pplap pealbon. "j pyWan heopa lanb bohtan. Wheloc, in the first edition 
of the Saxon Annals, is still more brief in his account of the Norman Conquest: — 1>cp com PiUelm. 
*j ^cpann Gn^la lanb. Pini, vidi, vici, is the boast of another invader. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



355 



com to yeftmftkftpe to )>am ihibban 
pmtpe. "j jyaet mynj-tpe )>8Bp let hal- 
jian. J?e he j-ylp jetimbpobe *Gobe to 
lope, "j fCe Petpe. 'J eallum Gobef hal- 
yiin. 'J jxo cypic-hal^unj paef on Cil- 
ba-maej-j-e-baeij'. *J he pop^pepbe on 
tpelfrta-maeppe-aepcn. "^ hine man be- 
bypijbe on rpelptan baei j on fam ylcan 
raynjrtpe. ppa '^h^^t hep aeptep peij^''. 

Rep Gabpapb cmj«. 

Gnjla* hlapopb. 

penbe po^paepte* 

paple^ to Kpipte*. 

On Gobep pepa* 

japt hah^ne. 

tie on peopolba' hep 
"^punobe fpaje"'. 

on kyne-jypymme* 

cpaeptij" paeba. 

"Feopep 'i tpentij'' 

ppeohc pealbenb^ 

pintpa j^epimepP 

peolan^ bpitnobe. 

"^Anb he halo-tib'' 

haeleVa pealbenb 

peolb pel je^unjen*. 

Palum ^ Scottum 

^ Bp]J^ttum eac. 

bype yB^lpebcp. 



all the winter. About midwinter king 
Edward came to Westminster, and had 
the minster there consecrated, which he 
bad himself built to the honour of God, 
and St. Peter^ and all God's saints. This 
church-hallowing was on Childermas- 
day. He died on tbe eve of twelfth-day ; 
and he was buried on twelfth-day in the 
same minster; as it is hereafter said* 
1 Here Edward king, 

of Angles lord, 

sent his stedfast 

soul to Christ. 

In the kingdom of God 

a holy spirit' ! 

He in the world here 

abode awhile, 

in the kingly throng 

of council sage. 

Four and twenty 

winters wielding 

the sceptre freely, 

wealth he dispensed. 

In the tide of health, 

the youthful monarch, 

offspring of Ethejred ! 

ruled well his subjects ; 

the Welsh and the Septs, 

and the Britons also. 



• From C.T. b i. and it. ^ hit — jejS, C.T. b It. « ktn jc, C.T. b i. * So C.T. b I. etajlene, 
B It. ; for Gnjlena, gen. pi. • f o^jcjte, C.T. b It. ' jmnle, C.T. b It. i Cjujte, C.T. m i. 

* faepa, C.T. b i. > pojiulba, C.T b i. ^ punote h^jae, C.T. b it. " kmc-, C.T. b it. 
■» cpeptij, C.T. B IT. » xxiiii. MSS. • -anb, C.T. b It. p jiime/, C.T.bxy. « peolm, 
C.T.BU bpytnobe, Ibid, altered improperly to bpytnoboD. ' *;) helje-tib, C.T.ml: q. for hael)^? 

* -2^9 CT. B it. but corrected. 



■ This threnodia on the death of Edward the 
Confessor, now first printed, will be foand to cor- 
respond exactly, both in metre and e:qpres8ion, 
with the poetical paraphrase of Genesis ascribed 
erroneously to Caedmon. The two poems, there- 



fore, iUostiate each other. 

' WiUiam of Malmsbnry appears to haTe hikd 
this passage before him ; << SimpUcem sjpirUwn 
cmlesii regno eskibuii.''^De GeH, Meg. AMgL 
lib. ii. 



1156 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



Gnjlum ^ Sexum* 

ojiet-maBjcum*. 

Spa ymb-clyppaf 

cealba*^ bjiymmap 

f eall Gabpapbc^ 

ae)>elum km^e 

hypbon® holblice 

hajejicealbe^ menn. 

P«f a bk%e*mob 
sbealu-leaf k^nj''. 
•"Jjeah he lanj" aeji 

lanbe-bejieapob* 
*punobe ppaeclajicum'' 

pibe jeonb eoji^an. 

j-y^^an' Knut opepcom 

cynn" /B^elpebep. 

•J Dcna" peolbon 

beope pice 

Snjla-lanbep 
•eaht ^ tpentij" 

pmtpa jepimcf 
Ppeolan bpytnobon". 

Sy^^an^ pop^ becom 

ppeolic'' m^eatpum. 
•kyninjc-kyptum^. 

30b claene *] milbe. 

Gabpapb pe ae^ela*. 

e^el bepepobe". 

lanb ^ leobe*. 

O^^aec lunjep becom 

Dea% pe b^^tepa^. 

^ ppa beope ^enam 



Angles and Saxons, — 
relations of old« 
So apprehend 
the first in rank, 
that to Edward all 
the noble king 
were firmly held 
high-seated men. 
Blithe-minded aye 
was the harmless king ; 
though he long ere, 
of land bereft, 
abode in exile 
wide on the earth ; 
when Knute overcame 
the kin of Elhelred, 
and the Danes wielded 
the dear kingdom 
of Engle-laod. 
Eight and twenty 
winters' rounds 
they wealth dispensed >. 
Then came forth 
free in his chambers, 
in royal array, 
good, pure, and mild, 
Edward the noble ; 
by his country defended — 

by land and people. 
Until suddenly came 
the bitter Death, 
and this king so dear 



• Scxum, C.T. B It. * opec- or opex-, C.T. b it. « -cealb., C.T. b i. * eabpapte, C.T. b It. 

• hypban, C.T. b ir. * .p»Ibe, C.T. b vr. t beale-leaj kinj, C.T. b ir. "» Jwih he Ian ja, C.T. b it. 

• lanbej. C.T. b ir. * punote fpeclaprum, C.T. b ir. " jeo^^n, C.T. b i?. ■ kynn, C.T. b i. 
" Deona, C.T. b it. ^ xzyiii. MSS^ See note *>, preceding page. The words are necessarily printed 
on account of the metre. ' felan bpyooban, C.T. b i. 4 ji^$&n, C.T. b It. ' -lice, CT. b i. 

• kanjccyfCttniy C.T. b It. • c]^e, C.T. b iv. ■ papebe, C.T. b it. » leoban, CT. b it. 
f bicejia, ar.Bi. 

> I. e. from A.D. 1014 to A.D. 1042. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



257 



ae^elnc oj: eoji^an. 
Gnjlaf pejiebon 
foWpaefte* j-aple 

Anb fe ppoba j-pa ^eah 

bepaejtre f pice 

heah-Sunjenum*^ menn. 

)!>apolbe [•ylpum. 

lee^lum eople. 

Se m ^ealne tib^ 

h^pbe® holbelice. 
^heppan j-ynum". 

popbum "j basbum. 

Pihte ne ajaelbe. 

J>aBj- J?e ^eapps paep 

^aep Jjeob-kyninjep'*. 
Anb hep peap^ Jiapolb *eopr' eac to 
cynje'' jehaljob. ^ he lycle ptilnefpe* 
j7aBp'° on jebab J?a hpile J?e he picep 
peolb :• 

"An. MLXVI. On fij-um jeape com 
)3apolb kynj op Gopoppic to peptmyn- 
ptpe to Jram Gaptpan Jre paepon aeptep 
Jam mibban pintpan ]fe pe kynj pop¥- 
pepbe. "j 'paepon'. fa Gaptpan on Jjone • 
baeij®. XVI. kl CDai. J?a peapW jeonb eall 
Gnjla-lanb ppylc tacen on heopenum 
jepepen ppilce nan mann aep ne jepehP.- 
Sume menn cpaebon f hyt cometa pe 
pteoppa paepe. |)one pume menn hata% • 
Jjone pexeban^ pteoppan. ^ he aeteopbe 
aepept on ))one aspen Letania maior^ 



snatched from the earth. 

Angels carried 

his soul sincere 

into the light of heaven. 

But the prudent king 

had settled the realm 

on high-born men — 

on Harold himself, 

the noble earl ; 

^ho in everj season 

faithfully heard 

and obeyed his lord, 

in word and deed ; 

nor gave to any 

\?hat might be i^^anted 

by the nation's kingi. 
This year also was earl Harold hallowed 
to king; but he enjoyed little tranquil- 
lity therein the while that he wielded 
the kingdom. 

A.D. 1066. This year came king 
Harold from York ,to Westminster, on 
the Easter succeeding the midwinter 
when the king (Edward) died. Easter 
was then on the 16th day before the 
calends of May. Then was over all 
England such a token seen as no man 
ever saw before. Seme men said that 
it was 4he eomet-star, which others de- 
nominate the long-hair'd star. it> ap- 
peared first on the eve called Liianla 
mqjar, that is, on the 8lh before the 



* -pepi^, C.T.B iw. •» inne, ^.T. B IT. « -na, CTlaiv. * ealle cib, C.T.eu • hepbae, 
C*T, B IF. ' hasjipan jmam, C.T, n i. * ^eappe, C.T. b if. ^ kynjccj, C.T. b i?. * Abs. C»T. b i. 
* kynje, C.T, b i. ' jtiUnejje, C.T, b i. ■■ J^ap, CT. b i. on^ebab^ b if. " Chieflj new 
natter, from C.T. b i. and W. » baej, C.T. b it. p Z^T^^^ ^'^' * *^' ' paexebon, C.T. b It. 
' Gibson, /oUowing Wheloc, int rod aces the comet, with a trifling difference in tlie date of its appear- 
ance, briefly tlius at the end of the year : 1 hep aciepebe comeca xir. kl' OOai. 

^ ^^ ViverUe Edwardoy quwcunque contra earn W. Malmsb. De GesL Reg, AngL lib. ii. sub Jin. 
bclla incensa sunt^ virtute sua compresnL" — * Literally, ^^ And A« appeared^" &c. 

2 L 



258 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



*f yf '. vni. kt 07ai. ^ fpa f cean'^ ealle 
)?a fcopon niht. *J pna fap aeptep com 
Toj^ij eopl *^in' ppam bejeonban pae 
into piht mib fpa myclum li^e f pa he 
bejytan mihte. *i him man jealb ]?ap 
aeij^ep je peoh je merj-unje. *^ pop 
J>a fanon. 'J heapmap bybe aejpap be 
J>am pae-piman. J?ap he ro mihte. o^ f 
he becom to Sanbpic. Da cybbe man 
l^apolbe kj^nje. )>e on Lunbene paep. f 
Toptnj hip bpo^op paep cumen to Sanb- 
pic. *J?a jejabopabe he ppa mycele pcip- 
p^pbe. ^ eac lanb-pypbe. ppa nan cmjc 
aep hep on lanbe ne jejabepabe. pop 
%am J>e him *paep to po^an jepaeb. f 
Pillelm eopll ppam Nopmanbije. Gab- 
papbep cinjcep maej. polbe hibep cuman. 
^ J)ip lanb jejan'. eall ppa hit py^^an 
a-eobe. ^ Da Toptij f jeaxobe. f Dapolb 
cmj paep topapb Sanbpic. Jja pop he op 
Sanbpic. ^ nam op )>am butpekaplon 
pume mib him. pume Jjancep. pume un- 
fancep. ^ jepenbe nop^ into' 8j3um- 
bpan mib pxtijum pcipum'. ^^ fasp 
hepjobe on Xinbepeje. ^ Jraep mane^a 



calends of May ; and so shone all the 
week. Soon after this came in earlTostj 
from beyond sea into the isle of Wight, 
with as large a fleet as he could get; 
and he was there supplied with money 
and provisions. Thence he proceeded, 
and committed outrages everywhere by 
the sea-coast where he could land, until 
he came to Sandwich. When it was 
told king Harold, who was in London, 
that his brotherTosty was come to Sand- 
wich, he gathered. so large a force, naval 
and military, as no king before col 
lected in this land ; for it was credibly 
reported that earl William from Nor- 
mandy, king Edward's cousin i, would 
come hither and gain this land; just as 
it afterwards happened. When Tosty 
understood that king Harold was on the 
way to Sandwich, he departed thence, 
and took some of the boatmen with him, 
willing and unwilling, and went north 
into the Humber with 60 sfaips^; whence 
he plundered in Liodsey, and there 8le>v 
many good men. When the earls Edwin^ 



« Abs. C,T, D IT. ^ fcan, C.T. b it. « Abs. C.T. b i. ^ After metjunjc, C.T. b It. thus : 
Anb Dajiolb cyn^ hif bpoj^oji jejaebpade jpa micelne jcip-hcpe *j cac lanb-hepe jpa naa cynj hep on 
lanbe aep ne bybe. yop ^am Jc him — isfc. • More briefly thus C.T. b It. : —- paf jecy^. jJ Pillelm 
bajtapb polbe hibep. "j fif lanb jepinnen. ' Briefly thus ^7.7^ b It. : *j Ja pile com Tojrij eopl 

uito — ^c. s From C.T. b it. So Gibs, from Laud. In b i. there is a blank space left after into ; 



Dumbpan being supplied by Joscelin from b it. 

^ This relationship is omitted in C.T.bit., 
where that appellation of William is retained 
which bespeaks an undeniable argument against 
his legal title to the crown of England* Thus he 
is called in Aniiq. Celio^Seand. <^ Pilhiaimp Bap. 
rapbp, Rubo-Japl:*' William the Bastard, ^rl 
of Rouen* — p. il6. See also pp. 218, ^19. 

' XL. Brorot.y transposing the numerals. 

' Waltheof is uniformly substituted for Edwin, 
us the brother and associate of Morcar, in An^ 



^ From C,T, b i. abs. b iT* 

tiq, CeliO'SeandiciB. So in the following passage : 
'^ Da popo Japlap upp i loppik. G0aapo-k4pi 
Japl, oc palj^iopp Japl ap l3unba-tunom, bpobip 
hanp , oc hopbo opi^an hep : •? Then were the 
earls up at York ; earl Morkar, and earl W^al- 
theof of Huntingdon, his brother; and they had 
an unconquered army. — Fid, p. 20 1 et seqq. 
In C.T. BIT. Edwin only is mentioned in this 
place ; but his brother Morkar joins him after- 
wards at York* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S59 



jobc men opj-loh'. •Da Gabpmc eopl 
•J QOopkepe eopl f unbepjeaton. )?a 
coman hi fy^ep "j hme op J?aem latibe 
abpipon. **'j J)a butj-acaplaf hine pop- 
pocan'. ^ he pop *^Sa' toScotlanbe ^mib • 
XII. pnaccum'. ^ Scotra cynninj hme 
jpi^ebe. *i him to metpunje pylpte. ^ 
J^aep ealne pumop punobe. ^*j hine jc- 
mette jfaejx iJapolb cynj op Noppejon 
mib fpeom hunb pcypum. "J Toptij him • 
to beah ^ hip man peap^'. *^Da com 
hzjxolb cininj^c to Sanbpic. "j J^aep hip 
h^ep abab. pop Jjam fe hit paep Ian j aep 
hit man j^ejabepian mihte. "j Jja hip h^ 
jejabepab paep. \>z pop he into piht. *J • 
J>aep lae; ealne jK>ne pumop "J J^one haep- 
psept. *j man ha^pbe lanb-pypbe aejhpap 
be pae. J>eh hit aet }>ara enbe naht ne 
popptobe. Da hit paep to natiuitap 
pcae GQapiae. }>a paep manna metpun^ • 
a^an. ^ hij nan man J?ap na Icnj je- 
healoan ne mihte. Da lypbe man man- 
num ham. *] pe cyn^c pab up. *i man 
bpap ]?a pcypu to Lunben. *J mane^a 
poppupbon aep hi }?ybep comon'. ^ Da • 
¥a pcipu ham coman. ]>a com )]>apolb 
cyninj op Noppejan nop^ into Tinan 
on unpapan. mib ppy^e miclum pcip- 
hepe. ^ na lytlan. f mihte beon *^mib 
^peo hunb pcypum' o^^e ma. "j Toptij . 



and Morkar understood that^ thej came 
hither^ and drove him from the land. 
And the boatmen forsook him. Then he 
went to Scotland with twelve smacks ; 
and the king of the Scots entertained him, 
and aided him with provisions ; and he 
abode there all the summer. There met 
him Harold king of Norway with 300 
ships. And Tosty submitted to him, and 
became his man^ Then came king Ha- 
rold * to Sandwich, where he awaited his 
fleet ; for it was long ere it could be col- 
lected : but when it V(as assembled, he 
wentinto the isle of Wight, and there lay 
all the Slimmer and the autumn. There 
was also a land-force everywhere by the 
sea, though it availed nought in the end. 
It was now tlie nativity of St. Mary, 
when the provisioning of the men be- 
gan ; and no man could keep them 
there any longer. They therefore had 
leave to go home: and the king rode 
up, and the ships were driven to Lon- 
don ; but many perished ere they came 
thither. When the ships were come 
home, then came Harold king of Nor- 
way north into the Tine, unawares, 
with a very great sea-force — no small 
one ; that might be, with 300 ships 
or more: and earl Tosty came to him 



* *j Gabpine eojtl com mib lanpepbe. *j abpap hine nc, C.T. bit, ^ From CT. bit. abs. bi. 
^ From C.T. b i. abs. b it. ' This account of the expedition of Harald king of Norway^ now first 
printed chiefly from C.T. b i., Taries considerably from that in b iT. ; where, after the words ^ hij man' 
peap^, it follows — *j hi jrojian ]?a bejen into Dumbjian, Vc. * From C.T*. ai?. ; but supplied by 
Joscelin in b i., where there was a blank space left, as before. Fid. note *, preceding page. 

* These facts, though stated in one MS. only, the king of Norway, in all these expeditions. Vid, 



and now first printed, prove the early coopera- 
tion of Tosty with the king of Norway. It is 
remarkable that this statement is confirmed by 
Snorro, who says that Tosty was with Harald, 



Aniiq, Celto^Seand. p. 204. 

' i,e. Harold king of England; or, njie cynj, 
our king ; as we find him afterwards called in b it., 
to distinguish him from Barald king of Norway. 

2 L 2 



900 



THE SAXON CHROI^ICLE: 



eopl him com to mib eallum J>am fe he 
begiten hsepbe. call ppa hy aep jef ppe- 
cen haepbon. *'3 pojian J?a bejen mib 
eaJlum ®am hSe anblanj Upan up ta 
Gopejipic papb. Da cybbe man Dapolb 
c^nje be pu^an. Jja he op pcipe cumen 
paep f Jiapolb cynj on Noppejan ^ 
Toptij eopl paepon up cumene neh 
6opeppic. |)a pop he nop^peapb baejep 
tJ nihtep ppa hpa^e ppa he hip pypbe 
gejabepian mihte. Da. aep |)am J?e pe 
cynninj f^apolb J?ybep cuman mihte. fa 
jegabepobe Gabpine eopl ^ CDopkepe 
eopll op heopa eoplbome ppa mycel pe- 
ppb ppa hi bejitan mihton. ^ piS J?one 
hepe jepuhton. ^ mycel pael jeplogon. 
^ f «p psep J?aep Gnjlipcan polcep mycel 
opplajen. ^ abpenct. "j on pleam be- 
bpipen. 'j Nopmen ahron pael-ptope je- 
palb'. ^CDan c^Sbe ]>z Dapolbe Gnjla 
cynje. f Jjip paep |>up jepapen'. ^^ |)ip 
jepeoht paep on Vigilia Mathei aph'. 
^'i paep pobnepbaej. *i }>a aeptep J?am 



with all those that he had got^; just 
as they had before said : and they both 
then wfent up with all the fleet along 
the Odie toward York. When it was 
told king Harold in the south, after 
he had come from the ships^ that Ha« 
rold king of Norway and earl Tosty 
were come up near York> then went he 
northward by day and nighty as soon 
as he could collect his army. But, ere 
king Harold could come thither, the 
earls Edwin and Morkar had gathered 
from their earldoms as great a force as 
they could get, and fought with the ene- 
my >. They made a great slaughter too; 
but there was a good number of the En* 
glish people slain, and drowned, and 
put to flight: and the Northmen had 
possession of the field of battle. It was 
then told Harold, king of the English, 
that this had thus happened. And this 
fight was on the eve of St. Matthew the 
apostle, which was Wednesdays. Then 



* ■ More briefly thas io C.T, bW, : ^ hi popoii Ja bojeii into Dumbpaa o^ -f hi comoii to Gojop- 
pic. *j heom ^xji pi9 puhton 6ab}nne eopl *j CDopkepe eopl hij bpo^op. ac ^a Nopmen ahton p^e. 
b From C.T, b i?. « "j fij j^feoht ymj on Vigilia jcT CDathei. C.T. b i v. ^ From C.T. b i. abs. b it. 



^ Not only the 12 smacks with which he went 
into Scotland during the summer, as before stated, 
but an accession of force from all quarters. The 
following passage in the Antiquitaies Celto^Scan* 
dicoe forms an interesting illustration of our Chro- 
nicle : ** Fop Jte jpa jcni hann hajbi jajt t3apallbi 
Iconunji) pypp ep \e.\ji punboz, at poibi manna 
bpcif til J^eippa 1 Gn jianbi ; fat popo fpenbop 
oc pinipTojta Japlf ; oc papb konunji ]^at mikil 
jftypkp hbf : " Then happened It the same as he 
(Tosty) hud said io king Harald when first they 
met; that a drove of men followed them in En. 
gland, who were friends and associates of earl 
Tosty; whereby the fleet of the king became 
much stronger. — p. 204. The words in the ori» 
ginal Salmon, eall jja hy »p ^ejppeceQ hspbonj 



which are rather obscure, are here sufficiently 
explained : — ^' as they had foretold would be the 
case;" or, "as they had previously agreed upon:" 
when they met in Scotland, as stated in C.T. b it.; 
or on the river Tine, as in b i. " Ut prius con^ 
dixerant.^^ — Flor. 

' On the north bank of the Ousc, according to 
Florence of Worcester; the enemy having landed 
at Richale (now Riccal). Simeon of Durham 
names the spot; ^'ApudFulford:^^ i.e. Fulford- 
water, south of the city of York. 

* *^ Oppoyta yap mibpicobaj inn naejra pypip 
CPatthiaf roeffo:" The attack was on mid.week- 
day, next before the mass of St. Matthew (not 
Matthias, as Johnstone interprets). — AfUiq.Celio^ 
Scand. p. 203. 



THE SAXON chronicle: 



2et 



^peohte pop hzpolb cyninjc op Nop- 
j)ejan "J Toptip^ eopl into Gop^ppic mib 
ppa miclutn polce ppa heom J?a 3eJ)uhce. 
•J him mon jiplabe op |)aepe buph. *J 
eac to metpunje pylpce. "j ppa |)anon 
to pcipe popan. "j to pullan ppiSe je- 
pppaecon.f hij^ ealle mib him puS papan 
poteon. 'j J>ip lanb jejan'. *Da aman^ 
J)ippan com Dapolb Gnjla cymnjc mib 
ealpe hip pypbc on J?onc Sunnan-bs^ 
to Taba. "j J?aep hip lv6 pylcabe. tJ pop 
J^a on QOonan-baej^ ]7uph-ut Gopeppic. "J 
)3apolb cyninjc op Noppejan "j Toptij 
eopl ^ beopa jjjepylce paepon apapen 
op pcipe be^eonban Gopeppic to Stan- 
popb-bpycj^e^. pop J«im J^e him paspon 
behaten to j^epippan. f him man ]>aej\ 
op ealpe Jjaepe pcipe on^ean hy jiplap 
bpinp^an polbe. Da com ^Sapolb Gn^la 
c^ninp^ heom on^^ean on unpapan. be- 
jeonban J^aepe bpycje. ^ hi J^aep tojae- 
toepe penj^on. "j ppy^e heapblice lan^e 
qn bae;^ peohtenbe paepon. "j fsejx paep 
l3apolb *^J2appajepa' cyninj op Nop- 
pejan. "j Toptig eopl. opjrlajen. "J un- 
jepim polcep mib heom. aejj?ep je Nop- 
mana je Gnjlipca. "J }?a Nopmen ^\>e 



afler the fight went Htrold king of N(»r-^ 
way and earl Tosty into York with a? 
many followers as they thought (it; and 
having procured hostages a^id provi- 
sions from the city, they proceeded to 
their ships, and proclaimed full friend- 
ship, on condition that all would go 
southward with them, and gain this land.* 
In the midst of this came Harold, king 
of the English, with all his army, on 
the Sunday, to Tadcasler; where he col-* 
lected his fleet. Thence he proceeded' 
on Monday throughout York. But Ha- 
rold, king of Norway, and earl Tosty, 
with their forces, were gone from their 
ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge^; 
for that it was given them to understand, 
that hostages would be brought to them 
there from all the shire. Thither came 
Harold, king of the English, unawares 
against them beyond the bridge; and 
they closed together there, and continued 
long in the day fighting very severely. 
There was slain Harold the Fair-hair'd^,* 
king of Norway, and earl Tosty, and a< 
multitude of people with them, both of 
Normans and English S; and theNor- 



* Briefly thus C.T. b i?., incorrectly printed by Lyo from the Lambard transcript: Da com 'Dapolb 
itpe cyng on unpaep on fa Nopmenn. "j hytte hi bejeonban Gojroppic a?c Sceinpopb-bpyjje raib myc- 
clan hrp • Gnjiijcej polcej. i J?aep peap^ on baej fpife jtpanjhc jejrcoht on ba halpe. j^ap pcap^ op- 
jlae^'-n l^apol^ Dapj:a-^rpa. ") Tojti copl. *j fa Nopmen. fe faep to lajre pacpon. pupbon on pleame. 
^ Stent popbbpyj^o, C.T, b i?. So H. Hunt., Stein for dosbrjge ; and Stain fordbrige in the margin. Scem- 
popb.])pyc2i'. Lye. Stainjpopbej^bpycje, Gibs. « From C,T. a U. Lye. 

^ Stanfordebrigge, Flor. Steinfordesbrige, term ^English* begins about this time to be sub- 



H. Hunt. Steinf'fdbrige, Chron. Man. Pib 
Staynjiipbo-bpygjiop (q. Stain- ?), Jniiq. Cetto^ 
Scand, Stamfordbrige, Bromt. 

' Called also Diipb-paab (Seyerus), to distin^ 
guish him from Dapalb bappajepa who was con- 
temporary with Alfred the Groat. 

' It is scarcely necessary to observe that the 



stituted for 'Angles;' and that the Normans are 
not merely the Norwegiauil, but the Danes and 
other adventurers from the north, joined with the 
forces of France and Flanders ; wlio, we shall pre- 
sently see, overwhelmed by their numbers the ex- 
piring liberties of England. The Franks begin also 
to assume the name of Fpencyjcan or Frenchmen, 



262 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



J>eep to lapc paejion'. *plujon fa Gn- 
jbpca'. ''•j J?a enjlifcan hi hinban het- 
lice flojon. o'5S f hij j-iime to j-cype 
cuman. pime abjiuncen. "j pime eac 
popbaepnbe. tJ fP^ miflice poppajiene. 
f ]>3dj\ paef lyt to-lape. ^ Gnjle ahton 
pael-j-tope jepealb'. *^Da pej- J>ep ati 
op Noppejan fe pi^ptob fet Gnjlipce 
pole. J?et hi ne micte^ J?a bpijje opep- 
ptijan. ne pije je/iechen. J?a peite 
an Gnjhpce mib anpe plane®, ac hit 
nactep ne pi^ptob. aenb Jja com an 
o}?ep unbep Jjejie bjiijje. enb hme 
J)uph ptanj en unbep J?epe bpunie. 
}2i com Rapolb Gnjla chinje opep 
J>epe bpijje. *J hyp pupbe pop^ mib 
hme. ^ )>epe michel pel jeplojon. je 
Noppeip je Flammj. *J |)ep cynmjep 
pun.^ JSetmunbup. let Kiapolb papan 
ham to Noppeie mib alle |)a pcipeB''. 
^Se cynj fa jeap zM^ Olape J?aep 
Nojma cynjep puna. ^tJ heopa bi- 
pcope'. ^ fan eople op Opcaneje. tJ 
eallon fan fe on f am pcipum to-lape 
paepon, ^ hi popon fa upp to upan 
kyninje. 'J ppopon a^ap. f hi a^ppe 
polbon ppy^e ^ ppeonbpcype into 
fipan lanbe halban. ^ pe cynj hi let 
ham papan mib xxiiii. pcypum. Dap 
tpa polc-jepeoht paepon jeppemmebe 



man$ that were left fled from the En- 
glish^ who slew them hotly behind; an- 
til some came to their ships^ some were 
drowned^ some burned to death, and 
thus variously destroyed ; so that there 
was little left : and the English gained 
possession of the field. But there was 
one of the Norwegians who withstood 
the English folk, so that they could not 
pass over the bridge, nor complete the 
victory. An Englishman aimed at him 
with a javelin, but it availed nothing. 
Then came another under the bridge, 
who pierced him terribly inwards under 
the coat of mail. And Harold, kii^ of 
the English, then came over the bridge, 
followed by his army ; and there they 
made a great slaughter, both of the Nor- 
wegians and of the Flemings. . But Ha- 
rold let the king's son, Edmund, go* 
home to Norway with all the ships. He 
also gave quarter to Clave the Nor - 
wegian king's son, and to their bishop, 
and to the earl of the Orkneys^, and to 
all those that were leA in tlie ships; 
who then went up to our king, and took 
oaths that they would ever maintain faith 
and friendship unto this land. Where- 
upon the king let them go home with 
S4 ships ^. These two general battles 



• pupbOQ on pleame, C.T. b it. Lye. *» From C.T, b U, « From C.T. b i. to ille fa. fcipc. 

■^ It appears to hare been micten in the MS. originally; but the n has been erased by a more modem 
band. « The two last letters are nearly obliterated. ' pi— 9 MS. ; part of the word being 

obliterated. s Here ends the valuable MS. marked in our series C,T. d i. The concluding part, 
from pinion }^a to alle J^a jcipe, is more modem than the rest, at least in its general character and 
orthography ; occupying only eight lines of the last page or folio of the manuscript. ^ From 
C.r. B IT. to Anb Ja paej* Leojrpic, &c. p. 265 ; incorrectly printed by Lye. '13.1 Jaep eopl ^^ Lye* 



* " Paulum nomine:'— Fior. Paul! Thorfin. 
son,*— ^n/ti}. CeUo'ScancL 



^ zx. Flor., Hoveden, &c. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



26S 



binnan pp nihcan. *Anb ^a hpile com 
Pillelm' eopl ^op Nopmanbije into 
Pepncf-ea' on pee CDichaelep maeppe- 
aepen. "J pona J^aep hi pepe paepon 
pophton caprele aet j3aeptinja-popt. - 
Dip peap^ J?a l^apolbe cynje jecj^bbe. 
•j he jabejiabe J?a mycelne hepe. ^ com 
him toj^enep aet |?aBpe hapan Apulbpan. 
^ pillelm him com on^ean on unpasp aep 
hip pole jepj^lceb paepe. Ac pe kynj 
Jjeah him ppife heapbhce pij? peaht 
mib })am mannum ]^e him ^elaeptan 
polbon. "j |?sBp peap]? micel pael je- 
plaeyen on aejjjpe healpe. Daep peap^ 
opplaej^en liapolb cynj^.'j Leoppine eopl 
hip bpo)?op. "j Gyp^ eopl hip bpojjop. 
*i pela ;^obpa manna, 'j J>a Fpencypcan 
ahton pael-ptope j^epealb. eall ppa heom 
Gob u^e pop polcep pinnon. Albpeb 
apeb "i peo buphpapu on Lunbene 
polbon habban }>a6abjap cilb to ky'nje. 
eall ppa him pel jeeynbe paep. 1 Gab- 
pine "i CDopkepe him beheton f hi mib 
him peohtan polbon. ac ppa hit aeppe 
pop^licop beon pceolbe ppa peap^ hit 
ppam baeje to baeje laetpe ^ pyppe^- 



were fought within five nights ^ Mean- 
time earl William came op from Nor- 
mandy into Pevensey on the eve of St, 
Michael's mass; and soon after his land* 
ing was effected, they constructed a castle 
at the port of Hastings^. This was then 
told to king Harold; and he gathered a 
large force, and came to meet him at the 
estuary of Appledore. William, how- 
ever, came against him u^nawares, ere his 
army was collected ; but the king, ne- 
vertheless, very hardly encountered hirn 
with the men that would support him : 
and there was a great slaughter made on 
either side. There was slain king Ha- 
rold, and Leofwin his brother, and earl 
Girth his brother, with many good men: 
and the Frenchmen gained the field of 
battle, as God granted them for the sind 
of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and 
the corporation of London were then 
desirous of having child Edgar to king, 
as he was quite natural to them ; and 
Edwin and Morkar promised them that 
they would fight with them. But the 
more prompt the business should ever 



*SoGibs. Da com Pyllelm — « Cr. b iv. *» up astl3ep:ia2aD, Gibs. from Z.avif. « pyppe,Cr.BiT. 



' Lye observes that there is no mention of the 
former battle : " Nulla tamen prions tnentio^^'* 
&c. The defect is now supplied from CT. Bi. 
The former battle, howeyer, was not between the 
brothers of Harold and the Norwegians, as Lye 
imagined; but that described immediately before 
this : between the Norwegians and Flemings, 
headed by Harald Harfager and earl Tosty, on 
the one hand ; and the English, commanded by 
Edwin and Morkar, on the other. 

^ This circumstance, combined with the read- 
ing in Gibson's edition, up set t>ejtun^n, has led 
historians to call the encounter between William 



and Harold ^' the Battle of Hastings;" though it. 
took place nine miles from Hastings. The event 
is thus described in the AntiquHates Celto^Scan^ 
dicwj p. 218: — '* Funbji J'eippa, 13apallbz kon- 
unjjr oc Pilhialmj Japlj-, papb jiibji a Gnjlanbi 
pib l3e]pn3ia.pojic (/. Dejcmgia-pojic). Papb J«p 
oppojta mikil : ]rap pell bapallbp konun^p, oc 
Gypbp Japl bpobip han j, oc mikill luti libj hanj: " 
Their place of meeting — that is, of king Harold 
and earl William — was in the south of England, 
near the town of Hastings. Terrible was the on. 
set there. There fell king Harold, and earl Girth 
his brother, and eke a large lot of his army. 



S64 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



eall fpa hit aet J^am enfee call je- 
pejibe. Dif jepeohc pasj- jebon on 
fone baej Calepri* papae. "j pillelm 
«opl pop ept on^ean ^to' JJaeptinjan. 
^ jeanbibobe J^aep hpaej?ep man him 
to bujan.polbe. Ac J^a he onjeat f 
man himto cuman tiolbe. he pop upp 
mib eallon hip hepe J?e him to lape paep 
^ him pyJ?J?an ppam opep pae com, "J 
hepjabe ealne fone enbe Jje he opep- 
pepbe. oS f he com to Beoph-ham- 
ptebe. ^ faep him com onjean Galbpeb 
apceB. *i Gabjap cilb. "J Gabpine eopl. 
^ OOopkepe eopl. "j ealle J?a betptan 
men op Lunbene. ^ bujon Jja pop 
lieobe. ]?a maept paep to heapm ^ebon. 
:i f fver micel unpseb. f man «pop rpa 
ne bybe. J^a hit Gob betan nolbe pop 
upum pynnum. "J j^pleban ^ ppopon 
him a^ap. "J he heom behet f he polbe 
heom holb hiapopb beon. ^ }>eah on- 
manj fipan hi hepjebon eall f hi 
opep popon. Da on mibpmtpep baej 
hme haljobe to k^nje Galbpeb apceb 
on peptmynptpe. ^ he pealbe him on • 
hanb mib Cpiptep bee. 1 **eac' ppop. 
aep })an \)e he polbe }>a copona him 
on h^pobe pettaji. f he polbe J>ipne 
^eobpcype ppa pel halban ppa aenij 
kynjc eetpopan him betpt bybe. jip • 
bi him holbe beon polbon. Spa %eah 
leibe 3ylb on mannum ppi]?e pti^. 

*1 F^P 1?^ ^^ 1^^"^ lenjtene opep pae 
to Nopmanbije. "J nam mib. him Sti- 



be^ so vris it from day to day the later 
and worse ; as in the end it all fared. 
This battle was fought on the day of 
popeCalixtus: and earl William return- 
ed to Hastings^ and wailed there to'know 
whether the people would submit tohiro. 
But when he found that they would not 
come to hira^ be went up with all bis 
force that was left and that came since 
to him from over sea^ and ravaged all 
the country that he overran, until he 
came to Berkhampstead; where archbi- 
shop Aldred came to meet him, with, 
child Edgar, and earls Edwin and Mor* 
kar, and all the best men from London; 
who submitted then for need, when the 
roost harm was done. It was very ill- 
advised that they did not so before, see- 
ii^ that God would not better things for 
our sins. And they gave him hostages, 
and took oaths : and he promised them 
that he would be a faithful lord to them; 
though in the midst of this they plun- 
dered wherever they went. Then on 
midwinter's day archbishop Aldred hal- 
lowed him to king at Westminster, and 
gave him possession with the books 
of Christ, and also swore him, ere 
that he would set the crown on his head, 
that he would so well govern this nation 
as any king before him best did, if they 
would be faithful to him. Nevertheless 
he laid very heavy tribute on men, and 
in Lent went over sea to Normandy, 



• Lyo prints Caelcjfti, and translates " CceUsiU papeei" misled by an incorrect copy of the text. 
« Hk est/* says Joscelin in the margin of C,T, b ir. " 12». die Ociobris" But it ought to be "14^" 
•» Abs. Lye. « More briefly thus Gibs, from Laud, at the beginning of the following year : 

An. MLXTii. bep j:op je cynj ojrep pae. •j haejrbe mib him jijlaj. 1 fceataj. 1 cam faep o^jief ^eapej- 
ou jce Nicolaej masjje-bs;. *j he z^T ^^^T maoaej lanb y^ he onjean com. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S65 



^nb sepceB. *J /Gjelna^ abB on Gtef- 
tinjabypij*. ^ Gabjap cilb. tl 6ab- 
pme eopl. ^ ClOopkepe eopl. ^ ya^VSeoj: 
copl. ^ manije o^pe jobe men op 6n- 
jla-lanbe. tl Oba ti •] Pyllehn eopl be- 
lipen hep »ptcp. ^ pophton captelap 
pibe jeonb ]?af ^eobe. "J eapme pole 
l-pencte. J a pySSan hit yplabe ppi^e. 
Pup^e job pe enbe Jjonne Gob pylle''. 
Anb fa. paep Leoppic abb op Buph apt 
if ilea peopb. 'j paeclobe J?aep, ^ com 
•ham. *i paep baeb pone J?aBp aeptep on 
aelpe-haljan-maeppe niht. Gob ape hip 
paule. On hip baej paep ealle blippe 
^ ealle jobe on Buph. ^ he paep leap 
eall pole, ppa f pe cynj jeap pee Pe- 
t:ep anb him f abbot-piee on Byp- 
trune. "j pe op Couentpe. f pe €opl 
Leoppic. Se paep hip eam. aep heapbe 
macob. "j pe op Cpulanbe. tJ pe op 
Sopneie. Anb he bybe ppa myeel to 
j^obe into f mynptpe op Buph. on 
jolbe. 1 on peolppe. ^ on pcpub. ^ on 
janbe. ppa neppe nan o^pe ne bybe 
topopen him ne nan aeptep him. Da 
peapS gilbene buph to ppecce buph. 
Da eupen J^a munecap to abbot Bpanb 
ppouopt- pop^an f he paep ppi^e job 
man. ^ ppi^e pip. ^ penben him J>a to 
JBb^ap. ae&linj. pop^an j^et J>e lanb- 
pole penbon f he pceolbecynj pup^en. 
^ pe ae^elmj hit him jeatte |>a bli^o- 
lice. Da pe cynj piUelm jehypbe f 
pecjen. Jja peap^ he ppi^e ppa^. ^ 
paebe f pe abbot him heapbe poppejon. 
Da eobon jobe men heom betpenen. ^ 



teking with him archbishop Stigand, 
and abbot Aylnoth of Glastonbury, and 
the child Edgar, and the earls Edwin, 
Morkar, and WaltheoC and many other 

• good men of England. Bishop Odo 
and ear4 William lived here afterwards, 
and wrought castles widely through this 
country, and harassed the miserable peo- 
ple; and ever since hasevil increased very 

- much. May the end be good, when God 
will ! In that same expedition^ was Leof- 
ric, abbot of Peterborough ; who sick- 
ened there, and came home, and died soon 
after, on the night of AUhal low-mass. 

• God honour his soul ! In his day was 
all bliss and all good at Peterborough* 
He was beloved by all ; so that the king 
gave to St. Peter and hira the abbey at 
Burton, and that of Coventry, which 

• the earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had 
formerly made; wkh that of Croyland, 
and that of Thorney. He did bo much 
^ood to the minster of Peterborough, in 
.gold« and in silver, and in sbroud, and 

• in land, as no -other ever did before him,, 
■nor any one after him. But now was 
Gilden-borough become a wretched bo- 
ropgh. The monks then chose for abbot 
provost Brand, because he was a very 

• good man, and very wise; and sent him 
to Edgar etheling, for that the land- folk 
supposed that he should be king : and 
the etheling received him gladly. When 
king William heard say that, he was 

• very wroth, and said that the abbot had 
renounced him: but good men went bc- 



* So Lye jl bp, C-T, b it. ; but saperacribed in an ancient hand^ jlaejtin^abiiiu 

^ Le, in tbe expeditbn against the uBurper William. 



2 AI 



S66 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



fahtloben heom. popWan f pe abbot 
V^T jo^^cpa manne. Geap )>a )>one 
cynj XL. majic jolbep to pahtnyj-pe. 
^ ]7a lipebe he litle hpile jraep aeptep. 
buton ]>pY jeap. Sy^Bon comen ealle 
bpaeuebnyppe *j calle ipele to ]?one 
mynptpe. Gob hit jemiltj^ :• 

An. MLXVII. J3ep com pe kynj ept 
on^ean to Gnjla-lanbe on pee Nicolaep 
maeppe-baeje. *^ )>aep baejep popbapn 
Cpiptep cypce on Cantpapebypr'. ^"J 
Pulppi b popWpepbe. ^ ip bebypjeb aet 
iiip ptole on Dopka-ceptpe. 1 Gabpic 
cilb ^ )>a Bpyttap pupbon unpehte. *J 
punnon heom piW ]>a captelmenn on t3e- 
pepopba. ^ pela heapmap heom bybon. 
"i hep pe kynj* pette micel jylb on 
eapm pole, tl ]>eah-hpae^pe let aeppe 
hep^ian eall f hi opeppopon. Anb ))a 
he pepbe to Depenapcipe. ^ bepaet^ J>a 
buph Gxanceptep xtiii. bajap. 1 J^aep 
peapS micel hip hepep poppapen. ac 
he heom pel bchet. tl ypele jelapte. 
*i hij him ]>3. buph a^eapon pop ))an 
J>a Wejenap heom jeppicon haepbon''. 
^Anb )>8Bp pumepep Gabjap cilb pop 
ut mib hip mobop Ajatha^. ^ hip tpam 
ppeoptpan. GOap^apeta 1 Xpma^. t) 
CDaepla-Spejen. 1 pela jobpa manna 
raib heom. ^ comon to Scotlanbe on 
COalcholomep cynmjep jpy^. 1 ^c hi 
ealle unbeppenj. Da be^ann *pe c^njc 



tween them^ and reconciled them ; be- 
cause the abbot was a good man. He 
gave the king 40 marks of gold for his 
reconciliation; and he lived but a little 
while aftefj — onlj three years. After- 
wards came all wretchedness and all evil 
to the minster. God have mercy on it! 
A.D. 1067. This year came the king 
back again to England on St. Nicholas's 
day ; and the same day was burned the 
church of Christ at Canterbury. Bishop 
Wulfwy also died^ and is buried at his 
see in Dorchester. The child Edric and 
the Britons were unsettled this year« and 
fought with the castleraen at Hereford, 
and did them much harm. The king 
this year imposed a heavy guild en the 
wretched people; but, notwithstanding, 
let his men always plupder all the coun«- 
try that they went over; and then he 
marched to Devonshire, and beset the 
city of Exeter 18 days. There were 
many of his army slain ; but he had 
promised them well, and performed ill; 
and the citizens surrendered the city, 
because the thanes had betrayed them. 
This summer the child Edgar departed, 
with his mother Agatha, and his two sis- 
ters Margaret and Christina, and Merle- 
Sweyne, and many good men with them; 
and came to Scotland under the protec- 
tion of king Malcolm, who entertained 



• So nearly Ixiud, — cipcc — Cantpapabyjiij, Lye. Anb heji on J?if on jeajie bajin Xpej cypiceao, 
near the end of Mtxvi., Gibs, from Whd. >» From (7.T. bit. Lye, &c. abs. Gibs, to 1 }ej ju- 
mrjief , t^c. « So C.T. b i?. cyn j, Lye. ^ So C.T. b It. bej-ecte, Lye. « The remainder 
of this year is thus briefly stated by Gibson from Laud. : Anb J?«j jumepej jroji Gabjap alb ut. 1 
CDepIc-Spejen. ^ jrela manna roib heom. "j p ojian to Scotlanbe. 1 je cynj OOelcolm hi ealle unbejijren;. 
•j xenam }ej cilbcj jp«rtep to pipe QOajixajietan. ' So C.T. b It. A^a^a, Lye. « So CT. b if. 
Xiha^ Lye. ^ So C.T.BiY.^ superscribed in a smaller but ancient hand, he bejann ^ Lye. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



267 



Mf^ jypnan "J^ef cil&ef'^ jTJeoftop 
him to pipe CDap^apetan. ac he ^ hif 
menn ealle lan^e pi^cpasbon. ^ eac hep 
j^lp pi^jx)c. *j cpaB^ f heo hine ne 
nanne habban polbe. jyp hijie fco up- 
lice ajipaeftnyj- ^eunnan polbe. f heo 
on msej^habe mihn^an bjiihtne mib 
hchomanhcpe^ heoptan on J^ifan hpe 
jrceoptan on claenpe jrophaepebnyffe 
cpeman mihre. Se kynj^ bepealh 
jeopne hijie bpe^ep. o^ f he cpaej? 
la pi^. ^ eac *he'^ ellef ne bopjrte- 
pop ]>an ye hi on hip anpalb becumene 
pspon. J3it peap]? J?a ppa jcpopben 
ppa Gob poppceapobe on aep. t) ellep 
hit beon ne mihte. eall ppa he pylp 
on hip jobppelle paei^. f pup^on* an 
ppeappa on jpynb^ ne maej bepeallan 
poputan hip popepceapunje^. Se pope- 
pitola pcyppenb pipte on aep hpast he 
op hype ^ebon habban polbe. pop ]?an 
J?e heo pceolbe on J?an lanbe Gobep lop 
jeeacnian^ 'j ]?one k^nj^ ^epihtan op 
]?am bpehanban pae%e. *J ^ebe^ean hme 
to betepan peje K 1 hip leobe pamob. 
^ alejcean'' J?a un])eapap J^e peo ^eob 
aep beeobe. eall ppa heo py^San bybe. 
Se kynj^ hi ]>a unbeppenj. J?eah hit 
hipe un^ancep paepe. ^ him jelicabe 
hipe ^eapap. ^ ^ancobe Gobe ]>e him 
ppylce j^emasccean mihtij^lice popjeap. 
^ piplice hine be]H)hte. ppa he pull- 
pittep paep. ^ apenbe hine pylpne to 



them all. Then began king Malcolm to 
yearn after the child's sister, Margaret^ 
to wife ; but he and all his men long 
refused ; and she also herself was averse, 
and said that she would neither have 
him nor any one else, if the Supreme 
Power would grant, that she in her 
maidenhood might please the mighty 
Lord with a carnal heart, in this short 
life, in pure continence. The king, 
however; earnestly urged her brother, 
uptil he answered Yea. And indeed 
he durst not otherwise ; for they were 
come into his kingdom. So that then 
it was fulfilled, as God had long ere 
foreshowed ; and else it could not be ; 
as he himself saith in his gospel : that 
f^ not even a sparrow on the ground 
may fall, without his foreshowing." 
The prescient Creator wist long before 
what he of her would have done ; for 
that she should increase the glory of 
God in this land, lead the king aright 
from the path of error, bend him and 
his people together to a better way, and 
suppress the bad customs which the na* 
tion foxmerly folio wed : all which she aft- 
erwards did. The king therefore received 
her, though it was against her will, and 
was pleased with her manners,and thank- 
ed God, who in his might bad given him 
such a match. He wisely bethought 
himself, as he was a prudent man, and 



* So Gibs, from Laud, hijf, C.T, b ir. Lye, &c, ^ So Lye ; but licjic is superscribed o?er licho- 
man in a smaller hand in C.T. b it. Q. Iichoman *j heojican, with body and soul ? ^ So CJT. b ir. 
cyn J, Lye. * From C,T. b it. aba. Lye, « So C,T, b iT. pupbon, Lye. ' So Lye. jpyn, C,T, b it. 
s So C,T. B It. popjceapun^e^ Lye. ^ -ycean, superscribed in C.T, b it. witiiout an- erasure ; pro- 
bably as a Tarious reading. > So C.T, b it. paeje, Lye. ^ So CT. bit. alec^eao^ Lye. 

2 M 2 



!268 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



// 



99 



Go&e. ^ aelce unpuejinyfj-e* opejiho- 
jobe. Be ]>am ye apoj^ol Pauluj- ealpa 
Seoba lapeop cpae^. ^Saluabitup" uip 
mpibelif pep muhepem pibelem: ^pc 
et miiliep inpibehj-pep uipump ibelemJ 
Sfc. f If on upan jej^eobe. Ful opt ye un- 
jeleappulla*^ pep bi]> jehaljab "j je- 
haeleb ]>iiph f leappulle pip. ^tJ TP^ 
jelice f pip )>uph jeleappulne pep''. 
Deop popepppecene cpen peo^^an on 
Jam lahbe manege n^tpyji^e baeba je- 
ppemebe Gobe to lope. *j eac on J?a 
kj^nepipan pel jej^eh. eall ppa hipe je- 
cynbe paep. Op jeleappulan ^ ae^elan 
cynne heo paep apppunjon. liipe pae- 
bep paep Gabpapb aB^elinj. Gabmunbep 
punu' kynjep. Gabmunb /B^elpebmj. 
y6^elpeb Gabjapmj. Gabjap Gabpeb- 
mj. ^ ppa pop^ on f c^ne-cynn. *i 
hipe mobop-cynn jaeK to lieinpice 
Capepe. J?e haepbe anpalb opep Rome. 
Anb hep pepbe G^^a ut. liapolbep 
mobop. *i mane^pa jobpa manna pip 
mib hype into Bpaban-peolice. *i J^aep 
punobe pume hpile. 1 jy^ pop fanon 
opep pae to pde Aubomape. On ^fipan'' 
Gaptpon com pe k^nj to pinceptpe. 
tl J?a paepon Gaptpa on x. kl Appt. 
tJ pona a&ptep ])am com CDathilb peo 
hlaspbie hibep to lanbe. ^ Galbpeb ap- 
ceU hij jehal^obe to cpene on J^ept-- 
mynptpe on hpitan punnan baej. Da 
ky^be man ]>an kyninje f f pole be 
nop%an haepbon heom jejabepab to- 
jaebepe. ^ polbon him on^ean ptanban. 



turned himself to God^ and renounced 
all impurity; accordingly as the apostle 
Paul^ the teacher of ail the geRtiles> 
saith : '^ Salvabitur vir infldelis per mii- 
lierem Jidelem ; sic et mvller if{fiddis per 
virum Jidelem" Sgc: that is in our lan- 
guage, '^ Full oft the unbelieving hus- 
band is sanctified and healed through 
the believing wife^ and so belike the 
wife through the believing husband/' 
This queen aforesaid performed afler- 
virards many useful deeds in this land to 
the glory of God, and also in her royal 
estate she well conducted herself, as her 
nature was. Of a faithful and noble kin 
was she sprung. Her father was Edward 
etheliiig,son of king Edmund. Edmund 
was the son of Ethelred ; Ethelred the 
son of Edgar; Edgar the son of Edred; 
and so forth in that royal line: and bei 
maternal kindred goeth to the emperor 
Henry, who had the sovereignty over 
Rome. This year went out Githa, Ha- 
rold's mother^ and the wives of many 
good men with her^ to the Steep-Holms^ 
and there abode some time ; and so de- 
parted thence over sea to St. Omer's. 
This Easter came the king to Winches- 
ter; and Easter was then on the 10th 
before the calends of April. Soon after 
this came the lady Matilda hither to this 
land ; and archbishop Eldred hallowed 
her to queen at Westminster on Whit 
Sunday. Then it was told the king, that 
the people in the North had gathered 



• So C,T. BiT. -jypepnyjrje, Ljc. *> From C.T, b ir. abs. Lye. * So C.T. b ir. -leapulla, Lye 
<i From C.T. b It. abs. Lye. There are many minate correctioas here of the printed fragment of Lye 
from Cr.Biv.) too namerous to be specified. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 269 

jip he come, lie pop )^a to Snotin^a- themselves together^ and would stand 
ham. *i pophte J^aep caytrel. ^ *Fop'' against him if he came. Whereupon he 
jT^a to Gopeppic. 'j I?»p pophte tpe- went to Nottingham, and wrought there 
jen cayrelap ^ on Lmcolna. ^ je- a castle; and so advanced to York, and 
hpap on ]>zn enbe. ^ Gojrpatpic eopl . there wrought two castles; and the same 
^ J)a betjtan menn popon mto Scot- at Lincoln, and every where in that 
lanbe. ^ aman; ]>ipan com an )3apolbep quarter. Then earl Gospatric and the 
puna op Yplanbe mib pcypbepe into best men went into Scotland. Amidst 
Apenan muj^an unpaep. ^ hep^obe this came one of Harold's sons from Ire- 
pona opep eall ))one enbe. popon ]>a . land with a naval force into the mouth 
to Bpy^cptope. *i ))a buph abpecan of the Avon unawares, and plundered 
polbon. ac peo buphpapu heom heapb- soon over all that quarter; whence they 
lice piVpeaht. ^ }7a hi ne mihton op went to Bristol, and would have storm- 
J>aepe buph naht jepinnan. hi popon ed the town ; but the people bravely 
]?a to pcypan mib J^an ]>e hi ^ehep- • withstood them. When^ they could gain 
30b hsepbon. 1 ppa hi popon on Su- nothing from the town, they went to 
meppseton. 1 J>«p upp eobon. ^ Gab- their ships with the booty which they 
no% ptallepe heom pi% ^epeaht. 'i had acquired by plunder; and then they 
peap% J'asp opplaejen. ^ manege jobe advanced upon Somersetshire, and there 
menn on ae^J^pe healpe. "] ])anon apei^ . went up ; and Ednoth, master of the 
popon j>e )>sep to lape paspon -.» horse, fought with them ; but he was 

there slain, and many good men oneither 

side ; and those that were left departed 

thence. 

^An. MLXVIII. •liep on J^ippum . A.D. 1068. This year king William 

jeape^ Pillelm cyn^c ^eap Robbeapbe gave earl Robert the earldom over North*- 



* From C,T, b it. abs. Lye. ^ This and the folio wiog year are thas stated in Gibson's edi- 

tion from Laud, : An. mlxyiii. t3e]i on ]njfjum j^po Pillm cynj; jeaj: Robbejibe eojile ]?one eojil. 
bom on No}i9-hymb]ia lanb. Da comon ya ianbef menn tojeanej him. *j hioe opjtojon. 'j iz. hunb 
manna roib hiin. Anb Gabjap asjvelinj com ^ mib eall am NopV. hymbjium to Sofeppic. *] ]ni pope* 
men piV bine jpiVebon. *j pe cyn; PiUm com puVan mib eallan hi j pypbe. *J ]»a buph pophepjobe. anb 
pela hunb manna opjioh. *J pe aeVelin; pop ept co Scotlanbe :. An. m lxix. Dep man ppsejbe 

^one bijcop iE^elpic on Buph. ^ jenbe hine to pejc.mynp:pe. *J atlajobe hip bpoVep iE^elpine b. 
Da betpyx ]?am tpam pcS CDapian maepjan. comon eajton op Daen-mapcum mib ccc. pcipum. j) paepon 
Spaejnep ptinan cynjep. *J hip bpoVep Opbeapn eopl. Anb ^ pepbe je eopl Pal^eap ut. *j com he ^ 
Cabjap aeVt^linj. *} pela hnnb manna mib heom. *J jcmetton ^aet liV innan bambpan. *j pepbon ta 
6opeppic. *) up-eoban. "j ]?a cajrelap jeponnan. *J opplojon pela hanb manna, ^j co pcipe laebboa 
pceaccap pela. *J ]?a hcapob-men haepbon on beanbon. ^ lajon becpyz Vpan 1 Tpencan ealne ^one pin* 
rep. Anb je c^n; Pillm pop into ^pe pape. 'j hi eall popbe. Anb-on ]^ipam ilpan j^pe popVpepba. 
Bpanb abb. op Buph. on ?. kal* Decembp. 



«70 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



eojile J?one ealbopbom opeji Noji^hym- 
bpa lanb. ac ))a lanbef-menn hme be* 
popon mnan )>£pe buph set Dunholme. 
tl hme opflojon. 1 ix. c. manna mib 
him. ^ fona faep *• aeptep Gabjap 
«Kehnj com mib eallum Nop^hym- 
bpum to Gojroppic. 1 J?a buph-menn 
pij> hme jpyJ?ebon. 'I p^^llelm kynj com 
jruVan on unpaep on heom mib ^eoten- 
ban hepe. *j hi aplymbe. 1 ]^a opj-loh J?a 
J)e aet-pleon ne mihton. f paepon fela 
hunb manna. 1 fa buph pophcpjobe. 1 
8de Petpcf mynytrep to byj^mepe ma- 
cebe. *i ealle J?a oj?pe eac pophepjobe. "j 
pophynbe. ^ pe as^elmj pop ept on^ean 
to Scotlanbe. ^-Sptep J>ipum coman 
toapolbep punap op Yplanbe to J?am 
mibban pumepa mib lxiiii. pcypum in- 
to Tap mu)7an. l faep unpaephce ^ up 
eobon. '^ *j Bpeon * eopl com on unpaep 
heom tojeinep mib unlytlan peopobe. 
tJ pi^ jepeaht. 1 opploh J^aep ealle J?a 
betptan menn J?c on J?am lyj?c paepon. 
^ j?a oj?pe lytlan pepobe to pc]^pum 
astplujon. ^ )3apolbep punap popon ept 
to Yplanbe onjean :•'' 

An. MLXIX *. * ftep pop^pepbe 
Slbpeb aepceB. on Gopeppic. ^ ip J>aep 
bebypjeb aet hip b' ptole. tl he jepat 
on J?one baej Ppoti ^ lacmthi. *J he 
heolb j?one aepce-ptol mib mycclan 
peop^myntc x. jeap butan xv. pucan 
panan. 8ona J^aep aeptep coman op Den- 
mapcon Wpeo Spejenep puna kyninjep 



umberland ; but the landsmen attacked 
him in the town of Durham, and slew 
him, and 900 men with him. Soon aft- 
erwards Edgar etheling came with all 

. the Northumbrians to York; and the 
townsmen made a treaty with him: but 
king William came from the South un- 
awares on them with a large army, and 
put them to flight, and slew on the spot 

• those who could notesfcape; which were 
many hundred men ; and plundered the 
town. St. Peter's minster he msdi a 
profanation, and all other places also 
he despoiled and trampled upon ; and 

. the etheling went back again to Scot* 
land. After this came Harold's sons 
from Ireland, about Midsummer, with 
64 ships into the mouth of the TaflF, 
where they unwarily landed: and earl 

. Breon came unawares against them 
with a large army, and fought with 
them, and slew there all the best men 
that were in the fleet; and the others, 
being small forces, escaped to the ships: 

. and Harold's sons went back to Ireland 
again. 

A.D. 1069. This year died Aldred 
archbishop of York; and he is there 
buried, at his see. He died on the day 

. of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held 
the see with much dignity ten years 
wanting only 15 weeks. Soon after this 
came from Denmark three of the sons 
of king Sweyne with S40 ships, together 



* l^aejr, Lye. ^ From C.T. bIt. Lye, &c. abs. Laud. Gibs. « So C.T.Bir, a]?eboD, Lye; 

wUch he translates ^^permiserunt.*' ^ So CJT. sir. Beojio^ Lye. There are other corrections 

in this page, too namerous to be specified. * So Flor. We hare therefore inserted the designa- 

tion of the year from him. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



271 



mib cc. fcfpixm 1 xl. •} Gyheojih copl 
^ Diipkyl eopl. into I^iumbpan. ^ heom 
com jjsep tojenej^ ^ab^ap cilb. ^ palb^- 
J>eop eopl. 1 OOaBple-Spejen. . "j Gofpa^ 
rpic eopl. nub Nop^hymbpum. ^ ealle 
Jialanbleoben. pibenbe ^jan^enbe mib 
unmaetan hepe rpi]?e paejenjenbe. ^ 
jya ealle anpaeblice to €opeppie popon. 
1 J?one caftiel robpaecon ^ topuppan. 
tf unapimenblice ^asppiman j^aepmne 
^epunnan.^ ^ pela hunb manna Fpen- 
cifcpa ]?aep opplojon. "J pela mib heom 
to pcypan lasbban. 1 aep J?an fe ]ja pcyp- 
menn ]>ibep comon. haspbon J^a Fpencip- 
can \>z buph popbaspneb. ^ edc f halie 
mynptep Sep Petpup eall pophepjob ^ 
popbaepneb. Da pe kynj J?ip ^eaxobe. 
])a pop he Dop^papb mib eaipe hip 
p]^pbe ]>e he jejabepian mihte. ^ ])a 
pcipe mib ealle pophepjobc. ^ apepte. 
tf f li% laei^ ealnepmtep innan t>umbpe. 
faep pe kynj heom to cuman ne mihte. 
Anb pe** kynj paep J?one mibpintpep 
ba^i^ on Gopeppic. ^ ppa ealne J^one pin- 
tep on }>am lanbe. ^ com to pmceptpe 
on J>a ilcan Gaptpon. 'j iEjelpic B; paep 
popppejeb. ]>e paep on Buph. *J hine man 
laebbe to peptmy'nptpe. "J utlajobe hip 
bpo])op iEjelpme V/' ^Anb on J>ipum 
ilcan ^eape pop^pepbe Bpanb abU op 
Buph on V. kal. Decembji'V 

^An.MLXX. liep Lanbppanc. pe ]>e 
paep abb on^ Kabum. com. to Gnjla^ 
lanbe. pe aeptep peapum bajum peap^ 
Apceb on Kantpapebepij. Tie paep je- 



witb earl EBborn and earl Thurkill^ in- 
to the H umber ; where they were met 
by the child Edgar, and earl Waltheof^ 
and Merle-Sweyne, and earl Gospatric 

'. with the Northumbrians^ and all the 
landsmen; riding and marching full 
merrily with an immense army : and so 
all unanimously advanced to York; 
where they stormed and demolished the 

i castle, and won innumerable tre^ures 
therein ; slew there many hundreds of 
•Frenchmen, and led many with them to 
the ships : but, ere that the ship men 
cam6 tbither, the Frenchmen had burn- 

. ed the city, and also the holy minster of 
St. Peter had they entirely plundered, 
and destroyed with fire. When the king 
iieard this, then went he nqrth ward with 
all the force that he could collect, de- 

. spoiling and laying waste the shire 
withal; whilst the fleet lay all the win- 
ter in the Humber, whese the king could 
not come at them. The king was in 
York on Christmas day^ and so all the 

V winter oh land, ai|d came to Winchester 
at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at 
Peterborough, -wa» this year betrayed, 
and led to Westminster; and his brother 
•Egelwiiie was outlawed. This year also 

. died Brand, abbot of Peterborough, on 
the 5th before'the calends of December. 
A. D. 1070. This year Landfranc^ 

. who waa abbot of Caen, came to. Eng- 
land ; and after a few days he became 

. archbishop of Canterbury. He was in- 



* From C.T. b it. abs. Lye, * So C.T. b ir. Jw, Lye, N, S. « Gibft. from Laud. 

<* Whel. and Gibs, from Ben. to -..bletpinjaa anbepfeDg. Abs. C*T. air. Laud, Piirob. Lye, &c. 
« an, Whcl. f iEogla, WhcL . . 



272 THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 

habeb iiii. kal. Septembpif . on hif a^e- Tested on the 4th before the calends of 
num bif copfetle. ppam eahte bif-co- September in his own see bj 8 bishops, 
.ptim hif* unbep))iobbinn. ];a o%pe ]re ])aep his suffragans. The others^ who were 
naspon. ]7uph aepenb-pakean "i ]>uph not there^ by messengers and by letter 
^eppite atipbon hpi hi J^aep been ne mih- . declared why they codld not be there, 
ton. On ]>am ^eape Thomaj*^. ye y^y The same year Thomas^ who was ^o- 
jecopan bifcop to 6peppic. com to sen bishop of York, came to Canter- 
- Cantpapebepi^. f man hme J^aep jeha* bury, to be invested there after the an- 
bebe septep j^an ealban ^epunan. Da }?a cient custom. But when Landfranc cra- 
Lanbppanc cpapebe pseftrnun^e hiy ^e- • yed confirmation of his obedience with 
hepf umnef}*e mib a%-f pepun^e. ])a pop- an oath, he refused ; and said^ that he 
foc he. ^ paebe f he hit nahte to bonne, ought not to do it. Whereupon arch- 
Da ^eppaVebe hine pe apceb. Lanb- bishop Landfranc was WToth, and bade 
ppanc. ^ bebeab J^am bipcopan ]>e ])ap the bishops, who were come thither by 
cumene paepan be ]'ap apceb. L. hsepe . archbishop Landfranc*s command to do 
J^a peppipe to bonbe. ^ eallan J^an mu- the service, and all the mopks to unrobe 
necan. f hi pcolban hi unpcpyban. ^ hi themselves -i. And they by his order 
be hip haepe ppa biban. Spa Thomap^ to so did. Thomas therefore^ for the time, 
{'am timan a^ean pepbe buton bletpun- departed without consecration. Soon 
^a. Da pona asptep ))ipanbelamp f pe . after this, it happened that the arch- 
apceH Lanbppanc pepbe to Rome. ^ bishop Landfranc went to Rome, and 
Thomap* pop% mib. Da J?a hi J^y^bep co- Thomas with him. When they came thi- 
mon. anb umbe o%ep J^m^ ^epppecon ther, and had spoken about other things 
haepbon umbe f hi pppecan polban. J^a jconoerning which they wished to speak, 
an^an Thomap^ hip ppasce. hu he com • then began Thomas his speech : how he 
to Cantuuapeb;^pi. tl hu pe apceb ax- came .to Canterbury, and how the arch* 
obe h]^ppumneppe mib a^-ppepun^e at bishop required obedience of him with 
him. ^ be bit poppoc. Da a^ann pe ap- an oath ; but he declined it. Then began 
ceb. L. at]^pian mib openum ^epceabe. the archbishop Landfranc to show with 
f he mib pihte^papebe J^ap ])a he cpa- . clear distinctiop, that what he craved 
pebe. "i mib ptpanjan cpj'ban f ]p^Ice he craved by right; and with strong ar- 
^epaeptnobe topopan fzm papaa Alex* guments he confirmed the same before 

* So Whel. Domsf , Gibs. The other Tariatioos are unimportaat. 

^ Gibson, following Wheloc, translates the the bishops and monks, whom he had appointed 

passage inaccorately ; as if it were hine, instead to perform the service, to nnrdbe themselves and 

^f hi. Landfranc declined performing the cere* depart. GefpaVcbe hioeisalso improperly trans* 

fliony of lorestitare and consecration without the lated both by Wheloc and Gibson. It is a re* 

oath of allegiance to him^ and therefore ordered flective verb in both cases. ' 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 273 

anbpe. ^ topopan eallan j^am concilium tbe Pope Alexander^ and before all the 
J^e J>ap jejabpeD paf . ^ fpa ham popan. council that was collected there ; and 
/Gptep fj^pan com Thomap -Canrpapc- so they went home. After this came 
b^pi ^ eal f pe apcel) at him cpapebe Thomas to Canterbury ; and all that the 
eabmebhce jepylbe. ^ py^Wan J>a blet- . archbishop required of him he humbly 
pun^an unbeppen^ '':• ^VSeji pe eopl fulfilled, and afterwards received conse- 
palWeop jpi^ebe piS J^one cynj. Anb cration. This year earl Waltheof agreed 
J?aep on Lenjten pe cyn j let hepjian with the king ; but in the Lent of the 
ealle J^a mynptpa ]fe on Gnjla-lanbe pae- same year the king ordered all the mo- 
pon. Da on j^am ilcan ^eape com Spe^n ; nasteries in England to be plundered, 
c^n^ op Den-mapcan into }3umbpan. In the same year came king Sweyne from 
*] f lanb-polc comen him on^ean. '^ 2pi- Denmark into the Humber ; and the 
%ebon pi% hine. psenbon f he pceolbe landsmen came to meet him^ and made 
]yet lanb opep^an. Da comen into a treaty with him ; thinking that he 
6I13 Xpiptien J>a Denpce B. anb Op- •- would over-run the land. Then came 
beapn eopl. 'j )>a Denpca hup-caplep mib into Ely Christien^ the Danish bishop, 
heom. anb yet Gn^lipce pole op eall J^a and earl Osbern, and the Danish domes- 
peon-lanbep comen to heom. penbon f tics with them ; and the English people 
hi.pceolbon pmnon eal f lanb. Da hep- from all the fen-lands came to them; 
bon )7a munecap op Buph pas^en f heo- . supposing that they should win all that 
pa a^ene men polben hep^on ))one land. Then the monks of Peterborough 
mynptpe. f paep Jiepepapb 1 hip jen je. heard say, that their own men would 
f pa>p pop%an J^et hi hepbon psecjen plunder the minster; namely Hereward 
J>et pe cynj heapbe jypen f abbot-pice and his gang ; because they understood 
an Fpencipce abbot. Tupolbe paep ^e- • that the king had given the abbacy to a 
haten. ^f he pasp ppi%e ptypne man.* French abbot, whose name was Tho- 
"i paep cumen ))a into Stanpopbe nub rold; — that he was a very stern man, and 
ealle hipe Fpencipce menn. Da paep J^aep was then come into Stamford with all his 
an cypece-peapb. Ypape paep jehaten. Frenchmen. Now there was a church- 
nam J^a be nihte eall J^et he mihte. ]?et . warden, whose name was Yware; who 
paepon Xpep bee 1 maeppa-hakelep. *J took away by night all that he could, 

* These eTCDts are stated thus in C.T> b ir. Petroby Lye, &c. : — An. mlxxi. 1}ep je eopl Pael^op 
jpy^obe pi% ]?one cynje. *j paey on lenjten ye kyngc lee hejijian ealle ]?a mynp^ia \e on Go^Ia-lanbe 
pKjion. "j J^Kj jepey p»y micel hunjep [abs. Petroh.l, 1 man hejijabe jJ mynjtep »c Bujih. ^ paepon 
[1 ^p-on, Ljc]. ysL menn \e ye b. iEjeljiic aep amaoyumabe yoji ^on ]?e hi naroon J^asp eall j$ he ahre 
[Papacy mycel hunjep^aey ^^pey, Petrol.'], "j ]«y ilcan yumepcy com jJ liWmto Temeyc. *J lajonj^p 
tpa nihc. *j heolbon yyWan to Denmapcon. 1 balbapme eopl yop^pepbe. "j Apnuly hiy yunn yenj to 
I'an pice. *j Fpancena kymnj *j pillelm eopl yceolbon beon hiy jehealb. ac ]»aep com Robbeapt [.bpiht 
OYerlined]. 1 oyyioh Apnuly hiy maeij. "j ]?one eopl Pyllelm. *J ]^one kyn^c aytymbe. *J opyloh hiy 
manna p ela Suycnba. Whcloc ends with — -bletynnjan unbepyenj. 

3 N 



274 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



cantelcapaj-. ^ peapej-. "] fpilce litlej- 
hpatifpa hpat fpa he mihce. ^ pepbe 
j-ona aep baej to ]>one abbot TupcJbe. 
^ faejbe him f he j-ohte hif jpi^e. ^ 
c^bbe him hu ]?a iitlajep peolben 
cumen to Buph. f he bybe call be 
J>sepe munece jiasbe. Da [X)na on mop- 
jen comen ealle J?a utlaja mib pela 
f cipe. *j polbon into J?am mynj-tpe. ^ )?** 
munecaj- pi^ftoben. f hi na mihton in- 
cumen. Da laejbon hi pyp on. *J pop- 
baepnbon ealle J?a munece huj-ep. anb 
eall ]>2i tun. buton ane hupe. Da comen 
hi Jjuph pype m aet BolhiBe-jeate. "J 
Ja munecap comen heom tojeanep 
beaben heom 3pi^. Ac hi na pohten na 
J^mj. jeobon into ]>e mynftpe. clum- 
ben upp to ]>e halje pobe. namen J?a 
J?e kynehelm op upe Dpihtnep heapob. 
call op pmeate jolbe. namen )>a ]>et 
pot-ppupe. ]>e paep unbepnaeWen hip 
pote. f paep eall op peab jolbe. Clum- 
ben upp to ]>e ptepel. bpohton bune f 
hascce J>e J>aep paepbehib. hit pap eall 
op golb ^ op peolppe. hi namen J?aepe 
tpa jilbene pcpmep. tJ JX. peolpepne. "j 
hi namen piptene mycele poben. je op 
jolbe. je op peolppe. hi namen ])aepc 
ppa mycele jolb *j peolppe. 1 ppa ma- 
neja jeppumap on. pceat. ^ on pcpub. 
"i on bokep. ppa nan man ne maei o^ep 
raellen. paejbon f hi hit b]^ben pop )>ep 



testaments^ mass-backles^ cantel-copes^ 
and reefs, and such other small things^ 
whatsoever he could ; and went early, 
before day, to the abbot Thorold; tell- 

^ ing him that he sought bis protection, 
and informing him how the outlaws 
were coming to Peterborough, and that 
he did all by advice of the monks. Early 
in the morning came all the outlaws 

. with many ships, resolving to enter the 
minster; but the monks withstood, so 
that they could not come in. Then they 
laid on fire, and burned all the bouses of 
the monks, and all the town except one 

. house. Then came they in through fire 
at the Bull-hithe gate ^; where the monks 
met them, and besought peace of them. 
But they regarded nothing. They went 
into the minster, climbed up to the holy 

• rood, took away the diadem from our 
Lord's head, all of pure gold, and seized 
the bracket that was underneath bis 
feet, which was all of red gold. They 
climbed up to the steeple, brought down 

. the tabled that was bid there, which was 
all of gold and silver, seized two golden 
shrines, and nine of silver, and took 
away fifteen ^ large crucifixes, of gold 
and of silver; in short, they seizi?d there 

. so much gold and silver, aj^so many 
treasures, in money, in raiment, and in 
books, as no man could tell another; and 



' ^^ Janua ab ausirali parte monasierii Pe- 
iroburgensis, vulgo hodie Bulldyke-gate dicia," 
Gibs. Vid. Hug. Cand. Casnob. Burg. Hist. 
edited by Sparke, p 49. See also a curious GaUo- 
Norman poem printed at the end of the same 
volume, p. 252. 

'^ Pallium and ependytis, Gibs. And so Lye, 



Diet, in "soc. but we follow the sense of the con- 
text, supported by the joint authority of Hugo 
Candidus and of the poem abore-mentioned. 

' Duodecimo Hug. Cand. So also the poem 
above-mentioned : 

^^ E XII. eroiz nobUmeni e ben apareillez.'* 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 275 

myiij^pcjr holbj-cipe. Sy^^on jeben said^ that tbey did it from their attach- 
heom ro fcipe. pepben heom to Chj. ment to the minster. Afterwards they 
betaehtan ]7se)i J^a ealla ]7a ^seppume. vrent to their ships^ proceeded to Ely, 
Da Denef cae menn pasnbon f hi f-ceolb- and deposited there all the treasure. The 
on opepcumen ]>a Fpencipca men. }?a . Danes, believing that they should over- 
tobpepobon ealle J^a munekep. beleap come the Frenchmen, drove out all the 
fxjv nan butan an munec. he psep ^e- monks ; leaving there only one, whose 
haten Leoppme Lan^e. he lasi peoc m name was Leofwine Lang, vrho lay sick 
fdi pecpas-man m. Da com Tupolb ab- in the infirmary. Then came abbot Tho- 
bot. "i ashte p%e tpenti Fpencipce . rold and eight times twenty i Frenchmen 
men mib him. *J ealle puU-pepnobe. Da with him, all full-armed. When he came 
he ]>ibep com ))a panb he popbaepnb thither, he found all within and without 
pi^mnan ^ pi%uran eall butan ]>a ci- consumed by fire, except the church 
pece ane. ]>3. paepon j^a utla^ap ealle alone ; but the outlaws were all with the 
on plote. piptan f he pcolbe ))ibep . fleets knowing that he would come thu. 
cumen. Dip paep bon ]?aBp baejep iiii. ther. This was done on the 4th day be- 
Non. Junii. Da tpejen kyn^ap pillelm fore the Nones of June. The two kings, 
tl SpaBjn pup^on paehtlob. J?a pepbon William and Sweyne, were now recon« 
)7a Daenepca menn ut op 6I13 mib ealle ciled ; and the Danes went out of Ely 
pB. popenpppaecena ja^ppume. ^ laeb- . with all the aforesaid treasure, and car- 
bon mib heom. Da hi comen on mibbe- ried it away with them. But when they 
papbe ]>e pas. ]7a com an tnycel ptopm. came into the middle of the sea, there 
tl tobpaepbe ealle ))a pcipe J^asp J'a came a violent storm, and dispersed all 
^eppumep paepon inne. pume pepbon the ships wherein the treasures were, 
to Noppae^e. pume to Yplanbe. pume . Some went to Norway, some to Ireland, 
to Daen-mapce. *J eall f ]7ibep com. f some to Denmark. All that reached the 
paep ])one hascce. anb pume pcpme. ^ latter, consisted of the table*, and some 
pume poben. anb pela op J^a o^pe jasp- shrines, and some crucifixes, and many 
pume. anb bpohten hit to an cyn^ep of the other treasures ; which they 

tun hatte. anbbyben hit eall . brought to a king's town, called , 

]>2i in }?one cypce. Da py^^on ])uph and deposited it all there in the church, 
heopa ^emelept. ^ }?uph heopa bpun- Afterwards through their own careless- 
cenheb.onan nihtpopbaepnbe])a cypce. ness, and through their drunkenness, in 
*i eall J^et J^aep inne paep. Dup paep pe one night the church and all that was 
mynptpe op Bupch popbaepnb ^ pop- . therein was consumed by fire. Thus was 
haepjob. aelmihtij Gob hit jemiltpe theminsterof Peterborough burned and 



^ Centum et quadraginia^ Hug. Cand. * ^ EpendytiSj G\h%. See note ^iu the preceding 

'' Dvus cenz Normaunsy*^ Poem. G. Norm. page. 

S N 2 



276 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



))uph hif mycele milbheptneyj^. Anb 
J>ur ye abbot Tupolb com to Buph. ^ 
J>a munecaj- comen J?a onjean. *j byban 
Xpef J>eubom m J^aepe c]^pce. f aep 
haepbe j-tanben puUe j-eopeniht pop- 
utan aelcep cynnep piht. Da hepbe 
iEjelpic bij-cop j^etjepecjon. )>a aman- 
jrumebe he ealle ])a men ])a f ;J^pel baebe 
haepben bon. Da paep mj^cel hunjep 
J)aBf jeapep. 1 fa )>aBr pumepep com 
.J?et li^ nop^an op J^iumbpan into Tae- 
mep e. ^ lajon J^aep tpa niht. ^ heolban 
pyWWon to Daen-mepcan. Anb Balbe- 
pme eopl pop^pepbe. ^ hip punu Apn- 
julp'penj to pice, anb piUelm eopl 
pceolbe ben hip ^ehealb. ^ Fpanca 
cynj eac. t) com J?a Robbpiht eopl ^ 
opploh hip maej Apnulp ^ J?one eopl. 
^ J?one cynj aplymba. ^ hip menn op- 
ploh pela J?upenba:- 

« 

•An. MLXXI^. I5ep Gabpine*^ eopl ^ 
OOopkepe eopl uthlupon^. 1 miplice 
pepbon on pubu ^ on pelba*. ^Da je- 
penbe COopkepe eopl to eiij on pcipe. ^ 
6abpine eopl peapW opplajen aphlice 
ppam hipa^enum mannum. *i com pe bi- 
pcop /Bjelpine. ^ Sipapb Beapn.'' ^ pela 
hunb manna mib heom smto Glv^/^ 



plundered. Almighty God have mercy 
on it through his great goodness. Thus 
came the abbot Thorold to Peterbo- 
rough ; and the monks too returned, and 

. performed the service of Christ in die 
church, which had before stood a full 
week without any kind of rite. When 
bishop Aylric heard it, be excommuni- 
cated all the men who that evil deed had 

. done. There was a great fami ae thisyear ; 
and in the summer came the fleet in the 
north from the Humberinto theThames, 
and lay there two nights, and made after- 
wards for Denmark. Earl Baldwin ako 

. died, and his son Arnulf succeeded to the 
earldom. Earl William, in conjunction 
.with the king of the Franks, was to be 

* his guardian ; but earl Robert came and 
slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, 

. put the king to flight, and slew many 
thousands of his men. 

A. D. 1071. This year earl Edwin 
and earl Morkar fled outi, and roamed 
at random in woods and in 6elds. Then 

. went earl Morkar to Ely by ship ; but 
earl Edwin was treacherously slain by 
his own men. Then came bishop Ayl- 
wine, and Siward Barn, and many hun- 
dred men with them, into Ely. When 



• From thb year to the end of the chronicle Gibson printed from the Laud. MS. only, not betng 
aware of the existence of any other. But C.T. b iy. and Petrob. are here collated to the year 1080. 
^ So Gibs. Peirob. mlxxii. C.T. sir. Lye. « So C.T.Blr. and Lye. JEbyiney Gibs, but Sab- 

pine below. Lye begins the year abruptly^ as usual, without l>eji. ^ hlupon ut, C.T. b it. Lye. 

« So Petrob, jmba — pelbon, C.T b It. Lye. ' o^ "f Sabpine peap^ offlae^en ppam hif aje- 

nnm mannnm. *J (Dopkepe mib jcipe aphlice jepenbe to D6I13. *j }xji com JEie\yme b. i Si^papb Bapn. 
C.T B iy. -i- mib j-cyp-hepe penbe, Lye. « Abs. C.T b it. Lye. 



' ^ t. e. — ^threw off their allegiance to the Nor« 
man usurper, and became yoluntary ouUaws. 
The habits of these outlaws^ or, at least, of their 



imitators and descendants in the next century, 
are well described by a liying writer in the rom 
mance of lyanhoe. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



277 



•Anb ]>z ]>e fe cynj piUelm f jcaxobe.'^ 
J>a beab he ut j-cip-pypbe *i lanb-p^pbe. 
^ ]fxt lanb ^eall" ^abutan j-«t, "i 
bjiycje jeppohte/' ^^ inn-pop/' ^ ^yeo' 
ycip-pypbc on ])a pae-healpe. ^Anb J>a . 
utlajan J)a ealle on hanb eoban/' f 8 
f aef /Bjelpme bif cop ^ QOopkepc eopl. 
.^ ealle J^a ]7e mib heom paepon. buton 
Jjepepapb ane "i ealle J?a J?e ""mib 
.him polbon/^ ^ he hi ahtlice utlaebbe. . 
Anb pe c^nj ^enam **hcopa'' fcipa. 1 
paepna. ^ j-ceattap maneja. ^ J?a men 
^'ealle'' he ^ateah fpa ppa he polbe/' 
anb.^j?one bifcop /Bjelpme'^ he j^nbe 
to Abban-bune. ^ he J^aep pop^jrepbe . 
**jx)na ]?aBj- pintpep'':- 

An. MLXXIP. JJep pillelm c^nj 
laebbe pcip-pj^pbe ^ lanb-pypbe to 
Scot^lanbe. anb f lanb on j?a pae-healpe 
mib fcipum ymbe-laeij. "^ hip lanb- . 
pypbe aet ])am Gepaebe inn laebbe/' ^ 
he )7aep naht ne punbe J^aep )7e him ]>e 
bet" paepe. Anb pe cynj CDelcolm com 
3 jpiSebe pi^ j?one cynj piUelm. ^ 



king William heard that^ then ordered 
he out a naval force and land force^ and 
beset the land all about^ and wrought a 
bridgCi and went in; and the naval force 
at the same time on the sea side; And 
the outlaws then all surrendered ; that 
was^ bishop Aylwine^ and earl Morkar^ 
and all that were with them; except 
Hereward^ alone^ and all those that 
would join him, whom he led out tri- 
umphantly. And the king took their 
ships, and weapons, and many trea- 
surest; and all the men he disposed of 
as he thought proper. Bishop Aylwine 
he sent to Abingdon, where he died in 
the beginning of the winter^. 

A.D. 1072. This year king William 
led a naval force and a land force to 
Scotland, and beset that land on the sea- 
side with ships, whilst he led his land- 
force in at the Tweed ^; but he found 
nothing there of any value. King Mal- 
colm, however, came, and made peace 
with king William, and gave hostages. 



• ac >a fe kynjc Pyllclm % leahpbe^ C,T b it. *» From C.T, b iv. abs. Gibs. « utan 

embfette. •j bjiy^ce pojihte^ C.T. b it. So nearly Lye. * From Gibs. Petrob. abs. C.T. air. 

Lye, &c. * Abs. C.T. b it. Lye. ' *j hi ealle ^a eobon ]?an kyninje on hanb. CT. b it. 

«.• cyninj — Lye. § So Laud, C.T.Bvr. Lye, &c. *j, Gibs, incorrectly. "» into him 

SBtpleon mihton, C.T. b it. Lye. * toe. 1 bybc op heom jl he polbe, CT. b iT. Lye. * iEjel- 
pine b. C.T, b it. Lye. " So Petrob. mlxxiii. C.T. b iT. abs. Lye. » So Gibs. 1 himjylp 

mib hij lanb-fypbe jrejibe inn opep •JJ pae^ (qu. ]ya Tpas^ ?) CT. a it. " bctejie, C.T. b iT. mtUui^ 

Ann. WaverL which is a literal translation. 



^ The author of the Gallo-Norman poem 
printed by Sparke elevates his diction to a high- 
er tone, when describing the feats of this same 
Hereward, whom he calls '^ h uihlage hardV* 

• Or much coin; many sceattoB^ such being 
the denomination of the siUer money of the Sax. 
ons. See Ruding's Coinage of Britain floA the 
plates ^graved for this work. 



' Sona ^ J pmtpej, Sax. — soon of the win* 
ier ; f . e, in the early part of it ; or, soon after 
it began ; auTMa toD ^tifiMVOf^ Gr. 

* Scodwade ; Ann, WaoerL ap. Gale ; qu. 
Scoiorum vadum ? Florence of Worcester and 
those who follow him say that William proceed- 
ed as far as Abernethy ; where Malcolm met him^ 
and surrendered to him. 



278 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



yflaf fcalbe. ^ hijr man paef. *J fe 
cynj ham jepenbe mib ealjie hijr 
pypbe. Anb ye bif cop Gjeljiic pop^- 
,j:epbe. he paey to bip cop habob to 60- 
feppic. ac hit paej* mib unpiht him 
opjenumen. ^ man ^eap him f bij-cop- 
pice on Dunholme. tl he heapbe hit ]>a, 
hpile ]>e he polbc. ^ poplet hit pS^an. 
anb pepbe to Bupch to fCe Petpej- 
mmftpe. "i ]?aep bpohtnobe xii. jeap. 
Da aeptep J?am ]>e piUelm c^nj jepan 
Gnjla-lanbe J^a nam he hine op Bupch. 
^ j^enbc hme to peptmynptpe. ^ he 
*J)aBp'' pop^pepbe on lb. OctoB. ^^ he 
ijr bebypjeb faep mnan ]?am mynfTpe. 
jnnon fJfp Nicholaup poptice'':- 

An. MLXXIII*^. On )>i]nim jeape 
pillelm cynj laebbe Gnjhpce hepe "J 
Fpencij-ce opep pae. 1 jepan f lanb 
COanp. ^ hit Gnjlipce men ppi^e amyp- 
bon. pinjeapbap hi pppbybon. 1 bup- 
ja popbaepnbon. ^ ppi^e J^aet lanb 
am]^pbon. 1 hit eall abejbon **)>an ky- 
ninje pillelme to hanba. 1 hi pi^^on 
Jbtam jepenbon * to Gnjla-Ianbe'':- 

An. MLXXIV.^ «0n fipanjepe" Pyl- 
lelm c^^njc pop opep pae toNopmanbije. 
^ Gabjap cilb com op Fleminja-lanbe 
into Scotlanbe on Scfe Gpimbalbep 
maeppc-baej. 1 pekj^njc COalcholomtJ hip 



and became his man ; whereupon the 
king returned home with all his force. 
This year died bishop Aylrici. He had 
been invested bishop of York; but that 

• see was unjustly taken from him^ and he 
then bad the bishopric of Durham given 
him ; which be held as long as he chose^ 
but resigned it afterwards^ and retired 
to Peterborough minster; where be 

. abode twelve years. After that king Wil- 
liam won England^ then took he him 
from Peterborough^ and sent him to 
Westminster; where be died on the 
ides of October^ and he is there buried^ 

. within the minster, in the porch of St. 
Nicholas. 

A.D. 1073. This year led king Wil- 
liam an army, English and French, 
over sea, and won the district of 

. Maine ; which the English very much 
injured by destroying the vineyards, 
burning the towns, and spoiling the 
land. But they subdued it all into the 
hand of king William, and afterwards 

. returned home to England. 

A, D. 1074. This year king Wil- 
liam went over sea to Normandy ; and 
child Edgar came from Flanders into 
Scotland on St. Grimbald's mass-day S; 

. where king Malcolm and his sister 



* From C. T. b it. abs. Gibs. * 1 ij bebypjeb mnan fd Nicolaej poptice. CT. b it. The 

other Tariations are immaterial. ^ mlxxiy. C,T, b It. abs. Lje. ^ From C.T, b it. abs. Gibs. 

« From Gibs. Petroh. abs. CT.bxy. ' So Gibs. Laud. Petrol, mlxxt. C.T.biy. Lje. s Abs. Lye. 
Briefly thus Gibs, from Laud. An. mlxxiy. On J^ijum jeajie pop Pillelm cynj ojreji pe to Nop. 
manbij. *j Gabjap cilb com op Scotlanb co Nopmanbi^c. anb je cyn^ hine jemlajobe *j ealle hif 
men. *J he paej- on ]?ejf cyn^cj hypebe. *j nam jpilce jepihca jysL je cyn^ him jeuVe. So Petroh, collated 
hy Joscelin. Lye is corrected here from CT.b it. which appears to be the original MS. 

^ CUrkuSy (1. Eilricus) Ann. Wao&rL ap. ' CiUo Edgarus de Scotia per AngUam venii 
jGiile. Sc. from the Saxofi eUpicuj-. in Normanniam, Sfc* Flor. An. vlxxiii« 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



279 



fpcoftoji CDajijapeta hmeunbejipen jon 
mib mycclan peop^fcype On J^aejie 
ilcan tibe j-enbe jre kynj op Fpancjiice. 
Philippiip*. ^eppit to him. ^ beab him 
f he to him com. ^ he polbe jeopan him . 
jH>nc captel act CDuptpael. f he mihte 
j^S^an baej^hpamhce hip unpinan un- 
]>ancap bon. JSpaet J?a- pe cynjc CDal- 
colm tl hip ppeoptep OOapjapeta jeapon 
him m;J^cela jeopa. "i maneja jaeppama. 
1 eallon hip mannan. on pcy'nnan mib 
paelle betojen. ^ on mep^epne pyle- 
ceon. t) jpapchynnene. *j heapma pc^n- 
nene. tl on paellon. ^ on j^lbenan pat- 
on. "i on peolppenan. ^ hine ^ ealle hip 
pcypepan mib mycclan peopBpcipe op 
hip jpy^e ala&bbe. ac on J^aepe pepe 
heom ypele j^elamp. J?a hi ut on pae 
pa&pon. f heom on be com ppi]>e hpeoh 
yebep. *j peo pobe pae ^ pe ptpanja 
pinb hi on lanbe apeapp. f ealle heopa 
pcypa tobuppton. ^ hi pylpe eappoS- 
lice to lanbe coman. ^ heopa jeppama 
popneh eall lopabe. "j hip menn eac 
pupbon pume jelaehte op Fpenc^pcan 
mannan. ac he pylp ^ hip peleptan** 
menn pepbon ept onjean to Scotlanbe. 
pume hpeoplice on potan janjenbe. 1 
pume eapmlice pibenbe : Da jepaebbe 



Margaret received him vrith much 
pomp. At the same time sent Philip, 
the king of France, a letter to him, 
bidding him to come to him, and he 
would give him the castle of Montreuil; 
that he might afterwards daily annoy 
his enemies. What then ? King Mal- 
colm and his sister Margaret gave him 
and his men great presents, and many 
treasures ; in skins ornamented with 
purple, in pelisses made of martin-skins, 
of gray-skins, and of ermine-skins, in 
palls, and in vessels of gold and silver; 
and conducted him and his crew with 
great pomp from his territory. But in 
their voyage evil befel them ; for when 
they were out at sea, there came upon 
them such rough weather, and thestormy 
sea and the strong wind drove them so vi- 
olently on the shore, that all their ships 
burst, and they also themselves came with 
diflSculty to the land. Their treasure was 
nearly all lost, and some of his men al- 
so were taken by the French ; but he 
. himself and his best men returned again 
to Scotland, some roughly travelling 
on foot, and some miserably mounted. 
Then king Malcolm advised him to 
send to king William over sea, to re- 



pe kyn^c G7alcholom him f he penbe to . quest his friendship, which he did ; 
Pyllelme cynje opep pae. 1 baeb hip and the king gave it him, and sent 
3py])ep. 1 he eac ppa bybe. 1 pe cynjc after him. Again therefore king Mal- 
him ])2ep 3eti]7abe. ^ septep him penbe. colm and bis sister gave him and all 
"j pe kyn^c ept OQalcolm "i hip ppeop- his men numberless treasures, and again 
top him *i eallon hip mannan unapi- . conducted him very magnificently from 
mebe jaeppama jeapon. 1 ppi^e peopS- their territory. The sheriff of York 
lice hine ept op Keopa 2py%e penbon. came to meet him at Durham, and 



• So Lye. Filipp', C.T.bIi. 



^ So Lje. pepejcaoy C7.Bir. i,e*fairesL 



S80 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



tJ r® fcip^X^pcF* Of Gopoppic com him 
cojeanejr set Dunholme. "J jiephe ealnc 
pel J mib him. ^ let him pmban mete ^ 
jrobbopaet aelcan caj^telle f hi to comon. 
o^ f hij opep fa to J>am kyninje co- . 
man. ^ fe kynjc Pyllelm mib mycclan 
peop^f cype ]?a hine unbeppenjc. 1 he 
paep faep J?a on hif hipebe. 1 toe f pylce 
^epihta ppa he him jelajabe :• 

An. MLXXV*. On J?ij-um jeape fil- . 
lelm cynj jeap Raulpe eople piUelmep 
bohtop Ofbeapnep punu. 1 pe ^Ica 
Raulp paep Bp;^ttipc on hip mobep- 
healpe. ^ hip paebep paep Gn^hpc. Raulp 
hatte. tJ papjebopen on Nop^-polce. . 
Da jeap pe c^nj '^pop^i'' hip punu J?one 
eoplbom on Nop^-polc 1 SuK-polc. J?a 
laebbe he f pip to Nop^-pic. 

^Dxji paep f bpyb-eala 
mannum to beala« 
Dap pap Rojep eopl. 1 PaRSeop eopl. 
^ bipcopap. anb abbotep^. ^ pabbon 
J)ap *ppa'' f hi polbon ^)>one cynj je- 
pettan ut op Gnjle-lanbcp cynebome." 
« Anb hit peap'S pona jec^bb J>am cynje . 
to Nopmanbije. hu hit pap jepab. f 
pap Rojep eopl ^ Raulp eopl ]?e papon 
ylbapt to ]?am unpeobe.'' ^ hi ppeonan ^ 
*]?a Bp^ttapheom to'' 1 penbon eapt*^ 
to Den-meapcan aptep •pcip-hepe"' , 



went all the way with him; ordering 
meat and fodder to be found for him at 
every castle to which they eame^ until 
they came over sea to the king. Then 
king William received him with much 
pomp ; and he was there afterwards in 
his courts enjoying such rights as he 
confirmed to him by law. 

A.D. 1075. This year king Wil- 
Ham ^ gave earl Ralph the daughter of 
William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This 
same Ralph was British on his mother's 
side; but his father^ whose name was 
also Ralphs was English ; and bom in 
Norfolk. The king therefore gave his 
son the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; 
and be then led the bride to Norwich. 
There was that bride-ale 
Thesource of man's bale. 
There was earl Roger^ and earl Wal- 
theoC and bishops^ and abbots ; who 
there resolvtd^ that they would drive the 
king out of the realm of England. But 
it was sooo told the king in Normandy 
how it was determined. It was earl 
Roger and earl Ralph who were the 
authors of that plot ; and who enticed 
the Britons .to them« and sent eastward 
to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. 



• So Gibs. Laud. Peiroh. mlzxvi. C.T. bit. JkhB. Lje. ^ From C.T. sir. abs. Gibs. In C.T. 

B iv. the whole sentence runs thus : — 1 fe kyo^c j^f f ojiVi hij f una ^aeji ^one eojilbom. *j Su^folc 
eac. t>e ]ni lasbbe, &c. * Dieji paej j{ bpyb-ealo. *f pej manejjia manna beloj C.T, b it. ^ ab. 
bobajf, CT. b it. * Abs. C.T, b It. ' heojia kyne-hlap opb of hij cyne-jiice abjiijran, C.T,b it. 
< *j ^1 J paef ]^am kyninje f ona co Nojitnanbie ^ecy^Seb. Rapulp eopl *j Rojcep eojil paepon hopbm^af 
asc ^ijfan unpaebe, C.T, b It. ^ j-peopan, Petrob. See Jose. ap. CT. b it. ^ heom to J^a 

Bpyttaf , C.T. b It. ''So Gibs. Laud. Pttrob. eac, C.T. b it. 

^ Herefordemis comes RogeruSj JiUus GuU'- miii Raduipho (corUra prasceptum regis Guliel* 
dmiy ejusdcm pagi camUis^ EwUjnglorum co* mi) sarorcm suam eot\fugem tradidU. Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



281 



•heom t6 pulcumc/ Anb Rojep^ pepbe 
feyt to hij- eoplbome. [anb je^abe- 
pobe hif pole to ]?aej- cyn jep unjjeappe. 
he fohte. ac hit peap^ heom peolpan 
to mycelan heapme. ac he peap^ je- . 
let/' Anb Raulp^ eac on hip coplbome 
polb pop^jan mib hip poke, ac J>a cap- 
tel-men |>e paepon on Gnjla-lanbe anb 
eac f lanb-polc him tojeanep comen. 
anb ^emacobon f ^he naht ne bybe/' . 
*ac pop to poipe aet Nop^pic, Anb hip 
pip paep innan ]?am captcle. "j hme heolb 
ppa lanje f man'' hipe jpy^ pealbe'. tJ 
heo i^utpepbe J>a" op Gnjla-lanbe. ^ 
ealle hipe men** ]>e hipe mib polbon. . 
Anb pe cynj* pi^^an com to Gnjla- 
lanbe. ^ ^'jenam Rojep" eopl hip maej. 
tl ^jepeptnobe hine/' "tJ pal])eop 
eopl pepbe opep pae. tl ppeibe hine 
pylpne. ^ baeb popjypenj^ppe. ^ beab . 
jaeppuman, ac pe k^^njc let lihtlice op. 
cfS f he com to enjla-lanbe. 1 hine let 



Roger went westward to his earldom^ 
and collected his people there^ to the 
king*8 annoyance^ ag he thought; but 
it was to the great disadvantage of him- 
self. He was however prevented i. 
Ralph also in his earldom would go 
forth with his people ; but the castle- 
men that were in England and also the 
people of the land ^, came against him^ 
and prevented him from doing any 
thing. He escaped however tp the 
ships at Norwich^. And his wife was in 
the castle ; which she held until peace 
was made with her ; when she went out 
of England^ with all her men who wish* 
ed to join her. The king afterwards came 
to England^ and seized earl Roger^ hia 
relative^ and put him in prison. And earl 
Waltheof went over sea^ and bewrayed 
himself; but he asked forgiveness^ and 
proffered gifts of ransom. The king; 
however^ let him off lightly, until he^ 



• Abs. C.T. BIT. *» Ro^cep, ^.7. b ir. as aboTe. « Rapalj: eac polbc mib hif eojilbome 

joji^jan, C.T. bit. ^ hi naht ne bybon, ^.7\.BiF, ^ So Laud. Peirob, Gibs, ac peej p^en 

^ he to f cypum eq:1eah. *j htj piy beiaj: aejrtep in )?am caftde. *1 htne jpa lanje heolb o} jS man, &c. 
CTIbiv. ' jalbe, C.r.Biv. f fa nt ppbe, C.r.Bir. ^ meoo, (7.71 b It. « kyngc, 

^.r.Biv. * jrenj Ro^cep, C,T. bIt. * jepjtenobe hinc, Peirob. jette on ppijun^ CT. bIt. 
^ So C.T, B iv. More briefly thus Gibs, from Laud* *J ytHVeof eopl he ^enwok eac 



^ ^^A WuUtano Wigomiensi episcopo ei Ageh 
nio abbate EoveihamenH^ Ursone vice'Comite Wu 
gomice et IVaUero de Laceio.*^ — Gibs, ex Flor. 

* '^Qjios congregaruni Odo Baiocensis epu 
$copu8 regis frater^ et Goifridus Constaniiensis 
«|W*c«jMi#."-^Gib8. ex Flor. 

' Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to 
Flor. S. Dunelm, &c. ; but according to Henry 
of Huntingdon he fled directly to Denmark, — 
<( recessit in Daciam " ; returning afterwards 
with Cnute and Hacco, who Invaded England 
with a fleet of 900 sail. 



* f. f. Earl Waltheof; the Latin historians in 
general seem to have understood these words 
^^ until he (king William) came to England ; " 
and as ^he was in England already, some have 
omitted the whole passage, because they did not 
comprehend it. 

William* of Malmsbury has done worse ; he 
has perverted it : — ^^ Normanniam ultro enavL 
gans rem regi^ causa sua duntaxat celata, dettu 
lit.'' De Willielmo R p. 105. ed. Franc. 1601, 
See Sharpens translation, 4to. 1815, p. 330. 



S O 



983 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



jn^^an tacan.*' Anb fona aeprep J>am* 
comon ^eaftran'' op Den-mcapcan*^ tpa 
bunb jrcy^pa. *»anb'' faeji on paejion 
^tpejen^ beapob^-menn. Cnut Spaej* 
nef • funu. "j J3acun^ eojil. tJ ^hi'' ne 
bopptan nan jepeoht healban piB pil- 
lelme c]^n2e. «ac pepbon to Copoppic. 
•J bpa&con pee Petpep mynptep. ^ to- 
con J>aBpmne mycele aehta. 1 popon 
ppaapej. ^ac heolbon opep pae to Flan- 
bpan.'^Kac ealle J>a poppepbon |7e aet })am 
psebe paepon. f paep Raconep punu 
coplep. tJ maneje o)>pc mib him/' Anb 
6abjy^** peo hlaepbie* pop^pepbe. «peo 
p«p Gabpapbep cynjep jepepta/' peo- 
pon niht*^ aep Cpiptep maeppan. on pin- 
ccptpe*/' tJ pc cyn^ hij let bpynjan 
to peptm^nptpe mib mycdan pup^ 
pcype. 1 "laBjbe bi^ pi^ Gabpapbe 
cj^nje bipe hlapopbe. Anb pe Rkynjc'' 
paep «J>a'^ on peptm^nptpe J?one mib- 
pmtep. "i "man popb;^be J>aBp'' ealle fa 
Bpyttap )?e paepon aet )?am bpyb-ealo^® 
aet Nop^pic. Ppume by pupbon ablaenbe. 
^ pume op lanb abpipene. ^"i pume je- 
tapob to Scanbe/' ppa pupbon K)>aBp 
kj^ninjep' pillelmepppican jeni^pabe'V 



came to England; wben be had bim 
seized. Soon after that^ came east from 
Denmark 200 sbips; wherein were two 
captains^ Cnute Swainson^ and earl Hac* 
CO ; but they durst iK>t maintain a fight 
with king William. They went rather 
to York, and broke into St. Peter's min- 
ster, and took therein much treasure^ 
and so went away. They made for 
Flanders over sea ; but they all perish*- 
ed who were privy to that design; that 
was^ the son of earl Hacco, and many 
others with bim. This year died the 
lady Edgitha, who was the relict of 
king Edward^ seven nights before 
Christmas, at Winchester; and the king 
caused her to be brought to Westmin- 
ster with great pomp ; and he laid her 
with king Edward, her lord. And the 
king was then at Westminster, at mid- 
winter ; where all the Britons were 
condemned who were at the bride-ale 
at Norwich. Some were punished with 
blindness; some were driven from the 
land ; and some were towed to Scandi- 
navia. So were the traitors of king 
William subdued. 



« yijuuy CT. BIT. ^ From Gijbs.abs. C.T.Bvt. * DenemeapcoD, C.T.biw, ^ heapbef, 
C.T. B IT. • Sf e^nef, CT. b it. ' Dacon, C.T. b if. t From C.T. b it. abs. Gibs. 

^ 6absi9, Gibs. ' hlsefbij, Gibs, but we find hlaepbie in C.T, a it. tbe Norman terminations being 
now frequently sabstitutod for the Saxon. ^ tii. mhton, Gibs. > PmoeajrtTie, Gibs, 

n Icibe beo, C.T. b It. » )aep mon fofbemhe, C.T. a it. « bpyblope, C.T. b it. D. S. Tbe 

Danes still retain bryUup for a wedding, and tbe Swedes hroUop. p In C.T. b iT. tbe story cop. 

eludes with sometbing like a cblmuig ballad : 

Sume hi pnjibon ^eblenbe. 
*1 jume ppecen oj: lanbe. 
*j jume ^etapob co Scanbe. 
Duj pupbon ytdj kyniBgej pUlelmej 
jpican ^enyVepabe. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



888 



An. MLXXVL* On fifum^ jeape 
poplSpepbc Spsejn c;^nj*^ on Daen-mep- 
can**. "j Rapolb hif pinu penj ro fe* 
cyne-pice. Anb ^hep p^Uelm'' Kye'^ 
cynjc geap ^f abB-pice'' J^eft-m^nj-tep 
Uithele** abbobe. fe paef aep abbob on* 
Baepneje. "J ^hep'' pal^op eopl paef bc- 
heapbob on pinccfi:pc. ^on pCe Petpo- 
nella maf fe-b»je/' t| hip he peapB je* 
teb to Cpulanbe. ^^ he faep ijr bcb^p- 
jeb/' Anb ^pilklra" Rye'' cynjc pop 
opep f «. :J laebbc «hif '' pypbe ro Bpyt- 
knbe. tJ berct*^ J^one cartel '«t'' DoL 
ac* J>a Bpyrtaf hine heolbon ^oB" f p 
cjTijc com op Fpanc-Ianb™. ^ piUelm 
^c^Bjc )?a'' ]7anon pop. tl J>«P ppleap 
asg^p «3e'' menn je" hopp. tJ "^fcola 
hip jeppuma'V 

An. MLXXVII. i?ftep on )>ipum 
jeape pupbon paehte Fpanca c^nj ^ 
Pillelm Gnjla-lanbep cynj. ac hit heolb 
htle hpile. Anb fep jeapep popbapn 
Lunben-buph. anpe nihte aep Ap- 
pumptio pea CDapia. ppa ppi^c ppa heo 



A.D. 1076. This year 1 died Sweyne 
king of Denoiark ; and Harold his son 
took to the kingdom. And the king 
gare the abbacy of Westminster to ab^ 

. bot y italis^ who had been abbot of Ber- 
nay. This year also was earl Waltheof 
beheaded at Winchester, on the mass- 
day of St. PetroniUa^; and his body 
was carried to Croyland, where he lies 

• buried. King William now went over 
sea, and led his army to Brittany, and 
beset the castle of Dol ; but the Bre- 
tons defended it, until the king came 
from France ; whereupon king Wil-> 

. departed thence, having lost there both 
men and horses, and many of his trea- 
sures. 

A.D. 1077. This y^ear were recoQ-» 
. ciled the king of the Franks and Wil- 
liam king of England. But it continued 
only a little while. This year was Lon- 
don burned, one night before the As- 
sumption of St. Mary, so terribly as it 



« So Laud. Petroh. Gibs, mlzztu. C.T. b it. ^ fijan^ C.T. b vr. « J^ynjc, C,T. b It. 

d Danemapcon, Cr.siT. * bij, C7.7. bit. ' From CT.bW. abs. Gibs, t From 

Gibs. abs. C.T, b it. ^ Fi>ele, C.T. b iv. » act, C.T. b it. ^ bejraec, C.T. b it. > So 

C.r.BiT. 1, Gibs. " -pice, CT.BiT. » "j, C.r.BiT. • uoapitnebe jaepfaman, Cr. bit. 
p From Laud. Petroh. Gibs. abs. C.T. b iT. Lje, &c. to — ^ejtabeleb pej. 



' So Chron. de Mailros. Flor. but the deca- 
pitation of Waltheof and the king's expedition 
into Bretagne, are placed bj both to the preced- 
ing year. 

• i. e. W Kal. Ian. or, the thirty first of May. 
Hits notice of St. Fetronilla, whose name and 
existence seera scarcely to haTO been known to 
the Latin historians, we owe exclnsiTely to the 
Talnable MS. C.T. b. It. Yet if ever iemale saint 
deserTod to be commemorated as a coiapicnoiis 
example of early piety and christian zeal, it must 



be Ptotronillai. She was no less a person than the 
daughter of St. Peter himself; who, being soli* 
cited to marry a aobleman at Rome of the name 
of Flaccus, and on her refusal allowed three days 
to deliberate, after passing the whole time ia 
fasting and prayer, and recetTing the sacrament 
at the hands of Nicomedes the priest, expited on 
the third day t This is no Romish legend of mo- 
dern growth, for her name appears in the Mar.< 
tyrology of Bede^ aad in the most Tea^raMe re« 
cords of primitiTe Christianity. 

2o2 



S84 



triE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



na&fpe aep tt^f ptS^an heo jeptabeleb 
pBdf'^ *l3ep j-e mona a^yjicpobe ^jieom 
nihton aep CanbelmaBJ•pan'^ ^Anb on 
J^ifum jeape'' pop^pepbe ^jelpij *^pe 
populb-pnotpa'' abbob on Gopephamme* . 
*on J?am baeje xiv. kt. COap''. *^on pea 
luliana maeppe-ba^j. "j paltepe paep to 
abU. jepet on hip ptebe '\ "j I^epeman 
bipcop •'eac'' pop^pepbe. *^on ]?am baeje 
X. kt. OfJap'^ Kpe paep b'. on Beappuc- . 
pcipe tJ on piltunpcipe tJ on Doppaetan. 
^tl'^ hep CDalcholom kynjc* jepann 
CDaslplaehran mobop. *'^'j eallehipbct- 
ptan menn. 'j ealne hip gaeppuman. 1 hip 
oppi he pylp unease ^aetbaeppt. * * * ^ 
* * * ^ hep™ paep ^ye'' bpia pumop. 1 
pilbe pyp° com on maneja pcypa®. ^ 
popbaepnbeP pela tuna, tl eac ma- 
neja bupja popbunon^:- 

MLXXTIII '. 

An. MLXXIX. •J3ep Robbept*. Waep 
cynjep punu" piftm. hleop ppam hip 



hever was before^ since it was bifilt. 
This year the moon was eclipsed^ three 
nights before candlemas ; and in the 
same year died Aylwy, the prudent 
abbot of Evesham^ on the 14th day be- 
fore the calends of March^ on the mass- 
day of St. Juliana ; and Walter was 
appointed abbot in his stead ; and 
bishop Herman also died« on the 10th 
day before the calends of March, wh^ 
was bishop in Berkshire, and in Wilt-, 
shire, and in Dorsetshire. This year 
also king Malcolm won the mother of 
Matslaythe^^ and all his best raen> and 
all his treasures, and his cattle ; and he 
himself not easily escaped. ♦ ♦ * This 
year also was the dry summer; and wild 
fire came upon many shires, and burned 
many towns ; and also many cities were 
ruined thereby. 

A. D. 1079. This year Robert, the 
son of king William, deserted from his 



« From C,T, b it. mlzxviii. aba. Gibs. Id Lye's fragment, the year begins thas : — mlyxtiii. Se 
mona aVeopgiobe 9peom nihcum asp Canblemaejje. *j ^3clpi^) &c. ^ From Gibs. abs. CT.uir, 

« From Cr. Biv. abs. Gibs. — populb-jnotepa, Lye. *• So C,T, biv. Lye, &c. Guejham, Gibs. 
« From Laud. Petrol, Gibs. abs. C.T, b ir. Lye, &c. ' From C,T, b it. abs. Gibs, on See Jnlu 

ana mxjje bae^, kc. Lye, ^ejexxe^ ibid. The remainder Varies bat little from C.T. b iT. § From 

C.T. Bit. MLxxYJii. printed with some trifling Tariations in Lye's appendix, abs. Gibs. ^ abs. 

Lye. ' ^V^Zj ^y®* ^ H^''^ there is a blank space in the MS. consisting of two half lines 

only ; which we have marked with an asterisk. There seems to be no such ^^ hiatus maxime deflendus " 
as the number of asterisks in Lye's fragment would lead us to imagine. There is a greater chasm below, 
after astbepjc. ' unea^, Lye. " So CT. bIt, J«p, Lye. "» Fype, Lye. *» I^ypaj Lye. 
p fopbaepnb. Lye. n jropbupnon, Lye ; but the reading ia the original MS. (CT.b iT.) is prefe- 

rable; fopbunon being easily deriTable from popbaenan or]:opbanan, to waste away, to perish, to be- 
come desolate, &c. fopbupnoa was probably an alteration which suggested itself to a transcriber from 
the mention of fire before. ' As there is nothing in Laud, Peiroh. Gibs, placed opposite to this 

year, we return to an uniformity of chronology with C.T. b it. Lye, &c. in the next year. ^^ Nihil 
dtgnum memoriae." Chron, de Mailros. * From C,T, b it. Lye, &c. to — pebep3e, with the ez- 

ceptiea of a few passages from' Laud. Petrob* Gibs, which we haTe noticed. * •-•beapt, Lye. 

» jfuna, Lye. 



THE SAXON CHROKICLE. 



285 



paebep to hif eame Rotbpyhte on Flan- 
bjion. pop )?an ]>e hif paebep ne polbe 
hira laetan palban hip eoplbomep on 
Nopmanbije. J>e he pylp "j eac pe kynj 
Fihpp'* mib hip jeSapunje him jejy- 
pen haepbon. "j ]?a ]>e betpc** p«pon on 
J?ain lanbe haepbon a^ap him jeppopon. 
^ hine to hlapopbe ^enumen. l3ep^ 
Robbept* peht* pilS hip paebep ^pi^- 
utan Nopmanbije. be anum captele 
GepbopneS hatte'^ ^"i hme on J)a 
hanbe jepunbabe''. ^ hip hopp. ']?e he 
on pact'', ""peapjj unbep oppcoten''. *'j 
ppa opplajon '^ "^ 1 pe fe him oJ)ep to- 
bpohte peap|> jfd^pe pihte mib anan ap- 
blapte oppcoten. f paep Tokij pijjobep 
punu '\ * "i pela ])aep pupbon opplaejen. 
^ eac jepanjene''. ■*'j eac hip punu 
piUelm peap^ ]>aBp jepunbob''. ^^ Rot- 
bept ^ ept jepenbe to Flemmja-lanbe. 
Ne pylle pe ]>eh hep na mape pca^e 
appitan J?e he hip paebep je — "'^ *• On 
Jjipumjeape comCDelcolm c^njop Scot- 



father to his uncle Robert in Flanders; 
because his father would not let him 
govern his earldom in Normandy ; 
which he himself, and also king Philip 

. with his permission^ had given him. 
The best men that were in the land aU 
^o bad sworn oaths of allegiance to bim^ 
and taken him for their lord. This year^ 
therefore, Robert fought with bis father, 

. without Normandy, by a castle called 
Gerberoy; and wounded him iri the 
hand ; and his horse, that he sat upon,' 
was killed under bim ; and he that 
brought him another was killed there 

. right with a dart. That was Tookie 
Wiggodson. Many were there slain/ 
and also taken. His son William too 
was there wounded ; but Robert return- 
ed to Flanders. We will not here bow- 

., ever record any more injury that he did 
his father. This year came king Mal- 
colm from Scotland into England, 
betwixt the two festivals of St. Mary i. 



• So C.T.BiT. Philippaf, Lye. *» bep:, Lye, « hejie, Lye. ^ — beaf.c, Lye. 

« jreohc, Lye. A ab ]n ilcan ^eape je cyn^ PiUelm jepeaht to^esLviej hi j judu Rotbeapbe, Gib s, ' From 
Ptirob* Laud. Gibs. abs. C.T. b iv. Lye. > i je cyo^ Pillelm ycajiV ]7X|i ^[('yunbob, Gibs. 

i» ofjlajeO) Gib8. ' Petrol. See Jose. ap. C.T. biv. ^ From C.T, bit. f.ye, abs. Gibs. 

> *j pla manna ojrjlajene, Gibs. ™ From Gibs. abs. {7.7*. bIt. Lye. ^ Here ends, abruptly, 

the Taloable MS. preserfed ito the British Museum, which is marked in our series C.T. b It. Here also 
ends the fragment printed in the appendix to Lye's Saxon Dictionary, from a transcript by Lambard. 
In a more modern hand there is an addition to C.T. niT. concerning Anagus, or Angus, erroneously 
placed to the year mlxxx ; whereas it ought to be mcxxx : or, in Saxon characters, GOLXXX; the*- 
Saxon C beiug mistaken for L. This addition, as well as a paper transcript from Petrob. by Joscelin^ 
inserted in the same MS. beginning with the year 1 133, and ending with the year 1 131, h ill be noticed 
in the proper place. With these exceptions, the remainder of the Chronicle, from 1080 to the end, 
is from the Laud. MS. only, as already printed by Gibson, and now collated with the original. ^ From 
Laud. Petrob. placed by Gibs, at the beginning of the year ; abs. C.T* b It. Lye, &c. 

■ * So^^nn. JVaverl. literally, ^^ inter duos fes- preceding year. " Post Assumptionem S* Ma^ 
Uvitaies Sanctm MaricPy*^ &c. ; but placed to the ncr," &c. Fior. 



386 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE, 



lanbe into Gnjle-lanbe. betp^x }>am 
tpam GDapiam msffan. mib mycclum 
pyjibe. jehejijobe Noji^hymbpa lanb 
o^ hir com to Tine. ^ opfloh pela hunb 
manna. ^ ham laebbe manije j-ceattaf . 
^ jeppima. "j men on heptninje'^- 

An. MLXXX. On ])if um jeape pap 
pe bipcop palchcpe opplajen on Dun- 
holme, aet anum gemote, "i an hunb 
manna mib him. Fpencipce "j Flemipce. 
^ he pylpe paep on Dlo^epmja jebopen. 
J>ip bybon Nop^hymbpan on CDaiep 
mon^e:* 

An. MLXXXI. On |>ipum jeape pc 
c^nj Iffibbe p^pbe into pealan. ^ J^aep 
^eppeobe pela hunb manna:* 

An. MLXXXII. J3ep nam pe c^nj 
Oban bipcop. ^ hep pap mycel hun- 
Xop> 

An. MLXXXIII. On ])ipum jcape 
apap peo unjehpaepnep on Glaeptinja- 
^yP^Z betpyx ]?am abbobe Dupptane tl 
hip munecan. iEpcpt hit com op J)a5p 
jsibbotep unpipbome. f he mipbeab hip 
munecan on pela J^in^an. ^ J^a miinecap 
hit masnbon luphce to him. anb beabon 
hine f he pceolbe healban hi pihthce. ^ 
lupian hi. "j hi polbon him beon holbe. 
tl jehyppume. Ac pe abbot nolbe J^aep 
naht. ac bybe heom ypele. "j beheot him 
p]^pp. Anep baejep pe abbot eobe into 
capitulan. •] pppaec uppon j>2l munecap. 
•j polbe hi miptukian. ^ penbe aeptep 
laepebe mannum. ^ hi comon into capi- 



with a large army, \irhich plundered 
Northumberland till it came to the 
Tine^ and slew many hundreds of men, 
and carried home much coio^ and trea« 
sure^ and men in captivity. 

A. D. 1080. This year^?as bishop 
Walker slain in Durham^ at a council; 
and an hundred men with him, French 
and Flemish. He himself was born in 
Lorrain. This did the Northumbrians 
in the month of May ^ 

A.D. 108L This year the king led 
an army into Wales, and there freed 
many hundreds of men. 

A. D. 1082. This year the king 
seized bishop Odo ; and this year also 
was a gj^at famine. 

A. D. 1083. This year arose the 
tumult at Glastonbury betwixt the ab« 
bot Thurstan and his monks. It pro* 
ceeded first from the abbot's want of 
wisdom, that he misgoverned his monks 
in many things. But the monks meant 
well to him ; and told him, that he 
should govern them rightly, and love 
them, and they would be faithful and 
obedient to him. The abbot, however, 
would hear nothing of this ; but evil 
entreated them, and threatened them 
worse. One day the abbot went into the 
chapter-house, and spoke against the 
monks, and attempted to mislead them'; 



^ The brevity of our Chronicle here, and in 
the two following years, in consequence of the 
termination of C. T. b iv., is remarkable. From 
the year 108S it assumes a character more deci- 
dedly AnglooNormaiu 



' I. e. In the service ; hj teaching them a new* 
fangled chant, brought from Feschamp in Nor« 
mandy, instead of that to which they had been 
accustomed^ and which is called the Gregorian 
chant. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



287 



rulan on uppon })a munecaf pull-jepep- and sent after some lajmen^ and thejr 
nebe. Anb )>a paepon ])a mnnecaf yyvSe came futt-anned into the cbaptef-bouse 
apepebe op heom. nyfton hpet heom to upon the monks. Then "vrere the monks 
bonne paepe. ac to pcuton. pume upnon verj much afraid^ of them, and wist not 
into cypcan. *] belucan J'a bupan into . what they were to do ; hot they shot 
heom. ^ hi pepbon aeptep heom into forward; and some ran into Ike cborch. 



J>am n^ynptpe. "j polbon hij utbpa^an. 
)7a %a hij ne bopj^en na ut^an. Ac 
peophc ^inj J^aep ^elamp on f bae^. )>a 
Fpencifxe men bpascen jKme chop. ^ 
toppebon topaepb J>am peopobe faep 
fa munecap paepon. ^ pume op )?am 
cnihtan pepbon uppon }7one uppplope. 
"i pcotebon abunpeapb mib apepan to- 



and locked the doors afler them. But 
they followed them into the minster, and 
resolved to drag them out; so that they 
durst not go out. A rueful thing happen- 
ed on that day. The Frenchmen broke 
into the choir, and hurled their weapons 
toward the altar, where the monks were ; 
and some of the knights went upon the 



peapb ]7am halijbome. ppa f on }7sepe » upper floor', and shot their arrows 



|iobe )?e ptob bupon )?am peopobe ptico- 
bon on masni^e apepan. Anb J^a ppec- 
can munecap lajon onbuton ))am peo- 
pobe. *i pume cpupon unbep. 1 jypnc 
cleopebon to Gobe hip miltpe bibbenbe. 
))a )7a hi ne mihton nane miltpe aet 
mannum bejytan. J!)paet majon pe 
pec jean, buton f hi pcotebon ppi^e. ^ 
fa o%pe fa bupa bpaecon f aep abune. ^ 



downward incessantly toward the sanc- 
tuary ; so that on the crucifix that stood 
above the altar they stuck many arrows. 
And the wretched monks lay about the 
altar, and some crept under, and earnest- 
ly called upon God,imptoringhi8mercy, 
since they could not obtain any at the 
hands of men. What can we say, but that 
they continued to shoot their arrows ; 



eobon mn. *) opplojon pume fa mune- . whilst the others broke down the doors, 
cap to bea^. ^ maenije jepunbebon andcamein,and slews some of the monks 
faepmne. ppa f fet blob com op fam todcath, and wounded many therein; so 
peopobe nppon fam jpaban. ^ op fam that the blood came from the altar upon 
3paban on fa plope. f peo f a^p paspon the steps, and from the steps on the Boer. 
opiflajene to bea¥e. ^ eahteteone je- . Three there were slain to death, and 
punbabe. Anb on feep ilcan jeapep eighteen wounded. And in this some 
popfpepbe Mahtilb. pittmep cynjep year departed Matilda, queen of king 
cpen. on fonebae; aeptep ealpa haljena William, on the day after All-Hallow- 



* Literally, ^^ af«ared of them " — t, e. terrified 
by them • ^^ j^f eared** occurs frequent \y in Shak- 
syeare,. whereas ^^ afraidj* I heliere^ occocs only 
once. 

' Probably along the open gailerkt ia the 
upper story of the choir* . 



' <^ Sl»;^an,'' in its first sense, signifies ^< im 
strike violently;" whence the term ^^ sledge^ 
hammer*" This consideration will remove the 
supposed pleonasm in the Saxon phrase, which 
is here literaUy translated* The same expression 
occurs a few lioes below.. 



388. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



mxjje bae J. Anb on fejr ylcan jeapep 
aeptep mibe-pintep. j^ cynj let beoban 
mycel jilb ^ hepelic opep eall Gnjla- 
lanb. f paep aet aelcepe hybe tpa "j hunb 
peopenm peaneja:« 

. An. MLXXXIV. ftep on «ipum 
jeape popBpepbe pulpuuolb abB on 
Ceoptepeje. on J^am baejexui. kt. CDai:- 
An. MLXXXV. On J7ipum jeape 
menn cpyboben. ^ to poSan paeban. f 
Cnut cynj op Den-meapcan. Spaejnep 
pune cynjep. punbabe hibeppapb. ^ 
polbe jepinnan ]?iplanb mibRobbeapbep 
eoplep pultume op Flanbpan. pop^an 
J?e Cnutr heapbe Robbeapbep bohtep. 
Da pJlelm. Gnjla-lanbep cynj. J^e ]>2l 
paep pitrtenbe on Nopmanbije. pop^ij 
he ahte aej^ep je Gn^la-lanb je Nop- 
manbije. ])ip ^eaxobe. he pepbe into 
6njla-lanbe mib ppa mycclan hepe pi- 
benbpa manna "j janjenbpa. op Fpanc- 
pice anb op Bpytlanbe. ppa na&ppe «p 
}?ip lanb ne jepohte. ppa f men punbpe- 
bon hu ]>ip lanb mihte eall JTone hepe 
apeban. Ac pe cynj let topcypton J)onc 
hepe jeonb eall ]>ip lanb to hip mannon. 
*i hi paebbon J)one hepe aelc be hip lanb 
epne. Anb men heapbon m^cel jeppinc 
Jjaep jeapep. ^ pe cynj lett apeptan f 
lanb abutan ]?a pae. )?et jip hip peonb 
comen upp. f hi naepbon na on hpam 
hi pen jon ppa paeblice. Ac J)a pe c^nj 
geaxobe to po^an f hip peonb jelaette 
paepon. 1 ^^ mihten na jepop^ian 
heopa pape. fa lett he pum ]?one hepe 



mas9. And in the same year also^ after 
mid-winter, the king ordained a large 
and heavy contribution i over all Eng- 
land; that was, upon each hide of land, 

. two and seventy pence. 

A.D. lp84. In this year died Wulf- 
wold abbot of Chertsey on the thirteenth 
day before the calends of May. 

A.D. 1085. In tliis year men report- 

. ed, and of a truth asserted, that Cnute, 
king of Denmark, son of king Sweyne, 
was coming bitherward, and was resol- 
ved to win this land, with the assistance 
of Robert earl of Flanders^; for Cnute 

. had Robert's daughter. When Wil- 
liam, king of England, who was then 
resident in Normandy, ( for be had both 
England and Normandy) understood 
this, be went into England with so 

. large an army of horse and foot, from 
France and Brittany, as never before 
sought this land ; so that men won- 
dered how this land could feed all that 
force. But the king left the army to 

. shift for themselves through all this 
land amongst his subjects, who fed 
them, each according to his quota of 
land. Men suffered much distress this 
year ; and the king caused the land to 

, be laid waste about the sea coast; that, 
if his foes came up, they might not 
have any thing on which they could 
very readily seize. But when the king 
understood of a truth that his foes were 
impeded, and could not further their 



> ^^ Glib/' Sax. ; 'Which in this instance was a 
laaci-tax of one shiiling io a yardland. 



• —and of Olave Kyrre. king of Norway, 
Vid. Antiq. Celto^Scand* p. ?i6. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



S89 



j^apen to heopa a^ene lanbe. anb f um 
he heolb on ]>i]rum lanbe opep pmtep. 
Da. to J?am mibe pmtpe. yssy ye cynj 
on Gleape-ceaftpe mib hif pi tan. Tj 
heolb j^aep hij- hipeb v. bajaf . ^ j^^^an 
"pe apcebifcop j ^ehabobe men hsep- 
ben pno^ f pco bajaj-. Daep paej- COau- 
piciuf jecopen to bif cop on Lunbene. 
tl piltm to Nop^polce. ^ Robbeapb to 
Ceaftep-fcipe. hi paspon ealle J^aej* 
cyngejr clcpecaf . JEjXtp^ J^ijrum haepbe 
j^ c;^nj my^cel je^eaht. anb fp^^^e 
beope ppaece pi^ hip pitan. ymbe J)ip 
lanb. hu hit paepe jepett. o^Se mib 
hpylcon mannon. Senbe )7a opep eall 
Gn^la-lanb into aelcepe pcipe hip men. 
^ lett a^an ut hu pela hunbpeb hyba 
paepon innon J^aepe pcipe. o¥Sc hpet pe 
c^nj him fflji haspbe lanbep. "i oppep 
innan ]>am lanbe. o%%e hpilce jepihtae 
lie ahte to habbanne to xii. mon%um 
op J^aepe pcipe. Gac he lett jeppitan. 
hu mycel lanbep hip apcebipcopap haep- 
ibon. t) hip leob-bipcopap. ^ hip abbotap. 
anb hip eoplap. anb J>eah ic hit lenjpe 
telle, hpast o%%e hu mycel aelc mann 
haspbe )?e lanb-pttenbc paep mnan Gn- 
jla-lanbe. on lanbe oWe on oppe. ^ 
hu mycel peop hit paspe pup^. Spa 
ppy^e neappelice he hit lett ut app^- 
pian. f naep an aslpi^ hibe. ne an ^ypbe 
lanbep. ne pupSon (hit ip pceame to 
tellanne. ac hit ne ])uhte him nan 
pceame to bonne ) an oxe ne an cu ne 
an ppin naep beljpon f naep jepaet on 



expedition! , then let he some of the 
army go to their own land ; but some 
he held in this land over the winter. 
Then> at the midwinter^ was the king in 
Glocester with hiscouncil, and held there 
his court five days. And afterwards the 
archbishop and clergy had a synod three 
days. There was Mauritius chosen bish- 
op of London, William of Norfolk, and 
Robert of Cheshire. These were all the 
king*s clerks. After this had the king a 
large meeting, and very deep consulta- 
tion with his council, about this land ; 
how it was occupied, and by what sort 
of men. Then sent he his men over all 
England into each shire; commissioning 
them to find out ''How many hundreds 
of hides were in the shire, what land 
the king himself had, and what stock 
upon the land; or, what dues he ought 
to have by the year from the shire/' 
Also he commissioned them to record in 
.writing, " How much land his arch- 
bishops had, and his diocesan bishops, 
and his abbots, and his earls ; " and 
though I may be prolix and tedious, 
/' What, or how much, each man had, 
who was anoccupier of land in England, 
either in land or in stock, and how much 
money it were worth." So very narrow* 
ly, indeed, did he commission them to 
trace it out, that there was not one single 
hide, nor a yard ^of land, nay, moreover 
(it is shameful to tell, though he thought 
it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor 



^ Because there was a mutiny in the Danish 
ileet; which was carried to such a height, that 
the king, after his xetorn to Denmark, was slain 



by his own subjects. Vid. Jniiq. CeUo'Scandm 
p. 228. See also our Chronicle, A.D. 1087, 
^ f • e. a fourth part of an acre* 

2p 



290 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



hif jeppite,1 ealle )?a jeppita paepoB 
jebjioht to him jr^^an:- 



An. MLXXXVL VSeji ye cynj baep . 
hif copona. "i heolb hij* hipcb. on pin- 
ceaj^pe to )?am Gajrtpan. "j j-pahe pepbe 
f he paej" to J?am PentecojTen act paef t- 
min)rtpe. "j bubbabe hij- punu l3enpic 
to pibepe j^aep. Sy^^an he pepbe abu- . 
tan ppa f he com to Lam*maeppan to 
Seape-bypij. tl j^sep him comon to hip 
pitan. ^ ealle pz lanb-pttenbe men J^e 
ahtep paepon opep eall Gnjle-lanb pae- 
|ion J^asp mannep men ye hi paspon. ^ • 
ealle hi bujon to him. ^ pepon hip 
menn. ^ him holb-a^ap ppopon f hi 
polbon on^ean ealle o^pe men him holbe 
beon. Danon he pepbe into piht. pop- 
Vij he polb papan into Nopmanbi^e. ^ • 
ppa by be p^^Wan. ^ J^eah he by be aepept 
aeptep hip ^epunan. bejeat ppi^e mic- 
celne pceatt op hip mannan ]>adji he 
mihte asni^e teale to habban o%%e mib 
pihte o^^ ellep. Fepbe fa p^^an . 
into Nopmanbije.. ^ Gabjap ae^elmj^. 
jGbpapbep mae j cyn jep. beah J)a ppam 
him. popVij he naepbe na my^celne 
pup^pcipe op him. ac pe aelmihtija Gob 
him jipe pup^pcipe on ]?am topeapban. . 
Anb Cpiptma J)aep aefelinjep ppuptep. 
beah into mynptpe to Rumepeje. ^ 



a eow^ nor a swine was there led^ that 
was not set down in his writ. And all 
the recorded particulars were afterwards 
brought to himi . 

A.D. 1086. This year the king bare 
his crown, and held his court, in Win* 
Chester at Easter ; and he so arranged, 
that he was by the Pentecost at West- 
minster, and dubbed^ his son Henry a 
knight there. Afterwards he moved 
about so that he came by Lammas to 
Sarum; where he was met by his coun- 
cillors ; and all the landsmen that were 
of any account over all England became 
this man's vassals as they were ; and 
they all bowed themselves before him, 
and became his men, and swore him 
oaths of allegiance that they would 
against all other men be faithful to him» 
Thence he proceeded into the isle of 
Wight ; because he wished to go into 
Normandy, and so he afterwards did ; 
though he first did according to his cus- 
tom ; he collected a very large sum from 
his people, wherever he could make any 
demand, whether with justice or other- 
wise. Then he went into Normandy ; 
and Edgar etheling, the relation of king 
Edward, revolted from him, for he re- 
ceived not much honour from bim ; but 
may the almighty God give him honour 
hereafter. And Christina, the sister of 



^ At Winchester; where the king held his 
court at Easter in the following year ; and the 
surrey was accordingly deposited there; whence 
it was called Rotulus Wintoniee^ and Uber fVifu 
4oma» The latter title occurs in the second 
volume of the surrey itself ; in which there is a 
reference to the first. At the end is this memo- 



rial : — ^^Anno mUlesimo octogesimo sexto ab in- 

carnaiione Dnij vigesimo vero regni JVilPmi^ 

facta est ista description non solum per hos trcB 

comitatus (Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk) sed ei 

jam per alios,^* 

• Vid. Spelman's Posthumous Works^ p. 176. 
^^De modo creandi miliiem hanoratum.** 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 291 

unbeppenj hali^ pepr. Anb ]>£ef ilcan the ethelipg, went into the monastery 
jcapef paef j-piSe bepehc jeape. "i ppi^ of Rumsey^ and received the holy veil, 
fpincpull ^ fophpull jeap innan Gnjle- And the same year there was a very 
lanbe on opp-cpealme. ^ copn anb heavy season^ and a swinkftil and sor- 
paeftmaf paepon aetftanbene. "i fpa . rowful year in England^ in murrain of 
mycel tin^elimp on paebepun^e. fpa cattle^ and corn and fruits were at a 
man naht ae)>elice ^ej^encean ne masj. standi and so much untoward ness in 
fpa ptop {nrnpinj ^ las^t pep. fpa f hit the weather^ as a man may not easily 
acpealbe manije men. ^ kk hit pyppbe think ; so tremendous was the thunder 
nub mannan ppi^op ^ ppi%op. Gebete . and lightnings that it killed many men ; 
hit Gob elmijhtija J^onne hip pilla py:- and it continually grew worse and 

worse with men. May God almighty 
better it whenever it be his will. 
An. MLXXXVII. yGptep upc Dpiht- A. D. 1087. After the birth of our 
nep l!>aslenbep Cpiptep jeb^ptibe. an • Lord and Saviour Christy one thousand 
J^upenb pintpa. 'j peopan ^ hunb-eahta- and eighty seven winters; in the one 
tn; pintpa. on ]mm an *) tpenti^an and twentieth year after William began 
jeape ]>aep ]>e pillelm peolbe ^ ptihte to govern and direct England^ as God 
Cngle-lanb. ppa him Gob uVe. jepeap^ granted him, was a very heavy and pes- 
ppi^e hepelic ^ ppi^ polb-bepcnblic . til^nt season in this land. Such a sick- 
jeap on ])ippum lanbe. Sp]^lc co%e com ness came on men, that full nigh every 
on mannum f pull neah asppe )>e o%ep other man was in the worst disorder, 
man peap% on })am p^ppeptan ^^pele. that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so 
J>et ip on fam bpipe. 1 \>et: ppa ptpanj- dreadfully, that many men died in the 
hce f maeni^e men ppulton on J^am . disorder. Afterwards came, through 
yrpele. Sy^'JJan com J)uph J>a mycclan the badness of the weather as we before 
unjepibepunj. J>e comon ppa pe bepo- mentioned, so great a famine over all 
pan tealbon. ppi*e mycel hunjop opep England, that many hundreds of men 
eall en^le-lanb. f manij hunbpeb died a miserable death through hunger, 
manna eapmlice bea^e ppulton )?uph . Alas ! how wretched and how rueful a 
J?one hun^op. Gala ! hu eapmhce ^ hu time was there ! When the poor 
peophc tib paep J?a. Da J)a ppeccae men wretches lay full nigh driven to death 
lae^en popbpipene pull neah to bea^e. prematurely, and afterward came sharp 
^ p««an com pe pceappa hunjop ^ hunger, and dispatched them withal! 
abybe hi mib ealle. Jjpam ne maej . Who will not be penetrated with grief 
eapmian pp^lcepe tibe ? o^Se hpa ip ppa at such a season ? or who is so hard- 
heapb heopt f ne maej pepan ppylcep hearted as not to weep at such misfor* 
unjehmpep? Acppylce])inj3epup«a« tune? Yet such things happen for 
pop polcep pynna f hi nclla« lupian Gob folks' sins, that they will not bve God 

S p 2 



292 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



^ pihtpifnep pe. Spa fpa hit paep J)a on 
})am bajum. f litel pihtpipneppe paef 
on Jupim lanbe mib aenije men. buton 
mil) munecan ane J?ap J)aep hi pa^U pep- 
bon. Se cynj ^ ])a heapobmen lupebon 
f pi^e. "i opep-jrpi^e. jitpunj on jolbe 
tl on peolppe. ^ ne pohcan hu p^nhce 
hit paepe bejytan. buton hit come to 
heom. Se cj^nj pealbe hip lanbe ppa 
beope to male ppa heo beopopt mihte. 
])onne com pum o%ep ^ beabe mape 
)>onne ]>e oSep aep pealbe. "1 pe cynj 
hit lett ])am menn ])e him mape beab. 
Donne com pe J?pibbe. tl beab jeat 
mape. ^ pe c^^nj hit lett J?am men to 
hanba. ]>e him eallpa meapt beab. ^ ne 
jiohte na hu ppi^e pynhce ]?a jepepan 
hit bejeatan op eapme mannon. ne hu 
manije unlaja hi bybon. Ac ppa man 
j^jiSop ppaec embe pihte lage. ppa man 
bybe mape unlaja. J3i apepbon un- 
pihte toUap. ^ mani^e ofpe unpihte hi 
by ban. ^e j^nbon eappefe to apec- 
cenne. 6ac on ])amilcan jeape aetpopan 
haeppepte. popbapn f halite mynjt:pe 
pee Paule. J>e bipcop-ptol on Lunbene. 
tl maenije o^pe mynptpep. "j f maej^e 
bael 'j f pottepte ealle ]?aepe bupb. 
Sp^lc eac on ]>am ilcan timan. popbapn 
pull neah aelc heapob-popt on eallon 
Gnjle-lanb. Gala ! peoplic ^ pepenblic 
tib paep }>a?p jeapep. J?e ppa manij un- 
jehmp paep pop^-bpinjenbe. Gac on 
Jam ilcan jeape. topopan Appumptio 



and righteousness. So it was in those 
dajs, that little righteousness was in this 
land with any men but with the monks 
alone^ wherever they fared well. The 
king and the head men loved much^ and 
overmuch, covetousness in gold and in 
silver ; and recked not how sinfully it 
was got, provided it came to them. 
The king let his land at as high a rate 
as he possibly could ; then came some 
other person^ and bade more than the 
former one gave, and the king let it to 
the men that bade him more. Then 
caime the thirds and bade yet more; 
and the king let it to hand to the mea 
that bade him most of all : and he 
recked not how very sinfully the 
stewards got it of wretched men^ nor 
how many unlawful deeds they did ; but 
the more men spake about right law, 
the more unlawfully they acted. They 
erected unjust tolls, and many other on- 
just things they did, that are difficult to 
reckon. Also in the same year, before 
harvest, the holy minster of St. Paul^ 
the episcopal see in London, was com- 
pletely burned, with many other min- 
stersy and the greatest part, and. the 
richest of the whole city i. So also, about 
the same time, full nigh each head-port 
in all England was entirely burned^ 
Alas ! rueful and woeful was the fate of 
the year that brought forth so many 
misfortunes! In the same year also. 



^ A contemporaiy writer thus forcibly de- 
scribes the fire in Latin : — ^^ Heu ! heu ! volatu 
dtissimo ignis alia cotripity iectorum culmina 
violerUer inoohoit^ ac repenie tota lignorum strues 
accendUury ac amnino combusia deperit Non* 



dum arcus lapideosy quos vulgo dicimus voltai , 
nostri manus artificu Ha plene^ sicut nuncj afti" 
gerat ; sed irabibus parieiibu^ superjeciis urn" 
versam ecdesiam venusta iesiudine superficies 
integra palliabaiy 4rc." — ^Leland. CoU. 1. 23, f4^ 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



993 



jrfe COajiie. pop pillelm cynj op Nop- 
manbije into Fpance mib pyp^e. tJ 
hepjobe iippan hijr a^enne hlapopb 
Philippe J?am cynje. -j ploh op hip man- 
non mycelne bael. *i popbeapnbe J>a . 
buph CDaJjante. ^ ealle J)a hahje myn- 
ptpep J?e paepon mnon J^aepe buph. ^ 
tpe^en hahje menn ^e hyppumebon 
Gobe. on ancep-pettle punienbe. }?afp 
paepon popbaepnbe. Dippum J)up je- . 
bone, pe cynj piUelm ceapbe onjean to 
Nopmanbije. Reophc J>in3 he bybe. ^ 
peophcop him jelamp. liu peophcop ? 
him jeypelabe. ^ f him ptpanjhce ejl- 
abe. J3paBt maej ic teollan ? Se pceappa . 
bea^e. }e ne poplet ne pice menn 
ne heane. peo hme jenam. I3e ppealt on 
Nopmanbije on fone nextan. baej 
aeptep natiuitap pZfe CDapie. ^ man be- 
bypjebe hine on Ca)7um aet pSe Stepha- . 
nep mynptpe. aepep he hit apaepbe. ^ 
p^Ban maenipealbhce jejobabe. Gala 
hu leap ^ hu unppept ip f ippep mibban- 
eapbep pela ! Se fe paep aepup pice cyn j. 
'j mani^ep lanbep hlapopb. he naepbe ]>a . 
eallep lanbep buton peopon pot mael. ^ 
pe J?e paep hpilon jepcpib mib jolbe. tJ 
mib jimmum. he laej J)a opepppogen 
mib molban. I3e tepbe aeptep him fpeo 
punan. Robbeapb het pe ;^lbepta. pe paep . 
eopl on Nopmanbige aeptep him. pe 
o^ep het piUelm. \>e baep aeptep him on 
Gngle-lanb ]H)ne kme-helm. pe J^pibba 
het I^eanpic. ])am pe paebep becpae% 
jeppuman unateallenbkce. Gip hpa je- . 
pilnigeb to gepitane hu gebon man he 
paep. o^^e hpilcne pup^pcipe he haepbe. 
o%%e hu pela lanbe he paepe hlapopb. 
]?onne piUe pe be him appitan ppa ppa 



before the Assumption of St. Mary^ king 
William went from NormaYidy into 
France with an army^ and made war 
upon his own lord Philip the king, and 
slew many of his men> and burned the 
town of Mante^ and all the holy min- 
sters that were in the town; and two 
holy men that served God, leading the 
life of anachorets> were burned therein. 
This being thus done, king William 
returned to Normandy. Rueful was 
the thing he did; but a more rueful 
him befel. How more rueful? He fell 
sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What 
shall I say ? Sharp death, that parses 
by neither rich men nor poor, seized 
him also. He died in Normandyi on 
the next day after the nativity of St. 
Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. 
Stephen's minster, which he had for-* 
merly reared, and afterwards endowed 
with manifold gifb. Alas ! how false 
and how uncertain is this world's weal t 
He that was before a rich king, and 
lord of many lands, had not then of all 
his land more than a space of seven feet I 
and he that was whilom enshrouded in 
gold and gems, lay there covered with 
mould ! He left behind him three sons ; 
the eldest,, called Robert, who was earl 
in Normandy after him; the second^ 
called William, who wore the crown 
after bim in England; and the thirds, 
called Henry, to whom his father be- 
queathed immense treasure. If any per-^ 
son wishes to know what kind of man 
he was, or what honour he had, or of how 
many lands he was lord, then will we 
write about him as well bb we undec--^ 



294 THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 

pe hme a^eaton. ]>e him onlocoban. "i stand him ; we wbo often looked upon 

oVpe hpile on hip hipebe punebon. Se him, and lived sometime in his court, 

cynj pdlelm f e pe embe j-pecaS psef This king William then that we speak 

fpi^e pif man. ^ fpi^e pice. ^ pup^- about was a very wise man, and very 

pulpe 'j ftrpenjepe ]?one aenij hij- pope- . rich ; more splendid and powerful than 

^enjpa paepe. Tie pxy milbe ]?am ^obum any of his predecessors were. He was 

mannum ]>e Gob lupebon. "j opep eall mild to the good men that loved God, 

jemett pteapc J?am mannum Jje pi^- and beyond all measure severe to the 

cpaebon hip piUan. On |>am ilcan pteobe men that gainsayed his will. On that 
Jje Gob him jeu^e f he mopte Gnjle- . same spot where God granted him that 

lanb ^e^an. he apepbe msepe mynptep. he should gain England, he reared a 

"i munecap J^sep ^epsette. ^ hit pa^ll mighty minster^ iind set monks therein, 

^e^obabe. On hip bajan psep f msepe and well endowed it. In his days waa 

mynptep on Cantpapbypij ^etr^m- the great monastery in Canterbury built^ 

bpab. "J eac ppi^e manij o^ep opep eall . and also very many others over all En-» 

Gnjla-lanb. Gac Jjip lanb paep ppi^e gland. This land was moreover well 

apilleb mib munecan. ^ J^a leopoban filled with monks, who modelled their 

heopa lip aeptep pep Benebicruppejule. lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But 

*J pe Cpiptenbom paep ppilc on hip baeje. such was the state of Christianity in his 

f dele man hpaet hip habe to belumpe . time^ that each man followed what 

poljabe pe J)e polbe. Gac he paep ppi^e belonged to his profession — he that 

pup^pul. ]>pipa he baep hip cynehelm would. He was also very digni* 

aelc jeape. ppa opt ppa he pagp on 6n jle- fied. Thrice he bare his crown each 

lanbe. on 6aptpon he hine baep on pin- year, as oft as he was in England. At 

ceaptpe. on Pentecopten on J^eptmyn- . Easter he bare it in Winchester, at 

ptpe. on mibe-pintep on Gleape-cea- Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter 

ptpe. Anb J^asnne paepon mib him in Glocester. And then were with him 

ealle J^a pice menn opep eall Gn^la- all the rich men over all England ; 

lanb. apce-bipcopap. ^ leob-bipcopap. archbishops and diocesan bishops, ah* 

abbobap ^ eoplap. fejnap ^ cnihtap. . hots and earls, thanes and knights. So 

Spylce he paep eac fP'y^e pteapc man ^ very stern was he also and hot, that no 

pae^e. ppa f man ne boppte nan ]7inj man durst do any thing against his will. 

onjean hippillan bon. he hsepbe eoplap He had earls in his custodj', who acted 

on hipbenbum. ]>e b]^ban onjean hip against his will. Bishops he hurled from 

piUan. Bipcopap he paette op heopa . their bishoprics^ and abbots from their 

bipcoppice. ^ abbobap op heopa abbob- abbacies, and thanes into prison. At 

pice. ^ Jjasjnap on cpeaptepn. ^ aet length he spared not his own brother 

nextan he ne ppapobe hip a^enne bpo- Odo, who was a very rich bishop in 

®op Obo het, JJe pajp ppi^e pice Normandy. At Baieux was his epi- 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



295 



bifcop on Nopmanbije. on Baiujrpaef 
hijr bif cop-ftol. anb paejr manna pyp- 
mept to eacan ]?am cynje. Anb he 
haepbe eoplbome on 6njle-lanbe. ^ 
))onne pe c^nj paejr on Nopmanbije. 
]7onne paey he maejepte on J?ipum lanbe. 
*i hme he j-aette on cpeaptepn. Betpyx 
o^pum Jymjum nyp na to popjytane f 
jobe ppi^ }>e he macobe on J^ipan lanbe. 
ppa f an man jte himp^lp aht paepe 
mihte papan opep hip pice mib hip bo- 
pum pull jolbep unjebepab. ^ nan man 
ne boppte plean o^epne man. naepbe 
he naeppe ppa m^cel ypel jebon piS 
jK)ne o^epne. ^ jip hpilc capl-man 
hsembe pi% pimman hipe un^ancep. 
pona he popleap )7a limu ]>e he mib plea-' 
jobe. I3e pixabe opep Gn jlae-lanb. ^ hit 
mib hip jeappcipe ppa J)uph-pmeabe. f 
naep an hib lanbep innan Gn^l^-lanbe. 
f he nypte hpa heo ha&pbe. o^^e hpaep 
heo pup^ pa&p. ^ p^^an on hip jeppit 
jepaett. Bpyt-Ianbhim paepon jepealbe. 
^ he J^aep mne captelep geppohte. anb 
'pet GQann-c^fnn mib ealle jepealbe. 
Spylce eac Scotlanb he him unbeji- 
))aebbe pop hip mycele ptpenjj^e. Nop- 
manbije f lanb paep hip jecynbe. "] opep 
fone eopl-bome pe CDanp ip ^ehaten he 
pixabe. ^ jip he mopte J)a jy t tpa jeap 
libban. he haepbe Yplanbe mib hip pep- 
pcipe jepunnon. "i pi^utan aelcon paep- 
non. Pitoblice on hip timan haepbon 
men m^cel jeppmc. ^ ppiWe manije teo- 
nan. Captelap he let pj^pcean. ^ eapme 



Bcopal stall ; and he was the foremost 
man of all to aggrandize the king. He 
had an earldom in England; and when 
the king was in Normandy^ then was 
he the mightiest man in this land. Him 
he confined in prison. But amongst 
other things is not to be forgotten that 
good peace that be madein this land; so 
that a man of any account might go 
over bis kingdom unhurt with his bo- 
som full of gold. No man durst slay 
another^ had be never so much evil done 
to the other; and if any churl lay with* 
a woman against her will« he soon lost 
the limb that he played with. He truly 
reigned over England ; and *by his ca* 
pacity so thoroughly surveyed it^ that 
there was not a hide of land in England 
that he wist not who had it, or what it 
was worthy and afterwards set it down 
in his booki. The land of the Britona 
was in his power ; and be wrought 
castles therein ; and ruled Anglesey 
witbaL So also be subdued Scotland 
by bis great strength. As to Nor- 
mandy> that was bis native^ land; but 
be reigned also over the earldom called 
Maine ; and if be might have yet lived 
two years more^ be would have won 
Ireland by bis valour^ and without any 
weapons. Assuredly in his time bad 
men much distress, and very many sor- 
rows. Castles be let men builds and 
miserably swink the poor. The king 
himself was so very rigid ; and extorted 



* This is certainly an evident allasion to the equally clear to me, that the composition of this 
compilation of Doomsday book^ already de- part of the chronicle is by a different hand, 
scribed A.D. 1085, as Gibson observes ; and it is ' << Jure hanredUario^** Gibs, improperly*. 



9d6 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



men ppi^e fpencean. !5e cynj paej* fpa 
fpi^e j-teapc. ^ benam op hip unbep- 
f eobban man mani^ majic jolbep. "j ma 
hunbpeb punba peolppep. f er he nam 
be pihte ^ mib mycelan unpihte. op hip 
le6be pop litrelpe neobe. he paep on jic- 
punje bepeallan. ^ jpasbinasppe he lu- 
pobe mib eallan. he paecte my eel beop- 
ppi^. ^ he laejbe laja J^aep pi^. f ppa hpa 
ppa ploje heopt o^^e hmbe. f hine man 
pceolbe blenbian. he popbeab J^a heop- 
t:ap. ppylce eac J^a bapap. ppa ppi^e he 
lupobe J>aheabeop. ppy Ice he paspe heopa 
paebep. 6ac he paette be }?am hapan. f 



from his subjects many marks of gold^ 
and many hundred pounds of silver ; 
which he took of his people, for little 
need, by right and by un right. He 
was fallen into covetousness, and greedi* 
ness he loved withal. He made many 
deer-parks ; and he established laws 
therewith ; so that whosoever slew a 
hart, or a hind, should be deprived of 
his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill 
the harts, so also the boars; and he 
loved the tall deer as if he were their 
father. Likewise he decreed by the 
hares, that they should go free. His 



himoptenppeopapan. bippiceroenhit • rich men bemoaned it, and the poor 



maenbon. "J }?a eapme men hit beceopo- 
ban. Ac he pacp ppa pti^ f he ne pohtrc 
heopa ea:llpa ni%. ac hi mopton mib ealle 
J?ep cynjep pille poljian. jip hi polbon 
libban. o%%e lanb habban. lanb oWe 
eahta. o^^e pel hip pehta. J7a-la-pa f 
acnij man pceolbe mobijan ppa hinepylp 
upp-ahebban. ^ opep ealle men tellan. 
Se aslmihti^a Gob cyj^ae hip paule milb- 



men shuddered at it. But he was so 
stern, that he recked not the hatred of 
them all ; for they must follow withal 
the king's will, if they would live, or 
have land, or possessions, or even his 
peace. Alas ! that any man should 
presume so to puff himself up, and 
boast over all men. May the almighty 
God show mercy to his soul^ and grant 



heoptnippe. "J bo him hip p^nna pop- . him forgiveness of his sins ! These 
^ipeneppe. Dap J^mj pe habba% be him things have we written concerning him, 
jeppitene. aej^ep je jobe ^e ypele. f both good and evil ; that men may 
)7a ^oban men niman aeptep ))eopa job- choose the good after their goodness, 
neppe. "i poppleon mib ealle ypelneppe. and flee from the evil withal, and go 
*i jan on fone pej }e up lett to heopo- . in the way that leadeth us to the king- 
nan pice. Fela fmja pe majon ppitan dom of heaven. Many things may we 
J?eon J^am ilcanjeapejepopbene paspon. write that wertf done in this same year. 
Spa hit pasp on Den-meapcan. f J^a D^- So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, 
nepcan. }>e pasp aepup j^etealb eallpa a nation that was formerly accounted 
polca jetpeopapt. pupbon apenbe to . the truest of all, were turned aside to 
J'aepe mepte untpip^e. ^ to J^am masp- the greatest untruth, and to the greatest 
tenppicbomej^eaeppemihtejepup^an. treachery that ever could be. They 
hi jecupon ^ abujan to Cnute cynje. chose and bowed to king Cnute, and 
'3 him a%ap ppopon. ^ pi%%an hine swore him oaths, and afterwards das- 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



297 



eaphlice opylojon mnan anpe cypccan. 
eac peap^ on Ij-panie. f ]>a hae^enan 
men popan. ^ hep^oban uppon J^am 
Cpiptenan mannan. "J my eel abe^ban 
to heopa anpealbe. Ac j% Cpiftena . 
cynj. Anphof paep ^ehaten. he penbe 
opep call into aelcan lanbe. ^ j^pnbe 
pultumep. *i him com to pultum op 
«lcen lanbe fe Cpipten p«p. ^ pepbon 
*i opplojon anb ape^ abpipan call J)et . 
has%ena pole. ^ jepunnon heopa lanb 
on^ean. J^uph Gobep pultum. Gac on 
]>ipan ilcan lanbe. on J^am ilcan jeape. 
popVpepbon maneja pice men. Stijanb 
bipcop op Ciceaptpe. ^ pe abbot op p?e . 
Au^uptine. ^ pe abbot op Ba^on. ^ J)e 
op Peppcopan. ^ |>a heopa eallpa hlap- 
opb. piUelm Gnjlae-lanbep cynj. J^e pe 
aep bepopan embe ppaecon. /6ptep hip 
bea^e hip pune ^lUelm hast eallppa J^e • 
paebep. penj to J>am pice. ^ peapS je- 
bletpob to cynje ppam Lanbppance 
apcebipcope on peptmynptpe. J^peom 
bajum aep CDichaelepraaeppebaej. ^ ealle 
)>a men on Cnjla-lanbe him to abujon. • 
^ him aBap ppopon. Dipum J>up jebone. 
pe cynj pepbe to pinceaptpe. ^ pceap- 
obe f mabmehup. *i J^a jeppuman ]>c 
hip paebep aep jejabcpobe. on jolbe •] 
on peolppe. *i on paton. "j on pasUan. *i , 
on jimman. ^ on manije o%pe beop- 
pup^e J^mjon. J)e eappo^e p^nbon to 
ateallene. Se cynj bybe J?a ppa hip pae- 
bep him bebeabasp he beab paspe. baelbe 
J>a jeppuman pop hip paebep paule to . 
aelcen m^nptpe J>e j>ey innan Gnjle- 
lanbe. to puman m^nptpe x. mapc 
jolbep. to puman vi. to aslcen cypcean 



tardlj slew him in a church. It. hap- 
pened also in Spain^ that the heathens 
went and made inroads upon the Chris- 
tians, and reduced much of the country 
to their dominion. But the king of the 
Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent 
every where into each land> and desired 
assistance. And they came to his sup- 
port from every land that was Christian; 
and they went and slew or drove away 
all the heathen folk, and won their 
land again, through God's assistance. 
In this land also, in the same year, died 
many rich men; Stigand, bishop of 
Chichester, and the abbot of St. Au- 
gustine, and the abbot of Batfa, and the 
abbot of Pershore, and, the lord of 
them all, William king of England, 
that we spoke of before. After his 
death his son, called William also as 
the father, took to the kingdom, and 
was blessed to king by archbishop Land- 
franc at Westminster three days ere 
Michaelmas day. And all the men in 
England submitted to him, and swore 
oaths to him. This being thus done^ 
the king went to Winchester; and open- 
ed the treasure house, and the treasures 
that his father had gathered, in gold, 
and in silver, and in vases, and in palls, 
and in gems, and in many other valua- 
ble things that are diflScult to enumerate. 
Then the king did as his father bade him 
ere he was dead ; he there distributed 
treasures for his father's soul to each 
monastery that was in England; to 
some ten marks of gold, to some six, to 
each upland^ church sixty pence. And 



* uppe-Iaob, Sax. — t. e. Tillage-charch— 
^^unicuique eccksiw rurally" — Gibs. ^^ecdesii$ 



in dvUoHbus vel vUlii suii."—Flor. Vid. 
p. 301. 1- 20. 
2« 



?98 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



uppe*lanb lx. paenejap ^ into aelcepe 
[•cipe man j-eonbe hunbpeb punba peoj-. 
ro baslanne eapme mannan pop hip 
paule. Anb aep he popSpepb. he beab f 
man pceolbe unlepan ealle J^a menn j>e . 
on haepmun^e paepon unbep hip an- 
pealbe. ^ pe cynj paep on J>am mibe- 
pintpe on Lunbene:- 

An. MLXXXVIII. On J^ij-ura jeape 
paep J>ip lanb ppi^c aptipab. "j mib . 
m^celc ppicbome apylleb. ppaf ]>a pi- 
cepte Fpencipce men J^e paspon innan 
]>ipan lanbe. polben ppican heopa hlap- 
opbe ]>am c^nje. ^ polbon habban hip 
bpo^ep to cynje Robbeapb J^e paep eopl . 
on Nopmanbijc. On J^ipum paebe paep 
aepept Oba bipcop. *] GopppiS bipcop. 
^ Pillelm bipcop on D unbolme. Spa pasU 
bybc pe cy n^ be J?am bipcope. f eall 
Gnjla-lanb paepbe aeptep hip paebe. ^ . 
ppa ppa he polbe. 'j he J^ohte to bonne 
be him eall ppa lubap ScapioV bibe be 
upe Dpihtene. Anb Rojepe eopl paep 
eac aet ]>am unpaebe. ^ ppi^e m^cel pole 
mib heom. ealle Fpencipce men. ^ J^asp , 
unpaeb paep^ jepaeb innan J?am Lenj- 
tene. SonappahitcomtoJ^amGaptpon. 
J?a pepbon hi. ^ hepjobon. *] baepnbon. 
^ apepton J^aep cynjep peopme-haihep. 
*i eallpa ]>aspa manna lanb hi popbybon , 
J)e paepon innan J^aep cynjep holb-pcipe. 
^ heopa aelc pepbe to hip captele. ^ J^one 
mannoben ^ metpoben ppa hij betpt 
mihtoni Gopppi^ bipcop. ^ Robbeapb 
amunbbpae^ pepbon to Bpicj-ptope. ^ , 
hepjobon. *i bpohton to J^am captele ]>z 



into each shire were sent a hundred 
pounds of money to distribute amongst 
poor men for his soul. And ere he de- 
parted, he bade that they should release 
all the mefl that were in prison under 
his powers And the king was on the 
midwinter in London. 

A.D. 1088. In this year was this land 
much stirred, and filled with great 
treachery ; so that the richest French- 
men that were in this land would betray 
their lord the king, and would have his 
brother Robert king, who was earl in 
Normandy. In this design was engaged 
first bishop Odo, and bishop Gosfritb*, 
and William bishop of Durham. So 
well did the king by the bishop [Odo^ 
that all England fared according to his 
counsel, and as he would. And the 
bishop thought to do by him as Judas 
Iscariot did by our Lord. And earl 
Roger was also of this faction ; and 
much people was with him, all French- 
men. This conspiracy was formed in 
Lent. As soon as Easter came, then 
went they forth, and harrowed, and 
burned, and wasted the king's farms; 
and they despoiled the lands of all the 
men that were in the king's service. 
And they each of them went to his cas- 
tle, and manned it, and provisioned it 
as well as they could. Bishop Gosfrith, 
and Robert the peace-breaker, went to 
Bristol, and plundered it, and brought 
the spoil to the castle. Afterwards they 



^ '^ Fratrem nempe suum Odonem Baiocensem 
epUcopuniy comiies Morcarum et Rogerum, 5f- 
wardum cognomenio Barn^ et Wulnothum regit 
Ilaraldi germanuniy &c." — ^Flor. 



' <^ Odo Baiocensis episcopus — Robertui 
comes HoritunensU — Gosfridus episcopus Con* 
stanliensiSj — Rogerus comes Scrobbesbiriensis — 
Gufielmus episcopus Dunholmtnsis.^^ — Flor. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 299 

heji^unje. Anb p%%on pojion ut op ]>am went out of the castle^ and plundered 
caftele ^ hejijobon Ba^oi). 'j eall f lanb. Batb^ aud all the land thereabout; andall 
faeji abutan. ^ eall Beopclea hypnef pe the honor^ of Berkeley thej laid waste, 
hi apaepton. Anb ))a men J>e ylbept And the men that eldest were of Here- 
paepon op TSepepopbe ^ eall }>eo pcip . ford, and all the shire forthwith, and 
popj^mib. 'j J'a men op Scpobpcipe mib the men of Shropshire, with much peo- 
mycele polce op Bpyt-lanbe. comon ^ pie of Wales, came and plundered and 
hepjobon anb baspnbon on J^i^peceap- burned in Worcestershire, until they 
tpepcipe pop% f hi comon to ]7am popte came to the city itself^ which it was 
pylpan. Anb polbon J^a ]>aene popt . their design to set on fire, and then to 
baepnen. ^ f mfnfcejx peapian. ^ J^aep rifle the minster, and win the king's cas- 
cyn^ep captel jepmnan heom to hanba. tie to their hands. The worthy bishop 
Dap J^inj jepeonbe pe appupSa bipcop Wulfstan, seeing these things, was much 
Pulpptan. peap% ppi%e ^ebpepeb on hip agitated in his mind, because to him 
mobe. pop^ij him paep betashte J)e cap- . was betaken the custody of the castle, 
tel to healbene. Deah hpe^ep hip hipeb Nevertheless his hired men went out of 
men pepbon ut mib peape mannan op the castle with few attendants, and, 
J^am captele. ^j j>uj\h Gobep milb-heopt- through God's mercy and the bishop's 
neppe. ^ J^uph J^aep bipcopep geeap- merits, slew or took five hundred men, 
nun^a. opplo^on ^l^^elaehton pip hun- . and put all the others to flight. The 
bpeb manna. ^ j>z o^pe ealle aplymbon. bishop of Durham did all the harm that 
Se bipcop op Dunholme bybe to heapme he could over all by the north. Roger 
f he mihte opep eall be nopVan. Ro^ep was the name of one of them^; who 
het an op heom pe hleop into ]>am cap- leaped into the castle at Norwich, and 
tele ast Nop^pic. ^ bybe ^it eallpa , did yet the worst of all over all that 
pasppt opep eall f lanb. l^u^o eac an laud. Hugh also was one, who did no-- 
\fe hit ne jebette nan J'ln^. ne innan thing better either in Leicestershire or 
Lasjpe-ceaptpe-pcipe. ne mna Nop%- in Northamptonshire. The bishop Odo 
hamtune. De bipcop Obo ^])e }7ap cynj being one, though of the same family 
op apoc an'^ pepbe into Cent to hip eopl- . from which the king himself was de- 
bome. *i popbybe hit ppi%e. "i J^aep scended, went into Kent to his earldom, 
c^^njep lanb ^ J^asp apcebipcopep mib and greatly despoiled it; and having 
ealle apepton. tl bpohte eall f ^ob into laid waste the lands of the king and of 
hip captele on l^pope-ceaptpe. Da ]7e the archbishop withal, he brought the 



* <' Fiiium aliquod, opinor^ huic subest leciiom. Certe quU sU ejus seruuSy me omnino laiet.^^ — Gibs. 

* hypncjfc, Sax. — f. e. jarisdiction. We have Saxon term ocean in many of the ancient evi- 
adopted the modern title of the district ; but the dences of Berkeley castle. 

^ I. e. of the conspirators. 

2q3 



300 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



cj^n J unDcpjeat callc faf >in3. *i hpilcne 
jrpicbom hi bybon topeapb hij-. }?a peaji^ 
he on hif mobe j-pi^e jebpepeb. Senbe 
fa aepteji Gnghfce mannan. tJ heom 
popcfaebe hif neobe. 'J S^pnbe heopa 
pulrumef. ^ behet heom }?a betfta 
laja J^e aeppe asp pagf on J)if an lanbe. ^ 
a?lc unpiht jeolb he popbeab. -J jeatte 
mannan heopa pubap ^ j-laetinje. ac hit 
nc ftob nane hpile. Ac Gn^hpce men 
ppa feah penjon to ]>am cynje heopa 
hlapopbe on pultume. Fepbon fz to- 
peapb ftpope-ceaptpe. '3 polbon J>one 
bipcop Oban bejytan. J^ohtan jip hi 
haepbon hme }e paep apup heapob to 
Jam unpaebe f hi mihton J^e bet bejj^- 
tan ealla )7a o%pe. hi comon })a to J^am 
captele to Tonebpicje. J)a paepon innan 
J?am captele Oba bipcopep cnihtap. •] 
o%pe manije }>e hine healbon polban 
on^ean Jwne c^nj. Ac ]>z Gnjlipce men 
pepbon. 'j tobpaecon jH>ne captel. ^ ]?a 
menn J^e J^aep inne paepon jpiSobon pi^ 
J>one c]^n J. Se cynj mib hrp hepe pcpbc 
topeapb Jjpope-ceaptpe. ^ penbon f pc 
bipcop paspe J^aep mne. ac hit peap^ 
J?am cynjc cu^ f pe bipcop pasp apapen 
to J>am captele a'Pepenepea. "j pe cynj 
mib hip hepe pepbe aeptep. "j bepaett 
]K)ne captel abutan mib ppi%e m^cele 
hepe pulle pix pucan. Betpyx J^ippum 
pe eopl op Nopmanbije Robbeapb. fep 
cynjcp bpo^ep. jabepobe ppiWe my eel 
pole. tJ J^ohte to jepmnane Gnjle-lanbe 
mib J^aspa manna pultu'me ])e paepon 
innan })ipan lanbe onjean J^one cynj. ^ 
he penbe op hip mannan to ]>ipum lanbe. 
^ polbe cuman himpylp aeptep. Ac J?a 
enjlipce men fc paspbebon J'aepe p«. 



booty into his castle at Rochester. When 
the king understood all these things, and 
what treachery they ipvere employing 
against him, then was he in his mind 
. much agitated. He then sent after En- 
glishmen, described to them his need, 
earnestly requested their support, and 
promised them the best laws that ever 
before were in this land ; each unrigfit' 

• guild he forbade, and restored to the men 
their woods and chaces. But it stood 
no while. The Englishmen however 
went to the assistance of the king their 
lord. They advanced toward Rochester, 

• with a view to get possession of the 
bishop Odo ; for they thought, if they 
had him who was at first the head of the 
conspiracy, they might the better get 
possession of all the others. They came 

. then to the castle at Tunbridge; and 
there were in the castle the knights of 
bishop Odo, and many others who were 
resolved to hold it against the king. But 
the Englishmen advanced, and broke in- 

. to the castle, and the men that were there* 
in agreed with the king. The king with 
his army went toward Rochester. And 
they supposed that the bishop was there* 
in ; but it was made known to the king 

. that the bishop was gone to the castle at 
Pevensea. And the king with his army 
went after, and beset the castle about with 
a very large force full six weeks. During 
this time the earl of Normandy, Robert 

. the king's brother, gathered a very con- 
siderable force, and thought to win En- 
gland with the support of those men that 
were in this land against the king. And 
he sent some of his men to this land, in- 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 301 

^elsehton of )>am mannon. ^ f lojon. ^ tending to come himself after. But the 

abpen^on ma }7onne asnij man pif-te Englishmen that guarded the sea lighted 

to tellanne. Sy%%an heom ateopebe upon some of the men^ and slew them^ 

mere pi^innan )>am caftele. J^a jypn- and drowned more than any man could 

bon hi spi^ap tl ajepan hine J>am . tell. When provisions afterwards failed 

cynje. ^ ye bifcop j-pop f he polbe uc those within the castle^ they earnestly be- 

op 6njle-lanbe papan. "J na mape sought peace^ and gave themselves up to 

cuman on J^ipan lanbe butan pe cynj the king ; and the bishop swore that he 

him aeptep penbc. ^ f he polbe ajypan would depart out of England^ and no 

]>one captel on bpope-ceaprpe. Galppa . more come on this land, unless the king 

pe bipcop pcpbe "i pceolbe ajipan J?one sent after him, and that he would give 

captel. 'j pe cyn^ penbe hip men mib up the castle at Rochester. Just as the 

him. })a apipan }^a menn \>e paspon bishop was going with an intention to 

mnan }>am captele. 'J namon J^one give up the castle, and the king had sent 

bipcop ^ J'ep cynjep men. 'j bybon hi . his men with him, then arose the men 

on haeptnunje. Innan )7am captele that were in the castle, and took the bi- 

paepon ppi%e jobe cnihtap. Cuptatiup shop and the king's men, and put them 

J)e lunja. ^ Rojepep eoplep J>peo piinan. into prison. In the castle were some very 

^ ealle )>a betpt bopen men. ]>e paepon good knights; Eustace the young, and 

innan }7ipan lanbe. o%%e on Nopman- . the three sons of earl Roger, and all the 

bi^e. Da pe cyn^ unbepjeat )>ap J^in^. best born men that were in this land or 

})a pepbe he aeptep mib }?am hepe J?e in Normandy. When the king under-- 

he J^aep haepbe. *i penbe opep call Gn- stood this thing, then went he after with 

jla-lanbe. *1 baeb f aelc man })e paspe the army that he had there, and sent over 

unni^m^ pceolbe cuman to him. Fpen- . all England, and bade thateach manthat 

cipce ^ Gnjlrpce. op popte ^ op uppe- was faiithful should come to him, French 

lanbe. Tiim com ]7a m^y^cel pole to. ^ he and English, from sea-port and from 

pop lipope-ceaptpe. ^ bepaett J>one upland. Then came to him much peo- 

captel. o^^et hi jpi^ebon J^e J^aep inne pie; and he went to Rochester, and beset 

paspon. ^ Jjone captel ajeapon. Se bi- . the castle, until they that were therein 

pcop Obo mib J^am mannum fe innan agreed, and gave up the castle. Thebi- 

j^am captele paepon opep pae pepbon. shop Odo with the men that were in the 

*i pe bipcop ppa poplet )>one pup^pcip castle went over sea, and the bishop thus 

\fe he on J^ip lanb haspbe. Se cyn^ pi%- abandoned thedigYiity that he had in this 

^an penbe hepe to Dunholme. "j let. land. The king afterwards sent an army 

bepittan Jjone captel. "j pe btpcop jpi- to Durham, and allowed it to beset the 

^obe ^ ajeap )>one captel. "j poplet hip castle, and the bishop agreed, and gave 

bipcoppice. ^ pepbe to Nopmanbi^e. up the castle, and relinquished his bi- 

eac manije Fpencipce men popleton shopric, and went to Normandy. Many 



302 THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 

heopa lanb. "3 pcpbon opep f». "i ye Frenchmen also abandoned their land.<9,- 
cynj jeap heojia lanb J^am mannum }e and went over sea; and the king gave: 
him holbe paenon:- their lands to the men that were faith- 

ful to him. 

An. MLXXXIX. On J^ipiim geape . A,D. 1089. In this year the venerable 
re appup^a muneca pebep ^ ppouep fatherandfavorerof monks, archbishop 
Lanbppanc apcebipcop jepat op ]>ifpum. Landfranc, departed this life; but we 
lipe. ac pe hopia^ f he pepbe to f heo- hope that he is gone to the heavenly 
panhce pice. Spilce eac ^epap^ opep kingdom. There was also over all En- 
eall Gnjle-lanb mycel eop^-ptypunje. . gland much earth-stirring on the third 
on J^one baej in. Ibup Auj. ^ paep ppi^e day before the ides of August, and it 
laetpum jeap on copne. "J on aelcep was a very late year in corn, and in 
c]^nnep paeptmum. ppa f manij men every kind of fruits, so that many men 
paepon heopa copn onbuton CDaptinep reaped their corn about Martinmas, and 
maeppan ^ jit lacop:- . yet later. 

An. MXC. Indictione xiii. Dippum A. D. 1090. Indiction xiii. These 
jfuy jebon eall ppa pas aep abupan pasban things thus done, just as we have already 
be J^am cynje. *] be hip bpo^ep. ^ be said above, by the king, and by his bro- 
hip mannon. pe cynj paep pmae^enbe ther, and by his men, the king was con- 
hu he mihte ppecon hip bpo%ep Rob- . sidering how he might wreak his yen- 
beapb. ppi%opt ppencean. *i Nopman- geance on his brother Robert, harass 
bije op him ^epinnan. Deah ]7uph hip him most, and win Normandy of him. 
jeappcipe. o%%e ]>uph jasppuma. he Andindeedthrough his craft, or through 
be^eat j^one captel ast pSe J^alepi. "J bribery, he got possession of the castle 
J^a haepenan.'^ ppa he bejeat J?one ast . at St. Valeri, and the haven; and so he 
Albemape. "J J'ap inne he pette hip got possession of that at Albemarle, 
cnihtap. 'j hi b^bon heapmep uppoif And therein he set his knights; and they 
]7am lanbe on hep^un^e. "J on baspnete. did harm to the land in harrowing and 
yBptep ]7ipum he bejeat ma captelap burning. After this he got possession of 
innan J^am lanbe. ^ J^aep mne hip pi- . more castles in the land; and therein 
bepap ^elojobe. Se eopl op Nopman- lodged his horsemen. When the earl of 
bije Robbeapb pi%%an he unbep^eat f Normandy, Robert, understood that his 
hip jeppopene men him tpucebon. tl sworn men deceived him, and gave up 
ajepon hepa captelap him to heapme. their castles to do him harm, then sent 
}7a penbe he to hip hlapopbe Phillippe. . hetohislord,Philip,kingof theFranks; 
Fpancena cynje. "i he com to Nopman- and he came to Normandy with a large* 
bije mib m^celan hepe. ^ pe cyn^ ^ pe army, and the king and the earl with an 
eopl mib opmaetpe pypb bepaeton ]7one immense force beset the castle about, 
captel abuton. yasji ]^asp cyn^ep men wherein were the men of the king of 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. SOS 

op Sn^le-lanb inne paspon. Se c^n; ^il- England. But the king, William^ of 
lelm op Gn^la-lanbe penbe to PhiUippe England^ sent to Philip king of the 
Fpancena cynje. *] he pop hip lupan. Franks; and he for his love^ or for bis 
o%%e pop hip mycele ^eppiima. poplet great treasure^ abandoned thus his sub- 
ppa hip man J^one eopl Robbeapb tl hip . ject the earl Robert and his land ; and 
lanb. ^ pepbe on^ean to Fpance. ^ let returned again to France^ and let them 
heom ppa peop^an. Anb betp^x J^ipum so remain. And in the midst of these 
J^m^um ]7ip lanbe paep ppi^e popbon on things this land wa^ much oppressed by 
unla3a ^elbe ^ on o%pe manije un- unlawful exactions and by many other 
jelimpe:- . misfortunes. 

An. MXCI. On }7ipum jeape pe c^n^ A. D. 1091. In this year the king 
Pillelm heolb hip hipeb to Cpiptep William held his court at Christmas in 
meppan on paept-minptpe. ^ J?aep aep- Westminster^ and thereafter at Candle- 
tep to Canbelmasppan he pepbe pop mas he went^ for the annoy ance^ of bis 
hip bpoVaep un)>eappe ut op Gn^la- . brother^ out of England into Normandy, 
lanbe into Nopmanbi^e. On man^ J'am Whilst he was there, their reconciliation 
}^e he ]7aep paep heopa pehte to^sebepe took place, on the condition, that the 
eobe. on f jepab f pe eopl him to earl put into his hands Feschamp, and 
hanban let Uepcam. ^ })one eoplbom the earldom ofOuj and Cherbourg; and 
set Ou. ^ Kiaepep-buph. 'j J^asp to . in addition to this, that the king's men 
eacan J^ep cyn^ep men pacleap beon should be secure in the castles that they 
mopton on })am captelan. ]>e hi acp }>ep had won against the will of the earl* 
eoplep unj^ancep bejiten haepbon. Anb And the king in return promised him 
pe cyn^ hini on^ean })a manege behet those many [castles] that their father 
])€ aep heopa pasbep ^epann. ^ ]>z ppam . had formerly won, and also to reduce 
J>am eople jebojen pagp jebj^jle* to those that had revolted from the carl, 
bonne. ^ eall f hip paebep J^aep hereon- also all that his father had there beyond, 
ban haspbe. butan })am ]>e he J^a cynje except those that he had then given the 
}>a jeunnen haspbe. ^ y ealle )>a ])e on king, and that all those, that in England 
Gnjle-lanbe pop J)am eople aspop heopa . before for the earl had lost their land, 
lanb poplupon. hit on ]>ipum pehte hab- should have it again by this treaty, and 
ban pceolban. ^ pe eopl on Gn^le-lanbe that the earl should have in England 
eall ppa my eel ppa on heopa popepapbe just so much as was specified in this 
paep. "i Jip pe eopl pop^pepbe butan agreement. And if the earl died with- 
punu be pihtpe aepe. paepe pe c^nj . out a son by lawful wedlock, the king 

- "^ So in MS. and so Manning in his Supplement to Lye's Saxon Dictionary ; but Lye himself 
seems to have read ^ebyl^e here, and in p. 212, 45^ Gibs. ed. 

» unj?eappe, literally unthrifty from fcappian, ^^hence, by metathesis, to thrive. 



304 THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 

^rjipe-numa op eallon Nojimanbij. Be should be heir of all Normandy ; and by 

fij-pe jylpan popepapbe. jip pe cynj Tirtue of this same treaty, if the king 

ppulte. paepe pe eopl yppe-numa eallep died, the earl should be heir of all Eng- 

Gnjla-lanbep. Dap popepapbe jeppopan land. To this treaty swore twelve of 

XII. ]>2L betpte op J^ep c^njep healpe. ^ . the best men of the king's side, and 

XII. op \>ey eoplep. f eah hit pi^^an litle twelve of the earl's, though it stood 

hpile ptobe. On m&n^ J^ipum pa&hte but a little while afterwards. In the 

peap% Gab^ap asj'ehn^ belanbob op ]7am midst of this treaty was Edgar etheling 

^e pe eopl him sepop })dep to hanbaje- deprived of the land that the earl had 

laeten hsepbe. ^ ut op Nopmanbi^ pop . before permitted him to keep in hand ; 

to )>am cynje hip ^a%ume to Scot- and he went out of Normandy to the 

lanbe. *] to hip ppuptop. On manj ]7am king, his sister's husband, in Scotland^ 

J>e pe cyn3 pdlelm ut op Gnjle-lanbe and to his sister. Whilst the king Wil- 

paep. pepbe pe cynj GOelcolm op Scot- liam was out of England, the king Mel- 

lanbe hibep into Gn^lum. 'j hip my- . colm of Scotland came hither into Eng- 

celne bael opep-hep^obe. o% f }'a ^obe land, and overran a great deal of it, 

maen fe ]>\y lanbe bepipton him f^^pbe until the good men that governed this 

on^ean paenbon. "j hine ^ecypbon. Da land sent an army against him and re- 

j>2i pe cyn3 pillelm into Nopmanbije pulsed him. When the king William in 

J>ip jehypbe. J?a jeapcobe he hip pape. . Normandy heard this, then prepared he 

'j to Gnjie-lanbe com. ^ hip bpo^ep his departure, and came to England, 

pe eopl Robbeapb mib him. tl fona and his brother, the earl Robert, with 

pypbe het ut abeoban. asjVep pcip- him; and he soon issued an order to 

pypbe "J lanbpypbe. ac peo pcippypbe. collect a force both naval and military; 

«p he to Scotlanbe cuman mihte. ael- , but the naval force, ere it could come to 

maept eapmlic poppop. peopan bajon Scotland, perished almost miserably, a 

topopan pee CDichaelep maeppan. Anb few days before St. Michael's mass. And 

pe c^nj •j hip bpo^ep mib J^aepe lanb- the king and his brother proceeded with 

pypbe pepbon. ac )>a }?a pe cynj CDel- the land- force; but when the king Mel- 

colm jeh^pbe f hme man mib j:fji^e . colm heard that they were resolved to 

pecean polb. he pop mib hip pypbe ut seek him wilh an army, he went with 

op Scotlanbe into Lo^ene on Gnjla-Ianb his force out of Scotland into Lothaine 

*i }7asp abab. Da %a pe cynj pillelm in England, and there abode. When the 

mib hip f yp*>e jenealehte. J^a pepbon king William came near with his army, 

betpux Robbeapb eopl ^ Gabjap aej^e- ^ then interceded between them earl Ro- 

Im^. tl J'aepa c^nja pehte ppa jema- bert and Edgar etheling, and so made 

* ^^ Vox eanon hie, ut fere, reddendum est per (ut testatur nostri Chronici An. mlxvii.) frofi 

generuin, sKjuidem Mekolmus Eadgari sorprem^ verofiUam duxerit fixorem."— Gibs. 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 



305 



cebon. f ye ci^nj COelcolm to upan 
cynje com. ^ hij- man peap^. to call 
fpylcpe ^ehyjij^vLmmyye j-pa he «p hij- 
pdbfep bybe. ^ f mib a^e jepcftnobe. 
^ j-e cynj J7illelm him behet on lanbe *i 
on eallon J^inje J^aej^ J^e he unbep hij* pae- 
bep aep haepfee. On J^ipim pehte peap^ 
eac 6bjap ej^ebnj piS J^one c^nj je- 
pashtlab. "j J^a c^rijap }?a mib mycclum 
pehte tohpuppon. ac f htle hpile ptob. 
Anb pe eopl Robbeapb heji o® Cpiptep 
maeppe popneah mib J^am c^nje punobe. 
*J htel po^ep J^aep on manj ap heopa 
f opepapbe onpanb. ^ tpam bajon aep 
J^aepe tibe on piht pcipobe. ^ into 
Nopmanbij pop. ^ Gabjap asj^knj 
mib hiai> 

• An. MXCII. On }7ipum jcapc pe 
cyri J J7illelm mib my^celpe pypbe pepbe 
nop^ to Capleol. *] J^a buph je-ae^pta- 
]7elebe. ^ )>one captel apepbe. •] Dolpin 
utabpap J?e apop faep J)ep lanbep peolb. 
^ }?one captel mib hip mannan jepette. 
rj pi^'San hibcp pu^ jepaenbe. *i mycele 
masnije cy^phpcep polcep mib pipan "i 
mib oppe Jjybep paenbe. J^aep to puni- 
jenne f lanb to tihanne :• 

An. MXCIII. On }>ipum jeape to 
J>am Laenjtene pap^ pe cynj J^illelm 
on Gleapceaptpe to J?am ppi^e jepeclob. 
f he paep opcp eall bcab ^ecyb. Anb on 
hip bpoke he jobe pela bebae^pa behet. 
hip a^en lip on piht to laebene. anb 



the peace of the kings, that the kitig 
Melcolm came to our king, and did 
homage 1^ promising all such obedience 
as he formerly paid to his father ; and 
. that he confirmed with an oath. And 
the king William promised him in land 
and in all things whatever he formerly 
had under his father. In this settlement 
was also Edgar etheling united with the 

• king. And the kings then with much 
satisfaction departed ; yet that stood but 
a little while. And the earrRobert tar- 
ried here full nigh until Chri&tmas with 
the king, and during this time found 

• but little of the truth of their agreement; 
and two days before that tide he took ship 
in the isle of Wight, and went into Nor« 
mandy, and Edgar etheling with him. 

A. D. lOOS. In this year the king 
. William with a large army went north 
to Carlisle^, and restored the town> and 
reared the castle, and drove out Dolphin 
that before governed the land, and set 
his own men in the castle, 9tid then 
. returned hither southward. And a vast 
number of rustic ^ people with wives 
and with cattle he sent thither^ to dwell 
there in Order to till the land. 

A. D. 1093. In this year, during 
. Lent, was the king William at Gloces- 
ter so sick, that he was by all reported 
dead* And in his illness he made many 
good promises — to lead his own life 
aright ; to grant peace and protection 



* Literally "became his man" — '^Icbecom 
^p|i roao " was the formula of doing homage. See 
j^pcient court-rolls passim , 

'^ Jd dpUatem^ qua Britannice Kairkuy La>' 
tine LegubfUia vocaiuu — Flor, 



' cyplijcef folcef. Gibson finding in the MS. 
6ypUfcej, proposes to read ^njhjfcef, and trans- 
lates it ^' muitiludinem Anglorum"«*-bat it if 
presumed that the slight alteration of e into c 
will gire a more nati^rai sense to the passage, 

2n 



306 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE- 



Gobejr cypccan jpi^ian ^ ppi^ian. ^ 
naejrpe ma ept pi^ peo jefyllan. *] calle 
jiihte laje on hip ])eobe t:o habbene. "J 
f ajicebijrcoppice on Cantpap-b^^pij 
fc aeji on hif ajenjie hanb jtrob. An- . 
pelme betaehte. pe paep aeji abbot on 
Baec. *J Robbeapb hijr cancelejie f bi- 
fcopjiice on Lmcolne. "i to mane^an 
myny tpen lanb jeuSe. ac f he p^San 
aetbpasb. })a him ^ebotab pasp *i ealle . 
J^a jobe laja jrojilaet j>e he up aeji behet. 
Da aepteji fiffon j-enbe c^^nj op Scot- 
lanbe. ^ J^aepe pojiepajibe jyjinbe J)e 
him behaten paep. *] pe cynj pillelm 
him ptcopnobc to Glope-ceaptjie. •] him . 
to Scotlanbe Jiplap penbe. ^ Gab^ap 
fi&J^ehn^ aept *] fa men pi^^an onjean. 
j>e hme mib mycclon pupVpcipe to ]>am 
cyn^e bpohtan. Ac ]>z fa he to fam 
cynje com. ne mihte he beon people • 
na^pe ne upe cynjep ppaece. ne faspa 
popepapbe f e him aep behatene paepon. 
*i pop^i hi fa mib mycelon unpehte to- 
hpnppon. tJ pe cy^nj CDelcolm ham to 
S(;otlanbe jepaenbe. Ac hpa^e f aep f e . 
he ham com^ he hip p^pbe jejabepobe. 
tl into Gnjle-lanbe hep jenbe mib mapan 
unpaebe pepbe fone him abehopobe. ^ 
hine fa Robbeapb pe eopl op NopS- 
hymbpan mib hip man nan linpaepep . 
bepypebe "J opploh. liine ploh CDopasl 
op Basbbabuph. pe paep f asp eoplep pti- 
papb. tJ CDelcomep cynjep jobpib. CDib 
him pmy eac Gbpapb hip pune oppla^en. 
pe aeptep him cyn^ beon pceolbe. jip . 



to the churches of God, and never more 
again with fee to sell ; to have none but 
righteous laws amongst his people. The 
archbishopric of Canterbury^ that be- 
fore remained in his own hand^ be trans- 
ferred to Anselm, who was before abbot 
of Bee; to Robert his chancellor the 
bishopric of Lincoln ; and to many 
minsters he gave land ; but that he aft^ 
erwards took away^ when he was better^ 
and annulled all the good laws that he 
promised us before. Then after this sent 
the king of Scotland^ and demanded the 
fulfilment of the treaty that was promis- 
ed him. And the king William cited him 
to Glocester, and sent him hostages to 
Scotland; and Edgar etheling, afler^ 
wards^ and the men returned, that 
brought him with great dignity to the 
king. But when he came to the king, 
he could not be considered worthy either 
of our king's speech, or of the conditions 
that were formerly promised him. For 
this reason therefore they parted with 
great dissatisfaction, and the king MeU 
colm returned to Scotland. And soon 
after he came home, he gathered bis 
army^andcame harrowinginto England 
with more hostility than behoved him ; 
and Robert the earl of Northumberland 
surrounded him unawares with his men, 
and slew him. Morel of Bamborough 
slew him, who was the earl's steward, 
and a baptismal friend ^ of king M el- 
colm. With him was also slain Edward 



^ Literally a gossip ; but sach are the chaoges 
vhich words undergo in their meaning as well as 
in their form, that a title of honour formerly im. 
plying a spiritual relationship in God, is now 



applied only to those whose conversation resem- 
bles the contemptible tittle-tattle of a Christen- 
ing. Gibson translates it ^^ suiceptor^^^ i, e. an 
<( undertaker," 



THE SAXON CHRONICLE. 307 

he hit jehpobe. Da ]>2l feo jobe cpen his son ; who after him should have been 
CDapjapita fxy jeh^pbe hipe ]>a leop- Icing, if he had lived. When the good 
j^an hlapopb *] f^nu J^up beppikene. queen Margaret heard this — ^her most 
heo peap%. o% beaS on m6be ^eanc- beloved lord and son thus betrayed — ^she 
fumeb. ^ mib hijie ppeftan to c]^pcean • was in her mind almost distracted to 
eobe. ^ hipe jepihtan unbeppenj. ^ death. She with her priests went to 
a^t Gobe abasb. f heo hipe japt a^eap. church, and performed her rites, a